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Decorative art of Parasuramesvar temple

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DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

DP- A. P. Mohepetre

Puh/ishtd by : Dr. H. C. Des SUPERINTENDENT, ORISSA STATE MUSEUM BHUBANESWAR

1991

9 2-=:-9iis4s... I - E-70776 Hohapatra, Ramesh Prasad, 1939Decorative . art of Parasuramesvar Temple/ R. P. Hohapat ra . -- Bhubanesvar : Orissa State Huseua, 1991 . iv, v, 29 p., (116) p. of plates : ill. ; 25 cm. I 20-91 ., Study of the architectural pecularities, . erotic sculptures, cost1111es, ornaments, and other decorative elements of the Parasuramesvara Temple of Bhubaneswar, India . Includes bibliographical references (p . 25CONTINUED ON NEXT CARD

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I-E-70776 Hohapatra, Ramesh Prasad, 1939Decorative art of Parasuramesvar Teaple I R. P. Hohapatra. -- Bhubaneswar : Orissa State Museum, 1991. iv, v, 29 p. , (116) p. of plates : ill. \ 25 ca. 20-91 . Study of the architectural pecularities , erotic sculptures, costuaes, ornaaents, and other decorative elements of the Parasuramesvara Temple of Bhubaneswar, India. Includes bi bliographical references (p . 25CONTINUED ON NEXT CARD

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INTRODUCTION The monograph 'Decorative Art of Parasuramesvara temple' is the outcome of a Research Scheme of the Orissa State Museum undertaken by late Dr. Ramesh Prasad Mohapatra. On account of his sudden and unexpected demise on the 14th Janua'ry, 1989 Dr. Mohapatra could not see the publication of this book, which to me is a unique work ever written by any scholar in Orissa giving adequate justice to the multitudinous decorative elements illustrated in the temple walls with dexterity, ingenuousness and inimitabe genius betokening the early art tradition of Orissa. Dr. Mohapatra was a pioneer in the disciplines of history and archaeology and a man of unusual character marked for his honesty, sincerity, dignity, integrity, suavity, discipline and punctuality. Being strong in temperament and stubborn in attitude and devoid of emotionalism but replete with scholastism, he was in the habit of prevailing upon others. A true scholar may be judged by the quality of his research works. Dr. Mohapatra in this count produced masterpieces based mainly on his survey and explorations of archaeological sites. He did not like to touch upon anything that are not supported by basic data and corroborative evidence. The best example is his ' Jaina Monument', a stupenclous work grounded on his first-hand field survey of the Jaina sites in full coverage of Orissa. In fact, before publication of this volume Jainism in Orissa was considered to be a sectarian religion spread sparsely in the past. Dr. Mohapatra evidently proved that Jainism of Orissa in the past in this State was as significant as the mainstream of Indian religions like Buddhism, Saivism, Saktism,

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Vaisnavism etc. The survey and discovery of Jaina sites and iconographic identification of Jain.a in1ages are his greatest contribution to Orissan culture. In the field of iconography, art history, he had numerous achievements to his credit and he was one of the most knowledgeable scholars During the long period of over two decades of his curatorship in the Orissa State Museum his invaluable service to the cause of archaeological exploration was so deep that one cannot think of Orissan archaeology without him. The momentous and eventful career of Dr. R. P. Mahapatra was one of the continuous and devoted service to Orissan history and archaeology covering a period of only 25 years. An author of numerous reserch papers covering a wide range of subjects like Archaeology, Political and Cultural history, Literature many of which on the topics shrouded in oblivion, Dr Mahapatra specialized in everything bringing about a blend of all the subjects, of course, in the context of history. Some of his important books entitled 'Udayagiri and Khandngiri' 'Jaina Monuments of Orissa' 'Military History of Orissa', 'Archaeology in Orissa', 'Temple Legends' and several volunies in manuscript forms are not only unique contributions to indological study but a permanent testimony to his scholarly brilliance and erudition. His interdisciplinary approach to history and archaeology in accountability of details of facts made him a great historian and archaeologist. Each of his papers and each of his books replete with facts in detail indicates bis thoroughness, deep insight and command over the subject. The vast research materials he enmassed could not be exhausted during his short span of life, but his numerous files heaped with the connected data indicate that he had several plans in mind. Alas ! the untimely death put a fullstop to his planning. The present book is one of bis last works prepared in thorough survey and documentation of the particular temple. The temple of

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Parasuramesvara; the most sumptuously decorated edifice of the early period, in good state of preservation, attracted the attention of Dr.~Mohapatra for detailed study. In fact, the temple is marked for architectural treatment and sculptural arrangement en1bellished with different mythological scenes, sculptures and varieties of motifs. The plastic decoration of the exterior though unsophisticated in nature ts superb and unchallenging; every piece of stone is of an informative nature. The interior, like other Orissan temples is simply plain though the exterior walls are intricately and profusely carved and decorated. One inexplicable feature of the temple is the character of the junction between the Jagamohana and the deul·which -implies that the two structures were built ~t differer.t times. The Jagamohana appears to have been the subsequent addition as the sculptural style of the both are different. The carving of major images and the decorative arrangement are more advanced than that of the deul. The discrepancy in style has prompted the scholars to speculate that the two structures are not contemporaneous to each other. Unlike other temples the Jagamohana is rectangular in shape with terraced roof supported within by two rows of pillars (3 in each side). The structure ( 29'4" >< 22'6" ) is fitted with two doors, one to the south and the other to the west and four windows. This structure appears to be a model, on the ·basis of which more stylized and square-sized .Jagamohana developed in the later phases of evolution . Dr. Mohapatra interestingly dealt with the peculiar and common features that are marked in the temple. Thus he touched upon, in short, the architectural peculiarities, sculptural arrangement describing the divine, semi-divine and animal figures, scroll work, varieties of motifs and panels, erotic sculptures, costumes and ornaments and other decorative elements etc. The book is decorated with a large number of illustrations.

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It is a great pleasure to bring out this volume in memory of late Dr. R. P. Mohapatra. I am sure, the book will be of great use to the students and teachers of history, art history and archaeology. Lastly I express my gratitude to the Government in the Department of Tourism, Sports and Culture for providing funds for publication of the book. H . C. Das

Superintendent of Museum

CGNUNTir

Introduction Text

Dlustration

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPl.E

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS A view of the temple fron1 South-eastern side. A view of the temple from Western side. A view of the temple from Southern side. Paga decoration. Decorative Panel. Beaded arches. Beaded arches. Paga decoration with beaded arches. Beaded arches. Beaded Arches. Ganesa within the central niche. Vacant niche flanked by female figures. 13. Vacant niche topped by the figure of Parvati. 14. Vacant niche flanked by standing female attendants. 15. Dancing Nataraja. 16. Ravanugraha murti ( Ravana lifting the mount Kailasa ) 17. Lakulisa flanked by lady attendants, a dancer etc. 18. Marriage scene of Siva and Parvati. 19. Chaitya Motif. 20. Wall decoration of the Jagamohan. 21. Chaitya window motif. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

22 Beaded circles containing lattice designs.

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23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Beaded enclosures. Chaitya window motif, Series of beaded designs. Chaitya motif. Beaded enclosures. Chaitya n1otif. Chaitya window n1otif.

30. Chaitya window motif. 31. Chaitya window motif. 32. Chaitya window motif. 33. Chaitya window motif. 34. Chaitya window motif. 35. Chaitya window motif. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50.

