Hindu temple art of Orissa Vol. 1. [1]
 9789004071742, 9004071741

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1-IINDU Tfi i\IPJ_JE 1\R T OF ORISS £\ BY

THOMASE. DONALDSON --:::-

VOLUME ONE \'(11th

S ~laps . 1z Charis, 8

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LEIDEN

l .. J.BR IJ I. 1981

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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

STUDIES IN SOUTH ASIAN CULTURE EDITED BY

JANICE STARGARDT VOLUME XII

THOMASE.DONALDSON HINDU TEMPLE ART OF ORISSA

VOLUME ONE

LEIDEN

E.

J. BRILL 1981

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The publication of this work was made possible by grants from National Endowment for the Humanities and the Millard Meiss Fund. Field research was panially funded by a Bingham Fellowship from Case-Western Reserve University in 1970 and by grants from Cleveland Stare University awarded in 1976, 1978 and 1983.

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EDITOR'S PREFACE It is a sad duty to begin this preface with the death of the late Professor J. E. van Lohuizcn-de Leeuw, sometime Di rector of the Institute of South Asian Archaeology, Univers ity of Amsterdam, which occurred suddenly in December 1981. Pro fessor van l ohuizen's numerous services to the study o f the art history and archaeolog)' of South and South East Asia arc well known; not the least of them was her work as founder and first editor of the present series, S 111dit1 in So11th Asian C11//11rt. This volume is the twelfth to appear since the series began in 1969. The coverage is wide, as befits the series title, and has included volumes o n the prehistoric archaeology of India and Indonesia alongside those devoted to the architectural and art history of India and Sri Lanka. As well as serving as indispensable sources for scholars work ing in t hose fields, the volumes are regularly consulted b y those in the cognate fields o f hi storical archaeology, ep igraphy, ancient and mediaeval history and cultural anthropology.

In accepting the invitation extended to me by E. J. Brill to assume the editorship of this st ries, togothcr with the Archaeology and Art H istory stries of the Handb11rh der Orirntali11ile, I am sensible of the hono ur and the responsibility involved, and o f the ineluctable fact that to continue it in the creari,•c sense means, not to repeat. but to rcnc~· the series by looking at manuscripts from the whole range of disciplines mentioned above, all of which belong to South Asian cult ural studies, in addition to the areas of the series' traditional strengths . Dr Thomas Donaldson's exhaustive study of Hind11 Temple Art of Oriua, will appear in three volumes which together form Volume XII of the series. In Volume I, presented here, he undertakes an illuminating analysis of the temple architecture of O rissa, drawing into his scrutiny many structures that have not prC\•iously received systematic study and at the same

time using a set of organizing principles that arc solidly based on the evidence presented by the temples themselves. This procedure attemprs to reduce the ch ro nolog ical uncertainties surrounding inscriptions, rcgnal dares and the associations Ol '(T l< ) ~

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Dehejia being exceptions.• In general, as pointed out by Panigrahi, Chanda and others, 1he architectural features of the temples have received the bulk of study while the wealth of sculpture which they possess has been almost unanimously neglee1ed. Pan of this neglect is due to the face chat the writers have not looked at the works wi1h an appreciative eye. Chanda, for example, seated that the "sculptures that adorn the well-known 1emples of Bhubaneswar, Puri and Kol)iirak are, wi1h few exceptions, of li1tle independent anistic value."5 Al1hough numerous small anicles on Orissan an have been published in recent years, they appear mainly in the small journal published by the Orissa State Museum and arc, out of necessity, small in scope .6 If interest in the temple an of Orissa is to be kindled a more ambitious undenaking is needed. In survey books on Indian an the an of Orissa is almost universally overlooked except for occasional reproductions of the three most famous temples typifying different phases of the Orissan style ai Bhubaneswar, i.e., the Parasuriimcsvara, Muktcsvara and Lir\garaja temples, and the Surya Dcul at Kol)arak. The sculpture, except for occasional erotic reproductions, is completely ignored. Lack of financial funds, or interest, on the pan of the government, bo1h state and national, has also contribu1ed to the ove rall neglect of Orissan an though in recent years the State Archaeological depanment has been qui1e ae1ivc in surveying previously little known areas replete with temples and in res1oring crumbling s1ructures. Even wi1hin 1he immediate environs of Bhubaneswar, however, 1here arc s1ill numerous half-buried temples, including a small 7th century temple in the Yame5vara compound, an 8th century temple in the Bhav:ini-Sankara compound, the 10th century Vyomakesvara temple in the market area at the southeast corner of the Bindusarovara, the 11th century Valukesvara temple next to the police station opposite the entrance to the Lir\garaja, and a 1~th century temple next to the Sari Dcul. There are in addition many temples in a ruinous state near collapse or overgrown with foliage and roots. In many cases the ruinous condition is due to the neglect of prics1s anachcd to the temples who allow roots to grow unimpeded on the structure where they eventually dislodge the stones and lead to total collapse as in the case of the J\fal)ikesvara Siva temple al Suklesvara. Unfonunately at the state level there has been a lack of trained personnel to carry out major restoration work and in cases where local authorities are active the primary concern is generally on renovation rather than restoration so that the end result bears li1tlc resemblance to the original design, an example being the pillarcd-ma!J!l'apa at Baidyanath (figs. 4p-4j z). Although it has been frequently pointed out that the Indo-Aryan or Nagara style of architecture as manifested in the temples of Orissa allows of less modification in its long history than other regional manifestations, thus presenting a more pure form of the Niigara style,' ii is possible to discern regional variations within the style as well as outside arch itectural inAuencc. Ai times these non-Orissan fea1ures arc easil y identifiable but in most cases they are adapted to, or synthesized with, 1he evolving indigenous architectural traditions and appear rather inconspicuous in the overall decorative program . It is generally individual decoraiive motifs that undergo modification due to external influences and not the general plan or shape of the temple itself; it is for this reason that such modifications arc not immediately recognizable. The major research in regards to styli.ric ' Vidya Dchcjia, Ear{y .f 10 11t TtMplts of Ori11a (New Delhi, 1979). ~

Ramapr-as:.ad Chanda, "Explor.i11ons in Oris.sa." l1 f .~ .f/ , No. 4--4 ( •9}0). p. 1. ' This journal has rcccn1 I~· st2ncd up :1gain af1cr 2 lapse of $C\'cral rears. ' S. K, Saraswati, "Temples of Orissa", 01/Rj . I ( c1n 1hc.· i and mature pi#Ja, the /ehalehara is invariably oblong in plan with one of the longer sides having a door which faces the deity placed against the opposite wall. The oblong shape of the dt11I, no doubt, was dictated by the type, or number, of deities to be installed within the sanctum. Of the three varieties of lehalehara temples described in the 8h1111anapr4"ipa the Valabhi type, characterized by a semi· cyclindrical roof resting on a framework of rafters, is oblong in plan and, as we know from the I 'i1~111ihar1110/lara (chapter LXXXVl),ll is designed to contain either a group of deities 1~

Ste ~f. A. Ohaky, "The 'Aklialihga· fi:nial," .4,1ibM1 A1idt, XXXVI (19'74), :• t ·,11J•1"'6a,•olldrd P11r11M, ed. Pri)•ab ala Sh2h, I (Bar(lda; 19s \), pp. 1, 1- 1. J 1.

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J:agannitha• Siit'}'a DcuJ•• 1. l· Litigarija•• 1.

4 · ~!ahagayatri

I· Suklc-Svara

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7· Pirvati 8. Kualo 9. BhaskareSvara 10. GaruQipancana

BankaY/1 in India. 11 {Lo ndon, 1904) , pp. 193- 10 8. • 0 J,,1tr-ip1ion1 Ori1111, \ 1ol. l, pare ii, pp. 178· 181 . 1

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marshes. Though the exact boundaries of Kalinga are not given it probably exr / ;p1,r,r11ph111 /,,d1t11. \'ol. XXXI, pp. z1 9·1.t1. Sc:c also S. N. PP· \9 · 41. 1

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\·,,1. I\' ( 19f the famous " · G:ang\lly. op. tit., pp. 18•· 186. >> S. N. Rajaguru, /1111rip1iofls of ()rissa, \ 'ol. I, p are ii ( 19,8), pp. 106 ·111. >' lb1tl.. pp. Jl J•ll8. » D. ,. G angu Iy. op. tll., . p. 1 9~ . ~. )6. l ;p1~raph1il /nd1t11, \ 'ot. X X\'lll ( 1 949 · ~ 0), p. :,8. JJ

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dviirapiilas and ornamental scroll motifs. A milhsma is carved at the base of the jambs of the riihii niche on the east or back side while a detached image of Surya rests above the piibhiiga mouldings. A detached lintel, carved with ornate scrollwork, lies on the ground near the riihii niche on the nonh side. The middle temple of the group, the Bharatesvara, has even less sculpture remaining on its walls than the Lak~manesvara. The only sculpture of importance appears on the western portal where the jambs are decorated with ornate scrollwork and dviirapiilas. The lintel above the doorway is decorated with a frieze depicting the capture of wild elephants, a popular motif on the early temples of Orissa. The southern-most temple of the group, the Satrughneivara, is the most complete, though greatly restored with modern mate rials, and gives us some idea of the original decorative program of these earliest temples. It thus will be used as the model in discussing the decorative features of these temples as a group. 1.

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The three temples face west and arc /ri-ratha in plan with three piigas projecting out from the wall on each side of the dt11/. The larger center piiga, or riihii, is designed as a miniature rtkhii-shrinc truncated above the fitst bhsimi with its niche cutting through the piibhiiga on the back and sides similar to the door on the front, suggesting the origin of the plan is based on a simple four-door shrine. These riihii projections continue vertically up the height of the temple whereas the subsidiary J>ii..~as, placed mid-way between the riihii and the comer, terminate at the lower edge of the baraf!!fa. The subsidiary piigas arc designed as a vajra-mJl!l!ii with the niche p laced above the piibhiiga simulating a window. The niche is crowned by a vajra-maslako consisting of two superimposed rairya-mcdallions. The riihii niches arc now empty whereas several of the niches of the subsidiary piigas still retain their original sculpture. The lintels above each niche arc decorated with narrative scenes though those on the subsidiary piigas arc rather crudely carved. Along the vcnical plane the bii(!a is divided into three principal patts, the piibhiiga,jiiligha and baraf!(/a. The piibhiiga (base corresponding to the foot) consists of three horizontal mouldings and measures 41 inches in height, generally half the height of the j iingha on these early temples. The lowest moulding, the hoof-shaped kh11ra, and the middle no/i (lor11s) with a semi-circular profile, are devoid of decoration. The top moulding, in the shape of a kh11ra, is decorated with ornamental scrollwork on its m11hii'!/i (projecting edge at the base) and lotus designs, rai!)•a-medallions, animals and human figures, often engaged in battle, on its sloping upper face. Thejiirigha (wall ponion corresponding to the shin) is 82 '/ 2 inches in height and consists of six courses of stone. Projecting out from the lowest course, beneath the niche of the subsidiary piigas, is a lala-bandhanii or stringcourse consisting of a row of metope-like blocks. These projecting blocks arc carved with lions, elephants, monkeys, human figures and mi1h11na motifs. Some of the blocks were left unfinished with merely the outlines of the motifs indicated. In these early examples at Bhubaneswar both animal and human motifs intermingle whereas on later temples they become standardized with only elephants and lions represented. The motif itself most likely derives from the dentil cornice appearing on the architrave of early Gupta temples and Buddhist caves, carved with lion-heads at Dcogarh , Marhiii and in the shape of lt.irtim11kha masks at Ajanta. The top course of the

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jingha, just below the bararl(/a, is decorated with an ornate scroll motif of swirling foliage and vines in which human figures often appear. In one detail oo the north side a figure appears in a swing amidst a whirlpool-like configuration of foliage. The bara!Ji/4, the uppermost horizontal mouldings which demarcate the biii/a from the gatJi/i, consists of three mouldings. The top and bottom mou ldings project out from the facade while the middle moulding is recessed. The lower moulding is decorated simila r to the top moulding of the pibhiga with lotus designs, roit)'o· medallions and human figures frequently engaged in combat silhouetted against an otherwise plain background. The upper projecting moulding is decorated in a simila"r manner and forms the first bara11i/i of the lowest bhi111i of the garl(ii. The recessed area sandwiched between these projecting mouldings is decorated with mythological narrative scenes, including the M arriagc of Siva on the south, badly damaged, and the Marriage Procession on the north side. Although the figures in these na"rrative scenes are slightly squat in body proportions, with heads overly large, they exude a certain charm and are remarkably articulate considering the narrow space in which they arc confined. 2.

Ga11i/i Dtfora1io11

The g1111i/i (spire) of the Satrughoesvara rises to a height of approximately 30 feet above ground level. Particularly unique is its paii:aumari,Vai~navl, Indriinl, Varahl and Ciimur:ic;la. The series concludes with the image of GaneSa.

The jaga,,,ohaM thus exhibits an extremely interesting display of deities many of whom will become standard decorative motifs on later temples, though in different locations from this experimental arrangement. The facial features of most of these figures, as well as the d1orapala1 and the image of Kan1ikeya from the riiha niche of the deul, are identical in style to those appearing on the Svari:iajalesvara temple, characterized by doll-like expressions, though the sculptural treatment of the bodies is more three-dimensional. This threedimcnsional aspect is panicularly noticeable in the row of Saptamatrlt4s. Their breasts, for example, arc large and globular in shape, so large that they have 10 be harnessed by a /r.Mrha·bandha. The earrings, however, are generally represented as circles viewed frontally v•irh no attempt at perspective or foreshonening. This contrasts with the more monumental •pproach of the sculptor responsible for most of the im•ges on the ga11cli and the female figures on 1hc subsidiary piigas. It appears that the more established master-carver, responsible for the decorative program on the Svarnajale$vara, was assigned the major cult images on the Parasuramesvara. In carrying out his work, however, he became increasingly influenced by the work of his more innovative junior, panicularly in the treatment of threedimensional volume. In that the decoration of the ga11(ii wa.s probably the last pan of the temple to be completed, it may be that the older master died and the entire decorative program was tu med over to the younger master-carver. The decoration of the jangha of 1hc J•!i.•"'ohana above the images at the base, consisting primarily of decorative motifs in low relief, was the joint effon of workshop assistants and exhibits stylistic peculiarities characteristic of both master-carvers. 4. Porlal Dttoration

The decorative program for the doorframe of 1he sanctum and that of the entrance ponal on the south side of the jaga,,,ohana deviates from that on the earlier temples and moro closely approximates the programs standard on Gupta temples of nonhern India. On the sanctum door only the jambs on the proper left side have survived. There arc four venical bands with the inside band decorated with an ornate version of the JeNtilo scroll '"hereby a meandering vine, of "S" shape design, alternately sends off circular sprays to the left and right. The outside band is ornamented with the rope-pattern of diagonal ribbons. The middle two bands, on the ocher hand, are ornamented with figure motifs encased within shallow superimposed niches up the height of the frame. The first niche on both bands houses a warrior with shield and sword, each facing the other as if in confrontation. The inside middle band is decorated with dancing ga11a1, uidJiidharaJ and the woman-in-adoo rway motif above the warrior while the outside middle band is relieved with a iala/Jha")ile.ii motif and mithNM aligned alternately up the height of the jamb. The d1•arapiila is

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carved at the base of the inside jamb, rather than being placed in a niche, and is 18 inches in height. The door-opening measures 19 inches wide by 61 •/ 2 inches high. The lintel has not survived and is replaced by a plain slab. The graba1 carved on the architrave above arc housed in shallow niches, each grah11 measuring 6 inches in height. The doorframe on the south side of the )11g11mob11n11 is framed by a projecting pilaster on each side which extends up to the projecting cave of the roof. Only pan of the decoration remains on these pilasters. At the base and capital they arc decorated with the piir1'11-gh11/11 motif while the shaft between consists of panels relieved with the woman-in-a-doorway, a warrior with sword and kir1im11kh11 masks. The doorframe consists of two bands beginning above the dvarapiila niche. The narrow inside band is decorated with the lI: T ll F. 81.H :\N O

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Svabhiivatutiga, who probably killed Sivakara JII.17 In the Baudh plate of Tribhuvana Mahiidevi II, dated in the Bhauma year 'l 8 (A.O. 894), it is recorded that Subhakaradeva JV and his brother Sivakara Ill died without issue,•8 a deliberare attempt to suppress the truth and to ignore the claims of Sivakara Ill's sons who probably set up parallel governments in some pans of the same kingdom. The reign of Tribhuvana Mahadevi II is not mentioned in later Bhauma-kara records, a fact indicating the larer members of rhe Bhauma ruling family never recognized her succession which was secured wirh the help of an external power.•• Tribhuvana Mahiidevi II was eventually ovenhrown by Sivakara Ill's eldest son Siintikara Ill, the husband of Oharma Mahiidevi. Santikara Ill was succeeded on· the throne by his younger brother Subhiikara V who married Gauri Mah:idevi and Vakula t>iahiidevi. Gauri Mahiidevi succeeded her husband on the throne and she was followed by her daughter Oal)c;li Mahiidevi. Oal)c;li t>iah:idevfs known dates are the Bhauma years 180 and 187 (A.O. 916 and 9z3). Her Santirigrama copper-plate grant, dated in the Bhauma year 180, alludes to her supremacy over Yamagarna-ma11i/a/a where her feudatory Riil)aka Apsarodeva was ruling20 while her Ganjam21 and Kumurangzz plates testify to her hold over Oaksil)a Tosiili. From the Taltali copper-plate grant of Oharma t>iah:idevi2' ir is recorded that Oal)c;li Mahiidevi was succeeded by her step-mother Vakula t>iahiidevi though the circumstances of this succession arc not known. It is possible that Vakula secured help from her paternal family in dethroning Oal)c;li.24 Vakula Mahadevl was succeeded by Oharma Mah:idevl, the wife of Siintikara Ill, and was probably the last ruler of the dynasty. The last four rulers were thus female, a fact suggesting the non-existence of male heirs. The dominant form of religion of the early Bhauma-karas appears to have been Tantric Buddhism, though they were tolerant of all sects. Although the Puspagiri-vihiira monasrcry complex, visired by Hiuen T sang in A.O. 638, was in existence during rhe Sailodbhava hegemony in Orissa, ir is nor until the mid-8th cenrury that Buddhist images and motifs, as well as terrifying aspects of Saktism, appear on temples at Bhubaneswar. In contr>st to the precceding period of temple construction, in which no images of the Sakti cult appear as presiding deities, numerous temples built in the 8th century house the rerrific form of the goddess with sunken bell)', emaciated body garlanded with skulls, attended by jackals, and seated on a dead body. The temples of Vaital, Uttaresvara, and Mohini all contain images of this description while numerous other detached examples from this period are enshrined in modem temples .25 Also popular during this period was the image of Ourgii t>iahisamardini, the goddess as warrior in the act of killing the Buffalo-demon (Mahisa), generally enshrined as the piirfva-dtvatii on rhe nonh side of the dtNI replacing the image of Piirvatl standard on earlier temples. Saivism, Saktism and Tantrism seem to have been inseparably mixed together at this time with the K:ipiilikas being one of the most extreme sects emerging from this Panigrahi, G..hronol".( Y of 1},, Bha11•11·K11rt1s 1111d tht .\'omiJt'n111sis o.f ()rissa. p. 1. l11tli a11 Hi11oria. The large lower rairya is horseshoe in shape to produce a vcnical emphasis in contrast to the hocizontal emphasis produced by the keyhole-shaped rairya on earlier temples. The niche is also much larger and appears like a window at the base of the ga!Jpi. The upper rairya is oval in shape. This center face of the

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to the typically flat arrangement standard on most Orissan doorframes and, as in the introduction of multiple facets on the exterior walls of the dt11/, suggests outside influence. The inner frame of the door consists of two bands decorated with lozenge-shaped designs and r,ztilttra scroll work. At the base of the inside band is a female '""ri-bcarer measuring 16 inches in height. This inside band continues horizontally above the door to form a lower lintel. The dviira-lala/a-bimba panel in the center of this linrel has a four-armed Parvatl seated in pad,,,ii1a11a rather than the standard Gaja-Laksml motif. A second lintel, slightly projecting, appears above with a small figure in aiijali pose carved in the center with ratilt.tra scrollwork issuing from his body which forms the decoration of the second band. Flanking this inner doorframc on each side are two progressively projecting pilasters, each with a dviirapiila at the base. Counting the '""'i-bearer at the base of the inner frame, we thus have three guardian figures on each side of the door, suggesting influence from Buddhist traditions current in the Assia hills. On the ~farkal)Jbhtiga), plain niche housing a ,,,;1h1111a, shallow niche containing a heraldic triple-lion motif, a panel of 1'1ali ph11/a pha(lika, and lotus half-rosette. The piin.ra-gha/a capital, higher up than those on the kanika, is rounded and surmounted by addorscd lions and a thin horizontal pir/ha-moulding at the level of the upper bara!fi/a recess. There is no tala-garbhikti beneath the rtihti niche on these shoncr sides as on the Sisircsvara and t>firkai:idcycsvara even though the niche is now elevated so that it rests on top of the pabhiiga rather than cutting through these mouldings. This is the lirst example at Bhubancswar where the niche is so treated, appearing as a window rather than a door. The pabhiiga division beneath the niche, however, is indented and there is no pin,la-gha/a design. This indented feature serves as a precedent followed on many other temples of the 9th and early 10th centuries. The niche is covered with a projecting cave ornamented with the mali ph11la phar/ika as on the Sisircsvara but the entablaturc above is decorated with a shallow niche, Aankcd by the piin.ra-ghata capitals with surmounting lions, rather than a lower bara!'ria design. The major vajra-ma1ta*4 of the ga!'rii springs directly from the framing lu11wbha-1ta,,,bha1 and serves to unite the rtihti design, functioning visually as the crowning member of the overall tora!lfl design. On the wrstcm or longer side of the tk11/ we have for the lirst time live independent venical segments projecting from the wall. There is no dominating rtihti, however, as all att the same size and drsigncd as 1u1,,,bha-1tambha1 with surmounting addorsed gaja-lertinta motifs duplicating the design of the kanika on the short sides . The overall design thus simulates a pillared Mat:tr/apa, though the intervals between the pillars arc filled with stone. As the 1/ambhas att all the same height and the barat:tr/a extends continuously the width of the biir/a, not being interrupted by a vajra-mastaka, the decorative program is more harmonious than on the shoncr sides. The bara!fi/a consists of two projecting mouldings separated by a recess and filled with various figure motifs, mundane and divine, each scene separated from one another by thin pilasters as on the upper bara!fi/a ttcess on the Sisiresvara. Included among the scenes are ,,,;1h11na1, figures leaning on a staff, Kama, standing female ligurrs, inebriated men supponed by females, Kipilikas, /ingaptijti and one scene representing Siva begging alms which combines aspects of the Bhiksi1anamiirti and Katlkilamiini stories. The front or cast facade of the t/111/ was designed in the manner of an entrance ponal with Aanking lul111bha-1tallfbha1 similar to the shon sides though projecting out about 20 inches. When the jaga,,,ohana was joined to the t/111/ some of this decoration was covered-up but most of the major motifs arc visible above thejaga,,,oha11a roof. The bonding walls (1andhi1thala) are plain. i.

