Fungi of Switzerland [6/6]

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FUNGI OF SWITZERLAND Volume

6 Russulaceae Lactarius Russula

FUNGI OF SWITZ;ERLAND A contribution to the knowledge of the fungal flora of Switzerland

Volume

6 Russulaceae Lactarius Russula

218 species described, with drawings of microscopic features and color photographs

Aalished by Fred Kranzlin, Verlag Mykologia, Postfach, CH-6000 Luzern 6

French translation by Dr. J. Keller, Universit6 de Neuchatd, CH-2000 Neuchatel und E Brunelli, CH-'I950 Sion Blglish translation by Mrs. Virginia L. Waters assisted by Dr. J. F. Waters, Humboldt State Univsrsity, Arcata, CA USA

Title ot th€ Gsrman edition der Schweiz,, Band 6 "Pilze Tltle ot the French editon "Champignons de Suisse", Tome

Russulaceae, Milchlinge und TauUinge

6

[actaires ot Russules

AddEsses ol th€ tranalatoE: lnstitut de Botanique, Chantemerle 22, CH-2000 Nsuchatel Frangois Brunelli, Rue du Petil Chasseur 25, CH-1950 Sion Mrs. Mrginia L. and Dr. J. F Waters, P O. Box 631, Trinidad, CA 95570 USA Dr. Jean Koller,

t

Author: Fred Kranzlin, Ruflisbergstrasse 3, CH-6006 Luzern

Vedag Wkologia Luzern, Postfach, CH-6(X)0 Luzern 6 @ 2005 All rights reserved Printed in Switzerland set from CD by CMS Sticher AG, 6002 Luzern Color CMS SticherAG,6002 Luzern Sticher Printing AG, 6002 Luzern see Abbreviations

Composition: lithography: Printing: Photographs:

ISBN 3-85604-011-0 Band 1 German ISBN 3-85604-111-7 Tome 1 French ISBN 3-85604-210-5 Volume 1 English ISBN 3-85604-020-X Band 2 German ISBN 3-85604-120-6 Tome 2 French ISBN 3-85604-220-2 Volume 2 English ISBN 3-85604-030-7 Band 3 German ISBN 3-856M-130-3 Tome 3 French ISBN 3-856M-230-X Volume 3 English ISBN 3-85604-040-4 Band 4 German ISBN 3-85604-140-0 Tome 4 French ISBN 3-85604-240-7 Volumo 4 English ISBN 3-85604-050-1 Band 5 German ISBN 3-85604-150-8 Tome 5 French ISBN 3-85604-250-4 Volume 5 English ISBN 3-85604-060-9 Band 6 German ISBN 3-85604-160-5 Tome 6 French ISBN 3-85604-260-1 Volume 6 English

Table of Gontents

Foreword

lntroduction

Preface Translators' Note Foreword and acknowledgments

7

What are the Russulaceae? Methods Glossary Abbrcviations and Symbols Abbreviations of names of authors Plants names ldentification keys

10

Floristic part

218 species of Lactarius and Russula

lndex to Appendix

scientific names of fungi Key to the fungi in Volumes 1-6 List of the families and genera in Volumes 1{ lndex to the specific names and synonyms in Volumes 1{ Overview of the region studied

Corr€r photographs Front Eack

cover: cover:

Fussu/a rosea No. '194

Lactaius ttivialis No.73

I 9

14 '16

21

23 24 25

274

Preface

Lactarius and Russula occupy a unique place in the systematrcs of the gilled lungi, which has been accepted for decades

because of the special anatomy of the fruiting bodies and confirmed in recent years by molecular taxonomy. The two genera have long been placed together in the family Russulaceae. lt is therefore appropriate to devote a separate volume :o these fungi.

The taxonomy (the recognition of species) and nomenclature

(the art of naming species) in this book conform to the knowledge of contemporary mycologists, but without the dubious tendency to fall prey to uncontrolled aping of every unqualilied, confusion-causing publication, a tendency which today as always is to be tound in popular mushroom books. This book, like its predecessors, is a popular-scientific work of high level and a valuable contribution to our culture.

After some extensive and well-illustrated works on Lactarius

and Russula appeared recentiy, it became a challenge to work on these two genera lor the series "Fungi of Switzerand". Following the tested and appealing model of the earlier volumes, Fred Kranzlin has succeeded in doing justice to this challenge and in presenting these two species-rich genera in a compact and well-organized manner. A total of 218 species s described and illustrated briefly and precisely, representing about 85-90% ol the species occurring in Switzerland ,depending on the species concepts of the specialists). The choice is so appropriate, that a Lactarius or Russula can be round in this volume with a probability approaching certainty, since the species that are not included are so rare that they

are hardly ever encountered in nature. Together with the detailed and clearly presented identilication keys, we have therefore a work at hand that enables us to recognize our species of Lactarius and Russula (almost) always without error. Only the specialist will miss occasional information; but, as we all know, these people are inclined all too often to split

Jp species excessively and to present too much o{ themselves uncritically, an attitude which is commendably and admi?bly foreign to the author.

Our species of Lactarius and Russula are all biological and ecological partners of our trees, with which they exchange nutrients and hormones, and therefore they play an important role in the life of our forests. Knowledge ol these fungi acquires a special attraction lor this reason and brings to the researchers who study them the satisfaction of understanding the biology ol the forest better. Knowledge of the species oI these mushrooms is also rewarding, not only forthe beauty ol their fruiting bodies, but also for the unsuspected richness of

their anatomy, which can be caught and appreciated only with a microscope. Just as the photographs show the richness ol form of the Iruiting bodies, so the drawings show the richness of their microscopic details, which not only serve

for exact determination of the name of the mushroom, but also arouse the admiration of the observer. ln this sense the present volume is not only a working tool of taxonomy, but also an appreciation of the often hidden charm o, nature. May this book be effective in this sense, and tind a wide, welldeserved distribution! Lausanne, November 2004

H. Clemengon

Translators' Note

We are delighted to otfer our translation of the sixth and finat volume of the series "Pilze der Schweiz" to English-speaking mycologists and students.

Lactarius and especially Russula tend to be neglected by both professional and amateur mycologists, especially in North America, because of the difficulty of identifying these very diverse fungi. The detailed keys, descriptions, drawings, and photographs in this book, which follows the very convenient layout ofthe others in the series, should greafly facilitate and encourage the study of this group.

These fungi are all mycorrhizal and therefore are

a

key

element of forests and other plant communities. Knowledge of mycorrhizal fungi is an essential requirement for foresters and other people studying the ecological interactions within forests. These workers will find this compact and comprehensive volume easier to use than scattered literature. Like its predecessors, it will make European species concepts more accessible to North American mycologists.

in mycology courses and graduate students. For more than

20 years we have been pleased to watch students in the mycology classes at Humboldt State University using and learning Irom these volumes. The l\4ycological Society of Lucerne has performed a great educational service by making it easier for the student or general naturalist to enter the esoteric and difficult field of mycology. We have considered it an honor and a privilege to be part of this exciting and ambitious poect, assisting Fred Kranzlin, Josef Breitenbach, and their many collaborators by bringing their work into English. We continue to be impressed with the great amount of work and dedication shown by the members of the MSL over the many years of this survey. This series has spread the renown of the [/'lycological Society of Lucerne far beyond Switzerland.

May this series continue to help open up the fascinating world of these ecologically important organisms to amateur naturalists and to facilitate the study of the fungal llora in other parts of the world.

Since many species of Lactarius and Russula occur in alpine

regions with dwarf species of Salix and other alpine plants that also occur in the Arctic, this volume should also facilitate the study of arctic fungi.

We offer our warmest personal congratulations to our distant

,riend Fred Kranzlin and Lucerne.

The scope and coverage of this series are so broad and scientifically detailed, yet the books are so accessible because the species are presented in a clear and organized

Mrginia and Jim Waters Trinidad, California USA

manner, that "Fungi ol Switzerland" is very useful to students

March,2005

to the

Mycological Society of

Foreword and acknowledgments

li has been 30 years since my deceased friend Josef Breitenbach and lventured with Volume 1 to begin the series "Fungi of Switzerland". How this venture actually came to be is described in Volume 1. Originally conceived as documentation of our own finds, the activity on this Ilora became more and more a passion lor us and our colleagues in the floristic work group always to discover something new. lt soon was clear that we could not stop with the ascomycetes, but other orders and families were waiting to be worked on. Thus in a rhythm of five years, volume tollowed volume, organized taxonomically. With Volume 6, the Russulaceae, the last tamily is now covered. lncluding it, a total of 2486 species of fungi is documented in the series. To present this multiplicily of species more synoptically, the reader will find in an appendix to this book a complete overview of the fungi covered and a complete index to all six volumes.

ZWYSSIG, all of whom, as much as possible, contributed their best to the success of this ambitious task. My son MARTIN should be included in these thanks for his valuable assistance with computer questions.

ln addition, friendly mycologists from other parts of Switzerland made availat le numerous specimens and photographs of often rare species which do not occur in our restricted floristic area. This valuable assistance enabled us to present such a comprehensive flora o, Lactarius and Russula. For this

I thank above all the fungus enthusiasts C. BOUJON, Petit-Lancy GE, S. DA[,4lANl, Ludiano Tl,

contribution,

G. LUCCHINI, Gentilino Tl, G. MARTINELLI, Dietikon ZH, l\ilARGRlT STHEBEL, Tagerig AG, M. WILHELM, Allschwil BL. I am obliged to give special thanks also to Prof. Dr. H. CLE-

MENQON, Le Mont-sur-Lausanne VD for scientific advice and for the preface to this book, likewise to Dr. P A. [,4OREAU

lvorking lor decades toward a goal involves not only effort, stamina, and sacrifice, but also offers much opportunity to cultivate companionship through exchange oI thoughts and discussion. as well as Ior much joy in common experiences rn the field. Among such a dedicated group of people the death of companions such as JOSEF BREITENBACH, JOSEF BACHLEF, and GILBERT RICHOZ was therefore all the more painful. They should be remembered with thanks in this place.

Again the author is iustilied in mentioning specifically the collaboration of loyal companions, to whom are due hearty thanks, above all the Floristic Work Group of the Mycological Society of Lucerne, with my colleagues JOSEF BACHLER t, FRITZ DOMI\,4ANN, UELI GRAi ALOIS HAMI\,4ER, WALTEH

KISER, PETER MEINEN, KILIAN MUHLEBACH, FBITZ MULLER, RoLF MURNER, WALTER oLDANI, GILBERT RICHOZT, JOSEF SCHWANDER, HANS STADELMANN, JULIUS STALDER, HANS SUTTER, JACOB WESPI, MAX WYMANN, RUEDI ZIMI\,4ERMANN, RENE ZOPE ALFRED

of the Herbarium of the ETH Zurich, as also Dr.

NERIA

RoMER of the Museo cantonale di storia naturale, Lugano, for their ready willingness lo loan dried specimens. A sincere thanks is also directed to the NATUH-MUSEUM LUZERN, which for years has accommodated the herbarium of the Mycological Society of Lucerne with its approximately 6000 specimens.

That the series "Fungi of Switzerland" finds that worldwide attention which it enjoys today is to the great credit of the collaborating translators, who through precision and adroitness in language have earned high recognition in the mycological community. They are, for the French edition Dr. JEAN KELLER, Neuchatel and FRANQOIS BFUNELLI i, Sion VS, and for the English edition VIRGINIA & Dr. JAMES WATERS, Trinidad, CA, USA. I thank them very earnestly for the decades-long laithfulness which they have brought to this extensive floristic work. Lucerne, January 2005

The Author

lntroduction

What are the Russulaceae? The species in the Russulaceae differ from the other gilled fungi first of all by the heteromerous structure of the trama of the pileus and stipe, which contains sphaerocysts. This structure makes the tlesh fragile and brittle. The heieromerous trama, in combination with clampless hyphal septa and spores with amyloid ornamentation of warts, spines, and ridges, makes these species unequivocally recognizable. All species form myconhizae with hardwoods and conifers, as well as shrubs primarily in the alpine zone. This volume, like the others, is intended to allow ihe user to identify a collection as quickly and accurately as possible. lt is therefore divided into two parts, the genus Lactaius and the genus Russu/a, in each of which the species are arranged in alphabetical order. Because related or similar species are consequently generally not next to each other, these species are compared under the heading "Remarks". The differences between the two genera in the family should be explained next.

10

Lactarius

flussura

A striking property here is that the flesh exudes a lluid when the frb. is injured. This latex is watery and colorless, white, or orange to red and can change color in air or when dried. ln some species the pileus is concentrically zoned. The pileal margin can be glabrous or pubescent, pilose, fimbriate,

Although lactifers occur in a few species, no milky fluid is exuded when the frb. is injured. ln addition, the flesh can

or villose, at ieast when the frb. is young. Except in a few white, yellow, and orange species, bright colors are not present. The lamellae are unequal, with 1-5 lamellulae between two complete, large lamellae. The lamellar trama, examined in cross section, is r irregular,

that is, composed of hyphae without or with only very Iew sphaerocysts. (Exceptions with abundant sphaerocysts are e. g. L. piperatus, L. vellereus, L. volemus.\

A = Pleuromacrocystidia

discolor red, yellow, brownish, or black. Most species have only complete lamellae, and lamellulae are completely absent or occur only sporadically. Only in the Compactae are there a few species which have 1-3 short lamellulae. Russula cyanoxantha (No. 115) with its flexible lamellae is also an exception; it can always be observed to have numerous lamellulae. The pileus is usually brightly colored, either uniformly or with a mixture of different colors, but never concentrically zoned (not to be confused with hygrophanous). The pileal margin is glabrous even when young, neiiher pubescent nor pilose. The lamellar trama when examined in cross section is heteromerous, that is, it consists of mostly subglobose cells (sphaerocysts).

B = Pseudocystidium

A = Pleurocystidia

The features presented above are probably adequate to separate the two genera but are not sufficient for identifying A = Pleuromacrocystidium B = Cheilomacrocystidia

C = Paracystidia

individual species. The special characters described below serve for that. Since some are genus-specific, they are presented separately. 11

ldentitication features lot Lactarius

Habitat of the mushroom, mycorrhizal partner.

Pileal color, pileus uniformly colored or zonate, diameter of the pileus.

Surlace of the pileus and stipe, whether dry or lubricous/slimy, nature of the pileal margin, whether glabrous, pubescent, fimbriate, pilose, villose (iudge the young stage). Shape of the pileus, whether umbonate or indented. Color of the exuded latex and whether it changes color when isolated on a microscope slide, when in contact with the flesh or lamellae, or when dried.

Chemical reactions

of the flesh, lamellae, or latex

reagents.

pp (pileipellis)

-

radial sections

;t periclinal cutis of L. rufus

with

Spores: length and width, Q value, shape of the spore (subglobose, elliptical), type of ornamentation and its height.

The presence ot hymenial cystidia, shapes and sizes of the cheilo- and pleuromacrocystidia. The paracystidia frequently occurring on the lamellar edges are less important for identification, likewise the pseudocystidia on the lamellar faces. Evaluation of the lamellar trama can be imponant when a dried frb. no longer exudes latex. That will show without any doubt whether the specimen is a Lactarius or a Russula.

Structure of the pileipellis in radial section. Evaluation of this structure is of important, sometimes decisive significance. As is evident from the following examples, very different structures exist.

lxocutis of L. turpls

with exserted hyphal ends

Epithelium of L. obscuratus 't2

Trichoderm of L. aurantiacus

ldentification features for Flussura

Discoloration of the flesh with reagents.

Color of pileus and stipe, whether unicolorous or a mixture of colors, diameter of pileus and stipe.

Habitat, mycorrhizal panner.'

Surface of pileus and stipe, whether dry or lubricouyslimy, nature of the pileal cuticle, whether it is peelable or not, whether even or tuberculate, shiny or dull (pruinose). Shape of the pileus, whether umbonate or indented. Taste of the flesh, whether mild or acrid, as well as its odor.

Color of the spore print (spp.).

Elements of the pp, such as hairs, pileocystidia, primordial hyphae, crins, and reaction with SBA (sulfobenzaldehyde). Determination oI whether these elements are smooth or have encrustation/droplets attached. Spores: length and width, Q value, shape (subglobose, ellipticaD, type of ornamentation and its height. The presence ot cheilo- and pleurocystidia and their sizes.

Elements of the pp (pileipellis)

Hairs of F. viole/pes

Hairs ol R. raoultii

Crins of B. heterophy a

(fi H\\ )1

)

)v Pileocystidia of R mairel

Pileocystidia of B. vesca

Primordial hyphae ol R. claroflava 13

Methods

For the most part the methods of collecting and working up the specimens of Lactarius and Russula remain the same as presented in volumes l+. Nevertheless, there are certain difficult points in their handling and in their macroscopic and microscopic examination that must be presented differently.

Macroscopic examination The color of the latex in Lactarius is perhaps one of the most decisive characters for identification. lt must be examined very carefully when the fruiting body is first picked, primarily to determine whether the latex changes color in air or when in contact with the flesh. The color change may not take place immediately, but can occur wilhin seconds, minutes, or more

rarely hours. ln addition, seemingly white latex can show a yellow color when applied to white material or paper.

Additional important characters are the odor and taste of the frb. The odor especially can be absent in fresh frbs. or be perceived differently some time later. ln both Lactarius and Russula one distinguishes essentially only between whether the taste is mild or acrid. However, in order to assess the taste correctly, the tesi piece must be chewed at least for a minute, since some species oI Russula do not reveal their true taste until then. ln a superficial test, a species could easily be considered to be mild that actually turns out to be acrid. Since certain species of Russula have truly mild flesh, but acrid lamellae, both must be tested separately. While the color of the spore print in Lactarius is not particularly impoftant for identification, it can be decisive for Russula. Without knowledge ol the color of the spores, identifica-

tion in certain cases is problematical or even impossible. A detailed account of how to obtain a spore prini can be looked up in Vol. 3. However, if herbarium material must be examined and there is no spore print accompanying it, it is possible to obtain spores from a mature dried frb. One carefully scrapes the spores from the lamellar sudace with a scalpel. A binocular loupe or dissecting microscope will make this easier. ln order not to mix parts of the hymenium with the preparation, one should never exert pressure on the blade. The spores so obtained are scraped off onto white paper. After three or four repetitions of this procedure, the color of the spores can be determined by comparison with the color table. Since freshly

deposited spores are generally paler than dried and stored spores, only spore prints several hours to months old were evaluated for the species descriptions in this volume. Espe14

cially striking is the color change in the so-called white-spored

species, in which not infrequently a spore deposit which is pure white when fresh darkens to a cream-colored. Many of the species described here have forked lamellae, especially near the stipe. ln these cases, when determining the number of lamellae (L = xxx), two lamellae were counted for every bifurcation. The peelability ot the cuticle from the trama is given as a fraction ('/','h, etc.) o, the radius of the pileus.

It cannot be stressed enough how important it is that one thoroughly observe the habitat, primarily the associated trees. Positive identification tairly often fails because ol ignorance of the ecology of the site. Valuable ecological information for individual species is provided by i. a. KRIEGLSTEINER (2000) and RYMANN/HOLMASEN (1992). For macrochemical testing of the trama of Russula and the latex of Lactarius, iron sulfate, guiac, phenol, and 1O-2Oo/o KOH are necessary. lnformation on these reagents can be looked up in MOSER (1983).

Microscopy Only dried material was available Ior microscopic examination, which as is well known is generally poorly suited tor making sections because of its brittleness. To make it easier to section, Clemengon's softening agent L4 (pers. comm.) was used (for recipe see "L4" in Glossary). The separated pieces are laid in it or it is dripped onto them a few times until the desired consistency is obtained. The sections are then brought to the slide and soaked briefly in HNO" (ammonia), the excess blotted up, rinsed with water, and stained for examination.

Colored contents are generally no longer recognizable in dried specimens, and the color reactions with SBA and SV are likewise less intense than in fresh mushrooms. Because members of Lactarius and Russula require different procedures for examining the pileipellis, these are described separately below.

ln Lactarius the structure of the pileipellis must be determined, which can be done trom a radial section. ln order to obtain thin, detailed sections, one should work with a binocular magnifier. Congo red is well suited as a stain. ln a slimy epicutis, often only hyphal fragments are visible, and they not uncommonly collapse in places.

The structure of the pileipellis is also worth examining in Russula, but tor identification only its individual elements are needed. These are the pileocystidia (also called dermatocystidia), the primordial hyphae, ihe crins, and th6 hairs (see fgure, page 13). ln order to free these elements, a piece oJ ttle pileal cuticle is separated from the trama, brought to ths microscope slido, and torn apart into very Jine pieces with two sharp-pointed scalpels or needles. These pieces are soaked briefly in ammonia, rinsed, and stained for examinatbn. To observe pileocystidia and to determine their reaction, one uses SBA (sulfobenzaldehyde) or SV (sulfovanillin). ln a

positive reaction the contents of the cystidia stain gray to gay-black. Primordial hyphae have crystals or droplets

attachsd to them and generally have

r

cylindrical hyphal ends. To make them easily recognizable one uses carbolfuchsin. lf it must be dstsrmined whetherthe encrustation is acidresistant, it can be washed wnh 2-3Vo HCI (hydrochloric acid). The seta-like, nesdle-shaped crins and the hairs are b€st seen in congo red. Becauso the spores have amyloid omamentation, Melzer's reagent is used to examine them. The more weakly amyloid ornaments are generally distinctly visible after a one- to lwohour waiting period. The dimensions of the spores are given exclusive of the ornaments; the height of the ornaments is noted separately.

-lE tl rcffi ffiIII= Golor table of spore deposits

'a-:a

tt

OY

2Y

5Y

';=a=::;:-::i-

-"

2OY,2M

10Y

IIIIIIII

{)Y18M

40Y18M,3C 40Y5M

oY18M

60Y20M,3C

60Y28M

. ''

50Y

10 M

60Y28M,3C

50Y 20 M

30Y2

M

30Y5M

50Y20M,3C 50Y30M

70Y20M 70Y30M 80Y30M

.

l;':'q:;5

:::--=-:

40Y10M

50Y5M

8OY40M

TlEse colors correspond to the range of colors of the species presented in this volume. The designation of the color follows the EJRO-scala for printers, in which Y stands Jor yellow M (magenta) for red, and C (cyan) for blue. The numbers reter to the percentages of the respective colors. 15

Glossary of technicalterms Vol.6 (see also Vols. 1-5, esp. the figures in Vol. 3)

acidophilous

found on acid soils

capitate

(cystidia) wiih a rounded knob at the tip

acute

(pileus or umbo) (pileal margin)

catenulitorm,

Agaricales

the order oI the gilled fungi

catenate

(hyphae) composed of short, relatively broad cells constricted at the septa, so

aliform

wing-shaped, in the form of a very high

alpine

ridge (e. g. spore ornament)

cespitose

vegetational zone, in Switzerland extending from ca. 1800 m above sea level up-

cheilocystidium

ward amyloid

anastomosis

apex

that the hyphae resemble chains

structures, e. g. cell walls or ornaments of spores, which contain starch and thus stain blue to blue-gray in iodine-containing reagent (e. g. lvlelzer's) a cross-connection between lamellae, ridges, or veins, as well as between hyphae or the ornaments on spores

upper end or tip, next to the pileus

overarlargearea clavate

colline

(cystidia, stipe) club-shaped (enlarging vegetational zone, in Switzerland extending from the foothills (see planar) to 700 m above sea level

concolorous

having the same color or of uniform color

concrescent

growing together, fusing

cortex

differentiated outer layer of the stipe, composed of more compact hyphae than are in

the core

an order of Basidiomycetes, the so-called

"non-gilled fungi" such as corticiate or resupinate fungi, polypores, coral fungi,

a cystidium on the edge o, a gill

toward the base)

(of the stipe)

Aphyllophorales

(fruiting bodies) crowded close together

etc.

a cobwebby partial veil, composed ol an open network of fibrils, which joins the pileal margin and stipe together in young

apical

lying at the tip

frbs.

appressed

lying close against the surrace

costate

(spores, margin of pileus) ribbed

areolate

(pileal surface) divided into fields, usually by cracks

coumarin

imitation vanilla (odor)

crins

thick-walled pointed hairs

Ascomycetes

class of fungi in which the sexual spores develop within cells called asci

cuticle

the differentiated outermost layer of hy-

ascus, asci

saclike cell in the hymenium of Ascomycetes in which the sexually formed spores

develop base-rich

(of soil) especially rich in chalk, having an alkaline or basic pH (> 7)

basidium, -a

spore-bearing cell of basidiomycetes in which reduction division of the nucleus takes place. One to eight spores can be

boreal

codina

phae (macroscopic term for ihe pileipellis,

q. cystidium, -a

calcareous

of

a

cystidioid

resembling a cystidium

decurrent

(gill attachment) extending down the stipe

produced, but the usual number is four

dermatocystidium, -a

a cystidium on the surrace of the pileus or the stipe

term used in biogeography for organisms

distant

(scales, fibrils, lamellae, etc.) loosely or widely spaced

(surface) shiny and having the appearance

diverticulum, -a

a protrusion or outgroMh

of butter

encrusted

with crust-like material deposited on the

(soil) containing calcium (from limestone or

chalk)

campanulate

large, consplcuous, terminal cell

hypha of peculiar shape, which occurs on the surface of gills, pileus, or stipe

which occur in northern regions butyraceous

v.)

bell-shaped

walls of the hyphae or cystidia entire

(edge of gill) not wavy, toothed, or otherwise irregular or uneven

i

i

I

I

I

I I

€pbutis

the uppermost layer of the pileipellis when this is multilayered

hymenium

the fertile layer which contains the sporeforming cells

efrthet

the second part of the binomial or scientific name, e. g- "rosea" in "Russula rosea"

hymenophore

the tissue which bears the hymdnium

hypha, -ae

a hollow protrusion or outgroMh

the strands of tubelike "cells", with or

evagination

i

I I I

without septation, of

I

t

gren

(surface) without bulges, depressions, or other topographical irregulariiies

exserted

projecting

erudate

fluid which oozes from a surface

I

flrform

threadlike

tunbriate

(margin of pileus or gill) fringed

flal moor

one which develops where the land

hyphal

pertaining to hyphae, or (pp) composed of threadlike hyphae

incurved

(margin) bent inward toward the stipe

infraspecific

taxonomic rank below species, e. g. subspecies, variety, forma

infundibuliform

funnel-shaped

inrolled

(margin) rolled downward, inward, upward, and back outward again

intercellular

within the cells or hyphae (e. g. pigment

I

I

I

I

is

Ilooded iorma

I

furfuraceous t

fusiform gelalinized t

I

a taxonomic rank below variety; used for variations from the type which are caused by the environment rather than by genes

intracellular

(spores, stipe) spindle-shaped, broad in the middle and tapered toward both ends

between the cells or hyphae (e. g. pigment granules)

iodoform

an iodine compound (CHh) used as

applied to hyphal cell walls which soften and partially dissolve in water, swelling up and becoming slimy. Sometimes evident macroscopically when the cuticle stretches like rubber as it is peeled (surface) bald, smooth

globose

(spores, hyphal cells) spherical

guttate

exuding dots or droplets ol liquid

guttation drops

drops of liquid secreted by frbs., especially during active groMh and high humidity

tlabitus

general appearance

hyaline

(spores, hyphae) colorless (under microscope). Beware of apparent yellow-green color which can be due to refracted light

(frb.) becoming light in color on loss of water, sometimes clearly recognizable by concentric zones of light and dark; also,

changing color markedly upon loss of hymeniform

granules)

(surface) covered with branlike particles; (odor) like flour

glabrous

hygrophanous

,ich the mycelium

structed

I I

v

and truiiing body of a tungus are con-

an

antiseptic, which has a cnaracteristic odor isodiametric

all diameters similar, i. e. spherical

/

glo-

bose L4

Clemengon's softening reagent, used to

prepare dried herbarium specimens for sectioning for microscopy: 84 ml distilled water, 20 g glycerin, 0.72 g KOH (analytical grade), 0-76 g NaCl cryst. (analytical grade), 0.5 ml wetting agent lactifers

fluid-conducting hyphae without septa which permeate the trama of pileus, stipe, and lamellae (also called laticirers)

lageniform

(cystidia) f lask-shaped

lamella, -ae

the complete gill/s which extend from the pileal margin to the stipe

lamellula, -ae

the short incomplete gill/s, which do not reach the stipe, between two lamellae

water

lamprocystidium, -a

a cystidium with thick light-refracting walls

having the structure of a hymenium

lamprocystidioid resembling a lamprocystidium 17

lanceolate

long, pointed, broader toward the base; flaring outward from the base, then tapering to a point

can be variously interpreted. See also the Abbreviations section for other related

terms (e. g. nom. illeg., nom. nov., etc.)

lubricous

(surface) slippery as if covered with oil

obtuse

rounded or blunt

macrocysiidium, -a

name used for cheilo- and pleurocystidium in Lactanus; see lntroduction

ornamentation

warts, spines, ridges, etc. on the surface ol a spore

parucystidium, -a

sterile cell on the edge of

periclinal

(hyphae) running parallel to the surface of the frb.

pigment

colored organic material, which can be

Maggi seasoning proprietary seasoning fenugreek marginal cell

marginate

which smells of

cystidiumlike hyphal end on the edge of a lamella, less conspicuous than and not as strongly difierentiated as a true cystidium (see also cheilocystidium)

(pileus) having

the edge or

lvlelzer's reagent

moniliform

used cuticle)

(genus or other higher taxon) containing only one species

montane

vegetational zone, in Switzerland between 700 and 1200 m above sea level

mYcelium

entire undifferentiated network of hyphae which grows in the substrate and makes up the vegetative part of the fungus

mycorrhiza

by the symbiosis between a fungus and the root of a higher plant. ln ectotrophic mycorrhizae, a mantle of fungal hyphae surrounds the root and hyphae extend into the root between its cells, forming the socalled Hartig net. ln endotrophic mycorrhizae, a mantle is not formed, and the hyphae penetrate the host cells. ln both compound structure produced

cases, root and hyphae

exchange

nutrients and other valuable substances Nagelfluh

gompholite, a form of conglomerate found in the northern Alps

nodose

(spore) having reticulate ornamentation with knotlike enlargements at the connec-

nomen dubium

in

microscopic description

(see

pileocystidium, -a

cystidium (q. v) in the surface of the pileus

pileus

the cap of a mushroom or bolete

planar

vegetational zone (in lowlands and foothills), in Switzerland 300 to 600 m above sea level; also (pileus) flattened out, expanded

planoconvex

(pileal shape) broadly convex and more or less flattened

pleurocystidium, -a

a cystidium which occurs on the sudace (face) (as opposed to the edge) of the lamellae, among the basidia

polymorphic

occurring in various shapes

polyporoid

(odor) like a polypore

porose

having pores

pruinose

(surface) covered with fine powder

pseudocystidium, -a

the exserted end ol a fluid-conducting hypha in the hymenium in Russulaceae; see lntroduction

puncta, -ae punctate

a dot

pustulate

(surface) having blisterlike structures

tions

pyriform

(cystidia, cells) pear-shaped

(Latin) a doubtful name; the name of a spe-

radial section

a cut made, perpendicular to the surface, along a radius of a pileus; a thin slice of the pileus taken in such a plane

cies which was inexactly described in the

original publication and which therefore 18

the outermost layer of the pileus, a term

see "amyloid" give the appearance of a string of beads

monotypic

pileipellis

solution oI iodine and potassium iodide; (hypha) having constricted septa which

lamella in

dissolved in the cell contents or be granular in the cell or on the cell wall

margin

distinctly set off by a contrasting color

a

Lactanus; see also lntroduction

(surface) having dots

€phanoid

(odor or taste) radishlike

.ecurved

curved back on itself

.e{ractile

(spores, hyphae) appearing bright under

the microscope because of catching and

subulate

(cystidia) awl-shaped, swollen above the base and tapered at both ends, but more strongly tapered toward the tip

symbiont

one of the partners in a symbiotic relationship, e. g. the beech tree or the Rus-

bending the light

sula in a mycorrhizal symbiosis

.etaulate

(spore ornamentation) netlike

.ctrale

(cystidia) having

synonym

a beaklike prolongation

a taxonomic name which refers to the same organism as the name in question but which according to the rules of nomen-

(rostrum)

scrobiculate

(stipe) having spotlike depressions (scrobiculations) in the surface

sensu

(of a taxonomic name) (Latin) in the sense of, as used by... See also Abbreviations for variants o, this

-ptate

having septa

seplum, -a

cell wall/s which originate during cell division and separate two adjacent cells in

clature may not (for various technical reasons) be used

taxon, -a

an exactly circumscribed entity or group of

organisms, with a particular rank and pla-

cement within a classilication tomentose tomentum

(surface) having a tomentum

a

cottony tangle or feltwork

of

hyphal

threads clothing the surface of the pileus or stipe

hyphae (cross walls)

trama

fundamental tissue, the sterile inner tissue of a fruiting body, usually composed ol tubular hyphae which are divided into cells by septa: a term used in microscopic description

a preparation of spores deposited on white

translucent-

(margin of pileus) having translucent tissue

paper, used for determining their color. A detailed account of how to obtain a spore print can be found in Vol.3

striate

squamose

(surface) covered with scales

trichoderm

squamules

small scales

squamulose

(surface) covered with small scales

sterigmata

finger-shaped outgroMhs on the apical end of the basidia on which the spores

tuberculate

develop

type collection the single collection, deposited in a herba or type specimen rium, from which a species was described and named and which serves as the basis of the name

sphaerocysts

globose or subglobose cells in the trama o, Russulaceae; they give the flesh its brittle quality

sFinose

(spores) having spines

spore Print

stipe

the stalk of a fruiting body

striate

having

strigose

having long, coarse, bristlelike hairs

sub

prefix meaning almost, somewhat, more or less, or below in position

subalpine

vegetational zone, in Switzerland between 1200 and 1800 m above sea level

substrate

the material or medium on or in which a

t

parallel lines, grooves, or ridges

fungus grows

which permits the attachments of the gills to show through as dark lines (striations)

a pileipellis consisting ot erect to almost vertical hyphae which are not strictly parallel (if they are, the pileipellis is a palisade)

having small bumps or tubercles (larger than warts)

type species

the species of a genus designated by the author of that genus to serve as the referent for the generic name. (lt does not have to show all of the features of the genus.) A type species absolutely must remain in the original genus, because the generic name is defined by reference to this species 19

typical variety

the variety of a species to which the type specimen belongs

verrucose

having warts or rounded processes (smaller than tubercles)

-ulate

suffix indicating diminution

villose viscid zebroid

(surrace) having long weak hairs

-

smaller size,

lesser degree of development of character, etc.

umbilicate

(pileal surface) with a small central depression resembling a navel (umbilicus)

umbilicus

a small central depression

umbo

a small central bump

umbonate

(pileal surface) with a central bump (umbo)

undulating

(pileus) (pileal margin or sudace, edge of gill) broadly wavy

vacuole

a

sticky or tacky (surface) sticky when r.roist (spore ornamentation) having ridges arran-

ged in a zebra-stripe pattern (more or less regularly parallel)

zonale/zoned

(surface of pileus) having concentric bands

of different colors

bladderlike fluidjilled sac within the

cytoplasm of a cell validly published the first unambiguous description of a new name species, with a diagnosis in Latin, printed in a dated and openly available technical publication variety

a taxonomic rank below the species, which groups variant forms deviating slightly from the type

ln addition to Breitenbach and Kranzlin's glossary, the trans-

lators have found the following works very helpful in preparing the English glossary:

Hawksworth, D. L., et al. 1983. Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi. 7th ed. Commonwealth Mycological lnst., Kew.

dense hairs (= velvety)

Largent, D. L. .1986. How to identify mushrooms to genus l: Macroscopic features. Mad River Press, Eureka, CA

venose

having veinlike wrinkles or ridges (veins); esp. applied to the surface of gills or the space between gills

Largent, D. L., and T. J. Baroni. 1988. How to identify mushrooms to genus Vl: Modern genera. Mad River Press, Eureka, CA

ventricose

(stipe, cystidia) swollen or enlarged in the

Snell, W H., and E. A. Dick. 1971. A glossary ol mycology. Rev. ed. Harvard Univ. Press

velutinous

(surface) covered with short, fine, soft,

middle

20

Abbreviations and Symbols

acc.

according to, acc. lit.: according to the lite-

ad. inter.

rature ad interim (Latin) = provisionally, temporarily

Af

Africa afiinis (Latin) = related, similar

all. AG

Canton Aargau

AMO

Arbeitsgemeinschaft l/ykologie Ostw0fttemberg der Deutschen Gesellschaft fiir Mykologie e. V, Einhorn-Verlag, Schwa-

ap. APN

As Alr aJct.

arct. p. p. arct. plur.

bisch Gmund (DE); journal apud (Latin) = at or in (in author citations) Mitteilungsblatt der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Pilzkunde Asia

Australia auctorum (Latin) = of (some) authors. Relers to the interpretation of a scientific name by other authors

BE

auctorum pro parte (Latin) = of s6ms arlha,t auctorum pluralium (Latin) = of most authors Canton Bern

BSM F

Bulletin

de la Soci6t6

Mycologique de

France, Paris

ca

circa (Latin) = about confer (Latin) = compare with

cr. clTl

cdlcornb. nov.

