Document management — Portable document format: PDF 1.7 [1, 32000-1:2008 ed.] 0201626284, 0201615886, 0201758393, 0321304748

430 33 9MB

English Pages [756] Year 2008

Report DMCA / Copyright


Document management — Portable document format: PDF 1.7 [1, 32000-1:2008 ed.]
 0201626284, 0201615886, 0201758393, 0321304748

  • Author / Uploaded
  • Adobe

Table of contents :
Document management — Portable document format — Part 1: PDF 1.7
Contents Page
1 Scope
2 Conformance
2.1 General
2.2 Conforming readers
2.3 Conforming writers
2.4 Conforming products
3 Normative references
4 Terms and definitions
5 Notation
6 Version Designations
7 Syntax
7.1 General
7.2 Lexical Conventions
7.2.1 General
7.2.2 Character Set
7.3 Objects
7.3.1 General
7.3.2 Boolean Objects
7.3.3 Numeric Objects
7.3.4 String Objects General Literal Strings Hexadecimal Strings
7.3.5 Name Objects
7.3.6 Array Objects
7.3.7 Dictionary Objects
7.3.8 Stream Objects General Stream Extent
7.3.9 Null Object
7.3.10 Indirect Objects
7.4 Filters
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 ASCIIHexDecode Filter
7.4.3 ASCII85Decode Filter
7.4.4 LZWDecode and FlateDecode Filters General Details of LZW Encoding LZWDecode and FlateDecode Parameters LZW and Flate Predictor Functions
7.4.5 RunLengthDecode Filter
7.4.6 CCITTFaxDecode Filter
7.4.7 JBIG2Decode Filter
7.4.8 DCTDecode Filter
7.4.9 JPXDecode Filter
7.4.10 Crypt Filter
7.5 File Structure
7.5.1 General
7.5.2 File Header
7.5.3 File Body
7.5.4 Cross-Reference Table
7.5.5 File Trailer
7.5.6 Incremental Updates
7.5.7 Object Streams
7.5.8 Cross-Reference Streams General Cross-Reference Stream Dictionary Cross-Reference Stream Data Compatibility with Applications That Do Not Support Compressed Reference Streams
7.6 Encryption
7.6.1 General
7.6.2 General Encryption Algorithm
7.6.3 Standard Security Handler General Standard Encryption Dictionary Encryption Key Algorithm Password Algorithms
7.6.4 Public-Key Security Handlers General Public-Key Encryption Dictionary Public-Key Encryption Algorithms
7.6.5 Crypt Filters
7.7 Document Structure
7.7.1 General
7.7.2 Document Catalog
7.7.3 Page Tree General Page Tree Nodes Page Objects Inheritance of Page Attributes
7.7.4 Name Dictionary
7.8 Content Streams and Resources
7.8.1 General
7.8.2 Content Streams
7.8.3 Resource Dictionaries
7.9 Common Data Structures
7.9.1 General
7.9.2 String Object Types General Text String Type PDFDocEncoded String Type Byte String Type
7.9.3 Text Streams
7.9.4 Dates
7.9.5 Rectangles
7.9.6 Name Trees
7.9.7 Number Trees
7.10 Functions
7.10.1 General
7.10.2 Type 0 (Sampled) Functions
7.10.3 Type 2 (Exponential Interpolation) Functions
7.10.4 Type 3 (Stitching) Functions
7.10.5 Type 4 (PostScript Calculator) Functions General Errors in Type 4 Functions
7.11 File Specifications
7.11.1 General
7.11.2 File Specification Strings General Absolute and Relative File Specifications Conversion to Platform-Dependent File Names Multiple-Byte Strings in File Specifications
7.11.3 File Specification Dictionaries
7.11.4 Embedded File Streams General Related Files Arrays
7.11.5 URL Specifications
7.11.6 Collection Items
7.11.7 Maintenance of File Specifications
7.12 Extensions Dictionary
7.12.1 General
7.12.2 Developer Extensions Dictionary
7.12.3 BaseVersion
7.12.4 ExtensionLevel
8 Graphics
8.1 General
8.2 Graphics Objects
8.3 Coordinate Systems
8.3.1 General
8.3.2 Coordinate Spaces General Device Space User Space Other Coordinate Spaces Relationships among Coordinate Spaces
8.3.3 Common Transformations
8.3.4 Transformation Matrices
8.4 Graphics State
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Graphics State Stack
8.4.3 Details of Graphics State Parameters General Line Width Line Cap Style Line Join Style Miter Limit Line Dash Pattern
8.4.4 Graphics State Operators
