Meroitic Settlement in the Central Sudan: An Analysis of Sites in the Nile Valley and the Western Butana 9780860542520, 9781407334981

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Meroitic Settlement in the Central Sudan: An Analysis of Sites in the Nile Valley and the Western Butana
 9780860542520, 9781407334981

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology Series List
Table of Contents
Preface
List of Figures
Chapter One: Meroitic Archaeology in Nubia and Central Sudan
Chapter Two: Geology, Geomorphy and Palaeoclimates
Chapter Three: The Archaeological Survey
Chapter Four: Demography and Archaeology: Models and Methods
Chapter Five: Settlement, Resources and Population
Chapter Six: Pottery Classification and Distribution
Chapter Seven: Hierarchies, Intersite and Intrasite Variations
Chapter Eight: Conclusions, Problems and Prospects
Appendix 1
Appendix 2
Bibliography

Citation preview

Meroitic Settlement in the Central Sudan An Analysis of Sites in the Nile Valley and the Western Butana

Khidir Abdelkarim Ahmed

Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 8 BAR International Series 197 1984

B.A.R.

122 Banbury Road, Oxford OX2 7BP, England

GENERAL EDITORS A.R. Hands, B.Sc., M.A., D.Phil. D .R. Walker. M .A.

B.A.R.-S197, 1984: 'Meroitic Settlement in the Central Sudan'

©

Khidir Abdelkarirn Ahmed, 1984

The author’s moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9780860542520 paperback ISBN 9781407334981 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9780860542520 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com

C AMBRIDGE M ONOGRAPHS I N A FRICAN A RCHAEOLOGY G eneral E ditor J ohn A 1exande : 7, M .A ., P h.D ., F .S.A . D ept. A rchae clogy, D owning S treet C ambridge C B2 3 DZ, E ngland

M anuscripts s lould b e s ubmitted t o D r. A lexander i n t he f irst i nstance.

T itles a lready p ublished: 1 .

' The

N iger

D elta :

N wanna N zewunwa. 2 .

A spects B AR-S75.

o :

i ts

' Prehistoric I nvestigations

i n t he R egion o f J enne ,

R egional A rtefact

b y R obert F oley. 4 .

B ARS-897 .

' Settlement

B AR-S114 .

P atterns

i n

' The N eolithic P eriod M ohammed-Ali.

7 .

B AR-S139.

a nd

C ulture ' b y

M ali ' b y S usan K eech

P rice £ 20 .00 p ost f ree. i n E astern A frica:

i n t he A mboseli ,

A n

S outhern K enya '

P rice £ 10 .00 p ost f ree. i n

S udanese N ubia ' b y Y ousif

P rice £ 10 .00 p ost f ree. t he

I nterpretation' b y M artin H all. 6 .

D ensity

' L ater P leistocene C ultural A daptations M ükhtar e l A min.

5 .

B AR-S89.

' Off-Site A rchaeology a nd H uman A daptation A nalysis o f

E conomy

P rice £ 10 .00 p ost f ree.

M cIntosh a nd R oderick J . M cIntosh. 3 .

P rehistoric

I ron A ge

o f

B AR-S119.

i n t he S udan ,

c .

Z ululand:

A n

E cological

P rice £ 10 .00 p ost f ree. 6 000 - 2 500 B .C . ' b y A bbas

S .

P rice £ 12.00 p ost f ree.

' H istory a nd E thnoarchaeology i n E astern N igeria :

A S tudy o f I gbo-Igala

r elations w ith s pecial r eference t o t he A nambra V alley ' b y P hilip A digwe O guagha a nd A lex I kechukwu O kpoko.

B AR-S195.

i ii

P rice £ 15.00 p ost f ree.

C ONTENTS P age P reface

v ii

L ist o f F igures

C HAPTER 1 :

i x

M EROITIC A RCFAEOLOGY I N N UBIA A ND T HE C ENTRAL S UDAb

1

E arly T ravellers a nd S cholars S alvage A rchaeology i n L ower N ubia I ndependent E xpeditions S urvey a nd E x2avations i n C entral S udan R esearch O bje2tives T he S ample T erminology ad D ating C HAPTER 2 :

G EOLOGY , G EOM)RPHOLOGY A ND P ALAEOCLIMATES

9

P leistocene a id R ecent F ormations P alaeoclimates C limatic C hanges i n H istoric T imes P resent C limate T he W estern B utana V egetation S ummary C HAPTER 3 :

T HE A RCHAEOLOGICAL S URVEY R iverine S ites:

E ast B ank

R iverine S ites:

W est B ank

2 1

W estern B utana S ites S ummary C HAPTER 4 :

D EMOGRAPHY A ND A RCHAEOLOGY :

M ODELS

A ND M ETHODS

7 1

T he B oserup M odel A gricultural T echniques a nd L and u se T ypes B oserup's M odel a nd A rchaeology C ommunity P attern a nd S ocial O rganization C riticism o f B oserup's M odel C arrying C apacity a nd P opulation D emography a nd t he A rchaeological E vidence AModel f or t he S tudy o f S ettlement a nd r esource D istribution C HAPTER 5 :

S ETTLEMENT , R ESOURCES A ND P OPULATION S oils a nd S ite D istribution T he S oils o f t he W estern B utana S oll S tudies i n t he S udan R esource D istribution L and-use T ypes i n t he L ate H istoric P eriod A nimal R esources W ater S ources A rable L ands i n t he W estern B utana S oil T ypes a nd S ite L ocations R iverine A griculture R alnland C ultivation

8 3

A nimal H usbandry P opulation m cvements I nter-regional P opulation M ovements I ntra-regional P opulation M ovements C onclusions C HAPTER 6 :

P OTTERY C LASSIFICATION A ND D ISTRIBUTION

1 19

M eroitic P ottery C lassification. E arly W ork R ecent W ork.

C lassification o f L ower

N ubian M eroitic W ares T he M eroe T ypplogy T he C eramics • p f M üsawwarat T he C lassification o f C eramic M aterial M ethodology a nd P rinciples o f t he C lassification A ttributes M issing 1 1 , 3ta D ata C oding a nd L evels o f M easurement S ample T ypes a nd P rovenience I ndustries, T ypes a nd V arieties T he H and made I ndustry C HAPTER 7 :

H IERARCHIES ,

I NTERSITE A ND I NTRASITE

V ARIATIONS S ite H ierarchies

1 83

AM odel f or M eroitic S ite H ierarchies I ntrasite D istributions L evels o f P roduction a nd D istribution M anufacturing M ethods

C HAPTER 8 :

C ONCLUSIONS , P ROBLEMS A ND P ROSPECTS

2 71

A PPENDIX 1 :

L ist o f T raits U sed i n P ottery A nalysis

2 8 1

A PPENDIX 2 :

T he N eolithic S ite o f Q oz B urra

2 85

B IBLIOGRAPHY

2 89

P REFACE

I am

i ndebted

t o

t he

U niversity

o f

K hartoum

f or

g ranting

m e

a

s cholarship t o u ndertake t he p resent r esearch a nd f or f unding t he f ieldwork i n t he S udan , a nd t o P rofessor C . R enfew f or a rranging f inancial h elp f rom t he D epartment o f A rchaeology , C ambridge U niversity. I w ould l ike t o t hank D rs .

L H odder ,

J . A lexander ,

P . C allow ,

a nd P .

C arter f or a dvice , h elp a nd e ncouragement d uring t he c ourse o f m y r esearch. I must

a lso

t hank

S ayed/N .M .

S herif,

D irector

G eneral

o f

t he

A ntiquities S ervice f or g ranting t he s urvey l icence. P rofessor F . H intze o f H umboldt U niversity ,

B erlin ,

k indly a llowed m e

t o e xamine t he B utana S urvey m aterial . P rofessor Xi% S hore , U niversity o f L iverpool , w as e xtremely h elpful i n a llowing m e t o i nvestigate t he m aterial a nd a rchives o f G arstang's e xcavations a t M eroe. I n

t he

S udan

f riends

a nd c olleagues h elped

i n v arious w ays .

A mong

t hem D r . Y ousif M . E l A min d eserves s pecial t hanks . L ieutenant-Colonel H ashim O sman a nd S aid A hmed K ameir m ade p arts o f t he f ield w ork p racticable . Ia m g rateful t o R ebecca B radley a nd A nwar A bd E l t he s urvey.

M agid f or t heir h elp

i n

Ia m e xtremely t hankful t o A lida M uller w ho p atiently t yped t he f inal m anuscript.

v ii

L IST O F F IGURES F igure 1 2 .1 2 .2 2 .3 2 .4 3 .1 3 .2 3 .3 3 .4 3 .5 3 .6 3 .7 3 .8 3 .9 3 .9a 3 .10 3 .11 3 .12 3 .13 3 .14 3 .15 3 .16 3 .17 3 .18 3 .19 3 ,20 3 ,21 3 .22 3 .23 3 .24 3 .25 3 .26 3 .27 5 .1 5 .2 5 .3

P age S udan m ap :

s ome l ocalities r eferred t o i n

t he t ext G eological m ap o f t he w estern B utana a nd t he S hendi R each R atio o f c attle t o c aprovine b one f ragments i n e ach s pit o f t he M eroe B one T rench ( Group I I) M ean a nnual r ainfall i n n orthern a nd c entral S udan L ocation o f K eraba a nd o ther g eographical d ivisions M ap o f H amadab ( site 4 5) s howing a reas o f s urface c ollections A wlib ( site 2 ): m ounds a nd h afir P rofi le o f n orth f ace o f 2 A T he m ounds o f A bu E rteila ( site 1 ) s howing l ocation o f t est p its P rofile o f n orth f ace o f L A P rofi le o f n orth f ace o f 1 B W ad B an N aga ( site 4 6) L ocation o f F ikheikhira ( site 8 ) a nd Q oz B urra ( site 2 2) P rofile o f n orth f ace o f 8 A G oz e l F ugara ( site 1 0) a nd G aha lab ( site 9 ) M ap o f B asa ( site 1 7) s howing a reas o f s urface c ollections a nd t est p its P rofi le o f n orth f ace o f 1 7A L ocation o f s ites i n t he s urvey a rea S ite 1 3 , i ronstone c airns C ircular s tructures a t U mm S amugh A rea o f s urface c ollection a t D uaneib T he t emple a t M atruqa ( site 2 7) M usawwarat ( site 2 9) A reas o f s urface c ollection M ap o f J ebel H ardan ( site 3 1) T he ' kiosk ' o f N asb e l S amih ( site 3 4) D ry-stone s tructure a nd t est p it ( site 3 4) a t J ebel K hereiq ( site 2 5) T he t emp le o f A lim ( site 3 ) M ap o f J ebel S urat ( site 2 5) C ircular s tructure o f h afirs o f M atrusa ( site 3 7) T he t emple o f M urabba ( site 3 8) L ocation o f A mbasa ( site 4 3) J ebel Q eili ( site 4 4) B asin a nd t raditional i rrigation a reas a t W ad H amid L ocation a nd a reas o f b asins a long t he S hendi R each D ry w eather d istribution o f a nimals i n t he S hendi R each a nd t he B utana

i x

x ii 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 5 0 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 6 0 6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 1 05 1 06 1 07

5 .4

A gricultural l and o n W adi E l A wateib

1 08

5 .5 5 .6 5 .7 5 .8 5 .9

A gricultural l and o n W adi E l H awab A gricultural l and o n t he D engalia B asin S urvey a rea i n t he w estern B utana S oils a nd s ite d istributions i n t he s urvey a rea S oil a nd s ite d istributions a t t he m outh o f W adi E l H awad P resent-day s hifting c ultivation n ear J ebel G eheid

1 09 10 11 12

5 .10 5 .11

6 .24 6 .25 6 .26 6 .27

A lluvium t erraces i n t he M iddle N ile R egion s outh o f t he 5 th C ataract M ap o f Mroe s howing a reas o f r ecent e xcavations F luctuations o f b urial n umbers a t t he S outh a nd W est c emeteries , M eroe W ard's d endrogram o f t emper t ypes A verage l inkage d endrogram o f t emper t ypes P osition o f r im s lip b ands R im o rientation c harts E xterior t extures o f T ype W I ( T ot a l c ollection) E xterior t extures o f t ype W I ( Systematic s amples) I nterior s lip o f T ype W I E xterior c olours o f W Ia a nd W Ib I nterior c olours o f W Ia , W Ib a nd W Ic C lustered t emper t ypes o f W Ia F iring o f T ype W I v arieties ( Total c ollection) C lay t ypes o f W I v arieties ( Total c ollection) S lip a pplication o n v ariety W Ib ( Systematic s amples) E xterior c olours o f v ariety W Ib ( Systematic s amp les) I nterior c olours o f v ariety W Ib ( Systematic s amples) C lay t ypes o f v ariety W Ib ( Systematic s amples) C lustered t emper t ypes o f W Ib E xterior c olours o f W Ic , W Id a nd W Ie S lip a pplication o n v ariety o f W Ic ( Systematic s amples) E xterior c olours o f v ariety W Ic ( Systematic s amples) I nterior c olours o f v ariety W Ic ( Systematic c ollections) E xterior c olours o f W Ic , W D a nd W Ie E xterior t extures o f v ariety W Ic ( Systematic s amples) C lustered t emper t ypes o f W Ic I nterior c olours o f W Id a nd W Ie C lustered t emper t ypes o f W Id a nd W Ie R im t ype p rofiles

6 .28 6 .29 6 .30 6 .31 6 .32

R im t ype p rofiles R im t ype p rofiles P ainted d ecoration S tamped a nd p ainted d ecoration F abric-impressed a nd f inger-impressed s herds

5 .12 5 .13 6 .1 6 .2 6 .3 6 .4 6 .5 6 .6 6 .7 6 .8 6 .9 6 .10 6 .11 6 .12 6 .13 6 .14 6 .15 6 .16 6 .17 6 .18 6 .19 6 .20 6 .21 6 .22 6 .23

13 14 15 16 17 1 95 1 96 1 97 1 98 1 99 2 00 2 01 2 02 2 03 2 04 2 05 2 06 2 07 2 08 2 09 2 10 2 11 2 12 2 13 2 14 2 15 2 16 2 17 2 18 2 19 2 20 2 21 2 22 2 23 2 24 2 25 2 26

6 .33 6 .34 6 .35

I mpressed d ecoration I ncised d ecoration I ncised d ecoration

2 27 2 28 2 29

6 .36 6 .37

2 30

6 .38

I mpressed d ecoration I ncised a nd i mpressed d ecoration . I ncised, w hitefilled d ecoration I ncised a nd t icked d ecoration . I ncised

6 .39 6 .40 7 .1 7 .2 7 .3

d ecoration I mpressed d ecoration D ecorated r ims S ites d ominated b y w heel-made p ottery S ites d ominated b y h and-made p ottery I ntrasite d istribution o f p ottery i ndustries

2 32 2 33 2 34 2 67 2 68

( a) B asa , ( b) D uanei D istribution o f r im r adii o f T ype H IM a t d ifferent l evels i n 8 A D istribution o f r im r adii o f T ype H IM a t d ifferent l evels i n 8 A R im t ypes o f H III a t d ifferent l evels o f 8 A S lip b and t ypes o f H IM a t d ifferent l evels i n 8 A L ocation o f t est p its 2 2A a nd 2 2B N eolithic p ottery o f Q oz B urra

2 69

7 .4 7 .5 7 .6 7 .7 9 .1 9 .2

2 31

2 70 2 71 2 72 2 73 2 86 2 87

500Km

0

Fig. 1:

Sudan map:

some localities referred to in the text. xii

C HAPTER 1 M EROITIC A RCHAEOLOGY I N N UB I A A ND C ENTRAL S UDAN I t

w ould p erhaps

a rchaeological E gyptology .

b e a n u nderstatement t o s ay t hat t he h istory o f

r esearch

T he

i n

e conomic

t he

S udan

n ecessities

i s a nd

c losely t he

l inked

p olitical

t o

E gypt

f ortunes

o f

a nd t he

n orthern c ountry w ere l argely r esponsible f or t he m ajority o f a rchaeological w ork c onducted i n t he S udan , w hile m ost o f t hose i nvolved i n t his w ork w ere t rained a s E gyptologists a nd p hilologists . T he N apoleonic o ccupation o f E gypt t oward t he e nd o f t he e ighteenth c entury a nd t he E gyptian c olonization o f t he S udan i n 1 821 o pened u p t he w ay f or E uropean t ravellers a nd s cholars w ho r oamed t he n orthern p art o f t he c ountry r ecording i nscriptions a nd m onuments . S hortage o f a gricultural l and i n E gypt r equired t he b uilding a nd h eightening o f d ams o n t he N ile n ear A swan t o p rovide w ater f or p erennial i rrigation . T his l ed t o t he f ormation o f a rchaeological t eams t o s alvage s ites d ue t o b e s ubmerged b y t he w aters o f t he l ake c reated b ehind t hese d ams . A rchaeological w ork t hus c oncentrated h eavily o n t he n arrow s trip o f t he N ile i n L ower N ubia w hile v ast a reas o f t he c ountry r emained u ntouched .

E arly T ravellers a nd S cholars A n umber o f

E uropean

t ravellers

e xplored

t he

S udan

i n t he

e ighteenth

c entury a nd c ompiled i nformation o n t he c ountry , i ts i nhabitants a nd a ntiquities . H owever , i t w as n ot u ntil e arly i n t he n ineteenth c entury t hat i nterest i n t he e arly h istory o f t he S udan p layed a m ajor p art i n d eciding t he i tineraries o f t hese t ravellers . T he S wiss o rientalist J .L . B urckhardt w ho t ravelled i n t he S udan i n 1 813 a nd 1 814 w rote , ' T hat c ountry , f urther u p t han D err , h as n ever b een v isited b y a ny t raveller ; y et I a m i nformed b y m any o f t he n atives , t hat t he b orders o f t he r iver a re f ull o f a ncient t emples a nd o ther a ntiquities , r esembling t hose o f L uxor a nd t he I sle o f P hilae' ( Burckhardt, 1 819 : L iii) . B urckhardt t ravelled a s f ar s outh a s S hendi a nd K assala v isiting a nd d escribing m onuments . B urckhardt 's m ore v aluable c ontribution i s r egarded t o b e i n t he f ields o f e thnography a nd t he r ecording

o f

o ral

h istory

( Adams ,

1 973c) .

O ther

t ravellers

B urckhardt a nd r ecorded u seful i nformation o n a rchaeological W addington a nd H abury ( 1822) a nd H oskins ( 183 9 .

w ho s ites

f ollowed i nclude

M ore a ccurate a ccounts o f a rchaeological s ites a re i ncluded i n t he w orks o f L inant d e B ellefonds ( 1958 ) , C ailliaud ( 1826) a nd L epsius ( 1849-59 ;1853) . I n 1 822 L inant d e B ellefonds v isited M usawwarat , N aga a nd t he p yramids o f M eroe w here h e m ade p lans o f t he t emples a nd p yramids . T hes f, p lans a re s till u npublished . C ailliaud f ollowed L inant d e B ellefonds . A fter v isiting a nd p lanning a n umber o f s ites

i n N ubia h e t ravelled s outhward t o

t he r egion o f M eroe w here h e d escribed t he p yramids a nd t he t own s ite . L ater h e v isited W ad B an N aga , M usawwarat a nd N aga a nd p lanned p arts o f t hese s ites

( Cailliaud ,

1 826) .

o bservations o n t hese s ites .

C ailliaud O n N aga ,

made

a n umber

f or e xample h e s ays :

W hat h as b ecome o f t he p eople w ho d ared t o f ound a c ity a nd t o b uild s plendid e difices, o n t his p arched l and, i n t he

1

o f

i nteresting

middle

o f

t he

d esert ,

where

a t

t he

p resent d ay t he t raveller i s u nable t o f ind t he s mallest s pring w hereat h e m ay q uench h is t hirst, a nd i n s uch a s pot t hat e ven t he w ild a nimals a void i t a s a dwelling p lace ( quoted i n B udge, 1 907 :47). B etween 1 842 a nd 1 844 R ichard L epsius l ed t he P russian E xpedition t o t he S udan . L epsius' o bjective w as ' to o btain a g eneral v iew o f t he t rue r elation b etween t he h istory o f c ivilization o f E gypt a nd E thiopia ( i .e . S udan) f ounded u pon a c omplete e xamination o f t he r emains s till e xtant' ( Lepsius, 1 853 :17) . T he w ork o f t he P russian E xpedition was t he f irst e ffort a t s ystematically r ecording a nd p lanning a rchaeological s ites i n t he S udan ( Lepsius , 1 949-59) . T he e xpedition v isited a nd s ystematically r ecorded s ites i n L ower N ubia a nd c entral S udan . L epsius w as c onvinced t hat t he s ites o f M eroe , N aga , M usawwarat a nd W ad B an N aga c annot b e d ated e arlier t han t he f irst c entury B .C .

H e w rote :

Iw as u navoidably c onvinced t hat o n t his m ost r enowned s pot o f a ncient E thiopia , I h ad n othing b efore m e b ut t he r emains . o f a v ery l ate p eriod o f a rt . - T he r epresentations

a nd

i nscriptions

l eave t he s mallest d oubt o f t his ,

d o

n ot

a nd i t

w ill i n f uture b e a f ruitless t ask t o e ndeavour t o s upport t he f avourite s upposition o f a n a ncient , b rilliant a nd r enowned M eroe , w hose i nhabitants w ere a t o ne t ime t he p redecessors a nd i nstructors o f t he E gyptians i n c ivilization ( Lepsius, 1 853 :152) . L epsius' w ork marks t he e nd o f a n e ra o f E uropean e xplo , .ation a nd r ecording o f a rchaeological s ites i n t he S udan . I t w asn 't u ntil t he t urn o f t he c entury t hat s urvey a nd e xcavations o f s ites s tarted . T he f irst t wo d ecades o f t his c entury s aw t he b eginning o f m ajor s urvey a nd e xcavation w ork b oth i n L ower N ubia a nd c entral S udan . T he f irst A rchaeological S urvey o f N ubia t ook p lace i n t he y ears 1 907 t o 1 911 a nd c overed t he a rea b etween S hellal a nd W adi E s S ebua i n E gyptian N ubia .

O ther

i ndependant e xpeditions c arried o ut w ork a t v arious s ites . T he p rincipal o f t hese a re t he U niversity o f P ennsylvania E xpedition l ed b y M acIver a nd W oolley w hich e xcavated s ites i n L ower N ubia b etween 1 907 a nd 1 910 . G riffith h eaded t he O xford E xpedition e xcavations a t F aras a nd S anam ( 19101 913) .

T he U niversity o f L iverpool E xpedition l ed b y G arstang e xcavated a t

t he t own s ite o f M eroe a nd t he a ssociated c emeteries b etween 1 910 a nd 1 914 . I n 1 906 C rowfoot m ade t he f irst e xtensive s urvey o f M eroitic s ites i n t he B utana . F urther s outh W ellcome 's E xpedition e xcavated a t t he v illages a nd c emeteries o f J ebel M oya a nd A bu C elli b etween 1 910 a nd 1 914 . T he H arvardB oston E xpedition u nder t he d irection o f G .A . R eisner c arried o ut e xcavations a t K erma ( 1913-1 0 , N apata ( 1916-19) a nd M eroe ( 1922-2 9 .

2

S alvage A rchaeology i n L ower N ubia T he h eightening o f t he f irst A swan d am i n 1 90910 n ecessitated c arrying o ut a rchaeological w ork t o s alvage s ites i n E gyptian N ubia . T he s urvey , f irst d irected b y G .A . R eisner a nd l ater b y C .M . F irth , a imed a t m apping t he r egion , t he t otal e xcavation o f s ites t hat w ere r egarded t o b e m ost i mportant a nd s ampling l ess i mportant o nes . T he w ork w as t o c onsist o f t he e xamination o f b oth a rchaeological a nd p hysical a nthropological r emains . T he m ajor r esult o f R eisner 's w ork i n N ubia a fter t he f irst s eason w as t he d rawing o f a n o utline o f N ubian h istorical s equences b ased o n t he m aterial c ulture h orizons e ncountered d uring t he e xcavations . T he s equence o f c ultures , d esignated G roups , w as i ndicated b y t he p resence o f d istinct r emains a ssociated w ith d atable E gyptian m aterial . S ince n one o f t hese c ultural h orizons c orresponded t o k nown o nes f rom E gypt , t hey w ere g iven a lphabetic l abels - A ,B ,C ,D ,W ,X , a nd Y ( Reisner , 1 909 :5-6 ;1910 :313-48 ) . O f t hese c ultures t he W -Group r efers t o G raeco-Roman a nd M eroitic r emains . T he l atter w ere f ound m ainly i n t he s outhern p art o f L ower N ubia ( Firth , 1 927 :301 ). T he m ethod e mployed b y R eisner i n t he s urvey c onsisted o f t he s ystematic m apping o f s ites a nd t he m eticulous r ecording o f f inds . T his b ecame s tandard p rocedure f or s ubsequent w ork i n t he F irst A rchaeological S urvey a nd g ained w orldwide a cceptance ( Rowe , 1 961) . T he w ork , h owever , w as h eav ily b iased t owards t he e xcavation o f c emeteries w hile o ccupation s ites r eceived l ittle t reatment . T he h istorical c onclusions w ere b ased o n t he t ombs , t heir s ituation , c haracter a nd c ontents ( Reisner , 1 910 :313 ) . I n 1 929 s urvey w ork w as e xtended s outhward i nto t he r est o f E gyptian N ubia t o s alvage s ites t hreatened b y d estruction d ue t o t he s econd h eightening o f t he A swan d am . T he S econd A rchaeological S urvey o f N ubia w as d irected b y E mery a nd K irwan ( Emery a nd K irwan , 1 935) . D uring t he S econd A rchaeological S urvey a t otal o f 7 6 s ites w ere e xcavated . H owever , t wo s easons ( 19291930 ,19301931) w ere d edicated t o w ork o n s ome 7 0 s ites , w hile t he t hree r emaining s easons ( 1931-1934 ) d ealt e xclusively w ith t he X -Group b urials a t B allana a nd Q ustul ( Emery , 1 938 ) . F or

t wo

a nd

a h alf

d ecades

f ollowing

t he

e nd

o f

t he

S econd

A rchaeological S urvey o f N ubia v ery l ittle w ork w as c arried o ut t here o r i n t he r est o f t he S udan . I nterest w as r evived b y t he p lan t o b uild t he H igh D am a t A swan . A n i nternational s alvage c ampaign w as o rganized b y U NESCO a nd t he S udanese a nd E gyptian a uthorities ( Adams, 1 968b) . I n t he S udan a b alanced a pproach w as a dopted w hich r egarded s aving t he m onuments a nd c arrying o ut a rchaeological r esearch a s c omplementary o bjectives ( SaveS oderbergh , 1 971-72 :119 ; A dams , 1 968b :113 ) . T he w ork o f t he s alvage c ampaign i ncluded t he s ystematic s urvey o f b oth b anks

o f

t he N ile a nd

t he s election o f p articular s ites f or d etailed

e xamination . I n S udanese N ubia t he A ntiquities S ervice p rogramme o f s urvey a nd e xcavations o n t he w est b ank w as d irected b y W .Y . A dams (A dams e t .al . , 1 961; A dams a nd N ordstrom , 1 963) . S ince t he w ork o f t he t wo p revious a rchaeological s urveys c oncentrated o n c emeteries , a ttention i n t he l atest c ampaign w as g iven t o e xcavating m ore v illage s ites ( Adams , 1 962b :17 ) . O n t he e ast b ank t he p rogramme w as c arried o ut b y t he S candinavian J oint E xped ition ( Save-Soderbergh , 1 962 ; 1 964 ; 1 967-8 ) . M ore t han 1 000 s ites w ere l ocated o n b oth b anks a nd e xcavations w ere c onducted i n a bout a t hird o f t hem ( Adams , 1 977 :86 ) .

