Historical Dictionary of Cycling 9780810871755, 0810871750

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Historical Dictionary of Cycling
 9780810871755, 0810871750

Table of contents :
Contents
Editor's Foreword
Preface
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Chronology
Introduction
The Dictionary
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
Appendix A: The Grand Tours
Appendix B: Other Multistage Events
Appendix C: Monument One-Day Races
Appendix D: Other One-Day Classics
Appendix E: Women’s Races
Appendix F: World Champions
Appendix G: Olympic Champions
Appendix H: Seasonal Awards
Appendix I: World Hour and Speed Records
Appendix J: Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)
Bibliography
About the Authors

Citation preview

The historical dictionaries present essential information on a broad range of subjects, including American and world history, art, business, cities, countries, cultures, customs, film, global conflicts, international relations, literature, music, philosophy, religion, sports, and theater. Written by experts, all contain highly informative introductory essays of the topic and detailed chronologies that, in some cases, cover vast historical time periods but still manage to heavily feature more recent events. Brief A–Z entries describe the main people, events, politics, social issues, institutions, and policies that make the topic unique, and entries are crossreferenced for ease of browsing. Extensive bibliographies are divided into several general subject areas, providing excellent access points for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more. Additionally, maps, photographs, and appendixes of supplemental information aid high school and college students doing term papers or introductory research projects. In short, the historical dictionaries are the perfect starting point for anyone looking to research in these fields.

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HISTORICAL DICTIONARIES OF SPORTS Jon Woronoff, Series Editor Competitive Swimming, by John Lohn, 2010. Basketball, by John Grasso, 2011. Golf, by Bill Mallon and Randon Jerris, 2011. Figure Skating, by James R. Hines, 2011. The Olympic Movement, Fourth Edition, by Bill Mallon and Jeroen Heijmans, 2011. Tennis, by John Grasso, 2011. Soccer, by Tom Dunmore, 2011. Cycling, by Jeroen Heijmans and Bill Mallon, 2011.

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Historical Dictionary of Cycling Jeroen Heijmans Bill Mallon

The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham • Toronto • Plymouth, UK 2011

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Published by Scarecrow Press, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 http://www.scarecrowpress.com Estover Road, Plymouth PL6 7PY, United Kingdom Copyright © 2011 by Jeroen Heijmans and Bill Mallon All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote passages in a review. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Heijmans, Jeroen. Historical dictionary of cycling / Jeroen Heijmans, Bill Mallon. p. cm. — (Historical dictionaries of sports) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-0-8108-7175-5 (cloth : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-8108-7369-8 (ebook) 1. Cycling—History—Dictionaries. I. Mallon, Bill. II. Title. GV1040.5.H45 2011 796.6—dc22 2011014091

™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992. Printed in the United States of America

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For Jack Mallon

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Contents

Editor’s Foreword Jon Woronoff

ix

Preface

xi

Acronyms and Abbreviations

xiii

Chronology

xvii

Introduction

1

The Dictionary

17

Appendixes A. The Grand Tours B. Other Multistage Events C. Monument One-Day Races D. Other One-Day Classics E. Women’s Races F. World Champions G. Olympic Champions H. Seasonal Awards I. World Hour and Speed Records J. Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)

253 269 283 295 315 323 365 373 377 387

Bibliography

393

About the Authors

415

vii

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Editor’s Foreword

With about a billion bicycles in the world and some multiple of that having cycled in the past or bound to do so in the future, it is not surprising that cycling is one of the most popular sports. While the bicycle itself has been around since the early 19th century, it was not until the late 19th century that serious competitions were organized; although, there were countless informal races before. Since then, however, the sport has continued gaining strength, in the number of races held each year, the number of places where such races are held, the number of cyclists participating, and also the number of spectators, whether along the course or watching on television. Indeed, the Tour de France and the various world championships, to say nothing of the Olympic events, are familiar to much of the world’s population, perhaps more so in Europe and the United States, but increasingly elsewhere, too. And the top racers have a following as faithful and sometimes almost as large as any other sport heroes. Moreover, unlike some other sports, they tend to be emulated more readily since anyone who wants can easily obtain the gear. Over the years, as for similar activities but perhaps a bit more here, cycling has become more varied, with utility cycling (just to get from A to B) and amateur cycling (for a friendly race) but also professional cycling, which is the focus of this book. There is road and track racing, on shorter and longer courses, some climbing mountains while others spin around the velodrome. So it is more than just handy, it is informative and for fans perhaps essential to have a Historical Dictionary of Cycling. The best place to find out about the history of cycling is in the chronology, but the introduction also shows the increasing variety of the field. The bulk of the information comes in the dictionary section with, first and foremost, short sketches of the top cyclists, men and women, from the earliest days to the present time. There are also entries on the countries they represent, the types of competitions they engage in, and background on the most important tours, championships, and other races, to say nothing of the key components of the bicycle and some of the jargon. Those who want to learn more should consult the bibliography. But doubtlessly, the parts which will be referred to most often are the appendixes, with data on winners of all the major competitions year by year and record setters of all sorts. ix

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EDITOR’S FOREWORD

This volume was written by Bill Mallon and Jeroen Heijmans. Dr. Mallon is an orthopedic surgeon who has a long background in sports and has written substantially on related topics over the years. He is already well known to readers of this sports series of Scarecrow Press because he has written four editions of the Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement and, more recently, the Historical Dictionary of Golf. In addition, he has been active in the International Society of Olympic Historians (ISOH), earlier serving as the editor of its Journal of Olympic History. Indeed, he was awarded the Olympic Order in Silver in 2001. Jeroen Heijmans is an information technology professional who has also been following the Olympics very closely from an early age. He is presently part of the OlyMADMen who compile historic results of the Olympic Games. He is also a member and the webmaster of the ISOH and coauthor of the fourth edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement. Both are avid cyclists, and Mallon was actually a competitive cyclist in his youth. Between them, they have provided an excellent introduction to cycling for beginners and a firstrate guide for the more advanced. Jon Woronoff Series Editor

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Preface

We don’t remember much from when we were one or two years old. Most of our first memories come around four years of age, and that is true with me. We lived in Hawthorne, New Jersey, and my dad would take me to the corner soda shop, where I read through comic books. And on weekends, he took me over to Paterson to the bike shop of Gérard Debaets, who taught me about bikes and gears and nuts and ratchets, and I would get my hands all dirty and greasy, and afterward, Gerry taught me how to clean them in his big ole industrial sink using Lava soap. You see, my father was a cyclist who competed and trained with a group of riders in North Jersey, many of whom won national titles and were coached by Gerry Debaets, a native Belgian who had twice won the Ronde van Vlaanderen (Tour of Flanders) and numerous six-day races in this country. It was my father’s influence that led to my interest in cycling and, as a result, the Olympic Games. I even raced twice in one of the events described in this book, the Tour of Fitchburg, at ages 12 and 13 (while living in Massachusetts), in the junior division. Unfortunately for me, it was for boys 18 and under, and I was the youngest and smallest guy in the race, so I had little chance and finished last both years. But I still remember the crowds and the excitement of the day and how they cheered for me as I came around on each lap, despite the fact that the leaders had long since passed. I have written four previous editions of the Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement for Scarecrow Press, the most recent with Jeroen Heijmans. So when Jon Woronoff approached me about doing a book on cycling, it was easy for me to say “yes.” And Jeroen is again coauthoring this one with me. While I am fairly well versed in cycling lore, I am American, and the core of cycling is in Europe, and Jeroen brings knowledge of it learned from his European background. I thank Jeroen a great deal for his help correcting my errors and bringing his Old World sensibility to what is primarily a European sport. As always, we have many other people to thank. First of all, we should thank whoever invented the Internet, and we don’t mean Al Gore. When the first edition of the Olympic Movement book came out in 1995, all the research was done via books and trips to the libraries and snail-mailed letters xi

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PREFACE

to various experts around the world. But now, we can find most anything we need electronically in seconds, and if not, we know a lot of people we can contact for information. Not least among these is our Welsh friend, Hilary Evans, one of the group Jeroen and I formed (with Arild Gjerde), which we call the OlyMADMen. It is partly an acronym for several of our names, but denotes our “mad” devotion to the world of Olympic sports and stats. In this group, Hilary is the genealogist who can seemingly find anybody for us and provide information on anyone, as he has done with several of the cyclists in this book. I’ve written a number of books over the past 27 years, many dedicated to various people, including my mom. But this one is for my dad, who introduced me to the sport. Dad died in July 2000, at age 86, succumbing quickly to pneumonia; although, he had been in relatively good health for his age until then. I saw him at Reston Hospital the day before he died, and the last thing I remember saying to him, before he fell asleep from the effort of fighting through his illness, was “Lance put four minutes into them today on the Hautacam [in the Tour de France].” That seemed to please him. While he lay there in bed, I especially noted one thing. As a doctor, I see many older people, occasionally people close to dying. They never look well, and Dad was definitely sick. But one thing stood out. Uncovered in the bed, he still had his bike legs. The day before he left us, his legs still had the look of a 25-yearold, carved from those years of climbing big hills while pushing a fixed gear. He never lost his love of cycling. In the 1970s, I was home briefly for a week, and we decided to go out for a ride. I was about 26 and he about 65, and we mapped out a 20-mile course around Holliston, Massachusetts. At about the halfway mark, with him sitting on my back wheel, we came to the biggest climb on the route, and I lifted from the saddle, hammering up the hill. When I slowed at the top, I looked around, expecting to see my older father halfway back down the climb. But there he was, still on his saddle, right on my back wheel, spinning and grinning like a dervish, and he just looked at me and said, “You didn’t think you could drop me, did you?” I never could. And I never lost my love of him. This one is for my dad. Bill Mallon, MD Durham, North Carolina United States Jeroen Heijmans ‘s-Hertogenbosch Netherlands

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

ASSOCIATIONS, ORGANIZATIONS, AND MISCELLANEOUS ABA ABLA ACA ACC ASO ATB BMX BUMS CAC CCA COPACI CTC DHEA EEC EPO FBI FIAC FICP GC GvA Hct hGH IBMXF IBPF ICA IHPVA IMBA IOC IOF IPC

American Bicycle Association American Bicycle League of America Adventure Cycling Association Asian Cycling Confederation Amaury Sport Organization All-terrain bike(ing) Bicycle motocross Bicycle United Motocross Society Confédération Africaine de Cyclisme (African Cycling Confederation) Canadian Cycling Association Confederación Panamericana de Ciclismo (Pan American Cycling Confederation) Cyclists’ Touring Club Dehydroepiandrosterone European Economic Community Erythropoietin Federal Bureau of Investigation Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel General classification Gazet van Antwerpen Hematocrit Human growth hormone International BMX Federation International Bicycle Polo Federation International Cycling Association International Human Powered Vehicle Association International Mountain Biking Association International Olympic Committee International Orienteering Federation International Paralympic Committee xiii

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

IRC ITU LAW MTB NBA NBL NCU NORBA OCC PED RAAM RTL UCI UEC VO2 Max WHPVA

Intercontinental Rally Challenge International Triathlon Union League of American Wheelmen Mountain bike(ing) National Bicycle Association National Bicycle League National Cycling Union National Off-Road Bicycle Association Oceanian Cycling Confederation Performance-enhancing drugs Race Across America Radio-Télevision Luxembourg Union Cycliste Internationale Union Européenne de Cyclisme (European Cycling Union) Maximum volume of oxygen uptake World Human Powered Vehicle Association

NATIONAL ABBREVIATIONS ARG AUS AUT BEL BLR BRA BUL CAN CHN CIS COL CUB CZE DEN ENG ESP FIN FRA FRG GBR GDR GER HKG

Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Belarus Brazil Bulgaria Canada China, People’s Republic of Commonwealth of Independent States Colombia Cuba Czech Republic Denmark England Spain Finland France Federal Republic of Germany Great Britain German Democratic Republic Germany Hong Kong

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

IOM IRL ITA JPN KAZ LAT LIE LTU LUX MEX NED NOR NZL POL POR RSA RUS SCO SLO SUI SVK SWE TCH UKR URS USA UZB VEN YUG

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Isle of Man Ireland Italy Japan Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands Norway New Zealand Poland Portugal South Africa Russia Scotland Slovenia Switzerland Slovakia Sweden Czechoslovakia Ukraine Soviet Union United States Uzbekistan Venezuela Yugoslavia

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Chronology

1493 Numerous sources refer to a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, purported to be an early design for a bicycle. Later investigations reveal the drawings to be a hoax, having been drawn many years later. 1791 Count de Sivrac is usually credited with the first forerunner of a bicycle, called a celerifer, which was a hobby-like horse with wheels. In 1976, cycling historians began to question this. 1817 Possibly inspired by the death of many horses in the Year Without a Summer (1816), due to the eruption of the Tambora volcano, the German Karl Drais, Baron von Sauerbronn, builds a two-wheeled, rider-driven running machine with no pedals. It is often called a draisienne but sometimes also a dandy horse and, later, a vélocipède. 1839 Purportedly, Kirkpatrick MacMilan of Scotland adds cranks and treadmills to the rear axle of a two-wheeled vehicle, but this is later proven not to be true. 1858–63 Pedals are added to the two-wheeled running machines, creating a bicycle-like design known as a “boneshaker” or velocipede. French mechanic Pierre Lallement is granted a U.S. patent for his vélocipède, after adding foot pedals to the front wheel. The design was done in 1863. He moved to the United States in 1865, and the patent was granted in November 1866. 1868 The first velocipedes are manufactured in the United States, creating a popular fad. A cycle race at the Parc St.-Cloud in Paris on 31 May is won by James Moore and is often considered the first cycling race. Later evidence is found, however, that suggests that it was only one of the first. 1869 The term “bicycle” is used for the first time. Eugène Meyer, a Frenchman, invents more modern wheels, adding spoke-like wires that can be individually adjusted. Solid rubber tires are also introduced, replacing the iron or steel tires used on the original velocipedes. In France, some women enter bicycle races for the first known time. On 17 February, John Mayall, Charles Spencer, and Rowley Turner ride a vélocipède, or draisienne, from Trafalgar Square in London, to Brighton, covering the 53 miles in 15 hours. xvii

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1870 A small wheel is added to the front of the large front-wheel bikes to eliminate the problem of riders tipping over because of the large front wheel. The older designs, sometimes called “high wheelers,” and often called “penny farthings” in Great Britain, were then called “ordinary bicycles” or “ordinaries.” The first true bicycles with same-size wheels are built as metals become strong enough to build a chain and sprocket design, allowing the cyclist to propel the machine via gear ratios. This is much safer than the large front-wheel design, and the term “safety bicycles” will soon be used for them. Pneumatic tires are also introduced, originally designed by an Irish veterinarian, Dr. John Boyd Dunlop, who was trying to make the ride more comfortable. 1872 The German Friedrich Fischer mass produces steel ball bearings, which are patented by Jules Suriray in 1869. The first high-wheel ordinary, the Ariel, is manufactured in Britain. 1876 Englishmen Browett and Harrison patent an early caliper brake. The ordinary, or high-wheeler, is first displayed in America, and the first U.S.built ordinaries are manufactured the next year. 1878 Scott and Phillott of England patent the first changeable gear, an early precursor to derailleurs, which is fitted into the front hub of the bicycle. Columbia Bicycle at the Weed Sewing Machine factory in Hartford, Connecticut, becomes the first American bicycle manufacturer. David Stanton wins a wager by covering 1,000 miles within six days at the Agricultural Hall in Islington, London, which is often considered the first six-day race. The Bicycle Touring Club of Great Britain, later called the Cyclists’ Touring Club (CTC), is formed, the first touring bicycle organization. 1879 Englishman Henry J. Lawson patents the first rear wheel, chaindriven bicycle, called the bicyclette. All earlier models had been driven by levers. The French Touring Bicycle Federation, patterned after the British CTC, is formed, called the Fédération Française de Cyclotourisme. 1880 Thomas Humber of England designs a block chain for use with his bicycles. The League of American Wheelmen (LAW), the first United States governing body for cycling, is formed. The touring section will later be renamed as the Adventure Cycling Association (ACA). 1884 Thomas Stevens cycles across the United States, leaving Oakland, California, on 22 April 1884 and arriving in Boston, Massachusetts, on 4 August 1884, after traveling 3,700 miles. He then continued eastward, riding around the world (interspersed with boat trips), returning to San Francisco on 24 December 1886.

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1885 In England, John Starley introduces the safety bicycle, with two wheels of the same size and pedals attached to a chain connecting to the rear wheel. With pneumatic tires added and the now-standard diamond frame, this is the basic design of the modern bicycle. 1886 The first European track championships are contested, preceding the world championships by seven years. 1888

Women join bicycle clubs in Chicago in the United States.

1889 Women contest a six-day race for the first time, held at Madison Square Garden in New York. 1890 Fanny Bullock Workman (1859–1925) and her husband, William, begin 10 years of bicycle touring. Initially traveling across Europe, they venture into Algeria and publish their first book on bicycle touring in 1895. In 1897 through 1898, they tour across Asia and India, publishing further accounts of these tours. 1891 The Bordeaux–Paris race is contested for the first time, one of the original classic cycling races. 1892 Liège–Bastogne–Liège, still considered one of the monument races of cycling, makes its debut as a cycling race. Léon Houa wins the first three editions of the race, becoming the first cyclist to win a major classic for three consecutive years. The International Cycling Association (ICA), the first international governing body of cycling, is formed with representatives from Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and the Netherlands. 1893 The first edition of the Paris–Brussels one-day classic is held, and the amateur track world championships are first contested. Tessie Reynolds of Brighton, a 16-year-old girl, rides her bicycle from Brighton to London and back, a distance of 120 miles, in 8.5 hours. 1894 When a railway strike occurs in the Bay Area of California, a bicycle shop owner in Fresno comes up with the idea to start a bicycle messenger business. His business had a relay between Fresno and San Francisco, with six riders splitting the route, the last rider covering 60 miles. 1894–95 Annie Kopchevsky, aka Annie Londonderry, a 23-year-old, bicycles around the world on a Sterling bike, leaving Boston in June 1894 and finishing her ride in Chicago in September 1895. She earns $5,000 along the way.

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1895 Ignatz Schwinn and Adolph Arnold form Arnold, Schwinn and Company to manufacture bicycles. Albert Pope purchases 75 smaller bicycle companies and founds the American Bicycle Company. The first edition of the professional track world championships is held. Frances Willard publishes A Wheel within a Wheel, a handbook on cycling for women. Mrs. Frank Sittig designs and uses a duplex riding skirt for women. The New York Times notes that it is “an ideal suit for cycling, to which even the most prudish could not object.” 1896 Coaster brakes are invented and added to bicycles, greatly increasing their safety. Paris–Roubaix, the King of the Classics, appears on the cycling calendar for the first time. Paris–Tours, a prominent one-day classic, is first contested. The first modern Olympic Games are contested in Athens, with cycling on the program, as it would be at all modern Olympic Games. 1898 Three women compete in an endurance bicycle contest, with Jane Lindsay covering 600 miles in 72 hours, Jane Yatman finishing 500 miles in 58 hours, and Irene Bush riding 400 miles in 48 hours. 1899 Charles “Mile-a-Minute” Murphy sets a bicycle motor-paced speed record, covering one mile in 57.8 seconds, the first time that a man rides faster than 60 mph and 100 km/h, for any sustained period of time. Jane Yatman sets an endurance cycling record for women by riding 700 miles in 81 hours, 5 minutes on Long Island. On October 19, her record is bettered by Jane Lindsay, who rides 900 miles in 91 hours, 48 minutes. 1900 Major Taylor wins the American cycling sprint championship, and beats most of the European riders on a European tour. Taylor was one of the first black athletes to achieve world prominence in any sport. The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the international governing body of cycling, is formed at a meeting in Paris. 1903 The first Tour de France is held, won by Maurice Garin. Internal hub gears are invented by Sturmey Archer and are used on bikes around the world into the 1930s. Wilbur and Orville Wright, whose careers were as bicycle mechanics, cover 120 feet in the first successful airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. 1904 In an unusual all-American cycling competition at the St. Louis Olympics, Marcus Hurley wins four gold medals, still the only rider to win four at one celebration of the Games. 1908 Lucien Petit-Breton becomes the first rider to win the Tour de France twice and is also the first to win the race in consecutive years (1907–08). 1909

The Giro d’Italia is contested for the first time.

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1910 The Tour de France introduces true mountain stages for the first time, as the riders first ascend the Col d’Aubisque and then the Col du Tourmalet. On the Tourmalet, the eventual race winner, Octave Lapize, famously turned to the organizers, stating, “Vous êtes des assassins! Oui, des assassins.” (You are murderers. Yes, murderers.) 1911 Octave Lapize wins Paris–Roubaix for the third consecutive year, not to be equaled until Francesco Moser in 1980. His three wins are not bettered until Roger De Vlaeminck wins his fourth Hell of the North in 1977. 1914 Swiss racer Oscar Egg sets his third world record for the hour, covering 44.247 km at the Buffalo Velodrome in Paris. 1919 The yellow jersey (maillot jaune), worn by the leader of the race, makes its debut at the Tour de France. 1920 Philippe Thys wins his third Tour de France, making him the first rider to win the race three times. 1921 The world championship road race for amateurs makes its appearance. 1924 The first cycling drug scandal occurs when the Pélissier brothers (Henri, Frances, Charles) give an interview in which they describe using strychnine, cocaine, chloroform, aspirin, horse ointments, and others drugs in professional races. The story was published in Le Petit Parisien under the title “Les Forçats de la Route” (Convicts of the Road). Alfonsina Strada enters the Giro d’Italia under the name Alfonsin Strada and is allowed to ride and finish, unofficially, even after it is discovered she is a woman. She remains the only woman to have ridden in the Giro. 1927

The world championship road race for professionals makes its debut.

1928 Alfredo Binda wins his second consecutive Giro d’Italia and third overall, becoming the first rider to win the race three times. Costante Girardengo wins Milano–Sanremo for the sixth time, at the time a record for one-day classics. 1929 Alfredo Binda wins his third consecutive and fourth overall Giro d’Italia, extending his records. 1930 Tullio Campagnolo patents the quick-release hub. The 1930 Tour de France rule book, distributed by Henri Desgrange, reminds riders that drugs would not be provided by the organizers, demonstrating the extent of their usage in the professional peloton. Desgrange, upset with the politics surrounding trade teams in the Tour, also changes the rules so that only national teams will be allowed to compete, a change that would last until 1961. World

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championships in cycle-ball are held for the first time, after European championships had been begun in 1927. 1930s Schwinn produces the Excelsior, a bike with fat tires and a spring fork, considered the first prototype of the mountain bike, which becomes the model for mountain bikes 50 years later. 1932 Alfredo Binda wins the world championship road race for the third time, a record still not bettered as of 2010. It will not be equaled until Eddy Merckx wins his third title in 1974. 1933 Campagnolo SPA is formed by Tullio Campagnolo, with its initial product a quick-release hub. Alfredo Binda wins his fifth Giro d’Italia, still a record for the race, although since equaled by Fausto Coppi and Eddy Merckx. The Tour de France first awards a points classification title. The Giro d’Italia also awards a mountain classification title for the first time. François Faure breaks the world hour record while riding a recumbent. This will cause the Union Cycliste Internationale to change the rules in 1934, requiring riders to ride an upright bicycle in this race against time. 1935

The Vuelta a España is contested for the first time.

1938

Simplex introduces the cable shifted derailleur.

1941 Alf Letourneur sets his second motor-paced bicycle speed record and becomes the first cyclist to ride faster than 100 mph (160 km/h), with a speed of 108.983 mph (175.39 km/h) set at Bakersfield, California. 1949 Fausto Coppi of Italy admits in an interview that he used “la bomba” (amphetamines) to remain competitive, stating that it was a necessity. Coppi also joked on camera that he only took drugs when absolutely necessary, which was nearly always. 1950 Men compete in the first cyclo-cross world championship. The Critérium International de Cyclo-cross had served as the unofficial world championships since 1924. 1953 The Tour de France awards a mountains classification title for the first time. 1955 Louison Bobet becomes the first racer to win three consecutive Tours de France. Women also contest a feminine version of the Tour for the first time, won by Millie Robinson. It inspires the UCI to conduct world championships for women in 1958, but a female Tour will not be held again until 1984.

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1956 Campagnolo introduces a parallelogram front derailleur. For the first time, the UCI conducts indoor world championships for artistic cycling and cycle-ball; although, cycle-ball had had its own world championships since 1930. 1958 Women contest official world championships for the first time, with events on the road and track, Galina Yermolayeva winning the sprint title and Elsy Jacobs the road race. Jacques Anquetil wins the Grand Prix des Nations for the sixth consecutive time. He will eventually win the event nine times. Roger Rivière sets his second world record for the hour, recording 47.347 km at the Velodromo Vigorelli in Milano, Italy. 1959 The Super Prestige Pernod International is held for the first time, replacing the Challenge Desgrange-Colombo. It is a season-long points competition for road cyclists to determine the best rider for the year and continues through 1988, after which it is replaced by the UCI World Cup. 1960 At the 1960 Rome Olympic Games, Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapses during the team time trial. He fractures his skull and is pronounced dead at hospital shortly thereafter, having later been found to have used Ronicol, a peripheral vasodilator. His death pushes sports authorities, notably the International Olympic Committee, to begin the study of drug use in sport. French racer Roger Rivière admits that his career-ending crash on the Col de Perjuret on Mont Aigoual during the 1960 Tour de France, from which he was partially paralyzed, was probably attributable to using painkillers that affected his reflexes and judgment. 1961 The Tour de France goes back to allowing trade teams to compete, after the teams had represented nations since 1930. In 1967, this will revert to national teams for two years, but only trade teams have competed since 1968. 1962 At Freiburg, Germany, José Meiffret sets his third motor-paced bicycle speed record, recording 204.778 km/h (127.242 mph), the first cyclist to surpass 200 km/h. 1963 Jacques Anquetil becomes the first cyclist to win the Tour de France four times. 1964 France passes its first anti-doping law in November. Jacques Anquetil wins the Tour de France for the fifth time and becomes the first to win the race in four consecutive years. 1965 In a television interview, Jacques Anquetil admits to using drugs while racing. He noted that cyclists had to ride through “the cold, through

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heat waves, in the rain and in the mountains,” adding, “Leave me in peace; everybody takes dope.” The Union Cycliste Internationale declares performance-enhancing drugs illegal in cycling on 1 June 1965. The UCI splits into two groups, the Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme (FIAC) and Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel (FICP), governing amateur and professional cycling, respectively. This will continue until 1992, when they merge back into one UCI. 1966 On 29 July, at the Tour de France, Raymond Poulidor becomes the first rider to be drug tested at the end of a stage to Bordeaux. The next day, approaching the Pyrenees, the cyclists dismount and begin walking, while shouting protests. 1967 Tom Simpson of Great Britain dies of exhaustion on the slopes of Mont Ventoux during the 13th stage of the 1967 Tour de France. His autopsy reveals evidence of amphetamines and alcohol. 1970 The first-known BMX race is held in Long Beach, California (USA), organized by 14-year-old Scot Breithaupt. 1972 Eddy Merckx wins his fourth consecutive Tour de France. Jaime Huélamo of Spain finishes third in the road race at the 1972 Olympics but is disqualified after testing positive for Coramine. In the Olympic team time trial, Aad van den Hoek also tests positive for Coramine, costing the Netherlands team a bronze medal. 1973 Dr. Allan Abbott sets a new bicycle motor-paced speed record, reaching 138.674 mph (223.126 km/h) on the Bonneville Salt Flats. After finishing first, Eddy Merckx tests positive for doping in the Giro di Lombardia, and Felice Gimondi is declared the winner. The first annual Cycle to the Clouds race is held on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire, one of the world’s most difficult climbs. Eric De Vlaeminck wins his sixth consecutive and seventh overall world championship in cyclo-cross. 1974 Tamara Garkushina wins her fifth consecutive world championship and sixth overall in the individual pursuit. 1975 The first International Human Powered Speed Championships are held. The Tour de France awards a youth classification for the first time. Daniel Morelon wins his seventh world and Olympic championship in the amateur sprint race, having won four consecutive world titles from 1969 to 1973. The event was not held in 1972 due to the Olympics, which Morelon also won.

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1976 Eddy Merckx wins Milano–Sanremo for the seventh time, a record for a monument race. To celebrate the American bicentennial, the Adventure Cycling Association (ACA) sponsors a mass touring ride, from one coast of the United States to the other, called Bikecentennial. The first mountainbike–only race is held in Fairfax, California. 1977 The earliest mountain bikes are developed in Marin County, California. Among the early designers, builders, and promoters are Joe Breeze, Otis Guy, Gary Fisher, and Craig Mitchell. Roger De Vlaeminck wins Tirreno–Adriatico for the sixth consecutive year, at the time a record for a major cycling event. De Vlaeminck also wins Paris–Roubaix for the fourth time, the first rider and, through 2010, the only one, to win the King of the Classics four times. 1978 Triple chain-rings become widely available, adding to the range of bicycle gears. 1979 Cyclist Bryan Allen flies the Gossamer Albatross across the English Channel in a pedal-driven, human-powered aircraft. 1980 Jan Raas wins the Amstel Gold Race for the fourth consecutive year. He would add a fifth title in the event in 1982. 1980s Triathletes begin to use newer models of aerodynamic handlebars in the cycling phase of their events. The handlebars eventually make their way to the professional peloton, especially for use in time trial events. Disc wheels, which are more aerodynamic under certain conditions, also begin to appear on bikes, and are used by triathletes and professional cyclists in time trials and track racing. 1981

Herman Van Springel wins Bordeaux–Paris for the seventh time.

1982 The International Bicycle Motocross Federation (IBMXF) conducts the first world championships for this discipline of the sport. The UCI will conduct the worlds with the IBMXF beginning in 1991, and the UCI will eventually be the sole federation holding BMX world championships, beginning for women in 2000 and for men in 2001. 1984 Cogs begin to be added to the rear cluster to increase the number of gears from the old standard of 10. Francesco Moser of Italy breaks Eddy Merckx’s world hour record. Shortly after the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, it is revealed that the United States cycling team, which had enjoyed unprecedented success at these Olympics, had engaged in a systematic program of blood doping, with several, but not all, of the U.S. riders participating.

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Women participate in Olympic cycling for the first time, with an individual road race won by Connie Carpenter-Phinney. The Tour de France Féminine, later called La Grand Boucle, is also contested for the first time, won by Marianne Martin. 1985 John Howard breaks the bicycle motor-paced speed record by clocking 152.284 mph (245.025 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, the first person to go over 150 mph on a bicycle. 1986 Greg LeMond wins the Tour de France, the first time the event is won by an American cyclist. Koichi Nakano wins the professional sprint world championship for the 10th consecutive year. 1987 Urs Freuler wins the world championship points race for the seventh consecutive year. He adds an eighth title in 1989. 1988 Women’s track sprint racing is added to the Olympic program at the Seoul Olympics, with Erika Salumäe winning the gold medal for the Soviet Union. She will return in 1992 to defend her title, this time representing her native Estonia. The Giro Donne, a female version of the Giro d’Italia, is contested for the first time. Sean Kelly wins Paris–Nice for the seventh consecutive year, a record for any major race not equaled until Lance Armstrong wins his seventh consecutive Tour de France in 2005. 1989 Greg LeMond wins the Tour de France by only eight seconds over Laurent Fignon, the closest margin ever, overtaking him on the final time trial into Paris. LeMond used a newer, aerodynamic bicycle and helmet, with disc wheels, triathlon-style handlebars, and a windswept rear extension to his helmet, while Fignon rode a classic bike with standard handlebars, spoked wheels, and no helmet. LeMond comes from 50 seconds down going into the last stage, his win a defining moment for newer aerodynamic bicycle designs. The UCI Road World Cup is held for the first time, replacing the Super Prestige Pernod International. It will be superseded in 2005 by the UCI ProTour. 1990 Official UCI Mountain Bike World Championships are held for the first time. The United States’ organization National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) had staged unofficial world championships in mountain biking and trials since the early 1980s. 1991 Miguel Indurain of Spain wins the Tour de France bicycle race, his first of five consecutive titles. Track cycling world championships for amateurs are contested for the last time. Beginning in 1992, there is no longer a distinction between amateurs and professionals at the track world championships, as the major championship event is simply classified as “elite.” The UCI and IBMXF begin to co-organize the BMX world championships.

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1992 Women get a third event at the Olympic Games with the addition of the individual pursuit on the track. The Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme and Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel merge and are subsumed into one group, the Union Cycliste Internationale. 1993 The first bicycle messenger championship is held in Berlin, Germany. The IBMXF is fully integrated into the UCI, and BMX racing becomes a discipline of cycling governed by the UCI. 1994 Tony Rominger wins his third consecutive Vuelta a España, becoming the first cyclist to win the race three times. The UCI rewrites rule 49 governing a rider’s position on the bicycle. It is specifically designed to outlaw certain positions in track racing, notably Graeme Obree’s “downhill skier” position, and requires that there be daylight between a rider’s arms and chest during any ride. 1995 Spanish cyclist Miguel Indurain wins the Tour de France for the fifth consecutive year, becoming the first rider to accomplish that. Road cycling world championships for amateurs are contested for the last time. Beginning in 1996, there is no longer a distinction between amateurs and professionals at the road world championships, the major event simply termed “elite.” Jeannie Longo wins the world championship road race for women for the fifth time. Fred Rompelberg of the Netherlands sets a new bicycle speed record of 167.044 mph (268.831 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. 1996 Mountain biking appears on the Olympic program for the first time at the Atlanta Olympics. Professional and amateur cyclists compete together at the Olympic Games for the first time. After Graeme Obree had changed from his now-outlawed “downhill skier” position into the so-called Superman position, with the arms outstretched, well ahead of the front hub, the UCI bans the Superman position in October 1996, requiring that the handlebars may not extend more than 15 cm beyond a line extended up perpendicularly from the front hub. 1997 For the third consecutive year, Fabiana Luperini wins the Tour de France Féminine and the Giro Donne. She will win a fourth straight Giro in 1998. 1998 La Flèche Wallonne adds a women’s race, the first major one-day classic to contest a separate event for women. The Festina affair occurs, in which the Festina professional cycling team is found to have had a systematic doping program. The controversy disrupts the Tour de France, with several teams withdrawing and the race finishing with only a skeleton crew of riders as a result. Several of the Festina riders and support personnel eventually stand trial

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in a French court, notably mountain climbing star Richard Virenque; although, he is later cleared of the charges against him. The Tour is eventually won by Italian Marco Pantani. 1999 For the fifth consecutive year, Félicia Ballanger wins the world championship in both the sprint and the 500-m time trial. 2000 Women compete in a cyclo-cross world championship for the first time, and a BMX world championship is contested for the first time, for men and women. Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel becomes the first woman to win three Olympic gold medals at the same Olympics, winning the road race, time trial, and individual pursuit. 2002 Campagnolo introduces a 10-speed rear cluster, allowing 30-speed bicycles. Nicolas Vouilloz wins his seventh downhill mountain bike world championship in the last eight years, having won consecutively from 1995 to 1999 and then again in 2001 and 2002. 2003 Anne-Caroline Chausson wins her eighth straight world championship in downhill mountain bike and will add a ninth in 2005. The UCI makes helmet use mandatory during sanctioned races; although, riders may discard the helmet on finishing climbs of greater than 5 km. That rule will be revoked a few years later, making helmet use throughout all UCI races mandatory at all times. 2004 Lance Armstrong wins the Tour de France for a record sixth consecutive year. Tyler Hamilton wins the gold medal in the men’s individual time trial at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. But shortly thereafter, his A sample is suggestive of blood doping. Hamilton’s B sample cannot be tested because it was inappropriately frozen, and he retains his gold medal, despite protests from the Russian team, whose rider, Vyacheslav Yekimov, placed second. 2005 Lance Armstrong wins his seventh consecutive Tour de France. Roberto Heras appears to win the Vuelta a España for the fourth time, which would have been a record. However, in November 2005, it is revealed that he had a doping positive from the day of the stage-20 time trial, and the title reverts to original second-place finisher Denis Menchov. The UCI creates the UCI ProTour, a year-long series of races to determine a yearly champion, which replaces the UCI Road World Cup. The UCI ProTour lasts through 2010 and is replaced in 2011 by the UCI WorldTour, a similar competition. 2006 The 2006 Tour de France is rocked by doping scandals. Just prior to the race, the media reports about Operación Puerto, a Spanish investigation into doping in sports and cycling. After the leak of many of the names involved, pre-tour favorites Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso are expelled from the race before its start. The race is initially won by American Floyd Landis,

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but a few days after his victory, it is announced that he had tested positive after stage 17, which he dramatically won, for a very high testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. Landis was disqualified and his title removed. He protested his innocence and began a campaign to have the ruling rescinded and his title restored but finally admitted to doping in 2010. 2008 Bike component manufacturers introduce 11-speed cogsets, allowing bicycles to have as many as 33 gear ratios. After losing his initial appeal for doping at the 2006 Tour de France in 2007, Floyd Landis loses his final appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport and must serve a full two-year suspension from the sport. BMX racing is added to the Olympic program for both men and women. Robbie McEwen wins Paris–Brussels for the fourth consecutive year. 2009 Lance Armstrong comes out of retirement and rides again in the Tour de France, this time placing third to his teammate, Alberto Contador, despite significant friction between the two during the race. 2010 Floyd Landis admits that he, in fact, used drugs frequently during his professional career and that he lied about his innocence after organizers had removed his 2006 Tour de France title for a doping positive. Landis also implicates many other professional cyclists and cycling teams as using performance-enhancing drugs routinely, including Lance Armstrong, who had never tested positive for doping. Alberto Contador wins his third Tour de France, or so it seems. Later, in 2010, he is found to have had a doping positive earlier in the year, and his Tour title is at risk as a potential suspension looms; although, in early 2011, the Spanish Cycling Federation backs off from this. The UCI Road World Championships are held in Geelong, Australia, the first time the event is held in the Southern Hemisphere. 2011 Lance Armstrong retires again in February, after riding several events in Australia. 2012 The Olympic cycling program will change so that men and women will contest precisely the same events, in road racing, track, mountain biking, and BMX.

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Introduction

“There are nine million bicycles in Beijing,”1 British pop singer Katie Melua sang in 2005. While the automobile is also becoming more prominent in China, that estimate may very well be correct. The bicycle remains a cheap and common mode of transportation, evidenced by the fact that there are an estimated one billion bicycles in the world, exceeding the number of passenger cars (estimated at 600 million).2 In some countries, such as the Netherlands, the number of bicycles even exceeds the number of inhabitants.3 While most of these bicycles are used for transportation, they are often used recreationally, such as for touring or fitness. And, as with all modes of transportation, from walking to driving a car, bicycles are also used for racing. The sport of cycling is almost 150 years old, and herein not only will we take a closer look at the sport but also will discuss the use of bicycles as a means of fitness, touring, and commuting. At first blush, bicycle racing does not appear to be a very complicated sport: a race is held over a predefined course, and the first to pass the finish line wins. While this is indeed the essence of nearly all cycling competitions, this view is a bit simplistic. The physical abilities, tactics, and material support to win a mountain stage in the French Alps are substantially different from what is necessary to emerge victorious from a match sprint race on the track. Just as two kids (or adults) only need two bicycles to start an informal bike race, the first informal cycling races appeared quite soon after cycling developed in the first place. The first known cycling competition—organized and announced in advance, with prizes and spectators—took place in France in 1868. Soon afterward, the need arose for purpose-built cycling tracks. The condition of the roads in Britain, the country in which cycling was most popular at that time, was poor, and despite continuous improvements in bicycles, riding them on the road was not always a pleasure. Racing on blocked-off pieces of street or grass soon evolved into racing on special tracks—called “velodromes,” from the French word vélocipède (an early form of bicycle) and the Greek dromos (race, course). This development marked the split into what are still the two main forms of cycling competition: road racing and track racing. Initially, track cycling was more popular in terms of public 1

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attention and money to be earned by racers, but this gradually changed in favor of road racing, which has been the most popular form of cycling since at least the end of World War II. In what follows, there is a detailed look at cycling’s two main disciplines—road and track—as well as a brief overview of the other forms of cycling. Other cycling topics warrant attention in this introduction. The first, amateurism versus professionalism, describes the traditional division of cycling in unpaid and paid competitors, even if this division is no longer made in cycling. The second topic, which is still making headlines, is that of doping with performance-enhancing drugs, which is particularly associated with the sport of cycling. Finally, mention will be made of bicycle touring, utility cycling, and cycling as a means of achieving physical fitness.

ROAD RACING A key element in following a cycling road race is to know that it is both an individual sport and a team sport at the same time. While cyclists compete individually and receive individual honors, they are usually members of a team that cooperates. This allows for much more interesting tactics than, for example, in the seemingly similar marathon footrace. In a marathon, many competitors follow their own pace throughout the race. Instead, road racing cyclists typically stay together with the pack, or peloton, for a large part of the race—or even the full race. This is useful since it takes less effort to ride behind another cyclist than it does to ride on your own. Team tactics often focus on one or perhaps a few key cyclists in the team, the ones who are assumed to have a decent chance at winning. As an example, the team may support its best climber because it is a mountainous course. The rest of the team then usually plays a serving role; the French term for such riders is domestique, which literally means servant. A key rider may be helped in several ways; he can be kept out of the wind during the early parts of the race, and riders will fetch drinks for him to reduce the chance of being involved in a crash. They may work hard to catch back dangerous riders who have escaped from the pack or escape themselves to force other teams to do the work. A team’s tactics are coordinated by a noncompeting team leader, or directeur sportif, who drives behind the pack in a car. He or she closely monitors the race and advises the cyclists what action to take and when. Traditionally, this was done with occasional face-to-face contact and a prerace tactical meeting, but currently, most professional riders are in contact during the race with their team leader using an earpiece, allowing the team leaders to have more influence on their racers’ actions. (Some cycling fans consider

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this a bad development, noting it leads to more controlled races with less spontaneous actions from the cyclists themselves.) In top-level competition, these teams are sponsored by companies that pay for the team’s expenses and the cyclists’ salaries in return for exposure during the races and on television. Originally, many of the team sponsors were cycle manufacturers or other cycling-related businesses, but presently teams are sponsored by companies from many different fields of business. A typical professional cycling team consists of some 20 to 30 riders, even though the number of riders per team is normally limited to around 10 for a single race. The large selection allows teams to select the riders most suitable for the competition at hand, as this can vary per competition. Although many of the trade teams have a national orientation, such as the Euskaltel-Euskadi team, which represents a Basque telephone company and has almost exclusively Spanish Basque riders, many of the teams are a polyglot mix from many nations. Notably, the U.S. Postal and Discovery teams that helped Lance Armstrong win the Tour de France seven times had riders from the United States, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, Russia, Spain, and the Ukraine, and several other countries were represented by lesser riders on the team. In addition, it can be difficult to follow which team is which, as the teams often stay somewhat stable, while the lead sponsors often change from year-to-year. A classic example follows the team usually known as Mapei, one of the top cycling teams since 1993. It was originally known as Mapei-BC Azzura-Viner but was also known during its sponsorship by Mapei as Mapei-Clas, Mapei-GB, Mapei-Bricobi, and finally MapeiQuick Step. Mapei dropped its sponsorship after 2002, but the team stayed intact as Quick Step-Davitamon but has since also been known as Quick Step-Innergetic and, since 2008, simply as Quick Step. And there are times that teams change sponsors and are based in different countries. The wellknown German team, Team Telekom, went by that name from 1991 to 2003, but became T-Mobile from 2004 to 2007, still based primarily out of Germany. But since 2007, the team has had several names—Team High Road, Team Columbia-HTC, HTC-Columbia, and HTC-High Road—and has been based out of the United States. Each year, near the end of the summer and the major cycling events, teams and riders start negotiating and jockeying to determine who will change teams in the coming year and ride for a different team. Teams are often looking for specific riders, perhaps a top climber who may be able to help the lead rider in the grand tours or a sprinter who may be able to help the sponsor’s advertising by winning several races in sprints and getting the jersey noticed by fans and media at the finish.

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Because of sponsorship by trade teams, riders’ jerseys often appear somewhat similar to those of NASCAR drivers, with the lead sponsor’s name festooned prominently so that everyone can see it. But most teams have subsidiary sponsors whose names will often be featured in smaller print and on regions of the jersey other than the front and back, often the shoulder or upper-arm areas. Road racing competitions can be divided into two kinds: one-day races and multiday races, usually called “stage races.” Most competitions are in a one-day format, and there are many different kinds. The variation is mostly due to the course used. Some races are point-to-point, such as the classic Paris–Roubaix, while others travel one or more laps to return to the start, a format used at most championship races, including the world championships. Length can also vary wildly; minor races such as criteriums or kermesses, may be just 50 or 100 km, while the toughest classics cover over 250 km. The terrain is also a major influence; a largely flat course will favor sprinters, while climbers benefit from mountainous terrain, yet others prefer a mixed course. Finally, some races are not held in a mass start format (also called en ligne or “in line”) but with cyclists departing in intervals, racing individually or by team. Such races are called “time trials,” and they usually are held over 50 km or less. Multiday races consist of multiple races, called “stages,” held over anywhere between one weekend and three weeks. The objective is to have the fastest combined time over all the stages; although, winning the individual stages is also an objective for many riders. The larger stage races, in particular the Tour de France, the Giro d’Italia, and the Vuelta a España, the socalled grand tours, feature many different kinds of stages, varying in length (from 5 km to 250 km), terrain (flat to mountainous), and type (in-line, time trial, team time trial). The smaller stage races may have less variation, but winning a stage race usually requires well-developed, all-round capacities. The current highest level of competition (for men) is the UCI WorldTour, which has superseded several similar competitions from previous years. It consists of 27 events held throughout the year. Eighteen professional teams, known as ProTeams, are ensured a spot in all of these races (they are, in fact, required to compete), while some lower-ranked local teams may also compete. This is done to limit the number of participants in a race (250 riders is a large pack) and to ensure the quality of the race, keeping the audience and sponsors interested. Lower-ranked teams can compete in continental races (each continent has its own circuit), nationally organized races, and international championships. While new competitions are added to the UCI WorldTour and old ones disappear constantly, the set of most important contests has been fairly stable for many years. Roughly, the calendar can be divided into three parts:

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• Early spring. Four of the five “monument” classics—races with a long history and prominent status—are held: Milano–Sanremo, the Ronde van Vlaanderen, Paris–Roubaix, and Liège–Bastogne–Liège. • Late spring/summer. The three grand tours are held during this period: the Tour de France, the Giro d’Italia, and the Vuelta a España.4 • Autumn. The most notable “fall classic” is the Giro di Lombardia, the fifth monument classic. The world championships are also held in autumn. Traditionally, there was no road racing in the winter; although, this is starting to change, with competitions held in the Southern Hemisphere or areas with a better climate than road racing’s traditional heartland of Western Europe; the Tour Down Under, held in Australia, is now the first WorldTour event of the year, in January. In the past, cyclists would often ride many of the top races and were sometimes even able to excel in many of them. Presently, with the growing level of competition internationally, many cyclists now focus on a smaller selection of races. For example, seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong usually participated in just two or three top-level races prior to his start in the Tour.

WOMEN IN CYCLING All of the races mentioned in the previous paragraphs are those contested by men. Women’s road racing (and cycling in general) started much later, as it was not deemed an appropriate sport for them. But women have cycled since the late 19th century, with Susan B. Anthony famously remarking in 1896, “Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance.”5 There are several early reports on women doing long bicycle tours in the late 1800s and even a round-the-world ride. But cycling as a sport for women began to develop only in the 1950s, when the first world championships appeared. Although it has grown considerably since then, the women’s circuit is still smaller than that for the men on all fronts, from the number of participants and the amount of media attention to the amount of the prize money. Like the men, the women have a seasonal competition, called the World Cup, which features one-day races. Most of these are not as old as the men’s classics, having been established only in the past two decades. Although a female Tour de France has existed, there

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is currently only one major stage-race for female cyclists: the Giro Donne (equivalent of the Giro d’Italia).

BICYCLE TECHNOLOGY Road racing bicycles has evolved greatly since the first competition in 1868. But from the late 19th century through the 1970s, very few major changes took place in bicycle technology, other than the introduction of derailleurs, which allowed for bikes to have more gears and for them to be changed easily while riders were racing. During that time, the basic form and shape of the bike, the so-called diamond frame, did not change. There were minor improvements, such as better tires and stronger wheels, but otherwise, a bike from 1895 looked pretty much like a bike from 1975. However, beginning in the 1980s, “high-tech” bicycles made their entrance in the peloton, marked by Greg LeMond’s 1989 Tour de France win, when he used his aerodynamic time-trial bicycle to beat Laurent Fignon by just eight seconds in the last stage, a time trial. Further sparked by an evolution of track bicycles in the early 1990s, many bicycle manufacturers have tried different technologies to improve aerodynamics and decrease bicycle weight. The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) has even restricted or forbidden many technological advances, for reasons of safety and tradition.6 In time-trial competition, where safety is less of an issue, the rules are less strict. Improvements that may be seen in time trials include extended handlebars, lightweight bicycles (e.g., with frames made out of carbon fiber), wheels with fewer spokes or entirely closed (“disc wheels”), and aerodynamic helmets. In addition, bikes have gotten so light that there are now minimum weights for bicycles, which differ by discipline and the type of race. For some in-line races, the course demands adaptations to the bicycle. An extreme example is Paris–Roubaix, which travels over many cobblestone roads, calling for better suspension and resistance against punctures. Different adaptations are also applied for less extreme circumstances.

POPULARITY OF CYCLING SPORT Despite negative influences, such as the increasing impact on the sport by performance-enhancing drugs (discussed later), road racing remains a very popular sport, particularly in Western Europe. Exact reasons for a sport’s popularity are always hard to guess, but there are many appealing factors to cycling:

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• It is easy to imagine being a cyclist—many people have raced on a bike in their youth, and most have at least ridden one—and thus the audience has some grasp of how tough a 250-km race or a mountain stage really can be. • Most races are free to attend, except possibly in the finish area. In some races, it is definitely possible to see the riders pass more than once; in mountain races, cyclists pass by at an arm’s length and a slow pace. • Many cyclists, at least traditionally, were from the lower classes and/or from smaller towns and villages. This made them very recognizable to the public. Still, many races allow for interaction between competitors and audience, for example, before the start, when many cyclists will gladly sign an autograph or talk briefly to fans present. While the sport is popular in almost every country in Europe, four countries should be mentioned in particular—Belgium, France, Italy, and Spain— although, this is not to demean the sport’s popularity in other nations, as Switzerland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Great Britain, and even the Scandinavian countries of Denmark and Sweden have significant cycling histories. Belgium may be the home of the most diehard cycling fans. The nation has given the sport its greatest champion, Eddy Merckx, and several other riders usually considered among the all-time top 10, Rik Van Looy and Rik Van Steenbergen. Belgium is home to several of the best known one-day classics, always held in the spring, often in cold, wet weather, under very difficult road conditions. These include the Ronde van Vlaanderen and Liège– Bastogne–Liège. Although Paris–Roubaix now takes place fully in France, the cobblestoned roads of that one-day classic resemble those of the cobbled classics that take place in Flanders. Belgium is also the home of a popular cycling discipline, cyclo-cross, as no other country supports cyclo-cross as does Belgium. Cycling is popular in Spain, but the riders eschew the cold, difficult conditions of northern Europe, preferring to ride in the dryer, warmer Mediterranean clime to which they are accustomed. Because of the mountains in the Pyrenees and Basque Country, many of the greatest Spanish riders have been top mountain climbers, notably Federico Bahamontes and Spain’s greatest rider, Miguel Indurain, the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times consecutively. Spain is also home to one of the three grand tours, the Vuelta a España, a three-week tour that is known for its many difficult mountain stages in the Pyrenees. Italy is also the home of a grand tour, the Giro d’Italia. Considered as second in importance only to the Tour de France, the Giro is held earlier in the year, with many Alpine stages often contested on snow-covered roads amid

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very cold, difficult weather conditions. To Italian racers, the Giro is at least equal in importance to the Tour, if not more important. Italy has produced many great champions but none more so than Fausto Coppi, considered as the campionissimo, the champion of champions, and a rider some cycling experts feel may be the equal of Merckx as the best rider of all time. But if the sport of cycling is especially popular in Belgium, Italy, and Spain, it is France that should be considered the ancestral home of the sport. France is the site of the world’s most important cycling race, the Tour de France, a three-week carnivale that takes place every July and dominates the sporting landscape of that country in the summer. Many of the original one-day classics originated in France, and most of these either finish or start in or near Paris, notably Paris–Roubaix, Paris–Bruxelles, Paris–Tours, and Bordeaux–Paris. No Frenchman has won the Tour de France since Bernard Hinault in 1985, a fact that is a dagger to the heart of any French cycling fan. But in the first century of the sport, France produced many of the sport’s significant champions, among them Louison Bobet, Jacques Anquetil, and Hinault.

TRACK CYCLING Unlike road cycling, which basically comes only in two competition formats, track cycling has many different formats. With the notable exception of the six-day races—which last as long as their name suggests—most track races are held within minutes or at most an hour. This means that, with the logical exception of climbing, all aspects of road racing (sprinting, time trial, pack races) can be witnessed within one afternoon or evening of track cycling. In the late 19th century, track cycling was very popular in both Western Europe and the United States. While the novelty of very high-speed bicycles (the first automobiles were born in this period) played an important role, there was also a major social factor involved. It was a cheaper and more accessible diversion than theater, with food and drinks being served. In the United States, velodromes were even allowed to serve alcohol, and since the six-day races continued round the clock, they were open long after pubs and taverns closed. Track cycling no longer draws crowds for this reason; although, sixday races are still seen as a good opportunity for hospitality, and sponsors offer their contacts dinners and drinks during the competition. For decades now, track cycling has been less popular than road racing, both with participants and audiences. Many successful or promising track cyclists still convert to the road if they have the opportunity. The larger number of races, the larger exposure, and the larger paychecks in road racing mean this

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is unlikely to change soon. Still, six-day events continue to enjoy popularity in the winter period, and in Japan, keirin races are a popular betting sport. Track cycling is much more an individual sport than the road variation; although, there are also team events, such as the team sprint and team pursuit. In the individual events, there is either little opportunity for team play, or as in international championships, it is made impossible by allowing only one participant per nation. This does not mean tactics are not important on the track—quite to the contrary. The best-known track event is the sprint, which pits two cyclists against each other. Although the victory is decided on raw speed (reaching speeds of over 60 to 70 km/h), tactics are just as important. Having the lead allows a cyclist to control the position on the track but makes it difficult to see what the opponent is doing. Most riders, therefore, prefer to stay behind their opponent until they have reached top speed and can overtake. This means the first laps of a sprint race are usually a battle to force one’s opponent to take the lead. Similar events to the sprint are the tandem sprint (with two riders on tandem bicycle) and the keirin, which features six riders who are paced for the first few laps. After the sprints, a second category of track events is formed by what are essentially time trials. The 1-km time trial (500 m for women) is often simply known as the time-trial event. The individual pursuit (3 or 4 km) is not much different, except for the fact that two riders compete head-to-head, rather than just having an overall time ranking. A similar event also exists for teams of three or four, known as the team pursuit. Another team event, the team sprint, is essentially a three-lap time trial, again with teams competing head-to-head, but with one rider dropping off every lap. The final category of track competitions is pack races. One pack race is the points race, in which riders can score points by either overtaking, or “lapping,” the pack, or by placing in the intermediate sprints held every number of laps. This competition allows both good sprinters and riders with good stamina a shot at victory. The Madison event is nearly identical, except that it is held with teams of two riders, of which only one is in competition at a time. Another pack race is the scratch—which is simply a first-past-the-post race. In the elimination race, the last rider of the pack is eliminated every other lap. Although now less commonly held, motor-paced events are also held in packs, over larger distances or for one hour. For all-round track cyclists, it is also possible to try out the omnium, which combines six of the above events into a single ranking event. Finally, there is the six-day race. This was originally simply a single race taking six days, but currently, it is a two-man event that takes place over the course of six days, featuring many different events.

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Unlike in road racing, there are not many track cycling competitions that have been held for over a century. Many of the famous six-day events ceased to exist halfway through the 20th century, as did many of the Grand Prix events for sprinters and time trialists, the most famous one being the Grand Prix de Paris, which is now defunct. The most notable event in the season, except in Olympic years, is the world championships, held in early spring. This usually ends the track season, with the UCI World Cup events taking place in the winter, along with most six-day events. Track bicycles are different from road bikes in several aspects. The most notable is that gears are not allowed, so making the right choice of gear is very important, as one has to ride the entire race with it. Track bikes are also ridden with a fixed gear, which does not allow for freewheeling and coasting. Fixed gears make a bike trickier to control and require excellent bike handling skills. Brakes are usually left off track bikes, as braking can be done by simply slowing down one’s pedaling and pushing back against the pedals; although, this again requires excellent bike skills. In time-trial events, aerodynamic advantages similar to those used on the road are allowed.

OTHER FORMS OF COMPETITIVE CYCLING Besides road and track, there are several other forms of cycling. The three best known ones all feature off-road racing: mountain biking (MTB), bicycle motocross (BMX), and cyclo-cross. The latter, a combination somewhat similar to mountain biking and cross-country running, is the oldest form, coming from a form of winter training originating in France. Today, it is virtually unknown outside of Western Europe, but it is extremely popular in Belgium, particularly in Flanders, the Dutch-language part of the country. The two other off-road forms both developed from leisure activities in the United States and have since spread over the world. Unlike cyclo-cross, they have also gained Olympic status in recent years. All three off-road cycling disciplines are held at much lower speeds than road or track races, due to the challenging nature of the courses. The bicycles used also differ significantly from those used on the track and road, particularly in mountain biking and BMX. Other forms of cycling are much less known and are often only contested within a particular country or region. These include ball sports like bicycle polo and cycle-ball, artistic cycling (similar to gymnastics and mostly popular in Germany), cycle-speedway (most popular in Great Britain), and trials.

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PROFESSIONALS AND AMATEURS Until 1993, there was a major divide in competitive cycling between professionals and amateurs. While this division was, and is, not unique for cycling, competitions in both categories have always drawn large participation— something that was not usually the case in other sports with that division. To understand the history of cycling, it is relevant to understand the difference between professional and amateur cyclists. Narrowly defined, the difference between professionals and amateurs is that professional cyclists compete for prize money or even get paid to compete, while amateurs do not; the original French word amateur means “lover” or “one who enjoys.” However, the origin of this distinction lies deeper.7 When cycling caught on as an activity and a sport, most of the participants were rich young men who could afford to spend time on hobbies like cycling and could afford to spend money on expensive novelties such as the early bicycles. The same distinction was visible in other sports, and in general, sports were a gentlemen’s pursuit in those days (only very rarely for ladies). Most lower- and middle-class sportsmen could not spare the time and money to merely cycle for the enjoyment alone. In order to make sports, including cycling, attractive for them, it required prize money to allow them to make a living (a very good living, for the successful ones). This practice was frowned upon by the gentlemen amateurs, and soon, all sports clubs and federations would ban cyclists who had competed for money in the past from taking part in amateur races. The amateur/professional distinction was such a hot topic that in 1894, French pioneer Baron Pierre de Coubertin even organized a congress to discuss the problem with major sports figures from all Western nations. While, in actuality, this congress was meant to revive the ancient Olympic Movement, which it did, the original discussion topic left its mark on the newly founded Olympic Movement; only gentlemen would be allowed to compete in the Olympics, meaning that only amateurs would be allowed. It would not be until the 1990s that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) would fully lift the ban on professional athletes competing. But the divide was also present in cycling. The first official world championships, on the track in 1893, were only for amateurs. Professionals were given their own events in the next few years, and this distinction was also applied on the road. In 1965, the sport’s governing body, UCI, was even split into two parts, the Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme (FIAC) and Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel (FICP), which governed the amateur and professional parts of the sport, respectively.

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The divide gained another dimension after World War II. The opinion that only gentlemen should contest sport had gradually lost ground, and many competitors would start out as amateurs, but would turn professional as soon as they were in the position to do so. However, the idea of earning money with sports was against Communist doctrine,8 and cyclists from Eastern Europe would remain amateurs their entire lives. This meant some of their best cyclists, who were among the world’s best, especially on the track, could never compete against the best of the rest of the world. With the fall of the Iron Curtain in the late 1980s, even the nations that remained Communist allowed their citizens to become professional athletes. With the IOC also gradually allowing professionals to compete in the Olympics, this meant the UCI could disband the FIAC and FIPC in 1993, and the separate amateur world championships were disbanded in the next few years. The championships now distinguish between elite (seniors) and espoirs (hopefuls), or under-23 (U23), allowing only competitors 23 years of age or younger, and juniors (under 18).

PERFORMANCE-ENHANCING DRUGS (PEDS) The sport of cycling, and road racing in particular, has become closely associated with performance-enhancing drugs, or doping—especially since the late 1990s.9 Being an endurance sport, many different kinds of doping exist in cycling. Reports are known of cyclists doping as early as in the late 19th century. By the mid-20th century, it had become commonplace in the peloton, and many top riders, including Fausto Coppi and Jacques Anquetil, saw little problem with admitting they participated in doping, such as using amphetamines. By the 1960s, the climate of acceptance started to change. Incidents, such as the death of Danish amateur Knud Enemark Jensen at the 1960 Olympics, the career-ending crash of French pro cyclist Roger Rivière in 1960, and the death of British cyclist Tom Simpson while ascending Mont Ventoux during the 1967 Tour de France, were attributed to doping use. Several countries, including the world’s central cycling nation, France, began to pass laws against the use of doping in the 1960s. On 1 June 1965, use of doping in cycling officially became forbidden. Doping controls occasionally found positives, but the lenient punishments (race disqualification or, at most, a few weeks’ suspension) did not stop cyclists from doping, as evidenced by the drug-related deaths of Simpson and Jensen. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, many great cyclists,

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including all-time great Eddy Merckx, were either caught having doped or later admitting to doing it. A major change occurred in the 1990s. First, punishments for doping use became stricter under the influence of the International Olympic Committee, with a standard ban for a positive test becoming a two-year suspension. A major watershed occurred at the 1998 Tour de France. After finding a large collection of prohibited drugs in the car of soigneur Willy Voet of the Festina team, the French police started an investigation into Festina, which eventually led to the expulsion of the team from the Tour. Some riders were lifted from their beds for medical examination and police questioning, leading to a two-hour strike during that stage. Other teams were also investigated, notably the Dutch TVM team. Although most of the riders caught doping eventually returned to the peloton after serving a suspension, the event brought the widespread use of doping in cycling to the public’s attention and marked a change in attitude by officials and teams. The increased negative publicity around cycling has caused several major sponsors to leave the sport. Because of this, all professional teams now have a clause in rider contracts allowing them to suspend a rider suspected of doping, and those who are convicted are immediately fired. Riders returning to the sport after serving a suspension may also have more trouble finding a new team. Additionally, some race organizers—including the Tour de France’s ASO (Amaury Sport Organization)—have banned teams from competing if they have former offenders on the team. In Germany, repeated doping cases have even led to less exposure in the media, which in turn has caused several major German sponsors to stop sponsoring cycling teams. Despite all this, there has been no shortage of doping scandals in the past decade. Looking at just the Tour de France, the 2006 edition was surrounded by preemptive bans over the massive Operación Puerto doping case in Spain, implicating favorites Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso, among others. The eventual winner, Floyd Landis, was disqualified, though not for any relationship to Operación Puerto. A year later, top favorite Aleksandr Vinokurov was caught after a stage win, while yellow-jersey wearer Michael Rasmussen was expelled by his own team after having missed an out-of-competition test prior to the race. The 2007, 2009, and 2010 winner, Alberto Contador, has been under investigation for his 2010 win and could lose his victory if found guilty. Like most riders, Contador has denied the accusations, providing an alternative explanation for the failed test. This is a common pattern, but many of these riders have later admitted their guilt. For example, 1998 Festina rider Richard Virenque admitted having doped only in 2000, while Floyd Landis

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only confessed four years after his disqualification. Due to this, the public tends not to believe riders pleading their innocence—even if they may be. While the battle against performance-enhancing drugs is fought with more diligence than ever, there is no end in sight. Even possible doping cases, such as Contador in the 2010 Tour or implications about past performances, such as those regularly published for Lance Armstrong, have a negative effect on the image of cycling. While diehard fans have not been turned off to the sport, new or casual fans are increasingly likely to dismiss a sport where the winner repeatedly turns out to be a doping cheat, especially with little hope of improvement in sight. On the other hand, the current anti-doping regime, where professional athletes have to be available for so-called out-of-competition tests any time of the day is also taking its toll on cyclists, who are ultimately the central figures in the sport. It is hoped that cycling will eventually throw off its association with doping and not ultimately collapse as a sport because of it.

NON-COMPETITIVE MEANS OF CYCLING While the world watches the Tour de France or the major European classics, bicycle use is endemic throughout the world. The three major uses of bicycles for noncompetitive purposes are in utility cycling, bicycle touring, and fitness. Utility cycling refers to the use of the bicycle as a means of transport and for commercial purposes and is the most common type of cycling in the world. It is very popular in Europe and Asia. Utility cycling encourages fitness, helps lessen traffic congestion, and may decrease air pollution; thus, it is supported by the green movement. Utility cycling is usually done with short journeys and is influenced by a number of factors, including town planning, trip-end facilities (mostly bike parking areas), retail policies, and terrain and climate. Bicycle touring is a method of cycling in which cyclists, often in groups, tour the countryside, often riding for long periods each day, although usually interspersed with long breaks. The tours may be single-day tours or can be longer tours with overnight stays. Bicycle touring has been known since the 19th century, when organizations were formed in Great Britain in 1878 and later in France and the United States. There are several types of bicycle touring depending on how much equipment riders carry and whether or not they ride in groups or alone, with or without support vehicles. Many day-tours are now done as charitable rides, with money raised for various causes. Many people now use cycling as a means of achieving and maintaining fitness, as cycling is well served for this purpose. The sport stresses the heart and improves cardiovascular fitness, while minimizing the pounding effects on the knees and ankles caused by jogging or running. Unlike swim training,

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cycling can be done almost anywhere and at any of the time of the year, and cross-country skiing, while it provides superb fitness benefits, is limited by the necessity for snow-covered trails.

CYCLING TODAY . . . AND TOMORROW Cycling is almost ubiquitous throughout the world. In Europe it is popular as a means of transport and for touring, and the professional sport, especially the grand tours, is one of the most watched Continental sports. In Asia, cycling is used as a means of commuting and transportation. In North America, cycling is popular as a sport, and although American racers lagged behind the European counterparts for much of the 20th century, the feats of Greg LeMond and Lance Armstrong since the early 1980s have captured the American sporting public’s notice. Bicycle touring is also very popular in the United States. Cycling as a sport is not without problems. The women’s version of the sport has appeared to stall, with sponsorship now more difficult to come by, especially since the economic recession of 2008. But the most pressing problem the sport has had is the use of performance-enhancing drugs as a means of doping in the professional peloton. At times, over the last 15 years, this has even threatened the survival and viability of the sport. But despite this, it continues to be very popular and attract the imagination of the public. The use of a bicycle for touring, for commuting, for transportation, for fitness, and for competitive racing has been around since the mid-19th century. Despite the problems with doping, there are many reasons to believe bicycle use will continue to prosper. Most notably, the green movement, with an emphasis on environmental concerns and lowering carbon emissions, is particularly suited to bicycle use, as it has no significant deleterious effects on the environment. All sports have problems. But because of the beneficial effects of bicycle use on personal fitness, on the environment, and its ease of use for both men and women, it is likely that bicycles will continued to be popular for many different reasons. Although in one sense, they can go anywhere; in another sense, they’re not going anywhere.

NOTES 1. Katie Melua, “Nine Million Bicycles,” written by Mike Batt, Piece by Piece, compact disc, Dramatico Records, 2005. 2. Worldometers website, http://www.worldometers.info.

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3. Cycling in the Netherlands website, http://holland.cyclingaroundtheworld.nl/ (accessed March 16, 2011). 4. As the most important race on the cycling calendar, the Tour de France has a fixed place. However, the Giro and Vuelta have changed dates repeatedly. Presently, the Giro is held in late spring (May), while the Vuelta is held in late summer/early autumn (August–September). 5. Anthony made this remark in a speech on February 2, 1896, quoted in the New York World and in the Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony by Ida Husted Harper. 6. The UCI rules can be found at the Union Cycliste Internationale website, “Rules,” http://www.uci.ch/templates/UCI/UCI2/layout.asp?MenuId=MTkzNg&LangId=1 (accessed March 16, 2011). 7. The best discussion of the origins of amateurism can be found in David C. Young, The Olympic Myth of Greek Amateur Athletics (Chicago: Ares, 1984). 8. While, in theory, all sportsmen in Communist nations were amateurs; in reality, many of them were professionals, as they were often state-sponsored. Many would technically work in the military or for the police, but they would grant them the opportunity to train and compete full-time. 9. There are numerous sources discussing the history of drug use in sports in general; most of which, because of its prevalence, discuss the history of involvement in cycling. One excellent source is by Wayne Wilson and Edward Derse, Doping in Elite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement (Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2001), which has an entire chapter devoted to the recent timeline of this problem, “Significant Events in the History of Drug Testing and the Olympic Movement: 1960–1999,” by Jan and Terry Todd (pp. 65–128), and also includes 311 references. A very complete webpage on the topic is at the Wikipedia website, “List of Doping Cases in Cycling,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_doping_cases_in_cycling (accessed March 16, 2011), which begins its timeline in 1886.

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A ABDUZHAPAROV, DZHAMOLIDIN “ABDU” (also seen as Djamolidine Abdoujaparov [French variant]) [Джамолидин Абдужапаров] (UZB). B. 28 February 1964; Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov was one of the fastest sprinters in the professional peloton, racing as a pro from 1990 to 1997. Called the Tashkent Terror, he was also somewhat erratic in his final sprints and was involved in some wild crashes, causing him to have significant rivalries with his fellow riders, notably Laurent Jalabert. Abduzhaparov is one of only four men to have won the points classification at all three of the grand tours—winning at the Tour de France in 1991, 1993, and 1994, at the Giro d’Italia in 1994, and at the Vuelta a España in 1992. As an amateur, Abdu also won that jersey at the 1988 Peace Race and competed for the Soviet Union at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, finishing fifth in the road race. Abduzhaparov also won the 1991 Gent–Wevelgem classic. ABSALON, JULIEN (FRA). B. 16 August 1980; Remiremont, France. The most successful male cross-country mountain biker, Julien Absalon has won all the various titles available to him. From 2004 through 2007, he claimed four consecutive world championships, and in 2004 and 2008, he also won the Olympic gold medal. In addition, he was the 2006 European champion and won the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup in cross-country five times (2003, 2006–09). At the French championships, Absalon won eight consecutive titles between 2003 and 2010. Before joining the seniors, he also won world titles as a junior (1998) and under-23 (2001-02). ALCYON. A professional cycling team sponsored by the eponymous French bicycle and automobile manufacturer, Alcyon was one of the dominant teams of the first half of the 20th century. Starting with bicycle racing sponsorship in 1906, four Alcyon riders won the Tour de France in 1909 through 1912, including Octave Lapize in 1910. The team had three more consecutive Tour winners from 1927 to 1929. In the latter year, Belgian Maurice De Waele won the Tour, despite being ill, with the help of his Alcyon teammates. Race organizer Henri Desgrange disliked this so much that he changed the rules to 17

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only allow national teams to compete in the Tour de France, a move that was only overturned in 1962. Alcyon continued to employ the best riders, however, and six Alcyon riders won the Tour in the 1930s, representing their national teams. Apart from the Tour de France, Alcyon cyclists have collected four world championships on the road and countless classics victories, including 31 in monument races. A few years after the Alcyon Company was acquired by Peugeot in 1954, the pro cycling team also disappeared from the peloton. See also FRANCE. ALL-TERRAIN BIKING (ATB). See MOUNTAIN BIKING. ALPE D’HUEZ, L’. The most famous mountain climb in the Tour de France is l’Alpe d’Huez, located in the central French Alps in the Isère Department of the Rhône-Alpes. The ascent was first added to the Tour program in 1952, when it was famously won by Fausto Coppi. The climb covers 13.8 km to the ski resort at the top of the mountain, with an average grade of 7.9 percent. The racers must negotiate 21 switchbacks or hairpin turns as they climb. The route is lined by thousands of spectators who often camp out for several days awaiting the arrival of the racers. Each of the switchbacks has been given the name of one of the winners of the stage. Four riders have won the climb to l’Alpe d’Huez twice—Hennie Kuiper in 1977 and 1978, Gianni Bugno in 1990 and 1991, Marco Pantani in 1995 and 1997, and Lance Armstrong in 2001 and 2004. Dutch riders have won the stage eight times (though not since Gert-Jan Theunisse in 1989), and Dutch fans famously camp out along the route, giving it the nickname of the Dutch Mountain. The stage to l’Alpe d’Huez is famous enough that an entire book has been written about it—The Tour Is Won on the Alpe: Alpe d’Huez and the Classic Battles of the Tour de France by Jean-Paul Vespini. See also FRANCE. ALTIG, RUDI (FRG). B. 18 March 1937; Mannheim, Germany. Rudi Altig was an outstanding pursuiter and sprinter who became a top road sprinter. He started out as a track sprinter, winning the West German title in 1957 and 1958. His inability as a climber limited him in the major tours; although, he did win the 1962 Vuelta a España, in which he also won the points jersey. In the Tour de France, Altig wore the yellow jersey for 19 days over four different years—1962, 1964, 1966, and 1969—and won seven stages. He also won the points jersey at the 1962 Tour. In 1966, Altig won the professional world championship road race in Germany, when he outsprinted Jacques Anquetil for the title, and was also the winner of 22 six-day races. His palmarès includes other major wins at the 1964 Ronde van Vlaanderen, the 1968 Milano–Sanremo, and the 1970 Rund um den Henninger Turm. On

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the track, he was world champion in 1960 and 1961 in the professional individual pursuit. Altig supplemented his training with yoga, often standing on his head between heats of track races. AMATEUR. An amateur is usually considered someone who does not compete in a sport for money. The concept developed in 19th-century England. English rowers of that era began to protest the inclusion of competitors who worked on the docks or rowed boats for a living, stating that it gave them an unfair advantage. Eventually, the concept was expanded by the British to exclude anybody who worked at manual labor, believing that the work strengthened them unfairly. Thus, an amateur was somebody who either worked at a desk job or was a member of the leisure class. Cycling was never that strict, as even amateur cyclists tended to come from working-class families, and the cycling differential usually only considered professionals as those competing for money. In cycling, for many years there were separate world championships for amateurs and professionals. However, this was stopped after the 1994 edition of the championships, and the major titles are now called the “elite” championships. There are separate titles for racers under 23 years of age, who are mostly the riders that were formerly considered amateurs. AMAURY SPORT ORGANISATION (ASO). The Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO) is one of the most powerful race organizers in cycling. It is a subsidiary of Groupe Amaury, a media company. Groupe Amaury obtained the organization of the Tour de France after taking over the French sports newspaper L’Équipe, which was the successor of L’Auto, which had established the Tour. The ASO in its present form was created in 1992. Apart from the Tour, ASO also co-organizes many other major cycling races, including the Vuelta a España, Paris–Roubaix, Liège–Bastogne–Liège, La Flèche Wallonne, and Paris–Tours. While staging so many important competitions, the ASO has had several conflicts with the Union Cycliste Internationale, the sport’s official governing body. Most notably, the UCI’s ProTour (see WORLDTOUR) prescribed that the same pro teams would have to compete in all of the races that were part of the ProTour. The ASO preferred to select the teams itself, allowing national (often French) teams to compete, since that would mean better publicity. The dispute came to a head in 2008, when the UCI declared ASO’s Paris–Nice a rogue race—a fact ignored by all ProTour teams. This eventually resulted in the ASO’s races being pulled from the ProTour ranking, thus devaluing the competition. Outside of cycling, ASO also organizes the annual Dakar Rally, the Paris Marathon, and the Open de France (golf). Since 2008, the director of ASO has been Jean-Étienne Amaury.

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AMERICAN BICYCLE ASSOCIATION (ABA). The ABA is the larger of the two remaining major sanctioning bodies in American BMX racing, the other being the National Bicycle League (NBL). Founded in 1977 by Gene Roden and Merl Mennenga, its annual ranking is one of the most important ones in BMX racing. Randy Stumpfhauser has been ranked number one six times (2009, cruiser 2001–05), while Dominique Daniels (USA) won three consecutive women’s titles (2008–10). AMERICAN FLYERS. American Flyers is a 1985 American movie about bike racing starring Kevin Costner and directed by John Badham. It is a tale of two brothers who grow up racing bikes together. Costner, in the lead role, has an unspecified brain ailment. But he insists on riding in the Hell of the West, a stage race in Colorado, and asks his brother, played by David Marshall Grant, to race with him. Some of the race action was filmed during the Coors Classic. Costner’s character has to drop out of the race because of his ailment, but Grant continues on and wins dramatically in the final stage. One of the few American movies about bike racing, American Flyers did not do well at the box office, nor was it a critical success. See also BREAKING AWAY. AMSTEL GOLD RACE. The Amstel Gold Race is a one-day classic held in the Netherlands, in the hilly southern province of Limburg. It is sponsored by the Amstel beer company, which was formerly a separate brand, but is now a label of Heineken. The race started in 1966 through the efforts of two Dutch sports promoters, Ton Vissers and Herman Krott, who ran a company called Inter Sport. The race now usually starts in the main square in Maastricht and, since 2003, has ended atop the Cauberg climb just above Valkenburg. The race course is often criticized for its danger. In the tightly packed Netherlands, the many narrow roads create challenges for the riders, but the course is also renowned for its difficulty, with 31 hills, with the steepest climb, the Keutenberg, at a pitch of 20 percent. There are also numerous turns on the course, and the course loops back over similar terrain several times. The Amstel Gold Race has been a part of the Union Cycliste Internationale World Cup from 1989 to 2004 and of the WorldTour from 2005. The record for the most wins in the race is five, by Dutchman Jan Raas, who won in 1977 through 1980 and 1982. See also APPENDIX D for a list of winners. ANDERSON, PHILIP GRANT “PHIL” (AUS). B. 12 March 1958; London, England. Phil Anderson was the first great Australian road racer, and was the first Aussie to wear the yellow jersey. He turned professional in 1980, joining Peugeot. He would race the Tour de France for 14 consecutive years, 1981 through 1994, placing in the top 10 his first 5 years, with

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best finishes of fifth in 1982 and 1985. In 1982, he won the white jersey as the best young rider, and he wore yellow in both 1981 and 1982, winning two stages during his career. Anderson’s best year was 1985, when he won the Dauphiné Libéré, Rund um den Henninger Turm, the Tour de Suisse, the Tour of the Mediterranean, and the Volta a Catalunya, as well as finishing second in the Ronde van Vlaanderen and Gent–Wevelgem. His other major wins include the 1983 Amstel Gold Race, the 1986 Paris–Tours, and the 1989 Tour de Romandie, and in 1984, he won both Züri-Metzgete and the Rund um den Henninger Turm. Anderson later became a farmer in Australia. He was given the Medal of the Order of Australia in 1987 for service to cycling and has also been awarded the Australian Sports Medal (2000) and a Centenary Medal (2001). ANQUETIL, JACQUES (FRA). B. 8 January 1934; Mont-Saint-Aignan, France. D. 18 November 1987; Rouen, France. Jacques Anquetil is undoubtedly one of the greatest cyclists ever. Known as the man who could break nobody but who could not be broken, his wins were never spectacular, but his major tour victories were always carefully planned and steadily ridden. Anquetil won the Tour de France five times (1957, 1961–64), the first cyclist to do so, and set a record not broken until Lance Armstrong came along. Anquetil is one of the five cyclists to win the Tour, the Giro d’Italia, and the Vuelta a España, winning the Giro in 1960 and 1964 and the Vuelta in 1963. His great rival in the Tour was Raymond Poulidor, whom he always bested, with their greatest battle coming in the 1964 Tour, as they raced sideby-side up the Puy de Dôme. Near the end, Poulidor dropped Anquetil, who was barely conscious when he fell off his bike, but it was not enough to take the yellow jersey from Anquetil. Anquetil’s only weakness was as a road sprinter. He was an excellent climber, but his forte was as a time trialist; as such, during his career, he was considered the greatest rider ever, winning the Grand Prix des Nations a record nine times. In 1956, he used this ability to set the world hour record. His other major victories include the 1966 Liège–Bastogne–Liège; 1964 Gent–Wevelgem; 1957, 1961, 1963, 1965, and 1966 Paris–Nice; 1963 through 1965 Dauphiné Libéré; and 1965 Bordeaux–Paris. He won the Super Prestige Pernod International trophy in 1961, 1963, 1965, and 1966, emblematic of the year’s top cyclist. Anquetil is also one of the few professional cyclists who won an Olympic medal as an amateur, having helped France to a bronze in the 1952 team road race. The greatest disappointment of his career is that he never managed to win the professional road race at the world championships, placing second in 1966 for his best finish, his lack of sprinting ability hampering that effort. See also DOPING.

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ARGENTIN, MORENO “IL CAPO” (THE BOSS) (ITA). B. 17 December 1960; San Donà di Piave, Veneto, Italy. Moreno Argentin had a solid professional career in the 1980s and early 1990s, notably winning Liège– Bastogne–Liège four times, the La Flèche Wallonne three times, and the Ronde van Vlaanderen and Giro di Lombardia once each. He won 13 stages at the Giro d’Italia and two at the Tour de France. Argentin’s greatest victory came in 1986, when he won the world championship road race. He was twice Italian national champion, in 1983 and 1989. His nickname was Il Capo, or “the boss.” ARMSTRONG, LANCE EDWARD (né LANCE EDWARD GUNDERSON) (USA). B. 18 September 1971; Oak Cliff, Texas, United States. Lance Armstrong is considered the greatest professional cyclist produced by the United States, most notably for his record seven consecutive victories in the Tour de France (1999–2005), breaking the previous record of five titles held by Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx, Bernard Hinault, and Miguel Indurain. Armstrong was raised by a single mother after his father left them when Lance was a small child. He started out in sports as a swimmer and then became a top junior triathlete in the United States, but turned to cycling exclusively because triathlon was not an Olympic sport in the 1980s. Armstrong made the 1992 U.S. Olympic team, the last time Olympic cycling was contested only by amateurs, and was considered one of the favorites in the road race but missed a late break and finished only 14th. Shortly after Barcelona, Armstrong turned professional. He had some success early on, winning the 1993 world championship road race, but was not a factor for general classification in the grand tours because of his lack of climbing ability, partly because he was heavier than most top climbers. From 1993 to 1996, he raced the Tour de France four times, winning two stages, but finished the race only once—in 1995 when he placed 36th. After the 1996 season, where he had not raced well at the Olympics or the Tour, he sought treatment for a medical condition, which turned out to be testicular cancer. Armstrong’s testicular cancer was very advanced when it was found and had spread widely throughout his body. He underwent chemotherapy as well as brain surgery to decompress several metastatic lesions. His survival was in doubt, and he was given no chance to return to the professional peloton. But he returned to racing in the 1998 season, initially with very poor results, and he considered quitting the sport. However, encouraged by a late-season fourth-place finish at the Vuelta a España, he increased his training after that race and focused his efforts on the Tour. His illness helped him somewhat in that he had lost weight and was lighter, helping him climb the major mountains more easily. Armstrong also started riding

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many of the Tour stages in the spring before the race, to learn the course and acclimate himself to the climbs. But when he entered the 1999 Tour de France for the U.S. Postal team, he was not favored; although, he had won the Dauphiné Libéré earlier in the year and placed second at the Amstel Gold Race. He was also now showing great strength as a time trialist, in addition to his improved climbing ability. At the Tour, he took the lead after the stage eight time trial; however, the next day was a mountain stage to Sestrières, and it was thought he would wear the yellow jersey for but a single day. But near the top of climb, Armstrong was with the leaders, Alex Zülle and Richard Virenque, when he stood on his pedals and dropped them dramatically on the way to the summit. He kept the yellow jersey and would wear it all the way to Paris for his first victory in the Tour de France. Over the next few years, Armstrong became stronger and stronger and, continuing to focus mostly on the Tour, won the race for seven consecutive years. Many of the races had dramatic moments. At the 2001 Tour, climbing with his archrival Jan Ullrich, Armstrong was in a group ascending l’Alpe d’Huez when he sprinted briefly. He then turned back, looking at Ullrich to see his response, or lack thereof, and when he saw Ullrich was beaten, Armstrong sprinted away to the stage win. It became known as “the look.” In 2003, descending a mountain stage toward Gap, Armstrong was riding with Joseba Beloki when Beloki rolled a tire and crashed, breaking his hip. Riding right on his wheel, Armstrong careened wildly to avoid the fallen Beloki, going off the road into an open field. He was able to rejoin the pack by riding his bike over the grassy field and then climbing over a ditch to get back on the road, as the trailing pack rounded a hairpin turn. Later in 2003, while climbing with the lead pack up Luz Ardiden, a spectator’s bag snagged Armstrong’s handlebars, and he fell immediately. Remounting, his pedal catch slipped twice, but he was able to join back up to the group and win the stage. After the 2005 Tour, Armstrong retired, running twice in the New York City Marathon, finishing just under 3 hours in 2006, and running 2-46:43 in 2007. He also ran the 2008 Boston Marathon. But he came back to competitive cycling in 2009 and rode the Tour again in 2009 through 2010, placing third in 2009, but was well back in the pack in 2010. He then announced another retirement from cycling in February 2011. After his cancer diagnosis, Armstrong started the Livestrong Foundation, which devotes its efforts to fund-raising for cancer research. He has worked tirelessly on behalf of the foundation and in the fight against cancer. His career has not been without controversy, however, as he has been accused numerous times of using drugs, including by several former teammates, but he has never tested positive for a proscribed substance. He has also been criticized

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The Man Who Would Be King—Lance Armstrong, winner of seven consecutive Tours de France, 1999–2005. (Courtesy Graham Watson Photos)

for not riding many major Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour races, but that has been his strategy, as he rides only a few tune-up races, always focusing his training on the Tour de France. As a result, other than his Tour wins, his palmarès includes fewer wins than some of the great champions. His major one-day wins include the 1993 world championship road race and the 1996 Flèche Wallonne. In shorter stage races, Armstrong also won Tour de Suisse in 2001, the Tour de Georgia in 2004, Dauphiné Libéré in 1999, 2002, and 2003, and the Midi Libre in 2002. See also DOPING. ARNDT, JUDITH (GER). B. 23 July 1976; Königs Wusterhausen, Germany. One of the top women’s racers for over a decade, Judith Arndt reached her peak in 2004. That year, she won the Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup and the world road racing title and finished second in the Olympic road race. In that latter competition, Arndt crossed the line showing her middle finger to express her discontent with her life partner Petra Rossner unexpectedly being cut from the team—she was fined for the offensive display. Arndt had earlier claimed an Olympic bronze in 1996, in the individual pursuit on the track, and has won five world championship medals in the time trial (three silvers, two bronzes), as well as a bronze in the 2008 road race. Other wins include four victories in the Gracia Orlová and numerous German titles.

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ARTISTIC CYCLING. In the late 19th century, several American acrobats discovered that bicycles were an interesting new attribute for their shows, and their use was pioneered by, among others, Nick Kaufmann, who is also credited with the invention of cycle-ball. The activity spread to Europe around fin de siècle, notably to Germany, still the country with the highest number of artistic cyclists. It is nowadays practiced as a sport, with many similarities to (artistic) gymnastics and figure skating. Competitions take place in an area approximately 10 by 10 m (not necessarily square), where the competitors perform their exercise. In the center of the area are two concentric circles. These are used to judge many of the elements performed during an exercise, as they have to be held for a full circle, a half circle, an S shape, or an 8 shape. A wide range of elements can be performed, from standstill (e.g., on the saddle or steer) to pirouettes and jumps. A typical exercise features about 30 elements performed within the allotted five-minute period. As in most jury sports, competitors are judged on two criteria: the difficulty of the elements performed and the execution, or how well these elements were performed. Different artistic cycling events exist. Men and women both compete in singles and pairs, the latter meaning two acrobats perform on the same bicycle. Events for four and six competitors are also held, but in those cases, each team member has his or her own bike. Artistic cycling is considered a part of indoor cycling by the Union Cycliste Internationale, and its major championships are hence the UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships, held annually since 1956. In 1989, the sport was also held at the World Games, the “Olympic Games for nonOlympic sports.” AUSTRALIA. Australia has had a long history of success in international cycling. Much of this has come in track racing, with its first Olympic medals coming in 1928 and 1932 when Dunc Gray won medals in the kilometer time trial, a bronze in 1928 and a gold in 1932. The next great Australian cyclist was Russell Mockridge, who won two gold medals in 1952, in the kilometer and tandem. However, the first Australian professional to win a world championship came in 1920 when Bob Spears won the sprint title. Over the years, Australian men have won over 60 world championship titles, with Australia now dominating the team pursuit, winning that world title in 1993, 2002 through 2004, 2006, and 2010 and winning that event at the Olympics in 1984 and 2004. The Australian with the most world titles has been Danny Clark, who won the keirin in 1980 and 1981; the derny in 1984 through 1986, 1988, and 1989; and the motor-paced event in 1988 and 1991, for nine championships.

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The first Australian to feature on the road was Kevin Sefton, who won a silver medal in the 1972 Olympic road race. But the two greatest Australian road racers have been Phil Anderson, who wore the yellow jersey at the 1981 and 1982 Tour de France, and Cadel Evans, who won the world championship on the road in 2009. Among women, Kathy Watt has been the best-known rider, winning the gold medal at the 1992 Olympics in the women’s road race. Australian women have won nine world championships on the track, led by Anna Meares, who won the 500-m time trial in 2004, 2007, and 2010. Cycling Australia is the national governing body for cycling in Australia. As of 2009, there were almost 20,000 cyclists in its affiliated clubs. Each Australian state and territory has its own governing body, as follows: Australian Capital Territory—ACT Cycling Federation New South Wales—Cycling NSW Northern Territory—NT Cycling Federation Queensland—Cycling Queensland South Australia—SA Cycling Federation Tasmania—Tasmanian Cycling Federation Victoria—Cyclesport Victoria Western Australia—WA Cycling Federation See also MCEWEN, ROBERT “ROBBIE”; TOUR DOWN UNDER.

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B BAHAMONTES, FEDERICO MARTÍN “EAGLE OF TOLEDO” (ESP). B. 9 July 1928; Val de Santo Domingo, Toledo, Spain. Federico Bahamontes is a small man who is one of the greatest grimpeurs in cycling history. His record of six mountain classification titles in the Tour de France was unbeaten until Richard Virenque won his seventh polka-dot jersey in 2004. Bahamontes’ nickname was the Eagle of Toledo for his hometown of Toledo, Spain. The biggest disappointment of his career must be that he never won the Vuelta a España; although, he twice won the mountain classification in that event, in 1957 and 1958, placing second in general classification in 1956. Bahamontes also won the mountains category at the 1956 Giro d’Italia; although, he did not finish the race. His major victory was at the 1959 Tour de France, interrupting Jacques Anquetil’s reign as champion, also placing second in general classification in 1963 and third in 1964. BALDINI, ERCOLE (ITA). B. 26 January 1933; Villanova de Forli, Italy. In 1956, Ercole Baldini had one of the greatest years in amateur cycling history. In addition to winning the Olympic gold medal, he won the world amateur individual pursuit title and broke the world hour record at the Velodromo Vigorelli in Milan. He turned professional later in 1956, and Italian cycling fans envisioned him as the next campionissimo. However, although he won the world championship road race and the Giro d’Italia in 1958, he was never quite as successful as a professional rider. In 1957, he broke his own world hour record. He also won the 1960 Grand Prix des Nations, but his career was shortened by a leg injury. BALLANGER, FÉLICIA MICHÈLE SYLVIANE (later married VETU) (FRA). B. 12 June 1971; La Roche-sur-Yon, France. Named after Italian cyclist Felice Gimondi, Félicia Ballanger was the strongest track sprinter of the 1990s, racing for Vendée la Roche Cycliste. After losing the Olympic bronze in 1992 against Ingrid Haringa, she then won the sprint at the next two Games. In 1996, she beat defending champion Erika Salumäe in the quarterfinals, after using her sur place technique for three minutes. In 2000, she was forced into a third run in the final by Oksana Grishina, her first in three years. Four days 27

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earlier, she had won the 500 m time trial, beating her main rival, Australian Michelle Ferris by 0.556, whom she had already beaten in the 1996 Olympic final and in three world championships. After two bad accidents in 1993 (a broken collarbone and a rib fracture with a pierced lung), she returned to competition, winning the world championship silver in 1994 in the sprint, and she won 10 world titles in all, achieving double victories in all years between 1995 and 1999. She won 19 French titles and bettered the world record in the 500 m six times. Her last, 34.01 in 1998 in Bordeaux, stood as a French national record for over a decade. She retired after the Sydney Olympics and became the vice president of the Fédération Française de Cyclisme. She also became a commentator for French television during cycling events. See also WOMEN. BARTALI, GINO (ITA). B. 18 July 1914; Ponte a Ema, Italy. D. 5 May 2000; Firenze, Italy. Gino Bartali was a world-class professional cyclist for 26 years, the longest career of any top rider, and his career was also unique in that he won several major titles both before and after World War II. He was best known as a climber; although, he was also a good enough sprinter to record several victories in the one-day classics. He had a great rivalry with Fausto Coppi, who succeeded Bartali as the campionissimo among Italian cycling fans. After the war, when Coppi became the best rider in the world, Italian cycling had divided loyalties between the two great champions. Bartali twice won the Tour de France (1938, 1948) and was a three-time winner at the Giro d’Italia (1936, 1937, 1946). He had four wins at Milano–Sanremo (1939, 1940, 1947, 1950) and three at the Giro di Lombardia (1936, 1939, 1940). His climbing talent is shown by twice winning the mountain classification at the Tour de France (1938, 1948), and winning that jersey seven times at the Giro. BARTOLI, MICHELE (ITA). B. 27 May 1970; Pisa, Italy. Michele Bartoli turned professional in 1992 and became a specialist at the one-day classics, winning three of the five monument races. He won the Union Cycliste Internationale Road World Cup in both 1997 and 1998. Bartoli’s first major win was the 1996 Ronde van Vlaanderen. He won Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 1997 and 1998 and added the Amstel Gold Race in 2002. He added his third and fourth monuments to his trophy case in 2002 and 2003, winning the Giro di Lombardia both years. His palmarès includes other important wins at Züri-Metzgete in 1998, La Flèche Wallonne and Tirreno–Adriatico in 1999, and Omloop Het Volk in 2001. He never managed to win the world championship road race but placed third in both 1996 and 1998. He was never a factor for general classification at the grand tours but did win two stages at the Giro d’Italia.

