Excavations at Nemea III: The Coins 9780520927902

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Excavations at Nemea III: The Coins
 9780520927902

Table of contents :
Contents
Preface and Acknowledgements
List of Illustrations
Selected Bibliography and Abbreviations
Specialized Terminology and Abbreviations
Elevations, Grid References, and Measurements
Part I. the classical, hellenistic, roman provincial, and roman coins
Part II. the early christian and later coin finds from nemea
Index of Subjects, Ancient Sources, and Modern Scholars
Indices to the Catalogue
Index of Inventoried Coins
Plates

Citation preview

Excavations at Nemea III

A coin of Kleonai (drawing by James Herbst)

Excavations at Nemea III the coins

robert c. knapp and john d. mac isaac

university of california press berkeley

los angeles

london

University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England © 2005 by the Regents of the University of California ISBN 0-520-23169-4 (v. 3) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Birge, Darice Elizabeth. Excavations at Nemea. v. cm. Includes bibliographical references (v. 1, p. , v. 2, p. ) and indexes. Contents: 1. Topographical and architectural studies : the Sacred Square, the Xenon, and the Bath / Darice E. Birge, Lynn H. Kraynak, and Stephen G. Miller— 2. The early Hellenistic Stadium / Stephen G. Miller with contributions by Robert C. Knapp and David Chamberlain. ISBN 0-520-07027-5 (v. 1 : alk. paper) — ISBN 0-520-21677-6 (v. 2 : alk. paper) 1. Nemea Site (Greece). 2. Greece—Antiquities. I. Kraynak, Lynn Harriett. II. Miller, Stephen G. (Stephen Gaylord), 1943– . III. Title. DF261.N45E94 1992 938'.8—dc20 90-041003 Manufactured in Canada 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (R 1997) (Permanence of Paper).8

For Mando Oikonomidou and in memory of Martin J. Price,

two of our many colleagues who helped

CONTENTS

Preface and Acknowledgements ix List of Illustrations xiii Selected Bibliography and Abbreviations xxi Specialized Terminology and Abbreviations xxix Elevations, Grid References, and Measurements xxxi PART I THE CLASSICAL, HELLENISTIC, ROMAN PROVINCIAL, AND ROMAN COINS robert c. knapp Conspectus of Coins

3

Introduction: Archaeonumismatics and Nemea Catalogue of Coins, Part I

11

63

PART II THE EARLY CHRISTIAN AND LATER COIN FINDS FROM NEMEA john d. mac isaac Introduction

183

Catalogue of Coins, Part II

191

Index of Subjects, Ancient Sources, and Modern Scholars 239 Indices to the Catalogue 248 Index of Inventoried Coins 271

P R E F A C E A N D A C K N OW L E D G E M E N T S

I. This is the third volume in the series of final publications of the excavations at Nemea conducted by the University of California, Berkeley. It consists of a presentation and discussion of the coins discovered at Nemea through 1995, when a new round of major excavations began to produce many additional examples. The studies of Robert Knapp and John Mac Isaac had progressed so far on the previously discovered material, and they had revealed so much information that furthers our knowledge of Nemea and of ancient numismatics, that it was judged of greater importance to bring out the volume now rather than to wait several years for other coins to be discovered,studied,and added to the publication. This decision was made in the knowledge that new discoveries would augment,and perhaps modify,the conclusions presented here, and that a second volume of coins might well be necessary. The coins presented here include not only those discovered in the excavations at Nemea by the University of California from 1973 to 1995, but also those discovered by the University of Cincinnati in 1924–1926, and by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens in 1935, 1936, 1962, and 1964. Thanks are due to both institutions for permission to include those coins here. At the same time, it must be acknowledged that the information to be gained from them is somewhat lessened by the imprecision of some of the older records. Still, we can feel fortunate to have those coins in this publication. This is especially so since the coins from the first excavations, although studied in the 1920’s (see the Selected Bibliography under Broe & Robinson and under Bellinger), had disappeared. They were rediscovered by the undersigned only in 1984 locked in the base of the safe of the Director of the Amer-

ican School (see Nemea I, 239 and n. 660). They seem to have been stashed there for safekeeping in 1940 on the eve of the invasion of Greece during the Second World War. The coins, and the key to the safe’s base, were long forgotten and seemed lost until curiosity about the base forced its opening. Hence, the record of Nemea numismatics was suddenly re-enriched by 489 coins. The total number of coins in the Nemea inventory as of 1995 was 4,092, but the careful reader will note that only 3,181 are accounted for in the pages that follow. This is because some coins were in such a condition that they cannot be identified and, in some cases, may not even be coins but rather tiny scraps of bronze which seemed coinlike to the original excavator. In other cases modern, non-Greek coins have been omitted from this presentation, and ancient coins brought to Nemea in recent years from other sites have been included only if they seemed of special interest. In addition to the American School,thanks are due to the Ministry of Culture of Greece and its Archaeological Service, especially the Nauplion Ephoreia of Antiquities. The spirit of co-operation that has emanated from so many individual members of all those institutions since the beginning of our work at Nemea in 1973 lies at the foundation of this and all other publications from our excavations. This volume had benefitted from the efforts of many individuals: Gloria Bath, Frank Cope, Photis Demakis, Diane Fortenberry, Jini Kim, Vivian Kim, Clarice Major, Effie Miller, Emily Munro, Nancy Muff, Kelley Ono, Janet Rosario,and Athena Trakadas have helped in various ways and at various times during the preparation of Nemea III. The University of California Press and its suc-

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preface and acknowledgements

cessive directors, Jim Clark and Lynne Withey, have continued their support of the final publication program of the Nemea Excavations. The anonymous readers have provided valuable additions and suggestions, and the copy-editor, Nicholas Goodhue, has fixed a number of rough places and caught a number of errors. The book is much better for it. Nemea III has particularly benefitted from the supervision of Rose Vekony. We are grateful to Stephanie Fay for her unwavering encouragement.Thanks are happily and sincerely extended to all. Gratitude must also be expressed to the 783 private donors (as of this writing in August 2003) who have made the excavations (and therefore these publications) possible for more than a quarter of a century. Space prevents listing all their names here, but they are recognized individually on marble plaques in the museum at Nemea, and in our grateful memories. The Thomas J.Long Foundation continues to occupy a special place in our gratitude. Stephen G. Miller Series Editor II. Coins from excavations have a special appeal. Not only are they intrinsically interesting, as are all coins; they have in addition an exciting potential for helping toward a better understanding of the archaeological site. Therefore when the opportunity arose to work with the coins from the University of California, Berkeley, excavations at Nemea, I could not neglect it. During 23 years (1973–1995) of excavation thousands of coins appeared which, when added to the hundreds from earlier excavations in the 1920’s and 1960’s, provided an impressive sum and selection of numismatic material. Of the 4,100 total coins,about 2,100 are “Classical”—that is,from the early Greek issues to the Roman issues of Constantine the Great and of Licinius II.These coins provide the raw material and inspiration for many questions about the site, and about the use of coins in general. Naturally, at the heart of the publication lies the catalogue.Just as important,however,as detailing the coins is the interpretation of what they can tell us. Archaeonumismatics, the cooperation of archaeology and numismatics to reach conclusions neither could arrive at alone, is illustrated by a number of studies of the coins which put them into the living

context of the ancient site. While many conclusions remain speculative and may be changed by the results of further discovery and study, the methodology takes us a step beyond the particular questions of date and identification of coins (as important as those are) and opens up broader vistas for numismatic work in excavations. The complete publication of the Classical coins of an excavation is a somewhat rare event. It can only be done with the help and encouragement of many people. This publication is certainly no exception. First and foremost, it is a pleasure to thank Stephen G. Miller, the Director of the Berkeley excavations at Nemea throughout their existence, for his steadfast encouragement and support. I would also single out for special gratitude John Mac Isaac, my co-author, who works on the Early Christian to modern coins.Mac Isaac came to the project with much more numismatic background than I did and was a steady source of sound advice and criticism. Among the Greek numismatists who were especially kind and helpful, I recall with affection and a sense of loss Martin Jessop Price, late Keeper of Greek Coins in the Department of Coins and Medals of the British Museum, where I spent a pleasant and fruitful year working on coins in 1992–1993; Price’s phenomenal knowledge of Greek coinages and his unstinting enthusiasm in helping other scholars set a high standard. In addition, the support and friendliness of Andrew Burnett, Deputy Director, was exemplary. In Paris, Hélène Pierre and Michel Amandry were most accommodating at the Cabinet des Médailles. In Greece, Price’s generosity was rivalled by that of Basil Demetriades, a man totally dedicated to numismatics and to helping others in any way he can. In particular he was most patient and helpful in the identification of my harder “nuts,” provided much useful advice about the format of the final publication, and offered expert advice on bibliography; his administrator at the BCD Library, Patricia Felch, offered friendship, sound advice, and imaginative assistance when it was most needed. Among other helpful scholars in Greece I thank particularly Katerini Liampi and Cleopatra Papaevangelou, who provided critical advice on the northern Greek issues, and Mando Oikonomidou and Yiannis Touratsoglou, successive Directors of the Numismatic Museum. I am grateful as well to Catherine Grandjean for sharing advice and unpublished material with me and to Jennifer Cargill-Thompson (Warren)

preface and acknowledgements

for sharing her expertise on the bronze coinages of the Peloponnesos and, most of all, for her unfailing encouragement in the publication project as a whole. At Berkeley, a number of graduate students helped in various ways, in particular, Sarah Stroup, Martha Jenks, and Isabelle Pafford; numismatic seminars focussing on the Nemea finds were stimulating, especially the contribution of Jorge Bravo. The College of Letters and Science and its Deans provided much-appreciated help through a Humanities Research Fellowship (1987–1988), which made time available for my work on the coins. It is a pleasure to thank T. V. Buttrey, J. Mac Isaac, and S. G. Miller for valuable comments on the Introduction, an earlier version of which was presented to the Royal Numismatic Society in June 1993. Finally, I thank two anonymous readers for the Press who offered encouragement and useful suggestions for improvement; for the third anonymous reader, I can only hope that his or her skepticism is answered by this final product. Through the twelve years of this project I have gratefully received the warm and patient support of my wife, Carolyn, and the understanding of my two daughters, Abigail and Hannah. They have accompanied me to Paris, London, Athens, and Nemea in search for numismatic material, and my work has been all the more pleasant and rewarding for their companionship.

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III. I would like to thank Stephen G. Miller for permission to study the later coin finds from the Nemean Sanctuary, and all those who assisted me at one point or another. First and foremost I thank Orestes Zervos, numismatist of the Corinth excavations. His unstinting willingness to discuss not only the related Corinthian material but specifics of the Nemea finds has given this work a considerable portion of whatever merit it has. John Camp and the staff of the Stoa of Attalos generously allowed me access to parallel material from the Athenian Agora and supplied needed photographic and technical support. I also benefitted from the advice and courtesy of Mando Oikonomidou, Yiannis Touratsoglou, and other members of the Numismatic Cabinet of Athens.To Wendy BarnettThomas goes credit for first noticing that there was something strange about the coins of Manuel. Special thanks are due to Liane Houghtalin, the numismatist of the Isthmian Sanctuary and my partner in all things truly important, for access to parallel Isthmian finds and for visiting Nemea on my behalf when I could not. No major undertaking such as this one can be brought to conclusion without material support,and thus I am deeply grateful for such from the American School of Classical Studies at Athens,the Dumbarton Oaks Research Center, the National Endowment for the Humanities,and the Solow Art and Architecture Foundation.

Robert C. Knapp John D. Mac Isaac

I L L U S T R AT I O N S

Frontispiece Drawing of a coin of Kleonai. 13.

FIGURES 14.

1. Plan of the Nemea Valley with the Sanctuary of Zeus and the Early Hellenistic Stadium. 12 2. Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with areas unexcavated as of 1991 shaded. 13 3. The statue of Zeus on the reverse of an Imperial Argive coin (Hadrian on obverse). London, British Museum, inv. no. 323955 (BMC Pel. 148 no. 148). 14 4. Map with concentric circles around Nemea at distances of 25, 50, and 100 kilometers. 20 5. Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted before 400 b.c. 23 6. Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted after 271 and before 46 b.c. 24 7. Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for lamps manufactured between the mid-3rd and the mid-1st centuries b.c. 25 8. Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted after 46 b.c. and before a.d. 220. 26 9. Plan of the Stadium with coins plotted by minting city. 27 10. Map showing numbers of coins discovered in the excavations of Priene with reference to their issuing city. 42 11. Map with circles concentric to Ephesos showing distribution of coins with countermark 811 (after Howgego 1985, map 13). 43 12. Map with circles concentric to Ephesos show-

15. 16.

17.

18. 19. 20.

ing distribution of coins with countermark 763 (after Howgego 1985, map 14). 43 Map with circles concentric to Tralles showing distribution of coins with countermark 324 (after Howgego 1985, map 20). 44 Map with circles concentric to Smyrna showing distribution of coins with countermark 791 (after Howgego 1985, map 11). 44 Map showing the correspondence of known bronze-minting towns on the theorodokoi list to bronze coins found at Nemea. 45 Map showing numbers of coins discovered in the cache on the Sacred Road between Miletos and Didyma with reference to their issuing city. 48 Hypsipyle and the serpent on the reverse of an Imperial coin of Argos ( Julia Domna on obverse). London, British Museum, inv. no. 356672 (BMC Pel. 152 no. 169). 50 Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted by Kleonai. 54 Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins of Philip II and Alexander III. 55 Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins of Ptolemy III. 56

PLATES ( following page 291) Each item listed below shows the obverse and reverse of a single coin. 1,a 1,b 1,c

xiii

Cat. 1 (C 1014) Brundisium Cat. 2 (C 3342) Thurii Cat. 3 (C 1204) Syracuse

xiv

1,d 1,e 1, f 1,g 2,a 2,b 2,c 2,d 2,e 2, f 2,g 2,h 2,i 2, j 2,k 2,l 2,m 2,n 2,o 2,p 2,q 2,r 2,s 2,t 2,u 2,v 2,w 2,x 2,y 3,a 3,b 3,c 3,d 3,e 3, f 3,g 3,h 3,i 3, j 3,k 3,l 3,m 3,n 3,o 3,p 4,a 4,b 4,c 4,d 4,e 4, f

illustrations

Cat. 4 (C 1643) Syracuse Cat. 5 (C 3972) Thasos Cat. 6 (C 2210) Neapolis Cat. 7 (C 800) Mende Cat. 9 (C 105) Philip II Cat. 10 (C 124) Philip II Cat. 11 (C 136) Philip II Cat. 13 (C 1057) Philip II Cat. 23 (C 2904) Philip II Cat. 40 (C 2756) Philip II Cat. 44 (C 1650) Philip II Cat. 48 (C 2844) Philip II Cat. 52 (C 1728) Philip II Cat. 53 (C 3993) Philip II Cat. 54 (C 2297) Philip II Cat. 55 (C 954) Philip II Cat. 56 (C 1815) Philip II Cat. 57 (C 3727) Philip II Cat. 58 (C 3949) Philip II Cat. 60 (C 160) Alexander III Cat. 61 (C 175) Alexander III Cat. 64 (C 441) Alexander III Cat. 71 (C 337) Alexander III Cat. 72 (C 1417) Alexander III Cat. 73 (C 2262) Alexander III Cat. 74 (C 2495) Alexander III Cat. 76 (C 2784) Alexander III Cat. 78 (C 3858) Alexander III Cat. 79 (C 1700) Alexander III Cat. 82 (C 2584) Kassandros Cat. 86 (C 1866) Demetrios Poliorketes Cat. 87 (C 2081) Demetrios Poliorketes Cat. 91 (C 1397) Demetrios Poliorketes Cat. 92 (C 1754) Demetrios Poliorketes Cat. 93 (C 1764) Demetrios Poliorketes Cat. 101 (C 1116) Antigonos Gonatas Cat. 104 (C 3430) Antigonos Gonatas Cat. 105 (C 2467) Antigonos Gonatas Cat. 106 (C 150) Antigonos Gonatas Cat. 113 (C 3924) Antigonos Gonatas Cat. 114 (C 3951) Antigonos Gonatas Cat. 117 (C 2676) Macedonia, Roman Period Cat. 118 (C 416) Ainianes Cat. 119 (C 303) Halos/Alos Cat. 121 (C 1588) Lamia Cat. 123 (C 4064) Larissa Cat. 125 (C 2017) Larissa Kremaste Cat. 126 (C 1724) Melitaia Cat. 127 (C 1987) Oita Cat. 128 bis (C 3908) Peumata Cat. 129 (C 1374) Pherai

4,g 4,h 4,i 4, j 4,k 4,l 4,m 4,n 4,o 5,a 5,b 5,c 5,d 5,e 5, f 5,g 5,h 5,i 5, j 5,k 5,l 5,m 5,n 5,o 5,p 5,q 5,r 5,s 6,a 6,b 6,c 6,d 6,e 6, f 6,g 6,h 6,i 6, j 6,k 6,l 6,m 6,n 6,o 6,p 6,q 7,a 7,b 7,c 7,d 7,e 7, f 7,g

Cat. 130 (C 1094) Trikka Cat. 131 (C 1984) Peparethos Cat. 132 (C 1668) Skiathos Cat. 133 (C 1672) Ambrakia Cat. 134 (C 1839) Ambrakia Cat. 135 (C 2894) Elea Cat. 136 (C 80) Pyrrhos Cat. 137 (C 144) Pyrrhos Cat. 142 (C 1837) Pyrrhos Cat. 145 (C 3927) Korkyra Cat. 146 (C 3000) Argos Amphilochikon Cat. 147 (C 1262) Argos Amphilochikon Cat. 148 (C 1533) Leukas Cat. 149 (C 2257) Leukas Cat. 150 (C 3943) Leukas Cat. 151 (C 3952) Leukas Cat. 153 (C 2867) Leukas Cat. 155 (C 2959) Oiniadai Cat. 156 (C 1840) Thyrrheion Cat. 157 (C 3936) Aitolian League Cat. 158 (C 485) Lokris Opontion Cat. 159 (C 2013) Lokris Opontion Cat. 160 (C 1501) Lokris Opontion Cat. 168 (C 1877) Lokrian League Cat. 174 (C 2787) Lokrian League Cat. 179 (C 3782) Lokrian League Cat. 182 (C 3954) Lokrian League Cat. 183 (C 1416) Lokrian League Cat. 184 (C 1506) Phokian League Cat. 185 (C 575) Phokian League Cat. 189 (C 1775) Phokian League Cat. 190 (C 2945) Boiotian League Cat. 191 (C 2860) Boiotian League Cat. 209 (C 2883) Boiotian League Cat. 216 (C 2734) Lebadeia Cat. 217 (C 1951) Tanagra Cat. 218 (C 1177) Tanagra Cat. 219 (C 1937) Tanagra Cat. 220 (C 3244) Thebes Cat. 221 (C 1401) Thebes Cat. 222 (C 1548) Thebes Cat. 227 (C 980) Thebes Cat. 229 (C 2279) Thebes Cat. 231 (C 1980) Thebes Cat. 232 (C 3201) Thespiai Cat. 237 (C 1848) Euboian League Cat. 238 (C 379) Chalkis Cat. 239 (C 335) Chalkis Cat. 240 (C 2072) Chalkis Cat. 254 (C 3666) Chalkis Cat. 271 (C 2663) Chalkis, Roman Period Cat. 272 (C 3946) Histiaia

illustrations

7,h 7,i 7, j 7,k 7,l 7,m 7,n 7,o 7,p 7,q 7,r 7,s 7,t 7,u 7,v 7,w 8,a 8,b 8,c 8,d 8,e 8, f 8,g 8,h 8,i 8, j 8,k 8,l 8,m 8,n 8,o 8,p 8,q 8,r 8,s 8,t 8,u 8,v 8,w 9,a 9,b 9,c 9,d 9,e 9, f 9,g 9,h 9,i 9, j 9,k 9,l 9,m

Cat. 276 (C 1742) Histiaia Cat. 282 (C 137) Histiaia Cat. 284 (C 195) Histiaia Cat. 286 (C 319) Histiaia Cat. 293 (C 2707) Histiaia Cat. 297 (C 903) Athens Cat. 298 (C 2853) Athens Cat. 299 (C 155) Athens Cat. 300 (C 3316) Athens Cat. 301 (C 925) Athens Cat. 304 (C 3879) [Eleusis] Cat. 305 (C 1485) Athens Cat. 306 (C 1647) Athens Cat. 310 (C 2850) Athens Cat. 316 (C 2457) Athens Cat. 323 (C 1600) Athens Cat. 326 (C 1796) Athens Cat. 336 (C 2804) Athens Cat. 345 (C 1585) Athens Cat. 352 (C 2964) Athens Cat. 355 (C 3803) Athens Cat. 356 (C 1950) Athens Cat. 357 (C 896) Athens Cat. 360 (C 2884) Salamis Cat. 361 (C 4063) Salamis Cat. 366 (C 1684) Megara Cat. 369 (C 3635) Megara Cat. 370 (C 3423) Megara Cat. 371 (C 905) Aigina Cat. 372 (C 843) Aigina Cat. 373 (C 1649) Aigina Cat. 374 (C 2952) Aigina Cat. 375 (C 2963) Aigina Cat. 376 (C 1658) Aigina Cat. 377 (C 142) Aigina Cat. 378 (C 2922) Aigina Cat. 379 (C 2931) Aigina Cat. 380 (C 782) Aigina Cat. 381 (C 1645) Aigina Cat. 382 (C 1816) Aigina Cat. 383 (C 3432) Aigina Cat. 384 (C 820) Aigina Cat. 386 (C 109) Aigina Cat. 387 (C 503) Aigina Cat. 389 (C 649) Aigina Cat. 391 (C 1426) Aigina Cat. 403 (C 2318) Aigina Cat. 406 (C 2700) Aigina Cat. 413 (C 4087) Aigina Cat. 414 (C 449) Aigina Cat. 415 (C 927) Corinth Cat. 416 (C 329) Corinth

9,n Cat. 417 (C 506) Corinth 9,o Cat. 418 (C 907) Corinth 9,p Cat. 419 (C 2689) Corinth 9,q Cat. 420 (C 952) Corinth 9,r Cat. 421 (C 1659) Corinth 9,s Cat. 422 (C 3204) Corinth 9,t Cat. 423 (C 974) Corinth 9,u Cat. 425 (C 2950) Corinth 9,v Cat. 426 (C 2453) Corinth 9,w Cat. 427 (C 1214) Corinth 9,x Cat. 428 (C 1067) Corinth 9,y Cat. 430 (C 1354) Corinth 9,z Cat. 433 (C 1953) Corinth 9,aa Cat. 434 (C 1995) Corinth 9,bb Cat. 435 (C 550) Corinth 9,cc Cat. 436 (C 1237) Corinth 10,a Cat. 438 (C 1699) Corinth 10,b Cat. 439 (C 2444) Corinth 10,c Cat. 440 (C 2865) Corinth 10,d Cat. 442 (C 625) Corinth 10,e Cat. 444 (C 3962) Corinth 10, f Cat. 445 (C 951) Corinth 10,g Cat. 448 (C 2735) Corinth 10,h Cat. 449 (C 278) Corinth 10,i Cat. 450 (C 1184) Corinth 10, j Cat. 451 (C 623) Corinth 10,k Cat. 452 (C 2802) Corinth 10,l Cat. 453 (C 1128) Corinth 10,m Cat. 454 (C 1130) Corinth 10,n Cat. 455 (C 1598) Corinth 10,o Cat. 456 (C 1610) Corinth 10,p Cat. 457 (C 1689) Corinth 10,q Cat. 458 (C 1702) Corinth 10,r Cat. 459 (C 1789) Corinth 10,s Cat. 460 (C 1894) Corinth 10,t Cat. 461 (C 2023) Corinth 10,u Cat. 463 (C 2721) Corinth 10,v Cat. 465 (C 3228) Corinth 10,w Cat. 466 (C 3444) Corinth 10,x Cat. 467 (C 3756) Corinth 10,y Cat. 468 (C 3939) Corinth 10,z Cat. 469 (C 3805) Corinth 10,aa Cat. 476 (C 2636) Corinth 10,bb Cat. 485 (C 21) Corinth 10,cc Cat. 486 (C 212) Corinth 10,dd Cat. 487 (C 1477) Corinth 10,ee Cat. 488 (C 1888) Corinth 10, ff Cat. 489 (C 3871) Corinth 10,gg Cat. 491 (C 3633) Corinth 10,hh Cat. 494 (C 1945) Corinth 10,ii Cat. 500 (C 2899) Corinth 10, jj Cat. 506 (C 3840) Corinth

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illustrations

10,kk Cat. 511 (C 1988) Corinth 10,ll Cat. 517 (C 1082) Corinth 10,mm Cat. 530 (C 3647) Corinth 10,nnCat. 531 (C 2882) Corinth 10,oo Cat. 533 (C 2855) Corinth 10,pp Cat. 534 (C 995) Corinth 10,qq Cat. 537 (C 2534) Corinth 10,rr Cat. 539 (C 1486) Corinth 11,a Cat. 544 (C 2653) Corinth 11,b Cat. 549 (C 2071) Corinth 11,c Cat. 551 (C 2271) Corinth 11,d Cat. 555 (C 2615) Corinth 11,e Cat. 556 (C 2730) Corinth 11, f Cat. 559 (C 1224) Corinth 11,g Cat. 561 (C 563) Corinth 11,h Cat. 567 (C 851) Corinth 11,i Cat. 572 (C 2602) Corinth 11, j Cat. 576 (C 3842) Corinth 11,k Cat. 577 (C 2643) Corinth 11,l Cat. 582 (C 1054) Corinth 11,m Cat. 593 (C 1856) Corinth 11,n Cat. 597 (C 2334) Corinth 11,o Cat. 600 (C 1156) Corinth 11,p Cat. 604 (C 1313) Corinth 11,q Cat. 610 (C 2290) Corinth 11,r Cat. 612 (C 1457) Corinth 11,s Cat. 613 (C 1608) Corinth 11,t Cat. 619 (C 2715) Corinth 11,u Cat. 620 (C 2768) Corinth 11,v Cat. 621 (C 1883) Corinth 11,w Cat. 625 (C 1251) Corinth 11,x Cat. 626 (C 1897) Corinth 11,y Cat. 632 (C 3916) Corinth 11,z Cat. 634 (C 2405) Corinth 11,aa Cat. 652 (C 2705) Corinth 11,bb Cat. 662 (C 4039) Corinth 11,cc Cat. 689 (C 2656) Corinth 11,dd Cat. 703 (C 2708) Corinth 11,ee Cat. 705 (C 4042) Corinth 11, ff Cat. 706 (C 1274) Corinth 11,gg Cat. 708 (C 252) Corinth 11,hh Cat. 710 (C 1935) Corinth 11,ii Cat. 711 (C 1865) Corinth 11, jj Cat. 974 (C 4073) Corinth 11,kk Cat. 981 (C 1691) Corinth 11,ll Cat. 983 (C 3191) Corinth 11,mm Cat. 985 (C 202) Corinth 12,a Cat. 986 (C 2351) Corinth, Roman Colony 12,b Cat. 987 (C 2086) Corinth, Roman Colony 12,c Cat. 988 (C 766) Corinth, Roman Colony 12,d Cat. 989 (C 452) Corinth, Roman Colony 12,e Cat. 990 (C 2670) Corinth, Roman Colony

12, f 12,g 12,h 12,i 12, j 12,k 12,l 12,m 12,n 12,o 12,p 12,q 12,r 12,s 13,a 13,b 13,c 13,d 13,e 13, f 13,g 13,h 13,i 13, j 13,k 13,l 13,m 13,n 14,a 14,b 14,c

Cat. 991 (C 1382) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 992 (C 1055) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 993 (C 3581) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 994 (C 2384) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 996 (C 3054) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 997 (C 3057) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 998 (C 1420) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 999 (C 1558) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1000 (C 1869) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1001 (C 1422) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1002 (C 3058) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1003 (C 2258) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1004 (C 1967) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1005 (C 310) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1007 (C 341) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1010 (C 3449) Corinth, Roman Colony Cat. 1011 (C 1949) Corinth, Roman Colony (Tesserae) Cat. 1015 (C 854) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1016 (C 860) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1017 (C 778) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1018 (C 266) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1019 (C 1832) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1020 (C 1983) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1021 (C 540) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1022 (C 817) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1023 (C 3060) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1024 (C 3073) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1025 (C 3540) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1026 (C 750) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1027 (C 2570) Corinth, Later Roman Period Cat. 1028 (C 3249) Corinth, Later Roman Period

xvii

illustrations

14,d Cat. 1030 (C 406) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,e Cat. 1031 (C 3063) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14, f Cat. 1032 (C 3066) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,g Cat. 1033 (C 3067) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,h Cat. 1034 (C 3164) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,i Cat. 1035 (C 3064) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14, j Cat. 1036 (C 3044) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,k Cat. 1037 (C 3160) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,l Cat. 1038 (C 3065) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,m Cat. 1039 (C 3069) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,n Cat. 1040 (C 1482) Corinth, Later Roman Period 14,o Cat. 1041 (C 1010) Corinth, Later Roman Period 15,a Cat. 1043 (C 906) Phlious 15,b Cat. 1044 (C 1199) Phlious 15,c Cat. 1045 (C 3772) Phlious 15,d Cat. 1047 (C 2018) Phlious 15,e Cat. 1058 (C 1134) Phlious 15, f Cat. 1078 (C 2077) Phlious 15,g Cat. 1090 (C 2990) Phlious 15,h Cat. 1094 (C 3876) Phlious 15,i Cat. 1101 (C 4091) Phlious 15, j Cat. 1103 (C 1739) Phlious 15,k Cat. 1104 (C 1938) Phlious 15,l Cat. 1116 (C 1039) Phlious 15,m Cat. 1126 (C 1942) Phlious 15,n Cat. 1135 (C 2935) Phlious 15,o Cat. 1148 (C 745) Phlious 15,p Cat. 1152 (C 1587) Phlious 15,q Cat. 1187 (C 2043) Phlious 15,r Cat. 1191 (C 2254) Sikyon 15,s Cat. 1192 (C 2498) Sikyon 15,t Cat. 1193 (C 904) Sikyon 15,u Cat. 1194 (C 902) Sikyon 15,v Cat. 1195 (C 894) Sikyon 15,w Cat. 1196 (C 901) Sikyon 15,x Cat. 1197 (C 2951) Sikyon 15,y Cat. 1198 (C 3426) Sikyon 15,z Cat. 1199 (C 2266) Sikyon 15,aa Cat. 1200 (C 1834) Sikyon 15,bb Cat. 1201 (C 1331) Sikyon

16,a Cat. 16,b Cat. 16,c Cat. 16,d Cat. 16,e Cat. 16, f Cat. 16,g Cat. 16,h Cat. 16,i Cat. 16, j Cat. 16,k Cat. 16,l Cat. 16,m Cat. 16,n Cat. 16,o Cat. 16,p Cat. 16,q Cat. 16,r Cat. 16,s Cat. 16,t Cat. 16,u Cat. 16,v Cat. 16,w Cat. 16,x Cat. 16,y Cat. 16,z Cat. 16,aa Cat. 16,bb Cat. 16,cc Cat. 16,dd Cat. 16,ee Cat. 16, ff Cat. 16,gg Cat. 16,hh Cat. 16,ii Cat. 17,a Cat. 17,b Cat. 17,c Cat. 17,d Cat. 17,e Cat. 17, f Cat. 17,g Cat. 17,h Cat. 17,i Cat. 17, j Cat. 17,k Cat. 17,l Cat. 17,m Cat. 17,n Cat. 17,o Cat. 17,p Cat. 17,q Cat.

1202 (C 1811) Sikyon 1203 (C 666) Sikyon 1204 (C 821) Sikyon 1205 (C 1410) Sikyon 1206 (C 1639) Sikyon 1207 (C 2277) Sikyon 1208 (C 2709) Sikyon 1209 (C 3670) Sikyon 1210 (C 837) Sikyon 1211 (C 1118) Sikyon 1212 (C 1460) Sikyon 1213 (C 1463) Sikyon 1214 (C 2726) Sikyon 1215 (C 3235) Sikyon 1216 (C 3312) Sikyon 1217 (C 448) Sikyon 1218 (C 783) Sikyon 1219 (C 855) Sikyon 1220 (C 1200) Sikyon 1222 (C 2022) Sikyon 1224 (C 2891) Sikyon 1226 (C 841) Sikyon 1229 (C 2001) Sikyon 1231 (C 2282) Sikyon 1232 (C 2021) Sikyon 1233 (C 2546) Sikyon 1235 (C 2533) Sikyon 1236 (C 668) Sikyon 1238 (C 2521) Sikyon 1243 (C 1956) Sikyon 1245 (C 747) Sikyon 1246 (C 1999) Sikyon 1247 (C 1974) Sikyon 1258 (C 3823) Sikyon 1260 (C 2280) Sikyon 1261 (C 3450) Sikyon 1263 (C 908) Sikyon 1267 (C 2928) Sikyon 1270 (C 3414) Sikyon 1405 (C 110) Sikyon 1414 (C 2075) Sikyon 1421 (C 932) Sikyon 1424 (C 1249) Sikyon 1426 (C 967) Sikyon 1428 (C 2638) Sikyon 1430 (C 3290) Sikyon 1433 (C 2283) Sikyon 1437 (C 3695) Sikyon 1439 (C 120) Sikyon 1440 (C 1153) Sikyon 1444 (C 3291) Sikyon 1445 (C 3643) Sikyon

xviii

illustrations

17,r Cat. 1451 (C 3799) Sikyon 17,s Cat. 1456 (C 2536) Sikyon 17,t Cat. 1460 (C 173) Sikyon 17,u Cat. 1464 (C 2691) Sikyon 17,v Cat. 1475 (C 3377) Sikyon 17,w Cat. 1477 (C 281) Sikyon 17,x Cat. 1481 (C 192) Sikyon 17,y Cat. 1482 (C 4034) Sikyon 17,z Cat. 1483 (C 1079) Sikyon 17,aa Cat. 1484 (C 1494) Sikyon 17,bb Cat. 1485 (C 289) Sikyon 17,cc Cat. 1488 (C 1707) Sikyon 17,dd Cat. 1491 (C 2824) Sikyon 17,ee Cat. 1493 (C 2347) Sikyon 17, ff Cat. 1496 (C 2674) Sikyon 17,gg Cat. 1497 (C 2304) Sikyon 17,hh Cat. 1498 (C 1000) Sikyon 17,ii Cat. 1500 (C 3672) Sikyon 17, jj Cat. 1502 (C 2560) Sikyon 17,kk Cat. 1504 (C 2082) Sikyon 18,a Cat. 1507 (C 939) Sikyon 18,b Cat. 1508 (C 1120) Sikyon 18,c Cat. 1510 (C 525) Sikyon 18,d Cat. 1511 (C 2249) Sikyon 18,e Cat. 1512 (C 2524) Sikyon 18, f Cat. 1513 (C 2962) Sikyon 18,g Cat. 1514 (C 3307) Sikyon 18,h Cat. 1515 (C 3779) Sikyon 18,i Cat. 1516 (C 104) Sikyon 18, j Cat. 1517 (C 315) Sikyon 18,k Cat. 1518 (C 741) Sikyon 18,l Cat. 1530 (C 3447) Sikyon 18,m Cat. 1531 (C 3674) Sikyon 18,n Cat. 1532 (C 3684) Sikyon 18,o Cat. 1535 (C 3558) Sikyon 18,p Cat. 1536 (C 1288) Sikyon 18,q Cat. 1547 (C 3413) Sikyon 18,r Cat. 1548 (C 3454) Sikyon 18,s Cat. 1550 (C 1998) Aigeira 18,t Cat. 1551 (C 314) Aigeira 18,u Cat. 1552 (C 1043) Aigeira 18,v Cat. 1554 (C 929) Pellene 18,w Cat. 1555 (C 3889) Pellene 18,x Cat. 1556 (C 309) Pellene 18,y Cat. 1558 (C 1348) Achaian League 18,z Cat. 1559 (C 2792) Achaian League 18,aa Cat. 1560 (C 3838) Achaian League 19,a Cat. 1562 (C 1491) Achaian League 19,b Cat. 1563 (C 3439) Achaian League 19,c Cat. 1564 (C 2352) Achaian League 19,d Cat. 1565 (C 1452) Achaian League 19,e Cat. 1566 (C 626) Elis

19, f Cat. 1567 (C 1217) Elis 19,g Cat. 1569 (C 1729) Elis 19,h Cat. 1571 (C 859) Same 19,i Cat. 1572 (C 3851) Zakynthos 19, j Cat. 1573 (C 401) Messenia 19,k Cat. 1575 (C 260) Messenia 19,l Cat. 1581 (C 2955) Messenia 19,m Cat. 1582 (C 508) Lakedaimon 19,n Cat. 1583 (C 3324) Lakedaimon 19,o Cat. 1584 (C 786) Lakedaimon 19,p Cat. 1587 (C 523) Lakedaimon 19,q Cat. 1588 (C 535) Lakedaimon 20,a Cat. 1589 (C 926) Argos 20,b Cat. 1590 (C 928) Argos 20,c Cat. 1591 (C 2948) Argos 20,d Cat. 1592 (C 1020) Argos 20,e Cat. 1593 (C 1162) Argos 20, f Cat. 1594 (C 2971) Argos 20,g Cat. 1595 (C 3002) Argos 20,h Cat. 1597 (C 3004) Argos 20,i Cat. 1601 (C 3144) Argos 20, j Cat. 1603 (C 3807) Argos 20,k Cat. 1609 (C 708) Argos 20,l Cat. 1626 (C 584) Argos 20,m Cat. 1631 (C 2759) Argos 20,n Cat. 1639 (C 1114) Argos 20,o Cat. 1640 (C 2654) Argos 20,p Cat. 1641 (C 2972) Argos 20,q Cat. 1642 (C 3671) Argos 20,r Cat. 1643 (C 1402) Argos 20,s Cat. 1644 (C 936) Argos 20,t Cat. 1647 (C 3630) Argos 20,u Cat. 1648 (C 1446) Argos 20,v Cat. 1667 (C 3866) Argos 20,w Cat. 1670 (C 4092) Argos 20,x Cat. 1671 (C 1487) Argos 20,y Cat. 1682 (C 2652) Argos 20,z Cat. 1689 (C 1273) Argos 20,aa Cat. 1694 (C 1737) Argos 20,bb Cat. 1704 (C 1798) Argos 20,cc Cat. 1705 (C 1904) Argos 20,dd Cat. 1715 (C 616) Argos 20,ee Cat. 1720 (C 434) Argos 20, ff Cat. 1725 (C 1614) Argos 20,gg Cat. 1728 (C 1797) Argos 21,a Cat. 1759 (C 130) Argos 21,b Cat. 1760 (C 196) Argos 21,c Cat. 1761 (C 810) Argos 21,d Cat. 1762 (C 844) Argos 21,e Cat. 1763 (C 1409) Argos 21, f Cat. 1764 (C 3211) Argos 21,g Cat. 1765 (C 133) Argos

illustrations

21,h Cat. 1766 (C 2012) Argos 21,i Cat. 1767 (C 2919) Argos 21, j Cat. 1768 (C 326) Argos 21,k Cat. 1769 (C 878) Argos 21,l Cat. 1770 (C 1703) Argos 21,m Cat. 1771 (C 1773) Argos 21,n Cat. 1772 (C 2780) Argos 21,o Cat. 1773 (C 3787) Argos 21,p Cat. 1774 (C 3825) Argos 21,q Cat. 1775 (C 3846) Argos 21,r Cat. 1776 (C 4002) Argos 21,s Cat. 1777 (C 170) Argos 21,t Cat. 1778 (C 1400) Argos 21,u Cat. 1779 (C 1552) Argos 21,v Cat. 1780 (C 537) Argos 21,w Cat. 1781 (C 870) Argos 21,x Cat. 1782 (C 871) Argos 21,y Cat. 1783 (C 937) Argos 21,z Cat. 1784 (C 2984) Argos 21,aa Cat. 1785 (C 1747) Argos 21,bb Cat. 1786 (C 4084) Argos 21,cc Cat. 1789 (C 1284) Argos 21,dd Cat. 1797 (C 3848) Argos 21,ee Cat. 1800 (C 4009) Argos 22,a Cat. 1801 (C 1804) Argos 22,b Cat. 1804 (C 2260) Argos 22,c Cat. 1811 (C 3042) Argos, Roman 22,d Cat. 1812 (C 3047) Argos, Roman 22,e Cat. 1813 (C 3062) Argos, Roman 22, f Cat. 1814 (C 3039) Argos, Roman 22,g Cat. 1815 (C 3043) Argos, Roman 22,h Cat. 1816 (C 3052) Argos, Roman 22,i Cat. 1817 (C 3061) Argos, Roman 22, j Cat. 1818 (C 3046) Argos, Roman 22,k Cat. 1819 (C 3049) Argos, Roman 22,l Cat. 1820 (C 3070) Argos, Roman 22,m Cat. 1821 (C 3050) Argos, Roman 22,n Cat. 1822 (C 3040) Argos, Roman 22,o Cat. 1823 (C 3072) Argos, Roman 22,p Cat. 1824 (C 162) Argos, Roman 22,q Cat. 1825 (C 3053) Argos, Roman 22,r Cat. 1826 (C 3154) Argos, Roman 23,a Cat. 1827 (C 117) Epidauros 23,b Cat. 1828 (C 277) Epidauros 23,c Cat. 1836 (C 710) Hermione 23,d Cat. 1856 (C 4085) Hermione 23,e Cat. 1857 (C 41) Kleonai 23, f Cat. 1858 (C 47) Kleonai 23,g Cat. 1860 (C 338) Kleonai 23,h Cat. 1865 (C 1143) Kleonai 23,i Cat. 1871 (C 2273) Kleonai 23, j Cat. 1872 (C 2781) Kleonai

23,k 23,l 23,m 23,n 23,o 23,p 23,q 23,r 23,s 23,t 23,u 23,v 24,a 24,b 24,c 24,d 24,e 24, f 24,g 24,h 24,i 24, j 24,k 24,l 24,m 25,a 25,b 25,c 25,d 25,e 25, f 25,g 25,h 25,i 25, j 25,k 25,l 25,m 26,a 26,b 26,c 26,d 26,e 26, f 26,g 26,h 26,i 26, j 26,k 26,l 26,m 26,n

Cat. 1882 (C 3383) Kleonai Cat. 1884 (C 3668) Kleonai Cat. 1886 (C 3855) Kleonai Cat. 1888 (C 3990) Tiryns Cat. 1889 (C 1710) Tiryns Cat. 1893 (C 1625) Troizen Cat. 1895 (C 1268) Troizen Cat. 1906 (C 583) Troizen Cat. 1910 (C 3251) Arkadia Cat. 1911 (C 214) Arkadia Cat. 1912 (C 1555) Arkadia Cat. 1915 (C 528) Arkadia Cat. 1932 (C 2002) Arkadia Cat. 1938 (C 1776) Arkadia Cat. 1939 (C 45) Arkadia Cat. 1940 (C 1275) Heraia Cat. 1942 (C 2014) Heraia Cat. 1943 (C 2680) Kleitor Cat. 1946 (C 2889) Kleitor Cat. 1947 (C 2814) Kleitor Cat. 1948 (C 669) Mantinea Cat. 1950 (C 2350) Mantinea Cat. 1951 (C 1925) Mantinea Cat. 1952 (C 3295) Mantinea Cat. 1953 (C 4061) Mantinea Cat. 1954 (C 3634) Pheneos Cat. 1955 (C 1213) Pheneos Cat. 1961 (C 2986) Pheneos Cat. 1962 (C 3832) Stymphalos Cat. 1963 (C 1738) Tegea Cat. 1964 (C 3741) Tegea Cat. 1965 (C 3392) Tegea Cat. 1966 (C 3294) Tegea Cat. 1967 (C 510) Tegea Cat. 1971 (C 581) Polyrrhenion Cat. 1974 (C 253) Rhaukos Cat. 1975 (C 489) Melos Cat. 1976 (C 230) Mykonos Cat. 1977 (C 1436) Naxos Cat. 1978 (C 1814) Paros Cat. 1979 (C 1047) Pholegandros Cat. 1980 (C 527) Amisos Cat. 1981 (C 542) Amisos Cat. 1982 (C 504) Gargara Cat. 1983 (C 694) Erythrai Cat. 1984 (C 2291) Erythrai Cat. 1985 (C 1842) Naulochos Cat. 1986 (C 2795) Teos Cat. 1987 (C 169) Samos Cat. 1988 (C 1164) Kos Cat. 1989 (C 1760) Kos Cat. 1990 (C 3915) Rhodes

xix

xx

27,a 27,b 27,c 27,d 27,e 27, f 27,g 28,a 28,b 28,c 28,d 28,e 28, f 28,g 28,h 28,i 28, j 28,k 28,l 28,m 29,a 29,b 29,c 29,d 29,e 29, f 29,g 29,h 29,i

illustrations

Cat. 1991 (C 1449) Salamis (Cyprus) Cat. 1993 (C 1901) Salamis (Cyprus) Cat. 1996 (C 1538) Ptolemy I Cat. 1999 (C 445) Ptolemy III Cat. 2000 (C 715) Ptolemy III Cat. 2001 (C 900) Ptolemy III Cat. 2013 (C 1564) Ptolemy X and Cleopatra III Cat. 2014 (C 779) Uncertain Greek Cat. 2015 (C 3037) Uncertain Greek Cat. 2016 (C 3585) Uncertain Greek Cat. 2017 (C 848) Uncertain Greek Cat. 2066 (C 3517 bis) Illegible Greek: AE Cat. 2118 (C 2265) Roman Republic Cat. 2119 (C 157) Roman Empire, Trajan Cat. 2120 (C 3059) Roman Empire, Gordian III Cat. 2121 (C 1943) Roman Empire, Probus [Not from Nemea]: (C 199) Roman Empire, Diocletian Cat. 2122 (C 3677) Roman Empire, Maximian Cat. 2123 (C 3250) Roman Empire, Licinius Cat. 2124 (C 2305) Uncertain Roman Cat. 2125 (C 3878) Flavia Helena Cat. 2156 (C 3179) Constans I Cat. 2198 (C 311) Constantius Gallus Cat. 2201 (C 3820) Julian II Cat. 2314 (C 3081) Valentinian II, Theodosius I, Arcadius, or Honorius Cat. 2343 (C 3612) Valentinian III Cat. 2359 (C 2240) Marcian Cat. 2360 (C 696) Marcian Cat. 2375 (C 1563) Leo I

29, j 29,k 30,a 30,b 30,c 30,d 30,e 30, f 30,g 30,h 31,a 31,b 31,c 31,d 31,e 31, f 31,g 31,h 31,i 31, j 31,k 32,a 32,b 32,c 32,d 32,e 32, f

Cat. 2422 (C 1510) Justinian I Cat. 2438 (C 3092) Justinian I Cat. 2444 (C 2223) Justin II Cat. 2475 (C 2181) Justin II Cat. 2480 (C 3286) Maurice Tiberius Cat. 2484 (C 2778) Maurice Tiberius [Not from Nemea]: Follis minted at Carthage: DOC I, 356 no. 243 pl. LXXVII [Not from Nemea]: Nummus from Kythera: Kythera 215 no. 353 pl. 64 Cat. 2521 (C 3437) Anonymous Follis, Class C Cat. 2524 (C 1023) Anonymous Follis, Class G Cat. 2529 (C 560) Anonymous Follis, Class I Cat. 2537 (C 3230) Anonymous Follis, Class J Cat. 2542 (C 1376) Anonymous Follis, Class K Cat. 2573 (C 344) John II Cat. 2582 (C 1805) Trebizond Cat. 2583 (C 2429) Manuel I Cat. 2598 (C 3365) Manuel I Cat. 2915 (C 67) Manuel I Cat. 2961 (C 1365) Manuel I Cat. 3037 (C 1007) Manuel I Cat. 3040 (C 2356) Manuel I Cat. 3054 (C 2425) Andronicus I Cat. 3058 (C 3209) Isaac II Cat. 3062 (C 3151) Latin Trachy Cat. 3089 (C 3834) Philip of Tarentum Cat. 3116 (C 77) Henry III Cat. 3146 (C 3114) Venetian colonial

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A N D A B B R E V I AT I O N S

ANSMN = American Numismatic Society Museum Notes ANSNNM = American Numismatic Society Numismatic Notes and Monographs Antioch IV = G. C. Miles, in Antioch on the Orontes IV, i, Ceramics and Islamic Coins (Princeton 1948) 109ff. Avramea = A. Avramea,“Nomismatikoi; ‘Qhsauroi; ’ kai; memonwmevna nomivsmata ajpo; th;n Pelopovnnhso,” Summeivkta 5 (1983) 49–90. Babelon = E. Babelon, Traité des monnaies grecques et romaines, part 2, Description historique, vol. 3 (Paris 1914). Bacchielli = L. Bacchielli, “L’adyton del Tempio di Zeus a Nemea,” Rendiconti delle sedute dell’Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze morali, storiche e filologiche 37 (1982) 219–237. Baldus = H. R. Baldus, “Das Münzdepot: Ein späthellenistischer Geldbörsen-Inhalt(?),” Archäologischer Anzeiger 1989, 204–206. BASOR = Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research BCH = Bulletin de correspondance hellénique Bellinger 1926 = C. B. and A. R. Bellinger, “Coins Found at Nemea December 1925,” American School Papers, 1926 (unpublished manuscript in the Blegen Library of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens). Bellinger 1964 = A. R.Bellinger,“Philippi in Macedonia,” ANSMN 11 (1964) 29–52. BICS = Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies of the University of London Birge = D. E. Birge, “Sacred Groves in the Ancient Greek World,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1982.

Adelson & Kustas 1962 = H. Adelson and G. Kustas, “A Bronze Hoard of the Period of Zeno I,” ANSNNM 148 (1962) 25–26. Adelson & Kustas 1964 = H. Adelson and G. Kustas, “A Sixth Century Hoard of Minimi from the Western Peloponnese,” ANSMN 11 (1964) 159–205. Agora II = M. Thompson, The Athenian Agora, II, Coins: From the Roman through the Venetian Period (Princeton 1954). Agora XXVI = J. H. Kroll, The Athenian Agora, XXVI, The Greek Coins (Princeton 1993). AJA = American Journal of Archaeology Aleshire 1989 = S. B. Aleshire, The Athenian Asklepieion:The People,Their Dedications,and the Inventories (Leiden 1989). Aleshire 1992 = S. B. Aleshire, “The Economics of Dedication at the Athenian Asklepieion,” in Economics 85–99. Alroth = B. Alroth, “The Positioning of Greek Votive Figurines,” in Early Cult 195–203. AM = Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung Amandry 1981 = P. Amandry, “L’exploration archéologique de la grotte,” in L’antre Corycien, BCH Supplément 7 (1981) 75–93. Amandry 1984 = P. Amandry, “Le culte des Nymphes et de Pan á l’antre Corycien,” in L’antre Corycien II, BCH Supplément 9 (1984) 395–425. Amandry 1988 = M. Amandry, Le monnayage des duovirs corinthiens,BCH Supplément 15 (1988). Ampolo = C. Ampolo, “The Economies of the Sanctuaries in Southern Italy and Sicily,” in Economics 25–28.

xxi

xxii

selected bibliography and abbreviations

Blegen, “Nemea, 1924” = C. W. Blegen, “The American Excavation at Nemea, Season of 1924,” Art and Archaeology 19 (1925) 175–184. Blegen, “Nemea, 1925” = C. W. Blegen, “The December Excavations at Nemea,” Art and Archaeology 22 (1926) 127–134, 139. Blegen, “Nemea, 1926” = C. W. Blegen, “Excavations at Nemea, 1926,” AJA 31 (1927) 421– 440. BMC = Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, 29 vols. (London 1873–1927). Bogaert 1966 = R. Bogaert, Les origines antiques de la banque de dépôt (Leiden 1966). Bogaert 1968 = R. Bogaert, Banques et banquiers dans les cités grecques (Leiden 1968). Bookidis & Fisher 1972 = N. Bookidis and J. E. Fisher, “The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore on Acrocorinth, Preliminary Report IV: 1969–1970,” Hesperia 41 (1972) 288–331. Bookidis & Fisher 1974 = N. Bookidis and J. E. Fisher, “The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore on Acrocorinth, Preliminary Report V: 1971–1973,” Hesperia 43 (1974) 267–307. Bradeen = D. W. Bradeen, “Inscriptions from Nemea,” Hesperia 35 (1966) 320–330. Braudel = F. Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, trans. Siân Reynolds (New York 1976). British Museum = British Museum Department of Coins and Medals, A Guide to the Principal Coins of the Greeks, from circ. 700 b.c. to a.d. 270, Based on the Work of Barclay V. Head (London 1932). Broe & Robinson, Nemea = H. V. Broe and C. A. Robinson, Jr., “American School Excavations at Nemea,1924:Catalog of Coins,” American School Papers,1923–1925 (unpublished manuscript in the Blegen Library of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens). Broe & Robinson, Phlius = H. V. Broe and C. A. Robinson, Jr., “American School Excavations at Phlius, 1924: Catalog of Coins,” American School Papers,1923–1925 (unpublished manuscript in the Blegen Library of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens). Broneer 1955 = O. Broneer, “Excavations at Isthmia, 1954,” Hesperia 24 (1955) 110–141. Broneer 1962 = O. Broneer, “The Isthmian Victory Crown,” AJA 66 (1962) 259–263. Broughton = T. R. S. Broughton, “Roman Asia,” in An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome, ed. T. Frank, vol. 4 (Baltimore 1938) 499–916.

Bruneau = P. Bruneau, Recherches sur les cultes de Délos à l’époque hellénistique et à l’époque impériale (Paris 1970). BSA = Annual of the British School at Athens Buttrey = T. V. Buttrey, “Cosa: The Coins,” MAAR 34 (1980) 1–153. Casey 1986 = J. Casey, Understanding Ancient Coins: An Introduction for Archaeologists and Historians (London 1986). Casey 1989 = J. Casey and R. Reece, eds., Coins and the Archaeologist, 2nd ed. (London 1989). Casson = L. Casson, Travel in the Ancient World (London 1974). Charneux = P. Charneux, “Liste argienne de théarodoques,” BCH 90 (1966) 156–239. CID = Corpus des Inscriptions de Delphes CIG = Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum Clerk = M. G. Clerk, Catalogue of the Coins of the Achaean League (London 1895). Cohen = H.Cohen,Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l’Empire romain communément appelées medailles impériales, 2nd ed. (Paris 1880–1892). Corinth I, iv = O. Broneer, Corinth, I, iv, The South Stoa and Its Roman Successors (Princeton 1954). Corinth VI = K. M. Edwards, Corinth, VI, Coins 1896 –1929 (Cambridge, Mass., 1933). Cousin & Dürrbach = G. Cousin and F. Dürrbach, “Inscriptions de Némée,” BCH 9 (1885) 348–356. Crawford = M. H.Crawford,Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic: Italy and the Mediterranean Economy (London 1985). de Ligt & de Neeve = L.de Ligt and P. W.de Neeve, “Ancient Periodic Markets: Festivals and Fairs,” Athenaeum n.s. 66 (1988) 391–416. Delt. = Arcaiologiko; j n Deltivon Dimitrov & Ivanov = D. P. Dimitrov and T. Ivanov, Seuthopolis 2, Antichni i srednovekovni moneta (Sofia 1984). DOC = Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and the Whittemore Collection I– (Washington, D.C., 1966–). Drennan = R. Drennan, Statistics for Archaeologists: A Commonsense Approach (New York 1966). Droysen = J. G. Droysen, “Die Festzeit der Nemeen,” Hermes 14 (1879) 1–24. Early Cult = Early Greek Cult Practice: Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium at the Swedish Institute in Athens, 1986, ed. R. Hägg, N. Marinatos, G. Nordquist, Acta Instituti Atheniensis Regni Sueciae, 38 (Stockholm 1988). Economics = T. Linders and B. Alroth, eds., Econom-

selected bibliography and abbreviations

ics of Cult in the Ancient Greek World: Proceedings of the Uppsala Symposium 1990, Boreas 21 (Uppsala 1992). Ehrhardt = Ch. Ehrhardt, “The Coins of Cassander,” Journal of Numismatic Fine Arts 2 (1973) 25–32. FGrH = F. Jacoby,ed.,Fragmente der Griechischen Historiker (1923–). Franke = P. R.Franke,Die antiken Münzen von Epirus (Wiesbaden 1961). Frier & Parker = B.W. Frier and A. Parker, “Roman Coins from the River Liri,” NC 7 10 (1970) 89–109. Gaebler = H.Gaebler,Die antiken Münzen von Makedonia und Paionia, Antiken Münzen NordGriechenlands 3, part 1 (Berlin 1906). Gardiner = E. Norman Gardiner, Athletics of the Ancient World (Oxford 1930). Geagan = D. J.Geagan,“Inscriptions from Nemea,” Hesperia 37 (1968) 381–385. Grandjean = C.Grandjean,“Le monnayage d’argent et de bronze d’Hermioné,” Revue Numismatique6 32 (1990) 28–55. GRBS = Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies Greenewalt 1985 = C. H. Greenewalt, Jr., et al., “The Sardis Campaigns of 1981 and 1982,” BASOR Supplement 23 (1985) 53–92. Greenewalt 1986 = C. H. Greenewalt, Jr., et al., “The Sardis Campaign of 1983,” BASOR Supplement 24 (1986) 1–30. Greenewalt 1991 = C. H. Greenewalt, Jr., “The Sardis Campaign of 1987,” BASOR Supplement 27 (1991) 1–28. Grierson 1965 = P. Grierson, “The President’s Address: The Interpretation of Coin Finds (1),” NC 7 5 (1965) i–xiii. Grierson 1966 = P. Grierson, “The President’s Address: The Interpretation of Coin Finds (2),” NC7 6 (1966) i–xv. Gropengiesser = H. Gropengiesser, “Two Altars of Artemis at Olympia,” in Early Cult 126–128. Grunauer 1978 = S. Grunauer–von Hoerschelmann,Die Münzprägung der Lakedaimonier, Antike Münzen und geschnittene Steine 7 (Berlin 1978). Grunauer 1982 = S. Grunauer–von Hoerschelmann, “The Severan Emissions of the Peloponnese,” Israel Journal of Numismatics 6–7 (1982–1983) 39–46. Guide = Nemea: A Guide to the Museum and the Site, ed. Stephen G. Miller (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1990).

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Habicht = Ch. Habicht, “Eine Urkunde des akarnanisches Bunden,” Hermes 85 (1957) 86– 122. Hackens = T. Hackens, “A propos de la circulation monétaire dans le Péloponnèse au IIIe s. av. J.-C.,” in Antidorum W. Peremans sexagenario ab alumnis oblatum, Studia Hellenistica 16 (Louvain 1968) 69–95. Hanell = K. Hanell, “Nemea (Spiele),” RE XVI (1935). Hansen = M. H. Hansen, “Boiotian Poleis—a Test Case,” in Sources for the Ancient Greek CityState, ed. M. H. Hansen, Acts of the Copenhagen Polis Centre 2 (Copenhagen 1995) 13–63. Harris 1941 = J. M. Harris, “Coins Found at Corinth,” Hesperia 10 (1941) 141–162. Harris 1980 = W. V. Harris, “Roman Terracotta Lamps: The Organisation of an Industry,” JRS 70 (1980) 126–145. Head = B.V. Head, Historia Numorum, new and enl. ed. (Oxford 1911). Hendy = M. Hendy, Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081–1261 (Washington, D.C., 1969). Hesperia 1975 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1973–1974,” Hesperia 44 (1975) 143–172. Hesperia 1976 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1975,” Hesperia 45 (1976) 174–202. Hesperia 1977 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1976,” Hesperia 46 (1977) 1–26. Hesperia 1978 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1977,” Hesperia 47 (1978) 58–88. Hesperia 1979 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1978,” Hesperia 48 (1979) 73–103. Hesperia 1980 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1979,” Hesperia 49 (1980) 178–205. Hesperia 1981 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1980,” Hesperia 50 (1981) 45–67. Hesperia 1982 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea, 1981,” Hesperia 51 (1982) 19–40. Hesperia 1983 = Stella G.Miller,“Excavations at Nemea, 1982,” Hesperia 52 (1983) 70–95. Hesperia 1984 = Stella G.Miller,“Excavations at Nemea, 1983,” Hesperia 53 (1984) 171–192. Hesperia 1988 = Stephen G. Miller, “Excavations at Nemea,1984–1986,” Hesperia 57 (1988) 1–20. Hesperia 1994 = Stephen G.Miller,“Sosikles and the Fourth-Century Building Program in the Sanctuary of Zeus at Nemea,” Hesperia Supplement 27 (1994) 85–98.

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selected bibliography and abbreviations

Houghtalin = L. Houghtalin, “Roman Coins from the River Liri III,” NC 145 (1985) 67–81. Howgego 1985 = C. J. Howgego, Greek Imperial Countermarks: Studies in the Provincial Coinage of the Roman Empire (London 1985). Howgego 1995 = C. J. Howgego, Ancient History from Coins (London 1995). HThR = Harvard Theological Review IG = Inscriptiones Graecae IGCH = M.Thompson,O.Mørkholm,C. M.Kraay, An Inventory of Greek Coin Hoards (New York 1973). Imhoof-Blumer = F. Imhoof-Blumer, Monnaies grecques (Paris and Amsterdam 1883). Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner = F.Imhoof-Blumer and P. Gardner, Ancient Coins Illustrating Lost Masterpieces of Greek Art: A Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias, 2nd ed. (Chicago 1964). Isager = S. Isager, “Sacred Animals in Classical and Hellenistic Greece,” in Economics 15–20. Isthmia VII = I. K. Raubitschek, Isthmia, VII, The Metal Objects (Princeton 1998). IvO = Inschriften von Olympia JHS = Journal of Hellenic Studies JIAN = Journal international d’archéologie numismatique Jones = T. B. Jones, “A Numismatic Riddle—the So-called ‘Greek Imperials,’” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 107 (1963) 308–347. JRS = Journal of Roman Studies Kaerst = J.Kaerst,“Der korinthische Bund,” Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 52 (1897) 519–556. Kenchreai III = R. L. Hohlfelder, Kenchreai: Eastern Port of Corinth, III, The Coins (Leiden 1978). Kent = J. H. Kent, “The Temple Estates of Delos, Rheneia and Mykonos,” Hesperia 17 (1948) 245–338. Kinns = P. Kinns, “Studies in the Coinage of Ionia: Erythrae,Teos,Lebedus,Colophon ca.400–30 b.c.,” Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University, 1980. Kraay = C. M. Kraay, Archaic and Classical Greek Coins (London 1979). Kroll = J. H. Kroll, “Early Athenian Bronze Coinage,” in Greek Numismatics and Archaeology: Essays in Honor of Margaret Thompson, ed. O.Mørkholm and N. M.Waggoner (Wetteren 1979) 139–154. Kythera = J. N. Coldstream and G. L. Huxley, eds., Kythera (Park Ridge, N.J., 1972). Landon = M. E. Landon, “The Archaeological Evidence for the Slavic Invasion of the Pelopon-

nese, ca. a.d. 585,” M.A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1989. Le Rider = G. Le Rider, Le monnayage d’argent et d’or de Philippe II (Paris 1977). Liampi 1986 = K.Liampi,“Zur Chronologie des sogennanten ‘anonymen’ makedonischen Münzen des späten 4. Jhs. v. Chr.,” Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte 36 (1986) 41– 65. Liampi 1994 = K. Liampi, “Ein Beitrag zur Münzprägung der Ainianen,” in La Thessalie: Quinze années de recherches archéologiques, 1975–1990, bilans et perspectives: Actes du Colloque International, Lyon, 17–22 avril 1990, ed. E. Kyprianou and D. Zaphiropoulou (Athens 1994) I, 327–334. Linders 1988 = T. Linders, “The Evidence of the Temple Accounts of Delos,” in Early Cult 267–270. Linders 1992 = T. Linders, “Sacred Finances: Some Observations,” in Economics 9–13. LRBC = R. A.G. Carson, P. V. Hill, and J. P. C. Kent, Late Roman Bronze Coinage (London 1978). MAAR = Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome Mac Isaac 1972 = J. D. Mac Isaac, “The Weight of the Late IVth and Early Vth a.d. Nummus (Aes4),” ANSMN 18 (1972) 62–64. Mac Isaac 1987 = J. D. Mac Isaac, “Corinth Coins, 1925–1926: The Theater District and the Roman Villa,” Hesperia 56 (1987) 97–157. Mac Isaac 1988 = J. D. Mac Isaac, “Phliasian Bronze Coinage,” ANSMN 33 (1988) 45–54. Mac Isaac 1995 = J. D. Mac Isaac, “Coins and the Field Archaeologist: Numismatic Finds as Artifacts,” Archaeological News 20 (1995) 21–25. Martin = T. R. Martin, Sovereignty and Coinage in Classical Greece (Princeton 1985). Mathisen = R. W. Mathisen, “The Shield/Helmet Bronze Coinage of Macedonia: A Preliminary Analysis,” SAN 10 (1979) 2–6. Melville Jones = J. R. Melville Jones, Testimonia Numaria: Greek and Latin Texts concerning Ancient Greek Coinage (London 1993). Merrifield = R. Merrifield, The Archaeology of Ritual and Magic (London 1987). Metcalf 1973 = D. Metcalf, “Corinth in the Ninth Century: The Numismatic Evidence,” Hesperia 42 (1973) 180–184. Metcalf 1974 = W. E. Metcalf, “Roman Coins from the River Liri II,” NC 7 14 (1974) 42–52. Meyer = M. W. Meyer, ed., The Ancient Mysteries: A Sourcebook (New York 1987).

selected bibliography and abbreviations

Miller 1974 = Stephen G. Miller, “New Problems at Nemea,” in Neue Forschungen in griechischen Heiligtümern, ed. U. Janzten (Tübingen 1976) 63–75. Miller 1980 = Stephen G.Miller,“Tunnel Vision:The Nemean Games,” Archaeology 33 (1980) 54–56. Miller 1982a = Stella G. Miller, “The Macedonians at the Panhellenic Sanctuaries,” AJA 86 (1982) 276–277. Miller 1982b = Stephen G.Miller,“Kleonai,the Nemean Games, and the Lamian War,” Hesperia Supplement 20 (1982) 100–108. Miller 1986a = Stella G. Miller, “Archaic Relief Wares from the Nemea Area,” in FILIA EPH (Festschrift G. E. Mylonas) II (Athens 1986) 266–284. Miller 1986b = Stephen G.Miller,“Poseidon at Nemea,” in FILIA EPH (Festschrift G. E. Mylonas) I (Athens 1986) 261–271. Miller 1988a = Stella G. Miller, “Excavations at the Panhellenic Site of Nemea: Cults, Politics, and Games,” in The Archaeology of the Olympics:The Olympics and Other Festivals in Antiquity, ed. W. J. Raschke (Madison 1988) 141–151. Miller 1988b = Stephen G. Miller, “The Theorodokoi of the Nemean Games,” Hesperia 57 (1988) 147–163. Miller 1991 = Stephen G. Miller, Arete: Greek Sports from Ancient Sources (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1991). Miller 1992 = Stephen G. Miller, “The Stadium at Nemea and the Nemean Games,” in Proceedings of an International Symposium on the Olympic Games, ed. W. Coulson and H. Kyrieleis (Athens 1992) 81–86. Miller 2003 = Stephen G. Miller, “The Shrine of Opheltes and the Earliest Stadium of Nemea,” in Olympia, 1875–2000: 125 Jahre deutsche Ausgrabungen, ed. H. Kyrieleis (Berlin 2003) 239–50. Mionnet = T. E.Mionnet,Description de médailles antiques, grecques et romaines avec leur degré de rareté et leur estimation,Supplément, vol.4 (Paris 1829). Moretti = L. Moretti, Iscrizioni agonistiche greche (Rome 1953). Morgantina II = T. V. Buttrey, K. T. Erim, T. D. Groves, and R. R. Holloway, Morgantina Studies II: The Coins (Princeton 1989). NC = Numismatic Chronicle Nemea I = D. E. Birge, L. H. Kraynak, and Stephen G. Miller, Excavations at Nemea, I, Topographical and Architectural Studies: The Sacred Square,

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the Xenon, and the Bath (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1992). Nemea II = Stephen G. Miller, R. C. Knapp, and D. Chamberlain, Excavations at Nemea, II, The Early Hellenistic Stadium (Berkeley and Los Angeles 2001). Newell = E. T.Newell,The Coinages of Demetrius Poliorcetes (London 1927). Noe = S. P. Noe, “The Corinth Hoard of 1938,” ANSMN 10 (1962) 9–41. Oeconomides = M. Oeconomides, “Iron Coins: A Numismatic Challenge,” Rivista Italiana di Numismatica e Scienze Affini 95 (1993) 75–78. Oikonomidou = M. Oikonomidou-Karamesini, “Prwv imoˇ Buzav ntioˇ ‘Qhsaurov ˇ’ calkivnwn nomismav twn aj po; th;n Korinqiva” in ARMOS (Festschrift N. K. Moutsopoulos) (Thessaloniki 1991), 1289–1294. Pere = N. Pere, Osmanlilarda Maden Paralar (Istanbul 1968). Petropoulou = A. Petropoulou, “The Eparche Documents and the Early Oracle at Oropus,” GRBS 22 (1981) 39–63. Picard 1979 = O. Picard, Chalcis et la confédération eubéenne: Etude de numismatique et d’histoire (IV e–I er siècle) (Paris 1979). Picard 1984 = O.Picard,“Monnaies,” in L’antre Corycien II, BCH Supplément 9 (1984) 281–306. Picard 1987 = O. Picard, “L’administration de l’atelier monetaire à Thasos,” Revue Numismatique6 29 (1987) 7–14. Picard 1990 = O. Picard, “The Coinage of Thasos,” Nomismatika Chronika 9 (1990) 23–27. Piérart & Thalmann = M.Piérart and J.-P.Thalmann, “Nouvelles inscriptions argiennes I,” in Études argiennes, BCH Supplément 6 (1980) 261–269. Pouilloux = J. Pouilloux, “Travaux à Delphes à l’occasion des Pythia,” in Études delphiques, BCH Supplément 4 (1977), 103–123. Pozzi = S. Boutin, Catalogue des monnaies grecques antiques de l’ancienne Collection Pozzi (Maastricht 1979). Price 1964a = M. J.Price,“The New-Style Coinage of Athens: Some Evidence from the Bronze Issues,” NC7 4 (1964) 27–36. Price 1964b = M. J. Price, “The Introduction of Bronze Coinage and Its Particular Development at Corinth,” Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University, 1964. Price 1967 = M. J. Price, “Coins from Some Deposits in the South Stoa at Corinth,” Hesperia 36 (1967) 348–388.

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selected bibliography and abbreviations

Price 1968 = M. J. Price, “Early Greek Bronze Coinage,” in Essays in Greek Coinage Presented to Stanley Robinson, ed. C. M. Kraay and G. K. Jenkins (Oxford 1968) 90–104. Price 1988 = M. J. Price, “The Coins,” in The Anubieion at Saqqâra I: The Settlement and the Temple Precinct, ed. D. G. Jeffreys and H. S. Smith, Egyptian Exploration Society Excavation Memoir 54 (London 1988) 66–76. Price 1991 = M. J. Price, The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus: A British Museum Catalogue, vol.1,Introduction and Catalogue (Zurich and London 1991). Price & Waggoner = M. Price and N. Waggoner, Archaic Greek Coinage: The Asyut Hoard (London 1975). Pritchett = W. K. Pritchett, The Greek State at War, III: Religion (Berkeley and Los Angeles 1979). Prokesch-Osten = A.von Prokesch-Osten,“Inedita meiner Sammlung autonomer altgriechische Münzen,” Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-historische Classe 5 (Vienna 1854) 231–295. RE = G. Wissowa et al., eds., Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft I–(Stuttgart 1893–). Regling 1913 = K. Regling, “Zu den Eisenmünzen und den Drachmen mit dem Kopfe von vorn,” JIAN 15 (1913) 77–80. Regling 1927 = K. Regling, Die Münzen von Priene (Berlin 1927). Reinders = H. R. Reinders, New Halos: A Hellenistic Town in Thessalia, Greece (Utrecht 1988). RIC = Roman Imperial Coinage (London 1923–). Robert = L. Robert, “Circulation des monnaies d’Histiée,” in Etudes de numismatique grecque (Paris 1951) 179–216. Robinson & Clement = D. M. Robinson and P. A. Clement,Excavations at Olynthus, IX,The Chalcidic Mint and the Excavation Coins Found in 1928–1934 (Baltimore 1938). Rogers = E. Rogers, The Copper Coinage of Thessaly (London 1932). Romano = D. G. Romano, “An Early Stadium at Nemea,” Hesperia 46 (1977) 27–31. Rouse = W. H. D. Rouse, Greek Votive Offerings: An Essay in the History of Greek Religion (Cambridge 1902). RPC = A. Burnett, M. Amandry, Pere Pau Ripollès, Roman Provincial Coinage, vol. 1 (London and Paris 1992). RRC = M. H. Crawford, Roman Republican Coinage (Cambridge 1974).

SAN = Journal of the Society for Ancient Numismatics Sardis 1 = G. E. Bates, Byzantine Coins, Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Monograph 1 (Cambridge, Mass. 1971). Sardis 7 = T. V. Buttrey, K. M. MacKenzie, and M. L. Bates, Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis, Archaeological Exploration of Sardis Monograph 7 (Cambridge,Mass.1981). Schachter = A. Schachter, “A Note on the Reorganizations of the Thespian Museia,” NC 7 1 (1961) 66–70. SEG = Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum Seltman = C. T. Seltman,Athens:Its History and Coinage before the Persian Invasion (Cambridge 1924). Sheedy & Papageorgiadou-Banis = K. A.Sheedy and Ch. Papageorgiadou-Banis, eds., Numismatic Archaeology/Archaeological Numismatics:Proceedings of an International Conference Held to Honour Dr.Mando Oeconomides in Athens,1995 (Exeter 1997). SIG3 = W. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum, 3rd ed. (Leipzig 1915). Smith = W. Smith, ed., Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 2nd ed. (London 1905). SNG ANS = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum:The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, part 8, Macedonia II: Alexander I–Philip II (New York, 1994). SNG Cop. = Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum: The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals,Danish National Museum (Copenhagen 1942–1982). Sokolowski 1951 = F. Sokolowski,“Problème financier dans les rapports de l’état et du temple en Grèce,” in Actes du Premier Congrès de la Fédération Internationale des Associations d’Études Classiques (Paris 1951) 387–392. Sokolowski 1954 = F. Sokolowski, “Fees and taxes in the Greek cults,” HThR 47 (1954) 153–164. Sotheby = Catalogue of the Extensive and Valuable Collection of English Coins, etc., Sold by Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge (London 1864). Spawforth = A. J. S. Spawforth, “Agonistic Festivals in Roman Greece,” in The Greek Renaissance in the Roman Empire: Papers from the Tenth British Museum Classical Colloquium, ed. S. Walker and A.Cameron,BICS Supplement 55 (1989) 193–197. Stroud 1968 = R. S. Stroud, “The Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore on Acrocorinth: Preliminary Report II, 1964–1965,” Hesperia 37 (1968) 299–330. Stroud 1974 = R. S. Stroud, “An Athenian Law on Silver Coinage,” Hesperia 43 (1974) 157–188.

selected bibliography and abbreviations

Stroud 1984 = R. S. Stroud,“An Argive Decree from Nemea concerning Aspendos,” Hesperia 53 (1984) 193–216. Stroud & Stroud = R. S. and H. C. Stroud, “The Empress Julia Domna at Epidauros Limera,” ZPE 105 (1995) 85–88. Svoronos 1890 = J. N. Svoronos, Numismatique de la Crète ancienne, part 1, Description des monnaies: Histoire et géographie (Macon 1890). Svoronos 1904–1908 = J. N.Svoronos,Ta; Nomivsmata tou¸ Kravtouˇ tw¸ n Ptolemaivwn I–IV (Athens 1904–1908). Svoronos 1923 = J. N. Svoronos, Les monnaies d’Athènes (Munich 1923). Sydenham = E. A. Sydenham,The Coinage of the Roman Republic (London 1952). Tarn = W. W. Tarn, “The Constitutive Act of Demetrius’ League of 303,” JHS 42 (1922) 198–206. Temple of Zeus = B. H. Hill, The Temple of Zeus at Nemea (Princeton 1966). Thompson = M. Thompson, The Agrinion Hoard, ANSNNM 159 (New York 1968). Tomlinson = R. A. Tomlinson, Argos and the Argolid from the End of the Bronze Age to the Roman Occupation (London 1972). Vanderpool = E. Vanderpool, J. R. McCredie, and A. Steinberg, “Koroni: A Ptolemaic Camp on the East Coast of Attica,” Hesperia 31 (1962) 26–61. Varoucha 1941 = I. Varoucha-Christodoulopoulou, “Ptolemai¨ka; nomivsmata sth; n kurivwˇ JEllav da,” in jEpituv mbion Crhv stou Tsouv nta (Athens 1941) 668–679. Varoucha 1944 = I. Varoucha-Christodoulopoulou, “Hellenistic Asea: The Coins,” in E. J. Holmberg, The Swedish Excavations at Asea in Arcadia, Skifter utgivna av Svenska institutet i Rom 4o, 11 (Lund 1944) 167–171. Vial = C. Vial, Délos indépendante, BCH Supplément 10 (1984). Vollgraff 1907 = C. W. Vollgraff, “Fouilles d’Argos (1),” BCH 31 (1907) 139–184. Vollgraff 1915 = C. W.Vollgraff,“Novae inscriptiones argivae,” Mnemosyne n.s. 43 (1915) 365–384. Vollgraff 1916 = C. W. Vollgraff, “Novae inscriptiones argivae,” Mnemosyne n.s. 44 (1916) 46–71, 219–233. Waagé = F. O.Waagé,Greek Bronze Coins from a Well at Megara, ANSNNM 70 (New York 1935). Wallace = W. P. Wallace, The Euboian League and Its Coinage, ANSNNM 134 (New York 1956).

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Warren 1983 = J. A. Warren, “The Autonomous Bronze Coinage of Sicyon: Part 1,” NC 143 (1983) 23–56. Warren 1984 = J. A. Warren, “The Autonomous Bronze Coinage of Sicyon: Part 2,” NC 144 (1984) 1–24. Warren 1985 = J. A. Warren, “The Autonomous Bronze Coinage of Sicyon: Part 3,” NC 145 (1985) 45–66. Warren 1993 = J. A. Warren, “Towards a Resolution of the Achaian League Silver Coinage Controversy,” in Essays in Honour of Robert Carson and Kenneth Jenkins, ed. M. Price, A. Burnett, and R. Bland (London 1993) 87–99. Warren 1997 = J. A. Warren, “After the Boehringer Revolution: The ‘New Landscape’ in the Coinage of the Peloponnese,” Topoi 7 (1997) 109–114. Warren 1998 = J. A.Warren,“Updating (and Downdating) the Autonomous Bronze Coinage of Sikyon,” in Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price,ed.R. Ashton and S. Hurter (London 1998) 347–361. Weber = L. Forrer, The Weber Collection of Greek Coins (London 1922–1929). Williams,“Nemea,1962” = C. K.Williams,II,“Excavations at Nemea,” AJA 68 (1964) 201–202. Williams, “Nemea, 1964” = C. K. Williams, II, “Nemea,” Delt. 20 (1965) Cronikav 154–156. Williams 1965 = R. T.Williams,Confederate Coinage of the Arcadians in the Fifth Century b.c., ANSNNM 155 (New York 1965). Williams 1972 = R. T. Williams, Silver Coinage of the Phokians, Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication no. 7 (London 1972). Williams & Fisher = C. K. Williams, II, and J. E. Fisher, “Corinth 1970: Forum Area,” Hesperia 40 (1971) 1–53. Williams & Zervos 1993 = C. K. Williams, II, and O. H. Zervos, “Frankish Corinth: 1992,” Hesperia 62 (1993) 1–52. Williams & Zervos 1995 = C. K. Williams, II, and O. H. Zervos, “Frankish Corinth: 1994,” Hesperia 64 (1995) 1–60. Wroth = W. Wroth, Catalogue of the Coins of the Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards and of the Empires of Thessalonica,Nicaea and Trebizond in the British Museum (London 1911). Zervos = O. H.Zervos,“Coins Excavated at Corinth, 1978–1980,” Hesperia 55 (1986) 183–205. ZPE = Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik

SPECIALIZED TERMINOLOGY A N D A B B R E V I AT I O N S U S E D I N T H E T E X T A N D C ATA L O G U E S

A = Architecture AE = Bronze (coin) AR = Silver [AR] = Silver coin with bronze core (subaerate issue) AT = Architectural Terracotta Bi = Billon BR = Bronze (non-coin) C = Coin Cat. = Catalogue entry cm. = centimeter(s) D. = depth Diam. = diameter est. = estimated ex. = exergue FE = iron (coin) g. = gram(s) GJ = Gems and Jewelry H. = height I = Inscription

IL = Iron or Lead L = Lamp l. = left L. = length m. = meter max. = maximum min. = minimum mm. = millimeter(s) no. = number np = not preserved obv. = obverse P = Pottery P. = preserved rev. = reverse r. = right SS = Stone Sculpture ST = Stone TC = Terracotta Th. = thickness W. = width

CHRONOLOGICAL TERMINOLOGY

quently explained in the text, but it may provide a service to explain them briefly here as well. The earliest use of the site in a numismatic context was in that period which we commonly refer to as the Archaic-Classical. By this term we mean to call to mind the period extending from the traditional date of the founding of the Nemean Games

Because the excavations of the past quarter-century at Nemea have revealed that the history of the site was periodic, chronological terms have specific meanings in the Nemea publications. These terms, and the evidence that justifies their use, are fre-

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xxx

specialized terminology and abbreviations

in 573 b.c. to the destruction of the Sanctuary of Zeus and the first Stadium about 415 b.c. In more flexible terms that are better reflections of the lack of precision in the archaeological record, we should understand this first period to be roughly the century and one-half from the early 6th to the late 5th century b.c. After a clear and decisive gap in evidence for human activity, we come to the second period of major activity at Nemea. We usually call this the Late Classical–Early Hellenistic. This ranges from about 330 b.c. when the Games returned to Nemea to about 270 b.c. when the Games were taken away again. This period is also sometimes called more briefly the Early Hellenistic. The later Hellenistic period is represented in isolated cases and apparently brief times especially along the south side of the Sanctuary. We usually do not apply a specific name to this period since it lacks the relatively clear definition of the previous and the subsequent periods. The Early Roman period is what might be called in other contexts the Early Imperial.It represents the first clear evidence of Roman influence at Nemea and probably is connected with the establishment of the Roman colony at Corinth in 46 b.c. The Early Roman period begins in the Augustan era and carries through all the Julio-Claudians,but it is not clear whether it continued beyond them. Although scattered and apparently sporadic activity appears in the numismatic record during the Middle Empire, this period is like the later Hel-

lenistic in its lack of definition and usually goes without a label for a period of activity. There were two separate and distinct phases of what is sometimes called more generally the Byzantine period.It has become a useful shorthand to identify these two periods by two distinct rubrics. We refer to the first of these periods as the Early Christian. This is,more precisely,the period of the 4th,5th,and 6th centuries after Christ, when an agricultural settlement, of demonstrably Christian faith, grew up among the ruins of the Old Sanctuary of Zeus. This period is sometimes referred to in older literature as the Late Roman, sometimes as the Early Byzantine. Such usage is confusing and,at least at Nemea,counterproductive.Early Christian,designating the period from Constantine the Great to Phocas, is a chronologically, historically, and politically correct term. We refer to the second period as the Byzantine period, by which term we designate another welldefined phase of human activity in the valley after a void of several centuries. The chronological limits of the Byzantine period at Nemea are from the 12th to the 14th century after Christ. Thereafter, the valley was once again abandoned until the late 19th century. The division of this volume into two parts follows the same basic distinction outlined above: the preChristian and the Christian. These two parts are also reflected in different spellings of the same word (e.g. Achaia and Achaea) in a Greek and a Latin form. We have tried to be consistent in these spellings (although absolute consistency is probably not attainable) and hope that the reader will be aided by this principle.

E L E VAT I O N S , G R I D R E F E R E N C E S , AND MEASUREMENTS

ELEVATIONS

comma (,) is used to give the limits of the area.Thus, the notation K/12,14–18/3,10 indicates a findspot somewhere between the 12th and 14th meter from the west side of the square K 18 and somewhere between the 3rd and 10th meter from the north side. In the present volume, the provenience noted for each coin refers to the 20-meter square only (although the findspots shown in Figures 5–8 and 18–20 are placed with respect to their specific 1-meter square). For coins whose precise place of discovery is not known, the catalogue uses commas, as described above, to delimit the maximum area. For example, the findspot for C 2645 (Cat. 2141) is listed as K,L 16, which means that the coin was found somewhere within a maximum area 40 meters west-east (Grid Sections K and L) and 20 meters north-south (Grid Section 16).

Elevations of artifacts and monuments at Nemea are expressed in meters above sea level as derived from a survey marker of the Greek Army located in Section J 17, which has a height of 333.53 m. above sea level.In this publication any three-digit number beginning with the numeral 3 is to be understood as the sea-level elevation whether carried out to millimeters (e.g. 332.591) or centimeters (e.g. 331.64).

GRID REFERENCES For clarity in designating the place of each discovery, the whole of the site of Nemea has been divided into squares 20 meters on a side, which are labelled by letters from west to east and by numbers from north to south (see Fig. 1). If the provenience of an artifact has been pinpointed to a single meter square, the individual 1-meter square is recorded to the right of a slash (/) that follows the 20-meter square notation, and a dash (–) is used between the west-east grid and the north-south grid. Thus, the letter locates the 20-meter grid square in a west-east direction, and the number following the slash specifies the number of meters from the west side of that square. The first arabic number to the right of the dash locates the north-south square, and the number following the slash specifies the number of meters from the north side of that square. For example, the notation K/12–18/3 indicates a findspot in the 20-meter square K 18,and more precisely in the 12th meter from the west of that square and the 3rd meter from the north. If, however, the place of discovery is not known so precisely, a

MEASUREMENTS In general, measurements are given to the nearest millimeter in the case of an object the full original dimension of which is completely preserved and can therefore be measured, and recorded, with such precision, or in the case of an object the total size of which is so small as to make measurement in millimeters desirable for reasons of identification. Measurements are given to the nearest centimeter for objects of reasonable size the full original dimension of which is not preserved or for overall dimensions of the foundations of buildings or monuments. In such cases to use millimeters would imply a precision which is, and was in antiquity, meaningless.

xxxi

part i

THE CLASSICAL, HELLENISTIC, ROMAN PROVINCIAL, AND ROMAN COINS

robert c. knapp

CONSPECTUS OF COINS key AR = silver [AR] = silver coin with bronze core (subaerate issue) FE = iron no indication = bronze

6th

centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

ITALY-SICILY (4) Brundisium (1)

1

Thurii (1) Syracuse (2)

1 1

1

THRACE (1) Thasos (1)

1

MACEDONIA (112) Neapolis (1) Mende (1)

1 1AR

Kings Philip II (51)

5AR & 46

Alexander III (21)

4AR & 17

Kassandros (3)

3

Demetrios Poliorketes (16)

16

Antigonos Gonatas (16)

16

Uncertain kings (2)

2

Roman period (1)

1

3

4

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

6th

centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

THESSALY (16) Ainianes (1)

1

Halos/Alos (1) Lamia (3)

1 3

Larissa (1)

1

Larissa Kremaste (2)

2

Melitaia (1)

1

Oita (2)

2

Peumata (1) Pherai (1)

1 1

Trikka (1)

1

Peparethos (1)

1

Skiathos (1)

1

NORTHWEST GREECE (25) Epeiros Ambrakia (2) Elea (1)

2 1

King Pyrrhos (9)

9

Korkyra (1)

1

Akarnania Argos Amphilochikon (2)

1 1

Leukas (7) Oiniadai (1) Thyrrheion (1)

7 1 1[AR]

Aitolia Aitolian League (1)

1

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

5

conspectus

6th

centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

CENTRAL GREECE (139) Lokris Lokris Opontion (3)

3AR

Lokrian League (23)

22

1

Phokis Phokian League (6)

1AR &4 1

Boiotia Boiotian League (26)

1[AR] 1AR & 24

Lebadeia (1)

1

Tanagra (3)

3AR

Thebes (12)

2AR 10

Thespiai (1)

1

Euboia Euboian League (5)

5

Chalkis (34)

2AR &1

1 30

Histiaia (25)

1AR 24

ATTICA & VICINITY (118) Attica Athens (58)

1AR

3AR

1AR 45

1 6

Eleusis (3) Salamis (4)

1

3 4

6

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

6th

centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

Megaris Megara (9)

8

Aigina (44)

1

1AR 1AR & 1[AR] 12AR

28 1

PELOPONNESOS (1,554) Corinthia Corinth (628)

7AR

5AR 1AR & 7 6AR & 174 93 267 1AR &4 6

7 25

12

2 10

1 Phliasia Phlious (148)

2AR 1AR 107

16 22

Sikyonia Sikyon (358)

8AR 10AR & 1 & 64 7AR & 50 167 38

1AR & 12

7

conspectus

6th

centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

Achaia Aigeira (4)

4

Pellene (5)

5

Achaian League (7)

3 1[AR]

1[AR] 2

Elis Elis (5)

5

Kephallonia Same (1)

1

Zakynthos Zakynthos (1)

1

Messenia Messenia (9)

1AR & 8

Lakonia Lakedaimon (7)

1

6

Argolis Argos (238)

6AR 5AR & 6FE & 37 18AR &3 1AR & 115 1AR & 30

5 10 1

Epidauros (8)

1AR &7

Hermione (22)

22

Kleonai (31)

31

Tiryns (2)

2

Troizen (20)

16

4

8

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

6th

centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

Arkadia Arkadia (30)

2AR 1 1AR & 25

Heraia (3)

3

Kleitor (5)

5

Mantinea (6)

6

Pheneos (8)

1

6 2

Stymphalos (1)

1

Tegea (7)

3

4

CRETE and ISLANDS (10) Crete Polyrrhenion (4)

4

Rhaukos (1)

1

Aegean Islands Melos (1)

1

Mykonos (1)

1

Naxos (1)

1

Paros (1)

1

Pholegandros (1)

1

ASIA MINOR (16) Pontos Amisos (2)

2

Troas Gargara (1)

1

Ionia Erythrai (2)

2

Naulochos (1)

1

Teos (1) Samos (1)

1 1

9

conspectus

6th

centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

Karia Kos (2)

2

Rhodes (1)

1

Cyprus Salamis (5)

5

EGYPT (18) Kings Ptolemy I (2) Ptolemy III (15)

2 15

Ptolemy X & Cleopatra III (1) UNCERTAIN & ILLEGIBLE GREEK (87)

1 87

UNCERTAIN & ILLEGIBLE ROMAN PROVINCIAL (17) ROME (7)

Greek and Roman totals follow on page 10.

17 1[AR]

1AR

5

10

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

SUMMARY centuries b.c. 5th 4th 3rd 2nd

6th

1st

centuries a.d. 1st 2nd 3rd

TOTAL: 2,124 a TOTAL GREEK: 2,117

8AR 1 39AR &2 11AR & 6FE & 61 267 167 55AR & 642 13AR & 396 1AR & 55 87 1AR & 91 1AR & 49 1 1AR & 42 3 30 17 25 1 21 20 3

ROMAN: 7 a

AR and [AR] are counted as AR in the total.

1AR

1AR

5

I N T RO D U C T I O N : A R C H A E O N U M I S M AT I C S AND NEMEA

mea in the sources.2 There is no evidence that there ever were sculptural pediments or other decoration. The cult statue was missing from the cella when Pausanias (2.15.2) visited the site in the 2nd century after Christ. At Argos a bronze cult statue of Nemean Zeus by Lysippos was attested by Pausanias and on Imperial coins of Argos (Fig.3).3 It is possible,though unproven, that this cult statue originally was at Nemea but was subsequently removed to Argos when the Games were moved there. In front of the Temple was a long altar similar to the long altar at Isthmia in front of the Temple of Poseidon. This altar had existed for the Archaic Temple, but was extended to a length of at least 41 meters for the Early Hellenistic structure.4 Here animals were slaughtered, libations poured, and prayers uttered for success in the Games.To complete the complex around the Temple there was a sacred square to the south and a sacred grove of cypresses—trees particularly suited to a hero cult.5 The second major sacred spot in the Sanctuary was the Heroön. This was an open-air, fenced area where the cult of Opheltes took place. The site and the cult are attested in Pausanias’ report and have been located to the southwest of the Temple in a pentagonal enclosure.6 Other minor religious monuments of uncertain use include Circular Structure A south of the Tem-

OVERVIEW Coins from an excavation present special problems and challenges.The coordination of archaeology and numismatics to produce information that neither discipline produces of itself requires careful excavation, recording, and numismatic methodology. The site of Nemea (Fig. 1) offers a well-documented excavation (Fig. 2), a fairly clear and brief historical context, and a reasonable number and variety of coins. It provides, therefore, an excellent opportunity for archaeonumismatic investigation.1 The archaeology of the site can be set out briefly; the Guide and other volumes in the Nemea publication series provide more detail. The site is dominated by the Early Hellenistic Temple and Altar of Zeus. There is an Archaic temple, about which less is known, lying under the later temple. The existing Temple is hexastyle with a porch in front and none in back. The columns are Doric; three of these ancient columns have survived upright since their construction,one exterior and two from the pronaos. More are now being reconstructed from those fallen at the northeastern corner of the Temple. There is the normal cella, as well as an adyton, or inner room. The purpose of this room is unclear. As it is sunken, it may have had some oracular function, but no activity of this sort is attested at Ne-

2 Bacchielli

1 I propose the term “archaeonumismatics” to emphasize the symbiosis of archaeology and numismatics. A recent collection of essays (Sheedy & Papageorgiadou-Banis) overtly takes this approach; the somewhat ungainly title of that volume nevertheless appropriately emphasizes the usefulness of a term which succinctly summarizes the fruitful interrelationship of the two disciplines.

(1982) argues for an oracular purpose. Pel. 148 no. 147, pl. 28.10; Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 36 with Pausanias 2.20.3. 4 Nemea I, 5–31. 5 Temple and Altar: Guide 129–147. Sacred Square: Nemea I, 1–98. Cypress grove: Pausanias 2.15.2–3. 6 Pausanias 2.15.2–3; Guide 104–110. 3 BMC

11

12

Fig. 1

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

Plan of the Nemea Valley with the Sanctuary of Zeus and the Early Hellenistic Stadium.

ple, Circular Structure B just beside the Temple itself which served as a base probably for a bronze tripod, and also the Nu Structure, now identified as the base for a monumental sculptural group. The final major Sanctuary structure was the Stadium. The site of the Archaic Stadium has been found along the Nemea River to the east and north of the Heroön;7 the Early Hellenistic Stadium’s site is farther away from the Temple,the southeast of the central part of the Sanctuary. Its track was the stan-

7 For the discoveries that justify this location, see Miller 2003, 247;Romano and Hesperia 1983,82,had previously located the early Stadium to the east of the Temple of Zeus.

dard 600 feet long;there were earthen embankments for spectators, and an entrance tunnel which is especially interesting because it is one of the earliest examples of vaulting in the Greek world.8 The other structures in the Sanctuary were designed to provide support services for the site. There was a series of nine oikoi along the southern edge of the Sacred Square.Their use is uncertain;it may have been multiple or may have changed over time. Perhaps they served as meeting halls, treasuries, or dining establishments. There are two inscriptions found at the site which label something as “of the Rhodians” and 8 Nemea

II, 70–83.

13

introduction

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

XENON

HEROON

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

ROAD HOUSES

Fig. 2

Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with areas unexcavated as of 1991 shaded.

HOUSES

14

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

Fig. 3 The statue of Zeus on the reverse of an Imperial Argive coin (Hadrian on obverse). London, British Museum, inv. no. 323955 (BMC Pel. 148 no. 148). Photograph © The British Museum.

“of the Epidaurians”: it is likely that these inscriptions refer to two of these oikoi. Architectural fragments discovered in the excavations allow a reconstruction of Oikos 9.9 Another amenity at the site was the guest house, or Xenon.This hotel would have housed the athletes and their retinues during the stay at the Games.10 Finally, a bathing complex including a plunge pool and wash basins was associated with the athletic activities.11 South of these buildings, across a roadway, was a huddle of residential structures. The domestic remains found in them make it clear that they were used as temporary dwellings, probably by the judges ( Hellanodikai), priests, and/or caretakers of the Sanctuary.12 The excavations have laid out a fairly clear archaeological chronology for the site.There was some activity in the Neolithic period.13 Later, there are a few Mycenaean artifacts in the center of the Sanctuary and larger quantities in sections F 19 and G 19 at 9 Guide

67–71 and 164–167. 96–103. 11 Nemea I, 188–261. 12 Hesperia 1988, 10–19. 13 Guide 48–49. A layer of reddish soil occurs in much of the Sanctuary. This layer contains neolithic material. 10 Guide

the Heroön, but the usual break in the record occurs between this activity period and the Archaic period. Evidence for use during the Dark Ages is nonexistent;material moves directly from the Mycenaean to the Geometric periods. Geometric finds come from the central part of the Sanctuary;significant new discoveries of pottery have been made in I 17.14 Architectural remains from the Archaic and Classical periods start to appear in the early 6th century b.c. Activity during the Archaic period from ca. 600 to ca. 480 b.c. is quite intense. There is a use-area, previously erroneously associated with the first Stadium, to the east of the Temple, although only its yellow clay surface has been identified.15 There was an early temple begun in the late 7th or early 6th century b.c.,and an early altar.16 The Sacred Square was paved, and the Heroön began to be used in the first half of the 6th century b.c.17 In the early 5th century b.c., at the beginning of the Classical period, both circular structures were built and the oikoi were first constructed; the residential houses to the south of the Sanctuary were built. Then at the end of the century the Temple was destroyed and there was widespread damage throughout the Sanctuary. The signs of violent destruction such as burnt architectural materials and arrowheads mixed together in layers of debris bear vivid witness that a battle about 415–410 b.c. during the Peloponnesian War brought an abrupt end to the glories of the Sanctuary. The Games themselves were suspended at Nemea and the celebration was probably removed to Argos. There is no archaeological evidence for use of the site for the first 50 to 60 years of the 4th century b.c.18 Activity resumes at the site in the later 4th century b.c. Eight of the nine original oikoi, the Heroön, and the houses are rebuilt.19 The Bath and 14 Hesperia

1977, 8; 1982, 23. Some Mycenaean material in G 18: Hesperia 1980, 198. The 1998 finds in F 19 and G 19 have not yet been published. No serious occupation of the site before the Archaic Temple built: Hesperia 1981, 55. The 1999 finds in I 17 have not been published. 15 Romano; Hesperia 1983, 82; see above, n. 7. 16 Early Temple probably around the second quarter of the 6th century b.c.: Hesperia 1978, 63. Late 7th to early 6th century b.c.: Hesperia 1980, 187. No earlier than ca. 600 b.c.: Hesperia 1981, 54. In general: Nemea I, xxix–xxx. 17 Heroön: Hesperia 1981, 63–64; Hesperia 1984, 173–174. 18 Oikoi: Nemea I, 1–98; Hesperia 1977, 10–19. Destruction: Hesperia 1980, 186; Hesperia 1977, 8–9. Site deserted: Hesperia 1988, 8; see also Nemea I, xxix–xxx; II, 1, 91. 19 Heroön: Guide 107.

introduction

the Xenon are added to the Sanctuary buildings.20 The Sacred Square is resurfaced. But the most significant development is that a new Temple rises and a whole new Stadium is constructed to the southeast of the Temple.21 By about 300 b.c. everything had been constructed or reconstructed. The floruit was destined to be short-lived, however. By about 275 b.c. there are unmistakable signs of decay: most of the houses are abandoned; the Xenon suffers damage, and in general it appears that the site fell into disuse.22 A short spurt of activity resumes later in the 3rd century b.c., as the Xenon is partially rebuilt, some of the houses are occupied, and the last phase of the Heroön comes into being.23 Finally, by the fourth quarter of the 3rd century b.c. decay has clearly settled in for good: the Xenon lay in ruins; the roadway south of it was out of use; the aqueduct of the Bath, and therefore the Bath itself, had ceased to function; and perhaps the entrance passageway to the tunnel of the Stadium had collapsed.24 It should be noted, however, that one house shows signs of use throughout this period and into the late 2nd century b.c.;25 material from a well in area N 17 also indicates that debris was being thrown into the well until late in that century.26 There was a period of inactivity, but not of total abandonment of the site.27 The same sort of desultory activity is witnessed by the material remains in the Roman period. Some parts of the Sanctuary were completely neglected. For example,there is a robbing trench of the 1st century after Christ at Circular Structure A south of the Temple and at the Heroön;clearly by this time some 20 Xenon: Hesperia 1978, 80; 1981, 55–59; Nemea I, 173–176. Bath: Hesperia 1983, 91; Nemea I, 236–237. 21 Stadium: Hesperia 1978, 88; Nemea II, 90–93. Temple: Guide 132–148. 22 Xenon: Nemea I, 182. Houses: Hesperia 1982, 24–35; 1988, 13 and 18. 23 Heroön: Hesperia 1984, 175–176. Houses (House 1): Hesperia 1988, 12; 1982, 27–30. Xenon: Hesperia 1981, 59. This activity of the third quarter of the 3rd century b.c. is not, however, attested in the Stadium or in other parts of the site. 24 Xenon:Hesperia 1981,59 (destroyed in the 3rd century b.c.). Roadway: Hesperia 1981, 58; 1998, 9–10 (long out of use before 2nd century b.c.). Bath: Nemea I, 238. Stadium tunnel entrance: Hesperia 1980, 198–199; Nemea II, 101–107 (collapsed sometime between the mid-3rd and the mid-1st century b.c.). 25 House: Hesperia 1988, 12. Bath: Hesperia 1983, 91. 26 Well: Hesperia 1975, 192–193; 1976, 190–191. 27 The roadway south of the Xenon generally unused: Hesperia 1981, 58. Road specifically out of use and dug through by pits in the 2nd century b.c.: Hesperia 1988, 9–10.

15

monuments were being systematically dismantled for their building materials. As noted, the Xenon was never rebuilt; the Bath remained abandoned, as did the Stadium.28 But the site was not entirely deserted. The well in K 17 has Roman material, and some of the houses show signs of human presence.29 The visit to the Temple by Pausanias in the 2nd century after Christ indicates that it was still recognized as significant.30 But he found the Temple roof caved in and the cult statue gone.In this rather decrepit Sanctuary little activity continued to take place. The Temple was systematically dismantled in the Early Christian period31 when farmers who had taken up residence on the site built their Basilica over the ruins of the ancient Xenon and trenched the ancient site in order to plant crops.32 All was abandoned in ca. a.d. 585 as invading Slavs killed or drove off the Christian farmers.33 The archaeology of the site provides the picture just described. The literary evidence nicely amplifies and corroborates the archaeology. At the beginning of the existence of the Sanctuary as a Panhellenic site the Games were controlled by the small village of Kleonai, about five kilometers away in the next valley to the east.34 In 468 b.c. Argos claimed control. Although Kleonai remained firm, this was the beginning of a long series of struggles over the control of these Games.35 Perikles defeated 28 The

Bath ceased to be used much earlier: Nemea I, 237 and n. 657. 29 Well: Hesperia 1978, 81. Trenches are dug through the foundations in the Roman period: Hesperia 1988, 7–8. 30 Pausanias 2.15.2–3. 31 Miller 1986b, 262–264. 32 Guide 78–93. 33 Guide 94–95, where it is noted that the site had been largely abandoned before the arrival of the Slavs. See further, below, p. 17. 34 Hesperia 1977, 9–10; Pindar, N. 10.42, cf. 4.17; Schol. Pindar, N. Hyp. d; Plutarch, Aratos 28. On Kleonai and nearby Phlious see Pausanias 2.12.3–15.1. 35 Argive claim to control: Diodorus Siculus 11.65.2. Continued Kleonai control: Pindar, N. 10.42 (ca. 463 b.c.). Euripides, Hypsipyle (ca. 408/7 b.c.), notes the mythical justification for Argive foundation of the Games. Modern literature has references to Corinth’s control of the Games in the 5th century b.c. (e.g. Hanell, col. 2324). This misinterpretation goes back to Scholia d to Pindar, N. Hyp., which state that Corinth once controlled the games. The date of ca. 470–460 b.c. usually mentioned comes from Plutarch, Kimon 17.1, which states that Corinth attacked Kleonai about this time. See Hesperia 1975, 149; 1982, 35 n. 47, and the discussion of Hanell, who points out that Kleonai was independent at this time, aiding Argos against Mycenae, and that Diodorus Siculus 11.65 says that the

16

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

Sikyonian forces in 453 b.c. near the site and erected a commemorative monument at Nemea.36 As the Sanctuary was devastated in the late 5th century b.c.,37 and as there is no evidence of use of the site for over fifty years, it seems clear that the Games were removed to Argos at this time.38 When notice of Nemea appears again, in 388 b.c., Argos has gained control.39 But in the changing political atmosphere of the later 4th century b.c., the Macedonian king Philip II decided to use the Panhellenic sites as a meeting place for his League of Greek States, commonly called by moderns the League of Corinth.40 Kassandros appears as president of the Games in 315 b.c., and Demetrios Poliorketes used the site as a meeting place for his league—both in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries b.c.41 Then control of the Games was one of the issues. Although Kleonai seems to have become a dependency of Argos about the mid5th century b.c. (Hanell loc. cit., without citing evidence; see the discussion in Piérat & Thalmann 261–269, who prefer to see Kleonai as an ally of, but juridically autonomous from, Argos until the late 4th century b.c.), it does not seem that it lost control of the Games: in 323 b.c. Athens sent an embassy for the festival to Kleonai (IG II2 365; Vollgraff 1916, 68); see also Guide 20 and Miller 1982b. 36 Plutarch, Perikles 19.2; cf. Hesperia 1975, 155. Circular Structure B next to the Temple appears from a recent discovery to have been a monument base that supported a bronze tripod (contra Nemea I, 34ff.). The date is the second quarter of the 5th century b.c. (Nemea I, 42–46);the base may very well have supported Perikles’ monument. 37 Thucydides 5.60.3 notes extensive military activity in the area by Sparta in 418 b.c. 38 Tomlinson 24. The stadium has been tentatively identified: Vollgraff 1907, 159–163. It was perhaps to the northwest of Argos, near the Temple of Hera Akraia: Pausanias 2.24.2. 39 Argos in control by 388 b.c. is implied by Xenophon, Hellenika 4.7.2–3. The Spartans marched through the Nemea Valley from Phlious to defeat the Argives. Argos attempted to use the Nemea truce as an excuse to avoid battle. The site of the Games is not, however, explicitly noted. Other military activity during the 4th century b.c. includes notices of battles at the Nemea River in 394 (Xenophon, Hellenika 4.2.13–23; Diodorus Siculus 14.83.1 from Ephoros [FGrH IIA, no. 70, frag. 82]; the action probably took place near where the Nemea River runs into the sea: Pritchett 1969, 73–84) and in 366 (Aeschines 2.168,cf.Xenophon,Hellenika 7.2.17–23,Diodorus Siculus 15.75.3). Even after the Games were re-established at Nemea in the later 4th century b.c., Argos may have remained in control of them, but epigraphic evidence points to supervision of the festival by Kleonai at that time even though Kleonai itself was politically dependent on Argos (see above, n. 35). 40 The Macedonian connection with Panhellenic sites: Hesperia 1981, 62; Miller 1982a; Miller 1988b, 162–163; Kaerst 526–529, following Droysen (1879).

about 271 b.c. the Games were moved to Argos, although there is no literary evidence for exactly how and why this happened.42 Plutarch notes that Aratos of Sikyon attempted to move the Games back briefly ca. 235 b.c.43 When Flamininus declares the “Freedom of the Greeks” at Nemean Games in 197 b.c., these Games are at the Argive site.44 At mid-2nd century b.c. Mummius is mentioned in an inscription found at Nemea, but, contrary to earlier speculation, this does not show that he revived the Games at the Nemean site,45 his authority may, however, have been involved in remodelling part of the Xenon into a sacred space (see pages 31–32). The Games at Nemea then sink from view; sources mention that Hadrian instituted “Winter Nemean Games” in the 2nd century after Christ as part of a general revival of athletic festivals under that philhellenic emperor, but it is doubtful that these took place at Nemea.46

41 Kassandros:Diodorus

Siculus 19.64.1;Demetrios Poliorketes in 311 b.c. and again from 303 b.c.: IG IV2 1: 68 (esp. line 73), with Tarn (1922); Geagan 381–385. 42 Vollgraff 1916, 65–69, 221, 229, 232. An Argive inscription of 251 b.c. (or earlier) puts the Games in Argos. The most recent discussion of this text is in Nemea II, 8 n. 13. Another inscription proves the site was under Argive control, because a stele regarding the Games of 249–244 b.c. is dedicated in Argos, but this inscription in honor of Rhodians does not locate the Games’ site per se. Even before this time an Argive presence at Nemea is very noticeable: many coins appear; there are inscriptions in the Argive mode (four Argive phratries attested on lead tablets [Hesperia 1982, 21 n. 4]); an Argive official weight was discovered (Guide 77); an official Argive architect is attested as working on the Nemea building program (Hesperia 1994). See also Nemea II, 170–172. 43 Plutarch, Aratos 28.3–4. “Counter-games” were also held at Argos by Aristippos (Plutarch, Aratos 28). See further Nemea II, 97–99, where it is shown that Aratos’ games at Nemea did not amount to much, if in fact they actually did take place. 44 Flamininus: Plutarch, Flam. 12.2. See also Nemea II, 8 n. 13. 45 Nemea II, 99–100, has proven that the inscription does not provide any evidence for a move of the Games back to Nemea by Mummius. On the shifting of the Games in general: Vollgraff 1916, 65–69, 221–232. Games at Argos by 225 b.c.: Plutarch, Kleom. 17.4 (cf. Bradeen 326). Games at Argos: Plutarch, Philop. 11.1; Polybios 2.70.4–5, 5.101.5–6, 22.10.1; Livy 27.30.9, 34.41.1; Strabo 8.6.19; Pausanias 2.24.2; IG III, 127, 129; VII, 49; [Ps.-] Julian Ep. 35.408B (Hertlein) = 198 (Bidez=Cumont)= 28 in Loeb edition;note that W.C.Wright, the Loeb translator, accepts the authenticity of this letter (see Wright’s introduction, pp. xxii–xxiii, to vol. 3 of The Works of the Emperor Julian). See also Nemea II, 8 n. 13. 46 Winter Games of Hadrian: Pausanias 2.15.3, 6.16.4; IG IV, 590; CIG I, 1124 (cf. 1123, 1126) may refer to these games (Droysen 4, 6). CIG III, 4472 notes a Sebasia Nemeia on De-

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17

TABLE 1

Archaeological and Historical Context of the Nemean Site period

archaeology

history

Archaic

Temple with Altar, adjacent buildings, Heroön constructed

573 b.c.: Games become Panhellenic

Classical

480 b.c.–ca. 415 b.c.: Sanctuary refurbished and expanded (e.g. oikoi, circular monuments)

Kleonai in control of the Games

Hellenistic

Ca. 415–410 b.c.: Battle fought during Peloponnesian War Ca. 410–330 b.c.: Sanctuary destroyed and abandoned Mid-4th century to ca. 271 b.c.: Sanctuary including Temple rebuilt and expanded (e.g. Xenon, Bath); Stadium built

468 b.c.: Argos claims control of Games, but Kleonai retains control 453 b.c.: Perikles sets up monument for victory near Sikyon

388 b.c.: Nemean Games under Argive control 338–336 b.c.: Philip II decides to use Panhellenic sites as meeting places Ca. 315 b.c.: Kassandros presides over Nemean Games Ca. 311 b.c.: Demetrios Poliorketes uses site for his league meetings

Roman (to a.d. 307) Late Antiquity = Early Christian

Site abandoned ca. 271 b.c.; little evidence for use at site subsequently

Ca. 271 b.c.: Games held at Argos

Minimal use; no evidence of festival at site

Ca. 235 b.c.: Aratos of Sikyon active at Nemea 146 b.c.: Mummius makes contact with Nemea Ca. 100 b.c.: Mithridates VI Eupator dedicates armor at Nemea a.d. 580’s: Slavic invasion throughout Greece

Slight evidence for use in 4th century Farming community established on site of Sanctuary 5th and 6th centuries Destruction by human dismantling and Slavic plunderers

A comparison of the archaeological and historical information provides a coherent picture of the site (Table 1), allowing us to view the numismatic material in context. The coins, as of 1995, number 4,092 and include those from all the excavations and chance finds with the exception of any discoveries possibly cember 30, a.d. 214, so winter games were held at some “Nemean” site—perhaps to honor the anniversary of Caracalla’s assumption of sole emperorship on December 26, a.d. 211? General revival of games in the 2nd century after Christ: Gardiner 46–52. Hesperia 1980, 199, states that the archaeology does not support return of the Games. However, Nemean Games did continue at Argos during the Empire (a point further discussed in Nemea II, 119–125). A coin of Gordian III (a.d. 238–244; for the coin see BMC Pel. 152 no. 174) minted at Argos carries a wild-celery crown on the reverse; earlier, there are other references to the Games and the myths of Nemea on coins from Hadrianic to Severan times from the city: Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 33. Most of these coins date from Antoninus Pius to Septimius Severus,

made by the French in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.47 The recording of the coin finds has in general been exemplary.48 Whereas at Olympia, for example, only those coins found since World War II have their archaeological context recorded—that is only about 10–20% of the coins from the site—most of Nemea’s coins can be located by archaeological context. While the contexts for the coins found in just the time when coins are found once again at the site of Nemea in any number. The exact date of the demise of the Nemean Games is unknown. 47 It is important that all coins from a site be recorded and taken into consideration in a discussion of numismatic evidence.Even though the coins are found in disturbed contexts, the overall picture can still be valid: Casey 1986, 78, 87. 48 This is fairly unusual in excavations until recent times. For example, at Delphi coins were either thrown away (if bronze) or kept without good records (silver); at Numantia in Spain the coins were jumbled together without a permanent record of findspots.