Gat:tr/i Dtroration

The lower portion of the ga!'rii is in the shape of a truncated rtlehti, though rectangular rather than square, terminated at the level of the second bhiimi. On the north and south sides this portion of the gat:t(li is tri-ratha in plan and dominated by the large vajra-nrallaka crowning the rtihti-paga and its Aan king engaged 1tambha1. The vajra-nrallaka consists of two rairya-medallions with the lower one in the shape of a rectangular niche. The smaller upper medallion is circular and crowned by a leirtim111eha with strings of pearls dripping from its mouth to form the borders of the medallions. This circular medallion houses an image of Lakullsa on the south side and Hari-Hara on the nonh. On the longer west side this lower

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TEMPl.ES OF THE 8TH /\NO 9TH CENTURI ES /\T BH UB/\NESW/\R

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There: arc also numerous representations of a•alars of Vi$QU, including two examples of Nrsimha with one on the lintel of the northeast comer shrine and the other on the south wall of thc j aga,,,ohalfll. There: arc also two images of Variiha, one on the south wall of the jaga• ohana and another within thcjagaMohana. Also within thcjagaMohana is a partly broken image of Trivikrama. Although there arc numerous avatar images on the early temples at Bhubancswar they arc small in size and arc generally confined to the a1111rihi recesses of the gaHi. These images arc quite large, on the other hand, and obviously filled major niches with some still i11 si/11. In a makeshift niche in the compound wall in the northwest comer is an interesting image of the Yamalarjuna motif of Kni:ia uprooting the twin trees. The young Kn1:1a is standing in a sa,,,abhaliga pose holding the trunk of a tree in each hand. Immediately above each hand is the head of the yak,ra brothers, Nalakubera and Mai:iigriva, while above their heads arc: visible the upper branches of the trees. A similar image appears on the early 10th century Pailca-Piii:if

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la/i1asa1111 and each hold a child on the left thigh except for Ciimur:u;lii who is seated in 11rdhap11ryatik4 and without a child. The addition of a child is also a late iconographic frarurc as children do not accompany the 111a1rkas on earlier images. The respective vehicle is carved on the pedestal of each 111atrka with an owl serving as the vehicle of Ciimur:ic;lii. Included among the many detached images within the compound arc two other images of a female figure in /11/itiisa1111 with a small figure on her left thigh. The small figures arc not babies, however, but young boys and on the pedestal of one image there arc three kneeling figures holding offerings in front of their chest with both hands. Behind the seated female of the second image arc the coils of a serpent. These two images thus appear to be early examples of the Astikajaratkiiru motif which becomes popular throughout coastal Orissa during the early Ganga period, though on the later images the figure of Astika is transformed into a dead warrior and a tree generally appears behind Manasii while a serpent is added to the pedestal. There is also a dancing Camur:ic;lii placed near the west entrance. She is in the caruika attitude of chewing on the little finger of her major left hand. She is emaciated and a corpse is beneath her feet. There arc also numerous other images scattered around the compound or housed in niches, including several examples of Gar:iesa, originally serving as pariva·dtVatas in the comer shrines, Surya, Hara-Parvatl, Siva Mahayogi, Na1ariija, Garuc;la, Vi~r:iu, Kubera and numerous secular figures in kneeling positions with hands folded in alijali or holding a vase. One of the largest of these is a bearded male figure seated in padmiisa1111 with his hands in d~a1111-11111dra on his lap. He is flanked by a female ra11ri-bcarcr on either side and kneeling figures arc carved on the pedestal. He is worshipped as Miirkar:ic;la ni. In a makeshift niche on the south compound wall is an image of Hari-Hara while in the nonh raha of the southwest comer shrine there is a badly-worn image of a three-headed Bhairava seated in lalitasana. Panicularly interesting is the image of a royal figure seated in pad111asa1111 with his hands in front of his chest holding a miniature rt.tho-shrine who possibly could represent the donor. On stylistic and iconographic evidence the Piitiilc5vara temple can be dated to the closing years of the 9th century or the very beginning of the 10th century. Although there arc numerous affinities with the Madhukesvara temple there arc also innovative features which suggest a transitional stage with numerous influences filtering in from outside of Orissa. This is panicularly evident in the decorative program of the j11g11111ohi1na with the arrangement of pagas and a corner pilaster, with the design of the la/11-garbhi/eti beneath the riha niche on the comer shrines and with the vimani/eti crowning the side pagas on these corner shrines. Also suggesting a transitional stage arc numerous iconographic features on many of the cult deities, such as Kiintikeya, as well as the introduction of children on the laps of the matrletis. Unfonunatcly many decorative details, such as scrollwotk or dvarapalas, arc covered with plaster or missing (if ever completed) which makes it difficult to pinpoint with precision the date of construction. Although the Mallikesvara temple is probably earlier, it shares many iconographical and stylistic affinities and obviously is the work of the same group of sculptors so it must also date from the closing years of the 9th century. Many of the shrines within the compound, as indicated, arc slightly later in date and it is likely that numerous modifications were made in the original design of the Piitiilesvara temple complex.

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TEMPI.ES OF THE RTH 9TH CF.NTl' RIF.S OUTSIDE OF BHl ' BANESWAR 0

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SIMHAN ATHA ISi.AN D: SIMHANATHA Tl: MPLE

One of the most beautiful of these late 9th century temples, and one of the best preserved, is the Simhanatha Siva situated on an island in the Mahanadi river near Baideswar (south bank) and Baramba (nonh bank) in Cuttack district. konographically it is panicularly interesting as it displays imagery of both the Saiva and Vai$1,1ava cults, the former dominating the decorative program of the dt11I and the latter dominating the program of the Jagamohana, and synthesizes the lion aspects of Siva and Vi$1,lU into a unique image known as Simhanatha. There arc also Sapta111atrkA1 carved on the doorframc of the jaga•ohana and illustrations of explicit sexual rituals testifying to the strong S:ikta and Tantric nature of the temple. The temple is of the paiir.i)•alana class though only the southeast corner shrine has survived. Several pi;ha shrines have been added in the compound at a later date and now house sculpture from the collapsed comer shrines. The floor of the compound has been built up so that the pi/ha beneath the original shrines is no longer visible. The ground outside the compound has also increased, reaching the height of the walls, so that entrance into the compound is reached by descending srcps on both the cast and south sides. Although there arc some stylistic and iconographic affinities with the Madhukesvara and Pat:ilc5vara temples, the major outside influences operarivc in the decorative program appear to be from Central India rather than South India. As at Suklcsvara and Kualo the iconographic program of the pariva·dtvalas deviates from the standard program though the original image on the south side has not survived. 1.

Bai/a Duoralion

The bai/a of the dtxl, measuring 17 feet square at the base, is tri-ratha in plan with a thin 11a,,,bha added on either side of the subs idiary p;;ga. This is an elaboration on the plans at Bajrakot and Badgaon where a single 1/ambha was added, either on the comer or between the raba and the paga. The pabhaga, 44 1/ 2 inches in height, consists of four mouldings similar in design to those at Badgaon and without the vcnical bar noticed at PaikapaF THF. 8TH·9TH c:ENTLTRJES F SHUBANES\l'..\R

The raha projects out a full 24 inches and thus is givirh Dharmaraia," OHR], \ 11>1. XI ( 11)6z), p. 94. 4 S. Raja~uru, ln1fr1p11(J.,,.1 ~f ()rissa, \ 1ol. I\', pp. jZ9·jjO.

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SARABHAPURIY AN KINGS Sarabharija Dau~h1cr

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Mah:ijayarija Pra\.·ararija I

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Pravarar3ja II

PANOUV Ar; llha\'adc"a (Ra0 akcsarin I) alias Chintadurga

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Tivaradeva

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Bilirjuna

Tivara did not establish any city of his own and Sripura was the capital city during his reign.s In res~ct to palaeography, the box-head characters used in the Riijim and Baloda copperplates arc also used in the Lodhia copper-plate issued in the J 7th regnal year of l\lahasivagupta Biiliirjuna, some two generations after Tivaradeva. It is thus not warranted for l\1irashi to change the Gupta era z8z' of the Ararig copper-plates of Mahiiraja Bhimasena II to Gupta era 182 on the basis of box-head characters.• The box-head letters and angular style used in Piii;c;luvarilsi copper-plate grants was peculiar to all of Central India and was not restricted only to Vaka1aka inscriptions. It apparently was an earlier s According 10 \ 1 • " · l~:11k$hm2n Rao "Triva ra na~ar-.a .. is a 1ou·n b~· that narnc \\'hich may be tdl'n1 1tic:d v.·uh Tt'v. ar. Sec S. ppcr· platc grants and t:\'en prai~e the kin~ as the

,·cry god K amadcva. In the early part o f their rule in western O rissa the St>ma\.·aritSi rulers. as \\·ou ld be:

expected, favored the build ing techn iques o f rhc PiiQc,luvam,is established by their predecessors in Chanisgarh, such as the use of brick and construction of pillared-111011,iapas which hou sed large-scale figures carved in high-relief while exterior figure mot ifs were eliminated o r reduced in importance . Su r\riving brick temples in Chattisgarh exist at Si rpu r,

Kharod, Palari, Puja ripali and Ohob ini while the best extant pilla red-ma~,iapas arc at Rajim. Examples of brick temples in western O rissa, based on p rototypes in Cha11isgarh, exist at RaQipu r-J hari :il, Kausuli, Budhikomna, Bclkhandi and Baidyan ath.S• Pilla rcd-ma~,f,1pas exist at Baidyanath, Parnagarh, Charda, Bclkhandi and Narsinghnath. For the most part, hc>u.·c,rer. these temples represent the swan.. song o f a o nce great tradition transplanted on

O rissan soil rather than se rving as harbingers for future development. Some of the architectural fearu rc:s and decorati\·e mo tifs appearing o n these temples, alc>ng wirh

innovations filtering into Orissa fro m Central India, become assimilated with established indigenous traditions 10 forge rhe beginnings of a revitalized style of temple architecture. Among rhc new features and innovations introduced at this rime is the addition of a fifth mou lding on the pa/Jha/1.a with a rampaka-lcaf added 10 rhc /r.Jlmhha and decorative /eiri/a or rai(>·a design on the khura; a more om are treatment of rhc pitha or platform beneath rhe pJhhaga ; the division o f theja~~ha into rwo stories and the use of multiple offsets to produce a more rounded effect to the pagas; the use of engaged slamhhas with atlantid dwarfs on rhe capital in place of pagos at the corners which eventually alternate with mu~,ii designs ; the further development of gorbhile.d designs beneath all of the niches and the addition of simila r designs at rhe top of these niches; the placement of large ntiga-slamhhas on rhe jti1i_~ha or Aan king the entrance portal and /1.avalqa pro jections; rhe use o f balusters as lattice-wo rk for the gat.td/e;a windows; the introductio n of virO/a and ga.Ja·lerinta motifs as majf>r decorati,·e images; the carv ing o f figures in high-relief and the use of oblique cutting techni ques ; rhe development of new scroll mot ifs ; the transformation o f a rectangular j agamohana v.·ith a relatively Aat roof to a squa re structure with a pyramidal roof of receding pi,ihas; the increase in the heig ht o f the gop,ii with a resulting change in its si lhouette and the gradual elimination of the human figure as a decora1ive motif on the spire; and the addition o f a small portico on temples not supplied a j agamohana. It is also at this time that a full-fledged paiira-ratha plan for the ba,ia is finalized, with the pagas being aligned w i1h those of the ga11,1i to form a continuous vertical th rust, th ough this is more the result of rhe evol vin~ indigenous tradition than outside influence. Included among the iconograph ic changes, 0 1her 1han 1hose mentioned, is the addi1ion of Ke!U on the planet slab over the doorway to make it a na1·agroha; a change in the pose of Laksmi on the d1•iira-laM/a-biml>a panel of the lintel from the hieratic padmtisana pose with legs crossed to the more relaxed lalitasana pose with one leg pendant; a similar change in po~e appears v.•ith 1he S"ptonuitrkas along with the addition of a child on their lap; the Tan1r1(' tcxc cn111ltd T11nrrdrndra v:h1h: lat('r Kaula texts include •he .1·a11dh1il,e,11111a, K.:11/c1;it.lfd111ani ·runlro and .filpa Pr.i~i4.

It 1s pc,:c.!>iblc 1h:at some: of thn f>f a ·r,>ur in rhe vincc!\ 2.nd l.wcr G2ngetic Dn2b 1n 18ll1·8.t," .•I.\/, \ 'c•L X\.11. p. 68. '1

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T EMPI.ES OF T HE 00TH-11TH CENT URI ES OF INTERIOR O RISSA

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frequent addition of river goddesses as attendants to the dvir11pal1u of the doorframc; the introduction of new female figures such as dancers and musicians reflecting the adoption of the dtv11"41i system of presenting dancing girls to the presiding deity of the temple; the development of a tall )11/i-11111kM/a for the coiffure of cult deities; and the adoption of the rooster-cock as an attribute of Kiitttikcya and the mouse or rat as the vehicle for Gal)csa. A)

PJLLARED- MANDAPAS

The best surviving examples of pillarcd-,,..~pas in the Chattisgarh area, as mentioned, arc the Riimacandra and Rajivalocana temples at Rajim. Both temples have numerous additions and renovations and the Riimacandra was probably constructed in modem times with materials from collapsed temples. The Riijivalocana, built by the Nalas as indicated earlier, probably dates to the end of the 8th century as stylistically the figure sculpture closely resembles the sculpture on the Vaitil Deul at Bhubaneswar. It is of the pailriiyal11u class with a subsidiary shrine at each of the four comers of the compound. The main temple stands on a high platform facing west and overlooking the Mahiinadi river. It consists of a square sanctum, an antarala and a pillared-,,..alleftJpa. The fikhara is a square pyramid, in contrast to the curvilinear spires on Orissan temples, with tapering tail_Ja-

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199

medallions in five tiers forming the raha. h is tri-ratha in plan with squat am!Os crowning the bhlimi divisions on the kanikas. The heavy conical amalaka is pr(>bably a later addition. The entire spire is covered with modem accretions of plaster and whitewash. The doorframe leading 10 the sanctum consists of four progressively recessed jambs with the largest jamb on the outside decorated with superimposed nagas with hands folded in front of their chest while the second jamb has superimposed 111ith11nas above a small be1nA J«;(lic:itcd (() liha1r:1.va

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Tf. ~11'1.ES

()f 1·HE 10Tll· 11TH ('.El'\Tl'RIF.S at Sir:ibh10ji ,1.-herc there is an abundance of bricks scattered thrt)ugh()Ut the area. 00 1\n example would be at Gani:apa11i in the Bargarh subdi"ision of S:ambalpur district. Ste Fabri, op. tit. , PP· Jl·H· _ . 6 1 Sec P. K. R.- ~.. op. tit. According to this rtpon some of the temple$, such as the 1$var;i;dc:\'a S1"a at Jiunti, can be datt:J 10 {he 91h c1:n1ury.

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The tb11/ rises abruptly from the ground to a height of about 4! fect.62 The temple has a stellatc groundplan formed by two intersecting squares measu ring 13 feet on each side, the eastern point being obfuscated by the projecting antarala. The stellate design is most closely related to the temple at Dhobini which is a funher development on the earlier stcllatc plans at Kharod and Paliiri in Chattisgarh where the points are truncated so that the pago faces arc parallel with the major axis and the riihii is much wider than the subsidiary piigo1. The piibhiiga, 40 inches high, consists of only three mouldings rather than four as standard on other temples of this period or on the brick temples in Chattisgarh. The jiingho is divided into two stories of equal height, each 42 and '/4 inches high, by a madh.Ja-bandhanii consisting of a single moulding 6 and 1/ 2 inches in height. This is a funhcr development on the brick temples at Kharod, Pal:iri and Piijiiripali where the upper story is not as fully developed as the lower story and not clearly demarcated from the bara11(ia. Due to the starshaped plan of the dt11I there is no riihii as such but only leanilea and anarlho piigiis. The /ea11ilea1, which form the points of the star, are designed as miniature vajra-1111111(1i1 on the lower story. As in the Chattisgarh temples it is the crowning cai!ya design that is emphasized and not the diminutive niche whereas in the typical Orissan decorative program it is just the opposite. There are thus no images placed in the diminutive niches of these m111Jlil. Within the crowning toi(Yo-medallions, however, there are various sculptural motifs in brick, such as displayed female figures, squattingyak, R

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As there arc no raha niches on the dtNI there arc thus no ptiriva·dt•attis. The only figur< images which may be associated with the temple are four mutilated figures carved in stone and placed next to a small Nandi shrine placed in front of the original location of the ma~dapa. The best preserved image is o f a male seated with one knee upraised and holding flowers. There arc also several stone slabs with elephants, narrative scenes and riders on horseback which most likely served as a dado design for projecting porches on the ma~(lapa. A similar brick temple composed of intersecting squares producing an eight-pointed stcllatc groundplan existed at Kausuli near Ral)ipur-Jhari:il though only the foundation of the dt11/ and antarala has survived along with the pl{ha, the jagamohana being completely destroyed. The temple faces cast and the intersecting squares measure t4 feet on each side. The antarala has a large pillar on either side of its door opening but nothing of the frame has survived whereas the jambs of the sanctum door, also of stone, arc panly intact but relatively plain. A stone slab, 41 inches square, is decorated with a lotus roscuc and probably served as a ceiling ornament for the antarala. The sanctum, seven feet square, has a stone pillar set into the brick foundation at each comer. A water spout pierces the nonh wall. Only the lower two mouldings of the pabhaga of the exterior have survived, a /eh11ra a< the base 2nd • lt.llmbha above. The outlines of a hrt/a arc visible on the /eh11ra moulding while three tampalta-leavcs h2ng down from the lt.llmbha. There arc no surviving sculptures. Stylistically the temple is closely aligned 10 the Pitalcsvara temple and can likewise be dated 10 the late 9th or early 10th century. z. Ra~ip11r·Jharial: /ndralath Trmplt

The third brick temple displaying obvious influence from Piinc,luvamsi traditions is the Visl)u temple at Ral)ipur-Jhari:il, the only survivor of six brick temples built in a line just north of the huge rockbed mentioned in connection with the Somesvara. In dimensions the groundplan of the bd(la of the dtul, :o feet square, closely approximates that of the Laksmal)a temple at Sirpur. In elevation, however, panicularly in the division of thcjdri.~ha into two stories, it more closely resembles the later brick tempks at Kharod, Paliiri and Pujiiripali, though the upper story is more developed. The decorative program is more developed than that of the P:itillesvara temple at Budhikomna and its square groundplan affords more space for larger niches so that sculptures of deities arc included. The temple, popularly known as the Indralath, stands on a pi/ha measuring ! 1 inches in height. The pi/ha is 90 feet long by 37 feet wide. The j agamohana has not survived so that all that remains today is the dt11/ and antarala, both of which have recently been repaired. The cast face of the anurala is carved of stone and serves as a doorframc to the sanctum, its jambs being progressively recessed but left uncarved. The />aria is paiita-ratha in plan. The pabhaga, 69 inches high, consists of four mouldings similar in design to those on the brick rcmple at Sirpur though not as ornately decorated. Thcjarigha is divided into two unequal stories by a madhya·bandhana consisting of a single moulding. The lower story is 81 inches in height while the upper story is approximately half as high. The raha is framed at the corners by naga-1tambha1, the rail of the serpent coiling around the stambha on the lower sto ry and the torso carved on the upper story. The lower story of the raha is designed as a vajra·ntHptfi "'ith a single large taitya cro"·n ing the niche. The niche is framed at the sides by flat pilasters similar 10 the design at Sirpur. The niches arc empty on all three sides of the tltul to suggest the images "·ere carved of stone rather than forming pan of rhc hrick wall as they do in thc rai!ya-mcdallion or on the kanilta. The upper story of the rJha consisrs of a