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BASSO, IVAN (ITA). B. 26 November 1977; Gallarate, Lombardy, Italy. A top mountain climber, Ivan Basso turned professional after winning the 1998 under-23 world championship road race. In 2002, he placed 11th at the Tour de France, winning the white jersey as the best young rider. His climbing ability marked him as a contender in the grand tours, and he placed seventh, third, and second at the Tour in the next three years. With Lance Armstrong’s retirement in 2005, Basso was heralded as a likely successor in the stage races. He came through early in 2006, winning the Giro d’Italia, as well as four stages during the race. But shortly before the 2006 Tour, Basso was dropped by his CSC team for rumors of blood doping in the Operación Puerto scandal. He joined Armstrong’s Discovery team at the end of 2006, but allegations continued to circle around him, and he did not return to the pro peloton until 2008. He continued to race through 2010 but with less success than before his suspension. BATTAGLIN, GIOVANNI (ITA). B. 22 July 1951; Marostica, Vicenza, Italy. Giovanni Battaglin was an Italian professional cyclist, who won the 1972 amateur Giro d’Italia and turned professional in 1973. He stunned the cycling world by finishing third at the 1973 Giro d’Italia (professional) when only 21 years old, and over the next few years, he would consistently place high in stage races but did not win much. He wore the pink jersey at the 1975 Giro for five days and, in 1979, won the Tour de France mountain classification. In 1979, he also won the Vuelta País al Vasco and followed that with victory in the 1980 Milano–Torino. Then in 1981, Battaglin finally came through at the grand tours, winning both the Giro and Vuelta a España in the same year, making him one of only nine cyclists to win two grand tours in the same year. He retired after the 1984 season and started a bicycle manufacturing company. See also DOPING. BAUER, STEVE (CAN). B. 12 June 1959; St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada. Steve Bauer was a top amateur road racer for Canada who later became the first Canadian to feature in the pro peloton. As an amateur, Bauer was Canadian champion in 1981 through 1983 and won a silver medal at the 1984 Olympic Games on the road. He also won silver at the 1982 Commonwealth Games and a bronze at the 1984 amateur world championship road race. He turned professional after the 1984 Olympics, and in his second race as a pro, won a bronze medal at the world championship road race. Bauer rode the Tour de France nine times between 1985 and 1995, placing fourth in 1988, when he spent five days in the yellow jersey, and in 1990, he wore the yellow jersey for nine days, only the second Canadian to wear that jersey. At the 1988 world championship road race, Bauer came into the final sprint with Claude

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Criquielion and Maurizio Fondriest. In a controversial finish, Bauer fouled Criquielion in the sprint, causing Criquielion to crash, Bauer to be disqualified, and allowing Fondriest to come through for victory. Bauer also won the 1989 Dauphiné Libéré. He competed at the 1996 Olympics, retiring later that year, and then became a directeur sportif for various cycling teams. BELGIUM. Belgium has probably had the greatest number of top cyclists per capita of any country. Belgium is not only the home to the greatest cyclist of all time, Eddy Merckx, but has also produced cycling greats such as Roger De Vlaeminck, Freddy Maertens, Lucien Van Impe, Rik Van Looy, Rik Van Steenbergen, and Philippe Thys. More recent Belgian champions include Johan Museeuw and Tom Boonen. Few Belgian women have been able to match the performances of their male compatriots, with one notable exception being Yvonne Reynders, a four-time world champion on the road. Belgium is also host to many of the great one-day classics, which take place on the hilly countryside. This includes two of the five monument races, the Ronde van Vlaanderen and Liège–Bastogne–Liège. Other major classics held in the country are Gent–Wevelgem, La Flèche Wallonne, and Omloop Het Volk. The Tour of Belgium has also been held since 1908, but it is not considered one of the major stage races. Apart from professional races, many minor criteriums and kermesses are held annually in Belgium; although, the number is currently much lower than in the middle of the 20th century. Belgian cyclists have also done well in other disciplines. Belgian is the world’s hub of cyclo-cross, the country’s national “winter sport.” Two of the major season cups in cyclo-cross, the Superprestige and the Gazet van Antwerpen Trofee, are both held primarily in Belgium. Great Belgian names from cyclo-cross include Eric De Vlaeminck, Roland Liboton, and Sven Nys. On the track, Belgium has also had many cycling champions: Jef Scherens was one of the greatest sprinters of all time, and Patrick Sercu has won the highest number of six-day races for any rider. See also CRIQUIELION, CLAUDE; DE BEUKELAER, EMILE; DE BRUYNE, ALFRED “FRED”; FLÈCHE WALLONNE, LA; FLÈCHE WALLONNE FÉMININE, LA; GODEFROOT, WALTER; LAMBOT, FIRMIN; MAERTENS, FREDDY; MAES, SYLVÈRE; RONDE VAN VLAANDEREN (WOMEN); SCHERENS, JOSEPH “JEF”; SCHOTTE, ALBÉRIC “BRIEK”; SERCU, PATRICK; VAN SPRINGEL, HERMAN. BETTINI, PAOLO (ITA). B. 1 April 1974; Cecina, Toscano, Italy. Paolo Bettini was a one-day specialist who won many races because of his strength and top sprint. He was nicknamed Il Grillo (the cricket) for his sudden attacks on the road. Bettini won the Union Cycliste Internationale Road World

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Cup for three consecutive years (2002–04), was world champion on the road in 2006 and 2007, and won the gold medal in the road race at the 2004 Olympics. His palmarès includes many one-day wins: the Liège–Bastogne– Liège in 2000 and 2002, the Giro di Lombardia in both 2005 and 2006, and Milano–Sanremo and the Clásica de San Sebastián in 2003, and he won Züri-Metzgete in both 2001 and 2005. Never a factor for general classification at the grand tours, Bettini did win one stage at the Tour de France, two at the Giro d’Italia, and five at the Vuelta a España. His only major stage race win was the Tirreno–Adriatico in 2004. BICYCLE POLO. Bicycle polo is a sport invented in 1891 by the Irishman Richard Mercredy, when the members of the “Ohne Hast” Cycling Club played a game of polo but with their bicycles instead of horses. The sport gradually grew more popular in the British Isles, with the first international played in 1901, Ireland beating England, 10–5. In 1908, the sport was even demonstrated at the London Olympics, when an Irish team beat a German squad. For many decades, the sport remained primarily a British activity, but gradually federations were established in other countries and other continents. An international federation, the International Bicycle Polo Federation (IBPF), was established in 1968 by seven nations (excluding Britain at that point). In 1996, the first world championships in the sport were organized, with India winning the inaugural title. In 2001, the sport was also recognized by the Union Cycliste Internationale; although, the IBPF remains the international federation for bicycle polo. The rules of bicycle polo are still quite similar to real polo. The field is somewhat smaller at 60 m by 100 m, and football (soccer) fields are often used. Some variations of the rules exist, such as those for hard court bicycle polo (played on a field of concrete or similar material) and Asian variants of the game (with less difference from equestrian polo). Another notable difference is that there are five players per team on the field (previously six)—one goalkeeper and four field players. The objective is to score as many goals as possible during the match, which takes 60 minutes, divided into 4 periods, or chukkers, of 15 minutes. As in the equestrian variant, the ball (identical to the one used in equestrian arena polo) is typically handled with a mallet, which may measure, at most, 1 m in length. However, playing the ball with the wheels of one’s bicycle or with the head or upper body is also allowed. Carrying of the ball is not allowed, and the ball may not be played if a cyclist has a foot on the ground. A player with the ball has right of way and may not be blocked or obstructed. In cases of obstruction or rough play, the referee may warn a player with a yellow card (possibly accompanied by a two-minute suspension) or, in case

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of repeated or severe infringements, show the player a red card and exclude him or her from the remainder of the match. Goalkeepers hold an exceptional position within the penalty area, a rectangular area (15 m by 7 m) in front of the goal. Within the area, they are allowed to place themselves in the way of an opponent with the ball, use hands and feet to deflect the ball, and even jump from the bicycle in order to prevent a goal. Outside of the penalty area, a goalkeeper has the same restrictions as the other players. While there are few regulations with respect to the bicycles used, typical bicycle polo bikes differ from normal ones. They usually have a very short wheelbase (distance between the axles), allowing for maximal maneuverability. Gears are rarely useful and are usually omitted. See also CYCLE-BALL. BICYCLE SPEED RECORD. The bicycle speed record has been recognized since the very end of the 19th century when Charles “Mile-a-Minute” Murphy rode behind a railroad car, covering one mile on plank-covered tracks in less than a minute, for a speed of 62.28 mph (100.21 km/h), becoming the first cyclist to surpass 60 mph and 100 km/h. Since that time, the speed record on a bicycle has been bettered “officially” 11 times. It is difficult to say “official” since this record is not recognized by the Union Cycliste Internationale. The record has always been a motor-paced record for a flying time trial of one mile (1.609 km), with the three most recent marks coming at the Bonneville Salt Flats, in Utah, United States, where the automobile speed records have been most often set. One rider, José Meiffret, broke the record three times, while Alf Letourneur bettered it twice. The current record was set in 1995 by Dutch cyclist Fred Rompelberg, who recorded a speed of 167.044 mph (268.831 km/h) at Bonneville, breaking the mark of John Howard, who had been the first to better 150 mph in 1985. See also APPENDIX I for a list of all bicycle speed records. BICYCLE TOURING. See TOURING. BIDON. Bidon is the French term for water bottles carried on the bike by cyclists. BIG AIR. One of the most spectacular BMX freestyle events, big air is held on a so-called mega-ramp. These structures range widely in length (up to 50 m) and height (up to 100 m), but generally consist of three parts. The run-in leads to two or three different ramps that jump over a small gap. On the other side of the gap is a vert half-pipe or quarter-pipe. Both the gap and the vert allow for a jump with a lot of air time. Competitions are judged by the jump

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execution. The big air event has been held at the X Games since 2006, with Kevin Robinson (USA) having the most titles (three). BINDA, ALFREDO (ITA). B. 11 August 1902; Cittiglio, Italy. D. 19 July 1986; Cittiglio, Italy. Alfredo Binda succeeded Costante Girardengo as the campionissimo among Italian cycling fans. His greatest successes came within Italy, but he was also superb in the world championship road race. His record of three wins in that race is still unbeaten, though it has been matched by Rik Van Steenbergen, Eddy Merckx, and Óscar Freire. Binda was so dominant in his day that in 1930 the organizers of the Giro d’Italia paid him the equivalent of the winner’s prize not to start because it ruined the suspense of the race. Despite that, he won the Giro a record five times (1925, 1927–29, 1933). He also posted four wins at the Giro di Lombardia (1925–27, 1931). His strength was as a mountain climber, at which he was the best in the peloton during his career. He rode primarily in his native Italy, rarely riding the northern classics, and rode the Tour de France only one time, in 1930, abandoning after the 10th stage. BMX (BICYCLE MOTOCROSS). In the late 1960s, Californian teenagers wanted to imitate their idols in motocross. Since they were not allowed to ride motorcycles, they used bicycles, but the hilly dirt courses, helmets, and clothing were copied from motocross. The first BMX race was probably the competition organized by 14-yearold Scot Breithaupt on 14 November 1970 in Long Beach, California. Breithaupt was also the founder of the first BMX “governing body,” humorously called the Bicycle United Motocross Society, or BUMS. The sport quickly spread across the country, and more governing bodies sprung up. The three most important organizations were the National Bicycle Association (NBA), the National Bicycle League (NBL), and the American Bicycle Association (ABA), of which the NBL and ABA remain active to this day. Their annual rankings are still among the most important BMX titles and are now also contested by non-Americans. The NBA, BUMS, and several smaller organizations all folded. The new sport also gained attention internationally, and the International Bicycle Motocross Federation (IBMXF) was founded in 1981. The first world championships were held the next year. Beginning in 1985, the Fédération Internationale Amateur Cyclisme, the amateur division of the Union Cycliste Internationale, also staged its own championships. The IBMXF competitions were generally held to be more prestigious, better attended, and better organized. From 1991 on, the two federations decided to combine their strengths and stage the world championships together. Two

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years later, the IBMXF was integrated into the UCI, and full BMX recognition followed in 1996. The sport’s international acceptance received a major boost when it was admitted onto the Olympic program for Beijing 2008. Since 1995, the UCI has also organized the UCI BMX Supercross World Cup, a seasonal competition. A BMX race starts from a hill, at least 1.5 m above the level of the first straight, so that competitors can build up speed. They start from gates, with a fence falling at the moment of the start, making sure false starts are impossible. Depending on the course layout (e.g., which side the first turn is on), the position within the starting gate can make a big difference. In many competitions, the fastest riders from the previous round have first choice of starting position; in other events, the starting positions are determined by lot. The initial straight and first curve are also limited by regulations to allow for a safe competition. The first straightway must be at least 40 m in length, while the first curve must be banked. There are fewer restrictions on the rest of the course. It must contain at least three curves, and the length must be between 300 and 400 m (328–437 yards), measured along the centerline of the circuit. There is no limitation on the number of obstacles (jumps), provided the course is safe. A typical BMX competition consists of three rounds. First are the “motos.” These are three rounds of races in which each of the riders competes. They accumulate points according to their finishing positions, those riders with the fewest points advancing to the qualifiers. These are single-elimination rounds (e.g., semifinals, quarterfinals, and so on), in which the first four racers proceed to the next round. In the final round, the remaining eight cyclists compete for first place. Apart from BMX racing, which is the most common form, there is also BMX freestyle, or stunt riding on BMX bikes. Freestyle riding is not governed by the UCI, but contests are held in the sport. The prime competition for freestyle events occurs at the X Games. An important distinction in BMX races is the type of bicycle used. Two types are allowed: standard and cruiser. The only difference is the size of the wheels; standard BMX bikes have 20-inch (51 cm) wheels, which means they are fairly small compared to regular competition or road bicycles. In order to allow larger adults to compete as well, the cruiser class was developed, in which the bikes have 26-inch wheels (66 cm). In the past, 24-inch bikes were also commonly used, competing in a separate class. Other than the wheel size, there are no remarkable restrictions on BMX bicycles; a rear brake is required (front brakes are optional), and multiple gears are allowed—even if most compete with a fixed gear. Since BMX was originally aimed at children and teenagers, the age levels for BMX are different from the ones in other UCI disciplines. Elite level

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starts at age 19, while juniors are 17 or 18 years old. Below that, there are age categories starting at 5 years, but these are not contested in major events. Since many BMX champions are still young, several have moved on to other cycling disciplines and have known successes there, such as Jamie Staff (GBR), who became a world and Olympic champion on the track, and AnneCaroline Chausson, who became the most successful downhill mountain biker of all time. BOARDMAN, CHRISTOPHER “CHRIS” (GBR). B. 26 August 1968; Hoylake, England. Chris Boardman came to prominence at the 1992 Olympics, when he won the individual pursuit by overtaking his opponent on a new, extremely expensive, aerodynamic bicycle manufactured by Lotus. A year later, he took the week-old world hour record from compatriot Graeme Obree, regaining the record in 1996 and 2000, the latter under new Union Cycliste Internationale rules banning several high-tech improvements, and breaking the vaunted record set by Eddy Merckx. Boardman became a renowned time trialist on the road, winning the Tour de France prologue three times (1994, 1997, 1998), as well as the 1994 world title in the time trial and the 1996 Grand Prix des Nations. Boardman has also been world champion in the individual pursuit twice (1994, 1996) and won an Olympic bronze in the road time trial at the 1996 Atlanta Games. He retired somewhat early because of problems with osteoporosis and has since served as technical advisor to the British track team. BOBET, LOUISON (FRA). B. 13 March 1925; St. Méen-le-Grand, Brittany, France. D. 13 March 1983; Biarritz, France. Louison Bobet was a selfmade rider, relying on tenacity rather than any natural abilities. He was a superb climber but at first was a poor time trialist. But he willed himself to improve in that discipline and eventually became the first man to win three consecutive times at the Tour de France (1953–55). In the peloton, he was the most highly respected rider, as much for his class and determination as for his skill. Once, while well behind in the 1957 Liège–Bastogne–Liège during terrible weather (it was actually snowing), he rode on rather than quit. At the race banquet that night, he entered to a standing ovation from his fellow riders, and Antonin Magne announced, “A great champion is here.” His retirement was typical of his style. In the 1959 Tour, sick for many days, he forced himself to ride to the highest pass in the race, then got off his bike and bid the peloton farewell. It was said of him that there have been greater all-rounders but no greater champions. In addition to his three Tour victories, Bobet had the following palmarès: 1954 world championship road race; 1951 Giro di Lombardia; 1951 and 1955 Milano–Sanremo; 1952

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Paris–Nice; 1952 Grand Prix des Nations; 1955 Ronde van Vlaanderen; 1955 Dauphiné Libéré; 1955 Tour of Luxembourg; 1956 Paris–Roubaix; and 1959 Bordeaux–Paris. BOL D’OR. The Bol d’Or was a French, motor-paced, 24-hour endurance track race that was held primarily from 1894 to 1928; although, it was revived and held one more time in 1950. After World War I, it was held in 1919, then not again until 1924. The race was won nine times by Léon Georget, of which eight were consecutive. See also FRANCE. BONKING. “Bonking” is a term among racing cyclists that refers to a complete loss of energy that occurs for failing to eat or drink enough during a race and thereby replace nutrients and fluids. It occurs because of depletion of glycogen storage in the body. Bonking is greatly feared among cyclists because the energy loss is so complete that they will often fall far off the pace of the lead riders. BOOGERD, MICHAEL (NED). B. 28 May 1972; The Hague, Netherlands. Michael Boogerd rode for Rabobank (although it had two earlier names) his entire professional career, which lasted from 1996 to 2006. He twice placed in the top 10 at the Tour de France with a best finish of fifth in 1998. Boogerd was best known for his strength in the spring classics, placing on the podium multiple times. His best year was 1999, when he won the Amstel Gold Race and Paris–Nice. He was especially strong at the Amstel Gold, placing on the podium from 2002 to 2006, finishing second in 2002 through 2005 and third in 2006. He also placed third at Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 2005. Boogerd was Dutch national champion in 1997, 1998, and 2006. BOONEN, TOM (BEL). B. 15 October 1980; Mol, Belgium. A strong sprinter, Tom Boonen has been a classics specialist, culminating with his 2005 year, in which he won the world championship road race, Paris– Roubaix, and the Ronde van Vlaanderen. He also won the Ronde van Vlaanderen in 2006 and Paris–Roubaix in 2009. His first major victory came in 2004, when he won Gent–Wevelgem. Never a great stage racer because of his difficulty in the mountains, Boonen has won stages at the Tour de France, the Vuelta a España, and the Tour de Suisse. In 2007, he also won the green jersey at the Tour de France as the points classification winner. Boonen is very popular in Belgium for his riding, his good looks, and outgoing personality, but his career has been marred by several positive doping tests for cocaine.

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BORDEAUX–PARIS. The Bordeaux–Paris race was one of the longest classic races, covering approximately 560 km (350 miles). The race began in northern Bordeaux at 2 a.m. and finished in Paris about 14 hours later. The event was mostly a paced event, with pacing originally by tandems and later by motorized dernies. The event was first held in 1891 and was held continuously until 1988; although, the last three editions were not paced. The record for the most victories in the event is seven by Herman Van Springel. The list of champions includes Jacques Anquetil, Louison Bobet, Ferdi Kübler, and Tom Simpson. See also FRANCE; and APPENDIX D for a list of winners. BOTTECCHIA, OTTAVIO (ITA). B. 1 August 1894; San Martino di Colle Umberto, Italy. D. 14 June 1927; Gemona, Italy. Ottavio Bottecchia was the first Italian to win the Tour de France, winning in 1924 after having placed second in 1923. He repeated his victory at the Tour in 1925. Bottecchia is actually best known for the mystery surrounding his death. He was found by the roadside outside the village of Peonis, near his home, on 3 June 1927. He had a cracked skull and several other fractures, including one collarbone. His bike was nearby but was not damaged, and there were no skid marks in the vicinity to suggest a car accident. There were rumors that he was killed by Fascists, who did it because he had spoken against Mussolini, and there was even suspicion of a New York hit man, but the mystery has never been resolved. His name survives as in 1926 he started a bicycle manufacturing firm, and Bottecchia bicycles still sell quite well in Europe. BOTTOM BRACKET. The bottom bracket on a bicycle connects the pedal crankset to the frame at the junction of the seat tube and the down tube. The bottom bracket contains a spindle, which holds the crankset and bearings that allow rotation of the pedals. There are several different mechanical variants of how the crankset connects to the spindle within the bottom bracket. Early bikes had what is termed a “loose bearing,” which was a three-piece crankset consisting of a spindle with bearing cones, a fixed cup on the chainside, an adjustable cup on the non-chainside, and loose bearings. Most modern bikes use a three-piece system with the bottom bracket spindle separate from the crankset. For road, track, and cyclo-cross racing, Union Cycliste Internationale regulations require that the bottom bracket be placed between 24 and 30 cm from the ground. BOYER, JONATHAN “JOCK” “JACQUES” (USA). B. 8 October 1955; Moab, Utah, United States. In 1981, Jock Boyer became the first American

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to ride in the Tour de France. Boyer raced as an amateur in Europe from 1973, after joining the ACBB, a club in the Parisian suburb of BoulogneBillancourt, and turned professional in 1977 with the Lejeune-BP team. He rode the Tour five times, with a best finish of 12th in 1983. His major victories included the 1979 and 1980 Coors Classic and the 1985 and 2006 Race Across America (RAAM). He also won one stage of the 1986 Tour de Suisse. At the 1983 world championship road race, Boyer was with the leading pack near the finish but was passed by several riders, the race won by Greg LeMond. In November 2002, Boyer was convicted of lewd behavior with a minor and was sentenced to one year in jail and five years’ probation. He was released from probation in mid-2006. Boyer was known for his vegetarian diet and his intense religious beliefs. BRAKES. Brakes are used to slow down or stop a bicycle. There have been multiple systems throughout the development of the bicycle. Most bicycles have front- and rear-wheel brakes, which are activated by pulling on brake levers that are typically attached to the handlebars. These are for the classic rim brakes, in which friction pads, usually of rubber, are squeezed against the wheel rim to slow it down. Other design variants are for the brakes to be either center-pull or side-pull, with the brake cable attaching to the brake housing directly above the wheel in center-pull and to the side in side-pull. Mountain or touring bikes may have different systems, including disc brakes with the mechanism within the wheel hub or set on the chain stays. Track bicycles, with a fixed gear, do not usually have brakes. BREAKAWAY. A breakaway refers to an event in a cycling race in which a single-rider or, more usually, a group of riders, breaks away from the main pack, taking the lead in an effort to win the race, often referred to as going off the front. Breakaways constitute an exciting part of road racing, with the riders in the break attempting to stay away from the pack while the main peloton will then often give chase in an attempt to reel back in the leading riders. Breakaways are difficult to maintain at the highest levels of racing because the peloton has the advantage of numbers, which allows more riders to lead and provides greater drafting protection against the wind and air resistance. BREAKING AWAY. Breaking Away was a 1979 American movie about bike racing in Bloomington, Indiana, directed by Peter Yates. The lead was played by Dennis Christopher, who played a young high school boy (Dave Stoller) who idolized European bike racers, learned Italian, and was always reading European cycling magazines. After his high school graduation, he drifted a bit, hanging out with several of his friends, “townies,” in the town where Indiana

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University is located. They often spent days hanging out near an abandoned rock quarry and pond, where they devised a plan to enter the Little 500, a 50mile bicycle race held on the campus of the university. They called themselves the Cutters, after the stonecutters who had cut stone at the quarry. In the dramatic final race, the Cutters win the race, with Dave Stoller riding the final laps to bring his team from far behind for the victory. The movie was quite popular and was also critically acclaimed and won the 1979 Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for Steve Tesich. It was also nominated for Best Actress in a Supporting Role (Barbara Barrie, who played Dave Stoller’s mother), Best Director, Best Music, Original Song Score and Its Adaptation or Best Adaptation Score, and Best Picture. See also AMERICAN FLYERS. BRENTJENS, BART JAN-BAPTIST MARIE (NED). B. 10 October 1968; Haelen, Netherlands. Bart Brentjens was a mountain biker who won the first mountain bike gold medal for men at the 1996 Olympic Games with a long solo effort in the cross-country event. Earlier, Brentjens had won the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup (1994) and the

Bart Brentjens competing at the 2004 Olympics in mountain biking cross-country. The first Olympic gold medalist in the event, he won a bronze in Athens. (Courtesy Jeroen Heijmans)

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cross-country world title (1995). Additionally, Brentjens has won two silvers and three bronzes at the world championships, of which three were won in the marathon. In 2004, the 10-time Dutch champion claimed a second Olympic medal, coming in third in Athens. BREUKINK, ERIK (NED). B. 1 April 1964; Rheden, Gelderland, Netherlands. Erik Breukink was a Dutch road racer who started his professional career in 1986. In his Tour de France debut in 1987, he won a stage and was second in the youth classification, and he won the white jersey in 1988. Breukink had a solid professional career, placing third at the Tour in 1990 and twice appearing on the podium at the Giro d’Italia, with second place in 1988 following his third in 1987. He was a time trial specialist and good climber, which made him a factor in stage races, but his lack of a sprint prevented him from winning many single-day races. After his retirement in 1997, Breukink worked as a television commentator and later became a team manager with Rabobank. BROOM WAGON. In road racing, the “broom wagon,” often called the “sag wagon,” is the term for the car or van that trails the riders and will occasionally pick up a rider who abandons, effectively sweeping them off the course. BUGNO, GIANNI (ITA). B. 14 February 1964; Brugg, Switzerland. Gianni Bugno was one of the top professional road cyclists in the world in the early 1990s. He came to the fore with his victory in the 1990 Giro d’Italia, but his first top finish in a classic was second in the 1988 Giro di Lombardia. In 1991 and 1992, he won the world championship road race, becoming only the fourth rider to defend that title and the first in 35 years. Those were his greatest years, as he was second in the 1991 Tour de France and third in 1992. His other major victories included the 1990 Milano–Sanremo, 1991 Clásica de San Sebastián, and the 1994 Ronde van Vlaanderen. In the grand tours, he won nine stages at the Giro, four at the Tour, and two at the Vuelta a España. BURTON, BERYL (née CHARNOCK) (GBR). B. 12 May 1937; Leeds, England. D. 8 May 1996; near Morley, England. With seven world titles, Beryl Burton is one of the most successful female cyclists of all time. She was most dominant in the individual pursuit on the track, winning 11 medals between 1959 and 1973, including five golds (1959, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1966). Her other two titles came in the road race, winning in 1960 and 1967 while placing second in 1961. In Great Britain, Burton dominated women’s cycling

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for decades, winning a total of 96 national titles between 1959 and 1986. In 1967, she broke the (rarely contested and unofficial) 12-hour world record, beating not only the women’s best but also the men’s record. She was the first woman to be allowed to compete at the highest level against men when she was allowed to ride in the Grand Prix des Nations. Burton’s daughter, Denise, took after her mother and was also a cyclist. They occasionally competed together in tandem events; in 1972, they were both on the British team for the world championships. Despite her obvious fitness, she sadly died from heart failure while training.

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C CAMPAGNOLO. Campagnolo is an Italian company that makes high-end bicycle components. The company was founded in 1933 by Tullio Campagnolo (1901–83), and has been headquartered since in Vicenza, Italy. For many years, Campagnolo components were considered the hallmark of a topquality bicycle; although, in the 1980s, Shimano began to develop high-level components and took some market share away from Campagnolo. The bike parts are often colloquially called “Campy components.” Its flagship groupset was, for many years, the Record; although, it now has three top-end groupsets—Record, Super Record, and Chorus. Campagnolo focuses on road and track racing components; although, it did make mountain bike components for a few years, from 1989 to 1994. See also DERAILLEURS. CANADA. Canada has had a long history of champion cyclists going back to the 19th century, as in 1899, Harry Gibson won the world championship in the motor-paced event. In 1908, the Canadian pursuit team won a bronze medal at the London Olympic Games. Only one Canadian has won a gold medal at the Olympics in cycling—in 2004, when Lori-Ann Muenzer won the women’s sprint. Alison Sydor has featured in mountain bike racing for Canada, winning the cross-country world championship in 1994 through 1996 and a silver medal in that event at the 1996 Olympics. On the track, Curt Harnett was never able to win a major international but won three sprint medals at the Olympics—silver in the 1984 kilometer and bronze in the 1992 and 1996 match sprint. A top six-day racer much earlier in the century was William “Torchy” Peden. The best-known Canadian road cyclist has been Steve Bauer, who won a silver medal in the 1984 Olympic road race and then was in the pro peloton from 1985 to 1996, placing fourth at the 1988 Tour de France and wearing the yellow jersey for five days in 1988 and nine days in 1990. But the first Canadian to wear the yellow jersey was Alex Stieda, who in 1986 donned the maillot jaune for one day.

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The Canadian Cycling Association (CCA) (Association Cycliste Canadienne/ACC) is the national governing body of cycle racing in Canada. Each province or territory (except Nunavut) has its own governing body, as follows: British Columbia—Cycling British Columbia Alberta—Alberta Bicycle Association Saskatchewan—Saskatchewan Cycling Association Manitoba—Manitoba Cycling Association Ontario—Ontario Cycling Association Quebec—Quebec Cycling Federation (Fédération Québecoise des Sports Cyclistes) New Brunswick—Velo New Brunswick Nova Scotia—Bicycle Nova Scotia Newfoundland and Labrador—Bicycle Newfoundland and Labrador Yukon—Cycling Association of Yukon Prince Edward Island—Cycling PEI. See also COUPE DU MONDE CYCLISTE FÉMININE DE MONTRÉAL, LA. CANCELLARA, FABIAN (SUI). B. 18 March 1981; Wohlen bei Bern, Switzerland. Fabian Cancellara is a Swiss professional who is one of the greatest time trial cyclists ever. As a junior, he won the world championship time trial in 1998 and 1999 and then followed that with the under-23 world championship time trial in 2000, after which he turned professional. As a professional, he has won numerous prologues and time trial stages in the grand tours. He was world champion in the time trial in 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010 and won the Olympic gold medal in the event in 2008, adding a silver medal in the road race at the Beijing Olympics. His other major wins include the 2006 and 2010 Paris–Roubaix, the 2010 Ronde van Vlaanderen, the 2009 Tour de Suisse, 2008 Tirreno–Adriatico, and the 2008 Milano–Sanremo. CANINS, MARIA (ITA). B. 4 June 1949; Alta Badia, Italy. Before Maria Canins started her cycling career, she was already an accomplished crosscountry skier, winning 15 Italian titles in that sport, and was the first Italian to win the Vasaloppet ski marathon (90 km) in Sweden. Starting cycling as a 32-year-old mother, she quickly earned the nickname of the Flying Housewife. In the decade in which she competed actively, she won four world championship medals in the road race (two silvers, two bronzes) and two in the team time trial (one gold, 1988; one silver, 1989). Canins won the Grande Boucle twice (1985, 1986), finishing runner-up to Jeannie Longo at the next three editions, and also won the inaugural Giro Donne and 10 Italian titles on the road (both on the road and in the time trial). See also WOMEN.

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CARPENTER-PHINNEY, CONNIE (USA). B. 26 February 1957; Madison, Wisconsin. Though not well known, Connie Carpenter-Phinney is one of the greatest female athletes in American sporting history. She won 12 U.S. cycling championships, more than any man or woman in history. She also won four medals at the world championships in both the pursuit and

Connie Carpenter-Phinney, the first woman to win an Olympic cycling gold medal, in the 1984 road race. (Courtesy OlyMADMen)

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road race, winning the 1983 individual pursuit title. Her finest moment came in the 1984 Olympic road race, the first ever for women. She outlasted America’s Rebecca Twigg to narrowly win the gold medal in that race. At the finish she “threw” her bike, using a move taught to her by her husband, Davis Phinney, who was a gold medalist at the 1984 Olympics in the team time trial and later rode professionally for the 7-Eleven team. CarpenterPhinney also competed in the 1972 Olympics as a speed skater, though she was only 15 at the time. Her other major cycling victories included the 1977 Tour of Fitchburg and two victories at the Coors Classic (1977, 1982). In addition, she rowed for the University of California in the national collegiate championships, winning an NCAA championship in the 1980 coxless fours. One of her children, Taylor Phinney, has become a top track cyclist, winning the individual pursuit world championship in 2009 and 2010. See also WOMEN. CASAGRANDE, FRANCESCO (ITA). B. 14 September 1970; Firenze, Italy. Francesco Casagrande was an Italian road racer who competed in the pro peloton from 1992 to 2005. He was a consistent rider who rode well both in stage races and one-day events. In 2000, he led the Giro d’Italia going into the penultimate stage but struggled and placed second to Stefano Garzelli, but Casagrande did win the mountain classification and two stages, after spending 12 days in the pink jersey. His palmarès includes these major wins: the Clásica de San Sebastián in both 1998 and 1999, La Flèche Wallonne in 2000, the Tour de Suisse in 1999, Tirreno–Adriatico in 1996, and the Vuelta al País Vasco in 1996. Casagrande placed fourth at the world championship road race in 1999. CASSETTE. Cassette refers to the cluster of rear sprockets that give cyclists a choice of multiple gears. Cassette and freewheel are types of cogsets. The terms are often used interchangeably, but there are some subtle mechanical differences. Cassettes became available when derailleurs became common on bikes, allowing cyclists to change gears easily. In the first few years of their use, it was common to have five gears on the rear-wheel, and two chainrings, allowing for 10 gears, and racing bikes were often termed a “10-speed bike.” However, smaller chains and gears have enabled bicycles to now be built with up to 11 gears on the cassette, allowing for more different gears; some bikes have three chainrings, giving up to 33 different gears. The gears on the cassette may have variable tooth-patterns, with the biggest gear now often having as few as 10 or 11 teeth. There is almost no limit on the largest rings, or smaller gears, with competitive cyclists usually having a small gear with teeth in the 21 to 26 range, depending on the course they are

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riding. A straight block refers to a cassette that has only single-tooth spacing, such as a 10-gear cassette ranging from 12 to 21. CAVENDISH, MARK (GBR). B. 21 May 1985; Douglas, Isle of Man. The top road sprinter of his generation, Mark Cavendish started out as a track cyclist. He twice won the world title in the Madison, with Rob Hayles (2005) and Bradley Wiggins (2008). In 2006, he also won a gold medal at the Commonwealth Games in the scratch, riding for the Isle of Man, and he was known as the Manx Missile. Debuting on the road in 2007, Cavendish soon became a noted sprinter. Between 2008 and 2010, he collected stage wins in all three grand tours, including 15 in the Tour de France, ranking him just outside the top 10 of all-time stage winners in the Tour. His poor climbing skills have prevented him from winning the points classification several times; although, he did manage to win it in the 2010 Vuelta a España. His only major classic victory to date came in the 2009 Milano–Sanremo. CHAINRING. Chainring refers to the front gears on a racing bicycle or mountain bike. These are the larger gear rings and are connected by the chain to the rear cassette. Most bikes have two chainrings; although, bicycles designed for more mountainous terrain may have three. The larger the chainring, the bigger the actual gear the rider is pushing. The largest chainring is often referred to as the “big ring” or “big wheel.” There are multiple sizes of rings, depending on the type of bike and course one is riding. In road racing bikes, the big ring usually has from 52 to 54 teeth, and the small ring often has 39 to 42 teeth, with the standard for many years being a 39/52. Newer bicycle models may have what is termed a “compact chainring,” which has intermediate sizes such as 34/50 or 34/48. By convention the outer chainring is the bigger ring, and the inner is the smaller ring. Chainrings are made of aluminum, titanium, carbon fiber, or steel. CHALLENGE DESGRANGE-COLOMBO. The Challenge DesgrangeColombo was the first attempt by professional cycling to have a year-long competition to determine the best rider of the year. It was held from 1948 through 1958, after which it was superseded by the Super Prestige Pernod International and later by the Union Cycliste Internationale World Cup and WorldTour. The event was named after long-time Tour de France director Henri Desgrange and Giro d’Italia director Emilio Colombo, and it was initially organized by the newspapers that sponsored those two events, L’Équipe and La Gazzetta dello Sport, along with two other papers, Het Nieuwsblad-Sportwereld and Les Sports. The first winner of the event was Briek Schotte, with Ferdi Kübler winning it a record four times, from

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1950 to 1952 and in 1954. Riders earned points in the following races: Tour de France, Giro d’Italia, Milano–Sanremo, Paris–Roubaix, Ronde van Vlaanderen, La Flèche Wallonne, Paris–Bruxelles, Paris–Tours, and the Giro di Lombardia, with the Tour de Suisse added in 1949, Liège– Bastogne–Liège in 1951, and the Vuelta a España in 1958. See also APPENDIX H for a list of winners. CHAUSSON, ANNE-CAROLINE (FRA). B. 8 October 1977; Dijon, France. While other cyclists have competed in both mountain biking and BMX, Anne-Caroline Chausson is the only one with outstanding results in both disciplines. She dominated the women’s MTB downhill event for about a decade, winning nine world titles between 1996 and 2005 (missing only 2004), adding a total of four titles in the dual slalom (2000, 2001) and four-cross (2002, 2003). When BMX was added to the Olympic program for 2008, Chausson returned to the discipline in which she had won three junior world titles (1987, 1992, 1993). She successfully completed her mission, becoming the first Olympic BMX champion and winning a silver medal at the 2008 BMX world championships. Chausson has also won UCI Mountain Bike World Cups in the downhill (1998–2002), dual slalom (2000), and four-cross (2002). CHIAPPUCCI, CLAUDIO (ITA). B. 28 February 1963; Uboldo, Lombardy, Italy. Claudio Chiappucci, or El Diablo (the devil), was an Italian professional cyclist who specialized in mountain climbing. He placed on the podium at the Tour de France for three consecutive years, finishing second in 1990 and 1992 and third in 1991. In 1990, he came close to winning the tour after an attack on stage 1 left him in the yellow jersey, and he only lost the lead in stage 20 when Greg LeMond overtook him in a time trial. Chiappucci won the mountain classification at the Tour in 1991 and 1992 and at the Giro d’Italia in 1992 and 1993, but unusual for a climber, he also won the points classification at the 1991 Giro. Not a good sprinter, his other major titles were the 1991 Milano–Sanremo and the 1991 Vuelta al País Vasco. Chiappucci retired in 1998 after several doping allegations had been made against him. CIPOLLINI, MARIO (ITA). B. 22 March 1967; Lucca, Toscano, Italy. Mario Cipollini was a legend of the pro peloton for his sprinting ability. Tall and handsome, with long, almost silver hair, he was very popular in Italy and engendered several nicknames—the Lion King (Il Re Leone), Super Mario, and Cipo. He turned professional in 1989 and raced to April 2005; although,

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he returned briefly in 2008. He was the fastest sprinter in the peloton throughout his career and one of the fastest ever. His sprinting prowess brought him multiple stage wins in multiday events, but his difficulty in the mountains often caused him to abandon before the finish. His major single-day victories were the 2002 world championship road race and Milano–Sanremo, and he won Gent–Wevelgem three times, in 1992, 1993, and 2002. At the grand tours, Cipollini won multiple stages, and his 42 stage wins at the Giro d’Italia is a record. He won his 42nd stage in 2003 to break the record of Alfredo Binda, commenting afterward, “I would just have been happy to polish his [Binda’s] shoes.” He also won the points classification three times at the Giro. Cipo won 12 stages at the Tour de France and three at the Vuelta a España. At the 1999 Tour, he won four consecutive stages. Known for wearing unusual outfits, after the fourth consecutive win, he wore an all-Roman outfit, as did his entire Saeco team. He also wore all-yellow once while leading the Tour and appeared at times in tiger skin, zebra prints, and muscle suits and was fined frequently for not wearing the team kit. CLARK, DANIEL “DANNY” (AUS). B. 30 August 1951; Launceston, Tasmania, Australia. After winning an Olympic silver medal in the time trial at the 1972 Olympics, Danny Clark embarked on a very successful professional career. Between 1974 and 2000, he won no less than 74 six-day events, a number bettered only by Patrick Sercu. Clark’s versatility was also displayed at the world championships, winning nine titles in three different disciplines and 12 medals overall. His titles came in the keirin (1980, 1981), derny (1984–86, 1988, 1989), and motor-paced events (1988, 1991). Clark gained seven more medals at world championships and even won 12 European track titles despite being Australian. CLÁSICA DE SAN SEBASTIÁN (DONOSTIA–DONOSTIA KLASIKOA [Basque]). The Clásica de San Sebastián is a Spanish race held since 1981. It is known as a climbers’ course, with very varied terrain as it winds along the coastline near San Sebastián, Spain. The race is approximately 225 km in length, with the decisive climb, the Alto de Jaizkibel, coming at around 200 km. It has been part of both the Union Cycliste Internationale World Cup and the WorldTour. The race has been won three times by Marino Lejarreta (1981, 1982, 1987). See also APPENDIX D for a list of winners. CLASSICS. See ONE-DAY CLASSICS. CLIMBER. See MOUNTAIN CLIMBER.

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CLIP-INS. Clip-ins, also called “clipless pedals,” are the modern type of pedal attaching the rider’s shoe to the pedal. Originally, most cycling shoes attached to the pedal via a cleat on the bottom of the shoe, with a metal cage and leather strap over the top of the shoe, called a “toe clip.” In the 1980s, several manufacturers began to develop clipless pedals by copying ideas from ski boot and ski technology, which allowed the cyclist to clip his shoe directly into the pedal and release it by twisting the shoe slightly. Bernard Hinault popularized these in 1985 when he wore them to win the Tour de France, but they were first used by triathletes who found clipless pedals faster and easier to use in the transition to the running phase of their sport. COGSET. See CASSETTE. COLOMBIA. Colombia has long had excellent cyclists, usually notable for their mountain climbing ability. Colombia’s greatest rider was Luis “Lucho” Herrera, who won the 1987 Vuelta a España. Herrera also won the mountain classification at the 1985 and 1987 Tour de France, the 1989 Giro d’Italia, and the 1987 and 1991 Vuelta. Tour de France organizer Felix Lévitan had opened the tour to amateurs in the 1980s and had lobbied to get the Colombian national team to compete (which they did in 1983), later followed by the Café de Colombia pro team with Herrera. The first Colombian world championship actually came on the track in 1971 when Martín Rodríguez won the individual pursuit. In 2002, Santiago Botero won the world title in the individual time trial. Botero also won the mountain classification at the 2000 Tour de France and won the 2005 Tour de Romandie. The greatest female Colombian cyclist has been María Luisa Calle, who won the 2006 scratch race world championship and, in 2004, won an Olympic bronze medal in the points race. The national governing body of cycle racing in Colombia is the Colombian Cycling Federation, or FCC (Federación Colombiana de Ciclismo). CONTADOR VELASCO, ALBERTO (ESP). B. 6 December 1982; Madrid, Spain. Alberto Contador is a Spanish professional who is one of five riders ever to have won all three of the grand tours—the Tour de France, the Giro d’Italia, and the Vuelta a España. He is known for his climbing ability and primarily specializes in stage racing because of this. Contador turned professional in 2003 with his first major victory coming in 2007 when he won Paris–Nice. Later that year, he also added victory in the Tour de France. In 2008, Contador became one of only nine cyclists to have won two grand tours in the same year, as he won the Giro d’Italia and Vuelta a España. In 2009 and 2010, Contador again won the Tour de France, riding

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in 2009 for the Astana team alongside Lance Armstrong, who was making his return to pro cycling. Contador’s other major victories include the Vuelta al País Vasco in 2008 and 2009 and Paris–Nice in 2010. Despite his victories, he has had his detractors. During the 2009 Tour de France, Armstrong and Contador did not get along during the race, and Armstrong was openly critical of Contador not following team rules. Contador has also been under suspicion of drug use. In 2006, he was on the Astana-Würth team, which had to withdraw from the Tour when it was implicated in Operación Puerto; although, Contador was eventually cleared of wrongdoing. However, in September 2010, he tested positive for clenbuterol use and was initially suspended by the Spanish Cycling Federation; although, this is being contested. See also DOPING. COOKE, NICOLE DENISE (GBR). B. 13 April 1983; Swansea, Wales. A promising rider since her junior days (she won four junior world titles, including one in mountain bike), Nicole Cooke’s greatest season came in 2008, when she won both the Olympic road race and the road race at the world championships. In 2003 and 2006, she was the top distaff singleday racer, winning the Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup in those years. She placed third at the world championships in those years, also earning a silver in 2005. Cooke excelled in stage racing and has won the Giro Donne in 2004 and the Grande Boucle in 2006 and 2007. She also claimed a gold medal for Wales at the 2002 Commonwealth Games. In 1999, Cooke became the youngest British cycling champion ever, at age 16, and in 12 attempts, won 10 British titles in 1999 and 2001 through 2009. See also WOMEN. COORS CLASSIC. The Coors International Bicycle Classic, usually simply called the Coors Classic, was an American stage race held mostly in Colorado from 1979 to 1988, and sponsored by the Coors Brewing Company. The race actually started in 1975 as the Red Zinger Classic, sponsored by an herbal tea company. It became the best-known American stage race in the 1980s and attracted an international field near the end of its run. Winners included Greg LeMond (twice), Bernard Hinault, and Raúl Alcála. It was also one of the first stage races to have a separate race for women. The race was famous for some very difficult climbing stages in the Colorado Rockies, notably the Morgul-Bismarck Loop. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners (men) and APPENDIX E for a list of winners (women). COPPI, ANGELO FAUSTO (ITA). B. 15 September 1919; Castellania, Alessandria, Italy. D. 2 January 1960; Tortona, Alessandria, Italy. Probably

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the greatest Italian sporting hero ever, Fausto Coppi was “the” campionissimo—the champion of champions—to the Italian tifosi. Because of World War II, his professional cycling career did not begin seriously until he was 26 years old, but at his retirement, he was considered the greatest cyclist to that time. Had he not missed five years due to the war, his record might rival even that of Eddy Merckx, and such was his dominance in many races that some experts consider him Merckx’s equal. Coppi’s only weakness as a rider was as a sprinter, but he was so strong that he rarely needed that talent. Coppi won the Giro d’Italia five times (1940, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953), a record equaled only by Alfredo Binda and Merckx. He also won the Tour de France twice (1949, 1952); although, he only entered it three times, and he won the world championship road race in 1953. On the track, he twice won the world championship in the individual pursuit (1947, 1949), and he held the world hour record from 1942 to 1956. In one-day classics, Coppi won Milano–Sanremo in 1946, 1948, and 1949; Paris–Roubaix in 1950; La Flèche Wallonne in 1950; the Grand Prix des Nations in 1946 and 1947; and the Giro di Lombardia in 1946 through 1949 and 1954. As a climber, Coppi won the King of the Mountains jersey twice at the Tour (1949, 1952) and five times at the Giro, including four consecutive (1946–49, 1954). In Italy, his first great rival was Gino Bartali. In 1949, Coppi effectively ended the rivalry with the greatest stage ride ever seen at the Giro. On a mountain stage crossing the Alpine passes of Maddalena, Vars, Izoard, Montgenèvre, and Sestrières, Coppi dropped Bartali shortly before the Izoard climb and won the stage by more than 20 minutes over Bartali. Other monumental victories that testify to his strength were his 6-minute victory margin in the 1950 La Flèche Wallonne and his 14-minute margin in the 1946 Milano–Sanremo. Later in his career, Coppi was involved in scandal in strictly Catholic Italy when he began a relationship with Guilia Occhini, who was known as the “woman in white” (in the Italian papers, she was described as “la dama in bianco di Fausto Coppi”). Both were married at the time, but they had a son together, and Coppi’s reputation suffered as a result. Coppi never really retired, but he died fairly young, early in 1960. In December 1959, he went hunting in Burkina Faso with friend and rival Raphaël Géminiani, and they both caught malaria and became quite ill. Géminiani recovered, but Coppi succumbed to illness, or so it seemed. However, in 2002, information became public suggesting that Coppi was killed by a cocaine overdose, but an Italian court investigated the claims and later dismissed the case. See also DOPING.

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The two early greats of Italian cycling—Fausto Coppi, the campionissimo, hands a water bottle back to Gino Bartali during the Giro d’Italia. (Courtesy Bill Mallon)

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COUPE DU MONDE CYCLISTE FÉMININE DE MONTRÉAL, LA. A race on the Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup calendar from its inception in 1998, La Coupe du Monde Cycliste Féminine de Montréal was held annually in Montréal, Canada. The 2010 edition was canceled due to financial problems, and it is not yet certain if the event will return. The most successful participant has been hometown favorite Geneviève Jeanson, who won the race four times (2001, 2003–05). See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. CRANKSET. The crankset connects the pedals to the bottom bracket axle on a bicycle. The crankset consists of two cranks, one for each leg, that are mounted 180 degrees opposite each other. Cranks can vary in length, depending on the size of the rider. Most cranks are a standard 170 mm in length, but sizes are available from 165 to 180 mm from most manufacturers. They are usually constructed of aluminum, titanium, carbon fiber, or steel. Each crank has a threaded hole at its end, which allows the pedal spindle to be screwed into the crank. The right-leg pedal has a standard thread, while the left-leg pedal has a reverse thread, to avoid it being unscrewed during the pedaling motion. CRIQUIELION, CLAUDE (BEL). B. 11 January 1957; Lessines, Hainaut, Belgium. Claude Criquielion is a Belgian rider who raced professionally from 1979 to 1991 and whose greatest win was the 1984 world championship road race. He also placed in the top 10 five times at the Tour de France. Criquielion won the Clásica de San Sebastián in 1983, La Flèche Wallonne in 1985 and 1989, Ronde van Vlaanderen in 1987, and Midi Libre in 1986. He was also on the podium several times at oneday classics, including the Amstel Gold Race and Liège–Bastogne–Liège, and he later became a directeur sportif for cycling teams, notably LottoAdecco from 2000 to 2004. Criquielion might have won another world championship in 1988 but was involved in controversy when, in the final sprint, he collided with Steve Bauer. Bauer was disqualified, and Criquielion crashed, allowing Maurizio Fondriest to come through for the victory. Criquielion sued Bauer for damages from assault, but after three years, the court ruled in Bauer’s favor. CRITERIUM. Criteriums, or “crits,” are mass start road races, which usually consist of multiple laps of a relatively short course, usually from 2 to 5 km. These are usually held in city center, or downtown, regions. The races are good for spectators because they can see the riders many different times. The speeds of the race are also usually high, as the courses tend to

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be relatively flat; although, some tight curves can make bike handling skills critical. Most criterium races have special prizes for sprints every few laps, called “primes,” with money given for the winner of each prime. Criteriums are very similar to the European kermesse races; although, they tend to be shorter and held on shorter loop courses than kermesses. In Europe, a large number of criteriums are held shortly after the Tour de France, the bestknown ones contracting the most prominent riders from that competition for high starting fees, making it popular with the riders and public. CRITÉRIUM INTERNATIONAL DE CYCLO-CROSS. First held in 1924, the Critérium International was essentially the unofficial world championships of cyclo-cross, until the Union Cycliste Internationale Cyclo-cross world championships were first held in 1950. Between 1924 and 1949, the event was held 20 times, being canceled in 1940 and 1943 through 1946 due to World War II (a similar Cyclo-cross des Nations event was held in 1946, though). The race was held over a 20-km course near Paris, usually in early February. Frenchmen won the race 15 times, with Robert Oubron winning it four times (1937, 1938, 1941, 1942). Apart from the individual competition, a country ranking was also made up using a points-for-place system. CROSS-COUNTRY. The most common form of mountain biking, crosscountry is held on a point-to-point or round-trip course. As the official rules state, races are held on a “variety of terrain such as road sections, forest tracks, fields, and earth or gravel paths, and include significant amounts of climbing and descending.” The Union Cycliste Internationale recognizes different types of crosscountry races. The most common one is the so-called Olympic style, which is held on a course of 4 to 6 km. The number of laps varies, but the target is a total racing time of 1.5 to 1.75 hours. Marathon events do not need to be held on a circuit and are at least 60 km long (80 km for world championships) and at most 120 km. Non-UCI–sanctioned races may occasionally be longer. As in road racing, cross-country stage races consist of point-to-point stages (between 25 and 65 km) and time trial stages (4–25 km). Shorter crosscountry events are the short circuit (a lap of at most 2 km) and the eliminator (a course of 500 m to 1 km). Cross-country has been included in the world championships since their inception in 1990 and held ever since. It is also the only form of mountain biking included in the Olympics, to which it was added in 1996. The most successful cross-country mountain biker (men) has been France’s Julien Absalon. He won the world championships four times in a row (2004–07) as well as the

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2004 and 2008 Olympic gold medals. Other repeat winners have been Henrik Djernis (Denmark, 1992–94) and Roland Green (Canada, 2001, 2002). In the women’s competition, there has also been a four-time world champion, GunnRita Dahle Flesjå of Norway (2002, 2004–06), who added the Olympic title in 2004. Other top, female cross-country riders have been Paola Pezzo of Italy, who won two Olympic golds (1996, 2000) and two world titles (1993, 1997), and Canada’s Alison Sydor, who placed on the world championship podium no less than 10 times, winning the event three times. A separate marathon cross-country event was added to the program of the world championships in 2003 but was given separate championships from 2004 on. Two men, Thomas Frischknecht (SUI) and Roel Paulissen (BEL), have won two titles each. Among women, Gunn-Rita Dahle Flesjå (NOR) has won four titles (2004–06, 2008). CRUISER. The cruiser is a type of BMX bicycle with 26-inch wheels (66 cm) compared to the 20-inch (51 cm) wheels of a standard BMX bike. The cruiser class was originally only for adults, as some of them did not fit well on the small frames of the original BMX bicycles. CYCLASSICS. First known as the HEW Cyclassics (1996–2005) and later as the Vattenfall Cyclassics (2006–date) after the race’s sponsor, Cyclassics is a race on the Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour held around Hamburg, Germany. It was developed in the 1990s to give Germany its own World Cup race and is hence a less-established race than many other top-level, one-day races, despite its name. The course’s main climb is the Waseberg, which the riders often ascend several times, but it usually does not prove to be decisive, allowing sprinters to win the race, such as Erik Zabel, Robbie McEwen, and Óscar Freire. The only repeat winner to date is American sprinter Tyler Farrar, who won in both 2009 and 2010. CYCLE-BALL. Cycle-ball is a team sport played on bicycles, which was invented by American artistic cyclist Nick Kaufmann. He supposedly came up with the idea after nearly riding over a small dog, flipping the animal aside with his front wheel to prevent an accident. The first cycle-ball match, in which Kaufmann played against fellow artistic cyclist John Featherly, was held on 14 September 1883. The sport enjoyed a brief popularity and spread to Germany in the early 20th century. The sport still enjoys its largest fan base there; although, it also has a serious following in Austria, Switzerland, and the Czech Republic. The first European championships were held in 1927, with official world championships first held in 1930. In 1956, the competition was merged with

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artistic cycling to become the Union Cycliste Internationale Indoor Cycling World Championships, and cycle-ball is also known as one of the forms of indoor cycling. The world championships have been primarily held in Central Europe; although, Asian cities have hosted the championships. The other major international competition is the UCI Cycle-ball World Cup, which is held annually, with club teams competing rather than national teams. Cycleball was also featured at the 1989 edition of the World Games, the “Olympic Games for non-Olympic sports.” There are a few variants of cycle-ball, depending on the number of players, but by far, the most common one—also played at the world championships— is with two players. The playing field for this variant is 11 m wide and 14 m long (12 by 15 yards), with two 2 by 2 m (6.5 feet) goals at each end. In front of the goals is a half-circle with a radius of 2 m, the penalty area. Within this area, the goalkeeper is allowed to stop the ball with his or her hands; otherwise, playing the ball is only allowed with the bicycle, having both arms and feet on the bike. If a player breaks this rule, he or she has to move back to behind his or her own team’s goal line before continuing play. A two-player cycle-ball match takes two halves of seven minutes each. Rules for the five-player variation—not governed by the UCI—feature a larger field, two 15-minute matches, and substitutions during the match. Bicycles used for cycle-ball normally have smaller wheel sizes, between 22 and 26 inches. To allow easier playing of the ball in a “standing” position, the handlebars are extended upward. The saddle is placed very low, over the rear wheel, to allow cycle-ball players to lean back and play the ball with the front wheel in the air. See also BICYCLE POLO. CYCLE SPEEDWAY. Chiefly practiced in Great Britain, cycle speedway is a form of bicycle racing held on a gravel track of 70 to 100 yards in length (64 to 92 m). The sport has many similarities with the better-known sport of motorcycle speedway (held on gravel or ice). Because of the sharp turns, riders usually take the turns with one foot on the ground. Although the first references to the sport date to the 1920s, cycle speedway took off in post-war Britain. The first British championships, still held annually, were staged in 1951. The United Kingdom remains the hub of the sport, and the British cycling federation (British Cycling) is, in fact, the governing body of the sport internationally. The rules of cycle speedway are fairly simple: each race features four riders, and the first to cross the line after four laps wins. A typical final has 16 competitors, with 20 heats, in which every competitor races everybody else. The final ranking is decided on points, with four points given for a win, three for second place, and so forth. In a similar way, team or pair competitions

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are held, with individual points scored counting toward the team total. While obstruction of the other riders is prohibited, a certain level of contact or cutting off other competitors is allowed and common. Cycle speedway was also held on grass in the past and may be conducted indoors with no particular surface requirements. The first world championships in cycle speedway were held in 1958 but were discontinued after 1962. They were revived in 1981 and are since held biennially, alternating with the European championships (held since 1984). A team event has been on the world championships’ agenda since 1983; pairs followed in 2003. England has been the top country at world championships, and Dave Hemsley has won three world titles. Ireland, Scotland, and Wales also compete independently at the worlds. Other countries to have medaled are Australia, the Netherlands, and Poland. CYCLO-CROSS. Cyclo-cross is a cycling discipline in which riders navigate a mostly off-road course, which includes man-made obstacles requiring a dismount, with the bike being carried on the shoulder. The exact origins of the sport are somewhat unclear, but cyclo-cross was definitely born in France. In 1902, French army private and cyclist Daniel Gousseau staged the first French championships in the sport. Supposedly, he had started cycling through the fields and forests as a way to keep training during the cold winter months. Originally, these competitions were not held on a predetermined course; only the start and finish were defined, and cyclists were to find the quickest way to the end themselves. The sport gained in popularity when French professional road racers started using it to train in winter. Among them was Octave Lapize, 1910 Tour de France winner, who is also credited with being the first to dismount and carry the bicycle on his shoulder to pass certain obstacles or hard-tonavigate surfaces. The sport spread to neighboring countries, such as Belgium and Switzerland, which organized their own championships. In 1924, the first major international competition was held, the Critérium International de Cyclo-cross. This remained the sport’s unofficial world championship until 1950, when the inaugural Union Cycliste Internationale Cyclo-cross World Championships were staged. The sport gradually developed from a winter activity for road racers to a sport dominated by specialists. While many riders are also active on the road or with the mountain bike, most top, male cyclo-cross racers specialize in the discipline. In the women’s sport, which is much younger, the combination with road racing is still common, and many of the top competitors are, in fact, also notable road racers. A cyclo-cross competition is held on a course of 2.5 to 3.5 km (1.5–2.17 miles). Races do not have a fixed number of laps but are instead held for a

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Cyclo-cross, one of the disciplines of cycling, which combines elements of mountain biking and cross-country running. Here a rider carries his bike through a muddy field, splashing his way along. (Courtesy Erich Kamper)

certain duration. For senior men, this is 60 minutes (60 to 70 minutes for the major international events); for women it is 40 minutes. Cyclists who are lapped must leave the course at the end of that lap. Per the regulations, a cyclo-cross course “shall include road, country and forest paths and meadowland alternating in such a way as to ensure changes in the pace of the race

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and allowing riders to recuperate after difficult sections.” Since cyclo-cross races are held in late autumn and winter, this means some races are held in muddy or icy conditions. Typical for cyclo-cross, as opposed to the cross-country event in mountain biking, is the use of man-made obstacles. As an obstacle, the UCI counts “a part of the course which is likely to require riders to dismount.” Common obstacles include stairs (only upstairs obstacles are allowed), sand pits, and planks (40 cm-high boards). Temporary bridges are also commonly used; although, these can usually be taken without dismounting. The bicycles used in cyclo-cross are similar to those used on the road but with several adaptations. Since speeds are much lower, the bikes usually have fewer and smaller gears. Since the obstacles require a bike to be carried, a lightweight material is preferred for the frame. Cyclo-cross bikes are also adjusted to make sure mud and sand will not clog up in the brakes or gears. Finally, the tires can be different; both tubular and knobby tires are commonly used. Cyclo-cross is tough on material, hence every course features a pit area— for major races it is even required that the area is accessible from two different parts of the course (a so-called double pit area). In the pit area, riders may change bicycles or wheels. In case of a double pit area, depending on the weather and course circumstances, riders may occasionally decide to switch every half lap, picking a bike optimal for the next part of the course. The cyclo-cross season starts in September and lasts through the end of February. The most important event is the world championships. There are also two series of races with a final classification, the UCI World Cup and the Superprestige (staged by a group of Belgian race organizers). All international races are held in Europe; although, it has been attempted to stage world cups in the United States. Competitions have always been dominated by (West) Europeans, but in the past decades, most top riders have come from Belgium. The sport is very popular with the Belgian public and media, and the top riders are widely known, and it is considered the winter sport of that country. To illustrate the Belgian dominance, in the 10 seasons between 2001 and 2010, Belgian men won eight world championships, eight World Cup classifications, and eight Superprestige titles, while generally taking second and third place as well. Strangely enough, Belgian women are rarely seen in the front of cyclo-cross races, with France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States being the major nations. See also DE VLAEMINCK, ERIC; DE VLAEMINCK, ROGER.

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D DAHLE FLESJÅ, GUNN-RITA (NOR). B. 10 February 1973; Stavanger, Norway. The most successful woman in cross-country mountain biking, Gunn-Rita Dahle Flesjå has won all available titles in the sport. She has won the cross-country world championships (2002, 2004–06) and the marathon event (2004–06, 2008) four times each. In 2004, she also claimed the Olympic title in Athens. Dahle Flesjå is also a five-time European champion, four times in the cross-country (2002–05) and once in the marathon (2006). From 2003 through 2006, she also claimed the cross-country crown in the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup. See also WOMEN. DARRIGADE, ANDRÉ (FRA). B. 24 April 1929; Narosse, France. André Darrigade was a great road sprinter who was able to win many smaller races in Europe, but his lack of ability as a climber cost him dearly in the major tours. However, he did manage to win the first stage of the Tour de France five times, relying on his great sprint. His greatest year was 1959 when he won the world championship road race and the points jersey in the Tour de France. This followed the tragedy that befell him at the end of the 1958 Tour when he lost control on the tour of the Parc des Princes Velodrome at the end of the final stage, killing an official and sustaining a serious head injury himself. Darrigade’s other major victory was the 1956 Giro di Lombardia. His sprinting ability enabled him to win 22 stages in the Tour, and he earned 16 yellow jerseys. DAUPHINÉ LIBÉRÉ. The Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré, usually shortened to simply the Dauphiné Libéré, is a multistage race held in the Dauphiné region in France in early June, which was originally organized by the Dauphiné Libéré newspaper. Presently run by the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), it is now formally called only the Critérium du Dauphiné. The race is often won by climbing specialists because the Dauphiné is a mountainous region. Several of the famous climbs from the Tour de France also feature in the Dauphiné Libéré. The race was first held in 1947. The record for the most wins in the race is three, held jointly by Nello Lauredi, Luis Ocaña, Charly Mottet, and Bernard Hinault. The race is often considered as a 61

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warm-up training race for the Tour de France, and all of the five-time (or more) Tour winners (Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx, Hinault, Miguel Indurain, Lance Armstrong) have won the Dauphiné Libéré, and in fact, all five also won the Tour-Dauphiné double in one year at least once. The race leader wears a yellow jersey with a distinct blue band, while the leader in the mountain classification wears a red jersey with white polka dots. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. DEATHS IN CYCLING. Cycling is a dangerous sport. Riders race at speeds that may approach 95 km/h (60 mph) on mountain descents, and on the track, speeds will often surpass 65 km/h (40 mph). While riding at these speeds, cyclists are often only inches away from another bicycle riding at similar speeds, often in a large group of riders, and cyclists wear no protective clothing, other than a helmet. But it was not until the 21st century that helmets were required in Union Cycliste Internationale races. Further, cars and other motorized vehicles often ride near cyclists, mainly during training, and this can be very dangerous if both the automobile driver and the cyclist are not taking great care. Thus, it is unfortunate that many cycling-related deaths have occurred. Close to 100 racing deaths were recorded in cycling prior to the 1950s. But it was in that era that three major cycling deaths occurred. At the 1951 Giro di Piemonte, Serse Coppi, brother of Italian legend Fausto Coppi, died in the final sprint, when his wheel caught in the tram tracks in Torino and he crashed violently. Five years later, Stan Ockers, who had been 1955 world champion in the road race, succumbed after a crash during a track race in Antwerp, Belgium. In 1958, Russell Mockridge, Australian Olympic track cycling champion, died during the Tour of Gippsland when he was struck by a bus. The 1960s were not much better, and two of the deaths in that decade showed the danger of drug use in the sport. At the 1960 Olympics, Danish rider Knut Enemark Jensen collapsed and crashed during the team time trial on a hot day. He was later found to have used Ronicol, a peripheral vasodilator, but his official cause of death was from a fractured skull sustained during the crash—he was not wearing a helmet. In 1967, Tommy Simpson was climbing Mont Ventoux when he fell from his bike near the top of the ascent. He could not be revived, and his death was attributed to a combination of exhaustion, heat stroke, and drug use. These two deaths spurred the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to begin testing for drugs in Olympic sports. In 1970, Jean-Pierre Monseré won the road race world championship. In March 1971, wearing the rainbow jersey and riding in a minor race in his

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native Belgium, Monseré was struck by a car that wandered onto the course and killed him instantly. This contributed to the myth of the “curse of the rainbow jersey.” At the 1995 Tour de France, Fabio Casartelli, who had won the 1992 Olympic road race gold medal, was descending the Col de Portet d’Aspet on the 15th stage, when he went through a guardrail and over a cliff. Casartelli was not wearing a helmet and died instantly when his head struck a rock during the crash. The next day, his teammate, Lance Armstrong, broke away to win the stage, and as he crossed the line, poignantly pointed skyward to his fallen comrade. Casartelli’s death was the impetus that led the UCI to require the use of helmets in UCI-sponsored competition. Isaac Galvéz was a Spanish professional who won the world championship in the Madison in 1999 and 2006. Only a few months after his second world title, he was racing in the Gent six-day race when he collided with another rider, crashed against the railing, and died later that day from internal bleeding. There have been many more, as the above are only the famous ones, involving the best-known riders. But the fact that even world champions and riders in the Tour de France can have this happen only illustrates the dangers of the sport. While the required use of helmets can help some, the speeds of modern cycling make it likely that more deaths will occur in the future. See also DOPING. DE BEUKELAER, EMILE (BEL). B. 27 May 1867; Antwerp, Belgium. D. 23 January 1922; Antwerpen, Belgium. Emile de Beukelaer was the top Belgian rider in the 1880s, when racing was still done on penny farthings and with tricycles. His racing career was cut short when he had to work in his family’s liqueur company. He remained active in the sport and became president of the Belgian federation. At the founding congress of the Union Cycliste Internationale in 1900, he was elected the organization’s first president. DE BRUYNE, ALFRED “FRED” (BEL). B. 21 October 1930; Berlare, Belgium. D. 4 February 1994; Seillans, France. Fred de Bruyne was a Belgian who raced in the pro peloton from 1954 to 1961 and won multiple oneday classics, including the Milano–Sanremo in 1956 and Liège–Bastogne– Liège in 1956, 1958, and 1959, and in his greatest year, 1957, he won the Ronde van Vlaanderen, Paris–Roubaix, and Paris–Tours. Never a factor for general classification at the grand tours, he did win three stages of the Tour de France in both 1954 and 1956. He later became a team manager and television sports commentator.

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DE VLAEMINCK, ERIC (BEL). B. 23 March 1945; Eeklo, Belgium. Erik de Vlaeminck is a Belgian cyclist who is the brother of champion cyclist Roger de Vlaeminck. Erik was known primarily for his prowess in cyclo-cross, winning the world championship in that discipline in 1966 and 1968 through 1973. He only missed out in 1967 because of a damaged bike during the race. He was also a four-time Belgian champion in cyclo-cross in an era when winning that title was almost more difficult than winning the worlds. Erik de Vlaeminck also competed on the roads, winning the Tour of Belgium in 1969 and one stage at both the Tour de France and the Vuelta a España. At La Flèche Wallonne he placed second in 1969 and third in 1970. In 1970, he also won the Paris– Luxembourg race. He later became the Belgian national coach for cyclo-cross. DE VLAEMINCK, ROGER (BEL). B. 24 August 1947; Eeklo, Belgium. Nicknamed the Gypsy, Roger de Vlaeminck was one of the great riders in history but one who had to battle Eddy Merckx for supremacy throughout his career. De Vlaeminck’s one advantage over Merckx was de Vlaeminck’s great ability as a cyclo-cross rider. He is one of the few great professional road racers to have also claimed championships in cyclo-cross, winning the amateur world championship in 1968 and the professional world championship in 1975. This ability enabled him to win the bone-shattering Paris–Roubaix four times—still a record—and defeat Merckx several times in the process. De Vlaeminck is considered the greatest rider ever in this greatest of one-day classics. De Vlaeminck, Merckx, and Rik Van Looy are the only three cyclists to have won all of the five monument races, and in those races, de Vlaeminck’s 11 victories trails only Merckx’s record of 19. De Vlaeminck’s major victories are as follows: 1975 Tour de Suisse; 1973, 1978, 1979 Milano–Sanremo; 1977 Ronde van Vlaanderen; 1969, 1979 Het Volk; 1972, 1974, 1975, 1977 Paris–Roubaix; 1971 La Flèche Wallonne; 1970 Liège–Bastogne–Liège; 1975 Zürich championship; 1981 Paris–Bruxelles; 1974, 1976 Giro di Lombardia; and the Giro d’Italia points jersey in 1972, 1974, and 1975. He is the brother of Eric de Vlaeminck, a top cyclo-cross rider. DELGADO ROBLEDO, PEDRO “PERICO” (ESP). B. 15 April 1960; Segovia, Spain. “Perico” Delgado was one of the great riders in the grand tours in the 1980s. But he had to fight against Bernard Hinault and Greg LeMond and, thus, won less than perhaps expected of him. Delgado’s strength was his ability as a climber. He was also a good time trialist, but his inability to sprint well cost him dearly and prevented him from winning any one-day classics. In 1988, Delgado finally won the Tour de France, which

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was expected of him for years, and he was on the podium three times, placing second in 1987, after an epic battle with Stephen Roche, and third in 1989. But his 1988 victory was tarnished because he tested positive after one stage for the masking agent probenecid. He was not disqualified because probenecid was not prohibited by the Union Cycliste Internationale; although, it was by the International Olympic Committee. Its presence in his urine raised the question of what other pharmacology it was masking, however. Delgado also won the Vuelta a España in 1985 and 1989. DERAILLEURS. Derailleurs are the mechanized system that allows riders to change gears during the race, by clicking on a small lever. There are both front and rear derailleur systems on most bikes that allow the rider to independently change either gear. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, most cyclists rode fixed gears. Some riders had a gear on each side of the rear wheel, and when they came to a mountain climb, they would dismount and reverse the rear wheel to the smaller gear to allow them to climb the mountain. Although several types of derailleurs were available in the late 19th century, they did not work well, and it was not until the 1930s that road racers began to use them, with their first appearance at the Tour de France occurring in 1937. In 1938, Simplex developed a cable-shifted derailleur, the prototype of the modern system. But in 1949, Campagnolo introduced the Gran Sport, considered the first truly modern derailleur. Derailleurs work by changing the length of the cable and the subsequent tension on it, which pulls a ratchet inward or outward to shift the chain to a different gear. On the rear derailleur, the derailleur also adjusts for the changing length of the chain by changing positioning of what is called the “slantparallelogram rear derailleur.” For many years, derailleurs used friction shifting, in which the lever was shifted slightly by the rider to adjust the cable length, with the shift having infinite variables of length. But in the 1980s, most derailleurs changed to an index-shifting method, which has a ratchet mechanism by which the cable length is adjusted by fixed steps. DERNY. A derny is a motorized bicycle, somewhat similar to a moped. It is used for the keirin and motor-paced races on the track but occasionally also on the road (notably in Bordeaux–Paris). The name comes from the French constructor Roger Derny, whose company built these pacers. The company has not been in existence for a long time now, but derny has become a generic name in lieu of “motor pacer.” The name derny is sometimes also used for a (relatively) short distance, motor-paced event, held at the world championships on the track for professionals between 1978 and 1990.

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DESCENDER. Among professional cyclists, while the ability to mountain climb is important, another sometimes overlooked quality is the ability to descend mountains quickly. This ability requires excellent bike handling skills and a measure of fearlessness, as during descents of major mountains, riders may reach speeds of 95 km/h (60 mph), often riding on narrow roads with steep drops off the sides of the road. Accidents are not uncommon and have been fatal. Perhaps the most legendary descender was Gastone Nencini, of whom it was said, “The only reason to follow Nencini downhill would be if you had a death wish.” See also DEATHS IN CYCLING. DESGRANGE, HENRI (FRA). B. 31 January 1865; Paris, France. D. 16 August 1940; Beauvallon, France. Henri Desgrange was first known as a French professional cyclist, who in 1893 broke the world hour record. He also set numerous track cycling records. In 1900, he helped start the new sports paper, L’Auto, and in 1903, he helped L’Auto organize the first Tour de France. Desgrange worked for many years as the sports editor of L’Auto and served as director of the Tour de France through 1936. During World War I, Desgrange enlisted in the French army; although, he was over 50 years old, and he would win the Croix de Guerre for his service. Desgrange was also responsible for promoting long-distance cycling as a means to improve physical fitness among the French people. DI LUCA, DANILO (ITA). B. 2 January 1976; Spoltore, Pescara, Italy. Danilo Di Luca turned professional in 1998 and rode in the pro peloton through 2009. His greatest triumph came in winning the 2007 Giro d’Italia. Overall, he won eight stages at the Giro and added two other stage wins at the Vuelta a España. He led the Union Cycliste Internationale ProTour in 2005, which was his greatest year, as that year he won the Amstel Gold Race, La Flèche Wallonne, and the Vuelta al País Vasco. His other major wins included the Giro di Lombardia in 2001 and Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 2007. Di Luca was suspended by the UCI after testing positive for CERA (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator) in May 2009 and was banned from the sport for two years. See also DOPING. DIRECTEUR SPORTIF. A directeur sportif, or “sporting director,” is the term used for the manager of a cycling team, or effectively the coach of the team. In professional cycling, all the major trade teams have a directeur sportif—often aided by several assistant managers for the minor races. They usually follow the race in a team car, communicating with the riders and officials by radio. The directeur sportif is also responsible for setting team

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strategy, determining which riders compete in which races, and setting the training schedules for the team. DJERNIS, HENRIK (DEN). B. 22 April 1968; Svebølle, Denmark. Starting out as a cyclo-cross rider, Henrik Djernis successfully switched over to mountain biking. From 1992 through 1994, he won three consecutive world championships in cross-country, adding a silver medal at the 1997 championships. In 1993, he also won the last amateur world title in cyclo-cross, having medaled earlier in 1991 and 1988. In 1998, Djernis placed third in the cyclo-cross world championships (elite). At the Danish championships, Djernis has been very dominant, winning six cross-country titles and twelve in cyclo-cross. DOMESTIQUE. A domestique (French for “house servant”) is a support rider whose job is to ride for the leaders of their teams. The domestique will often be required to ride in front of the team leader, breaking the wind resistance for him, or go back to team cars and get drinks and food for the main riders on the team. In the event of accidents involving team leaders, domestiques are also asked to give up their bikes or wheels to the leader and then wait for the team car to come and give them a replacement bike or wheel. DOPING. It is impossible to write about the history of cycling without discussing the history of doping in cycling, as they have existed together almost since the sport’s inception. Doping has been described as the “use of physiological substances or abnormal methods to artificially increase performance.” With the severe stress placed on professional cyclists’ bodies, many riders have resorted to doping, and it is often considered to be rampant within the professional peloton. The first implication of doping in cycling may go back to the 19th century, when trainer Choppy Warburton was banned from the sport for suspicions of drugging his riders. Warburton coached Arthur Linton, who won Bordeaux– Paris in 1896, but was suspected of being doped by Warburton during that race. In 1924, Henri Pélissier and his brother, Charles, admitted to various doping methods, describing in an interview their use of strychnine, cocaine, chloroform, aspirin, and horse ointments; although, they later noted that the writer had exaggerated their claims. By the 1940s, Italian campionissimo Fausto Coppi freely admitted to doping, calling it “la bomba,” and said there was no alternative if one hoped to stay competitive. In 1955, French rider Jean Malléjac collapsed in the Tour de France near the top of Mont Ventoux, and it was attributed to doping. He had been rid-

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ing wildly and sporadically and fell off his bike with one foot still in his toe clip. He later stated he had been drugged against his will and proclaimed his innocence to his death in 2000. Roger Rivière, a star of the late 1950s, who was paralyzed after a crash in the 1960 Tour, later admitted to doping during his career, and even said his career-ending accident was possibly due to the use of painkilling drugs, which had affected his reflexes and judgment. At the 1960 Olympic Games, Danish rider Knud Enemark Jensen fell off his bike during the team time trial. His fall caused a fractured skull, but blood analysis in the hospital also showed that he had used Ronicol, a peripheral vasodilator, and amphetamines. Because of the fractured skull, however, the drugs were not implicated as the direct cause of death. But Jensen’s death would later lead the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to start an antidoping campaign, which would begin with the 1968 Olympics. In 1965, Tour superstar Jacques Anquetil admitted during a television interview that he used drugs, stating that it was common at the time and that a man could not ride Bordeaux–Paris or the grand tours while riding only on water. On 1 June 1965, performance-enhancing drugs were made illegal in France, and in July 1966, the Tour authorities began testing the riders for drugs, with Raymond Poulidor the first rider to be tested on 29 July. During the 13th stage of the 1967 Tour de France, Tom Simpson fell off his bike near the summit of Mont Ventoux. He could not be revived and died later that day. His autopsy would reveal that he had been on amphetamines and alcohol while riding, and his death was probably the major impetus to begin the fight against doping. In 1969 and 1973, the greatest rider of all time, Eddy Merckx, twice tested positive for banned substances and was disqualified from races. In that era, there were no long-term bans, and he continued riding. At the 1972 Olympics, Jaime Huélamo was disqualified after placing third in the men’s road race, having tested positive for Coramine. Another rider, Aad van den Hoek, also tested positive for Coramine and was disqualified, which eliminated the Dutch team from the team time trial, after they had placed third. In 1979, the polka-dot jersey, Giovanni Battaglin, tested positive for doping on stage 13. He was penalized 10 minutes in general classification and lost the mountain points he won on stage 13 but continued to race and eventually won the mountain classification. Shortly thereafter, Freddy Maertens admitted to the French newspaper L’Équipe that he had used amphetamines during his career and said that it was just like all other professional riders who did the same. Just after the 1984 Olympics, the United States cyclists were implicated in doping for the first time, when it was revealed that several members of the U.S. cycling team had undergone blood doping to prepare for the Games. At

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the time, this was not illegal, and no penalties were assessed, though it was considered a doping practice. Blood doping became illegal in international sport in 1985. In the late 1980s, erythropoietin (EPO) became widely available as a way to increase a person’s hematocrit (Hct), a measure of blood count. Initially used by anemic patients, especially those on dialysis or undergoing chemotherapy, professional cyclists and runners soon found that using it could boost their Hct, allowing for more oxygen carrying capacity, without resorting to blood doping. Unfortunately, overuse of EPO can raise a healthy person’s hematocrit to dangerous levels, causing the blood to sludge, possibly causing strokes or heart attacks. Between 1987 and 1991, 18 different European professional cyclists, seemingly healthy young men, died suddenly, and EPO was suspected in many of the unusual deaths. One rider was Dutch cyclist Johannes Draaijer, whose wife stated that he became ill after using EPO. In the 1990s, many different professional cyclists, including some of the biggest names in the sport, including Sean Kelly, Marco Pantani, and Claudio Chiappucci, would have positive doping tests or be accused by other riders or soigneurs of using drugs. Several riders would also later admit that they had doped, including Erik Zabel and notably, the winner of the 1996 Tour de France, Bjarne Riis, who admitted in 2007 that he had doped for several years. In 1998, the Festina team was investigated by French authorities after their soigneur, Willy Voet, was found at a French-Belgian border crossing to have large quantities of drugs and doping paraphernalia in his car. The Festina affair rocked the 1998 Tour de France with several teams withdrawn, several others pulling out, and the race finished with only a skeleton crew, one stage being canceled when the riders refused to race, objecting to the criminal treatment they thought they were receiving. One Festina rider, Richard Virenque, went to trial in late 2000 over the charges against him but was cleared. At the 2001 Giro d’Italia, Italian police raided the hotels of several teams, finding multiple banned substances, including EPO. One rider, Dario Frigo of Fassa Bortolo, who was battling for the pink jersey, was dropped from his team when illegal drugs were found in his room. The 18th stage was canceled after several riders were expelled from the Giro. (See ITALY.) At the 2004 Olympics, Tyler Hamilton won the individual time trial, but his A sample strongly suggested that he had blood doped. His B sample was frozen, however, and could not be tested, so this was not considered a positive test, and Hamilton kept his gold medal, despite a protest from the Russian team (their rider, Vyacheslav Yekimov, had finished second to Hamilton and would move up to gold if Hamilton were disqualified). In that same year,

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Spanish rider Jesús Mazano gave an interview to the Spanish newspaper Diario AS and described the use of multiple drugs by professional cyclists. Spanish authorities began an investigation, which led to Operación Puerto in 2006. Operación Puerto would rock the 2006 Tour de France with several of the top riders implicated and thrown out of the race after the Spanish Guardia Civil released the names of 56 riders suspected of doping because of their association with Spanish doctor Eufemiano Fuentes of the Kelme team. (See SPAIN.) And at that 2006 Tour de France, perhaps the most publicized doping case in cycling occurred. Floyd Landis initially won that Tour with a startling mountain stage in which he made up eight minutes on the leaders, bringing him to the brink of the yellow jersey. Especially stunning, that ride came only the day after Landis had un jour sans and dropped far from the lead. Shortly after the race, it was revealed that he had tested positive for an abnormally high testosterone/epitestosterone ratio (some would say ridiculously high), he was disqualified and his Tour title taken from him, with the yellow jersey reverting to Óscar Pereiro. Landis protested and began a huge campaign to prove his innocence, which failed. Then in 2010, Landis admitted that he had not been innocent, that he had doped for several years while riding professionally, and that many other professional cyclists were doping, including the biggest name of all, Lance Armstrong. Lance Armstrong has never officially tested positive for drug use at any time, and he states that he is likely the most-tested athlete of all time. But for many years, rumors have circulated around him, linking him to systematic drug use on his various teams, with some of the accusations coming from former teammates such as Landis, American cyclist Frankie Andreu and his wife, and other former team supporters. There have also been revelations that Armstrong has had minor doping abnormalities that were never enough to disqualify him. Landis and others have accused Armstrong and his team of working behind the scenes with authorities to cover up positive tests. Armstrong has always denied any doping and fights all such accusations legally. As of early 2011, Armstrong remains officially clean, but the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation is investigating possible doping accusations against him while he rode for the U.S. Postal Service team, which technically was under U.S. federal control. And it continues and continues. By 2009, Tyler Hamilton had finished a two-year ban from the sport because of involvement with Operación Puerto and then returned to racing, only to test positive for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and be threatened with a lifelong ban, after which he retired. In 2010, it was announced that Alberto Contador, by then considered the heir to Armstrong’s crown as the world’s best stage racer, had tested positive for

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traces of clenbuterol in July. He has maintained his innocence but was initially provisionally suspended by the Spanish Cycling Federation. Is anyone innocent in the professional peloton? One wonders with the events of the past 20 years, with well over 100 cyclists having tested positive and many others suspected and implicated by interviews and accusations. Considering the huge stresses placed on cyclists’ bodies by stage races, such as the Tour de France and Giro d’Italia, one almost can excuse the riders for trying anything to get themselves through such almost inhuman competitions. But the drugs are illegal, many of them are dangerous, and the cyclists know both those things, and they continue to use them. The fight goes on. See also BOONEN, TOM; DI LUCA, DANILO; GARZELLI, STEFANO; MUSEEUW, JOHAN; THÉVENET, BERNARD; ULLRICH, JAN; VINOKUROV, ALEKSANDR NIKOLAYEVICH “VINO”; ZÜLLE, ALEX. DOWNHILL. This mountain biking event is closely modeled after the identically named alpine skiing discipline. They are sometimes held on the same courses (occasionally even when snow covered), and feature the same jumps and high speed that characterize the skiing competition. Similarly, the course is marked with PVC poles. A course must be between 1,500 and 3,500 m, with the intended race time between 2 and 5 minutes. Due to the high speeds, competitors must wear a full-face helmet, with additional protective clothing recommended (but not required). Like cross-country, downhill has been a fixture at the mountain biking world championships, having been held since the first edition in 1990. Unlike cross-country, it is not held at the Olympics, in part due to its terrain demands, requiring a mountainous area. Among men, the top competitor has historically been Nicolas Vouilloz (FRA). Between 1995 and 2002, he won seven world titles, missing only in 2000. During the same period, a Frenchwoman also dominated the downhill, Anne-Caroline Chausson. She claimed nine world championship golds, from 1996 to 2003 and again in 2005. DRIEDAAGSE VAN DE PANNE (THREE DAYS OF DE PANNE). Driedaagse van De Panne, or Three Days of De Panne, is a three-day stage race held in West Flanders, Belgium, shortly before the Ronde van Vlaanderen. It was first held in 1977 and has been won five times by Belgian Eric Vanderaerden. DUAL SLALOM. Similar to the parallel slalom events of alpine skiing and snowboarding, the dual slalom features two mountain bikers on two nearly identical slalom courses. A competition is run in a single-elimination format. Each heat features two runs, such that both competitors ride both

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courses. The one with the fastest combined time proceeds to the next round. The course of a dual slalom event is short, with several obstacles, such as banked corners and jumps. Introduced at the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup in 1998 and in the world championships two years later, the event was replaced by the somewhat similar four-cross in 2002 and is now rarely held. DUFRAISSE, ANDRÉ (FRA). B. 30 June 1926; Razès, France. From 1954 to 1958, André Dufraisse won five straight world championships in cyclocross, an achievement since only bettered by Eric De Vlaeminck. In addition to his titles, Dufraisse also won two silver and four bronze medals at these championships between 1951 and 1963, making for a record total of 11 medals. In what was then the strongest nation in cyclo-cross, Dufraisse also won seven national titles (between 1955 and 1963). His successes earned him the nickname “Coppi of the Field.”

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E ECHELON. An echelon is an angled line of riders that forms when the peloton is riding in a crosswind and allows the trailing riders to decrease wind resistance by drafting off the back wheel and to the side of the rider directly in front of them, with the trailing rider on the side of the back wheel away from the wind direction. EGG, OSCAR (SUI). B. 2 March 1890; Schlatt, Switzerland. D. 9 February 1961; Nice, France. Oscar Egg was an exceptional all-rounder who set the world hour record three times and won Paris–Tours in 1914. He also campaigned vigorously on behalf of his records. When his 1912 record was beaten by Richard Weise in 1913, he demanded that the track on which he, Egg, had set the record be remeasured. When it was, it was found to be longer than expected and enabled Egg to keep the record. In 1933, Jan van Hout broke Egg’s record, and Egg now demanded a measurement of the track on which Van Hout rode. The track was found to be short, but the record was broken shortly thereafter by Maurice Richard. Egg was Swiss track sprint champion for 12 consecutive years, at one time set the world record for the six-day, and was also superb at motor-paced races and tandem track racing. He won eight six-days, made a fortune selling Oscgear, an early derailleur he helped invent, and later trained Switzerland’s only two Tour de France winners, Ferdi Kübler (1950) and Hugo Koblet (1951). ELIMINATION RACE. Also known as “miss-and-out,” the elimination race is a track cycling event. Every two laps (or every lap for large velodromes), a sprint is held. The last cyclist of the pack to cross the line is eliminated, as are riders who have lost contact with the pack. Eventually, this leaves only two cyclists to sprint for victory. In international competition, the elimination race is rarely held as a stand-alone competition, but it features in six-day events and is part of the omnium. In the United States, the race was occasionally known as “devil take the hindmost.” ELITE. In 1992, the Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme (FIAC) and Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel (FICP) 73

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were subsumed back within the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). They had been separated into two organizations in 1965 when the International Olympic Committee (IOC) wanted separate international federations for amateurs and professionals. But as the IOC began eliminating the distinction between amateurs and professionals in the 1980s, it was decided that professionals could compete at the Olympic Games in cycling in 1996. The UCI also decided to eliminate the distinction at the world championships; although, the dates were slightly different for track and road cycling. From 1993 (track) and 1996 (road), the highest-level event at the UCI world championships was simply considered to be for elite riders. Lower levels of competition are still held, for under-23 (espoirs) and juniors. ELLEGAARD, THORVALD KRISTIAN (DEN). B. 7 March 1877; Fangel, Denmark. D. 27 April 1954; Charlottenlund, Denmark. Thorvald Ellegaard was the first great sprint champion on the track. Among professionals, Ellegaard won six world championships in that event (1901–03, 1906, 1908, 1911), while finishing runner-up four times (1904, 1905, 1910, 1913). He also won the prestigious Grand Prix de Paris twice, in 1901 and 1911, and was European champion in the sprint in 1902, 1903, and 1908. These successes made Ellegaard his country’s first sporting idol. Ellegaard, who continued racing until he was 49, later became the director of the track in Odense. EN LIGNE. See MASS START RACES. ESCHBORN-FRANKFURT CITY LOOP. See RUND UM DEN HENNINGER TURM. EUROPEAN TRACK CYCLING CHAMPIONSHIPS. The European championships on the track are actually older than the worlds. The first European championships were held in Berlin in 1886, featuring two scratch events (5 and 10 km). However, the history of the European championships is fairly messy. Early events were staged by national federations, not an international one, and sometimes multiple competing events were held in the same year, while some of the events only allowed “continental” competitors (excluding Great Britain). The number and type of events has also fluctuated wildly, continuing to this day. For example, the long-held motor-paced events were regularly held through 2009 but were discontinued in 2010. Other events, like the sprint, have at times not been held for decades but are on the current program. Also, in past decades, the events have been mostly

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a podium for younger cyclists, rather than the absolute top. As a result, the status of a European title is not the same as a world title, even if European track cyclists have won the majority of the medals in the world championships. It is worth noting that the European championships have not always been exclusive to European riders; many Americans have competed in the past, and Australian Danny Clark won as many as 12 titles.