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the 1920’s and 1930’s, about 525 in all, are not recorded, those found in the 1960’s are noted with find data and those found in the excavations since 1974 are located precisely on the site grid and by layer and sea-level elevation; the excavation notebooks provide further valuable details on the finds. Thus it is possible to discuss the coins within their archaeological context with a reasonable degree of precision.49 Less satisfactory,however,is that context itself. The Early Christian and Byzantine farmers who lived at the ancient site seriously disturbed the stratigraphy of the area. Their trenches cut through much of the Sanctuary;they even dug through the soft stone often used for foundations of the ancient buildings. Refuse from the trenching was widely scattered; as a result, the finds from that refuse are without good archaeological stratigraphy and context.50 In addition, earlier, during Classical antiquity, many parts of the Sanctuary were regularly cleaned.51 This, too, meant that good stratigraphy was not built up. While good stratigraphy does occur sporadically—for example,the deposits from near the Heroön—the disturbed nature of much of the site must constantly be kept in mind as the coin finds are interpreted. It is possible to identify a high proportion of the coins excavated. The alkaline soil of the site is reasonably favorable to coins, unlike the acidic soil of Corinth or of the Agora at Athens.52 Of the ca. 2,000 Classical and Roman (i.e. Archaic Greek–ca. a.d. 300) coins, about 1,900 are identifiable at least

49

Other recent sites which have coins recorded in archaeological contexts include Morgantina (Morgantina II ) and Sardis (Sardis 7); at nearby Corinth, the publications of Charles K. Williams, II, and others have provided stratigraphic lists in annual reports of the excavation. 50 For example, from the same stratum in Section M 6 came a coin of Philip of Savoy (Cat. 3083 [C 148]) and a fine Aiginetan turtle (Cat. 377 [C 142]). 51 Ancient cleaning radically affects the distribution of coins at a site. Public areas such as markets, temple interiors, and squares tended to be swept regularly. Areas such as roadways and passageways between buildings were not. At a site like Nemea that was essentially abandoned for perhaps 22 months out of every 24, weeds were probably chopped at the root level by hoes, and such a process also had the effect of preventing a build-up of the stratigraphy. 52 See Casey 1989, 88, with regard to various types of soils and their effect on coins. 53 This success rate is not unusual. For example, at Morgantina about 90% of the 9,898 coins could be identified. The usual reason for failure to identify is the poor condition of the coins. However, there are always a few clear types which stump the numismatist/archaeologist.

at the mint level, and often to fairly fine grades of identification within the issues of a mint.53 When they were minted is a more intractable problem. The coins are almost all of known types, but the studies of especially the bronze coins of the Hellenistic period leave many gaps in the understanding of the chronology of issues.In studying Nemea’s coins Price and Amandry provide fundamentally reliable studies on the bronzes of Corinth, as Warren does on those of Sikyon; altogether, these coins make up over half of the Classical coins from the Nemean site.54 The study by Mac Isaac of the coins of Phlious is more summary than that of Price and Warren but is still valuable.55 Of the mints represented by fewer examples at Nemea, Hermione, Lakedaimon, Athens, and Chalkis are well treated by Grandjean, Grunauer, Kroll, and Picard, respectively;56 Epidauros, Messene, Megara, and the Achaian League are currently receiving intensive attention. On the other hand, the lack of a good study of coins from the excavations at Argos continues to frustrate all who try to deal with coins from a Peloponnesian site; the long-promised study of those from Olympia has also as yet failed to appear,and a composite publication of coins from the Corinth excavations since 1929 would be welcome.57 But in general the bronze coinage, even under the most thorough and intense investigation,cannot yield very exact dates for many of the various issues.58 In all too many cases the dates presented in the British Museum catalogues or Head’s Historia Numorum are still the best available. Beyond the local archaeological context of a coin, other sites must be studied to provide comparative data against which the Nemean material can be assessed. Such comparative sites are hard to find

54 Price

1964b; Amandry 1988; Warren 1983, 1984, 1985. Isaac 1988. 56 Grandjean; Grunauer 1978; Agora XXVI; Picard 1979. 57 Tony Hackens, now unfortunately deceased, promised the coins from the pre-1982 excavations of Argos;coins from more recent seasons will be studied and published by C. Grandjean. P. R. Franke promises the coins of Olympia. Coins of the other Panhellenic sites, Isthmia and Delphi, have not yet been published, although those of Isthmia are promised by Liane Houghtalin. Corinth coins appear scattered through excavation reports and other notices but have not been presented systematically since Corinth VI. 58 The issues of Macedonian kings are a useful exception. Even when an issue cannot be dated within a reign, the regnal years give a clear date range, and in some cases, e.g. the coins of Ptolemy III found at Nemea, dates within a reign can be ascertained. 55 Mac

introduction

because few excavated sites in Greece have published their coins. Grierson in 1965 and Hackens in 1968 could note only Corinth in the Peloponnesos and only Athens’ Agora finds anywhere else nearby.The coins from Asea can now be added to the Peloponnesian list, and those of Kenchreai, the precinct of Demeter and Kore at Corinth, the fort at Koroni in Attica, the Corycian Cave at Delphi, and now more Athenian Agora coins, to the “nearby” list.59 Although all of the sites offer useful comparanda, it is important to compare similar coins and similar sites: for example, distinctions need to be made between sanctuary sites such as that of Demeter and Kore and the Corycian Cave, and town sites such as Corinth and Athens.60 Analyzed carefully, these comparanda provide patterns of use against which local variations can be clearly seen and investigated. Having coins, context, and chronologies does not, however, guarantee that the coins will add to the archaeological or historical information about the site. It is necessary first to remember that the finds represent only a sample of the coins in circulation during the life of the sanctuary. These coins appear in various ways:there are incidental finds—coins picked up by farmers or workmen on the surface, or without good archaeological context; individual coins found in the excavation in stratified and unstratified contexts; and coins found in hoards. Hoards often represent important finds of coins from a site and add significantly to the archaeonumismatic value of the coins; it is regrettable that there are only two possible hoards from Nemea during the period under study. (1) The first one comprises six silver coins found just south of the Temple in a layer of sacrificial debris including ash and broken vessels. It represents offerings which must have been made and then sacrally disposed of through burial;although it is not what is usually considered a “hoard,” its deposit as a group probably should qualify it to be thought of as such. (2) Other coins, although not found physically in one place, may be a scattered hoard. These are bronzes from Argos and Corinth dating from the late 2nd to the early 3rd century after Christ; they were found in 59

Asea: Varoucha 1944. Corinth: Corinth VI (coins to 1929); Price 1964b, 1967. Athens: Agora II; Kroll; Agora XXVI. Corycian Cave: Picard 1984. Koroni: Vanderpool. Kenchreai: Kenchreai III. Demeter sanctuary: Bookidis & Fisher 1972. 60 Grierson in his presidential address before the Royal Numismatic Society noted how distribution of coins of the same size and value need to be compared: Grierson 1966, vi. 61 Nemea I, 239–243.

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the Bath61 and were probably hidden in the rafters of the decaying building and then scattered in the aftermath of its collapse.62 The absence of many hoards is naturally not surprising in a non-residential setting such as most of the Sanctuary represents. The combination of individual finds and hoards gives the total coins from the site.63 At the most fundamental level the question must be addressed of whether these coins can be treated as a random sample.64 If they cannot, then studying them for information about the site is severely hampered, for the intricacies of their non-randomness would be completely beyond knowing.However,at a site such as Nemea with many coins and few hoards to skew distribution away from coins lost in the normal course of use, the general randomness of the sample seems assured.65 It is also important to understand why some coins and not others are found at a site. Of primary importance is the relative value of coins. This is clearly illustrated by the following New Testament parable: Or suppose a woman has ten silver coins and loses one. Does she not light a lamp, sweep the house and search carefully until she finds it? and when she finds it, she calls her friends and neighbors together and says, “Rejoice with me; I have found my lost coin.”66

At an archaeological site,the tendency to look hard for a lost coin of value means that gold is almost never found outside of hoards,and silver quite rarely;of the material found in the Athenian Agora excavations, for example, less than 1% of the 14,000 Athenian coins found are silver, and almost all of these are of denominations of one drachma or smaller. Additionally, once bronze coins begin to be used extensively in the 4th century b.c., silver all but ceases to be lost because small silver denominations are no longer coined; with nothing smaller than a silver triobol after the end of the 4th century b.c., any silver 62 Hiding money under a roof:Plutarch,Lys.16.1–2 (= Melville Jones, no. 570). 63 For good discussions of the problems see Grierson 1965, Casey 1986. 64 The sample itself is very small: Casey 1986, 84, estimates the surviving sample at Corbridge at less than .003% of issued coins, at Caerleon at .000000334%. While inherently suspect in detail, these figures are suggestive. For a sensible and clear treatment of randomness, see Drennan. 65 Cf. Sardis 7, 91; Grierson 1965, 1966; Picard 1979, 331. 66 Luke 15:8–9.

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

KINGDOM OF MACEDONIA

Mende

Larissa KINGDOM OF EPEIROS

Trikka

Korkyra

Pherai Elea Skiathos Halos

Ambrakia Argos Amphilochikon

Melitaia Ainianes Oita

Thyrrheion

Leukas

Lamia

Peparethos

Larissa Kremaste Histiaia

EUBOIAN LEAGUE

AITOLIAN LEAGUE

100 KM

Thespiai

75 KM

Oiniadai

Lebadeia

50 KM

Same ACHAIAN LEAGUE

Aigeira

BOIOTIAN LEAGUE

25 KM

Pellene Sikyon Pheneos Phlious Corinth Kleitor Kleonai Stymphalos

Elis Zakynthos

ARKADIAN LEAGUE

Chalkis Thebes

NEMEA

Mantinea

Argos

Megara

Epidauros

Tanagra

Athens Salamis Aigina

Tiryns

Heraia

Troizen Hermione Tegea

Messene Lakedaimon

Melos 0

Fig. 4

25

50

75

100 km

Map with concentric circles around Nemea at distances of 25, 50, 75, and 100 kilometers.

introduction

coin was very much worth looking for if dropped.67 In practice,then,because of this “psychology of loss,” bronze is virtually the only coinage found at a site. Another important factor in coin loss is availability. Here two subsidiary considerations come into play: availability created by geography and availability created by the relative size of issues. First of all, proximity of the issuing sites to the find site is crucial. While the number of coins from Argos and Phlious is great at Nemea, it is much less, although still appreciable,at Corinth,and small at the Sanctuary of Demeter at Corinth, and at Kenchreai, Olympia, Asea, Athens, and the Corycian Cave. The explanation is well known: bronze coins circulate locally.68 If a circle with a 25-kilometer radius (i.e. a day’s trip) is drawn around Nemea, about half of all coins come from towns within this circle.If the circle is expanded to 50 or 75 kilometers, representing roughly two and three days’ travel to the Sanctuary, then the number of coins represented by encompassed mints totals 1,640, or 85% of the coins from the Classical period (Fig.4).This pattern repeats itself everywhere, whether the site in question issued coins of its own (e.g.Corinth,where 847 of the 947 coins found [89%] come from Corinth or towns within 75 kilometers of Corinth) or not (e.g.the Corycian Cave,where 68 of the 99 coins found [69%] come from 75 kilometers around), although sites without their own coins tend to have a higher percentage of found coinage from beyond the 75-kilometer line.69 Secondly, extensive issues were obviously more available for dropping than small issues.70 While it is difficult to come to specific conclusions about the size of issues of small bronze coins,some relative idea can be gained by looking at what is found in excavations in a given area. In the Peloponnesos, for example,coins of Corinth and Sikyon dominate in the later 4th and 3rd centuries at sites such as Olympia and Nemea, although in many other ways the coin distribution at these sites is rather different. On the 67 Agora XXVI,4.Nemea is anomalous in this regard since about

10% of the excavated coins are silver.Some,at least,of these were not, however, “lost” so much as “disposed of,” e.g. in burial of sacrifical debris (Hesperia 1978,64).And even with this high percentage of silver, 90% of the coins from the site are still bronze. 68 See the discussion of circulation of bronze coinage below;the classic demonstration of the local circulation principle is Jones. 69 The coins from, e.g., Olynthus exhibit this same pattern: Price 1964b, 45. 70 An added uncertainty is injected by the irregularity of the minting of an issue. The quantities of coins could vary because of minting habits, not use habits: Sardis 7, 90.

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other hand, the number of coins from Phlious and Argos is quite large at Nemea, but relatively small at other Peloponnesian and nearby sites.Therefore,the number of Corinthian and Sikyonian coins at Nemea is to some extent,at least,explained by the large size of the issues of these coins. A final general consideration is the longevity of the use of a particular coin or type of coin.Old and worn coins go out of use,but quite unpredictably.71 For example, a small issue intensively used might become worn very quickly; if there were no other coins, they would go on being used, even in a decrepit state. However, if new coins were made available, the old, worn ones would tend to disappear.Of course if coins were demonetized, an event rarely attested in antiquity, then they also would disappear.72 If a coin were thought to be too exotic,it might be just thrown away. And, according to Gresham’s Law, “good” coins would disappear as well. The Pegasos/Trident coins of Corinth which circulated for centuries after they ceased to be minted provide a clear instance of longlasting circulation. All of these considerations emphasize that there is relatively little that can be done to control the “until when” of coin circulation.73 Coins can give quite specific information regarding various aspects of the site in a number of ways.74 The most general use of the coins is for the purpose of dating.This is traditionally the primary use of coins by archaeologists. Although the disturbed nature of much of the site makes Nemea’s coins less useful than might be hoped for this purpose, still there are some good examples which help to establish the chronological context of the use of the site.75 For instance, 71

Sardis 7, 90–91, emphasizes that the coins entered circulation unpredictably and stayed unpredictably. See also Casey 1986, 105. 72 Casey 1986, 30. Aristophanes, Eccl. 815–822 humorously refers to a demonetization of bronze coins. A law of Gortyn (Crete) demonetizes silver obols in favor of bronze coinage: Melville Jones, no. 334. 73 See Mac Isaac 1995 for a concise discussion of longevity of coins. 74 Again,Mac Isaac 1995 has useful comments on these aspects. 75 Pits and wells offer the clearest context for coins. Two coins from a pit in Oikos 8 (O 16) fit the late-4th-century-b.c. date of other artifacts (Cat. 186 [C 842], Cat. 1762 [C 844]; Hesperia 1978, 73). The coins from the well in L 17 show the discontinuity of use of the site between the late 5th and the late 4th century b.c. (Cat. 772 [C 1097], Cat. 1263 [C 908], Cat. 1592 [C 1020]; Hesperia 1978, 82–83). Coins were also found in a well in House 3 of Section L 19 (Cat. 256 [C 3827], Cat. 489 [C 3871], Cat. 955 [C 3869], Cat. 956 [C 3872], Cat. 1667 [C 3866],Cat. 1668 [C 3867],Cat. 1669 [C 3874],

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

the debris in the well in Section L 17 shows a layer with materials of the late 5th century b.c. directly beneath a layer with coins of the late 4th century b.c.: the contiguity of these two elements clearly shows that there was no activity in the site from the late 5th until the late 4th century b.c. Another classic example of the archaeological use of coins comes from the Xenon; there a posthumous coin of Philip II was found in the wall, placed there on purpose as a foundation deposit/good-luck charm, which is a widely attested practice.76 The coin clearly and securely dates the construction to the later 4th century b.c. Philip II coinage also dates the construction of the Stadium. Below “filling layers” (packed earth) on bedrock, among working chips from the blocks of the Stadium, another Philip II coin was found.77 Although the coins are thus of demonstrable utility when it comes to dating parts of the site, their use can be extended much further.They can,for example, elucidate the general use areas of the Sanctuary at various times. If the incidence of coins from different periods of site use during the GrecoRoman period is plotted, interesting results appear (Figs. 5–8). First of all, during the Archaic-Classical period down to the destruction of the late 5th century b.c., the Sanctuary appears restricted to the core of the site (Fig.5);there are no coins from the later Stadium area since it did not exist then. Within that central area there are concentrations from the unidentified building in P 14–15 to its neighbor, Oikos 9; at the western end of the Sacred Square; at the Heroön; in the space behind Oikoi 1 and 2; and in the westernmost houses at the southern side of the Sanctuary. There is then a gap in the coins following ca. 400 b.c. When coins are again found from about the mid-

Cat. 1685 [C 3868],Cat. 1750 [C 3870],Cat. 1852 [C 3873]; Hesperia 1988, 13). The well in N 17 also offers up much useful material,including the numismatic (Cat. 368 [C 320],Cat. 668 [C 318],Cat. 735 [C 336],Cat. 1239 [C 321],Cat. 1279 [C 317]; Hesperia 1976, 189–192), as does one in K 14 (Cat. 562 [C 1312], Cat. 604 [C 1313], Cat. 1536 [C 1288], Cat. 1614 [C 1310], Cat. 2002 [C 1287], Cat. 2003 [C 1314], Cat. 2033 [C 1311]; Deposit K 14:4; Hesperia 1979, 77–81). 76 Cat. 56 (C 1815); Hesperia 1981, 59; Nemea I, 175. On the habit: Merrifield 50–57. Sardis 7, xxi, notes the purposeful placement of coins under stucco floors and wall footings of the Artemis precinct, and under the mosaic floor in the bath and synagogue. Other synagogues appear to show the same phenomenon; its explanation in that particular context puzzles scholars. 77 Cat. 39 (C 1423); Hesperia 1980, 203; Nemea II, 90–91.

dle of the 4th century, the pattern is quite different: the scatter is more widespread with less clear concentrations. After the departure of the Games,probably in 271 b.c., until the foundation of the Roman colony at Corinth in 46 b.c.,the pattern is more narrowly defined with concentrations in P 15 and in the houses and part of the Xenon (Fig. 6).78 These correspond well with the concentrations of lamps of this same era (Fig.7).Clearly activities in the Sanctuary have been constricted, although the continued dropping of coins in the houses would indicate that residents of some sort were still on the scene, perhaps related to caretaking in the sanctuary. The Roman period offers no less information (Fig. 8). What coins there are scatter across the center of the Sanctuary. The most notable lack is coins from the Heroön area; that monument clearly is not being used anymore. The most notable concentration is in the Bath,but that probably represents a single hoard scattered after its deposit.It is certainly not the result of individuals dropping coins while using the Bath (which had long since ceased to function at this time).79 The coins’ gross horizontal distribution over the site can add yet another nuance to knowledge of site use.80 At a site like Nemea,which lacks good stratigraphy in most places because of human and nature’s actions,most coins are found in a fairly jumbled context. Close study of the coins reveals, however, that broad distribution patterns in the horizontal scatter of the coins, ignoring for the moment any vertical stratigraphy which might survive, yields important information about the site. This hypothesis is based on the supposition that churning of the site by farmers or other disturbances of the soil may affect the vertical context but are often not going to move coins any great distance horizontally at the site. The finds from the Stadium illustrate this fact well. When the coins from major towns are plotted on a plan of the Stadium,a clear pattern emerges:the coins of Sikyon concentrate in one area, those of Argos in another, and those of Kleonai in yet another (Fig. 9).81 This spatial distribution is not perfect, nor exclusive: 78

For activity in the Xenon during this period, see Nemea I, 182–184. 79 See Nemea I, 139–143. 80 For coins as evidence for space utilization at a site see Casey 1986, 18–19. 81 The find location of coins of Phlious and Corinth is less clear, but still suggestive. See below, pp. 27–30, for a more detailed discussion. This analysis also appears in Nemea II, 233–235.

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introduction

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

BATH

HEROON

6

7

8

9

XENON

1

2

3

4

5

6

ROAD 7 HOUSES

HOUSES

Fig. 5

Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted before 400 b.c.

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

BATH

HEROON

6

7

8

9

XENON

1

2

3

4

5

ROAD 6

7 HOUSES

HOUSES

Fig. 6

Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted after 271 and before 46 b.c.

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introduction

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

BATH

HEROON

6

7

8

9

XENON

1

2

3

ROAD 4

5

6

7 HOUSES

HOUSES

Fig. 7 Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for lamps manufactured between the mid-3rd and the mid-1st centuries b.c.

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

BATH

HEROON

6

7

8

9

XENON

1

2

3

ROAD 4

5

6

7 HOUSES

HOUSES

Fig. 8

Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted after 46 b.c. and before a.d. 220.

27

introduction

round and year after year by caretakers, priests, and others would have more coins than occasionally used structures, and it also makes sense to think that they would use more coins from the nearest town, i.e. Phlious, since they would be dealing over the long term with daily purchases in the vicinity. Although they might not be ethnic Phlians,they certainly were closely connected with the Phlian economy. So the coins help to understand better what was happening in these houses, and who lived in them. The coins can also tell us a good deal in detail about some specific portions of the Sanctuary such as the Stadium, the Heroön, and the Roadway.

The Stadium The following discussion concerns the coins discovered in the Stadium83 that can be identified as belonging to the Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman (including Roman Provincial) periods to a.d. 306. About 2,100 coins of these periods have been discovered in the excavations of Nemea. Of these, 153 (152 identifiable) examples come from the Stadium and the Apodyterion.The mints represented by four or more examples are

Fig. 9 Plan of the Stadium with coins plotted by minting city.

coins from other towns do occur in the areas where coins from those three mints are numerously found. Yet the horizontal distribution is a clear enough pattern to allow speculation that townsmen tended to sit together during the Games. This probably would come about from mere tradition, but it is also possible that certain areas were reserved for people from the nearby towns—for it would only be from those that enough people came to make a major group. Another concentration of coins from a nearby town may also help to explain space utilization at the site. Miller has noted the high proportion of Phlian coins in the houses south of the Sanctuary.82 It is logical that structures that seem to be used year-

82

Hesperia 1982, 35–36. A significantly higher percentage of all the coins of Phlious discovered at Nemea have been found in these domestic areas than is true for the other major mints

Corinth Sikyon Argos Phlious Kleonai Philip II Polyrrhenion84 Other85

58 22 18 12 6 5 4 27

documented at the site. Of a total of 148 coins of Phlious, 51 (35%) were found in the area limited by K 19 and K 20 on the west and Q 19 and Q 20 on the east. That same area produced 25% of the Corinthian coins, 20% of the Sikyonian, and 19% of the Argive. 83 In terms of the Nemea grid system,these are the coins found in Sections Z 27, Z 28; AA 28; BB 28, 30, 31; CC 25–32; DD 25–32; EE 22, 25–29; and FF 23. This discussion has appeared in Nemea II, 235–237. 84 See the discussion of this mint on p. 30 below. 85 Mints of Thessaly and Macedonia: Larissa (1), Trikka (1), Lamia (1), Alexander III (2), Kassandros (1). Mints of central Greece: Histiaia (1), Thebes (1), Phokis (1). Mints of the Saronic Gulf area: Athens (3), Salamis (2), Megara (2), Aigina (2). Mints of the Argolid:Epidauros (1),Hermione (1),Troizen (2). Mints of Achaia and Arkadia: Aigeira (1), Heraia (1), Mantinea (1), Pellene (1). Other: an unidentified Roman Provincial (perhaps Corinthian, 1).

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

In the case of Argos and Phlious, the proportions of the coins are what one would expect from the general distributions of mints at the entire site.However, the number of coins from Sikyon is lower (–25%) than would be expected when compared with the numismatic population of the whole site. The coins of other mints are disproportionately frequent: Corinth (+25%), Kleonai (+260%), Philip II (+163%),86 and Polyrrhenion (all coins of this mint that have been found at Nemea are from the Stadium). The relatively high number of coins of Kleonai and of Philip II is the result of activity at the time of the reestablishment of the Games at the Nemean site in the 330’s–320’s b.c. There is only a handful of Classical coins (6) from the Apodyterion; no Classical coins were found in the tunnel itself. The small number of coins is probably a result of the regular cleaning of the locker room floor as well as of the fact that athletes probably did not take money pouches with them into the room, for any such pouches would have been left behind, susceptible to theft, when the athletes went out to participate in the competitions. In addition,as there was nothing on sale in the locker area, money would not have been needed. Since the men waited nude in the tunnel until summoned, it is not surprising that no coins were found in that area. The distribution of coins in the Stadium itself provides a number of insights into the use of that facility. First of all, the general distribution of the mints indicates a more local scatter than for the Sanctuary as a whole. The number of mints is very reduced: in the Sanctuary, over 90 different places and monarchs are represented (over 50 [i.e. 55%] with more than a single coin); in the Stadium, on the other hand, there are only 24 mints (with 14 [58%] having more than one representative). The percentage of “local” coinages,those from sites close by Nemea,is slightly higher in the Stadium than in the Sanctuary as a whole: the coins of Argos,Corinth,Phlious,Kleonai,and Sikyon account for 71% of the site’s coins, while 75% of the coins in the Stadium come from these mints. In addition, the only far-distant mints represented are Crete (i.e. Polyrrhenion), Thessaly, and Macedonian kings; most of the “other” coins are from the northern Peloponnesos and the Saronic Gulf area.87 The

86 There are also two Alexander III coins, which is disproportionately many, but the sample is very small. 87 It is interesting to note, too, that the Stadium area distribution does mimic the distribution in the Sanctuary as a whole

combination of fewer mints and more coins from the “local” mints demonstrates both that the larger part of the audience for the Stadium Games was from closer by (more or less a day’s walk) and that people carrying their own coins from distant places did not, at least, lose them at the Stadium Games. Probably this distribution occurred for at least three reasons: first, the Sanctuary was a destination for pilgrimage or sightseeing every day of every year, not just when the Games were in session, and people from far away could stop by—and lose their coins—at any time; second, the Games themselves would have attracted a disproportionately local audience, simply because of the ease of access; finally, buying and selling took place predominantly in the Sanctuary area where foodstuffs, souvenirs, sacrifices, and so on were purchased. In those purchases, money brought by distant travellers would quickly be absorbed into the general pool of small bronze coinage circulating in the northern Peloponnesos, and even folk from distant towns would soon have mostly local coins in their pouches. The distribution of the mints also provides evidence for seating arrangements in the Stadium. As noted above, the crowd was mostly local, and people seem to have seated themselves rather habitually in certain parts of the Stadium according to their home area. We have seen this in the case of the coins from four common local mints (Sikyon, Argos, Phlious, and Kleonai; see Fig. 9).88 Although examples of these coins are found scattered about the entire Stadium, the coins of Argos concentrate in the area of the Judges’ Stand (i.e. on the eastern side of the track, from a point more or less facing the tunnel to the starting/finish line); this makes sense as a “cheering section,” too, because Argos controlled the Games for most (perhaps all) of their duration at Nemea in the Early Hellenistic period, and in one important way: the coins from Elis and Lakonia are absent, as they are in nearly the whole site. Nemea was not much of a “destination” for people from Elis and Lakonia,who went, instead, to the quadrennial Games at Olympia. 88 The coins were frequently excavated above the floor of the Stadium, but must have been washed there from the theatral area above; these coins probably did not travel very far from their loss point in the stands, and so can be used with those found in the stands themselves to establish the pattern described here. Note also that the coins of Corinth, which are so common at Nemea generally and must have been used by a large number of non-Corinthians, are more widely scattered than the other types and, therefore, are not included in this analysis.

introduction

Argives were the official judges.89 Next to this area, with “50-yard-line” seats right opposite the tunnel opening, most of the coins of Kleonai were found; Kleonai may have controlled or administered the Games on behalf of Argos at the time of the construction of the Stadium, and her citizens retained this excellent seating position as a matter of tradition and of citizenship in the polis of Argos.90 The coins of Sikyon,although more numerous and widely scattered,seem to concentrate on the western side of the track,between the tunnel and the starting/finish line. The coins of Phlious are the least clearly concentrated, but seem to indicate that Phliasians preferred the area on the southeastern side of the Stadium, where over half their coins were found. Coins from other mints are scattered randomly throughout the Stadium.91 The precisely datable coins from the Stadium are Philip II (359–336 b.c.): five examples (Cat. 13 [C 1057], Cat. 36 [C 548], Cat. 37 [C 562], Cat. 39 [C 1423], Cat. 43 [C 1568]) Alexander III (336–323 b.c.): two examples (Cat. 60 [C 160], Cat. 64 [C 441]) Kassandros (316–294 b.c.): one example (Cat. 80 [C 390]) In addition, evidence from the horizontal scatter of coins in the Sanctuary and from the coins found in and just outside the Heroön provides a date for the six Kleonai coins of ca. 325–315 b.c.92 The positive evidence then shows use from the mid-4th century b.c. down into the early 3rd century b.c.93 Negative evidence helps to nuance this conclusion a bit. Found in the Sanctuary, but not in the Stadium area, are coins of Ptolemy I and Demetrios Poliorketes,

89 Plutarch, Aratos

27.2. Lucian, Hermotimos 40, shows that the Eleans sat as a group next to the Judges’ Stand at Olympia. See Nemea II, 231–233. 90 Recent epigraphical evidence has proven that Kleonai had been incorporated politically into Argos by about 318 b.c. at the latest, and perhaps much earlier (Piérart & Thalmann, 261–269). 91 The four coins from Polyrrhenion present a unique—and inexplicable—exception; see below. 92 See the discussion of these coins below, p. 53. 93 There are no earlier coins because for the earlier Games, a stadium area in the Sanctuary of Zeus was used. The lack of coins from after ca. 271 b.c. in the Stadium makes these coins more than just a terminus post quem; while these coins could have been dropped later, the absence of later coins strongly argues against that possibility.

29

but these amount to only 16 coins in total at the site, and their absence from the Stadium is fortuitous.The crucial “missing” coins are those precisely datable of Pyrrhos of Epeiros (as King of Macedonia) (288–285; 274–272 b.c.) and Ptolemy III of Egypt (coins dated to 228–221 b.c.). The coins of Pyrrhos in the Sanctuary are related to his war against Argos in which he ultimately was killed; the Games apparently were not celebrated during that intervention, which took place just before his death in 272 b.c. The Games were then transferred to Argos,and even if they were briefly celebrated at Nemea during the time Aratos of Sikyon controlled the Sanctuary (ca. 235–228 b.c.), apparently the Stadium was not used, for Ptolemy III coins in the Sanctuary derive from activity during this period but do not appear in the Stadium area.The coins,then,indicate that the Stadium went out of use ca. 275–270 b.c. and was not, like some parts of the Sanctuary, used again. As ancients’ garb had no pockets,it was not as easy to lose coins as it is today. Coins had to be removed from a pouch. However, once the need for coins arose, their loss would be encouraged by just this same factor: the coins would be shaken out into the palm of one’s hand; small bronze coins could easily go missing in this process, and would be of too little value to be worth searching much for in the dust and dirt of the Stadium seating areas. But the question remains why the coins would be taken out of a pouch during an athletic contest. Two reasons in particular come to mind, the purchase of snacks—available for a few chalkoi—and the incidence of gaming. During the contests there must have been quite a bit of “down time” for eating, chatting, and becoming a bit bored. There were surely hawkers of various refreshments present in the stands.94 There is no explicit ancient evidence for this, but the probability seems high: the Games were in late July or early August, a hot and dry (albeit breezy) time at Nemea, and they lasted most of each day. Although many in the audience would bring their own refreshments, vendors would have been welcome. With, say, a ration of bread costing a couple of these 94 John Mac Isaac usefully pointed out to me the evidence of Iamblichos, Vita Pyth. 58, and Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 5.3.9, confirming hucksters at the Games. See also Dio Chrysostom 8.9 for peddlers at the Isthmian Games. Wine cost two to four chalkoi according to Philemon apud Pollux 9.67 (= Melville Jones, no. 656). But wine may have been prohibited, as it was, at least in the 5th century b.c., at Delphi: CID I, 3 (= Miller 1991, no. 73).

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

small bronze coins (chalkoi), purchase of such snacks would provide a ready explanation for why money pouches were out and coins available for losing. There was also, among the games that might have been played by the spectators, one worth noting in this context. It was called chalkismos, and it involved spinning a coin on one’s finger, an amusing way to pass the time between events and also one likely to lead to the dropping of many small bronze coins.95 Another obvious use for coins would be for more serious gambling. Such activity is well attested in dice games, but there is no evidence for gambling on athletic contests in the ancient world.96 The only evidence ever adduced for such activity comes from Homer; however, the wagering there is in fact on keenness of eyesight with regard to seeing who was rounding a post of the race first, not on the winner of the race.97 However “logical” it might seem to imagine the Greeks wagering on the outcome of athletic contests,there is simply no evidence for such “sport” in the ancient sources. The presence of the coins of Polyrrhenion is very peculiar. They are almost all found with the concentration of Argive coins in the area of the Judges’ Stand on the eastern side of the track. No ready explanation presents itself: there are no other Cretan coins in the Stadium, and only one other, from Rhaukos, at the site. There is no known connection between Nemea or Argos and Polyrrhenion, although the Peloponnesos was closely related numismatically to Crete, where many towns mimic various coin types of Peloponnesian mints. The female head crowned with a stephanos on the Polyrrhenian coin bears a certain resemblance to common coins of Argos, but the boukranion of the reverse is a type unknown in the Peloponnesos.If there is any particular explanation for these coins’ having been brought to the Stadium, it escapes us. In addition to the mystery of Polyrrhenion’s coins in the Stadium, it is interesting to point out that of the five silver coins found in the Stadium, three were found in the area south of the starting line. This area in general has few coin finds and was 95 Pollux

9.118 (= Melville Jones, no. 657). gambling at festivals, see de Ligt & de Neeve 403 n. 44. I am indebted to Professor C. E. Kevork of the Athens University of Economics and Business Science for informing me in correspondence that his extensive research into gambling in the ancient Greek world has produced no evidence of gambling on athletic contests. 97 Homer, Il. 23.482–487. 96 For

probably not used much by spectators; as in “endzone” seating, the view of the races and competitions would not be very good. The reason why silver coins would be lost here is not evident. Finally, there are three coins from the Roman Provincial period, probably all from the Corinthian mint. Since there is scant other evidence that the Stadium was used for games during the Imperial period, it is probable that these were dropped by curious visitors to a ruin, or by farmer precursors of the Late Roman (Early Christian) and Byzantine inhabitants who later dropped so many coins in the area.98

The Heroön The 57 Classical coins from inside the Heroön present a coherent, diachronic picture of the use of that space. The nature of the coin distribution is striking in two ways. First, there are no coins of Ptolemy III in the area of the Heroön. These coins, circulated between 228 and 221 b.c. and quite numerous at the site (17 concentrated in the central Sanctuary of Zeus,with none in the Stadium area),would be expected in an area still in use in the late 220’s. Second, another Hellenistic king’s coins are also missing from the Heroön: those of Pyrrhos, King of Epeiros.Pyrrhos’ coins (288–285;274–272 b.c.) occur in the rest of the Sanctuary (9), and appear in the material just outside the Heroön, but do not appear within that area. From an earlier date, there are within the Heroön coins of four Macedonian kings (Demetrios Poliorketes, Kassandros, Alexander III, and Philip II). These coins illustrate a pattern of use as follows: In the 270’s b.c.,just before the Games were moved to Argos, use of the Heroön was already diminishing (no coins of Pyrrhos). This lack of use continued into the late 220’s; rather, the focus of the Sanctuary as a whole was exclusively on the Temple area (no coins of Ptolemy III inside or near the Heroön). The single find of Antigonos Gonatas (277–239 b.c.; Cat. 108 [C 1535]) from inside the Heroön perhaps indicates minor use in mid-century, or it may just be an intrusion. Although Pausanias (2.15.3) could still in the second century after Christ identify the location of the Heroön, it remained out of active use for the rest of the life of the Sanctuary. There is only one post98 See

Nemea II, 114–118, 236.

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Classical coin from the area, Cat. 1040 (C 1482; Corinth, a.d. 193–211). Even among the coins found in the Sanctuary dating to ca. 30 b.c., there is none from the Heroön. The coins, therefore, indicate a short but intensive use within the Sanctuary as a whole which parallels that of the Stadium.

The Roadway The roadway which runs east-west between the Xenon and the houses and north-south between the Xenon and Bath, then west of Oikos 1 (portions of J–K 16–19, L–P 19), presents an interesting numismatic picture (see Fig. 2). Much of the area in the north-south run was excavated in the 1920’s and 1960’s, so the records are not as good as for the eastwest run excavated in the 1980’s. Despite this differential in the quality of evidence, the coin distribution is peculiar enough to allow some rather specific conclusions to be drawn. The roadway from the Sacred Square past Oikos 1 to the passage between the Bath and Xenon presents no special features. However, once the area between the latter two structures is reached, the situation changes, for the road from here around the corner and east to the end of the excavated structures shows two very distinct areas. From the intrabuilding space starting in J–K 18 to K 19 and about a quarter of the way into L 19, excavation produced four gross layers. The lowest layer represents a road used until the earlier part of the 3rd century b.c. Above it is a layer of different debris which was closed in the later 2nd century b.c. Above this was a silt layer indicating disuse and, finally, a layer of Early Christian activity. Beyond the first part of L 19 until the end of the excavated area in Q 19 the road presents a different aspect: there are only three layers, not four; the surface which was in use in the early 3rd century b.c. is followed by a layer of silt, which is in turn followed by a layer representing Early Christian activity. It is best to examine the east-west area of L 19–Q 19 first, as it presents the most straightforward situation. This road must have gone out of use fairly early in the 3rd century b.c., perhaps even in the last years of the 4th century b.c.:there are no coins of Alexander III, Kassandros, Demetrios Poliorketes, or, much less, later kings such as Pyrrhos, Antigonos Gonatas, and Ptolemy III.The latest king represented is Philip II (d.336 b.c.).Other less distinctly dated coins cluster in the late 4th to early 3rd century b.c. As this is

31

the time when the Xenon, which has a number of doors opening onto the roadway,was first being built and used, the chronology seems to fit.99 Although the Xenon saw some use well into the 3rd century b.c. (coins of Pyrrhos,Ptolemy III),the road did not; indeed, later use of Xenon-areas such as Rooms 13 and 14 at the eastern end became open to the north, away from the road, thus emphasizing the disuse of that passageway.100 This part of the roadway,then,was abandoned as a thoroughfare while the Xenon and Sanctuary were still lively.101 Further along toward the west,however,the roadway and one of the houses to the south of it were not unused at this time. Rather, they were used as a dump.102 This material includes “domestic” items such as nails, roof tiles, an unguentarium, and fragments of drinking and eating vessels; there is no burnt material. The refuse is loosely packed, as though it were just thrown down, and is penetrated by a number of pits used for items it was thought best to cover over,probably to avoid foul odors.This intrusive material has the peculiarity of including artifacts from the 2nd century b.c. as well as coins of Sikyon which are dated between 196 and 146 b.c. These coins appear elsewhere in the Xenon—but not at the eastern end.103 There, in the space once occupied by Rooms 13 and 14, after the Xenon had generally fallen into disuse, a religious shrine was cobbled together: Room 14, open to the north now, was used as an anteroom; a perirrhanterion stood at the entrance to the shrine, which itself held an altar.104 The orthostates of the Xenon’s lower wall were still in place.To create this sacred space the material from the collapsed roof and general decay of the Xenon—evidenced, for example, in Room 10 nearby which was never cleared in antiquity105—had to be removed. The room was therefore cleared down to its original floor level; this left for archaeologists coins from the later 4th to early 3rd century. Perhaps the upper material was carried off and

99 Nemea

I, 173–184. I, 162–168. 101 Just how the Sanctuary was being used cannot be clearly determined. The athletic festival was moved ca. 271 b.c. to Argos; casual visits by tourists, pilgrims, and even squatters continued, however. 102 Hesperia 1988, 9–11. 103 Cat. 1502 (C 2560; N 18), Cat. 1514 (C 3307; K 18), Cat. 1530 (C 3447; L 18). 104 Nemea I, 169. 105 Nemea I, 159. 100Nemea

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

dumped in Section K 19 to form the mélange which has been described above. The fact that the Sikyonian coins of 196–146 b.c., found in other parts of the ruined Xenon, do not occur in Rooms 13 and 14 but do appear in the dump lends strength to this scenario of cleaning and reuse. The occasion for the remodelling of part of the old Xenon is not hard to find: in the mid-2nd century, activity associated with Mummius occurred at Nemea.106 The open-air nature and orthostates of the Xenon-shrine make it similar to the Heroön described by Pausanias two centuries later, but its specific use remains a mystery. The coins, then, provide evidence for the reversion of the roadway to at most a path between Xenon and houses on the southern edge of the Sanctuary. In addition,the use of its western end as a dump may elucidate a minor and otherwise uncontextualized alteration of the Sanctuary: the brief conversion of a part of the Xenon into a small worship space, probably in the mid-2nd century b.c.

COINS IN SANCTUARIES The fact that coins have been found at Nemea, as at all Classical and Hellenistic sanctuaries, comes as no surprise since visitors to the site as well as any permanent inhabitants would have carried about coins in a purse or money belt.107 Although some transactions might still have taken place through barter, the life of the Sanctuary of Nemean Zeus was thoroughly monetized. The religious life of the Sanctuary, including the Temple expenses and the Temple receipts, and the secular activities related to the cult and Games were all part of this coin-using activity.

Control of Temple Finances Temple finances were inextricably intertwined with the finances of other entities—most specifically, the city-states that controlled the land on which the temples were located.108 Originally the temple funds were administered separately from these civil entities, and cults continued to be founded which

were privately funded and controlled by the cults themselves; but by the time sources become abundant, major temples and their funds often are under the control in some fashion of (usually) a polis, or (sometimes) another sort of entity such as an amphiktyonic council or (later) Hellenistic kings. This control may have been gradual in coming for rural sanctuaries such as that of Nemean Zeus, but the fact is that the site is always linked with a polis: first Kleonai (6th–early 5th century b.c.), then Argos (late 5th century b.c.), then Kleonai under Argive control (late 4th century b.c.), then Argos again, when the sacred activities are removed physically from the Nemea Valley to Argos proper in the 3rd century b.c. The discovery of a bronze weight of Argos in one of the houses at the southern edge of the excavated Sanctuary, the well-known continuity between the theorodokoi (“herald-receivers”) lists at Nemea and Argos, and new evidence that a major architect worked on public buildings at both Argos and Nemea emphasize the close connection between town and sanctuary.109 The controlling polis probably chose the Hellanodikai (supervising officials) and the priest(s) of the sanctuary; likewise, income from thesauroi and other sanctuary sources was probably split between funds to maintain the sanctuary and income for the polis’ secular activities. A polis,then,had reasons other than prestige to want to control a sanctuary:a popular destination such as Nemea or the Nemean Games would have generated significant income for the controlling authority.

Religious Life The Sanctuary had to be maintained. We do not know how large a permanent staff was required, or how much it would have had to be augmented to service the Games, which took place every two years. However, even a broad consideration of the needs of cult,Games,and physical plant indicates that expenses could not have been small.First of all,there were the very considerable outlays of cash needed to pay for the work of the building of the last Sanctuary between about 330 b.c. and 275 b.c., money spent on a wide variety of labor, services, and ma-

106 See

Nemea II, 100 n. 249. For a reconstruction of the circulation of bronze coinage as it relates to the site see the treatment below, pp. 36–49. 108 On town and sanctuary finances see Sokolowski 1951. On banking in general see Bogaert 1966, 1968. 107

109 Guide

77 (weight; BR 1194). Theorodokoi are treated in the section on circulation below; Sosikles as architect: Nemea II, 164–172.

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terial on an ongoing basis;110 it is clear that the building program was continuous throughout these years, and that the program remained incomplete when the Sanctuary was abandoned early in the second quarter of the 3rd century b.c.111 In addition, there was the cost of operating the Sanctuary. For example,the cults of Opheltes and Zeus Nemeios needed to be maintained,and that involved upkeep of buildings, wages to task-specific employees and administrative staff,112 supplies for sacrifices,113 staging of the sacred meals,114 and emoluments for priests. Finally, every two years specific preparations had to be made for the Nemean Games.115 The sources of funds for these expenses are not recorded for the Nemean Sanctuary. We can form a general picture of the possibilities by a comparison of evidence from other Greek sanctuaries. First of all, fees were charged for a wide variety of services. Although a specific product, such as healing (Asklepios) or oracular response (Apollo) or initiation into a sacred group (Demeter at Eleusis and the mysteries at Andania), is not present, there certainly would have been fees charged for sacrifice, and the concomitant equipment would often have been purchased as well.116 A normal sacrifice fee ranged from 1 obol to 1–5 drachmae for an individual; at 110 For fragments of the building accounts of this period at Nemea see IG IV, 481, and Bradeen, no. 3. 111 Nemea II, 14, 139. 112 At the Temple of Astarte at Kition on Cyprus there is a tariff in Phoenician showing sums paid during one month to people for various temple services ca. 400–375 b.c.; this document includes notice of payment to masons, janitors, singers, pages, sacrificers, bakers, barbers, scribes, shepherds, and, of course,the notorious temple prostitutes.At Delos numerous notices record the work of the hieropoioi (administrators) there:e.g. Melville Jones, nos. 244, 247. Closer to Nemea, there is a list of staff at Olympia in 28 b.c.: IvO 64 (= Miller 1991, no. 88). 113 At Delos,for example,the temple accounts of Apollo record buying pigs for sacrifice:Isager 18.There,too,the records show that firewood for altars, natron and sponges for cleaning the temple, garlands, and so on, were bought (Linders 1988, 268; 1992, 10; Bruneau). 114 See, for example, the costs of preparing the sacred meal after a sacrifice at Andania: SIG 3 736 sec. 19 = Meyer 57. 115 The extensive list of preparations and expenses for a Panhellenic festival at Delphi provides a close parallel to what expenses must have been at Nemea (Pouilloux = CID II, 139 = Miller 1991, no. 60). 116 Fees for oracular responses at the Amphiareion at Oropos: Petropoulou. At Delphi, the Skiathians were given priority rights of consultation and exemption from all fees except the pelanos, which was 1 Aeginetan stater for a public consultation, 2 obols for a private one (Melville Jones, no. 207). At An-

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Delphi 44 obols bought a public sacrifice, while an individual could receive one for a much smaller fee of 4 obols.In addition,the requisite wood,oil,honey, etc. could be purchased on the spot (although perhaps could also be brought along on one’s own);117 the priest and his helpers also had to be paid.118 Upkeep for a sanctuary was partly defrayed by voluntary offerings put in thesauroi (collection boxes) in the temple.119 These offerings, unlike coins dedicated to the divinity, could be (but did not have to be) used to pay for expenses. In accounts of Delian temples in 269 b.c. the income from these collections varies considerably: Artemis, 3,505 drachmae; Apollo, 168 drachmae; Asklepios, 23 drachmae; Aphrodite, 2 obols(!); except for the last, however, the amounts would have been sufficient to carry out significant maintenance work.120 Next, a sanctuary could receive money from leasing its real estate. On Delos, land was leased to the highest bidder for tenyear periods; rent from estates amounted to over 11,000 drachmae per year and represented one of the larger individual sources of income for the sanctuary.121 Many temples in Italy and Sicily had estates which yielded significant income.122 While at Delphi there is no record of income from land,there is income from flocks owned by the temple.123 Fines were also assessed if temple lands were inappropriately used, as in the case of Alea Athena (Tegea), where fines were levied if a private animal was caught grazing on sacred land, or at Andania, where fines were assessed if wood was cut on sacred ground.124 More specific to a site where games took place, at Lebadeia, in the account of the agonothete Xenarchos there is mention of receipts from pasdania a certain Mnasistratos is given charge over collecting fees for sacrifice at the Hagna fountain (SIG 3 736 = Meyer 57). 117 For the sacrifice accompanying prothysis at Epidauros,grain, a crown, wood, and a young victim cost 1/2 obol (= 4 chalkoi) each; a fully grown victim cost 1 obol: Sokolowski 1954, 158. At Olympia, a sanctuary monopoly existed on the wood used for sacrifices; it was sold at a fixed price by a functionary: Pausanias 5.13.3 (cf. 5.14.2). 118 At Eleusis, for example, the priest at the initiation sacrifice was paid 1/2 obol (= 4 chalkoi). 119 An example of such a thesauros from the Shrine of Theagenes on Thasos: Miller 1991, no. 110b. 120 Melville Jones, no. 248; see also nos. 236, 278. 121 See especially Kent. 122 Ampolo.Other evidence for rental income appears in Birge. 123 Isager 16–17. 124 Isager 15–16. At Delphi, Xenon the Corinthian paid a fine of 1,400 drachmae: Melville Jones, no. 200. Andania: SIG 3 736 sec. 15 = Meyer 56.

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turage in specific places such as the hippodrome (200 drachmae) and the stadium and area around it (60 drachmae), and from general horse pasturage (198 drachmae); income from pasture fees was fairly common.125 Income from financial activity, such as the interest earned on money loaned by the sanctuary on Delos, was perhaps a less common source of funds.126 Finally,income was often received through taxes or mandated fees assessed by the polis which controlled the sanctuary. At Anaktorion in 216 b.c. the town turned over half the harbor duties and other tolls to the support of the local festival by order of the Akarnanian League; at Delos the temple shared revenues from port taxes with the town.127 At some points in Nemea’s history Kleonai controlled the Sanctuary; at others, Argos. Both towns presumably diverted some public revenues or required “set-asides” of 10% to help maintain a sanctuary and put on the Games as, for example, Athens did in support of such cults as those of Athena,Zeus, Theseus, and Asklepios; in addition, sometimes, as on Kos, officials were required to make sacrifices, or sacrifices were required as part of business transactions, as a way of increasing income for the cults through fees.128 There is also clear evidence that the coins were used as votive offerings themselves.129 The evidence for this comes from both the literary tradition—although curiously deficient in references to this use of coins—and from comparative data.Merrifield has shown how frequently coins are themselves votive offerings.130 The most familiar form of such an offering is the casting of a coin into a body of water— a stream or, more often, a pond or well or fountain; at Oropos, for example, a silver or gold coin was tossed into the sacred spring after a sickness was cured by Amphiaraos.131 While no pools or fountains have yet been found at Nemea, the concept of having a coin carry a request to a divinity is well attested in the large number of coins found around the Heroön and the Temple. Although these coins

125 Lebadeia: Melville

Jones, no. 223. 1992, 11. 127 Anaktorion:Linders 1992,9,and Habicht.Delos:Vial 229ff. 128 In general on fees and taxes paying for cult see Sokolowski 1954 and, for Kos, p. 162. 129 Casey 1986, 81–82. On the early relationship of offerings in kind to their monetary value: Rouse 54–55. 130 Merrifield frequently notes such offerings (e.g. 12, 29, 35, 49, 54, 67, 91, 124, 162). 131 Oropos: Pausanias 1.34.4 (Melville Jones, no. 898). 126 Linders

were not found in the Heroön or in the Temple, the original deposition of many of them in a sacred place, probably by putting them on an altar, is likely. There is evidence for this practice in Pausanias (7.22.3): at Pharai in Achaia, before asking the Hermes statue a question, the worshipper placed a chalkous on the altar. Altar benches and offertory tables near them have from time to time revealed dedications of coins, for example in the Temple of Demeter and Kore at Eloro in Sicily and in a temporary cult building at Kalapodi.132 The closer the votive offering was to the sacrifice, the more effective it was thought to be; thus coins as well as other votives could also be placed in the ashes left after a sacrifice was burned.133 As a direct comparison with the Heroön sacrificial remains at Nemea, the Altar of Artemis at Olympia can be mentioned: near it were found terracottas, pottery, jewelry, weights, obeloi, and coins—about 250 objects in all.134 The Temple itself must have had many coins dedicated as major and minor offerings, to judge by the evidence from temple inventories surviving from Delphi, Delos, and other sanctuaries. Coins would be found attached to statues, hung on walls, suspended in pouches from the ceiling, and so on, as at the Asklepieion in Athens.135 There were “mite boxes” (thesauroi) where coins as offerings were deposited.136 The inventories list the gold and silver coins separately, but the very numerous bronze coins

132 Alroth

199 and figs. 3 and 4. 297 [C 903],Cat. 371 [C 905], Cat. 1043 [C 906], Cat. 1193 [C 904], Cat. 1194 [C 902], (Cat. 1196 [C 901]) found in sacrificial debris are a result of this custom. See above, p. 19, and below, n. 143. 134 Gropengiesser. 135 Statues: Melville Jones, no. 899. Walls: temple at Oropos (Melville Jones,no.351). Asklepieion: Aleshire 1989,1992.Delos: Melville Jones, nos. 229, 230, 231, 233. 136 At Eleusis, for example: Melville Jones, no. 197. The regulations from Andania give an illustration of how these were managed: “Regarding the preparation of the treasuries. The sacred men appointed in the 55th year, along with the directors of the building, are to be careful that two stone treasuries, that can be closed, are prepared; they are to place one in the temple of the Great Gods and the other near the fountain at whatever place seems to them to be safe. They are to provide keys: for the treasury by the fountain Mnasistratos is to have one key and the sacred men the other; for the treasury in the temple the sacred men are to have the key; and they are to open them every year for the mysteries. They are to bring forth and record the money, which is to be counted out from each treasury separately . . .” (SIG 3 736 sec. 18 = Meyer 57). 133 Alroth 203.The coins (Cat.

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were stored away in bronze jugs which were entered in the inventories at a combined weight, for example at the Temple of Apollo on Delos.137 Besides offerings sensu stricto, the costs of sacred rites had to be borne. For example, on sale were small votive tablets for dedication; these cost three chalkoi at Delphi.138 If special offerings material was required, payment had to be made as at Delphi, where the offering cost a private person two to four obols; larger offerings could run close to ten drachmae.139 If a god responded to a prayer, a fee was often exacted.140 Archaeological confirmation of this habit comes from the excavations at the Corycian Cave near Delphi.141 There excavators found a small altar at the entrance to the cave, and in the debris around that altar were many broken votive statuettes and many coins: over half the excavators’ 99 coins came from this area.142 These coins were all small bronzes such as are found at Nemea;143 evidently the coin itself, not its value, counted in the dedication—a conclusion come to by Merrifield, too, as he studied the denomination of coins offered in British sanctuaries.144 Likewise, the many small vo-

137 Accounts

of the Treasurers of the Other Gods (429/8 b.c.) include coins of various standards and mints (Melville Jones, no. 145). Aleshire 1992 discusses the dedications at the Asklepieion at Athens which center on 1-, 4-, and 20-drachma offerings. Many examples of dedications in Melville Jones, nos. 146–198; for fallen coins, see his no. 351 and for coins in jugs, nos. 247, 249. 138 Melville Jones, no. 208. 139 Melville Jones, nos. 206, 207. 140 Melville Jones, no. 367. 141 Amandry 1984. 142 Amandry 1984, 420–421. He does not yield to the temptation to guess the process of dedication. Along with metal objects (rings, baubles, nails, coins) over 50,000 fragments of terracotta votives were found: Amandry 1981,80–82.The floruit for the activity at the cave is exactly that for the Nemean and Delphic sanctuaries: 6th to 3rd/2nd centuries b.c.: Amandry 1984, 395–397. 143 Two clear examples from Nemea: First, two meters west of the Altar of Zeus were two trenches cut through the white, pre-altar paving surface. In the trench were “small burnt bone fragments, ash, flakes of carbon, and pieces of miniature votive vessels.” This was “residue from offerings at the altar,” which included two coins: Cat. 299 (C 155; Athens ca. 450’s–404 b.c.) and Cat. 721 (C 156; Corinth 368–248 b.c.). Second, six silver coins were found in sacrificial debris just south of the Temple; see above, p. 34, and n. 133. 144 Temple inventories often list “bronze” coins—i.e. counterfeit coins. Some of these were offerings,others perhaps were deposited to remove them from circulation, as occurred at Athens (Stroud 1974).

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tive vessels at the cave find a parallel in material found in Nemean debris; in particular, similar small objects were found within the peribolos of the Heroön.145

Secular Life Everyone travelling to a festival site such as Nemea would carry coins in a purse, tied to a belt. However, since from excavations there is seldom gold (there was none from Nemea as of 1996)146 and relatively little silver (about 10% of the coins from Nemea),147 little can be said about a number of the standard economic purposes of the money—such as, for example, its use as a store of wealth and as a standard of value.148 As a medium of exchange, though, the coins can allow a glimpse at usage.149 While large monetary transactions would involve coins hardly likely to be lost, there is the obvious need to make daily purchases. It is easy to imagine the festival atmosphere which must have existed at the site just before and during the celebration of the Games: the purchase of raw and prepared food at stands and from wandering vendors, the acquisition of souvenirs,and the purchase of votive offerings attested in the archaeological remains; these offerings could of course have been brought in with the visitor, but surely were also sold on the spot. Small votive terracotta horses have been found at Nemea, clear evidence for trade in statuettes;of particular interest is a lead kouros which was made with the same mold as one found at the sanctuary at Isthmia—an indication of commerce in such items among major 145 Guide

28, 30, 32. The first gold coin, one of Justinian I, was discovered in 1997; it is not included in the present publication and is not of the period of interest. It must in any event reflect a kind of activity different from that of the typical sanctuary. 147 Even so, this is a relatively high proportion. At a city site such as the Athenian Agora, less than 1% of the city’s coins found were silver: Agora XXVI, 4. 148 Grierson 1966, xiii–xiv, offers a salutary example of how economic life cannot safely be judged by coins in circulation. His example is from England ca. 1690–1790, when few bronze and silver coins were struck and, despite the lack of coins, the economy was healthy as the industrial revolution got under way. The examples reinforce Casey’s general warning (1986, 97) that it is very dangerous to make economic arguments from coin finds. 149 Price 1964b, 2, emphasizes that coins smaller than an obol are necessary for retail trade. The vast majority of coins from Nemea fit this bill. 146

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classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

sanctuary sites.150 At greater expense, full-scale bronze statues were fabricated on the spot;151 likewise, poetic memorials could be purchased.152 Most of this trade probably took place in a market area marked off by the Sanctuary administrators (agoranomoi). Such supervision of the main buying-andselling place would have helped control fraud, theft, and disorder. Market-control measures at Nemea were perhaps similar to those taken at the Andanian mysteries: a place was designated for a market; the supervisor of Andania was responsible for maintaining order and honesty in the market; vendors were not charged for space;fines for infractions were established.153 The bathing establishment at Nemea needed to be maintained and provisioned. As at Andania, a fee was probably charged; there it was two chalkoi. There was also probably income from the sale of gloios (the conglomeration of sweat, oil, and dirt that was scraped off athletes with the strigil and then sold as a medicinal for various ills).154 The supervisors at Andania were responsible for contracting out the management of the baths to ensure the securing of sufficient wood to provide heated water from the fourth to the seventh hours; this would not have been the case at Nemea as the water for the Bath was not heated.155 Banking activity of sanctuaries during the Hellenistic period is also well attested.However,there is no evidence that this took place at Nemea.156 Fi-

150 Hesperia 1975, pl. 33:b; 1981, pl. 24:f–g (small votive vessels, e.g. P 1–45, P 520–524, P 528, P 537, P 538); Hesperia 1976, 184; Hesperia 1981, pl. 16:b (votive terracotta horses, e.g. TC 136–140, TC 143); Guide 31–32 (lead kouros, IL 201); Isthmia VII, 3,6 no.14,157 n.15 (lead kouros,IM 2647).Note, too, that lead ingots have been found (Guide 67, IL 242 and IL 335) which would have been used to make writing plates and small figurines for votives;there are many similar examples from Isthmia (Isthmia VII, 155–159). Along with coins north of the Temple was found a bronze crest attachment for a miniature helmet (Hesperia 1975, 154, BR 2). The miniature helmet was certainly a votive. On periodic markets and festivals in general, see de Ligt & de Neeve. 151 Hesperia 1977, pl. 13:a; Guide 63–64 (terracotta molds for bronze statues, e.g. TC 57, TC 59, TC 60). 152 Pindar, Isth. 2.7, notes “the profit-loving muse” and, Pyth. 11.41–42, his “muse who gives voice for a fee of silver.” 153 SIG 3 736 sec. 20 = Meyer 57. Official weights have been found at Nemea (Guide 77). 154 Miller 1991, 138 (a document from Verroia in Macedonia, detailing supervision of gymnasion facilities) and 213 (Pliny, NH 28.50–52). 155 SIG 3 736 sec. 22 = Meyer 58. 156 On banking in temple precincts see Bogaert 1968,279–304.

nally, keeping the peace at festivals was the job of the supervisors of the sanctuary. They had the power to arrest and fine breakers of the peace; this would have been another reason for coins to change hands, and another source of income for the sanctuary.157

Political Activity There was a political element operating in the determination of what coins were in use and thus available for loss at the site. As noted in the Overview above, Philip II, successive Macedonian kings, and diadochoi were active in the building program at Nemea in the late 4th and early 3rd centuries b.c. The coins of Philip II, Alexander III, Kassandros, and Demetrios Poliorketes amount to 91, or 4% of the Greek coins. The Corycian Cave is more similar to Nemea,with 6%,but no coins of Philip II.The most similar situation comes from sites which were heavily influenced by a Ptolemaic presence. For example, at the Chremonidean War fort of Koroni, the coins of Ptolemy I and II number 86, or 80% of the total; at Nemea the coins of Ptolemy III, funneled into the Peloponnesos as payment of subsidies, are particularly common. In other words, when the kings took direct action in an area, things were paid for with their coin, and those coins were numerous enough to be dropped in large enough numbers to be reflected in the found sample.158 The relatively large proportion of coins of Macedonian kings at Nemea therefore indicates that the building program which,as has been suggested by archaeology and literary sources, came from Macedonian inspiration, was accompanied by an influx of Macedonian coin.

CIRCULATION OF BRONZE COINS Whereas the presence of coins from nearby mints at Nemea can be easily explained, it is necessary to examine more closely how the coins of distant places came to be dropped at the site. In doing so, a new 157 At Andania (SIG 3 736 sec. 14 = Meyer 56) theft and other anti-social behavior was punished with a fine and (if the offender was a slave) scourging; so, too, in the gymnasion at Verroia (Miller 1991, 138). 158 Koroni:Vanderpool.Kroll postulates an otherwise unattested donative by Antigonos Gonatas to explain the relatively large number of his coins found in the Agora excavations: see Agora XXVI, 36.

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thesis on the circulation of Greek bronze coinage emerges. For most travellers cash would have been an essential item in their travel kit.159 There was no easy means of transferring funds from one place to another except in specie. The Hellenistic world had no instruments of credit,and whereas a wealthy traveller could probably make reciprocal arrangements with fellow well-to-do merchants and landowners, the normal traveller must have had to carry cash. This naturally had the grave disadvantage of running the risk of robbery on the way. The following episode illustrates both these aspects of travel: A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. Now by chance . . . a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was; and when he saw him, he had compassion, and went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine; then he set him on his own beast and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. And the next day he took out two denarii and gave them to the innkeeper, saying, “Take care of him, and whatever more you spend, I will repay you when I come back.”160

The traveller who was robbed carried cash, as did the Samaritan, who could leave money with the innkeeper for the traveller’s lodging and food. The traveller coming to a town would have had to pay just such costs, and to purchase supplies in the local place; in addition, if he was an itinerant merchant such as a lamp-seller, he would have carried receipts from sales.161 This coin would have been in one of three metals: gold, silver, or bronze. Gold coins were particularly useful for the transport of large sums of money: easily hidden, capable of transferring significant resources unobtrusively,gold would have been the medium of choice for large transfers, but it was probably rarely carried by the normal traveller in the ancient world. Rather, silver coins were the basic means of payment. They were

159 For

example, the theoroi sent out to announce the Nemean Games. The peripatetic teacher would be an exception: “And he called to him the twelve, and began to send them out two by two . . . He charged them to take nothing for their journey except a staff; no bread, no bag, no money in their belts . . .” (Mark 6:7–8). For a general treatment of coinage and travel see Casson 74–75. 160 Luke 10:30–35. 161 Harris 1980, 142, on itinerant lamp-sellers.

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the standard medium of exchange, and the unit of value in which people normally thought. For example, the Samaritan paid the innkeeper in silver; when Jesus wanted to make a point about the spiritual life, he took a silver coin and assumed that everyone was familiar with it: “Teacher . . . is it lawful for us to give tribute to Caesar, or not?” [his questioners ask] . . . “Show me a coin,” he says; “Whose likeness and inscription has it?” They said, “Caesar’s.”162

Bronze coins were also necessary because the standard silver coin, the drachma, had the value of onethird to one full day’s labor, and items of daily sustenance cost much less than such a coin. To buy a loaf of bread from the sort of wandering vendor familiar from Lucian’s tales would have required the use of the chalkous—one-eighth or one-twelfth of a drachma, depending on the coinage system in use. Change would have to be made, and the small coins would change hands. Apuleius tells what must have been a familiar scenario for a traveller: Lucius, having arrived in Milo’s town, needed to make some purchases locally: “But my chief anxiety is for my horse who has had a strenuous job with me on his back; and so, Fotis, take these odd coins and buy hay and oats for him.” When this was settled and my luggage deposited in my room, I strolled out to find the Baths. But first I went to the Provision Markets, meaning to provide something eatable for supper. There I saw gorgeous fish for sale; and investigating the price, I was told one hundred [silver] pieces. But after some haggling I brought the dealer down to twenty denarii. . . .163

The humor rests in part on the inflated price of the fish. This passage also shows how, as small- and medium-sized transactions took place in the inns, the stalls of merchants, and on the streets, the traveller would constantly “turn over” the store of coins he had; coins from one town would be carried on to the next—although travellers and merchants must have used as quickly as possible coins picked up in transactions as they moved on through the countryside, in order to avoid ending up with un-

162 Luke

20:21–24. 1.24 (trans. Lindsey).

163 Apuleius, Met.

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acceptable currency, or currency for which they would have to pay a money changer a high premium to convert into more local currency. Indeed, it was the money changer who drove the circulation pattern most of all. The situation that Pseudo-Aristotle describes at Byzantion is surely not unique: They assigned the right of changing money to a single table; it was not possible to sell to another, or to buy from anyone else, otherwise there was confiscation (of money).164

These changers were those to whom one went to get small bronze coin in return for silver; for example, at Pergamon where, during the Hadrianic period, the city is chastised for allowing the public to be cheated: Their [the money changers’] manner of changing [money] was not lawful, and they had allowed themselves to act in a manner which was unjust and contrary to the agreement. For when they should have taken in bronze eighteen assaria per denarius from the merchants, shopkeepers and fish sellers who are accustomed to sell for small bronze, and to give change to those who wished to exchange denarii at the rate of seventeen [assaria], they were not satisfied with exchanging assaria, but also if someone bought fish for silver denarii, for each denarius they exacted one assarion.165

However, there is no full-scale account of a normal ancient journey—for example, of a person who was an itinerant merchant of the sort who sought to corner the market in Thessalian cheese, as told by Apuleius.166 There are a few descriptions of travellers, for example Aristides’ trip from Smyrna to Pergamon and Horace’s trip from Rome to Brindisium,167 but with all the detail of wandering in such tales as the Golden Ass or the Greek Romances, the role of money and how it was actually used is widely elided. Whatever money a person had was often carried, as indicated in the New Testament evidence, in a purse tied to the belt or,sometimes,hung on a string

around the neck. This was called a marsupium or a balantium or a pera: it was a leather purse closed with drawstrings. Hermes is often shown holding such a purse as a symbol of his patronage of merchants and travellers, and Cynic philosophers carried a pouch as part of their travel kit.168 In some situations the purse was carried, in others money could be transported in the tucked-up fold of the tunic (sinus). Such a purse—or, rather, the contents of it—was found in the excavations at Didyma, near Miletos in Asia Minor. The German excavators discovered a cache of 88 bronze coins behind a wall in a roadside sanctuary along the sacred road from Miletos to Didyma (see below, pp. 45–47). H. R. Baldus indicates that there was no container found, and supposes rightly that these coins had been held in a leather purse, long since disintegrated.169 Ancient travellers were a diverse lot: merchants, soldiers, pilgrims, tourists, athletes, officials, and so on. The way that they affect the distribution of bronze coinage can be understood through the concept of “peripatetic” versus “destination” travel. According to this model, trips made to buy and sell wares, move slowly from place to place in search of local curiosities, or engage in religious activity such as performances and proselytizing are likely to mean significant and constant turning over of the coins in the traveller’s purse. On the other hand, destination travel, which moves toward a specific goal that must be reached fairly directly, is likely to allow for less dawdling along the way, and less opportunity for coins to be spent in local markets. Destination travel would include movement to an assize capital for legal activity, to another political entity or kingdom as part of an official delegation, and to sanctuaries for specific religious festivals. Peripatetic travel is illustrated by Aristomenes in the Golden Ass: First, as to who and what I am—I am from Aegina—and as to my business, I travel the country in every direction through Thessaly and Aetolia and Boeotia, to buy honey and 168

164 Pseudo-Aristotle,Economics 2.2.3 (1346b.24–26) = Melville

Jones, no. 567. 165 Letter of Hadrian regarding money changers at Pergamon: Inscriptiones Graecae ad Res Romanas Pertinentes IV, 352 = Melville Jones, no. 390, lines 7–13. 166 Apuleius, Met. 1.5. 167 Aristides,Or.27.1–8;Horace,Sat.1.5. See Casson 193–196.

Smith s.v. marsupium; citations: Non. Marcellus II s.v. marsupium; Varro, De Re Rust. 3.17.2 [marsippium]; Plautus, Men. 2.1.29, 2.3.33 & 35, 5.7.43, Poen. 3.5.37, Rud. 5.2.26; Xenophon, Conviv. 4.2. Cynics and pera: Smith s.v. pera. 169 Baldus 204–206; the other option he presents, less likely in my view,is that different people deposited the coins there.Some hoard finds from Sardis also were contained in cloth, remnants of which remained on the found coins: Greenewalt 1985, 76, with Greenewalt 1986, 24, and Greenewalt 1991, 9 and n. 16.

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cheese and other foodstuffs for retail to the shopkeepers. Now, hearing that at Hypata, the capital of Thessaly, there were available fresh cheeses of a particularly fine flavour at a very moderate rate, I dashed off to see if I couldn’t snap up the whole market. But—the usual bad luck—I’d put my worst foot forward, for Lupus, a wholesale merchant, had cleared the stock on the day before.170

Such a person has no specific destination but goes where his business takes him, exchanging money everywhere as he goes along. From the Golden Ass, too, comes an excellent example of small coin being transported about as a result of religious activity:Lucius as ass comes into the possession of a group of travelling priests of the Syrian Goddess. These charlatans put on a good show of contorted dancing, “inspired” but tuneless playing of threnes, and self-flagellation. Apuleius continues, When they wearied at last, or felt that they had flagellated their sins sufficiently, they desisted from this shambles-show. Then the audience vied with one another in showering coins (not only bronze, but also silver) into the opened folds of the performers’ gowns; and they heaped up winecasks, milk, cheeses, barley, and wheaten meal—not to mention barley for myself the depositary of the Goddess. All these presents the priests greedily smuggled at once into bags kept ready for such alms; and the bags were festooned about my back—so that, doubly burdened, I was simultaneously walking Temple and Barn.171

A travelling religious group like this would have a treasurer who would pay out money as it was needed to purchase supplies. An example of this is the group that travelled with Jesus.When Jesus was faced with a larger-than-expected crowd by the Sea of Galilee and did not have enough food to feed it, his disciples asked him if he should not send them to the nearby village to buy additional provisions.Thus, like the travelling Syrian priests of Apuleius, Jesus’ followers had to collect and use coins; Judas Iscariot was the treasurer for the group.172 Finally, Telephron in the Golden Ass also gives a good example of slow-motion, peripatetic, travel toward a religious destination:

When I was an orphan [begins Telephron], I went from Miletos to visit the Olympian shows, and on the way I meant to see the chief parts of this far-famed province. I traversed Thessaly, and came at last on an unlucky trail to Larissa. While I was taking a look around, I racked my wits for some means of nourishing my lean purse—for my travel funds were all but used up—and I saw an old man standing in the middle of the Forum. He was standing on a stone and proclaiming in a loud voice, “Man Wanted to Guard Corpse. Good Fee.”173

He has taken a circuitous route from Miletos toward Olympia,and has stopped along the way to enjoy the sights. He brought money with him, which he has been spending as he goes; now he is out of money, and takes what work he can to replenish his supply. Destination travel was very different. Especially the great Panhellenic festivals such as Nemea offered “the feeling of being part of a great event and of enjoying a special experience; a gay festive mood punctuated by exalted religious movements; elaborate pageantry; the excitement of contests between performers of the highest calibre; and, on top of all this,a chance to wander among famous buildings and works of art.”174 It did not matter that the actual experience at such festivals might be less than wonderful: Epictetus asks, “Don’t you get scorched? Aren’t you all jammed in together? Isn’t it hard to get a bath? Don’t you get drenched when it rains? Don’t you get fed up with the din and the shouting and the other annoyances?”175 The throngs did come, many presumably with relatively few resources and less flexibility than Telephron,which necessitated a direct trip to the site of the festival and then straight back.Likewise,a trip to a healing shrine such as that of Asklepios at Epidauros would probably require a direct trip, with as little delay as possible along the way. In his Greek Questions, Plutarch gives another instance, this time of an official embassy to a shrine. To the question, “When came the clan of ‘wagon-rollers’ among the Megarians?” he answers that

173 Apuleius, Met.

2.21 (trans. Lindsey). 76–77. 175 Epictetus 1.6.23–28 (translated by Casson 79); see also Lucian, Herodotus 8 and Peregrinus 19, on the discomforts of Olympia. Casson ad loc. adds, “It was so bad that a story was told of a master who brought an unruly slave into line simply by threatening to take him to the Olympics.” 174 Casson

170 Apuleius, Met. 171 Apuleius, Met. 172 John

13:29.

1.5 (trans. Lindsey). 8.28 (trans. Lindsey).

39

40

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

In the time of the unbridled democracy which brought about both the return-interest and the temple sacrilege, a sacred mission of Peloponnesians passed through the Megarid on its way to Delphi and had encamped, as chance dictated, in their wagons, with their wives and children, in the Aegeiri beside the lake. But the boldest spirits among the Megarians, inflamed with wine, in their insolence and savagery rolled back the wagons and pushed them into the lake, so that many members of the mission were drowned.176

Presumably such an embassy would carry most of what it needed for the journey and would spend little as it travelled. It is clear that peripatetic travel should involve constant purchases along the way, while destination travel should lead to less of this. It is useful to look at the way bronze circulates in order to test this theoretical model. Christopher Howgego has recently summarized the accepted conceptualization of the circulation of bronze coinage. He writes, . . . it is hard to think of better types of evidence to throw light upon [the aggregate movements of people]. . . . The regional circulation patterns of civic bronzes in Asia Minor under the Roman Empire have been interpreted in this light. Other evidence for how people moved around, where it exists, normally coincides with the patterns derived from the circulation of small change. This strongly suggests that it is appropriate to use the numismatic evidence in this way. The speeches of Dio Chrysostom, for example, confirm the close connections betweeen Nicomedia and Nicaea, so apparent from coin circulation, and the road running east along the Maeander valley from Ephesos, which had a strong influence on the movement of coin, was described by Strabo as the common road used by all who travel from Ephesos towards the east (14.2.29). By contrast with such movement within natural geographical regions, long-distance interregional movement of small change was exceptional. In the case of the eastern half of the Roman Empire, at least, the few major movements of bronze coin outside a natural geographical area of circulation may all be tied to specific military occasions. This suggests that the army was in terms of numbers

176

Plutarch, Quaest. Mor. 304E–F (Loeb trans.). Xenophon, Mem. 3.13.5 (= Miller 1991, no. 87) mentions the walk from Athens to Olympia.

the most significant mobile body of population within the Empire.177

In this observation he is following his own thinking in his Greek Imperial Countermarks, where he writes, “Coin distribution is probably the best way of illustrating the aggregate movement of people.”178 The nuancing of this movement has led both Price and Crawford to emphasize the great distances over which bronze could travel. Price, in his monumental work on the coinages of Alexander the Great,observes that “the [Alexander] bronzes,even more than the precious metal coinages,represent the movement of people, and it is interesting that, as a result of the political unity created by the empire, these relatively worthless tokens of small change might have had currency far from their place of origin.”179 Crawford, in his study of coinage and money in the late Republic, makes a similar claim: The range of Mediterranean contacts of men from these areas is illustrated to perfection by the bronzes from the four corners of the globe brought back and lost or thrown away as useless. Such bronzes were of course perhaps in part acquired by serving soldiers; but the phenomenon seems not to be attested in the period of the great wars in the east and it is better to regard it as evidence in the second half of the 2nd century for the movements of men of business. Such men also brought back or had shipped the Rhodian wine with which they had become familiar in the east.180

While these statements seem reasonable,the hoard and excavation evidence does not bear them out as generally true. As evidence for his statement, Crawford summarizes the 12 hoards in Italy with bronzes from the East during the time of the Roman Republic; in these few hoards, only about 25 coins were found 177 Howgego 1995, 101–102; cf. 1985, 32–37, on the circulation of bronze. The importance of bronze as an indicator of people’s movement was emphasized by Robert 77 n. 8, cited and agreed with by Picard 1979, 331. However, when Picard (1979,332–333) discusses the circulation of Euboian coins outside Euboia, he is hard-pressed to make the non-numismatic evidence of Euboian presence correspond to the numismatic and offers only a very general explanation of how Euboian coins turn up where they do. 178 Howgego 1985, 34. See previous note. 179 Price 1991, 66. 180 Crawford 1985, 178–179.

41

introduction

from a total of 19 eastern mints; this is the total from the scores—even hundreds—of mints producing coins at this time in the East.181 From the other direction, Crawford finds at Greek sites Italian and Sicilian coins from nine mints at seven locations in Greece.182 A final piece of evidence from Italy emphasizes this scarcity of Greek bronze coinage passing between Greece and Italy: At a crossing of the Liri River,where ancient Minturnae stood,a team excavated thousands of coins from the river bed. After a number of seasons,a total of 4,217 bronze coins dating from the 3rd century b.c. to the 6th century after Christ were recovered.Of these,only 17 were from the Greek East.183 Whether these coins were thrown into the river as a result of refuse dumping from Minturnae or, as the presence of votive terracottas in the refuse suggests, were thrown off the bridge as votive offerings, it is clear that the people standing on the bridge did not see much Greek bronze in their purses.The Liri River finds strikingly confirm the information provided by the hoards: bronze from afar, specifically, from the Greek East, was not present in Italy (and, presumably, Sicily) to any degree at all. Site excavation data lends additional weight.From Cosa,for example,a town founded in 273 b.c.,there come only three Hellenistic Greek bronzes, and, lest the pattern seem to be chronologically dependent, only two Roman Provincial bronzes.184 In Sicily, the excavations at Morgantina produced only nine bronzes from the Greek mainland, Asia Minor, and the islands combined.185 It would appear, therefore, that Crawford is incorrect in thinking that the presence of bronze coinage in Italy reflects anything: such small numbers in hoards,votive offerings,and excavation finds indicate rather that these coins were exceedingly rare and their origins very scattered, so that their presence is better thought of as fortuitous than as the result of any trace181 Crawford

1985, 319. 1985, 308. 183 Frier & Parker 93; Metcalf 1974, 44; Houghtalin. These coins may have been either dropped as votives or dumped with other refuse from Minturnae (Frier & Parker 90–91);the heavy concentration of some coins in a small area (4 × 6 m.) at the bridge leads to votives as the main reason (Metcalf 1974, 42). 184 Buttrey 31: “Such finds, and others in Italy, Gaul and Germany, are rare enough to indicate that the Greek Imperial bronzes were not intended to circulate in the West.” The Hellenistic coins are no. 21 (Stratoniceia), no. 22 (Ptolemy II), no. 23 (Cleopatra VII). 185 Morgantina II, 115–118. 182 Crawford

able or meaningful movement of people or goods. In fact, bronzes at a distance from their mint origin are such a rarity because people looked at the bronze coins they had, and tried to get rid of coins with which they were unfamiliar either by type or size and weight. The clearest proof is the decidedly local circulation of bronze coinage. The case of Hellenistic Priene is an example of this. There, 833 bronze coins were found in the excavations, excluding those found in hoards. Of these, 564 (68%) were from Priene, while 176 of 269 others came from mints within a 50-kilometer radius; and 90% of the coins found came from within a 100-kilometer radius (564 from Priene plus 189 from other towns). Of those coins from more distant locations, most came from coastal towns or kingdoms, the notable exceptions being inland Pergamon and Sardis (Fig. 10).Further confirmation of this local circulation tendency comes from the maps in Howgego’s 1985 study,which show the towns from which coins bearing a certain countermark come. Howgego assumes that these coins were all countermarked within a fairly brief time, for use in a particular town. Thus, his map 13 shows the distribution of coins with the 811 countermark used at Ephesos (here Fig. 11); his map 14 from the same city shows the distribution of the coins with the 763 countermark (here Fig. 12). His map 20 shows countermark 324 from Tralles (here Fig. 13), and his map 11 shows countermark 791 from Smyrna (here Fig.14).If the data from these distributions are taken together, a circle drawn with a radius of 100 kilometers will encompass almost all the coins countermarked:195 coins (69%) come from within 50 kilometers, while 257 (91%) come from within a 100-kilometer radius. Thus, unless coins were actually sought out from more distant places specifically for countermarking (which is unlikely), the coins made available for countermarking were those already circulating in the community doing the countermarking. It is important to note, too, that the percentage of local-origin countermarked coins is very similar to that arrived at from a study of the incirculation coins found in the excavation of Priene.186 Thus bronze coins became less acceptable the farther they were from their minting site. “Farther,” of course, is relative to the means of travel. A day’s trip by sea would take one much farther than a day’s trip by land. It might be expected, therefore, that bronze 186 Regling

1927, 179, 187–193.

42

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

Pantikapaion Macedonia

Dyrrachion Kyzikos

Pergamon

Mytilene

Elaia Kyme Sardis

Leukai

Achaian League

Athens

Kaystrianoi Kolophon Ephesos Magnesia

Smyrna Klazomenai Teos

Chios

Naulochos

Tralles

Samos

Apameia

Neapolis

Priene

100 KM 50 KM Miletos

Key

1 coin 2–8 coins

Herakleia Iasos

Alabanda

Mylasa Keramos

Myndos Halikarnassos

Kos

26 coins (Ephesos) Rhodos

54 coins (Magnesia) 69 coins (Miletos)

0

25

50

75 100 km

Priene’s 564 coins

Phaselis, Side, Isinda, Salamis, Syrian Kings

Fig. 10 Map showing numbers of coins discovered in the excavations of Priene with reference to their issuing city.

coins from places connected by sea routes would appear at a greater distance than those connected by land routes. As Howgego analyzed his data on countermarks, he found this not to be the case; i.e., he did not find coins from coastal towns being countermarked as commonly as coins from land-connected towns.His conclusion:“It is noteworthy that it is only occasionally necessary to invoke sea voyages in order to explain the patterns of circulation, which suggests that seafaring and seaborne commerce were relatively unimportant for the majority of people.” Given the frequency of sea travel, and the sort of small-ship coastal commerce which must have existed in antiquity as it did in the Mediterranean world of Philip II described by Braudel,187 it is inherently likely that travel and trade by sea were common;bronze was cer-

tainly carried by persons and merchants travelling that way. Indeed, the excavation coins from Priene indicate that the distant coins usually do come from coastal mints; the excavation coins from Corinth and Athens indicate contact across the Aegean to Ionia and to Pontos—and those coins surely came by sea. The inscriptional evidence from Corinth and Athens also shows connections across the Aegean to the same areas.188 Why, then, does this sort of contact not appear in the countermark evidence more clearly? The answer lies in the nature of the use of bronze coinage. Through long-distance trade and travel by land, bronze would have been used intensively as it moved from place to place, gradually becoming worn enough to merit countermarking. Sea travel, on the other hand, would bring coinage from a

187 Braudel

188 Broughton

306–312.

875.

43

introduction

1 1

1

1

2

1 6

1

1

2 3

1

1 1

11

5

3

1

1

5 5 1

32

1

1

2

1 1

5

5

4

4 25

2 3

11

2

5

1

1

1

4

3 1

4 3

1

1

1

0 0

Kilometers 50 30 Miles

100 60

0 0

Kilometers 50 30 Miles

100 60

Fig. 11 Map with circles concentric to Ephesos showing distribution of coins with countermark 811 (after Howgego 1985, map 13).

Fig. 12 Map with circles concentric to Ephesos showing distribution of coins with countermark 763 (after Howgego 1985, map 14).

greater distance with less intermediate use. This distant coinage could not be passed on if excessively worn, and so would not be introduced into the precountermarking pool.If not worn,however,the coins would be immediately recognized as “foreign,” and the owner would have to pay a fee to use them. So the absence of sea-related coinages in the countermarked pool is not an indication of travel habits but of coin-utilization habits. Although this nuancing of travel is important, it remains a fact that probably there was not much bronze carried in long-distance trade anyway. Certainly it was not good as a means to transport wealth; problems with using it in commerce, including perhaps a premium paid to a money changer, would inhibit its transport for use as small change. A minimal amount might make its way into soldiers’ pouches as small change, but the biggest single reason to find bronze far from home would be the payment of soldiers by an employer while on campaign. The Ptolemaic coin found in such abundance at the Ptolemaic military camp at Koroni in Attica is an excellent example: here 80% of the coins are Ptolemaic, surely brought there by a paymaster and then

dispensed to the troops as part of their pay. Likewise the presence of Pyrrhic coins at Nemea is certainly related to the soldiers of Pyrrhos who campaigned and bivouacked in the neighborhood. One further nuance of the circulation of bronze needs to be addressed:the different pattern of bronze coinage in hoards from that in excavation finds. In general, coins in hoards tend to be much more local than coins in excavations. This is especially true of the hoards from Athens, Corinth, and Sardis relative to the excavation coins from these sites. In the Imperial period, hoards of bronze tend to be local and countermarked (and so redivivus as local).189 One reason local bronze would remain local was because it was overvalued, and that overvalue was artificially enforced through money-changing laws by the local state.190 In a sense, then, local, indigenous bronze coinage was “good” money, while out-of-town coins were “bad” money. When it came time to hoard

189 Howgego

1985, 32; cf. 12. overvaluation of bronze in the local market see Howgego 1985, 15.

190 On

44

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

2

1

1 1

4

2

10

6

13 1

Kilometers 50 30 Miles

1

1

0

3 1

2

1

1

0

5

1

18

2

0

1

1

6 24

2

1 2 1

2

2

4

1

0

Kilometers 50 30 Miles

100 60

Fig. 14 Map with circles concentric to Smyrna showing distribution of coins with countermark 791 (after Howgego 1985, map 11).

100 60

Fig. 13 Map with circles concentric to Tralles showing distribution of coins with countermark 324 (after Howgego 1985, map 20).

bronze,the same principle drove hoard accumulation of bronze as of silver:the more valuable currency was selected out. This means, for bronze, local money most of all, either minted or countermarked in the town. The foreign money continued to circulate. A clear picture of the normal circulation of bronze coinage has emerged: local, within about a radius of less than 100 kilometers, with the local currency dominating the coinage in circulation. The coinage can be used to show connection patterns within this or a slightly larger contact area, and the nature of peripatetic travel makes it unlikely that coinage from distant places would be common. However, one venue which does show a good deal of bronze from distant places stands out from this picture:sanctuaries and Panhellenic festival sites. If the coins found at Nemea are compared with those from these other sites, clear differences appear. As noted above, the local circulation of bronze observed in the Asia Minor examples is also evident at Nemea. A circle with a 25-kilometer radius, representing a day’s walk, drawn around Ne-

mea makes this clear (see Fig. 4). About half of all coins come from towns within this circle. If the circle is expanded to a 100-kilometer radius, the number of coins represented by encompassed mints surpasses 90% of the coins from the Classical and Hellenistic periods. On the other hand, the coins from outside this area tend to be from much farther away, and from much more diverse areas, than the distant coins found at town sites. Most important, there are specific indications that these distant coins ended up at Nemea because they were carried by people travelling to attend the festival. As a “destination” site, Nemea attracted long-distance interest. A good example of this comes from the evidence of the theorodokoi. These “herald receivers” were the men who hosted the heralds, theoroi, sent around to announce the Nemean Games; we have attestations for theorodokoi from other major sanctuaries too,such as Delphi and Epidauros.191 These herald-accommodators are listed in an inscription from the Nemean site as well as in inscriptions found at Argos. When the geography of these theorodokoi is plotted on a map and compared with the provenience of coins found from afar at Nemea, there is a striking 191 Hesperia 1979, 79, with earlier bibliography; see also Miller 1988b.

45

introduction

NEMEA

0

Key

25 50 75 km

theorodokoi town with coins at Nemea

Salamis/Cyprus

theorodokoi town with no coins at Nemea

Fig. 15 Map showing the correspondence of the known bronze-minting towns on the theorodokoi list to bronze coins found at Nemea.

correlation:even though distant mints are often represented by a single coin in the finds, in 19 of 32 cases in which a town known to mint bronze during the 4th century b.c. is represented in the theorodokoi lists, a coin turns up at Nemea (Fig. 15 and

192 In

a similar case, two graffiti from Nemea mention the link between Nemean activity and Greek towns. See Nemea II, 87–89, where GRAF 19A states that Moschos is kalos at Philippi and GRAF 11 notes that Aristion is kalos at Krannon.Unfortunately,no bronze coinage from either site has been found at Nemea, although Krannonites may have dropped Larissan coins, as Krannon was closely associated with this nearby and larger Thessalian city. One coin from Larissa (Cat. 123 [C 4064]) has been found.

Table 2).192 It seems clear that the men set out from these towns to attend the Games at Nemea, carrying small change as well as other currency in their purses or money boxes. This money had relatively little turnover in transit, partly because much of the travel was by sea, and so there was less opportunity or need to make local purchases along the way, and partly because the groups pushed on toward their goal, not lingering or making purchases any more than was necessary. Unfortunately, this hypothesis cannot be tested very well because published numismatic material from major sanctuaries is so rare. However, one interesting bit of information comes from the Sacred Road running between Miletos and the sanctuary

46

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

TABLE 2

Theorodokoi Towns and Towns with Contemporary Bronze Coinage general location

Epeiros

towns: argive list a

Apollonia Kassope Phoinika Ambrakia Argos Amphilochikon Tyrbeion Thyrrheion Medion Palairos Anaktorion

Ambrakia Akarnania

Western Area

Alyzea Leukas Korkyra

Macedonia

Peloponnesos

towns: nemean list

Thyrrheion Medion Palairos Anaktorion Echinos Limnaia Oiniadai Stratos Derios Phoitias Koronta Astakos Euripos Leukas Korkyra Amphipolis Lete Alante

Pheneos Kleitor Stymphalos Alea

at Didyma.193 This cache of bronze coins,which was mentioned earlier (p. 38), presumably included a purse of perishable material that contained 88 coins, 64 of which were identifiable, from 19 mints. The purse’s contents show a striking similarity to the general distribution pattern of coins from the Nemean excavations.The core collection of coins comes from an area within about a 50-kilometer radius (Fig. 16). More distant coins tend to come from places most easily reached by sea. Again, the accumulation of coins seems to result from “destination” 193 Baldus

204–205.

bronze coins attested in 4th century b.c.

coins at site?

Yes Yes

No Yes

Yes Yes

Yes No

Yes Yes

Yes No

Yes Yes Yes

No Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes

travel: the visitors from a distance came quickly and directly to the site, still carrying with them unspent bronze coins from their home areas when they arrived at the sanctuary. A final consideration is important in explaining the different bronze coinage circulation pattern at “destination” sites: the fact that holders of bronze from distant places perhaps found an environment which was more conducive to using— and losing—those bronzes than would have been found in a town. The use of bronze coinage in commerce at the festival—purchasing sacrifices, souvenirs, staples for sustenance, and snacks from vendors—was perhaps much freer than in a town:

47

introduction

TABLE 2 ( c o n t i n u e d )

general location

Central Area Islands

Hellespont Bithynia

Aeolis Ionia

Cyprus

a

towns: argive list a

towns: nemean list

Eretria Thasos Andros Tenedos Chios

Kios Brylleion Miletouteichos Kyme Erythrai Smyrna Klazomenai Teos Lebedos Notion Ephesos Pygela Magnesia Naulochos Miletos Iasos

Chios Seriphos Lampsakos

Kyme

bronze coins attested in 4th century b.c.

coins at site?

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes No No No

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No Yes No No Yes

Yes

No

Yes Yes Yes

No Yes No

Yes

Yes

Notion

Salamis Kourion Soloi

Charneux, 157–158.

sanctuaries had no coinage to protect. While there is much evidence of governments controlling currency in a town, there is no evidence for such control at sanctuary festivals administered by towns. Thus, even though Argos might be thought to control currencies at Nemea, or Elis at Olympia, given the total lack of evidence for this at any site, we can cautiously maintain that currency was exchanged in more of a “free market” fashion than in towns. In addition, the gods did not care where a coin came from; any coin was good for an offering. Thus, the thesauroi of the temples probably attracted offerings of exotic coins as a way of “spending” them without the possible difficulty of passing a distant coin in commerce. These coins, as temple inventories reveal,

were either stored up in great jars or melted down for temple offerings; in whichever manner, they were presumably taken out of circulation. Indeed, it has been suggested that the purse from Didyma was a collection of such coins, taken from a thesauros, and not yet put into temple storage when it was lost. This possibility is strengthened by the example of the deposit of bronze coins under the statue base of the cult statue of Artemis in her temple at Sardis. Here, among royal coins of the Macedonians and Seleucids, were found coins of Kios (1), Kyme (2), Ephesos (4), Kolophon (4), and Oinoi (3). In the excavation material from Sardis, no coin of Kios or Oinoi appears, only 2 others from Kyme and 4 others from Kolophon; 18 others from Ephesos, a large minter,

48

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

Kyzikos

Myrina

Pergamon

Erythrai

Phokaia

Teos 50 KM

Ephesos

Nysa

Magnesia Priene Myous

Samos

Herakleia Miletos Didyma

Iasos

Bargylia Kaunos

Kos

Perga

Key

1 coin 2 – 4 coins

0

25

50

75 km

5 – 11 coins

Fig. 16 Map showing numbers of coins discovered in the cache on the Sacred Road between Miletos and Didyma with reference to their issuing city.

introduction

appear.194 The examples from distant places, Kios in Propontis and Oinoi in Galatia, reflect the use of distant coins for offerings, as presumably the coins for the basis burial came from the collections in the thesauroi of the temple itself. Finally,bronze coin finds help provide a better understanding of the main areas of interconnection across the Aegean. The finds of these coins both in Asia Minor and in mainland Greece emphasize the Cycladic archipelago as the link across the sea. This route is a logical one, since a sea traveller can move from island sighting to island sighting,and easily and safely sail from Ionia to Greece. The excavation evidence from Nemea substantiates this picture. In that material the connection of the Sanctuary with Ionia has already been noticed both epigraphically and numismatically. In addition to the theorodokoi towns, however, there are coins from a number of the Cycladic islands that are not attested epigraphically:Melos,Mykonos,Naxos,Paros,and Pholegandros.These islands could have sent people travelling to Nemea, but it is also possible that as the ships sailed and took on provisions and water en route, coins of these islands got into the travellers’ purses. If so, then the coins may show that even in the case of “destination” travel,some exchanges would have had to take place along the way. While the model of “peripatetic” and “destination” travel cannot explain all the vagaries of bronze coinage circulation—and, indeed, would be a priori under suspicion if it claimed to do so—the concept does provide some understanding of how bronze circulation patterns differ.In particular,it explains how coins would be particularly likely to wend their way across the Aegean, from places like Erythrai and Naulochos, Teos and Samos, Ephesos and Miletos, to the “destination” sites such as the Corycian Cave and, especially, the Panhellenic center at Nemea.

OTHER OBSERVATIONS FROM THE COINS Nemea on Coins It might be expected that the coin types of towns controlling major Panhellenic festivals would reflect those games and their myths. This is indeed the 194 Sardis

7.

49

case, but the evidence varies greatly from festival to festival. Such references do occur on coins of Elis,the city with control over the Olympian Games. The predominant type throughout is that of Zeus, his thunderbolt, and his eagle, an obvious reference to the god in whose honor the Games were given and, specifically, a reflection of his famous cult statue. In addition, an early type of this mint, dated to before 471 b.c., shows a reverse with a winged Nike running right, holding out a wreath of olive—the victory wreath of the Olympian Games.195 In another type, Nike is seated and holds the palm of victory— another reference to the Games. At a later date, between 271 and 191 b.c.,the wreath appears as a secondary symbol on tetradram of the Zeus head/ thunderbolt type.196 At Greek Corinth, controller of the Isthmian Games, the coins are rather more silent. Perhaps the secondary symbols on the common bronze Pegasos/Trident series which include a pinecone and a racing torch make some reference to the Games, but these symbols are so conventional that such reference is not necessary. At Roman Corinth, however, there are numerous references to the Games. In the period from the founding of the colony to the death of Nero, types such as the pine or dry-celery wreath given for victory in the Games,197 runners, race torches, Victory holding a wreath, two- and fourhorse chariots,the word ISTHMIA within a wreath, and a series of anonymous issues which feature scenes from the Games: javelin throw, race in armor, discus,boxing,wrestling,winner holding palm of victory.198 The types continue into the Severan period: ISTHMIA within wreath (Antoninus Pius), fourhorse chariot (Marcus Aurelius), the race course showing two horsemen racing around the metae,and numerous types featuring Melikertes (Palaimon) and his mythical exploits, in honor of whom the Games were held.199 At Delphi, where the Pythian Games were held, there are no overt references to the Games on the rather slim coinage. The numismatic record for the Nemean Games 195 BMC

Pel. 58–59 nos. 5–11, 13–16, pl. 10.5–10.10, 10.12– 10.14. 196 BMC Pel. 73 nos. 139–140, pl. 15.12. 197 For the changing types of crown at Isthmia,see Broneer 1962. 198 Amandry 1988, especially series L, pls. 47–48. 199 Head 404–405.

50

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

stands out among that for the other Panhellenic games in both the number and the variety of relevant types. During the first centuries of the Sanctuary complex, when control or at least direct administration vacillated between the poleis of Argos and Kleonai, little in the types of either city indicated a special reference to the festival. Herakles appears on the earlier coins of Kleonai, but it was from Kleonai that he started on his first labor against the Nemean Lion, and there was a temple to him marking the spot where he killed Eurytos and Kteatos; no specific reference to the Games need be intended.200 At Argos in the 5th and earlier 4th centuries, the wolf iconography expresses worship of Apollo Lykios while Argive Hera and the hero Diomedes get due attention; however, in the latter series a secondary symbol is a wild-celery wreath, associated as the victory wreath at the Nemean Games,201 while in the Hera series a secondary symbol is Herakles’ club.202 In the period of the revival of the Nemean Games at Nemea in the later 4th and earlier 3rd centuries there are both telltale and overt references to the festival. In a rare issue, Argos mints a bronze chalkous which encapsulates three main religious foci of the city: the obverse is the traditional Hera head left, wearing the stephanos; the reverse shows the forepart of a wolf left, within a wreath of wild celery. Three examples come from the excavations (Cat. 1777 [C 170], Cat. 1778 [C 1400], and Cat. 1779 [C 1552]). In addition, there are a number of secondary symbols on the Alpha/Wolf and Hera coins during this period which recall the Games: wreath, club, and so on. Once the Games were transferred to Argos ca. 271 b.c., they are explicitly noted on the series which shows the forepart of a wolf right on the obverse and an A in an incuse square on the reverse; among the secondary symbols is a vase inscribed NE, surely a reference to the Games.203 Argive types continue to make reference to the Games as, for example, a type with club within celery-wreath obverse, A reverse, from the

Fig. 17 Hypsipyle and the serpent on the reverse of an Imperial coin of Argos ( Julia Domna on obverse). London, British Museum, inv. no. 356672 (BMC Pel. 152 no. 169). Photograph © The British Museum.

period between 228 and 146 b.c.204 During the Imperial period there is an upsurge of iconographic interest in the Games, which are named as (TA) NEMEIA to denote that they are held near Argos, not at the old site of Nemea,205 and take pride of place along with the festival of Hera in the Argive religious calendar. One coin of Hadrian shows on the reverse a naked Zeus standing left, holding a scepter in his right hand—perhaps the statue of Zeus once in the Temple of Nemea but removed to the Argive Temple of Nemean Zeus when the Games were moved (see Fig. 3);206 another gives on the reverse NEMEIA within a wild-celery wreath.207 The whole gamut of the associated myths are represented: not only is Herakles himself shown killing the Nemean Lion;208 Hypsipyle is represented fleeing the serpent, the latter on a coin of Julia Domna (Fig.17).209

200 Indeed,the association of

Herakles with the Nemean Games (but not with the Nemean Lion) was a late development: see Guide 25. 201 Head 437–439; BMC Pel. 140 no. 47, pl. 27.14. 202 BMC Pel. 140 nos. 51–53, pl. 27.16. 203 BMC Pel. 146 no. 124, pl. 28.2. The example of this type from the excavations (Cat. 1801 [C 1804]) has the caps of the Dioskouroi as secondary symbol. 204 BMC Pel. 147 no. 137, pl. 28.6. No example has been found at Nemea.

205 That

is, the neuter plural form (ta; Nevmeia) clearly refers to the Games and distinguishes them from the site (hJ Nemeva) in the feminine singular. 206 BMC Pel. 148 no. 148, pl. 28.10. 207 BMC Pel.148 no.153.Julia Domna has the same type:BMC Pel. 152 no. 170. 208 SNG Cop. Arg. no. 85. 209 BMC Pel. 152 no. 169, pl. 28.23.

introduction

As was noted, the Nemean Games were sometimes under the supervision of Argos, sometimes of nearby Kleonai. When the games were re-established at the Nemea site in the later 4th century b.c., Kleonai was in charge, although it was at that time a dependency of Argos. In juxtaposition with the new Games the town minted a single issue which had the head of Nemean Zeus on the obverse and the letters KL (KLewnaivwn) and Herakles’ club within a wreath of wild celery on the reverse; no example of this coin comes from the excavation.210 However,there is another coin as well; this one has the head of Herakles in the Nemean Lion’s skin on the obverse and KLEW (KLEWnaivwn) within a wild-celery wreath on the reverse.211 This coin was dated by Percy Gardner in the British Museum Catalogue to about 235 b.c. and, therefore, to the brief revival of the Games at Nemea under Aratos of Sikyon. However, Head and others disagreed, assigning the coin to the later 4th century. The finds in the excavation have proven beyond a doubt that this 4th-century date is the correct one.212 Under the Empire Kleonai issued coins, but none which reminisces about the Nemean Games. This brief survey indicates that the numismatic references to the Nemean Games on the coins of the cities most closely involved, Argos and Kleonai, are appreciable. Those Games are referred to on coins in a greater variety of ways than any of the other Panhellenic festivals.213

Bronze Mints Not Represented at Nemea Table 3 gives a list of mainland mints issuing bronze ca. 350–250 b.c. which would have been theoretically available to be dropped at Nemea. The dates for minting are perforce approximate, based exclusively on the dates in the British Museum Catalogue; for the purposes of this table, these dates suffice to give the general picture desired. Mints that have an

210 BMC

Pel. 154 no. 8, pl. 29.5. Pel. 154 no. 9–10, pl. 29.6. 212 Gardner: BMC Pel. pp. liii–liv; contra, Head 441. See below, p. 53. 213 In sheer number of coins referring to a festival, the coinage of Elis which carries symbolism linked to Olympia far outstrips the references to the Nemean festival on coins of Argos and Kleonai. But in variety of types, Nemea takes the prize. 211 BMC

51

“end date” of near 350 (e.g. 400–340 b.c.) are excluded, as are those that begin late in the chosen period (e.g. 255–146 b.c.). Only mints issuing bronze within the specified period are counted; some other entities mint bronze before,many more do later than this time, but that is irrelevant here. This table makes it clear that the great majority of bronze-coining mints that might be expected to be found at Nemea have been found there. Certainly, from relatively nearby mints only the exiguous emissions of Thelpousa and Orchomenos are missing; as Stymphalos, another small Arkadian mint, did appear, it would be expected that both of these other mints will also appear eventually. Likewise, the mints from central Greece which remain unrepresented are inconsequential in terms of coins issued. In the Aegean Islands there are a number of small mints represented among the finds (Melos, Mykonos, Naxos, Paros, Pholegandros); at least some of the larger missing mints should someday appear (Andros, for example, along with Siphnos, Syros, and Tenos). Thessaly, although well represented by 12 mints (Ainianes, Halos, Lamia, Larissa, Larissa Kremaste, Melitaia, Oita, Peumata, Pherai, and Trikka, and the nearby islands of Peparethos and Skiathos), is missing perhaps a few; but the missing ones, like some attested ones, are very small emitters. An additional consideration is geographical: the Thessalian mints attested tend to be in the southern half of the region and thus nearer to Nemea. Once further areas are reached, geographical distance becomes an ever more dominant factor in explaining the lack of significant emissions: Crete is represented only by two mints (Polyrrhenion and Rhaukos), while at least eight major and a number of more minor mints are not represented;important mints from northwest Greece and Macedonia are also missing (e.g. Medion, Chalkidian League, Philippi).214 In general, then, the finds show that coins from all active mints of Greece and most of the islands were regularly brought by visitors to the Games.The corollary conclusion is that gaps in the geographical distribution of the coins found are due not to the lack of people coming from those areas, bringing their coins, but rather to a lack of coins from those areas to be brought with the visitors.

214 Unless

these coinages were suppressed under Philip II, thus making them unavailable for dropping.

52

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

TABLE 3

Bronze Mints Not Found at Nemea bmc volume

Corinth and Colonies Peloponnese

Central Greece

Thessaly to Aetolia

mints

bmc volume

none * Dyme Ithaka Kranion (Kephallonia) * Methana * Orchomenos (Arkadia) Pale (Kephallonia) * Proni (Kephallonia) * Thelpousa * Haliartos * Karystos (Euboia) * Orchomenos (Boiotia) * Plataia * Skarphia * Alyzia * Apolloniaa * Atrax * Kierion * Krannon * Gomphoi * Gyrton * Herakleia Trachina Medion * Metropolis * Pelinna * Phakion * Phalanna * Skoutoussa * Stratos * Thebes (Phthiotidian)

Macedonia b

Some Miscellaneous Findings The Coins of the Macedonians and Related Kings. It is striking that there are so many coins issued by Macedonians or those related to them.The unusual number of coins of Philip II and Alexander III has already been pointed out;their resources were presumably responsible for the major building program at Nemea in the later 4th century b.c. The political connection to the Macedonian monarchy through the use of the site as part of the “Panhellenic” propaganda of these kings seems a ready explanation for the incidence of their coins. The coins of Philip II (51), Alexander III (21), Kassandros (3), Demetrios Poliorketes (16), Antigonos Gonatas (16), and uncertain kings (2) add up to 109 examples—about 5% of the total of Greek

Crete and Aegean Islands

mints

Akanthos Chalkidian League * Eurydikeia * Kerdyllion Philippi Andros * Arsinoe Axos Chersonnesos Eleuthernai Gortyna Knossos Kydonia Lyttos * Olos Phaistos * Phalasarna * Praisos * Priansos * Rhithymna * Seriphos Siphnos * Sybrita Syros * Thera Tinos

* Only very small emissions a From 279 b.c. on. b Per BMC these all stop minting bronze with the advent of Philip II. This may not be the case.

coins (2,117). This compares with far fewer coins of these kings at Corinth (about 3%),215 the Sanctuary of Demeter at Corinth (3%), Asea (0%), Kenchreai (1%), and the Athenian Agora (2%); only the finds at the Corycian Cave (6%) are comparable.216 The fre-

215 Although,interestingly,in the commercial center of

Corinth in the area of the Roman Villa and Theater the percentage of Macedonian regnal issues is about 6%,much the same as at Nemea: Mac Isaac 1987. It should also be emphasized that comparisons such as these are only of general value and meant only to be suggestive; the total coins from a site like Athens or Corinth obviously come from a much longer time frame than those at Nemea, and also are far more numerous. 216 It is worth noting that the Corycian Cave lies directly above Delphi,which was another of the four Panhellenic Festival centers, and the one most closely tied to Philip; see Miller 1982a.

introduction

quency of these coins at Nemea would seem to reflect the importance of the site in Macedonian plans.217 It is also suggestive that the coins of Pyrrhos are unusually common as well. These coins, nine in number from Nemea, are rare at the compared sites: there are none from the Sanctuary of Demeter, the Corycian Cave, Asea, Kenchreai, Corinth, or Athens. Pyrrhos was active in the Peloponnesos in the late 270’s b.c. and was steadfastly opposed by Argos, which town he never controlled and where in the end he was killed. Pyrrhos’ men with his coins in their purses seem to have frequented the Nemean Sanctuary. Perhaps they camped in the Nemea Valley during the ill-fated last campaign. It may not be too rash to imagine that the managers of the Games were sympathetic to Pyrrhos and that the removal of the Games from Nemea to Argos, which the archaeology attests took place at about this time, was one of the consequences of his failure against Argos. The Coins of Kleonai. There are 31 bronze coins of Kleonai from the site. This is a large number, even considering that Kleonai is very near and was in control of the Games from time to time.218 For example, while Mionnet’s listing of their degree of rarity as “7” might be questioned, it is to some extent validated by the ratio of Argive to Kleonian coins in the trays of the American Numismatic Society (New York) and the British Museum.219 The coins have as a type Herakles head right obverse, and KLEW in a wreath of wild celery reverse. The symbolism is clear: although elsewhere in the Sanctuary references to the Nemean connection of Herakles are rare, the choice for this obverse, coupled with the victory crown of wild celery from the Nemean Games, is transparent. The distribution of these coins is interesting in at least two respects.Their concentration in one area of the Stadium has already 217

The money pool at Nemea shows a preponderance of Philip II and other early Macedonian regnal coins, which indicates intense activity in the last decades of the 4th century b.c. 218 Besides literary evidence for Kleonai’s presence, a lead tablet from N 15 mentions KLEONAI; it is from a 4th-century-b.c. or earlier context: Hesperia 1977, 10–11, inv. IL 90a–c. Some victors in the Games were from Kleonai. For example, Aristis is attested as victor in the pankration four times: Nemea I, 277 no. 25. 219 Three examples of the Kleonai coin are published in the British Museum Catalogue; a fourth example is in the trays; the BM holds 71 Argive bronzes of the same period (1:18). In the American Numismatic Society collection there are 10 coins of Kleonai and 144 of Argos (1:14).