Chaitya window motif. Chait ya window n1otif. Chaitya window motif. Chaitya window motif. Chaitya window motif. Chaitya window motif. Chaitya window motif. Twin foliated vases. Foliated vase with petalled decoration. Lower part of the foliated vase. Kirttin1ukha. Beaded motif. Chaitya window motif containing a full blown lotus flower. Chaitya window n1otif, Chaitya window n1otif.

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51. Chaitya window motif. 52. Inner beaded enclosure of a Chaitya window motif. 53. Chaitya window motif. 54. Chaitya window motif. 55. Chaitya window motif. 56. Chaitya window n1otif. 57 Panel displaying dancing Siva. 58. Dancing n1ale figure. 59. Lady standing at the door entrance. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Close up view of Siva within a rectangular enclosure. Yama. Attendant of Siva. Attendant of Siva. Bust of a figure. Dancing figure of the window grill. Another dancing figure of the window grill. A panel of the grilled window. A panel of the grilled window. A series of standing female figures displaying their costumes· Panel depicting worship of Siva linga. A scene of elephant catching. A scene of elephant catching. Decoration of the moulding. Ganesa and Chan1unda. Varahi and Indrani.

76. Kaumari and Vaisnavi. 77. Birabhadra. 78. Chan1unda and Ganesa.

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79. Chaitya window motif. 80. A lavishly decorated chaitya window.

81. Geometrical designs. 82. Floral motif. 83. Floral designs. 84 Decorative designs. 85 Scroll motifs. 86· Decorat ive motifs. 87. Band n1otifs. 88. Band n1otifs. 89. Floral d esigns. 90. Floral designs. 91. Decorative designs. 92. Floral motifs. 93. Decorative weapons. 94. Decorated weapons. 95. Decorative head-gears· %. Decorative head-gears. 97. Decorative hair bun. 98. Decorative hair bun. 99. Decorative hair bun. 100. Decorat ive hair bun.

101. 102. 103. 104. 105.

Decorative hair bun and ear ornaments. Decorative hair bun. Hair bun with ear or naments. Necklaces. Exquisitively carved necklaces.

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106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. J 13· 114· 115· 116·

Ornaments on the legs. Ornaments in the hands. Decorated girdles. Decorated girdles· Decorated girdles· Portions of necklaces and girdles· Types of decorative necklaces. Musical instruments· Animal motifs. Anin1al motifs. Animal motifs.



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Decorative Art of Parasuramesvar Temple The best preserved specimen of early temple datable to the Sailodbhava period (7th/8th century A. D.), is the well-known Parasuramesvar temple of Bhubaneswar. Though small in size, with its deul rising abruptly to a height of 12.80m, it is one of the most sumptuously decorated temples of the early period. It is the only temple of the early period with a surviving Jagamohana. Enclosed within a compound wall, the temple facing west, is a small compact shrine with a squatish thick set Candi while the Jagamohana, a rectangular structure with terraced roof, sloping in two stages. The decorative programme of the temple is n1ore varied and inventive rather than repetitive as is marked. The temple of Parasuramesvara is located to the west of Sedharanya and is at a distance of a little less than a furlong to the west of the sacred Kedara Kunda. It is difficult to fix with accuracy, the date of construction of the temple. Many theories are advanced as to its chronology based on evidences, external and internal. Dr. K. C. Panigrahi has elaborately examined the validity of all these theories and is of the opinion that the temple was built sometime in the early part of the 7th century A. D. The inscribed labels above the eight grahn representations on the lintel of the sanctun1 door closely resen1ble the copper plate inscription of ~1adhavaraja II of the Sailodbhava dynasty (dating from 619 A. D.) suggesting that the temple probably dates to the san1e period. Another set of inscription over the south door of the Jagamohana refers to an offering to Parasaresvara Bhattaka indicating

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that the temple was named after the Pasupata teacher Parasara, one of the four disciples of Lakulisa. A large number of images on the temple walls substantiate the viewpoint and popularity of Pasupata sect in the ten1ple town of Bhubaneswar. There are two distinct sculptural styles represented in its deul and the Jagamohana, but the over all finish is quite consistent. The pattern formed a dominant style on the Svarnajalesvara ten1ple and appears sporadically on the minor sculptures of the Satrughnesvara group, the three earliest temples of Bhubaneswar. This suggests that the temples were built within a relatively short period, tentatively in the last quarter of the 6th and the first quarter of the 7th century A. D. ARCHITECTURAL PECULIARITIES

The temple shows architectural peculiarities of the early order providing an opportunity to study the early form of the .Jagamohana. The original temple was greatly damaged in the subsequent period but the affected parts were restored in 1903 and wherever necessary repaired with old and new materials. The pillars supporting the roof of the Jagamohana have been replaced by new ones. The beki amla and Khapuri have been effectively reconstructed, and a new Kalasa has also been substituted. As indicated earlier, it has no proper plinth, faces west and comprises a Vimana and Jagamohana. The Vimana of the temple is a triratha with a distant semblance of a Pancharatha as evident from the projecting niches flanking the central projection. The level of the floor is slightly below the adjoining metal road. The deui is similar in size to the Svarnajalesvara measuring 19ft 8 inches square. The bada of the Vimana abruptly starts from the Talapatna or Parement which consists of three elements only instead of the usual five and encloses not the usual cubic garbhagriha but one that is parallelopiped. On the three open sides of its bada, there are three niches, the one on the rahapaga lower and larger, but those on the kanikapagas higher and smaller. The images originally enshrined in these niches except two

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have all been removed. The Gandi has five pagas. The kanikapaga is divided into five planes by bhumi amlaJ crowning the group of four bhumi barandis, the topmost of chairya window. The anuratha (not very pronouced) is democated by shallow vertical depressions on either side. The frontal raha is more projected than the rest. The ribs of its paga comers are not rounded off as is usual in most Orissan temples, but sharp edged, which gives added emphasis to its compactness. The Visama does not partake of the projections of the Candi. Above the beki is an enormous am/a crowned by khapuri, kalasa and ayudha (trident) of Siva. The lintel over the doorway of its Vimana now covered under its Jagamohana is carved with figures of eight planets only instead of the usual nine. To reduce the load over the lintel, a corbelled arch over it, visible only from inside, is provided. The height of the Vimana does not bear the usual proportion to the width of the base, it is rather less than the proper height, and accordingly, the Vimana looks more solid and compact than the u5ual type. The Candi decoration as nicely described by T. E. Donaldson is quoted here. "The vajra-mastaka motifs at the base of the raba on the south, east and north sides are smaller than that over entrance portal on the front and extend up the height of two bhumi divisions. The motif consists of two superimposed vajra-mastakas. The lower vajra-mastaka contains two cairya-medallions 'with the keyhold-shaped lower medallion housing a Bhiksatannmurti on the south, Lakulisa on the east and Mahisan1ardini on the north. The circular upper medallion, much smaller in size, enshrines the bust of siva with flanking garland bearers filling circular medallions at the corners of this n1oulding. This upper vajra-mastaka consists of a single cairyo-medallion housing an image of Nataraja, with its beaded borders formed by pearls dropping from the mouth of a large kirtimukha at its apex. This kirtimukha serves as a pedestal for the crowning element of the vajra-mastaka, a seated in1age of Siva on the north and seated figure holding a garland or scroll on the south and east, each of these seated figures being flanked by addorsed lions. The decorative program