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narrow, ornamental niche panially filled with a set of miniature pilasters, the design being similar to the Itani/ea at Sirpur. The Itani/ea of the lndralath is a duplicate, though smaller, of the riihii while the onortho is a plain Slombho or engaged pilaster with be\'eled edges and a square base. The base was probably decorated with a small coil.Jo which has not survi\'ed. At the top of the slambho, just below the baran¢a, is a diminutive kirtim1tJeha mask. The overall design of the lo wer story thus consists of vajro·m11n¢is alternating with engaged slombhos while the upper story decoration consists of engaged s/ombhos separared by recesses. All of these decorative motifs, except for the niiga·stombhos, appear on the single· srory design at Sirpur. The architect at Ra!)ipur·Jharial has merely altered their position on the walls and added an upper story. The rather sparse decorative program of the upper story resrifies 10 rhe limired imaginarion of the anist and his heavy dependence o n Chattisgarh prototypes for inspirarion. The baranefo, consisting of a few thin horizontal mouldings, is not sufficiently developed so that the gan¢i appears to rise directly from the )iingho. The ganefi is panro·rolha in design with the piigos aligned with those on the )iiligha so that there is a continuous vcnical thrust from the base of the temple to the top of the spire. This is an improvement on earlier Orissan temples where the jiin1.ho is tri-rolho in plan and the gonrf,i is ponco-rolha so that the piigos, effectively separared by the horizontal recess of rhe boroprf,o, are not aligned. T he gan¢i, rising to a height of 71 feet, is taller than that of the Laksma!)a temple at Sirpur and is more influenced by Orissan tradirions than was the barf,o. The kanika is divided into nine bhiimis, as reconstructed, in contrast to the five bhiimi di"ision standard on earlier Orissan temples, though the number of bara11¢i1 is reduced to one between each bhiimi·om/O except on the first bhiimi. The first bhiimi has two baron4is which arc linked by a raitya that visually serves as a crowning vo)ro· mastoka for the narrow niche of the upper jan1.ho. The bhiimi-omltis arc flattened as on Orissan remples rather rhan being bulbous in the con\'entional sryle in Chattisgarh. The decoration of the boron¢i1 consists primarily of thin horizontal pat!i or fillets and a small caityo motif, though the latter is often unfinished. The onorlha is decorated with miniature va)ra·m11114is, superimposed one above the orher, as at Sirpur, a feature confined to rhc on11rahii recesses on Orissan temples. The raitya crowning the niche of each 11111n¢i is aligned with the bhiimi-0111/ii, in the Orissan tradition, rather than below the am/a as in Chanisgarh, so that there is a greater clarity in the bhiimi divisions. The riiha consists of [email protected] decorated with raitya·medallions in the center -..•h ile the offsers, aligned with the niiga·slonbhas of the jiiligho, arc divided into /Jhiimi div isions by shon omliis, an arrangement also n oted at Badgaon. Except for the few faces appearing in taitya· medallions there is no figure sculpture on the [email protected], its decorative program consisting entirely of architectural units repeated endlessly. The lower story of the sandhi·slhala is decorated with a miniature replica of a rekhii·deul, complete with piibhiigo, jiitigha, [email protected] and crowning omaloka. The upper story on the norrh side has an image of a standing, four-armed Devi, probably Vaisi:iavl, while the decoration on the sou th side has not survived. Although the piirivo-devotos arc missing from the riihii niches, the figures in the cro11.•ning caitya·medallions are in silM. On the south side the coilJ·o contains an image of Varaha while the image on the north side is N rsimha, the conventional piirf,,o-de,,otiis on a Vi~i:iu temple. The image on the west side, however, is Hanuman carrying the Gandhamadan hill rather than Trivikrama. Although the images in the m11n¢i niches of the kanika are in si/11 they are difficult to identify d ue to the crumbling nature of the brick. Beginning on the southeast

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TE~IPL ES

OF 1'f-IE 10TH· 11Tfnsh1p ~:ith 1he $(>ma\•arh~is . Sec /1111rip1iq1rs of OriJtd, \.'ol. J\' , p. }JI . 7 11 Panigrahi, 01/Rj, Vol. XI. p. t). 61 l;p~t,raplJ111 lndita, \ 'c)I. XI, pp. ¢ ·97.

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construction of the Kapilesvara temple at Charda where the decorati\•e program of the drul is a near duplicate of that on these twin temples. 1.

Bar/a Duoration

The btiefa of the dtul, measuring 'l feet square at the base, is a full-fledged pailra-ratha plan with a recess separating each projecting pogo. The ptibhaga is 36 inches high and consists of four mouldings- a kh11ra, kstmbha, pa/fa (fillet-like moulding, here with crowning pii/ha) and 11aianla (horizontal band, here as an inverted piefha). A diminutive caitya or /eirifa is carved in the center of the /ehNra, above its m11hii11/i, and is aligned with the campaka-lcaf on the le.umbha above. This vertical alignment is continued by a bar which extends from the lower face of the pa//a to the upper face of the vasanta, the bar decorated with jiili panerns or a standing female figure.•9 The indentacion beneath the anartha niche is filled with a talagarbhileii designed as an elongated lehiileharamun!fi with a "'zjra-mallaka carved on its crowning member. This is the earliest example of tala-garbhi/etiI appearing beneath the niches of subsidiary pagaI. A similar design, though wider and more ornate, is placed beneath the riihii niche. The decorative program of the pabhiiga chus consists of standard horizontal mouldings alternating with vertically oriented lehiileharii-m1111¢i1, an arrangement which becomes standard on temples of the early Somavarilsi period at Bhubaneswar. The kanika design on che jangha, measuring 76 inches in height, consists of an engaged pilaster decorated with a diminutive vajra-m1111¢i at its base and hanging garlands at the top. Consistent with pratices noticed on the temples based on Chattisgarh prototypes, where the major sculptures were placed within the ma11r/apa, the niches of these diminutive m~rfis are extremely small and perhaps were not intended co house permanent sculpture. The anartha design on chejiingha is in the shape of a slender miniature s hrine with its crowning vimiinileti or spire consisring of multiple horizoncal mouldings as on the Simhanatha but with the addition of a small vajra-maf/aka at the top. The miniature shrine is tri-ratha in plan with a vertical segment, in the form of a tala-garbhileti beneath the niche and an iirdht•a-garbhileti at the top of the niche, running up the center and partly obfuscacing the horizontal mou ldings of its vimiinileti. The iirdhva-garbhilea at the top of the niche both restricts the size of the niche and casts a strong shadow on the image housed "'ithin, again playing down the importance of sculpture in che overall decorative program of the exterior. The riihii is designed as a large vajra-m11n¢i Ranked on either side by an o ffset pilaster crowned at the level of the bara11i/a by a kalafa. The vajra-m1111rfi is also tri-ratha in plan with a lala-garbhileti inserted beneath the niche and a small iirdh11a·garbhileti at the top, both garbhiletis also tri-ralha in plan. The pilasters framing the niche are relieved with scrollwork on their shaft while at che base of the Ranking offset pilasters is a small kirl/a. The niche is capped by a projecting pi"¢ha moulding and crowning vajra-maslaka though the surface details of the latter are obliterated. Surmounting the 1•ajra-maslaka is a small mu11rfi which extends above the bara~(ia and pierces the large vajra-maslaka design at the base of the ga11{ii. This is one of the first examples of two superimposed major vajra-maitakas appearing on each face of the de11/. On later temples this lower l'ajra-mastalea is elevated to the baranrla and is reduced in size, becoming subordinate to and dom inated by the larger vajra-maslalea .. :\ similar \•en1cal bar, though not as conlpletC' in dccor..at i\·e pro~ram, appeaN: on the PitJlcS\'ara temple at Paik~pada. Thct(' arc: :also n«> tofa·~tJ,hhikat henC'ath tht' on11,1ha niches 2s 21 Gandhar2idi, or (harda, and tht ()OCS beneath rhc rJhti nichc:-i; of the ~u hs1d 1 ary shrines are not as dcvclopl·d as here.

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above. The major vajra-mastalea here extends the width of the rabo so that it unifies the offset pilasters into its design as on the Vaiuil Deul. 2.

Ga!lifi Duoratio"

The barap{ia co nsists of a large mou lding. curving inward at the top. and a recess above. The ga~(ii is panra·ratha in design continuing the 6vcfold arrangement of the bii(ia so that the piiga divisions extend uninterruptedly up the height of the de11f giving an overall venical fluidity to the design. The lea"ilea-pogas are divided into seven bhiimis b y amfos with each bhiimi subdivided into four addition al bara11(iis. Little in the way of decoration on these bhiimi-bara11ifis has survived thoug h their arrangement, with the top two joined by F THE 10TH· 11TH c •: 1'Tl1 Rlf .S ()f 11'.:TERlR ()RISS,\

scroll motif on 10th and 11th century temples. The mepire) o ( the mu(l{liJ at this ,;me. and on lat( 9 1h century temples. 1hcre is lntle d i~t in ct ion bc1 u.•ccn a ra1r11·m11wfii :11nd klhikhafi·1r111!f{l1 o r pidha· mNwdi. The d i:;.cincc ion be-comes even le ~$ prtul•o p(l/h. which appears on the sloping surfaces of the top two mouldings of the J>ibbtig11. Other horizontal motifs include the rlllig1111i and lul•bhilti-billlllbo which appear on the -"i!l/i of the borO!f(/11 or bhi•i bor11..,;is. There arc also several animal frieze motifs with elephants and stags. Conspicuously absent arc roti/ur11 and j11lop.tr11 scrolls while l:irti-l:h. motifs arc sparingly employed, the largest decorating the 11bhi1tJ:a spout on the pithllF)

KHICHING·BENUSAGAR

The largest number of ruined temples and sculptural fragments at Khiching exist within the perimeter of the Thikuri(ll compound. In addition to the Candra5ckhara, the only ancient temple still standing, and the recently constructed Kii\cakcsvari temple, there arc scattered ruins of at least four other temples dating from the toth-ttth centuries-a large Siva temple, the Ja1csvara Mahidcva, Dhavalesvara, and Siddhesvara Mahideva. Outside the compound, some two hundred yards to the nonh, is the site of a temple dedicated to Hara-Gauri while about two hundred yards southeast of the compound is the mound of l1imu1;1dii which conta.ins the remains of a Buddhist brick monastery consisting of three small rooms and a verandah. The last site was panially excavated in 1908 and yidded inscribed images of Mirld and Avalokitesvara in addition to a large seated Buddha.86 The doorframe still panially standing was constructed from stones belonging to an earlier Hindu temple as an image of Mahi$amardinl is still visible on one of the jambs. A pillared " AS/AR (191i-i4), p. 17.

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111a~:.'Jl " ( 19G1). pp. 167·181. '' Sec Adr1s Banerji, "An Unfinished Rtkha Dt11/ o( Puruha," J.·tf8, \'II (1!)6s). 16J·166.

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intact and arc similar in design to those on 10th century temples at Bhubancswar, some of the sculptural panels, such as those on the leh11ra moulding, probably appeared elsewhere on the original temples, perhaps flanking the niches as on the KutiituQdi. The height of the pabhiiga as reconstructed, measuring io1/2 inches, is consistent with the riihii niches and pariva-tltvalii1 of this shrine but could not have formed pan of the decoration of the Siva temple where the parlva-dtvalii1 were much larger and there is generally a close correspondence in size with the pabhliga. The pabhiigo has five mouldings and, being J>aHta-ratha in plan, most likely is made of fragments from one of the other temples in the compound rather than the Siva temple. The jiiligha, which measures approximately 118 inches in height, is thus slightly elongated in ratio to the pabhiiga. Tht bii(ia consists of a pilaster at the comer and an elongated lehiileharii-"""'9i for the allllrlha, a program similar to 10th century temples such as the Gaud or Muktesvara, though there is a 11iiga-11a,,,bha on each side of the allllrlha as on the later PirvatJ temple. The riihii niche is flanked by a single pilaster on each side and as such is a more simplified plan than that decorating 10th and early 11th century temples elsewhere in Orissa and, as on the KutiituQdi, suggests an archaizing aspect. The irtihva-garbhi/eii in the upper area of the niche seems overly large in contrllSt to those of the anartha. While the baraf.lr it~ con ~truct io n s.ce B. 1'f01sthana1ah,

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pilasters are provided a shallow niche filled with figure motifs. A frie.;e is carved across the pedestal beneath the niche and on the lintel above. The dvara·lala/a·himba panel on the lintel contains an image of Hara· Piirvati on the east, Sarasvali on the south , a seated Durg2 on the nonh and Gaja-Lak~mi over the encrancc o n the wes1. T he inside of the niche is lined with two thin jambs relieved with scrollwork. A la rge pi(lha-shapcd eave projects o ut above the niche. The subsidiary pagas arc designed os a rtleha-m11!f(li, consisting of a single bhiimi division as at Paikapada rather than t wo as on the Simhanatha temple, and likewise suggests a transitional stage prior to the adoption of a lehiileharii-m11{1(ii as the standard design. On the west, Ranking the entrance, the design is crowned by an amalako, as at Padmapur, whereas on the other three sides the crowning member, though su rmounted by a simpk pi(lha moulding, is a padma-pntha as at Simhanatha. The niche begins above the piibhiiga mould ings and is framed b y a large, Rat pila.ster on each side. The pilasters are relieved with o rnate scrollwork on the shaft and shallow niches housing figure motifs at the base and top as on the raha. The lintel is likewise decorated with a dviira-la/ii/a-bimba panel in the center of a frieze-like arrangement of figure motifs. There is no co rresponding frieze be.neath the enshrined image but merely a thin band of scrollwork decorating the top moulding o f the pahhiiga. Various aspcccs of Siva arc enshrined within the niches while different deities appear on the dvira-lo/ii/a·bimba pane.I above. The figure motifs on the lintel generally consist of r1is while those in the niches at the base and top of the pilasters arc erotic in nature. The ornate treatment of the niche frames, decorated with scrollwork and figure scenes, is similar to that at Simhanatha and on the Kutiiitui;i

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Ga(l(ii Duoration

The experimental nature of the temple is panicularly evident in the design of the barop(io and the gop(ii. The barapi/o, in face, can be conceived as the firs! bhimi of 1he go(l(ii or as 1he crowning members of the bai{a. ii consis1s of a row of lehalehorii-m11(1(ii designs aligned wi1h the pagas of the bii(la and decorated wi1h a small vajra-maJta/ea on ics cop moulding. On 1hc north and south sides these m11(1(1is crowning the /eanika and anartho arc surmoun1cd by a kalofa while on the longer west side only the /eani/ea has this surmounting motif. On the raha 1hese m1111(ii designs have a small niche at the base immediately above the projecting eave crowning the parfva-devata niche. The recesses separating the leani/ea from the onortha arc filled with 1he iiilobhaiijiktis crowning the naga-stambhas. On the nonh and south sides the recesses separating the raha from the anartha arc decorated with panels relieved with mith11no couples. The bhimi division above this bara11i/o design is identical, and as such can be considered as a second bhimi, except that 1hcrc is a recess at the base which is decorated with niches on 1he anartha and /eani/ea on 1he west and on the /eani/ea of the shoncr sides, 1he niches containing mith11nas. The recess between the /eanika and onartha is likewise filled with a stombha surmounted by a ialabhoiijikti. On the nonh and south sides the onartho is climinaicd and replaced by 1hc vajra-masto/ea design of the raha with becomes extended and tri-ralha in plan. ii consists of a large cairya-medallion formed by strings of pearls dripping from a small kirtim11!tha mask projec1ing at its apex. The medallion is filled wi1h a !thiiltharii-mll!l(ii design as at Gandhariidf and Baudh. On the longer cast and wcs1 sides the vajra·maslaka of chis bhiimi is no1 as pronounced and duplicates the designs crowning the /eanika and anartho. The bisama crowning the go11(1i consists of a splayed phe11i decorated with podma pr11ha scrollwork while 1hc surmoundng btki or recess is relieved with panels of jali. The mas/a/ea is in the shape of a large lthalthorii which is lri-aliga in design. The m11ha11/i or lower edge of the lthaltharii is decorated wi1h mi1h11na-mirtis. The cen1cr projection or m11!tha/ii con1ains a large vajra-masta/ea consis1ing of a cairya-mcdallion formed by strings of pearls dripping from 1hc mouth of a kirtim11/tha projecting from the crest of the lthalthara. The medallion is filled with a lthiiltharii-m11(1(ii as on the ga!f(li. On the longer cast and wcs1 sides this medallion is Ranked by a large dwarf::lakfa sianding on the wings with one leg· uplifted and holding a club in one hand while 1he other hand is placed on the check. This is the first example of chis bho-typc vajra-mastoka appearing on 1hc ga(l(li though it appears on the piiga designs of the bii(la of 81h cen1ury 1cmplcs al Bhubancswar and small Ranking dwarfs appear on the vajro-maslaka on the nonh and south sides of the Vaital Deul. On later temples it becomes 1he standard apoiropaic motif on 1hc ga(l(ii though 1hc dwarf:Jok/a will move closer 10 1hc center and Rank 1hc kirtim11/tho mask. On the nonh and south sides the kirtim11!tha mask is replaced by a large lld.Jala lion. On later temples this 11dJata lion will be placed direcdy above the kirtim11!tha crowning the vajro-mastoka of reltha temples and project sharply out from the silhouette of ihega!f(ii. We thus sec numerous new motifs in-their incipiency on the Vara.hr temple which will become standard decoration on later temples though their design will become modified and more ornate. 3. Jogomohona

The jogamohono measures approximately l' feet by • i feet and is lri-origo in design. Its decorative program is similar to that of the twin temples at Gandhariic;lf though more lavish

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and most of the sculptures have survived. The ptibhaga measures 16 inches in height and consists of four mouldings, rather than three as on the dt11/, with kiri/a designs carved on the A!h11ra though their details were not completed. A tampaka-leaf carved on the /cJlmbha links up with the third moulding which is designed as a piPha and decorated with a small taitya on its sloping upper surface. The top moulding is in the shape of an invcncd pi~

Ibid., p. "h\"

J. N. B-ancrjc 2. '"The \ .'2r2hi Tc-mplc

at C;h2ur2shi," in the /Jr. ,\lira1hi r ·1/iri1a1io,, I 'o/11mt {l"ag pur, 19C.s).

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side pagas which is eliminated on the rtihti. With the elimination of this horizontal division the design of the upper story of the rtihii serves visually as the bii(la for the large anga-iilehara carved •t the b2se of the rtihii on the ga{t(ii. 2.

Ga11(ii Dttoralion

The bara/11'a consists of a series of seven mouldings which serve 2s a transition to the ga/11'i, rather than clearly demarcating it from the bii(la as on earlier temples, and visually functions as a ptibhtiga design for the anga-iileharas decorating the base of the ga11(ii. As on the Dakra-Bhrmesvaro and Ekiimbaresvara temples these aliga-iileharas, aligned horizontally above the bara/11'a, continue the vcnical thrust of rhe bti(la and serve as the crowning clements for its piiga divisions. There is a more staggered arrangement than on the other two temples, however, with the anga-iileharas more varied in size, those of the anarlha being the smallest while those of the offset pilaster angled within the outside a1111riihii recess are the tallest of the side piigas. The ariga-filehara at rhe base of the riihii, springing directly from the cave covering the upper niche, extends two bhimi divisions above those crowning the lt.ani/t.a. All of these anga-iileharas h2ve a double amalalt.a in their mas/a/ea except the smaller ones on the anarlha where there is only a single amalalea. The anga-iilehara 2t the base of the riihii is superimposed in front of an even larger aliga-iilehara which extends up three additional bhimi divisions and is wider than the rtihti and helps to continue the upward thrust of the anarlha. The overoll solution is thus more graceful and harmonious than on the other two temples with the staggered arrangement successfully 2voiding the abrupt

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interruptions of the silhouette. There arc additional aliga-li/eharas over the sandhi-sthala. The allga-fileharas are all pan,a·ralba in plan and thus duplicate the design of the de11/. The ga11{ii above this cluster of aliga·fileharas aligned at its base is bereft of a1111riihi recesses so that the piga divisions, except for the riihi, are not venically aligned with rhese ariga·lileharas or the pigas of the bii{i4. The J:aniJ:a above the allga-filehara is divided into seven bhi111is, whereas on the other two temples there arc only five bhimis including the anga-lileharas, and this added height avoids the truncated silhouette of the Diikrii-Bhlmesvara and Ekiimbaresvara. The bisama terminating the ga11{ii partakes of the piga divisions but is otherwise undecorated. The 01110/aJ:a is given added suppon by beki-bhairavas (squatting go/fas) who arc placed in the belei above the rihii rather than being carved on rhc bisama as at Gar:ieswarpur and as planned on rhe r.fukrcsvara. The dopi,hhii-simhas at the corners have nor survived or were never placed there. A J:alafa surmounts the a111alaJ:a as the crowning finial. The ga!'{ii of the Rajariinl rises to a height of nearly 60 feet above ground level and thus initiates a new phase of temple construction at Bhubaneswar whereby emphasis is increasingly placed on monumentality. Except for a diminutive figure placed between the aliga-lileharas of the J:aniJ:a and a1111riihii there arc no figure motifs on the ga!'{ii proper. Its decorative program is completely dominated by architectural motifs. There is not even a vajra-mastaJ:a, traditionally the most auspicious decoration on the ga11{ii, though there is a small stylized 'ail.Jo design (11dga111a) crowning the upper riihi niche which could ostensibly perform this function.68 Even the reticulated 'ail.Jo scroll (.phand gra11th1) on the a110rlha above the aliga-iileharas is too high up ro be effectively appreciated. The figures carved in high relief on rhe jiiligha arc also above eye level so that the intimacy between spectator and image characteristic of earlier temples is lost. Although the solution of carving anga-iileharas on the gal!'fli is gracefully achieved and the temple is one of rhe most beautiful in all ·of India, its consrruction culminates a brief transitional phase of temple building dominated by experimentation with exotic architectural features which will soon be modified to harmonize more fully with the evolving indigenous tradition, or will be eliminated altogether. Some of the innovations will be retained, such as the placement of the diltpiilas at their proper comers, the insenion of virila motifs in the lower a11J1raba recess and the addition of naga/nigi J1a111bha1 to the tala-garbhilta design. The pilaster design of the pagas, with figures carved in high-relief, will be replaced by m111J4i designs with figures encased in niches and the nearly circular groundplan will revert back to a square plan though there will continue to be offsets. The aliga-lileharas will be Rattened out and retained within the piiga boundaries rather than projecting out like turrets. ~·

Jagamohana

In contrast to the ornate decoration of the dt11/, the JagamohaflO is severely plain though a decorative program was originally intended but left incomplete. The plan of the )agamohana is squate, measuring approximately 29 feet on each side, in contrast to the rectangular designs of earlier temples. The pabhiiga, 42 inches in height, consisrs of five mou ldings but, like the pi/ha, is devoid of decoration. The ba"4 is panfa·ratba in p lan but the piiga designs were not carved. The jirigha is 71 inches high and surmounted by a barani/a of a single oa This i.s similar to. thou~h smaller than, the di::si~n car\•cd (lO 1hc:- pcdimtnt!i crov.·ninll. the: .t."rJJ:.,a projcetion$ of the ~fukteSvara and is Ob\'iously influencc·a-bandhanti, lt.halt.harti-m1111(iiJ of the lower jarigha and the major motifs of the gair(ii of both the deN/ and jagamohana. Su rprisingly the largest motifs do not have a Jt.ir1im11/eha at the apex but rather a lotus canopy. The motifs arc extremel y varied in ?> Ibid., p.

