Defended Sites of the Late La Tène in Central and Western Europe 9780904531343, 9781407345680

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Defended Sites of the Late La Tène in Central and Western Europe
 9780904531343, 9781407345680

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
Table of Contents
List of Figures
Introduction
Chapter 1: Some Comments on the La Tene Iron Age
Chapter 2: Techniques of Fortifications in the Late La Tene
Chapter 3: The Chronology of the Late La Tene
The Corpus
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Bibliography

Citation preview

Defended Sites of the Late La Tene in Central and Western Europe

John Collis

BAR Supplementary Series 2 1 91s

British Archaeological Reports 122

Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7BP, England GENERAL EDITORS

A.C.C. Brodribb, M.A. Mrs. Y. M. Hands

A.R. Hands, B.Sc., M.A., D.Phil. D.R. Walker, B.A.

B.A.R. Supplementary Series 2, 1975: "Def ended Sites of the Late La T�ne in Central and Western Europe". © John Collis, 1975.

The author’s moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780904531343 paperback ISBN 9781407345680 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780904531343 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com

CONTENTS

L ist o f F igures I ntroduction C hapter Chapter

1 : 2 :

C hapter

3 :

The C orpus:

Page

a nd A cknowledgements

S ome C omments o n t he La Tene I ron Age Techniques o f F ortification i n t he Late La n ne The C hronology o f t he L ate La T bne

1 . 2 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 1 0. 1 1. 1 2. 1 3. 1 4. 1 5. 1 6. 1 7. 1 8. 1 9. 2 0. 2 1. 2 2. 2 3. 2 4. 2 5. 2 6. 2 7. 2 8. 2 9. 3 0.

Appendix 1 : Appendix 2 : B ibliography

S lovakia T he Hungarian P lain A ustria M oravia B ohemia B avaria T huringia H esse B aden Württemburg S witzerland B elgium T rier a nd L uxembourg A lsace a nd L orraine Burgundy T he Rhone a nd i ts T ributaries The U pper L oire C lermont-Ferrand, Puy-de-D8me The Western C entral Massif T he G aronne a nd Aquitaine G ironde a nd t he L ower L oire B rittany N ormandy T he L ower S eine C hampagne a nd t he I le d e F rance The S omme Valley S ussex W essex S outh-East England T he C entral a nd Upper Thames Valley North-West England

Rampart C onstructions ( compiled by Ralston) S ites m entioned by Caesar

I . B. M.

2 1 1 3 7

7 0 7 3 7 6 8 5 9 0 1 01 1 20 1 23 1 39 1 47 1 57 1 58 1 67 1 70 1 75 1 78 1 83 1 89 1 92 1 93 1 96 1 99 2 01 2 04 2 07 2 10 2 13 2 20 2 26 2 28 2 32 2 34 2 36

Page

L IST OF F IGURES s ites

l isted

i n

L ocation o f

2 .

L ate La T ene d efended s ites c ontinuously o ccupied f rom Early La T ene ( author).

1 0

3 .

M ajor Late La T ene T ene ( author).

1 2

4 .

I sometric r econstruction o f p art ( author).

5 .

D istribution o f Late La Tene t imber-laced r amparts ( after C ollis a nd Ralston f orthcoming).

1 6

6 .

I sometric r econstruction o f f ramed r ampart ( author).

1 8

7 .

D istribution o f t he nailed murus C ollis a nd Ralston f orthcoming).

8 .

I sometric r econstruction o f ( author).

9 .

D istribution o f t he Kelheim a nd F 6camp ramparts ( after C ollis a nd Ralston f orthcoming).

2 4

1 0.

I sometric r econstruction o f ( author).

2 6

1 1.

P lans o f t he g ateways a t F ecamp a nd L e Petit ( after Wheeler a nd R ichardson 1 957).

1 2.

P lans o f t he t wo l ater M anching ( after Gensen

1 3.

P lans o f t he g ateways a t O tzenhausen a nd Huelgoat ( after S chindler 1 968, a nd Wheeler a nd R ichardson La Tene d efended s ites ( author).

1 5.

D istribution o f Late La T ene 2 5 ha ( author).

1 _ 6.

D istribution o f s ingle, i n Europe ( author).

1 7.

Date range o f R oman s ites ( author).

1 8.

D ressel

1 9.

T ypes

o f

t he Hollingbury

a mphora

g allicus

t he murus

t imber-

2 0

( after

2 2

gallicus

t he Kelheim rampart

i n

t he

i n Europe,

d efended

d ouble

d enarii

1 4

t he Preist-Altkönig ram-

g ateways 1 965).

L ate s ize

I b

g azetteer.

s ites occupied f rom M iddle La

1 4.

I a a nd

t he

1

1 .

east

Celland

e ntrance

a t

s ites

o f

3 1

o ver

a nd multiple e nclosures

( after Peacock

a nd

1 971).

( after Werner

3 0

1 957).

a ccording t o

f rom various h oards

I talian bronze v essels

2 8

1 954).

3 2

3 4

3 5

4 3

4 9 5 1

Page 2 0.

Variation i n f orm o f t he Nauheim , Lauterach S poon-bow f ibulae ( various s ources).

2 1.

B rooch

t ypes

( various

s ources).

5 8

2 2.

B rooch

t ypes

( various

s ources).

6 0

2 3.

B rooch t ypes

( various

s ources).

6 2

2 4.

The probable date T ene brooch t ypes

2 5.

F lat c emeteries ( author).

2 6.

T rade c ontacts o f t he Magdalensberg o f i nscriptions ( author).

2 7.

S tars Hradisko

2 8.

Excavated a rea a t S tare Hradisko s upplied by J . Meduna).

2 9.

La Tene

3 0.

Z ävist

3 1.

Hrazany

3 2.

Palisaded e nclosures

3 3.

Reconstruction o f t he palisaded e nclosures ( after Jansovä 1 965).

3 4.

The S taffelberg

3 5.

Manching, i n r elationship a nd S chubert 1 970).

3 6.

Manching

i n

S töckli

1 975).

1 06

3 7.

Manching

i n La Tene D ( based on S töckli

1 975).

1 07

3 8.

Manching: main a rea o f e xcavations s howing post-holes ( after K ramer a nd S chubert 1 970).

3 9.

Manching: s treet a rea w ith small r ectangular b ui1dings a nd p its ( after Krämer a nd S chubert 1 970).

4 0.

Manching:

4 1.

Manching: palisaded e nclosure S chubert 1 970).

4 2.

Manching: 1 972).

a nd o ppida

and L ate

5 6

La

i n Moravia a nd Slovakia

f rom t he

e vidence

( after Meduna 1 970).

s ettlement ( after

range o f various Middle ( author).

a nd

i n B ohemia

( based o n

a d rawing

( author).

S chwarz

Jansovä).

( after Jansovä 1 965).

9 4

H razany

( after

( after K ramer

K ramer

9 9

1 962

1 05

1 08

1 10

1 962).

1 12

a nd

1 13

( after Kramer

( after Kramer

9 8

1 03

i ron o res

r ectangular houses

a t

1 963).

La Tene C ( based o n

l ong houses

88

9 6

H razany

t o

82

9 1

( after Jansovä 1 965).

( after

71

86

a d rawing s upplied b y L .

a t

6 4

a nd

S chubert

1 14

Page 4 3.

K elheim

( after P rehistoric

4 4.

T he Karlstein

4 5.

T he

4 6.

L ate La Tene s ettlement U enze 1 953).

4 7.

H eidetränk-Talenge

4 8.

T he Dunsberg

4 9.

T he Altenburg b ei N iedenstein

5 0.

T he Altenburg b ei N iedenstein: a rea ( after H ofmeister 1 930).

t he

c entral

5 1.

T he Altenburg b ei Niedenstein: ( after H ofmeister 1 930).

t he

e xcavated a rea

5 2.

T he Milseberg

5 3.

T he Erdenberg

5 4.

T he Erdenberg: t he g ateway a s B uttler a nd S chleif 1 937-38).

5 5.

L a Tene s ettlement F isher 1 967).

5 6.

A ltenburg -Rheinau

5 7.

T he Heidengraben bei S ociety 1 969).

5 8.

L a Tene s ettlement 1 953).

i n

t he Aare valley

5 9.

L a Tene T schumi

i n

t he

6 0.

B erne Engelhalbinsel 1 962-63).

6 1.

I ron ores i n t he v icinity o f M etzler 1 974).

t he T itelberg

6 2.

O tzenhausen

( after

1 965).

6 3.

L andscheid, 1 969).

W eiersbach a nd Ehrang

6 4.

T he Altburg,

B undenbach

6 5.

B undenbach: 1 974).

t he palisaded e nclosure

( after Menke

S teinsburg b ei

Römhild

S ociety

1 16

1 968).

1 19

( after Peschel

i n Hesse

( after Baatz

( after Dehn

1 969).

( author,

1 962).

1 22

based o n

1 25

1 958).

1 26

1 962).

1 28

( after Hofmeister

( after Vondereau

e xcavated

( after F ischer

a rea o f

( after

( after

1 31

1 32

( after Prehistoric

( after T schumi

B ern

1 37 1 38

1 40

1 42

( after

( after Müller Beck

( after

1 937-38).

1 966).

G rabenstetten

1 30

1 35

i n Baden-Wurttemberg

S chindler

d efended

1 931).

( after Buttler a nd S chleif

s ettlement 1 953).

1 930).

a nd E ttlinger

( after

1 44

1 45

1 50

15 2

1 60

1 62

( after

S chindler

S chindler

1 64

1 974).

1 66

( after

S chindler

1 68

P age 6 6.

Mont

Beuvray

( after

6 7.

Defended s ites i n t he L oire valley P erichon 1 964).

( after Besset

6 8.

La Tene

F errand

6 9.

G ergovie ( based o n Brogan Hatt 1 943).

7 0.

Defended s ites a nd R ichardson

f rom n orthwest 1 957).

7 1.

The Chichester

d ykes

7 2.

Hengistbury Head

7 3.

C omparative s izes o f Hengistbury H ead, a nd Hod H ill ( author).

7 4.

C olchester

7 5.

S tanwick

s ettlement

a map

s upplied by R .

a round C lermont

a nd Desforges

F rance

( after B radley

( after

1 971).

( after Wheeler

a nd Hull 1 954).

1 72

and

1 80

( author).

1 84

1 944,

( after B ushe Fox 1 914).

( after Hawkes

Pdrichon).

a nd

1 87

Wheeler

1 98

2 11 2 14

Maiden C astle, 2 16

1 947).

2 22 229

I NTRODUCTION A ims

a nd Limitations

T he gazetteer o f s ites published i n t his book was originally prepared f or my d octoral t hesis , ' Oppida: t he Beginnings o f Urbanisation i n Temperature Europe' ( Cambridge 1 975), t hough because o f i ts l ength i t was f inally l eft o ut of t he t hesis, a nd o nly a l ist o f s ites a nd a bibliography were i ncorporated. T he main part o f t he thesis w ill b e published e lsewhere u nder t he t itle, ' Oppida: Earliest T owns i n Temperate Europe', a nd t his a nd a F rench t ranslation a re now n earing c ompletion. I t will b e a imed a t a w ider public, i ncluding g eographers a nd a ncient h istorians. However i t was c lear t hat t here was much i n the t hesis w hich was more s pecifically o f i nterest to a rchaeologists, n otably t he s ite l ist a nd the b ibliog raphy, a nd t hat t his was b etter published s eparately. T o the o riginal s cheme o f t he s ite g azetteer I have a dded three i ntroductory c hapters. The f irst, s ome g eneral comments on t he La T ene I ron Age, was written e specially f or t his volume but t he o ther two c hapters, on d efence types a nd c hronology, a re v irtually a s t hey a ppeared i n the t hesis. T he thesis r epresents r esearch work undertaken c ontinuously between 1 966 a nd 1 970, a nd more s poradically a fter t hat. One i ntention had been t o c ompile a l ist o f oppida a nd o ther major Late La Tene s ites, w ith a s c omplete a bibliography a s p ossible. This h as been only partly successful. The l ist i s, I h ope, f airly c omplete f or t he areas e ast o f t he R hine where s ites a re n ot t opprolific, a nd w here s ome s ynthesis h ad a lready been published by authors such a s Dehn a nd Jansov . I n a ddition I had excellent l ibrary f acilities, a t P rague, F rankfurt a nd Tübingen. F or France however t he s ources have b een l ess a dequately r esearched. Much o f t he i nformation l ies i n l ocal, a nd o ften early, j ournals, a nd o ften t he basic f ieldwork s till r emains t o b e d one. The p re-war s urvey of Northern F rance b y Wheeler a nd R ichardson has n ot b een f ollowed up t o a ny g reat e xtent. Where I h ave been a ble to c heck my l ists w ith the r esults o f more d etailed l ocal surveys such a s Büchsenschütz a nd Ralston h ave d one f or the B erry I had o nly l isted a bout two-thirds o f t he s ites l ikely t o be o f L ate La Tene date, t hough t his may be a n exceptional c ase. P rovence I have t otally i gnored, while o n t he A tlantic c oast, i n Britanny a nd e specially i n Britain I have deliberately a voided t he prolific h ill-forts which belong to t he Late I ron Age. For parts o f B ritain I have i ncluded s ites e ither b ecause t hey h ave c haracteristics s uch a s s ize which p ick t hem out f rom t he n ormal r un o f s ites, o r f or comparative purposes, e specially where e xtensive e xcavation na s t aken p lace. O n t he o ther hand, a number o f o pen, undefended s ites have been i ncluded i n c ertain a reas. This

r eflects t he m ain t opic o f t he t hesis, u rbanisation, s o t hat o pen s ettlements w ith urban c haracteristics have of n ecessity been c onsidered, but a lso s ome minor farming s ettlements, a s I e xplored t he r elationship o f these s ites t o the major urban s ettlements. All t he s ites a re b riefly d escribed, a nd, t hough t his i s o bviously no s ubstitute for t he o riginal s ources, i t i s a brief g uide t o t he nature of t he s ite. The c autions a bout t he c ompleteness o f t he l ists of s ites i s e ven more t rue f or t he b ibliography: fairly c omprehensive e ast o f t he Rhine, but w ith many shortcomings i n t he western a rea . Where t here a lready exists a g ood bibliography f or a n a rea s uch a s northern France, I h ave merely c ontented myself w ith quoting t hat s ource, a nd perhaps o ne o r two major o r more r ecent works. I hope however that t his l ist a nd b ibliography w ill p rove a u seful s tepping s tone t ow2rds n mDrc z umplet( ; c ompilation a t a later date. Lay-out The gazetteer has b een l aid out w ith d ivisions i nto g eographical a reas, usually f ollowing modern political boundaries, but o ccasionally g eographical or c ultural boundaries. There i s a b rief i ntroduction t o the I ron Age s equence i n each a rea. The s ites a re s ubdivided a ccording t o the nature o f t he s ite, usually ' oppidum ' ( i.e. d efende d s ite over 2 5 ha), ' hill-fort', ' open s ettlement', or ' minor s ettlement', but t his d ivision i s n ot a lways s uitable f or i ndividual a reas, a nd i t h as been varied where n ecessary. Each s ite i s t hen g iven a n umber w ithin t he c ategory. Thus i t i s possible t o r efer t o a s ite a ccording t o i ts r eferEnce number, e .g. Manching i s 6 /1. 6: Bavaria ( area 6 ), oppidum ( category 1 ), a nd s ite number 6 . This s ystem has t he a dvantage t hat n ew s ites c an be s lotted i n w ith t he minimum o f d ifficulty, but t here a re problems when s ubsequent work s hows t hat a s ite must c hange c ateg ory, e .g. the ' open s ettlement' a t Macon was r ecently d emonstrated t o have d efences. There a re a n umber o f sites where t he nature i s n ot c lear, o r where s ubsequent w ork i s l ikely t o a lter t he present c lassification, e . g. Chartres o r G eneva, both o f which were probably d efended, but where t he d efences have n ot b een d efinitely d emonstrated t o exist. A cknowledgements During t he p eriod o f r esearch I was f inanced f rom a n umber o f s ources. I n 1 966-67 I was g iven a B ritish Council s cholarship t o s tudy a t t he Archaeological I nstitute i n Prague u nder Professor F ilip, a nd supervised b y Dr. E va S oudskg . I was a lso g iven a s mall g rant by Pembroke C ollege, Cambridge I n 1 967-1970 I h Pld a s tate s tudentship a nd was r egistered a t Cambridge under t he supervision of Dr. Brian Hope-Taylor. I was a ble t o s tudy i n Tübingen u nder Professor K immig f or two months, a nd i n Frankfurt a t t he Deutsches Archäologisches I nstitut under Professor K rämer f or s ix weeks. I n 1 969 I had a s cholarship f rom

Warsaw U niversity a rranged t hrough t he A ssociation f or Cultural Exchange t o s tudy i n s outhern Poland. More r ecently my work i n F rance a nd G ermany has b een s upported by the R esearch F und o f S heffield University. T o a ll t hese i ndividuals a nd i nstitutions I would l ike t o e xpress my t hanks. I ndividuals o ther t han t hose mentioned a bove who have g iven m e much h elp a nd i nformation i nclude t he f ollowing: ( Czechoslovakia) Dr. J . Meduna, Dr. L . Jansovä, Dr. J . B l 'er i, Dr. K . P ietha, Dr. B . Benadik; ( Poland) Dr. Z . W ozniak, Dr. B . C zerska, Dr. B . Chomentowska; ( Austria) Dr. W . J obst; ( Switzerland) Dr. R . Wyss; ( Germany) Professor W . Dehn, Dr. V . P ingel, P rofessor H . S chönberger, Dr. F . S chubert, Dr. F . F ischer, Dr. E . G ersbach, Dr. H .-J. Graue, Herr I . S tork; ( Luxembourg) H err G . Thill, H err J . M etzler, Professor R . R owlett; ( France) M .R . I D richon, M . G. L objois, M . G . C hapotat, M . R . Paris, M . A . Duval, M . 0 . B üchsens chütz, M . A llain, M r. I . Ralston; ( Britain) Mr. M . B iddle, Mr. D .F . Allen, Mr. C . Partridge a nd my many c olleagues i n the H ill-Fort S tudy G roup. The s uggestion t hat t his c orpus s hould b e published c ame f rom Professor B . Cunliffe. I would e specially l ike t o t hank D r. A . Hands who t ook o ver a nd ordered a c haotic t ypescript.

CHAPTER 1 SOME COMMENTS ON THE L A TENE 1 .

The

c oncept

I RON AGE

o f L a T ene

The t erm ' La T ene' has, o ver t he l ast c entury, c ome t o m ean a variety o f t hings, c ultural, a rtistic, c hronological o r e ven e thnic, a nd a m ere g lance t hrough t he a rchaeological l iterature o f Poland, o f I taly, o r o f F rance w ill d emonstrate what a variety o f phenomena i t c overs. I t was o riginally c oined f or a t ypological g roup o f o bjects a nd a n a rt s tyle t ypified b y t he f inds d redged up a t La T ene o n Lake N euchntel, a nd t hese were contrasted w ith t he c hronologically e arlier f inds f rom the g reat s alt c emetery o f Hallstatt i n A ustria . L a T ene has been u sed t o d escribe f inds f rom B ritain i n t he west t o R omania, e ven s outhern R ussia a nd Turkey i n t he e ast, a nd f rom n orthern I taly t o S candinavia . Though t here a re g eneral c hronological l imits f or t he material f rom a round 4 75-450 B .C. up t o t he i st c entury A .D. ( and s omewhat l ater i n western B ritain), within t his g eographical a rea a nd d uring t he h alf mi llennium t here a re e normous d ifferences i n a lmost . every a spect bet ween t he g roups o f material a nd peoples t o which t he name has b een a pplied, s o g reat i ndeed t hat o ne wonders whether ' La Tene' has a ny s ignificance a t a ll, o ther t han s ignifying t he c ulture o f t emperate E urope i n t he l ast half m illennium B .C. T o s ome e xtent Hallstatt a nd La n ne a re ' culture g roups' i n C larke's c oncept o f t he t erm ( 1968), and w ithi n t hem s pecific c ultures have been i dentified: t he Hunsrück-Eifel C ulture o f t he Hallstatt D a nd Early L a Tene o n t he Mosel, t he Marnian o f Champagne, o r the Woodbury Culture o f B ritain. But more o ften a s i n Czechoslovakia La T ene i s a n a djective u sed t o describe b oth f lat i nhumation c emeteries, barrow burials and o ppida, without a ny f urther c ultural s ubdivision. U nfortunately La T ene has a lso b een u sed t o d escribe s ome a spects o f t he c ulture o f n orthern Europe where t he burial traditions, s ettlement patterns, e conomy, a lmost e verything i s d iffere nt f rom c entral Europe, e xcept t hat m etal o bjects o f La T ene t ypes a ppear, s uch a s brooches a nd swords. I n o ther words, ' La Tbne' i s u sed i n a t l east t wo major Culture G roups, both o f which w ithin t hemselves s how c onsiderable variety. Even worse, ' La T ene' has t aken o n a n e ven g reater s ignificance a s b eing s ynonymous with ' Celtic'. There i s i ndeed s ome c orrelation between t he e xpansion o f the La T ene C ulture G roup a nd t he h istorically d ocumented s pread o f t he C eltic t ribes, but t o a ssume a o ne-to-one c orrelat ion s uch a s o ne f inds i n many o f t he g eneral books, i s

2

both r ash a nd premature. I n n orthern I taly, t he one a rea where i t i s p ossible t o juxtapose t he written h istorical evidence of C eltic a nd n on-Celtic t ribes against t he archaeological material evidence i t a lmost a ppears t hat some o f the n on-Celtic t ribes a re more ' La Tene' t han the Celtic ( Barfield 1 971). T he c lose c orrelation o f ' Celts' with La n ne has been t ied i n with i nvasion h ypotheses t o e xplain t he spread of t he La T ene C ulture, but t his has l ead t o a n i nflexible a pproach which has o ften d one g ross i njustice to the a rchaeological e vidence. One a rea where c omplete continuity f rom Hallstatt t o La Tene has been universely a ccepted i s o n the M osel a nd C entral Rhine i n t he Huns rück Eifel Culture. F rom t his c ore a rea i nvasions have been p ostulated f or i nstance t o e xplain t he s ubtle c hanges i n burial r ite t hat t ake p lace i n Champagne between t he Hallstatt I Jogassian ' a nd t he La Tene ' Marnian' - when most a spects o f the burial r ite a nd material c ulture would a rgue s imple c ontinuity. T he most a nomalous s ituations have a risen i n Britain a nd C zechoslovakia. F ilip's t hesis o f t he ' Dux h orizon' ( 1956), a La Tene c ulture brought i nto C entral Europe by Celtic groups i n t he 4 th c entury B .C. a long w ith a bu2ial r ite o f f lat i nhumation with weapons a nd j ewellery, virtually r ejected t he i dea o f Hallstatt c ontinuity, o r specifically evolution, a nd c ould n ot a ccommodate t he earlier appearance o f s ome La Tene e lements. Evidence f rom s ettlements d oes s how c ontinuity, and t he t erm ' Late Hallstatt' o r Hallstatt D 3 s pecifically means'Halls tatt c ontemporary w ith La Tene', but t his Late Hallstatt a lready c ontained s ome c haracteristic La Tene t ypes s uch a s the s tamp-decorated Braubach bowls ( Rybovä a nd S oudsk9 1 962, S oudskä 1 968). One i s v irtually f aced with a s ituation where t here i s a l arge n umber o f Hallstatt settlements ( and f ew Hallstatt burials) c ontemporary with many L a Tene c emeteries, ( but with f ew La T ene s ettlements) but f or culturo-ethnic r easons t he possibility t hat t he s ettlements a nd t he b urials r epresent t wo a spects o f t he same c ulture cannot b e c onsidered. E ven a s l ate a s La Tene D ' Hallstatt e lements' a re s een i n t he c ulture, i n a percentage o f hand-made pottery i n t he a ssemblage, but i n fact e ven i n t he ' German heartland' o f t he La Tene Culture Group h and-made pottery c omprises a t l east 2 5% o f t he pottery, a nd i t i s n ot a phenomenon u nique t o t he peripheral a reas. I n Britain a s imilar s ituation a rose, a gain partly due t o t he c omparison between d omestic material ( from Britain) and f unerary e vidence ( from F rance). The presence i n Britain o f c oarse wares with f or i nstance f inger printi ng o n t he s houlders was s een a s a Hallstatt s urvival, the a ngular f ine wares a s a La Tene i nnovation f rom t he Marne, but i n t he d omestic a ssemblages s uch a s West Harling ( Clarke a nd Fell 1953) the t wo occur t ogether. But n ow we have publication a ccessible o f d omestic a ssemblages f rom t he

3

Marne ( Rowlett a nd B oureux 1 969) o r f rom t he HunsrückE ifel Culture ( Joachim 1 968) we f ind t he same mixture of ' Hallstatt' c oarse wares a nd ' La Tene' f ine wares i s the n ormal a ssemblage i n t he a rea o f o rigin o f t he La T ene Cülture a s well. The u se o f t he t erms Hallstatt a nd La T ene c an a lso g ive a wrong i mpression o f t hose a reas where t he La T ene Culture n ever p enetrated, a nd earlier t raditions s urvived. I n A quitaine f or i nstance t he s hort s tabbing d agger o f Hallstatt t ype r emained i n u se probably u p t o t he t ime of t he R oman c onquest, a nd p ottery t ypes a nd burial r ites r emained f airly s tatic. Y et t his a rea was n ot a backwater a s m ight b e i mplied b y t he d escription ' Hallstatt'. I t was a l iterate s ociety, with d irect l inks w ith the Mediterranean world. I ndeed R ome might a lso b e termed backward, f or i t p ersisted i n u sing t he d agger until t he end o f i ts d ays: ' Hallstatt' a nd ' La Tene' m ust n ot t herefore be u sed t o i mply s ome j udgment value o n t he d ynamism o r c onservatism o f a ny c ultural g roups, a nd o ther patterns f or i nstance t rade or s ettlement may well t ransgress t he c ultural boundaries. I f ' La T ene' h as b een much a bused o r over-used in the past, a nd i nadequately d efined, t his d oes n ot mean i t i s t otally d evoid o f v alue. T he c lose s imilarity we f ind o ver much o f t emperate Europe i n metal a nd pottery t ypes, i n burial r ites, o r methods o f f ortification i s very real, a nd s ignificant o f s omething, t hough p robably n ot s ignific ant o f what h as b een s tated i n t he past. More subtle a nd more f lexible i nterpretations a re n eeded a nd a w ider battery o f e xplanations f rom which t he most l ikely c an be s elected f or e ach particular c ircumstance ( Collis f orthc oming 1 ). I n t he meantime, u ntil more a dequate d efinit ions a re f orthcoming, I s hall u se ' La T ene' i n the most vague a nd g eneral way, t hough i t may b e worth d istinguishi ng a n orthern La T ene C ulture G roup, f or t he n orth European P lain a nd S candinavia, f or i t i s s omething v ery different f rom what i s f ound i n T emperate a nd W estern Europe. 2 .

