Creative Play and Hobbies

Includes: Games for Indoors and Outdoors; Quiet Play; Making the Most of Your Home; Games for Travel; Planning a Party;

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Creative Play and Hobbies

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CHILDCRAFT CREATIVE PLAY

AND

HOBBIES

I

IM

FOURTEEIX VO LU

IVI

E

VO

E

L

U

IV1

E S

IG HT

CREATIVE PLAY AND HOBBIES

FIELD ENTERPRISES, INC.

CHICAGO

CHILDCRAFT (Res, U. S. Pat. Off.)

Copyright, 1949, U.

S.

by Field Enterprises,

A.

Inc.

Copyright 1947. 1945, 1942, 1939 by The Quarric Corporation Copyri-ht 1937, 1935, 1934 by

The

W.

F.

& Company

Quarrie

Child's Trkasurv

Copyright 1931. 1923 by

W.

F. Quarrie

International Copyright,

& Company

1949

by Field Enterprises, Inc. International Copyright, 1947

by The Quarrie Corporation

.^11

rights

reproduced

reserved. in

This

whole or

vcilume

m

part

without written permission from

may in

the

not

any

be

form

publishers.

CONTENTS Games for Indoors and Outdoors

Travel

lune

Caroline Horowitz

Party

.

Beach Party or Picnic

July i

Circus Party

Games

You and

for

Playmate

a

Sidewalk, Porch, and Back-Yard

Games with More Equipment Card and Table Games Party or Group Games Runnin.i; Games

Games

.

...

29

35 36

.

Choosing a

Hobby

.

.

Clara

M. Lambert

"Making" Hobbies "Doing" Hobbies "Studying" Hobbies

Shu

to

.

29

Games Plav

Party

.

Kamv DaN

1

Halloween Party Thanksgiving Party Christmas Party Other Theme Parties

24

Ruby BnuUoid Minphy

.

Harvest

Q

20

Games

Sinifint!

OuiET Play

County Fair Party

3

14

...

Races

2

Hobby

Collecting as a

Collections for Beginners

Making the Most of Your

....

Home

Nature

Margiicrifc Ickis

Collections

Other Collections Selecting

A

Hobby

a

Place to Play

Making

Plan for the Back Yard

a

Back-Yard Play

Playmaking and Play

.

Special

Games and

Outdo

Cooking

Sports

.

-

Acting

.

The Fun Play

Games for Travel

Josephine

.

.

.

.

Moyne

Rice Siuith

-

Van Dolzen Pease

66

of

Acting

Produ Pagea

Makc-Belicve .

Pla

Your Fun-on-the-\Vay Bag Looking-out-the-Window Can When You Are Tired of I,

Drawing and Painting

liowktt and Isabel Smith 149

CaroI\-n S.

.

Window Checkerboard Fun Fun with Paper Things to Make on a Trip .

A Good

Traveler

Planning a Party

Bern ice Wc/Js Carlson

.

Parties

Real

for

Fun

When You

Where to Work and What to Use What to Draw or Paint How to Make Better Pictures

150

How

161

to

Judge Your Pictures

Writing Our Thoughts

....

153

'59

Paul Engle 163

Are Under Party Planning Calendar Party for lanu;

What

Valentine

Writing Your Story

168

Poetry

iC>8

;

Party

Washington's St.

Patrick's

Birthday

Day

An Easter Party May Party

Party

to

Write

Beginning

How

to

Stories

Own

Write Are Made

Poems Improving Your Writing Poems by Children

Your

163 165

166

ifiq

170 172

Childcr,\ft PAGE Holder

Playing-Card

Making Toys and Playthings Laun- Turpiii 174 Bookshelves

177

Bulletin Board

i?**

Felt Pictures

Teeter-Totter

17S

What You

Will

Need

174

212 212

Christmas-Tree Decorations

Tin-Can Building Blocks Rotde and Glass Decorations Lapel Ornaments

214

Felt Lapel Purse

215 215 216 216

Small Table

iSo

Leather Lapel Purse

218

Small Chair

18"

Pocketknife Case

Sandboxes

iSi

Shellcraft

A

182

Shell

Earrings

Decorations

219 219 220 222

Screen-Playhouse

185

Shell

.

.

184

Raffia or

.

.

185

Sequin or Bead Pin

186

Making Birdhouscs,

Blocks

Jigsaw Puzzles

Humpty Dumpty Bean Game Scat!

Ring Toss

Tov Train

187 188

Model Airplane Paddle-wheel Boat

18c,

i8g

Ring-on-the-Nose

We

Here

191

Cooking Up Fun

Jrnia S. Roiii-

.

.

Cooking Ventures

104

Milk Shakes Practice Party

195

Easy-to-Make Sandwich

igs

Fillings

for a Friend

196

For Simple Entertaining Coconut Drop Cakes Using Kitchen Utensils

Beginning Recipes

for

196 197 197

Stove Cooking

Making Your Lunch How to Heat Canned Vegetables How to Cook Quick-Frozen Vegetables Broiled Hamburger Sandwiches .

Candies and Confections

To

Cream Cream Sauces Lunch

Serve Ice

Ice

A

Picnic

Saturday Lunch Food for Snacks Breakfast in Bed

A

Birthdav Dinner for

Adventures .

Circle

.

.

in .