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above this complex vajra-mastaka motif on the raha consists of triple caitya n1otifs, more widely spaced than on the anartha, with the center medallion generally housing the face of Siva of in1ages of seated figures. The separation between the vajra-mastaka niotif and these upper caitya-medallions is not as pronounced as on the front facade. The vajra-ma.rtaka on the front facade, above the roof of the Jagamohana, extends up three bhumi divisions ar.d consists of two large cairya-medallions formed from pearls dripping from the mouth of a Kirtimukha. The medallions are filled with the Ravananugraha murti below and Nataraja above as on the Satrughnesvara ten1ple though the motifs on the Parasuramesvara are more three-dimensional and monumental in concept. The kirtimukha at the apex is surmounted by seated Lakulisa who is flanked by a salabhanjika and large seated atlantes on each side. The remaining raha decoration above the vajramastaka is decorated with triple cai9a-n1edallions with images of Siva in the centre and attendants or garland-bearers in the outside medallions. One of the Siva images is his Mahesamurti aspect, a motif also appearing on the ]agamohana twice, one being a small workshop production. On the gandi the Mahesamurti is in the monumental style of the emerging master whereas the major image on the Jagamohana is in the style of the more established n1aster responsible for most of the work on the Svarnajalesvara temple. The Jagamohana (or the audiance hall) of this temple strikes the attention of the n1ost casual observer at the first sight. It is 29ft 4 inches long and 22ft 6 irches wide. It does not present the usual shape of a stepped pyramid towering a cube as evident in later Orissan temples of the place. The plan of the ]agamohana is rectangular, the larger side being in the same line with the face of the Vimana, the raha is bit ahead of the main body The bada of the porch is a low rectangular parallelopiped having a door opening both on the south and west respectively. It is topped by a sloping roof formed by slabs of stone in the centre, a sort of clere storey, or sky-light of six windows

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in front, i. e. on the west and twelve windows on the sides i. e. south and north. The purpose of this is obviously to admit more light and air, but now after the restoration, the windows of the clere-storey referred to have been blocked up. The interior of the Jagamohana presents the appearance of a nave, the roof being supported by two paralled rows of three pillars which perhaps were monolithic before the present restoration was effected. SCULPTURAL ARRANGEMENT

The sculptures of Parasuramesvar temple have an elegance and chastness rarely to be seen in a purely Orissan style. The temple is not so elaborately carved but the sculptures with the .balanced arrangement have a charm and dignity of their own. The central projections of the hada on the three sides fashioned after the deul and truncated above the first bhumi had in their niches parsvadevatas of which two are· now extant. The parsvadevnta of the eastern niche is a two armed seated Karttikeya distinguished by the sikhandaka coiffure (arrangement of hair in locks) in three locks, holding a sakti (sJ,ear) in his left hand and cintron in his right, his mount peacock on the pedestal is seen attacking a snake. The image of Karttikeya is a fine piece of carving in son1e respects though deficient in elegance, his vehicle very well drawn but is more impressive in modelling than many other human and divine personages depicted around it. The four-armed pot-bellied Ganesa in the southern niche is shown seated on a Simhasana with his trunk touching a bowl of ladukas (sweetmeat balls) held in his lower left hand, while his upper left holds a parasu (hatchet). The lower portion of the bada of the ]agamohana contains as observed by D. Mitra "with remarkable catholicity a host of deities of the Brahmanical pantheon, including among others, Siva, Surya, dancing Ardhanarisvara {composite form of Siva and Parvati), Siva-Parvati, Harihara, Yama, Varuna, Ganga Yamuna and the Matrikas. Lakulisa in his chracteristic pose, finds a place among the deities. The Afatrikas seven in

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number, each with her characteristic attributes are preceded and followed respectively by the four arn1ed, Virabhadra and Ganesa, the latter presenting a unique feature in his having a human visage with the trunk of an elephant attached to the chin. The lowest clu1itya window of the ralia paga of the southern side depicts the Bhikshatana-murti of Siva where the God is seen begging food for his consort. Two of the Chaitya windows of the eastern side rahapaga represents Lakulisa with his four disciples and SivaParvati, while Mahisamardini form of Durga is found on the northern raha. But the central projection of the v.·estern side of the Vimana presents the most lavishly decorated episode of Ravanonugraha-murti (the role of curbing the pride of Ravana) where Ravana, the demon king of Lanka, makes a supreme effort to uproot mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva, soothing the panic stricken Parvati, along with others, including Ganesa and Kartikeya, ready to fight. Slightly above it is seen the figure of Nataraja crowned by Kirtimukha above which is seated Lakulisa in meditative pose. The lintels over doorways of this temple are dominated by rectangular panels invariably carved with narrative scenes. These lintels are more ornate in design. A richly, carved moulding appears above the marriage scence of the eastern rahapaga. It depicts the marriage of Siva and Parvati, who are seen standing to the sinister of Agni seated above a purna.(Mta and a tiny Ganesa, to the dexter of Agni is a kneeling figure of Brahma in the act of pouring ghee ( ? ) with a \addle (.?) held in his right hand, the left hand holding a vase. next to Brahma is Surya. The bas-relief on the northern niche of the Vimano depicts an interesting hunting scene. A man seated on a horse is spearing a lion or fabulous animal, another, piercing the body of an elephant, another, again, defending himself from the attack of a lion or fabulous animal with a shield.

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The entrance to the ]agamohana on the south has a bas relief with Ganesa in the middle. on the left side is represented a Gandharva with an Apsara ori his leg and with both hands a reticulated basket containing fruits, on the right is represented a man taking out a garland from a basket, next to this is a man carrying a jack-fruit on his shoulder, then a man with palm, and last comes an ascetic, counting the beads of rosary with his legs tied with a piece of cloth. The western door-way of the Jagamohana shows the characteristic figure of Gajalakm1i, the most popular dvara lalatabimba (torana Lakshmi image on later Orissan temples. Lakshmi is seated with legs crossed on a lotus. She holds a lotus on her left hand and extends her right in varada mudra. She is flanked by an elephant on each side. In contrast to the standard treatment on later Orissan temples, the elephants are walking towards the goddess rather than rearing up on their bind legs in a heraldic pose. Only one elephant holds a water jar over her head. The second elephant is just filling the jar in the lotus pond. This motif of .two cloud elephants pouring the fecundating rain waters out of golden jars over the head of Lakshmi is one of the most auspicious motifs in Indian art and injuctions prescribe that she should be installed in all edifices, including even dwelling houses where "she should be installed at the gate and middle counyard. As the goddess of prosperity and finility, of good fortune and abundant life, it is only natural that she appears over the ponal, the most vulnerable part of the temple, the opening through which inimical influences of the outside world can penetrate into the sanctuary". Both projections and apotropaic aspects are combined in the motif. The goddess is essentially peaceful but it is her very bening and smiling presence that wards off any adverse influences approaching the temple.