53

been noted and explained by postulating “town seating” in that area; it is interesting that Kleonai’s area is directly across from the tunnel, where the citizens would have the best view of the emerging athletes. The Nemean finds also confirm the date of Kleonai’s only bronze emission. Gardner had followed Droysen in dating the clearly “Nemean” type just described to ca. 235 b.c., when Aratos of Sikyon briefly attempted to celebrate the Games at the Nemean site under the supervision of Kleonai. Head demurred, dating the coins to the “late 4th century.”220 When the scatter of coins of Kleonai (Fig. 18) is plotted along with that of coins of Philip II and Alexander III (Fig. 19), the coincidence is evident; on the other hand, the scatter of Ptolemy III coins of the later 3rd century b.c. (Fig. 20) is distinctly different from that of Kleonai’s coins. In addition, in Section F 12 there is an unusually high concentration of 4th-centuryb.c. coins.221 Absent are the usual concentrations of Argive and Phlian coins—with only one of the former and none of the latter—but there is one from Kleonai, which would therefore fit into a 4th-century-b.c. context. Also, in the N 17 well, in a layer datable to the late 4th to early 3rd century b.c., were coins of Arkadia (Cat. 1914 [C 339]), 363–ca. 280 b.c., Alexander III (Cat. 71 [C 337]), 325–300 b.c., and a coin of Kleonai (Cat. 1860 [C 338]).222 Thus the date of the Kleonai coins is secure in the later 4th century b.c. and must be related to the supervision of the Games at that time.223

220 Gardner

in BMC Pel. pp. liii–liv; Head 441. Aratos and Nemea:Plutarch,Aratos 28,is evidence that he may have attempted to re-establish the Games at Nemea. The text states that he returned the Games to the people of Kleonai (Hesperia 1982, 28, 30; Nemea II, 97–99). 221 Cat. 61 (C 175; Alexander III), Cat. 192 (C 172; Boiotian League), Cat. 233 (C 190; Boiotian League), Cat. 317 (C 177; Athens), Cat. 318 (C 189; Athens), Cat. 490 (C 182; Corinth), Cat. 502 (C 184; Corinth), Cat. 508 (C 194; Corinth), Cat. 541 (C 193; Corinth), Cat. 579 (C 171; Corinth), Cat. 580 (C 191; Corinth), Cat. 724 (C 179; Corinth), Cat. 725 (C 183; Corinth), Cat. 726 (C 185; Corinth), Cat. 727 (C 186; Corinth), Cat. 1234 (C 188; Sikyon), Cat. 1252 (C 178; Sikyon), Cat. 1253 (C 187; Sikyon), Cat. 1277 (C 174; Sikyon), Cat. 1352 (C 181; Sikyon), Cat. 1460 (C 173; Sikyon), Cat. 1481 (C 192; Sikyon), Cat. 1777 (C 170; Argos), Cat. 1859 (C 180; Kleonai), Cat. 1928 (C 176; Arkadia), Cat. 1987 (C 169; Samos). All but the Euboian League coin (Cat. 233, ca. 253–245 b.c.) date from the late 4th to the early 3rd century b.c. 222 Hesperia 1976, 192. 223 See also Nemea II, 97 n. 229.

54

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

BATH

HEROON

6

7

8

9

XENON

1

2

3

4

5

6

ROAD 7 HOUSES

HOUSES

Fig. 18 Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins minted by Kleonai.

55

introduction

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

BATH

HEROON

6

7

8

9

XENON

1

2

3

4

5

6

ROAD 7 HOUSES

HOUSES

Fig. 19 Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins of Philip II and Alexander III.

56

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

NAISKOS

NEMEA SANCTUARY OF ZEUS

RIVER

ALTAR

NEMEA

TEMPLE OF ZEUS

CYPRESS GROVE

OIKOI 1

2

3

4

5

BATH

HEROON

6

7

8

9

XENON

1

2

3

4

5

ROAD 6

7 HOUSES

HOUSES

Fig. 20 Plan of the Sanctuary of Zeus with findspots plotted for coins of Ptolemy III.

introduction

The Coins of Ptolemy III. The distribution of the coins of Ptolemy III is also particularly interesting. These coins were the result of subsidies given to Spartans by Ptolemy in 227–223 b.c. and earlier to Aratos of Sikyon and can be dated fairly closely.224 The coins appear mainly in and near the Peloponnesos, for example at Corinth and Asea,but not outside the Peloponnesos at the Corycian Cave, and they are rare at Athens.225 At the Nemean site these coins surely testify directly to the attempted re-establishment of the Games at Nemea during part of Aratos’ rule. The Coins of Mithridates. Coins from far away are quite rare at Nemea, and are more useful for producing an impression of the diversity of visitors than for providing any convincing evidence about the use of the site. However, it is tantalizing to note, as Appian does in his Mithridatic War, that Mithridates VI Eupator dedicated body armor at both Delphi and Nemea.226 Not only does this give a brief glimpse of the continuing use of the Sanctuary early in the 1st century b.c., it allows speculation about the origin of the Amisian coins found at the site.These two coins (Cat. 1980 [C 527], Cat. 1981 [C 542]) were found quite close together at the doorway of one of the oikoi. The obvious supposition is that they were dropped,or thrown away,by Pontians who had come to Nemea to deliver the dedicated armor. An Earlier Beginning Date of the Bronze Coins of Corinth, Sikyon, and (?) Aigina? There is significant evidence from the excavations at Corinth that Pegasos/Trident bronzes are found in a late-5th- and early-4th-century-b.c. context.227 From Nemea,one

224 Polybios

2.51. The payment of six talents by Ptolemy III to Aratos in 243 b.c. may also be reflected in these coins (Plutarch, Aratos 41). Their presence at Nemea reflects the presence of Aratos’ men,paid in this coin:note the concentration of Ptolemaic coins at the fortresses of Koroni and Heliopolis in Attica, where Ptolemaic troops were stationed, paid with Ptolemaic money (Vanderpool). For donatives from Macedonian and other kings note the Boiotian coins overstruck on those of Antigonos Doson; there probably had been a bronze donation by Doson to the Boiotians. Antigonos Gonatas probably gave a bronze donative to Athens (Agora XXVI, 166). For Seleucid donatives to Peloponnesian states see Noe. 225 Varoucha 1941 lists all Ptolemy III coins found in the Peloponnesos to that date.For Athens see Agora XXVI, 283 no.1007. 226 Appian, Mith. 112. 227 Williams & Fisher; Bookidis & Fisher 1974, 294 (first half of the 4th century b.c.); Warren 1983, 33 n. 46; 1984, 23; Zervos 184,203;the Pegasos/Trident is under the “Punic Amphora

57

piece of evidence is relevant: in Section L 17 a well was excavated in 1977. The closing level, uncovered in 1964 excavations,has left no record.However,material discovered near the top of the well makes that closing date in all likelihood the late 4th or early 3rd century b.c. Proceeding down, the excavators found a distinct change in the fill; in that fill was found a saltcellar of the last quarter of the 5th century b.c. In that same fill were three coins: Cat. 1263 (C 908, Sikyon, bronze, dove/san, 365–330 b.c. [Warren Group 2]), Cat. 1592 (C 1020, Argos, silver, before 421 b.c.), and Cat. 772 (C 1097, a bronze Pegasos/Trident of Corinth, ca. 248 [Price dating]). The excavators tentatively,but reasonably,assigned this level to the time of the destruction of the Sanctuary during the Peloponnesian War.228 Therefore, the Pegasos/Trident from Corinth would date from that time as well, thus confirming the surmise from the discoveries at Corinth and pushing back the beginning date for the Corinthian bronze Pegasos/Tridents a half century earlier than the 368 b.c. Price had settled upon.229 Warren in her discussion of the “Group 2” coins of Sikyon (Dove flying or alighting / large san [M]) ties the date of this bronze coin to the Pegasos/Trident, but for that date relies on Price’s terminus post quem of 368, while noting that Williams has suggested to her that she consider a date in the late 5th century b.c. for the Pegasos/Tridents’ appearance at Corinth.230 The Nemea well would make it easy to push back the date of the Sikyonian Group 2 bronze to that time, since it appears in the L 17 well along with the Corinthian Pegasos/Trident.231 Indeed, the Corinthian material seems to support this: that found in the Sacred Spring,phase 3,included not

Building” per Survey of Numismatic Research for 1985–1990, ed. T. Hackens et al. (Brussels 1991), 61–62 with n. 65. 228 Hesperia 1978, 82–83. The assignment to this date is due to a combination of two pieces of evidence: the general archaeology of the fill and a lack of use of the Sanctuary during the first half of the 4th century b.c.—a lack well attested throughout the archaeology of the site. 229 Price 1964b. 230 Warren 1983, 32–33 and n. 46. Warren notes that the Sikyonian coin is modelled on a silver coin of that mint which was produced in the later 5th century b.c., although such copying cannot be a certain determinant of date. 231 It is worth noting as well that there are no Sikyonian coins of this type nor of the earlier, Group 1, type in the later Stadium complex, although many coins of Sikyon appear there; with an earlier starting date, their being out of circulation by the time the Stadium was in use at the end of the 4th century b.c. becomes more likely.

58

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

TABLE 4

Horizontal Coin Distribution: Heroön and Stadium

mint

type

date of issue (b.c.)

total coins

% coins in sections E19 & F19

coins in stadium

catalogue numbers

Coins common in both the area of the Heroön and of the Stadium Philip II

Apollo head / Horseman

359–336

44

25% (12)

5

8–52

Alexander III Chalkis

All AE 336–323 Female or 337–273 Hera head / Eagle All AE 338–200 Athena head / 330’s–317 Double-bodied owl Four pellets 400–350 (reverse) Two pellets 350–300 (reverse) Dove alighting 365–330 or flying / san Dove flying / 330–290 Symbol or initial in wreath Hera head / A 425–350

17 30

10% (2) 20% (5)

2 0

59–70; 75–79 241–270

24 37

15% (3) 15% (6)

1 2

273–296 308–344

62

20% (10)

5

1046–1107

39

15% (5)

5

1108–1146

57

10% (5)

0

1217–1273

36

15% (6)

5

1460–1495

37

10% (4)

4

1602–1638

83

20% (15)

5

1647–1685 1715–1758

29

70% (19)

2

1686–1714

31

20% (6)

6

1857–1887

Histiaia Athens Phlious Phlious Sikyon Sikyon Argos Argos

Argos

Kleonai

Wolf ’s head / 350–228 A (all symbols but Macedonian helmet) Wolf ’s head / 350–228 A (symbol: Macedonian helmet) Herakles head 320a (obverse)

only a Sikyonian Group 1 coin but also a Group 2 coin.While Warren saw this as evidence that the phase 3 find might not confirm a late-5th-century-b.c. date for the introduction of the Pegasos/Trident bronze, the Nemean discovery rather makes it look like both Sikyonian Group 1 and Group 2 coins go back that far.232 Unfortunately,no coin of Aigina appears in the well, for it seems that the early bronze of that mint is contemporary with that of the Sikyonian dove/san and Corinthian Pegasos/Trident; perhaps it too goes back to the late 5th century b.c.233

232 Warren 233 Warren

1984, 23 (note to Warren 1983, 33 n. 46). 1983, 33.

Dating Coins of Sikyon and Phlious. Warren queried the meaning of the distribution of coins found near the Heroön. Although the data available to her is now much out of date, her observation regarding this situation remains valid and is worth addressing here.234 Table 4 presents an interesting picture of horizontal coin distribution in the Heroön and in the Stadium. (Note that percentages are rounded off to the nearest 5%.) The results tallied in this table must be considered provisional not only because identification of individual coins is problematic but also because new discoveries could change the picture.

234 Warren

1985, 60.

59

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TABLE 4 (continued)

mint

date of issue (b.c.)

type

total coins

% coins in Sections E19 & F19

coins in Stadium

catalogue numbers

Coins common elsewhere, but not common in the area of the Heroön and Stadium Phlious Sikyon Sikyon Sikyon Argos

No pellets 300 and later (reverse) Dove flying / 196–146 SI in wreath Dove feeding / 196–146 Tripod-lebes Apollo laureate / 1st century Dove flying or alighting Apollo head / 228–146 Wolf at bay

16

0% (0)

0

1147–1162

18

0% (0)

0

1498–1515

19

0% (0)

0

1516–1531

12

0% (0)

0

1537–1548

9

0% (0)

0

1802–1810

Coins which do not clearly fall into either of the above categories Antigonos Gonatas Pyrrhos

Sikyon Argos Argos Arkadia

All AE emissions Macedonian shield / Macedonian helmet Dove flying / S, SE, or SI Apollo head / Tripod-lebes Hera head / Quiver All AE

277–239

16

5% (1)

0

99–114

288–285; 274–272

9

35% (3)

0

136–144

330–200

50

0% (0)

1

1410–1459

228–146b

7

15% (1)

1

1780–1786

228–146c

14

5% (1)

1

1787–1800

363–280

25

0% (0)

0

1913–1937

a Taking

the earlier date rather than the ca. 235 date of the BMC. date; redated on the basis of Nemea finds to ca. 300–146 b.c. c Traditional date; redated on the basis of Nemea finds to ca. 300–146 b.c. b Traditional

Nevertheless, it is possible to emphasize a number of impressions. First of all, the coins most in circulation when the Heroön (E 19 and F 19) and Stadium were in use together can be listed: Philip II Alexander III Chalkis (Hera head / eagle) Histiaia Athens (Athena head / double-bodied owl) Phlious (four pellets reverse) Phlious (two pellets reverse) Sikyon (dove alighting / san) Sikyon (dove flying / wreath with symbol or initials) Argos (Hera head / A) Argos (wolf ’s head / A with all other symbols)

Argos (wolf ’s head / A with Macedonian helmet symbol) Kleonai (Herakles head / wreath) The traditional dates of all these coins fit within a period of ca. 330–300 b.c. An earlier dating for Sikyon (dove alighting or flying / san) is confirmed; Warren’s date of 365–330 b.c. emphasizes that the Heroön, where the coins are found, was used earlier than the Stadium, where they were not found (although other issues of Sikyon were). An earlier start date for the Phlious coins with four-pellets reverse is also confirmed since four- and two-pellet coins are found in equal numbers in the Stadium, but the four-pellet coins are more common than the two-pellet in the Heroön. At the other end of the chronological spectrum

60

classical, hellenistic, and roman provincial coins

we find the following bronzes fairly commonly elsewhere in the Sanctuary, but not in the Heroön or in the Stadium: Phlious (no pellets) (traditional date: 350–300 b.c.) Sikyon (dove flying / SI in wreath) (date: 196– 150 b.c.) Sikyon (dove feeding, tripod-lebes) (date: 196– 150 b.c.) Sikyon (Apollo laureate / dove flying or alighting) (date: 160–150 b.c.) Argos (Apollo head / wolf at bay) (date: 228– 146 b.c.) From this list it might be safe to assume that the Phlious coins with no pellets are the last of the series and date to after 300 b.c., perhaps even extending to after 270, when the Sanctuary ceased to be the site of the Nemean Games. Redating of Some Other Bronze Coins. The coin (Cat. 1979 [C 1047]) of Pholegandros, a minor Aegean island,is normally dated to the 2nd and 1st centuries b.c.235 The fact that an example of this rare coin turned up at Nemea strongly indicates that the issue dates from the late 4th to the early 3rd century b.c. The same logic leads to the suggestion that a number of other coins are earlier than is usually thought: The coin of Ainianes (Cat. 118 [C 416]), usually dated 168–146 b.c. (BMC Thess. 11 no. 17); the bronze of Thessaly is notoriously hard to date (Martin 43 n. 26). The coin of Oiniadai (Cat. 155 [C 2959]), usually dated 230–168 b.c. (BMC Thess. 189 nos. 6–14). The coin of Lebadeia (Cat. 216 [C 2734]), usually dated ca. 146–27 b.c. (BMC Cent. Greece 50 nos. 1–2); this was found in Section E 19, where coins dating from as late as the 2nd to 1st century b.c. are not otherwise found. Antioch and Nemea. In one of the stranger architectural/religious occurrences of the Greek world, a temple replicating that of Zeus at Nemea was built at Seleucia Pieria,near Antioch-on-Orontes (Syria),

235 BMC Crete–Aegean Is. p.118;Head 490.I thank Basil Deme-

triades for identifying this coin for me.

in the early years of the 3rd century b.c. 236 While there are no coins from Antioch or Syria at Nemea, one from the early Hellenistic period has been found recently at Corinth.237 Connections between sites sharing common worship is intrinsically likely, although unattested. A possible parallel exists in the numismatic evidence for Opuntian Lokris at Nemea. The Classical tradition states that Hesiod was warned that he would die in the Sanctuary of Nemean Zeus. He therefore assiduously avoided Nemea in the Peloponnesos but forgot that Nemean Zeus was also worshipped at a grove at Oineon in Opuntian Lokris. When he visited that grove, he died. At Peloponnesian Nemea there were found 22 coins of Opuntian Lokris.This is disproportionately many: not only is Lokris at some distance from Nemea, being just at the edge of the 75-kilometer circle, but it is not a prolific mint. While the appearance of 16 examples (of 99 total coins) is not surprising at the much closer Corycian Cave, there are only 4 of 947 from Corinth, 44 of 16,557 in the Agora,none from the Sanctuary of Demeter or from Kenchreai,no bronze ones from Asea,and so on.The coins of Lokris found at Nemea may be evidence of the shared object of religious devotion at the two places, and of travel between the sites. Thus, too, the stray coin of Antioch-on-Orontes at Corinth may be related to travel between similar religious sites.238 Severans at Nemea? In 1995 a new inscription mentioning Julia Domna was published from Epidauros Limera.239 This base probably held three statues in all, possibly Julia Domna along with Geta and Caracalla. Other Severan statue bases have been found in 236 Bacchielli. 237 In

addition, three come from the excavations in the Athenian Agora, but these are all late Hellenistic (47–40 b.c.) or Imperial: Agora XXVI, nos. 995–997. 238 I should note that John Mac Isaac, who is very familiar with the coins found at Corinth, has pointed out to me that the coins of Lokris are much more common in Corinth, central Greece,and the northern Peloponnesos than the published material would lead one to believe; he is dubious that the coins from Lokris found at Nemea are the result of any “special relationship” between the two locations. Stephen Miller, on the other hand, notes that the cult of Nemean Zeus—the “Grazing Zeus”—is a distinct and very different cult from that of Olympian Zeus. One example of the difference is the lack of dedications of armor discovered at Nemea (where Zeus is not warlike) in contrast to the wealth of dedications at Olympia. Given the paucity of cults of Nemean Zeus,Miller finds a connection between those at Nemea and at Lokris quite possible. 239 Stroud & Stroud.

introduction

the Peloponnesos at the Asklepieion in Epidauros (IG IV2 1: 610), Sparta (SEG 34: 309, 36: 360), Tainaron (SEG 23: 199), Megara (IG VII, 80), Hermione (IG IV, 704, 706), and Olympia (IvO 387). Severans are featured on a number of local coinages in the Peloponnesos as well.240 Grunauervon Hoerschelmann attributes the coinage to fiscal requirements,specifically to pay aurum coronarium.241 Likewise, there may be no personal connection between the Severans and the Peloponnesos which generated statues; on the other hand, imperial interest and/or an imperial visit would lead to a flurry of statuary.It is reasonable to ask if the Severans have anything to do with the Nemean site. After the removal of the Games from Nemea to Argos about 271 b.c. there is no evidence that games were held at Nemea.242 All we have is the suggestive fact that the only Imperial coins found in any number at the site are Severan or near-Severan:some person or persons at about the time of the inscription lost 40 or so bronze coins in the area of the Bath; these date from Hadrian to the Severans, with the preponderance (31) from Marcus Aurelius to the 240 Grunauer

1982. 1982, 46. 242 Nemea II, 122; see nn. 43–46 above. For games in Greece during Roman times see Spawforth. 241 Grunauer

61

Severans.243 In all probability the loss is fortuitous, but the connection of the Severi to the Peloponnesos and the lost coins may yet prove significant. While these final two instances are somewhat daring, the general methodology of the archaeonumismatic approach is clear. Careful excavation and recording of coins combined with the type of analysis illustrated here provide the key to discovering previously unknown facts about both the site and the coins themselves. 243 Hadrian: Cat. 271 (C 2663); Antoninus Pius: Cat. 1022 (C 817), Cat. 1811 (C 3042); Marcus Aurelius: Cat. 1023 (C 3060), Cat. 1024 (C 3073), Cat. 1812 (C 3047); Lucius Verus: Cat. 1025 (C 3540), Cat. 1026 (C 750), Cat. 1813 (C 3062), Cat. 1815 (C 3043); Commodus: Cat. 370 (C 3423), Cat. 1027 (C 2570), Cat. 1028 (C 3249); Severus: Cat. 1031 (C 3063), Cat. 1032 (C 3066), Cat. 1033 (C 3067), Cat. 1034 (C 3164), Cat. 1816 (C 3052), Cat. 1817 (C 3061), Cat. 1818 (C 3046), Cat. 1819 (C 3049), Cat. 1820 (C 3070); Julia Domna: Cat. 1035 (C 3064), Cat. 1036 (C 3044), Cat. 1821 (C 3050), Cat. 1822 (C 3040), Cat. 1823 (C 3072), Cat. 1824 (C 162), Cat. 1825 (C 3053); Caracalla: Cat. 1037 (C 3160), Cat. 1038 (C 3065), Cat. 1039 (C 3069), Cat. 1826 (C 3154); Plautilla: Cat. 1041 (C 1010); uncertain: Cat. 2104 (C 691), Cat. 2106 (C 1947), Cat. 2108 (C 2459), Cat. 2110 (C 3333), Cat. 2111 (C 3346), Cat. 2112 (C 3376). On the possibility of Severan activity at Nemea see also Nemea I, 239 n. 661.

Catalogue of Coins, Part I

The Catalogue is arranged geographically according to the system of the British Museum’s Catalogue of Greek Coins. Coins of Rome follow the Greek coins. Preceding each group of coins, information about the group as a whole is presented as follows: Coin type: obverse/ reverse

Metal

Bibliography for type

Each entry provides the following information: Catalogue number

Inventory number

Provenience (grid section); cf. Figs. 1–2

Die Orientation

Size (mm.)

Weight (g.)

Plate number and letter

Date of context

Notes

Unless otherwise noted, the “date of context” is supplied by ceramic evidence; because of the churned-up nature of many regions in the site, this context date often has little to do with the coin’s date, but it is often enough useful to include it systematically here. The date notation system indicates the portion of a century involved, then the century; for example, “1/2 2c b.c.” = “first half of 2nd century b.c.” By convention,all non-Roman coins are called “Greek,” even those produced by demonstrably non-Greek mints. The now-preferred “Roman Provincial” is used for coins produced by provincial mints during the Roman Empire; these are often referred to in older publications as “Greek Imperials.” I have listed all the “Classical” coins, no matter what their condition, and have given what information is available. While it might seem strange to list individually, for example, hundreds of Pegasos/Trident bronzes of Corinth, the data provided may prove useful to another scholar someday. I have included the findspot, identified in most cases by the Grid Section used by the Nemea Excavations for all artifacts, but listed as “NEM” when the coin comes from an early, poorly documented excavation phase from which only a general location can be gleaned. I have also included the context date as determined by the records of the excavation, even though, given the churned-up nature of the site, that context date is often far different from the coin’s date. Further, I have avoided when possible the circularity of using the coins to date the context; when that context date does derive from the coins themselves, I have noted the fact. The nomenclature for periods and their chronological limits is explained in the section on chronological terminology on pp.xxix–xxx above. In the “Notes” column I have included any relevant information about the coin, such as countermark or condition, and its previous publication. I have not been consistent in listing denominations. I have generally included denominations of silver coins, but the denominations of bronze coins are unclear; when a scholar has assigned denominations which seem reasonable, I have noted them, but I have not tried to de-

63

64

catalogue of coins, part i

termine denominations on my own. I have given Roman transliterations when I felt that they were so familiar as to render the use of the Greek pedantic; otherwise my transliterations follow the norm established for the Nemea publications. For the plates I have chosen almost all the silver coins, regardless of how repetitious some are, and all the Roman Provincial bronze, since scholars often lack data on these issues; among the other bronze I have tried to illustrate an example, no matter how poorly preserved, of every type and variant. Most material is shown as photographs from casts.

catalogue of coins, part i

65

GREEK COINS: CLASSICAL, HELLENISTIC, AND ROMAN PROVINCIAL ITALY Brundisium Ca. 217–200 b.c. 244 Poseidon r., laureate; behind, trident and Nike; beneath, S / BRVN. Youth on dolphin l., holding Nike and lyre; above tail, S Cat. 1

C 1014

L 16

AE

k

20

SNG Cop. It. no. 723 pl. 17

7.56

1,a

Early Christian

Thurii 4th century b.c. Athena in crested helmet r. / [QOU ]. Bull r., leaning back to bite his shoulder Cat. 2

C 3342

AE

K 19

j

18

SNG Cop. It. no. 1496 pl. 29

4.71

1,b

unknown

SICILY Syracuse 465–425 b.c. [S UR ] r. Arethusa head r.; two dolphins below / Cuttlefish Cat. 3

C 1204

L 17

p

AE 15

345–317 b.c. [S URA]. Athena head l., in Corinthian helmet / Hippocamp flying l. Cat. 4

C 1643

G 19

m

SNG Cop. Sic. no. 654 pl. 14 3.9

1,c

AE 17

5c–6c a.d.

cf. BMC Sic. 187 nos. 290–297 (illus.); SNG Cop. Sic. nos. 721–722 pl. 16 (sim.) 5.93

1,d

5c–6c a.d.

THRACIAN ISLANDS Thasos Ca. 390–310 b.c. 245 Herakles head r. / [QA]S [ION ]. Bow and club with crescent in between Cat. 5

244

C 3972

M 19

AE

j

10

Picard 1987; Picard 1990, 23–24; SNG Cop. Thrace nos. 1050–1051 pl. 21 1.15

1,e

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

This coin was issued in very large quantities, probably in relation to the needs of the First Macedonian War (211–205 b.c.) and subsequent Roman actions in the East (Crawford 1985, 67). An example of this coin was also found in the Athenian Agora: Agora XXVI, 171 no. 418, whose dating I follow. 245 Picard 1987, 7–9.

66

catalogue of coins, part i

MACEDONIA Neapolis After ca. 400 b.c. 246 Gorgoneion / [NEO]. Athena Parthenos head r. Cat. 6

C 2210

J 19

AE k

10

SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 230–231 pl. 6 1.31

1, f

5c–6c a.d. (?)

Mende Ca. 480–450 b.c. Ass head and neck r. / Kantharos in incuse square Cat. 7

C 800

AR: tetartemorion N 16

p

6

SNG Cop. Mac. no. 208 pl. 6

0.10

1,g

3/4 4c b.c.

Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

Kings of Macedonia 247 Philip II, 359 –336 b.c. 359–336 b.c. Apollo head r.; hair bound with tainia / FILIPPOU. Youthful horseman naked, r., without petasos; below, symbol

AE 248

Bellinger 1964, nos. 37–52; SNG ANS nos. 830–971 pls. 30–33

obv. head r.; rev. horseman r. Cat. 8 Cat. 9

C 37 C 105

F4 D 11

p i

17 15

5.35 5.33

2,a

13c a.d. Byzantine

Cat. 10

C 124

D 11

j

18

5.67

2,b

Byzantine

rev. symbol, forepart of bull; SNG ANS nos. 861–863 rev. symbol H; cf. SNG ANS nos. 842, 843

246 I

am grateful to Cleopatra Papaevangelou for advice on the bronze coinage of Neapolis. In addition to the coins from the excavations, three coins were deposited by the police at [New] Nemea with the National Numismatic Museum, Athens, in December 1938. These are recorded as IGCH 79; however, although there are no details of the find, there is no reason to suppose they actually formed a hoard. In addition, there is no way to know exactly where in the area of Nemea the coins came from, although their close resemblance to coins found in the excavations strengthens the probability that they came from the site of those excavations. Y. Touratsoglou, Director of the Museum, kindly allowed me to examine the coins and give a brief summary here. They are:

247

Obverse

Reverse

Bearded head r., long hair tied; no cap; holds reins in one hand, palm in the other Herakles head r.

FILLIPOU. Rider with

Boiotian shield

248

palm r. symbol below upraised front leg: ?dolphin ALEXANDROU. Zeus seated with eagle l.; in front of knee: dot; no monogram Amphora; on either side, abbreviated magistrate’s name DA/M[O](kleidaˇ)

Die orientation

Size (mm.)

Weight (g.)

Notes

o

23

14.2

Le Rider 53–54 nos. 410–417 = Pella II B (ca. 336/5–ca. 329/8)

j

22

16.83

SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 668, 669



20

11.79

SNG Cop. Aet. nos. 325, 326

The bronze coinages of Philip II cannot as yet be arranged chronologically within the reign, and many are posthumous. See the discussion at SNG ANS on page facing pl. 30.

67

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 11

C 136

F4

p

16

6.61

2,c

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 12 Cat. 13

C 895 C 1057

L 15 CC 29

o k

18 17

4.65 5.34

2,d

4c b.c. Early Christian

Cat. 14 Cat. 15

C 1683 C 1686

G 18 G 18

i k

18 17

5.68 5.50

3c b.c. (or later?) 3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 16 Cat. 17 Cat. 18

C 2080 C 2433 C 2762

P 13 K 16 E 19

k i o

16 16 15

6.03 5.70 6.85

5c–6c a.d. Roman late 3c b.c.

Cat. 19

C 2779

E 19

n

16

5.64

1/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 20

C 2815

E 19

i

16

7.21

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 21

C 2820

E 19

i

17

6.10

4c–3c b.c.

rev. symbol, club; cf. SNG ANS no. 868; Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

Cat. 22

C 2836

E 19

j

18

4.78

4c b.c.

rev. symbol, fly; SNG ANS no. 885

Cat. 23

C 2904

F 19

j

16

6.21

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

rev. symbol, kantharos; SNG ANS nos. 887–888

Cat. 24

C 2973

P 15

i

15

2.60

6c a.d.

plated bronze core?

Cat. 25

C 3326

K 19

o

18

5.89

unknown

Cat. 26

C 3550

K 19

o

19

6.58

modern

Cat. 27

C 3669

L 19

p

17

6.17

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 28

C 3710

K 19

m

17

5.42

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 29

C 3740

K 19

m

16

7.01

3/4 4c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 26 pl. 10:c, d

Cat. 30

C 3757

L 19

m

17

7.36

4c–3c b.c.

rev. symbol, P

Cat. 31

C 3862

K 19

m

17

6.52

modern

Cat. 32

C 3989

M 19

n

16

2.67

4c b.c. (?)

Cat. 33

C 4020

L 19

k

16

6.09

none

2,e

rev. symbol, j; cf. SNG ANS no. 921; Hesperia 1975, 154 n. 29 pl. 37:e rev. symbol, dolphin; cf. SNG ANS no. 864; Nemea II, 235 Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c, d

obv. head l.; rev. horseman r. Cat. 34

C 96

S 17

k

18

5.89

unknown

Cat. 35

C 533

M 16

m

16

6.25

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 36

C 548

DD 31

l

16

5.51

Byzantine

rev. symbol, thunderbolt? Nemea II, 235

Cat. 37

C 562

DD 30

i

16

6.84

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 38

C 699

L 14

k

17

6.76

Early Christian

Cat. 39

C 1423

CC 29

i

18

4.59

ca. 330–320 b.c.

rev. symbol below, bull’s head

Hesperia 1980, 203 pl. 51:d; Nemea II, 90, 91, 235

68

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 40

C 2756

E 19

n

18

7.39

Cat. 41

C 2896

E 19

o

18

5.52

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

2, f

unknown Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

obv. head r.; rev. horseman l. Cat. 42

C 1565

F 19

o

15

6.11

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 43

C 1568

EE 26

o

16

5.42

modern

Cat. 44

C 1650

G 19

i

17

5.14

Cat. 45 C 3719 obv. head l.; rev. horseman l.

L 19

j

17

6.59

3c b.c.

Cat. 46

C 1580

F 17

j

17

6.67

14c a.d.

Cat. 47

C 2831

E 19

p

16

6.66

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 48

C 2844

E 19

k

16

5.80

Cat. 49

C 3938

N 19

j

Cat. 50 C 1843 obv. head l.; rev. illegible

L 19

m

Cat. 51

L 18



2,g

2,h

5c b.c. (?)

4c b.c.

5.48

3c b.c.

16

6.28

late 3c b.c.

18

6.12

uncertain

rev. symbol uncertain

Hesperia 1981, 60 rev. symbol uncertain (Helios head?); rev. symbol, dolphin; cf. SNG ANS nos. 872–874

obv. illegible; rev. horseman r.

C 1838

Herakles head in lion’s skin r./ FIL[IPPOU ] Youthful horseman naked r.

AE

Cat. 52 C 1728 F 19 Herakles head in lion’s skin l. / [FIL]IPPO[U ]. Thunderbolt

k

Cat. 53

i

C 3993

M 19

rev. countermark, animal standing l. Nemea I, 182 n. 546 SNG ANS nos. 972–974 pl. 34

17

5.43

2,i

1.35

2, j

AE 12

3c b.c. SNG ANS nos. 994–995 undatable

Posthumous Amphipolis mint Ca. 323/2–316/5 b.c. Zeus head laureate r. / F[ILIPPOU ]. Youthful horseman r., holding palm; below, wreath(?) Cat. 54

C 2297

G 14

AR: tetradrachm

o

Apollo head wearing tainia r. / Youthful horseman naked r.; FILIPPOU. Below, symbol(s) Cat. 55

C 954

21

9.62

Le Rider pl. 44.29; SNG ANS nos. 603–607 pl. 22 2,k

AR: 1/5 tetradrachm

K 16

p

13

2.41

2,l

modern

rev. letter off flan to r.; Hesperia 1983, 75 n. 23 pl. 19:f, g Le Rider 120–124; SNG ANS nos. 616–629 pls. 22–23 none

rev. below, T within wreath; Le Rider pl. 45.27; SNG ANS no. 628; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 20 pl. 17:a

69

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 56

C 1815

L 18

n

14

2.40

2,m

modern

Cat. 57

C 3727

K 19

j

13

2.53

2,n

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

rev. below, palm branch; Le Rider pl. 46.23; Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

Cat. 58

C 3949

M 20

p

13

2.46

2,o

Early Christian

rev. below, ear of grain; Le Rider pl. 46.22; SNG ANS no. 703; Hesperia 1988, 16 pl. 23:c, d

rev. below, Macedonian shield; Le Rider pl. 46.30; SNG ANS nos. 726–730; Hesperia 1981, 59 pl. 18:a, b; Nemea I, xv, 175, figs. 209–210

Alexander III, 336 –323 b.c. Macedonia mint Ca. 336–323 b.c. 249 Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / ALEXANDROU between bow and quiver, and club l.; club above

AE

Price 1991, 116–117, nos. 266–327 pl. 46

Cat. 59

C 132

F4

l

18

6.93

Cat. 60

C 160

CC 32

m

18

5.92

2,p

Early Byzantine

rev. symbol, thunderbolt above, D below; Price nos. 275–276; Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 61

C 175

F 12

p

18

6.17

2,q

4c b.c.

rev. symbol uncertain; Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 62

C 1678

G 18

m

17

5.38

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 63

C 2690

Q 14

i

18

5.98

modern

Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / ALEXANDROU between bow in quiver and club lying r.

late 4c/ early 3c b.c.

AE

rev. symbol above club, P; Price no. 310 rev. symbol above, thunderbolt; below, [D ]; Price nos. 275–276

Price 1991, 116–123, nos. 266–327 pl. 46

Cat. 64

C 441

DD 32

m

17

5.82

Cat. 65

C 2840

E 19

k

18

5.61

4c b.c.

Cat. 66

C 2934

Q 14

i

17

6.37

6c–5c b.c.

Cat. 67

C 3412

L 17

o

19

6.00

unknown

249 The

rev. symbol uncertain

2,r

12c–13c a.d.

precise chronology of Alexander’s bronze coinage is uncertain. See Price 1991, 116–117.

Nemea II, 235

70

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 68

C 3431

M 12,13

k

18

5.50

unknown

Cat. 69

C 3655

L 19

k

18

7.18

mid–3c b.c.

Cat. 70

C 3793

K 19

o

16

5.04

late 2c b.c.

Ca. 325–300 b.c. Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / ALEXANDROU vertically r. Zeus enthroned l., holding eagle and scepter

AR: drachma

Bellinger 1926 no. 15

Price 1991

Cat. 71

C 337

N 17

i

16

4.13

2,s

2/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 72

C 1417

H 14

i

17

3.98

2,t

Early Christian

Cat. 73

C 2262

L 14

i

16

3.86

2,u

3c a.d.

rev. symbol l., grain ear; Price 281 no. 2100a pl. 131: Miletos mint; ca. 323–319 b.c.; Hesperia 1983, 72 n. 6 pl. 17:f, g

Cat. 74

C 2495

L 17

j

15

3.95

2,v

unknown

rev. symbol l., club; illegible monogram beneath throne; Price 342 no. 2793 pl. 136; uncertain Western Asia mint ca. 300 b.c.

Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / ALEXANDROU between club and quiver

AE

monogram e; under throne, ivy leaf; Price 231 no. 1546; Abydos mint ca. 310– 301 b.c.

Price 1991, 116–117

Cat. 75

C 1309

J 14

i

17

4.77

Cat. 76

C 2784

E 19

i

17

5.66

Ca. 323–317 b.c. Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / BA between bow in quiver and club, bow above

monogram d; Price 280 no. 2090 pl. 131: Miletos mint ca. 325–323 b.c.; Hesperia 1976, 192 pl. 38:c

2,w

AE

1/2 5c b.c.

rev. above, club r.; above, no symbol; Price nos. 326–327

3/3 3c b.c.

rev. above, quiver; symbol below, onehandled cup; Price no. 325

Price 1991, 116–117, 126–128, nos. 373–396 pls. 147, 148, passim

Cat. 77

C 3701

K 19

i

17

5.79

Cat. 78

C 3858

K 19

o

17

5.78

2/2 2c b.c. 2,x

late 2c to 1c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

71

catalogue of coins, part i

Tarsus mint Ca. 323–317 b.c. Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / ALEXANDROU between bow in quiver, and club above; above club, caduceus; below bow, star Cat. 79

C 1700

AE

o

G 18

16

Price 1991, 116–117, 378 no. 3061, pl. 47

6.89

early 3c b.c.

2,y

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c, d

Kassandros, 316 –297 b.c.250 305–297 b.c. Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / [BASILEWS KASSANDROU ]. Horseman r.; symbol r., star

AE

Ehrhardt, 26–27; SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 1142–1153 pl. 29

Cat. 80

C 390251

DD 31

o

14

2.64

4c a.d.

Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 81

C 1641

G 19

i

19

5.89

5c–6c a.d.

rev. below, illegible

Cat. 82

C 2584

L 16

n

17

4.24

unknown

3,a

rev. below, L

Demetrios Poliorketes, 306 –283 b.c. 294–288 b.c. 252 Macedonian shield; on boss, monogram L/ BASI. Macedonian helmet

AE

Newell 118–120 nos. 125–131 pl. 13; Dimitrov & Ivanov 66; Liampi 1986, 45; cf. Mathisen

Cat. 83

C 543

M 15

j

16

3.90

modern

Cat. 84

C 1534

F 18

k

15

3.42

1/3 4c a.d.

rev. symbol l., pedum

Cat. 85

C 1663

G 18

p

15

4.39

modern

rev. symbol l., pedum

Cat. 86

C 1866

K 11

m

15

3.86

3,b

modern

rev. symbol l., double axe; Hesperia 1982, 22 n. 5 pl. 9:a, b, but attributed to Pyrrhos

Cat. 87

C 2081

P 13

p

16

3.74

3,c

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 88

C 2920

P 14

i

16

4.35

294–283 b.c. 253 Demetrios head wearing Corinthian helmet r. / B A. Prow; below, monogram Cat. 89

250 Kassandros

C 949

O 15

i

AE254 12

6c a.d.

Newell 149–159 pl. 17; SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 1185–1194 pl. 30 3.54

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

monogram M

presided over the Nemean Games in person in 315 b.c. (Diodorus Siculus 19.64.1). type is readily confused with a similar one of Antigonos Gonatas (e.g. Cat. 105 [C 2467] below) which is as poorly preserved as this one is, so Cat. 80 (C 390) may be a coin of Gonatas. 252 Newell 118. 253 Newell 157–158 argues for a “Carian” mint but notices the evidence of finds and types which point to an Arkadian mint. The numerous coins of this type found at Nemea perhaps support a Peloponnesian mint, although in the end Newell opts for the “Carian” location. 254 All seem to be what Newell calls a “bronze half ” except Cat. 92 (C 1754), which is a “bronze quarter.” 251 The

72

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 90

C 993

J 15

i

14

3.89

Cat. 91

C 1397

G 18

i

14

2.62

Cat. 92

C 1754

F 19

m

11

Cat. 93

C 1764

F 19

i

Cat. 94

C 1871

O 19

Cat. 95

C 2040

Cat. 96

modern

monogram illegible

3,d

Early Christian

rev. symbol r., double axe; below, monogram N

1.63

3,e

early 3c b.c.

rev. below, monogram M; Newell no. 173

14

2.21

3, f

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

rev. symbol r., double axe; below, monogram N; Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b



14

1.96

modern

P 12

i

14

3.81

modern

C 2837

E 19

i

15

3.05

4c b.c.

Cat. 97

C 2887

E 19

m

15

2.63

4c b.c.

Cat. 98

C 2999

P 16

i

14

2.56

6c a.d.

rev. symbol r., double axe; below, monogram N

Antigonos Gonatas, 277–239 b.c. 277–239 b.c. Athena in Corinthian helmet r. / BA. Pan erecting trophy; monogram below, I

AE

Mathisen 1979; SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 1205–1213 pl. 31

Cat. 99

C 940

O 15

k

17

3.21

Cat. 100

C 942

O 15

i

19

2.96

Cat. 101

C 1116

L 17

i

18

3.67

Cat. 102

C 1472

H 14

l

17

4.13

1c–3c a.d.

Cat. 103

C 1870

K 11

i

15

2.05

modern

Cat. 104

C 3430

L 18

m

20

5.39

3,h

5.12

3,i

Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / Horseman r.; below, monogram I255 Cat. 105

255 The

C 2467

L 17

mid-2c b.c. late 2c–early 3c a.d. rev. symbol l., Macedonian helmet 3,g

AE j

18

modern

obv. countermark, facing head? rev. symbol l., Macedonian helmet rev. symbol l., trident?

unknown

rev. symbol between figures and trophy, prow? Bellinger 1926 no. 16 SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 1218–1221 pl. 31 3c a.d.

rev. additional illegible symbol r. of monogram

attribution of this type is controversial; it may be a coin of Antigonos Doson (regent, then King of Macedon, 229–220 b.c.) rather than of Gonatas. On balance, however, Gonatas seems most likely; Mathisen in correspondence suggests a date later in Gonatas’ reign. See the clear summary of the problem, with bibliography, in Agora XXVI, 189–190. Cat. 80 (C 390) listed under Kassandros above may also be of this type; the types are readily confused when a coin is badly preserved, as Cat. 80 is.

73

catalogue of coins, part i

Macedonian shield; in center, monogram I / Macedonian helmet; below, BASI

AE

Mathisen 1979, 4; SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 1222–1223 pl. 31256

Cat. 106

C 150

M6

k

18

3.31

Cat. 107

C 1447

J 16



17

3.31

3c a.d.

Cat. 108

C 1535

F 18

m

16

4.20

1/3 4c a.d.

Cat. 109

C 1915

K 20



17

3.13

Early Christian

Cat. 110

C 2340

L 18

k

16

2.72

unknown

Cat. 111

C 2741

E 19

p

15

3.41

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 112

C 2987

P 16

o

15

3.34

6c a.d.

Cat. 113

C 3924

N 19

o

18

3.56

3,k

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 114

C 3951

M 20

j

16

3.00

3,l

2/2 4c–1/2 3c b.c.

3, j

late 12c– early 13c a.d.

rev. symbol l., caduceus; Hesperia 1975, 155 n. 31 rev. monogram l. I rev. monograms l. I, r. f rev. symbol(s) illegible rev. monogram l. I, r. illegible rev. monograms l. I, r. f; Hesperia 1988, 17 pl. 23:c, d

Uncertain Kings 356–3rd century b.c. Type virtually illegible, but Macedonian

AE

Cat. 115

C 454

N 15



16

2.33

Byzantine

obv. head r.

Cat. 116

C 1882

O 19



15

4.11

late 3c b.c.

shield/Macedonian helmet; type: either Demetrios Poliorketes or Antigonos Gonatas

Roman Period a.d. 161–180: Marcus Aurelius

w

[K ]AI[ÇAR ANT NINOÇ ]. Marcus Aurelius head r., radiate / [KOIN ]ON [MAKEDON N ]. Winged thunderbolt

AE

Gaebler 3.1.85 no. 277; SNG Cop. Mac. pl. 34 (sim.)

w

Cat. 117

C 2676

P 14

i

23

12.60

3,m

6c a.d.

THESSALY Ainianes Mid-4th–3rd century b.c .257 Zeus laureate r., behind, thunderbolt / [AINIANWN ]. Phemios slinging r.; behind him, two javelins Cat. 118

256 Mathisen 257 The

C 416

O 16

AE

m

17

SNG Cop. Thess. nos. 4, 5, pl. 1; Rogers 59 n. 137 fig. 56; Liampi 1994, 328 (group III) 2.20

in correspondence suggests a date in the 270’s for this type. traditional date is 168–146 b.c., but see p. 60.

3,n

modern

74

catalogue of coins, part i

Halos /Alos Ca. 275–250 b.c. 258 Zeus Laphystios head laureate r./ [ALEWN ]. Helle or Phyxos seated on ram, running r. Cat. 119

C 303

M 11

AE

o

12

SNG Cop. Thess. nos. 64, 65, pl. 2; Rogers 84, nos. 242–245; Reinders 236–237 (group D?) 1.63

3,o

Byzantine

Lamia 4th century b.c. Nymph head hair rolled r. / LAMIEWN. Philoktetes naked, kneeling r. and shooting arrow; club on ground behind him, before him two birds

AE

Rogers 126 no. 388 fig. 201; BMC Thess. 23 nos. 10–12 pl. 4.3

Cat. 120

C 360

CC 32

i

15

2.00

Cat. 121

C 1588

F 17

m

14

1.41

Cat. 122

C 3717

L 19

i

15

2.00

4c a.d.

3,p

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 235 Hesperia 1981, 60

3c b.c.

Larissa 4th–early 3rd century b.c. 259 Larissa head, three-quarter face l. / [LARISAIW N]. Bridled horse trotting r. Cat. 123

C 4064

CC 26

AE j

18

Rogers 93–94 nos. 269–280 figs. 134, 135; BMC Thess. 31 nos. 79–83 pl. 6.11 8.18

4,a

modern

Nemea II, 235

Larissa Kremaste Ca. 302–286 b.c. Nymph head hair rolled r. / [LARI ]. Harpa in olive wreath

AE

Rogers 104 no. 317 fig. 158; BMC Thess. 33 no. 3

Cat. 124

C 1083

O 18



13

2.72

Cat. 125

C 2017

L 20

i

14

2.21

4,b

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Nemea I, 172 n. 501

3/3 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl. 11:c, d

Melitaia Ca. 350 b.c. Zeus head laureate r. / ME[LI ]. Bee Cat. 126

258 Reinders

C 1724

AE F 19

m

14

Rogers 129 nos. 394–397 figs. 207, 208; SNG Cop. Thess. no. 172 pl. 4 2.85

4,c

11c–12c a.d.

166. Agora XXVI, 193, based upon finds in the Agora (for 3rd-century date) and from Olynthos (for early-4th-century date, but Robinson & Clement [1938] are just following the dating of BMC and of Head [1911]).

259

75

catalogue of coins, part i

Oita Ca. 350 b.c. Lion head l. with spearhead in mouth / OIT AWN. Knife and hunting spear

AE

Rogers 136–137 nos. 414–417 fig. 222; BMC Thess. 37 nos. 5, 6 pl. 7.11

Cat. 127

C 1987

Q 20

k

14

1.83

Cat. 128

C 3983

M 19

j

14

1.85

4,d

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

early 3c b.c.

Peumata Ca. 302–286 b.c. Nymph head bound with oak wreath r./ C; symbol, Phrygian helmet r.; around, PEUMATI N

AE

Rogers 145 no. 442 fig. 241; SNG Cop Thess. no. 198 pl. 4

w

Cat. 128 bis C 3908260

N 20

k

12

2.00

4,e

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 16 pl. 23:c, d (identified as Achaian League)

Pherai 369–357 b.c. Bull forepart running r. / ALEXANDROU. Horse forepart galloping r. Cat. 129

C 1374

J 16

AE i

15

Rogers 166 nos. 524–525 fig. 286; BMC Thess. 47 nos. 18, 19 pl. 10.14 1.88

4, f

3c a.d.

Trikka Ca. 300 b.c. Trikka’s head r. / [TRIKKAIWN ]. Asklepios seated on stool r., feeding bird that he holds in his hand to a serpent Cat. 130

C 1094

CC 28

AE

i

23

Rogers 177–178 nos. 555–556 fig. 313; BMC Thess. 52 no. 17 pl. 11.13

6.49

4,g

1c–2c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

ISLANDS OF THESSALY Peparethos Ca. 350 b.c. 261 Dionysos head bearded, r. / [GE ]. Kantharos wreathed with ivy Cat. 131

260 I

C 1984

Q 20

AE m

13

Rogers 180–181 no. 558 fig. 316; BMC Thess. 53 nos. 1–3 pl. 11.14 1.98

4,h

Early Roman

Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

owe the identification of this coin to Basil Demetriades. 179. For a coin of Peparethos in a 4th-century context from the Athenian Agora, see Agora XXVI, 300.

261 Rogers

76

catalogue of coins, part i

Skiathos 350–344 b.c. Young head r., bound with tainia / SKIAQI down r., caduceus down l. Cat. 132

C 1668

G 18

AE m

12

Rogers 183 no. 571 fig. 322a; BMC Thess. 54 no. 1 pl. 11.17 2.09

4,i

6c a.d.

EPEIROS Ambrakia 238–168 b.c. Dione head laureate, veiled l. / [AMBR ]. Obelisk, all in laurel wreath262 Cat. 133

C 1672

G 18

AE m

18

Apollo head r.; behind, [D ] / [A]MBR. Obelisk, all in laurel wreath Cat. 134

C 1839

L 18

Franke 329; BMC Thess. 94 no. 9 pl. 18.2 5.90

4, j

AE n

17

3c b.c. (or later?)

rev. countermark, lyre (Apollonia?)

BMC Thess. 94 no. 10 pl. 32.3 6.37

4,k

uncertain

Nemea I, 182 n. 546

Elea Ca. 360–342 b.c. Pegasos r. / ELEAI. Trident upward; r., caduceus Cat. 135

C 2894

E 19

AE p

14

Franke 43 nos. V1–R1 pl. 3; cf. BMC Thess. 100 nos. 1–2 pl. 18.10 (sim.) 2.05

4,l

unknown

Kings of Epeiros Pyrrhos (as King of Macedonia) 288–285; 274–272 b.c. Macedonian shield; in center, monogram A/ BA SI below, Macedonian helmet, with monogram in between; all within oak wreath

AE

SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 1195–1197 pl. 30

Cat. 136

C 80

N 17

l

17

6.49

4,m

12c–13c a.d.

rev. monogram A

Cat. 137

C 144

M6

m

17

4.67

4,n

13c a.d.

rev. monogram h; Hesperia 1975, 155 n. 31

Cat. 138

C 308

M 11

j

17

4.82

Early Christian

rev. monogram illegible

Cat. 139

C 629

O 17



16

5.49

Byzantine

rev. no monogram; Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 39 pl. 10:b

Cat. 140

C 1800

F 19

i

17

3.47

1/4 3c b.c. (coins)

rev. monogram A; Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

Cat. 141

C 1836

L 18



17

3.53

uncertain

rev. monogram h; Hesperia 1981, 59; Nemea I, xv, 182, 183 figs. 246–247

262 BMC. Franke

(1961) gives 2nd to 1st century b.c. based on hoard evidence.

77

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 142

C 1837

L 18



17

4.78

Cat. 143

C 2733

E 19

n

17

3.24

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 144

C 2808

E 19

l

15

3.42

4c–3c b.c.

4,o

uncertain

rev. monogram h; Hesperia 1981, 59 pl. 18:a, b; Nemea I, xvi, 182, 183 rev. no symbol

Korkyra 300–229 b.c. [Dionysos head r.] / Amphora Cat. 145

C 3927

AE N 19

i

11

BMC Thess. 134 nos. 329–334 pl. 23.21 1.53

5,a

late 4c b.c.

AKARNANIA Argos Amphilochikon 4th century b.c. Hermes head r.; petasos behind neck / N, [W]; below, [ARGEI ]. Dog wearing collar, reclining r., looking back Cat. 146

C 3000

P 16

l

AE

16

BMC Thess. 172 no. 8 pl. 27.14

3.16

5,b

6c a.d.

Ca. 350–250 b.c. Athena head wearing helmet r. / [ARGEIWN ]. Owl l.; in front, spearhead Cat. 147

C 1262

K 17

AE j

13

BMC Thess. 172 no. 9 pl. 27.15 1.97

5,c

5c–6c a.d.

Leukas 4th century b.c. Tauranthropic head, bearded, r. (Acheloös) / Chimaera l. Cat. 148

C 1533

F 18

AE k

19

Pegasos flying / Trident upright

BMC Thess. 175 nos. 15–18 pl. 28.3 5.67

5,d

AE

1/3 4c a.d. (coins) BMC Thess. 177 nos. 54 ff. pl. 28.8 (with Pegasos r.)

Cat. 149

C 2257

L 14

j

12

2.37

5,e

Early Christian

Cat. 150

C 3943

N 19

l

14

1.74

5, f

late 4c b.c.

obv. Pegasos r.; rev. LE[UK ]. Trident with upward ivy leaf r.; Hesperia 1983, 72 n. 6 pl. 17:f, g (attributed to Corinth) obv. Pegasos r.; rev. lower l., O; r., cluster of grapes

78

Cat. 151

catalogue of coins, part i

C 3952

M 20



15

Apollo head l. / LEU above. Prow l., adorned with ?Nike in quadriga?

1.95

5,g

AE

Cat. 152

C 1392

G 18

o

15

2.50

Cat. 153

C 2867

E 19

l

19

4.45

Cat. 154

C 3679

K 19

i

15

1.11

2/2 4c b.c.

obv. Pegasos l.; overstruck on coin of Arkadia of Pan/n monogram type263 SNG Cop. Acar. nos. 375–376 pl. 8

Early Christian 5,h

unknown 5c a.d.

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e (attributed to Argos)

Oiniadai Mid-4th–3rd century b.c. 264 Zeus head laureate r. / [OINIADAN ]. Tauranthropic head r., bearded (Acheloös) Cat. 155

C 2959

P 15

AE

j

20

BMC Thess. 189 nos. 6–14 pl. 29.14

4.28

5,i

6c a.d.

Thyrrheion Ca. 350–250 b.c. Pegasos with pointed wing flying l.; below, [Q ] / QU r. and l. Athena wearing Corinthian crestless helmet over leather cap l.; below, LU r., earring Cat. 156

C 1840

L 18

i

[AR]: bronze core of stater 21

8.24

BMC Cor. 139 no. 10 pl. 38.9

5, j

uncertain

Hesperia 1981, 59 pl. 18:a, b (attributed to Anaktorion); Nemea I, xv, 149, 177 figs. 217–218

AITOLIA Aitolian League Ca. 300–290 b.c. Young male head crowned with oak wreath r. / AI[T ]WLWN. Spearhead and jawbone of boar r.; [cluster of grapes, letters] l. Cat. 157

263 Note

C 3936

N 19

k

AE

18

BMC Thess. 199 nos. 56–62 pl. 30.12; Picard 1984, 284 4.31

5,k

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

that other bronze coins of Leukas of the 4th century are overstruck on those of Philip II of Macedon: BMC Thess. pp. 174–175. 264 The traditional date is 230–168 b.c., but see p. 60.

79

catalogue of coins, part i

LOKRIS Lokris Opontion 387–369 b.c. OPON. Amphora; grapes l.; ivy leaf r. / Star of 16 rays within border of dots

AR: obol

BMC Cent. Greece 1 nos. 4–6, cf. pl. 1.2

Cat. 158

C 485

N 15



11

0.66

5,l

modern

Cat. 159

C 2013

L 20



12

0.76

5,m

3/3 3c b.c.

369–338 b.c. Persephone head l., hair bound with wreath of grain leaves / OPONTIW[N ]. Ajax the son of Oïleus naked ready to fight, r.; between legs, L; U to r. of shield; on ground between legs, spear Cat. 160

C 1501

F 18

i

AR: drachma

15

2.67

Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl.11:c, d

BMC Cent. Greece 3 no. 24 pl. 1.8 (sim.)

5,n

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

examples in BM (Cockerell Bequest 1920); Hesperia 1980, 190 pl. 40:f

Lokrian League 338–300 b.c. Athena head r., wearing crested Corinthian helmet / LOK RWN. Cluster of grapes

AE

BMC Cent. Greece 8 nos. 61–68 pl. 2.8

Cat. 161

C 145

M6

i

14

1.91

13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 155 n. 31

Cat. 162

C 701

O 17

m

13

1.70

Byzantine

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 36 pl.10:b

Cat. 163

C 1648

G 19

o

13

1.74

4c b.c. (?)

Cat. 164

C 1655

K 12

i

12

2.65

modern

rev. [LOKR ]W[N ]

Cat. 165

C 1765

F 19

j

12

1.27

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

rev. [LOK ]R[WN ]

Cat. 166

C 1799

F 19

o

12

1.31

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 167

C 1819

L 18

i

13

1.53

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 168

C 1877

O 19

i

11

0.90

Cat. 169

C 1931

K 20

k

14

2.83

Early Christian

Cat. 170

C 1981

Q 20

m

13

1.69

4c b.c.

Cat. 171

C 2388

O 18

p

13

1.41

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 172

C 2714

E 19

i

14

2.27

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 173

C 2724

E 19

i

14

2.26

4c b.c. (+ one Roman fragment?)

Cat. 174

C 2787

E 19

m

16

1.97

Cat. 175

C 2834

E 19

k

12

1.21

5,o

5,p

identification uncertain

2/2 2c–1c b.c. (Late Hellenistic)

3/3 3c b.c.

rev. [LOKRW ]N

2c b.c. (?)

rev. [LO ]K[RW ]N

80

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 176

C 3429

N 12

p

15

2.44

unknown

Cat. 177

C 3718

L 19

i

13

1.66

3c b.c.

Cat. 178

C 3738

K 19

i

15

2.05

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c. (Early Hellenistic)

rev. [LOKRW ]N; Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 26 pl. 10:c, d

Cat. 179

C 3782

K 19

o

13

1.50

2c b.c.

rev. above, FRA

Cat. 180

C 3786

K 19

o

14

3.84

4/4 3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 181

C 3910

N 19

m

15

2.01

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Ca. 338–300 b.c. 265 Hermes head r., in petasos / LOK R[WN ] around grapes Cat. 182

C 3954

AE M 20



13

Ca. 300–272 b.c. 266 Apollo head l., laureate / LO. Cluster of grapes; r., greave Cat. 183

C 1416

5,q

i

1.92

15

rev. L[. . .]

BM Fox Collection 1920; SNG Cop. Aet. no. 72 pl. 2; cf. Picard 1984, 287–288 late 4c b.c.

5,r

AE

H 14

rev. letters illegible; Bellinger 1926 no. 14

BMC Cent. Greece 7 nos. 51–53, cf. pl. 2.7; cf. Picard 1984, 287–288 2.09

5,s

Early Christian– Byzantine

PHOKIS Phokian League Ca. 400–371 b.c. Head of bull, facing / F and four pellets in incuse square; boss-like pellet in middle of F Cat. 184

C 1506267

F 18

AR: hemiobol



10

357–346 b.c. Bull’s head facing bound with fillet / FW within laurel wreath

0.49

Williams 1972, 43–44, 117 nos. 296–298 pl. 10, but with four pellets rev. 6,a

AE

4c a.d. (1/3 4c a.d.: coins)

BMC Cent. Greece 22 nos. 94–102 pl. 3.22, 23; cf. Picard 1984, 283

Cat. 185

C 575

DD 30

k

16

3.53

Cat. 186

C 842

O 16

l

15

2.40

4c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 187

C 1254

K 17



13

1.85

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 188

C 2728

E 19

j

13

1.59

4c b.c. (? plus 1 Roman fragment)

265 Picard

Hesperia 1980, 194 pl. 44:f (attributed to Phlious)

Byzantine

6,b

Nemea II, 235 Hesperia 1978, 73 n. 31 pl. 20:f

1984, 287–288, dates to ca. 350–338 b.c.

266 Agora XXVI, 203 (contra Kroll [1979],153),following Picard 1984,who in turn follows unpublished work by Jacqueline Humphris. 267 I

am grateful to Basil Demetriades for identifying this coin. The date is per Williams.

81

catalogue of coins, part i

Ca. 325–275 b.c. Athena helmeted head facing slightly l. / F in olive wreath Cat. 189

C 1775

F 19

AE —

15

BMC Cent. Greece 20 nos. 66–74 pl. 3.17; cf. Picard 1984, 283–284 3.19

6,c

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

BOIOTIA Boiotian League 268 Thespiae? 338–315

b.c.269

Boiotian shield / B OI below, on either side of kantharos; above, club r.; grapes r.270 Cat. 190

C 2945

P 15

[AR]: plated core for a triobol —

14

338–early 3rd century b.c. 271 Boiotian shield / BO I below, on either side of kantharos; r., above, thunderbolt; open crescent l. Cat. 191

C 2860

E 19

2.66

BMC Cent. Greece 35 no. 32 pl. 5.12 (sim.)

6,d

AR



10

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl.39:b, c

BMC Cent. Greece 37 no. 52, cf. pl. 5.16 (sim.); cf. Picard 1984, 288

0.87

6,e

4c–3c b.c.

Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

Uncertain mints 338–early 3rd century b.c. 272 Boiotian shield / BOIWTWN l. Trident; dolphin upward r.

AE

BMC Cent. Greece 38 nos. 57–62; pl. 5.17; cf. Picard 1984, 288–289

Cat. 192

C 172

F 12

i

14

1.54

4c b.c.

Cat. 193

C 693

L 14



14

1.25

Early Christian

Cat. 194

C 1646

G 19



13

1.50

4c b.c.

Cat. 195

C 1711

F 19



13

1.60

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 196

C 1730

F 19



12

1.70

2c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 197

C 1740

F 19



13

2.54

3/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 198

C 1768

F 19



13

1.55

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 199

C 2030

D 19



13

2.04

5c–6c a.d.

268 Kraay

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e rev. below, symbol: K ?

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

108–114 for the general chronology. Kraay 113 dates these earlier, to 379–371 b.c. on the basis of their presence in the Myron hoard in Thessaly (IGCH 11 no. 62). 270 A second coin of this type (C 689) was discovered at Nemea, but it has disintegrated. 271 Picard 1984, 288. 272 Picard 1984, 289. 269

82

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 200

C 2259

L 14



12

2.47

Roman

Cat. 201

C 2614

O 18



14

1.54

Roman

Cat. 202

C 2658

M 18

i

14

1.07

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 203

C 2739

E 19



12

2.09

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 204

C 2775

E 19



13

0.89

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 205

C 2789

E 19



13

1.50

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 206

C 2829

E 19



13

1.82

4c–3c b.c.

rev. below, symbol: ivy leaf ?Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

Cat. 207

C 2835

E 19

k

13

1.90

4c b.c.

rev. below, symbol: ivy leaf ?

Cat. 208

C 2859

E 19



14

2.08

4c–3c b.c.

rev. below, symbol: grapes?

Cat. 209

C 2883

E 19



13

1.59

Cat. 210

C 2985

P 16



12

1.15

6c a.d.

Cat. 211

C 3661

L 19

i

14

1.72

mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 212

C 3754

L 19



15

2.33

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 213

C 3841

M 19



13

2.00

Early Christian (?)

Cat. 214

C 3957

M 20



13

1.93

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 215

C 3984

M 19



14

1.76

late 4c b.c.

6, f

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Lebadeia Mid-4th–3rd century b.c. 273 Athena head in crested helmet l. / LE in olive wreath Cat. 216

C 2734

E 19

AE —

15

BMC Cent. Greece 50 nos. 1–2 pl. 7.18 (sim.) 2.29

6,g

3c–4c a.d.

Tanagra 370’s–probably 338 b.c. 274 Boiotian shield / TA or TANA. Forepart of horse springing

AR

BMC Cent. Greece 62–63 nos. 29–40, 43–45 pl. 10.5, 7

horse r. Cat. 217

C 1951

K 20



10

0.66

6,h

2c b.c.

Cat. 218

C 1177

K 14



10

0.90

6,i

late 5c– early 4c b.c.

rev. TANA r.; Hesperia 1979, 81 pl. 25:e

C 1937

Q 19



11

0.93

6, j

early 3c b.c.

rev. TA below; Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

Hesperia 1982, 26 n. 22 pl. 11:c, d

horse l. Cat. 219

273 The

traditional date is 146–27 b.c., but see p. 60. 114 assumes that these coins were only minted “during the seventies, before Thebes had fully reasserted her control of the Boeotian League.” However, the fact that three are found at Nemea makes it more likely that they continued to be

274 Kraay

83

catalogue of coins, part i

Thebes Late 5th century–387 b.c. Boiotian shield / Amphora, fluted; l., below strung bow, Q; r., BE 275 Cat. 220

C 3244

K 17



AR 22

Boiotian shield / QE. Kantharos; above, club Cat. 221

C 1401

C 1548

11.81

6,k

AR G 18



7

378–338 or 335 b.c. Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / LAAN above; below, QE. Club and arrow, both l. Cat. 222

BMC Cent. Greece 78 nos. 92, 93, cf. pl. 14.3 BMC Cent. Greece 80 no. 110 pl. 14.12 0.81

6,l

AE

F 19

j

13

Herakles head in lion’s skin r. / Club and strung bow; legend varies

unknown

Early Christian

Hesperia 1980, 194 pl. 44:f

BMC Cent. Greece 85 nos. 176–177

2.35

6,m

AE

5c–6c a.d. BMC Cent. Greece 85–86 nos. 174–175, 178–188 pl. 15.11, 13

Cat. 223

C 265

M 11

m

13

1.79

modern

Cat. 224

C 610

DD 29

o

14

1.56

5c–6c a.d.

rev. above, [SA]; below, [QER ]G; BMC nos. 183–185; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 225

C 667

O 17

p

14

1.59

mid-2c b.c.

rev. below, [QER ]G; BMC nos. 183–185

Cat. 226

C 873

K 15

k

11

1.87

Byzantine

legend illegible

Cat. 227

C 980

O 16

k

12

2.45

5c b.c.

rev. above, H; below QI[WN ]; BMC no. 187

Cat. 228

C 1340

L 20

o

13

2.05

modern

rev. above [N ]; below A[GEI ]; BM Fox Collection

Cat. 229

C 2279

F 16



11

1.61

4c b.c.

rev. ARIS [FEI ]DO visible; BMC nos. 180, 181

Cat. 230

C 3629

K 19

l

12

1.99

Herakles head r., in lion’s skin / [G ]UR[RI ]. Club r.; below, shield Cat. 231

C 1980

Q 20

6,n

6,o

Early Christian

AE k

13

rev. above, QEO; below TI; BMC no. 174

rev. above, A; below, [QI ]WN; BMC no. 186

BMC Cent. Greece 87 nos. 199–200 pl. 15.17 1.89

6,p

4c b.c.

minted into the later 4th century; if so, they represent a clear case of dependent cities issuing coinage. See further, Hansen 20–29. 275 Kraay 112 speculates that this issue began in the late 5th century; the Nemea find tends to confirm this dating.

84

catalogue of coins, part i

Thespiai Ca. 338–315 b.c. 276 Female head laureate, wearing modius and veil r.; border of dots / QESPIEWN. Lyre; the whole within laurel wreath Cat. 232

C 3201

M 12

o

AE

15

BMC Cent. Greece 92 nos. 14–22 pl. 16.12 3.53

6,q

unknown

EUBOIA Euboian League 253/2–ca. 245 b.c. 277 Bull standing r. / Cluster of grapes

AE

Wallace 130; Picard 1979, 170–171 (emissions 22–26) pl. 30.23, 24, 26; BMC Cent. Greece 97 nos. 22–31 pl. 17.12, 13

Cat. 233

C 190

F 12

i

14

1.75

4c b.c.

Cat. 234

C 1028

N 17

n

13

2.50

none

Cat. 235

C 1723

F 19

k

11

1.93

6c a.d. (?)

Cat. 236

C 1777

F 19

i

12

1.86

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 237

C 1848

K 10

m

12

1.50

7,a

modern

obv. bull r., wreath above; rev. OBYE; grapes, cornucopia r. rev. no letters or symbols visible obv. above, wreath; rev. BYE. obv. symbol illegible; rev. EUB; r., ivy leaf

Chalkis 278 Ca. 357–338 b.c. Female head hair rolled, covered with net of pearls r. / Eagle flying r., holding snake in beak and claws Cat. 238

C 379

L 17

o

AE

16

337–308 b.c. Female head, wearing earring and necklace, hair rolled / CAL. Eagle flying r., holding snake in beak and claws Cat. 239

C 335

M 13

Picard 1979, 100–109 nos. 66–80 pl. 20 and table p. 350; BMC Cent. Greece 113–114 nos. 81–84 pl. 20.16, 17 3.86

7,b

AR

n

16

3/4 4c b.c.

Picard 1979, 16–46 (group 1) pls. 1 and 10; BMC Cent. Greece 109 nos. 39–40 (sim.) 3.42

7,c

Byzantine

obv. head r.; rev. lower l., trident; Picard 1979, 42–44 no. 10 pl. 10

276 Schachter (1961) relates this coin to the reorganization and upgrading of the Mouseia, a musical festival celebrated at Mount Helikon’s sanctuary of the Muses. This took place in the late 3rd century b.c., between 215 and 208. He identifies the female head as Arsinoe III, comparing her portrait on a Ptolemaic coin of 211 b.c. Thus he suggests a date of ca. 210–208 b.c. for this coin. The Nemea evidence argues for the earlier date. 277 Picard 1979, 171 and 175. Wallace 130 dates to the first half of the second century b.c., but Picard argues that find evidence does not support such a date. 278 Dating follows Picard 1979.

85

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 240

C 2072

L 14

n

16

337–196 b.c. 279 Hera head facing, diadem decorated with five discs with human faces / CAL. Eagle flying r., holding snake in beak and claws

3.31

7,d

AE

Early Christian

obv. head l.; rev. lower l., flower; Hesperia 1983, 72 n. 6 pl. 17:f, g; Picard 1979, 17–20 pl. 7

Picard 1979, groups 1, 2, and 3; BMC Cent. Greece 112 nos. 70–80 pl. 20.15

Cat. 241

C 269

M 17

o

15

4.93

modern

Cat. 242

C 522

M 16

k

16

4.08

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 243

C 3891

M 19

i

15

2.06

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 244

C 1125

L 20

m

13

1.39

3c a.d.

Cat. 245

C 1403

J 16

o

13

1.56

3c a.d.

Cat. 246

C 2482

O 18

j

14

1.55

early 2c b.c.

Cat. 247

C 2557

O 18

k

13

2.57

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 248

C 2657

M 18

i

14

1.71

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 249

C 2757

E 19

m

13

1.43

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 250

C 2856

E 19

o

14

1.48

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 251

C 3022

L 19

l

13

1.91

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 252

C 3332

K 18

o

13

1.61

unknown

Cat. 253

C 3617

K 19

o

14

1.68

Early Christian

Cat. 254

C 3666

L 19

i

14

1.60

Cat. 255

C 3687

L 19

l

14

1.47

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 256

C 3827

L 19

j

13

1.64

4/4 4c b.c. (coins?)

Cat. 257

C 3930

N 19

p

13

1.74

Early Christian (?)

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 26 pl. 23:c, d

Cat. 258

C 3940

N 19

n

13

1.49

early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 16 pl. 23:c, d

Cat. 259

C 44

N 12

k

12

1.57

Byzantine

Cat. 260

C 89

S 17

o

12

1.08

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 261

C 1372

J 16

p

12

1.87

3c a.d.

Cat. 262

C 1681

G 18

m

12

2.09

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 263

C 1735

F 19

k

12

1.88

3c b.c. (?)

Cat. 264

C 1746

F 19

i

12

1.75

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 265

C 1867

K 11

j

12

1.58

modern

rev. CAL above; tripod r.

Cat. 266

C 1885

O 19

o

12

2.01

4c b.c.

rev. symbol spear? arrow?

279 Picard

7,e

4c–3c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 10:a, b

1979, 174–175, for the date of the general type. All the examples here seem to date from 337–273 b.c.

86

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 267

C 1968

K 10



12

1.46

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 268

C 1982

Q 20

m

12

2.23

4c b.c.

Cat. 269

C 2024

Q 20

n

10

1.92

3c b.c.

Cat. 270

C 2858

E 19

o

12

2.22

4c–3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 22 n. 5 pl. 9:a, b Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

Roman Period a.d. 117–138: Hadrian [K ]AIÇAR AD[RIANOÇ ]. Hadrian bust laureate, wearing paludamentum r. / CAL [K ]IDE N. Hera bust r.

AE

Picard 1979, no. 99, 2d, pl. 23; BMC Cent. Greece 117 no. 109 pl. 21.11

w

Cat. 271

C 2663

L 17

m

18

4.24

7, f

unknown

Histiaia Ca. 350–150 b.c. 280 Maenad head wearing vine wreath r. / [IS TI ] below. Bull walking r. Cat. 272

C 3946

M 20

AR: tetrobol l

13

338–ca. 200 b.c. Maenad head wearing vine wreath r. / IS TI below. Bull walking r.; above, trophy

1.18

cf. Picard 1984, 289 & 291; BMC Cent.Greece 125 nos. 1–6 pl. 24.1, 2 7,g

AE

modern

BMC Cent. Greece 125 nos. 7–8 pl. 24.3

Cat. 273

C 935

O 15

i

13

1.68

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

Cat. 274

C 1127

L 20

i

13

1.83

3c a.d.

Cat. 275

C 1163

L 20

k

15

1.97

Early Christian (?)

Cat. 276

C 1742

F 19

i

11

1.67

Cat. 277

C 2306

G 14

i

13

1.69

modern

Cat. 278

C 2830

E 19

o

13

1.99

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 279

C 3404

K 17

i

18

1.70

unknown

Cat. 280

C 3995

N 20

m

14

1.80

Maenad head wearing earring, necklace, and vine wreath r. / Forepart of bull walking r. Cat. 281

C 27

C 14

AE

l

14

broken

1.66

7,h

3/4 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

late 3c– early 2c b.c. cf. Picard 1984, 289, 291; BMC Cent. Greece 126 nos. 10–20 pl. 24.4 Early Roman

rev. symbol above, dolphin

280 So Head in BMC; before ca. 340–338: Robert 185 n. 3 (who gives a general summary of the chronology); Picard 1979, 177, opts for a starting date of ca. 341–338; Picard 1984 gives an ending date as “fin du IIIe siècle.” The issue succeeding this, Maenad head r. / Nymph on poop of a galley, is usually dated to the 3rd century (313–265 b.c.) and the 2nd (194–146 b.c.).

87

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 282

C 137

F4

n

14

1.76

Cat. 283

C 166

E 12

i

12

1.37

Cat. 284

C 195

CC 32

n

14

2.21

Cat. 285

C 301

M 11

i

11

0.96

Cat. 286

C 319

N 17

i

15

2.50

Cat. 287

C 892

L 15

i

13

2.11

Byzantine

Cat. 288

C 1542

F 18



15

1.82

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 289

C 1667

G 18



14

1.94

6c a.d.

Cat. 290

C 1677

G 18

o

13

1.60

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 291

C 2275

F 16

j

15

1.30

4c b.c.

Cat. 292

C 2681

P 14

j

13

1.90

6c a.d.

Cat. 293

C 2707

Q 14

o

13

1.83

Cat. 294

C 2744

E 19

o

14

0.91

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 295

C 3405

J,K 18,20

k

13

1.51

unknown

Cat. 296

C 3517 ter

unknown



15

1.66

unknown

7,i

7, j

late 4c b.c.

AR; a mistaken minting with an AE die? rev. above, thyrsos; Hesperia 1975, 154 n. 29 pl. 37:e (labelling it AE )

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

rev. above r., lion’s head; BMC no. 13

3c a.d.

AR; a mistaken minting with an AE die? rev. IS TI; above r., thrysos; Hesperia 1975, 171 pl. 41:f; Nemea II, 235

modern 7,k

7,l

2/2 3c b.c.

6c a.d.

rev. above, two bunches of grapes

rev. above r., lion’s head rev. above, two clusters of grapes; below, spear or arrow

ATTICA Athens Ca. 550–520 b.c. 281 Wheel with four spokes / Incuse square, divided diagonally

Cat. 297

281 Price

C 903

K 14

AR: obol



8

Seltman 166; cf. Price & Waggoner 56 no. 259; Agora XXVI, 16 no. 4; BMC Cent. Greece 109 nos. 31–35 pl. 20.6 (attributed to Chalkis) 0.47

7,m

3/4 5c b.c.

Hesperia 1978, 64 n. 16 pl. 15:a

& Waggoner give ca. 545–510 b.c. for a drachma of the same type. The dating of Agora XXVI, 16, is preferable.

88

catalogue of coins, part i

Ca. 450’s–404 b.c. Athena head in Attic helmet r. / AQE around. Owl facing r.; olive spray r. and l.282

AR: triobol

Cat. 298

12

C 2853

E 19

o

Athena head in Attic helmet r. / AQE r. Owl facing r.; behind, olive spray283

Agora XXVI, 18 no. 12

1.90

7,n

AR: obol

4c–3c b.c.

Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e Agora XXVI, 19 no. 13

Cat. 299

C 155

M 12

o

8

0.67

7,o

5c–4c b.c.

Cat. 300

C 3316

K 16

k

10

0.67

7,p

unknown

390–295 b.c. Athena head in ornamented helmet, eye in profile, r. / AQE. Owl facing r.; behind, crescent [and olive spray] Cat. 301

C 925

AR: tetradrachm

O 16

o

20

16.95

Hesperia 1975, 161 pl. 38:h; Nemea I, 26

Agora XXVI, 19 no. 15

7,q

Byzantine

Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

* * * *

[Eleusis] Ca. 350’s–mid-330’s b.c. 284 Triptolemos in winged chariot drawn by two snakes l. / [ELEUSI ] above. Pig r., on bundle of twigs (bavkcoˇ); below, bull’s head

AE: dichalkon285

Svoronos 1923 nos. 4–5 pl. 103; Kroll 142; Picard 1984, 291 no. 56; Agora XXVI, 37–38, 40 no. 38; BMC Att. 113 no. 14, cf. pl. 20.3

Cat. 302

C 2048

P 12

o

15

3.12

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 303

C 3761

L 19

j

15

3.39

modern

Cat. 304

C 3879

L 19

i

15

2.61

7,r

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

* * * *

Athens (continued ) b.c.286

Ca. early to mid-330’s Triptolemos in winged chariot drawn by two snakes l., holding ears of grain in r. hand / AQE. Pig r., on mystic staff; below, plemochoë Cat. 305

282 Agora

C 1485

F 18

i

AE: dichalkon

12

2.50

Svoronos 1923 nos. 33–39 pl. 103; Kroll 142; Agora XXVI, 37–38, 41 no. 39; BMC Att. 23 nos. 248–249 pl. 6.14–15 7,s

4c a.d. (1/3 4c a.d.: coins)

XXVI, 17. XXVI, 17 and nn. 69, 70. 284 So Agora XXVI, 40; Picard 1984, 293, prefers ca. 322–317 b.c. Dating based on the Athenian material cannot be ignored, but Picard’s later date is somewhat supported by the Nemea finds. 285 Denominations follow Agora XXVI, 37–38. 286 Agora XXVI, 41. 283 Agora

89

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 306

C 1647

G 19

l

13

2.39

Cat. 307

C 2794

E 19



13

2.53

Ca. early or mid-330’s–322 or 317 b.c. 287 Athena head in Attic helmet r. / AQE around. Double-bodied owl; olive spray in upper corners

7,t

5c–6c a.d. 4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

AE: chalkous

Svoronos 1923 nos. 35–46 pl. 22; Kroll 147–148; Agora XXVI, 37, 41 nos. 41–43

rev. below, mystic staff Cat. 308

C 2586

M 18

i

12

1.58

3c b.c.

Cat. 309

C 2848

E 19

j

15

1.88

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 310

C 2850

E 19

o

12

1.64

7,u

4c–3c b.c.

struck on too small flan

rev. below, Eleusis ring Cat. 311

C 695

L 14

k

12

1.60

Early Christian

Cat. 312

C 852

N 14

o

14

1.71

mid-2c b.c.

Cat. 313

C 1498

F 18

n

11

1.96

4c a.d. (1/3 4c a.d.: coins)

Cat. 314

C 1879

O 19

l

11

1.66

2/2 2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 315

C 2272

F 16



11

2.01

Middle Byzantine

Cat. 316

C 2457

N 18

j

12

1.83

7,v

late 4c– mid-3c b.c.

Nemea I, xv, 176 figs. 213–214

rev. below, no symbol visible or symbol illegible Cat. 317

C 177

F 12

i

11

2.00

4c b.c.

Cat. 318

C 189

F 12

o

10

1.37

4c b.c.

Cat. 319

C 670

L 14

i

13

1.48

Byzantine

Cat. 320

C 957

CC 30

k

14

1.93

2/2 2c a.d.

Cat. 321

C 1169

L 20

m

13

2.40

3c b.c.

Cat. 322

C 1496

F 18



13

1.59

4c a.d. (1/3 4c a.d.: coins)

Cat. 323

C 1600

F 17

m

11

2.24

Cat. 324

C 1783

F 19

i

12

0.75

1/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 325

C 1793

F 19

k

12

2.49

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 326

C 1796

F 19

k

12

1.96

Cat. 327

C 1900

K 11

i

12

1.55

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 328

C 1918

K 20



13

0.97

Early Christian

Cat. 329

C 1972

K 20

i

12

1.83

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 330

C 2003

K 20

k

10

1.55

late 3c b.c.

287 Agora

XXVI, 41.

7,w

8,a

5c–6c a.d.

late 4c b.c.

Nemea II, 235

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

90

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 331

C 2025

Q 20

o

12

2.02

late 1c a.d.

Cat. 332

C 2270

F 16

m

12

1.93

modern

Cat. 333

C 2465

N 18

j

12

1.83

4c–early 3c b.c.

Cat. 334

C 2486

L 17

m

12

2.00

unknown

Cat. 335

C 2686

P 14

l

13

1.82

6c a.d.

Cat. 336

C 2804

E 19



11

1.23

Cat. 337

C 2932

P 15

k

14

2.09

6c a.d.

Cat. 338

C 3168

J 18

k

13

1.53

unknown

Cat. 339

C 3515

unknown

j

13

1.86

unknown

Cat. 340

C 3777

L 19

o

13

2.42

2c b.c.

Cat. 341

C 3794

K 19

k

12

1.95

late 2c b.c.

Cat. 342

C 3975

M 19



14

1.50

mid-4c– mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 343

C 4078

Z 27

i

12

1.80

Early Hellenistic

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 344

C 4080

DD 27

k

11

1.70

none

Nemea II, 235

Ca. 322 or 317–307 b.c. 288 Athena head wearing Attic helmet r. / [AQ ] or [AQE ] below. Two owls, r. and l., facing, within olive wreath

8,b

AE: dichalkon

4c–3c b.c.

Svoronos 1923 nos. 34–50 pl. 24; Kroll 147–148; Agora XXVI, 37–38, 42–43 nos. 44–46

Cat. 345

C 1585

F 17

j

14

2.68

Cat. 346

C 1954

K 20

m

14

3.25

2c b.c.

Cat. 347

C 2847

E 19

m

13

2.62

4c b.c.

Cat. 348

C 3271

K 19

k

14

2.30

unknown

Cat. 349

C 4088

unknown

i

14

3.15

none

307–ca. 300 b.c. 289 Athena head wearing Corinthian helmet r. / AQ. Owl, wings closed, l.; all within olive wreath

Nemea I, xv, 176 figs. 211–212

8,c

AE: dichalkon

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Agora XXVI, 45 no. 54

Cat. 350

C 1680

G 18

i

12

1.96

3c b.c. (or later?)

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c, d

Cat. 351

C 1970

K 20

m

14

2.93

late 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 26 n. 22 pl. 11:c, d (attributed to Thyrrheion)

Cat. 352

C 2964

P 15

i

14

2.17

307–270’s b.c. Athena head wearing Corinthian helmet r. / Owl; legends and symbols uncertain Cat. 353

288 Agora 289 Agora

C 1946

XXVI, 42. XXVI, 44.

K 20

AE: dichalkon o

13

2.35

8,d

Agora XXVI, 44–45 nos. 50–54 2c b.c.

91

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 354

C 3027

L 19



14

2.15

Cat. 355

C 3803

K 19

m

13

1.93

287–284 b.c. 290 Athena head wearing Corinthian helmet r. / [AQ ] or [AQH ]. Owl, wings closed, r.; all in wreath Cat. 356

C 1950

K 20

o

Ca. 100 b.c. Cicada / AQE. Owl facing on thunderbolt, r. Cat. 357

C 896

L 15

early 3c b.c. 8,e

AE: dichalkon 14

2.90

Svoronos 1923 nos. 64–72 pl. 22; Kroll 144–147; Agora XXVI, 44 nos. 52–54 8, f

AE: dichalkon

n

13

1.71

early 3c b.c.

2c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 26 n. 22 pl. 11:c, d (attributed to Thyrrheion)

Svoronos 1923 no. 50 pl. 107; Hesperia Supplement 7 (1943) 14, 24–27; Price 1964a; Agora XXVI, 68, 76 no. 100 8,g

Byzantine

a very light piece; Agora XXVI, 76 avg. is 2.85

Salamis Mid-4th–early 3rd century b.c. 291 Female head r. / Shield of Ajax; r. and l., [SA LA]

AE

Agora XXVI, 214–216; cf. Picard 1984, 292–293; SNG Cop. Att. no. 457 pl. 11

Cat. 358

C 804

CC 30



13

2.18

Byzantine

Cat. 359

C 1183

L 20



13

1.84

3c b.c.

obv. [Kore]

Cat. 360

C 2884

E 19

m

16

2.70

8,h

4c b.c.

obv. [Salamis]

Cat. 361

C 4063

CC 26



17

2.58

8,i

modern

obv. [Salamis]; Nemea II, 235

obv. [Kore]; Nemea II, 235

MEGARIS Megara Ca. 338–275 b.c. 292 Prow l.; on it stands a tripod; beneath, dolphin l. / MEG. Two dolphins swim in circle; border of dots

AE

Kroll 154; Agora XXVI, 216–217; cf. Picard 1984, 293; BMC Att. 120 nos. 26–29

rev. dolphins swim r. Cat. 362

C 23

C 14

j

14

2.08

Byzantine

Cat. 363

C 1222

CC 28

m

13

1.81

3c–4c a.d.

290 Agora

Nemea II, 235

XXVI, 44. 147–149 dates to before 348 b.c. because two examples were found at Olynthos. Picard’s dating to the late 4th century (1984, 293) is based upon a political argument for an independent Salamis at that date and does not square with the archaeological evidence of the coin finds. The coinage had ceased to circulate by the 260’s (Agora XXVI, 215). 292 Kroll 154 dates to ca. 325–250 b.c., superseding the dating of Waagé (1935). Agora XXVI, 216–217, gives “last half or third of fourth century to early third century b.c.”; this is based upon evidence from Olynthos and Agora finds. I. Pafford has kindly shared her opinion that these coins should be dated to ca. 320–270 b.c., probably earlier rather than later in this period. 291 Kroll

92

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 364

C 1295

DD 29



15

1.69

unknown

Cat. 365

C 1505

F 18

k

14

2.97

4c a.d. (1/3 4c a.d.: coins)

Cat. 366

C 1684

G 18

p

15

2.18

Cat. 367 C 2936 Q 14 o rev. dolphins swimming, direction uncertain

13

2.31

4c b.c.

Cat. 368

C 320

N 17



16

4.13

4c b.c.

Cat. 369

C 3635

K 19

l

15

2.44

8, j

8,k

3c b.c. (or later?)

Nemea II, 235

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c, d

Hesperia 1976, 192 n. 35

Early Christian

Roman Period a.d. 176 –192: Commodus

w

[AUT KAI M KOMMODOÇ ANT NINO]. Commodus head r., laureate, wearing cuirass and paludamentum / MEGA R E N. Artemis wearing short chiton with diplois, running r., carrying a torch in each hand

AE

BMC Att. 122 no. 47 pl. 22.2

w

Cat. 370

C 3423

L,M 18

i

24

6.36

8,l

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 17

AIGINA 293 510–485 b.c. Sea turtle / Incuse square divided into compartments

AR: stater

Price & Waggoner 69 group 3 nos. 425–431 pl. 19

obv. smooth shell, down the middle, a row of dots; rev. in a “Union Jack” pattern Cat. 371

C 905

K 14



Ca. 500–490 or 480 b.c. Sea turtle / Incuse square divided into compartments

20

11.99

8,m

AR: stater

3/4 5c b.c.

Hesperia 1978, 64 n. 6 pl. 15:a

Price & Waggoner 72 group 6 nos. 533–540 pl. 21

obv. smooth shell; down the middle, a row of dots; rev. in a “proto-skew” pattern Cat. 372

C 843

O 16



16

11.86

8,n

4c b.c.

Cat. 373

C 1649

G 19



11

11.81

8,o

4c b.c. (?)

obv. thin collar; Hesperia 1981, 65 pl. 25:d

Cat. 374

C 2952

Q 14



16

12.64

8,p

1/4 5c b.c.

obv. thin collar; Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60, 189 pl. 39:b, c

293 For

possibly a contemporary imitation; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

the chronology of the coins of Aigina, I follow the outline of Price & Waggoner 69–76, according to which the coinage (their “Group 1”) begins about 550 b.c.

93

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 375

C 2963

P 15



19

485–475 b.c. Sea turtle / Incuse square divided into compartments

10.60

5c–6c a.d.

8,q

AR

obv. thick collar; Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60, 186 pl. 39:b, c

Price & Waggoner 73 group 8 nos. 541–550 pl. 21

obv. with smooth shell; down the middle, a row of dots; rev. in a “small-skew” pattern stater Cat. 376

C 1658

K 12

o

16

12.13

8,r

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 55 n. 19 pl. 16:d

5.58

8,s

13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 155 pl. 37:g

0.85

8,t

2/2 4c b.c.

drachma Cat. 377

C 142

M6

k

16 obol

Cat. 378

C 2922

P 14

m

11

After 480 b.c. Sea turtle / Incuse square divided into compartments

AR: obol

obv. late thin collar; Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c

British Museum 1932, 2.B.37; no examples in Asyut hoard

obv. shell divided into plates in a “T-back” pattern; rev. in a “skew” pattern Cat. 379

C 2931

P 15

p

9

480–431 b.c. Sea turtle / Incuse square divided into compartments

0.98

8,u

AR

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c

BMC Att. 138 no. 163 pl. 24.11

obv. shell divided into plates; rev. in a “large skew” pattern triobol Cat. 380

C 782

M 15

l

13

2.88

8,v

Byzantine

Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:h

stater Cat. 381

C 1645

G 19

p

20

12.33

8,w

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 65 pl. 25:d

Cat. 382

C 1816

L 18

k

18

12.06

9,a

Byzantine

obv. thin collar; Hesperia 1981, 57 pl. 18:a, b

Cat. 383

C 3432

M 18

j

20

12.28

9,b

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 1

Late 5th–4th century b.c. Sea turtle / Incuse square divided into compartments

AR: obol

BMC Att. 142 no. 200 pl. 25.8

obv. shell divided into plates; rev. into five compartments Cat. 384

C 820

O 17

i

11

0.82

9,c

1c a.d.

obv. A r.; rev. D I r., within compartments; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

94

catalogue of coins, part i

5th–4th century b.c. Sea turtle / Incuse square divided into compartments Cat. 385

C 3955

M 20

[AR]: subaerate core —

16

Ca. 350–250 b.c. 294 A between two dolphins upward, facing / Incuse square divided by narrow bands into five compartments

4.13

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

AE

cf. Kroll 154; Agora XXVI, 220 no. 662; BMC Att. 143 nos. 206–222 pl. 25.11–14

Cat. 386

C 109

M 12

p

13

1.52

9,d

Byzantine

Cat. 387

C 503

N 15

m

13

2.23

9,e

Byzantine

Cat. 388

C 594

DD 30

o

13

1.58

Cat. 389

C 649

DD 29

j

14

1.56

Cat. 390

C 1307

K 17

m

13

1.83

Cat. 391

C 1426

I 14

j

12

2.00

Cat. 392

C 1475

H 14



11

1.73

3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 393

C 1476

H 14

o

12

1.43

3c–2c b.c.

obv. [A]

Cat. 394

C 1597

F 17

j

12

2.06

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Cat. 395

C 1674

G 18

m

9

1.61

3c b.c. (or later?)

obv. [A]

Cat. 396

C 1781

F 19

m

12

1.57

1/4 3c b.c.

obv. [A]

Cat. 397

C 1878

O 19

m

12

1.80

2/2 2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 398

C 1884

O 19

i

12

1.86

unknown

Cat. 399

C 1933

Q 19

o

12

1.50

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 400

C 2037

P 12

k

12

1.52

modern

Cat. 401

C 2042

P 12

i

13

1.77

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 402

C 2070

I 19

o

11

2.02

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 403

C 2318

K,L 13,14

k

11

1.46

Cat. 404

C 2650

M 19

k

13

1.88

unknown

Cat. 405

C 2679

P 14

m

11

2.05

6c a.d.

Cat. 406

C 2700

Q 14

i

11

2.03

Cat. 407

C 2704

Q 14

p

11

1.40

6c a.d.

Cat. 408

C 2748

E 19

o

12

1.60

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 409

C 3107

L 18

m

13

2.34

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 1

Cat. 410

C 3729

K 19

k

12

1.92

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

294 Per

Kroll 154.

9, f

9,g

9,h

9,i

none

Nemea II, 235

5c–6c a.d.

rev. D in upper compartment; Nemea II, 235

3/4 4c b.c.

rev. [N ] O in upper compartments

5c– 1/2 4c b.c.

unknown

Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

obv. [A] rev. A, R in l. compartments Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c

6c a.d.

95

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 411

C 3797

K 19

i

12

1.74

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 412

C 3822

K 19

k

12

1.55

late 3c– mid-2c b.c.

Cat. 413

C 4087

unknown

i

13

1.97

300–100 b.c. Bull’s head frontal / [A or AI ] beneath. Dolphin r. Cat. 414

C 449

9, j

AE O 16

p

13

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

none

BMC Att. 144 nos. 225, 226 pl. 26.1 2.24

9,k

Middle Roman

Hesperia 1977, 16 n. 34 pl. 9:f

CORINTHIA Corinth Ca. 550–500 b.c. 295 Pegasos bridled with curled wing, flying l.; below, i / Swastika incuse

AR

BMC Cor. 3 nos. 24, 25 pl. 1.7; Corinth VI, no. 1 pl. 1

stater Cat. 415

C 927

O 15



22

7.87

9,l

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

Byzantine

Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b (attributed to Argos)

drachma Cat. 416

C 329

N 16



13

2.55

9,m

Cat. 417

C 506

O 16



15

2.73

9,n

Pegasos forepart bridled with curled wing, flying l.; below, i / Swastika incuse

AR: hemidrachm

2/2 4c b.c. Hesperia 1977, –1c a.d. 20 n. 41 pl. 13:b BMC Cor. 4 nos. 36–39 pl. 1.10; Corinth VI, no. 2 pl. 1

Cat. 418

C 907

J 15



11

1.33

9,o

Byzantine

Cat. 419

C 2689

P 14



12

1.38

9,p

6c a.d.

Pegasos bridled with curled wing, flying; below, [i] / Swastika incuse

AR: obol

Hesperia 1976, 186 pl. 35:a

Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 20 pl. 17:a Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c

BMC Cor. 5 nos. 42–46 pl. 1.12

obv. r. Cat. 420

C 952

O 16



9

0.46

9,q

4c a.d.

C 1659

K 12



8

0.42

9,r

late 5c b.c.

obv. Pegasos r.; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b (attributed to Argos)

obv. l. Cat. 421

295 Following

the chronology of Price & Waggoner 76–79 for the early Corinthian silver coinage.

obv. Pegasos l.; Hesperia 1981, 55 pl. 16:d

96

catalogue of coins, part i

Ca. 500–480 b.c. Pegasos bridled with curled wing flying l.; below, [i] / Athena in Corinthian helmet l. in linear square, within incuse square Cat. 422

C 3204

M 13

AR: drachma

o

Forepart of Pegasos bridled with curled wing r.; below, [i]/ Athena in Corinthian helmet r. in linear square, within incuse square

13

2.63

C 974

J 15

i

10

1.37

Cat. 424

C 2992

P 16

j

11

1.32

Pegasos bridled with curled wing flying r.; below, [i]/ Athena in Corinthian helmet l. in linear square, within incuse square C 2950

P 15

n

C 2453

K 16

n

440–338 b.c. Pegasos with curled wing flying l.; below, i / Pegasos with curled wing flying l.; below, i, upper l., DE Cat. 427

C 1214

K 17

13

2.79

9,t

2.70

Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c BMC Cor. 8 nos. 87, 88, 90 pl. 2.10, 11; Corinth VI, no. 3 pl. 1

9,u

11

Late 5th century–ca. 355 b.c. 296 Pegasos / Trident

0.76

9,v

hole drilled slightly off-center rev.; does not pierce coin; Hesperia 1984,184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c

12c a.d. (?)

SNG Cop. Cor. nos. 29–31 pl. 1

9,w

AE297

modern

rev., i not visible; Hesperia 1979, 85 pl. 27:c

Price 1964b, 115–116 pl. 6; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos r.; rev. no symbol

Price Group 1 no. 1

Cat. 428

C 1067

CC 28

i

12

1.37

Cat. 429

C 1203

L 17

k

11

2.23

296 On

6c a.d.

BMC Cor. 8 no. 79 pl. 2.8

AR: diobol

i

modern 6c a.d.

AR: hemidrachm

13

unknown BMC Cor. 9 nos. 91–94 pl. 2.13

AR: drachma

Ca. 480–440 b.c. Pegasos bridled with curled wing, flying l.; below, i / Peirene (fountain nymph) r., within incuse square Cat. 426

9,s

AR: hemidrachm

Cat. 423

Cat. 425

BMC nos. 51, 52 pl. 2.2

9,x

4c a.d.

obv. Pegasos l.; Nemea II, 235

1/2 5c b.c.

the beginning date for Corinthian bronzes, see above, pp. 57–58. note on corinthian bronze coinage: Martin Jessop Price submitted his Cambridge Ph.D.dissertation,“The Introduction of Bronze Coinage and Its Particular Development at Corinth,” in 1964. Essential portions of this were revised and published in the next few years (Price 1967, 1968). Price, with his characteristic generosity, allowed me to use and quote from his copy while I was working at the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals in 1992–1993. I examined again in 1998 a copy now in the library collection of Coins and Medals. However, only the text survives, as most of its notes have disappeared. In addition,

297 a

97

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 430

C 1354

L 20

m

12

1.83

Cat. 431

C 2890

E 19

n

12

1.71

4c b.c.

Cat. 432

C 3736

K 19

o

11

2.10

2/2 4c–1/2 3c b.c. (Early Hellenistic?)

9,y

obv. Pegasos r.; rev. symbol, i r.

3/4 4c a.d.

Price Group 1 no. 4

Cat. 433 C 1953 K 20 p obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, Thracian helmet l.

12

2.11

9,z

2c b.c. Price Group 1 no. 6

Cat. 434

12

1.49

9,aa

late 3c b.c.

C 1995

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 26 pl. 10:c, d

L 20

i

375–368? b.c. 298 Athena in Corinthian helmet l. / KORINQIWN. Trident

AE

Price 1964b, 138–140; Group 10 Class B pl. 11

Cat. 435

C 550

DD 31

p

18

5.47

9,bb

Byzantine

Cat. 436

C 1237

K 17

p

12

5.18

9,cc

modern

Cat. 437

C 1687

G 18

m

17

6.08

Cat. 438

C 1699

G 18

k

19

5.47

Cat. 439

C 2444

O 18

m

19

3.51

Nemea II, 235

3c b.c. (or later?)

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c, d

10,a

early 3c b.c.

obv. countermark, trident

10,b

unknown

Ca. 355–345 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

AE

Price 1964b, 116–118, pl. 7

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, star l.

Price Group 2 no. 8

Cat. 440

C 2865

E 19

m

10

1.29

Cat. 441

C 2956

P 15

o

11

1.45

10,c

mid-2c b.c.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, crescent r. Cat. 442

C 625

M 15

late 3c b.c. Price Group 2 no. 9a

i

13

1.56

10,d

Byzantine

the text of the “1998” copy has different pagination from the “1993” version, and some revisions. The earlier catalogue version (pp. 114ff. in “1993” and pp. 200ff. in “1998”) is more elaborate, and that is cited here. (I have been told that all or a portion exists in the library of the Corinth excavations; presumably there is also an original copy deposited in Cambridge, but despite repeated inquiries I have been unable to obtain a complete copy of it from there.) In his work on the South Stoa coins from Corinth (Price 1967), Price does not express an opinion about the absolute chronology of the Corinthian bronze emissions, especially the very common Pegasos/Trident type. However, in the thesis he does arrange these issues by groups, an ordering I follow here. His basic guide is the symbols, which often appear on the reverse of the P/T coins, as die linkage proved impossible because of the poor condition of most of the coins. These symbols are arranged according to hoard deposits from elsewhere in Greece (the Kyra Vrysi hoard, which Price gives in full, pp. 182–184 [ = IGCH 200]; the Chalkis hoard is said to be in the possession of the American Numismatic Society, but the exact citation to confirm this is lost with Price’s notes) as well as, of course, the evidence of the Corinth excavations themselves, specifically the material from the Hellenistic wells of the South Stoa, the pottery deposit from shop I of the South Stoa, the deposit from shop XXXII of the South Stoa, the terracotta deposit from shop I of the South Stoa, the cistern in I–L 15–16 (Museum East), the coins from the Potters’ Quarter, and deposits in the terrace fill of the South Stoa. Price also relates the symbols and letters on silver issues to those on the bronze, relying on the work of Ravel. A full discussion is on pp. 142–199, while a catalogue follows on pp. 200–244. I have followed Price for everything except the beginning date of the P/T coinage, for which see previous note. Finally, a word of caution: correctly identifying symbols and letters on the small and often badly worn P/T’s is often a frustrating and inexact exercise; there are undoubtedly errors in some descriptions and anyone interested in this important coinage needs to examine all finds carefully. 298 Price 1964b, 138–140, offers evidence for this speculative dating.

98

catalogue of coins, part i

obv. Pegasos r. or l.; rev. symbol, sepia l.

Price Group 2 no. 13

Cat. 443

C 2809

E19

n

11

1.71

Cat. 444

C 3962

M20

o

12

1.96

10,e

10, f

4c–3c b.c.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, cock’s head l. Cat. 445

C 951

O 16

l

13

1.86

Cat. 446

C 2758

E 19

l

13

1.21

C 1461

l

mid-2c b.c.

Price Group 2 no. 17 12

1.63

Cat. 448 C 2735 E 19 p obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbols, harpa and crescent r.

13

2.19

10,g

3c–4c a.d. not in Price 1964b

Cat. 449 C 278 M 17 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, bow r.

o

11

1.36

10,h

modern not in Price 1964b

Cat. 450

p

13

1.81

10,i

4c–3c b.c.

C 1184

H 14

2/2 4c– obv. Pegasos r. 1/2 3c b.c. Price Group 2 no. 14

late 3c b.c.

Ca. 355–248 b.c. obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, triskeles of crescents r. Cat. 447

L 20

3c–5c a.d.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, amphora l. Cat. 451

C 623

not in Price 1964b n

11

1.98

10, j

Byzantine

Cat. 452 C 2802 E 19 m obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, spearhead? or tall plant? l.

12

1.62

10,k

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 453

i

13

1.98

10,l

2/2 4c b.c. –1c–2c a.d.

Cat. 454 C 1130 K 14 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, starburst r.

p

11

1.90

10,m

modern

Cat. 455

n

12

2.34

10,n

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

o

11

2.09

10,o

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Cat. 457 C 1689 G 18 j 12 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, head in Corinthian helmet? l.

1.66

10,p

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 458

11

2.15

10,q

early 3c b.c.

C 1128

C 1598

M 15

obv. Pegasos l.

L 20

F 17

below, I O rev. symbol, perhaps a lily

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, staff l. Cat. 456

C 1610

F 17

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, thunderbolt? l.

C 1702

G 18

n

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, Corinthian helmet? r. Cat. 459 C 1789 F 19 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, dolphin r.

j

14

1.73

10,r

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 460

p

11

2.28

10,s

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

k

12

1.73

10,t

late 1c a.d.

o

14

1.85

C 1894

K 11

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, D l., plant r. Cat. 461

C 2023

Q 20

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, amphora l. Cat. 462

C 891

L 15

Byzantine

99

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 463

C 2721

k

13

1.38

Cat. 464 C 2822 E 19 p obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, Thracian helmet? pileus? r.

12

1.50

Cat. 465 C 3228 DD 30 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, trident r.

k

13

2.25

10,v

unknown

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 466

n

14

1.73

10,w

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 10

k

12

1.18

10,x

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 468 C 3939 N 19 o 12 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, ?double axe ?thyrsos ?bird, l.; ?sepia r.

1.87

10,y

3c b.c.

Cat. 469 C 3805 K 19 k 12 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, wreath r.; other symbols uncertain

2.10

10,z

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 470

C 284

CC 32

i

11

2.60

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 471

C 775

M 14

o

12

1.78

Byzantine

Cat. 472

C 962

K 16

n

12

1.73

4c a.d.

Cat. 473

C 1794

F 19

p

11

1.71

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 474

C 2020

L 20



13

1.72

3c b.c.

Cat. 475

C 2605

M 18

j

12

1.70

late 12c– 13c a.d.

Cat. 476

C 2636

P 22

l

11

1.64

Cat. 477

C 2926

P 15

n

11

1.70

6c a.d.

Cat. 478

C 2933

Q 14

l

12

1.61

6c–5c b.c.

Cat. 479

C 3773

L 19

j

11

1.47

2c b.c.

Cat. 480

C 3901

N 20

j

12

1.39

3c b.c.

Cat. 481

C 3904

N 20

o

11

1.70

modern

Cat. 482

C 3933

N 19

k

11

1.84

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 483

C 4072

DD 27

m

11

1.94

modern

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 484

C 4081

Z 27

m

11

1.46

Early Hellenistic

Nemea II, 236

C 3444

E 19

M 13

10,u

4c b.c. (? plus one Roman fragment) 4c–3c b.c.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, dolphin l. Cat. 467

C 3756

L 19

350–338 b.c. Pegasos with pointed wing flying l.; below, i / Pegasos with curled wing trotting l. on ground line; above l., A

AR: diobol

Cat. 485

10

C 21

C 14

l

Cat. 486 C 212 M 11 i Pegasos forepart with curled wing l.; below, i/ Aphrodite head, hair bound with tainia l. Cat. 487

C 1477

H 14

k

10,aa

10, bb

11 0.71 AR: hemidrachm

10, cc

1.28

unknown

BMC Cor. 24 nos. 236, 237 cf. pl. 9.14

0.82

12

Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 236

10, dd

19c a.d.

obv. l., A or L

modern obv. l., trident? BMC Cor. 43 no. 368 pl. 11.2 5c b.c.

obv. L or A D l.?; Hesperia 1980, 190 pl. 40:f

100

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 488

C 1888

K 11

i

12

1.18

10, ee

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 489

C 3871

L 19

m

12

1.31

10, ff

late 5c– 4c b.c. (coins?)

Ca. 345–340 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

AE

Price Group 3 no. 24 j

13

1.72

Cat. 491 C 3633 K 19 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, D l. ; hound r.

j

11

1.45

Cat. 492

C 488

M 14

i

14

1.50

Byzantine

Cat. 493

C 853

N 14

m

12

1.53

mid-2c b.c.

Cat. 494

C 1945

K 20

i

11

1.15

Cat. 495

C 2294

F 16

o

13

1.61

4c b.c. (?)

Cat. 496

C 2799

E 19

n

12

1.51

4c–3c b.c. (one possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 497

C 2841

E 19

i

12

1.37

C 182

F 12

no obv. A visible; Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 (attributed to Argos) pl. 19:a, b

Price 1964b, 118–121 pl. 7; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, D l., wreath r. Cat. 490

obv. A or D r.; Hesperia 1982, 22 n. 5 pl. 9:a, b

Byzantine 10, gg

10, hh

Early Christian Price Group 3 no. 25

2c b.c.

4c b.c.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, D l.; Helios head, facing, r.

Price Group 3 no. 26

Cat. 498

C 1902

K 11

n

13

1.95

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 499

C 2292

F 16

m

12

2.26

4c b.c.

Cat. 500

C 2899

E 19

m

13

1.63

Cat. 501 C 3362 J 18 i obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, D l.; amphora r.

14

1.25

Cat. 502

C 184

F 12

k

13

2.02

4c b.c.

Cat. 503

C 1833

L 18

j

10

1.69

unknown

Cat. 504

C 2015

L 20

n

14

2.28

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 505

C 3680

K 19

i

14

1.66

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 506

C 3840

M 19

o

12

1.95

Cat. 507

C 3859

K 19

k

13

1.79

late 2c– 1c b.c.

i

12

1.38

4c b.c.

10, ii

3/4 3c b.c. unknown Price Group 3 no. 27

10, jj

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Early Christian (?)

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, uncertain l.; D r. Cat. 508

C 194

F 12

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

101

catalogue of coins, part i

Ca. 340–335 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

AE

Price 1964b, 121–123 pl. 7; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, A l.; Thessalian helmet r.

Price Group 4 no. 33

Cat. 509

C 93

S 17

o

13

1.75

2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

Cat. 510

C 1759

F 19

n

12

1.66

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 511

C 1988

Q 20

i

13

1.91

Cat. 512

C 2796

E 19

m

13

1.70

10, kk

1c b.c. 4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment) Price Group 4 no. 34

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, A l.; thunderbolt r. Cat. 513

C 440

M 14

k

12

1.61

Byzantine

Cat. 514

C 577

DD 30

p

12

2.06

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 515

C 588

DD 29

k

12

2.07

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 516

C 920

CC 29

p

12

1.74

Byzantine

Cat. 517

C 1082

O 18

l

13

1.70

Cat. 518

C 3788

K 19

m

11

1.65

10, ll

late 4c– early 3c b.c. 4/4 3c– 2c b.c. Price Group 4 no. 35

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, A l.; dolphin r. Cat. 519

C 25

C 14

p

13

1.37

Byzantine

Cat. 520

C 970

CC 29

o

13

1.79

Early Christian

Cat. 521

C 1567

F 19

o

12

1.72

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 522

C 2284

F 16

j

12

1.87

4c b.c.

Cat. 523

C 2286

F 16

n

13

1.43

4c b.c.

Cat. 524

C 2832

E 19

k

12

1.26

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 525

C 2857

E 19

k

12

1.84

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 526

C 2905

F 19

j

12

2.25

2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

Cat. 527

C 3386

K 17

p

12

1.77

unknown

Cat. 528

C 3391

K 18

p

13

1.63

unknown

Cat. 529

C 3443

M 12

l

13

2.10

unknown

Cat. 530 C 3647 L 19 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, round shield

j

14

1.86

10,mm

Cat. 531

o

13

1.87

10, nn

Cat. 532 C 3744 L 19 j obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, mask r.; A L below

13

1.75

Cat. 533 C 2855 E 19 m 12 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol r., Artemis running r.; D E below

1.84

10, oo

Cat. 534

1.52

10, pp

C 2882

C 995

E 19

J 15

n

11

Nemea II, 235

Bellinger 1926 no. 8

Early Christian Price Group 4 no. 36 2/2 4c–1c b.c.

rev. symbol l.

modern rev. symbol r. Price Group 4 no. 37 4c–3c b.c. Price Group 4 no. 40 Early Christian

102

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 535

C 1725

F 19

k

12

1.51

11c–12c a.d.

Cat. 536

C 2468

L,M 17

k

10

2.27

3c a.d.

Cat. 537

C 2534

M 17

m

13

1.93

Cat. 538

C 3948

M 20

m

13

1.67

Ca. 338–330 b.c. Pegasos with pointed wing flying l.; below, i / Peirene (fountain nymph) head wearing hair in sakkos, l.; D, I to l. and r.

AR: drachma

Cat. 539

15

C 1486

F 18

i

Ca. 335–306 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

2.48

10, qq

Byzantine modern

BMC Cor. 35 no. 322 pl. 12.29 (sim.)

10, rr

AE

4c a.d. (1/3 4c a.d.: coins)

Hesperia 1980, 194 pl. 44:f

Price 1964b, 123–126 pl. 8; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, ivy leaf l.; A R below

Price Group 5 no. 43

Cat. 540

C8

CC 32

j

11

1.67

modern

Cat. 541

C 193

F 12

i

13

1.71

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 542

C 1277

DD 29

j

11

1.71

modern

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 543

C 1656

K 12

o

11

1.87

6c a.d.

Cat. 544

C 2653

O 18

k

13

1.83

Cat. 545

C 2937

Q 14

k

11

1.59

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 546

C 3396

L 17

o

13

1.57

unknown

Cat. 547

C 3804

K 19

p

12

1.57

3c–mid2c b.c.