3

A s f ar a s t he M eroitic p eriod i s c oncerned ,

t he t hird s alvage c ampaign

c onfirmed t he r esults o f e arlier s urveys . W hile N apatan r emains w ere a lmost a bsent , o nly f ew M eroitic s ettlements w ere f ound c ompared w ith t hose f rom e arlier a nd l ater p eriods ( Mills , 1 964 :12 ;1967-8 :206 ; M ills a nd N ordstrom , 1 966 : 1 2 , T able 1 ; S ave-Soderbergh , 1 964 :37 ;1967-8 :213) . R ecently , s urvey w ork w as s tarted s outh o f t he D al C ataract ( Ceus a nd L aabre , 1 974) . T he N apatan a nd M eroitic s ites f ound w ere f ewer t han s ites b elonging t o e arlier a nd l ater p eriods

( Vi la ,

1 979 :18) .

I ndependent E xpeditions A n umber

o f

i ndependent

e xpeditions

e ntered

t he

f ield

a rchaeology d uring a nd a fter t he F irst A rchaeological S urvey . t hree o f t hese e xpeditions i s o f i mmediate i mportance

o f N ubian

T he w ork o f t o M eroitic

a rchaeology . B etween

1 907

a nd

1 910

t he

U niversity

o f P ennsylvania

e xpedition

e xcavated a n umber o f s ites o n L ower N ubia , i ncluding a s izable M eroitic t own ( Woolley a nd M civer ,1911) . D uring t he y ears 1 9 101913 G riffith d irected t he O xford U niversity e xcavations i n L ower N ubia

( 1910-1912) a nd

t he D ongola

R each ( 19121913) . T he w ork o f t he P ennsylvania a nd O xford e xpeditions i s r egarded a s i mportant i n a t l east o ne r espect i n t hat i t p aid m ore a ttention t o d omestic r emains t han d id t he F irst A rchaeological S urvey ( Adams ,1977 :75) . O ne o f N ubia .

G riffith 's m ain r esults c oncerns t he p re-Meroitic l acuna i n L ower ' After t he e nd o f t he N ew K ingdom . t here i s a c omplete

a rchaeolgical b lank i n N ubia . . t he T wenty-Fifth D ynasty , i ts a ncestors a nd i ts i mmediate s uccessors , o ffer n o r emains t o i ndicate a p rosperous a nd c ivilized p opulation , a nd a t F aras i tself w e f ound n o t race o f i t' ( Griffith ,1 922 :68). T he b asic c hronological o utline

f or t he N apatan-Meroitic p eriod w as

p rovided b y R eisner a t t he h ead o f t he H arvard-Boston E xpedition .

T he

e xcavations o f t he R oyal b urials a t N apata ( 1916-19) a nd M eroe ( 1922-25) e nabled R eisner t o w ork o ut a s cheme f or t he r oyal s uccession b ased o n i nscriptional e vidence a nd t he s eriation o f t he r oyal t ombs ( Reisner , 1 918 :1919 :1923a) . D espite m inor a lterations t o R eisner 's c hronology ( Dunham, 1 957 :2-8 ; H intze, 1 959a) h is r esults r epresented t he b asic f ramework f or m any o f t he s ubsequent s tudies o f N ubian h istory . S ince R eisner 's w ork w as c onfined l argely t o r oyal b urials, h is c hronological o utline i s e ssentially a d ynastic h istory w hich c ontributed v ery l ittle t o t he u nderstanding o f t he s ocial a nd e conomic s tructure o f M eroitic s ociety .

S urvey a nd E xcavations i n C entral S udan I n

t he c entral

S udan a rchaeological s urvey o f M eroitic s ites was

c onfined t o t he w estern B utana r egion , w hile e xcavations w ere c arried o ut a t M eroe , M usawwarat , W ad B an N aga a nd a t J ebel M oya a nd A bu G e il n ear S ennar . O ur k nowledge o f M eroitic s ettlement

i n t he w estern B utana i s d erived

b asically f rom t he t wo s urveys c onducted b y C rowfoot ( 1911) a nd t he H umboldt U niversity E xpedition ( Hintze , M usawwarat ( Hintze ,

1 962 ;

1 963 ;

1 959 ;

1 960 ) .

1 967-8 ;

A part f rom t he e xcavations a t

1 871) a ll o ther s ites i n t he a rea a re

k nown f rom t heir s urface f eatures . C rowfoot r ecognized t wo g eographical z ones w ithin t he r egion b ounded b y

4

t he N ile ,

t he B lue N ile a nd t he A tbara r ivers .

T he B utana ,

t he a rea o f t he

c lay p lain w hich i s s ituated t o t he e ast a nd s outh , a nd t he K eraba , w hich i s a s toney a nd g ravelly l and o n t he n orthern a nd w estern p art o f t he r egion ( Crowfoot ,1911 :9) . C rowfoot 's s urvey i ncluded a n a ssessment o f t he e conomic r esources o f t he K eraba a nd a f unctional c lassification o f s ites ( ibid :11,24). I n 1 957-8 t he H umboldt U niversity E xpedition s urveyed t he K eraba r egion w ith t he o bjective o f c arrying o ut a ' t horough a rchaeological i nvestigation o f t he d istrict o f t he a ncient I sland o f M eroe ( Hintze ,1959 :1971) . T he s urvey c overed 2 5 s ites a nd i ncluded m apping o f s ites , s urface c ol lections a nd e pigraphic w ork . L imited s urveys w ere c arried o ut i n K eraba a nd B utana b y A ddison ( 1926 ) , W hitehead ( 192 0 , A ddison a nd D unham ( 1922) , C rowfoot ( 1920 ) , ( 1908 ) , S mith a nd A dam ( 1950 ) a nd B alfour-Paul ( 1952) .

S cott-Moncrief

T he f irst e xcavations a t M eroe w ere c arried o ut b y W allis B udge i n 1 903 . B udge o pened u p t welve t ombs i n t he N orth C emetery a t M eroe w ith t he o bjective o f o btaining f inds f rom t he b urial c hambers ( Budge , 1 907 :341-54) . W ith s uch l imited o bjectives B udge 's w ork i s r egarded t o b e o f l ittle s cientific v alue ( Lear ns , 1 977 :295) s ince i t f ailed t o s hed l ight o n a ny m ajor a spect o f t he M eroitic p eriod . H is T he E gyptian S udan ' written j ust b efore t he i nauguration o f s ystematic a rchaeology . i s . p ut t ogether e ntirely f rom l iterary s ources ( and) a ccurately r eflects b oth t he e xtent a nd l imitations o f h istorical m aterial . . . ' (M ans , 1 977 :66) F ollowing

B udge%

w ork ,

G arstand d irected t he U niversity o f L iverpool

e xcavations a t t he t own s ite o f M eroe a nd t he n on-royal c emeteries b etween 1 909 a nd 1 914 . A t t he t own s ite t he e xcavations w ere a lmost e ntirely c onfined t o t he p art k nown a s t he S eal C ity ' . T he r esu lts o f t he w ork w ere p ublished i n p reliminary f orm o nly ( Garstand , 1 910 ; 1 912 ; 1 913 ; 1 91416 ; G arstand a nd G eorge 1 914 ) . T he m ain r esults o f t he E xcavations c onsisted o f ar ec ,—struction o f t he b uilding h istory a t t he ' R oyal C ity ' ( Garstang , 1 9141 6 :810) a nd a g eneralized p ottery t ypology ( Garstang e t .al . 1 911 :37-46) . R ecent e xcavations a t M eroe w ere s tarted i n 1 965 .

T he o bjectives o f

t he w ork w ere : 1 .

T o

e stablish

s tratigraphic

t he

c ultural

s equence

a t

t he

s ite

u sing

m odern

m ethods .

2 .

T o w ork o ut a c hronology f or t he d ifferent o ccupation p eriods .

3 .

T o e xamine t he d omestic a rchitecture a nd a spects o f d aily l ife o f

t he

i nhabitants. 4 .

T o i nvestigate M eroitic i ron t echnology.

5 .

T he e xamination o f e arly e cological c onditions.

6 .

T he a nd

7 .

i nvestigation o f B radley ,

t he b uilding h istory o f t he A mon T emple M innie

1 980 :6) .

T o r etrieve i nscriptions w hich c ould a id M eroitic l anguage ( Shinnie , 1 974 :224) .

5

i n t he u nderstanding o f

t he

T he m ajor r esults o f t he s easons w hich h ave s o f ar b een r eported ( 19651 972) i s t he e stablishment o f t he s tratigraphy o f t he n orthern m ound ( Shinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 :12) a nd d ating t he e arliest o ccupation a t t he a rea t o t he 1 0th c entury B .C . ( ibid . :16) . A t ypology a nd a t entative c hronology o f t he p ottery w as p rovided ( ibid . :151-62) . I n a ddition , t he m ain a spects o f i ron t echnology h ave b een s tudied ( Tylecote , 1 970 ; 1 977 ; S hinnie a nd K ense , 1 977). E xcavations

a t

W ad

B an

N aga

w ere

d irected

b y

V ercoutter .

T he

m ain

o bjective w as t o f ind i nscriptions w hich c ould h elp i n d ating t he d ifferent p eriods o f o ccupation ( Vercoutter , 1 962 :272) . O n t he b asis o f i nscriptional e vidence a nd o bjects o f k nown d ate , t he s ite i s t hought t o h ave b een o ccupied b etween t he t hird c entury B .C . a nd t he f ourth c entury A .D . ( ibid . :295) . O nly o ne s hort r eport ( Vercoutter , 1 962) o n t he e xcavations h ave b een p ublished. I n t he S hendi R each d uring r ecent w ork a t E l K adada o n t he e ast b ank o f t he N ile , a n umber o f M eroitic t umuli h ave b een e xcavated b ut t he d efinitive r eport h as n ot y et b een p ublished . T he d ominance o f

E gyptology

i n

t he

N ubia a nd c entral S udan h as b een m arked .

e arly

y ears

o f

( Geus ,1977 ;1981) ,

r esearch

i n L ower

A lthough b oth a rchaeological a nd

d ocumentary m aterials w ere a vailable , t he c hoice o f e vidence d epended o n t he t raining o f t hose i nvolved i n r esearch . T hus R eisner w rote t hat t he h istory o f n orthern S udan i s ' most f ully r evealed b y t he E gyptian i nscriptions ( an d) i s i nseparably b ound u p w ith t hat o f E gypt a nd c an o nly b e u nderstood i n t he l ight o f t he h istory o f i ts g reat n orthern n eighbour ' ( Reisner , 1 918a :3-4) . I n c entral S udan t he s ame a ttitude w as a dopted a s i s a pparent f rom t he s tatement o f B reasted t hat : T hroughout M eroe,

t he

N aga

E gyptologist

c ourse o f h is w ork a t a nd

f eels

Musawwarat, h imself

t he

s uddenly

p rojected i nto a t otally u nknown c hapter o f h istory a nd a rt . T he s culptures r eveal a d ifferent w orld, a nd a re n ot e stimable b y a ny a nalogies k nown t o t he o bserver, while, t o i ncrease h is b ewilderment , t he i nscriptions r efuse t o y ield t heir s ecrets ( Breasted , 1 908 :18).

R esearch O bjectives I n Y et ,

r ecent

y ears

t he

i nfluence o f

E gyptology h as

r eceded

c onsiderably .

o ur k nowledge o f t he v arious a spects o f M eroitic s ociety w as l imited b y

t he f act t hat r esearch work,

p articularly i n c entral S udan ,

w as s ite-

s pecific . T he p resent s tudy f ocuses o n t he r egional p attern o f s ettlement a s a m eans o f e lucidating a spects o f t he e conomy , t echnology a nd t he s ocial o rganization o f M eroitic s ociety i n c entral S udan . m ore s ystematic a pproach t hat c ombines t he a nalysis a rtefact d istributions

I t o f

i s b elieved t hat a s ite , r esource a nd

i s e ssential f or t he u nderstanding o f

t hese a spects .

A n e valuation o f r esources s hould t ake i nto c onsideration t he p hysical f eatures o f t he s tudy r egion a nd a ttempt t o r econstruct t he p alaeoclimatic c onditipns ( Chapter 2 ) . T he u se o f d emographic m odels i n s ettlement s tudies h as g ained i ncreasing s ignificance i n r ecent y ears . I n C hapter 4 s ome o f t he a pplications o f t hese models i s e xamined . D emographic t rends a re

6

a nalysed i n t erms o f r esource d istributions , s ettlement, l and u se a nd t echnology ( Chapter 5 ) . C hapter 6 p rovides a c lassification s cheme o f t he p ottery i ndustries a nd t ypes a nd t heir d istribution . T he s ignificance o f t hese d istributions i s e xamined i n t erms o f s ite h ierarchies , i ntersite a nd i ntrasite v ariation ( Chapter 7 ) . T he

d ata

f or

t he

p resent

s tudy

i s

l argely

o btained

f rom

a n

a rchaeological s urvey i n t he S hendi R each a nd t he w estern B utana b etween J anuary a nd M ay 1 979 ( Chapter 3 ) . T his i s s upplemented b y a n e xamination o f t he p ottery m aterial f rom H umboldt U niversity B utana s urvey i n B erlin ( November-December ,1980) ,

a nd t he G arstang e xcavation r ecords a nd m aterials

i n L iverpool

1 979) .

( September ,

T he S a ele T he a pplication o f p robability s ampling d esigns i n a rchaeological s urveys h as b een r ecommended

( Mueller ,

1 975 ;

P log ,

1 976) .

T hese d esigns

h ave t he a dvantage o f e stablishing t he s tatistical r elationship b etween t he s ample a nd t he u niverse f rom w hich i t i s d rawn . H owever , n o s uch s ampling d esign w as a dopted i n t he s urvey . T he l imitations o f f acilities l argely d etermined w hich a reas w ere t o b e c overed . N onetheless , a n a ttempt w as m ade t o g ive e ven c overage o f t he d ifferent e nvironmental z ones r epresented w ithin t he a rea . W hereas t he majority o f t he p ottery s ample i s d erived f rom e xcavated p its a nd c ontrolled s urface c ollections , u nsystematic c ollections w ere m ade a t a n umber o f s ites . A b reak-up o f t he p ercentage o f d ifferent t ypes o f s amples i s g iven i n C hapter 6 .

T erminology a nd D ating T he

t erm N apatan i s u sed

b y v arious

s cholars

t o d esignate

t he p eriod

d uring w hich t he p olitical c entre o f t he K ushite K ingdom w as a t J ebel B arkal n ear t he F ourth C ataract . T he p eriod f ollowing t he s hift o f t he c entre t o t he s outh i n t he f ifth o r f ourth c entury B .C . i s t ermed M eroitic ( Reisner , 1 919 ; D unham , 1 946 ; 1 947 ; A rkell , 1 961; W ainwright , 1 952) . T his s tudy i s n ot c oncerned w ith t he q uestion o f t he s hift o f t he p olitical c entre t o M eroe .

I n t he l ight o f r ecent r esearch a t M eroe w hich d ates t he b eginning

o f o ccupation t here t o a s e arly a s t he t enth c entury B .C . ( Shinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 :16) a nd t he p roximity o f t he s ites u nder s tudy t o t he l ater c entre , t he t erm M eroitic i s u sed h ere i n r eference t o t he w hole p eriod u nder s tudy . N o d ates a s e arly a s t hose f rom M eroe a re o btained f rom a ny o ther s ite i n t he a rea . T he e arliest m ajor p eriod o f s ettlement e xpansion d ates f rom t he f ifth c entury B .C . ( Hintze, 1 967-68 :293) while t he f inal d isintegration o f t he M eroitic K ingdom i s c onventionally d ated t o c a . A .D . 3 50 ( Adams , 1 977 :386-8 ) . F or t hese c onsiderations t he p eriod u nder s tudy i s b roadly d ated b etween 5 00 B .C . a nd A .D .

7

3 50 .

C HAPTER 2 G EOLOGY , G EOMORPHOLOGY

A ND

P ALAEOCLIMATES

T he s tudy a rea l ies b etween l ongitudes 3 3 °0 7 ' a nd 3 3 °5 6E a nd l atitudes 1 5 °3 0 ' a nd 1 7 °N . I ts g eology c onsists m ainly o f f our f ormations : B asement C omplex , b ) t he N ubian S eries , c ) t he a lluvium , a nd s uperficial d eposits o f w ind-blown s ands ( Fig.. 2 . 1) .

a ) d )

t he t he

T he B asement C omplex c onsists l argely o f u ndifferentiated m etamorphic a nd s edimentary r ocks a nd i s a ssumed t o b e o f P re-Cambrian a ge ( Whiteman , 1 971 :5) . T he B asement C omplex a lso i ncludes a c ategory o f i gneous r ocks t hat a re t hought t o b elong t o l ater g eological e pisodes ( Vail, 1 978 :6) . T he l argest o utcrop o f t he B asement C omplex i n t he a rea i s a t t he S ixth C ataract o n t he N ile s ome 5 0 m iles n orth o f K hartoum . A nother o utcrop i s a t J ewbel Q eili a bout 8 5 miles e ast o f K hartoum . E ast o f t he S ixth C ataract t here i s a b road r idge o f s maller o utcrops t hat e xtends t o J ebel Q eili a nd c orresponds a pproximately t o t he d rainage t rend n orth a nd s outh o f i t ( Whiteman , 1 971 :112) . T he B asement C omplex l ies e ast a nd s outh o f t he s tudy r egion a nd w ith t he e xception o f t hose o utcrops i t i s m ostly c overed w ith t hick d eposits o f B utana c lays ( ibid :140) . T hese c lays a re w ashed a nd r edistributed b y t he d rainage s ystems b ut a re n ot r egarded b y W hiteman a s p rimarily a lluvial a s s tated b y L ebon ( 1965 :48 ) . T he N ubian S eries c overs t he m ajority o f t he s tudy a rea a nd r ests o n t he r ocks o f t he B asement C omplex ( Whiteman , 1 975 :52-3) . i n t he r egion i s o ften c apped w ith i ron-rich b eds.

T he N ubian S eries

P leistocene a nd R ecent F ormations 1 ) A lluvial D eposits : C lay a nd s ilt t erraces a re w ell-developed o n t he l eft b ank o f t he N ile b etween t he S ixth C ataract a nd t he t own o f W ad B an N aga .

T hese t erraces b order o n t he N ubian S eries ,

w here r ocks o f t he B asement C omplex p redominate , d eveloped a nd i n s ome a rea a lmost n on-existent .

w hile o n t he r ight b ank , t hese t erraces a re p oorly

A gain o n b oth b anks o f t he

N ile d ownstream f rom W ad B an N aga w ide c lay t erraces o ccur a nd c ontinue f or s ome d istance b eyond t he l atitude o f B erber ( ibid :127 ) . B eyond B erber t he v alley i s d eeply i ncised t hrough t he r ocks o f t he B asement C omplex a nd s ilt t erraces a re e xtremely l imited ( ibid :127 ; B erry a nd W hiteman , 1 968 :23-7 ; a lso s ee b elow) . T he a lluvium d eposits a re n ot c onfined t o t he N ile b anks b ut e xtend a long t he s easonal w ater f low s ystems o f W adi E l H awad , W adi E l A wateib a nd W adi E l M ukabrab . 2 )

S uperficial d eposits o f w ind-blown s ands :

T he s tudy a rea b elongs t o

t he r egion o f e xtreme a ridity a nd v ast s urfaces a re c overed b y w ind-blown s ands . T hese s uperficial d eposits a re p revalent i n t he n orth-western p art o f t he c ountry . T he m ajority o f s edimentary s tudies w ere c arried o ut i n K ordofan P rovince ( Edmonds , 1 942 ; W arren , 1 970 ) w here t hese d eposits o f s and d unes a re r eferred t o a s g oz . I t w as f ound t hat t hese d eposits d o n ot o ccur where r ainfall e xceeds 5 00 mm . I n t he S udan t he s ands l ie o n

9

d ifferent

r ock

t ypes o f

s andstone o f

C retaceous a nd

P alaeozoic a ge

( Vail ,

1 978 :30) . S eries t o

H owever, i n t he s tudy r egion t hey m ainly o verlie t he N ubian t he s outh a nd e ast a nd b ordering t he r ocks o f t he B asement

C omplex .

T heir m ain c oncentrations i s a t t he h ead-waters o f W adi E l H awad

a nd W adi E l Awateib . T he s ands a re t hought t o b e t he p roduct a lternating w et a nd d ry c limatic p hases w orking o n t he u nderlying r ock .

o f

H udi C hert F ormation T hese r ocks a re n amed a fter t he t ype l ocality o f H udi S tation e ast o f A tbara a nd a re r ecognized i n a n umber o f l ocalities i n t he N orthern P rovince . I n t he s tudy a rea t hey o ccur a t e ast o f M eroe ( Vail, 1 978 :27).

i solated

p oints

t o

t he s outh

P alaeoclimates S tudies o f e arly c limates i n t he S udan a re e xtremely l imited . t he e xception o f f ew w orks ( Andrew ,1944 ;

J ackson ,1957 ;

W ith

W illiams a nd C lark ,

1 972-74) m ost p alaeolclimatic r econstructions d eal w ith t he p eriod p rior t o 3 000 B .P . I n t he S udan t he e vidence i s d erived p rimarily f rom g eomorphic a nd b iological d ata ( Wickens , 1 975) , w hile r egional s tudies i n N orth A frica ( Livingstone , 1 975 ; R ognon a nd W illiams , 1 977) p rovide v aluable i nto t he p ast c limatic e pisodes o f t he c ountry . E vidence b ased

p artly

f or o n

c limatic t he

c hange

i n

t he

S udan d uring

d istribution

o f

N eolithic

t he

i mplements

i nsights

Q uaternary a nd

i s

s ub-fossil

s hells o n d rainage s ystems s uch a s W adi H awar i n n orthern D arfur . T hese d istributions s uggest t hat r ainfall was s ufficient t o a llow p assage o f N eolithic p opulations i n a ddition t o s ettlements i n s ome f avourable s pots ( Su dan G overnment ,

1 944-5 ;

W hyte ,

1 951) .

S ub-fossil s nail s hells p rovide

e xcellent i ndicators f or t he a ridity o f p resent-day c limate c ompared w ith t he N eolithic p eriod . T he s ub-fossil L imicolaria c ailliaudi ( syn . L . f lammata) i s r ecorded a s p lentiful a t t he s ite o f S haheinab ( Arkell , 1 949 :1953 ) . L imicolaria f lammata s urvives i n a reas r eceiving r ainfall i n e xcess o f 4 00 mm a nnually ( Wickens, 1 975 :50) . O ne o f t he d ifferences b etween t he f inds f rom E arly K hartoum a nd S haheinab i s t he p resence i n t he f ormer s ite o f s wamp-inhabiting a nimals . O n t he b asis o f t his e vidence A rkell ( ibid) s ummarized t he c limatic s equence a nd c onditions a s f ollows : a )

T he

o ccurrence

o f

L imicolaria f lammata

s hells

i ntegrifolia s eeds i ndicates a n a nnual r ainfall o f a t r ainy s eason l asting l onger t han i t d oes a t p resent . b )

a nd

C eltis

l east 5 00 mm a nd a

S wampy c onditions p revailed a t e arly K hartoum o n t he e vidence o f

t he p resence o f s wamp-dwelling a nimals . c )

T he a bsence o f

w ith E arly

s wamp-inhabiting a nimals a t

S haheinab i n c ontrast

K hartoum s uggests t he d evelopment o f d rier c limates d uring t he

S haheinab N eolithic . T wo s amples f rom S haheinab g ave r adio-carbon d ates o f 5 060 + 450 B .P . a nd 5 446 + 380 B .P . ( Arkell, 1 953 : 1 07) . T he r ainfall a t S haheinab , h owever , w as s till h igher ( 400 mm) c ompared w ith t he p resent ( 200 mm) . ,T his s hows a s outhward s hift o f t he 4 00 mm i sohyet b y s ome 2 50 k m s ince N eolithic t imes . E vidence f or a s ubstantially w etter c limate d uring t he N eolithic c omes

1 0

a lso f rom E rkawit a nd S hendi .