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It is interesting to note that Siva in many forms appear frequently in the walls of the temple. There are many images on the ~andi and the Jagomohana including three Mahesamurti and many examples of head or bust of Siva. As minutely observed by Donaldson nun1erous are images of Nataraja. In these images the number of arms varies as does the position of the serpent held in one or two of his hands. The largest and the most impressive Nataraja is the once housed in the upper caitya-medallion of the vajra-mastaka on the front facade of the gandi. Siva is ten-armed and holds the serpent in one of his right hands away from his body in contrast to his counterpart on the earlier Satrughnesvara where it is held with two hands directly above his head. The lower part of the torso is damaged and the legs are missing. The facial features are characterized by puffy cheeks and a projecting lower lip typical of the works of the younger master-carver. In two other examples on the gondi, one four-armed and the other eight-armed, Siva holds the serpent above his head and again in one right band respectively. The eight-armed dancinit Ardhanarisvara on the Jagamohana is badly dan1aged with the lower portion of the legs missing. There are numerous Hara-Parvati images, including one on the south side of the ,]agamohana, one in a caitya-medallion of the vajra-mastaka design crowning a subsidiary paga on the south side of the deul and the one forming part of the Ravananugraha-murti in the vajra-mastaka on the front facade of the gandi. In the image on the jagamohana Siva is four armed and is seated in ardhaparyanka with his right knee raised to support his major right hand holding a lotus. His major left arm embraces Parvati around the shoulders. She is seated in ardhaparyanka with her left knee raised and her right elbow resting on Siva's shoulder The respective mounts and a diminutive Ganesa are on the pedestal. In the example of the Ravananugraha-murti motif Siva holds his right hand in abhaya and embraces Parvati arour.d the waist with his left arm. In the third

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image, on the subsidiary paga of the deul, Siva holds the vina in his two major hands while Parvati turns her head back towards him to listen to the music. In the Bhiksatanamurti motif on the south facade of the gandi the iconography incorporates aspects from the related Kankalamurti motif· There are numerous sma 11 images of the Devi depicted in seated posture thought we come across one example of four-armed image in the niche of vajra-mundi of the anuraha recese on the gandi. Two images represent the goddess seated on her mount lion. One is seated in lalitasana and the other is seen cross legged. "In both cases her four arms are identical, the lower right hand held in varadamudra displaying a lotus rosette on the palm, the upper right holding a lotus, the upper left a ketaka-flower and the lower left a kamandalu. There is also a Durga carved on the north wall of the Jagamoha11a though she is seated on a lotus cushion rather than her lion-mount. Her hands are held in the same position and hold the same attributes though that in the upper left is broken off and n1ay be a tanka rather than a ketaka-flower." The secular figures are rarely represented in the temple walls. On the western facade of the Jagamohana, there is a scene of Linga worship, where the ascetics with matted hair and with only loin cloths on are found to have been engaged in the worship. There is no indication to the fact that it can be identified with any royal personage or royal procession. But in later ten1ples, exception has been made to depict royal personages, builders of the temples, ascetics and worshippers along side the gods and goddesses. On the left of the western face of the Jagamohana is depicted the scene of capture of a wild elephant by domestic ones. The wild elephant has one of his legs tied with a rope, a man on foot is coutiously attempting to tie the right hind leg of the wild elephant with the noosed end of a rope, and the animal is kept at bay with a long

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spear by the rider of an.elephant in front. The elephants are very life like and seem to have been copied from nature. Each window of the western side of the Jagamohana is filled with dancing figures rather than the check-board jali motif appearing in the windows on the larger north and south sides. The bands of musicians and groups of dancers represent ince poses, some playing on dnmnru, some on vina and some on cymbals, the dancers are male, one of them is noticed to dance holding the ends of the scarf like an ordinary dancing girl of the present day. On the north side, the opening is cut through the pabhaga mouldings in a manner of a doorway. This opening is in the exact middle of the Jagamohana. The opening above the pabhaga mouldings is filled with a lattice screen in the design of a simple check-board pattern of alternating square perforations and solids. On the south side the window is placed midway between a doorway and the west corner of the structure. The lattice screen is simple check board pattern as on the north side. In both cases the stone courses above the recessed windows have been reworked to fill the remaining space and are of a different size than the original stone courses. DV ARAPALAS-The dz1arapa/as are generally small occupying the lower part of the door jambs and usully have four arms. The dvaraflalas on the western entrance of the Parasuramesvar Jagamohana are carved within niches on slightly projecting kumbha stambhas rather than at the base of the jambs displaying both benign and terrifying aspects of Siva. Standing on a slightly fixed pose, the figure on the right holds a rosary, trident, lotus flower and the lower hem of his garment in his fourth hand. A snake kundala hangs from his right ear and his hair is matted on top of his head. The dvarapala of the left side is of a two-armed figure with trident and lotus. His left leg crosses behind his right and the lower hem of his garment is tied in a knot. Under-garment is suggested by diagonal lines. He too wears a snake kundala in his right ear and his matted hair tied with a skull medallion. The dvarapalas on the southern door jambs are standing in

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

11

tribhanga pose with hips swaying out away from the door. Both of them hold a rosary consisting of skulls in upper right hands and lotus in the fourth hands. The wrathful aspect of the left guardian is suggested by his thin beard and bare feet. A skull n1edallion appears in his matted hair and he wears a snake kundala in his right ear like that of the figure on the right side. They wear girdles of interlocking chains, a necklace waist belt sacred thread and armlets. The lower edge of the garment is decorated with a patter of closely spaced wavy lines. An oval halo appears behind the head of both the figures.

In another instance a fascinating door-keeper holding out forbiddingly a sword that appears to be a two-edged broad sword and in his chain belt a dirk that is the clearest copy of a Javanese kris. Considering the intimate connexion of Orissa with the colonisation of Java and Suvarnadvipa, this representation of a Javanese !eris must be of utmost importance as observed by Charles Fabri. EROTIC IMAGERY

The south side is marked for iconographic representation of Ardhanarisvara, Uma-Mahesvara and Hari-Hara. A little away to the west is seen the Dikpalas inserted into the wall (two are missing probably at the time of restoration. Conspicuous among them are the seated figures of Indra, Yama and Varuna holding their attributes and flanked by their mounts. The pedestals of the remaining Dikpalas have been replaced by plain stones and as a result their vahanas were lost. The river goddesses, Ganga and Yamuna accon1panied by their attendants are seen between the Dikpalas and the windows. The north side of the ]agamohana is embellished with two groups of figures, the first group containing the images of Surya, Chandra, Durga etc. The second group extending to the west corner comprises the interesting figures of SaptamaJrukas and their associates Ganesa and Virabhadra, one at each end of the series. The group next to the window, starts with Virabhadra (whose head is missing). The

12

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

Matrukas beginning from Virabhadra are Brahmani, Mahesvari, Kaumari, Vaisnavi, lndrani, Varahi and Chan1unda and finally Ganesa. Erotic motifs appearing on the earliest surviving temples of Orissa must be considered as a variation to the more impersonal and aggressive ones of the later temples. They are in fact used indiscriminately on the earliest temples and frequently appear next each other on the some stone slab. They are invariably small in si:z:e during this period. Among erotic motifs appearing on the Parasuramesvar temple is particularly tender scene depicting a man approaching a lady gently embracing her, w bile she bends forward both to receive her mate and to suckle her young child. Another tender erotic scene appears on the door jamb of the southern portal on the Jagamoha11a. The n1ale figure gently cups the chin of the famale and looks directly into her eyes as she clings to his embrace and slightly lifts her left leg anticipating further action. A more heraldic motif is that of the female unfastening her garments of lifting her skirt to expose her genitalia, an early example of which appears on the door frame along with erotic couples on the south side of the Parasuraniesvar temple. In another exan1ple an attempt has been made to associate the displayed female with a male counterpart pointing out his erect lingam in her direction. K. C. Panigrahi considers them as amorous couples and thinks that they do not represent sexual postures in view of the fact that they have been provided with garn1ents, the skirts of which are indicated by the incised lines both in the male and female figures. They can not be treated as obscene figures. Erotic sculptures thus appear on the very early ten1ples erected at Bhubaneswar that has survived the ravages of time and plundering with the possible exception of the Muktesvar erotic images appear on all the temples including those which are poorest in decoration even when other decorative motifs are omitted. Like the Parsvadevatas erotic imagery appears to be an obligatory decorativedevice whice must have had the sanction of the sacred texts.