Nomenclature

T he s ystems d evised a t t he b eginning o f t his c entury b y R einecke f or s outhern G ermany Dechelette f or F rance, a nd V iollier f or S witzerland, a re s till in c urrent u se, t hough many r efinements have b een s uggested, a nd e qually i t i s c lear t here a re numerous l ocal v ariations many o f which a re y et t o be r esolved. F or t he present I s hall c ontinue t o u se t he o lder s ystems, e specially t hat o f R einecke, t hough f ully a ware o f t heir f allability. T he p eriods a re based u pon t ypological a ssemblages, e specially o f b rooches a nd s cabbards, a nd f inds are g rouped i nto p hases o r ' Stufen', e ach w ith d efined t ypes which c onsistently o ccur t ogether. This a rrangement of material i nto d iscrete b oxes o f c ourse f ails t o a ccommodate t he s ubtleties o f a c ontinuous d evelopment a nd t ransition from 4

M i d l e L a T e n e

E a r l i e s t

R E I N E C K E

F I

c h r o n l o g i e s

V I O L I E R

c • 0

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one phase to another, such as can be obtained from tech­ niques such as seriation, but generally the necessary data is lacking, and virtually only the cemetery at MUnsingen has produced enough material covering a sufficient span of time to make such an attempt viable (Hodson 1968) . Absolute chronology is also fairly vague. The Earli­ est La Tene is quite well dated by a horizon of Greek and Etruscan imports (Dehn and Frey 1962), but it is not until the end of Late La Tene that the next firmly dated horizon occurs, but this is more extensively discussed in Chapter 3. Between these dates there is little to go on; the burial at Waldalgesheim with its Campanian bucket; and one or two burials in Italy such as Muscano Fabriano which on the evidence of Greek imports belongs to about 350-325, and in central European terminology belongs to Reinecke Bl. A generalised table of correlations and dates is shown in Fig. 1. 3.

Cultural Groupings

Even to begin to understand the dynamics of Iron Age developments in Europe we require not merely the tech­ nological, and social information which can be gleaned from metal objects, pottery, burials and settlement morphology, but also details of the economic basis of the settlements. This at present is simply not available. However a superficial observation of the archaeological material does suggest that there are certain socio-economic structures which do recur in a number of different regions. The evidence must inevitably be gleaned from the burial evidence (Collis forthcoming 2), but even this is defective for almost every area, and only in Champagne is there a complete sequence right through the La Tene period. The other main evidence we have comes from hill-forts, though generally we have little more than a handful of sherds with which to date the majority of sites. Extensive excavations of La Tene hill forts have only taken place on the Mosel and certain parts of Britain. Of other settle­ ments we generally know little though again there have been large scale excavations in Czechoslovakia and southern Britain. On the continent we can perhaps identify half a dozen different situations or 'systems' which are of more than local significance: System 1

Especially in La Tene A in highland areas with metal resources such as iron and copper there is evidence of a strongly hierarchical society with rich burials accompanied by imported mediterra­ nean goods and local products in gold and bronze. Poorer burials occur, usually inhumation, O'Ccas­ ionally cremation, under barrows, and without weapons. Hill-forts such as Bundenbach (Schind­ ler 1974) or Befort (Riek 1942, Schindler 1969) 6

were p ermanently o ccupied, but they a re small, a nd g enerally not o n t rade r outes. This s ystem i s f ound i n t he a rc f rom Austria, S outhern B ohemia t o t he Mosel a nd Cote d ' Or. S ystem 2 .

B urials o ccur i n f lat i nhumation c emeteries o ften i n l arge g roups of 1 00-200 burials. The n ormal g rave-goods a re j ewellery, brooches, bracelets a nd t orcs f or women, weapons f or men, t hough i n s ome g roups g rave-goods a re rare. There a re s ome barrows, e specially o ver r icher burials s ome of which c ontain c hariots/carts, a nd i mported Medite rranean objects. H ill-forts a re unknown. Found o n t he c halk a nd g ravel a reas o f n orthern F rance a nd Y orkshire.

S ystem 3 .

S mall c emeteries o f i nhumations or o ccasionally c remations o f men buried with weapons a nd women with j ewellery. Exceptionally r ich burials a re u nknown. C emeteries a re a pparently o ften s hortl ived, a nd more t han 3 0 burials i s e xceptional. There a re n o h ill-forts. The c emeteries a re u sually f ound o n t he l ow l ying a gricultural areas o f l öss a nd g ravel i n c entral Europe.

S ystem 4 .

C emeteries o f mixed s ize, up t o 4 00-500 burials, s howing marked s ocial d ifferentiation, with i mported bronze v essels, wine amphorae, a nd much pottery. There i s e vidence o f nucleated s ettlements, s ometimes d efended. Mainly L ate La Tene, f rom t he Mosel t o s outhern England. ( Collis f orthcoming 2 ).

S ystem 5 .

Large n ucleated s ettlements with e vidence f or e xtensive t rade a nd i ndustry. The s ettlements a re undefended, o n l ow-lying g round, a nd o rientated t owards t rade r outes. L ittle e vidence f or burials.

S ystem 6 .

Large n ucleated s ettlements w ith i ndustry a nd t rade, but i n d efensive positions o n h ills. S ited f or t rade, a nd l ocal r edistribution. L ittle e vidence f or burials.

With t hese g eneral t ypes d efined, i t i s possible t o suggest some o f t he s equences o f d evelopment o r t rajectories which t hese s ystems pass t hrough ( Table 2 ). O n t his table, X s ignifies s omething o ther t han t hose s ystems I have outl ined a bove: a nd 0 i ndicates i nadequate e vidence. C learly t his i s o nly a r ough o utline, a nd f ails t o take i nto a ccount s ubtle r egional d ifferences, o r c omplex s ituations where t here a re a number o f d ifferent s ystems operating i n c losely a djacent o r overlapping a reas a s i n Hesse. I t d oes h owever d emonstrate t hat t here i s n o unil inear development e ven i n c losely a djacent a reas. This d iETarity i s well d emonstrated on t he map o f Baden7

Wurttemberg (Fig. 5) where there seem to be 4 or 5 different sequences in adj acent areas throughout the La Tene period, but which are generally poorly represented in the archaeological record for most of their phases. It does also show that urban type settlements (systems 5and 6) had their origin in a number of different systems, either system 3 with its small farming settle­ ments (as at Manching) or in highland situations as in Southern Bohemia. More detailed descriptions of each area appear in the gazetteer.

8

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CHAPTER 2 TECHNIQUES OF FORTIFICATION

I N THE LATE LA T ENE

D efended s ites, e specially h ill-forts had l ong been e stablished i n c entral a nd western Europe, e specially f rom the L ate Bronze Age a t t he b eginning o f the f irst milleni um B .C. Various t ypes o f bank, wall a nd f ence had been evolved, to a ppear i n t he Late La Tene i n h ighly d eveloped f orms. Hill-forts w ere e xtremely widespread a t the e nd o f the L ate Hallstatt a nd t he b eginning o f La T ene, but t hen f ell o ut of f avour i n most a reas f or a period o f two or t hree h undred y ears. Exceptions where c ontinuous d evelopment c an be d emonstrated f rom V B .C. until I B .C. a re i n t he G erman M ittelgebirge ( Fig. 2 ), with s ites s uch a s t he Dl insberg ( 8/1.2) a nd t he S teinsburg ( 7/1.1); i n s outhern France i n t he s tone-built f orts o f Provence: a nd on t he A tlantic coast, e specially i n s outhern a nd western E ngland, Wales, a nd p erhaps t he c oastal promontory f orts o f Cornwall a nd B rittany. A f ourth a rea may be t he Hunsrück-Eifel, t hough n o c omplex d evelopment on i ndividual s ites i s known, e xcepting perhaps t he Donnersberg ( 12/1.1) o n i ts e astern f ringe. When evidence f or M iddle La Tene occupation i s a dded, t he pattern a lters l ittle, with 3 h ill f orts i n northern Gaul, a nd s ome o f t he C zech oppida ( Fig. 3 ). T here i s a t endency t o d ivide rampart s tructures i nto t wo main c lasses, t hose o f ' dump' c onstruction, and t hose w ith t imber o r s tone f raming within t he c ore o f the bank. I n practice t he d istinction i s n ot a lways s o r igid, a nd dump r amparts can have a f ront r evetment which may t hen b e pinned back i nto t he mound, while f ramed ramparts o ften h ave a d ump mound behind t hem. There was o bviously c ons iderable i nterchange o f i deas between t he two basic t echniques, a nd h ybrids o f various k inds e xist. Unfortuna tely i n c lassifying rampart s tructures adequate data i s g enerally lacking, a nd where g ood e xcavation has taken p lace i t often p roduces e vidence o f i diosyncratic f eatures. C learly r ampart c onstruction was much a ffected by t he a vailability o f raw materials, of l abour, a nd o f t ime f or c onstruction, a s well a s t he i deals o f military a rchit ecture i n t he minds o f t he builders. 1 .

R ampart

a )

T he

s tructures

s imple palisade

The palisade f ence i s both s imple a nd primitive. I t was p resumably o ften u sed t o t op e arthworks, a s well a s t o supplement more s ubstantial d efences a t points where n atural d efences made a ttack u nlikely, s uch a s a long t he e dges o f promontory f orts. I t was a lso o ccasionally used a s a s upplementary o uter l ine o f d efence, a s a t t he Erden b erg ( 8/2. 6), where t wo l ines o f palisade had d itches i n

1 1

• C : r ) •• • •

front. At S tars H radisko ( 4/1.1) a nd Zäv : : _st ( 5/1 palisade t rench r uns i n f ront o f t he d itch o f t he l ine o f J oubtless adequate e xcavations i n -r -,g e t his meagre evidence. b )

The

s imple

2 ) a i nner c ould

s tone wall

Though n aturally l imited t o a reas where s tone i s available, t he s imple wall was surprisingly l ittle employed. I t is a pparently c ommon i n Provence, a nd h ighland areas i n Britain, b ut t he o nly s ites l isted i n t he gazetteer a re the S teinsburg ( 7/1.1), where t hey may i n a ny case b e Early La T ene, a nd t he Babilonie ( 8/2.5). c )

Double s tone wall

a nd i nfill

The method o f c onstruction i s t o build two parallel dry-stone walls, a nd f ill t he s pace b etween with r ubble. The t echnique i s a gain known i n Provence, a nd i n t he Atlantic a rea, i n B rittany, t he I rish S ea a nd S cotland ( Hamilton 1 966). I t i s c ertainly t he c onstruction employed o n t he Plateau o f Merdogne/Gergovie ( 17/2.2) where t he wall i s 2 .15m t hick. I n t he i nner f ace t here i s a s tone buttress c ontaining f ragments o f R oman t egula, s o t he whole construction i s l ikely t o be o f Roman date. The Palais d ' Essalois ( 16/1.1) may a lso have b een c onstructed i n t his way, b ut the published plan s hows t he walls j oining up. Both s ites l ie n ear P rovence. Further north t he h ill f ort of W eiersbach ( 12/3.2) was o f t his c onstruction, a nd a lso a t l east part o f t he d efences o f t he oppidum o f t he Heidengraben a t Z arten ( 9/1.1). d )

T he rreist/Altkönig

c onstruction

( Fig.

4 )

The t erm ' Preist c onstruction' l ike ' murus gallicus' has been v ery much a bused i n t he l iterature, a nd h as been u sed t o d escribe a ny bank w ith a f ront d rys tone r evetment w ith i ntermittent v ertical posts ( Pfostschlitzenmauer). I a m t herefore c oupling i t w ith t he s ite of A ltkönig i n Hesse, on t he western s ide o f t he Wetterau. A reconstruction o f t he rampart i s s hown i n Dechelette ( 1914 F ig. 4 15). P reist i tself i s a h ill f ort a bove t he River K yll, j ust n orth o f T rier ( Dehn 1 939). Here t he rampart consists o f a bank 4 .30m t hick, r evetted back a nd front b y dry-stone walling. Both walls possess vertical s lits f rom d ecayed u pright t imber posts a t 1 .35-1.55m i ntervals. B etween e ach back a nd f ront post ran a s eries o f s uperimposed h orizontal posts, presumably j ointed with the v ertical p osts. I n t he s urviving 2m o f t he wall, which may r epresent i ts o riginal h eight, t here a re d efinite traces o f f our l evels of c ross-beams, a nd perhaps two more. The s pace between t he t imbers a nd walls was f illed u p with earth a nd s tone d erived f rom a n i rregular quarry-ditch i n f ront. This f orr o f s tructure a nd v ariants with s tone i ns , :ead o f t mber p a.titiolilg i s v ery w idespread, a nd d oes not g eneral' , s urviv ,5 I nto L ate La T ene. I t 7 :L s . ertainly

O NE METRE

t e )

T HE P RE IST AL TKÖN IG C ONSTRUCT ION F ig ./ 4 .

susceptible t o a rson. The o nly s ites i n t he gazetteer o n which i t was employed i n a l ate La Tene c ontext a re Zävist ( 5/1.2), a lthough h ere t he back wall may be l acki ng, a nd the Caburn ( 26/1.1) ( Fig. 5 ). e )

The

H ollingbury

t imber

f rame

c onstruction

( Fig.

6 )

Like t he P reist/Altkönig t ype, t his c onsists o f parallel rows o f v ertical t imber posts back a nd f ront, but e vidence o f c ross-ties d oes n ot a ppear i n t he bank, though they must have e xisted a t t he l evel o f t he rampart walk. Presumably t here was t imber r evetment between t he f ront l ine o f posts, but t he back may have been o pen. Certainly a t Danebury ( 27/2.4) i t has been d emonstrated that t he earth p iled behind t he f ront r evetment r an back beyond the l ine o f t he back r ow o f posts, t o f orm a ramp. The e arly I ron Age h ill-fort o f Hollingbury i n S ussex has been c hosen a s a t ype-site, mainly because o f t he e xperimental reconstruction ( Curwen 1 954). Variations o ccur i n the w idth between t he f ront a nd back r ow o f posts, a nd narrow examples i n B ritain s eem t o be Late Bronze Age, a s a t I vinghoe B eacon ( Cotton a nd F rere 1 968), while t he wide variety i s u sually e arly i n t he s outhern English I ron Age sequence, a s a t Maiden Castle ( 27/2.1), Hod H ill ( 27/2.2) a nd D anebury ( 27/2.4). On t he c ontinent Late La T ene examples a re t he S chwanberg ( 6/1.1) a nd t he Erdenberg ( 8/2.6), a nd possibly t he Braunsberg ( 3/1.1) a nd A ltenburg b ei Niedenstein ( 8/1.3). f )

The

Ehrang C onstruction

This possesses a drystone wall back a nd f ront with h orizontal t imbers which r un a t r ight a ngles t o t he walls. The e nds o f t he t imber u sually protrude t hrough the f ront o f t he wall a nd o ccasionally t hrough t he back. These h orizontal t imbers t hemselves may be r esting o n t imbers which r un l ongitudinally, parallel with t he walls. There a re n o v ertical t imbers. The c onstruction i s thus practically i dentical t o t hat o f t he murus g allicus ( Fig . 8 ), b ut i t l acks t he i ron nails a nd t here i s a lso a pparently n o earthern r amp behind. I t may be f or t his r eason that t he Ehrang c onstruction was v ery prone t o d estruction by f ire, a s when t he t imbers burnt a way t he g aps t hey l eft v irtually a cted a s f lues f or a d raught. The majority o f the f orts known t o b e o f t his t ype have i n f act been d estroyed by f ire, a nd s o i ntense has been t he h eat t hat the r ock has melted a nd v itrified. The e ffect has been c onfirmed by e xperimental r econstruction ( Childe 1 935). I n S cotland r ecent C 14 dates have s uggested a n early date f or f orts o f E hrang t ype, t he f orts o f t he s o-called Abernethy g roup. T he d ates a re a s f ollows ( MacKie 1 969):

1 5

R A M P A R T S

0 O T H E R L A C I N G

• T I M B E R F R A M E D

V

-

_ 1

-

-

S ite Craigmarloch Wood

F inavon

Dun

L agaidh

Lab.

No.

Date

G aK 9 95

5 90±40

b .c.

Pre-fort

G aK 9 96

3 5±40

b .c.

f rom rampart

G aK1222

4 10±80

b .c.

G aK1223

3 20±90

b .c.

Occupation behind t he wall

GaK1224

5 90±70 b .c.

G X 1 221

4 90±90 b .c.

d itto Pre-fort

On t he c ontinent, t he B elgian s ite o f Hastedon ( 11/2.1) has p roduced a C 14 d ate o f 4 50±110 b .c. ( LV 541). The t ype s ite a t Ehrang ( 12/3.3) i n which t he burnt t imbers were o f oak a nd e lm has s upplied f ive samples f or a d endrochronological d ate, a ll with a f elling d ate o f 9 7 B . C. T he rampart a t Chateaumeillant ( 20/2.1) was s tratified earlier t han a d ump rampart. Namur ( 11/1.1) a nd C harlat ( 18/2.4) were a lso a pparently o f t his c onstruction. Late L a T ene e xamples a re p lotted o n F ig. g )

T he

Murus

Gallicus

( Fig.

5 .

8 )

While narrating t he events l eading t o t he s iege o f Avaricum ( Bourges), Caesar d igresses t o d escribe t he way t he Gauls c onstructed ramparts, i n s ufficient d etail f or i t t o be r eadily i dentifiable i n t he g round: B . G. V II 2 3 ( Muri a utem omnes G allici hac f ere f orma s unt. Trabes d erectae perpetuae i n l ongitudinem paribus i ntervallis, d istantes i nter s e b inos pedes, i n s olo c onlocantur. Hae r evinciuntur i ntrorsus e t multo a ggere v estiuntur, e a autem q uae d iximus i ntervalla g randibus i n f ronte saxis e ffarciuntur. His c onlocatis e t c oagmentatis a lius i nsuper ordo a dditur, u t i dem i llud i ntervallum s ervetur, n eque i nter s e contingant t rabes, s ed paribus i ntermissae S patiis s ingulae s ingulis saxis i nteriectis a rte c ontina ntur. S ic d einceps omne o pus c ontexitur, dum i usta muri a ltitudo expleatur. Hoc c um i n s peciem varietatemque opus d eforme non e st a lternis t rabibus a c s axis, q uae r ectis l ineis s uos o rdines s ervant, t ur n a d u tilitatem e t d efensionem u rbium s ummam habet opportunitatem, q uod e t a b i ncendio lapis e t a b a riete materia d efendit, quae perpetuis t rabibus pedes quadragenos p lerumque i ntrorsus r evincta neque p errumpi n eque d istrahi potest). A ll Gallic walls a re g enerally made i n t his f ashion: t imbers are l aid d own on t he g round t hroughout t he l ength o f the wall a nd a t r ight a ngles a t e qual i ntervals o f a c ouple o f f eet. T hey a re t hen f ixed on t he i nside a nd c overed in a large m ound. The g aps which we have mentioned a re b locked u p i n f ront w ith b ig s tones. When t hey have

1 7

a T HE H OLL INGBURY T IMBER-FRAMED R AMPART F i g .6 .

been l aid a nd j oined together a nother l ayer i s placed o n top, s o that the s ame g aps a re preserved, a nd t he t imbers do n ot touch one a nother but each i s t ightly wedged a t the same d istances a s before by p lacing i ndividual s tones between. And s o t he whole s tructure i s bound t ogether until t he r ight h eight f or the wall i s r eached. This work is n ot unattractive i n a ppearance a nd variety with t he a lternating t imbers a nd s tones which keep t he c ourses i n straight l ines. I t i s e xtremely u seful f or t he practical defence of c ities b ecause the s tone protects i t f rom • fire and t he timber f rom t he battering ram, s ince a s i t i s bound within by c ontinuous t imbers g enerally f orty f eet l ong , i t cannot be b roken or pulled d own. Archaeology h as c onfirmed t hat t his was o ne o f t he standard t echniques o f f ortification a t t he t ime o f t he Caesarian c onquest ( Cotton 1 957; Dehn 1 960, 1 969). I n theory i t c ould i nclude t he Ehrang c onstruction a s well, though we d o not k now i n t hat c ase how the t imbers were jointed. On t he s ites which we k now were i n u se a t t he time o f the c onquest such a s Mont Beuvray ( 14/1.1) a nd Alise-Ste-Reine ( 14/1.2) h owever t he j ointing i s d one by means o f i ron nails, which a re u sually h eadless, a nd 20-25cm l ong, t hough t he l ength can vary b etween 1 4 a nd 55cm . I n a t l east o ne c ase, Manching ( 6/1.6) only t he l ower l evels o f the f ramework were f ixed with i ron nails. Another feature a pparently n ot g enerally f ound i n t he Ehrang c onstruction i s t he ramp behind t he wall. Dehn ( 1969) has a rgued t hat both nailed f ramework a nd r amp a re due t o Mediterranean i nfluence. The e xamples h e q uotes however do n ot provide s atisfactory origins, a nd g iven the e xistence i n c entral Europe o f t he Ehrang c onstruction, a ll t hat i s r equired t o a lter t he method o f j ointing i s the i ndustrial r eorganisation a nd c entralisation which we know h appened i n L ate La T ene, a nd which would have been necessitated i n the p reparations a gainst t he Roman i nvasion ( Collis a nd Ralston f orthcoming). L ikewise t he provision o f t he i nternal ramp i s a f eature a lready f ound on e arly I ron Age d efences s uch a s Danebury, a nd i n o ther constructions such a s t he Kelheim t ype. I t would o ffer l ittle i ncreased r esistance t o t he ram, but c ould r educe f ire r isks a nd a id a ccess f rom t he back o f t he rampart. I would therefore s ee t he d evelopment o f the murus gallicus a s e ntirely i ndigenous. The murus gallicus i s o ften used i n c onjunction with other t echniques. U pright t imbers a re occasionally u sed i n the g ateways, a s a t t he Petit Celland ( 22/2.4). I n t he case o f the H eidengraben a t K irchzarten ( 9/1.1) only t he area a round t he gate was murus gallicus. The Engehalbinsel a t B erne ( 10/1.1) was o f t his c onstruction i n part, but the r ecently excavated l ength had a unique c ombination with a front revetment o f upright t imbers t ied back i nto t he rampart, but s till j ointed with i ron nails. A t Vieux Laon ( 2 4 /2 . 5) and Huelgoat ( 21/1.2) t he murus gallicus i s s trati fied e arlier than F ecamp dump banks, a nd a t Manching

1 9

00

( v )

R A M P A R T S

( 6/1.6) earlier t hat two r ebuildings i n K elheim c onstruct ion. A t latest t he murus gallicus belongs t o t he p eriod o f t he C aesarian c onquest o f Gaul, i f n ot t he d ecades before. The o ne e xception i s t he s ite o f Burghead i n S cotland which s eems t o have a t rue murus gallicus, t hough r ecent work f ailed t o produce a ny nails. The C 14 dates d emonstrate i t i s R oman o r l ater i n date ( Small 1 969).

F ig. h )

S ites producing a murus gallicus a re p lotted o n 7 a nd l isted i n Appendix 1 . T he Kelheim C onstruction

( Fig.

1 0)

Often misnamed t he Preist construction, t his t ype o f rampart c onsists o f a bank o f dump c onstruction, r evett ed i n f ront by a d ry-stone wall with v ertical t imber posts a t regular i ntervals. A t t he t ype s ite ( 6/1.7) which has been p ublished i n c onsiderable d etail ( Herrmann 1 973) t here were t wo superimposed p hases belonging r ightto t he e ndof Late L aT ne.In t he e arlier phase t he posts were 1 .5m t o 2m a part, i n the l ater o nly 0 .90 t o 1 .40m, which H errmann s uggests may be a n a daption w ith i ncreased e xperience. P resumably t he u pright t imbers w ere t ied back i nto t he mound, but t his m ust have been a t a h igh l evel a s n o t race o f i t was f ound i n the mound. The c onstruction i s v ery widespread among t he e astern o ppida ( Fig. 9 ), a nd a pparently c onfined t o Middle La T ene a nd Late La T ene. I t i s e specially s uited t o the r econstruction o f pre-existing r amparts, a nd a t Manching ( 6/1.6) both r ebuilds r eplacing t he murus g allicus a re i n t his c onstruction. Herrmann s uggests a Mediterranean origin, but a s t he weight o f t he d istribution i s c entral European, a nd a ll t he f eatures c an be paralleled i n earlier c onstruction t echniques, a n i ndigenous o rigin s eems more l ikely ( Collis a nd R alston f orthcoming). i )

T he

s tone r evetted bank

A bank o f d ump c onstruction w ith a s imple d rys tone r evetment wall i s s urprisingly r are. E xtensive u se i s made o f i t i n t he S tanwick f ortifications ( 30/1.1) o f t he m id I A .D., a nd i t a lso a ppears i n t he Herrenburg i n Thuringia ( 7/1.4). O therwise i t i s g enerally u sed t o s upplement o ther t ypes o f c onstruction, a s a t t he H eideng raben, Kirchzarten ( 9/1.1) a nd a t Charlat ( 18/2.4). T he G rundberg ( 3/1.3) may a lso have t his c onstruction. j )

G lacis

c onstruction

By t he e nd o f t he I ron Age i n parts o f n orthern F rance a nd B ritain t he t radition o f earthwork c onstruction c hanged i ts emphasis t o d efence i n d epth, a d evelopment e specially a ssociated w ith s ling-warfare. Vertical f ront r evetment walls, a lways a p roblem f or maintenance, were a bandoned i n f avour o f s loping f ronts which ran d irc,c tly dowl t o a w ide o / d eep d itch i n a c ontinuous s lope , This i s t he ' Glacis' c onstruction. T I T t op o f t he b Lnk may b e c apped w ith s tones, a nd presunf lJ oly was 2 1

C .

r „ E; 0

— r . 0 v . ,— . .c


. -

. ,

bivallation o ccurs o n a number o f s ites, L e Petit C elland ( 22/2.4), F insterlohr ( 9/1.3), H razany,(5/1.4) a nd Z ävist ( 5/1.2). An e xceptional e xample i s T fisov ( 5/1.6) where t he r amparts a re w idely s paced, but t he a rea between i s broken u p by parallel banks a nd d itches r unning a t r ight a ngles t o t he main d efences. The o nly parallel i s a t O ld O swestry, S hropshire ( Cunliffe 1 974, F ig. 1 2:19). 4 .