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F FABER, FRANÇOIS (LUX). B. 26 January 1887; Aulnay-sur-Iton, Eure, France. D. 9 May 1915; Garency, Pas-de-Calais, France. François Faber was, with Charley Gaul, one of the great early riders ever produced by Luxembourg. But he lived most of his life in a Paris suburb, considered himself French, and was often called the Giant of Colombes. His career victories were compressed into five great years because he lost his life fighting in World War I at the Second Battle of Artois. Faber was the first foreigner to win the Tour de France in 1909, winning five consecutive stages, a record that still stands through 2010. His other major victories included Paris–Roubaix in 1913; Paris–Bruxelles in 1909; Bordeaux–Paris in 1911; Paris–Tours in 1909 and 1910; and the Giro di Lombardia in 1908. He is remembered in his native country by the Grand Prix de François Faber, a small Luxembourgish race. FAGGIN, LEANDRO (ITA). B. 18 July 1933; Padua, Italy. D. 6 December 1970; Padua, Italy. Leandro Faggin is one of the all-time best individual pursuit riders on the track. While he won one less world championship than his compatriot, Guido Messina, Faggin won a record total of 12 medals at the worlds, combining amateur and professional. Faggin won the amateur world title in 1954, earning bronze and silver in the next years. The individual pursuit was not an Olympic event in 1956, but Faggin nonetheless captured two Olympic golds, in the 1-km time trial and team pursuit. Turning professional the next season, he went on to win three medals of each color in the pursuit at the professional world championships between 1958 and 1968, winning the title in 1963, 1965, and 1966. Three times he set new records for the 5,000 m unpaced on the track. Shortly after his retirement from professional cycling, he tragically died quite young. FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE AMATEUR DE CYCLISME (FIAC) and FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DE CYCLISME PROFESSIONNEL (FICP). From 1965 until 1992, the FIAC was one of the two subsidiary organizations of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) governing amateur cycling, while the FICP governed professional cycling. 77

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While the UCI remained headquartered in Switzerland, the FIAC was located in Rome, Italy, with the FICP seated in Luxembourg. The split was mostly created because the International Olympic Committee (IOC) did not allow professionals to compete in the Olympics and wanted an amateur organization to govern the sport for the Olympic Games. When the IOC policy regarding professionals was loosened (and eventually abandoned), the FIAC and FICP were again merged into their parent organization. FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE DE CYCLISME PROFESSIONNEL (FICP). See FÉDÉRATION INTERNATIONALE AMATEUR DE CYCLISME (FIAC). FESTINA AFFAIR. The Festina affair was a doping scandal that became public shortly before the 1998 Tour de France. It began when Willy Voet, Belgian soigneur of the Festina team, was stopped at a routine border crossing between Belgium and France and customs officers found anabolic steroids, erythropoietin (EPO), syringes, and other drug paraphernalia in his car. A few days later, the police reported that they had found 250 bottles of EPO, plus over 400 bottles of drugs. They investigated the Festina team headquarters and also found documents that described a systematic doping program. Bruno Roussel, the directeur sportif of Festina, initially denied that he knew anything about the program, but by 17 July 1998, six days after the Tour had started, he cracked and admitted to a systematic doping scheme on the Festina team. Festina was expelled from the Tour. On 23 July, nine riders and three officials from Festina were taken into police custody. A Belgian judge ordered a search of the Festina offices, and computer files there documented the use of EPO by the team and many of the riders. By the next day, five riders, including Alex Zülle, had admitted to doping, but Richard Virenque, Festina mountain climbing star of the Tour, denied everything. An investigation also began into the TVM team. The professional riders were now becoming upset about the investigations, feeling that they were being treated as criminals without evidence, and stopped stage 12 of the Tour for two hours, refusing to ride. Over the next few days, several former riders for Festina would admit to doping and described the complex program used by the team. The Tour de France was rocked by the investigation. On stage 17, the peloton started riding very slowly, and during the stage, several riders withdrew, including Laurent Jalabert of Team ONCE, the entire Spanish team Banesto, and the Italian team Risco Scotti. The peloton then stopped riding and threatened to withdraw en masse. They began walking toward the stage finish at Aix-les-Bains, and the stage was eventually canceled.

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The investigation then began focusing on similar problems with TVM. The next day, Rodolfo Massi, who was wearing the polka-dot jersey at the time, pulled out of the race when he was held in police custody. TVM pulled out of the race just before the 19th stage on 30 July. Several of their riders were imprisoned, but all were released after a few hours of questioning. In September 1998, Voet began to break his silence and accused Virenque and most of the Festina riders of doping. In November, the doping laboratory released its analysis of samples from the Festina team riders, which showed evidence of the use of human growth hormone (HGH), amphetamines, anabolic and corticosteroids, and EPO, with eight of the nine riders testing positive for EPO. The result for the ninth rider, Christophe Moreau, was indeterminate, but by then he had already confessed to using EPO. It was also noted that five of the Festina riders had hematocrit (Hct) levels above the professional limit of 50.0 percent, with Zülle as high as 52.3 percent. In March 1999, Richard Virenque was charged by French authorities with the use and administration of doping products. A trial into the Festina affair began in October 2000, with 10 people from the Festina team charged, including Virenque, Voet, and Roussel. At the trial, Voet described the team’s doping program, as he would later do in a book he wrote, Massacre à la Chaîne (Breaking the Chain), which also accused many other professional cyclists. He stated that he never allowed riders’ hematocrits to go above 54 percent, while some soigneurs in the peloton would allow them to get as high as 64 percent, an extremely dangerous level. Virenque admitted to doping on 24 October 2000, but in the end, he would be cleared by the courts. Pascal Hervé, another Festina rider, admitted the same the next day. Several other riders described the doping programs used by other professional teams. Eventually, Voet was given a 10-month suspended sentence and a 30,000 franc fine. Roussel was given a suspended sentence and a 50,000 franc fine. In December 2000, Virenque was banned by the Swiss cycling federation for nine months and fined 4,000 Swiss francs. FIGNON, LAURENT (FRA). B. 12 August 1960; Paris, France. D. 31 August 2010; Paris, France. Laurent Fignon has been called “the professor” because of his background and the fact that he wore glasses, which is rare among professional cyclists. Fignon attended college briefly, where he was studying to become a veterinarian. However, the lure of the peloton was too much, and he became one of the great cyclists in the world. He came to glory at the 1983 Tour de France when he humbled four-time champion Bernard Hinault. But Fignon’s personality came out there also, as, after one stage in which he dropped the great champion, he mocked Hinault in the press. Fignon repeated his Tour victory in 1984 and later added another grand tour when

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he won the 1989 Giro d’Italia. Fignon staged a classic battle with Greg LeMond in the 1989 Tour de France. Fignon led going into the last leg but lost out by 8 seconds, the closest finish in Tour history, when LeMond made up 58 seconds on the last leg, a time trial. But he never accepted LeMond’s victory well because Fignon rode with a classic bike, while LeMond chose the newer triathlon handlebars and disk wheels, which made him more aerodynamic for the time trial. Fignon’s one-day classics victories include the 1988 and 1989 Milano–Sanremo and the 1986 Flèche Wallone. He also won the King of the Mountains jersey at the 1984 Giro. After his retirement, he became race director of Paris–Nice for several years. FITCHBURG LONGSJO CLASSIC. See TOUR OF FITCHBURG. FITNESS CYCLING. Many people use cycling as a means of achieving and maintaining fitness. The sport is well served in this regard, and highlevel competitive cyclists have often registered some of the highest recorded measures of VO2 Max, a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Cycling has several advantages over other methods of exercise. In particular, it stresses the heart and improves cardiovascular fitness, with none of the pounding effects on the knees and ankles caused by jogging or running. Unlike swim training, cycling can be done almost anywhere and at any time of the year. Cross-country skiing also provides superb fitness benefits but is limited by the necessity for snow-covered trails. Cycling may also be used as a method of transport, allowing one to combine fitness training and commuting (see UTILITY CYCLING). In Europe and Asia, cycling touring is very popular, which is both a means of recreation and an excellent method to promote fitness. In the United States, indoor cycling on trainers, often called “spinning classes,” has achieved popularity within the last 15 years. FIXED GEAR. A fixed gear refers to a type of hub that has no freewheel mechanism, meaning that a rider may not coast, but must pedal continually. Fixed gears were the original type of hub mechanism, with freewheels only introduced in the early 20th century. Fixed gears are most commonly seen now in track cycling, for which they are required. They are also becoming slightly more popular on the road and are seen as a “badge of courage” among top cyclists. Bicycle messengers in major cities in the United States often ride fixed gears. True fixed-gear bicycles, such as those ridden in track racing, have no brakes. Cyclists slow down or stop by pushing back against the pedals, and it requires superb bike handling ability to control these. In track racing, the fixed gear allows cyclists to come to a complete stop (sur place)

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and stay stationary on the track, a maneuver often used in sprint racing as it forces the other rider to take the lead, which is a strategic advantage early in the race. In many countries, there are laws against riding a bicycle on the roads with no brakes, but this is not always followed. FLAMME ROUGE. In major races, the flamme rouge, often called a “red kite,” is a red flag or display over the road at which one km remains in the race. FLÈCHE WALLONNE, LA. La Flèche Wallonne, or The Walloon Arrow, is a one-day classic held in April in Wallonia, Belgium. The race was first contested in 1936, started by the newspaper Les Sports, as a way to increase circulation. At one time, La Flèche Wallonne and Liège–Bastogne–Liège were held on Saturday and Sunday of the same weekend, termed Le Weekend Ardennais. Six riders were able to win the “Ardennes double,” by winning both races in the same year—Ferdi Kübler (1951, 1952), Stan Ockers (1955), Eddy Merckx (1972), Moreno Argentin (1991), Davide Rebellin (2004), and Alejandro Valverde (2006)—but only Kübler, Ockers, and Merckx managed the double on the same weekend. The race is now held midweek between the Amstel Gold Race and Liège–Bastogne–Liège, the three making up the “Ardennes classics.” The course for La Flèche Wallonne is now about 200 km in length, beginning in Charleroi and finishing in Huy, where the riders must climb the very steep Mur de Huy three times. The race finishes at the top of the Mur on the third ascent of the climb. Four riders have won the race three times—Marcel Kint, Merckx, Argentin, and Davide Rebellin. See also FLÈCHE WALLONNE FÉMININE, LA; and APPENDIX D for list of winners. FLÈCHE WALLONNE FÉMININE, LA. The female equivalent of La Flèche Wallonne, the riders face the same tough course, with one less lap to complete. It was first held in 1998, and in 1999, it became a fixture on the Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup circuit. Three ladies have won the race three times: Fabiana Luperini (1998, 2001, 2002), Nicole Cooke (2003, 2005, 2006), and Marianne Vos (2007–09). Cooke also finished second twice. See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. FLYING LAP. In track cycling, the flying lap is a form of competition used in both sprint events and the omnium. It is essentially a very short time trial but with a flying start. That means that a rider is allowed to gain speed for a few laps before he is timed over the last 200 m. As of 1 January 2011, the world records for the flying lap were 9.572 for men, by Kévin Sireau (FRA), and 10.793 for women, by Simona Krupeckaitė (LTU).

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FONDRIEST, MAURIZIO (ITA). B. 15 January 1965; Cles, Trento, Italy. Maurizio Fondriest turned professional in 1987 and won the 1988 world championship road race; although, he won in a controversial finish in which Steve Bauer fouled Claude Criquielion in the sprint, causing Criquielion to crash, Bauer to be disqualified, and allowing Fondriest to come through for victory. Fondriest’s greatest year by far was 1993, in which he won Milano– Sanremo, La Flèche Wallonne, Züri-Metzgete, Giro dell’Emilia, Tirreno– Adriatico (with two stages), Midi Libre (with three stages), a stage in the Giro d’Italia, and the overall World Cup. He would never again approach that level; although, in 1994, he won the Tour of Britain and the Tour of Poland, and in 1995, he finished second in four major races—Tirreno–Adriatico, Milano– Sanremo, Gent–Wevelgem, and La Flèche Wallonne. Fondriest retired after the 1998 season, having ridden most of his career with Cofidis, and started a company making carbon fiber bikes, called appropriately Fondriest. FORK. A bicycle fork connects the frame to the front wheel and allows the cyclist to steer the bicycle. The two sides of the fork are called the “blades” and connect to the frame via a steerer tube. Most forks are curved forward distally, giving the fork offset, or rake, which is the distance between the front wheel axis and the linear projection of the uppermost portion of the fork blade. Offset reduces “trail,” which is the distance measured from where the front wheel contact point meets the ground to the point where the projected blade axis contacts the ground. Increased trail makes a bike difficult to control, while increasing the distal curve of the fork, or decreasing trail, gives a bike slightly better shock absorption and is slightly easier to control. However, most high-level cyclists now prefer a very stiff fork, with little offset, as it is more responsive to changes in pace. Mountain bikes often have suspension forks, which allow for much greater shock absorption. For road, track, and cyclo-cross bikes, Union Cycliste Internationale regulations limit the inner distance between the forks to 10.5 cm for the front forks and 13.5 cm for the rear forks. FOUR-CROSS. Also known as 4X, in this spectacular mountain biking event, four cyclists take to a short slalom course at the same time, with the first to cross the line winning. Similar events exist in other sports, such as snowboarding and freestyle skiing. Courses are short, with the standard duration between 30 and 60 seconds per race. They are held on a moderate slope, with some obstacles, like jumps, banked corners, berms, dips, and other features. A competition starts with a qualifying round, in which the riders navigate the course alone. The top riders qualify for the next round, in which the cyclists compete in heats of four. The first two in each heat proceed to the next

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round, the other two are eliminated; this process is repeated until the final run. Some contact between riders is allowed as long as it “remains within the spirit of the event.” The four-cross was essentially a replacement event for the somewhat similar dual slalom. In 2002, it replaced that event at both the world championships and the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup. The men’s world title has been won three times by Brian Lopes (USA) (2002, 2005, 2007), while the most successful woman is his compatriot, Jill Kintner (2005–07). FOUR DAYS OF DUNKIRK. See QUATRE JOURS DE DUNKERQUE. FRAME. The frame of a bicycle is the support structure that really defines the bicycle. The classic frame design is called the “diamond frame,” consisting of a main triangle and a rear triangle. The main triangle, actually a trapezoid, consists of the top tube, head tube, seat tube, and down tube. The head tube connects the top tube to the fork and to the down tube. The seat tube and down tube connect at the bottom, termed the “bottom bracket.” The rear triangle consists of the seat tube and paired chain stays and seat stays. The seat tube also contains the bike seatpost, which connects to the saddle. The chain stays run parallel to the chain and connect the bottom bracket to the rear wheel. The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube to the rear wheel. For competitive road, track, and cyclo-cross racing, Union Cycliste Internationale regulations require that the tubes be either circular in cross section or oval with some restrictions on their eccentricity. The tubing is made of various materials, including steel, aluminum, titanium, magnesium, scandium, carbon fiber, and various hybrid mixtures. Frame geometry is a complex subject, and it varies among the different types of bikes. The space between the top tube and the lower point of the rider’s groin while straddling the bike and standing on the ground is called “clearance.” The total height from the ground to this point is called the “height lever.” Frame designers look at several different lengths and angles, including the seat tube angle, head tube angle, (virtual) top tube length, and seat tube length. Riders adjust certain features to obtain the geometry that best fits their body type and type of racing. Several other parameters that riders evaluate in adjusting their frame and saddle position include: (1) saddle height, the distance from the center of the bottom bracket to the top of the middle of the saddle; (2) reach, the distance from the saddle to the handlebar on top; (3) drop, the vertical distance between the top of the saddle to the handlebar drops; (4) setback, the horizontal distance between the front of the saddle and the center of the bottom bracket; (5) standover height, the height of the top

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tube above the ground; and (6) toe overlap, the amount that the feet can interfere with steering the front wheel. Traditionally, frame size was measured from the center of the bottom bracket to the top of the seat tube, with average sizes in the 54 to 56 cm range for a men’s racing bicycle or 46 cm for a men’s mountain bike. But newer methods of measuring the frame are now used as the frame geometry has changed in recent years and is now more variable. FRANCE. The first known cycling race and the first known cycling road race both took place in France. It is, therefore, fitting that the most important cycling competition, the Tour de France, takes place in France. Held since 1903, this stage race has possibly attracted more public and media attention than all of the other cycling races combined. Naturally, several great French cyclists have excelled in the Tour, with two winning the overall classification five times—Jacques Anquetil and Bernard Hinault. Other riders, like Raymond Poulidor and Laurent Jalabert, never took home the yellow jersey but still had great successes in other races. Many other notable French road racers could be mentioned here, such as Louison Bobet or Laurent Fignon. Jeannie Longo is likely the best ever female cyclist, known for both her many victories and impressive career length. Apart from the Tour de France, many of the best-known cycling races are held in France. Among one-day classics, this includes the monument classic Paris–Roubaix, are Paris–Bruxelles, Paris–Tours, and Bordeaux–Paris. Several minor stage races are also held in France: Paris–Nice, Dauphiné Libéré, Midi Libre, and Quatre Jours de Dunkerque. France is also, by far, the most successful track racing nation. Three of its cyclists have won 10 or more world titles: Arnaud Tournant, Florian Rousseau, and Félicia Ballanger. On the mountain bike, Julien Absalon, AnneCaroline Chausson, and Nicolas Vouilloz belong to the all-time greatest. French influence can be felt in many aspects of cycling. Due to the large number of races and professional teams based there, French is one of the common languages in the cycling world, and many French terms have entered the cycling jargon in other languages as well, for example velodrome and peloton. Although not formally possessing any power in the sport, major race organizer Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO) is one of the major influences in road racing. See also ALCYON; BOL D’OR; DARRIGADE, ANDRÉ; DESGRANGE, HENRI; DUFRAISSE, ANDRÉ; GARIN, MAURICE-FRANÇOIS; GÉMINIANI, RAPHAËL; GODDET, JACQUES; GRAND PRIX DE PLOUAY; GRAND PRIX DES NATIONS; GRANDE BOUCLE, LA; LAPÉBIE, GUY; LAPÉBIE, ROGER HENRI FERNAND; LAPIZE, OCTAVE; LEDUCQ, ANDRÉ; MAGNE, ANTONIN; MAGNÉ, FRÉDÉRIC; MEIFFRET, JOSÉ; MICHARD, LUCIEN; MORELON, DANIEL; MOTTET, CHARLY; OUBRON, ROBERT; PARIS–BREST–PARIS; PÉLISSIER, JEAN HENRI AU-

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GUSTE; PETIT-BRETON, LUCIEN; PEUGEOT; PRUDHOMME, CHRISTIAN; RIVIÈRE, ROGER; STABLINSKI, JEAN; THÉVENET, BERNARD; TOUR DE L’AVENIR; TROUSSELIER, LOUIS; VIRENQUE, RICHARD. FRANTZ, NICOLAS (LUX). B. 4 November 1899; Mamer, Luxembourg. D. 8 November 1985; Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Nicolas Frantz was a professional cyclist from Luxembourg who rode from 1923 to 1934. In his career, he won over 60 races, including the Tour de France in 1927 and 1928, and he placed second in the Tour in 1924 and 1926. Overall, Frantz won 16 stages in the Tour and spent 37 days in the yellow jersey. For all 12 years of his professional career, Frantz won the Luxembourg national road title. He was twice on the podium at the world championship road race, placing second in 1929 and third in 1932. His other major titles included the 1926 Vuelta al País Vasco and the 1929 Paris–Tours race. Frantz rode most of his career with the Alcyon team. FREESTYLE. “Freestyle” is a collective name for stunt riding on BMX bicycles. It consists of several different events. Some of these are contested at the X Games—big air, park, street, and vert. FREIRE GÓMEZ, ÓSCAR (ESP). B. 15 February 1976; Torrelavega, Cantabria, Spain. Óscar Freire is a Spanish cyclist best known for winning the world championship road race three times, in 1999, 2001, and 2004, which equals the record for most wins in that race previously held by Alfredo Binda, Rik Van Steenbergen, and Eddy Merckx. Though a smaller man, Freire wins his races because of his great sprinting ability. His inability to climb at the top level has hurt him in the grand tours, but he did win the points classification at the 2008 Tour de France and has won four Tour stages through 2010. He has also won seven stages at the Vuelta a España. His other major titles include Milano–Sanremo in 2004 and 2007, Tirreno– Adriatico in 2005, Gent–Wevelgem in 2008, and Paris–Tours in 2010. His career has been hampered by numerous injuries, especially back and neck problems and saddle sores. FREULER, URS (SUI). B. 6 November 1958; Glarus, Switzerland. Apart from being the most successful points racer in history, Urs Freuler also excelled in the keirin and in road sprinting. After earning a bronze in the 1979 amateur worlds, Freuler won seven consecutive world championships in the professional points race (1981–87), adding an eighth in 1989. He is only approached in number of titles in the event by his compatriot Bruno Risi, with five. Despite never racing in Japan, Freuler was also a highly successful keirin racer, winning five world championship medals, including two titles

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(1983, 1985). His record on the track also includes 21 wins in six-day races and several world records in the 500 m and 1,000 m. On the road, Freuler was also a noted sprinter, collecting 15 stage wins in the Giro d’Italia and winning the maglia ciclamino (points classification) in 1984. Freuler also won one Tour de France stage and nine in the Tour de Suisse. FRISCHKNECHT, THOMAS “FRISCHI” (SUI). B. 17 February 1970; Feldbach, Switzerland. Thomas Frischknecht, affectionately known as Frischi, has been among the very best mountain bikers for a good 15 years. In the early 1990s, he was one of the top cross-country riders, winning three Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cups in that discipline (1992, 1993, 1995). At the world championships, he won one gold medal (1996—after the doping disqualification of Jérôme Chiotti), four silvers (1990–92, 2001), and two bronzes (2002, 2004). In addition, he claimed the Olympic silver medal at the Atlanta Games in 1996. In 2003 and 2005, Frischknecht was ranked first in the world in the marathon. Frischknecht has also competed in cyclo-cross, winning four Swiss titles, the 1988 junior world title, and the 1991 amateur world championships. FUENTES, EUFEMIANO. See OPERACIÓN PUERTO. FULST, GUIDO (GER). B. 7 June 1970; Wernigerode, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. The most successful team pursuit cyclist in history, Guido Fulst won four world championships and two Olympic golds in the event. His first title came in 1989, while still a member of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) amateur quartet. After German unification, he added further titles in 1993, 1999, and 2000, while also collecting three silver and two bronze medals. At the Olympic Games, Fulst won gold medals in 1992 and 2000, while taking an individual bronze in 2004 in the points race. He has also won three six-day races. FURTADO, JULIANA “JULI” (USA). B. 4 April 1967; New York, New York, United States. Originally an alpine skier, Juli Furtado switched to mountain biking in the late 1980s. She is the only person, through 2010, to win world championships in both the cross-country (1990) and the downhill (1992). In addition, Furtado claimed three consecutive Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cups in cross-country (1993–95). She had hoped to crown her career with an Olympic medal in Atlanta 1996 but finished 10th in the inaugural Olympic mountain biking competition. Furtado has also been active on the road, winning the 1989 U.S. road title and competing in that year’s world championships. See also WOMEN.

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G GARIN, MAURICE FRANÇOIS (FRA). B. 3 March 1871; Arvier, Italy. D. 19 February 1957; Lens, France. Maurice Garin is best known as the winner of the 1903 Tour de France, the first time that event was contested. He also was the first finisher in 1904, but the title was taken from him, presumably for cheating; although, the details of why are not fully clear. He started racing around 1890 and in 1894 won a 24-hour race in Liège, Belgium, followed by setting a paced record for 500 km on the road in 1895. His other palmarès includes Paris–Roubaix in both 1897 and 1898, Paris–Le Mans in 1896, Paris–Brest–Paris in 1901, and Bordeaux–Paris in 1902. GARKUSHINA, TAMARA PAVLOVNA [Тамара Павловна Гаркушина] (URS). B. 1 February 1946; Lipetsk Oblast, Soviet Union. One the finest all-time pursuiters among women, Tamara Garkushina’s six world titles in the individual pursuit have since only been equaled by Rebecca Twigg. Garkushina won her first world title in 1967. After missing the 1968 championships and placing as runner-up in 1969, she won five consecutive world championships, 1970 through 1974. In Soviet championships, she won a total of 13 titles between 1966 and 1976, 8 in the individual pursuit and 5 in the team pursuit. She occasionally raced on the road as well, winning the 1974 USSR title in that discipline. GARZELLI, STEFANO (ITA). B. 16 July 1973; Varese, Italy. Stefano Garzelli is an Italian professional whose most important win was the 2000 Giro d’Italia. He also won the Tour de Suisse in 1998 and placed second at the Giro in 2003. In 2002, he was wearing the pink jersey at the Giro when he was disqualified for a doping positive. His other major wins include the Rund um den Henninger Turm in 2006 and Tirreno–Adriatico in 2010. GAUL, CHARLY (LUX). B. 18 December 1932; Ash, Luxembourg. D. 6 December 2005; Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Charly Gaul is considered the greatest cyclist ever produced by Luxembourg and one of the greatest climbers produced by any nation. Known as the Angel of the Mountains for his skill as a grimpeur, he earned the nickname in the 1955 Tour de France 87

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when, in a mountain stage crossing the cols of Aravis, Telegraphe, and Galibier, he won by 14 minutes. Gaul was also renowned for riding very well in bad weather conditions. Gaul won the Tour in 1958 and added victories in the Giro d’Italia in 1956 and 1959. He won the mountain classification at the Tour in 1955 and 1956 and at the Giro in 1959. He was also talented in cyclo-cross, winning the 1954 and 1962 Luxembourg championship in that discipline. He was road champion for Luxembourg in 1956 and 1957 and in 1959 through 1962. Gaul retired after the 1965 track season to a small hut in the Ardennes’ forest, where he became reclusive. He occasionally appeared at the side of the road during the Tour de France, but overweight with a beard and long hair, he was rarely recognized. After a third marriage in 1983, Gaul came out of his absence from society and was honored for many of his cycling achievements in both Luxembourg and France. GAZET VAN ANTWERPEN TROFEE. The third most important cyclocross circuit after the Union Cycliste Internationale Cyclo-cross World Cup and the Superprestige, the Gazet van Antwerpen Trofee (GvA Trofee) started out as a regional competition in Belgium, sponsored by the Belgian newspaper Gazet van Antwerpen. Beginning in the 1987–88 season, about seven races were held in the Belgian province of Antwerpen. Over the years, interest in the trophy grew, and it currently attracts an international field, and races are also held outside of the Antwerpen province. Some of the races on the circuit have a long history, such as the GP Rouwmoer (held since 1965), while others, such as the GP Sven Nys have been established more recently. Thus far, only Belgian cyclo-crossers have won the overall title, Sven Nys winning it seven times (2003, 2005–10). GÉMINIANI, RAPHAËL (FRA). B. 12 June 1925; Clermont-Ferrand, France. Raphaël Géminiani was the son of Italian immigrants who left Italy in 1920 to escape Fascism. He started riding professionally in France in 1946 and raced through 1960. He seemed always to be the French numbertwo rider, never winning a grand tour but compiling an otherwise superb record in all three. In fact, in 1955, Géminiani finished ninth at the Tour de France, fourth at the Giro d’Italia, and fifth at the Vuelta a España, making him the first person to ever place in the top 10 in all three grand tours in one year. This has only been equaled one other time, by Gastone Nencini in 1957. In the Tour de France, Géminiani was second in 1951 and third in 1958. At the Giro, he placed fourth in 1955 and fifth in 1957. In the Vuelta he placed fifth in both 1955 and 1957. A top climber, he won the mountain classification at the Tour in 1951 and at the Giro in 1952 and 1957. Géminiani won

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seven stages in the Tour de France and also won the 1915 Midi Libre. After his retirement, he started a bike manufacturing company. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION. “General classification,” often abbreviated GC, is the term used for the determination of the overall winner in stage races. Stage races are usually determined by overall time, with the time for each stage added to a rider’s previous time and the fastest overall times used to find the GC placements. Occasionally, riders may have time subtracted due to time bonuses, usually given for placing among the best in a stage or winning intermediate sprints. The leader of the general classification typically wears a distinctive jersey, such as the yellow jersey in the Tour de France, the pink jersey in the Giro d’Italia, or the red jersey in the Vuelta a España. GENT–WEVELGEM. Gent–Wevelgem is one of the Belgian one-day classics that is held in the spring every year, now always in April. It is held in midweek between the Ronde van Vlaanderen and Paris–Roubaix. The race was first held in 1934 and is known as a sprinters’ classic because of its relatively flat finishing terrain, racing over about 200 km in recent years. However, earlier in the race, the riders must twice ascend the Kemmelberg, a difficult cobbled climb. The race actually no longer starts in Gent but rather at the market square in Deinze. Gent–Wevelgem has been a part of the WorldTour since 2005. The record for the most wins in the race is three by Eddy Merckx, Rik Van Looy, Mario Cipollini, and Robert Van Eenaeme. See also APPENDIX D for a list of winners. GERMANY. Track cycling is traditionally the most popular form of the sport in Germany, with several of the most important six-day races being held in the country. Several great track racers have come from Germany, most of them with a background in the strong (and somewhat suspicious for doping) East German track program—Guido Fulst, Lutz Heßlich, Michael Hübner, and Lothar Thoms. On the road, Germany has had its occasional champions, such as GustavAdolf Schur, Rudi Altig, and Didi Thurau, but its first real professional star did not arrive until the 1990s, when Jan Ullrich won the 1997 Tour de France. In his wake, several other pro cyclists and teams flourished, most notably Erik Zabel. German women have done fairly well on the road, with Judith Arndt, Petra Rossner, and Hanka Kupfernagel all being big names. The latter has also been one of the stars of women’s cyclo-cross, winning four world titles.

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Germany hosts a number of one-day road races, including the Rund um den Henninger Turm and Rund um die Nürnberger Altstadt. Despite the name, Hamburg’s Cyclassics was a fairly recent invention for the cycling World Cup. The most important stage race has been the irregularly held Deutschland Tour, which was last held in 2008. Indoor cycling, that is artistic cycling and cycle-ball, are mostly popular in Germany, and most of the champions in these disciplines have been Germans. See also RUND UM DEN HENNINGER TURM. GIMONDI, FELICE (ITA). B. 29 September 1942; Sedrina, Italy. At the time of his retirement, only Eddy Merckx and Fausto Coppi had won more major international races than did Felice Gimondi. Gimondi won the Tour de l’Avenir in 1964 and then turned professional. In his first year, he won the Tour de France, though he had been included in the race only as a last minute substitute. Gimondi was a good climber, an excellent time trialist, and a proficient road sprinter. He is one of the few cyclists to have won all three of the grand tours, winning the Tour de France in 1965, the Giro d’Italia three times (1967, 1969, 1976), and the Vuelta a España in 1968. In his later career, he was overshadowed by Merckx, but in 1973, Gimondi defeated Merckx in the finishing sprint to win his only rainbow jersey as world professional road champion. His other major victories included Milano–Sanremo in 1974, Paris–Roubaix in 1966, Paris–Bruxelles in 1966 and 1976, the Grand Prix des Nations in 1967 and 1968, and the Giro di Lombardia in 1966 and 1973. GIRARDENGO, COSTANTE (ITA). B. 18 March 1893; Novi Ligure, Italy. D. 9 February 1978; Cassano Spinola, Italy. Costante Girardengo was the first campionissimo among Italian cycling aficionados. He won the Giro d’Italia in 1919 and 1923, won Milano–Sanremo six times (1918, 1921, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1928), a record only later bettered by Eddy Merckx, and was a three-time champion in the Giro di Lombardia (1919, 1921, 1922). In his addition to his grand tours and one-day classics, he was Italian road race champion from 1913 to 1925. With a break for World War I, that amounts to nine consecutive national championships, a record unmatched in any major country for road riders. He managed this despite contracting Spanish flu in 1918, almost dying from the disease. Girardengo competed almost exclusively in Italy, but late in his career won several six-day races in Germany. He later became coach of the Italian national team. GIRO DI LOMBARDIA. The Giro di Lombardia (Tour of Lombardy) is one of the five monument races among the one-day classics. It is tradition-

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ally the last major race on the European cycling calendar, is always held in the fall, and is called “the race of the falling leaves” (la classica delle foglie morte) because of when it occurs on the schedule. The race has been held since 1905, making it the oldest of the great Italian races, and the course has since changed numerous times. It usually now begins near Milan and ends near Como, riding along a traditionally hilly route. Prior to 1961, the race was a loop, beginning in Milan and ending on the famous Velodromo Vigorelli in Milano. Its best-known feature is the climb of the Madonna del Ghisallo, which runs from Bellagio to the church of Madonna del Ghisallo, considered the patron saint of cyclists in Italy. In 1905 and 1906, the race was called Milano–Milano. The record for the most wins in the race is five by Fausto Coppi, with four of those consecutive in 1946 through 1949, his fifth victory coming in 1954. See also APPENDIX C for a list of winners. GIRO D’ITALIA. The Giro d’Italia is one of the three grand tours in cycling and is usually considered the second most important and best-known cycling event after the Tour de France. It is now usually held in late May to early June and is a stage race contested over three weeks around Italy. With the Tour and the world championship road race, it makes up the triple crown of cycling. Although not considered as important as the Tour by most riders, the Giro is the most important event on the annual cycling calendar for Italian cyclists. Like the Tour, the Giro frequently visits other countries, having visited all the neighboring ones, and it may start in 2012 in Washington DC, in the United States. The idea for the Giro came from the Tour de France, with the Italian version starting in 1909. The Giro is actually known to ride a more difficult course than the Tour in many years, with some very difficult, very steep climbs in the mountains, a planned feature by the race organizers who try to make the race more spectacular than the Tour. In addition, because of the time of the year, the riders often ascend mountain passes with snow along the sides of the road and have been known to ride through snowstorms, most notably in 1988 when Andy Hampsten chased Erik Breukink to the top of the Gavia Pass in freezing weather as the snow fell. Though Breukink held on for the stage win, Hampsten’s legendary climb gave him the race lead that he held to win the Giro. Like the Tour de France, there are several different titles awarded in the Giro d’Italia. The most important one is the general classification (GC), or overall leader, which is decided by overall time. The leader of the race (and the final winner) wears a pink jersey (maglia rosa). Three riders have won GC at the Giro five times—Alfredo Binda (1925, 1927–29, 1933), Fausto Coppi (1940, 1947, 1949, 1952, 1953), and Eddy Merckx (1968, 1970, 1972–74), but Felice Gimondi has the most podium finishes with nine: three

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The Giro d’Italia is held early in the year and is known for its difficult conditions. Here a rider crests a mountain stage on a mud-covered road, alongside the snow drifts on the side of the road. The newspaper will be placed under his jersey to protect against the wind on the descent. (Courtesy Bill Mallon)

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victories, two seconds, and four third-place finishes. The record for stage wins at the Giro is 42 by Mario Cipollini, which broke the long-standing record of 41 set by Binda. The Giro riders also contest a mountain classification category, which gives out a green jersey (maglia verde). This classification was won seven times by Gino Bartali (1935–37, 1939, 1940, 1946, 1947). The points classification leader wears a mauve jersey (maglia ciclamino), which has been won four times by Francesco Moser and Giuseppe Saronni. The leader of the youth classification wears a white jersey (maglia bianca), as in the Tour de France. See also DOPING; and APPENDIX A for a list of winners in general classification, mountain classification, points classification, and youth classification. GIRO DONNE. Earlier known as the Giro d’Italia Femminile, the Giro Donne is the equivalent of the men’s Giro d’Italia. In the trail of the Grande Boucle, first held in 1984, the inaugural Giro Donne was held in 1988. After three editions, the organization folded, but the race returned in 1993 and has since been held every year, remaining one of the two major stage races for women. Italy’s Fabiana Luperini has won the event a record five times (1995–98, 2008), while Nicole Brändli (Switzerland) has won the pink jersey three times (2001, 2003, 2005). See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. GODDET, JACQUES (FRA). B. 21 June 1905; Paris, France. D. 15 December 2000; Paris, France. Jacques Goddet finished school in 1931 and quickly became editor in chief of the French sports newspaper L’Auto. After World War II, Goddet started up the sporting paper L’Équipe, which effectively replaced L’Auto. In 1936, upon the retirement of Henri Desgrange, Goddet was appointed as the director of the Tour de France. He would hold the post for 50 years, stepping down after the 1986 tour. GODEFROOT, WALTER (BEL). B. 2 July 1943; Gand, Belgium. Walter Godefroot competed at the 1964 Olympic Games, winning a bronze medal in the road race. He later joined the professional peloton and became a specialist in one-day classics, winning numerous races because of his sprinting ability. Godefroot never challenged for general classification in the grand tours but won the green jersey at the 1970 Tour de France and won 10 stages in the Tour in all. His major victories included three of the five monument races and were as follows: 1967—Liège–Bastogne–Liège; 1968—Ronde van Vlaanderen and Gent–Wevelgem; 1969—Bordeaux–Paris and Paris–Roubaix; 1970—Züri-Metzgete; 1974—Rund um den Henninger Turm, ZüriMetzgete, and Quatre Jours de Dunkerque; 1976—Bordeaux–Paris; and

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1978—Ronde van Vlaanderen. Godefroot later became a directeur sportif with Team Telekom, later known as T-Mobile. GOLDEN JERSEY. See RED JERSEY. GRACIA ORLOVÁ. One of the few important women’s stage races with no male counterpart, the Gracia Orlová has been held since 1987. Its traditional start is in Dětmarovice, Czech Republic, near the Polish border, and it passes through both countries. Originally only open to Eastern European riders, it now attracts most of the top women cyclists. German women have done exceptionally well in the competition, with Hanka Kupfernagel winning it five times (1995–97, 1999, 2000) and Judith Arndt four times. See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. GRAND PRIX DE PARIS. The Grand Prix de Paris was a sprint track competition held between 1894 and 1993. In its heyday, it rivaled the world championships for being the most prestigious sprint competition. From the second edition until the competition’s demise, due to a loss of interest in the event, the race was held at the Vélodrome de Vincennes, in the Bois de Vincennes park. Initially only open to professionals, a separate amateur race was held from 1899, and a women’s competition followed in 1982. The men’s professional race, which was last held in the 1970s, had many wellknown winners, including big names such as Frank Kramer, Thorvald Ellegaard, Jef Scherens, Lucien Michard, Arie van Vliet, and Antonio Maspes, with the latter two winning the pro race a record five times. See also FRANCE. GRAND PRIX DE PLOUAY. A Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup race since 2002, the Grand Prix de Plouay is held near the town of Plouay, Bretagne, France. A men’s race (called GP Ouest-France) has been held there since 1931, but the first women’s race was held in 1999. Three ladies have stood on the victory podium twice: Anna Wilson (Australia), Noemi Cantele (Italy), and Emma Pooley (Great Britain). See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. GRAND PRIX DES NATIONS. The Grand Prix des Nations was an individual time trial for professional cyclists, which was considered the unofficial world championship time trial until the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) instituted a world individual time trial championship in 1994. The Grand Prix des Nations was first raced in 1932 and was discontinued after the 2004

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race, as the world championship had by then lessened its importance. But it was known as the Truth Race, or the race in which the cyclists learned the truth about themselves—time trials in general are known as the race of truth. The course and distance varied over the years; although, it was always held in France. The first race was over 140 km, but it was later shortened and after World War II was usually raced over 70 to 90 km. The race was won nine times by Jacques Anquetil (1953–58, 1961, 1965, 1966), the man often considered the greatest time trialist. Bernard Hinault also won five times (1977–79, 1982, 1984). The Grand Prix des Nations was conceived by Gaston Bénac, sports editor of Paris-Soir, in an effort to increase his paper’s circulation. GRAND TOURS. The grand tours of cycling refer to the three three-week European stage races—the Tour de France, the Giro d’Italia, and the Vuelta a España. They are considered the most important races in professional cycling, with the Tour de France considered a cut above the other two. Only five cyclists have won all three grand tours in their careers—Jacques Anquetil, Felice Gimondi, Eddy Merckx, Bernard Hinault, and Alberto Contador. No cyclist has ever won all three events in one year, and it is actually now quite rare for any cyclist to even compete in all three in a calendar year. Two riders have finished in the top 10 of all three tours in one year— Raphaël Géminiani in 1955 and Gastone Nencini in 1957. Merckx has won the most grand tours with 11, followed by Hinault with 10, Anquetil with 8, and Lance Armstrong, Miguel Indurain, and Fausto Coppi with 7. Nine cyclists have won two of the grand tours in the same year, as follows: Tour/Giro—Coppi, Anquetil, Merckx, Hinault, Stephen Roche, Indurain, and Marco Pantani; Tour/Vuelta—Anquetil and Hinault; and Giro/Vuelta—Merckx, Giovanni Battaglin, and Contador. Merckx has won the most stages in the grand tours with 64, followed by Mario Cipollini with 57 and Alessandro Petacchi with 50. Petacchi is one of three riders to have won stages at all three grand tours in the same year, which he did in 2003. This was also accomplished by Miguel Poblet in 1956 and Pierino Baffi in 1958. GRANDE BOUCLE, LA. Meaning “the great loop” in French, La Grande Boucle is a common nickname for the Tour de France, but it is also the official name of the female equivalent of that race, the naming rights for the Tour de France having been reserved to the men’s race. The first Tour for women was held in 1955, when women’s cycling was still in its infancy. Jean Leulliot from the newspaper Route et Piste organized a five-stage event, which was attended by 41 cyclists and was won by Great Britain’s Millie Robinson.

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While the event was never held again, it helped convince the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) to stage world championships for women, which first happened in 1958. The second incarnation of the women’s Tour de France came in 1984. In the shadow of the men’s race, the Société du Tour—organizers of the men’s competition—staged a women’s competition. It was abandoned after 1989, but the same organizers held a similar Tour of the European Economic Community (EEC) from 1990 to 1993. Simultaneously, a Tour Cycliste Féminine was revived by different organizers in 1992. It was forced by the Société du Tour to drop the reference to the male event and was rebranded as La Grande Boucle Féminine. It has been held annually, with the exception of 2004, when financial problems forced the race to be scrapped. Several years later, the 2010 edition met with the same fate. Several women have won the race three times: Jeannie Longo (1987–89), Fabiana Luperini (1995–97), and Joane Somarriba (2000, 2001, 2003). Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel won it twice (1992, 1993), while also claiming the 1992 Tour of the European Economic Community (EEC). See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. GREAT BRITAIN. Great Britain was the first country where cycling enjoyed popularity, and many of the early track cycling champions hailed from Great Britain. These were mostly amateurs, as professionalism was not considered for gentlemen in that era. The biggest name of the pre–World War I era was Leon Meredith, who won a record seven motor-paced world titles on the track. For many years, British cyclists no longer dominated on the track but still produced stars like Reg Harris and Hugh Porter. In the 1990s, Christopher Boardman and Graeme Obree started a new wave of British track cycling. A special track cycling program was set up, culminating in seven gold medals at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The most prominent stars of that generation are Chris Hoy and Victoria Pendleton. British cyclists have not traditionally been as successful on the road, as road racing was prohibited in the British Isles well into the 1940s. Since then, Great Britain has occasionally produced top racers, such as Tom Simpson, Robert Millar, and, more recently, Mark Cavendish. One of the all-time female greats, both on the track and the road, was seven-time world champion Beryl Burton. In recent years, she has found a successor in Welshwoman Nicole Cooke. The cycling discipline of cycle speedway is almost unique to Great Britain. World championships are held, but mostly won by British competitors, and British Cycling is the international governing body for the sport. See also MOORE, JAMES; WIGGINS, BRADLEY MARC.

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GREEN JERSEY. The green jersey, or maillot vert, is given to the leader, and eventual winner, of the points classification in the Tour de France. Points are given on each stage for intermediate sprints and for the final sprints, and the winner of the green jersey is the rider who accumulates the most sprint points. Thus, it is a jersey usually won by sprinters. The points classification was started in 1953; although, from 1905 to 1912 the winner of the Tour was actually determined by points, rather than total time. Erik Zabel has won the green jersey six times, a record, with Sean Kelly winning four times. Five cyclists won three green jerseys—Jan Janssen, Eddy Merckx, Freddy Maertens, Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov, and Robbie McEwen. GRIMPEUR. See MOUNTAIN CLIMBERS.

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H HAMILTON, TYLER (USA). B. 1 March 1971; Marblehead, Massachusetts, United States. Tyler Hamilton is one of the greatest ever American cyclists but one whose career was marred in its later stages by doping allegations. Hamilton turned professional in 1995 and rode for the U.S. Postal Service team from 1998 to 2000 as a lieutenant for Lance Armstrong. But he left U.S. Postal in 2001 and became a top professional in his own right. Hamilton’s best-known victory was the 2004 Olympic gold medal in the individual time trial, but it was marred by a doping test that had a positive A sample. However, the B sample had been frozen and could not be tested, so Hamilton did not have an official doping violation and kept his gold medal. He was later implicated in the Operación Puerto scandal and was suspended after a doping positive at the 2004 Vuelta a España. Hamilton came back in 2008 to win the U.S. national championship, but in 2009, had a doping positive for DHEA and an antidepressant, and subsequently retired. His major victories also included Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 2003, Dauphiné Libéré in 2000, and the Tour de Romandie in 2003 and 2004. He also won one stage each at all three of the grand tours and placed second in the Giro d’Italia in 2002. Hamilton’s Tour stage win came in 2003 and was the stuff of high drama. He broke his collarbone early in the Tour but continued riding despite the pain and, on the 16th stage, won after a single-man breakaway that lasted over 100 km. HAMPSTEN, ANDREW (USA). B. 7 April 1962; Great Plains, North Dakota, United States. Andy Hampsten was one of the first great American professional road cyclists. Hampsten first became well known in 1984 when he made the Olympic team. But he did not compete at the Olympics, his lack of a finishing sprint hampering him in a one-day race, and it remained his bête noire as a professional as well. Riding exclusively for 7-Eleven (later Motorola), Hampsten was best known for his toughness and his ability as a climber. His victory in the 1988 Giro d’Italia came primarily because of a brutal ride over the Gavia Pass in a blinding snowstorm. He and Erik Breukink broke well clear of the field, with Breukink winning the stage, but it gave Hampsten the pink jersey, which he maintained to the finish. In 1992, 99

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Hampsten achieved his greatest stage victory when he won the ride to l’Alpe d’Huez during the Tour de France. He also won the Tour de Suisse in both 1986 and 1987. He never made the podium at the Tour de France but placed fourth in both 1986 and 1992. HANDLEBARS. Handlebars are the steering mechanism of a bicycle and also the section of the bike that the rider holds onto with his or her hands. There are many different types of handlebars. The classic handlebar on racing bicycles has a flat top tube, with a curved extension that hangs below the top tube on each side, called the “drops,” and attachments for the brakes on which the rider can place his or her hands, called the “hoods.” Thus, a rider will almost always ride in one of three positions: on the drops, on the hoods, or on top. A rider with his or her hands on the drops is in the lowest, most aerodynamic position. Riding with the hands on the hoods is the most comfortable position, and riders usually place their hands on top when ascending a climb. Track and time trial bicycles often have differently shaped handlebars with no drops, mainly in the track pursuit and time trial races. The lateral side of each handlebar has a flat forward projection on which the rider places his/her hands. The top tube in these bikes is also placed lower so that the rider assumes a more aerodynamic position by default. Time trial bicycles now usually also have what are termed “triathlon style” handlebars, or aerobars, which have a central forward extension on which the riders place their hands, with forearm rests that support the rider’s weight. Track bikes for longer races have a traditional shape with modifications with a sweep top tube that precludes use of the top tube for gripping. Union Cycliste Internationale regulations for road and track bikes limit the width of the bicycle, or effectively the handlebars, to 50 cm, and they must be at least 34 cm in width. Mountain bikes, BMX bikes, touring bikes, and children’s play bicycles have a simpler handlebar, which is basically a relatively straight, flat extension that projects outward from the steering tube. Handlebars, like most of the bike’s frame, are made from various materials, usually aluminum, steel, or more exotic materials, such as titanium, carbon fiber, or various hybrids. They are almost always covered. Racing and track bikes are covered by handlebar tape that is rolled onto the bars and gives the rider a gripping surface. Mountain bikes, BMX bikes, touring bikes, and play bicycles usually have rubberized foam grips at the outer ends of each bar for the rider to grasp. As a guideline, bikes with only one position for handgrips have grips at the ends, and bikes with various positions have tape.

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HARRIS, REGINALD HARGREAVES “REG” (GBR). B. 31 March 1920; Bury, Lancaster, England. D. 22 June 1992; Macclesfield, England. Great Britain’s greatest track sprinter prior to the arrival of Chris Hoy, Reg Harris won a total of five world sprint titles, his first coming as an amateur in 1947. Recovering from a broken arm, he “only” won two silver medals (sprint and tandem) at the 1948 London Olympics, prior to becoming a professional. In 1949, he became the first person to win a professional sprint title at his first attempt since the title was introduced, retaining his crown in 1950 and 1951. He again won the championship in 1954, while earning medals in 1953 and 1956. Harris also won the Grand Prix de Paris in 1956. Retiring in 1957, Harris returned to the sport in the 1970s, notably winning the 1974 British sprint title, at age 54. HELL OF THE NORTH. See PARIS–ROUBAIX. HELMET. A bicycle helmet protects the cyclist’s head in the event of a crash. Early professional cyclists never wore helmets. In the 1940s, a leather helmet, called the “hairnet helmet,” began to be used by some riders, but it likely provided little protection in the event of landing on one’s head during a crash; although, it remained the helmet of choice well into the 1970s. At that time, helmet manufacturers adopted hard-shell helmets from motorcycling and speedway competition, which were used by mountain bikers and BMX riders for several years. Similar hard-shell helmets remain popular among BMX riders because of the frequent crashes. In the late 1970s, helmet manufacturers began to develop polystyrene helmets, which were lighter and cooler than hard-shell helmets but provided good protection in the event of a head-first crash. These eventually came to be used more and more by racing cyclists, and in many countries, even children and recreational cyclists began to wear them. The polystyrene helmet absorbs the shock in a head landing, and in doing so, will often shatter, rendering them ineffective for further use. In 2003, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) made helmet use mandatory in its sanctioned races; although, at that time, professional cyclists could discard the helmet on a major finishing climb of 5 km or greater in length. That exception was removed a few years later, and helmet use throughout all UCI-sanctioned races is now mandatory at all times. There are many different styles of helmets, depending on the discipline and style of race, with BMX riders continuing to use the hard-shell helmets with a face bar or plastic cover to protect their face. Road racing time trial helmets have a rear windswept appearance, which places the rider, while bent over the time trial handlebars, into a much more aerodynamic position.

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HERRERA, LUIS ALBERTO “LUCHO” (COL). B. 4 May 1961; Fusagasugá, Colombia. A great climber, Lucho Herrera is one of two cyclists, with Federico Bahamontes, to have won the mountain classification at all three of the grand tours, the Tour de France, Giro d’Italia, and Vuelta a España. In 1987, he won the Vuelta general classification, the first Colombian to win a major tour. His mountain jersey wins came in 1985 and 1987 at the Tour, in 1989 at the Giro, and in 1987 and 1991 at the Vuelta. Herrera also won Dauphiné Libéré in 1988 and 1991, as well as the Vuelta à Colombia in 1984 through 1986 and 1988. HEßLICH, LUTZ (GDR/GER). B. 17 January 1959; Ortrand, Germany. Lutz Heßlich is the greatest amateur track sprinter never to ride as a professional. His total of four amateur world titles (1979, 1983, 1985, 1987) is only bettered by Daniel Morelon. Additionally, Heßlich was runner-up on three occasions (1981, 1982, 1986) and won the Olympic gold in 1980 and 1988, years in which no amateur world championships were staged. Heßlich might have won three consecutive gold medals at the Olympics had East Germany not boycotted the Los Angeles Olympics. In 1976 and 1977, Heßlich was also the junior world champion in the sprint. HET VOLK. See OMLOOP HET VOLK. HEW CYCLASSICS. See CYCLASSICS. HINAULT, BERNARD (FRA). B. 14 November 1954; Yffignac, France. Although most cycling experts consider Eddy Merckx as the greatest rider ever, Bernard Hinault is always placed in the next echelon of great cyclists, usually along with Jacques Anquetil, Fausto Coppi, Miguel Indurain, and Lance Armstrong. Hinault was incredibly tough, earning the nickname Le Blaireau, or “the badger.” Hinault equaled the record of Anquetil and Merckx by winning the Tour de France five times, a record later tied by Indurain and broken by Armstrong with seven. Hinault also won the polka-dot jersey at the 1986 Tour. He also is one of the five riders to win the three grand tours, but Hinault is the only cyclist to have won all of them two or more times, winning the Tour in 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, and 1985; the Giro d’Italia in 1980, 1982, and 1985; and the Vuelta a España in 1978 and 1983; and his record of 10 wins in the grand tours trails only Merckx’s 11. Hinault also added the career triple crown by winning the 1980 world championship road race. Hinault’s only weakness was that he was not a great road sprinter. But at the end of a fast, difficult race, his sprint became quite formidable, and he won many one-day races and stages in addition to his many tour victories.

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On a mountain stage in the Tour de France, Bernard Hinault, one of the greatest cyclists ever, leads Lucho Herrera up a climb. (Courtesy Graham Watson Photos)

At the Tour de France, he won 28 stages overall, second all-time behind Merckx’s 34, and he won 42 grand tour stages in all, fifth all-time. Hinault has five victories in the monument races, with a 1982 Paris–Roubaix win, and victories at Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 1977 and 1980 and at the Giro di Lombardia in 1979 and 1984. A great time trialist, Hinault won five times at the Grand Prix des Nations (1977–79, 1982, 1984), trailing only Anquetil’s nine. His other major victories include Gent–Wevelgem in 1977; La Flèche Wallonne in 1979 and 1983; Amstel Gold Race in 1981; and Dauphiné Libéré in 1977 and 1981. As of 2010, Bernard Hinault is the last French winner of the Tour de France and remains a legend to French cycling fans. He now works for the Tour de France organization, often appearing at stage finishes to greet the stage winners and jersey wearers. HINCAPIE GARCÉS, GEORGE (né HINCAPIÉ) (USA). B. 29 June 1973; Queens, New York, United States. Although of Colombian heritage, George Hincapie is an American professional road cyclist who has been known for his work as a domestique for Lance Armstrong’s U.S. Postal Service and Discovery teams and was the only rider alongside Armstrong in all seven of his Tour de France victories. But Hincapie has also won

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numerous races of his own, based on his strong sprinting ability. He is a three-time U.S. national champion (1998, 2006, 2009) and won one major classic, the 2001 Gent–Wevelgem. He also has victories in the 2004 Driedaagse van De Panne and the 2005 Kuurne–Brussels–Kuurne. Hincapie has often focused on the Belgian one-day classics, winning at Gent– Wevelgem, with a second place finish at Paris–Roubaix in 2005 and a third at the 2006 Ronde van Vlaanderen. Despite some difficulties in climbing because of his height of 191 cm (6 feet 3 inches), which has hampered him in grand tours, one of his greatest victories came in the 2005 Tour de France on the stage 15 climb to Pla d’Adet. HOWARD, JOHN KENNEDY (USA). B. 16 August 1947; Springfield, Missouri, United States. John Howard was an American professional cyclist who excelled in numerous ways in the sport. He was on the U.S. Olympic team in 1968, 1972, and 1976 and in 1971 won the gold medal in the road race at the Pan-American Games. In the late 1970s, he turned to the triathlon, and after finishing third at the 1980 Ironman Triathlon, won that race in 1981. In 1982, Howard placed second among four riders in the Great American Bike Race, a United States cross-country race from Santa Monica, California, to New York City that would later become known as the Race Across America (RAAM). In 1985, Howard set a world bicycle speed record, recording 245.078 km/h (152.284 mph) on the Bonneville Salt Flats, the first cyclist to better 150 mph, a record since broken by Fred Rompelberg. HOY, CHRISTOPHER ANDREW “CHRIS,” SIR, MBE (GBR). B. 23 March 1976; Edinburgh, Scotland. One of the chief products of the British track cycling program, Chris Hoy led the very successful British cycling team at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, with three gold medals. After anchoring the British team sprint squad to the title, Hoy dominated the match sprint and keirin competitions to win three gold medals, the best track cycling performance at a single Olympics by a man since Marcus Hurley in 1904. Until just a few years earlier, Hoy had specialized in the 1 km time trial, an event he had won at the 2004 Athens Games. When that event was discontinued for Beijing, Hoy was forced to change to other track sprinting events. His switch proved very successful, as he has uniquely won world and Olympic titles in all four sprinting disciplines (sprint, time trial, keirin, team sprint). His medal total in world championships is 20 through 2010, including 10 gold ones. HÜBNER, MICHAEL (GDR/GER). B. 8 April 1959; Karl-Marx-Stadt (now Chemnitz), East Germany. One of the most successful track sprinters

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for some 15 years, Michael Hübner won a total of 16 world championship medals, including 7 gold. Racing for East Germany in the 1980s, Hübner often found himself beaten by compatriot Lutz Heßlich; although, he defeated him at the 1986 amateur world championships. Unlike Heßlich, Hübner made the move to the professionals after the reunification of Germany. Between 1990 and 1992, Hübner collected three keirin world titles and two in the sprint (1990, 1992). His final world title came in 1995, when he won the inaugural team sprint competition. Of note, Michael Hübner never competed in the Olympic Games—in 1984, East Germany boycotted the Los Angeles Olympics; four years later, Heßlich qualified instead of him; in 1992, professionals were not yet allowed to compete; and in 1996, the keirin and team sprint were not yet on the program. HUBS. The hub refers to the central mechanism of a bike’s wheels. It contains an axle, bearings, and a hub shell. The axle attaches to the frame via small dropouts on the front fork or the rear chainstay. Modern bicycles have standard hub sizes, with front wheels having 100 mm front-fork spacing and rear wheels having a 130 mm hub. Racing bicycles have hubs and axles that attach to the frame using a “quick release” lever that allows the wheel to be removed or inserted with no tools. Lower end bikes or touring bikes will often attach using a wing nut. The hubs contain a bearing mechanism that allows the wheel to rotate freely from its attachment to the frame. These are covered by a hub shell, which has attachment points for the spokes at each side.

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I INDIVIDUAL PURSUIT. The individual pursuit is a track cycling event that features two riders racing each other and the clock. Competitors start on opposite sides of the track from starting blocks. The winner is the rider who either catches the other rider, hence pursuit, or finishes first. Racing distances are 4,000 m for men, and 3,000 m for women; although, professionals raced 5,000 m until 1991. The end of a race is signaled by (starting) pistol shots, either when riders cross the line or when one is overtaken. The individual pursuit has been a world championship event for both amateurs and professionals since 1946 and an Olympic event since 1964; although, it will be dropped in 2012. Women have contested it since 1958 at the world championships and since 1992 at the Olympics. The all-time leading champion among men is Guido Messina (ITA), who won two amateur titles and three with the professionals. Among women, Soviet cyclist Tamara Garkushina and Rebecca Twigg lead with six world titles, while Beryl Burton has won 11 medals and five titles. See also TEAM PURSUIT. INDOOR CYCLING. “Indoor cycling” is a collective name used by the Union Cycliste Internationale for artistic cycling and cycle-ball. The two disciplines have common world championships, the UCI Indoor Cycling World Championships. INDURAIN LARRAYA, MIGUEL ÁNGEL “BIG MIG” (ESP). B. 16 July 1964; Villava, Spain. Miguel Indurain was the fourth man, after Jacques Anquetil, Eddy Merckx, and Bernard Hinault, to win the Tour de France five times, but Indurain went further with five consecutive wins from 1991 to 1995; although, this was broken by Lance Armstrong, who won seven consecutive from 1999 to 2005. Indurain also won the Giro d’Italia in 1992 and 1993, winning the Tour-Giro double both years, a feat that had been accomplished at the time only by Anquetil, Merckx, Hinault, Fausto Coppi, and Stephen Roche (Marco Pantani later won this double in 1998). Indurain’s strength was as a time trialist, as most of his stage race wins were built by his dominance in the time trial, and he won only two Tour races in non–time trial stages. But he was also an excellent climber, who was rarely dropped 107

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Miguel Indurain, a winner of the Tour de France for five consecutive years (1991–95), here during his successful attempt to break the world hour record in 1994. (Courtesy Graham Watson Photos)

in the Alps or Pyrenees. He was one of the larger riders in the professional peloton at 188 cm (6 feet 2 inches), which brought him the nickname Big Mig, or Miguelón. Indurain first came to prominence when he won the Tour de l’Avenir in 1986. In 1989, he won Paris–Nice and the Criterium Internationale, repeating his Paris–Nice victory in 1990 as well as winning the Clásica de San Sebastián that year. Indurain also set the world hour record in 1994, riding 53.040 km. He later won Dauphiné Libéré in 1995 and 1996 and Midi Libre in 1995, also winning the world championship that year in the individual time trial. At the 1996 Olympic Games, he added a gold medal in the individual time trial, in the first year that Olympic cycling was open to professionals, and then retired after the 1996 season. INTERNATIONAL BICYCLE MOTOCROSS FEDERATION (IBMXF). Although some of the early American BMX associations attempted to spread the new sport outside of the United States, none of them succeeded. The IBMXF was founded in 1981 by Dutchman Gerrit Does.

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The IBMXF closely cooperated with the National Bicycle League (NBL), and many other national and international federations also became affiliated with the IBMXF. The federation’s first world championships were held in 1982. Eventually, the IBMXF started cooperating with the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), holding world championships together from 1991. Two years later, the IBXMF was absorbed by the UCI; although, through 1995, the world championships were held under a joint UCI/IBMXF banner. The events held at the IBMXF world championships have changed a bit over the years and have always included many junior classes. On the senior front, there was a professional category, which typically featured mostly American racers. From 1991 on, when the UCI’s amateur division was co-organizer, these events disappeared, leaving the amateur events, also known as superclass. For both amateurs and pros, there were usually (but not in all years) three classes, for 20-inch, 24-inch, and 26-inch (cruiser) bicycles. Repeat champions from the IBMXF era include Gary Ellis (USA), who won three pro titles (1985, 1987, 1988) and one in superclass (1993), and Phil Hoogendoorn (NED), who won a total of five superclass titles between 1983 and 1986. The top female competitor was Corine Dorland (NED), who won three world titles (1991, 1993, 1994). Apart from world championships, the IBMXF also staged continental championships, notably in Europe, but also on other continents. INTERNATIONAL CYCLING ASSOCIATION (ICA). In the late 19th century, the championships of the National Cycling Union (NCU), the British cycling organization, were generally considered as unofficial world championships. However, the NCU’s strict stance on amateurism caused a divide in the cycling world—in and outside of Britain—and the need for a different governing body was felt. This organization, the International Cycling Association, was founded in 1892 by representatives of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, and the Netherlands. It was resolved that world championships in track cycling would be held for the first time, with three events scheduled (sprint, scratch, and motor-paced). These competitions took place in Chicago in 1893, and subsequent world championships were held annually in different nations. Within the ICA, the British Isles had four votes, one each for England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. This did not sit well with the continental European nations, and they opted to found their own association, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). This organization, still the sport’s governing body, was founded in Paris on 14 April 1900 by the national cycling federations of Belgium, France, Italy, Switzerland, and the United States. The ICA was dissolved, and in 1903, Great Britain also joined the UCI.

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ITALY. Italy has a long history of great road racers. Alfredo Binda was possibly the best cyclist of the first half of the 20th century, and his compatriot Costante Girardengo also claimed many victories. After the war, rivals Gino Bartali and Fausto Coppi, considered the greatest cyclist ever before Eddy Merckx, stole the hearts of the tifosi, later followed by Felice Gimondi, Francesco Moser, Gianni Bugno, and Paolo Bettini. Italian women also had their fair share of success on the road, and Maria Canins and Fabiana Luperini definitely deserve mention here. The Giro d’Italia, held since 1909, is one of the three grand tours and forms part of the triple crown of cycling. Two of the five monument races are also held in Italy: Milano–Sanremo, which traditionally opens the classics season, and the Giro di Lombardia, which ends it. The only other Italian race to form part of the UCI World Ranking is currently the Tirreno–Adriatico stage race. On the track, Italy has produced several great racers, notably pursuiters Guido Messina and Leandro Faggin. With seven pro world titles, Antonio Maspes is among the all-time best track sprinters. On the mountain bike, Paola Pezzo has won many titles, while Renato Longo was the main cyclo-cross star of the 1960s. See also ARGENTIN, MORENO “IL CAPO”; BALDINI, ERCOLE; BARTOLI, MICHELE; BASSO, IVAN; BATTAGLIN, GIOVANNI; BOTTECCHIA, OTTAVIO; CASAGRANDE, FRANCESCO; CHIAPPUCCI, CLAUDIO; CIPOLLINI, MARIO; DI LUCA, DANILO; FONDRIEST, MAURIZIO; GARZELLI, STEFANO; GIRO DONNE; MAGNI, FIORENZO; MAPEI; OLMO, GIUSEPPE; PANTANI, MARCO “IL PIRATA”; PETACCHI, ALESSANDRO “ALE-JET”; SARONNI, GIUSEPPE “BEPPE”; SIMONI, GILBERTO; STRADA, ALFONSINA; VELODROMO VIGORELLI.

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J JALABERT, LAURENT “JAJA” (FRA). B. 30 November 1968; Mazamet, France. Laurent “Jaja” Jalabert raced professionally on the roads from 1989 to 2002. His greatest achievement came in 1995 when he won the Vuelta a España and also won the mountain classification and points classification. This made him only the third cyclist to have won all three major jerseys in the same grand tour, after Eddy Merckx in the 1969 Tour de France and Tony Rominger at the 1994 Vuelta. Primarily a sprinter early in his career, Jalabert won the points classification at all three grand tours, a feat equaled only by Merckx and Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov. Jalabert ranked first in the world in the Union Cycliste Internationale rankings in 1995, 1997, and 1999, placing second in 1998. After a severe accident late in 1994, Jalabert remade himself, improving his climbing ability and becoming a top attacker. Jalabert’s palmarès is extensive. He won 25 stages in the grand tours— 18 in the Vuelta a España, three at the Giro d’Italia, and four in the Tour de France, but two of those, in 1995 and 2001, came on Bastille Day, which endeared Jaja to the French fans. He won 10 jerseys in the big tours as follows: Tour—1992 and 1995 points and 2001 mountains; Giro—1999 points; Vuelta—1995 general, 1994 through 1997 points, and 1995 mountains. Jalabert won the 1997 world time trial championship and placed second in the world championship road race in 1992. His other major victories were as follows: Paris–Nice in 1995 through 1997; Tour de Romandie in 1999; Giro di Lombardia in 1997; Milano–Sanremo in 1995; Clásica de San Sebastián in 2001 and 2002; La Flèche Wallonne in 1995 and 1997; Vuelta al País Vasco in 1999; and the Volta a Catalunya in 1995. After retiring in 2002, Jalabert became a consultant to Look Cycle and a television commentator. He also started competing in Ironman triathlons, placing 76th in the Ironman world championship in 2007. JANSSEN, JOHANNES ADRIANUS “JAN” (NED). B. 19 May 1940; Nootdorp, Netherlands. Jan Janssen is known as one of the great road sprinters of all time, and in 1968, he became the first Dutch cyclist to win the Tour de France. His victory in the 1968 Tour de France came by only 38 seconds over Belgium’s Herman Van Springel, at the time, the closest finish in Tour 111

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history. This came after Janssen had won the 1967 Vuelta a España, was world champion in the professional road race in 1964, and had finished second at the 1966 Tour. Janssen’s sprinting ability enabled him to win the points classification three times at the Tour (1964, 1965, 1967), twice at the Vuelta (1967, 1968), and once at the Tour de Suisse (1969). His other major victories included Züri-Metzgete in 1962, Paris–Nice in 1964, Bordeaux– Paris in 1966, and Paris–Roubaix in 1967. JOUR SANS, UN. In stage racing, a very poor day is often referred to by the French name un jour sans, or literally, “a day without.”

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K KEIRIN. The keirin is one of the few track cycling events not originating in the West, having been developed in Japan. It is essentially a variant of the sprint, with two major differences. First, there are multiple cyclists on the track. Traditionally, the number is nine, but in international competition, it is usually six. Secondly, during the early laps of the race, the cyclists ride behind a pacer, usually a derny. From the start, the pacer gradually increases speed up to 50 km/h (just over 30 mph). Riders are not allowed to pass the pacer until it leaves the track, usually with some 600 to 700 m to go (about two laps). A full-out sprint then follows. Keirin is extremely popular in Japan, in particular because of gambling on the races. In recent years, an estimated $15 billion is placed in keirin bets annually, and top keirin cyclists may earn millions of dollars in winnings. Internationally, the event has been held since the 1970s, and it became a world championship event in 1980 (2002 for women) and came onto the Olympic Program in 2000. Unsurprisingly, the top riders are often the same as in the sprint event. As of 2010, three riders have won three world titles, Michael Hübner, Frédéric Magné, and Chris Hoy, the latter also claiming the 2008 Olympic title. Among women, only Clara Sanchez (France) has won more than one title, with two. Interestingly, just one Japanese rider has won an international title, with Harumi Honda winning the 1987 world title. KELLY, JOHN JAMES “SEAN” (IRL). B. 24 May 1956; Carrick-onSuir, Ireland. For much of the 1980s, Sean Kelly was rated the world’s top professional cyclist in the computer rankings. This was based mainly on his many wins in the one-day classics. Kelly was not as formidable in the grand tours because he was only an average climber; although, he did win the 1988 Vuelta a España and the 1983 and 1990 Tour de Suisse. Kelly’s biggest disappointment was his inability to win the Tour de France, his best overall finish being fourth in 1985, but he won the points classification in 1982, 1983, and 1985 and also won that jersey at the Vuelta in 1980, 1985, 1986, and 1988. His greatest success came in the Paris–Nice stage race, in which he won the title for an amazing seven consecutive years (1982–88).

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Kelly won monument races nine times, ranking third all-time behind Eddy Merckx and Rik Van Looy. These wins include the Giro di Lombardia in 1983, 1985, and 1991; Milano–Sanremo in 1986 and 1992; Paris–Roubaix in 1984 and 1986; and Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 1984 and 1989. He failed to win a monument only at the Ronde van Vlaanderen. Kelly also won at Gent–Wevelgem in 1988, at Paris–Tours in 1984, and at the 1986 Grand Prix des Nations. After he retired in 1994, Kelly starting working as a cycling commentator for Eurosport, has worked with the Sean Kelly Cycling Academy in Belgium, and sponsors young Irish riders. See also DOPING. KERMESSE. Kermesse races are European mass start circuit races often held in town centers. The name derives from the Dutch word for “fair” or “fun fair,” kermis, as these races were often part of larger town celebrations. They are similar to criteriums; although, kermesses tend to be longer, and the courses are also usually longer. They are popular later in the European cycling season, in which some of the winners of the grand tours are invited to race for appearance fees, thereby reaping some of the harvest from their victories earlier in the season. Similar to criterium races, kermesses often feature prime sprints for cash awards. They are mostly held in Western Europe, especially Belgium, the Netherlands, and Northern France, often being held in smaller towns and allowing the people in that town the chance to see many of the top riders. KING OF THE MOUNTAINS. See MOUNTAIN CLASSIFICATION. KOBLET, HUGO (SUI). B. 21 March 1925; Zürich, Switzerland. D. 6 November 1964; Egg, Switzerland. Hugo Koblet’s nickname was the Pedaler of Charm for the grace and ease he displayed on the bike. His greatest hour of a meteoric career came in the 1951 Tour de France, which he won by 20 minutes. But it was one particular stage—on 15 July, 177 km from Brive to Agen—that established his legend. At 37 km, Koblet rolled off the front in a lone breakaway. Though the peloton chased and chased, Koblet could not be caught, winning eventually by 2:35. One of his greatest rivals, Italy’s Raphaël Géminiani, described his effortless ride, “He pedaled in a state of grace. While we suffered like dogs, he rolled along like a tourist.” Koblet also won the 1950 Giro d’Italia and the 1950, 1953, and 1955 Tour de Suisse; the 1952 and 1953 Züri-Metzgete; and the 1951 Grand Prix des Nations, but his meteoric brilliance at the 1951 Tour was short lived. He traveled to Mexico late in 1951 and came down with a mysterious malady and was never again the same sublime rider. In 1964, he took his own life by driving his car into a tree.

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KRAMER, FRANK (USA). B. 20 November 1880; Evansville, Indiana, United States. D. 8 October 1958; East Orange, New Jersey, United States. As a teen, Frank Kramer contracted tuberculosis, and his parents got him to take up cycling for his health. He became so good at it that he remains the greatest track sprinter ever produced in the United States and one of the greatest ever. Kramer won only one world championship, at the 1912 event held in Newark, New Jersey. His failure to win more is surely because he traveled only rarely to Europe and competed in the event only one other time. Kramer did win the Grand Prix de Paris in 1905 and 1906, won three sixday events, and was an 18-time professional sprint champion in the United States. In the 1920s, when American cycling was in its heyday, Kramer was one of the best-known athletes in the country and was higher paid than any baseball player except Babe Ruth. Kramer had a very long career, retiring on 26 July 1922 at age 42. The New York Times ran front-page stories about the event for three days. In his last race, he equaled the world sprint record for one-sixth of a mile. KÜBLER, FERDI (SUI). B. 24 July 1919; Adliswill, Switzerland. Ferdi Kübler was the first Swiss rider to win the Tour de France and was one of the most versatile riders ever, as he was Swiss champion in the pursuit and in cyclo-cross in addition to his road abilities. His pursuit ability manifested itself by making him a formidable road sprinter, but he was a good enough all-rounder to win four major stage races—the 1950 Tour de France and the Tour de Suisse in 1942, 1948, and 1951—and he won the points jersey at the 1954 Tour de France. Kübler’s greatest one-day win came at the 1951 world championship road race. His other major victories included La Flèche Wallonne in 1951 and 1952, Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 1951 and 1952, Bordeaux–Paris in 1953, and Züri-Metzgete in 1943. Kübler was nicknamed the Swiss Cowboy because of his penchant for wearing Stetson cowboy hats. KUGLER-ANDERSON MEMORIAL TOUR. See TOUR OF SOMERVILLE. KUIPER, HENDRIK “HENNIE” (NED). B. 3 February 1949; Denekamp, Netherlands. Hennie Kuiper was a Dutch cyclist who burst onto the scene by winning the gold medal in the road race at the 1972 Olympics, riding the last 40 km in a lone breakaway. He never won a grand tour, but was second at the Tour de France twice, in 1977 and 1980, and placed fourth in 1979. In 1975, he won the world championship road race, making him the second person, and one of only three, to win the Olympic road race and the world professional championship (Ercole Baldini and Paolo Bettini

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are the others). Kuiper also won four of the five monument races, the biggest of the one-day classics. He won the Ronde de Vlaanderen and Giro di Lombardia in 1981, Paris–Roubaix in 1983, and Milano–Sanremo in 1985, failing to win only at Liège–Bastogne–Liège. KUPFERNAGEL, HANKA (GER). B. 19 March 1974; Gera, Germany. In 2000, Hanka Kupfernagel became the first female cyclo-cross world champion. In the next 10 editions through 2010, she medaled nine times, winning the 2001, 2005, and 2008 championships while finishing second on five occasions. But Kupfernagel also excelled on the road. In 2007, she won the time trial at the road racing world championships, and at the Sydney 2000 Olympics, she captured a silver medal in the road race. At the 1998 world championships on the road, she won bronze medals in the time trial and road race. Kupfernagel has also competed in track cycling world cups and has won German mountain biking titles.

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L LAMBOT, FIRMIN (BEL). B. 14 March 1886; Florennes, Belgium. D. 19 January 1964; Borgerhout, Belgium. Firmin Lambot was a Belgian professional cyclist who won the Tour de France twice. Lambot turned pro in 1908 and debuted at the Tour in 1913, winning stages in 1913 and 1914. After World War I, he won his first Tour in 1919, placed third in 1920, and won again in 1922. His victory in 1922, at age 36, makes him still the oldest winner of the Tour de France. He retired after 1922 and returned to work as a saddler. LANDIS, FLOYD (USA). B. 14 October 1975; Farmersville, Pennsylvania, United States. From a devout Mennonite family, Floyd Landis was an American road cyclist who started out as a mountain biker, whose career had one meteoric high, followed by a descent down to doping disgrace. Landis turned professional in 1999 and in 2002 joined the U.S. Postal team, serving as a domestique to Lance Armstrong. In 2005, he left U.S. Postal to join Phonak and rode for them at the 2006 Tour de France. Earlier that year, Landis won the Tour of California and was among the favorites in the Tour de France. In the Tour, he twice took the yellow jersey early, after stages 11 and 15, but in stage 16, he had what the French call un jour sans (a day without) and lost 8 minutes, dropping out of yellow. The next day, Landis had one of the greatest rides in modern Tour history: he attacked early in a stage with multiple large climbs, was never caught, winning by almost 8 minutes, and moved back up to second, just behind leader Óscar Pereiro. But in the stage 19 time trial, Landis took back yellow and the next day seemingly won the Tour de France. It was all the more remarkable for Landis rode with severe hip arthritis and would undergo a hip replacement late in 2006. However, within a week, it was announced that Landis had tested positive for elevated testosterone levels. He was found guilty of doping, his Tour title was removed, and he was banned from professional cycling for two years. Landis fought the doping suspension with all he had, starting websites, fund-raising to support his legal fund, and hiring the best attorneys, but he lost all appeals, and the suspension stood, despite his proclamations of innocence. Then in May 2010, after he had returned to cycling in 117

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2009, with little success, Landis admitted to systematic doping and began accusing multiple other riders of also doing so, notably Lance Armstrong. In January 2011, Landis announced his retirement from cycling. LANTERNE ROUGE. The lanterne rouge, or “red lantern,” is the name given to the rider placed last in the race. The name is derived from the red lantern that used to be hung on the caboose of a train, which the conductor would check to be certain no cars had come loose. Riders in the Tour de France will often actually contest the lanterne rouge, trying to finish last, rather than next-to-last. The reason is that the winner of the lanterne rouge is often rewarded with invitations to many of the post-Tour criteriums. However, there are time limits in stage races, with riders coming in beyond the limits being dropped from the race, so there is some art to earning the lanterne rouge without being dropped. LAPÉBIE, GUY (FRA). B. 28 November 1916; Saint-Geours de Marenne, France. D. 8 March 2010; Bagnères-de-Luchon, Haute-Garonne, France. Guy Lapébie was a French road racer who starred at the 1936 Olympics, winning gold medals in the team pursuit and team road race and silver in the individual road race. After World War II, he turned professional and became mostly known as a six-day racer, winning six major titles in sixday races. He also rode the 1936 Tour de France, placing third overall. His brother, Roger Lapébie, was also a professional cyclist who had a more extensive palmarès. LAPÉBIE, ROGER HENRI FERNAND (FRA). B. 16 January 1911; Bayonne, France. D. 12 October 1996; Pessac, France. Roger Lapébie was a French professional who won the 1937 Tour de France. In 1934, he placed third in general classification at the Tour but won five stages that year. In all, he won 10 stages in the Tour and also won the Critérium Nationale in 1934 and 1937. Lapébie’s brother, Guy Lapébie, was also a prominent cyclist, winning two gold medals and a silver medal at the 1936 Olympics and later turning professional. Like Guy, Roger also won several six-day races later in his career, but his career was shortened by World War II as he never raced after 1939. LAPIZE, OCTAVE (FRA). B. 20 October 1887; Paris, France. D. 14 July 1917; Toul, Meurthe-et-Moselle, France. Octave Lapize was the only 1900 Olympic cyclist to become well known as a professional cyclist. In 1907, he won the French road and cyclo-cross championships. In 1909 and 1910, he won Paris–Roubaix, and from 1911 to 1913, he won the Paris–Bruxelles

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race. He was also French champion on the roads in 1910 through 1913. He raced in the Tour de France from 1909 to 1914, winning the race in 1910, while taking four stages. He also won stages at the Tour in 1912 and 1914 but never again finished the race. He is perhaps best known for his comments to the Tour organizers during the 1910 race, while he ascended the Col du Tourmalet, noting, “Vous êtes des assassins! Oui, des assassins” (You are murderers. Yes, murderers.) In World War I, Lapize served as a sergeant in the artillery and a fighter pilot. He was injured during an aerial battle and died in a hospital as a result of his injuries. LEBLANC, JEAN-MARIE. B. 27 July 1944, Nueil-les-Aubiers, DeuxSèvres, France. Jean-Marie Leblanc was a French professional cyclist who rode from 1966 to 1971. He won only a few minor races, with his best achievement placing second at Quatre Jours de Dunkerque in 1970. He then turned to journalism. He is best known for serving as the director of the Tour de France from 1989 to 2005. LEDUCQ, ANDRÉ (FRA). B. 27 February 1904; Saint-Ouen, Seine-SaintDenis, France. D. 18 June 1980; Marseille, France. André Leducq was a French professional cyclist who won the 1930 and 1932 Tour de France. He rode the Tour 12 times, also placing second in 1928 and fourth in 1927. During that time, he won 25 stages, which was a race record not bettered until Eddy Merckx came along. He was world champion in the amateur road race in 1924 and also won Paris–Roubaix in 1927 and Paris–Tours in 1931. LEMOND, GREGORY JAMES “GREG” (USA). B. 26 June 1961; Lakewood, California, United States. Greg LeMond was the first great American professional road cyclist. He came to international prominence in 1979 when he won three medals at the world junior amateur championships in the individual road race (gold), team time trial (bronze), and the individual pursuit (silver). Denied a chance at Olympic gold in 1980 by the United States–led boycott, LeMond turned professional in 1981 and was an immediate success, winning the Tour de l’Avenir in 1982. He rode his first Tour de France in 1984, finishing third, and it would become the scene of his greatest triumphs, as he was second at the 1985 Tour and won the Tour in 1986, the first American to do so. In the winter after his 1986 Tour victory, LeMond was accidentally shot by his brother-in-law in a hunting accident. It was unclear at first if he would live, much less survive to ride again. He rode but for two years was a shadow of his former greatness. Early in 1989, he considered retirement as he was often dropped on mountain climbs. But his form came around, and in the most dramatic Tour de

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The star-studded podium at the 1989 Tour de France, the closest finish in race history. Greg LeMond, in the middle, won by eight seconds from Laurent Fignon, 1983–84 champion, on the left, with Pedro Delgado, the 1988 champion, on the right. (Courtesy Graham Watson Photos)

France finish ever, he made up 58 seconds in the last stage time trial to defeat Laurent Fignon by 8 seconds, the narrowest victory margin in Tour history. LeMond repeated that victory in 1990, winning his third Tour title. LeMond’s strength was time trialing; although, he was also an excellent climber. His weakness in his career was his inability to win the one-day classics, but he used them primarily as tune-up races for the major tours. LeMond twice won the world championship road race, in 1983 and 1989, and also won the 1982 Dauphiné Libéré. LETOURNEUR, ALFRED ALBERT “ALF” “THE RED DEVIL” (FRA/USA). B. 25 July 1907; Amiens, France. D. 4 January 1975; New York, New York, United States. Alf Letourneur was a French professional who immigrated to the United States in 1928, where he became known as a six-day racer well before becoming a U.S. citizen in 1958. From 1930 to 1938 he won 21 major six-day races in the United States and Canada, nine of them with Gerry Debaets, four with Marcel Guimbretière, and three with Franco Giorgetti. Letourneur also set the bicycle speed record twice, recording 147.058 km/h (91.377 mph) in October 1938 and bettering that with 175.353 km/h (108.983 mph) at Bakersfield, California, in May 1941, becoming the first person to ride a bicycle more than 100 miles per hour. He

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One of the great teams in six-day racing history, with Gerry Debaets preparing to slingshot his partner, Alf Letourner. (Courtesy Peter Nye)

was also a four-time U.S. champion (1932–35) in the track motor-paced event. See also APPENDIX H. LIBOTON, ROLAND (BEL). B. 6 March 1957; Leuven, Belgium. The dominant cyclo-cross rider of the 1980s, Roland Liboton turned professional after his title in the world championships for amateurs of 1978. He gained his first title with the pros in 1980, repeating three more times in 1982 through 1984, while finishing runner-up in 1981. In 1985, 1986, and 1988, he claimed the Superprestige three times. In the 1987–88 Superprestige, he was dominant, winning 7 of 10 races on the circuit. In addition to these international victories, he won the Belgian title 10 times in a row (1980–89) and competed in road racing, starting in the 1981 Tour de France. LIÈGE–BASTOGNE–LIÈGE. Liège–Bastogne–Liège is the oldest one-day classic in cycling and is nicknamed La Doyenne as a result. It is one of the five monument races, considered by some as the most important of the one-day

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classics, and is held in mid-April each year. The race began as an amateur race in 1892, with the first professional event occurring in 1894. The race is held in the Ardennes region of Belgium, starting in Liège, riding directly to Bastogne (about 95 km), and returning to Liège on a longer route of about 160 km. For some time, La Flèche Wallonne and Liège–Bastogne–Liège were held on Saturday and Sunday on the same weekend. Six riders achieved the Ardennes Double—Ferdi Kübler (1951–52), Stan Ockers (1955), Eddy Merckx (1972), Moreno Argentin (1991), Davide Rebellin (2004), and Alejandro Valverde (2006). Liège–Bastogne–Liège is known for often being ridden in difficult weather, with rain, mud, and even snow frequently affecting the race. In particular, the 1980 race was held in a driving snow storm, and the media renamed the race Neige-Bastogne-Neige (neige is “snow” in French). Merckx holds the record for the race with five wins in 1969, 1971 through 1973, and 1975. See also APPENDIX C for a list of winners. LLANERAS ROSELLÓ, JOAN (ESP). B. 17 May 1969; Porreres, Majorca, Spain. One of the great tactical endurance racers on the track, Joan Llaneras won a total of nine major titles in the points race and Madison. In all, Llaneras won seven world championships, four in the points race (1996, 1998, 2000, 2007) and three in the Madison (1997, 1999, 2006). Two of his Madison world titles were won with Isaac Gálvez, who tragically died after a fall in the six-days of Gent in 2006. His only Madison event after Gálvez’s death came at the 2008 Olympics, where Llaneras won silver. It was his fourth Olympic medal, having earlier won the 2000 and 2008 points race, while winning the 2004 silver medal in that event. He retired after the Beijing Olympics. LONGO, JEANNIE (FRA). B. 31 October 1958; Annecy, France. If not the greatest female cyclist of all time, Jeannie Longo certainly has had the longest career. As of 2011, she is still active, having won her first national title in 1979. Originally a skier (both alpine and cross-country), Longo has won all available titles in the sport. She has been world champion 13 times, 5 times in the road race (1985–87, 1989, 1995), four times in the time trial (1995–97, 2001), three times in the individual pursuit on the track (1986, 1988, 1989), and once in the points race (1989). In 1993, she also medaled at the world championships in mountain biking, finishing second in the cross-country. Jeannie Longo is the winner of four Olympic medals, including a gold medal in the road race of 1996, after three failed attempts as a favorite, and Longo has competed in Olympic cycling all seven times the sport has been held for women (1984–2008). She won the Grande Boucle three times in a row (1987–89) and has 57 French titles to her name, her latest as recent as 2010

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Jeannie Longo, considered by many as the greatest ever female cyclist, in the World Championship Time Trial. (Courtesy Graham Watson Photos)

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in the road time trial. Longo has also broken the world hour record a total of six times. Longo has retired, or been assumed to retire, several times, but except for a break between 1989 and 1991, she has always continued racing, often against competitors who were not even born when she won her first titles. Despite her successes, Longo is not very popular in the peloton due to her competitiveness and preference to make her own decisions in preparation and during the race. LONGO, RENATO (ITA). B. 9 August 1937; Vittorio Veneto, Italy. The dominant cyclo-crosser of the 1960s, Renato Longo won five world titles: 1959, 1962, 1964, 1965, and 1967. In addition, he finished second twice (1961, 1963) and third in 1969. Between 1959 and 1972, he also won the Italian title a record 12 times. Early in his career, Longo also appeared on the road, but without much success, and he later tended solely to cyclo-cross. LOPES, BRIAN (USA). B. 6 September 1971; Mission Viejo, California, United States. Brian Lopes is the foremost specialist in the action-packed mountain biking disciplines of dual slalom and four-cross. Of the four seasons that dual slalom featured on the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup circuit, he grabbed the title three times. At the world championships, he claimed the title in 2000, finishing runner-up in 2001. When the event was replaced by the four-cross, he remained equally successful. In 2002, 2005, and 2007, Lopes took the World Cup in that discipline, also earning three world titles (2002, 2005, 2007). LUPERINI, FABIANA (ITA). B. 14 January 1974; Pontedera, Italy. Fabiana Luperini’s main claim to fame is having won the Giro Donne a record five times. She won the stage race four times in a row between 1995 and 1998 and again 10 years later (2008). She was also the winner of the Grande Boucle three times (1995–97), making her the most successful female stage racer. Although she never medaled at the world championships, Luperini has also won several one-day races, including three victories in the Flèche Wallonne Féminine (1998, 2001, 2002) and four Italian titles on the road (1996, 2004, 2006, 2008). See also WOMEN. LUXEMBOURG. Despite being one of the smallest nations in Europe, Luxembourg has produced no less than three Tour de France winners, collecting a total of four wins. France would have to produce more than 500 victories for a comparable performance. These three winners, François Faber, Nicolas Frantz, and Charly Gaul, have all won their victories long ago. However, brothers Fränk and Andy Schleck, currently active in the professional peloton, are hoping to become Luxembourg’s next great cycling champions.

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M MADISON. One of the more spectacular (and confusing) track cycling events, the Madison is essentially a points race for pairs of cyclists. As in the points race, points are gained by winning sprints and gaining laps, with the difference that sprints are held every 20 laps, not every 10 laps. The main difference, however, is that only one of the two riders of a team is in competition at any point in the race. They may relay one another at any point in the race, by touching either the hands or shorts of their teammate. Most commonly, riders perform a “handshake,” with the incoming rider being launched by the outgoing one. The Madison has its origins in six-day racing, which was a popular race format for two cyclists originating in the United States and particularly New York’s Madison Square Garden venue, to which the event owes its name. In other languages, it is known as l’Américaine (French) or Americana (Italian), again referring to its American origins. The Madison was not held at the world championships until 1995 and is only contested by men. Unsurprisingly, the best couples are often the same as the top six-day racers. Through 2010, eight men have won two world titles, but only Spain’s Joan Llaneras has won three. The Madison has also been held at the Olympics between 2000 and 2008 but has been dropped from the Olympic Program for 2012. MAERTENS, FREDDY (BEL). B. 13 February 1952; Nieuwpoort, Belgium. Freddy Maertens carried the hopes of a nation who expected him to be the next Eddy Merckx. But he turned out to be “only” Freddie Maertens; although, that enabled him to compile one of the greatest records ever in the one-day classics. Maertens was only an average climber, which prevented him from winning much in the grand tours; although, he did win the 1977 Vuelta a España. But as one of the greatest ever road sprinters, he was able to win the points classification at the Tour de France in 1976, 1978, and 1981 and the Vuelta in 19977. His other major victories included the world championship road race in 1976 and 1981; Gent–Wevelgem in 1975 and 1976; the Amstel Gold Race, Rund um den Henninger Turm, Grand Prix des Nations, and Züri-Metzgete in 1976, his greatest year; Paris–Nice in 1977; Ronde van Vlaanderen in 1982; and Bordeaux–Paris in 1985. See also DOPING. 125

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MAES, SYLVÈRE (BEL). B. 27 August 1909; Zevekote, Belgium. D. 5 December 1966; Ostend, Belgium. Sylvère Maes was a Belgian cyclist who won the Tour de France in 1936 and 1939. He also placed fourth in 1935 and won the mountain classification in 1939. In all, he won nine stages at the Tour. Maes also won Paris–Roubaix in 1933. He came back to race after World War II, entering the 1947 Giro d’Italia and placing fifth in his only appearance in that race. MAGLIA ROSA. See PINK JERSEY. MAGNE, ANTONIN (FRA). B. 15 February 1904; Ytrac, France. D. 8 September 1983; Arcachon, France. Antonin Magne was a French professional cyclist who won the Tour de France in 1931 and 1934. He was on the podium four times in the Tour, also placing third in 1930 and second in 1936. Magne won the Grand Prix des Nations in 1934 through 1936 and also won the 1936 world championship road race. In the 1934 Tour, Magne was leading throughout most of the race. On a descent in the Pyrenees, he broke a wheel, but his teammate, René Vietto, handed him his wheel; although, Vietto was in third place himself. The next day, Magne again had mechanical problems, and Vietto, who was just ahead of him on the Col de Portet d’Aspet, saw this and rode back to Magne, giving him his bike this time. While Vietto waited for the team car to come to him with a new bike, he wept by the side of the road, but he became a legend to the French cycling fans for his efforts in support of his team captain. After his competitive retirement, Magne became a directeur sportif and, in 1962, was made a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. Vietto would never win the Tour but wore the yellow jersey for 26 days, the most ever by a non-winner. MAGNÉ, FRÉDÉRIC (FRA). B. 5 February 1969; Tours, France. With seven world titles, Magné is one of the more successful sprinters on the track. Starting out as a tandem specialist, he won a record-tying four world titles (1987–89, 1994) in that event, all teamed with Fabrice Colas. When the tandem competition was discontinued after the 1994 world championships, Magné dedicated himself to the solo sprinting events on the track, with success. In 1995, he won the keirin world title, while coming in third in the sprint competition. Two more keirin titles followed (1997, 2000) before Magné’s retirement in 2000. MAGNI, FIORENZO (ITA). B. 7 December 1920; Vaiano, Toscano, Italy. Fiorenzo Magni was an Italian professional cyclist who raced in the shadows of Gino Bartali and Fausto Coppi but managed many significant wins on

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his own. Magni won the Giro d’Italia three times, in 1948, 1951, and 1955, and won the Ronde van Vlaanderen three times consecutively, still a record, in 1949 through 1951, for which he became known as the Lion of Flanders. During his career, he won 15 stages in the grand tours, seven at the Tour de France, five at the Giro, and three at the Vuelta a España. MAILLOT JAUNE. See YELLOW JERSEY. MAPEI. The Italian pro cycling outfit Mapei, which existed from 1993 to 2002, was ranked as the number one team by the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) during nearly its entire lifespan, excepting only 1993 and 2001. Sponsored by a building materials company, Mapei began by taking over from the minor Eldor-Viner team and later achieved many victories, particularly in one-day races. Overall, Mapei won 12 monument races and had 4 wins in the world championship road race (Ábraham Olano, Johan Museeuw, Oscar Camendzind, and Óscar Freire). The team’s flagship race was Paris–Roubaix, which it won five times. Mapei’s dominance in the Hell of the North was particularly strong in 1996, when three of its riders formed the breakaway group, and Museeuw was allowed to win the race by the team owner. Mapei has rarely competed for the prizes in the grand tours, except in its early years, when Tony Rominger won both the Vuelta a España and Giro d’Italia. The team’s sponsor announced its withdrawal in 2002, wishing not to be any part of the cycling world due to the strong association with performance-enhancing drugs. The team was taken over by the subsidiary Belgian sponsor Quick-Step. See also DOPING. MARATHON. See CROSS-COUNTRY. MARKOVNICHENKO, NATALIYA. See NATALIYA TSYLINSKAYA. MASPES, ANTONIO (ITA). B. 14 January 1932; Cesano Boscone, Italy. D. 19 October 2000; Milan, Italy. One of the all-time greatest track sprinters, Antonio Maspes won seven professional world championships in 1955 through 1964, tying the record held at the time by Jef Scherens—it was later surpassed by Koichi Nakano, with 10. Having won an Olympic bronze in the tandem sprint in 1952, Maspes won his first world title in 1955, the other six following in 1956, 1959 through 1962, and 1964, while medaling also in 1958 and 1963. Maspes was well known for his long sur places—in 1960, he even broke the 200-m world record after a 25-minute standstill. Maspes also collected a record five consecutive wins in the Grand Prix de Paris (1960–64). After his death in 2000, the famous Velodromo Vigorelli in Milan, where Maspes had started racing, was renamed in his honor.