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

13

In the words Donaldson "The Mithuna motif appears on almost every part of the temple, the most conspicuous examples occupying the recessed khandi of the baranda alternating with panels of checker board jali. By far the n1ost popular scene, and one of the most tender, is that of the male gently lifting up the chin of his female partner so that their eyes meet, a recurring motif appearing on all of these early Orissan temples. The overall treatment of the erotic themes on the Parasuramesvara is again one of tenderness and compassion, even in the more intimate maithuna scenes. One of the best illustrations of this compassion appears on the south flank of the projecting raha on the front of the gandi. The scene depicts a man approaching his wife from the rear, gently holding her arms, while she bends forward both to receive her mate and suckle her young child standing in front of her. Although the proportions of the figures, and their execution are less than refined, the emotional impact is one of extreme tenderness and thoughtfulness. FEMALE FIGURES

The female figures, are the most beautiful products of Orissan plastic art. The purpose of carving these beautiful female figures in temple architecture was apparently to beautify the structure. In Orissa they have been known as alasakan;·as, a term which may indicate women in idle n1ood. There is no doubt that some of these figures convey ideas which were well known to both poets and the artists. The figures occuring in the Parasuramesvar temple are marked by crudity and simplicity which characterise the basreleifs of that temple. The decorative female figures here are not found in the recesses as in the later temples, but above the smaller niches on each of its four facades. They stand under the trees but not on the lotuses or lotus as their lotus prototypes do. Since ·they were conceived as r aks!UJJ, Apsaras and sylvan deities that occupy an intern1ediate rank

14

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASUR&.MESVAR TEMPLE

between human and divine beings, the signs of divinity might not have been thought to be necessary in their representations. SEMIDIVINE FIGURES

The naga.r are extremely rare in earlier temples, so also in the Parasuramesvar temple. But the semidivine figures occur occasionally. Among them the flying Vidy3dharas holding garlands in their hands that occur on the top corners of the slabs containing the images of important deities, or in horizontal rows on the lintels of the side niches. The corpulant rakshas with Kunda/as, necklaces, girdles, moustaches and protruding bellies are found in the earlier temples carving fruits as offerings to the divine beings. ANIMAL FIGURES

Animal figures profusely decorate the outer walls of the main temple and Jagamohana of the early temples of Bhubaneswar. That has formed main device of decorative art in the Parasuramesvar temple. Among them lions and elephants are predominantly found. In earlier temples they appear as single figures in horizontal or vertical rows. Some times only the heads of lions are traced in the medallions enclosed within the chairya arches. The representation of full figures of lions are merely conventional but the elephants seem to have been copied from nature. "No where perhaps have these animals been so naturally depicted" observes K. C. Panigrahi as they have heen in the temples of Orissa. Whether they are found in rows or herds or in combat with their fellow creatures or with lions or while being captured and trained, the sense of realism and perspective exhibited by the sculptors in depicting then1 has been remarkable. In the lions the manes have been schematically represented and their tails have invariably been shown up raised to reach the heads in the fore parts. In the scenes of the elephant capture, that appear in the Parasuramesvara and the Svarnajalesvar, both the animals as well as the incidents of their capture have been most naturalistically depicted.

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

1 !5

Representation of thf. peacock is noticed abundantly for the decoration especially of the face of the topmost canopy of the niche and the topmost frieze of the bnda. JAMB DECORATIONS

The door-jambs of the entrance portal and raha paga niches are divided into three or four mouldings on each side of the door way. The decoration is not as yet standardesed and seldom symetrically balanced. Ornamental scroll work completely don1inates the mouldings and figure motifs appear only sporadically. The scroll motifs may be either organic or geometric or a combination of both. The organic motifs, often con1bining vegetative and zoomorphic elen1ents, are extremely exuberant in design to produce light and dark rythms. The geometric motifs in contrast are lightly etched on the surface to suggest a floating in crustation. This is further enriched by the bead (Gundika), dentil lotus leaves lozenge and rangani (flower ornaments in small squares) motifs carved on thin fillets (patti) between the mouldings and the kumbkika bt1ndha (small water jars aligned horizontally) motif decorating the lower edge of horizontal mouldings on lintel above. Scroll work not only beautifies the structure, however but protects it as well. Like other auspicious motifs, scroll work was · believed to have the efficacy to ward off evil, a panel with conventionalised scroll. in fact, was taken to be as sacred as a divine in1age, while a plain surface was considered ugly. The western facade of the Jagomoha11a of the Parasuran1esvar is decorated with kumbha stan1bha on each side of the door The dvarnpalas occupy the shallow niche within the pillars imn1ediately above the Pumaghata decorating the base. The decorations above the dvarapalas carved on rectangular panels include the malliphula phadikn hamsalata and crowning purnaghaltl on the left pillar. On the right

16

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

pillar, a kirttimukha replaces the hamsalata. Three thin bands of scroll work, consisting of meandring garlands and the rope like design, with diagonal stands fill the area between the Kumbha stambha and a window grill on each side, the two out side hands continue around the window to frame it with scroll work. The over all feeling is rather haphazard and cramped, suggesting the windows not part of the original design but slightly later additions. CHAITYA ARCHES

The chairya windows form a very large part of the decoration in the temples of Bhubaneswar. In the earlier temples all important cult images except however, the Parsvadevatas and religious scenes are found in medallions or shallow niches enclosed by chai!Ja windows. The form of the window or arch has changed from period to period and therefore, possess chronological significance. The earlier form of these Chairya window motifs of Parasuramesvar temple have gradually become stylised in the later temples like Muktesvara, the Lingaraja and the Rajara·ni. Speaking of the Chairya windows of the Parasuramesvar temple R D. Banerji says, "In the Parasuramesvar we meet with Chairya windows slightly stylised in form, but on the facades of the Jagamohana there are quite a number of Chait;·a window motifs carved in very low relief of the pure early Gupta style with large medallions with a round or with a long angular projection towards the top, proving that the structure which hears them can not be very far removed from the Imperial Gupta period." The Chairya windows of Parasuramevar temple, except a few enclose at the centre human heads, lotuses, lions and lion heads and are lavishly decorated with beads, floral hands, lattice and linear designs. KIRTTIMUKHA

The Kirttimukha forms the most remarkable motif of the Orissan temples. It is a symbolical representation of the builders or