D efensive

l ay-out

T he majority o f d efended s ites a re e ither s purs cut o ff by l inear b anks, o r h ills o n which t he p osition o f the r amparts i s l argely d ictated by t he c ontours. T here a re h owever a small n umber o f s ites which s how a r ectil inearity n ot d ictated by t he t errain a nd c learly d erived f rom s ome p rinciple o f f ortification. T his mostly presents i tself i n t he a ppearance o f d og-legs i n ramparts, o r t he preference o f a s traight l ine e ven a t t he e xpense o f g aini ng s ome d ominant p osition. This i s mainly a c haracteristic of British s ites, C hichester ( 26/3.1), C olchester ( 28/1.1) a nd S tanwick ( 30/1.1), t hough o ne d efinite c ontinental example occurs a t F insterlohr ( 9/1.3). 5 .

Gateway

s tructure

The g ateway u sually p rovides t he e asiest a pproach a nd m eans o f a ccess t o a d efence, a nd i s t herefore t he weakest point i n t he f ortification. D istinctive s tyles o f c onstruction c an t herefore d evelop f rom t he n eed t o e laborate t he gateway s tructure, t he c ommonest method being t he i nturning o f t he rampart e nds. T he most e laborate s tructures a re however t o b e f ound o n t he A tlantic c oast, e specially o n B ritish h ill-forts, where l ong s equences o f the d evelopment o f e ntrance s tructures have been d emons trated i n a number o f a reas ( Cunliffe 1 971; S tanford 1 971). Certain f eatures f ound o n t hese s ites s uch a s i nternal g uard-chambers a re e ntirely c onfined t o B ritain a nd a re n ot d iscussed h ere. a )

The s imple g ap

Typologically t he s implest a nd l east d efensible e ntrance s tructure, i t naturally o ccurs e arly i n t he s equenc es a t Maiden Castle ( 27/2.1) a nd Danebury ( 27/2.4). I t d oes h owever a lso s urvive i nto Late La Tene, t hough e xcavation i s r equired t o c onfirm t hese gaps a re o riginal. Excavated examples i nclude L andscheid ( 12/3.1), s trengthened by s ome s ort o f tower, a nd t he s outheast g ate a t Huelgoat ( 21/1.2). A third example i s O tzenhausen ( 12/2.1), where t he a pproach runs a long t he e dge o f t he s pur, a nd s o i s c ontrolled f rom t he r ampart. b )

T he

i nside t he will l eave

o verlapping e ntrance I t i s u sual t o t uck i n t he r ight-hand rampart l eft-hand s o t hat a ny d irect r ush o n t he g ates t he a ttackers w ith t heir unshielded s ides e xpo2 7

F üCAMP SOUTH-EAST

F üCAMP WEST L E P ET IT C ELLAND E AST F i g 1 . G a tes .

0

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

t

I

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sed t o the d efenders, t he s o-called S caean principle. Examples among t he s ites s urveyed h ere a re t he Houbirg ( 6/1.3) ( Early La T ene?), Winchester ( 27/2.5) ( Middle La Tene), Fgcamp ( 23/2.4) a nd Weiersbach ( 12/3.2) ( Late La Tene). c )

T he

i nturned e ntrance

a nd t he

Z angentor

The e ntrance can be d efended by t urning t he e nds of t he two ramparts i nwards a t r ight a ngles, a nd p lacing the g ate i tself r ight a t t he back o f t he t unnel s o f ormed. Examples vary f rom s hort i nturns a s a t Danebury ( 27/2.4) phase 2 ( Early/Middle La Tene), t o l ong passages 2 0 t o 40m l ong, t he Zangentor or p incers gate ( Dehn 1 961). Unfortunately t he E nglish t erminology d oes n ot d istinguish between the t wo f orms, a nd t hey have had t o be l umped together here. E xamples o f t he l ength o f t he Zangentor given by Dehn i nclude Heidengraben G rabenstetten ( 9/1.4) 20-35m l ong, K elheim ( 6/1.7) 3 0m, Fecamp ( 23/3.2) 3 5m, Heidetränk-Talenge ( 8/1.1) 3 5m, Zävist ( 5/1.2) 3 5m, Ti .lsov ( 5/1.6) 3 0m, Manching ( 6/1.6) 2 0-25m, Donnersberg ( 12/1.1) 2 0m, a nd N itrianskY H rädok ( 1/2.1) 1 7m. This extreme variety s eems t o be mainly a c haracteristic o f Late L a Tene a nd Dehn has s uggested a Mediterranean origin, c omparing t hem w ith t he gates a t Pompeii, dating t o I II B .C. However t here a re s ome possible Early La T ene examples a t t he Vogelsberg, K r. Mergentheim, Hesse, (Kahrstedt 1 935), a nd t he I pf b ei Bopfingen ( Prehistoric Society 1 969), a nd f or Britain a t l east a n i nternal development c an be p ostulated. d )

H ornworks

The p ractice of c onstructing a n e xternal earthwork across the e ntrance t o r estrict a ccess i s f ound regularly in R oman military f ortification, e ither i n t he f orm o f the c lavicula which i s a ttached t o one s ide o f t he e ntrance, and c urves l ike a h ook a cross t he e ntrance, o r t he t utulus a detached s traight e arthwork which l ies a cross t he approach a nd o nly a llows a ccess by s kirting i t t o t he l eft or r ight. The tutulus may have a lready been i n use i n the Caesarean period o n R oman f orts ( Agache 1 966). On I ron Age d efences h ornworks a re o nly f ound o n t he A tlantic s eaboard, mainly i n B ritain, but occasionally i n n eighbouring areas o f France a s a t L e Petit C elland ( 22/2.4), a nd Picquigny ( 25/1.3). I n B ritain i t i s c ommon by M iddle La Tbne p hase 5 a t Danebury ( 27/2.4), a nd perhaps a s e arly a s Early La Tbne i n phase 2 a t Maiden Castle ( 27/2.1), while that a t Crickley H ill i s l ikely t o be Hallstatt i n d ate ( Dixon 1 972). I t d evelops e specially w ith t he a dvent o f multivallation. I n B ritain t he i dea must be i ndigenous, and t he French e xamples may r epresent B ritish i nfluence ( Collis and Ralston f orthcoming). e )

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F i g .24 : B rooch c hrono logy

H is d ating f or t he a ppearance o f t he e laborately p ierced c atchplate i s s omewhat earlier t han I would expect, but i n g eneral h e would s eem t o a gree with the l ong c hronology propounded h ere. Alesia. Apparently n o i ron Late La Tene b rooches were f ound i n t he Camp D d eposits, o nly i ron brooches o f Middle La T ene c onstruction. Müller Beck a nd E ttlinger ( 1962-3) e xplain t he a bsence o f Nauheim brooches a nd p erhaps o ther bronze t ypes by s uggesting these were p urely f emale o rnaments, which s o f ar has n ot b een c ontradicted b y g rave e vidence. I ron brooches may h ave l agged t ypologically f or c onstruct ional r easons, a s Late La Tene brooches a re e asier t o make by c asting t han by hammering. However M . Alain Duval h as s uggested t o me t hat a number o f bronze brooches o f C olchester c onstruction f rom AliseS te-Reine c ome f rom Camp D , which m ight i mply a l onger c hronology t han p roposed h ere. Chateaumeillant. A bronze Nauheim brooch was f ound i n a p it behind, a nd a pparently earlier t han t he rampart, which i s a ssumed t o b e Caesarian i f n ot earlier. Berne Engehalbinsel. From t he t rue murus gallicus a t t he n orth e nd o f t he s ite c omes a b rooch o f Nauheim c onstruction, b ut w ith a l ozenge s ectioned bow a nd s tamped ornament, a t ype which a lso o ccurs a t Basel a nd a t Vienne. Müller Beck's e xcavation o f t he murus gallicus-like rampart produced a number o f t rue Nauheims s tratified i n a nd beneath t he bank, but no definite e xamples o f o ther t ypes. Le Catillon, J ersey. O f t he f our brooches i n t he hoard t wo a re o f Catillon t ype, a nd t wo o f C hesterford type, with t he p ierced c atchplate. Doubts a re expressed below a bout t he Caesarian d ate which has been c laimed f or t his hoard, a nd i t would c ertainly be a n early o ccurrence f or t he Chesterford t ype. I am i nclined t o s uggest a s omewhat later d ate p erhaps c . 3 0-20 B .C. f or t he h oard. The T itelberg . G rave 4 4 has p roduced a n i mportant a ssociation o f s everal t ypes o f brooch, t hough unfortunately t he g rave was n ot e xcavated under s cientific c onditions ( Thill 1 969). The brooches a re a s f ollows: 1 Nauheim, 1 C olchester, 3 C ollared o f Colchester c onstruction, 2 T histle, 5 Langton Down, a nd 2 d isc brooches. T he pottery i ncludes a H ILARVS P ACO beaker, 3 Gallo-Belgic plates, a nd c oins o f Augustus, G ERMANVS I NDVTILLI a nd C ARSICIOS. This group i s i mportant f or t he l ong s urvival o f t he Nauheim a nd t he mid-Augustan appearance o f t he t ypes which were t o d ominate t he next h alf c entury. They c ould however go back a g eneration e arlier.

6 5

9

Dangstetten. This earliest o f t he Roman f orts t o p roduce e xtensive brooch e vidence c onfirms the T itelberg e vidence by producing T histle, Langton Down, Colchester a nd Aucissa brooches, but only o ne o f Late La Tene c onstruction.

1 0)

Pommiers. One p iece o f e vidence h elps us c orrelate t he brooch s equence w ith t hat o f t he c oinage. G old c oins i nscribed w ith t he name CRICIRV bear on t heir r everse a s ide v iew o f a C ollared B rooch, apparently o f o ne-piece c onstruction ( the P ommiers t ype). Numismatists would date t his t ype t o t he Caesarian period, a n e arlier date t han h as h itherto been a ccepte d f or t his brooch t ype. However i t d oes occur a t La Butte S te. G enevieve which h as o therwise only p roduced M iddle La T ene a nd Nauheim t ypes, which makes s uch an e arly date more a cceptable ( Allen 1 972a).

d )

C oinage

T he r elative based upon f our main

c hronology o f c riteria:

t he

l ocal

c oinages i s

i )

Typological development. O ne basic t rend i s t he g radual progression f rom t he naturalistic r epresentations o f the G reek prototypes t owards m ore s tylized, i f not purely g eometric patterns.

i i)

A g radual d ecrease i n weight, made o f g old o r s ilver.

i ii)

A r eduction ( electrum),

i v)

A ssociations

i n purity, by and bronze t o o f

d ifferent

e specially o f

a dding s ilver t o s ilver ( billon). t ypes

the c oins

gold

i n h oards.

I n g eneral t he c onclusions d rawn f rom t hese f our d ifferent a pproaches a re i n broad a greement, a nd f or t he precious metals l ocal s equences a re well e stablished. H owever, one must a lways b e a ware o f t he q uestion o f f unction, and a bronze c oin may not n ecessarily b e t he f inal degeneration o f a s ilver t ype, but t he two may perform d ifferent f unctions, o ne a cting a s wealth s torage, a nd t he o ther as small c hange. For t he purposes o f a g eneral d iscussion o f the c hronology, i t i s c onvenient t o c onsider t hree s eparate a reas: i )

Gaul

The f irst Gaulish c oinages a re based upon G reek proto-types, e specially t he g old s taters o f Philip I I o f Macedon, a nd a lso o n t he s ilver i ssues o f t he G reek c olony o f Rhode, whose r everse d epicting a d og-rose g ave r ise t o t he important ' Tectosages C ross' s eries. The

6 6

early coins d o n ot c oncern u s a s t hey d o n ot g enerally occur on t he o ppida. However, f or t he p re-conquest c oina ge w e have o nly t wo f ixed c hronological points, t he date of t he G reek prototypes, a nd t he Caesarian c onquest i tself. Until a bout 1 950, a l ate d ate f or t he a ppearance o f c oinage was a ccepted f or G aul, based o n a n h istorical model which i nvoked t he Roman c onquest o f Provence i n 1 25 B .C. For various r easons t his has n ow been r ejected ( Christ 1 957), but t he date f or t he i ntroduction a nd t he mechanism a re b oth o bscure. H owever, i t d oes mean t hat the d ating o f s ome o f t he c oinage a ssociated with t he oppida i s n ow more f lexible. The e arliest c oins a re a ll h igh value g old o r s ilver, a nd o nly l ater d o t he l ow-value c oins a ppear, i n b ronze a nd p otin, a nd s ilver minims. The date o f t heir a ppeara nce i s undefined, but on t he e vidence o f t he Lauterach hoard with s ilver m inims o f t he Tectosages C ross a nd KAAETE4OU t ypes i t s hould b e by t he e nd o f I I B .C. o r e arly I B .C. R ecently h owever a much e arlier d ate has b een suggested, o n t he e vidence o f a l oose a ssociation o f a potin c oin w ith a h oard o f l arge Tectosage C ross t ypes a t Lattes, c onventionally d ated t o e arly I I B .C. ( Majural, Arnal and P rades 1 967). The Caesarian c onquest g ives us f ixed points i n two ways. F irstly t here a re t he f inds f rom t he d itch o f Camp D a t A lise-Ste-Reine. The c oins c ome f rom a ll parts o f Gaul, and 1 84 t ypes a re l isted by C olbert d e Beaulieu ( 1955). T he c oins a re a lmost a ll o f small d enominations, potin, bronze a nd s ilver, a nd i nclude e xamples o f most o f the c ommonest i ssues, s uch a s t hose i nscribed TOGIRIX,EPAD,KAAETEAOU a nd Q DOCI. S econdly t here a re i nscribed c oins b earing t he names o f h istorical f igures s uch a s V ercingetorix a nd Tasgetios. The use o f t he i nscription i s s till i n a n e arly s tage o f d evelopment ( Collis 1 971), a nd t herefore i t i s n ot s urprising t hat n o p re-conquest h istorical f igures c an be i dentified o n t he c oins. I n f act t he majority o f c oins a re o f t otally unknown p eople s uch a s Togirix, a nd t he s triking o f c oinage a nd political power may n ot be c losely a ssociated. Only a f ew t ypes can b e e xclusively a ssigned t o t he post-conquest p eriod, s uch a s t he c ommon b ronze t ype i nscribed G ERMANVUS I NDVTILLI L . The bulk o f t he c oinage i n u se between 5 0 a nd 3 0 B .C. i s o f t ypes a lready f ound a t, i f n ot s pecifically s truck d uring, t he t ime of t he Gallic War. These t ypes c ontinued i n u se a longside t he bronze i ssues o f Augustus, a s d emonstrated by t he hoards a t Hussigny-Godbrange, a nd Quiberon ( Crawford 1 969, nos 5 16, 5 17), but r eplacement was probably c omplete within a c ouple o f d ecades. C olbert d e B eaulieu has c laimed t hat post-conquest g roups o f c oinage t end t o be more h eterog eneous t han pre-conquest o nes, a nd would t herefore c laim t hat the b ulk o f o ccupation a t Pommiers with a l arge perc entage o f CRICIRV a nd o ther l ocal t ypes s hould be pre5 0 B .C. ( Colbert d e B eaulieu 1 955a). The a rguments a re 6 7

n ot c onvincing, a nd d isproven by t he p ost-conquest f inds a t the T itelberg ( Reding 1 972). I t i s a lso g enerally a ssumed t hat g old c oins were n o l onger u sed o r minted a fter t he c onquest, a nd were t otally r eplaced by Roman d enarii. However A llen ( 1972a) has pointed out the e xistence o f s ome l ight c oins with i nscriptions such a s V IROS LVCOTIO, e tc. which c ould be l ater, a nd t he o ccurre nce o f g old Gallic c oins i n t he L iberian h oard of Q uaremont. i i)

Eastern Europe

One of t he major g roup o f c oins f rom t he eastern a rea o f t he oppida i s a lso based on a t ype o f Philip I I, t hough h ere t he s ilver t etradrachm was c hosen r ather t han t he g old s tater. The e arliest c opies a re a lmost i ndist inguishable f rom t he G reek, a nd may n ot be f ar removed i n d ate ( Pink 1 939). Another major s eries d evelops from the A thene/Alkis s eries o f Philip V ( 220-211 B .C.), a nd e arly c opies f rom Bohemia a nd Moravia a gain c losely r esemble the o riginals ( Castelin 1 956). The l atest c oins a re probably t he s eries o f i nscribed t ypes, t he most c ommon o f which a re t hose o f B IATEC ( Ondrouch 1 958; Castelin 1 956, 1 957). The s eries s hows s ome i nfluence o f Roman d enarii o f t he 6 0's, a nd s o i t i s c onventionally dated t o a round 5 0 B . C. However d enarii were probably n ot c irculating h ere u ntil I mperial t imes, a nd a l ater date f or t he g roup can b e a rgued. O therwise t he c hronology o f t he eastern coins is based on l ong d istance c orrelation with Gaul, but w ith c omparisons o f weight a nd purity t his i s o f d ubious v alue. On t hese g rounds Castelin has s uggested t hat t he Bohemian g old i ssues e nded i n t he f irst half o f I B .C., while o nly t he small minims were c irculating i n t he s econd half, but i n f unctional t erms i t s eems unlikely t hat t here were no h igh value c oins t o a ct a s bullion. S tradonice i s t he major c entre f or f inds o f the l ater c oinages. There i s a c oncentration o f f inds o f gold h oards i n t he neighbourhood, a nd o ne f rom t he oppidum i tself, as well a s a l arge n umber o f s mall s ilver minims f rom t he i rregular e xcavations. The c hronology o f t he minims i s o bscure, a nd t he d efinitive publication o f t he S tradonice e xamples i s s till a waited. S tare Hradisko has a lso p roduced a number o f these minims a nd a t rial p iece o f l ead f or the d ie s tock f or s triking t he reverse. There i s a hoard f rom t he Karlstein, a nd h oards a nd s ingle f inds f rom the Magdalensberg, where t hey a re a ssociated with e arly I mperial c oins. Here t hey a re e ventually replaced by I mperial b ronze i ssues, but whether t he c hange was g radual or s udden i s o bscure. Pink ( 1958) r ecognized s everal s ub-divisions o f t his c oinage with various c ombinations o f o bverses a nd r everses. The two main obverses a re t he h orse o f a t ype d erived f rom t he c oins a ttributed t o t he Aedui ( including t he KAAETEAOU s eries), a nd a lso the ' Tectosages' c ross', which do o ccur i n t he a rea a s i n t he Lauterach hoard. This a ssociation 6 8

d atable t o early I B .C., a nd t he s imilarity with t he Gallic c oins d o s uggest t hat the S tradonice a nd r elated minims r un broadly parallel with t he French s eries, a nd c ontinue i n c irculation well i nto I mperial t imes. i ii)

B ritain

B efore t he c onquest o f Gaul, t he British c oinage c an b e r egarded merely a s a r egional variant o f t he Gallic a nd s ome t ypes s uch a s Gallo-Belgic C c irculated b oth s ides o f t he Channel ( Allen 1 961a). They g enerally s eem t o c onform t o t he s ame gold s tandard a s t he G allic, a nd i t i s t hus p ossible t o t ie t he British s equence i n w ith the Caesarian c onquest. G old s taters o f t hat period c ontinued t o c irculate i n G aul until a fter 3 0 B .C., a nd d oubtless d id i n B ritain a s w ell. Another possible t ie up occurs i n t he a ssociation o f B ritish t ypes i n t he Catillon h oard o n J ersey. This hoard has been c ompared t o t he B reton ' refugee' h oards a ssigned t o t he Caesarian c onquest ( Colbert de B eaulieu 1 957; A llen 1 961a). However i t s hould be n oted t hat two s imilar h oards f rom Jersey c ontain Roman c oins dated t o 3 9 a nd 3 2 B .C. r espectively, a nd I would not be happy t o s ee t he C hesterford brooches i n t he Catillon hoard dated s o e arly. The date when t he Armorican s ilver c oinages were r eplaced by R oman d enarii h as n ot been e stablished, a nd a n Augustan date f or Catillon s eems just a s l ikely. Even s o, t he h oard has l ed t o a r edating o f t he British s pecimens a nd o f the Durotrigian c oinage o f Dorset, a nd i t c an now b e s een a s e arlier t han had been a ssumed s imply o n t he basis o f metrication a nd t ypology. W ith t he a ppearance o f i nscribed c oinage the c hronol ogy becomes better. Whether the C ommius o f the i nscribed s taters i s t he man who f led f rom Caesar, a nd whatever h is r elationship with t he rulers who call t hemselves h is ' sons', t here i s n o d oubt a bout t he i dentification o f T incommius s on o f C ommius mentioned i n t he Res Gestae o f A ugustus, a round 1 0 B . C., o r o f V erica s on o f C ommius w ith t he B erikos mentioned by Dio a s s eeking help f rom Gaius i n 4 0 A . D. I n eastern England Dubnovellaunus i s a lso mentioned i n t he Res Gestae, while C unobelinus a nd h is s on Caratacus a re f amiliar h istorical f igures. I n t he s outh e ast t his c oinage s eems only t o survive a decade o r s o before being r eplaced by the Roman bronze c oinage, but i n peripheral a reas i t c ontinued, a nd was probably s till b eing s truck i n t he c lient k ingdom o f the I ceni f or a c ouple o f d ecades ( Allen 1 970), a nd i t c irculated i n Dorset i nto t he s econd c entury.

6 9

THE CORPUS 1 .

S lovakia

S lovakia i s d ivided i nto t hree main a reas ( Fig. 2 5). I n t he s outh-west a round Bratislava i s t he r ich l öss a rea o f t he Danube a nd t he l ower r eaches o f t he Vah, N itra , Hron a nd I pel, c ut o ff f rom M oravia t o t he west by t he MalS 7 Karpathy, mountains, a nd f rom t he e ast by the S lovenske Rudhorie. S outh e ast S lovakia i s a lso a l öss a rea, t he northern e xtension o f t he Tisza-Bodrog basin. I n c ontrast n orthern S lovakia i s a h ighland a rea, r ich i n metal r esources, a nd d ominated by t he TatrY mountains with t he r ich valleys o f Vah, N itra, Hron a nd Hornad p iercing i t f rom west a nd e ast. I n t he s outh-west c ontacts with t he La T ene c ulture t o t he west can a lready be d emonstrated i n Reinecke A b y one o r t wo objects such a s t he S tupava p laque, but only l ater i n t he Dux horizon does a f ull L a Tene c ulture a rrive, bringing with i t f lat i nhumation a nd c remation c emeteries. The c remation r ite i s a lready p resent a t s ites such a s Vel' ka Mar ia a t a n early s tave, but i t g radually becomes d ominant i n Middle L a Tene. The c emet eries e nd a s e lsewhere i n Middle La T ene, t he l atest brooches i ncluding Mötshwil t ypes. O nly s ettlements a re known i n Late L a Tene, when a n ew c ulture a ppears with Late La Tene r ed-and-white painted wares, but a lso handmade c ups, a nd jars w ith f inger-tipped c ordons a nd wheelt urned g rey wares, notably bowls a nd p edestal d ishes. This has been t ermed ' the Dacian Horizon' by ToCik ( 1959), a nd has a d istinctive f orm o f s ettlement f or which I h ave v e t aken Z emplin a s t he t ype s ite ( Collis 1 972). T o i ck c laims t o d etect a n earlier phase t ypified by M iddle L a Tene brooches with l ong s pirals, a nd a l ack o f painted pottery. A t N itriansky Hradok a two-phase Late La Tene s ettlement overlies a M iddle La Tene c emetery. An i ndigenous c ulture, the Kustanovice, e xists i n t he s outh-east during Early La Tene a nd Middle La T ene. However, i n t he g raves a longside t he d istinctive hand-made pottery d o occur imports f rom t he La Tene a rea, s uch a s wheelt urned pottery, a nd Dux f ibulae. I n L ate La Tene t he c ultu re i s i dentical t o t hat i n t he s outh-west, w ith painted pottery probably being manufactured a t Z emplin. Parts o f t he Ukraine s hare a s imilar s equence. A c emetery o f c remation burials under barrows occurs a t Z emplin. A fter a n e xceptionally r ich Late B ronze Age, t he n orth o f S lovakia i s v irtually a n a rchaeological b lank until t he e nd o f M iddle L a Tene i f n ot Late La Tene t imes, when a d istinctive g roup, t he Puchov Culture a ppears, e xtending o ver t he Carpathians i n S lovakia, s outhern Poland a nd north-western Moravia. The s ettlement pattern i s one o f s mall h ill-forts overlooking open s ettlements i n t he valleys b elow. The r ichest f inds c ome f rom t wo a pparently 7 0

M ORAV IA A ND S LOVAK IA

-F LAT C EMETERY •ZEMPL IN T YPE S ETTLEMENT F ig .2 5 .