(Latin) new combination, new scientific name produced when a species is trans-

Germany Documents Mycologiques, Lille (FFl); journal

E

Europe elevation (in meters above sea level) emendavit (Latin) = (he) improved, corrected (in citations when an author has completed

.

esp. et al.

e!

GE GR

Canton Genf Canton GraubUnden

H,SO. HNO3

sulfuric acid hydrochloric acid nitric acid

i. a.

inter alia (Latin) = among others

FeSO. FH

HCt

ined.

(nomen) ineditum (Latin) = ne1 published (used for a name which an author has proposed for a new species but has not yet validly published)

JU

Canton Jura

KOH

potassium hydroxide

number

DiDE Doc. Myc.

gn.

frb, frbs.

and tollowing (sing. and pl.) family iron sulfate Canton Freiburg fruiting body/ies

f., ff. fam.

centimeter collection, collected by

ferred from one genus to another. The name of the onginal author is placed in parentheses, followed by that of the author of the new combination, e. g. (Fries) Qu6let

elet

by Persoon.) Acc. the most recent rules of nomenclature, the "ex" before Fr. is replaced with a colon 0. This signifies that FRIES sanctioned the corresponding epithet

LU

LUG m mm MGL

Myc. Helv. NA NAf NHg, NH.OH

NMLU

genus)

nom. illeg. nom. nov.

et alii (Latin) = and others from (Latin) (used in an author citation when an author validly publishes a species and in

nom. nud.

so doing draws upon its description by

non al.

a

previous author. For example, Pers. ex Fr. means that Fries validated a name coined

(extending

naturale Lugano

or expanded a description o, a species or especially

of complete lamellae

from the pileal margin to the stipe) number of lamellulae (incomplete lamellae, not reaching the stipe) Canton Luzern Herbarium of the l/useo cantonale di Storia

NW

meters millimeters

Mykologische Gesellschaft Luzern (Mycological Society of Lucerne) Mycologia Helvetica, Bern (CH); iournal North America North Africa ammonia, ammonium hydroxide Herbarium of the Natur-Museum Luzern nomen illegitimum (Latin)

nomen novum (Latin)

= a new

scientific

name nomen nudum (Latin) = a scientific name not based on a specimen, and therefore invalid non alii (Latin) = not ot others (i. e., not in the sense of other authors) Canton Nidwalden

op. cit.

ow

opere citato (Latin) = in the work cited (a work already cited within a species description) Canton Obwalden

p. p. pp

pro parte (Latin) = in part pileipellis

Q:

(quotient) = length/width ratio of spores

quad.

quadrant in MTB geographical system (see

q.v

Vol. 1) quod vide (Latin) = look there (for more information)

Rev. Mycol.

Revue Mycologique, Paris

s. l./s. lat./ss. lat. sensu lato (Latin) = in the broad sense s. str./ss. sensu stricto (Latin) = in the narrow sense s.v sub verbo (Latin) = look at this word in the dictionary or glossary SBA sulfobenzaldehyde sec. section (a taxonomic rank below subgenus) SG Canton St. Gallen sp. spores spp. spore-print, spore deposit on white paper ss./s. sensu (Latin) = in the sense of... (auct. = authors, Latin) = in the sense ot ss./s. auct. (i, e., as used by) various authors; ss. mult. auct., in the sense of many authors ss. ... non ss. Gray non Fr. (in the sense of Gray, not

str.

that of Fries) ss. restr.

(e. g.) Melzer et Zvara, in the restricted sense of Melzer and Zvara

ssp./subsp.

subspecies

SV SZ SZfP

sulrovanillin Canton Schwyz Schweiz. Zeitschrift fur Pilzkunde, Bern

TG

Canton Thurgau Canton Tessin

TI

var.

Canton Uri variety (ataxonomic rank below subspecies)

VD VS

Canton Waadt Canton Wallis

UR

Abbreviaiions o, the names of the collectors and collaborators BA BR, JB FK, K KI Ktvt MO, FM

R. BI

RM Schw

t

Josef Bachler Josef Breitenbach Fred Kran/in Walter Kiser Kilian Muhlebach Fritz I/illler Gilben Richoz

f

Boll Miirner Johann Schwegler Lrax Wymann

(at the lower right corner of each photograph)

BA BO DM FK

GL

JB KM MA ST WH WK

zw

J. Bachler, Hoot LU t C. Boujon, Petit-Lancy GE S. Damiani, Ludiano Tl E Kran/in, Luzern G. Lucchini, Gentilino Tl J. Breitenbach, Luzern t K. Miihlebach, Hohenrain LU G. Martinelli, Dietikon zH M. Strebel, Tegerig AG M. Wilhelm, Allschwil BL W Kiser, Sarnen OW M. Wymann, Kriens LU A. Zwyssig, Seelisberg UR

Explanation of the signs used less than, smaller than

more than, larger than synonym or invalid name more or less pm

micrometer or micron, 1l@o of a millimeter; read as "micron" (sing.) or "micra" (pl.)

Evaluation of edibility

Z. l/ykol. Z. Pilzkd.

Deutsche Gesellschaft f0r Mykologie Deutsche Zeitschrift for Mykologie

tr T

zfP

Deutsche Gesellschaft l0r lvykologie Gunningen (DE); Zeitschrift

22

Canton Zug Canton ZUrich

t

Abbreviations of the names of the photographers

worldwide

ZG ZH

t

+ +

edible inedible, unpalatable, or very rare and to be

protected poisonous, causinq serious illness deadly poisonous, death from eating probable

Abbreviations of names of authors

I

Abbreviation Name t

Atb.

Ark. Barkm. Beck. Berk.

Bis. Bolt. Boud. Br.

Brandr. Bres,

Britz. Brond.

Brslq. Bull.

Cke.

cl9. Courtec. Cub.

Albertinivon J. Atkinson G. E

Fay.

Ft. Gitb. Gill.

Gonn. Grev.

Guern. Hauskn. Heinem. Henn. Hes.

Hudson

Pat.

HuijsmanH.S.C. Jacquin N. J. Josserand M. Junghuhn KalchbrennerK.

Paul. Pears. Penn.

Kuyp. Lge.

Henry. R.

Oum.

Huds. Huijsm.

Courtecuisse R.

Hry.

Desm. Ditm. Doass.

Abbreviation Name

Jacq.

Hoffm. Hdhn. Holmskj.

DC

Name

Barkman J. J. Becker G. Berkeley M. J. Bigelow H. E. Bolton J. C. Boudier E. Broome C. E Brandrud T. E. Bresadola G. Britzelmayer M. Brondeau, L. de Bresinsky A. Bulliard J. B. E Cooke M. C. Cl6menQon H. Cuboni Dassier de la Chassagne, H.G.B. De Candolle A. P Desmazidres J. B. H. J. Ditmar L. P Fr. Doassans E. Dum6e Fayod V Fries E. M. Gilbeft E. J. Gillet C. C. Gonnermann G. Greville R.K. de Guernisac Hausknecht A. Heinemann P Hennings P Hesler L. R. Hoffmann G. F. von Hohnel Holmskjold Th.

Dass.

Abbreviation

Joss, Jungh.

Kalchbr. Kallenb. Karst. P Kauffm.

Kallenbach M. Karsten P. A. Kauffmann C. H. Kits van Wav. Kits van Waveren E. KoNo. Konrad P. Korhonen K. Korh.

Kotl. Krbh. Krglst. Kiihn. Kumm. Lib.

Lindstr. Locq. Lund. M. Geest. Mal. & Bert.

Kotlaba F. Krombholz Krieglsteiner G. J. Kr.ihner R.

Kummer P. Kuyper Th. W. Lange J. E. Libert M. E.

Lindstr6m H. Locquin M.

Pouz.

Patouillard N. T. Paulet J. J. Pearson A. A. Pennington L. H. Persoon C. H. Pitet A. Pouzat Z.

Quadr.

Quadraccia L.

Qu6l. Babh. Raith. Reum. Rick. Romagn. Rostk. Sacc. Schaeff. Schaff. J. Schrad. Schroet. Schulz.

Qu6let L. Rabenhorst G. L. Raitelhuber J. Reumaux P Ricken A. Romagnesi H.

Pers. Pit.

Schaeffer J. Ch. Schaffer Julius

Schrader H. A.

Sing. Sm.

Schroeter J. Schulzer von lvluggenburg S. Schumacher H. C. F. Schweinitz von L. D. Scopoli J. A. Secr6tan L. Singer R. Smith A. H.

Smotl.

Smotlacha E

Sow.

Sowerby J. Spegazzini C. L. de Saint-Amans J. E B.

Lundell S. Maas Geesteranus B. A.

Schum. Schw.

lvlalenQon J. L. G. &

Scop.

B. Bertault Marxmuller H. Maublanc A.

Secr.

Marxm. Maubl. M6tr. M6trod G. Maleneon G. Mlq. Moen.-Loc. l/oenne-LoccozP Moll. Msller E H. Moser M. Mos. Maire R. Mre. N4uell. Moller '1780 Murr. Murrill W. A. Nannf. Nannfeldt J. A. Nezd. Nezdojminogo E. L. Noordel. Noordeloos M. E. Opat. Opatowski Orton P D. Ort. P. D.

Bostkovius F. W G. Saccardo D.

speg. St. Am. Tjall.

Tjallingii-Beukers D.

Vel.

Velenovsky J.

vitt.

vittadini c.

Wass. Watl. Weinm. Wulf-

Wasser S. Watling R. Weinmann J. A. von Wulfen F. X.

Plant names

Latin

name

Abies Abies alba Abies nordmannianus

Acer Alchemilla Alnus Alnus incana Alnus viridis Betula Blechnum spicant Calluna vulgaris Carex Carpinus Castanea (sativa)

Latin

firs silver fir Caucasian fir maples lady's mantle (Rosaceae) alders gray alder green alder birches deer lern heather, ling a genus of sedges hornbeams

Pelargonium Picea Picea omorica Pinus Pinus cembra Pinus mugo Pinus silvestris Platanus Polytrichum alpinum Polytrichum sexangulare Populus Populus tremula Potentilla palustris Prunus Prunus insititia f. syriaca Prunus spinosa Pteridium aquilinum Pyrus pyraster Quercus Rhacomitrium Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus Rosaceae Rubus Salix Salix caprea Salix cinerea Salix herbacea Salix reticulata Salix retusa

oaks frayed-cap moss a moss rose family blackberries, etc. willows qoat willow gray sallow dwarf willow net-leaved willow blunt-leaved willow

Scirpus Scrophularia

figwod

chestnut

Cedrus

cedars

Cirsium spinosissimum

a

Cornus Corylus

hazels

Crataegus Dactylis glomerata Dicranum scoparium Dryas octopetala Equisetum Equisetum palustre Fagus Fraxinus Frangula Funaria hygrometrica Galeopsis tetrahit Gramineae Hylocomium pyrenaicum lmpatiens nolitangere

name

English name

thistle dogwoods hawthorns a moss mountain avens horsetails beeches ashes

buckthorns a moss tound in burned places c

)mmon hemp-nettle (Labiatae)

grass family impatiens or touch-me-not flower

Sphagnum

Juglans Juncus

wal,,Jts

Syntrichia

a genus of rushes

Taxus

Larix Lens culinaris Leucobryum glaucum lvlolinia Origanum

larches lentil a moss apple tree moor-grass marjoram

Oxycoccus (Vaccinium oxycoccos)

Thuja Tilia Typha Ulmus Urtica (dioica) Vaccinium myrtillus Vitis vinifera

cranberry

lvlalus domestica

English name geranrums

spruces Serbian spruce pines arolla pine, Swiss stone pine mountain pine, mugho pine Scotch pine plane-trees, sycamores A MOSS

a moss poplars aspen

cinquefoil plums, cherries, etc. mirabelle plum

sloe, blackthorn bracken fern pear tree

bulrush peat moss star moss yews arbor-vitae, etc. lindens

cat-tails elms

nettle whortleberry, bilberry wine grape

How to use the key The key uses both macroscopic and microscopic fealures. The species included are the ones described and illustrated in the floristic part.

Key to the species of Lactarius and Russula in this volume Russula

lactarius Key in part from HEILMANN et al. [1998])

1 Growing in the subalpine to alpine zones, > 1200 m above sea level Growing at lower elevations

Key A

p.26

2 Latex wine-red or orange

Key B

p.26

KeyC KeyD

p.26 p.27

Latex watery or white, often becoming colored upon drying

3 Latex becoming violet or pink-red immediately or within a few minutes, at least when in contact with the flesh Latex unchanging or becoming yellow, brownish, or greenish, sometimes not until after 1-2 hours

4 Latex white, discoloring lilac to violet

.

.

Latex white, discoloring pink-red

5 Pileal margin hairy or villose, at least when young Pileal margin glabrous or only

pubescent .

.

E .. F KeyG . .

6 Latex quickly turning yellow, pileus with yellow colors or whitish 7 Pileus whitish and

dry . . .

Key

.

Pileus colored, dry lubricous-viscid, or

slimy

p.27 p.28

Key

Latex unchanging, pileus with red colors or whitish

.....

.......

p.28

8

9 Pileus yellow-orange to yellow and usually distinctly zonate, if whitish then near Populus

Key H

p.2a

Pileus whitish, cream-colored, or brown, in part with mixed lilac-gray or orange-red tones, zonate or non-zonate

Key I

p.28

Key K

p.2'9

10 Pileus velutinous at least when young, dull, odor fish-like, like cooked crustaceans, flesh and lamellae browning when Flesh and lamellae not browning, odor

injured . . . .

different

.11

11 Pileus whitish-cream-colored, later light ocher, in hardwood forests or parks, No. 38

in warm locations

Lactarius luteolus

.

Pileus orange- to red-brown even when young, hymenial cystidia thick-walled, in hardwood and mixed forests

Lactarius volemus

.No. 80

Key

A: growing in the subalpine to alpine zones, > 1200 m above sea level

1 Wilh Nnus viidis With dwart willows,

2

Pileus and stipe bright yellow with an orange tone, latex white, unchanging, acrid Pileus a different

color

L. alpinus

No.

4

........3

3 Pileus cream-beige to gray-brown, stipe pale reddish-ocher, latex white,

4

unchanging, acrid

L. lepidotus

Pileus ocher- to orange-brown, center usually with an olive tone, siipe pale ocher to reddish-ocher, latex white, discoloring yellow after a while, mild

L. obscuratus

reddish-brown Pileus cream-colored, yellow, ocher

.....

Pileus gray- to

..........

5 Pileus averaging > 40 mm across, cream- to yellow-ocher, latex white, becoming lilac when in contact with the flesh, mild, wilh Dryas octopetala . Pileus averaging < 40 mm

across

7

5

.

.....,

L. dryadophilus

-No. l9

L. salicis-reiiculatae

.No. @

L. salicis-herbaceae

.No- 59

L. pseudouvidus

.No.,l8

L, nanus

.No. 41

L. brunneoviolaceus

.No.

L. sanguifluus

.No.62

L. deliciosus

.No.

L. deterrimus

.No. l8

L. salmonicolor

.No. 6l

6

Sa/ix retusa or Dryas octopetala, sp. averaging > 10 x I pm, latex white, becoming lilac when in contact with the flesh, mild

6 With

Wilh Salix herbacea, sp. averaging < 10 x 9 pm, latex white, becoming lilac when in coniact with the flesh, mild

7 Pileus gray- to reddish-brown, sometimes with an olive tone, lamellae cream-colored when young, later ocherish, spp.40 Y 5 M, latex white, becoming lilac when in contact with the flesh, mild to bitterish, sp. averaging > 9 Um long Sp. averaging < 9 pm

I

long

........

I

Pileus reddish-brown with a lilac tone, latex white, not discoloring when in contact with the flesh, somewhat acrid Pileus gray- to red-brown with a violet tone, lamellae white when young, later light cream-colored, spp. 10 Y latex white, turning violet, mild ..

11

Key B: Latex wine-red ol orange

1 Latex wine-red and remaining so for

a long time, with Plnus

Latex orange to reddish-orange

2 Latex reddish-orange, turning faintly greenish after 1-2 hours, stipe dark red-orange and scrobiculate Latex turning wine-red to wine-brown

3 Latex discoloring after 2-10 minutes, with

Ab,'es or P,nus Latex turning wine-red to dark wine-brown after 20 minutes, with Picea

17

4

4 Always with P,nus Always with Ab,es, latex turning wine-brown, but not green

5 Latex turning blood- to wine-red after S-10 minutes, eventually turning green, pileus spotting green on a yellow-orange background Latex turning wine-brown only after 10-20 minutes, eventually becoming only faintly greenish, pileus gray-brown, lilac-brown and guttate-zonate

Key

L. quieiicolor

C: Latex white, turning lilac or violet in ail

'I With hardwoods,

pileus cream-beige, spotting yellowish to brownish, lalex white and turning violet even when not in contact with the flesh, Latex turning lilac or violet only when in contact with the tlesh

26

L. semisanguifluus

acrid .....

L. flavidus

2

.No- 2l

2 Frb. yellow, pileal margin timbriate-villose when young, on damp to moist soils near P,bea

L. repraesentaneus

.No.54

L. uvidus

.No.

L. violascens

.No. 79

L. luridus

.No. 37

L. acris

.No.

Frb. with other colors

3 ln moist coniferous forests and moors on acidic soils neat Picea and Betula, pileus light lilac beige-brown

76

ln hardwood forests on base-rich soils

4 Latex turning an intense purple-violet, spore ornamentation up to 1.5 Um high, with brown extracellular pigments in the pp Latex turning more faintly lilac-violet, spore ornamentation only up to 1 pm high, without such pigments in the pp

D: Latex white and turning pink-red

Xey

1 Latex turning immediately pink-red after injury, even when not in contact with the flesh Latex discoloring only when in contact with the flesh, often not for a few minutes

2

.......2

2 With conifers, primarily Plcea, pileus dark brown With hardwoods, rarely with conifers, if so then pileus and stipe paler

3 Stipe longer than the width ol the pileus, distinctly grooved-striate at the apex, lamellae decurrent, with cheilo- and pleurocystidia (paracystidia) Stipe shorter, entire length smooth to longitudinally venose, with cheilocystidia only (paracystidia))

L. lignyotus

4 Pileus generally distinctly radially wrinkled, spore ornaments projecting upto3pm Pileus ! even, spore ornaments less prominent

..,......

minutes

...

.No. 35

L. picinus

.No. 45

L. pterosporus

.No. 49

L. azonites

-No.

L. romagnesii

.No. 56

L. luliginosus

.No. 23

5

5 Flesh reddening within 1-2 minutes when injured, stipe white Flesh not reddening for several

.

6

...6

6 Flesh not reddening until after ca. t hour, when the frb. is broken the latex is pulled out into rubbery threads, spore ornamentation projecting up to 2.5 pm and sparsely reticulate Flesh reddening within 3+ minutes, spore ornamentation poecting up to 1.5 pm and distinctly reticulate

Xey

E: Pileus with yellow tones or whitish, latex white and turning yellow, pileal margin pilose,

raose, rarely pubescent L. resimus

.No.55

up to 1 pm and not reticulate

L. scrobiculatus

.No. 64

Pileus not zonate, spore ornamentation projecting up to 0.5 pm and mostly reticulate

L. leonis

.No.

L. intermedius

.No.31

L. tuomikoskii

.No. 74

1 Pileus whitish and spotting yellowish in places, margin pilose when young Pileus with yellow tones and

i

uniformly colored

2

2 Stipe with yellow scrobiculations Stipe without such scrobiculations

4

3 Pileus generally distinctly zonate, spore ornamentation projecting

4 Pileus light lemon- to cream-yellow, pileal margin white-pubescent when youn9, always with Abies, spores only sparsely reticulate Pileus generally deep yellow, margin viscid pilose-villose, spore ornamentation mostly reticulate, on moist, nutrient-poor soils

Key F: Pileus whitish or with red colors, margin fimbriats, pilose, or villose at least when young, latex white, unchanging, with Eetura

cream-colored colors

..........2 ........

1 Pileus whitish to pale Pileus with red

2

3

ln moist to wet habitats, pileal margin slighfly Iimbriate-fibrillose when young, stipe < '10 mm thick ln drier habitats, pileal margin woolly-hairy-villose when young, stipe > 10 mm thick Pileus pinkspores with Pileus pinkspores with

Key

1

L.

scoticus

L.

pubescens

to wine-brown, not or only indistincfly zonate, '1H0 mm across, zebroid ornamentation to orange-brown and distinctly zonate, 40-1OO mm across,

L.

spinosulus

reticulate

L.

torminosus

ornamentation

.No. 63

. .No.

50

....No.

6g

.No. 72

Pileus pubescent-velutinous, pp with long, lamprocystidium-like, thick-walled hairs ........2

structure .

.

3

Latex mild to bitterish when not in contact with the flesh and not reacting

with

KoH

L.

Latex acrid when noi in contact with the flesh and turning orange-yellow

with

3

..

G: Pileus whitish, dry, glabrous or slightly pubescent-velutinous, even the margin, latex white

Pileus glabrous, even or somewhat wrinkled, pp with a different

2

3

KOH .

vellereus

onii L. piperatus L. glaucescens

. .No.

.No.

L. berti

Latex white, unchanging, even in contact with KOH . . . Latex turning olive-green after 30-60 minutes, orange in contact with

KOH

77

. . .No.

8

46 25

.No.

Key H: Pileus yellow-orange to yellow and zonate or whitish, lubricous to slimy, latex white, unchanging

1 Pileus whitish, with a pink tinge in places, with Pileus with yellow or orange

2

Populus

colors

.....

Pileus yellow with a pink tint, often r zonate, basidia one- or two-spored, spores 10-14 Um long Pileus yellow to yellow-orange, spores smaller .........3

3 With conifers With

...--.....

hardwoods

4 With Larix,latex white, unchanging,

.........

controversus

.No. ls

L.

acerrimus

.No.

.t

4 5

bitterish

With Plcea, more rarely Ables, latex white, unchanging,

L.

z

L.

porninsis zonarioides

L.

zonarius

L.

evosmus

L.

acrid

. . . .No. 47 . . .No. gl

5 With

QuerGUs and Castanea, pileus distinctly zonate, flesh whitish, discoloring pink when injured . . With Quercus and Populus, pileus not or only indistinctly zonate, llesh whitish, unchanging when injured

...

.No.

A2

.No. 20

Key l: Pileus whitish, cream-colored, or brown, in part with lilac-gray or orange-red iones, glabrous, lubricous-slimy, latex white, unchanging or discolo.ing greenish

tones colored

1 Pileus whitish, cream-colored, in part with yellow Pileus with other colors and more intensely

2

.. -......2 .. . . . . . .

4

Pileus uniformly cream-colored to dingy whitish with a lilac-gray tone, latex white, slowly turning sulfur-yellowish, with Ab,es Pileus cream-colored when young, later discoloring yellowish and becoming ocher where bruised

2A

ridges

albocarneus

.No.

3

.......3

3 With Fagus, spore ornamentation intheform of zebroid ridges, not reticulate With Plnus, spore ornamentation in the form of reticulate

L.

pallidus L. musteus L.

. . .No. . . . . .No.

44 40

4 Pileus with orange-red to orange-brown colors, odor when dry like coumarin, Maggi seasoning, spores averaging > 7.5 pm long Pileus with other colors

.

not slimy, latex white, unchanging, very acrid Pileus with other colors, generally with brown tones

6 ln moist places

7 With Betula, generally on moors, pileus light lilac-gray- to light pink-brown, 25-70 mm across, lubricous when moist, non-zonate

.

Wilh Picea or Betula, pileus brown with lilac, reddish, and violet tones, strongly slimy when moist, generally guttate-zoned

. .9

8 With Fagus, pileus with olive colors

I

.No. 2.

L. vietus

.No. 7A

L. trivialis

.No. 7t

L. blennius var. blennius

.No. I

L. blennius var. fluens

-No. lO

L. circellatus

.No.

.7 .8

near Picea or Betula

..

L. flexuosus

.b

ln drier places

With Carp,nus or Corylus

-}{o- 29

.5

5 Pileus violet-reddish when young, later lilac- to mouse-gray, lubricous,

:

L. hysginus

.10

.

Always with Fagus, pileus strongly slimy when moist, brown- to gray-olive and often guttate-zoned, latex white and slowly becoming greenish, acrid . . . With Fagus, but also with other hardwoods, pileus olive-brown, sometimes zonate, marginal zone conspicuously pale cream-colored, latex white, slowly becoming pale olive, somewhat acrid

10 Always with Carpinus, pileus gray-brown with a pink or lilac tinge, generally zonate, latex white, turning greenish-cream, acrid Always with Corylus, pileus ocher- to olive-brown, not or only indistincfly zonate, latex white, slowly turning greenish-cream, acrid

L.

pyrogalus .

.

.No.

Key K: Pileus dry pileal margin glabrous and merely pubescent, latex white, unchanging or discoloring yellow (sometimes only slowly and faintly)

1 ln moist habitats with A/nus With other host

.

trees

. . .. . . . -

2

........

3

2 Pileus orange-brown and striate up to halfway to the center, sp. 7.9-9.9 x 6.'l -7.6 pm, Q: 1.2-1.4, ornaments projecting upto 1.5 pm

..

L. omphaliformis

.No. 4il

L. obscuratus

.No.42

spore ornamentation not reticulate

L. glyciosmus

.No. 26

With Prcea, more rarely with Betula, pileus gray- to olive-brown, spore ornamentation reticulate

L. mammosus

.No. 39

L. rulus

.No.58

L. badiosanguineus

.No.

Pileus ocher-brown with an olive-brown center, not or only faintly striate, sp. 7.0+.9 x 6.0-7.0 pm, Q: I .1-1.3, ornaments projecting up to 1 pm, often with A/nus y,rdls

3 Odor strikingly like coconut, with Betula With a different odor, or odor

and

Picea

absent

.........4 ..........

5

4 Always with Betula, pileus light gray to light cream-brown,

5 Pileus with deep to dark red-brown Pileus with other

6

colors

..........

colors

........

Latex white, unchanging, very acrid, pp a cutis of periclinal hyphae with ascending, exserted hyphal ends, pileus red-brown Latex white, unchanging, mildto bitterish .......7

7 ln moist habitats, ollen in Sphagnum, near

6

I

Prbea and Ables,

odor spicy, polyporoid, latex white, yellowish on a white tissue

afte|l-2

hours

ln drier habitats near Plcea, odor like coumarin, Maggi seasoning, sometimes nol until dried, pp composed of subglobose, isodiametric cells, latex unchanging

L.

camphoratus

7

.No. 12 29

I

Pileus with orange-brown or tobacco- to chestnut-brown Pileus with other colors

9 Pileus yellow-orange to

colors ,....9 ........19

orange-brown colors

..........10 ....

Pileus with tobacco- to chestnut-brown

10 Pileus with a paler

marginalzone

Pileus uniformly colored, without a conspicuous marginal 1

.17

. . . . . .ll . . . . . 18

zone

'1 Pileus with a conspicuously paler marginal zone, in Sphagnum neat Picea, Abies, Pinus,latex faintly yellowing on a white tissue after 1-2

Pileus with a less distinct marginal

hours ........12

zone

Quercus forests or near Betula

sphagneti

L.

subdulcis

....

'13 Pileus with a small, acute umbo, latex unchanging, mild to harsh, sp. 6.9-8.8 x 5.7-7.6 pm, ornaments projecting up to 1.5 pm Pileus without a distinct umbo

.

'1

L.

rubrocinctus

colored

. .No.

69

...No.

57

. . . .No.

53

........1S

zonate zonate

quietus L. fulvissimus

15 With Quercus, pileus distinctly With Fagus, pileus not

67

.......14

Fagus

Stipe uniformly

No.

.

6

14 Stipe apex with a conspicuous wine-brown collar, latex unchanging, with

..

......13

12 ln hardwood forests near Fagus, ln coniferous

L.

16 With Betula in moors, latex slowly discoloring yellowish,

L.

mild .

With Picea, pileus bright yellow-orange, latex unchanging,

L.

iabidus aurantiacus

L.

serifluus

. .No.

66

L.

hepaticus

. .No.

28

L.

lacunarum

. .No.

32

L.

chrysorrheus

. .No.

13

L.

illyricus

. . .No.

30

L.

helvus

. . .No.

27

L.

decipiens

L.

lilacinus

..

.No. 36

L.

turpis

..

.No.

L.

subruginosus

L.

mild

.No. 24

. . . .No. 7l

.No.

5

17 ln hardwood lorests near Quercus, more rarely near Fagus and Carp,nus, odor like coumarin, Maggi seasoning, sometimes not until dried, latex unchanging,

mild . . .

Near Plnus, odor not distinctive, latex discoloring yellow after 2-3 minutes,

acrid

18 ln wet habitats near Alnus, Betula, Populus,latex unchanging, mild

...

With Quercus, latex immediately turning sulfur-yellow when injured, mild to somewhat acrid

19 Pileus with pale colors, whitish, cream-colored, beige-brownish

.......

.20

Pileus with darker colors, pink-brown, flesh-colored, gray-brown,

ocher-brown,

olive-brown

.......,..21

20 Pileus whitish to cream-colored, with Fagus, Quercus, Castanea, in warm habitats, latex white,

acrid

Pileus gray-beige to light pink-brown, with Plcea Pinus, Betula, in moist to wet habitats, latex watery, hyaline, mild, odor like coumarin, Maggi seasoning

21 Pileus with distinct pink

tones

Pileus with gray-brown or yellow-olive

........22 colors

....

.23

22 Pileus pink-ocher to light pink-brown, odor pelargonium-like, with Fagus, Quercus, Castanea, in warm habitats, latex white, turning sulfur-yellow after 1-2 hours, acrid . . . . Pileus flesh-colored with a lilac tint, odor when dried like coumarin, Maggi seasoning, with A/nus, latex white, turning gray-green only atter a fairly long time, mild to somewhat acrid

23 With conifers, pileus yellow-olive to brown-black,

KOH causes a dark wine-red reaction on the pileal cuticle, latex white, acrid With Fagus, pileus ocher-brown, odor like coconut, latex white, turning pink when in contact with the flesh, mild, spores subglobose

30

....No.

16

75

.No. 70

Russula Key to the subgenera after Karcher in KBIEGLSfEtNER & KARCHER [1999D

1 Pileus with numerous

(> 4) short lamellae (not reaching the stipe) between adjacent complete lamellae, pileal sudace whitish, often brown-spotted or reddening and/or blackening when injured

p. 32

Key A Compactae

.2

Pileus with no or with < 4 short lamellae

2 Flesh and lamellae mild or at most somewhat acrid or bitterish

.9

Flesh and/or lamellae distinctly acrid

3 lron sulfate (FeSO, on the flesh or surface oI the stipe otive- to blue-green, sometimes at first faintly pink, odor like cooked crustaceans, sometimes not until dried

p.32

Key B Viridantes

lron-sulfate reaction different or negative

4 Pileipellis

(pp) without pileocystidia or primordial hyphae, hyphal ends of the pp with cateniform basal portion, hymenial cystidia not reacting in SBA, odor like cooked crustaceans, iron sulfate reaction salmon-pink

p. a3

Key C Amoenula

Pp generally with pileocystidia and/or primordial hyphae, cystidia gray-black in SBA, odor different . .