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cradition, as recorded in palm-leaf manuscripts, Janameiaya made Chaudar his eastern capi11 l-l11t(iry· 11111/ c.·11/tHr' o,i S'

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is indented, as on 9th and 10th century temples, while the tala-garbhikd below the riihii niche is fashioned as an elongated .l:hakharii-1111111/ii flanked b y a niigi-stambha o n each side. The niche of this multi-faceted 11111/f/ii is filled with erotic motifs. The 11111ha11/i at the base of the JW11ra moulding is relieved with garbled scrollwork. The design of the jiiligha, measuring 67 inches in height, consists of a pilaster at the corner, a niiga/niigi stambha in the an11raha recess and an elongated JehOkhara-11111/f(ii, an arrangement recalling the decorative program of 10th century temples. The multi-faceted pilasters at the comers are decorated with ero tic imagery carved in high-relief at their base, as on the Gauri temple, and with a kirti11111kha frieze at the top. The decorative scrol lwork on the major face of the shaft is the circular vart11/ii, popular during 1he 12th century, rather than the garbled vana-latii standard on 10th and 11th century temples. The stambha filling the anNriihii recess is decorated with two serpents, a niiga above and niigi below, rather than one as standard on early Somavamsi temples. The base of the stambha is ornamented with a gaja-kriinta while the capital is decorated with a seated figure, generally in padmii1ana, rather than atlantid dwarfs. The elongated khiikharii-m111Jtfi crowning the anartha niche has a diminutive tail.Jo or kiri/a design carved mid-way up its height surmounted by a projecting block decorated with a squatting dwarf;rak/a, the ensemble simulating a minor 1·ajramastaka motif. Crowning 1his khakharii-111111Jtfi is a shallow panel relieved with an atlantiddwarf. The decorative motifs of the subsidia ry pagas arc thus borrowed from temples of the 10th century though their arrangement is slightly varied. In contrast to this single-story design of the subsidiary piigas, the rahii has a double-story design above the tala-garbhikd. The niche of the lower story, housing . the piirfva-devatii, is framed by a thin khiikharii-11111(1/ii on each side which continue the vertical alignment of the niiga-stambhas belo w. The shaft of these m111Jtfi1 is carved with aucndant figures or ta11ribearers. A lintel above the niche is relieved with elephant processions and a center di·iira· lo/ii/a-bimbo panel though most of the frieze is now missing. The projecting eave terminating th is lower story is o rnamented with a frieze of hamsas on its 111Nhii'!/i. The pilasters flanking this lower story duplicate the design of the kanika while the crowning vimiinikd,

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hiiga mouldings, paiira-ratba in plan, and an atlantid-ga~a on the wings. The dviira-lalii/a-bimba panel on the lintel, designed a< a pidha}\ 'fht• ceiling. of ihc ,\ lu k(C~\·ara. nn 1hc othl':ll rt- on rhc hnccl alx>\'C :\lukhali n~:lm \\·hilt.• nurnt•rc1us '.'> 111.111 im:tj.!.t'S t>( (~a nc ~\1 n1c:h1: hn1tl'

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thC' niche housinj! Ciar:ic:Sa on thc $omc~\· ara rcmple "' anJ J .ak ~ nl ! arc 11.1"t apc.>Scd ncx1 to each cuhcr on the 1hc l.1n)tarj 1a rt.·· cn1; 1rc 1 n~ chc 1eac:h1n)? 2'.'>(lt.'CI ot' s1.A:.!J:l,;110 1 nl :amplc:, and Jcp1c1:.

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1.

Ga1Jefi Duoratio11

The bara!Jl4 consisted of ten horizontal mouldings which served as the base for the ga1Jefi and continued the sapta·ratha alignment of the bii/a though the a1111riha recesses were eliminated as on the Liilgaraja and most later temples. The lta11ilta of the ga1Jrfi was divided into ten bhii111is by ribbed 11111/41, with only three bara'!efis in each hbii111i, and was disposed o n two planes with the comer rounded and projecting. The thin pratiratha was divided into baraf!rfis superimposed one above the other up the height of the ga1Jrfi, visually serving as a beaded band separating the wider Itani/ta and a11artba. The a11arth" was decorated with a vertical alignment of four superimposed atiga·iileharas diminishing in size as on the Liilgaraja. The base of the raha was decorated with a large atiga-iilehar" flanked by a smaller one on each side. A band of scrollwork appears above the aliga-iikhara and higher up is a large projecting lion. The ht.lei contained dopiTH CENTURY ANO THE ..T H CENTURY

4l9

monkey pulling the garments from a female ngurc.•U There is in addition a small brick temple of Kiill a shon distance cast of the Somcsvara." 7 The doorframc of the original temple has been nxcd to the jagamoha11a and the dvliraplila1 arc well preserved. They arc four-armed and flanked by a diminutive river goddess in the lower right comer. They each hold the trident and J:apala in their left hands while the lower right is in varada. The upper right hand holds an indistinct object. They arc housed in a pi(iha-m11f.ll!i with a diminutive 111ig11 at the base of the inside jamb as on late 11th and early 11th century doorframcs. Of the diJ:pal111 the best preserved is that of Indra. He is seated in lalitlis1111a on his elephant mount holding a v~ra in front of his chest with his right hand, rather than uplifted as standard on most examples, while his left hand rests on his thigh, possibly holding the stem of what looks like a lotus blossoming near his left shoulder. Equally well preserved is the image of Astikajaratkiru housed in a niche on the front of the jag11111oha11a. Manas:i. is seated in lalitilsana on a viivapadma seat holding the rigid Astika on her lap. She is placed in front of a trefoil-shaped niche rather than a tree, however, and no serpent appears on the pedestal. The pliriv11-dtv111tiJ arc insened into the rli/Jli niches of the present brick temple and arc carved of chloritc. GaQcsa stands in a slightly flexed pose and is well preserved except for the broken upper right hand. He is flanked by attendants carrying jack-fruit. Kantikeya stands in a 1ribhalig11 pose and bolds his conventional attributes. Pirvati stands in a slightly flexed pose holding a rosary and lotus stalk in her lower hands while the upper arms arc broken off. She is flanked by attendant females at the base while a second smaller pair appear immediately above. Parvati is ornately bejewelled and, as in the case of the other pariva-d'o and a fra~mented LakuliSa is seated abo\•e the J:.irtim11lt.ha. The upper toi!)'a, circular in shape. is filled u·ith 2n image of Na1arija u·hile the larger lower medallion. oval in plan. houses the Rivaninugrahavadha4m0rti. Fig. 14. S.•;rRt 'usness to her co untenance. T he hands arc oversize and her feet arc rather clum~y in treatment. Fig. !1· SVARNAJAl.ESVARA: i4/ahhaiiji.U from wings of upper tai!ya of a uajra-maslaka design crowning a uajra·111•~fii. Although the figure is badly worn it is evident rhar the handling of the right leg. which crosses behind her left, is quite clumsy. The upper torso and facial features, on the other hand, arc quite pleasing and the flgurc seems warmly content as if meditating on a happy event . Fig. SJ· S\'ARNAJAt.F.~VARA: lintel over rhc south rtihi niche. In the center is a seated Ga1.1cSa Ainked on either side by an attendant. Gar:ieSa holds the conventional attributes in his four hands. The top moulding is decorated with a pair of vidyadharas and swirling arabesque scrollwork. Fig. 54. S"""R~AJA.1.1;..~\'ARA: fragment depicring a spotted tiger attacking a hgure riding on a horse with another animal attacking the horse from ~hind. The horse turns its head towards the rear and is embraced around the neck by the rider. Originally from the nonh side of t he temple. Fig. 11· S\'AR ~AJ;l. 1.1~\'ARA: a monkey seated within a tai{ya holding a citrus. This fragment was attached to the nonh side near the bara.IJ{ia recess depieting the consultation between Rima and Sugrlv2 2bout the quest for Slra. Fig. 56. $\'AR~/\J.S.l.1·:S\',\'ARA : rait>'a design on the.id~t1mohana "'·all. \'\' ithin the circular mc:d:allic>n is a male seated in ardh11f"'rya1ika holding a lotus in his ri~ht hand, a recurring motif on these carlic-st ()rissan temples. 1-tc \\'Cars a circular hl!lfala in the ri~ht car and a 1t1akAr11·h1J{itila in 1hc Jc-fr car. Air hough some of these f1~ure-s represent Siva, as e\'idcnt by the- t hird eye and 1arpa·hltt4alo, in other cases the figure •ppears to be merely a decorati"e motif or space-filler, possibly • pious disciple. A d iminutive dancing figu re is in the. vertical extension of the roilJa. The rai{yo is ncatl~· framed and .1tili perforations in the upper corners add to the screen-like effect of the design. The facial features and figure style arc rypical of the work of the Svarr;iajileSvara master.carver. In contrast ro many of thescminor decorati,·c motifs on the wall of the jaga,,,oha1ta, the carving is crisp and neat while bc.>dy proponions arc \\'ell articulatC'd, su~_J.tcsting it i!' a '1.'ork by one of thC' more accc>mplishcd artisans in th is workshop. Fi~.

87. P .\R ..\~\'RX~t l·:-.\· ..\R .\: \'.\R .\ C:E't'l:~''Ak.\ : image of \' aruo a at the 1p of t he sancl um d oorframc on lhc lcf1 side. \' aruo a is seated in patimi1ana and holds a noose is his left hand. The rip;ht hand is in rarado. Fig. 117. M l.Rt;,, Nl)E\'l'. $\ 'AR. : image of Brahma appearing above the Jwirapala on the r ight side of the sanctum doorframe. The niche is 16 1/ 2 inches in height. Br2hma holds h is lower righ t hand in v11rada wh ile his lower left hand holds a water j2r. T he upper right hand holds a rosary \lo'h ilc the object held in chc upper lefl hand is not clear. He is seated in pad111i111n11 and has three heads. Fig. u8. Ml.Rt;ANl)f.Yf.S\ ' AkA: rhe dvarapala Nandi carved ar the base of rhe left jamb of rhc sanctum doorframe. The image is 24 inches in height. He holds the trident in his upper righ1 hand wh ile his lower right hand holing :t m:tlc figure seated in /a/i10sana. As the rtihi niche becomes slowly elevated on these temples the overall decorotive program ch•nges accordingly, being transformed from an entrance pon2I to :t "'' indow. Fig. 1 H· S1$1RESVARA: detail of koniko showing the piir~a-ghafa capital and cnrablature abo•·c designed as a lower bara1Jfia with a hcra_ldic motif of :addor,;;cd lions surmounting a panel relieved with confronting elephants on the lower moulding. Beneath the pMrtta ·t..ha/a capital~ on the center facet of the shaft. is visible the vajr11·11fa.1J11ka motif crowning the i•ajra·mNIJrji design. The projecting center facet of the capital is relieved with a hmbhilt.4-hanJha ornament and the ma/i phM/a phaiJiko scroll of Rowers placed in triangles. The top moulding of the bara-!ftia is decorated with 2 rairya medallion. Surmounting this r11i1Ja is a squacting)'a.tfa. S1S1 RE~\'ARA: detail of rtihti and its offsets. The pMf1J4·~hata c2pit2l of the thin, inside offset projects our 10 p2nially obfus.c2ce the Pajra·111astalu motifs crowning the "":Jra-111111Jtic.

Fig. 197. BAJR/IKT : mith1111.a enshrined in a JJ'!.jra-m11t1fli niche o n the nonh s ide of the dt11/. ..\ mrc explicit maithufla appears in th~ tairya -mc:dallin above. 1'"hc hamia-latii scrollv.·rk n the niche jambs is similar to examples on t he S iSireSvara temple. Fig. 198. BAJR.;\t.;( •T: 1·a1ra·lllN!1t/i design o f subsiUnt rather than occupyin~ a throne or standing a s in ima~cs at Bhubancs"'·ar. Unusual is the fact that he carriC"s a lc>ng staff r iokti in each hand. These: pOrira-dts•attis measure j ~ inches in heig ht.

f ig.

10 1 .

Fig. zoj. B..\JR.-\KT: detail of the ga{l(ll fro m t he southeast shc;)\l.'in~ the ma jor 1·0;1ra-mastaka mt>t if 0\1er the entrance ponal. The truncated relehQ de-sign framing the entrance extends up hi~her than on the other s icJcs t hus e liminat ing the [email protected] division and making the vujra·maJ/a~ clcarlr visible above the roof of che ;a_t,amohana. T he 1.a!fcJ.i is hea,•il~· plastered and includes many crude modern images. T he upper m edallion of the cas t t•tyra-ma1tako contains the st andard Natar3ja. image "'' hile the lo"'·cr tai!ra of t his mhers o f the crowning maJtalta are intact rh(1ugh a few ml>re placed at the base of the jambs to simulate the decoration of 2 door. ·fhe overall design of the niche thus combines decorative features associated with both doorframcs and windows. The niche, including the pedestal of the pariPa-tkPalti, measures 68 by JO inches. Fig. 109. K UAl.C.l : dcta.il of himhha-stambha Ranking the rlihi frame. The base is ornamented with the pir{Ja--ghata motif wh ile the shaft is decorated with ratileera scrollworkt a scroll motif popular on 8th-9th century temples. At the base of the scroll is a mak4ra. Fig. 210. K u Ato: detail of the subsidiary paga niche on the west with an image of Ardhanarisvara. These side ptigas arc designed as elongated pajra·m11.!J{list the vimtinilea crowning the niche being increased in height by the addition of extra mou ldings. The top pii/1haga moulding is decorated with a variation of the dhan11 ganthi scroll motif on its 11111hi!lfi while tail.)'4 designs and halilsa·lald motifs appear on the sloping upper surface. The projecting blocks of the lala·ba"'1hana arc more widely spaced than those: on earlic-r temples. The niche, excluding the pedestal, measures 4} by 14 inches. Fig. 211. KuAJ.O: detail of top pdbhiiga moulding and lala·handhana on side paga of south side. The lion and elephant motifs arc all represented in pronte as complete animals in contrast to partial representations or frontal views as on many earlier examples. Fig.

111.

K uA1.o : sculptural fragments in the Ka;nake$vari compound. The upper fragment

rcpr~ncs. the head of Siva from the GaOg-idharam\irti motif. A sarpa·i:.M{l{ialo hangs from the right car and the rhird eye is visible on his forehead. With his upper left hand he is holding a strand of hair with which he wiU soften the descent of G anga. The lower tai!)'a-medallion is filled w ith the face of Siva. A sarpa·iut~{iala is visible on rhe right ear.

Fig. 113. Kt1A1.: the river goddess Ganga housed in a vajro·m11{1(ii n iche on the cast side of the KanakeSvara temple. As at Bajr2kot these ri ver goddesses occupy the niche Ranking the entrance portal. She likewise stands in a 1ribbafi1,o pose with the legs crossed. The malr.ara is placed on a small pedestal in the lower left comer of the niche rather than beneath the goddess. Fig. 114. K t.:AL: detail of the door jambs on the s2nc1um of the KanakeSvara temple. T he five bands of scroll work from the inside arc the dJJanN ganthi, ratikara, gt/aha, varit)US panels of differing motifs and the jalapotra rcspecrively. Above a ratiktra panel on the fourth band is an addorsed ~"J'1A!r4nla motif. Included in the gtlaba scroll is the motif of a figure in a swing. Fig. 115. K l1A1.: dvdrapti.la Nandi on sanetum dl>Or of the KanakcS,·ar2 temple. T he r(Ji!ra dc~ign of the niche is more ela1,orare than rhe seemingly make$hift niches on carlir: r tc:mp1C$. ·rhc 1rihhori1.a

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J

CAT c\l.OGl: E ()F 11.1.l 'STRA TIONS

pose is \'cry pronounced and duplicated on the image of ~iah:ik:ila. A rosary and trident arc held in the upper hands while the lower right hand holds a >(ja·piira"'1. A sarpa·A:x~(lala hangs from the ri!!ht car and a halo is visib le behind the head. Although ihe image is b adly worn• thin beard is vin of the mali ph11/a phat}ik.a motif. A squatting 1.a~1a, fla n ked on c::icher side by a hr11itsa. appears on t he sl()ping u pper surface. Fig. 2 J s. St '""1.1'.S.\' Al\A: 111/a·garl>hi/ea design bcnearh the rihti niche on the south side. The dc~lf.!O consists c)f a k/Jura mout(ling at the base decorated with pat!ma·pr1tha scroll, a tala·l>andhanii of e1~h1 projecting blocks, and a pht!fi ornamented with a padma·pr1/ha on its sloping underside \\ h iJe mali phula pbar}ile4 is etched on its upper edge. The figures flanking this design face inward and have their hands folded in aii;oli. They arc prob2bly 2ssociated with the Bhik~a1an2murti image in the niche above. At the base of the inside jambs of the niche is the angry ui on the righ t and the three excited females o n che left with the inside one removing her garments. 1

fig. 2J6. St:l\:1.1~:->\'J\R.1i.: north rtihti niche with the imaRe of P2rvati. The tala•J!.arbhiJui design beneath the niche is similar to that on the south side. The hgures Aanking this motif arc treated in an unusual manner. \X' hilc the one on the proper left s'ands in a rigid frontal pose .,.,·i1h one hand resting on his weapon the figure on the right stands with knees bent and hands uplif1ed in 0~111/1 u·hilc facing the image of Parvati. His weapon is p laced in the left corner of the niche. A h:iln appears behind his he2.d and his coiffure and elongated ear.; seem Buddhist inspired, as on ima~cs c)f 1.akuliSa. The niche is framed with three bands of scroll\\•ork-thc outside t\\'O decorated \\·irh ratihra and the inside with the rangani-plus fillets ornamented with the gNndilea (bead) 2nd pad,,,. pr1/ha scrolls. At the base of the inside bands a rc a female tau-ri· bc:arer and diminuti\•e r1i on either side. P2rvati stands in a rigid 1111110/>hali.g.a pose on 2 11ii1:apat1ma cushion Ranked by a deer and lion as on 7th century images at Bhubaneswar. Female attendants holding a tauri appear abo,·c these animals. The head and arms of 1he goddess are missing. The pedestal of the pJri t·a ·tlf1·atti1 is suprisingly small.

1-=-ig. 1~7. Su...: 1.~S\.ARA: rai!ya-medallicJn \\•ith an image of Gai:iei.a. Gal)cSa is scatt.'.'d in ar· dbaparyanle4 and holds the traditional objects in his four h2nds. The Jr.Nthara is held at the ri!(ht " ·hile the rosary is held in the upper left hand. just the reverse of most images. ·rhe h~ure ·a fr2~men1 u •ith the upper part t>f a Na,araja ima~c·. The !'t

Fig. 2 ~9· Sl1t(l.f.!-\'.'\Ri\: f ragmcnt of 11a;ra·mastak.o cro\\·nin~ a sub$id iary pd)!.a desig:n. T he up~r tai!ra \\'as Aankcd 1>)' a itilal>/1a1;iki on cac~ side. A k irtim"kha mask appears at the apex of the dcsi~n. The lowe r med•llion hou,es the face of Siva.

Fig.

140.

SL't.:1 1·:::.'

Para~ ur3me$\•a ra

Fig.

:\R:\:

lala·hanJl1tJni b locks \\·ith kinnaras. Similar mot ifs appear on the

temple.

241. S t·KLl".!->\':\RA: detail ~crollwork.

of pila:;.1er u·ith t!han11 "anthi scroll\\•ork , addo rse.0rdcr.

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CATAI.lK,l.OA: Siva standing on a crawling demon. He stands in a 1ribha1igo pose. Except for the rosary aJI the attributes arc missing. He wears a sarpa·hi!Jfiala in his right car. A bhil1a looks up ar him from the lower right comer of che niche. 13 by t 1 •/ 2 inchc-.s. Fig. 171. BAN>:,l.OA: fragme nted image of a seated Devi. She decorated with two tripods and a reclining bull. 1: by 11 inches. Fig. 176. BANfo,;.A(>A: · and is Mrdh11aliliga.

Nafar~ja

JS

in podmii1a•a. The pedestal

is

in a rairya-mcdallion from a 11djra..111a1taka motif. He i5> e ight-armed

Fig. 177. 8ANfo,;.AQh: seated Siva in a tailja·meda.llion from a v~ra-111a11aka. He ht)lds a rosar)', trident and vase in three of his h ands. The founh hand is in 11arada 2nd holds an indistinct object. Fig. 178. BA"1>:AOA: pedestal of broken image of Surya. AruQa is seated in p.dmii1a•a and a spoked-wheel is v isible behind the center horse. 0~2 and Pratyil~i are dispensing arrows on either side of Surya. Fig. :79. BAl'll(AOA: sculptural fragments now piled as a pillar on the northwest corner shrine. Above is a niche containing 2 taMri-bcarcr. She stands in a pronounced tribhan1.a pose wirh her lefr hip pushed way out. Below is a fragment of a kinnora couple embracing among foliage. Fig. 280. BAN>:AOA: niche with the popular motif of a female standing in a doorway. She is squat in body proportions and has her hair arranged in a jar-like chignon of curls on top of her head. Fig. 181. BANK,l.l)A: wall niche with a • ilhN••· The male embraces the female from behind and gently lifts her chin with his left hand. She stands in a pronounced tribhanga pose and cums her head back towards him. The sash of his lower garment is t ied in a large loop on his th igh . A tree is visible behind the couple.