11,a

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, thyrsos r.; D I below

4c b.c.

Nemea I, 181

rev. AU below?

Price Group 5 no. 44

Cat. 548

C 690

L 14

j

11

1.75

Cat. 549

C 2071

I 19

i

7

1.47

Cat. 550

C 3758

L 19

m

13

1.49

unknown 11,b

5c–6c a.d. 4c–3c b.c.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, trophy r.; D I below

Price Group 5 no. 45

Cat. 551

C 2271

F 16

j

12

1.49

Cat. 552

C 3960

M 20

j

13

1.92

11,c

modern 1/2 4c– early 3c b.c. Price Group 5 no. 46

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, pinecone r.; D I below Cat. 553

C 443

O 16

j

11

1.57

Middle Roman

Cat. 554

C 742

L 14

o

11

1.64

2/4 3c a.d.

Cat. 555

C 2615

M 18

p

13

1.58

11,d

unknown

Cat. 556

C 2730

E 19

m

13

1.69

11,e

3c–4c a.d.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, lily r.; D I below

Hesperia 1977, 16 n. 34 pl. 9:f

Price Group 5 no. 47

Cat. 557

C 874

K 15

l

13

2.48

Byzantine

Cat. 558

C 1178

EE 27

o

12

1.63

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

103

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 559 C 1224 CC 28 j obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, wreath r.; D I below

13

2.10

Cat. 560

C 516

O 16

j

12

1.11

Cat. 561

C 563

Stadium

l

13

2.06

Cat. 562

C 1312

K 14

j

11

Cat. 563

C 1444

J 16



11, f

3c–4c a.d. Nemea II, 235 Price Group 5 no. 48 2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

obv. below, i; Hesperia 1977, 20 n. 41 pl. 13:b

Byzantine

exact find location unknown

1.64

after mid4c b.c. (coins?)

Hesperia 1979, 80 pl. 23:b

12

2.50

6c a.d.

Cat. 564 C 1978 Q 20 p obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, crescent r.; below, D I

12

0.98

Cat. 565

C 656

DD 29

j

12

1.43

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 566

C 716

O 17

n

11

2.26

2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

Cat. 567

C 851

N 14

n

12

1.87

Cat. 568

C 1611

F 17

p

12

2.28

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 569

C 3217

L 12

j

13

1.27

unknown

Cat. 570

C 3812

O 19

p

11

1.62

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 571

C 3887

M 19

o

12

1.68

11

1.62

11,g

late 1c a.d. Price Group 5 no. 49

11,h

C 2602

N 18

k

mid-2c b.c. Hesperia 1981, 60–61

1/2 4c– Hesperia 1988, 1/2 3c b.c. 15 n. 58 Price Group 5 no. 51

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, tripod r.; D I below Cat. 572

Nemea II, 235

11,i

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, Athena standing l.

early 3c a.d.

Nemea I, 184

Price Group 5 no. 52

Cat. 573

C 2582

O 18

o

11

1.75

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 574

C 2785

E 19

i

10

1.59

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 575

C 3213

M 13

l

11

2.06

unknown

Cat. 576

C 3842

M 19

k

13

1.43

11, j

11,k

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, Athena standing r. Cat. 577

C 2643

N 18

i

12

2.13

Cat. 578

C 3961

M 20

o

12

2.17

Nemea I, xv, 181 figs. 238–239

Early Christian (?) cf. Price Group 5 no. 52 Early Christian

rev. symbol upside down

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, pileus l.; A U below

Price Group 5 no. 53

Cat. 579

C 171

F 12

o

12

1.59

Byzantine

Cat. 580

C 191

F 12

n

13

1.49

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 581

C 578

DD 30

p

13

1.65

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 582

C 1054

CC 29

k

14

1.71

Early Christian

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 583

C 1264

K 17

m

13

1.82

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 584

C 1708

F 19

k

12

1.84

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

11,l

104

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 585

C 1755

F 19

i

12

1.67

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 586

C 2664

M 18

k

13

1.69

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 587

C 2742

E 19

i

13

1.74

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 588

C 2765

E 19

o

12

1.59

unknown

Cat. 589

C 3899

L 19

i

13

1.63

late 4c– early 3c b.c. Price Group 5 no. 54

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, owl l.; D O below Cat. 590

C 605

DD 29

o

12

1.77

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 591

C 1215

K 17

o

11

1.86

modern

Cat. 592

C 1292

K 17

k

11

1.59

unknown

Cat. 593

C 1856

L 17

j

12

1.87

Cat. 594

C 2049

P 12

l

11

1.12

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 595

C 2489

K 16

m

11

1.75

5c b.c. (?)

Cat. 596

C 2587

O 18

l

13

2.03

4c b.c.

11,m

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, oinochoe r.; D O below Cat. 597

C 2334

M 18

n

Nemea II, 235

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea I, xv, 181 figs. 240–241

Price Group 5 no. 55 11

306–303 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

1.90

11,n

AE

unknown

Price 1964b, 126–128 pl. 9; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, tripod r.; A N below

Price Group 6 no. 60

Cat. 598

C 264

M 11

i

11

1.62

modern

Cat. 599

C 702

DD 29

p

11

1.37

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 600

C 1156

L 17

j

12

1.79

Cat. 601

C 1653

K 13

j

13

0.79

modern

Cat. 602

C 3724

K 19

m

13

2.13

2c–1c b.c.

11,o

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, M l., wreath r.

Nemea II, 235

5c–6c a.d. Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

Price Group 6 no. 63

Cat. 603

C 299

M 11

m

12

1.89

Cat. 604

C 1313

K 14

l

11

1.52

Cat. 605

C 1459

H 14

o

13

1.74

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 606

C 2903

F 19

n

12

1.87

2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

Cat. 607

C 3720

L 19

j

12

1.34

3c b.c.

Cat. 608

C 3734

K 19

j

12

1.75

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 609

C 3875

K 19

i

13

1.41

modern 11,p

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c. Price Group 6 no. 66

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, wreath r.; T I below Cat. 610

C 2290

F 16

j

12

2.11

Cat. 611

C 3212

M 12

i

12

1.95

3/4 3c b.c. (coins)

11,q

4c b.c. unknown

Hesperia 1979, 80 pl. 23:b rev. M unclear; wreath off flan Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 26 pl. 10:c, d

105

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 612 C 1457 H 14 n obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, Artemis r.; F I below

12

1.29

11,r

Cat. 613

C 1608

F 17

o

10

1.51

11,s

Cat. 614

C 2717

E 19

n

11

1.34

303–287 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

AE

C 2060

L 12

k

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

5c–6c a.d.

rev. [FI ]

Price 1964b, 128–133 pl. 9; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, Nike l.; N in circle r. Cat. 615

3c–5c a.d. Price Group 6 no. 70

Price Group 7 no. 71 9

2.05

modern

Cat. 616 C 3340 K 19 n obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, N in circle l.; dove r.

13

2.02

Cat. 617

C 919

CC 29

n

12

1.60

Byzantine

Cat. 618

C 1536

F 18

j

11

1.43

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 619

C 2715

E 19

o

12

1.24

11,t

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 620

C 2768

E 19



11

1.51

11,u

unknown

Cat. 621 C 1883 O 19 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, double axe r.

i

11

1.74

11,v

Cat. 622

C 43

N 12

i

12

1.17

4c a.d.

Cat. 623

C 1225

CC 28

k

12

1.80

3c–4c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 624

C 1245

BB 28

i

12

1.79

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 625

C 1251

K 17

i

12

2.45

11,w

modern

Cat. 626

C 1897

K 11

l

11

1.98

11,x

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 627

C 2788

E 19



11

1.53

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 628

C 2806

E 19

i

11

1.80

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 629 C 3638 L 19 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, cornucopia l.

k

11

1.30

Cat. 630

C 2054

P 19

i

12

1.67

Roman– 7c a.d.

Cat. 631

C 2939

G 19

j

11

1.81

1/2 5c b.c.

Cat. 632 C 3916 N 19 n obv. Pegasos r.; rev. symbol, amphora r.; D W below

11

1.42

Cat. 633

C 1591

F 17

o

11

1.73

Cat. 634

C 2405

L 17

l

11

1.00

Cat. 635 C 3731 K 19 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, H l.; wreath r.

j

14

2.03

late 3c–early 2c b.c. Price Group 7 no. 82

Cat. 636

C 619

O 17

i

13

1.87

Byzantine

Cat. 637

C 713

O 17

i

13

1.67

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

unknown Price Group 7 no. 73

late 3c b.c. not in Price Price Group 7 no. 75

Early Christian Price Group 7 no. 76

11,y

1/2 3c b.c. Price Group 7 no. 81a 5c–6c a.d.

11,z

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

unknown

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 35 pl. 10:a

106

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 638

C 834

M 16

l

11

1.86

4c a.d.

Cat. 639

C 923

M 13

k

14

1.49

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 640

C 1059

CC 29

k

11

1.54

Early Christian

Cat. 641

C 1091

N 16

o

13

0.96

12c–15c a.d.

Cat. 642

C 1253

K 17

n

12

1.31

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 643

C 1540

F 18

p

11

1.70

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 644

C 1628

G 19

n

12

1.45

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 645

C 1670

G 18

n

12

1.73

6c a.d.

Cat. 646

C 1697

G 18

p

11

1.18

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 647

C 1701

G 18

o

11

1.67

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 648

C 1891

K 11

j

12

1.88

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 649

C 2079

P 13

l

12

1.63

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 650

C 2477

K 16

j

11

0.99

unknown

Cat. 651

C 2644

N 18

m

11

1.83

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 652

C 2705

Q 14

k

11

1.74

Cat. 653

C 2745

E 19

j

11

1.50

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 654

C 2771

E 19

p

11

1.26

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 655

C 2772

E 19

l

12

1.43

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 656

C 2940

G 19

k

11

1.44

1/2 5c b.c.

Cat. 657

C 3187

H 17

j

13

1.64

unknown

Cat. 658

C 3336

K 19?

n

12

1.23

unknown

obv. i below Pegasos

Cat. 659

C 3457

M 12

m

12

1.67

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 6

Cat. 660

C 3686

L 19

i

12

1.55

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 661

C 3968

M 19

n

12

1.59

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 662

C 4039

CC 27

k

11

1.41

Cat. 663

C 4047

CC 26

l

11

1.41

11, aa

11, bb

6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c

Nemea I, xv, 180, 181 figs. 233–234 obv. i below Pegasos

Early Christian

Nemea II, 235

modern

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 664 C 4086 Sanctuary p 13 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, torch r. (many in good condition)

1.31

Cat. 665

C 22

C 14

m

12

1.83

Byzantine

Cat. 666

C 60

N 17

m

12

1.29

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 667

C 312

N 16

p

12

2.04

Byzantine

Cat. 668

C 318

N 17

j

12

1.59

4c b.c.

Cat. 669

C 418

O 16

n

12

1.26

Middle Roman

Cat. 670

C 739

L 14

p

11

2.11

late 3c a.d.

Cat. 671

C 933

O 15

n

11

1.50

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

Cat. 672

C 1073

CC 28

p

12

1.55

4c a.d.

none Price Group 7 no. 83

Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c Hesperia 1976, 192 n. 35

Nemea II, 235

107

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 673

C 1115

L 17

o

12

1.10

modern

Cat. 674

C 1369

J 16

m

11

1.45

modern

Cat. 675

C 1532

F 18

i

10

1.53

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 676

C 1537

F 18

p

11

1.50

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 677

C 1566

F 19

m

10

1.18

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 678

C 1582

F 17

n

11

2.26

14c a.d.

Cat. 679

C 1682

G 18

l

12

1.63

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 680

C 1698

G 18

k

11

1.98

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 681

C 1718

F 19

n

11

1.64

6c a.d. (?)

Cat. 682

C 1720

F 19

p

12

1.75

6c a.d.

Cat. 683

C 1795

F 19

j

12

1.71

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 684

C 1979

Q 20

k

11

1.41

late 1c a.d.

Cat. 685

C 2085

P 13

p

11

1.72

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 686

C 2289

F 16

o

11

1.14

4c b.c.

Cat. 687

C 2530

O 18

k

11

1.35

early 2c b.c.

Cat. 688

C 2632

M 18

m

12

1.26

late 1c a.d.

Cat. 689

C 2656

M 18

p

13

1.74

Cat. 690

C 2687

P 14

k

11

1.23

6c a.d.

Cat. 691

C 2800

E 19

m

12

1.45

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 692

C 2801

E 19

m

11

1.48

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 693

C 2825

E 19

i

11

1.70

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 694

C 2918

P 14

o

11

1.68

6c a.d.

Cat. 695

C 2989

P 16

m

13

1.68

6c a.d.

Cat. 696

C 3546

K 19

o

12

1.24

modern

Cat. 697

C 3774

L 19

m

13

1.22

2c b.c.

Cat. 698

C 4013

CC 28

i

12

2.11

6c a.d.

Cat. 699 C 4014 CC 28 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, torch l.

m

11

1.61

Cat. 700

C 615

DD 29

o

12

1.75

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 701

C 1575

EE 26

o

11

1.44

unknown

Cat. 702

C 1887

K 11

i

11

1.32

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 703

C 2708

Q 14

i

11

1.68

Cat. 704

C 2823

E 19

p

10

1.96

11, cc

early 3c b.c.

obv. i below

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Nemea I, xv, 178, 179, 181 figs. 225–226

Nemea II, 235

6c a.d. Nemea II, 235 Price Group 7 no. 83b

11, dd

4c b.c. 4c–3c b.c.

Nemea II, 235

108

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 705 C 4042 CC 26 obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, griffin r.

i

11

1.66

11, ee

modern Nemea II, 235 Price Group 7 no. 84

Cat. 706 C 1274 CC 27 p obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, bull’s head r.; S T below

13

1.64

11, ff

3c–4c a.d. Nemea II, 235 Price Group 8 no. 103

Cat. 707

12

1.39

C 2909

F 19

j

Ca. 300–243 b.c. Pegasos with pointed wing flying l.; below, [i] / Peirene (fountain nymph) head wearing hair in sakkos, r.; A behind

AR: drachma

Cat. 708

14

C 252

N 16

i

Ca. 287–252 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

2.40

4c b.c. (?)

SNG Cop. Cor. no. 140 pl. 3

11, gg

AE

Byzantine

Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c

Price 1964b, 134–137 pl. 10; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, [S ] l.; palm r.

Price Group 8 no. 98

Cat. 709

C 914

CC 30

k

12

1.89

Cat. 710

C 1935

Q 19

o

12

2.36

252–248 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

11, hh

AE

2/2 4c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

Price 1964b, 137 pl. 10; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

obv. Pegasos l.; rev. symbol, A l.; bee r.

Price Group 9 no. 105

Cat. 711

C 1865

K 11

o

11

1.81

Cat. 712

C 3735

K 19

m

14

1.71

Late 5th century–ca. 248 b.c. Pegasos / Trident

AE

11,ii

modern 2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Price 1964, 115–137 pls. 6–10; BMC Cor. 53–56 nos. 423–471 pl. 14.1–8; Corinth VI, 14–15 no. 11 pl. 1

symbol illegible, but either/both Pegasos/trident visible; Pegasos l. unless otherwise noted Cat. 713

C 20

C 14

j

13

1.93

19c a.d.

Cat. 714

C 40

N 12

l

11

1.66

modern

Cat. 715

C 91

S 17

i

12

1.61

2c b.c.

Cat. 716

C 94

S 17



13

1.34

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 717

C 111

M 12

i

13

1.78

Hellenistic

Cat. 718

C 122

N 17

j

13

1.81

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 719

C 127

CC 32

j

13

1.19

Early Byzantine

Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 720

C 143

M6

i

14

1.72

13c a.d.

obv. Pegasos r.; Hesperia 1975, 155 n. 31

109

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 721

C 156

M 12

k

11

1.68

5c–4c b.c.

Cat. 722

C 164

E 12



11

1.25

Byzantine

Cat. 723

C 165

E 12

p

11

1.83

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 724

C 179

F 12

j

11

1.49

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 725

C 183

F 12



11

1.42

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 726

C 185

F 12

j

13

1.81

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 727

C 186

F 12

p

14

1.62

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 728

C 197

N 17

o

13

2.01

12–13c a.d.

Cat. 729

C 209

M 11



12

1.47

modern

Cat. 730

C 224

I 12

m

13

1.20

modern

Cat. 731

C 262

M 11

p

10

2.09

modern

Cat. 732

C 325

N 16

l

11

1.66

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c

Cat. 733

C 328

N 16

m

13

2.22

Byzantine

Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c

Cat. 734

C 330

N 16

o

13

1.65

Byzantine

Cat. 735

C 336

N 17

o

13

1.59

unknown

Cat. 736

C 377

L 17



10

1.65

unknown

Cat. 737

C 409

N 15

j

13

1.59

modern

Cat. 738

C 447

O 16

i

13

1.53

Middle Roman

Cat. 739

C 509

M 14

n

14

1.28

Byzantine

Cat. 740

C 517

O 16

p

11

1.16

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 741

C 520

M 16

n

12

1.64

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 742

C 568

DD 30

i

12

1.53

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 743

C 570

Stadium

o

13

1.34

Byzantine

exact find site unknown; rev. incised with chisel strikes; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 744

C 572

DD 30

j

12

1.31

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 745

C 582

DD 30

o

11

1.85

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 746

C 586

DD 30

i

13

1.85

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 747

C 597

DD 30

p

12

2.09

none

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 748

C 706

DD 29

n

13

2.09

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 749

C 717

O 17

p

13

1.83

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 750

C 723

K 14

i

12

1.59

modern

Cat. 751

C 760

DD 29

m

13

1.83

4c–5c a.d.

Cat. 752

C 774

M 14

n

12

1.62

modern

Hesperia 1975, 161 pl. 38:h; Nemea I, 26

Hesperia 1976, 192 n. 35

rev. symbol clear, but uncertain; Hesperia 1977, 20 n. 41 pl. 13:b

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 35 pl. 10:a Nemea II, 235

110

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 753

C 807

CC 30

k

11

1.46

Byzantine

Cat. 754

C 847

N 14

m

12

1.20

modern

Cat. 755

C 857

N 14

k

12

2.02

1c a.d.

Cat. 756

C 865

K 15

p

13

2.02

modern

Cat. 757

C 898

K 14

p

10

2.38

1c–2c a.d.

Cat. 758

C 912

CC 30

n

11

1.61

2/2 4c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 759

C 915

CC 30

n

12

1.58

2/2 4c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 760

C 930

O 15

p

11

1.71

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

Cat. 761

C 943

O 15



13

1.14

4c b.c.

Cat. 762

C 944

O 15

l

11

1.40

late 2c–early 3c a.d.

Cat. 763

C 971

CC 29

j

12

1.60

Early Christian

Cat. 764

C 1032

N 14

m

11

2.22

4c b.c.

Cat. 765

C 1046

O 18

m

12

1.63

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 766

C 1049

O 18

o

14

1.55

Middle Roman

Cat. 767

C 1052

O 18

m

13

1.73

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 768

C 1053

O 18

m

13

2.28

1/2 5c b.c.

Cat. 769

C 1066

CC 29

o

12

1.69

Early Christian

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 770

C 1070

CC 29



12

1.62

Early Christian

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 771

C 1076

CC 28

m

12

1.46

4c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 772

C 1097

L 17

n

13

1.96

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1978, 82 n. 56 pl. 25:d

Cat. 773

C 1122

L 20

m

10

1.17

1c–2c a.d.

Cat. 774

C 1124

L 20

j

13

2.00

3c a.d.

Cat. 775

C 1126

L 20

j

12

2.12

3c a.d.

Cat. 776

C 1131

K 14

j

12

2.10

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 777

C 1136

M 17

j

11

1.43

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 778

C 1139

unknown

m

13

1.46

unknown

Cat. 779

C 1171

K 14

n

11

1.56

late 4c– early 4c b.c.

Cat. 780

C 1174

K 14

p

11

1.58

unknown

Cat. 781

C 1179

BB 28



11

2.32

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 782

C 1186

L 20

j

11

1.45

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 783

C 1220

CC 28

k

14

1.60

3c–4c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 784

C 1221

CC 28

k

11

2.22

3c–4c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 785

C 1289

K 17

m

12

1.65

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 786

C 1298

BB 28

j

10

1.04

1/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 787

C 1342

L 20

n

11

0.84

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 788

C 1343

L 20

p

13

1.88

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 789

C 1356

L 20

l

12

1.96

late 5c b.c.

Cat. 790

C 1360

L 20



13

2.73

3/4 5c b.c.

Nemea II, 236

Nemea II, 236 Nemea I, 172 n. 501

Nemea II, 236

Nemea II, 236

111

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 791

C 1418

I 14

p

12

1.17

Early Christian

Cat. 792

C 1425

I 14

o

14

1.32

5c–1/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 793

C 1450

H 14

i

11

0.98

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 794

C 1455

H 14

k

12

1.85

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 795

C 1458

H 14

n

12

1.77

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 796

C 1471

H 14

l

12

1.18

1c–3c a.d.

Cat. 797

C 1473

H 14

j

12

1.53

1c–3c a.d.

Cat. 798

C 1483

F 18

m

12

2.05

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 799

C 1488

F 18

o

12

1.60

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 800

C 1543

F 18

p

12

1.74

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 801

C 1553

F 19

o

12

1.51

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 802

C 1581

F 17

n

12

1.63

14c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Cat. 803

C 1583

F 17

p

11

1.50

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Cat. 804

C 1596

F 17

n

13

1.84

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Cat. 805

C 1612

F 17

o

11

1.42

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Cat. 806

C 1644

G 19

m

12

1.92

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 807

C 1657

K 12

p

11

2.00

6c a.d.

Cat. 808

C 1661

G 18

j

11

2.30

modern

Cat. 809

C 1675

G 18

n

10

0.90

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 810

C 1690

G 18

l

13

1.49

3c b.c.

Cat. 811

C 1696

G 18

l

11

1.39

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 812

C 1709

F 19

n

13

1.43

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 813

C 1748

F 19

m

12

1.54

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 814

C 1752

F 19

k

12

1.57

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 815

C 1753

F 19

p

10

2.17

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 816

C 1756

F 19

p

12

1.24

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 817

C 1761

F 19



11

1.55

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 818

C 1772

F 19

o

10

1.61

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 819

C 1774

F 19

p

12

1.47

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 820

C 1780

F 19

n

11

1.83

1/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 821

C 1790

F 19

j

11

1.58

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 822

C 1821

L 18

p

10

1.52

late 4c b.c.

Nemea I, xv, 177 figs. 215–216 (incorrect photo caption; C 1321 [Pheneos] is illustrated [see Cat. 1956]).

112

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 823

C 1829

L 18

i

13

1.60

uncertain

Cat. 824

C 1830

L 18

p

13

1.37

4c b.c.

Cat. 825

C 1841

L 18

p

13

1.83

4c b.c.

Cat. 826

C 1898

K 11

p

11

1.65

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 827

C 1911

K 20

n

12

0.89

Byzantine

Cat. 828

C 1914

K 20

k

13

1.82

Early Christian

Cat. 829

C 1923

K 20



14

2.17

Early Christian

Cat. 830

C 1926

K 20



12

1.91

Early Christian

Cat. 831

C 1927

K 20

l

12

1.07

Early Christian

Cat. 832

C 1928

L 20



11

1.51

Early Christian

Cat. 833

C 1939

Q 19

i

13

1.77

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 834

C 1959

K 20

m

12

1.54

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 835

C 1962

unknown

i

12

1.45

unknown

Cat. 836

C 1976

Q 20



12

1.73

2c b.c.

Cat. 837

C 2005

N 05

k

12

2.10

modern

Cat. 838

C 2007

L 20

m

12

1.69

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 839

C 2009

L 20

n

13

1.07

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 840

C 2029

Q 19



11

1.15

4c b.c.

Cat. 841

C 2084

P 13

k

12

1.64

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 842

C 2180

J 19

i

13

1.62

late 5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 843

C 2261

L 14

p

13

1.83

Roman

Cat. 844

C 2267

L 14

k

11

1.26

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 845

C 2287

F 16

n

11

1.55

4c b.c.

Cat. 846

C 2288

F 16

n

11

1.89

4c b.c.

Cat. 847

C 2300

P 14

l

11

1.78

3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 848

C 2487

L 17

n

13

1.30

unknown

Cat. 849

C 2494

N 18

k

13

1.59

unknown

Cat. 850

C 2588

O 18

m

13

1.79

4c b.c.

Nemea I, xv, 181, 182 figs. 242–243

Cat. 851

C 2589

O 18

o

12

2.45

4c b.c.

Nemea I, xv, 181, 182 figs. 244–245

Cat. 852

C 2639

N 18

m

12

1.24

unknown

Cat. 853

C 2640

N 18

i

12

2.34

unknown

Cat. 854

C 2665

M 18

o

13

1.55

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 855

C 2682

P 14

j

11

1.56

6c a.d.

Cat. 856

C 2694

Q 14

n

11

1.61

6c a.d.

Cat. 857

C 2701

Q 14

k

11

1.20

6c a.d.

Cat. 858

C 2706

Q 14

k

11

1.72

6c a.d.

Cat. 859

C 2725

E 19

i

11

1.81

4c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Nemea I, 144

obv. Pegasos r.

obv. Pegasos r.

113

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 860

C 2732

E 19

l

11

1.25

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 861

C 2736

E 19



11

1.71

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 862

C 2738

E 19

m

11

1.52

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 863

C 2743

E 19

l

12

1.35

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 864

C 2752

E 19

m

11

1.69

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 865

C 2766

E 19

l

12

2.04

unknown

Cat. 866

C 2769

E 19

o

11

1.68

unknown

Cat. 867

C 2803

E 19

k

12

1.62

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 868

C 2805

E 19

i

12

1.34

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 869

C 2827

E 19

k

10

0.99

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 870

C 2839

E 19



12

1.17

4c b.c.

Cat. 871

C 2843

E 19

k

12

1.41

4c b.c.

Cat. 872

C 2845

E 19

o

11

1.17

4c b.c.

Cat. 873

C 2846

E 19

m

12

1.29

4c b.c.

Cat. 874

C 2852

E 19

k

12

1.66

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 875

C 2863

E 19

k

13

1.34

undatable

Cat. 876

C 2864

E 19

m

12

0.97

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 877

C 2866

E 19

k

13

1.45

unknown

Cat. 878

C 2870

E 19

k

13

1.72

1/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 879

C 2873

E 19

o

12

1.00

4c b.c.

Cat. 880

C 2876

E 19



16

3.19

4c b.c.

Cat. 881

C 2877

E 19

m

11

1.35

4c b.c.

Cat. 882

C 2881

E 19

l

11

1.28

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 883

C 2885

E 19

k

12

1.70

4c b.c.

Cat. 884

C 2893

E 19

o

12

1.13

unknown

Cat. 885

C 2895

E 19

o

13

1.53

2/2 4c–2c b.c.

Cat. 886

C 2897

E 19

j

14

1.57

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 887

C 2900

E 19

j

13

2.46

3/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 888

C 2908

F 19

m

11

1.76

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 889

C 2910

I 17

k

12

1.69

modern

Cat. 890

C 2915

P 14

k

12

1.34

6c a.d.

Cat. 891

C 2917

P 14

n

11

1.75

6c a.d.

Cat. 892

C 2957

P 15

j

11

1.51

6c a.d.

Cat. 893

C 2966

P 15

k

11

1.76

6c a.d.

Cat. 894

C 2979

P 16

j

12

1.67

6c a.d.

Cat. 895

C 2998

P 16

l

12

1.65

6c a.d.

Cat. 896

C 3019

L 19

j

13

1.62

1/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 897

C 3023

L 19

j

12

1.51

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 898

C 3025

L 19

j

13

1.91

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 899

C 3026

L 19

i

12

2.01

early 3c b.c.

good condition, but symbol unclear

obv. far off flan to r.

114

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 900

C 3036

L 20



13

1.56

modern

Cat. 901

C 3248

K 17

j

13

1.33

unknown

Cat. 902

C 3272

K 18

i

14

1.38

unknown

Cat. 903

C 3314

K 18

k

12

1.47

unknown

Cat. 904

C 3317

K 16

n

13

1.98

unknown

Cat. 905

C 3337

K 19

l

12

1.48

unknown

Cat. 906

C 3361

K 18

o

13

1.67

unknown

Cat. 907

C 3417

K 17

n

12

1.62

unknown

Cat. 908

C 3427

N 12

i

12

1.86

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 5

Cat. 909

C 3428

N 12

o

11

1.92

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 7

Cat. 910

C 3456

L 18

l

13

1.67

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 9

Cat. 911

C 3553

K 19

p

13

1.67

modern

Cat. 912

C 3574

K 19

p

13

2.18

Early Christian

Cat. 913

C 3614

K 19

l

14

2.00

Early Christian

Cat. 914

C 3616

K 19

i

13

1.92

Early Christian

Cat. 915

C 3636

K 19

i

13

1.40

Early Christian

Cat. 916

C 3644

L 19

i

12

1.42

Early Christian

Cat. 917

C 3645

K 19

l

14

1.89

Early Christian

Cat. 918

C 3649

L 19

p

13

1.66

Early Christian

Cat. 919

C 3650

L 19

m

14

1.95

Early Christian

Cat. 920

C 3651

L 19

l

14

1.97

Early Christian

Cat. 921

C 3654

L 19

i

15

1.83

mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 922

C 3658

L 19



15

2.06

mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 923

C 3664

L 19

k

12

1.91

mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 924

C 3673

K 19

k

12

1.43

5c a.d.

Cat. 925

C 3685

K 19

k

13

1.80

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 926

C 3688

K 19

o

12

2.32

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 927

C 3692

K 19

m

13

1.86

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 928

C 3697

K 19

j

14

2.04

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 929

C 3698

K 19

o

14

2.07

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 930

C 3703

K 19

n

13

1.98

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 931

C 3708

K 19

m

11

1.08

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 932

C 3711

K 19



14

2.12

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 933

C 3714

K 19

k

14

1.66

2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 934

C 3721

L 19

i

12

2.01

3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 935

C 3725

K 19

o

13

2.47

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

Cat. 936

C 3726

K 19

l

13

2.01

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

115

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 937

C 3745

L 19

j

14

2.21

modern

Cat. 938

C 3746

L 19

l

13

1.64

modern

Cat. 939

C 3755

L 19

j

14

2.26

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 940

C 3759

L 19

p

13

1.61

modern

Cat. 941

C 3770

L 19



14

0.91

2c b.c.

Cat. 942

C 3771

L 19

i

13

1.28

2c b.c.

Cat. 943

C 3775

L 19

i

11

1.37

2c b.c.

Cat. 944

C 3778

L 19

i

13

1.54

2c b.c.

Cat. 945

C 3785

K 19

i

12

1.68

4/4 3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 946

C 3789

K 19

n

12

1.73

4/4 3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 947

C 3791

K 19



13

1.82

4/4 3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 948

C 3795

K 19

p

11

1.83

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 949

C 3800

K 19

k

13

1.86

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 950

C 3806

K 19

l

12

1.83

4c b.c. (?)

Cat. 951

C 3809

O 19

p

13

1.21

Early Christian

Cat. 952

C 3826

K 19

k

14

1.50

4/4 3c–1/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 953

C 3833

M 19

k

11

1.95

Byzantine

Cat. 954

C 3857

K 19



12

1.62

late 2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 955

C 3869

L 19

j

12

1.31

late 5c– 4c b.c. (?) (coins?)

Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b

Cat. 956

C 3872

L 19

j

13

1.93

late 5c– 4c b.c. (?) (coins?)

Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b (attributed to Sikyon)

Cat. 957

C 3886

M 19

n

14

2.46

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 958

C 3893

M 19

j

13

2.08

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 959

C 3907

N 20

i

13

1.12

3c b.c.

Cat. 960

C 3917

N 19

k

12

1.83

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 961

C 3922

N 19

l

12

1.70

2c b.c.

Cat. 962

C 3923

N 19

j

12

1.57

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 963

C 3925

N 19



11

1.02

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 964

C 3941

N 19

l

13

1.48

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 965

C 3942

N 19

n

13

1.60

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 966

C 3956

M 20

k

14

2.00

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 967

C 3958

M 20

m

14

2.03

1/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 968

C 3959

M 20

i

13

1.06

Early Christian

Cat. 969

C 3963

M 20

o

11

1.82

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 970

C 3965

M 19

l

12

1.62

early 3c b.c.

in fragments

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

116

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 971

C 3970

M 19

p

12

1.45

3c b.c.

Cat. 972

C 3979

M 19



12

1.84

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 973

C 4005

CC 28

n

12

2.22

6c a.d.

Cat. 974 C 4073 DD 27 l essentially illegible, but probably Pegasos/Trident type

14

1.65

Cat. 975

C 1002

K 17



12

1.65

modern

Cat. 976

C 1732

F 19



11

1.05

2c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 977

C 3980

M 19

k

12

1.17

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 978

C 3986

M 19

n

13

2.00

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 979

C 3994

N 20



12

1.47

unknown

223–196 b.c. Athena in Corinthian helmet r. / Pegasos r.

AE

C 81

N 17

m

16

4.06

Cat. 981

C 1691

G 18

j

14

2.84

Cat. 982

C 2255

P 13

i

13

2.46

Cat. 983

C 3191

I, J 18, 20

o

14

1.94

Cat. 984 C 3912 N 19 Herakles head, bearded and bare r. / Pegasos protome r.; below, i

k

15

2.17

Cat. 985

k

M 11

Nemea II, 236

12c–13c a.d. 11, kk

11,ll

1.59

early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c, d

5c–1/2 4c b.c.

Hesperia 1983, 79 pl. 23:a–d

unknown 2/2 2c–1c b.c. Price 1964b, 143, Class F no. 1 pl. 11

AE 11

Early Christian

Price 1964b, 143, Class E pl. 11; Price 1967, 365–367

Cat. 980

C 202

11, jj

rev. symbol uncertain l., wreath r.; Nemea II, 236

11, mm

modern

obv. symbol, fillet?

Roman Colony (Duoviri and Anonymous) 299 L. Aeficius Certus, C. Iulius 44 or 43 b.c. LAVS•IVLI•CORINT. Julius Caesar head r., laureate / [L•CERTO]•AEFICI•C•IVLI•IIVIR. Bellerophon mounted on Pegasos flying r., striking with spear Cat. 986

C 2351

unknown

m

AE: as

21

Amandry 1988, 120–122 pls. 1, 2; RPC I, 250 no. 1116 pl. 59; BMC Cor. 58 nos. 485–487 pl. 15.2 8.95

12,a

unknown

countermark obv. tripod, rev. deep punch

M. Insteius C.f. Tectus, L. Cas. 42 or 41 b.c. [INST] CAS [II VIR]. Trident / Pegasos l.; below, i and [CORINT] Cat. 987

C 2086

P 13

AE: sextans

o

11

2.26

Amandry 1988, 128 pl. 4; RPC I, 250 no. 1121 pl. 59; BMC Cor. 65 no. 529 pl. 16.7 12,b

5c–6c a.d.

Amandry 1988 is followed closely, including his denominations (and, in the case of Cat. 987 [C 2086], the reversal of the types, whereby the Pegasos from the anvil side of the coin is given as the reverse and the Trident on the hammer side is listed as the obverse). 299

117

catalogue of coins, part i

P. Aebutius, C. Pinnius 39–36 b.c. CORINT. Poseidon head, hair bound with tainia r.; border of dots / [P•AEBVTIO•C•PINNIO•IIVIR] within wreath of pine; center punch Cat. 988

C 766

unknown

AE: semis

l

17

4.26

Amandry 1988, 133 pls. 5, 6; RPC I, 251 no. 1126 pl. 59

unknown

12,c

Amandry 1988, 133

C. Heius Pamphilus, Q. Caecilius Niger 34–31 b.c. [CORINT]. Aphrodite head, hair tied in bands r. / [Q•CAECIL•NIGR•C•HEIO•PAM IIVIR]. Bellerophon on Pegasos r. attacks with lance Chimaera l.; center punch Cat. 989

C 452

N 15

i

AE: as

20

Amandry 1988, 136 pl. 7; RPC I, 251 no. 1127 pl. 59

5.23

modern

12,d

M. Antonius Theophilus, P. Aebutius 30 b.c. [M•ANT•THEO PHIL•]II VI[R•QVINQ]. Bull’s head in border of dots / [P•AEBVTIVS•II•VIR•QVINQ]. Praefericulum l., palm arching above; border of dots

AE: sextans

Cat. 990

14

C 2670

J 13,14

j

2.70

Amandry 1988, 138–139 pl. 8; RPC I, 251 no. 1130 pl. 59

unknown

12,e

C. Heius Pollio, C. Heius Pamphilus 27/6 b.c. Augustus head r.; [C•HEIO]•POL•C• HEIO•PAM• [ITER]. Border of dots / II V[IR] CO[RI]NT. Caesar head r., laureate; border of dots Cat. 991

C 1382

AA 28

AE: as

l

22

Amandry 1988, 141 pls. 8–9; RPC I, 251 no. 1132 pl. 59

6.20

1c a.d.

12, f

Hesperia 1980, 199 pl. 49:c; Amandry 1988, 141; Nemea II, 114 n. 272, 236

P. Aebutius Sp. f., C. Heius Pamphilus 17/6 b.c. [PRF•ITER] COR. Pegasos flying r. / P AEBVTIO•SP•F C•HEIO [P]AMPHI[LO] within wreath Cat. 992

C 1055

CC 29

m

AE: semis

15

1.98

Amandry 1988, 141–142 pl. 9; RPC I, 252 no. 1133 pl. 59 Early Christian

12,g

Amandry 1988, 142; Nemea II, 236

P. Aebutius Sp. f., C. Iulius Heraclanus a.d. 1/2 AVGVSTVS [CORINT]. Augustus head bare r.; border of dots / P•AEBV [SP F] C•IVLIO [HERA] II VI[R QVI] IT[ER] in wreath Cat. 993

C 3581

K19

AE: as

m

23

Amandry 1988, 148–150 pl. 12; RPC I, 252 no. 1138 pl. 60

8.12

12,h

modern

118

catalogue of coins, part i

C. Mussius Priscus, C. Heius Pollio a.d. 4/5 [DRVSVS CAESAR] CORINTHI, around; Drusus Caesar head r. / C• MVSSIO PRISCO•IIVIR C•HEIO POLLIONE ITER in celery wreath Cat. 994

C 2384

o

K 16

AE: as

20

Amandry 1988, 153 pls. 14–15; RPC I, 252 no. 1139 pl. 60

6.19

Byzantine (?)

12,i

rev. countermark, punch

L. Rutilius Plancus, A. Vatronius Labeo a.d. 12/3–15/6 L RVTILIO PLANCO IIVIR. Tiberius bust laureate r.; border of dots / A VATRONIO LABEONE IIVIR COR. Pegasos r.

AE: as

Amandry 1988, 156 pls. 15–18; RPC I, 252 nos. 1145, 1147 pl. 60

Cat. 995

C 1562

J 13

k

19

6.81

Cat. 996

C 3054

H 18

m

20

6.63

12, j

5.98

12,k

A VATRONI[O L LABEONE II VIR]. Tiberius bust laureate r.; border of dots / [L RVTILIO] PLANCO IIVIR COR. Victory on a globe l., holding wreath and palm. Cat. 997

C 3057

k

L 14

5c–6c a.d.

AE: as

20

obv. [L RVTILIO PLANCO II VIR]; rev. [A VATRONIO L]AB[EONE II VIR] COR.; RPC no. 1145

modern

obv. [A VATRONIO] LA[BEONE IIVIR] COR; rev. [L RVT]ILIO PLA[NCO IIVIR] COR; Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 13; RPC no. 1147 Amandry 1988, 156–157 pls. 15–18; RPC I, 252 no. 1148 pl. 60

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 14

P. Caninius Agrippa, L. Castricius Regulus a.d. 21/2 [P CANINIO AGRIPPA II VIR QVINQ]. Drusus Minor head bare r.; border of dots / [L CAS]TRI[CIO REGVLO] II VIR [QVINQ COR]. Livia, veiled, seated r., holding patera and scepter Cat. 998

C 1420

L6

AE: as

k

19

Amandry 1988, 165 pls. 18–19; RPC I, 252 no. 1149 pl. 60

5.43

modern

12,l

L. Arrius Peregrinus, L. Furius Labeo a.d. 32/3 [L ARRIO PEREGRINO II VIR]. Tiberius bust laureate l. / [L FURIO LABEONE II VIR] COR. Hexastyle temple [inscribed GENT IVLI] Cat. 999

C 1558

J 14

AE: as

j

19

Amandry 1988, 169–173 pls. 19–24; RPC I, 253 no. 1152 pl. 60

5.16

12,m

1/2 5c a.d.

119

catalogue of coins, part i

P. Vipsanius Agrippa, M. Bellius Proculus a.d. 37/8 C CAESAR AVGVS. Caligula head bare r. / [P•VIPSANIO•AG]RIPPA II VIR COR. Pegasos flying r. Cat. 1000

C 1869

AE: as

j

K 11

19

Amandry 1988, 181 pls. 25–28; RPC I, 254 no. 1172 pl. 61 7.45

modern

12,n

obv. countermark, punch; Hesperia 1982, 22 n. 5 pl. 9:a, b

Licinius, Octavius a.d. 42/3–45/6 [TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P P]. Claudius head laureate r.; border of dots / [LICINIO ITER OCTAVIO IIVIR COR]. Temple on Acrocorinth Cat. 1001

C 1422

N 16

AE: as

o

19

Amandry 1988, 192–195 pls. 29–30; RPC I, 254 no. 1180 pl. 61

4.41

modern

12,o

L. Paconius Flam., Cn. Publicius Regulus a.d. 50/1 [TI CLAV]DIV[S CAESAR]. Claudius head laureate l. / [L PAC FLAM] CN [PVBL REG IIVIR COR]. Nero and Britannicus, standing face to face Cat. 1002

C 3058

I 18

AE: as

j

21

Amandry 1988, 195–197 pls. 30–32; RPC I, 254 no. 1182 pl. 61

6.73

unknown

12,p

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 15; Nemea I, xvii, 243 figs. 345, 346

M. Acilius Candidus, Q. Fulvius Flaccus a.d. 54/5 AGRIPPINA AVGVSTA. Agrippina the Younger bust r./ [M AC CAN] II VIR COR. Helios in quadriga drawn by horses r. Cat. 1003

C 2258

L 14

AE: as

n

20

Amandry 1988, 204–206 pls. 33–34; RPC I, 255 nos. 1195–1196 pl. 61

9.33

12,q

Early Christian

Hesperia 1983, 72 n. 6 pl. 17:f, g; Amandry 1988, 206

L. Caninius Agrippa a.d. 68/9 [SVL] GALVAE [CAE] AVG [IMP]. Galba bust r. / [COR L CAN AGRIPPA]E IIVIR. Clasped hands holding poppy head between two ears of wheat Cat. 1004

C 1967

K 11

AE: as

l

20

Amandry 1988, 227–229 pls. 42–43; RPC I, 256 no. 1211 (pl. 62 shows wrong obverse)

6.58

12,r

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 22 n. 5 pl. 9:a, b

120

catalogue of coins, part i

ROMAE ET IMPERIO. Fortuna/Tyche bust wearing turreted crown, r.; border of dots / COR L CAN AGRIPPA IIVIR. Clasped hands holding poppy head between two ears of wheat; border of dots

AE: as

Amandry 1988, 229–231 pl. 43; RPC I, 256 no. 1213 pl. 62 (obverse given as no. 1222)

Cat. 1005

C 310

N 16

o

19

6.97

Cat. 1006

C 2490

O 18

o

18

6.61

Byzantine

12,s

obv. [ROMAE ET] IMPERIO; rev. L C[. . . ]; Hesperia 1976, 184 n.19 pl. 33:c; Amandry 1988, 231

unknown

Uncertain: Roman Colony 39 b.c. –a.d. 69 Bust / Uncertain

AE

Cat. 1007

C 341

M 17

l

20

6.56

Cat. 1008

C 505

O 16

i

19

4.85

3c a.d.

Cat. 1009 C 1806 Uncertain / COR. Pegasos r.

L 19



16

2.23

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1010

L 18

C 3449

13,a

modern

AE —

20

5.14

13,b

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 11 (attributed to Claudius)

Tesserae 39 b.c. –a.d. 69 COR. Pegasos flying r. obv. or rev./ Blank

AE

Amandry 1988, 247 pl. 48; Corinth VI, 40 no. 231 pl. 6

Cat. 1011

C 1949

K 20



18

6.88

Cat. 1012

C 2390

L 17



20

5.90

unknown

Cat. 1013

C 3059 bis

J 18



20

4.00

unknown

3.99

6c a.d.

Blank / Blank Cat. 1014

13,c

late 3c b.c.

AE C 2977

P 16



17

obv. [COR] obv. CO[R]; Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 16 (attributed to Caligula[? ]); Nemea I, xvii, 238, figs. 335– 336

121

catalogue of coins, part i

Post-Duoviri Issues a.d. 81–96: Domitian [I]MP CAE DOMIT [AVG GER]. Domitian bust laureate r./ COL [IVL AVG]. Runner holding race torch and branch l. Cat. 1015

C 854

N 14

AE

o

21

[IMP CAE DOMIT AVG GER]. Domitian bust laureate r. / [COL IVL FLAV COR]. Genius l., holding patera and cornucopia before altar Cat. 1016

C 860

K 15

C 778

N 14

8.70

13,d

AE

i

25

[IMP CAE DOMIT AVG GER]. Domitian bust radiate r. / [COL IVL FLAV COR]. Chimaera r. Cat. 1017

Cohen 1.529 no. 708; SNG Cop. Cor. no. 278 pl. 6

Cohen 1.529 no. 705; BMC Cor. 72 no. 581 pl. 19.2

12.03

13,e

AE

m

19

1c a.d.

modern Cohen 1.528 no. 698; BMC Cor. 73 no. 585

5.43

13, f

modern

a.d. 138–161: Antoninus Pius ANTONINVS AVG PIVS. Antoninus Pius head laureate r. / [CLI] COR. Melikertes standing on dolphin, r. Cat. 1018 C 266 M 11 ANTONINVS [AVG] PIVS. Antoninus Pius head laureate r. / [CLI] COR. Dionysos seated r., on throne, holding thyrsos; border of dots

p

Cat. 1019 C 1832 L 18 [ANTONINVS AVG PIVS]. Antoninus Pius head laureate r. / [CLI COR]. Asklepios(?) seated in front of temple, seen from three-quarter view

p

Cat. 1020

j

C 1983

Q 20

AE

19

Cohen 2.400 no. 1217; SNG Cop. Cor. no. 313 pl. 6 6.75

13,g

modern BMC Cor. 76 no. 601 pl. 20.4

6.34

13,h

late 2c b.c. Nemea I, 144 SNG Cop. Cor. no. 306 pl. 6

9.22

13,i

AE

18 AE

24

[ANTONINVS AVG PIVS]. Antoninus Pius head laureate r. / [CLI COR]. Aphrodite in tetrastyle temple on Acrocorinth

AE

SNG Cop. Cor. no. 307 pl. 6

Cat. 1021 C 540 M 16 — 23 [ANTONINVS] AVG PIVS. AE Antoninus Pius head laureate r. / [CLI COR]. Tyche standing with patera and cornucopia

6.34

13, j

Cat. 1022

2.60

13,k

C 817

L 15

k

18

late 1c a.d. (coins)

2/2 5c b.c. SNG Cop. Cor. no. 312 pl. 6

Byzantine

a.d. 161–180: Marcus Aurelius M AVRELIVS [ANTONINVS]. Marcus Aurelius head r. / [CLI] C[OR]. Zeus seated l., semi-nude; holds victory in one hand, spear in the other Cat. 1023

C 3060

I 18

AE

l

25

Mionnet 91 no. 617; cf. Cohen 3.111 no. 1080

7.67

13,l

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 31; Nemea I, xvii, 241, 242 figs. 343, 344

122

catalogue of coins, part i

[M AVR ANTONINVS] AV[G]. Marcus Aurelius head laureate r. / [CLI COR]. Male figure (Neptune?) in quadriga; horses standing r. Cat. 1024

C 3073

I 18

AE

i

24

BMC Cor. 77 no. 608 pl. 20.10; Cohen 3.114 nos. 1112, 1113

7.82

13,m

unknown

a.d. 161–169: Lucius Verus IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG. L. Verus head laureate r. / CIL (sic) COR. Verus galloping r.; below, stricken foe Cat. 1025

C 3540

K 19

AE

o

27

IMP L A[VR VERVS AVG]. L. Verus head laureate r./ CLI COR. Chimaera r. Cat. 1026

C 750

BMC Cor. 79 no. 618 pl. 20.18; cf. Cohen 3.210 no. 394

9.57

13,n

AE

L 16

k

20

modern Cohen 3.211 no. 403

8.15

14,a

5c–6c a.d.

a.d. 176 –192: Commodus [IMP COMMODVS ANTONINVS]. Commodus head laureate r. / [CLI] COR. Pharos r.; to l. below, ship under sail approaches

AE

Cat. 1027 C 2570 L 16 i [IMP COMMODVS ANTON . . . ] Commodus bust r., laureate / [COR]. Poseidon seated r.; before him stands Athena

19

Cat. 1028 C 3249 J 16 j [IMP M AVR COMM]O[D] AV[G]. Commodus head laureate r. / [CL]I [COR]. Hercules standing behind a small altar, club in right hand and resting on ground

25

Cat. 1029

24

C 161

J 18

j

Cohen 3.355 no. 1077; Corinth VI, 35 no. 182 pl. 5

3.92

14,b

Byzantine BMC Cor. 82 no. 633 pl. 21.3

5.57

14,c

unknown Cohen 3.361 no. 1034

AE

AE

6.07

unknown

a.d. 193–211: Septimius Severus [L SEPT S]EV PER[T AVG IMP VIII]. Septimius Severus head laureate r. / CLI C[OR]. Peirene seated r., pouring water for Pegasos drinking l.; in background, Acrocorinth

AE

Cat. 1030 C 406 N 15 m [L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII]. Septimius Severus head laureate r. / CLI COR. Athena with spear holding small Victory in r. hand; below l., owl, r., shield

25

Cat. 1031

C 3063

I 18

o

Cat. 1032

C 3066

J 18

j

BMC Cor. 86 no. 654 pl. 21.16; Cohen 4.85 no. 831

6.20

14,d

22

7.65

14,e

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 18; Nemea I, xvii, 241, 242 figs. 343, 344

27

11.80

14, f

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 23 (attributed to Plautilla); Nemea I, xvii, 238 figs. 335, 336

AE

modern SNG Cop. Cor. no. 359 pl. 8

123

catalogue of coins, part i

[L SEPT SEV . . .]. Severus head laureate r. / [CLI COR]. Artemis within temple; tree on either side Cat. 1033

C 3067

I 18

i

25

[SEP SEV PERT AVG]. Septimius Severus bust r., laureate / CLI COR. Obelisk surmounted by figure; two horses on either side: a circus scene Cat. 1034

C 3164

I 18

Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 18 no. 12 pl. D, LXVIII; SNG Cop. Cor. 361 pl. 8

AE 15.61

14,g

AE

i

27

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 24; Nemea I, xvii, 241 n. 664 figs. 341, 342, both attributed to Plautilla

Cohen 4.88 no. 860

10.78

14,h

unknown

a.d. 198–217: Julia Domna [IVL DOMNA AVG]. Julia Domna bust r. [CL]I CO[R]. Two figures joining hands (?) Cat. 1035

C 3064

J 18

AE k

25

IVLIA DO[MNA AVGVSTA]. Julia Domna bust r. / [CLI COR]. Temple on Acrocorinth Cat. 1036

C 3044

I 18

SNG Cop. Cor. no. 364 pl. 8 4.99

14,i

AE

i

23

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 20; Nemea I, xvii, 239 figs. 337, 338

Cohen 4.131 no. 296

4.77

14, j

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 33; Nemea I, xvii, 240, 241 n. 664 figs. 339, 340

a.d. 198–217: Caracalla [M AVRELIVS M CSAR ANTONINVS (sic)]. Caracalla head r. / [CLI COR]. Helios in quadriga drawn r. by galloping horses

AE

Cat. 1037 C 3160 J 18 [IMP] C AV[R ANT]O[NIN]. Caracalla head r., radiate / CLI COR. Victory holding patera in one hand, cornucopia in other

k

Cat. 1038

p

C 3065

J 18

23

C 3069

I 18

6.63

14,k

6.84

14,l

6.99

14,m

AE

23

[M AVREL]IVS CAESAR ANTONI[N]. Caracalla head r. / CLI COR. Athena r., holding small Victory in l. hand; below, owl, r., shield Cat. 1039

BMC Cor. 88 no. 663 pl. 22.6

AE

l

25

unknown Cf. SNG Cop. Cor. no. 371 for obv. type; M. Aurelius SNG Cop. Cor. no. 322 for rev. type unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 22 (attributed to Plautilla); Nemea I, xvii, 239 figs. 337, 338 Cf. Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 21 no. 20 pl. E, XCII, XCIII; Severus coin for reverse (SNG Cop. Cor. no. 359 pl. 8) unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 25 (attributed to Plautilla); Nemea I, xvii, 240, 241 n. 664 figs. 341, 342

124

catalogue of coins, part i

a.d. 202–205: Plautilla [PLAVTILL]A[E] AVG[VSTAE]. Plautilla head r.; border of dots / [CL]I COR. Hermes naked standing l., holding in r. hand a purse, in l., a caduceus; at his feet, ram l.; border of dots Cat. 1040

C 1482

F 18

AE

l

26

Legend illegible. Plautilla head r. / Athena holding spear in l. hand, Nike in r.; behind, shield, in front, altar Cat. 1041

C 1010

L 16

cf. Cohen 4.85 no. 827 for rev. type

9.30

14,n

AE

i

22

1/3 4c a.d. BMC Cor. 88 no. 667 pl. 22.8; SNG Cop. Cor. no. 372 pl. 8

4.62

14,o

Early Christian

Roman Period: Illegible AE Cat. 1042

C 793

N 16



18

3.23

Byzantine

rev. C[. . .]

PHLIASIA Phlious Before 431 b.c. Forepart of bull r. / F within incuse square Cat. 1043

C 906

AR: obol K 14



431–400 b.c. Forepart of bull butting l. / F and four pellets in incuse square Cat. 1044

C 1199

K 14

C 3772

L 19

1.04

15,a

AR: obol —

431–370 b.c. Head of Hebe (?) r., hair rolled / Forepart of butting bull l. Cat. 1045

10

cf. BMC Pel. 33 no. 3 pl. 6.21 for reverse

10

1.17

10

Hesperia 1978, 64 n. 16 pl. 15:a

SNG Cop. Phl. no. 6 pl. 1 15,b

AR: obol m

3/4 5c b.c.

4/4 5c b.c.

BMC Pel. 34 no. 12 pl. 6.25 (sim.) 0.65

Ca. 400–350 b.c. Bull butting / F and four pellets

AE

obv. bull butting l.

dichalkon

15,c

2c b.c.

Mac Isaac 1988, 49–53; BMC Pel. 34 nos. 16, 17; Corinth VI, 51 no. 308 pl. 7

Cat. 1046

C 1547

F 19



16

3.09

Cat. 1047

C 2018

L 20



15

2.95

Cat. 1048

C 2051

P 12



16

3.66

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1049

C 2417

L 17



15

2.39

Byzantine

Cat. 1050

C 2418

L 17



16

3.85

unknown

Cat. 1051

C 3730

K 19



15

1.36

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

5c–6c a.d. 15,d

3/3 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl. 11:c, d

125

catalogue of coins, part i

chalkous Cat. 1052

C 263

M 11



12

1.15

modern

Cat. 1053

C 501

N 15



13

1.76

Byzantine

Cat. 1054

C 975

N 15



12

1.57

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1055

C 979

O 15



12

1.63

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

Cat. 1056

C 1060

CC 29



11

1.85

Early Christian

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1057

C 1095

BB 28



13

1.96

Early Christian

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1058

C 1134

M 17



13

1.92

Cat. 1059

C 1336

K 20



12

1.61

modern

Cat. 1060

C 1554

F 19



11

1.61

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1061

C 1606

F 17



12

1.55

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1062

C 1673

G 18



13

1.87

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 1063

C 1695

G 18



12

1.59

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1064

C 1733

F 19



12

2.19

3/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 1065

C 1771

F 19



12

1.92

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1066

C 1857

Q 19



12

1.87

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1067

C 1932

Q 19



13

1.62

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1068

C 1940

Q 19



13

2.26

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1069

C 1941

Q 19



14

1.71

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1070

C 1963

L 20



13

2.28

unknown

Cat. 1071

C 1969

K 20



11

1.57

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1072

C 1973

K 20



11

1.75

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1073

C 1994

L 20



11

2.00

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1074

C 1997

L 20



12

1.13

2c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1075

C 2008

L 20



12

1.95

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1076

C 2010

L 20



13

1.95

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1077

C 2058

P 12



11

2.34

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1078

C 2077

P 13



12

1.93

Cat. 1079

C 2087

P 13



11

1.91

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1080

C 2301

P 14



11

2.19

3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 1081

C 2642

O 18



13

1.37

unknown

Cat. 1082

C 2731

E 19



12

1.27

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1083

C 2746

E 19



12

1.59

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1084

C 2791

E 19



12

1.66

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1085

C 2828

E 19



12

1.79

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1086

C 2868

E 19



11

1.30

unknown

15,e

15, f

3c–4c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61 Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 44 pl. 22:c, d

Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl. 11:c, d

5c–6c a.d. Mac Isaac 1988, 52

126

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1087

C 2892

E 19



13

1.92

4c b.c.

Cat. 1088

C 2929

P 15



13

2.00

6c a.d.

Cat. 1089

C 2953

G 19



13

1.57

6c–5c b.c.

Cat. 1090

C 2990

P 16



11

1.64

Cat. 1091

C 3425

M,N 12



12

1.13

unknown

Cat. 1092

C 3660

L 19



14

2.36

modern

Cat. 1093

C 3769

L 19



13

1.84

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1094

C 3876

K 19



12

1.74

Cat. 1095

C 3877

K 19



12

1.65

5c–1/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 1096

C 3937

N 19



12

1.52

3c b.c.

Cat. 1097

C 3971

M 19



12

2.15

undatable

Cat. 1098

C 4023

CC 27



12

1.59

Early Christian

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1099

C 4043

CC 26



11

0.96

modern

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1100

C 4046

CC 26



12

1.34

modern

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1101 C 4091 obv. bull butting r.

CC 32



12

1.28

unknown

Nemea II, 235

15,g

15,h

15,i

6c a.d. Bellinger 1926 no. 19

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1102

C 437

O 16



13

1.50

Cat. 1103

C 1739

F 19



12

1.54

Cat. 1104

C 1938

Q 19



14

1.61

Cat. 1105

C 2629

N 18



11

1.49

5c b.c.

Cat. 1106

C 2668

M 18



11

1.53

unknown

Cat. 1107

C 2967

P 15



12

1.63

6c a.d.

Middle Roman

Hesperia 1977, 16 n. 34 pl. 9:f

15, j

early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

15,k

early 3c b.c.

Ca. 350–300 b.c. Bull butting l. / F with two pellets

AE

Mac Isaac 1988, 50–51, 53–54; BMC Pel. 34 nos. 13–15 pl. 7.1; Corinth VI, 51 no. 308 pl. 7

Cat. 1108

C 95

S 17



13

1.49

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1109

C 216

M 11



13

1.52

modern

Cat. 1110

C 285

CC 32



14

1.77

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1111

C 541

M 16



14

1.29

late 4c– early 3c b.c. (coins?)

Cat. 1112

C 547

DD 31



13

1.82

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1113

C 551

DD 31



12

1.50

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1114

C 746

O 17



13

1.65

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1115

C 911

CC 30



12

1.73

2/2 4c a.d.

Cat. 1116

C 1039

O 17



13

1.93

Cat. 1117

C 1462

H 14



14

1.63

15,l

Early Christian 3c–5c a.d.

Mac Isaac 1988, 53–54 Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 235

Nemea II, 235

127

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1118

C 1469

J 16



11

1.85

4c b.c.

Cat. 1119

C 1539

F 18



12

1.42

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 1120

C 1601

F 17



12

1.58

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1121

C 1679

G 18



12

1.58

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 1122

C 1716

F 19



12

1.64

modern

Cat. 1123

C 1744

F 19



12

1.37

3/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 1124

C 1750

F 19



12

1.90

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1125

C 1913

K 20



14

2.28

Byzantine

Cat. 1126

C 1942

Q 19



13

1.95

Cat. 1127

C 1986

Q 20



12

1.84

Early Roman

Cat. 1128

C 2295

P 14



13

1.77

modern

Cat. 1129

C 2376

N 18



13

1.33

unknown

Cat. 1130

C 2661

N 18



12

2.11

Early Christian

Cat. 1131

C 2666

M 18



12

1.58

unknown

Cat. 1132

C 2740

E 19



14

1.29

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1133

C 2816

E 19



13

2.44

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1134

C 2930

P 15



14

2.13

6c a.d.

Cat. 1135

C 2935

Q 14



12

2.19

Cat. 1136

C 3031

L 19



12

1.66

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1137

C 3379

K 18



14

1.69

unknown

Cat. 1138

C 3600

K 19



12

1.70

modern

Cat. 1139

C 3622

L 19



14

2.20

Byzantine

Cat. 1140

C 3627

K 19



15

1.46

Early Christian

Cat. 1141

C 3648

L 19



14

1.44

Early Christian

Cat. 1142

C 3747

L 19



13

1.78

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1143

C 3749

L 19



12

1.59

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1144

C 3766

L 19



11

1.01

2c b.c.

Cat. 1145

C 3987

M 19



13

1.79

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 1146

C 4003

CC 28



13

1.77

unknown

Ca. 300 b.c. and later300 Bull butting l. / F with no pellets

15,m

15,n

AE

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

early 3c b.c.

6c–5c b.c.

Nemea II, 235

Mac Isaac 1988, 50–51, 53–54

Cat. 1147

C 87

S 17



13

1.85

Cat. 1148

C 745

O 17



13

1.73

Cat. 1149

C 938

O 15



12

1.54

mid-2c b.c.

Cat. 1150

C 1190

L 20



14

1.71

4c–3c b.c.

300 In

Nemea I, 83

fact, these may date to after 270 b.c. See Introduction, pp. 58–60.

2/2 4c–1c b.c. 15,o

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 35 pl. 10:a

128

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1151

C 1319

K 17



12

1.51

Cat. 1152

C 1587

F 17



13

2.23

Cat. 1153

C 1590

F 17



13

Cat. 1154

C 1671

G 18



Cat. 1155

C 1868

K 11

Cat. 1156

C 1936

Cat. 1157

3/4 4c b.c. 5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

1.42

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

13

2.24

3c b.c. (or later?)



13

1.90

modern

Q 19



12

1.41

early 3c b.c.

C 2667

M,N 18



14

1.71

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1158

C 3247

K 17



13

1.86

unknown

Cat. 1159

C 3613

K 19



13

1.59

Early Christian

Cat. 1160

C 3675

K 19



13

1.51

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1161

C 3716

L 19



13

2.27

3c b.c.

Cat. 1162

C 3723

L 19



11

2.02

3c b.c.

Ca. 400–250 b.c. Bull butting l. / F; presence or number of pellets indeterminable

AE

15,p

Hesperia 1982, 22 n.5 pl. 9:a, b Hesperia 1982, 33 n.41 pl. 15:b, c

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

Mac Isaac 1988

Cat. 1163

C 598

DD 30



10

1.76

unknown

Cat. 1164

C 1320

K 17



12

1.54

4c b.c.

Cat. 1165

C 1745

F 19



12

1.45

2/2 4c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1166

C 1818

L 18



12

1.23

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1167

C 1930

K 20



13

2.11

Early Christian

Cat. 1168

C 1944

K 20



13

1.56

2c b.c.

Cat. 1169

C 1975

K 20



11

1.49

2c b.c.

Cat. 1170

C 1996

L 20



12

1.70

2c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1171

C 2000

L 20

k

12

1.85

2c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1172

C 2342

L 18



12

1.85

unknown

Cat. 1173

C 2343

L 18



11

1.26

unknown

Cat. 1174

C 2720

E 19



11

1.72

4c b.c. (one Roman fragment)

Cat. 1175

C 2729

E 19



13

1.02

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1176

C 2812

E 19



11

0.91

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1177

C 2874

E 19



13

1.43

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1178

C 2875

E 19



12

1.79

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1179

C 3034

L 19



12

1.44

4/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1180

C 3334

K 19



13

1.43

unknown

Cat. 1181

C 3548

K 19



13

1.75

modern

Cat. 1182

C 3781

L 19



12

1.81

2c b.c.

Cat. 1183

C 3918

N 19



13

1.52

3c–2c b.c.

Nemea II, 235

129

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1184

C 3988

M 19



13

Ca. 350–300 b.c. Athena head in crested helmet r. / Bull butting l.; above, F

2.09

late 4c b.c.

AE

Mac Isaac 1988, 50–51, 53; SNG Cop. Phl. no. 17 pl. 1

Cat. 1185

C 532

M 16

o

16

3.27

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 1186

C 1817

L 18

i

16

3.25

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1187

C 2043

P 12

p

16

3.87

Cat. 1188

C 2469

L 17

m

17

3.76

3c a.d.

Cat. 1189

C 2750

E 19

j

16

3.35

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1190

C 3390

J 18

m

16

3.32

unknown

15,q

5c–6c a.d.

SIKYONIA Sikyon 301 Before 431 b.c. Dove standing l. / c in incuse square Cat. 1191

AR: obol

C 2254

P 13

p

Cat. 1192 C 2498 Dove standing r. / Dove flying r.; r., SH

O 18

j

Cat. 1193

K 14

i

C 904

Apollo archaic figure l., drawing bow / Dove flying l.302 Cat. 1194

C 902303

K 14

7

BMC Pel. 36 nos. 6–10 pl. 7.12 0.46

15,r

7 0.44 AR: hemiobol

15,s

7

0.37

15,t

AR: tetartemorion m

5

0.17

15,u

uncertain

Hesperia 1983, 79 pl. 23:a, b

unknown BMC Pel. 37 no. 12 pl. 7.13 3/4 5c b.c.

Hesperia 1978, 64 n. 16 pl. 15:a Sotheby, 30 November, 11 no. 71 (sim.) 3/4 5c b.c.

Hesperia 1978, 64 n. 16 pl. 15:a

431–400 b.c. Lion l.; S above / Dove flying l., in olive wreath

AR: hemiobol

BMC Pel. 39 nos. 38–40, 44–45 pl. 7.22; Corinth VI, 51 no. 311 pl. 7, 24

Cat. 1195

C 894

L 15

p

8

0.41

15,v

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 20; pl. 17:a

Cat. 1196

C 901

K 14

o

8

0.29

15,w

3/4 5c b.c.

(broken) Hesperia 1978, 64 n. 16 pl. 15:a

Cat. 1197

C 2951

Q 14

i

7

0.37

15,x

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c

301 This section owes a great deal to the work of J. A. Warren; both her publications and her personal advice improved the treatment of Sikyonian material immensely. 302 The usual date for this coin is 400–300 b.c. It was found at Nemea along with buried sacrificial debris and five other silver coins (Cat. 297 [C 903], Cat. 371 [C 905], Cat. 1043 [C 906], Cat. 1193 [C 904], Cat. 1196 [C 901]); all these other silver coins date from the later 6th to the later 5th century; red-figure fragments date the deposit to “well within the third quarter of the 5th century b.c.” Hesperia 1978, 64. As it seems highly unlikely that this silver coin represents a later intrusion into the debris layer, a date for it in the later 5th century is preferable. 303 I am grateful to J. A. Warren, who identified this coin and provided the bibliography on it.

130

catalogue of coins, part i

Chimaera l.; SE below / Dove flying l.; symbol I, l. Cat. 1198

C 3426

AR: triobol N 12

i

17

420–400 b.c. Dove alighting l. / Dove flying l. Cat. 1199

C 2266

C 1834

L 14

i

L 18

13

i

11

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 20

Warren 1983, 26–28 (Group 1); BMC Pel. 43 nos. 87–88 pl. 8.9 2.36

15,z

AR: hemiobol

Chimaera l.; SI below / Dove flying l. Cat. 1201

15,y

AE

400–300 b.c. Apollo archaic figure r., kneeling; in hand, bow and arrows / SE in olive wreath tied l. Cat. 1200

2.71

BMC Pel. 42 no. 71 pl. 3.2

0.46

5c–6c a.d.

rev. letters illegible

BMC Pel. 42 nos. 77–81 pl. 8.3

15,aa

AR: triobol

late 4c b.c.

Hesperia 1981, 59 pl. 18:a, b; Nemea I, 117

BMC Pel. 45 nos. 111–112; Corinth VI, 51 no. 312 pl. 7

DD 27

l

15

2.72

15,bb

Cat. 1202 C 1811 Dove alighting / Dove flying

L 18

o

15 2.44 AR: obol

16,a

Cat. 1203

C 666

O 17

p

11

0.74

16,b

Byzantine

Cat. 1204

C 821

O 17

m

12

0.85

16,c

1c a.d.

obv. l.; behind, S; rev. r.; behind, S; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

Cat. 1205

C 1410

J 16

o

12

0.86

16,d

3c a.d.

obv. r.; rev. r.; behind, k; Hesperia 1980, 192 pl. 41:d

Cat. 1206

C 1639

G 19

j

12

0.76

16,e

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1207

C 2277

F 16

m

11

0.57

16, f

4c b.c.

Cat. 1208

C 2709

Q 14

j

11

0.87

16,g

Early Roman

Cat. 1209

C 3670

K 19

m

13

0.72

16,h

Early Christian

C 1331

370–250 b.c. Apollo head r., laureate / Dove flying Cat. 1210

C 837

AR: obol L 15

i

12

3c–4c a.d.

rev. below beak, I; Nemea II, 235

modern rev. above tail, D BMC Pel. 46 nos. 125–134 pl. 8.18 obv. r.; l. S; rev. r.; l. k; Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 36 pl. 10:b (attributed to Argos)

obv. r.; behind, S; rev. r.; behind, S; Hesperia 1981, 65 pl. 25:d obv. r.; behind, bow; rev. r. obv. r.; rev. r.; behind, S; Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c obv. r.; behind, k; rev. r.; behind, S

BMC Pel. 49 nos. 163–169 pl. 9.8, 9 0.81

16,i

4c b.c.

rev. r.; behind, [SI ]; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 20 pl. 17:a

131

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1211

C 1118

L 17

p

11

0.66

16, j

Early Christian

rev. l. ; behind, [IS ]; Hesperia 1979, 85 pl. 27:c

Cat. 1212

C 1460

H 14

j

11

0.86

16,k

3c–5c a.d.

rev. r.; behind, SI; Hesperia 1980, 190 pl. 40:f

Cat. 1213

C 1463

H 14

n

11

0.83

16,l

1c a.d.

rev. r.; behind, SI; Hesperia 1980, 190 pl. 40:f

Cat. 1214

C 2726

E 19

p

11

0.83

16,m

4c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

rev. r.; behind, SI

Cat. 1215

C 3235

K 17

i

12

0.73

16,n

unknown

rev. r.; behind, [SI ]

Cat. 1216

C 3312

K 18?

k

12

0.73

16,o

unknown

rev. l.; behind, [IS ]

Ca. 365–330 b.c. 304 Dove flying or alighting / c

AE

Warren 1983, 28–33 (Group 2); Warren 1998, 349; BMC Pel. 44 nos. 94–102 pl. 8.12, 13; Corinth VI, 52 no. 314

obv. dove flying l.; rev. palmette

Warren Group 2.1

Cat. 1217

C 448

O 16

m

12

1.93

16,p

Middle Roman

Cat. 1218

C 783

N 17

i

13

1.52

16,q

Byzantine

Cat. 1219

C 855

N 14

k

12

2.05

16,r

1c a.d.

Cat. 1220

C 1200

L 17

k

12

2.05

16,s

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1221

C 1470

K 15

l

12

1.93

Cat. 1222

C 2022

L 20

i

12

2.06

Cat. 1223

C 2239

J 19

m

12

2.49

Cat. 1224 C 2891 E 19 obv. dove flying r.; rev. palmette

l

12

2.19

Cat. 1225

C 534

M 14

m

11

1.59

Cat. 1226

C 841

O 16

k

12

1.67

Cat. 1227

C 1688

G 18

p

11

1.46

6c a.d.

Cat. 1228

C 1778

F 19

k

12

1.79

3c b.c. (?)

Cat. 1229

C 2001

L 20

j

12

1.91

Cat. 1230

C 2274

F 16

j

12

1.86

Cat. 1231 C 2282 F 16 obv. dove flying; rev. triple-spurred leaf

p

12

1.99

16,x

Cat. 1232

C 2021

L 20

j

12

2.00

16,y

late 4c–3c b.c.

obv. dove l.

Cat. 1233

C 2546

N 18

p

12

1.90

16,z

unknown

obv. dove r.

304 Sikyonian

late 5c b.c. 16,t

late 4c–3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl. 11:c, d

4c b.c. 16,u

4c b.c. Warren Group 2.2 Byzantine

16,v

16,w

unknown

2c b.c. (coins) 4c b.c. 4c b.c. Warren Group 2.3–4

Warren Group 2 bronze seems to begin about 365 b.c. See the discussion above, p. 59.

132

catalogue of coins, part i

obv. dove alighting l.; rev. palmette Cat. 1234

Warren Group 2.5

F 12

o

13

1.70

Cat. 1235 C 2533 L 17 obv. dove flying r.; rev. below, A

j

12

1.74

16,aa

4c–3c b.c. Warren Group 2.9

Cat. 1236

C 668

O 17

o

10

1.67

16,bb

mid-2c b.c.

Cat. 1237

C 1676

G 18

p

11

1.50

Cat. 1238 C 2521 N 18 obv. dove flying r.; rev. below, D

l

12

1.65

Cat. 1239

C 321

N 17

p

11

1.40

4c b.c.

Cat. 1240

C 531

M 16

o

12

2.24

unknown

Cat. 1241

C 1751

F 19

m

12

1.46

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1242

C 1948

K 20

m

11

1.88

2c b.c.

Cat. 1243

C 1956

K 20

o

13

2.14

Cat. 1244

C 2622

K,L 15

j

11

1.61

C 188

4c b.c.

16,cc

16, dd

unknown Warren Group 2.11

unknown Warren Group 2.12

C 747

O 17

k

13

1.88

16,ee

5c b.c. (?)

Cat. 1246

C 1999

L 20

k

12

1.48

16, ff

2c b.c. (coins)

obv. dove flying r.; rev. above, A j

11

1.42

Cat. 1248

C 991

J 15

k

14

1.88

modern

Cat. 1249

C 1386

G 18

o

14

1.81

modern

Cat. 1250

C 2281

F 16

m

12

1.84

4c b.c.

Cat. 1251

C 2913

J 18

o

13

1.86

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c. Warren Group 2.17

16,gg

obv. dove flying r.; rev. below, wreath

2c b.c. Warren Group 2.16

Cat. 1252

C 178

F 12

j

11

1.50

4c b.c.

Cat. 1253

C 187

F 12

o

13

1.80

4c b.c.

Cat. 1254

C 268

N 17

l

13

1.33

5c b.c.

Cat. 1255

C 438

O 16

l

13

1.39

Middle Roman

Cat. 1256

C 1306

K 17

m

11

1.65

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1257

C 2764

E 19

j

12

1.71

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1258

C 3823

K 19

p

12

1.88

j

12

1.51

16,hh

obv. dove flying l.; rev. below, wreath E 19

F 16

k

Warren Group 2.26 12

1.67

16,ii

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Hesperia 1977, 16 n. 34 pl. 9:f

late 3c– mid-2c b.c. Warren Group 2.21 2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

obv. dove flying l.; rev. below, wreath; above, I C 2280

Warren 1983, 29

Warren Group 2.13

Cat. 1247 C 1974 K 20 obv. dove flying l.; rev. below, wreath

Cat. 1260

Hesperia 1976, 192 n. 35

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1245

C 2898

obv. dove r.

3c b.c. (or later?)

obv. dove flying r.; rev. below, L

Cat. 1259

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

4c b.c.

obv. I above

133

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1261

C 3450

M 12

m

12

1.40

obv. dove flying r.; rev. below, H Cat. 1262

C 1466

unknown

17,a

Bellinger 1926 no. 21

Warren Group 2.32 J 16

n

13

1.98

5c–1/2 4c b.c. (coins)

obv. dove l. or r.; rev. uncertain symbols Cat. 1263

C 908

L 17

o

12

1.45

Cat. 1264

C 2307

G 14

l

13

Cat. 1265

C 2502

K 16

i

Cat. 1266

C 2554

K 17

Cat. 1267

C 2928

Cat. 1268

4c b.c.

obv. dove l.; Hesperia 1978, 82 n. 56 pl. 25:d; Warren 1983, 30 no. 27

1.87

modern

obv. dove r.

11

1.97

5c b.c. (?)

obv. dove l.

o

11

1.29

modern

obv. dove r.

P 15

m

12

1.37

unknown

obv. dove r.

C 3167

I 18

o

12

1.24

unknown

obv. dove r.

Cat. 1269

C 3370

K 15

m

12

1.53

unknown

obv. dove r.

Cat. 1270

C 3414

K 18

k

12

2.09

unknown

obv. dove r.

Cat. 1271

C 3751

L 19

o

12

1.02

4c–3c b.c.

obv. dove l.

Cat. 1272

C 3776

K 19

k

12

1.70

2c b.c.

obv. dove r.

Cat. 1273

C 3824

K 19

k

12

1.92

late 3c– mid-2c b.c.

obv. dove r.

Hesperia 1975, 149 n. 14 pl. 33:e; Nemea I, xv, 175 figs. 205, 206

17,b

17,c

17,d

Uncertain Dove /Wreath Type Late 5th century–Ca. 150 b.c. Dove flying l. or r. / Wreath

AE size ≤ 16 mm.; weight ≤ 3 g.

Cat. 1274

C 39

K 18

m

16

2.56

4/4 5c b.c.

Cat. 1275

C 100

D 11



15

2.62

Byzantine

Cat. 1276

C 140

M6



15

3.60

13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 155 n. 31

Cat. 1277

C 174

F 12



14

2.63

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 1278

C 307

M 11

l

14

2.47

Early Christian

Cat. 1279

C 317

N 17

o

15

2.62

4c b.c.

Cat. 1280

C 378

L 17



15

3.38

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1281

C 429

DD 32



14

1.74

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1282

C 457

N 15

i

15

3.05

Byzantine

Cat. 1283

C 486

M 14



15

2.01

Byzantine

Cat. 1284

C 640

L 14

k

16

2.97

modern

Cat. 1285

C 654

DD 29



15

2.31

unknown

Cat. 1286

C 718

O 17

l

15

3.74

2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

Hesperia 1976, 192 n. 35 Nemea II, 236

Nemea II, 236

134

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1287

C 731

L 16



15

3.23

modern

Cat. 1288

C 869

K 15

k

15

3.22

Byzantine

Cat. 1289

C 893

L 15



15

3.57

Byzantine

Cat. 1290

C 897

K 14



16

2.99

1c–2c a.d.

Cat. 1291

C 982

O 16



16

2.89

5c b.c.

Cat. 1292

C 1008

K 17



13

1.71

modern

Cat. 1293

C 1064

CC 29



10

3.45

Early Christian

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1294

C 1072

CC 28



16

2.50

4c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1295

C 1096

BB 28

k

10

3.84

1/2 4c b.c.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1296

C 1305

K 17



15

2.92

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1297

C 1371

J 16



15

2.14

3c a.d.

Cat. 1298

C 1481

F 18



15

2.65

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 1299

C 1541

F 18



14

3.37

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 1300

C 1578

F 17

k

15

3.47

modern

Cat. 1301

C 1685

G 18

i

15

3.84

3c b.c. (or later?)

Cat. 1302

C 1694

G 18



15

3.88

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1303

C 1727

F 19



15

3.51

4c b.c.

Cat. 1304

C 1820

L 18



12

3.01

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1305

C 1846

L 19



12

1.94

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1306

C 1847

L 19



15

3.48

unknown (coin 400– 300 b.c.)

Cat. 1307

C 1855

Q 19



14

4.29

3c b.c.

Cat. 1308

C 1858

Q 19

l

15

3.54

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1309

C 1859

Q 19

p

14

3.67

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1310

C 1893

K 11



15

3.43

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1311

C 1899

K 11



15

3.44

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1312

C 1916

K 20



15

3.40

Early Christian

Cat. 1313

C 2031

N5

k

15

3.26

modern

Cat. 1314

C 2038

P 12

n

10

1.74

modern

Cat. 1315

C 2278

F 16

m

15

4.19

4c b.c.

Cat. 1316

C 2348

L 18



15

4.34

unknown

Cat. 1317

C 2426

K,L 16



15

2.38

Byzantine

Cat. 1318

C 2456

N 18

l

16

2.80

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1319

C 2583

O 18



11

1.90

unknown

Cat. 1320

C 2607

K 16,17



15

2.32

unknown

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Nemea I, xv, 180 figs. 231, 232

135

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1321

C 2727

E 19



14

2.34

4c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1322

C 2774

E 19



14

3.88

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1323

C 2782

E 19



14

3.45

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1324

C 2819

E 19



14

3.13

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1325

C 2869

E 19



14

1.65

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1326

C 2902

E 19



16

2.96

unknown

Cat. 1327

C 2906

F 19



15

2.36

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1328

C 2944

P 15



15

1.62

6c a.d.

Cat. 1329

C 2960

P 15



15

3.10

6c a.d.

Cat. 1330

C 2997

P 16



15

3.48

6c a.d.

Cat. 1331

C 3055

H 18



16

2.83

unknown

Cat. 1332

C 3259

K 16,17



15

3.70

unknown

Cat. 1333

C 3319

K 18



15

3.04

unknown

Cat. 1334

C 3632

K 19



15

3.11

Early Christian

Cat. 1335

C 3704

K 19



14

1.74

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 1336

C 3707

K 19



13

1.66

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 1337

C 3722

L 19



13

1.23

3c b.c.

Cat. 1338

C 3742

L 19



14

3.59

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1339

C 3748

L 19



15

3.66

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1340

C 3780

L 19



15

3.53

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1341

C 3847

M 19



11

1.11

Byzantine

Cat. 1342

C 3926

N 19



15

2.66

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 1343

C 3947

M 20



15

3.13

modern

Cat. 1344

C 3950

M 20



15

3.30

Early Christian

Cat. 1345

C 3967

M 19



Cat. 1346

C 48

N 12



16

3.30

4c a.d.

Cat. 1347

C 52

N 12

j

16

3.15

Early Christian

Cat. 1348

C 76

N 17



17

1.94

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1349

C 97

C 11

i

16

3.20

2c–3c a.d.

Cat. 1350

C 115

N 17

j

16

2.72

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1351

C 135

F4



17

3.84

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1352

C 181

F 12



16

3.48

4c b.c.

Cat. 1353

C 306

M 11

i

17

3.18

Early Christian

14 3.50 weight >3 g.; size ≥ 16 mm. OR size ≥ 17 mm. at any weight

Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 28

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

136

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1354

C 313

N 16



17

3.30

Byzantine

Cat. 1355

C 389

CC 32



17

3.19

4c a.d.

Cat. 1356

C 395

M 17



17

3.82

Byzantine

Cat. 1357

C 407

N 15



18

3.68

modern

Cat. 1358

C 436

O 16

p

16

3.57

Middle Roman

Cat. 1359

C 526

M 14

l

16

3.19

Byzantine

Cat. 1360

C 627

M 15



16

3.51

Byzantine

Cat. 1361

C 743

BB 31



16

3.10

unknown

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1362

C 759

DD 29

j

16

3.36

4c–5c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1363

C 832

M 16



16

3.51

4c a.d.

Cat. 1364

C 850

N 14



18

3.70

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1365

C 1042

O 18



16

3.59

modern

Cat. 1366

C 1056

CC 29



16

3.41

Early Christian

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1367

C 1058

CC 29



19

3.88

Early Christian

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1368

C 1088

M 17

l

17

3.04

Byzantine

Cat. 1369

C 1223

CC 28



16

3.52

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1370

C 1304

K 17



16

3.71

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1371

C 1315

J 14



16

3.60

modern

Cat. 1372

C 1490

F 18



16

3.43

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 1373

C 1652

K 12



17

3.13

modern

Cat. 1374

C 1693

G 18



17

3.64

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1375

C 1862

Q 19



16

4.09

3c b.c. (?)

Cat. 1376

C 1896

K 11



18

4.09

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1377

C 1922

K 20



16

3.79

Early Christian

Cat. 1378

C 1971

K 20



16

3.22

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1379

C 2011

L 20

m

17

3.67

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1380

C 2276

F 16

o

16

4.15

4c b.c.

Cat. 1381

C 2293

F 16



16

3.40

4c b.c. (?)

Cat. 1382

C 2420

O 18

i

17

3.37

unknown

Cat. 1383

C 2505

O 18



16

3.09

3c b.c.

Cat. 1384

C 2763

E 19



16

3.52

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1385

C 2810

E 19



16

3.48

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1386

C 2880

E 19



17

3.69

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1387

C 2982

P 16



16

3.12

6c a.d.

Cat. 1388

C 3163

J 18



16

3.04

unknown

Cat. 1389

C 3257

K 16



17

3.50

unknown

Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 236

Hesperia 1977, 16 n. 34 pl. 9:f

Nemea II, 236

Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl. 11:c, d

137

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1390

C 3378

K 18



17

3.18

unknown

Cat. 1391

C 3739

K 19



19

3.21

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1392

C 3768

L 19



17

3.43

2c b.c.

Cat. 1393

C 3798

K 19



16

3.48

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1394

C 3808

K 19



16

5.16

2/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1395

C 3854

O 19



17

3.10

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1396

C 3906

N 20



16

3.12

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

Cat. 1397

C 3944

N 19



16

4.23

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 1398

C 3964

M 19



16

3.45

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1399

C 3973

M 19



17

3.71

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1400

C 3985

M 19



16

3.21

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 1401

C 3996

N 19



16

3.25

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1402

C 3998

M 20



17

4.02

unknown

Cat. 1403

C 4028

DD 25

p

17

2.92

modern

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1404

C 4076

Z 27

k

17

2.99

Early Christian

Nemea II, 236

Ca. 345–325 b.c. Apollo head laureate r., hair hanging down neck; border of dots / S in olive wreath tied above

AE

Hesperia 1988, 9

Warren 1983, 34–36 (Group 3); Warren 1998, 349; BMC Pel. 50 nos. 170– 175 pl. 9.10; Corinth VI, 52 no. 318 pl. 7

Cat. 1405

C 110

M 12

i

18

6.09

Cat. 1406

C 119

N 17

k

18

Cat. 1407

C 549

DD 31

p

Cat. 1408

C 2807

E 19

Cat. 1409

C 2862

E 19

Byzantine

rev. above, E; Warren 3A.1–2

5.11

Byzantine

Warren 3A.7

16

4.47

Byzantine

Warren 3A.7; rev. letter unclear; Nemea II, 235

m

18

5.24

4c–3c b.c.

Warren 3A.7, rev. letter unclear

o

18

4.80

4c–3c b.c.

Warren 3A.7, rev. letter unclear; Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

Ca. 330–200 b.c. Dove flying / S, SE, or SI in olive wreath

AE

17,e

Warren 1983, 36–43 (Group 4); Warren 1998, 350; BMC Pel. 43–44 nos. 89–92 pl. 8.10; Corinth VI, 52 no. 313 pl. 7

obv. dove l.; rev. S in wreath tied l.

Warren Group 4A.1

Cat. 1410

C 1259

K 17

j

12

1.96

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1411

C 1577

F 17

o

14

4.11

modern

Cat. 1412

C 1892

K 11

p

14

3.86

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1413

C 1895

K 11

k

12

2.18

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

138

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1414

C 2075

P 13

i

12

1.78

Cat. 1415

C 2269

F 16

i

13

1.61

modern

Cat. 1416

C 2349

N 18

j

12

1.69

unknown

Cat. 1417

C 2988

P 16

i

14

1.81

6c a.d.

Cat. 1418

C 3364

J,K 18

k

18

2.65

unknown

Cat. 1419

C 3839

M 19

k

12

1.13

Early Christian (?)

17, f

obv. dove r.; rev. S in wreath tied l.

5c–6c a.d.

Warren Group 4A.4

Cat. 1420

C 26

C 14

p

14

1.67

Cat. 1421

C 932

O 15

l

14

1.85

Cat. 1422

C 2591

L 15

m

14

1.66

unknown

Cat. 1423 C 2991 P 16 obv. dove r.; rev. S in wreath tied below

i

14

1.70

6c a.d. Warren Group 4A.5

Cat. 1424 C 1249 K 17 obv. dove r.; rev. S in wreath tied above

j

13

1.49

Cat. 1425

m

13

1.53

Cat. 1426 C 967 CC 30 obv. dove r.; rev. SI in wreath tied r.

k

13

1.68

Cat. 1427

O 18

j

14

2.15

Cat. 1428 C 2638 N 18 obv. dove l.; rev. SI in wreath tied r.

m

14

2.33

Cat. 1429

C 203

M 11

k

12

0.84

Cat. 1430

C 3290

L 18

m

15

2.37

Cat. 1431

C 4077

Z 27

o

13

2.09

C 446

C 1078

O 16

Byzantine 17,g

17,h

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

modern Warren Group 4A.6 Middle Roman

17,i

none Nemea II, 235 Warren Group 4C.1 1/2 5c b.c.

17, j

unknown Warren Group 4C.2 modern

17,k

unknown Early Christian

obv. dove l.; rev. SI in wreath tied l.

the very light weight is correct Nemea II, 235

Warren Group 4C.3

Cat. 1432

C 450

O 16

k

15

3.08

Cat. 1433

C 2283

F 16

o

14

2.66

Cat. 1434

C 2460

K 16,17

i

14

2.51

unknown

Cat. 1435 C 3169 J 18 obv. dove r.; rev. SI in wreath tied l.

i

14

2.66

unknown Warren Group 4C.4

Cat. 1436

C 700

O 17

n

11

1.31

Byzantine

Cat. 1437

C 3695

K 19

p

10

1.53

Middle Roman 17,l

17,m

obv. dove r.; rev. SI in wreath tied below

4c b.c.

2/2 2c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

Warren Group 4C.5

Cat. 1438

C 83

N 17

i

13

1.62

Cat. 1439

C 120

N 17

j

15

2.24

17,n

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1440

C 1153

L 17

i

14

1.54

17,o

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1441

C 1252

K 17

j

16

2.11

modern

Cat. 1442

C 3693

K 19

k

14

2.59

2/2 2c b.c.

12c–13c a.d.

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

139

catalogue of coins, part i

obv. dove l.; rev. SI in wreath tied below

Warren Group 4C.6

Cat. 1443

C 934

O 15

k

14

2.15

Cat. 1444

C 3291

K 18

m

14

1.59

17,p

unknown

Cat. 1445

C 3643

L 19

i

15

2.14

17,q

Early Christian

Cat. 1446

C 3796

K 19

m

16

1.65

late 2c–early 3c a.d.

2/2 2c b.c.

obv. dove r.; rev. SI in wreath tied above

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

Warren Group 4C.7

Cat. 1447

C 1175

K 14

i

13

1.64

unknown

Cat. 1448

C 2044

P 12

p

15

2.43

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1449

C 2983

P 16

o

13

1.93

6c a.d.

Cat. 1450

C 3712

K 19

m

12

1.84

2/2 2c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13: d, e

Cat. 1451

C 3799

K 19

m

13

1.76

2/2 2c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10: a, b

17,r

obv. dove l.; rev. SI in wreath tied above

Warren Group 4C.8

Cat. 1452

C 953

O 18

m

13

2.07

modern

Cat. 1453

C 1187

L 20

m

15

2.25

none

Cat. 1454

C 1844

L 19

n

12

2.17

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1455

C 1929

K 20

n

14

2.63

Early Christian

Cat. 1456

C 2536

K 16,17

k

13

2.28

Cat. 1457

C 3446

L 18

n

12

1.33

unknown

Cat. 1458

C 3609

K 19

m

14

2.32

modern

Cat. 1459

C 3713

K 19

l

15

2.40

3c–2c b.c.

Ca. 330–290 and 2nd century b.c. Dove flying / Symbol or initial letters of name in wreath

17,s

AE

Byzantine (?) Bellinger 1926 no. 22

Warren 1983, 44–52 (Group 5); Warren 1998, 350; BMC Pel. 48–49 nos. 148–161 pl. 9.1–6; Corinth VI, 52 no. 317

obv. dove l.; rev. AL; wreath tied above

Warren Group 5: first series no. 2

Cat. 1460

C 173

F 12

j

16

3.91

Cat. 1461

C 931

O 15

p

17

2.60

late 2c–early 3c a.d.

Cat. 1462

C 3310

K 18

o

19

4.28

unknown

17,t

obv. dove l.; rev. second, smaller wreath within main one

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e; Warren 1983, 44 no. 2

Warren Group 5: first series no. 3b

Cat. 1463

C 118

N 17



16

3.51

Cat. 1464

C 2691

Q 14



14

3.25

Cat. 1465

C 3895

M 19



16

3.65

obv. dove l.; rev. EU in wreath tied below

12c–13c a.d. 17,u

6c a.d. early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 15 n. 58

Warren Group 5: first series no. 4

Cat. 1466

C 662

DD 29

i

17

2.78

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1467

C 981

O 16

k

17

3.58

5c b.c.

Nemea II, 235

140

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1468

C 1092

O 17

i

16

4.04

Early Christian

Cat. 1469

C 1318

K 17

i

18

4.01

4c b.c.

Cat. 1470

C 1850

L 19

k

15

3.36

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 1471

C 1890

K 11

k

17

4.03

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1472

C 2578

O 18

n

15

3.49

unknown

Cat. 1473

C 2761

E 19

i

17

2.12

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1474

C 2907

F 19

k

16

3.25

2/2 4c– 1c b.c.

Cat. 1475

C 3377

K 18

n

19

4.15

Cat. 1476

C 3900

K 19

o

16

3.67

17,v

Hesperia 1981, 58 pl. 18:a, b

unknown 4/4 3c– early 2c b.c. Warren Group 5: first series no. 5a

obv. dove r.; rev. KL[E ] in wreath tied above Cat. 1477

C 281

FF 23



12

2.66

Cat. 1478

C 3207

M 12

i

16

3.57

unknown

Cat. 1479

C 3905

N 20

j

16

3.36

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

17,w

obv. dove l.; rev. QEUF in wreath tied below

modern

obv. illegible; Nemea II, 235

Warren Group 5: first series no. 6a

Cat. 1480

C 53

N 12

k

16

3.71

Cat. 1481

C 192

F 12

m

17

2.49

17,x

Cat. 1482 C 4034 CC 27 obv. dove l.; rev. QEU in wreath tied l.

k

16

2.82

17,y

Early Christian Nemea II, 235 Warren Group 5: first series no. 6d var.305

Cat. 1483

o

16

3.69

17,z

late 4cearly 3c b.c. Warren Group 5: first series no. 6i

l

16

3.45

17,aa

1/3 4c a.d. (coins) Warren Group 5: second series no. 9a

Stadium

l

14

2.29

17,bb

Cat. 1486 C 917 CC 29 obv. dove l.; rev. DH in wreath tied l.

k

13

2.32

Cat. 1487

C 858

N 14

j

13

2.74

Cat. 1488

C 1707

F 19

i

14

2.34

Cat. 1489

C 1758

F 19

m

13

2.30

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1490

C 1779

F 19

m

14

1.59

1/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 1491

C 2824

E 19

p

14

2.52

Cat. 1492

C 3143

M 18

l

14

2.50

C 1079

O 18

Early Christian

obv. dove r.; rev. Q in wreath tied below Cat. 1484

C 1494

F 18

obv. dove l.; rev. DH in wreath tied below Cat. 1485

305 Warren

C 289

1998, 354.

4c b.c.

5c–6c a.d.

exact find site unknown; Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 235

Byzantine Nemea II, 235 Warren Group 5: second series no. 9d 1c a.d. 17,cc

17,dd

modern

4c–3c b.c. unknown

Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

141

catalogue of coins, part i

obv. dove; rev. uncertain Cat. 1493

C 2347

L 18

i

17

2.48

Cat. 1494

C 2402

L 17

p

15

4.08

3c b.c.

obv. dove l.

Cat. 1495

C 3653

L 19



17

3.15

mid-3c b.c.

obv. dove l.

17, ee

unknown

obv. dove r.; rev. QE perhaps visible

Ca. 330–320 b.c. Dove flying l./ Tripod-lebes in wreath tied below Cat. 1496

C 2674

P 14

AE

k

16

Ca. 325–300 b.c. Dove flying l.; above tail, strung bow / S ; caduceus head downward to l.; all within wreath tied l. Cat. 1497

C 2304

G 14

Warren 1983, 52–56 (Group 6); Warren 1998, 355; BMC Pel. 48 nos. 146–147 pl. 8.22 4.00

17, ff

AE

o

16

Ca. 196–146 b.c. Dove flying; initial letters / SI in wreath

Warren 1984, 1 (Group 7); Warren 1998, 355 3.50

17, gg

AE

C 1000

J 15

i

11

1.44

Cat. 1499

C 3752

L 19

l

10

1.46

17, hh

p

17

Early Christian modern

obv. l., S [W ] above wing, A[G ] above tail; rev. wreath ties below K 19

Warren 8A.6 3.42

17,ii

obv. l., illegible above wing, AG above tail; rev. wreath ties below

Early Christian

C 720

O 17

p

15

2.40

Cat. 1502

C 2560

N 18

o

14

2.20

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

17, jj

obv. l., Q above wing, AL above tail; rev. wreath ties above

2/2 3c b.c.

C 1445

J 16

o

11

1.71

Cat. 1504

C 2082

P 13

i

14

2.10

Cat. 1505

C 2341

L,M 18

j

14

2.89

unknown

Cat. 1506 C 2958 P 15 k 12 obv. l., D[I ] above wing, c above tail; rev. wreath ties above

2.42

6c a.d. Warren 8A.17

Cat. 1507

2.08

i

12

C 1120

L 16

o

Nemea I, 184

3c a.d. 17, kk

18,a

obv. l., DL above tail, A below tail; rev. wreath ties above Cat. 1508

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 35 pl. 10:a; cited by Warren 1984, 8A.7 no. 5

Warren 8A.16b

Cat. 1503

O 15

Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

Warren 8A.5, 6 or 7

Cat. 1501

C 939

Hesperia 1983, 75 n. 23 pl. 19:f, g; Warren 1984, 7A

Warren 8A.4

Cat. 1498

C 3672

modern

Warren 1984, 6–10 (Group 8); Warren 1998, 355–356; BMC Pel. 52–54 nos. 205–220 pl. 9.14, 16; Corinth VI, 52 no. 320 pl. 7

obv. l., [DI ] above wing, AQ above tail; rev. wreath ties below

Cat. 1500

6c a.d.

5c–6c a.d. Nemea I, xv, 175 figs. 207–208

mid-2c b.c. Warren 8A.19

14

2.18

18,b

1c–3c a.d.

Warren 1984, 8 no. 19

142

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1509 C 1191 K 14 obv. l., D above tail; rev. wreath ties above

n

12

1.25

Cat. 1510

i

14

1.84

C 525

M 14

unknown Warren 8A.22 18,c

obv. E[R ] above tail, c below tail; rev. wreath ties below Cat. 1511

C 2249

O 13

j

C 2524

L 17

Warren 1984, 8 no. 22

Warren 8A.23 14

2.02

18,d

obv. l, A above tail; rev. wreath ties above Cat. 1512

Byzantine

modern Warren 1984, 8 no. 28; monogram: Warren 1984, 6 no. 12

k

14

3.79

18,e

unknown

11

1.05

18, f

6c a.d.

Cat. 1514 C 3307 K 18 l 15 obv. l., A above wing, F above tail; rev. SI, wreath tied above

2.14

18,g

unknown

Cat. 1515 C 3779 L 19 Dove feeding; above, SI; below, letters or monogram / Tripod-lebes in wreath

n

1.98

18,h

Cat. 1516

C 104

D 11

p

14

1.60

18,i

Byzantine

obv. dove r.

Cat. 1517

C 315

N 16

j

14

2.31

18, j

Byzantine

obv. dove r.; below, D[H ]; Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c

Cat. 1518

C 741

L 14

n

13

2.29

18,k

unknown

obv. dove r.; letters illegible

Cat. 1519

C 945

O 15

o

16

2.79

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

obv. dove r.; letters illegible

Cat. 1520

C 948

O 15

k

13

2.40

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

obv. dove r.; below, NI; Warren 1984, 13 no. 19

Cat. 1521

C 1952

K 20

m

16

3.20

2c b.c.

Cat. 1522

C 2250

O 13

i

15

2.58

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1523

C 2256

L 14

j

15

2.00

Early Christian

Cat. 1524

C 2263

L 14

m

14

2.95

5c–6c a.d.

obv. dove r.; below, DH

Cat. 1525

C 2470

L,M 17

k

15

2.73

3c a.d.

obv. dove l.; below, ME

Cat. 1526

C 2637

K 16,17

n

12

3.02

unknown

obv. dove r.; letters below illegible

Cat. 1527

C 2996

P 16

o

13

2.98

6c a.d.

obv. dove r.; letters below illegible

obv. r., A above tail; rev. SI in wreath tied below Cat. 1513 C 2962 P 15 obv. l., D above tail; rev. wreath tied below

i

14 AE

2c b.c. Warren 1984, 11–14 (Group 9); Warren 1998, 356; BMC Pel. 50–51 nos. 176–190 pl. 9.11; Corinth VI, 52 no. 319

obv. dove r.; below, no letters; rev. EU either side of tripod; Hesperia 1982, 26 n. 22 pl. 11:c, d; Warren 1984, 11 no. 1 obv. dove r. obv. dove r.; below, monogram P

143

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1528

C 3001

P 15

m

15

3.08

6c a.d.

obv. dove r.; below, AR

Cat. 1529

C 3302

L 18

o

14

1.66

unknown

obv. dove r.; above, AR

Cat. 1530

C 3447

L 18

k

17

3.02

18,l

unknown

obv. dove r.; letters below illegible; Bellinger 1926 no. 23

Cat. 1531

C 3674

K 19

k

16

2.66

18,m

5c a.d.

obv. dove r.; letters below illegible; Hesperia 1988, 9 n. 32 pl. 13:d, e

Cat. 1532

C 3684

K 19

i

12

1.09

18,n

5c–6c a.d.

obv. dove r.; letters below illegible

Cat. 1533

C 3853

M 19

i

13

2.82

Early Christian

Cat. 1534

C 3885

M 19

m

18

3.66

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Ca. 160 or 150–146 b.c. Dove flying l.; [OL]UMP[I ] above wing; AD[A] above tail / SI in wreath ties above Cat. 1535

C 3558

K 19

AE

j

After 146 b.c. –probably 1st century b.c. 306 Dove flying l.; behind, star / S in shallow incuse square; PROMACIDAS Cat. 1536

C 1288

K 14

l

16

18,o

AR: hemidrachm

1st century b.c. (second quarter)307 Apollo head laureate, r. / Dove flying or alighting l., holding fillet; in field SI and name or part of name

obv. dove l.; letters below illegible

Warren 1984, 14 (Group 10, 1a)

2.37

10

obv. dove r.; Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

0.35

AE

modern

Warren 1984, 16 no. 230; Warren 1993, 93–94; SNG Cop. Phl. no. 102 pl. 2 18,p

3c–2c b.c. (coins)

Hesperia 1979, 80 pl. 23:b

Warren 1984, 18–22 (Group 12); BMC Pel. 54–55 nos. 227–240 pl. 9.17, 18; Corinth VI, 53 no. 322 pl. 7

Cat. 1537

C 121

N 17

i

18

3.84

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1538

C 274

M 17

p

17

2.93

modern

Cat. 1539

C 641

L 14

k

18

3.45

modern

rev. above, [XENO]; above tail, KRI; below, [SI ]

Cat. 1540

C 692

L 14

k

12

4.15

Early Christian

rev. above, APOLLW; behind wing, N[IOU ]

306 Warren

1993, 93–94, probably in the 1st century b.c., altering her earlier date of between 160 and 150, and 146 b.c. (Warren 1984, 16 n. 230). 307 Warren initially suggested a date in the 1st century (perhaps 1st quarter) b.c. (Warren 1984, 18) but later refined this to the second half of the 1st century b.c. (Warren 1993, 95 n. 102) and then to (probably) the second quarter of that century (Warren 1998, 358).

144

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1541

C 1019

L 16

n

18

3.77

Early Christian

rev. above, APOLLW; behind wing, [NIO]U

Cat. 1542

C 1048

O 13

o

16

4.93

Middle Roman

rev. above, APO[LLW ]; behind wing, [NIOU ]

Cat. 1543

C 1626

G 19

m

17

3.31

modern

Cat. 1544

C 2338

M 17

k

16

3.83

unknown

rev. above, [AP ]OLLW; behind wing, NIOU

Cat. 1545

C 2651

M,N 19

j

16

4.23

Byzantine

rev. above, [AP ]OLLW; behind wing, NIO[U ]

Cat. 1546

C 3385

J 18

m

18

3.86

unknown

rev. above, [XENO]; above tail, K[RI ]; below, [S ]I

Cat. 1547

C 3413

J 18

m

18

3.39

18,q

unknown

rev. above, APOLLW; behind wing, [N ]IOU

Cat. 1548

C 3454

L 19

n

18

4.33

18,r

unknown

rev. D[I ] above tail; SI below

rev. APO[LLW ]; behind wing, N[IOU ]

ACHAIA Aigeira 370–280 b.c. Athena head r., in helmet / AIG l. Goat forepart r., in wreath

AE

BMC Pel. 17 no. 1 pl. 4.7

Cat. 1549

C 1323

DD 28

k

12

1.27

Cat. 1550

C 1998

L 20

j

13

1.30

18,s

Athena head in helmet / [AIG ] l. Head and neck of goat r., in wreath

3c–4c a.d.

AE

Nemea II, 235

2c b.c. (coins) BMC Pel. 17 nos. 2–3 pl. 4.8

Cat. 1551

C 314

N 16

i

14

1.60

18,t

Byzantine

obv. head l.

Cat. 1552

C 1043

O 18

i

12

1.80

18,u

Middle Roman

obv. head r.

Pellene 370–280 b.c. Apollo head l. / B above ram’s head, all within laurel wreath

AE

BMC Pel. 31 nos. 8–9 pl. 6.13

Cat. 1553

C 673

DD 29

p

17

3.15

Cat. 1554

C 929

O 15

k

16

3.70

5c–6c a.d. 18,v

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

145

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1555 C 3889 Apollo head l. / B within laurel wreath

M 19

i

Cat. 1556

C 309

N 16

j

Cat. 1557

C 3433

M 18



17

3.88

18,w

13

1.42

18,x

14

2.36

AE

2/2 2c b.c. BMC Pel. 32 no. 13 pl. 6.14 Byzantine unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 18

Achaian League 308 Ca. 360–325 b.c. Zeus head, laureate, r. / C within laurel wreath

AE

BMC Pel. 1 nos. 2–4 pl. 1.2

Cat. 1558

C 1348

L 20

o

14

1.52

18,y

1c–3c a.d.

Cat. 1559

C 2792

E 19

o

13

1.87

18,z

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1560

C 3838

M 19

o

14

2.54

18,aa

Early Christian (?)

[Cat. 1561] [C 3908]

Hesperia 1984, 176

formerly identified as Achaian League from Kleonai; see Cat. 128 bis

Ca. 330–280 b.c. Zeus head, laureate, r. / C within laurel wreath Cat. 1562

C 1491

[AR]: drachma F 18

l

16

191–146 b.c. Zeus Amarios head r., laureate; behind, EPI[NIKOS ] / C in laurel wreath; below monogram, thunderbolt; monogram R, l., monogram Q, r. Cat. 1563

C 3439

M 12,13

j

308 J.

C 2352

K 18

19,a

[AR?]

20

Zeus standing l., holding in r. hand Nike, in l. scepter / Achaia seated l., holding wreath and scepter Cat. 1564

3.11

Clerk 1 nos. 10–11 pl. 1.7

20

rev. thunderbolt below; bronze core for plated drachma; Clerk gives as AE

Clerk 17 no. 269; SNG Cop. Lac. no. 304 pl. 6

2.54

19,b

AE

j

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

unknown

subaerate core? mint: Elis; Bellinger 1926 no. 13 (attributed to Epidauros)

SNG Cop. Lac. no. 350 pl. 6

3.35

19,c

unknown

obv. IE |R| WN; rev. illegible; mint: Elis

A. Warren is preparing a detailed study of the Achaian League coinage. She graciously provided much of the detail for the identifications and chronology which follow.

146

catalogue of coins, part i

Ca. 160–150 b.c. and later Head of Zeus laureate, r. / C within laurel wreath tied above Cat. 1565

C 1452

H 14

AR: drachma m

15

2.34

BMC Pel. 8 no. 90 pl. 1.23; Thompson 68 nos. 601, 602 pl. 117 19,d

3c–5c a.d.

rev. club above, l r.; mint: Argos

ELIS Elis 271–191 b.c. Apollo head r. / FA. Zeus hurling thunderbolt, r.; monogram lower l., S

AE

SNG Cop. Lac. nos. 436–439 pl. 8

Cat. 1566

C 626

M 15

i

14

2.20

19,e

Byzantine

Cat. 1567

C 1217

K 17

o

16

3.14

19, f

modern

Cat. 1568

C 2969

P 15

m

17

5.60

Zeus head r., laureate / FA. Horse trotting r.; below, letters

rev. r., S; l., [S ]

6c a.d.

AE

BMC Pel. 74 no. 145 pl. 15.15 (sim.)

Cat. 1569

C 1729

F 19

l

18

4.89

Cat. 1570

C 3997

M 19

i

18

6.04

19,g

1c b.c.

rev. below, EO

mid-4c– mid-3c b.c. (coins)

KEPHALLONIA Same 370–189 b.c. Athena head r., in Corinthian helmet / D within wreath Cat. 1571

C 859

N 14

AE i

11

BMC Pel. 93 nos. 44–46 pl. 18.23 4.09

19,h

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

ZAKYNTHOS Zakynthos 357–250 b.c. Apollo head r. laureate; hair long / A[I ]. Tripod, all in wreath Cat. 1572

C 3851

M 19

AE j

15

BMC Pel. 98 no. 42 pl. 20.4 2.27

19,i

Early Christian?

MESSENIA Messenia 370–280 b.c. Demeter head l., crowned with grain / ME l., S r. of tripod

AR

Cat. 1573 C 401 M 14 Demeter head l., crowned with grain / M l., E r. of tripod

l

Cat. 1574

k

C 24

C 14

13

BMC Pel. 109 no. 2, 3 pl. 22.2 0.85

AE 14

2.04

19, j

modern BMC Pel. 109 nos. 4, 5 pl. 22.3 Byzantine

147

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1575

C 260

M 11

o

13

2.78

Cat. 1576

C 1722

F 19

i

13

2.19

6c a.d. (?)

Cat. 1577

C 2525

L 17



12

1.67

unknown

Cat. 1578 C 3628 K 19 Demeter head l., crowned with grain / ME

i

15

Cat. 1579

C 881

L 15

p

11

4.25

mid-4c– mid-3c b.c. (coins)

obv. l.

Cat. 1580

C 2753

E 19

i

13

2.48

3c–4c a.d.

obv. r.

Cat. 1581

C 2955

P 15

l

14

3.40

19,k

2.58

modern

Early Christian BMC Pel. 109 no. 6 pl. 22.4

AE

19,l

6c a.d.

obv. large “X” incised

LAKONIA Lakedaimon Ca. 197–192 b.c. (Nabis) Apollo bust with diadem r. / Caps of Dioskouroi with tie-ribbons hanging down Cat. 1582

C 508

M 14

m

AE 10

39–27 b.c. Athena head r., in crested Corinthian helmet / LA on either side of owl. Owl r.; all in wreath309

Grunauer 1978, 32–33, 127 pl. 7 (Group 11) 1.33

19,m

AE

Cat. 1583 C 3324 K 17 l Zeus head r., diademed / [LA]. Club, [EPIEURU KLE OS ]; all in wreath

13

Cat. 1584

C 786

O 16

i

Cat. 1585

C 1989

Q 19

Byzantine

Grunauer 1978, 36, 127–129 pl. 8 (Group 13); BMC Pel. 125 nos. 44–46 pl. 24.13 1.64

19,n

19

3.45

19,o



19

7.13

Cat. 1586 C 3659 O 19 Dioskouroi heads r., wearing laureate pilei with stars above / LA. Two amphorai entwined by serpents; all in a laurel wreath



20

Cat. 1587

C 523

M 14

p

18

3.28

19,p

Byzantine

Cat. 1588

C 535

M 14

p

19

6.28

19,q

Byzantine

309 Grunauer

1978, 57.

quarter denomination (cf. Groups 10, 11, 12 for full and half denominations)

AE

unknown Grunauer 1978, 38, 129–134 pl. 8 (Group 14); BMC Pel. 127 nos. 63–65 pl. 25.6 Byzantine 1c b.c.