.........

5

5 Flesh not discoloring when injured or in old frbs., pileus neither lemon-yellow nor orange-, or carmine-red nor copper- to purple-brown

Key

D

p.33

Griseinae, lndolentinae, Verscentinae

Flesh or stipe surface graying, blackening, yellowing, or browning, pileus orange-, carmine-red, copper-, violet-, to purple-brown

6 Pp without encrusted elements Pileocystidia and primordial hyphae

,...... ..........

encrusted

7

8

7 Always with pileocystidia, frbs. small to medium sized, fragile, with a soft, sometimes hollow stipe . .

Key

E ..

p.34

Laricinae, Puellarinae, Rhodellinae, Sphagnophilae

KeyF

Pileocystidia present or absent, frbs. medium sized to very large, robust, and firm

8

.......

p.35

Auratinae, Decolorantinae, lntegrif orminae, Laeticolorinae, Melliolentinae, Olivaceinae

KeyG

Pp without pileocystidia, but with primordial hyphae

p.35

Amethyslinae, Chamaeleontinae, lntegroidinae, Lilacinae, Roseinae Pp always with pileocystidia, with or without primordial

hyphae

Key

.

H

p.36

lntegrinae, Lepidinae, Paraintegrinae

I

Pileus distinctly grooved-striate, ocher-yellow, yellow-brown, gray- to umber-brown, pileal surface strongly lubricous to slimy, at least when moist, odor unpleasantly like Iish or cheese to stinking like rubber, or pleasantly like bitter almonds or anise

Key

p.37

I

lngratula

Pileal margin even to at most indistinctly striate, pileus with different colors, odor different or absent '10 Pp with

r

distinctly encrusted pileocystidia

.

.

.10 Key

K

p. 37

Rubinula

Pp without pileocystidia, or if present, then not encrusted

KeyL

.......

p.37

Atropurpurinae, Emeticinae, Felleinae, Sardoniae, Violaceinae, Urentes

3'1

Key

'l

A: Pileus with abunCant short lamellae, frb.

in part reddening and/or blackening when iniured (compactae)

Flesh when injured reddening at first, then blackening, or blackening from the beginrring, the white pileus discoloring brown

toblackwithage

........2

Flesh neither reddening nor blackening, at most becoming somewhal orownish, pileus white 10 ocher .......7

2

Lamellae ,ar apart and thick, flesh intensely reddening at Iirst, then blackening, pileus white when young, later becoming increasingly black, taste mild to somewhat acrid, without pileoc],stidia

R.

nigricans

lamellae white, hymenial cystidia and pileocystidia with brown, oily contents and not reacting with SBA . . .

R.

albonigra

.No.

87

Taste mild in the flesh, but acrid in the lamellae, lamellae cream-colored and often with a pink overtone, hymenial cystidia gray-black in SBA, hyphal ends of the pp with brown vacuolar, droplellike pigment

B.

anthracina

.No.

94

R.

adusta

.

Fl.

densifolia

R.

acrirolia

Fl.

pallidospora

R.

delica

Lamellae

3

r

crowded and

thinner

......

Flesh quickly turning dark brown t(\ black without reddening first, or red color barely perceptible, odor truity or not distinctive and faint . . Flesh slowly blackening and usually r reddening beforehand, odor musty, earthy, or herring-like ........

.

.No. 168

3

...

4 5

4 Taste bitterish and strikingly menthol-like (cooling the tip of the tongue),

5

Flesh reddening in 5-10 minutes after injury o.r^r taste acrid

i

herring{ike,

.....

6

Flesh when injured becoming gray-brown to blackish after 60 minutes,

rarely faintly reddening first, odor musty, earthy, taste

6

mild

Pp with lusiform to vesicular hyphal ends up to '19 pm across, spore ornamenration in the form of ridges, reticulate connections

sparse

Pp with cylindrical hypli'.1 ends (hairs) up to 5 pm across, spore ornamentation predonrinantly reticulate

7 Pileus cream-colored to brownish-yeilow, odor fruity, spp. pale ocher, sp. averaging < 8 pm long, spore ornamentation up to 0.5 pm

high

Pileus white to whitish when young and remaining so for a long time, odor unpleasant to herring-like, spp. white to cream-colored, sp. averaging > 8 pm long, spore ornamentation 1.2-'1 .8 Um high . .

...

...

No. 8Ii

.No. 120

.No. 83

..

.

No. 175

.....I

8 Sp. 8.3-11.2 pm long, spore ornamentation predominantly reticulate

and upto'1.2 pm high, odor herring-like .. Sp. 7.9-10.7 pm long, spore ornarrentation consisting of solitary wafts which are connected only in places and projcct up to 1.8 Um,

.....No. .

119

.No. l08

Key B: FeSOa on the flesh and surface of the stipe olive- io blue-green, odor herring-like

1 Growing in the alpine zone, > 1800 m above sea Growing at lower

2

level

elevations

..........

........

2

3

Pileus bright cherry-red when young, emetica-red, laterfading entirely or partlyto ocher-yellow, stipe red-flushed, hymenial cystidia < 80 pm long

R.

chamiteae

Pileus purple-red to purple-brown when young, soon strongly fading, stipe white to cream-colored, hymenial cystidia > 80 Um long

R.

oreina

R.

xerampelina

R.

elaeodes

3 With conifers, primarily Picea and Prnus, pileus wine- to carmine-red, stipe red-flushed With hardwoods such as Fagug Quercus,

4

Pileus yellow- to olive-green, 20-70 mm Pileus with other

32

colors

Carpinus

.No. 107

..

.No. '174

. . .No.2l7

........4

across ........

5

.

.No. 122

5 Pileus purple-brown, black-purple

in the center, stipe red-flushed in places

lr(,

R. graveolens

.No.

R. faginea

.No. 130

R. purpurata

.No. 187

Pileus with wine- to purple-red colors

6 Pileus wine- to copper-red, 50-100 mm across, with Fagus, pileocystidia 2-4 Um across Pileus purple-red, 40-60 mm across, primarily with Quercus, pileocystidia 4-8 Um across Key

C: Pp with neither pileocystidia nor primordial hyphae, taste mild, odor herring-like

1 Pileus a strong carmine-red or violet- to wine-red, stipe white with a pink flush, flesh violet-red with phenol

R. amoena

.No.

Pileus lemon-yellow and sometimes tinged olive or pink, stipe white and generally with a lilac to violet tint with age

R. violeipes

.

91

No. 214

Kcy D: Flesh not discoloring, mild, neither lemon-yellow nor orange- to carmine-red or copper- to purple-brown

1 Spp. white to pale cream, 0 Y to 20 Y Spp. cream to ocherish,3o

2

FeSO4 reaction negative FeSO4 reaction pink

to

.........2 ..........7

Yto4oY

to faintly pale

gray ..

..........3 .....

orange-pink

3 Pileus green, olive, yellow-green, areolate

in the marginal zone with age Pileus with green tones but also with wine-red, violet, and blue tones, surface even to finely venose, but not areolate

4 With crins in the pp in addition to pileocystidia, pileus with green tones Pp without crins

5 Pileus gray to gray-violet Pileus with green, olive-green, blue-green tones

6 Pileus areolate with age, phenol reaction pale pink Pileus not areolate, phenol reaction wine-brown

7 Pileus flesh-red to pink-brown, pp with crins Pileus with green, olive, blue-green, or brown colors, pp without crins

8 Pileus with brown colors, with P,bea, FeSO. reaction pink-orange Pileus with green, olive, gray-blue, blue-green tones

9 Growing with Populus, pileus dark blue-green, sp. averaging > 7 Um long

.

R. cyanoxantha var. cutefracta

.

R. cyanoxantha v. cyanoxantha No. 115

. .5

Fl. heterophylla

.No. 145

. .6

R. ionochlora

.No. 150

. .

R. virescens

.No.215

R. pseudoaeruginea

.No. 183

. .8

R. vesca

.No.210

. .9

R. mustelina

.No. 165

.

R. atroglauca

.No.96

R. aeruginea

.No.86

R. subterfurcata

.No. 203

No. 116

.10

Growing with other hardwoods or Picea

10 Growing with Picea and Betula, pileus gray-green Growing with Ouercus, Carpinus, Fagus, more rarely with

4

. Betula . . .

.11

.

. .12 12 Pileus olive-green, gray-green, areolate in the marginal zone with age, pileocystidia up to 15 pm across Pileus not areolate, gray-blue, gray-green, gray-lilac, olive-brown

..

13 Sp. averaging < 7 pm long, pileus dark gray- to blue-green Sp. averaging > 7 pm long

R.

anatina

. . .No.

R.

parazurea

..

93

.13 .No, 177

...'14

'14 Sp.

with solitary warts, pileus green- to olive-brown, bluish-brown, more rarely with a violet tone Sp. with some warts connected by ridges, pileus gray-olive, gray-lilac, purple-gray

.No. 160 R. grisea

.No. 144 33

Key E: Whhout encrustsd elsments, but always with pileocystidia, flesh graying, blackening, yellowing, or browning,

mild

1 Pileus with yellow, ocherish, brownish colors Pileus with other

2

colors

...... . . . . .. . .

2

........

3

4

ln the alpine zone near Sa/,x retusa, pileus 35-70 mm across,

light yellow to

reddish-ocher elevations

R.

Growing at lower

3 Stipe base generally yellow turning bright orange-red with l0% KOH, pp with encrusted velar hyphae on the pileal margin Stipe base orange-spotted, not reacting with KOH, without velar

4

insignis .... pectinatoides R. R.

hyphae

Growing with

tones

.........6 .......

hardwoods

9

spring ..........7

6 With Lani at montane to subalpine elevations, primarily in late With Pmus, Picea,

Abies

7 With Pnus on acidic soils, primarily on moors With P,bea, rarely with Abies or

Pinus .

.......

R.

laricina

..

.No.

R.

cessans

..

.No. 106

..

.No. 18Ii

151

8 R.

puellaris

Frb. not conspicuously yellowing, primarily in montane coniferous forests on base-rich soil, pileus lilac- to flesh-brown

R.

nauseosa

.No. 167

Primarily with Populus tremula, pileus 20-30 mm across, pink-brown with lilac tones, odor pelargonium-like

R.

pelargonia

.No, 18O

R.

brunneoviolacea

.No. 102

R.

nitida

.No. 169

R.

terenopus

R.

age . . . .

8 All parts of the frb. conspicuously and strongly yellowing with

With Fagus or

Betula

......10

10 With Fagus, pileus 30-60 mm across, wine-brown, brown-violet, spores subglobose with ornaments up to 1.5 pm high With Betula, more rarely with Populus tremula

'l

.No. 147 .No. 179

......5 . . . . . . . . .12

5 Growing with conifers

'1

...No. l3il

Pileus with predominantly wine-red, purple-brown, flesh-brown, lilac tones Pileus with carmine-red, scarlet-red, or pink

9

felleaecolor

....

.'1'l

Pileus wine-brown, 30-50 mm across, stipe red-flushed in places, on wet soils, sp. 7.8-11.0 x 6.4+.6 pm Pileus purple- to wine-brown, not red-flushed, sp. 5.9-8.0 x

12 With Picea, Pinus, ot

2H0 mm across, 4.H.0 pm

stipe white,

Betula

........

With Fagus, Quercus, Castanea, only rarely with

pileus 4G-100 mm across, scarlet-red With Betula, pileus smaller, upto 70 mm across

...

.No. 204

paludosa

..

.No. i76

R.

fontqueri

..

.No. 137

R.

sphagnophila

.

.No. m2

R.

puellula

.

.No. 186

R.

melzeri

.

.No. 163

13

........15

conifers

13 ln acidic conirerous forests near Picea, more rarely with

.

..

P,,i4us,

..........14

14 Pileus orange-red, stipe white with aredflush, sp.6.9-9.2 pm

long

Pileus light pink-brown, pink-ocher, generally in Sphagnum, stipe white, sp.7.9-10.2 pm long

2H0 (50) mm across, flesh- to carmine-red, always with Fagus, as early as late spring, pp with narrow pileocystidia 3-7 pm across and

15 Pileus

with several septa Also with other trees, more rarely with

conifers

..........16

16 Pileus 15+0 mm across, carmine-red, with Castanea and Quercus, pp with pileocystidia 5-10 pm across and with several septa, and with septate, broad hairs Pileus larger, with Fagus, Quercug Betula, more rarely wilh Pinus and 34

Picea

.17

17 Pileus strongly colored, brick-red, copper-red, odor faint and not distinctive, sp- with isolated warts, 6.7-9.3 x 5.5-7.2 Um, primarily with Fagus, more rarely with Eetula and Picea Pileus paler, carmine-, pink-, to wine-red, odor intensely fruity, sp. reticulate, 6.4-8.6 x 5.G-7.1 pm, with Fagus, Betula, Pinus

R. velenovskyi

.No.207

B. odorata

.

No. 172

Xey F: Pp with or without pileocysiidia, without encrusted elements, large, mild species

I I

Spp. cream-colored. 10Y.. Spp. yellow to orange-ocher, 30 Y-80 Y

3

2 Sp. finely reticulate, subglobose, 7.7-11.6 x7.3-10.2 pm,

I

pileus orange-red

B. melliolens

.No. 162

Spore ornamentation coarser, reticulate to moniliform, sp. broadly elliptical, 7.6-11.1 x 6.1-9.2 pm, pileus wine- to purple-brown

R. viscida

.No.216

3 Flesh and stipe surface graying to blackening, pileus ocher-orange to Fl.

orange-red

J

Frb. nowhere graying or blackening

4

Pp with pileocystidia

5

Pp without pileocystidia, if with primordial hyphae, they are not encrusted

I

5 Pileus purple- to cinnabar-red, spp. orange-ocher, 80 Y 40 M

..

decolorans

.No. 118

R. rubroalba

.No. 197

R. carpini

.No.

R. romellii R. curtipes

.No. 193 .No. l14

R. aurea

.No.99

Stipe white, sometimes red-punctate, pileus wine-red, wine-brown, sp. 7.1-9.3 x 6.'l-7.7 pm, ornamentation reticulate and up to 1 Um high

B. alutacea

.No. 90

Pileus chocolate-, tobacco-brown to dark mahogany-brown, sp. 7.7-9.6 x 6.5-7.9 pm, ornamentation up to 1 pm high

R. vinosobrunnea

.No.213

Pileus wine-brown to olive-brown, up to 200 mm across, stipe up to 40 mm thick, sp. 7.8-'12.5 x 6.6-10.4 pm, ornaments consisting of solitary warts up to 1.5 um high

R. olivacea

.No. 173

R. azurea

.No- IOO

R. lilacea

.No. 155

.

Pileus with wine-red, violet-red, or orange- to olive-brown colors

6 Pileus generally with orange- to olive-brown tones, with Carprhus, sp. with isolated, acute warts up to 1.5 Um high Pileus with wine-red or violet-red colors

7 Sp. 6.9+.7 x 5.6-7.2

Um, reticulate

Sp. 6.9-9.4 x 5.9-8.1 um, with isolated warts

8 Pileus orange-yellow, orange-red with yellow areas

l(N

Pileus with wine-red, wine-brown, violet-red, and olive colors

9 Stipe entirely or partly red-flushed

'0

Xey

G: Pp without pileocystidia, but with encrusted primordial hyphae

1 Pileus with blue, violet, or lilac Pileus with other

colors

colors

...... -...2 ........

3

2 Pileus blue to blue-violet, also with green tones in places,

3 Pileus with red colors Pileus with other colors

4 Pileus blood-red, cinnabar-red Pileus pink, carmine-, raspberry-, or oranqe-red

...4 . .10

warts reticulate 6 Pileus predominantly orange-red, yellowish in places ....... Pileus primarily pink, raspberry-, or carmine-red ........ 5 Primarily with Fagus, sp. broadly elliptical, with solitary

.. pseudointegra . . .

.No. 128 .No. 184

R.

roseipes

.No. 195

7

8

7 With Plnus, more rarely Plcea, stipe red-flushed, primordial hyphae up to 11 Um across With Fagus and Quercus, stipe white, primordial hyphae up to 5 pm

8 Sp. with warts mostly connected by ridges

.

across

R. risigallina var. risigallina

purple-red . . . . . . .

10 Pileus with pink- to wine-brown, wine-red, or purple-violet Pileus with yellow, olive-green, olive-brown 1

colors

.

colors . . . . 1 .........15

conifers

R.

minutula

R. R.

velutipes zvarae

R.

sericatula

R.

caerulea

....

.No. 103

R.

lateritia

..

.No. l52

inthecenter

Pmus ........13

13 Pileus pink-brown, with Picea and Pinus, sp. averaging < I pm

long

Pileus wine-red, wine- to violet-brown, sp. averaging > 7.5 pm long

.....

R.

vinosa

.

.No.212

R.

turci

.

.No. 2Oo

warts

Flesh not graying and blackening, odor at base of stipe generally iodoform-like, primarily with Picea, spores predominantly reticulate

15 Pileus olive-green, brown-olive, with Prcea, sp. subglobose, ornaments up to 1.3 pm high . Pileus with yellow

R.

postiana

.

.No. 182

R.

claroflava

. ..

.No.208 .No. 218

...

.

No. 200

.14

14 Flesh and stipe graying to blackening, primarily with Plcea, sp. with isolated

.No. 164

.......12

12 Pileus markedly umbonate, brown- to purple-violet, with Pileus not umbonate, slightly indented

.No. 192

1

1 With Quercus, Carpinus, Fagus, pileus pink-brown, or violet- to purple-brown, spores with solitary warts, warts up to 1 .3 pm high Primarily with

..

......9

across 9 Flesh currant-red in SBA, pileus raspberry- to pink-red Sp. with solitary warts, pileus small, up to 30 mm

Flesh not reacting with SBA, pileus salmon-pink to

emeticicolor

R.

R.

Primarily with Quercus, sp. subglobose, mostly

colors

16 Flesh and stipe surface graying and blackening, with Eetula on

........16 moors capitate

Flesh not graying, with Pinus and Fagus, hairs ofthe pp primarily

R. risigallina var. acetolens

.No. . No.

ll0 l9l

..No,

194

. ..

Key H: With encrusted elements in the pp, always with pileocystidia, with or without primordial hyphae,

mild to bitterish 1 Spp. light yellow, cream-yellow,20 Y pileus carmine- to cinnabar-, blood-red, stipe generally entirely or partly red-flushed, with Fagus Spp. yellow-ocher to orange-ocher, 50 Y-80 Y . . . ..

2 Wilh Picea, primarily montane With

3

4

36

hardwoods

...... ......

....... .........

R.

rosea

2 3 4

Pileus deep brown with purple or olive tones, sp. 8.0-10.6 x 6.9-8.7 Um, ornaments up to 1.5 pm high .

B. integra var.

integra

..No.

148

Pileus purple- to red-brown, also with wine-red tones, sp. 7.7-9.3 x 6.4-7.8 pm, ornaments up to 0.8 pm high

R. integra var.

oreas ....No.

149

Pileus deep wine-red to wine-brown, sp. subglobose, upto 10.9x9.4 Pileus cream-yellow, often pink to pink-brownish in places, primarily with Betula

Um

B.

melitodes

R.

cremeoavellanea . .

....No, .No.

161

ll2

l:

Key

Pileal margin striate, odor unpleasant, slinking or truity or like bitter almonds, taste acrid

1 Pileus cream to light ocher or with predominantly yellow colors Pileus with predominantly red- to brown-ocherish or brown colors i

2 5

.........3

almonds different

2 Odorlike bitter Odor

..... ......

..........

4

3 Sp. subglobose, 7.8-9.5 x 7.'l-8.9 pm, ornaments consisting in part of aliform ridges up to 1.8 um high Sp. subglobose, 7.9-10.0 x 7.2-9.4 pm, ornaments up to 1 .4 pm high, consisting ol soliiary warts and occasional ridges

R. laurocerasi var. fragrans

.No. l5.?

R. laurocerasi var. laurocerasi

.No. 154

4 Odor sweetish, like applesauce, stipe base often yellow, pileus pale ocher-yellow, spp. pale yellow, 5 Y, sp. 7.1-9-5 x 6.3-€.1 pm Odor truity, pileus cream-colored to pale ocher, spp. white, 0 Y sp. 6.1-4.1 x 5.G-6.6 pm

R.

.No. 132

fellea

.

Fl. amoenolens

.No.92

5 Pileus gray-brown, odor like Maggi seasoning or spermatic, with Quercus, sp. with solitary warts, 6.3-8.1 x 4.7-6.0 Um Pileus with ocher-yellow, ocher-brown, reddish-ocherish colors

No. 131

R. farinipes

6

6 Spp. cream-colored, 20Y odor like bitter almonds, with Fagus

R.

illota .

.

.No. 145

7

Spp. deep yellow to ocher, 30 Y-50 Y

R. pectinata

7 Sp. averaging < 7.5 pm long, pileus yellow- to brownish-ocher

.No. 178

8

Sp. averaging > 7.5 pm long

8 Flesh and stipe surface bright chrome-yellow to sulfur-yellow in 2-3 minutes with lOo/o KOH

R.

KOH on the flesh and stipe surface without a reaction

R. foetens var. foetens

.No. 136 .No. 135

R. rubra

.No. 196

Key

K:

foetens var. subfoetens

Pp with encrusted pileocystidia, taste acrid

Pileus 4G-70 mm across, cinnabar- to pink-red, odor honey-like,

taste acrid, with Fagus

Key

L: Pileocystidia not encrusted, odor absent, not distinciive, rather pleasant, or fruity, taste acrid

1 Growing in the alpine zone, 1800 m above sea level Growing at lower elevations R. alnetorum

2 Wilh Alnus viridis, pileus violet, lilac, wine-reddish

.No- 88

With dwarf willows ot Dryas octopetala

3 With Dryas octopetala, pileus 30-65 mm across, with red colors when young, soon fading to cream- to orange-yellow, sp. up to 1 1 .8 pm long With dwarf willows, pileus 15-35 mm across

4 Pileus carmine- to cherry-red, with

R.

dryadicola ...

.No. 121

.....4

Sa/ix retusa,

.No- 166

more rarely with Dryas octopetala Pileus with wine-red colors

5 Pileus dark wine-red when young, spp. cream-colored, 5 Y sp. 7.1-9.6 x 5.4-7.3 pm, Q: 1.2-1.4

R. norvegica

.No. l70

Pileus violet to wine-red, spp. ocher-yellow, 40 Y 5 M, sp. 6.5-8.5 x 5.4-6.7 pm, Q: 1.1-1 .3

B. alpigenes

.No. 89

alnetorum

.No. 88

6 with

Alnus incana or Alnus glutinosa

Fl-

With other trees 37

long long

7 Sp. averaging >9.5 pm Sp. averaging < 9.5 pm

I

With Betula, pileus light to deep pink- to carmine-red, but generally strongly fading, sp. with warts connected by ridges With

I

........I . . . . . . .12

othertrees

Fl. emetica var.

.........

With P,bea Ables, P,nus, pileus violet- to With hardwoods

black-brown

.

R.

adulterina

. . . .No.

R.

globispora

...

gigasperma B. cuprea

B.

conifers conirers

....

12 With both hardwoods and

.

........

colors

colors

.......

Pileus lilac, violet, or gray-pink, with Picea, Fagus, ot

raoultii

.

.No. 189

R.

ochroleuca

.

.No. 171

R.

lragilis

R.

aquosa

..16

Betula

and

Betula

Stipe white, later graying, pp with pileocystidia up to 8.5 sp. subglobose, Q: 1-1-1-2, wilh Picea and Betula .

!m broad,

to 11 pm broad, sp. elliptical, Q: 1.2-1.4, with Picea

coniters hardwoods

19 Primarily with Primarily with

.

flushed reddish in places

...--....20 . . .. . .

.25

length . . . . . .

.21

95

grisescens . .No.

125

..No.

105

cavipes

R.

tuscorubroides . .

.No. 139

R.

queletii

.No. 188

R.

consobrina

R.

rhodopus

.........22

pleurocystidia up to 85 pm long, pileocystidia up to 11 pm broad Pileus when young wine-red and often with an olive tint, pleurocystidia up to 145 pm long, pileocystidia up to 8 Um broad

22 Pileus with gray- to olive-brown colors, flesh slowly graying to reddening

cut

Pileus with red, purple- to violet-brown

colors

23 Pileus with cherry- to blood-red colors, sp. broadly elliptical and Pileus with wine-red, purple- to violet-brown 38

. .No.

R.

21 Pileus dark wine-red to almost black when young, without olive tones,

when

138

......19

20 Stipe generally flushed distinctly wine-red over the entire Stipe not or only faintly

..No.

...........18 .........31

P,nus

Plcea Pnus

.

R. emetica var.

18 Always with Abies, pileus purple-violet, blue-violet, olive-pink, often strongly fading to lilac-gray, gray-ocher With Picea and

.No. 113

R.

16 Stipe white, later discoloring dingy ocherish, pp with pileocystidia up

With

.-.

140

.14

Pileus ocher-yellow, sometimes also mixed with olive tones, pp without pileocystidia, with Fagus and Picea .

17 With

...No.

..........'15

P,bea

15 Pileus with pink- to carmine-red

.No. 141

13

14 Pileus lemon-yellow when young, later fading to cream or cream-yellow with Fagus and

84

......17

'l3 Pileus with yellow colors Pileus with red, violet, or lilac

123

.'11

Sp.9.0-13.4x7.8-11.7pm Sp. 7.7-11.6 x 6.8-10.1 Um With only hardwoods or

...No.

.........10

'10 Pileus brick- to orange-red, generally with Quercus, more rarely with other hardwoods, sp. with solitary warts Pileus with predominantly wine-red, violet, purple colors ...

11

betularum

I

colors

....

.

.No. l l1

...

.No. l90

.23

reticulate ........24

24 Pileus wine-red to purple-brown, odor like cedar wood, sp. 7.3-9.4 x 6.'l-7.8 pm Pileus violet-brown, violet-gray, odor faintly polyporoid, sp. 7.7-10.3 x 7.0-8.7 pm

l0l

R. badia

.No.

R. firmula

.No. 134

R. sanguinea

.

25 Pileus cherry-red, blood-red, purple-red Pileus wine-red, violet-red, wine-brown

26 Spp. ocher-yellow, 40 Y 10 M, pileus blood- to purple-red when young, soon fading to cream-colored to pale ocher Spp. whitish to cream-colored, 5 Y-10

Y

No- 198

.

27 Pileus deep carmine-red when young, often fading to cream-colored, 25-65 mm across, pileocystidia up to 10 pm broad, sp. 7.5-9.7 x 6.G-8.0 pm

R. emetica var.

Pileus cinnabar- to cherry-red when young, not or only slightly fading

sylvestris

.No. 127

.28

28 Stipe 60-100 (120) mm long, pileus 40-80 mm across,

pileocystidia up to I pm broad, sp. 8.0-10.8 x 6.8-9.0 pm Stipe 40-60 (80) mm long, pileus 40-60 (90) mm across, pileocystidia up to '14 pm broad, sp. 7.4-10.3 x 6.5-8.5 pm

.

.

R. emetica var. longipes

.No. 126

.

.

R. emetica var. emetica

.No. 124

R. sardonia

.No. 199

29 Pileus dark red-violet, often almost black, lamellae conspicuously lemon-yellow Pileus wine-red, purple-red, lamellae white when young and remaining so a long time, never lemon-yellow

30 Stipe flushed wine-red over the entire length, pileus up to 100 (120) mm across, odor fruity

R.

Stipe white, at most occasionally somewhat red-flushed only on the base, pileus up to 60 mm across, odor sweetish like fruit bonbons

R. atrorubens

torulosa

.

No, 2o5

.No.

98

31 With Befula With other hardwoods such as Fagus, Quercus, Carpinus

.

.

32 Flesh and stipe surface yellowing when rubbed and with age, pileus very variable in color, wine-red, ocher- to cream-yellow, also with green tones

versicolor

.No. 20O

R. gracillima

.No. 142

Fl. exalbicans

.No. 129

R. lundellii

.No. 156

B. solaris

.No.201

R. clariana

.No. 109

R,

Flesh and stipe surrace not yellowing

33 Frb. small, pileus 20-40 mm across, carmine- to purple-red when young, often fading, stipe white and entirely or partly red-flushed . . Frb. large, pileus 40-80 (100) mm across, stipe white, not yellowing, at most somewhat graying

...34

34 Pileus carmine-red when young, later fading to gray-olive to ocher-gray, sp. elliptical, Q: 1 .2-'1.4, with solitary warts Pileus scarlet- to orange-red when young, later fading to yellowish to cream-colored, sp. subglobose, Q: 1.1-1.2. with in part coarse warts

35 Pileus straw- to chrome-yellow, often orange-yellow in the center Pileus with red, blue, violet colors

36 Pileus blue- to brown-violet, sp. with zebroid ornamentation in places, with Populus and Quercus Pileus with red colors

.37

37 Pileus scarlet-, blood-, carmine-,

orange-red

Pileus wine-red, purple-red

38 Spp. ocher-yellow to orange-ocher, 40 Y-60 Spp. light yellow to yellow,

10Y-20Y

Y.

,,,...38 .........41 ..........39 ..... ...4O

Pileus scarlet- to orange-red, sp. subglobos€, up to 10.6 pm long Pileus cinnabar-red with a purple tint, sp. broadly elliptical, up to 8.8 Um long Pileus blood- to coral-red, up to 100 mm across, pileal cuticle not or only slightly peelable, stipe and lamellae yellowing whsn rubbed . . . . . . . Pileus carmine- to cherry-red, up to 70 mm across, piled cuticle peelable up to halfway to the center, nowhere yellowing

wine-red, wine-brown with a black-violet center, often yellow-spotted in places, sp. elliptical and r reticulate Pileus with paler, wine-red to flesh-colored tones

R. maculata

.No. 158

R. persicina

.No. 181

R. luteotacta

.No. l57

R. mairei

.No. 159

B. atropurpurea

.No. 97

B. veternosa

.No.2ll

B. decipiens

.No- 117

41 Pileus dark

42 Odor sweetish, honey-like, sp. with solitary warts, pileocystidia with 1-4 septa Odor fainily medicinal, sp. in part with warts connected by ridges, pileocystidia not septate or only occasionally with a single septum

.42

Floristic part

82 species in the genus Lactarius 136 species in the genus Russula

The species are listed in alphabetical order within each genus.

41

Lactarius acerrimus

I

Britz.

Habitat Usually gregarious in hardwood forests, parks, or cemeteries near Quercus, in warm locations on base-rich soils, colline. Summer-fall. Not common. Distribution: E.

Macroscopic features Pileus 50-120 mm across, convex when young, later i plane and umbilicate, surface finely velutinous when young, dull, later glabrescent, lubricous when moist, yellow-ocher, sometimes faintly zoned toward the margin, margin even to undulating and incurved for a long time. Flesh white, not discoloring when cut, odor fruity, taste acrid. Lamellae cream-colored when young, later light ocher, L = 100-120, | = 3-5, broadly attached and subdecurrent, with many anastomoses, some forked, edges entire. Stipe 2G-50 x 8-20 mm, cylindrical and somewhat

tapered toward the base, solid when young, later narrowly hollow, surface whitish and pruinose when young, then glabrescent and ocher and sometimes brownish-spotted. Latex white, unchanging, acrid.

Microscopic leaturcs Spores subglobose

A:

to

elliptical, 10.$-14.0

x

8.5-1'1.1 pm; Q:

1.1-1.4; ornaments projecting up to 1.2 pm, consisting of abundant warts and of ridges which form only a partial reticulum. Spp.

50Y20M.

B: Basidia cylindrical, clavate, fusiform, sHO x 10-12 Um, with 1 and 2 sterigmata. C: (C'l) Cheilomacrocystidia cylindrical, Iusiform, subulate. 25-{5 x D:

5-7 pm, abundant; (C2) pleuromacrocystidia sjmilar in shap€, but 35-53 x 5-7 pm, abundant, Pp composed of irregularly intedwined and in pad periclinal hyphae or hyphalfragments 1-5 pm across, allgelatinized.

Remarks

r similar species can be found in comparable habitats with Quercus. Lactarius chrysorrheus (No, 13) with yellowng latex. and L. zonaius lNo.82) with a markedly zonate pileus and unchanging white latex. Both have distinctly smaller spores than l. acefiimus, as well as 4-spored basidia. Finds of similar species which grow with coniters should be compared with L. zonaloldes (No. 81) and L. pornirsls (No. 47). Two other

Collection €xamined and illustrated Horw LU (Niederriiti), quad. 2066, elev. 500 m, at the edge of a forest in grass near Quercus, Sept, 12, 1978, coll. BA, 1209-78, BA 1.

Other collections: quad. 2067.

2

Lactarius acris

+

(Bolt.: Fr.) Gray

ac,s Bolt.: Fr. = Lactaius pudibundus (Scop.) Schroet. = ,Agarlcus

Habitat Usually gregarious near Fagus on base-rich but nitrogen-

poor, damp soils, primarily in calcareous beech forests, colline to montane. Summer-fall. Wid€spread but not common. Distribution: E, As.

Macroscopic features Pileus 5G-80 mm across, planoconvex when young, soon plane and indented in the center and usually undulating, fairly often with a small umbo, surface smooth, dull when dry shiny and lubricous when moist, light gray-beige to chestnut-brown, often with an olivs tone, margin even to slightly crenate. Flesh whitish, turning pink-red within a few seconds when cut, odor faintly unpleasant, taste acrid. Lamellae cream-colored when young, latsr increasingly light ocher-yellow, L = 90-110, I = 1-3, broadly attached

and subdecunent, several forked, edges entire. Stipe 30-70 x 5-20 mm, cylindrical, at times somewhat tapered toward the base, solid, surface smooth, when young white and entire length pruinose, later glabrescent and spotting ocherish and pink-brownish. Latex white, turning pink-red in a few seconds, even when not in contact with the flesh, acrid.