A t K hor H arasab n ear E rkawit a 2 0-feet t hick

c lay d eposit w as f ound t c c ontain s emi-fossil s hells a ssociated w ith N eolithic p ottery a nd o bsidian f lakes . T he s ub-fossil s hells w ere s tudied b y T othill w ho i dentified a mong t hem t hree s pecies : B ullinus t runcatus , P lanorbis a nd L imnaea . T hese a re p ond s nails t hat l ive u pon a quatic p lants . T othill a lso i dentified s pecimens o f M elanoides t uberculatus t hat i nhabit p ermanent f resh w ater . A mong t he c ollection w ere a lso l and s nails o f a m editerranean g enus X erophylla i n a ddition t o t he s pecies C erastus a byssinica which i s n ow a bundant a t ah eight o f 6 000 - 7 000 f t o n t he E thiopian h ighlands .

T he

f ormer a bundance o f

t hese

s pecies

i n N eolithic

c ontexts s hows t hat t he e nvironment t hen w as w et e nough t o s upport a d ense f orest c over a nd w ater p onds i n t he k hor ( Sudan G overnment, 1 944 :7 ; K ennedy-Cooke , 1 944 :55) . S imilar e vidence i s o btained f rom a N eo lithic s ite a t t he n orthern e dge o f t he f orest f arm n ear S hendi . T he s ite c ontains s ub-fossil s hells o f t he s emi-aquatic s pecies A mpularia w ernei a nd L anistes c arinatus d eposited o n a lluvial g ravel , s and a nd s ilt . D ue t o t he p osition o f t hese d eposits a t 2 5-40 f t a bove t he p resent i rrigation c anal t hey w ere r egarded a s t he r esult o f f ormer a bundant w ater f low f rom n ear-by h ills . T his e vidence i s c onsidered i ndicative o f a m uch w etter c limate d uring t he o ccupation o f t he s ite ( ibid :7) . T he p eriod f ollowing t he l ast N eolithic W et P hase w as a lso w etter t han t he p resent-day c limate .

A s outhward s hift o f i sohyets a nd i ncreasing

d essication h ad s et i n c a . 3 500 B .P . ( Jackson , 1 957 :53-5; Williams a nd A damson , 1 974 :585) . D etails o f t he s ubsequent p hase, p articularly t he m illennium o f t he N apatan-Meroitic p eriod t erminating c a . 3 50 A .D . , a re l acking . T he r econstruction o f t he p alaeoclimate f or t his p eriod i s i mportant i n v iew o f s ome o f t he c urrent o pinions c oncerning t he e ffect o f c limatic c onditions o n M eroitic s ettlement i n L ower N ubia a nd c entral S udan . D ue t o t he a lmost t otal a bsence o f s ettlements t he

f ist

m illenium B .C .

( Firth ,

1 912 :

2 1-3 ;

i n L ower N ubia d uring

G riffith ,

1 924 :116-7) ,

A dams

a greed t hat t his c ould b e a ttributed t o a f all i n N ile f lood l evels . S ince f lood l evels d uring t he N ew K ingdom w ere l ower t han t hose o f M iddle K ingdom t imes , a c ontinuing d rop c ould b e e xtrapolated f or t he f ollowing p eriod . I t i s p ossible t hat b y t he f irst m illenium B .C . t he w ater l evel w as t oo l ow t o s ustain a griculture , which c ould h ave r esulted i n t he c omplete d epopulation

o f

L ower N ubia

( A dams ,

1 977 :242) .

e vidence d oes n ot s upport t his h ypothesis .

H owever ,

t he

g eological

F airbridge ( 1963) e xamined t he

N ile s ediments a round W adi H alfa a nd o btained a n umber o f C 14 d ates f or t he s tratified s ilt t erraces . F airbridge p ostulated t hree m ain s tages i n t he h istory o f t he N ile r egime a nd d rew a s eries o f c limatic c orrelations b ased o n t he o scillations o f t he r iver f lood . F ive c limatic p hases a re r ecognized f or t he p ast 2 0 0 00 y ears . O f t hese , w e a re c oncerned w ith t he l ast t wo s ince t he f irst p hase p ertains t o t he p eriod i mmediately p receding t he N apatan-Meroitic , a nd t he s econd c arries t he e vidence u p t o m odern t imes .

T hese t wo p hases a re :

a )

T he

M id-Holocene

T ransitional

c haracterized b y r egular s ummer r ains b )

( Ca.

P hase

( 7000

- 3 000

B .P .)

i s

2 00 mm) a nd N ile f loods .

M odern A rid P hase ( 3000 - 0 .B .P .) w hich i s m arked b y a n i ncreasing

d essication i n N ubia a nd t he s tabilization o f m ore o r l ess a rid c onditions ( Fairbridge, 1 963 :105-6) . T he o nset o f t his a rid p hase i n E gypt i s c onfirmed b y B utzer . T he e nd o f t he l ast s ignificant w et i nterval i n E gypt ( dated t o c a . s uch

a s

3 000 B .C .) c an b e d ocumented b y t he e xtinction o f l arge f auna

e lephants,

g iraffe

a nd

r hinoceros

1

a round

2 900

- 2 600

B .C .

M oreover , a dvancing s and d unes c overed m uch o f t he f ormer N ile a lluvium c a . 2 350 - 2 180 B .C . ( Butzer , 1 966 :74-5) . T he f luctuations a t

t he

s ources

o f

i n N ile f lood l evels a re d etermined b y p recipitation t he

B lue

a nd

W hite

N iles .

R ecently

i t

h as

b een

d emonstrated t hat t he l ast m ajor r ise i n t he E ast A frican l ake l evels h as t erminated a bout 4 800 B .P . ( Street a nd G rove , 1 976 :387) . T he s ame s ituation h as b een r ecorded f or t he R ift V alley l akes o f s outhern E thiopia ( Grove e t a l . 1 975 :186) . I n

t he

c entral

S udan

f aunal

a nd

f loral

e vidence

f rom

M eroe

i s

c onsidered i ndicative o f h igher r ainfall d uring M eroitic t imes . T hree g roups o f b one s amples f rom t he M eroe e xcavations w ere a nalysed b y C arter a nd F oley ( 1980) . a nd c aprovines .

T wo o f t he s pecies r epresented i n t he s ample a re b ovids T he s ample f rom t he ' Bone T rench ' ( Group 1 1) s hows a

m arked f luctuation i n t he c attle/caprovine r atio . H owever , t here i s a g reat d eal o f c onfusion s urrounding t he a nalysis o f t hese r atios . F or t his r eason t he a nalysis w ill b e q uoted a t s ome l ength . T he r elative p roportions o f c attle a nd c aprovine r emains i s o f i nterest . F ig . B 2 s hows t he f luctuations i n t he c attle/caprovine r atio a s r ecorded i n t he G roup I I s pecimens . I n s pits 1 4 t o 1 7 , t hat i s i n t he o ccupation d ebris i mmediately a bove t he p rimary b uilding l evels i n t he b one t rench , t he c aprovines a re p roprotionately m ore i mportant t han t he c attle . I n c ontrast , s pits 8 t o 1 i nclusive , i .e . i n t he o ccupation d ebris a ssociated w ith t he s econd v isible m ajor b uilding l evel i n t he b one t rench , s how a p reponderance o f c attle .

A s w ell a s a m arked

c hange f rom 6 0% c aprovines i n s pit 1 4 t o 9 0% c attle i n s pit 8 , t he o verall t rend s hows a s teady d ecline i n t he r elative i mportance o f c attle ( Carter a nd F oley , 1 980 :304 ) . I n t he a uthors ' o pinion t he c hanges i n t he p roportions o f c attle a nd c aprovine c ould b e a ttributed t o e cological c hanges i n t he e xploitation t erritories o f t hese a nimals . T hey c ontinue . t he n atural c over o f t he B utana i s l ikely t o h ave b een a lmost c ontinuous s tands o f t he h erb B lepharis s p .

B oth

s heep a nd c amels e at B lepharis b y p reference a nd o nly i n d ire n ecessity wi ll t hey e at o ther g rasses . O n t he o ther h and , c attle p refer g rasses w here a vailable a nd w ill o nly e at l eaves o f B lepharis d uring t he d ry s eason i f o ther g razing i s n ot a vailable . T he marked c hange i n t he c attle/caprovine r atio c ould b e a ccounted f or b y o verg razing o f t he B lepharis s tands i n t he i mmediate v icinity o f M eroe b y t he c aprovine p opulation , r esulting i n a d ecline i n t he n umber o f c aprovines w hich t he g razing c ould c arry , a nd t he c oncomitant i ncrease i n t he p roportion o f c attle r epresented . T he p resence o f t he t hree s ubsidiary p eaks i n t he c aprovine g raph i n F ig . B 2 s ubsequent t o t he i nitial p eak i n s pit 1 6 c ould b e i nterpreted a s a c yclic r ecovery o f g razing

t he B lepharis

( ibid :

s tands

a fter

t he

i nitial

o ver-

3 04-5) .

C ontrary t o what i s s tated a bout a n o verall t rend o f ac ontinuous d ecline

i n t he c aprovine

r atio

t here

1 2

i s

a s teady

i ncrease

i n

t hat

r atio .

M oreover a t s pit 1 4 t he r atio o f c aprovine i s 4 0% n ot 6 0% a s s tated b y C arter a nd F oley .

I n s pit 8 , 9 0% r epresents t he r atio o f c aprovines a nd n ot

t he r atio o f c attle . I n a ddition s pit 1 6 s hows a t rough i n t he c aprovine r atio a nd n ot a p eak a s s tated i n t he r eport . F ig . 2 . 2 i s r eproduced f rom C arter ( MS) a nd s hows t he c attle/caprovine p ercentages i n t he G roup I I s ample .

T he g raphs s how a s teady d ecline i n t he p ercentage o f c attle a nd a

c ontinuous

r ise

i n

t hat

o f

c aprovine ,

a nd

t hus

r uns c ontrary

t o

t he

e cological h ypothesis p resented i n t he f aunal r eport ( ibid :304) . S hinnie 's ( 1974 :251) c onclusion t hat t he l ower l evels a t M eroe c ontained f ewer c attle b ones c ompared w ith t he u pper l evels i s p robably p artly b ased o n t he a bove a nalysis. T he

a nalysis

o f

t he

c attle/caprovine

r atio

i n

t he

b one

G roup I II s hows t hat c attle p redominate b y 6 3% o n a verage

s ample

f rom

( ibid :305) .

O ne o f t he c onclusions b ased o n t he b one a nalysis i s t hat t he a rea i n M eroitic

t imes

h ad

a h igher

c arrying

c apacity

p resumably

d ue

t o

h igher

r ainfall , ( ibid:308 ) . H owever , t he e vidence f rom G roup I I d oes n ot s upport t his c onclusion . M oreover , a s t he a uthors p ointed o ut ,in a n u rban c entre l ike M eroe v ariations a re l ikely t o o ccur i n p atterns o f m eat c onsumption a nd d isposal o f b one ( ibid :308 ) . S hinnie ( 1976 :90 ) h as a rgued t hat a t own o f t he s ize o f M eroe c ould n ot h ave b een e stablished i n a r egion o f e rratic r ainfall s uch a s t hat p revailing t oday i n t he a rea . H e p ointed o ut t hat t he s eed o f C eltis i ntegrifolia w ere d iscovered i n t he 1 972 e xcavations a t M eroe . T he c ontext f rom w hich t hese s eeds w ere r ecovered i s n ot a pparent . S hinnie o nly s ays t hat t he e vidence p ertains t o ' a t l east o ne p eriod i n t he h istory o f t he t own ' ( ibid :90 ) . T he m ajority o f t he p alaeoclimatic s tudies f rom t he S udan a nd t he s urrounding r egions i ndicate t hat t he c limate d uring t he M eroitic p eriods w as a s d ry a s i t i s t oday . T he o ccupation s ite a t J ebel e t T omat i n t he s outhern G ezira i s i n l arge p art c ontemporary w ith t he M eroitic p eriod . F ossil p lant r emains f rom t he s ite a re d ated t o c a . 4 0 B .C . t o 4 30 A .D . T hese p lants i ndicate t hat a ridity s imilar t o t hat o f t oday p revailed a t t he t ime t he s ite w as o ccupied ( Williams a nd C lark , 1 972:74-52; W illiams , e t . a l" 1 975) . R ecently M unson o btained C 14 d ates f or b each l ines o f a n e arly l ake i n s outhern M auretania . T hese d ates s how t hat t he l ake f illed t o a d epth o f 1 5 c a . 3 500 B .P . B y c a . 3 200 B .P . t he d epth f ell t o 5 m . W ith t he c ontinuing d rying t rend t he l ake c eased t o e xist c a . 2 900 B .P . ( Munson , 1 981 :53- 2 . T hese r esults c onform w ith e arlier c onclusions o n e arly S udanese c limates t hat c hange h as t aken p lace i n t he l ast 3 000 y ears ( Andrew , 1 944 :145 ; J ackson , 1 957 :53-5) .

C limatic c hanges i n h istoric t imes I n t he S ahel r egion a nd a djoining p arts i n N orth A frica , h istorical a nd g eographical d uring

s ources

s uggest

t hat

t he p ast f ive c enturies

c limatic

f luctuations

( Nicholson ,

1 978 :1979 ;

h ave

t aken

1 981) .

p lace I t

i s,

h owever , s tressed t hat s uch d ata a re n ot n ecessraily a pplicable t o t he w hole r egion . O nly b y c ollating d ata f or v arious l ocalities c an i nferences b e m ade a bout o verall t rends ( Nicholson , 1 978 :4) . S uch c omparisons i ndicate t hat f rom 1 6th t hrough t o t he 1 8th c enturies t he S udano-Sahelian z one w as m uch w etter t han i t i s t oday . D uring t his p eriod i ncreasing p recipitation i n t he E thiopian h ighlands l ed t o a marked r ise i n N ile f lood l evels. S imilar o bservations a re m ade f or t he S ahel z one w here b etween 1 600 a nd 1 750 A .D . L ake C had r ose b y 4m a bove i ts p resent l evel . A rab c hroniclers i n

1 3

t he s ixteenth c entury p oint o ut t hat t he r egion w as w ell-endowed w ith r ainfall s o t hat f amine ' could n ot b reak o ut ' ( ibid:5) . I n t he S udan s uggestions c ontrary t o t he s ituation i n t he S ahel a re m ade . A rkell ( quoted i n A ndrew ,

1 944 :154) a rgues

t hat

f rom c a .

1 500 A .D .

t o c a .

1 800 A .D .

t here

w as a s othward m ovement o f r ain b elts e videnced b y t he d esertion o f n orthern D arfur t owns s uch a s K obe a nd U ri . B rowne , h owever , d escribed K obe i n t he 1 790 's a s a f lourishing t own a nd s howed t hat t he r ainy s eason i n n orthern D afur e xtended f rom t he m iddle o f J une t o t he m iddle o f S eptember , s omewhat l onger t han t oday ( Browne , 1 814 :138 ) . T he

g eneral

c limatic

s ituation

i n

N orth

A frica

d uring

t he

h istoric

p eriod i s o ne o f p rogressive d essication . T he d ifficulty i s w hether s ome o f t he r ecorded e pisodes r epresented c limatic a nomalies o r p arts o f al ong-term t rend . A nother d ifficulty i s t hat i t i s n ot y et c lear whether t his p rogressive d essication was c onfined t o t he h istoric p eriod o r w as c ontinuous f rom l ater p rehistoric t imes .

P resent c limate M ost o f t he c ountry l ies within t he z one o f t ropical c ontinental c limate w ith v ariations

i n r ainfall a nd

t emperature a s o ne

p roceeds

f rom

s outh t o n orth . T he r ainy s eason r anges b etween f ive a nd e ight m onths a nd i n t he n orth i t l asts b etween o ne t o t hree m onths, w ith t rue l ocal v ariations i n s ome p arts o f t he c ountry . T he v ariation b etween n orth a nd s outh i s t he p roduct o f t he a nnual o scillations o f p ressure a nd a ir c urrents w ithin t he t ropical z one ( 1 40 )on , 1 965 :5-7) . T he c entral S udan t o w hich t he s tudy r egion b elongs e xperiences s trong a lterations o f r ainy a nd d ry s easons . T he a rea r eceives a m ean a nnual r ainfall o f 1 00mm i n t he n orth a nd 2 00mm i n t he s outh w ith m ost o f t he r ain r eceived d uring A ugust ( Fig . 2 .3) . T emperatures a re e xceedingly h igh ; 16 °F i s f requently r egistered a t K hartoum b efore t he r ainy s eason . A t A tbara 1 09 ° i s t he h ighest m ean d aily t emperature d uring s ummer . T here i s c onsiderable f luctuation i n t he a mount o f r ainfall f rom y ear t o y ear . 1 956 .

A t K hartoum r ainfall r anged b etween 4 5 .1mm i n 1 949 t o 2 48 .7mm i n A t O mdurman i t w as 2 5 .8mm i n 1 949 t o 3 28mm i n 1 959

( Halwagy ,

1 961:90).

T he W estern B utana A s urvey o f g eographical a nd a rchaeological l iterature r eveals a d isparity

i n

t he

u se

o f

t he

t erm

B utana

b y

r esearchers

i n

t he

t wo

d isciplines. O ne o f t he e arliest s ubdivisions o f A tbara a nd t he B lue N ile

i s

g iven b y

t he a rea b ounded b y t he N ile ,

M orant

( 1905 :103) .

T he

t he

t riangle E l

D amer-Adarama-Atbara i s r eferred t o a s E l D eheira ( Arabic f or s tony g round) . T his i s ab arren , d esert-like s andstone p lateau . T he a rea i nside t he l ine j oining K hartoum , S hendi a nd A bu D eleiq i s c alled E l K eraba ( Arabic f or g ravelly u ndulating g round) . T he c ountry K hartoum , A bu D eleiq a nd A bu H araz ( on t he B lue N ile) i s k nown a s S harg E l A teiq . T he B utana ( flat p lain) i s t he r egion f rom A darama s outhward a nd e xtending w estward t o t he l ine r unning r oughly f rom A bu D eleiq t o A bu H araz .

1 4

I n a s urvey o f M eroitic s ites i n t he h interland o f M eroe C rowfoot ( 1911 :9) r eferred t o t he s ubdivision o f t he a rea i nto K eraba w hich i s a s tony a nd g ravelly c ountry o n t he n orth w est a nd B utana , t he c lay p lain t o t he s outh e ast , a nd h e n oted t hat t he m ajority o f s ites a re f ound i n t he f ormer a rea . N atural a nd m an-made b oundaries o ften p rovide a q uick g eographical r eference ; t hus W orral ( 1959 :34-5) d efines t he B utana a s t he r egion l ying b etween t he B lue N ile , t he N ile , a nd A tbara a nd t he K assala-Sennar r ailway l ine . B ut s uch a f ramework i s v ery i ll-defined a nd e ncompasses a v ast a rea w ith m arked v ariations i n c limate , t opography , r esources e tc . A s B arbour ( 1961) p oints o ut o ne w ay o f d ividing t he S udan i nto u nits i s a long t hose l ines which " reflect t he r egional c onsciousness o f t he i nhabitants" , a c onsciousness b ased o n t he r ecognition o f t hose v ariations . A lthough B arbour i ncludes t he t wo s ubdivisions i n h is d efinition o f B utana , h e r ecognizes t he m arked v ariations w ithin t he v ariations i n s ite s oil a nd r ainfall ( ibid:215).

a rea ,

c orresponding

t o

T he c onfusion a bout t he e xtent o f t he B utana i n t he g eographical l iterature e xtends t o a rchaeological s tudies . I n ap aper o n M eroitic s ettlement i n t he h interland o f M eroe A ll ( 1972 :639-46) r efers t o t he a rea a s B utana . T he B utana t oday i s o ne o f t he b est g razing a reas i n t he c ountry a nd c onfusion i n t he u se o f t he t erm h as l ed t o t he u se o f e thnographic p arallels d erived f rom t he B utana a nd a pplied t o a rchaeological s tudies i n t he K eraba r egion ( Adams , 1 973 :2) . A dams , h owever , m akes a d istinction b etween t he e astern B utana , t he a rea o f s uperior g razing r esources , a nd t he w estern B utana w hich h as a h igher a gricultural p otential . I n t his w ork t he t erm w estern B utana i s u sed f or t he s tudy a rea a nd i s d efined a s t he a rea o therwise k nown a s K eraba ( Fig. 2 .4).

V egetation T he a rea f alls w ithin t he r egion o f s emi-arid d esert a cacia s crub a nd s hort g rasslands o f n orth c entral S udan . T he v egetation c onsists o f g rasses a nd h erbs a nd t hinly d istributed s crub b ushes w ith b are a reas i n b etween ( L abo r ' , 1 965 :20:22) . T he b are a reas b ecame i ncreasingly e xtensive t o t he n orth . V arious f actors a ccount f or t he d istribution a nd g rowth o f v egetation ; t opography , t exture , d epth a nd s lainity o f s oils a nd w ater c onditions ( Worral , 1 960 ) . T his s ituation p revails o n s oils o f t he N ubian S eries .

O n t he f ringes o f t he B utana p lain t o t he s outh e ast o n t he s oils

o verlying t he B asement C omplex r epeating s tands o f g rass h ave b een o bserved . T hese c onsist o f a lternating s mall g rass p atches a nd b ands o f t all g rasses a nd t he p attern i s a ttributed t o d ifferences i n s oil s urfaces ( Worral , 1 960 :47-8).

S ummary I n t he a bove p ages i t h as b een a ttempted t o s how t he f ollowing: 1 ) a rea

A n u nderstanding o f t he s olid g eology a nd d rainage s ystem i n t he s tudy i s

C hanges

e ssential i n

t hese

i n e xplaining

d istributions

a re

t he a lso

p hases.

1 5

g eomorphological a ffected

b y

d istributions .

a lternating

c limatic

2 )

A lthough c onsiderable p rogress h as r ecently b een a chieved i n t he

r econstruction o f p alaeoclimates i n t he S udan a nd a djacent a reas , m ore d etailed s tudies a re n eeded f or t he s uccessive p eriods a fter 3 000 B .C . 3 )

T he

l ead

t o m isconceptions

r egions .

t endency

t o d efine g eographical a reas i n o ur u nderstanding o f

T he t erm B utana a pplies t o

i n v ery b road s mall

a reas

t erms

c ould

w ithin l arger

ar egion w hich c overs m ore t han t hree

d egrees o f l atitude a nd e xtends f or s ome 4 50 k m f rom n orth t o s ouht . M ore p recise d efinitions a re n eeded i n o rder t o a void t he p itfalls o f a pplying t he c haracterisics o f t he w hole r egion t o p articular a reas w ithin i t.

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F ig. 2 .3 :

4 00Km

M ean a nnual r ainfall i n n orthern a nd c entral S udan.

1 9

F ig. 2 .4 :

L ocation o f K eraba a nd o ther g eographical d ivisions.

2 0

C HAPTER 3 T HE A RCHAEOLOGICAL S URVEY

T he

a rchaeological

s urvey

c arried

o ut

i n

t he w estern

B utana a nd

t he

S hendi R each c overed 3 4 s ites , r anging f rom s ettlements , s ingle s tructures t o c emeteries . T wo o f t hese s ites h ave b oth N eolithic a nd M eroitic c omponents . I n a ddition , t wo N eolithic s ites w ere l ocated d uring t he s urvey . T he p rocedures f ollowed o n t hese s ites w ere v aried . A t s ome s ites c ontrolled s urface c ollections w ere m ade . O n o ther s ites , i n a ddition t o c ontrolled s urface c ollections , t est p its w ere e xcavated i n o rder t o e xamine t he d epth a nd s equence o f d eposits . U nsystematic s urface c ollections w ere m ade a t o ther s ites . I n t his c hapter t hese d ifferent p rocedures w ill b e d escribed f or e ach s ite .

R IVERINE S ITES E ast b ank: H amadab ( Site 4 5)

1 60 5 3I-33 0 4 1'

T he s ite i s l ocated 2 .5 k ilometres s outh o f t he t own s ite o f M eroe b etween K abushiya a nd t he m odern v illage o f B ejrawiya . c arried o ut t here.

N o p revious w ork w as

T he s ite c onsists o f a l arge m ound m easuring 2 75 x 2 05 m etres . i nitial

i nspection o f

t he

s urface

s catter

i t

w as n oticed

t hat

O n t he

t here

i s

a

m arked d ifference i n t he d istribution o f c eramic i ndustries r anging f rom a h igh c oncentration o f w heel-made p ottery o n s ome a reas t o a p reponderance o f h and-made p ottery o n o thers . T his d ifferential d istribution i s p articularly n oticeable a s o ne p roceeded a long t he n orth-south a xis . I t w as t hought t hat t his p attern c ould r eflect e ither t emporal o r f unctional d ifferences b etween t he v arious c omponents o f t he s ite . T hus i t w as d ecided t o m ake a c ontrolled s urface c ollection . T he p erimeter o f t he s ite w as m apped a nd a b ase-line w as l aid a long t he l ong a xis o f t he m ound .

T hree

1 0 x 1 0 m etre

s quares w ere p lotted a long t his b aseline ( nos . 1 , 2 a nd 3 ) . I n o rder t o g et a wider c overage o f t he s urface s catter a nother l ine w as l aid, i ntersecting t he b ase-line a t r ight a ngles a t ad istance o f 1 25 m etres f rom t he n orthern e nd o f t he m ound . T wo 1 0 x 1 0 m etre s quares w ere p lotted a t t he e ast a nd w est e nds o f t his l ine. ( Fig.3 .1.). C omplete c ollections

w ere m ade o f a ll a rtefacts

f ound w ithin e ach o f

t he f ive s quares.