•O PP IDUM •H I LL F ORT

r itual s ites, Prosne, K r. PovaIska B ystrica, a nd L iptovskä Mara ( Pietha 1 971), which h ave produced painted pottery, ' Dacian' c ups, c oins o f G ross Bystercer t ype, a nd f ragments o f b ronze vessels perhaps o f Campanian o rigin ( Aylesford pans?). B rooches i nclude d eveloped Middle La Tene t ypes, a possible Nauheim, but l ater t ypes, t he Arched F ibula a nd S tradonice p redominate, a nd d emonstrate c ontinuity i nto t he Roman I ron Age. 1 /1

Z emplin-type s ettlements 1 /1.1

Z emplin

B enadik 1 965, 1 971 ( lies t oo mapping o n F igs 1 and 2 5).

f ar

east

f or

The modern t own l ies a t t he point where the r ivers f rom t he Carpathians, t he Topla, O ndava, Laborec a nd Latorice j oin t he B odrog, a nd i t t hus c ontrols both t he r outes t o t he north, a nd t o t he east i nto the Ukraine. The d efensive c entre l ies o n a t ongue o f l and enclosing a n a rea o nly 2 40 by 1 50m. Re-use i n m edieval t imes has d estroyed a ny e vidence o f i nternal occupation, but t he rampart was extensively r ebuilt i n L ate La T ene with a dump c onstruction. Outside t his f ort f or 3 km t o the northeast a nd 4km t o t he s outh s ettlement e xtends a long t he old c ourse o f t he Bodrog, but i t i s e specially dense i n t he k ilometre t o t he n orth. I ron working i s i mportant, but a pottery kiln has a lso been e xcavated a nd i t i s l ikely t hat t he painted wares were a lso manufactured a t Z emplin. Buildings a re c onstruct ed i n t imber with painted plaster walls. Pottery f inds i nclude painted pottery, a l ittle Graphittonkeramik, but mixed with t his much ' Dacian ' pottery. The b rooch s eries i ncludes two s poon-bow f ibula, d eveloped Middle La T ene t ypes a nd a Knee-bow brooch with f retted f oot, generally g iving a l ate i mpression. Coins i nclude e xamples o f the Gross B ystercer t ype f rom n orthern S lovakia, a nd two d enarii o f Caesar which a re unlikely t o have c irculated h ere much b efore t he e nd o f t he f irst c entury B . C. T he s ettlement was t hus i n e xistence i n t he second half o f I B .C., but h ow earlier o r l ater i s o bscure. On t he h ill-side o verlooking Z emplin i s a c emetery o f a t l east 8 tumuli, g enerally c overing up t o 10 c remations e ach. The r ichest produced a c orselet and s purs. The b rooches i nclude s ome o f M iddle L a Tene c onstruction w ith l ong s pirals, a nd L ate La Tene t ypes with e laborate d ecoration. The pottery i s g enerally s imilar t o t hat f rom t he s ettlement, but t he l atest burials may date t o I I A .D . 1 /1.2

Dgvin,

B ratislava .

D ekan

1 951,

T oCik 1 959

Dgvin occupies t he l ast r ocky s pur o f t he White Carpathians, overlooking t he c onfluence o f t he Morava a nd t he Danube. The h ill i s c rowned b y modern a nd medieval d efences, but t he unpublished e xcavations by E isner i n t he

7 2

1 930' s, a nd Dekan i n t he 1 950's have p roduced Late La Tene material i ncluding painted wares, belonging t o t he ' Dacian h orizon'. Occupation extends d own t he s lope t o t he north, a nd i t i s l ikely t here i s a s imilar r elations hip between f ort a nd open s ettlement a s a t Z emplin. The s ite continues l ate a s f inds o f Augustan c oins a nd Arretine a ttest. R otary querns were manufactured h ere. 1 /1.3

N itra

To Mk 1 959,

n o.

1 3

Though no t races o f d efences a re known o n t he Hrad, t he e xtensive s ettlement a t i ts f oot w ith ' Dacian h orizon' pottery s uggests a Z emplfn-type s ettlement. 1 /2

H ill-forts

1 /2.1

Nitriansk3 5 H rädok, N itra

a rchives,

Zam Aek, Dehn

Okr.

Nove Z amky. To nk 1 959, 1 966.

1 961.

O n t op o f t he t ell f ormed by t he Neolithic a nd Bronze Age s ettlements a M iddle La Tene biritual c emetery was f ound, s ealed by d eposits o f a s ettlement o f t he ' Dacian horizon'. The e arlier l evel c ontained p lain wares but n o painted p ottery which a ppeared i n t he l ater l evel. S tructures i nclude Grubenhäuser a nd p its. The d efences consist o f a d ouble palisade t rench w ith a n e ntrance o f Zangentor t ype. B rooches i nclude a n e xample w ith f retted f oot related t o t he PoMmiers t ype. Over twenty h ill-forts have been a ssigned t o t he Puchov Culture ( Pieta 1 966) t hough l ittle e xcavation work has b een c arried o ut. Most a re o f small s ize, a nd t here i s l ittle o r no e vidence o f occupation i nside t hem . 1 /3

Open

1 /3.1

S ettlements

Bratislava

F ilip

1 956;

Ondrouch 1 958

T he e vidence o f s ome Late La T ene i ndustry, notably pottery k ilns a nd e specially t he c oncentration o f h oards o f s ilver c oins has been i nterpreted a s a n important o pen s ettlement, t hough t he e vidence i s s till i nconclusive. T he c oins a re g enerally dated t o mid I B .C., but I would d ate t hem t o t he Augustan period, c ontemporary with Dgvin. 2 .

The Hungarian Plain

There i s a f airly d ense s catter o f f lat i nhumation and c remation c emeteries a cross t he l öss a reas o f Hungary, f rom Lower Austria to t he Rumanian S iebenburgen ( Fig. 2 5). There are notable c oncentrations a round S opron, Györ and in t he Sopron valley. Their general date i s f rom the Dux horizon until s ometime i n Middle La Tene ( Hunyady 1 942/44). The L ate La Tene i s l ess well d ocumented, t hough recent excavations a re p roducing a number o f s ites e specially 7 3

a long t he Danube. The c ulture, l ike t hat o f t he neighbouring parts o f S lovakia a nd Romania, i s t hat of t he ' Dacian h orizon', c haracterized by painted pottery, g rey wares, a nd notably t he hand-made c ups a nd jars decorated with c ordons a nd p endants. These f inds e xtend a s f ar west a s L ower Austria, a s a t M i illendorf ( Horedt 1 969) a nd Velem S t. V id. Defended s ites a re n ot u ncommon, though both p lans a nd d irect dating evidence i s g enerally l acking, but t he r egular pattern i s o f open s ettlements, often a t t he f oot o f a h ill-fort. The major s ite f or t he chronology o f t his a rea i s Taban-Gellerthegy a t B udapest. The a rea up t o t he Danube was i ncorporated i nto t he R oman Empire u nder Augustus between 1 3 a nd 9 B .C. 2 /1

Oppida

2 /1.1

Velem S t.

V id,

K oszeg v on M iske 1 904, 1 958

1 908;

Foltiny

S ituated c lassically on a h ighland-lowland i nterf ace, t he s ettlement s eems t o have s pecialized i n bronze production. Unfortunately, o f over 5 0 s andstone moulds, o nly one c an be d efinitely a ssigned t o L ate La Tene, t hat f or a brooch o f ' pseudo-Middle La Tene c onstruction'. There i s a lso a c opper i ngot of I ron A ge t ype ( Wainwright a nd S pratling 1 973). F inds of g lass, e specially lumps o f r aw material i mply g lass production, o f both beads a nd bracelets. The range o f bronze a nd i ron o bjects i s s imil ar t o t hat f rom S tradonice-belt f ittings, s hears, a rrowh eads, p incers, hammers, e tc. Pottery f inds i nclude painted Late La T ene, G raphittonkeramik, a nd a f ew f ragments of hand-made ' Dacian' v essels. The s ite was a lready o ccupied i n t he Hallstatt p eriod but t o j udge f rom t he brooches, o ccupation was c ontinuous d uring t he La T ene period, with e xamples o f Certosa, D ux, a nd M iddle La Tene c onstruction a s well a s pseudo-Middle La Tene, Nauheim a nd S tradonice t ypes, but examples w ith c omplex f oot s eem t o be a bsent. L ikewise t here i s n o Arretine ware, t hough t his i s n ot g enerally c ommon i n t he Hungarian P lain ( Gabler 1 964). The c oin f inds f rom t he s ite i nclude a h oard o f 6 0 s ilver Tetradrachms ( Pink 1 939), a nd c hance f inds, mainly e xamples o f t he Norican group a nd t he A lkis-Athene, a nd Muschel g old s eries. 2 /2

1 -Type Z emplin

2 /2.1

S ettlements

Taban-Gellerthegy,

B udapest

Poczy 1 959, Bonis C ollis 1 972

1 969,

Periodic e xcavations between 1 935 a nd 1 958 h ave produced a l arge n umber o f s tratified f inds a nd pit g roups, making t his t he most i mportant s ite o f i ts period i n e astern Europe. Taban i s a l ow l öss-covered h ill on the w estern bank o f t he Danube, while G ellerthegy i s a s teep dolomite peak, bare o n i ts eastern s ide. One would e xpect t his to be a d efended s ite, but s o f ar n o t race o f d efences h ave

7 4

b een l ocated, d oubtless d estroyed by t he ' Citadel' which c rowns t he h ill-top t oday. T renches o n t he n orth s ide o f G ellerthegy have proved n egative, a nd o ccupation i s a pparently c onfined t o t erraces o n i ts s outhern f lank, a nd a t i ts f oot. T hough t here a re t races o f Hallstatt occupat ion, the Late L a Tene s ettlement r epresents a n ew f oundat ion. I n t he e arlier p hase o ccupation i s t o be f ound both o n Taban a nd t he h igher s lopes o f G ellerthegy, but l ater t he u pper s lopes a re a bandoned, a nd Taban a nd t he l ower s lopes b ecome more i mportant. S ettlement c ontinues well i nto t he R oman p eriod, c ontemporary w ith t he R oman f ort o f Aquincum w hich was f ounded a f ew k ilometres t o t he n orth. H owever, R oman imports a re r are, being c onfined t o a f ew f ragments o f a mphora, o f A rretine a nd Po valley s igillata, a nd a f ew c oins o f Augustus, C laudius a nd Nero. The s ettlement w as g enerally a bandoned b y I I A .D., but a l ater a ltar t o t he Civitas o f t he E ravisci f rom G ellerthegy s uggests i t r emained a c ult c entre. The f inds a re t ypical o f T oCik's ' Dacian h orizon', with p ainted wares, G raphittonkeramik, g rey wares a nd ' Dacian' p ottery a ll well r epres nted. Painted wares a re p resent f rom the s tart, a nd T o nk's e arly p hase has not b een f ound. Early c haracteristics i nclude G raphittonkeramik w ith a h igh p ercentage o f g raphite a nd vertical c ombing, s impler painted wares, a nd a lso t he ' Dacian' pottery. L ater c riss-cross c ombing i s m ore u sual, a nd g raphite c ontent l ower, a nd t he painted motifs become more c omplex. F rom the many p it g roups a s eriation s hould be possible. B rooches t oo a re n ot o f e arly t ypes - t hree o f M iddle La Tene c onstruction but i nternal c hord, a possible Cenisola, a s well a s a c ouple o f R oman e xamples. The main i ndustry was a pparently pottery manufacture, a nd no l ess t han 6 k ilns have been d iscovered, both on T aban a nd G ellerthegy. S ome p its c ut i nto t he l öss a re p resumably q uarries f or c lay. On t he e vidence o f wasters, G raphittonkeramik was c ertainly manufactured, a nd s everal l umps of r aw g raphite a re p resumably r ejects f rom t he c lay b rought t o t he s ite. Painted wares were a lso made a nd o ne d istinctive g roup had b een s tamped with a R oman g emstone. T here i s h owever o nly l imited e vidence f or t he working o f i ron, and bronze c asting i s r epresented only by a n unfini shed s trongly-profiled b rooch a nd a mould f or a bracelet. S ome of t he p its a re b ell-shaped, presumably f or s torage, but t he a nimal b ones a re predominantly o f wild s pecies ( but only bones s elected b y t he e xcavator were kept). A ll t he h ouses a re o f t imber, i ncluding s everal e xamples o f G rubenhäuser, a nd a t l east o ne building over 1 5m l ong. T here i s o ne p ossible c ircular h ouse. 2 /3

Hill-forts

2 /3.1

Burgberg,

E sztergom

B onis 1 971

Late La T ene huts a nd pits have p roduced g rey a nd painted wares s imilar t o t hose f rom Budapest, but the 7 5

d efences have been d estroyed by Medieval r econstructions. 2 /3.2

Balatonföldvar

B onis

1 971

T he s ite i s d efended by a n e arthen bank 7m h igh. S tructures i nclude a G rübenhaus, a n o ven, a nd bell-shaped s torage pits, a nd t he pottery g rey wares a nd G raphittonk eramik. 2 /3.3

S zalacskaj

Nagyberki,

K om .

S omogy

Darnay Thomas

1 906, 1 963

1 908;

The W einberg i s a h ill-fort w ith multiple r amparts, but n o plan has y et been published. S ome f inds c ome f rom outsiee t he f ort, a nd t his may be a s ituation s imilar t o Zemplin. F inds i nclude d ie-stocks f or K apostaler-type t etradrachms ( Pink 1 932), a nd t here i s a mould f or a b rooch o f ' pseudo M iddle La Tene c onstruction'. The s ite l ies in t he Kapos valley, a n a rea o f d ense l aTene s ettlement. 2 /3.4

L dovar ,

Vrasac

Gavela 1 952,

1 966

The f ort o ccupies a s pur o verlooking t he Danube, d efended by a c ross-dyke. T he f inds i nclude painted p ottery. Open s ettlements A n umber of L ate La T ene s ites a t t he f oot o f h illf orts o f u nknown d ate a re l isted by B onis ( 1971). T hey a re: 1 )

P ilismaröt-Baharc, 2 ) S zäzhalombatta ( where k iln h as a lso b een d iscovered), a nd 3 ) Bata, t he well-known b oar-figure).

3 .

Austria

a p ottery ( with

I n t he Late La T ene, a s e arlier, Austria was d oubly i mportant, f irstly f or i ts own natural r esources, s alt, c opper a nd i ron, a nd s econdly f or t he r outes i t provided, west-east a long t he Danube, a nd n orth-south f rom Bohemia a cross t he A lpine passes t o t he h ead o f t he Adriatic, both r outes which c an be d ocumented i n Late La Tene. The Dürrnberg b ei Hallein was r ising t o i mportance in t he l ate Hallstatt a nd e specially d uring Early La T ene as a c entre o f s alt production, a s t he wealth o f metal o bjects, r ich burials a nd o ccasional G reek i mports d emonstrates, i ndeed i t s eems t o h ave p layed a major r ole i n t he d evelopment o f t he La T ene Culture. I n M iddle La Tene a nd L ate La T ene t he Salzburg a rea s eems t o have r emained o ne o f d ense o ccupation, t hough t he p opulation s eems t o have been s catte red rather t han c oncentrated o n o ne major s ettlement. Hallstatt t oo c ontinued i nto Early La T ene, but then t here i s a gap u ntil t he a ppearance o f t he o pen s ettlement o n t he Dammwiese, t hough t his g ap i s m ore l ikely t o b e one i n t he a rchaeological r ecord rather t han i n t he c ontinuity o f s ettlement. 7 6

E lsewhere t he L a T ene Culture a ppears s poradically i n La T ene B i n l ower Austria a nd on t he Danube, a nd i n La Tene C o n t he u pper s ave i n t he s outh-east ( Müller Karpe 1 951). H owever l ocally o ther c ultures s urvived o ften t o t he R oman c onquest, d istinguished e specially b y t heir l ocal p ottery t ypes. M ost widespread g eographically i s t he M elaun-Fritzener g roup o f t he A lpine valleys o f western A ustria, a nd parts o f I taly a nd S witzerland a s well ( Pittioni 1 954). Metal t ypes o ften i nclude many o f La T ene origin, s uch a s t he bronze a nd i ronwork f rom t he H immelreich bei W attens ( Sinnhuber 1 949; C ollis 1 973), a nd e specially t he i mportant f ind f rom Lauterach. C ontact i s f urther d emonstrated by t he occasional f ragments o f G raphittonkeramik, a gain i ncluding t he H immelreich, a nd i n t he opposite d irection by t he b rooches f rom Manching o f h eavy Early La T ene c onstruction, s o t ypical o f t he i nner A lpine s ites s uch a s S anieno ( Krämer 1 960, 1 961). I n t he s outh-east l ay t he a ncient kingdom o f Noricum ( Alföldi 1 974), f amed i n I taly a t t his period f or t he h igh q uality o f i ts i ronwork, much o f which had q ualities a pproaching that o f s teel. The e arlier but a mbiguous s ite of S t. Margarthen a m S ilberberg a lready produces e vidence o f e xtensive i ron p roduction ( Pittioni 1 954), a nd a lso the h ill-fort o f G urina, but i t i s t he i nscriptions l eft by t he t raders o f t he Magdalensberg n ear K lagenfurth w hich g ive u s t he c learest i nsight i nto t he nature a nd e xtent of t he t rade t hat t his a rea had d eveloped w ith t he M editerranean world i n t he F irst C entury B .C. The k ingdom o f N oricum was f inally i ncorporated i nto t he R oman Empire u nder Augustus i n 1 4 B .C. 3 /1

Oppida

3 /1.1

The B raunsberg bei Hainburg M itscha-Märheim 1 932;

N ischer-Falkenhof a nd M itscha-Märheim 1 950

T he Braunsberg l ies o n a l öss-capped h ill f acing Dgvin a cross t he Danube. The d efended s ite c onsists o f a c entral a rea a nd a n orthern e xtension which a pparently p redates t he main e nclosure. H owever n either plans n or d imensions h ave b een published. There i s Hallstatt C o ccupation, but t hen a break until Late La T ene. The d efences s how t wo periods a ssignable t o Late La Tene, t he e arlier a n e arthen bank, t he l ater a d ouble l ine o f p osts about 2 .40m a part with e arth a nd s tone between. T he e ntrance o n t he n orthern s ide i s f ormed by o verlapping t he e nds o f t he r amparts, with S caean l ay-out. A s ingle b uilding has been e xcavated, with d imensions 4 .80 by 3 .00m, a nd a f loor s unk 0 .60m i nto t he g round. I t had been burnt d own, a nd much o f t he i nterior c ontents s till remained i n s itu - a spit o n t he c entral hearth, a nd a quern i n one c orner, while Late La Tene s herds, a s hield boss, bucket b indings a nd o ther oddments l ay s cattered o n the f loor. Pottery i ncludes G raphittonkeramik, but painted wares a re n otable by their a bsence. This suggests i t may pre-date Devin where painted wares were c ommon. 7 7

3 /1.2

T he O berleiserberg, K lement, Mistelbach MitschaMärheim a nd N ischer-Falkenhof 1 929, 1 931; M itschaMärheim 1 937

Though small i n s ize, i n t erms o f f unction a nd s iting t his s ite must b e c lassed w ith t he Moravian o ppida. I t i s a d ouble e nclosure, t he i nner o val d efence enclosing 6 .55ha, but with t he s outhern a ddition n earing a t otal of 8 ha. I t l ies o n o ne o f t he l ower h ills o f a massif w hich f orms part o f t he white J ura . There a re d eposits o f i ron o re i mmediately o utside t he western d efences, a nd i ron p roduction was o bviously o f major i mportance, t hough b ronze working i s a lso d ocumented. The l arge n umber o f f ragments o f g lass b racelets i mplies t hat t hey w ere manufactured on t he s ite, a nd f ragments o f g raphite p erhaps i ndicate G raphittonkeramik production. There i s e vidence o f o ccupat ion f rom t he Late B ronze Age, perhaps c ontinuously i nto Late L a Tene, t hough s ome phases a re o nly s parsely r epres ented . The brooch t ypes i nclude 6 o f M iddle La Tene o r ' pseudo-Middle La T ene' c onstruction, b ut a s eventh w ith e laborate c atchplate i s c learly l ate. O f t he s ix c oins o nly o ne belongs t o t he s mall s ilver g roup ( a Karlstein c oin) a nd t wo a re 1 /8 g old s taters. P ottery i ncludes much G raphittonkeramik, but painted wares a re r are. There a re a lso f ragments o f R oman t egula, which e ven occur i n t he make-up o f t he d efensive bank, which w ould imply a l ate d ate f or i ts c onstruction. T he s ections produced by t he t renching o f t he d efences a re a mbiguous, but i t seems g enerally t o be o f dump c onstruction o f e arth a nd s tone. 3 /1.3

T he G rundberg,

L inz

S troh

a nd F ranz

1 940

The s ite l ies o n a s pur with s teep s lopes t o e ast, west a nd s outh a nd i s barred b y two c ross-dykes, t he i nner one a pproximately b isecting i n half t he t otal e nclosed a rea o f 6 0ha. B oth ramparts c onsist o f d umped s oil a nd s tone, with a pparently n o v ertical post c onstruction. The outer o ne i s e ntered by a Z angentor. T he i nner rampart a pparently h as n o d itch. Trial t renching i n t he i nterior produced a n umber o f n egative a reas, a nd only i n two a reas were t here s igns o f e xtensive occupation, a ssociated w ith t wo r ectangular buildings w ith d ry-stone walls. G raphittonkeramik a nd painted pottery w ere a mong the f inds, a s well a s a f ew i ron o bjects - a n a xe, k nives a nd l ong belt-hooks. N o i ndustrial a ctivity i s mentioned, t hough i ron o res o ccur i n t he L inz a rea. 3 /1.4

T he Freinberg,

L inz

Mahr 1 914;

S troh

1 944

A lso o n a s pur, o n t he west s ide o f L inz, t he s ite has n atural d efences a round t he n orthern e nd. I t t oo c ons ists o f t wo e nclosures, t he i nner s outhern o ne of a bout 4ha, t he o uter o ne o f between 1 0 a nd 1 5ha. T he c entral c rossd yke has b een burnt a nd t here a re t races o f t imber l acing. Many L ate L a T ene s herds, e specially G raphittonkeramik were f ound j ust outside i t. A g old Regenbogenschl isselchen i s

7 8

r ecorded f rom t he s ite. Roman occupation. 3 /2

There

i s

a lso Hallstatt

a nd

H ill-forts

3 /2.1

Gurina,

Dellach

Meyer 1 883; Müller-Karpe 1 951; P ittioni 1 954

G urina i s a h ill-fort o f a bout 1 0ha p erched 2 00m a bove the v alley o f t he Drava, n ot f ar f rom t he P löcken Pass i nto I taly. T he n ineteenth c entury e xcavations c oncentrated o n t he r ich Roman t emple, but t he f inds i nclude much La T ene metalwork, s uch a s swords, belt-hooks, a nd a xes. B rooch t ypes i nclude 3 -4 r elated t o t he A rched brooch series, a nd e xamples o f t he S tradonice a nd protopincers t ypes. P ottery g enerally i s o f t he MelaunFritzener g roup, e specially Sanzeno bowls. I ron working i s d ocumented by o vens a nd s lag. T he s ite a pparently a lready had r eligious s ignificance a s t here i s a bronze v otive shield, a nd bronze s heet p laques w ith i nscriptions i n a n on-Celtic l anguage. O f t he 2 8 s ilver c oins l isted by M . Mackensen ( pers. c or n .) 2 5 a re minims o f t he h orse a nd c ross s eries, a nd t he t hree l arge o f i nscribed n orican types, COPO , S UICCA, a nd ADNAMAT. 3 /2.2

Georgenberg bei M icheldorf

Vetters

1 953,

1 956

T he f ort o f u nder 0 .5ha s its o n a d olomite h ill overlooking the K rems valley. There i s a d ouble bank, s tone-revetted, b ut n ot c losely dated. Besides Late La Tene f inds t ypified by G raphittonkeramik, t here a re a lso Hallstatt, R oman a nd Medieval f inds. 3 /3

Open S ettlements

3 /3.1

Neubau,

Traun

Beninger 1 956;

Jandaurek 1 956

A g ravel p it o n t he L inz -Wels r oute h as produced material f rom p its a nd o ther f eatures which e xtend o ver a n a rea o f about 1 0ha . a nd t imber buildings have been i dentif ied . Finds i nclude G raphittonkeramik, painted wares a nd red p ottery, but g enerally t hey have a l ate c haracter, and a re probably A ugustan. I ron smelting i s t he only industry mentioned . 3 /3.2

Dammwiese,

H allstatt

S troh 1 944;

Hell

1 952

Excavations i n 1 889-90 a nd 1 936-37 h ave n ever been published, t hough mention i s made o f t races o f building a nd o f a m ine e ntrance. I t l ies a t 1 370m a bove sea l evel o n a s addle between t he S teinberg a nd t he Plasse, 5 00m a bove t he e arlier c emetery. Three quarters o f t he pottery i s c oarse G raphittonkeramik a f ifth f ine pottery, and t he rest painted. A s well a s t he u sual c ombed wares, the s ite has produced d istinctive l arge bowls o r cauldrons ( ' Kesseln') i n Passau c lay which l ed Kappel t o postulate a p ottery a t or n ear t he Dammwiese. S everal e xamples o f

7 9

the ' Hahnentritt' s ign i ncised on t he base l ed to t he suggestion t hat t his was c onnected with t he s alt i ndustry a t Hallstatt, but a s e xamples a re n ow known i n clays o ther t han t hat f rom Passau, t his c an n o l onger be s ubstantiated. I n a ddition t o t he postulated pottery a nd s alt production, i ron was worked on t he s ite. 3 /3.3

V ienna

P ittioni

1 943,

1 954

There i s e vidence f or a n e xtensive s ettlement on t he L eopoldsberg, mainly i n t he f orm o f pottery f inds, but t here i s a s ingle c oin o f Karlstein t ype. I n V ienna I II two pottery k ilns have been d iscovered, manufacturing c ombed wares, g rey wares, a nd possibly G raphittonkeramik. S ome of t he c ombing i s c riss-cross, s uggesting a l ate date. 3 /4

Trading S ettlement

3 /4.1

The Magdalensberg, n ear S t. Veit, a .d. G lan, K lagenf urth Egger 1 952, 1 958, 1 959, 1 961a, 1 961b, 1 963, 1 965, 1 966; Mossier 1 948, 1 954; Paschinger 1 950; P ink 1 954, 1 958; Praschnicker 1 949; A lföldi 1 974; Vetters a nd Piccotini 1 969