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MASS START RACES. Mass start races are a type of road racing in which all of the cyclists start at the same time and cover a specified course, with the winner the first rider to cross the finish line. This is the most recognizable type of road race to the sporting public and is the type of race used for the one-day classics and many of the stages in the grand tours. Strategy and bike-handling skills are both very important in mass-start races. Bike handling is important because the riders are in the midst of a huge pack of riders, termed the “peloton,” and a rider who cannot control his or her bike can cause mass crashes, with one rider hitting another and causing a chain reaction. Strategy usually relates to team tactics within the peloton. Most major races are contested by trade teams, which usually have one or two team leaders and several support riders. The support riders, or domestiques, will often ride in front of the leaders, helping them avoid wind resistance. They will also often go back to team cars for drinks and food, and in the event of a mechanical problem, the domestiques are asked to sacrifice their own bikes or wheels to their team leaders so that the leader can continue, while the domestique waits for new equipment from the team car. The coach for each team, or the directeur sportif, will usually dictate team strategy from the team car through a radio connected to the riders by headphones. He will tell them when to attempt a breakaway, when to chase a breakaway or let it go, and when to go to the front of the peloton and make the pace for a time. As the race nears its finish, in the event of a mass sprint, the strategy evolves to the teams trying to set up their sprinters, leading them out so that they can contest the sprint to win the race. MATCH SPRINT. See SPRINT. MCEWEN, ROBERT “ROBBIE” (AUS). B. 24 June 1972; Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Robbie McEwen started out as a BMX racer in Australia but switched to road racing when he was 18 years old. He is a sprinter, known as one of the fastest ones in the pro peloton, which has brought numerous race wins. He started racing professionally in 1996 and has won the Tour de France points classification three times, in 2002, 2004, and 2006. In 2002, he was runner-up in the world championship road race. His major one-day classics wins have come at Paris–Bruxelles, which he has won four times (2002, 2005–07). Through 2010, McEwen has won 12 stages each in both the Tour and the Giro d’Italia. MCQUAID, PATRICK “PAT” (IRL). B. 5 September 1949; Dublin, Ireland. Pat McQuaid comes from a cycling family, with his father, uncle, three brothers, and cousin all competing at a national or international level. In 1974, he won the Irish road racing title but missed the 1976 Olympics due to a sus-

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pension over competing in South Africa under apartheid. He then ventured into a career as a sports administrator. After serving as president of the Irish Cycling Federation, he was elected as the successor to Hein Verbruggen as president of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) in 2005. Earlier, he had served as head of the road racing committee. McQuaid’s chief challenges in office are the ongoing fight against doping in the sport and the struggle with professional road race organizers, such as the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO). MEARES, ANNA MAREE (AUS). B. 21 September 1983; Blackwater, Queensland, Australia. With 15 medals won through 2010, Anna Meares is one of the most successful female track cyclists ever. She has been most successful in the 500-m time trial, winning three world titles (2004, 2007, 2009), one Olympic title (2004), and two Commonwealth Games golds (2006, 2010) in that event. She also won two team sprint gold medals at the world championships (2009, 2010) and won five silvers and five bronzes in all speed disciplines, including the sprint and keirin. Meares also gained two Olympic medals in the sprint, with silver in 2008 and bronze in 2004. Anna’s sister, Kerrie, was runner-up in the sprint at the 2002 world championships. MEIFFRET, JOSÉ (FRA). B. 27 April 1913; Boulouris-sur-Mer, Var, France. D. 16 April 1983; Montier-en-Der, Haute-Marne, France. José Meiffret was orphaned at age 11 and was raised by an aging grandmother, and he

In 1951, José Meiffret breaking the bicycle speed record, riding behind a racing automobile while pushing a huge gear. (Courtesy Bill Mallon)

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had to work from a young age to support himself and his grandmother. He was inspired to try motor-paced racing by Henri Desgrange, the founder of the Tour de France. Meiffret eventually became known for setting the bicycle speed record three times, his final record coming in July 1962 in Freiburg, Germany, when he recorded 204.778 km/h (127.242 mph), becoming the first bicyclist to better 200 km/h. See also APPENDIX H. MEISTERSCHAFT VON ZÜRICH. See ZÜRI-METZGETE. MERCKX, EDOUARD LOUIS JOSEPH “EDDY” (BEL). B. 17 June 1945; Meensel-Kiezegem, Belgium. Eddy Merckx is considered the greatest cyclist of all time, and few argue with that assessment. He was so strong and rode hard so often that his nickname was the Cannibal. He had no weaknesses—he was the strongest time trialist and climber in the world and could outsprint all but a few rivals. Although his list of major victories is impressive, it is almost more impressive when one considers the records he holds for victories in major races. At his retirement, he had won the most titles, or equal to the most, in the Tour de France (5), Giro d’Italia (5), world championship road race (3), Milano–Sanremo (7), Gent–Wevelgem (3), La Flèche Wallonne (3), and Liège–Bastogne–Liège (5), and in that list, only Merckx’s five Tour de France wins have been surpassed, by Lance Armstrong with seven. Merckx won 19 monument races, the 5 greatest one-day classics, a record, with second on that list Roger De Vlaeminck, far back with 11. He is one of only three riders, with De Vlaeminck and Rik Van Looy, to have won all five of the monuments. Merckx’s seven victories at Milano–Sanremo is an absolute record for most victories at any major one-day classic. Merckx was the first man (and since equaled only by Stephen Roche) to win the Tour de France, Giro d’Italia, and also the professional world championship road race in the same year (1974). Only he, Jacques Anquetil, Felice Gimondi, Bernard Hinault, and Alberto Contador have ever won all three of the grand tours—Tour de France, Giro d’Italia, and Vuelta a España—but only Merckx won at the other major tour, the Tour de Suisse. At the 1969 Tour de France, Merckx performed the still unequaled feat of winning the yellow jersey (overall winner), green jersey (points winner), and polka-dot jersey (King of the Mountains), something that could not even be imagined today in the professional peloton and which has only been accomplished two other times in a grand tour, both at the Vuelta, in 1993 by Tony Rominger and 1995 by Laurent Jalabert. Merckx’s 11 victories in the major tours is an all-time record and might have been greater. He rode the Tour de France only eight times, twice when past his prime, and in 1973,

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because he was so dominant, he was asked by Tour organizers not to race because they felt his dominance was ruining the Tour. Merckx is credited with over 500 major professional wins during his career. His grand tour wins were as follows: 1969 through 1972, 1974 Tour de France; 1968, 1970, 1972 through 1974 Giro d’Italia; 1973 Vuelta a España; and the 1974 Tour de Suisse. He also won the following other jerseys in grand tours: mountain classification—1969 and 1970 Tour de France; 1968 Giro d’Italia points classification—1969, 1971, and 1972 Tour de France; 1968 and 1973 Giro d’Italia; 1973 Vuelta a España. Merckx’s three victories in the world professional road race came in 1967, 1971, and 1974, but he also won the world amateur championship on the road in 1964. In 1972, he set the world hour record, recording 49.431 km (30.722 miles) in Mexico City. That mark was broken in 1984 by Francesco Moser, but by then, new bike technology had taken over, and subsequent hour marks were often due to improved bike design as much as the riders’ abilities. The Union Cycliste Internationale eventually reverted to a “standard” bike classification, and with that new classification, Merckx’s hour record was not bettered until 2000, and then by Chris Boardman riding only 10 m further. In other lesser tours and one-day classics, Merckx’s victories can be summarized as follows: Milano–Sanremo—1966, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1975, 1976 La Flèche Wallonne—1967, 1970, 1972 Gent–Wevelgem—1967, 1970, 1973 Paris–Roubaix—1968, 1970, 1973 Liège–Bastogne–Liège—1969, 1971–73, 1975 Ronde van Vlaanderen—1969, 1975 Paris–Nice—1969–71 Dauphiné Libéré—1971 Midi Libre—1971 Het Volk—1971, 1973 Giro di Lombardia—1971, 1972 Paris–Bruxelles—1973 Grand Prix des Nations—1973 Amstel Gold Race—1973, 1975 Merckx was not without his detractors. He was criticized by other riders because he never let up, always riding to win, often not giving lesser riders

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The Man Who Was King— Eddy Merckx, universally considered the greatest cyclist of all time. (Courtesy Erich Kamper)

a chance to shine a bit. And he tested positive for drugs three times, in an era in which the doping penalties were less stringent. In retirement, though, he remains the all-time Belgian sporting legend, being voted Belgium’s Sportsman of the 20th Century, and he was made a baron by Albert II, King of Belgium, in 1996. Merckx’s son, Axel, later became a professional cyclist, though not with the success of his father; although, he did win a medal (bronze) in the Olympic road race in 2004—a feat his father never achieved. MEREDITH, LEWIS LEON (GBR). B. 2 July 1882; St. Pancras, London, England. D. 27 January 1930; Davos, Switzerland. Leon Meredith was fortunate to enjoy the patronage of a wealthy uncle, which enabled him to treat cycling as his sole occupation and establish a record by winning seven world championships in the amateur 100-km motor-paced event (1904, 1905, 1907–09, 1911, 1913). When World War I interrupted his career, it was assumed he would retire because of his age, but he continued to race until 1924. He competed in three Olympic Games (1908, 1912, 1920) but did not have the success expected of him, winning only a gold medal in the 1908 team pursuit and a silver in the 1912 team road race. In 1912, Meredith acquired the patent rights to a new special type of racing tire and founded the Constric-

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tor Tyre Company, which was a huge financial success. In 1911 and 1912, he was the British amateur roller skating champion—a sport at which he subsequently turned professional—and in 1912, he built the Cricklewood Roller Skating Rink and later the Cricklewood Dance Hall. Leon Meredith died of a heart attack while taking his annual winter holiday in Davos. MESSINA, GUIDO (ITA). B. 4 January 1931; Monreale, Sicily, Italy. With five world titles in the individual pursuit, Guido Messina won more titles than his famed compatriot Leandro Faggin; although, the latter won a total of 12 medals at the worlds, 4 more than Messina. He won his first two titles as an amateur (1948, 1953), before turning professional and winning three consecutive world championships (1954–56). Earlier, Messina had also earned an Olympic gold medal in the 1952 team pursuit—the individual event was not on the program until 1964. Messina was also active on the road, his major success coming in the first stage of the 1955 Giro d’Italia, which he won, earning him a day in the pink jersey. MICHARD, LUCIEN (FRA). B. 17 November 1903; Épinary-sur-Seine, France. D. 1 November 1985; Aubervilliers, France. Quickly rising through the ranks as an amateur, Lucien Michard won the world sprint title in 1923 and 1924, concluding his amateur career with the 1924 Olympic title. Turning to the pros, Michard became the next great professional sprinter after Piet Moeskops. From 1927 to 1930, Lucien Michard won the world sprint title. In 1931, he again crossed the line first, beating Denmark’s Willy Falck Hansen, the 1928 Olympic champion. But the judge had erroneously announced Hansen to be the winner, and the rules did not allow for announced results to be changed, which cost Michard his fifth world title. He would not win another title, as the reign of Jef Scherens would start the next year, and Michard lost the final to him in 1932 and 1933. MIDI LIBRE, GRAND PRIX DU. The Grand Prix du Midi Libre was a multistage race held in southern France, usually referred to simply as Midi Libre, named after the French newspaper that first organized it. It was first held in 1949 and became an important warm-up race for the Tour de France because of the many hills in the race. The race was held through 2002. Financial problems caused its cancellation in 2003. The race returned in 2004 for one year, then called the Tour du Languedoc-Roussillon, but it has not been held since. Jean-René Bernaudeau had the most wins in the race, with four consecutively from 1980 to 1983. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners.

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MILANO–SANREMO. Milano–Sanremo is a one-day classic held in the spring, now late in March, in Italy. It is known as la Primavera (spring) because of its spot on the cycling calendar. The race was first held in 1907 and is considered one of the five monument races among one-day classics, and it is also the longest major classic race, at nearly 300 km. The race begins in Milan and rides to the western Ligurian coast in northern Italy. It is a fairly flat course, leading the race to be termed a “sprinter’s classic.” The only major climb is the Poggio, which occurs near the finish and often sorts out the final standings. The record for most wins in Milano–Sanremo is seven by Eddy Merckx, who won in 1966, 1967, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1975, and 1976. This is an absolute record for any one-day classic. See also APPENDIX C for a list of winners. MILLAR, ROBERT (GBR). B. 13 September 1958; Glasgow, Scotland. Robert Millar was a Scottish professional who was known for his climbing ability. He raced professionally from 1981 to 1997, with the highlight of his career wins in the mountain classification at the 1984 Tour de France and the 1987 Giro d’Italia. His fourth place finish at the 1984 Tour is the best ever by a British rider, later equaled by Bradley Wiggins. He bettered that with second place in general classification at the 1985 and 1986 Vuelta a España and at the 1987 Giro. His major wins were the 1990 Dauphiné Libéré, the 1985 Volta à Catalunya, the 1989 Tour of Britain, and the 1995 British National Road Race Championship. After his retirement, he became the British national coach. MISS-AND-OUT. See ELIMINATION RACE. MOESKOPS, PIETER DANIEL “PIET” “BIG PETE” (NED). B. 13 November 1893; Loosduinen, Netherlands. D. 16 November 1964; The Hague, Netherlands. Known as Big Pete due to his large stature (he was about 2 m tall), tactician Piet Moeskops was the dominant track sprinter in the first half of the 1920s. From 1921 to 1926, he won five world titles, only losing in the semifinals in 1925, when the world championships were held in his native Netherlands. From 1927 on, he was surpassed by Lucien Michard, placing runner-up to him twice (1929, 1930). MONUMENT RACES. There are five one-day classics that are considered the monument races of professional cycling. These are Milano–Sanremo,

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Paris–Roubaix, Liège–Bastogne–Liège, Ronde van Vlaanderen, and the Giro di Lombardia, and they are considered the most prestigious of the single-day races on the professional calendar. Milano–Sanremo is the first to be held each year, in late March, while the next three are held in April, with the Giro di Lombardia contested in October and essentially closing out the professional cycling season each year. Only three cyclists have won all five of the monument races—Eddy Merckx, Rik Van Looy, and Roger De Vlaeminck. Merckx has won the most monuments with 19 wins, followed by De Vlaeminck with 11, Fausto Coppi, Sean Kelly, and Costante Girardengo with 9, Van Looy with 8, and Gino Bartali with 7. MOOR, KARIN (SUI). B. 11 December 1986; Vordemwald, Switzerland. Starting out with trials at age eight, Karin Moor quickly became the best woman to compete in that sport. In the 10 times the event has been held at the world championships (since 2001), Moor has won the title eight times (2001–07, 2009), while coming in runner-up to Gemma Abant (ESP) in both 2008 and 2010. Moor also claimed six consecutive World Cups (2004–09) and three European championships (2008–10). MOORE, JAMES (GBR). B. 14 January 1849; Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England. D. 17 July 1935; Hampstead, North London, England. Little known today, James Moore was the winner of what has long been considered the first ever cycling race, on 31 May 1868, at the Parc de St-Cloud in Paris. In 1869, he won the first Paris–Rouen race and was considered the first star of bicycle racing. Although born in England, he grew up in Paris when the family moved there when he was four years old. He learned to ride by using a bicycle to run errands for his father. More recent research by cycling historians has cast doubt on whether Moore’s victory was actually the first-ever cycling race. But his obituary did note that he had won the first cycle race ever held and that from 1873 to 1877 he won several international championships and broke many distance records. MORELON, DANIEL (FRA). B. 24 July 1944; Bourg-en-Bresse, France. Between 1966 and 1975, Daniel Morelon won a record nine world amateur sprint titles and three Olympic gold medals. He won the Olympic match sprint in 1968 and 1972, becoming the first of only two men to claim a repeat victory in the event. In 1968, he also won the Olympic tandem match sprint, partnered by Pierre Trentin, and together they also won the world title in 1966. Morelon won a total of 14 French titles and set a world indoor record for 500 m in 1976.

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Daniel Morelon, multiple Olympic gold medalist and world champion in the sprint race. (Courtesy Erich Kamper)

He was almost exclusively a track sprinter and only turned professional briefly, after having become the French sprint cycling coach. MOSER, FRANCESCO (ITA). B. 19 June 1951; Pal di Giovo, Italy. At the 1972 Olympic road race, Francesco Moser placed seventh, a rather inauspicious beginning for a man who would become one of the great professionals. Moser was supposed to be the next Italian campionissimo, and although he won a lot of races, he seemed to disappoint the Italian cycling tifosi because he never won as much as Fausto Coppi. But Moser used his great track pursuiting ability to allow him to win many races with his sprint. In addition, his ability to mount a long, sustained attack was almost legendary. Moser used this to break Eddy Merckx’s world hour record in 1984; although, that was later changed to a different category because of newer bike technology. Moser’s two greatest victories were the 1984 Giro d’Italia and the 1977 world championship road race. His world championship was sandwiched by two second places in the race, in 1976 behind Freddie Maertens and in 1978 behind Gerrie Knetemann. He also won the 1976 individual pursuit world championship on the track. Moser’s major one-day victories included Milano–Sanremo in 1984, Gent–Wevelgem in 1979, Paris–Roubaix in 1978 and 1980, La Flèche Wallonne in 1977, Züri-Metzgete in 1977, Paris–Tours in 1974, and the Giro di Lombardia in 1975 and 1978. MOTOROLA. See 7-ELEVEN.

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MOTOR-PACED RACE (TRACK). In this track cycling event, eight riders compete for a fixed amount of time or a fixed number of laps. Each cyclist races behind a motorcycle-mounted pacer, such as a derny. The winner of the race is simply the one crossing the line first. There are strict rules regarding overtaking, and one may only go above the blue “stayers’ line” to pass another rider, with, at most, three pacer-cyclist pairs riding abreast at the same time. The naming of motor-paced events can be somewhat confusing. The most common format is a race that takes one hour, which is usually simply known as a motor-paced race, or occasionally the stayers’ race. It may also be known by its French name, demi-fond. This literally means “middle distance,” compared to the much longer six-day races. Another, shorter distance motorpaced event that is also frequently held is usually known as the derny event, referring to the common name of the pacer. The motor-paced event was held at track cycling world championships for amateurs since the first edition in 1893 and for professionals since 1895; although, amateurs did not compete in it from 1915 to 1957. The popularity of the event slowly waned, however, and it was discontinued at the world championships after 1994. Between 1978 and 1990, a shorter distance event, the derny, was also held for professionals. European championships continued to be held through 2009, and motor-paced events are also contested at six-day races. With seven amateur world titles between 1904 and 1913, Briton Leon Meredith has won the highest number of gold medals in this event. Guillermo Timoner was the most successful professional, with six world titles. MOTTET, CHARLY (FRA). B. 16 December 1962; Valence, France. Charly Mottet was a French cyclist who raced professionally from 1983 to 1994. He twice placed fourth in the Tour de France, in 1987 and 1991, and he was second in the 1990 Giro d’Italia, after winning the youth classification in that event in 1984. Mottet was a three-time winner of both the Grand Prix des Nations (1985, 1987, 1988) and the Dauphiné Libéré (1987, 1989, 1992). He also won twice at the Quatre Jours de Dunkerque (1989, 1990) and won the 1984 Tour de l’Avenir, the 1988 Giro di Lombardia, and the 1990 Tour de Romandie and Züri-Metzgete. MOULTON BIKES. In the 1950s, Alex Moulton designed a new type of bicycle with smaller, very high-pressure tires, with a front and rear suspension system to make the ride more comfortable. Newer variants similar to Moulton bikes will fold, but Moulton bicycles could not be folded. The Moulton frame was also different from the classic diamond frame and has

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been described as an F frame or “lazy F” frame. The bikes were first sold in 1962 and were considered the first major innovation in bicycle design in the 20th century. Many other manufacturers came out with similar designs. Moulton continues to make bicycles; although, that stopped briefly in the 1970s, when Moulton was bought out by Raleigh. Alex Moulton later bought back the rights to the design and began building bikes again in the 1980s. In 2008, the company merged with Pashley Cycles. MOUNTAIN-BIKE ORIENTEERING. Orienteering is a sport in which runners navigate through unknown territory using a map, trying to arrive at all control points as fast as possible. Although the original version is conducted on foot, several common variations exist, including ski orienteering and mountain-bike orienteering. Mountain-bike orienteering is, as the name suggests, basically orienteering on a mountain bike, making navigating while moving even harder. However, mountain-bike orienteering takes place only on trails and tracks; it is not allowed to go off-track, as is common in normal orienteering. The International Orienteering Federation (IOF) first organized world championships in 2002, and these are held annually since 2004. Races are held in three categories, sprint, middle distance, and long distance; there are also relay team events. The top athletes include Mika Tervala (FIN) and Ruslan Gritsan (RUS) among men and Christine Schaffner (SUI) and Michaela Gigon (AUT) in women’s competition. MOUNTAIN BIKING. Mountain biking is a cycling discipline taking part on specially equipped bicycles for the off-road, including, as the name suggests, mountainous areas. Mountain bikes and mountain biking are sometimes known by the abbreviation MTB or, occasionally, ATB—for all-terrain bikes. It is hard to point out a particular moment when the mountain bike was born. Off-road cycling has existed for ages (see, for example, CYCLOCROSS). However, in the early 1970s, several individuals and groups in various parts of the United States started modifying their bicycles for off-road use. There was no uniformity, some taking inspiration from BMX, others making their own modifications. The first known race specific to mountain bikes is the so-called Repack Road, held on 21 October 1976, near Fairfax, California (USA). By the end of the decade, the first bicycles now recognizable as mountain bikes became commercially available. Around this time, the words “mountain bike” also first appeared (earlier names had included “klunker”). At first mostly a recreational activity, mountain biking also developed as a sport and quickly became popular in the traditional European cycling nations as well.

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The first organization to stage national mountain biking competitions in the United States was the National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA). It even staged world championships, even though the organization was not international and most of the competitors came from the United States. The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) picked up on the popularity of the sport and started organizing UCI Mountain Bike and Trials world championships from 1990 on. A UCI Mountain Bike World Cup circuit followed suit. In 1996, the sport even gained Olympic recognition, when cross-country was first held at the Atlanta Olympic Games. Outside of the boundaries of organized sport, mountain biking remains a popular pastime, and touring nature by mountain bike is a popular activity in many countries. The International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) is an international nonprofit organization that aims to make more and better trails available to recreational mountain bikers. There are several different events in mountain biking. The most common one is the cross-country, held over several laps of a circuit or point-to-point. In the high-speed downhill event, riders go down a mountain slope navigating jumps and turns. The public-friendly four-cross pits four riders against each other on a challenging course. Other events include the team relay and, formerly, the dual slalom. Mountain bikes are easily distinguished from normal racing bikes. The most notable differences are the “fat,” knobby tires, providing more off-road grip, and the straight, or flat, handlebars, making it easier to climb. Many mountain bikes also have suspensions in their forks to make riding on bumpy terrain more comfortable. Not all mountain bikes are identical; bicycles used for downhill events are different from those used in cross-country, and there are many possible modifications. There are very little UCI regulations specific to mountain bikes other than the standard rules; the only exception is that spiked tires are explicitly disallowed. See also MOUNTAIN BIKE ORIENTEERING; TRIALS. MOUNTAIN CLASSIFICATION. The mountain classification, sometimes called King of the Mountains, is an award in stage races for the best mountain climber. The classification is decided based on the order in which riders arrive at the summit of designated mountains, with points given for each position. Although originally points were given only for mountains, currently points are given for all significant climbs so that a mountain classification can even be decided in stages without mountains. The climbs are categorized in several categories, depending on the difficulty, with more points being awarded for tougher climbs. In the Tour de France, for example, there are five categories, category 4 (minor hills) to 1 (mountains) and the hors catégorie (beyond category) for the toughest, highest, and longest mountain climbs.

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Beginning in 1905, the newspaper L’Auto, organizer of the Tour de France, awarded a title of best climber as an unofficial award. In 1933, this was made into an official classification. In 1975, the polka-dot jersey was introduced to mark the classification leader. In the Giro d’Italia, the best climber wears a green jersey, and this was true in the Vuelta a España for many years, but the Vuelta leading climber now wears a polka-dot jersey similar to that in the Tour. Two riders have won the mountain classification in each of the three grand tours: Federico Bahamontes, who won six classifications in the Tour (1954, 1958, 1959, 1962–64), two in the Vuelta (1957, 1958), and one in the Giro (1956); and Luis Herrera, winning it twice in the Tour (1985, 1987) and Vuelta (1987, 1991) and once in the Giro (1989). The highest total number of wins in the grand tours mountain classifications is nine, shared by Bahamontes and Gino Bartali, who won seven titles in the Giro (1935–37, 1939, 1940, 1946, 1947) and two in the Tour (1938, 1948). The record for the most mountain wins in each grand tour is seven in the Tour by Richard Virenque, seven in the Giro by Bartali, and five in the Vuelta by José Luis Laguía. MOUNTAIN CLIMBER(S). Many cyclists have been renowned for their ability to ascend the major mountain climbs in the grand tours. Mountain climbers are termed grimpeurs in French, and they are often called that because of the French dominance of the professional peloton. At the grand tours, a separate mountain classification exists to determine the King of the Mountains for each tour. The cyclists who have been known as top grimpeurs include Fausto Coppi, Charley Gaul, Federico Bahamontes, Lucien Van Impe, Richard Virenque, and Marco Pantani. See also DESCENDER. MURPHY, CHARLES MINTHORN “MILE-A-MINUTE” (USA). B. October 1870; Brooklyn, New York, New York, United States. D. 17 February 1950; Jamaica, New York, New York, United States. Charles Murphy was a top American cyclist who raced primarily at the end of the 19th century. He set numerous American records, but he is best known for a feat he achieved between Maywood and Babylon, New York, on 30 June 1899, when he rode a mile on a bicycle in under one minute, for which he became known as “Mile-a-Minute” Murphy. The feat was a motor-paced trial with Murphy riding on board-covered railroad tracks behind a Long Island Railroad train car. Murphy passed the half-mile in 29.4 seconds, ¾-mile in 44.0 seconds, and finished the mile in 57.8 seconds, setting the first bicycle speed record of faster than 60 mph (96.54 km/h). In fact, his actual speed for the mile was 62.28 mph, or 100.21 km/h, making him also the first cyclist to surpass 100 km/h. Murphy later went on tour with the Keith Vaudeville Circuit and then

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Charles “Mile-a-Minute” Murphy pedals behind a railroad car on Long Island in 1899 to become the first man to cover a mile on a bicycle in under one minute.

became a New York policeman. He was elected to the United States Bicycling Hall of Fame in 1991. MUSEEUW, JOHAN (BEL). B. 13 October 1965; Varsenare, Belgium. Johan Museeuw was a Belgian who raced in the professional peloton from 1988 to 2004. A strong rider with a top sprint, he was one the best racers in the 1990s in the one-day classics, winning six titles in the monument races. In 1995 and 1996, Museeuw won the Union Cycliste Internationale World Cup, adding the 1996 world championship road race, making him the only rider to win both in the same year. He was a three-time winner at both the Ronde van Vlaanderen (1993, 1995, 1998) and Paris–Roubaix (1996, 2000, 2002). He also won the Amstel Gold Race in 1994, Omloop Het Volk in 2000 and 2003, Paris–Tours in 2003, and Züri-Metzgete in 1991 and 1995. Museeuw’s later victories came after a serious crash at 1998 Paris–Roubaix, in which he shattered his kneecap. A later infection put him

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at risk of losing his leg, but he recovered to win many races. Late in 2003, Museeuw was implicated in a doping investigation, and in January 2007, he gave a press conference admitting that he “had not been completely honest in my last year as a pro.” MUSETTE. A musette is a small bag which is handed to cyclists at the feed zone of major races, which contains food and drinks. It is designed so it can be grabbed easily by a moving rider and can be slung over one shoulder and around the neck, to hold it in place while the rider is continuing to ride. The racer removes the food and water bottles (bidons), placing the food into jersey pockets and the water bottles into the bottle cages of the bike. The bag is then discarded.

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N NAKANO, KOICHI (JPN). B. 14 November 1955; Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan. From 1977 through 1986, Koichi Nakano was unchallenged in the professional sprint world championships, a record unmatched in any world championship event. Such was his dominance that in 1985 and 1986 only 11 and 10 riders entered against him. Nakano became a wealthy man in Japan as a keirin track rider. He was so well compensated that he lost money by competing in the world championships. After his retirement as a match sprinter, he continued to ride in Japanese keirin races for two more years. NATIONAL BICYCLE LEAGUE (NBL). The NBL is one of the two remaining major sanctioning bodies in American BMX racing, with the American Bicycle Association (ABA). Even though the sport is no longer contested only by Americans, its annual ranking remains among the most important ones in the sport. The NBL was founded in 1974 by George Esser and joined the American cycling federation, USA Cycling, in 1997. The BMX rider to claim the most NBL number-one annual rankings is Randy Stumpfhauser (2003, 2008, cruiser 1998, 2001–04). Among ladies, Kathy Schachel and Kim Hayashi (both USA) both have five number-one titles. NATIONAL CYCLING UNION (NCU). See INTERNATIONAL CYCLING ASSOCIATION (ICA). NATIONAL OFF-ROAD BICYCLE ASSOCIATION (NORBA). NORBA was the first governing body for mountain biking. Founded in 1983 as an association of several mountain bike race organizers, NORBA became the leading organization in the sport. The NORBA championships held unofficial world championships throughout the 1980s, even if they were predominantly contested by Americans. Even after mountain biking was recognized by the Union Cycliste Internationale and the first UCI Mountain Bike and Trials World Championships were held in 1990, the NORBA championships continue to be staged, now with the status of national championships. NORBA has since become a subsidiary organization of cycling’s governing body in the United States, USA Cycling. 143

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NETHERLANDS. Its flatness makes the Netherlands ideal for transportation by bicycle, and this popularity has resulted in many great cyclists. On the road, Joop Zoetemelk has been most successful, winning both the Tour de France and the road race world championship. The only other Dutch grand tour winner is Jan Janssen, while other notable road racers have been Jan Raas, Hennie Kuiper, and Steven Rooks. Dutch female racers have been more successful, with Keetie van Oosten-Hage, Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel, and Marianne Vos all arguably being the best women riders in the world at one point in time. Because of the lack of hills or mountains, there are not many top-level cycling races in the Netherlands. The most notable exception is the Amstel Gold Race, one of the major one-day classics. This race is held in the hilly south and partially also in Belgium. Several world championships on the road have been held in the same area. The Netherlands has also produced world champions in other disciplines like mountain biking, cyclo-cross, and BMX, but Dutch cyclists have been most successful on the track, only trailing France in number of world titles. Notable track racers from the Netherlands include sprinters Piet Moeskops and Arie van Vliet. See also AMSTEL GOLD RACE; BOOGERD, MICHAEL; BRENTJENS, BART JAN-BAPTIST MARIE; BREUKINK, ERIK; OMLOOP HET VOLK; ROMPELBERG, FRED; RONDE VAN DRENTHE; VERBRUGGEN, HENRICUS WILHELMUS BERNARDUS “HEIN.” NYS, SVEN (BEL). B. 17 June 1976; Bonheiden, Belgium. Sven Nys is one of the most successful cyclo-cross riders of all time. His large number of victories has inspired the nickname De Kannibaal van Baal, referring to his compatriot Eddy Merckx (called De Kannibaal—“the cannibal”) and his hometown of Baal. Nys’ palmarès counts over 300 victories through 2010, including 50-plus in the Superprestige, 40-plus in the World Cup, and 30-plus in the Gazet van Antwerpen Trofee (GvA). He has also claimed many seasonal victories in these cups: nine in the Superprestige and seven in both the World Cup and the GvA. In the strongest nation in cyclo-cross, he also managed to win seven national titles between 2000 and 2010. Remarkably, Nys has only won the world championships once, in 2005, but he was runner-up in 2011 and has finished third five times (2000, 2002, 2008–10). Nys has also competed in mountain biking, winning two Belgian titles and competing at the 2008 Olympics.

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O OBREE, DOUGLAS GRAEME (GBR). B. 11 September 1965; Nuneaton, Warwickshire, England. Scotsman Graeme Obree emerged from obscurity on 17 July 1993, when, after failing to break the world hour record the previous day, Obree succeeded in breaking Francesco Moser’s mark. He did so on a remarkable, self-engineered bicycle, with an unusual but very aerodynamic position, with his arms below his chest. As was widely published, the cycle included bearings Obree had taken from a washing machine. Obree lost his record within a week to fellow Briton Christopher Boardman, who used a carbon-fiber monocoque bicycle. Obree got his revenge on Boardman when he eliminated him in the semifinals of the world championships in the individual pursuit, which Obree eventually won. Obree regained the world hour record in 1994; although, he lost it to Miguel Indurain later in the year. Obree’s innovative riding position was banned in 1995, but he countered with yet another bicycle design, employing the “superman position,” in which the arms were extended well forward, making his position highly aerodynamic. Obree again won the pursuit title with this new position; although, it was also subsequently banned. Obree retired after a failed attempt to become a pro road racer because he refused to take the drugs that he, according to Obree, “would have been forced to take.” Obree had personal problems and, after a divorce and his brother’s death, twice attempted to take his life. In 2011, he came out as gay and attributed his suicide attempts to his own personal conflicts with his sexual orientation. OCAÑA PERNIA, JESÚS LUIS (ESP). B. 9 June 1945; Priego, Cuenca, Spain. D. 19 May 1994; Nogaro, Gers, France. Luis Ocaña was a great all-rounder who was primarily known as a superb climber. But he had the misfortune to race in the same era as Eddy Merckx and was prevented from winning more grand tours by the great Belgian. Ocaña lacked the sprinting ability to win one-day classics, so his primary efforts were directed toward the grand tours. In 1971, Ocaña wore the yellow jersey and led Merckx in the Tour de France until he crashed on a hairpin bend on the descent of the Col de Mente in the Pyrenees. His life was at risk, but he returned to ride again. His Tour de France win in 1973 was sweet but was achieved 145

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in Merckx’s absence as he had skipped the Tour that year. Ocaña also won the Vuelta a España and Grand Prix des Nations in 1970, the Dauphiné Libéré in 1972 and 1973, and the Midi Libre and the mountain classification at the Vuelta in 1969. In later life, he had financial problems, and his death came from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. OFF THE BACK. “Off the back” is a cycling term referring to a rider dropping off the back wheel of the rider just ahead of him or her, or losing contact with the back of the main pack, or peloton. Going off the back is highly disadvantageous, as the rider loses the advantage of drafting off other riders and must work harder because of increased air resistance. In fact, when a rider goes off the back, it is very difficult for him or her to regain contact with the pack. See also OFF THE FRONT. OFF THE FRONT. “Off the front” refers to a cyclist, or group of cyclists, going off the front of a pack, or peloton, and taking the lead in the race. This is also referred to as a breakaway and is an excellent tactic for riders to use in an attempt to win a race, avoiding a mass sprint at the end. Also, when a smaller group of riders is together and one or more goes off the front, they are said to have dropped the other riders. See also OFF THE BACK. OLANO MANZANO, ÁBRAHAM (ESP). B. 22 January 1970, Anoeta, Gipuzkoa, Spain. Ábraham Olano was a Spanish road racer who was hoped to be the next great Spaniard, after Miguel Indurain. Olano never equaled the achievements of Indurain in the grand tours, but he did win the 1995 world championship road race, and in 1998, was time trial world champion. His one victory in a major tour came at the 1998 Vuelta a España. His best finishes at the Giro d’Italia were second in 2001 and third in 1996. At the Tour de France, he placed fourth in 1997. Olano also won Tirreno–Adriatico in 2000. After his career ended in 2001, he ran the 2006 San Sebastián marathon in 2-39:19. OLMO, GIUSEPPE (ITA). B. 22 November 1911; Celle Ligure, Savona, Italy. D. 5 March 1992; Milan, Italy. When cycling was still an amateur Olympic sport, Giuseppe Olmo was one of the few professional cyclists to have won a gold medal. This came in the team road race at the 1932 Olympics, in which he finished fourth in the individual classification. As a professional, Olmo’s greatest feat was breaking the world hour record by riding 45.090 km in October 1935 at the Velodromo Vigorelli in Milano.

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Olmo also won Milano–Sanremo in 1935 and 1938. Although he won 20 stages at the Giro d’Italia, he never managed to win the race, placing second in 1936, third in 1935, and fourth in 1934. He later founded his own bike company, Olmo Biciclette. OLYMPIC GAMES. Cycling is one of the few sports that have been contested at every Summer Olympics. The program has been very variable. In 1900 and 1904, only track events were contested, while in 1912, only one event was held, a long time trial road race; although, individual and team medals were given based on the results of the time trial. From 1932 to 1972, the track program was relatively standardized—sprint, 1,000-m time trial, tandem sprint, and team pursuit, with an individual pursuit added in 1964. In 1976, the tandem sprint was removed from the Olympic program. A road race has been held at all Olympics, except 1900 and 1904. From 1912 to 1956, individual and team medals were awarded for road cycling. In 1960, the team medals were eliminated in favor of a separate 100-km team time trial. Since 1984, the Olympic cycling program has undergone many changes. Most importantly, in 1984, women were allowed to compete, at first with only an individual road race; although, in 1988, the track sprint for women was added, and a women’s individual pursuit was placed on the program in 1992. A track points race was added in 1984, with one for women added in 1996. In 1996, the team time trial was eliminated in favor of an individual road time trial. That year was also important as professionals were allowed to compete in the Olympics, and this has continued since. In 1996, mountain biking was also added as a separate discipline, with cross-country races for both men and women. In 2008, BMX was placed on the program for men and women as another cycling discipline, but the track time trials for men and women were removed from the program. Not only have more women’s events been included between 1988 and 2008, but the men’s program also expanded with keirin, team sprint, and Madison being introduced. In 2012, further changes are scheduled. For the first time, men and women will ride identical programs, with the following track events to be held: individual pursuit, keirin, omnium, sprint, and team sprint. The greatest cyclists at the Olympic Games have been Chris Hoy, Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel, and Marcus Hurley, each with four gold medals. Eight cyclists have won three golds with France’s Félicia Ballanger the only woman. Three athletes have won six Olympic medals—Bradley Wiggins, Burton Downing, and Zijlaard-van Moorsel. See also DOPING; and APPENDIX G for list of Olympic champions in all events.

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An American Olympic cyclist in 1984 shows the benefits of new cycling technology. Note the disc wheel, the low drop-down handlebars, and the windswept aerodynamic helmet. (Courtesy Bill Mallon)

The great spectacle that is track cycling, shown here during the points race at the 2004 Athens Olympics. (Courtesy Jeroen Heijmans)

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OMLOOP HET NIEUWSBLAD. See OMLOOP HET VOLK. OMLOOP HET VOLK. Technically known as the Omloop Het Volk, this Belgian semi-classic race, first held in 1945, has usually been known simply as Het Volk. The race was started by the Het Volk newspaper, which ceased publishing in 2008 and was taken over by Het Nieuwsblad, so since 2009, the race’s actual name is now Omloop Het Nieuwsblad. It is one of the earliest races in the cycling calendar, being held on the last Saturday in February or the first in March, and is considered the opener of the classics season in northwestern Europe. Because of this, the race has been affected by snow several times, with the 1986 and 2004 races canceled due to snow. The race usually starts and finishes in Gent (although, from 1996 to 2007 it finished in Lokeren) and takes place over many of the same climbs used in the Ronde van Vlaanderen, and some riders use Het Volk as a training ride for the Ronde. Three cyclists have won Het Volk three times: Joseph Bruyère (1974, 1975, 1980), Ernest Sterckx (1952, 1953, 1956), and Peter Van Petegem (1997, 1998, 2002). Since 2006, women have also raced a separate Het Volk, over approximately 130 km. See also APPENDIX D for a list of winners. OMNIUM. The omnium is the all-round event for track cycling. The exact composition has varied over the years, but currently it consists of six events— a flying lap, a points race, an elimination race, an individual pursuit, a scratch race, and a time trial. The final ranking is calculated by adding the individual placements in each event. In case of a tie, the cumulative time of the timed events (flying lap, pursuit, and time trial) is used. All six events are held on one or two days, ideally with, at most, 30 minutes in between. Other compositions of the omnium have been in use, and the European championships previously featured a sprint omnium (flying lap, keirin, elimination, sprint) and an endurance omnium (points race, pursuit, scratch, elimination). The omnium is not a recent invention but has only been held at the world championships since 2007 (men) and 2009 (women). Both men and women will contest the omnium at the event’s Olympic debut in 2012, in London. ONE-DAY CLASSICS. One-day classics, or classics for short, are a series of well-known, prestigious one-day races on the professional cycling calendar. Many of these are contested in the spring, with a number of them in the low countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, prior to the racers competing in the three-week grand tours starting mid-May. There are also a number of one-day classics in the fall, after the grand tours have been completed. Five of the one-day classics are considered the most important and are often termed the “monument races”—Paris–Roubaix, Liège–Bastogne–Liège, Ronde van Vlaanderen, Milano–Sanremo, and the Giro di Lombardia. There is no

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exact definition of which races are considered classics. However, the following have often been considered as classics: Gent–Wevelgem, Amstel Gold Race, La Flèche Wallonne, Clásica de San Sebastián, Paris–Bruxelles, Paris– Tours, Omloop Het Volk / Nieuwsblad, Bordeaux–Paris, Züri-Metzgete (Zürich championship), and Rund um den Henninger Turm. OPERACIÓN PUERTO. Operación Puerto was the code name (meaning Operation Mountain Pass) for a Spanish police investigation that started in May 2006, which implicated many of the world’s top cyclists at that time in a systematic doping scheme. It began with a March 2004 interview with Jesús Marzano in the Spanish newspaper Diario AS, in which he described the doping schemes used by his former team, Kelme. These led to the Spanish police questioning several members of the team, notably the former team doctor, Eufemiano Fuentes. In early 2006, the Spanish Guardia Civil began investigating Fuentes’s practice as it related to possible doping. In May 2006, they arrested Fuentes and four others, including Manolo Saiz, the directeur sportif of the Liberty Seguros-Würth team. Shortly before the start of the 2006 Tour de France, the Spanish Guardia Civil released their findings, exposing lists held by Fuentes that implicated 56 current professional cyclists. The lists included German star Jan Ullrich and his teammate Óscar Sevilla with T-Mobile, Ivan Basso with Team CSC, Alejandro Valverde with Caisse d’Espargne-Illes Balears, Francisco Manecbo of AG2R Prévoyance, Santiago Botero of Phonak, and Tyler Hamilton of Tinkoff Credit Systems, all of whom were considered contenders for the general classification. Just before the Tour, Astana-Würth, which had been formed after Liberty Seguros withdrew its sponsorship, withdrew from the Tour after the Tour’s organizing body, the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), had suspended five of the team’s riders. By the end of July 2006, Spanish courts had cleared most of these riders, including Alberto Contador, not yet the major star he would become, and Joseba Beloki with Astana-Würth, while Ullrich, Basso, and Botero were cleared later in 2006. The investigations and court cases went on. In November, the Spanish newspaper El Mundo reported that a Barcelona anti-doping laboratory had found high levels of erythropoietin (EPO) in bags of blood plasma that had been seized during Operación Puerto. But, in the end, very little came of the large-scale investigations. Most of the riders implicated by the Spanish Guardia Civil were eventually cleared. In addition to the ones cleared quickly, in July 2006, Valverde was never charged; although, he would later be suspended in 2009 for a doping offense, and Hamilton was suspended only for a prior doping offense. Though it created shock waves throughout the cycling world, Operación Puerto went quietly away and seemed more bluster by the

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authorities than anything with real bite. Although a large part of the professional peloton had been implicated, the evidence was not strong enough to convict anyone in the courts, and even anti-doping authorities did not have enough evidence to go forward with suspensions. See also SPAIN. ORE-IDA WOMEN’S CHALLENGE. The Ore-Ida Women’s Challenge was a women’s stage race that took place in southern Idaho in the United States from 1984 to 2002. It started out as an American race but quickly became a popular international event on the women’s calendar, known for its difficult and beautiful course through the mountains of Idaho. Also known simply as the Women’s Challenge for a few years, its primary sponsor was frozen potato manufacturer Ore-Ida, and it was well known by that name. The race was won from 1984 to 1986 by Rebecca Twigg, who holds the record for most wins in the event. See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. OUBRON, ROBERT (FRA). B. 18 April 1913; Goussainville, France. D. 7 February 1989; Paris, France. Probably the most successful cyclo-cross rider prior to the establishment of official world championships, Robert Oubron won the Critérium International de Cyclo-cross four times—1937, 1938, 1941, and 1942—and placed second in 1936. He was also successful in the French national championships—most of the top riders came from France in that era—winning five times: 1941 through 1944 and 1946. Like most cyclocross competitors in his era, Oubron was also active on the road but with few impressive results. OVEREND, EDMUND “NED” (USA). B. 20 August 1955; Taipei, Taiwan. One of the great cross-country mountain bikers in the early days of the sport, Ned Overend won the National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) title in that event six times (1986, 1987, 1989–92). Prior to 1990, the NORBA championships were dubbed world championships, even though NORBA was only the United States association for mountain biking. However, Overend demonstrated that these titles were not inflated when he won the first Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)–sanctioned crosscountry title in 1990 and won a bronze medal the next year. Overend was later successfully active in triathlon and variations thereof, such as XTERRA, in which swimming takes place in the ocean, the cycling portion is replaced by mountain biking, and the running portion by trail running.

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P PALMARÈS. Palmarès, usually written in English as “palmares,” without the accent, refers to the list of races that a rider has won, or in some cases, it is considered to be a list of the cyclist’s main achievements, so it may then include podium finishes and other top finishes in major races. PANNIERS. Panniers are baskets or bags attached to the sides of the wheels of a bicycle and used by tourists on touring bicycles. They are usually now made of nylon or other synthetic fabrics. They are usually attached to front or rear racks that are attached to the frame of the bike. PANTANI, MARCO “IL PIRATA” (ITA). B. 13 January 1970; Cesena, Romagna, Italy. D. 14 February 2004; Rimini, Italy. Marco Pantani was one of the great climbers in modern cycling. In 1998, he achieved the rare double of winning both the Tour de France and Giro d’Italia in the same year, and at the Giro, he also won the mountain classification. He did this because of his strength as a climber and is one of the last Tour winners who was not among the strongest time trialists. He raced while wearing a bandana, which made him look like a pirate, and brought him the nickname Il Pirata—he also had very large ears, and with his bald head, this brought him the other nickname of Elefantino. He won a number of stages in the grand tours on climbing stages, but his small size and lack of a sprint, left him without any significant classic wins. He did have three other podium finishes in the Tour and Giro, placing third in the Tour de France in 1994 and 1997 and second at the 1994 Giro. Pantani had a difficult last few years. He had a positive doping test at the 1999 Giro, and his last few years were beset with rumors of drug use. He died from what was reported as acute cocaine intoxication, and suicide was considered a likely cause. PARA-CYCLING. “Para-cycling” is the Union Cycliste Internationale term for Paralympic cycling, or cycling for riders with a disability. Events have been held at the Paralympic Games since 1984, on both road and track and for several kinds of disabilities. Para-cycling competitions are divided into a number of classes, depending on the type and severity of a competitor’s 153

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disability. There are four groups of classes. The H group (classes H1–H4) competes on handbikes, where the pedals are moved by hands rather than feet. Competitors in this class are often paraplegic or have had (parts) of their legs amputated. The T group (classes T1 and T2) rides on tricycles (a cycle with two rear wheels), as their disability (e.g., spasticity) gives them insufficient balance for riding a bicycle. In classes C1 through C5, normal bicycles are used, but these are still raced by paraplegic cyclists, riders with amputations or spasticity in their legs. Finally, the B class is for blind or visually impaired riders and is held on tandem bicycles, with the front seat occupied by a sighted pilot cyclist. Apart from the Paralympic Games, which are organized by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) holds world para-cycling championships on both the road and the track. PARIS–BREST–PARIS. Paris–Brest–Paris was the longest continuous bicycle race, covering about 1,200 km from Paris to Brest and returning to Paris. It started in 1891 as an amateur race and was then held every 10 years, with 1901 the first professional version. The race was started by the Paris newspaper Le Petit Journal. Beginning in 1931, it was converted to two events—one a long-distance bicycle tour and the other an individual race, which was held every four years. After 1951, the “race,” which has since been held at intermittent intervals, changed to a challenge ride rather than a professional race. See also FRANCE. PARIS–BRUXELLES. Paris–Bruxelles was a European semi-classic race first held in 1893. It has been held since except for breaks for the two world wars and was also not held from 1967 to 1972. One of the longest events on the schedule originally, it took place over more than 400 km until World War II. As recently as 1987, it was contested over 319 km, but the current course is about 225 km. The race has not started in Paris for years, now beginning in Soissons, 85 km northeast of Paris. Originally a spring classic at the end of April, after its hiatus from 1967 to 1972, it returned to the cycling calendar in September. The record for the most wins in the event is five by Robbie McEwen in 2002 and 2005 through 2008. See also BELGIUM; FRANCE; and APPENDIX D for a list of winners. PARIS–NICE. Paris–Nice, usually known as the Race to the Sun, is a oneweek stage race held in March each year since 1933. The final stage always finishes each year on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice, but the race does not always start in Paris, often beginning just south of the city. The record for the

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most wins in the race is seven by Sean Kelly, which were consecutive from 1982 to 1988. See also FRANCE; and APPENDIX B for a list of winners. PARIS–ROUBAIX. Paris–Roubaix is the best known of the European oneday classics and is one of the five monument races on the cycling calendar. The race is held on Sunday in mid-April and is noted for the difficult terrain, as the riders traverse approximately 28 sections of cobblestoned roads, termed pavé. With the Ronde van Vlaanderen and Gent–Wevelgem, it is considered one of the “cobbled classics.” The race has several nicknames, being called the Hell of the North, a Sunday in Hell, and the Queen of the Classics. The race ran from Paris to Roubaix from its inception in 1896 until 1967 but, since 1968, has started in Compiègne, about 60 km northeast of Paris. Since 1943, the race has finished on the Roubaix Velodrome, save for 1986 through 1988, when it finished on the Avenue des Nations-Unies. The course is now about 260 km. Due to its difficult course, mechanical problems often determine the outcome, with punctures a frequent problems, and bike breakage from the strain of the cobbles has also occurred, the most recent notable incident happening when George Hincapie was in the lead pack in 2007 and had his steering tube break. The cyclists make several changes to their bikes, many riding with wider, thicker tires, special frames, and adding support to their front fork suspensions, with a few riders even using mountain bike shocks in the 1990s. The race is often run in poor weather, and because of its spring start and the difficult course, most years see the riders caked in mud at the finish. The race is also somewhat threatened as many of the cobblestone roads are disappearing due to modernization. In fact, a few cobbled sections are legally protected because of their importance to the race. The winning rider is actually given a bronzed cobblestone. Many top riders do not like Paris–Roubaix at all, notably Bernard Hinault, who called the race a “cyclo-cross” and said it was “plain stupid,” despite winning it in 1981. Jacques Anquetil also never took the race seriously after he punctured 13 km from the finish in 1958, losing his chance to win. Chris Boardman called it “a circus, and I don’t want to be one of the clowns.” Many Southern European riders, especially those from Spain, usually skip Paris–Roubaix. Paris–Roubaix has been won four times by Roger De Vlaeminck in 1972, 1974, 1975, and 1977. Six riders have won the race three times, beginning with Octave Lapize consecutively from 1909 to 1911. Francesco Moser equaled this feat by winning from 1978 to 1980. The other three-time champions are Eddy Merckx (1968, 1970, 1973), Johan Museeuw (1996, 2000,

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2002), Rik Van Looy (1961, 1962, 1965), and Tom Boonen (2005, 2008, 2009). See also FRANCE; and APPENDIX C for a list of winners. PARIS–TOURS. Paris–Tours is a one-day classic held in October from a suburb of Paris to Tours, southwest of Paris in the Loire Valley. The course is very flat, leading the race to usually be decided in a mass sprint, and the race is often called the Sprinters Classic. It was first held in 1896 for amateurs, started by the newspaper Paris-Vélo, with the professional version beginning in 1906. The race now starts on St-Arnould-en-Yvelines, 50 km southwest of Paris, and has finished on the Avenue du Grammont in Tours; although, it will have a different finish line in 2011 because of a new tram line being built. The event has been run over many different courses in its history, but the distance has usually been about 250 km. The record for the most victories at Paris–Tours is three, held by Gustaf Daneels (1934, 1936, 1937), Paul Mayé (1941, 1942, 1945), Guido Reybroeck (1964, 1966, 1968), and Erik Zabel (1994, 2003, 2005). Paris–Tours is also known as the one major classic that Eddy Merckx never won. Paris–Tours and the Giro di Lombardia are known as the Autumn Double, as they held within a week of one another. See also FRANCE; and APPENDIX D for a list of winners. PARK. Park refers to a BMX freestyle event held in a skate park, which is a purpose-built park, originally designed for skateboarding, with features such as half-pipes and quarter-pipes, jumps, rails, ramps, and other obstacles. A BMX freestyle park competition has been held at the X Games since 1996, with Dave Mirra emerging as the top street rider. PATRON. “Patron” is a term given to the unofficial leader of the cycling peloton, which is usually reserved for the best rider in the race. As an example, while he was winning seven consecutive Tours de France, Lance Armstrong was considered by many as the patron of the peloton; although, some would demur and say the last rider to truly be the patron was Bernard Hinault. The patron gives signals and overall strategy to the peloton, such as when they will not chase a rider, when they will stop for food or toilet breaks, and is considered to rule the pack. The patron is respected by the other riders, but there is also an element of fear, as that rider effectively controls the race. You do not mess with the patron. PEACE RACE. The Peace Race was an amateur stage race that was usually held in Eastern Europe, nearly always visiting the capitals of Poland (Warsaw), Czechoslovakia (Prague), and East Germany (East Berlin). During the era of the Communist Eastern Bloc, their cyclists usually competed in

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this race, often called the Tour de France of the East. The race was held in May, with the first race in 1948. It was canceled in 2005, and although a 2006 race was held, it has not been run since. The record for the most victories is five by Germany’s Steffen Wesemann, with Ryszard Scurkowski (POL) and Uwe Ampler (GDR) winning four times. The winner of the 1980 Olympic road race gold medal, Sergey Sukhoruchenkov, also won twice, in 1979 and 1984. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. PEDALS. Pedals are the part of the bicycle that are attached to the cranksets and on which the cyclist attaches his or her shoe. This allows the rider to turn the wheels by pushing and pulling on the cranks. The shoes were originally attached to the pedal via a cleat on the bottom of the shoe, with a strap and metal cage over the top of the shoe, referred to as toe clips. But in the 1980s, clipless pedals, or clip-ins, were developed, which allowed the shoe to snap into the pedal with no toe clip over the top of the shoe. Bernard Hinault popularized them with his victory using clip-ins to win the 1985 Tour de France. PÉLISSIER, JEAN HENRI AUGUSTE (FRA). B. 22 January 1889. D. 1 May 1935; Dampiere-en-Yvelines, France. Henri Pélissier was a French professional cyclist, who is known for coining the term by which professional cyclists are often known—forçats de la route (convicts of the road). He turned pro in 1911 and won the Giro di Lombardia that year and in 1913, Milano–Sanremo in 1912, and three stages of the Tour de France in 1914. After the war, Pélissier returned to the peloton and won the 1923 Tour. His other major victories included Paris–Bruxelles in 1920, Paris–Roubaix in 1919 and 1921, and the Giro di Lombardia in 1911, 1913, and 1920. He rode the Tour de France through 1925 and retired after the 1927 season. In 1933, Pélissier’s first wife, Léonie, shot and killed herself. On 1 May 1935, Pélissier and his girlfriend, Camille Tharault, had a domestic dispute in which Pélissier lunged at her in the kitchen of their home, cutting her face with a knife. Tharault went into another room and retrieved the pistol with which Léonie had killed herself. She ran back into the kitchen, where Pélissier came at her with the knife, but she responded by firing and hitting him five times, killing him. See also DOPING. PELOTON. Peloton is the French term for the cycling pack, or main group or cyclists riding together. It is from the French term for “little ball.” Riding in the peloton is helpful to riders as they stay in touch with the leading racers and do so with less effort, as the large pack minimizes wind resistance and drag. The word “peloton” is also used metaphorically, to denote the entire world of professional cycling.

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PENDLETON, VICTORIA LOUISE (GBR). B. 24 September 1980; Stotfold, Bedfordshire, England. Victoria Pendleton has been the top female track sprinter of the first decade of the 21st century. She won the world title in the sprint event five times (2005, 2007–10), adding two team sprint titles (2007, 2008), and a keirin title (2007), as well as five more world championships medals. She also won the Olympic title at the Beijing 2008 Games, where women’s keirin and team sprint were not on the program. PETACCHI, ALESSANDRO “ALE-JET” (ITA). B. 3 January 1974; La Spezia, Liguria, Italy. Alessandro Petacchi was one of the great sprinters in the professional peloton in the early 21st century. Still competing through 2010, he has won 50 stages in the grand tours, third all-time behind only Eddy Merckx (64) and Mario Cipollini (57). Petacchi has won 24 stages in the Giro d’Italia, 20 at the Vuelta a España, and 6 at the Tour de France. He won the points classification at the 2004 Giro and the 2005 Vuelta and also in the 2006 Tirreno–Adriatico stage race. His one-day wins include 2005 Milano–Sanremo and the 2007 Paris–Tours. In 2003, Petacchi won a stage at all three grand tours, one of only three cyclists to accomplish this in a single year. PETIT-BRETON, LUCIEN (né LUCIEN GEORGES MAZAN) (FRA). B. 18 October 1882; Pless‚ France. D. 20 December 1917; Troyes, France. Lucien Petit-Breton was the first great French rider of the 20th century. He was the first man to win two consecutive Tours de France, winning in 1907 and 1908. His speed record of more than 24 km/h (15 mph) in 1907 stood until 1931. His other major wins included Milano–Sanremo in 1907 and Paris–Bruxelles in 1908. In 1905, Petit-Breton set the world hour record, recording 41.110 km in Paris. He was killed fighting in World War I. PEUGEOT. Peugeot is a name known in cycling since the beginning, as both a manufacturer and team sponsor. The Peugeot company was founded in the early 19th century and started making bicycles in the 1880s. It became a major producer of both street and racing bicycles, and it continues to do so to this day. However, since the 1980s, most Peugeot brand bicycles are licensed for manufacture by other companies. In 1901, Peugeot began its long-running involvement in the sport of cycling. Initially sponsoring individual riders, a professional team was formed in 1904. Peugeot has since, more or less, continuously run a professional cycling team until 1986, when the team was taken over by clothing brand Z, with Peugeot running as a sub-sponsor for a few years. During these eight decades, Peugeot riders won a record total of 10 Tours de France (1905–08,

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1913, 1914, 1922, 1967, 1975, 1977), with riders such as Louis Trousselier, Philippe Thys, and Bernard Thévenet. In addition, riders in the Peugeot jersey also recorded 3 world titles, 3 wins at the Vuelta a España, and 19 monument race wins. PEZZO, PAOLA (ITA). B. 8 January 1969; Bosco Chiesanuova, Italy. Together with Gunn-Rita Dahle Flesjå, Paola Pezzo is the only woman to have won a world championship, Olympic gold medal, and World Cup title in cross-country mountain biking. She won her world championship gold medals in 1993 and 1997, adding bronzes in 1999 and 2000, and claimed the inaugural Olympic title at the Atlanta Olympics, retaining her title at the Sydney Games in 2000. Pezzo won the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup in 1997, winning no less than eight of the 10 world cup races. She retired after the Sydney Olympics, but returned in 2004, with much less success. PHINNEY, DAVIS (USA). B. 10 July 1959; Boulder, Colorado, United States. Davis Phinney was a United States professional known for his sprinting ability, which allowed him to win multiple races, often winning sprint stages in multiday events. During his career, he won two stages at the Tour de France, was U.S. professional champion in 1991, won a gold medal in the 1983 Pan-American Games team time trial, and won a bronze medal in the 1984 Olympic team time trial. He also won the Tour of Fitchburg in 1991 and 1993. Phinney married Connie Carpenter, who won the Olympic gold medal in the first women’s road race at the 1984 Olympics. Their son, Taylor Phinney, has become a top track rider, winning the individual pursuit world championship in 2009 and 2010. Davis Phinney was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 2004 and has established the Davis Phinney Foundation to raise funds for research in the fight against the disease. PINK JERSEY. The pink jersey, or in Italian, maglia rosa, is given to the leader of the general classification after every stage and the eventual winner of the Giro d’Italia, similar to the yellow jersey (maillot jaune) in the Tour de France. The pink color was chosen because the sponsoring newspaper, La Gazzetta della Sport, is printed on pink paper. The pink jersey was first awarded in 1931. Eddy Merckx has won the most pink jerseys with 77, followed by Alfredo Binda with 65 and Francesco Moser with 50. POBLET I ORRIOLS, MIGUEL (ESP). B. 18 March 1928; Montcada i Reixac, Catalonia, Spain. Miguel Poblet was the first Spanish professional road racer who specialized in one-day races in an era when most of the

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Spanish racers were known as mountain climbers; although, early in his career, he was a top climber. He was a two-time winner of Milano–Sanremo (1957, 1959) and also twice won the Volta a Catalunya (1952, 1960). In the grand tours, he won the points classification at the Giro d’Italia in 1958 and won 20 stages overall in the Giro, as well as three each at the Tour de France and Vuelta a España. In 1958, he had perhaps his best year, with his Giro points victory, and placed second at Paris–Roubaix, Milano–Sanremo, and the Giro di Lombardia. POINTS CLASSIFICATION. In stages races, a points classification is awarded in which points are awarded daily for final placements in each stage, with lesser points awarded for intermediate sprint competitions. The points classification is effectively a competition for the sprinters, who struggle in the mountain climbing stage of the grand tours. At the Tour de France and Vuelta a España, the winner of the points classification receives a green jersey, while at the Giro d’Italia, the leader received a mauve jersey from 1970 to 2009 and a red jersey in 1967 through 1969 and again in 2010. The concept was first introduced at the Tour in 1953, at the Vuelta in 1955, and at the Giro in 1966. Four riders have won the points jersey in all three grand tours—Eddy Merckx (Tour 1969, 1971, 1972; Giro 1968, 1973; Vuelta 1973), Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov (Tour 1991, 1993, 1994; Giro 1991; Vuelta 1992), Laurent Jalabert (Tour 1992, 1995; Giro 1999; Vuelta 1994–97), and Alessandro Petacchi (Tour 2010; Giro 2004; Vuelta 2005). Erik Zabel has won the most points titles in the three tours with nine—six Tour (1996–2001), three Vuelta (2002–04). He is followed by Sean Kelly with eight—four Tour (1982, 1983, 1985, 1989) and four Vuelta (1980, 1985, 1986, 1988)—and Jalabert with seven. POINTS RACE. The points race is perhaps the most interesting track cycling event, as it requires sprinting abilities, tactics, and stamina. The distance of a points race varies with track length and gender, but at international championships, it is 40 km for men and 25 km for women. There is an intermediate sprint approximately every two km (10 laps for the standard 250-m velodrome), always at the end of a lap, in which points can be earned. The first cyclist gains 5 points, with 3, 2, and 1 point(s) given to the next three riders. In addition, 20 points can be earned (or lost) by gaining (or losing) a lap on the main pack. Rules for the points race have varied slightly over the years. Previously, the final sprint of a competition yielded double points, and riders were ranked by the number of laps completed—a gained lap being worth more than any number of sprint points.

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The event is quite old, but it was not until 1977 that the event was first contested at world championships for amateurs, with professionals following suit in 1980 and women in 1988. At the Olympics, a points race was first held in 1900, returning only in 1984 (men) and 1996 (women), but was dropped from the Olympic Program after the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Among men, Swiss riders have been very successful, with Urs Freuler capturing eight world titles and Bruno Risi five. Joan Llaneras (Spain) won four world titles, as well as the 2000 and 2008 Olympic titles. The best female points racers have been Olga Slyusareva and Ingrid Haringa, who collected four rainbow jerseys a piece. Slyusareva won four additional world championship medals, as well as the 2004 Olympic gold. POLKA-DOT JERSEY. The polka-dot jersey, or maillot à pois rouges, is the award given to the leader of the mountain classification in the Tour de France, considered the best mountain climber, or grimpeur, in the race. The unusual jersey design came from the original sponsor Chocolat Poulain, with the color chosen by then Tour organizer Félix Lévitan. The design has been maintained despite different sponsors over the years. Although a mountain classification was started at the Tour in 1933, the polka-dot jersey was not introduced until 1975. The jersey and mountain classification are determined by a points system, with points given to the leading cyclists as they cross the peaks of the major climbs. More points are awarded for the bigger, more difficult climbs. Ties are broken by the most first places on the most difficult, or hors catégorie, climbs, with further ties broken on the next most difficult climbs, and so on. Richard Virenque has won the final polka-dot jersey seven times, the record for the Tour de France, which broke the previous record of six won by both Federico Bahamontes and Lucien Van Impe. PORTER, HUGH WILLIAM (GBR). B. 27 January 1940, Wolverhampton, Staffordshire, England. One of the all-time best individual pursuit racers, Hugh Porter won four professional world titles (1968, 1970, 1972, 1973), ranking equal with Leandro Faggin in terms of number of pro titles won in the event. In addition to his multiple titles, he was also placed second at the world professional pursuit in 1967 and 1969 and was third in 1971. As an amateur, he won a bronze medal at the 1963 world championships in the pursuit but had difficulty at the 1964 Olympics, losing in the quarterfinals at Tokyo. He competed on the road as well, including the 1968 Tour de France (he did not finish), but with less success. Porter married British Olympic swimming champion, Anita Lonsbrough.

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POSPÍŠIL, JAN (TCH). B. 25 April 1945, Brno, Czechoslovakia; and POSPÍŠIL, JINDŘICH (TCH). B. 23 March 1942, Brno, Czechoslovakia. The Pospíšil brothers are the undisputed all-time best cycle-ball players. Between 1965 and 1988, the two brothers won no less than 20 world championships in the sport (1965, 1968–81, 1984–88). Before teaming up and finishing runner-up in 1964, Jindřich had already won two world championship medals with another partner. POULIDOR, RAYMOND (FRA). B. 15 April 1936, Masbaraud-Merignat, France. Raymond Poulidor, known as Poupou, was the most popular rider of his time and one of the best-loved French riders ever. His acclaim was mostly for his grace in defeat, for he rarely won the major victories often expected of him. It was his bad fortune to ride in the same era as Jacques Anquetil and then Eddy Merckx, and one of the reasons he was so beloved was because of sympathy for him during his many losing struggles against Anquetil. In the Tour de France, Poulidor started 14 times between 1962 and 1976 and placed second three times (1964, 1965, 1974) and third five times (1962, 1966, 1969, 1972, 1976). He won seven stages in his 14 Tours, of which he completed 12, but despite this, he never wore the yellow jersey for even a day. He also was unable to win the world professional road race title but stood on the podium four times—silver in 1974 and bronze in 1961, 1964, and 1966. He did win the Vuelta a España in 1964 and won 11 stages in the grand tours, 7 at the Tour and 4 at the Vuelta. Poulidor’s major victories were as follows: 1961 Milano–Sanremo, 1963 La Flèche Wallonne, 1963 Grand Prix des Nations, 1972 and 1973 Paris–Nice, and 1966 Dauphiné Libéré. In 1973, Poulidor was made a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. See also DOPING. PRIMES. Primes are intermediate sprints during a race, usually awarding either a prize or points toward an overall prize, as in the points classification of the grand tours. The term is usually pronounced “preems,” using the French pronunciation. PROFESSIONAL. A professional is one who competes in sport for money. In cycling, the greatest cyclists have been professionals since the late 19th century. Professionals were not allowed to compete in Olympic cycling until 1996, at which time the sport was opened up to all riders. For many years, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) had two federations, one that governed amateurs and one that governed the professional side of the sport, Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel (FICP). In the mid-1990s,

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when the distinction between amateurs and professionals became rather vague, the two groups were subsumed within the UCI. PROLOGUE. A prologue is a short time trial used in stage races. Stage races often start with stages that end in mass sprints, which create no major time differences in the general classification, the prologue is used to create such differences prior to the first stage. The length of a prologue can be, at most, 8 km (5 miles), per Union Cycliste Internationale regulations, or 4 km for women. PROTOUR. See WORLDTOUR. PRUDHOMME, CHRISTIAN (FRA). B. 11 November 1960. Christian Prudhomme has been the race director of the Tour de France, the most important race on the pro cycling calendar, since 2005. In school, he studied journalism and joined Radio-Télevision Luxembourg (RTL) in 1985. In 1987, he moved to the television channel La Cinq, becoming the head of sports there. In 1998, he worked with a start-up cable channel, L’Équipe TV, which was run by the Amaury Group, the parent company of the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), which runs the Tour de France. In 2000, he moved to France Télévisions to run their sport programming. When longtime Tour director Jean-Marie LeBlanc retired after the 2004 Tour, Prudhomme was named to replace him, having served as his assistant director in 2003 through 2004. As Tour director, Prudhomme has worked to strengthen the Tour’s fight against doping. PURSUIT. See INDIVIDUAL PURSUIT; TEAM PURSUIT.

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Q QUADRACYCLE. A quadracycle, also seen as quadricycle, or fourwheeled bicycle, is a human-powered vehicle with four wheels, typically two in the front and two in the back. Quadracycles may be for either single riders or tandems. They are often used for commercial transport, such as human-powered taxis, and in some resort areas, as tourist rentals. The first quadracycles were exhibited at the 1853 New York World’s Fair, and they provided a stable method of transport in the era when bicycle speeds were so slow that it was difficult to maintain balance. QUATRE JOURS DE DUNKERQUE (FOUR DAYS OF DUNKIRK). The Quatre Jours de Dunkerque, or Four Days of Dunkirk, is a stage race held in early May in Northern France in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, but it is now usually held over five or six days. The race was first held in 1955 and is a part of the Union Cycliste Internationale European Tour. The race has been won four times by Belgian Freddy Maertens. QUEEN STAGE. The “queen stage” is the term used for what is considered the most difficult stage during a stage race. It is usually one with several difficult climbs.

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R RAAS, JAN (NED). B. 9 November 1952, Heinkenszand, Netherlands. Jan Raas was a Dutch professional cyclist who won many races due to his sprinting ability and strength on short climbs. But his difficulty with major mountain ascents hampered him in the grand tours; although, he did win 10 stages in the Tour de France. Raas turned pro in 1975 and raced through the 1985 season. His major feat as a professional was winning the Amstel Gold Race a record five times, in 1977 through 1980 and 1982, but his biggest single victory was winning the world championship road race in 1979. His other major victories included the Ronde van Vlaanderen in 1979 and 1983, Milano–Sanremo in 1977, Paris–Roubaix in 1982, Paris–Tours in 1978 and 1981, Paris–Bruxelles in 1978, and Gent–Wevelgem and Omloop Het Volk in 1981. RACE ACROSS AMERICA (RAAM). The Race Across America is a race that starts in California and finishes on the east coast of the United States and covers approximately 3,000 miles. It is an ultra marathon and not a stage race, as the riders are timed simply for how long it takes them to get from point to point. Thus, in addition to cycling ability, the ability to continue on without sleep has been a major factor in success in the race. The race started in 1982, when it was called the Great American Bike Race, with four riders starting: John Marino, John Howard, Michael Shermer, and Lon Haldeman, with Haldeman winning. Since its inception, it has been enlarged, and there are now several different categories—women, men, age groups, teams of two riders, teams of four riders, and recumbent bicycles. The race has been won five times by Slovenian Jure Robič in 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, and 2010. There is no record because the course changes, but the fastest time for the crossing was by Michael Secrest in 1990 in 7 days and 23 hours. The fastest average speed was 24.8 km/h (15.4 mph) by Pete Penseyres in 1986. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. RAINBOW JERSEY. The rainbow jersey (maillot arc-en-ciel) is worn by the reigning world champion in all cycling disciplines, including road racing, time trials, track racing, cyclo-cross, mountain biking, and 167

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BMX. The rainbow jersey is a mostly white jersey with five horizontal bands in the following colors, in order: green, yellow, black, red, and blue. The world champion has the right to wear the rainbow jersey in other races for the year following his or her championships. After that year is up, any former world champion is allowed to wear rainbow piping on his or her jersey cuffs or neck lining and may wear rainbow gloves. The champion must wear the rainbow jersey during his or her championship year; although, it is superseded by general classification leaders’ jerseys at the grand tours— yellow jersey at the Tour de France, pink jersey at the Giro d’Italia, and red jersey (or gold) at the Vuelta a España. There is also a myth, not well substantiated, about a rainbow jersey curse, with many winners of the jersey struggling in the next year or suffering various misfortunes, including injuries. One rider, Jean-Pierre Monseré, was killed in a car crash during competition while wearing the jersey. RASMUSSEN, MICHAEL (DEN). B. 1 June 1974; Tølløse, Denmark. Michael Rasmussen was a Danish cyclist who started out as a mountain biker, winning the 1999 world championship in mountain bike cross-country. He then turned to the roads where he became a top climber in the pro peloton. Rasmussen won the mountain classification at the 2005 and 2006 Tour de France. In 2007, he led the Tour and wore the yellow jersey from stages 8 through 16. But he was controversially pulled from the Tour over doping allegations when it turned out he had missed several random tests, probably purposefully. After a two-year suspension, he returned to racing in late 2009. RECUMBENT BICYCLES. A recumbent bicycle is a bicycle in which the cyclist is in a sitting or lying position while riding, as compared to the “standing” position for normal bicycles. Because of this, the chainring and pedals are placed in front of the rider, rather than below him. This not only allows for a more comfortable position but also for a more aerodynamic position, and hence, the recumbent is a faster bicycle. Recumbent bicycles come in many forms and shapes, and they are sometimes called “human-powered vehicles” as some may not be directly recognized as bicycles. Although the first recumbent bicycles were built in the 19th century, they did not gain general acceptance compared to the “upright” bicycle. This is possibly due to the fact that they are somewhat hard to ride for a beginner and are usually more expensive. Another factor is that they are not allowed in races sanctioned by the Union Cycliste Internationale. In 1933, the world hour record was broken by the unknown Frenchman François Faure, riding a four-wheeled “velocar” (a quadracycle), which had earlier been allowed by the UCI. However, after a lengthy debate during the 1934

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UCI Congress, the sport’s governing body decided to disallow the record and pass new regulations on the dimensions of bicycles, effectively disallowing the use of recumbents. Of course, this has not stopped recumbent bicycles from being used in other races, such as the Race Across America (RAAM). The World Human Powered Vehicle Association (WHPVA, formerly the IHPVA) recognizes world hour records much faster than those set on regular bikes. RED JERSEY. The red jersey (maillot rouge) is given to the leader of the general classification after every stage and eventual winner of the Vuelta a España, similar to the yellow jersey (maillot jaune) in the Tour de France and the pink jersey in the Giro d’Italia. In 2010, the jersey was colored red for the first time. The leader’s jersey was first awarded in 1935, at the first Vuelta, but the color has changed several times over the years; although, it was most often yellow (amarillo), from 1955 to 1997, with the exception of 1977, when it was orange, and it was a deeper gold (jersey oro) from 1998 to 2009. The color was as follows in the early years: 1935—orange; 1941— white; 1942—orange; and 1945 through 1950—white with a horizontal red stripe. Alex Zülle has won the most Vuelta leader jerseys with 48, followed by Roberto Heras with 34. RED KITE. See FLAMME ROUGE. RED LANTERN. See LANTERNE ROUGE. RED ZINGER CLASSIC. See COORS CLASSIC. REYNDERS, YVONNE (BEL). B. 4 August 1937; Schaarbeek, Belgium. One of the great female cyclists of the 1960s, Yvonne Reynders won the women’s road race at the world championships four times, in 1959, 1961, 1963, and 1966, and was runner-up in 1962 and 1965. She also excelled on the track, swapping individual pursuit world titles with Britain’s Beryl Burton. Reynders claimed the gold in 1961, 1964, and 1965, while finishing second behind Burton in 1962, 1963, and 1966. Reynders retired in 1967 but returned to cycling in 1975 and managed to win the 1976 Belgian title as well as a bronze medal in the world championship road race. RIIS, BJARNE LYKKEGÅRD (DEN). B. 3 April 1964; Herning, Denmark. Bjarne Riis was a Danish professional whose major win was the 1996 Tour de France, in which he ended the five-year winning streak of Miguel Indurain. Riis was also Danish champion on the roads in 1992 and 1995 and won the

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1997 Amstel Gold Race. After his retirement, he became a directeur sportif, most notably from 2001 to 2005 with Team CSC and CSC/Tiscali, later Team Saxobank. In 2007, he admitted to having doped during his career and specifically in 1996 when he won the Tour. At first, it was thought his title might be removed, but he continues to be listed as the winner of the 1996 Tour de France. RISI, BRUNO (SUI). B. 6 September 1968; Altdorf, Switzerland. Bruno Risi is one of the all-time six-days racing greats, having won 61 events between 1992 and 2010, most of his wins with Kurt Betschaert or Franco Marvulli as his partner. Betschaert and Risi collected 37 wins together, making them the most successful couple in six-day history. Risi also applied his experience in the points race and Madison competitions outside six-day events, with success. He won five world titles in the points race (1991-amateur, 1992, 1994, 1999, 2001) and two in the Madison (2003, 2007—both with Marvulli), adding three more medals in other years. At the 2004 Olympics, Marvulli and Risi also placed second in the Madison. RIVIÈRE, ROGER (FRA). B. 23 February 1936; Saint-Étienne, France. D. 1 April 1976; Saint-Galmier, France. Roger Rivière won the world championship in individual pursuit and then turned his superb track pursuiting ability to the road in 1959, and French cycling fans turned to him, looking for a hero they could embrace. Though they had Jacques Anquetil, he was never loved by French fans, and when Rivière broke Anquetil’s world hour record in 1957, French fans everywhere expected great things of him. Rivière broke his own record for the hour in 1958, leaving it at 47.346 km, a mark that stood until October 1967. In 1959, Rivière finished third in the Tour de France, behind Anquetil, who lost his only Tour, placing second. In the 1960 Tour, Rivière was favored, as Anquetil opted to race the Giro instead. Rivière was on course to win, with several of his favorite time trials remaining, when he crashed off the side of the Col de Perjuret in the Tarn Gorges, his reflexes probably influenced by painkillers he had taken. The broken back he sustained ended his promising career, as he was partially paralyzed, became wheelchair bound, and never raced again. See also DOPING. ROAD RACING. Road racing is one of the disciplines of cycling, along with track cycling, mountain biking, and BMX. Road races are held, as the name implies, outdoors on the roads, but the term is simplistic, as there are many different types of road races. Some of these include stage races, mass start races, criteriums or kermesses, time trials, and team time trials. Stage races are races over several days, with stages held every day (or most days) and several different types of races held during the event. Mass start races are the well-known type of racing to the sporting public. In these, the entire

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peloton starts together, and the first rider across the line wins. In Europe, this race is usually called en ligne, or “in-line.” “Criterium” is the American term for a mass start race on a short circuit, with the riders covering many laps of the circuit. In Europe these races are called kermesses; although, they tend to be slightly longer, and the laps are also longer in European kermesses. Time trials are road races in which each rider starts individually, with the cyclists going off at intervals. The time for each rider to finish the course is taken, and the riders are ranked according to their times. It is not well known, but at the Olympics, the “road race” was actually an individual time trial from 1896 to 1932, with a mass start road race only held for the first time at the 1936 Berlin Olympics. Team time trials are similar, with the teams consisting of several riders. In the Tour de France, this is usually nine-man teams, while at the Olympics, from 1960 to 1992, the team time trial was contested by four-man teams. In the team time trial, teamwork is critical with each rider pulling on the front for short intervals, as the other riders rest in his or her draft. After a rider’s pull is finished, he or she drops to the back of the team line. It is vitally important that the team stay together with as many members as possible because this provides more help in taking pulls and better drafting opportunities. In the Olympic team time trial, the time is taken when the third rider crosses the line, while in the Tour de France, it is taken when the fifth rider crosses the line. ROCHE, STEPHEN (IRL). B. 20 November 1959; Dublin, Ireland. Stephen Roche had a year in 1987 that has been matched by only one rider ever— Eddy Merckx. He won the triple crown, winning both the Tour de France and Giro d’Italia and also won the rainbow jersey as world champion in the road race. Roche’s Tour de France win was the stuff of high drama. In second place entering the Alps, with Pedro Delgado close in third, Roche fell off the pace as Delgado attacked up the Villard de Lans. Delgado took over the race and was the leader on the road, as he opened up a huge margin. But Roche countered and closed to within four seconds of Delgado at the finish. It was an almost superhuman effort, which earned him the yellow jersey but also put him in the hospital overnight, requiring oxygen for recovery. However, he recovered enough to race the next day and keep the yellow jersey into Paris. Roche’s career was hampered by knee problems both before 1987 and in the ensuing years. His other major victories included Paris–Nice in 1981; the Tour de Romandie in 1983, 1984, and 1987; the Vuelta al País Vasco in 1989; and Quatre Jours de Dunkerque in 1990. Roche retired after the 1993 season and now owns the Roche Marina Hotel in Antibes on the Cote d’Azur. ROMINGER, TONY (SUI). B. 27 March 1961; Vejle, Denmark. Tony Rominger was a Swiss professional who won four grand tours—the Vuelta

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a España in 1992 through 1994 and the Giro d’Italia in 1995. Rominger was among the top talents in the pro peloton in the 1990s, failing to win only the Tour de France; although, in 1993, he placed second in the race and won the mountain classification. He is a rare rider to have won in the mountain and points classification in the major tours, also winning the mountain jersey at the 1993 and 1996 Vuelta and the points title at the 1993 Vuelta and the 1995 Giro d’Italia. His feat of winning all three major jerseys at the 1993 Vuelta has only been accomplished in grand tours by Eddy Merckx at the 1969 Tour de France and Laurent Jalabert at the 1995 Vuelta. Rominger’s other major wins include Union Cycliste Internationale Road World Cup in 1994, the Giro di Lombardia in 1989 and 1992, the Tour de Romandie in 1991 and 1995, Tirreno–Adriatico in 1989 and 1990, and Paris–Nice and the Grand Prix des Nations in 1991 and 1994. Rominger also twice broke the world hour record, his efforts coming within a few weeks of one another in late fall 1994, with his best mark 55.291 km (34.356 miles). ROMPELBERG, FRED (NED). B. 30 October 1945; Maastricht, Netherlands. Fred Rompelberg is the current holder of the bicycle speed record, with 268.831 km/h or 166.944 mph. This speed was recorded on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah (USA), the same location where many recent automobile land speed records have been set, recording this speed while riding behind a dragster race car on 3 October 1995. Rompelberg had made several prior attempts to break the record, and in 1988, he had two crashes at speeds over 200 km/h, breaking 24 bones. Earlier in his career, Rompelberg broke the world hour record behind heavy motorcycles (not dernies) a number of times. RONDE VAN DRENTHE. De Ronde van Drenthe, held in the northeast of the Netherlands, has been held as a minor men’s race since 1960. A women’s edition followed in 1998, and it has been added to the Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup for women in 2007. The majority of winners have come from the Netherlands, and thus far, there have not been any repeat victors. See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. RONDE VAN VLAANDEREN. The Ronde van Vlaanderen, or Tour of Flanders, is a one-day classic that is considered one of the monument races of cycling. It is held every year in the spring, usually in the early April, a week before Paris–Roubaix, and with Gent–Wevelgem and the Amstel Gold Race, is considered one of the cobbled classics. The race was first held in 1913, sponsored by the Sportwereld newspaper, upon the urgings of one of its writers, Karel Van Wijnendaele. It has since been held continuously, except for a break for World War I. Even in World War II, despite the fighting in Belgium, the race went on, even with the support of the occupying

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Germans. It is often called Vlaanderens Mooiste, or Flanders’ Most Beautiful, signifying its importance among the classics from the Flemish Belgian point of view. The race is famous for its course, though this varies from year to year. It started in Gent until 1976, then in Sint-Niklaas from 1977 to 1997, and has since started in Brugge. It has finished in various towns, but since 1973, the finish has been in Meerbeke. But it is neither the start nor the finish for which the Ronde is known but rather for the difficult course. The course has several cobbled sections, though less so than Paris–Roubaix. But it is also known for several very difficult climbs, some on cobbles, especially the ferocious Koppenberg, which is only 600 m in length but starts out at a 25 percent grade over cobblestones. Given the time of year, the race often takes place on cold, rainy days, and the cobblestones can be very slick, making the climb almost impossible. Many riders dismount and shuffle up the hill on their feet, and if riders fall on the Koppenberg, everyone stops on the very narrow grade, losing their momentum when they must dismount. The Koppenberg is so difficult that it has been dropped from the course a few times but seems to pop back up on the route frequently. The climbs in the Ronde are known for being short, steep, and very difficult. There are usually about 15 to 18 climbs on the course, with the Oude Kwaremont and Muur van Geraardsbergen other difficult cobbled climbs, though not nearly as steep as the Koppenberg. The record for the most victories in the race is three, with four riders sharing this mark: Achiel Buysse (1940, 1941, 1943), Fiorenzo Magni (1949–51), Eric Leman (1970, 1972, 1973), and Johan Museeuw (1993, 1995, 1998). See also APPENDIX C for a list of winners. RONDE VAN VLAANDEREN (WOMEN). Not as big a classic as the male equivalent, the women’s Ronde van Vlaanderen has been held only since 2004, on a similar but shorter course as the men. It was added to the UCI Women’s Road World Cup program in 2006 and has been included since. The only repeat winner so far is Dutch cyclist Mirjam Melchers (2005, 2006). See also BELGIUM; and APPENDIX E for a list of winners. ROOKS, STEVEN (NED). B. 7 August 1960; Oterleek, Noord-Holland, Netherlands. Steven Rooks is a Dutch cyclist mostly known for his climbing ability. In 1988, Rooks placed second in general classification at the Tour de France but won the mountain classification and the now-defunct combination classification. He also won stage 12 in that Tour, the fabled climb up l’Alpe d’Huez. Rooks was second at the 1991 world championship road race in Stuttgart. His one-day classics wins came at the 1983 Liège–Bastogne–Liège and the 1986 Amstel Gold Race. He was also Dutch National champion on the road in 1991 and 1994.

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ROSSNER, PETRA (GER). B. 14 November 1966, Leipzig, East Germany. Achieving her first successes competing for East Germany as a teenager, Petra Rossner became individual pursuit world champion in 1991, having been runner-up in 1989. At the 1992 Olympics, she claimed the gold in that same track event. Since focusing on the road, Rossner has won a record total of 10 Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup races. Three of these came in the 2002 season, when she also captured the overall title. Since her retirement in 2004, Rossner has been a team manager. Rossner has also been the longtime life partner of fellow cyclist Judith Arndt. ROUSSEAU, FLORIAN (FRA). B. 3 February 1974; Joinville-le-Pont, France. One of France’s most successful track sprinters of the 1990s, Florian Rousseau collected no less than 10 world titles. After winning the kilometer time trial in 1993 and 1994, Rousseau won three consecutive sprint championships (1996–98) and five world championships with the French team sprint squad (1997–2001). Additionally, Rousseau won the 1996 Olympic time trial and collected three Olympic medals at the 2000 Sydney Games: gold in the sprint and keirin and silver in the team sprint. Rousseau was also world junior champion in the kilometer in 1992. A 17-time French

Florian Rousseau, one of the great track sprinters of the 1990s, winner of three Olympic gold medals and 10 sprint World Championships. (Courtesy OlyMADMen)

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champion, he retired in 2002 to become the French national sprint coach at the Institut National du Sport et de l’Education Physique (INSEP), the national sports institute. RUND UM DEN HENNINGER TURM. The Rund um den Henninger Turm, often called the Frankfurt Grand Prix, is a minor one-day classic raced in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The race began in 1962, sponsored by the Henninger Brewery. Henninger stopped its sponsorship after the 2008 race, and the race has been called the Eschborn-Frankfurt City Loop in 2009 through 2011, named for its new main sponsors, Frankfurt and the neighboring town of Eschborn. The race is known for its difficulty, with over 1,500 m (5,000 feet) of climbing, including twice climbing the Mammolshain, with a 26 percent gradient. The record for the most wins in the event is three by Erik Zabel, who won in 1999, 2002, and 2005. RUND UM DIE NÜRNBERGER ALTSTADT. Held annually around the old city center of Nuremberg (Nürnberg), Germany, this competition has been a Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup event since 2003. The first race was held 1993; although, a men’s race—of lesser international importance—has been organized since 1991. Thus far, four women have claimed double victories in the event, three Germans (Petra Rossner, Regina Schleicher, and Barbara Heeb) and one Swede (Jenny Algelid). See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. RUSSIA. During the Cold War period, the Soviet Union did not allow professional athletes to compete, and hence, there were no major male cycling stars from that period. They were active in amateur competition and claimed a number of wins in the Peace Race. The best-known Soviet rider was probably Sergey Sukhoruchenkov, winner of the 1980 Olympic road race. Female Soviet riders were more successful, in part because sports were more emancipated in the USSR while other countries still frowned upon female cyclists. Since women’s cycling was introduced at the 1958 world championships, the Soviet Union produced several champions, notably Tamara Garkushina, Galina Tsareva, and Galina Yermolayeva. After the fall of the iron curtain, Russian cyclists competed in the professional circuit and with increasing success. Former track star Vyacheslav Yekimov became a noted rider in the peloton, and riders like Pavel Tonkov, Yevgeny Berzin, and Denis Menchov have claimed victories in grand tours, although not yet in the Tour de France. The first Russian pro team, Katyusha, was formed in 2009. Of the female Russian cyclists, Olga Slyusareva stands out as one of the best female points race riders ever.