A wlib ( Site 2 ) T he

1 6° 5 2'-33 ° 4 3'

s ite o f A wlib l ies a bout

3 k ilometres e ast o f K abushiya r ailway

s tation a t t he m outh o f W adi E l H awad ( Fig .3 .2) . T his p art o f t he w adi i s l ocally k nown a s K hor A wlib . T he s ite w as f irst d escribed b y C rowfoot ( 19 11) . I t c onsists o f a g roup o f 8 m ounds s ituated t o t he n orth o f t he w adi . T he l argest m ound m easures 5 0 x 3 0m . T races o f m asoury b uildings c ould b e s een f rom t he s urface . C rowfoot ( 1911 :12) w as p ossibly p ointing t o

2 1

t hese when h e r eferred t o ' a s mall p alace s imilar t o t hat a t ( Musawwarat) ' . T o t he s outh o f t he m ounds i n t he w adi b ed t here i s ah uge r eservoir ( hafir) m easuring a bout 2 50 m etres i n d iameter w ith t wo i nlets o n t he e ast s ide a nd a n o utlet o n t he w est . A s mall b uilding , p robably a t emple , i s l ocated o n t he n orthwestern b ank o f t he r eservoir ( not t he e ast s ide a s s tated b y C rowfoot ( 1911 :12) a nd H intze ( 1959 :17 0 . D ue t o d igging b y t he v illagers t he t op o f t he s outhernmost m ound r evealed a m ud-brick w all r unning e ast/west . T he w all i s 3 6 c m . t hick . O ne b rick m easured 3 6 x 1 6 x 1 0 c m . I n o rder t o e stablish t he n ature a nd s equence o f t he c ultural d eposits a 2 x 2 m . t est p it ( 2A ) w as e xcavated a t t he h ighest p oint o f t he m ound w here t he w all w as r evealed ( F ig . 3 .3) . T he t est p it w as e xcavated i n 1 0 c m l evels .

2 A L evel 1

( 010 c m)

T he l evel r evealed t hat t he m ud-brick s tructure t erminates a t a bout 5 c m . b elow s urface . Av ariety o f p ot s herds , i ncluding f ine p ainted M eroitic w are , w ere r etrieved f rom l evel 1 . I n t he s ame l evel , b ut b eneath t he e nd o f t he m ud b rick w all , as mall a mount o f c harcoal w as f ound a t t he e ast s ide o f t he t est p it . T he r est o f t he l evel c onsisted o f r ed-brick r ubble a nd l oose g rey s and.

S ome f ragmentary b ones w ere i ncluded i n t he r ubble.

L evel 2 ( 10-20 c m) T his

l evel

i s

c omposed o f y ellow c oarse s and a nd s herds.

f ragmentary b ones w ere a lso i ncluded.

A f ew

N o o ther d omestic r efuse w as f ound.

L evel 3 ( 20-30 c m) L evel 3 r evealed s ignificatnly l ess a mount o f s herds c ompared w ith t he p revious t wo l evels . P art o f a nother m ud-brick s tructure w as p rojecting i nto t he w est s ide o f t he l evel . F rom t he s outh f ace a p iece o f r ed b rick w as p artly e xposed . I t w as n ot a pparent w hether t his w as p art o f a r edb rick s tructure r unning i n a s outherly d irection . A f ew p ieces o f c harcoal w ere i ncluded i n t he l evel. L evel 4 ( 30-40 c m) T he

t op o f

t his

l evel

r evealed a c hange

i n t he t exture o f s oil t o a

f ine g rey s and . T he mud-brick w all e ncountered i n l evel t hree w as c ontinuing i nto t his l evel. V ery f ew s herds w ere r ecovered f rom l evel 4 . L evel 5 ( 40-50 c m) T he

l ayer o f

c oarse s and c ontinued .

V ery f ew

s herds

w ere

r etrieved .

I n t he s outh w est c orner t he r emains o f w hat c ould h ave b een a h earth w ith c harcoal a nd b urnt b ones w as r evealed . L evel 6 ( 50-60 c m) T he l ayer o f c oarse s and c ontinued o n t he e ast s ide o f t he p it . w est s ide t he m ud-brick w all c ontinued d ownwards . f ew i n t his l evel .

O n t he

S herds w ere d ecreasingly

T he m ud-brick w all t erminates a t a bout t he m iddle o f t he

2 2

l evel. L evel 7 ( 60-70 c m) T his l evel c onsisted o f c oarse s and a nd s ome p ebbles .

V ery f ew s herds

w ere r ecovered. L evel 8 (70-80 c m) T he m ost n oticeable f eature o f l evel 8 w as t he p resence o f t hick w heel-made s herds n ot e ncountered b efore i n t he u pper l evels . W hile t he l ayer o f s and c ontinued i nto t his l evel n o o ther e vidence o f d omestic r efuse w as f ound. L evel 9 ( 80-90 c m) S herds o f t he s ame t ype f ound i n l evel 8 w ere r ecovered. L evel 1 0 ( 90100 c m) T he u pper p ortion o f l evel 1 0 c onsisted o f as and l ayer i n w hich a f ew s herds w ere i ncluded . A t ad epth o f 4c m t his l ayer o f s and c ame t o a n e nd . B eneath t his l ayer t he g round c onsisted o f a d ark l ayer o f s oil . N o c ultural m aterial w as r ecovered f rom t his l ayer . L evel 1 1

( 100110 c m)

T he d ark l ayer o f s oil c ontinued i nto l evel 1 1.

T he n ature o f t he

l ayer a nd t he a bsence o f c ultural m aterial i ndicated t hat t he e arliest p hase o f o ccupation a t t his p art o f t he m ound s tarted a t l evel 1 0 . I n a ddition t o t he e xcavated m aterial , a n u nsystematic s urface c ollection o f p ottery w as m ade o n t he s ite . T his c ollection w as m ade w ith a v iew t o t he p ottery t ypes n ot r epresented i n t he t est p it.

A bu E rteila ( Site 1 ) 1 6° 5 1'-33 °4 1' S outh o f S ite 2 ,

o n t he o pposite b ank o f K hor A wlib t here i s a s mall

s ite which c onsists o f f our m ounds .

T he s ite w as b riefly m entioned b y

C rowfoot ( 1911 :12-3) w ho , p ossibly o n t he e vidence o f r ed-bricks c overing t he m ounds , t hought t hat i t b elonged t o a p eriod l ater t han t hat o f s ite 2 . S hinnie ( 1953 :87) w rote , ' From t he p otsherds s een o n t he s urface o f t he g round , t hese m ounds a ppear t o b elong t o t he M eroitic p eriod ' . S hinnie 's r eference t o t he s ite a s b eing 3 3° 4 6 ' E i s f ound b y H intze t o b e i ncorrect . H intze g ives t he c o-ordinates a s 1 6' °5 1'-33 °4 3'E ( 1959 :176). T he p rocedure f ollowed a t S ite

1c onsisted o f d rawing a p lan f or t he

m ounds a nd e xcavating t wo t est p its . o utlying m ound ( Fig .

T est p it

l A w as e xcavated i n a s mall

14) t o t he e ast o f m ound 1 .

T est p it 1 B w as e xcavated

i n t he n orthern m ound.

l A l Ä i s a 1 . 5 x 1 . 5 i n . t rench l aid o ut o n m ound 4 .

B efore t he e xcavation

t he m ound w as c overed w ith a s catter o f r ed b rick a nd i ronstone r ubble . N o s herds w ere f ound o n t he s urface . T he t rench w as e xcavated i n 1 0 c m l evels

2 3

( Fig .

3 .5) .

L evel 1 ( 0-10 c m) L evel s herds .

1 i s c omposed o f c oarse w ind-blown s and,

a f ew p ebbles a nd

T he l ayer o f w ind-blown s and w as o nly a bout 1 c m d eep ; u nder t hat

l ayer t here w as a nother l ayer o f f iner g rey e arth w ith a c ontinuation o f p ebbles, f ragments o f r ed b rick a nd s ome i ronstone. L evel 2 ( 10-20 c m) T he s ame l ayer o f m ixed g rey e arth , r ed-brick a nd p ebbles c ontinued i nto l evel 2 . N o s herds w ere r ecovered . A t t his s tage i t w as d ecided t o e nlarge t he t est p it i n t he h ope o f r ecovering c ultural m aterial , p articularly p ottery . T hus a n a rea 7 5 x 7 5 c m w as e xcavated a t t he s outh e ast c orner o f t he t est p it . T he t op 1 0 c m , c orresponding t o l evel 1 o f t he o riginal t rench , r evealed t he s ame s equence o f w ind-blown s and f ollowed b y a l ayer o f m ixed g rey e arth , p ebbles a nd f ragments o f r ed b rick . A t l evel 2 i n t he a dditional a rea o f t he t rench t he f ill c onsisted o f r ed b rick r ubble a nd p ebbles . A s w ith l evel t wo i n ' the o riginally e xcavated p it , n o p ottery w as r ecovered . A t a d epth o f a bout 5 c m i nto l evel 2 t he d omestic r ubble g ave w ay t o al ayer o f c oarse b rown s and a nd t iny p ebbles. L evel 3 ( 20-30 c m) T he c oarse b rown s and a nd p ebbles c ontinued i nto t he w hole o f l evel 3 . N o c ultural m aterial w as o btained . L evel 4 (30-40 c m) E xcept

f or a p lastered s andstone b lock l evel 4 c onsisted o f t he s ame

d eposits f ound i n l evel 3 .

E xcavations c ontinued t o a d epth o f

5 c m b elow

l evel 4 w here t he h ard s urface o f t he p lain w as r eached.

1 B A 1x 2 m . t rench w as l aid o ut o n t he e ast s ide o f m ound 3 c lose t o t he h ighest

p oint o f t he m ound

( Fig. 3 .6) . b ricks,

( Fig .

3 .4) .

T his w as

e xcavated

i n 2 0 c m s pits

T he s urface o f t he t rench w as c overed with a s catter o f r ed

i ronstone f ragments a nd a m atrix o f w ind-blown s and.

L evel 1 (0-20 c m) T he l evel w as c om p osed o f

a m ixture o f s and a nd r ounded p ebbles .

f ragment o f r ed b rick w as i ncluded i n t he l evel.

A

F ew s herds w ere r ecovered.

L evel 2 (20-40 c m) T he b ottom o f

t he s and a nd p ebble l ayer w as r eached i n l evel 2 a t a

d epth o f 2 8 c m b elow s urface . A t t he t op o f t he l evel , s ealed b y t he s and a nd p ebble l ayer , t here w as a s mall p ocket o f c harcoal . T wo s amples o f c harcoal w ere c ollected f or d ating p urposes . I h

t he

s ame

l evel,

a t

a d epth

o f

3 8

c m

b elow

s urface, a nother

c oncentration o f c harcoal w as f ound i n t he n orth e nd o f t he t rench . A ssociated w ith t his c harcoal p ocket w ere t wo f ragments o f g rinding s tones .

2 4

T he l evel c onsisted o f a h igh c oncentration o f t hick w heel-made s herds

i n

a ddition t o af ew f iner w ares . L evel 3 ( 40-60 c m) A t 4 3 c m b elow s urface t he m atrix c hanges i nto s oft y ellow s and m ixed w ith p ebbles . S herds w ere f ewer i n t his l evel t han t he p revious o ne . A bout 2 c m b elow t he t op o f t he y ellow s and w as a t hin m ixture o f c harcoal, c rushed b ones a nd c oarse s herds f rom a h and-made p ot . A round t his m ixture w as a s catter o f r ed b rick r ubble , b ut t here w as n o n oticeable o rder t o t hem t o s uggest t hat t he f eature w as a h earth . T he r ubble s tands o n ah ard s urface , b ut i t w as n ot c lear w hether t his w as a f loor . T he p ottery w as m ostly c oarse w heel-made , b ut o ne s herd c ame f rom a f ine p ainted v essel. L evel 4 ( 60-80 c m) T he l evel s tarts a t t he h ard s urface e ncountered a t l evel 3 .

R emoval

c f t his h ard s urface i ndicated t hat t his w as f ormed o f f ragile m ud b ricks . I t w as n ot a pparent w hether t hese w ere i n o riginal p osition o r p art o f a f allen w all . A t umble o f f ragmentary r ed b ricks w as l ocated a t t he s outh s ide o f t he l evel. L evel 5 ( 80100 c m) T he m atrix w as a c ontinuation o f t he s ame s oft y ellow s and w hile t he t umble o f m ud b ricks c ontinued d ownwards . O ne c omplete m ud b rick m easured 3 4 x 1 7 x 8 .5 c m , w hich i s t he s tandard s ize o f M eroitic m ud b ricks . L evel 5e nded a t 1 20 c m b elow s urface . T his d epth c oincided w ith t he s tart o f a h ard m ud s urface . T he s urface e xtended o ver t he e ntire t rench . N o s herds w ere f ound i n l evel 5 . L evel 6 ( 100120 c m) T he h ard s urface t erminating l evel 5 w as r emoved .

T his p roved t o b e

t he t op o f t he g round s urface . A t a d epth o f 1 0 c m h ard d ark c lay w as r evealed . E xcavations w ere t erminated s ince i t b ecame a pparent t hat n atural g round w as r eached .

F ew s herds w ere r ecovered i n l evel 6 .

T he t est p it p rovided a r elatively l arge s ample o f p ottery .

T he n ature

o f t he s tratigraphy w as t oo c omplex t o a llow f or f irm c onclusions a bout t his p art o f t he s ite . I t i s t empting t o a ttribute p ockets o f c harcoal a t l evels 2a nd 3 t o d omestic c ooking a ctivities. W ad B an N aga ( Site 4 6) 1 6° 3 1'-33 ° 0 7' T he s ite i s s ituated j ust t o t he s outh o f t he W ad B an N aga r ailway s tation a nd 8 00 m . e ast o f t he N ile . I t c onsists o f 6m ounds w ith t races o f a s urrounding w all i n a ddition t o t wo c emeteries ( Fig . 3 . 7) . P revious w ork a t t he s ite i ncluded p ublication o f i nscriptions e xcavations o f p art o f t he s ite ( Vercoutter ,1962).

( Griffith ,1911 :67-8 )

a nd

T he e xcavations ( 1958-60) w ere c arried o ut o n m ounds B , D , Fa nd E . T est p its 1 a nd 2 w ere e xcavated t ogether w ith t wo b urials , 5a nd 6 . O nly o ne p reliminary r eport o f t he e xcavations w as p ublished ( Vercoutter ,1962) . T he m ajor r esults o f t he e xcavations w ere t he u ncovering o f a l arge s quare s tructure , p ottery

a bout 6 0 m . o n a s ide ,

t ypes

a nd

e stablishing

( Fig .

3 .7 ,

m ound B ) ,

a t entative

2 5

a d escription o f t he

c hronology

f or

t he

s ite .

V ercoutter ( ibid) d escribed t he l arge r ectangular s tucture a s ap alace . p ottery

i s

d escribed

a s

b eing

o f

t wo

t ypes .

T he

m ost

f requent

T he i s

r epresented b y h and-made , b lack b urnished p ottery w ith i ncised d ecorations ( ibid:291; F ig .25) . W heel-made p ottery o ccurs i n t he f orm o f a mphorae ( ibid:291; F ig27) . F ine p ainted w are i s r epresented b y a f ew s herds . O ne t ype o f p ottery ( ibid; F ig.33) i s b elieved t o b e : i mported. T he c hronology o f t he s ite i s b ased l argely o n t he p ottery f inds . p eriods

o f u se a re

i dentified

i n T emple

E ,

t he

m ost

r ecent

i s

a bove

T wo t he

l evel o f t he o riginal c onstruction a nd i s d ated t o a bout t he e nd o f t he M eroitic p eriod ( ca .350 A .D . ) . T he o riginal c onstruction w hich m arked t he e arliest p hase o f o ccupation i s d ated t o a bout 1 50-200 A .D . ( Vercoutter , 1 962 :272) .

T wo

l evels

o f

o ccupation

a re

a lso

i dentified

a t

t he

' p alace '

( ibid :275) . O ne t he b asis o f i nscriptional e vidence t he e arliest p hase o f o ccupation a t t he s ite i s t hought t o b e i n t he t hird c entury B .C . N o p ostM eroitic r emains w ere f ound a nd o ccupation i s t hought t o h ave t erminated i n t he m iddle o f t he f ourth c entury A .D . ( ibid :295) . D ue t o t he f act t hat e xcavations w ere c arried o ut i n m ost a reas o f t he s ite i t w as d ecided t o c ollect s amples i n t hose a reas which w ere l eft i ntact .

B oth m ounds A a nd C w ere n ot e xcavated .

M ound A i s d isturbed b y

t he t rench c ut f or t he p assage o f t he r ailway t racks . T he m ound i s c overed w ith a l arge a mount o f r ed b ricks w ith a f ew s cattered m ud b ricks . T races o f a s tructure a re v isible a t t he m ound s urface .

C i s n ot a s ingle m ound ,

b ut i s c omposed o f 1 s mall r ed b rick m ounds . S urface c ollection o f p ottery w as m ade a t b oth A a nd C . H owever , t hey p roved t o b e e xtremely l acking i n s herds.

I n o rder t o o btain a l arger s ample o f s herds i t was d ecided t o

c ollect m aterial f rom a d ump o f e xcavated d ebris l ocated s outhwest o f m ound F . T he d ump i s 2 0 m . l ong a nd 1 0 m . w ide . T he e ntire s urface o f t he d ump w as c ollected . A lthough a l arge c ollection o f p ottery w as o btained f rom t he s ite t he s ample m ight n ot r epresent t he r ange o f t ypes p resent a t t he s ite .

M aterial

o n t he d ump s urface i s l ikely t o r epresent t he e arliest p eriods o f o ccupation , w hile p ottery f rom l ater p eriods , w hich i s t ipped f irst , w ould b e r epresented b y f ewer o r n o s herds .

W est B ank S urvey work o n t he w est b ank was c onfined t o a n a rea o f 3 0 s q . k m . a cross t he r iver f rom M eroe w here 4 s ites w ere l ocated . T est e xcavations w ere c arried o ut o n t wo o f t hem w hile s urface c o llections w ere m ade o n a ll 4 s ites.

F ikheikhira ( Site 8 ) 1 6° 5 3'-33 ° 3 8 ' T he s ite w as r eported b y G eus ( 1976 :201) .

I t

i s s ituated o n t he e dge

o f t he f lood p lain s outh-east o f Q oz B urra v illage ( Fig .

3 .8) .

T he s ite

c onsists o f a s ingle m ound m easuring a pproximately 1 00 m . i n d iameter .

T he

m aximum r ise a bove t he s urrounding p lain i s 2m . T he e ast s ide o f t he m ound c uts s harply d own d ue t o e rosion b y N ile f lood . T he mound s urface i s c overe c l b y a h eavy c oncentration o f t hin h and-made s herds . A t t he c entre t here i s a s catter o f b roken r ed b ricks b ut n o s tructural r emains w ere v isible . T he s urface w as m uch d isturbed b y r ecent d igging i n s everal s pots . I n o rder t o e xamine t he d epth a nd s equence o f d eposits a 1 x 1 m . t est p it

2 6

( 8A)

w as

e xcavated

o n

t he

e astern

c oncentration o f r ed b rick r ubble . ( Fig. 3 .9).

s ide

o f

t he

m ound

c lose

t o

t he

T his w as d ug i n 2 0 c m . a rbitrary l evels

8 A L evel 1 ( 0-20 c m .) T he m atrix w as a m ixture o f f ine s and a nd s mall p ebbles .

T he f ill w as

p articularly r ich i n p ottery . T he s herds w ere o f t he s ame f abric a s t hose s cattered o ver t he m ound . N o f eatures w ere i ncluded i n l evel 1 . A t ad epth o f 1 0 c m . f rom s urface p art o f ah uman s keleton w as p rotruding i nto t he p it f rom t he s outhern w all . L evel 2 (20-40 c m .) T he f ill i s t he s ame a s t hat o f l evel 1 w ith a bundant s herds. L evel 3 ( 40-60 c m .) T he s and c hanged t o a l ighter c olour . p rojecting

A nother h uman s keleton was

i nto t he p it o n t he n orthern e nd .

T here w as n o c hange

i n t he

t ype o r c oncentration o f s herds. L evel 4 ( 60-80 c m .) T here was n o c hange o f s oil i n l evel 4 ,

a lthough t he s herds w ere

c onsiderably f ewer t han i n t he p revious l evels . O n t he e astern c orner o f t he p it b eneath w hat l ooked l ike a b urnt s traw m at t here w ere t he r emains o f as lightly c harred h uman s keleton . O nly t he s kull a nd t he u pper p art o f t he s keleton w ere e xposed . A t ubular w hite b ead , p ossibly p art o f a n ecklace b elonging t o t he s keleton w as r ecovered. L evel 5 ( 80100 c m .) N o c hange o ccured i n t he s and l ayer a nd t he p ottery w as a s l imited a s t hat i n l evel 4 . w all o f t he p it . w as n ot c ertain .

B one r emains w ere s uperficially

e xposed o n t he s outhern

T hey s eemed t o b elong t o t wo h uman s keletons a lthough t his T he l ower h alf o f t he l evel c onsisted o f f iner s and w hich

w as a lmost d evoid o f s herds . L evel 6 ( 100120 c m .) T he f iner y ellow s and a t t he b ottom o f l evel 5 c ontinued t o ad epth o f 4c m . i nto l evel 6 . B elow t his d epth n o c ultural d ebris w as r ecovered . T he m atrix c hanged i nto d ark a lluvial s oil m ixed w ith k anker .

S ince t his s eemed

t o i ndicate n atural g round d igging w as s topped. T he

t est p it p rovided a l arge

s ample o f

p ottery .

H owever ,

w ith t he

l imited a mount o f e xcavations a nd t he n ature o f t he d eposits i n t he p it i t i s d ifficult t o a rrive a t c onclusions o n t he f unction o f t his s ite . T he f ill w as p articularly r ich i n s herds , a ll o f t he s ame t ype . O n t his a ccount i t c ould b e s uggested t hat t his w as a k iln s ite t hat s pecialized i n t he p roduction o f o ne t ype o f p ottery . T his s uggestion i s f urther d iscussed i n C hapter 7 . T he t ype o f p ottery f rom t his s ite w as r ecovered a t t he r ecent e xcavations a t M eroe ( Shinnie a nd B radley ,1980) .

2 7

O n n o o ther M eroitic s ite

h as

t his

p ottery

t ype b een r eported .

O n t he o ther h and ,

t he

p resence o f

s everal h uman b urials a t d ifferent l evels i n t he t est p it c omplicates t he p icture . O nly t hrough f urther e xcavations a t t his s ite c ould i ts n ature b e c larified. I n a ddition t o t he s ample c ollected f rom t he t est p it a n u nsystematic s urface c ollection w as m ade a t t he m ound.

Q oz B urra ( Site 2 2) 1 6° 5 3'-33 ° 3 7' A t ad istance o f 1 . 2 k m . w est o f s ite 8 a l arge m ound i s s ituated c lose t o

t he

s outhern

e nd

o f

Q oz

B urra

v illage

a pproximately 3 00 m . l ong a nd 2 00 i n . wide .

( Fig .

3 .8) .

T he

m ound

i s

T he i nspection o f t he m ound

s urface s howed a f airly d ense s catter o f s herds . T he m ajority o f s herds a re t ypologically s imilar t o t he K hartoum N eolithic p ottery . H owever , a f ew t ypical M eroitic w heel-made s herds w ere f ound . A t t he h ighest p oint o f t he m ound t here a re t he r emains o f t wo s quare m ud b rick s tructures . V illagers s aid t hese a re m odern . I t w as d ecided t o m ake t est e xcavations t o i nvestigate t he p resence o f s tratified M eroitic d eposits . T wo t est p its w ere e xcavated b ut t he d eposits p roved t o b e o f t he K hartoum N eolithic h orizon ( Appendix 1) . C onsequently a n i ntensive , b ut u nsystematic s urface c ollection o f M eroitic s herds w as m ade . T he s carcity o f t ypical M eroitic s herds o n t he m ound s urface m ay i ndicate t hat n o s izeable M eroitic s ettlement w as l ocated o n t he m ound .

B ut

s ince n o s ystematic i nvestigation o f t he s ite w as m ade , n o f irm c onclusion c ould b e r eached.

G oz E l F ugara ( Site 1 0) 1 6° 5 1'-33 ° 3 7' S ite 1 0 i s l ocated 3 k m s outh-west o f S ite 2 2 a nd a bout 2 00 m . n orth o f C os E l F ugara v illage ( Fig . 3 .9a) .

I t i s s ituated o n t op o f a q oz a bout 1 00

m . w est o f t he c ultivation p lain . T he c ultural r emains o n t he s urface c onsist o f a t hin s catter o f p ottery s herds c overing a n a rea o f 7 5 x 4 0 m . S everal m ud

b rick f oundations a re l ocated a ll o ver

t he m ound .

I t

i s n ot

c lear w hether t hese a re a ncient o r m odern. T he s urface s catter c onsisted o f

c oarse h and-made

s herds .

N o s herds

w hich w ith a ny c onfidence c ould b e a ttributed t o t he M eroitic p eriod w ere o bserved. A s mall u nsystematic s urface c ollection o f s herds w as m ade.

G abalab ( Site 9 ) 1 6° 5 2'-33 ° 3 6' T he s ite i s l ocated o n al arge q oz a t t he e dge o f t he c ultivation p lain n orth o f

G abalab v illage

( F :4>

3 .9a) .