42

Microscopic Ieaturcs Spores globose to subglobose, 7.0-8.7 x 6.6-8.1 pm; Q: 1.0-1.1; ornaments prcjecting up to 2 pm, consisting of a few warts and of idges, together forming a nearly complete reticulum. Spp. 40 Y

A:

10|\il.

B: Basidia clavate to ventricose, 45-57 x 1G-12 pm, with 4 st6rigmata. C: Cheilocystidia present as pa€cystidia, polymorphic, 19-55 x 4.5-6.5 pm, abundant, pleuro- and macrocystidia abs€nt. D: Pp composed of ascending, cylindrical, capitate, and in part bent

hyphal ends 20-40 x 3.5-6 pm, with occasional pseudocystidia scatt6r€d among lhem, and elongated, short, to isodiametric cells 10-25 x 7-12 Um below them.

Remarks

Lactaius acds is easy to recooniz6 in the field, since it is the only species which has white latex which turns pink-red in air within a few seconds. ln addition, it has a markedly lub,rioous pileus when moist, which also makes it distinctly ditferent from the two other similar sp6ci€s occurring in similar habitats, Lactaius azonites (No. 6) and

f. fulglrosus

(No. 23).

Colleclion examined and illuslrated Weggis LU (LDtzelau), quad. 2067, elev. 500 m, near Fagus and Quercus above conglomerate (Nagelfluh), Sept. 23,2000, coll. FM,2309-00 Mu 2.

Other collections: quad. 2068.

Lactarius acerrimus

EI

F ;lNI

20 pm

50Y20M

Lactarius acris

EI

2

EI

ol NL

20 pm

ffiwa

40Y10M 43

3

Lactarius albocarneus

I

Britz.

= Lactaius glutinopallens Moell. & Lge.

Habitat Usually gregarious in coniferous and mixed forests on

damp to wet, base-rich, nutrient-poor soils, primarily near Ab,es, more rarely near Picea, colline to montane. Summer+all. Not common. Distribution: E, NAf.

Macroscopic leatures Pileus 3G-70 mm across, planoconvex when young, soon plane and ! indented in the center, often somewhat undulating and incised in the marginal zone, surface silky when dry strongly slimy when moist, cream-colored to dingy whitish with a lilac-gray tone, unirormly colored, margin incurved for a long time, even and acute. Flesh whitish, slowly turning pale sulfur-yellow when cut, odor pleasan y fruity, taste acrid and bitter. Lamellae white when young, later cream-yellow, L = 80-100, I = l-3, broadly attached and subdecurrent. Stipe 30-70 (80) x 10-1S mm, cytindrical, solid, hollow only when old, surface smooth to somewhat longitudinally venose, white when young, later spotting ocherish, slimy when moist. Latex white, slowly and weakly discoloring sulfur-yellow, acrid and bitter.

4

Lactarius alpinus

Microgcopic teafuros

A:

Spores subglobose to elliptical, 8.2-10.1 x 6.5-8,1 um:e:.t.1-.t.4: 1 pm, consisting of a few solitary warts and of ridges which fom a zebroid pattern in places and with only a few connectDns forming a parlial reticulum. Spp. 40 y 5 M. Basidia clavate.45-€0 x 10-14 pm, with 4 stengmata. (C1) Cheilomacrocystidia fusiform, 35-75 x 7-10 pm, abundant; (C2) pleuromacrocystidia tusiform. 7G-110 x 9-10 pm. abundant. Pp compoged of inlerwoven. mostly ascending hyphae and hyphal ends 2-3,5 pm across, allstrongly gelatinized.

ohaments projecting up to

B: C: D:

Remarks This species is characterized by its strikingly very slimy, pate pileus and

stipe, its yellowing latex, and its occunence with Ables. Because of

their likewiso slimy pileus, pale frbs. ot Lactarus t/vlalis (No.73), could be confused wrth L, albocameus. How6ver, L. tr,vialis is significantly larger and associated with Plcea or Eefula. ln addition, its splre ornamentation consists mostly of solitary warts with no hint of a zebroid pattern. Laclaa'.rs b/enflils {No. 9) with a likewise slimv. but usualv

darker, gray-green pileus and greenish-staining latex: grows with fag[/s. Collection examined and illustrated

Seelisberg UR (fannwald), quad. 2068, elev 1000 m, in an Abies forest neat Vaccinium myrtillus, Sept- 14, 1979, co[. JB, 1409-79 BR.

Other collections: in the same quad.

I

Peck

= Lactaius alpigenes Klhn. = Lactaius kuehneri Joss. = Lacta us pusillus Bres. ss. Mos. = Lactarius subalpinus

Kihn.

Habitat

Microscopic Ieatubs

Solitary to gregarious in stands of A/nus ylrdis, montane to alpine. Summer-fall. Rare. Distribution: E.

A:

Macroscopic featur€s Pileus 1G40 mm across, planoconvex and sometimes

B: C:

with a small umbo when young, soon plane and indented in the center and somewhat irregular in shape, surface velutinous-furfuraceous when young, dull, later finely granulose, also finely appressed floccose-squamose when old,

orange-yellow to orange-ocher, margin incurved when young, later even and acute, sometimes fainfly striate. Flesh light cream-colored, orange-yellow under the cuticle, odorless when very fresh, then odor slightly fruity, taste acrid. Lamellae whitish when young, later light orangeocher, L = 40-50, I = 3-5, broadly attached and subdecurrent, some rorked, edges entire. Stipe 1S-gS (50) x 4-B mm, cylindrical, solid to narowly hollow, surface smooth, light orange-yellow, white-pruinose when young. Latex white, unchanging, acrid.

D:

Spores subglobose to elliptical, 7.2-10 x 6.2-8.3 pm; Q: 1.1-1.3; ornaments projecting up to 0.9 pm. consiging of several warts and of ridges which are connecled to form an almost complete reti culum. Spp.2

Y

Basidia cylindrical, clavat6, venhicose, 37-43 x 8-10 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilomacrocystidia fusiform to subulate, 27-70 x 54 Wn, abundant; (C2) pleuromacrocystidia similar but 3G-62 x 6-7 pm, not abundant. Pp composed of irregularly intertwined, mostly ascending hyphae

6-18 Um across. Remarks

This species looks very similar to Lactad'us sa/icls-herbaceae (No. 59) in habitus and color However, the latter does not grow with A/rus l,1indis, but in the alpine zone near dwarf willows, primatily Salix hetbacea.ln

addition, it has a lubricous pileus when moist, as is readily apparent under the microsoope in a radial section of the pileipe is. While the white latex o, Lacfarus a/prhus does not discolor in air, that oI L. sa/lcisherbaceae turns faintly lilac aft€r several minutes.

Collection examinod and illustrat€d Giswil OW (lJnter-Teufimatt). quad. 1864, etev. 1500 m, in a stand of A/rus yirdis above chalk. Aug. 13, 1977, coll. JB, 1308-77 BR 19. Other collections: none.

Lactarius albocarneus

3

E

E

K Yrfffi,

20 pm

Lactarius alpinus

4

E E

o

r1,

=T o

40Y5N/l

fu#

5

I

Lactarius aurantiacus (Pers.: Fr.) Gray = Lactaius mitissimus (Fr.: Fr.) Fr. = Lactaius aurantiofulyus Blum ex Bon

Habitat Usually gregarious in coniferous and mixed ,orests, primarily near Picea, more rarely near other conifers and near

Fagus, on damp, base- and nutrient-rich soils, colline to montane. Summer-fall. Common. Distribution: E, NA, As,

Microscopic featues

A:

NA'.

B: C:

Macroscopic features Pileus 20-50 (70) mm across, almost hemispherical when

D:

young, later expanded and indented in the center as well as sometimes with a small umbo, surface smooth, dull when

dry slightly lubricous and shiny when moist, uniformly

yellow-orange, marginal zone fairly often paler to yellowish, margin incurved when young, but soon even and acute. Flesh cream-colored, odor taintly spicy, taste mild to bitterish, raphanoid. Lamellae cream-yellow when young, later light reddish-ocher, L = 60-70, I = 3, notched, only a few forked, edges entire. Stipe 25-50 (70) x $-10 mm, cylindrical, solid, surface smooth to finely longitudinally venose, cream-yellow and slightly whitish-pruinose when young, later yellow-orange. Latex white, unchanging, mild to bitterish.

Spores subglobose to elliptical, 7,2-€.9 x 6.2-7.8 Um: Q: 1.1-1-4: omaments projecting up to 1 pm, consisting of abundant, in part elongated warts, and of ridges, which form an incompleteto nea/y complete reticulum. Spp. 10 Y Basidia clavate, 42-52 x 10-13 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilomacrocysiidia fusiform, 35-60 x pm, not abundanti (C2) pleuromacrocystidia fusiform to subcylindrical, 37-77 x 5-10 pm, sparse. Pp composed of irregularly intertwined, ascending hyphae 3-5 pm across, hyphalwalls in paft weakly gelatinized.

H

Romarka ln naming this species, we arefollowing the opinion of HEILMANN et al. (1998) and KRIEGLSTEINER (2000), who interpret Lactarrus aurantiacus in a broad sense. Other alrthors, such as BON (1980) or MARCHAND (1980), oonsider the two taxa L. mltiss,imus Fr with + isolat6d warts on the spores, and L. auantiofufuus Blum with reticulate-venucose spores, to be separate species. They d€scribe l. m,?iss,l'rus as completely mild, f. aurantlolulyus as somewhat actid, and L. aurantiacus ss. stricto as acrid and bitter. The fungus described here could be confused with L. fulylss,imus (No. 24), which, however, grows primarily with Fagus and has a pileipellis with a different structure.

Collection examined and illGtrated Adligenswil LU (Forenmoos), quad. 2167, elev. 600 m, in a coniferous forest near Picea and Ables, Sept. 21, 2001, coll. FK, 2109-01 K. Other collectlons: quad . 1965,2066,2267

6

.

+

Lactarius azonites (Bull.) Fr. = Lactarius fuliginosus ss. auct. non ss. Fr. = Lactaius fuliginosus f. a/brFes Lge.

Habitat Micro3copic featurcs Spores globose to subglobose, 7.1-8.8 x 6.6-8.4 pm; Q: '1.0-1 .1;

Solitary to gregarious in beech or oak or mix€d forests near Fagus and Quercus above chalk, colline to montane. Late summer-fall. Not common. Distribution: E.

A:

Macroscopic teatures

B: mata. C: Cheilocystidia

Pileus 50-90 (100) mm across, obtusely conical when young, later plane and somewhat indented in the cenier as well as otten irregular in shape, surface even, finely velutinous, dull, smoke-gray to gray-brown and patchy in

t

color, often darker toward the margin, margin usually

cream-colored, smooth and acute. Flesh white, turning orange-pink within one to two minut€s when cut, odor pleasantly fruity at first, later with a component of coconut, taste mild. Lamellae whitish when young, later ocheryellow, L = 58-65, I = 3-5, some forked, broadly attachsd to subdecurrent, edges entire. Stipe 4H0 (70) x 10-'15 mm, cylindrical, base often tapered, solid to pithy-hollow surface r smooth, white when young, later somewhat dingyspotted on a white background. Latex white and remaining so when not in contact with the flesh, mild.

ornaments projecting 1.5-2 pm, composod of a lew isolated warts and oI ridges which form a partial reticulum. Spp. 60 Y 28 M, 3 C. Basidia clavate to ventricose, 5H5 x 13-15 pm, with 4 sterigpres€nt as paracystidia, cylindrical-flexuous, Iusiform, lagenitorm, 25-50 x 5-9 pm, pleuro- and macrocystidia

D:

absent.

Pp composed of a thin layer of periclinal hyphae 3-5 pm across logether with exserted, cystidioid hyphalends $-9 !m across, with subglobose to pyrilorm cells belowthem, 12+O x9-22 prn.

Remarks This sp€cios is close to Lactari.rs furgrhosus (No. 23) but occurs only near hardwoods, while the latter can also befound near Plcea. Characteristic o, L. azor,les are primarjly its white stipe and the structure of its pileipellis with the uppermost layer composed of periclinal hyphae. ln

addition, the ornamentation of its sporcs Ioms only a rudimentary reticulum and projects more or less 1.5 pm. A completely white form oI this species is d6scribed and pictured in HEILMANN-CLAUSEN (1998). It grows in the same habitats as the typicalform.

Collection examined and ill$traled DietwilAG (Falix), quad.2267, elev. 490 m, in a mixed foresl near Fagus and Ouercus, July 15,2000, coll. BA, 1507-00 BA'1. Other collectioni: quad. 2067, 2266.

Et

Lactarius aurantiacus

5

EI

ol NI

[V\ te t1

/

' lll* \ ln

M) /ll" \ lut,t

\ll,Jn l)la //

t,(

-rl v\\ 11

)

I

/ I

U

Lactarius azonites

6

;NL

20 pm

20 pm,

Ny

/ \B

O*

0e

\\\/

\t\

/

U

^ .fu,

,ffi#

7

Lactarius badiosanguineus

I

KUhn. & Romagn.

= Lactaius hepaticus ss. Neuhoff = Lactaius subdulcis vaL concavus Ft, Microscopic features

Habitat Near conifers, especially Picea and Ables in moist places in wet meadows and moors, otten in Sphagnum, on nutrient-

and base-poor soils, colline to montane. Late summer-fall. Widespread and not uncommon. Distribution: E.

Macroscopic teatules Pileus 25-90 mm across, planoconvex when young, later expanded and indented in the center, always with a distinct, r acute umbo, surface slightly uneven to somewhat tuberculaie, at times somewhat wrinkled-veined in the center, dark to very dark red-brown when young, later somewhat fading, dull and waxy-reeling when young, slightly lubricous and shiny when moist, margin even and acuts when young, grooved when old, not or barely paler than the r6st oI the pileus. Flesh whitish to reddish creamcolored, whitish places yellowing after a time, odor spicy, polyporoid, taste at first mild, later bitterish, but not acrid. Lamellae cream-colored when young, later increasingly reddish-ocher, L = 60-80, l= 1-3 (5), broadly attached, some forked, edges entire. Stipe 30-70 x 5-12 mm, solid when young, soon hollow, surface smooth and finely whitepruinose on a reddish-ocher background when young, later glabrescent and slightly longitudinally veined in places and doep brown-red. Latex white, unchanging at first, faintly yellowing on a white tissue after 2-3 hours, mild at first, then bitterish.

I

Lactarius bertillonii

A:

B: C: D:

Spores subgloboseto slightly elliptical, 6.3-8.4 x 5.5-7 pm;O:1.1'l.3; ornaments proiecting up to 1 pm, composed of solitary warts and oI stripe-like ridges which torm a partial roticulum. Spp. 5 Y

Basidia clavate to ventricoso, 35-50

x 10-13 pm, with 4 sterig-

mata.

(Cl) Cheilomacrocystidia subulate to lusiform, abundant, 25-40 x 4-7 pm: \C2) pleuromacrocystidia + cylindrical and pointed, sparse, 4G-70 x 7-€ Um. Pp composed of irregularly intertwined hyphae, hyphal ends ascending, cylindrical to slightly clavate, 2M0 x 3-6 pm, some lightly encrusted, gelatinized, with occasional lactifers interspersed among them, and elongated and subglobose to isodiametric cells below them.

Remaks Lactanius hepaticus (No.28) and L, sphagreti (No.

64 could be con-

fused with this species, but they have different ecological requirements. While L. hepatlbars grows on dry ground neat Pinus, L. sphagneti prefers wet habitats and cushions ol Sphagnum near Picea. ln addition, the distinctly reticulate spore ornamentation of these two species separates them well lrom L. badiosanguineus, the spores of which have ridges which are arranged + in lines. ln contrast to L. badiosargulheus, these two species are rather rare.

Collection examined and illustrated Adligenswil LU (Forenmoos), quad. 2167, elev. 600 m, at th6 edge of a forest in a moist place near Plcea, above chalk, Oct.23, 2000, coll. FK, 2310-00 K. Oth€r collection6: quad. 1460. 1864, 1965.

I

(Neuh. ex Z. Schaeffer) Bon = Lactarius vellereus var. bertTlonli Neuhoff = Lactarius vellereus va'' queletii Blum

Habitat Solitary to gregarious in hardwood forests near Fagus, more rarely near Quercus, Castanea, and Betula on damp, usually base-rich soils, colline. Summer-fall. Rare. Disiribution: E.

Microscopic teatures Spores elliptical, 7.'1-9.1 x 5.2-6.9 pm; Q: 1.3-1.4; ornaments projecfing up to 0.2 pm, consisting of both elongated warts and

A:

B: C:

Macroscopic teatrres Pileus 70-130 (180) mm across, planoconvex when young, soon plane with an indented center, later inlundibuliform and often undulating, surface even, dull, finely tomentose when young, later velutinous, white to light cream-colored, spotting light brownish with age, margin incurved Jor a long time, even. Flesh white, slowly yellowing when cut, odor unpleasant, almost stinking, taste acrid. Lamellae white when young, later cream-colored and spotting brownish when bruised, L = 100-140, l= 1-5, broadly attached and subdecurrent, many forked, sdges entire. Stipe 25-40 x 20-30 mm, cylindrical, sometimes slightly tapered toward the base, solid, surface smooth and white-velutinous. Latex white, yellowing even when not in contact with the flesh, acrid, turning orange-yellow with KOH.

4a

fom a partial reticulum. Spp.2 Y Basidia clavate,4H5 x 8-11 Um, with 4 sterigmata.

fine ridges, a few of which are connected to

D:

(Cl) Cheilomacrocystidia mostly tusiform, 2&-70 x

5+ !m, abun-

dant; (C2) pleuromacrocystidia fusiform, 60-100 x 5-10 um, abun-

dant. Pp composed of a palisade of lamprocystidioid, thick-walled hairs up to 300 x 3-5 pm, thin-walled apically.

Rsmarka This speoies cannot be distinguished from Lactaius vellereus (No.7n at first sight in the field. ln contrast to the lattet L. beftillonii 6as actid latex (taste it separately from the fl6sh!), which moreover gives an orange-yellow r€action with KOH. Microscopically the two species can be soparated by the shape and size oltheir spores and cystidia and by the apical ends of the pileal hairs, which in L. bertl/onii are thin-walled, and in L. yel/ereus are thick-walled,

Collootion examined and illustrated Ascona Tl (Monte Verita), quad. 1170, el6v. 320 m, in a hardwood forcst

near Fagirq Ouercus, and Casfanea, June 22, 1985, coll. Ionazzil Macchi,2206-85 K 10 (LUG 4563). Other collections: none.

ET cl

Lactarius badiosanguineus

7

-t C\I

r

\sl,4t\

\ \l \ ( )) )\l tr]

,r

u/,/\ (l, 20lrm

lir.i

I )/lt,\

sr Hr ) / -r \(((''\

c

Lactarius bertillonii

c,

fi,

5Y

Et

8

E

o NL

^-.-,€+3

ffi;

I

Lactarius blennius var. blennius (Fr.: Fr.) Fr.

I

Habitat Solitary to gregarious in beech or mixed forests, always neat Fagus, without specific soil requirements, colline, more rarely extending up to montane elevations. Summer-fall. Widespread but not common. Distribution: E. NAf.

Macroscopic features Pileus 40-65 (80) mm across, planoconvex with a slighfly indented center when young, later expanded, wifli an upturned margin and r infundibuliform when old, surface almost even, somewhat viscid when dry strongly slimy when moist, brown- to gray-olive, not infreque-ntty witn nngs ol droplets, margin incurved for a long time, even. Flesh white to grayish-whito, odor weak aid pleasan y

i

spicy, taste acrid. Lamellae white when young, liter wittr gray tinge, L = 95-1 10, I = 1-3, few Iorked, broedv attached to subdecunent, edges entire, dried droplets oI l;tex with a greenish tint. Stip€ 30-50 (70) x B-20 mm, cylindricat,

usually somewhat tapered toward the base, solid when young. hollow when old. surface slightly longitudinally veined, viscid to slimy, whitish-fibrillose on a ai-ngy graygreen background, apex whitish. bruised places si:ohing brownish. Latex white, slowty turning tignt gjray or grbenisn] acrid.

10

Lactarius blennius (Boud.) var. tluens Krglst. = Lactarius fluens Boud.

Microscopic feature6

A:

Spores broadly ellipticat to subglobose. 6.4-€.3 x 5.1-6.5 umj Or 1.2-1.3: ornamenls proiecting up to 1 ym. consisting of sotiiary warts and of ridges, only a few of which ar6 connectei to form partial reticulum. Spp. 30 Y 5 tr,!. Basidia oylindricalto clavate, S2-41 x 9-10 pm, wlth (2) 4 slerig-

i

B: C: D:

mata. (C1) Cheilomalrocystidia fusiform to subutate, 2O-S4 x +.10 pm, abundant: (C2) pleuromacrocystidia similar in shape, 4o-8b x 7-10 um. not abundani. Pp composed of ascending. iregularly curving hyphal ends and periclinal hyphae 113 pm across. intersperseid with occasional lactif ers. all gelatinized.

Remarks The color of 'the piteus in this vanely is very variable ancl can range from gray-ocher to green-olive; therefore. il can be easily confusjd wittr variety rreDs (No. 10), which is found in similar habiiats. However in conlrast to var. b/ennlr]s, var. f/.rens has an only slighfly lubricous pileus and a pileipellis with a different structure. tn aijdition.ihe oiteat maroi; of var. ,/uens is usually set distinctly otf from the color of ttre rest of fie

prleus by a cream-colored to whitish zone. While var b/en ,iJs is strongly associated with Fagus, var f/uens seems to prefer Carplhus as a symbiont in our floristic region.

Colleclion €xamined and illustrated Kleinwangen LU (lbenmoos), quad. 2266, elev. 600 m, in a beech forest on neutralsoil, Oct. 9, 2000. co . FK.09.10-00 K.

Otler collections: quad. 1865, 2066, 2068.

I

= Lactaius blenniusl. albidopallens Lge.

Habitat

Microscopic Ieaturos

Solitary to a few together in beech and mixed hardwood forests, near Carp,nus and Fagus, colline. Summer-fall. Not common. Distribution: E, NAf.

Macroscopic featurss Pileus 40-90 (100) mm across, planoconvex when young,

later plane to somewhat infundibuliform, sometimds alsi with a small umbo, surface even to slightly venose, dull when dry shiny and lubricous when moiat, light olive-gray to gray- or olive-brown, often somewhat zonate, wiin distinct cream-colored zone on the margin, margin inrolled when young, later even or finely costate-striate. Flesh whitish, odor weak and pleasanfly spicy, taste mild at first, then harsh and bitter. Lamellae whitish when young, later light ocher, damaged ptaces spotting btack-lrrowi after 2+ hours, L = 70-90, I = 3, many forked toward the stipe,

i

brolqly attached to subdecurrent, edges entire. Stipe

x 1G-20 mm, cylindrical, solid, surface smooth to slightly longitudinally grooved, dingy whitish with an otive 50-80

tone, spotting brownlsh where bruised and when old. Latex white, turning light olive atter a time, somewhai

acrid.

50

A: B:

C: D:

Spores subglobose to broadly e ipticat, 6.1-7.6 x 5.1-6.5 um: O: 1.1-1.3t ornaments projecting up to 1 Um, composed of a iew solitary_ warts and of ridges which are mosfly zebroid in anangement. Spp. 30 Y 5 M. Basidia clavate to ventricose, 40-50 x 8-'t 1 !m, with (1) 4 sterig-

mata.

{C1) Cheilomacrocystidia fusiform to subutate, 20-65 x 3.5-9 um. abundant: (C2) pleuromacrocystidia simitar in shape, 35_9b x

5-10 Um, abundant. Pp composed of asc€nding, periclinal, and irregularly intertwined hyphae 2-1 0 pm across.

Remarks The variety presented here is a doubte o, the typical variety, and it is as variable asthe latterin shape and color Thov Can best be;eoarated tv the conspicuous pale cream-colored to wnitish margind z6ne on th6 pileus of var. fluers, which usually dislinguEhes lt. Dii'erences can also be found-micro-scopically. ln contrasl to var. b/enrrus. the ridges on the spores var i?uens are conspicuously zebroid in anangeme:nt, and its ,.of pileipellis has interwoven hyphae.

Cotlecdon €xaminod Neuenkirch LU (Chusenrainwatd). quad. 2166. et6v. 570 m, near some Carphvs, June 18,2000. coll. Meinen, t806-00 BA. photographed in a different quad,

Other collectlons: quad. 2557.

-actarius blennius var. blennius

I

E E

20 Um

*.

-actarius blennius var. fluens

#

30Y5M

Et E

o N

5pm

#T,

30Y5M

11

Lactarius brunneoviolaceus

I

M.P Christ.

= Lactarius robeftianus Bon

Habitat Solitary

Microscopic feafurgs

to

gregarious, sometimes slightly clustered, in dwarf-shrub heaths near Sa/lx herbacea, Salix retusa, and Salix reticulata, alpine. Late summer. Widespread but not common. Distribution: E.

Macroscopic features Pileus 20-35 mm across, planoconvex when young, later plane and indented in the center, usually with a small, acute

umbo, surface even, dull when dry shiny and lubricous when moist, gray- to red-brown with a violet tone, not or only slightly concentrically zoned, but otten spotted, margin even and incurved for a long time. Flesh white, turning violet in places aftsr several minutes, odor faintly

A:

B: C: D:

Spores broadly elliptical, 7.&10.7 x 6.H.3 pm; Q:1.1-1.4;ornaments proiecting up to 0.8 um, composed of several small warts and of ridges, together forming a nearly complete reliculum. Spp.

10Y Basidia clavale-ventricose,

5H5

x 1G12 pm, with (1, 2, 3) 4 ste-

igmata. (C1) Cheilomacrocystidia fusiform to lanceolate, 25-85 x 6-10 pm,

abundant; (C2) pleuromacrocystidia similar, 40-85

x 6-11

pm,

sparce.

Pp composed of ascending hyphae, some with clavate ends, r periclinal, 3-7 Um acrcss, all

2-5 pm across, deeper hyphae gelatinized.

Remarks Lactarius pseudouvidus (No. 48) also grows at alpine elevations, and

its latex also turns violel. According to the original description of

cream-colored, L = 55-65, I

CHRISTIANSEN (1941) and KUEHNER (1975a) as well as our own oollection, it difiers from the species described here by an ocheF to gray-brown pileus, which sometimes also has a pale olive tone, and by lamellaewhich are cream-yellowish when young and later become light ocher ln addition, the color of the spore deposit of these two species

hollow, surface smooth, light cream-colored when young, later violet-spotted. Latex white, turning violet afler several

the same habitats, but their lat6x does notturn violet.

minutos, mild.

Collection examined and illustrated Davos GR (Fliielapass), quad. 1879, elev. 2400 m, on dwarf-shrub

spicy, taste mild. Lamellae whitish when young, later light

= 1-3, broadly attached to decurrent, a lew forked, edges entire. Stipe 25-35 x 3-6 mm, cylindrical to somewhat clavate, solid to narrowly

is somewhat different. other small species of Lactarus also occur in

heaths near Sa/ix herbacea, Aug. 21, 1999, coll. FK, 2'108-99 K 1.

Other collecllons: none.

12

Lactarius camphoratus

tr

(Bull.: Fr.) Fr. = LactariJs cimlcanus Batsch

Habiiat

Mioroscopio featurea

r

A:

KRIEGLSTEINER (2000) more rarely near other conirers as well as near Fagus, prelerred substrate is very mossy tree stumps, colline to montane. Summer-fall. Common. Distribution: E, NA, As, NAf.

B: C:

Usually gregarious in coniferous and mixed forests on

acidic, nutrient-poor soils near Plcea, according to

D: Macroscopic features Pileus 25-45 (50) mm across, convex when young, later plane and indented in the center to infundibuliform, usually

with a small, acute umbo, surrace even to slightly tuberculate or somewhat pitted, dull, dark red- to orange-brown, unicolorous, margin incurved for a long time, even. Flesh beige with a reddish tint, dark red-brown under the pileal cuticle, odor when fresh weak and not distinctive or like

Maggi spice, coumarin, or chicory when dry obtrusively

and strongly like these spices, taste mild,

pleasant,

somewhat astringent. Lamellae cream-colored with a reddish tint when young, later reddish-brown, L = 60, I = 3-7, broadly attached, somg forked, edges entire. Stipe 25-40 (60) x 5-8 mm, cylindrical, hollow, surface pinkbrown and finely white-pruinose when young, later glabre-

scent and red-brown. Latex white, unchanging, mild to slightly bitter.

52

Spores subglobose to globose,6.1-7.8 x 5.&-7.1 pm; Q: 1.G-1.2; omaments projecting upto 1.2 Um, consisting olseveralwads and of ridges, which together form a partial reticulum. Spp. 30 Y 5 M. Basidia clavate, 3G-45 x 9-10 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilomacrocystidia subulate, 2H5 x 3.5-7 pm, abundant, interspersed with occasional cylindrical-clavate cells with many septa, up to 45 x 6 pm; (C2) pleuromacrocystidia subulate to Iusiform, 35-55 x 7-'10 pm, sparse. Pp composed of subglobose cells 15-35 x 1G-25 pm, occasional end cells exseded, 15-25 x 3-9 um.

R€marks This species strongly resembles Lactarius rufus (No. 58) and L. badiosangui/Eus (No. 7), both of which occur in similar habitats. However, L. rutus has a markedly acrid taste, while L. badiosanguineus is mih or at most bitterish and has yellowing flesh when cut. The shucture ofthe pileipellis is completely difierent in the two species. Lactanus serfluus

(No. 66) could also cause confusion. However, it is associated with Quercus or Fagu6, and its pileipellis is similar in structur€ to that of L. camphotafus.

Collection examined and illustrated Hizel ZH (Chrutzelen), quad, 2368, elev. 680 m, at the edge oI a peaty moor near Picea and Betula, on a very mossy tree stump, July 25, 2000, coll. FK,2507-00 K 1.

Other collections: quad. 1S67, 2066, 2068, 2168,2366.

20 pm

\' llE,

,

/,-/o\

I,J\

A \'r'l

/iilll//

\:il

/

uu

ffiq

10Y

Lactarius camphoratus

20 pm

o

5pm

{sffi

30YsM 53

13

Lactarius chrysorrheus

+

Fr.

= Lactarius theiogalus (Bull.:

Fr.) Gray non ss. auct.

Microscopic Ieatuics

Habitat Usually gregarious in hardwood and mixed forests near Quercus, more rarely near Castanea satlya, on damp soil in warm locations, colline. Late summer-fall. Rare. Distribution: E, NA, As, NAf.

Macroscopic teatures Pileus 40-75 (90) mm across, planoconvex when young, later plane with an indsnted center, surface even, orangeyellow to reddish-ocher and with darker concentric zones, white-pruinose when dry somewhat lubricous when moist, margin incurved and somewhat appressed-fibrillose only when very young, later even and glabrous. Flesh whitish, immediately turning sultur-yellow when cut, odor faintly and pleasantly sweetish, taste mild at first, then bitterish to somewhat acrid. Lamellae light cream-colored when young, later light ocher to reddish-ocher, L = 35-45, I = 7-9, broadly attached and subdecurrent, edges entire, some rorked near the stipe. Stipe 3G60 (80) x 6-10 (1 5) mm, cylindrical with a slightly tap€red base, solid, surface white and finely pruinose when young, later concolorous with the pileus and sometimes brownish-spotted. Latgx white and immediately turning sulfur-yellow in air, mild at first, then bitter and somewhat acrid.

r

14

Lactarius circellatus

Ar

B: C: D:

Spores subglobose to broadly elliptical, 6.3+.6 x 5.H.8 pm; '1.1-'1.3; ornaments projecting up to 0.8 pm, composed of several warts and of ridges, together forming an almosl complele

Q:

reticulum.Spp.40Y5M. Basidia olavate, 32-45 x 9-11 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilomacrocystidia fusiform to subulate,45-65

x 5-9 pm,

abundant; (C2) pleuromacrocystidia similar in shape, 5$-87 x 7-11 pm, abundant. Pp composed of iregularly intertwined hyphae many hyphal ends ascending and exsed6d.

2.H

pm across,

Remarks This species is characterized by an orange-yellow to reddish-ocherish

+ zonate pileus with an even margin which is innately tibrillose only when young, and most importantly by itswhite latex which immediately

turns sulfur-yellow. lf along with the above features one notes its occurence near Ouercus, this species is unmistakable in th€ field. other species of Lactarius with latex which turns sulfur-yellow are L. scrobrbulatus (No. 64) and L. /eonis (No. 33), both with a lubricous pileus, sorobiculate stipe, and a fimbriate-strigose pileal margin. Both ocour in coniterous forests.

Collectlon examlned and lllustrated AbtwilAG (Nilberich), quad. 2266, el6v. 600 m, in a mixed forest n6ar Quercus, Fagus, Populus tremula, Oct. 18, 2000, coll, BA, 1810-00 BA 1.

Other collections: quad. 2067.

I

Ft.

Microscopic fuature6

Habitat Solitary to gregarious in hardwood forests, gardens, and parl \'"-:

,,h,

w ffi

.-2:>,

\.Brr\

'qH 20 Y,2 M

249

209

I

Russula versicolor J. Schaff.

= Russula blackfordiae Peck

Microgcopio leatures

Habitat Usually gregarious in various forest communities as well as in parks and gardens, always near Betula on acidic to neu-

tral, moderatsly dry to wet soils, colline. Summer-fall. Not common. Distribution: E, NA, As.