T he Magdalensberg i s t he s econd h ighest o f t he h ills i n t he c hain between t he G lan a nd t he G urk, r ising a t i ts peak t o 1 058m a bove s ea l evel. I ts position g ives i t c ontrol o f one o f t he main r outes t o t he n orth, b ut a lso o f t he Drava a f ew k ilometres t o t he s outh, a nd s o o f the passes i nto I taly a s well. T he summit i s c rowned by a h ill-fort, a nd a round i t r un t erraces, f orming a s ettlement c omplex c overing a bout 3 50ha. Occupation s tarts s ometime i n I B . C., but i t was f inally a bandoned i n f avour o f V irunum ( Zollfeld) f ounded i n 4 5 A .D. I t i s c lear b oth f rom t he s ize o f t he s ettlement i n r elationship t o the a gricultural l and a vailable, a nd f rom t he nature o f t he f inds t hat trade was the main o ccupation o f the i nhabitants. The e arliest p eriod i s t he l east well d ocumented. I t i s a ssumed t hat t he h ill-fort o n t he s ummit belongs t o the early phase, a nd i t i s o bvious t hat c onsiderations o f d efence played a major r ole i n t he original f oundation of t he s ettlement. Excavation o f t he f ort has been c onfined t o t renching the r amparts, which s how two phases o f c onstruction, t he e arlier w ith s ome s ort o f t imber p alisad ing, t he l ater a 4 m wide bank with i nternal a nd e xternal s tone r evetment, a nd a pparently s ome s ort o f s tone b ox c onstruction i n t he c ore. One o f t he e arliest buildings, e xcavated i n 1 954-55, c onsisted o f a t imber a nd daub c onstruction 8 .10m b y 1 1.10m, with a small e nclosure a ttached, a nd p ossibly with a veranda on t he s outhern s ide. F inds i nclude a s tone weight f or weighing c orn. A lso f rom t he e arly period i n t he same a rea were f ragments o f I talian b ronzes ( an Aylesford pan a nd a bowl with i vy l eaf a ttachment), Campanian and r elated 8 0

wares, a n ANTIOCHVS Aco beaker, a nd b one l abels w ith t he names of I talian t raders. T here were a lso s ome Arclwd brooches o f i ron, G raphittonkeramik, a nd painted w ares The l ater d eposits produced s tamped a mphorae, Campanian a nd A rretine wares, Aucissa a nd Thistle brooches, a s well a s m any s ilver c oins. S imilar f inds c ame f rom a t imber building e xcavated i n 1 960-1. The f loor o f the r oom, 3 .6 by 3 .45m was s unk i nto t he g round, a nd h ad a t imber-lined pit i n the n orthwest c orner. The f inds i nclude e arly Augustan t erra s igillata, a Campanian vessel, a n i ron Kladius, a f ragment o f a bronze bowl w ith v ine-leaf a ttachment, a Carnelian g em, a b rooch w ith c omplex f oot, a nd 4 s ilver minims. The earliest masonry b uildings may a lso belong t o a n e arly period, notably t he s mall square buildings w ith c ellars, such a s house OR/23, which was a bout 4 .60m s quare. The cellar was e ntered by a t imber s taircase, a nd i n o ne corner was l aid a mosaic pavement a round a h earth. A t l east two o f t he walls b ore painted d ecoration, a nd two marble bases h int a t s ome r eligious a ctivity. L ater the basement had been u sed a s a s tore, a nd on i ts walls, a s on t he walls o f o ther basements h ad been s cratched n cte3 about the owner's t rading a ctivities ( Egger 1 961). T hese 3 00 o r more i nscriptions a re uniquely i nformat ive a bout t he n ature o f t he t rade, a nd though i n date perhaps a l ittle l ater t han t he p eriod t hat most c oncerns us, t hey must r eflect t he s ituation i n t he F irst Century B . C. We a re t old o f t he o bjects t raded: a nuli ( rings), i nci ldes ( anvils), s ecures ( axes), u nci ( hooks), urcei ( handled jugs), c adi ( jugs), c umbae ( cauldrons), d isci ( platters), a nd s cifi ( beakers). These a ll r efer t o metal vessels, and mainly o nes o f i ron. Occasionally more precise details are g iven ( inscription 1 2): emit CX cumbas pondo XV S ineros A c luilea ( Sineros o f Aquilea has b ought 1 10 cauldrons o f the 1 5 pound variety), o r ( inscription 2 7), d isci p . XI ( platters o f 1 1 pound s ize. The j ugs a nd platters were o ften s old i n batches o f 1 00, t hough batches of 5 00 p latters a re mentioned i n n ine c ases. Exceptional numbers a re o f 6 15 jugs, a nd 5 65 c auldrons. Rings a nd hooks a re u sually s old i n q uantities of 5 00 plus. Mentions of t he h ome t owns o f t rading partners a re s hown i n F ig. 26. As m ight be e xpected, northern I taly i s prominent, t hough t he Mauretanian e xample, i f c orrect, i s m ore surprising. T rade a pparently c ontinued throughout the w inter e ven when t he A lpine r outes were c losed, but the m ention o f the m onth o f July i s a t l east important, showing the i nscriptions belong t o a date a fter the reformation o f the C alendar i n 4 6-44 B .C. There a re a lso mentions o f f inancial a rrangements, o f c redit a nd l oans, a nd f oür t imes o f payment i n g old, t hough only one g old c oin h as been f ound i n a ny o f t he c oin hoards. I ron was c learly a major e xport, and we have c omplimentary references t o t he quality o f Norican i ron both f rom Petronius, a nd Pliny, t he l atter c omparing i t 8 1

i n

e 2

Z 0 J D 1 L A . 1 > >

-

z o c o

M a g d a l e n s b e r g .

M A G D A L E N S B E R G •

0

c u 1-5

w 1. 5 0 4 -C-

0 0

W " 0 0

u b ( N i t i l

L i :

r• -eA l ---

quality with t hat o f t he Parthians a nd t he Chinese. O n t he M agdalensberg e vidence o f i ron working, o f s lag a nd ovens, c omes mainly f rom t he e arlier l evels. A nalysis by S chaaber ( 1963) has s hown t hat mild s teel with 0 .8-1.0% o f c arbon was b eing r egularly p roduced, a nd was n ot merely used f or a rtifacts l ike c hisels, b ut a lso f or n ails. Trade f rom I taly i s b est d ocumented by t he r ich f inds o f pottery, Campanian a nd r elated b lack-gloss wares, l ater r eplaced by red-gloss i ncluding Arretine. A nother e arly i mport a re t he A co-beakers ( which o ccur a t O beraden, but a re o nly r epresented b y t wo e xamples a t Haltern a nd s o a re a lready o n t he way out b y t he l ast d ecade B .C.). Whether t hese a re G aulish products ( production i s d ocumented i n t he L yons a rea) o r n orth I talian i s unknown. From Campania c ome numerous a mphorae, a nd presumably t he bronze vessels, n otably e xamples o f W erner's groups B a nd G . The l arger N orican s ilver c oins a re g enerally r are on t he Magdalensberg, a nd R oman d enarii were o bviously quickly r eplacing t hem. V ery c ommon however a re t he s ilver minims w ith e ither c ross o r h orse r everse. O f c onsiderable c hronological i mportance a re t he h oards f rom the M agdalensberg. H oard 1 c omes f rom a l atrine p it o f period 1 , while h oards 2 a nd 2a were b locked up i n a wall c lose t o o ne-another a nd presumably a re r eally parts of t he same hoard. They a re i mportant i n d emonstrating the r ange o f Roman Republican c oinage which was s till c irculating i n t he a rea i n t he l ate Augustan a nd T iberian periods, a nd d emonstrate t hat the s tray f inds f rom t he Magdalensberg c an b e e xplained e ntirely a s r epresenting l osses i n t he Augustan p eriod, a nd n ot e arlier. A lso, the s mall h oard 3 , w ith i ts l atest c oin o f t he 3 0's B .C. need i mply n o s uch e arly date f or i ts d eposition. I t i s o f i nterest t o n ote t he n ative c oinage i n c irculation, and t he percentage o f n ative i s h igher i n t he presumably earlier hoard 1 t han i n hoard 2 , but until f ull l ists o f the s tratigraphy o f a ll t he s tray f inds a re published i t w ill not be possible t o d ocument f ully t he g radual o r sudden r eplacement o f native by Roman c oinage. However the l arge n umbers o f minims i n t he h oards d o provide more s upport f or a l ate date f or much o f t he eastern European minim production. The only e vidence f or c oin minting on t he s ite i s a s ingle impression on a pot f or casting a G urina t ype s ilver m inim. I n c onclusion i t c annot b e d oubted t hat t he Magdalensberg was a major t rading c entre a t t he e nd o f I B . C., and t hat f oreign t raders, e specially I talians were resident on t he s ite. However t he nature o f the b rooches, the R oman c oins, a nd t he t ypes o f i mports s uch a s ACObeakers which occur i n t he primary l evels s uggest a n Augustan date f or i ts f oundation, a nd t here i s n o e vidence that o ccupation s tarted a s early a s 5 0 B .C.

8 3

3 /5

H ill

t op

s ettlement

The Umlaufberg bei

Kamp

Ladenbauer -Orel

1 959

Often referred t o a s a major s ettlement, i t has produced painted wares a nd G raphittonkeramik. Though s ituated o n a h ill, t here i s n o e vidence that i t was d efended. 3 /6

The

Salzburg-Hallein

a rea

A number o f s ites h ave been d escribed a s b ppida' o r ' urban-like c entres', but none of t he s ites has b een s ystematically s tudied. Mention o f t hese s ites come mainl y f rom a rticles by H ell, on i ron h orseshoes o f possible Late La Tene date ( 1963 1 ), o n a d istinctive s oapy d omestic pottery o f Late La T ene-Roman date ( 1963b), a nd on p otte ry marks ( 1956), a s well a s f rom Kappel ( 1969), a nd Werner ( 1961). The s ites a re: 3 /6.1

The Rainberg,

S alzburg

H ill-fort d escribed by Hell a s a n ' oppidum ', it has p roduced G raphittonkeramik, a winged belt-hook, a nd 6 i ron horseshoes. There a re two s ilver minims, o ne of Bl ischel t ype, a nd one o f KAAETEAOU ( Castelin 1 971). 3 /6.2 The Hellbrunnerberg, G raphittonkeramik. 3 /6.3

The Ramsaukopf,

Salzburg has produced

Dl irrnberg bei Hallein.

Most famous f or i ts Early L a T ene g raves, t his salt s ite has been d escribed by Hell a s ' ein i ndustria lles G emeinwesen von s tadtartigen Character'. The s urface f inds i nclude G raphittonkeramik a nd s oapy w ares. There a re t wo c oins, a gold 1 /2 4 s tater o f a t ype f ound a lso a t Manching ( Kellner 1 961), a nd a Tectosages c ross s ilver minim o f l ate Dühren t ype ( Castelin 1 971). 3 /6.4 The G eorgenberg bei K uchl ( Hell 1 927, 1 950) i s a s pur s ite a t t he head o f the valley j ust north of P ass Lueg. Occupation i s d ocumented t hroughout t he Hallstatt a nd La Tene periods. Besides much G raphittonkeramik, t he s ite has produced a s hield f itment o f a t ype k nown a lso f rom Velem S t. V id. F inds a re e specially rich o n a t errace o n t he n orth s ide, a nd i ron working i s d ocumented. Excavations b y Werner a re u npublished. 3 /6

. 5 B iberg bei Saalfeld l ies on t he Saalach, south of t he S teinpass, o n t he same n orth-south r oute a s the Karlstein, while a ccess t o t he s outh i s possible o ver the Hoch T or Pass. The s ite has produced G raphittonkeramik, a La e La Tene brooch, a belt-hook a nd a horseshoe.

8 4

4 .

Moravia

Moravia i s o rientated both t o n orth a nd s outh, and d uring prehistoric t imes f ormed a major r oute between the B altic a nd c entral Europe. I n t he s outh a nd n orthwest t he Morava a nd i t t ributaries f low s outhwards t o join t he Danube a t D4vin, n ear Bratislava, i n i ts s outhern part f lowing t hrough r ich l öss t errain. The n orth-east contains t he h ead waters o f t he Oder, which provides t he major r oute t hrough t he Carpathians. East a nd west o f these a gricultural a reas a re h ighland z ones which s eparate Moravia f rom Bohemia a nd S lovakia. The c ultural d istribution i n t he I ron Age r eflects this g eographical p attern. I n t he n orth a fter t he d isappearance o f t he L ausitz c ulture a t t he e nd o f t he Hallstatt period there i s a n a rchaeological b lank until t he a ppearance of t he Puchov c ulture, a nd e ven t his i s p oorly r epresented in c omparison t o n orthern S lovakia. On t he l öss a reas i n t he s outh t he Hallstatt H orakov c ulture i s r eplaced by a c lassic La Tene c ulture w ith s mall f arming s ettlements a nd La Tene B -C f lat c emeteries ( Fig. 2 5), mainly i nhumation, but especially i n M iddle La T ene t ending t owards c remation. As i n B ohemia, a number o f h ill-forts have produced material f rom t he Hallstatt-La Tene t ransition, but n one show continuity i nto Late La Tene. G raphite occurs w idely i n s outhern Moravia, a nd the wide s catter o f s ources l ead a pparently t o a more d ecentral ised p ottery i ndustry t han i n o ther a reas. A lready by Middle La Tene s ome s ettlements s uch a s Mistl iin a nd S t elice seem t o be more t han s imple f arming s ettlements ( Ludikovsky 1 971), b ut when t hey a ppear t he oppida, S tare H radisko, H ostYn, Pohanskä a nd i n Austria t he Oberleiserberg, a re a ll p eripheral t o t he a gricultural a reas and t o the main r ivers. The Braunsberg i s t he one exception. G enerally t hey l ie o n t he borders o f t he h ighland a nd l owland z ones, a nd a re orientated t owards i ron sources. 4 /1

O ppida

4 /1. 1

S tare Hradisko, Male Hradisko, Kr. Prostejov ( Skutil 1 950, 1 963; Meduna 1 961, 1 970a, 1 970b, ( Figs 2 7, 2 8)

1 971)

The s ite l ies o n t he eastern s ide o f a n orth-south r idge o f hills, t he D rahanskä vrchovina, overlooking t he r ich l öss plain o f t he Hanä which was d ensely s ettled i n the L a Tene p eriod. T here a re i ron s ources i n t he v icinity. Excavations by L ipka a nd S n ' etina i n t he 1 900's produced r ich f inds but n o p lans o f t heir a reas s urvive. Between 1 934-37 Böhm a nd S kutil s tripped a n a rea i n t he western Vorburg, and s ectioned t he western ramparts a nd t he s outhwestern entrance, b ut much o f the d ocumentation has been l ost. M eduna c leared a n a rea o f 0 .5ha i n t he Vorburg, 1 964-67. 8 5

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The d efences l ie o n a s pur with s teep s lopes t o n orth a nd s outh, d ropping 9 0m t o minor s treams. Access i s p ossible f rom t he e ast but e asiest f rom t he west where t he most e laborate d efences l ie. The ramparts a re c ontinuous a round t he s pur, but o nly t he western h ave been s ectioned. The c entral e nclosure c ontains 2 3.5ha, a nd t he western Vorburg a f urther 1 3.5ha, a t otal o f 3 8ha, but t here i s e vidence o f o ccupation o utside t he western d efences a s well. T he i nner bank i s o f K elheim c onstruct ion with p osts l m a part, a nd a d ouble d itch a nd palisade i n f ront. There i s o nly o ne phase o f c onstruction, whereas t he o uter d efence was r ebuilt. The e arlier phase o f K elheim c onstruction w ith posts 1 .2m a part h ad a s ingle d itch i n f ront o f i t. T his d itch was l ater f illed a nd a wall 2m t hick c onstructed o n t op o f i t, w ith upr ight posts a nd a massive p lank r evetment. There were f our d itches i n f ront w ith a t otal width o f 1 2m. T here a re three d efinite e ntrances a ll o f Z angentor t ype. O nly o ne phase o f c onstruction was f ound i n t he s outh-west e ntrance, a nd o nly d rystone walling with n o t imber upr ights was u sed n ear t he e ntrance. Large s tone ' pillars' i ncorporated i nto t he d rystone walls c ould have s upported a b ridge o ver t he g ateway. A c obbled r oad 4m w ide w ith r uts 1 .2m a part l ead i nto t he i nterior o f t he o ppidum. Meduna 's e xcavations h ave r evealed parts o f a t l east f ive buildings o f c ourtyard t ype s urrounded by c ontinuous palisades, a nd a ligned on a n i rregular c hessb oard of s treets. These a re up t o 5 m i n w idth w ith a f oundation o f l ocal G reywacke a nd occasional q uernstones, s urfaced w ith b roken s chist. The l ayout within t he c ourtyards i s d ifficult t o r econstruct - o ne r ectangular h ouse c onsisted o f a c ontinuous palisade, but o nly t hree o ther buildings c an b e r ecognised f rom t he j umble o f p ost-holes. O f t he 2 3 G rubenhäuser o nly t hree c ontained h earths. Most a re a ligned on t he e nclosures a nd a re o bviously a n i ntegral part of t heir l ayout. More unusual s tructures a re f our p ottery k ilns, a water-hole, a nd two c ircular f eatures 1 .8m i n d iameter a ssociated w ith q uerns, a nd perhaps s ome s ort o f m ill. There a re a f ew i rregular rubbish pits, but t he n ature o f t he r ock s ubsoil prevents t he , d igging o f s torage p its. Evidence f or i ndustry i ncludes i ron-working ( slag a nd smithing t ools), g lass-working ( raw g lass l umps), a nd c oin minting. F ragments o f pellet moulds had t races o f g old i n t he h ollows, a nd f or s ilver c oins t here was a n u nused s ilver f lan, a nd a l ead t rial piece bearing f our i mpressions o f a h orse r everse, perhaps f rom a Karlsteiner t ype minim. Each i ndustry i s n ot s pecifically a ssociated w ith a s ingle e nclosure, g iving t he impression o f n ons pecialization. E ight c oins were f ound, 4 g old minims o f t he A thene-Alkis g roup, a plated ' Muschel' c oin a nd 3 s ilver minims, t wo o f Karlsteiner t ype. Earlier f inds l isted by Meduna ( 1970A) t otal 3 3, 2 s taters, t hree 1 /3, s even 1 /8 , a nd 2 0 1 /24, a nd where i dentifiable a ll o f t he A thene-Alkis o f ' Muschel' s eries. Skutil ( 1950) r ecords

8 7

S t a r e H r a d i s k o , e x c a v t e d

a G allic potin c oin ( BN 8 124). A ll o f Meduna's c oins were f ound on t he s treets, a s were t he f ew f ragments o f g lass bracelets, which were c ommon i n earlier e xcavations, a nd he s uggests there may be s ome s ocial d ifferentiation between d ifferent a reas i n t he o ppidum . F ine p ottery, especially painted wares a re r are, t hough Graphittonkeramik i s c ommon. Trade with t he north i s d ocumented e specially by t he c ommon occurrence o f amber. Objects a re rare, a nd t he majority i s o bviously waste f rom t he manufacture o f objects. Skutil has d ocumented t he r oute b y means o f h oard f inds i n Poland. A s early a s 1 627 KomenskY. r efers t o t he s ite a s ' Hradisco ubi myrrha e ffoditur' b y which h e probably means amber. One or t wo pot s herds with f acetted r ims a nd barshaped belt-hooks a re o f n orthern t ypes. From t he Mediterranean c ome bronze v essels, millefiori g lass a nd a s ingle f ragment o f a mphora. Dating must r ely o n t he brooches. A s ingle d eveloped Dux f ibula a nd a t ypologically early Middle La Tene brooch can p erhaps be i gnored a nd t he main s eries s tarts w ith several e xamples o f the Mötschwil a nd r elated t ypes. Kostrewski D /E a nd K . Beltz J , Nauheim, s poon-bow a nd Cenisola brooches a ll occur i n varying numbers, a nd t he sequence e nds with t he c ommon A lmgren 6 5 ( Stradonice type) and a s ingle Aucissa brooch. One o r two brooches have an e laborate p ierced f oot, b ut Arched f ibulae a re totally a bsent. 4 /1.2

HostY.n ,

C hval &w,

K r.

Krom g. . iz

Ludikovsky

1 971

V isible f rom S tare Hradisko a cross t he Han. Plain, HostYn l ies o n a western o utlier o f t he Moravian White Carpathians. I t t oo i s a s pur s ite, with d efences enclosing n early 1 8ha. Occupation i s a lso l ikely outside the western ramparts where t he g round i s protected by natural f eatures. I n p laces t he western rampart i s 8 -9m high a nd 1 8m a cross. The s ingle d efinite e ntrance i s o f Zangentor t ype a nd l ies on t he s outh-west s ide. I ron production i s well d ocumented i n t he a rea i n medieval times, and must have been i mportant i n the La Tene period t o j udge b y f inds o f a xes, c hisels, h orse g ear as w ell a s a hoard of 1 2 s ickles f ound under a quern. Among the c hance f inds f ine pottery i s rare, t hough Graphittonkeramik o ccurs, but t he majority of t he pottery is made by hand o r o n a s low wheel. 4 /1.3

Pohanskä,

P lavecke Podhradi,

Kr.

S enice

( Paulik 1 970)

The d efended a rea o f 3 8ha i s e ntered by a t l east one e ntrance of i nturned t ype. The i nner d efended a rea has produced Late Bronze Age a nd Early La Tene f inds, a s well as L ate La Tene. W ithin t he ramparts i s a quarry a pparently p roducing querns a nd s tone f igures, a nd there a re hoards of i ron objects. H owever t he nature of t he s ite has y et to be d emonstrated. 8 9

5 .

B ohemia

G eographically B ohemia can b e d ivided into t wo main a reas ( Fig. 2 9). T he n orth, d ivided f rom East G ermany a nd Poland by t he Erzgebirge, p ierced o nly by t he E lbe, i s e ssentially a l owland z one o f g ently r olling l öss h ills, r ich f or a griculture. S outh o f Prague i n t he basin o f the V ltava s tarts t he h ighland z one w ith i ts raw r esources s uch a s i ron, g raphite a nd s apropelite, but w ith g ood a gricultural a reas e specially o n t he B erounka a round Pilsen, a nd o n t he Ondava a round S trakonice. T he g eographical d ivision i s s trongly marked b y d ifferent c ultural s equences i n t he h ighland a nd l owland z ones. I n t he n orth, a fter t he r ich d evelopment i n H allstatt C o f t he B ylany C ulture, t he l ate Hallstatt phase i s marked by small c remation c emeteries o f t he C itoliby Type a nd the a ppearance o f s mall o pen f arming s ettlements which c ontinue i n s ome c ases i nto t he L a T ene period. I n La T ene B t he burial r ite s uddenly c hanges t o f lat i nhumation, with weapons and o rnaments, but rarely p ottery. This i s F ilip's ' Dux h orizon' c haracterised b y brooches o f Dux a nd M ünsingen types ( Filip 1 956). The c emeteries a nd s ettlements both c ontinue i n L a n ne C , but t hen t otally d isappear. O nly o ne s ettlement N ov YB ydZ 'ov, Chudonice s hows c ontinuity f rom M iddle La Tbne i nto t he R oman I ron Age ( Rybovä 1 964). Otherwise, a nd with t he e xception o f t he e xtreme n orth n orthern B ohemia i s a n a rchaeological b lank u ntil t he Roman I ron Age. A lready by M iddle La Tene i n t he n orth a round t he E lbe g orge c remation burials o f t he Podmokly ( Bodenbach) g roup h ave a ppeared, w ith r elationships t o t he north. This n orthern c onnection-is r einforced by Late La T ene by t he K obyly g roup o f c remation burials, c losely r elated t o t he P rzeworsk Culture o f s outhern P oland. Then i n the R oman I ron Age a ppears t he P lanany G roup, a branch o f the E lbe-Germanic Culture, a nd t his rapidly e xpands throughout n orthern B ohemia, a nd p enetrates t he s outh a s well. A t t he e nd o f t he Hallstatt period, i n c entral B ohemia, a nd e specially a round P ilsen a nd more rarely in s outhern B ohemia a re f ound c remation c emeteries related t o t he C itolibz g roup ( galdovä 1 955), a nd t hese certainly c onti nue i nto La Tene A a s d emonstrated by f inds l ike t he brooch f rom Man kin ( Soudskä 1 968) a nd t hey may have s urvived l ater. T he d istribution o f c remation c emeteries overlaps w ith t hat o f barrow burials, t hough t hese s how a greater c oncentration i n t he s outh. S ome c ontain r ich burials w ith M editerranean i mports o f L a r I ne A a s a t Chlum a nd Pisek, T he burial r ite i s a gain u sually c remation. T hese t umuli c ontinue l ater a s s hown b y Dux a nd e ven M iddle La T ene b rooches ( Jansovä 1 962), but g rave-goods a re r are. A n umber o f h ill-forts a lso belong t o t he Hallstatt-La T ene t ransition, S edlo, Venec, a nd t he e specially Z ävist, b ut g enerally t heir d istribution i s t otally d ifferent f rom t he o ppida, a way f rom t he main r iver r outes. Open s ettlements s imilar t o t hose i n t he n orth a re k nown, s ometimes s urrounded by r ectangular palisades, a s a t Krasovice, Kr. 9 0

L A T ENE

A -C

-F LAT GRAVES T T UMUL I •C REMAT IONS L A T ENE C -D

E l OPP IDA • H I LLFORTS

F i g .29 .