Folded

Dad

.

Martha ParkhflJ and Dorothy SpaetJi

Cut-Out Pictures

Fan

Child's Coat

.

Handwork

Round Fan Hanger

198 198 199 199

200 200 202 202 202 203 205 205 206

Dishes to Try

Special

224

Feeding

Stations

224

Puppets and Marionettes Alice

M. Hobcu

Kinds of Puppets

Hand Puppet

Stage

Marionettes Pla\s for Puppets

and Marionettes

194

.195

Eggnog

A

223

and

Birdhaths,

Making Heads Finishing Your Puppets

bauer and Jane Crawford Torno ig^

Tea Party

Belt

190

Go!

Kites

First

Yarn

206

Sewing for Fun Catherine CorJc\- Anderson Sewing on Buttons

231

v,^

—^K.

GAMES FOR INDOORS

AND OUTDOORS

'*

CAROLINF HOROWITZ

"LET'S PLAY"

Outdoor games like "Run, Sheep, Run" or "Hide and Seek" are not only fun but

magic words that make it many happy hours of fun lo\c to play games, whether we and pleasure. are young or old. For some years Caroline Horowitz has made a study of games we like best. Author of The Good Time Book, A Girl's Treasare

help to build strong, healthy bodies.

possible for us to enjoy

We

ury of Things-to-Do,

fo-Do, and

how

many many

A

Boy's Treasury of Things-

other popular books, she

tells

There games for indoors and outdoors. There are games for groups and there are games for just you and a playmate. to play

of our best-loved games.

are

pushing dle

a short pencil

through the mid-

of the cardboard? This top spins

You make the cardboard by turning a cup upside down on cardboard and running your pencil around the cup. Then you cut

wonderfully. circle

a piece of

SOMETIMES

you may think that nothing can make vou happy except a certain game which you see in a store. "If only I had that game," you say. But many times \ou could make the same game, or one hkc it, in a few minutes. Spinning a top is a game ^'ou can plav by yourself. Did )ou ever make a top bv cutting out a circle of cardboard and

along the pencil

line.

hole for the pencil

is

Be

sure that the

in the center of the

cardboard.

There are many other games you can for yourself and your friends that are just as easy. You can make wonderful games with clothespins, beans, boxes,

make

toothpicks, sorts of

paper

bags,

peanuts



all

simple things that are easy to

Childcraft Pease Poiiidge Hot

game

for two.

is

a hand-clapping

Face your partner, and

say the following

poem:

Pease Porridge hot. Pease Porridge cold. Pease Porridge in the pot jNine days old.

Some Some Some

like

it

hot,

like

it

cold.

like it in the

Nine days

A homemade When

get.

top which

is

easy

to

make

you know how to play these

simple games,

will

3'ou

yourself

find



making up new ones games which are a little different and sometimes even better than the old ones.

Games

for

You and

a Playmate

you play the first of these games, you will have to watch closely and listen carefully. Sooner or later you will make a mistake, but that will make \^'^^en

game even more fun. Simon Says Thumbs Up.

the

Two

or

more

game. Tlic players face the "Simon," and obey his orders. He holds his fists in front of him. Then he begins the game by calling out "Sican play

this

leader, or

mon says

says

up.' "

'Thumbs

Thumbs

down.' "

Or "Simon

If it is

"Tliumbs

up," he straightens up his thumbs. At "Thumbs down," he turns his thumbs

downward. You do the same

in either

But watch out. He will give his orders faster and faster. If he says merely "Thumbs up" or "Thumbs down," you are not to obey, even if his own thumbs are up or down. If you make a mistake, you drop out of the game. The one who stays in longest wins.

of the winner to be

When you say "Pease," you clap \our hands against your knees. When \ou say "Porridge," you clap your hands together. When you say "hot," you clap }'Our right hand against your partner's right hand. On "Pease," you clap your hands against your knees again. On "Porridge," you clap your hands together again. On "cold," you clap your left hand against your partner's left hand. Again, on "Pease," your clap ^our hands against your knees. On "Porridge," you clap your hands together. On the word "in," }'ou clap your right hand against }Our partner's right hand. On the words "the pot," you clap your hands together. On "Nine," you clap your hands against your knees. On "da\s," you clap your hands together. And on "old," you clap your left hand against vour partner's left hand.

Then

it is

"Simon."

the turn

Do

the

second half of the poem in the same way. See how fast you can do it without

making

case.

pot

old.

a mistake.

Circle Tit-Tat-Toe.

Draw

a circle,

6"

in

diameter, on a piece of paper. Divide the circle just as you \^'0uld

if

you were

cutting a pie into eight portions.

draw

a small circle in

Then

the center of the

large one.

Write ing your

a

number

numbers

in each part, arrang-

so that a high

number

Games for Indoors and Outdooks is

placed next to a low nuinbcr.

arrangement would be:

i,

4, 6,

A

good

3,

7, 2,

Write 10 in the small center circle. Each player takes a turn. The first plaver holds his pencil about one foot 8, 5.

above the paper, closes his eyes tight, and moves his pencil around in the air, as if he were drawing a circle with it The pencil should be kept high, while the plaver recites the following rhvme: Tit-Tat-Toe, Around I go; If I miss, I miss in this!