Fig. 181. a... ~KAOA : wall niche with a 111i1h11no. They stand in front of a tree facing one another. The female crosses one leg and embraces the male around the shoulder with her righ< arm. They both have the same coitfurc and their body ornamentation is almost identical except for the girdle. Fig. 18J· BADGA\'ercd \\·u h accretions of plaster and debris. Though tJ:e pora1N is not popular as an attribute of Si,·a in ()ri$$a it is standard as an attribute for th is fo rm of Siva \\•hich appears generally on chc nonh si(ie alo ng \\·n h Aja Ekap:ida. A t,,a!Ja appears in each lower corner of t he niche. The ima~cs in these: niche~ ml'asuri:

Sl>uth":est view of chc:,;a..~amt>hana after the rcmo \·al of che plaster.

Fig . 317. ~fA011t'..:J;S\'•..ti RA : detail of i.•aj ra·#lastaka c ro wning a "''!i ra·1'111nt}i. The mc)tif is cl. MADHUKESVARA: projeaing va)r•:"'"~li on the roof in the center of the j aga1J1°"'11111 on the nonh side. The niche contains an image of Siva seated in ardhaparyali/ea. A prancing horse is carved on the pedestal. Fig.

31.J. MADHUKE~VARA: cntr2ncc

ponal on south side ofj4ga•ohana. The vajra·1Wastak.a forming

a pediment over the door is complete with a ltirti111Mlth. at the apex and ga.Ja·Ju411tas. 11111bras and

jagra1a1 on the borders following examples at Bhubaneswar. The medallions house the Andh2kisuravadha-miini below and Na1ariija 2bove. Fig. }14. M.. OHL'K F,.S\ ' AR.\ : cast view of the southeast comer shrine and second cast compound waU. The rihi niche cuts panially through the piibhiga mouldings as on 7th century temples at Bhubaneswar. A low pitha is visible beneath the pabhaga. The gall# is divided into five bhi•is at the leanilea with each bhi111i subdivided into four bar~is by a bhii111i-a,,,/a, The first bhi111i contains only three bara'!l(iis. counting the top moulding of the bar11!f/la. and thus is shoncr than the four bh#11tis above. Pan of the decoration is still obscured by plaster. Fig. 32) . MADHCKES\'Al\A: west view of the southeast comer shrine. The comer shrines face cast and west rather than nonh and south a.son the K1nakeSvara and ManikcSvara temples. An image of Surya appears on the lintel of the doorframe.

Fig. i16. MADHUKF.SVARA: north view of the south khiiJ:harii shrine with entrance ponal. The pabhaga is completely buried by the addition of a stone Aoor for the compound. The doorframe is dominated by figure sculpture. A band of gelaba scroll work is added outside of the projecting frame on each side. Two images of Ga('c$a arc placed within 1hc shrine. Fig. J•7· MAOHUKF.SvARA: entrance ponal of the southweSt comer shrine. The pabhaga mouldings arc •gain panially buried. The niches of the flanking vajr•·IJl•~lis arc filled with fem2lc .a·f'Jtra in his four hands. A crescent moon is ' 'isib1c in his coiffure and his .)''!iilopavita. armlets and u·r1i>l band arc formed of serpents. His necklace is a strins.t of bc:lls and he wears a string of bells on his ltf1 leg suggesting C2Jukyan inAuence. 1 A h alo is visible hehind his head and a flying t'i4,.adhara is car,·cd in each upper corner. Thr mc>usc appears on rhe pel ll.Jo\E~\':\R./1.: image of Sara.~vati loosel~· p laced w ithin thc: .ia._t.tJmohana. She hr fr1>m t·t1jro-m11!f¢i niche c>n t he southcasc cc,rner shrine. Hi- stands in 2 sli~htly tlext:d pose rcstin~ h is left hand t>n h is ~hicl1ffu rc:. l;iJt. }\1. ~l .\ l)l ll' t..'.1.~\'.->iR ,'\: male ti~urt hou:\c:\J.()( ;l ' t~

F 11.1.l '!\'l'R:\ T l.SS

'I,

Gangi, occupies the lower left corner of the niche. The niche measures 27 by 17 inches. Stylistically and iconographicilly the image is closcli· related to t he slightly earlier ima~e on the Mallikcs"ara a nd the slightly later image on the SomeS"ara temple at Mukhalingam. fig. 168 . PATAl.f.S\'ARA: image of a kneeling figure, probab ly Garuda, from the west riihii niche of the pi{iho-shrinc added at the non hwest corner of the 1ogomohana. A similar image appears in the same niche on the shrine at the southwest corner. The hands are placed in on.Jali in front of the chest and ap~ar robe holding a lotus o r serpent. The upper pan of the image, above the shoulders, is broken o ff. The lower part of the back slab is engra\'ed with o "al desig ns -.·hich probably simulate ieathers from his wings. The niche measures approximately 16 by 10 inches. Fig. 169. S1>1t1ANATHA: general view from the northeast. The roof o f the ; •)?.•mohana 2od the crowning /flaJlaJuz of the dt11I have been covered with whitewash. The addition of a third terrace t >n 1he jago f11ohana roof increases its height so that the lower medallion of t he t'ajra-Mastalul on the front of the Jt11l is contained u·ithin the dark interior rather than being visible on the exter1or as on earlier temples, 2 feature u ·hich testifies to the experimental natu re of the temple. T he large tcrr2ccd structure at the l1HM,ATH." subsid iary pago design on the south side of the dtNI. The paflha1,a con>ist• of four mould ings similar is design to those at Badgaon . The vi,,,QniU crowning the niche is elongated. co nsisting of tu·o bhNmi d ivisions with each bl;N,,,i being cro \\•ned by a paJ111a-pr1tha. and replacc-s the 1:a1ra-l/l"!lOxa niches. rather than in rtihi n iches, su~gests a d ifferent icon(>graph1c program in respect to the pOril'a·dt11at01.

Fig. ; 71.

S1~tHl\NATitl\: subsidiary pti,ga on the nonh side

of chc J111/. Thin

ha is o ne of the last examples of this fea.ture which was popular beneath niches on early temples. The shaft of the stombha is relieved with scrollwork, a he raldic triple-lion morif, standing fi~urc in a sh2llow niche. lo tus rose:tte, projecting pMr(la·gha/a c-apital and erotic panel. The O:-ararta-Jt1•a10 in the pti1.,a niche is a six-armed Siva. Fig. ) 7 ) · S1~1Hl\NAn1 A: west rtihti niche with the Gangadh:aramUni of Si\•a as t he pir1i:a·Jr1-·oti. The garbled 11ona-/a1a scrollwork appears on the framing pilasters. T he thin lou•er lintel contains a /i~e,a Aanked on either side by vi4yiidhoras wh ile the upper lintel illustrates t he Bali-vadha ep isode from the Rom4ya{la. f ro m the proper right o f t he upper frieze are Ha numin. Lak~marya and Rama \\•ith the latter shooting an arro w at Bal i who is fighting with SuRrlva. At rhc far left 1he de.ad Bali is recl in ing v.·ith his head in the lap of h is wife, T~rl, \\•h ile other monke)'S are lifting their arms up in grief. Fig. ~ 74. S1~11tAsATtt:\: 11a111blM capital with surmounting panel relieved \l.' ith fi~ure motifs. The majority of these fig ure m f A~ni rid ing on his mount in a m11!1{/i' niche on the Suth :-.11.lc f the;a!,amohana. f-le ho lds a rUthca:-;.t befc>rc Ct•nst:r'· atin. The f,>ur mm rhc nt>r1h\\·e~t ~ht>u·inj:t the pitha c)f the ntifa·mandira and the u·alls o f t ht./1J,( a mohana. T ht: rc)of of the ndftz·mand1ra is missin~ u ·hitc: that t>f the ,;a~amohano ha~ pan1ally cllapsed . Sf>u1h " ie"'· o f the dr11/. The bdda ha.s a simple: tri-ratha p lan u •ith t he side p1{f!.aS de!\1~nc-d as 1·a;ra•lflN1Jr/i1. The va1r11-ma1tal!.4 of the ~a~rfi scrvc.s as t he crou·ning memhcr of the rJhti and bfu!\cates t he l>aral}{la d i\'i'°imcSvara. They arc devoid of ornamentation. fig. 421. R.\NIP~R -J1t,,R1,\1. : Liyahiiri-Mandir from the east showing the entrance portal. The ponal has three openings and is crowned by a large 1:ajra·mas1alea, only panly decorated, which projects part way up the lower member of the 111a11a.A:A as on the Durg:i temple at 8aidcS\\f3r. Fig. 421. R.X.NJPt:R·JH:\R1.J.1.: interior vicu• of the)a1.a,,,oha1ta of the SomeSvara temple. The inrcrior, based on • p illa rcd-ll'la!'efapa, is filled with four pillars arranged in a square. A fragmented Nandl faces the sanctum and a ntigi is at the base of the doo r jambs. An antarala is created between t he d•x>r and the sanctum \\'ith 2n image of Buddha in~erted into a niche of its u·all.

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Fi~.

42 3. R .l.~1p1 ·R ·J11\R1 .\1.: sf the SomeS,·ara. The dr11/ has :a lri·ratha plan but i~ devoid of dec:ora1in cont ains an ima~~ of Na~ ar2ja u ·hilc the lu·er med allion is hllc:d u· ith an image c>f 1.aku li$a liankeigns nor is there :a.ny su~p;est ion of niches. Fig. 4S 3. BA10,·A!r11: view of the south porch. The pill:a.rs a1 the comers are mcxltrn ar added suppon. 'fhc: o riginal pillars in rhc front are missing and replaced by 1~·0 modern shalts. The pabha1.a 1 or dado. in front is decorated with a large rai~ya design. The: shon baluster :at th~ \\'c::o.t end of •he railing is decorated with a scc:nc of Kr~r,;ia killing the clcph2nt-demt>n Ku\•alay:ipTd:a. These shon balustC!'rs formin~ a riiling on the projecting porches possibly inAucncc:d the use t>I similir bilusters to fill the windc)WS on the ~111•0.t/a·projcctions on the Somratit)n of the nSS-t=d prc>bahly resting o n his ~·capn. The upper arms 2rc brc>ken otf. An O\':ll halo appe3n;:

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behind his head and a large medallion is placed in 1he center of h is headdre.s. A seated figu re, possibl)' a youthful Kintikcya, appears in the lo\\•er left corner \\'h ile traces of a tridcnt arc visible on 1he right edge of the slab. Fig. 46 1. B:\IO'l' i\N.o\TH: image of female Agurc in 1ri/1hatiga pose within the 111a'!l/apa. HC"r right arm appears to have been cro1.1't'A'.'..\1' 11:

Hying 1·i1Jtidhara couple carved on 1he unci en:ii(le of the thattri.

4 7 l. B 1·.1.i..: 11:\ :-.;l l l : fl)· in~

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11id_rtidharo co uple car\'ed on the unJer$.it.le o f a frag mented cJ1,1//ri .

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Fi~. 4 7 .z. . H1· J 9'f l1\~01 :

u pper surface of fragn1ented rha/fri. As in Chatti:-ga rh the upper deco rated with lightly carvc.d garlands.

surf~cc

is

Fig. 47} · B FJ ."'llASC>I : fragmented base for a pillar. As at 01 hcr siles in the upper J\·l ah3nadi \'alley the bases for t he pillars arc designed as a stylized piir~a-1,hafa similar to those appearing on f"i/lhO.~a mo uldings of 8th century temples at Bhubaneswar.

fig. 414·

pillar fragment decorated v.•ith an i!amba motif of k ir1im11kh111 dripping garlanA : \'it\\' of the de11! and western end of the .l~'!'1"'ohant1 from the ncJnh. Tile base l)f t he ga!J(fi v.:as altered at the time the height of t heJa.(0111oha,1a was increased. The bi~a is paiira·ra1ha in design wirh the P'{~at aligned "'ith those o f the gan(ii • s at Gandhariicji. T he leoni/!4 is dc,igncd ., a simple pilas1cr v.:hilc the anartha i~ fashiA: interior vie\\' of malJ(fapa w it h pillar. The pillars arc sim ilar in desi~n to 1hose at Baid)•anath though the bracket capital is more o rnately decorated u·ith a squatting atlantid in t he center. The pillars arc brightly painted in various colors which detraet from t heir ori~inal state. An image of ArdhaniriS,·ara appears again!"t the u.·all and a female fl~u rc is vi~iblc flanking the ori~inal ent rance to the now missing projecting porch. Fig. 491. CHAROA : detail of a p illar on the interior of the mt11J{la1>4. An ima~c of Hari·Hara is \•isible •• the left of rhe pill•r and a cusped " 'indow on the right cuts th rough rhe wall rcplacinJ! the original prch. The lion motifs a1 the base of the p illar and A:itti11111Jt.h11 masks at t he top arc similar to those at Baid)·anath. Fig. 491. C11ARl>A: interior vie\\' of ma#apa with dOA: image of :\rdhaniriS\·ara u.•ithin matt{lapa. TI1c deity assun\cs a Jamahhati._~a P'>se and is flanked bclov.· by rhc bu ll Nandi and a female a1tcndant. The l()\\•er right ha nd is ex1cn$Sil"lly rests on a hifhtira. li is uppl'r right hanc.I in brc)ken u·hilt the lou•er one may hc>ld a rosary or offering. An ornate hale.> \l."ith pt-·tal~ aprc:ir~ OChind his head. The image, minus a pedestal, measures 41 1/ 2 inches by 18 inchc'S. Fig. 498. C1 t .\ROA: image (>fan alasti-lea'!)·ti within the 1'11l!l(iapa. Her le~$ arc crSsed and hc:r arm!' uplifted a~ s he: ass ume$ a seducti,·c pose next to a meandcrin~ crccpu~h the upper Slory i!' not fully dc:,·elt1pc:d 2n(I scn·c-s ,.1!'u2lly as a b11r11rir/o terminating the: /1Jtj11. The intermediary pd_e,111 beru•ec-n the Jwniie.a and riibi 2rc: set a.t an angle. The p~ga d ivisions cntinue vertically up the 1.n1J¢i. The: 1.111J4i is di\'idcd into fc)ur hb1imis thugh it is not rhe ribbed am/01 that scr\'e as the cro\lr·nin~ members for each bhlimis. These b/1iimi d i,·isions continue hc>rizontally across the .~a!f{fi u·ith the am/a1 being replaced b~1 rai~ra de!'i~ns n 1hc other pOgos. Tile b11ama ill greatly pronounced 2nd curves in\\·f the ,g,anfii :tn111...:ry -art fillec.t u·ith thin pila$ters. rather than inl~~e-s. 1"he bhiimi.f C(>ns.is.l tlf horizt>ntal moulc.iings u'ith the first f,hNmi e longated and decorated v.·i1h ·a rai~ra·men \\'hich \'i~ually !l.Cr\'CS a$ a c rc.>o,,.:n ing t't1)Fa•matta lta tc:rminating the piJ',a de!>igns of rhc upper Jtit{'!ha as 21 Paliiri. Fig. ' 01. P ..-.r AR1 : .i1i~ef1a dct~il f the Sidry is nc>t ft1ll~· dpc.·d ....·h1lc n t h(' lc>\\·cr st,•ry t he maic>r ima~es apP~tSA: (ail.Ja v.:indc.>w with displayed fema le figure. Similar images 2pJ'f the chest .and possib ly ht)ld a \' :lS-e. The serpent t2il continues d o\\'O the- f()\\•er Stf)' f the jtili__gha. Fig. s27. GANOHARAt)T : general \tiew of the SiddheSvara and Nilamidha\·a temples from the southeast . They are erected side b~· side on a pl/ha measuring }6 inches in heij.!ht. There u·ere o rif:tinally small sh rines ereccc-d at the fou r corners. The temples arc identical in plan a nd exterior decoration except for che emblems of 1hc- rc-specti\•e pre-siding deities cro"'•nin~ the masrokns. Fi~. s z8.

GAl'.l).\ lI R.: \of : ' ' icw of rhc SiddheS,•ara temple frm the south. 'fhe rc)C>f o f the,1a.~a111(1htina recedes o n both the e2st and "' est si(1es to produce a fla tcened py ramidal shape and t hus serves a$ a harbinger for the development o f a plt/ba roof. The f.P"ale[a projections a nd e ntrance ponal a re Ranked on eit her side by a n~r.a/11ti.1.i-sta111h>Ni. ·rhc dtul is pafif t he hti(i11 aligned with those: of t he ~a?1f the pitha arc dtcrateIJii,~a t)f three mu lding$ and a./iiri~ho o rnamented "''ith mu1J{ii dc:signs al1crnatin~ \1.'ith s/am/1J1a1. ·rafa·.~at/Jhilea dc$igns arc incluf t he SiddhcS,•ara 1cmple. He stands 1

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497 in a tri'1"4nga pose and is four-annal. His right hands arc in ''"ada and hold a ~mani while the left hands hold a tridcm and a ltapiila. He wears a garland of skulls. shon beard and bares his teeth t0 suggesr his rerrifying nature. His hair i..~ in a tall ) a/0·"111/eNfa and a halo is \'isiblc. The.SC Jvirapiilas average 13 inches in height.

Fig. i i6. 8A~DH: alasii-ltanyii carved in high-relief on a projecting block from a ltanilta of the jiingha. She stands in a tribhanga pose holding an indistinct object in her uplifted right hand . She in richly ornamented and her hair is arr-anged in a largt chignon above her left shoulder. These images, with their lotus pedestal, average 16 inches in height.

Fig. l 17· BAL•DH: alasii-lta~yii scanding in a trii>hanga pose wi1h her left arm akimbo and her uplifted right hand holding an indistinct object, possibbly a vessel or flowers. The necklace on these figures encircles the bre·asts at the bottom rather than the waisr as on images from the 8th century.

Fig. 1i8. 8 Al•DH : alasii-ltanyii standing in a slightly flexed tribhnnga pose. Her hair in ornately tied in a large chignon above her left shoulder and looped st rands of pearls arc visible above her forehead. Her face exudes a warm smile which suggests inner contentment and her features arc finely carved.

Fig. I l9· BAUDH: detail showing vana-latii scrollwork. The g1rbled foliage is carved w ir h an oblique cutting technique, rather than perpendicular curting as employed on earlier temples, which produces a play of convex and concave curves softly outlining the leaves in contrast to a play of light and dark accents. Fig. j6o. KuTAlru~DI: general view from the souchwc:sc showing entrance ponal. The temple resrs on a low pitha and h as been restored. It has a simple fri·rat"4 plan for the bii{la and a panra•rotha p lan for the galJ{ii as on early Orissan temples. An ile.afa/ili,ga finiaJ surmounts the amalako.

Fig. 161. K uT},1TU1'11)1: b,;,ja detail showing vajra-M•JJefi design of a subsidiary piiga on rhc nonh side. The piibbaga consisis of four mouldings wirh rhc top two ornarely dccoraicd "'ith scrollwork. The niches arc framed by a broad band of scrollwork plus two thin offsets. The riiba is Ranked by a thin offset designed as an engaged pilaster with a dwarf-atlantes on the capital. Fig. i61. K uTAITU1'01: detail of the ga!ll/i on the nonh side. The bhiimi crowning the riihii niche of the bti4a extends into the gat1¢i and obfuscates the bara!f(ia division. The baratr4a at the sides consists of cwo projecting mouldings and a separating recess. The recess is filled with erotic image!}' illustrating Tantric rituals. The vojra-111astalea at the b-as.e of the rihi of the gatJ{ii is small in s i:zc. being about the same size 2s those crowning the niches of the side pagas, and consists of two rai~ya-medallions. The /t:,pnika is divided into five bhNmis with each bhNmi having three barat1se under a c reeper. •ter ri~ht arm rests l>O the shUlller o f an a1rendant \\'h ile a srnall figure tllcks on her ~armcnt . The hgure i~ l>at_lly \l.'()fO.

FiR. 170. Kt ·1·A1Trr-.:01: female figure standing in a tri/Jhati1,a pose unc.Jcr a creeper. •ler lc:ft arm rc-sts o n the shoulder of an atccntlant u ·hilc a small flttu rc squats in t he pptJs.ice crncr, p•>S!"illl~· tug~ing on rhe l0se e nds of her garment as in che prc,·ious photograph. fi~.