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S SADDLE. The bicycle saddle is the seat on which a rider sits on the bicycle. It is one of the three contact points on the bike for a cyclist, the others being the pedals and handlebars. Most modern saddles consist of a hard shell, usually now made of plastic or other synthetic material, covered by a foampadded leather or artificial leather seat to cushion the rider while seated. Mountain bikes and BMX bikes may have Kevlar, allowing them to absorb the punishment of those type races. Rails, usually made of steel, titanium, or carbon fiber, connect the saddle shell to the seatpost. The height of the saddle is a critical measurement in bike fitting. The height should be set so that with the pedal crankset perpendicular to the ground, the lower leg will have a slight bend at the knee. The height is usually measured to the center of the bottom bracket. The front-back position of the saddle is also important. This should be adjusted so that the reach to the handlebars is not too long. The length of the stem can also be adjusted to correct this measurement. The position of the saddle front-back also differs slightly in track, road, and triathlon bicycles. Saddles must be designed to decrease pressure while the cyclist is sitting. The pressure is taken primarily on the lower pelvic bones, called the “ischial tuberosities.” But cyclists who spend a lot of time on the bike often have problems with saddle sores, cysts, erectile dysfunction, and pudendal numbness. SAG WAGON. See BROOM WAGON. SARONNI, GIUSEPPE “BEPPE” (ITA). B. 22 September 1957; Novara, Piedmont, Italy. Giuseppe Saronni was an Italian professional who raced in the late 1970s and 1980s. He twice won the Giro d’Italia, winning in 1979 and 1983, and overall won 24 stages in that event. In 1982, Saronni outsprinted Greg LeMond to win the world championship road race, after having finished second in that race in 1981. His other major wins included Milano–Sanremo in 1983, Giro di Lombardia in 1982, Tour de Suisse in 1982, La Flèche Wallonne in 1980, Tirreno–Adriatico in 1978 and 1982, Tour de Romandie in 1979, and Züri-Metzgete in 1979. Saronni later became a team manager, most notably for the Lampre team. 177

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SASTRE CANDIL, CARLOS (ESP). B. 22 April 1975; Leganés, Madrid, Spain. Carlos Sastre was a Spanish professional who raced from 1997 to 2010. Sastre was primarily a stage racer, with good abilities climbing in the mountains. He won the 2008 Tour de France and 2000 Vuelta a España and appeared on the podium five times in the grand tours. In addition to his two grand tour wins, he was third at the Tour in 2006, third in the 2008 Giro d’Italia, and second in the 2007 Vuelta. He also won the mountain classification at the 2000 Vuelta and 2008 Tour. SCHERENS, JOSEPH “JEF” (BEL). B. 17 February 1909; Werchter, Belgium. D. 9 August 1986; Leuven, Belgium. Jef Scherens was the best sprinter of the 1930s, winning the professional world title six times in a row, in 1932 through 1937. He lost the 1938 final to Arie van Vliet and was again scheduled to meet the Dutchman in the 1939 final, but the final race was canceled when World War II broke out on the day of the race. Scherens competed at the 1946 world championships (and was eliminated early) but won his seventh world title in 1947. Had it not been for the war, it is likely that Scherens would have been able to equal Koichi Nakano’s record of 10 sprint titles. A 16-time Belgian champion, Jef Scherens is honored with the Grand Prix Jef Scherens, held annually since 1963. SCHOTTE, ALBÉRIC “BRIEK” (BEL). B. 7 September 1919; Kanegem, West Flanders, Belgium. D. 4 April 2004; Kortrijk, West Flanders, Belgium. Briek Schotte was primarily known for his great sprinting ability. It enabled him to win a number of one-day classics, but his lack of ability in time trials and the mountains prevented him from being a factor in the grand tours. Most of Schotte’s victories came in his native Belgium; although, he did win the world championship road race two of three years on foreign ground, in 1948 and 1950. His other victories included Ronde van Vlaanderen in 1942 and 1948, Gent–Wevelgem in 1950 and 1955, Paris–Bruxelles in 1946 and 1952, and Paris–Tours in 1946 and 1947. SCHUR, GUSTAV-ADOLF “TÄVE” (GDR). B. 23 February 1931; Heyrothsberge, Germany. One of the most popular East German athletes ever, Gustav-Adolf “Täve” Schur was the greatest road cyclist produced by the former Eastern bloc nation. He was so popular that from 1953 to 1961 he was voted East German Athlete of the Year for nine consecutive years. Schur first came to international prominence in 1955, winning the Peace Race, at the time the top stage race for amateurs, and he repeated that title in 1959. In 1958 and 1959, he became the first cyclist to defend the amateur world championship road race, placing second in 1960 when he allowed

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his teammate, Bernhard Eckstein, through for the win. At the Olympics, Schur won a bronze medal in 1956 in the team road race and a silver in 1960 in the team time trial; although, his son, Jan, won a gold medal at the 1988 Olympics in the team time trial. At the time of German unification, Schur was voted the greatest ever East German athlete. Also active politically, he was a member of the Volkskammer, the East German Parliament, from 1959 to 1990, and after unification, he was a member of the German Bundestag from 1998 to 2002. SCRATCH. The scratch is maybe the simplest of track cycling event. Held over a fixed distance (15 km for men, 10 km for women), the winner is simply the first one to cross the line. As in road racing, scratch events oppose sprinters who want to breakaway and gain a lap on the pack. The name “scratch” is a fairly new one in the sport, but races over a set distance have been held since the beginning of track cycling. A 10-km event was held at the 1893 and 1894 world championships, and various distances have been contested at early Olympics. Scratch was reintroduced to the world championships in 2002, for both women and men, and it also forms part of the omnium. Two men and women have been able to win two world titles in the sport: Franco Marvulli (SUI), Alex Rasmussen (DEN), Yumari González (CUB), and Olga Slyusareva (RUS). SERCU, PATRICK (BEL). B. 27 June 1944; Roulers, Belgium. With 88 victories, Patrick Sercu is the most successful six-day racer in cycling history. His first win came in 1965, his first year as a professional, and he continued to win one or more events through 1983, the year of his retirement. Sercu also won three sprint world titles, one as an amateur (1963) and two as a pro (1967, 1969), as well as the 1964 Olympic gold in the kilometer time trial. He was also a successful sprinter on the road, capturing the green jersey in the 1974 Tour de France, as well as a total of 6 stage wins in the Tour and 11 in the Giro d’Italia. Sercu is presently active as an organizer of six-day races in his native Belgium. SETMANA CATALANA DE CICLISME. The Setmana Catalana de Ciclisme, or Catalan Cycling Week, was a lesser stage race held in Catalonia, Spain, from 1963 to 2005. The race was won twice by José PérezFrancés, Luis Ocaña, Eddy Merckx, Alex Zülle, Michael Boogerd, and Laurent Jalabert. 7-ELEVEN. The 7-Eleven cycling team was formed in 1981 by Jim Ochowicz, former U.S. Olympic cyclist and the husband of Sheila Young-Ochowicz,

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cycling and speed skating world champion. The team started as an amateur team, and in 1984, 7-Eleven also sponsored the cycling events at the Los Angeles Olympics. But in 1985, Ochowicz took the team professional, and the success of the 7-Eleven pro team, supplemented by the remarkable success of Greg LeMond, became one of the most important reasons for the cycling resurgence in the United States in the late 1980s. In 1985, 7-Eleven was invited to the Giro d’Italia and added Andy Hampsten to the team on a short-term contract. Hampsten and Ron Kiefel won stages in the 1985 Giro, the first time Americans had won a stage in a grand tour. In 1986, 7-Eleven became the first American team to race at the Tour de France, and Davis Phinney became the first American to win a stage in that race. Riding for 7-Eleven, two Canadian riders actually wore the yellow jersey at the Tour, Alex Stieda in 1986 and Steve Bauer in 1990. In 1990, 7-Eleven ceased sponsorship of the team, which was taken over by Motorola. Under Motorola, the team rode through the 1996 season, with Lance Armstrong its most prominent rider. For its importance to United States cycling, the 7-Eleven team is the only cycling team in the U.S. Bicycling Hall of Fame. SHIMANO. Shimano is a Japanese company that manufactures cycling components, as well as fishing and rowing equipment. Shimano is headquartered in Sakai, Japan. In the 1980s, Shimano began to make inroads into the dominance of Campagnolo equipment for high-end cycling components, and as of 2010, Shimano has the largest market share of any company making cycling parts. In 1988, Andy Hampsten rode Shimano components to win the Giro d’Italia, the first grand tour victory for the company. In 1999, Lance Armstrong rode on Shimano for his first Tour de France victory, which was also Shimano’s first. Shimano makes parts for mountain bikes and BMX bikes, as well as road and track bikes. SIMONI, GILBERTO (ITA). B. 25 August 1971; Palù di Giovo, Trento, Italy. Gilberto Simoni was an Italian professional whose stated goal was to someday win the Giro d’Italia, and he accomplished that twice, in 2001 and 2003. Simoni came to the notice of the cycling world in 1993, when he won the amateur Giro (Baby Giro) and the Italian championship road race. He would eventually appear on the podium of the pro Giro seven times, winning twice, placing second in 2005, and third in 1999, 2000, 2004, and 2006. In 2007, Simoni performed the unusual feat of also competing in the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup, placing sixth overall. He retired after the 2010 season.

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SIMPSON, TOM (GBR). B. 30 November 1937; Haswell, County Durham, England. D. 13 July 1967; Mont Ventoux, France. Tommy Simpson was the first truly great British road professional. He turned professional in 1960 after an amateur career that included an Olympic bronze medal in the 1956 team pursuit and a silver in the individual pursuit at the 1958 Commonwealth Games. In 1962, he became the first Briton to wear the yellow jersey at the Tour de France, though he held it but a day. His greatest year was 1965, when he won the Giro di Lombardia and the world championship road race. Those wins occurred after a disastrous fall in the Tour de France when doctors feared they might need to amputate his arm. His palmarès includes Paris–Nice in 1967, Milano–Sanremo in 1964, the Ronde de Vlaanderen in 1961, and Bordeaux–Paris in 1963. In 1967, Simpson was ascending Mont Ventoux in the Tour de France when he collapsed and fell from his bike. He could not be revived and died that day. He was later found to have been quite heavily drugged with stimulants, and his death was directly responsible for many of the antidrug regulations put in place by international sporting organizations. A memorial to Simpson was placed on Mont Ventoux near where he collapsed. See also DEATHS IN CYCLING; DOPING. SIX-DAY RACING. Originally, six-day racing was the pinnacle of track cycling; although, some may contend that it still is. It has its origins in an 1878 wager by Englishman David Stanton, who claimed he could cover 1,000 miles on the track within six days (and did so). By 1891, the idea of completing as many laps as possible within six days had crossed the Atlantic and became popular in North America, particularly at New York’s Madison Square Garden. With a lot of prize money at stake, cyclists would sacrifice sleep to continue racing for the full 144 hours. The 24-hour opening times, alcoholic beverages served after closing time, and the zombie-like state in which riders raced after several days attracted large audiences. But cyclists were eventually forbidden to race for more than 12 hours a day for health reasons. Race directors solved this problem by allowing two-man teams to compete, each racing for 12 hours. Achieving the top of its popularity in the early 20th century, the sport fell into decline during the interbellum. Most major North American six-day events were discontinued in the 1930s, or shortly after World War II. In Europe, where it had become especially popular in Germany, six-day racing also suffered from a decline in popularity. But instead of events being disbanded, they were restyled. Rather than lasting for a full six days, there are now just a few hours of racing a day; although, an official six-day event

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must still include at least 24 hours of competition over six days. The modern incarnation of six-day races still attracts audiences in Western Europe, notably in Belgium and Germany. The duration of the event makes it suitable for combining it with various other forms of entertainment, from restaurants and bars to nightclubs and fairs. The main objective of the modern six-day events is still to gain the most number of laps, which can be done in two ways. Laps gained during Madison events (essentially a points race for duos) are one way; the other is to score points in the other events. For each 100 points scored by a duo, one lap is added to the total. The events held may include Madison, Madison elimination, team time trial (all for teams), as well as individual points races, time trials, motor-paced races, scratch events, keirins, and sprints. Sometimes, organizers may decide to award bonus laps in events. The most important modern six-day races are divided into three levels by the UCI. Presently, there are only two level-one events, those held in Gent (BEL) and Grenoble (FRA). The second-tier events are staged in Amsterdam (NED), Berlin (GER), Bremen (GER), Copenhagen (DEN), Fiorenzuola (ITA), Hasselt (BEL), Munich (GER), and Rotterdam (NED). The competition in Berlin is the oldest still running six-day competition, having been first held in 1909. The most famous discontinued event is that of the sport’s birthplace, New York, which lasted from 1899 until 1961. Belgian cyclist Patrick Sercu won the most six-day events in history, with 88 victories between 1965 and 1983. He is trailed on the all-time winners list by Danny Clark, René Pijnen (NED), Peter Post (NED), and Bruno Risi. SLYUSAREVA, OLGA ANATOLYEVNA [Ольга Анатольевна Слюсарева] (RUS). B. 28 April 1969; Kharkiv, Ukraine. Between 1998 and 2006, Olga Slyusareva was a fixture on the podium of the points race at international championships. In that period, she won four world titles (2001–04) and four other world championship medals, while claiming the 2004 Olympic gold and 2000 Olympic bronze in the event. When the scratch race regained world championship status in 2002, she also started competing in that event, winning five medals and two titles (2003, 2005). She has also won three silvers and a bronze in the individual pursuit. She did not often compete on the road but had several successes, notably four stage wins in the Giro Donne and an Olympic bronze in the road race in 2004. SOIGNEUR. A soigneur is a support member of a professional racing team, who serves multiple roles. The soigneur serves as a trainer, organizes the team’s travel arrangements and food preparation, and acts as a cheerleader for the riders.

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SOMARRIBA, JOANE (ESP). B. 11 August 1972; Gernika, Spain. After Italy’s Fabiana Luperini, Joane Somarriba has been the most successful female stage racer. She has won the Grand Boucle (the female Tour de France) three times (2000, 2001, 2003) and the Giro Donne (female version of the Giro d’Italia) twice (1999, 2000). Somarriba was helped by her excellent time trial capacities and won the world title in that discipline in 2003, finishing runner-up two years later. Earlier, she had won a bronze world championships medal in 2002 in the road race. See also WOMEN. SØRENSEN, ROLF “IL BIONDO” (DEN). B. 20 April 1965; Gladsaxe, Denmark. Known in Italy as Il Biondo because of his blond hair, Rolf Sørensen was the most successful Danish cyclist of all time. In a 17-year career, he was credited with 53 professional victories, including several one-day classics. He won Paris–Tours in 1990, Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 1993, and the Ronde van Vlaanderen in 1997. He also won the Rund um den Henninger Turm and Milano–Torino in 1993 and the 1994 Paris–Bruxelles. Sørensen also won two stages at the Tour de France, briefly wearing the yellow jersey in 1991, and one at the Giro d’Italia. After his 2000 retirement, he has worked as a cycling commentator and agent. SOVIET UNION. See RUSSIA. SPAIN. While Spain had provided great cyclists for a long time, it only became one of the leading cycling countries in the past 25 years. Although Federico Bahamontes, Luis Ocaña, and Pedro Delgado had won the Tour de France before him, Miguel Indurain was the first Spanish cycling superstar, with five consecutive wins in the Tour. Between 2006 and 2010, the Tour was won by three different Spanish riders, including three wins by Alberto Contador; although, his 2010 title is in dispute because of a doping irregularity. Spanish riders have traditionally been less successful in one-day races, a notable exception being three-time world champion Óscar Freire. The best female rider from Spain has been Joane Somarriba, who has been one of the best stage race riders in the ladies’ circuit. The most important race held in Spain is the Vuelta a España, which is one of the three grand tours; although, it is traditionally ranked third behind the Tour de France and Giro d’Italia. There are several other stage races held in Spain, most notably the Vuelta al País Vasco (Basque Country) and the Volta a Catalunya (Catalonia). Although Spain does not have a great track cycling tradition, it has still produced great champions like Guillermo Timoner and Joan Llaneras. Spain is also one of the prime nations for mountain bike trials. See also CLÁSICA DE SAN SEBASTIÁN; OCAÑA PERNIA,

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JESÚS LUIS; OLANO MANZANO, ÁBRAHAM; POBLET I ORRIOLS, MIGUEL; SASTRE CANDIL, CARLOS; SOMARRIBA, JOANE. SPOKES. Spokes are the rods that connect the hubs to the wheels of a bicycle. They come in numerous different types. Modern wheels have spokes that are loaded under tension. The spokes are usually made of steel, stainless steel, aluminum, titanium, or carbon fiber. The shape of the hub was originally always a cylinder, but many are now made oval or flattened into a blade to reduce aerodynamic drag. Lacing refers to the pattern of how the spokes are attached to the wheel and can vary in many different patterns. Wheels may be trued by tightening the spokes sequentially and symmetrically to avoid any wobble of the wheel while spinning. This is done by tightening a nub at the rim-end of each spoke, called a “nibble.” In the 1980s, triathlon competitors began using solid disc wheels, which technically have no spokes. The solid disk is more aerodynamic and faster on a level, wind-free course. However, it is heavier than a spoked wheel and more difficult to control in windy conditions. Variations of this now exist, often with a composite wheel with 3 to 5 thick, bladed posts, which have the effect of serving as spokes. These are now often used in time trials in major stage races, and the Union Cycliste Internationale has regulations governing the number of spokes allowed in mass start road racing and time trials. Mountain bikes and BMX bikes have thicker, heavier spokes to withstand the trauma that occurs to wheels in those types of races. SPRINT. The sprint is one of the oldest track cycling events and the most prestigious one. It has been held at the world championships since its inception in 1893 (amateurs) and at the Olympic Games since 1896. A sprint race usually features two riders in a race over two to five laps of the velodrome, depending on the size of the track; although, in repechages and placement races, three or four riders may compete together. The final 200 m of the race are timed for record purposes; although, the winner is simply determined by finishing order. While the sprint sees the highest speeds recorded in track cycling, the first part of the race is often a tactical one. Because most cyclists find it easier to come from behind to beat their opponent, riders usually try to force their opponent into the lead. Traditionally, this has led to so-called sur place situations, with both riders coming to a complete standstill (note that track cycles do not have brakes and have a fixed gear). In recent decades, officials have tried to avoid this time consuming yet spectacular practice. Current rules only allow for two sur places to occur per race, with a maximum duration of 30 seconds each. The

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longest known sur place was in a race contested by Antonio Maspes and Jan Derksen, who stood for 32 minutes and 20 seconds. Traditionally, sprint races are held in a best-of-three format, with the first cyclist to win twice advancing to the next round. A so-called third race, or “decider,” is also known as a belle (French). This format is now usually reserved only for the later stages of competition. In championship events, sprint events are often preceded by a qualification round in the form of a flying lap, to allow for fair draws that will see the faster riders meet in the later stages of the competition. At the world championships, the leading sprinter has been Koichi Nakano, who won 10 consecutive professional titles between 1977 and 1986; although, Jef Scherens won seven titles, despite having his career interrupted by World War II. Among amateurs, Daniel Morelon was the most successful, with seven world titles between 1966 and 1975, additionally winning the 1968 and 1972 Olympic title. Women have contested the event since the 1958 world championships and the 1988 Olympics. Both Félicia Ballanger and Victoria Pendleton have won five world titles, with Ballanger winning two Olympic titles as well and Pendleton winning one gold medal. See also KEIRIN; TANDEM SPRINT; TEAM SPRINT. SPRINTERS/SPRINTING. Sprinting is an ability to ride at a very high speed either on the track or at the end of a road race. Many cyclists have become known for their sprinting ability. Sprinters tend to be able to win many single-day or short-distance races but often struggle in mountainous races and time trials and, as a result, rarely factor in the general classification of stage races. The best-known sprinters on the road have included Rik Van Looy, Rik Van Steenbergen, Freddy Maertens, Sean Kelly, Mario Cipollini, Alessandro Petacchi, Mark Cavendish, and, among Americans, Davis Phinney. See also SPRINT. STABILIZERS. See TRAINING WHEELS. STABLINSKI, JEAN (né JEAN STABLEWSKI) (FRA). B. 21 May 1932; Thun-Saint-Ammand, France. D. 22 July 2007; Lille, France. Jean Stablinski was a superb all-rounder whose record would have been better had Jacques Anquetil not been riding at the same time. Stablinski won the world championship road race in 1962, after his close friend, Seamus Elliott had broken away. When Jos Hoevenaars chased Elliott, Stablinski went with him and eventually dropped the other two. But shortly before the finish, Stablinski punctured. He was allowed to borrow a spectator’s bike and rode that across

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the line to win his only world title. Stablinski also won the following major races: 1958 Vuelta a España, 1963 Paris–Bruxelles, 1965 Rund um den Henninger Turm, and 1966 Amstel Gold Race. STAGE RACES. Stage races are among the most popular types of cycling road races, typified by the three-week-long grand tours—the Tour de France, the Giro d’Italia, and the Vuelta a España. But there are many other stage races, some lasting from only two to three days up to two-week tours. Other well known stage races include the Tour de Suisse, Dauphiné Libéré, Tirreno–Adriatico, Midi Libre, Paris–Nice, Coors Classic, the Tour de l’Avenir, the Tour de Romandie, the Peace Race, the Tour of California, the Tour de Georgia, and the Tour DuPont. Stage races usually include a variety of stages, with some flat stages, some mountainous, some individual time trials, and occasionally team time trials. Stage races also often offer awards in several different categories, with the overall victory going to the leader in general classification, but points and mountain classifications are also awarded in the longer tours. Because of the variety of racing in a stage race, especially the longer ones, the winners of stage races are usually considered the most outstanding road cyclists, as these races test all aspects of a rider’s fitness. STARTING BLOCK. In most track cycling events, the cyclists start by being released from “holders” (i.e., a coach or helper) or by holding on to the track’s balustrade until the start sign is given. However, for pursuit and time trial events, as well as the team sprint, and even the world hour record, a starting block is used. Starting blocks clamp the rear wheel of a contestant’s bicycle so that he cannot start until its release. This release is synchronized with the starting gun and timing of the race, eliminating the possibility of error or cheating through hand-released starts. Starting blocks need to be removed from the track seconds after the cyclist has departed and are usually fit with wheels to allow this. STAYERS. See MOTOR-PACED. STEM. The stem connects the handlebars to the steerer tube of the bicycle fork. There are two main types—quill or threadless. A quill stem is a onepiece stem that is threaded into the steerer tube and clamps around the central portion of the handlebars. A threadless stem is a misnomer. It is a double clamped-tube, one wrapping around the handlebars and one around the top steerer tube. It is the steerer tube that is threadless in this case and has an extension above the top tube. Quill stems are the older style but have been

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displaced by threadless stems on most modern racing bikes. Threadless stems tend to be lighter as they are made of aluminum or carbon fiber, and they can also be adjusted more easily. Quill stems are made of steel, titanium, carbon fiber, or a hybrid. Stem measurement depends on two factors—angle and forward length. The forward length affects how far forward the handlebars sit and also relate to the rider’s sitting position. Stems come in two common diameters—1.00 inch and 1.125 inches. Mountain and BMX bikes now commonly have a 1.25-inch stem diameter. Some manufacturers also make mountain bike and BMX bike stems with suspension built in, to lessen the shock on the hands during those races. See also SADDLE. STRADA, ALFONSINA (née ALFONSA ROSA MARIA MORINI) (ITA). B. 16 March 1891; Castelfranco Emilia, Italy. D. 13 September 1959; Milan, Italy. Alfonsina Strada was a pioneer of women’s cycling and remains the only woman to have ever started in the Giro d’Italia. In 1911, she set an unofficial world hour record for women at 37.192 km. In 1917 and 1918, she competed in the Giro di Lombardia, which was then open to all competitors. Placing 32nd and last in the 1917 race, she finished 21st the next year, beating several male competitors. Although the Giro d’Italia was not open to women, she managed to enter the 1924 edition. Taken for a man due to her entry as Alfonsin Strada, she was quickly discovered at the start, but could not be banned anymore. She failed to make the time limit in two of the stages but was allowed to continue unofficially, as her participation was making headlines in the newspapers. Although officially disqualified, Strada’s final time ranked ahead of two male competitors, finishing a virtual 36th. STREET. Designed after actual stunt riding on the street, a BMX street competition usually features obstacles like rails, banks, and stairs. Competitions are judged by style and execution. A BMX freestyle street event is featured at the X Games. See also PARK. STUMPFHAUSER, RANDALL RICHARD “RANDY” “STUMPY” “STUMPDOG” (USA). B. 27 January 1977; Fresno, California, United States. Probably the most successful BMX cruiser cyclist of all time, Randy Stumpfhauser has won all the important cruiser crowns several times. He is a four-time world champion (2002–05), and ranked number-one five times on both the lists of the National Bicycle League (1998, 2001–04) and America Bicycle Association (2001–05). Stumpfhauser also competed in the regular 20-inch class, albeit with less success. He medaled six times in the world championships (four-time runner-up) but was ranked number-one in the ABA in 2009 and in the NBL in 2003 and 2008.

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SUKHORUCHENKOV, SERGEY NIKOLAYEVICH [Сергей Николаевич Сухорученков] (URS). B. 10 August 1956; Trostnaya, Bryansk, Russia. Sergey Sukhoruchenkov was the greatest road racer in the Soviet Union prior to the breakup of that nation. He came to prominence in 1978, winning the 1978 Soviet national road championship, the Vuelta a Cuba, and at the Tour de l’Avenir, he won four stages and the general classification. In 1979, Sukhoruchenkov won the two major stage races for amateurs in that era, the Tour de l’Avenir and the Peace Race. He was favored at the 1980 Olympic road race and came through for the gold medal; although, he was helped because the expected battle between Sukhoruchenkov and American Greg LeMond did not materialize because of the United States–led boycott. Sukhoruchenkov also won the Milk Race in 1980. His titles fell off a bit after 1980, but he did win the 1984 Peace Race and a stage at the 1981 Tour de l’Avenir. Although past his prime, he was allowed to turn professional in 1989 and rode in both the Giro d’Italia and Vuelta a España that year, after riding the Vuelta in 1986 with an amateur Soviet squad. After being absent from the podium for several years, he came back in 1990 to win the Vuelta Ciclista de Chile. SUPERPRESTIGE (CYCLO-CROSS). Inspired by the Super Prestige Pernod International in road racing, the union of Belgian cyclo-cross race organizers decided to stage a season-long cup competition. The number of races has changed over the years; in 2009–10, it featured eight races. Unsurprisingly, the majority of races have been held in Belgium, but some are staged elsewhere, primarily in the Netherlands. Notable races in the circuit include the Noordzeecross (held since 1959 in Middelkerke [BEL]) and the CycloCross Gieten (held since 1976 in Gieten [NED]). Separate competitions for under-23 and junior men are also held during Superprestige events, but no races for women are organized. Belgian Sven Nys has dominated the Superprestige between 1998–99 and 2008–09, winning 9 overall crowns and 53 races. SUPER PRESTIGE PERNOD FÉMININ. Inspired by the identical competition for men, the Super Prestige Pernod for women was first held in 1985. When sponsorship by alcohol producers became forbidden in France, both the men’s and women’s editions were canceled after 1987. All three women’s Super Prestige competitions were won by France’s Jeannie Longo. SUPER PRESTIGE PERNOD INTERNATIONAL. The Super Prestige Pernod International was a season-long competition in road racing that was held from 1959 to 1987 and was then superseded by the UCI World Cup

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for road racing. The Super Prestige Pernod International replaced a similar season-long competition, the Challenge Desgrange-Colombo, which had been held from 1948 to 1958. The event was won seven times by Eddy Merckx, four each by Jacques Anquetil and Bernard Hinault, and three times by Sean Kelly and Stephen Roche. A women’s version of the competition appeared in 1985, but both were discontinued after 1987, when France banned sport advertising by alcohol beverage companies. See also APPENDIX H for a list of winners. SUR PLACE. See SPRINT. SWITZERLAND. As one of the most mountainous countries of Europe, Switzerland has produced fewer mountain climbers on the bicycle than one would expect. Nevertheless, Switzerland has produced several winners of grand tours, such as Tony Rominger, Alex Zülle, Ferdi Kübler, and Hugo Koblet. In recent years, the greatest Swiss cycling star has been Fabian Cancellara, who particularly excels in time trials. Three top-flight cycling races have been held in Switzerland: the Tour de Suisse, the Tour de Romandie, and the Züri-Metzgete. Due to its mountain stages, the former competition is sometimes called the “fourth grand tour”; although, it lacks the prestige and attention of the three other major tours. The Züri-Metzgete was one of the major one-day classics but was discontinued after 2006. The Tour de Romandie is a stage race. Switzerland has also produced a number of great track racers. Both Urs Freuler and Bruno Risi excelled in the points race and have won multiple world titles and also starred in six-day races. The confederation’s greatest mountain biker has been Thomas Frischknecht, while Karin Moor is the all-time best trials rider among women. See also EGG, OSCAR; FREULER, URS; RISI, BRUNO; ZWEIFEL, ALBERT. SYDOR, ALISON (CAN). B. 9 September 1966; Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Between 1992 and 2004, Alison Sydor was a fixture in the top-five of the cross-country world championships. She won the gold medal three times (1994–96), adding four silvers and two bronzes. She also claimed a world championship gold medal in the 2002 team relay and a silver medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics and 1999 Pan American Games. In 1996, 1998, and 1999, Alison Sydor won the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike World Cup. Also a top competitor on the road, Sydor won a bronze medal in the 1991 worlds and two medals in the 1994 Commonwealth Games. She has won Canadian titles in three disciplines: mountain biking (1994–98), road (1990-91, 1993-94), and cyclo-cross (2009-10).

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T TANDEM BICYCLE. Tandem bicycles are two-wheeled cycles that allow two persons to ride them in an in-line position. For many years, tandem sprint racing was an event at both the Olympic Games and world championships; although, it is no longer held at those competitions. Tandem bicycles are now mostly used as a type of touring bicycles, often by couples. They are also used in para-cycling competitions, where a tandem is ridden by a visually impaired cyclist aided by a sighted pilot. TANDEM SPRINT. The tandem sprint is a track cycling event. It is almost identical to the individual sprint, but is contested by two men on a tandem bicycle. The event enjoyed Olympic status between 1908 and 1972 and world championship status (for amateurs) from 1966 through 1994, but is rarely contested nowadays. With nine world titles, Czechoslovakia has been very successful in this event. Four of these titles were won by Vladimír Vačkář and Miloslav Vymazal, winning in 1973, 1974, 1977, and 1978. France’s Frédéric Magné and Fabrice Collas also won four world titles. TAYLOR, MARSHALL WALTER “MAJOR” (USA). B. 26 November 1878; Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. D. 21 July 1932; Chicago, Illinois, United States. Major Taylor was the first great black athlete and the first to achieve national acclaim in the United States. Beginning in 1893, he raced initially in Worcester, Massachusetts, and won consistently in the northeast, later traveling widely to display his talents. In 1899, he won the sprint world championship in Paris. His 1900 U.S. championship came after two previous titles were taken from him by conspiracy because of his race. Taylor raced in Europe from 1901 to 1904, winning the acclaim of the Europeans and many championships and living strictly for his era, neither smoking nor drinking, and in his spare time, he became a published poet. Numerous biographies have been published about Taylor. He has been honored by the posthumous naming of the Major Taylor Velodrome in Indianapolis, Indiana, and by the Major Taylor Boulevard in his native Worcester, where a monument has also been erected in his memory.

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TEAM DIRECTOR. See DIRECTEUR SPORTIF. TEAM PURSUIT. In track cycling, the team pursuit is essentially identical to the individual pursuit, with teams of four cyclists (three for women) competing rather than individuals. The finishing time of the third (or second) team member counts, which allows for the teams to drop one cyclist during the race; although, this is actually a severe disadvantage. It is one of the most spectacular track events to watch. Cyclists use the track banking as the leader drops off the pace by riding up the banking and then back down to catch the draft off the trailing rider’s rear wheel. Timing is critical as the cyclist must come down the banking precisely or be dropped from the draft, usually never to catch up, and dropping a rider usually all but eliminates a team. The team pursuit has been an Olympic event since the 1908 Olympics and has also been held at (amateur) world championships since 1962. While the team pursuit was an amateur event, East Germany and the Soviet Union were among the most successful nations until the fall of Communism. Germany is still one of the top nations, now with Australia and Great Britain. Seven riders have won four world titles in the event. Of these, Guido Fulst won the most medals, with nine, and he also won two Olympic golds. Women have competed in the event only since the 2008 world championships and will debut in it at the Olympics in 2012. Great Britain took the first two world titles; Australia won the third in 2010. TEAM RELAY. Held solely at the world championships, the team relay is a cross-country mountain biking event. Each national team consists of four riders, one junior male, one under-23 male, one elite male, and one female. Each of them rides a lap of the course, with no predetermined order. The first team to complete the four laps wins the competition. Not all top riders compete in the team relay, and since the event has been added to the world championships in 1999, six different nations have won the event. Canada, Spain, and Switzerland have each won three titles. TEAM SPRINT. Previously known as the Olympic sprint, the team sprint is a track cycling event with two (women) or three riders (men). Teams start at opposite sides of the track, as in pursuit events. Each of the team’s riders must lead for one lap, yet only one of the team’s riders has to finish. Because of this, a team usually consists of a top sprinter, who will lead off, and a time trialist, who can sustain the high speed for three laps. The team sprint was first contested by men at world championships in 1995. Since then, France has won the most titles, with ten—nine of them featuring Arnaud Tournant. It was added to the Olympics in 2000. Women

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have competed in the event at the world championships since 2007 and will have their Olympic debut in it in 2012. The four world titles have so far been divided equally between Australia (Anna Meares and Kaarle McCulloch) and Great Britain (Victoria Pendleton and Shanaze Reade). TEAM TIME TRIAL. Team time trials are similar to individual time trials, with the teams consisting of several riders. The event is contested at some of the grand tours, was an Olympic event from 1960 to 1992, and was contested at the world championship for amateurs from 1962 to 1994 and for women from 1987 to 1994. In the grand tours, this is usually ridden by the full team (typically nine riders); while at the world championships and Olympics, the 100-km team time trial was contested by four-man teams. In the team time trial, teamwork is critical with each rider pulling on the front for short intervals, as the other riders rest in his or her draft. After a rider’s pull is finished, he or she drops to the back of the team line. It is very important that the team stay together with as many members as possible because this provides more help in taking pulls and better drafting opportunities. In the Olympic team time trial, the time is taken when the third rider crosses the line, while in the Tour de France, it is taken when the fifth rider crosses the line. At the world championships, Italy won the title seven times, the Soviet Union won five titles, Sweden won four, and the Netherlands and East Germany won three each. At the Olympics, held nine times from 1960 to 1992, the Soviet Union won three gold medals, with Italy and the Netherlands winning two. THÉVENET, BERNARD (FRA). B. 10 January 1948; Saint-Julien-deCivry, France. Bernard Thévenet was a French professional who won the Tour de France in 1975 and 1977 and is known for having ended the reign of Eddy Merckx with his 1975 victory. Merckx was in the yellow jersey from stages 6 to 14, but Thévenet attacked him on the Col d’Izoard on stage 15, and Merckx was unable to respond, putting Thévenet in yellow, which he held to the end of the race, Merckx finishing second. Thévenet also won the Dauphiné Libéré in 1975 and 1976 and the Tour de Romandie in 1972. He placed second at the 1973 Tour and third in the 1973 Vuelta a España. At the end of his career, he won two six-day races on the track. In 1978, he admitted to systematically doping for several years of his career. After retirement in 1980, he became a directeur sportif. In July 2001, Thévenet was made a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. THOMS, LOTHAR (GDR/GER). B. 18 May 1956; Guben, Brandenburg, East Germany. Together with Arnaud Tournant and Chris Hoy, Lothar

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Thoms is one of the three riders to have won four world titles in the kilometer time trial on the track. He won his four titles consecutively, 1977 through 1981, also winning the Olympic title in 1980, when no amateur world championships were held. In 1982 and 1983, Thoms also won silver and bronze, respectively, at the worlds. His 1980 Olympic winning time of 1:02.955 was much faster than the prior world record (both the amateur and professional one); although, it was broken soon after at the high-altitude track in Mexico City. THOMSEN, STUART L. “STU” (USA). B. 20 May 1958; Whittier, California, United States. Sometimes called the Babe Ruth of BMX, “Stompin’ Stu” Thomsen was one of the first top BMX racers who continued to race into adulthood, rather than switching to actual motocross. In a time where the number of titles and sanctioning bodies was ever expanding, Stu Thomsen won numerous championships with a handful of organizations. He has claimed the national number-one status with all three major organizations, the now-defunct National Bicycle Association (NBA, 1977, 1978), the National Bicycle League (NBL, 1981, 1982), and the American Bicycle Association (ABA, 1979). In 1986, he also won the International BMX Federation’s North American title. Stu Thomsen retired in 1987 but later returned to compete on the veteran, or masters, circuit. THREE DAYS OF DE PANNE. See DRIEDAAGSE VAN DE PANNE. THURAU, DIETRICH “DIDI” (FRG). B. 9 November 1954; Frankfurt, Germany. One of Germany’s rare cycling stars before Jan Ullrich, Didi Thurau was the revelation of the 1977 Tour de France, winning five stages and the white jersey as the best young rider, while placing fifth overall. Later that year, he also placed second in the world championship road race, a feat he repeated in 1979. His best one-day classic was Liège–Bastogne– Liège, which he won in 1979. Thurau also excelled on the track, winning the derny world title in 1979–80 and the 1974 team pursuit title while still an amateur. From 1980 on, Thurau mostly made negative headlines. In 1980, he was banned from the Tour de France for repeated doping offenses, and this occurred again in 1987. He was disqualified in 1985, after hitting a race commissioner. Thurau also won six-day races in his career and, in 1978, won at Züri-Metzgete. THYS, PHILIPPE (né PHILIPPE THIJS) (BEL). B. 8 October 1890; Anderlecht, Belgium. D. 16 January 1972; Anderlecht, Belgium. Philippe Thys

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was the first man to win the Tour de France three times, winning in 1913, 1914, and 1920. He rode almost exclusively in France and had few wins outside of his adopted homeland. He was helped by the rules in 1913, which required all riders to make all their own repairs. Going over the Pyrenees, Eugène Christophe was leading the race when he broke his front fork. He carried his bike to the nearest town and found a blacksmith’s shop and fixed the bike himself. The three-hour delay handed the lead to Thys, who held on to win the race. Thys also won Paris–Tours in 1917 and 1918 and the Giro di Lombardia in 1917. TIME TRIAL (ROAD). Time trials are road races in which each rider starts individually, with the cyclists going off at intervals. The time for each rider to finish the course is taken, and the riders are ranked according to their times. It is not well known, but at the Olympics, the “road race” was actually an individual time trial from 1896 to 1932, with a mass start race only held for the first time at the 1936 Berlin Olympics. For many years, the most important time trial road race was the Grand Prix des Nations, held from 1932 to 2004, which was won nine times by Jacques Anquetil (1953–58, 1961, 1965, 1966). In 1994, the Union Cycliste Internationale added a world championship in the individual time trial for men and women, and the Grand Prix des Nations became less important, eventually leading to its demise. Fabian Cancellara and Jeannie Longo have won that world title four times each, Cancellara among the men and Longo with the women. The time trial also features in the grand tours, with all three usually holding two or three individual time trials. The time trial is known in French as contre la montre (race against the clock), but is also known as the Race of Truth because only the strongest riders can survive and prosper in the time trial, as there is no assistance from a teammate or the other riders in the peloton. The ability to win time trials is critically important to success in the grand tours. The greatest professional time trialists have included Anquetil, Cancellara, Bernard Hinault, Miguel Indurain, Tony Rominger, Lance Armstrong, and, as with everything else, Eddy Merckx. See also TEAM TIME TRIAL. TIME TRIAL (TRACK). In track cycling, time trial events are normally held over 1 km (men) or 500 m (women), with a standing start from a starting block. Racers compete one at a time, with the fastest rider winning. Occasionally, two riders start at the same time, riding on opposite sides of the track, as in the individual pursuit. The event requires speed and stamina, as men can reach an average speed close to 60 km/h (37.2 mph). Many sprinters are also decent time trialists.

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The time trial was an Olympic event since 1928 (2000 for women) but was abandoned after 2004 to make way for BMX racing. At world championships, it debuted for men amateurs only in 1966 and in 1995 for women. Three racers have won four world titles—Arnaud Tournant, Chris Hoy, and Lothar Thoms. The latter two also won one Olympic title in the event. Two women have dominated the 500-m time trial—Félicia Ballanger (five world titles, one Olympic title) and Nataliya Tsylinskaya (five world titles). TIMONER OBRADOR, GUILLERMO (ESP). B. 24 March 1926; Felanitx, Spain. Guillermo Timoner is the greatest rider ever in the professional motor-paced event. He won six world championships (1955, 1959, 1960, 1962, 1964, 1965), additionally finishing second twice, in 1956 and 1958. Timoner was a masterful competitor, as he never set a world motor-paced record against the clock, but he was almost unbeatable head-to-head. The former carpenter came out of retirement in the early 1980s and competed in the 1983 world championships. A year later, then aged 58, he won his 14th Spanish motor-paced title, fully 39 years after his first one. TIRES. Bicycle tires fit on the wheel of a bicycle and allow the wheel to roll smoothly over the road. Modern racing bike tires are of two main types— clinchers or tubulars (also called “sew-ups”). Clinchers attach to a wheel with raised rims. The outer tread of the tire snaps underneath the raised rim. The pneumatic inner tube is inside the rubberized outer tread. The advantage of clinchers is that the inner tube is separate from the outer tire tread and can be accessed easily in case it needs to be patched or replaced. Tubulars have a circumferential rubber-like tread that is sewn-up (hence sew-ups) on the surface that lies against the wheel rim. The pneumatic inner tube is inside the sewn-up tire, and in cases of a flat, the sewing must be cut, the inner tube patched or replaced, and the tire sewn up again. Tubulars attach to a flatter rim with no raised edges and are secured to the rim by glue. Tubulars have the advantage of a rounder surface meeting the road or track, causing less rolling friction, but they are more difficult to fix in cases of tire damage, and on hot days, the glue can loosen, causing the tire to roll off the wheel, as famously happened to Joseba Beloki on the ninth stage of the 2003 Tour de France. Some companies are also now making solid tires and tubeless tires. The tread is the part of the tire that contacts the ground. It is usually made of butyl rubber, often with silicon added. Depending on the type of bike and type of race, treads vary from very smooth (track bikes) to knobby (cyclocross, mountain bikes, and BMX). Tire sizes are usually designated by two numbers, one designating the rim diameter and one the tire thickness after

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being inflated. Modern road racing bikes will often have sizes of 622 by 19 to 622 by 22 (all expressed in millimeters). Tire inflation is also a critical parameter and depends on the type of bike and race. Mountain bikes with tubeless tires will inflate only to about 30 psi (200 kPa), while track tubular tires can be inflated from 200 to 220 psi (1,350–1,500 kPa). Road racing tires in professional races are typically inflated between 100 and 120 psi (690–830 kPa). TIRRENO–ADRIATICO. Tirreno–Adriatico is a one-week stage race that runs between the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic coasts in Italy and is often called the “race of the two seas.” It is usually held in April and has consisted of from five to eight stages. The race was first held in 1966, with Roger De Vlaeminck having the most victories, with six, all consecutive from 1972 to 1977. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. TOE CLIPS. Using toe clips is the older style of connecting the cyclist’s shoe to the pedal, which was used from the early 20th century until the mid-1980s. The cyclist’s shoe had a cleat on the bottom that locked between the sections of the pedal, and the foot was then held by a toe clip that wrapped around the shoe, locking the shoe, and foot, to the pedal. The cleat allowed the cyclist to place more continual pressure on the pedal by allowing the foot to pull the pedal on the upstroke as well as pushing on the downstroke. Toe clips were somewhat dangerous during a fall, as it was almost impossible to get one’s foot out of the toe clip quickly. They were replaced in the 1980s by shoes that had a baseplate that locked into a specially designed pedal, but allowed one to pull the shoe from the pedal quickly by a small twist of the foot. See CLIP-INS. TOMAC, JOHN (USA). B. 3 November 1967; Owosso, Michigan, United States. Starting out in cycling as a BMX rider, John Tomac successfully switched to mountain biking in 1986. In National Off-Road Bicycle Association championships, doubling as unofficial world championships, Tomac picked up titles in the cross-country (1988), dual slalom (1988, 1989), and overall classification (1988–90). Tomac was also successful at the Union Cycliste Internationale–sanctioned world championships, uniquely winning the 1991 cross-country title, while claiming a silver in the downhill, winning another silver in the 1997 championships. In 1991, Tomac also claimed the first UCI Mountain Bike World Cup in crosscountry, placing second the next two seasons. John Tomac was also active in road racing for several years, participating in several classics and the Giro d’Italia but without notable results.

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TONKOV, PAVEL SERGEYEVICH [Павел Сергеевич Тонков] (RUS). B. 9 February 1969, Izhevsk, Russia. Pavel Tonkov became the second Russian to win a grand tour when he won the 1996 Giro d’Italia, following Yevgeny Berzin in 1994 at the Giro. Tonkov also finished second in the Giro in 1997 and 1998 and won seven stages in the Giro during his career, which ended in 2005. He also won the 1995 Tour de Suisse, the 1997 Tour de Romandie, and was third at the 2000 Vuelta a España. Tonkov was already under-23 world champion in the road race in 1987. TOUR DE FRANCE. The Tour de France is a stage race held annually over three weeks in July in France. It is the best-known bicycle race in the world and considered the most important race to win by professional cyclists. The race began in 1903, sponsored by a sporting newspaper, L’Auto, which was hoping to publicize the race to increase its circulation. In the 1890s, the Dreyfus affair (l’affaire Dreyfus) divided France. Le Vélo was a pro-Dreyfus paper and gained circulation, and L’Auto sought to counter this and started the Tour de France as a way to increase its own circulation. L’Auto became L’Équipe in the 1920s, and that paper continues to sponsor the race; although, it has been bought by the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), which is now the entity that organizes the race. The original race director was Henri Desgrange, at the time the holder of the world hour record. Desgrange directed the race until 1936, when that post was assumed by Jacques Goddet, who was race director for a full 50 years (1936–86). Jean-Marie LeBlanc directed the Tour from 1989 to 2005, and the current director is Christian Prudhomme (2005–date). The Tour de France usually begins in Northern France early in July and then circumnavigates the country, always ending in Paris. It may run either clockwise or counter-clockwise around France, with the direction alternating yearly. The race may also begin in other countries and may pass through other countries along its course. It has started in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, Monaco, England, and Ireland and will often pass through Switzerland or Italy, during Alpine stages, and Spain and Andorra, during Pyrenean stages. During the three-week event, the riders now typically are allowed two rest days; thus, the race usually consists of 21 or 22 stages. There are several different types of stages, with most being mass start races. So-called flat stages predominate in the first week of the race in the north of France, allowing the sprinters a chance to shine and win stages. Mountain stages usually cross large peaks in the Alps or the Pyrenees or somewhat smaller climbs in the Massif Central and the Jura Mountains. The Tour typically begins with a short time trial, called the “prologue,” which establishes the initial

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classification. There are also usually two other, longer time trials during the race. The mountain stages and time trials are quite important, as this is where the largest time gaps may occur, and they will often determine the winners. Finally, in some years, the teams will race a team time trial. The race usually covers 200 to 250 km on flat or mountain stages, and time trials are now anywhere from 50 to 100 km in length. The Tour de France now typically covers 3,000 to 3,200 km, or 1,850 to 2,000 miles. The original Tour in 1903 had much longer stages, with some approaching 500 km. In fact, the 1903 Tour had only six stages, and the riders rode at night, though this was the only year that occurred. Riding over true mountain passes occurred for the first time in 1910. One of the legendary mountain stage performances came in 1913 when Eugène Christophe went off the front on the Col du Tourmalet. Descending on the other side, he crashed and broke his fork. In that era, all riders had to make repairs to their bikes on their own and could not exchange bikes. Christophe put his bike on his shoulder, ran down the mountain to a small village, found a blacksmith, and repaired the fork on his own. In 1919, Henri Pélissier was cautioned for dangerous riding and quit the race after the stage. He also complained about the difficulty of the stage and the mountain cols and coined what is now a famous term for professional cyclists—les forçats de la route, or “convicts of the road.” The cyclists race during the Tour de France for a number of different prizes. The most important prize is the overall winner—the winner of the general classification, or GC for short. This is determined by the rider taking the shortest time for the sum of the times during all the stages. The leader of the GC each day wears a yellow jersey (maillot jaune), which helps identify the leader to many fans along the route. The yellow jersey was first awarded in 1919. Another important title is for the leader of the mountain classification. This is determined by points that are awarded for placements as the cyclists cross certain climbs or mountain passes. The climbs are graded from class 4, the easiest, up to class 1, and the HC—or hors catégorie, “beyond category.” The more difficult climbs award the most points toward the mountain classification. The leader of the mountain classification is often termed the “King of the Mountains” and each day wears a polka-dot jersey, with red polka dots on a white background (maillot à pois rouges). The mountain classification was first recognized in 1933, and the polka-dot jersey was first worn in 1975. Another title goes to the leader of the points classification, which is an award mostly contested by the sprinters in the race. Each day, there are several intermediate sprints during the race, and points are given to the first three riders in the intermediate sprints. Points are also given to the top 10 to 25 fin-

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ishers (depending on the type of stage) of each stage. The points competition began in 1953, and the leader wears a green jersey (maillot vert). Since 1975, the Tour has recognized a youth competition for the best young rider. From 1975 to 1983, it was given to riders in their first Tour de France, but it is now open to riders 25 years old or younger. The leader of the youth classification wears a white jersey (maillot blanc). This has been won three times each by Jan Ullrich (1996–98) and Andy Schleck (2008–10) and twice by Marco Pantani (1994, 1995). The prix de la combativité, usually known in English as “the most aggressive rider,” is an award given out each day and at the end of the tour to the rider who was most aggressive or daring. On each stage, it is often given to a rider who attempts or leads an early breakaway. The next day, that rider’s number will be white on red, rather than black on white. Finally, there is also a team classification with the total time of each team’s best three riders on each stage counting toward the team’s time. There is no jersey for this, but the leading team will have black-on-yellow numbers (instead of black on white) and will often wear yellow gloves. Until 1990, the team would often wear yellow caps. In the Tour de France, cyclists race for company teams that sponsor them. This has been somewhat true since the first Tour, and the team classification has also been contested since the first race. In 1930, however, the trade teams were replaced by national teams, after Tour organizer Henri Desgrange became upset with the politics of the trade teams, and that continued until 1961, when it reverted to racing by company teams; although, in 1967 and 1968, it was again raced by national teams. The most successful trade teams have been Peugeot, which won the event 10 times, and Alcyon, which won 7 times. More recently, Team Telekom/T-Mobile won in 1997 and 2004 through 2006. There have been other lesser classifications in the Tour over the years. One was an intermediate sprints classification, held from 1984 to 1989, with points awarded only for the intermediate sprints. There was also a combination classification, from 1968 to 1989, where the leader was determined from standings in the GC, mountains, and points classification and wore a mixed jersey that was part yellow, green, and red polka dots. From 1973 to 1989, there was a team points classification with the leading team wearing green caps. The Tour de France now has several well-known stages. Since 1975, it has always ended on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, with the racers riding several laps around Paris and racing up the Champs several times. From 1903 to 1967, the finish was at Parc des Princes, while from 1968 to 1974, the finish was at the Vincennes Velodrome. Some of the mountain stages are also famous, most notably the climb up l’Alpe d’Huez, which is usually held every other year in the Tour, now having been contested 26 times, the first climb occurring in 1952, won by Fausto Coppi. Other famous climbs include Mont

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Ventoux, the Col du Tourmalet, and the Col du Galibier (added in 1911), which are raced frequently. The Col du Tourmalet was the first true mountain stage in the Tour, in 1910, and has been used in a mountain stage more than any other col, at 75 times through 2010. Hosting a Tour stage, either the start or the finish, has become a great honor for French cities, especially smaller ones near the mountains or far removed from the major population centers. Paris has hosted the most, since the race finishes there and has often started there, hosting 135 stages, either the start or finish. The next most is Bordeaux with 80, followed by Pau with 62. The Tour de France has been won seven times by Lance Armstrong, who won consecutively from 1999 to 2005. Armstrong broke the record of five wins, which had been held jointly by Jacques Anquetil (1957, 1961–64), Eddy Merckx (1969–72, 1974), Bernard Hinault (1978, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1985), and Miguel Indurain (1991–95), with only Indurain winning his five consecutively. Prior to Anquetil’s five wins, Philippe Thys (1913, 1914, 1920) and Louison Bobet (1953–55) had won the race three times, and Greg LeMond (1986, 1989, 1990) and Alberto Contador (2007, 2009, 2010) have since both won three Tours; although, Contador’s 2010 title is at risk because of a recent doping accusation. Lucien Petit-Breton was the first to win the race twice, in 1907 and 1908, and the first to win consecutive Tours. Thys was the first three-time winner, and Anquetil was the first to win the race four and five times. Bobet was the first to win three consecutive Tours (1953–55), with Anquetil the first to win four consecutive (1961–64), Indurain the first to win five straight (1991–95), and Armstrong the first to win six and seven straight races (1999–2005). Eleven cyclists have won the race twice as follows: Petit-Breton (1907, 1908), Firmin Lambot (1919, 1922), Ottavio Bottecchia (1924, 1925), Nicolas Frantz (1927, 1928), André Leducq (1930, 1932), Antonin Magne (1931, 1934), Sylvère Maes (1936, 1939), Gino Bartali (1938, 1948), Fausto Coppi (1949, 1952), Bernard Thévenet (1975, 1977), and Laurent Fignon (1983, 1984), with Contador possibly dropping back to this list. The greatest margin of victory remains the first race in 1903, when Maurice Garin finished 2 hours, 59 minutes, and 2 seconds ahead of Lucien Pothier. The closest race came in 1989 when LeMond defeated Fignon by only 8 seconds overall, outpacing him on the final day, which was an individual time trial into Paris, to make up a 50-second deficit. The record for the most wins in the points classification is six by Erik Zabel, from 1996 to 2001, with Sean Kelly winning four times (1982, 1983, 1985, 1989). Richard Virenque won the mountain classification seven times (1994–97, 1999, 2003, 2004), breaking the record of six held by Federico Bahamontes (1954, 1958, 1959, 1962–64) and Lucien Van Impe (1971,

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In an early Tour de France stage, two riders take a break in a small village, to indulge in some fine wine. It was a bit different back then.

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The leaders in the Tour de France pass through Verdun prior to World War II.

A two-man breakaway passes through a small French town in an early Tour de France stage.

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On the final stages of the Tour de France, the mood is often celebratory as riders are happy simply to finish the race. (Courtesy Bill Mallon)

1972, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1983). Jan Ullrich won the white jersey in 1996 through 1998, a feat equalled by Andy Schleck (LUX) in 2008–10. In 1969, Eddy Merckx uniquely won all four jerseys—GC, mountain, points, and combativeness. Joop Zoetemelk started the Tour de France 16 times (1970–73, 1975–86), a record, placing in the top ten 12 times and finishing each race, also a record. Four cyclists have started 15 times—Van Impe, Guy Nulens, Vyacheslav Yekimov, and George Hincapie, with Van Impe and Yekimov also finishing 15 times. Hincapie holds the record (through 2010) for most consecutive tour finishes, with 13, as Zoetemelk did not compete in 1974. Wearing the yellow jersey, even for a day, is one of the great honors that can come to a professional cyclist. As of 2011, fully 269 cyclists have worn the yellow jersey, with 64 riders holding it for a single day. As with seemingly every cycling statistic, Eddy Merckx leads the list, having worn yellow for 96 days, followed by Lance Armstrong with 83, Bernard Hinault with 75, Miguel Indurain with 60, and Jacques Anquetil with 50. Merckx has also won the most stages, with 34, followed by Hinault with 28, André Leducq (who won twice) with 25, and Armstrong and André Darrigade with 22. See also DOPING; GRANDE BOUCLE, LA; and APPENDIX A

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for a list of winners in general classification, mountain classification, points classification, and youth classification. TOUR DE GEORGIA. The Tour de Georgia was a United States stage race taking place over six stages in the state of Georgia in April, which was held from 2003 to 2008. Although no 2009 race was scheduled, the organizers had plans to race again in 2010, but that did not occur. There currently are plans to hold a 2011 version of the race. The most notable winner to date was Lance Armstrong, who won the 2004 edition. TOUR DE L’AVENIR. The Tour de l’Avenir, literally the “tour of the future,” is a French stage race that began in 1961. It is considered a race for up-and-coming riders, with all amateurs competing from 1961 to 1980 and many neo-pros since it was opened to professionals. The only two-time winner of the race has been the Soviet Sergey Sukhoruchenkov, who won the 1978 and 1979 Tours and then won the gold medal in the road race at the 1980 Olympic Games. Several well-known professionals claim a victory in the Tour de l’Avenir among their early palmarès, notably Felice Gimondi, Joop Zoetemelk, Greg LeMond, Miguel Indurain, and Laurent Fignon. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. TOUR DE ROMANDIE. The Tour de Romandie is a stage race held in the Romandie (French-speaking) region of Switzerland. It was first held in 1947 and has been held continually since. It typically starts in Geneva with a time trial and ends with a time trial in Lausanne. The only three-time winner has been Stephen Roche, who won in 1983, 1984, and 1987. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. TOUR DE SUISSE. The Tour de Suisse is a stage race held each year in Switzerland in early June. It is generally seen as the toughest stage race after the three grand tours, due to the difficult mountain stages in the Swiss Alps and its two-week duration and is occasionally termed “the fourth grand tour.” The race debuted in 1933 and is considered a warm-up race for many riders looking for victory in the Tour de France in July, with the Tour de Suisse counting among its winners Eddy Merckx, Lance Armstrong, Jan Ullrich, Gino Bartali, and Roger De Vlaeminck. The record for the most wins in the race is four by Pasquale Fornara, who won in 1952, 1954, 1957, and 1958. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. TOUR DE TRUMP. See TOUR DUPONT.

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TOUR DOWN UNDER. The Tour Down Under is a one-week stage race held in January in the area around Adelaide, Australia, which has been contested since 1999. It is part of the Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour and is the highest rated race outside of Europe. Two riders have won the race twice—Stuart O’Grady (1999, 2001) and the German André Greipel (2008, 2010). TOUR DUPONT. The Tour DuPont was a United States stage race held between 1989 and 1996. It started out as the Tour de Trump, sponsored by financier Donald Trump, but was held under that name only in 1989 and 1990, after which DuPont took over sponsorship of the event. The Tour DuPont was a 10- to 12-day stage race, taking place in the Mid-Atlantic states. It was won twice by Lance Armstrong (1995, 1996) and once by Greg LeMond (1992). See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. TOURING. Bicycle touring is a method of cycling in which cyclists, often in groups, tour the countryside, usually riding for long periods each day, often interspersed with long breaks. The tours may be single-day tours or can be longer tours with overnight stays. Bicycle touring has been known since the 19th century, with the Bicycle Touring Club, later called the Cyclists’ Touring Club (CTC), formed in 1878. This inspired the 1879 formation of the Fédération Française de Cyclotourisme, the world’s largest cycling association, by Frenchman Paul de Vivie, and helped coin the French word cyclo-tourisme. In the United States, the League of American Wheelmen (LAW) was formed in 1880; although, the American touring group would later become the Adventure Cycling Association (ACA). In 1976, celebrating the U.S. Bicentennial, the ACA sponsored the Bikecentennial, a mass ride from one side of the country to the other. There are many different types of bike touring. These include lightweight, or “credit card,” touring, in which the rider carries a minimum of provisions and stays overnight in hostels, hotels, or bed and breakfasts. Ultralight touring sees the rider carry a bit more equipment and often camp overnight but with few extras carried on the bike. In fully loaded touring, the cyclists carry all their needs, including food, tents, sleeping bags, and cooking equipment, allowing for more comfortable overnight stays, although often making the bike quite heavy. Supported touring is usually done in groups, with a car or van following the riders or group and most of the equipment carried in the motor vehicle. In day touring, groups of riders often cover a set course at a comfortable pace. Many day tours are now done as charitable rides, attempting to raise money for various causes. See also TOURING BICYCLE.

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TOURING BICYCLE. Touring bicycles are special bicycles designed to allow touring the countryside. They are often heavier than a racing bicycle, to make them more capable of carrying heavy loads. They will have a wider wheelbase for stability and usually have multiple points of attachment, allowing the rider, or riders in the case of a tandem, to carry camping equipment, or extra clothing, food, water bottles, and first aid equipment. Many of them have racks overlying the front and rear wheels, allowing attachments of panniers in which the riders carry their equipment. TOUR OF CALIFORNIA. The Tour of California is a United States stage race taking place over one week in California. From 2006 to 2009, it was held in February, but in 2010, the race moved to May, competing against the Giro d’Italia. In 2011, the Tour of California has been designated as a part of the Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour and carried a 2.HC rating, the highest rating given to any race outside of Europe. Levi Leipheimer has won the race three times, consecutively from 2007 to 2009. See also APPENDIX B for a list of winners. TOUR OF FITCHBURG (FITCHBURG LONGSJO CLASSIC). The Tour of Fitchburg, officially known as the Fitchburg Longsjo Classic, is a United States race that takes place in and around Fitchburg, Massachusetts. The race started in 1960 as the Longsjo Memorial Race, in honor of the late Art Longsjo who represented the United States in 1956 at the Winter Olympics as a speed skater and the Summer Olympics as a cyclist. The race was originally a single-day criterium but changed to a three- to four-day stage race in the early 1990s but has since reverted to a single-day race. Women began racing a separate version of the Tour of Fitchburg, on the same day as the men, in 1977. The record for the most victories in the race is four by Canadian Lyne Bessette in the women’s race from 1999 to 2002, with Wayne Stetina winning the men’s race three times. See also APPENDIX D for a list of winners (men) and APPENDIX E for a list of winners (women). TOUR OF FLANDERS. See RONDE VAN VLAANDEREN. TOUR OF SOMERVILLE (KUGLER-ANDERSON MEMORIAL TOUR). The Tour of Somerville (now officially known as the KuglerAnderson Memorial Tour) is the oldest continuously held bicycle race in the United States. It takes place over the Memorial Day weekend in and around Somerville, New Jersey. It was started in 1940, by Fred “Pop” Kugler, who owned a bicycle shop in Somerville, with the first two editions won by his

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son. Women began racing at Somerville in 1976. Jonas Carney won the most victories in the race—five (1992, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003). Among women, three cyclists have won four times—Sue Novara-Reber (1978, 1982–84), Karen Strong (1977, 1979–81), and Tina Mayolo-Pic (2000, 2006, 2008–09). See also APPENDIX D for a list of winners (men) and APPENDIX E for a list of winners (women). TOUR OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY. See VUELTA AL PAÍS VASCO (EUSKAL HERRIKO TXIRRINDULARI ITZULIA). TOUR OF THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC). See GRANDE BOUCLE; and APPENDIX E for a list of winners. TOURNANT, ARNAUD (FRA). B. 5 April 1978; Roubaix, France. With 14 titles, Arnaud Tournant has won more world championships in track cycling than any other rider, owing this mostly to his great time trial skills. Apart from winning the 1-km event at the world championships four times (1998–2001), he was also the anchorman of the strong French team sprint squad. In that event, he won no less than nine world titles (1997–2001, 2004, 2006–08). Tournant also won titles in the match sprint, winning the Olympic gold in 2000 and the world title in 2001. In addition to his titles, he has collected eight more championship medals, of which three came at the Olympic Games. On 10 October 2001, he became the first man to break the one-minute barrier in the kilo event, clocking 58.875 at the high-altitude velodrome of La Paz, Bolivia. TRACK BICYCLE. At first glance, a modern track bike may not look very different from a road bike, but there are several notable differences. First, a track bicycle has a fixed gear, so there is no derailleur. This makes choosing the proper gear an important part of track cycling—pick a large gear, and you may have trouble reaching your top speed; pick a small gear, and you may find your top speed limited. Because of fixed gears, cyclists decelerate by simply slowing down their pedaling, pushing back against their pedals, and this requires superb bike handling skills. This makes brakes less useful, and because of the weight advantage (less weight is better), they are generally left off the bike. Track bikes also have a higher bottom bracket, to prevent the rider’s pedals from hitting against the track banking. In the past two decades, track bicycles have developed quickly, and the latest models are made of light materials with aerodynamic designs. The frame is often made from a single piece of material, called a “monocoque frame.” Some of the bicycles, developed in wind tunnels, may cost over $20,000. Un-

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like in-line road racing, disc wheels (or wheels with a very limited number of spokes) are allowed. In the endurance events, special handlebars, with the arms bent forward, are allowed. The “praying mantis” and “superman” styles of handlebars pioneered by Graeme Obree in the 1990s are outlawed, however, as are many attempts to add aerodynamic improvements to the frame. See also TRACK CYCLING. TRACK CYCLING. Track cycling is one of the main forms of cycling as a sport. It is conducted on a purpose-built oval track, called a “velodrome,” on specific track bicycles. In the late 19th and early 20th century, track cycling was the most popular form of cycling in both Europe and North America but was later surpassed by road racing. It is still a popular cycling form, however, in northwestern Europe. When the first cycling races commenced halfway during the 19th century, special cycling tracks were soon used, notably in Great Britain. These had the advantage of not being on the public road, where racing would sometimes be prohibited, and it also concentrated the audience in a single place. The popularity of the races quickly spread to the European continent and across the Atlantic, and velodromes appeared in most major cities. An international governing body, the International Cycling Association (ICA) was formed in 1892, and the first track cycling world championships were held in 1893 in Chicago. The sport also featured at the 1896 Olympic Games. In the United States, six-day racing became the most popular track cycling format. During the Depression, the sport lost a lot of its popularity in Europe, and it declined in the 1930s in the United States. While road racing now is the dominant cycling discipline in media and public attention, track racing remains commonly practiced. Many track cyclists, however, switch to road racing after a track racing career, as more honors (and money) are to be earned in that discipline. Still, there is an active six-day racing circuit in Europe, where track cyclists can do well financially, and the best Japanese keirin racers can earn millions, as it is a popular betting sport. There are various kinds of track cycling race formats, which are generally divided into two categories: speed and endurance events. The speed events last only a few laps and obviously require raw speed—cyclists may reach speeds of up to 70 km/h (43 mph). The most common speed events are the sprint, the keirin, the team sprint, the time trial, the tandem sprint, and the flying lap. Several speed events also require tactics, but this is more prevalent in the endurance events. Here cyclists must maintain their speed over a longer period but may need to be able to fight for the victory in the last meters. Notable endurance events are the individual pursuit, the team pursuit, the points race, the Madison, the scratch, and motor-paced racing. In recent years,

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Track racing is known for its high speeds and sometimes dangerous crashes. Here three riders lie alongside the track after colliding and falling to the track. (Courtesy Bill Mallon)

an all-around event, like that in athletics and gymnastics, has been added to international championships, the omnium. It features both speed and endurance events. Six-day races, traditionally an extreme example of an endurance race, now also feature several speed elements. See also BALLANGER, FÉLICIA MICHÈLE SYLVIANE; CAVENDISH, MARK; CLARK, DANIEL “DANNY”; FREULER, URS; FULST, GUIDO; FURTADO, JULIANA “JULI”; GARKUSHINA, TAMARA PAVLOVNA; HEßLICH, LUTZ; HOY, CHRISTOPHER ANDREW “CHRIS” SIR, MBE; HÜBNER, MICHAEL; KRAMER, FRANK; LETOURNEUR, ALFRED ALBERT “ALF” “THE RED DEVIL”; MAGNÉ, FRÉDÉRIC; MASPES, ANTONIO; MEARES, ANNA MAREE; MEREDITH, LEWIS LEON; MOESKOPS, PIETER DANIEL “PIET” “BIG PETE”; MORELON, DANIEL; NAKANO, KOICHI; OBREE, DOUGLAS GRAEME; PENDLETON, VICTORIA LOUISE; PORTER, HUGH; ROSSNER, PETRA; ROUSSEAU, FLORIAN; SERCU, PATRICK; SLYUSAREVA, OLGA ANATOLYEVNA; STARTING BLOCK; THOMS, LOTHAR; TIMONER OBRADOR, GUILLERMO; TSAREVA, GALINA GEORGIEVNA; TSYLINSKAYA, NATALIYA; TWIGG, REBECCA LYNNE; VAN OOSTEN-HAGE, CORNELIA “KEETIE”; VELODROME; VELODROMO VIGORELLI; WORLD HOUR RECORD; YEKIMOV, VYACHESLAV VLADIMIROVICH “EKI”; YERMOLAYEVA, GALINA NIKOLAYEVA; YOUNG, SHEILA.

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TRAINING WHEELS. Training wheels are small wheels mounted on the sides of the rear wheel of a bicycle, giving the bike more stability—they are known as stabilizers in Great Britain. They are usually used for small children to help them learn to ride a bike, and it makes the bike easier to balance and prevents falls. TRIALS. Like BMX, this discipline is a spin-off from the motorcycle equivalent. The objective is to complete an obstacle course, featuring jumps, climbs, and descents, not touching the ground with anything else than the bicycle’s tires. The sport originally developed on mountain bikes, as these are suited to the course due to their broad tires and sturdy frame, but the bikes used by the top trialists currently differ significantly from normal mountain bikes. A trial competition may be held either indoors or outdoors. A course consists of 14 to 16 sections, also known as a “supervised zone.” A section has up to three obstacles (also known as “difficulties”). These obstacles can be natural, such as rocks, tree trunks, water, or sand, or artificial, such as steps, pipes, and so forth. A rider has to complete a typical section within 2.5 minutes. The objective is not to incur any penalties. Penalty points are divided into two categories, one-point minor penalties (e.g., breaking the section time limit, touching the ground or obstacles with anything else than the bike’s tires) and five-points major penalties (e.g., having both feet on the ground, falling). If a rider gets five penalties in a single section, he or she has to leave it. Two types of bicycles are allowed, so-called trial bikes, with a 20-inch (50.8 cm) wheel diameter, and mountain bikes, with a 26-inch (66.04 cm) diameter. For men, distinct events are held for these types of bicycles; women generally compete in the same event regardless of the material. Due to the ties to mountain biking, the world championships in trials are held as part of the Union Cycliste Internationale Mountain Bike and Trials World Championships. A men’s 20-inch event was first held in 1992; a 26inch competition followed suit in 1996. Spanish competitors have dominated the 20-inch event, with Benito Ros winning it seven times (2003–05, 2007– 10). The best larger-wheeled trialists have come from France, yet Belgium’s Kenny Belaey is the record title holder, with four (2002, 2005, 2006, 2010). Among women, who have competed since 2001, Switzerland’s Karin Moor is in a class of her own, winning eight titles between 2001 and 2009, while being runner-up in 2008 and 2010. There is also a UCI Trials World Cup. TRIATHLON. Triathlon, from the Greek words meaning “three” and “contest,” is a sport featuring swimming, cycling, and running. Although similar competitions had existed for decades, the first modern triathlon was held

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in 1974 in San Diego, California. The sport gained popularity due to the Ironman Triathlon held annually on Hawaii, featuring 2.4 miles (3.8 km) of open-water ocean swimming, 115 miles (185 km) of cycling, and a running marathon (26.2 miles, 42.195 km). In 1989, the International Triathlon Union (ITU) was founded, which governs the sport. In 2000, the sport first featured in the Olympics, in the “Olympic distance” format of 1.5 km swimming, 40 km cycling, and 10 km running. The cycling portion of a triathlon is difficult to compare to a normal cycling race, as racers depart in the order of their finish in the swimming section, after emerging from the water, and not all competitors are evenly matched in the cycling. The competition is thus a mixture of mass start and time trial. Because the cycling leg of triathlons tends to take the most time, many top triathletes come from the world of cycling. One major innovation brought into the cycling world through triathlon is the extended handlebars, also known as “triathlon handlebars,” allowing a more comfortable and aerodynamic position for the rider. TRICYCLE. A tricycle is a three-wheeled, human-powered vehicle, which resembles a bicycle but with two rear wheels. It is more stable than a bicycle because of the extra wheel. It is often used by small children as a way for them to learn to ride a bicycle and sometimes by older adults as a means of transportation. As older adults may not be able to ride as quickly and maintain balance with the increased speed, the third wheel allows them to get around more safely. In some countries in Asia and Africa, tricycles are used as a means of commercial transport. Tricycles are occasionally used in racing, notably in para-cycling, where they are used by athletes whose disability does not allow them to ride a normal bicycle. TRIPLE CROWN. The triple crown of cycling refers to winning the Tour de France, the Giro d’Italia, and the world championship road race in one year. It has only been achieved twice, by Eddy Merckx in 1974 and Stephen Roche in 1987. It is sometimes used to refer to winning all three grand tours in a career, which has been achieved by five cyclists—Jacques Anquetil, Merckx, Felice Gimondi, Bernard Hinault, and Alberto Contador. Winning all three in one year has never been done, and it is even rare for cyclists to compete in all three grand tours in the same year. Only two cyclists have finished in the top 10 in all three grand tours in one year, Raphaël Géminiani (1955) and Gastone Nencini (1957). TROFEO ALFREDO BINDA. Named for the famed Italian road racer, the Trofeo Alfredo Binda has been held annually since 1974 near the town

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of Cittiglio in northern Italy. Since the early 21st century, it has become a major race on the women’s calendar and has been featured on the women’s World Cup calendar since 2008. No woman has won it more than twice, with double winners including Maria Canins, Marianne Vos, and Nicole Cooke. See also APPENDIX E for a list of winners. TROUSSELIER, LOUIS (FRA). B. 29 June 1881; Levallois-Perret, Hauts de Seine, France. D. 24 April 1939; Paris, France. Louis Trousselier was a French cyclist who actually rode in the 1900 Olympic Games; although, cycling was a somewhat obscure event in those Games. He is best known for winning the Tour de France and Paris–Roubaix in the same year, 1905. He also finished third in the Tour in 1906 and won at Bordeaux–Paris in 1908. During his career, he won 13 stages in the Tour de France. He was known familiarly as Trou-Trou, or “the florist.” TSAREVA, GALINA GEORGIEVNA [Галина Георгиевна Царева] (URS). B. 19 April 1950;Velikiye Luki, Soviet Union. Galina Tsareva had an incredibly long career for a cyclist. She first made the Soviet national team in 1969 and was still considered for the 1988 Olympic team. In a period where the women’s world championship was still the only major international race, she won the spring six times—1969 through 1971 and 1977 through 1979. In addition to her world titles, she was Soviet national champion in 1969 through 1971, 1973, and 1975 through 1977. TSYLINSKAYA (-MARKOVNICHENKO), NATALIYA [Наталья Цилинская] (BLR). B. 30 August 1975; Minsk, Belarus. Nataliya Tsylinskaya has been the best female track time trialist along with Félicia Ballanger. Tsylinskaya won five world titles in the event (2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006), also placing third in 2007. She also won an Olympic bronze in the event, at the 2004 Athens Games. In 2002 and 2006, Tsylinskaya also won the sprint event at the worlds. Until her divorce in 2001, Nataliya Tsylinskaya competed as Nataliya Markovnichenko, and she won her first world title under that name. TWIGG, REBECCA LYNNE (USA). B. 26 March 1963; Honolulu, Hawaii, United States. Rebecca Twigg was probably the most well-known women rider produced by the United States during the cycling explosion of the 1980s. She was a tremendous rider, mainly as an individual pursuiter, winning the world championship a record six times, in 1982, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1993, and 1995. She was forced to turn to the road when only that event was chosen for women’s cycling at the 1984 Olympics. But she was

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also popular for her good looks and her brilliant mind—she skipped high school completely, matriculating at the University of Washington when only 14, and she worked for a time as a model. A winner of the 1983 Coors International Classic and runner-up at the 1983 road race world championship, she narrowly missed winning a gold medal in the 1984 Olympic road race when Connie Carpenter-Phinney outsprinted her. Twigg retired in 1987 but returned in late 1991 and won a bronze medal in the individual pursuit at the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona.

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U ULLRICH, JAN (GER). B. 2 December 1973; Rostock, East Germany. Jan Ullrich was a German professional who is considered one of the best time trialists ever. He first came to international notice in 1993, when he won the world championship in the road race for amateurs. After turning professional, Ullrich placed second at the 1996 Tour de France, winning the white jersey as the best young rider. He would improve on that in 1997 to win the Tour, adding a second white jersey. In 1998, he was unable to keep up with Marco Pantani, who won the Tour, but Ullrich placed second and added his third white jersey, one of only two riders, with Andy Schleck, to ever win that jersey three times. Over the next several years, Ullrich added multiple palmarès, winning the world championship in the time trial in 1999 and 2001, and at the 2000 Sydney Olympics, he won a gold medal in the road race and silver in the time trial. But the appearance of Lance Armstrong kept Ullrich from ever again winning the Tour de France. He placed second behind Armstrong in 2000, 2001, and 2003, third in 2005, and fourth in 2004. His five second-places at the Tour is a record for the race. Ullrich also won the 1999 Vuelta a España and the 2004 and 2006 Tour de Suisse. He was often criticized for gaining weight in the off-season and not training as much as he should, but Armstrong always said Ullrich was his strongest competitor. In 2006, he came under suspicion of doping and was banned from the Tour. He eventually retired in February 2007. See also OPERACIÓN PUERTO. UNICYCLING. A bicycle with one wheel is called a “unicycle.” Riding a unicycle requires more balance than a bicycle, and riding it requires the cyclist to keep moving to avoid falling. While frequently associated with acrobatics or juggling, unicycles are occasionally used for sports. On- and off-road racing, trials, and freestyle (like in BMX) competitions are sometimes held, but there is no unicycling governing body staging regular or international events.

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UNION CYCLISTE INTERNATIONALE (UCI). The International Cycling Union, commonly known by its French acronym, is an Aigle, Switzerland–based organization that is the governing body of the sport of cycling worldwide. According to its statutes, the purposes of the organization are: • To direct, develop, regulate, control, and discipline cycling under all forms worldwide • To promote cycling in all the countries of the world and at all levels • To organize, for all cycling sport disciplines, world championships of which it is the sole holder and owner • To encourage friendship between all members of the cycling world • To promote sportsmanship and fair play • To represent the sport of cycling and defend its interests before the International Olympic Committee and all national and international authorities • To cooperate with the International Olympic Committee, in particular as regards the participation of cyclists in the Olympic Games The UCI was established as an alternative to the International Cycling Association (ICA), which had been set up in 1892. Unhappy with Great Britain’s dominance of the ICA, several continental European countries and the United States founded the UCI on 14 April 1900, in Paris. In 1965, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) required the UCI to split into an amateur and a professional organization, the Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme (FIAC) and Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel (FICP), respectively. These two organizations coexisted until 1992, when the UCI removed the distinction between amateurs and professionals, after the IOC had also dropped the amateur requirement for Olympians. Each nation willing to participate in UCI-sanctioned competition has to have a national federation. This national federation governs the sport of cycling in the country that it represents. As of January 2011, there were 174 national federations affiliated with the UCI. These national federations are grouped into five continental confederations, which are responsible for staging continental championships and representing continental interests. The five continental confederations are: Asian Cycling Confederation (ACC), Union Européenne de Cyclisme (UEC), Oceanian Cycling Confederation (OCC), Confederación Panamericana de Ciclismo (COPACI), and Confédération Africaine de Cyclisme (CAC). The member federations of the UCI meet annually at the UCI Congress, during which, among other things, regulations may be adjusted and new

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national federations may be recognized. During the year, management of the UCI and regulations of the sport are handled by the Management Committee, which consists of the UCI president and nine members elected by the UCI Congress. Routine UCI business is handled by the Executive Committee, which consists of the UCI president and the three vice presidents. The UCI statutes also allow for the installation of dedicated subcommittees as deemed necessary by the Management Committee. As of 2011, there were separate subcommittees for each of the cycling disciplines (see below), as well as the following: CAD-Antidoping, Medical, Disciplinary, License, Ethics, Training and Development, Commissaires, Arbitral Board. The UCI recognizes the following cycling disciplines: • • • • • • •

Road racing Track cycling Mountain biking Cyclo-cross BMX Trials Indoor cycling (artistic cycling and cyclo-ball)

Besides these disciplines, the UCI also has a “cycling for all” program, focusing on broad participation in cycling, for juniors and masters. Cycling for disabled athletes, known as para-cycling is also governed by the UCI, for which it cooperates with the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). In all seven disciplines, as well as in para-cycling, the UCI organizes world championships. Apart from a gold medal, champions also received the coveted rainbow jersey, worn to allow the public to help easily recognize the reigning world champion. Additionally, seasonal World Cup competitions are held in most disciplines, and the UCI also keeps world rankings. See also APPENDIX J for a full list of UCI presidents and member federations and confederations. UNITED STATES. The United States has seen two distinct periods of toplevel cycling in its history. Around the turn of the 20th century, cycling was very popular in the US and remained so into the 1920s. The best-known cyclists were sprinters Major Taylor and Frank Kramer, who both won many international events as well. Velodrome racing in this era dominated the sport in America, but after Kramer’s retirement in 1922, the sport fell from favor, and many of the velodromes closed down. For the next 60 years, the sport was somewhat popular in the US, but American cyclists were not usually competitive on an international level. Then in 1979, Greg LeMond won

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three medals at the junior world championships and turned professional in late 1980. He went on to win the Tour de France, in 1986, 1989, and 1990, and revived interest in American bike racing. The 1984 Los Angeles Olympics also helped, as the Americans won several medals, helped by the absence of the Eastern European countries due to the Soviet-led boycott. But this led to the formation of the first U.S. professional team that raced in Europe at the top levels—the 7-Eleven Team. Two other Americans in the 1980s, Andy Hampsten and Davis Phinney, won many European and international races, with Hampsten a force in the mountains and stage races, winning the Giro d’Italia in 1988 and the Tour de Suisse in 1987, and Phinney a sprinter who won many stages and one-day races. In 1992, Lance Armstrong turned professional and would go on to win the Tour de France seven times, from 1999 to 2005, a record for the event. Thus from 1986 to 2005, fully 10 of the 20 Tours de France were won by American riders. American women have also done well at the top levels of international cycling, led by Connie Carpenter-Phinney, who won the 1984 Olympic road race, the first time it was held for women. Other top American women have been Rebecca Twigg, a six-time world champion in the individual pursuit, and Connie Paraskevin-Young, a top sprinter on the track. Since the 1980s, due to the increased American interest in cycling, several different attempts have been made at starting an American multistage race, but none of these has lasted very long. These include the Red Zinger Classic, the Coors Classic, the Tour de Trump, the Tour DuPont, the Tour de Georgia, and the Tour of California. The longest and best-known American road races are the Tour of Fitchburg, which began in 1960, and the Tour of Somerville, the oldest, which began in 1940. See also BOYER, JONATHAN “JOCK” “JACQUES”; FURTADO, JULIANA “JULI”; HAMILTON, TYLER; HINCAPIE GARCÉS, GEORGE; HOWARD, JOHN KENNEDY; LANDIS, FLOYD; LETOURNEUR, ALFRED ALBERT “ALF” “THE RED DEVIL”; LOPES, BRIAN; MURPHY, CHARLES MINTHORN “MILE-A-MINUTE”; ORE-IDA WOMEN’S CHALLENGE; OVEREND, EDMUND “NED”; RACE ACROSS AMERICA; 7-ELEVEN; STUMPFHAUSER, RANDALL RICHARD “RANDY” “STUMPY” “STUMPDOG”; THOMSEN, STUART L. “STU”; TOMAC, JOHN; YOUNG, SHEILA. UTILITY CYCLING. Utility cycling refers to cycling that is done as a means of transport and for commercial purposes. Despite the popularity of cycling for fitness, racing, and touring, utility cycling is the most common type of cycling in the world. It is most popular in Europe and Asia, with China having over 500 million cyclists. In Japan, 17 percent of all commuter

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trips are done by cyclists, who ride an estimated 80 million bicycles, while in the Netherlands, 27 percent of all trips are made on bicycle. There are many benefits to utility cycling. It encourages fitness among the riders, lessens traffic congestion, decreases air pollution, and is cheaper than motorized transportation. Utility bicycles often have several features for rider safety, transport, and cleanliness. The bikes usually have chainguards and mudguards over the wheels. There are often baskets mounted on the front of the handlebars to allow the cyclist to carry items, and there will often be panniers that assist in this as well. There are also occasional rear- or frontmounted child seats, and the cyclist may also tow a small trailer allowing him or her to transport more items. Special freight bicycles also exist, with a large cargo area mounted on the front or back of the bicycle. Bicycle rickshaws, a common sight in much of Asia, are a bicycle alternative to taxis, and although slower, they are more affordable and actually faster in heavy traffic. Most utility cycling is done with short journeys. Utility cycling is influenced by a number of factors, including town planning, trip-end facilities (mostly bike parking areas), retail policies, and terrain and climate. The Netherlands worked to facilitate utility cycling in the early 1990s, requiring new developments to be built in locations accessible by utility cyclists. Special cycling lanes and cycling curbs built by town planners also help cyclists and provide a safer location for them to ride. Many cities in Europe, North America, and Oceania are attempting to encourage cycling and hence reduce motorized traffic. The most famous example is the Danish capital of Copenhagen, in which currently 36 percent of all citizens commute by bicycle, with the target for 2015 set at 50 percent. It has adopted a host of measures to promote cycling, ranging from public bicycles to the option to bring bicycles on the bus and train, as well as measures to decrease car traffic, such as purposely limiting parking capacity and closing off streets for motorized traffic.

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V VAN IMPE, LUCIEN (BEL). B. 20 October 1946; Mere, Belgium. The Belgian Lucien Van Impe was one of the greatest mountain climbers in cycling history. Van Impe won the mountain classification at the Tour de France six times (1971, 1972, 1975, 1981–83), tying the record set by Federico Bahamontes—it has since been bettered by Richard Virenque, who won the polka-dot jersey seven times. Van Impe was twice winner of the mountain classification at the Giro d’Italia, winning in 1982 and 1983. He also won the Tour general classification in 1976. Fittingly, he took the yellow jersey with his ascent of l’Alpe d’Huez, winning that stage and staying in yellow to Paris. He named his house l’Alpe d’Huez after that victory, and when he came home after the 1976 Tour, he found that his fans in his hometown had painted their favorite bar entirely in yellow. Van Impe started in the Tour de France 15 times, finishing each time, second all-time after Joop Zoetemelk. VAN LOOY, HENRIK “RIK” (BEL). B. 20 December 1932; Grobbendonk, Belgium. Prior to Eddy Merckx, Rik Van Looy won more classics than any professional cyclist. This was mainly due to his tremendous ability as a road sprinter, unmatched in the peloton at the time. Only the Grand Prix des Nations (a time trial) and the Bordeaux–Paris are missing from his list of victories in classics. Van Looy’s lack of strength as a time trialist was his greatest weakness and cost him in the grand tours. He was not a great climber, though he was better than average. Van Looy also won 11 sixday races, nine of them with Peter Post. Van Looy is one of only three riders to have won all five monument races, the best-known races of the one-day classics, along with Merckx and Roger De Vlaeminck. Van Looy was twice a winner at the world championship road race, winning in 1960 and 1961. In the grand tours, he won the points classification at the 1963 Tour de France, the 1959 and 1965 Vuelta a España, and the mountain classification at the 1960 Giro d’Italia. His major one-day victories were as follows: 1958 Milano–Sanremo; 1959, 1962 Ronde van Vlaanderen; 1955, 1957, 1962 Gent–Wevelgem; 1961, 1962, 1965 Paris–Roubaix; 1968 La Flèche Wallonne; 1961 Liège–Bastogne–Liège; 1956, 1958 Paris–Bruxelles; 1959, 1967 Paris–Tours; and 1959 Giro di Lombardia. 221

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VAN MOORSEL, LEONTIEN. See ZIJLAARD-VAN MOORSEL, LEONTINE MARTHA HENRICA PETRONELLA “LEONTIEN.” VAN OOSTEN-HAGE, CORNELIA “KEETIE” (NED). B. 21 August 1949; Sint-Maartensdijk, Netherlands. Despite the lack of a large international women’s circuit, Keetie van Oosten-Hage was one of the dominant female cyclists of the 1970s, winning a total of six world championships. Four of these came in the individual pursuit, which she won in 1975, 1976, 1978, and 1979, having earlier won three silver and four bronze medals in the event. On the road, she won eight world championship medals, including gold in 1968 and 1976. She likewise dominated at the Dutch national championships, winning 22 titles on road and track between 1966 and 1979. In 1978, van Oosten-Hage improved the world hour record to 43.082 km. VAN SPRINGEL, HERMAN (BEL). B. 14 August 1943; Ranst, Belgium. Herman Van Springel was a Belgian professional known for his time trialing ability and best known for having won the marathon Bordeaux–Paris seven times, in 1970, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, and 1981. At the grand tours, Van Springel placed second at the 1971 Giro d’Italia and won the points jersey at the 1973 Tour de France, oddly without winning a single stage. Despite his time trialing ability, he lost the 1968 Tour de France to Jan Janssen when Janssen outpaced him on the final stage time trial, with Van Springel wearing yellow for seven stages in that tour, and leading into the final day. In 1968, he finished second in the world championship road race and won the Super Prestige Pernod International, which was at the time effectively the World Cup of cycling. His other major victories included Gent–Wevelgem in 1966; Giro di Lombardia in 1968; Omloop Het Volk in 1968; Paris–Tours in 1969; Grand Prix des Nations in 1969 and 1970; and Züri-Metzgete in 1971. VAN STEENBERGEN, HENDRIK “RIK” (BEL). B. 9 September 1924; Oud-Turnhout, Arendonck, Belgium. D. 15 May 2003; Antwerp, Belgium. Rik Van Steenbergen had the longest career of any top male road cyclist. He rode for 24 years, retiring at age 42 in 1966, and he is credited with over 1,000 professional victories, more than any cyclist. His three victories in the world championship road race (1949, 1956, 1957) are matched only by Alfredo Binda, Eddy Merckx, and Óscar Freire. Van Steenbergen rode almost continually, taking only a short midsummer break. On the track, he won numerous events, and his record of 40 victories in six-day races stood for almost 20 years. His track speed allowed him to win many one-day classics because of his ability as a road sprinter. Although he won the 1956 Vuelta a

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España, his difficulty climbing usually prevented him from being a factor in the grand tours; although, he did place second in the Giro d’Italia in 1951. He won 15 stages in the Giro, 6 in the Vuelta, and 4 in the Tour de France. His other major victories included the Milano–Sanremo in 1954, Ronde van Vlaanderen in 1944 and 1946, Paris–Roubaix in 1948 and 1952, La Flèche Wallonne in 1949 and 1958, and Paris–Bruxelles in 1950. VAN VLIET, ARIE GERRIT (NED). B. 18 March 1916; Woerden, Netherlands. D. 9 July 2001; Woerden, Netherlands. Arie van Vliet had one of the longest careers of any track sprinter. Between 1934 and 1957, he won a total of 13 world championship medals in the event, and it would certainly have been more had his career not been interrupted by World War II. After two silvers, he won his first amateur world title in 1936. He was favored to win the Olympic gold as well but was obstructed in the final. His German opponent, Toni Merkens, was not disqualified but merely fined 100 Deutschmarks. Van Vliet instead won the gold medal in the time trial. After turning professional, Van Vliet defeated the great Belgian Jef Scherens in the 1938 world championship final. They were again matched for the 1939 final, but the race was canceled when World War II broke out. After the war, Van Vliet won two more world titles, in 1948 and 1953. He last medaled in 1957, losing to compatriot Jan Derksen in the final. VATTENFALL CYCLASSICS. See CYCLASSICS. VELODROME. A velodrome is a purpose-built venue for track cycling, from the French vélocipède (an early bicycle) and the Greek dromos (race, course). Depending on your definition of velodrome, the very first cycling race took place on one, in 1868—at least, it was a specially prepared field. With cycling’s popularity rising in late 19th-century Great Britain, competitions were soon moved from the poor-quality public roads to enclosed courses in parks or fields. This led to the natural development of courses dedicated to cycling in the early 1870s. It was not long before every major city in Britain had a velodrome. Of these early venues, Herne Hill in London still exists— although threatened by demolition—and it is likely the oldest velodrome in existence. With the spread of cycling across Europe and North America, velodromes also were built on these continents. In the 1890s, the first indoor venues sprung up. One of the most famous track cycling venues, although no longer used as such, was New York’s Madison Square Garden—birthplace of the six-day race and the Madison competition that is named for it. Other notable velodromes include the Velodromo Vigorelli in Milano (Italy), the Vélodrome de Bordeaux (France), and Krylatskoye in Moscow (Russia).

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While velodromes have historically varied widely in length, modern-day tracks must be between 133 and 500 m long. The Union Cycliste Internationale prefers 250 m as the size, and it is now mandated that Olympic Games and world championships must be held on 250-m velodromes (except in the case of preexisting venues). Other common sizes are 200 m, 285.714 m (3.5 laps to a kilometer), 3333 m, and 400 m. The length also determines how many riders are allowed on the track at the same time. For example, for a 250-m velodrome, this is 24, while it is 36 for a 3333-m track. To hold top-level competition, velodromes must be at least 7 m wide. There are no requirements on the banking of the track, but banking on the curves is almost universally applied, as it allows for higher speeds in the curves and more overtaking opportunities. Traditionally, many types of surface were used in velodromes, from grass, cinders, and gravel to wood, concrete, and asphalt. While there are still no restrictions on material, the present-day regulations require a “flat, homogenous, non-abrasive” surface, which generally leads to a choice of wood, concrete, or synthetic materials. All cycling tracks must feature three longitudinal lines: the measuring line, the sprinters’ line, and the stayers’ line. The measuring line is black (or white on dark surfaces) and is drawn at 20 cm from the track’s inside. In sprint competitions, riders are not allowed below this line. The sprinters’ line is red and drawn 85 cm from the inside. For safety reasons, riders below this line may only be passed on the right (outside), not on the left (inside). Above the line, passing is allowed on both sides. Finally, the stayers’ line is blue and drawn 2.45 m from the inside (or at one third the width of the track). This line is used only in motor-paced events. One more requirement for tracks is the so-called blue band (also côte d’azur, in French) on the inside of the track. This band, at least 10 percent of the track’s width, is off-limits for cyclists during the race, except “involuntarily,” for example, in case of crashes. During individual pursuit and time trial events, the blue band is made even less attractive by placing 50 cm long synthetics pads every few meters. VELODROMO MASPES-VIGORELLI. See VELODROMO VIGORELLI. VELODROMO VIGORELLI. The Velodromo Vigorelli in Milano, Italy, is one of the best-known track cycling venues. Built by the renowned German velodrome constructor Schürmann, it was originally constructed in Rome in 1932, but moved to Milan three years later. It is best known for being the site of many world hour records being set there. The first to do so

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was Giuseppe Olmo in 1935, and the next eight successful attempts to break the record were all recorded at Vigorelli. The record was lost to the Olympic Velodrome of Rome in 1967 and never regained; although, Francesco Moser set some good marks in the late 1980s. Three women’s records have also been broken at the velodrome. The 1939 world championships—which were broken off when World War II broke out—were held at the Vigorelli, and the 1953 and 1959 Giro d’Italia finished there. After being closed in 1975 and reopened in 1984, the Velodromo Vigorelli now rarely sees cycling action, instead being used for concerts, American football, field hockey, and other activities. Its current official name is Velodromo Maspes-Vigorelli, remembering the great sprinter Antonio Maspes. VERBRUGGEN, HENRICUS WILHELMUS BERNARDUS “HEIN” (NED). B. 21 June 1941; Helmond, Netherlands. Hein Verbruggen, who had a background in business rather than cycling, became one of the most influential people in cycling in the late 20th century. Through the Dutch cycling federation, Verbruggen became member of the Fédération Internationale de Cyclisme Professionnel (FICP) board in 1979, being elected president in 1984. He was chosen as Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) president in 1989, a position he held through 2005. During his presidency of the FICP and UCI, Verbruggen created the UCI World Cup (1989) and merged the Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme (FIAC) and FICP back into the UCI in 1992. This allowed professional cyclists to compete at the Olympics from 1996 on. Just before the end of his presidency, Verbruggen’s brainchild, the UCI ProTour (see WORLDTOUR), was launched. Intended to be road cycling’s equivalent of the Champions League (football) and the Formula I world championship, the ProTour did not prove to be a great success, and it resulted in several conflicts with the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO). Verbruggen is also a member of the International Olympic Committee, initially from 1996 until 2005 and again since 2006. Since 2004, he has also been president of SportAccord (previously General Association of International Sports Federations [GAISF]), the umbrella organization of international sports federations. VERT. A stunt event for BMX (or any bicycle), the vert is conducted on a vert ramp, which is a half-pipe named for its transitions from two vertical walls on the ends to a horizontal flat in the middle. The vertical edges make for optimal air time, which is indeed the objective of the vert event. It has been held at the X Games since 1995, with Jamie Bestwick and Dave Mirra (both USA) emerging as the top contenders.