Then with

his eyes

still

closed, the

plaver lowers his pencil point it

and puts

on the paper. If

"Tit-Tat-Toe" played in a circle

the pencil point lands in a portion 5, the player gets 5 points; if

numbered it

lands in a portion with 2 in

it,

the

plaver- gets 2 points. If he is lucky enough to land in the small circle marked 10, he gets 10 points. As soon as he lands in a portion, he puts his initials in it and neither player can score in it again. Each player takes turns and when all the portions have been used, the one who has the greater number of points wins. If you want a longer game, you can make a bigger diagram with 16 or even 32 portions. The Minister's Cat. Start this game by

nmg

with the next letter of the alpha-

But if there are more than two playing, anyone who gets stuck must drop out of the game. The last person left wins. You can go through the alphabet as many times as you like. bet, lie loses.

Sidewalk. Porch, and Back- Yard

Many

of

the

best-liked

Games

games

those which are played outdoors. of

arc

Some

them do not require much space. Jacks or Jackstones. Jacks are usually

friend has to describe the minister's cat

used for this game. But if \'ou should be on the beach, or in the country, and do not have any Jacks, you can play the game with five smooth little stones, just as they used to play it long ago.

with a word beginning with the letter B. For instance, he might sav, "Tlie min-

throw

"The minister's cat is an active Or vou can choose any other word beginning with the letter A. Then your saying, cat."

ister's cat is a

big cat."

And

so the

game

goes on, with each player taking the next letter in

the alphabet.

If

you

like,

you

can agree not to use certain letters, such

asX. If two persons are playing and one person cannot think of a word begin-

You Then it

is

start

bv

pkning Onesv

You

Jacks on the ground or table. ou throw one into the air. While

5 )

still

in the air,

you pick up one

of

the Jacks from the ground. You must catch the Jack which you threw up, before it touches the ground, with the same hand which holds the picked-up Jack.

You may now

lay that Jack to

one

Chi side. Continue in this wav, until \ou have picked up each of the four Jacks, one at a time. Now you are on Twosv, and pick up 2 Jacks at a time. On Threesv, vou pick up 3 Jacks at a time, and then i Jack. Or, if vou Hke, \ou can pick up i Jack first and then 3 Jacks at a time. On Foursv, vou pick up all 4 Jacks at one

time.

you should drop a Jack during play, catch the thrown-up Jack, or touch a Jack that you were not picking If

fail

to

up, \'0u lose vour turn.

comes

When

\our turn

you continue where you missed. That is, if you missed while playing a Threesv, you play Threesy over again, but you get credit for everything that you did correctly before that. The winning player is the one who first completes ten games correctly.

You

again,

can play Jackstones with

a ball.

you like. In that case, you throw the up instead of the Jack and let it bounce once before you catch it. You can also play "Knock, Knock." In this game, \ou throw the ball up, pick up the Jack, and knock twice on the ground with it before you catch the ball. To play "Around the World," you throw up the ball, pick up the Jack, and, holding it in your hand, wave vour hand around the ball while it is still in the air. Playing "Pick-a-Back," you catch the ball first on the back of your hand. Then you bounce it up, turn your hand around, and catch it in vour palm. Hopscotch is a good game to plav on the sidewalk. You can mark the diagram shown with chalk on cement. Or vou can make a fine hopscotch game b\' marking the spaces with a pebble or stick on the damp sand of a beach. There are 10 spaces as shown on page 5. if

bail

These two friends are playing an exciting game of "Jackstones" on the front step.

Games for Nooors and Outdoors You

stand, in front of

Potsv into Box small

flat

tle cap.

and tlirow

i

a

This Potsv can be a

i.

stone, or c\en a flattened bot-

Next, you hop on one foot into

the box and kiek the stone out of the space. This is called playing Oncsy. You

must not step on any of the lines at an\ time. You must not put your other foot

down

except in certain boxes. throw the Potsy into Box

Now

Box 1, and then hop and Box 3 at the same

into 2

by placing your your right foot

left

in

time.

foot in

Box

2,

into both

3.

Do

Box

2

hop Box this

and

Jump com-

pletely around, so that your left foot

is

and your right foot is in Box 2. You will now be facing Box 1. Get on one foot again, and kick the Potsv into Box 1, and then out of the lines. Throw your Potsy into each box in turn, and then kick it out, in re\'ersc order. ^^'hene\cr a box is the full width of the diagram, you may not put down \'our other foot. Wlien a box is half the width of the diagram, vou may rest one foot in one box, and the other foot in the other box. But when vou are kicking the Potsy out, you must hop on one foot until \ou have kicked it through each of the numbered boxes and out. When vou reach Box 10, vou may kick the Potsv out of the other end of the diagram, instead of kicking it back through in

Box

3,

each of the numbered boxes. If you fail to throw the Potsy into the correct box, or if you should step on a line, vou give up \our turn to the next player. W^ien your turn comes again,

\ou begin with the number \ou missed. As soon as you complete all the boxes, pick out a box which will belong to \ou. write \our initials in it. Now the other players may not step into your box

You

at all.

They must

skip over

it.