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

17

donor's fame. It represents the grotesque head of the lion with chains of pearls dropping down from its mouth. In Parasuramesvara this finds place near the entrance door within the arch bands and on the walls of the Vin1ana. The kirthimukhas placed at the head of a long funnel shaped n~ck of the arch bands approaches to the conventional type of lion. The device occurs in the Parasuramesvar though predominantly within arch bands in the Vaital group it appears between a pair of pouncing lions which also drop down strings of pearls from their feet. In later period this formed a part of the individual sculptures associated with different religions. K. C. Panigrahi gives a still earlier date to the occurrence of Kirttimukha as an Orissan temple motif. The Parasuramesvar group can be traced back to a still earlier period of which temple are no longer in existence though the sculptural specimens extant. It has son1etimes been carved merely as a lion's head with no pearl strings. FOLIATED VASES The foliated vase motifs are the characteristic features of the early temple later than the Vaital and Sisiresvara te n1ples. The foliated vases that form the capitals of pilasters are found in a comparative realistic form in the Parasuramesvar temple but in the Vaital and Sisiresvara they have becon1e stylised so· much so that they have become surely the sen1blances of their earlier n1odels. It was the sacred and auspicious symbol during the period and an1ong all sects and was universally employed in embellishing houses, shrines, n1onuments and cities. It sets a sample of Indian genius in formulating a meaningful symbol much simple readily available in every house-hold, yet surcharged with high symbolism accepted and understood exan1ple of the fullness of external divine on one hand the hun1an body on the other. It stands for beauty, art, and life. LOTUS MEDALLIONS- The lotus medallions of the Parasuramesvar ten1ple consist of lotus petals show in full view with corollas

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DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

at the centres but in the temples slightly later than this both the seed vessels and the petals have been realistically represented. COSTUMES AND ORNAMENTS

The male figures usually covered the lower parts of the body with a Dhuti which runs upto their knees. The bands or strips of these dhrllis are noticed in the thigh regions of most of the figures. The scarf or chadar was very rarely used. In the available examples it was either put across the shoulders or tied as a waist-band. In peculiar circumstances it has been tied in a knot on the thighs of the male figures and remaining portions having or held in one of his hands. The females like their male counterparts wear a sari in the lower part of their body. It was invariably shown covering the body upto the ankles. Lower parts of the saris are at times shown on both sides. In exceptional cases veils are noticed on their heads. On the southern door jambs, a standing lady figure is found loosening her under garment. These saris are normally fastened through the girdle near the waist zone. A sheet of cloth, is occasionally tied to the breasts. .

Next to clothing for the body, the arrangen1ent of the hair or the decoration of the head forms the n1ost important elen1ent of dress. Sanskrit authors have profusely illustrated in lucid language of the various forn1s of coiffure in vogue in their tinies, but their descriptions are not precise and it is not always easy to make out forms they allude to. This is however, not mnch to be regretted as the available sculptural evidence on the object is ample. The artists of Orissa seem to have paid particular attention to the subject and their works report the dressing of hair and head-dresses in great variety. Hairs on the head are usally combed towards the top and tied in a chaplet or a piece of rope in one or two bulging knots. The fringe

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

19

of short hairs at times cover the upper part of the four head in ringlets and upon it set a triangular tinra of jewels. The hairs on the head on very many occasions are twisted to various designs and arranged even along the sides. They are fixed with jewelled bands. But instances of hairs arranged in jata like strands which note upto the shoulders on both sides of the ears. The commonest form in several cases however, is wig-shaped. In some cases the hair instead of being massed into a ball or coil of some kind or other is allowed to hang behind in loose masses on the back or woven into one or more braids and allowed to hang behind. Occasionally the outermost plaids are allowed to fall behind the ears. The hairs on the head of Kartikeya are disposed of in the form of a hemispherical casque over the head and the end is made to arch backwards in three separate masses like the horse hair plumes. On occasions, preferably the hair styles of the figures representing sakta cult a human skull alone or in addition to the tiara or trangular decorative ornament is set in the front. Ornamental bands of gold or any other precious metals were also provided to the most gorgeous hair styles of the male and female figures of Parasuramesvar temple. Except for the wig-shaped and lala for the males and plaid hairs for the fen1ales other forn1s of hair decoration for both the sexes seems to be alike. The Panion for personal ornan1ents and decoration is con1mon to every state of society. It may have chastened and modified under special circumstances, but has never and no where been altogether suppressed. Ancient texts give names for crowns, crests and tiaras for the head. of rings, flowers and bosses for the ears, of necklaces of one or several rows and various shapes and patterns, of armlets and bracelets, of rings for the fingers, of girdles for the waist for both men and women as also of ornan1ents of bells, hands and chains for the leg and ankle. Although fashion has rendered the forms of many of the ancient ornaments now obsolete, most of the names are still current in connexion with their substitutes and the sculptures afford us a fair idea of what their shapes were in the past.

20

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

Ornaments for the ears are exhibited in great variety but owing to their small size and rough usage to which the hands, nose and ears of n1ost of the statues had been subjected, it becomes difficult to find out the exact shape and finish of most of them. But from the available evidences it is clear that males like their opposite sex were invariably found decorating their ears with studs, rings, leaves, and flowers. The ear-studs are either fixed to the lower edge of the lobule or are seen dangling in the air. The circular ones are neither hollowed in the centre or solid with markings of floral motifs or in concentric circles. Son1e of them are depressed in the centre or in the periphery. In case of flowers, leaves and buds, they cover the entire ear on both sides. The ornaments for both the ears are one and the same but in rare cases they differ from each other. At tin1es ear-rings are set with snake designs. Necklaces were usually formed of circular or rectangular heads of one or more strands set with a locket in the centre. These beads were all set to strings in the process of gradual reduction towards both ends. Central lockets are either plain or decorated and shown adjusted alongwith series of ornan1ental devices of hanging from the centre. The most popular designs encountered here are in the shape of n1angoes, leave and tinkling bells. In case of the figure of Karttikeya, tiger claws are set to the chain on either side of the central locket. Ornan1ents for the fore-arm are invariably a plain band or a chain of beads. At times their nun1ber n1ultiplied. In case of plain cylindrical bands, both the ends meet a circular bead. But in the beaded form they were individually tagged to a chain through holes at the centre of each bead. The arms are usually seen with similar cylindrical plain bands or a series of beaded chains. At times a line of circular or rectangular beads is seen enclosed with plain bands on either ~ides. The most

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

21

lavish form of decoration for the arm is shown with rows of beads topped by a crown and decorated below with linear designs. This form became most popular in all subsequent periods with more delicate workn1anship. Girdle was the most important article of attire, for it served not only as an ornament but as a belt to tie the sari round the waist and produce those graceful and charming folds in the drapery which have formed the theme of admiration to all lovers of classic art. It was held in high estimation. In sculptures all persons are decorated with it. Sometimes it was worn light like a belt but at others loosely like a garland. In this temple the most common form of girdle is formed in one or several series of beads with a locket at the centre. The beads are either circular or rectangular in shape. The rectangular ones are interlocked and held tightly around the waist region. In plain varieties a knot at the centre is made with remaining portions hanging downwards. Various floral designs and leafy patterns are shown in their body. The most gorgeous forn1s of girdles display a portion of it dangling in front as a tassel. Fixing of tinkling bells to the lower strand of the girdle was however conspicuous in their absence during the period. Anklets or leglets of various kinds as ornan1ents for the legs were current from the very early times. The most favourite among them was a chain band round the feet fringed with little bells which made jingling sound when in motion. In other cases they are simple bands of plain metalic sheets or a chain of beads, or pearls or son1e precious stones. In addition to the above, the male figures are usually provided with upavitas in one or more multiple strands and _tied in a knot at the centre. Sin1ilarly the female ones are shown with a series of beaded chains put across their chest.