171. K1-r.\1n·~n1: imal(e of a female hl(urc holding • c hild o n her uplitrcd right knee, tht knee being suppncd by a c.fiminut i\'C' attt'ndant. The female fi~urc is quite an imate 1n psc, her upper lc>rso C\\'ISting back. thc"lugh her arms arc b roken ff and her facial fcaru rcs oblitcracc:d. Fig. , 1 1. K t·r.l.1n1s1>1: mithNna \1,;ith the male embracing h is female panner from the rear. tic u·raps h is right leg around her knees and grips hcr.roni "'' ith his right hand. His left hand appear.; t grasp her h air. Her left arm han~s limp \l.: hile her right a rm, draped around h i!' shc:Juldcrs, appears. tc> hold wmcrhing b(·hind his hcall. l:.irtim11kha nl asks appear on 1he sh af1s t>f the JlamhhtiJ framin~ thl· niche. Fig. j f)· K1:\CA"-h~\·,\Rl: ~cneral , ·icu· of the temple (rc)m the u·cs.t. The O\'crall pr•lprtlc>ns •)f t he temple arc quite elongated so t ha1 t he silhouette of tile temple is ovcrl~· tall in contrast tt) conventional ()riss.an temples and suggests that t he 10th century a nisans at u·rk on its cc,n:-.1ructit>n were possil>ly inAuenced by later tcn1ples betrayinSt ~onhem inffucncc. The pti1'ra-ratl•11 plan continues up the height of the temple whereas the c2rlier Siva 2nd Ja~eS,·a ra tcmple5 had a btida tha1 was tri~ratho in design. The placement of nt{e,a-stam/Jhas on both sides of the a,,artha, and 1hc1r \'ert ic·al recesses co ncinuing o n the 1,a'!lfi. as well a s che t apering dc:s.ign of t ht t lllOj::actd 1·imtinikri t>f t he anart"4, su~~ests t hat the an ises \l.'erc au1 arc o f t he decc)rativc prf che P:irva1i cemrlc a1 Bhubanesv•ar. This is further strengthened by rhe fact that the remple is nly one tin11rtihi recess. O nly the hrSt t hrc-c bhlimi St of the re1iculaceJ tait>·a pular in the 1oth· 11th ccnrurics, appca rin~ fi rs1 on temple~ of the upper ~I ahinatJi

vallc:\''

.

Fig. s86. K1:'.• .•\t..l·.:-\' :\Ki : in1lge t)f S2ras,·a1i husc:d in a Crner niche flf chc lo\. iricake~,·a ri tc:n1pll·. She is. ~catcltlirlg tl1e 1•i?1ti. ~fhe 11.•\1.:cr pan f the image appears not ft> ha''C' bc..:n fini,hed. Fijt. s81. J-.:1:\;1,,.\ J..:1·.!'\ ' ART: ft:malt fi~urc carrying a sc,·crcd head in her left hand and a s u·orti 1n her right hanul(lin~s a :i;. on the f:andr:iSckhara temple. Thc ; 01ti!ha on either side of the riihi is dc:corated \l.'i1h an ali~nmen1 of nJ.f!.a·Jfa,,,hha1 rlt)ter 1h2n piiga designs u!ith niches. The overall silhoucrte is tall and na rr are linecl up. t\ t t he rig.hr of the: phtograph can be seen a lintel \l,•hilc t he two large figures at the back are Hanuman and

Gai:icSa. Fig. s98 . Bi:st'SAG:\R : image of the dikp#la Agn i. I-le stands in a sam11!1h"fi..e,a pose hlc.ling a ·~:ater \'esscl and rosary. A ring of flames aippcars behind and a ram appears in lht lo\\.:cr left co rner. The image measures 11 '/ 2 by 11 1/ 2 inches. Fig. l99· B f.NUSAGA R: image of the Jikpala Kubera. He stands in a slightly flexed pose wi1h h is head 1ilted 10 the right. He holds a sialk or foliage in h is left hand while h is right hand is broken off. He is slighlly Stout in body build and has a warm smile on h is face. Jars arc placed in the four corners with their co ntents spilling our. The image measures 17 Jj, inches by 1 j '/ 2 inches.

Fig. 600. S(>'-IES\'AR.--. : general view from lhe wesl u•ilh an ima~e of N andi on a low pedeslal in fro nt. The temple stands o n a pi/ha and is tri-ratha in p lan 2t the baefa. The subsidiary p~(•J flank ing rhe entrance ponal are designed as rrlehti-m111J{ii1 wilh a single bh#mi division above lhe niche. a rransitional de~ign leading ro the development of pi(lha-11111!1rfi and lehtilt,harti-m111Jtf.i designs standard on later remples. The river goddesses arc enshrined in these n iches Ranking the entrance 2s on mosr 9th c.cnlury temples. Kcru is added to the p lanet slab over the lintel of the door to m:ake it a 11011agraha. 1·hc gaf1'1i is panra-ra1ha in p l:an rhough there are no 01111rtiha recesses. The ktinika is divided into seven bb#mi1 and the [email protected] of the anartba arc a ligned with t hose of 1he kanika. The lower niche of the vajra-fffallaka is filled with an image of Naiariija. The bull Nandi appears in the btki above the kanika replacing the standard Jopkh/Jli-1ililha motif and suggc>ts influence from South Indian traditions. Fig. 601. S1l~IF.S\'t\R/\ : detail of the southeast corner of the btitja. The ptibhti1.a consists of four mouldings with an inden ted plan beneath the niche. The i 1i111inil!.4 crowning t he side niches consists of a bh#mi division crowned by a padma pr1/ha moulding ra1her tha.n an am/a as on the from. The top course of che piga design is a simple pi4ha moulding. The b11rar;(ia consists of two projecting mouldings s.e-p:arated by a recess though the latter is plain, or the decoration has not survived. Fig. 6oz. Sc ,r.11~S\'AR:\ : v iew of the btitf.o from the south. The rtihti niche cuts paniall)' thro ugh the pah/Jaga as on early f ~ lrttikey a in a ~1ant.lin~ pt)Se appears on t he lintel Ranked by si'A:.Jiidtina mt)11fs fa S:aivire hgurc \xic>re a ~ipil ika ,("r" sea1cc:I on a dais. In the upper comers arc a m11/Juna at the ri~ht and a !'ccnc f a female left. The

as~um in~ p~nels at

a seductive p\'.\R 1\ : viev.· fro m we-st v.:ich chC' entrance" ponal and ri ver gddC$S.CS. The d1·JrtJpdla1 :assume mirror-image poses \\'ith ne leg upl ifted and p laced o n the blade o f 2n axe u ·h ilc one arm rt~t!> (>n the hantfle. a pc>sc and iconoAraph)' su~gcsting South lnct1an inAuence. Iii~.

6o9. Sc -1~11 ~\. -\RJr.: 1·a;ra-ma1tt1k.P on t he rdhti c>f the ta~t side. 1\n image: of SU rya 1s htltJ!>l't.I 1n t he.· lc>\l.·er n iche anrk . The motif$ frc>m the in!'idc C41o~i't o f the lt.JJtilO. moli ph11/a pho{lilt.4, a nd ,1,tlabo. The thin fi llet on the o utside is decorated \l.'tth dia~4>0a) strands alternating u·it h rosettes, a la1e ' ' ari21ion on the ro pe de~.,i~n stan(lard on early dc>orframc.·$. Fig. 61 1. Sc),\1t·.~\'ARA : lintel o'·er imaRc of ArdhaniriSvar2 on the c ast side decor:.a1cd \lo.' ith an im:iJ!.C f Agni. I le s tands 1n a somahhaliga pc>se hollds a similar bject t hough lar~cr and damaged. T he r!i on the left f ,-\j!ni is bent.ling O\'cr a sacril1cial bou·I and hlds a rsar~· in his left h and, his r ight h and being placed ,·er 0

1hc bo"·I. Fig. 61 z. Slds a r'>sary. f lc:r lc:t1 han\11•.:0.\' \ R.>\: PiSupata d ii;ciplc:-s at the base: of the n iche j,,mbs hu~1n~ l .3kuliS2. The~· arc each s.eattd 41n a Jo u· dai!' with t he t h ree bcarncs hc>ldi nR a bok in thc:1r left hand . A trident appears behind t he )'OUM!(« d isciple.

Fig . 6 14. 5,,,, ~~\'.\R \ : lin tel derai1 over t he niche housin~ t he imaf{C of GatiRidharamUn i. The scene dep ict!' a Sai,·a r!i ho ld ing a tripcr rlJ!hl 1" lc>c1k1n~ 1otc) a m1rrc>r and attju~t lOA her cc>1tf\1rc. A male u·arr1t>r "·alkin~ b~· turn!' back 2$ thcJugh attractec.I h,· her ac-1i\'it \'. A s n1all a11endan1 is at the: left .

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CA'rA J.MESVARA : 111ilhMna with the partners energetically embr2cing. The female clings to his neck and wraps her left leg around his. The male unfastens her girdle with his left h2nd while fondling her breast with his rig ht hand. A knife is on his belt . A male wanior holding a sword appears on the left. His right elbow reSts on his shield and he holds a flower is his left hand. As arranged here the last four illustrarions seemingl)• represenc the seduccion o( a warrir br a fema le, possibly a councsan.

Fig. 619. S .\ R.t\PAl.1.1: general view of the OibbeS..·ara temple from rhe ~·est. The bi{la is 1ri-ra1/1a in design and the J>Obha;ia consists of three mouldings with an indented plan beneath the niches of the side pigas. The ga!'"nta-ratha in plan but without a1111rtih i reces.ses. Fig. 6zo. SARAPAl.U : general view from the south. The leanilea of the gapli is divided into fi,·e bhNmis with three bara1J{i.is in each bhNflli. The am/is also crown chc bhsimi divisions of the anartha. The i•ajra-mastalea design at the base of the ga~efi is only blocked out and left unfinished. The crowning members of the 111a11alea are missing. Fig. 611 . SARAPAl.1.1: image of Na{arija in the lourcr niche of the 1·a;ra-ma11aA;a ()\'er che enrrance ponal on the east. Fig. 6u. S ARA PA I.I.I : pii;ia design on the nonh with image of Aja-Ekapada. The p,i/Jh,j_(a has an indented plan as on 9th centUf)1 temples in Orissa though the chrcc moulding d~ign is an archaizing feature. The niche is framed by a wide band of scrollwork with seated fig ures at 1he base o n each side. The lintel above is decorated ~·ith a battle frieze. The niches of these side pi,eas measure approximately 18 inches by 11 inches. Fig. 61 }· S AR.-\ PAI.I.I: image of Gar.ieSa in riha niche on the south side. Gar)c.."*a is seated in artfhaparyari/ea eating sweets from a modaka-piitra held in his lower left hand. His lower rig h1 hand and knee are broken . His upper left hand holds a hi/hiira while the upper righr holds a radish. The pedestal is mostly damaged except for a bowl of sweets. The image measures 19 inches br 18 1/ 2 inches. Fig. 614. SARAP ..\Ll.t: u•ing the d1·1irapdla niche and a nJ.r..i. The n1~e,i appears to be holding a "'!Ji. Abo,•e the ntigi is a plir{la-&hafa. F ig. 621 . S ARAPA I 1.1: detail of niche jamb showing a bearded figure holding a young boy in each uplifted hand. A similar mmif appears on the Pal\ca-P:i9r 11.1.t ·s·rR:\ T l ~ S

Fig . 619. R XJAR.\.11·...~\·,,Rf: detail of 1,a!ft/i shov.• ing vajr11·ma1toU desi~n on the Sr left hand pushes do"'' " on its chest . The other ri~ht hand s hold a ra~ra and pluck arrov.:s frc>m a 4ui\'cr \\'hlle rhe lo\\·cst left hand holds a nn ~na\\'S on clne of the legs of t he demc)n. Fi~. 6 34. R A IAR.~Jl~S,·1\kT : image of Aja.f.kapicla in a n iche c1n ~ttCn{lant in the ((1\\·c r left corne r arc missing . ·1·hc uppe r hands

t he nonh side. The 111\\·cr arm~ :and hold a serpent and t rident.

Fig. 6;J. j ,'\'l'A'r 1: cietail of btit}tJ on the south side of rhc small temple nea r the rccc>n!'tn1ctt·d t\lallikarijin. T he pdhhd.e.o const!'ts f thrl·e mould in~s as dc>es the hhNmi division cr"-'ninA chc pJ.e,11 n iches. Except fo r the en!'hrincd imaACS the temple is devoid of decoration. Fi~.

636. j .\YATI : det ail o f doOS.tructt·d 11ta!ft/tip11 "-'ithin thc pi/ha pr(.1jccts ab(.1vc the: tc1p \If chc: circular "-':tll!'. 1:1j?_. 6 \9. l-l1R.\ Pl R: vie\\· f pitha from the ea!'t \\·ith rhc e nc ranee. / )1·iirt1pdlas arc ra r,·c:d o n the frUr· arn1cd but they arc mstly brc>kcn. }{er tW\\'er hanc.ls h11ld an in,lisrincr ()l)jcct near her left hr1.·a!'t. She has the: hc:ad 1>f a lit)n with the mane for1nin~ a halt) ar11und her hcall. I lcr pctlc:stal is d1:c1>rarcd u·irh flc1\l.'Cr mo1ifs and possil>ly Slt,ncs. She n1ca:-.ures 10 incho b~· 1o inchc~. 1.>f ) '0j,11ti # 31 . Sile i~ t he prcsitlin~ n rtlc (1(:1.lc.·$t:tl. 'fhcyo-.~ini nlc.·a~ures 18 inches I)~' 10 i ncl1c:~. Fig. 6\j.. H1RAl'L'R: ima~e t>f )·01.ini # ,s. Sl1e has tl1c head fan cfc:phan1 anli.l!h1 ly llcscd pc)$.C l>n 1hc hack tJf -a Jy is stt>UI an\'C 1he clbc)\\'S. Her hair is ne~tl~· arranged in a j atti·11111htfa. She measures 11 inc})c$ l-,y 9 inches. ll 1RAPl·R: im2ge f ) 'Q..e,i11i # 39. She star1ting an arrt)u· f rm a St r1ngc:d·b\\.'. t he latter nW O).tly m1!'sing. She 1s ra'c chi~nc1n to the r1~ht f arrt>\\·s '3ppcars bc:h1ncJ each shouldc:r. She measures 11 inches by 11 inches. l:i~. (1\4.

61 1. lflR:\P\'R: imaJ.!C f ) 'ox,ini ff 47. She stany 11 inchc::-o.. r~i~.

fi~. 6s6. ll1K.\l't'1t : ima~e c>f )'bJ!.ini # 48. She stanntell)in~ Cc>ntain1.·d

\1:i1hin. Iler hair is braif her he2t u·ith conic.:tl lict is carvcc,I cul t he pe''!/110fHll'ita hangs from her left shoulder. Sl1c: has fc>u r arn1s thc>u~h 1ht·~· arc.· brc•kcn ( ) tf at t he cll)cJu·s. T hr: dccc>ratit>n o( the pc:1.lc:st2I has nt sur\' l\'t'J cxcc:pr fc•r a ~n1 .1ll l1t>n u·11h pearls 1.lripping frc>m its mt•uth at tht: left cc>rncr. l'ht: ~ro.~ini mcas\1rcs 19 1nc:hc:-1 hy 11 inch"·~. 1

r:i~. 6~8. filR\l't'R: ima~(' of ) "1~1t.i11i ft. ~1. She u·ci~ht mr•s1ly (>n hc.·r left ftJ11t . Iler ri~ht lc:A is

St:tnds on t he: l1ack c1f a StC>Ut animal \\·nh h,:r sliµh cly liftcJ as if ~l1r: \\·ere tak ing a st,;p. J l"·r upra 1,.c.·:hl hand h'>ltls a S.\\'11rJ al)()\'C her head u·h1lc her left arm 1s hr(>kc:n lx·I\\. tlic 1.·IJ,1>\\-. 111.·r face is (>hli1era1,·J . She is surr(>unJc:J by flames \\'h1ch suv,g1.·sts she rc.·prc.·~c.·n c s. :\~nc.·yi. 20 1nc:hl.'$ lly 1 1 inches. 1:i~. 6\9. llJK\1'1 R: i1n:l~e cif ) .&,V.'''; u 16. She assun1cs a c.lancc pt>sc c>n 1hc back t1f a n1usk ·tlecr :tnJ hc>IJ s the :-.kin fa lu1n ;tl>t>\'C her hca\\'1.·r hands ha\'t.' a ~.Jrtri a11d sc.·\·c.·rc.·rse appears on her pedestal. Yogini # 60 ho lds a m irror and aprlics slnd:.tl pa$te in the part f her hair. ) 'oginr # ()1 holds a sword behind her head wi1h her raised rit:ht hj_nJ. Fig. 67;. s. .NTAl.A: fragment of door jamb. At the base is. figure of. female standing with her rii:ht hand placed on the hip in Jui{roralamhita and her uplifted left hand holding a v.·atcr jar, suggesting that she may be a river gddess. The first panel above the ri,·cr gcxldcss represents a pair rncr pc>~$il>ly reprcs.cnt!r' the )'Oung 1-\.r~r:ia stealing curds. Fig. ()81 . S ..\l:0-:'1'1\J .\: l>tt.>kcn \'i~r,iu image \l.'ith back-slal,. Only the feet (>f \' i~QU rtmain. The.· female figure!> flank ing \'i~r;ru arc Sritfe,·i NS

devotees while above them, beneath the feet of Vi~IJU, are carved the fish and tonoisc 0110/ars. The representation of the avatars continues up the right edge of the back·slab with Vara.ha, Nrsiritha, Vamana and ParaSurima and then continues down the left edge with Rima (now mis~ing), Balarama, Buddha and Kalki. The scene on 1he liniel above prob•bly represenis 1he Churning o f 1he Ocean wi1h images o f 1he gods on one side o f 1he lotus-halo and the demons on 1he 01her side. A second nearly identical im2ge of Vi19u is better preserved except for the upper portions of the backslab.

Fig. 682. N~s1S•HM,.X.Tf!A: detail of doorframc o n 1he north side wi1h 1he jambs decornted with leN/ila, gtlaba and j alapatra scrollwork. Some of 1hc figures in t he gtlaba scroll arc playing musical instruments. Fig. 68;. 8AIDYANATH: gener•I view o f the Kileivara temple which coll2psed during the monsoons in A.O. 1967. The door is a recent addition as originally there were no openings in the walls. The ''a.Jra maJ!alai appears to hat.0•e been removed when the door was added. The ga!ltJi is patito· ratha in plan with the Jeanilai being divided into seven bhUmi1 by a,,,/as, each bhMmi having six: baraJ!tfis. Stylistic2lly 1he 1emple can be ascribed to the mid-101h century. 4

Fig. 684. 8AIDYANATH: fragment from anarlha-paga of the Kile$vara 1emple affixed 10 a modem pillar added to t he interior of the Kosalcsvara temple. The fragment consists of an lirdhva-garhbi/e,i flanked by ni,~a/nigi S/amhhas. Both the niga and nigi arc crowned by a conopy of seven serpent hoods. The faces are illumined by a sof1 smile typical of the 10th century. Fig. 68j. BHhtES\'ARA : general view o f the Bhimesvara temple from the north. The pabhaga consis1s of three mouldings with a recess separating the top rwo. The j iligha is undecora1ed e xcept for the rdhd niche. The gattefi consists of 20 mouldings o f identical design and is devoid o f decoration except for the vajra-masla/ea. The images of Nandi in the brh suggest South Indian influence. Fig. 686. 8Hh tES\'ARA: vajra-maslalea on the north facade of the ga~i/i. The lower medallion is occupied by a male deity seated in la/i1i1ana, possibly Siva. H is right hand is in a/1baya while t he left hand ho lds an indistinct object. l\iahi~amardini is in the upper medallion . She is e ig ht-armed and is similar to the two examples o n the- bd{la a.nd 1andhi·1thala. A small image of Gat:1cia is to her right in the border of the failJa and Kintikc-ya is on the opposite side. Fig. 687. BHhtES\'ARA: detail with pabhaga mouldings on the south side of 1hc deul. The top moulding is decorated w ith spaced tairya-medallions and occasional figure motifs. Fig. 688. BHTMtC~VAR.,: south side of the ga~(li with the vajra-llfaJla/ea. The lower medallion is filled with an image of Siva seated in padmuana above a small Nandi. Siva has his right hand in abh~1• while h is left hand holds a vase. His upl ifted back hands hold a parai• and a mrga. Seated ascetics, wearing a yo1,apa/!a, arc in the borders of the rail.Jo. The upper medallio n contains an image of Lakuliia seaied in his conventional pose w ith the lav fa held against his left shoulder. Fig. 689. BHi~t•'-~\'AttA : no n hwcst vicu.• of the temple. The rdhd niche contains an image of Brahma with a diminuti ve l\.lahi*amardini aBixed to the pabhiga next to the drainage spout. Another image of Mahi~amardini is on the wall of the Jandhi·Jlhala. The j aga111ohana is relatively plain except for the pabhiga and• slightly proiectinggar,ak,ra with a latticed-window. The interior has a raised dais in the center of the Aoor, producing • pradak,ri~i path, supporting two rows of t hree pillars each. T"·o additional pillars arc placed in front of the antarala. In addition to the main entrance on the cast there is a second door on the south.

Fig. 690. BHhlF,S\'ARA : small image of Mahi~amardini affixed to t he rop mould ing of the pabhal'.a next to the t1bhi1tka spout on the nonh side of the dtlll. She is eight-armed and is similar to the la rger image of the 1t1ndhi·1thala except she pulls an arrow fro m the quiver rather than merely ho lding an arrow .

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Ssibly h:im:a, flankcc.I by a t'c.:malc on either sidt·. His hanrat(.•d u·ith thc m!1J11r 1·~;ra-mastaka \\·hich co n:;.ists ,,f a large 1ai!)'a-n1cdallion f(>rmed b)' strings o f pearls is!'u in~ frpcr riKht 2nd rhc: nQ.(t n the left. At t he far ri>-?ht c.)f tl1e photo is the remains of a J·Upa. Fig. 70 1. \ ' \R.\1tl : h1itlo c)( 1hc.111J.t1mu/Jana o n tl1e cast. The ptihlJ,i~a cc>nsi:;.t!> of fc>\lr nlc1uld1n)!!> rathc:r th an thrcc as t>n t he dt11f, The-re 1s an incJen1a11c1n hcne;·arh the 111111J¢i nicl1e ancl tilt: t'O ~l)!ctl p 1ld!>tl'N

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C:AT A LOGl; E OF 11.1.l:STRAll ONS

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extend through the ptibhtiga. The vajra -11101/aka crowning the "'"'!!Ii is Ranked on either side by a bhtirarakfaJ:A. T he second lltM!ft}i niche is filled wirh an image of Agni-patni. The bara-!f{fa consists of a single large moulding surmounted b>' a recess filled w ith;ti/i.