A:

B: C:

Macroscopic ,eatules

Pileus 2M5 mm across, hemispherical when young, later convex to plane and indented in the center, surface even, silky, lubricous when moist, very variable in color in the same locality, wine-red with an olive-ocher center or cream-yellow with a greenish overtone, margin even and obtuse, slightly striate when old, cuticle peelable up to hallway to the center. Flesh white with a tendency to discolor yellow, odor faintly fruity, taste mild, but somewhat acrid to acrid in the lamellae. Lamellae white when young, later increasingly light ocheryellow, L = 100-130, l= 0-1, notched, many forked, edges entire. Stipe 20-50 x 6-12 mm, cylindrical to somewhat clavate, solid to chambered, sur,ace longitudinally venose, white when young, later yellowing, especially toward the base. Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: FeSO. light pink, guiac dark green, phenol dark wine-red.

O:

r

Spores subglobose to ellipiical, 6.5+.4 x 5.&-7.0 pm: Q: 1.1-1.4; ornaments proiecting up to 0.5 (0.8) !m, consisting of mostly rcunded and som6 elongated warts, most of which are connected, but only indistinctly in places. Spp. 50 Y 20 M. Basidia clavate,45-50 x 1G-12 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilooystidia fusiform, with or without an apioal appendage, ,16-70 x 8-11 pm; (C2) pleurocystidia similar, 50-90 x 9-'12 pm, all cystidia abundant, in SBA yellowish and partly with gray-black contents. Pp with (D1) cylindrical, in part branched hairs with a single septum,2-3 pm ac6ss, not oronly slightlytapered apically, hyphal walls gelatinized, interspersed with (D2) cylindrical pileocystidia with one or two septa, 5-7 ym across, with faintly gray-black contenls in SBA.

Remarks This species is often difficult to identiry, since it can appear with exkaordinarily variable pileal colors in th€ same locality. For example, both young and mature frbs. have a wine-red, wine-brown, cream-yellow, or green-yellow pileus, which is generally discolored ocherish lo olive in the centet Even cream-colored pilei with a pale pink tone in the margi nal zone are also encountered, Reliable idontification characters are primarily its habitat under 8etu/a and the conspicuous yellow discoloration of its stipe.

Collection €xamined

Hohenrain LU (Sonderschule), quad.2266, elev. 600 m, in a garden near Betula, July 15, 2000, coll. KI/, 1507-00 K 10- Photographed in quad.2166. Other colleotions: quad. 2066, 2166.

210

T

Russula vesca Fr.

= Russula heterophylla var. vesca Melzet &Zvaru

Micbscopic loatures

Habitat Gregarious in hardwood and coniferous forests primarily neat Fagus and Picea, but also near other hardwoods and conifers, on neutral to acidic, damp soils, colline to montane. Summer-fall. Widespread and common. Distribution: E, NA, AS, NAf,

Pileus 40-80 (100) mm across, hemispherical when young, later plane and indented in the center, more rarely infundibuliform, surface radially-venose to somewhat tuberculate, meat-red, pink-brown with an olive tint, also lilac-brown or

wine-red rust-colored, slightly lubricous when moist, cuticle peelable up to halfway to the center, margin even and usually with the ends o, the lam€llae not reaching it even when young. Flesh white, odor faint and not distinc-

tive, taste mild, nutty. Lamellae white when young, later

l=0-(1),

narrowly attached,

many forked, edges almost entire. Stipe 40-70 x 12-30 mm,

cylindrical to slightly ventricose or somewhat tapered toward the base, solid, sudace finely reticulate-venose, white when young, later sometimes with a pink tinge in places and the base faintly browning. Chemical reactions on the pileal llesh: FeSOI pink-orange, guiac blue-green.

250

Spores subglobose to elliptical, 5.H.0 x 5.H.2 lmi Q: 1.1-1.3; ornaments projecting up to 0.5 pm, consisting of numerous warts which are only sparsely and indistinctly connect€d by fine v6ins.

Spp.30Y2M,

B: Basidia clavate, 3&50 x 8-9 pm, with 4 sterigmata. C: (C1) Cheilocystidia fusiform, 35-95 x 4-9 pm, abundant; (C2) ptou-

H

Macloscopic features

cream-colored, L = 100-130,

A:

D:

pm, not abundant, all rocystidia cylindrical to fusiform, 2G70 x cystidia constricted apically in places and with laintly gray-black contents in SBA, in places refractilo under phase-contrast. Pp with (D1) cylindrical to tapered, often septate and branched hairs 3-5 !m across, interspersed with (D2) pileocystidia 3-5 pm across, in places with faintly gray-black contents in SBA, and (D3) thick-walled, setalike, acute hairs (crins)2-3 pm across.

Remarka The mild, if also somewhat bitter, Russu/a rosea (No. 194)can b6 found in comparable habitats in beech forests and prcduces similarfrbs., and theretore can be confused with R vesca. However. because of its taste like pencil wood, R rosea can be separated from F, vesca even in the field, ln addition, R rosea has larger, almost globose, distinctly reticulate-costate spores, and lacks thick-walled, acute hairs (crins) in its

pileip€llis; also, the reaction of its pileocystidia to SBA is completely n6gative.

Collection examined and illustrated Seelisberg UR (Breitlohnwald), quad. 2068, elev. 720 m, in a mixed forest near Plcea, Abies, Quercus, Sept. 15, 2000, coll. ZW. 1509-00

zw

1.

Olher collections: quad. 2066, 2166, 2175, 2366, 2367.

Russula versicolor

effe@

50 Y 20

tvJ

Russula vesca

-1.-

lrtuilt] lu

:op".,'

\ai;;i r( id'$ \;."

t))|

A

.,aa--..-\

'-

251

211

Russula veternosa

I

J. Scheff. = Fussu/a schiffneri Sing. Fr. ss.

Mlcroscopic t€atures

Habitat Solitary to gregarious in hardwood forests near Fagus and Quercus, on moderately to strongly basic, dry to damp, nutrient-poorsoils, colline. Summer-fall. Flare. Distribution: E, As, NAf.

Macroscopic features Pileus 40-60 (80) mm across, hemispherical when young, later convex to plane and indented in the center, surface even, dull when dry, lubricous and shiny when moist, light purple- to flesh-red, usually fading to light ocher to creamcolored toward the center, margin when young even, later striate, cuticle peelable up to halfway to the center. Flesh white, odor sweetish, honey-like, taste mild at rirst, acrid after a being chewed awhile. Lamellae whitish when young, later ocher-yellow L = 160-200, I = 0-1, narrowly attached,

r

some forked, edges entire. Stipe 30-60 x 1G-20 mm, cylindrical, base slightly clavate to somewhat tapered, soon pithy-hollow, surface when young even, soon longitudinally venose, white when young, later discoloring some-

what gray-ocherish. Chemical reactions on ihe pileal flesh: FgSO. light winered, guiac gray-green, phenol wine-brown.

A:

B: C: D:

Spores subglobose to elliptioal, 7.3-9.3 x 6.2-7.8 pm; Q: 1,1-1.3; ornaments projecting up to 1 pm, consisting of solitary, in places somewhat elongated warts. Spp. 60 Y 28 M. Basidia clavate, 35-45 x 9-11.5 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilocystidia fusifom to clavate, 45-85 x 7-10.5 pm, obtuse orwith a small apical projection; (C2) pleurocystidia fusiform, more rarely cylindrical, 55-75 x 8-12 !m, like the cheilocystidia apically, allcystidia abundant and with faintly gray-black contents in SBA, Pp with (D1) cylindncal, + tlexuous, in part branched haks with one or two septa, 2.5-4 pm across, slightly enlarged or tapered apioally, interspersed with (D2) clavate pileocystidia 5.t-12 pm across, generally with 1 to 4 septa, but many non-septate ones scattered among them, with glay-black contents in SBA.

Remarks This species has several doubles ocourring in its habitat, i. a. Fussu/a gigaspema declpiers (No. 117'J, R. vinosobrunnea (No. 213),

R

(No. 140), and F, o/lyacea (No. 173), which makes it advisable to

examine thek specific features carefully, such as odor and taste, pileal colo( and pileocystidia. since the color of the spore deposil is very srmilar rn all these species. Their reaction to phenol is also a good differentiating character.

Colloction examined and

illustated

Mols SG. quad. 2174, elev. 580 m. in a hardwood forest near FagLrs and Quercus, Aug. 10, 1993, coll. N4artinelli, 1008-93 K

10.

Other collections:

]

I

non" I I I

I I I

212

Russula vinosa Lindblad = Russula decolorans Fr. var. obscura Romell

I

r

I I I I I I

Micrqscopic

Habitat Usually gregarious in coniferous and mixed forests near Plcea, more rarely near Abies, Pinus, and Betula, on acidic,

damp

to

moist soils, colline

to montane. Summer-fall.

A:

I

teatures

Spores subglobose lo elliptical. 8.4-10.9 x 7.1-9.2 pm: O: 1.1-1.3; ornaments projectrng up to 0.8 pm. consisting of acutely conical, solitary warts. only a few of which are indistinctly connected.

40Y10M.

Spp.

NA, AS.

B: C:

Macrcscopic features

D: Pp with (D1) cylindncal, septate, and

Rather common in montane spruce forests, Distribution: E,

5H5

(C1) Cheilocystidia fusiform

sterigmata.

to clavate. most obtuse. 50-1'10

7-'12 Um;(C2) pleurocystidia simila( 35-125 x 8-14 Um. abundant and w h faintly gray-black conlents in

Pileus 50-80 (100) mm across, hemispherical when young, later campanulate-convex to plane and indented in the center and undulating, surface even, dull when dry shiny and lubricous when moist, wine-red with a dark brown to blackish cente( margin faintly striate, cuticle peelable up to hallway to the center. Flesh white, reddish under the cuticle and in the cortex o, the stipe, odor like dried apple slices, taste mild. Lamellae whitish when young, later light ocheryellow, L = 12O-14O, | = 0-(1), narrowly attached, a few

forked, edges entire and blackening. Stipe .10-25

Basidia clavate.

x 11-13 pm. wilh 4

4H0

x

mm, cylindrical, pithy-solid, surface even to slightly longitudinally venose, while and white-pruinose when young, later glabrescent and discoloring gray-black. Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: FeSO. faintly grayblack, guiac dark green, phenol wine-red.

x

allcyslidia

SBA.

I I I I I I I I I

sparsely branched hairs I 2-3.5 pm across, hyphal walls slightly gelatinized. interspersed I

on with

with (D2) cylindrical. in part apically tapered primordial hyphae, which distinct small and large drops develop after treatment

fuchsin. Remarks

I I I

I

Simila( relatively common species in acidic spruce forests are Eussu/a I qtreletii (No. 188) with acrid flesh and a red stipe, F. xerampelina I (No. 217) with a herring-like odo( and R turci (No. 206) with an odor I iodoform. These all have smaller spores. and their flesh turns pink I (No. FeSO,. Farssu/a sa/donla 199) grows near Pirus on acidic soils I also can produce similarfrbs, lt is easy to separate by the red reaction I of its flesh and lamellae lo

of with and

NH.. and illustratod

I

Collection examin€d S6renberg LU (Laubersmadghack), q'.rad. 1864, elev. 13OO m. in acidic spruce forest. Aug.

21 .

2000. coll. FK. 2108-00 K

Other oollections: quad. 1559,

1.

an

I I I

1965. I I I I I

l 2s2

I

/

Russula veternosa

a

il

]uW 20 pm

[1

'fl"l ?'n\

U

"\l\\ er\l\i

*i*#,r#

I

20 pm

5l \\HHll

Russula vinosa

60Y28M

ET

EI

ol Nl

N

$\$\( \\\ wlil '/ o. "fl , :

A

A\

l

\[il[ffin(

40Y10[,,1 253

213

Russula vinosobrunnea

I

(Bres.) Bomagn.

Mlcrcscoplc leaiur€a

Habitat Gregarious in hardwood and mixed lorests near Fagus, Quercus, and Carpinus, on poor, clayey soils above chalk, colline. Summerjdl. Rare. Distribution: E.

Macroscopic features Pileus 50-80 (100) mm across, hemispherical when young, later convex to plane or infundibuliform, surface even to slightly uneven and radially wrinkled-tuberculate, dull when dry, shiny and slightly lubricous when moist, chocolatetobacco brown, dark red- to mahogany-brown toward the center, ocherish in the center, margin even and acute, slightly striate only when old, cuticle peelable up to halfway to the center. Flesh white, odor faint and not distinctive, pleasant, taste mild. Lamellae whitish when young, later pale yellow, L = 150-200, I = 0-1, narrowly aiiached, many forked, edges entire. Stipe 40-60 x 10-20 mm, slightly clavate, solid, surface fin€ly longitudinally venose, white and generally red{lushed in places, especially toward the

A:

Spores subglobose to elliptical, 7.7-9.6 x 6.5-7.9 pm; Q: 1.1-1 .3; ornamenls proiecting up to 1 Um, consisting of in part solitary warts, but many strongly connected by ridges but not lorming a reticulum. Spp.60 Y 28 M. Basidia clavate, 35-50 x 11-12 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilocystidia mostly fusiform, 50-75 x 7-12 pm, obtuse or with a somewhat narrowed apex, abundant; (C2) pleurocystidia similar,4$-75 x 7-11 pm, not abundant, allcystidia without a reaction in SBA. Pp with (D1) polymorphic, otten flexuous hairs 2-5 Um across, tapered, conslricted, or fusiform apically; (D2) long, cylindrical hairs 3-5 pm across, very strongly resembling primordial hyphae, but without an exudate of droplets or crystals. No pileocystidia

j

B: C: D:

seen.

R6marks

apex,

Simihr, likewise mild russulas are Fussu/a Dtegra var. irtegra (No, 148) and var. oreas (No. 149), and Russula mustelina (No. 165). However, all three are associated with conifers and lack a red flush on the stipe. ln addition, they have pileocystidia in the pileipellis. The mor6 common Fossu/a o/ryacea (No. 173) grows in habitats similar to those of F. y/hosobrurrea. ll can have a similarly color€d pibus and stipe and is likewise mild. Howev€r, it is larger (pileus 7G180 mm across) and has signif icantly larger spores.

Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: FeSOr orange-red, guiac greenish, phenol wine- io violet-red.

Colleclion examined and illustrated Unterteften SG, quad. 2173, elev. 600 m, in a mixed forest near Fagus, Aug. 16,2000, coll, Martinelli, 1608-00 K 10.

Olher collections: none-

214

Russula violeipes

tr

Ou6l.

= Russula amoena

var. y,b/e,pes Qu6l.

Habitat Usually gregarious

Micrcscopic Ieafues

in hardwood and mixed forests

on nutrient- and base-poor, dry to damp soils, primarily near Fagus, but also near other hardwoods, more rarely near Picea, colline to montane. Late spring to early iall. Widespread and in some years common. Distribution: E, NA, As,

A:

B: C:

NAf.

D: Macroscopic featules

Pileus 4H0 mm across, hemispherical when young, soon plane and indented to slightly umbilicate in the center, surface even, dull, pale lemon-yellow when young, later often faintly olive in the center and usually with a tinge of pinklilac in places, margin even to faintly striate, incurved for a long time, cuiicle peelable up to halfway to the center. Flesh white, firm, odor herring-like (like Russula xerampelina, No. 2'17), taste mild, slightly astringent. Lamellae whitish when young, later pale cream-colored, L = 125-140, | = G{1), narrowly attached, many forked, edges entire. Stipe 40-70 x 12-24 mm, cylindrical, at times somewhat tapered toward the base, solid when young, chambered when old, surface even to finely longitudinally venose, white and finely pruinose when young, later often with a pink-lilac flush in places. Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: Fesoo pink, guiac dark green, phenol wine-brown.

254

Spores globose to broadly elliptical, 6.9-8.9 x 6.2-7.8 pm; O: 1.0-1.2; ornaments projecting up to 0.7 Um, oonsisting of numerous warts, most of which are connected by ridges to form a reticulum. Spp. 5 Y Basidia ventricose, 45-65 x 11-14 Um, with 4 sterigmata. (C1) Cheilocystidia fusiform, 27-80 x 3-14 Um, abundant; (C2) pleurocystidia lusiform to clavate, 8G-115 x 12-15 um, abundant, all cystidia negative with SBA. Pp with abundant, exserted, lanceolate hairs, most ot which arise from subglobose and often catenate cells, lanceolate part ,10-90 x &-7 pm, subglobose cells 7-25 x s-15 Um.

Remarks The collection described here represents the yellow form oI the species, which lacks or has only rudimentary lilac tones on the pileus and/ orstipewhen fresh, This coloration appears at the latest when the frbs. aredried, The other lorms ollhis mushroom, whosecolors extend from ocher-through olive-yellow to wine-reddish and lilac-violet, also have a stipecolored with thes€ tones, and are therefore easier to recognize. ln order to exclude the similarly colored Buss!/a xerampelina \No.2171, the FeSO4 reaction of the stipe flesh should be used (KAERCHER & SEIBT 1991). However, it is always possible to identify it with more certainty by the hairs in the pileipellis.

Collection examined and illustrated Meggen LU (MeggeMald), quad.2167, elev.600 m, in a mixed forest neat Fagus, Abies, Fraxinus, above conglomerate (Nagelfluh), Sept. 4, 2000, coll. FK, 0409-00 K.

Other colleotions: quad , 2066, 2264, 2267 , 2367 , 2563.

60Y28M

Russula violeipes

215

Russula virescens

tr

(Schaetf. ex Pers.) Fr.

Habitat Usually gregarious in hardwood and mixed forests, cemeteries, and parks, primarily near Fagus and Quercus, more rarely near Ables and Picea, on basg- and nutrient-poor, moderately dry to damp soils, colline to montane. Summerfall. Not common. Distribution: E, NA, As, NAf.

Macroscopic teatules Pileus 60-100 (130) mm across, hemispherical when young, later convex to a plane with a slightly indented center, surface even to somewhat tuberculate when young, soon areolate-squamose, dry dull, not lubricous even when moist, blue-green, olive-green, also with yellow and

ocherish colors when old, margin even to funowedcrenate. Flesh white, odor weak and pleasantly fruity, unpleasantly cheesy after several hours, taste mild, nutty. Lamellae white when young, later cream-colored with a pink tint, L = 120-.160, I = 0-1, narrowly attached, a ,ew forked, edges entire. Stipe 40-80 (100) x 20-30 (40) mm,

cylindrical, base at times somewhat tapered, solid to spongy-hollow surface slightly venose-tuberculate, white

Microscopic teatureg Spores elliptical, 6.H.8 x 4.9-6.5 um; Q: 1.2-1.3: ornamonts projecting up to 0.6 pm, consisting of numerous warts, most of which are connected by veins and ridges. Spp. 20 Y 2 M. B: Basidia clavate, 4G-52 x 9-10 Um, with 4 sterigmata. C: (Cl) Cheilocystidia fusiform to cylindrical, often apically constricted or with outgrowths, 4H0 x 4-6 pm, abundant; (C2) pleurocystidia similar, 4(F90 x 7-9 Um, abundant. All cystidia not or

A:

D:

only weakly reacting in SBA, Pp composed of a thin layer of subglobose to polymorphic cells 1H0 x 8-25 pm from which hairlike hyphal ends 1(F80 x 3-8 pm arise. No pileocystidia seen.

R€mark6 Bussu/a aeruglrea (No. 86) and R. hetetuphy a (No. 145) can produce

6imilarly colored frbs., and they occur in comparable habitats. Both likewise have mild flesh, but they have differently colored spores. ln doubtful cases they can be clearly separated microscopically from R v/rescers. Both spocies have pileocystidia, and do not have a cellular pileipellis.

Colleclion examined and illustated Brienzwiler BE Wyssenseeli), quad, '17M, elev,630 m, in a beech

lorest, Aug. 20, 1977, coll. JB, 2008-77 BR 6. Other collections: quad .2066,2367

.

and somewhat pruinose when young, later otten brownish-

spotted. Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: FeSO4 pink-orange, guiac brownish-gre€n, phenol light pink.

216

Russula viscida

tr

Kudrna

Habitat Usually gregarious in coniferous and mixed rorests near Abies, Picea, and Pinus, more rarely near Fagus, on damp, primarily alkaline, base-rich, more rarely somewhat acidified soils above chalk, colline to montane. Summerjall. Widespread but not common. Distribution: E.

Macroscopic teatures Pileus 40-120 (180) mm across, hemispherical when young, later plane, not or only slightly indented in the center, surface radially venose, dull when dry lubricous and shiny when moist, variably colored but mostly purplebrown, wine-brown, brownish-red, sometimes spotted with ocher, generally darker to blackish in the center, margin acute, even to undulating, cuticle only slightly peelable. Flesh whitish, yellowing or browning in places where cut, odor weak and not distinctive, taste almost mild, but acrid in the lamellae. Lamellae white when young, later light yellow to cream-colored, L = 180-260, | = 0-1, notched, some torked, edges entire to slightly crenate and browning in places. Stipe 40-80 (100) x 2G-40 mm, cylindrical to clavate, solid, surface venose-wrinkled, white when young, later yellowing and conspicuously browning from the base

Microscoplc leatuGs

A:

B: C: D:

Sporos subglobose to elliptical, 7.6-1 1.1 x 6.1-9.2 pm; O: 1.'l-1.3; ornaments projecting up to 0.5 Um, consisting of roundish and elongaled warts, most of which are connected and form a reticu-

late-moniliform pattern. Spp. 10 Y Basidia clavate, 40-50 x 10-13 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (Cl) Chejlocyslidia fusiform. with an apical proiection, 45-115 x 8-9 pm; (C2) pleurocystidia similar but ihe apical proiection less developed, 50-1'15 x 8-10 Um, all cystidia abundant and not or only weakly reacting in SBA. Pp with (D1) subulate, cylindrical, to subclavate hairs 2-4 pm across, some septate and branched, hyphal walls slightly gelatinized, interspersed with (D2) cylindrical to clavate pileocystidia, some constricted apically, 4-8 pm across, with one to several septa, with faintly gray-black contents in SBA.

B6merks The similar, mild Russu/a integra with its two varieties rhfegra (No. 148) and oreas (No. 149) also grows in coniferous forests above chalk. They differ not onlydistinctly bya markedly darker spore deposit, but also by completely difforent ornamentation on the spores. Russula atroputpurea (No. 97), which occurs wiih Ouercus and Fagus, also produces Irbs. similar to thos6 of R ylsclda and likewis€ has a pale spore deposit, but it has acrid flesh and smaller spores. Bussu/a y/bclda is best recognized in thefield by the ocher-brown discoloration occurring from the base upward on the stipe.

Collection examined and illustrated

upward.

Emmen LU (Rifiigwald), quad. 2166, elev. 530 m, in a mix6d forest near Plcea and Ables, Oct. 13, 2000, coll. BA, 1310-00 Ba 2.

Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: FeSO. gray-pink, guiac dark green, phenol wine-brown.

Other collections: quad. 0871. 2066. 2364.

256

Russula virescens

dflfur

lu;yil WK

20 Y,2 M

Russula viscida

ti0\ll 0, 6t fl \\^, l;( nl/ " \\Kl( ffin Ytrpv$

pw'**' D,

\i" /" \

,ry

P

I llT)/- /l

^ (lnrYAl)Jl ,."

[\1\ I c l-l

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"\uLJ

W#w 257

217

Russula xerampelina

tr

(Schaeff.) Fr. = Pussu/a erythropus Peltereau = Russu/a sangu,nea Vel.

Habitat

Microscoplc fuatures

Usually gregarious in coniferous and mixed forests, primatily neat Picea and Pinus, more rarely near other conifers,

on moderately dry to damp soils, soil-generalist, colline to montane. Common. Distribution: E, NA, As, NAf, Au.

Macroscopic features Pileus 5G90 (120) mm across, hemispherical when young,

later plane and sometimes undulating, surface r even, dull when dry slimy when moist, wine- to carmine-red, dark brown to almost black ioward the center, margin obtuse and even, only rarely somewhat striate, cuticle peelable up to halfway to the center. Flesh white, quickly browning when cut, odor like hening or cooked crustaceans, taste mild. Lamellae cream-colored when young, later increasingly yellow-ocher, L = 130-180, I = 0, notched, not or onty sparsely foked, edges entire. Stip€ 40-50 (65) x i G-20 (25) mm, cylindrical to clavate, at first pithy-solid, tater hollow, surface longitudinally venose, white and flushed partly to entirely red, turning yellow when rubbed. Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: FeSO. light graygreen, guiac blue-green, phenol reddish-brown.

A:

B: C: D:

Spores subgloboseto elliptical,7.G10.3 x 6.1-4.3

Remarks The russula treated herc is lhe most common and widespread form of

this sp€cies. Several other varieties and forms ar6 described in the literature on the basis of differencos in the color of the frbs,, e. g. in SCHAEFFER ('1952), BON (1988), and GALLI ('1996). Thus, the variety with a wino-red pileus is nam6d var amoenipes, that with an olivegreen pileus is var o/lyasc€ns, and that with a gray-brown pileus is var mu6ina. To separato all of lhese ,rom similar species, one must pay attention to th6 typical cha'Ecterc of R, xerampelinar the browning flesh when cut, the herring-like odor, and the green reaction olthe flesh with FeSO..

Colloction examinod and illustrated Adelboden BE (Gilbach), quad. 1460, elev. 1350 m, in a spruce lorest above chalk, Sept. 1, 2001, coll. FK,0109-01 K. Other collections: quad . 2165,

218

Russula zvarae

pm;Q:1.1-j.4;

ornaments projecting up to 1 !m, consisting of large, in part elongated, mostly solltary sparsely conn€cted warts. Spp. 60 y 28 M. Basidia clavate, 4HO x 11-14 pm, with 4 sterigmata. (C'l) Cheilocystidia fusiform, some with an apical poection, 4H5 x 6-12 pm; (C2) pleurocystidia fusilorm to cylindricat, only a lew with an apical projection, 65-'125 x 7-12 Um, all cystidia abundant and with faintly gray-black conlents in SBA. Pp with (D1) r cylindrical. often apically taper€d. septate, sparsety branched hairs 2.5-4 pm across, hyphal walls slighlly getatinizod, interspersed with (D2) cylindrical, in part apically constricted pileocystidia 3-5.5 pm across, contents in part gray-black in SBA.

2167 , 2266, 2366,

2466.

I

Vel.

Habitat Solitary to a few together in hardwood forests and parks near Quercus and Castanea, on damp to moist, neutral to alkaline soils with abundant bases and nutrients, colline. Summer-fall. Rare. Distribution: E, NAf.

Macroscopic features Pileus 35-70 mm across, convex when young, soon expanded and i infundibuliform, surface pruinose to slightly scurfy, slightly radially wrinkled, dutl, satiny and viscid toward the center, variable in colorfrom salmon-pink to carmine- or purple-red, paler toward the margin and sometimes ocherish in tho center, margin even, cuticle peelable up to halfway to the center. Flesh white, odorfaint and not distinctive, taste mild. Lamella€ whiie when young, later cream-colored, L = .120-150, | = 0-1, narrowly attached, a few foked, edges entire. Stipe 4HO x 8-15 mm, a cylindrical, solid, soon hollow, surface longitudinally venose, whne, base ,aintly to distinc y red-flushed.

Chemical reactions on the pileal flesh: FeSOr light pink, guiac light green, phenol red-brownish, SV and SBA negative (not currant-red).

258

Micro6copic feafureg

A:

B: C: D:

Spores subglobose to elliptical, 6.4-€.7 x 5.}-6.9 pm; Q: 1.1-1.3; ornaments proiecting up to 0.5 pm, consisting of mostly connected, in part elongated warts. Spp. 10 Y Basidia clavat6,30-45 x $-11 Um, with ('1, 2) 4 sterigmata. (Cl) Cheilocystidia fusiform, 4H0 x 8-'11 Um, with or without a protrusion or small projection apicallyi (C2) pleurocystidia similar, 4G-75 x &13 pm, all cystidia not abundant and with only fainty gray-black oontents in SBA. Pp with 1D1) mostly acute, flexuous, in part branched hairs 3-7 pm across, interspersed with (D2) slender, mostly apically tapered, septate, encrusted primordial hyphae 3-4 Um aoross,

Remarks Som6 color variants ot this species look very similar to Aussu/a emeti clcolor (No. 128), which is likewise found in wafm hardwood forests

and parks. The differences ar6 microscopic, in that the spores ot R emetlb,colo/ have solitary. only sparsely connected warls. Atso, the hairs in its pileipellis are + cylindrical and narrower. and the pnmordial hyphae are not or only rarely somewhat tapered apically and some are multi-septat6.

Colloction examined Meride Tl (Bolle), quad. 0871, elev. 650 m, in a hardwood forest near Castanea, July 23, 1979, coll. Lucchini, 2307-79 K 10 (LUG 0948). Photographed in a different quad.

Olher collections: none.

relina Russula xerampel

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,

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)

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($ a; 259

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Die Rdhrlinge und Blatterpilze. ln H. Gams: Kleine Kryptogamenflora.

ROMAGNEST H. (1967)

York.

BOMAGNESI H. (1969) Lactanirs speclosus Lge. BSMF 84: Atlas pl. 179.

ll

b/2. 5. Auflage. Siuttgart-New

NEUHOFF W (1956)

Die Milchlinge. Bad Heilbrunn Obb.

NToLLE P (1947)

Contribution a l'6tude du probldme

ROI\i|AGNES| H. (1974) Etude sur les Lactaires de la soussection Striatini. BSNIF 90 (2): 13$-

Bussu/a cay,ipes Britz. SZfP 25: '133-140.

Les Russules d'Europe et d'Afrique du Nord. Paris.

146. ROMAGNESI H. (1980a) Nouvelles observations sur les lactaires blancs (Albati Bataille). BSIiIF 96: 73_95.

OTTO P, H. KREISEL,

Karten zur Pilzverbreitung in Ost-

D. BENKERT, H. J. HARDTKE,

deutschland.

U. LUHMANN &

1-40.

ROMAGNESI H. (1980b) Quelques espdces rares ou nouvelles de macromycdtes. Russulac6es. BSMF 96: 297-314.

A

HOMAGNEST H. (1985)

Les Russules d'Europe et d'Afrique du nord.

RYMAN S. & l. HoL|\,4ASEN (1992)

Pilze, Bernhard Thalacker Verlag GmbH & Co. KG., Braunschweig DE.

16. Serie:

Ausge-

wahhe Taublinge. Boletus 26 (2002):

u. TAEGLTCH (2003) PEARSON A. A. (1950)

new Lactaaus. The Naturalist,

London. 834: 100. PEINTNER U. et al. (1s98)

Ergebnisse der 26. Mykologischen Dreilandenagung in Rotholz-Jen-

Auihor

Publication

Author

Publication

SARNARI M. (1986)

Russula nuove e inieressanti dell'lta-

STAUDT E. 0 985)

Russula claiana Heim. Grosser PappeltauHing. Pilzpoftrat Nr. 19.

lia centrale e mediterranea. Bollettino del Gruppo micologico G. Bresadola, Trento. 29 (1-2)t SARNART M. (1997)

Sudwestdeutsche Pilzrundschau

+18.

Russule rare o interessanti. Fungi non delineati, Pars l:1-29. Libreria

(1):

STAUDT E. (1998)

SoHAEFER Z. (1970)

ScHAEFFER J. (1952)

del Genere Fussu/a in Europa, Tomo Primo, Assoc. Mic. Bresadola, FTrento. Monogralia illustrata

Beitrag zum Studium der [4ilchlinge, Seldion Dapetes. SZfP 48: 105.106, '138-143.

Fussu/a-Monographie. Bad-HeiF brunn,

SCHWOBEL H, (1972-1975].

Die Taublinge. Beitrage zu ihrer Kenntnis und Verbreitung (l{V). Z. .175-190. 40: Pilzkd. 38: 1-7. 39: 1

SCHWoBEL H. (1979)

45-1 58. 41..'t 32-1 41.

Notizen und Richtigstellungen zu einigen Lactanus-Arten. 45 (1):5-14.

sErBT D. (1984)

Z.

Mykol.

Hilfsmittel bei der mikroskopischen Bestimmung von Taublingen. Beitrage zur Kenninis der Pilze Mitteleuropas ll: 85-97.

Die Verwechslung des Lactarius SMITH A. H., lepidotus mil Lactarius griseus in A. ARBOB H. CLEMENQON (1978) Europa. Nowa Hedwigia. Braunschwsig 30: 457-468.

&

STAUDT E. (1983)

Russula lepidicolor Romagn. gefun-

den. Sudwestdeutsche

Pilzrund-

schau 34 (19): 4-5.

Basso, l-Alassio (SV). SARNAR| M. 0998)

21

2-5.

STE|NMANN H. (1988)

Lactarius controversus (Pers.: Fr.) Fr.

Rosascheckiger oder Blutflecken-

der Milchling. Pilzportrat Nr.

28.

Sildwestdeutsche Pilzrundschau 24 (1): 5-6.

Etude de quelques r6coltes int6resde Russules. BSMF 113: 195-2'15. The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of CaliTHTEBS H. D. (1994 fornia. Russulaceae l. Mad River Press, Eureka USA. (1953) Die Laclanus-Arten Finnlands. KarsTUOMTKOSKT R.

TASS| G. (2003)

santes

tenia ll: 9-25. VESTEHHOLT J. (1998) A Check-list of fungi recorded trom WTLHELM M. 0 984)

the Faroe lslands. Lactarius ruginosus Romagn. SZfP 62 (111:2O4-2O6.

WTLHELM M. (2001)

Russula medullata Romagn. Ocker-

sporiger Speisetaubling. SzfP 79: ZEHFUSS H. D. (2003)

141-144. Das Mikroskopieren von Sprodblattsrpilzen. "Der Tintling", Ss6r.1, ,t, 4: 56-57.

Russula torulosa Bres. Pilzportrat Nr. 11. Sudwestdeutsche Pilzrundschau 19 (l): 2-4.

263

lndex to scientific names of fungi Sp.

No.

ftatic=synonym)

Page

A acerrimus, Lactarius

acrifolia,Russula ... : : : :. acris, Lactarius adulterina, Flussula adusta, Russula adusta var albonigra, Fussu/a

8tt

.