T he m ound

i s

a bout

2 00 m . l ong a nd

1 00 i n . w ide . A ll o ccupation t races a re c oncentrated o n t he s outh e nd o f t he m ound . T he s catter o f s herds i s p articularly h eavy o n t he e astern s lope o f t he m ound . T he p ottery i s s imilar t o t hat f ound a t s ite 1 0 . T he m ajority o f p ottery o bserved i s c oarse h and-made w ith n umerous f abric-impressed s herds . T he f oundation r emains o f a m ud b rick s tructure a re l ocated 3 0 m . n orth wke st o f t he a rea o f h eavy s herd c oncentration . A s mall u nsystematic s urface c ollection o f s herds w as m ade .

2 8

W ESTERN B UTANA S ITES B asa ( Site 1 7) 1 6° 4 2'-33 ° 5 3' B asa l ies o n t he e ast b ank o f W adi E l H awad 3 2 k m . s outh-east o f M eroe . T he s ite

w as d escribed a nd

m apped

b y

C rowfoot

( 1911 :13-8 ;P1 .IV) a nd

l ater

s urveyed b y H intze ( 1959 :178) . T he s ite c onsists o f t he r emains o f a t emple , am ound a nd a h afir m easuring a pproximately 2 50 m . i n d iameter ( Fig . 3 . 10 ) . C rowfoot c arried o ut e xcavations a t t he t emple w hich e nabled h im t o d raw a p lan o f t he s tructure ( Crowfoot ,1911 :16-7 ;PLV) . A w alking s urvey o f t he s ite s howed t hat t here w ere t hree a reas o f s urface a rtefact c oncentrations . T he l argest ( I) l ies i mmediately t o t he n orth-east o f t he h afir e xtending e astwards f or a d istance o f a pproximately 1 80 m . T he s econd ( II) a rea o f h eavy s urface s catter s urrounds t he m ound . A round t he t emple a nd t he f lat p lain t o t he n orth o f i t ( III) p ottery s herds a re t hinly s cattered.

S urface c ollections w ere m ade i n t he t hree a reas.

A rea I Ag rid o f 5 0-metre s quares o riented n orth/south w as l aid o ver t he a rea . T he g rid d atum w as t he n orth-east c orner o f t he p edestal o f t he l ion s tatue l ocated o n t he e dge o f t he h afir . T he g rid c onsisted o f 8s quares . T otal s urface c ollection o f s herds w as m ade i n t he s quares n umbered 1 t o 6 . T he o ther t wo s quares ( not n umbered) p roduced n o a rtefacts . T he c ollection f rom e ach s quare w ere s eparately l abelled a nd b agged.

A rea I I O n t he n orth-east s ide o f t he m ound t wo 2 0 x 2 0 m .

s quares ( 7 a nd 8 )

w ere l aid o ut a t ad istance o f 2 75 m . w est o f t he d atum p oint . T he s quares d id n ot c over t he e ntire a rea o f a rtefact s catter i n a rea I I . H owever , t he d ensity o f s urface r emains w as h igher o n t he n orth-east s ide o f t he m ound . T otal s urface c ollection w as m ade o n t he t wo s quares . b agged a nd l abelled . I n

a ddition

t o

t he

c ontrolled

c ollection

T hese w ere s eparately

u nsystematic

s urface

c ollection w as made o n t he mound a nd t he s urrounding a rea . T his w as i ntended t o c ollect p ottery w ares n ot r epresented i n t he a rea o f c ontrolled c ollection .

A rea I II O nly a n u nsystematic s urface c ollection w as m ade i n a rea I II .

S herds

w ere t hinly d istributed o ver a n a rea e xtending f or a pproximately 9 0 m . n orth o f t he t emple . T he s ample c ollected w as s mall b ut i ncluded t he d ifferent t ypes o f w are o bserved. T wo t est p its, 1 7A a nd 1 7B w ere e xcavated t o e xamine t he d epth a nd s equence

o f

d eposits

i n

t he

t wo

a reas

m ade.

2 9

w here

c ontrolled

c ollections

w ere

1 7A T his i s a 1x 1 m . p it e xcavated i n 1 0 c m . s pits i n t he s outh-west c orner o f s quare 7 ( Fig. 3 .11). L evel 1 (010 c m .) T he m atrix c onsisted o f h ard-baked b rown s oil .

N o f eatures w ere

e ncountered; o nly f ew s herds w ere r ecovered. L evel 2 ( 10-20 c m .) T he s olid b rown s oil c ontinued i nto l evel 2 . o ther f eatures w ere r evealed.

N o s tructural r emains o r

P ottery w as f ewer t han i n t he u pper l evel.

L evel 3 ( 20-30 c m .) T he m atrix w as

t he s ame a s

i n t he p revious l evels.

T he p ottery

c ontinued t o d ecrease. L evel 4 ( 30-40 c m .) A t

a d epth o f 2 c m .

f rom t he t op o f l evel 4 t here w as a n i ncreasing

f irmness o f t he s oil, W hile t he n umber o f s herds c ontinued t o d ecrease. L evel 5 ( 40-50 c m .) T he m atrix w as t he s ame a s t he l ower p art o f l evel 4 .

V ery l ittle

p c ittery w as f ound. L evel 6 ( 50-60 c m) A t

t he

i nterface o f l evels

5 a nd 6 t here w as a c hange f rom t he f irm

b rown s oil t o a s olid d ark a lluvial s oil . T his s eemed t o i ndicate t hat n atural g round w as r eached . E xcavation c ontinued t o a d epth o f 6 0 cm. N o a rtefacts w ere r ecovered f rom l evel 6 .

A t t his d epth d igging w as s topped.

1 7BB A 1x 1 m . t est p it w as d ug i n t he s outh-east c orner o f s quare 5 .

T his

w as d ug i n 1 0 c m . s pits. L evel 1 ( 010 c m .) T he l evel c onsisted o f d ark b rown s oil w ith a l arge p roportion o f s mall i ronstone p ebbles.

T he l evel d id n ot p roduce a ny a rtefacts.

L evel 2 ( 10-20 c m .) T he o nly c hange t hat o ccurred i n t he l evel w as t hat t he s oil w as d arker a nd h arder p acked .

T he c oncentration o f i ronstone p ebbles w as t he s ame a s

i n t he p revious l evel.

N o a rtefacts w ere f ound.

L evel J ( 20-30 c m .) T here w as n o c hange i n t he m atrix.

3 0

T he l evel w as d evoid o f a rtefacts.

L evel 4 ( 30-40 c m .) T he s ame t ype o f s oil a nd p ebble m ixture c ontinued t hroughout l evel 4 . N o a rtefacts w ere f ound. L evel 5 ( 40-50 c m .) T he d ark s oil a nd p ebble m atrix c ontinued i nto l evel 5 f or 3 c m . u nder w hich a lluvial s oil , o f t he t ype f ound a t l evel 6 i n 1 7A , a ppeared . c ontinued i n t his l ayer t o t he b ottom o f t he s pit . f ound. E xcavation o f 1 7B w as s topped. T he

D igging

N o c ultural m aterial w as

p ottery f rom B asa i s a f airly r epresentative s ample o f t he t hree

a reas o f s urface r emains . I n a rea I p aticularly , t he s ample c onsists o f t he w hole s urface s catter . T he t wo s quares i n a rea I I d o n ot c over t he e ntire s urface w here a rtefacts a re c oncentrated . H owever , t his i s s upplemented b y a n u nsystematic c ollection o f s herds f rom t he a rea t o r epresent t he t ypes n ot o btained f rom t he c ontrolled c ollections . A lthough a c ontrolled c ollection w ould h ave b een d esirable f or a rea I II , i n t he u nsystematic s ample t he m ain c onsideration w as t he c ollection o f s herds r epresentative o f t he t ypes o bserved i n t hat a rea . T est p it 1 7B d id n ot c larify t he n ature o f t he s urface r emains i n a rea I . N either t races o f s tructures n or s tratified d eposits w ere r evealed . T est p it 1 7A p roduced f ew a rtefacts b ut i ndicated t hat t he o ccupation l ayer w as s hallow .

G erein B asa ( Site 1 5) 1 6° 4 2'-35 ° 5 6' T he s ite w as l ocated d uring r econnaissance o f t he a rea a round B asa .

I t

i s s ituated 6 km . e ast o f B asa ( Site 1 7) o n a g ravel r idge c ut b y s mall w adis ( Fig . 3 . 12) . T he t op o f t he r idge i s c overed b y i ronstone f ormations . N o s tructures o r o ther f eatures w ere n oticed . Av ery t hin s catter o f s herds o ver a n a rea e xtending a pproximately 1 50 m . e ast/west w as o bserved. A s mall

u nsystematic

s urface

c ollection

w as

t aken .

T he

c ollection

r epresented t he r ange o f t ypes o bserved w hile w alking a long t he e ast/west a xis o f t he s ite.

B asa S outh ( Site 1 6) 1 60 4 1'-33 ° 5 3' T he s ite ( Fig. 3 .12) was r eported b y S mith a nd A dam ( 1950) .

' It i s

r oughly 2 m iles d ue s outh o f t he b ig ( Basa) h afir . . . o n ab earing o f 7 5° f rom J ebel L aota a nd c onsists o f o ne l arge r oughly e liptical m ound a nd o ne s mall o ne i n l ine n orth a nd s outh ; b etween t hem o n t he e astern s ide i s a c ircle a bout 8 f eet i n d iameter , m ade o f f lat b lack s tones a nd f ragments o f l arge r ed b ricks, s o i t a ppears t o b e o f M eroitic d ate.' ( ibid:306) T he s tructure d escribed a s a c ircle o n t he e astern s ide o f

t he

s ite

l ooked m ore l ike a s quare , b ut i t w as t oo d ilapidated t o b e c ertain a bout i ts f orm . O n s urveying t he t hree s tructures i t w as f ound t hat o nly t he o ne b uilt o f s tones a nd r ed b ricks h ad a ny s urface s herds . A ll t he s herds f ound w ithin t his l atter s tructure a nd t he a rea i mmediately s urrounding i t w ere c ollected.

3 1

Q oz K efeita ( Site 1 9) 1 6° 4 3'-33 ° 5 3' T he s ite w as l ocated d uring t he r econnaissance o f t he a rea a round B asa . I t i s l ocated e ast o f W adi E l H awad o n a r idge o f g ravel a nd s and a bout 3 k m . N NW o f B asa ( Fig . 3 . 12) . T he s ite c onsists o f a t l east 2 5 i ronstone c airns v arying f rom 7 0 c m . i n h eight a nd 1 m . i n d iameter t o 2 .5 m . i n h eight a nd 7 m . i n d iameter . T he c airns l ine t he w estern e dge o f t he r idge a nd d ownslope o n t he w estern p lain . T he m ajority o f t he s urface s herds a re d ecorated w ith p atterns s imilar t o t hose f rom t he K hartoum N eolithic h orizon . H owever s ome f ew s herds w ere t hought t o b e o f M eroitic a ge . A n u nsystematic c ollection w as m ade o f t hose s herds w hich w ere c onsidered t o b e M eroitic . s herds.

I n a ddition a s mall

s ample

W est o f U mm U sheira ( Site 1 3) 1 6° 4 2'-33'

w as

°

c ollected

f rom

t he

N eolithic

5 3'

S ite 1 3 i s l ocated 3 km . W SW o f B asa ( Site 1 7) c lose t o t he t rack r unning w est o f W adi E l H awad

( F ig . 3 . 12 ) .

T he s ite c onsists o f 9i ronstone

c airns r anging b etween 8 a nd 1 7 m . i n d iameter ( F i g . 3 .13) . V ery f ew s herds w ere c ollected o n a nd a round t he c airns . A ll t he s herds f ound o n t he s ite s urface w ere c ollected. E ast o f U mm U sheira ( Site 1 4) 1 6° 4 2'-33' ° 5 4' T wo

i solated m ounds w ere f ound e ast o f

U mm U sheira w ell

( Fig .

3 . 12) .

T hese a re i ronstone c airns e ach m easuring a bout 4 m . i n d iameter . V ery f ew s herds w ere f ound a round t he m ounds. A ll s herds o bserved w ere c ollected.

E l H assani ( Site 2 0) 1 6° 4 1'-33' °5 3'

( Fig .

T he s ite i s l ocated o n t he w est o f W adi E l H awad n ear E l H assani w ell 3 . 12) . I t c onsists o f 7 l ow m ounds , p ossibly c ircular s tructures , o f

i ronstone c hunks . T he s tructures w ere d isturbed b y t he d igging o f m atamir ( grain s torage p its) . T wo s mall c airns , e ach a bout 5 m . i n d iameter a re e nclosed w ithin t he l argest m ound i n t he g roup . V ery f ew s herds, s ome p ossibly m odern ,

w ere f ound a nd c ollected .

U mm S amugh ( Site 2 1) 2 1 °3 8 '-33 ° 5 6' T he

s ite w as

f irst r eported b y H intze a s ' a l arge b urial g round o n a

s tone r idge w ith g raves o f t wo t ypes: c ircular g raves f illed w ith g ravel 8 1 0 m eters i n d iameter . a nd s mall p ointed t umuli m ade f rom h eaped b roken s tones . T he s ituation o f t hese t umuli w ithin t he b urial g round s hows t hem t o b e o f a l ater d ate t han t he o ther g raves ' ( Hintze ,1959 :178 ) . N o s herds w ere f ound a mong t he p ointed t umuli .

V ery f ew s herds w ere

f ound o n t he s urface a mong t he c ircular s tructures ( Fig .

1 14) .

A ll s herds

f ound w ere c ollected.

D uaneib ( Site 2 8) 1 6° 3 1'-33 ° 2 2' T he

s ite o f

D uaneib w as

f irst

r eported t he r emains o f a t emple .

d escribed a nd

m apped b y C ailliaud w ho

H intze r eported

3 2

t hat

t he

s ite

i s m uch

l arger t han h as b een r eported b y C ailliaud a nd c onsists o f a nother t emple a nd t hree l arge o ccupation m ounds ( Hintze ,1959 :179). A 1 00 x 1 00 m . s quare w as l aid o ut o n t he e astern s ide o f t he m ound l ying a bout 7 0 m . w est o f t he t emple . T his w as d ivided i n 2 5 s quares , 9o f w hich w ere c hosen a t r andom f or c omplete s urface c ollection ( Fig . 3 . 15) . I n a ddition t o t he c ontrolled s urface c ollection a 1 x 1 m . t est p it ( 26 0 i) w as e xcavated i n t he s outh-west c orner o f s quare 8 ( Fig . 3 . 15 ) . T his w as d ug i n 1 0 c m . s pits .

2 8A L evel 1 ( 010 c m .) T he t op o f l evel 1 c onsisted o f s terile w ind-blown s and .

A t ad epth o f

6 C m. t he m atrix c hanged i nto a h arder l ayer o f c oarse s and w hich p roduced f ew s herds. L evel 2 ( 10-20 c m .) T he h ard l ayer o f c oarse s and c ontinued t hroughout l evel 2 b ut t he l evel c ontained n o a rtefacts. L evel 3 ( 20-30 c m .) C oarse s and c ontinued t o a d epth o f

8 c m .

F ew s herds ,

p ossibly

b elonging t o o ne v essel , w ere r ecovered . B eneath t he s and l ayer a h arder l ayer c omposed o f s mall p ebbles w as r evealed. T his c ontained n o a rtefacts. L ayer 4 ( 30-40 c m .) T he p ebble l ayer c ontinued t hroughout l evel 4 .

N o a rtefacts w ere

r ecovered. L evel 5 ( 40-50 c m .) T here w as n o c hange i n t he p ebble l ayer a nd t he l evel w as a lso s terile . I t a ppeared t hat t he p ebble l ayer b elonged t o n atural g round . D igging w as s topped a t l evel 5 . T he t est p it , w hich w as e xcavated i n t he m ound , s howed t hat t he d epth o f o ccupation i n t his p art o f t he s ite i s n ot g reat . A n u nsystematic s urface c ollection w as t aken f rom t he m ound s ituated s outh-west o f t he t emple T his c ollection w as i ntended t o i nclude t ypes n ot r epresented i n t he c ontrolled c ollection a nd t he t est p it.

M atruqa ( Site 2 7) 1 6° 2 0'-33 ° 1 8 ' T his s ite w as f irst r eported b y A ddison ( 1925 :197-200 ) . I t c onsists o f t he r uins o f a s mall t emple w ith a n e nclosing w all n ear t he f oot o f J ebel M atruqa , a bout 8 k m . n orth w est o f N aga . T he t emple d imensions a re 8 , 25 x 5 .25 m t . a nd t he e nclosure m easures 2 0 .9 x 1 4 .4 m . ( Fig. 3 .16). O n t he c rest o f t he g ravel m ounds a t t he f oot o f J ebel M atraqa t here

3 3

a re 1 0 s mall o val c airns o riented r oughly N E . t here

i s

a s mall h afir p artially

w hich h as

f ormed

o f

A t t he b ase o f t he j ebel

a n atural

s emicircular

b een a rtificially c ompleted o n t he s outhern s ide .

s aid t he h afir i s a ncient

b ut h as

r idge

A n i nformant

r ecently b een r epaired .

T he h afir

m easures a bout 6 0 m . i n d iameter . N o s herds w ere o bserved a t t he s ite e xcept a t t he t emple . T hese a re v ery t hinly s cattered w ithin t he s tructure a nd i mmediately a round i t . A t otal c ollection was m ade o f a ll s urface s herds w ithin t he e nclosing w all.

M usawwarat ( Site 2 9) 1 6° 2 5'-33 ° 2 2' D ue

t o

i ts e laborate s ize ,

m onumental a rchitecture a nd

i nscriptions ,

M usawwurat i s o ne o f t he b etter-known M eroitic s ites i n t he w estern B utana . H intze ( 1959 :179) c onsidered i t t o b e ' the m ost i mportant s ite i n t he r egion' n ext t o *roe a nd N aga . E arly ( 1826 ,

i nvestigations

T ext ,iii :

1 40-58 4 ,

a t

t he

s ite c onsisted o f

P L .xxii :I) w ho

t he w ork o f

p lanned p art

o f

t he

C ailliaud

s ite .

L ater

L epsius p roduced a ccurate p lans o f a l arger p art o f t he s ite a nd c opied n umerous i nscriptions . ( Lepsius ,1849-59 , T ext ,V :344 ; P lan 1 ,140) . R ecent s urvey a nd e xcavations a t t he s ite w ere c arried o ut b y H intze ( see C hapter 1 ) . T he s ite i s s ituated o n W adi E l S ufra , 2 8 k m . s outh-east o f W ad B an N aga . H intze d ivided t he s ite i nto 4 a reas , 3a re e nclosed within t he s andstone h ills t o t he e ast a nd w est w hile t he f ourth i s l ocated o n t he s outhern f ringe o f

t he s outhwestern h ill ( Fig .

3 . 17) .

A p ottery t ypology f rom t he s ite i s b ased o n a s tudy o f a l arge s tratified s ample , m ainly f rom t he G reat E nclosure a nd t he S mall E nclosure ( 0tto ,1967) . T his p rovided t he b asis f or t he p ottery a nalysis i n t he p resent s tudy ( Chapter 6 ) . H owever , s ince O tto% s tudy i s c onfined m ostly t o m aterial f rom o ne a rea o f t he s ite, t wo s mall u nsystematic s urface c ollections w ere m ade a t t emple I IIA ( Fig . 3 . 17) .

t he a reas n orth o f t he l arge h afir a nd n orth o f

N aga ( Site 3 0) 1 6° 1 6'-33 ° 1 8 ' T his i s

t he

l argest k nown M eroitic s ite i n t he w estern B utana .

s urface r emains e xtended o ver a n a rea m easuring a pproximately ( Fig. 3 .18). L ittle e xcavations w ere c arried o ut a t N aga . t he d rawing o f g round T ext,iii :

1 24-38 ;

W hitehead ,

1 926 :62-4) .

p lans

a nd c opying o f

P lates ,i ,

E arly w ork t here i ncluded

i nscriptions

L epsius ,

T he

1 . 5 x 1 k m .

( Cailliaud ,

1 849-59 ,

P lates

1 826 , 1 ,143 ;

H intze ( 1959 :183-7) d escribed t he s ite a s c onsisting

o f a t own a nd t wo c emeteries . O ne g rave a t t he s outh c emetery w as e xcavated b ut y ielded l ittle e vidence f or a f irm d ating o f t he b urial ( ibid :186-7) . T he c ollection o f w hat c ould b e r egarded a s a r epresentative s ample o f s urface s herds p roved t o b e ad ifficult t ask o wing t o t he l arge s ize o f t he s urface

r emains .

C onsequently,

i t

was

d ecided

t o

make

c ontrolled

c ollections o n a l imited n umber o f l ocalities o n t he s ite . S urveying o f t he s ite s urface g ave n o i ndications o f v ariation i n p ottery t ype d istribution . I t w as decided t o m ake c ontrolled s urface c ollections i n t hree w idely s eparated a reas i n t he s ite.

T hree s uch c ollections w ere m ade:

3 4

S urface C ollection I A 6 0 x 6 0 m . s quare w as l aid o ut a t t he s outh-east c orner o f T emple E . T his w as d ivided i nto n ine 2 0 x2 0 m . s quares . F ive o f t hese s quares ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 7a nd 8 ) w ere c hosen a t r andom f or s urface c ollection ( Fig . 3 . 18 ) . T otal s urface c ollections w ere m ade a t e ach o ne o f t he 5 s quares . S urface C ollection I I T his c ollection w as m ade a t a2 0 x2 0 m . s quare l aid o ut a mong a g roup o f s tructures i n t he n orthern p art o f t he s ite ( F i g . 3 . 18 , s quare 1 0 ) . T he n orthwestern c orner o f t he s quare w as f ixed a t t he i ntersection o f t wo l ines: o ne e xtending t o t he n orth a long t he f ace o f t he p ylon o f t he L ion T emple ; t he o ther e xtending t o t he n orth-west i n l ine w ith t he p ylon o f T emple F . T otal s urface c ollection w as m ade a t s quare 1 0 . S urface C ollection I II O n t he s outhwestern p lain l ying o utside t he m ain a reas o f s tructural r emains a d ense c oncentration o f s herds w as n oticed . T his c overs a n a rea m easuring 1 00 x 6 0 m . T he s urface s catter i s n ot a ssociated w ith a ny v isible t races o f s tructures . A 1 0 x 1 0 m . s quare w as l aid o ut o n t he p lain . T he s outh-eastern c orner o f t he s quare i s f ixed a t t he i ntersection o f t wo l ines : o ne r unning s outh-west f rom t he e ntrance o f t he A mun T emple a nd t he o ther r unning s outhwards f rom t he s outh-western c orner o f t he ' k iosk ' . T he l ines i ntersect a t 5 5 d egrees ( Fig . 3 . 18 , q uare 1 1) . T otal s urface c ollection w as m ade a t t he s quare. A s mall u nsystematic s urface c ollection w as w ade i n t he a rea a round s quare 1 . T his i ncluded t ypes n ot f ound w ithin t he a rea o f c ontrolled c ollection .

J ebel h ardan ( site 3 1) 1 6 °

1 5'-33 ° 1 9'

T he s ite i s s ituated 3 k m . s outh o f N aga a t t he w estern f oot o f J ebel H ardan . T he s ite h as b een d escribed a nd p lanned b y A ddison ( 1926 :56-8 ) . I t c omprises a r ectangular s tructure m easuring 3 8 x3 3 .4 m . a nd a s mall p ond t o t he s outh o f t he s tructure . A s mall b uilding i s e nclosed w ithin t he s tructure w hile a l arger r ectangular b uilding i s s ituated a t t he s outhern e nd o f e nclosing w all ( Fig . 3 . 19) . A ddison ( ibid:57) b elieved t hat t he s tructure i s o f t he s ame p eriod a s t hat o f t he s ite o f N aga a nd d ated i t b etween 1 5 B .C. a nd A .D . 1 5 . A l arge u nsystematic s urface c ollection w as m ade a t t he s tructure a nd t he p lain e xtending f or a bout 3 00 m . n orth o f i t.

N asb E l S amih ( Site 3 4) 1 6° 1 5'-33 ° 1 4' T he s ite i s l ocated 5 k m . w est o f N aga o n al ow s and a nd g ravel m ound . S tructural r emains w ere r eported b y A ddison ( 1926 :58 ) a nd a l arger g roup o f b uildings b y H intze ( 1959 :188 ) . An umber o f i ronstone m ounds a re l ocated o n t he s outhern f ace o f J ebel N asb E l S amih . D uring t he p resent s urvey t he t wo l arge b uildings e xposed b y H intze ( ibid :188 ) c ould n ot b e l ocated . M ost p robably t hey w ere c overed u p b y t he w ind-blown s and w hich a ccumulated s ince t he t ime o f H intze 's s urvey . O nly t he b uilding d escribed a s ak iosk ( ibid)

3 5

w as l ocated.

Am ap o f t his s tructure w as d rawn ( Fig. 3 .20).

T he i ronstone m ounds , t wo

t ypes .

T he

f irst

i s

a bout 3 0 ,

o n t he s outh s ide o f t he

c onstructed o f a r ing o f

j ebel a re o f

s tones,

7 -8 m .

i n

d iameter . T he s econd t ype i s a s imple m ound o r o void t umulus o f i ronstone m easuring a bout 2 m . i n d iameter . S urface s herds w ere v ery s canty o n t he m ound w here t he k iosk i s l ocated . A ll s herds f ound d uring t he s urvey o f t he m ound w ere c ollected . N o s herds w ere o bserved i n t he a rea o f t he i ronstone m ounds.