But you

f

"Yes," before the pla\er steps. If

nia\-

take

liis

he should forget to say any of

M^^

these words, he loses his steps. After a plaver makes a step with one

he brings his other foot up c\'en A Giant Step is the longest step make. A Ladv Step is a middle-sized step. A Baby Step is measured bv placing the heel of one foot against foot,

with

it.

a plaver can

the toe of the other foot. After a player takes his steps, he waits while the Teacher throws the ball to each player in turn, and gets back to him. The first

player to reach the goal line wins the

game and becomes

the Teacher for the

next game. Steal

Sticks.

Draw two

across \our play space, apart.

The

long

space between the lines

battleground.

lines

is

the

Tlie space behind each

team guarding it. Some distance behind each line draw a line belongs

"Ringer"

is

an interesting marble game.

about 30 feet

to the

box about

feet

s

bv

10. Place 5 sticks in

each box. Each team tries to steal the sticks from the other team's box.

As soon

"^

own

as a plaver crosses his

line into the battleground,

he may be

tagged by a pla\cr from the other team. He can run back behind his own line for safety, but,

if

prisoner and

he

is

tagged, he

must stand

becomes

nent's box with the sticks until he

He can be rescued onlv teammates runs ox'cr and

is

res-

one of

cued.

if

his

tags

without himself being tagged. tagged on the way, he also is

a

oppo-

in his

If

him he

made

is

a

prisoner.

The team

that has

no prisoners

in the

enemy's box and steals all five sticks first, wins the game. Marbles. "Ringer" is one of the most popular of all marble games. Draw on the ground or on the sidewalk a circle about 10 feet across. At the center, drawtwo short lines crossing at right angles. Along these lines each plaver places an equal 'Steal Sticks" calls for skill

and speed.

number

shoots

a

of marbles.

marble at a

Each

line.

tosses or

Tlie pla\er

"5

Games for Indoors and Outdoors marbles, or "babies," into the hole.

If

he does so, he wins the marble, and has another turn. As soon as he misses, the next player in line tries his luck. Tlic game goes on until all the marbles arc in the hole. Sidewalk Tennis. Pick out four squares in a row on the sidewalk.

should

all

feet square.

One

size

They

—about

Number them from

1

4

to 4.

player stands at each end of the

squares. of the

be the same

The

first

ser\xr stands in front

first

square.

He bounces

a tennis

then strikes it with the palm of his hand. The ball ball in the first square,

"Baby

in the Hole," a

whose marble the

first

rolls

nearest to the line

He

plaver.

marble game is

chooses any spot on

and aims his "shooter," a large, smooth marble, at the other marbles in the ring. Those he edge

the

the

of

ring,

knocks out of the ring belong to him,

and he keeps on shooting until he fails to knock out one or more marbles. At his first miss,

goes on until

knocked out is

a

more

he

loses his turn.

all

must land in the third square. If it lands anywhere else, the opponent takes the ball and serves. The player to whom the ball is served stands back of the fourth square. As the ball bounces, he returns it, striking it with the palm of his hand.

He must

return

it

o\'cr

the center line.

he fails to do this, the server scores one point. If the return is perfect, the ball, on the first bounce, is batted back If

The game

the marbles have been

of the ring

friendly

game

and won. This if

the marbles

are returned to their owners, than

if

you

play for "keeps."

Another popular marble game "Baby in the Hole." Dig a small hole the ground and draw a line about away.

feet

The

players,

in

turn,

three marbles toward the hole.

is

in 1

toss

The one

whose marble comes nearest the mark will

have the

first

into the hole. next,

chance to

The

where they

fall.

The

first

four fingers of cither hand, flip

of the wrist, to

"bab\

flip a

next nearest plays

and so on. The marbles

are left

player, using tries,

with a

sweep one of the

You only need a ball and a partner play a fast game of sidewalk tennis.

to

One

of the healthiest of all games is rope skipping. What girl has not played "Pepper, Salt, Mustard, Cider" to the merry hiun of a fast-twirling rope.

If \ou happen to hit one of your own men, \ou merely waste ^"our turn. The

who

pla^•er

shoots

opponent's

his

all

men

out of the square wins. Shipping flope. Tliere are

many ways

of ha\ing fun with skipping ropes.

Two

jumpers can take turns seeing how manv jumps thev can make \\ithout tripping or missing. The^• can turn the rope, first, forward, then backward. Turn the rope forward for five jumps, then backward for five jumps. Run forward hvc steps, turning the rope on each step. If there are five or six

of

and forth o\er player misses.

tlie If

center line until a

the server misses, he

loses the ball to his

opponent. Other-

wise he scores a point on his opponent's miss.

The

first

to score 21 points wins

the game.

Sidewalk Checkers. Each of the two players uses twelve checkers. red;

the other, black.

One

set

is

Pick a smooth

on the sidewalk. Arrange the checkers, the red on one side, the black on the opposite side. The game starts as one of the plavcrs. Red, for example, snaps one of his checkers into the square with his index or middle finger. Black then shoots one of his, tr\ing to knock the red man out of the square. Tlie pla\ers take turns shooting. Each tries to knock his opponent's checkers 4-foot square

not necessary to shoot

Ender;

Ender.

the

When

jumpers, two

one

One

rope.

the

other, of

the

is

the

Second jumpers

misses, he takes the place of the First

Ender,

who

\\hile the

then becomes a jumper, Second Ender becomes First

Ender. The rope should be turned toward the jumper. In "Lady, Ladv, Turn Around" the

jumper

sings

and

suits the action to the

words: Lady, Lady, turn around, Lad\', Ladv, touch the ground, Lady. Lady, show your shoe. Lady twenty three skidoo.