-128

86 224 56 118

3 a7 134 90

88 44

4 90

214,234 144 246 91

254 144 132 92 93 68

95 246 100 62

96 97 98 5 46

aurea, Bussula

140

99

azonites, Lactarius azurea, Russula

244 6

too

B badia, Russula

badiosanguineus, Lactarius badae, Russula basifurcata, Russu/a bertillonii, Lactarius betularum, Russu/a . betulina, Russula blacldordiae, Russula blennius l. albidopallens, Lactarius blennius var. blennius, Lactarius blennius var. fluens, Lactarius blumii, Lactarius bresadolae, Fussu/a . bresadolanus, Lactarius , , 264

101 7

244

8 164

210 250 50

9

to 90 138 122

11

cavipes, Flussula cessans, Russula

.105 .106

.12 .1U

ae I e o nt i n a, Russu/a chamiteae, Russula chloroides, Russula chrysodacryon, Fussu/a chrysorrheus, Lactarius c h am

cimicaius, Lactarius

.

clariana, Bussula clarollava, Russula cleth ro phi lus, Lactarius consobrina, Russula controversus, Lactarius cremeoavellanea, Russula cremoti Lactarius cuprea, Flussula curtipes, Bussula cuftus, Lactarius

cyanoxantha var. cutefracta, Russula cyanoxantha var, cyanoxantha, Russula cyathula, Lactarius D

decipiens, Lactarius decipiens. Russula decipiens vaf lacunarum,

Page

102

.103

Lactaius .

,

decolorans, Russula decolorans uaf obscura, Russula delica, Bussula deliciosus, Lactarius .

deliciosus var. piceus, Lactaius delicula, Russula densifolia, Russula densifolia, Bussu/a dens,sslma, Bussu/a depallens, Russula deterrimus, Lactarius dimeia, Russula dryadicola, Russula dryadophilus, Lactarius

.,.

E 'l.70

. .

No.

caerulea, Russula camphoratus, Lactarius carpini. Russula

deliciosus,Lactarius 88

aurora, Russula

.

circellatus, Lactarius

89

.

....

c

2

.

aurantiofulvus, Lactarius aurata, Russula

brunneoviolaceus,factarius,

4

aeruginea, Flussula aeruginea var. pseudoaeruginea, Russu/a al bidoroseus, Lactarius albivellus, Lactarius albocarneus, Lactarius albonigra, Russula albonigra, Fussu/a . albus, Lactarius alnetorum, Russula . alpigenes, Lactarius . alpigenes. Russula alpinus. Lactarius alutacea, Russula alutacea, Russula amara, Russula amethystina, Russu/a . amoena, Russula amoena var. violerpes, Bussu/a amoenata, Fussu/a amoenicolor, Russula amoenolens, Flussula anatina, Russula anthracina, Russula aquifluus, Lactaius aquosa, Flussula arenaria, Russula aspideoides, Lactarius . aspideus var flavidus, Lactarus atroglauca, Russula atropurpurea, Flussula atrorubens, Russula aurantiacus, Lactarius

aurantiacus,Lactarius

brunneoviolacea, Russula

I

85

Sp.

elaeodes, Russula elatior, Russula elephantina, Bussu/a emetica var. alpestris. Pussu/a gmetica var. betularum, Russula emetica var. emetica, Russula emetica var. fragilis, Russula emetica var gregaria, Russu/a . emetica var. grisescens. Russula emetica var. longipes, Russula emetica va'' mairei, Fussu/a emetica var. sylvestris, Russula

..

.

,

. 208,232 . 107 .108 . 240 .t3 .14 . 109 . 110 '82 . 111 . 15 . 112 . 106 . 113 . 114 . 70,114 . 116 . t5 . 76,84 .t

. 16 . 117 .72 . 118 . . 119 .17 . .58 . . 120 . . . 't8 . . 121 .19 . 12. . . . .l2g . . 124 . . . 125 .126 . . 127

252

106

148

160

170 240

216 206 206

178 164

200

Sp. No.

.18

emeticicolor, Russula erythropus, Russu/a evosmus, Lactarius exalbicans, Russula

t fageticola, Russu/a faginea, Russula farinipes, Russula

favrei, Lactarius . . fellea, Russula felleaecolor, Russula

.

130 131

K kombholii, Bussu/a

132 13il

.... .. ..

200

1U

.

135

194

.

136 137 138

-. . .

a

194 142 154 46

102 151

152

14 3tt 234

lepidotus, Lactarius lignyotus, Lactarius

34 35 155

86 86

lilacinus, Lactarius lilacinus, Lactarius /ivescens, Fussu/a livida, Russula

.

168

.

36 '108

lividorubescens, Lactarius

139

153

laurocerasi var. laurocerasi, Russula leonis, Lactarius lepida, Russula

lilaceavar emeticicoloti Russula

.,

.

188 186 116

-

lundellii, Bussula

156

luridus, Laciarius lutea, Russula

37

't40 25

luteolus, Lactarius luteotacta, Russula

38

141

luteotacta var intactior, Russula

80

232

.

157 222

.

.

m maculata, Russula

126

maculata ssp. alpina, Fussu/a maculata var, decipiers, Russu/a

142

mairei, Russula mammosus, Lactarius

170

mammosus, Lactaius mariae, Russula

-. .

92

medullata, Russula melitodes, Russula melliolens, Russula melzeri, Bussula mesospora, Bussu/a minutalis, Russula minutula, Bussula

48

mitissimus,Lactarius mollis, Lactaius

190 190 74

-

27 .

I

.

1rt5

n

250

mustelina, Russula musteus, Lactarius

92 166

N

nana, Bussula nanus, Lactarius nauseosa, Russula 64, 120

necator, Lactaius

162 158

r59

194

144

.

158

182

143

.

120 32

lilacea, Russula

186

giseus, Lactaius

I ichoratus, Lactarius

78

lacunarum, Lactarius laeticolor, Lactarius laricina, Russula lateritia, Russula

46

24

.

heterophylla, Russula heterophylla var vesca, Fussu/a hottensis, Lactarius hydrophila, Eussu/a hysginus, Lactarius

44 .

lateritius, Lactaius laurocerasi var, fragrans, Flussula 130

gigasperma, Russula glaucescens, Lactarius globispora, Russula glutinopallens, Lactarius . glyciosmus, Lactarius gracilis ssp. gracillima Fussu/a gracillima, Russula graminicoloti Russula grata, Russula

..

-.

lactifluus, Lactaius 50

.

gisea var ionochlora, Bussula

Lactaius . . -

L

D

G

hepaticus, Lactarius

122

138

.

kuehneri, Lactaius kuehnerianus,

2'l

fuliginosus, Lactarius . fuliginosus subsp. plcinus, Lactaius fuliginosus var montanus, Lactarius lulvissimus, Lactarius furcata, Russula luscorubroides, Russula fuscus, Lactarius

H helvus, Lactarius hemicyaneus, Lactaius hepaticus, Lactarius

. 148 . 149 .31 . 150

150

frugilis var alpigenes, Fussu/a fragrans, Russula friesii, Russula frondosae, Bussula . fuliginosus f. albipes, Lactarius

graveolens, Flussula graveolens, Russu/a grisea, Russula grisea, Russu/a

98 147

104

.

ferreri, Russula firmula, Russula flava, Russula flavidus, Lactarius flexuosus, Lactarius fluens, Lactarius foetens var. foetens, Russula foetens var.laurocerasi Russu/a foetens var. subfostgns fontqueri, Russula fragilis, Flussula

fuliginosus, Lactarius

Page

30

iners, Lactarius insignis, Bussula insulsus, Lactarius integra var. integra, Russula integra var. oreas, Russula intermedius, Lactarius ionochlora, Russula

1A

No. 'l/t6

illota, Russula illyricus, Lactarius

20

.

Sp.

Page

39 66

.

. i@ . 161 . 162 :'* .

132

'196

232 164

46

-

98 165

&

166 41

167 112, 1't6

Sp. nigricans, Russula nitida, Russula noncamphoratus, Lactarius norvegica, Russula

.

No.

. t6a .169 .

.

.170

Page

106

o obnubilus, Lactarius obscuratus, Lactarius

.

42

ochracea, Eussu/a ochroleuca, Russula odorata, Russula olivacea, Russula o/iyascens, Fussu/a omphaliformis, Lactarius oreina, Russula

Sp. risigallina var. acetolens, Russula risigallina var. risigallina, nussuta

171 172

173 222

43 174

robeftianus,Lactarius

paludosa, Russula palumbina, Russula parazurea, Russula

pargamenus, Lactarius pectinata, Russula

pectinat4 Russu/a

-. . .

.

.

pectinatoides, Russula

pectinatoides,Fussu/a

.....

.

pelargonia, Russula persicina, Russula persicina var. oligophylla, Russula

rulus, Lactarius

piceetorum, Bussu/a picinus, Lactarius

.

pinasti, Lactarius piperatus, Lactarius piperatus, Lactaius plumbeus, Lactarius polychroma, Fussu/a porninsis, Lactarius postiana, Bussula

. . .

Pseudoaeruginea, Russula

pseudodelica,Bussula

....

.

pseudointegra, Russula pseudouvidus, Lactarius pterosporus, Lactarius pubescens, Lactarius pubescens var. scoticus, Lactarius pudibundus, Lactarius . . puellaris, Russula puellula, Russula pulchella, Russula

pulcherrima, Russu/a pumila, Russula Pungens, Russula purpurata, Russula

.

pusillus, Lactarius

pyrogalus, Lactarius

o queletii, Russula

quieticolor, Lactarius quietus, Lactarius

. 175 .4 . 176 . 134, 184 . 177 . 66,86 . 174 . 132,220 . 179 . 188

.

r89

. 181 . . .45 '92 .46 .66 . . .47 . 142 .183 . .184 .,t8 . /t{, .50 . .42

. 188 .52 .53

R

raoultii, Russula repraesentaneus! Lactarius resimus, Lactarius rhodopus, Russula 266

198

124

ttb 188

216

.189 .

.55

.190

Lactaius

.104

.

salicis-herbaceae, Lactarius salicis-reticulatae, Lactarius

. tgl . 192 .52 .56 .64 .193 . .194 . . 195 . .i96 .197 .57 .58 .96

234 248 146

salmoneus, Lactarius . salmonicolor, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius sanguinaria, Fussu/a sanguinea, Russula sanguinea, Russu/a . sardonia, Russula schiffneri, Russula scoticus, Lactarius scrobiculatus, Lactarius scrobipes, Lactarius . semisanguif luus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Lactaius sericatula, Bussula serifluus, Lactarius solaris, Russula sororia, Russula speciosus, Lactaius .

59 6o 102

6t 62 238 198 25A 199 252

63 122 .

sphagneti, Lactarius sphagnetorum, Fussu/a sphagnophila. Russula spinosulus. Lactarius

N 66 201 132 64, 96

67 166

202 68 44

-

subdulcis, Lactarius subdulcis var concavus, Lactaius subdulcis var rufus, Lactarius - . subfoetens, Bussu/a subruginosus, Lactarius subsalmoneus, Lactarius,

170

,

Page

s

subalpinus, Lactarius

.185 .186

. . . . . 147 .44 .51

.

romagnesii, Lactarius romagnesii, Lactarius romellii, Russula rosacea, Bussu/a rosea, Russula rosea, Bussu/a roseipes, Russula ruberima, Bussu/a rubra, Russula rubroalba, Russula rubrocinctus, Lactarius ruginosus,

P pallidospora, Russula pallidus, Lactarius

..

No.

196

subsericatus, Lactarius subseflceus, Lactaius

128 236

subterf urcata, Russula sy/yest/,s, Fussu/a

69 48 98 '176

70

102

-

.

28

64 98 168

T tabidus, Lactarius tabidus, Lactaius terenopus, Russula theiogalus, Lactarius

71

N4

84

.

54,

tithymalinus,Lactarius

56, 112 98

.

torminosus, Lactarius torminosus yar. gracillimus, Lactaius torulosa, Russula translens, Fussu/a trivialis, Lactarius truncigena, Russu/a

72 104

205 174

Sp.

No. Page

Sp.

No.

Page

78 Lactarius tuomikoskii, Lactarius ....212 ...... Russula turci, Russula Russula - -... 213 turpis, Lactarius 146 violacea, Russula 79 ....... violascens, Lactarius U 138 violeipes, Russula - -. 214 undulata, Russula .... - - -. 215 76 virescens, Russula uvidus, Lactarius ..-.216 78,120 viscida, Flussula uvidus var. violascens, Lactarius . 232 vitellina, Russula d, v volemus, Lactarius velenovskyi, Russula .... - - - 207 77 X vellereus, Lactarius . -.... 217 48 xerampelina, Russula vellereus var. beftillonii, Lactarius 214 48 xerampelina var. pascua, Russula vellereus vaJ[ queletii, Lactaius . 118 velutinus, Lactaius ... 208 Z velutipes, Russula 8l 244 zonarioides, Lactarius versatri/is, Fussu/a @, zonarius, Lactarius versicolor, Russula ........ Arg @,12. zonarius, Lactarius ..... 21O vesca, Russula . - -. 214 ........ 211 zvarae, Russula veternosa, Russula 198 vetemosa var maculata, Bussula

74 z)6 75

vietus, vinosa, vinosobrunnea,

267

Appendix

- Key to the fungi in Volumes 1-6

- List of the families and genera in Volumes 1-6

- Index to the specific names

and synonyms in Volumes 1-6

268

Key to the fungi in volumes 1-6

1

Spores are produced in asci (sacs) (see Vol. 1,

p.9)

Vol.

9)

1*

Spores are produced on basidia (soe Vol. 1, p.

2

Basidium when mature divided longitudinally or iransversely, Vol. basidium consisting of 2-4 cells or shaped like a tuning frb. often

2"

2

Non-gilled

Ascomycetes

tungi

Auriculariaceae

Dacrymycetiroec Tremellaceae

Basidium when mature not divided and not sharcd like a

tuning

3

Ascomycetes

2

fork,

jelly-like

1

fork

Hymenium located in the inside of the lrb.

3

(Gastromycetes)

Vol.

2

Non-gilled

fungi

Chamonifa Clathraceae Geastraceae

Hysterangi:re Lycoperdacec

Melanogasrtr@ Nidulariac€e Phallaceae

Sphaerobola@

Stephanospore Tulostomataceae

3*

Hymenium located on the outside of the frb.

4

Hymenophore consisting of lamellae or a removable layer of

4.

tubes

5

vemrcose, vol.2 teeth 186)

Hymenophore smooth, tuberculate, venose, spinose, porose, reticulate-porose, or like little or dull ridges (se€ also Vol. 3, pp. 140-142,

Non-gilled

fungi

Auriscalpiaceae Bondazewiaceae Cantharellaceae

Ceratobasidiaceae Clavariaceae Clavulinaceae ConioPhoraceae Corticiaceae s. lat. Cyphellaceae s. lat. Exobasidiaceae Fistulinaceae Ganodermataceae Gomphaceae Hericiaceae Hydnaceae Hymenochaetaceae Polyporaceae s. lat. Pterulaceae Ramariaceae Sparassidaceae Thelephoraceae Tulasn€llaceae

269

5

Vol.3

Hymenophore consisting of a layer of tubes

and

Boletes gilled fungi Part

1

Boletinus Boletus Chalciporus Gyrodon Gyroporus Leccinum

Phylloporus Porphyrollus Pulverobolelus Strobilomyces Suillus Tytopitus

Xgrocomus

5*

Hymenophore consisting of lamellae or a layer of

6

Trama of pileus and stipe of the lrbs. brittle, fragile, composed Vol. of numerous subglobose cells (sphasrocysts), generally brittle, sometimes when injured exuding a colorless, white, or colored fluid, spores verrucose, spinose, ridged

tubes

6

lamellae

6*

Trama not brittle but trama of pilsus and stipe primarily of hyphae

7

Spp. primarily white to cream, r brown in if pink, then spores rough (if stipe with a marginate bulb the pileus and stipe with a white cortina and spores and thick-walled: se€ Vol.s Leucocoftinarius: if free or almost free and/or frb. with a veil: see Vol.

fibrous,

6

and Russula Lactarius

Lactarius Russula

7

boletes, Vol. g and smooth lamellae 4)

and

Boletes gilled lungi part

1

Armillaria Anhenia (Leptoglossum)

Baeospora Calocybe Camarophyllus Cantharellula

Catathelasma Chrysomphalina Clitocybe Ctitocybuta

Collybia Crinipellis Dslicatula Dermoloma Faerberia

(ceopetalum) Fayodia Flammulina

Genonema Hemimycena Hohenbuehelia

Hydropus Hygrocybe Hygrophoropsis Hygrophorus Hypsizygus Laccaria Lentinellus Lontinus Lepista

Leptoglossum (,turhenia)

Leucopaxillus Lyophyllum

Macrocystidia Marasmiellus Marasmius

Megacollybia Melanoleuca

Micromphale Mycena 270

Mycenella

Myxomphalia Nyctalis (Asterophora)

Omphaliaster Omphalina Oudemansiella Panellus

Phyllotopsis Phyllotus (Pleurocybella) Pleurotus

Porpoloma Pseudoclitocybe Resupinatus Rickenella

Sarcomyxa Strobilurus Tephrocybe p. p. Tricholoma

Tricholomopsis Xeromphalina Xerula

7'

Spp. colored

I

Spp. pink, yellowish, orange-ocher, light brown, pink-brown, ocher-brown, olive-brown, earth-brown, red-brown, tobacco-brown, greenish

o

8-

Spp. black-brown, purple-brown, violet-gray,

Vol.4

Gilled lungi Part

2

black, greenish

Agaricus Coprinus Hypholoma

lacrymaria Melanophyllum Panaeolus Psathyrella

Psilocyb€ StroPharia

9

separable Vol. 3 Gomphidiaceae, orange-ocher Schizophyllum

Spp. lobacco-brown and lamellae in part easily from the underside ol the pileus (Paxillaceae, or with large cystidia: macrocystidia) or spp. and lamellae splitting when dry:

and

Boletes gilled fungi Part

1

Chroogomphus Gomphidius Macrocystidia Paxillus

Ripartites Schizophyllum Tapinella

9-

brown,

Spp. yellowish, pink, pink-brown, light orange-brown, rust-brown, red-brown, olive-brown, earth-brown, ocher-brown, dark brown (if whitish see Amanitaceas and Agaricacsae p. p.)

10

271

10

Spp. pink, pink-brown, yellowish, if whitish see Amanitaceae and Agaricaceae, if frb. laterally attached or lacking a stipe, see Crepidotus Vol. 5

Vol. 4

Gilled fungi Part

2

Amanita Amanitopsis Chamaemyces Clitopilus Cystoderma Cystolepiota Entoloma Flammulaster Lepiota

Leucoagaricus Leucocoprinus Limacella

Macrolepiota Pluteus

Rhodocybe Sericeomyces Squamanita Volvariella

10.

11

Spp. light brown, rust-brown, dark brown, red-brown, orange-brown, olive-brown, ocher-brown, earth-brown

11

Pp composed of periclinal or erect hyphae, spores smooth, rough, verrucose, tuberculate (if pp cellular and spor€s rough see A/n/cola salicis

Vol. 5

Gilled fungi Part

3

and A. submelinoides\

Alnicola Cortinarius Crepidotus Galerina

Gymnopilus Hebeloma

lnocybe Leucocortina us Phaeocollybia Phaeogalera Phaeomarasmius Rozites

Simocybe

11t

Pp cellular or hymeniform, spores smoolh (exception: Strophadaceae and Agaicus with a hyphal pp), il spores rough see Alnicola Vol. 5

Vol.4

Gilled tungi Part

2

Agrocybe Bolbitius Conocybe Flammulaster Melanotus Pachylepirium

Phaeolepiota pholiota Pholiotina Tubaria

List of the families and genera in Volumes 1-6, in alphabetical order The number (in parentheses) following each name refers to the Volume in which the group is found.

Hemimycena (3) Hericiaceae (2) Hohenbuehelia (3) Hydnaceae (2)

Polyporacsae s. lat. (2) Porphyrellus (3)

Hydropus (3) Hygrocybe (3) Hygrophoropsis (3)

Pseudoclitocybe (3) Psilocybe (4) fterulacoae (2)

Bolbitius (4)

Hygrophorus (3) Hymenochaetaceae (2) Hypholoma (4) Hypsizygus (3) Hysterangiaceae (2)

Pulveroboletus (3) Ramadac€ae (2) Resupinatus (3) Rhodocybe (4) Rickenella (3) Ripartiies (3) Bozites (5) Russula (6) Sarcomyxa (3) Schizophyllum (3) Sclerodermataceae (2)

Agaricus (4) Agrocybe (4) Alnicola (5) Amanita (4) Amanitopsis (4) Armillaria (3) Anhenia (Leptoglossum) (3)

Ascomycetes (1) Auriculariaceae (2) Auriscalpiaceae (2) Baeospora (3) Boletinus (3)

lnocybe (5)

Boletus (3) Bondazewiaceae (2)

taccaria

Calocybe (3) Camarophyllus (3) Cantharellaceae (2) Caniharellula (3) Catatholasma (3) Ceratobasidiaceae (2)

Lactarius (6)

Chalciporus (3)

Leptoglossum (Anhenia) (3)

Chamaemyces (4)

Leucoagaricus (4)

Chamonixia (2) Chroogomphus (3) Chrysomphalina (3)

Leucocoprinus (4) Leucocortinarius (5) Leucopaxillus (3)

Clathracaaa (2) Clavariaceae (2) Clavulinaceae (2)

Limacella (4) Lycoperdaceae (2) Lyophyllum (3)

Clitocybo (3) Clitocybula (3) Clitopilus (4) Collybia (3) Coniophoraceae (2) Conocybe (4)

Macrocystidia (3) Macrolepioia (4)

Coprinus (4)

Coriiciaceae s. lat. (2) Cortinarius (5) Crepidotus (5) Crinipellis (3) Cyphellaceae s. lat. (2)

Cystoderma (4) Cystolepiota (4) Dacrymycetaceae (2) Delicatula (3) Dermoloma (3) Entoloma (4) Exobasidiacoae (2) Faerberia (Geopetalum) (3) Fayodia (3) Fistulinaceae (2) Flammulaster (4) Flammulina (3) Galerina (5) Ganodermataceae (2) Geastraceae (2) Gerronema (3) Gomphaceae (2)

Gomphidius (3) Gymnopilus (5) Gyrodon (3) Gyroporus (3) Hebeloma (5)

(3)

lacrymaria (4) Leccinum (3) Lentinellus (3) Lentinus (3)

Lepiota (4) Lepista (3)

Porpoloma (3) Psathyrella (4)

Sericeomyces (4) Simocybe (5) Sparassidaceae (2) Sphaerobolaceae e) Squamanita (4) Stephanosporacoae (2)

Strobilomyces (3) Strobilurus (3)

Marasmiellus (3) Marasmius (3)

Stropharia (4) Suillus (3) Tapinella (3) Tephrocybe p. p. (3) Thelephoraceae (2) Trsmellaceae (2) Tricholoma (3)

Megacollybia (3)

Tricholomopsis (3)

Melanogastraceao (2) Melanoleuca (3) Melanophyllum (4) Melanotus (4) Micromphale (3) Mycena (3) Mycenella (3)

Tubada (4) Tulasnellaceae (2) Tulostomataceae (2) Tylopilus (3) Volvariella (4)

Myxomphalia (3)

Xerula (3)

xerocomus (3) xeromphalina (3)

Nidulariacoao (2) Nyctalis (Asterophora) (3) Omphaliaster (3) Omphalina (3) Oudemansiella (3) Pachylepirium (4) Panaeolus (4) Panellus (3) Paxillus (3) Phaeocollybia (5) Phaeogalora (5) Phaeolepioia (4) Phaeomarasmius (5) Phallaceao (2) Phoriora (4) Pholiotina (4) Phylloporus (3)

Phyllotopsis (3) Phyllotus (Plsurocybella) (3) Pleurotus (3) Pluteus (4) 273

lndex to the specific names and synonyms in Volumes 1-6 (italic = synonym)

Sp. No.

Page

A abiegn4 Omphalina abieticola, Grandinia.

..... Gremmeniella . .

abietina,Columnocystis.

.

abiotina, abietina, Lenzites abietina,

s08

Otidea Ramaria

abietinus, Dactymyces abietinus, Hirschioporus. abietis, abietis, Pterula. Abortiporus

....

abramsii,Mycena ....

abruptibulbosa,Conocybe abruptibulbus,Agaricus. .

.... ....

abstrusa, Pholiota

abundans,Clitocybula. .

accedens,Tubulicrinis. acerbum,

.

,...

214 80 286 192 236 236 '140

Lactarius. ..-.... acharii,Eutypa. ..... acicula, Mycena. .... aciculare, Cudoniella ... acrifolia, Russula acris, Lactarius

140

I 25

180, '182 60

35O

278

312 179 83

162

244

244

acrospora, Athelia . acuminata, Ceratellopsis

84

., . ., acuta,Clavaria. .,,.. acuta, Hygrocybe acuta, lnocybe (lnocybe) ...... acuminatus,Panaeorus

336 256

.

acuta,Leptosphaeria . . . .

441 100

.

381

acutesquamosa t- typica, Lepiota . . acutesquamosa yar furcat4 Lepiota acuti lamell a, Psathyrell a .

. 21O . . . . . 7A acutus,Cortinarius(fel.). . . . . . . 289 acuum, Dasyscyphus . ... 211 adae, Peiza adaequata, lnocybe (lnocibium). adenostylidis, Mollisia. . ...... 271 adhaerens,Lentinus. . . . . . . . 237 .....

acutoconica, Hygrocybe acutopunicea, Hygrocybe.

.

296 296 84

204 192 264 142 114

184 70

1

224

.

176 84

224 395

Stropharia ... 453 Agaricus ...166 aestvalg Boletus aestivalis var. veneris, Agaricus . . . 167 aestivum,Tuber . - - -. 124 aethiops, Entoloma 6 aetites, Mycena ..... 315 affinis, Peniophora. P h an e roc haete afflata, Lentaria

312 '176

60

126

154 154 342

af fi n is,

Agaricus . agathosmus, Hygrophorus

160

.....

105

aggregatu m, Lyophyll u m

Agrocybe alba, Clitocybe.

alba,Lepiota. Mycena

-. -... 213 ......316

.

Albatrellus albida, Antrodia

220 290 162 240 320 276 64

albida, Exidia

albidodisca, lnocybe.

.

62

al b i d o rose u s, Lactar i us

. ...181

56 60 164

....

342 342

albidus, Boletus

66

acuta, Phoma acutella, lnocybe.

128 268 290

86

aeruginosa, Conocybe (Pholiotina) aerugi nosa, Phol iotina . aeruginosa, aeruginosum, Chlorosplenium. aestivalis,

alba, Mucronella alba,

2

Acrospermataceae Acrospermum

329 85

.

aeruginea, aerugi nea vaJ- pseu doaerug inea,

Russu/a.

188

54,60

Russula

136

ptogI oss u m acenimus, acervata, Collybia acetabulum, Paxina.

4

aeruginascens,Chlorosplenium. l99

92

ac e rosu m, Le

258

310

......

albidus, Hymenoscyphus. albidus, Tyromyces albivellus, Lactadus . albobrunneum, Tricholoma

albobrunneum, Tricholoma albocarneus,

118

Lactarius albofuscus, Sphaeidiobolus . . . albonigra, Russula.

albonigra, Fussu/a

.

.

. . albotestaceus,Dasyscyphus . . albovinacea, Lentaria . . . . . . albonigrellus,Cortinarius[fel.). albonitsns,Stropharia. . . . .

alboviolaceus, Cortinarius (Ser.). alboviolaceus, Hygrophorus. . .

alboviolascens,Lachnella. alboviridis, Kavinia. .

. . . .

.

. ....

4 3

424

aegeita, Agrocybe aereus, Boletus

2O7

.

313 314

'136

too 332

291

..... . ...... ... Russula Bierkandera ... Russula

adonis, adscendens, Mycena adscendens var. carpophila, Mycena adspersum, Ganoderma. ad u I te i n a, Cy st obp iot a adulterina, adusta, adusta, adusta var albonign, Russula. . . .

aeruginascens,Sui/lus.

Vol.

224

.roo

181

.

Mycena

Page 330,334

.

adustus, G/oeoporus

374

408 257

adiposa, Pholiota admissa, Collybia, Tephrocybe

288

311

.

... ...

.......

Arrhenia

acerosa, acerosa var. latispora, Anhenia

acutipilus,Dasyscyphus.

a2

3a9 360

1/O

Tricholoma . . . ........

acericola, Pezicula . acerina, Dendrothele acerina, Diaporthe. acerina, Lepiota acerina, Melasmia . acerinum, Rhytisma .

59 /158

52

Heyderia

abundans, Trichophaea

7'l 304

.... abietinum,Gloeophyllum . . . . . . abietinum,Trichaptum. ... abiotina,

98 100

Sp. No.

Vol.

.

3 .

'116

A7

. 290 . & . /t{X) .

134

182

248 108

.

.

2@ 60

3 2 4 6

Sp, No. album, Ticholoma

Page 90 278

6 3

292,294

3 5

alcalinophilus,Cortinarius(Phleg.) 183 alcalinus, Agaricus. Aleuria .

294 108 78

Aleurodiscus. alexandri, Clitocybe

. 184 dllantospora, Xenasmatella - -. -. allantosporum, Aphanobasidium . . 219 alliacea, Dendrothela 47 alliaceum, Hydnum alliaceus,Marasmius ... 276 alliatus, Marasmius allutus, Cortinarius (Phleg.) . . . . . 184 alluvionis, lnocybe alnea,Diaporthe. .... 363 alnea, lnocybe(lnocybe). . . . . . . 67 alnea,Tympanis . - - -. 171 alnetorum, Alnicola --.127 alnetorum,Clitocybe . .. . . . . . 1/tg alnetorum, Codinarius Fel.) . -... Nl alnetorum, Mycona ........ 317 alnetorum, Russula . 88 alni, Hyafopeziza. 2 -.-. alkalivirsns,Coltybia.

.......

-

-

alni, Plicatura

Alnicola alnicola, Amanita alnicola, Athelia

alnislla,Pezizella. .... alnifraga,Eutypella ... alniphilus, Marasmius alnobetulae, Cortinarius (Phleg.) alpestre, Heicium -

.

.

alutacea, Russula

alutaceum,Podostroma.

Grandinia.

.....

.

.

Amanitopsis amara, Russula amara, Xeromphalina amarellus, Chalciporus amarescens, Alnicola amarescens, Sarcodon amarus, Leucopaxillus.

.

.......

ambigua,Columnocystis

.. .

.....

ambigua,Conocybe. ....

.

&

1

5

156

1

5 3 5 3 6

204 170 126 140 84

240

'1

2

44

1

4 6 o

a4 106 82

254

4 4

144 346

6 3 3 5

232 218

2 .,

186

4

186

4

Cystodem,a

Cystodema arniantinum, Cystoderma

amicia,

Mycena

ammoniaca, Mycena

ammophila, Peziza amoen, Hygrocybe

.

.-.....

352

N2 254 66 102

.

Russula

..

amoenaval-violeipes,Russura

9l 254 144 132

.

3 1

6 6 6 6

166

.

6

92

amoenum, Lopadostoma

amorpha,Skeletocutis.

4

318

,

......

Aleurodiscus.

.

amorphus, amorphus l. molluscus, Leptoporus.

304 362 /t5

amorphus, Gloeoporus

Peziza.

35

ampelina, ampelina, Plicaia amphidoxa, Trichophaea

290 290 66 66

...... ampullaceocysiis,Galerina. . . ampullacea,Scutellinia

... ..

.

.

1

66 98

'I

272 300 80 174 91,

N

.

-. - 277 - . - N2 angulatosquamulos, lnocybe. . . ... M anoulatus, Coprinus

1

2 4

186

Russula. Acetabula

1

98

406

.

1

2 2 2 2

92

fia

Neuia

1

5 5 3 5 2 2 6

60 242

2

68

5 5

1

androsaceus,Marasmius...

angelesianus, Cortinarius fl-el.)

.

angulosus, Cofiinarius. angustatum, Hysterium

angustisporum, Botryobasidium angusf,ssr,lmA Clitocybe . angustus, Tubulicrinis

.

anisata, Ramaria.

anisocystidiatus,Marasmius 4

5

amianthi num var sublongisporu m,

andinum, Asterostroma

146 138

124

234

5

ancilis,

2 2

142

224

6

1

328

172

2'to

2

6

140

246

amurceus, Cortinarius (Phleg.) amyNalina, Mycena amygdalosporus, Crepidotus . Amylocorticium Amylostereum . anatina,

6

4 3 4

amethys,ti n u s, Coft i n ai u s am i anthi na v ar I on g i sp o ru m,

amplissima,

1

2 5

200

6

2

374

amethFtina, Russula

Amphinema ampla, Amanita

3

2

amethFtina, Laccaia

5

2

Vol.

3 2 5 3

amoenata, Russula amoenicolo,; Russula amoe n ol e n s, C otti n ari u s. amoenolens, Russula

3 5 2 5

.

-

2

226

't02

. 2 .... N1 -. - - 2il ameides, Entoloma 8 amentacea, Ciboria ...146 amenti,Pszizella. .... 195 amenticola, Aboria . amenticola, Mollisia. . ....... n2 amentorum,Taphrina,.. 1n ameicanus, Coftinadus amethystea, Laccaria . . . . . . . . % amethysiina, Clavulina amethystina, lnocybe (lnocibium) . . 3 amblyspora, lnocybe (lnocibium) ambrosii, Cystoderma. ambustum, Lyophyllum . . -

amoena,

1

Page

. . . . . .,189

ambiguus var. euryspermus, Melanogaster.

5 4

266

1%

72 375

2

284

100 100

alutada, Kneiffialla alveolaius, Polyporus

2

78

214,234 316 76

3 3

3 3 5 5

244

185

alutaia, Hyphodontia Amanita

124

284 238

60 90

1

2

2 2

361

.