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VINOKUROV, ALEKSANDR NIKOLAYEVICH “VINO” [Алексaндр Николаевич Винокуров] (KAZ). B. 16 September 1973; Petropavl, Kazakhstan. Aleksandr Vinokurov is a Kazakh professional who has been a top all-rounder in the professional peloton. He won the 2006 Vuelta a España and in his career has won four stages at the Vuelta and three at the Tour de France. Vinokurov’s first major win was at Dauphiné Libéré in 1999. He followed this with a silver medal at the 2000 Olympics in the road race. His other major wins included Paris–Nice in 2002 and 2003, the Tour de Suisse and Amstel Gold Race in 2003, and Liège–Bastogne–Liège in 2005. Vinokurov was not able to ride at the 2006 Tour because five of his teammates were implicated in the Operación Puerto scandal; although, Vino was not. But at the 2007 Tour, after winning stages 13 and 15, he was found to have a positive for blood doping and was removed before the start of stage 16, eventually facing a two-year ban from the peloton. He announced his retirement at the end of 2007 but did come back to racing in 2009, winning a stage at the Tour de France in 2010. VIRENQUE, RICHARD (FRA). B. 19 November 1969; Casablanca, Morocco. Richard Virenque was one of the most popular French cyclists of the 1990s for his good looks and his ability as a mountain climber. He would win the polka-dot jersey at the Tour de France a record seven times, in 1994 through 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2004, breaking the record of six wins in the mountain classification, which had been jointly held by Federico Bahamontes and Lucien Van Impe. In addition to his many victories in mountain stages in the Tour de France, his other major single-day win came at Paris–Tours in 2001, and he won a bronze medal in the 1994 world championship road race. In 1998, Virenque was a central figure in the Festina affair, which involved doping accusations against several members of his Festina team, after their soigneur, Willy Voet, was found at a border crossing to have large amounts of drugs and doping paraphernalia in his car. Virenque was initially banned from the 1999 Tour but was reinstated by the Union Cycliste Internationale and allowed to ride. Initially declaring his innocence, at a French trial in October 2000 into the Festina affair, Virenque admitted to doping but said that he never did it intentionally, and he was cleared of the charges against him. VOET, WILLY. See FESTINA AFFAIR. VOLTA A CATALUNYA. The Volta a Catalunya is the third oldest stage race in cycling, starting in 1911, having been preceded only by the Tour de France (1903) and the Giro d’Italia (1909). The event takes place in Catalonia and is the second most important bike race in Spain, after the Vuelta a

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España. The race is held in the early part of the year and has moved around from January to May and more recently to March. The leader and winner of the Volta wears a white-and-green–striped jersey. The record for the most wins in the event is seven by Mariano Cañardo in 1928 through 1930, 1932, 1935, 1936, and 1939. VOS, MARIANNE (NED). B. 13 May 1987; ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. Marianne Vos stormed onto the world stage in her first senior year (2006), immediately winning world titles in cyclo-cross and the road race. In 2008, she added a third world title on the track (points race), making her the only cyclist to win world titles in these three disciplines. She has since become cyclo-cross world champion thrice more (2009–11), won the Olympic points race in 2008, and was runner-up in the road race at the world championships for four consecutive years (2007–10). She also captured the World Cup in 2007 and twice more in 2009 and 2010 and was ranked the number one female cyclist by the UCI from 2007 to 2010. VOUILLOZ, NICOLAS “E. T.” (FRA). B. 8 February 1976; Nice, France. Known as E. T., Nicolas Vouilloz is the most successful downhill mountain biker in history. After three junior world championships (1992–94), he won seven senior world championships (1995–99, 2001, 2002), finishing eighth in 2000. In addition, he claimed 4 mountain bike World Cups in the downhill (1995–2000), 3 European titles (1994, 1997, 1998), 8 French titles, and 16 World Cup downhills in all. After his mountain biking career, Vouilloz started rally racing, winning the 2006 French title and the 2008 Intercontinental Rally Challenge (IRC). Vouilloz did briefly return to professional mountain biking in 2007 but with less success. VUELTA A ESPAÑA. The Vuelta a España is one of the three grand tours of cycling, along with the Tour de France and the Giro d’Italia. It was inspired by the success of the French and Italian tours and, like them, was originally sponsored by a newspaper, Informaciones, in an attempt to boost circulation. The race started in 1935, with it becoming a three-week race in 1955. The race was actually held sporadically until 1955, due to the Spanish Civil War, World War II, and sponsorship factors. Originally held in June, it moved to late April in the late 1940s and then to September in 1995. The race now traditionally ends in Madrid. The Vuelta circumnavigates Spain, often riding some very difficult mountain stages through the Pyrenees. In 1999, the race directors added the climb of the Alto del Angliru in Asturias, which climbs almost 13 km (8 miles) for 1,573 m (5,160 feet), with some grades as steep as 23.6 percent and an average grade of 12.2 percent.

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As with the Tour de France, the leader of the Vuelta wears a special jersey, but its color has been very variable during the race history. It was orange in 1935, white in 1941, orange in 1942, and then white with a red stripe from 1945 to 1950. From 1955 to 1997, the jersey was yellow, with the exception of 1977, when it was orange again, but in 1998, it changed to a darker golden color, called the jersey de oro. However, in 2010, the leader’s jersey color was changed to red. As in the Tour and Giro, jerseys are given for the leaders in the mountain classification and points classification. For many years, the leader for the points classification wore a blue jersey with yellow fish, but this has now been changed to a green jersey. The mountain leader now wears a polka-dot jersey, as in the Tour de France; although, it is blue polka dots on a white background in the Vuelta. The overall race has been won three times by Tony Rominger, in 1992 through 1994, and by Roberto Heras in 2000, 2003, and 2004. Heras was also the original winner in 2005 but lost that title due to a doping positive. José Luis Laguía has the most wins in the mountain classification, with five, while Sean Kelly and Laurent Jalabert both won the points classification a record four times. See also APPENDIX A for a list of winners in general classification, mountain classification, and points classification. VUELTA AL PAÍS VASCO (EUSKAL HERRIKO TXIRRINDULARI ITZULIA). The Vuelta al País Vasco, or the “tour of the Basque Country,” is a stage race held in the Basque region of Spain in April. The race began in 1924 but was not held from 1935 to 1969. Because the Basque region is very mountainous, the stages are mostly climbs, with few flat stages. The 1969 Vuelta, the first modern one, was won by Jacques Anquetil. José Antonio González Linares has the record for the most victories in the race—four (1972, 1975, 1977, 1978).

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W WATT, KATHRYN ANN “KATHY” (AUS). B. 11 September 1964; Warragul, Victoria, Australia. Kathy Watt is an Australian cyclist whose greatest victory came in winning the gold medal in the 1992 Olympic road race for women. She had also won the Commonwealth Games gold medal in 1990 in the same event, and at Barcelona, she added a silver medal in the individual pursuit. In Australia, Watt has won 24 national titles on the road, track, and in mountain biking. Watt retired after 2000 but returned in 2003 to attempt to qualify for the Olympics. While that was unsuccessful, she won a silver medal in the road time trial at the 2006 Commonwealth Games. She was twice on the podium at the Giro Donne, placing second in 1994 and third in 1990. WHEELS. A bicycle usually has two wheels, one front and one rear, that roll along the ground on tires and allow the cyclist to propel the bicycle forward. In competitive cycling, per the rules of the Union Cycliste Internationale, a bicycle must have two wheels of equal diameter. Wheels consist of a central hub, connected by spokes to the wheel rim, which is then covered by a tire. The wheel rim must be perfectly circular and is usually made of aluminum; although, carbon fiber or hybrid rims are also seen, and older rims were often wood. There are two main types of rims, designed for either clincher or tubular tires. A clincher rim has side projections that hold in place the outer tire lining, with a central pneumatic tube used to inflate the tire. Tubular rims are flatter and use tubular tires, or tubulars, which are more of a one-piece construction; although, the ends are sewn together on the inner, central portion, giving them their nickname of “sew-ups.” Tubular tires connect to the rim by glue placed on the outer rim surface. Clinchers connect by the outer tire clinching under the lip of the side projections of the rim. There are numerous sizes and types of racing wheels, varying based on the type of race, the weather and course, and the type of bike. Road and track racing bikes have classically had 26-inch (66 cm) wheels. BMX bikes have smaller wheels, usually 20 or 22 inches; although, BMX cruiser bikes have 24 or 26 inch wheels. Mountain bike wheels can be of varying sizes, from 24 to 26 inches. Road bikes have tires with outer diameters of 19 to 22 mm. Tire 229

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inflation is also a consideration in the various types of wheels and tires. Track tires are very thin, very light, and inflated to rock-hard pressures, often 120 psi. They would be prone to puncture on anything but the smooth surface of a velodrome track. Mountain bikes and BMX have heavier rims, thicker tires, and knobby surfaces on the tires to allow for traction on the difficult courses on which they ride. Apart from the common two-wheeled bicycle, variants with a different number of wheels also exist. The unicycle only has one wheel, while the tricycle and quadracycle have three and four, respectively. WHEELSUCKER. “Wheelsucker” is a derisive term in competitive cycling and refers to a rider who rides behind the rear wheel of another rider, or pack, continuously, and never takes the lead. This gives the wheelsucker the advantage of always riding in the draft of other riders, lessening wind resistance, often setting him or her up for a sprint at the end. Riders who are frequent wheelsuckers are not popular among other racers. WHITE JERSEY. The white jersey (maillot blanc) is given to the best young rider, or leader of the youth classification, in the Tour de France. It has been awarded for that purpose since 1975. From 1968 to 1975, a white jersey was given to the leading rider in the combination classification, adding together the placements in the general classification, mountain classification, and points classification. From 1975 to 1982, the young rider classification was only open to riders in their first Tour de France, with no age restriction. From 1983, the youth classification has been to cyclists 25 years old or younger. No white jersey was awarded from 1989 to 1999; although, the classification was determined. Two riders have won the white jersey three times—Jan Ullrich in 1996 through 1998 and Andy Schleck in 2008 through 2010—while Marco Pantani won two white jerseys (1994, 1995). WIGGINS, BRADLEY MARC (GBR). B. 28 April 1980; Gent, Belgium. Bradley Wiggins is a British professional cyclist who starred on the track but has moved to the roads later in his career. On the track, Wiggins has specialized in the pursuit, winning gold medals in the individual pursuit at the 2004 and 2008 Olympic Games and a bronze medal in 2000. In the team pursuit, Wiggins won gold in 2008 at Beijing and silver in 2004 at Athens. He also won a bronze medal in the Madison at the 2004 Olympics. At the world championships, he has won the individual pursuit in 2003, 2007, and 2008, adding gold in the team pursuit in 2007 and 2008 and a gold in the Madison in 2008, giving him three gold medals at the 2008 meet. Since moving to the roads, he has improved and, in 2009, placed fourth in general

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classification at the Tour de France, equaling the best ever by a British rider, previously done by Robert Millar. WOMEN. Women’s cycling has never been as popular as the men’s sport. But cycling has been important to women since the 19th century. By 1894, a fashion change made bicycles more popular among women, as bloomers allowed women to ride bicycles more discreetly. And that same year, Annie Kopchevsky, also known as Annie Londonderry, bicycled around the world, leaving Boston in June 1894 and returning to Chicago in September 1895. By then, bikes were so important to women that in 1896, Susan B. Anthony noted, “Let me tell you what I think of bicycling. I think it has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world. I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride by on a wheel. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance.” The first well-known female competitive cyclist was Alfonsina Strada, who remains the only woman to have ever started in the Giro d’Italia, racing that event in 1924 after entering as Alfonsin Strada. In 1911, she set an unofficial world hour record for women at 37.192 km; although, details of that performance are sketchy. In 1917 and 1918, she competed in the Giro di Lombardia, which was then open to all competitors. In the 1930s, some unofficial European and world championships were held on both track and road. In the years after World War II, two French women, Elyane Bonneau and Jeanine Lemaire, traded world hour records; although, these were unofficial marks. It was not until the 1950s that women’s races became popular. The Tour de France Féminine was contested in 1955, which stimulated the Union Cycliste Internationale to conduct the first world championships for women in 1958 with three events—road race, track sprint, and track individual pursuit. The first dominant women riders were Great Britain’s Beryl Burton and Belgium’s Yvonne Reynders, who both won multiple world titles. The first official world hour record for women was also recognized in 1955, set by the USSR’s Tamara Novikova. Despite the 1955 female Tour, women would not contest major stage races again until the 1980s, when they began to have a significant international cycling calendar. In 1984, cycling was added to the Olympic program, with a single event, the road race, which was won by Connie Carpenter-Phinney. The Olympic program would expand at each Olympics, with a sprint added in 1988, individual pursuit in 1992, and a track points race and mountain biking in 1996. It was also in the 1980s that women began to race a true Tour de France–like event, currently termed la Grande Boucle because of copyright restrictions on use of the name for the men’s race. Women also

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began to compete in the Giro Donne, a female version of the Giro d’Italia. In addition, there were a number of significant major races for women, but things were never as easy as they were for men. Sponsorship was difficult to come by, and many of the events lasted only a few years or started only to drop periodically off the calendar. The 1980s also saw the international appearance of Jeannie Longo, likely the greatest ever female cyclist. Longo competed in the 1984 Olympics and has since appeared at every Olympic Games through 2008, a total of seven Olympic appearances, equaling the record for women in any sport. Longo has won 13 world championships—five in the road race, four in the time trial, three in the individual pursuit, and one in the points race. She has won four Olympic medals, including gold in the 1996 road race, and won la Grande Boucle three times consecutively, from 1987 to 1989. Longo also set six marks for the world hour record, in various formats. The most notable challenge to Longo’s dominance came from the Dutchwoman, Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel, who in 2000 won three gold medals at the Sydney Olympics and has also won multiple world titles, female grand tours, and set the world hour record. But Zijlaard-van Moorsel is retired, and Longo, while still active in 2010, turned 50 shortly after the Beijing Olympics. The most dominant rider since they stepped off the podium has been the Dutch rider Marianne Vos, who has won titles on the road, track, and in cyclo-cross but has not captured much international recognition, and women’s cycling now gets less publicity than it did in the 1980s and 1990s. With sponsorship problems making races more difficult to schedule, especially with the economic uncertainty since 2008, women’s cycling has struggled somewhat and waned in popularity in recent years. But, as with many other sports, it is likely that it will come back and prosper as the economy recovers. One sign of the times—at the 2012 Olympics, the program for men and women will be identical, with both genders racing the same number and type of events. See also ARNDT, JUDITH; BALLANGER, FÉLICIA MICHÈLE SYLVIANE; CANINS, MARIA; CHAUSSON, ANNE-CAROLINE; COOKE, NICOLE DENISE; COUPE DU MONDE CYCLISTE FÉMININE DE MONTRÉAL, LA; DAHLE FLESJÅ, GUNN-RITA; FLÈCHE WALLONNE FÉMININE, LA; FURTADO, JULIANA “JULI”; GARKUSHINA, TAMARA PAVLOVNA; KUPFERNAGEL, HANKA; LUPERINI, FABIANA; MEARES, ANNA MAREE; MOOR, KARIN; PENDLETON, VICTORIA LOUISE; PEZZO, PAOLA; ROSSNER, PETRA; SLYUSAREVA, OLGA ANATOLYEVNA; SOMARRIBA, JOANE; SYDOR, ALISON; TSAREVA, GALINA GEORGIEVNA; TSYLINSKAYA, NATALIYA; TWIGG,

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REBECCA LYNNE; VAN OOSTEN-HAGE, CORNELIA “KEETIE”; WATT, KATHRYN ANN “KATHY”; YERMOLAYEVA, GALINA NIKOLAYEVA; YOUNG, SHEILA. WOMEN’S CHALLENGE. See ORE-IDA WOMEN’S CHALLENGE. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS. Their first world championships were held in 1893, with track events for amateurs, conducted by the International Cycling Association (ICA), the forerunner of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). Professional track championships followed in 1895. Since that time, the number of world championships has steadily grown. Road racing was added in the 1920s, and women’s events followed in 1958. Events for indoor cycling, cyclo-cross, mountain biking, BMX, and para-cycling all gained recognition by the UCI. Most of these have a separate entry; see below. Nearly all world championship events are held separately for men and women; although, some are for men only. In addition to the senior, or “elite,” events, the UCI has world championships for juniors and under-23 (U23) and masters categories (various age groups over 30). Until the early 1990s, there was also a distinction between amateurs and professionals (for the men), but this was removed between 1993 and 1995. Apart from the world championships organized by the ICA and later the UCI, some other events have also used the name “world championships,” either officially or unofficially. These include the Critérium International de Cyclo-cross (in cyclo-cross), the championships staged by NORBA (mountain biking) and the IBMXF (BMX). See also APPENDIX E for a full list of world champions at the highest levels. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS—BMX. The first world championships in BMX were held in 1982, organized by the International Bicycle Motocross Federation (IBMXF). The amateur division of the Union Cycliste Internationale, the Fédération Internationale Amateur de Cyclisme (FIAC), staged its first championships in 1985; although, these were generally considered to be of lesser quality than the IBMXF-sanctioned events. In 1991, the two associations decided to join forces, and the first combined world championships were held that year. After the IBMXF merged with the UCI in 1993, the first official UCI BMX World Championships were held in 1996 in Brighton, England. The world championships have four senior (elite) events: regular and cruiser for both men and women. Juniors compete in the same four events at the worlds. Cruiser events for women (elite and juniors) are fairly recent; they were only added in 2006.

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Unlike many other cycling disciplines, BMX has a serious following in South America, and world champions have come from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. The most successful nation, however, is the United States, with 12 senior titles since 1996, followed by France with 11. Two men have won four titles, all in the cruiser event: Christophe Lévêque (FRA) and Randy Stumpfhauser (USA), while the top regular BMX rider is Kyle Bennett (USA) with three titles. On the women’s side, there are three champions with three gold medals: Gabriela Diaz (ARG), Shanaze Reade (GBR), and Sarah Walker (NZL). The latter won titles in both standard and cruiser competitions, the former two only in the regular event. See also APPENDIX E for a full list of world champions at the highest levels. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS—CYCLO-CROSS. World championships in cyclo-cross were first held in 1950; although, the Critérium International de Cyclo-cross had served as an unofficial title event since 1924. Since the sport originated in France, it was no surprise that the championships were initially dominated by the French; the first champion was 1947 Tour de France winner Jean Robic. Since the first non-French winner in 1959, the championship has become more international; although, only 10 nations have managed to win medals. The program of the world championships was gradually expanded: in 1967, an amateur race was introduced (abolished after 1993 with the disappearance of the professional/amateur distinction), competitions for junior and under-23 men were added in 1996, and the first championship for women was staged in 2000. After France’s initial dominance, Belgium has become the leading nation at these championships, winning 25 titles through 2011. Between 1966 and 1973, seven titles were claimed by Belgium’s Eric De Vlaeminck, which remains the record. Other repeat winners are André Dufraisse (France; 1954–58), Renato Longo (Italy; 1959, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1967), and Albert Zweifel (Switzerland; 1976–79, 1986). Remarkably, Belgium has yet to win a medal in the women’s race. The leading women’s nation is Germany, almost completely by virtue of Hanka Kupfernagel. Competing in all 11 world championships between 2000 and 2010, she won 10 medals, including four titles (2000, 2001, 2005, 2008). Dutch rider Marianne Vos has won four titles (2006, 2009–11). Nearly all of the medalists at the world championships have come from Europe; the only other nation to medal has been the United States, which saw Katie Compton win three medals with the women (2007, 2009, 2011), and Jonathan Page won a silver medal in the men’s race in 2007. The United States is also slated to become the first nation outside Europe to host the championships, as the 2013 championships

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are scheduled for Louisville, Kentucky. See also APPENDIX E for a full list of world champions at the highest levels. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS—INDOOR CYCLING. Held annually since 1956, the indoor world championships decide the world champions in the cycling disciplines of artistic cycling and cycle-ball, together known as indoor cycling. Cycle-ball has had its own world championships since 1930 (its precursor, the European championships, were first held in 1927). Six disciplines are contested at the world championships: men’s and women’s singles, mixed and women’s pairs, women’s fours (all artistic), and two-man cycle-ball. The number of events has grown gradually; the men’s singles and cycle-ball competition were the only two events at the inaugural championships in Copenhagen; the women’s singles followed suit in 1959. The pairs events first obtained European championship status (although held concurrently) and received world championship status in 1986. The men’s pair event was changed to mixed/open, to allow male-female couples to compete. The women’s four competition gained official status in 2005; although, it had been held as a demonstration event since 2000. In both indoor disciplines, Germany has dominated competition, unsurprising given that it has the largest competitor base of the sport. Other successful nations have also come from Central Europe: Czech Republic (previously Czechoslovakia), Switzerland, and Austria. In recent years, the sport has attracted some top competitors from Asia, notably the Chinese city-states of Macau and Hong Kong. Special mention should be made of two Czechoslovakian brothers, who together won 20 world championships in cycle-ball—Jan and Jindřich Pospíšil. See also APPENDIX E for a full list of world champions at the highest levels. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS—MOUNTAIN BIKE AND TRIALS. In the late 1980s, the United States–based National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) already staged what they called “world championships,” even if competitions were only in the United States and mostly contested by American cyclists. In 1990, the Union Cycliste Internationale staged the first official world championships, in Durango, Colorado (USA). The event has since been held annually. Its official name includes the word “trials” after trials competitions were added in 1992. That was also the first expansion of the program, which initially had only featured cross-country and downhill events for both men and women. A second trials event (26-inch) was added in 1996, and the team relay followed in 1999. The dual slalom made its debut in 2000, only to be replaced by the four-cross two years later. A women’s

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trials competition was first held in 2001. Marathon cross-country racing was put on the program in 2003, but as this race was hard to combine with the regular cross-country, a separate event, the UCI Mountain Bike Marathon World Championships, is since held separately. By far, the most successful mountain biking nation at these world championships has been France, with 44 titles through 2010. Spain (mostly in trials), Switzerland, and the United States follow with more than 20 titles each. The highest number of individual gold medals won is 13, by AnneCaroline Chausson (in downhill, four-cross, and dual slalom). Gunn-Rita Dahle Flesjå (cross-country and marathon) and Karin Moor (trials) both have won eight titles. Among men, the record is seven, shared by Nicolas Vouilloz (downhill) and Benito Ros Charral (trial). See also APPENDIX E for a full list of world champions at the highest levels. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS—ROAD. World championships on the track were first contested in 1893, and discussions about a road championship were held as early as 1898. But nothing came of it until 1921 when a road race world championship for amateurs appeared on the schedule, won by Sweden’s Gunnar Skiöld. The professionals did not have their own event until 1927, when Alfredo Binda won the first of his three titles at the Nürburgring in Germany, still a record that has not been bettered, as he won again in 1930 and 1932. The world championship road race comes near the end of the long cycling year, usually held in early September. It is a fairly long one-day race, often approaching 300 km, and is now always raced over several laps, from 8 to 15, of the same loop. In addition, to avoid the race coming down to a bunch sprint, the organizers usually choose a difficult loop, with at least one difficult climb to sort out the climbers and strongest riders. The race is also a bit unusual as it is raced by national teams, not trade teams as is typical in the grand tours and one-day classics. But the riders realize who butters their bread, and one often sees trade teammates working for each other; although, they may be from different countries. This notably occurred in 1968 when Eddy Merckx set the race up for his Molteni teammate, Italian Vittorio Adorni. Amateurs and professionals had their own separate championship race until 1995. Since that time, no distinction is made, and the race is simply contested for “elite” riders. In addition to Binda, three other riders have won the race three times—Merckx, Rik Van Steenbergen, and Óscar Freire. Because many of the winners of the amateur race would later turn professional, it was uncommon for anyone to win that race more than once, and it happened only twice. Giuseppe Martano won in 1930 and 1932, and East German Gustav-Adolf Schur uniquely won it in consecutive years, in 1958

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and 1959. Women have raced a road championship since 1958, with no race held in the Olympic years of 1984, 1988, and 1992. Jeannie Longo has won this title five times (1985–87, 1989, 1995), with Yvonne Reynders posting three wins in 1959, 1961, and 1963. Although the road race was and is the main event at the world championships, separate time trial events have also been held. From 1962 until 1994 (except in Olympic years), amateur riders contested a team time trial event over 100 km. Between 1967 and 1969, it was notably won three years in a row by four Swedish brothers, Erik, Gösta, Sture, and Tomas Petterson. They were known as the Fåglum brothers, after their hometown, and all but Gösta later took Fåglum as a surname. A team time trial event for women was added in 1987 but was likewise discontinued after 1994. Both events were replaced with an individual time trial event, first held in 1994. For many years, the unofficial world championship in time trialing was the Grand Prix des Nations. The addition of world championships in the discipline eventually led to the demise of the Grand Prix des Nations, which was first held in 1932 but was discontinued after the 2004 edition. Among men, Fabian Cancellara has won the most world championships in the time trial, with four in 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2010, and with his current dominance in this discipline, this record may increase in the next few years. Australian Michael Rogers also won the race three times, consecutively from 2003 to 2005. Jeannie Longo has won the women’s edition four times, in 1995 through 1997 and 2001. Counting all elite (professional and amateur) championships, Italy has won the highest number of titles, with 49, followed by Belgium with 36 and France with 31. See also APPENDIX E for a full list of world champions at the highest levels. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS—TRACK. With the exception of the Olympic Games, the world championships are the most prestigious competition on the track cycling calendar. The championships are held annually, with the hosting track voted on by the Union Cycliste Internationale several years before the competition. In the 1880s, the British National Cycling Union (NCU) championships were sometimes unofficially called “world championships,” and European championships have been held since 1886. The first world championships in track cycling were held in 1893, organized by the International Cycling Association (ICA) in Chicago. Three events were for amateurs only. In 1895, professional events were first included. In 1900, the ICA was superseded by the newly formed Union Internationale de Cyclisme (UCI), and the world championships continued under the aegis of the UCI. With a

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few exceptions, the program contained four events: sprint and the motorpaced event for both amateurs and professionals. After World War I, during which no championships were held, the amateur motor-paced event was discontinued, leaving just three events at the world championships through 1939. The 1939 championships were canceled halfway due to the German invasion of Poland and the outbreak of war, leaving the sprint final between Arie van Vliet and Jef Scherens undisputed. When competition resumed after the war in 1946, the program was expanded, with two individual pursuit events being added. The next major change to the championship came in 1958, when women were first allowed to compete. Since then, the program has gradually grown, with the inclusion of the team pursuit (1962 for amateurs, 2008 for women), the individual time trial (1966 for amateurs, 1995 for women), the points race (1977 for amateurs, 1980 for professionals, 1988 for women), the keirin (1980 for amateurs, 2002 for women), the Madison (1995 for men only), the team sprint (1995 for men, 2007 for women), the scratch (reintroduced in 2002 for men and women), and omnium (2007 for men, 2009 for women). Over the years, just three events have been discontinued (a few others were later reintroduced), the tandem sprint (added in 1966) and the motor-paced race, which were both last held in 1994, and the derny event, a shorter motor-paced event held for professionals between 1978 and 1990. Another major change came in 1993, when the distinction between amateur and professional championships was lifted on the track, and all men competed together in the same events. In a few championships before this merger, events for professionals and amateurs had been held at separate dates and locations, but this never became a permanent feature. Between 1972 and 1992, no world titles were awarded in Olympic years in competitions held at the Olympic Games. There are also junior world championships on the track, which are held separately from the elite (senior) competitions. Since 1893, well over 800 elite world titles have been awarded on the track. French cyclists have won 123 of these, making it the most successful nation by far. The second best nation is the Netherlands (84), closely followed by Great Britain (81); although, it should be pointed out that the total for East Germany, West Germany, and unified Germany is 111. European nations have won more than 85 percent of all track titles. The best nations from other continents are: Oceania: Australia (49 titles), North America: United States (38), Asia: Japan (12), South America: Colombia (2), and Africa: South Africa (1). Numerous great track cyclists have excelled at the world championships, but just a handful have managed to win 10 or more world titles. Most of these were won in recent years, due to the increase in events since the 1990s.

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France’s Arnaud Tournant (14) has won the most titles, followed by Félicia Ballanger (FRA), Chris Hoy (GBR), Urs Freuler (SUI), Koichi Nakano (JPN), and Florian Rousseau (FRA), all with 10 world championship golds. Of these, Nakano uniquely won all his titles in the same event, the professional sprint. See also APPENDIX E for a full list of world champions at the highest levels. WORLD CUP. Starting with road racing for men in 1989, the Union Cycliste Internationale has established seasonal competitions called the World Cup for nearly all forms of cycling. Although the original men’s road racing World Cup has since been superseded by the WorldTour, the other World Cups continue to be held annually. The different World Cups per discipline have separate entries below. WORLD CUP—CYCLO-CROSS. The Union Cycliste Internationale established a World Cup circuit for cyclo-cross for the 1993–94 season, and it has been held annually since. The number of races counting toward the final standings has fluctuated somewhat around eight, which was the number of races for the 2010–11 season. In 2002–03, a women’s edition was also formed; under-23 and junior men also compete separately at the same venues. All World Cup races have been held in Western European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland). A planned World Cup race in the United States was canceled due to financial problems. Many of the World Cup races existed before the World Cup was established, such as the Duinencross (held since 1969 in Koksijde [BEL]) or the Ziklo Kross Igorre (since 1977 in Igorre [ESP]). By far, the most dominant World Cup competitor has been Sven Nys, who claimed the overall trophy seven times, with Richard Groenendaal (NED) the only other repeat winner through 2010 with three victories. See also SUPERPRESTIGE. WORLD CUP—MOUNTAIN BIKE. With the recognition of mountain biking as a discipline by the Union Cycliste Internationale, the UCI Mountain Bike World Cup was formed as in road racing. The inaugural edition in 1991 only featured cross-country events, but a downhill cup was added in 1993. Dual slalom followed in 1998; although, it was replaced by the fourcross in 2002. Discontinued World Cup events include the cross-country time trial (held in 2003) and the cross-country marathon (2005–08). A typical World Cup season lasts from April to August, with about 10 competitions held. Not all events (cross-country, downhill, etc.) are held at

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every competition; each event is contested about seven times (the numbers vary slightly per event and season). Racers are given points for places, and the racer with the highest number of points at the end of the season takes home the trophy. The mountain bikers with the highest numbers of overall World Cup victories are Julien Absalon (cross-country, men—six), Gunn-Rita Dahle Flesjå (cross-country, women—four), Nicolas Vouilloz (downhill, men—five), Anne-Caroline Chausson and Sabrina Jonnier (downhill, women—five), Brian Lopes (four-cross, men—three), and Anneke Beerten (four-cross, women—three). WORLD CUP—ROAD (MEN). After the demise of the Super Prestige Pernod International, the Union Cycliste Internationale established the World Cup as a seasonal competition for one-day races. It existed through 2004, after which it was abandoned in favor of the ProTour (presently named the WorldTour). The program has varied a bit over the years but has always included the five monument classics (Milano–Sanremo, Ronde van Vlaanderen, Paris–Roubaix, Liège–Bastogne–Liège, and Giro di Lombardia), as well as the Amstel Gold Race, Clásica de San Sebastián, Züri-Metzgete, and Paris–Tours. In an attempt to spread the sport to nontraditional road racing countries, the World Cup has also featured races in Canada (Grand Prix des Amériques), Great Britain (Wincanton/Leeds Classic), Japan (Japan Cup), and Germany (Vattenfall Cyclassics). In the early 1990s, a time trial and team time trial were also held as part of the World Cup. Paolo Bettini won the event three consecutive times, in 2002 through 2004, while three riders have won the competition twice—Maurizio Fondriest won in 1991 and 1993, Johan Museeuw in 1995 and 1996, and Michele Bartoli in 1997 and 1998. Museeuw is also the rider with the highest number of World Cup race wins, with 11. See also APPENDIX H for a list of winners. WORLD CUP—ROAD (WOMEN). The Union Cycliste Internationale Women’s Road World Cup was established in 1998 as a series of one-day road races for women, with a final classification for the best rider in the series. The final standings are determined with a points-for-place table, the winner claiming 75 points, runner-up 50, and so on through the 20th position. The final race of the season earns double points. The World Cup also features a team time trial (with reduced points to be gained), and a separate team classification, made up by the times of the four best finishers per team. Unlike the seasonal cups for men, the women’s World Cup has not had a fixed program. Since 1998, 29 different races have been held, even if there have never been more than 12 events in a single season. La Coupe du Monde

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Cycliste Féminine de Montréal was held in all editions through 2009, but the 2010 edition was canceled. La Flèche Wallonne Féminine has been held since 1999, only missing World Cup status in its inaugural year of 1998. With several races outside the traditional West European road racing nations— Australia, Canada, China, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden—the circuit has been fairly international, though the 2011 schedule features only one non-European race (the Tour of Chongming Island in China). Dutch rider Marianne Vos has won the overall cup a record three times (2007, 2009, 2010), while four riders have claimed it twice (Nicole Cooke, Anna Wilson, Oenone Wood, and Diana Žiliūtė). The record number of race wins is held by Germany’s Petra Rossner, who won 10 races as well as the 2002 cup. Cooke (8), Vos (7), and Judith Arndt (6) have also won more than five World Cup races. See also SUPER-PRESTIGE PERNOD FÉMININ. See also APPENDIX H for a list of winners. WORLD CUP—TRACK. First held in 1995, the Union Cycliste Internationale Track Cycling World Cup is a series of about five track cycling competitions. At each competition, the same events are disputed (10 for men, nine for women), and overall classifications for these events are made up at the end of the season. Originally, a competition held mostly in summer in Europe, the circuit moved to the Northern Hemisphere winter, with events now mostly held in Asia and Australia. Due to the large gaps in time and distance, many top track cyclists only attend some World Cup events, meaning many overall titles are won by cyclists who are not among the best in the world. WORLD HOUR RECORD. The world hour record is for the longest distance covered by a cyclist within one hour on the track. It is considered the most prestigious record in cycling, and attempts to break it have been made by many of the great cyclists. The exact distance covered in a record attempt is calculated based on the time of the lap crossing the hour limit and the length of the track and rounded down to meters. The first recorded mark dates from 1876, when American Frank Dodds covered a distance of 26.508 km (16.471 miles) on a penny farthing. As of early 2011, the Union Cycliste Internationale–recognized record is held by Czech Ondřej Sosenka, with 49.700 km (30.882 miles). The women’s record is held by Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel, with 46.065 km (28.623 miles), set in October 2003. It should be noted, however, that the UCI does not allow recumbent bicycles to be used, which allow for a much higher speed. Nonstandard bicycles were disallowed after Frenchman François Faure broke the record in 1933 on a recumbent bicycle.

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Several great cyclists have held the hour record, such as Fausto Coppi, Jacques Anquetil, and Eddy Merckx. After Merckx broke the record in 1972, it remained inviolable until 1984 when Francesco Moser twice bettered it. However, Moser used triathlon handlebars and a rear disc wheel for his record attempts, and the innovations that were coming to bicycles in the 1980s and 1990s, especially with the evolution of aerodynamic bikes, led to a sudden surge of record attempts, among others by the previously unknown Scotsman Graeme Obree (on a homemade bicycle), 1992 Olympic

A penny farthing, one of the early forerunners of the modern bicycle, with a large front wheel, no chain, and no gears.

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champion Chris Boardman, and five-time Tour de France winner Miguel Indurain. This led the UCI to ban some of the aerodynamic modifications for the hour record, including the “superman” style handlebars pioneered by Obree, disk wheels, and aerodynamic helmets. This reset the record to Merckx’s 1972 performance, and in the late 1990s, the UCI began to recognize two sets of records. The UCI Athletes’ Hour Record must be set on a traditional bike, with diamond frame, spoked wheels, drop handlebars, and no aerodynamic helmets. The UCI also now recognizes the Best Human Performance for records set with the now-forbidden enhancements. In 2000, Boardman became the first to break Merckx’s record under the new rules; although, only by 10 m, and this was surpassed by Sosenka in 2005. The same happened with the women’s hour record, which was held by Jeannie Longo, prior to the rules changes. In 2000, it was bettered three times (twice by Longo herself), while Zijlaard-van Moorsel’s current record dates from 2003. In addition to the two UCI records, there are also records for distance covered in one hour on any sort of bicycle or human-powered vehicle. These are now recognized by the World Human Powered Vehicle Association (WHPVA), previously known as the International Human Powered Vehicle Association (IHPVA). These records are typically set on recumbent bicycles, now with full faring, which is an aerodynamic cover placed over the bicycle and rider to decrease wind resistance. As of 2011, the best mark for a recumbent bike is 90.598 km (56.295 miles), by Sam Whittingham (CAN), set in July 2009. The women’s mark in this category was set by Barbara Buatois (FRA), with 84.020 km (52.208 miles), also set in July 2009. Finally, the UCI also recognizes a motor-paced record, which is currently held by Maas van Beek (NED) with 66.288 km (41.189 miles). See also APPENDIX I for a complete list of all world hour record holders. WORLDTOUR. The UCI WorldTour will be first held in 2011 but was known in earlier incarnations as the UCI ProTour and the UCI World Ranking. The competition started out as a successor to the Union Cycliste Internationale’s annual rankings (akin to those used in tennis and golf) and the World Cup, a classification of one-day races. Envisioning a completion like that in Formula 1 or Champions League (association football), UCI President Hein Verbruggen introduced the ProTour as a season-long competition featuring the 18 top professional teams in each of these races. Unlike the World Cup, this would feature both one-day races, as well as the grand tours. But the format failed to find favor with both the professional teams and the race organizers. The latter wished to be able to select the teams in their races, so they could favor local teams over ProTour teams for better publicity. The

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teams, in turn, did not wish to be required to compete in all races. In 2006, the dispute turned ugly, as the Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), organizer of the Tour de France and several other races, refused to comply with the ProTour. The UCI threatened to ban all teams competing in ASO races, but eventually the dispute was settled. But the discontent among organizers never fully subsided, and in 2008, none of the grand tours (Tour de France, Giro d’Italia, Vuelta a España) was part of the ProTour, while only one of the monument classics (Ronde van Vlaanderen) remained, making the ProTour a farce. For 2009, the UCI and race organizers came to a new agreement. The newly formed UCI World Ranking would consist again of all major one-day and stage races. However, race organizers of the grand tours were no longer forced to include all 18 ProTeams, while still allowing additional professional teams to start. For 2011, the competition again changed its name, to the UCI WorldTour. More importantly, the 18 ProTeams are now certain of a place in all races, including the three major stage races. In the six years of competition, Spanish riders have won it four times. Most successful was Alejandro Valverde, who won the ProTour in both 2006 and 2008. See also APPENDIX H for a list of winners. WORLD RANKING. See WORLDTOUR.

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X X GAMES. Organized by U.S. broadcaster ESPN, the X Games are an annual “extreme” sports event. On the program are sports like skateboarding, motocross, and (in the winter edition) snowboarding. BMX stunt events have been on the program since the first X Games in 1995. The precise program has differed a little over the years, but the 2010 edition featured four BMX competitions—big air, park, vert, and freestyle street. In 1997 and 1998, snow BMX racing was featured on the program of the Winter X Games, but it has since been discontinued.

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Y YEKIMOV, VYACHESLAV VLADIMIROVICH “EKI” (aka VIATCHESLAV “SLAVA” EKIMOV) [Вячеслав Владимирович Екимов] (URS). B. 4 February 1966; Vyberg, Leningrad Oblast, Russia. Vyacheslav Yekimov first took up cycling in 1980 and immediately made his name as a great pursuiter. He competed against fellow Soviet Gintautas Umaras and thus, despite winning the 1985 through 1987 world championship amateur pursuit, Yekimov was not chosen for the individual pursuit in 1988 at the Seoul Olympics. But together with Umaras, he led the Soviets to the team pursuit title. In late 1989, Yekimov made history when he was allowed to turn professional. He was chosen to ride for the PDM professional team and immediately became known as one of the fastest road sprinters in the peloton in his first year as a professional. Yekimov had a long career on the roads, winning a gold medal in 2000 and a silver medal in 2004 at the Olympics in the individual time trial and serving for several years as a lieutenant to Lance Armstrong with the U.S. Postal Service team, in addition to riding in 15 Tours de France, finishing 14. His other major road victories were as follows: 1992 Züri-Metzgete, 1994 Tour DuPont, and 1996 and 2000 Driedaagse van De Panne. In 2001, Yekimov was named Russian Cyclist of the Century. See also DOPING. YELLOW JERSEY. The yellow jersey, or maillot jaune, is the jersey given to the leader after every stage, and eventually the winner, of the Tour de France. There is some controversy about when it was first used in the Tour, but most credit is given to the concept that it made its debut at the 1919 race and was first worn by Eugène Christophe. The color was chosen because it could be identified with the yellow newsprint of the sponsoring newspaper, L’Auto. The concept was started by Tour director Henri Desgrange, and all yellow jerseys have the initials HD on the sleeve or upper right side of the chest in his honor. The yellow jersey is given to the leader of the race after every stage at a podium ceremony. Winning a yellow jersey, even for a single day, is considered one of the great honors in professional cycling. Through 2010, 269 different cyclists have worn a yellow jersey, 64 of them for only one day. Eddy Merckx has won the most yellow jerseys with 96, followed 247

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by Lance Armstrong with 83, Bernard Hinault with 75, Miguel Indurain with 60, and Jacques Anquetil with 50. YERMOLAYEVA, GALINA NIKOLAYEVA (née VASILYEVNA) [Галина Николаевна Ермолаева] (URS). B. 4 February 1937; Novokhopyorsk, Voronezh, Soviet Union. Galina Yermolayeva is generally acknowledged as the greatest women’s sprinter ever on the track. Between 1958 and 1973, she won 14 world championships medals—six golds (1958–61, 1963, 1972), five silvers, and three bronzes, failing to medal only in 1962 and 1966. In addition, Yermolayeva also claimed 10 Soviet titles in the event (1956–1958, 1960–63, 1970, 1972, 1973). YOUNG (-OCHOWICZ), SHEILA GRACE (USA). B. 14 October 1950; Birmingham, Michigan, United States. A top track cyclist and speed skater, in 1973 Sheila Young performed the astounding feat of winning world championships in both sports in the same year. She won the sprint worlds on the ice, the first of three titles (1973, 1975, 1976), while her sprint title on the velodrome was also the first of three, the others coming in 1976 and 1981. In 1976, Young won three Olympic speed skating medals at the 1976 Winter Olympics, including a gold medal in the 500 m. She later married cyclist and future directeur sportif Jim Ochowicz. Their daughter, Elli, later also became an Olympic speed skater. Her sister-in-law, Connie Paraskevin-Young, was a world champion in the sprint, as well as a top international speed skater.

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Z ZABEL, ERIK (GER). B. 7 July 1970; East Berlin, East Germany. Erik Zabel was a German cyclist who turned professional in 1992 and became one of the great road sprinters in the peloton. He won over 200 races on the professional calendar, more than any rider of his era. At the grand tours, he won the points classification nine times, a record, winning the Tour de France green jersey in 1995 through 1997 and 2000 through 2002, setting a record for the Tour with six points victories. He also won the Vuelta a España points classification in 2002 through 2004. He has won 41 stages at the grand tours—12 in the Tour, 21 at the Giro, and 8 at the Vuelta, which ranks him sixth of all time. Zabel has not managed to win the world championship road race but was on the podium three times—silver in 2004 and 2006 and bronze in 2002. In one-day classics, Zabel is most notable for winning at Milano– Sanremo four times, in 1997, 1998, 2000, and 2001. He also won the Amstel Gold Race in 2000 and Paris–Tours in 1994, 2003, and 2005. He also won the Union Cycliste Internationale World Cup in 2000. In the winter, Zabel has frequently raced indoors, winning 14 six-day races from 1995 to 2009. See also DOPING. ZIJLAARD-VAN MOORSEL, LEONTINE MARTHA HENRICA PETRONELLA “LEONTIEN” (NED). B. 22 March 1970; Boekel, Netherlands. In the early 1990s, Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel threatened the supremacy of France’s Jeannie Longo as the best female cyclist. Under her maiden name, Van Moorsel, she won two road world titles (1991, 1993), two Grande Boucles (1992, 1993), a Tour of the European Economic Community (1992), and the world title in the individual pursuit on the track (1990). But Van Moorsel suffered from anorexia and bulimia, eating disorders, and lost 20 kg (44 lbs), despite already being slim. Her cycling career suffered, but she returned to prominence in the late 1990s, winning the individual time trial world championship in 1998 and 1999 and the world pursuit title again in 2001 through 2003. At the 2000 Sydney Olympics, she had the most successful Olympics ever by a woman cyclist. She won the individual pursuit in world record time, won the road race and the individual time trial, and added a silver medal on the track in the points race. Van Moorsel continued 249

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competing and, at Athens in 2004, won a gold medal in the individual time trial and a bronze medal in the individual pursuit. In 2003, she bettered the world hour record, recording 46.065 km. ZOETEMELK, HENDRIK GERARDES JOZEF “JOOP” (NED). B. 3 December 1946; The Hague, Netherlands. In the days when only amateurs raced at the Olympics, “Joop” Zoetemelk was the only Tour de France winner to have also won an Olympic gold medal. His gold medal came in the 100 km team time trial in 1968. He had a very long career (18 years), riding in the Tour de France through 1986 and retiring after the 1987 season. He was a great all-rounder with few weaknesses but was unable to prevail over Eddy Merckx and Bernard Hinault for most of his career. However, Hinault rode in 1980, and Zoetemelk still won; although, Hinault was forced to retire with knee problems. Zoetemelk had 10 stage wins in the Tour and set a record by finishing the race 16 times (1970–73, 1975–86) being runner-up six times. In 1985, he capped his career by outsprinting Greg LeMond to win the rainbow jersey as the world professional road race champion. Zoetemelk also won the 1979 Vuelta a España. His other major victories included La Flèche Wallonne in 1976, the Amstel Gold Race in 1987, Paris–Tours in 1977 and 1979, and Paris–Nice in 1974, 1975, and 1979. ZÜLLE, ALEX (SUI). B. 5 July 1968; Wil, St. Gallen, Switzerland. Swiss rider Alex Zülle started out as a skier, but after a serious injury when he was 18, he turned to cycling and became a professional in 1991. He raced in the pro peloton until 2004, twice winning the Vuelta a España, placing second at the Tour de France in 1995 and 1999, while winning two Tour stages, three stages at the Giro d’Italia, and nine at the Vuelta. Zülle’s other major victories included the 1996 world championship in the time trial, the 2002 Tour de Suisse, and the Vuelta al País Vasco in 1995 and 1997. Racing for the Festina team in 1998, he was one of the riders involved in the Festina affair, admitting to doping. ZÜRI-METZGETE (MEISTERSCHAFT VON ZÜRICH / ZÜRICH CHAMPIONSHIP). Züri-Metzgete, known for much of its existence as the Meisterschaft von Zürich (Zürich championship), was, for many years, the oldest continually held bike race in Europe. It was first held in 1914, was restarted in 1917, and was held during World War II, so it was held consecutively from 1917 to 2006. It is still raced but no longer as an elite race but rather as an amateur event since 2007. Originally held in May, it was switched to a mid-August date in 1988. The current course starts and finishes in Zürich; although, from 1993 to 1999, the race started in Basel and was

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known as the Grand Prix Suisse. The distance is approximately 240 km, with over 3,000 m of climbing, with four climbs of the Pfannenstiel, the final one coming only 15 km from the finish and often determining the winner. Heiri Suter holds the record with six victories in the race, in 1919, 1920, 1922, 1924, 1928, and 1929. See also APPENDIX D for a list of winners. ZÜRICH CHAMPIONSHIP. See ZÜRI-METZGETE. ZWEIFEL, ALBERT (SUI). B. 7 June 1949; Rüti, Switzerland. Between 1976 and 1986, Albert Zweifel won five world titles in cyclo-cross. His first four came between 1976 and 1979, and his fifth in 1986. In addition, Zweifel was runner-up three times (1975, 1982, 1983) and third twice. Zweifel, who competed as a professional between 1973 and 1989, also took the Swiss title nine times. He was also active on the road, competing in the Tour de France and Giro d’Italia once each and more frequently in the Tour de Suisse.

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Appendix A: The Grand Tours

Table 1. Tour de France: General classification 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1947 1948 1949

Maurice Garin Henri Cornet Louis Trousselier René Pottier Lucien Petit-Breton Lucien Petit-Breton François Faber Octave Lapize Gustave Garrigou Odile Defraye Philippe Thys Philippe Thys Firmin Lambot Philippe Thys Léon Scieur Firmin Lambot Henri Pélissier Ottavio Bottecchia Ottavio Bottecchia Lucien Buysse Nicolas Frantz Nicolas Frantz Maurice De Waele André Leducq Antonin Magne André Leducq Georges Speicher Antonin Magne Romain Maes Sylvère Maes Roger Lapébie Gino Bartali Sylvère Maes Jean Robic Gino Bartali Fausto Coppi

FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA LUX FRA FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA ITA ITA BEL LUX LUX BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL BEL FRA ITA BEL FRA ITA ITA (continued)

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Table 1. (continued) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Ferdinand Kübler Hugo Koblet Fausto Coppi Louison Bobet Louison Bobet Louison Bobet Roger Walkowiak Jacques Anquetil Charly Gaul Federico Bahamontes Gastone Nencini Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Felice Gimondi Lucien Aimar Roger Pingeon Jan Janssen Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Luis Ocaña Eddy Merckx Bernard Thévenet Lucien Van Impe Bernard Thévenet Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Joop Zoetemelk Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Laurent Fignon Laurent Fignon Bernard Hinault Greg LeMond Stephen Roche Pedro Delgado Greg LeMond Greg LeMond Miguel Induráin Miguel Induráin Miguel Induráin Miguel Induráin Miguel Induráin Bjarne Riis Jan Ullrich Marco Pantani

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SUI SUI ITA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA LUX ESP ITA FRA FRA FRA FRA ITA FRA FRA NED BEL BEL BEL BEL ESP BEL FRA BEL FRA FRA FRA NED FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA USA IRL ESP USA USA ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP DEN GER ITA

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THE GRAND TOURS

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong Óscar Pereiro Alberto Contador Carlos Sastre Alberto Contador Alberto Contador

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USA USA USA USA USA USA USA ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP

Table 2. Tour de France: Mountain classification 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

Jesús Loroño Federico Bahamontes Charly Gaul Charly Gaul Gastone Nencini Federico Bahamontes Federico Bahamontes Imerio Massignan Imerio Massignan Federico Bahamontes Federico Bahamontes Federico Bahamontes Julio Jiménez Julio Jiménez Julio Jiménez Aurelio González Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Lucien Van Impe Lucien Van Impe Pedro Torres Domingo Perurena Lucien Van Impe Giancarlo Bellini Lucien Van Impe Mariano Martínez Giovanni Battaglin Raymond Martin Lucien Van Impe Bernard Vallet Lucien Van Impe Robert Millar

ESP ESP LUX LUX ITA ESP ESP ITA ITA ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP BEL BEL BEL BEL ESP ESP BEL ITA BEL FRA ITA FRA BEL FRA BEL SCO (continued)

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APPENDIX A

Table 2. (continued) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Lucho Herrera Bernard Hinault Lucho Herrera Steven Rooks Gert-Jan Theunisse Thierry Claveyrolat Claudio Chiappucci Claudio Chiappucci Toni Rominger Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Christophe Rinero Richard Virenque Santiago Botero Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert Richard Virenque Richard Virenque Michael Rasmussen Michael Rasmussen Mauricio Soler Carlos Sastre Franco Pellizotti Anthony Charteau

COL FRA COL NED NED FRA ITA ITA SUI FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA COL FRA FRA FRA FRA DEN DEN COL ESP ITA FRA

Table 3. Tour de France: Points classification 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

Vicente Trueba René Vietto Félicien Vervaecke Julián Berrendero Félicien Vervaecke Gino Bartali Sylvère Maes Pierre Brambilla Gino Bartali Fausto Coppi Louison Bobet Raphaël Géminiani Fausto Coppi Fritz Schär Ferdinand Kübler Stan Ockers Stan Ockers Jean Forestier Jean Graczyk André Darrigade

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ESP FRA BEL ESP BEL ITA BEL FRA ITA ITA FRA FRA ITA SUI SUI BEL BEL FRA FRA FRA

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THE GRAND TOURS

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

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Jean Graczyk André Darrigade Rudi Altig Rik Van Looy Jan Janssen Jan Janssen Willy Planckaert Jan Janssen Franco Bitossi Eddy Merckx Walter Godefroot Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Herman Van Springel Patrick Sercu Rik Van Linden Freddy Maertens Jacques Esclassan Freddy Maertens Bernard Hinault Rudy Pevenage Freddy Maertens Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Frank Hoste Sean Kelly Eric Vanderaerden Jean-Paul van Poppel Eddy Planckaert Sean Kelly Olaf Ludwig Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov Laurent Jalabert Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov Laurent Jalabert Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Robbie McEwen Baden Cooke Robbie McEwen Thor Hushovd Robbie McEwen Tom Boonen Óscar Freire Thor Hushovd Alessandro Petacchi

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FRA FRA GER BEL NED NED BEL NED ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL FRA BEL BEL IRL IRL BEL IRL BEL NED BEL IRL GER UZB FRA UZB UZB FRA GER GER GER GER GER GER AUS AUS AUS NOR AUS BEL ESP NOR ITA

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APPENDIX A

Table 4. Tour de France: Youth classification 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Francesco Moser Enrique Martínez Dietrich “Didi” Thurau Henk Lubberding Jean-René Bernaudeau Johan van der Velde Peter Winnen Phil Anderson Laurent Fignon Greg LeMond Fabio Parra Andy Hampsten Raúl Alcalá Erik Breukink Fabrice Philipot Gilles Delion Álvaro Mejía Eddy Bouwmans Antonio Martín Marco Pantani Marco Pantani Jan Ullrich Jan Ullrich Jan Ullrich Benoît Salmon Francisco Mancebo Óscar Sevilla Ivan Basso Denis Menchov Vladimir Karpets Yaroslav Popovych Damiano Cunego Alberto Contador Andy Schleck Andy Schleck Andy Schleck

ITA ESP FRG NED FRA NED NED AUS FRA USA COL USA MEX NED FRA FRA COL NED ESP ITA ITA GER GER GER FRA ESP ESP ITA RUS RUS UKR ITA ESP LUX LUX LUX

Table 5. Giro d’Italia: General classification 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1919 1920 1921

Luigi Ganna Carlo Galetti Carlo Galetti Team Atala (Carlo Galetti, Giovanni Michelotto, Eberardo Pavesi) Carlo Oriani Alfonso Calzolari Costante Girardengo Gaetano Belloni Giovanni Brunero

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ITA ITA ITA ITA† ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

THE GRAND TOURS

1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

Giovanni Brunero Costante Girardengo Giuseppe Enrici Alfredo Binda Giovanni Brunero Alfredo Binda Alfredo Binda Alfredo Binda Luigi Marchisio Francesco Camusso Antonio Pesenti Alfredo Binda Learco Guerra Vasco Bergamaschi Gino Bartali Gino Bartali Giovanni Valetti Giovanni Valetti Fausto Coppi Gino Bartali Fausto Coppi Fiorenzo Magni Fausto Coppi Hugo Koblet Fiorenzo Magni Fausto Coppi Fausto Coppi Carlo Clerici Fiorenzo Magni Charly Gaul Gastone Nencini Ercole Baldini Charly Gaul Jacques Anquetil Arnaldo Pambianco Franco Balmamion Franco Balmamion Jacques Anquetil Vittorio Adorni Gianni Motta Felice Gimondi Eddy Merckx Felice Gimondi Eddy Merckx Gösta Pettersson Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Fausto Bertoglio

• 259 ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA SUI ITA ITA ITA SUI ITA LUX ITA ITA LUX FRA ITA ITA ITA FRA ITA ITA ITA BEL ITA BEL SWE BEL BEL BEL ITA

(continued)

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260 •

APPENDIX A

Table 5. (continued) 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Felice Gimondi Michel Pollentier Johan De Muynck Giuseppe Saronni Bernard Hinault Giovanni Battaglin Bernard Hinault Giuseppe Saronni Francesco Moser Bernard Hinault Roberto Visentini Stephen Roche Andy Hampsten Laurent Fignon Gianni Bugno Franco Chioccioli Miguel Induráin Miguel Induráin Yevgeny Berzin Toni Rominger Pavel Tonkov Ivan Gotti Marco Pantani Ivan Gotti Stefano Garzelli Gilberto Simoni Paolo Savoldelli Gilberto Simoni Damiano Cunego Paolo Savoldelli Ivan Basso Danilo Di Luca Alberto Contador Denis Menchov Ivan Basso

ITA BEL BEL ITA FRA ITA FRA ITA ITA FRA ITA IRL USA FRA ITA ITA ESP ESP RUS SUI RUS ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ESP RUS ITA

†Giro d’Italia contested as team competition only in 1912.

Table 6. Giro d’Italia: Mountain classification 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1946

Alfredo Binda Remo Bertoni Gino Bartali Gino Bartali Gino Bartali Giovanni Valetti Gino Bartali Gino Bartali Gino Bartali

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ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

THE GRAND TOURS

1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Gino Bartali Fausto Coppi Fausto Coppi Hugo Koblet Louison Bobet Raphaël Géminiani Pasquale Fornara Fausto Coppi Gastone Nencini Charly Gaul / Federico Bahamontes Raphaël Géminiani Jean Brankart Charly Gaul Rik Van Looy Vito Taccone Angelino Soler Vito Taccone Franco Bitossi Franco Bitossi Franco Bitossi Aurelio González Eddy Merckx Claudio Michelotto Martin Vandenbossche Manuel Fuente Manuel Fuente Manuel Fuente Manuel Fuente Francisco Galdós / Andrés Oliva Andrés Oliva Faustino Fernandez Ovies Ueli Sutter Claudio Bortolotto Claudio Bortolotto Claudio Bortolotto Lucien Van Impe Lucien Van Impe Laurent Fignon Jose Luiz Navarro Pedro Muñoz Robert Millar Andy Hampsten Lucho Herrera Claudio Chiappucci Inaki Gaston Claudio Chiappucci Claudio Chiappucci Pascal Richard Mariano Piccoli

• 261

ITA ITA ITA SUI FRA FRA ITA ITA ITA LUX/ESP* FRA BEL LUX BEL ITA ESP ITA ITA ITA ITA ESP BEL ITA BEL ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP/ESP* ESP ESP SUI ITA ITA ITA BEL BEL FRA ESP ESP SCO USA COL ITA ESP ITA ITA SUI ITA (continued)

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262 •

APPENDIX A

Table 6. (continued) 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Mariano Piccoli Chepe González Marco Pantani Chepe González Francesco Casagrande Fredy González Julio Perez Cuapio Fredy González Fabian Wegmann José Rujano Juan Manuel Gárate Leonardo Piepoli Emanuele Sella Stefano Garzelli Matthew Lloyd

ITA COL ITA COL ITA COL MEX COL GER VEN ESP ITA ITA ITA AUS

*Title shared in 1956 and 1975.

Table 7. Giro d’Italia: Points classification 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Gianni Motta Dino Zandegù Eddy Merckx Franco Bitossi Franco Bitossi Marino Basso Roger De Vlaeminck Eddy Merckx Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Francesco Moser Francesco Moser Francesco Moser Giuseppe Saronni Giuseppe Saronni Giuseppe Saronni Francesco Moser Giuseppe Saronni Urs Freuler Johan van der Velde Guido Bontempi Johan van der Velde Johan van der Velde Giovanni Fidanza Gianni Bugno Claudio Chiappucci Mario Cipollini

9780810873698_WEB.indb 262

ITA ITA BEL ITA ITA ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA SUI NED ITA NED NED ITA ITA ITA ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

THE GRAND TOURS

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Adriano Baffi Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov Toni Rominger Fabrizio Guidi Mario Cipollini Mariano Piccoli Laurent Jalabert Dimitri Konyshev Massimo Strazzer Mario Cipollini Gilberto Simoni Alessandro Petacchi Paolo Bettini Paolo Bettini † Daniele Bennati Danilo Di Luca Cadel Evans

• 263

ITA UZB SUI ITA ITA ITA FRA RUS ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA AUS

†Originally Alessandro Petacchi (ITA) but title stripped after a doping positive.

Table 8. Giro d’Italia: Youth classification 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 263

Alfio Vandi Mario Beccia Roberto Visentini Silvano Contini Tommy Prim Giuseppe Faraca Marco Groppo Franco Chioccioli Charly Mottet Alberto Volpi Marco Giovannetti Roberto Conti Stefano Tomasini Vladimir Poulnikov Vladimir Poulnikov Massimiliano Lelli Pavel Tonkov Pavel Tonkov Yevgeny Berzin Andy Schleck Riccardo Riccò Kevin Seeldraeyers Richie Porte

ITA ITA ITA ITA SWE ITA ITA ITA FRA ITA ITA ITA ITA URS URS ITA CIS RUS RUS LUX ITA BEL AUS

8/11/11 6:58 AM

264 •

APPENDIX A

Table 9. Vuelta a España: General classification 1935 1936 1941 1942 1945 1946 1947 1948 1950 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

Gustaaf Deloor Gustaaf Deloor Julián Berrendero Julián Berrendero Delio Rodríguez Dalmacio Langarica Edouard Van Dyck Bernardo Ruiz Emilio Rodríguez Jean Dotto Angelo Conterno Jesús Loroño Jean Stablinski Antonio Suárez Franz De Mulder Angelino Soler Rudi Altig Jacques Anquetil Raymond Poulidor Rolf Wolfshohl Francisco Gabica Jan Janssen Felice Gimondi Roger Pingeon Luis Ocaña Ferdinand Bracke José Manuel Fuente Eddy Merckx José Manuel Fuente Agustín Tamames José Pesarrodona Freddy Maertens Bernard Hinault Joop Zoetemelk Faustino Rupérez Giovanni Battaglin Marino Lejarreta Bernard Hinault Eric Caritoux Pedro Delgado Álvaro Pino Lucho Herrera Sean Kelly Pedro Delgado Marco Giovannetti Melchor Mauri Toni Rominger Toni Rominger

9780810873698_WEB.indb 264

BEL BEL ESP ESP ESP ESP BEL ESP ESP FRA ITA ESP FRA ESP BEL ESP GER FRA FRA GER ESP NED ITA FRA ESP BEL ESP BEL ESP ESP ESP BEL FRA NED ESP ITA ESP FRA FRA ESP ESP COL IRL ESP ITA ESP SUI SUI

8/11/11 6:58 AM

THE GRAND TOURS

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Toni Rominger Laurent Jalabert Alex Zülle Alex Zülle Abraham Olano Jan Ullrich Roberto Heras Ángel Casero Aitor González Roberto Heras Roberto Heras Denis Menchov Aleksandr Vinokurov Denis Menchov Alberto Contador Alejandro Valverde Vincenzo Nibali

• 265

SUI FRA SUI SUI ESP GER ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP RUS KAZ RUS ESP ESP ITA

Table 10. Vuelta a España: Mountain classification 1945 1947 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

Julián Berrendero Emilio Rodríguez Giuseppe Buratti Nino Defilippis Federico Bahamontes Federico Bahamontes Antonio Suárez Antonio Karmany Antonio Karmany Antonio Karmany Julio Jiménez Julio Jiménez Julio Jiménez Gregorio San Miguel Mariano Díaz Francisco Gabica Luis Ocaña Agustín Tamames Joop Zoetemelk José Manuel Fuente José Luis Abilleira José Luis Abilleira Andrés Oliva Andrés Oliva Pedro Torres Andrés Oliva Felipe Yáñez

ESP ESP ITA ITA ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP NED ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP (continued)

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266 •

APPENDIX A

Table 10. (continued) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Juan Fernández José Luis Laguía José Luis Laguía José Luis Laguía Felipe Yáñez José Luis Laguía José Luis Laguía Lucho Herrera Álvaro Pino Óscar Vargas José Martín Farfán Lucho Herrera Carlos Hernández Toni Rominger Luc Leblanc Laurent Jalabert Toni Rominger José María Jiménez José María Jiménez José María Jiménez Carlos Sastre José María Jiménez Aitor Osa Félix Cárdenas Félix Cárdenas Joaquim Rodríguez Egoi Martínez Denis Menchov David Moncoutié David Moncoutié David Moncoutié

ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP COL ESP COL COL COL ESP SUI FRA FRA SUI ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP ESP COL COL ESP ESP RUS FRA FRA FRA

Table 11. Vuelta a España: Points classification 1945 1947 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

Delio Rodríguez Delio Rodríguez Fiorenzo Magni Rik Van Steenbergen Vicente Iturat Salvador Botella Rik Van Looy Arthur De Cabooter Antonio Suárez Rudi Altig Bas Maliepaard José Pérez-Francés Rik Van Looy Jos van der Vleuten

9780810873698_WEB.indb 266

ESP ESP ITA BEL ESP ESP BEL BEL ESP GER NED ESP BEL NED

8/11/11 6:58 AM

THE GRAND TOURS

1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 267

Jan Janssen Jan Janssen Raymond Steegmans Guido Reybroeck Cyrille Guimard Domingo Perurena Eddy Merckx Domingo Perurena Miguel María Lasa Dietrich “Didi” Thurau Freddy Maertens Ferdi Van Den Haute Fons De Wolf Sean Kelly Francisco Javier Cedena Stefan Mutter Marino Lejarreta Guido Van Calster Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Alfonso Gutiérrez Sean Kelly Malcolm Elliott Uwe Raab Uwe Raab Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov Toni Rominger Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert Fabrizio Guidi Frank Vandenbroucke Roberto Heras José María Jiménez Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Alessandro Petacchi Thor Hushovd Daniele Bennati Greg Van Avermaet André Greipel Mark Cavendish

• 267

NED NED BEL BEL FRA ESP BEL ESP ESP FRG BEL BEL BEL IRL ESP SUI ESP BEL IRL IRL ESP IRL GBR GER GER UZB SUI FRA FRA FRA FRA ITA BEL ESP ESP GER GER GER ITA NOR ITA BEL GER GBR

8/11/11 6:58 AM

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Appendix B: Other Multistage Events

Table 12. Tour de Suisse 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1942 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974

Max Bulla Ludwig Geyer Gaspard Rinaldi Henri Garnier Karl Litschi Giovanni Valetti Robert Zimmermann Ferdi Kübler Gino Bartali Gino Bartali Ferdi Kübler Gottfried Weilenmann Hugo Koblet Ferdi Kübler Pasquale Fornara Hugo Koblet Pasquale Fornara Hugo Koblet Rolf Graf Pasquale Fornara Pasquale Fornara Hans Junkermann Alfred Ruegg Attilio Moresi Hans Junkermann Giuseppe Fezzardi Rolf Maurer Franco Bitossi Ambrogio Portalupi Gianni Motta Louis Pfenninger Vittorio Adorni Roberto Poggiali Georges Pintens Louis Pfenninger José-Manuel Fuente Eddy Merckx

AUT GER FRA BEL SUI ITA SUI SUI ITA ITA SUI SUI SUI SUI ITA SUI ITA SUI SUI ITA ITA GER SUI SUI GER ITA SUI ITA ITA ITA SUI ITA ITA BEL SUI ESP BEL (continued)

269

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270 •

APPENDIX B

Table 12. (continued) 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Roger De Vlaeminck Hennie Kuiper Michel Pollentier Paul Wellens Wilfried Wesemael Mario Beccia Beat Breu Giuseppe Saronni Sean Kelly Urs Zimmermann Phil Anderson Andy Hampsten Andy Hampsten Helmut Wechselberger Beat Breu Sean Kelly Luc Roosen Giorgio Furlan Marco Saligari Pascal Richard Pavel Tonkov Peter Luttenberger Christophe Agnolutto Stefano Garzelli Francesco Casagrande Oscar Camenzind Lance Armstrong Alex Zülle Aleksandr Vinokurov Jan Ullrich Aitor González Jan Ullrich Vladimir Karpets Roman Kreuziger Fabian Cancellara Fränk Schleck

BEL NED BEL BEL BEL ITA SUI ITA IRL SUI AUS USA USA AUT SUI IRL BEL ITA ITA SUI RUS AUT FRA ITA ITA SUI USA SUI KAZ GER ESP GER RUS CZE SUI LUX

Table 13. Paris–Nice 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1946 1951

Alphonse Schepers Gaston Rebry René Vietto Maurice Archambaud Roger Lapébie Jules Lowie Maurice Archambaud Fermo Camellini Roger Decock

9780810873698_WEB.indb 270

BEL BEL FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA ITA BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER MULTISTAGE EVENTS

1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Louison Bobet Jean-Pierre Munch Raymond Impanis Jean Bobet Fred De Bruyne Jacques Anquetil Fred De Bruyne Jean Graczyk Raymond Impanis Jacques Anquetil Joseph Planckaert Jacques Anquetil Jan Janssen Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Tom Simpson Rolf Wolfshohl Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Raymond Poulidor Raymond Poulidor Joop Zoetemelk Joop Zoetemelk Michel Laurent Freddy Maertens Gerrie Knetemann Joop Zoetemelk Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle Stephen Roche Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Miguel Induráin Miguel Induráin Toni Rominger Jean-François Bernard Alex Zülle Toni Rominger Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert Frank Vandenbroucke Michael Boogerd

• 271

FRA FRA BEL FRA BEL FRA BEL FRA BEL FRA BEL FRA NED FRA FRA GBR GER BEL BEL BEL FRA FRA NED NED FRA BEL NED NED FRA IRL IRL IRL IRL IRL IRL IRL IRL ESP ESP SUI FRA SUI SUI FRA FRA FRA BEL NED (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 271

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272 •

APPENDIX B

Table 13. (continued) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Andreas Klöden Dario Frigo Aleksandr Vinokurov Aleksandr Vinokurov Jörg Jaksche Bobby Julich Floyd Landis Alberto Contador Davide Rebellin Luis León Sánchez Alberto Contador

GER ITA KAZ KAZ GER USA USA ESP ITA ESP ESP

Table 14. Criterium du Dauphiné Libéré 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

Edouard Klabinski Édouard Fachleitner Lucien Lazarides Nello Lauredi Nello Lauredi Jean Dotto Lucien Teisseire Nello Lauredi Louison Bobet Alex Close Marcel Rohrbach Louis Rostollan Henry Anglade Jean Dotto Brian Robinson Raymond Mastrotto Jacques Anquetil Valentin Uriona Jacques Anquetil Raymond Poulidor Raymond Poulidor Luis Ocaña Eddy Merckx Luis Ocaña Luis Ocaña Alain Santy Bernard Thévenet Bernard Thévenet Bernard Hinault Michel Pollentier Bernard Hinault Johan van der Velde Bernard Hinault

9780810873698_WEB.indb 272

POL FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA GBR FRA FRA ESP FRA FRA FRA ESP BEL ESP ESP FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA NED FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER MULTISTAGE EVENTS

1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Michel Laurent Greg LeMond Martín Ramírez Phil Anderson Urs Zimmermann Charly Mottet Lucho Herrera Charly Mottet Robert Millar Lucho Herrera Charly Mottet Laurent Dufaux Laurent Dufaux Miguel Induráin Miguel Induráin Udo Bölts Armand de Las Cuevas Aleksandr Vinokurov Tyler Hamilton Christophe Moreau Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong Iban Mayo Iñigo Landaluze Levi Leipheimer Christophe Moreau Alejandro Valverde Alejandro Valverde Janez Brajkovicˇ

• 273

FRA USA COL AUS SUI FRA COL FRA SCO COL FRA SUI SUI ESP ESP GER FRA KAZ USA FRA USA USA ESP ESP USA FRA ESP ESP SLO

Table 15. Midi Libre 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963

Henri Massal Antonin Rolland Raphaël Géminiani Siro Bianchi Pierre Nardi Jesús Martínez Miguel Poblet Antonin Rolland Jempy Schmitz Francis Pipelin Jean Brankart Valentin Huot Joseph Groussard Mies Stolker Fernando Manzaneque

FRA FRA FRA ITA FRA ESP ESP FRA LUX FRA BEL FRA FRA NED ESP (continued)

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274 •

APPENDIX B

Table 15. (continued) 1964 1965 1966 1967 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004

André Foucher André Foucher Jean-Claude Theilliere Michel Grain Luis Ocaña Walter Ricci Eddy Merckx Cyrille Guimard Raymond Poulidor Jean-Pierre Danguillaume Francesco Moser Alain Meslet Wladimiro Panizza Claudio Bortolotto Giuseppe Saronni Jean-René Bernaudeau Jean-René Bernaudeau Jean-René Bernaudeau Jean-René Bernaudeau Dominique Garde Silvano Contini Claude Criquielion Patrice Esnault Claude Criquielion Jêrome Simon Gérard Rué Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle Luc Leblanc Maurizio Fondriest Jan Svorada Miguel Induráin Laurent Jalabert Alberto Elli Laurent Dufaux Benoît Salmon Didier Rous Iban Mayo Lance Armstrong Christophe Moreau

FRA FRA FRA FRA ESP ITA BEL FRA FRA FRA ITA FRA ITA ITA ITA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA ITA BEL FRA BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA ITA SVK ESP FRA ITA SUI FRA FRA ESP USA FRA

Table 16. Tirreno–Adriatico 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970

Dino Zandegù Franco Bitossi Claudio Michelotto Carlo Chiappano Antoon Houbrechts

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ITA ITA ITA ITA BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER MULTISTAGE EVENTS

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Italo Zilioli Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Giuseppe Saronni Knut Knudsen Francesco Moser Francesco Moser Giuseppe Saronni Roberto Visentini Tommy Prim Joop Zoetemelk Luciano Rabottini Rolf Sørensen Erich Mächler Toni Rominger Toni Rominger Herminio Díaz-Zabala Rolf Sørensen Maurizio Fondriest Giorgio Furlan Stefano Colagé Francesco Casagrande Roberto Petito Rolf Järmann Michele Bartoli Abraham Olano Davide Rebellin Erik Dekker Filippo Pozzato Paolo Bettini Óscar Freire Thomas Dekker Andreas Klöden Fabian Cancellara Michele Scarponi Stefano Garzelli

• 275

ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA NOR ITA ITA ITA ITA SWE NED ITA DEN SUI SUI SUI ESP DEN ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA SUI ITA ESP ITA NED ITA ITA ESP NED GER SUI ITA ITA

Table 17. Tour de Romandie 1947 1948 1949 1950

Désiré Keteleer Ferdi Kübler Gino Bartali Édouard Fachleitner

BEL SUI ITA FRA (continued)

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8/11/11 6:58 AM

276 •

APPENDIX B

Table 17. (continued) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Ferdi Kübler Wout Wagtmans Hugo Koblet Jean Forestier René Strehler Pasquale Fornara Jean Forestier Gilbert Bauvin Kurt Gimmi Louis Rostollan Louis Rostollan Guido De Rosso Willy Bocklant Rolf Maurer Vittorio Adorni Gianni Motta Vittorio Adorni Eddy Merckx Felice Gimondi Gösta Pettersson Gianni Motta Bernard Thévenet Wilfried David Joop Zoetemelk Francisco Galdós Johan De Muynck Gianbattista Baronchelli Johan van der Velde Giuseppe Saronni Bernard Hinault Tommy Prim Jostein Wilmann Stephen Roche Stephen Roche Jörg Müller Claude Criquielion Stephen Roche Gerard Veldscholten Phil Anderson Charly Mottet Toni Rominger Andy Hampsten Pascal Richard Pascal Richard Toni Rominger Abraham Olano Pavel Tonkov Laurent Dufaux

9780810873698_WEB.indb 276

SUI NED SUI FRA SUI ITA FRA FRA SUI FRA FRA ITA BEL SUI ITA ITA ITA BEL ITA SWE ITA FRA BEL NED ESP BEL ITA NED ITA FRA SWE NOR IRL IRL SUI BEL IRL NED AUS FRA SUI USA SUI SUI SUI ESP RUS SUI

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER MULTISTAGE EVENTS

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Laurent Jalabert Paolo Savoldelli Dario Frigo Dario Frigo Tyler Hamilton Tyler Hamilton Santiago Botero Cadel Evans Thomas Dekker Andreas Klöden Roman Kreuziger Simon Špilak†

• 277

FRA ITA ITA ITA USA USA COL AUS NED GER CZE SLO

†Alejandro Valverde (ESP) was the original winner in 2010, but the title was removed due to a retroactive suspension.

Table 18. Peace Race 1948 1948† 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976

August Prosinek Alexander Zoricˇ Jan Veselý Willi Emborg Kay Allan Olsen Ian Steel Christian Pedersen Eluf Dalgaard Gustav-Adolf Schur Stanislaw Krolak Nencho Khristov Piet Damen Gustav-Adolf Schur Erich Hagen Yury Melikhov Gainan Saydkhushin Klaus Ampler Jan Smolík Gennady Lebedev Bernard Guyot Marcel Maes Axel Peschel Jean-Pierre Danguillaume Ryszard Szurkowski Ryszard Szurkowski Vlastimil Moravec Ryszard Szurkowski Stanislaw Szozda Ryszard Szurkowski Hans-Joachim Hartnick

YUG YUG TCH DEN DEN GBR DEN DEN GDR POL BUL NED GDR GDR URS URS GDR TCH URS FRA BEL GDR FRA POL POL TCH POL POL POL GDR (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 277

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278 •

APPENDIX B

Table 18. (continued) 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2006

Aavo Pikkuus Aleksandr Averin Sergey Sukhoruchenkov Yury Barinov Shakhid Zagretdinov Olaf Ludwig Falk Boden Sergey Sukhoruchenkov Lech Piasecki Olaf Ludwig Uwe Ampler Uwe Ampler Uwe Ampler Ján Svorada Viktor Rakshinsky Steffen Wesemann Jaroslav Bílek Jens Voigt Pavel Padrnos Steffen Wesemann Steffen Wesemann Uwe Ampler Steffen Wesemann Piotr Wadecki Jakob Piil Ondrˇej Sosenka Steffen Wesemann Michele Scarponi Giampaolo Cheula

URS URS URS URS URS GDR GDR URS POL GDR GDR GDR GDR TCH URS GER CZE GER CZE GER GER GER GER POL DEN CZE GER ITA ITA

†There were two concurrently held editions in 1948, one from Warszawa (POL) to Praha (CZE) and vice versa.

Table 19. Tour de l’Avenir 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

Guido De Rosso Antonio Gomez del Moral André Zimmermann Felice Gimondi Mariano Díaz Mino Denti

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ITA ESP FRA ITA ESP ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER MULTISTAGE EVENTS

1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 279

Christian Robini Jean-Pierre Boulard Joop Zoetemelk Marcel Duchemin Régis Ovion Fedor den Hertog Gianbattista Baronchelli Enrique Martínez Sven-Ake Nilsson Eddy Schepers Sergey Sukhoruchenkov Sergey Sukhoruchenkov Alfonso Florez Pascal Simon Greg LeMond Olaf Ludwig Charlie Mottet Martin Ramirez Miguel Induráin Marc Madiot Laurent Fignon Pascal Lino Johan Bruyneel Hervé Garel Thomas Davy Ángel Casero Emmanuel Magnien David Etxebarría Laurent Roux Christophe Rinero Unai Osa Iker Flores Denis Menchov Yevgeny Petrov Egoi Martínez Sylvain Calzati Lars Bak Moisés Dueñas Bauke Mollema Jan Bakelants Romain Sicard Nairo Quintana

• 279

FRA FRA NED FRA FRA NED ITA ESP SWE BEL URS URS COL FRA USA GER FRA COL ESP FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA FRA ESP FRA ESP FRA FRA ESP ESP RUS RUS ESP FRA DEN ESP NED BEL FRA COL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

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Winner Lon Haldeman Lon Haldeman Pete Penseyres Jonathan Boyer Pete Penseyres Michael Secrest Franz Spilauer Paul Solon Bob Fourney Bob Fourney Rob Kish Gerry Tatrai Rob Kish Rob Kish Danny Chew Wolfgang Fasching Gerry Tatrai Danny Chew Wolfgang Fasching Andrea Clavadetscher Wolfgang Fasching Allen Larsen Jure Robicˇ Jure Robicˇ Daniel Wyss Jure Robicˇ Jure Robicˇ Daniel Wyss Jure Robicˇ

Year

1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Table 20. Race Across America USA USA USA USA USA USA AUT USA USA USA USA AUS USA USA USA AUT AUS USA AUT LIE AUT USA SLO SLO SUI SLO SLO SUI SLO

NOC Santa Monica, CA–New York, NY Santa Monica, CA–Atlantic City, NJ Huntington Beach, CA–Atlantic City, NJ Huntington Beach, CA–Atlantic City, NJ Huntington Beach, CA–Atlantic City, NJ San Francisco, CA–Washington, DC San Francisco, CA–Washington DC Fairgrounds, Irvine, CA–New York, NY Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Irvine, CA–Savannah, GA Portland, OR–Pensacola Beach, FL Portland, OR–Pensacola Beach, FL Portland, OR–Pensacola Beach, FL San Diego, CA–Atlantic City, NJ San Diego, CA–Atlantic City, NJ San Diego, CA–Atlantic City, NJ Oceanside, CA–Atlantic City, NJ Oceanside, CA–Atlantic City, NJ Oceanside, CA–Annapolis, MD Oceanside, CA–Annapolis, MD Oceanside, CA–Annapolis, MD

Route 2,968 3,170 3,047 3,120 3,107 3,127 3,073 2,911 2,930 2,930 2,911 2,910 2,901 2,912 2,905 3,025 2,906 2,938 2,975.1 2,983.2 2,991.9 2,921.7 2,958.5 3,051.7 3,042.8 3,042.8 3,014.4 3,021.3 3,005.1

Miles 4,777 5,100 4,904 5,020 5,000 5,032 4,946 4,685 4,720 4,720 4,685 4,680 4,669 4,686 4,675 4,868 4,677 4,728 4,788.0 4,801.0 4,815.0 4,702.0 4,761.2 4,911.2 4,896.9 4,896.9 4,851.2 4,862.3 4,836.2

Km

9-20:02 10-16:29 9-13:13 9-02:06 8-09:47 9-11:35 9-07:09 8-08:45 8-11:26 8-16:44 8-03:11 8-20:19 8-14:25 8-19:59 8-07:14 9-04:50 8-11:22 8-07:34 8-10:19 9-00:17 9-03:38 8-23:36 8-09:51 9-08:48 9-11:50 8-19:33 8-23:33 8-05:45 9-01:01

Time

OTHER MULTISTAGE EVENTS

• 281

Table 21. Tour of California 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Floyd Landis Levi Leipheimer Levi Leipheimer Levi Leipheimer Michael Rogers

USA USA USA USA AUS

Table 22. Tour du Pont (1991–96) / Tour de Trump (1989–90) 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Dag-Otto Lauritzen Raúl Alcalá Erik Breukink Greg LeMond Raúl Alcalá Vyacheslav Yekimov Lance Armstrong Lance Armstrong

NOR MEX NED USA MEX RUS USA USA

Table 23. Coors International Bicycle Classic (1980–88) / Red Zinger Classic (1975–79) 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

9780810873698_WEB.indb 281

John Howard John Howard Wayne Stetina George Mount Dale Stetina Jonathan Boyer Greg LeMond Patrocinio Jimenez Dale Stetina Doug Shapiro Greg LeMond Bernard Hinault Raúl Alcalá Davis Phinney

USA USA USA USA USA USA USA COL USA USA USA FRA MEX USA

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Appendix C: Monument One-Day Races

Table 24. Milano–Sanremo 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1946

Lucien Petit-Breton Cyrille Van Hauwaert Luigi Ganna Eugène Christophe Gustave Garrigou Henri Pélissier Odile Defraye Ugo Agostoni Ezio Corlaita Gaetano Belloni Costante Girardengo Angelo Gremo Gaetano Belloni Costante Girardengo Giovanni Brunero Costante Girardengo Pietro Linari Costante Girardengo Costante Girardengo Pietro Chesi Costante Girardengo Alfredo Binda Michele Mara Alfredo Binda Alfredo Bovet Learco Guerra Jef Demuysere Giuseppe Olmo Angelo Varetto Cesare Del Cancia Giuseppe Olmo Gino Bartali Gino Bartali Pierino Favalli Adolfo Leoni Cino Cinelli Fausto Coppi

FRA BEL ITA FRA FRA FRA BEL ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA BEL ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA (continued)

283

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284 •

APPENDIX C

Table 24. (continued) 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Gino Bartali Fausto Coppi Fausto Coppi Gino Bartali Louison Bobet Loretto Petrucci Loretto Petrucci Rik Van Steenbergen Germain Derijcke Fred De Bruyne Miguel Poblet Rik Van Looy Miguel Poblet René Privat Raymond Poulidor Émile Daems Joseph Groussard Tom Simpson Arie den Hartog Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Rudi Altig Eddy Merckx Michele Dancelli Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Roger De Vlaeminck Felice Gimondi Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Jan Raas Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Pierino Gavazzi Alfons De Wolf Marc Gomez Giuseppe Saronni Francesco Moser Hennie Kuiper Sean Kelly Erich Mächler Laurent Fignon Laurent Fignon Gianni Bugno Claudio Chiappucci Sean Kelly Maurizio Fondriest Giorgio Furlan Laurent Jalabert

9780810873698_WEB.indb 284

ITA ITA ITA ITA FRA ITA ITA BEL BEL BEL ESP BEL ESP FRA FRA BEL FRA GBR NED BEL BEL GER BEL ITA BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL BEL NED BEL BEL ITA BEL FRA ITA ITA NED IRL SUI FRA FRA ITA ITA IRL ITA ITA FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

MONUMENT ONE-DAY RACES

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Gabriele Colombo Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Andrei Tchmil Erik Zabel Erik Zabel Mario Cipollini Paolo Bettini Óscar Freire Alessandro Petacchi Filippo Pozzato Óscar Freire Fabian Cancellara Mark Cavendish Óscar Freire

• 285

ITA GER GER BEL GER GER ITA ITA ESP ITA ITA ESP SUI GBR ESP

Table 25. Ronde van Vlaanderen 1913 1914 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946

Paul Deman Marcel Buysse Henri Van Lerberghe Jules Van Hevel René Vermandel Léon De Vos Heiri Suter Gérard Debaets Julien Delbecque Denis Verschueren Gérard Debaets Jan Mertens Jef Dervaes Frans Bonduel Romain Gijssels Romain Gijssels Alfons Schepers Gaston Rebry Louis Duerloo Louis Hardiquest Michel D’Hooghe Edgard De Caluwé Karel Kaers Achiel Buysse Achiel Buysse Briek Schotte Achiel Buysse Rik Van Steenbergen Sylvain Grysolle Rik Van Steenbergen

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL SUI BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 285

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286 •

APPENDIX C

Table 25. (continued) 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Emiel Faignaert Briek Schotte Fiorenzo Magni Fiorenzo Magni Fiorenzo Magni Roger Decock Wim van Est Raymond Impanis Louison Bobet Jean Forestier Fred De Bruyne Germain Derijcke Rik Van Looy Arthur De Cabooter Tom Simpson Rik Van Looy Noël Foré Rudi Altig Jo de Roo Edward Sels Dino Zandegù Walter Godefroot Eddy Merckx Eric Leman Evert Dolman Eric Leman Eric Leman Cees Bal Eddy Merckx Walter Planckaert Roger De Vlaeminck Walter Godefroot Jan Raas Michel Pollentier Hennie Kuiper René Martens Jan Raas Johan Lammerts Eric Vanderaerden Adri van der Poel Claude Criquielion Eddy Planckaert Edwig Van Hooydonck Moreno Argentin Edwig Van Hooydonck Jacky Durand Johan Museeuw Gianni Bugno Johan Museeuw

9780810873698_WEB.indb 286

BEL BEL ITA ITA ITA BEL NED BEL FRA FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL GBR BEL BEL GER NED BEL ITA BEL BEL BEL NED BEL BEL NED BEL BEL BEL BEL NED BEL NED BEL NED NED BEL NED BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL FRA BEL ITA BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

MONUMENT ONE-DAY RACES

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Michele Bartoli Rolf Sørensen Johan Museeuw Peter van Petegem Andrei Tchmil Gianluca Bortolami Andrea Tafi Peter Van Petegem Steffen Wesemann Tom Boonen Tom Boonen Alessandro Ballan Stijn Devolder Stijn Devolder Fabian Cancellara

• 287

ITA DEN BEL BEL BEL ITA ITA BEL GER BEL BEL ITA BEL BEL SUI

Table 26. Paris–Roubaix 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929

Josef Fischer Maurice Garin Maurice Garin Albert Champion Émile Bouhours Lucien Lesna Lucien Lesna Hippolyte Aucouturier Hippolyte Aucouturier Louis Trousselier Henri Cornet Georges Passerieu Cyrille Van Hauwaert Octave Lapize Octave Lapize Octave Lapize Charles Crupelandt François Faber Charles Crupelandt Henri Pélissier Paul Deman Henri Pélissier Albert Dejonghe Heiri Suter Jules Van Hevel Félix Sellier Julien Delbecque Georges Ronsse André Leducq Charles Meunier

GER FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA LUX FRA FRA BEL FRA BEL SUI BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 287

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288 •

APPENDIX C

Table 26. (continued) 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

Julien Vervaecke Gaston Rebry Romain Gijssels Sylvère Maes Gaston Rebry Gaston Rebry Georges Speicher Jules Rossi Lucien Storme Émile Masson Jr. Marcel Kint Maurice Desimpelaere Paul Maye Georges Claes Georges Claes Rik Van Steenbergen André Mahé / Serse Coppi Fausto Coppi Antonio Bevilacqua Rik Van Steenbergen Germain Derijcke Raymond Impanis Jean Forestier Louison Bobet Fred De Bruyne Leon Vandaele Noël Foré Pino Cerami Rik Van Looy Rik Van Looy Émile Daems Peter Post Rik Van Looy Felice Gimondi Jan Janssen Eddy Merckx Walter Godefroot Eddy Merckx Roger Rosiers Roger De Vlaeminck Eddy Merckx Roger De Vlaeminck Roger De Vlaeminck Marc Demeyer Roger De Vlaeminck Francesco Moser Francesco Moser Francesco Moser Bernard Hinault

9780810873698_WEB.indb 288

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL BEL BEL FRA/ITA† ITA ITA BEL BEL BEL FRA FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL NED BEL ITA NED BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA ITA ITA FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

MONUMENT ONE-DAY RACES

1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Jan Raas Hennie Kuiper Sean Kelly Marc Madiot Sean Kelly Eric Vanderaerden Dirk Demol Jean-Marie Wampers Eddy Planckaert Marc Madiot Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle Andrei Tchmil Franco Ballerini Johan Museeuw Frédéric Guesdon Franco Ballerini Andrea Tafi Johan Museeuw Servais Knaven Johan Museeuw Peter Van Petegem Magnus Bäckstedt Tom Boonen Fabian Cancellara Stuart O’Grady Tom Boonen Tom Boonen Fabian Cancellara

• 289

NED NED IRL FRA IRL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA FRA FRA UKR ITA BEL FRA ITA ITA BEL NED BEL BEL SWE BEL SUI AUS BEL BEL SUI

†Joint victory awarded after the leading three-man breakaway, including Mahé, was misdirected near the velodrome. Serse Coppi was first across the line, but Mahé won the sprint among the breakaway shortly thereafter.

Table 27. Liège–Bastogne–Liège 1892 1893 1894 1908 1909 1911 1912 1913 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923

Léon Houa Léon Houa Léon Houa André Trousselier Victor Fastre Joseph Van Daele Omer Verschoore Maurits Moritz Léon De Vos Léon Scieur Louis Mottiat Louis Mottiat René Vermandel

BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 289

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290 •

APPENDIX C

Table 27. (continued) 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1943 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976

René Vermandel Georges Ronsse Dieudonné Smets Maurice Raes Ernest Mottard Alfons Schepers Hermann Buse Alfons Schepers Marcel Houyoux François Gardier Theo Herckenrath Alfons Schepers Albert Beckaert Eloi Meulenberg Alfons Deloor Albert Ritserveldt Richard Depoorter Jean Engels Prosper Depredomme Richard Depoorter Maurice Mollin Camille Danguillaume Prosper Depredomme Ferdinand Kübler Ferdinand Kübler Alois De Hertog Marcel Ernzer Stan Ockers Fred De Bruyne Frans Schoubben / Germain Derijcke Fred De Bruyne Fred De Bruyne Albertus Geldermans Rik Van Looy Jef Planckaert Frans Melckenbeeck Willy Blocklandt Carmine Preziosi Jacques Anquetil Walter Godefroot Walter Van Sweefelt Eddy Merckx Roger De Vlaeminck Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Georges Pintens Eddy Merckx Joseph Bruyère

9780810873698_WEB.indb 290

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL GER BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL SUI SUI BEL LUX BEL BEL BEL† BEL BEL NED BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

MONUMENT ONE-DAY RACES

1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Bernard Hinault Joseph Bruyère Dietrich “Didi” Thurau Bernard Hinault Josef Fuchs Silvano Contini Steven Rooks Sean Kelly Moreno Argentin Moreno Argentin Moreno Argentin Adri van der Poel Sean Kelly Eric Van Lancker Moreno Argentin Dirk De Wolf Rolf Sørensen Yevgeny Berzin Mauro Gianetti Pascal Richard Michele Bartoli Michele Bartoli Frank Vandenbroucke Paolo Bettini Oscar Camenzind Paolo Bettini Tyler Hamilton Davide Rebellin Aleksandr Vinokurov Alejandro Valverde Danilo Di Luca Alejandro Valverde Andy Schleck Aleksandr Vinokurov

• 291

FRA BEL FRG FRA SUI ITA NED IRL ITA ITA ITA NED IRL BEL ITA BEL DEN RUS SUI SUI ITA ITA BEL ITA SUI ITA USA ITA KAZ ESP ITA ESP LUX KAZ

†The race, held in snow, was interrupted at a railroad crossing by on oncoming train. Five riders climbed over the barriers, which was against the rules, and of this group, Derijcke was the first to finish. Schoubben was the first finisher among those who waited for the train, according to the rules. They were declared co-champions.