S edl Uny, w ith p ost built h ouses a nd G rubenhäuser ( Jansovä 1 956; S oudskä 1 966). Unlike t he n orth t hese s ettlements c ontinue i nto L ate L a T ene. The o ppida a re g enerally s ituated on well-defended s pur s ites, a nd o nly S tradonice l ies o n a n i solated hill. One g roup, S tradonice, Z ävist, a nd C eskY Lhotice l ie on t he i nterface b etween t he h ighland a nd l owland zones, t hough t here may a lso have been s ome f orm o f east-west r oute l inking u p w ith S tare Hradisko a nd HostYn i n M ora via . A s econd g roup, Z ävist, H razany, Nevgsice a nd 1 1 .isov l ine o n t he n orth-south r oute a long t he Vltava which p resumably c ontinues d own t o L inz. G enerally t he d evelopment o f t he oppida begins i n l ate La T ene C , but t wo a t l east, Hrazany a nd Z ävist, were v iolently d estroyed a t the b eginning o f t he R oman p eriod when a ll t he s ite were d eserted. This i s presumably l inked w ith t he a ppearance o f t he P lar iany G roup, a nd t he h istorical e xpansion o f t he Marcomanni under M oroboduus ( Mähling 1 944; Motykoväg nejdrovä 1 963). 5 /1

O ppida

5 /1.1

§ tradonice, B erouna P i C1 902; S nejdrovg 1 962; •Castelin 1 956, 1 959a

Be i 1 964; Motykovä1 956a, 1 957a , 1 959,

The most famous o f a ll t he C zech o ppida, S tradon ice o ccupies a h ill o n t he s outhern e dge o f the B erounka . There a re a pparently two main e nclosures with s tone a nd t imber ramparts, t hough no d etails o f t he c onstruction are a vailable. The e nclosed a rea i s a bout 8 0ha. After t he d iscovery o f a c oin hoard i n t he 1 870's, t he a rea w as s ystematically t urned o ver a nd l ooted, producing p erhaps t he l argest c ollection o f f inds f rom a ny o ppidum. A lmost n o i nformation i s preserved o f t he c ircumstances o f d iscovery o f t he f inds f rom various p rivate c ollections, a nd t he material i s n ow scattered b etween various museums, t he l argest g roup being i n t he Natural H istory Museum in V ienna . P i 's p ublication was mainly based o n the f inds i n Prague. The o nly s cientific work o n t he s ite a re the unpublished e xcavations by S tocky i n 1 929, a nd by M otykoväS nejdrovä on t he s ettlement, mainly o f R oman date, a t the f oot o f t he h ill. B i .er i l ists 6 85 brooches, which must f orm the b asis o f a ny c hronology. N ine e xamples o f Early La Tene c onstruction f orm t oo s mall a g roup t o be s ignificant, a nd early t ypes o f M iddle La T ene c onstruction a re rare. I n o ther w ords t here i s l ittle o r no o verlap with t he f lat i nhumation c emeteries t o t he n orth. Of t he l ater b rooches o f M iddle La Tr ie c onstruction, t here a re a f ew e xamples of M ötschwil a nd r elated t ypes, but t he bulk a re w ire brooches w ith i nternal c ord, a g eneral t ype which s eems t o be predam p lantly Late L a T ene i n d ate. The d ominant t ypes o f Late L a Tene c onstruction a re Nauheim, S poon-bow a nd S tradonice t ypes. Elaborate p ierced c atchplates occur b ut a re very rare. The

9 2

s eries e nds with 3 proto-Pincers f ibulae, 4 S tronglyProfiled b rooches, a nd 1 Aucissa, but a s a n umber of l ater b rooches s urvive, t he s ignificance o f t hese r arer t ypes i s d ebatable. A rched-Bow f ibulae a re t otally a bsent. Thus S tradonice o nly d eveloped l ate i n La Tene C a t e arliest, a nd had been a bandoned by mid-Augustan t imes. The c hronology p ropounded f or t he c oinage c onflicts markedly w ith t he brooch t ypology, a s i t has b een s uggeste d t hat c oin s triking e nded c . 6 0-50 B .C. ( Castelin 1 962). However, t his i s b ased o n c orrelations o f weight o f g old s taters b etween B ohemia a nd Caesarian G aul, a nd o n t he a ssumption t hat t he i nscribed c oinage o f S lovakia i s c ont emporary w ith t he R oman d enarii t hat i nfluence i t. Neither a ssumption c an b e j ustified, a nd i t i s better t o base t he c hronology o n t he b rooch e vidence. On t he basis o f weight a nd t ypology Castelin has d efined f our main phases i n t he d evelopment o f t he c oinage ( Castelin 1 956, 1 957, 1 959a, 1 959b), o f which A most c losely r esembles t he Macedonian prototypes, a nd i s unrepresented a t S tradonice. Phase D which i ncludes t he i nscribed c oins o f t he B IATEC group, a re l ikewise n ot f ound, b eing a lmost e ntirely r estricted t o Pannonia . Both phases B a nd C a re r epresented a t S tradonice i n quantity. Most a re g old minims, t ermed 1 /3, 1 /8, a nd 1 /24 s taters, mainly o f t he A lkis-Athene a nd ' Muschel' s eries. A c oinage o f s ilver minims with a h orse r everse r esembling Gaulish t ypes a ppears i n phase C , a nd s everal hundred e xamples a re known. A lmost no r ecords survive o f t he a ssociations, but a t l east o ne g old hoard was f ound. Coins f rom outside i nclude s ome Roman Republic an b ronzes, but n o s ilver d enarii o f I B .C., Mauretanian c oins o f M icipsa a nd Masinissa, a nd s ome Gallic c oins, but n o d efinitive l ist has e ver been p roduced. S everal c oin mould f ragments c onfirm t he s triking o f c oins a t S tradonice. Amongst t he p ottery, both painted wares a nd Graphittonkeramik a re well r epresented, a nd t he r ich bronzes a nd i ronwork i nclude t he f amiliar t ools, pendants, s trap-ends, handles a nd s o o n. Fragments o f s everal I talian b ronze v essels a re known, e specially Aylesford pans. I ron s tyli a nd t he bone f rames f or wax tablets d emonstrate l iteracy. F rom t he e normous wealth a nd variety o f f inds o ne can o nly c onclude t hat S tradonice played t he d ominant r ole among t he C zech oppida. 5 /1.2

Zdvist

P roYek 1 947-8; Jansovd 1966a, 1 966b, Drda 1 971; Castelin 1 961 ( Fig. 3 0)

1 971;

The s iting o f t his o ppidum a t t he point where t he n orth-south r oute a long t he V ltava meets t he e ast-west r oute a long t he B erounka s hould proclaim this a s t he major s ite i n B ohemia, t he predecessor o f Prague 1 8km t o t he north. F rom t he p oint t o v iew of s ize i ts a rea, 1 70ha. might c onfirm this, but the r ichness o f the f inds f alls f ar s hort o f t hose f rom S tradonice. The oppidum e xtends o ver two h ills d ivided by a d eep narrow valley, t he 9 3

B eZanskY dol which c arries a s tream. The d rop d own t o the V ltava i s s teep, a nd a ccess i s easiest f rom the east, where a s eries o f c ross-dykes bar t he a pproach. The northern part o f t he oppidum, Sance, a ppears t o be a l ate addition, a nd t o j udge f rom t he causeways a cross t he d itches i n s everal p laces, l eft unfinished. I t has h owever produced e vidence o f occupation, a nd Jansovä has s uggested that t he o utwork o n t he n orthern s ide may be a V iereck schanze. The s outhern part o f t he o ppidum i s more c omplex, with a small i nner e nclosure, t he ' Acropolis ' a t t he s outh e nd o f a n i rregular i nner e nclosure c overed with t erraces. To t he s outh-east a t riangular ' bailey', Adamkova myto, i s a lso t erraced. T o t he s outh-east two l ines o f c rossdykes, t he o uter b ivallate r estrict a ccess t o t he i nner enclosure, a nd t he main r oute i nto t he i nterior has t o wind t hrough f our d ifferent e ntrances. S everal o f t he gates are o f Z angentor t ype. Further t o t he s outh-east, a n o utlying c ross-dyke partly d efines t he s outh-eastern ' bailey'. Excavations o n t he ' Acropolis' have d emonstrated earlier occupation, Neolithic, Bronze Age a nd a l ittle Hallstatt, but t he main c onstruction period belongs t o the H allstatt/La T ene t ransition, with a s tone box r ampart, a nd c omplex s tone f oundations within t he e nclosure, which Jansovä suggests a re n ot d omestic, a nd c ould be r eligious. Occupation b elonging to t he Dux h orizon a nd M iddle La n ne are a bsent, a nd t he a rea was not r efortified i n Late La Tene, when t he e arlier buildings were l evelled f or t he c onstruction o f t imber buildings i ncluding G rubenhäuser. Evidence o f i ndustry h ere i ncludes i ron-working, brooch manufacturing a nd f ragments o f c oin-pellet moulds d emons trate coin minting ( Castelin 1 961). The s outh-western bailey, 2 1.5ha. i n a rea has a lso produced o ccupation material i ncluding Hallstatt-La Tene f inds i n a t hin o ccupation l evel. There i s a gain a g ap i n t he occupation, a nd a fter a n i nitial Late La T ene phase, defences a re c onstructed. I nitially i t i s of dumped soil w ith a t imber f ramework o f horizontal beams j ointed i n w ith t he f ront wall ( Ehrang t ype ? ), but there are t wo phases o f r econstruction, i nvolving r ebuilding t he wall a nd l ater t he bank. Four t imber buildings were e xcavated, o ne overlying t he e arlier rampart produced a painted s herd, a nd t here i s e vidence o f i ron-working. T he s outh-eastern bailey o f 3 5ha was a lso occupied, a nd has p roduced t races o f a possible c ourtyard a nd a Grubenhäus.

h ouse

The e xcavation of the Zangentor gateway i n t he i nner cross-dyke s uggests i t t oo s tarts i n the Hallstatt-La Tr ie t ransition, f irst a s a t imber, a nd l ater a s a s toner evetted bank. The Late La Tbne phase c onsists o f a Preist type c onstruction, but t ied back i nto t he rampart by means of h orizontal t imbers. A palisade ran a long t he outside 9 5

H RAZANY

- --

o f t he d itch, a nd a possible g uardhouse s tood j ust outside t he gate. The e ntrance had f inally been blocked b y a t imber-revetted c lay bank r unning a cross t he g ate a s a t H razany, a nd this s howed s igns o f v iolent d estruction. A c ache o f s lingstones was f ound n ear t he e ntrance. 5 /1.3

C ie skd Lhotice,

Nasavrk

Dehn

1 964;

Jansovä 1 965

The main a rea i s d efended by t hree parallel banks with d itches e nclosing 2 0ha, with a f urther 1 0ha e nclosed by a possible ' bailey'. There i s a Z angentor o n t he s outh-west s ide. F ragments of painted pottery a nd Graphittonkeramik have been p icked up. The s ite i s r ich i n i ron o res a nd l ies o n t he l öss h ighland i nterface o verlooking t he u pper r eaches o f t he Elbe. 5 /1.4

Hrazany,

S edl Uny

J ansovä 1 959-60,

1 965

( Figs

3 1-33)

The oppidum l ies o n a s pur o f h igh g round between t he Vltava a nd a s mall s tream, t he Mastnik. The main e nclosure o f v3 0ha o ccupies a saddle with h ills t o t he n orth-east ( Cervenka) a nd t he s outh-west ( Doubl). F our e ntrances, two o f t hem Zangentore e nter t he e nclosure, one g ate on e ach major s ide. The h illsides within s how e xtensive s igns o f t erracing. Both o f t he h ills a re f urther d efended b y e xternal e nclosures e ntered by Z angentore. The d efences o f o nly t he i nner e nclosure have b een sectioned, a nd d emonstrate two phases o f c onstruction, b oth of K elheim t ype, t hough i n o ne c ase the back o f t he b ank was p lank r evetted. I n t he c entre o f t he s ite t wo c ourtyard h ouses have b een extensively e xcavated, d ivided by a s treet, c obbled i n p laces. Each h ad i ts own wells, a nd G rubenhäuser with h earths a nd o ther a ncilliary buildings. Jansovä i nterprets t hem a s primarily a gricultural. On the s outh-facing s lope o f ervenka the t erraces were o ccupied by rectangular h ouses with walls o f d rystone a nd v ertical t imber posts, t he l argest up t o 2 0m l ong. Bronze working i s d emonstrated by a c lay mould f or a belt f itting, a nd i ron s lag o ccurred i n q uantity a round t he n orth a nd west gates. Painted pottery i s rare, but G raphittonkeramik c ommon. O nly three c oins were f ound, two s ilver minims with horse r everse, a nd a g old 1 /8 s tater o f ' Muschel' t ype. G lass beads occur, but n ot bracelets, a nd i ron a nd bronze objects, a rrowheads, s purs, keys, horse-trappings, e tc. a re s imilar but rarer t han t hose f rom S tradonice. The brooches i nclude o ne o f Mötschwil t ype, s everal o f Middle La Tene c onstruction w ith internal c ord, t rue Nauheims, a wire Nauheim, Lauterach, 1 S poon-bow, a nd 3 S tradonice t ypes. 5 /1.5

Nev Uice,

M irovic

S voboda 1 950;

Jansovd 1 965

This i s a small s ite o f only 1 5ha, occupying a s pur overlooking t he Vltava . I t was d efended by a bank o f Preist c onstruction with two d itches i n f ront. There a re

9 7

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F i g . 3 3 : H razany : r econstruc t ion o f p a l isaded e nc losures ,

f inds o f painted wares 5 /1.6

T isov,

a nd G raphittonkeramik.

C eskg K rumlov

B i 'er i 1 966,

1 971

L ike Hrazany, t his 2 6ha s ite o ccupies a s addles haped s pur a bove t he V ltava. I t i s o nly d efended o n i ts western s ide, b y a pair o f widely s paced ramparts. The a rea between i s o ccupied by a n u nusual s ystem of p arallel d itches a nd s tone-revetted banks, a pparently c ontemporary with t he c onstruction o f t he o uter r ampart. The i nner bank i s o f K elheim c onstruction, t hough t he d ry-stone walling i s varied by a t l east two l ayers o f much l arger b locks. T his d efence p ossesses a Z angentor. The o uter g ate i s d ouble, one o pening t aking t he r oad, the o ther a s tream, with a wall b etween. Two t ypes o f h ouse h ave been e xcavated. Some o f post-hole c onstruction 7 -9 b y 3 -4m c ontain s torage p its but n ever h earths, whereas t he G rubenhäuser a lways h ave h earths. There i s l ittle e vidence s o f ar o f i ndustry, but t here a re l ocal i ron d eposits, a nd more i mportant, Ilisov must h ave been a major c entre f or t he production o f G raphittonkeramik. Two phases o f o ccupation have been d istinguished, t he e arlier with Nauheim a nd M iddle La T ene t ypes w ith i nternal c hord predominating, a nd S tradonice t ypes o ccurring i n both p hases. H ill-forts 5 /2.1

Z vikov,

Jansova 1 965

Underlying t he medieval c astle which overlooks t he c onfluence o f t he O tava a nd the V ltava, t races o f a small d efended s ite o f a bout l ha have b een d iscovered. The d efences c onsist o f a s tone-revetted rampart, p erhaps o f K elheim t ype. The s ite h as produced traces of i ronworking, a nd o f L ate L a Tene pottery. 5 /2.2

S edlo,

S ul/i ce

S treit

1 934;

Dubsky 1 949

W ithin the Hallstatt/La Tene h ill-fort are t races o f Late L a T ene occupation w ith painted pottery, G raphittonkeramik, a nd a bronze handle, but t here i s no evidence t hat t he d efences were r efurbished.

1 00

6 .

Bavaria

There a re e ssentially three main g eographical a reas running east-west a cross Bavaria, a nd t he c ultural d istributions a re s trongly r eflected i n t hem . I n t he north there i s a h ighland z one d ominated b y t he l imestone a nd d olomite o f t he Jurahochfläche, which f orms part o f the c rescent o f h ighland which r uns f rom t he E ifel t o S outhern Bohemia. The c ultural s equence f ollows t he neighbouring a reas o f Bohemia a nd H esse. There i s a r ich Early La T ene d evelopment ( Reinecke A ) w ith multiple i nhumation burials u nder t umuli ( Kersten 1 933). The d istribution o f t hese burials extends f rom t he h eadwaters o f t he Main i n t he n orth t o t he A ltmühl i n t he s outh. Major brooch t ypes i nclude a nimal s haped, a nimal h ead, a nd m ask f ibulae, t he most famous b eing t he Parsberg brooch, while a mong t he pottery t he L insenflasche i s o f c ommon occurrence. Exceptionally r ich Fürstengräber a re however a bsent, t hough o ccasional i mported v essels occur l ike t he bronze d ishes f rom L oisnitz. Dux a nd M ünsingen brooches a re unknown, a nd a s i n t he n eighbouring a reas there i s a g ap b etween Early La T ene a nd Late La Tene which i s probably m ore a pparent t han r eal. The t wo major h ill-forts i n t he a rea, t he Houbirg a nd t he S taffelberg both p roduce Early L a Tene a nd Late La Tene material. T he s econd major z one, t he Danube v alley, i s o ne o f l öss, g ravel a nd f luvial s ediments. The s equence h ere i s d ifferent, w ith R einecke A unrepresented. This i s t rue a lso o f t he t hird, s outhern-most z one, t hat o f t he Alpine f oothills, a nd t hroughout La TAne t he s equence o f these two a reas s eems t o b e broadly parallel. During Reinecke B f lat i nhumation c emeteries a ppear, t he t ype s ites being S teinbichel a nd Hundsrücken a t Manching. These c emeteries c ontinue until n early t he e nd o f Reinecke C , when a pparently burials become poorer i n grave-goods, a s i n S witzerland ( Krämer 1 952). According t o Krämer' s c hart o f t ypes ( 1962 Abb.1) Mötschwil brooches a re a bsent f rom t he c emeteries, b ut t hey d o occur on t he s ettlement a rea a t Manching. I t i s early i n Reinecke C that t he s ettlement i nside t he Manching o ppidum b egins t o d evelop a s t he e arly ' C' brooches a re r epresented ( Stöckli 1 975). A lready by L ate La Te 'ne, i f n ot b efore, t here a ppear the V iereckschanzen, t he s quare e nclosures o f r eligious function with t heir s hafts a nd c ult h ouses ( Schwarz 1 960, 1 962). The d istribution, e ssentially s outh o f t he Danube, a nd u p i nto t he f oot-hills o f the A lps must r eflect that o f t he minor f arming a nd v illage s ettlements o f which we know s o l ittle. T he e nd o f the Late La T ene period i s c louded i n s ome mystery. The Roman c onquest c omes i n 1 5-14 B . C. w hen we h ear o f t he d efeat o f t he V indelici. To j udge f rom t he brooch f inds, Manching d id not s urvive t he c onquest, indeed I w ould suggest i t had a lready c eased t o e xist, a s A ugustan b rooch t ypes s eem t o be t otally a bsent. Arch-

1 01

a eologically t he a rea i s t hen a blank until t he f oundat ion o f t he Roman f orts such a s Oberstimm i n t he C laudian t o F lavian period ( Schönberger 1 969). Krämer has i dentif ied a s eries o f l ate c remation g raves d esignated Reinecke D2 c haracterised by n orthern ' Germanic' t ypes o f b elthooks, a nd f ibulae s uch a s Beltz J a nd h igh-arched f orms which a re n ot f ound a t Manching . These burials a re c onfined t o t hat a rea t o the e ast o f t he I sar, and a re the c ultural predecessors o f the early Roman i nhumation burials. O f t he major Late La Tene s ettlements i n Bavaria, t he Karlstein w ith i ts h igh-arched f ibulae a nd o ther ' Germanic' t ypes c ertainly s urvived i nto t his p eriod, a nd Kelheim t oo has produced s ome l ate t ypes o f pottery, a nd may out-live Manching. Under Augustus t he Roman d efensive l ine was d rawn a long t he f oot-hills o f t he A lps, based on c entres s uch a s Cambodunum ( Kempten), a nd t he s ites o f the A uerberg a nd Fentbach which have b een t entatively termed oppida may f it more happily i nto a Roman military c ontext. 6 /1

Oppida

0 1.1

S chwanberg,

1 pfhofen,

K itzingen/Main.

Pescheck

1 963

This s pur s ite has t hree main l ines o f defence. The outermost l ies a k ilometre outside t he i nner d efence, a nd t here i s a s econd d efensive bank o n the I pfhofer Knucke. The i nnermost d efence i s 4 30m i n l ength, a nd e ncloses 1 25 h a. Excavation o f t he l atter revealed two phases o f construction, t he l ater probably Medieval. The earlier c ontained s ome L ate La T ne s herds, a nd c onsisted o f a box r ampart 3 .20m wide, with uprights back a nd f ront lm a part. The h orizontal c rossp ieces o f t he two l ower l evels had been carbonized. Surface f inds w ithin t he e nclosed a rea i nclude a g old s tater a nd a g lass bracelet f ragment, but d o not s uggest e xtensive occupation. 6 /1.2

S taffelberg, S chwarz 1 963

S taffelstein. ( Fig. 3 4)

Dehn

1 962

n o.

1 5;

The s ite l ies o n the n orthern e dge o f the J ura plateau overlooking t he Main, 2 00m b elow. The central d efended a rea w hich i ncludes a t ongue-shaped a nnexe has produced Urnfield a nd Late Hallstatt f inds which p resumably d ate i t. The o uter d efences which e nclose s ome 42ha are u sually a ssigned t o Late La Tene, o n t he e vidence o f a Z angentor a nd t he l inear l ayout o f t he ramparts. N o e xcavations have been c arried out on t he d efences, b ut t heir narrowness S uggest a r evetted r ather t han a d ump c onstruction. Dehn mentions s urface f inds o f Late L a 'nne t ype i nclude i ron, g lass, Graphittonkeramik, a nd c oins, but t he c able t rench o bserved by S chwarz r evealed o nly a f ew u ndated p its a nd post-holes.

1 02

F i g .34 .

6 /1.3

T he Houbirg, K r. H ersbruck. D ehn S tähelin 1 935, Vollrath 1 961

1 962 no.

1 6,

The H oubirg i s a h igh s teep-sided h ill o verlooki ng t he valley o f t he Pegnitz where i t widens out e ast o f Nuremburg. M ost o f t he 9 0 ha e nclosed i s u nder w oodland. The d efences vary g reatly i n s ize. I n t he s outh-east c orner t he bank has a n i nternal h eight o f 5m, and e xternall y o f 1 4-18m, a nd a c ounterscarp bank l m h igh. O n t he west h owever t here i s o ften n o t race o f a r ampart, implyi ng p erhaps t hat t he d efences were n ever c ompleted. An unusual f eature i s t he c onstruction o f two l inear b anks which r un a way f rom t he rampart a long t he c rest o f two o utlying s purs, presumably t o d eny a n e nemy a n a ssembly point f or a ttacking t he ramparts. T he main e ntrance i s o n t he western s ide, where a natural v alley w ith a s pring c uts t hrough t he l ine o f d efence. O nly o ne s ide o f the e ntrance s urvives, a nd t his s wings i n a long t he e dge of t he valley t o f orm a n i nturned e ntrance. I t i s t he t errain rather t han a ny c oncepts o f m ilitary a rchitecture t hat d ictate t he l ayout o f t he e ntrance. A s econd entrance o n t he n orthern s ide may be o riginal a nd i s f ormed by overl apping e nds. T he s ite has produced a f air amount o f Late La Tene material i ncluding Graphittonkeramik, but t hough c ertain a reas were o bviously occupied, i t i s l ikely, given t he t errain, t hat o nly a small proportion o f the e nclosure was i nhabited. However, t he Early L a T ene material i s s lightly r icher, a nd a s t his has b een f ound i n t he ramparts, a nd more i mportant j ust b ehind t hem, p erhaps a n Early La T ene d ate f or t he c onstruction i s more l ikely. 6 /1.4

S tätteberg, Unterhausen, 1 962 n o. 1 8.

Neuburg/Donau.

Dehn 1 952,

The c entral d efended a rea o f 6 ha has a P reist t ype o f c onstruction a nd i s presumably Hallstatt, b ut Dehn has s uggested t hat t he o uter d efence, e nclosing 1 00 ha between t he Paar a nd t he Danube c ould be Late La T ene, but t here i s n o d ating e vidence. 6 /1.5

N euberg/Donau.

Eckstein

1 965

B eneath t he medieval c astle t here a re t hree phases o f d efences, o ne d ated t o Hallstatt D , t he s econd Early L a T ene, a nd t he t hird w ith a s herd o f G raphittonkeramik t o L ate La Tene. 6 /1.6

Manching. I ngolstadt. Wagner 1 938, Krämer 1 957, 1 958, 1 960, 1 961, 1 961a, 1 962, Gensen 1 965, Kellner 1 961, Kunkel 1 961, Rochna 1 961, Maier, R . 1 961, Maier, F . 1 970, Kappel 1 969, Krämer a nd S chubert 1 970, Boessn eck e t a l. 1 971, P ingel 1 971, S chubert 1 972, Jacobi 1 968, C ollis 1 973a, S töckli 1 975. ( Figs 35-42).