7.28

mid-3c b.c. Grunauer 1978, 38–39, 134–140 pls. 9–10 (Group 15); BMC Pel. 124 nos. 35–40, cf. pl. 24.11

AE

rev. below, A between amphorai; to r., I

148

catalogue of coins, part i

ARGOLIS Argos Before 421 b.c. Forepart of wolf at bay, l. / A in shallow incuse square; in upper part, two deeper incuses

AR: hemidrachm

BMC Pel. 137 no. 13 pl. 27.2 (sim.)

Cat. 1589

C 926

O 15

i

13

2.76

20,a

Byzantine

rev. bar of A slants to lower right; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

Cat. 1590

C 928

O 15

p

13

2.62

20,b

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

rev. bar of A slants to lower left; upper l. sym.?; r., club; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

Cat. 1591

C 2948

P 15

n

11

2.76

20,c

6c a.d.

Wolf ’s head l. / A in incuse square; in upper part, two deeper incuses

AR: obol

obv. three pellets under paw; rev. bar of A slants to lower right; below, pellet; Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c BMC Pel. 137 no. 24 pl. 27.4

Cat. 1592

C 1020

L 17

m

10

0.97

20,d

4c b.c.

Cat. 1593

C 1162

L 17

i

11

0.89

20,e

1/2 5c b.c.

Cat. 1594

C 2971

P 15

i

9

1.01

20, f

1/4 5c b.c.

Ca. 425–375 b.c. Wolf forepart l. / A

FE

C 3002

P 16

l

26

15.24

Cat. 1596

C 3003

P 16

m

21

17.41

Cat. 1597

C 3004

P 16

k

20

11.68

Cat. 1598

C 3005

P 16

j

20

11.97

6c a.d. (?)

Cat. 1599

C 3897

M 19



30

19.10

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 1600

C 3898

M 19

j

28

13.25

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 1601

C 3144

M 18

20,g

10

0.51

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1984, 184 pl. 39:d, e

6c a.d. 20,h

AR: tritartemorion i

rev. below, pellet; Hesperia 1979, 85 pl. 27:c

Cf. Regling 1913, 77–78; Price 1968, 100; Oeconomides

Cat. 1595

Ca. 425–350 b.c. Hera head r., wearing stephanos / [TTT ]. Temple key bound with fillet

rev. below A, single dot; Hesperia 1978, 82 n. 56 pl. 25:d

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1984, 184 pl. 39:d, e

BMC Pel. 139 nos. 42, 43 pl. 27.10 20,i

unknown

149

catalogue of coins, part i

Hera head l., wearing stephanos / A; below, symbol varies

AE

BMC Pel. 140 nos. 51–53 pl. 27.16

rev. symbol, W Cat. 1602

C 1383

G 18

j

11

1.92

Cat. 1603 C 3807 rev. symbol, club

K 19

o

12

2.30

Cat. 1604

C 444

O 16

o

13

1.67

Middle Roman

Cat. 1605

C 507

M 14

i

12

1.65

Byzantine

Cat. 1606

C 591

DD 30

o

12

1.64

none

Cat. 1607

C 621

M 15

o

12

2.02

Byzantine

Cat. 1608

C 631

O 17

j

12

1.73

Byzantine

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 39 pl. 10:b (attributed to Sikyon)

Cat. 1609

C 708

O 17

n

11

1.55

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 35 pl. 10:a

Cat. 1610

C 712

O 17

o

12

1.68

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1611

C 889

L 15

j

11

1.56

Byzantine

Cat. 1612

C 946

O 15

j

12

1.88

late 2c–early 3c a.d.

Cat. 1613

C 1261

K 17

m

11

1.49

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1614

C 1310

K 14

p

11

1.49

unknown

Cat. 1615

C 1589

F 17,13

p

12

1.43

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1616

C 1766

F 19

j

12

1.74

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1617

C 2083

P 13

l

10

1.88

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1618

C 2285

F 16

i

13

1.56

4c b.c.

Cat. 1619

C 2514

L 17

p

12

1.53

unknown

Cat. 1620

C 2886

E 19

i

11

1.70

4c b.c.

Cat. 1621

C 2942

P 14

i

11

1.92

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 1622

C 3253

I 15

k

12

1.71

unknown

Cat. 1623

C 3381

K 18

i

12

1.58

unknown

Cat. 1624

C 3455

L 19

n

12

1.36

unknown

Cat. 1625 C 3836 rev. symbol, dolphin

M 19

o

13

1.55

Byzantine

Cat. 1626 C 584 rev. symbol, thunderbolt

DD 30

o

12

1.75

modern 20, j

20,k

20,l

late 3c b.c.

Byzantine

Cat. 1627

C 50

N 12

k

12

1.51

Early Christian

Cat. 1628

C 573

Stadium

k

12

1.51

Byzantine

Cat. 1629

C 595

DD 30

k

13

1.48

none

Cat. 1630

C 2310

unknown

i

11

1.18

unknown

Cat. 1631

C 2759

E 19

j

11

1.45

20,m

late 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1977, 16 n. 34 pl. 9:f Nemea II, 235

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Bellinger 1926 no. 2

Nemea II, 235

exact find location unknown; Nemea II, 235 Nemea II, 235

150

catalogue of coins, part i

rev. symbol missing/illegible Cat. 1632

C 624

M 15

k

14

1.34

Byzantine

Cat. 1633

C 1919

K 20



16

3.52

Early Christian

Cat. 1634

C 2541

N 18

j

12

1.66

unknown

Cat. 1635

C 2749

E 19

p

13

1.40

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1636

C 2946

P 15

m

11

1.95

6c a.d.

Cat. 1637

C 3528

L 19

l

14

1.80

Byzantine

Cat. 1638

C 3935

N 19

o

12

1.39

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

421–322 b.c. 310 Wolf at bay l. / Crested Corinthian helmet l.; below, AR

AR: obol

BMC Pel. 142 nos. 84–85 pl. 27.20

Cat. 1639

C 1114

L 17

j

12

0.98

20,n

modern

obv. above, pellet; rev. below, DE

Cat. 1640

C 2654

M 18

m

12

1.06

20,o

early 3c b.c.

obv. above, pellet; rev. below, DE; Nemea I, xv, 178 figs. 221–222

Cat. 1641

C 2972

P 15

l

13

1.11

20,p

6c a.d.

obv. above, pellet; rev. below, DE

Cat. 1642

C 3671

K 19

l

12

1.02

20,q

Early Christian

350–228 b.c. Forepart of wolf l.; above, dot in circle / A; below, eagle on harpa r.; above, G U Cat. 1643

C 1402

G 18

AR j

15

Hera head r., wearing stephanos [inscribed ARGE ] / Pallas fighting l.

BMC Pel. 142 no. 79 pl. 27.19 2.60

20,r

20,s

AE

Cat. 1644

C 936

O 15

k

17

4.31

Cat. 1645

C 947

O 15

i

18

3.52

I 17

p

20

8.06

Cat. 1646 C 3056 Wolf ’s head / A. Below, symbol varies

obv. above, pellet; rev. either side, G U; below, no AR

Early Christian

Hesperia 1980, 194 pl. 44:f BMC Pel. 144 nos. 106–108 pl. 27.23 late 2c– early 3c a.d. late 2c– early 3c a.d. unknown BMC Pel. 143–144 nos. 96–105 pl. 27.22; Corinth VI, 60 no. 375

AE

obv. r.; rev. symbol, W Cat. 1647 C 3630 obv. l.; rev. symbol, altar

K 19

l

12

1.95

20,t

Early Christian

Cat. 1648

C 1446

J 16

o

12

2.11

20,u

6c a.d.

Cat. 1649

C 1584

F 17

j

12

2.33

310 SNG

gives ca. 421–322 b.c.; BMC gives ca. 350–228 b.c.

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

151

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1650

C 2033

L 18

l

12

1.37

none or modern

Cat. 1651

C 2688

P 14

i

10

1.58

6c a.d.

Cat. 1652

C 2755

E 19

j

11

1.17

unknown

Cat. 1653

C 3038

J 18

j

12

1.94

unknown

Cat. 1654

C 3403

L 17

j

12

1.36

unknown

Cat. 1655

C 3418

K 16

l

12

1.36

unknown

Cat. 1656

C 3931

N 19

j

11

1.73

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1657

C 3953

M 20

k

10

1.91

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 1658 C 4071 obv. l.; rev. symbol, club

EE 27

i

12

1.34

Early Christian

Cat. 1659

C 82

N 17

o

12

1.77

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 1660

C 589

DD 30

i

12

1.54

Byzantine

Cat. 1661

C 1044

O 18

j

11

1.63

Middle Roman

Cat. 1662

C 1123

L 20

o

11

1.36

3c a.d.

Cat. 1663

C 1170

L 20

o

12

2.21

Early Christian

Cat. 1664

C 1334

K 20

o

11

1.53

modern

Cat. 1665

C 1366

J 16

m

12

1.61

modern

Cat. 1666

C 2760

E 19

m

11

1.85

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1667

C 3866

L 19

i

12

1.71

Cat. 1668

C 3867

L 19

j

12

Cat. 1669

C 3874

L 19

l

Cat. 1670 C 4092 obv. l.; rev. symbol, dolphin

F 17

Cat. 1671

C 1487

Cat. 1672

C 1860

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 3

Nemea II, 236

Nemea II, 236

late 5c– 4c b.c. (coins)

Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b

1.12

late 5c– 4c b.c. (coins)

Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b

11

0.92

late 5c–4c b.c. (coins)

Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b (attributed to Sikyon)

k

11

2.22

20,w

unknown

F 18

m

11

1.09

20,x

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Q 19

k

10

1.87

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

20,v

obv. l.; rev. symbol, bull’s head

obv. l.; rev. symbol, Corinthian helmet Cat. 1673

C 34

F4

o

12

2.44

13c a.d.

Cat. 1674

C 835

M 17

n

12

2.22

unknown

Cat. 1675

C 963

K 16

p

11

1.96

4c a.d.

Cat. 1676

C 1454

H 14

p

12

1.54

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 1677

C 1603

F 17

m

11

1.93

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1678

C 1651

K 13

p

12

2.21

modern

Cat. 1679

C 1763

F 19

l

11

1.20

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

152

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1680

C 1993

L 20

m

11

1.79

late 3c b.c.

rev., K to r.

Cat. 1681

C 2016

L 20

o

11

1.46

3/3 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl. 11:c, d

Cat. 1682

C 2652

O 18

i

14

2.19

late 4c b.c.

Nemea I, xv, 180, 181 figs. 235, 236

Cat. 1683

C 2888

E 19

k

12

1.72

4c b.c.

Cat. 1684

C 3452

M 18,19

l

11

1.51

unknown

Cat. 1685

C 3868

L 19

o

11

1.88

late 5c–4c b.c. (coins)

20,y

Bellinger 1926 no. 3 (with spray of two olive branches as rev. symbol) Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b

obv. l.; rev. symbol, Macedonian helmet Cat. 1686

C 134

F4

m

13

1.70

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1687

C 635

L 14

k

12

1.06

Early Christian

Cat. 1688

C 719

O 17

k

13

1.73

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1689

C 1273

CC 27

k

13

1.64

Cat. 1690

C 1281

DD 29

j

12

Cat. 1691

C 1396

G 18

p

Cat. 1692

C 1586

F 17

Cat. 1693

C 1665

Cat. 1694

Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 35 pl. 10:a

3c–4c a.d.

Nemea II, 236

1.60

modern

Nemea II, 236

12

1.99

Early Christian

o

11

1.85

5c–6c a.d.

G 18

j

11

1.94

modern

C 1737

F 19

j

13

1.82

Cat. 1695

C 1741

F 19

i

12

1.67

3/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 1696

C 1749

F 19

o

10

1.45

1/4 3c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1697

C 1757

F 19

k

11

1.65

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1698

C 1762

F 19

p

11

2.02

mid-4c– mid-3c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1699

C 1782

F 19

i

12

1.41

1/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 1700

C 1785

F 19

o

12

1.51

1/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 1701

C 1786

F 19

p

10

1.42

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1702

C 1787

F 19

o

11

1.37

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1703

C 1792

F 19

o

12

1.73

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 1704

C 1798

F 19

o

12

1.31

20, bb

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 1705

C 1904

K 11

m

14

1.48

20, cc

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1706

C 2716

E 19

p

13

1.72

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1707

C 2722

E 19

i

13

1.53

4c b.c. (plus Roman fragment)

Cat. 1708

C 2767

E 19

p

12

1.85

unknown

Cat. 1709

C 2770

E 19

k

12

1.08

3/3 3c b.c.

20,z

20, aa

early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61 Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

153

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1710

C 2833

E 19

p

11

1.97

2c b.c. (?)

Cat. 1711

C 2838

E 19

j

13

1.73

4c b.c.

Cat. 1712

C 2854

E 19

i

12

1.56

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1713

C 2871

E 19

k

12

1.52

4c b.c.

Cat. 1714

C 3882

L 19

m

12

2.15

2/2 2c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

obv. l.; rev. symbol, thunderbolt Cat. 1715

C 616

O 16

n

14

1.69

Cat. 1716

C 622

M 15

k

11

1.93

Byzantine

Cat. 1717

C 1507

G 18

i

11

1.39

unknown

Cat. 1718

C 2777

E 19

o

12

1.65

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1719 C 3966 obv. l.; rev. symbol, W

M 19

n

13

1.13

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1720

O 16

l

13

1.69

C 434

20, dd

20, ee

5c–1/2 4c b.c.

Middle Roman

Hesperia 1977, 16 n. 34 pl. 9:f

obv. l.; rev. symbol illegible or absent Cat. 1721

C 755

DD 30

o

12

1.44

unknown

Cat. 1722

C 872

K 15

l

11

1.61

uncertain: 5c b.c. or later

Cat. 1723

C 913

CC 30

k

11

1.55

2/2 4c a.d.

Cat. 1724

C 1346

L 20

m

11

1.27

3c b.c.

Cat. 1725

C 1614

F 17

n

11

1.68

Cat. 1726

C 1767

F 19

i

13

1.31

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1727

C 1791

F 19

n

11

1.85

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1728

C 1797

F 19



12

1.75

Cat. 1729

C 2339

M 18

i

12

1.49

unknown

Cat. 1730

C 2655

M 18

m

11

1.19

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1731

C 2677

P 14

o

11

1.32

6c a.d.

Cat. 1732

C 2737

E 19

m

12

1.37

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1733

C 2773

E 19

p

13

1.62

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1734

C 2797

E 19

m

12

1.51

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1735

C 2813

E 19

j

12

1.53

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1736

C 2818

E 19

k

11

1.72

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1737

C 2821

E 19

o

12

1.35

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1738

C 2878

E 19

i

12

1.56

4c b.c.

Cat. 1739

C 2911

I 17

k

11

1.64

modern

20, ff

20, gg

5c–6c a.d.

late 4c b.c.

Nemea II, 236

Nemea II, 236 rev. countermark, long-beaked bird’s head; Stymphalos? Hesperia 1981, 60–61

rev. countermark, wolf ’s head? Nemea I, 182 Nemea I, xv, 178, 179 figs. 223, 224

154

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1740

C 2927

P 15

k

13

1.95

6c a.d.

Cat. 1741

C 2968

P 15

o

12

1.56

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1742

C 3020

L 19

n

11

1.86

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1743

C 3033

L 19

k

12

2.00

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1744

C 3667

L 19

n

12

1.20

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1745

C 3682

K 19

i

13

2.01

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1746

C 3728

K 19

j

14

1.63

late 3c– early 2c b.c.

Cat. 1747

C 3750

L 19

j

12

0.98

modern

Cat. 1748

C 3763

L 19

n

12

0.79

2c b.c.

Cat. 1749

C 3861

K 19

l

11

1.87

4/4 2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1750

C 3870

L 19

k

11

0.92

late 5c– 4c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1751 C 4089 CC 30 very corroded, but clearly of this type

j

13

1.47

unknown

Nemea II, 236

Cat. 1752

C 1050

O 18



12

1.43

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Nemea I, 172

Cat. 1753

C 1142

EE 28

m

15

2.45

Cat. 1754

C 1176

K 14



11

1.66

Cat. 1755

C 1359

L 20

p

13

2.58

3/4 5c b.c.

Cat. 1756

C 1822

L 18

k

11

1.72

2/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1757

C 1966

Q 20

p

13

1.63

late 1c a.d.

Cat. 1758

C 2236

J 19

j

12

1.76

After ca. 343 b.c. Forepart of wolf / A in shallow incuse square; above, letters; below, symbol

Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b (attributed to Sikyon)

Nemea II, 236

AR: hemidrachm

BMC Pel. 137 nos. 56–70 pl. 27.18 (sim.)

obv. r. Cat. 1759

C 130

CC 32

p

15

2.59

21,a

Byzantine

rev. above, AR; below, wreath; Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1760

C 196

CC 32

k

14

2.65

21,b

3c a.d.

rev. above, AR; below, club; Hesperia 1975, 171 pl. 41:f; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1761

C 810

CC 30

j

14

2.50

21,c

2/2 4c a.d.

rev. above, N I; below, crescent; Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1762

C 844

O 16

l

14

2.71

21,d

4c b.c. (coins)

rev. above, N I; below, ivy leaf; Hesperia 1978, 73 n. 31 pl. 10:f

obv. l.

155

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1763

C 1409

J 16

k

14

2.55

21,e

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1764

C 3211

M 12

o

15

2.61

21, f

unknown

Wolf ’s head / A

AR: tetartemorion

Hesperia 1980, 192 pl. 41:d

rev. above, AR; below, crescent BMC Pel. 143 nos. 91–94 pl. 27.21

obv. r. Cat. 1765

C 133

F4

k

11

0.77

21,g

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

obv. above, S I; rev. above, A G; below, round shield; Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 37:d (wrongly cited as C 132)

Cat. 1766

C 2012

L 20

n

11

0.77

21,h

3/3 3c b.c.

rev. A in incuse; above, N I; Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26

Cat. 1767

C 2919

P 14

i

11

0.78

21,i

6c a.d.

rev. A in incuse; above, N I; Hesperia 1984, 184 n. 60 pl. 39:b, c

Cat. 1768

C 326

N 16

o

11

0.77

21, j

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

rev. A in incuse; above, N I; below, club; Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c

Cat. 1769

C 878

O 17

o

11

0.69

21,k

unknown

rev. A in incuse; above, G R; below, club; Hesperia 1978, 65 n. 19 pl. 16:b

Cat. 1770

C 1703

F 18

l

10

0.65

21,l

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

rev. A in incuse; above, D E; below, thunderbolt; Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

Cat. 1771

C 1773

F 19

o

9

0.81

21,m

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

obv. above, k; rev. A in incuse; above, G R; below, club

Cat. 1772

C 2780

E 19

l

9

0.81

21,n

3/3 3c b.c.

rev. A in incuse; above, G R; below, club

Cat. 1773

C 3787

K 19

i

9

0.71

21,o

4/4 3c–2c b.c.

obv. above, Q and rev. A in incuse; above, G U; below, thunderbolt

Cat. 1774

C 3825

K 19

k

10

0.67

21,p

4/4 3c– 1/2 2c b.c.

obv. above, Q; rev. A in incuse; above, D E; below, thunderbolt

Cat. 1775

C 3846

M 19

p

9

0.64

21,q

Early Christian (?)

obv. above illegible; rev. A in incuse; above,G U; below, thunderbolt

Cat. 1776

C 4002

M 14

m

10

0.72

21,r

modern

obv. l.

obv. above, Q; rev. A in incuse; above, D E; below, thunderbolt

156

catalogue of coins, part i

Ca. 325–300 b.c. 311 Hera head l., wearing stephanos / Forepart of wolf l., within wild celery wreath312

AE

example in BM from Earle Fox Bequest 1920-8-5 no. 1351

Cat. 1777

C 170

F 12

k

15

3.04

21,s

Byzantine

Cat. 1778

C 1400

G 18

k

16

2.71

21,t

Early Christian

Cat. 1779

C 1552

F 19

m

14

2.91

21,u

5c–6c a.d.

Ca. 300–146 b.c. Apollo head, laureate / Tripod-lebes; in field, letters and symbols313

AE

BMC Pel. 146 nos. 131–135 pl. 28.4

obv. head r. Cat. 1780

C 537

M 14

i

16

2.86

21,v

Early Christian

Cat. 1781

C 870

K 15

p

16

2.10

21,w

Byzantine

Cat. 1782

C 871

K 15

k

15

3.34

21,x

Byzantine

Cat. 1783

C 937

O 15

j

15

2.45

21,y

mid-2c b.c.

rev. l., club; r., W

Cat. 1784

C 2984

P 16

k

17

3.24

21,z

6c a.d.

rev. l., club; r., symbol illegible

Cat. 1785

C 1747

F 19

o

15

2.84

21, aa

2/2 4c b.c.

rev. l., club; r., W

Cat. 1786

C 4084

CC 30

l

17

3.24

21, bb

none

rev. l., i W Ec; O ·Y r., EY M E W, club V

A rev. l., [[K]] PA , club,[W]; = BMC no. 133 O ·Y rev. l., EY M E W, club; r., club; = BMC no. 131

obv. head l.

Hera head r., wearing stephanos / Quiver; in field letters and symbols vary314

AE

rev. l., club; r., W; Nemea II, 235 BMC Pel. 147 nos. 140, 141, 143; pl. 28.8

Cat. 1787

C 740

L 14

m

17

3.73

1c–3c a.d.

Cat. 1788

C 816

L 15

i

17

2.32

Byzantine

Cat. 1789

C 1284

J 14

n

15

3.14

Cat. 1790

C 1880

O 19

k

17

2.94

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1791

C 2751

E 19

i

19

2.63

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1792

C 2961

P 15

m

15

2.01

6c a.d.

Cat. 1793

C 2965

P 15

m

16

2.77

6c a.d.

311 The

21, cc

modern

rev. W rev. l., Corinthian helmet; r., W rev. l. illegible; r., W rev. r., W rev. l., Corinthian helmet?

date derives from the historical evidence for the transference of supervision of the Nemean Games to Argos itself from its dependency, Kleonai, about this time. See next note. 312 Wild celery was the substance from which the Nemea victory crown was made. This coin type seems to commemorate the removal of supervision of the Games from the control of Kleonai to that of Argos in the fourth quarter of the 4th century b.c. 313 BMC pp. xxv and 145 attributes this issue to the time of the Achaian League on the basis of the issue signed by Lydiadas. However, it could easily have begun before this time. The context of the coins at Nemea strongly urges an earlier inception date: see my remarks in the Introduction, p. 59. 314 See previous note; remarks there apply to this issue as well.

157

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1794

C 2993

P 16

n

18

3.70

6c a.d.

rev. l., Corinthian helmet; r., W

Cat. 1795

C 3308

K 18

k

18

3.14

unknown

rev. l., Corinthian helmet; r., W

Cat. 1796

C 3845

M 19

j

15

2.98

Byzantine

Cat. 1797

C 3848

M 19

i

17

3.73

Cat. 1798

C 3903

N 20

m

15

1.89

late 2c– early 3c a.d.

Cat. 1799

C 4007

CC 28

i

16

2.56

6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1800

C 4009

CC 28

i

16

3.11

6c a.d.

rev. l., Corinthian helmet; r., W; Nemea II, 235

228–146 b.c. Forepart of wolf r. / A in shallow incuse square; below, caps of Dioskouroi; in field above, TRU, below, PIÇ Cat. 1801

C 1804

L 19

m

21, dd

21, ee

AR

15

Apollo head l., laureate / Wolf at bay

Byzantine

rev. l., Corinthian helmet rev. r., W

BMC Pel. 145 no. 121 no plate

2.07

22,a

AE

modern

Hesperia 1981, 57 pl. 18:a, b BMC Pel. 146 nos. 125–126 pl. 28.3

Cat. 1802

C 899

K 14

k

14

3.02

Byzantine

Cat. 1803

C 1845

L 19

o

15

2.36

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1804

C 2260

L 14

p

16

2.75

Cat. 1805

C 2451

K 16,17

m

14

2.28

Byzantine (?)

Cat. 1806

C 2506

N 18

j

15

2.40

3c b.c.

Cat. 1807

C 2526

L 17



14

1.95

unknown

Cat. 1808

C 2954

P 15

i

15

2.88

6c a.d.

Cat. 1809

C 3146

L 13,14

i

19

2.03

unknown

Cat. 1810

C 3451

M 12

o

17

2.84

unknown

22,b

Hesperia 1981, 58 pl. 18:a, b

Roman

obv. very worn

Bellinger 1926 no. 4

Roman Period a.d. 138–161: Antoninus Pius

w w

[AUT ANT NEINOS EUSEBHS ]. Antoninus bust laureate, r. / [ARG ]EI [ N ]. Zeus enthroned, holding patera and scepter Cat. 1811

C 3042

I 18

AE

k

24

SNG Cop. Arg. no. 89 pl. 2

8.61

22,c

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 5; Nemea I, xvii, 240, 241 figs. 339, 340

158

catalogue of coins, part i

a.d. 161–180: Marcus Aurelius Legend illegible. M. Aurelius bust laureate, r. / [AR ]GE[I N ]. Leto standing; r. hand raised; l. on small figure (Chloris)

AE

w

Cat. 1812

C 3047

I 18

i

24

cf. SNG Cop. Arg. no. 99 pl. 2 (Septimius Severus); Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner, 37– 38 no. 16 pl. K, XXXVI-XXXVIII 8.04

22,d

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 30 (attributed to Corinth)

a.d. 161–169: Lucius Verus [OUHROÇ AUGOU ]Ç T [OÇ ]. L. Verus bust laureate, r. / [ARG ]EI[ N ]. Demeter holding poppies and ears of grain in each hand

AE

Mionnet 245 no. 64; cf. L. Verus, SNG Cop. Arg. no. 100 pl. 2 for obv.; Julia Domna, Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner, 38 no. 17 pl. K, XXXIX for rev.

w

Cat. 1813

C 3062

I 18

n

24

[OUHROÇ AUGOUÇ TOÇ ]. Verus bust, laureate / [AR]G [EI N ]. Poet seated l., holding scroll in hand C 3039

I 18

k

23

[. .OU ]HROÇ AU [. . .]. L. Verus bust laureate, r. / ARGEI N. Perseus facing r., holding head of Medusa in r. hand, harpa in l. C 3043

I 18

i

11.48

25

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 21 (attributed to Caracalla); Nemea I, xvii, 241, 242 figs. 343, 344 (attributed to Corinth?)

SNG Cop. Arg. no. 92 pl. 2

22, f

AE

w

Cat. 1815

22,e

AE

w

Cat. 1814

9.72

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 4; Nemea I, xvii, 240 figs. 339, 340; 241 n. 664 (attributed to Hadrian)

BMC Pel. 150 no. 161 pl. 28.19

8.48

22,g

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 6; Nemea I, xvii, 240, 241 figs. 339, 340

a.d. 193–211: Septimius Severus Legend illegible. Septimius Severus bust r., laureate / ARGEI N. Demeter holding poppies and ears of grain in each hand

AE

cf. Septimius Severus, SNG Cop. Arg. no. 101 pl. 2 for obv.; Julia Domna, Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 38 no. 17 pl. K, XXXIX for rev.

w

Cat. 1816

C 3052

I 18

i

23

[A]U KAIÇ ÇE L ÇE [. . .]. Septimius Severus bust laureate, r. / [AR]GE[I N ]. Perseus holding harpa in r. hand; l. over shield on cippus

6.44

22,h

7.00

22,i

AE

w

Cat. 1817

C 3061

I 18

n

25

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 11 (attributed to Caracalla); Nemea I, xvii, 243 figs. 345, 346 Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 35 no. 8 pl. I, XIX

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 17; Nemea I, xvii, 241, 242 figs. 343, 344

159

catalogue of coins, part i

KAIÇA ÇEUL ÇE[. . .]. Septimius Severus bust laureate, r. / AR[GEI N ]. Woman holding poppies in r. hand, ears of grain in l.

AE

Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 38 no. 17 pl. K, XXXIX

w

Cat. 1818

C 3046

I 18

i

25

8.13

22, j

unknown

Cat. 1819

C 3049

I 18

n

22

6.73

22,k

unknown

7.11

22,l

Legend uncertain. Septimius Severus bust laureate, r. / HRAIA in middle of crown Cat. 1820

C 3070

AE

J 18

i

24

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 7; Nemea I, xvii, 241 figs. 341, 342

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 8; Nemea I, xvii, 240, 241 figs. 339, 340 Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 41 no. 27; cf. Septimius Severus, SNG Cop. Arg. no. 99 pl. 2 for obv.; Julia Domna, Mionnet 251 no. 106 for rev. unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 26; Nemea I, xvii, 238 figs. 335, 336 (attributed to Heraia)

a.d. 198–217: Julia Domna [IOULIA AUGOUÇTA]. Domna bust, r. / ARGE [I ] [N ]. Perseus holding harpa and head of Medusa

AE

w

Cat. 1821

C 3050

I 18

o

25

IOULIA DOMNA [. . .]. Domna bust, r. / ARGEI N. Gate or arch with three openings; above, four statues

Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 35 and cf. pl. I, XVII, XVIII, BMC Pel. 151 no. 167 (Septimius Severus) for rev. type 6.31

22,m

AE

w

unknown

none

Cat. 1822

C 3040

I 18

m

25

7.09

22,n

unknown

Cat. 1823

C 3072

I 18

o

25

6.96

22,o

unknown

8.43

22,p

IOULIA DOMNA AUGOUÇTA. Domna bust, r. / ARGEI N. Apollo in chiton standing l.; in r. hand, patera; in l. hand, lyre

AE

w

Cat. 1824

C 162

J 18

p

24

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 10; Nemea I, xvii, 241 figs. 341, 342

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 32 (attributed to Corinth?) Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 35 no. 9; cf. pl. I, XXII–XXIV unknown

a.d. 202–205: Plautilla [FOULBIA PLA]UTILLA [ÇEB]. Plautilla bust, r. / ARGEI [N ]. Demeter holding poppies and ears of grain in each hand

AE

w

Cat. 1825

C 3053

I 18

o

22

Mionnet 253 no. 114; Imhoof-Blumer & Gardner 38 no. 17 pl. K, XXXIX 5.33

22,q

unknown

Nemea I, xvii, 243 figs. 345, 346

160

catalogue of coins, part i

a.d. 198–217: Caracalla

w

M AUR [ANT NIEIO]. Caracalla bust laureate, r. / [ARG ]A[I N ] (sic). Table supported on four columns; eagle r., jug center, agonistic crown l.; below, shield

w

Cat. 1826

C 3154

J 18

i

AE

25

Mionnet 252 no. 109

7.92

22,r

unknown

Epidauros 370–323 b.c. Apollo head r., laureate; hair short / E in laurel wreath Cat. 1827

C 117

N 17

AR: obol p

10

Asklepios head, laureate / E in laurel wreath

BMC Pel. 156 nos. 3–5 pl. 29.12 0.83

23,a

AE

Byzantine BMC Pel. 157 nos. 16–18 pl. 29.17

obv. head r. Cat. 1828

C 277

M 17

m

19

2.22

Cat. 1829

C 614

DD 29

k

12

1.84

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1830

C 1339

K 20

m

13

1.72

modern

Cat. 1831

C 2798

E 19

k

12

1.54

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1832

C 2723

E 19



13

1.48

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1833

C 2754

E 19

j

11

1.96

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1834

C 3890

M 19

p

13

1.77

early 3c b.c.

rev. below, symbol obscure

23,b

Nemea II, 235

obv. head l.

rev.: below, G; Hesperia 1988, 15 n. 58

Hermione Ca. 360–325 b.c. 315 Demeter head l., crowned with grain / ER and torch in wreath of grain

AE

Grandjean; BMC Pel. 160–161 nos. 7–13 pl. 30.4

Cat. 1835

C 497

M 16

i

12

2.08

Cat. 1836

C 710

O 17

l

15

2.37

2/2 2c b.c. 23,c

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Grandjean 33: group 1, émission 1; Hesperia 1977, 17 n. 35 pl. 10:a

315 Grandjean 49–50 dates all 4th-century bronze within these limits. Some closer dating may come with the publication of the coins from excavations carried out at Halieis in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The citadel was destroyed in ca. 290–280 b.c. (per letter from J. Dengate to J. Warren, 12.3.81 [Warren 1985, 59]); as the place was garrisoned by the army of Demetrios Poliorketes at the time, the coins found could be particularly interesting.

161

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1837

C 1051

O 18

o

13

2.25

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1838

C 1495

F 18

n

12

1.78

1/3 4c a.d. (coins)

Cat. 1839

C 1743

F 19

o

10

1.16

2/2 4c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1840

C 1769

F 19

i

11

1.31

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1841

C 1788

F 19

i

13

1.77

3/4 4c b.c.

Grandjean 35: group 1, émission 2; Hesperia 1981, 62 n. 42 pl. 22:a, b

Cat. 1842

C 1853

M 18

o

14

2.00

4c–3c b.c.

Grandjean 33: group 1, émission 1

Cat. 1843

C 1992

L 20

l

15

2.02

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 1844

C 2684

P 14

i

13

2.40

6c a.d.

Cat. 1845

C 2747

E 19



11

1.04

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 1846

C 2826

E 19

k

12

1.32

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1847

C 2851

E 19

m

12

1.37

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1848

C 2901

E 19

i

11

2.09

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1849

C 3153

J 18

k

12

1.66

unknown

Cat. 1850

C 3631

K 19

k

13

1.63

Early Christian

Cat. 1851

C 3856

K 19

o

14

2.97

4/4 3c b.c.– 2c b.c.

Cat. 1852

C 3873

L 19

n

13

1.02

late 5c–4c b.c. (coins)

Cat. 1853

C 3913

N 19

k

13

1.75

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1854

C 3974

M 19

i

11

1.86

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1855

C 3982

M 19

i

12

1.75

4c b.c.

Cat. 1856

C 4085

Z 28

l

15

2.31

23,d

none

Nemea I, 172 n. 501

Grandjean 42: group 2, émission 11;coin cited Grandjean 47

Grandjean 46: group 4, émission 15; coin cited Grandjean 49 Grandjean 35: group 1, émission 2; coin cited Grandjean 35

Hesperia 1988, 13 n. 52 pl. 19:a, b (attributed to Corinth)

Nemea II, 235

Kleonai Ca. 320 b.c. 316 Herakles head r., in lion’s skin / KLEW within wild celery wreath Cat. 1857 316 BMC

C 41

N 12

AE p

14

BMC Pel. 154 nos. 9–10 pl. 29.6 1.58

23,e

modern

p. liv dates these to ca. 235 b.c., but the archaeology of the Nemean site does not support this date. Rather, they belong to the period of Kleonai’s supervision of the revived Games in the late 4th century b.c. See above, pp. 58–60.

162

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1858

C 47

N 12

i

13

2.19

Cat. 1859

C 180

F 12



13

1.42

Cat. 1860

C 338

N 17

m

14

2.35

Cat. 1861

C 612

DD 29

o

15

Cat. 1862

C 657

DD 29

i

Cat. 1863

C 663

DD 29

Cat. 1864

C 674

Cat. 1865

23, f

4c a.d. 4c b.c. 2/2 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1976, 192 pl. 38:c

1.64

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

15

1.84

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

j

15

2.01

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

DD 29

k

14

2.30

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

C 1143

EE 28

i

14

1.93

3c–4c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

Cat. 1866

C 1188

L 20



13

2.16

Early Christian

Cat. 1867

C 1279

DD 29

l

14

2.15

modern

Cat. 1868

C 1344

L 20

o

13

2.06

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1869

C 1889

K 11

k

14

1.48

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1870

C 2056

P 12

l

12

1.51

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1871

C 2273

F 16

l

15

2.06

23,i

Middle Byzantine

Cat. 1872

C 2781

E 19

n

14

1.90

23, j

3/3 3c b.c.

Cat. 1873

C 2790

E 19



12

1.34

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1874

C 2793

E 19



13

1.65

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 1875

C 2811

E 19

m

13

2.11

4c–3c b.c.

Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

Cat. 1876

C 2817

E 19

m

14

2.28

4c–3c b.c.

Hesperia 1984,176

Cat. 1877

C 2842

E 19

j

14

2.27

4c b.c.

Cat. 1878

C 2949

P 15

p

15

2.42

6c a.d.

Cat. 1879

C 3024

L 19



15

2.01

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1880

C 3192

I 18



15

1.96

unknown

Cat. 1881

C 3318

L 19

k

15

2.62

unknown

Cat. 1882

C 3383

K 18

p

15

2.19

Cat. 1883

C 3384

K 18



15

1.30

Cat. 1884

C 3668

L 19

p

14

1.94

Cat. 1885

C 3732

K 19

o

14

2.45

Cat. 1886

C 3855

K 19

j

14

2.51

Cat. 1887

C 3981

M 19

o

14

2.82

23,g

23,h

23,k

Nemea II, 235

unknown unknown

23,l

4c–3c b.c. late 3c– early 2c b.c.

23,m

4/4 3c–2c b.c. early 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 10:a, b

163

catalogue of coins, part i

Tiryns 370–300 b.c. Apollo head l. laureate, hair long / TI. Palm tree; l., lyre; r., cluster of grapes Cat. 1888

C 3990

M 19

AE i

16

Apollo head r. laureate, hair rolled / TI [. . .]. Palm tree Cat. 1889

C 1710

F 19

BMC Pel. 164 no. 2 pl. 30.15 2.81

23,n

AE o

10

2/2 4c b.c. BMC Pel. 164 nos. 3–4 pl. 30.16

1.43

23,o late 4c–early 3c b.c.

Troizen Ca. 370–300 b.c. Apollo head l. / Trident

SNG Cop. Arg. no. 159 pl. 3317

AE

Cat. 1890

C 921

CC 29

m

12

1.54

Byzantine

Cat. 1891

C 1474

H 14

j

11

1.54

3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 1892

C 1551

F 19

o

12

1.81

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 1893

C 1625

G 19

n

12

0.97

Cat. 1894 C 1934 Q 19 Athena head l., bound with tainia / TRO. Trident; l., dolphin

l

11

1.41

Cat. 1895

C 1268

M 15

j

14

1.48

Cat. 1896

C 1433

H 14

k

12

1.85

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 1897

C 1736

F 19

l

12

1.69

early 3c b.c. (?)

Cat. 1898

C 1784

F 19

i

11

1.95

1/4 3c b.c.

Cat. 1899

C 1955

K 20

p

13

1.98

2c b.c.

Cat. 1900

C 1977

Q 20

i

13

2.07

late 1c a.d.

Cat. 1901

C 2428

O 18

i

12

1.45

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1902

C 2872

E 19

m

13

1.58

4c b.c.

Cat. 1903

C 2879

E 19

p

12

1.97

4c b.c.

Cat. 1904

C 3646

L 19

p

12

2.03

Early Christian

Cat. 1905

C 3929

N 19

o

12

1.64

late 4c b.c.

23,p

early 3c b.c. BMC Pel. 166 nos. 12–14 pl. 30.24

AE

300–240 b.c. Athena head r., in crested Corinthian helmet / [TRO]. Trident

modern

23,q

AE

none

C 583

DD 30

m

13

2.07

Cat. 1907

C 1921

K 20

m

12

1.76

Early Christian

Cat. 1908

C 1958

K 20

j

11

2.07

4c–3c b.c.

date given, 470–400 b.c., is too early.

rev. dolphin l.

BMC Pel. 166 no. 16 pl. 31.1

Cat. 1906

317 The

obv. ivy leaf (?) behind head; Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

23,r

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

164

Cat. 1909

catalogue of coins, part i

C 3883

M 19

j

12

1.82

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1988, 15 n. 58 pl. 23:a, b (attributed to Corinth)

ARKADIA Arkadia 480–417 b.c. Zeus Aphesios seated on throne, eagle flying from or to his hand / AR. Artemis head l., bound with net, in incuse square318 Cat. 1910

C 3251

K 17

AR: obol

i

10

Williams 1965, 68–69 nos. 23–28 pls. 1–2; BMC Pel. 170 no. 12 pl. 31.14 (sim.)

0.89

Zeus Aphesios seated on throne l., holding scepter; eagle flying from or to his hand / A R KAD Ii o N.320 Head of Artemis r., bound with fillet or in net; all in incuse square

AR: triobol

Cat. 1911

15

C 214

M 11

l

363–ca. 280 b.c. Pan head l., with goat’s horns; pedum (throwing stick) r. / n monogram; l., I; below, syrinx321 Cat. 1912

C 1555

F 19

2.77

23,s

13

Pan head r., with goat’s horns / n monogram; below, syrinx 322

Kleitor mint 319

BMC Pel. 172 no. 31 pl. 32.2 (sim.)

23,t

AR

o

unknown

modern

Hesperia 1976, 178 pl. 31:b

BMC Pel. 174 no. 58 pl. 32.12 (sim.)

0.91

23,u

AE

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 194 BMC Pel. 175 no. 67 pl. 32.14, 15

Cat. 1913

C 206

M 11

i

13

1.58

modern

Cat. 1914

C 339

N 17

o

18

3.50

2/2 3c b.c.

Hesperia 1976, 192 pl. 38:c

Cat. 1915

C 528

M 16

j

18

6.04

2/2 2c b.c.

rev. symbol below, pedum

Cat. 1916

C 709

O 17

j

16

3.69

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1917

C 1240

K 17

m

15

3.01

modern

Cat. 1918

C 1355

L 20

k

15

3.66

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1919

C 1398

G 18

i

15

3.06

Early Christian

Cat. 1920

C 1421

N 16

n

16

2.94

modern

Cat. 1921

C 1435

H 14

k

17

5.01

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 1922

C 1825

L 18

o

12

4.16

2/2 3c b.c.

318 490–ca. 477

23,v

obv. head l.

Hesperia 1981, 59; Nemea I, xvi, 183 figs. 253, 254

b.c. per Williams 1965. 1965, 12. 320 Legend from BMC entry. 321 Picard 1984, 295–296, thinks that this chronology for the Pan head/monogram coins is too early and that the issue continued later into the 3rd century. 322 See n. 321 above. 319 Williams

165

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 1923

C 2914

P 14

i

12

1.53

5c b.c.

Cat. 1924

C 3663

L 19

i

16

2.06

mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 1925

C 3849

M 19

k

16

2.86

Early Christian (?)

Cat. 1926

C 3991

M 19

i

15

3.62

1/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1927

C 3992

M 19

j

14

1.77

2/2 4c b.c.

Pan head l., with goat’s horns / n; monogram; below, syrinx 323

AE

Hesperia 1988, 8 n. 21 pl. 10:a, b

fragment

BMC Pel. 175 nos. 70–72 pl. 32.16

Cat. 1928

C 176

F 12

k

14

2.54

4c b.c.

Hesperia 1975, 154 pl. 36:e

Cat. 1929

C 1579

F 17

j

16

3.20

14c a.d.

Hesperia 1981, 60–61

Cat. 1930

C 1826

L 18

i

16

4.36

2/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 1931

C 1985

Q 20

m

14

2.94

Early Roman

Hesperia 1982, 33 n. 41 pl. 15:b, c

Cat. 1932

C 2002

K 20

n

16

3.27

late 3c b.c.

rev. l., QE; Hesperia 1982, 26 n. 22 pl. 11:c, d

Cat. 1933

C 2675

P 14

p

14

3.23

6c a.d.

rev. l., QE

Cat. 1934

C 2994

P 16

k

15

3.59

6c a.d.

rev. l., QE

Cat. 1935

C 2995

P 16

n

14

2.76

6c a.d.

Cat. 1936

C 3894

M 19

k

15

4.05

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1937

C 3969

M 19

o

15

3.32

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

280–234 b.c. Zeus head l., laureate / n; [above l., G ; r., M ]; below, syrinx; below that, thunderbolt Cat. 1938

C 1776

F 19

24,a

AE

m

18

rev. l., QE; Hesperia 1981, 59 pl. 18:a, b; Nemea I, xvi, 183 figs. 253, 254

Hesperia 1988, 15 n. 58 pl. 23:a, b

BMC Pel. 176 no. 88 pl. 32.21

4.16

24,b

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Roman Period a.d. 117–138: Hadrian BETOU RIOS. Antinoös bust l. / TOIS ARKASI. Horse r., trotting Cat. 1939

323 See

C 45

n. 321 above.

N 12

AE m

25

BMC Pel. 177 no. 89 pl. 33.1 13.01

24,c

Byzantine

166

catalogue of coins, part i

Heraia 4th century b.c. Athena head r., in crested Athenian helmet / S

AE

Imhoof-Blumer 193 no. 222

Cat. 1940

C 1275

CC 27

i

11

1.26

Cat. 1941

C 1957

K 20

i

11

2.08

Athena head r., in crested Corinthian helmet / H. Artemis kneeling r., holding bow 324 Cat. 1942

C 2014

L 20

k

24,d

AE 15

3c–4c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

late 3c b.c.

rev. lower r., uncertain symbol; star?

SNG Cop. Arg. nos. 237–238 pl. 5 4.51

24,e

3/3 3c b.c.

Kleitor 370–240 b.c. Athena head r., in helmet / [KLH ]. Horse with loose reins prancing r.

AE

BMC Pel. 180 no. 11 pl. 33.14

Cat. 1943 C 2680 P 14 Helios head, facing, with rays around / F monogram

j

Cat. 1944

C 1770

F 19

n

12

1.77

late 4c–early 3c b.c.

Cat. 1945

C 2849

E 19

p

12

1.59

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 1946 C 2889 E 19 Helios head, facing, with rays around / F monogram

o

11

1.41

24,g

4c b.c. BMC Pel. 180 no. 14

Cat. 1947

i

1.38

24,h

4c–3c b.c.

C 2814

E 19

14

2.19

24, f

AE

AE 12

6c a.d. BMC Pel. 180 no. 12 pl. 33.15

Hesperia 1984, 176 pl. 34:d, e

Mantinea 370–240 b.c. Athena head in Corinthian helmet without crest r. / MAN. Poseidon seated on rock l., holding dolphin and trident

AE

BMC Pel. 186 no. 19 pl. 35.4

Cat. 1948 C 669 O 17 Athena head r., in helmet without crest / MAN (sometimes obscure). Trident 325

o

Cat. 1949

m

12

3.04

Cat. 1950 C 2350 unknown i Athena head r., in crested helmet / MAN. Poseidon advancing l., holding trident

15

2.75

24, j

Cat. 1951

C 1925

K 20

k

18

3.17

24,k

Early Christian

Cat. 1952

C 3295

K 18

i

17

3.27

24,l

unknown

324 Ca. 418–322 325 Picard

C 1654

K 12

15

2.77

24,i

AE

mid-2c b.c. BMC Pel. 186 nos. 20–23 pl. 35.5 modern

AE

unknown BMC Pel. 186 no. 24 pl. 35.6

b.c. per SNG Cop., which is far too early for a starting date. 1984, 296, gives “third century” while Agora XXVI gives “after 370 b.c.,” both without argument.

167

catalogue of coins, part i

Athena head r., in crested helmet / Odysseus standing r., in conical cap, holding a branch to the ground and carrying a spear Cat. 1953

C 4061326

CC 27

AE

p

17

Babelon, cols. 647–648 nos. 969, 970 (same coin) pl. 227.6, 7; Pozzi (proof ), 235 no. 4341 pl. 191 6.05

24,m

Early Christian

Nemea II, 235

Pheneos 431–370 b.c. Ram’s forepart r. / FE. Caduceus Cat. 1954

C 3634

AE K 19

o

13

Hermes head r., wearing petasos / FE. Ram r.

BMC Pel. 193 no. 6 pl. 36.4 1.97

25,a

AE

Early Christian BMC Pel. 193 no. 7 pl. 36.5

Cat. 1955

C 1213

K 14

m

13

2.27

Cat. 1956

C 1321

K 17

o

14

2.15

3/4 4c b.c.

Cat. 1957

C 1726

F 19

j

14

1.85

3c b.c.

Cat. 1958

C 3071

L 16

k

18

2.10

unknown

Cat. 1959

C 3367

K 14,15

k

13

1.50

unknown

370–300 b.c. Demeter head l., wearing corn wreath and earring / FE. Caduceus

25,b

AE

2/2 5c b.c. Hesperia 1979, 87 pl. 29: c (attributed to Philip II); Nemea I, xv, 177 figs. 215, 216 (mislabelled as C 1821) Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 27

BMC Pel. 195 nos. 17–19 pl. 36.10

Cat. 1960

C 2623

K 16,17

i

14

1.95

Cat. 1961

C 2986

P 16

p

16

4.09

unknown 25,c

6c a.d.

Stymphalos 370–300 b.c. Artemis head r., hair in korymbos / S T [UMFA]. Strung bow above, quiver below Cat. 1962

C 3832

M 19

k

AE 17

BMC Pel. 199 no. 7 pl. 37.5 4.70

25,d

Byzantine

Tegea 4th–3rd century b.c. Gorgoneion, facing / [TE ]. Owl facing r.327 Cat. 1963

326 I

C 1738

AE F 19

i

10

Weber 502 no. 4342 pl. 158 (from BM collection); SNG Cop. Arg. no. 292 pl. 6 0.95

25,e

early 3c b.c. (?)

am grateful to Basil Demetriades for identifying this coin and providing bibliographic references for it. gives 420–370 b.c., which is too early; Agora XXVI, 247 dates—surely correctly—a similar coin to the 4th–3rd centuries.

327 SNG

168

catalogue of coins, part i

Athena head, three-quarter face l., wearing close-fitting helmet / [TEGEA] above. Telephos r., suckled by doe Cat. 1964

C 3741

L 19

AE

j

17

Eileithyia? head l. / [TEGEA] or [TEGEATAN ] above. Athena standing r., armed, placing the (?)hair or head of Medusa in a vase held up by Sterope Cat. 1965

C 3392

K 18

C 3294

L 18

2.96

25, f

AE

k

18

Ca. 50–25 b.c. ?328 Athena head r., in crested Corinthian helmet / [TE ]GEA above. Telephos suckled by doe Cat. 1966

BMC Pel. 202 no. 14 pl. 37.16

j

BMC Pel. 203 nos. 22–24 pl. 37.20

2.89

25,g

AE 17

Ca. 50–25 b.c. Aleus head r.; ALEOS / TEGEATAN above. Athena and Kepheus, both armed, standing facing; she hands to Kepheus the head of Medusa; Sterope stands r. between them, holding a vase to receive it; below legend and above scene, T; below scene, U

4c–3c b.c.

unknown

rev. above, [T]; below, [U]

Warren 1993, 95 n. 102; Warren 1997, 112; SNG Cop. Arg. nos. 303–305 pl. 6 2.30

25,h

AE

unknown

BMC Pel. 202 nos. 20, 21 pl. 37.19

Cat. 1967

C 510

M 14

o

22

5.19

Cat. 1968

C 1135

M 17

o

20

Cat. 1969

C 3140

I 18

i

22

Byzantine

obv. ALE[OS ]; rev. [TEGE ] ATA[N ], [T]

5.34

3c–4c a.d.

obv. [AL]E[OS ]

4.65

unknown

25,i

CRETE Polyrrhenion Ca. 330–280 b.c. Demeter head l., wearing stephanos / Bull head facing, horns decorated with fillets, within a wreath

AE

Svoronos 1890, 277 pl. 25.31 (identifies head as Hera); BM has example; cf. BMC Crete –Aegean Is. 66–67

Cat. 1970

C 574

DD 30

k

14

2.58

Cat. 1971

C 581

DD 30

i

13

2.69

Cat. 1972

C 756

DD 30

k

14

Cat. 1973

C 1101

BB 28

j

13

328 Warren

1993, 1997; 370 b.c. per SNG Cop.; 146 b.c. per BMC.

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

Byzantine

Nemea II, 235

2.08

unknown

Nemea II, 235

2.67

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 235

25, j

169

catalogue of coins, part i

Rhaukos Ca. 300–166 b.c. ? Dolphin r.; monogram m below 329 / Trident Cat. 1974

C 253

N 16

AE o

14

BMC Crete –Aegean Is. 77 no. 11 pl. 19.6; cf. Svoronos 1890, 308 pl. 29.32 2.20

25,k

Byzantine

rev. struck on too large a flan; an overstrike? Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 19 pl. 33:c (attributed to Corinth)

AEGEAN ISLANDS 330 Melos 4th–3rd century b.c. Pomegranate / Helmet Cat. 1975

C 489

AE M 14

m

11

BMC Crete–Aegean Is. 103–104 nos. 7–8 pl. 23.22 1.76

25,l

Byzantine

Mykonos 3rd–2nd century b.c. Dionysos head, three-quarter face r., wreathed in ivy / M [U]K [O]. Ear of grain with cluster of grapes Cat. 1976

C 230

N 16

m

AE 18

BMC Crete–Aegean Is. 108 no. 3 pl. 25.2 4.72

25,m

modern

Naxos 3rd–2nd century b.c. Dionysos head r., bearded / [NA]. Kantharos; above, cluster of grapes Cat. 1977

C 1436

H 14

AE i

11

BMC Crete–Aegean Is. 111 no. 8 pl. 25.11 (with head l.) 1.42

26,a

3c a.d.

Paros 4th century b.c. Goat r. / [PA ]. Ear of grain Cat. 1978

329 Or

C 1814

AE L 18

i

10

BMC Crete–Aegean Is. 113 no. 6 pl. 26.4 1.21

26,b

modern

perhaps a trident? will soon publish a treatment of these coins: Die Münzen der Kykladen (Munich: Ed. Nomismata, forthcoming).

330 K. Liampi

170

catalogue of coins, part i

Pholegandros 4th–3rd century b.c. Youthful head r. / FO[LE ] above. Bull butting r. Cat. 1979

C 1047331

AE O 18

i

14

BMC Crete–Aegean Is. 118 nos. 1–2 pl. 27.1 2.69

26,c

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

Nemea I, 172 n. 501

PONTOS Amisos 120–63 b.c. 332 Aegis with Gorgoneion in center / AMISOU. Nike advancing r., carrying palm branch; lower l., X

AE

BMC Pontus 20 no. 74 pl. 4.2

Cat. 1980

C 527

M 16

i

21

5.71

26,d

2/2 2c b.c.

rev. AMI[SOU ]

Cat. 1981

C 542

M 16

i

22

7.38

26,e

late 4c– early 3c b.c. (coins)

rev. A[MISOU ]

TROAS Gargara 4th century b.c. Apollo laureate r. / GAR. Horse galloping l. Cat. 1982

C 504

AE N 15

p

15

SNG Cop. Troas no. 332 pl. 7 2.68

26, f

late 3c b.c.

IONIA Erythrai Ca. 315–300 b.c. Young Herakles head in lion’s skin r. Countermark, star / [. . .]. Bow in quiver above; below, club Cat. 1983

C 694

L 14

AE

o

14

Ca. 306–304 b.c. Unbearded male head r.333 / PUQHS. Bow above; below, club; below club, race torch Cat. 1984

C 2291

331 Identification

F 16

j

BMC Ionia 126 nos. 84–87 (sim.); pl. 15.13; Kinns 445–447 3.54

26,g

AE 14

late 4c– early 5c a.d.

countermarks began after issue ceased ca. 300 b.c.

Prokesch-Osten 286; Kinns 447 3.67

26,h

4c b.c.

kindly provided by Basil Demetriades. BMC gives “Second and First centuries b.c.,” but its appearance at Nemea makes a date in the 4th to 3rd century much more likely. 332 Issued under Mithridates VI Eupator. 333 Portrait of Demetrios Poliorketes per Kinns 447.

171

catalogue of coins, part i

Naulochos Ca. 350 b.c. Athena head r., in crested Athenian helmet / [N ]A[U ]. Dolphin r., in circle Cat. 1985

C 1842

L 18

AE i

12

BMC Ionia 202 no. 1 pl. 22.14 1.42

26,i

2/2 3c b.c.

Teos Ca. 300–1st century

b.c.334

Griffin with forepaw raised, r. / [THI ]. Kantharos; [magistrate’s name] Cat. 1986

C 2795

AE

E 19



13

SNG Cop. Ionia nos. 1445–1446 pl. 33

1.69

26, j

4c–3c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

rev. very worn; could be a lyre

Samos Ca. 322–205 b.c. Hera head r., wearing stephanos / [MIKWN ] below. Lion’s scalp Cat. 1987

C 169

F 12

AE m

14

BMC Ionia 365 no. 166 pl. 36.2 2.15

26,k

Byzantine

KARIA Kos 300–190 b.c. ? Herakles head l., in lion’s skin / [KWION ]. Crab and club; below, [magistrate’s name]

AE

BMC Caria and Is. 202 nos. 86–98 pl. 31.11

Cat. 1988

C 1164

L 20

n

11

1.58

26,l

2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 1989

C 1760

F 19

m

11

1.65

26,m

early 3c b.c.

Rhodes Ca. 330’s–late 3rd century b.c. 335 Rhodos head r., wearing stephanos / [RO]. Rose [symbol illegible] Cat. 1990

334 The

C 3915

N 19

AE i

11

BMC Caria and Is. 238–240 nos. 74–117 pl. 37.10–14 1.44

26,n

archaeological context favors a 3rd-century-b.c. date. XXVI, 275, where Kroll cites a personal communication from R. Ashton.

335 Agora

1/2 3c b.c.

172

catalogue of coins, part i

CYPRUS Salamis Ca. 361–351 b.c. 336 Athena head in crested helmet, l. / Bull forepart l. Cat. 1991

C 1449

J 16

AE i

12

Ca. 323–315 b.c. Macedonian shield; in center, Gorgoneion / BA. Macedonian helmet

SNG Cop. Cyprus no. 59 pl. 2; cf. BMC Cyprus 61 no. 75 pl. 12.10 2.22

27,a

AE

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Liampi 1986; Price 1991, 390– 395 nos. 3158–3162 pl. 150; SNG Cop. Mac. nos. 1122–1129 pl. 29

Cat. 1992

C 439

M 14

j

16

3.57

Cat. 1993

C 1901

K 11

i

15

3.79

Cat. 1994

C 2050

P 12

i

15

Cat. 1995

C 2947

P 15

i

16

Byzantine

rev. symbol l., caduceus; Price nos. 3158–3159; pl. 150

late 4c– early 3c b.c.

rev. symbol l., caduceus; monogram r., Y; Price no. 3162a; pl. 150

2.69

5c–6c a.d.

rev. symbols and monogram illegible

3.87

6c a.d.

27,b

rev. symbol l., caduceus; monogram r., a; Price no. 3060 pl. 150

EGYPT Ptolemy I Cyprus mint 311–305 b.c. Head of Aphrodite r., wearing stephanos / PTOLEM AIOU. Eagle l. on thunderbolt, wings closed; l., wreath; in ex., wreath

AE

Svoronos 1904–1908, 13–14 nos. 21–24 pl. 6; BMC Ptol. 7 nos. 56–58 pl. 1.9

Cat. 1996

C 1538

F 18

k

18

8.54

Cat. 1997

C 1692

G 18

j

14

6.76

336 During

the rule of Evagoras II per SNG Cop.

27,c

1/3 4c a.d. (coins) early 3c b.c.

rev., inscription illegible

173

catalogue of coins, part i

Ptolemy III 228–221 b.c. 337 Ptolemy III bust r., laureate, wearing aegis / PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS. Eagle l. on thunderbolt; to r., cornucopia

Varoucha 1944, 171; 338 Hackens 82– 90;339 BMC Ptol. 56 nos. 100–101 pl. 12.2; Price 1967, 362–363; cf. Price 1988, 70

AE

Cat. 1998

C 404

O 16

i

20

5.30

Cat. 1999

C 445

O 16

i

20

5.10

27,d

Middle Roman

Cat. 2000

C 715

O 17

i

20

5.59

27,e

2/2 4c–1c b.c.

Cat. 2001

C 900

K 14

i

20

5.57

27, f

Byzantine

Cat. 2002

C 1287

K 14

i

19

4.49

3/4 3c b.c. (coins)

Hesperia 1979, 80 pl. 23:b

Cat. 2003

C 1314

K 14

p

19

4.94

3/4 3c b.c. (coins)

Hesperia 1979, 80 pl. 23:b

Cat. 2004

C 1557

J 14



18

3.74

unknown

Cat. 2005

C 1881

O 19

i

19

4.95

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 2006

C 2492

O 18

i

19

4.86

unknown

Cat. 2007

C 2925

P 15

i

19

5.18

6c a.d.

Cat. 2008

C 3227

L,M 14

i

19

4.98

unknown

Cat. 2009

C 3243

M 13

i

20

4.74

unknown

Cat. 2010

C 3256

L 12

i

20

5.35

unknown

Cat. 2011

C 3407

L 18

i

19

4.99

unknown

Cat. 2012

C 3920

N 19

i

20

5.55

2c b.c.

modern

Hesperia 1982, 29 and n. 30, pl. 13:b

Hesperia 1988, 17 pl. 23:c, d

Ptolemy X and Cleopatra III 117–111 b.c. ? Zeus Ammon head r. / [BASILEWS PTOLEMAIOU ]. Isis headdress; [SW ] beneath Cat. 2013

C 1564

J 13

AE

i

14

BMC Ptol. 107 no. 49 pl. 26.11

2.91

27,g

5c–6c a.d.

UNATTRIBUTED COINS Uncertain Greek 4th–1st century b.c. Effaced / Effaced; countermark b Cat. 2014

337 Per

C 779

AE

N 14



15

example in Cameron Collection of British Museum which comes mainly from Crete and the Peloponnese 2.59

28,a

modern

countermark on very worn coin

Martin Price in conversation; see also Price 1988, 70. 1944, 171 n. 1: these represent the money given to Aratos, coined in bronze (Plutarch, Aratos 41). 339 Hackens 85 dates these to ca. 225 b.c. and sees them as money given to the Spartans by Ptolemy in 227–223 b.c. (Polybius 2.51). 338 Varoucha

174

Cat. 2015

catalogue of coins, part i

C 3037

M 17



15

N formed by points / Blank Cat. 2016

C 3585

C 848

28,b

unknown

3.76

28,c

Early Christian

3.08

28,d

mid-2c b.c.

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 2 (attributed to Argos)

AE K 19



16

Macedonian (?) coin countermarked n Cat. 2017

2.16

N 14

lathed blank; Byzantine weight?

AE —

17

Illegible Greek: AE 4th–1st century b.c. Cat. 2018 C 123

N 17



18

9.31

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2019

C 141

M6

o

13

1.95

13c a.d.

Cat. 2020

C 502

N 15

j

16

3.06

Byzantine

Cat. 2021

C 613

DD 29



12

1.13

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2022

C 620

M 15



15

4.25

Byzantine

Cat. 2023

C 643

L 14



15

2.32

1c a.d. (at earliest)

Cat. 2024

C 849

N 14



11

3.34

mid-2c b.c.

Cat. 2025

C 856

N 14



16

4.76

1c a.d.

Cat. 2026

C 890

L 15



11

1.58

Byzantine

Cat. 2027

C 950

O 16



13

2.47

mid-2c b.c.

Cat. 2028

C 964

K 16



12

1.32

4c a.d.

male head/ half bull r.?

Cat. 2029

C 1036

O 15



15

2.09

modern

obv. male head?

Cat. 2030

C 1045

O 18



13

1.96

Middle Roman

Cat. 2031

C 1077

CC 28



13

1.42

4c a.d.

Cat. 2032

C 1087

M 17



10

0.95

Byzantine

Cat. 2033

C 1311

K 14



18

5.02

mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 2034

C 1345

L 20

p

11

1.04

3c b.c.

Cat. 2035

C 1357

L 20



18

6.34

late 5c b.c.

Cat. 2036

C 1358

L 20



16

4.39

3/4 5c b.c.

Cat. 2037

C 1361

L 20



11

2.05

3/4 5c b.c.

Cat. 2038

C 1831

L 18



13

1.95

late 2c b.c.

Cat. 2039

C 1906

K 20



15

2.92

Byzantine

Cat. 2040

C 1912

K 20



14

2.07

Byzantine

Cat. 2041

C 1917

K 20



11

1.74

Early Christian

Cat. 2042

C 1924

K 20



15

2.97

Early Christian

head/standing figure obv. sphinx?

obv. female head r. rev. wreath Euboia?

obv. Athena head r.? obv. Athena in helmet r.; rev. standing figs. r.; perhaps legend S or E [. . .] perhaps Macedonian king or Ptolemy

175

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 2043

C 1960

K 20



12

2.21

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 2044

C 1961

K 20



12

2.45

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 2045

C 1964

Q 19



18

3.73

4c b.c.

Cat. 2046

C 2019

L 20



12

1.78

3/3 3c b.c.

dove r. / ear of wheat? dove feeding? Hesperia 1982, 27 n. 26 pl.11:c, d (attributed to Elis[? ])

Cat. 2047

C 2268

L 14



14

2.51

5c–6c a.d.

obv. head r.

Cat. 2048

C 2303

G 14



14

3.89

modern

Cat. 2049

C 2476

K 16



15

1.84

unknown

Cat. 2050

C 2576

M 18



11

1.14

unknown

obv. head r.

Cat. 2051

C 2630

N 18



18

1.75

unknown

obv. Athena r.?

Cat. 2052

C 2672

J 18



14

4.60

1/4 5c b.c.

Cat. 2053

C 2673

P 14



10

1.43

6c a.d.

Cat. 2054

C 2683

P 14



15

2.33

6c a.d.

Cat. 2055

C 2719

E 19



14

2.49

4c b.c. (possible Roman fragment)

Cat. 2056

C 2776

E 19

o

13

1.64

3/3 3c b.c.

bearded head r. / rider r.

Cat. 2057

C 2861

E 19

i

11

1.12

4c–3c b.c.

head l. / rudder? helmet?

Cat. 2058

C 2970

P 15



15

2.37

6c a.d.

obv. Hera head r., Argos?

Cat. 2059

C 3018

L 19



15

2.54

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 2060

C 3021

L 19



18

4.05

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2061

C 3029

L 19



14

2.03

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 2062

C 3030

L 19



13

2.34

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 2063

C 3035

L 19



14

3.08

late 4c b.c.

Cat. 2064

C 3172

I 18



15

1.79

unknown

Cat. 2065

C 3226

K 13



13

2.05

unknown

Cat. 2066

C 3517 bis

unknown

j

17

1.89

Cat. 2067

C 3525

M 13

j

13

1.50

modern

Cat. 2068

C 3535

K 18



14

3.19

unknown

Cat. 2069

C 3573

K 19



18

3.42

modern

Cat. 2070

C 3610

K 19



13

0.58

modern

Cat. 2071

C 3657

L 19



14

1.90

modern

28,e

unknown

head r. / head r.? Thessaly?

rev. bull head facing head l.? / quadruped r.?

Athena in crested helmet r. / eagle standing on ?wreath l. ; inscription around: ?. . . O . . . over r. wing? head r. / cluster of grapes obv. Athena in Corinthian helmet rev. wreath; fragment only

176

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 2072

C 3662

L 19



13

1.54

mid-3c b.c.

Cat. 2073

C 3678

K 19



12

1.71

5c a.d.

Cat. 2074

C 3681

K 19



15

1.71

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2075

C 3683

K 19



12

1.61

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2076

C 3689

L 19



14

1.96

4c–3c b.c.

Cat. 2077

C 3694

K 19



17

3.57

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 2078

C 3696

K 19



16

2.03

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 2079

C 3699

K 19



13

1.81

2/2 2c b.c.

Cat. 2080

C 3737

K 19



12

1.94

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 2081

C 3764

L 19



11

2.13

2c b.c.

Cat. 2082

C 3767

L 19



12

1.99

2c b.c.

Cat. 2083

C 3790

K 19



13

1.73

4/4 3c–2c b.c.

Cat. 2084

C 3792

K 19



13

1.72

2/2 1c b.c.

Cat. 2085

C 3801

K 19



13

1.64

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 2086

C 3837

M 19



12

1.79

Byzantine

Cat. 2087

C 3843

M 19



14

2.42

Early Christian (?)

Cat. 2088

C 3852

M 19



16

2.77

Early Christian (?)

Cat. 2089

C 3860

K 19



13

1.45

late 2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 2090

C 3864

N 19



13

1.58

modern

obv. head r.

Cat. 2091

C 3884

M 19



10

1.12

2/2 4c– 1/2 3c b.c.

obv. head r.

Cat. 2092

C 3888

M 19



16

3.49

2/2 4c b.c.

Cat. 2093

C 3896

M 19



13

2.11

early 3c b.c.

Cat. 2094

C 3902

N 20



17

3.55

late 3c–early 2c b.c.

Cat. 2095

C 3914

N 19



13

1.68

2c b.c.

Cat. 2096

C 3919

N 19



15

1.84

1/2 3c b.c.

Cat. 2097

C 3921

N 19



13

1.21

2c b.c.

Cat. 2098

C 3932

N 19



12

1.67

late 4c–early 3c b.c.

Cat. 2099

C 3976

M 19



17

4.14

mid-4c– mid-3c b.c. (coins)

Athena head r. / grapes? figure r.?

Cat. 2100

C 3977

M 19



16

3.92

mid-4c– mid-3c b.c. (coins)

obv. Athena head r.

broken into two pieces

rev. wreath?

Athena head r. / bunch of grapes

obv. head r.

obv. head l.

rev. trident?

UNCERTAIN AND ILLEGIBLE ROMAN PROVINCIAL 1st century b.c. –3rd century a.d. Cat. 2101 C 38 F4



23

7.50

13c a.d.

Cat. 2102



24

7.70

none

C 114

unknown

head r. / standing figure; Corinth?

177

catalogue of coins, part i

Cat. 2103

C 435

O 16



20

4.12

Middle Roman

Cat. 2104

C 691

L 14



16

2.30

unknown

Cat. 2105

C 1429

H 14



21

7.01

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 2106

C 1947

K 20



19

5.14

2c b.c.

Cat. 2107

C 2441

M 18



17

1.56

unknown

Cat. 2108

C 2459

K 16,17



21

5.04

unknown

obv. head r.

Cat. 2109

C 3321

K 17



19

4.19

unknown

obv. head r.

Cat. 2110

C 3333

L 19



20

4.07

unknown

Cat. 2111

C 3346

K 19



20

3.77

unknown

Cat. 2112

C 3376

K 18



19

3.24

unknown

Cat. 2113

C 3420

M 18



21

5.34

unknown

obv. head r.; Bellinger 1926 no. 24

Cat. 2114

C 3424

M 18

k

21

6.21

unknown

Bellinger 1926 no. 25 (no mint given, but identified as Hadrian)

Cat. 2115

C 3445

M 19

j

22

5.83

unknown

head r. / seated figure l. ?; Bellinger 1926 no. 12 (attributed to Corinth, Claudius/ Poseidon on throne, but no Claudius of this type exists; perhaps L. Verus; cf. SNG Cop. Cor. no. 335 pl. 7)

Cat. 2116

C 3811

O 19



26

9.98

Early Christian

obv. head laureate r.

Cat. 2117

C 4045

CC 26



20

3.72

modern

obv. Hadrian r.; chisel punches both sides; Corinth? obv. head r.

Corinth? Nemea II, 236

ROMAN COINS ROMAN REPUBLIC 47–46 b.c. Venus head r., wearing diadem; border of dots / [CA]ESA[R]. Aeneas l., carrying palladium, Anchises on shoulder; border of dots Cat. 2118

340 This

C 2265

L 14

o

[AR]: denarius340

18

2.82

Sydenham no. 1013; RRC 471 no. 458,1 pl. 54.10 28, f

5c–6c a.d.

subaerate core

is the subaerate core of a plated denarius. Another piece exactly like it appeared among the very few Roman denarii found in the Athenian Agora excavations (Agora XXVI, xxvi n. 3).

178

catalogue of coins, part i

ROMAN EMPIRE a.d. 98–117: Trajan a.d. 103–111 IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P. Trajan head r., laureate / COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC. Victory walking l., holding wreath and palm Cat. 2119

C 157

M 12

AR: denarius

n

18

3.38

RIC II, 253 no. 131

28,g

2c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 161 pl. 39:a; Nemea I, xiii, 26 figs. 36–37

a.d. 238–242: Gordian III a.d. 240 IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG. Gordianus bust r., laureate / [C]ONCO[RDI]A AV[G] S[C]. Concordia seated on throne, l., holding double cornucopia and patera Cat. 2120

C 3059

I 18

j

AE: semis

20

15.10

RIC IV.3: 47 no. 287

28,h

unknown

Broe & Robinson, Nemea no. 34; Nemea I, xvii, 241–242 figs. 343–344

a.d. 276 –282: Probus a.d. 278 IMP PROBVS AVG CONS II. Probus bust l., radiate, holding scepter with eagle at top / VIRTVS AVG. Soldier standing l., holding victory and spear. Mint mark: SXX[T] Cat. 2121

C 1943

Q 20

AE: Antoninianus?

i

22

4.01

RIC V.2: 65 no. 442; cf. pl. 11

28,i

Early Christian

Hesperia 1982, 32 pl. 15:b

a.d. 286 –305: Maximian341 a.d. 284–296 IMP [C M A] MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. AE: radiate fraction (light) Bust r., radiate with cuirass / CON[CORDIA MI]LITVM. Ruler l. receiving victory on globe from Jupiter standing to r., leaning on scepter. Below, KA (ligature)-D (=Cyzicus mint) Cat. 2122

C 3677

K 19

m

20

2.32

RIC V.2: 249 no. 284

28,k

5–6c a.d.

341 A

coin of Diocletian (C 199, Pl. 28, j ) is also among the coins in the Nemea Museum. It is recorded as a gift and almost certainly comes from Kleonai, not from the Nemea excavations (per Stephen G. Miller). Ca. a.d. 295–296 IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS [P F AVG]. Bust r., radiate with cuirass and radiate crown / [CONCORD]IA MI-LITVM. Ruler l. receiving victory on globe from Jupiter standing to r., leaning on scepter. Below, ?? (ligature)-??(=Cyzicus mint) C 199

unknown

i

AE: radiate fraction (light)

20

2.56

RIC VI, 581 no. 16a pl. 14.15a (sim.); cf. 570

28, j

179

catalogue of coins, part i

a.d. 307–324: Licinius II a.d. 318/9 Bust l., LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES / VOT V/MVLT X/CAESS/ in wreath Cat. 2123

C 3250

K 17

AE m

19

RIC VII, 504 no. 42 2.91

28,l

unknown

mint mark TSE = Thessalonica

modern

radiate head / figure standing right? “barbarous radiate”

UNATTRIBUTED COIN Uncertain Roman Later 3rd century a.d. Cat. 2124 C 2305

G 14



15

1.15

28,m

part ii

THE EARLY CHRISTIAN AND LATER COIN FINDS FROM NEMEA

john d. mac isaac

I N T RO D U C T I O N

About 40% of the numismatic finds from the Sanctuary of Nemean Zeus and the Early Hellenistic Stadium are certainly Early Christian or later in origin, and since this group is in general poorly preserved relative to the Greek and earlier Roman material,342 it is quite likely that nearly half of all the coin finds were originally of these periods. These coins are the legacy of two cultural horizons, agricultural settlements of the 5th and 6th centuries after Christ on the one hand,and of the 12th and 13th centuries after Christ on the other. Each of these horizons has a dominant numismatic component. In the earlier it is the post–a.d. 450 bronze nummus, generally 5.0–7.5 mm. in diameter and 0.25–0.75 g. in weight.343 In the later period it is coinage of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus (a.d. 1143–1180). In each instance this dominant component represents over 45% of the coins recovered in its group. Alien cultures also are represented in the two horizons, the Vandals in the earlier,344 En-

glish, French, Frankish, Venetian, and Turkish in the later.345 There is a hoard in each of these groups. From the first group, a find from the Stadium tun-

century after Christ. The catalogue lists the illegible minimi together under Early Christian because it is only these coins—a western-mint nummus of Justinian I (Cat. 2434 [C 1041]) and a nummus of Maurice Tiberius (Cat. 2484 [C 2778])—that are certainly of the 6th century after Christ in origin. The vast majority of the minimi are illegible, but about three dozen can be assigned to Leo I, Basiliscus, Zeno, or Anastasius I, or they bear unmistakable monograms having shapes datable to the 5th century after Christ. Elsewhere in southern Greece the western minimi become a part of the general money pool in the aftermath of Belisarius’ reconquest of North Africa and Italy.The Nemea community was apparently already in decline at this time (Guide 94–95). Although the Guide argues for the period of greatest prosperity of this community as being just prior to the catastrophic Slav incursion and cites numismatic support for this position, I will argue below for a peak in the last quarter of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century after Christ. 345 The Sanctuary area had long been a fen when visited in the early 19th century (Guide 13),and it is to be doubted that there was any significant indigenous activity during the Turkokrateia. The 13 coins found there that date to this period were brought there, most likely, during the brief excavation activity by the Society of the Dilettanti in 1766, or introduced after 1883 when the Nemea Valley was rendered usable for agriculture once again. (All through the 19th century the little billon aqches remained popular as a decorative element in native,particularly bridal, attire. This custom was apparently discontinued only in the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish conflict that followed World War I. Two of the Turkish pieces show evidence of having been sewn,at some point,to a garment.) Compare the 22 Modern Greek coins that have been inventoried— and many more from the modern surface have not received individual inventory numbers—that date, for the most part, to the 90 years from the draining of the valley (and the foundation of the modern village of Archaia Nemea) to the beginning of the Berkeley excavations.

342 For

the excellent condition of Greek period coin finds see above, p. 18. 343 The weight of the Early Christian nummus fell throughout the 5th century after Christ down to a theoretical issue weight of 0.20 g. (Adelson & Kustas 1962, 25–26; Mac Isaac 1972, 62–64). Shortly after a.d. 496 the emperor Anastasius I introduced the concept of the multiple-nummus coin to the Eastern Empire, intended not so much to replace the existing money pool as to make carrying these basic units of the Roman monetary system easier (Mac Isaac 1995, 22). Tiny units continued to be issued into the later 6th century after Christ but in much smaller numbers than previously. At Nemea the use of the minimi can be documented throughout the existence of the community; elsewhere they continued in use until the first quarter of the 7th century after Christ (Sardis 1). 344 There are five of the little Anonymous Victories which found universal acceptance in the nummi supply of the 6th

183

184

early christian and later coins

nel is to be associated with the Slavic incursion of the later 6th century after Christ.346 From the second, a small hoard of medieval French coins is to be associated with the attempt by the Principate of Achaea to revive the farming community in the later 13th century after Christ.347 The very considerable wear that is the general rule for all of the later numismatic finds from Nemea would indicate that these communities were not active acquirers of new issues. It may be presumed that a lapse of at least two to five years from the issue date occurred in most instances before individual pieces entered the Nemean money pool.

THE EARLY CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY After a period of some 30 years represented by only two coins,348 the numismatic record at Nemea resumes with coins of Helena,the issue celebrating the dedication of Constantinople, the last issue of Constantine I Divus, and the first issue of Constantine’s sons as his successor (a.d. 324–341).349 It is, howDeposit STAD:2. Cat. 2386 (C 1531), Cat. 2422–2425 (C 1510, C 1246, C 1516, C 1509), Cat. 2427 (C 1515), Cat. 2439–2442 (C 1514, C 4090, C 1512, C 1513), Cat. 2447 (C 1518),Cat. 2449 (C 1529),Cat. 2457 (C 1511),Cat. 2458 (C 1528),Cat. 2461 (C 1523),Cat. 2465 (C 1244),Cat. 2466 (C 1530),Cat. 2469 (C 4083),Cat. 2470 (C 1517),Cat. 2471 (C 1519), Cat. 2476–2478 (C 1520–1522). Four of the coins from this hoard (C 1524–1527) were illegible minimi and are therefore not listed here. They are included in the 20 illegible minimi mentioned below, p. 207. Cat. 2428 (C 4082), Cat. 2440 (C 4090), Cat. 2465 (C 1244), and Cat. 2469 (C 4083) were located in the same stratum as the hoard,though in some instances as much as 30 m. from the principal find. The core find, as listed by Oikonomidou (1991), comprises eleven folles (40-nummi pieces) of Justinian I and Justin II from the mints of Constantinople, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, and Antioch; two half-folles (20-nummi pieces) of Justin II from Thessalonica and Constantinople,four uncertain half-folles, and four nummi. The latest coins are two of a.d. 574/5. 347 Cat. 3117–3129 (C 2321–2333): deniers tournois of Louis IX of France (6), of Charles I d’Anjou (2), of Alphonse Comte de Poitou, of Martin of Tours, and three uncertain seigneurial issues of the second half of the 13th century. The latest possible date for these would be 1285, but they seem, as a group, most comfortable in the years 1260–1275. 348 A radiate fraction of Maximian (Cat. 2122 [C 3677]) and a centionalis of Licinius II (Cat. 2123 [C 3250]) are, respectively, the last 3rd-century issue and the first 4th-century issue found at Nemea. 349 Helena (a.d. 324–328; Cat. 2125 [C 3878]); Urbs Roma (a.d. 330–341; Cat. 2127–2129 [C 3442, C 3188, C 3236]); 346

ever, much to be doubted that many of these coins came to the Sanctuary area at any time close to their issue date. Only two of these 31 coins (Cat. 2132 and 2154) come from the Stadium,above and around which, the coin finds suggest, the Early Christian occupation began in earnest.350 We know that there were massive issues of coin by the Empire in the 4th century, and if there was a monied economy in operation at Nemea, as there was at Corinth and Athens,351 we should expect the finds at Nemea to parallel roughly the relative incidence of the various coin types at those two sites. At Athens the coin types of the same classes referred to above are known in ca. 750 examples; at Corinth there are 145. Those of the next decade (a period of slightly reduced volume of coinage), the issues of Constans I, Constantius II, and Vetranio (a.d. 341–350), are represented by 525 coins at Athens and by 180 at Corinth. We should expect, proportionately, 27 or 28 coins from the Nemea finds, but we have only 15.352 The period a.d. 351–361 saw the most massive issue of Imperial Constantinopolis (a.d. 330–341; Cat. 2130–2131 [C 1721, C 1715]);Constantine I Divus (a.d. 337–346;Cat. 2132–2133 [C 1247,C 414]);and 24 examples of the Gloria Exercitus (one standard) issued by Constantine I, Constantine II, Constans I, and Constantius II (of which Cat. 2131 [C 1715],already listed under Constantinopolis, is one; the other 23 are Cat. 2134–2154, 2160–2161 [C 1387, C 1503, C 1602, C 1849, C 1990, C 2243, C 2378, C 2645, C 3048, C 3075, C 3077, C 3085, C 3175–3176, C 3178, C 3186, C 3817, C 3819, C 3865, C 1500, C 4015, C 1549, C 2711]). 350 While the absolute numbers of 4th- and 5th- century finds may be simply a function of the surface area excavated, thus making a direct comparison between the Stadium area and that of the Sanctuary somewhat meaningless, the ratio in the two areas of the 4th- and 5th-century coins earlier than a.d. 450 to those of a.d. 450–500 is significant because we know that the developed (i.e. later) ecclesiastical and habitation activity was in the Sanctuary area and not in the Stadium. The ratio of coins earlier than a.d. 450 to those from a.d. 450–500 from the Stadium is 81:17;that is,roughly 4:1.The ratio in the Sanctuary is 298:337; that is, there are fewer coins from the earlier period than from the second half of the 5th century. The excavators suggested in Hesperia 1984, 174, that there was some limited activity in Section E 19 during the 3rd and 4th centuries which they describe as “of unidentified nature.” The character of this activity was not further defined, though clearly it lay under the agricultural activity of the 5th and 6th centuries.The coins here are all of the 4th century,to a.d. 383. 351 Corinth VI, 93–119, and Agora II, 36–62, respectively. 352 Constantius II (Cat. 2162–2166 [C 2938, C 3076, C 959, C 1431, C 3162], Cat. 2176 [C 1430]); Constans I (Cat. 2155–2158 [C 1453, C 3179, C 3180, C 1497]); one or the other of these emperors (Cat. 2191–2193 [C 1104, C 1144, C 1544] and Cat. 2196–2197 [C 1635, C 1903]).

introduction

coinage of the century353—coins of Constantius II, Constantius Gallus, and Julian Caesar. But again, we should approach with caution the 41 examples that Nemea has354—Athens shows 1,500 examples, Corinth 640—and look instead at the figures for the period a.d. 364–378: issues of Valentinian I, Valens, and Gratian, known at Athens in 900 examples and at Corinth in 305.Nemea might have been expected, by analogy, to have about 20 coins from this period; it actually has eight.355 It is only with the issues of Theodosius I and his house (a.d. 379–395) that the Nemea finds start to match the incidence at the larger sites, and they achieve relative congruity with them in issues of the first quarter of the 5th century. The re-occupiers of the ancient Sanctuary used a money pool dominated by issues of Theodosius I and II, Arcadius, and Honorius,356 but which had residual issues stretching back to the second quarter of the 4th century. After a.d. 450 the declining weight of contemporary issues forced most, but not all,357 of the 353 Buttrey

1981, 112–113. Cat. 2167–2190 (C 421, C 270, C 198, C 983, C 1021, C 1081, C 1105, C 1391, C 1393, C 1430, C 1489, C 1545, C 1713, C 1714, C 1731, C 2496, C 2497, C 2981, C 3068, C 4059, C 131, C 609, C 3453, C 2921), Cat. 2198–2200 (C 311, C 1604, C 1005), Cat. 2202–2215 (C 838, C 2710, C 1080, C 1634, C 1717, C 3183, C 417, C 630, C 3166, C 3182, C 3184, C 3280, C 3288, C 3409). 355 Cat. 2216–2223 (C 42, C 2529, C 1633, C 1216, C 1669, C 1442, C 1063, C 3078). 356 The coins of Theodosius I and his house are the most common Early Christian coins found at Nemea. Theodosius I is represented by 15 examples (Cat. 2231–2245 [C 2556,C 571, C 846, C 1202, C 924, C 2411, C 293, C 374, C 288, C 681, C 862,C 2062,C 129,C 802,C 1194]).Valentinian II has seven coins (Cat. 2224–2230 [C 958, C 2406, C 3434, C 1065, C 1018, C 1212, C 2432]), Arcadius eleven (Cat. 2248–2258 [C 223,C 652,C 2712,C 33,C 2253,C 2693,C 2702,C 3351, C 4062, C 1017, C 30]), Honorius seven (Cat. 2276–2282 [C 752, C 1242, C 973, C 749, C 1276, C 1338, C 1439]), and Theodosius II eight (Cat. 2320–2327 [C 292, C 361, C 2410, C 153, C 2385, C 3371, C 3556, C 3639]), with 71 other examples attributable to one or another of these rulers (Cat. 2246– 2247 [C 1631, C 4069], Cat. 2259–2275 [C 579, C 961, C 1099, C 1107, C 1181, C 1301, C 1852, C 2309, C 2370, C 2542, C 2695, C 3145, C 3147, C 3185, C 4030, C 4040, C 4057], Cat. 2283–2319 [C 969, C 4068, C 3576, C 116, C 267, C 455, C 521, C 566, C 590, C 599, C 611, C 618, C 688, C 754, C 780, C 799, C 824, C 839, C 960, C 968, C 1061, C 1193, C 1211, C 1300, C 1504, C 1570, C 1572, C 2397, C 2507, C 2669, C 3081, C 3296, C 3517, C 3533, C 3537, C 3594], Cat. 2328–2342 [C 1093, C 4010, C 273, C 653,C 655,C 697,C 1016,C 1908,C 2421,C 3091,C 4012, C 373, C 1159, C 3082, C 3343]). 357 I strongly suspect that some of the “illegible” minimi, based on their shape, are cut-down coins from earlier periods, ren354

185

earlier 4th-century coins out of acceptability,and the tiny minimi rapidly became the simple majority in circulation. We should conclude, at least numismatically, that “new Nemea” came into existence early in the second quarter of the 5th century after Christ. It is presumed that the tiny nummi that dominated the Nemean economy by a.d. 500 remained in circulation through the community’s life in the 6th century,358 but we must, to gain any additional insight into its prosperity or lack thereof,look to the multiple-nummi coins that were the principal issues of the Imperial authorities after a.d. 496. It comes as a surprise that the period said to show the most significant architectural record of the Early Christian farming complex359 has the most meager coin record, and that meagerness is anomalous. That Nemea’s inhabitants would have been substantially more careful with their multiple-nummi coins can be assumed, and, judging by the extreme poverty of the grave goods in burials associated with this community,360 it may well be that coins larger than the nummus were employed rarely and possessed by few. All the same, it is remarkable that, except for the Stadium tunnel hoard (see n. 346), a few minimi of Anastasius I, and four of Justinian I, there are only 41 coins dating between a.d. 496 and 583/4, with 22 of these certainly dating between a.d. 567 and 579.361 This curious distribution has been interpreted to indicate that the most prosperous period of the community was that just prior to its abandonment and destruction.362 A more likely scenario dered acceptable still. Cat. 2295 (C 618) and Cat. 2257 (C 1017) certainly are examples of this practice. 358 There were four minimi in the Stadium tunnel hoard; a Slavic invasion hoard from the Isthmian sanctuary shows 61 minimi and 209 multiples: Broneer 1955, 136. 359 Guide 86, 90. 360 Guide 93. See also J. Frey, “Early Christian Burial Customs at Nemea” (M.A. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1998). 361 The numbers for the multiples are: Anastasius I (a.d. 496–518), one 20-nummi piece; Justin I (a.d. 518–527), one 40-nummi piece and one 20-nummi piece; Justinian I (a.d. 527–565),three 40-nummi pieces,three 20-nummi pieces,four 5-nummi pieces; Justin II (a.d. 565–578), four 40-nummi pieces,eighteen 20-nummi pieces;Tiberius II (a.d. 578–582), one 40-nummi piece; Maurice Tiberius (a.d. 582–602), one 40-nummi piece. The remainder are unattributed. See also Avramea 59 #20. Avramea concludes that the available evidence does not permit reconstruction of the Slavic advance or even a relatively precise date for it. 362 Guide 93–94: “Although never wealthy, the Early Christian community seems to have been most prosperous in the sec-

186

early christian and later coins

is that the uncommon density of coins late in Justin II’s reign is evidence of hasty departure in advance of the invading tribesmen.363 If Nemea was growing to a peak of prosperity, we should have more western minimi,364 more of Justinian’s 5-nummi multiples, and at least some of his 10-nummi multiples.Corinth and Athens both show these coins to have been nearly as common as the combination of the two highest denominations.365 The last five coins in the Nemea excavation material from this period are two 40-nummi pieces of Maurice Tiberius and one of Phocas, and two 20nummi pieces (one each of Maurice and Phocas), dating to a.d. 588–ca. 603.366 These coins are problematic, as the Dark Age at Nemea had begun before their issue. None of these coins has an archaeological context or associated record.367

COMNENID AND FRANKISH NEMEA The modern excavations at Nemea have found no evidence of occupation from the end of the 6th century after Christ368 to the 12th, and little other than ond half of the 6th century after Christ; numismatic evidence in the excavated area increases for this period, and there are signs of rapid growth and expansion.” 363 Guide 95 recognizes this possibility without noting that the evidence should not be used to support two such different interpretations. 364 A hoard found in the 1920’s at Zacha in the upper Alpheus Valley contained over 600 smooth, dark, and thoroughly illegible minimi, not unlike the typical Nemea minimus find, together with 513 legible pieces including 47 certainly of Justinian, 22 Vandal, and 67 Ostrogothic coins: Adelson & Kustas 1964. 365 Athens has 56 40- and 20-nummi coins of Justinian compared with 66 smaller multiples; Corinth has 23 of the larger multiples, 17 of the smaller. 366 Cat. 2481–2483 (C 3330, C 3329, C 3328), Cat. 2485 (C 3549), Cat. 2486 (C 2427). 367 One coin of Phocas (Cat. 2486 [C 2427]) was discovered in the dump from the Baptistry in 1964.The other Phocas (Cat. 2485 [C 3549]) came from the modern surface fill in 1984, but just southwest of the Basilica. The other three coins were discovered in 1926 and the precise context is not recoverable, but they were found together immediately west of the Narthex, where we now know that there was a short-lived dwelling. Coins of Justin beneath the floor and walls of this house (Cat. 2444 [C 2223] = a.d. 567/8;Cat. 2454 [C 2234] = a.d. 572/3) show that it was created and used very nearly at the time of the Slavic invasion. Perhaps the later coins of Maurice and Phocas indicate a residual life after the Slavs moved past. See Hesperia 1983, 86, and Hesperia 1988, 4–5. 368 Guide 24, 96.

graves even then. In a mirror image of the 6th-century situation, a Nemea virtually devoid of architectural remains now provides nearly 25% of all the coins found at the Sanctuary and in the Stadium. One can only presume that the Middle Byzantine inhabitants lived in immediately adjacent areas, perhaps at the site of the modern village.369 Without the assistance of an accompanying archaeological record, the numismatic history of Nemea is all that we possess, but something can be recovered of Nemea’s fate nonetheless. The northern Peloponnesos emerged slowly from the barbarian- and plague-filled 6th and 7th centuries, and if the record at the Peloponnesian Theme’s capital, Corinth,370 is any guide, it would have been a very long time indeed before the southern district where lies the Nemea Valley came inside the Marches sufficiently to be utilized once again for agricultural activity. Alexius I began his reign in a.d. 1081 and initially continued the dominant 11th-century practice of issuing Anonymous Folles, two classes of which, J and K,371 are assigned to him. In a.d. 1096 he reformed the bronze coinage and issued signed “tetartera.” The most prolific were the type with a jeweled cross on the reverse. At Nemea these signed tetartera,372 in combination with his earlier signed coins373 and the two Anonymous classes, total 37; all of the earlier Middle Byzantine finds from Leo VI (a.d. 886–912) through Nicephorus III (a.d. 1078–1081),374 together with the Anonymous Folles

369 Burials in and immediately next to the Basilica seem to sug-

gest some revival in Middle Byzantine times, but there is insufficient evidence to posit a new architectural phase. The Sanctuary has both here and elsewhere deposits of pottery of this period, even if they cannot be associated with architectural remains. 370 Metcalf 1973 saw evidence of recovery of the “central” part of Corinth (i.e. the old Roman forum area) beginning in the reign of Theophilus (a.d. 829–842), but at least one outlying district of the city was apparently not re-occupied until the reign of Leo VI (a.d. 886–912): Mac Isaac 1987, 101. 371 Class J: Cat. 2534–2538 (C 12, C 222, C 490, C 3230, C 3260). Class K: Cat. 2539–2546 (C 205, C 353, C 861, C 1376, C 3233, C 3278, C 3327, C 4067). 372 Cat. 2559–2570 (C 1801, C 2369, C 3218, C 234, C 322, C 1428, C 1623, C 1813, C 2315, C 2413, C 2611, C 3264). 373 Cat. 2547–2558 (C 1808, C 3394, C 57, C 405, C 1377, C 1809, C 1864, C 2364, C 2631, C 3268, C 3529, C 3813). 374 Cat. 2497–2511 (C 11, C 240, C 3435, C 639, C 2595, C 3301, C 1086, C 471, C 419, C 2363, C 2577, C 2627, C 3359, C 3388, C 3436). Two coins of Leo are at the head of the Middle Byzantine series, Cat. 2497 (C 11) and Cat. 2498 (C 240). Six of the

introduction

classes A–I,375 also total 37. Certainly almost all of this earlier material is residual, and the pre-reform issues of Alexius may be as well. We know that the coinage of Alexius I, Nicephorus III, and the J and K class Anonymous Folles were massively issued, on a scale topped only by the output of Alexius’ grandson Manuel I (a.d. 1143–1180). If a monied economy had returned to Nemea prior to ca. 1100 a.d. there would be many more finds of these classes. We can perhaps get a little closer to the date of Nemea’s rebirth by considering the finds of Alexius’ son John II (a.d. 1118–1143). Despite his long reign, he issued very little bronze coinage. This phenomenon is explained by the surfeit of available currency at the start of his rule and by his preoccupation with events in the southeast of the Empire in his last few years. The Imperial economy had too much coin at the start of John’s reign, but was seriously lacking it toward the end, thus demanding the massive issues in the first two years of Manuel’s reign.376 Nemea shows ten examples of John’s coin, compared with seven of Nicephorus III and eight of the Anonymous Follis Class K. Compare the find record for Athens, which shows 677 Nicephorus III and 233 Class K, but only 144 of John, while Corinth shows 315 Nicephorus III,146 Class K,and 99 of John.The Nemea proportions of John’s coins suggest that they were from a money pool that had lost the bulk of earliest 31 Middle Byzantine coins (Cat. 2513 [C 236], Cat. 2519 [C 4],Cat. 2522 [C 1851],Cat. 2528 [C 16],Cat. 2534 [C 12], Cat. 2536 [C 490]) were recovered from the Stadium, where only three issues of Alexius (Cat. 2553 [C 1864], Cat. 2560 [C 2369], Cat. 2562 [C 234]), thirteen of Manuel (Cat. 2602–2605 [C 9, C 14, C 15, C 17], Cat. 2612 [C 233], Cat. 2740–2741 [C 2, C 10], Cat. 2757–2759 [C 237, C 239, C 241], Cat. 2804 [C 1569], Cat. 2907 [C 3536], Cat. 2954 [C 4049]), and three undetermined 12th-century pieces were found. This might cause one to wonder whether the Middle Byzantine re-occupiers of Nemea, like their Early Christian predecessors, selected the area above and around the Stadium as their initial settlement location, but the coin numbers are too few to be statistically significant. 375 Cat. 2512–2533 (C 371, C 236, C 2604, C 3196, C 3366, C 3382,C 3421,C 4,C 1026,C 3437,C 1851,C 3094,C 1023, C 363, C 2317, C 2660, C 16, C 560, C 767, C 1379, C 1560, C 3283). 376 There is substantial evidence that the Empire’s ever-resourceful citizenry reacted to the coin shortage by cutting down the flans of the older folles to the size of Alexius’ reformed tetarteron and half-tetarteron (Mac Isaac 1995). This phenomenon, while common at Corinth, is not found at Nemea where, presumably, the older coins were simply not available and/or the relief of Manuel came early enough in the history of the community to obviate the necessity.

187

the 11th-century issues before Nemea came into existence. Since we have evidence from Corinth that the old issues were still a major component in the money pool several years after Alexius’ reform,377 we can characterize the Nemean coin supply as no earlier than a.d. 1100–1125 and possibly a little later.378 According to the finds at Athens and Corinth, Manuel I’s reign produced as much coin as all the other rulers of the 11th and 12th centuries combined, so it comes as no surprise that coins in his name are by far the most common in the numismatic finds at Nemea.379 Given the egalitarian procedures of Classical archaeology, each coin, be it a Persian daric or one of Manuel’s humble pieces, has as much modern human labor invested in its conservation and recording as any other. With all things considered, it is understandable that many archaeologists of southern Greece regard coins of Manuel’s reign as the coarse-ware body sherds of numismatic finds; but precisely because huge quantities of this series have been recovered and maintained at Athens, Corinth, and Nemea, we are able to read through the statistical glut to recover some extremely valuable information about the economic state of the region during this long reign, at Nemea in particular. A difficulty that began 60 years ago380 seemed to render Manuel’s minor coinage next to useless in archaeological refinements closer than the entirety of his reign, for it became the standard belief that all of his six bronze tetartera types were issued in the first three years of his reign and that if there were any subsequent issues, they were indistinguishable from the initial ones.381 More recently, the issues of Manuel’s reign have started to lose their monolithic 377 Mac

Isaac 1987, 152. telltale piece is Cat. 2582 (C 1805), a cut-down follis of Trebizond. Trebizond was virtually independent during the reigns of Alexius and John. Notwithstanding this slap at the Imperial prerogative, such was the demand for coin that here at Nemea, as also at Athens and Corinth, its distinctive issues were pressed into economic service.The Nemea coin has been cut down to the module of a Comnenid half-tetarteron. 379 No fewer than 452 coins are certainly assigned to him at Nemea (11% of all finds legible and illegible combined), and slightly more than two dozen additional pieces are probably also his.The most common class of coin at Nemea is the Corinthian Pegasos/Trident, of which 545 examples are presented here. It was issued between ca. 425 b.c. and 146 b.c.—more than two centuries longer than Manuel’s period of production. 380 Harris 1941, 160–161. 381 It still remains to be determined if Harris’ assumption about the Norman sack of Corinth was correct, or whether she, too, was so overwhelmed by the sheer volume of Manuel’s coins at 378 A

188

early christian and later coins

character. M. Hendy distinguished two classes of Manuel’s tetartera, viz. a heavy and a light series, and identified the systematic lower rungs of the bronze coinage that the Empire desired—a dual end of coinage hierarchy, consisting of a tetarteron and a half-tetarteron.382 Manuel’s six types were issued in substantial numbers in pairs during the first three years of his reign,383 from the Metropolitan mint or the Thessalonica mint or both. Either simultaneously or very shortly thereafter there was an issue by one or more provincial mints in Greece of a series which duplicated all of Manuel’s types but at the weight of a light half-tetarteron. It is this series that is in the majority in the finds at Athens, Corinth, and Nemea. We do not know who was the authority for this issue.384 However, in its disregard for the Imperial protocols385 there is evidence that the fabric of Empire was beginning to loosen even as Manuel was planning the return of an Imperial army to Italy.

Corinth that she supposed only a devastating pillage could account for the massive coin loss. According to the literary sources, while Corinth was certainly hurt by Rodger’s Greek admiral George, it was not damaged as badly as Thebes, which was captured and part of its citizenry carried off. The latter-day Corinthians knew the Sicilians were coming and took refuge on Acrocorinth, decidedly unfair tactics, as George told them, since he could not linger to root them out because his master had recalled him to support an invasion of Africa (see Nicetas, Annales III [Vita Manuelis II ] 75–76,and John Kinnamos,Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus 76).The possibility exists that some or all of the Provincial issues of Manuel’s types postdate 1145; the two imitative classes we discuss below certainly do. 382 Hendy 107–110, 122–130. 383 The monogram reverse of the half-tetarteron has a beardless obverse portrait of Manuel and presumably belongs to the inaugural issue. Since the St. George reverse tetarteron is the second most favored type found of Manuel, it was probably in the first issue also. 384 The evidence is meager, but the authority of the local archontes was growing throughout the 12th century. Thus we might think of one or more locals—like Leon Sgouras of an earlier generation—as the responsible authority both for these imitative classes and for the so-called “small module Latin imitative trachea.” 385 The southern Greek population simply did not care for the double end to the monetary system. There are numerous examples at Athens and Corinth of the halving of the heavier coins of Manuel and even of Alexius’ reformed coins (Mac Isaac 1995, 22–23). At Nemea examples of this include Cat. 2549 (C 57: Alexius I reformed tetarteron),Cat. 2612 (C 233: heavy monogram half-tetarteron of Manuel I), Cat. 2964 (C 2362:cross-on-steps tetarteron of Manuel I),and Cat. 2738 and Cat. 2739 (C 3216 and C 3521: St. George tetartera of Manuel I).

Manuel’s reign was marked by runaway inflation due to his extensive military and diplomatic operations in both East and West, and this caused him to reduce the silver in the billon trachy three times. By the last decade of his life the coin no longer contained any precious metal at all. In Greece there were two subsequent issues of Provincial light tetartera, both of them inferior in fabric, style, and weight to the preceding issue. The first class duplicates all of Manuel’s types but is issued on a very thin flan of regular rectangular shape that has each of the corners fairly neatly clipped.386 The second employs a square flan but copies only the monogram and the cross-on-steps types, occasionally so badly that they can barely be recognized. This class has clipped corners as well, but the clipping is not nearly as regular and neat as in the preceding issue.387 I would interpret these issues as a provincial reflection388 of the deteriorating state of the general economy. At Nemea we have 50 examples of the Imitative Class I (2nd Provincial Series)389 and 16 of Imitative

386 The weight is roughly half that of the Provincial series, but the net module is only slightly less than its predecessor. In flan style it resembles the folles of Trebizond of the reigns of Alexius I and later (see Mac Isaac 1987, pl. 56, no. 700) but is, of course,much lighter.The typical Provincial series coin weighed between 1.25 and 1.50 g., this class between 0.75 and 1.25 g. Examples include Cat. 2985 (C 70: monogram) and Cat. 3005 (C 2398: St. George). 387 This class is noticeably smaller and cruder than the first class. Examples include Cat. 3036 (C 784: monogram) and Cat. 3040 (C 2356: cross on steps). 388 I believe that Athens was the source of most of these coins. Nearly 33% of the Agora’s finds are of these classes, including a hoard of exclusively Class I coins numbering over 100 pieces. Corinth’s percentage is considerably less, about 10%. This I attribute to the relative prosperity of Athens compared with Corinth in the second half of the 12th century. The Athens mint uses a secret mark to identify itself. In Manuel’s monogram type it moves the left descender of the central pi to the left to link up with the delta and extends and curves the diagonal of the delta to produce:

389 Cat.

2984–3033 (C 65, C 70, C 229, C 364, C 370, C 422, C 491, C 492, C 791, C 990, C 1035, C 1241, C 1413, C 1704, C 1823, C 2036, C 2346, C 2358, C 2359, C 2372, C 2375, C 2398, C 2478, C 2515, C 2575, C 2597, C 2598, C 2618, C 2635, C 3016, C 3097, C 3104, C 3105, C 3177, C 3221, C 3459, C 3482, C 3483, C 3494, C 3508, C 3511, C 3512, C 3519, C 3523, C 3640, C 3652, C 3814, C 3828, C 3829, C 4001).

introduction

Class II (3rd Provincial Series).390 At Athens the Class II imitatives are only slightly less numerous than Class I. Since the Provincial class tetartera are found at Nemea in the same superabundance as they are in both Athens and Corinth, we may conclude that the first few years of Manuel’s reign, perhaps the first decade, were as prosperous as any that Middle Byzantine Nemea would know, but that as the reign progressed, the amount of new coinage entering Nemea declined sharply.This same message is borne by the coin of Manuel’s successors: Andronicus I (a.d. 1183– 1185) is represented by only six coins, Isaac II (a.d. 1185–1195) by four. The last native coinage prior to the Frankish capture of Corinth in a.d. 1210, the so-called “small module Latin imitative trachea,” is also represented by only four examples. It would appear that there was a discontinuity between Middle Byzantine and Frankish Nemea. After serious decline in the last quarter of the 12th century, there is no numismatic evidence of activity again before ca. a.d. 1260. We note that the three last-mentioned coin classes are not rare at either Athens or Corinth, and that the first two coinages associated with the Franks are hardly met with at Nemea.391 Perhaps the miltary activity leading up to the capture of Acrocorinth affected the Nemea Valley as well, temporarily causing abandonment. The Prince of Achaea apparently attempted to revive Nemea in the 1260’s, though with but marginal success. The reason for this is unknown, but a conjecture would be the battle of Castoria in 1259. In the earlier years of his reign William Villehardouin was principally concerned with containing

390 Cat.

3034–3049 (C 423, C 726, C 784, C 1007, C 1874, C 2345, C 2356, C 2371, C 2445, C 2480, C 2511, C 2580, C 2943, C 3194, C 3507, C 3603). 391 These being in the first instance the predominantly French and English coinage that was in the purses of the Fourth Crusaders when they set out in 1203 on their way, as it turned out, to Constantinople rather than Palestine. King Louis granted permission around 1249 to his vassals in Attica and the Peloponnesos to produce coinage in their own names after the fashion of French seigneurial coinage in order to relieve an acute shortage of coin in their fiefs. William Villehardouin’s first issues as Prince of Achaea were produced at Corinth; his later coins come from his new capital at Clarentia in Elis. We have seven coins of this latter group at Nemea, but only three of the former. The earliest western issue is a penny of the English king Henry III (a.d. 1222–1237), Cat. 3116 (C 77).

189

and then attempting, unsuccessfully, to subdue the Slavs of the Mani. When the ill-conceived adventure with Manfred came to grief in Macedonia, to rescue his person he was obliged to hand over to Michael Palaeologus the lands and those magnificent fortresses he had built in Laconia and Messenia. The Principate of Achaea was abruptly half the size it had been, and a place like Nemea may well have now seemed more of interest. We have, in addition to the modest hoard of later 13th-century French royal and seigneurial silver, examples from virtually every Achaean lord for the next half century, but in very small numbers. There are ten coins of William to 1278,one of Charles I of Anjou (1278– 1285), one of Charles II of Anjou (1285–1287), five of Florent of Hainaut (1289–1297), two of Isabelle Villehardouin (1297–1301), three of Philip of Savoy (1301–1307),and four of Philip of Tarentum (1307– 1313). We also have the contemporaneous issues of the Dukes of Athens; one coin of William de la Roche (1280–1287) and eight coins of Guy II of Athens (1287–1308). There are also 17 other coins of which we can say only that they are Frankish. The final phase of activity at Nemea may be placed somewhat after the extinction in the 14th century of the Frankish principalities in the Peloponnesos. As at most sites in south-central Greece, the population transitioned from the Frankish denier to the Venetian tornesello, a virtually equivalent piece. The coin is not indicative of Venetian presence in the northern Peloponnesos at this time. It was introduced in the south during the struggle between the Franks and the Empire in the 13th and 14th centuries from the trading colonies of Venice in Messenia, and its use spread northward upon the demise of Frankish rule and the failure of the Palaeologids to supply the recovered Theme with coin of their own. Nemea has one coin of Marc Cornero (1365–1367), one of Andrea Contarini (1368– 1382), and three of Antonio Venario (1382–1400). There are another nine Venetian pieces on which the Doge’s name cannot be read. The true indicator of Venetian presence is the 16th-century “Late Colonial” bronze,which is common at Corinth and Athens. Nemea has but two specimens, both of the earlier 16th-century “Armata et Morea” series. It would seem that Nemea either did not survive the initial Turkish conquest or was extinguished in the subsequent Venetian counteroffensive.

Catalogue of Coins, Part II

Preceding each group of coins, information about the group as a whole is presented as follows: Coin type: obverse/ reverse

Metal

Mint

Bibliography for type

If no mint is shown, none is named on the coins themselves. Entries for individual coins provide the following information: Catalogue number

Inventory number

Provenience (grid section)

Weight (g.)

Plate number and letter

Date of context

Notes

See the Select Bibliography, pp. xxi–xxvii, for abbreviations used in the references, and the Note on Chronological Terms, p. xxx, for the definition of the terms “Early Christian” and “Byzantine” as used here. In addition, please note that the “context” refers to the archaeological context and that its date is based on ceramics. As a result, there are times when the ceramically dated context will be very different from that of the coins. Thus, for example, a pit dug into the Early Christian levels during the Byzantine period may well have Byzantine pottery that reflects the date of the pit, but also earlier material including coins of the Early Christian period. Again, for example, when a pit was dug during the Early Christian period down into earlier levels, but no Early Christian pottery thrown into it, coins of the period of the pit might well be mixed with pottery of earlier date which would account for an Early Christian coin being found in a context dated to the 4th century b.c. “Unknown” refers almost exclusively to coins discovered in the 1920’s (inv. nos. C 3037–3525). Exceptions discovered more recently might have fallen from scarps during the winter, be stray finds in plowed fields, etc. “Modern” may refer to surface finds, or to areas where modern contamination has occurred (e.g. the backfill of an earlier archaeological trench). “Undatable” refers to a proper archaeological stratum which produced pottery of such poor quality as to be chronologically nondescript. In such cases the date of the stratum depends on the coin date.

191

193

catalogue of coins, part ii

THE EARLY CHRISTIAN COINS (A.D. 324–610) Flavia Helena, a.d. 324 –328 Helena bust r. Pearled Headdress / Pax standing l., branch in r. hand Cat. 2125

C 3878

AE N 19

Cyzicus 2.93

RIC VII, 647 no. 28 modern

29,a

officina 2

Constantine I, a.d. 330 –335 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Two soldiers, between, two standards Cat. 2126

C 3074

AE J 18



cf. LRBC I no. 1005

1.77

unknown

Nemea I, 238 figs. 335–336

Urbs Roma, a.d. 330 –341 Roma bust l. Helmeted / She-wolf and twins

AE

Thessalonica

Cat. 2127 C 3442 Roma bust l. Helmeted / She-wolf and twins

L 18

Cat. 2128

C 3188

H 17

1.69

unknown

Cat. 2129

C 3236

H 18(?)

1.51

unknown

1.68 AE

unknown —

RIC VII, 530 no. 229 officina 5 cf. LRBC I no. 535

Constantinopolis, a.d. 330 –341 Constantinople bust l. Helmeted / Victory on prow

AE

Cat. 2130 C 1721 F 19 Constantinople bust l. Helmeted / Two soldiers, between, a standard Cat. 2131

C 1715

Cyzicus 2.28

AE

F 19

RIC VII, 356 no. 92 6c a.d.