8.4.5 Graphics State Parameter Dictionaries
8.5 Path Construction and Painting
8.5.1 General
8.5.2 Path Construction Operators General Cubic Bézier Curves
8.5.3 Path-Painting Operators General Stroking Filling General Nonzero Winding Number Rule Even-Odd Rule
8.5.4 Clipping Path Operators
8.6 Colour Spaces
8.6.1 General
8.6.2 Colour Values
8.6.3 Colour Space Families
8.6.4 Device Colour Spaces General DeviceGray Colour Space DeviceRGB Colour Space DeviceCMYK Colour Space
8.6.5 CIE-Based Colour Spaces General CalGray Colour Spaces CalRGB Colour Spaces Lab Colour Spaces ICCBased Colour Spaces Default Colour Spaces Implicit Conversion of CIE-Based Colour Spaces Rendering Intents
8.6.6 Special Colour Spaces General Pattern Colour Spaces Indexed Colour Spaces Separation Colour Spaces DeviceN Colour Spaces Multitone Examples
8.6.7 Overprint Control
8.6.8 Colour Operators
8.7 Patterns
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 General Properties of Patterns
8.7.3 Tiling Patterns General Coloured Tiling Patterns Uncoloured Tiling Patterns
8.7.4 Shading Patterns General Shading Operator Shading Dictionaries Colour Space: Special Considerations General Shading Types General Type 1 (Function-Based) Shadings Type 2 (Axial) Shadings Type 3 (Radial) Shadings Type 4 Shadings (Free-Form Gouraud-Shaded Triangle Meshes) Type 5 Shadings (Lattice-Form Gouraud-Shaded Triangle Meshes) Type 6 Shadings (Coons Patch Meshes) Type 7 Shadings (Tensor-Product Patch Meshes)
8.8 External Objects
8.8.1 General
8.8.2 PostScript XObjects
8.9 Images
8.9.1 General
8.9.2 Image Parameters
8.9.3 Sample Representation
8.9.4 Image Coordinate System
8.9.5 Image Dictionaries General Decode Arrays Image Interpolation Alternate Images
8.9.6 Masked Images General Stencil Masking Explicit Masking Colour Key Masking
8.9.7 Inline Images
8.10 Form XObjects
8.10.1 General
8.10.2 Form Dictionaries
8.10.3 Group XObjects
8.10.4 Reference XObjects General Printing Reference XObjects Special Considerations
8.11 Optional Content
8.11.1 General
8.11.2 Optional Content Groups General Optional Content Membership Dictionaries Intent
8.11.3 Making Graphical Content Optional General Optional Content in Content Streams Optional Content in XObjects and Annotations
8.11.4 Configuring Optional Content General Optional Content Properties Dictionary Optional Content Configuration Dictionaries Usage and Usage Application Dictionaries Determining the State of Optional Content Groups
9 Text
9.1 General
9.2 Organization and Use of Fonts
9.2.1 General
9.2.2 Basics of Showing Text
9.2.3 Achieving Special Graphical Effects
9.2.4 Glyph Positioning and Metrics
9.3 Text State Parameters and Operators
9.3.1 General
9.3.2 Character Spacing
9.3.3 Word Spacing
9.3.4 Horizontal Scaling
9.3.5 Leading
9.3.6 Text Rendering Mode
9.3.7 Text Rise
9.3.8 Text Knockout
9.4 Text Objects
9.4.1 General
9.4.2 Text-Positioning Operators
9.4.3 Text-Showing Operators
9.4.4 Text Space Details
9.5 Introduction to Font Data Structures
9.6 Simple Fonts
9.6.1 General
9.6.2 Type 1 Fonts General Standard Type 1 Fonts (Standard 14 Fonts) Multiple Master Fonts
9.6.3 TrueType Fonts
9.6.4 Font Subsets
9.6.5 Type 3 Fonts
9.6.6 Character Encoding General Encodings for Type 1 Fonts Encodings for Type 3 Fonts Encodings for TrueType Fonts
9.7 Composite Fonts
9.7.1 General
9.7.2 CID-Keyed Fonts Overview
9.7.3 CIDSystemInfo Dictionaries
9.7.4 CIDFonts General Glyph Selection in CIDFonts Glyph Metrics in CIDFonts
9.7.5 CMaps General Predefined CMaps Embedded CMap Files CMap Example and Operator Summary
9.7.6 Type 0 Font Dictionaries General CMap Mapping Handling Undefined Characters
9.8 Font Descriptors
9.8.1 General
9.8.2 Font Descriptor Flags
9.8.3 Font Descriptors for CIDFonts General Style FD
9.9 Embedded Font Programs
9.10 Extraction of Text Content