Table 28. Giro di Lombardia 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911

Giovanni Gerbi Giuseppe Brambilla Gustave Garrigou François Faber Giovanni Cuniolo Giovanni Michelotto Henri Pélissier

ITA ITA FRA LUX ITA ITA FRA (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 291

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292 •

APPENDIX C

Table 28. (continued) 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962

Carlo Oriani Henri Pélissier Lauro Bordin Gaetano Belloni Leopoldo Torricelli Philippe Thys Gaetano Belloni Costante Girardengo Henri Pélissier Costante Girardengo Costante Girardengo Giovanni Brunero Giovanni Brunero Alfredo Binda Alfredo Binda Alfredo Binda Gaetano Belloni Piero Fossati Michele Mara Alfredo Binda Antonio Negrini Domenico Piemontesi Learco Guerra Enrico Mollo Gino Bartali Aldo Bini Cino Cinelli Gino Bartali Gino Bartali Mario Ricci Aldo Bini Mario Ricci Fausto Coppi Fausto Coppi Fausto Coppi Fausto Coppi Renzo Soldani Louison Bobet Giuseppe Minardi Bruno Landi Fausto Coppi Cleto Maule André Darrigade Diego Ronchini Nino Defilippis Rik Van Looy Émile Daems Vito Taccone Jo de Roo

9780810873698_WEB.indb 292

ITA FRA ITA ITA ITA BEL ITA ITA FRA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA FRA ITA ITA ITA ITA FRA ITA ITA BEL BEL ITA NED

8/11/11 6:58 AM

MONUMENT ONE-DAY RACES

1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 293

Jo de Roo Gianni Motta Tom Simpson Felice Gimondi Franco Bitossi Herman Van Springel Jean-Pierre Monseré Franco Bitossi Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Felice Gimondi Roger De Vlaeminck Francesco Moser Roger De Vlaeminck Gianbattista Baronchelli Francesco Moser Bernard Hinault Fons De Wolf Hennie Kuiper Giuseppe Saronni Sean Kelly Bernard Hinault Sean Kelly Gianbattista Baronchelli Moreno Argentin Charly Mottet Toni Rominger Gilles Delion Sean Kelly Toni Rominger Pascal Richard Vladislav Bobrik Gianni Faresin Andrea Tafi Laurent Jalabert Oscar Camenzind Mirko Celestino Raimondas Rumšas Danilo Di Luca Michele Bartoli Michele Bartoli Damiano Cunego Paolo Bettini Paolo Bettini Damiano Cunego Damiano Cunego Philippe Gilbert Philippe Gilbert

• 293

NED ITA GBR ITA ITA BEL BEL ITA BEL BEL ITA BEL ITA BEL ITA ITA FRA BEL NED ITA IRL FRA IRL ITA ITA FRA SUI FRA IRL SUI SUI RUS ITA ITA FRA SUI ITA LTU ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA BEL BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

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Appendix D: Other One-Day Classics

Table 29. Gent–Wevelgem 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

Gustave Van Bell Albert Depreitre Robert Van Eenaeme Robert Van Eenaeme Hubert Godart André Declerck Robert Van Eenaeme Ernest Sterckx Maurice Desimpelaere Valère Ollivier Marcel Kint Briek Schotte André Rosseel Raymond Impanis Raymond Impanis Rolf Graf Briek Schotte Rik Van Looy Rik Van Looy Noël Foré Léon Van Daele Frans Aerenhouts Frans Aerenhouts Rik Van Looy Benoni Beheyt Jacques Anquetil Noël De Pauw Herman Van Springel Eddy Merckx Walter Godefroot Willy Vekemans Eddy Merckx Georges Pintens Roger Swerts Eddy Merckx Barry Hoban Freddy Maertens

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL SUI BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL GBR BEL (continued)

295

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296 •

APPENDIX D

Table 29. (continued) 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Freddy Maertens Bernard Hinault Ferdi Van Den Haute Francesco Moser Henk Lubberding Jan Raas Frank Hoste Leo van Vliet Guido Bontempi Eric Vanderaerden Guido Bontempi Teun van Vliet Sean Kelly Gerrit Solleveld Herman Frison Dzhamolidin Abduzhaparov Mario Cipollini Mario Cipollini Wilfried Peeters Lars Michaelsen Tom Steels Philippe Gaumont Frank Vandenbroucke Tom Steels Geert Van Bondt George Hincapie Mario Cipollini Andreas Klier Tom Boonen Nico Mattan Thor Hushovd Marcus Burghardt Óscar Freire Edvald Boasson Hagen Bernhard Eisel

BEL FRA BEL ITA NED NED BEL NED ITA BEL ITA NED IRL NED BEL UZB ITA ITA BEL DEN BEL FRA BEL BEL BEL USA ITA GER BEL BEL NOR GER ESP NOR AUT

Table 30. Amstel Gold Race 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

Jean Stablinski Arie den Hartog Harry Steevens Guido Reybroeck Georges Pintens Frans Verbeeck Walter Planckaert Eddy Merckx Gerrie Knetemann Eddy Merckx

9780810873698_WEB.indb 296

FRA NED NED BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL NED BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Freddy Maertens Jan Raas Jan Raas Jan Raas Jan Raas Bernard Hinault Jan Raas Phil Anderson Jacques Hanegraaf Gerrie Knetemann Steven Rooks Joop Zoetemelk Jelle Nijdam Eric Van Lancker Adri van der Poel Frans Maassen Olaf Ludwig Rolf Järmann Johan Museeuw Mauro Gianetti Stefano Zanini Bjarne Riis Rolf Järmann Michael Boogerd Erik Zabel Erik Dekker Michele Bartoli Aleksandr Vinokurov Davide Rebellin Danilo Di Luca Fränk Schleck Stefan Schumacher Damiano Cunego Sergey Ivanov Philippe Gilbert

• 297

BEL NED NED NED NED FRA NED AUS NED NED NED NED NED BEL NED NED GER SUI BEL SUI ITA DEN SUI NED GER NED ITA KAZ ITA ITA LUX GER ITA RUS BEL

Table 31. Clásica de San Sebastián 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Marino Lejarreta Marino Lejarreta Claude Criquielion Niki Rüttimann Adri van der Poel Inaki Gaston Marino Lejarreta Gert-Jan Theunisse Gerhard Zadrobilek Miguel Induráin

ESP ESP BEL SUI NED ESP ESP NED AUT ESP (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 297

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298 •

APPENDIX D

Table 31. (continued) 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Gianni Bugno Raúl Alcalá Claudio Chiappucci Armand de Las Cuevas Lance Armstrong Udo Bölts Davide Rebellin Francesco Casagrande Francesco Casagrande Erik Dekker Laurent Jalabert Laurent Jalabert Paolo Bettini Miguel Ángel Martín Perdiguero Constantino Zaballa Xavier Florencio Leonardo Bertagnolli Alejandro Valverde Carlos Barredo Luis León Sánchez

ITA MEX ITA FRA USA GER ITA ITA ITA NED FRA FRA ITA ESP ESP ESP ITA ESP ESP ESP

Table 32. La Flèche Wallonne 1936 1937 1938 1939 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961

Philemon Demeersman Adolphe Braeckeveldt Émile Masson Jr. Edmond Delathouwer Sylvain Grysolle Karel Thijs Marcel Kint Marcel Kint Marcel Kint Desire Keteleer Ernest Sterckx Fermo Camellini Rik Van Steenbergen Fausto Coppi Ferdi Kubler Ferdi Kubler Stan Ockers Germain Derijcke Stan Ockers Richard Van Genechten Raymond Impanis Rik Van Steenbergen Jos Hoevenaars Pino Cerami Willy Vannitsen

9780810873698_WEB.indb 298

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL ITA SUI SUI BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 299

Henri Dewolf Raymond Poulidor Gilbert Desmet Roberto Poggiali Michele Dancelli Eddy Merckx Rik Van Looy Jos Huysmans Eddy Merckx Roger De Vlaeminck Eddy Merckx André Dierickx Frans Verbeeck André Dierickx Joop Zoetemelk Francesco Moser Michel Laurent Bernard Hinault Giuseppe Saronni Daniel Willems Mario Beccia Bernard Hinault Kim Andersen Claude Criquielion Laurent Fignon Jean-Claude Leclercq Rolf Golz Claude Criquielion Moreno Argentin Moreno Argentin Giorgio Furlan Maurizio Fondriest Moreno Argentin Laurent Jalabert Lance Armstrong Laurent Jalabert Bo Hamburger Michele Bartoli Francesco Casagrande Rik Verbrugghe Mario Aerts Igor Astarloa Davide Rebellin Danilo Di Luca Alejandro Valverde Davide Rebellin Kim Kirchen Davide Rebellin Cadel Evans

• 299

BEL FRA BEL ITA ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL NED ITA FRA FRA ITA BEL ITA FRA DEN BEL FRA FRA GER BEL ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA FRA USA FRA DEN ITA ITA BEL BEL ESP ITA ITA ESP ITA LUX ITA AUS

8/11/11 6:58 AM

300 •

APPENDIX D

Table 33. Paris–Bruxelles 1893 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963

André Henry Albert Dupont Gustave Garrigou Lucien Petit-Breton François Faber Maurice Brocco Octave Lapize Octave Lapize Octave Lapize Louis Mottiat Alexis Michiels Henri Pélissier Robert Reboul Félix Sellier Félix Sellier Félix Sellier Gérard Debaets Denis Verschueren Nicolas Frantz Georges Ronsse Pé Verhaegen Ernest Mottard Jean Aerts Julien Vervaecke Albert Barthelèmy Frans Bonduel Edgard De Caluwé Eloi Meulenberg Albert Beckaert Marcel Kint Frans Bonduel Briek Schotte Ernest Sterckx Ludo Poels Maurice Diot Rik Van Steenbergen Jean Geugen Briek Schotte Loretto Petrucci Marcel Hendrickx Marcel Hendrickx Rik Van Looy Léon Van Daele Rik Van Looy Frans Schoubben Pierre Everaet Pino Cerami Jos Wouters Jean Stablinski

9780810873698_WEB.indb 300

BEL FRA FRA FRA LUX FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL BEL FRA FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL LUX BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL FRA BEL ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL BEL FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1964 1965 1966 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Georges Van Coningsloo Edward Sels Felice Gimondi Eddy Merckx Marc Demeyer Freddy Maertens Felice Gimondi Ludo Peeters Jan Raas Ludo Peeters Pierino Gavazzi Roger De Vlaeminck Jacques Hanegraaf Tommy Prim Eric Vanderaerden Adri van der Poel Guido Bontempi Wim Arras Rolf Gölz Jelle Nijdam Franco Ballerini Brian Holm Rolf Sørensen Francis Moreau Rolf Sørensen Frank Vandenbroucke Andrea Tafi Alessandro Bertolini Stefano Zanini Roma¯ns Vainšteins Max van Heeswijk Emmanuel Magnien Robbie McEwen Kim Kirchen Nick Nuyens Robbie McEwen Robbie McEwen Robbie McEwen Robbie McEwen Matthew Goss Francisco Ventoso

• 301

BEL BEL ITA BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL NED BEL ITA BEL NED SWE BEL NED ITA BEL GER NED ITA DEN DEN FRA DEN BEL ITA ITA ITA LAT NED FRA AUS LUX BEL AUS AUS AUS AUS AUS ESP

Table 34. Paris–Tours 1896 1901 1906 1907

Eugène Prévost Jean Fischer Lucien Petit-Breton Georges Passerieu

FRA FRA FRA FRA (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 301

8/11/11 6:58 AM

302 •

APPENDIX D

Table 34. (continued) 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

Omer Beaugendre François Faber François Faber Octave Lapize Louis Heusghem Charles Crupelandt Oscar Egg Philippe Thys Charles Mantelet Hector Tiberghien Eugène Christophe Francis Pélissier Henri Pélissier Paul Deman Louis Mottiat Denis Verschueren Heiri Suter Heiri Suter Denis Verschueren Nicolas Frantz Jean Maréchal André Leducq Jules Moineau Jules Merviel Gustave Danneels René Le Grèves Gustave Danneels Gustave Danneels Jules Rossi Frans Bonduel Paul Maye Paul Maye Gabriel Gaudin Lucien Teisseire Paul Maye Alberic Schotte Alberic Schotte Louis Caput Albrecht Ramon André Mahé Jacques Dupont Raymond Guegan Jos Schils Gilbert Scodeller Jacques Dupont Albert Bouvet Fred De Bruyne Gilbert Desmet Rik Van Looy

9780810873698_WEB.indb 302

FRA LUX LUX FRA BEL FRA SUI BEL FRA BEL FRA FRA FRA BEL BEL BEL SUI SUI BEL LUX FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA BEL BEL ITA BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL BEL FRA BEL FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA FRA FRA BEL BEL BEL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 303

Jo de Haan Jos Wouters Jo de Roo Jo de Roo Guido Reybroeck Gerben Karstens Guido Reybroeck Rik Van Looy Guido Reybroeck Herman Van Springel Jürgen Tschan Rik Van Linden Noël Vantyghem Rik Van Linden Francesco Moser Freddy Maertens Ronald Dewitte Joop Zoetemelk Jan Raas Joop Zoetemelk Daniel Willems Jan Raas Jean-Luc Vandenbroucke Ludo Peeters Sean Kelly Ludo Peeters Phil Anderson Adri van der Poel Peter Pieters Jelle Nijdam Rolf Sørensen Johan Capiot Hendrik Redant Johan Museeuw Erik Zabel Nicola Minali Nicola Minali Andrei Tchmil Jacky Durand Marc Wauters Andrea Tafi Richard Virenque Jakob Piil Erik Zabel Erik Dekker Erik Zabel Frédéric Guesdon Alessandro Petacchi Philippe Gilbert Philippe Gilbert Óscar Freire

• 303

NED BEL NED NED BEL NED BEL BEL BEL BEL GER BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL BEL NED NED NED BEL NED BEL BEL IRL BEL AUS NED NED NED DEN BEL BEL BEL GER ITA ITA UKR FRA BEL ITA FRA DEN GER NED GER FRA ITA BEL BEL ESP

8/11/11 6:58 AM

304 •

APPENDIX D

Table 35. Bordeaux–Paris 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1946 1947 1948 1949

George Pilkington Mills Auguste Stéphane Louis Cottereau Lucien Lesna Charles Meyer Arthur Linton / Gaston Rivière Gaston Rivière Gaston Rivière Constant Huret Josef Fischer Lucien Lesna Edouard Wattelier / Maurice Garin Hippolyte Aucouturier Fernand Augereau Hippolyte Aucouturier Marcel Cadolle Cyrille Van Hauwaert Louis Trousselier Cyrille Van Hauwaert Émile Georget François Faber Émile Georget Louis Mottiat Paul Deman Henri Pélissier Eugène Christophe Eugène Christophe Francis Pélissier Émile Masson Sr. Francis Pélissier Heiri Suter Adelin Benoit Georges Ronsse Hector Martin Georges Ronsse Georges Ronsse Bernard Van Rysselberghe Romain Gijssels Fernand Mithouard Jean Noret Edgard De Caluwé Paul Chocque Joseph Somers Marcel Laurent Marcel Laurent Émile Masson Jr. Joseph Somers Ange Le Strat Jesus Moujica

9780810873698_WEB.indb 304

GBR FRA FRA FRA DEN GBR/FRA* FRA FRA FRA GER FRA FRA† FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA BEL FRA LUX FRA BEL BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA SUI BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA FRA BEL FRA BEL FRA FRA BEL BEL FRA FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

Wim van Est Bernard Gauthier Wim van Est Ferdi Kübler Bernard Gauthier Bernard Gauthier Bernard Gauthier Jean-Marie Cieleska Louison Bobet Marcel Janssens Wim van Est Jo de Roo Tom Simpson Michel Nedelec Jacques Anquetil Jan Janssen Georges Van Coningsloo Émile Bodart Walter Godefroot Herman Van Springel Enzo Mattioda Herman Van Springel / Régis Delepine Herman Van Springel Walter Godefroot Herman Van Springel Herman Van Springel André Chalmel Herman Van Springel Herman Van Springel Marcel Tinazzi Gilbert Duclos-Lassalle Hubert Linard René Martens Gilbert Glaus Bernard Vallet Jean-François Rault

• 305

NED FRA NED SUI FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL NED NED GBR FRA FRA NED BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL/FRA‡ BEL BEL BEL BEL FRA BEL BEL FRA FRA FRA BEL SUI FRA FRA

*Linton and Rivière were declared co-champions in 1896. Linton was thought to have won the race, with Rivière second, but Linton took the wrong route for part of the race. †There were two separate races in 1902. ‡Van Springel and Delepine were declared co-champions in 1974. Van Springel won but had been misdirected during the race. Delepine finished second but protested.

Table 36. Grand Prix des Nations 1932 1933 1934 1935

Maurice Archambaud Raymond Louviot Antonin Magne Antonin Magne

FRA FRA FRA FRA (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 305

8/11/11 6:58 AM

306 •

APPENDIX D

Table 36. (continued) 1936 1937 1938 1941 1941 1942 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984

Antonin Magne Pierre Cogan Louis Aimar Jules Rossi Louis Aimar Jean Marie Goasmat Emile Idee Jozef Somers Émile Carrara Eloi Tassin Fausto Coppi Fausto Coppi René Berton Charles Costé Maurice Blomme Hugo Koblet Louison Bobet Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Aldo Moser Ercole Baldini Jacques Anquetil Ferdinand Bracke Raymond Poulidor Walter Boucquet Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Felice Gimondi Felice Gimondi Herman Van Springel Herman Van Springel Luis Ocaña Roger Swerts Eddy Merckx Roy Schuiten Roy Schuiten Freddy Maertens Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Jean-Luc Vandenbroucke Daniel Gisiger Bernard Hinault Daniel Gisiger Bernard Hinault

9780810873698_WEB.indb 306

FRA FRA FRA ITA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA FRA ITA ITA FRA FRA BEL SUI FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA ITA ITA FRA BEL FRA BEL FRA FRA ITA ITA BEL BEL ESP BEL BEL NED NED BEL FRA FRA FRA BEL SUI FRA SUI FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Charly Mottet Sean Kelly Charly Mottet Charly Mottet Laurent Fignon Thomas Wegmuller Toni Rominger Johan Bruyneel Armand de Las Cuevas Toni Rominger Chris Boardman Uwe Peschel Francisque Teyssier Serhiy Honchar Lance Armstrong Jens Voigt Uwe Peschel Michael Rich Michael Rich

• 307

FRA IRL FRA FRA FRA SUI SUI BEL FRA SUI GBR GER FRA UKR USA GER GER GER GER

Table 37. Omloop Het Volk / Omloop Het Nieuwsblad 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970

Jean Bogaerts André Pieters Albert Sercu Sylvain Grysolle André Declerck André Declerck Jean Bogaerts Ernest Sterckx Ernest Sterckx Karel De Baere Lode Anthonis Ernest Sterckx Norbert Kerckhove Joseph Planckaert Seamus Elliott Arthur De Cabooter Robert De Middeleir René Van Meenen Frans Melckenbeeck Noël De Pauw Jo de Roo Willy Vekemans Herman Van Springel Roger De Vlaeminck Frans Verbeeck

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL IRL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL NED BEL BEL BEL BEL (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 307

8/11/11 6:58 AM

308 •

APPENDIX D

Table 37. (continued) 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Eddy Merckx Frans Verbeeck Eddy Merckx Joseph Bruyère Joseph Bruyère Willem Peeters Freddy Maertens Freddy Maertens Roger De Vlaeminck Joseph Bruyère Jan Raas Alfons De Wolf Alfons De Wolf Eddy Planckaert Eddy Planckaert Teun van Vliet Ronny Van Holen Etienne De Wilde Johan Capiot Andreas Kappes Johan Capiot Wilfried Nelissen Wilfried Nelissen Franco Ballerini Tom Steels Peter Van Petegem Peter Van Petegem Frank Vandenbroucke Johan Museeuw Michele Bartoli Peter Van Petegem Johan Museeuw Nick Nuyens Philippe Gilbert Filippo Pozzato Philippe Gilbert Thor Hushovd Juan Antonio Flecha

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL NED BEL BEL BEL BEL NED BEL BEL BEL GER BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA BEL NOR ESP

Table 38. Züri-Metzgete (Zürich Championship) 1914 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921

Henri Rheinwald Charles Martinet Anton Sieger Heiri Suter Heiri Suter Ricardo Maffeo

9780810873698_WEB.indb 308

SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

Heiri Suter Adolf Huschke Heiri Suter Hans Kaspar Albert Blattmann Kastor Notter Heiri Suter Heiri Suter Omer Taverne Max Bulla Auguste Erne Walter Blattmann Paul Egli Paul Egli Werner Buchwalder Leo Amberg Hans Martin Karl Litschi Robert Zimmermann Walter Diggelmann Paul Egli Ferdi Kubler Ernst Naef Léo Weilenmann Gino Bartali Charles Guyot Gino Bartali Fritz Schaer Fritz Schaer Jean Brun Hugo Koblet Eugène Kamber Hugo Koblet Max Schellenberg Carlo Clerici Hans Junkermann Giuseppe Cainero Angelo Conterno Alfred Ruegg Rolf Maurer Jan Janssen Franco Balmamion Guido Reybrouck Franco Bitossi Italo Zilioli Robert Hagmann Franco Bitossi Roger Swerts

• 309

SUI GER SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI BEL AUT SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI ITA SUI ITA SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI GER ITA ITA SUI SUI NED ITA BEL ITA ITA SUI ITA BEL (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 309

8/11/11 6:58 AM

310 •

APPENDIX D

Table 38. (continued) 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Walter Godefroot Herman Van Springel Willy Van Neste André Dierickx Walter Godefroot Roger De Vlaeminck Freddy Maertens Francesco Moser Dietrich Thurau Giuseppe Saronni Gerry Verlinden Beat Breu Adri van der Poel Johan van der Velde Phil Anderson Ludo Peeters Acacio da Silva Mura Rolf Gölz Steven Rooks Steve Bauer Charly Mottet Johan Museeuw Vyacheslav Yekimov Maurizio Fondriest Gianluca Bortolami Johan Museeuw Andrea Ferrigato Davide Rebellin Michele Bartoli Grzegorz Gwiazdowski Laurent Dufaux Paolo Bettini Dario Frigo Daniele Nardello Juan Antonio Flecha Paolo Bettini Samuel Sánchez

BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA GER ITA BEL SUI NED NED AUS BEL POR GER NED CAN FRA BEL RUS ITA ITA BEL ITA ITA ITA POL SUI ITA ITA ITA ESP ITA ESP

Table 39. Tour of Somerville (Kugler-Anderson Memorial Tour) 1940 1941 1942 1947 1948 1949 1950

Furman Kugler Furman Kugler Carl Anderson Donald Sheldon Donald Sheldon Frank Brilando Richard Cortright

9780810873698_WEB.indb 310

USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

Francis Mertens Ernest Seubert Hugh Starrs John Chiselko Pat Murphy Jack Heid Arnold Uhrlass Art Longsjo Rupert Waitl Mike Hiltner Robert McKnown Richard Centore Olaf Moetus Hans Wolfe Eckhard Viehover John Aschen Jackie Simes Siegi Koch Jackie Simes Robert Farrell Edward Parrott Rodger Young Ron Skarin Ron Skarin Rory O’Reilly Dave Boll Dave Ware Jocelyn Lovell William Martin Steve Bauer Wayne Stetina Gary Tevisiol Steve Bauer Davis Phinney Matt Eaton Marc Maertens Paul Pearson Roberto Gaggioli Graeme Miller Matt Eaton Brian Moroney Jonas Carney Gary Anderson J-Me Carney Jason Snow Julian Dean Brett Aitken Jonas Carney

• 311

USA USA USA USA CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA GER USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA CAN USA USA CAN USA CAN USA CAN CAN USA USA BEL USA ITA NZL USA USA USA USA USA USA NZL USA USA (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 311

8/11/11 6:58 AM

312 •

APPENDIX D

Table 39. (continued) 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Eric Wohlberg Jonas Carney Eric Wohlberg Jonas Carney Jonas Carney Victor Repinski Kyle Wamsley Juan Haedo Hilton Clarke Lucas Sebastian Haedo Lucas Sebastian Haedo Ben Kersten

CAN USA CAN USA USA USA USA ARG AUS ARG ARG AUS

Table 40. Tour of Fitchburg (Longsjo Classic) 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Guy Morin Arnie Uhrlass Richard Centore Rob Parsons Paul Ziak Franco Potenzieri Sam Watson Guiseppi Marinoni Robert Simpson Jocelyn Lovell Doug Dale Bobby Phillips Giuseppi Marinoni Steve Woznick Bill Shook Wayne Stetina Tom Doughty Wayne Stetina Wayne Stetina Tom Schuler Bruce Donaghy Steve Pyle Alan McCormack Louis Garneau Russ Williams Jeff Slack Patrick Liu Roberto Gaggioli Graeme Miller Jeff Slack Tom Post Davis Phinney Lance Armstrong

9780810873698_WEB.indb 312

CAN USA USA USA USA USA IRL CAN USA CAN USA USA CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA IRL CAN GBR USA USA ITA NZL USA NED USA USA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

OTHER ONE-DAY CLASSICS

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 313

Davis Phinney Frank McCormack Mike Engleman Tyler Hamilton John Peters Frank McCormack Bart Bowen Henk Vogels Eric Wohlberg Chris Horner Viktor Rapinsky Mark McCormack Jonathan Page Shawn Milne Jacob Rytlewski Kyle Wamsley Zach Bell David Veilleux

• 313

USA USA USA USA USA USA USA AUS CAN USA BLR USA USA USA USA USA CAN CAN

8/11/11 6:58 AM

9780810873698_WEB.indb 314

8/11/11 6:58 AM

Appendix E: Women’s Races

Table 41. Grande Boucle (Tour de France Féminin) 1955 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Millie Robinson Marianne Martin Maria Canins Maria Canins Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Leontien van Moorsel Leontien van Moorsel Valentina Polkhanova Fabiana Luperini Fabiana Luperini Fabiana Luperini Edita Pucˇinskaite˙ Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Joane Somarriba Joane Somarriba Zinaida Stahurskaia Joane Somarriba Priska Doppman Nicole Cooke Nicole Cooke Christiane Soeder Emma Pooley

GBR USA ITA ITA FRA FRA FRA NED NED RUS ITA ITA ITA LTU LTU ESP ESP BLR ESP SUI GBR GBR AUT GBR

Table 42. Tour of the European Economic Community (EEC) 1990 1991 1992 1993

Catherine Marsal Astrid Schop Leontien van Moorsel Heidi Van De Vijver

FRA NED NED BEL

315

9780810873698_WEB.indb 315

8/11/11 6:58 AM

316 •

APPENDIX E

Table 43. Giro Donne 1988 1989 1990 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Maria Canins Roberta Bonanomi Catherine Marsal Lenka Ilavská Michela Fanini Fabiana Luperini Fabiana Luperini Fabiana Luperini Fabiana Luperini Joane Somarriba Joane Somarriba Nicole Brändli Svetlana Bubnenkova Nicole Brändli Nicole Cooke Nicole Brändli Edita Pucˇinskaite˙ Edita Pucˇinskaite˙ Fabiana Luperini Claudia Häusler Mara Abbott

ITA ITA FRA SVK ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ESP ESP SUI RUS SUI GBR SUI LTU LTU ITA GER USA

Table 44. Gracia Orlová 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Angela Ranft Radka Kynclová Angela Ranft Radka Kynclová Ildiko Paczová Valentina Gerasimova Rasa Polikevicˇiu¯ te˙ Gulnara Fatkulina Hanka Kupfernagel Hanka Kupfernagel Hanka Kupfernagel Marcia Vouets-Eicher Hanka Kupfernagel Hanka Kupfernagel Judith Arndt Amber Neben Nicole Brändli Nicole Brändli Judith Arndt Judith Arndt Judith Arndt Marianne Vos Trixi Worrack Marianne Vos

9780810873698_WEB.indb 316

GDR TCH GDR TCH TCH RUS LTU RUS GER GER GER SUI GER GER GER USA SUI SUI GER GER GER NED GER NED

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WOMEN’S RACES

• 317

Table 45. Ronde van Vlaanderen voor Vrouwen 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Zulfiya Zabirova Mirjam Melchers-van Poppel Mirjam Melchers-van Poppel Nicole Cooke Judith Arndt Ina-Yoko Teutenberg Grace Verbeke

RUS NED NED GBR GER GER BEL

Table 46. La Flèche Wallonne Féminine 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Fabiana Luperini Hanka Kupfernagel Geneviève Jeanson Fabiana Luperini Fabiana Luperini Nicole Cooke Sonia Huguet Nicole Cooke Nicole Cooke Marianne Vos Marianne Vos Marianne Vos Emma Pooley

ITA GER CAN ITA ITA GBR FRA GBR GBR NED NED NED GBR

Table 47. Grand Prix de Plouay 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Anna Wilson Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Anna Millward Petra Roßner Nicole Cooke Edita Pucˇinskaite˙ Noemi Cantele Nicole Brändli Noemi Cantele Fabiana Luperini Emma Pooley Emma Pooley

AUS LTU AUS GER GBR LTU ITA SUI ITA ITA GBR GBR

Table 48. Rund um die Nürnberger Altstadt 1997 1998 1999

Barbara Heeb Barbara Heeb Vera Hohlfeld

SUI SUI GER (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 317

8/11/11 6:58 AM

318 •

APPENDIX E

Table 48. (continued) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Regina Schleicher Jenny Algelid Jenny Algelid Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Petra Roßner Giorgia Bronzini Regina Schleicher Marianne Vos Judith Arndt Kirsten Wild Trixi Worrack

GER SWE SWE LTU GER ITA GER NED GER NED GER

Table 49. La Coupe du Monde Cycliste Féminine de Montréal 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Tracey Gaudry Pia Sundstedt Geneviève Jeanson Deirdre Demet-Barry Geneviève Jeanson Geneviève Jeanson Geneviève Jeanson Judith Arndt Fabiana Luperini Judith Arndt Emma Pooley

LTU AUS FIN CAN USA CAN CAN CAN GER ITA GER GBR

Table 50. Ronde van Drenthe 1998 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Zulfiya Zabirova Suzanne de Goede Madeleine Lindberg Leontien van Moorsel Mirjam Melchers Sissy van Alebeek Suzanne de Goede Loes Markerink Adrie Visser Chantal Beltman Emma Johansson Loes Gunnewijk

RUS NED SWE NED NED NED NED NED NED NED SWE NED

Table 51. Trofeo Alfredo Binda 1974 1975 1976

Giuseppina Micheloni Nicole van der Broek Morena Tartagni

9780810873698_WEB.indb 318

ITA NED ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WOMEN’S RACES

1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Nicoletta Castelli Cristina Menuzzo Anna Morlacchi Francesca Galli Cristina Menuzzo Lucia Pizzolotto Michela Tomasi Maria Canins Silvia Conti Stefania Carmine Rossella Galbiati Elisabetta Fanton Elisabetta Fanton Maria Canins Maria Paola Turcutto Maria Canins Roberta Ferrero Fabiana Luperini Valeria Cappellotto Valeria Cappellotto Fanny Lecourtois Fabiana Luperini Nicole Brandli Svetlana Bubnenkova Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Oenone Wood Nicole Cooke Regina Schleicher Nicole Cooke Emma Pooley Marianne Vos Marianne Vos

• 319

ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA FRA ITA SUI RUS LTU AUS GBR GER GBR GBR NED NED

Table 52. Tour of Somerville (Kugler-Anderson Memorial Tour) 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987

Mary Jane Reoch Karen Strong Sue Novara Karen Strong Karen Strong Karen Strong Sue Novara-Reber Sue Novara-Reber Sue Novara-Reber Sophie Eaton Peggy Maas Henny Top

USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA NED (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 319

8/11/11 6:58 AM

320 •

APPENDIX E

Table 52. (continued) 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Susan Elias Susan Elias Jan Bolland Karen Bliss Laura Charameda Marianne Berglund Jeanne Golay Jessica Grieco Jessica Grieco Karen Bliss-Livingston Karen Bliss-Livingston Laura Van Gilder Tina Mayolo Christina Underwood Laura Van Gilder Sarah Uhl Melissa Sanborn Laura Van Gilder Tina Mayolo-Pic Theresa Cliff-Ryan Tina Mayolo-Pic Tina Mayolo-Pic Theresa Cliff-Ryan

USA USA USA USA USA SWE USA USA USA USA USA USA USA CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Table 53. Tour of Fitchburg (Longsjo Classic) 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Connie Carpenter Sue Novara-Reber Mary Jane Reoch Beth Heiden Carol Varnier Pam Deem Betsy Davis Liz Larsen Jeanne Golay Barbara Gradley Beth Mills Jessica Grieco Lucy Tyler Sue Elias Stephanie Roussos Karen Mackin Rebecca Twigg Jacqui Nelson Kathy Watt Lyn Nixon Giana Roberge Dede Demet Lyne Bessette

9780810873698_WEB.indb 320

USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA NZL AUS AUS USA USA CAN

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WOMEN’S RACES

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Lyne Bessette Lyne Bessette Lyne Bessette Katie Mactier Sue Palmer-Komar Sue Palmer-Komar Sarah Ulmer Genevieve Gauthier Catherine Cheatley Evelyn Stevens Catherine Cheatley

• 321

CAN CAN CAN AUS CAN CAN NZL CAN NZL USA NZL

Table 54. Coors International Bicycle Classic (1980–88) / Red Zinger Classic (1975–79) 1975 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988

Hannah North Connie Carpenter Keetie van Oosten-Hage Keetie van Oosten-Hage Beth Heiden Keetie van Oosten-Hage Connie Carpenter Rebecca Twigg Maria Canins Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Inga Thompson

USA USA NED NED USA NED USA USA ITA FRA FRA FRA USA

Table 55. Ore-Ida Women’s Challenge 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

9780810873698_WEB.indb 321

Rebecca Twigg Rebecca Twigg Rebecca Twigg Inga Thompson Katrin Tobin Lisa Brambani Inga Thompson Jeannie Longo Eve Stephenson Jeanne Golay Clara Hughes Dede Demet Anna Wilson Rasa Polikevicˇiu¯ te˙ Linda Jackson Jeannie Longo Anna Wilson Lyne Bessette Judith Arndt

USA USA USA USA USA GBR USA FRA USA USA CAN USA AUS LTU CAN FRA AUS CAN GER

8/11/11 6:58 AM

9780810873698_WEB.indb 322

8/11/11 6:58 AM

Appendix F: World Champions

ROAD RACING Table 56. Men’s road: Road race (professional, elite from 1996) 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966

Alfredo Binda Georges Ronsse Georges Ronsse Alfredo Binda Learco Guerra Alfredo Binda Georges Speicher Karel Kaers Jean Aerts Antonin Magne Eloi Meulenberg Marcel Kint Hans Knecht Theo Middelkamp Briek Schotte Rik Van Steenbergen Briek Schotte Ferdi Kübler Heinz Müller Fausto Coppi Louison Bobet Stan Ockers Rik Van Steenbergen Rik Van Steenbergen Ercole Baldini André Darrigade Rik Van Looy Rik Van Looy Jean Stablinski Benoni Beheyt Jan Janssen Tom Simpson Rudi Altig

ITA BEL BEL ITA ITA ITA FRA BEL BEL FRA BEL BEL SUI NED BEL BEL BEL SUI FRG ITA FRA BEL BEL BEL ITA FRA BEL BEL FRA BEL NED GBR FRG (continued)

323

9780810873698_WEB.indb 323

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324 •

APPENDIX F

Table 56. (continued) 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Eddy Merckx Vittorio Adorni Harm Ottenbros Jean-Pierre Monseré Eddy Merckx Marino Basso Felice Gimondi Eddy Merckx Hennie Kuiper Freddy Maertens Francesco Moser Gerrie Knetemann Jan Raas Bernard Hinault Freddy Maertens Giuseppe Saronni Greg LeMond Claude Criquielion Joop Zoetemelk Moreno Argentin Stephen Roche Maurizio Fondriest Greg LeMond Rudy Dhaenens Gianni Bugno Gianni Bugno Lance Armstrong Luc Leblanc Abraham Olano Johan Museeuw Laurent Brochard Oscar Camenzind Óscar Freire Roma¯ns Vainšteins Óscar Freire Mario Cipollini Igor Astarloa Óscar Freire Tom Boonen Paolo Bettini Paolo Bettini Alessandro Ballan Cadel Evans Thor Hushovd

9780810873698_WEB.indb 324

BEL ITA NED BEL BEL ITA ITA BEL NED BEL ITA NED NED FRA BEL ITA USA BEL NED ITA IRL ITA USA BEL ITA ITA USA FRA ESP BEL FRA SUI ESP LAT ESP ITA ESP ESP BEL ITA ITA ITA AUS NOR

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

• 325

Table 57. Men’s road: Individual time trial (professional/elite) 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Chris Boardman Miguel Induráin Alex Zülle Laurent Jalabert Abraham Olano Jan Ullrich Serhiy Honchar Jan Ullrich Santiago Botero Michael Rogers† Michael Rogers Michael Rogers Fabian Cancellara Fabian Cancellara Bert Grabsch Fabian Cancellara Fabian Cancellara

GBR ESP SUI FRA ESP GER UKR GER COL AUS AUS AUS SUI SUI GER SUI SUI

†Rogers originally placed second but was advanced to the title after David Millar (GBR) confessed to Epogen use and was disqualified for doping.

Table 58. Women’s road: Road race 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976

Elsy Jacobs Yvonne Reynders Beryl Burton Yvonne Reynders Marie-Rose Gaillard Yvonne Reynders Emma Sonka Elisabeth Eicholz Yvonne Reynders Beryl Burton Keetie van Oosten-Hage Audrey McElmury Anna Konkina Anna Konkina Geneviève Gambillon Nicole Vandenbroeck Geneviève Gambillon Tineke Fopma Keetie van Oosten-Hage

LUX BEL GBR BEL BEL BEL URS GDR BEL GBR NED USA URS URS FRA BEL FRA NED NED (continued)

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326 •

APPENDIX F

Table 58. (continued) 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Josiane Bost Beate Habetz Petra de Bruijn Beth Heiden Ute Enzenauer Mandy Jones Marianne Berglund Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Catherine Marsal Leontien van Moorsel Leontien van Moorsel Monica Valvik Jeannie Longo Barbara Heeb Alessandra Cappellotto Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Edita Pucˇinskaite˙ Zinaida Stahurskaia Rasa Polikevicˇiu¯ te˙ Susanne Ljungskog Susanne Ljungskog Judith Arndt Regina Schleicher Marianne Vos Marta Bastianelli Nicole Cooke Tatiana Guderzo Giorgia Bronzini

FRA FRG NED USA FRG GBR SWE FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA NED NED NOR FRA SUI ITA LTU LTU BLR LTU SWE SWE GER GER NED ITA GBR ITA ITA

Table 59. Women’s road: Individual time trial 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Karen Kurreck Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Mari Holden Jeannie Longo Zulfiya Zabirova Joane Somarriba Karin Thürig Karin Thürig Kristin Armstrong Hanka Kupfernagel

9780810873698_WEB.indb 326

USA FRA FRA FRA NED NED USA FRA RUS ESP SUI SUI USA GER

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

2008 2009 2010

Amber Neben Kristin Armstrong Emma Pooley

• 327

USA USA GBR

Table 60. Women’s road: Team time trial (discontinued after 1994) 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Nadezhda Kibardina, Alla Yakovleva, Tamara Polyakova, Lyubov Pogovichaikova Monica Bandini, Roberta Bonanomi, Maria Canins, Francesca Galli Nadezhda Kibardina, Tamara Polyakova, Laima Zilporite, Natalya Melekhina Leontien van Moorsel, Monique Knol, Cora Westland, Astrid Schop Marion Clignet, Nathalie Gendron, Cécile Odin, Catherine Marsal Danute Bankaitis-Davis, Eva Stephenson, Jan Bolland, Jenanie Golay Olga Sokolova, Svetlana Bubnenkova, Aleksa Kolyaseva, Valentina Polkhanova Olga Sokolova, Aleksa Ilalyaseva, Svetlana Bubnenkova, Valentina Polkhanova

URS ITA URS NED FRA USA RUS RUS

Table 61. Men’s road: Road race (amateur, discontinued after 1995, not held in Olympic years after 1968) 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950

Gunnar Sköld Dave Marsh Liberio Ferrario André Leducq Rik Hoevanaers Octave Dayen Jean Aerts Allegro Grandi Pierino Bertolazzo Giuseppe Martano Henry Hansen Giuseppe Martano Paul Egli Kees Pellenaars Ivo Mancini Edgar Buchwalder Adolfo Leoni Hans Knecht Henri Aubry Alfio Ferrari Harry Snell Henk Faanhof Jack Hoobin

SWE ENG ITA FRA BEL FRA BEL ITA ITA ITA DEN ITA SUI NED ITA SUI ITA SUI FRA ITA SWE NED AUS (continued)

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328 •

APPENDIX F

Table 61. (continued) 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995

Gianni Ghidini Luciano Ciancola Riccardo Filippi Émile Van Cautier Sante Ranucci Frans Mahn Louis Proost Gustav-Adolf Schur Gustav-Adolf Schur Bernhard Eckstein Jean Jourden Renato Bongioni Flaviano Vicentini Eddy Merckx Jacques Betheral Evert Dolman Graham Webb Vittorio Marcelli Leif Mortensen Jørgen Schmidt Régis Ovion Ryszard Jan Szurkowski Janusz Kowalski André Gevers Claudio Corti Gilbert Glaus Gianni Giacomini Andrey Vedernikov Bernd Drogan Uwe Raab Lech Piasecki Uwe Ampler Richard Vivien Joachim Halupczok Mirko Gualdi Viktor Ryasinski Jan Ullrich Alex Pedersen Danny Nelissen

ITA ITA ITA BEL ITA NED NED GDR GDR GDR FRA ITA ITA BEL FRA NED GBR ITA DEN DEN FRA POL POL NED ITA SUI ITA URS FRG FRG POL FRG FRA POL ITA UKR GER SUI NED

Table 62. Men’s road: Team time trial (100 km) (amateur, discontinued after 1994, not held in Olympic years after 1968) 1962 1963 1964

Mario Maino, Antonio Tagliani, Dino Zandegu, Danilo Grassi Michel Bechet, Dominique Motte, Marcel-Ernest Bidault, Georges Chappé Severino Andreoli, Luciano Dalla Bona, Pietro Guerra, Ferruccio Manza

9780810873698_WEB.indb 328

ITA FRA ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994

Pietro Guerra, Luciano Dalla Bona, Giacomo Denti, Giuseppe Soldi Verner Blaudzun, Jørgen Emil Hansen, Ole Højlund, Flemming Wisborg Gösta Pettersson, Sture Pettersson, Erik Pettersson, Tomas Pettersson Gösta Pettersson, Sture Pettersson, Erik Pettersson, Tomas Pettersson Gösta Pettersson, Sture Pettersson, Erik Pettersson, Tomas Pettersson Valery Yardy, Viktor Sokolov, Boris Shukov, Valeri Likashov Gustaaf Hermans, Gustaaf Van Cauter, Louis Verreydt, Ludo Van Der Linden Lucjan Lis, Ryszard Szurkowski, Stanisław Szozda, Tadeusz Mytnik Lennart Fagerlund, Bernt Johansson, Tord Filippson, Sven-Åke Nilsson Tadeusz Mytnik, Mieczysław Nowicki, Ryszard Szurkowski, Stanisław Szozda Valery Shaplygin, Aavo Pikuus, Vladimir Kaminsky, Anatoly Shukanov Guus Bierings, Bert Oosterbosch, Bart van Est, Jan van Houwelingen Bernd Drogan, Hans-Joachim Hartnick, Andreas Petermann, Falk Boden Falk Boden, Bernd Drogan, Mario Kummer, Olaf Ludwig Maarten Ducrot, Gérard Schipper, Gerrit Solleveld, Frits van Bindsbergen Yury Kachirin, Sergey Novolokin, Oleg Czuzda, Aleksandr Sinovyev Vasily Zhdanov, Viktor Klimov, Igor Sumnikov, Aleksandr Sinovyev Tom Cordes, Gerrit de Vries, John Talen, Rob Harmeling Roberto Fortunato, Eros Poli, Mario Scirea, Flavio Vanzella Mario Kummer, Maik Landsmann, Jan Schur, Falk Boden Oleg Galkin, Ruslan Zotov, Igor Patenko, Aleksandr Markovich Flavio Anastasia, Luca Colombo, Gianfranco Contri, Andrea Peron Rossano Brasi, Gianfranco Contri, Rosario Fina, Cristian Salvato Cristian Salvato, Gianfranco Contri, Gianluca Colombo, Dario Andriotto

• 329 ITA DEN SWE SWE SWE URS BEL POL SWE POL URS NED GDR GDR NED URS URS NED ITA GDR URS ITA ITA ITA

TRACK RACING Table 63. Men’s track: Sprint (professional, elite since 1993) 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905

Robert Protin Paul Bourillon Willi Arend Georges A. Banker Marshall Taylor Edmond Jacquelin Thorvald Ellegaard Thorvald Ellegaard Thorvald Ellegaard Iver Lawson Gabriel Poulain

BEL FRA GER USA USA FRA DEN DEN DEN USA FRA (continued)

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330 •

APPENDIX F

Table 63. (continued) 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964

Thorvald Ellegaard Émile Friol Thorvald Ellegaard Victor Dupre Émile Friol Thorvald Ellegaard Frank L. Kramer Walter Rütt Bob Spears Piet Moeskops Piet Moeskops Piet Moeskops Piet Moeskops Ernst Kaufmann Piet Moeskops Lucien Michard Lucien Michard Lucien Michard Lucien Michard Willy Falck Hansen Jef Scherens Jef Scherens Jef Scherens Jef Scherens Jef Scherens Jef Scherens Adrie van Vliet Final not contested Jan Derksen Jef Scherens Adrie van Vliet Reg Harris Reg Harris Reg Harris Oscar Plattner Adrie van Vliet Reg Harris Antonio Maspes Antonio Maspes Jan Derksen Michel Rousseau Antonio Maspes Antonio Maspes Antonio Maspes Antonio Maspes Sante Gaiardoni Antonio Maspes

9780810873698_WEB.indb 330

DEN FRA DEN FRA FRA DEN USA GER AUS NED NED NED NED SUI NED FRA FRA FRA FRA DEN BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL NED NED BEL NED GBR GBR GBR SUI NED GBR ITA ITA NED FRA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Giuseppe Beghetto Giuseppe Beghetto Patrick Sercu Giuseppe Beghetto Patrick Sercu Gordon Johnson Leijn Loevesijn Robert Van Lancker Robert Van Lancker Peder Pedersen John Nicholson John Nicholson Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Koichi Nakano Nobuyuki Tawara Stephen Pate Claudio Golinelli Michael Hübner Medal not awarded† Michael Hübner Gary Neiwand Marty Nothstein Darryn Hill Florian Rousseau Florian Rousseau Florian Rousseau Laurent Gané Jan van Eijden Arnaud Tournant Sean Eadie Laurent Gané Theo Bos René Wolff Theo Bos Theo Bos Chris Hoy Grégory Baugé Grégory Baugé

• 331

ITA ITA BEL ITA BEL AUS NED BEL BEL DEN AUS AUS JPN JPN JPN JPN JPN JPN JPN JPN JPN JPN JPN AUS ITA GER GER AUS USA AUS FRA FRA FRA FRA GER FRA AUS FRA NED GER NED NED GBR FRA FRA

†Carey Hall (AUS) won but was later disqualified for doping.

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332 •

APPENDIX F

Table 64. Men’s track: Individual pursuit (professional, elite since 1993) 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

Gerard Peters Fausto Coppi Gerrit Schulte Fausto Coppi Antonio Bevilacqua Antonio Bevilacqua Sid Patterson Sid Patterson Guido Messina Guido Messina Guido Messina Roger Rivière Roger Rivière Roger Rivière Rudi Altig Rudi Altig Henk Nijdam Leandro Faggin Ferdinand Bracke Leandro Faggin Leandro Faggin Tiemen Groen Hugh Porter Ferdinand Bracke Hugh Porter Dirk Baert Hugh Porter Hugh Porter Roy Schuiten Roy Schuiten Francesco Moser Gregor Braun Gregor Braun Bert Oosterbosch Tony Doyle Alain Bondue Alain Bondue Steele Bishop Hans-Henrik Ørsted Hans-Henrik Ørsted Tony Doyle Hans-Henrik Ørsted Lech Piasecki Colin Sturgess Vyacheslav Yekimov Francis Moreau Mike McCarthy Graeme Obree

9780810873698_WEB.indb 332

NED ITA NED ITA ITA ITA AUS AUS ITA ITA ITA FRA FRA FRA FRG FRG NED ITA BEL ITA ITA NED GBR BEL GBR BEL GBR GBR NED NED ITA FRG FRG NED GBR FRA FRA AUS DEN DEN GBR DEN POL GBR RUS FRA USA GBR

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Chris Boardman Graeme Obree Chris Boardman Philippe Ermenault Philippe Ermenault Robert Bartko Jens Lehmann Oleksandr Symonenko Brad McGee Bradley Wiggins Sergi Escobar Robert Bartko Robert Bartko Bradley Wiggins Bradley Wiggins Taylor Phinney Taylor Phinney

• 333

GBR GBR GBR FRA FRA GER GER UKR AUS GBR ESP GER GER GBR GBR USA USA

Table 65. Men’s track: Points race (professional, elite since 1993) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Stan Tourné Urs Freuler Urs Freuler Urs Freuler Urs Freuler Urs Freuler Urs Freuler Urs Freuler Daniel Wyder Urs Freuler Laurent Biondi Vyacheslav Yekimov Bruno Risi Etienne De Wilde Bruno Risi Silvio Martinello Joan Llaneras Silvio Martinello Joan Llaneras Bruno Risi Joan Llaneras Bruno Risi Chris Newton Franz Stocher Franck Perque Volodymyr Rybin Peter Schep

BEL SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI FRA URS SUI BEL SUI ITA ESP ITA ESP SUI ESP SUI GBR AUT FRA UKR NED (continued)

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334 •

APPENDIX F

Table 65. (continued) 2007 2008 2009 2010

Joan Llaneras Vasili Kiryienka Cameron Meyer Cameron Meyer

ESP BLR AUS AUS

Table 66. Men’s track: Keirin (professional, elite since 1993) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Danny Clark Danny Clark Gordon Singleton Urs Freuler Robert Dill-Bundi Urs Freuler Michel Vaarten Harumi Honda Claudio Golinelli Claudio Golinelli Michael Hübner Michael Hübner Michael Hübner Gary Neiwand Marty Nothstein Frédéric Magné Marty Nothstein Frédéric Magné Jens Fiedler Jens Fiedler Frédéric Magné Ryan Bayley Jobie Dajka Laurent Gané Jamie Staff Teun Mulder Theo Bos Chris Hoy Chris Hoy Maximilian Levy Chris Hoy

AUS AUS CAN SUI SUI SUI BEL JPN ITA ITA GER GER GER AUS USA FRA USA FRA GER GER FRA AUS AUS FRA GBR NED NED GBR GBR GER GBR

Table 67. Men’s track: Team pursuit (elite) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Brett Aitken, Stuart O’Grady, Billy Shearsby, Tim O’Shannessy Guido Fulst, Andreas Bach, Jens Lehmann, Danilo Hondo Brad McGee, Stuart O’Grady, Rodney McGee, Tim O’Shannessy Adler Capelli, Cristiano Citton, Andrea Collinelli, Mauro Trentini Cristiano Citton, Mario Benetton, Adler Capelli, Andrea Collinelli

9780810873698_WEB.indb 334

AUS GER AUS ITA ITA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Oleksandr Symonenko, Serhiy Matveyev, Aleksandar Fedenko, Oleksandr Klimenko Robert Bartko, Jens Lehmann, Daniel Becke, Guido Fulst Guido Fulst, Sebastian Siedler, Daniel Becke, Jens Lehmann Oleksandr Symonenko, Serhiy Tscherniowsky, Lubomir Polotajko, Oleksandr Fedenko Peter Dawson, Brett Lancaster, Stephen Wooldridge, Luke Roberts Graeme Brown, Peter Dawson, Brett Lancaster, Luke Roberts Ashley Hutchinson, Luke Roberts, Peter Dawson, Stephen Wooldridge Steve Cummings, Rob Hayles, Paul Manning, Chris Newton Peter Dawson, Matthew Goss, Mark Jamieson, Stephen Wooldridge Geraint Thomas, Ed Clancy, Paul Manning, Bradley Wiggins Ed Clancy, Geraint Thomas, Paul Manning, Bradley Wiggins Casper Jørgensen, Jens-Erik Madsen, Michael Færk Christensen, Alex Rasmussen Jack Bobridge, Rohan Dennis, Michael Hepburn, Cameron Meyer

• 335 UKR GER GER UKR AUS AUS AUS GBR AUS GBR GBR DEN AUS

Table 68. Men’s track: Time trial (1 km) (elite since 1993) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Florian Rousseau Florian Rousseau Shane Kelly Shane Kelly Shane Kelly Arnaud Tournant Arnaud Tournant Arnaud Tournant Arnaud Tournant Chris Hoy Stefan Nimke Chris Hoy Theo Bos Chris Hoy Chris Hoy Teun Mulder Stefan Nimke Teun Mulder

FRA FRA AUS AUS AUS FRA FRA FRA FRA GBR GER GBR NED GBR GBR NED GER NED

Table 69. Men’s track: Madison (elite) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Silvio Martinello, Marco Villa Silvio Martinello, Marco Villa Joan Llaneras, Miquel Alzamora Etienne De Wilde, Matthew Gilmore Joan Llaneras, Isaac Gálvez Stefan Steinweg, Erik Weispfennig

ITA ITA ESP BEL ESP GER (continued)

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336 •

APPENDIX F

Table 69. (continued) 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Robert Sassone, Jérôme Neuville Jérôme Neuville, Franck Perque Franco Marvulli, Bruno Risi Walter Pérez, Juan Esteban Curuchet Mark Cavendish, Robert Hayles Isaac Gálvez, Joan Llaneras Bruno Risi, Franco Marvulli Mark Cavendish, Bradley Wiggins Michael Mørkøv, Alex Rasmussen Leigh Howard, Cameron Meyer

FRA FRA SUI ARG GBR ESP SUI GBR DEN AUS

Table 70. Men’s track: Team sprint (elite) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Jens Fiedler, Michael Hübner, Jan van Eijden Darryn Hill, Shane Kelly, Gary Neiwand Vincent Le Quellec, Florian Rousseau, Arnaud Tournant Vincent Le Quellec, Florian Rousseau, Arnaud Tournant Laurent Gané, Florian Rousseau, Arnaud Tournant Laurent Gané, Florian Rousseau, Arnaud Tournant Laurent Gané, Florian Rousseau, Arnaud Tournant Chris Hoy, Craig MacLean, Jamie Staff Carsten Bergemann, Jens Fiedler, René Wolff Mickaël Bourgain, Laurent Gané, Arnaud Tournant Chris Hoy, Jamie Staff, Jason Queally Grégory Baugé, Mickaël Bourgain, Arnaud Tournant Grégory Baugé, Mickaël Bourgain, Arnaud Tournant Grégory Baugé, Kévin Sireau, Arnaud Tournant Grégory Baugé, Mickaël Bourgain, Kévin Sireau Robert Förstemann, Maximilian Levy, Stefan Nimke

GER AUS FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA GBR GER FRA GBR FRA FRA FRA FRA GER

Table 71. Men’s track: Scratch (elite) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Franco Marvulli Franco Marvulli Greg Henderson Alex Rasmussen Jérôme Neuville Wong Kam-Po Aliaksandr Lisouski Morgan Kneisky Alex Rasmussen

SUI SUI NZL DEN FRA HKG BLR FRA DEN

Table 72. Men’s track: Omnium (elite) 2007 2008 2009 2010

Alois Kanˇkovský Hayden Godfrey Leigh Howard Ed Clancy

9780810873698_WEB.indb 336

CZE NZL AUS GBR

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

• 337

Table 73. Men’s track: Motor-paced (professional, discontinued after 1994) 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954

Jimmy Michael Arthur A. Chase Jack William Stocks Richard Palmer Harry Gibson Constant Huret Thaddaüs Robl Thaddaüs Robl Piet Dickentman Bobby Walthour Bobby Walthour Louis Darragon Louis Darragon Fritz Ryser Georges Parent Georges Parent Georges Parent George Wiley Paul Guignard Georges Seres Victor Linart Léon Vanderstuyft Paul Suter Victor Linart Robert “Toto” Grassin Victor Linart Victor Linart Walter Sawall Georges Paillard Erich Möller Walter Sawall Georges Paillard Charles Lacquehay Erich Metze Charles Lacquehay André Raynaud Walter Lohmann Erich Metze Elio Frosio Raoul Lesueur Jean-Jacques Lamboley Elio Frosio Raoul Lesueur Jan Pronk Adolph Verschueren Adolph Verschueren Adolph Verschueren

GBR GBR GBR GBR CAN FRA GER GER NED USA USA FRA FRA SUI FRA FRA FRA USA FRA FRA BEL BEL SUI BEL FRA BEL BEL GER FRA GER GER FRA FRA GER FRA FRA GER GER ITA FRA FRA ITA FRA NED BEL BEL BEL (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 337

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338 •

APPENDIX F

Table 73. (continued) 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Guillermo Timoner Graham French Paul Depaepe Walter Bucher Guillermo Timoner Guillermo Timoner Karl-Heinz Marsell Guillermo Timoner Léo Proost Guillermo Timoner Guillermo Timoner Romain De Loof Léo Proost Léo Proost Jacob Oudkerk Ehrenfried Rudolph Theo Verschueren Theo Verschueren Cees Stam Cees Stam Dieter Kemper Wilfried Peffgen Cees Stam Wilfried Peffgen Martinus Venix Wilfried Peffgen René Kos Martinus Venix Bruno Vicino Horst Schütz Bruno Vicino Bruno Vicino Max Hürzeler Danny Clark Giovanni Renosto Walter Brugna Danny Clark Peter Steiger Jens Veggerby Carsten Podlesch

ESP AUS BEL SUI ESP ESP FRG ESP BEL ESP ESP BEL BEL BEL NED FRG BEL BEL NED NED FRG FRG NED FRG NED FRG NED NED ITA FRG ITA ITA SUI AUS ITA ITA AUS SUI DEN GER

Table 74. Men’s track: Derny racing (professional, discontinued after 1990) 1978 1979 1980 1981

René Pijnen Dietrich “Didi” Thurau Dietrich “Didi” Thurau Gerrie Knetemann

9780810873698_WEB.indb 338

NED FRG FRG NED

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Gerrie Knetemann Gerd Franck Danny Clark Danny Clark Danny Clark Stan Tourné Danny Clark Danny Clark Stan Tourné

• 339

NED DEN AUS AUS AUS BEL AUS AUS BEL

Table 75. Men’s track: 10 km (professional, discontinued after 1894) 1893 1894

Arthur Zimmermann Jaap Eden

USA NED

Table 76. Women’s track: Sprint (not held in Olympic years 1988–92) 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Galina Yermolayeva Galina Yermolayeva Galina Yermolayeva Galina Yermolayeva Valentina Savina Galina Yermolayeva Irina Kiritchenko Valentina Savina Irina Kiritchenko Valentina Savina Alla Bagiyanz Galina Zareva Galina Zareva Galina Zareva Galina Yermolayeva Sheila Young Tamara Piltsikova Sue Novarra Sheila Young Galina Zareva Galina Zareva Galina Zareva Sue Novarra Sheila Young Connie Paraskevin Connie Paraskevin Connie Paraskevin Isabelle Nicoloso

URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS USA URS USA USA URS URS URS USA USA USA USA USA FRA (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 339

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340 •

APPENDIX F

Table 76. (continued) 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Christa Rothenburger Erika Salumäe Erika Salumäe Connie Paraskevin-Young Ingrid Haringa Tanya Dubnicoff Galina Yenyuchina Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Natalya Markovnichenko Svetlana Grankovskaya Natalya Tsylinskaya Svetlana Grankovskaya Svetlana Grankovskaya Victoria Pendleton Natalya Tsylinskaya Victoria Pendleton Victoria Pendleton Victoria Pendleton Victoria Pendleton

GDR URS URS USA NED CAN RUS FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA BLR RUS BLR RUS RUS GBR BLR GBR GBR GBR GBR

Table 77. Women’s track: Individual pursuit (not held in Olympic years, 1992 only) 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978

Lyudmila Kochetova Beryl Burton Beryl Burton Yvonne Reynders Beryl Burton Beryl Burton Yvonne Reynders Yvonne Reynders Beryl Burton Tamara Garkuchina Raisa Obodovskaya Raisa Obodovskaya Tamara Garkuchina Tamara Garkuchina Tamara Garkuchina Tamara Garkuchina Tamara Garkuchina Keetie van Oosten-Hage Keetie van Oosten-Hage Vera Kuznezova Keetie van Oosten-Hage

9780810873698_WEB.indb 340

URS GBR GBR BEL GBR GBR BEL BEL GBR URS URS URS URS URS URS URS URS NED NED URS NED

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Keetie van Oosten-Hage Nadezhda Kibardina Nadezhda Kibardina Rebecca Twigg Connie Carpenter Rebecca Twigg Rebecca Twigg Jeannie Longo Rebecca Twigg Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Leontien van Moorsel Petra Roßner Rebecca Twigg Marion Clignet Rebecca Twigg Marion Clignet Judith Arndt Lucy Tyler-Sharman Marion Clignet Yvonne McGregor Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Sarah Ulmer Katie Mactier Sarah Hammer Sarah Hammer Rebecca Romero Alison Shanks Sarah Hammer

• 341

NED URS URS USA USA USA USA FRA USA FRA FRA NED GDR USA FRA USA FRA GER AUS FRA GBR NED NED NED NZL AUS USA USA GBR NZL USA

Table 78. Women’s track: Points race 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Sally Hodge Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Karen Holliday Ingrid Haringa Ingrid Haringa Ingrid Haringa Ingrid Haringa Svetlana Samokhvalova Svetlana Samokhvalova Natalia Karimova Teodora Ruano Marion Clignet Marion Clignet Olga Slyusaryeva

GBR FRA NZL NED NED NED NED RUS RUS RUS ESP FRA FRA RUS (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 341

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342 •

APPENDIX F

Table 78. (continued) 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Olga Slyusaryeva Oksana Grichina Olga Slyusaryeva Vera Carrara Vera Carrara Katherine Bates Marianne Vos Giorgia Bronzini Tara Whitten

RUS RUS RUS ITA ITA AUS NED ITA CAN

Table 79. Women’s track: Keirin 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Li Na Svetlana Grankovskaya Clara Sanchez Clara Sanchez Christin Muche Victoria Pendleton Jennie Reed Guo Shuang Simona Krupeckaite˙

CHN RUS FRA FRA GER GBR USA CHN LTU

Table 80. Women’s track: Team pursuit 2008 2009 2010

Wendy Houvenaghel, Rebecca Romero, Joanna Rowsell Wendy Houvenaghel, Elizabeth Armitstead, Joanna Rowsell Ashlee Ankudinoff, Sarah Kent, Josephine Tomic

GBR GBR AUS

Table 81. Women’s track: Time trial (500 m) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Natalya Markovnichenko Nancy Contreras Natalya Tsylinskaya Natalya Tsylinskaya Anna Meares Natalya Tsylinskaya Natalya Tsylinskaya Anna Meares Lisandra Guerra Simona Krupeckaite˙ Anna Meares

9780810873698_WEB.indb 342

FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA BLR MEX BLR BLR AUS BLR BLR AUS CUB LTU AUS

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

• 343

Table 82. Women’s track: Team sprint 2007 2008 2009 2010

Victoria Pendleton, Shanaze Reade Victoria Pendleton, Shanaze Reade Kaarle McCulloch, Anna Meares Kaarle McCulloch, Anna Meares

GBR GBR AUS AUS

Table 83. Women’s track: Scratch 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Lada Kozlíková Olga Slyusaryeva Yoanka González Pérez Olga Slyusaryeva María Luisa Calle Yumari González Eleonora van Dijk Yumari González Pascale Jeuland

CZE RUS CUB RUS COL CUB NED CUB FRA

Table 84. Women’s track: Omnium 2009 2010

Josephine Tomic Tara Whitten

AUS CAN

Table 85. Men’s track: Sprint (amateur, discontinued after 1992, not held in Olympic years 1972–88) 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910

Arthur Zimmermann August Lehr Jaap Eden Harry Reynolds Edwin Schräder Paul Albert Thomas Summersgill Alphonse Didier-Nauts Émile Maitrot Charles Piard Arthur Reed Marcus Hurley Jimmy Benyon Francisco Verri Jean Devoissoux Victor Johnson William Bailey William Bailey

USA GER NED IRL DEN GER GBR BEL FRA FRA GBR USA GBR ITA FRA GBR GBR GBR (continued)

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344 •

APPENDIX F

Table 85. (continued) 1911 1912 1913 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971

William Bailey Donald McDougall William Bailey Maurice Peeters Henry Brask Andersen Thomas Johnson Lucien Michard Lucien Michard Jaap Meyer Avanti Martinetti Mathias Engel Willy Falck Hansen Antoine Mazairac Louis Gérardin Helger Harder Albert Richter Jacobus van Egmond Benedetto Pola Toni Merkens Arie van Vliet Johan van der Vijver Johan van der Vijver Jan Derksen Oscar Plattner Reg Harris Mario Ghella Sid Patterson Maurice Verdeun Enzo Sacchi Enzo Sacchi Marino Morettini Cyril Peacock Giuseppe Ogna Michel Rousseau Michel Rousseau Valentino Gasparella Valentino Gasparella Sante Gaiardoni Sergio Bianchetto Sergio Bianchetto Patrick Sercu Pierre Trentin Omar Phakadze Daniel Morelon Daniel Morelon Luigi Borghetti Daniel Morelon Daniel Morelon Daniel Morelon

9780810873698_WEB.indb 344

GBR USA GBR NED DEN GBR FRA FRA NED ITA GER DEN NED FRA DEN GER NED ITA GER NED NED NED NED SUI GBR ITA AUS FRA ITA ITA ITA GBR ITA FRA FRA ITA ITA ITA ITA ITA BEL FRA URS FRA FRA ITA FRA FRA FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1973 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991

Daniel Morelon Anton Tkácˇ Daniel Morelon Hans-Jürgen Geschke Anton Tkácˇ Lutz Heßlich Sergey Kopylov Sergey Kopylov Lutz Heßlich Lutz Heßlich Michael Hübner Lutz Heßlich Bill Huck Bill Huck Jens Fiedler

• 345

FRA TCH FRA GDR TCH GDR URS URS GDR GDR GDR GDR GDR GDR FRG

Table 86. Men’s track: Individual pursuit (amateur, discontinued after 1991, not held in Olympic years, 1972–88) 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1974

Roger Rioland Arnaldo Benfenati Guido Messina Knud Andersen Sid Patterson Mino De Rossi Piet van Heusden Guido Messina Leandro Faggin Norman Sheil Ercole Baldini Carlo Simonigh Norman Sheil Rudi Altig Marcel Delattre Henk Nijdam Kaj-Erik Jensen Jean Walschärts Tiemen Groen Tiemen Groen Tiemen Groen Gérard Bongers Mogens Frey Jensen Xaver Kurmann Xaver Kurmann Martin Rodríguez Knut Knudsen Hans Lutz

FRA ITA ITA DEN AUS ITA NED ITA ITA GBR ITA ITA GBR GER ITA NED DEN BEL NED NED NED NED DEN SUI SUI COL NOR FRG (continued)

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346 •

APPENDIX F

Table 86. (continued) 1975 1977 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991

Thomas Huschke Norbert Dürpisch Detlef Macha Nikolay Makarov Detlef Macha Detlef Macha Viktor Kupovets Vyacheslav Yekimov Vyacheslav Yekimov Gintautas Umaras Vyacheslav Yekimov Yevgeny Berzin Jens Lehmann

FRG GDR GDR URS GDR GDR URS URS URS URS URS URS GER

Table 87. Men’s track: Team pursuit (amateur, discontinued after 1991, not held in Olympic years 1972–88) 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989

Ehrenfried Rudolph, Bernd Rohr, Klaus May, Lothar Cläsges Arnold Belzhgard, Sergey Teretschenkov, Stanislav Moskvin, Viktor Romanov Lothar Cläsges, Karl Link, Karl-Heinz Heinrichs, Ernst Streng Stanislav Moskvin, Sergey Teretschenkov, Mikhail Kolzhushov, Leonid Vukolov Cipriano Chemello, Antonio Castello, Luigi Roncaglia, Gino Pancino Stanislav Moskvin, Mikhail Kolzhushov, Viktor Bykov, Dzintars Latsis Cipriano Chemello, Lorenzo Bosisio, Giorgio Morbiato, Luigi Roncaglia Stanislav Moskvin, Vladimir Kuznetsov, Viktor Bykov, Sergey Kuskov Günter Haritz, Peter Vonhof, Hans Lutz, Günther Schumacher Pietro Algeri, Giacomo Bazzan, Giorgio Morbiato, Luciano Borgognoni Günther Schumacher, Peter Vonhof, Hans Lutz, Günter Haritz Günther Schumacher, Peter Vonhof, Hans Lutz, Dietrich “Didi” Thurau Günther Schumacher, Peter Vonhof, Hans Lutz, Gregor Braun Norbert Dürpisch, Gerald Mortag, Matthias Wiegand, Volker Winckler Uwe Unterwalder, Gerald Mortag, Matthias Wiegand, Volker Winckler Lutz Haüisen, Gerald Mortag, Axel Großer, Volker Winckler Detlef Macha, Bernd Dittert, Axel Großer, Volker Winckler Konstantin Kravzov, Aleksandr Krasnov, Valery Movchan, Sergey Nikitenko Rolf Gölz, Detlef Günther, Gerhard Strittmatter, Michael Marx Roberto Amadio, Massimo Brunelli, Gianpaolo Grisondo, Silvio Martinello Pavel Soukop, Aleš Trcˇ ká, Svatopluk Buchta, Teodor Cerný Vyacheslav Yekimov, Aleksandr Krasnov, Viktor Manakov, Sergey Shmelinin Steffen Blochwitz, Casten Wolf, Thomas Liese, Guido Fulst

9780810873698_WEB.indb 346

FRG URS FRG URS ITA URS ITA URS FRG ITA FRG FRG FRG GDR GDR GDR GDR URS GDR ITA TCH URS FRG

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1990 1991

Valery Baturo, Yevgeny Berzin, Dmitry Nelyubin, Aleksandr Gonchenko Michael Glöckner, Stefan Steinweg, Jens Lehmann, Andreas Walzer

• 347 RUS GER

Table 88. Men’s track: Time trial (1 km) (amateur, discontinued after 1991, not held in Olympic years 1972–88) 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991

Pierre Trentin Niels Fredborg Niels Fredborg Gianni Sartori Niels Fredborg Eduard Rapp Janusz Kierzkowski Eduard Rapp Klaus-Jürgen Grünke Lothar Thoms Lothar Thoms Lothar Thoms Lothar Thoms Fredy Schmidtke Sergey Kopylov Jens Glücklich Malk Malchow Martin Vinnicombe Jens Glücklich Aleksandr Kirichenko José Manuel Moreño

FRA DEN DEN ITA DEN URS POL URS GDR GDR GDR GDR GDR FRG URS GDR GDR AUS GDR URS ESP

Table 89. Men’s track: Points race (amateur, discontinued after 1991, not held in Olympic years, 1984–88) 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991

9780810873698_WEB.indb 347

Stan Tourné Noël De Jonckheere Igor Slama Gary Sutton Lutz Haüisen Hans-Joachim Pohl Michael Marcussen Martin Pencˇ Dan Frost Marat Ganeyev Marat Satybaldiyev Stephen McGlede Bruno Risi

BEL BEL TCH AUS GDR GDR DEN TCH DEN URS URS AUS SUI

8/11/11 6:58 AM

348 •

APPENDIX F

Table 90. Men’s track: Motor-paced (amateur, discontinued after 1992) 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1913 1914 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980

Laurens Smitz Meintjes Wilhelm Henie Mathieu Cordang Fernand Ponscarme Ernest Gould Albert-John Cherry Johnny Nelson Louis Bastien Heinrich Sievers Alfred Görnemann Edmond Audemars Leon Meredith Leon Meredith Maurice Bardonneau Leon Meredith Leon Meredith Leon Meredith Henri Hens Leon Meredith Leon Meredith Cor Blekemolen Lothar Meister Arie van Houwelingen Georg Stoltze Leendert van der Meulen Romain De Loof Romain De Loof Jacob Oudkerk Gabriel Mas Piet de Wit Piet de Wit Giuseppe Grassi Albertus Boom Cees Stam Horst Gnas Horst Gnas Horst Gnas Jean Breuer Gaby Minneboo Gaby Minneboo Gaby Minneboo Rainer Podlesch Mattheus Pronk Gaby Minneboo

9780810873698_WEB.indb 348

RSA NOR NED FRA GBR GBR USA FRA GER GER SUI GBR GBR FRA GBR GBR GBR BEL GBR GBR NED GDR NED GDR NED BEL BEL NED ESP NED NED ITA NED NED FRG FRG FRG FRG NED NED NED FRG NED NED

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Mattheus Pronk Gaby Minneboo Rainer Podlesch Jan de Nijs Roberto Dotti Mario Gentili Mario Gentili † Roland Königshofer Roland Königshofer Roland Königshofer Carsten Podlesch

• 349

NED NED FRG NED ITA ITA ITA AUT AUT AUT GER

†Title vacated after Vincenzo Colamartino (ITA) was disqualified for doping positive.

Table 91. Men’s track: Tandem (amateur, discontinued after 1994) 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

9780810873698_WEB.indb 349

Pierre Trentin, Daniel Morelon Bruno Gonzato, Dino Verzini Giordano Turrini, Walter Gorini Hans-Jürgen Geschke, Werner Otto Jürgen Barth, Rainer Müller Hans-Jürgen Geschke, Werner Otto Vladimir Vackar, Miloslav Vymazal Vladimir Vackar, Miloslav Vymazal Benedyct Kocot, Janusz Kotlinski Benedyct Kocot, Janusz Kotlinski Vladimir Vackar, Miloslav Vymazal Vladimir Vackar, Miloslav Vymazal Yavé Cahard, Franck Depine Ivan Kucirek, Pavel Martinek Ivan Kucirek, Pavel Martinek Ivan Kucirek, Pavel Martinek Philippe Vernet, Franck Depine Franck Weber, Jürgen Greil Vitezslav Voboril, Roman Rehounek Vitezslav Voboril, Roman Rehounek Fabrice Colas, Frédéric Magné Fabrice Colas, Frédéric Magné Fabrice Colas, Frédéric Magné Gianluca Capitano, Federico Paris Emanuel Raasch, Eyk Pokorny Gianluca Capitano, Federico Paris Federico Paris, Roberto Chiappa Fabrice Colas, Frédéric Magné

FRA ITA ITA GDR GDR GDR TCH TCH POL POL TCH TCH FRA TCH TCH TCH FRA FRG TCH TCH FRA FRA FRA ITA GER ITA ITA FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

350 •

APPENDIX F

CYCLO-CROSS RACING Table 92. Men’s cyclo-cross (professional, elite since 1994) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995

Jean Robic Roger Rondeaux Roger Rondeaux Roger Rondeaux Andrè Dufraisse Andrè Dufraisse Andrè Dufraisse Andrè Dufraisse Andrè Dufraisse Renato Longo Rolf Wolfshohl Rolf Wolfshohl Renato Longo Rolf Wolfshohl Renato Longo Renato Longo Eric De Vlaeminck Renato Longo Eric De Vlaeminck Eric De Vlaeminck Eric De Vlaeminck Eric De Vlaeminck Eric De Vlaeminck Eric De Vlaeminck Albert “Berten” Van Damme Roger De Vlaeminck Albert Zweifel Albert Zweifel Albert Zweifel Albert Zweifel Roland Liboton Hennie Stamsnijder Roland Liboton Roland Liboton Roland Liboton Klaus-Peter Thaler Albert Zweifel Klaus-Peter Thaler Pascal Richard Danny De Bie Henk Baars Radomír Šimunek, Sr. Mike Kluge Dominique Arnould Paul Herijgers Dieter Runkel

9780810873698_WEB.indb 350

FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA ITA FRG FRG ITA FRG ITA ITA BEL ITA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL SUI SUI SUI SUI BEL NED BEL BEL BEL FRG SUI FRG SUI FRG NED TCH FRG FRA GER SUI

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Adrie van der Poel Daniele Pontoni Mario De Clercq Mario De Clercq Richard Groenendaal Erwin Vervecken Mario De Clercq Bart Wellens Bart Wellens Sven Nys Erwin Vervecken Erwin Vervecken Lars Boom Niels Albert Zdeneˇ k Štybar Zdeneˇk Štybar

• 351

NED ITA BEL BEL NED BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL NED GER CZE CZE

Table 93. Women’s cyclo-cross 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Hanka Kupfernagel Hanka Kupfernagel Laurence Leboucher Daphny van den Brand Laurence Leboucher Hanka Kupfernagel Marianne Vos Maryline Salvetat Hanka Kupfernagel Marianne Vos Marianne Vos Marianne Vos

GER GER FRA NED FRA GER NED FRA GER NED NED NED

Table 94. Men’s cyclo-cross (amateur, discontinued after 1993) 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977

Michel Pelchat Roger De Vlaeminck René De Clercq Robert Vermeire Robert Vermeire Norbert Dedeckere Klaus-Peter Thaler Robert Vermeire Robert Vermeire Klaus-Peter Thaler Robert Vermeire

FRA BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL FRG BEL BEL FRG BEL (continued)

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352 •

APPENDIX F

Table 94. (continued) 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993

Roland Liboton Vito Di Tano Fritz Saladin Miloš Fišera Miloš Fišera Radomír Šimunek Sr. Radomír Šimunek Sr. Mike Kluge Vito Di Tano Mike Kluge Karel Camrda Ondrej Glajza Andreas Büsser Thomas Frischknecht Daniele Pontoni Henrik Djernis

BEL ITA SUI TCH TCH TCH TCH FRG ITA FRG TCH TCH SUI SUI ITA DEN

MOUNTAIN-BIKE RACING Table 95. Men’s mountain bike: Cross-country 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Ned Overend John Tomac Henrik Djernis Henrik Djernis Henrik Djernis Bart Brentjens Thomas Frischknecht Hubert Pallhuber Christophe Dupouey Michael Rasmussen Miguel Martinez Roland Green Roland Green Filip Meirhaeghe Julien Absalon Julien Absalon Julien Absalon Julien Absalon Christoph Sauser Nino Schurter José Antonio Hermida

USA USA DEN DEN DEN NED SUI ITA FRA DEN FRA CAN CAN BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA SUI SUI ESP

Table 96. Men’s mountain bike: Downhill 1990 1991

Greg Herbold Albert Iten

9780810873698_WEB.indb 352

USA SUI

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Dave Cullinan Mike King François Gachet Nicolas Vouilloz Nicolas Vouilloz Nicolas Vouilloz Nicolas Vouilloz Nicolas Vouilloz Myles Rockwell Nicolas Vouilloz Nicolas Vouilloz Greg Minnaar Fabien Barel Fabien Barel Sam Hill Sam Hill Gee Atherton Steve Peat Sam Hill

• 353

USA USA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA USA FRA FRA RSA FRA FRA AUS AUS GBR GBR AUS

Table 97. Men’s mountain bike: Dual slalom (discontinued after 2001) 2000 2001

Wade Bootes Brian Lopes

AUS USA

Table 98. Men’s mountain bike: Four-cross 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Brian Lopes Michal Prokop Eric Carter Brian Lopes Michal Prokop Brian Lopes Rafael Álvarez Jared Graves Tomáš Slavík

USA CZE USA USA CZE USA ESP AUS CZE

Table 99. Men’s mountain bike: Marathon 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 353

Thomas Frischknecht Massimo De Bertolis Thomas Frischknecht Ralf Näf Christoph Sauser Roel Paulissen Roel Paulissen Alban Lakata

SUI ITA SUI SUI SUI BEL BEL AUT

8/11/11 6:58 AM

354 •

APPENDIX F

Table 100. Mixed mountain bike: Team relay 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Roberto Lezaun, Margarita Fullana, Carlos Colomo, José Antonio Hermida Roberto Lezaun, Margarita Fullana, Inaki Lejarreta Errasti, José Antonio Hermida Ryder Hesjedal, Roland Green, Adam Coates, Chrissy Redden Ryder Hesjedal, Alison Sydor, Roland Green, Maximilian Plaxton Marcin Karczynski, Piotr Formicki, Anna Szafraniecz, Kryspin Pyrgies Geoff Kabush, Maximilian Plaxton, Kiara Bisaro, Raphaël Cagne Rubén Ruzafa, Oliver Avilés, Rocio Gaminal, José Antonio Hermida Florian Vogel, Martin Fanger, Petra Henzi, Nino Schurter Florian Vogel, Thomas Litscher, Petra Henzi, Nino Schurter Jean-Christophe Peraud, Arnaud Jouffroy, Laurence Leboucher, Alexis Vuillermoz Marco Aurelio Fontana, Gerhard Kerschbaumer, Eva Lechner, Cristian Cominelli Thomas Litscher, Roger Walder, Ralph Näf, Katrin Leumann

ESP ESP CAN CAN POL CAN ESP SUI SUI FRA ITA SUI

Table 101. Women’s mountain bike: Cross-country 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Juli Furtado Ruthie Matthes Silvia Furst Paola Pezzo Alison Sydor Alison Sydor Alison Sydor Paola Pezzo Laurence Leboucher Margarita Fullana Margarita Fullana Alison Dunlap Gunn-Rita Dahle Sabine Spitz Gunn-Rita Dahle Gunn-Rita Dahle Gunn-Rita Dahle Irina Kalentiyeva Margarita Fullana Irina Kalentiyeva Maja Włoszczowska

USA USA SUI ITA CAN CAN CAN ITA FRA ESP ESP USA NOR GER NOR NOR NOR RUS ESP RUS POL

Table 102. Women’s mountain bike: Downhill 1990 1991 1992

Cindy Devine Giovanna Bonazzi Juli Furtado

9780810873698_WEB.indb 354

CAN ITA USA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Giovanna Bonazzi Missy Giove Leigh Donovan Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Vanessa Quin Anne-Caroline Chausson Sabrina Jonnier Sabrina Jonnier Rachel Atherton Emmeline Ragot Tracy Moseley

• 355

ITA USA USA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA NZL FRA FRA FRA GBR FRA GBR

Table 103. Women’s mountain bike: Dual slalom (discontinued after 2001) 2000 2001

Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson

FRA FRA

Table 104. Women’s mountain bike: Four-cross 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Anne-Caroline Chausson Anne-Caroline Chausson Jana Horáková Jill Kintner Jill Kintner Jill Kintner Melissa Buhl Caroline Buchanan Caroline Buchanan

FRA FRA CZE USA USA USA USA AUS AUS

Table 105. Women’s mountain bike: Marathon 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 355

Maja Włoszczowska Gunn-Rita Dahle Gunn-Rita Dahle Gunn-Rita Dahle Petra Henzi Gunn-Rita Dahle Sabine Spitz Esther Süss

POL NOR NOR NOR SUI NOR GER SUI

8/11/11 6:58 AM

356 •

APPENDIX F

BMX RACING Table 106. Men’s BMX: Regular (amateur until 1995, elite since 1996) 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Phil Hoogendoorn Craig Schofield Phil Hoogendoorn Mike King David Kastler Eric Minozzi Wilco Groenendaal Christophe Lévêque Wilco Groenendaal Gary Ellis Danny Nelson Christophe Lévêque Dale Holmes John Purse Thomas Allier Robert de Wilde Thomas Allier Dale Holmes Kyle Bennett Kyle Bennett Warwick Stevenson Bubba Harris Javier Colombo Kyle Bennett Ma¯ris Štrombergs Donny Robinson Ma¯ris Štrombergs

NED GBR NED USA FRA FRA NED FRA NED USA USA FRA GBR USA FRA NED FRA GBR USA USA AUS USA ARG USA LAT USA LAT

Table 107. Men’s BMX: Cruiser (amateur until 1995, elite since 1996) 1984 1985 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Phil Hoogendoorn Phil Hoogendoorn Patrick Dewael Claude Vuillemot Kenny May Bas de Bever Bas de Bever Bas de Bever Christophe Lévêque Jason Richardson Jamie Staff Christophe Lévêque Christophe Lévêque Christophe Lévêque Mario Andres Soto Eschebach

9780810873698_WEB.indb 356

NED NED BEL FRA USA NED NED NED FRA USA GBR FRA FRA FRA COL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Christophe Lévêque Randy Stumpfhauser Randy Stumpfhauser Randy Stumpfhauser Randy Stumpfhauser Donny Robinson Jonathan Suarez Thomas Hamon Ivo van der Putten Renato Rezende

• 357

FRA USA USA USA USA USA VEN FRA NED BRA

Table 108. Women’s BMX: Regular 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Kim Johnson Monique Franssen Pauline Williams Jameson Hendler Sarah James Nichols Anita van de Mortel Anita van de Mortel Frona Langfeldt Melanie van Deene Corine Dorland Christelle Lesaout Corine Dorland Corine Dorland Sabine Caballe Natarsha Williams Michelle Cairns Rachael Marshall Audrey Pichol Natarsha Williams Gabriella Diaz Gabriella Diaz Elodie Ajinca Gabriella Diaz Willy Kanis Willy Kanis Shanaze Reade Shanaze Reade Sarah Walker Shanaze Reade

USA NED AUS USA GBR NED NED AUS NED NED FRA NED NED FRA AUS USA AUS FRA AUS ARG ARG FRA ARG NED NED GBR GBR NZL GBR

Table 109. Women’s BMX: Cruiser 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

9780810873698_WEB.indb 357

Laëtitia Le Corguillé Sarah Walker Magalie Pottier Sarah Walker Mariana Pajon

FRA NZL FRA NZL COL

8/11/11 6:58 AM

358 •

APPENDIX F

Table 110. Men’s BMX: Regular (professional, discontinued after 1990) 1982 1983 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990

Greg Hill Clint Miller Gary Ellis Tommy Brackens Gary Ellis Gary Ellis Charles Townsend Pete Loncarevitch

USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Table 111. Men’s BMX: Cruiser (professional, discontinued after 1990) 1982 1983 1985 1987 1989

Brent Patterson Matt Harris Greg Hill Eric Rupe Eric Rupe

USA USA USA USA USA

TRIALS Table 112. Men’s trials: 20-inch 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Alfonso Méndez Joël Gavillet Jesús Hurtado Jesús Hurtado Elias Bonet Michael Mesick Juan Pedro García Marco Hösel Daniel Comas Rafal Kumorowski Marco Hösel Benito Ros Charral Benito Ros Charral Benito Ros Charral Marco Hösel Benito Ros Charral Benito Ros Charral Benito Ros Charral Benito Ros Charral

ESP SUI ESP ESP ESP GER ESP GER ESP POL GER ESP ESP ESP GER ESP ESP ESP ESP

Table 113. Men’s trials: 26-inch 1996 1997

Thierry Girard Thierry Girard

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FRA FRA

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Bruno Arnold Marc Caisso Marc Vinco Marc Caisso Kenny Belaey Giacomo Coustellier Daniel Comas Kenny Belaey Kenny Belaey Vincent Hermance Gilles Coustellier Gilles Coustellier Kenny Belaey

• 359

FRA FRA FRA FRA BEL FRA ESP BEL BEL FRA FRA FRA BEL

Table 114. Women’s trials 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Karin Moor Karin Moor Karin Moor Karin Moor Karin Moor Karin Moor Karin Moor Gemma Abant Condal Karin Moor Gemma Abant Condal

SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI SUI ESP SUI ESP

CYCLE-BALL Table 115. Men 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952

Karl Berndt, Willi Scheibe Wilhelm Schreiber, Eugen Blersch Wilhelm Schreiber, Eugen Blersch Wilhelm Schreiber, Eugen Blersch Wilhelm Schreiber, Eugen Blersch Wilhelm Schreiber, Eugen Blersch Gustav Köping, Eugen Blersch Wilhelm Schreiber, Eugen Blersch Gustav Köping, Karl Schäfter Walter Osterwalder, Walter Gabler Walter Osterwalder, Jakob Engler František Sedlacˇ ek, Bohumil Daneš Walter Gebs, Ottavio Zollet Walter Osterwalder, Rudolf Breitenmoser Walter Osterwalder, Rudolf Breitenmoser Walter Osterwalder, Rudolf Breitenmoser

GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER SUI SUI TCH SUI SUI SUI SUI (continued)

9780810873698_WEB.indb 359

8/11/11 6:58 AM

360 •

APPENDIX F

Table 115. (continued) 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

Walter Osterwalder, Rudolf Breitenmoser Rudolf Breitenmoser, Fritz Flachsmann Rudi Pensel, Willi Pensel Walter Osterwalder, Rudolf Breitenmoser Rudi Pensel, Willi Pensel Gerd Martin, Gerhard Degenkolb Oskar Buchholz, Karl Buchholz Adolf Oberhänsli, Erwin Oberhänsli Oskar Buchholz, Karl Buchholz Oskar Buchholz, Karl Buchholz Oskar Buchholz, Karl Buchholz Oskar Buchholz, Karl Buchholz Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Gerd Martin, Erich Dusin Werner Wenzel, Günter Bittendorf Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Thomas Steinmeier, Andreas Steinmeier Thomas Steinmeier, Andreas Steinmeier Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Jan Pospíšil, Jindrˇich Pospíšil Miroslav Berger, Miroslav Kratochvil Thomas Steinmeier, Andreas Steinmeier Jürgen King, Werner King Jürgen King, Werner King Peter Kern, Marcel Bosshart Jürgen King, Werner King Peter Kern, Marcel Bosshart Peter Kern, Marcel Bosshart Peter Kern, Marcel Bosshart Jörg Latzel, Karsten Hormann Christoph Hauri, Peter Jiricˇ ek Michael Lomuscio, Sandro Lomuscio Michael Lomuscio, Sandro Lomuscio Peter Jiricˇ ek, Paul Loser

9780810873698_WEB.indb 360

SUI SUI FRG SUI FRG GDR FRG SUI FRG FRG FRG FRG TCH GDR FRG TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH FRG FRG TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH GER GER GER SUI GER SUI SUI SUI GER SUI GER GER SUI

8/11/11 6:58 AM

WORLD CHAMPIONS

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Miroslav Berger, Jirˇi Hrdlicˇ ka Pavel Smid, Petr Skotak Mike Pfaffenberger, Steve Pfaffenberger Thomas Abel, Christian Hess Thomas Abel, Christian Hess Jirˇi Hrdlicˇ ka, Radim Hason Marcel Waldispühl, Peter Jiricˇ ek Matthias König, Uwe Berner

• 361

CZE CZE GER GER GER CZE SUI GER

ARTISTIC CYCLING Table 116. Men’s artistic cycling: Individual 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

Arnold Tschopp Arnold Tschopp Heinz Pfeifer Heinz Pfeifer Arnold Tschopp Arnold Tschopp Arnold Tschopp Arnold Tschopp Hans Thissen Hans Thissen Willi Eichin Gerhard Blotny Manfred Maute Gerhard Blotny Willi Eichin Manfred Maute Manfred Maute Gerhard Obert Gerhard Obert Gerhard Obert Kurt Hunsänger Kurt Hunsänger Kurt Hunsänger Franz Kratochwil Franz Kratochwil Franz Kratochwil Franz Kratochwil Peter Nieratschker Markus Maggi Markus Maggi Dieter Maute Dieter Maute Harry Bodmer Harry Bodmer

SUI SUI FRG FRG SUI SUI SUI SUI FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG SUI SUI FRG FRG FRG FRG (continued)

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362 •

APPENDIX F

Table 116. (continued) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Dietmar Ingelfinger Harry Bodmer Harry Bodmer Dieter Maute Dieter Maute Dieter Maute Jens Schmitt Martin Rominger Martin Rominger Martin Rominger Martin Rominger Martin Rominger Martin Rominger Martin Rominger Arnost Pokorny David Schnabel David Schnabel Robin Hartmann David Schnabel David Schnabel David Schnabel

FRG GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER CZE GER GER GER GER GER GER