J ebel K hereiq ( Site 2 5) 1 60 2 7'-33 ° 1 5' T he s ite i s s ituated a bout 7 5 m . n orth-west o f J ebel K herieq n orth o f t he t rack l eading f rom W ad B an N aga t o M usawwarat . T he s ite c onsists o f t he f oundations o f ad ry-stone s tructure m easuring a pproximately 2 0 x2 0 m . T he b uilding c onsists o f 9r ooms l ined a long t he n orthern a nd e astern s ide . T he r est i s o ccupied b y al arge r oom p artly s eparated b y aw all ( Fig . 3 .21) . T he e ntire b uilding i s c overed w ith r ubble - m ainly i ronstone m ixed w ith f ew f ragments o f r ed b ricks a nd s andstone. V ery f ew s herds w ere f ound a mong t he r ooms . w as

m ade

w ithin

t he

At otal s urface c ollection

a rea b ounded b y t he e xterior w alls .

I n a ddition ,

a

1x 1m . t est p it ( 25A) w as e xcavated c lose t o t he n orth-western c orner o f r oom 3 ( Fig . 3 . 21) . T his w as d ug i n 1 0 c m . s pits . 2 5A L evel 1 ( 010 c m .) T he l evel c onsisted o f c oarse w ind-blown s and m ixed w ith r ubble . d epth o f 5 c m .

t he m atrix c hanged

i nto h ard

r ed e arth m ixed

A t a

w ith r ubble .

T he n orthern w all s eparating r ooms 2 a nd 3 c ontinued d ownwards .

N o s herds

w ere r ecovered. L evel 2 ( 10-20 c m .) T here w as n o c hange i n t he h ard r ed l ayer .

T he w all c ontinued d own .

T he l evel p roduced n o s herds. L evel 3 ( 20-30 c m .) T his

i s a c ontinuation o f l evel 2 i n e very r espect with t he wall

c ontinuing d ownwards.

N o s herds w ere i ncluded.

L evel 4 ( 30-40 c m .) T here w as a m arked d ecrease o f r ubble i n t his l evel .

N o s herds w ere

r ecovered. L evel 5 ( 40-50 c m .) T here w as n o c hange i n t he l ayer .

T he l evel w as d evoid o f s herds .

ad epth o f 4 8 c m . b elow s urface t he e nd o f t he w all w as r eached .

3 6

A t

L evel 6 ( 50-60 c m .) T here w as n o c hange i n s oil i n t he u pper p art o f t he l evel . o f 5 6

C m.

t he s oil c hanged i nto h arder c lay m ixed w ith p ebbles .

a pparently p art o f t he n atural g round . s urface. T he l evel p roduced n o s herds.

A t ad epth T his w as

D igging w as s topped a t 6 0 c m . b elow

A bout 1 20 m . n orth-east o f t he d ry-stone b uilding t here i s as mall i ronstone h eap l ocated o n s cattered c ollected.

o n

t he

a l ow

k noll .

A ll

s herds

s urface .

A f ew

M eroitic

s herds

w ere

o bserved o n t he s urface w ere

A lthough i t i s d ifficult t o a rrive a t c onclusions o n t he b asis o f t he e vidence f rom 2 5A , i t i s p ossible t hat t he e xcavated l evels w ere a ssociated w ith b uilding r ather t han o ccupation a ctivities . D ry-stone b uilding i s u ncommon i n M eroitic s ites , b ut t he p resence o f d istinctly M eroitic s herds a nd r ed-brick r ubble s hows t hat t he s ite b elongs t o t he M eroitic p eriod .

J ebel K hereiq I I ( Site 2 6) 1 6° 2 7'-33 ° 1 5' T he s ite i s l ocated i n t he m iddle o f W adi E l S ufra a t a d istance o f 1 k m . s outh-west o f s ite 2 5 . I ts m ain f eature i s a d ouble-walled h afir . T he h afir i s a bout 4 0-50 m . i n d iameter - t he w alls w ere t oo p oorly p reserved t o a llow e xact m easurement . I n t he c entre t here w ere f ragments o f a s andstone s culpture . T he i nterior o f t he h afir h ad a f airly d ense s catter o f s herds . As ample r epresentative o f t he t ypes o bserved w as c ollected.

A lim ( Site 3 ) 1 6° 5 9'-33 ° 5 4' A lim

i s

t he n orthernmost s ite c overed

i n t he s urvey

( Fig .

3 . 12) .

I t

l ies 2 0 k m . n orth e ast o f M eroe . I t h ad f irst b een d escribed a nd m apped b y A ddison a nd D unham ( 1922) . T he s ite c onsists o f a t emple , t he f oundations o f a l arge i ron-stone b uilding , a s mall m asonry b uilding a nd a h afir . A ddison a nd D unham e xcavated t wo b urials a t t he c emetery , o ne o f w hich h ad b oth w heel-made a nd h and-made p ottery . T hey f ound i t d ifficult t o e xplain t he n ature o f t he s ite f rom i ts l ocation o n a b arren i ronstone p lateau b ut s uggested t hat a s urvey o f t he s urrounding a reas might y ield a b etter a ssessment o f t he r esources o f t he a rea ( ibid :45) . D uring t he p resent s urvey n o s ystematic s urface c ollection w as

m ade .

O nly a w alking s urvey o ver t he d ifferent p arts o f t he s ite w as c onducted a nd a ll s herds o bserved w ere c ollected . T he s urface s catter w as e xtremely t hin . O nly a t t he t emple ( Fig . 3 . 22) w as a h eavier c oncentration o f s herds f ound .

J ebel M aliha ( Site 2 3) 1 6° 5 0'-33 ° 4 6' J ebel

M aliha

i s s ituated o n t he west b ank o f W adi E l

S habak ,

a

t ributary o f W adi E l H awad , 8k m . s outh-west o f K abushiya r ailway s tation ( Fig . 3 . 12) . I t f orms t he n orthern e nd o f a s eries o f s andstone h ills . T he M eroe-Basa t rack p asses o n t he e astern s ide o f t he h ill . O n t he n orthern a nd e astern s ide o f t he h ill m ore t han 8 0 i ronstone c airns a re l ocated . N o s urface ' s herds w ere o bserved a round t he c airns . O n t he f lat t op o f t he h ill t here i s a h uge p ile o f s herds ,

c overing a n a rea a pproximately 3 0 x 4 0 m .

T he p ile i s n ot a ssociated w ith a ny o ther a pparent r emains .

3 7

I t s eems t hat

t he p ottery w as t ransported t o t he t op o f t he h ill . A ll o f t he s herds o bserved w ere w heel-made . T he p ile w as s earched a nd a r epresentative s ample o f t he d ifferent w ares w as c ollected.

T aragma ( Site 2 4) 1 60 4 5'-33 ° 3 5' T wo

k ilometers

s outh-west

o f

T aragma

r ailway

s tation

3 l arge e arth

m ounds a re l ocated . T he m ounds a re c ircular , 8 10 m . i n d iameter a nd 1 . 5 m . h igh . V ery f ew s herds , a ll c oarse h and-made , w ere f ound o n t he s urface . A ll s herds f ound w ere c ollected.

J ebel S urat ( Site 3 ) 1 6° 0 7'-33 ° 2 5' S mith a nd A dam ( 1950 :303-4) g ive a s hort d escription o f t his s ite w hich i s s ituated o n t he w est o f J ebel S urat , 2 1 km . s outh-east o f N aga ( Fig . 3 .12) . T he s ite c onsists o f t hree g roups o f s andstone mounds o n t he s outhern s ide o f a s mall k hor . A m edium-sized h afir i s s ituated a t a d istance o f 1 50 m . n orthwards f rom t he mounds ( Fig . 3 .23) . H intze ( 1959 :189) m entions ,

' c lear t races o f w alls ' i n g roup B , a lthough d uring t he

p resent s urvey n o s uch t races w ere o bserved. N o s urface s herds w ere f ound o n t he t hree g roups o f mounds a nd t he a rea b etween t hem. A bout 3 0 m . n orth o f g roup C t here was a r elatively d ense s catter o f s urface s herds n ot a ssociated w ith a ny v isible s tructural t races .

Al arge u nsystematic s ample w as c ollected f rom t his a rea .

J ebel G eheid ( Site 3 6) 1 5° 4 3'-33 ° 3 0' J ebel G eheid l ies

4 5 km . S SW o f J ebel S urat ( fig .

3 .12) .

I t i s a n

I ronstone h ill a bout 2 .5 k m . l ong a nd 1 . 25 k m . w ide . I ts m aximum h eight i s 5 06 f t . a .s .l . T he h ill i s s urrounded o n a ll s ides b y a n e xtensive g rass p lain . T he h illtop i s c overed w ith a bout 6 0 i ronstone c airns v arying i n s ize f rom 1 -2 m . i n h eight a nd 4 -6 m . i n d iameter . O n t he w estern s ide o f t he h ill t here i s a s mall h afir w ith a s emicircular w all a ttached t o t he s ide o f t he h ill . E xcept o n t he s urface o f o ne i ronstone c airn o n t he w estern e dge o f t he h ill , n o s herds w ere f ound a mong t he c airns .

A ll s herds f ound o n t his c airn

w ere c ollected. A t t he f oot o f t he h ill o n t he western s ide a nd 1 km . s outh o f t he h afir , t here i s a 2x 2 m . c oncentration o f i ronstone . T hese a re p ossibly t he r emains o f as mall s quare s tructure . T he f ew s herds w hich w ere l ocated a mong t he r ubble w ere c ollected.

M atrusa ( Site 3 7) 1 5° 4 3'-33 ° 3 4' T he s ite

i s s ituated 6 .5 km . e ast o f J ebel G eheid ( Fig . 3 .12) .

c omprises t hree g roups o f c ircular s tone s tructures h afirs

( fig .

3 .24) .

T he

s urrounding

I t

t wo s mall

t wo n orthern g roups ( A a nd B ) o f s tone s tructures

c onsist o f t hree l arge c ircles 5 t o 1 0 m . i n d iameter a nd a n umber o f s maller c ircles . N o s urface s herds w ere f ound a mong t he s tructures o f t hese t wo g roups . G roup C , l ying a bout 2 5 m . s outh o f t he s outhern h afir c onsists

3 8

o f 4s tone c ircles e ach a bout 3 m .

i n d iameter .

T he o nly s urface s herds i n

t his a rea w ere l ocated i n t he a rea b etween t he c ircles . A ll t he s herds w ere o f ac oarse h and-made b rown w are . A s mall s ample o f t hese s herds w ere c ollected.

M urabba ( Site 3 8) 1 5° 4 7 '-33 ° 3 2' M urabba i s a n i solated s ingle c hamber t emple l ocated 7 .5 k m . n orth-east o f J ebel G eheid . T he o nly p ublished r ecord o f t he s ite i s t hat o f C rowfoot ( 1911 :27-8 ) . I t i s a s andstone s tructure w ith o nly o ne c oarse v isible o n t he s urface . T he e ntrance , w hich i s 1m . w ide , f aces E SE . T he t otal l ength i s 1 3 .15 m . a nd t he w idth o f t he o utside f ront wall i s 9 .70 m . w all i s 1 . 15 m . t hick ( Fig . 3 . 25) . A bout

T he s ide

1 50 m . s outh-east o f t he t emple t here i s as mall h afir m easuring

a bout 1 20 m . i n d iameter . N o o ther r emains w ere f ound i n t he v icinity o f t he t emple a nd t he h afir . A t t he t emple a nd t he a rea i mmediately s urrounding i t n o s urface s herds w ere f ound . A w alking s urvey o f t he a rea e xtending a bout 1 00 m . i n f our d irections f rom t he t emple d id n ot r eveal a ny s urface s herds . W ork a t t he s ite w as l imited t o c hecking C rowfoot 's g roundp lan .

A bu D eleiq ( Site 4 0) 1 5° 5 5'-35 ° 5 0 ' T hree k m . w est o f t he t own o f A bu D eleiq a nd s outh o f W adi E sh S helkha , t here i s ag roup o f 6r ing m ounds s ituated o n h igh g round a t t he e dge o f t he w adi ( Fig . 3 . 12) . T he m ounds a re f ormed o f s tone c ircles f illed w ith e arth a nd g ravel . T he c ircles a re u niform i n s ize, m easuring a bout 6 m . i n d iameter . O n t he s urface o f t wo o f t hem f ew s herds o f c oarse b rown h andm ade p ottery w ere f ound a nd c ollected.

K adabona ( Site 4 2) 1 5° 5 9 '-33 ° 5 1' A n e xtensive g roup o f l arge m ounds h as b een r eported

1 0 k m .

n orth o f

A bu D eleiq ( Smith a nd A dam ,1950 :304-5 ; H intze , 1 959 :18 9 . T he m ounds a re l arger i n s ize t han a ny o ther s imilar s tructures f ound i n t he w estern B utana . A bout 4 0 m ounds h ave b een r eported . T he m ounds h ave d iameters o f 1 215 m . a nd a bout 1 m . h igh . T hey a re c ircular h eaps o f d ark s andstone o n e arth a nd g ravel p latforms. A bout

1k m .

K adabona ( Fig .

N o s herds w ere f ound o n o r a round t he m ounds.

t o t he e ast o f t he m ounds l ies a h afir l ocally k nown a s

1 12) .

T he h afir i s s aid b y a l ocal

i nformant t o b e a ncient

b ut i s s till i n u se . T he w alls a re b uilt o f a h igh e arth embankment r einforced b y l arge s andstone c hunks . I t i s s lightly o void i n s hape a nd m easure a t i ts ' widest a bout 1 80 m . O nly o ne s herd w as f ound i n t he h afir a rea .

A mbasa ( Site 4 3) 1 6° 3 7'-33 ° 5 3' I n

t he

r eference

t o

i ndex o f

s ites a t t he N ational M useum

M eroitic t umuli a nd

s ettlement n ear

i n K hartoum t here i s a B ir A mbasa .

D uring t he

s urvey o f t he a rea a round t he m odern w ell a s ite w as l ocated 2 k m . N E o f t he

3 9

w ell .

T he

a rea

i s

c overed

b y

s everal

l ow

g ravel

mounds

b arely

d istinguishable f rom t he s urrounding p lain . T wo s mall h afirs a re s ituated i n t he middle o f a k hor r unning N S . T he h afirs a re v ery s mall i n c omparison w ith t hose c ommonly f ound i n t he w estern B utana . o ne i s a bout 4 0 m . i n d iameter .

T he n orthern

T he s econd l ying 8 0 m . t o t he s outh i s

a bout 5 0 m . i n d iameter . O n al ow m ound a bout 2 00 m . w est o f t he t wo h afirs t here i s a d ense s catter o f s herds c overing a n a rea e xtending a pproximately 2 50 m . f rom e ast t o w est ( Fig . 3 .26) . T here w ere n o v isible t races o f s tructures a ssociated w ith t he s urface s herds. N o s ystematic s ampling o f t he a rea w as a ttempted .

A l arge s ample w as

c ollected w ith a v iew t o t he t ypes o f p ottery o bserved o n t he s urface. J ebel Q eili ( Site 4 4) 1 50 3 0'-33 ° 4 7' T his

i s t he o nly s ite c overed i n t he s urvey w hich l ies i n t he B utana

p roper ( F ig . 3 . 12) . T he s ite i s k nown m otly f or t he M eroitic r ock p icture c arved o n t he f ace o f a h uge g ranite b oulder ( Crowfoot , 1 911:24-5 ; W hitehead , 1 926 :51-2 ; H intze , 1 959 :189-90 ) . A nother M eroitic r ock p icture i s p ainted o n t he r oof o f a c ave o pposite t he g ranite b oulder ( Addison , 1 926 ,P1.XI). T races o f s ettlements a re f ound i n s everal s pots a round t he h ill a nd o n i ts t op : A t t he t op o f t he h ill o n t he w estern s ide t here i s af lat a rea w ith a s catter o f s herds

( F ig .

1 27 ,2) .

T h m ajority o f s herds w ere o f a N eolithic

t ype a lthough a f ew m ight b e M eroitic . t his a rea . F our f lat

mounds

N o s urface c ollection w as m ade a t

a re l ocated o n t he p lain e ast o f t he h ill ( Fig .

3 .27 ,1) . T he a rea o f t he m ounds w as s earched f or s herds b ut n one w ere f ound . A bout 2 50 m . n orth o f t he h ill t here a re t hree l arge m ounds c overed w ith s andstones a nd f ragmentary b ricks ( Fig . 3 .27 ,3) . H intze ( 1959 :191) r eported t he p resence o f s ome s herds o n t hese m ounds b ut n one w ere f ound d uring t he p resent s urvey. A t

a d istance o f

5 00 m .

s outh o f

t he K hartoum-Ka :sala t rack a l ight

s urface s catter o f s herds w as f ound o n t he f lat p lain . N o s tructural r emains w ere a ssociated w ith t his s catter . T he a rea c overed w ith s herds m easures a pproximately

3 0 x 2 0 m

T he

m ajority o f

s herds

a re h and-made .

A ll s herds l ocated o n t his a rea w ere c ollected.

N eolithic s ites T wo

N eolithic

s ites

w ere

r ecorded

i n

t he

w estern

B utana

d uring t he

c ourse o f s urvey . B oth s ites a re l ocated s outh o f U mm U sheira w ell ( 16 ° 4 2'-33 ° 5 3 ') . A bout 2 km . s outh o f t he w ell a nd w est o f t he M eroe-Basa t rack 4 l ow m ounds w ere o bserved .

V ery f ew s herds w ith W avy L ine p atterns

w ere n oticed . F ive km , s outh o f t his s ite t here a re a bout 2 0 m ounds c overing a n a rea o f 1 50 x 1 00 m . A l ight s catter o f s herds w ith p atterns s imilar t o t hose f rom t he p revious s ite w ere n oticed.

4 0

S ummary D ue t o t he l arge s ize o f t his a rea ( 12 0 00 s q . k m . ) i t w as n ot p ossible t o c onduct a n i ntensive s urvey o f t he r egion . I n p articular t he v ast a rea b etween W adi E l H awad a nd W adi E l Awateib r emains l argely u nexplored . H owever t he s urvey c overed a ll t he b road e nvironmental z ones r epresented i n t he s tudy a rea. F ifteen s ites, n ot r eported p reviously w ere l ocated. O ne o f t he m ajor d ifficulties m et w ith c oncerns t he d ating o f s ites . S ites

c ould

b e a ttributed

t o

t he

M eroitic

p eriod o n t he b asis

o f e ither

d istinctly M eroitic p ottery o r M eroitic s tructures s uch a s t emples . I n a n umber o f s ites n one o f t hese w as p resent . O n s ome s ites o nly c oarse b rown h and-made p ottery w as

f ound .

A lthough t his t ype o f p ottery i s k nown f rom

M eroitic s ites , i t i s s till b eing m anufactured i n v arious p arts o f t he S udan . S ome mound s ites d id n ot h ave a ny s urface s herds . T hese a re s ometimes r egarded a s b eing M eroitic b urials ( Ali ,1971 :348 ) . S atisfactory a nswers t o t hese p roblems c an o nly b e o btained b y e xcavating a s ample o f t hese s ites.

4 1

0

F ig. 3 .1:

,

5 0m

M ap o f H amadab ( site 4 5) s howing a reas o f s urface c ollections.

4 2

Mounds

(- 3





Wad i

E l

H owad

"

0 I

2 50 m

F ig. 3 .2:

A wlib ( site 2 ): m ounds a nd h afir .

4 3

9 . 1 !

17 . Z >

c I I I J I Jci jrT J CD

6 . 20 ) .

T exture : M atte e xterior a nd i nterior s urfaces a re o bserved f or t he m ajority o f s herds i n W Ic ( Tables 6 .30 a nd 6 .31 ; F ig . 6 .5) . W hile o nly 2 % o f t he s herds h ave e xterior b urnished s urfaces , t he s ame s urface t reatment i s n ot e ncountered o n t he i nteriors . I n t he s ystematic c ollections , e xterior b urnishing o ccurs o n as mall p ercentage o f t he s herds w hile n o e xterior b urnishing i s f ound o n t he s amples f rom B asa a nd D uaneib ( Fig . 6 .23) . T hus , t he t rend d escribed f or t he t wo p revious v arieties o f a c ontinuous d ecline o f b urnished s urfaces a nd a n a ccompanying i ncrease o f m atte s urfaces c ontinuous i nto W Ic i n b oth t he t otal c ollection ( Fig . 6 .5) a nd t he s ystematic s amples

( Fig .

6 .6) .

F abric: T he f abric o f W Ic i s e ssentially t he s ame a s t hat o f W Ia a nd W Ib .

I n

c lay t here i s a s light r ise i n t he p ercentage o f c ream c lay a nd a d ecrease i n y ellow c lay ( Table 6 .32) . T he p aste i s g enerally moderately d ense w hile t here i s a s light r ise i n t he p ercentage o f p orous s herds c ompared w ith W Ia a nd W Ib ( Table 6 .33) . W ith t he t hicker s herds o f W Ic e venly f ired s herds o ccur i n a s maller p ercentage w hile s herds w ith a m arked b lack c ore c onstitute a bout 6 5% o f W Ic T emper :

( Table 6 .34 ;

F ig .

6 . 11) .

T he d istribution o f c lustered t emper t ypes i n W Ic i s g enerally

s imilar t o t he p attern o bserved i n W Ia a nd W Ib ( Fig .

1 56

6 .24) .

W hite s pecks ,

T able 6 .33

C lay d ensity o f I A T Ic ( To tal c o llection)

P ermeability

N o . o f S herds

Moderate ly d ense

1 576

9 0 .1

1 73

9 .9

1 749

1 00 .0

P orous T o tal

T ab le 6 .34

F iring o f 1 4 J 1c ( To tal c ollecticn)

F iring

N o . o f s herds

E ven b rown B lack c ore, b rown s urface E ven b lack B rown e xterior , b lack i nterior

3 53

2 0 .2

1 152

6 5 .9

1 4

0 .8

2 29

1 3 .1

1

1 749

Total

1 57

0 .1

1 00 .0

T able 6 .35

P ro s / .

T he d istr ibution o f W ld ( To tal c o llection)

N o . o f s herds

R el.

f req .

C um .

f req .

P ray.

N o . o f s herds

R el.

f req .

C um .fre q

A LIM

1

0 .3

0 .3

H AW

5 9

1 4 .9

3 8 .1

A MBS

1

0 .3

0 .5

H AMS

3 3

8 .3

4 6 .5

3 .0

3 .5

H AM4

6

1 .5

4 8 .0

A WL

1 2

P ASO

1

0 .3

3 .8

H AMS

6

1 .5

4 9 .5

B AS6

2

0 .5

4 .3

J K l i

1

0 .3

4 9 .7

B AS7

2

0 .5

4 .8

J MAL

6 .3

5 6 .1

B ASS

4

1 .0

5 .8

N AGS

1 .1

5 7_1

D UAS

1

0 .3

6 .1

N AG1

2 6 .0

8 3 .1

8 .6

1 4 .6

N AG2

2

0 .5

8 3.6

1 .5

1 6 .2

N AG4

4

1 .0

8 4 .6

2 .8

1 8 .9

N AG7

2

0 .5

8 5.1

D UA2 D UA4 D UA8

3 4 6 1

2 5 4 1 03

D UAll

1

0 .3

1 9 .2

N AGS

7

1 .8

8 6 .9

D UA14

1

0 .3

1 9 .4

N AG10

6

1 .5

8 8 .3

D UA19

4

1 .0

2 0.5

N ASB

1

0 .3

8 8 .6

E RT

8

2 .0

2 2 .5

WAN

4 5

1.4

1 00 .0

H A I&

3

0 .8

2 3 .2

T o tal

3 96

1 00 .0

1 58

w hich a re n ot f ound i n t hese t wo v arieties o ccur i n av ery s mall p ercentage i n W ic . V ariety W Id W Id i s r epresented b y a bout 7 % o f t he t otal c ollection o f W I . s herds v ary i n t hickness b etween 1 5 a nd 2 0mm . d istribution o f W Id a mong t he s ites a nd p roveniences .

S lip : m ajority o f

T able

6 .35

g ives

T he t he

U nslipped s herds c onstitute a lmost 8 0% i n W M, w hile t he t he r est , a bout 1 8% , a re e xterior-slipped o nly . I nterior a nd

o verall s lipping o ccurs i n a bout 1 % o f t he s herds i n t he t otal c ollection o f t his v ariety ( Table 6 . 36) .

S urface c olours : C ream a nd r ed a re t he m ost c ommon e xterior c olours ( Table 6 . 37 ; F ig . 6 . 18b ) . I n c ommon w ith t he p reviously d escribed v arieties i nterior c olours s how a m arked d ecline i n r ed a nd a r ise i n c ream w hile s mudging i s m ore m arked o n t he i nteriors t han e xteriors 6 .25a) T exture : A s w ith W ic a t iny e xtelior b urnished w hile t his t ype o f o n t he i nteriors . M atte s urfaces i s c rude e xterior t exture ( Tables 6 . 39

( Table 6 . 38 ;

F ig .

p ercentage o f s herds ( about 0 .5%) i s s urface t reatment i s c ompletely a bsent t he n orm i n W Id w hile f ew s herds h ave a nd 6 . 40 ; F igs . 6 . 5 , 6 . 6 . a nd 6 . 22b) .

F abric T he d istribution o f c lay t ypes , p ermeability a nd f iring o f W Id i s v ery s imilar t o t he d istribution o f t hese a ttributes a mong W ic ( Tables 6 . 41 , 6 . 42 a nd 6 .43 ) . M inor d ifferences b etwee i . t wo o ccur i n t h e : p resence o f s ome t empering m aterial . W hite s pecks a nd L ones , w hich a re f ound i n v ery s mall p ercentages i n W ic , a re n ot o bserved i n t he p resent v ariety ( Fig . 6 . 26a) .