9.10.1 General
9.10.2 Mapping Character Codes to Unicode Values
9.10.3 ToUnicode CMaps
10 Rendering
10.1 General
10.2 CIE-Based Colour to Device Colour
10.3 Conversions among Device Colour Spaces
10.3.1 General
10.3.2 Conversion between DeviceGray and DeviceRGB
10.3.3 Conversion between DeviceGray and DeviceCMYK
10.3.4 Conversion from DeviceRGB to DeviceCMYK
10.3.5 Conversion from DeviceCMYK to DeviceRGB
10.4 Transfer Functions
10.5 Halftones
10.5.1 General
10.5.2 Halftone Screens
10.5.3 Spot Functions
10.5.4 Threshold Arrays
10.5.5 Halftone Dictionaries General Type 1 Halftones Type 6 Halftones Type 10 Halftones Type 16 Halftones Type 5 Halftones
10.6 Scan Conversion Details
10.6.1 General
10.6.2 Flatness Tolerance
10.6.3 Smoothness Tolerance
10.6.4 Scan Conversion Rules
10.6.5 Automatic Stroke Adjustment
11 Transparency
11.1 General
11.2 Overview of Transparency
11.3 Basic Compositing Computations
11.3.1 General
11.3.2 Basic Notation for Compositing Computations
11.3.3 Basic Compositing Formula
11.3.4 Blending Colour Space
11.3.5 Blend Mode
11.3.6 Interpretation of Alpha
11.3.7 Shape and Opacity Computations General Source Shape and Opacity Result Shape and Opacity
11.3.8 Summary of Basic Compositing Computations
11.4 Transparency Groups
11.4.1 General
11.4.2 Notation for Group Compositing Computations
11.4.3 Group Structure and Nomenclature
11.4.4 Group Compositing Computations
11.4.5 Isolated Groups
11.4.6 Knockout Groups
11.4.7 Page Group
11.4.8 Summary of Group Compositing Computations
11.5 Soft Masks
11.5.1 General
11.5.2 Deriving a Soft Mask from Group Alpha
11.5.3 Deriving a Soft Mask from Group Luminosity
11.6 Specifying Transparency in PDF
11.6.1 General
11.6.2 Specifying Source and Backdrop Colours
11.6.3 Specifying Blending Colour Space and Blend Mode
11.6.4 Specifying Shape and Opacity General Object Shape and Opacity Mask Shape and Opacity Constant Shape and Opacity
11.6.5 Specifying Soft Masks General Soft-Mask Dictionaries Soft-Mask Images
11.6.6 Transparency Group XObjects
11.6.7 Patterns and Transparency
11.7 Colour Space and Rendering Issues
11.7.1 General
11.7.2 Colour Spaces for Transparency Groups
11.7.3 Spot Colours and Transparency
11.7.4 Overprinting and Transparency General Blend Modes and Overprinting Compatibility with Opaque Overprinting Special Path-Painting Considerations Summary of Overprinting Behaviour
11.7.5 Rendering Parameters and Transparency General Halftone and Transfer Function Rendering Intent and Colour Conversions
12 Interactive Features
12.1 General
12.2 Viewer Preferences
12.3 Document-Level Navigation
12.3.1 General
12.3.2 Destinations General Explicit Destinations Named Destinations
12.3.3 Document Outline
12.3.4 Thumbnail Images
12.3.5 Collections
12.4 Page-Level Navigation
12.4.1 General
12.4.2 Page Labels
12.4.3 Articles
12.4.4 Presentations General Sub-page Navigation
12.5 Annotations
12.5.1 General
12.5.2 Annotation Dictionaries
12.5.3 Annotation Flags
12.5.4 Border Styles
12.5.5 Appearance Streams
12.5.6 Annotation Types General Markup Annotations Annotation States Text Annotations Link Annotations Free Text Annotations Line Annotations Square and Circle Annotations Polygon and Polyline Annotations Text Markup Annotations Caret Annotations Rubber Stamp Annotations Ink Annotations Pop-up Annotations File Attachment Annotations Sound Annotations Movie Annotations Screen Annotations Widget Annotations Printer’s Mark Annotations Trap Network Annotations Watermark Annotations Redaction Annotations
12.6 Actions
12.6.1 General
12.6.2 Action Dictionaries
12.6.3 Trigger Events
12.6.4 Action Types General Go-To Actions Remote Go-To Actions Embedded Go-To Actions Launch Actions Thread Actions URI Actions Sound Actions Movie Actions Hide Actions Named Actions Set-OCG-State Actions Rendition Actions Transition Actions Go-To-3D-View Actions JavaScript Actions