Table 117. Men’s artistic cycling: Pairs (mixed since 2008) 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Markus Dreher, Armin Jurisch Markus Dreher, Armin Jurisch Markus Dreher, Armin Jurisch Andreas and Sascha Weil Theo Benz, Armin Prinz Matthias Schlecht, Michael Böpple Stefan Raaf, Michael Roth Stefan Raaf, Michael Roth Stefan Raaf, Michael Roth Stefan Raaf, Michael Roth Michael and Heiko Rauch Michael and Heiko Rauch Stefan Raaf, Michael Roth Michael and Heiko Rauch Stefan Raaf, Michael Roth Simon Altvater, Nico Kunert Simon Altvater, Nico Kunert Simon Altvater, Nico Kunert Simon Altvater, Nico Kunert Simon Altvater, Nico Kunert Simon Altvater, Nico Kunert Felix and Jonas Niederberger Viktor Volk, Manuel Huber Stefan Rauch, Ann-Kathrin Egert Stefan Rauch, Ann-Kathrin Egert

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FRG FRG FRG FRG GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER

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WORLD CHAMPIONS

• 363

Table 118. Women’s artistic cycling: Individual 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Edith Beneke Anna Matousková Gisela Florack Gisela Florack Gerhild Bauer Gerhild Bauer Annemarie Fehr Gerhild Bauer Anna Matousková Annemarie Flaig Annemarie Flaig Annemarie Flaig Annemarie Flaig-Schlosser Annemarie Flaig-Schlosser Elisabeth Binanzer Anna Matousková Anna Matousková Anna Matousková Anna Matousková Gabi Höhler Anna Matousková Eliane Maggi Petra Bender Maria Beerlage Maria Beerlage Gudrun Regele Eliane Maggi Heike Marklein Marianne Martens Marianne Martens Heike Marklein Claudia Dreher Iris Kurz Iris Kurz Iris Kurz Andrea Barth Andrea Barth Andrea Barth Sandra Schlosser Martina Štepánková Martina Štepánková Astrid Ruckaberle Martin Rominger Martina Štepánková Astrid Ruckaberle Claudia Wieland Claudia Wieland Sarah Kohl

FRG TCH FRG FRG FRG FRG AUT FRG TCH FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG FRG TCH TCH TCH TCH FRG TCH SUI FRG FRG FRG FRG SUI FRG SUI SUI FRG GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER CZE CZE GER GER CZE GER GER GER AUT (continued)

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364 •

APPENDIX F

Table 118. (continued) 2007 2008 2009 2010

Anja Scheu Anja Scheu Corinna Hein Denise Boller

GER GER GER AUT

Table 119. Women’s artistic cycling: Pairs 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Manuela Kramp, Stefanie Teuber Brigitte Franz, Sabine Franz Martina Heimpel, Hildegard Wahl Doris te Vrugt, Sabine Ostendorf Angelika Ziegler, Sylvia Steegmüller Ivonne Carvalho, Carmen Carvalho Tanja Wittig, Bianca Heller Ivonne Carvalho, Carmen Carvalho Angelika Ziegler, Sylvia Steegmüller Angelika Ziegler, Sylvia Steegmüller Susanne Seifert, Kerstin Stark Yvonne Jäger, Katja Schelshorn Ivonne Carvalho, Carmen Carvalho Sabrina Theiner, Sarah Kohl Ivonne Carvalho, Carmen Carvalho Sandra Steegmüller, Katrin Ludwig Carolin Ingelfinger, Katja Knaack Carolin Ingelfinger, Katja Knaack Carolin Ingelfinger, Katja Knaack Carolin Ingelfinger, Katja Knaack Carolin Ingelfinger, Katja Knaack Katrin Schultheis, Sandra Sprinkmeier Katrin Schultheis, Sandra Sprinkmeier Katrin Schultheis, Sandra Sprinkmeier Jasmin Soika, Katharina Wurster

FRG AUT FRG FRG GER POR GER POR GER GER GER GER POR AUT POR GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER GER

Table 120. Women’s artistic cycling: Quartets 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Marketa Toboliková, Jana Oplocká, Katerina Pribylová, Michaela Matousková Annika Wöhler, Ivonne Carvalho, Carmen Carvalho-Becker, Alexandra Pawletta Manuela Dieterle, Katja Gaißer, Ines Rudolf, Simone Rudolf Kathrin Hagen, Melanie Melbinger, Silke Melbinger, Martina Schwar Manuela Dieterle, Katja Gaißer, Ines Rudolf, Simone Rudolf Katharina Gülich, Sonja Mauermeier, Ramona Strassner, RuthMaria Weiand

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CZE GER GER AUT GER GER

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Appendix G: Olympic Champions

Table 121. Men’s road race: Individual 1896 1906 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Aristidis Konstantinidis Fernand Vast Rudolph Lewis Harry Stenqvist Armand Blanchonnet Henry Hansen Attilio Pavesi Robert Charpentier José Beyaert André Noyelle Ercole Baldini Viktor Kapitonov Mario Zanin Pierfranco Vianelli Hennie Kuiper Bernt Johansson Sergey Sukhoruchenkov Alexi Grewal Olaf Ludwig Fabio Casartelli Pascal Richard Jan Ullrich Paolo Bettini Samuel Sánchez

GRE FRA RSA SWE FRA DEN ITA FRA FRA BEL ITA URS ITA ITA NED SWE URS USA GDR ITA SUI GER ITA ESP

Table 122. Men’s sprint 1896 1900 1906 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948

Paul Masson Georges Taillandier Francesco Verri Maurice Peeters Lucien Michard Roger Beaufrand Jacobus van Egmond Toni Merkens Mario Ghella

FRA FRA ITA NED FRA FRA NED GER ITA (continued)

365

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366 •

APPENDIX G

Table 122. (continued) 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Enzo Sacchi Michel Rousseau Sante Gaiardoni Giovanni Pettenella Daniel Morelon Daniel Morelon Anton Tkácˇ Lutz Heßlich Mark Gorski Lutz Heßlich Jens Fiedler Jens Fiedler Marty Nothstein Ryan Bayley Chris Hoy

ITA FRA ITA ITA FRA FRA TCH GDR USA GDR GER GER USA AUS GBR

Table 123. Men’s team pursuit: 4,000 m (1,980 yards in 1908) 1908 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996

Leon Meredith, Ben Jones, Ernie Payne, Clarence Kingsbury Franco Giorgetti, Ruggero Ferrario, Arnaldo Carli, Primo Magnani Angelo De Martini, Alfredo Dinale, Aurelio Menegazzi, Francesco Zucchetti Luigi Tasselli, Giacomo Gaioni, Cesare Facciani, Mario Lusiani Marco Cimatti, Paolo Pedretti, Alberto Ghilardi, Nino Borsari Robert Charpentier, Jean Goujon, Guy Lapébie, Roger Le Nizerhy Charles Costé, Serge Blusson, Fernand Decanali, Pierre Adam Marino Morettini, Guido Messina, Mino De Rossi, Loris Campana Leandro Faggin, Valentino Gasparella, Antonio Domenicali, Franco Gandini, Virginio Pizzali Luigi Arienti, Franco Testa, Mario Vallotto, Marino Vigna Lothar Cläsges, Karl-Heinz Heinrichs, Karl Link, Ernst Streng Gunnar Asmussen, Reno Olsen, Mogens Frey Jensen, Per Lyngemark Jürgen Colombo, Günter Haritz, Udo Hempel, Günther Schumacher, Peter Vonhof Gregor Braun, Hans Lutz, Günther Schumacher, Peter Vonhof Viktor Manakov, Valery Movchan, Vladimir Osokin, Vitaly Petrakov, Aleksandr Krasnov Michael Grenda, Kevin Nichols, Michael Turtur, Dean Woods Vyacheslav Yekimov, Artu¯ ras Kasputis, Dmitry Nelyubin, Gintautas Umaras, Mindaugas Umaras Michael Glöckner, Jens Lehmann, Stefan Steinweg, Guido Fulst, Andreas Walzer Christophe Capelle, Philippe Ermenault, Jean-Michel Monin, Francis Moreau

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GBR ITA ITA ITA ITA FRA FRA ITA ITA ITA GER DEN FRG FRG URS AUS URS GER FRA

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OLYMPIC CHAMPIONS

2000 2004 2008

Guido Fulst, Robert Bartko, Daniel Becke, Jens Lehmann, Olaf Pollack Graeme Brown, Brett Lancaster, Brad McGee, Luke Roberts, Peter Dawson, Stephen Wooldridge Ed Clancy, Paul Manning, Geraint Thomas, Bradley Wiggins

• 367 GER AUS GBR

Table 124. Men’s individual pursuit: 4,000 m 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Jirˇí Daler Daniel Rebillard Knut Knudsen Gregor Braun Robert Dill-Bundi Steve Hegg Gintautas Umaras Chris Boardman Andrea Collinelli Robert Bartko Bradley Wiggins Bradley Wiggins

TCH FRA NOR FRG SUI USA URS GBR ITA GER GBR GBR

Table 125. Men’s points race 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Roger Ilegems Dan Frost Giovanni Lombardi Silvio Martinello Joan Llaneras Mikhail Ignatyev Joan Llaneras

BEL DEN ITA ITA ESP RUS ESP

Table 126. Men’s individual time trial 1996 2000 2004 2008

Miguel Induráin Vyacheslav Yekimov Tyler Hamilton Fabian Cancellara

ESP RUS USA SUI

Table 127. Men’s mountain bike: Cross-country 1996 2000 2004 2008

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Bart Brentjens Miguel Martinez Julien Absalon Julien Absalon

NED FRA FRA FRA

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368 •

APPENDIX G

Table 128. Men’s keirin 2000 2004 2008

Florian Rousseau Ryan Bayley Chris Hoy

FRA AUS GBR

Table 129. Men’s Madison 2000 2004 2008

Scott McGrory, Brett Aitken Graeme Brown, Stuart O’Grady Juan Esteban Curuchet, Walter Pérez

AUS AUS ARG

Table 130. Men’s team sprint 2000 2004 2008

Laurent Gané, Florian Rousseau, Arnaud Tournant Jens Fiedler, Stefan Nimke, René Wolff Chris Hoy, Jason Kenny, Jamie Staff

FRA GER GBR

Table 131. Men’s BMX 2008

Ma¯ris Štrombergs

LAT

Table 132. Women’s road race: Individual 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Connie Carpenter-Phinney Monique Knol Kathy Watt Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Sara Carrigan Nicole Cooke

USA NED AUS FRA NED AUS GBR

Table 133. Women’s sprint 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Erika Salumäe Erika Salumäe Félicia Ballanger Félicia Ballanger Lori-Ann Muenzer Vicki Pendleton

URS EST FRA FRA CAN GBR

Table 134. Women’s individual pursuit: 3,000 m 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008

Petra Roßner Antonella Bellutti Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Sarah Ulmer Rebecca Romero

9780810873698_WEB.indb 368

GER ITA NED NZL GBR

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OLYMPIC CHAMPIONS

• 369

Table 135. Women’s individual time trial 1996 2000 2004 2008

Zulfiya Zabirova Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel Kristin Armstrong

RUS NED NED USA

Table 136. Women’s mountain bike: Cross-country 1996 2000 2004 2008

Paola Pezzo Paola Pezzo Gunn Rita Dahle-Flesjå Sabine Spitz

ITA ITA NOR GER

Table 137. Women’s points race 1996 2000 2004 2008

Nathalie Even-Lancien Antonella Bellutti Olga Slyusaryeva Marianne Vos

FRA ITA RUS NED

Table 138. Women’s BMX 2008

Anne-Caroline Chausson

FRA

DISCONTINUED EVENTS Table 139. Men’s time trial: 1,000 meters 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004

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Willy Falck Hansen Edgar “Dunc” Gray Arie van Vliet Jacques Dupont Russell Mockridge Leandro Faggin Sante Gaiardoni Patrick Sercu Pierre Trentin Niels Fredborg Klaus-Jürgen Grünke Lothar Thoms Fredy Schmidtke Aleksandr Kirichenko José Manuel Moreno Florian Rousseau Jason Queally Chris Hoy

DEN AUS NED FRA AUS ITA ITA BEL FRA DEN GDR GDR FRG URS ESP FRA GBR GBR

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370 •

APPENDIX G

Table 140. Men’s team time trial: 100 km 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992

Antonio Bailetti, Ottavio Cogliati, Giacomo Fornoni, Livio Trapè Eef Dolman, Gerben Karstens, Jan Pieterse, Bart Zoet Fedor den Hertog, Jan Krekels, René Pijnen, Joop Zoetemelk Boris Shukhov, Valery Yardy, Gennady Komnatov, Valery Likhachyov Anatoly Chukanov, Valery Chaplygin, Vladimir Kaminsky, Aavo Pikkuus Yury Kashirin, Oleg Logvin, Sergey Shelpakov, Anatoly Yarkin Marcello Bartalini, Marco Giovannetti, Eros Poli, Claudio Vandelli Uwe Ampler, Mario Kummer, Maik Landsmann, Jan Schur Bernd Dittert, Christian Meyer, Uwe Peschel, Michael Rich

ITA NED NED URS URS URS ITA GDR GER

Table 141. Men’s tandem sprint: 2,000 m 1906 1908 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972

John Matthews, Arthur Rushen Maurice Schilles, André Auffray Harry Ryan, Thomas Lance Lucien Choury, Jean Cugnot Bernard Leene, Daan van Dijk Maurice Perrin, Louis Chaillot Ernst Ihbe, Carl Lorenz Ferdinando Terruzzi, Renato Perona Lionel Cox, Russell Mockridge Ian Browne, Anthony Marchant Giuseppe Beghetto, Sergio Bianchetto Angelo Damiano, Sergio Bianchetto Daniel Morelon, Pierre Trentin Vladimir Semenets, Igor Tselovalnikov

GBR FRA GBR FRA NED FRA GER ITA AUS AUS ITA ITA FRA URS

Table 142. Men’s team road race 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956

Erik Friborg, Ragnar Malm, Axel Wilhelm Persson, Algot Lönn Fernand Canteloube, Georges Detreille, Achille Souchard, Marcel Gobillot Armand Blanchonnet, René Hamel, Georges Wambst Henry Hansen, Leo Nielsen, Orla Jørgensen Attilio Pavesi, Guglielmo Segato, Giuseppe Olmo Robert Charpentier, Guy Lapébie, Robert Dorgebray Lode Wouters, Leon De Lathouwer, Eugène Van Roosbroeck André Noyelle, Robert Grondelaers, Lucien Victor Arnaud Geyre, Maurice Moucheraud, Michel Vermeulin

SWE FRA FRA DEN ITA FRA BEL BEL FRA

Table 143. Men’s 50 km 1920 1924

Henry George Ko Willems

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BEL NED

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OLYMPIC CHAMPIONS

• 371

Table 144. Men’s 100 km 1896 1908

Léon Flameng Charles Bartlett

FRA GBR

Table 145. Men’s 20 km 1906 1908

Billy Pett Clarence Kingsbury

GBR GBR

Table 146. Men’s 5,000 m 1906 1908

Francesco Verri Ben Jones

ITA GBR

Table 147. Men’s sprint: 660 yards 1908

Victor Johnson

GBR

Table 148. Men’s time trial: 3333 m 1896 1906

Paul Masson Francesco Verri

FRA ITA

Table 149. Men’s 3 mile 1904

Marcus Hurley

USA

Table 150. Men’s ¼ mile 1904

Marcus Hurley

USA

Table 151. Men’s ½ mile 1904

Marcus Hurley

USA

Table 152. Men’s 1 mile 1904

Marcus Hurley

USA

Table 153. Men’s 2 mile 1904

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Burton Downing

USA

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372 •

APPENDIX G

Table 154. Men’s 5 mile 1904

Charles Schlee

USA

Table 155. Men’s 25 mile 1904

Burton Downing

USA

Table 156. Men’s 25 km 1900

Louis Bastien

FRA

Table 157. Men’s Course De Primes 1900

Enrico Brusoni

ITA

Table 158. Men’s 10,000 m 1896

Paul Masson

FRA

Table 159. Men’s 12-hour race 1896

Adolf Schmal

AUT

Table 160. Women’s time trial: 500 m 2000 2004

Félicia Ballanger Anna Meares

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FRA AUS

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Appendix H: Seasonal Awards

Table 161. Challenge Desgrange-Colombo 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958

Briek Schotte Fausto Coppi Ferdi Kübler Ferdi Kübler Ferdi Kübler Loretto Petrucci Ferdi Kübler Stan Ockers Fred De Bruyne Fred De Bruyne Fred De Bruyne

BEL ITA SUI SUI SUI ITA SUI BEL BEL BEL BEL

Table 162. Super Prestige Pernod 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

Henri Anglade Jean Graczyk Jacques Anquetil Jo de Roo Jacques Anquetil Raymond Poulidor Jacques Anquetil Jacques Anquetil Jan Janssen Herman Van Springel Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Eddy Merckx Freddy Maertens Freddy Maertens Francesco Moser Bernard Hinault

FRA FRA FRA NED FRA FRA FRA FRA NED BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL BEL ITA FRA (continued)

373

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374 •

APPENDIX H

Table 162. (continued) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987

Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Bernard Hinault Greg LeMond Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Sean Kelly Stephen Roche

FRA FRA FRA USA IRL IRL IRL IRL

Table 163. UCI Road World Cup 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Sean Kelly Gianni Bugno Maurizio Fondriest Olaf Ludwig Maurizio Fondriest Gianluca Bortolami Johan Museeuw Johan Museeuw Michele Bartoli Michele Bartoli Andreï Tchmil Erik Zabel Erik Dekker Paolo Bettini Paolo Bettini Paolo Bettini

IRL ITA ITA GER ITA ITA BEL BEL ITA ITA BEL GER NED ITA ITA ITA

Table 164. UCI ProTour / UCI World Ranking / UCI WorldTour 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Danilo Di Luca Alejandro Valverde Cadel Evans Alejandro Valverde Alberto Contador Joaquim Rodríguez

ITA ESP AUS ESP ESP ESP

Table 165. Super Prestige Pernod féminin 1985 1986 1987

Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo Jeannie Longo

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FRA FRA FRA

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SEASONAL AWARDS

• 375

Table 166. UCI Women’s Road World Cup 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

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Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Anna Wilson Diana Žiliu¯ te˙ Anna Millward-Wilson Petra Rossner Nicole Cooke Oenone Wood Oenone Wood Nicole Cooke Marianne Vos Judith Arndt Marianne Vos Marianne Vos

LTU AUS LTU AUS GER GBR AUS AUS GBR NED GER NED NED

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Appendix I: World Hour and Speed Records

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1873 25 March 1876 1877 1878 1879 2 August 1882 1887 11 May 1893 31 October 1894 30 July 1897 3 July 1898 24 August 1905 20 June 1907 26 August 1912 7 August 1913 21 August 1913 21 September 1913 18 June 1914 25 August 1933 29 August 1933 31 October 1935 14 October 1936 29 September 1937 4 November 1937 7 November 1942 29 June 1956 19 September 1956 18 September 1957 23 September 1958 30 October 1967 10 October 1968 25 October 1972 27 October 2000 19 July 2005

James Moore Frank Dodds Shopee Weir Christie Herbert Lydell Cortis Jules Dubois Henri Desgrange Jules Dubois Marcel Van Den Eynde Willie Hamilton Lucien Petit-Breton Marcel Berthet Oscar Egg Marcel Berthet Oscar Egg Marcel Berthet Oscar Egg Jan van Hout Maurice Richard Giuseppe Olmo Maurice Richard Frans Slaats Maurice Archambaud Fausto Coppi Jacques Anquetil Ercole Baldini Roger Rivière Roger Rivière Ferdi Bracke Ole Ritter Eddy Merckx Chris Boardman Ondrˇej Sosenka

GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR FRA FRA FRA BEL USA FRA FRA SUI FRA SUI FRA SUI NED FRA ITA FRA NED FRA ITA FRA ITA FRA FRA BEL DEN BEL GBR CZE

Wolverhampton, England Cambridge, England Cambridge, England Oxford, England Oxford, England England London, England Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Velodrome Municipale, Vincennes, France Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Roermond, Netherlands Sint-Truiden, Belgium Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Olympic Velodrome, Rome, Italy Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Manchester Cycling Centre, Manchester, England Krylatskoje Olympic Velodrome, Moscow, Russia

Table 167. UCI men’s athletes’ hour record (marks prior to 1893 are pre-ICA/UCI) 23.331 26.508 26.960 28.542 30.374 32.454 34.217 35.325 38.220 39.240 40.781 41.110 41.520 42.122 42.741 43.525 43.775 44.247 44.588 44.777 45.090 45.325 45.485 45.767 45.798 46.159 46.394 46.923 47.347 48.093 48.653 49.431 49.441 49.700

km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km

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25 March 1876 1877 1878 1879 2 August 1882 1887 11 May 1893 31 October 1894 30 July 1897 3 July 1898 24 August 1905 20 June 1907 26 August 1912 7 August 1913 21 August 1913 21 September 1913 18 June 1914 25 August 1933 29 August 1933

Frank Dodds Shopee Weir Christie Herbert Lydell Cortis Jules Dubois Henri Desgrange Jules Dubois Marcel Van Den Eynde Willie Hamilton Lucien Petit-Breton Marcel Berthet Oscar Egg Marcel Berthet Oscar Egg Marcel Berthet Oscar Egg Jan van Hout Maurice Richard

GBR GBR GBR GBR GBR FRA FRA FRA BEL USA FRA FRA SUI FRA SUI FRA SUI NED FRA

Cambridge, England Cambridge, England Oxford, England Oxford, England England London, England Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Velodrome Municipale, Vincennes, France Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Buffalo Velodrome, Paris, France Roermond, Netherlands Sint-Truiden, Belgium

Table 168. UCI men’s best hour performance (marks prior to 1893 are pre-ICA/UCI) km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km (continued)

26.508 26.960 28.542 30.374 32.454 34.217 35.325 38.220 39.240 40.781 41.110 41.520 42.122 42.741 43.525 43.775 44.247 44.588 44.777

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31 October 1935 14 October 1936 29 September 1937 4 November 1937 7 November 1942 29 June 1956 19 September 1956 18 September 1957 23 September 1958 30 October 1967 10 October 1968 25 October 1972 19 January 1984 23 January 1984 17 July 1993 23 July 1993 27 April 1994 2 September 1994 22 October 1994 5 November 1994 7 September 1996

Table 168. (continued) Giuseppe Olmo Maurice Richard Frans Slaats Maurice Archambaud Fausto Coppi Jacques Anquetil Ercole Baldini Roger Rivière Roger Rivière Ferdi Bracke Ole Ritter Eddy Merckx Francesco Moser Francesco Moser Graeme Obree Chris Boardman Graeme Obree Miguel Indurain Tony Rominger Tony Rominger Chris Boardman

ITA FRA NED FRA ITA FRA ITA FRA FRA BEL DEN BEL ITA ITA GBR GBR GBR ESP SUI SUI GBR

Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Olympic Velodrome, Rome, Italy Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Hall Velodrome, Hamar, Norway Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France Manchester Cycling Centre, Manchester, England

45.090 45.325 45.485 45.767 45.798 46.159 46.394 46.923 47.347 48.093 48.653 49.431 50.808 51.151 51.596 52.270 52.713 53.040 53.832 55.291 56.375

km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km

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7 July 1933 18 November 1933 3 March 1938 5 May 1979 4 May 1980 29 September 1984 10 September 1985 28 August 1986 15 September 1989 9 August 1990 1 October 1994 27 July 1996 29 July 1998 7 August 1999 27 July 2002 19 November 2003 31 July 2004 2 July 2006 8 April 2007 12 July 2008 19 July 2009

François Faure Marcel Berthet François Faure Ron Skarin Eric Edwards Fred Markham Richard Crane Fred Markham Fred Markham Pat Kinch Bram Moens Lars Teutenberg Sam Whittingham Lars Teutenberg Lars Teutenberg Sam Whittingham Sam Whittingham Fred Markham Sam Whittingham Damjan Zabovnik Sam Whittingham

FRA FRA FRA USA USA USA GBR USA USA GBR NED GER CAN GER GER USA USA USA USA SLO USA

Vélodrome du Parc des Princes, Paris, France Vélodrome du Parc des Princes, Paris, France Vélodrome du Parc des Princes, Paris, France Ontario Motor Speedway, Ontario, California, USA Ontario Motor Speedway, Ontario, California, USA Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Warwickshire, England Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Michigan International Speedway, Adrian, Michigan, USA Millbrooke Raceway, Bedfordshire, England Leylstad, Netherlands Munich, Germany Blainville, British Columbia, Canada Dudenhofen Opel Test Track, Frankfurt, Germany Dudenhofen Opel Test Track, Frankfurt, Germany Uvalde, Texas, USA Dudenhofen Opel Test Track, Frankfurt, Germany Casa Grande, Arizona, USA Casa Grande, Arizona, USA Lausitzring, Germany Ford Michigan Proving Grounds, Romeo, Michigan, USA

Table 169. Men’s World (International) Human Powered Vehicle Association (WHPVA/IHPVA) hour record 45.055 km 49.992 km 50.537 km 51.310 km 59.450 km 60.350 km 66.30 km 67.01 km 73.00 km 75.57 km 77.123 km 78.04 km 79.136 km 81.158 km 82.60 km 83.71 km 84.215 km 85.991 km 86.752 km 87.123 km 90.598 km

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30 June 1899 30 September 1928 21 October 1933 12 April 1937 22 October 1938 17 May 1941 13 October 1951 2 November 1951 16 July 1962 23 August 1973 20 July 1985 3 October 1995

Charles “Mile-a-Minute” Murphy Léon Vanderstuyft Alexis Blanc-Garin Albert Marquet Alfred Letourner Alfred Letourner José Meiffret José Meiffret José Meiffret Allan Abbott John Howard Fred Rompelberg

Table 170. World motor-paced bicycle speed record USA BEL FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA USA USA NED

Long Island, New York, USA Montlhéry, France Montlhéry, France Los Angeles, California, USA Montlhéry, France Bakersfield, California, USA Montlhéry, France Montlhéry, France Autobahn, Freiburg, Germany Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, USA Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, USA Bonneville Salt Flats, Utah, USA

62.28 76.286 79.663 86.950 91.377 108.983 109.118 109.707 127.242 138.674 152.284 167.044

mph mph mph mph mph mph mph mph mph mph mph mph

100.21 122.771 128.205 139.933 147.058 175.353 175.609 176.557 204.778 223.175 245.078 268.831

km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h km/h

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1893 1903 1911 1947 1948 1948 1949 1949 1950 1952 7 July 1955 18 September 1957 25 September 1958 9 November 1958 25 November 1972 16 September 1978 25 November 1985 18 October 2000 5 November 2000 7 December 2000 1 October 2003

Hélène Durieu Louise Roger Alfonsina Strada Elyane Bonneau Jeanine Lemaire Elyane Bonneau Jeanine Lemaire Elyane Bonneau Jeanine Lemaire Jeanine Lemaire Tamara Novikova Renée Vissac Millie Robinson Elsy Jacobs Maria Cressari Keetie van Oosten-Hage Barbara Ganz Anna Wilson-Millward Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel

FRA FRA ITA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA URS FRA GBR LUX ITA NED SUI AUS FRA FRA NED

… … … … … … … … … … Dynamo Stadium, Irkutsk, Russia Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Munich, Fed. Rep. of Germany Hallenstadion, Zürich, Switzerland Vodafone Arena Velodrome, Melbourne, Australia Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico

Table 171. UCI women’s athletes’ hour record (marks prior to 1955 are unofficial) 28.780 36.793 37.192 37.564 37.720 37.944 38.283 38.431 38.600 39.735 38.473 38.569 39.719 41.347 41.471 43.082 42.319 43.501 44.767 45.094 46.065

km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km km

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7 July 1955 18 September 1957 25 September 1958 9 November 1958 25 November 1972 16 September 1978 25 November 1985 20 September 1986 30 September 1986 7 November 1986 22 September 1987 1 October 1989 29 April 1995 17 June 1995 26 October 1996

Tamara Novikova Renée Vissac Millie Robinson Elsy Jacobs Maria Cressari Keetie van Oosten-Hage Barbara Ganz Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli Cathérine Marsal Yvonne McGregor Jeannie Longo-Ciprelli

Table 172. UCI women’s best hour performance URS FRA GBR LUX ITA NED SUI FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA FRA GBR FRA

Dynamo Stadium, Irkutsk, Russia Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Olympic Velodrome, Munich, Fed. Rep. of Germany Hallenstadion, Zürich, Switzerland 7-Eleven Velodrome, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Vigorelli Velodrome, Milan, Italy Grenoble, France 7-Eleven Velodrome, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico Velodrome du Lac, Bordeaux, France Manchester Cycling Centre, Manchester, England Olympic Velodrome, Mexico City, Mexico

38.473 km 38.569 km 39.719 km 41.347 km 41.471 km 43.082 km 42.319 km 44.770 km 43.587 km 44.718 km 44.933 km 46.352 km 47.112 km 47.411 km 48.159 km

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June 2001 August 2001 20 April 2002 August 2004 August 2004 17 July 2009 19 July 2009

Rosmarie Bühler Corinne van Noordenne Ellen van den Horst Ellen van Vugt-van den Horst Rosmarie Bühler Barbara Buatois Barbara Buatois

SUI NED NED NED SUI FRA FRA

... . . .. Dudenhofen Opel Test Track, Frankfurt, Germany Dudenhofen Opel Test Track, Frankfurt, Germany Dudenhofen Opel Test Track, Frankfurt, Germany Ford Proving Grounds, Romeo, Michigan, USA Ford Proving Grounds, Romeo, Michigan, USA

Table 173. Women’s World (International) Human Powered Vehicle Association (WHPVA/IHPVA) hour record 57.47 62.26 68.33 68.97 73.41 82.12 84.02

km km km km km km km

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Appendix J: Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)

Table 174. Presidents 1900–1922 1922–1936 1936–1939 1939–1947 1947–1958 1958–1981 1981–1990 1990–2005 2005–date

Émile De Beukelaer Léon Breton Max Burgi Alban Collignon Achille Joinard Adriano Rodoni Luis Puig Hein Verbruggen Pat McQuaid

BEL FRA SUI BEL FRA ITA ESP NED IRL

Member Confederations and Federations (as of 2010) Asian Cycling Confederation (ACC) Union Européenne de Cyclisme (UEC) (European Cycling Union) Oceanian Cycling Confederation (OCC) Confederación Panamericana de Ciclismo (COPACI) (Pan American Cycling Confederation) Confederation Africaine de Cyclisme (CAC) (African Cycling Confederation) Table 175. Asian Cycling Confederation (ACC) Bahrain Bangladesh Brunei China Chinese Taipei

BRN BAN BRU CHN TPE

DPR Korea (North)

PRK

Hong Kong India Iran

HKG IND IRI

Bahrain Cycling Association Bangladesh Cycling Federation Brunei Darussalam Cycling Federation Chinese Cycling Association (Ĺ๻哨弱歙쭰ߣࣷɼ) Chinese Taipei Cycling Association (Ĺ堐ㄛຐ哨㽭橨 ࣿ⤵) Cycling Association of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Hong Kong Cycling Association (箵㐨ౠ橨劍⤵) Cycling Federation of India Cycling Federation of the I. R. Iran (‫ﻥﻭیﺱﺍﺭﺩﻑ‬ ‫)ﻥﺍﺭیﺍ یﻡﺍﻝﺱﺍ یﺭﻭﻩﻡﺝ یﺭﺍﻭﺱﻩﺥﺭچﻭﺩ‬ (continued)

387

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388 •

APPENDIX J

Table 175. (continued) Iraq Japan

IRQ JPN

Jordan Kazakhstan Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau

JOR KAZ KUW KGZ LAO LIB MAC

Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Saudi Arabia Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Syria Thailand Tunisia Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

MAS MGL MYA NEP OMA PAK PHI QAT KSA SIN KOR SRI SYR THA TUN TKM UAE UZB VIE YEM

Iraqi Cycling Federation Japan Cycling Federation (朡๐㈰Ǿ븋➊⥷哨檈橨䤠 ∦沬䉊) Jordan Cycling Federation Kazakhstan Cycling Federation Kuwait Athletic and Cycling Federation Kyrgys Cycling Federation Lao Cycling Federation Fédération Libanaise de Cyclisme Macau Cycling Association (Association de Ciclismo de Macau) Malaysian National Cycling Federation Mongolian Cycling Federation Myanmar Cycling Federation Nepal Cycling Association Oman Cycling Association Pakistan Cycling Federation Integrated Cycling Federation of the Philippines Qatar Cycling Federation (‫)ﺍﺝﺍﺭﺩﻝﻝ ﻱﺭﻁﻕﻝﺍ ﺩﺍﺡﺕﺍﻝﺍ‬ Saudi Cycling Federation Singapore Amateur Cycling Association Korea Cycling Federation Cycling Federation of Sri Lanka Syrian Arab Cycling Federation Thai Cycling Association Tunisian Cycling Federation Cycling Federation of Turkmenistan UAE Cycling Federation Uzbekistan Cycling Federation Vietnam Cycling Federation Yemen Cycling Federation

Table 176. Union Européenne de Cyclisme (UEC) (European Cycling Union) Albania Andorra

ALB AND

Armenia

ARM

Austria

AUT

Azerbaijan

AZE

Belarus Belgium

BLR BEL

Bosnia and Herzegovina

BIH

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Albanian Cycling Federation Andorran Cycling Federation (Federacio Andorrana de Ciclismo) Armenian Cycling Federation (Federation du Cyclisme de la Republique d’Armenie) Austrian Cycling Federation (Oesterreichischer Radsport Verband) Cycling Federation of Azerbaijan (Federation Cycliste de la Republique d’Azerbaijan) Belarusian Federation of Cycling Sport Royal Belgian Cycling League (Royale Ligue Velocipedique Belge / Koninklijke Belgische Wielrijdersbond) Cycling Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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UNION CYCLISTE INTERNATIONALE (UCI)

Bulgaria Croatia

BUL CRO

Cyprus

CYP

Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France

CZE DEN EST FIN FRA

Georgia Germany Great Britain Greece

GEO GER GBR GRE

Hungary

HUN

Ireland Israel Italy

IRL ISR ITA

Latvia Liechtenstein

LAT LIE

Lithuania

LTU

Luxembourg

LUX

Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco

MKD MLT MDA MON

Montenegro Netherlands

MNE NED

Norway Poland Portugal

NOR POL POR

Romania Russia

ROU RUS

San Marino

SMR

Serbia Slovakia

SRB SVK

• 389

Bulgarian Cycling Union Croatian Cycling Federation (Hrvatski Biciklisticki Savez) Cyprus Cycling Federation (Κυπριακη Ομοσπονδια Ποδηλασιας) Czech Cycling Federation (Cˇeský Svaz Cyklistiky) Danish Cycling Federation (Danmarks Cykle Union) Estonian Cyclists’ Union (Eesti Jalgratturite Liit) Cycling Union of Finland (Suomen Pyöräilyunioni) French Cycling Federation (Fédération Française de Cyclisme) Georgian Cycling Federation German Cycling Federation (Bund Deutscher Radfahrer) British Cycling Hellenic Cycling Federation (Ελληνικη Ομοσπονδια Ποδηλασιας) Hungarian Cycling Federation (Magyar Kerékpársportok Szövetsége) Cycling Ireland Israel Cycling Federation (‡È‚ÂÍ ‰‡ÂÙÈÈÌ ·È˘Í‡Ï) Italian Cycling Federation (Federazione Ciclistica Italiana) Latvian Cycling Federation Liechtenstein Cycling Federation (Liechtensteiner Radfahrerverband) Lithuanian Cycling Federation (Lietuvos Dviracˇ iu˛ Sporto Federacija) Luxembourgian Cycling Federation (Fédération du Sport Cycliste Luxembourgeois) Cycling Federation of Macedonia Maltese Cycling Federation Moldavian Cycling Federation Monegasque Cycling Federation (Fédération Monégasque de Cyclisme) Cycling Association of Montenegro Royal Dutch Cycling Union (Koninklijke Nederlandsche Wielren Unie) Norwegian Cycling Federation (Norges Cykleforbund) Polish Cycling Federation (Polski Zwia˛ zek Kolarski) Portuguese Cycling Federation (Federação Portuguesa de Ciclismo) Roumanian Cycling Federation Russian Cycling Federation (îe‰epaˆËË ‚eÎocËÔe‰Ìo„o cÔopÚa PoccËË) San Marinese Cycling Federation (Federazione Ciclistica Sanmarinese) Cycling Federation of Serbia (Biciklisticki Savez Srbije) Slovak Cycling Federation (Slovenský Zväz Cyklistiky) (continued)

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390 •

APPENDIX J

Table 176. (continued) Slovenia

SLO

Spain

ESP

Sweden Switzerland Turkey

SWE SUI TUR

Ukraine

UKR

Slovenian Cycling Federation (Kolesarska Zveza Slovenije) Royal Spanish Cycling Federation (Real Federación Española de Ciclismo) Swedish Cycling Federation (Svenska Cykelförbundet) Swiss Cycling Turkish Cycling Federation (Türkiye Bisiklet Federasyonu) Ukrainian Cycling Federation

Table 177. Oceanian Cycling Confederation (OCC) Australia East Timor Fiji Guam Indonesia

AUS TLS FIJ GUM INA

New Zealand

NZL

Cycling Australia East Timor Cycling Federation Fiji Cycling Association Guam Cycling Federation Indonesian Cycling Federation (Ikatan Sepeda Sport Indonesia) BikeNZ

Table 178. Confederación Panamericana de Ciclismo (COPACI) (Pan American Cycling Confederation) Antigua and Barbuda

ANT

Argentina

ARG

Aruba Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia

ARU BAH BAR BIZ BER BOL

Brazil

BRA

Canada Cayman Islands Chile

CAN CAY CHI

Colombia

COL

Costa Rica

CRC

Cuba

CUB

Dominican Republic Ecuador

DOM ECU

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Antigua and Barbuda Amateur Cycling Association Cycling Union of the Republic of Argentina (Unión Ciclista de la Republica Argentina) Aruba Wieler Bond Bahamas Amateur Cycling Federation Barbados Cycling Union Belize Cycling Association Bermuda Bicycle Association Bolivian Cycling Federation (Federación Boliviana de Ciclismo) Brazilian Cycling Confederation (Confederação Brasileira de Ciclismo) Canadian Cycling Association Cayman Islands Cycling Association Chilean Cycling Federation (Federación Ciclista de Chile) Colombian Cycling Federation (Federación Colombiana de Ciclismo) Costa Rican Cycling Federation (Federación Costarricense de Ciclismo) Cuban Cycling Federation (Federación Cubana de Ciclismo) Federación Dominicana de Ciclismo Ecuadorian Cycling Federation (Federación Ecuatoriana de Ciclismo)

8/11/11 6:58 AM

UNION CYCLISTE INTERNATIONALE (UCI)

El Salvador Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras

ESA GRN GDL GUA GUY HAI HON

Jamaica Martinique

JAM MTQ

Mexico

MEX

Netherlands Antilles Nicaragua

AHO NCA

Panama

PAN

Paraguay

PAR

Peru

PER

Puerto Rico

PUR

Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad & Tobago United States

SKN LCA VIN SUR TRI USA

US Virgin Islands Uruguay

ISV URU

Venezuela

VEN

• 391

Federación Salvadoreña de Ciclismo Grenada Cycling Federation Comite Regional de Ciclismo de Guadalupe Federación Guatemalteca de Ciclismo Guyana Cycling Federation Federation Haitienne de Cyclisme Amateur Honduran National Cycling Federation (Federación Nacional de Ciclismo de Honduras) Jamaica Cycling Federation Regional Committee for Cycling in Martinique (Comite Regional de Ciclismo de Martinique) Mexican Cycling Federation (Federación Mexicana de Ciclismo) Dutch Antillean Cycling Federation Nicaraguan Cycling Federation (Federación Nicaragüense de Ciclismo) Panamanian Cycling Federation (Federación Panameña de Ciclismo) Paraguayan Cycling Federation (Federación Paraguaya de Ciclismo) Peruvian Cycling Federation (Federación Deportiva Peruana de Ciclismo) Puerto Rican Cycling Federation (Federación de Ciclismo de Puerto Rico) Saint Kitts and Nevis Cycling Federation St. Lucia Cycling Association St. Vincent and Grenadines Cycling Union Surinamese Wielren Unie Trinidad and Tobago Cycling Federation USA Cycling (formerly US Cycling Federation [1975–95], American Bicycle League of America [1920–75], and League of American Wheelmen [1890–1920]) Virgin Islands Cycling Federation Uruguayan Cycling Federation (Federación Ciclista del Uruguay) Venezuelan Cycling Federation (Federación Venezolana de Ciclismo

Table 179. Confederation Africaine de Cyclisme (CAC) (African Cycling Confederation) Algeria Angola Benin Burkina Faso Burundi

ALG ANG BEN BUR BDI

Fédération Federation Fédération Fédération Fédération

Algerienne de Cyclisme Cycliste de l’Angola Beninoise de Cyclisme Burkinabe de Cyclisme Burundaise de Cyclisme (continued)

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392 •

APPENDIX J

Table 179. (continued) Cameroon

CMR

Cape Verde Comoros Republic of the Congo Côte d’Ivoire Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Guinea Kenya Lesotho Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritius Morocco Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Senegal Seychelles Somalia South Africa Sudan Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

CPV COM CGO CIV EGY ERI ETH GAB GUI KEN LES LBA MAD MAW MLI MRI MAR NAM NIG NGR RWA SEN SEY SOM RSA SUD TOG TUN UGA ZAM ZIM

9780810873698_WEB.indb 392

Cameroon Cycling Federation (Fédération Camerounaise de Cyclisme) Fédération Cabo-Verdiana de Ciclismo Fédération Comorienne de Cyclisme Fédération Congolaise de Cyclisme Fédération Ivoirienne de Cyclisme Egyptian Cycling Federation Eritrean National Cycling Federation National Ethiopian Cycling Federation Fédération Gabonaise De Cyclisme Fédération Guinéenne De Cyclisme Kenya Amateur Cycling Association Lesotho Cycling Association (Federation) Libyan Cycling Federation Fédération Malgache de Cyclisme Cycling Association of Malawi Fédération Malienne de Cyclisme Fédération Mauricienne de Cyclisme Fédération Royale Marocaine de Cyclisme Namibian Cycling Federation Fédération Nigerienne de Cyclisme Cycling Federation of Nigeria Fédération Rwandaise de Cyclisme Fédération Sénégalaise de Cyclisme Seychelles Cycling Association Somali Cycling Federation Cycling South Africa Sudan Cycling Federation Fédération Togolaise de Cyclisme Fédération Tunisienne de Cyclisme Uganda Cycling Association Cycling Association of Zambia Zimbabwe Cycling Federation

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Bibliography

As one of the most popular professional sports, especially in Europe, cycling has engendered a large literature devoted to its history and its greatest riders and races. Cycling books can be separated into a number of different categories. There are many books devoted simply to the Tour de France, the most important and best known race in the world, and an entire bibliography could be compiled simply among these. Many other books are biographies of the greatest racers or histories of the biggest races. But outside of competitive cycling, there are three specific types of books, all of which have separate sections below. Many books have been written about fitness cycling and training for cycling. There are also numerous books devoted to bicycle repair and maintenance. Finally, the largest subsection of cycling literature is likely that devoted to bicycle touring. In fact, there are so many books about touring that below we have restricted ourselves only to those books devoted to entire countries or large geographic areas. But this only brushes the surface of these books as one can find bicycle touring books for almost every small geographic area in Europe, North America, and Australasia. Finally, most of the bibliography is devoted to books in English. We have included some of the more important non-English books, and it would be easy to double or triple the size of the reference list by including more books in various languages. At the end of the bibliography, we include some of the more important annual reference works and significant websites of interest.

GENERAL Ainsworth, Ruth. The Bicycle Wheel. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1976. Alderson, Frederick. The Cyclists Companion. London: Robert Hale, 1981. Bergsma, Jacob, and Raymond Kerkhoffs. Cyclopedie: Almanac of Professional Cycling. Utrecht, Netherlands: Scheffers, 1996. Bicycling Magazine, eds. The Bicycling Dictionary. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1979. Boga, Steven. Cyclists: How the World’s Most Daring Riders Train and Compete. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1992. Evans, Jeremy. The Guinness Book of Cycling Facts and Feats. Bath, UK: Guinness, 1996. Hewitt, Ben. Bicycling Magazine’s New Cyclist Handbook. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2005.

393

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hewitt, Ben, and Ed Pavelka, eds. Bicycling Magazine’s Cycling for Health and Fitness. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2000. Howard, John. The Cyclist’s Companion. Brattleboro, VT: Stephen Greene, 1984. Jacobs, René, Hector Mahau, Harry Van Den Bremt, and René Pirotte. Velo Gotha. Brussels, Belgium: Persen van België, 1984. Jordan, David. On My Bike: From Land’s End to John o’Groats. UK: privately printed, 1996. Joyce, Dan, Calton Reid, and Paul Vincent. The Complete Book of Cycling. London: Hamlyn, 1997. Lyttle, Richard B. Complete Beginner’s Guide to Bicycling. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974. McIntyre, Babs. The Bike Book: Everything You Need to Know about Owning and Riding a Bike. New York: Harper and Row, 1972. Moran, Tom. Bicycle Motorcross Racing. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1986. Raschi, Bruno. Pedale d‘Oro: Prima Enciclopedia Storica del Ciclismo Mondiale. Milan, Italy: Perna Editore, 1969–70. Riedy, Mark. The Cycling Trivia Book: 1001 Questions from the Velocipede to Lance. Jackson, TN: Breakaway Books, 2008. Roberts, Tony. Cycling: An Introduction to the Sport. London: New Holland, 2005. Sanders, William. The Bicycle Racing Book. Northbrook, IL: Domus, 1979. Scott, Dennis. Personality Attributes of Bicycle Racers. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1977. Sergent, Pascal, Guy Crasset, and Hervé Dauchy. Mondial Encyclopedie Cyclisme. 3 vols. Aigle, Switzerland: Union Cycliste Internationale, 2000. Sidwells, Chris. Complete Bike Book. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2003. Sudres, Claude. Dictionnaire International du Cyclisme, 6ème edition. Strasbourg, France: Editions Ronald Hirle, 1995. Tracy, Linda, and John Williams. The Basics of Bicycling. Washington DC: Bicycle Federation of America, 1990. Voet, Willy. Breaking the Chain: Drugs and Cycling; The True Story. London: Yellow Jersey, 2001. Woods, Dean. The Dean Woods’ Manual of Cycling. With Rupert Guinness. Sydney, Australia: HarperCollins, 1995.

BIOGRAPHY Anquetil, Jacques Howard, Paul. Sex, Lies and Handlebar Tape: The Remarkable Life of Jacques Anquetil the First Five-Times Winner of the Tour de France. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream, 2009. Sevin, Benoit. Anquetil: jusqu’au bout du courage. With Jacques Anquetil. France: Michel Lafon, 1987.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

• 395

Armstrong, Lance Armstrong, Lance. It’s Not about the Bike: My Journey Back to Life. With Sally Jenkins. New York: Putnam Adult, 2001. ———. Lance Armstrong: Images of a Champion. Photography by Graham Watson. Foreword by Robin Williams. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2006. Coyle, Daniel. Lance Armstrong: Tour de Force. London: Collins Willow, 2005. ———. Lance Armstrong’s War: One Man’s Battle against Fate, Fame, Love, Death, Scandal, and a Few Other Rivals on the Road to the Tour de France. London: HarperCollins, 2010. Lamy, Matt. Lance and Le Tour: The Complete History of Cycling’s Most Uneasy Alliance. London: IPC Media, 2009. Sandler, Michael. Cycling: Lance Armstrong’s Impossible Ride. New York: Bearport, 2006. Wilcockson, John. Lance: The Making of the World’s Greatest Champion. Cambridge, MA: De Capo, 2009. Bartali, Gino Lazzerini, Marcello, and Romano Beghelli. La leggenda di Bartali. Florence, Italy: Ponte alle Grazie, 1992. Beyaert, José Rendell, Matt. Olympic Gangster: The Legend of José Beyaert; Cycling Champion, Fortune Hunter and Outlaw. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream, 2009. Boardman, Chris Liggett, Phil, and Anthony Bell. The Fastest Man on Two Wheels: In Pursuit of Chris Boardman. London: Boxtree, 1994. Bobet, Louison Ollivier, Jean-Paul. La legend de Louison Bobet. Paris: Glénat, 1998. St. Pierre, Roger. Louison Bobet. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1972. Bugno, Gianni Truyers, Noel. Gianni Bugno. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Cycle Sport Magazine, 1999. Cavendish, Mark Cavendish, Mark. Boy Racer: My Journey to Tour de France Record-Breaker. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2010. Coppi, Fausto Augendre, Jacques. Fausto Coppi. London: Bromley Books, 1999. Duker, Peter. Coppi. Bognor Regis, Sussex, UK: New Horizon, 1982. Fotheringham, William. Fallen Angel: The Passion of Fausto Coppi. London: Yellow Jersey, 2010.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ollivier, Jean-Paul. Fausto Coppi: The True Story. Paris: Presse Sportiv, 1997. Trence, Salvatore. Fausto Coppi: The Campionissimo. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1969. Desgrange, Henri Truyers, Noel, and Etienne Terroir. Henri Desgrange. Eeklo, Belgium: De Eeclonaar, 1999. De Vlaeminck, Roger Luchon, Raphael. Roger De Vlaeminck. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1978. Vanysacker, Dries. Roger De Vlaeminck: Monsieur Paris-Roubaix. Eeklo, Belgium: De Eeclonaar, 2008. Doyle, Tony Nicholson, Geoffrey. Tony Doyle, Six-Day Rider. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1992. Evans, Cadel Evans, Cadel. Cadel Evans: Close to Flying. Melbourne, Australia: Hardie Grant Books, 2011. Fignon, Laurent Fignon, Laurent. We Were Young and Carefree: The Autobiography of Laurent Fignon. Translated by William Fotherlingham. London: Yellow Jersey, 2010. Gimondi, Felice Armstrong, David. Felice Gimondi: The Happy Champion. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1974. Harris, Reg Pearson, George. Reg Harris: An Authoritative Biography. London: Temple, 1950. St. Pierre, Roger. The Story of Reg Harris. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1972. Hinault, Bernard Martin, Pierre. The Bernard Hinault Story. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1982. Hinault, Bernard. Memories of the Peloton. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1989. Winning Magazine, eds. Hinault by Hinault. Allentown, PA: Winning Magazine, 1988. Induráin, Miguel Truyers, Noel. Miguel Indurain. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Cycle Sport Magazine, 1999.

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Kelly, Sean Kelly, Sean, and David Walsh. Sean Kelly: A Man for All Seasons. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1991. Truyers, Noel. Sean Kelly. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Cycle Sport Magazine, 1999. Walsh, David. Kelly: A Biography of Sean Kelly. London: Grafton Books, 1986. Koblet, Hugo Ollivier, Jean-Paul. Le pédaleur de charme: Hugo Koblet, la véridique histoire. France: Glénat, 1993. Kübler, Ferdinand Born, Hanspeter. Das waren noch Zeiten: Ferdi Kübler un die goldenen Jahre des Schweizer Radsports. Zürich, Switzerland: Weltwoche-ABC, 1990. LeMond, Greg Abt, Samuel. Greg LeMond: The Incredible Comeback. London: Stanley Paul, 1990. Abt, Samuel. Uphill: The Greg LeMond Comeback. London: Stanley Paul, 1990. Porter, A. P. Greg LeMond: Premier Cyclist. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1990. Truyers, Noel. Greg LeMond. Leatherhead, Surrey: Cycle Sport Magazine, 1999. Wilcockson, John, ed. Greg LeMond: The Official Story of America’s Greatest Cyclist. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 1995. Longo, Jeannie Longo, Jeannie. Jeannie par Longo. France: Le Cherche-Midi, 2010. Maertens, Freddie Adriaens, Manu. Freddie Maertens: Fall from Grace. Hull, Humberside, UK: Ronde, 1993. Merckx, Eddy St. Pierre, Roger. Merckx: Man and Myth. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1972. Vanwelleghem, Rik. Eddy Merckx: The Greatest Cyclist of the Twentieth Century. Berkeley, CA: Transition Vendor, 2000. Wadley, J[ohn] B[orland]. Eddy Merckx: Two Outstanding Memories. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1970. Millar, Robert Moore, Richard. In Search of Robert Millar: Unravelling the Mystery Surrounding Britain’s Most Successful Tour de France Cyclist. London: Harper Sport, 2007. Moser, Francesco Conconi, Francesco. Moser’s Hour Records. Brattleboro, VT: Vitesse, 1991.

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Obree, Graeme Obree, Graeme. Flying Scotsman: Cycling to Triumph through My Darkest Hours. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2005. Pantani, Marco Rendell, Matt. The Death of Marco Pantani: A Biography. London: Orion Books, 2007. Wilcockson, John. Marco Pantani: The Legend of a Tragic Champion. Norwich, Norfolk, UK: Mousehold, 2005. Poulidor, Raymond Poulidor, Raymond, and Jean-Paul Brouchon. Le Poulidor. France: Jacob-Duvernet, 2009. Raas, Jan Truyers, Noel. Jan Raas. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Cycle Sport Magazine, 1999. Roche, Stephen Truyers, Noel. Stephen Roche. Leatherhead, Surrey, UK: Cycle Sport Magazine, 1999. Roll, Bob Roll, Bob. Bobke: A Ride on the Wild Side of Cycling. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 1995. Roll, Bob, and Dan Koeppel. Bobke II. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2003. Sercu, Patrick Berghmans, Lucien, and Victor Larcher. Patrick Sercu, Superstar. Antwerp, Belgium: De Vries-Brouwers, 1979. Simpson, Tom Simpson, Tom. Cycling Is My Life. London: Yellow Jersey, 2009. St. Pierre, Roger. Tribute to Tom Simpson. London: Daily Mirror in association with Cycling, 1967. Strada, Alfonsina Facchinetti, Paolo. Gli anni ruggenti di Alfonsina Strada. Portogruaro, Italy: Ediciclo Editrice, 2004. Taylor, Major Ritchie, Andrew. Major Taylor: The Extraordinary Career of a Champion Bicycle Rider. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1988. Taylor, Marshall W. “Major.” The Fastest Bicycle Rider in the World: The Autobiography of Marshall Taylor. Brattleboro, VT: Stephen Greene, 1972. Weed, Edward A. The Major’s Story. Estrella, CA: E. A. Weed, 1910.

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Van Looy, Rik Anseeuw, Willy, and Claude Degauquier. Rik Van Looy, Empereur. Les Stars d’antan. Seraing, Belgium: Coups de Pédales, 1999. van Moorsel, Leontien Hurkmans, Marjolein. Leontien van Moorsel, de rit van mijn leven. Netherlands: House of Knowledge, 2008. Van Steenbergen, Rik Vermeiren, René, and Hugo De Meyer. Rik Van Steenbergen. Eeklo, Belgium: De Eeclonaar, 1999. Virenque, Richard Virenque, Richard, and Jean-Paul Vespini. Plus fort qu’avant. France: Robert Laffont, 2002. Multiple Alberati, Paolo. Bartali e Coppi, l’eterna sfida. Florence, Italy: Giunti Editore, 2009. Bastide, Roger. Anquetil, Darrigade, Geminiani, Stablinski: Caids du Velo. France: Solar Editeur, 2001. Bernard, Walter. The Three “Ms”: Merckx, Maertens, Moser. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1978. Conti, Beppe. 100 campioni del Novecento. Turin, Italy: Graphot, 2002. Dazat, Olivier. Cycling Legends. Berkeley, CA: Pub Group West (PGW), 2002. Kent, Peter. Legends of Cycling. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1972. Ollivier, Jean-Paul. The Giants of Cycling. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2002. Petrucci, Giampiero, Franco Tota, and Lucien Steegen. Les campionissimi: Girardengo, Binda, Guerra. Hors-série nr. 14. Seraing, Belgium: Coups de Pédales. 2001. Rendell, Matt. Kings of the Mountains: How Colombia’s Cycling Heroes Changed Their Nation’s History. Durrington, Worthing, West Sussex, UK: Aurum, 2003. Truyers, Noel. Kings of Cycling. Brussels, Belgium: Coda, 1993.

HISTORY Alderson, Frederick. Bicycling: A History. Newton Abbot, Devon, UK: David and Charles, 1972. Augendre, Jacques, Robert Chapatte, Roger Bastide, Jean-Paul Ollivier, and Dominique Grimault. L’Histoire illustrée du cyclisme. France: La Maison du Sport, 1987–88. Barantino, Dante. Giro: Tour of Italy 1977. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1977. Battaglia, Paolo. Giro girotondo, Dentro e fuori cento anni di Giro d’Italia. Modena, Italy: Anniversary Books, 2009.

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Beeley, Serena. A History of Bicycles. London: Studio Editions, 1992. Bouvet, Philippe, Philippe Brunel, Pierre Callewaert, and Jean-Luc Gatellier. The Spring Classics: Cycling’s Greatest One-Day Races. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2010. Bouvet, Philippe, Pierre Callewaert, Jean-Luc Gatellier, and Serge Laget. ParisRoubaix: A Journey through Hell. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2007. Buzzatti, Dino. The Giro D’Italia: Coppi vs. Bartali at the 1949 Tour of Italy. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 1998. Chany, Pierre. La fabuleuse histoire du cyclisme. France: La Martinière, 1988. ———. L’arc-en-ciel: de Chicago 1893 à Oslo 1993. Une histoire des championnats du monde. Norway: Norwegian Cycling Federation, 1993. Clifford, Peter A., comp. History of the Tour of Britain. Edited by John Butfield. London: International Cyclists Saddle Club, 1967. Cornand, Jan. Tour of Italy 1974. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1974. ———. Tour of Italy 1975. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1975. ———. Tour of Italy 1976. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1976. Costa, Angelo, Cristiano Gatti, and Pier Augusto Stagi. Cubetti di Gloria. Mapei: storia e leggenda di una squadra che ha cambiato il ciclismo. Italy: Libreria dello Sport, 2003. Crane, Nicholas, ed. International Cycling Guide 1980. London: Tantivy, 1980. ———. International Cycling Guide 1981. London: Tantivy, 1981. ———. International Cycling Guide 1982. London: Tantivy, 1982. ———. International Cycling Guide 1983. London: Tantivy, 1983. ———. International Cycling Guide 1984. London: Tantivy, 1983. ———. International Cycling Guide 1985. London: Tantivy, 1984. Dargenton, Michel, and Claude Degauquier. La merveilleuse histoire du tour des Flandres. Hors-série nr. 16. Seraing, Belgium: Coups de Pédales, 2004. Delestre, Gérard. Paris-Nice 1933–1999: Anthologie de la “Course au soleil.” France: Spe-Barthélemy, 2001. Duker, Peter. Tour of Italy 1978: 61st Giro d’Italia. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1978. Dzierzak, Lou. The Evolution of American Bicycle Racing. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot, 2007. Facchinetti, Paolo, and Guido P. Rubino. Campagnolo: 75 Years of Cycling Passion. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2008. Fallon, Lucy, and Adrian Bell. Viva la Vuelta! The Story of Spain’s Great Bike Race. Norwich, UK: Mousehold, 2005. Fotheringham, William. Century of Cycling: The Classic Races and Legendary Champions. St. Paul, MN: MBI, 2003. Fretwell, P., and A. Gadenz. Tour of Italy 1972: 55th Giro d’Italia. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1972. ———. Tour of Italy 1973: 56th Giro d’Italia. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1973. Gandolfo, Andrea. 100 anni di classicissima, curiosità, aneddoti e retroscena della Milano-Sanremo. Albenga, Italy: Bacchetta, 2007.

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George, Barbara. Bicycle Road Racing. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1977. Graunke, Kurt, Walter Lemke, and Wolfgang Rupprecht. Giganten von einst bis heute. Die Geschichte der Deutschen Profi-Strassenradfahrer. Namen, Erfolge, Anekdoten. Germany: Sedina, 1993. Grivell, Henry “Curly.” Australian Cycling in the Golden Days. South Australia: S. A. Unley, 1951. Guenard, Charles. Les grands cyclistes français: les années cinquante. St. Cyr-surLoire, France: A. Sutton, 2009. ———. Les grands cyclistes français: les années soixante. St. Cyr-sur-Loire, France: A. Sutton, 2006. Harper, Ted. Six Days of Madness. Canada: Pacesetter, 1994. Henderson, Noel Gordon. European Cycling: The 20 Greatest Races. Brattleboro, VT: Vitesse, 1989. ———. Rainbow Jersey. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1970. Hilger, Lucien. Peugeot et le cyclisme. Nancy, France: Editions Saint-Paul, 2009. Horsley, Tim. Land’s End to John O’Groats: The Great British Bike Adventure. Leicester, Leicestershire, UK: Cordee Books, 1996. Horton, Brett, Shelly Horton, Owen Mulholland, and Eddy Merckx. Cycling’s Golden Age: Heroes of the Postwar Era, 1946–1967. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2006. Hutchinson, Michael. The Hour: Sporting Immortality the Hard Way. New York: Random House, 2006. Jacobs, René. Le prestige de la route: l’arc-en-ciel et son histoire. Eeklo, Belgium: De Eeclonaar, 2002. Magowan, Robin, and Graham Watson. Kings of the Road. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1987. Marino, John, et al. The RAAM Book: The Race Across America Book: The Official Guide and History of the Race Across America and the Ultra-Marathon Cycling Association. San Clemente, CA: Info Net, 1988. Mason, Philip Parker. League of American Wheelmen and the Good-Roads Movement. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1982. Mathy, Théo. Toute l’historie du cyclisme belge sur route. Brussels, Belgium: Arts et Voyages, 1978. McCullagh, James C., ed. American Bicycle Racing. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1976. McGann, Bill, and Carol McGann. The Story of the Giro d’Italia: A Year by Year History of the Tour of Italy. Vol. 1, 1909–1970. Cherokee Village, AR: McGann, 2011. Merckx, Eddy. Fabulous World of Cycling. n.p.: Offpress SA, 1991. Merckx, Eddy, and Rich Carlson. The Fabulous World of Cycling. Vol. 8, A Year for LeMond. Allentown, PA: Winning Magazine, 1989. Merckx, Eddy, and Leon Michaux. The Fabulous World of Cycling. Vol. 3, 1984 Season. Allentown, PA: Winning Magazine, 1984. Mills, Bill. Olympic Cycling. London: Oliver Moxon, 1948. Nielsen, Nancy. Bicycle Racing. New York: Crestwood, 1988. Penazzo, Sergio, and Pierre Martin. Tour 81: The Stories of the 1981 Tour of Italy and Tour de France. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1981.

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Pesenti, Cesare. Il Lombardia, una corsa, 100 storie. Italy: RCS Sport, 2007. Petrucci, Giampiero. Dizionario del ciclismo italiano. Italy: Bradipolibri, 2009. Pridmore, Jay, and Jim Hurd. The American Bicycle. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1995. Ray, Alan James. Cycling: Land’s End to John O’Groats. London: Pelham Books, 1971. Ritchie, Andrew. King of the Road: An Illustrated History of Cycling. London: Wildwood House, 1975. Schnyder, Peter, Martin Born, and Sepp Renggli. Tour de Suisse, 75 Jahre, 1933– 2008. Switzerland: AS Verlag, 2008. Sergent, Pascal. A Century of Paris-Roubaix. London: Bromley Books, 1997. Shermer, Michael. Race Across America. Waco, TX: WRS, 1993. Smith, Ken V., ed. The Canadian Bicycle Book. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: D. C. Heath, 1972. Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). Centenaire, 1900–2000, Un homage au sport cycliste. Switzerland: UCI, 2000. ———. 40 ans de lute antidopage. Switzerland: UCI, 2001. Van Eyle, Wim. Amstel Gold Race 30 jaar 1966–1995. Rijkswijk, Netherlands: Elmar, 1996. ———. Een Eeuw Nederlandse Wielersport. Van Jaap Eden tot Joop Zoetemelk. Utrecht, Netherlands: Het Spectrum, 1980. Watson, Graham. The Road to Hell. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1992. Watson, Graham, and Phil Liggett. Graham Watson: 20 Years of Cycling Photography. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2002. Watts, Chris. Cycling Time Trials: Competition Records prior to 1944. Crawley, UK: Christine Watts, 2000. Wilcockson, John, and Greg LeMond. John Wilcockson’s World of Cycling. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2000. Witherell, James L. Bicycle History: A Chronological Cycling History of People, Races, and Technology. Cherokee Village, AR: McGann, 2010.

CYCLE HISTORY PROCEEDINGS Millward, Andrew, ed. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 1st International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1991. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 2nd International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1992. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 3rd International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1993. Norcliffe, Glen, and Rob van der Plas, eds. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 9th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1999.

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Oddy, Nicholas, and Rob van der Plas, eds. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 8th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1998. Ritchie, Andrew, ed. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 16th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. Ritchie, Andrew, and Rob van der Plas, eds. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 11th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1999. van der Plas, Rob, ed. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 4th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1994. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 5th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1995. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 6th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1996. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 7th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1997. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 10th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2000. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 12th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2002. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 13th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2003. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 14th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2004. ———. Cycle History: Proceedings of the 15th International Cycle History Conference. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2005.

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR Alth, Max. All about Bikes and Bicycling. Folkestone, Kent, UK: Bailey Bros and Swinfen, 1974. ———. Bicycles: How they Work and How to Fix Them. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, 1976. ———. Derailleur Five, Ten and Fifteen Speed Bicycle Repair. California: XYZYX, 1972. Bailey, Dennis, and Keith Gates. Bike Repair and Maintenance for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009. Barnett, John. Barnett’s Manual: Analysis and Procedures for Bicycle Mechanics. Brattleboro, VT: Vitesse, 1989. Belt, Forest, and Richard Mahoney. Bicycle Maintenance and Repair: Brakes, Chains, Derailleurs. Indianapolis, IN: Theodore Audel, 1975.

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———. Bicycle Maintenance and Repair: Frames, Tires, Wheels. Indianapolis, IN: Theodore Audel, 1975. Bicycling Magazine, eds. Basic Maintenance and Repair. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1990. Budrys, A. J. Cycle Repair and Maintenance. London: A and C Black, 1984. Burstyn, Ben. Bicycle Repair and Maintenance. New York: Arco, 1974. Colligan, Doug, and Dick Teresi. The Bike Book: The Care and Feeding of Your Two Wheels. New York: Scholastic Book Service, 1979. Kleeburg, Irene. Bicycle Repair. New York: Franklin Watts, 1973. Langley, Jim. Complete Guide to Bicycle Maintenance and Repair. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1999. Lawler, Tony. Beginner’s Guide to Bicycling and Bike Maintenance. London: Usborne, 1980. Sloane, Eugene A. Bicycle Maintenance Manual. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1981. ———. Sloane’s Handy Pocket Guide to Bicycle Repair. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988. Stevenson, John, and Brant Richards. Mountain Bikes Maintenance and Repair. London: A and C Black, 2000. van der Plas, Rob. The Bicycle Repair Book, 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1985. ———. Bicycle Repair Step by Step: How to Maintain and Repair Your Bicycle. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. ———. Cycle Repair: Step by Step. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1988. ———. Mountain Bike Maintenance. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1989. ———. Road Bike Maintenance. New York: Bantam, 1996. Whiter, Robert. The Bicycle Manual on Maintenance and Repairs, 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 1972. Zinn, Lennard. Zinn and the Art of Mountain Bike Maintenance. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 1996. ———. Zinn’s Cycling Primer: Maintenance Tips and Skill Building for Cyclists. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2004. Zinn, Lennard, and Todd Telander. Zinn and the Art of Road Bike Maintenance. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2009. ———. Zinn and the Art of Triathlon Bikes: Aerodynamics, Bike Fit, Speed Tuning, and Maintenance. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2007.

TOUR DE FRANCE Abt, Samuel. Breakaway: On the Road with the Tour de France. New York: Random House, 1985. ———. Tour de France: Three Weeks to Glory. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1991.

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Abt, Samuel, and James Startt. In Pursuit of the Yellow Jersey: Bicycle Racing in the Year of the Tortured Tour. Translated by Steve Hawkins. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 1999. Becket, James. Tour de France. New York: Bantam, 1992. Brownlee, Nick. Vive le Tour! Amazing Tales of the Tour de France. London: Robson Books, 2007. Chauner, David, and Michael Halsted. The Tour de France Complete Book of Cycling. New York: Villard Books, 1990. Clifford, Peter A. The Tour de France (History to 1965). London: Stanley Paul, 1965. Daffern, Eileen. Le Tour de France. Glasgow: Blackie, 1974. Dancy, Hugh, and Geoff Hare, eds. The Tour de France, 1903–2003. London: Frank Cass, 2003. Delanzy, Eric. Inside the Tour de France: The Pictures, the Legends, and the Untold Stories of the World’s Most Beloved Bicycle Race. Emmaus, PA: Rodale PA, 2006. Dugard, Martin. Chasing Lance: The 2005 Tour de France and Lance Armstrong’s Ride of a Lifetime. London: Time Warner Books, 2005. Duker, Peter. Tour de France 1978. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1978. Duniecq, Jacques. Tour de France 1972. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1973. ———. Tour de France 1977. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1977. Fife, Graeme. Tour de France: The History, the Legend, the Riders. Edinburgh, UK: Mainstream, 1999. Fillion, Patrick, and Jacques Hennaux. Tour de France, Le Ventoux, Sommet de la Folie. France: L’Équipe, 2009. Henderson, Noel Gordon. Yellow Jersey. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1970. Howard, R. C. The Tour de France. London: George G. Harrap, 1974. Lazell, Marguerite. Tour de France: The Illustrated Centenary History. London: Carlton, 2003. L’Équipe, et al. The Official Tour de France Centennial, 1903–2003. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2003. Liggett, Phil. Tour de France 1988. London: Harrap and Channel 4, 1988. ———. Tour de France 1989. London: Harrap and Channel 4, 1989. Liggett, Phil, James Raia, and Sammarye Lewis. Tour de France for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Magowan, Robin. Tour de France: 75th Anniversary Cycle Race. London: Stanley Paul, 1979. Martin, Pierre. Tour 85. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1985. ———. Tour 86. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1986. ———. Tour 87. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1987. ———. Tour 88. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1988. Martin, Pierre, and Sergio Penazzo, et al. Tour 82. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1982. ———. Tour 83. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1983. ———. Tour 84. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1984. Martin, Pierre, et al. Tour 89. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1989. ———. Tour 90. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1990.

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McGann, Bill, and Carol McGann. The Story of the Tour De France. Vol. 1, 1903– 1964. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear, 2006. ———. The Story of the Tour de France. Vol. 2, 1965–2007. Indianapolis, IN: Dog Ear, 2006. Nicholson, Geoffrey. Le Tour: The Rise and Rise of the Tour de France. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1991. Ollivier, Jean-Paul. Maillot Jaune: The Tour de France Yellow Jersey. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2001. Rendell, Matt. Blazing Saddles: The Cruel and Unusual History of the Tour de France. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2008. Roll, Bob. The Tour de France Companion. New York: Workman, 2004. Saunders, David. Tour de France 1973. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1973. ———. Tour de France 1974. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1974. ———. Tour de France 1975. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1975. ———. Tour de France 1976. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1976. Sidwells, Chris. Tour Climbs: The Complete Guide to Every Tour de France Mountain Climb. London: HarperCollins, 2008. Startt, James. Armstrong’s Sixth: The Tour de France in Photographs. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2005. ———. Tour de France: The 2005 Tour de France in Photographs. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. Strickland, Bill. Tour de Lance: The Extraordinary Story of Lance Armstrong’s Fight to Reclaim the Tour de France. New York: Crown, 2010. Thompson, Christopher S. The Tour de France: A Cultural History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008. Vespini, Jean-Paul. The Tour Is Won on the Alpe: Alpe d’Huez and the Classic Battles of the Tour de France. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2008. Viollet, Sandrine. Le Tour de France cycliste, 1903–2005. France: L’Harmatan, 2007. Wadley, J[ohn] B[orland]. Eddy Merckx, Luis Ocana and the Tour de France 1971. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1971. ———. Eddy Merckx and the 1970 Tour de France. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1970. ———. Tour de France (1970 race). Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1971. ———. Tour de France (1971 race). Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1971. Walsh, David. From Lance to Landis: Inside the American Doping Controversy at the Tour de France. New York: Ballantine Books, 2007. ———. Inside the Tour de France. London: Stanley Paul, 1994. Watson, Graham. Graham Watson’s Tour de France Travel Guide: The Complete Insider’s Guide to the Tour! Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2009. ———. The Tour de France and Its Heros. London: Stanley Paul, 1990. ———. Tour de France Travel Guide. Boulder, Colo.: VeloPress, 2009. Wheatcroft, Geoffrey. Le Tour: A History of the Tour de France. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. White, John D. T. The Tour de France Quiz Book. Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, UK: Apex, 2005.

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Whittle, Jeremy. Le Tour: A Century of the Tour de France. London: HarperCollins, 2003. Wilcockson, John. The 2003 Tour de France. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2004. Wilcockson, John, Chris Carmichael, and Graham Watson. The 2001 Tour de France: Lance x 3. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2001. Wilcockson, John, et al. The Tour de France 2000. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2000. Woodland, Les. Tourmen: The Men Who Made the Tour de France. Cherokee Village, AR: McGann, 2010. ———. The Unknown Tour de France: The Many Faces of the World’s Greatest Bicycle Race. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. Yates, Richard, and Gabor Konrad. Ascent: The Mountains of the Tour De France. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006.

TOURING Aitkenhead, Donna. Bicycling the Atlantic Coast. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1993. Anonymous. Britain’s Best Cycle Rides. Worthing, West Sussex, UK: AA Publishing, 1996. Bell, Norman W. Bicyclists’ Guide to the High Sierra. Palo Alto, CA: privately printed, 1979. Bennett, Kathleen. Cycling Kenya: Biking and Hiking Safaris. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1992. Bicycling Magazine, eds. Best Bicycle Tours in USA. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1980. Bower, Peter L. Bicyclist’s Guide to Arizona. Pennsylvania: Phoenix Books, 1980. Carlinsky, Dan, and David Helm. Bicycle Tours in and around New York. New York: Hagstrom, 1975. Chandler, Margot. A Bicycle Tour in England. San Francisco, CA: Gutenberg, 1981. Christian, Lue, and Shannon Christian. Cycling across North America: A Leisurely Route from Coast to Coast. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. Christie, Ian Bruce. The Australian Bicycle Book (Melbourne). Stanmore, NSW, Australia: Cassell, 1979. ———. The Australian Bicycle Book (Sydney). Stanmore, NSW, Australia: Cassell, 1979. Clark, Jim. Cycling the U.S. Parks: 50 Scenic Tours in America’s National Parks. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks International, 1993. Cody, Robin. Bicycling the Oregon Coast. Friday Harbor, WA: Umbrella Books, 1990. Coello, Dennis. Bicycle Touring Arizona. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland, 1988. ———. Bicycle Touring Colorado. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland, 1989. ———. Bicycle Touring Utah. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland, 1988.

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Colijn, Helen. The Backroads of Holland: Scenic Excursions by Bicycle, Car, Train, or Boat. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1992. Crabb, Helen. Cycle Touring in the South Island, New Zealand. Canterbury, Kent, UK: Canterbury Cyclists’ Association, 1985. Crane, Richard, and Nicholas Crane. Bicycles up Kilimanjaro. Yeovil, Somerset, UK: Oxford Illustrated Press, 1985. De Haan, Vici. Bicycling the Colorado Rockies. Boulder, CO: Pruett, 1985. Dolan, Edward F. Bicycle Touring and Camping. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982. Donaldson, Doug. Bicycling Magazine’s Guide to Bike Touring: Everything You Need to Know to Travel Anywhere on a Bike. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2005. Duckworth, Ian. Cycling Australia: Bicycle Touring throughout the Sunny Continent. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1997. Enfield, Edward. Greece on My Wheels. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Summersdale, 2003. Evans, Rosemary. Cycling in South Wales. Wilmslow, Cheshire, UK: Sigma, 1994. Fenimore, David Heston. Bicycling across America: A Journal on the Open Road. Crystal Bay, NV: Pinedrop, 1989. Forsyth, Judith, and Neil Forsyth. Cycle Touring in Switzerland: Nine Tours on Switzerland’s National Cycle Routes. Milnford, Cumbria, UK: Cicerone Guides, 2010. Fox, Stephen. Cycle Touring in France: Eight Selected Cycle Tours. New York: Midpoint Trade Books, 2010. Geser, Rudolph. Classic Cycle Races of Europe: 23 Routes to Ride Yourself. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1992. Hancox, John. Cycling in Scotland. London: Collins Pocket Reference, 1997. Harrell, Bryan. Cycling Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1993. Harries, Richard. Cycling in the Lake District. Ashbourne, Derbyshire, UK: Moorland, 1984. Hawkins, Karen, and Gary Hawkins. Bicycle Touring in France. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1974. ———. Bicycle Touring in the Western United States. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. Helgason, Gail, and John Dodd. Canadian Rockies Bicycling Guide. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Lone Pine, 1986. Hemmings, Leigh. Bicycle Touring in Australia. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1991. Henderson, Paul. Cycling in the French Alps: Eight Classic Cycle Tours. Milnthorpe, Cumbria, UK: Cicerone, 2006. Hendricks, Gay, and Kathlyn Hendricks. Bicycle Tours of France. New York: Plume Books, 1992. ———. Bicycle Tours of Great Britain and Ireland. New York: Plume Books, 1992. ———. Bicycle Tours of Italy. New York: Plume Books, 1992. Hughes, Tim. Cycling in France. Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: Crowood, 1998. Hughes, Tim, and Johanna Cleary. Cycling Great Britain: Cycling Adventures in England, Scotland and Wales. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1996. Hunter, Rob. Cycle Touring in France. London: Frederick Muller, 1984.

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Ikenberry, Donna Lynn. Bicycling Coast to Coast. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1996. Kirkendall, Tom, and Vicky Spring. Bicycling the Pacific Coast. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1986. Kleeberg, Irene Cumming. Bicycle Touring. New York: Franklin Watts, 1975. Knottley, Peter. Cycle Touring in Europe. London: Constable, 1975. Learmont, Tom. Cycling in South Africa. South Africa: Media House, 1990. Lee, Suzanne. Bicycling Japan. Carmichael, CA: Zievid, 1991. Lovett, Richard. The Essential Touring Cyclist. Camden, ME: Ragged Mountain, 1994. Lynes, John. Cycling in Ontario: The Best Cycling Tours in Ontario. 2nd ed. Montréal, Québec, Canada: Ulysses Travel Guides, 2002. Madron, Susi. Cycling in France. London: George Philip, 1988. May, Marian, ed. California Bike Tours. San Jose, CA: Gousha, 1972. Mohn, Peter B. Bicycle Touring. Mankato, MN: Crestwood House, 1975. Moore, Tim. French Revolutions: Cycling the Tour de France. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2003. Nasr, Kameel B. Bicycle Touring International. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1992. ———. Cycling the Mediterranean: Bicycle Tours in Spain, France, Italy, Greece, and Beyond. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks International, 1996. Nicoson, Michael. Basic Essentials of Bicycle Touring. Merrilville, IN: ICS Books, 1993. Nielsen, Birgitte Haj. The Bicycle in Denmark. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish MOT, 1993. O’Hare, Carol. Bicyclist’s Guide to Bay Area History. Sunnyvale, CA: Fair Oaks, 1989. Paul, Bil. Bicycling California: Touring the Length of the Sierra Range. San Francisco, CA: Alchemist-Light, 1980. Priest, Simon. Bicycling Southwestern British Columbia and the Sunshine Coast. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Douglas and McIntyre, 1985. Ringer, Bruce, and J. B. Ringer. Bicycle Touring New Zealand. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1989. ———. New Zealand by Bike: 14 Tours Geared for Discovery. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1994. Ringer, J. B. Cycle Touring the North Island New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Southern Cyclist, 1989. Robinson, Arnold. Cycling in Wales. Sidcup, Kent, UK: Stone Independent, 1982. Roth, Mark, and Sally Walters. Bicycling through England. New York: Henry Z. Walck, 1976. Salter, Paul. Bike Australia: Cycling Australia from Perth to Sydney. Adelaide, Australia: Boomerang Books, 2001. ———. Bike Britain: Cycling from Land’s End to John O’Groats. Sussex, England, UK: Vine House, 2003. ———. Bike New Zealand: Cycling from Cape Reinga to Bluff. Adelaide, Australia: Boomerang Books, 2006.

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Simpson, Jerry H. Cycling France: The Best Bike Tours in All of Gaul. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks International, 1992. Skinner, Elizabet. Bicycling the Blue Ridge. Birmingham, AL: Menasha Ridge, 1990. Smith, John. Cycling Canada: Bike Touring Adventures in Canada. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1995. ———. Cycling the USA: Bicycle Touring Nationwide. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks International, 1997. Stoehr, William. Bicycling the Backcountry. Boulder, CO: Pruett, 1987. Thorn, Julia. Bicycle Tours of Southeastern Australia. Kenthurst, NSW, Australia: Kangaroo, 1989. Vance, Patricia. Bicycle Touring: The Complete Book on Touring by Bike. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. van der Plas, Rob. Bicycle Touring Manual. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1987. Walsh, Brendan. Cycle Touring Ireland. Dublin, Ireland: Gill and Macmillan, 1996. Weisbroth, Ericka, and Eric Ellman. Bicycling Mexico. Edison, NJ: Hunter, 1990. Weltman, Gershon, and Elisha Dubin. Bicycle Touring in Los Angeles. Los Angeles, CA: Ward Ritchie, 1972. Whitehill, Karen, and Terry Whitehall. Europe by Bike: 18 Tours Geared for Discovery. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1993. ———. France by Bike: 14 Tours Geared for Discovery. Leicester, Leicestershire, UK: Cordee Books, 1993. Widing, Katherine. Bicycle Touring Holland. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. Widing, Katherine, and Jerry Widing. Cycling the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks International, 1998. Wilhelm, Tim, and Glenda. The Bicycle Touring Book. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1980. Winning, Robert. Bicycling across America. Berkeley, CA: Wilderness, 1988. Woodland, Les. Britain by Bike. Seattle, WA: Mountaineers Books, 1992.

TRACK RACING Davison, Liam. The Velodrome. Sydney, Australia: Allen and Unwin, 1988. Gabriele, Michael C. The Nutley Velodrome: A History of the Legendary Cycling Mecca. New Jersey: privately printed, 1983. George, Barbara. Bicycle Track Racing. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner, 1977. Moore, Richard. Heroes, Villains and Velodromes: Chris Hoy and Britain’s Track Cycling Revolution. London: Harper Sport, 2008. Negri, Rino. Velodromo Vigorelli, Il Vigorelli tra pasato e futuro. Italy: 1997. Nye, Peter, Jeff Groman, and Mark Tyson. Six Day Bicycle Racing: America’s Jazz Age Sport. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. Rensman, Gerd. 6-Tage-Rennen, Geschichte und Geschichten des Radrennsports. Germany: 1984. Sergent, Pascal. Le Temps des Vélodromes. France: Alan Sutton, 2008. Various Authors. Bicycle Track Racing. Mountain View, CA: World, 1976.

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TRAINING AND FITNESS Armstrong, Lance, Chris Carmichael, and Peter Joffre Nye. The Lance Armstrong Performance Program: 7 Weeks to the Perfect Ride. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2000. Baird, Stuart. Performance Cycling: A Scientific Way to Get the Most Out of Your Bike. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2006. Bicycling Magazine, eds. Basic Riding Techniques. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1979. Bicycling Magazine, eds. Training for Fitness and Endurance. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1990. Borysewicz, Edward, and Ed Pavelka. Bicycle Road Racing. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1985. Bow, James. Cycling Science. New York: Crabtree, 2009. Brandt, Jobst. The Bicycle Wheel. Menlo Park, CA: Avocet, 1981. Burke, Edmund. High-Tech Cycling. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2003. Burke, Edmund R., and Mary Margaret Newsom. Medical and Scientific Aspects of Cycling. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1988. Burke, Edmund R., Ed Pavelka, and Bicycling Magazine. The Complete Book of Long-Distance Cycling: Build the Strength, Skills, and Confidence to Ride as Far as You Want. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2000. Carmichael, Chris, and Edmund R. Burke. Fitness Cycling. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1994. DeLong, Fred A. DeLong’s Guide to Bicycles and Bicycling: The Art and Science. Radnor, PA: Chiltern Book, 1974. Doughty, Tom, Ed Pavelka, and B. George. The Complete Book of Long-Distance and Competitive Cycling. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983. Edwards, Sally, and Sally Reed. Heart Zones Cycling: The Avid Cyclist’s Guide to Riding Faster and Farther. 3rd ed. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2006. Faria, I. E., and P. R. Cavanagh. The Physiology and Biomechanics of Cycling. New York: Wiley, 1978. Fotheringham, William. Cycle Racing: How to Train, Race and Win. London: A and C Black, 1996. Friel, Joe. Cycling Past 50. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1998. Howard, John. Mastering Cycling. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2010. Hughes, John, and Dan Kehlenbach. Distance Cycling. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2011. Jackson, Robert B. Bicycle Racing. New York: Henry Z. Walck, 1976. Janssen, Peter G. J. M. Training, Lactate, Pulse Rate. Stamford, CT: Polar USA, 1991. LeMond, Greg, and Kent Gordis. Greg LeMond’s Complete Book of Bicycling. 2nd ed. New York: Putnam, 1990. Liggett, Phil. The Complete Book of Performance Cycling. 2nd ed. London: Collins Willow, 1994. Marino, John, L. May, and H. Z. Bennet. John Marino’s Bicycling Book. Los Angeles, CA: J. P. Tarcher, 1981.

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Matheny, Fred. Beginning Bicycle Racing. Brattleboro, VT: VeloNews Books, 1981. McCullagh, James C. The Complete Bicycle Fitness Book. New York: Warner, 1984. Pavelka, Ed. Bicycling Magazine’s Nutrition for Peak Performance: Eat and Drink for Maximum Energy on the Road and Off. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2000. –––––. Bicycling Magazine’s Training Techniques for Cyclists. Revised ed. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2005. Pavelka, Ed, and the editors of Bicycling Magazine. Bicycling Magazine’s Complete Book of Road Cycling Skills: Your Guide to Riding Faster, Stronger, Longer, and Safer. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1998. Phinney, Davis, and Connie Carpenter. Training for Cycling: The Ultimate Guide to Improved Performance. New York: Putnam, 1992. Ross, Michael J. Maximum Performance for Cyclists. Boulder, CO: VeloPress, 2005. Roy, Karen, and Thurlow Rogers. Fit and Fast: How to Be a Better Cyclist. Brattleboro, VT: Vitesse, 1989. Shermer, Michael. Cycling: Endurance and Speed. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 1987. ———. Sport Cycling: A Guide to Training, Racing and Endurance. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 1985. Sjegard, Gisela, et al. Physiology in Bicycling. Ithaca, NY: Mouvement, 1982. Smith, David E., and Eugene A. Gaston. Get Fit with Bicycling. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1979. Sovndal, Shannon. Cycling Anatomy. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. Streb, Marla. Bicycling Magazine’s Century Training Program: 100 Days to 100 Miles. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2006. van der Plas, Rob. The Bicycle Racing Guide. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1986. Whitt, Frank Roland, and David Gordon Wilson. Bicycling Science: Ergonomics and Mechanics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982. Wilcockson, John. Cycle Racing. Wakefield, Yorkshire, UK: Educational, 1972. ———. Cycling: Fitness on Wheels. Tadworth, Surrey, UK: Worlds Work, 1978. Wilson, David Gordon. Bicycling Science. 3rd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. Woodland, Les. Better Competition Cycling. London: Kay Ward, 1978. ———. Cycle Racing: Riding to Win. London: Pelham Books, 1989.

MISCELLANEOUS Abbott, Allan V., and David Gordon Wilson. Human-Powered Vehicles. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1995. Anonymous. Bicycle Polo. London: Bicycle Polo Association of Great Britain, 1938. Barnett, Norman. BMX Bikes. New York: Franklin Watts, 1987. Bicycling Magazine, eds. Cycling for Women. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1989. ———. Mountain Bikes. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1988. Bull, Andy. Climb Every Mountain: The Mountain Bike Way. London: Stanley Paul, 1991.

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Burney, Simon. Cyclo-Cross. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1990. Chennell, Percy H. A Bicycle in Europe. Macquarie, ACT, Australia: Zoe, 1993. Coello, Dennis. The Complete Mountain Biker. New York: Lyons and Burford, 1989. ———. The Mountain Bike Manual. Salt Lake City, UT: Dream Garden, 1985. Davis, Don, and Dave Carter. Mountain Biking. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1994. Gould, Tim, and Simon Burney. Mountain Bike Racing. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1992. Grogan, Paul. The Classic Moulton. n.p.: privately published, 2004. Hadland, Tony. The Moulton Bicycle. 2nd ed. Reading, Berkshire, UK: privately published, 1982. Hill, Paul F. Bicycle Law and Practice. Falls Church, VA: Bicycle Law Books, 1986. Hillman, Dr. Mayer. Cycle Helmets: The Case For and Against. London: Policy Studies Institute, 1993. Hope, Dan. The Mountain Biking Book. Yeovil, Somerset, UK: Haynes, 1995. Leslie, David. The Mountain Bike Book. London: Ward-Lock, 1995. Lopes, Brian, and Lee McCormack. Mastering Mountain Bike Skills. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2010. National Committee on Uniform Traffic Law. Bicycling Laws in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1974. Olsen, John. Mountain Biking. London: Salamander Books, 1989. Osborn, Bob. The Complete Book of BMX. New York: Harper and Row, 1984. Pavelka, Ed. Bicycling Magazine’s Cycling for Women: Savvy Advice from the Sport’s Leading Women Writers. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 1999. Philpott, Julia. Human-Powered Vehicles: Addressing Mobility Needs for LowIncome People. Washington, DC: ITDP, 1991. Purdy, Derek. Advanced Mountain Biking. Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK: Springfield Books, 1994. Richards, Ray. Cyclo-Cross. Silsden, Yorkshire, UK: Kennedy, 1973. Ricketts, Barry. Mountain Bike Handbook. London: Arena / Dalton Watson, 1988. Roegner, Thomas. Mountain Bike Maintenance and Repair: Your Complete Guide to Keeping Your Mountain Bike Going Strongly. San Francisco, CA: Cycle Publishing / Van der Plas Publications, 2003. Scagnetti, Jack. Bicycle Moto-Cross. New York: Dutton, 1976. Sergent, Pascal, and Dirk Van de Gehuchte. La gloire dans les labours. Grandes et Petittes Histoires du Championnat du Monde du Cyclo-cross. Eeklo, Belgium: De Eeclonaar, 2001. Strassman, Mike. The Basic Essentials of Mountain Biking. Merrilville, IN: ICS Books, 1989. Stuart, Robin, and Cathy Jensen. Mountain Biking for Women. Waverly, NY: Acorn, 1994. van der Plas, Rob. The Mountain Bike Book. San Francisco, CA: Bicycle Books, 1988. Wise, Ted. Bicycle Moto-cross: A Complete Guide. California: Celestral Arts, 1978. Woodward, Bob. Mountain Biking. New York: Sports Illustrated Winner’s Circle Books, 1991.

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JOURNALS Bergsma, Jacob, and Raymond Kerkhoffs. Cyclopedie: Almanac of Professional Cycling. Netherlands: Scheffers, 1996. Chany, Pierre. L’Année du Cyclisme. Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1974–96 (annually). Degauquier, Claude, ed., et al. Coups de Pédales. Seraing, Belgium: 1987–2010 (6 times a year). Gauthier, Benoît. Le Guide International du Cyclisme. France: Editions OnlyBike. com, 2003–10 (annually). Harens, Herman, ed. Wielerjaarboek. Netherlands: Elmar Sport, 1985–2010 (annually). Jacobs, René, ed., et al. Velo. Belgium: Uitgeverij Velo, 1956–2010 (annually). North, Alfred. Tout le cyclisme féminin. 1990–2010 (annually). Ouwerkerk, Peter, Mart Smeets, and Bert Wagendorp, eds. Wielertijdschrift De Muur. Netherlands: LJ Veen, 2002–10 (4 times a year). Van Laethem, Albert, Paul Beving, eds., et al. Le Cyclisme. Belgium: 1935–60 (annually).

INTERNET SITES Bike Cult. http://www.bikecult.com Cycling Archives. http://www.cyclingarchives.com/index.php Cycling News. http://www.cyclingnews.com Cycling Quotient. http://www.cqranking.com Cycling Ranking. http://www.cyclingranking.com De Wieler Site. http://www.dewielersite.net Mémoire du Cyclisme. http://www.memoire-du-cyclisme.net Mountain Bike Hall of Fame. http://www.mtnbikehalloffame.com Museo Ciclismo. http://www.museociclismo.it Pro Cycling Women. http://www.procyclingwomen.com University of BMX. http://www.navada.net/univofbmx Union Cycliste Internationale. http://www.uci.ch

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About the Authors

JEROEN HEIJMANS is an information technology (IT) professional from the Netherlands. Fascinated by the Olympics since he was nine years old, he is involved in the OlyMADMen, a group that attempts to collect complete historic results of the Olympic Games (partially available on www.sports -reference.com/olympics). He has written extensively about the Olympic Games on the Dutch sports history site Sportgeschiedenis.nl and is a member (and the webmaster) of the International Society of Olympic Historians (ISOH). He is also a coauthor of the fourth edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement. BILL MALLON, MD, a former competitive cyclist as a youth, is an orthopedic surgeon for whom writing about the Olympic Games and sports became a second career while he was in medical school at Duke University. This is his sixth historical dictionary for Scarecrow Press, following four editions of the Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement, and the recently released Historical Dictionary of Golf. He is a founding member and past president of the International Society of Olympic Historians (ISOH) and former editor of the ISOH journal, Journal of Olympic History. For his contributions to the Olympic Movement, he was awarded the Olympic Order in Silver in 2001. He serves as the editor in chief of the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, medical editor of Golf Digest, and medical editor of Orthopaedic Coding Alert.

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