— 1.54

modern

officina 5 cf. LRBC I no. 1039 a.d. 335–337

Constantine I Divus, a.d. 337–346 Constantine I bust r. Veiled / Emperor in quadriga Cat. 2132

C 1247

AE CC 27

Constantine I bust r. Veiled / Emperor, veiled, standing r. Cat. 2133

C 414



cf. LRBC I no. 245

0.78 AE

M 14

modern Eastern

0.80

modern

Nemea II, 122 n. 297; a.d. 337–341 cf. LRBC I no. 1063 a.d. 341–346

House of Constantine I, a.d. 335–346 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Two soldiers, between, a standard

AE



cf. LRBC I no. 558

Cat. 2134

C 1387

G 18

0.75

Early Christian

Cat. 2135

C 1503

F 18

0.84

4c a.d.

194

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2136

C 1602

F 17

1.31

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2137

C 1849

K 11

0.86

modern

Cat. 2138

C 1990

L 20

0.98

late 3c b.c.

Cat. 2139

C 2243

J 19

0.82

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2140

C 2378

N 18

1.98

13c a.d.

Cat. 2141

C 2645

K,L 16

0.92

modern

Cat. 2142

C 3048

I 18

1.21

unknown

Cat. 2143

C 3075

H 17,18

1.13

unknown

Cat. 2144

C 3077

I 18

1.48

unknown

Cat. 2145

C 3085

M 18

1.34

unknown

Cat. 2146

C 3175

I 17

0.54

unknown

Cat. 2147

C 3176

I 17

1.21

unknown

Cat. 2148

C 3178

H 18

0.93

unknown

Cat. 2149

C 3186

H 18

1.26

unknown

Cat. 2150

C 3817

M 19

1.21

modern

Cat. 2151

C 3819

M 19

1.03

modern

Cat. 2152

C 3865

N 19

1.53

modern

Constans I, a.d. 337–350 Constans bust r. Diademed / Two soldiers, between, a standard Cat. 2153

C 1500

AE F 18

Cat. 2154 C 4015 CC 28 Constans bust l. Diademed, holding globe / Emperor r. leading captives from hut Cat. 2155

C 1453

Cat. 2157 C 3180 H 18 Constans bust r. Diademed / VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath

AE

Cat. 2159

C 2440

1.02

5c–6c a.d.

Nemea II, 122 n. 297 RIC VIII, 153 no. 223

3c–5c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 190 pl. 40:f; a.d. 348–350 cf. LRBC II no. 2012

Trier

AE

AE

Cat. 2158 C 1497 Constans bust r. Diademed / Effaced

4c a.d.

3.20

Cat. 2156 C 3179 H 18 Constans bust r. Diademed / Emperor in galley steered by Victory

— 3.58

a.d. 346–350 cf. LRBC II no. 2023

unknown Heraclea

a.d. 346–350 RIC VIII, 433 no. 47

1.15 AE

K 16,17

a.d. 337–341

unknown

29,b —

2.07

F 18

cf. LRBC I no. 610

0.85 AE

H 14

Constans bust l. Diademed, holding globe / Emperor r. leading captives from hut



4c a.d.

a.d. 348–350

— 1.06

5c–6c a.d.

Constantius II, a.d. 335–361 Constantius bust r. Diademed / Two soldiers, between, a standard Cat. 2160

C 1549

AE F 19

Nicomedia 0.72

5c–6c a.d.

RIC VIII, 471 no. 11 officina 6

195

catalogue of coins, part ii

Constantius bust r. Diademed / Two soldiers, between, a standard Cat. 2161

AE

C 2711

E 19

Constantius bust r. Diademed / Two Victories

— 1.54

AE

Cat. 2162 C 2938 Constantius bust r. Diademed / Two Victories

G 19

Cat. 2163 C 3076 Constantius bust r. Diademed / VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath

J 18

cf. LRBC I no. 560 5c–6c a.d.

Trier

RIC VIII, 151 no. 183

1.11 AE

5c b.c. Western

1.43 AE

unknown Constantinople

Cat. 2164

C 959

CC 29

1.21

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2165

C 1431

H 14

1.18

3c–5c a.d.

Constantius bust l. Diademed, holding globe / Emperor r. leading captives from hut

AE

Cat. 2166 C 3162 I 18 Constantius bust r. Diademed / Emperor spearing falling horseman Cat. 2167 C 421 CC 32 Constantius bust r. Diademed / Emperor spearing falling horseman Cat. 2168

C 270

unknown Thessalonica

1.53

unknown Constantinople

2.31 AE

a.d. 347–348 cf. LRBC I no. 631 a.d. 341–346 cf. LRBC I no. 1064 Nemea II, 122 n. 297; a.d. 341–346 cf. LRBC II, no. 2011

3.18

AE

M 17

Constantius bust r. Diademed / Emperor spearing falling horseman



AE

Hesperia 1984, 174 n. 17

modern —

a.d. 346–350 RIC VIII, 419 no. 189 officina 2, a.d. 350–355 RIC VIII, 458 no. 121 a.d. 350–355 cf. LRBC II no. 2039

Cat. 2169

C 198

N 17

2.39

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2170

C 983

O 17

0.99

undatable

Cat. 2171

C 1021

M 17

1.21

Early Christian

Cat. 2172

C 1081

O 18

0.88

undatable

Cat. 2173

C 1105

BB 28

1.81

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2174

C 1391

G 18

1.19

Early Christian

Cat. 2175

C 1393

G 18

1.65

Early Christian

Cat. 2176

C 1430

H 14

4.69

3c–5c a.d.

Cat. 2177

C 1489

F 18

2.35

4c a.d.

Cat. 2178

C 1545

F 19

1.19

modern

Cat. 2179

C 1713

F 19

2.29

modern

Cat. 2180

C 1714

F 19

1.94

modern

Cat. 2181

C 1731

F 19

1.94

1c b.c.

Cat. 2182

C 2496

L 17

1.29

modern

Cat. 2183

C 2497

L 17

1.03

modern

Cat. 2184

C 2981

P 16

1.75

6c a.d.

Cat. 2185

C 3068

I 18

2.01

unknown

Cat. 2186

C 4059

EE 27

1.77

4c–6c a.d.

fragment

a.d. 348–355

fragment

196

catalogue of coins, part ii

Constantius bust r. Diademed / Virtus standing, holding globe and spear

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2053

Cat. 2187

C 131

F4

1.09

4c a.d.

Cat. 2188

C 609

DD 29

1.53

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2189

C 3453

M 13

1.91

unknown

Cat. 2190

C 2921

P 14

1.47

2/2 4c b.c.

a.d. 355–361

Constans I or Constantius II, a.d. 341–346 Emperor bust r. Diademed / VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath

AE

Eastern

cf. LRBC I no. 1064

Cat. 2191

C 1104

BB 28

1.31

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2192

C 1144

L 17

1.45

modern

Cat. 2193

C 1544

F 18

1.09

Constantinian

Cat. 2194

C 1546

F 19

1.11

modern

Cat. 2195

C 1613

F 17

0.63

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2196

C 1635

G 19

0.93

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2197

C 1903

K 11

1.06

modern

Nemea II, 122 n. 297

reverse brockage

Constantius Gallus, a.d. 350 –355 Gallus bust r. Bareheaded / Emperor spearing falling horseman Cat. 2198

C 311

AE N 16

Thessalonica 1.46

RIC VIII, 419 no. 190 officina 2392

12c–13c a.d.

29,c

Julian II, a.d. 355–363 Julian bust r. Diademed / Virtus standing, holding globe and spear

AE

Cat. 2199 C 1604 F 17 Julian bust r. Bareheaded / Virtus standing, holding globe and spear

AE

Cat. 2200 C 1005 Julian bust l. Helmeted, holding spear and shield / VOT X MVLT XX in wreath

K 17

Cat. 2201

M 19

Cyzicus 1.93

5c–6c a.d. —

1.34

2.43

cf. LRBC II no. 2054

modern Thessalonica

AE

C 3820

RIC VIII, 500 no. 1123

a.d. 355–361 RIC VIII, 423 no. 227

modern

29,d

officina 3, a.d. 361–363

Constantius Gallus or Julian Caesar, a.d. 350 –361 Caesar bust r. Bareheaded / Emperor spearing falling horseman

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2029

Cat. 2202

C 838

O 16

1.56

modern

Cat. 2203

C 2710

E 19

1.92

5c–6c a.d.

392 This

officina is not recorded for Gallus in RIC VIII.

Hesperia 1984, 174 n. 17

197

catalogue of coins, part ii

Constantius II or Julian Caesar, a.d. 355–361 Emperor bust r. / Virtus standing, holding globe and spear

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2053

Cat. 2204

C 1080

O 18

1.50

late 4c–early 3c b.c.

Cat. 2205

C 1634

G 19

1.41

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2206

C 1717

F 19

1.19

modern

Cat. 2207

C 3183

H 18

1.42

unknown

House of Constantius II, a.d. 350 –361 Emperor bust r. / Emperor spearing falling horseman

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2028

Cat. 2208

C 417

O 16

1.85

modern

Cat. 2209

C 630

O 17

1.21

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2210

C 3166

M 18

0.68

unknown

Cat. 2211

C 3182

H 18

1.85

unknown

Cat. 2212

C 3184

H 18

1.62

unknown

Cat. 2213

C 3280

J 14

1.22

unknown

Cat. 2214

C 3288

K 18

1.94

unknown

Cat. 2215

C 3409

J 14

1.98

unknown

fragment

Valentinian I, a.d. 364 –375 Valentinian bust r. Diademed / Emperor holding labarum, dragging captive r.

AE

Cat. 2216 C 42 Valentinian bust r. Diademed / Victory advancing l., holding wreath and palm

N 12

Cat. 2217

N 17

C 2529

Thessalonica

1.60 AE

6c a.d. —

2.29

LRBC II no. 1704

officina 2, a.d. 364–367 cf. LRBC II no. 2071

12c–13c a.d.

Valens, a.d. 364 –378 Valens bust r. Diademed / Emperor standing, holding standard and victoriola Cat. 2218

C 1633

AE

G 19

Valens bust r. Diademed / Emperor holding labarum, dragging captive r.

Thessalonica

2.67 AE

5c–6c a.d. —

LRBC II no. 1703

a.d. 364–367 cf. LRBC II no. 2069

Cat. 2219

C 1216

K 17

1.57

modern

Cat. 2220

C 1669

G 18

2.92

6c a.d.

198

catalogue of coins, part ii

Valentinian I, Valens, or Gratian, a.d. 364 –378 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Emperor holding labarum, dragging captive r.

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2068

Cat. 2221

C 1442

J 16

2.17

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 2222

C 1063

CC 29

1.83

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2223

C 3078

L 17

1.21

unknown

Valentinian II, a.d. 375–392 Valentinian bust r. Diademed / Emperor holding labarum, dragging captive r. Cat. 2224

C 958

AE

CC 29

Valentinian bust r. Diademed / VOT X MVLT XX in wreath Cat. 2225

C 2406

Thessalonica

0.47 AE

L 17

Cat. 2226 C 3434 Valentinian bust r. Diademed / Camp gate

L 19

Cat. 2227 C 1065 Valentinian bust r. Diademed / Victory dragging captive l.

CC 29

4c–6c a.d. —

0.89 AE

unknown Thessalonica

1.41 AE

fragment, a.d. 375–378 cf. LRBC II no. 2158

undatable393

1.34

LRBC II no. 1809

4c–6c a.d. —

Cat. 2228

C 1018

L 16

0.47

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2229

C 1212

K 14

1.63

4c–5c a.d.

Cat. 2230

C 2432

L 17

0.91

undatable394

a.d. 383 LRBC II no. 1864 officina 1, a.d. 383–392 cf. LRBC II no. 2158 a.d. 383–392

Theodosius I, a.d. 379 –395 Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Constantinople enthroned, facing Cat. 2231 C 2556 Theodosius bust r. Diademed / VOT X MVLT XX in wreath

AE L 17



cf. LRBC II no. 2128

1.86 AE

modern

a.d. 378–383 LRBC II no. 2557 a.d. 383

Cyzicus

Cat. 2232

C 571

DD 30

0.99

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2233

C 846

L 14

0.64

5c–4c b.c.

Cat. 2234 C 1202 Theodosius bust r. Diademed / VOT X MVLT XX in wreath

L 17

0.78

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2235

C 924

M 13

0.72

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 2236

C 2411

N 18

0.74

12c–13c a.d.

393 This

AE



officina 3 cf. LRBC II no. 2159 a.d. 383

coin was discovered in the construction fill of the drain from the Baptistry of the Early Christian Basilica and provides a terminus post quem for the construction of the drain and, therefore, of the Baptistry (Nemea Notebook 18, p. 64). See also Cat. 2322 (C 2410). 394 This coin was discovered in a crack between two tiles of the floor of the Baptistry of the Early Christian Basilica (Nemea Notebook 18, p. 86).

199

catalogue of coins, part ii

Theodosius bust l. Laureate / Camp gate Cat. 2237

C 293

AE CC 32

Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Victory dragging captive l.

Thessalonica 2.74

AE

5c–6c a.d.

Cyzicus

DD 32

Cat. 2239

C 288

CC 32

0.76

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2240

C 681

DD 29

0.62

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2241

C 862

K 15

0.75

modern

Cat. 2242

C 2062

I 19

Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Effaced

1.06

modern —

0.72 AE

Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 136 n. 324; a.d. 383–392 cf. LRBC II no. 2569

Cat. 2238 C 374 Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Victory dragging captive l.

AE

LRBC II no. 1862

a.d. 383–395 cf. LRBC II no. 2159 Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40; Nemea II, 136 n. 324; a.d. 383–395

modern —

Cat. 2243

C 129

CC 32

0.96

Early Christian

Cat. 2244

C 802

CC 30

0.74

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2245

C 1194

K 14

0.72

4c–5c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61

Gratian, Valentinian II, or Theodosius I, a.d. 378–383 Emperor bust r. Diademed / VOT XV MVLT XX in wreath

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2115

Cat. 2246

C 1631

G 19

0.81

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2247

C 4069

DD 26

1.21

modern

Arcadius, a.d. 383–408 Arcadius bust r. Diademed / VOT V in wreath Cat. 2248 C 223 Arcadius bust r. Diademed / VOT V in wreath

AE I 12

Cyzicus 0.65

AE

LRBC II no. 2562 modern



a.d. 383 cf. LRBC II no. 2162

Cat. 2249

C 652

DD 29

0.86

5c–6c a.d.

holed for suspension

Cat. 2250

C 2712

E 19

1.23

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1984, 174 n. 17; a.d. 383 cf. LRBC II no. 2185

Arcadius bust r. Diademed / Victory dragging captive l.

AE



Cat. 2251

C 33

F4

0.77

13c a.d.

Cat. 2252

C 2253

P 13

0.85

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2253

C 2693

Q 14

0.70

6c a.d.

Cat. 2254

C 2702

Q 14

1.10

6c a.d.

Cat. 2255

C 3351

J 13

1.14

unknown

Cat. 2256

C 4062

CC 26

0.96

modern

a.d. 383–395

200

catalogue of coins, part ii

Arcadius bust r. Diademed / Emperor standing l. crowned by Victory r. Cat. 2257

C 1017

L 16

Arcadius bust r. Diademed / Effaced Cat. 2258

C 30

AE

Eastern 1.26

AE F4

cf. LRBC II no. 2205

4c–6c a.d.

cut down

— 1.15

modern

Valentinian II, Theodosius I, or Arcadius, a.d. 383 Emperor bust r. Diademed / VOT V or VOT X MVLT XX in wreath

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2158

Cat. 2259

C 579

CC 30

1.18

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2260

C 961

CC 29

1.11

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2261

C 1099

BB 28

0.83

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2262

C 1107

BB 28

0.40

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2263

C 1181

EE 27

0.77

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2264

C 1301

DD 28

1.32

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 2265

C 1852

EE 25

0.77

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2266

C 2309

G 14

1.21

modern

Cat. 2267

C 2370

L 17

0.91

modern

Cat. 2268

C 2542

N 18

1.08

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2269

C 2695

Q 14

1.07

6c a.d.

Cat. 2270

C 3145

M 18

0.58

unknown

Cat. 2271

C 3147

I 17,18

0.87

unknown

Cat. 2272

C 3185

H 18

0.98

unknown

Cat. 2273

C 4030

CC 27

0.80

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2274

C 4040

CC 27

0.47

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2275

C 4057

EE 26

1.01

4c–6c a.d.

Alexandria

fragment

Alexandria

Honorius, a.d. 393–423 Honorius bust r. Diademed / Cross

AE

Cat. 2276 C 752 Honorius bust r. Diademed / Two emperors standing, holding spear and shield

DD 29

Cat. 2277 C 1242 Honorius bust r. Diademed / Two emperors standing, holding spear and shield

K 17

Eastern 0.57

AE

4c–6c a.d. Cyzicus

1.09 AE

Cat. 2278 C 973 J 15 Honorius bust r. Diademed / Victory advancing l. with wreath and palm

cf. LRBC II no. 2209

RIC X, 271 no. 403 modern

a.d. 408–423 cf. LRBC II no. 2223

4c–6c a.d.

a.d. 408–423 RIC X, 338 no. 1357



1.51 AE

a.d. 395–408

Rome

Cat. 2279

C 749

L 16

1.16

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2280

C 1276

DD 29

0.78

modern

officina 1, a.d. 410–423 fragment

201

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2281

C 1338

K 20

2.13

modern

Cat. 2282

C 1439

J 16

1.26

6c a.d.

Arcadius or Honorius, a.d. 395–408 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Emperor standing l. crowned by Victory r.

AE

Eastern

cf. LRBC II no. 2205

Cat. 2283

C 969

CC 29

1.48

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2284

C 4068

DD 26

1.59

modern

Emperor bust r. Diademed / Cross [Cat. 2285]

vacat

Cat. 2286

C 3576

AE

K 19

Eastern

0.76

cf. LRBC II no. 2451

4c–6c a.d.

Valentinian II, Theodosius I, Arcadius, or Honorius, a.d. 383–402 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Victory dragging captive l.

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2183

Cat. 2287

C 116

N 17

0.41

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2288

C 267

M 11

1.35

modern

Cat. 2289

C 455

N 15

0.77

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2290

C 521

M 16

1.02

2c b.c.

Cat. 2291

C 566

DD 30

1.10

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2292

C 590

DD 30

1.08

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2293

C 599

DD 29

1.14

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2294

C 611

DD 29

1.23

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2295

C 618

O 17

0.42

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2296

C 688

DD 29

0.61

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2297

C 754

DD 29

0.36

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2298

C 780

L 14

0.74

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2299

C 799

N 16

1.09

1c b.c.–1c a.d.

Cat. 2300

C 824

L 15

1.27

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2301

C 839

O 16

1.05

2c–3c a.d.

Cat. 2302

C 960

CC 29

1.16

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2303

C 968

CC 29

0.75

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2304

C 1061

CC 29

0.74

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2305

C 1193

K 14

1.05

4c–5c a.d.

Cat. 2306

C 1211

K 14

1.02

4c–5c a.d.

Cat. 2307

C 1300

DD 29

0.63

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 2308

C 1504

F 18

0.77

4c a.d.

Cat. 2309

C 1570

EE 26

0.97

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2310

C 1572

EE 26

0.75

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2311

C 2397

K 16,17

0.93

1c b.c.–1c a.d.

fragment

cut down

202

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2312

C 2507

L 17

0.73

modern

Cat. 2313

C 2669

J 13,14

0.83

4c b.c.

Cat. 2314

C 3081

L 17

0.95

Cat. 2315

C 3296

K 18

0.76

unknown

Cat. 2316

C 3517

unknown

1.12

unknown

Cat. 2317

C 3533

L 19

0.69

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2318

C 3537

unknown

0.44

modern

Cat. 2319

C 3594

K 19

0.94

modern

29,e

unknown imitation

fragment

Theodosius II, a.d. 402–450 Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Cross

AE

Eastern

cf. LRBC II no. 2453

Cat. 2320

C 292

CC 32

0.69

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40 pl. 41:c; Nemea II, 136 n. 324; a.d. 402–408

Cat. 2321

C 361

CC 31

0.46

4c a.d.

Hesperia 1976, 194 n. 40 pl. 41:c

Cat. 2322 C 2410 Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Three emperors standing, holding spears and shields

L 17

0.67

Cat. 2323

M6

C 153

AE

Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Vota inscription in wreath

unknown395 Eastern cf. LRBC II no. 2216

1.26 AE

12c–13c a.d. Eastern

Cat. 2324 C 2385 Theodosius bust r. Diademed / Cross in wreath

K 16,17

Cat. 2325

C 3371

K 16,17

0.70

unknown

Cat. 2326

C 3556

K 19

0.55

modern

Cat. 2327

C 3639

L 19

0.99

4c–6c a.d.

0.54 AE

12c–13c a.d. —

Hesperia 1975, 155 n. 31; a.d. 402–408 cf. LRBC II nos. 2242–2244 a.d. 425–450 cf. LRBC II no. 2234 a.d. 425–450

Theodosius I or Theodosius II, a.d. 383–425 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Victory advancing l. Cat. 2328

C 1093

AE CC 29

Western 0.46

4c–6c a.d.

cf. LRBC II no. 804 fragment

Theodosius II or Honorius, a.d. 408–423 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Two emperors standing, supporting globe between them Cat. 2329

395 This

C 4010

AE

CC 28

Eastern

0.88

cf. LRBC II no. 2224

5c–6c a.d.

coin, like Cat. 2225 (C 2406; see above, n. 393), was found in the construction fill of the drain of the Baptistry.

203

catalogue of coins, part ii

Arcadius, Honorius, or Theodosius II, a.d. 395–408 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Cross

AE

Eastern

cf. LRBC II no. 2207

Cat. 2330

C 273

M 17

0.62

modern

Cat. 2331

C 653

DD 29

0.57

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2332

C 655

DD 29

0.48

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2333

C 697

L 14

0.45

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2334

C 1016

CC 28

0.41

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2335

C 1908

K 20

0.61

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2336

C 2421

L 17

0.71

undatable396

Cat. 2337

C 3091

M 18

0.48

unknown

Cat. 2338 C 4012 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Three emperors standing, holding spears and shields

CC 28

Cat. 2339

C 373

DD 32

1.31

unknown

Cat. 2340

C 1159

L 17

0.74

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2341

C 3082

L 17

1.82

unknown

Cat. 2342

C 3343

K 18

1.26

unknown

0.20

unknown

AE

Eastern

cf. LRBC II no. 2214

fragment

Valentinian III, a.d. 425–455 Valentinian bust r. Diademed / VOT XX in wreath Cat. 2343

C 3612

AE K 19

Rome 1.22

RIC X, 378 no. 2129 or 2130 4c–6c a.d.

29, f

Honorius or Valentinian III, a.d. 410 –455 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Victory advancing l. with wreath and palm

AE

Rome

cf. LRBC II no. 828 or 840

Cat. 2344

C 596

DD 29

1.56

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2345

C 738

M 16

1.07

5c b.c. (?)

Cat. 2346

C 1571

EE 26

1.05

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2347

C 1807

L 19

0.87

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2348

C 2158

J 19

0.98

5c–6c a.d.

Theodosius II or Valentinian III, a.d. 425–455 Emperor bust r. Diademed / Cross in wreath Cat. 2349

C 703

AE DD 29

— 0.69

cf. LRBC II no. 867 5c–6c a.d.

396 This coin was discovered in the “soil between the stones covering the drain of the Baptistry,” as noted by the excavator in 1964 (Nemea Notebook 18, p. 64). It should probably be associated with Cat. 2225 and Cat. 2322 (C 2406 and C 2410; see above, nn. 393 and 395).

204

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2350

C 805

CC 30

0.81

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2351

C 988

J 15

0.35

modern

Cat. 2352

C 1069

CC 28,29

0.52

unknown

Cat. 2353

C 2088

P 13

0.96

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2354

C 2094

J 19

0.64

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2355

C 2099

J 19

0.77

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2356

C 2193

J 19

0.28

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2357

C 2513

L 17

1.07

modern397

Cat. 2358

C 2516

L 17

0.86

undatable398

Marcian, a.d. 450 –457 Marcian bust r. Diademed / Monogram Cat. 2359

C 2240

AE J 19

Marcian bust r. Diademed / Monogram Cat. 2360

C 696

Thessalonica 0.85

AE L 14

Marcian bust r. Diademed / Monogram

2/2 5c a.d.

29,g

Constantinople 1.49

AE

RIC X, 282 no. 536

RIC X, 282 no. 545

4c–6c a.d.

29,h —

cf. LRBC II no. 2247

Cat. 2361

C 2403

L 17

0.84

unknown399

Cat. 2362

C 2527

O 18

0.75

unknown400

Cat. 2363

C 2698

Q 14

1.21

6c a.d.

Cat. 2364

C 3360

K 19

0.70

unknown

Cat. 2365

C 3544

K 19

0.83

modern

Leo I, a.d. 457–474 Leo bust r. Diademed / Lion crouching in wreath

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2260

Cat. 2366

C 1071

CC 28

0.45

4c a.d.

Cat. 2367

C 2068

I 19

0.67

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2368

C 2544

L 17

0.54

modern401

397 Although

this coin’s context must be described, technically, as “modern” since it was discovered in fill dumped from the excavations, and its context therefore possibly contaminated, those excavations were in the Baptistry in 1964. See Nemea Notebook 15, p. 32. 398 The context of this coin was described at the time of its discovery in 1964 as “beneath (roof ?) tile destruction layer over floor of Baptistry.” See Nemea Notebook 18, p. 182. 399 The context of this coin was described in 1964 as in “hard pack fill immediately above [lower tile floor] and between tiles of [upper] tile floor.” The excavator suggested that the hard earth represented a floor level later than the time of the disappearance of some tiles from the second, upper floor (Nemea Notebook 18, p. 61). 400 Although the earth fill contained no pottery, this coin came from the robbing trench of the north wall of the Xenon (Nemea Notebook 16, p. 139) and may represent a period of destruction of that building. 401 This coin was discovered in 1964 during the removal of the backfill of a 1920’s trench next to the north wall of the Baptistry (Nemea Notebook 22, p. 23).

205

catalogue of coins, part ii

Leo bust r. Diademed / Emperor standing, holding captive

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2265

Cat. 2369

C 1236

K 17

1.07

modern

Cat. 2370

C 2053

P 12

0.72

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2371

C 2121

J 19

0.43

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2372

C 2590

L 15

0.89

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2373

C 2659

L 16

0.56

unknown

Cat. 2374

C 3580

K 19

0.40

modern

Leo bust r. Diademed / Monogram

AE



Cat. 2375

C 1563

J 13

1.05

Cat. 2376

C 2177

J 19

0.32

Leo bust r. Diademed / Effaced Cat. 2377

C 3602

AE K 19

cf. LRBC II no. 2270 5c–6c a.d.

29,i

early 6c a.d.

Hesperia 1983, 87 pl. 26:b, c

— 0.68

modern

Zeno, a.d. 474 –475, 476 –491 Zeno bust r. Diademed / Emperor standing

AE

Cat. 2378 C 2563 Zeno bust r. Diademed / Monogram

N 18

Cat. 2379

K 19

C 3322

— 0.87

AE

cf. RIC X, 313 nos. 953–957 unknown

— 0.37

a.d. 476–491 cf. LRBC II no. 2279

unknown

Basiliscus, a.d. 475–476 Basiliscus bust r. Diademed / Monogram Cat. 2380

C 3297

AE K 18

— 0.54

cf. LRBC II no. 2283 unknown

Uncertain Fifth-Century-a.d. Monogram Issues Emperor bust r. Diademed or effaced / Monogram Cat. 2381

C 32

F4

AE

— 0.65

13c a.d.

1.38402

4c a.d.

Cat. 2382

C 1075

CC 28

Cat. 2383

C 1290

K 17

0.15

3c–4c a.d.

Cat. 2384

C 1394

G 18

0.60

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2385

C 1432

H 14

0.59

3c–5c a.d.

Z 28

0.82

6c a.d.

Cat. 2386

C

1531403

Hesperia 1980, 200; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318

weight of this coin, as well as that of Cat. 2393 and Cat. 2402 (C 2208 and C 3315), is too great for the typical monogram issue of the later 5th century. These three are most likely issues of Theodosius II of the period 425–450. 403 Stadium tunnel hoard; Deposit STAD:2. 402 The

206

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2387

C 2139

J 19

0.22

5c–6c a.d.

holed

Cat. 2388

C 2144

J 19

0.48

5c–6c a.d.

cut down

Cat. 2389

C 2149

J 19

0.38

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2390

C 2157

J 19

1.21

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2391

C 2183

J 19

0.69

undatable

Cat. 2392

C 2190

J 19

0.27

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2393

C 2208

J 19

1.55

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2394

C 2217

J 19

0.63

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2395

C 2308

G 14

0.62

modern

Cat. 2396

C 2692

Q 14

0.91

6c a.d.

Cat. 2397

C 2713

E 19

0.50

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2398

C 2941

J 18

0.36

5c b.c.

Cat. 2399

C 3013

L 19

0.55

6c a.d.

Cat. 2400

C 3015

L 19

0.98

17c–18c a.d.

Cat. 2401

C 3245

I,K 16,17

0.37

unknown

Cat. 2402

C 3315

L 19

1.19

unknown

Cat. 2403

C 3380

K 18

0.62

unknown

Cat. 2404

C 3566

K 19

0.90

modern

Cat. 2405

C 3572

K 19

0.43

4c–5c a.d.

Cat. 2406

C 4008

CC 28

0.84

5c–6c a.d.

Anastasius I, a.d. 491–498 Anastasius bust r. Diademed / Monogram404

AE



cf. LRBC II no. 2228

Cat. 2407

C 149

M6

0.46

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2408

C 304

M 11

0.51

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2409

C 956

J 15

0.90

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2410

C 1636

G 19

0.55

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2411

C 1734

F 19

0.53

undatable

Cat. 2412

C 2196

J 19

0.61

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2413

C 2202

J 19

0.25

5c–6c a.d.

fragment

Cat. 2414

C 2204

J 19

0.75

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1983, 87; pl. 26:b, c

Cat. 2415

C 2685

P 14

0.44

6c a.d.

Cat. 2416

C 3593

K 19

0.71

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2417

C 3601

K 19

0.70

4c–6c a.d.

404

There is no reason to believe that Anastasius stopped the issue of monogram nummi with his introduction of the multiplenummi coins in a.d. 498, but at present there is no way to distinguish the issues that preceded that reform from those that came afterward.

207

catalogue of coins, part ii

Early Christian Issues Otherwise Illegible 405 Number found in Stadium: 48; number found in Sanctuary of Zeus: 159

Illegible Minimi Number found in Stadium: 20;406 number found in Sanctuary of Zeus: 287

Anastasius I, a.d. 498–518 Anastasius bust r. Diademed / Mark of value (20 nummi) Cat. 2418

C 1905

AE K 20

Constantinople 7.05

DOC I, 23 no. 24

undatable

Justin I, a.d. 518–527 Justin bust r. Diademed / Mark of value (40 nummi)

AE

Cat. 2419 C 3263 Justin bust r. Diademed / Mark of value (20 nummi)

K 18

Cat. 2420

K 19

C 3554

Constantinople 17.76

unknown

AE

Cyzicus 10.44

DOC I, 40 no. 9a officina 1 DOC I, 42 no. 14

modern

Justinian I, a.d. 527–565 Justinian bust r. Diademed / Mark of value (40 nummi ) Cat. 2421 C 2320 Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2422

C 1510407

AE K 18

17.71 AE

Z 28

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi)

21.48

AE

Constantinople

DOC I, 78 no. 28a

unknown Constantinople

officina 1, a.d. 527–538 DOC I, 84 no. 37c

29, j

6c a.d.

Constantinople

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 3, a.d. 538/9 DOC I, 85–86 no. 38 d, e

Cat. 2423

C 1246408

BB 28

21.82

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1979, 99 pl. 39:a; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 5, a.d. 539/40

Cat. 2424

C 1516409

Z 28

23.57

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 4, a.d. 539/40

405 These coins bear traces of an imperial bust either left or right, but their reverses are effaced or obscure. By weight and/or module they belong to the 4th century or early 5th century. 406 Four of these are from the Stadium tunnel hoard; Deposit STAD:2. 407 Deposit STAD:2. 408 This coin was found together with Cat. 2465 (C 1244) in the closing silt of the Stadium tunnel, i.e. the same earth fill as that which produced the coins of Deposit STAD:2 but at the opposite end of the tunnel about 30 m. distant. It could be considered a part of the same deposit. 409 Deposit STAD:2.

208

catalogue of coins, part ii

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2425

C 1509410

AE Z 28

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2426

C 383

C 1515411

F 38

C 4082412

21.40

Z 28

unknown

Constantinople 20.70

AE Z 28

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (20 nummi)

6c a.d.

Constantinople

AE

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2428

18.44

AE

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2427

Constantinople

6c a.d.

Constantinople 17.03

unknown Constantinople

fragment; a.d. 527–538 DOC I, 103–104 no. 97

Cat. 2431

C 387

G 37

1.92

6c a.d.

Cat. 2432

C 2059

P 12

1.70

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2433 C 2126 Justinian bust r. Diademed / Mark of value (nummus)

J 19

1.21

Cat. 2434

C 1041

O 18

0.52

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2435

C 2100

J 19

0.25

5c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2436 C 2168 Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (20 nummi)

J 19

0.37

410 Deposit

C 3092

AE

AE

DOC I, 103–104 no. 97f

a.d. 527–538

5c–6c a.d. Thessalonica DOC I, 108 no. 104

4.99

modern

AE

Thessalonica 6.66

Hesperia 1976, 202 pl. 44:b; a.d. 543–565

5c–6c a.d. DOC I, 103–104 no. 97e Constantinople DOC I, 82 no. 36

AE

J 18

DOC I, 94 no. 56a

0.72

J 18

Cat. 2438

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 1, a.d. 544/5

a.d. 538/9 DOC I, 82 no. 35

Cat. 2430 C 3357 Justinian bust r. Diademed / Mark of value (5 nummi)

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (20 nummi)

DOC I, 90 no. 43a

unknown Constantinople

AE

FF 23

Hesperia 1976, 202 pl. 44:b; officina 4, a.d. 541/2

11.51

K 19

C 235

DOC I, 88 no. 40d

Constantinople

Cat. 2429 C 3265 Justinian bust r. Diademed / Christogram (5 nummi)

Cat. 2437

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 4, a.d. 540/41

Nemea II, 134 n. 316; a.d. 558/9 DOC I, 96 no. 62d

AE

6c a.d.

DOC I, 87 no. 39d

29,k

unknown

Hesperia 1976, 194 pl. 40:a; Nemea II, 134 and n. 315; a.d. 562/3 DOC I, 108 no. 105 a.d. 563/64; Nemea I, 239 figs. 337–338, where wrongly attributed to Justin II

STAD:2. STAD:2. 412 This coin was discovered in the closing silt of the Stadium tunnel, i.e. the same earth fill as that which produced the coins of Deposit STAD:2 but about 0.50 m. east of them. It should be considered a part of the same hoard. 411 Deposit

209

catalogue of coins, part ii

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2439

C 1514413

Cat. 2440 C 4090414 Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2441

C 1512415

AE

C 1513416

18.66

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 1, a.d. 548/9

AA 28

17.18

6c a.d.

a.d. 549/50

AE Z 28

C 2538

Antioch

DOC I, 143 no. 217c

20.10

6c a.d.

AE Z 28

Justinian facing Helmeted / Christogram with dependent alpha and omega (nummus) Cat. 2443

DOC I, 128 no. 174a

Z 28

Justinian facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2442

Cyzicus

Antioch

DOC I, 145 no. 220

18.37

6c a.d.

AE

L 17

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 3, a.d. 546/7

Western

0.97

5c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; a.d. 549/50 DOC I, 193 no. 374

a.d. 545–565

Justin II, a.d. 565–578 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2444

C 2223

J 19

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2445 C 3086 M 18 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2446

C 3089

C 1518417

Cat. 2448

413 Deposit

C 3320

K 18

Constantinople 12.44

unknown Constantinople

officina 5, a.d. 570/1 DOC I, 210 no. 36a

12.65

unknown

AE

AE

30,a

3/3 6c a.d.

DOC I, 205 no. 24d Hesperia 1983, 86 n. 79 pl. 26:b, c; officina 3, a.d. 567/8 DOC I, 207 no. 28d

AE

Z 28

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

Constantinople 13.57

J 18

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2447

AE

Constantinople 13.91

AE

6c a.d.

Constantinople 7.33

unknown

officina 1, a.d. 573/4; Nemea I, 239 figs. 337–338, where wrongly dated to a.d. 571/2 DOC I, 212 no. 38d Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 4, a.d. 574/5 DOC I, 214 no. 46 a.d. 567/8

STAD:2. coin was discovered in the closing silt of the Stadium tunnel, i.e. the same earth fill as that which produced the coins of Deposit STAD:2 but about 7.50 m. east of them. It should be considered a part of the same hoard. 415 Deposit STAD:2. 416 Deposit STAD:2. 417 Deposit STAD:2. 414 This

210

catalogue of coins, part ii

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi) Cat. 2449

C 1529418

AE

Z 28

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi) Cat. 2450 C 3195 M 12,13 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

Constantinople 7.70

AE

6c a.d.

Constantinople 5.48

AE

unknown Thessalonica

Cat. 2451

C 386

G 37

5.65

6c a.d.

Cat. 2452

C 3087

M 18

6.54

unknown

Cat. 2453

C 3543

K 19

4.21

modern

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

AE

Thessalonica

Cat. 2454

C 2234

J 19

5.05

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2455

C 3325

K 19

5.71

unknown

Cat. 2456 C 3733 K 19 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

6.08 AE

DOC I, 215 no. 48a Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 4, a.d. 569/70 DOC I, 216 no. 54b a.d. 573/4 DOC I, 222 nos. 68–69 Hesperia 1976, 202 pl. 44:b; a.d. 569/70 DOC I, 222 no. 68 DOC I, 222 no. 68 or 69 DOC I, 223 no. 75 Hesperia 1983, 86 n. 79 pl. 26:b, c; a.d. 572/3

5c–6c a.d. Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 8:a, b Thessalonica DOC I, 223 no. 76

Cat. 2457

C 1511419

Z 28

6.55

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200 Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; a.d. 573/4

Cat. 2458

C 1528420

Z 28

4.81

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318

5.66

modern Thessalonica

Cat. 2459 C 2461 K 16,17 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi) Cat. 2460

C 340 1523421

Cat. 2461

C

Cat. 2462

C 3232

4.78

modern

a.d. 574/5

Z 28

6.05

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318

J 13,14

5.48

unknown

5.90

unknown Thessalonica

DOC I, 224 no. 82

unknown Thessalonica

DOC I, 221 nos. 64ff.

Cat. 2464 C 3090 M 18 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

418 Deposit

C 1244422

DOC I, 223 no. 77

M 17

Cat. 2463 C 3313 K 18 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

Cat. 2465

AE

BB 28

AE 5.39 AE 5.97

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1979, 99 pl. 39:a; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; a.d. 569–578

STAD:2. STAD:2. 420 Deposit STAD:2. 421 Deposit STAD:2. 422 This coin was found together with Cat. 2423 (C 1246) in the closing silt of the Stadium tunnel, i.e. the same earth fill as that which produced the coins of Deposit STAD:2 but at the opposite end of the tunnel about 30 m. distant. It could be considered a part of the same deposit. 419 Deposit

211

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2466

C 1530423

Z 28

5.79

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; a.d. 565–578

Cat. 2467

C 3568

K 19

5.91

modern

Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 8:a, b; a.d. 568–577

Cat. 2468 C 3570 K 19 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (40 nummi)

4.64

modern Nicomedia

12.81

6c a.d.

Cat. 2469

C 4083424

AA 28

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2470

C 1517425

C 1519426

6c a.d.

AE

Nicomedia 13.72

6c a.d.

AE

Nicomedia

J 14

5.72

modern

Cat. 2473 C 3045 I 18 Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

6.26

unknown

Cat. 2474

C 1508

Nicomedia 13.36

Z 28

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi) Cat. 2472

AE

Z 28

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2471

AE

C 1004

K 17

Justin bust r. Diademed / Mark of value (5 nummi) Cat. 2475

C 2181427

AE

Cyzicus 4.19

J 19

Justin and Sophia enthroned facing / Mark of value (20 nummi)

Rome 1.21

AE

30,b

Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 1, a.d. 568/9 DOC I, 227 no. 95b Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 2, a.d. 569/70 DOC I, 228 no. 97b Hesperia 1980, 200 pl. 50:b; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; officina 1, a.d. 571/2 DOC I, 232 no. 108 a.d. 570/1 DOC I, 239 no. 133

modern

AE

ibid; a.d. 574–578 DOC I, 227 no. 94a

a.d. 574/5 DOC I, 259 no. 208

5c–6c a.d.

Hesperia 1983, 87 pl. 26:b, c; a.d. 565–578



Cat. 2476

C 1520428

Z 28

6.00

6c a.d.

Hesperia 1980, 200; Nemea II, 134 nn. 316, 318; a.d. 571/2

Cat. 2477

C 1521429

Z 28

5.74

6c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2478

1522430

Z 28

4.77

6c a.d.

ibid.; a.d. 566/7

423 Deposit

C

STAD:2. coin was discovered in the closing silt of the Stadium tunnel, i.e. the same earth fill as that which produced the coins of Deposit STAD:2 but about 1.80 m. east of them. It should be considered a part of the same hoard. 425 Deposit STAD:2. 426 Deposit STAD:2. 427 This coin was formerly assigned to Theodoric the Ostrogoth, mint of Ravenna (Wroth 52, nos. 41–51), but Justin’s inscription can be read on this and many other specimens. 428 Deposit STAD:2. 429 Deposit STAD:2. 430 Deposit STAD:2. 424 This

212

catalogue of coins, part ii

Tiberius II, a.d. 578–582 Tiberius bust facing Crowned / Mark of value (40 nummi) Cat. 2479

C 3338

AE K 19

Nicomedia 12.79

DOC I, 279 no. 31a

unknown

officina 1, a.d. 581/2

Maurice Tiberius, a.d. 582–602 Maurice bust facing Helmeted / Mark of value (20 nummi) Cat. 2480

C 3286

AE K 18

Maurice bust facing Helmeted / Mark of value (20 nummi) K 19

Cat. 2482 C 3329 Maurice bust facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi)

K 19

Cat. 2483 C 3328 Maurice bust facing Helmeted / Star (nummus)

K 19

C 2778431

5.00

unknown

30,c

AE

Cat. 2481 C 3330 Maurice bust facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi)

Cat. 2484

Thessalonica

Thessalonica 6.41

AE 11.21

E 19

unknown

officina 2, a.d. 588/9 DOC I, 332 no. 125b

unknown

AE

DOC I, 323 no. 89 a.d. 601/2 DOC I, 331 no. 123b

Cyzicus 11.44

a.d. 582/3

unknown Cyzicus

AE

DOC I, 320 no. 72

officina 2, a.d. 589/90

— 1.11

3c b.c.

30,d

a.d. 582–584

Phocas, a.d. 602–610 Phocas bust facing Helmeted / Mark of value (40 nummi)

AE

Cat. 2485 C 3549 Phocas bust facing Helmeted / Mark of value (20 nummi)

K 19

Cat. 2486

L 17

C 2427

Constantinople

DOC II pt. 1, 163 no. 24c

13.27

modern Constantinople

officina 3, a.d. 602/3 DOC II pt. 1, 168 no. 37a

5.47

modern

AE

officina 1, a.d. 603–610

Unattributed 6th-Century-a.d. Multiples Effaced / Mark of value (20 nummi) Cat. 2487

C 1140

AE north end of Nemea Valley

Effaced / Mark of value (5 nummi) Cat. 2488

C 1006

— 5.44

AE K 17

unknown —

1.14

modern

431 This very rare nummus is known elsewhere only from the excavations of the early Byzantine fort at Kastri on the island of Kythera (Kythera 215 no. 353 pl. 64; here Pl. 30, f ). It would appear that in his first or second year Maurice made an ephemeral attempt to clean up the lower end of the imperial money pool. All of the eastern mints issued decanummia which featured a star as on our coin. At the mint of Carthage folles and half folles were issued that showed the new nummus coin itself (DOC I, 356–357 nos. 243 and 244; here Pl. 30,e), the appropriate multiple mark, and the explicit label N M ( = nummus). The multiples in this issue are not very common and the base unit very rare indeed. At Nemea, this is probably the last coin added to the circulation pool before the Slavic onslaught.

213

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2489

C 1424

I 14

1.26

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2490

C 3397

J 18

1.65

unknown

Vandals, a.d. 440 –495 Bearded bust r. / Stylized Victory l.

AE

Cat. 2491

C 1637432

Cat. 2492



Wroth pl. III:6

G 19

0.88

modern

C 1705

E9

0.80

modern

Cat. 2493

C 2028

Q 19

0.40

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2494

C 2066

I 19

0.74

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2495

C 3587

K 19

0.35

Early Christian

Cat. 2496

C 4018

EE 26

0.42

5c–6c a.d.

THE BYZANTINE COINS (A.D. 886–1210) Leo VI, a.d. 886 –912 Leo bust facing Crowned / Inscription

AE



DOC III pt. 2, 519 no. 8

Cat. 2497

C 11

CC 32

3.45

12c–13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61; Nemea II, 135 nn. 322, 323

Cat. 2498

C 240

FF 23

6.05

modern

Hesperia 1976, 194 pl. 40:a; Nemea II, 135 n. 322

Cat. 2499

C 3435

K 19

4.96

unknown

Constantine VII, a.d. 913–959 Constantine bust facing Crowned / Inscription

AE



DOC III pt. 2, 566 no. 26

Cat. 2500

C 639

L 14

3.77

modern

Cat. 2501

C 2595

L 13

6.46

modern

Nicephorus II, a.d. 963–969 Nicephorus bust facing Crowned / Inscription Cat. 2502

432 These

C 3301433

AE K 18

— 4.73

DOC III pt. 2, 586 no. 7 unknown

crude little coins preceded the somewhat better style signed nummi of the end of the 5th century after Christ. Hoard evidence suggests that they entered the Peloponnesian money pool after the reconquest of Africa in a.d. 533. 433 Overstruck on follis of Romanus I (a.d. 931–944) (DOC III pt. 2, 562 no. 25).

214

catalogue of coins, part ii

Romanus IV, a.d. 1067–1071 Christ bust facing holding gospels / X over Latin cross Cat. 2503

C 1086

AE M 17

— 3.58

DOC III pt. 2, 796 no. 8 12c–13c a.d.

Michael VII, a.d. 1071–1078 Christ bust facing holding gospels / Michael bust facing Crowned Cat. 2504

C 471

AE M 16

— 1.50

DOC III pt. 2, 818 no. 14 modern

fragment

Nicephorus III, a.d. 1078–1081 Christ bust facing holding gospels / Star in circle on cross

AE



DOC III pt. 2, 831 no. 9

Cat. 2505

C 419

M 14

4.17

modern

Cat. 2506

C 2363

unknown

3.68

modern

Cat. 2507

C 2577

M 18

6.88

11c–12c a.d.

Cat. 2508

C 2627

L 13

5.84

modern

Cat. 2509

C 3359

J 18

3.03

unknown

Cat. 2510

C 3388

J 13

3.61

unknown

Cat. 2511

C 3436

M 12

6.23

unknown

The Anonymous Folles, a.d. 970 –1092 CLASS A1

AE



DOC III pt. 2, 648

Cat. 2512 CLASS A2

C 371

Cat. 2513

C 236

FF 23

12.64

modern

Cat. 2514

C 2604

M 18,19

9.12

11c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2515

C 3196

M 12

2.30

unknown

fragment

Cat. 2516

C 3366

J 14

13.98

unknown

Var. 25; holed for suspension

Cat. 2517

C 3382

K 18

11.78

unknown

Var. 8

Cat. 2518 CLASS B

C 3421

M 18

9.39

unknown

Cat. 2519

C4

CC 32

8.75

modern

Cat. 2520

C 1026

M 17

6.95

modern

Cat. 2521 CLASS D

C 3437

M 12,13

10.80

Cat. 2522 434 Overstruck

M 17

7.33

12c–13c a.d.

AE



AE



AE C

1851434

EE 23

on a Class A2 Anonymous Follis.

Hesperia 1976, 194 pl. 40:a; Nemea II, 137 n. 331; Var. 27; a.d. 976?–1030 or 35 Var. 32

Var. 8 DOC III pt. 2, 676 a.d. 1030 or 35–1042? holed for suspension; Nemea II, 136 n. 323

unknown

30,g —

8.58

a.d. 970–976? DOC III pt. 2, 650

DOC III pt. 2, 685 modern

a.d. 1050–ca.1060

215

catalogue of coins, part ii

CLASS F

AE 3094435



DOC III pt. 2, 690

Cat. 2523 CLASS G

C

Cat. 2524 CLASS H

C 1023

Cat. 2525

C 363

M 17

3.67

12c–13c a.d.

holed for suspension

Cat. 2526

C 2317

K,L 13,14

4.59

unknown

ca. a.d. 1070–1075

Cat. 2527

C 2660

K,L 16

3.59

unknown

M 18

4.70 AE

M 17

ca. a.d. 1060–1065 DOC III pt. 2, 692

modern

ca. a.d. 1065–1070 DOC III pt. 2, 694

— 11.48

30,h

AE

CLASS I

unknown



AE



DOC III pt. 2, 696

Cat. 2528

C 16

CC 32

3.28

Cat. 2529

C 560

L 14

5.41

Cat. 2530

C 767

Kleonai

3.70

unknown

Cat. 2531

C 1379

I 14

5.28

modern

Cat. 2532

C 1560

J 13

1.73

modern

K 14?

5.14

unknown

Cat. 2533 CLASS J

C

3283436

12c–13c a.d. modern

31,a

AE



ca. a.d. 1075–1080

fragment DOC III pt. 2, 700

Cat. 2534

C 12

CC 32

3.35

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2535

C 222

I 12

2.11

modern

CC 31,32

6.04

unknown

7.70

490437

Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61; Nemea II, 136 n. 323

Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61; Nemea II, 136 n. 323 ca. a.d. 1080–1085

Cat. 2536

C

Cat. 2537

C 3230

J 13,14

Cat. 2538 CLASS K

C 3260438

I,J 17

Cat. 2539

C 205

M 11

0.82

modern

fragment

Cat. 2540

C 353

M 17

1.45

12c–13c a.d.

fragment

Cat. 2541

C 861

K 15

5.38

modern

Cat. 2542

C 1376

I 14

6.11

Cat. 2543

C 3233

J 13,14

3.81

unknown

K 18

4.88

unknown

3.97

unknown

AE

3278439

unknown

31,b —

DOC III pt. 2, 702

modern

31,c

Cat. 2544

C

Cat. 2545

C 3327

L 19

3.45

unknown

Cat. 2546

C 4067

DD 26

1.81

modern

Alexius I, a.d. 1081–1118 Full-length Alexius facing holding labarum / Bust of Virgin Orans

AE



DOC IV pl. II no. 18

Cat. 2547

C 1808

L 19

1.59

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2548

C 3394

K 16

2.09

unknown

435 Overstruck

on a Class D Anonymous Follis.

436 Overstruck. 437 Overstruck

on a follis of Nicephorus III.

438 Overstruck. 439 Overstruck

on an Anonymous Follis Class C (a.d. 1042?–ca.1050) (DOC III pt. 2, 681).

a.d. 1087–1092 fragment, a.d. 1096–1118

216

catalogue of coins, part ii

Half-length bust of Alexius facing holding labarum / Christ bust facing

AE



DOC IV pl. VI no. 33

Cat. 2549

C 57

N 17

1.41

modern

Cat. 2550

C 405

M 17

1.96

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2551

C 1377

I 14

3.68

modern

Cat. 2552

C 1809

L 19

3.24

modern

Cat. 2553

C 1864

EE 22

2.95

modern

Cat. 2554

C 2364

unknown

1.87

modern

Cat. 2555

C 2631

M,N 18

2.13

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2556

C 3268

K 19

2.24

modern

Cat. 2557

C 3529

L 19

2.17

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2558 C 3813 M 19 Half-length bust of Alexius facing holding cross scepter / Jeweled cross

1.76

modern

AE



Cat. 2559

C 1801

L 19

4.87

modern

Cat. 2560

C 2369

AA,EE 28,33

4.13

unknown

3.85

unknown

Cat. 2561 C 3218 L 12 Full-length Alexius facing holding cross scepter / Jeweled cross

AE



halved a.d. 1087–1092

imitation? Hendy pl. 8 no. 10

a.d. 1096–1118

DOC IV pl. VII no. 40a.12

Cat. 2562

C 234

FF 23

1.24

modern

Hesperia 1976, 194 pl. 40:a; Nemea II, 137 n. 331

Cat. 2563

C 322

I 12

2.27

modern

ca. a.d. 1110–1118

Cat. 2564

C 1428

H 14

1.26

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2565

C 1623

J 13

2.94

6c a.d.

Cat. 2566

C 1813

L 18

2.71

modern

Cat. 2567

C 2315

K,L 13,14

2.72

unknown

Cat. 2568

C 2413

N 18

1.76

11c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2569

C 2611

L 15

1.95

unknown

Cat. 2570 C 3264 Alexius bust facing holding jeweled scepter / Cross on steps Cat. 2571

C 2302

K,L 18?

1.82 AE

P 14

unknown —

1.96

DOC IV pl. VII no. 43

12c–13c a.d.

a.d. 1096–1118

217

catalogue of coins, part ii

John II, a.d. 1118–1143 John bust facing holding jeweled scepter / Christ bust facing holding gospels Cat. 2572

C 243 344440

AE



M 17

3.28

M 17

2.58

DOC IV pl. X no. 14a modern

Cat. 2573

C

Cat. 2574

C 472

M 16

3.54

modern

Cat. 2575

C 483

M 16

2.24

modern

fragment

Cat. 2576

C 1285

J 14

1.47

modern

fragment

Cat. 2577

C 1556

J 14

0.98

modern

fragment

Cat. 2578

C 1618

J 13

2.69

modern

Cat. 2579

C 3323

K 17

2.00

unknown

Cat. 2580 C 4019 DD 26 John bust facing holding jeweled scepter / Bust of St. Demetrius facing Nimbate Cat. 2581

C 3095

modern

31,d

4.00

12c–13c a.d.

AE

K,M 18

— 1.52

DOC IV pl. X no. 17b unknown

Trebizond, ca. 1095–1120 441 Alexius bust facing holding cross scepter / Jeweled cross Cat. 2582

C 1805

AE

L 19

— 2.17

DOC IV pl. XXV no. 13a modern

31,e

cut down

Manuel I Comnenus, a.d. 1143–1180 Manuel bust facing holding labarum / Christ bust facing Cat. 2583 C 2429 N 18 Manuel bust facing holding labarum / Monogram

AE

— 2.44

AE

DOC IV pl. XIII no. 10a 12c–13c a.d.

31, f —

Cat. 2584

C 152

M6

2.53

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2585

C 231

N 16

2.66

modern

Cat. 2586

C 247

M 17

2.49

modern

Cat. 2587

C 451

northwest valley

2.26

modern

Cat. 2588

C 480

M 16

2.23

modern

Cat. 2589

C 1235

K 17

2.20

modern

Cat. 2590

C 1660

G 18

2.73

modern

Cat. 2591

C 2089

J 19

2.46

modern

trachy DOC IV pl. XVI no. 20

Hesperia 1976, 178 pl. 31:b doublestruck

440 The coinage of John is not nearly as monolithic as the handbooks would suggest. In this particular issue of tetartera there are three distinct classes: two are of four-scruple weight and feature either the Christ bust as usually described or a three-quarter depiction of Christ. The third class weighs only three scruples and has the secret marks of a pellet ( jewel) on the imperial bust’s shoulder and writing on the pages of the gospels held by Christ. We can make no chronological judgement, but the first two classes are quite likely the products of Constantinople, the third of Thessalonica. Cat. 2573 (C 344) is an example of the third class. 441 These rare folles were presumably made available to the Imperial money pool as a consequence of John II’s failed campaign in 1139/40 which intended to restore the Empire’s control over the breakaway Theme of Chaldia. They have been found in small numbers at both Athens and Corinth.

218

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2592

C 2414

L 17

2.30

modern

Cat. 2593

C 2423

L 17

2.31

modern

Cat. 2594

C 2599

K 16,17

2.45

modern

Cat. 2595

C 3238

H 18

2.48

unknown

Cat. 2596

C 3254

J 13

2.83

unknown

Cat. 2597

C 3285

L 18

2.33

unknown

Cat. 2598

C 3365

K 17

2.62

Cat. 2599

C 3373

J,K 18

2.33

unknown

Cat. 2600

C 3375

J,K 18

2.22

unknown

2.52

unknown

Cat. 2601 C 3506 unknown Manuel bust facing holding labarum / Monogram

AE

unknown

31,g



DOC IV pl. XVI no. 23

Cat. 2602

C9

CC 32

1.08

12c–13c a.d.

a.d. 1143–ca. 1150; Nemea II, 136 n. 323

Cat. 2603

C 14

CC 32

1.18

12c–13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 169 n. 61; Nemea II, 136 n. 323

Cat. 2604

C 15

CC 32

0.89

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2605

C 17

CC 32

0.93

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2606

C 54

N 17

1.30

modern

Cat. 2607

C 56

N 17

1.41

modern

Cat. 2608

C 167

F 12

1.35

modern

Cat. 2609

C 168

F 12

0.97

modern

Cat. 2610

C 200

M 11

1.64

modern

Cat. 2611

C 232

N 16

1.33

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2612

C 233

FF 23

0.72

modern

Cat. 2613

C 255

I 12

1.08

modern

Cat. 2614

C 271

M 17

1.34

modern

Cat. 2615

C 333

M 13

1.07

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2616

C 347

M 17

0.99

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2617

C 367

M 17

1.58

modern

Cat. 2618

C 394

M 17

1.35

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2619

C 396

M 17

1.91

modern

Cat. 2620

C 400

M 17

0.97

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2621

C 402

N 16

1.19

unknown

Cat. 2622

C 432

M 16

0.72

modern

Cat. 2623

C 433

M 16

1.43

modern

Cat. 2624

C 453

N 15

1.27

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2625

C 462

M 16

1.37

modern

Cat. 2626

C 467

M 16

1.62

modern

Cat. 2627

C 468

M 16

1.96

modern

Cat. 2628

C 474

M 16

0.95

modern

Hesperia 1976, 178 pl. 31:b Hesperia 1976, 194 pl. 40:a; Nemea II, 137 n. 331; halved

a.d. 1143–ca. 1145 Hesperia 1977, 13 pl. 7:c

219

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2629

C 477

M 16

1.53

modern

Cat. 2630

C 496

M 16

1.46

12c–13c a.d.

Hesperia 1977, 13 pl. 7:c

Cat. 2631

C 498

M 16

1.87

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2632

C 499

M 16

1.05

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2633

C 555

O 17

1.97

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2634

C 561

L 14

1.02

modern

Cat. 2635

C 633

L 14

1.57

modern

Cat. 2636

C 721

K 14

0.50

modern

Cat. 2637

C 724

K 14

1.51

modern

Cat. 2638

C 725

L 16

1.26

modern

Cat. 2639

C 728

L 16

0.79

modern

Cat. 2640

C 729

L 16

1.53

modern

Cat. 2641

C 736

L 16

0.86

unknown

Cat. 2642

C 770

M 14

1.60

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2643

C 773

M 14

1.38

modern

Cat. 2644

C 794

N 16

1.14

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2645

C 795

N 16

2.05

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2646

C 796

N 16

0.99

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2647

C 827

M 16

1.95

modern

Cat. 2648

C 829

M 16

0.86

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2649

C 831

M 16

1.57

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2650

C 845

M 15

1.77

modern

Cat. 2651

C 867

K 15

1.56

modern

Cat. 2652

C 994

J 15

0.86

modern

Cat. 2653

C 1090

N 17

1.63

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2654

C 1132

L 17

1.86

modern

Cat. 2655

C 1145

L 17

0.58

modern

Cat. 2656

C 1146

L 17

1.61

modern

Cat. 2657

C 1148

L 17

0.86

modern

Cat. 2658

C 1167

L 20

1.51

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2659

C 1364

J 16

1.52

modern

Cat. 2660

C 1414

H 14

1.62

modern

Cat. 2661

C 1810

L 19

1.09

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2662

C 1812

L 18

0.88

modern

Cat. 2663

C 2035

P 12

2.06

modern

Cat. 2664

C 2311

L 13

1.97

unknown

Cat. 2665

C 2312

K,L 13,14

2.13

unknown

Cat. 2666

C 2361

unknown

0.72

unknown

Cat. 2667

C 2367

N 18

2.07

modern

Cat. 2668

C 2368

N 17

1.50

modern

Cat. 2669

C 2382

N 18

1.20

12c–14c a.d.

imitation

220

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2670

C 2399

K 16

1.16

modern

Cat. 2671

C 2415

L 17

1.14

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2672

C 2416

K,L 16

1.26

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2673

C 2419

N 18

1.30

Turkish/modern

Cat. 2674

C 2455

N 18

0.88

11c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2675

C 2479

M 18

1.21

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2676

C 2483

O 18

2.10

modern

Cat. 2677

C 2493

K,L 17

1.82

Roman

Cat. 2678

C 2499

K 16,17

1.50

13c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2679

C 2500

K 16,17

1.57

13c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2680

C 2503

N 18

1.33

modern

Cat. 2681

C 2522

L 17

1.00

modern

Cat. 2682

C 2535

N 18

1.06

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2683

C 2537

L 13

1.63

modern

Cat. 2684

C 2547

K 16

1.06

unknown

Cat. 2685

C 2548

K 16

2.16

unknown

Cat. 2686

C 2552

L 16

1.94

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2687

C 2553

K,L 17

1.26

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2688

C 2558

N 18

1.60

unknown

Cat. 2689

C 2564

L 13

1.49

unknown

Cat. 2690

C 2569

K 17

1.43

unknown

Cat. 2691

C 2573

L 13

1.46

unknown

Cat. 2692

C 2574

L 13

1.78

modern

Cat. 2693

C 2579

M 18

1.40

11c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2694

C 2600

L 13

1.42

modern

Cat. 2695

C 2612

L 13

0.75

modern

Cat. 2696

C 2617

N 17

1.44

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2697

C 2624

L 13

1.19

modern

Cat. 2698

C 2625

L 13

0.93

modern

Cat. 2699

C 2628

M,N 18

1.32

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2700

C 2634

K,L 16

1.64

modern

Cat. 2701

C 2646

L 13

1.95

modern

Cat. 2702

C 3051

I 18

1.36

unknown

Cat. 2703

C 3096

K,M 18

2.15

unknown

Cat. 2704

C 3103

G,H 18

1.49

unknown

Cat. 2705

C 3106

L 18

1.93

unknown

Cat. 2706

C 3133

L,M 18

1.79

unknown

Cat. 2707

C 3174

H 19

1.38

unknown

Cat. 2708

C 3205

M 13

1.36

unknown

Cat. 2709

C 3214

M 11,12

1.66

unknown

Cat. 2710

C 3222

M 13

1.11

unknown

imitation

221

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2711

C 3225

J 13,14

1.10

unknown

Cat. 2712

C 3239

H 18

1.39

unknown

Cat. 2713

C 3242

H 18

0.99

unknown

Cat. 2714

C 3261

I,J 17

1.65

unknown

Cat. 2715

C 3269

K 19

1.64

unknown

Cat. 2716

C 3287

K 18

1.59

unknown

Cat. 2717

C 3305

K 18

1.79

unknown

Cat. 2718

C 3341

K 17

1.83

unknown

Cat. 2719

C 3345

K 18

1.50

unknown

Cat. 2720

C 3372

K 16,17

1.82

unknown

Cat. 2721

C 3374

J,K 18

1.94

unknown

Cat. 2722

C 3489

unknown

1.75

unknown

Cat. 2723

C 3500

unknown

2.09

unknown

Cat. 2724

C 3501

unknown

1.30

unknown

Cat. 2725

C 3502

unknown

2.02

unknown

Cat. 2726

C 3503

unknown

1.32

unknown

Cat. 2727

C 3504

unknown

1.44

unknown

Cat. 2728

C 3505

unknown

1.38

unknown

Cat. 2729

C 3509

unknown

2.08

unknown

Cat. 2730

C 3510

unknown

1.99

unknown

Cat. 2731

C 3513

unknown

1.36

unknown

Cat. 2732

C 3514

unknown

1.36

unknown

Cat. 2733

C 3516

unknown

1.26

unknown

Cat. 2734

C 3571

K 19

1.27

4c–6c a.d.

Cat. 2735

C 3599

K 19

1.11

modern

Cat. 2736

C 3753

L 19

1.81

modern

Cat. 2737 C 3765 N 18 Manuel bust facing holding scepter / St. George bust facing Nimbate

1.40

modern

Cat. 2738

C 3216

AE



DOC IV pl. XVI no. 18

M 11,12

1.05

unknown

Cat. 2739 C 3521 unknown Manuel bust facing holding scepter / St. George bust facing Nimbate

0.71

unknown

AE



cut down; a.d. 1143–ca. 1145 halved Hendy pl. 18 no. 3

Cat. 2740

C2

CC 32

1.31

modern

Cat. 2741

C 10

CC 32

1.76

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2742

C 62

N 17

0.94

12c–13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 162 pl. 39:g

Cat. 2743

C 64

N 17

2.39

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2744

C 68

N 17

1.02

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2745

C 69

N 17

1.16

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2746

C 71

N 17

2.29

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

Cat. 2747

C 73

N 17

1.64

12c–13c a.d.

ibid.

a.d. 1143–ca. 1150; Nemea II, 136 n. 323

222

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2748

C 75

N 17

1.65

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2749

C 79

N 17

1.27

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2750

C 85

N 17

0.67

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2751

C 107

M 12

1.73

modern

Cat. 2752

C 108

M 12

1.13

modern

Cat. 2753

C 213

M 11

1.46

modern

Cat. 2754

C 218

M 11

1.11

modern

Cat. 2755

C 225

N 16

1.86

modern

Cat. 2756

C 226

N 16

1.11

modern

Cat. 2757

C 237

FF 23

1.51

modern

Cat. 2758

C 239

FF 23

1.75

modern

Hesperia 1976, 194 pl. 40:a; Nemea II, 137 n. 331

Cat. 2759

C 241

FF 23

1.64

modern

ibid.

Cat. 2760

C 259

M 11

0.73

modern

I 12 ?

1.22

modern

323442

Cat. 2761

C

Cat. 2762

C 324

PP 19

0.86

modern

Cat. 2763

C 346

M 17

0.78

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2764

C 352

M 17

0.84

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2765

C 355

M 17

0.73

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2766

C 356

M 17

2.85

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2767

C 359

M 17

1.20

modern

Cat. 2768

C 365

M 17

1.50

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2769

C 399

M 17

2.02

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2770

C 403

O 16

1.96

modern

Cat. 2771

C 415

M 14

0.81

modern

Cat. 2772

C 420

M 14

0.48

modern

Cat. 2773

C 425

M 14

1.49

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2774

C 431

M 16

1.75

modern

Cat. 2775

C 460

M 16

1.53

modern

Cat. 2776

C 461

M 16

1.07

modern

Cat. 2777

C 463

M 16

1.41

modern

Cat. 2778

C 464

M 16

1.09

modern

Cat. 2779

C 465

M 16

1.72

modern

Cat. 2780

C 470

M 16

1.06

modern

Cat. 2781

C 475

M 16

0.70

modern

Cat. 2782

C 476

M 16

0.55

modern

Cat. 2783

C 478

M 16

2.25

modern

Cat. 2784

C 494

M 16

1.64

12c–13c a.d.

442

Hesperia 1976, 178 pl. 31:b

holed for suspension

Material from two different Grid Sections, I 12 and N 16, was inadvertently mixed together at the time of excavations, and this coin was subsequently found in that mixed material. At the time, the excavations in N 16 were well below the Byzantine levels, so that this coin probably was found in I 12.

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2785

C 500

M 16

1.17

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2786

C 546

M 15

0.67

modern

Cat. 2787

C 559

L 14

2.35

modern

Cat. 2788

C 617

O 17

2.54

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2789

C 634

L 14

1.29

modern

Cat. 2790

C 636

L 14

0.94

modern

Cat. 2791

C 730

L 16

0.98

modern

Cat. 2792

C 732

L 16

0.86

modern

Cat. 2793

C 787

M 16

0.90

modern

Cat. 2794

C 788

M 16

1.61

modern

Cat. 2795

C 823

L 15

1.12

modern

Cat. 2796

C 828

M 16

2.29

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2797

C 989

J 15

0.84

modern

Cat. 2798

C 1025

M 17

2.22

modern

Cat. 2799

C 1027

M 17

1.07

modern

Cat. 2800

C 1149

I 17

1.91

modern

Cat. 2801

C 1166

L 20

1.50

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2802

C 1238

K 17

1.48

modern

Cat. 2803

C 1283

J 14

0.79

modern

Cat. 2804

C 1569

EE 26

1.11

modern

Cat. 2805

C 1617

J 13

1.23

modern

Cat. 2806

C 1619

J 13

2.94

modern

Cat. 2807

C 1627

G 19

1.59

modern

Cat. 2808

C 1664

G 18

1.20

modern

Cat. 2809

C 1803

L 19

1.23

modern

Cat. 2810

C 1824

L 18

1.73

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2811

C 1827

L 18

1.39

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2812

C 2034

M 14

1.89

modern

Cat. 2813

C 2316

L 13

1.10

unknown443

Cat. 2814

C 2357

unknown

1.46

unknown

Cat. 2815

C 2365

unknown

1.21

modern

Cat. 2816

C 2379

K 17

1.15

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2817

C 2396

N 18

1.28

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2818

C 2401

L 17

1.49

modern

Cat. 2819

C 2412

N 18

0.83

11c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2820

C 2422

L 17

1.30

Late Byzantine

Cat. 2821

C 2447

N 18

1.45

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2822

C 2448

N 18

1.74

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2823

C 2452

L 17

1.45

modern

443 This

coin was discovered in 1935 in a joint between two blocks in the pavement of the pronaos of the Temple of Zeus.

223

224

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2824

C 2481

N 18

2.13

11c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2825

C 2485

M 18

1.19

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2826

C 2501

K 16,17

1.69

13c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2827

C 2528

N 17

1.21

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2828

C 2549

K 16

1.64

modern

Cat. 2829

C 2551

L 16

1.11

modern

Cat. 2830

C 2559

N 18

2.43

unknown

Cat. 2831

C 2585

L 13

1.62

modern

Cat. 2832

C 2592

K,L 17

1.69

modern

Cat. 2833

C 2594

L 15

1.24

modern

Cat. 2834

C 2596

M 19

1.81

undatable444

Cat. 2835

C 2603

N 18

1.24

modern

Cat. 2836

C 2608

L 16

0.76

modern

Cat. 2837

C 2616

M 18

2.20

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2838

C 2621

N 17

2.09

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 2839

C 2648

K,L 16

1.48

modern?

Cat. 2840

C 3006

L 19

0.68

17c–18c a.d.

Cat. 2841

C 3014

L 19

1.11

17c–18c a.d.

Cat. 2842

C 3100

L 15,16

1.47

unknown

Cat. 2843

C 3101

J 13

1.53

unknown

Cat. 2844

C 3115

L,M 18

2.04

unknown

Cat. 2845

C 3119

L,M 18

1.90

unknown

Cat. 2846

C 3127

M 18

1.68

unknown

Cat. 2847

C 3132

L 18

1.19

unknown

Cat. 2848

C 3150

unknown

1.34

unknown

Cat. 2849

C 3193

M 12,13

1.56

unknown

Cat. 2850

C 3197

M 12,13

1.66

unknown

Cat. 2851

C 3198

M 12,13

1.44

unknown

Cat. 2852

C 3206

M 13

1.67

unknown

Cat. 2853

C 3210

M 11,12

2.40

unknown

Cat. 2854

C 3219

L 12

1.93

unknown

Cat. 2855

C 3223

L 12

2.21

unknown

Cat. 2856

C 3229

J 13,14

1.84

unknown

Cat. 2857

C 3237

H 18

1.62

unknown

Cat. 2858

C 3255

J 13

1.61

unknown

Cat. 2859

C 3270

L 18

1.71

unknown

Cat. 2860

C 3274

L 18

1.53

unknown

Cat. 2861

C 3281

J,K 14

1.55

unknown

Cat. 2862

C 3293

K,L 18

1.38

unknown

444 This

imitation

imitation fragment

coin was “found within the loose fill atop the skeleton” in a stone slab–lined tomb in 1964 (Nemea Notebook 21, p. 41).

225

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2863

C 3348

J 13

0.79

unknown

Cat. 2864

C 3349

J 13

1.13

unknown

Cat. 2865

C 3368

K 16

0.93

unknown

Cat. 2866

C 3369

K 16

0.98

unknown

Cat. 2867

C 3389

J 13

2.50

unknown

Cat. 2868

C 3395

J 18

1.61

unknown

Cat. 2869

C 3406

J,K 18

1.40

unknown

Cat. 2870

C 3410

K 16

2.74

unknown

Cat. 2871

C 3463

unknown

1.13

unknown

Cat. 2872

C 3464

unknown

1.57

unknown

Cat. 2873

C 3465

unknown

1.34

unknown

Cat. 2874

C 3466

unknown

1.55

unknown

Cat. 2875

C 3467

unknown

1.87

unknown

Cat. 2876

C 3468

unknown

1.39

unknown

Cat. 2877

C 3469

unknown

0.87

unknown

Cat. 2878

C 3470

unknown

1.85

unknown

Cat. 2879

C 3471

unknown

1.25

unknown

Cat. 2880

C 3472

unknown

1.78

unknown

Cat. 2881

C 3473

unknown

0.83

unknown

Cat. 2882

C 3474

unknown

1.67

unknown

Cat. 2883

C 3475

unknown

1.18

unknown

Cat. 2884

C 3476

unknown

1.35

unknown

Cat. 2885

C 3477

unknown

1.27

unknown

Cat. 2886

C 3479

unknown

1.68

unknown

Cat. 2887

C 3480

unknown

0.94

unknown

Cat. 2888

C 3481

unknown

1.81

unknown

Cat. 2889

C 3484

unknown

1.51

unknown

Cat. 2890

C 3485

unknown

1.90

unknown

Cat. 2891

C 3486

unknown

1.98

unknown

Cat. 2892

C 3487

unknown

1.29

unknown

Cat. 2893

C 3488

unknown

1.60

unknown

Cat. 2894

C 3490

unknown

1.98

unknown

Cat. 2895

C 3491

unknown

1.65

unknown

Cat. 2896

C 3492

unknown

0.90

unknown

Cat. 2897

C 3493

unknown

0.26

unknown

Cat. 2898

C 3495

unknown

1.09

unknown

Cat. 2899

C 3496

unknown

1.00

unknown

Cat. 2900

C 3497

unknown

1.72

unknown

Cat. 2901

C 3498

unknown

1.13

unknown

Cat. 2902

C 3499

unknown

1.06

unknown

Cat. 2903

C 3518

unknown

1.56

unknown

fragment

226

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2904

C 3526

L 19

1.70

modern

Cat. 2905

C 3527

L 19

1.04

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2906

C 3531

L 19

0.95

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2907

C 3536

BB,CC 31,32

1.83

unknown

Cat. 2908

C 3564

K 19

1.51

modern

Cat. 2909

C 3642

L 19

1.40

unknown

Cat. 2910

C 3783

M 12

1.04

modern

Cat. 2911

C 3911

N 19

1.11

2c–1c b.c.

Cat. 2912

C 4016

DD 27

1.66

12c–13c a.d.

Manuel standing facing holding cross scepter / Christ bust facing Nimbate

AE



DOC IV pl. XVI no. 24

Cat. 2913

C 61

N 17

1.29

12c–13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 162 pl. 39:g

Cat. 2914

C 63

N 17

1.49

12c–13c a.d.

a.d. 1143–1145

Cat. 2915

C 67

N 17

2.38

12c–13c a.d.

Hesperia 1975, 162 pl. 39:g

M 11

1.78

modern

207445

31,h

Cat. 2916

C

Cat. 2917

C 221

M 11

2.31

modern

Cat. 2918

C 258

I 12

1.55

modern

Cat. 2919

C 332

M 13

1.79

modern

Cat. 2920

C 358

M 17

1.12

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2921

C 398

M 17

3.11

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2922

C 408

N 15

1.99

modern

Cat. 2923

C 459

M 16

2.25

modern

Cat. 2924

C 469

M 16

1.58

modern

Cat. 2925

C 484

M 16

1.18

modern

Cat. 2926

C 769

M 14

2.80

modern

Cat. 2927

C 789

M 16

1.28

modern

Cat. 2928

C 866

K 15

1.46

modern

Cat. 2929

C 877

O 17

1.13

modern

Cat. 2930

C 1033

M,N 17

1.56

modern

Cat. 2931

C 1147

L 17

2.32

modern

Cat. 2932

C 1337

K 20

1.78

modern

Cat. 2933

C 1835

L 18

2.23

undatable446

Cat. 2934

C 2313

K,L 13,14

1.39

unknown

Cat. 2935

C 2319

K,L 13,14

0.97

unknown

Cat. 2936

C 2336

M 18

1.40

unknown

Cat. 2937

C 2565

L 13

1.30

unknown

Cat. 2938

C 2649

K,L 16

1.42

modern

445 Overstruck 446 This

Hesperia 1981, 57 pl. 18:a, b; Nemea I, 147 n. 456

on a Manuel monogram issue. coin was found outside the corner of a tomb that contained no other datable material.

227

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2939

C 3098

M 18

1.49

unknown

Cat. 2940

C 3099

M 18

1.67

unknown

Cat. 2941

C 3202

M 12,13

2.64

unknown

Cat. 2942

C 3203

M 12,13

1.40

unknown

Cat. 2943

C 3208

M 12,13

1.70

unknown

Cat. 2944

C 3215

M 11,12

1.53

unknown

Cat. 2945

C 3282

J,K 14

1.41

unknown

Cat. 2946

C 3284

K 14?

1.53

unknown

Cat. 2947

C 3400

J,K 18

1.19

unknown

Cat. 2948

C 3458

unknown

1.43

unknown

Cat. 2949

C 3460

unknown

1.68

unknown

Cat. 2950

C 3461

unknown

1.96

unknown

Cat. 2951

C 3462

unknown

1.62

unknown

Cat. 2952

C 3596

K 19

1.30

6c a.d.

Cat. 2953

C 3619

L 19

2.08

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2954

C 4049

CC 27

1.42

modern

DD 26

1.28

modern

Cat. 2955 C 4066 Manuel three-quarter length facing holding labarum / Cross on steps

AE



DOC IV pl. XVI no. 25

Cat. 2956

C 366

M 17

2.52

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2957

C 369

M 17

1.62

modern

Cat. 2958

C 479

M 16

1.01

modern

Cat. 2959

C 481

M 16

1.04

modern

Cat. 2960

C 797

N 16

2.08

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2961

C 1365

J 16

2.55

Cat. 2962

C 1621

J 13

2.29

6c a.d.

Cat. 2963

C 2073

P 13

1.18

modern

Cat. 2964

C 2362

I 18

0.99

unknown

Cat. 2965

C 3108

M 18

2.30

unknown

Cat. 2966

C 3200

M 12,13

1.92

unknown

Cat. 2967

C 3303

K 18

1.07

unknown

Cat. 2968

C 3530

L 19

1.34

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2969

C 3565

K 15

1.16

modern

Cat. 2970

C 3607

K 19

3.00

modern

Cat. 2971

C 3641

L 19

2.06

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2972

C 3656

L 19

1.42

modern

Cat. 2973

C 4070

DD 27

3.51

modern

31,i

a.d. 1143–ca. 1145

modern

halved

imitation

Brockages of the 1st Provincial Series Cat. 2974

C 276

M 17

1.72

modern

obverse; a.d. 1143–ca. 1145

Cat. 2975

C 411

M 16

1.65

modern

obverse

Cat. 2976

C 413

M 14

1.56

modern

St. George

228

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 2977

C 473

M 16

1.20

modern

obverse

Cat. 2978

C 3411

K 16

1.39

unknown

obverse

unknown

0.94

unknown

St. George

Cat. 2979 C 3478 Manuel bust facing / Effaced Cat. 2980

C 66

N 17

1.25

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 2981

C 2523

L 17

0.47

modern?

Cat. 2982

C 3262

I,J 17

1.63

unknown

Cat. 2983

C 3350

J 13

0.69

unknown

The 2nd Provincial

Series447

a.d. 1143–ca. 1145

Cat. 2984

C 65

N 17

0.20

12c–13c a.d.

monogram; ca. a.d. 1150–1165

Cat. 2985

C 70

N 17

1.13

12c–13c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 2986

C 229

N 16

1.83

modern

Cat. 2987

C 364

M 17

0.49

12c–13c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 2988

C 370

M 17

0.65

12c–13c a.d.

St. George

Cat. 2989

C 422

M 17

0.26

modern

monogram

Cat. 2990

C 491

M 16

0.45

modern

monogram

Cat. 2991

C 492

M 16

0.26

12c–13c a.d.

St. George

Cat. 2992

C 791

M 16

0.72

modern

St. George

Cat. 2993

C 990

J 15

0.66

modern

monogram

Cat. 2994

C 1035

N 17

0.89

12c–13c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 2995

C 1241

K 17

0.25

modern

St. George

Cat. 2996

C 1413

H 14

0.41

modern

monogram

Cat. 2997

C 1704

L 13

1.08

modern

St. George

Cat. 2998

C 1823

L 18

0.89

12c–13c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 2999

C 2036

P 12

1.18

modern

monogram

Cat. 3000

C 2346

L 18

0.42

modern

monogram

Cat. 3001

C 2358

unknown

0.61

unknown

St. George

Cat. 3002

C 2359

unknown

0.38

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3003

C 2372

K 16

0.71

undatable

monogram

Cat. 3004

C 2375

N 18

0.55

12c–14c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 3005

C 2398

K 16

0.75

unknown

St. George

Cat. 3006

C 2478

M 18

0.61

12c–13c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 3007

C 2515

K 14

0.66

modern

monogram

Cat. 3008

C 2575

L 13

0.63

modern

St. George

Cat. 3009

C 2597

M,N 18

0.42

12c–13c a.d.

monogram

0.95

undatable448

monogram

Cat. 3010

447 See

C 2598

M 19

Hesperia 1976, 184 n. 18 pl. 33:d

pp. 188–189 above for discussion of this and the following series. coin was discovered in 1964 above a rubble-lined, uncovered burial, in “apparently the excavated portion for the grave” (Nemea Notebook 15, p. 46); that is, the earth that was dug out before the burial and thrown in afterward. 448 This

229

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 3011

C 2618

N 17

0.49

12c–14c a.d.

St. George

Cat. 3012

C 2635

L 13

0.81

modern

St. George

Cat. 3013

C 3016

L 19

0.99

17c–18c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 3014

C 3097

K,M 18

0.27

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3015

C 3104

M 18

1.02

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3016

C 3105

L 18

0.66

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3017

C 3177

H 18

0.79

unknown

St. George

Cat. 3018

C 3221

L 12

0.44

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3019

C 3459

unknown

0.88

unknown

Christ bust

Cat. 3020

C 3482

J 17

0.92

unknown

St. George

Cat. 3021

C 3483

unknown

0.86

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3022

C 3494

unknown

1.13

unknown

St. George

Cat. 3023

C 3508

unknown

1.15

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3024

C 3511

unknown

1.02

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3025

C 3512

unknown

0.68

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3026

C 3519

unknown

0.61

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3027

C 3523

M 12

0.40

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3028

C 3640

L 19

1.07

12c–13c a.d.

St. George

Cat. 3029

C 3652

L 19

0.95

modern

Christ bust

Cat. 3030

C 3814

M 19

0.96

modern

monogram

Cat. 3031

C 3828

M 19

0.24

modern

?

Cat. 3032

C 3829

M 19

0.53

modern

St. George

Cat. 3033 C 4001 The 3rd Provincial Series

M 11

0.69

modern

monogram

Cat. 3034

C 423

M 17

0.32

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 3035

C 726

L 16

0.23

modern

?

Cat. 3036

C 784

M 15

0.16

modern

monogram

Cat. 3037

C 1007

K 17

0.50

modern

monogram

Cat. 3038

C 1874

O 19

0.36

modern

?

Cat. 3039

C 2345

N,O 18

0.42

modern

monogram

Cat. 3040

C 2356

unknown

0.64

Cat. 3041

C 2371

L 17

0.16

modern

monogram

Cat. 3042

C 2445

N 18

0.35

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3043

C 2480

M 18

0.38

11c–13c a.d.

Cat. 3044

C 2511

L 17

0.41

modern

monogram

Cat. 3045

C 2580

M 18

0.33

12c–13c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 3046

C 2943

P 15

0.21

5c–6c a.d.

monogram

Cat. 3047

C 3194

M 12,13

0.24

unknown

?

Cat. 3048

C 3507

unknown

0.33

unknown

monogram

Cat. 3049

C 3603

K 15

0.29

modern

monogram

31, j

31,k

unknown

? ca. a.d. 1165–1180

cross on steps

?

230

catalogue of coins, part ii

Andronicus I, a.d. 1183–1185 Half-length bust of Andronicus facing / Bust of Virgin Orans facing

AE



DOC IV pl. XVIII no. 8

Cat. 3050

C 250

M 17

1.80

modern

Cat. 3051

C 412

M 14

1.56

modern

Cat. 3052

C 1559

J 13

0.88

modern

Cat. 3053

C 2400

L 17

2.04

modern

Cat. 3054

C 2425

K 16

2.48

Cat. 3055

C 3304

K 18

1.50

unknown

32,a

unknown

Isaac II, a.d. 1185–1195 Isaac bust facing / Bust of St. Michael facing

AE



DOC IV pl. XXI no. 6

Cat. 3056

C 2386

K 16,17

1.04

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 3057

C 2550

K 16

1.35

modern

Cat. 3058

C 3209

M 11

1.65

Cat. 3059

C 3440

M 13

1.56

unknown

32,b

unknown

Small Module Latin Imitative Trachea Emperor facing / One or more sacred persons

AE



DOC IV pls. LII–LIII no. 30

Cat. 3060

C 245

M 17

1.58

modern

DOC I IV pls. LII–LIII no. 30.7, ca a.d. 1180–1210

Cat. 3061

C 1022

M 17

1.11

4c–6c a.d.

DOC I IV pls. LII–LIII no. 30.7

Cat. 3062

C 3151

L,M 18

2.89

unknown

DOC I IV pls. LII–LIII no. 30.7

Cat. 3063

C 3863

N 19

0.61

modern

DOC I IV pls. LII–LIII no. 30.1

32,c

Byzantine Issues Otherwise Illegible Number found in Stadium: 7;449 number found in Sanctuary of Zeus: 113450

449 C

1, 13, 391, 808, 809, 4065, 4075. 55, 59, 72, 74, 151, 154, 211, 219, 227, 261, 331, 342, 348, 351, 354, 357, 362, 368, 392, 397, 424, 442, 458, 466, 482, 493, 495, 512, 519, 556, 558, 637, 722, 727, 737, 768, 771, 792, 812, 818, 819, 822, 830, 976, 978, 984, 1030, 1034, 1040, 1113, 1117, 1119, 1250, 1363, 1384, 1415, 1440, 1561, 1620, 1706, 1861, 1872, 2004, 2061, 2063, 2065, 2074, 2090, 2314, 2366, 2373, 2387, 2424, 2458, 2464, 2471, 2472, 2512, 2545, 2555, 2561, 2562, 2567, 2571, 2593, 2601, 2609, 2610, 2626, 2633, 2641, 3102, 3118, 3126, 3128, 3165, 3199, 3220, 3224, 3240, 3241, 3306, 3441, 3448, 3534, 3538, 3539, 3541, 3595, 3705, 3784, 3831, 3844.

450 C

231

catalogue of coins, part ii

THE FRANKISH RULERS OF GREECE William Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, a.d. 1245–1278 Cross / Genoa Gate

AE

Corinth

Corinth VI, no. 4

Cat. 3064

C 544

M 15

0.44

modern

Cat. 3065

C 2374

N 18

0.45

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3066 Cross / Castle tournois

C 4060

DD 25

0.47

modern

Cat. 3067

C 147

M6

0.67

13c a.d.

Cat. 3068

C 343

M 17

0.43

modern

Cat. 3069

C 1003

K 17

0.86

modern

Cat. 3070

C 3109

L 18

0.70

unknown

Cat. 3071

C 3279

L 18

0.88

unknown

Cat. 3072

C 3387

J 13

0.51

unknown

Cat. 3073

C 3816

M 19

0.58

unknown

Bi

Clarentia

a.d. 1245–1250

Corinth VI, no. 7 Hesperia 1975, 155 n. 31; a.d. 1250–1278

Charles I of Anjou, Prince of Achaea, a.d. 1278–1285 Cross / Castle tournois Cat. 3074

Bi C 3690

O 19

Clarentia 0.63

Corinth VI, no. 10 modern

Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 4:a, b

Charles II of Anjou, Prince of Achaea, a.d. 1285–1287 Cross / Castle tournois Cat. 3075

Bi C 2337

M 18

Clarentia 0.91

Corinth VI, no. 11

unknown

Florent of Hainaut, Prince of Achaea, a.d. 1289 –1297 Cross / Castle tournois

Bi

Clarentia

Corinth VI, no. 12

Cat. 3076

C 1616

J 13

0.45

modern

Cat. 3077

C 2449

N 18

0.59

13c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3078

C 3110

L,M 18

0.71

unknown

Cat. 3079

C 3438

M 12,13

0.71

unknown

Cat. 3080

C 3691

O 19

0.58

modern

Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 4:a, b

Isabelle Villehardouin, Princess of Achaea, a.d. 1297–1301 Cross / Castle tournois

Bi

Clarentia

Cat. 3081

C 2377

N 18

0.73

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3082

C 3111

H 18

0.84

unknown

Corinth VI, no. 13

232

catalogue of coins, part ii

Philip of Savoy, Prince of Achaea, a.d. 1301–1307 Cross / Castle tournois

Bi

Clarentia

Corinth VI, no. 15

Cat. 3083

C 148

M6

0.56

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 3084

C 2619

N 17

0.71

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3085

C 3266

K 18

0.80

unknown

Hesperia 1975, 155 pl. 37:h

Philip of Tarentum, Prince of Achaea, a.d. 1307–1313 Cross / Castle tournois

Bi

Clarentia

Corinth VI, no. 18

Cat. 3086

C 2568

K 17

0.31

unknown

Cat. 3087

C 2581

M 18

0.77

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3088

C 2620

N 17

0.68

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3089

C 3834

N 19

0.65

modern

32,d

Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 4:a, b

William de la Roche, Duke of Athens, a.d. 1280 –1287 Cross / Castle tournois Cat. 3090

Bi C 2431

L 17

Thebes 0.41

Corinth VI, no. 23

12c–14c a.d.

Guy II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, a.d. 1287–1308 Cross / Castle tournois

Bi

Thebes

Corinth VI, no. 24

Cat. 3091

C 554

O 17

0.36

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 3092

C 1109

L 17

0.89

modern

Cat. 3093

C 1875

O 19

0.50

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 3094

C 2344

M 18

0.86

unknown

Cat. 3095

C 2474

L 17

0.56

Early Roman

Cat. 3096

C 3112

M 18

0.84

unknown

Cat. 3097

C 3298

K 18

0.61

unknown

Cat. 3098

C 3422

L,M 18

0.74

unknown

Hesperia 1982, 28 n. 30 pl. 13:b

Uncertain Frankish Deniers Tournois, a.d. 1245–1308 Cross or effaced / Castle tournois or effaced

Bi



Cat. 3099

C 201

M 11

0.80

modern

Achaea

Cat. 3100

C 220

M 11

0.77

modern

Achaea

Cat. 3101

C 248

M 17

0.75

modern

Achaea

Cat. 3102

C 257

I 12

0.69

modern

Achaea

233

catalogue of coins, part ii

Cat. 3103

C 334

M 13

0.23

modern

Cat. 3104

C 350

M 17

0.59

12c–13c a.d.

?

Cat. 3105

C 376

L 17

0.31

modern

?

Cat. 3106

C 511

M 16

0.45

12c–13c a.d.

?

Cat. 3107

C 1029

M 17

0.51

12c–13c a.d.

Achaea

Cat. 3108

C 1368

J 16

0.56

modern

Achaea

Cat. 3109

C 1802

L 19

0.70

modern

?

Cat. 3110

C 1854

Q 19

0.31

Turkish

?

Cat. 3111

C 2380

L 17

0.82

12c–14c a.d.

?

Cat. 3112

C 2454

M,N 18

0.53

modern

?

Cat. 3113

C 2466

N 18

0.83

13c a.d.

?

Cat. 3114

C 2484

O 18

0.28

2c b.c.

?

Cat. 3115

C 2491

O 18

0.61

undatable

?

Achaea

ENGLISH COINAGE Henry III, a.d. 1222–1237 Head of Henry facing Crowned / Short cross Cat. 3116

C 77

AR N 17

— 1.13

Corinth VI, no. 60 12c–13c a.d.

32,e

Hesperia 1975, 162 pl. 39: g

FRENCH COINAGE 451 Louis IX, a.d. 1226 –1270 Cross / Castle tournois

Bi



Corinth VI, no. 32

Cat. 3117

C 2321

Stadium

1.00

unknown

Cat. 3118

C 2322

Stadium

1.06

unknown

Cat. 3119

C 2323

Stadium

0.96

unknown

Cat. 3120

C 2324

Stadium

0.97

unknown

Cat. 3121

C 2325

Stadium

0.97

unknown

Cat. 3122

C 2326

Stadium

0.89

unknown

451 All

the French coins are from the “Stadium hoard.” These coins came to Nemea from the museum at Corinth in 1983/4 together with other material then stored at Corinth from early excavations at Nemea. They are described as “found near Stadium, August, 1936,” but no other details are given. In late July and August 1936, L. T. Lands was working at Nemea, with nine local workmen, on behalf of B. H. Hill, who was living at Corinth; see Temple of Zeus, vi. Lands’ notes make no mention of these coins, but it would be a familiar story if a local villager were to have brought him a fistful of coins which were then taken by Hill to Corinth and entered into the museum records there.

234

catalogue of coins, part ii

Charles I d’Anjou, a.d. 1246 –1285 Cross / Castle and fleur-de-lis

Bi



Corinth VI, no. 40

Cat. 3123

C 2327

Stadium

0.98

unknown

Cat. 3124

C 2328

Stadium

1.02

unknown

Alphonse Comte de Poitou, a.d. 1241–1271 Cross / Castle and fleur-de-lis Cat. 3125

C 2329

Bi Stadium

— 0.82

Corinth VI, no. 38 unknown

Saint Martin of Tours, 13c a.d. Cross / Castle tournois Cat. 3126

Bi C 2330

Stadium

— 0.94

Corinth VI, no. 33 unknown

Uncertain Seigneurial Coinage of France, 13c a.d. Cross / Castle or uncertain

Bi



Cat. 3127

C 2331

Stadium

0.81

unknown

Cat. 3128

C 2332

Stadium

0.69

unknown

Cat. 3129

C 2333

Stadium

0.80

unknown

VENETIAN COINAGE Iacopo Tiepolo, a.d. 1229 –1249 Doge, facing l.; St. Mark, facing r.; between, long cross / Christ enthroned, facing Cat. 3130

C 1218452

AR

K 17



1.85

Corinth VI, no. 49

modern

Hesperia 1979, 85 pl. 27:c; grosso

Marc Cornero, a.d. 1365–1367 Lion of St. Mark / Cross Cat. 3131

452 This

Bi C 3113

M 18

— 0.56

Agora II, no. 1998 unknown

Venetian denomination, despite its production over two and one-half centuries, is a rare find in southern Greece. Agora II records 18 (most from a small hoard), Corinth VI only 4. The two finds of this type in recent excavations at Corinth were from Frankish contexts of the later 13th and early 14th centuries; see Williams & Zervos 1993, 46 no. 92-189, and Williams & Zervos 1995, 53 no. 94-368.

235

catalogue of coins, part ii

Andrea Contarini, a.d. 1368–1382 Doge kneeling / Lion rampant Cat. 3132

AR C 2436

M 18

— 0.92

Agora II, no. 1999 13c–14c a.d.

Antonio Venario, a.d. 1382–1400 Lion of St. Mark / Cross

Bi



Agora II, no. 2002

Cat. 3133

C 238

FF 13

0.36

modern

Cat. 3134

C 1335

K 20

0.36

modern

Cat. 3135

C 2252

P 13

0.78

12c–13c a.d.

tornesello

Torneselli on Which the Doge’s Name Is Effaced Lion of St. Mark / Cross

Bi



Cat. 3136

C7

CC 32

0.28

modern

Cat. 3137

C 345

M 17

0.34

modern

Cat. 3138

C 1031

M 17

0.25

12c–13c a.d.

Cat. 3139

C 1873

O 19

0.43

modern?

Cat. 3140

C 1965

O 19

0.23

modern

Cat. 3141

C 2006

N5

0.27

modern

Cat. 3142

C 2446

M 19

0.37

12c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3143

C 2504

N 18

0.60

13c–14c a.d.

Cat. 3144

C 3835

N 19

0.49

modern

Nemea II, 136 n. 323

fragment

Hesperia 1988, 5 pl. 4:a, b

Late Colonial Bronze Lion of St. Mark / Inscription

AE



Cat. 3145

C 2335

M 18

3.67

Cat. 3146

C 3114

M 18

3.76

Agora II, no. 2021 modern

32, f

unknown

OTTOMAN TURKISH COINAGE 453 Murad IV, a.d. 1623–1640 Inscription / Inscription Cat. 3147

453 Turkish

Bi C 3152

G 18

Constantinople? 0.21

unknown

Pere 423 aqche, 1623

bronze, so common in the Asiatic portions of the Ottoman Empire (Antioch IV, pt. 1 nos. 213ff.), is rarely met with in the Peloponnesos. Thus the taste for minor billon, introduced by the Franks in the 13th century, persisted right down to the Greek War of Independence.

236

catalogue of coins, part ii

Ibrahim, a.d. 1640 –1648 Inscription / Inscription Cat. 3148

Bi C 3275

K 18

Inscription / Inscription Cat. 3149

Constantinople 0.28

Bi C 3149

L,M 18

unknown Cairo

0.25

Pere 440 aqche, 1640 Pere 441

unknown

aqche, 1640

Mehmed IV, a.d. 1648–1687 Inscription / Inscription Cat. 3150

Bi C 244

M 17

Cairo? 0.22

Pere 457 modern

para, 1648, sewn?

Ahmed III, a.d. 1703–1730 Inscription / Inscription Cat. 3151

Bi C 3830

M 19

Constantinople 0.20

12c–13c a.d.

Pere 524 aqche, 1703; Hesperia 1988, 3 pl. 4:a, b

Mahmud II, a.d. 1808–1839 Tughra / Inscription

Bi

Constantinople

Pere 843

Cat. 3152

C 1411

H 14

0.25

modern

double para, 1808

Cat. 3153

C 2442

M 18

0.13

modern

decorative imitation?

Uncertain Sultan Inscription / Inscription

Bi



Cat. 3154

C 58

N 17

0.15

modern

para

Cat. 3155

C 249

M 17

0.16

modern

aqche

Cat. 3156

C 2353

K 18

0.12

unknown

imitation?

Cat. 3157

C 2360

unknown

0.30

unknown

para, sewn?

Cat. 3158

C 3276

K 18

0.14

unknown

aqche

Cat. 3159

C 3292

L 18

0.48

unknown

double para

237

catalogue of coins, part ii

MODERN GREEK COINAGE 454 Cat. 3160

C 125

C 14

4.77

modern

5 lepta, George I

Cat. 3161

C 210

M 11

0.89

modern

1 lepton, 1870

Cat. 3162

C 256

I 12

2.85

modern

50 lepta, 1926

Cat. 3163

C 275

M 17

1.86

modern

2 lepta, 1878

Cat. 3164

C 298

M 11

12.75

modern

10 lepta, 1846

Cat. 3165

C 300

M 11

9.96

modern

5 drachmae, 1930

Cat. 3166

C 632

L 14

4.44

modern

5 lepta, 1869

J 15

4.15

modern

1963

972455

Cat. 3167

C

Cat. 3168

C 1001

K 17

12.87

modern

10 lepta, 1837

Cat. 3169

C 1479

F 18

4.64

modern

5 lepta, 1889

Cat. 3170

C 2032

O 18

4.63

modern

5 lepta, 1869

Cat. 3171

C 2443

N 18

4.95

modern

5 lepta, 1869

Cat. 3172

C 2517

M 18

0.97

modern

1 lepton, 1869

Cat. 3173

C 2518

M 18

0.91

modern

1 lepton, 1869

Cat. 3174

C 2519

M 18

4.90

modern

5 lepta, 1882

Cat. 3175

C 2532

L 13

9.10

modern

?

Cat. 3176

C 2912

I 17

9.81

modern

Hesperia 1984, 176 n. 25; 10 lepta, 1882

Cat. 3177

C 3231

J 13,14

2.82

unknown

10 lepta, 1885

Cat. 3178

C 3299

K 18

4.96

unknown

5 lepta, 1890

Cat. 3179

C 3309

K 18

1.17

unknown

1 lepton, 1833

Cat. 3180

C 3542

K 19

2.20

modern

50 lepta

Cat. 3181

C 3762

L 19

1.90

modern

5 lepta, 1894

Cat. 3182

C 3818

M 19

1.69

modern

2 lepta, George I

454 While

these issues have only sentimental value at present, they do represent, as do so many of their ancient predecessors, the lowest rungs of the contemporary coinage system. We know that the primary utilization of the Nemea sanctuary area after the French engineers had done their work of draining the valley was agricultural (before 1884 the floor of the valley was restricted to seasonal pasturage), so one day we may be able to form comparable loss ratios for urban versus rural sites. 455 A commemorative coin from the New Year’s Vasilopita, the discovery of which in one’s piece of cake ensures a year of good luck. It has no denominational value.

INDEX OF SUBJECTS, ANCIENT SOURCES, AND MODERN SCHOLARS This index does not include the bibliography or the catalogues, but it does include the catalogue footnotes. References are to page numbers.