At "Skidoo," he jumps out, and beis turned around again, the

fore the rope

next player jumps in and repeats the

performance.

For "Follow the Leader," two players

out of the square. It is

them can turn the

First

all

Aour

turn the rope. Another, chosen as the

checkers, one after another. If you ha\e

leader,

a checker in the square,

The

that checker at

exactly

vou can shoot one of vour opponent's.

jumps into

it

in

any way he

likes.

others follow in turn, each doing

what the leader

did.

The

first

to

Games for Indoors and Outdoors fail takes one end of the rope ;ind becomes the Seeond Ender. In "Pepper, Salt, Mustard, Cider," the object is to keep jumping, up to the count of loo, as the rope is twirled faster and faster. Tlie players keep time to the rope beats and sing:

Pepper,

salt,

Ten. twenty,

imishird. thirty,

cider,

\inegar!

forty, fifty, sixty.

Seventy, eighty, ninety, one hundred!

players who miss on the lowcounts nuist take the ends of the

The two est

rope.

"Calling In" is an exciting skippingrope game. Each plaver, in turn, makes three jumps. Tlien he calls out the name of one of the others. The one called must jump in as the other jumps out, before the rope

is

turned again.

Tug of War. The players di\ide into two evenly matched teams. The members of each team hold opposite ends of a rope about 25 feet long. Each team tries to pull the other o\'er a line drawn across the field. In the middle of the rope, a handkerchief

the

line.

When

is

a signal

tied just abo\e is

given, the tug

war begins. The team which first whole rope to its side of the wins tlie game. Duck on a Rock. Choose a large rock. Each player finds a smaller stone, or duck. Standing behind a line about 20 feet from the rock, each plaver, in turn, throws his duck, and tries to land it as near the rock as possible. The one wliose duck lands farthest from the rock is IT. He places his duck on the rock and

of

pulls the line

The other players, standing 20 feet away, take turns, lliev throw

stands aside.

and try to knock IT's duck from the rock. Each pla\-cr, after throwing, must run out, pick up his duck, and

their ducks

back to the goal before IT can first to be tagged becomes IT for the next game. If the duck is knocked off, IT must replace it before he can tag an\onc. A player may not be tagged until he lias picked up his duck. If caught in a tight place, he may stand with one foot on his duck and be safe until he has a better chance to run for home. Shinny. Two leaders are chosen, and each, in turn, chooses his team from the other players. Goal lines are drawn about 75 feet apart. The game is played \\ ith a block of \\'ood, called a puck, or with a tin can. Sticks shsoed like a hockev stick, or the letter J, are used to try to get

tag him. Tire

strike the puck.

To

start

the game, a plaver from each

side stands in the center of the field, fac-

ing the enemy's goal. Tlie puck

lies

be-

tween them. At a signal, each player tries to put the puck in motion bv hitting it toward the enemy's goal. Tlie object of the game is to knock the puck across the eneni\'s goal line. Each goal point. After each point, the returned to the middle of the

counts

puck

a

is

field.

Gaines with More Equipment of the best games require more equipment than you can carry easily in \our pockets. But most of the equipment for these games is easy to make. Top Games. "In the Box" is an excit-

Some

ing top-spinning

game

to play with a

box about the size of a suit box. With a ruler and crayon, draw three lines lengthwise and three lines across the inside top or bottom of the box. This will give you 16 oblong spaces. Number the spaces from 1 to 8, mixing up the numbers. friend.

Get

a flat

ClllLDCRAFT pla\cr

scoring

first

"Top-Tat-Toe"

is

lOO a

points

wins.

top

game

jolly

on the sidewalk or on hard ground. Use a cord with a stick

that can be played

or a piece of chalk tied to

one end. Draw

four inches across.

a circle

Around

this,

from the center, draw five more circles. Lengthen the cord two inches for each one. You now have a target. Number the circles from i to 6, beginning at the outer one. his top and tries the center as he Where\'er the point of the top comes to rest, he scores the number of points marked in the circle in which it

to

The first plaver spins make it land as near

can.

"In the Box"

is

a

stops.

good top game.

The

player then writes his initials in

the circle.

No

other player can get any

turns spinning \our tops in the

points for landing his top in that circle.

When a top stops spinning, its point will be either on a line or in one of

Each plaver spins in turn whether he makes anv points or not. The game continues until all the circles have been ini-

Take box.

the marked spaees. have another turn. spaces,

If it is

on

a line,

you

If it lies in one of the you score the same number of

points as the

number

in the space.

The

tialed.

The

player

who

then has the

most points wins. Ringtoss. T\\'o or more can plav this game. You can buy it, but you will ha\c more fun making one for yourself.

Take long.

a

piece of clothesline a yard

Then

cut

it

12 inches long.

form of

into three strips, each

Bend each

a circTc,

strip in the

and place the ends

to-

gether. Where the ends meet, \\ind adhesive tape over them to hold them to-

These

are the "rings." use three clothespins for pegs. Punch holes in the top of a flat cardboard box and push the heads of the

gether.

You can

pins through.

To

hold the pegs in place,

paste a few strips of adhesive tape across the heads of the clothespins on the un-

der side of the box.