12.7 Interactive Forms
12.7.1 General
12.7.2 Interactive Form Dictionary
12.7.3 Field Dictionaries General Field Names Variable Text Rich Text Strings
12.7.4 Field Types General Button Fields General Pushbuttons Check Boxes Radio Buttons Text Fields Choice Fields Signature Fields
12.7.5 Form Actions General Submit-Form Action Reset-Form Action Import-Data Action
12.7.6 Named Pages
12.7.7 Forms Data Format General FDF File Structure General FDF Header FDF Body FDF Trailer FDF Catalog General FDF Fields FDF Pages FDF Annotation Dictionaries
12.7.8 XFA Forms
12.8 Digital Signatures
12.8.1 General
12.8.2 Transform Methods General DocMDP General Validating Signatures That Use the DocMDP Transform Method UR FieldMDP
12.8.3 Signature Interoperability General PKCS#1 Signatures PKCS#7 Signatures as used in ISO 32000 General Revocation Information
12.8.4 Permissions
12.8.5 Legal Content Attestations
12.9 Measurement Properties
12.10 Document Requirements
12.10.1 General
12.10.2 Requirement Handlers
13 Multimedia Features
13.1 General
13.2 Multimedia
13.2.1 General
13.2.2 Viability
13.2.3 Renditions General Media Renditions Selector Renditions
13.2.4 Media Clip Objects General Media Clip Data Media Clip Section
13.2.5 Media Play Parameters
13.2.6 Media Screen Parameters General Media Offset Dictionary Timespan Dictionary
13.2.7 Other Multimedia Objects General Media Players Dictionary Media Player Info Dictionary Software Identifier Dictionary General Software URIs Version arrays Monitor Specifier
13.3 Sounds
13.4 Movies
13.5 Alternate Presentations
13.6 3D Artwork
13.6.1 General
13.6.2 3D Annotations
13.6.3 3D Streams General 3D Animation Style Dictionaries 3D Reference Dictionaries
13.6.4 3D Views General Projection Dictionaries 3D Background Dictionaries 3D Render Mode Dictionaries 3D Lighting Scheme Dictionaries 3D Cross Section Dictionaries 3D Node Dictionaries
13.6.5 Coordinate Systems for 3D
13.6.6 3D Markup
14 Document Interchange
14.1 General
14.2 Procedure Sets
14.3 Metadata
14.3.1 General
14.3.2 Metadata Streams
14.3.3 Document Information Dictionary
14.4 File Identifiers
14.5 Page-Piece Dictionaries
14.6 Marked Content
14.6.1 General
14.6.2 Property Lists
14.6.3 Marked Content and Clipping
14.7 Logical Structure
14.7.1 General
14.7.2 Structure Hierarchy
14.7.3 Structure Types
14.7.4 Structure Content General Marked-Content Sequences as Content Items PDF Objects as Content Items Finding Structure Elements from Content Items
14.7.5 Structure Attributes General Attribute Classes Attribute Revision Numbers User Properties
14.7.6 Example of Logical Structure
14.8 Tagged PDF
14.8.1 General
14.8.2 Tagged PDF and Page Content General Real Content and Artifacts General Specification of Artifacts Incidental Artifacts Page Content Order General Sequencing of Annotations Reverse-Order Show Strings Extraction of Character Properties General Unicode Mapping in Tagged PDF Font Characteristics Identifying Word Breaks
14.8.3 Basic Layout Model
14.8.4 Standard Structure Types General Grouping Elements Block-Level Structure Elements General Paragraphlike Elements List Elements Table Elements Usage Guidelines for Block-Level Structure Inline-Level Structure Elements General Link Elements Annotation Elements Ruby and Warichu Elements Illustration Elements
14.8.5 Standard Structure Attributes General Standard Attribute Owners Attribute Values and Inheritance Layout Attributes General General Layout Attributes Layout Attributes for BLSEs Layout Attributes for ILSEs Content and Allocation Rectangles Illustration Attributes Column Attributes List Attribute PrintField Attributes Table Attributes
14.9 Accessibility Support
14.9.1 General
14.9.2 Natural Language Specification General Language Identifiers Language Specification Hierarchy Multi-language Text Arrays