Achaea, Principate of, 184, 189, 189n391 Achaia and Achaian League, 18, 27n85, 34, 156n313 Adelson, H., 183n343, 186n364 Aeolis, 47 Aeschines 2.168: 16n39 Africa, 213n432 agones. See Games agoranomoi, 36 agriculture. See farming; grazing Aigeira, 27n85 Aigina, 18n50, 27n85, 38, 57, 58, 92n293 Ainianes, 51, 60 Aitolia and Aitolian League, 38 Akanthos, 52 Akarnania and Akarnanian League, 34, 46 Alante, 46 Alea, 46 Aleshire, S., 34n135, 35n137 Alexander III (the Great), 27n85, 28n86, 29, 30, 31, 36, 40, 52, 53, 53n221, 58, 69n249 Alexius I, 186, 187, 187nn374,378, 188n386 Alphonse, Comte de Poitou, 184n347 Alroth, B., 34nn132,133 altars Artemis (Olympia), 34 at Delphi, 33 Nemean Zeus, 11, 11n5, 17, 35n143 Poseidon (Isthmia), 11 Alyzea, 46, 52 Amandry, M., x, 18, 18n54, 35nn141,142, 49n198, 116n299 Ambrakia, 46 American School of Classical Studies at Athens, ix, xi Amphiaraos and Amphiareion, 33n116 Amphipolis, 46 Ampolo, C., 33n122 Anaktorion, 34, 34n127, 46

Anastasius I, 183nn343,344, 185, 185n361, 206n404 Andania, 33, 33nn114,116,124, 34n136, 36, 36nn153,157 Andronicus I, 189 Andros, 47, 51, 52 Antigonos Doson, 57n224, 72n255 Antigonos Gonatas, 31, 36n158, 52, 57n224, 59, 71n251, 72n255 Antioch-on-Orontes, 60, 184n346, 235n453 Antoninus Pius, 17n46, 49, 61n243 Aphrodite, 33 Apodyterion, 27, 28 Apollo, 33, 33n113, 35 Apollo Lykios, 50 Apollonia, 46, 52 Appian, Mithridatic War 549: 57, 57n226 Apuleius, Metam. 1.5: 38n166, 39, 39n170 1.24: 37, 37n163 2.21: 39n173 8.28: 39, 39n171 Aratos of Sikyon, 16, 17, 29, 51, 53, 53n220, 57, 57n224, 173n338 Arcadius, xx, 185, 185n356 Archaic period, xxix, 11, 14, 17, 22 Argos, 11, 14, 15, 16, 16nn39,42, 17, 17n46, 18, 18n57, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 29n90, 30, 31, 31n101, 32, 34, 44, 47, 50, 51n213, 53, 58, 59, 60, 61, 156nn311,312 Argos Amphilochikon, 46 Aristeides, Or. 27.1–8: 38n167 Aristion (kalos), 45n192 Aristippos of Argos, 16n43 Aristis of Kleonai, 53n218 Aristophanes, Eccl. 815–822: 21n72 [Aristotle], Economics 2.2.3: 38n164 Arkadia and Arkadian League, 27n85, 51, 53, 59 Arsinoe, 52, 84n276 Artemis, 33

239

240

index

Asea, 19, 19n59, 21, 52, 57, 60 Ashton, R., 171n335 Asklepios, 33, 34, 39 Astakos, 46 Astarte, 33n112 Athena, 33, 34 Athens, 16n35, 18, 40n176, 42, 43, 57, 59, 184–185, 186, 187, 188nn385,388, 217n441, 234n452 Asklepieion, 34, 34n135, 35n137 Classical Agora, xi, 18, 19, 19n59, 21n67, 35n147, 36n158, 52, 57n225, 60, 60n237, 65n244, 74n259, 75n261, 88n284, 91n292, 177n340, 188n388 coins, 21, 27n85, 60 Stoa of Attalos, xi Atrax, 52 Avramea, A., 185n361 Axos, 52 Bacchielli, L., 11n2, 60n236 Baldus, H. R., 38, 38n169, 46n193 banking and bankers, 36, 36n156, 37–38 Basilica (Early Christian), 15, 186n367, 198nn393,394, 202n395, 203n396, 204nn397–399, 401 Basiliscus, 183n344 Bath, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22, 31, 36, 61 Belisarius, 183n344 billon, 183n345, 188, 235n453 Bithynia, 47 Bogaert, R., 32n108, 36n156 Boiotia and Boiotian League, 38, 53n221, 57n224, 82n274 Bookidis, N., 19n59, 57n227 Bradeen, D., 16n45, 33n110 Braudel, F., 42, 42n187 Broe, H. V., ix Broneer, O., 49n197, 185n358 bronze coinage, 17n48, 18, 19, 21, 28, 29–30, 32, 34–35, 36, 37, 40–44, 46–47, 51, 59, 60, 96nn296,297, 235n453 Broughton, T. R. S., 42n188 Brundisium, 38 Bruneau, P., 33n113 Brylleion, 47 Buttrey, T. V., 41n184, 185n353 Byzantine period, xxx, 17, 183, 186–187 burials, 186n369, 224n444, 228n448 Byzantion, 38 Caesar, 37 Camp, J., x Caracalla, 17, 60, 61n243 Cargill-Thompson (Warren), J., x, 18, 18n54, 57, 57nn227,230, 58, 58nn232–234, 59, 129nn301,303, 140n305, 143nn306,307, 145n308, 160n315, 168n328

Carthage, 212n431 Casey, J., 17n47, 18n52, 19nn63,64, 21nn71,72, 22n80, 34n129, 35n148 Casson, L., 37n159, 38n167, 39nn174,175 Castoria, battle of, 189 celery, wild, 17n46, 156n312 celery crown, 50, 51, 53 Chaldia, 217n441 Chalkidike and Chalkidian League, 52 Chalkis, 18, 58, 59, 97n297 chalkismos, 30 Charles I d’Anjou, 184n347, 189 Charles II d’Anjou, 189 Chersonnesos, 52 Chios, 47 Chremonidean War, 36 Christ, 217n440 Cicero, Tusc. Disp. 5.3.9: 29n94 CID I, 3: 29n94 II, 139: 33n115 CIG I, 1124: 16n46 III, 4472: 16n46 Clarentia, 189n391 Classical period, xxix, 14, 17, 18, 22, 27, 44 Clement, P., 74n259 Cleopatra VII, 41n184 Commodus, 61n243 Constans I, 184, 184nn349,352 Constantine I (the Great), xxx, 184, 184n349 Constantine II, 184n349 Constantinople, 184, 184n346, 217n440 Constantius Gallus, 185, 196n392 Constantius II, 184, 184nn349,352, 185 Contarini, Andrea, 189 Corinth, xxx, 18, 18nn49,57, 19n59, 21, 22n81, 27, 28, 28n88, 31, 42, 43, 49, 52, 53n221, 57, 60, 95n295, 184–185, 186, 188nn381,385,388, 189, 189n391, 217n441, 234n452 Corinth-Roman Colony, 22, 27n85, 30, 49, 52n215, 186n370 Demeter/Kore sanctuary, 19, 19n59, 21, 52, 60 Norman sack, 187n381, 189 Cornero, Marc, 189 Corycian Cave, 19, 19n59, 21, 35, 36, 49, 52, 52n216, 57, 60 Cosa, 41 counterfeit coins, 35n144 countermarking, 16n43, 42–43, 63 Crawford, M. H., 40–41, 40n180, 41nn181,182, 65n244 Crete, 51 Cyprus, 47 Cyzicus, 184n346

index

Dark Age, 186 de Ligt, L., 30n96, 36n150 Delos, 33, 33nn112,113, 34, 34nn127,135, 35, 35n137 Delphi, 17n48, 18n57, 33, 33nn115,116,124, 34, 35, 40, 44, 49, 52n216, 57. See also Corycian Cave Demeter, 33, 34 Demetriades, B., x, 60n235, 75n260, 80n267, 167n326, 170n331 Demetrios Poliorketes, 16, 16n41, 29, 31, 36, 52, 160n315, 170n333 de Neeve, P. W., 30n96, 36n150 Dengate, J., 160n315 denominations aqches, 183n345 assarion, 38 chalkous, 29n94, 30, 33nn117,118, 34, 35, 36, 37, 50 denarius, 38, 177n340 denier, 189 drachma, 19, 33, 33n124, 34, 35, 35n137, 37, 87n281 follis, 184n346, 186, 187n376, 212n431, 214n434, 215nn435,437,439, 217n441 minimus, 183n343, 184n346, 185n357, 186n364 nummus, 183, 183nn343,344, 184n346, 185, 186, 186n365, 206n404, 212n431, 213n432 obol, 19, 21n72, 33, 33nn116–118, 35, 35n149 penny, 189n391 stater, 33n116 tetarteron, 186, 187–189, 217n440 tornesello, 189 trachy, 188, 188n384, 189 Derios, 46 Didyma, 38, 46, 47, 48 Dio Chrysostom, 40 8.9: 29n94 Diodorus Siculus 11.65.2: 15n35 14.83.1: 16n39 15.75.3: 16n39 19.64.1: 16n41, 71n250 Dioskouroi, 50n203 Drennan, R., 19n64 Droysen, J. G., 16nn40,46, 53 Dumbarton Oaks, xi Dyme, 52 Early Christian period activity, 15, 17, 18, 31, 183–186 basilica. See Basilica burials, 185, 185n360 coins, 41, 184–186 defined, xxx robbing, of earlier buildings, 15

241

violence, 15. See also Slavic sack See also farming Early Roman period, xxx, 40–41, 49, 65n244, 183 Echinos, 46 Eleusis, 33, 33n118, 34n136 Eleuthernai, 52 Elis, 28n87, 47, 49, 51n213, 189n391 Eloro, 34 English coinage, 183, 189, 189n391 Epeiros, 46 Ephesos, 40, 41, 42, 43, 47, 49 Epictetus, 1.6.23–28: 39, 39n175 Epidauros, 14, 18, 27n85, 33n117, 39, 44, 61 Epidauros Limera, 60 Erythrai, 47, 49 Euboia and Euboian League, 40n177, 53n221 Euripides, Hypsipyle, 15n35 Euripos, 46 Eurydikeia, 52 Eurytos, 50 Evagoras II, 172n336 farming, 33, 34 Byzantine, 18, 30, 183, 184 Early Christian, 15, 17, 18, 30, 183 modern, 19, 22, 183n345, 237n454 Roman, 30 Felch, P., x Fisher, J., 19n59, 57n227 Flamininus, 16 Florent of Hainaut, 189 Fourth Crusade, 189n391 Franke, P. R., 18n57, 76n262 Frankish coinage, 183, 189, 234n452, 235n453 French coinage, 183, 184, 184n347, 189, 189n391, 233n451 Frey, J., 185n360 Frier, B., 41n183 Galatia, 49 gambling, 29, 30, 31n96 Games (festival) Heraia, 27n85 Mouseia, 84n276 Nemean, xxix–xxx, 14, 16, 16n46, 27, 28, 32, 35, 39, 60, 156n311, 161n316 Olympian, 39 Winter, 16 Gardner, P., 17n46, 51, 51n212, 53, 53n220 Geagan, D., 16n41 Geometric period, 14 George, Saint, 188nn383,386 Geta, 60 gloios, 36 gold coinage, 19, 34, 35, 35n146, 37

242

index

Gomphoi, 52 Gordian III, 17n46 Gortyn, 21n72 Gortyna, 52 Grandjean, C., x, 18, 18nn56,57, 160n315 Gratian, 185 grazing, 33, 34, 237n455 Great Gods, 34n136 Greek Archaeological Service, ix Greenewalt, C. H., Jr., 38n169 Grierson, P., 19, 19nn60,63,65, 35 Gropengiesser, H., 34n134 Grunauer, S., 18, 18n56, 61, 61nn240,241, 147n309 Guy II of Athens, 189 Gyrton, 52 Habicht, Ch., 34n127 Hackens, T., 18n57, 19, 57n227, 173n339 Hadrian, 14, 16, 16n46, 38, 38n165, 50, 61, 61n243 Haliartos, 52 Halieis, 160n315 Halos, 51 Hanell, K., 15–16n35 Hansen, M. H., 83n274 Harris, W. V., 37n161, 187nn380,381 Head, B. V., 18, 49n199, 50n201, 51, 51n212, 53, 53n220, 74n259, 86n280 Helena, 184, 184n348 Helikon, Mt., 84n276 Hellenistic period, xxx, 11, 17, 22, 27, 28, 36, 37, 41, 44, 60n237 Hellespont, 47 Hendy, M., 188, 188n382 Henry III (king of England), 189n391 Hera Akraia, 16n38 Hera Argeia, 50 Herakleia Trachina, 52 Herakles, 50, 50n200, 51, 53 Herbst, J., frontispiece Hermes, 34, 38 Hermione, 18, 27n85, 61 heroön. See Opheltes heroön Hesiod, 60 Hill, B. H., 233n451 Histiaia, 27n85, 58, 59 hoard, 19, 38, 40–41, 43, 45–46, 48, 97n297, 183– 184, 185, 185n358, 205n403, 207nn406–409, 208nn410–412, 209nn413–417, 210nn418–422, 211nn423–426,428–430 Homer, Iliad 23.482–487: 30, 30n97 Honorius, 185, 185n356 Horace, 38 Sat. 1.5: 38n167 Houghtalin, L., xi, 18n57, 41n183 Howgego, C. J., 40, 40nn177,178, 41–42, 43, 43nn189,190, 44

Humphris, J., 80n266 Hypata, 39 Hypsipyle, 50 Iamblichos, Vita Pyth. 58: 29n94 Iasos, 47 IG III 127 and 129: 16n45 IV 590: 16n46 IV2 1:68: 16n41 VII 49: 16n45 Ionia, 47, 49 Isaac II, 189 Isager, S., 33nn113,123,124 Isthmia, 18n57, 29n94, 35, 36n150, 49, 49n197, 185n358 Ithaka, 52 Jericho, 37 Jerusalem, 37 Jesus, 37, 39 John 13:29: 39n172 John II, 187, 187n378, 217nn440,441 John Kinnamos, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus 76: 188n381 Jones, T. B., 21n69 Judas Iscariot, 39 Julia Domna, 50, 60–61, 61n243 Julian II ( Julian Caesar), 16n45, 185 Julio-Claudian emperors, xxx Justin I, 185n361 Justin II, 184n346, 185n361, 186, 186n367 Justinian I, 35n146, 183n344, 184n346, 185, 185n361, 186, 186nn364,365 Kaerst, J., 16n40 Kalapodi, 34 Karystos, 52 Kassandros, 16, 16n41, 17, 27n85, 29, 30, 31, 36, 52, 71n250, 72n255 Kassope, 46 Kenchreai, 19, 19n59, 21, 52, 60 Kent, J. H., 33n121 Kephallonia, 51 Kerdylion, 52 Kevork, C. E., 30n96 Kierion, 52 Kinns, P., 170n333 Kios, 47, 49 Klazomenai, 47 Kleitor, 46 Kleonai, 15, 16n35, 17, 22, 27, 28, 29, 29n90, 32, 34, 51, 53, 58, 59, 156nn311,312, 161n316 Knossos, 52 Kolophon, 47 Kore, 34 Korkyra, 46

index

Koroni, 19, 19n59, 36, 36n158, 43, 57n224 Koronta, 46 Kos, 34, 34n128 Kourion, 47 Kraay, C., 81nn268,269, 82n274, 83n275 Kranion, 52 Krannon, 45n192, 52 Kroll, J., 18, 19n59, 36n158, 80n266, 91nn291,292, 94n294, 171n335 Kteatos, 50 Kustas, G., 183n343, 186n364 Kydonia, 52 Kyme, 47 Kythera, 212n431 Lakedaimon, 18 Lakonia, 28n87, 189 Lamia, 27n85 lamps, 25, 37, 37n161 Lampsakos, 47 Lands, L. T., 233n451 Larissa, 27n85, 39, 45n192, 51 Larissa Kremaste, 51 lead, 35, 36n150 League of Corinth, 16 Lebadeia, 33–34, 34n125, 60 Lebedos, 47 Leo I, 183n344 Leo VI, 186, 186nn370,374 Lete, 46 Leukas, 46, 78n263 Liampi, K., x, 169n330 Licinius II, 184n348 Limnaia, 46 Linders, T., 33n113, 34nn126,127 Liri River, 41 Livy 27.30.9: 16n45 34.41.1: 16n45 Lokris Opontion, 60, 60n238 Long, Thomas J., Foundation, x Louis IX (king of France), 184n347, 189 Lucian, 37 Hermotimos 40: 29n89 Herodotus 8: 39n175 Peregrinus 19: 39n175 Lucius Verus, 61n243 Luke 10:30–35: 37n160 15:8–9: 19n66 20:21–24: 37n162 Lysippos, 11 Lyttos, 52 Macedonia and Macedonians, 16n40, 18n58, 27n85, 28, 36, 47, 51, 52–53, 57n224, 189

243

Mac Isaac, J., 18, 18n55, 21nn73,74, 29n94, 52n215, 60n238, 183n343, 186n370, 187nn376,377, 188n386 Maeander river and valley, 40 Magnesia, 47 Manfred, 189 Mani, 189 Mantinea, 27n85 Manuel I Comnenus,183,186–187n374,187nn376,379, 187–188n381, 188n388, 226n445 Marcus Aurelius, 49, 61, 61n243 Mark 6:7–8: 37n159 Martin of Tours, 184n347 Mathisen, R. W., 73n256 Maurice Tiberius, 183n344, 185n361, 186, 186n367, 212n431 Maximian, 184n348 Medion, 46, 52 Megara, 18, 27n85, 39–40, 61 Melikertes. See Palaimon Melitaia, 51 Melos, 49, 51 Melville Jones, J. R., 19n62, 21n72, 29n94, 30n95, 33nn112,116,120,124, 34nn125,131,135,136, 35nn137–140, 38nn164,165 Merrifield, R., 22n76, 34, 34n130, 35 Messenia, 18, 189 Metcalf, D., 41n183, 186n370 Methana, 52 Metropolis, 52, 188 Meyer, M. W., 33nn114,116,124, 34n136, 36nn153,155,157 Michael Palaeologus, 189 Miletos, 38, 39, 42, 45–46, 47, 48, 49 Miletouteichos, 47 Miller, Stella G., 16n40, 52n216 Miller, Stephen G., x, xi, 15n31, 16nn35,40, 27, 29n94, 33nn112,115,119, 36nn154,157, 40n176, 44n191, 60n238 Ministry of Culture. See Greek Archaeological Service Minturnae, 41, 41n183 Mithradates VI Eupator, 17, 57, 170n332 Morgantina, 18nn49,53, 41, 41n185 Moschos (kalos), 45n192 Mummius, L., 16, 16n45, 17, 32 Mykonos, 49, 51 National Endowment for the Humanities, xi Naulochos, 47, 49 Naxos, 49, 51 Neapolis, 66n246 Nemea I xxix–xxx: 14nn16,18 1–98: 11n5 4–31: 11n4, 14n18 34ff.: 16n36

244

Nemea I (continued) 42–46: 16n36 139–143: 22n79 162–168: 31n100 173–176: 15n20 173–184: 31n99 175: 22n76 182: 15n22 182–184: 22n78 188–261: 14n11 227: 53n218 236–237: 15n20 237: 15n28 238: 15n24 239, 239n660: ix 239–243: 19n61 Nemea II 1: 14n18 8n13: 16nn42,44,45 14: 33n111 70–83: 12n7 87–89: 45n192 90–91: 22n77 90–93: 15n21 91: 14n18 97–99: 53n220 97n229: 53n223 99–100: 16n45 100n249: 32n106 101–107: 15n24 114–118: 30n98 119–125: 17n46 122: 61n242 139: 33n111 164–172: 32n109 170–172: 16n42 231–233: 29n89 233–235: 22n81 235–237: 27n83 236: 30n98 Nemean Lion, 50, 50n200, 51 Nero, 49 New Testament, 38. See also John; Luke; Mark Newell, E. T., 71nn252–254 Nicaea, 40 Nicephorus III, 186, 187, 215n437 Nicetas, Annales III 75–76: 188n381 Nicomedia, 40, 184n346 Nike, 49 Noe, S. P., 57n224 Non. Marcellus II, s.v. marsupium: 38n168 Notion, 47 Numantia, 17n48 Oikoi, 12, 22, 31 Oikonomidou, M., x, 184n346

index

Oineon, 60 Oiniadai, 46, 60 Oinoi, 47, 49 Oita, 51 Olos, 52 Olympia, 17, 18, 18n57, 21, 28n87, 33nn112,117, 39, 40n176, 47, 49, 51n213, 60n238, 61 Altar of Artemis, 34 Olynthos, 21n59, 74n259, 91nn291,292 Opheltes heroön, 11, 12, 14, 14nn17,19, 15, 18, 22, 29, 30–31, 34, 35, 58, 59, 60 Orchomenos (Arkadia), 51, 52 Orchomenos (Boiotia), 52 Oropos, 33n116, 34, 34nn131,135 Ostrogoths, 186n364, 211n427 Other Gods, 35n137 overstriking, 57n224, 78n263 Pafford, I., 91n292 Palaimon, 49 Palairos, 46 Pale, 52 Palestine, 189n391 Papaevangelou, C., x, 66n246 Papageorgiadou-Banis, Ch., 11n1 Parker, A., 41n183 Paros, 49, 51 Pausanias, 32 1.34.4: 34n131 2.12.3–15.1: 15n34 2.15.2–3: 11, 11n5, 15, 16n46, 31 2.20.3: 11n3 2.24.2: 16nn38,45 5.13.3: 33n117 6.16.4: 16n46 7.22.3: 34 pay, military, 43 Pelinna, 52 Pellene, 27n85 Peloponnesian War, 14, 57 Peparethos, 51, 75n261 Pergamon, 36, 41 Perikles, 15, 17 Petropoulou, A., 33n116 Peumata, 51 Phaistos, 52 Phakion, 52 Phalanna, 52 Phalasarna, 52 Pharai, 34 Pheneos, 46 Pherai, 51 Philemon, 29n94 Philip II (king of Macedon), 15, 17, 22, 27, 28, 29, 31, 36, 42, 51, 52, 52n216, 53n217, 58, 59, 66n248, 78n273

index

Philip of Savoy, 18n50, 189 Philip of Tarentum, 189 Philippi, 45n192, 51, 52 Phlious, 16n39, 18, 21, 22n81, 27, 27n82, 28, 29, 53, 58, 59 Phocas, xxx, 186, 186n367 Phoinika, 46 Phoitias, 46 Phokis, 27n85 Pholegandros, 49, 51, 60 Picard, O., 18, 18n56, 19nn59,65, 40n177, 65n245, 80nn265,266, 81nn271,272, 84nn277,278, 85n279, 86n280, 88n284, 91n291, 164n321, 166n325 Piérat, M., 16n35, 29n90 Pierre, H., x Pindar Isth. 2.7: 36n152 Nem. 4.17: 15n34 Nem. 10.42: 15nn34,35 Pyth. 11.41–42: 36n152 Scholia d to Hyp. Nem.: 15nn34,35 plague, 186 Plataia, 52 Plautillia, 61n243 Plautus Men. 2.1.29, 2.3.33, 5.7.43: 38n168 Poen. 3.5.37: 38n168 Rud. 5.2.26: 38n168 Plutarch Aratos 27.2: 29n89 Aratos 28, 28.3–4: 15n34, 16n43, 53n220 Aratos 41: 57n224, 173n338 Flamininus 12.2: 16n44 Kimon 17.1: 15n35 Kleomenes 17.4: 16n45 Lysander 16.1–2: 19n62 Moralia 304E-F: 40n176 Perikles 19.2: 16n36 Philopoimen 11.1: 16n45 Pollux 9.67: 29n94 9.118: 30n95 Polybios 2.51: 57n224, 173n339 2.70.4–5: 16n45 5.101.5–6: 16n45 22.10.1: 16n45 Polyrrhenion, 27, 28, 29n90, 30, 51 Pontos and Pontians, 42, 57 Praisos, 52 Price, M. J., x, 18, 18n54, 19n59, 21n69, 35n149, 40n179, 57, 57n229, 69n249, 87n281, 92n293, 95n295, 96n297, 173n337 Priene, 41, 42, 48 Pritchett, W. K., 16n39 Proni, 52

245

Propontis, 49 Ptolemy I, 29, 36 Ptolemy II, 36, 41n184 Ptolemy III, 18n58, 29, 31, 36, 53, 57, 57nn224,225, 173n339 purse, pocket, moneybelt, 38, 45 Pygela, 47 Pyrrhos of Epeiros, 29, 31, 43, 53 Pythian Games. See Delphi Regling, K., 41n186 Reinders, H. R., 74n258 rentals, 34 Rhaukos, 30, 51 Rhithymna, 52 Rhodes, 13, 16n42, 40 robbing and robbers, 36 Robert, L., 40n177, 86n280 Robinson, C. A., Jr., ix Robinson, D. M., 74n259 Rodger of Normandy, 188n381 Rogers, E., 75n261 Romano, D. G., 12n7, 14n15 Roman period, xxx, 15, 17, 19, 22, 27, 30, 40, 43. See also Early Roman period Romanus I, 213n433 Rome, 38 Rouse, W. H. D., 34n129 Sacred Grove, 11, 11n5 Sacred Square, 11, 11n5, 14 Salamis, 27n85 Salamis (Cyprus), 47 Samaritan, 37 Samos, 49, 53n221 Sanctuary of Nemean Zeus, Nemea, xxx, 15, 32, 183, 187 Sardis, 18n49, 19n65, 21n71, 22n76, 36n168, 41, 43, 49n194, 183n343 Schachter, A., 84n276 Sea of Galilee, 39 Seleucia Pieria, 60 Seleucids, 47 Septimius Severus, 17n46 Seriphos, 47, 52 Severans, 60–61 Sgouras, Leon, 188n384 Sheedy, K. A., 11n1 Sikyon, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 28, 29, 31, 32, 47, 53n221, 57, 58, 59, 60, 129n301 silver coinage, 17n48, 19, 21nn67,72, 30, 34, 35, 35n147, 37, 39, 57n230, 95n295 Siphnos, 51, 52 Skarphia, 52 Skiathos, 33n116, 51 Skoutoussa, 52

246

index

Slavic sack, of Nemea, 15, 17, 183n344, 184, 185nn358,361, 186, 186n367, 212n431 Slavs, 189 Smith, W., 38n168 Smyrna, 38, 41, 44, 47 Society of the Dilettanti, 183n344 Sokolowski, F., 32n108, 33n117, 34n128 Soloi, 47 Solow Art and Architecture Foundation, xi Sosikles, 32n109 Sparta, 16nn37,38, 61, 173n339 Spawforth, A. J. S., 61n242 Stadium (Nemea) Early, xxx, 12, 12n7, 29n93 Early Hellenistic, xxx, 12, 15, 15n21, 17, 22, 27–30, 31, 34, 53, 57n231, 58, 59, 60, 183, 185, 185n358, 186 Strabo 8.6.19: 16n45 14.2.29: 40 Stratoniceia, 41n184 Stratos, 46, 52 Stroud, R. S., 35n144, 60n239 Stymphalos, 46, 51 Sybrita, 52 Syria, 60 Syrian Goddess, 39 Syros, 51, 52 Tainaron, 61 Tarn, W. W., 16n41 Tegea, 33 Temple Apollo (Delos), 33n113, 35 Artemis (Sardis), 47 Astarte (Kition), 33n112 Athena Alea (Tegea), 33 finances, 32, 33 Great Gods (Eleusis), 34n135 Hera Akraia, 16n38 Herakles (Kleonai), 50 inventories, 35n144, 47 Nemean Zeus (Argos), 50 Nemean Zeus (Lokris), 60 Nemean Zeus (Seleucia Pieria), 60 Poseidon (Isthmia), 11 Zeus (Nemea), 11, 11n5, 12, 14, 15, 16n36, 17, 19, 30, 32, 34, 35n143, 36n150, 50, 223n443 Zeus (Nemea), Early, 11, 14, 14nn14,16, 17 Tenedos, 47 Tenos, 51, 52 Teos, 47, 49 Thalmann, J.-P., 16n35, 29n90 Thasos, 33n119, 47 Theagenes of Thasos, 33n119

Thebes, 27n85, 82–83n274 Thebes (Phthiotidian), 52 Thelpousa, 51, 52 Theodoric, 211n427 Theodosius I, 185, 185n356 Theodosius II, 185, 185n356, 205n402 Theophilus, 186n370 theoroi and theorodokoi, 32, 32n109, 44–47, 49 Thera, 52 thesauroi, 32, 33, 33n119, 34, 34n136, 47, 49 Theseus, 34 Thessalonica, 184n346, 188, 217n440 Thessaly, 27n85, 28, 38–39, 45n192, 51, 81n269 Thucydides 5.60.3: 16n37 Thyrrheion, 46 Tiberius, 185n361 Tinos, 52 Tomlinson, R. A., 16n38 Touratsoglou, Y., x, xi, 66n247 Tralles, 41, 44 travel and travelers, 21, 36–42, 47, 49 Trebizond, 187n378, 188n386 Trikka, 27n85, 51 Troizen, 27n85 Turkish coinage, 183, 235n453 Turkokrateia, 183n345, 189 Tyrbeion, 46 University of California at Berkeley, ix, x, 183n345, 185n360 University of Cincinnati, ix Valens, 185 Valentinian I, 185 Valentinian II, 185n356 Valentinian III, xxx Vandals, 183, 186n364 Vanderpool, E., 19n59, 36n158, 57n224 Varoucha-Christodoulopoulou, I., 19n59, 57n225, 173n338 Varro, De Re Rust. 3.17.2: 38n168 vending and vendors, 29, 29n94, 35, 36, 37–42, 46–47 Venetian colonial coinage, 183, 189, 234n452 Vernario, Antonio, 189 Vetranio, 184 Vial, C., 34n127 Villehardouin, Isabelle, 189 Villehardouin, William, 189, 189n391 Vollgraf, W., 16nn35,38,42,45 Waagé, F. O., 91n292 Waggoner, N., 87n281, 92n293, 95n295 Wallace, W. P., 84n277 War of Independence, Greek, 235n453

247

index

Warren. See Cargill-Thompson William de la Roche, 189 Williams, C. K., II, 18n49, 57, 57n227, 80n267, 164nn318,319, 234n452 World War II, x, 17 Wright, W. C., 16n45 Wroth, W., 211n427 Xenarchos of Lebadeia, 33 Xenon, 14, 15, 17, 22, 22n78, 31, 32, 204n400 Xenon of Corinth, 33n124 Xenophon Conviv. 4.2: 38n168

Hellenika 4.2.13–23: 16n39 Hellenika 4.7.2–3: 16n39 Hellenika 7.2.17–23: 16n39 Mem. 3.13.5: 40n176 Zacha, 186n364 Zeno, 183n344 Zervos, O., xi, 57n227, 234n452 Zeus, 34 Nemean, at sites other than Nemea, 60, 60n238 Nemean, cult statue of, 11, 14, 15, 50 Olympian, cult statue of, 49

I N D I C E S T O T H E C ATA L O G U E References are to catalogue entry numbers.

Euboia, Cat. 233–296 Gargara, Cat. 1982 Halos, Cat. 119 Heraia, Cat. 1940–1942 Histiaia, Cat. 272–296 Ionia, Cat. 1983–1986 Italy, Cat. 1–2 Karia, Cat. 1988–1990 Kleitor, Cat. 1943–1947 Kleonai, Cat. 1857–1887 Korkyra, Cat. 145 Kos, Cat. 1988–1989 Lakedaimon, Cat. 1582–1588 Lakonia, Cat. 1582–1588 Lamia, Cat. 120–122 Larissa, Cat. 123 Larissa Kremaste, Cat. 124–125 Lebadeia, Cat. 216 Leukas, Cat. 148–154 Lokris, Cat. 158–183 Lokris Opontion, Cat. 158–159 Macedonia, Cat. 6–117 Mantinea, Cat. 1948–1953 Megara, Cat. 362–370 Megaris, Cat. 362–370 Melitaia, Cat. 126 Melos, Cat. 1975 Mende, Cat. 7 Messenia, Cat. 1573–1581 Mykonos, Cat. 1976 Naulochos, Cat. 1985 Naxos, Cat. 1977 Neapolis, Cat. 6 Nemea, Cat. 2487 Nicomedia, Cat. 2160, 2469–2473, 2479 Oiniadai, Cat. 155 Oita, Cat. 127–128 Paros, Cat. 1978 Pellene, Cat. 1553–1555

1. PLACE NAMES Regions are in italic. Achaia, Cat. 1549–1565 Aegean Islands, Cat. 1975–1979 Aigeira, Cat. 1549–1552 Aigina, Cat. 371–414 Ainianes, Cat. 118 Aitolia, Cat. 157 Akarnania, Cat. 146–156 Ambrakia, Cat. 133, 134 Amisos, Cat. 1980, 1981 Antioch, Cat. 2441–2442 Argos, Cat. 1589–1826 Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 146–147 Arkadia, Cat. 1910–1939 Athens, Cat. 297–301, 305–357 Attica, Cat. 297–361 Boiotia, Cat. 190–232 Cairo, Cat. 3149–3150 Chalkis, Cat. 238–271 Clarentia, Cat. 3067–3089 Constantinople, Cat. 2164–2165, 2168, 2360, 2418–2419, 2421–2436, 2444–2450, 2485, 2486, 3147–3148, 3151–3153 Corinth, Cat. 415–1042, 3064–3066 Corinthia, Cat. 415–1042, 3064–3066 Crete, Cat. 1970–1974 Cyprus, Cat. 1991–1997 Cyzicus, Cat. 2125, 2130, 2199, 2232–2234, 2238, 2248, 2277, 2420, 2439–2440, 2474, 2482–2483 Egypt, Cat. 1996–2013 Elea, Cat. 135 Eleusis, Cat. 302–304 Elis, Cat. 1566–1570 Epeiros, Cat. 133–145 Epidauros, Cat. 1827–1834 Erythrai, Cat. 1983–1984

248

index

Peparethos, Cat. 131 Peumata, Cat. 128 bis Pheneos, Cat. 1954–1961 Pherai, Cat. 129 Phliasia, Cat. 1043–1190 Phlious, Cat. 1043–1190 Phokis, Cat. 184–189 Polyrrhenion, Cat. 1970–1973 Pontos, Cat. 1980–1981 Rhaukos, Cat. 1974 Rhodes, Cat. 1990 Rome, Cat. 2279–2282, 2343–2348, 2475 Salamis, Cat. 358–361 Salamis (Cyprus), Cat. 1991–1995 Same, Cat. 1571 Samos, Cat. 1987 Sicily, Cat. 3–4 Sikyon, Cat. 1191–1548 Sikyonia, Cat. 1191–1548 Skiathos, Cat. 132 Stymphalos, Cat. 1962 Syracuse, Cat. 3–4 Tegea, Cat. 1963–1969 Teos, Cat. 1986 Thasos, Cat. 5 Thebes, Cat. 3090–3098 Thespiai, Cat. 232 Thessalonica, Cat. 2127, 2167, 2198, 2201, 2216, 2218, 2224, 2227, 2237, 2359, 2437–2438, 2451–2468, 2480–2481 Thessaly, Cat. 118–132 Thessaly, Islands of, Cat. 131–132 Thracian Islands (Thrace), Cat. 5 Thurii, Cat. 2 Thyrrheion, Cat. 156 Tiryns, Cat. 1888–1889 Trier, Cat. 2155, 2162 Trikka, Cat. 130 Troas, Cat. 1982 Troizen, Cat. 1890–1909 Zakynthos, Cat. 1572

2. KINGS AND RULERS Macedonian Rulers Philip II, 359–336 b.c., Cat. 8–58 Alexander III, 336–323 b.c., Cat. 59–79 Kassandros, 316–297 b.c., Cat. 80–82 Demetrios Poliorketes, 306–283 b.c., Cat. 83–98 Antigonos Gonatas, 277–239 b.c., Cat. 99–114 Uncertain Kings, 356 b.c.–3rd century b.c., Cat. 115–116 Pyrrhos, 288–285; 274–272 b.c., Cat. 136–144

249

Egyptian Rulers Ptolemy I, 311–305 b.c., Cat. 1996–1997 Ptolemy III, 228–221 b.c., Cat. 1998–2012 Ptolemy X and Cleopatra III, 117–111 b.c.?, Cat. 2013

Roman Emperors Domitian, 81–96 a.d., Cat. 1015–1017 Trajan, 98–117 a.d., Cat. 2119 Hadrian, 117–138 a.d., Cat. 271, 1939 Antoninus Pius, 138–161 a.d., Cat. 1018–1022, 1811 Marcus Aurelius, 161–180 a.d., Cat. 117, 1023– 1024, 1812 Lucius Verus, 161–169 a.d., Cat. 1025–1026, 1813–1815 Commodus, 176–192 a.d., Cat. 370, 1027–1029 Septimius Severus, 193–211 a.d., Cat. 1030–1034, 1816–1820 Julia Domna, 198–217 a.d., Cat. 1035–1036, 1821–1824 Caracalla, 198–217 a.d., Cat. 1037–1039, 1826 Plautilla, 202–205 a.d., Cat. 1040–1041, 1825 Gordian III, 238–242 a.d., Cat. 2120 Probus, 276–282 a.d., Cat. 2121 Maximian, 286–305 a.d., Cat. 2121 Licinius II, 307–324 a.d., Cat. 2123

Early Christian Emperors Flavia Helena, 324 –328 a.d., Cat. 2125 Constantine I, 330–335 a.d.; Divus, 337–346 a.d., Cat. 2126, 2132–2133 House of Constantine I, 335–346 a.d., Cat. 2134– 2152 Constans I, 337–350 a.d., Cat. 2153–2159, 2191– 2197 Constantius II, 341–346 a.d., Cat. 2191–2197, 2204–2207 Constantius Gallus, 350–355 a.d., Cat. 2198, 2202–2203 Julian II, 355–363 a.d., Cat. 2199–2201 Julian Caesar, 350–361 a.d., Cat. 2202–2207 House of Constantius II, 350–361 a.d., Cat. 2208– 2215 Valentinian I, 364–375 a.d., Cat. 2216–2217, 2221–2223 Valens, 364–378 a.d., Cat. 2218–2223 Gratian, 364–378 a.d., Cat. 2221–2223, 2246–2247 Valentinian II, 378–383 a.d., Cat. 2246–2247, 2259– 2275, 2287–2319 Theodosius I, 378–383 a.d., Cat. 2246–2247, 2259– 2275, 2287–2319, 2328 Arcadius, 383–403 a.d., Cat. 2248–2275, 2283–2319, 2330–2342

250

index

Honorius,393–423 a.d.,Cat. 2276–2319, 2329–2342, 2344–2348 Theodosius II, 402–450 a.d., Cat. 2320–2342, 2349–2358 Valentinian III, 410–455 a.d., Cat. 2324–2365 Marcian, 450–457 a.d., Cat. 2359–2365 Leo I, 457–474 a.d., Cat. 2366–2377 Zeno, 474–475, 476–491 a.d., Cat. 2378–2379 Basiliscus, 475–476 a.d., Cat. 2380 Anastasius I, 491–498 a.d., Cat. 2407–2418 Justin I, 518–527 a.d., Cat. 2419–2420 Justinian I, 527–565 a.d., Cat. 2421–2443 Justin II, 565–578 a.d., Cat. 2444–2478 Tiberius II, 578–582 a.d., Cat. 2479 Maurice Tiberius, 582–602 a.d., Cat. 2480–2484 Phocas, 602–610 a.d., Cat. 2485–2486

Byzantine Emperors Leo VI, 886–912 a.d., Cat. 2497–2499 Constantine VII, 913–959 a.d., Cat. 2500– 2501 Nicephorus II, 963–969 a.d., Cat. 2502 Romanus IV, 1067–1071 a.d., Cat. 2503 Michael VII, 1071–1078 a.d., Cat. 2504 Nicephorus III, 1078–1081 a.d., Cat. 2505– 2511 Alexius I, 1081–1118 a.d., Cat. 2547–2571 John II, 1118–1143 a.d., Cat. 2572–2581 Manuel I, 1143–1180 a.d., Cat. 2583–3049 Andronicus I, 1183–1185 a.d., Cat. 3050–3055 Isaac II, 1185–1195 a.d., Cat. 3056–3059

Frankish Rulers William Villehardouin, Prince of Achaea, 1245– 1278 a.d., Cat. 3064–3073 Charles I of Anjou, Prince of Achaea, 1278–1285 a.d., Cat. 3074 Charles II of Anjou, Prince of Achaea, 1285–1287 a.d., Cat. 3075 Florent of Hainaut, Prince of Achaea, 1289–1297 a.d., Cat. 3076–3080 Isabelle Villehardouin, Princess of Achaea, 1297– 1301 a.d., Cat. 3081–3082 Philip of Savoy, Prince of Achaea, 1301–1307 a.d., Cat. 3083–3085 Philip of Tarentum, Prince of Achaea, 1307–1313 a.d., Cat. 3086–3089 William de la Roche, Duke of Athens, 1280–1287 a.d., Cat. 3090 Guy II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, 1287–1308 a.d., Cat. 3091–3098

English Rulers Henry III, 1222–1237 a.d., Cat. 3116

French Rulers Louis IX, 1226–1270 a.d., Cat. 3117–3122 Charles I d’Anjou, 1246–1285 a.d., Cat. 3123–3124 Alphonse,Comte de Poitou,1241–1271 a.d.,Cat. 3125 Saint Martin of Tours, 13c a.d., Cat. 3126

Venetian Rulers Iacopo Tiepolo, 1229–1249 a.d., Cat. 3130 Marc Cornero, 1365–1367 a.d., Cat. 3131 Andrea Contarini, 1368–1382 a.d., Cat. 3132 Antonio Venario, 1382–1400 a.d., Cat. 3133–3135

Ottoman-Turkish Sultans Murad IV, 1623–1640 a.d., Cat. 3147 Ibrahim, 1640–1648 a.d., Cat. 3148 Mehmed IV, 1648–1687 a.d., Cat. 3150 Ahmed III, 1703–1730 a.d., Cat. 3151 Mahmud II, 1808–1839 a.d., Cat. 3152–3153

3. TYPES Achaia seated, holding wreath and scepter: Achaian League, Cat. 1564 Achaian monogram in laurel wreath: Achaian League, Cat. 1563 Acrocorinth Aphrodite in tetrastyle temple on: Corinth, Cat. 1021 in background, as Peirene, seated, pours water for Pegasos: Corinth, Cat. 1030 temple on: Corinth, Cat. 1001, 1036 Aegis worn by Ptolemy III, laureate: Egypt, Cat. 1998– 2012 Aeneas carrying palladium, Anchises on his shoulder: Rome, Cat. 2118 Agrippina the Younger bust of: Corinth, Cat. 1003 Ajax shield of: Salamis, Cat. 358–361 son of Oïleus, naked and ready to fight, L between legs, U to right of shield, spear on ground between legs: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 160 Aleus Genius, holding patera and cornucopia before altar: Corinth, Cat. 1016 head of: Tegea, Cat. 1967–1969 Alexius bust of, facing, holding cross scepter: Mint unkown, Cat. 2582; —, facing, holding jeweled scepter:

index

Mint unkown, Cat. 2571; —, half-length, facing, holding cross and scepter: Mint unkown, Cat. 2559–2561; —, half-length, holding labarum: Mint unkown, Cat. 2549–2558 full-length, facing, holding cross scepter: Mint unkown, Cat. 2562–2570; —, holding labarum: Mint unkown, Cat. 2547–2548 A within shallow incuse square caps of Dioskouroi below: Argos, Cat. 1801 above letters, symbol below: Argos, Cat. 1759– 1764 in upper part, two deeper incuses: Argos, Cat. 1589–1594 Altar in front of Athena, with shield behind her, spear in left hand and Nike in right: Corinth, Cat. 1041 Genius holding patera and cornucopia before: Corinth, Cat. 1016 in front of Hercules, club in right hand and resting on ground: Corinth, Cat. 1029 Amphora: Korkyra, Cat. 145 fluted, below strung bow: Thebes, Cat. 220 with grapes and ivy leaf: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 158–159 two, entwined by serpents, all in laurel wreath: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1587–1588 Anastasius I bust of, diademed: Mint unkown, Cat. 2407–2418 Anchises carried on shoulder of Aeneas. See Aeneas Andronicus I bust of, half-length: Mint unkown, Cat. 3050–3055 Antinoös bust of: Arkadia, Cat. 1939 Antoninus Pius bust of, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1811 head of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1018–1022 Aphrodite head of, bound with tainia: Corinth, Cat. 487– 489; —, hair tied in bands: Corinth, Cat. 989; —, wearing stephanos: Egypt, Cat. 1996–1997 in tetrastyle temple on Acrocorinth: Corinth, Cat. 1021 Apollo archaic figure of, drawing bow: Sikyon, Cat. 1194; —, kneeling, holding bow and arrows: Sikyon, Cat. 1200 bust of, with diadem: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1582 head of: Ambrakia, Cat. 134; Elis, Cat. 1566–1568; Leukas, Cat. 152–154; Pellene, Cat. 1553–1557; Troizen, Cat. 1890–1894; —, hair bound with tainia: Macedonia, Cat. 8–51, 55–58 laureate: Argos, Cat. 1780–1786, 1802–1810; Gargara, Cat. 1982; Lokrian League, Cat. 183; Sikyon, Cat. 1210–1216, 1537–1548; —, hair hanging down neck: Sikyon, Cat. 1405–1409; —, hair long: Tiryns, Cat. 1888; Zakynthos, Cat.

251

1572; —, hair rolled: Tiryns, Cat. 1889; —, hair short: Epidauros, Cat. 1827 standing in chiton, patera in right hand, lyre in left: Argos, Cat. 1824 Arcadius bust of, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2248; Eastern, Cat. 2257; Mint unknown, Cat. 2249–2256, 2258 Arch or gate with three openings, four statues above: Argos, Cat. 1822–1823 Archaic figure of Apollo, drawing bow: Sikyon, Cat. 1194; —, kneeling, holding bow and arrows: Sikyon, Cat. 1200 Arethusa head of, with two dolphins below: Syracuse, Cat. 3 Arrow archaic Apollo figure kneeling, holding arrows and bow: Sikyon, Cat. 1200 with club: Thebes, Cat. 222 Philoktetes kneeling and shooting arrow. See Philoktetes Artemis head of, bound with net, in incuse square: Arkadia, Cat. 1910; —, bound with net or fillet: Arkadia, Cat. 1911; —, with hair in korymbos: Stymphalos, Cat. 1962 kneeling, holding bow: Heraia, Cat. 1942 wearing short chiton with diplois, running, carrying torch in each hand: Megara, Cat. 370 within temple, trees on either side: Corinth, Cat. 1033 Asklepios head of, laureate: Epidauros, Cat. 1828–1834 seated, on stool, feeding bird in hand to serpent: Trikka, Cat. 130 (?), seated, in front of temple, three-quarter view: Corinth, Cat. 1020 Ass head and neck of: Mende, Cat. 7 Athena head of, in Attic helmet: Athens, Cat. 298–300, 308–349 head of, bound with tainia: Troizen, Cat. 1895– 1905 head of, in Corinthian helmet: Athens, Cat. 350–356; Corinth, Cat. 435– 439, 980–984; Macedonia, Cat. 99–104; Same, Cat. 1571; Syracuse, Cat. 4; —, crested: Heraia, Cat. 1942; Lakedaimon, Cat. 1583; Lokrian League, Cat. 161–181; Mantinea, Cat. 1951–1952; Tegea, Cat. 1966; Thurii, Cat. 2; Troizen, Cat. 1906–1909; —, without crest: Mantinea, Cat. 1948; —, in crestless helmet over leather cap: Thyrrheion,

252

index

Athena (continued) Cat. 156; —, in helmet in linear square, within incuse square: Corinth, Cat. 422– 425 head of, in crested Athenian helmet: Heraia, Cat. 1940–1941; Naulochos, Cat. 1985 head of, in helmet: Aigeira, Cat. 1549–1552; Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 147; Kleitor, Cat. 1943; —, crested: Lebadeia, Cat. 216; Mantinea, Cat. 1951–1953; Phlious, Cat. 1185–1190; Salamis, Cat. 1991; Thurii, Cat. 2; —, without crest: Mantinea, Cat. 1949–1950; —, facing slightly left: Phokian League, Cat. 189; —, with threequarter face, wearing close-fitting helmet: Tegea, Cat. 1964 head of, in ornamented helmet, eye in profile: Athens, Cat. 301 holding spear in left hand, Nike in right, shield behind, altar in front: Corinth, Cat. 1041 holding Victory in left hand, owl below and shield to right: Corinth, Cat. 1039 holding Victory in right hand, with spear: Corinth, Cat. 1031–1032 facing Kepheus, both armed, standing, she hands him head of Medusa; Sterope stands between, holding vase to receive it: Tegea, Cat. 1967–1969 Parthenos, head of: Neapolis, Cat. 6 standing, armed, placing (?)hair or head of Medusa in vase held by Sterope: Tegea, Cat. 1965; —, near seated Poseidon: Corinth, Cat. 1028 Augustus head of: Corinth, Cat. 991; —, bare: Corinth, Cat. 993 Bands head of Aphrodite, hair tied in: Corinth, Cat. 989 Basiliscus bust of, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2380 Bee: Melitaia, Cat. 126 Bellerophon mounted on flying Pegasos, striking with spear: Corinth, Cat. 986 on Pegasos, attacking Chimaera with lance: Corinth, Cat. 989 Bird Asklepios seated on stool, feeding bird in hand to serpent: Trikka, Cat. 130 two, in front of Philoktetes. See Philoktetes Boar jawbone of, with spearhead: Aitolian League, Cat. 157 Bow archaic Apollo figure kneeling, holding bow and arrows: Sikyon, Cat. 1200 and club, with crescent in between: Thasos, Cat. 5 above club and race torch: Erythrai, Cat. 1984 drawn by archaic Apollo figure: Sikyon, Cat. 1194

above fluted amphora: Thebes, Cat. 220 held by kneeling Artemis: Heraia, Cat. 1942 in quiver, with club: Erythrai, Cat. 1983; Macedonia, Cat. 59– 63, 77–79; —, with club lying: Macedonia, Cat. 64–70; —, above star, with club and caduceus: Macedonia (Tarsus), Cat. 79 strung, near club: Thebes, Cat. 223–230; —, above quiver: Stymphalos, Cat. 1962 above tail of flying dove: Sikyon, Cat. 1497 Branch Pax, standing left, branch in right hand: Cyzicus, Cat. 2125 See also Odysseus; Runner Britannicus with Nero, standing face to face: Corinth, Cat. 1002 Bull butting: Pholegandros, Cat. 1979; Phlious, Cat. 1046–1090; —, forepart: Phlious, Cat. 1044– 1145 forepart: Phlious, Cat. 1043; Salamis, Cat. 1991 head of, facing: Phokian League, Cat. 184; —, facing bound with fillet: Phokian League, Cat. 185–188; —, facing, horns decorated with fillets, within wreath: Polyrrhenion, Cat. 1970–1973; —, frontal: Aigina, Cat. 414; Corinth, Cat. 990; —, located above pig on bundle of twigs: Eleusis, Cat. 302–304 leaning back to bite shoulder: Thurii, Cat. 2 running, forepart: Pherai, Cat. 129 standing: Euboian League, Cat. 233–237 walking: Histiaia, 272; —, forepart: Histiaia, Cat. 281–296; —, above trophy: Histiaia, Cat. 273– 280 Bust: Corinth, Cat. 1007–1010 Agrippina the Younger: Corinth, Cat. 1003 Alexius, facing, half-length, holding cross and scepter: Mint unknown, Cat. 2559–2561, 2582; —, half-length, holding labarum: Mint unknown, Cat. 2549–2558; —, holding jeweled scepter: Mint unknown, Cat. 2571 Anastasius I, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2418; Mint unknown, Cat. 2407–2417 Andronicus, half-length: Constantinople, Cat. 3050– 3055 Antinoös: Arkadia, Cat. 1939 Antoninus, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1811 Apollo, diademed: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1582 Arcadius, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2248; Eastern, Cat. 2257, 2283–2286, 2330–2342; Mint unknown, Cat. 2249–2256, 2258–2275, 2287– 2319 Basiliscus, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2380 Caracalla, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1826 Christ: Mint unknown: Cat. 2549–2558, 2583; —,

index

holding gospels: Mint unknown, Cat. 2503– 2511, 2572–2580; —, nimbate: Constantinople, Cat. 2913–2955 Commodus, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1028 Constans I, diademed: Eastern, Cat. 2191–2197; Heraclea, Cat. 2158; Mint unknown, Cat. 2153– 2154, 2157, 2159; —, and holding globe: Mint unknown, Cat. 2156; Trier, Cat. 2155 Constantine I, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2126; —, House of, emperor diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2134–2152; —, veiled: Eastern, Cat. 2133; Mint unknown, Cat. 2132 Constantine VII, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2500–2501 Constantinople, helmeted: Cyzicus, Cat. 2130; Mint unknown, Cat. 2131 Constantius II, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2164–2165, 2168; Mint unknown, Cat. 2161– 2162, 2169–2190; Nicomedia, Cat. 2160; Thessalonica, Cat. 2167; Western, Cat. 2163; —, holding globe: Mint unknown, Cat. 2166 Constantius Gallus, bareheaded: Thessalonica, Cat. 2198: —, Caesar bust: Mint unknown, Cat. 2202–2203 Domitian, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1015–1016; —, radiate: Corinth, Cat. 1017 Emperor, diademed or effaced: Mint unknown, Cat. 2381–2406 Flavia Helena, pearled headdress: Cyzicus, Cat. 2125 Fortuna/Tyche, wearing turreted crown: Corinth, Cat. 1005–1006 Galba: Corinth, Cat. 1004 Gordian III (Gordianus), laureate: Mint unknown, Cat. 2120 Gratian, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2221– 2223, 2246–2247 Hadrian, laureate, wearing paludamentum: Chalkis, Cat. 271 Hera: Chalkis, Cat. 271 Honorius, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2277; Eastern, Cat. 2276, 2283–2286, 2330–2342; Mint unknown, Cat. 2287–2319; Rome, Cat. 2279– 2282, 2344–2348 Isaac II: Mint unknown, Cat. 3056–3059 John II, facing, holding jeweled scepter: Mint unknown, Cat. 2572–2581 Julia Domna: Argos, Cat. 1821–1824; Corinth, Cat. 1035–1036 Julian II, bareheaded: Mint unknown, Cat. 2200; —, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2199; —, helmeted, holding spear and shield: Thessalonica, Cat. 2201 Julian Caesar, bareheaded: Mint unknown, Cat. 2202–2207 Justin I, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2419; Cyzicus, Cat. 2420 Justin II, diademed: Rome, Cat. 2475

253

Justinian I, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2421, 2430–2436 Leo I, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2366–2377 Leo VI, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2497–2499 Licinius II: Thessalonica, Cat. 2123 Lucius Verus, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1813–1815 Manuel, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2980–3049; —, facing, holding labarum: Mint unknown, Cat. 2583–2737; —, holding scepter: Mint unknown, Cat. 2738–2912 Marcian, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2360; Mint unknown, Cat. 2361–2365; Thessalonica, Cat. 2359 Marcus Aurelius, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1812 Maurice Tiberius, facing, helmeted: Cyzicus, Cat. 2482–2483; Mint unknown, Cat. 2484; Thessalonica, Cat. 2480–2481 Maximian, radiate with cuirass: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 Michael VII, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2504 Nicephorus II, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2502 Phocas, helmeted: Constantinople, Cat. 2485–2486 Plautilla: Argos, Cat. 1825 Probus, radiate, holding sceptor with eagle at top: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121 Ptolemy III, laureate, wearing aegis: Egypt, Cat. 1998–2012 Roma, helmeted: Mint unknown, Cat. 2128–2129; Thessalonica, Cat. 2127–2129 Septimius Severus, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1816–1820; Corinth, Cat. 1034 St. Demetrius, nimbate: Mint unknown, Cat. 2581 St. George, nimbate: Mint unknown, Cat. 2738– 2912 St. Michael, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 3056– 3059 Theodosius I, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2232–2234, 2238; Mint unknown, Cat. 2231, 2235–2236, 2239–2247, 2259–2275, 2287–2319; Western, Cat. 2328; —, laureate: Thessalonica, Cat. 2237 Theodosius II, diademed: Eastern, Cat. 2320–2327, 2329–2342; Mint unknown, Cat. 2349–2358; Western, Cat. 2328 Tiberius, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 995–997, 999 Tiberius II, crowned: Nicomedia, Cat. 2479 Valens, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2219–2220; Thessalonica, Cat. 2218–2220 Valentinian I, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2217, 2221–2223; Thessalonica, Cat. 2216 Valentinian II, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2225–2226, 2228–2230, 2246–2247, 2259– 2275, 2287–2319; Thessalonica, Cat. 2224, 2227 Valentinian III, diademed: Rome, Cat. 2343–2348 Vandals, bearded: Mint unknown, Cat. 2491–2496; —, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2221–2223

254

index

Bust (continued) Virgin Orans: Mint unknown, Cat. 2547–2548, 3050–3055 Zeno, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2378–2379 Caduceus: Pheneos, Cat. 1954, 1960–1961; Skiathos, Cat. 132 above club, with bow and quiver and star: Macedonia (Tarsus), Cat. 79 at feet of Hermes. See Hermes head of, pointed downward, within tied wreath: Sikyon, Cat. 1497 with trident: Elea, Cat. 135 Caesar bust of, bareheaded: Mint unknown, Cat. 2202– 2203 head of, with laureate: Corinth, Cat. 991 Caligula head of, bare: Corinth, Cat. 1000 Camp Gate Thessalonica, Cat. 2237 Cap caps of Dioskouroi, below A in shallow incuse square: Argos, Cat. 1801; —, with tie-ribbons hanging down: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1582 conical, worn by Odysseus, who holds branch to ground and a spear: Mantinea, Cat. 1953 leather, worn under Corinthian crestless helmet of Athena: Thyrrheion, Cat. 156 Captive dragged by Emperor: Mint unknown, Cat. 2219– 2223; Thessalonica, Cat. 2216, 2224 dragged by Victory: Cyzicus, Cat. 2238; Mint unknown, Cat. 2228–2230, 2239–2242, 2251– 2256, 2287–2319, held by standing emperor: Mint unknown, Cat. 2369–2374 led from hut by emperor: Mint unknown, Cat. 2156, 2166; Trier, Cat. 2155 Caracalla head of: Corinth, Cat. 1037, 1039; —, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1826; —, radiate: Corinth, Cat. 1038 Castle and fleur-de-lis: Mint unknown, Cat. 3123–3125 Tournois: Clarentia, Cat. 3067–3089; Mint unknown, Cat. 3117–3122, 3126; Thebes, Cat. 3090–3098; —, or effaced: Mint unknown, Cat. 3099–3115 or uncertain: Mint unknown, Cat. 3127–3129 Celery KLEW within wild celery: Kleonai, Cat. 1857– 1887 wreath of, C• MVSSIO PRISCO•IIVIR C•HEIO POLLIONE ITER within: Corinth, Cat. 994 wreath of wild celery, forepart of wolf within: Argos, Cat. 1777–1779

Chariot winged, carrying Triptolemos, drawn by two snakes. See Triptolemos C

over Latin cross: Mint unknown, Cat. 2503 Chimaera: Corinth, Cat. 1017, 1026; Leukas, Cat. 148; Sikyon, Cat. 1198, 1201–1202 Bellerophon on Pegasos, attacks with lance: Corinth, Cat. 989 Chiton short, worn by Artemis: Megara, Cat. 370 worn by standing Apollo, with patera in right hand and lyre in left: Argos, Cat. 1824 Chloris Leto standing, hand raised on small figure: Argos, Cat. 1812 Christ bust of: Mint unknown, Cat. 2549–2558, 2583; —, facing, holding gospels: Mint unknown, Cat. 2503–2511, 2572–2580; —, nimbate: Mint unknown, Cat. 2913–2955 enthroned, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 3130 Christogram Constantinople, Cat. 2430 with dependent alpha and omega: Western, Cat. 2443 Cicada: Athens, Cat. 357 Cippus Perseus holds harpa in right hand and left over shield on cippus: Argos, Cat. 1817 Circus obelisk surmounted by figure, two horses on either side: Corinth, Cat. 1034 Claudius head of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1001–1002 Club: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1584–1586 and arrow: Thebes, Cat. 222 below bow and above race torch: Erythrai, Cat. 1984 with crab: Kos, Cat. 1988–1989 on ground behind Philoktetes. See Philoktetes in Heracles’ right hand and resting on ground: Corinth, Cat. 1029 above kantharos: Thebes, Cat. 221 with kantharos and grapes: Boiotian League, Cat. 190 lying, with bow and quiver: Macedonia, Cat. 64–70 with quiver: Macedonia, Cat. 75–76; —, and bow: Erythrai, Cat. 1983; Macedonia, Cat. 59– 63, 77–78; —, and bow, caduceus above and star below: Macedonia (Tarsus), Cat. 79 near shield: Thebes, Cat. 231 and strung bow: Thebes, Cat. 223–230; —, crescent in between: Thasos, Cat. 5 C• MVSSIO PRISCO•IIVIR C•HEIO POLLIONE ITER in celery wreath: Corinth, Cat. 994

index

Collar dog wearing, reclining, looking back: Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 146 Column four, supporting table; eagle on right, jug center, agonistic crown on left below shield: Argos, Cat. 1826 Commodus bust of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1028 head of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1027, 1029; —, wearing cuirass and paludamentum: Megara, Cat. 370 Concordia seated on throne, holding double cornucopia and patera: Cat. 2120 Constans I bust of, diademed: Eastern, Cat. 2191–2197; Heraclea, Cat. 2158; Mint unknown, Cat. 2153– 2154, 2157, 2159; —, holding globe: Trier, Cat. 2155; Mint unknown, Cat. 2156 Constantine I bust of, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2126; —, veiled: Eastern, Cat. 2133; Mint unknown, Cat. 2132 House of: Mint unknown, Cat. 2134–2152 Constantine VII bust of, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2500–2501 Constantinople bust of, helmeted: Cyzicus, Cat. 2130; Mint unknown, Cat. 2131 enthroned, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2231 Constantius II bust of: Mint unknown, Cat. 2204–2207; —, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2164–2165, 2168; Eastern, Cat. 2191–2197; Mint unknown, Cat. 2161–2162, 2169–2190; Nicomedia, Cat. 2160; Thessalonica, Cat. 2167; Western, Cat. 2163; —, diademed, holding globe: Mint unknown, Cat. 2166 House of: Mint unknown, Cat. 2208–2215 Constantius Gallus bust of, bareheaded: Thessalonica, Cat. 2198 Corn wreath and earring, worn by Demeter: Pheneos, Cat. 1960–1961 Cornucopia double, held by seated Concordia: Cat. 2120 to right of eagle on thunderbolt: Egypt, Cat. 1998–2012 held by Victory in one hand, patera in other: Corinth, Cat. 1038 and patera, held by Genius before altar: Corinth, Cat. 1016; —, Tyche standing with: Corinth, Cat. 1022 Crab with club: Kos, Cat. 1988–1989

255

Crescent in between bow and club: Thasos, Cat. 5 with olive spray, behind owl: Athens, Cat. 301 open, with kantharos and thunderbolt: Boiotian League, Cat. 191 Cross: Clarentia, Cat. 3067–3089; Corinth, Cat. 3064–3066; Eastern, Cat. 2276, 2285–2286, 2320–2322, 2330–2338; Mint unknown, Cat. 3117–3129, 3131, 3133–3144; Thebes, Cat. 3090–3098 C over Latin: Mint unknown, Cat. 2503 or effaced: Mint unknown, Cat. 3099–3115 jeweled: Mint unknown, Cat. 2559–2570, 2582 long, in between Doge and St. Mark: Mint unknown, Cat. 3130 scepter, held by Alexius bust: Mint unknown, Cat. 2582; —, held by full-length Alexius: Mint unknown, Cat. 2562–2570; —, held by half-length Alexius bust: Mint unknown, Cat. 2559–2561; —, held by standing, facing Manuel: Mint unknown, Cat. 2913–2955 short: Mint unknown, Cat. 3116 star in circle on: Mint unknown, Cat. 2505– 2511 on steps: Mint unknown, Cat. 2571, 2956– 2979 in wreath: Eastern, Cat. 2325; Mint unknown, Cat. 2349–2358 Crown agonistic, on left, eagle on right with jug center below shield, supported by table with four columns: Argos, Cat. 1826 Constantine VII bust: Mint unknown, Cat. 2500– 2501 Demeter crowned with grain: Hermione, Cat. 1835–1856; Messenia, Cat. 1573–1581 Emperor crowned by Victory: Eastern, Cat. 2257, 2283–2284 HRAIA in middle of: Argos, Cat. 1820 Fortuna/Tyche bust wearing turreted crown: Corinth, Cat. 1005–1006 Henry III, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 3116 Leo VI bust, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2497–2499 Michael VII bust, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2504 Nicephorus II bust, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2502 Tiberius II bust, crowned: Nicomedia, Cat. 2479 young male head crowned with oak wreath: Aitolian League, Cat. 157 Cuirass and paludamentum, worn by Commodus: Megara, Cat. 370 with radiate on Maximian bust: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 Cuttlefish: Syracuse, Cat. 3

256

index

Demeter head of, wearing corn wreath and earring: Pheneos, Cat. 1960–1961; —, wearing stephanos: Polyrrhenion, Cat. 1970–1973; —, crowned with grain: Hermione, Cat. 1835–1856; Messenia, Cat. 1573–1581 holding poppies and ears of grain: Argos, Cat. 1813, 1816, 1825 Demetrios Poliorketes head of, wearing Corinthian helmet: Macedonia, Cat. 89–98 Diadem bust of Anastasius I: Mint unknown, Cat. 2407– 2417; Constantinople, Cat. 2418 bust of Apollo: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1582 bust of Arcadius: Cyzicus, Cat. 2248; Eastern, Cat. 2257; Mint unknown, Cat. 2249–2256, 2258 bust of Basiliscus: Mint unknown, Cat. 2380 bust of Constans I: Heraclea, Cat. 2158; Mint unknown, Cat. 2153–2154, 2157, 2159; —, holding globe: Mint unknown, 2156; Trier, Cat. 2155 bust of Constantius II: Constantinople, Cat. 2164– 2165, 2168; Mint unknown, Cat. 2161, 2162, 2169–2190; Nicomedia, Cat. 2160; Thessalonica, Cat. 2167; Western, Cat. 2163; —, holding globe: Mint unknown, Cat. 2166 bust of Emperor: Eastern, Cat. 2191–2197, 2283– 2286, 2329–2342; Mint unknown, Cat. 2126, 2134–2152, 2204–2215, 2221–2223, 2246– 2247, 2259–2275, 2287–2319, 2349–2358; Rome, Cat. 2344–2348; Western, Cat. 2328; —, or effaced: Mint unknown, Cat. 2381–2406 bust of Honorius: Cyzicus, Cat. 2277; Eastern, Cat. 2276; Mint unknown, Cat. 2278; Rome, Cat. 2279–2282 bust of Julian II: Cyzicus, Cat. 2199 bust of Justin I: Constantinople, Cat. 2419; Cyzicus, Cat. 2420 bust of Justin II: Rome, Cat. 2475 bust of Justinian I: Constantinople, Cat. 2421–2422, 2430–2436 bust of Leo I: Mint unknown, Cat. 2366–2377 bust of Marcian: Constantinople, Cat. 2360; Mint unknown, Cat. 2361–2365; Thessalonica, Cat. 2359 bust of Theodosius I: Cyzicus, Cat. 2232–2234, 2238; Mint unknown, Cat. 2231, 2235–2236, 2239–2245; Thessalonica, Cat. 2237 bust of Theodosius II: Eastern, Cat. 2320–2327 bust of Valens: Mint unknown, Cat. 2219–2220; Thessalonica, Cat. 2218 bust of Valentinian I: Mint unknown, Cat. 2225–2226, 2228–2230; Rome, Cat. 2343; Thessalonica, Cat. 2216 bust of Valentinian II: Mint unknown, Cat. 2225–

2226, 2228–2230; Thessalonica, Cat. 2224, 2227 bust of Zeno: Mint unknown, Cat. 2378–2379 head of Hera, facing, diadem decorated with five discs with human faces: Chalkis, Cat. 241–270 head of Venus: Rome, Cat. 2118 head of Zeus: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1584–1586 Dione head of, laureate, veiled: Ambrakia, Cat. 133 Dionysos head of: Korkyra, Cat. 145; —, bearded: Naxos, Cat. 1977; Peparethos, Cat. 131; —, three-quarter face, wreathed in ivy: Mykonos, Cat. 1976 seated on throne, holding thyrsos: Corinth, Cat. 1019 Dioskouroi caps of, below A in shallow incuse square: Argos, Cat. 1801; —, with tie-ribbons hanging down: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1582 head of, laureate, pilei with stars above: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1587–1588 Diplois and short chiton, worn by Artemis: Megara, Cat. 370 Disc five, with human faces on Hera’s decorated diadem: Chalkis, Cat. 241–270 Doe Telephus suckled by: Tegea, Cat. 1964, 1966 Dog wearing collar, reclining and looking back: Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 146 Doge facing left, St. Mark facing right, long cross in between: Mint unknown, Cat. 3130 kneeling: Mint unknown, Cat. 3132 Dolphin: Aigina, Cat. 414; Rhaukos, Cat. 1974 in circle: Naulochos, Cat. 1985 held by Poseidon. See Poseidon Melikertes standing on. See Melikertes beneath prow with tripod: Megara, Cat. 362–369 with trident: Troizen, Cat. 1895–1905; —, upward: Boiotian League, Cat. 192–215 two, facing upward: Aigina, Cat. 386– 413; —, with head of Arethusa: Syracuse, Cat. 3; —, swimming in circle: Megara, Cat. 362–369 youth seated on. See Youth Domitian bust of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1015–1016; —, radiate: Corinth, Cat. 1017 Dove alighting: Sikyon, Cat. 1199, 1203–1209 feeding: Sikyon, Cat. 1516–1534 flying: Sikyon, Cat. 1193–1194, 1198–1199, 1201– 1233, 1236–1262, 1274–1404, 1410–1515,

257

index

1535; —, or alighting: Sikyon, Cat. 1217–1224, 1234–1235; —, or alighting, holding fillet, in field SI and name or part of name: Sikyon, Cat. 1537– 1548; —, in olive wreath: Sikyon, Cat. 1195– 1197; —, with star behind: Sikyon, Cat. 1536; —, with strung bow above tail: Sikyon, Cat. 1497 standing: Sikyon, Cat. 1191–1193 Drusus Caesar head of, CORINTHI around: Corinth, Cat. 994 Drusus Minor head of, bare: Corinth, Cat. 998 Eagle flying, holding snake in beak and claws: Chalkis, Cat. 238–270; —, to or from Zeus’s hand: Arkadia, Cat. 1910, 1911 on harpa: Argos, Cat. 1643 on left, jug center, agonistic crown on left below shield, supported by thunderbolt, cornucopia to right of: Egypt, Cat. 1998–2012 with scepter, held by enthroned Zeus: Macedonia, Cat. 71–74 at top of scepter, held by radiate Probus bust: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121 table with four columns: Argos, Cat. 1826 on thunderbolt, wings closed: Egypt, Cat. 1996–1997 Earring Athena wearing with Corinthian crestless helmet over leather cap: Thyrrheion, Cat. 156 Demeter wearing with corn wreath: Pheneos, Cat. 1960–1961 female wearing with necklace, hair rolled: Chalkis, Cat. 239–240 Maenad wearing, with necklace and vine wreath: Histiaia, Cat. 281–296 Eileithyia head of (?): Tegea, Cat. 1965 Emperor bust of, Constantius II or Julian Caesar: Mint unknown, Cat. 2204–2207; emperor, House of Constantius II: Cat. 2208–2215; —, diademed, Arcadius or Honorius: Eastern, Cat. 2283–2286; Arcadius, Honorius, or Theodosius II: Cat. 2330–2342; Constans I or Constantius II: Eastern, Cat. 2191–2197; Constantine I: Mint unknown, Cat. 2126; emperor, House of Constantine I: Cat. 2134–2152; Gratian, Valentinian II, or Theodosius I: Cat. 2246–2247; Honorius or Valentinian III: Cat. 2344–2348; Theodosius I or Theodosius II: Cat. 2328; Theodosius II or Honorius: Cat. 2329; Theodosius II or Valentinian III: Cat. 2349–2358; Valentinian I, Valens, or Gratian: Thessalonica, Cat. 2221– 2223; Valentinian II, Theodosius I, or Arcadius: Cat. 2259–2275; Valentinian II, Theodosius I, Arcadius, or Honorius: Cat. 2287–2319;

—, diademed or effaced: Mint unknown, Cat. 2381–2406 holding labarum, dragging captive: Mint unknown, Cat. 2219–2223; Thessalonica, Cat. 2216, 2218, 2224 in galley steered by Victory: Trier, Cat. 2157 leading captives from hut: Mint unknown, Cat. 2156, 2166; Trier, Cat. 2155 within quadriga: Cyzicus, Cat. 2132–2133 spearing falling horseman: Constantinople, Cat. 2168; Mint unknown, Cat. 2169–2186, 2202– 2203, 2208–2215; Thessalonica, Cat. 2167, 2198 standing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2378; —, crowned by Victory: Eastern, Cat. 2257, 2283–2284; —, holding captive: Mint unknown, Cat. 2369– 2374; —, holding standard and victoriola: Thessalonica, Cat. 2218 three, standing, holding spears and shields: Eastern, Cat. 2323, 2339–2342 two, standing, holding spear and shield: Cyzicus, Cat. 2277; Mint unknown, Cat. 2278; —, supporting globe between them: Eastern, Cat. 2329 veiled: Eastern, Cat. 2133 E

within laurel wreath: Epidauros, Cat. 1827–1834

ER

and torch within wreath of grain: Hermione, Cat. 1835–1856 EPIEURU KLE OS

in wreath: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1584–1586

HRAIA

in middle of crown: Argos, Cat. 1820

Face human, on five discs of decorated diadem belonging to Hera: Chalkis, Cat. 241–270 Female head of: Salamis, Cat. 358–361; —, hair rolled, covered with net of pearls: Chalkis, Cat. 238; —, hair rolled, wearing earring and necklace: Chalkis, Cat. 239–240; —, laureate, wearing modius and veil: Thespiai, Cat. 232 Figure surmounting obelisk, two horses on either side, a circus scene: Corinth, Cat. 1034 Fillet Artemis’s head bound with, or with net: Arkadia, Cat. 1911 bull’s head bound with: Phokian League, Cat. 185–188 bull’s horns decorated with: Polyrrhenion, Cat. 1970–1973 dove flying or alighting, holding: Sikyon, Cat. 1537–1548

258

index

Fillet (continued) temple key bound with: Argos, Cat. 1601 See also Ribbon; Tainia Flavia Helena bust of, pearled headdress: Cyzicus, Cat. 2125 Fleur-de-lis and castle: Mint unknown, Cat. 3123–3125 Foe stricken, by Lucius Verus galloping: Corinth, Cat. 1025 Fortuna/Tyche bust of: wearing turreted crown: Corinth, Cat. 1005–1006 Galba bust of: Corinth, Cat. 1004 Galley Emperor within, steered by Victory: Mint unknown, Cat. 2157 Gate camp gate: Thessalonica, Cat. 2227, 2237 or arch with three openings, four statues above: Argos, Cat. 1822–1823 Genius holding patera and cornucopia before altar: Corinth, Cat. 1016 Genoa Gate: Corinth, Cat. 3064–3066 Globe and spear held by standing Virtus: Cyzicus, Cat. 2199; Mint unknown, Cat. 2187–2190, 2200, 2204–2207 held by Constans: Mint unknown, Cat. 2156; Trier, Cat. 2155 held by Constantius: Mint unknown, Cat. 2166 supported by two emperors: Eastern, Cat. 2329 upon which a Ruler receives victory by Jupiter: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 Victory on, holding wreath and palm: Corinth, Cat. 997 Goat: Paros, Cat. 1978 forepart in wreath: Aigeira, Cat. 1549–1550; head and neck within wreath: Aigeira, Cat. 1551–1552 horns of goat on Pan’s head: Arkadia, Cat. 1912–1937 Gordian III (Gordianus) bust of, laureate: Mint unknown, Cat. 2120 Gordianus. See Gordian III Gorgoneion: Neapolis, Cat. 6; Tegea, Cat. 1963 in center of aegis: Amisos, Cat. 1980–1981 on Macedonian shield: Salamis, Cat. 1992–1995 Gospels held by bust of Christ: Mint unknown, Cat. 2503–2511, 2572–2580 Grain Demeter crowned with: Hermione, Cat. 1835– 1856; Messenia, Cat. 1573–1581

ear of: Paros, Cat. 1978; —, with cluster of grapes: Mykonos, Cat. 1976; —, held in left hand by woman, poppies in right hand: Argos, Cat. 1818– 1819; —, held in right hand of Triptolemos in winged chariot drawn by two snakes: Athens, Cat. 305–307; —, and poppies, held by Demeter: Argos, Cat. 1813, 1816, 1825 leaves of, forming wreath worn by Persephone: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 160 wreath, ER and torch within: Hermione, Cat. 1835–1856 Grapes: Lokrian League, Cat. 182 with amphora and ivy leaf: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 158–159 cluster of: Euboian League, Cat. 233–237; Lokrian League: Cat. 161–181; —, with club and kantharos: Boiotian League, Cat. 190; —, with ear of grain: Mykonos, Cat. 1976; —, near greave: Lokrian League, Cat. 183; —, above kantharos: Naxos, Cat. 1977; —, with palm tree and lyre: Tiryns, Cat. 1888 Greave near cluster of grapes: Lokrian League, Cat. 183 Griffin with forepaw raised: Teos, Cat. 1986 Hadrian bust of, with laureate: Chalkis, Cat. 271 Harpa eagle on: Argos, Cat. 1643 within olive wreath: Larissa Kremaste, Cat. 124–125 Perseus, holding, with head of Medusa in other hand: Argos, Cat. 1821; —, holding in left hand, with head of Medusa in right: Argos, Cat. 1815; —, holding in right hand, with left hand over shield on cippus: Argos, Cat. 1817 Headdress Isis: Egypt, Cat. 2013 pearled, on Flavia Helena bust: Cyzicus, Cat. 2125 Hebe head of, with rolled hair: Phlious, Cat. 1045 Helios head of, facing, with rays around: Kleitor, Cat. 1944–1947 in quadriga, drawn by horses: Corinth, Cat. 1003, 1037 Helle or Phyxos seated on ram, running: Halos, Cat. 119 Helmet: Melos, Cat. 1975 Athenian, with crest, worn by Athena: Heraia, Cat. 1940–1941; Naulochos, Cat. 1985 Attic, worn by Athena: Athens, Cat. 298–300, 308–349 on bust of, Constantinople: Cyzicus, Cat. 2130; Mint unknown, Cat. 2131; —, Maurice Tiberius, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2484;

index

—, Roma: Mint unknown, Cat. 2128–2129; Thessalonica, Cat. 2127 Corinthian, crested: Argos, Cat. 1639–1642 Corinthian, worn by Athena: Athens, Cat. 350–356; Corinth, Cat. 435– 439, 980–984; Heraia, Cat. 1942; Macedonia, Cat. 99–104; Same, Cat. 1571; Syracuse, Cat. 4; —, crested: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1583; Lokrian League, Cat. 161–181; Tegea, Cat. 1966; Troizen, Cat. 1906– 1909; —, without crest: Mantinea, Cat. 1948; —, without crest, over leather cap: Thyrrheion, Cat. 156; —, helmet in linear square, within incuse square: Corinth, Cat. 422– 425 Corinthian, worn by Demetrios Poliorketes: Macedonia, Cat. 89–98 Macedonian: Macedonia, Cat. 83–88, 106–114; —, within oak wreath: Pyrrhos, Cat. 136–144; Salamis, Cat. 1992–1995 worn by Athena: Aigeira, Cat. 1549–1552; Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 147; Kleitor, Cat. 1943; —, Athena facing slightly left: Phokian League, Cat. 189; —, close-fitting, on three-quarter face: Tegea, Cat. 1964; —, crested: Lebadeia, Cat. 216; Mantinea, Cat. 1951–1953; Phlious, Cat. 1185– 1190; Salamis, Cat. 1991; Thurii, Cat. 2; —, without crest: Mantinea, Cat. 1949–1950; —, ornamented, eye in profile: Athens, Cat. 301 worn by Julian II, holding spear and shield: Thessalonica, Cat. 2201 worn by Justinian I: Antioch, Cat. 2441–2442; Constantinople, 2422–2436; Cyzicus, Cat. 2439–2440; Thessalonica, Cat. 2437–2438; Western, Cat. 2443 worn by Maurice Tiberius: Cyzicus, Cat. 2482– 2483; Mint unknown, Cat. 2484; Thessalonica, Cat. 2480–2481 worn by Phocas: Constantinople, Cat. 2485–2486 Henry III head of, facing, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 3116 Hera bust of: Chalkis, Cat. 271 head of: wearing stephanos: Argos, Cat. 1602–1638, 1644–1646, 1777–1779, 1787–1800; Samos, Cat. 1987; —, facing, diadem decorated by five discs with human faces: Chalkis, Cat. 241–270 Herakles head of: Thasos, Cat. 5; —, bearded and bare: Corinth, Cat. 985; —, in lion’s skin: Kleonai, Cat. 1857–1887; Kos, Cat. 1988–1989; Macedonia, Cat. 52–53, 59–82, 105; Thebes, Cat. 222–231 head of, young: in lion’s skin with countermark star: Erythrai, Cat. 1983 Hercules standing behind small altar, club in right hand and resting on ground: Corinth, Cat. 1029

259

Hermes head of, petasos behind neck: Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 146; —, in petasos: Lokrian League, Cat. 182; —, wearing petasos: Pheneos, Cat. 1955–1959 standing naked, holding purse and caduceus, and with ram at feet: Corinth, Cat. 1040 Hippocamp flying: Syracuse, Cat. 4 Honorius bust of, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2277; Eastern, Cat. 2276; Mint unknown, Cat. 2278; Rome, Cat. 2279–2282 Horse bridled and frothing: Larissa, Cat. 123 drawn by Helios in quadriga: Corinth, Cat. 1003, 1037 galloping: Gargara, Cat. 1982; —, forepart: Pherai, Cat. 129 prancing with loose reins: Kleitor, Cat. 1943 springing, forepart of: Tanagra, Cat. 217–219 standing, male figure (Neptune?) in quadriga near: Corinth, Cat. 1024 trotting: Arkadia, Cat. 1939; Elis, Cat. 1569–1570 two, on either side of obelisk surmounted by figure, circus scene: Corinth, Cat. 1034 Horseman: Macedonia, Cat. 105 falling, speared by Emperor: Constantinople, Cat. 2168; Mint unknown, Cat. 2169–2190, 2202– 2203, 2208–2215; Thessalonica, Cat. 2167, 2198 naked youth: Macedonia, Cat. 52, 55–58; —, without petasos: Macedonia, Cat. 8–51 near star: Macedonia, Cat. 80–82 youthful, holding palm, wreath below: Macedonia, Cat. 54 Hut Emperor leading captives from: Mint unknown, Cat. 2156, 2166; Trier, Cat. 2155 Illegible: Corinth, Cat. 1042 Greek: Mint unknown, Cat. 2018–2100 Macedonian: Macedonia, Cat. 115–116 Incuse square Artemis within, head bound with fillet or net: Arkadia, Cat. 1911; —, head bound with net: Arkadia, Cat. 1910 Athena in Corinthian helmet in linear square, within incuse: Corinth, Cat. 422– 425 divided by narrow bands into five compartments: Aigina, Cat. 386– 413 divided diagonally: Athens, Cat. 297 divided into compartments: Aigina, Cat. 371–385 with four pellets and F inside: Phlious, Cat. 1044; Phokian League, Cat. 184 kantharos within: Mende, Cat. 7 Peirene (fountain nymph) within: Corinth, Cat. 426 c inside: Sikyon, Cat. 1191–1192

260

index

Incuse square (continued) shallow: A within, above, letters, below, symbol: Argos, Cat. 1759–1764; A within, below, caps of Dioskouroi: Argos, Cat. 1801; A within, in upper part, two deeper incuses: Argos, Cat. 1589–1594; S within: Sikyon, Cat. 1536 swastika: Corinth, Cat. 415– 421 Isaac II bust of: Mint unknown, Cat. 3056–3059 Isis in headdress: Egypt, Cat. 2013 Ivy Dionysos head, three-quarter face, wreathed in: Mykonos, Cat. 1976 kantharos, wreathed in: Peparethos, Cat. 131 leaf of, with amphora and grapes: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 158–159 Javelin Phemios slinging, two behind him: Ainianes, Cat. 118 John II bust of, facing, holding jeweled scepter: Mint unknown, Cat. 2572–2581 Jug center, with eagle on right and agonistic crown on left below shield, all on table supported by four columns: Argos, Cat. 1826 Julia Domna bust of: Argos, Cat. 1821–1824; Corinth, Cat. 1035–1036 Julian II bust of, bareheaded: Mint unknown, Cat. 2200; —, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2199; —, helmeted, holding spear and shield: Thessalonica, Cat. 2201 Julian Caesar bust of, bareheaded: Mint unknown, Cat. 2202– 2203 Julius Caesar head of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 986 Jupiter leaning on scepter, giving victory on globe to Ruler: Corinth, Cat. 2122 Justin I bust of, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2419; Cyzicus, Cat. 2420 Justin II bust of, diademed: Rome, Cat. 2475 and Sophia enthroned, facing: Constantinople, Cat. 2444–2450; Cyzicus, Cat. 2474; Nicomedia, Cat. 2469–2473; Rome, Cat. 2476–2478; Thessalonica, Cat. 2451–2468 Justinian I bust of, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2421, 2430–2436 facing, helmeted: Antioch, Cat. 2441–2442;

Constantinople, Cat. 2422–2429; Cyzicus, Cat. 2439–2440; Thessalonica, Cat. 2437–2438; Western, Cat. 2443 Kantharos above club: Thebes, Cat. 221 with club and grapes: Boiotian League, Cat. 190 below cluster of grapes: Naxos, Cat. 1977 in incuse square: Mende, Cat. 7 magistrate’s name on: Teos, Cat. 1986 with thunderbolt and open crescent: Boiotian League, Cat. 191 wreathed in ivy: Peparethos, Cat. 131 KLEW

within wild celery: Kleonai, Cat. 1857–1887 Kepheus with Athena, both armed, standing facing, she hands him head of Medusa; Sterope stands between, holding vase to receive it: Tegea, Cat. 1967–1969 Key temple key bound with fillet: Argos, Cat. 1601 Knife with hunting spear: Oita, Cat. 127–128 Korymbos hair of Artemis bound with: Stymphalos, Cat. 1962 Labarum held by full-length Alexius: Mint unknown, Cat. 2547–2548; half-length bust of Alexius: Mint unknown, Cat. 2549–2558 held by Emperor dragging captive: Mint unknown, Cat. 2217, 2219–2223; Thessalonica, Cat. 2216, 2218, 2224 held by Manuel: Mint unknown, Cat. 2583–2737; —, three-quarter length facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2956–2979

LE

within olive wreath: Lebadeia, Cat. 216 Lance Bellerophon on Pegasos, attacks Chimaera with: Corinth, Cat. 989 Larissa head of, three-quarter: Larissa, Cat. 123 Laureate. See Antoninus Pius; Apollo; Asklepios; Caesar; Caracalla; Claudius; Commodus; Dione; Dioskouroi; Domitian; Female; Gordian III; Hadrian; Julius Caesar; Lucius Verus; Marcus Aurelius; Poseidon; Ptolemy III; Septimius Severus; Theodosius I; Tiberius; Trajan; Zeus Laurel wreath of, E within: Epidauros, Cat. 1827– 1834; —, lyre within: Thespiai, Cat. 232; —, monogram within: Pellene, Cat. 1556–1557; —, obelisk within: Ambrakia, Cat. 133–134; —, FW within: Phokian League, Cat. 185–188; —, ram’s head and monogram within: Pellene,

index

Cat. 1553–1555; —, with two amphorae entwined by serpents: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1587–1588 Leaf grain, Persephone head, hair bound with wreath of grain leaves: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 160 ivy, with amphora and grapes: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 158–159 Leo I bust of, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2366–2377 Leo VI bust of, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2497–2499 Leto standing: Argos, Cat. 1812 Licinius II bust of: Thessalonica, Cat. 2123 Lion: Sikyon, Cat. 1195–1197 crouching in wreath: Mint unknown, Cat. 2366– 2368 head of, with spearhead in mouth: Oita, Cat. 127–128 rampant: Mint unknown, Cat. 3132 scalp of: Samos, Cat. 1987 skin of, worn on head of Herakles: Kleonai, Cat. 1857–1887; Kos, Cat. 1988–1989; Macedonia, Cat. 52–53, 59–82, 105; Thebes, Cat. 222–231; —, worn on head of young Herakles: Erythrai, Cat. 1983 of St. Mark: Mint unknown, Cat. 3131, 3133–3146 Livia veiled, seated and holding patera and scepter: Corinth, Cat. 998 Lucius Verus bust of, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1813-1815 galloping above stricken foe: Corinth, Cat. 1025 head of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1025–1026 Lyre held by youth on dolphin. See Youth held in left hand of standing Apollo, with patera in right hand: Argos, Cat. 1824 within laurel wreath: Thespiai, Cat. 232 with palm tree and cluster of grapes: Tiryns, Cat. 1888 Maenad head of, wearing earring, necklace, and vine wreath: Histiaia, Cat. 281–296; —, wearing vine wreath: Histiaia, Cat. 272-280 Male head of, unbearded: Erythrai, Cat. 1984; —, young, crowned with oak wreath: Aitolian League, Cat. 157 figure of (Neptune?) in quadriga, horses standing: Corinth, Cat. 1024 Manuel I bust of, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2980–3049;

261

—, holding labarum: Mint unknown, Cat. 2583– 2737; —, holding scepter: Mint unknown, Cat. 2738–2912 standing, facing, holding cross scepter: Mint unknown, Cat. 2913–2955 three-quarter length facing, holding labarum: Mint unknown, Cat. 2956–2979 Marcian bust of, diademed: Constantinople, Cat. 2360; Mint unknown, Cat. 2361–2365; Thessalonica, Cat. 2359 Marcus Aurelius bust of, with laureate: Argos, Cat. 1812 head of: Corinth, Cat. 1023; —, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1024; —, radiate: Macedonia, Cat. 117 Maurice Tiberius bust of, facing, helmeted: Cyzicus, Cat. 2482–2483; Mint unknown, Cat. 2484; Thessalonica, Cat. 2480–2481 Maximian bust of, radiate with cuirass: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 Medusa Athena and Kepheus, armed, standing facing, she hands him head of Medusa; Sterope stands between them, holding vase to receive it: Tegea, Cat. 1967–1969 head of, held up in one hand by Perseus and harpa in his other: Argos, Cat. 1815, 1821 (?) hair of head, placed by armed Athena in vase held up by Sterope: Tegea, Cat. 1965 Melikertes standing on dolphin: Corinth, Cat. 1018 Michael VII bust of, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2504 Modius worn by female. See Female Monogram above ram’s head, all in laurel wreath: Pellene, Cat. 1553–1555 Necklace and earring, worn by female, hair rolled: Chalkis, Cat. 239–240 worn by Maenad: Histiaia, Cat. 281–296 Neptune male figure (Neptune?) in quadriga, horses standing: Corinth, Cat. 1024 Nero and Britannicus, standing face to face: Corinth, Cat. 1002 Net Artemis head, bound with net: Arkadia, Cat. 1910; —, bound with net or fillet: Arkadia, Cat. 1911 female head, hair rolled, covered with net of pearls: Chalkis, Cat. 238

262

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Nicephorus II bust of, crowned: Mint unknown, Cat. 2502 Nike advancing, carrying palm branch: Amisos, Cat. 1980–1981 held by Athena in right hand, spear in her left, shield behind, and altar in front: Corinth, Cat. 1041 held by standing Zeus in right hand and scepter in left: Achaian League, Cat. 1564 and lyre held by youth: Brundisium, Cat. 1 in quadriga(?) on adorned prow: Leukas, Cat. 152–154 and trident behind Poseidon: Brundisium, Cat. 1 Nimbate Christ bust facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2913–2955 Demetrius facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2581 St. George facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2738–2912 Nymph fountain nymph, head of Peirene wearing hair in sakkos: Corinth, Cat. 539, 708 head of, hair rolled: Lamia, Cat. 120–122; Larissa Kremaste, Cat. 124–125 Peirene (fountain nymph) within incuse square: Corinth, Cat. 426 Oak wreath of, Macedonian helmet within: Pyrrhos, Cat. 136–144; —, young male head crowned with: Aitolian League, Cat. 157 Obelisk within laurel wreath: Ambrakia, Cat. 133–134 surmounted by figure, two horses on either side, circus scene: Corinth, Cat. 1034 Odysseus standing in conical cap, holding branch to ground and carrying spear: Mantinea, Cat. 1953 Oïleus father of Ajax. See Ajax Olive spray, behind facing owl: Athens, Cat. 299–300; —, near facing owl: Athens, Cat. 298, 301; —, in upper corners, near double-bodied owl: Athens, Cat. 308–344 wreath, dove flying within: Sikyon, Cat. 1195–1197; —, Harpa within: Larissa Kremaste, Cat. 124–125; —, LE within: Lebadeia, Cat. 216; —, owl with wings closed within: Athens, Cat. 350–352; —, F within: Phokian League, Cat. 189; —, with S inside: Sikyon, Cat. 1405– 1409; —, S, SE, or SI within: Sikyon, Cat. 1410–1459; —, SE within, tied: Sikyon, Cat. 1200; —, two owls facing within: Athens, Cat. 345–349 Open crescent. See Crescent Owl: Athens, Cat. 353–355; Tegea, Cat. 1963 below Athena: Corinth, Cat. 1031–1032, 1039

double-bodied, with olive spray in upper corners: Athens, Cat. 308–344 facing, crescent and olive spray behind: Athens, Cat. 301; —, olive spray behind: Athens, Cat. 299–300; —, olive spray nearby: Athens, Cat. 298; —, on thunderbolt: Athens, Cat. 357 with spearhead in front: Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 147 two, facing, within olive wreath: Athens, Cat. 345–349 wings closed, within wreath: Athens, Cat. 356; —, olive: Athens, Cat. 350–352 within wreath: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1583 P•AEBV [SP F] C•IVLIO [HERA] II VI[R QVI] IT[ER] in wreath: Corinth, Cat. 993 P•AEBVTIO•C•PINNIO•IIVIR in pine wreath: Corinth, Cat. 988 P AEBVTIO•SP•F C•HEIO [P]AMPHI[LO] within wreath: Corinth, Cat. 992 Palladium held by Aeneas. See Aeneas Pallas fighting: Argos, Cat. 1644–1646 Palm arching above praefericulum: Corinth, Cat. 990 branch, carried by advancing Nike: Amisos, Cat. 1980–1981 held by youthful horseman, wreath below: Amphipolis, Cat. 54 tree: Tiryns, Cat. 1889; —, with lyre and cluster of grapes: Tiryns, Cat. 1888 and wreath, held by advancing Victory: Mint unknown, Cat. 2217; Rome, Cat. 2279–2282, 2344–2348; —, held by walking Victory: Egypt, Cat. 2119; —, Victory on a globe: Corinth, Cat. 997 Paludamentum with cuirass, worn by Commodus: Megara, Cat. 370 worn by Hadrian laureate: Chalkis, Cat. 271 Pan erecting trophy: Macedonia, Cat. 99–104 head of, with goat’s horns: Arkadia, Cat. 1912–1937 Patera and cornucopia, held by Genius before altar: Corinth, Cat. 1016; —, Tyche standing with: Corinth, Cat. 1022 and double cornucopia held by Concordia, seated on throne: Corinth, Cat. 2120 held in one hand by Victory, cornucopia in other: Corinth, Cat. 1038 held in right hand by standing Apollo, lyre in left: Argos, Cat. 1824 and scepter held by enthroned Zeus: Argos, Cat. 1811

263

index

and scepter held by seated and veiled Livia: Corinth, Cat. 998 Pax standing left, branch in right hand: Cyzicus, Cat. 2125 Pearls net of, covering female head with rolled hair: Chalkis, Cat. 238 Pedum near Pan head with goat’s horns: Arkadia, Cat. 1912 Pegasos: Corinth, Cat. 428– 434, 440– 484, 490–538, 540–707, 709–984, 987, 995–996; Elea, Cat. 135; either obverse or reverse: Corinth, Cat. 1011–1013 Bellerophon on, attacks Chimaera with lance: Corinth, Cat. 989 flying: Corinth, Cat. 992, 1000; Leukas, Cat. 149–151; —, bridled with curled wing: Corinth, Cat. 415– 426; —, with curled wing: Corinth, Cat. 427; —, with mounted Bellerophon, who strikes with spear: Corinth, Cat. 986; —, with pointed wing: Corinth, Cat. 485– 486, 539, 708; Thyrrheion, Cat. 156 forepart, with curled wing below: Corinth, Cat. 487–489 Peirene seated, pours water for, with Acrocorinth in background: Corinth, Cat. 1030 protome: Corinth, Cat. 985 trotting, with curled wing: Corinth, Cat. 485– 486 Peirene head of, wearing hair in sakkos: Corinth, Cat. 539, 708 within incuse square: Corinth, Cat. 426 seated, pouring water for Pegasos, in background is Acrocorinth: Corinth, Cat. 1030 Persephone head of, bound with wreath of grain leaves: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 160 Perseus facing right, holding head of Medusa in right hand, harpa in left: Argos, Cat. 1815 holding harpa (in right hand), and left over his shield on cippus: Argos, Cat. 1817; —, and head of Medusa: Argos, Cat. 1821 Petasos worn by Hermes, on head: Lokrian League, Cat. 182; Pheneos, Cat. 1955–1959; —, behind neck: Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 146 youthful naked horseman without. See Youth Pharos ship under sail approaches: Corinth, Cat. 1027 Phemios slinging, two javelins behind: Ainianes, Cat. 118 F

with pellets (two): Phlious, Cat. 1108–1146 with pellets (four) inside incuse square, Phlious, Cat.

1044; —, boss-like pellet in middle of: Phokian League, Cat. 184 with pellets (indeterminable number): Phlious, Cat. 1163–1184 without pellets: Phlious, Cat. 1147–1162 within incuse square: Phlious, Cat. 1043 in olive wreath: Phokian League, Cat. 189 and W within: Phokian League, Cat. 185–188 FW

in laurel wreath: Phokian League, Cat. 185–188 Philoktetes naked, kneeling, shooting arrow, club on ground behind him, before him two birds: Lamia, Cat. 120–122 Phocas bust of, helmeted: Constantinople, Cat. 2485–2486 Phyxos or Helle, seated on ram, running: Halos, Cat. 119 Pig on bundle of twigs, located below bull’s head: Eleusis, Cat. 302–304 on mystic staff, with plemochoë below: Athens, Cat. 305–307 Pilei Dioskouroi heads wearing laureate pilei with stars above: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1587–1588 Pine wreath of: Corinth, Cat. 988 Plautilla bust of: Argos, Cat. 1825 head of: Corinth, Cat. 1040–1041 Plemochoë with pig on mystic staff above: Athens, Cat. 305–307 Poet seated, holding scroll in hand: Argos, Cat. 1814 Pomegranate: Melos, Cat. 1975 Poppy and ears of grain, held by Demeter in each hand: Argos, Cat. 1813, 1816, 1825; —, held by woman: Argos, Cat. 1818–1819 head of, held by clasped hands between two ears of wheat: Corinth, Cat. 1004–1006 Poseidon advancing, holding trident: Mantinea, Cat. 1951–1952 head of, hair bound with tainia: Corinth, Cat. 988; —, laureate, trident and Nike behind: Brundisium, Cat. 1 seated, near standing Athena: Corinth, Cat. 1028; —, on rock, holding dolphin and trident: Mantinea, Cat. 1948 Praefericulum palm arching above: Corinth, Cat. 990 Probus bust of, radiate, holding scepter with eagle at top: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121

264

index

Protome and Pegasos: Corinth, Cat. 985 Prow: Macedonia, Cat. 89–98 adorned with ?Nike in quadriga?: Leukas, Cat. 152–154 with tripod, dolphin below: Megara, Cat. 362–369 Victory upon: Cyzicus, Cat. 2130 Ptolemy III bust of, laureate, wearing aegis: Egypt, Cat. 1998– 2012 Purse held in right hand by naked standing Hermes, with caduceus in left hand and ram at his feet: Corinth, Cat. 1040 Quadriga emperor within: Eastern, Cat. 2133; Mint unknown, Cat. 2132 with Helios, drawn by horses: Corinth, Cat. 1003, 1037 male figure (Neptune?) in quadriga, horses standing: Corinth, Cat. 1024 with Nike? on adorned prow: Leukas, Cat. 152–154 Quiver: Argos, Cat. 1787–1800 with club: Macedonia, Cat. 75–76; —, and bow: Macedonia, Cat. 59– 63, 77–78; —, and bow, above club is caduceus and below is star: Erythrai, Cat. 1983; Macedonia (Tarsus), Cat. 79; with club lying: Macedonia, Cat. 64–70 below strung bow: Stymphalos, Cat. 1962 Radiate bust of Domitian: Corinth, Cat. 1017 bust of Maximian, with cuirass: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 bust of Probus, holding scepter with eagle at top: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121 head of Caracalla: Corinth, Cat. 1038 head of Marcus Aurelius: Macedonia, Cat. 117 Ram: Pheneos, Cat. 1955–1959 at feet of Hermes. See Hermes forepart of: Pheneos, Cat. 1954 head of, monogram above, all in laurel wreath: Pellene, Cat. 1553–1555 running, with Helle or Phyxos seated upon: Halos, Cat. 119 Reins loose, on prancing horse: Kleitor, Cat. 1943 Rhodos head of, wearing stephanos: Rhodes, Cat. 1990 Ribbon caps of Dioskouroi with tie-ribbons hanging down: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1582 See also Fillet; Tainia Roma bust of, helmeted: Mint unknown, Cat. 2128–2129; Thessalonica, Cat. 2127

Rose: Rhodes, Cat. 1990 Ruler receives victory on globe from Jupiter standing and leaning on scepter: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 Runner holding race torch and branch: Corinth, Cat. 1015 Sail Pharos, ship under sail approaches: Corinth, Cat. 1027 Sakkos head of Peirene wearing hair in: Corinth, Cat. 539, 708 c

inside incuse square: Sikyon, Cat. 1191–1192 Scepter and cross, held by half-length bust of Alexius: Mint unknown, Cat. 2559–2561 cross, held by Alexius bust: Mint unknown, Cat. 2582; —, held by full-length Alexius: Mint unknown, Cat. 2562–2570; —, held by standing, facing Manuel: Mint unknown, Cat. 2913–2955 and eagle, flying to or from hand of Zeus Aphesios: Arkadia, Cat. 1911; —, held by enthroned Zeus: Macedonia, Cat. 71–74 with eagle at top, held by radiate Probus: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121 held by Manuel bust: Mint unknown, Cat. 2738–2919 jeweled, held by bust of Alexius: Mint unknown, Cat. 2571; —, held by bust of John: Mint unknown, Cat. 2572–2581 Jupiter leaning on, giving victory on globe to Ruler: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 and Nike, held by enthroned Zeus: Achaian League, Cat. 1564 and patera, held by enthroned Zeus: Argos, Cat. 1811; —, held by seated and veiled Livia: Corinth, Cat. 998 and wreath held by seated Achaia: Achaian League, Cat. 1564 Scroll poet seated, holding scroll in hand: Argos, Cat. 1814 Sea Turtle: Aigina, Cat. 371–385 Septimius Severus bust of, laureate: Argos, Cat. 1816–1820; Corinth, Cat. 1034 head of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 1030–1033 Serpent Asklepios seated on stool, feeding bird in hand to serpent: Trikka, Cat. 130 two serpents, entwining amphora, all in laurel wreath: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1587–1588 Shield of Ajax: Salamis, Cat. 358–361

index

behind Athena, spear in left hand, Nike in right, and altar in front: Corinth, Cat. 1041 to right of Athena: Corinth, Cat. 1031–1032, 1039 Boiotian: Boiotian League, Cat. 190–215; Tanagra, Cat. 217–219; Thebes, Cat. 220–221 below club: Thebes, Cat. 231 Macedonian: Macedonia, Cat. 83–88, 106–114, 136–144; —, Gorgoneion in center: Salamis, Cat. 1992–1995 Perseus holds harpa in right hand, and left over shield on cippus: Argos, Cat. 1817 and spear, held by helmeted Julian II: Thessalonica, Cat. 2201; —, held by two emperors standing: Cyzicus, Cat. 2277; Mint unknown, Cat. 2278 and spears, held by three emperors standing: Eastern, Cat. 2323, 2339–2342 below table, eagle on right, jug center and agonistic crown on left, all supported by table with four columns: Argos, Cat. 1826 U to right of shield: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 160 Ship under sail approaches Pharos: Corinth, Cat. 1027 S

in olive wreath tied above: Sikyon, Cat. 1405–1409 within shallow incuse square: Sikyon, Cat. 1536; —, SE within olive wreath, tied: Sikyon, Cat. 1200 S, SE, or SI in olive wreath: Sikyon, Cat. 1410–1459 SI

in field, and name or part of name, with dove flying or alighting, holding fillet: Sikyon, Cat. 1537–1548 within wreath: Sikyon, Cat. 1498–1515, 1535 Snake held by eagle’s beak and claws: Chalkis, Cat. 238–270 Triptolemos in winged chariot, drawn by two snakes: Eleusis, Cat. 302–304; —, holding ears of grain in hand: Athens, Cat. 305–307 Soldier standing, holding Victory and spear: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121 two, standard between: Mint unknown, Cat. 2131, 2154, 2161; Nicomedia, Cat. 2160; —, two standards between: Mint unknown, Cat. 2126 Sophia and Justin enthroned, facing: Constantinople, Cat. 2444–2450; Cyzicus, Cat. 2474; Mint unknown, Cat. 2476–2478; Nicomedia, Cat. 2469–2473; Rome, Cat. 2475; Thessalonica, Cat. 2451–2468 Spear Bellerophon mounted on flying Pegasos, striking with: Corinth, Cat. 986 emperor spearing falling horseman: Mint unknown, Cat. 2208–2215

265

and globe, held by standing Virtus: Constantinople, Cat. 2187–2190; Cyzicus, Cat. 2199; Mint unknown, Cat. 2200, 2204–2207 on ground, between legs of naked Ajax: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 160 head of, with jawbone of boar: Aitolian League, Cat. 157; —, in mouth of lion head: Oita, Cat. 127–128; —, in front of owl: Argos Amphilochikon, Cat. 147 held by Athena, in left hand, Nike in right, shield behind and altar in front: Corinth, Cat. 1041; —, with small Victory in right hand, owl below and shield to right: Corinth, Cat. 1031–1032 held by Odysseus. See Odysseus hunting, with knife: Oita, Cat. 127–128 and shield, held by helmeted Julian II: Thessalonica, Cat. 2201; —, held by semi-nude Zeus, and Victory: Corinth, Cat. 1023; —, held by standing soldier: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121; —, held by three emperors standing: Eastern, Cat. 2323, 2339–2342; —, held by two emperors standing: Cyzicus, Cat. 2277; Mint unknown, Cat. 2278 St. Demetrius bust of, nimbate: Mint unknown, Cat. 2581 St. George bust of, nimbate: Mint unknown, Cat. 2738–2912 St. Mark facing right, Doge facing left, long cross in between: Mint unknown, Cat. 3130 lion of: Mint unknown, Cat. 3131, 3133–3146 St. Michael bust of, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 3056–3059 Staff pig on mystic staff, with plemochoë below: Athens, Cat. 305–307 Standard between soldiers. See Soldier and victoriola held by standing Emperor: Thessalonica, Cat. 2218 Star below bow, with quiver, club, and caduceus: Macedonia (Tarsus), Cat. 79 in circle on cross: Mint unknown, Cat. 2505– 2511 countermark, near young Herakles: Erythrai, Cat. 1983 Dioskouroi heads wearing laureate pilei with stars above: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1587–1588 behind flying dove: Sikyon, Cat. 1536 near horseman: Macedonia, Cat. 80–82 nummus: Mint unknown, Cat. 2484 with sixteen rays: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 158–159 Statue four above gate or arch with three openings: Argos, Cat. 1822–1823

266

index

Stephanos worn by, Aphrodite: Egypt, Cat. 1996–1997; —, Demeter: Polyrrhenion, Cat. 1970–1973; —, Hera: Argos, Cat. 1601–1638, 1644–1646, 1777–1779, 1787–1800; Samos, Cat. 1987; —, Rhodos: Rhodes, Cat. 1990 See also Wreath Sterope armed Athena places (?) hair or head of Medusa in vase held up by: Tegea, Cat. 1965 Athena and Kepheus, armed, standing facing, she hands him head of Medusa; Sterope stands between, holding vase to receive it: Tegea, Cat. 1967–1969 Stool Asklepios seated on, feeding birds in hand to serpent: Trikka, Cat. 130 Swastika incuse square: Corinth, Cat. 415– 421 Syrinx: Arkadia, Cat. 1912–1937 with thunderbolt below: Arkadia, Cat. 1938 Table supported on four columns, eagle on right, jug center, agonistic crown on left below shield: Argos, Cat. 1826 Tainia bound in hair of, Aphrodite: Corinth, Cat. 487–489; —, Apollo: Macedonia, Cat. 8–51, 55–58; —, Athena: Troizen, Cat. 1895–1905; —, Poseidon: Corinth, Cat. 988; —, young head: Skiathos, Cat. 132 See also Fillet; Ribbon Tauranthropic head of, bearded: Leukas, Cat. 148; Oiniadai, Cat. 155 Telephus suckled by doe: Tegea, Cat. 1964, 1966 Temple on Acrocorinth: Corinth, Cat. 1001, 1036 Artemis within, tree on either side: Corinth, Cat. 1033 Asklepios seated in front of, seen from three-quarter view: Corinth, Cat. 1020 hexastyle: Corinth, Cat. 999 key of, bound with fillet: Argos, Cat. 1601 tetrastyle, of Aphrodite, on Acrocorinth: Corinth, Cat. 1021 Theodosius I bust of, diademed: Cyzicus, Cat. 2232–2236, 2238; Mint unknown, Cat. 2231, 2239–2245; —, laureate: Thessalonica, Cat. 2237 Theodosius II bust of, diademed: Eastern, Cat. 2320–2324; Mint unknown, Cat. 2325–2327

Throne Christ enthroned, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 3130 Concordia seated on, holding double cornucopia and patera: Mint unknown, Cat. 2120 Constantinople enthroned, facing: Mint unknown, Cat. 2231 Dionysos seated on, holding thyrsos: Corinth, Cat. 1019 Justin and Sophia enthroned, facing: Constantinople, Cat. 2444–2450; Cyzicus, Cat. 2474; Mint unknown, Cat. 2476–2478; Nicomedia, Cat. 2469–2473; Thessalonica, Cat. 2451–2468 Zeus Aphesios, seated on: Arkadia, Cat. 1910; —, holding scepter, eagle flying from or to hand: Arkadia, Cat. 1911 Zeus enthroned, holding eagle and scepter: Macedonia, Cat. 71–74; —, holding patera and scepter: Argos, Cat. 1811 Thunderbolt: Macedonia, Cat. 53 eagle upon, cornucopia to the right: Egypt, Cat. 1998–2012; —, wings closed: Egypt, Cat. 1996–1997 hurled by Zeus: Elis, Cat. 1566–1568 with kantharos and open crescent: Boiotian League, Cat. 191 below laurel wreath with Achaian monogram: Achaian League, Cat. 1563 owl facing, on: Athens, Cat. 357 syrinx above: Arkadia, Cat. 1938 winged: Macedonia, Cat. 117 behind Zeus: Ainianes, Cat. 118 Thyrsos held by seated Dionysos: Corinth, Cat. 1019 Tiberius bust of, laureate: Corinth, Cat. 995–997, 999 Tiberius II bust of, crowned: Nicomedia, Cat. 2479 Torch carried by running Artemis in both hands: Megara, Cat. 370 and ER within wreath of grain: Hermione, Cat. 1835–1856 race torch, and branch carried by runner: Corinth, Cat. 1015; —, below club and bow: Erythrai, Cat. 1984 Trajan head of: laureate: Rome, Cat. 2119 Tree Artemis within temple, tree on either side: Corinth, Cat. 1033 palm: Tiryns, Cat. 1889; —, lyre, and cluster of grapes: Tiryns, Cat. 1888 Trident: Corinth, Cat. 428– 484, 490–538, 540– 707, 709–979, 987; Mantinea, Cat. 1949–1950;

index

Rhaukos, Cat. 1974; Troizen, Cat. 1890–1894, 1906–1909 with dolphin: Troizen, Cat. 1895–1905; —, upwards: Boiotian League, Cat. 192– 215 held by Poseidon. See Poseidon upright: Leukas, Cat. 149–151 upwards, with caduceus: Elea, Cat. 135 Trikka head of: Trikka, Cat. 130 Tripod: Messenia, Cat. 1573–1578 lebes: Argos, Cat. 1780–1786; Sikyon, Cat. 1496, 1516–1534 on prow, dolphin below: Megara, Cat. 362–369 in wreath: Zakynthos, Cat. 1572 Triptolemos in winged chariot, drawn by two snakes: Eleusis, Cat. 302–304; —, with ears of grain in right hand: Athens, Cat. 305–307 Trophy bull walking above: Histiaia, Cat. 273–280 erected by Pan: Macedonia, Cat. 99–104 Turtle sea turtle: Aigina, Cat. 371–385 Twigs pig on bundle of, above bull’s head: Eleusis, Cat. 302–304 Twins with she-wolf: Mint unknown, Cat. 2128–2129; Thessalonica, Cat. 2127 Tyche Fortuna/Tyche bust wearing turreted crown: Corinth, Cat. 1005–1006 standing with patera and cornucopia: Corinth, Cat. 1022 Valens bust of, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2219–2220; Thessalonica, Cat. 2218 Valentinian I bust of, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2217; Thessalonica, Cat. 2216 Valentinian II bust of, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2225–2226, 2228–2230; Thessalonica, Cat. 2224, 2227 Vandals bust of, bearded: Mint unknown, Cat. 2491–2496 Vase Athena and Kepheus, both armed, standing facing, she hands him head of Medusa; Sterope stands between, holding vase to receive it: Tegea, Cat. 1967–1969 hair(?) or head of Medusa placed in vase by armed Athena and held up by Sterope: Tegea, Cat. 1965

267

Veil bust of Constantine I, veiled: Eastern, Cat. 2133; Mint unknown, Cat. 2132 Dione head, laureate: Ambrakia, Cat. 133 female laureate wearing modius and: Thespiai, Cat. 232 Livia, seated and holding patera and scepter: Corinth, Cat. 998 Venus head of, wearing diadem: Rome, Cat. 2118 Victoriola and standard held by standing Emperor: Thessalonica, Cat. 2218 Victory advancing: Western, Cat. 2328 advancing, holding wreath and palm: Mint unknown, Cat. 2217; Rome, Cat. 2279–2282, 2344–2348 crowning standing Emperor: Eastern, Cat. 2257, 2283–2284 dragging captive: Cyzicus, Cat. 2238; Mint unknown, Cat. 2228–2230, 2239–2242, 2251–2256, 2287–2319 on globe, holding wreath and palm: Corinth, Cat. 997 held by seated semi-nude Zeus in one hand and spear in other: Corinth, Cat. 1023 holding patera in one hand, cornucopia in other: Corinth, Cat. 1038 Jupiter leaning on scepter, giving victory on globe to ruler: Cyzicus, Cat. 2122 on prow: Cyzicus, Cat. 2130 small, held by Athena in right hand, owl below and shield to right: Corinth, Cat. 1031–1032 small, held by Athena in left hand: Corinth, Cat. 1039 and spear, held by standing soldier: Mint unknown, Cat. 2121 steering galley with Emperor within: Mint unknown, Cat. 2157 stylized: Mint unknown, Cat. 2491–2496 two: Mint unknown, Cat. 2162–2163 walking, holding wreath and palm: Mint unknown, Cat. 2119 Vine wreath, with earring and necklace: Histiaia, Cat. 281–296; —, Maenad head wearing: Histiaia, Cat. 272–280 Virgin Orans bust of: Mint unknown, Cat. 2547–2548, 3050– 3055 Virtus standing, holding globe and spear: Constantinople, Cat. 2187–2190; Cyzicus, Cat. 2199; Mint unknown, Cat. 2200, 2204–2207

268

index

Vota inscription in wreath: Eastern, Cat. 2324 VOT V in wreath: Cyzicus, Cat. 2248; Mint unknown, Cat. 2249–2250 VOT V or VOT X MVLT XX in wreath: Mint unknown, Cat. 2259–2275 VOT X MVLT XX in wreath: Cyzicus, Cat. 2232–2236; Mint unknown, Cat. 2225–2226; Thessalonica, Cat. 2201 VOT XV MVLT XX in wreath: Mint unknown, Cat. 2246–2247 VOT XX in wreath: Rome, Cat. 2343 VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath: Constantinople, Cat. 2164–2165; Eastern, Cat. 2191–2197; Heraclea, Cat. 2158 Water Peirene seated, pouring water for Pegasos: Corinth, Cat. 1030 Wheat two ears, between clasped hands holding poppy head: Corinth, Cat. 1004–1006 Wheel with four spokes: Athens, Cat. 297 Wolf at bay: Argos, Cat. 1639–1642, 1802–1810; —, forepart: Argos, Cat. 1589–1591 forepart: Argos, Cat. 1595–1600, 1643, 1759–1764, 1801; —, within wild celery wreath: Argos, Cat. 1777–1779 head of: Argos, Cat. 1592–1594, 1647–1758, 1765–1776 she-wolf and twins: Mint unknown, Cat. 2128–2129; Thessalonica, Cat. 2127 Woman holding poppies in right hand and ears of grain in left: Argos, Cat. 1818–1819 Wreath: Thessalonica, Cat. 2123; Sikyon, Cat. 1274–1404, 1460–1495 bull facing, horns decorated with fillets, within: Polyrrhenion, Cat. 1970–1973 caduceus within tied wreath: Sikyon, Cat. 1497 celery, C•MVSSIO PRISCO•IIVIR C•HEIO POLLIONE ITER within: Corinth, Cat. 994 corn, and earrings worn by Demeter: Pheneos, Cat. 1960–1961 cross within: Mint unknown, Cat. 2325–2327, 2349–2358 EPIEURU KLE OS within: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1584–1586 goat, forepart within: Aigeira, Cat. 1549–1550; —, head and neck: Aigeira, Cat. 1551–1552

grain, ER and torch within: Hermione, Cat. 1835–1856; —, leaves, Persephone’s head bound with: Lokris Opontion, Cat. 160 ivy, Dionysos head, three-quarter face within: Mykonos, Cat. 1976; —, kantharos within: Peparethos, Cat. 131 KLEW within wild celery: Kleonai, Cat. 1857– 1887 laurel, Achaian monogram within, thunderbolt below: Achaian League, Cat. 1563; —, E within: Epidauros, Cat. 1827–1834; —, monogram and ram’s head within: Pellene, Cat. 1553–1555; —, lyre within: Thespiai, Cat. 232; —, monogram within: Pellene, Cat. 1556–1557; —, obelisk within: Ambrakia, Cat. 133, 134; —, two amphorae entwined by serpents within: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1587–1588 lion crouching within: Mint unknown, Cat. 2366–2368 oak, Macedonian helmet within: Macedonia, Cat. 136–144; —, young male head crowned with: Aitolian League, Cat. 157 olive, dove flying within: Sikyon, Cat. 1195–1197; —, harpa within: Larissa Kremaste, Cat. 124– 125; —, LE within: Lebadeia, Cat. 216; —, owl with closed wings within: Athens, Cat. 350– 352; —, with S inside: Sikyon, Cat. 1405–1409; —, S, SE, or SI within: Sikyon, Cat. 1410–1459; —, two owls facing within: Athens, Cat. 345– 349 owl within: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1583; —, with wings closed: Athens, Cat. 356 P•AEBV [SP F] C•IVLIO [HERA] II VI[R QVI] IT[ER] within: Corinth, Cat. 993 P•AEBVTIO•C•PINNIO•IIVIR in pine wreath: Corinth, Cat. 988 P AEBVTIO•SP•F C•HEIO [P]AMPHI[LO] within: Corinth, Cat. 992 and palm, held by advancing Victory: Mint unknown, Cat. 2217; Rome, Cat. 2279–2282, 2344–2348; —, held by walking Victory: Mint unknown, Cat. 2119; —, Victory on a globe: Corinth, Cat. 997 F in olive wreath: Phokian League, Cat. 189 FW in laurel wreath: Phokian League, Cat. 185– 188 and scepter, held by Achaia: Achaian League, Cat. 1564 SE within olive wreath, tied: Sikyon, Cat. 1200 SI within: Sikyon, Cat. 1498–1515, 1535 tripod within: Zakynthos, Cat. 1572; tripod-lebes: Sikyon, Cat. 1496, 1516–1534 vine, Maenad wearing: Histiaia, Cat. 272–280; —, Meanad wearing, also earring and necklace: Histiaia, Cat. 281–296 Vota inscription within: Eastern, Cat. 2324

index

VOT V within: Cyzicus, Cat. 2248; Mint unknown, Cat. 2249–2250 VOT V or VOT X MVLT XX within: Mint unknown, Cat. 2259–2275 VOT X MVLT XX within: Cyzicus, Cat. 2232–2234; Mint unknown, Cat. 2225–2226, 2235–2236; Thessalonica, Cat. 2201 VOT XV MVLT XX within: Mint unknown, Cat. 2246–2247 VOT XX within: Rome, Cat. 2343 VOT XX MVLT XXX within: Constantinople, Cat. 2164–2165; Eastern, Cat. 2191–2197; Heraclea, Cat. 2158 wild celery, forepart of wolf within: Argos, Cat. 1777–1779 below youthful horseman, holding palm(?): Macedonia, Cat. 54 See also Stephanos Youth on dolphin, holding Nike and lyre: Brundisium, Cat. 1 head of: Pholegandros, Cat. 1979; —, bound with tainia: Skiathos, Cat. 132; —, male, crowned with oak wreath: Aitolian League, Cat. 157 horseman, holding palm, below, wreath: Macedonia, Cat. 54 naked horseman: Macedonia, Cat. 52, 55–58; —, without petasos, below symbol: Macedonia, Cat. 8–51 Zeno bust of, diademed: Mint unknown, Cat. 2378–2379 Zeus enthroned, holding eagle and scepter: Macedonia, Cat. 71–74; —, holding patera and scepter: Argos, Cat. 1811 head of, laureate: Arkadia, Cat. 1938; Elis, Cat. 1569–1570; Melitaia, Cat. 126; Oiniadai, Cat. 155; —, with diadem: Lakedaimon, Cat. 1584–1586; —, with thunderbolt behind: Ainianes, Cat. 118 hurling thunderbolt: Elis, Cat. 1566–1568 seated, semi-nude, holds Victory in one hand and spear in other: Corinth, Cat. 1023 standing, holding Nike in right hand and scepter in left: Achaian League, Cat. 1564 Zeus Amarios, head of, laureate: Achaian League, Cat. 1563 Zeus Ammon, head of: Egypt, Cat. 2013 Zeus Aphesios, holding scepter, eagle flying to or from hand: Arkadia, Cat. 1911; —, seated on throne, eagle flying from hand: Arkadia, Cat. 1910 Zeus Laphystios, head of, laureate: Halos, Cat. 119

269

4. SYMBOLS Secondary symbols obverse or reverse; letters not included Altar, Cat. 1648–1658 Amphora, Cat. 451, 452, 462– 464, 502–507, 633– 635 Arrow?, Cat. 266, 294 Artemis, Cat. 613, 614 Artemis running, Cat. 534–538 Athena standing, Cat. 573–578 Bee, Cat. 711, 712 Bird?, Cat. 469 Bow, Cat. 450, 1207 Bull’s forepart, Cat. 9 Bull’s head, Cat. 34, 707, 1670 Caduceus, Cat. 79, 106, 1992, 1993, 1995 Club, Cat. 21, 74, 75, 190, 221, 1604–1625, 1659–1669, 1760, 1768, 1769, 1771, 1772, 1780, 1782–1786 Cock’s head, Cat. 445, 446 Cornucopia, Cat. 233, 630– 632, 1998–2012 Crescent, Cat. 442, 449, 565–571, 1761, 1764 Crescent (open), Cat. 191 Cup, one-handled, Cat. 76 Dolphin, Cat. 13, 48, 281, 460, 467, 468, 519–530, 1626, 1671, 1672, 1895–1905 Double axe, Cat. 86, 91, 93, 98, 469, 622–629 Eagle on harpa, Cat. 1643 Earring, Cat. 156 Eleusis ring, Cat. 311, 312, 313–316 Fillet?, Cat. 985 Flower, Cat. 240 Grain ear, Cat. 58, 73 Grape cluster, Cat. 150, 158, 159, 190, 208, 233– 237, 288, 1888, 1977 Grapes, two clusters, Cat. 294 Greave, Cat. 183 Griffin, Cat. 706 Harpa, Cat. 449 Head in Corinthian helmet?, Cat. 458 Helios head, Cat. 48, 498–501 Helmet, Corinthian, Cat. 459, 1673–1685, 1789, 1793–1795, 1797, 1800 Helmet, Macedonian, Cat. 83–88, 100, 101, 1686– 1714 Helmet, Thessalian, Cat. 509–512 Helmet, Thracian, Cat. 434, 465 Hound, Cat. 492–497 Ivy leaf, Cat. 72, 158, 159, 206, 207, 237, 540–547, 1762, 1900 Kantharos, Cat. 23 Leaf, triple-spurred, Cat. 1232, 1233 Lily, Cat. 453, 557–559 Lion’s head, Cat. 283, 293 Lyre, Cat. 1888, 1986

270

index

Mask, Cat. 533 Mystic staff, Cat. 308–310 N in circle, Cat. 615–621 Nike?, Cat. 615, 616 Oinochoe, Cat. 597 Owl, Cat. 590–596 Palm branch, Cat. 57, 709, 710 Palmette, Cat. 1217–1231, 1234, 1235 Pedum, Cat. 84, 85, 1915 Pellet, Cat. 1593, 1639–1642 Pileus, Cat. 465, 579–589 Pinecone, Cat. 553–556 Plant, Cat. 453, 454, 461 Prow, Cat. 104 Quiver, Cat. 76 Sepia, Cat. 443, 444, 469 Shield, round (Macedonian), Cat. 56, 531, 532, 1765 Spear?, Cat. 266, 294 Spearhead?, Cat. 453, 454 Staff, Cat. 456 Star, Cat. 79–82, 440, 441, 1941 Starburst, Cat. 455 Thunderbolt, Cat. 36, 60, 63, 191, 457, 513–518, 1627–1631, 1715–1719, 1770, 1773–1776, 1938 Thyrsos, Cat. 282, 284, 469, 548–550 Torch, Cat. 665–705, 1984 Trident, Cat. 102, 239, 466, 486 Tripod, Cat. 265, 572, 598–602 Triskeles of crescents, Cat. 447, 448 Trophy, Cat. 551, 552 Wreath, Cat. 54, 233, 236, 470–484, 490–491, 560–564, 603– 612, 636–664, 1248–1261, 1759, 1996, 1997 Wreath, and smaller wreath within main one, Cat. 1463–1465 Uncertain object (but clear), Cat. 44, 59, 61, 105, 740, 973, 1828

5. COUNTERMARKS AND OVERSTRIKES Countermarks animal standing l., Cat. 51 facing head?, Cat. 101 long-beaked bird’s head, Cat. 1725 lyre, Cat. 133 monogram b, Cat. 2014, 2015 monogram n, Cat. 2017 punch, Cat. 986, 994, 1000 star, Cat. 1983 trident, Cat. 438 tripod, Cat. 986 wolf ’s head?, Cat. 1728

OVERSTRIKES Leukas overstruck on a coin of Arkadia, Cat. 151 Rhaukos overstruck on an unknown coin?, Cat. 1974

6. MONOGRAMS Primary C Achaia, Cat. 1558–1563, 1565 n Arkadia, Cat. 1912–1938, 151 (Leukas

overstrike)

A Epeiros: Pyrrhos (as King of Macedonia), Cat.