Fig. 70). VXRAHT : detail of chc roof of chc j agamohana on the south side. T he vertical face of chc projecting caves is decorated with stylized lorus petals while the cornice underneath is relieved wirh scenes from the Ram41a!14. The recess separating the two tcrracc-s is deco rated wich pilrtta-ghafa motifs alternating with mith11n111 or other figure scenes. Fig. 704. VARAHT: lndra-parni in a "'"'!:\\'.\: \'ie""· c>f t he mait>r $hrinc annl rhe ea~r. ~(Jne c,f 1J1e hl\'C sur\'i\'ernc:r shrines h:.a.\'C 1hcir entrance on rhe nnh r !'c>ulh t2c1n~ 1hc:: e:as1-u·esr asial alignmc.-nr of 1he major shrine. FiJot. 71 7. p ,,:',(;A·P .\Sil.\\·.\: view of the./OJ!,amohana from t he south. O nly the pJhhJ.~a is i1lf~lCt C!SCepr for a small portion of the ;ti~~ha at the ~(>ut h\l.·cst corner. T he bdtja is lri·at~~a in dc$i~n 3nd c•>ns1s1s ,,f cn~aguth. ThC' p1l._st(;!r.- arc rated with scrollwork on their ccnter facet above a tala·ha"dbanti and ha\·c an ,,,·crl :1y1nl-! kirti,,,Nlehti dripping festoons of pearls at the top. The inner frame of the raha niche h3S a tij.!urc 3l tht base on each side. the fig ures functic)ning as attendants or guardians for the eni:;hrincd pdriN· dt11ati1. An image of Garuc,ia is visible in the small niche o f the tala-garbhilci design beneath the rtihti n iche. Fig. 710. PASr 1he m issing members cJf 1ht n1:ain s.hrinc.-. The bhiimi d ivision crov.·ning 1he rtihti niche is tri·ralha in plan u·ith amala/uJJ 1c:rmina1in1-t 1hc CtJfnl·r pci,t_aJ. The center pOf.a, howe,•cr, is desi~ned as a A:/JOJr.harO·mN!J(li. The barat14a ttfcc1 ivcl~· demarcate!' the bti{Ja from rhe gaJJ{ii. The t,af!llli i$ paii,a·ratha in design and continues 1he vcr1ical a.lignmcn1 of t he /1ti.(la. A largt: squa11ing ga!fa is carved on the bisa,,,a above the rihO. This d iffers from the stantlartl practice whercbi· these figures are placed in the hrki 10 help suppo" the amalal:A. Fig. 711. p ,., Sf th e sout he3$1 corner sh rine frc>m the east . The 1111ar1ha niche~ of the t\\' O corner shrines on the Suthcast corner sh rine. J.-le s1anJs in a trihhati,t,a pSC: u•ith h is left hand on his h ip. The object hl·ld in his upl ifted ri~ht hand i!' indi~rinct. A small Gar:ieS.a is in the l""·cr ri>itllt C\\·.-\ : dik.pJla )'am-a o n t he !'uth side (lf ,he south\\·est Ctlrtlltll' a club 1n his right hand u·h>lc his left hanted with an ala1ii·lt.anyii in high-relief, scrollwork with an overlaying iilamba motif and • capital housing an atlantid-ga~•· The niiga/•iigi 1/amblNJ extends through the piibhiiga mouldings, where it has a large panel relieved with a female figure? with the serpcnc near the base of the shaft above a double go/a..A:rinto. The anJJrlha is designed as an elongated /Wikh11ri·111Nrthi/i:A beneath the "'"~di niche of the anartha is dC$igncd as an elongated J:hikhari-11111ttvcrcd by a Ao\\'tr canopy rather th an h av ing a hale"> behind their he~td as on 8th cent ury imagc-s. The !.ll{lt11 here assume d ance poses. Fig. 746. G ;\l' Rl: souchv.·cst ,dew of t he bifla sh(>\\·ing the St:'l.~Acted projec1 ic1ns of the pti,gr11, p rc>bably influenced by stc llate designs, v.·hich protJuce a lc.> zcnge-shaped plan in cc1ntrast to tile square o r rectangular p lan of earlier temples. 1:i~. 747. GAl~Kl: detail of the upper "''!Jra-mostaka n the north facade of the .~''!1tfi. The female figures on t he wings 2ssume a itila/Jl1an;iki pc)Se '1'ith t he urside arm hang ing akimb similar to image~ on the lora{fa of the ~lukceS,•ara temple. Their face is softly illumined by a \\:arm smile typical of 10th century images. See fig. 8oj .

Fig. 748. GAVRi : detail o f lower t't1} ro•11101toka on the west facade of the l,t1!ufi. The medallion is fille~ \\ ith a kirtimNleho mask with projecting tongue and a series of seven lotus-jars. The gn~as on the wings of the medallion arc blowing on conch shells. Their hair is piled in dishevelled curls and the bridge of t he nose is wrinkled similar co the lt.irtimN~a masks. Their eyes arc bulg ing and they have a closely-cropped beard. The space between the ga~a and the pearls dripp ing from the kirli,,,M/eha is fllled with a diminutive female dancer. The spandrels at the base of t he motif arc decorated o n each side \\' ith a; ·ak/o pulling a vint v.·hile tht area on cht upper tqjra-111a11ako is decorated with d isplayed females. The flgu res o n the wings of the upper dcsi~n arc female figu res adjusting t hei r sandals. The overall decorat i\•e program thus exhibits dt1al complementary symbo lism combin ing bo th propitious and apotropaic aspects. I 1

Fig. 749. GAl' Rl: go!1t/i detail showing nichc:s at the base of the 11111!f¢i desig ns of the second hhlimi. The scene on the proper right depicts a variation of the 8hik~itanamU ni motif wit h a male figure holding a shaft over his shoulder w ith peacock feathers tied to it being approached by a female figu re oliering alms. In the scene at the left the male. ..... it h a club o ver his shoulder, is confronted b}' a female holding a severed head. The female figure holding a mirror beneath 1he first scene replaces the iO/abha~ikA motif noted at Caurisi where they ser,,ed to terminate the J/0111bha1 co ntinued vcrr.ically from the biifla. Fig. 7,0. GAt..Rl: gotz(li detail showing niches a1 the ba.se of the mu~efi designs of the second bbiimi. ~rhc niche on the right is filled with a mith1111a with the panners facing one another and le~$ intenwined. The matsya at'Olar of Vi$QU is a later rtp lacemen1 2.0d Jacks the refinement and subtlc:tic..-s of the toth century images. The ka/tJJO crowning the Jt.hOleharO-mKfJ{ii of the firs t bhNmi is decorated with lotus petals on its body a nd a band of ra~~ani o n its lid. The sloping upper surface o f the moulding belO\I.' has a diminut ive stag car\'cd in the center. Fig. 7t t . G ,\ l'Rl: detail of the p lfha sho\l.·ing the frieze o f frolicking 1.anas '1t its base u•ith the fi~u rcs assuming ac robat ic ps.cs..

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Fig. '' z. GAt.rRT: f.11!1(/l detail showing niches at the base f 1he m1rl}(ii desi~ns of the sccnd bhlimi. The niches ho use mi1h11na ima~cs with the male figure in che ltft niche hold ing a S\\o'Ord in his ri~ht hand . Diminut ive animals arc visib le on the sloping upper surfaces of the horizont al mouldings. Fig. 7, 3· (;At· RI: !"f(1r1c!> h y a 111adJ!)'ll·handl111nO of th ree moulc.lings. The pfi.r,as arc z. ~1rt\1·1 ~\'.\R,\: general " icw fro m the suthu·cst shou· ing 1hc tora!'a and cc,n1pund u·'1 1l. At the south is chc: ~l i riciku ryi.r,a d iv1sins of the J!"!'di arc alij.!n chc tt.1p 1n chc O\•Crall design. T he Jeirti11111kha masks at t he apex of the ""!ira-111a1tolf.41 only project ut 2 sl1J.!hc d1st2ncc so the}' do not disrupt the silhoucttC' of the 1,01Jefi. The bi1a /fla is undecorated though a p lain panel in the center at the rtihti su~~c-sts a f;gurc moti f may h2vc been intended as at Ganc:S\l:arpur. The 1'1a1t11b members arc intact. 1:i~. 77~.

/\t1 ·1·•rt·:sVARA: t left h2nd is in t.,a;o-hasta and h is ri~hr in Jr.ataka-h11sta. The lt) \\•Cr ri~ht hanf the .e.an!li. T he i;irt1m11J:J1a n1a:-k ii; ((>\\·er than on e:arlier dcl'i~ns so that it is now aligned \\·ith tht hrk, the va;ra·111,111aka designs are m (>re dominating o n all sides c>f 1he J.tindi u ·hcrcas prc\1 iousl~T only the mnt facade \\'2.S so treated . The motifs arc il~o bcCl)OllO>t nlc)rc ~ranlds the ~erpcnt abo,·e h is he2d v.·ith t ht upper two hands. }t is majo r ri~ ht arm is 1n e."1a·ha11a \\' )'\tic the left is in tJhhara. Tf1e h>\\•er left hantl is jn t•arado \\•h ile tile 01llcr lt•ft han\I hc•l~I" a 'trident. T he remaining right ha~1ds ht1ld indii:tinct ob jects, pos~1hly a \'asc ind (la m"rli.

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C::\TAL< X~ l'. E

c>F 11. 1.l'S'l'R:\Tl h~~a and khtikJJari-mN!/Pi niche (>f the ;a,~amoha'1a. The pibhiiga is 32 inches in heig ht, only 1 1/ 2 inches less than that of the deNI, and likewise consists of Ji\'C mould ings on the m~(ii1 and four on the pilasters. There is no lala-gar/Jhilui beneath the "1NIJ(ii niches, only an indc-n1ation. A small irdht'a·garbhika appears above the niche. The 1 iminikti or spire consists of only nin(' horizontal mouldings. rarher than ele\'en. and the crowning moulding is a large k/JNra though it does not form pan of the bara1,1(ia as on the dtul. The recesses arc filled "'' ith nti,v.,a/nr{~i 11ambha1 and ,(aja-Jera111a1. 1

Fig. 78}. f\f llKTf.S\"AR .... : l!htikhari·111111,1t}i wirh nOt.afnit.i~11ambha1 on theJOrigha of the .Jagan1tJhana. The pilasters framing lhc niche arc decorated with scrollwork anc:I overlaying ilamha mc)tif as on the dt «I but lack the atlantid ga{laJ at the cop. Fig. 784. ~fu~TES\"ARA : comer view of the j Oligha of the j a1..amohana. The ;tiligha measures 6 1 1/ 2 inches in height and is cro\\1 ncd by a bara!l.¢a 10 1/ 2 inches in height. The corner piga is de5.ig neelf "·i1h a creeper. Her right foot is on the: trunk of t he creeper, her hips rendered in protilc, \\'h1le her upper body bends back to be seen frontally. Her uplifted arms arc broken off. She is richly ornamented and her C')'es arc slightly dou•nca.st as if lost in thought. These lt.anilt.a figures measure approximately 19· zo inches in height. Fi~. 79z. l\:IL' ...-Tf.:\\' AR;\: ala1i-lca11Ji. She stands in a relaxed po!te in front le~ crossing behind her left. She is in the Jarpanti m0re added io the /,,lei to help support the amala/ea. f'iJ,t.. 80 8. R ,:\.)1\R,l,i-.;l : \'ieu· o( t he upper rtihi nicl1c ('>f the.iti'~i!ha and the base c>f th e ,v,antfi. The n iche is fra111e( bolh pJgo.s. The 01111rtihJ recesses begin abo\•e the pabhtiga and are filled with t•ir1ila mc>t ifs o n tl'le 1\\'Cr ~tory and mithNnas or alosO·hin.ytit on the upper story. Fig. 81 1. RAJARANT: detail of the bdlfa from the southeas t . T l1e pi/ha C()nsists of three mt)u)tlin~s small leirifa designs on the base and scrollwork o n t he top moulc.ling. The pabhJ,v.,a h3s five muldings wilh iwjr11·m11~tfi1 carved on the Jeh11ra. The added pilas ter, decoratc.-d C)nl~· u·ith scro)l1.A.·ork and scl at an ang1t. is nt visible from a perpendicular view. ~·ith

Fi~.

811. RI.JARA~!: view of 1hc rahO from the oorth. A tala-~arbhile.J ippears beoeaih 1he niche aod the pti/Jhiix.o of the fram ing pilasters h2s seven rather than five mouldings. A i•0Jro·mN!'{/i is car,·cd cln the face of the pt/ha in frt>nt of t he tala"1,at /,hilt.i. T he shaft of 1he pil2stcrs framin~ the niche 2rc (>Cla~onal in design with female figures carved near 1hc base. one on each facet. The niche is \6

inches by 28 inches. It is crowned b)' a pi{iho moulding. The upper niche is designed as a 1•o;ra•mNttdi with its crowning Jr.iri"/a aliAnc.-d u•ith t he boralJ{i4 mouldings. Fig. 81). RAJAR.ASl: dctiil f the sondhi·stbala on the south . The: pdhh,~e,a conti nuei; the clesi)!n anc.t clcvatin of that on the tif11/. T he ./O~v_ha is decorated u·ith an a11ur1ihti recess. prieeting J"iJti and Jr~e,rala can:t'd a~ainst a background of pc r(ratcd ;tili. Fig. 814 . R :\1.\tt.\si: n the ntth\ves.t et)tntr. ~l is rij!ht hanli is cs,cnd\\'tr lcft Ct>rncr \\'hilc tl)tppc1si1e c~r ly blirer:trcc.I.

I:•)!· 817. R .l. l,\R \ :-.,1; dikpiila f..:ul)cra (>n t he: nc)r,h cc>rncr. l lt' is st,>ut in IJlly built.I anc.I h~>lll~ :.J Hc>\\'Crcd ·\·:1sc in his lt·ft hanc.I \\'hilt· his right is h rc>kc:n n his pct'ars l'leh1nf a brJ(tt·~rt>m. H is cx1entlcd rij!ht hand h,,JJ s the hand of Par,·ari !'canlling in frse on the adir,in in~ ptij,''· T he 111i1h1111a in the an11rtihti rc:cess is ll\\'C1rk jusr beinR in1r1)rnately ht·jc;:\\·C'llcd. 1\ creeper mc:andc,,·C'. Thcsd~· is llcpictctl mc>vin~ c rhc r1J!hl and her upper b(x.I~' t\\·1s1 s l'lack t\l':&rll~ tht left. She hn kcy appt"ars 1n the branches (>f 1lle creeper alon~ \\'illl a peaC()Ck ~ 1llc )airer pecks at a pearl in tht ri:ira \\'rn by the

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alati·kaf1J•O. These alasi·lt.a11J\lr·in)t a latcr2I vit:"·· T he.£"/"· krtinta facin~ Ut\\·ard is part of a triple: mc._Jtif th is tJti!.,a·iil:.hara of the rtihti. T hese projecting motifs form a strong silhouette which interrupts brietl~· the contour of t he ,t.a!'tJ1. The bi1a,,,a terminating the 1,a'!{li panakc:s of the pit,a divisions but is other\\·i~e plain. 8tl:i·hhaira1·a1 arc placed abo\•c the rtilJ.O to help suppon the: amalaU and its surmounting members. A 1r1dc:nt hni~I is p laced above the ierJ/aia. 4

l'='ig. 850. 8RAl1~t•~S\.AR:\: det2il of the brlei with a squatting brlei-hhairora . •;\1 Gandharidi, GaJ.'ieSu·arpur and on the ~fuktcS,·ara thcs;e images "·ere carved. or in1cndc:d t be carvc:d, on 1he hisama where they actually "'ere tur musicians c)n c::ach s,idc and a r14>·tidhara in each upper Ct'l tner. She ma~· rcprc'!'cnt t he builtfcr f 1hc temple, Queen ~cJl iva1i, as sugg('Sted by P.;antgralli t hr\S

she per~onifie"S the dancers presentell to 1he temple by this queen and the performancel\ taking place within the Ja1.amt#Jana. Fig. 811. BRMlf.S\'.'"·' : detail of the roho on the north side. The raha is designed as a pii/ha·"1·~efi with a single-story pl2n. The tala-garhhiJ,,.; beneath the niche consists of a conventional pJbhoga design Aanked on each side by a Rat s/ambha relieved with circular var111/a scroll\l:ork and an o/aJi-leanyti a1 the top. The niche is flanked by a flat pilaster on each side- relieved u1 i1h scrllu1o rk an·d an overlaying ilamba motif on its shaft and a niche at the top filled with :a figure mot if. A iik/idOna m0tif is carved over the lintel. The niche is crowned by two pi{iha mouldings. The ailga-likhara begins immedi2tel)' above this roof and h:as a pariva-Jti•alti housed in the niche :at its base. Fig. 81 i. B•Att~ff-1\•ARA: detail of the boi/a from the northwest. The lateral Ranks of the projecting 11111!1¢i1 arc decorated u•ith a niche housing various female figures. including DurJ.13 Sirhhav:ihini and aJoniibhi!tlt.a 5ccne here. Fig. 816. BRA1"1F_\\'ARA: view of the pi{iha roof of the }•J!.•mohana. It consiS1s o f eleven pi(iha mouldings of diminishing size and is crowned by a mQSfa/ea. The mastaka has a /xki, ghaMo, amlo·beki, 11111alalul, lehap11ri and surmounting Jealaia. The pediment above the g,a1,1Jlt.fa is decorated with a vajra· 111a11aka motif though onl)' ponions have sun·ived. Some of the top pl{ihas, as well as ponions of the ma1talt.a, are restor.ations. Fig. 857. 8R AH>l~SVARA: view of the jagamohana from the north u•est. The pa/JbJga consists of fi,•c mouldings of conventional design fhough not as ornately decorated as on the dt11J. The b~{ia is paiir11r111ha in plan with the gai•rik;a projecting out is inches from the wall. The pi1,a1 arc designed as VJilehari·mN!l¢i1 and house Jikptilas at the corners and various Brahmanical deities in the anartha niches. The boraru/.a consists of a single large moulding with a frieze on its m11hi !l/i. Fig. 8) 8. BRAl--t~1E$\'ARA: detail of the bti{ia of rhc j a1.a111ohana on the south side. Some of the anarlha niches were left unc2rved while in other cases the images arc missing. Ah hough the ;ongha has a single·story plan the an11rilhi recesses adumbrate a two-story plan as they arc filled w ith a virtila at the base surmounted by an alosi-U'!)·i or mith11na. Fig. 819. BRAtt~tES\'ARA: detail of the ga11ik1a projection o n the nonh side. A tala-garbhilr.i, consisting o f 2 J:JNikhari-11111!1ale in the rlght niche holds a knife and ltApila while the one in the left niche ho lJ5. a ta1Jrt. Fig. 872 . 8RAM)ll>'.SVAR:\: image of Aia· f~kapiJa on the south side of the dtu!. 1-f is on(; foc)t rests on t he back of a prostrate corpse. f-le hole.is a trident in h is maic.>r ri~ht hand \\'hilc the lt.•ft hand probably held a it.optila. His uplifted back hands hold a efomori and a rc)sary. J-le h• Nrdh,.llliirJ:a and wears a garland of skulls. An attendant is in the lo\\·er left corner o f the niche. Fig. 873. 8R1\tl M,.'.S\ ' AR.A: image of a fe male Mgure u,•ith arms u plifted in an anllrtha niche n the nonh side of the dt11I. She stands in a twistinR pose holding an ind1~tinct object in her two hands above the head. A ~carf hangs loosely around her shouldc:rS with a parroc perched on one end. A diminutive attendant holding an object over her shoulder appears in the IO"-'Cr right corner of the niche. This is the only image in these niches t hat cannot be identified as a spen the \\rest i:idc of the 101.amohana. The deity stands in a tribhaliJ!.o pose with the lo\\'Cr riRht hand hold ing a trident and the back hand broken. The lower left hand is in varada wh ile the upper hand holds a mirror. The upper pan of the image is damaged , t he head missing, and it appears that the image may ha\•e had six arms. The bull Nandi appears in the lower right corner and remna.n ts of a lion in the opposite comer. A serpent-anklet and tiger-skin arc visible on the right leg of ArdhanariSvara and female or.naments and breast on the left side of the body. The tigure is represenccd lirdh1·alili1,a. Fig. 871. BRAl'l.\l f .· S\.ARA: mith11na in upper anorlha niche on the \\'tSt si\l.'Cr./,;'~l!'ha c>f the: south side of the d111/. She holds a kapiilo near her breast in her left hand "·h ich cradl"' a rriJcnr. lier ri~ht hand is extended toward an emaciated monkey in the lov.•er right corner. A small emaciated figurc, o r animal, appears hanging at rhc end of the branch form ing a canopy al,ovc the (i.ik111i.

Fig. 886.

BRAl-i~IES\'... RA: ;iigrata

motif o n l2tcral Rank of entrance ponal of a corner shrine. The lion rears u p abo \'C' a crouching e!C'phant. Festoons of pearls. drip from t he lion' s mout h . T he u ·arri()r holds a sword in rhe uplifted rig hr h and while rurning the head to look back.

Fig. 887. BR. ..\1-t~IE~\'AR.A: khtikharti·mM!l~i on the lo,,.,,·er .ii~i?hn of the dt11f on the nrt h motif is car\•ed o n the PimOnil!.i. Kubera is housed in thC' niche.

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A /J)J(J

FiR. 888. BJl.."tll~tF.~\'ARA: 11ajra•ma1tolu d esign o n t he vimtinikti o f a J:,htikharti·mNt1(ii. The- lo\\·cr medallion houses a face and is flanked b y a standing f;gure on each side. The upper nledalli:..~"".,RA: \·icw of nonheast comC'r shrine from the south . The bti(ia is ponta·rotha in plan 2nd duplicates the dccorati\'e proStram of 1he drNI 1hc>ugh the ~t.a!lfii is devou.I of ornamen121i(the d.r11/. T he binilea niche houses an inl a,i.:c o f :\rt.Jhan2rlS\'ara \1:hilc: the 1111ar1/,1a niche has an image of Gal)cSa standing on hi:;; n1,>unt. i ·hc a/aJri·

kD1!yd in the 011Nr1ihJ recess is in thC' act of rcmo,·ing her )o\\·cr garment. l~ig.