Otidea. alutacsa, Russula

194

172

.

alutacea, Athelia. alutacea, Kneiffiella alutacea,

162

194

Galerina .... ,l{l5 Entoloma. 7 alpigenes, Lactaius alpigenss, Russula 89 alpinum, Gerronema- - ....21'l alpinum, Hebeloma 97 alpinus, Coftinaius alpinus, Lactarius 4 altaica, Hyphodontia aliaica, Laccaria. ..-- 27 alpestris, alphitophora, Mycena alpicola,

afutaria,

ambiguus,Molanogastor

330, 338

.

albus, Lactaius alcalina, Mycena. alcalina, Mycena -

Sp. No.

Vol.

anisoporus, Polyporus.

.

.

...

...

4

274

5

304 94

2

'164

3 2

366

2

324

3 2

2OB

.

1

2SO

275

Sp. No, annae, Mycena

. 3S7 . 13O ., .,, . . 24

..... anomala,Cyphe opsis. . . . . . . anomalum, Ascocorticium. . . annosum, Heterobasidion

anomalus, Marasmius

.

anomalus,Merismodes

anomalus ssp. caninus, Coftinaius anomalus var. anomalus,

.

.

Cortinarius(Ser.) .... 2& Cortinarius(Ser.) .... 2& ansorinus, Cortinarius (Phleg.). ... 1{l antennata, Bispora anthocephala,Thelephora. -.. 2

Page

274 '198 130 244 210

anomalus var. calcialpinus,

Anthostoma anthracin4 &rmocybe anthracina, Plicaria anihracina, Russula.

....... .......

anthracinus,Cortinarius(fel.). Anthracobia anthracobia, Fayodia

anthracophila, Tephrocybe anthracophilum, Hebeloma

... .

anthracophilum,Lyophyllum

160

.

64

94 293 106 188 70

.

anthracophila, Peziza

Anthurus. Antrodia . Antrodiella

.. .

...

214

.

.

98 255 398

276 274

.

apalus,Dasyscyphus ...

212

1U

Aphanobasidium .O9 apium, aporos, Conocybe (Pholiotina) 396 aporos, Pholiotina Apostemidium . appendiculata, Conocybe (Pholiotina) 397

194

Tricholoma.

... ...

312 242

appendiculata,lnocybe(lnocibium). 4 ap pe n d i cu Iata, P ho Ii oti n a

... . --.

appendiculata, Psathyrella. . . appendiculatus, Boletus. . applanatum, Ganoderma applanatis, Crepidotus . . applicatus, Resupinatus.

.

aquosa,

314 264

4

4N 384

9

Russula. Athelia

95 49

araneosum,Entoloma.,,.,, .

.

142 208 10

arbustivus, Hygrophorus

130

...... archeri,Anthurus .-.. arcangoliana,

Mycena.

archeruntius, Paxillus arcuata Melanoleuca

.

5A 94

arcuatum, Ticholoma

....... Phaeocollybia . . .

arcularius,Polyporus arduennensis,

319

.

. .

arenicola, Agrocybe arenicola, Sepultaria. arenosa,

Sepultaria

areolatum,Amylostereum.

-..

areolatum,Sclerodorma. . . aryente4 Amanita 276

-

dl

.

2 5

lN 100 '100

(Phleg.) ...184 arida,Coniophora .... 2SA arida, Lachnellula .... % arida var. suffocata, Coniophora . armatospora, Scutellinia. . . . . . . 79 armeniacus, Cortinarius fiel.) . . . . M

Cortinarius argyrucaum, Tricholoma.

armeniacus, Xerocomus. Armillaria.

Amilladella armillatus, Cortinarius (rel.) arquatus, Codinarius

....

Arrhenia . arrhenii,Conocybe(Pholiotina) anhenii, Pholiotina.

.

..

aflensis, Psalliota arvensis subsp. macrospora, .

.

arvernense, Tricholoma arvernensis, Peziza . , . , , . arvinaceus, Cortinarius (Myx.).

... .. .-

. - n2

Ascobolaceae Ascobolus . Ascocorticiaceae Ascocorticium Ascocoryne Ascotremella. Ascozonus. aser@formis, Anthurus aspera, Amanita aspera, Hyphodontia

.

.

asterospora, Omphalia, Clitocybe asterosporus, Hygroaster . . . .

-

.

5

4 314

.

.--.

1

170

4 4 4

66

62

Panaeolus

.....

294

atkinsoniana f. atkinsoniana, Galerina 407 akinsonii, Ganoderma.

242

82

128

atomat' Psaryrella atra,

344

3Og

Athelia . . Athelidium

atra, Helvella

192

977

. . - - - - -. 4N

.

Leptopodia.

atramentarius,Coprinus. . .

.

19

205

4 4

234

300 300

.

294 246

142

202 140

asprellum, assimilata, lnocybe (lnocybe)

astragalina, Pholiota. ater,

5O4

3 3 5

'100

--

1

\'

214

Entoloma. 1'l . . . . 68 asterophora, Nyctalis . .. . . . . . 375 asterophora, Tylosporu . . ..... 215 asterophorum, Tylosperma . - - -. asterospora, Clavaria . --.42 asterospora,Clavulinopsis. . . . . asierospora, lnocybe (lnocybe) . . . 69

1

2

88

96

aspideoides, Lactaius. aspideus var- flavidus, Lactatius

3 2

136 138

398 148 104 104

aspera,Lepiota .---.

2 2 2 2

5

154 152 122

asterosporus,Omphaliaster.

195

96

116 116 130 130

Astgrostroma

88 88

196 206, 208

't70 410 36

Vol.

5 JJO

295

. 3S8 artemisiae,Psathyrella . . . . . . . 319 arundinacoum,Lophodermium . . . n4 arvalis,Agrocybe .... 361 arvensis, Agaricus. ... i68 Psalliota

Page

77

248 3gB

arenaia, Russula

3

.....

244 414

arenaia, Agrocybe

1

Grandinia

aspeio( Scute inia 162 08 274

arachnoidea, arachnoidea, Rimbachia. Arachnopeziza .

2

argillaceum, Hyphoderma. arguta, arguta, tiyphodontia arguta, Kneiffiella argutus ssp. f raudulosus,

aspera, Kneiffiella

316

aprile, Entoloma aquatica Cudoniella aquifluus, Lactadus aquila, Rosollinia

3

.

290 246

3Il

SP. No.

Vol.

282 56 56

Sp. No.

,.,,..

25

atramentosus, Hydropus atramentosus, Hygrophorus. atrata, Patellaria . atratum, C€ntobasidium atratum, Lyophyllum aticapillus, Pluteus . . atrides, Rhodophyllus atripes, lnocybe atrochalybaea, Mycena . atrocinereum, Dermoloma. atrocoerulea, Hohenbuehelia atrocosrulsus, Pleurotus atroglauca, Russula.

Russula.

Tricholoma

.. ..

186

..... ....

90 124 192

.

.

134

348 411

. .

322 63 26{l

96

...

Agaricus Aleuria.

168

. .

. . aurantiaca, Phlebia aurantiacum, Athelidium. . . . .. . aurantiacum, Hydnellum. - - - -.. ... ......

aurantiaca,Hygrophoropsis.

132 294 '108

90 90

.....

Auraniioporus

aunntiotu,binatus, Coftinarius

Auriporia. Auriscalpium.

'I

auriscalpium, aurivella, Pholiota aurora, Russula aurulenta, autumnalis var. angusticystis,

1

210 243

m6 7

54 54 268

-

o 4

Anhenia. . . .

2g

.. ..

. .

166

118 7

...... .....

badia,Oudemansiella.

330 244

......

90 316

Pezia .

5 5

88 46

348 348 68 68

101

76

badiofusca, Tomentella

216

Lactarius.

badiovestitus, Cortinarius Oel.) badipes, badius, Boletus badius,

..

7

.

272 296 410

.... Galerina Polyporus. ...415 55 badius, Xerocomus

86

142 142 286

baeumlei, Ombrophila bal au sti nu s, Corti n adu s

balteatoalbus,Cortinarius(Phleg.) 190

320 312

balteatocumatilis, Cortinarius (Phleg.) 191

'180

baltaatus, Coftinaius balteatus, Cortinarius (Phleg.).

... Bankera barba-jovis, Grandinia. ..

386

aurantius, Hypomyces. aurata, Arachnopezizazurata, Russula

258 204

baba- j ov is, Hy p h od on tia

140

batua-jovis, Kneiffiella

auratum, Tricholoma.

338

barlcata, Lachnea

auntum, Ticholoma

328

aur€a, Auriporia aurea, Clavaria aurea, aurea, aurea,

268

barbatulus, Hygrophorus barbatus, Dasyscyphus

aurantium,Tricholoma. -

168

1g2 230

,

barlcara,

362 376 168 259

Ostropa

.

.... .

badaeana, Pachye a.

.

.

Basidiodendron basifurcata, Russu/a

.

7A 100 100 €(,5

...213

246 104 130 184

262 170 80 252 56

badae, Psathyrella badae, Russula

Barya 222

459

80

.

aurantium, Scleroderma.

Conocybe .... Mycoacia. .... Phaeolepiota ... aurea, Pholiota. aurea, Ramaria .....

37

Baeospora.

5

-. 412 .. ..... 3El3 - -.-.247 auratile,Hydnellum ... 258

.

.

6 2

6 6

130

Peziza badia,Russula. .....

4

5 5 5

206

badia, badia, Plicaia

badiosanguineus,

72

. 56 . 47

badhamii, Leucoapinus badia, Alnicola badia, Co ybia.

bad i ovestita, P saw re IIa

70

.

B babingtonii,Pachyella.

1

5 2 3 3 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 2

3

137

Auriporia . . . 328 .......4{rg Galerina autumnalis var. autumnalis, Galerina 4Og 5 ayeri,lnocybe(lnocibium). .. . . . azonites, Lactarius 6 ..... 1(x, azurea, Russula azureovelatus, Cortinarius (Ser.) . . . 251 2 azureus, Cortinarius (Ser.). . . ...

badiofusca,

72

aurantiomarginata,Mycana.

.. Coprinus ... Auricularia.

auricomus, auricula-judae, au icu la-judae, H i meola Auricularia

6 4 3

94 126, '136 '136

aureus,Pseudomerulius. .

1

208 180

aureus, Hygrophorus aureus, Hygrophorus aureus, Merulius -

badhamii,Leucoagaricus

61

var decipiens, Leccinum var quercinum, Leccinum Can tharelIu s

&riomyces

154

14.6

aurantiacum, Leccinum

auraniiacus,Lactarius. . aurantiacus, Lactaius aurEntiofu lvus, Lactaius

2't8

... ......

aureotutbinatum, Phlegmacium

5

1

. 24

Vol.

6

9S

aurelia,Arachnopeziza . . . . aureum,Botryobasidium

Page

82

atrovirens, Cortinarius (Phleg.) 189 atrovirens, Leotia . . . . . . . . . 135 aucupadae, Cuneyella . . 169 augustus, aurantia, 98 aurantiaca f. lactea, Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca f. pallida, Hygrophoropsis

aurantiacum aurantiacum au ranti ac u s, aurantiacus,

132 132 't32

aurca,Russula.

3 3

97

atrovirens,Claussenomyces,,.

aurantiaca, Peniophora

4 4

196

.

..-

atrovinosa, Patellariopsis . atroviolaceT Pachyella atrovirens, Byssocorticium

2 3

3

ZE2

98

atrosquamosum var. squafrulosum, Tricholoma

atrotomentosus,Paxillus

1

104 80 280

.......

atrosquamosum,

218 118

.....

atropurpurea, atrcpurpureum,Geoglossurn . atropurpureum, Thuemenidium atropu rpu re us, C o ry nete s atrorubens, Russula. atroruf, Psilocybe.

3 o

78

SP. No.

Vol.

120

214

... . .......

atromaryinatus, P/uteus. atropae, kchnella -

Page

244

Sp. No. basirubens, Tricholoma

bataillei,

Ramaria

batschiana, Clitocyba batschii, Ticholoma

.

Page

...413 .... /160

Boidinia. 162

.

328,342

battarae,Amanita(Amanitopsis)'135

Gymnopilus ...141 Agaricus . . . . 17O ....... 273 . . . . . . 398 berberidis, Cucurbitaria . ... 3&5 bellulus, Belonidium. benesii, benesuada, Mollisia. . b€nzoinum, lschnoderma berkeleyi, Hygrocybe Bertia

Lactarius bettinae, Lepiota. beftinae, Echinoderma

I

.

Lenzites

betulina, Trametes

.

betulinus,Cortinarius(Myx.). betulinus, Piptoporus . betulinus, Piptoporus .

...

.

Resinicium

240 246 186

124

178

Trichophaeopsis. 77 Abortiporus ... 393

...... bifrons,Psathyrella ... binucleospora, Athelia. .. .. bipellis,Psathyrella ... birnbaumii,Leucocoprinus . . . . .

94

298

321 244

Bjerkandera

188 a2 160

206 286 268 250 318

3OO

Lactarius I Lactarius. 10 bloxamii, Entoloma 12 blumii, Lactaius bohemica, Alnicola ...129 bohemica, Ptychoverpa. I

50

blennius var. blennius, blennius var. fluens, .

278

.

Athelia

50

bombycina, Kneiffiella . bombycina, Volvariella. . bombycinum, Hypochnicium Bondazewia.

.

. ... 18 . . . . 132

(lnocibium)

lnocybe

Vol.

118 142 296 503 236 102 216

2

5 1

4

2 5 2 2

4

334

2 2

.

6

lnocybe (lnocibium) borchii,Tuber ...... borealis, Armillaria. ... borealis, Climacocystis borealis, lnocybe borealis, Omphaliaster. boreal is, Spongipell is borealis,

......

.

48

5

126

3:!1

300 270

Tubulicrinis. ...

Ng

Botryobasidium Botryohypochnus botryoides, Tomentella Boiryosphaeria botryosum, Botryotinia.

Botryobasidium.

BotMis

7 125 132

92

90 94 214 294

6l '148

Ramaria .... boudieri, Coprinus boudieri,Lepiota. .... boudieri, Trichophaea . botMis,

bovinus, Cortinarius [fel.) . . . . bovinus, lxocomus. bovinus, bovi nus v ar. viidocaeru lescens,

.

461

224 73

bresadolae, Ceipoia bresadolae, Collybia . . brcsadolae, Crepidotus

92

76 386 388

4 4 1

116

1

4 3 2

4 '180

302 136

...

70 238

. -. -. 87 ..

208 304 138

.

122

l5o

.

176

Brevicsllicium

126

brevipes, brevipes, Sparassis breviseta,

368

Melanoleuca -.- Nz Grandinia 79

2 2 2

252

296

.....

1

42

Scleroderma ... 505 . ...111 brassicolens, Micromphale . . . . . 3@ brebissonii, Helicobasidium . . . . . I brebissonii, Leucocoprinus . - - -. 245

bresadoliana,Clitocybe.

1

Ar0

Bovista. bovista, Calvatia . bovista, brassicae, Ascobolus brassibas, Copinus .

bresadolae, lnocybe (lnocyb€) bresadolae, Leucoagaricus . . bresadolae, Leucocopinus, bresadolae, Mucronella . - bresadolae, Neogodronia bresadolae, Russu/a . . bresadolanus, Lactaius .

1

76

Suillus

sad ol ae, Hy g rop h o ru s

2 5 3 2 2 2 2 2

2

216

.

1

2

148

.

bresadolianum, Tricholoma bresadolianus, Aganbus . 90

5 5

.

bongardii var. pisciodora,

b re

314 .

bombacina,

Su,7/us

3N

Coprinus ... 267 . . . 171 Agaricus 172 bisus, Lentinellus bitorquis, Agaricus. ...173 bivelus, Codinaius bivslus, Cortinarius [el.). . . . ... N .

186

310 310

bisphaeigera, Fayodia . bispora, Athelia Bisporella bisporus, bisporus var. albidus, Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus,

.

.

170

bicuspis, biennis, biennis, Daedalea biennis, Heteroporus biformis, Cortinarius (tel.)

blackfordiae, Russu/a . blattaria, Conocybe blattaria, Conocybe (Pholiotina). . blattaria, Pholiotina blennius t- albidopallens, Lacta,us

254

168 168

...

149

Boletus

bongardiiyar cervicolor, lnocybe

273

bicolor s- a., Piloderma bicolor var. rubi, Dasyscyphus

1dl

Page

bongardii var. bongardii,

210 284

bicolor Odontia bicoloti Piloderma

292

352

... M Biatorella. bibulus, Cortinarius Fel.) ... ... *7 bicolor, Coftinarius. bicolor,Dasyscyphus ... 214 bicolof Hygrophorus bicolor,Laccaria. .... 229 bicolor, Laxitextum ... lOG bicolor,

300

208 164

....

...

.

boltonii, lnocybe 224

215

bstulae, Coniophora. betularum, Fussu/a betulina, betulina, Russula

Bolbitius

Boletopsis 190

192

....

... Rutstroemia ...

bolaris, Cortinarius (Lepr.) bolaris, Boletinus.

100, 118

bertillonii,

Sp. No.

Vol.

2 3 5 3 5 4 4 2 1

b 6 3 3

4 3 2 2

Sp. No. breviseta, Hyphodontia breviset4 Kneiffiella

.

.....

.

. 188 . 49O 90 ...52. ...151 ...416

brinkmannii,Sistotrema. . . broomeianus,Melanogasier. . . .

Hebeloma brumale, Tulostoma brumalis, Clitocybe brumalis, Polyporus bruchetii,

brunnea, lnocybe brunnea, Leptonia

Page 102 102

. U . . @1 . ,,.977 ...103 brunnsoradiatus, Pluteus . brunneorufa, lnocybe brunneoviolacea,Russula. . . ., 1O2 brunneoviolaceus, Lactarius 1l brunneus var. brunneus, .... gV2 Cortinarius fiel.) brunneus var. glandicolor lo. curtus, Cortinarius(fel.) .... 3{}3 bryophila, Mycena . bryophila, Mycenella ........ 373 bryophila, Tomentella . . . . . - - - 244 bucknallii, Cystolepiota . . . . . . bucknallii, Cystolepiota . . . . . . . 2Oo bucknallii, Lepiota bufonium, Tricholoma . ...414 bddger Coftinellus bulbiger,Leucocortinarius. ... 382 brunnea, Sphaerosporella . . . . brunneoatra, lnocybe . brunneofulvus, Cortinarius (tel.). brunneola, Agrocybe brunneola, Conocybe

.

7a 04 98 54

292

.

5 5 4 4 4

2

146 188

4 4 3

296

138

5 5 2 3 3 5

156

1

142 142

1

.l

4 2ao .160

'I

5 5 3 1

3

58

73

4 4 2 2

c caelaia,

166

314 388

.

Rhodocybe Russula .... Stropharia ...

caerulea, caerulea, cae ru Ie sce n s, C o fti nai u s caeruloscens, Cortinarius (Phleg.).

. caeruleum, Hydnellum. . ..... . casruleum, Pulcherricium caesarea, Amanita. ...

97 'lO0

/l55

14 56 56

caes i oc i nerea, Bou rd ot i a caes i oc i n ere a, S e baci n a -

-.,

cAesiocyaneus, Cortinadus . caesionigrellus, Cortinarius [fel.)

caesiotincta,Volvariella.

. .....

. .

170 306 129

272 224

caesius, Tyromyces

caespiticia, Mollisia . . caespitosa, Chamonixia. . cagei, Cortinarius (fel.) . . calamistrata, lnocybe (lnocibium)

-.. .. . . ..

@2 3O7

I

244 102

calcarea, Psathyrella calcarum, Hygrocybe

Exidiopsis

calcea, calcsa, Sebacina

calcicola,Cystolepiota.

1l

......

calcicola,Lepiota -... calciphila, Hygrocybe

56 't94

.

217 79

...... caligatum,Tricholoma. ... caliginosus,Panaoolus . . . . . . . callimorphus,Dasyscyphus. . . . . callisteus, Cortinarius (Lepr.) Callorina .

2 4

6 4 5

190 259 87

5

l/l5

4

2

....

haasii, Cortinarius

Calocybe

71

415 310

215

252 50

. . (Phleg.) . . . . .

195 196 197

144 120

.

calophyllus, Hygrophorus calopus, calopus, Coftinarius calorhiza, Mycena Caloscypha calospora, lnocybe (lnocybe) Calosporella . calotricha, Phanerochaete. . calotrix, Tubulicrinis

Boletus.

5 246 260

. .... calthae,Botryotinia ... calva var. aggrsgata, Mucronella . ...

108

72 288 159 188

158 288

148 388

.

Calycellina

186

168

Calocera. calochrous ssp. calochrous var. parvus, Cortinarius (Phleg.) . . . calochrous ssp. conilerarum var, coniferarum, Cortinarius (Phleg.). calochrous ssp. coniferarum var.

Calvatia 3 2

96

caelata, Calvatia

334

caesiocanescens, Cortinarius (Phleg.) 194

calida,lnocybe(lnocybe) 3

Byssocorticium byssoides, Amphinema

cacao, Phlebia. caccabus, Clitocybe.

...... caesiocinctum, Entoloma . caesia,Postia

Vol.

calichroa, Humaria.

byssisedus, Claudopus

.

1

6 6

296 124

bulbosa,Mycona --.. 321 bulbosus, Cortinarius (rel.) ..... 3O4 Bulgaria bulgarioides, Piceomphale . .... bulgarioides, Ruistroemia . . . . . . l5O bullacea, Psilocybe ..- 42 bullata,Diatrype. .... 356 bu iardii, Coftinaius bulliardii, Cortinarius (Iel.) . . . . . . 305 274 bulliardii, Marasmius. ..bulliardii,Melogramma ... 369 butyracea var. asema, Collybia . . . 185 butyracea var. butyracea, Collybia 186 buxi,Marasmius. ---. 279 180 byssinum, Piloderma ........ byssisedum, Entoloma . 13

3 2 5 4

5

.

bulbigerum, Ticholoma Bulbillomyces bulbosa, Armillaria.

2 2 2

Page

caesiocinereum,Basidiodendron. 10

.

.

2

5

't

.

Sp. No,

Vol.

.

calyciformis, Lachnellula calycina, Dasyscypha .

.--

calycina,Tichoscyphella . calycioides,Dasyscyphus. calyculus,Hymenoscyphus. Calyptella calyptraeformis, Hygrocybe calyptrata, Galerina . . . . calyptratus, Pleurotus . calyptriformis, Hygrocybe . calyptrospora, Galeina . calwtrosporum, Hebeloma

-.. --.

--..

...

216 182

.

. .....

196 198 '186 '164

198

2

102

3 5 3 3

411

312 80

.

.

206 200

.

. ....

.... ....

Camarophyllus. camarophyllus, Hygrophorus cameina, Galera. camerina, campanella, Omphalina campanella, Xeromphalina .

Galerina

-. . m

322 106

5 5

98

3

lOG

..- 412 . ... #

322 345

3 5 5 3 a 279

Sp. No.

.. . .. 2% campestris, Agaricus .-.174 cam p estri s, C ori e Iu s campestris,Dichomitus. . . . . . . 350 campanula, Calyptella. . campan u Iatu s, P an aeo I u s

.

oI I

campestris, Trametes campestris v u- cupreobrunnea,

Psalliota

.

camphoratus, Cortinarius (Ser.) camphoratus, camptophy a, Omphalia.

Lactarius.

cancellatus, Clathrus candelaris, Cortinarius

..

.

fiel.). . . .

candicans, Botryobasidium. candicans, candicans, Oidium. candicans var dryadicola, Clitocybe . candida, Hemimycena. candida, Peniophora candida, Solenia.

Clitocybe

candida, Tremella

.

. ...

. .

.. ... .. .

.... ......

...

.

.....

2'16

146 370 108

capsratus, capillaripes,

-

carbonaia, Tephrocybe carbonarium, Geopetalum. carbonarius, Ascobolus

.

....

...

112

c arbo n ai us, Canth are I I u s c arbo n i co Ia, P sathy re II a

carbon igena, Octospora. carcharias, Cystoderma. carestiana, Urceolella .

... -.,.,,. carinii,Lepiota. ..... carnea, Calocybe ....

248 90

carneipes, Pluteus. . carneoalbus, Rhodophyllus

2N

....

.

carpini forma quercina, Diaporthe.

Leccinum Russula carpophila, Naucoia carpophila, Xylaria.

.

Flammulaster. ..... Flammulaster. ..... .....

M .

........ Gyroporus.

Entoloma.

3og

215 29

16

catinus,Clitocybe .... catinus, Pustularia catinus, Tazetta.

153

63

.

caudata, Psawrella caulicinalis, Marasmius caul ici nalis, M arasm ius caussei, Xsrula

...

.

Boleiinus. ...... cavipes, Hebeloma ... cavipes, Russula .... c€ciliae, Amanita (Amanitopsis) ... cejpii, Scutellinia. celluloderma, Naucoia celtica, Psziza cenangium, Chlorosplenium. . . . .

318 274 318

1 1

o 4 1

4 4

642 224 945 785 192 294 206 '146 214 84 84 563

4 3

4 5 5 3 4 3 1

1 1

304

1

268

4

348

3 3

346

5 o

274 3 310 101

lO5

6

136

4

80

.

38 AX)

,

centunculus, Ramicola

214 286

184

cavipes,CortinariusOel.)

centuncula, Naucoria

1

346

304 120

110

1

2 2

4O5

castanea, Lepiota. . castane i co Io r, Co ft inari u s castaneus, castaneus var eryth nus, Cofiinarius

cauticinalis, Xeromphalina. cavipes,

334 264 214

4 3

31

..... 1O4 ... g7

carpophilus var. subincarnatus,

catalaunicum, Catathelasma Catinella .

210 76 144 120 120

2 4 2 2

'132, 136

carpini, Hygrophorus carpini, carpini,

causticus,Cortinarius(Myx.)

118 186

centunculus, Simocybe

278

cepaestipes, Armillaria

110

cepaestlpes, Lepiota

204

cephalixus, Cofti narius c€phalixus, Cortinarius (Phleg.)

.

.

-.....

96 126 68 176 304 304

3O4

1

5 1

,|

5 5 5

138 .

132

. . . 1gB Entoloma 17 cepistipes, Armillaria ...133 cepistip€s,Laucocoprinus . . . . . 24

100

Ceraceomyces

212 190

cephalotrichum,

142 .

, ,... -

320

Arg 245 218

3 2 5 2 3

302 292

- ---cameus, Ascophanus carneus, lodophanus ... 116 carnosum, Ganoderma -. - 48 caroticolor, Stephanospora . ... 491 carpinea, Pezicula. ...258

caucasicus, Boletus . caudata, Lasiosphaeria

.186

.

4

Vol.

15

aricus.

caneum, Tricholoma

Page

36t

.

1

.

c arn eov i resc e n s, Ag

.

castoreus Lentinellus

526 325

-

2 2 2

Entoloma.

cartilaginea, Exidia . . caft ilagi neu m, Trtcholoma casimiri, Cortinarius ffel.) casimiri, lnocybe. castanea, lnocybe -

2

Rozites. ... 383 Mycena. .-..--322 capillaris,Mycena .... 323 capillipos, Marasmius . . . .. . . . 2@ capitata,Cordyceps. ... 3Og capitata, Dacrymyces. 3 capitatum, Haplotrichum capitatum, Hyphoderma. .. -... capnoides, Hypholoma . . . . . . . /+08 capnoides, Nematoloma 'lO7 capreolarius, Hygrophorus . -... caprina, Melanospota. capinus, Hygrophorus capula,Calyptslla .... 2X carbonaria, Faerb€ria . ., ,-. .. N7 carbonaria, Geopyxis . ...1(x) carbonaia Pholiota carbonaria, Strattonia . ... 333

carneogriseum, carneo-lutea, Schizopora . carneola, lncrustoporia . cam&tomentosus, Panus.

126

1

.

4 4

....

carpophilus, Phaeomarasmius carpophilus var. carpophilus,

188 62

...

carneogrisea,Skeletocutis

194 128 202 64

32,

Cantharsllula.

Cantharellus.

902

304

... Mutinus .... canoceps, Psathyrella. . . . . ...

cantharellus, Hygrocybe.

292 398

1(x,

m

2

5

154

candidissima, Cristella.

candolleana, Sclerotinia . canescens, Dasyscyphus canescens, lnocybe - . caninus, Cortinarius (Ser.) caninus,

260 282 282 166

3{rg

152

Sp. No.

Vol.

62

candidipes, Hebeloma.

candidus, Clitocybe candidus, Henningsomyces. candidus, Leucopaxillus. candolleana,Psathyrella. - .

253 12

Page

4 5 5 4 3

4 108

2

Sp. No. cerasi, cerasi,

Craterocolla Dermea .., ,.

Page

N

2S

cerasi, Atangium

214 62

cerasi, Taphrina cerastis, Ceratobasid ium ceratophora, Valsa. ceratopus, Marasmius cerea, Peziza

Gnomonia

,,.371

.

cerebriformis,Hydnobolites.

Pholiota

...

---cerinus,Dasyscyphus. ...

.

gA

.--

Psathyrclla

7a

'I 'I

126

4 188

296 298

'166

..

,l

2

4 2 2

3 5 4 5

9 lO4 386

. Crepidotus .......386 cessans, Russula .... loo 18 cetratum, Entoloma chailletii, Amylostereum . ...196 cesatiivar.cesatii,Cropidotus.

1

1

278 162

.. ...,

Pluteus

1

304 236

.110

Cerrena cerussata, Clitocybe. cerussata Clitocybe . cervicolor, lnocybe (lnocibium) cervinus,

2

2

144 217

,1

76

421

csrifora, cerina, Calocybe. Ceriporia. Ceriporiopsis cemua, Cerocorticium

1N

124 290

cesatii var. subsphaerosporus,

Chalciporus chalybaeum var. chalybaeum,

Entoloma. ....... chalybaeum var. lzulinum, Entoloma. ....... chamaeleontina,Russu/a

.....

chionophila, Psilocybe chlorantha, Mycena . chlorinella, Mycena

.-

-....

43

. ....... Hygrocybe

chloroides, Russula chlorophaea, Plicaria chlorophana, chlorophana var. aurantiaca, Hygrocybe chlorophyllum, Entoloma Chlorosplenium chlorospora,Venturia . Chondrostereum.

.

-..-

Chroogomphus chrysaspis, Hygrophorus chrysenteron, Boletus . -

chrysenteron,Calocybe.

21

176 304 '180

.....

Xerocomus. chtysenterum, Ticholoma. . . -.

.

chrysenteron,

chrysodacryon, Russula

.

chrysodon,Hygrophorus chrysodon, Limacium

.

.....

.

1

3 3 4 1

1

2

N1 2

110 39O

308 94 122 86

cineracea Hyphodontia cinetacea Kneifftella.

cinerasceflq Lyophy um cinerascens, Melanoleuca cinerascens, Poia - . . cinerea, cinerea, Daedalea

...

---..

lN

52

/A

280 455 274

108

268

2fi 105

2U 2&

.

...cinnabarinus, Cortinarius [fel.) . . . cinnabarinus, Pycnoporus. . . . . .

374 132 258

2U 188

-

311 3{X,

-.. 82

cinnamomeobadius, Coftinaius. . cinnamomeolutescens, Cortinarius

2$

324

...269 Coprinus Craterellus. ... 486 ...416 cingulatum, Tricholoma . 324 cinnabarina, Nectria. ---...-

cinnamomea, Coltricia. cinnamomea, Hymenochaete.

278 226

156

......

cinnabainum,Cystoderma

,), 248,2fi

,

an gu stispo ru s,

cinnabadna, Trametes

3(X

208 239

Cinereomyces . cinereus, Cantharellus. cinereus, cinereus, cinereus, Pluteus

248

.

150

.

144

cinnamomeus,Cortinarius(Derm.) 153 cinnamoviolaceus,

144 240

3 o

circinata, Onnia

120

J i,

loo

.

.

v ar

1rrc 306, 308

't@.

.

Coprinus . cinereofuscus, Pluteus cinereoides, Mycena

174

1@.

crherascens, Lepiota. . cinerascens, Leucoagaricus,

3 3 3 3

143 56

13 196

.

272

3 6

.

.

4 3

1

200 148, 300

.

... 4al Ciboria. cidais, Phaeocollybh - . -..... ciliaris, Dasyscyphus ... 115 ciliatus, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Polyporus. --- 417 cimicarius, Lactarius, cincinnata, lnocybe (lnocibium) . . . 10 cincinnata var. major, ll lnocybe (lnocibium) cincinnatula, lnocybe .... 413 cinctula, Galerina ... 311 cinctulus, Panaoolus 80 cineracea, Grandinia .

cibarius, Cantharellus

270

106

christinae, Phaeoco ybia

.....

2 2

6

304

-

.

chrysostigma,Pezizella.

-.

292

4

8l

-. christiansenii,Trechispora. ... christinae, Phaeocollybia . . . . . . chordalis, Marasmius

't26

chtysophthalma, LacfuEllula chrysophylla, Chrysomphalina chrysonheus, Lactarius

c i n ereofI oc cosus

6

182 154

1O8

.

148 .

1

208,232

278

.

lN

2

4

.

Chrysomphalina . chrysophaeus, Pluteus

Pase \bl.

2g

376 104 100

N .

chrysodon var, leucodon, Hygrophorus chrysoloma, Phellinus .

.... Clavulina cinerea,Mollisia ..... cinerea, Ostropa ... cin6rea, Peniophora cinerella,Mycena --.. cinerellus,Camarophyllus. . . . cinereotloccosus, Coprinus . ...

4

. .,,....1O7 Chamonixia 9t chateri, Melastiza Cheilymenia chioneus, Leptoporus chionous, Tyromyces

5 b 4 2

l9

Chamaemyc€s. chamite@, Alnicola chamiteae, Russula

SP' No.

Vol.

Cortinarius(fel.) .--. 312 14 Lactarius. ...142 circinans, Cudonia. circinans,Hebeloma. ...'lO2

circellatus,

circinatus, Trametes . circinatus vaE triqueteti

Mucronoporus

'138

248 248 244

Sp. No. circumvdlata, Diatrypella cirata, Collybia cinata, Collybia (Microcollybia)

.

cinhata,Microcollybia.

.

cinhata, Unguicu\aria cinhatus, Creolophus cirsii, Ophiobolus citrina,

.. ......