22

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

PECULIARITIES OF THE TEMPLE AND ITS DECORATION

1. Unlike those of the usual type, faces west. 2 The Jagamohana deviates from the usual type by having a distin ctly rectangular or oblong plan instead of a square one. 3. The roof of the Jogamohana was supported by two rows of pillars. 4. The level of the floor is that of the adjoining ground. The hada of the Vimana starts at once from the talapatona or pavement. 5. J angha, instead of the five component mouldings or projections, consists of the following t hree, boldly executed viz: pada, kumuda and vasanta. 6. The bada of the Vimana does not show the usual five elements, only the jangha and barandi have been used and the remaining three elements have been omitted . The hadn again is not a cube, but a rectangular parallelopiped. There is a sharp line of de marcation between the bada and rek!ta, by a bold projection and a deep recess. 7. The height of the Vimana does not bear the usual proport ion to the width of the base, it is rather less than the proper height and accordingly the Vimana looks n1ore solid and compact than the usual type. 8. No figure of lion is seen to project fron1 any face of the sanctum and the characteristic de11/c/111ranis are not found in the recess between the a111nlnka .ri/a and the Ghad-chakada. (The lions that are found in the recess were placed there at the time of restoring the temple). 9. The usual carving resembling a coat of arms and flanked by recumbent fen1ale figu res is not seen on the rahnpaga of deul. 10. No beaded tassel work is noticed any where.

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

23

11. Sardula and naga representations or plza11digra11thi ornanient are also wanting. 12. The carvings are chaste and elegant, the figures are not lascivious. 13. The ornamental device showing the stem of the creeper at regular intervals is very striking. 14. The profusion of bhos having various sorts of insets such as lotus, lion human head etc. is a characteristic feature of this temple. 15. The representation of kumbha or a jar from which a floral device is made to issue is another noteworthy feature of the temple. 16. The representation of pyramidal battlements and half or three quarter discs of lotus are abundantly found. 17. The cental niches are bordered by nice carvings. The northern and eastern niches have a border characteristic of a door opening. 18. In case of the northern one, the similarily is marked, for we notice distinct barajhanji and dali of entricate design, rthe intermediate border is not gelbai containing human figures in various poses· In case of the eastern one barajhanji is noticeable but dali and gelb ai are wanting, the dali has been replaced by projecting human figures in various postures of devotion, the gelbai has been replaced by small panels containing in sets of various floral designs and human scenes. In the southern one, all the three are wanting and have been replaced by floral devices. 19. The course of stone just above the jangha shows altorelievo representation of rows of half elephants and half lions. 20. Elaborate floral devices issuing out of the tail of birds. Representation of the peacock is noticed abundantly for the decoration especially of the face of the topmost canopy of the bada.

24

DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

21. Representation of female figures standing in front of pened door way. 22. Scenes of worship of Siva linga by emaciated anchorites are also noticed. 23. The figure of Gajataksmi usually noticed on the lintel over door ways is seen to have been replaced by that of Ganesa in the case of the southern door way of the ]agamohana. 24 There are eight planets on the Jagamohana, whereas in later days there are always nine. 25. It has two doors, the additional one on the south side and no less than four window, one on the north, one on the south and two in the west wall unprecedented deparature from what is considered custon1ary or regular. To sum up in the words of Charles Fabri, the Parasuramesvar temple is splendid surviving example of the early struggle to find a suitable form for the new fangled concept of a two piece temple, a kind of pillared entrance hall with a flat roof leading us to a much more lofty tower crowned sanctum. Unorthodox, for their did not exist orthodoxy at that time, structurally and from the point of view of sculptural decoration, the Parasuramesvar is a remarkable achievement and if the representation of human figure is not as admirable as in contemporary Buddhist art, it is a brave attempt by a beginner to express himself in the fashion of his days and to adopt the style of his times to Brahmanic subjects hither to hardly attempted. This style was the mannerist style of the first half of the 7th century and the master of the Parasuramesvar .



25

DECOR4TIVE ART OF P4RASURAMESVAR TEMPl.E

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Banerji R. 0.

History of Orissa, Vol. I & II.

2.

Bose N. K.

Canons of Orissan Architecture, Calcutta, 1932

3.

Dahejiya V.

Early stone temples of Orissa, Vikas, New Delhi, 1979.

4.

Das M. N.

Side tights on the History and Culture of Orissa (edd. by Vidyapuri, Cuttack, 1977)

5. Donaldson. T.

(a) Propitious-Apotrapic Eroticism in the art of Orisaa, Artibus Asial, Vol. XXXVIJ, Nos. 1 &: 2. (b) Door frames on the earliest Orissan Temples. Artibus Asiat. Vol. XXXVII. Nos. 2 &: 3 (c) Development of Gavaksha Orissan temples.

window

in

Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental, Art. Vol. VU. 6.

Fabri. C.

7. Ganguly. M. M .

8. Ganguly. 0. C.

9. Goawami. A. 10. Kramorisch. S.

History of the Art of Orissa, Orient Longmans-1974. Orissa and her remains. Calcutta-1912. Orissan Sculpture and Architecture. Calcutta·1956. ( Surveyed and edited by A. Gollwami ) Designs from Orissan temples. Calcutta-1950. The walls of Orissan temples. Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art. Vol. XV. 1947, P.P. 178-96.

26

11

DECORATIVE' ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

Lal.K.

12 . Mitra. D.

13. M itra. R. l .

Temples and Sculptures of Bhubaneswar. Art and Letters-Delhi, 1970. Bhubanewar ( Archaeological Survey of India ), Third Edition, New Delhi. 1966. Antiquities of Onssa. Vol. I a: 11 (Reprint) Calcutta, 1963.

14. Panigrahl. K. C.

Archaeological remains at Bhubaneswar. Orient Longmans, Bombay, 1961.

15.

Temples of Ori1sa Orissa H istorical Research Journal Vol. l, No. 4, 1953, Bhubaneswar .

Saraswatl. S. K.



DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR T EMPLE

27

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS ( Adopted from the Book, "Bhubaneawar" by 0 . M itra . )

Amia

Anu Raha Anu Ratha Asta Dikpalas Bado Bandha11a Baranda Beki

Bho B humi

Fluted disco. resembling a n amalaka fruit above the top of the spire, bhumi-amla, Similar member demarcating one set of mouldings forming ahhumi ( horizontal division of the Kanilca -Pa.11n of the spire of the deul. ) The projection next to the raha (Central Proiec· tion ) in saptaratha and navaratha temples. The projection next to Kanika-paga in Pant:haratha and Saptaratha temples. Guardians of eight (four cardinal and four intermediate ) Quarters. 'Wall' the cubical portion of a temple below t he pyramidal or curvilinea r spire. bond, moulding (si ngle and mult iple ) between two janghas. moulding ( single or multiple ) forming the topmost element of the hada. neck, cylindrical member immediately above the spire and just below the amla in the finial of a temple. an ornamental motif specially on the rahapaga. storey, plane, horizontal division of the pire.

Bisama

topmost course or courses of the spire above t he t opmost hhumi amla immediately below beki.

Chaitya window

Ornamental motif resembling the window of a Buddhist rock-cut·chaitya-hall (sanctuary).

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DECORATIVE ART OF PARASURAMESVAR TEMPLE

Dtul

Duoropnla

General name of the temple as a whole, when used a lone. it refers to the sanctuary, as distinguished from the porch or festive hall. Door-keeper, Guard.

Candi

trunk, curvilinear spire or pyramidal roof above the bada and below the mastaka.

Garbha-1riho

sanctum sanctorum.

Garbho m11dn

Lower most ceiling of the sanctum.