Playing "Top-Tat-Toe" with a top

Write the number 5 on the box cover middle clothespin, and

in front of the

Taking turns in playing "Ringtoss" with

the imnibcr 3 in front of the other two. Stand about eight feet away from the

pegs and toss three rings, one after another. Try to ring one of the pegs, or

"make

a ringer."

You

seore five points

if

you ring the middle peg, and three for ringing one of tlie others. After \ou ha\e tossed three rings, the next plaver takes his turn.

be made

50

points.

In

The game can the

ehapter,

"Making Toys and

Playthings," you will

find directions for

making an amusing

ringtoss peg

Tenpins

and wooden

rings.

ha\e three balls and ten wooden "pins" shaped like botsets usually

How you

can use clothespins

to

homemade equipment

But if \ou take two clothespins and one into another in the form of an X, they will stand by themsehes and make excellent "pins." Arrange ten of these double clothespins on the floor in the shape of a triangle, as shown in the tles.

slip

diagram.

Stand about 10 feet away and

Aim

roll a

one in the middle. Your turn ends when you have rolled three balls, or the same ball three times. Anv pins that have been knocked down are then set up for the ball at the tenpins.

next player. the

number

You

seore as

of pins

play an exciting

game

for the

many

points as

vou knock down of

"Ten Pins"

Childcraft reaches

The

a

score

total

of

points.

fifty

"Making To\s and Playto make a Humptv

chapter,

things" shows

how

Dumpty beanbag

board with one hole. good game \'ou can buy or easily make. All you need is a shallow cardboard box about 2 inches high, a Fish

sheet

Pond

of

string, a

is

a

cardboard,

crayon,

scissors,

few pins or hairpins, and

sJiort

sticks.

Draw

a side

\iew of

a fish,

inches long, on cardboard.

The beanbag game develops accuracy. with the three

For example, if you you score 5 points. each player has had ten turns, the

knock down

When

^

balls.

pins,

one with the high score wins. A small wooden ball, an old golf ball, may be used. It should always be rolled never thrown or bounced. Beanbag Game. Hie chapter, "Sewing for Fun," shows how to make beanbags. It is more fun to play the game if \ou have two or three beanbags, but it can be played with one. For a score box, use a hatbox or a cardboard box. Turn the box upside down. Cut three round holes in it, as shown. For the first, use a teacup as a guide; for the second, a saucer; and for or even a rubber ball



the third, a small plate. holes

1,

^,

and

s.

Number

about

Cut

it

3

out,

and use it as a pattern to make 20 cardboard fish. Punch a hole in the nose of each fish. Also write a number, from 1 to 10, on the tail of each fish. Then mix them up. Cut slits an inch long in the top of the box. Place the tail

first,

fish in

the

slits,

so that only their heads stick

out.

Bend a pin or a hairpin into the shape hook and attach it to the end of a

of a

short pole by a string about 2 feet long.

Each player gets a chance to hook a WHien all the fish ha\'e been

fish.

the

beginning with the

largest.

Place a cushion or book under the back of the box so that it slopes toward you. Stand 8 feet away and toss three beanbags at the box. Try to toss them

You get one point for sinking a bag into the first hole; three into the holes.

for

the middle hole; and fi\e for the

Each pla\cr, in turn, has three Keep on playing until someone

smallest.

This "Fish-Pond"

throws.

chance

to

hook

all

game

will give

the fish

you

you a

can.

Equipment

for

playing table tennis will furnish hours of real fun and pleasure.

caught, the score player

scores

shown on the

the

is

added up. Each

number

tails of

the

of

fish.

points

For

ex-

he hooks a fish with number 4 on the tail and one with number 6, he wins 10 points. Ping-Pong or Table Tennis. "\'nu can play ping-pong on any large table. A regular ping-pong table is g feet long and 5 feet wide. Some tables can be enlarged by making an extra top of \\allboard. You will need balls, net, paddles, and table top. But you can make this equipment, except for the balls. The net, about 6 inches high, is stretched across the middle of the table. The players, either one or two on each side, take ample,

if

their places at the ends.

^M^en

four are

playing, the partners take turns serving.

To

scr\e, you hit the ball so that it bounces on your side of the net, then clears the net, and boiuiccs on the first

other side. ser\'e

The

the ball,

reeei\'er, to

must

strike

whom it

\\ith

you his

paddle on the first bounce and send it back over the net. The server or his partner then tries to return it on the first bounce. the receiver

fails to hit the ball on to send it o\^er the he bats it off the table, the server scores one point. If the server misses the ball on the return, or hits it

If

the

first

net, or

bounce or

if

into the net or off the table, the poiTit

goes to the opponent.

The

ball

is

batted

back and forth over the net until someone misses. The server serves the ball five times, once after every point is won or lost. Tlicn the receiver serves five times. If the ball touches the net as it is served, it must be served again. During the play, however, if it lands correctly, even if it touches the net, it is good.

The

side

first

scoring 21 points wins.