.

.

.

clandestina, Nolanea

.

clandestinus, Dasyscyphus

Russula

....

.... ...

clariana, claricolor, Cortinarius (Phleg.).

claroflava,Russula . . . . . . .

.

218

304 184

cognata, Melanoleuca. cognata ss. Lge, Melanoleuca cognatum, Tricholoma -

182 206

cohaerens, Marasmius cohaerens, Trechispora colemanniana, Hygrocybe.

304

coliforme, Myriostoma.

collinitus, collinus, Marasmius

122

Collybia

claviger, lnocybe . clavipes, clavularis, Mycena Clavulicium

Clitocybe -

,${l

...154

Clavulina. Clavulinopsis

. ....103 Cudoniella. ... 180 . ... 214

clematidis, Tubu liciu m

192

Clitocybe

commune,Schizophyllum.

Clitocybula. Clitopilus.

170 50 188

conf luens, Radulo myces

325

conformatum, Helotium . confragosa, Daedaleopsis.

clypeatus uar alpicola,

........ var. latispora, Lepiota .

clypeolaria cnista, Ticholoma

coccinea, coccinea,

Hygrocybe Nectria ....

coccinea,Sarcoscypha. . . . . . coccinea var. jurana, Sarcoscypha

Orbilia

coccinella, coccineocrenata, Hygrocybe coccineocrenata, Hygrocybe cochleata, cochleatus, Lentinellus coe/estinus, Rhodophyllus. .

Otidea

....

. m

.

83 325

260

12O

122

N

122 210

...

.

61

.......

...

M .

Hygrocybe Morchslla conica, Verpa

84 284 366

24 86 122 122

272 110 '168

....

.

384

.---

385 138 76 222

.

85 1

I

conica var. chloroides, Hygrocybe

1t6

conicosporum,Ticholoma coniferarum, Coiinarius.

84

1

conigena, Co ybia

.

Coniophora 92

274 210

23

Daedaleopsis. .....

confusa, Cudonia confusa, lnocybe conglobatum, Lyophyllum. conica, conica,

., 3

106

.

81

244

conf ragosa var. tricolor,

202 252

.

.

54

104

4U

. ...406 . 93 ..- 187 Collybia ........ 268

confluens, Cerocorticium confluens, confluens, Hypoxylon confluens, Phellodon

Rhodophyllus. clypeolaria, Lepiota

.

confinis, Trechispora confluens, Albatrellus

270

2.

169 27O

Confertobasidium confinis, Cristella

172,190

.......

....

...,.. Entoloma. Entoloma. -....--

148

.

314 96

... -.. N -.. 252 ... 3XI2 Agaricus ...175 ...... . . 346 ........ 310 Otidea 62

.

clusilis, Fayodia clypeatum, Entoloma

417

commutabilis, lnocybe . compactum, Hydnellum. compactus, Leucopaxillus. - compressum, Acrospermum comtulus, concentrica, Daldinia conchatus, Panus . . conchatus, Phellinus concinna, concolor, Mycsna concolor, Ramaria . concrgscens, Hydnellum conferendum, conferendum var. pusillum,

.

clivensis,Psathyrella ...

'196

...

217 commixta, lnocybe . commune fo. efibulatum, Sistotrema 189

294 128 352 346 162

238 248

.

.. Coprinus --comedens, Vuilleminia. .--

248 248 68

clavulipes, Hebeloma clavus, clematidis, Litschauerella -

172

146,328,

.

326 368

4

conissans, Pholiota

3 2 o 2 2 5 5 o

242

.

colubrina, Lepiota . columbetta, Tricholoma columbi nus, Pleu rotus. Colu m nocystis. colymbadinus, Cortinaius (Lepr.) comatus,

414

-

clethrophilus, Lactarius cliduchus, Coftinaius Climacocystis

Coltricia

206 88 188

154 342 350

...

230,232 ,13

338, 342

398

Gomphus

104

Colpoma.

110

Claviceps Clavicipitaceae

248

384 302

.......

Vol.

8S

colossus, Tricholoma

Claussenomyces

....

.

Suillus.

254

Clathrus.

Galerina.

collariatum, Hebeloma

N0

.

..

Page

298

colli n itus, Cottinart us

240

Clavariadelphus clavata, clavata, Galerina . clavatu m, Nevrophyl lum clavatus,

collabens, Junghuhnia.

'160

clathroides, Hericium

Clavaria

...

.,,.... 82 . ... 111 . . . . . 84

1Og

.

Sp. No.

Vol.

201

... N Amanita ..... 146 citrina,Bisporolla .... 175 citrina, Hygrocybe. a2 citrina, Hypocrea .... 317 citrina var. alba, Amanita . . . '147 citrinum, Gloeocystidiellum . . . . citrinum, Scleroderma. .... 5Oo citrinus, Cortinarius (Phleg.) . . . . . 199 citrinus,Vesiculomyces. . . . . . . 109 citrophylla, Lepiota

Page

....

106 146 186

.

142,314

.

. . . . - -. .

44

48

.

206

42.

o

Sp. No. connaium, Lyophyllum Conocybe conopilus, Psathyrella.

....... .. -....

298 326

..

.

.

contortus, Clavariadelphus . controversus, Dasyscyphus. . controversus, Lactarius cookei, Collybia (Microcollybia) cookei, lnocybe (lnocibium) . . cookei, Microcollybia cookeianum, Geoglossum. cop inaria, Chei ly me n i a Coprinus. Coprobia. coprobia, Psathyrella coprophila, Athelia.

,

164

1

284

4 b 4

94

2 2 2 2

114 114 340 142

.

.

coralloides, Hericium cordae, Entoloma cordisporus, Copinus

coium,

Byssomeru/,rJs

Xeromphalina coronaria, Plicaria - cornui,

c oro n ari a,

..

s arco s p h ae ra

coroniferum,Sistotrema.

.....

coronilla, CotTicium coronilla,

corrugis, Psawrella corsicum, Leccinum coftical is, Cri n ipe llis

... .... ....

corticalis,Dasyscyphus. . .

.

4 4

crinalis, Crinipellis

144

246 244 280 144

....---.

corvina,Onygena ---.

170

1

1

2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 1

1 1

2 2 2

4

292

1

358 314

5 2 2 2 2

262,268

4

201

293 131

cofticatus, Pleurotus , corticiorum, Helminthosphaeria. Corticium cotticola, Mycena Cortinarius.

cortinatus,Coprinus.

314

190

219

72 184 188 3'12

304 98 142 292

Russula. .

Tomentella ..- 26 14 crispa, Helvella 181, crispa, Plicaturopsis ... crispa,Sparassis -... 474 crispula,Hemimycena. - -. 215

192

204 374

cispus, Craterellus

.... 456 Clavulina cristata,Lepiota ..... 21 W. cristata var. pallidior, Lepiota .... . . . q7 cristatus, Albatrellus. Cristinia .... 326 crocata, Mycena. crocea, Amanita (Amanitopsis) . . . 137

cristata,

.

crocea, Hygrocybe crocea, Sarcodontia croceif oli u s, CotTi nai u s croceoconus, Cortinarius (Derm.) croceum, croceus, Cortinarius (Derm.). . . crocipodium, Leccinum crocolitus, Codinaius Crucibulum crucipila, Cheilymenia cruenta, Hymenochaete.

.

crustosa, Hyphodontia crustosa, Kneiffiella

. .. .

...

...

168 146 154 181

155 72

204

.

85 295

100

156

270

..

1-t2

.. . .

crustulinirorme,Hebeloma . c rustul iniforme v ar al pi nu m, Hebeloma cryptocystis, Conocybe

108

114

...

Piloderma

Grandinia

1

52

crispula, Omphalina

Crustomyces crustosa,

5

106 118

crispula, Urceolella

,1

1

113

238 256 296

crustaceum, Hypoxylon

2

112 172

.

cremeo-ochracea,Phlebia

cruentus,Cortinarius(Derm.)

4

271

cremeoavellanea,

3

280,286 374

62 156

160 52

382

.

372

Craterellus. Craterocolla cremea, Peniophora

cretatus, Clitopilus.

/156

. . .

N2

cretaceus, Agaicus

174

...

Stropharia

Coronophoraceae corrosus, Cortinarius (Phleg.)

corrugata, Hymenochaete. corrugata, Hyphodermella. corrugata, Ramaria corrugis, Podofomes

.

168

...

2 2

66 66 191

66 176

Creopus . Crepidotus.

4

346

...

Cyathicula

coronata, coronatum, Geastrum

. 87

-

.

u

'172

Creolophus

.l

2

...

sarcosphaera.

.

4 4

1

cornucopioides,craterellus.

...

60

2

corium,

cornigerum, Ceratobasidium cornucopiae, Pleurotus .

Cotylidia.

122

a4

108

Meruliopsis --- 14 cornea, calocera cornea,Phlebia ...-. 171 corniculata, Clavulinopsis. .... - rc

...155 26 cotonea,Psathyrella. . -. 327 cotoneus,Cortinarius(Lepr.) . . . 170 Clitocybe. Paxina.

cramesinus, Pulveroboletus crassa, crassipes, Collybia . crassus, Coftinaius crassus, Cortinarius (Phleg.).

1

288 304

.

'I

1

82

260

4

286

Cordyceps. Coriolopsis

cosmariospora, Nectria cossus, Hygrophorus costata, cosiifera,

.

270 4(x)

.

. 13 . 326 coryli,Nectria ...... -...368 corylina, Cryptospora . 325 corynephora, Mycena. ......

Page

-.. ... cremor, Lactaius crenulatus,Ascobolus. ...

240

.......

corvinum, Entoloma . corydalina, lnocybe (lnocibium) corydalina var tricolor, lnocybe.

2 2

5

184 130 100 224 110

coprophila, Psilocybe coralloides, Dryodon

\)

b

15

. . . n2 '12 ..

coprophila,Conocybe(Pholiotina)

4 4

94

Sp. No.

Vol.

256

. 183 consimilis, Psathyre a . 111 consobrina,Russula. . ..... conspersa, Tubaria ...462 conspersum,Botryobasidium. . . conspersum, Haplotrichum . 68 conspersum, Oidium conspercium, stigmatolemma. .. - 2 constans, Hygrocybe constellatio,Pulvinula. . . . . . . . 107 contiguus,Phellinus. . . . . . . . . 311

conscriptum,Hymenoscyphus

Page

...

81

102

.

't02

.

105 106 300

Vol.

Sp. No. Cryptodiscus Cryptospora . crystallin4 Heterochaetella crystall i num, Treme llodon crystall i nu s, Coft inafi us

cubicularis,Bobergea.

234

.

60

.

62

......

... cucumis, Macrocystidia. .. ... cucullata, Hemimycena

Page

.

.

g)6

224 246

216

cucul latus, Rhodophyl lus

110

230 230

Cudoniella

162 304

..

.......

Russula

..... ... .

.

cupularis, Pustulaia

Tarzetta. Cyathipodia

cupularis, cupuliformis, cupuliformis, Cyathipodia cupulifomis, Helvella . . curreyana, Myriosclerotinia curtipes, cuttisii, Pluteus cuttus, Lactaius . curvatispora,

Russula

.

cuticularis,lnonotus.

.

cyanescens,Gyroporus.

206

cyanites,Cortinarius(Ser.).

....

Mycena

Cyathipodia

cyathoidea,Cyathicula cyathoidea, Phialea .

.

...

Cyathus.

cylichnium,Ascocoryne. . .

120

1

dealbata,

108 116

4

5

6 4 6 1

106

4 2

66 66

352 266 266 245

1

4 4 4 2 4 3 o 5

3

244

6

...

decembris, Clitocybe decipiens, docipiens, decipiens, lnocybe .

Anthostoma ... Athelia decipiens, Lactarius. decipiens, Russula . -. -.... decipiens var. atrocoeruleus, Cortinarius(tel.) .... decipiens var. decipiens, Cortinarius(l-el.) .... decipiens vaj. lacunarum, kctaius decipiens, Xenasmatella. ..-

156 257

372

lnocybe.

.

decolorans,Russula.,.. .

decolorans var obscura, Russula decora, Tricholomopsis . . . decussata, Pholiota. .

51

o 1

16 117

2 5 6 6

314

5

90

315 72

214

.

118

....... .....

definitum, Hyphoderma deflectens, lnocybe deflectens s. lat., Phlebia

423 7A

-... deformans, Taphrina. deglubens, Eichleriella. . - - -... delectabile, Corticium delibutus, Cortinarius (lvlyx.). .... delica,Russula .....

5 6 2

119

.

58 -t70

1 1

deliquescens,Dacrymyces

170

'I

194 186

228 202 17

106 58

.

demaiiicola,Hyaloscypha. demisannula, Lepiota . .

.... ....

1

2

5 2 1

'140

342

.

5 6 b 3 4

2

275

....

deliciosus var- piceus, Lactaius. delicula, Russula.

Dendropolyporus

128 17

.

del iciosus, Lactari us

demissa, Omphalia

173

-

1

Lactarius.

94 136 62

--

delicata f. bispora, Lentaria . delicatella, Hemimycena, Mycena Delicatula delicatulus, Copinus .

252

-

deerata, Pseudombrophila

deliciosus,

,l

2SO

104

.,.

4

6 2

-162

decipientoides var taxocystis,

delicatum,Haplographium

378 154

.

.

6

399

166

Clitocybe

-

210

266

.

decastes,Lyophyllum. . .

86 86 86 58 304 58 304

76,84

.

1

5 1

30

cyathula, Lactadus.

313

2 2

2

3ol

.

.

2

182

2O5

192

..

192 50 114 304 304 274

2AO

62 -t70

..

296 296

2 2 2 2

Datronia

4

cyanu lus, Rhodophyllus

cyathilormis,Pseudoclitocybe

112 114

.

4 4

Dasyscyphus

cyanoxantha var. cutef racta,

Cyathicula

Cystostereu m

2

o

....... A7 Russula. .......116 cyanoxantha var. cyanoxantha, Russula. .......115 cyanofihiza,

2

3

'176

X

,l

D

6

334

.

188

cytisina, Fomitopsis cytisinus, Haploporus

113

1

...

.

Cytidia

2

186

70,114

...

.,

Cystoderma Cystolepiota

4

204 142

Cyphellostereum

Daldinia . damascenus,CortinariusClel.)

114

. ......

cyanescens, Mycena cyanipes, Mycena .

., 4

Vol.

196

.

5

23

.......

cyanea, Stropharia-

.l

2()4

126

Podospora

5

... 62 262 200

5

curvipes, Pholiota

curvispora, Grandinia . curvula, cuspidatus, Entoloma . cuspidifera, Entoloma . cuspidiferum, Entoloma

Cylindrobasidium Cylindrocarpon Cyphella . cyphelloides, Mycena

2(XI

U

....

Orlcilia

2 2

Page 230 110

daamsii, Genonema Dacrymyces Dacryobolus . Daedalea Daedaleopsis

cu neifoliu m, Ticholoma

cuniculi, Lasiobolus Cuphophyllus cuprea, Rhodocybe cuprea, cupreobrunneus, Agaricus cupreorufus, Cortinarius (Phleg.) cupularis, Geopyxis

cyl indri pes, Coft inari us

138

.

. ........ cuneifolium, Dermoloma ...... Cortinarius (Phleg.). cumatilis var. haasii, Cortinarius (Phleg.).

cylindracea,Agrocybe.

1

230 300 262

.

culmicola, Belonioscypha cumatilis var. cumatilis,

.l

273

cucumis, Naucoria. cucumis var. latifolia, Macrocystidia. cucumis var. leucospora, Macrocystidia Cucurbitaria cucurbitula, Nectria . . Cudonia .

Sp. No.

Vol.

.

MA 52

.

.

239

202 142 302 318

5 6 2 o 3 4 1

b b 6 b 2 1

4 3

SP. No.

. - - -.... Russula ........

-

densifolia, Lepista.

densissima, Pterula dens,lsslm4 Russu/a Dentipellis depallens, Russu/a.

242 124 208 366

.

.

160

.

-

170 126

.

depauperatus, Pluteus.

.

depauperatus,Saccobolus

Boletus. ..

39

........ 302 Clitocybe ...158 dryadicola,Clitocybula ... 142 121 dryadicola, Russula . ......19 dryadophilus, Lactarius . dryina, Lentodiopsis .... 395 dryinus, Pleurotus ...189 dryophila, Collybia.

68

142

Dermoloma desmazieri, Lophiostoma desrruens, Pholiota .

186

.....

.

379

296 340

.......

deterrimus, Lactarius defonsus, Coftinaius detritica, Peniophora detriticum, Hypochnicium. deiriticum, Lagarobasidium detrusa, Diaporthe. deusta,

dryophila, Diaporthe. dryophila vaL funicularis, Collybia dryophilus, lnonotus. dubia, Coryne dubia, Diaporthe. dubia, Spicaria.

18

234

.... ....

Ustulina.

....

diabolicus,Cortinarius(Ser.).

..

140 140

.

.

134

.

345 256

304 272

dubia, Rhodocybe

diasemospermus var. diasemospermus, Cortinarius diatreta, Clitocybe . Diatrypaceae

(tel.)

.

Dichomitus dichotoma, Clavulinopsis dichrous, Caloporus dichrous, Gloeoporus dichrous, Hygrophorus dicolor Clitocybe dictydiola, Lamprospora.

...

. 206 -...38 . 6 . . . . . . 357 ...

Discina.

Disciotis . discoideus, Hygrophorus . . . . discolor var. longispora, I/ollisia discoxanthus, Hygrophorus . . . discreta, Nummularia . dispersum. Hypholoma disseminata, Psathyrella.

disseminatus,Coprinus. . . . dlsseminatus, Pseudocopinus

. . lo9 . . 275 . . llo

.. -.

162 114

3

. .

1

4 2 276 294 264

2AO

62 50

duriusculum, Leccinum dysthaloides, Entoloma

'I

5 5 ., 2

.

2

312

26

.

-....., .

6 3 3 3 1

3 2

I I

250 114

4

'14

1

1

5 5

73

246 317 318

6 2 3 3 6

2ffi

3&l

..-.

1

322 294 294 294 294 240

400

.....

1

'|

7

212 180 138

4 3 2 4 5 5 5 1 1 1

3 4

32 27

.... eburneus,Hygrophorus. . . . . . . echinacea, Lepiota .. ....... echinatum, Lycoperdon . . .. . . . echinatum, Melanophyllum ... . echinella, Lepiota echinella var. eriophora, Lepiota. echinocephala, Amanita .

. ..

,l 1

echinospora, Laccaria.

'I

4 4

230

4 4

1

304

. echinospora, Peziza.

.

.....

5'12

echinospora, Pseudotomentella. echi nospora, To mentel la. echinospora, Tomentellopsis .

41

.

.

echinosporus,Coprinus. . .

edulis, Agaicus edulis,

Boletus.

151

.

.

-

. .

3 4

111

.

.

1

276

.

echinophila,Rutstroemia eEhinospora, lnocybe . .

1

304 324 230 272

...

1

70

300

.

1

4

154

E eburnea, Massarina eburneus, Cortinarius (Myx.)

echinospora. Laccaia

226

298 172 120

250,2

Cortinariusfiel.) ....

Durandiella. Durella . duriaeana, Sclerotinia

J

304

1

4

378 227

.

Mycena.

3

48

digitata, Xylaria

diosma, disciformis, Aleurodiscus disciformis, Diatrype. . .

130

106

.

dionysae, Cortinarius (Phleg.)

2

366

.. . . .... digitalina,Conocybe. ... digitalis,Cyphella .... dilutus, CotTinarius.

duracinus, Codinarius duracinus, Codinarius (Iel.) duracinus var. raphanicus,

292

diettrichii,Pluteus.

..

160

278 280 242 2 2

Vol.

256

Boletus. dura,Agrocybe

348

Page

174

.

dunensis, Panaeolus.

dupainii, duplicatus, Phallus

282 .

.

dunensis,lnocybe(lnocybe).

316

.

-

.

dulcamara, Cucurbitaria, dulcamara, lnocybe (lnocibium)

224 284 284

diabolum, Hydnellum Diaporthaceae. Diaporthe

dilatata, Mycena

Doih ioraceae

drimeia, Russula dryadeus, lnonotus dryadicola,

396 2't2 214

.

digitaliformis, Verpa

Dothiora.

6

Dermocybe

Diatrypella

Dothideaceae

304 52

.

depilatum, Leccinum depilatus, depressa, Peziza depressum, Vascellum.

Diatrype

distorta,Collybia .... 188 ditissima, Nectria ..- 157 ditopus, Clitocybe. 382 doliolum, Leptosphaeria. ... dolosella,Cyathicula .. . . 19il 117 domesticum, Pyronema. ...... domesticus,Coprinus. -.. 273 40 domiciliana, Peziza ........ donkii, Fibuloporia ...377 dothidea, Botryosphaeria .

80 12o

densirolia, densifolia, Bussu/a. densifolius, Lentinus.

SP. No.

Vol.

.156

Dendrostilbella. Dendrothele

Dermateaceae Dermea

Page

N2 274

I

220 194,202 202 '154 144 885 200 204 70 2't6 216 164

2 4

4 4 4 1

3 3 1

2 2 2

4 4 3

Sp. No. edurum, Hebeloma

Exidiopsis

effusa, effusa, Sebacina . egenula, lnocybe (lnocybe) egenulum, Hypholoma eichleri, Hypochnicium Eichleriella . elaeodes, Callistosporium. elaeodes, Elaphomyces elastica, Helvella.

12

.

.

Russula.

74

...122

Leptopodia Morchella Rutstroemia

N

elastica,

elata, elatina, elatior, Coftinaius elatior, Russula-

2 152

...

389

elegans, Boletus . elegans, Mutinus elegans, Mycena. elegantior, Cortinarius (Phleg.). 2O7 elegantissimus, Cortinarius (Phleg.). 208 elegantula, Gibbera . . elephantina, Fussu/a. . eliae, 1/18

...

Amanita ...... elodes, Entoloma elongatum, Hypholoma . elongatum, Nematoloma

..

emeticavaralpestris,Russu/a

.

Russula ... ... .

emetica var gregaria, Eussu/a . . emetica var. grisescens, Russula

emeticavar.longipes,Bussula emetica var mairei, Bussu/a . emetica var. sylvestris, Russula emeticicolor, Russula . . . . . emollitus, Coftinarius emollitus, Cortinarius (Myx.). . empyreumatica, Drosophila . . enatus, Dacrymyces. encephala,

5 4 2

episcopalis, Coprinus

3 6

248 56 56 44

.

..

.

..

... --

'l.44

eres, Diaporthe eres, Diaporthe

302 80 400

ericetorum, Gerronema 304

206

127

eMhropus, Boletus erythropus, Collybia erythropus, Russu/a

eMhropus,

. . . . . . . 378 Marasmius ... 28li epigaea, Sebacina. 14 epiphylla, Athelia 52 epiphylloides, Marasmius . . . . . . 24 epiphyllus, Marasmius. . -.. - - - 285 epipoleus, Cortinarius (Myx.) . . - - 278

Mycena.

.......329 var. lignicola, Mycena. . 330

194 88

230

...2$

.

. ....... . .

396

I

180

258

...431 . 2A1 .- - -. ....

-

Gyromitra

1l

.

3

. 4 Morchella. 5 . 6 Strobilurus ... /t05 essettei,Agaricus ..--'177 euch loru s, Bhodophy ll us euchroum, Entoloma .....-29

302 252 342

eulividum, Entoloma

.

eumorpha, Ramaria

.

eupora, Poria euroflavescens, Hygrocybe europaeum, Ganoderma europaeus, Favolus . . eutheles, lnocybe Eutuberaceae Eutypa .

270

Euiypella. 3

294

.

esculenta, Helvella- . esculenta var. rigida, Morchella esculenta var. rotunda, Morchella esculenta var. umbrina, esculenta var. vulgaris, Morchella esculentus,

56 56

164

-

Typhula

escharcides, Naucoia

esculenta,

387

Epichloe.

202 -

-

escharodes,Pyrenopeziza escharoides, Alnicola -. .

226

epichnoa, Lentaria. epichysium, Omphalina epidryas,

..

238 /t35

130

nus, Cofti narius

128

275

epipterygia var. atroviscosa, Mycena epipterygia var. epipterygia,

190

e ryth ri

107

322 146

EMhricium

266

304

erikssonii, Peniophora. erinaceus, Hericium . erinaceus,Phaeomarasmius eriophora, Lepiota . . eriophora var- asperula, Lepiota erophilum, Entoloma .

erubescens, erubescens, €ryngii var. nebrodensis, Pleurotus

125 126

epibryus, Crepidotus

166

364

. . . . .'112 lnocybe (lnocibium) . . 15 Mycena ....... 333

178 164

21

292

184

eicetorum, Omphalina

erubescens,Hygrophorus.

52

epibryus,Crepidotus ...

.

Lyophyllum.

364

-

258 418 375

. 410 ...212

., . .

52

--

260 116 326

257

.....

-

evenosa, Melanoleuca. evernius, Coftinarius evernius, Cortinarius Oel.)

230 128 356 50 50 44 46 46 4b

76 .104

358 304 102, 106

.

78

126 274

284

-

.....

252

-

.

248 319

Vol.

3

286

ericaeoides,Hypholoma. eicaeum, Hypholoma

262

26

-..

Cortinarius(Ser.) ....

124

Entoloma

.

epixanthum, Hypholoma epsomiensis var. alpicola,

(Ser.) .... Tricholoma ... .... Onygena equisetinus,Hymenoscyphus. . . . erebia, Agrocybe ....

178

ephippium, Helvella . . ephippium, Leptopodia

.

Codinarius

277

........ ,..,...

Epithele

123

-

Tremella

episphaeria,Nectria.

.......352 ....... 276 . ..... . 327

equestre, equina,

200

.

.

erosa, Collybia srosa, erubescens, Clitocybe.

.

.

lvlycana.

Pago

epsomiensis var. alpicola f. salicis-herbacea€,

322 206

.

eosanguinea, Ramaria. ephebeus, Pluteus. ephemerus, Coprinus. ephemerus var bisporus, Copinus

286

epipterygia var. pelliculosa, Mycena 331 epipterygia var. splendidipes,

409

Encoelia.

epipterygia

5 2

322

.

emetica var. betularum, emetica var. emetica, Russula,

emeticavarfragilis,Pussu/a

122 562 264 138 602 174

28

.....

Sp. No.

Vol.

228 216

elatum,Glyphium ....

elongatipes, Hyph oloma.

Page

4 1

2 4

Sp. No. evolvens, CotTicium evolvens, Cylindrobasidium

. 92 evosmus, Lactarius . N exalbicans, Russula. ....... 129 excellens, Agaricus , , , 17A excelsa, Amanita . . . . 149 excelsa, Ceriporia .... 371 excentricum, Entoloma . 3{, excipuliformis, Calvatia . . . . . . . 510 excissa f. albida, Melanoleuca excoriata, Macrolepiota . . . . . . . 28 Exidia..

Exidiopsis exiguus, exile, eximia, Sarcosphaera eximia, Stropharia

Pluteus. Enioloma

....

.

Melanoleuca ...

30O

.

.......

F Faerberia fageticola, Fussu/a fagetorum, Cortinarius [fel.)

.

. fagi, Hygrophorus faqinea, Ascotremella . ..... .. faginea, Plicatura faginea, Bussula. .... ....

Rhodocybe ,arcta,Nidularia ..... ,allax,

.

tarinacea,Trechispora. . . .

4 4 2 4

252 622 562

320 165 l3O

497

.

fascicu laris, M u c ronel la

fasciculatus,Hectipilus

......

fastibile,Hebeloma ... .

fastidiosa,Trechispora . .

.

81 106

.

113

.

fatua,Psathyrella .... 328 favrei,Cortinarius(Myx.). . . . . . . 279 g ,avrei, Entoloma . favreit. ochracea, Lyophyllum.

..

.

favrei, Lactarius

favrei,Lyophyllum ....

186 200 136 152 170 286 144 124

112 32

Entoloma Flussula .... l3l . 3{l Protocrea .,, 321 farinosus,Bulbillomyces. . . . . . . 119 fasciatus, Coftinaius fasciatus, Cortinarius (Iel.) .. ... 32'l fasciculare,Hypholoma. . . . . . . 411 tascicu lare, Nematoloma fascicularis,Encoelia . . . . . . . 203 fasciculata, Psawre a fasciculata, Solenia . . f asciculatus, Merismodes

354 722 300 314 722 174 178 280

259

250 256 256 322 178 240 274 202 198 124 765 222,224 104

Sp. No.

Fayodia

.

Boletus fellea,Alnicola. fellea, Mycena fellea, Russula. fechtneri,

..... ..... fellea, Xeromphalina. .... felleaecolor,Russula. . . . . . . . ,elleus, Tylopilus.

2

Femsjonia

3 4

,enestrans, Sydowiella fenestrata, Fenestella

fennica,

Ramaria.

....

ferrei, Russula. 4 4

98

farinasprellum, farinipes, farinogustus, Entoloma farinosa, lsaria . farinosa,

fastigiata, lnocybe

b

190

Iallaciosa, Diaporthe. fallax, Calocybe

fastidiosa, Cristella.

2 2

oot

exscissa, exsculpta, Collybia

farinacea, Cristella

110

108

Exobasidium.

ertenuata, Tnmetella extuberans, Collybia.

Vol.

31

expallens, Podoporia expallens, Pseudoclitocybe expansum, Exobasidium

exsculpta, Collybia.

Page

4 2

... 2$ ferrugineo-fuscus,Phellinus. . . . . 312 ferrugineum,Hydnellum. . . . . . . 262

.,

ferruginosus,Phellinus

3 6 5 3

. festiva. Clitocybe festiva,Phaeocollybia. . . . festivoides, Clitocybe

. fibrosa,lnocybe(lnocybe). . . . . . fibrosa, Kneiffie a fibrosa, Tomentellina. ... Omphalina

4 6 4 1 1

2 5 5

4 4 't

2

4 2 2 2 2 2 4 5 4 3 6 a

..

3

270

3 6

4{X)

216 75

522 304 304 200 254 354 304

., o 3 1

1

2

6 2 4 1

2

883 212 154 154 268 192 216

251

2 2 2 2 3 5 3

4 2 2

5 2 2

fi bul a, Genonema, Mycena,

fibula, fibulala, Fibulomyces.

2 2

313

.

Tylospora

2 6

3 4 2

......

fibri ll osa, Psathy roll a ,ibrillosa, fibri ll osum, Tylosperma

1

1

462

.

ferrugineus, Xerocomus. fenuginosa, Caldesiella

2 3

13lt 54

ferii, Stropharia ferruginea, Sillia ferruginella, Tomentella

Vol.

188 132 447

ferreus, Phellinus

3

3 3

10 130

Page

Rickenella Athelia

3'16

....

fil ame ntosa, Pen iophora.

filamentosa, Phanerochaete. filamentosus, Paxillus . . filaris, Conocybe (Pholiotina) filais, Pholiotina .

.

4Ol 53

...

. filicinus,Rhopographus. . . . filiformis,Xylaria. .... filopes,Mycena ..... fimbriata,

2

156

2

160

...

filopes, Mycena Fimaria.

2 86

2

92 401 3'16

383 348 334

298 274

1

296

3

'l '16

Stromatoscypha

fimbiatum, Geastrum fi m biatum, Porothel iu m . fimbriatum,Steccherinum. fimetaius, Coprinus . fimeti, Peziza ,imicola, Cheilymenia fimicola, fimicola, Sordaria fimicola var ater Panaeolus

... 82

....

.

342 204 193

228,24a

. Panaeolus

86

...

74 100

312

fimiputris, Panaeolus

firma,Agrocybe ..... 365 firma, Flutstroemia. ... 153 firmula, Russula ..... 134 fiscellum,Apostemidium . . . . . 3OO fissilis, Aurantioporus . ...395 ,:ssiris, Sponglpe/,s

1

1

2 2 2 2 4 1 1

4 304

.

4 4

254 260 144

1

4 4 4 1

b 242

1

2

fissilis, Tyromyces

312 312

Fistulina.

334

2 2 2

340

2

.

fistulosa, Macrotyphula fisfulosus, Clavariadelphus

...

....

/$8 .

247

Sp. No. flabelliformis, Lentinellus flaccida, Clitocybe . flaccida,

206

Ramaria .... flammans, Pholiota . ........ flammula. Tricholomopsis Flammulaster Flammulina flava, Omphalina .

424 344

Ramaria

,..,., M Ilavescens, Hygrocybe ....... 86 flavescens, Mycena. ....... 335 flavescens,Ramaria. ....... 465 flavida,Spathularia ... 141 flavidolilacina, lnocybe. flavidus, Lactarius 21 flavidus, Suillus 44 flava, flava, Russula

.

flavipes. Hygrocybe flavoalba,

318 188 190 150

frugilis, Tyromyces . fragilis var. alpigenes,Russu/a. fragrans, Boletus fragrans, fragrans, Clitocybe fngrans, Cortinarius fragrans, Russula franchetii,

Clitocybe

a4

104, 108

.

Mycena.

flavobrunnescens,Ramaria. flavobrunneum, Ticholoma fI avodiscus, Hyg ro phoru s

Russula. ... formosa,Ramaria -.-. formosum, Entoloma ..,.... forqu ignoni i, Polyporus fracidus, Chamaemyces. ... fracticum, Tricholoma . ... fragiforme,Hypoxylon. . . . . . . . ,ragilis,Dentipellis. ... fragilis,Postia ...... fragilis, Russula .....

200

...

336

. . .,166

.

........ flavovirens,Lachnellula . . . . . . flavovirens,Eutypa

. .

3Ii4 231

flavovirens, Melanconis f lavovirens, Tricholoma

Gymnopilus

flavus, flavus, Suillus flavus, Xerocomus.

328 't26 278 '196

288

328,338, 344

...

142 80

(Iel.) .... flexipes var. flexipes, Cortinarius(fel.) .... flexuosus, Lactarius.

fiesii, Lepiota

192

frondosae, Fussu/a

.

'r.r""tri".

..

3