B ecause o f t he v isionary e xcavations instituted by K ramer d uring t he l ast two d ecades, Manching i s t he k ey s ite f or understanding t he processes o f urbanisation in •

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c entral Europe. T he d efences were r ecorded o n t he earliest maps o f t he a rea f rom t he s ixteenth c entury, a nd s poradic f inds, made e specially i n t he 1 930's d emonstrated that t he s ite was d ensely occupied. The r econstruction of t he a irfield i n t he 1 950's a nd s ubsequent r oad building programme c aused K rämer t o d efine priority a reas, a nd t rial t renches 7 .8 km i n l ength were dug t o d efine t he main a reas o f occupation. I nitially a reas were c leared by hand i n t he d ensest a -eas o f occupation, while a l ong swathe dug a long t he l ine o f a w r oad has l inked t his area u p to t he d efences, a llowing s ome r econstruction o f the phases o f expansion o f the s ettlement. T he s ite l ies a t t he c onfluel ice o f t he Paar a nd t he Danube, the j unction o f two r iver r outes, t he o ne e astwest, a nd t he o ther l eading s outh i nto t he A lps. I t i s a lso a n i mportant l and r oute a s the easily t raversed g ravel terrace o f t he Danube a t t his point narrows d own t o a width o f a f ew hundred metres. T o t he n orth l ip t he a lluvial d eposits o f t he Danube, t o t he s outh t here i s a n a rea o f marshland, s ome o f which was eventually i ncorporated within the d efended a rea. G enerally t he l and poor f or agricultural purposes, t hough t he valley provides g ood meadow grazing f or c attle. O n h e f ringes o f t he marshl and t here a re d eposits o f b og i ron w hich were c ertainly being e xploited i n t he l ate I ron Age. T he f irst s cientific e xcavation o n t he d efences by Wagner i n 1 938 d emonstrated t he e arliest phase t o b e a murus g allicus t hough only t he l ower c ourse o f t imbers had been n ailed. The d efensive c ircuit, 7 km i n c ircumference, a ppears to be r ound, but i n f act c onsists o f a s eries o f s traight s ections d oubtless c aused by t he use o f t he l ongitudinal t imbers i n t he s tructure. The r ampart was later r econstructed w ith a Kelheim rampart. The s tone f or the walling had b een brought d own r iver f rom t he Neuburg area . There were a pparently f our e ntrances f acing t he cardinal points, b ut only t hose o n t he s outh a nd east survive, both Zangentore. G ensen's excavation o f t he East Gate c onfirmed t his sequence, but a lso i dentified a t hird a nd l ater phase, again o f Kelheim c onstruction. Around t he g ate t he Kelheim construction had a lso been employed i n t he f irst phase i n c onjunction w ith t he murus gallicus. The gate t oo h ad been c onstructed on t hree occasions, a nd t he basic g ate s tructure r emained s imilar t hroughout. I t c onsisted o f a d ouble c arriageway f or wheeled v ehicles, with t wo narrow passages f or pedestrians on e ither s ide. The s uperstructure, presumably s ome s ort o f gate-tower, was s upported on 2 5 massive t imber posts. The e ntrance was paved with Jura l imestone. On e ither s ide o f t he entrance i n the f irst phase t here were p its l ined with wattle, a nd i n one c ase a t l east t here was a s tanding post i n the c entre o f the pit. F inds f rom this phase i nclude painted wares ( which a ccording t o S töckli a ppear

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during La Te 'ne C 2, b ut a re e specially t ypical o f D ). Two f ragments o f s propelite r ings ( normally La Tene B-C1) g ive a n earlier a spect. B eneath t he g ate t here was a buried p lough s oil w ith t races o f p lough marks. I n t he s econd p hase o f t he g ate t he l ayout was a lmost i dentical ( Fig. 1 2), but a cross t he e ntrance t o t he Zangentor was a t imber-lined p it ( presumably a n e mergency a rrangement) which c ontained two human skulls. I n t he c entre o f t he e ntrance passage was a c ircular p it a gain l ined with wattle a nd with a c entral post. A c hild h ad been buried i n t he c entre o f t he s outhern c arriageway. Dating e vidence i ncludes a wire b rooch ( apparently Nauheim c onstruction, but t he f oot i s missing), a nd a b ronze mask pendant with c lose parallels f rom Bad Nauheim a nd Calais. The t hird p hase o f c onstruction was i dentical, but l acked t he t imber-lined p it. There was s ome e vidence o f burning i n t his f inal s tage. La Tene o ccupation i n t he Manching a rea begins i n La Te 'ne B a nd t o d efine t his phase a nd La Tene C , R einecke originally used t he t wo l ocal f lat i nhumation c emeteries, Hundsrucken which l ies w ithin t he a rea l ater t o b e d efended, a nd S teinbichel west o f t he Paar. Both c ontinue i nto La T ene C , a nd t hen e nd. No a rea o f occupation c an y et be a ssigned t o La T ene B - i t e ither l ies n earer t he Hundsrucken c emetery n orth o f t he e xcavated a reas ( as S töckli has s uggested), or n earer t he r iver c rossing. Both c emeteries a re small, implying only a m inor s ettlement a t t his s tage. Occupation a reas c an h owever be dated t o both t he C l a nd C 2 phases, a nd S töckli has a ttempted t o demonstrate t he e xpansion o f t he s ettlement between t hese two phases a nd i nto La Tene D . This has been d one by a number o f means: p lotting s ignificant brooch t ypes, p its w ithout painted pottery ( this pottery i s u sually taken a s a c haracteristic o f L a Tene D , t hough on t he e vidence o f h is h orizontal s tratigraphy S töckli s uggests i t c omes i n C2), t he d istribution o f sapropelite bracelet f ragments ( a s hale-like substance f rom Bohemia t ypical o f B a nd C l), a nd i n t he ratios o f pottery ( painted/plain) i n t he various areas. The pattern t hat emerges s eems t o s uggest a l inear west-east d evelopment on a r oute f rom t he Paar c rossing t o t he East Gate, f ollowed by a n e xpansion t o t he s outh during C2 a nd D . T he east-west r oad i n t he f irst a reas excavated by Krämer i s 1 0m wide a nd l ined by small t imber houses ( Figs 3 9,40), which on t he e vidence of i ron t ool d istribution Jacobi has s uggested was a n i ndustrial z one o f l eather a nd wood workers. Behind these buildings a re z ones o f p its, s ome l ined, though o f unknown f unction, a nd a n i rregular l ayout o f buildings a nd s ome i n t he northern a rea o f l arge proportions. This a rea Jacobi has s uggested was o ccupied by a merchant c lass. Further west o n t he l ine o f t he modern r oad t here a ppear t o have 1 11

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B IBLIOGRAPHY A bbreviations AK A nt.

A rchäologisches Korrespondenzblatt J .

AR Arch.

A ntiquaries J ournal Archeologicke Rozhledy

J .

A rchaeological J ournal

BNJ

B ritish Numismatic J ournal

B SNEP

Bulletin d e l a S ociete Normade d 'Etudes Prehistoriques

B SPF

Bulletin d e l a S ociete Prehistorique F rancaise

J BD

Jahresbericht

NL

Numismaticke L isty

PA

Pamätky Archeologicke

PPS

Proceedings o f t he Prehistoric S ociety

P Z

Prähistorische Z eitschrift

RAC

R evue Archeologique d u Centre

RAE

R evue A rcheologique d e l 'Est

S AC

S ussex A rchaeological C ollections

d er Bayerischen Denkmalpflege

2 36

e t

d u Centre-Est

Agache,

R .

Alföldy, Allain,

Allen,

G .

1 962

Note preliminaire s ur l es camps protoh istorique e t g allo-romains d u basin d e l a S omme. R evue d u Nord 4 4: 3 193 38.

1 966

Les r etranchements r omains d e F ollev ille, Quiry-le-Sec ( Somme) e t d es e nvirons d e Breteuil-sur-Noye ( Oise). Celticum 1 5: 1 39-149.

1 974

Noricum.

J .

e t a l. 1 966

D . F.

1 961

A s tudy o f Dobunnic C lifford 1 961.

1 961a

The origins o f a r eappraisal.

1 964

C eltic c oins f rom t he R omano-British t emple a t Harlow, Essex. BNJ 3 3: 1 -6.

1 967a

Celtic t emple 1 -7.

1 968

C eltic c oins f rom t he R omano-British t emple a t Harlow, Essex, part I II. BNJ 3 7: 1 -6.

1 970

The c oins 1 : 1 -33.

1 971

B ritish potin c oins: J esson a nd H ill 1 971.

1 972

The f ibula o f C riciru. 1 22-132.

1 968

Excavations S t. A lbans, A rchaeology

Anthony,

I .

Un d epotoir a ugusteen ä Argentomagus ( St. Marcel, I ndre). RAC 5 : 3 -39. c oinage.

I n

c oinage i n B ritain: I n F rere 1 961.

c oins f rom t he R omano-British a t Harlow, part I I. BNJ 3 6:

o f

t he

I ceni.

Britannia

a r eview .

I n

G ermania 5 0:

i n V erulam H ills F ields, 1 963-4. H ertfordshire 1 : 9 -50.

Armand Calliat, M .L . 1 958

Le C hälonnais a l 'epoque d e l a T ene d ' apres l es d ecouvertes a rcheologiques. B ulletin Archeologiuue 1 958: 1 09-128.

Baatz,

1 958

Neue f unde a us d em Oppidum ü ber d em H eidetränk-Tal n ordlich v on F rankfurt a m Main. G ermania 5 6: 4 53-460.

N .

F ibeln v om M ittellateneschema i m RheinMain-Moselgebiet. G ermania 5 0: 9 8-110.

D .

Bantelmann,

1 972

2 37

Barfield,

L .

Barthelemy,

B eaupre,

J .

B ehaghel,

B enadik,

H .

B .

B eninger,

B enoit,

E .

F .

Benson, D . M iles, T .

B erger,

A .

Northern

1 973

L 'oppidum d e M atisco: RAE 2 4: 3 07-318.

1 910

L 'oppidum d e S ainte G enevieve ( Esseyl es-Nancy). M emoires de l a S ociete d 'Archeologie L orraine 6 0: 2 65-290.

1 940

E ine E isenverhüttungsanlage d er Latenez eit i m Oppidum a uf d er Michelsberg b ei Kelheim-Donau . Germania 2 4: 1 11-118.

1 949

Die Eisenzeit i m Raume des r echtsrheins ichen S chiefergebirges.

1 965

Die S pätlatenezeit S iedlung v on Zemplin i n d er Ostslovakei. G ermania 43: 6 3-91.

1 971

Z emplin, und d ie Frage der k eltischen Besiedlung im n ordostlichen T eile d es Karpathenbeckens. AR 2 3: 3 22-325.

1 956

S pätkeltische Hausbauten von N eubau, G em. T raun. J ahrbuch d es Oberösterr eichischen Museumvereines 1 01: 125-166.

1 957

Typologie e t e pigraphie amphoriques: l es marques d e S estius. Rivista d i S tud ii L igurii 2 3: 2 47-285.

1 961

F ouilles s ous-marines: Congloue a Marseille. 1 4.

1 968

Resultats h istoriques d es f ouilles d 'Entremont 1 946-1967. Gallia 24:

a nd 1 974

L .

Bergmann,

1 971

J .

I taly. d onees n ouvelles.

l 'epave du G rand Gallia Supplement

1 -31.

The Upper Thames Valley: a n A rchaeol ogical S urvey o f t he R iver G ravels. Oxford Archaeological Unit S urvey 2 .

1 972

Das s pätkeltische o ppidum v on Basel Münsterhügel. AK 2 : 1 59-163.

1 938

Die A ltenburg b ei N iedenstein.

B esset, F . a nd K richon, R . 1 964

C ontribution a l ' etude d e q uelques s ites f ortifies du D epartement de l a Loire. C elticum 9 : 6 3-74.

B essou,

Notes pr ' äliminaires s ur l es f ouilles d e l 'Institution S aint J oseph h Roanne ( Loire). C elticum 9 : 1 71-188.

M .

1 964

2 38

Bessou,

M .

1 967

La poterie peinte g auloise 1 Roanne ( Loire) a u premiere s iecle a vant J .C. Ogam 1 9: 1 09-128.

Biddle,

M .

1 965

Excavations a t W inchester 1 964. Third i nterim r eport. Ant. J . 4 5: 2 30-264.

1 966

Excavations a t Winchester 1 965. Fourth i nterim r eport. Ant. J . 4 6: 3 08-332.

1 967

Excavations a t W inchester 1 966. F ifth i nterim report. Ant. J . 4 7: 2 51-279.

1 965

The Aylesford-Swarling Culture: t he problem o f the Belgae r econsidered. PPS 3 1: 2 41-367.

1 930

G rabung am Burgstall bei F insterlohr. Germania 1 4: 3 0-38.

Birchall,

Bittel,

A .

K .

1 930a Grabung a uf d em Donnersberg ( Rheinpf alz). G ermania 1 4: 2 06-214.

Blondel,

L .

1 934

Die Kelten

i n Württemberg.

1 950

Das keltische Oppidum bei F insterlohr. Württembergische-Franken, Neue Folge 2 4/25: 6 9.

1 952

Funde v on Donnersberg. s chrift 2 : 7 9-80.

1 926

Habitation gauloise d e l ' oppidum de G eneve. G enava 4 : 9 7-110.

1 932

Maisons gaul2ises r omaine, G eneve.

1 933

F ortifications prehistorique e t marche r omaine a u B org d e F our, G eneve. G enava 1 2: 3 6-63.

1 936

L es f ortifications d e l ' oppidum gaul ois ä G eneve. G eneva 1 4: 4 6-64.

Mainzer Fest-

e t edifice public G eneva 1 0: 5 5-76.

Boessneck, J ., v on der D riesch, A . Meyer-Lempperau, U . and W echsler von Ohlen, E . 1 971

D ie T ierknochen Manching.

Bonls,

1 969

D ie s pätkeltische S iedlung G ellert hegy-Taban i n Budapest.

1 971

B eiträge z ur Rolle d er L TD S iedlungen i n Pannonien. AR 2 3: 5 21-8.

E . B.

2 39

a us

d em O ppidum von

Boon,

G .C.

Bradley,

R .

Brailsford,

B ei,

1 969

Belgic a nd Roman S ilchester. Archaeologia 1 02: 1 -81.

1 968

The S outh Oxfordshire Grim's D itch a nd i ts s ignificance. Oxoniensia 3 3: 1 -13.

1 971

A f ield s urvey o f t he Chichester e ntrenchments. I n Cunliffe 1 971a: 1 7-36.

J .W . 1 962

J .

H od H ill I : Antiquities from H od H ill i n t he Durden Collection.

1 964

V 3 1znam s oon pro d atovani keltsk ch o ppid v Cechach. S bornik Narodniho Muzea v Praze 1 8 n o. 5 .

1 966

T Hsov: B ohemia.

1 971

Das keltische o ppidum TIisov . 2 3: 2 94-303.

0 .

1 953

R oman Gaul.

Brogan, O . Desforges,

a nd E . 1 940

Progan,

G ergovia.

A C eltic oppidum i n S outh

Arch.

J .

9 7:

AR

1 -36.

Bl ichsenschütz,

O . 1 971

E tat d e l a r echerche s ur l es o ppida e n France, particulierement d ans le Centre. AR 2 3:

$ ulliot,

1 899

Fouilles d u Mont B euvray.

J .G .

Burnez, C ., H esse, A ., Mohen, J .P. a nd Poulain-Josien, T .L. 1 971

L e s ite g aulois d e l a C roix-aux-Sables ä Mainxe ( Charente). BSPF 6 6: 4 63-471.

Bushe F ox J .P.

Excavations 1 911-1912.

Buttler, S chleif,

W . H .

1 915

a nd 1 937-8

a t H engistbury Head,

Hants.

Die Erdenburg bei B ensberg. P rahistori sche Z eitschrift 2 8/29: 1 84-232.

Cabotse, J . a nd Perichon, R . 1 963

Observations s ur q uelques jattes c arenes peinte d ecouvertes en F orez. Celticum 6 : 8 7-94.

Caemmerer,

1 924

D ie A lteburg b ei A rnstadt.

1 956

Drobne k eltske m ince t ypu A lkis. 1 1: 1 30-139.

Castelin,

E . K .

•1 956a Ku k eltskemu m incovnistvi NL 1 1: 3 4-48. 2 40

NL

nasich zemi.

Castelin,

K .

1 957

B iatec a Nonnos.

NL 1 2:

1 57-168.

1 957a K periodisaci nageho keltskeho mincovnistvi. NL 1 2: 4 4-53. 1 959

Ke c hronoloKii keltskYch s tf .ibnYch mind{ s koniCkem . NL 1 4: 7 0-74.

1 959a 0 keltskYch z latYch mincich vedlejg lch 1 . ad. NL 1 4: 3 -14. 1 960

Keltische Münzformen Germania 3 8: 3 2-42.

1 961

K eltskä mincovna na Kladensku. 1 6: 4 1-4.

1 971

Die K reuzmünzen bei d en Rätern und d en A launen. S chweizerischen Numismatischen Rundshau, 5 0: 9 2-124.

G .

1 970

V j .enne Gauloise: l e materiel d e l a Tene I II t rouve sur l a Colline d e Sainte B landine.

Childe,

V . G.

1 935

The Prehistory o f S cotland.

Christ,

K .

1 957

Ergebnisse u nd Probleme d er keltischen Numismatik u nd Geldgeschichte. H istoria 6 : 2 15-253.

Cizmär,

M .

1 970

Z ur r elativ-chronologischen S tellung d es j üngsten Horizontes keltische G räberfelder i n Mähren. AR 2 2: 5 69-575.

Chapotat,

Clark, J . G. D. Fell, C .I.

Clarke,

D . L.

Clifford, Colbert J . -B.

a nd 1 953

E .M.

a us Böhmen.

The Early I ron Age s ite a t M icklemoor H ill, West Harling, Norfolk. PPS 1 9: 1 -40.

1 968

Analytical Archaeology.

1 961

Bagendon:

de B eaulieu 1 955

a Belgic Oppidum .

Peut-on d ater par l a numismatique l ' occupation gauloise d ' un o ppidum? RAE 6 : 2 60-270.

1 955a Numismatique Celtique d ' Alesia. Revue B eige d e Numismatique 1 01: 1 957

1 959/67

NL

5 5-83.

Armorican c oin h oards i n t he Channel I slands. PPS 2 4: 2 01-210. Catalogue d es c ollections a rcheologiq ues d e B esancon. I V: L es monnaies g auloises. Ar inales L itteraires d e

2 41

l ' Universitd. d e B esancon s econd edition 1 967). 4

25

( revised

C olbert J .-B.

d e B eaulieu 1 963

C onsiderations s ur l a c irculation e t l a c hronologie d es monnaies g auloises ä propos d e l a r ecolte faite s ur l 'oppidum d u M ont Affrique. O gam 8 : 3 17-322.

Collis,

J .R .

1 968

Excavations a t Owslebury, i nterim r eport. Ant. J .

1 970

Excavations a t Owslebury, Hants: a s econd i nterim r eport. Ant.J. 50: 2 46-261.

1 971

Functional a nd t heoretical i nterpretations o f B ritish c oinage. World Archaeology 3 : 7 1-84.

1 972

The Dacian Horizon - s ettlements and c hronology. S lovens i d Archaeologia 2 0: 3 13-316.

1 973

Burials w ith weapons i n I ron A ge Britain. G ermania 5 1: 1 21;133.

1 973a Manching r eviewed. 2 80-284. 1 974

Hants: a n 4 8: 1 8-31.

Antiquity 4 7:

A f unctionalist a pproach to p re-Roman c oinage. I n J . Casey a nd R . R eece e ds. Coins a nd t he A rchaeologist. British Archaeological R eports 4 : 1 -11.

F orthcoming 1

An a pproach t o t he I ron Age. e d. The I ron Age i n Britain:

Forthcoming 2

Pre-Roman burial r ites i n Northwestern Europe. I n R . R eece e x. ' Roman Burial R ites' B ritish Archaeological Reports.

F orthcoming 3

Excavations a t A ulnat, C lermont Ferrand: a f irst r eport with s ome n otes o n t he e arliest t owns i n F rance. Arch. J . 1 976.

F orthcoming 4

Excavations a t S ilchester, Hants. Manuscript s ubmitted t o Dept. o f Environment 1 975.

F orthcoming 5

W inchester Excavations 1 959-1960, Vol. I I: t he s uburbs a nd t he n orthern part o f t he t own.

2 42

I n Collis a Review .

1 968.

Collis, J . R. a nd Ralston, I . B. M . ( forthcoming)

Late La Tene Defences. 1 975.

Germania

Cordier, G ., M illot- Trois c achettes d e bronze d e l 'Indre te, J .-P. a nd R iquet,et L oire. Gallia Prehistoire 3 : R . (V )60 1 08-128. Cotton,

M . A.

Cotton, M . A. Frere, S . S.

1 957

Muri Galilei. I n Wheeler a nd R ichardson 1 957: 1 59-225.

1 961

Observations o n t he c lassification o f h ill-forts i n s outhern Britain. I n Frere 1 961: 6 1-68.

a nd 1 961

Enceintes d e l 'Age d u F er a u pays d es L emovices. Gallia 1 9: 3 1-54.

1 968

I vinghoe Beacon e xcavations 1 963-65. Records o f Buckinghamshire 1 8: 1 87-260.

1 969

R oman Republican Coin H oards.

Crawford,

M .H .

Crawford,

O .G.S. 1 930

G rim 's D itch i n Wychwood, A ntiquity 4 : 3 03-315.

Cunliffe,

B .W .

Danebury, Hampshire. F irst i nterim r eport o n t he e xcavation 1 969-1970. Ant. J . 5 1: 2 40-252.

1 971

Oxon.

1 971a Excavations a t F ishbourne 1 961-9. Curwen,

E .C.

Curwen, Curwen,

E . a nd E .C. 1 927

Excavations i n t he Caburn n ear L ewes. S AC 6 8: 1 -56.

Darnay,

K .

1 906, 1 908

K elta p enzverö e s ö nto-mühely s zalacskan ( Somogy M .). Archeological E rtesitö 2 6: 4 16-429; 2 8: 1 37-148.

1 955

A propos d es monnaies d u M ont A ffrique. Ogam 8 : 3 23-326.

1 962

Qui

1 962

B randgrab u nd S iedlung d er ä lteren Kaiserzeit i n Tauberbischofsheim . G ermania 4 0: 1 47-155.

1 904

L es F ouilles d e Mont B euvray d e 1 897-1904.

1 914

Manuel d 'Archeologie 1 1-3: Deuxieme Age d u F er, o u Epoque d e La T ene.

Dayet,

Dauber,

1 954

M .

A .

Dechelette,

J .

The A rchaeology o f

S ussex.

e tait T ogirix? RAE

2 43

1 3:

8 2-98.

Dehn,

Dehn, 0 , 1.

Dekan,

W .

W .

Der R ing von O tzenhausen. 2 1: 7 8-82.

1 939

Die l atenezeitliche R ingmauer v on Preist, Kr. B itburg. G ermania 23: 2 3-26.

1 952

D ie S tätteberg b ei Unterhausen, Neuburg a .d. D onau, S chwaben. Germania 3 0: 2 80-287.

1 958

Der Dünsberg u nd s eine Wallanlage. B onner Jahrbücher 1 58: 6 4-72.

1 960

E inige B emerkungen zum ' Murus Gallicus'. G ermania 3 8: 43-55.

1 961

Zangentore a n s pätkeltischen O ppida . PA 5 2: 3 90-396.

1 962

Apercu s ur l es o ppida d ' Allemagne d e l e f in d e l 'epoque c eltique. C elticum 3 : 3 29-386.

1 964

L es o ppida c eltique d e l a Tene I I e t I I e n Boheme e t e n Moravie. C elticum 9 : 7 7-89.

1 969

N och e inmal z um ' murus g allicus'. Germania 4 7: 1 65-168.

a nd Frey, 1 962

J .

De Navarro,

De R effye

1 937

1 951 J . M. 1 972 1 864

G ermania

Ldkr.

D ie a bsolute C hronologie der H allstatt u nd F rühlat N iezeit M itteleuropas auf G rund d es S udimports. A tti d el VI° C ongresso I nternationale delle S cienze Preistoriche e Protoistoriche 1 962: 1 92-208. VYskum na Devine r . The F inds S cabbards

1 950.

AR 3 :

1 64-168.

f rom t he S ite o f La T bne. I : a nd t he swords f ound i n them .

s ee Moberg 1 950.

Desbordes, J .-M. a nd Garnier, M . 1 963/66

C oulommiers ( Seine-et-Marne). B ulletin d u G roupement A rcheologique d e S einee t-Marne 4 : 1 18-121; 5 : 1 05-6; 6 : 1 16-7; 7 : 1 01-8.

Desbordes, J .-M. a nd Wateau, A . 1 961/63

Lumigny, Rozay-en-Brie ( Seine-et-Marne). Bulletin d u G roupement A rcheologique d e S eine-et-Marne 1 : 4 2-65; 3 : 4 1-45.

2 44

Nouvelles Recherches s ur Desforges, E ., Fournier, P .-F ., e s d e C lermont Ferrand. Hatt, J .-J., a nd I mberdis, F . 1 970 Deybar,

A .

l es Origin -

1 972 La c eramique d e l a Tine I II ä l 'Qppidum l a Pierre d 'Appel, C ommune d 'Etival-Clairefontaine. RAE 2 3: 5 5-76.

Dixon,

P .

1 972 Crickley Hill 4 6: 4 9-52.

Donat,

P .

1 965 Untersuchungen e iner s pätlatenezeitl ichen S iedlung nahe d er S teinsberg bei R ömhild ( Vorbericht). Ausgrabungen und Funde 1 0:

Drack,

W .

Drda,

( ed .

P .

1 969-1971.

Antiquity

1 960 L 'Age d u Fer e n S uisse. 1 971 Vorburg und Unterburg d es Oppidums Zävist. AR 2 3: 2 82-287.

Driehaus,

J .

1 965 Fürstengräber u nd Eisenerze z wischen M ittelrhein und S aar. G ermania 4 3: 3 2-

Dubsky,

B .

1 949 Prav ' ek j iznich Cech.

Dufour,

G .

1 964 R econtre a vec Caply ( Oise).

l e s ite d e VendeuilC elticum 9 : 2 29-238.

Duval, A . a nd Delestree, L .-P.

Deux monnaies d es S 6nones t rouvees s ur l 'oppidum d u Mont Avrollot, 1 975 Avrolles, c mme. d e Saint-Florentin ( Yonne). RAE 2 6: 1 19-127.

Eckstein,

1 965 K eltische u nd r ömische Wehranlage a uf d em S tadtberg i n Neuburg a .d. Donau. Bayerische Vorgeschichtsb lätter 3 0: 1 35-154.

Edeine,

Egger,

B .

R .

M .

1 961 Triple s epulture du Hallstatt f inal d 6couverte e n N ormandie ( Calvados). B SPF 5 8: 3 47-359. 1 952 D ie Ausgrabungen a uf d em Magdalensb erg 1 950. Carinthia I 1 42: 8 1-72. 1 958 D ie A usgrabungen a uf d em Magdalensb erg 1 954 a nd 1 955. Carinthia I 1 48: 3 -173. 1 959 D ie Ausgrabungen a uf d em Magdalensb erg 1 956-7. Carinthia I 1 49: 3 -144.

2 45

Egger,

R .

E ttlinger,

Eychart,

Fabre,

Fabre,

E .

P .



G .

Feustel, Gall, W .

1 961a

Die S tadt a uf d em Magdalensberg: G rosshandelplatz.

1 961b

D ie Ausgrabungen a uf d em Magdalensberg 1 958-9. Carinthia I 1 51: 3-212.

1 963

Die Ausgrabungen a uf d em Magdalensberg 1 960 und 1 961. Carinthia I 1 53: 3 -280.

1 965

Führer durch d ie Ausgrabungen und d as Museum a uf d em Magdalensberg . 1 1th i mpression.

1 966

Die Ausgrabungen a uf d em Magdalensberg 1 962 b is 1 964. Carinthia I 1 56: 2 93-496. Review o f Uenze 1 958 i n Germania 3 8: 4 40-442.

1 960

e in

1 961

L 'Oppidum d es Cötes, Gergovie.

Augustonemetum,

1 962

L ' Oppidum d es Cötes, Ogam 1 4: 6 8-76.

C lermont-Ferrand.

1 943

C ontributions a l 'etude du p rotoh istorique d u s ud-ouest de l a F rance ( Depart ments d es Basses Pyrenees e t d es Landes). G allia 1 : 4 3-79.

1 946

C ontribution a l 'etude du Protoh istorique d u s ud-ouest de l a F rance Gallia 4 : 1 -75.

R .

a nd 1 965

F ield,

N . H.

1 968

P tolomey's

F ilip,

J .

1 956

K eltovg y e S tl •edni Evrope.

1 960

C eltic C ivilisation a nd i ts H eritage.

F ingerlin,

F ischer,

F .

G .

E ine keltische Wallanlage a uf d em Thüringer Wald . A lt-Thüringen 7 : 2 28-294. I sca.

Antiquity 4 2:

3 09-311.

1 970-1 Dangstetten, e in a ugusteisches Legionsl ager a m H ochrhein. BRGK 5 1-52: 1 97; 2 32. 1 973

K eltenstadt u nd R ömerlager: d er Limberg b ei S asbach. A rchäologische N achricht en a us Baden 1 0: 5 -9.

1 952

S pätkeltische F unde a us dem B adischen O berland. Unpublished t hesis, Tübingen. 2 46

1 954

Z ur Chronologie d er j üngeren Late 'nez eit i n Sudwestdeutschland und i n d er S chweiz. Festschrift f ür Peter Goessler: 3 5-40.