Grnho

Planets. They are generally represented in a row on the arche trave above the lintel of a doorway.

Jnt.amoha"a

Hall infront of the sanctum.

]ala

The perforated or honey-combed patt.ern.

Jantha

Shin, vertical pattern of the hada between the mouldings. ta\ajangha the lower one between the pahhaga and ha1uihano mouldings, 11parojongha, the upper one between the bandhana and bandhona mouldings.

Ka/11J11 Koniko Pnxa Kollle

Water pot, pitcher shaped member in the final of a temple. Corner regment. Vertical recess between mouldings.

Kirttim11kha

decorative motif, showing the griming face of a lion, from the mouth of which of ten issue beaded tassels.

Noga

serpent fabulous creatures. half man and half serpent. Its female counterpart is known as Nogi or Naga.patni.

Pago

Parasu

division corresponding to foot, a set of lower most mouldings at the base of the temple. segment. battle axe

DECORATIVE ART OF PARAS UA AMESVAR TEMPLE

29

P11rsvodn111/11

Accessory deities, occupying the niches of t he central projections of the main temple. They vary according to religious associations, of the temple.

Pida

Wooden seat. projecting member constituing the pyramidal roof of a JngamohaM,

Pistha

Stylobata. platform.

Potala

Group of pidOJ.

P11T11aihata

Full jar, vase of plenty.

Raha Ratha

Central projection. Segment produced on the outer face of a temple which bas been subjected to projection. Triratha, temple with a central exterior projection, the latter dividing the wall into three ratha. the two on the outer sides being on the same plane. Temples with five, seven and nine such ralhas, the result of the increase in projections on each face are respectively known as Pantharatha, Saptaralha and Navaratha .

• •

ILLUSTRATIONS

'

1. A vtew of the temple from south-eastern side.

I

2. A vtew of the temple from western side.

I '•

I 3 . A view of the temple from southern side.

4. Paga decoration.

5. DccoratJvc Panel.

6. Beaded arches.



7. Beaded arches.

B. Paga decoration

wtth beaded arches.



1"11.

9 . Beade d arches .

I

10.

Beaded arches.



11 . Ganesa wtthJn the central niche.

12 . Vacant niche flanked by female figures.

l 3. Vacant niche topped by the figure of parvaU.

14. Vacant niche flanked by standing female attendants.

15. Dancing Nataraja.

16. Ravanugraha murtl CRavana lifting the mount kailasa)

17. Lakulisa flanked by lady attendants. a dancer etc.



18. Marriage scene

of Siva and Parvau.

19. Chaitya motif.

'

20. Wall decoration of the jagamohan.

21. Chaitya-wlndow motif.

22. Beaded circles containing lattice .designs.

23. Beaded enclosures.

2~ . Ch aJtya window

m otif.

.

"' ...

-~

...

25 . Serles of beaded designs.

26 .. ChaJtya motif.

27 . Beaded enclosures.

28. ChaJtya motif.

29. Chaitya window motif.

30.

Chattya window motif.

\ I

31 . ChaJtya window motif.

I

34. ChaJtva . window motif.

\

35 . Ch aitya window motif.

36. Chaltya window motif.

·' I

I

• '

37.

ChaJtya window motif.

38.

ChaJtya window motif.

I I

39.

Chaltya window m otif.

40. ChaJtya window m otif

41 . Chaitya w1ndow m otif.

42 .

Chaitya window m otif.

43. Twin foUated vases.

,_-.

. re ' • 44 .

Foliated vase wtth petalled decoration .

45. Lower part of the foliated vase.

•--.:::-~

I~

46. K1rtttrnukha.

4 7 . Beaded motif.

48. ChaJtya wtndow motif contaJnlng a full blown lotus flower.

49.

Chaitya window motif.

50 . Chaitya window motif.

51 . ChaJtya window m otif.



52.

Inner beaded enclosure of a ChaJtya window motif.

53. ChaJtya Window motif.

..

5 4. Chaitya window motif.

55.

Chaitya win dow motif.

56. Chaitya window motif. ·

57.

Panel displaying dancing Siva.

58. Dancing male figure.

59. Lady s tanding at the door cnt 3ncc.

60. Close-up view of Siva within a

rectangular enclosure.

61 . Yama.

62. Attendant of Stva.

63. Attendant of Siva.



..

A

64. Bust of a figure

I

65. Danctng figure of the wtndow grtll.

66. Another dancing figure or the window grill.

I

I

67. A panel of the grilled wmdow.

I I

68. A panel of the grilled window.

69. A sertes of standing female figures displaying their costumes .

,

.

70.

Panel d epictlng worship of Siva Unga.

71 . A scene of elephant c~tchJng.

72. A scene of elephant catchJng.

73. Decoration of the moulding.

j

74. Ganesa and C hamunda.

...

75.

VarahJ and Ind.ran!.

76.

Kaumarl and Valsnavt.

I

77. Birabhadra.

78.

Chamund!;l and Ganesa.

I

79. Chaltya window motif.

80. A lav1shly decorated Chattya window.

t 2

s 81. Geometrical designs.

1

2

.\

82. Floral motif.

1 2

4

S

83. Floral Destp;ns.

1

2

3

5 84. Decorative designs

1

3 2

4

85. Scroll motifs.

5

1

IIl

1

3



+

5

@xXXXWhjfili(llXXXl

1

3 2

4

s

87. Band m otifs.

1 2

3

88. Band motifs.

0 1

2

3

+

5 89. Floral designs.

1

2

3

s

90. Floral dcstgns.

1

2.

4

3

s 91 . Decorative designs.

6

1 2

3

4

s 92. Floral motifs.



1

2

5

• 93. Decorative weapons.

s 3

94. Decorated weaPons.

1

2

-· 5

~ ·

95. Decorative head gears.

2 1.

3

s 96. Decorative head gears..

'

('

~~ \

t

2



+ 5 97. Decorative hair-bun.

I

I I

2

,

s 98. Decorative hair-bun.

1

-2

1

+ 5

99. Decorative hair-bun.

1

2

-

1

4

1 oo.

Decora tive hair-bun.

2

,

4 101 . Decorative hair· bun

and ear ornaments.

2

1

4 102.

DecoraUve hair-bun

5

1

2

3

7

5 l 04.

Necklac~s.

2 t

3

5

. .. .

.

. .. -_,.' ----

7

.*·..

•••,,•• •

,---~:;;

.....

2 1

4

3

'



'

1'06.. Ornaments on the legs.

1

2 •

5 107. Ornaments in the hands.

(

l

2



4

5 108. Decorated gtrdles.

6

2.

3

s 109. Decorated girdles

r ,. . . . . . 1,..,.

original 'rom

1

{

j _ (::( )

,

1 I

2 110. Decorated girdles. Original from

2

3

5

'

7

111 . Portions of necklaces and gtrdles. Original from

.J. .......

2

1

\

5 167.,.. ~19d!hof decorative necklaces :

6 1a 'rori

1 2

3

r ~ ~l,....

113. Musical

instrwn~~~·trom

1

3 114. Animal motifs. Ongmal from

2

1

3

115. Animal motifs.

r '"' ,

~1 "

Original from

1



4

3

5

116. Animal motifs.

original frori

RETURN TO

CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT

II

Main Ubrarv • 198 Main Stacks

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2

3

5

6

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DUE AS STAMPED BELOW

DEC l~ 1997

FORM NO. DD6

r ..-.. ~ ~ J,.,,

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,

Original from