V ariety W Ie T he l ast v ariety o f W I i s r epresented b y s herds o f o ver 2 0mm i n t hickness w hich , i n a f ew c ases r each u p t o 3 0mm . I n t he t otal c ollection W Ie c onsists o f j ust o ver 1 % , b ut i ts d istribution i s n ot s ignificantly r estricted c ompared w ith t he o ther f our v arieties . O ver o ne t hird o f W ie c omes f rom N aga Ma r ble 6 .44 ) . S lip : U nslipped s herds r epresent a bout 7 7% . O verall o r i nterior s lipping a re a bsent w hile i n t he c ases o f s lipped s herds ( 22%) o nly t he e xteriors a re c oated . S urface c olours :

C ream a nd r ed a re t he m ost c ommon e xterior c olours

w hile o n t he i nteriors c ream a nd b rown a re d ominant F igs . 6 .18c , 6 .25b) .

( Tables

6 . 45 a nd 6 . 46 ;

T exture : T he e xteriors a nd i nteriors o f W Ie a re d istinguished f rom t he o ther v arieties o f W I b y t he a bsence o f b urnished s urfaces a nd t he p resence o f ar elatively h igh p ercentage o f c rude i rregular s urfaces . I n c ommon w ith m ost o f t he o ther v arieties m atte s urfaces a re c haracteristic o f W Ie ( Tables

1 59

T able 6 .36

S lip a pplication a n W ld ( To tal c o llection)

S lip

N o . o f s herds

A bsent E xter ior

%

3 15

7 9 .5

7 3

1 8.4

I nterior

3

0 .8

O vera ll

1

0 .3

?

4

1 .0

T o tal

T able 6 .37

3 96

1 00 .0

E xter ior c o lours o f W ld ( To tal c o llec tion)

N o . o f S herds

C o lour

B rown R ed e lite C ream

5 7

1 4 .4

15

2 9 .1

1 -

2 14

0 .3 5 4 .0

S mudged

4

1 .0

Y ellow

3

0 .8

?

2

0 .5

T o tal

3 96

1 60

1 00 .0

T ab le 6 .38

I nter ior c o lours o f I f ld ( To tal c o llection)

C o lour

N o . o f s herds

B rown

4 5

1.4

R ed

2 1

5 .3

e lite C ream S mudged Y ellow

1

0 .3

2 58

6 5 .2

4 8

1 2 .1

3

0 .8

2 0 T ota l

T able 6 .39

5 .1

3 9 6

1 00 . 0

E xter ior t extures o f W r ld ( To tal c o llection)

T exture

C rude M atte S mooth

N o . o f S herds

1 .3

5 3 29

8 3 .1

5 7

1 4 .4

P olished

2

0 .5

B urnished

2

0 .5

1

0 .3

T o tal

3 96

1 00 .0

1 61

T able 6 .40

I nterior t extures o f W ld ( To tal

N o . o f s herds

T exture

M itte

3 91

9 8.7

9 f looth

2

0 .5

Po lished

3

0 .8

To tal

T able 6 .41

c o llection)

3 96

1 00 .0

C lay t ypes o f W Id ( Total c o llection)

C lay

N o . o f s herds

B rown

5 6

1 4.1

R ed

2 6

6 .6

3

Y ellow C ream

2 9 1

7 3 .5

2 0

5 .1

3 96

1 00.0

? To tal

T able 6 .42

0 .8

c lay d ensity o fWld ( Total c ollectic r i)

P ermeability

Moderately d ense

N o . o f s herds

3 36

8 4.9

6 0

1 5 .2

3 96

1 00 .0

P orous T otal

1 62

T able 6 .43

F iring o f I t i r ld ( To tal

c ollection)

F iring

N o . o f s herds

E ven b rown B lack c ore, b rown s urfaces

6 8

1 7.2

2 84

7 1.7

8 4

1.1

3 96

1 00 .0

B rown e xterior, b lack i nterior T otal

T able 6 .44

P rov .

T he d istrfbuticn o f W ie ( To tal c o llecticn)

N o . o f s herds

R el. f req.

C um .

f req .

P ray .

N o . o f S herds

R el f req.

C um . f req.

AM .

1

1 .8

1 .8

H AM3

2

3 .5

4 7.4

B ASA

7

1 2 .3

1 4.0

H AMS

1

1 .8

4 9 .1

B AS1

1

1 .8

1 5.8

J KH

2

3 .5

5 2.6

B AS7

2

3 .5

2 2.8

N AG1

3 3 .3

9 3 .0

D UA2

4

7 .0

2 9 .8

N AG2

1

1 .8

9 4.7

D UA8

1

1 .8

3 1.6

N AG4

1

1 .8

9 6 .5

D UA14

1

1 .8

3 3.3

N AG10

1

1 .8

9 8 .2

E RT

2

3 .5

3 6.8

WAN

1

1 .8

1 00 .0

H AW

4

7 .0

4 3.9

T o tal

1 63

1 9

5 7

1 00 .0

T able 6 .45

E xterior c olours o f W ie ( To tal c ollection)

Col o ur

B rown

N o . o f s herds

2

3 .5

R ed

2 2

3 8 .6

C ream

3 2

5 6 .1

Y ellow T otal

T able 6 .46

1 . 8

1

1 00 . 0

5 7

I n terior c o lours o f W ie ( To tal c ollection)

C o lo ur

B rown R ed C ream

N o . o f s herds

1 2

2 1.1

1

1 .8

3 8

6 6 .7

S mudged

5

8 .8

Y e llow

1

1 .8

T otal

5 7

1 00 .0

1 64

T able 6 .47

E xter ior t extures o f W ie ( To tal c o llection)

T exture

N o . o f s herds

C rude

5

M atte

8 .8

3 9

6 8 .4

S moo th

6

1 0 .5

P o lished

7

1 2.3

T o tal

T able 6 .48

5 7

1 00 .0

I nterior t extures o f W ie ( To tal c ollection)

T exture

N o . o f S herds

C rude

4

M itte

4 6

S moo th

8 0 .7

7

T o tal

T able 6 .49

7 .0

1 2 .3

5 7

1 00 .0

C lay t ypes o f W ie ( To tal c o llection)

C lay

B rown

N o . o f s herds

1

1 9 .3

R ed

2

3 .5

Y ellaw

1

1 .8

C ream

4 3

7 5 .4

T o tal

5 7

1 00 .0

1 65

T able 6 .50

R im t ypes o f W I

( For r im t ype n umbers s ee F igs . 6 .27, 6 .28

R im t ype

W lb

\ Cc

5

5

1

9

1

7 1 4

W la

a nd 6 .29).

1 2

2 1

1

2 5 2 7

2

2 9

4

3 0

1

3 2

1

2

4 1

1

1

1

4 5

1

4 7

2

4 8

4

1

3

1

5 0 5 2 5 6

1 1 2

6 1 T o tal

1 3

2 2

6

1 66

6 .47 a nd 6 .48 ;

F ig . 6 .22) .

F abric: T he t ypes a nd p ercentages o f c lay u sed i n W Ie a re s imilar t o t hose o f W ic a nd W lb ( Fig . 6 . 12e ; T able 6 . 49) . A s e xpected w ith t he t hick w alls o f W ie , t he m ajority o f s herds h ave a m arked c arbon s treak a t t he s ection ( Fig . 6 . 11) . T emper c onsists o f d ifferent c ombinations o f s traw , s and , c lay l umps a nd s tones ( Fig . 6 . 11) . A bout 8 0% o f t he s herds a re m oderately d ense , t he r est a re p orous .

F orms: I n

t he a bsence o f

c omplete

o r

r econstructable v essels

f orms a re

d escribed i n t erms o f w all t hicknesses , r im t ypes , r im d iameters a nd r im o rientations . A s s tated e arlier n o a ttempt i s m ade a t e xplaining v ariability i n r im f orms i n t erms o f e ither f unction o r s tyle . I n T ype W I r ims r epresent l ess t han 1 % o f t he t otal c ollection o f s herds . N o r ims a re f ound a mong v arieties W id a nd W ie . T able 6 . 50 g ives t he d istribution o f v arious r im t ypes i n W la , W ib a nd Wk . .

D ecoration : T ype W I i s e xtremely l acking i n d ecoration , t he v ery f ew s herds w ith a ny d ecrrative m otifs r epresent l ess t han 1 % ( 27 s herds) i n t he t otal c ol lection o f t his t ype . T his c onfirms e arlier s tatements a bout t he r arity o f d ecoration o f s outhern M eroitic w are ( Robertson , 1 975 :39 ; A dams , 1 976a :142) . T he f requency o f d ecorated w heel-made p ottery f rom t he r ecent e xcavation a t i s n ot k nown ; i n T ype B o nly t wo v arieties , B c a nd B e , h ave d ecorative m otifs. B c i s r ed-slipped w ith w hite a nd/or p urple p ainted l eaf d esigns .

B e i s

s lipped w hite w ith r ed a nd/or p urple d esigns o f b ands o f v ine l eaf o r g eometric p atterns ( Shinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 :153 ) , F ig . 4 4) . A part f rom p ainted d esigns t he o ther m ain t ype o f d ecoration c onsists o f o ne o r m ore g rooves a round t he r im ( Robertson , 1 975 :57 ; S hinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 :153 ) . T he m ajority o f w heel-made p ottery f rom M usawwarat i s p lain , t he f ew e xceptions i n t he m edium a nd t hick-walled p ottery i nclude X b3 ( Otto , 1 967 :24 , F ig . 1 7) . I n T ype W I , d ecoration i s f ound o nly i n v arieties W ia , W Ib a nd W ic . I n t he m ajority o f c ases t his c onsists o f s ingle , d ouble o r m ultiple g rooves a round t he r im . O nly 4 s herds h ave p ainted d esigns o n w hite-slipped s urfaces . T he m otif i nclude g eometric p atterns ( Fig . 6 .30e a nd 0, t he h uman e ye ( Fig . 6 .30b) a nd a p ainted f rieze a round t he r im ( Fig . 6 .30g) . N o e xamples o f S hinnie a nd B radley 's v ariety B c a re f ound i n t he p resent c ollection , a nd n one w ere r eported f rom t he e arlier e xcavations a t M eroe ( Garstang , S ayce a nd G riffiths , 1 911) o r t he p ottery a t M usawwarat ( O tto , 1 967).

T ype W II T his ( Garstang ,

t ype

r epresents

t he

S ayce a nd G riffith ,

w ell-known

1 9 11 :43 ) .

1 67

I t

M eroitic c orresponds

' egg-shell '

w are

t o O tto%

( 1967)

T ab le 6 .51

T he d istribution o f T ype W I!

P ray .

N o . o f s herds

R el. f req.

C um .

f req .

A NUS

1 9

5 .0

5 .0

A le

3 1

8 .1

1 3 .1

R ASA

2

0 .5

1 3 .6

D UA2

5

1 .3

1 4 .9

H AW

1 2

3 .1

1 8 .0

H AW

2 37

6 1.9

7 9 .9

H AW

3 8

9 .9

8 9 .8

0 .5

9 0 .3

H AW

2

H ANS ,

1 0

2 .6

9 3 .0

N AG1

1

2 .9

( . 3 '

0 .3

9 6 .1

1 5

3 .9

1 00 .0

3 83

1 00 .0

N AG4 WAN T o tal

1

1 68

8

T ab le 6 .52

P ray .

A WL

F ine I N hite c lay i n T ype W II

N o . o f s h erds 3 1

R e l. f req .

C um . f req .

1 0 .1

1 0 .1

W e ight i n g rams 1 80 4

R e l. f req .

C unh f req .

1 6 .9

1 6 .9

0 .4

1 7 .3

B ASA

2

0 .7

1 0 .8

D UA2

6

1 .6

1 2 .4

2 3

2 .2

1 9 .5

H AW

1 2

3 .9

1 6 .3

3 6

3 .4

2 2 .8

H AM2

1 94

6 3 .4

7 9 .6

5 43

5 1.0

7 3 .8

H AM3

2 8

9 .2

8 8 .9

14

1 0 .7

8 4 .5

0 .2

8 4 .7

H AW

2

0 .7

8 9 .6

H AMS

7

2 .3

9 1.9

4 2

3 .9

8 8 .6

3 .3

9 5 .2

3 1

2 .9

9 1.5

0 .3

9 5 .4

0 .3

9 1.8

1 4

4 .6

1 00 .0

8 7

8 .2

1 00 .0

3 06

1 00 .0

1 065

1 00 .0

N AG1

1 0

N AG4 % I RAN T o tal

1

T able 6 .53

P row .

2

3

F ine s mudged c lay i n W 11

N o . o f s herds

R el.freq .

C um f req .

W eight i n g m .

R e l. f req .

C unh f req.

A MBS

1 9

2 4 .7

2 4 .7

1 30

2 3 .9

2 3 .9

H AM2

4 3

5 5 .8

8 0 .5

3 21

5 9 .1

8 3 .0

H AW

1 0

1 3 .0

9 3 .5

6 8

1 2 .5

9 5 .6

1 7

3 .1

9 8 .7

H AMS

3

3 .9

9 7.4

N AG1

1

1 .3

9 8 .7

1

0 .2

9 8 .9

% CAN

1

1 .3

1 00 .0

6

1 .1

1 00 .0

T o tal

7 7

5 43

1 00 .0

1 69

1 00.0

T able 6 .54

T he d istribution o f W Ila

P ray.

W eight i n g m

A WL

R el.

1 66

H AW

5

f req .

C um .

f req .

5 1.6

5 1.6

1 .6

5 3.2

H AN2

3 0

9 .3

6 2.5

N AG1

3 1

9 .6

7 2.1

0 .9

7 3.0

8 7

2 7.0

1 00.0

3 22

1 00 .0

N AG4

3

W BAN T o tal

T able 6 .55

E xter ior t extures o f Vi la

T exture

N htte S mooth Polished

W eight i n g m

4 2 82

8 7 .6

3 1

9 .6

5 Total

T able 6 .56

1 .2

3 22

1 . 6 1 00 .0

I nterior t extures o f W r Ila

T exture

W eight i n g m

1

3 .4

S mooth

1 34

4 1.6

Polished

1 77

5 5 .0

T o tal

3 22

1 00 .0

M itte

t ype 1 , S hinnie a nd B radley 's T ype F a nd A dams ' ( 1967-68 ) F amily M . t otal c ollection T ype W II r epresents a bout 2 % , i n T able 6 . 51 .

I n t he

a nd i ts d istribution i s g iven

T he b asic c haracteristics o f T ype W II a re t he f ine d ense p aste a nd t he a bsence o f s traw t emper . F rom M eroe t he c lay i s d escribed a s s and t empered ( Shinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 :154 ) , w hile s and i s r are i n t he L ower N ubian w are ( Adar ns , 1 864a :129) . I n t he p resent s ample s and i s n ot c onspicuous a nd o ther t empering m aterials a re n ot r eadily v isible . T he c lay i s c ommonly d escribed a s l ight i n c olour v arying f rom w hite t o t an . T his l ed s ome t o s uggest t hat t he s ource o f t he c lay c ould h ave b een k aolin l ayers e mbedded i n t he N ubian S andstone ( Sayce , 1 923 ; R oberston , 1 975 :41) . H owever , i n t he p resent m aterial t wo m ore o r l ess d istinctive c lay t ypes a re o bserved : o ne i s w hite o r l ight c oloured c lay , t he o ther , n ot p reviously r eported , i s af ine s mudged c lay . W hether t he c olour o f t he l atter i s d ue t o f iring o / a n a ltogether d ifferent s ource o f c lay i s n ot a pparent . T he d istributon o f t hese t wo t ypes o f c lay a re g iven i n T ables 6 .52 a nd 6 .53 . F or c omparison , f requencies a re c alculated o n b oth s herd c ounts a nd s herd w eight .

T ype v arieties I n T ype W II t hree v arieites a re d istinguished o n t he b asis o f c lay t ype a nd t he c entral t endencies o f s lip a pplication a nd s urface c olours . I n c onsidering T ype F , w hich c orresponds t o T ype W I , S hinnie a nd B radley ( 1980 :154-5) d istinguished t wo v arieties , F a a nd F b , o n t he b asis o f d ecorative m otifs . D ue t o t he p ossibility t hat b oth d ecorated a nd p lain s herds m ay h ave b elonged t o t he s ame v essel d ecoration i s n ot c onsidered i n d istinguishing t he t hree v arieties o f T ype W IL F abric T he o nly d istinction i n f abric b etween t he t hree v arieties i s i n t he u se o f t he t wo c lay t ypes . O therwise , t he f abric o f t he t hree v arieties i s c haracterized b y t he d ensity o f p aste , e ven f iring a nd t he a bsence o f v isible t emper p articles . T he m ajority o f s herds, a bout 8 0% , a re u nder 5 mm i n t hickness; r est , a lthough t hicker , r arely r each l cm . T he w are r ibbing i s l ess p rominent i n T ype W II t han i n T ye W I .

i s

t he

w heel-thrown b ut

W Ila T his v ariety c orresponds t o v ariety F a a nd F b f rom

M eroe ( Shinnie a nd

B ardley , 1 980 :154-5) . T he m ajority o f s herds a re u nslipped , a lthough l ess t han 2 % o f t he s herds a re r ed s lipped o n t he i nterior . T able 6 . 54 g ives t he d istribution o f W IIa .

T exture :

E xterior t extures a re g enerally s mooth ,

w hile p olishing i s

c haracteristic m ore o f i nteriors t han e xteriors . M atte s urfaces a re f ound o nly o n a s mall p ercentage o f s herds , w hile b urnishing i s a bsent . E xterior a nd i nterior t extures a re s hown i n T ables 6 . 55 a nd 6 . 56 .

1 71

T able 6 .57

D istribu t ion o f W llb

P ray .

W eight i n g m

A WL

R el. f req .

1

C um . f req .

1 .7

1 .7

B ASA

4

0 .6

2 .3

D UA2

2

0 .3

2 .6

H ANU

3 1

4 .8

7 .4

I AN I2

4 41

6 8 .2

7 5 .6

F I AM 3

14

1 7.6

9 3 .2

0 .3

9 3 .5

4 2

6 .5

1 00 .0

6 47

1 00 .0

H AM 4

2

H AM5 T otal

T able 6 .58

E x terior t ex tures o f W Ilb

T exture

W eight i n g m

N htte S moo th

7 4

1.4

3 94

6 0 .9

P o lished

5

0 .8

B urnished

1 74

2 6 .9

T o tal

6 47

1 00 .0

1 72

T able 6 .59

I n ter ior t ex tures o f W 1lb

T ex ture

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

l v i at t e

11

1 7.2

S foo th

2 60

4 0 .2

P olished

2 06

3 1.8

5 7

8 .8

1 3

2 .0

6 47

1 00 .0

B urnished ? T o tal

T able 6 .60

R im t ypes o f W 1lb

T ype N o .

2

W eight o f s herds ( g m m )

8

5 .3

5

1 5

9 .9

8

3 1

2 0 .4

1 4 1 6

2 3 5

1 .3 2 3 .0

2 0

3

2 .0

2 2

4

2 .6

2 3 2 5

1 2 2

7 .9 1 .3

2 6

1 0

6 .6

2 7

1 8

1.8

3 2

6

3 .9

4 0

5

3 .3

4 1

1

0 .7

T o tal

1 52

1 00 .0

T able 6 .61

R im o r ientations o f W 11b

O r ientation

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

C onstr iction 3

8 1

5 3 .3

S traight

6 7

4 4.1

O pen 1

4

T o tal

T able 6 .62

2 .6

1 52

1 00 .0

D istr ibution o f W Ilc

P ray.

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

R el. f req.

C um . f req .

A MBS

1 30

2 3 .9

2 3 .9

H AM2

3 21

5 9 .1

8 3 .1

H AM5

6 8

1 2 .5

9 5 .6

H AM5

1 7

3 .1

9 8 .7

N AG1

1

0 .2

9 8 .9

W BAN

6

1 .1

1 00 .0

T otal

T able 6 .63

5 43

1 00 .0

E x terior c o lours o f W Ilc

C o lour

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

B rown

4 6

8 .5

R ed

3 8

7 .0

l eite S mudged ? T o tal

1 4 52 6 5 43

0 .2 8 3 .2 1 .1 1 00.0

T ab le 6 .64

I nterior c o lours o f W ilc

C o lour

W eight o f S herds ( gm )

B rown

1 5

2 .8

R ed

1 2

2 .2

' W hite

4 5

8 .3

4 65

8 5 .7

S mudged ? T o tal

T able 6 .65

6 5 43

1 .1 1 00 .0

E x terior t extures o f W Ilc

T exture

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

M itte

9 1

1 6 .8

S moo th

8 0

1 4 .7

P o lished

2 32

4 2 .7

B urnished

1 40

2 5.8

T o tal

5 43

1 00 .0

1 75

T ab le 6 .66

I nter ior t extures o f W Ilc

T exture

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

M atte

7 2

1 3 .3

S moo th

4 3

7 .9

3 30

6 0 .8

B urnished

7 8

1 4 .4

2

2 0

3 .7

T o t , 31

5 43

1 00 .0

P o lished

T able 6 .67

F iring o f Wi le

F iring

W eight o f s herds ( g in )

%

B lack c ore , b rown s urfaces

1 52

2 8 .0

E ven b lack

2 34

4 3 .1

B rown i nter ior , b lack e xter ior

T otal

1 76

8

1 .5

1 49

2 7.4

5 43

1 00 .0

T able 6 .68

R im t ypes o f W Ilc

T ype N o .

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

5

2 8

8 1 4

1 5 .0

4

2 .1

6

3 .2

2 3

2 0

1 0 .7

2 4

3 9

2 0 .9

2 5

1 0

5 .3

2 7

4 9

? 6 .2

2 8

1 3

7 .0

3 2

1 8

9 .6

5 43

1 00 .0

T o tal

T ab le 6 .69

R im o rientations o f W Ilc

O rientations

W eight o f s herds ( gm )

Constr ic ted 3

1 36

7 2 .7

S traight

3 8

2 0 .3

O pen 1

1 3

7 .0

5 43

1 00 .0

T o tal

1 77

F orms : R ims r epresent a bout 1 8% o f s herds i n Wl la . 6 . 27) i s t he o nly t ype r epresented i n t his v ariety . D ecoration : T he d esigns 6 .30a ,

A bout

c onsist o f

4 0%

o f

m otifs

t he

s herds

e xcuted

c a nd d ) o r a c ombination o f

i n

t his

R im t ype 1 4 ( Fig .

v ariety

a re

i n d ark b rown o r b lack

d ecorated .

p aint

( Fig .

s tamped d esigns a nd p ainted r im b ands

( Fig . 6 .31a) . S tamped d esigns a re o ften e nclosed w ithin u pper a nd l ower p ainted f riezes ( Fig . 6 .31b) . N o e xamples o f i nterior p ainting s uch a s i s f ound o n v ariety F b f rom M eroe ( Shinnie a nd B radley, 1 980 :155) a re e ncountered i n t he p resent c ollection .

W IIb T his v ariety i s d istinguished f rom W IIa b y t he a pplication o f b right r ed s lip t o t he e xterior o f b oth s urfaces o f s herds . I ts e quivalent f rom M eroe I s v ariety F c . U nslipped i nteriors a re o ccasionally d ecorated w ith p ainted b ands a s W IIa . A s w ith W IIa t he d istribution o f W IIb i s e xtremely l imited ( Table 6 .57) . C olours :

S urface

c olours

a re

l argely d etermined b y

s lip a pplication .

U nless s lip i s a pplied t o b oth s urfaces , t he n atural w hite c olour o f t he c lay i s p redominant a lthough s ome s mudging o ccurs o n t he i nteriors o f a f ew s herds. T extures :

e xterior

t extures

a re

m ostly

s herds a re d escribed a s h aving m atte s urfaces ,

s mooth o r b urnished . b ut t his

i s

S ome

p robably d ue t o

t he f laking o ff o f s lip . T he p ercentage o f b urnishing o n t he i nteriors i s s ignificantly l ess t han o n e xteriors . W hite i nteriors a re e ncountered m ost o ften o n u nslipped s urfaces ( Tables 6 .58 a nd 6 .59) . F orms :

U nlike W IIa t here i s ac onsiderable v ariability i n t he f orms o f

W IIb r epresented b y r im p rofiles a nd o rientations .

2 3% o f t h2 s herds o f W II

a re r im s herds r epresenting 1 4 t ypes o f r ims ( Table 6 .60 , F igs . 6 .27 a nd 6 .28 ) . I n o rientation m ore t han h alf t he r ims a re s lightly c onstricted w hile s traight r ims c omprise o ver 4 0% . A s mall p ercentage o f r ims a re s lightly

o pen

( Table

6 .61) .

W IIc T his v ariety h as n ot b een p reviously r eported f rom M eroitic s ites e ither i n L ower N ubia o r c entral S udan . I t s hares w ith W IL a a nd W IIb m any o f t he c haracteristic t raits o f s urface c olours a nd t extures . T he m ajor d ifference b etween W IIc a nd t he o ther t wo v arieties i s i n i ts f ine s mudged p aste . M oreover , t he s herds o f WIIc a re t hicker t han t hose o f WIIa a nd WIIb , a lthough t hey r arely r each 1 c m i n t hickness . R ibbing o ccurs o n m ost o f t he i nteriors o f t he s herds . I n t he t otal c ollection v ariety W IIc r epresents l ess t han 1 % a nd i ts d istribution i s l imited t o f our s ites o nly ( Table 6 .62). S lip :

6 7% o f

a bout 1 0% w hile C olours :

t he s herds

a re u nslipped .

E xterior s lip i s a pplied

t o

1 . 3% a re o verall-slipped . T he s urface c olours e ncounterd i n W IL a a nd W IIb a re f ound o n

W IIc . W hereas i n W IIa w hite i s t he n atural c olour o f t he p aste , i n W IIc a t hick w hite s lip i s a pplied s ometimes t o b oth s urfaces b ut m ost o ften o n t he i nteriors o f s herds

( Table

6 .63 a nd

6 .64) .

1 78

T ab le 6 .70

D istribu tion o f T ype H I ( Total c o llec tion)

P ray.

N o . o f s herds

A bs. f req .

C um . f req .