904 ._ J.1:-..(.,\RAJA: nor1hurcst corner of the bele.i shCl\\'ing a tlopifhhri·ti"1ha ab.,,,·e the Jwni~ and images of Si,·a seated in padmJst111a abvc the rtihU1. f;iR. 90S · 141:-.:n).':: u·ich the increased numbC'r of bhkmi di\'isions, ten in contrast to h\'e O early ccmplcs, g i,•cs added height to the tC>\\'Cr. The /ea1fi/t4 is d isposed on two pla.nes v•ith the corners rounded a.nd priecting. TJ-.c tJlit,a·likharas arc superimposed one ah,.·e the other n the anartha anJ are contained within the venical boundaries of the ptigo. The diminishing size of the ori1.a·sik.haras lead the eye gradually up the soaring height of the 1,a(lf/i and in no way disrupt the graceful and elegant contour \\•h ieh bends in rapidly near the top where it is softly terminated by the bisoma. ·rht: huge g~Ja·A:rinlo on che front facade is elevated ab''e a large ofi1,a·f/kharo covering the 1ondhi·1thala ~o as to be "isible abO\'C t he pit/ha roof of the J01.a1'lohaf111. The crO\\'Oing 111ast11Jeo is intaet. Fi~. 906. I .1:-..C.-\RXJA: 1·a;ra·ma11aka dcsi~n on the " 'est facade of the 1.a!UJi. The desi~n C(•n~i:;.t!' o( t \l.'O rai~ya·mc:dallions formed by strings of pearls. An image of Kintikcya r1din~ his m ount i!' 1n the

center medallion . A bell hangs do"''" from the lotus canopy at the apex of the de~ign u·h1lc a !'mailer t'lljF0·1'111Jlab of ccar·shaped medallins is at the base. The 1.attaJ on the \\'ing~ of the upp~r motif hl)IJ a club in one hand and lift one leg up as if climbing. They look away from the J.'!/a•kriittla nlt)lif project in~ ahvc the lotus canop}'. A conch is placed beneath t"ach ~a!Jo. l:ig. 907. l.1:-..c.tAR.l..IA: 1rajr11·ma11alta desi~n on the nonh side of the ~a!Jt/i. The center n'\eJall i1>n contains an image of \ 1 imadeva or dancing Bhairava . He is four·armcd and holds a trident 2nd 2 club in h is majr hands v.·hile his lower hands hold a kartri and a severed . head. The .~a!las (>n thr "·ing~ of t he de~ign poke long sticks at the lion above as if ti:·in.st 10 make h im leap. :\ conch 1~ p laced beneath each g.a{lo \\1 hilc the base of the design on either s itJc is decorated "'rirh a mtJ~ra. fig. 908. L1~ci.-\R.l.JA: crowning mastaltA of the ja1,a111ohana. ·rhe 111"stai!.a consists of a btlc1', 1.h"!11a. omlti-btl:i. omalaka. Jel>op11ri, kalaiO and surmounting finial. l .. ions arc inserted in the I0\\1 cr l1rk1 tc..> hc:-lp s uppon the hu~e 1.Ju1!1/ti. There is a seated Siva above eac.h rihi, as on the dt11!. thouJ?h t he li1•n surmount ing the 1•a;r11·111011aiuJ obscures h is image. Squatting btlei·hhairava1 2re insenec.I into the amlti· /}(ki but no Ii(>ns. Fi~. 909. L1:-.t ,,\1h!i-cured fr(1m

\' '""". by

small later shrines . The)Qti~ho is di\•ided into t\Ao'O stories and rhc barart4o contains ten mt'>UIJ1n).?_$. T hr 1.a1·ilt./a \\'indc.lW was convened into a door at a later date. The roof consists of t\\'O pqtalas t1f nine and sc\•cn pief.ha-mould ings respect ively with the vertical face of the mou lJin~s of the l(>\\'Cr fH!tala being decorated with frieze motifs. F.ach potola has a 1.•a;ra·ma1tako carvecl on a large panel al)()\'C the t.avtik1a prc>ject ic>ns and en1rance p•)tt2ls. Fig. 910. Lt!\c;.A.RAJ.\: va;r11-ma1111/eo c.lesign t.>n the l•>\\'tr potala of the; o_r,amoMna rf rth. T he niche at the ba~e o f t he large panel cont2ins a scene of lifit.a¥pUjti. '('he bc:adcJ roi~>·a·m('i.l:all111n contains a smaller J!"!/ra·ma11aka \l.'lthin, complete \\'it h Aank1n1-tt.tJ~o1 and cr\\' into a dt>t>r a1 a larer Ja1c. probably 10 facil itate entrance in10 the interior \l.'hen add1t1c.,nal st ructurl's "'·e re t:rccrcd tin the east · \a:est a:ject in their uplifted inside hand. Fig. ?t J . L l.S(i ARAJA : iik/tidti110 motif in an awartha niche on the lower jOli1.ha. The n iche is divided into three uneven registers with the top register being filled with the Brahmanical trinity. Jn rhe large center register is a seated royal figure faced by standing attendants a.nd ministers along with a seated g11r11. in t he bottom register arc two seated figures facing o ne another \l,•hile three smaller figurc-s stand in the background. Fig. 916. I.1Nti.~RAJA: olasti-konyti in an an11rtihi recess of the upper jingha. She stands in a twisting pose with her right foor placed on a vase. Her hips are in profile facing to our right while her torso i$ frontally depicted and her head is in profile facing our left. Her uplifted left arm is over her head, the hand grasping a branch, while her lowered right hand is placed above a diminutive female attendant standing v.·ith one hand uplifted. Fig. 9t7. L1Nve her head and a small

tl~urc

$t and$ ncx.1 co the

Fij.t. 9z.j. L1sns1ructed Siva temple \\.ri1 h detachc!'ary and a to rch in h is two hands. He is bearded and has a pt ·belly. He wears a ral l ;afi·lffkleN,lo and his head is framed by flames. A torch 2ppcars in each u pper comC"r of che back-slab. 11 by 11 inches. Fig. 94$- Kt::--.;01..s\'ARA : diJeptila Tsana . ..l e is four-armed and rides on h is mount. The majt)r ri~ht h and is in varorla ""•hile the back left h and holds a trident. The o ther cu·o hands arc br(>kcn o ff. Ht' is lirdhvo/iti1,a and is rich!)' ornamented. He wears a tal l ) ofti·m11hft1 and a fc)tUS rosf t he ten1ple. The projecting plaiform supporting t he lion is left plain. Fig. 916. \ 1Al.l"KES\"ARA : detail of the Jr11/from the c2st. The temple i~ buried up t the level o f the upper story of the ;an~ha. Strlis1 ically •nd ieonograph ieally the tlrNI is • small duplicaic of 1he Lirlgarija. The bararrJa consists o f ten moulF 11. 1.l s·r R.\ 'r 1c.>:-.;s Fig. 973. PRAT.1.PRl'l)RAPL 1R: general view showing theja1,a111o/Jan11 and the J111/. The J111/ has bl·cn reconstructed and only portions of the original decoration remain. The 1,a1Jr the ''"J·ra-111111/aiea designs and an ali1.a-iilt.hara at the base of the anartha. The crournin~ Mastalea mC'mbcrs of the jaga111ohan4 appear too small and seem to sink into the roof rather than floating abo\'C 11.

Fig. 974. PR,\T.l.PRl.l)R:\Pt·R: dt:tail c)f t he cornice of the 1anJhi"-1thala decc>ratcd \\'ith a prces).ic>n "·ith elephants and a temple. Numerous peacO(k para~ls sugge~t t he figures o n the elephant). arc probably of a ro)'al famil)'. Fig. 971· P1t.\·rAPRt·1>R,\Pt·k: detail of cornice of the sandhi-1th11/a CCS~tc>n leading into the mus an imals, such as monkeys and t igers. su~gc~ting a hunting expe\\' rt:licf at spaced inler\'ali> n lht' paJMo Pr!fha, elcph:ants being visible in this detail. Fig. 977. PR.\ Ti.Plll'D"R:\Pl'R: view of n4/a•manJira and Ja.t,amohana. The jl{(tJmCllJana \\'a.S atlc.lcJ in l he crntury while the nJlo-manJira \\'as added even later, probabl)· the 14th century. A tcmpt>ra~· thatched roof has been added over some of the p illars at the front of the nli/a·manJira. t~th

Fig. 978 . PRAT.l.PRt1DR.\ Pl1R: J.'ajr11-ma1talt.4 design above the sandhi-sthala on the front of the ,t,andi (west). The ga!fal Aanking the medallion have their hair arranged in spiraling cclils. Their m·atti lion.

~a!ffi,".

·rhe m(lt1f is

Fig. 980. PRAT.\PRt:c>RAPllR: view of the bti(ia from the nonh. The prihl1.i1.a has fou r rather than the standard five mouldings. The bO{la is paiita-ratha in plan though the p.iia decorations ha\'C nt>t sur,·ived. The rtihti has a talo-garbh1U ~neath the niche and an Jirdh1·a·1,arhhiU above. T he h11ran9a consists of a ki>Nra-moulding capped by a recess. Fig. 981. PRhT.APRt.'DRAPt:R: base of the north rihi niche \\'ith decached head o f Pir\'ati. The Ranking a11endanrs srand in a graceful lribhaitga pos.c in front of a p1(Jha-111111J(li. Ther hlt1 a nti1,a·piiia in the right hand and possibl)' an anl;Mia in the left . The lion-mount i~ carved beneath the r1il'ap11dma cushion of the pedestal. Fig. 981 . PRA1'APRtOR:\Pl'k: 1ala~J!.arJ1hilt.O detail beneath the rQhQ n iche on the ca.s.c \\'ith 1.akuli~a in the center niche. The flanking niches arc filled with mith11rta ima~cs. In the lef1 niche the female is being approached by a bearded figure wearing 2 turban. Fig. 98 3. P1t.o\ TAPRUl>R!r.PrR: ptibhOf.a mouldings of the Jr11/. The k.h1tr11 has scr,>ll"1ork on its m11.htirt1i and pad,,,a pr1th11 on its curving upper surface along with a tai!Ja or kiri/a design housin~ a face. i ·hc top rwo mouldings arc joined by a venical panel filled wi1h female figures or erotic imagery. Fig . 984. P1t.o\T.\PRl"DR .\Pl R: tala·.t.arJ1hilei detail wich a battle of cwo v.·arrio~ in the center niche. In the niche on the proper right is a scene of a warrior taking lca\'c f his \\'1fc who is hunJi!; child standing next to his mother. In ~ ~pa.rate scene beneath the bactle motif is a ma11h11na tl;inkcd OJA : seated Durli:ti in the ea!l.t 11nar1ha niche on the south side. She is fur·armcd and is seated on a )(nus cushion :above a small lion. 1-ter main right hand is in varada u.·hilc the left hand holds a vase. The uplifccd hands hold a n1((a·pO'Sibly a goad. She is richlv omamcnccd though the image is paniall)· obscured I>)' accretit)ns of dirt. 10 1/ 4 by 9 1/ 2 inches.

Fig. 996. GHclft(>l)lh: dile.ptila Yama . He is seated in la/i101a11a o n his butf11l·munt, t-lc hold!' a ga(iti 2nd a noose. I-le is stout in bof the Jl,•~ifi.

F'i>t. 999. 1\1.c .l·~1: \'iew ()f 1he J,11/ from the S.n ha!'. not sur\'i\'cd. possibly being removed when nis'a shrines \\1ere -am the sc>ut},. ·me t1.:mplc faces consists of a tlr11/ and Jt1f.(1111ohano thc.,ugh 2.dditional ~tructure:\ have been erectn ~ach side and has a two·stor~· pl;,in which obfuscates the barat1efa d i"ision. A t~la 1,arhh1k.ti is insc-rtcd beneath the niche ""'hile the niche of the upper sto~· is filled "''ith an aspect of Siva ttankc:d b~·.1a:f!rU"ta motifs. The J1ara1J4a consi!t.ts of a le.hura. recess and A:hOlehari so that each pfi.e.o simulates a "'"!'di dcsi~n.

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CA T.~l.OGLIF. Of 11.Ll'STR ATIONS

Fig. 1001. BHll.1.IDEl'U: view of pabhaga mouldings of the titNI. The pabhiiga consists of five mouldings of convcncional design with a hrlfo carved on the A:/;11r11 moulding and a ltJfti111111t.ha mask at its apex. Fig. 1006. BH11.1.10Euu: rahi derail on the south side of 1hc dtNI. The lala-garbhikJ is designed as an elongated lehalchSS

141

trident in h is upper hands while his IO\\'C r right is in rarada. The lower left, now brt>kcn, prbahly

held

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Fig. 101 S· 8 .-111.1.n>hl'LI: detail of pila~tcr lij.turcs Aanking the south riha niche. The und v.·ith her hands. Her male panncr is bearded. A similar scene, hclu:;c:d 10 the small niche of the ti1!11·g11r/Jhiki on the south rahti, has a second female figure v.•atching the scene. Fig. 1018. B11 11.l.IDEl:1.1: scene on the sc>uth sondhi·slb11/a \li:ith a male fi~ure stand inJ.?, beh ind tu:o squatting female figures. Mis uplifted ri!(ht h•nJ hnld' a su·ord while his left hand hold' t he hair (?) of the squattin~ female. possibl)' suf,tgesting sacrifice. A small female figure $lands on each side of che male, each holding one of his arms. Fig. 1019. K.\1.ARA>IANc;A: ~encral viC\1.' of the temple from the west. Only ponit•ns of t he ja,(amq/Jaflo roof ha\·e sun·i\•cd. In the foreground is a p latform added at a later date link in I-! the ntita· 111andira with the jag.amqbana. In front of the entrance is a N2ndi p laced on a high pcdc:st2l. Fig. 10 10. K .\1.ARAH ..\NGA: view of the remple from rhe nonh. The Jr11/ is panra-ratha in p l-:an and has a two·srory design. The 1andhi·1thala, on rhe other hand, has a single-story design . Thc1a,eamohan4 wis probab ly 1ddcd co the structure at a slightly later date, as sup;~csred by t he thin plain u.. 11 or pilaster separating the eastem hall of rhc Ja1.a111"J"'"" from the sandbi-sthala~ thouJ.th it i.s uth. The lo\L-•er story of the: rihi is a tru ncared pidha design \1.'hilc the upper story consists of a small pi(lha-murfii flanked on each side b~· 2 sm:all rrlr.hi -dr11/. T\L-'O detached imaRes of Gar:icSa from o ther temple$ arc ltanin~ against t he rdhti pil2sters nexr to the enshrined prir1i·a·d11•otti. Fig. 1014. K.J.1 ..... R-\ltA'.'-.to.-\ : ;ti1~r,ho detail on the v.·c"Sr. Tt1c lt)\L-' er lea'!ika niche is filled \1:i1h . the dik pfila \ ' arur:ia u·hilc the niche of the uppe r stc.)ry hc)u~cs an im·age SS

Fig. 10~6. K \J.;\R .-\111\S•rM, one for each J>dg•. Fig. 1097. S100HESVARA: detail of the b#a of the tit•/. Except for the piriN-Jt11tllis the temple is devoid of figure sculpture. Fig. 1098. K£D1.RESVARA: detail of the biia of the tit#/, The multiple otl'scts of the pig•s produce an almost circular ground plan. The pibhdga consists of five mouldings of conventional design and the biia is J>d"'d-r•tlM in plan. The jiigh• is divided into two stories with the pig•s designed as J:hiA:hori111"!¥is and pi#Jo-..t,t;is on the lower and upper Stories respectively. The •1111rihd recesses arc filled with •iri/11 morifs on the lower story and alasi-/wryi or •it!JMN motifs on the upper story. Fig. 1099. KEDJ.RESVARA: view of the g.,,;i from the southwest. The bartlJ.'(/4 consists of five horizontal mouldings which arc eliminated on the rihi. Thcg.t,t;; is pt»1or111, as on the Siddh.Svara, with that of the rihi springing directly from the pT;ho roof covering the piriNt1t..1i niche. The aMrtlM is decorated with four Njr•--;is superimposed one above the other beginning at the second bbii111i. A large gaja-luiwt• projects out from the rihi above the 11tiga-ii""4r11, that on the front or south facade missing except for its base. Fig. 1100. K1m1.•ESVARA: view of the pi#Jo roof of the)"!,••°"""" from the west. The pediment avovc the gallilq11 consists of a J:hiJ:hori-..t,t;i flanked by a nJ:hi-JtNI on each side and surmounted by an "".µti lion. The roof is formed of ten pi#Jo-mouldings of diminishing size crowned by a with btlei-bbdir•wu and Jopithhd-siilbdl supponing the gha,fi.

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Fig. 1101. K£D1.RE$VARA: detail of the gd!lf/i with b•r•!l/a mouldings and 11tig•-ii""4rM. The larger ailga-iik/Jdra of the rihi has a niche at its base filled with a standing deity. Fig. 11oz. K £D1.RESVARA : view of the ri/M on the west. The rihi has a single-story plan consisting of a truncated pi;ha-~. The 1•"1-garbhilt.i is an elongated J,hiJ:hari-11t.t,t;i flanked by a Mig•/Migi,.Rh~\' ARA: west side of the .ia1.a111ohant1 with the entrance ponal facing south . The jangha has a singk·story plan wi.MH!\\'.\R.A: ima~e of L2k$mi· Nrsirhha inserted into the: \l.·all of the small ma!f{fe1pa in front of the dr11/. Nrsirhha is seated with legs crossed 2nd tied together b)· a.ro1,apa/Jt1. His main hands rest on his knees v.·hile his upper hands hold a ralera and conch. 1.ak~mi is seated on the ,Yo,t.aptJ/!a loking u p at Nrsirilha though her upper ponions arc brclkcn·c11f. Female 2ttcnrrangcd in two potala1 or tiers of piJha mouldings as on the lioigaraja tho ugh the vajro·111a1ta"4 panels arc replaced by pl(lha-11111.!ffii1 on each tier above the govi !fo and entrance projections. The lower sto ry ha.s seven piJha1 and rhc upper story has six wirh the mouldings being smaller. Images of Garunal design and the: ;tiri~ha is di,·ided into t \\'O stories. l'hc pd1.as art de-c1)ratcd \\·it h ' ' 1Jramu11di1 on t he lc>u'cr Story -and pidha-mu'!#is on t he upper story. ~fost of the images from the 111111rO.hti recesses a.re nc>w mis.sing. Fig. 120 2 . N1Ar.1: general vie"'' from the southwest with a ni1d·shrine in front of the south rihti. The tp stlr cc>vcrcd with plasrer.

i:iJ:. 110 1 . 1\:1 \ I I : l lt't:til of the /11,v,nmoha110 from the nonh . The dikptilas arc ht)U!'ed in the center k.t111ik.i1 nicht• C)f the lt>u.·er ;tiri.~ho ar1ti their iok1i1 in 1 he same niche on the upper ;O~~ha. t=ig. 1206. '.' 1 \1 1: cic:13il nh "'·cst corner t>f the 1oxn111ohona. The pO/Jhti,t,o consists of five m 11·.S\'ARA (K A•ATl'l:R): di'1~.SVARA (K•••TPl'R) : dikpa/11 Indra. He is seated in lalitasana on his elephant-mount holding a vajra in his right hand. H is left hand is placed behind his leg and appean to hold the stalk of a lotus which blossoms near his shoulder. The image is partially covered with din and whitewash . It measures 1s by 7 1/• inches.

Fig. 1133. LATAHARANA: image of a Jain couple cemented to a shrine a long with other images in the southeast corner of the GrameS\•ara compound. The couple arc seated in ortlhaparyol'ilt.a holding a flower-stalk in their right hand which rests on their uplifted knee. A small figure in a swing appears between them in front of branches. A Tirtharikara Ranked by attendants is carved at the top. The pc'destal beneath the vii11opad1110 scat is decorated with seven fig ures seated in ortihaparyofika. The sculpture measures 17 1/ 4 by 9 inches. Fig. 11)4· PATIA: Kintikeya fraJ?ment lying under a tree. The image is car,•ed of chlrite. His face is illumined by a soft smile and he wears a '!)'iP.hrar.ialt.ha wirh a tortoise pc-ndanr. Fig. 11)S· DHAR.~l..\Si\1..\ : image of \ ' ariha in the Orissa State f\.luseum. The deity stands in ,;/tefha holding the arm of Prthvi with his major rig ht hand and then lifts her up on his major left e lbow. He holds a takra and a conch in h is back hands. Lak~mi stands in the lower left comer. A lotus blossoms above the head of Variha. The back-slab is decorated with a malt.ara ../ora!(a with a AJ;r1imNkha at the apex. H 'I' by 16 inches. Fig. 11)6. Ct-1Al' OAR: doorframe insencd into the rebuilt KapileS\'ara temple. The jambs arc decorared with vana-la!O scrollwork. The tivtiraptila.1 and rhe attending river goddesses are housed in rectangular niches. Gaja-Lak$mi is carved on the lintel and the architr:ave is decorated with a nai•agraho sl:ab. Fig. 11)7. (Hi\l'DAR : J1:0raptila ~fahikila and Gangi. The tivtiraptila extentls his major right h:and in varada and has a rrident in his left h and. His uplifred back hands hold a rosary and a lot us. Garl~i ht>lds a lotus in her uplifted left hand. Her makara· mount ap~ars among the locus rhizome design of chc pedestal. The niche measures 16 1/ 2 b>• 14 inches.

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