14.9.3 Alternate Descriptions
14.9.4 Replacement Text
14.9.5 Expansion of Abbreviations and Acronyms
14.10 Web Capture
14.10.1 General
14.10.2 Web Capture Information Dictionary
14.10.3 Content Database General URL Strings Digital Identifiers Unique Name Generation
14.10.4 Content Sets General Page Sets Image Sets
14.10.5 Source Information General URL Alias Dictionaries Command Dictionaries Command Settings
14.10.6 Object Attributes Related to Web Capture
14.11 Prepress Support
14.11.1 General
14.11.2 Page Boundaries General Display of Page Boundaries
14.11.3 Printer’s Marks
14.11.4 Separation Dictionaries
14.11.5 Output Intents
14.11.6 Trapping Support General Trap Network Annotations Trap Network Appearances
14.11.7 Open Prepress Interface (OPI)
Annex A (informative) Operator Summary
A.1 General
A.2 PDF Content Stream Operators
Annex B (normative) Operators in Type 4 Functions
B.1 General
B.2 Arithmetic Operators
B.3 Relational, Boolean, and Bitwise Operators
B.4 Conditional Operators
B.5 Stack Operators
Annex C (normative) Implementation Limits
C.1 General
C.2 Architectural limits
C.3 Memory limits
Annex D (normative) Character Sets and Encodings
D.1 General
D.2 Latin Character Set and Encodings
D.3 PDFDocEncoding Character Set
D.4 Expert Set and MacExpertEncoding
D.5 Symbol Set and Encoding
D.6 ZapfDingbats Set and Encoding
Annex E (normative) PDF Name Registry
E.1 General
E.2 Name Registry
Annex F (normative) Linearized PDF
F.1 General
F.2 Background and Assumptions
F.3 Linearized PDF Document Structure
F.3.1 General
F.3.2 Header (Part 1)
F.3.3 Linearization Parameter Dictionary (Part 2)
F.3.4 First-Page Cross-Reference Table and Trailer (Part 3)
F.3.5 Document Catalogue and Document-Level Objects (Part 4)
F.3.6 Hint Streams (Parts 5 and 10)
F.3.7 First-Page Section (Part 6)
F.3.8 Remaining Pages (Part 7)
F.3.9 Shared Objects (Part 8)
F.3.10 Other Objects (Part 9)
F.3.11 Main Cross-Reference and Trailer (Part 11)
F.4 Hint Tables
F.4.1 Page Offset Hint Table
F.4.2 Shared Object Hint Table
F.4.3 Thumbnail Hint Table
F.4.4 Generic Hint Tables
F.4.5 Extended Generic Hint Tables
F.4.6 Embedded File Stream Hint Tables
Annex G (informative) Linearized PDF Access Strategies
G.1 General
G.2 Opening at the First Page
G.3 Opening at an Arbitrary Page
G.4 Going to Another Page of an Open Document
G.5 Drawing a Page Incrementally
G.6 Following an Article Thread
G.7 Accessing an Updated File
Annex H (informative) Example PDF Files
H.1 General
H.2 Minimal PDF File
H.3 Simple Text String Example
H.4 Simple Graphics Example
H.5 Page Tree Example
H.6 Outline Hierarchy Example
H.7 Updating Example
H.7.1 Stage 1: Add Four Text Annotations
H.7.2 Stage 2: Modify Text of One Annotation
H.7.3 Stage 3: Delete Two Annotations
H.7.4 Stage 4: Add Three Annotations
H.8 Structured Elements That Describe Hierarchical Lists
H.8.1 Table of Contents
H.8.2 Nested Lists
Annex I (normative) PDF Versions and Compatibility
I.1 General
I.2 PDF Version Numbers
I.3 Feature Compatibility
Annex J (informative) FDF Rename Flag Implementation Example
J.1 General
J.2 Implementation Example
Annex K (informative) PostScript Compatibility — Transparent Imaging Model
K.1 General
K.2 Conversion
Annex L (informative) Colour Plates
L.1 Colour Plates
[1] ISO 15930-1:2001, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF — Part 1: Complete exchange using CMYK data (PDF/X-1 and PDF/X-1a).
[2] ISO 15930-3:2002, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Use of PDF — Part 3: Complete exchange suitable for colour-managed workflows (PDF/X-3).
[3] ISO 15930-4:2003, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 4: Complete exchange of CMYK and spot colour printing data using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-1a).