1 962

Beiträge zur K enntn e - von Tarodunum Bädische Fundberichte 2 2: 3 7-49, 2 91.

1 966

Das Oppidum von A ltenburg, Rheinau: e in Vorbericht. Germania 4 4: 2 86-312.

1 967

Alte und neue Funde d er Late 'ne-Period a us Württemberg. Fundberichte a us S chwaben, Neue F olge 1 8-1: 6 1-106.

1 969

The ' Heidengraben' n ear G rabenstetten, Kr. Reutlingen. I n Prehistoric S ociety 1 969: 7 -9.

1 974

E inige Neufunde a us d em S pätkeltische Oppidum von Altenburg-Rheinau. AK 4 : 1 57-160.

1 958

Velemszentvid, e in urzeitliches Kulturzentrum i n M itteleuropa. Osterreichischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft f ür Ur- und Frühgeschichte 3 .

Foudrignier

1 881

Les Monnaies Gauloises d e l a Cheppe. Bulletin d es Antiquaires d e France. ( 1881): 1 73.

Fouet,

G .

1 958

Puits Fungraires d 'Aquitaine. 1 6: 1 14-196.

C . F.

1 923

The Archaeology o f t he Cambridge Region.

B .

1 955

D ie G rabung a uf d em Mont L ingenerberg. Jahrbuch d er S chweizerischen G esells chaft f ür U rgeschichte 4 4: 1 46-151.

1 956

Canterbury. J ournal o f R oman S tudies 4 6: 1 44-146.

1 957

Excavations a t Verulamium 1 956: S econd i nterim r eport. Ant. J . 3 7: 1 -15.

1 958

Excavations a t Verulamium 1 957: Third i nterim r eport. A nt. J . 3 8: 1 -14.

1 961

( ed.). Problems o f S outhern B ritain.

F ischer,

Foltiny,

Fox,

Frei,

Frere,

F .

S .

S . S.

t he

I ron Age

Gallia

i n

1 961a Excavations a t Verulamium 1 960: S ixth i nterim r eport. Ant. J . 4 1: 7 2-85.

2 47

F rere,

S .S.

F rickhinger,

1 962

E . 1 930

Gabler,

D .

1 964

Gadeau d e K erville, H . a nd Poulain, A .-G . 1 925-6 Gavela,

B .B.

G ensen,

R .

G ersbach,

G erster,

G ötze,

E .

A .

A .

Gourvest,

J .

Excavations a t Dorchester on T hames 1 962: Arch. J . 1 19: 1 14-149. Hallstatt - und Latenezeitliche Hausgrundrisse a us d em Ries. F estsc hrift f ür S chumacher: 6 2-66. Angaben z ur Verbreitung der s igillaten i n Pannonien. A rchaeologiai Ertesitö 9 1: 9 4-110. Resultat ,p d es f ouilles g allo-romaines e ffectuees a u Camp d e Vernonnet. BSNEP 2 6: 1 07-135.

1 952

K eltski Oppidum i idovar.

1 966

Notions a ctuelles s ur l es Celtes Balkaniques. C elticum 1 5: 2 77-281.

1 965

Manching I II: D ie Ausgrabung d es Osttores i n d en Jahren 1 962 b is 1 963. G ermania 4 3: 4 9-62.

1 969

Beobachtung z ur Lage u nd Umgebung d es O l bpidums Amöneburg, Kr. Marburg . Fundbericht a us Hessen, Beiheft 1 : Marburger Beiträge z ur Archäologie d er Kelten: Festschrift für W olfg ang Dehn: 2 0-29.

a nd G . 1 951

A ltenburg ( Waldshut), S chwaben. Bädische Fundbericht 1 9: 1 68-170.

1 968

Der ' Mont Terrible', e in Gallisches Oppidum i n d er A joie. Provincialia: F estschrift Rudolf Laur-Belart: 5 70-581.

1 922

D ie S teinsberg b ei Römhild nach den n euen U ntersuchung. P Z 1 921: 1 9-83.

1 956

La f ibule d e Nauheim . Rhodania: XXXIe C ongres V als Aubenus 1 956, n o. 1 922: 1 1-13.

1 961

L 'oppidum d e Castillon. Normandie 1 1: 9 9-103.

Annales

G raff,

I .

1 963

' Oppida' e t ' Castella' a u pays d e B elges . Celticum 8 : 1 13-170.

G raue,

J .

1 971

Ornavasso.

1 943

L es f ouilles 2 : 7 1-82.

G renier,

A .

2 48

AK 1 :

1 65-172.

d e G ergovie.

Gallia

I I

d e

G rosbelet, B . P erichon, R .

G uyon,

W . U.

Hachmann,

R .

Hachmann, R . G . a nd K uhn,

H aevernick,

Haffner,

a nd 1 965

L 'implantation gauloise e t gallor omaine ä l a peripherie d e l 'oppidum d e J oevre ( Loire). Ogam 1 7: 3 13-325.

1 960

Occupation d u s ol e conomie e t c ircul ation a l 'Age du F er c eltique. I n Drack e d. 1 960: 3 7-44.

1 956

Z ur G esellschaftsordnung d er Germanen i n d er Z eit um Christi Geburt. Archeologia G eographica 5 : 7 -24.

1 960

D ie Chronologie d er j üngeren v orröm ischen E isenzeit. S tudien z um S tand d er F orschung i m n ordlichen M ittele uropa u nd i n S kandinavien. BRGK 4 1: 1 -275.

K ossack Völker z wischen G ermanen u nd K elten. K . 1 962 T .E. 1 960

A .

1 971

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1 971

W ooden a nd s tone c hevaux-de-frise i n c entral a nd western Europe. PPS 3 7: 1 95-225.

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1 937

Excavations o n G rim 's Dyke, N orth Oxfordshire. Oxoniensia 2 : 7 4-92.

1 972

The I ron Age Basin.

1 943

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1 945

E ssai d ' une c omparison e ntre l a c eramique c eltique d 'Aulnat'Sud e t l a c eramique g allo-romaine precoce d e G ergovie. B ulletin H istorique e t S cientifique d e l 'Auvergne 6 5: 1 51-174.

1 947

L es f ouilles d e G ergovie: c ampagnes d e 1 943 e t d e 1 944. Gallia 5 : 2 71-300.

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t he Upper T hames

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The Caburn pottery a nd i ts i mplicat ions. S AC 8 0: 2 17-262.

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Camulodunum .

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1 950

S pätkeltische S childfessel a us Bronze v om G eorgenberg b ei Kuchl i n Salzburg. A rchaeologia A ustriaca 7 : 8 9.

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1 956

B odenzeichen a uf keltischen Kamms trichgefässe. Actes du I Ve Congres I nternational d es S ciences A nthro2ologique e t E thnologique V ienne , 1 952, T ome I II: 1 65-171.

1 963

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1 972

G rabung am i nneren Wall des O ppidums v on K elheim. A K 2 : 2 95-7.

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D ie G rabung a m i nneren Wall i m Oppidum von K elheim i m Jahre 1 971. G ermania 5 1: 1 33-146.

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Der Burgstall b ei F insterlohr, e in gallisches Oppidum . F undbericht a us S chwaben 1 1: 7 -21.

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Die Chatten. Band I : ' Mattium ', A ltenburg bei N iedenstein.

1 969

A sample o f F rench h ill-forts. Antiquity 4 3: 2 60-273.

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Z ur Deutung d er d akischen Henkelschale a us Müllendorf, Burgenland. Archaeologia Austriaca 4 5: 5 3-57.

1 963

Un nouveau d epot d ' amphores h Chateaumeillant ( Cher). Celticum 6 : 1 71-180.

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S tudne na l atenskYch o ppid . 5 57-578; 5 1: 1 36-161.

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1 962

K onec j ihoCeskych mohyl PA 5 3: 3 06-330.

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Manching, e in v indelikisches O ppidum a n d er Donau. Neue A usgrabungen i n Deutschland: 1 75-202.

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The Oppidum o f Manching. 1 91-200.

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Die urgeschichtliche Wallburg a uf d em Braunsberg bei Hainburg. M itteilungen d es Vereines d er Freunde Carnuntums 3 : 2 .

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a nd 1 967

Peyvel, A . a nd Pionnier, C . 1 969

Habitats d 2 l 'Age d u pronze A ncien e t d e l a T ene f inale a B easancon ( Doubs). RAE 1 8: 2 59-284. L 'oppidum d u C ret-Chatelard, Balbigny. G roupes d e R echerches A rcheologques d u Departement d e l a L oire 1 968-9: 3 7-50.

2 59

Phillippe,

J . 1 907-26

1 927

Pic,

P ieta,

Pink,

1 946-50

Quelques a spects d u Fort-Harrouard. BSNEP 3 4: 7 2-80, 1 16-212; 3 5: 13-17, 4 6-49.

K .

K .

R .

Pitt-Rivers, ( Lane-Fox) Poczy,

C inque a nnees d e f ouilles a u F ortHarrouard 1 921-1925. BSNEP. B ulletin h ors s erie. L e Fort-Harrouard. L 'Anthropologie 4 6: 2 57-301; 4 7: 2 51-308.

V .

Pittioni,

1 5:

1 936-37

J .L .

Pingel,

F ouilles a u Fort-Harrouard. B SNEP 1 01-137; 1 8: 3 6-57; 2 0: 6 1-99; 2 1: 2 2-36; 2 5: 1 7-47.

K .

Praschnicker,

1 902

C echyi . n a Usvite Deji n , I I: H radigte u S tradonic jako h istorick6 M aroboduum .

1 971

D ie g latte Drehscheiben-Keramik von Manching.

1 971

• Die H ohensiedlung d er Puchover Gruppe b ei L iptovskä Mara. AR 2 3: 3 26-334.

1 939

Die Münzpragung d er O stkelten und i hrer Nachbarn.

1 954

Falschmünzermodel e iner norischen K leinsilbermünze v om Magdalensberg. Carinthia I 1 44: 2 9-31.

1 958

Die keltischen Münzen v om Magdalensberg. Carinthia I 1 48: 1 30-144.

1 943

E in s pätkeltischer Töpferofen von W ien I II. Jahrbuch f ür Landeskunde von N iederösterreich 2 8: 1 -10.

1 954

U rgeschichte d es Osterreichischen Raumes.

A . 1 881

Excavations a t M ount C aburn C amp L ewes. A rchaeologia 4 6: 4 23-495.

1 959

C ontribution ä l a t opographie de l a s tation Eravtsque d e G ellerthegy-Taban. Archaologia E rtesitö 8 6: 6 3-9.

C . 1 949

D ie Versuchsgrabung 1 948 a uf d em Magdalensberg. C arinthia I 1 39: 1 45-176.

Prehistoric S ociety 1 969

F ield G uide t o P rehistoric S ites Württemberg a nd Bavaria.

Preynat,

L 'oppidum d 'Essalois. 3 14.

J .P.

near

1 962

2 60

Ogam 1 4:

i n

287-

Prosek,

F .

1 947-8

K eltskä Pevnost; PA 4 3: 4 3-58.

Hradi k te na Z ävisti.

Pl impin,

F .

1 935

S pätgallische Töpferofen i n S issach, Kanton Baselland. G ermania 1 9: 2 22-228.

Quitaud,

R .

1 961

Compte r endu d es premieres prospecti ons e t s ondage ä Cheziue. Bulletin du Groupe Archeologique d e F orez e t Jarez 1 .

Ralston,

I .

1 972

I ron Age Fortifications i n Haut-Berry. Unpublished t hesis, Edinburgh.

Ralston, I . a nd Bl ichsenschütz, 0 . 1 975

Late p re-Roman I ron Age f orts Berry. Antiquity 4 9: 8 -18.

Reding,

L es Monnaies Gauloises d u T etelbierg.

L .

Reinecke,

1 972 P .

1 909/ Mainzer Aufsätze s ur C hronologie d er 1 965 Bronze-und E isenzeit. 1 934-5

Renaud,

J .

Revellio,

P .

Rice H olmes,

Richmond,

Riek,

Rochna,

Rowlett, Rowlett, Boureux,

O .

B odendenkmäle s pätkeltischer E isengewinnung a n d er untersten A ltmühl. BRGK 2 4/25: 1 28-228.

1 955

Deux o bjets i nedits t rouvees d ans l 'oppidum d u C ret Chatelard. R AE 6 : 3 46-349.

1 962

Notes s ur l 'oppidum d 'Essalois, L oire. Le t race e t l a s tructure d u rampart. Ogam 1 4: 5 7-67.

1 928

Kastel Hüffingen.

G ermania 1 1:

Caesar's C onquest e dition.

o f

1 911

T .

I . A.

G .

i n t he

G aul.

9 8-121.

S econd

1 968

H od H ill I I. Excavations b etween 1 951 a nd 1 958.

1 942

E in F letthaus a us d er W ende ä lterej üngere Hunsrück-Eifel-Kultur bei B efort, Luxembourg. G ermania 2 6: 2 6-34.

1 961

Z ur H erkunft pelit-Ringe.

R .M., E . a nd M . 1 969

c arried out

d er Manchinger S aproG ermania 3 9: 3 29-354.

A r ectangular Early La T bne h ouse a t Chassemy ( Aisne). W orld A rchaeology 1 : 1 06-127.

2 61

Rowlett, R . M., Rowlett, E . a nd Thomas, H . 1 974

Vorbericht z u d en Ausgrabungen d er M issouri - Universität ( U.S.A.) auf d em T itelberg. H emecht 3 : 377-388.

Ruoff,

1 964

E ine S pätlatenesiedlung bei Marthalen. Jahrbuch d er S chweizer Gesellshaft f ür Urgeschichte 5 1: 4 7-62.

1 964

Posdn6 l atensk6 a c asn6 H mská s idligte u Novem Bydzove, Chudoucich. P race Musea u Hradeci Kralove 7 : 3 -142.

U .

Rybova,

A .

Rybova ; A . a nd S oudsky, B . 1 962

L ibenice: techach.

Saldovä,

V .

1 955

P loche Z arove h roby hallgtatska-latenske ✓ ' C eske mohylove o blast. Poheebigte v P lzn-Bile Hore a v Rybove Lhote u S obeslavi. PA 4 4: 7 6-100.

Sand er,

R .

1 964

L 'oppidum d 'Erquy Ogam 1 6: 3 93-398.

1 963

I n Egger 1 963.

1 965

E tude d es ramparts d 'oppida c eltiques e n Sarre. C elticum 1 2: 227-230.

1 967

Z ur Burgwallkeramik d er HunsrückE ifel-Kultur. I n S tudien zur Europäischen V or- und F rühgeschichte ( Jankuhn F estschrift): 8 5-94.

1 968

S tudien z um v orgeschichtlichen S iedlungs- u nd B efestigungswesen des Saarlandes.

1 969

D ie s pätlatene Burgen v on Landscheid, W eiersbach u nd Ehrang. Trierer Z eitschrift 3 2: 3 1-69.

1 974

D ie A ltburg b ei Bundenbach, K r. B irkenfeld. V orbericht über d ie Ausgrabungen 1 971-2. G ermania 5 2: 5 5-76.

S chaaber, S chindler,

0 . R .

S chönberger,

H . 1 952

Keltskä S vatne ye S tr .ednich

( Cötes du N ord).

D ie s pätlatenezit i n d er Wetterau. Saalburger Jahrbuch 1 1: 2 1-130.

1 956

E ine k eltische Münze v on der G oldg rube. G ermania 3 4: 1 52-154.

1 969

The R oman Frontier i n G ermany: a n a rchaeological s urvey. Journal of Roman S tudies 5 9: 1 44-197.

2 62

S choppa,

H .

S chubert,

S chwab,

F .

H .

S chwarz,

K .

1 961

Fundbericht: Hallstatt - Latenezeit. Fundbericht a us Hessen I 1 63-170.

1 972

Manching I V . Vorbericht über d ie Ausg rabungen i n d en Jahren 1 965 b is 1 971. G ermania 5 0: 1 10-121.

1 972

Entdeckung e iner keltische Brucke a n d er Z ihl und i hre Bedeutung f ür La Tene. AK 2 : 2 89-294.

1 974

Neue Ergebnisse z ur Topographie v on La Tene. G ermania 5 2: 3 48-367.

1 960

S pätkeltische Viereckschanzen: Ergeb nisse d er Topographischen Vermessung und d er Ausgrabungen 1 957-9. JBD 1 : 7 -41.

1 962

Zum S tand d er Ausgrabung i n d er s pätkeltischen Viereckschanze v on H olzhausen. JBD 2 : 2 2-77.

1 963

Zum l atenezeitlichen Oppidum a uf dem S taffelberg. G ermania 4 1: 1 08-114.

S chwarz, K ., T illman Z ur s pätlatenezeitlichen und m ittelH . a nd T reibs, W . ä lterlichen E isenerzgewinnung a uf d er s üdlichen Frankenalb b ei Kelheim . JBD 1 965-6 6 -7: 3 5-66. S innhuber,

S itterding,

K .

1 949

M . 1 950

S kutil,

Small,

J .

A .

S oudskä,

E .

Die A ltertümer v on ' Himmelriech' bei Wattens. S chlern-Schriften 6 0:24. La c eramique d e l 'epoque d e La T ene ä Yverdon. Fouilles d e 1 961. J ahrbuch d er S chweizerischen Gesellschaft f ür Urgeschichte 5 2: 100-111.

1 950

C atalaunskä m ince z e S tareho H radiska na Morave. NL 5 : 1 8-19.

1 963

L ' ambre j aune d e l 'oppidum c eltique d e S tare Hradisko e n Moravie. C elticum 6 : 2 15-222.

1 969

Burghead. S cottish A rchaeological Forum 1 : 6 1-8.

1 968

VYskum p ozdne Hallsta.t skeho p ohf .e bi he v Manetine-Hradku v r oce 1 965. AR 2 0: 1 72-7.

1 966

Obydli na p ozdne halstat kYch s idlis tich. PA 5 7: 5 35-603.

2 63

S oudski .,

S outou,

E .

A .

S tähelin,

F .

S tanford,

S .C.

S tead,

I . M.

S töckli,

S treit,

W .E.

C .

S troh,

F .

S troh, F ranz,

F . L .

S voboda,

Terrisse,

Thill,

G .

1 968

E in Beitrag zur G liederung d er s päthallstatischen Keramik. Berichten van d e R ijkdienst v oor he Oudhiedkundig B odemonderzoek 1 8: 1 311 50.

1 966

Chronologie d es monnaies pre-romaines d u Languedoc. Ogam 1 8: 2 67-275.

1 935

Der Vorgeschichtliche Ringwall d er H oubirg bei Nurnberg.

I nvention, a doption, a nd imposition - t he e vidence o f t he h ill-forts. I n J esson a nd H ill 1 971: 4 1-52. 1 967

A La Tene I II b urial a t Welwyn Garden C ity. A rchaeologia 1 01: 1

1 969

Verulamium 1 966-8.

1 975

B emerkungen z ur r aümlichen u nd zeitl ichen G ruppierung d er Funde i m Oppidum Manching. Germania 5 3: 3 68-385.

1 934

Der H esenstein.

1 944

Neue l atenezietliche Funde i n Oberd onau. Jahrbuch d es Vereines f ür Landeskunde und H eimatpflege, Oberdonau 9 1: 3 55.

a nd 1 940

B .

auf

1 950

J .-R. 1 959

Antiquity 4 3:

S udeta 1 0:

4 5-51.

8 5-91.

D ie k eltische N iederlassung a uf dem Grundberg. Jahrbuch d es Vereines f ür Landeskunde und H eimatpflege O berdonau 8 9: 2 17. N ove k eltske o ppidum v j iznich Cecha ch? AR 2 : 6 4-68. Vases gauloises d u d ebut de l a c onquete r omaine d ecouverts s ur l e p lateau d e C orent ( Puy d e D ome). Ogam 1 1: 1 1-18.

1 965

T etelbierg: S ite Archeolgique. Mus e d ' Histoire e t d 'Art Luxembourg .

1 966

C olloque a u s ujet d u T itelberg . Une c oupe h t ravers l e r empart d u T itel; b erg. H emecht 1 8: 1 75-180.

1 966-7

1 969

G oeblingen-Nospelt. Hemecht 4 91; 1 9: 8 7-98, 1 99-203.

1 8:

4 82-

F ibeln v om T itelberg a us den B eständen d es L uxemburger Museums. Trierer Z eitschrift 3 2: 1 33-171. 2 64

Thiollier,

F .

a nd N . 1 899

A lbum.

Thomas,

E .B.

1 963

Ornat und Kultgeräte e iner S ol und Luna Priesterin a us Pannonien. Acta A ntigua A cademiae S cientificae Hungaricae 1 1: 4 9-81.

Thomas,

N .

1 957

Excavations a t Callow H ill, G lympton a nd S tonesfield, Oxon. Oxoniensia 2 2: 1 1-53.

1 959

K o tazke o sidlenia J uhozapadneho S lovenskä na z lomg l etopo f tu. AR 1 1: 8 41-874.

1 966

N itriansky H radok f or publication).

Toclk,

A .

T outain, C . B eauregard,

T schumi,

a nd d e C . 1 925-6

Note s ur f oilles e xecutees a u Camp d e l a C ite d e L imes pres d e Dieppe e n 1 926. BSNEP 2 6: 5 7-67.

1 953

Urgeschichte d es Kantons Bern.

1 953

Vorgeschichte d er Hessen S enke i n 1 5 Karten.

1 958

F rührömische Amphore a ls Z eitmarken i m S pätlatehe.

Vandenbroucque

1 961

C ontributions a l 'etude d es f ortificat ions d e t erre e n Armorique: Oppidum d ' Orange. Ogam 1 3: 2 29-236.

Vauville,

1 886, 1 893

Monnaies g auloises t rouvees d ans l e d epartement d e l 'Aisne. R evue Numismatique 4 : 1 93-202, 3 05-326.

1 899

I nventaire d e monnaies g auloises t rouvees dans l es d epartements d e l ' Aisne e t d l 'Eure. R evue Numismatique 4 : 2 57-273.

1 953

D ie Versuchsgrabung a uf d em G eorgib erg b ei M icheldorf. Pro R omana 3 : 2 5-6.

1 956

Der G eorgenberg b ei M icheldorf, Oberösterreich. O sterreichischer Z eitschrift f ür K unst u nd Denkmalp fIege 1 0: 1 6-26.

U enze,

0 .

( plates prepared

O .

Vetters,

O .

H .

V etters, H . P iccottini,

a nd G . 1 969

D ie Ausgrabungen a uf d em Magdalensb erg, 1 965-8. Carinthia I 1 59: 2 854 22.

2 65

Vogel,

V .

Vollrath,

F .

1 968

E ine Nachgrabung im s pätkeltischen Töpferbezirk S issach-Bruhl. Provincialia: F estschrift Laur-Belart: 6 19-631.

1 961

Die Houbirg.

Vondereau,

J .

1 931

Denkmaler a us V or- und F rühgeschichtl icherzeit i m F uldaer Lande.

Von M iske,

K .

1 904

D ie La T bne I II Stufe i n Velem S t. Vid. Archiv f ür A nthropologie, Neue f olge 3 1: 1 81-190.

1 908

D ie Prähistorische Ansiedelung Velem S t. V id I .

1 923

La Tene.

1 938

D ie k eltische M auer v on Manching, I ngolstadt. G ermania 2 2: 1 57-160.

Vouga, Wagner,

P . K .H .

Wainwright,

G .J. 1 968

B .A.

The e xcavation o f a Durotrigian f arms tead n ear Tollard R oyal i n C ranbourne Chase, S outhern England. PPS 3 4: 162-147.

ron Age s ettlement o f G ussage Wainwright, G .J. a nd The I S pratling, M . 1 973 A ll S aints. Antiquity 4 7: 1 09-127. Ward Perkins,

Wells, Werner,

J . B. 1 940

The p ottery o f G ergovie i n r elation t o t hat o f t he o ther s ites i n C entral a nd S outh-Western F rance. A rch.J. 9 7: 3 7-87.

1 944

Excavation o n t he I ron Age h ill-fort o f O ldbury, I ghtham, K ent. A rchaeologia 9 0: 1 27-176.

C . M.

1 972

The G erman P olicy o f A ugustus.

J .

1 953

K eltisches P ferdegeschirr d er S pätl at neziet. Saalburger J ahrbuch 1 2: 4 2-52.

1 954

D ie B ronzekanne v on K elheim . Bayeri sche V orgeschichtsblätter 2 0: 4 3-73.

1 955

D ie Nauheimer F ibel. Jahrbuch d es R ömisch-Germanische Z entralmusems, Mainz 2 : 1 70.

1 961

B ermerkungen z u n orischen Trachtzubeh ör u nd z u F ernhandelsbeziehungen d er S pätlatenezeit i m S alzburger L and. M itteilungen d er G esellschaft f ür S alzburger Landeskunde 1 01 ( Hell F estschri ft): 1 43 f f. 2 66

Wheeler,

R .E.M.

1 943

Maiden Castle.

1 954

The S tanwick Fortifications, R iding o f Y orkshire.

North

Wheeler, R .E.M. a nd H ill Forts o f Northern F rance. Richardson, K . M. 1 957 Wheeler, T . V.

R .E.M.

a nd 1 936

Verulamium: C ities.

Wiedmer,

H .R .

1 963

Menschliche S kelettreste a us S patl atenesiedlungen i n A lpenvorland. G ermania 4 1: 2 69-317.

1 958

L es a mphores d e S estius. 2 24-244.

Will,

E . L.

Williams J . P. Wilson,

Wo ni .ak,

Freeman, 1 915 A .E.

Z .

A n a s

A B elgic a nd Two R oman

RAE 8 :

I ntroduction t o F ield A rchaeology I llustrated by Hampshire.

1 938

Excavations i n t he ramparts a nd gateway of t he C aburn, August-October 1 937: a n i nterim r eport. S AC 7 9: 1 69-194.

1 939

Excavations a t 8 0: 1 93-213.

1 971

D ie j üngste Phase d er K eltischen K ultur i n Polen. AR 2 3: 5 04-519.

t he Caburn

1 938.

SAC

Zevi,

F ,

1 966

Appunti s ulle a nfore r omane. A rchaeologia C lassica 1 8: 2 07-247.

Zürn,

H .

1 965

Katalog S chwäbisch Hall. Veröf fentlichungen d es S taatlichen Amtes f ür Denkmalpflege, S tuttgart, R eihe A n o. 9 .

2 E7