-HILDCRAFT

With

the score tied 20 to 20, a side must two points in succession to win. Table Croquet is played in the same

ors,

score

wav

it is plavcd on with checkers for balls. You snap the checkers with \our finger. Rules for playing croquet are gi\en in the chapter, "Making the Most of Your

as

lawn croquet. But

a large table

Home." You can make

and use one color for each pla\cr. the game by placing ^•our

Start

checker half \\av between the peg and the first wicket. Then vou snap vour finger against the side of vour checker and trv to shoot it through the first two \\ickets. Snap the checkers through the remaining wickets, following the same order as in lawn croquet.

wickets bv bending

Card and Table Games

pieces of picture wire and pushing the

ends into corks or emptv spools. Pegs can be made by gluing fi\e checkers together. Paint vour checkers different col-

Checkers, dominoes, jackstraws, and manv simple card games will furnish entertainment indoors for rainy da\s or winter c\'cnings. In some of these as manv as ten plavers may take part.

Anagrams

from two to ten

an interesting game for plavers. It is pla\cd with

small

of

is

squares

wood

Each square has a letter on one side. The squares down, in the center of a

The

first

or

cardboard.

of the alphabet are placed, face table.

player draws four squares

and turns them him. If he can

up word

letter side

in front of

spell a

of at least

three letters with them, he does so.

He

then draws again. If he can add this letter to his word, he draws again. He keeps on drawing until he cannot use the letter in his word. Then he places the square, face up, in the center of the table. The next player draws four squares. He can use these, together with the letter

the

make

first

player

has

discarded,

to

He

can draw as long as he can use the letters. Tlien he discards in the center. The pla\ers can use any of the discarded letters. a

word.

An\' player

may

steal a

word from

an-

other bv adding one of his own letters to it. A w ord cannot be stolen, bowevcr,

Table croquet can be an exciting game.

merely bv changing it from singular to plural, for example, bv adding S to MAST. But, with a P, a player can

Games for Indoors

wi-)

On

"Checkers," or "Draughts," is easy to learn. It has been played for

hundreds

of years.

MAST

STAMP

cards one at a time. It

down and the dealer selects one of them. If the card he draws makes a pair with one he holds, he discards the pair. Hie plaver to his left then draws a card from the hand of the next player, and so on around the table. The object of the game is to get rid of your cards. ITic first to do so drops out of the game and is the winner. The others keep on pUning. One player will be stuck with the queen of spades, or the Old Maid. Since it cannot be matched, one unfortunate player will be left with it at the end. He is the loser. Each player at every draw must discard his pair, if he has one, c\cn if in doing so only the Old Maid re-

ence

mains.

change

to

and take the

other player's word.

A

player can change or string out an\-

own words by adding S or any other letter or letters from the center. of his

But he can steal a word only with the turned-down letter he has drawn.

You

can

make

loses his turn

if

a

rule that a

player

he takes more than one

minute to make a word. The first plaver to make and keep ten words wins. Old Maid. From a deck of pla\ing cards take out

all

the queens, except the

there are more than seven players, use two decks. Deal the

queen of spades.

if

If

makes no differone or two players hold more

Pitch, or

cards than the others.

The players then sort out any pairs they may hold, and throw them in the middle of the

Now

table.

the picking

starts.

face

The

plaver to

the left of the dealer spreads his cards

High Low Jack. From two to

se\cn players

may

take a

hand

in this

game. Six cards are dealt to each. The remaining cards are left in the deck. The plaver to the left of the dealer sizes his hand.

Then he makes

up

a bid, or de-

CllILDCRAFT Clares the number of points he thinks he can make. He cannot make more than four. But he can "pass," which means to bid nothing; or he can bid an\- number up to four. If he bids four, no other player can bid higher, but if he makes a lower bid, the p]a\er to his left may bid higher, and so on around the table. The player making the high bid leads, or "pitches." He lays a card face up on

the table. All cards of the same kind, or suit, are

a

heart,

trumps. That hearts are

is, if

he

trump

la\s

cards.

other plavcrs in turn follow suit

have any trumps.

down The

if

low

card.

The one who

plays the highest card

takes the trick, or

all

the cards on the

table.

Then he

hopes

will take the next trick.

leads a card

which he

if

they have one. Otherwise, thev

play any of their cards, usually a low one. If no trumps are placed, the highest card of the suit led takes the trick. But if

the trick

player

is

trumped,

who put on

goes to the

it

the highest trump.

In scoring points, the highest

card played counts one.

trumps counts one,

The

trump jack

of

does the lowest trump card played. Another point is added for "game." This is scored bv the player ha\ing the highest total in cards. In counting "game," only the face cards and the tens have any value. Aces count 4; kings, 3; queens, 2; jacks, 1; and tens, 10 points. If

you are dealt

a

as

hand in which you and two of any

find the ace, king, jack,

you can But as not

suit,

it

The is

jack,

safely bid four.

all the cards are dealt, any card can be "high," and sometimes both

"high" and "low." The point for "low" goes to the player holding that card, and

if

has taken

it

in a

high, counts two,

not always in the play.

If

two

is

not

plavers tie for "game," the point scored.

If you do not have a game of Authors, )0u can easily make one by using index cards. These }ou can buv at a

Authors.

paper supply or dime store. Cut the down evenly so that each will be 2 1/2 inches wide and 3V2 inches long.

cards

You

will

need 52

Select a ite

list

cards.

of thirteen of your favor-

authors and write the names of four

books h\ each. Divide the cards into sets of four. In the upper right-hand corner of each card of the same set, print a letter of the alphabet.