136–144

S Heraia, Cat. 1940–1941 F Kleitor, Cat. 1944–1947 I Macedonia: Antigonos Gonatas, Cat. 99–104, B C m D

106–114 Pellene, Cat. 1553–1557 Peumata, Cat. 128 bis Rhaukos, Cat. 1974 Same, Cat. 1571

Secondary Achaian League, Cat. 1563 Achaian League, Cat. 1563 Amisos, Cat. 1980–1981 Argos, Cat. 1602–1603, 1647, 1720, 1780, 1782–1786, 1788–1791, 1794–1795, 1798, 1800 n Arkadia, Cat. 2017 (countermark) S Elis, Cat. 1566 A Epeiros: Pyrrhos, Cat. 136, 140 h Epeiros: Pyrrhos, Cat. 137, 141, 142 d Macedonia: Alexander III, Cat. 71 e Macedonia: Alexander III, Cat. 72 I Macedonia: Antigonos Gonatas, Cat. 105, 108–109, 112–113 f Macedonia: Antigonos Gonatas, Cat. 109, 113 L Macedonia: Demetrios Poliorketes, Cat. 83–88 O Macedonia: Demetrios Poliorketes, Cat. 89 N Macedonia: Demetrios Poliorketes, Cat. 91, 93, 98 O Macedonia: Demetrios Poliorketes, Cat. 92 H Macedonia: Philip II, Cat. 10 j Macedonia: Philip II, Cat. 11 Y Salamis (Cyprus), Cat. 1993 a Salamis (Cyprus), Cat. 1995 N| Sikyon, Cat. 1523 T Tegea, Cat. 1965, 1967 U Tegea, Cat. 1965, 1967 b Uncertain Greek, Cat. 2014–2015 (countermark) N Uncertain Greek, Cat. 2017 Q R X W

INDEX OF INVENTORIED COINS F RO M T H E N E M E A E X C AVAT I O N S

C 1: 230n449 C 2: Cat. 2740, 187n374 C 4: Cat. 2519, 187nn374,375 C 7: Cat. 3136 C 8: Cat. 540 C 9: Cat. 2602, 187n374 C 10: Cat. 2741, 187n374 C 11: Cat. 2497, 186n374, 322n378 C 12: Cat. 2534, 186n371, 187n374 C 13: 230n449 C 14: Cat. 2603, 187n374 C 15: Cat. 2604, 187n374 C 16: Cat. 2528, 187nn374,375 C 17: Cat. 2605, 187n374 C 20: Cat. 713 C 21: Cat. 485, Plate 10,bb C 22: Cat. 665 C 23: Cat. 362 C 24: Cat. 1574 C 25: Cat. 519 C 26: Cat. 1420, 59 C 27: Cat. 281, 58 C 30: Cat. 2258, 185n356 C 32: Cat. 2381 C 33: Cat. 2251, 185n356 C 34: Cat. 1673, 58 C 37: Cat. 8, 58 C 38: Cat. 2101

C 39: Cat. 1274 C 40: Cat. 714 C 41: Cat. 1857, 58, Plate 23,e C 42: Cat. 2216, 185n355 C 43: Cat. 622 C 44: Cat. 259, 58 C 45: Cat. 1939, Plate 24,c C 47: Cat. 1858, 58, Plate 23, f C 48: Cat. 1346 C 50: Cat. 1627, 58 C 52: Cat. 1347 C 53: Cat. 1480, 58 C 54: Cat. 2606 C 55: 230n450 C 56: Cat. 2607 C 57: Cat. 2549, 186n373, 188n385 C 58: Cat. 3154 C 59: 230n450 C 60: Cat. 666 C 61: Cat. 2913 C 62: Cat. 2742 C 63: Cat. 2914 C 64: Cat. 2743 C 65: Cat. 2984, 188n389 C 66: Cat. 2980 C 67: Cat. 2915, Plate 31,h C 68: Cat. 2744 C 69: Cat. 2745 C 70: Cat. 2985, 188nn386,389 C 71: Cat. 2746 C 72: 230n450

C 73: Cat. 2747 C 74: 230n450 C 75: Cat. 2748 C 76: Cat. 1348 C 77: Cat. 3116, 189n391, Plate 32,e C 79: Cat. 2749 C 80: Cat. 136, 59, Plate 4,m C 81: Cat. 980 C 82: Cat. 1659, 58 C 83: Cat. 1438, 59 C 85: Cat. 2750 C 87: Cat. 1147, 59 C 89: Cat. 260, 58 C 91: Cat. 715 C 93: Cat. 509 C 94: Cat. 716 C 95: Cat. 1108, 58 C 96: Cat. 34, 58 C 97: Cat. 1349 C 100: Cat. 1275 C 104: Cat. 1516, 59, Plate 18,i C 105: Cat. 9, 58, Plate 2,a C 107: Cat. 2751 C 108: Cat. 2752 C 109: Cat. 386, Plate 9,d C 110: Cat. 1405, Plate 17,e C 111: Cat. 717 C 114: Cat. 2102 C 115: Cat. 1350 C 116: Cat. 2287, 185n356 C 117: Cat. 1827, Plate 23,a C 118: Cat. 1463, 58

271

C 119: Cat. 1406 C 120: Cat. 1439, 59, Plate 17,n C 121: Cat. 1537, 59 C 122: Cat. 718 C 123: Cat. 2018 C 124: Cat. 10, 58, Plate 2,b C 125: Cat. 3160 C 127: Cat. 719 C 129: Cat. 2243, 185n356 C 130: Cat. 1759, Plate 21,a C 131: Cat. 2187, 185n354 C 132: Cat. 59, 58 C 133: Cat. 1765, Plate 21,g C 134: Cat. 1686, 58 C 135: Cat. 1351 C 136: Cat. 11, 58, Plate 2,c C 137: Cat. 282, 58, Plate 7,i C 138: Cat. 3083, 18n50 C 140: Cat. 1276 C 141: Cat. 2019 C 142: Cat. 377, 18n50, Plate 8,s C 143: Cat. 720 C 144: Cat. 137, 59, Plate 4,n C 145: Cat. 161 C 147: Cat. 3067 C 148: Cat. 3083, 18n50 C 149: Cat. 2407 C 150: Cat. 106, 59, Plate 3, j

272

C 151: 230n450 C 152: Cat. 2584 C 153: Cat. 2323, 185n356 C 154: 230n450 C 155: Cat. 299, 35n143, Plate 7,o C 156: Cat. 721, 35n143 C 157: Cat. 2119, Plate 28,g C 160: Cat. 60, 29, 58, Plate 2,p C 161: Cat. 1029 C 162: Cat. 1824, 61n243, Plate 22,p C 164: Cat. 722 C 165: Cat. 723 C 166: Cat. 283, 58 C 167: Cat. 2608 C 168: Cat. 2609 C 169: Cat. 1987, 53n221, Plate 26,k C 170: Cat. 1777, 50, 53n221, Plate 21,s C 171: Cat. 579, 53n221 C 172: Cat. 192, 53n221 C 173: Cat. 1460, 53n221, 58, Plate 17,t C 174: Cat. 1277, 53n221 C 175: Cat. 61, 53n221, 58, Plate 2,q C 176: Cat. 1928, 53n221, 59 C 177: Cat. 317, 53n221, 58 C 178: Cat. 1252, 53n221, 58 C 179: Cat. 724, 53n221 C 180: Cat. 1859, 53n221, 58 C 181: Cat. 1352, 53n221 C 182: Cat. 490, 53n221 C 183: Cat. 725, 53n221 C 184: Cat. 502, 53n221 C 185: Cat. 726, 53n221 C 186: Cat. 727, 53n221 C 187: Cat. 1253, 53n221, 58 C 188: Cat. 1234, 53n221, 58 C 189: Cat. 318, 53n221, 58 C 190: Cat. 233, 53n221 C 191: Cat. 580, 53n221 C 192: Cat. 1481,

index

53n221, 58, Plate 17,x C 193: Cat. 541, 53n221 C 194: Cat. 508, 53n221 C 195: Cat. 284, 58, Plate 7, j C 196: Cat. 1760, Plate 21,b C 197: Cat. 728 C 198: Cat. 2169, 185n354 C 199: [not from Nemea] Plate 28, j C 200: Cat. 2610 C 201: Cat. 3099 C 202: Cat. 985, Plate 11,mm C 203: Cat. 1429, 59 C 205: Cat. 2539, 186n371 C 206: Cat. 1913, 59 C 207: Cat. 2916 C 209: Cat. 729 C 210: Cat. 3161 C 211: 230n450 C 212: Cat. 486, Plate 10,cc C 213: Cat. 2753 C 214: Cat. 1911, Plate 23,t C 216: Cat. 1109, 58 C 218: Cat. 2754 C 219: 230n450 C 220: Cat. 3100 C 221: Cat. 2917 C 222: Cat. 2535, 186n371 C 223: Cat. 2248, 185n356 C 224: Cat. 730 C 225: Cat. 2755 C 226: Cat. 2756 C 227: 230n450 C 229: Cat. 2986, 188n389 C 230: Cat. 1976, Plate 25,m C 231: Cat. 2585 C 232: Cat. 2611 C 233: Cat. 2612, 187n374, 188n385 C 234: Cat. 2562, 186n372, 187n374 C 235: Cat. 2437 C 236: Cat. 2513, 187nn374,375

C 237: Cat. 2757, 187n374 C 238: Cat. 3133 C 239: Cat. 2758, 187n374 C 240: Cat. 2498, 186n374 C 241: Cat. 2759, 187n374 C 243: Cat. 2572 C 244: Cat. 3150 C 245: Cat. 3060 C 247: Cat. 2586 C 248: Cat. 3101 C 249: Cat. 3155 C 250: Cat. 3050 C 252: Cat. 708, Plate 11,gg C 253: Cat. 1974, Plate 25,k C 255: Cat. 2613 C 256: Cat. 3162 C 257: Cat. 3102 C 258: Cat. 2918 C 259: Cat. 2760 C 260: Cat. 1575, Plate 19,k C 261: 230n450 C 262: Cat. 731 C 263: Cat. 1052, 58 C 264: Cat. 598 C 265: Cat. 223 C 266: Cat. 1018, Plate 13,g C 267: Cat. 2288, 185n356 C 268: Cat. 1254, 58 C 269: Cat. 241, 58 C 270: Cat. 2168, 185n354 C 271: Cat. 2614 C 273: Cat. 2330, 185n356 C 274: Cat. 1538, 59 C 275: Cat. 3163 C 276: Cat. 2974 C 277: Cat. 1828, Plate 23,b C 278: Cat. 449, Plate 10,h C 281: Cat. 1477, 58, Plate 17,w C 284: Cat. 470 C 285: Cat. 1110, 58 C 288: Cat. 2239, 185n356

C 289: Cat. 1485, 58, Plate 17,bb C 292: Cat. 2320, 185n356 C 293: Cat. 2237, 185n356 C 298: Cat. 3164 C 299: Cat. 603 C 300: Cat. 3165 C 301: Cat. 285, 58 C 303: Cat. 119, Plate 3,o C 304: Cat. 2408 C 306: Cat. 1353 C 307: Cat. 1278 C 308: Cat. 138, 59 C 309: Cat. 1556, Plate 18,x C 310: Cat. 1005, Plate 12,s C 311: Cat. 2198, 185n354, Plate 29,c C 312: Cat. 667 C 313: Cat. 1354 C 314: Cat. 1551, Plate 18,t C 315: Cat. 1517, 59, Plate 18, j C 317: Cat. 1279, 22n75 C 318: Cat. 668, 22n75 C 319: Cat. 286, 58, Plate 7,k C 320: Cat. 368, 22n75 C 321: Cat. 1239, 22n75, 58 C 322: Cat. 2563, 186n372 C 323: Cat. 2761 C 324: Cat. 2762 C 325: Cat. 732 C 326: Cat. 1768, Plate 21, j C 328: Cat. 733 C 329: Cat. 416, Plate 9,m C 330: Cat. 734 C 331: 230n450 C 332: Cat. 2919 C 333: Cat. 2615 C 334: Cat. 3103 C 335: Cat. 239, Plate 7,c C 336: Cat. 735, 22n75 C 337: Cat. 71, 53, 58, Plate 2,s C 338: Cat. 1860, 53, 58, Plate 23,g C 339: Cat. 1914, 53, 59

index

C 340: Cat. 2460 C 341: Cat. 1007, Plate 13,a C 342: 230n450 C 343: Cat. 3068 C 344: Cat. 2573, 217n440, Plate 31,d C 345: Cat. 3137 C 346: Cat. 2763 C 347: Cat. 2616 C 348: 230n450 C 350: Cat. 3104 C 351: 230n450 C 352: Cat. 2764 C 353: Cat. 2540, 186n371 C 354: 230n450 C 355: Cat. 2765 C 356: Cat. 2766 C 357: 230n450 C 358: Cat. 2920 C 359: Cat. 2767 C 360: Cat. 120 C 361: Cat. 2321, 185n356 C 362: 230n450 C 363: Cat. 2525, 187n375 C 364: Cat. 2987, 188n389 C 365: Cat. 2768 C 366: Cat. 2956 C 367: Cat. 2617 C 368: 230n450 C 369: Cat. 2957 C 370: Cat. 2988, 188n389 C 371: Cat. 2512, 187n375 C 373: Cat. 2339, 185n356 C 374: Cat. 2238, 185n356 C 376: Cat. 3105 C 377: Cat. 736 C 378: Cat. 1280 C 379: Cat. 238, Plate 7,b C 383: Cat. 2426 C 386: Cat. 2451 C 387: Cat. 2431 C 389: Cat. 1355 C 390: Cat. 80, 29, 71n251, 72n255 C 391: 230n449 C 392: 230n450 C 394: Cat. 2618

C 395: Cat. 1356 C 396: Cat. 2619 C 397: 230n450 C 398: Cat. 2921 C 399: Cat. 2769 C 400: Cat. 2620 C 401: Cat. 1573, Plate 19, j C 402: Cat. 2621 C 403: Cat. 2770 C 404: Cat. 1998 C 405: Cat. 2550, 186n373 C 406: Cat. 1030 C 407: Cat. 1357 C 408: Cat. 2922 C 409: Cat. 737 C 411: Cat. 2975 C 412: Cat. 3051 C 413: Cat. 2976 C 414: Cat. 2133, 184n349 C 415: Cat. 2771 C 416: Cat. 118, 60, Plate 3,n C 417: Cat. 2208, 185n354 C 418: Cat. 669 C 419: Cat. 2505, 186n374 C 420: Cat. 2772 C 421: Cat. 2167, 185n354 C 422: Cat. 2989, 188n389 C 423: Cat. 3034, 189n390 C 424: 230n450 C 425: Cat. 2773 C 429: Cat. 1281 C 431: Cat. 2774 C 432: Cat. 2622 C 433: Cat. 2623 C 434: Cat. 1720, 58, Plate 20,ee C 435: Cat. 2103 C 436: Cat. 1358 C 437: Cat. 1102, 58 C 438: Cat. 1255, 58 C 439: Cat. 1992 C 440: Cat. 513 C 441: Cat. 64, 29, 58, Plate 2,r C 442: 230n450 C 443: Cat. 553 C 444: Cat. 1604, 58

C 445: Cat. 1999, Plate 27,d C 446: Cat. 1425, 59 C 447: Cat. 738 C 448: Cat. 1217, 58, Plate 16,p C 449: Cat. 414, Plate 9,k C 450: Cat. 1432, 59 C 451: Cat. 2587 C 452: Cat. 989, Plate 12,d C 453: Cat. 2624 C 454: Cat. 115 C 455: Cat. 2289, 185n356 C 457: Cat. 1282 C 458: 230n450 C 459: Cat. 2923 C 460: Cat. 2775 C 461: Cat. 2776 C 462: Cat. 2625 C 463: Cat. 2777 C 464: Cat. 2778 C 465: Cat. 2779 C 466: 230n450 C 467: Cat. 2626 C 468: Cat. 2627 C 469: Cat. 2924 C 470: Cat. 2780 C 471: Cat. 2504, 186n374 C 472: Cat. 2574 C 473: Cat. 2977 C 474: Cat. 2628 C 475: Cat. 2781 C 476: Cat. 2782 C 477: Cat. 2629 C 478: Cat. 2783 C 479: Cat. 2958 C 480: Cat. 2588 C 481: Cat. 2959 C 482: 230n450 C 483: Cat. 2575 C 484: Cat. 2925 C 485: Cat. 158, Plate 5,l C 486: Cat. 1283 C 488: Cat. 492 C 489: Cat. 1975, Plate 25,l C 490: Cat. 2536, 186n371, 187n374 C 491: Cat. 2990, 188n389 C 492: Cat. 2991, 188n389 C 493: 230n450

273

C 494: Cat. 2784 C 495: 230n450 C 496: Cat. 2630 C 497: Cat. 1835 C 498: Cat. 2631 C 499: Cat. 2632 C 500: Cat. 2785 C 501: Cat. 1053, 58 C 502: Cat. 2020 C 503: Cat. 387, Plate 9,e C 504: Cat. 1982, Plate 26, f C 505: Cat. 1008 C 506: Cat. 417, Plate 9,n C 507: Cat. 1605, 58 C 508: Cat. 1582, Plate 19,m C 509: Cat. 739 C 510: Cat. 1967, Plate 25,i C 511: Cat. 3106 C 512: 230n450 C 516: Cat. 560 C 517: Cat. 740 C 519: 230n450 C 520: Cat. 741 C 521: Cat. 2290, 185n356 C 522: Cat. 242, 58 C 523: Cat. 1587, Plate 19,p C 525: Cat. 1510, 59, Plate 18,c C 526: Cat. 1359 C 527: Cat. 1980, 57, Plate 26,d C 528: Cat. 1915, 59, Plate 23,v C 531: Cat. 1240, 58 C 532: Cat. 1185 C 533: Cat. 35, 58 C 534: Cat. 1225, 58 C 535: Cat. 1588, Plate 19,q C 537: Cat. 1780, 59, Plate 21,v C 540: Cat. 1021, Plate 13, j C 541: Cat. 1111, 58 C 542: Cat. 1981, 57, Plate 26,e C 543: Cat. 83 C 544: Cat. 3064 C 546: Cat. 2786 C 547: Cat. 1112, 58 C 548: Cat. 36, 29, 58

274

C 549: Cat. 1407 C 550: Cat. 435, Plate 9,bb C 551: Cat. 1113, 58 C 554: Cat. 3091 C 555: Cat. 2633 C 556: 230n450 C 558: 230n450 C 559: Cat. 2787 C 560: Cat. 2529, 187n375, Plate 31,a C 561: Cat. 2634 C 562: Cat. 37, 29, 58 C 563: Cat. 561, Plate 11,g C 566: Cat. 2291, 185n356 C 568: Cat. 742 C 570: Cat. 743 C 571: Cat. 2232, 185n356 C 572: Cat. 744 C 573: Cat. 1628, 58 C 574: Cat. 1970 C 575: Cat. 185, Plate 6,b C 577: Cat. 514 C 578: Cat. 581 C 579: Cat. 2259, 185n356 C 581: Cat. 1971, Plate 25, j C 582: Cat. 745 C 583: Cat. 1906, Plate 23,r C 584: Cat. 1626, 58, Plate 20,l C 586: Cat. 746 C 588: Cat. 515 C 589: Cat. 1660, 58 C 590: Cat. 2292, 185n356 C 591: Cat. 1606, 58 C 594: Cat. 388 C 595: Cat. 1629, 58 C 596: Cat. 2344 C 597: Cat. 747 C 598: Cat. 1163 C 599: Cat. 2293, 185n356 C 605: Cat. 590 C 609: Cat. 2188, 185n354 C 610: Cat. 224 C 611: Cat. 2294, 185n356 C 612: Cat. 1861, 58

index

C 613: Cat. 2021 C 614: Cat. 1829 C 615: Cat. 700 C 616: Cat. 1715, 58, Plate 20,dd C 617: Cat. 2788 C 618: Cat. 2295, 185nn356,357 C 619: Cat. 636 C 620: Cat. 2022 C 621: Cat. 1607, 58 C 622: Cat. 1716, 58 C 623: Cat. 451, Plate 10, j C 624: Cat. 1632, 58 C 625: Cat. 442, Plate 10,d C 626: Cat. 1566, Plate 19,e C 627: Cat. 1360 C 629: Cat. 139, 59 C 630: Cat. 2209, 185n354 C 631: Cat. 1608, 58 C 632: Cat. 3166 C 633: Cat. 2635 C 634: Cat. 2789 C 635: Cat. 1687, 58 C 636: Cat. 2790 C 637: 230n450 C 639: Cat. 2500, 186n374 C 640: Cat. 1284 C 641: Cat. 1539, 59 C 643: Cat. 2023 C 649: Cat. 389, Plate 9, f C 652: Cat. 2249, 185n356 C 653: Cat. 2331, 185n356 C 654: Cat. 1285 C 655: Cat. 2332, 185n356 C 656: Cat. 565 C 657: Cat. 1862, 58 C 662: Cat. 1466, 58 C 663: Cat. 1863, 58 C 666: Cat. 1203, Plate 16,b C 667: Cat. 225 C 668: Cat. 1236, 58, Plate 16,bb C 669: Cat. 1948, Plate 24,i C 670: Cat. 319, 58

C 673: Cat. 1553 C 674: Cat. 1864, 58 C 681: Cat. 2240, 185n356 C 688: Cat. 2296, 185n356 C 690: Cat. 548 C 691: Cat. 2104, 61n243 C 692: Cat. 1540, 59 C 693: Cat. 193 C 694: Cat. 1983, Plate 26,g C 695: Cat. 311, 58 C 696: Cat. 2360, Plate 29,h C 697: Cat. 2333, 185n356 C 699: Cat. 38, 58 C 700: Cat. 1436, 59 C 701: Cat. 162 C 702: Cat. 599 C 703: Cat. 2349 C 706: Cat. 748 C 708: Cat. 1609, 58, Plate 20,k C 709: Cat. 1916, 59 C 710: Cat. 1836, Plate 23,c C 712: Cat. 1610, 58 C 713: Cat. 637 C 715: Cat. 2000, Plate 27,e C 716: Cat. 566 C 717: Cat. 749 C 718: Cat. 1286 C 719: Cat. 1688, 58 C 720: Cat. 1501, 59 C 721: Cat. 2636 C 722: 230n450 C 723: Cat. 750 C 724: Cat. 2637 C 725: Cat. 2638 C 726: Cat. 3035, 189n390 C 727: 230n450 C 728: Cat. 2639 C 729: Cat. 2640 C 730: Cat. 2791 C 731: Cat. 1287 C 732: Cat. 2792 C 736: Cat. 2641 C 737: 230n450 C 738: Cat. 2345 C 739: Cat. 670 C 740: Cat. 1787, 59

C 741: Cat. 1518, 59, Plate 18,k C 742: Cat. 554 C 743: Cat. 1361 C 745: Cat. 1148, 59, Plate 15,o C 746: Cat. 1114, 58 C 747: Cat. 1245, 58, Plate 16,ee C 749: Cat. 2279, 185n356 C 750: Cat. 1026, 61n243, Plate 14,a C 752: Cat. 2276, 185n356 C 754: Cat. 2297, 185n356 C 755: Cat. 1721, 58 C 756: Cat. 1972 C 759: Cat. 1362 C 760: Cat. 751 C 766: Cat. 988, Plate 12,c C 767: Cat. 2530, 187n375 C 768: 230n450 C 769: Cat. 2926 C 770: Cat. 2642 C 771: 230n450 C 773: Cat. 2643 C 774: Cat. 752 C 775: Cat. 471 C 778: Cat. 1017, Plate 13, f C 779: Cat. 2014, Plate 28,a C 780: Cat. 2298, 185n356 C 782: Cat. 380, Plate 8,v C 783: Cat. 1218, 58, Plate 16,q C 784: Cat. 3036, 188n387, 189n390 C 786: Cat. 1584, Plate 19,o C 787: Cat. 2793 C 788: Cat. 2794 C 789: Cat. 2927 C 791: Cat. 2992, 188n389 C 792: 230n450 C 793: Cat. 1042 C 794: Cat. 2644 C 795: Cat. 2645 C 796: Cat. 2646 C 797: Cat. 2960

index

C 799: Cat. 2299, 185n356 C 800: Cat. 7, Plate 1,g C 802: Cat. 2244, 185n356 C 804: Cat. 358 C 805: Cat. 2350 C 807: Cat. 753 C 808: 230n449 C 809: 230n449 C 810: Cat. 1761, Plate 21,c C 812: 230n450 C 816: Cat. 1788, 59 C 817: Cat. 1022, 61n243, Plate 13,k C 818: 230n450 C 819: 230n450 C 820: Cat. 384, Plate 9,c C 821: Cat. 1204, Plate 16,c C 822: 230n450 C 823: Cat. 2795 C 824: Cat. 2300, 185n356 C 827: Cat. 2647 C 828: Cat. 2796 C 829: Cat. 2648 C 830: 230n450 C 831: Cat. 2649 C 832: Cat. 1363 C 834: Cat. 638 C 835: Cat. 1674, 58 C 837: Cat. 1210, Plate 16,i C 838: Cat. 2202, 185n354 C 839: Cat. 2301, 185n356 C 841: Cat. 1226, 58, Plate 16,v C 842: Cat. 186, 21n75 C 843: Cat. 372, Plate 8,n C 844: Cat. 1762, 21n75, Plate 21,d C 845: Cat. 2650 C 846: Cat. 2233, 185n356 C 847: Cat. 754 C 848: Cat. 2017, Plate 28,d C 849: Cat. 2024 C 850: Cat. 1364 C 851: Cat. 567, Plate 11,h C 852: Cat. 312, 58

C 853: Cat. 493 C 854: Cat. 1015, Plate 13,d C 855: Cat. 1219, 58, Plate 16,r C 856: Cat. 2025 C 857: Cat. 755 C 858: Cat. 1487, 58 C 859: Cat. 1571, Plate 19,h C 860: Cat. 1016, Plate 13,e C 861: Cat. 2541, 186n371 C 862: Cat. 2241, 185n356 C 865: Cat. 756 C 866: Cat. 2928 C 867: Cat. 2651 C 869: Cat. 1288 C 870: Cat. 1781, 59, Plate 21,w C 871: Cat. 1782, 59, Plate 21,x C 872: Cat. 1722, 58 C 873: Cat. 226 C 874: Cat. 557 C 877: Cat. 2929 C 878: Cat. 1769, Plate 21,k C 881: Cat. 1579 C 889: Cat. 1611, 58 C 890: Cat. 2026 C 891: Cat. 462 C 892: Cat. 287, 58 C 893: Cat. 1289 C 894: Cat. 1195, Plate 15,v C 895: Cat. 12, 58 C 896: Cat. 357, Plate 8,g C 897: Cat. 1290 C 898: Cat. 757 C 899: Cat. 1802, 59 C 900: Cat. 2001, Plate 27, f C 901: Cat. 1196, 34n133, 129n302, Plate 15,w C 902: Cat. 1194, 34n133, Plate 15,u C 903: Cat. 297, 34n133, 129n302, Plate 7,m C 904: Cat. 1193, 34n133, 129n302, Plate 15,t

C 905: Cat. 371, 34n133, 129n302, Plate 8,m C 906: Cat. 1043, 34n133, 129n302, Plate 15,a C 907: Cat. 418, Plate 9,o C 908: Cat. 1263, 21n75, 57, 58, Plate 17,b C 911: Cat. 1115, 58 C 912: Cat. 758 C 913: Cat. 1723, 58 C 914: Cat. 709 C 915: Cat. 759 C 917: Cat. 1486, 58 C 919: Cat. 617 C 920: Cat. 516 C 921: Cat. 1890 C 923: Cat. 639 C 924: Cat. 2235, 185n356 C 925: Cat. 301, Plate 7,q C 926: Cat. 1589, Plate 20,a C 927: Cat. 415, Plate 9,l C 928: Cat. 1590, Plate 20,b C 929: Cat. 1554, Plate 18,v C 930: Cat. 760 C 931: Cat. 1461, 58 C 932: Cat. 1421, 59, Plate 17,g C 933: Cat. 671 C 934: Cat. 1443, 59 C 935: Cat. 273, 58 C 936: Cat. 1644, Plate 20,s C 937: Cat. 1783, 59, Plate 21,y C 938: Cat. 1149, 59 C 939: Cat. 1507, 59, Plate 18,a C 940: Cat. 99, 59 C 942: Cat. 100, 59 C 943: Cat. 761 C 944: Cat. 762 C 945: Cat. 1519, 59 C 946: Cat. 1612, 58 C 947: Cat. 1645 C 948: Cat. 1520, 59 C 949: Cat. 89 C 950: Cat. 2027 C 951: Cat. 445, Plate 10, f C 952: Cat. 420, Plate 9,q C 953: Cat. 1452, 59

275

C 954: Cat. 55, Plate 2,l C 956: Cat. 2409 C 957: Cat. 320, 58 C 958: Cat. 2224, 185n356 C 959: Cat. 2164, 184n352 C 960: Cat. 2302, 185n356 C 961: Cat. 2260, 185n356 C 962: Cat. 472 C 963: Cat. 1675, 58 C 964: Cat. 2028 C 967: Cat. 1426, 59, Plate 17,i C 968: Cat. 2303, 185n356 C 969: Cat. 2283, 185n356 C 970: Cat. 520 C 971: Cat. 763 C 972: Cat. 3167 C 973: Cat. 2278, 185n356 C 974: Cat. 423, Plate 9,t C 975: Cat. 1054, 58 C 976: 230n450 C 978: 230n450 C 979: Cat. 1055, 58 C 980: Cat. 227, Plate 6,n C 981: Cat. 1467, 58 C 982: Cat. 1291 C 983: Cat. 2170, 185n354 C 984: 230n450 C 988: Cat. 2351 C 989: Cat. 2797 C 990: Cat. 2993, 188n389 C 991: Cat. 1248, 58 C 993: Cat. 90 C 994: Cat. 2652 C 995: Cat. 534, Plate 10,pp C 1000: Cat. 1498, 59, Plate 17,hh C 1001: Cat. 3168 C 1002: Cat. 975 C 1003: Cat. 3069 C 1004: Cat. 2474 C 1005: Cat. 2200, 185n354 C 1006: Cat. 2488 C 1007: Cat. 3037, 189n390, Plate 31, j

276

C 1008: Cat. 1292 C 1010: Cat. 1041, 61n243, Plate 14,o C 1014: Cat. 1, Plate 1,a C 1016: Cat. 2334, 185n356 C 1017: Cat. 2257, 185nn356,357 C 1018: Cat. 2228, 185n356 C 1019: Cat. 1541, 59 C 1020: Cat. 1592, 21n75, 57, Plate 20,d C 1021: Cat. 2171, 185n354 C 1022: Cat. 3061 C 1023: Cat. 2524, 187n375, Plate 30,h C 1025: Cat. 2798 C 1026: Cat. 2520, 187n375 C 1027: Cat. 2799 C 1028: Cat. 234 C 1029: Cat. 3107 C 1030: 230n450 C 1031: Cat. 3138 C 1032: Cat. 764 C 1033: Cat. 2930 C 1034: 230n450 C 1035: Cat. 2994, 188n389 C 1036: Cat. 2029 C 1039: Cat. 1116, 58, Plate 15,l C 1040: 230n450 C 1041: Cat. 2434, 183n344 C 1042: Cat. 1365 C 1043: Cat. 1552, Plate 18,u C 1044: Cat. 1661, 58 C 1045: Cat. 2030 C 1046: Cat. 765 C 1047: Cat. 1979, 60, Plate 26,c C 1048: Cat. 1542, 59 C 1049: Cat. 766 C 1050: Cat. 1752, 58 C 1051: Cat. 1837 C 1052: Cat. 767 C 1053: Cat. 768 C 1054: Cat. 582, Plate 11,l C 1055: Cat. 992, Plate 12,g

index

C 1056: Cat. 1366 C 1057: Cat. 13, 29, 58, Plate 2,d C 1058: Cat. 1367 C 1059: Cat. 640 C 1060: Cat. 1056, 58 C 1061: Cat. 2304, 185n356 C 1063: Cat. 2222, 185n355 C 1064: Cat. 1293 C 1065: Cat. 2227, 185n356 C 1066: Cat. 769 C 1067: Cat. 428, Plate 9,x C 1069: Cat. 2352 C 1070: Cat. 770 C 1071: Cat. 2366 C 1072: Cat. 1294 C 1073: Cat. 672 C 1075: Cat. 2382 C 1076: Cat. 771 C 1077: Cat. 2031 C 1078: Cat. 1427, 59 C 1079: Cat. 1483, 58, Plate 17,z C 1080: Cat. 2204, 185n354 C 1081: Cat. 2172, 185n354 C 1082: Cat. 517, Plate 10,ll C 1083: Cat. 124 C 1086: Cat. 2503, 186n374 C 1087: Cat. 2032 C 1088: Cat. 1368 C 1090: Cat. 2653 C 1091: Cat. 641 C 1092: Cat. 1468, 58 C 1093: Cat. 2328, 185n356 C 1094: Cat. 130, Plate 4,g C 1095: Cat. 1057, 58 C 1096: Cat. 1295 C 1097: Cat. 772, 21n75, 57 C 1099: Cat. 2261, 185n356 C 1101: Cat. 1973 C 1104: Cat. 2191, 184n352 C 1105: Cat. 2173, 185n354

C 1107: Cat. 2262, 185n356 C 1109: Cat. 3092 C 1113: 230n450 C 1114: Cat. 1639, Plate 20,n C 1115: Cat. 673 C 1116: Cat. 101, 59, Plate 3,g C 1117: 230n450 C 1118: Cat. 1211, Plate 16, j C 1119: 230n450 C 1120: Cat. 1508, 59, Plate 18,b C 1122: Cat. 773 C 1123: Cat. 1662, 58 C 1124: Cat. 774 C 1125: Cat. 244, 58 C 1126: Cat. 775 C 1127: Cat. 274, 58 C 1128: Cat. 453, Plate 10,l C 1130: Cat. 454, Plate 10,m C 1131: Cat. 776 C 1132: Cat. 2654 C 1134: Cat. 1058, 58, Plate 15,e C 1135: Cat. 1968 C 1136: Cat. 777 C 1139: Cat. 778 C 1140: Cat. 2487 C 1142: Cat. 1753, 58 C 1143: Cat. 1865, 58, Plate 23,h C 1144: Cat. 2192, 184n352 C 1145: Cat. 2655 C 1146: Cat. 2656 C 1147: Cat. 2931 C 1148: Cat. 2657 C 1149: Cat. 2800 C 1153: Cat. 1440, 59, Plate 17,o C 1156: Cat. 600, Plate 11,o C 1159: Cat. 2340, 185n356 C 1162: Cat. 1593, Plate 20,e C 1163: Cat. 275, 58 C 1164: Cat. 1988, Plate 26,l C 1166: Cat. 2801 C 1167: Cat. 2658

C 1169: Cat. 321, 58 C 1170: Cat. 1663, 58 C 1171: Cat. 779 C 1174: Cat. 780 C 1175: Cat. 1447, 59 C 1176: Cat. 1754, 58 C 1177: Cat. 218, Plate 6,i C 1178: Cat. 558 C 1179: Cat. 781 C 1181: Cat. 2263, 185n356 C 1183: Cat. 359 C 1184: Cat. 450, Plate 10,i C 1186: Cat. 782 C 1187: Cat. 1453, 59 C 1188: Cat. 1866, 58 C 1190: Cat. 1150, 59 C 1191: Cat. 1509, 59 C 1193: Cat. 2305, 185n356 C 1194: Cat. 2245, 185n356 C 1199: Cat. 1044, Plate 15,b C 1200: Cat. 1220, 58, Plate 16,s C 1202: Cat. 2234, 185n356 C 1203: Cat. 429 C 1204: Cat. 3, Plate 1,c C 1211: Cat. 2306, 185n356 C 1212: Cat. 2229, 185n356 C 1213: Cat. 1955, Plate 25,b C 1214: Cat. 427, Plate 9,w C 1215: Cat. 591 C 1216: Cat. 2219, 185n355 C 1217: Cat. 1567, Plate 19, f C 1218: Cat. 3130 C 1220: Cat. 783 C 1221: Cat. 784 C 1222: Cat. 363 C 1223: Cat. 1369 C 1224: Cat. 559, Plate 11, f C 1225: Cat. 623 C 1235: Cat. 2589 C 1236: Cat. 2369

index

C 1237: Cat. 436, Plate 9,cc C 1238: Cat. 2802 C 1240: Cat. 1917, 59 C 1241: Cat. 2995, 188n389 C 1242: Cat. 2277, 185n356 C 1244: Cat. 2465, 184n346, 207n408 C 1245: Cat. 624 C 1246: Cat. 2423, 184n346, 210n422 C 1247: Cat. 2132, 184, 184n349 C 1249: Cat. 1424, 59, Plate 17,h C 1250: 230n450 C 1251: Cat. 625, Plate 11,w C 1252: Cat. 1441, 59 C 1253: Cat. 642 C 1254: Cat. 187 C 1259: Cat. 1410, 59 C 1261: Cat. 1613, 58 C 1262: Cat. 147, Plate 5,c C 1264: Cat. 583 C 1268: Cat. 1895, Plate 23,q C 1273: Cat. 1689, 58, Plate 20,z C 1274: Cat. 706, Plate 11, ff C 1275: Cat. 1940, Plate 24,d C 1276: Cat. 2280, 185n356 C 1277: Cat. 542 C 1279: Cat. 1867, 58 C 1281: Cat. 1690, 58 C 1283: Cat. 2803 C 1284: Cat. 1789, 59, Plate 21,cc C 1285: Cat. 2576 C 1287: Cat. 2002, 22n75 C 1288: Cat. 1536, 22n75, Plate 18,p C 1289: Cat. 785 C 1290: Cat. 2383 C 1292: Cat. 592 C 1295: Cat. 364 C 1298: Cat. 786 C 1300: Cat. 2307, 185n356

C 1301: Cat. 2264, 185n356 C 1304: Cat. 1370 C 1305: Cat. 1296 C 1306: Cat. 1256, 58 C 1307: Cat. 390 C 1309: Cat. 75, 58 C 1310: Cat. 1614, 22n75, 58 C 1311: Cat. 2033, 22n75 C 1312: Cat. 562, 22n75 C 1313: Cat. 604, 22n75, Plate 11,p C 1314: Cat. 2003, 22n75 C 1315: Cat. 1371 C 1318: Cat. 1469, 58 C 1319: Cat. 1151, 59 C 1320: Cat. 1164 C 1321: Cat. 1956 C 1323: Cat. 1549 C 1331: Cat. 1201, Plate 15,bb C 1334: Cat. 1664, 58 C 1335: Cat. 3134 C 1336: Cat. 1059, 58 C 1337: Cat. 2932 C 1338: Cat. 2281, 185n356 C 1339: Cat. 1830 C 1340: Cat. 228 C 1342: Cat. 787 C 1343: Cat. 788 C 1344: Cat. 1868, 58 C 1345: Cat. 2034 C 1346: Cat. 1724, 58 C 1348: Cat. 1558, Plate 18,y C 1354: Cat. 430, Plate 9,y C 1355: Cat. 1918, 59 C 1356: Cat. 789 C 1357: Cat. 2035 C 1358: Cat. 2036 C 1359: Cat. 1755, 58 C 1360: Cat. 790 C 1361: Cat. 2037 C 1363: 230n450 C 1364: Cat. 2659 C 1365: Cat. 2961, Plate 31,i C 1366: Cat. 1665, 58 C 1368: Cat. 3108 C 1369: Cat. 674 C 1371: Cat. 1297

C 1372: Cat. 261, 58 C 1374: Cat. 129, Plate 4, f C 1376: Cat. 2542, 186n371, Plate 31,c C 1377: Cat. 2551, 186n373 C 1379: Cat. 2531, 187n375 C 1382: Cat. 991, Plate 12, f C 1383: Cat. 1602, 58 C 1384: 230n450 C 1386: Cat. 1249, 58 C 1387: Cat. 2134, 184n349 C 1391: Cat. 2174, 185n354 C 1392: Cat. 152 C 1393: Cat. 2175, 185n354 C 1394: Cat. 2384 C 1396: Cat. 1691, 58 C 1397: Cat. 91, Plate 3,d C 1398: Cat. 1919, 59 C 1400: Cat. 1778, 50, Plate 21,t C 1401: Cat. 221, Plate 6,l C 1402: Cat. 1643, Plate 20,r C 1403: Cat. 245, 58 C 1409: Cat. 1763, Plate 21,e C 1410: Cat. 1205, Plate 16,d C 1411: Cat. 3152 C 1413: Cat. 2996, 188n389 C 1414: Cat. 2660 C 1415: 230n450 C 1416: Cat. 183, Plate 5,s C 1417: Cat. 72, 58, Plate 2,t C 1418: Cat. 791 C 1420: Cat. 998, Plate 12,l C 1421: Cat. 1435, 59 C 1422: Cat. 1001, Plate 12,o C 1423: Cat. 39, 22n77, 29, 58 C 1424: Cat. 2489 C 1425: Cat. 792

277

C 1426: Cat. 391, Plate 9,g C 1428: Cat. 2564, 186n372 C 1429: Cat. 2105 C 1430: Cat. 2176, 184n352, 185n354 C 1431: Cat. 2165, 184n352 C 1432: Cat. 2385 C 1433: Cat. 1896 C 1435: Cat. 1921, 59 C 1436: Cat. 1977, Plate 26,a C 1439: Cat. 2282, 185n356 C 1440: 230n450 C 1442: Cat. 2221, 185n355 C 1444: Cat. 563 C 1445: Cat. 1503, 59 C 1446: Cat. 1648, 58, Plate 20,u C 1447: Cat. 107, 59 C 1449: Cat. 1991, Plate 27,a C 1450: Cat. 793 C 1452: Cat. 1565, Plate 19,d C 1453: Cat. 2155, 184n352 C 1454: Cat. 1676, 58 C 1455: Cat. 794 C 1457: Cat. 612, Plate 11,r C 1458: Cat. 795 C 1459: Cat. 605 C 1460: Cat. 1212, Plate 16,k C 1461: Cat. 447 C 1462: Cat. 1117, 58 C 1463: Cat. 1213, Plate 16,l C 1466: Cat. 1262, 58 C 1469: Cat. 1118, 58 C 1470: Cat. 1221, 58 C 1471: Cat. 796 C 1472: Cat. 102, 59 C 1473: Cat. 797 C 1474: Cat. 1891 C 1475: Cat. 392 C 1476: Cat. 393 C 1477: Cat. 487, Plate 10,dd C 1479: Cat. 3169 C 1481: Cat. 1298

278

C 1482: Cat. 1040, 31, Plate 14,n C 1483: Cat. 798 C 1485: Cat. 305, Plate 7,s C 1486: Cat. 539, Plate 10,rr C 1487: Cat. 1671, 58, Plate 20,x C 1488: Cat. 799 C 1489: Cat. 2177, 185n354 C 1490: Cat. 1372 C 1491: Cat. 1562, Plate 19,a C 1494: Cat. 1484, 58, Plate 17,aa C 1495: Cat. 1838 C 1496: Cat. 322, 58 C 1497: Cat. 2158, 184n352 C 1498: Cat. 313, 58 C 1500: Cat. 2153, 184n349 C 1501: Cat. 160, Plate 5,n C 1503: Cat. 2135, 184n349 C 1504: Cat. 2308, 185n356 C 1505: Cat. 365 C 1506: Cat. 184, Plate 6,a C 1507: Cat. 1717, 58 C 1508: Cat. 2472 C 1509: Cat. 2425, 184n346 C 1510: Cat. 2422, 184n346, Plate 29, j C 1511: Cat. 2457, 184n346 C 1512: Cat. 2441, 184n346 C 1513: Cat. 2442, 184n346 C 1514: Cat. 2439, 184n346 C 1515: Cat. 2427, 184n346 C 1516: Cat. 2424, 184n346 C 1517: Cat. 2470, 184n346 C 1518: Cat. 2447, 184n346

index

C 1519: Cat. 2471, 184n346 C 1520: Cat. 2476, 184n346 C 1521: Cat. 2477, 184n346 C 1522: Cat. 2478, 184n346 C 1523: Cat. 2461, 184n346 C 1524: 184n346 C 1525: 184n346 C 1526: 184n346 C 1527: 184n346 C 1528: Cat. 2458, 184n346 C 1529: Cat. 2449, 184n346 C 1530: Cat. 2466, 184n346 C 1531: Cat. 2386, 184n346 C 1532: Cat. 675 C 1533: Cat. 148, Plate 5,d C 1534: Cat. 84 C 1535: Cat. 108, 30, 59 C 1536: Cat. 618 C 1537: Cat. 676 C 1538: Cat. 1996, Plate 27,c C 1539: Cat. 1119, 58 C 1540: Cat. 643 C 1541: Cat. 1299 C 1542: Cat. 288, 58 C 1543: Cat. 800 C 1544: Cat. 2193, 184n352 C 1545: Cat. 2178, 185n354 C 1546: Cat. 2194 C 1547: Cat. 1046, 58 C 1548: Cat. 222, Plate 6,m C 1549: Cat. 2160, 184n349 C 1551: Cat. 1892 C 1552: Cat. 1779, 50, Plate 21,u C 1553: Cat. 801 C 1554: Cat. 1060, 58 C 1555: Cat. 1912, Plate 23,u C 1556: Cat. 2577 C 1557: Cat. 2004

C 1558: Cat. 999, Plate 12,m C 1559: Cat. 3052 C 1560: Cat. 2532, 187n375 C 1561: 230n450 C 1562: Cat. 995 C 1563: Cat. 2375, Plate 29,i C 1564: Cat. 2013, Plate 27,g C 1565: Cat. 42, 58 C 1566: Cat. 677 C 1567: Cat. 521 C 1568: Cat. 43, 29, 58 C 1569: Cat. 2804, 187n374 C 1570: Cat. 2309, 185n356 C 1571: Cat. 2346 C 1572: Cat. 2310, 185n356 C 1575: Cat. 701 C 1577: Cat. 1411, 59 C 1578: Cat. 1300 C 1579: Cat. 1929, 59 C 1580: Cat. 46, 58 C 1581: Cat. 802 C 1582: Cat. 678 C 1583: Cat. 803 C 1584: Cat. 1649, 58 C 1585: Cat. 345, Plate 8,c C 1586: Cat. 1692, 58 C 1587: Cat. 1152, 59, Plate 15,p C 1588: Cat. 121, Plate 3,p C 1589: Cat. 1615, 58 C 1590: Cat. 1153, 59 C 1591: Cat. 633 C 1596: Cat. 804 C 1597: Cat. 394 C 1598: Cat. 455, Plate 10,n C 1600: Cat. 323, 58, Plate 7,w C 1601: Cat. 1120, 58 C 1602: Cat. 2136, 184n349 C 1603: Cat. 1677, 58 C 1604: Cat. 2199, 185n354 C 1606: Cat. 1061, 58 C 1608: Cat. 613, Plate 11,s

C 1610: Cat. 456, Plate 10,o C 1611: Cat. 568 C 1612: Cat. 805 C 1613: Cat. 2195 C 1614: Cat. 1725, 58, Plate 20, ff C 1616: Cat. 3076 C 1617: Cat. 2805 C 1618: Cat. 2578 C 1619: Cat. 2806 C 1620: 230n450 C 1621: Cat. 2962 C 1623: Cat. 2565, 186n372 C 1625: Cat. 1893, Plate 23,p C 1626: Cat. 1543, 59 C 1627: Cat. 2807 C 1628: Cat. 644 C 1631: Cat. 2246, 185n356 C 1633: Cat. 2218, 185n355 C 1634: Cat. 2205, 185n354 C 1635: Cat. 2196, 184n352 C 1636: Cat. 2410 C 1637: Cat. 2491 C 1639: Cat. 1206, Plate 16,e C 1641: Cat. 81 C 1643: Cat. 4, Plate 1,d C 1644: Cat. 806 C 1645: Cat. 381, Plate 8,w C 1646: Cat. 194 C 1647: Cat. 306, Plate 7,t C 1648: Cat. 163 C 1649: Cat. 373, Plate 8,o C 1650: Cat. 44, 58, Plate 2,g C 1651: Cat. 1678, 58 C 1652: Cat. 1373 C 1653: Cat. 601 C 1654: Cat. 1949 C 1655: Cat. 164 C 1656: Cat. 543 C 1657: Cat. 807 C 1658: Cat. 376, Plate 8,r C 1659: Cat. 421, Plate 9,r

index

C 1660: Cat. 2590 C 1661: Cat. 808 C 1663: Cat. 85 C 1664: Cat. 2808 C 1665: Cat. 1693, 58 C 1667: Cat. 289, 58 C 1668: Cat. 132, Plate 4,i C 1669: Cat. 2220, 185n355 C 1670: Cat. 645 C 1671: Cat. 1154, 59 C 1672: Cat. 133, Plate 4, j C 1673: Cat. 1062, 58 C 1674: Cat. 395 C 1675: Cat. 809 C 1676: Cat. 1237, 58 C 1677: Cat. 290, 58 C 1678: Cat. 62, 58 C 1679: Cat. 1121, 58 C 1680: Cat. 350 C 1681: Cat. 262, 58 C 1682: Cat. 679 C 1683: Cat. 14, 58 C 1684: Cat. 366, Plate 8, j C 1685: Cat. 1301 C 1686: Cat. 15, 58 C 1687: Cat. 437 C 1688: Cat. 1227, 58 C 1689: Cat. 457, Plate 10,p C 1690: Cat. 810 C 1691: Cat. 981, Plate 11,kk C 1692: Cat. 1997 C 1693: Cat. 1374 C 1694: Cat. 1302 C 1695: Cat. 1063, 58 C 1696: Cat. 811 C 1697: Cat. 646 C 1698: Cat. 680 C 1699: Cat. 438, Plate 10,a C 1700: Cat. 79, Plate 2,y C 1701: Cat. 647 C 1702: Cat. 458, Plate 10,q C 1703: Cat. 1770, Plate 21,l C 1704: Cat. 2997, 188n389 C 1705: Cat. 2492 C 1706: 230n450

C 1707: Cat. 1488, 58, Plate 17,cc C 1708: Cat. 584 C 1709: Cat. 812 C 1710: Cat. 1889, Plate 23,o C 1711: Cat. 195 C 1713: Cat. 2179, 185n354 C 1714: Cat. 2180, 185n354 C 1715: Cat. 2131, 184n349 C 1716: Cat. 1122, 58 C 1717: Cat. 2206, 185n354 C 1718: Cat. 681 C 1720: Cat. 682 C 1721: Cat. 2130, 184n349 C 1722: Cat. 1576 C 1723: Cat. 235 C 1724: Cat. 126, Plate 4,c C 1725: Cat. 535 C 1726: Cat. 1957 C 1727: Cat. 1303 C 1728: Cat. 52, 58, Plate 2,i C 1729: Cat. 1569, Plate 19,g C 1730: Cat. 196 C 1731: Cat. 2181, 185n354 C 1732: Cat. 976 C 1733: Cat. 1064, 58 C 1734: Cat. 2411 C 1735: Cat. 263, 58 C 1736: Cat. 1897 C 1737: Cat. 1694, 58, Plate 20,aa C 1738: Cat. 1963, Plate 25,e C 1739: Cat. 1103, 58, Plate 15, j C 1740: Cat. 197 C 1741: Cat. 1695, 58 C 1742: Cat. 276, 58, Plate 7,h C 1743: Cat. 1839 C 1744: Cat. 1123, 58 C 1745: Cat. 1165 C 1746: Cat. 264, 58 C 1747: Cat. 1785, 59, Plate 21,aa C 1748: Cat. 813

C 1749: Cat. 1696, 58 C 1750: Cat. 1124, 58 C 1751: Cat. 1241, 58 C 1752: Cat. 814 C 1753: Cat. 815 C 1754: Cat. 92, 71n254, Plate 3,e C 1755: Cat. 585 C 1756: Cat. 816 C 1757: Cat. 1697, 58 C 1758: Cat. 1489, 58 C 1759: Cat. 510 C 1760: Cat. 1989, Plate 26,m C 1761: Cat. 817 C 1762: Cat. 1698, 58 C 1763: Cat. 1679, 58 C 1764: Cat. 93, Plate 3, f C 1765: Cat. 165 C 1766: Cat. 1616, 58 C 1767: Cat. 1726, 58 C 1768: Cat. 198 C 1769: Cat. 1840 C 1770: Cat. 1944 C 1771: Cat. 1065, 58 C 1772: Cat. 818 C 1773: Cat. 1771, Plate 21,m C 1774: Cat. 819 C 1775: Cat. 189, Plate 6,c C 1776: Cat. 1938, 59, Plate 24,b C 1777: Cat. 236 C 1778: Cat. 1228, 58 C 1779: Cat. 1490, 58 C 1780: Cat. 820 C 1781: Cat. 396 C 1782: Cat. 1699, 58 C 1783: Cat. 324, 58 C 1784: Cat. 1898 C 1785: Cat. 1700, 58 C 1786: Cat. 1701, 58 C 1787: Cat. 1702, 58 C 1788: Cat. 1841 C 1789: Cat. 459, Plate 10,r C 1790: Cat. 821 C 1791: Cat. 1727, 58 C 1792: Cat. 1703, 58 C 1793: Cat. 325, 58 C 1794: Cat. 473 C 1795: Cat. 683 C 1796: Cat. 326, 58, Plate 8,a C 1797: Cat. 1728, 58, Plate 20,gg

279

C 1798: Cat. 1704, 58, Plate 20,bb C 1799: Cat. 166 C 1800: Cat. 140, 59 C 1801: Cat. 2559, 186n372 C 1802: Cat. 3109 C 1803: Cat. 2809 C 1804: Cat. 1801, 50n203, Plate 22,a C 1805: Cat. 2582, 187n378, Plate 31,e C 1806: Cat. 1009 C 1807: Cat. 2347 C 1808: Cat. 2547, 186n373 C 1809: Cat. 2552, 186n373 C 1810: Cat. 2661 C 1811: Cat. 1202, Plate 16,a C 1812: Cat. 2662 C 1813: Cat. 2566, 186n372 C 1814: Cat. 1978, Plate 26,b C 1815: Cat. 56, 22n75, Plate 2,m C 1816: Cat. 382, Plate 9,a C 1817: Cat. 1186 C 1818: Cat. 1166 C 1819: Cat. 167 C 1820: Cat. 1304 C 1821: Cat. 822 C 1822: Cat. 1756, 58 C 1823: Cat. 2998, 188n389 C 1824: Cat. 2810 C 1825: Cat. 1922, 59 C 1826: Cat. 1930, 59 C 1827: Cat. 2811 C 1829: Cat. 823 C 1830: Cat. 824 C 1831: Cat. 2038 C 1832: Cat. 1019, Plate 13,h C 1833: Cat. 503 C 1834: Cat. 1200, Plate 15,aa C 1835: Cat. 2933 C 1836: Cat. 141, 59 C 1837: Cat. 142, 59, Plate 4,o C 1838: Cat. 51, 58

280

C 1839: Cat. 134, Plate 4,k C 1840: Cat. 156, Plate 5, j C 1841: Cat. 825 C 1842: Cat. 1985, Plate 26,i C 1843: Cat. 50, 58 C 1844: Cat. 1454, 59 C 1845: Cat. 1803, 59 C 1846: Cat. 1305 C 1847: Cat. 1306 C 1848: Cat. 237, Plate 7,a C 1849: Cat. 2137, 184n349 C 1850: Cat. 1470, 58 C 1851: Cat. 2522, 187nn374,375 C 1852: Cat. 2265, 185n356 C 1853: Cat. 1842 C 1854: Cat. 3110 C 1855: Cat. 1307 C 1856: Cat. 593, Plate 11,m C 1857: Cat. 1066, 58 C 1858: Cat. 1308 C 1859: Cat. 1309 C 1860: Cat. 1672, 58 C 1861: 230n450 C 1862: Cat. 1375 C 1864: Cat. 2553, 186n373, 187n374 C 1865: Cat. 711, Plate 11,ii C 1866: Cat. 86, Plate 3,b C 1867: Cat. 265, 58 C 1868: Cat. 1155, 59 C 1869: Cat. 1000, Plate 12,n C 1870: Cat. 103, 59 C 1871: Cat. 94 C 1872: 230n450 C 1873: Cat. 3139 C 1874: Cat. 3038, 189n390 C 1875: Cat. 3093 C 1877: Cat. 168, Plate 5,o C 1878: Cat. 397 C 1879: Cat. 314, 58 C 1880: Cat. 1790, 59 C 1881: Cat. 2005 C 1882: Cat. 116

index

C 1883: Cat. 621, Plate 11,v C 1884: Cat. 398 C 1885: Cat. 266, 58 C 1887: Cat. 702 C 1888: Cat. 488, Plate 10,ee C 1889: Cat. 1869, 58 C 1890: Cat. 1471, 58 C 1891: Cat. 648 C 1892: Cat. 1412, 59 C 1893: Cat. 1310 C 1894: Cat. 460, Plate 10,s C 1895: Cat. 1413, 59 C 1896: Cat. 1376 C 1897: Cat. 626, Plate 11,x C 1898: Cat. 826 C 1899: Cat. 1311 C 1900: Cat. 327, 58 C 1901: Cat. 1993, Plate 27,b C 1902: Cat. 498 C 1903: Cat. 2197, 184n352 C 1904: Cat. 1705, 58, Plate 20,cc C 1905: Cat. 2418 C 1906: Cat. 2039 C 1908: Cat. 2335, 185n356 C 1911: Cat. 827 C 1912: Cat. 2040 C 1913: Cat. 1125, 58 C 1914: Cat. 828 C 1915: Cat. 109, 59 C 1916: Cat. 1312 C 1917: Cat. 2041 C 1918: Cat. 328, 58 C 1919: Cat. 1633, 58 C 1921: Cat. 1907 C 1922: Cat. 1377 C 1923: Cat. 829 C 1924: Cat. 2042 C 1925: Cat. 1951, Plate 24,k C 1926: Cat. 830 C 1927: Cat. 831 C 1928: Cat. 832 C 1929: Cat. 1455, 59 C 1930: Cat. 1167 C 1931: Cat. 169 C 1932: Cat. 1067, 58 C 1933: Cat. 399 C 1934: Cat. 1894

C 1935: Cat. 710, Plate 11,hh C 1936: Cat. 1156, 59 C 1937: Cat. 219, Plate 6, j C 1938: Cat. 1104, 58, Plate 15,k C 1939: Cat. 833 C 1940: Cat. 1068, 58 C 1941: Cat. 1069, 58 C 1942: Cat. 1126, 58, Plate 15,m C 1943: Cat. 2121, Plate 28,i C 1944: Cat. 1168 C 1945: Cat. 494, Plate 10,hh C 1946: Cat. 353 C 1947: Cat. 2106, 61n243 C 1948: Cat. 1242, 58 C 1949: Cat. 1011, Plate 13,c C 1950: Cat. 356, Plate 8, f C 1951: Cat. 217, Plate 6,h C 1952: Cat. 1521, 59 C 1953: Cat. 433, Plate 9,z C 1954: Cat. 346 C 1955: Cat. 1899 C 1956: Cat. 1243, 58, Plate 16,dd C 1957: Cat. 1941 C 1958: Cat. 1908 C 1959: Cat. 834 C 1960: Cat. 2043 C 1961: Cat. 2044 C 1962: Cat. 835 C 1963: Cat. 1070, 58 C 1964: Cat. 2045 C 1965: Cat. 3140 C 1966: Cat. 1757, 58 C 1967: Cat. 1004, Plate 12,r C 1968: Cat. 267, 58 C 1969: Cat. 1071, 58 C 1970: Cat. 351 C 1971: Cat. 1378 C 1972: Cat. 329, 58 C 1973: Cat. 1072, 58 C 1974: Cat. 1247, 58, Plate 16,gg C 1975: Cat. 1169 C 1976: Cat. 836

C 1977: Cat. 1900 C 1978: Cat. 564 C 1979: Cat. 684 C 1980: Cat. 231, Plate 6,p C 1981: Cat. 170 C 1982: Cat. 268, 58 C 1983: Cat. 1020, Plate 13,i C 1984: Cat. 131, Plate 4,h C 1985: Cat. 1931, 59 C 1986: Cat. 1127, 58 C 1987: Cat. 127, Plate 4,d C 1988: Cat. 511, Plate 10,kk C 1989: Cat. 1585 C 1990: Cat. 2138, 184n349 C 1992: Cat. 1843 C 1993: Cat. 1680, 58 C 1994: Cat. 1073, 58 C 1995: Cat. 434, Plate 9,aa C 1996: Cat. 1170 C 1997: Cat. 1074, 58 C 1998: Cat. 1550, Plate 18,s C 1999: Cat. 1246, 58, Plate 16, ff C 2000: Cat. 1171 C 2001: Cat. 1229, 58, Plate 16,w C 2002: Cat. 1932, 59, Plate 24,a C 2003: Cat. 330, 58 C 2004: 230n450 C 2005: Cat. 837 C 2006: Cat. 3141 C 2007: Cat. 838 C 2008: Cat. 1075, 58 C 2009: Cat. 839 C 2010: Cat. 1076, 58 C 2011: Cat. 1379 C 2012: Cat. 1766, Plate 21,h C 2013: Cat. 159, Plate 5,m C 2014: Cat. 1942, Plate 24,e C 2015: Cat. 504 C 2016: Cat. 1681, 58 C 2017: Cat. 125, Plate 4,b

index

C 2018: Cat. 1047, 58, Plate 15,d C 2019: Cat. 2046 C 2020: Cat. 474 C 2021: Cat. 1232, 58, Plate 16,y C 2022: Cat. 1222, 58, Plate 16,t C 2023: Cat. 461, Plate 10,t C 2024: Cat. 269, 58 C 2025: Cat. 331, 58 C 2028: Cat. 2493 C 2029: Cat. 840 C 2030: Cat. 199 C 2031: Cat. 1313 C 2032: Cat. 3170 C 2033: Cat. 1650, 58 C 2034: Cat. 2812 C 2035: Cat. 2663 C 2036: Cat. 2999, 188n389 C 2037: Cat. 400 C 2038: Cat. 1314 C 2040: Cat. 95 C 2042: Cat. 401 C 2043: Cat. 1187, Plate 15,q C 2044: Cat. 1448, 59 C 2048: Cat. 302 C 2049: Cat. 594 C 2050: Cat. 1994 C 2051: Cat. 1048, 51 C 2053: Cat. 2370 C 2054: Cat. 630 C 2056: Cat. 1870, 58 C 2058: Cat. 1077, 58 C 2059: Cat. 2432 C 2060: Cat. 615 C 2061: 230n450 C 2062: Cat. 2242, 185n356 C 2063: 230n450 C 2065: 230n450 C 2066: Cat. 2494 C 2068: Cat. 2367 C 2070: Cat. 402 C 2071: Cat. 549, Plate 11,b C 2072: Cat. 240, Plate 7,d C 2073: Cat. 2963 C 2074: 230n450 C 2075: Cat. 1414, 59, Plate 17, f

C 2077: Cat. 1078, 58, Plate 15, f C 2079: Cat. 649 C 2080: Cat. 16, 58 C 2081: Cat. 87, Plate 3,c C 2082: Cat. 1504, 59, Plate 17,kk C 2083: Cat. 1617, 58 C 2084: Cat. 841 C 2085: Cat. 685 C 2086: Cat. 987, Plate 12,b C 2087: Cat. 1079, 58 C 2088: Cat. 2353 C 2089: Cat. 2591 C 2090: 230n450 C 2094: Cat. 2354 C 2099: Cat. 2355 C 2100: Cat. 2435 C 2121: Cat. 2371 C 2126: Cat. 2433 C 2139: Cat. 2387 C 2144: Cat. 2388 C 2149: Cat. 2389 C 2157: Cat. 2390 C 2158: Cat. 2348 C 2168: Cat. 2436 C 2177: Cat. 2376 C 2180: Cat. 842 C 2181: Cat. 2475, Plate 30,b C 2183: Cat. 2391 C 2190: Cat. 2392 C 2193: Cat. 2356 C 2196: Cat. 2412 C 2202: Cat. 2413 C 2204: Cat. 2414 C 2208: Cat. 2393, 205n402 C 2210: Cat. 6, Plate 1, f C 2217: Cat. 2394 C 2223: Cat. 2444, 186n367, Plate 30,a C 2234: Cat. 2454, 186n367 C 2236: Cat. 1758, 58 C 2239: Cat. 1223, 58 C 2240: Cat. 2359, Plate 29,g C 2243: Cat. 2139, 184n349 C 2249: Cat. 1511, 59, Plate 18,d C 2250: Cat. 1522, 59 C 2252: Cat. 3135

C 2253: Cat. 2252, 185n356 C 2254: Cat. 1191, Plate 15,r C 2255: Cat. 982 C 2256: Cat. 1523, 59 C 2257: Cat. 149, Plate 5,e C 2258: Cat. 1003, Plate 12,q C 2259: Cat. 200 C 2260: Cat. 1804, 59, Plate 22,b C 2261: Cat. 843 C 2262: Cat. 73, 58, Plate 2,u C 2263: Cat. 1524, 59 C 2265: Cat. 2118, Plate 28, f C 2266: Cat. 1199, Plate 15,z C 2267: Cat. 844 C 2268: Cat. 2047 C 2269: Cat. 1415, 59 C 2270: Cat. 332, 58 C 2271: Cat. 551, Plate 11,c C 2272: Cat. 315, 58 C 2273: Cat. 1871, 58, Plate 23,i C 2274: Cat. 1230, 58 C 2275: Cat. 291, 58 C 2276: Cat. 1380 C 2277: Cat. 1207, Plate 16, f C 2278: Cat. 1315 C 2279: Cat. 229, Plate 6,o C 2280: Cat. 1260, 58, Plate 16,ii C 2281: Cat. 1250, 58 C 2282: Cat. 1231, 58, Plate 16,x C 2283: Cat. 1433, 59, Plate 17,l C 2284: Cat. 522 C 2285: Cat. 1618, 58 C 2286: Cat. 523 C 2287: Cat. 845 C 2288: Cat. 846 C 2289: Cat. 686 C 2290: Cat. 610, Plate 11,q C 2291: Cat. 1984, Plate 26,h C 2292: Cat. 499

281

C 2293: Cat. 1381 C 2294: Cat. 495 C 2295: Cat. 1128, 58 C 2297: Cat. 54, Plate 2,k C 2300: Cat. 847 C 2301: Cat. 1080, 58 C 2302: Cat. 2571 C 2303: Cat. 2048 C 2304: Cat. 1497, Plate 17,gg C 2305: Cat. 2124, Plate 28,m C 2306: Cat. 277, 58 C 2307: Cat. 1264, 58 C 2308: Cat. 2395 C 2309: Cat. 2266, 185n356 C 2310: Cat. 1630, 58 C 2311: Cat. 2664 C 2312: Cat. 2665 C 2313: Cat. 2934 C 2314: 230n450 C 2315: Cat. 2567, 186n372 C 2316: Cat. 2813 C 2317: Cat. 2526, 187n375 C 2318: Cat. 403, Plate 9,h C 2319: Cat. 2935 C 2320: Cat. 2421 C 2321: Cat. 3117, 184n347 C 2322: Cat. 3118, 184n347 C 2323: Cat. 3119, 184n347 C 2324: Cat. 3120, 184n347 C 2325: Cat. 3121, 184n347 C 2326: Cat. 3122, 184n347 C 2327: Cat. 3123, 184n347 C 2328: Cat. 3124, 184n347 C 2329: Cat. 3125, 184n347 C 2330: Cat. 3126, 184n347 C 2331: Cat. 3127, 184n347 C 2332: Cat. 3128, 184n347

282

C 2333: Cat. 3129, 184n347 C 2334: Cat. 597, Plate 11,n C 2335: Cat. 3145 C 2336: Cat. 2936 C 2337: Cat. 3075 C 2338: Cat. 1544, 59 C 2339: Cat. 1729, 58 C 2340: Cat. 110, 59 C 2341: Cat. 1505, 59 C 2342: Cat. 1172 C 2343: Cat. 1173 C 2344: Cat. 3094 C 2345: Cat. 3039, 189n390 C 2346: Cat. 3000, 188n389 C 2347: Cat. 1493, 58, Plate 17,ee C 2348: Cat. 1316 C 2349: Cat. 1416, 59 C 2350: Cat. 1950, Plate 24, j C 2351: Cat. 986, Plate 12,a C 2352: Cat. 1564, Plate 19,c C 2353: Cat. 3156 C 2356: Cat. 3040, 188n387, 189n390, Plate 31,k C 2357: Cat. 2814 C 2358: Cat. 3001, 188n389 C 2359: Cat. 3002, 188n389 C 2360: Cat. 3157 C 2361: Cat. 2666 C 2362: Cat. 2964, 188n385 C 2363: Cat. 2506, 186n374 C 2364: Cat. 2554, 186n373 C 2365: Cat. 2815 C 2366: 230n450 C 2367: Cat. 2667 C 2369: Cat. 2560, 186n372, 187n374 C 2370: Cat. 2267, 185n356 C 2371: Cat. 3041, 189n390 C 2372: Cat. 3003, 188n389

index

C 2373: 230n450 C 2374: Cat. 3065 C 2375: Cat. 3004, 188n389 C 2376: Cat. 1129, 58 C 2377: Cat. 3081 C 2378: Cat. 2140, 184n349 C 2379: Cat. 2816 C 2380: Cat. 3111 C 2382: Cat. 2669 C 2384: Cat. 994, Plate 12,i C 2385: Cat. 2324, 185n356 C 2386: Cat. 3056 C 2387: 230n450 C 2388: Cat. 171 C 2390: Cat. 1012 C 2396: Cat. 2817 C 2397: Cat. 2311, 185n356 C 2398: Cat. 3005, 188nn386,389 C 2399: Cat. 2670 C 2400: Cat. 3053 C 2401: Cat. 2818 C 2402: Cat. 1494, 58 C 2403: Cat. 2361 C 2405: Cat. 634, Plate 11,z C 2406: Cat. 2225, 185n356, 202n395, 203n396 C 2410: Cat. 2322, 185n356, 198n393, 203n396 C 2411: Cat. 2236, 185n356 C 2412: Cat. 2819 C 2413: Cat. 2568, 186n372 C 2414: Cat. 2592 C 2415: Cat. 2671 C 2416: Cat. 2672 C 2417: Cat. 1049, 58 C 2418: Cat. 1050, 58 C 2419: Cat. 2673 C 2420: Cat. 1382 C 2421: Cat. 2336, 185n356 C 2422: Cat. 2820 C 2423: Cat. 2593 C 2424: 230n450 C 2425: Cat. 3054, Plate 32,a

C 2426: Cat. 1317 C 2427: Cat. 2486, 186nn366,367 C 2428: Cat. 1901 C 2429: Cat. 2583, Plate 31, f C 2431: Cat. 3090 C 2432: Cat. 2230, 185n356 C 2433: Cat. 17, 58 C 2436: Cat. 3132 C 2440: Cat. 2159 C 2441: Cat. 2107 C 2442: Cat. 3153 C 2443: Cat. 3171 C 2444: Cat. 439, Plate 10,b C 2445: Cat. 3042, 189n390 C 2446: Cat. 3142 C 2447: Cat. 2821 C 2448: Cat. 2822 C 2449: Cat. 3077 C 2451: Cat. 1805, 59 C 2452: Cat. 2823 C 2453: Cat. 426, Plate 9,v C 2454: Cat. 3112 C 2455: Cat. 2674 C 2456: Cat. 1318 C 2457: Cat. 316, 58, Plate 7,v C 2458: 230n450 C 2459: Cat. 2108, 61n243 C 2460: Cat. 1434, 59 C 2461: Cat. 2459 C 2464: 230n450 C 2465: Cat. 333, 58 C 2466: Cat. 3113 C 2467: Cat. 105, 59, 71n251, Plate 3,i C 2468: Cat. 536 C 2469: Cat. 1188 C 2470: Cat. 1525, 59 C 2471: 230n450 C 2472: 230n450 C 2474: Cat. 3095 C 2476: Cat. 2049 C 2477: Cat. 650 C 2478: Cat. 3006, 188n389 C 2479: Cat. 2675 C 2480: Cat. 3043, 189n390

C 2481: Cat. 2824 C 2482: Cat. 246, 58 C 2483: Cat. 2676 C 2484: Cat. 3114 C 2485: Cat. 2825 C 2486: Cat. 334, 58 C 2487: Cat. 848 C 2489: Cat. 595 C 2490: Cat. 1006 C 2491: Cat. 3115 C 2492: Cat. 2006 C 2493: Cat. 2677 C 2494: Cat. 849 C 2495: Cat. 74, 58, Plate 2,v C 2496: Cat. 2182, 185n354 C 2497: Cat. 2183, 185n354 C 2498: Cat. 1192, Plate 15,s C 2499: Cat. 2678 C 2500: Cat. 2679 C 2501: Cat. 2826 C 2502: Cat. 1265, 58 C 2503: Cat. 2680 C 2504: Cat. 3143 C 2505: Cat. 1383 C 2506: Cat. 1806, 59 C 2507: Cat. 2312, 185n356 C 2511: Cat. 3044, 189n390 C 2512: 230n450 C 2513: Cat. 2357 C 2514: Cat. 1619, 58 C 2515: Cat. 3007, 188n389 C 2516: Cat. 2358 C 2517: Cat. 3172 C 2518: Cat. 3173 C 2519: Cat. 3174 C 2521: Cat. 1238, 58, Plate 16,cc C 2522: Cat. 2681 C 2523: Cat. 2981 C 2524: Cat. 1512, 59, Plate 18,e C 2525: Cat. 1577 C 2526: Cat. 1807, 59 C 2527: Cat. 2362 C 2528: Cat. 2827 C 2529: Cat. 2217, 185n355 C 2530: Cat. 687 C 2532: Cat. 3175

index

C 2533: Cat. 1235, 58, Plate 16,aa C 2534: Cat. 537, Plate 10,qq C 2535: Cat. 2682 C 2536: Cat. 1456, 59, Plate 17,s C 2537: Cat. 2683 C 2538: Cat. 2443 C 2541: Cat. 1634, 58 C 2542: Cat. 2268, 185n356 C 2544: Cat. 2368 C 2545: 230n450 C 2546: Cat. 1233, 58, Plate 16,z C 2547: Cat. 2684 C 2548: Cat. 2685 C 2549: Cat. 2828 C 2550: Cat. 3057 C 2551: Cat. 2829 C 2552: Cat. 2686 C 2553: Cat. 2687 C 2554: Cat. 1266, 58 C 2555: 230n450 C 2556: Cat. 2231, 185n356 C 2557: Cat. 247, 58 C 2558: Cat. 2688 C 2559: Cat. 2830 C 2560: Cat. 1502, 31n103, 59, Plate 17, jj C 2561: 230n450 C 2562: 230n450 C 2563: Cat. 2378 C 2564: Cat. 2689 C 2565: Cat. 2937 C 2567: 230n450 C 2568: Cat. 3086 C 2569: Cat. 2690 C 2570: Cat. 1027, 61n243, Plate 14,b C 2571: 230n450 C 2573: Cat. 2691 C 2574: Cat. 2692 C 2575: Cat. 3008, 188n389 C 2576: Cat. 2050 C 2577: Cat. 2507, 186n374 C 2578: Cat. 1472, 58 C 2579: Cat. 2693 C 2580: Cat. 3045, 189n390 C 2581: Cat. 3087

C 2582: Cat. 573 C 2583: Cat. 1319 C 2584: Cat. 82, Plate 3,a C 2585: Cat. 2831 C 2586: Cat. 308, 58 C 2587: Cat. 596 C 2588: Cat. 850 C 2589: Cat. 851 C 2590: Cat. 2372 C 2591: Cat. 1422, 59 C 2592: Cat. 2832 C 2593: 230n450 C 2594: Cat. 2833 C 2595: Cat. 2501, 186n374 C 2596: Cat. 2834 C 2597: Cat. 3009, 188n389 C 2598: Cat. 3010, 188n389 C 2599: Cat. 2594 C 2600: Cat. 2694 C 2601: 230n450 C 2602: Cat. 572, Plate 11,i C 2603: Cat. 2835 C 2604: Cat. 2514, 187n375 C 2605: Cat. 475 C 2607: Cat. 1320 C 2608: Cat. 2836 C 2609: 230n450 C 2610: 230n450 C 2611: Cat. 2569, 186n372 C 2612: Cat. 2695 C 2614: Cat. 201 C 2615: Cat. 555, Plate 11,d C 2616: Cat. 2837 C 2617: Cat. 2696 C 2618: Cat. 3011, 188n389 C 2619: Cat. 3084 C 2620: Cat. 3088 C 2621: Cat. 2838 C 2622: Cat. 1244, 58 C 2623: Cat. 1960 C 2624: Cat. 2697 C 2625: Cat. 2698 C 2626: 230n450 C 2627: Cat. 2508, 186n374 C 2628: Cat. 2699 C 2629: Cat. 1105, 58 C 2630: Cat. 2051

C 2631: Cat. 2555, 186n373 C 2632: Cat. 688 C 2633: 230n450 C 2634: Cat. 2700 C 2635: Cat. 3012, 188n389 C 2636: Cat. 476, Plate 10,aa C 2637: Cat. 1526, 59 C 2638: Cat. 1428, 59, Plate 17, j C 2639: Cat. 852 C 2640: Cat. 853 C 2641: 230n450 C 2642: Cat. 1081, 58 C 2643: Cat. 577, Plate 11,k C 2644: Cat. 651 C 2645: Cat. 2141, 184n349 C 2646: Cat. 2701 C 2648: Cat. 2839 C 2649: Cat. 2938 C 2650: Cat. 404 C 2651: Cat. 1545, 59 C 2652: Cat. 1682, 58, Plate 20,y C 2653: Cat. 544, Plate 11,a C 2654: Cat. 1640, Plate 20,o C 2655: Cat. 1730, 58 C 2656: Cat. 689, Plate 11,cc C 2657: Cat. 248, 58 C 2658: Cat. 202 C 2659: Cat. 2373 C 2660: Cat. 2527, 187n375 C 2661: Cat. 1130, 58 C 2663: Cat. 271, 61n243, Plate 7, f C 2664: Cat. 586 C 2665: Cat. 854 C 2666: Cat. 1131, 58 C 2667: Cat. 1157, 59 C 2668: Cat. 1106, 58 C 2669: Cat. 2313, 185n356 C 2670: Cat. 990, Plate 12,e C 2672: Cat. 2052 C 2673: Cat. 2053 C 2674: Cat. 1496, Plate 17, ff

283

C 2675: Cat. 1933, 59 C 2676: Cat. 117, Plate 3,m C 2677: Cat. 1731, 58 C 2679: Cat. 405 C 2680: Cat. 1943, Plate 24, f C 2681: Cat. 292, 58 C 2682: Cat. 855 C 2683: Cat. 2054 C 2684: Cat. 1844 C 2685: Cat. 2415 C 2686: Cat. 335, 58 C 2687: Cat. 690 C 2688: Cat. 1651, 58 C 2689: Cat. 419, Plate 9,p C 2690: Cat. 63, 58 C 2691: Cat. 1464, 58, Plate 17,u C 2692: Cat. 2396 C 2693: Cat. 2253, 185n356 C 2694: Cat. 856 C 2695: Cat. 2269, 185n356 C 2698: Cat. 2363 C 2700: Cat. 406, Plate 9,i C 2701: Cat. 857 C 2702: Cat. 2254, 185n356 C 2704: Cat. 407 C 2705: Cat. 652, Plate 11,aa C 2706: Cat. 858 C 2707: Cat. 293, 58, Plate 7,l C 2708: Cat. 703, Plate 11,dd C 2709: Cat. 1208, Plate 16,g C 2710: Cat. 2203, 185n354 C 2711: Cat. 2161, 184n349 C 2712: Cat. 2250, 185n356 C 2713: Cat. 2397 C 2714: Cat. 172 C 2715: Cat. 619, Plate 11,t C 2716: Cat. 1706, 58 C 2717: Cat. 614 C 2719: Cat. 2055 C 2720: Cat. 1174

284

C 2721: Cat. 463, Plate 10,u C 2722: Cat. 1707, 58 C 2723: Cat. 1832 C 2724: Cat. 173 C 2725: Cat. 859 C 2726: Cat. 1214, Plate 16,m C 2727: Cat. 1321 C 2728: Cat. 188 C 2729: Cat. 1175 C 2730: Cat. 556, Plate 11,e C 2731: Cat. 1082, 58 C 2732: Cat. 860 C 2733: Cat. 143, 59 C 2734: Cat. 216, 60, Plate 6,g C 2735: Cat. 448, Plate 10,g C 2736: Cat. 861 C 2737: Cat. 1732, 58 C 2738: Cat. 862 C 2739: Cat. 203 C 2740: Cat. 1132, 58 C 2741: Cat. 111, 59 C 2742: Cat. 587 C 2743: Cat. 863 C 2744: Cat. 294, 58 C 2745: Cat. 653 C 2746: Cat. 1083, 58 C 2747: Cat. 1845 C 2748: Cat. 408 C 2749: Cat. 1635, 58 C 2750: Cat. 1189 C 2751: Cat. 1791, 59 C 2752: Cat. 864 C 2753: Cat. 1580 C 2754: Cat. 1833 C 2755: Cat. 1652, 58 C 2756: Cat. 40, 58, Plate 2, f C 2757: Cat. 249, 58 C 2758: Cat. 446 C 2759: Cat. 1631, 58, Plate 20,m C 2760: Cat. 1666, 58 C 2761: Cat. 1473, 58 C 2762: Cat. 18, 58 C 2763: Cat. 1384 C 2764: Cat. 1257, 58 C 2765: Cat. 588 C 2766: Cat. 865 C 2767: Cat. 1708, 58 C 2768: Cat. 620, Plate 11,u

index

C 2769: Cat. 866 C 2770: Cat. 1709, 58 C 2771: Cat. 654 C 2772: Cat. 655 C 2773: Cat. 1733, 58 C 2774: Cat. 1322 C 2775: Cat. 204 C 2776: Cat. 2056 C 2777: Cat. 1718, 58 C 2778: Cat. 2484, 183n344, Plate 30,d C 2779: Cat. 19, 58 C 2780: Cat. 1772, Plate 21,n C 2781: Cat. 1872, 58, Plate 23, j C 2782: Cat. 1323 C 2784: Cat. 76, 58, Plate 2,w C 2785: Cat. 574 C 2787: Cat. 174, Plate 5,p C 2788: Cat. 627 C 2789: Cat. 205 C 2790: Cat. 1873, 58 C 2791: Cat. 1084, 58 C 2792: Cat. 1559, Plate 18,z C 2793: Cat. 1874, 58 C 2794: Cat. 307 C 2795: Cat. 1986, Plate 26, j C 2796: Cat. 512 C 2797: Cat. 1734, 58 C 2798: Cat. 1831 C 2799: Cat. 496 C 2800: Cat. 691 C 2801: Cat. 692 C 2802: Cat. 452, Plate 10,k C 2803: Cat. 867 C 2804: Cat. 336, 58, Plate 8,b C 2805: Cat. 868 C 2806: Cat. 628 C 2807: Cat. 1408 C 2808: Cat. 144, 59 C 2809: Cat. 443 C 2810: Cat. 1385 C 2811: Cat. 1875, 58 C 2812: Cat. 1176 C 2813: Cat. 1735, 58 C 2814: Cat. 1947, Plate 24,h C 2815: Cat. 20, 58 C 2816: Cat. 1133, 58

C 2817: Cat. 1876, 58 C 2818: Cat. 1736, 58 C 2819: Cat. 1324 C 2820: Cat. 21, 58 C 2821: Cat. 1737, 58 C 2822: Cat. 464 C 2823: Cat. 704 C 2824: Cat. 1491, 58, Plate 17,dd C 2825: Cat. 693 C 2826: Cat. 1846 C 2827: Cat. 869 C 2828: Cat. 1085, 58 C 2829: Cat. 206 C 2830: Cat. 278, 58 C 2831: Cat. 47, 58 C 2832: Cat. 524 C 2833: Cat. 1710, 58 C 2834: Cat. 175 C 2835: Cat. 207 C 2836: Cat. 22, 58 C 2837: Cat. 96 C 2838: Cat. 1711, 58 C 2839: Cat. 870 C 2840: Cat. 65, 58 C 2841: Cat. 497 C 2842: Cat. 1877, 58 C 2843: Cat. 871 C 2844: Cat. 48, 58, Plate 2,h C 2845: Cat. 872 C 2846: Cat. 873 C 2847: Cat. 347 C 2848: Cat. 309, 58 C 2849: Cat. 1945 C 2850: Cat. 310, 58, Plate 7,u C 2851: Cat. 1847 C 2852: Cat. 874 C 2853: Cat. 298, Plate 7,n C 2854: Cat. 1712, 58 C 2855: Cat. 533, Plate 10,oo C 2856: Cat. 250, 58 C 2857: Cat. 525 C 2858: Cat. 270, 58 C 2859: Cat. 208 C 2860: Cat. 191, Plate 6,e C 2861: Cat. 2057 C 2862: Cat. 1409 C 2863: Cat. 875 C 2864: Cat. 876 C 2865: Cat. 440, Plate 10,c

C 2866: Cat. 877 C 2867: Cat. 153, Plate 5,h C 2868: Cat. 1086, 58 C 2869: Cat. 1325 C 2870: Cat. 878 C 2871: Cat. 1713, 58 C 2872: Cat. 1902 C 2873: Cat. 879 C 2874: Cat. 1177 C 2875: Cat. 1178 C 2876: Cat. 880 C 2877: Cat. 881 C 2878: Cat. 1738, 58 C 2879: Cat. 1903 C 2880: Cat. 1386 C 2881: Cat. 882 C 2882: Cat. 531, Plate 10,nn C 2883: Cat. 209, Plate 6, f C 2884: Cat. 360, Plate 8,h C 2885: Cat. 883 C 2886: Cat. 1620, 58 C 2887: Cat. 97 C 2888: Cat. 1683, 58 C 2889: Cat. 1946, Plate 24,g C 2890: Cat. 431 C 2891: Cat. 1224, 58, Plate 16,u C 2892: Cat. 1087, 58 C 2893: Cat. 884 C 2894: Cat. 135, Plate 4,l C 2895: Cat. 885 C 2896: Cat. 41, 58 C 2897: Cat. 886 C 2898: Cat. 1259, 58 C 2899: Cat. 500, Plate 10,ii C 2900: Cat. 887 C 2901: Cat. 1848 C 2902: Cat. 1326 C 2903: Cat. 606 C 2904: Cat. 23, 58, Plate 2,e C 2905: Cat. 526 C 2906: Cat. 1327 C 2907: Cat. 1474, 58 C 2908: Cat. 888 C 2909: Cat. 707 C 2910: Cat. 889 C 2911: Cat. 1739, 58 C 2912: Cat. 3176

index

C 2913: Cat. 1251, 58 C 2914: Cat. 1923, 59 C 2915: Cat. 890 C 2917: Cat. 891 C 2918: Cat. 694 C 2919: Cat. 1767, Plate 21,i C 2920: Cat. 88 C 2921: Cat. 2190, 185n354 C 2922: Cat. 378, Plate 8,t C 2925: Cat. 2007 C 2926: Cat. 477 C 2927: Cat. 1740, 58 C 2928: Cat. 1267, 58, Plate 17,c C 2929: Cat. 1088, 58 C 2930: Cat. 1134, 58 C 2931: Cat. 379, Plate 8,u C 2932: Cat. 337, 58 C 2933: Cat. 478 C 2934: Cat. 66, 58 C 2935: Cat. 1135, 58, Plate 15,n C 2936: Cat. 367 C 2937: Cat. 545 C 2938: Cat. 2162, 184n352 C 2939: Cat. 631 C 2940: Cat. 656 C 2941: Cat. 2398 C 2942: Cat. 1621, 58 C 2943: Cat. 3046, 189n390 C 2944: Cat. 1328 C 2945: Cat. 190, Plate 6,d C 2946: Cat. 1636, 58 C 2947: Cat. 1995 C 2948: Cat. 1591, Plate 20,c C 2949: Cat. 1878, 58 C 2950: Cat. 425, Plate 9,u C 2951: Cat. 1197, Plate 15,x C 2952: Cat. 374, Plate 8,p C 2953: Cat. 1089, 58 C 2954: Cat. 1808, 59 C 2955: Cat. 1581, Plate 19,l C 2956: Cat. 441 C 2957: Cat. 892

C 2958: Cat. 1506, 59 C 2959: Cat. 155, 60, Plate 5,i C 2960: Cat. 1329 C 2961: Cat. 1792, 59 C 2962: Cat. 1513, 59, Plate 18, f C 2963: Cat. 375, Plate 8,q C 2964: Cat. 352, Plate 8,d C 2965: Cat. 1793, 59 C 2966: Cat. 893 C 2967: Cat. 1107, 58 C 2968: Cat. 1741, 58 C 2969: Cat. 1568 C 2970: Cat. 2058 C 2971: Cat. 1594, Plate 20, f C 2972: Cat. 1641, Plate 20,p C 2973: Cat. 24, 58 C 2977: Cat. 1014 C 2979: Cat. 894 C 2981: Cat. 2184, 185n354 C 2982: Cat. 1387 C 2983: Cat. 1449, 59 C 2984: Cat. 1784, 59, Plate 21,z C 2985: Cat. 210 C 2986: Cat. 1961, Plate 25,c C 2987: Cat. 112, 59 C 2988: Cat. 1417, 59 C 2989: Cat. 695 C 2990: Cat. 1090, 58, Plate 15,g C 2991: Cat. 1423, 59 C 2992: Cat. 424 C 2993: Cat. 1794, 59 C 2994: Cat. 1934, 59 C 2995: Cat. 1935, 59 C 2996: Cat. 1527, 59 C 2997: Cat. 1330 C 2998: Cat. 895 C 2999: Cat. 98 C 3000: Cat. 146, Plate 5,b C 3001: Cat. 1528, 59 C 3002: Cat. 1595, Plate 20,g C 3003: Cat. 1596 C 3004: Cat. 1597, Plate 20,h C 3005: Cat. 1598

C 3006: Cat. 2840 C 3013: Cat. 2399 C 3014: Cat. 2841 C 3015: Cat. 2400 C 3016: Cat. 3013, 188n389 C 3018: Cat. 2059 C 3019: Cat. 896 C 3020: Cat. 1742, 58 C 3021: Cat. 2060 C 3022: Cat. 251, 58 C 3023: Cat. 897 C 3024: Cat. 1879, 58 C 3025: Cat. 898 C 3026: Cat. 899 C 3027: Cat. 354 C 3029: Cat. 2061 C 3030: Cat. 2062 C 3031: Cat. 1136, 58 C 3033: Cat. 1743, 58 C 3034: Cat. 1179 C 3035: Cat. 2063 C 3036: Cat. 900 C 3037: Cat. 2015, Plate 28,b C 3038: Cat. 1653, 58 C 3039: Cat. 1814, Plate 22, f C 3040: Cat. 1822, 61n243, Plate 22,n C 3042: Cat. 1811, 61n243, Plate 22,c C 3043: Cat. 1815, 61n243, Plate 22,g C 3044: Cat. 1036, 61n243 C 3045: Cat. 2473 C 3046: Cat. 1818, 61n243, Plate 22, j C 3047: Cat. 1812, 61n243, Plate 22,d C 3048: Cat. 2142, 184n349 C 3049: Cat. 1819, 61n243, Plate 22,k C 3050: Cat. 1821, 61n243, Plate 22,m C 3051: Cat. 2702 C 3052: Cat. 1816, 61n243, Plate 22,h C 3053: Cat. 1825, 61n243, Plate 22,q C 3054: Cat. 996, Plate 12, j C 3055: Cat. 1331 C 3056: Cat. 1646

285

C 3057: Cat. 997, Plate 12,k C 3058: Cat. 1002, Plate 12,p C 3059: Cat. 2120, Plate 28,h C 3059 bis: Cat. 1013 C 3060: Cat. 1023, 61n243, Plate 13,l C 3061: Cat. 1817, 61n243, Plate 22,i C 3062: Cat. 1813, 61n243, Plate 22,e C 3063: Cat. 1031, 61n243 C 3064: Cat. 1035, 61n243 C 3065: Cat. 1038, 61n243 C 3066: Cat. 1032, 61n243 C 3067: Cat. 1033, 61n243 C 3068: Cat. 2185, 185n354 C 3069: Cat. 1039, 61n243, Plate 14,m C 3070: Cat. 1820, 61n243, Plate 22,l C 3071: Cat. 1958 C 3072: Cat. 1823, 61n243, Plate 22,o C 3073: Cat. 1024, 61n243, Plate 13,m C 3074: Cat. 2126 C 3075: Cat. 2143, 184n349 C 3076: Cat. 2163, 184n352 C 3077: Cat. 2144, 184n349 C 3078: Cat. 2223, 185n355 C 3081: Cat. 2314, 185n356, Plate 29,e C 3082: Cat. 2341, 185n356 C 3085: Cat. 2145, 184n349 C 3086: Cat. 2445 C 3087: Cat. 2452 C 3089: Cat. 2446 C 3090: Cat. 2464 C 3091: Cat. 2337, 185n356

286

C 3092: Cat. 2438, Plate 29,k C 3094: Cat. 2523, 187n375 C 3095: Cat. 2581 C 3096: Cat. 2703 C 3097: Cat. 3014, 188n389 C 3098: Cat. 2939 C 3099: Cat. 2940 C 3100: Cat. 2842 C 3101: Cat. 2843 C 3102: 230n450 C 3103: Cat. 2704 C 3104: Cat. 3015, 188n389 C 3105: Cat. 3016, 188n389 C 3106: Cat. 2705 C 3107: Cat. 409 C 3108: Cat. 2965 C 3109: Cat. 3070 C 3110: Cat. 3078 C 3111: Cat. 3082 C 3112: Cat. 3096 C 3113: Cat. 3131 C 3114: Cat. 3146, Plate 32, f C 3115: Cat. 2844 C 3118: 230n450 C 3119: Cat. 2845 C 3126: 230n450 C 3127: Cat. 2846 C 3128: 230n450 C 3132: Cat. 2847 C 3133: Cat. 2706 C 3140: Cat. 1969 C 3143: Cat. 1492, 58 C 3144: Cat. 1601, Plate 20,i C 3145: Cat. 2270, 185n356 C 3146: Cat. 1809, 59 C 3147: Cat. 2271, 185n356 C 3149: Cat. 3149 C 3150: Cat. 2848 C 3151: Cat. 3062, Plate 32,c C 3152: Cat. 3147 C 3153: Cat. 1849 C 3154: Cat. 1826, 61n243, Plate 22,r C 3160: Cat. 1037, 61n243

index

C 3162: Cat. 2166, 184n352 C 3163: Cat. 1388 C 3164: Cat. 1034, 61n243 C 3165: 230n450 C 3166: Cat. 2210, 185n354 C 3167: Cat. 1268, 58 C 3168: Cat. 338, 58 C 3169: Cat. 1435, 59 C 3172: Cat. 2064 C 3174: Cat. 2707 C 3175: Cat. 2146, 184n349 C 3176: Cat. 2147, 184n349 C 3177: Cat. 3017, 188n389 C 3178: Cat. 2148, 184n349 C 3179: Cat. 2156, 184n352, Plate 29,b C 3180: Cat. 2157, 184n352 C 3182: Cat. 2211, 185n354 C 3183: Cat. 2207, 185n354 C 3184: Cat. 2212, 185n354 C 3185: Cat. 2272, 185n356 C 3186: Cat. 2149, 184n349 C 3187: Cat. 657 C 3188: Cat. 2128, 184n349 C 3191: Cat. 983, Plate 11,ll C 3192: Cat. 1880, 58 C 3193: Cat. 2849 C 3194: Cat. 3047, 189n390 C 3195: Cat. 2450 C 3196: Cat. 2515, 187n375 C 3197: Cat. 2850 C 3198: Cat. 2851 C 3199: 230n450 C 3200: Cat. 2966 C 3201: Cat. 232, Plate 6,q C 3202: Cat. 2941 C 3203: Cat. 2942

C 3204: Cat. 422, Plate 9,s C 3205: Cat. 2708 C 3206: Cat. 2852 C 3207: Cat. 1478, 58 C 3208: Cat. 2943 C 3209: Cat. 3058, Plate 32,b C 3210: Cat. 2853 C 3211: Cat. 1764, Plate 21, f C 3212: Cat. 611 C 3213: Cat. 575 C 3214: Cat. 2709 C 3215: Cat. 2944 C 3216: Cat. 2738, 188n385 C 3217: Cat. 569 C 3218: Cat. 2561, 186n372 C 3219: Cat. 2854 C 3220: 230n450 C 3221: Cat. 3018, 188n389 C 3222: Cat. 2710 C 3223: Cat. 2855 C 3224: 230n450 C 3225: Cat. 2711 C 3226: Cat. 2065 C 3227: Cat. 2008 C 3228: Cat. 465, Plate 10,v C 3229: Cat. 2856 C 3230: Cat. 2537, 186n371, Plate 31,b C 3231: Cat. 3177 C 3232: Cat. 2462 C 3233: Cat. 2543, 186n371 C 3235: Cat. 1215, Plate 16,n C 3236: Cat. 2129, 184n349 C 3237: Cat. 2857 C 3238: Cat. 2595 C 3239: Cat. 2712 C 3240: 230n450 C 3241: 230n450 C 3242: Cat. 2713 C 3243: Cat. 2009 C 3244: Cat. 220, Plate 6,k C 3245: Cat. 2401 C 3247: Cat. 1158, 59 C 3248: Cat. 901

C 3249: Cat. 1028, 61n243, Plate 14,c C 3250: Cat. 2123, 184n348, Plate 28,l C 3251: Cat. 1910, Plate 23,s C 3253: Cat. 1622, 58 C 3254: Cat. 2596 C 3255: Cat. 2858 C 3256: Cat. 2010 C 3257: Cat. 1389 C 3259: Cat. 1332 C 3260: Cat. 2538, 186n371 C 3261: Cat. 2714 C 3262: Cat. 2982 C 3263: Cat. 2419 C 3264: Cat. 2570, 186n372 C 3265: Cat. 2429 C 3266: Cat. 3085 C 3268: Cat. 2556, 186n373 C 3269: Cat. 2715 C 3270: Cat. 2859 C 3271: Cat. 348 C 3272: Cat. 902 C 3274: Cat. 2860 C 3275: Cat. 3148 C 3276: Cat. 3158 C 3278: Cat. 2544, 186n371 C 3279: Cat. 3071 C 3280: Cat. 2213, 185n354 C 3281: Cat. 2861 C 3282: Cat. 2945 C 3283: Cat. 2533, 187n375 C 3284: Cat. 2946 C 3285: Cat. 2597 C 3286: Cat. 2480, Plate 30,c C 3287: Cat. 2716 C 3288: Cat. 2214, 185n354 C 3290: Cat. 1430, 59, Plate 17,k C 3291: Cat. 1444, 59, Plate 17,p C 3292: Cat. 3159 C 3293: Cat. 2862 C 3294: Cat. 1966, Plate 25,h C 3295: Cat. 1952, Plate 24,l

index

C 3296: Cat. 2315, 185n356 C 3297: Cat. 2380 C 3298: Cat. 3097 C 3299: Cat. 3178 C 3301: Cat. 2502, 186n374 C 3302: Cat. 1529, 59 C 3303: Cat. 2967 C 3304: Cat. 3055 C 3305: Cat. 2717 C 3306: 230n450 C 3307: Cat. 1514, 31n103, 59, Plate 18,g C 3308: Cat. 1795, 59 C 3309: Cat. 3179 C 3310: Cat. 1462, 58 C 3312: Cat. 1216, Plate 16,o C 3313: Cat. 2463 C 3314: Cat. 903 C 3315: Cat. 2402, 205n402 C 3316: Cat. 300, Plate 7,p C 3317: Cat. 904 C 3318: Cat. 1881, 58 C 3319: Cat. 1333 C 3320: Cat. 2448 C 3321: Cat. 2109 C 3322: Cat. 2379 C 3323: Cat. 2579 C 3324: Cat. 1583, Plate 19,n C 3325: Cat. 2455 C 3326: Cat. 25, 58 C 3327: Cat. 2545, 186n371 C 3328: Cat. 2483, 186n366 C 3329: Cat. 2482, 186n366 C 3330: Cat. 2481, 186n366 C 3332: Cat. 252, 58 C 3333: Cat. 2110, 61n243 C 3334: Cat. 1180 C 3336: Cat. 658 C 3337: Cat. 905 C 3338: Cat. 2479 C 3340: Cat. 616 C 3341: Cat. 2718 C 3342: Cat. 2, Plate 1,b

C 3343: Cat. 2342, 185n356 C 3345: Cat. 2719 C 3346: Cat. 2111, 61n243 C 3348: Cat. 2863 C 3349: Cat. 2864 C 3350: Cat. 2983 C 3351: Cat. 2255, 185n356 C 3357: Cat. 2430 C 3359: Cat. 2509, 186n374 C 3360: Cat. 2364 C 3361: Cat. 906 C 3362: Cat. 501 C 3364: Cat. 1418, 59 C 3365: Cat. 2598, Plate 31,g C 3366: Cat. 2516, 187n375 C 3367: Cat. 1959 C 3368: Cat. 2865 C 3369: Cat. 2866 C 3370: Cat. 1269, 58 C 3371: Cat. 2325, 185n356 C 3372: Cat. 2720 C 3373: Cat. 2599 C 3374: Cat. 2721 C 3375: Cat. 2600 C 3376: Cat. 2112, 61n243 C 3377: Cat. 1475, 58, Plate 17,v C 3378: Cat. 1390 C 3379: Cat. 1137, 58 C 3380: Cat. 2403 C 3381: Cat. 1623, 58 C 3382: Cat. 2517, 187n375 C 3383: Cat. 1882, 58, Plate 23,k C 3384: Cat. 1883, 58 C 3385: Cat. 1546, 59 C 3386: Cat. 527 C 3387: Cat. 3072 C 3388: Cat. 2510, 186n374 C 3389: Cat. 2867 C 3390: Cat. 1190 C 3391: Cat. 528 C 3392: Cat. 1965, Plate 25,g C 3394: Cat. 2548, 186n373

C 3395: Cat. 2868 C 3396: Cat. 546 C 3397: Cat. 2490 C 3400: Cat. 2947 C 3403: Cat. 1654, 58 C 3404: Cat. 279, 58 C 3405: Cat. 295, 58 C 3406: Cat. 2869 C 3407: Cat. 2011 C 3409: Cat. 2215, 185n354 C 3410: Cat. 2870 C 3411: Cat. 2978 C 3412: Cat. 67, 58 C 3413: Cat. 1547, 59, Plate 18,q C 3414: Cat. 1270, 58, Plate 17,d C 3417: Cat. 907 C 3418: Cat. 1655, 58 C 3420: Cat. 2113 C 3421: Cat. 2518, 187n375 C 3422: Cat. 3098 C 3423: Cat. 370, 61n243, Plate 8,l C 3424: Cat. 2114 C 3425: Cat. 1091, 58 C 3426: Cat. 1198, Plate 15,y C 3427: Cat. 908 C 3428: Cat. 909 C 3429: Cat. 176 C 3430: Cat. 104, 59, Plate 3,h C 3431: Cat. 68, 58 C 3432: Cat. 383, Plate 9,b C 3433: Cat. 1557 C 3434: Cat. 2226, 185n356 C 3435: Cat. 2499, 186n374 C 3436: Cat. 2511, 186n374 C 3437: Cat. 2521, 187n375, Plate 30,g C 3438: Cat. 3079 C 3439: Cat. 1563, Plate 19,b C 3440: Cat. 3059 C 3441: 230n450 C 3442: Cat. 2127, 184n349 C 3443: Cat. 529

287

C 3444: Cat. 466, Plate 10,w C 3445: Cat. 2115 C 3446: Cat. 1457, 59 C 3447: Cat. 1530, 31n103, 59, Plate 18,l C 3448: 230n450 C 3449: Cat. 1010, Plate 13,b C 3450: Cat. 1261, 58, Plate 17,a C 3451: Cat. 1810, 59 C 3452: Cat. 1684, 58 C 3453: Cat. 2189, 185n354 C 3454: Cat. 1548, 59, Plate 18,r C 3455: Cat. 1624, 58 C 3456: Cat. 910 C 3457: Cat. 659 C 3458: Cat. 2948 C 3459: Cat. 3019, 188n389 C 3460: Cat. 2949 C 3461: Cat. 2950 C 3462: Cat. 2951 C 3463: Cat. 2871 C 3464: Cat. 2872 C 3465: Cat. 2873 C 3466: Cat. 2874 C 3467: Cat. 2875 C 3468: Cat. 2876 C 3469: Cat. 2877 C 3470: Cat. 2878 C 3471: Cat. 2879 C 3472: Cat. 2880 C 3473: Cat. 2881 C 3474: Cat. 2882 C 3475: Cat. 2883 C 3476: Cat. 2884 C 3477: Cat. 2885 C 3478: Cat. 2979 C 3479: Cat. 2886 C 3480: Cat. 2887 C 3481: Cat. 2888 C 3482: Cat. 3020, 188n389 C 3483: Cat. 3021, 188n389 C 3484: Cat. 2889 C 3485: Cat. 2890 C 3486: Cat. 2891 C 3487: Cat. 2892 C 3488: Cat. 2893 C 3489: Cat. 2722 C 3490: Cat. 2894

288

C 3491: Cat. 2895 C 3492: Cat. 2896 C 3493: Cat. 2897 C 3494: Cat. 3022, 188n389 C 3495: Cat. 2898 C 3496: Cat. 2899 C 3497: Cat. 2900 C 3498: Cat. 2901 C 3499: Cat. 2902 C 3500: Cat. 2723 C 3501: Cat. 2724 C 3502: Cat. 2725 C 3503: Cat. 2726 C 3504: Cat. 2727 C 3505: Cat. 2728 C 3506: Cat. 2601 C 3507: Cat. 3048, 189n390 C 3508: Cat. 3023, 188n389 C 3509: Cat. 2729 C 3510: Cat. 2730 C 3511: Cat. 3024, 188n389 C 3512: Cat. 3025, 188n389 C 3513: Cat. 2731 C 3514: Cat. 2732 C 3515: Cat. 339, 58 C 3516: Cat. 2733 C 3517: Cat. 2316, 185n356 C 3517 bis: Cat. 2066, Plate 28,e C 3517 ter: Cat. 296, 58 C 3518: Cat. 2903 C 3519: Cat. 3026, 188n389 C 3521: Cat. 2739, 188n385 C 3523: Cat. 3027, 188n389 C 3525: Cat. 2067 C 3526: Cat. 2904 C 3527: Cat. 2905 C 3528: Cat. 1637, 58 C 3529: Cat. 2557, 186n373 C 3530: Cat. 2968 C 3531: Cat. 2906 C 3533: Cat. 2317, 185n356 C 3534: 230n450 C 3535: Cat. 2068

index

C 3536: Cat. 2907, 187n374 C 3537: Cat. 2318, 185n356 C 3538: 230n450 C 3539: 230n450 C 3540: Cat. 1025, 61n243, Plate 13,n C 3541: 230n450 C 3542: Cat. 3180 C 3543: Cat. 2453 C 3544: Cat. 2365 C 3546: Cat. 696 C 3548: Cat. 1181 C 3549: Cat. 2485, 186nn366,367 C 3550: Cat. 26, 58 C 3553: Cat. 911 C 3554: Cat. 2420 C 3556: Cat. 2326, 185n356 C 3558: Cat. 1535,