[4] ISO 15930-5:2003, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 5: Partial exchange of printing data using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-2).
[5] ISO 15930-6:2003, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 6: Complete exchange of printing data suitable for colour-managed workflows using PDF 1.4 (PDF/X-3).
[6] ISO 19005-1:2005, Document management — Electronic document file format for long-term preservation -- Part 1: Use of PDF 1.4 (PDF/A-1) .
[7] ISO 24517-1:2007, Document management — Engineering document format using PDF — Part 1: Use of PDF 1.6 (PDF/E-1).
[8] PDF Reference, First Edition, version 1.0 (June 1993), Addison-Wesley, 0-201-62628-4.
[9] PDF Reference, First Edition Revised, version 1.1 (March 1996), Adobe Systems Incorporated.
[10] PDF Reference, First Edition Revised, version 1.2 (November 1996), Adobe Systems Incorporated.
[11] PDF Reference, Second Edition, version 1.3 (July 2000), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-61588-6.
[12] PDF Reference, Third Edition, version 1.4 (November 2001), Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-75839-3.
[13] PDF Reference, Fourth Edition, version 1.5 (August 2003), Adobe Systems Incorporated (website only).
[14] PDF Reference, Fifth Edition, version 1.6 (December 2004), Adobe Press, ISBN 0-321-30474-8.
[15] PostScript Language Reference, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1999.
[16] Technical Note #5001, PostScript Language Document Structuring Conventions Specification, Version 3.0, Adobe Systems Incorporated.
[17] Technical Note #5044, Color Separation Conventions for PostScript Language Programs, Adobe Systems Incorporated.
[18] Aho, A. V., Hopcroft, J. E., and Ullman, J. D., Data Structures and Algorithms, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1983. Includes a discussion of balanced trees.
[19] Apple Computer, Inc., TrueType Reference Manual. Available on Apple’s Web site at < http://>.
[20] Arvo, J. (ed.), Graphics Gems II, Academic Press, 1994. The section “Geometrically Continuous Cubic Bézier Curves” by Hans-Peter Seidel describes the mathematics used to smoothly join two cubic Bézier curves.
[21] Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) Specification, .
[22] CIP4. See International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press and Postpress.
[23] Ecma International, Standard ECMA-363, Universal 3D File Format, 1st Edition. This document is available at .
[24] Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) 1.0, .
[25] Fairchild, M. D., Color Appearance Models, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1997. Covers color vision, basic colorimetry, color appearance models, cross-media color reproduction, and the current CIE standards activities. Updates, software, and color...
[26] Foley, J. D. et al., Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1996. (First edition was Foley, J. D. and van Dam, A., Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1982.) Covers many g...
[27] Glassner, A. S. (ed.), Graphics Gems, Academic Press, 1993. The section “An Algorithm for Automatically Fitting Digitized Curves” by Philip J. Schneider describes an algorithm for determining the set of Bézier curves approximating an arbitr...
[28] Hewlett-Packard Corporation, PANOSE Classification Metrics Guide. Available on the Agfa Monotype Web site at < >.
[29] HTML 4.01 Specification, .
[30] Hunt, R. W. G., The Reproduction of Colour, 5th ed., Fisher Books, England, 1996. A comprehensive general reference on color reproduction; includes an introduction to the CIE system.
[31] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754-1985).
[32] International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press and Postpress (CIP4), JDF Specification, Version 1.2. Available through the CIP4 Web site at < >.
[33] Kirk, D. (ed.), Graphics Gems III, Academic Press, 1994. The section “Interpolation Using Bézier Curves” by Gershon Elber contains an algorithm for calculating a Bézier curve that passes through a user-specified set of points. The algorith...
[34] Lunde, K., CJKV Information Processing, O’Reilly & Associates, Sebastopol, CA, 1999. Excellent background material on CMaps, character sets, encodings, and the like.
[35] Microsoft Corporation, TrueType 1.0 Font Files Technical Specification. Available at < http:// >.
[36] Porter, T. and Duff, T., “Compositing Digital Images,” Computer Graphics, Vol. 18 No. 3, July 1984. Computer Graphics is the newsletter of the ACM’s special interest group SIGGRAPH; for more information, see < >.
[37] RSA Security, Inc. This document, among others related to encryption and digital signatures, is available at < >: PKCS #1 - RSA Cryptography Standard .
[38] Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.0 Specification, .
[39] Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL 2.0), .
[40] Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0, .
[41] XHTML 1.0: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, .

Polecaj historie