A BDQ

2

0 .1

0 .1

A L M

3

0 .1

0 .2

A NBS

7 6

2 .5

2 .7

A WL

2 2

0 .7

3 .4

R A9D

2

0 .1

3 .5

B ASS

1

0 .0

3 .5

0 .5

4 .0

B AS2

1 6

B AS3

9 5

3 .2

7 .2

B AS4

5 1

1 .7

8 .9

B AS5

2 4

0 .8

9 .7

0 .3

1 0 .0

5 .2

1 5 .2

B AS6 B AS7

9 1 57

B ASS

7

0 .2

1 5 .4

D UAS

1

0 .0

1 5 .5

0 .4

1 5 .9

D UA2

1 2

D UA8

1

0 .0

1 5 .9

D UA11

3

0 .1

1 6 .0

D UA18

1

0 .0

1 6 .0

E RT

4

0 .1

1 6 .2

F IKS

4 5

1 .5

1 7.7

F UG

7 2

2 .4

2 0 .0

F UGS

3 3

1 .1

2 1.1

1 04

3 .5

2 4 .6

1 7

0 .6

2 5 .1

0 .1

2 5 .2

1 4

0 .5

2 5 .7

H AW

4 80

1 5 .9

4 1.6

H AN2

1 43

4 .7

4 6 .4

G AB G ABS G BAS G EH

2

T able 6 .70

( Cont.)

P rov.

N o . o f s herds

A bs .

f req.

C um .

f req .

H AN L3

2 77

9 .2

5 5 .5

H AW

5 53

1 8 .3

7 3 .9

H AM5

1 23

4 .1

7 8 .0

H AR

1

0 .0

7 8 .0

H ASS

4

0 .1

7 8.1

J KH

5

0 .2

7 8.3

J KHB

3

0 .1

7 8 .4

0 .7

7 9.1

0 .1

7 9 .2

J Q K EY ! '

2 1 2

M TRQ

1 2

0 .4

7 9.6

M FRS

4 5

1 .5

8 1.1

0 .2

8 1.3

M USS

6

N AGS

1 2

0 .4

8 1.7

N AG1

1 84

6 .1

8 7.8

0 .1

8 7.8

N AG2

2

N AG4

1 5

0 .5

8 8.3

N AG7

1 2

0 .4

8 8.7

N AG8

3

0 .1

8 8 .8

N AG10

1

0 .0

8 8.9

Q BWS

2 12

7 .0

9 5.9

S AW

1 2

0 .4

9 6.3

S URA

3 1

1 .0

9 7.3

T ARA

5 1

1 .7

9 9 .0

WAN

2 9

1 .0

1 00.0

0 .0

1 00.0

WU To tal

1 3 014

1 00.0

1 80

T extures : P olishing a nd b urnishing a re t he t wo m ost s alient t ypes o f s urface t reatment o n t he e xteriors a nd i nteriors o f W IIC . A c onsiderable n umber o f s herds h ave m atte s urfaces , w hile s mooth t extures o ccur m ore o ften o n t he e xteriors ( Tables 6 . 65 a nd 6 . 66) . F iring : U nlike W IL a a nd W IIb w here t he s herds h ave e ven c olours a t s ection , t here i s ac onsiderable v ariety i n f iring q uality o f W IIc . I t h as a lready b een m entioned t hat t he s herds o f t he p resent v ariety a re g enerally t hicker ; w hether v ariability o f f iring i s d ue t o t his o r s ome o ther f actor i s n ot a pparent . A c onsiderably h igh p ercentage o f s herds a re f ired e ven b lack , b ut t he q uality o f s herds w ith a c arbon s treak i s r elatively h igh ( Table 6 .67) . D ecoration : T he d ecorated s herds i n W II a mount t o a bout 5 % o nly a nd m ost o f t hese c onsist o f d ouble g rooves o n e ither t he e xterior o r i nterior o f r ims . A s ingle e xample o f p ainted f riezes o n t he e xterior r im i s e ncountered.

T he H and-made I ndustry W ithin t he h and-made

i ndustries t hree t ypes a re d istinugished .

T hey

a re d esignated H I , H II a nd H III , a nd t he c orresponding t ypes f rom M eroe a re H , Ka nd J r espectively . T ype H I W hile i t s hares w ith T ype H IT a nd H III t he s ame m anufacturing m ethod T ype H I i s d istinguished i n g eneral b y i ts c oarse f inish , b umpy i rregular s urfaces a nd v ariations o f w all t hicknesses w ithin t he s ame s herd . I n t he t otal c ollection i t r epresents a bout 1 4% w hile i t c omprises s ome 3 8% i n t he h and-made i ndustry . I t a lso d iffers f rom t he o ther t wo t ypes b y i ts m uch w ider d istribution o ver t he s urveyed a rea ( Table 6 . 70 ) .

F abric A dams ( 1967-8 :32) n oted t hat t he f abric o f t he h and-made w ares o f F amily D i s n ot g reatly d ifferent f rom t hat o f t he w heel-made p ottery o f F amily N . A s imilar s ituation o btains w hen t he f abric o f T ype H I i s c ompared w ith t hat o f T ype W I . I n t he a nalysis o f t he c lustered t emper t ypes f or H I t he m ajority o f s herds a re f ound t o h ave a c ombination o f s and a nd c hopped s traw ( Table 6 .71) . H owever , i ndividual t emper t ypes w hich a re n ot e ncountered i n T ype W I , s uch a s m ica , w hite s pecks a nd c rushed s hells a re f ound i n v arying q uantities i n af ew s herds i n T ype HL D ensity , c lay a nd f iring : O ver 7 5% o f t he s herds a re p orous , t he r est a re m oderately d ense . T he d ifference i n c lay t ype b etween W I a nd H I i s t he p reponderance i n t he l atter o f b rown c lay a nd t he v ery l ow f requency o f c ream c lay c ommonly u sed i n W I ( Table 6 . 72) . D espite d ifferences i n t he f iring c onditions b etween t he w heel-made a nd h and-made w ares ( Adams , 1 967-8 :32) n o s ignificant v ariations i n f iring a re o bserved b etween T ype W I a nd T ype H I . A s w ith t he w heel-made p ottery a h igh p ercentage o f H I h ave e ither m arked c arbonized b lack c ores o r s mudged i nteriors ( Table 6 . 73 ) .

1 8 1

T able 6 .71

d istribution o f c lustered t emper t ypes i n H I

N o . o f s herds

T emper

L ittle t emper

2 55

S and

8 .5

2

S traw

0 .1

9 8

W hite s pecks

3 .3

2

S and a nd s tones S and a nd s traw

0 .1

1 2

0 .4

2 600

8 6 .3

S and a nd w hite - s pecks

9

0 .3

S tones a nd s traw

1 8

0 .6

S traw a nd w hite s pecks

1 8

0 .6

3 014

1 00 .0

T o tal

T able 6 .72

C lay t ypes o f H I

C lay

B rown

N o . o f s herds

2 818

9 3 .5

1 0

0 .3

R ed

0 .3

Y ellow S mudged

8

1 41

4 .7

2 6

0 .9

1 1

0 .4

3 014

1 00.0

C ream

T otal

1 82

T able 6 .73

F iring o f T ype H I

N o . o f s herds

F ir ing

E ven b rown

1 21

4 .0

1 849

6 1.3

E ven b lack

1 35

4 .5

B rown e xterior, b lack i nterior

8 38

2 7.8

B rown i nterior, b lack e xterior

2 4

0 .8

4 7

1 .6

3 014

1 00 .0

B lack c ore, b rown s ur face

? T otal

1 83

T able 6 .74

P rov.

d is tr ibution o f H la

N o . o f s herds

R el. f req .

C um .

f req.

P ray.

N o . o f s herds

R el.

f req .

C um .freq

A BDQ

2

0 .1

0 .1

H AW

1 43

4 .9

4 6 .8

A L M

3

0 .1

0 .1

H AM3

2 60

8 .8

5 5 .6

A MBS

5 8

2 .0

2 .2

H AM4

5 42

1 8 .4

7 4.0

A l i ii

2 2

0 .7

2 .9

H AN5

1 03

3 .5

7 7.5

R A M

2

0 .1

3 .0

H AR

1

0 .0

7 7.6

B ASS

1

0 .0

3 .0

H ASS

4

0 .1

7 7.7

R AS2

1 6

0 .5

3 .5

J KH

5

0 .2

7 7.9

B AS3

9 5

3 .2

6 .8

J KHB

3

0 .1

7 8.0

B AS4

5 1

1 .7

8 .5

1 Q

0 .7

7 8.7

B ASS

2 4

0 .8

9 .3

K EFT

0 .1

7 8.7

0 .3

9 .6

M TRQ

1 2

0 .4

7 9 .2

5 .3

1 4.9

MRS

4 5

1 .5

8 0 .7

0 .2

8 0.9

0 .4

8 1.3

6

8 7.5

B AS6 B AS7

9 1 57

2 1 2

B ASS

7

0 .2

1 5.2

M USS

D UAS

1

0 .0

1 5.2

N AGS

1 2

D UA2

1 2

1 84

0 .4

1 5 .6

N AG1

D UA8

1

0 .0

1 5.7

N AG2

D UAll

3

0 .1

1 5 .8

N AG4

D UA18

1

0 .0

1 5 .8

N AG7

E RT

4

0 .1

1 5 .9

N AG8

6

9

0 .1

8 7.6

1 5

0 .5

8 8.1

1 2

0 .4

8 8.5

3

0 .1

8 8.6

1

0 .0

8 8 .7

2

F 1KS

4 5

1 .5

1 7.5

N AG10

F UG

7 1

2 .4

1 9 .9

Q p i EWS

2 12

7 .2

9 5 .0

F OGS

3 3

1 .1

2 1.0

S ANU

1 2

0 .4

9 6 .2

1 04

3 .5

2 4 .5

S URA

2 9

1 .0

9 7.2

1 7

0 .6

2 5 .1

T ARA

5 1

1 .7

9 9 .0

0 .1

2 5.2

I N BAN

2 9

1 .0

1 00 .0

1 4

0 .5

2 5 .6

1 A UU

0 .0

1 00.0

4 80

1 6 .3

4 1.9

T o tal

G AB G ABS G RAS G EH H ANU

2

18 4

1 2 945

1 00 .0

T ab le 6 .75

R im t ypes o f v ar ie ty H la ( For t ype n umbers s ee F igs . 6 .27, 6 .28 a nd 6 .29 )

T ype N o .

N o . o f r im s

R e l. f req .

1

4

1 .4

3 6

2

2

0 .7

3 7

1 3 .5

3 8

5

3 8

T ype N o .

N o . o f r im s 2 2 5 5

0 .7 8 .9 1 .8

6

1

0 .4

3 9

7

4

1 .4

4 0

3 .9

4 1

1 4

5 .0

1 .8

4 2

1 4

5 .0

4 .6

4 3

1 0 1 1 1 4

1

5 1 3

1 4

R e l. f req .

6

1

2 .1

0 .4

1 5

4

1 .4

4 4

1 7

7

2 .5

4 5

8

2 .8

2 4

1

0 .4

4 7

6

2 .1

2 9

1

0 .4

4 8

1

0 .4

3 0

1

0 .4

5 2

2

0 .7

3 2

1 9

6 .7

5 4

1

0 .4

3 3 3 5

1 1 8

1 9

5 .0

6 .7

0 .4

?

3 4

1 2 .1

6 .4

T o ta l

2 82

1 00 .0

1 85

T able 6 .76

R ad ii

R im r adii i n v ar ie ty H la

( cm .)

N o . o f r im s

R el.freq.

7

2 .5

1 2

4

R adii

( cm .)

N o . o f r im s 1 2

R e l.freq .

4 .3

5

1 5

5 .3

1 3

2

0 .7

6

2 9

1 0 .3

1 4

2

0 .7

7

2 3

8 .6

1 5

4

1 .4

8

3 7

1 3 .1

1 6

1

0 .4

9

4 2

1 4 .9

1 7

4

1 .4

1 0

3 0

i 0 .6

1 8

2

0 .7

1

2 0

7 .1

? T o tal

T able 6 .77

R im o rientations o f v ariety H la

O rientation

N o . o f r im s

2

C onstr icted 2 C onstricted 3

0 .7

3 9

1 3 .8

19

4 2 .2

C pen 1

8 2

2 9 .1

C pen 2

1 3

4 .6

O pen 3

1 4

4 .9

1 3

4 .6

2 82

1 00 .0

S traight

T o tal

W e-

1 86

5 2

1 8 .4

2 82

1 00.0

T able 6 .78

D ecoration o f H la

D ecoraticn

R el. f req . %

I ncised

8 3

2 8.9

I mpressed

7 8

2 7.2

S ingle g roove

1

0 .3

D ouble g roove

2

0 .7

F inger i mpressed

1 3

4 .5

F abric i mpressed

10

3 8.3

T o tal

2 87

1 00.0

T able 6 .79

>

N o . o f s herds

D istribution o f v ariety H lb

P rov.

N o . o f s herds

A MBS

1 8

F UG

R el. f req.

1

C um . f req .

2 6 .1

2 6 .1

1 .4

2 7.5

H AM3

1 7

2 4.6

5 2.1

H AW

1 1

1 6 .0

6 8 .1

H AMS

2 0

2 9 .0

9 7.1

2 .9

1 00 .0

S URA T o tal

2 6 9

1 00.0

1 87

T ype v arieties I n T ype H f rom M eroe S hinnie a nd B radley ( 1980 :156 ) d istinguished t hree v arieties : H a , p lain u nslipped ; H b , u nslipped w ith f inger i mpressions n ear t he b ase , a nd H c , c overed w ith a t hin w ash a nd o ccasionally b urnished . I n t he p resent s ample b oth u nslipped a nd s lipped b urnished v arieties a re p resent . H owever a s h as b een p ointed o ut e arlier , t he d ifficulties o f d esignating v arieties o n t he b asis o f d ecoration w hen t he s ample i s c omposed e ntirely o f s herds a re o bvious . M oreover , t he a mount o f d iversity w ithin t his t ype i s i mmense ( ibid:155) . A dams ( 1967-8 :33) h as n oted t he s ame c haracteristic i n F amily D w hich d istinguishes t he F amily a s a w hole y et r enders i t h ard t o d ivide i nto s ubgroups . H e c onsidered t his t o b e ' d ue p artly t o t he e xoteric c haracter o f t he h and-made i ndustry w hich m akes f or a g reat d eal o f r andom d iversity ' ( ibid:33) . T hus o nly t wo v arieties a re d istinguished w ithin T ype H I . T hese a re H Ia , r ecognized m ainly o n t he b asis o f r ough u nslipped s urfaces a nd , H Ib w hich o ccurs i n b oth s lipped a nd u nslipped s tates b ut i s d istinguished b y i ts l ightly b urnished s urfaces .

V ariety H Ia

H Ia .

T he v ast m ajority o f t he s herds i n T ype H I ( about 9 7% ) r epresent v ariety A part f rom t he g eneral c haracteristics o f T ype H I t his v ariety i s

c haracterized b y t he a bsence o f s lip . S ince t his v ariety r epresents t he b ulk o f t he p ottery i n T ype H I i ts d istribution i s n ot s ignificantly d ifferent f rom t hat o f t he t ype a s aw hole ( Table 6 . 74 ) .

F orms W hile t he f orms o f t he h and-made w are o f F amily D f rom L ower N ubia a re f ound t o b e e xtremely l imited ( M I MS , 1 967-8 :32) , o ne o f t he l ' aracteristics o f T ype H f rom M eroe ( Shinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 :155) i s t he g redt v ariability i n f orm . A g reat d iversity o f f orms i s e xhibited i n v ariety H Ia . T his d iversity i s r evealed b y t he n umber o f r im t ypes , t heir r adii a nd o rientations ( Tables 6 . 75 , 6 . 76 a nd 6 . 77) .

D ecoration C ompared w ith t he w heel-made

i ndustry ,

t he h and-made p ottery i s m uch

r icher i n d ecorative m otifs . T his i s c learly e vident f or T ype H I a s aw hole a nd i n H Ia i n p articular . A lthough t he r ange o f m ethods e mployed i n e xcuting t he m otifs i s l imited t he p atterns p roduced a s w ell a s t he w orkmanship a re q uite v aried . T hese m ethods a re g enerally c onfined i n i ncisions , i mpressions , a nd f abric i mpressions ( Table 6 . 78 ) . F abric i mpression i s t he m ost c ommon p attern f ound o n s herds o f v ariety H Ia . W hether t he f abric i mpressions a re a f unction o f t he m ethod e mployed i n b uilding u p v essels i n a b asket o r ab ag o f m atting a s s ugegsted b y R eisner ( 1923 ,323) o r i ntended p rimarily a s d ecoration i s n ot c lear . T wo f abric i mpressed p atterns a re p roduced d epending o n t he w eave o f t he m at o r b asket u pon w hich v essels w ere b uilt ( Figs . 6 . 32 a a nd b ) . I ncised d ecoration i nclude a m ultitude o f m otifs v arying f rom w ell e xcuted d esigns

( Figs .

6 .34a ,

6 .35b a nd 6 .38c ,

1 88

d a nd f ) ,

t o c arelessly

T able 6 .80

D istr ibution o f T ype H II

P rov .

N o . o f s herds

R el. f req.

CU M . f req.

AMBS

1

6 .0

6 .0

AWL

9

4 .9

1 0 .9

E RT

3

1 .6

1 2 .6

G AB

1

0 .5

1 3 .1

H AM 1

3 9

2 1 . .3

3 4 .4

H AM2

3 7

2 0 .2

5 4 .6

H AM3

2 5

1 3 .7

6 8 .3

3 .8

7 2 .1

8 .2

8 0 .3

0 .5

8 0 .9

1 2.0

9 2 .9

0 .5

9 3 .4

1 2

6 .6

1 00 .0

1 83

1 00 .0

H AM4 H AM5 J Q N AG 1 S URA l eAN T o tal

7 1 5 1 2 2 1

1 89

T able 6 .81

C lustered t emper t ypes i n H II

N o . o f s herds

T emper

L ittle t efper

3 4

S and S traw

2 2

S and a nd s traw

17

T able 6 .82

3 .3 1 2 .0

4

T otal

f req .

1 8 .6

6

S traw a nd w h ite s pecks

R el.

1 83

6 3.9 2 .2 1 00 .0

D istribution o f v ariety H lla

N o . o f S herds

R el. f req .

ar i l . f req .

A WL

2

6 .3

6 .3

E RT

3

9 .4

1 5 .7

G AG

1

3 .1

1 8 .8

H AM 1

5

1 5 .6

3 4.4

H AW

5

1 5 .6

5 0.0

3 4 .4

8 4.4

56

3 .1

8 7.5

4

1 2 .5

1 00.0

P rov .

H AM3 H A ! M AGI T o tal

1 1

3 2

1 00 .0

1 90

T able 6 .83

P ray.

A MBS

D istribution o f v ar ie ty H llb

N o . o f S herds 7

R e l.freq .

C um . f req .

6 .6

6 .6

H AW

2 2

2 0 .8

2 7.4

H AW

3 1

2 9 .2

5 6 .6

H ANG

9

8 .5

6 5 .1

H AW

5

4 .7

6 9 .8

H AM5

7

6 .7

7 6 .5

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0 .9

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1

0 .9

9 4.3

W EAN

6

5 .7

1 00 .0

T o tal

T able 6 .84

1 06

1 00 .0

D istr ibution o f v ariety H lIc

R el. f req .

Gm . f req .

P ray .

N o . o f s herds

A MBS

4

8 .9

8 .9

A WL

7

1 5 .6

2 4 .5

2 6 .7

5 1.2

H AW

1 2

H AW

1

2 .2

5 3 .4

H AMß

5

1.1

6 4 .5

H AW

2

4 .4

6 8 .9

1 5 .6

8 4 .5

2 .2

8 6 .7

H AMS N AG1 W BAN T o tal

1 6 4 5

1 3 .3 1 00 .0

1 00 .0

T able 6 .85

R if i S o f T ype H II

T ype N o .

N o . o f

R el.

f req.

T ype N o .

N o . o f

R el. f req.

3 .1

2 7

1

3 .1

3 7.5

3 2

3

9 .4

r i ms

1

5

1 1 2

1 0

1

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2

6 .3

1 4

3

9 .4

3 9

1

3 .1

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9 .4

4 1

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6 .3

1 9

1

3 .1

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6 .3 _

T o tal

3 2

1 00 .0

c ross-hatched b ody i ncisions ( Fig . 6 .35c) , n eck f riezes ( Fig . 6 .35a) a nd c hevron d esigns ( Figs . 6 . 34b a nd c ) . T he d ecorative e lements p roduced b y t he i mpression m ethod a re a s v aried a s i ncised p atterns . T he m ost c ommon m otifs i nclude d ifferent t ypes o f f riezes o n t he u pper p ortions o f v essels ( Figs . 6 . 33d , e a nd 0 , o r d otted p atterns a ll o ver t he b ody ( Fig . 6 . 36c) . F inger-impressed d esigns a re l ess c ommon a nd m ost o f t he s herds i n t his c ategory h ave s uch m otifs c overing t he e ntire s urface a rea

( Fig .

6 . 32c) .

A f ew o f t he d ecorated s herds , a bout 1 % , h ave r im g rooves s imilar t o t he o nes e ncountered i n T ype WL

V ariety H Ib T his

i s

t he e quivalent o f v ariety H e f rom M eroe ( Shinnie a nd B radley ,

1 980 :156) . I t i s d ifferentiated f rom H Ia b y i ts s lipped b urnished s urfaces . B urnishing o ccurs m ore o ften o n t he e xteriors , a lthough i n av ery f ew n umber o f s herds t his t ype o f t reatment i s a pplied t o b oth s urfaces o r t o t he i nteriors o nly . I n t he t otal s ample o f T ype H I , H lb c omprised a bout 2 2 . S herds i n t his v ariety w ere r ecovered f rom f our s ites o nly Cable 6 . 79) . D ecoration : A s w ith H Ia , d ecoration i n t he p resent v ariety c onsists o f i mpressed d esigns ( Fig . 6 . 36a , b a nd d ) ; i ncised p atterns o ccur m ostly o n l ips ( Fig . 6 .40a , c a nd 0 ; a c ombination o f i ncisions a nd i mpressions o n b ody ( Fig . 6 . 37c) o r i nside l ip ( Fig . 6 . 40d) . W hite-filled i ncisions a re l ess c ommon ( Fig . 6 .40d) a s a re f abric i mpressions ( 74 . 6 . 37d) . T ype H II T his t ype c orresponds t o A dams' ( 1967-8 :34) w an _ 7 11 ,

S hinnie a nd

B radley 's ( 1980-157) T ype K a nd O tto 's t ype I Ic ( Otto , 1 967 :10) . I t i s a h ard b lack o r b rown w are w ith w alls o f m edium t hickness ( 5 t o 1 0 c m) a nd r epresents a bout 2 % o f t he t otal c ollection o f s herds f rom t he s urveyed a rea . C ompared t o t he o ther h and-made w are o f T ype H I t he d istribution o f t he p resent t ype i s m uch l ess w ider ( Table 6 .80 ) . T he p aste i s m oderately d ense a nd a lmost a ll o f t he s herds a re w ellf ired , e xhibiting a n e ven b lack c olour a t f ractures . T he t emper o f H I s hows l ittle v ariation f rom t he g enerality o f t his t rait i n t he o ther M eroitic h and-made p ottery w here a h igh p ercentage o f s herds h ave a c ombined t emper o f s and a nd c hopped s traw

( Table 6 .8 1) .

T ype v arieties T hree v arieties i n T ype H II a re s eparated o n t he b asis o f s urface t reatmeent . T hese a re H IIa , H IIb a nd H IIc w ith s mooth , p olished a nd b urnished s urfaces r espectively . T ables 6 .82 , 6 .83 a nd 6 .84 s how t he d istribution o f t hese t hree v arieties . D ecoration :

T he u sual m ethods u sed i n d ecorating t he t hree v arieties

o f T ype H II a re i mpressions a nd i ncisions . T he m otifs p roduced a re s imilar t o t hose f ound o n s herds o f T ype H I . I ncisions a nd i mpressions a re s ometimes c ombined i n t he d esigns ( Fig . 3 7a a nd b ) . F riezes o f c rossh atched i ncisions a re f ound o n s ome f ew s herds ( Fig . 6 .38b) , w hile i n r are

1 93

c ases i ncised l ines a nd t icking a re c ombined i n t he s ame d esign ( Fig . 6 . 38a) . Z oomorphic d esigns w hich a re o ften f ound o n v ariety H Iic ( Shinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 ; F ig . 5 8c) a re n ot e ncountered i n t he p resent s ample . D uring t he e xamination o f t he p ottery m aterial f rom G arstang e xcavations a t s ome s herds f rom t he ' R oyal C ity ' b earing s uch m otifs w ere f ound a nd b ) . F orms:

I n T ype H II a s a whole 3 2 r ims w ere r ecovered.

m ajority o f t hese a re s traight i n o rientation . o pen o r s lighty c onstricted . w heel-made a nd h and-made ,

r ims

A s o f

w ith T ype

M eroe ,

( Fig . 6 .39a

T he g reat

A f ew r ims a re o nly s lightly

t he b ulk o f M eroitic 5 f igure

m ost

p ottery ,

p rominently

b oth ( Table

6 .85).

T ype H ill T his t ype h as n ot b een r eported f rom M eroitic s ites p revious t o t he r ecent e xcavations a t M eroe ( Shinnie a nd B radley , 1 980 :156 ; 1 61) . T he t otal c ollection i n t he p resent s ample ( 4621 s herds) h as b een r ecovered e ntirely f rom F ikheikhira . D ue t o t he s pecial n ature o f t his t ype a f uller t reatment o f i t i s g iven i n C hapter 7 i n c onnection w ith f orming t echniques a nd s pecialization i n p ottery p roduction .

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