Near the top

ITie other players follow suit or play a

trump

but

who

The game can be se\cn or ele\en

trick.

points.

they

not, they play a

If

not to the one

of each card of a set,

name of one of name of one of books above this. Below the author's name, print names of three other books bv the same author. At the top of the second card of the set print the name of the author's second book, and the names of the other three at the bottom. Do the same with the third and fourth cards, having the name of a different book at the top of each. Prepare the print in big letters the

the authors. Print the his

other

twehe

sets in

the same wav.

The

dealer then shuffles the cards and them, one at a time, as far as they will go. The game can be played by three players, but it is more fun when there are five or six. It does not matter if one pla\er gets an extra card. The object of the game is to complete as many "books" as possible. A book is one of the sets of four. deals

ITie player to the left of the dealer

may ha\e from one same

set. If

he has

to four cards of the four,

he shows them

Games or Indoors and Outdoors i

on the tabic in front of him. Bnt whether he has or not, he mav ask a certain player for a card which will complete or help him to complete a book. If he happens to hold the Tom Sawder card bv Ntark Twain, he may ask for

and places

tlic

Hiick'Jeberrv

"l:)ook"

Finn,

The

Innocents

Abroad, or The MvstcTious Stranger. If the player he asks has the card wanted, he must give it to the asker, who may keep on asking for certain cards until he fails to get the card for which he asks. Then the plaver to his left takes his turn.

The game can be plaved also with a deck of playing cards. A book would be any four of a kind, such as. aces, kings, and so on. Dominoes may be played by two, or four persons. The dominoes arc spread, face down, on the table and shufHed. If there are two players, each tens,

three,

picks seven dominoes. If three or four

persons are playing, each takes inoes.

fi\e

dom-

Stand the dominoes on edge

in

front of you so the white dots cannot be

seen by the other pla\ers. llie leftover

dominoes

are kept together in a

pile" conveniently placed

What

better

game

lor

on the

two or

more persons to play on a rainy day than a game of dominoes!

"bone table.

Each domino has two groups of dots, ided by a line. You use either side in

di\

play.

The

object of the

game

is

to get

your dominoes. The player holding the highest double, with dots the same on both sides, rid of

lays

it,

face up, in the center of the tabic.

Suppose

it is a double 6. Tlie pkner to must match it with a domino having six dots on one side. Perhaps he has a 6 combined with a 4. If so, he places his domino, face up, with the 6 against the first player's domino. The next player can add to either domino, so he must have either a 6 or a 4. If he does not, he must draw from the bone pile

his left

until he gets a domino with 6 or 4 dots on one side. If he lavs down a domino with a 6 at one end and a 3 at the other, the next player must match either the 4

or the 3. The doubles are laid crosswise, but the others are laid end to end. Any player may try to block the others by making both ends of the row the same number. This gives the next player only one choice, and often sends him to the

bone

pile.

The inoes

player is

who

first

plays all his

the winner. lie gets as

dom-

many

points as there arc dots on the dominoes

Chi

i8 still

You can

held bv the other pla\ers.

play for 50 or 100 points. Five-in-a-Row, like checkers,

is

a

game

can be played on a checkerboard, but a board di\ided into 100 squares is better. You can make one for

two persons.

It

of these boards out of

plywood or

card-

board. Di\ide each side into ten equal parts, and with vour ruler draw lines both ways from one side to the other. You can use buttons of two different colors for "men."

The

object of the

game

is

to place fi\e

men on the board in a row. The row may be crosswise, lengthwise, or on a diagonal. You mav use as many men as of vour

you wish and you can place them on any squares on the board. But you can only place one man on the board at each turn. You use your men to block the other player's rows, as well as to form your own "Fi\e-in-a-Row." For more "Checkerboard Fun," turn to the chapter,

"Games

for Tra\el."

Chinese Checkers

shaped is

is

played on a board

like a six-pointed star. TTie

board

divided into triangles bv lines running

straight across

and diagonalh'. At the

corner of each triangle there

is

a hollow.

Marbles of different colors are used

in-

Each player has ten marbles, all the same color. At the beginning of the game, vou stead of clieekers.

place your marbles in the

first

ten holes

in the point of the star in front of \ou.

0000000000000 00000000000c 00000000000 0000000000 000000000 0000000000 00000000000 000000000000 0000000000000 99 Six playars, each with ten marbles, can

game

play the

of

"Chinese Checkers."

empty, you it, as you

side of an occupied hole

is

may "jump" your marble

into

jump in playing checkers. But the marble jumped remains on the board. As manv

as six persons

can play Chi-

nese checkers, each tr\ing to get his marbles into the point of the star opposite

him. Tiddlywinks. Each pla\ er tin\-

disks

and

is

given four

a larger disk, all

the same

Buttons ma\' be used for disks if \ou have nothing better. Make a starting line on the floor about five feet from color.

Then

Your opponent does the same. To win the game, you must get all ten of your

a small cup.

marbles into \our opponent's starting holes before he gets his into yours.

into the cup. This is done by pressing on the edge of a small disk with the larger

You

take turns

moving one

of vour

marbles one hole at a time, following the lines on the board. A move may be made in any direction, but onlv into an

empty

hole.

But

if

the hole on the other

tries

to

jump one

each player, in turn, of his smaller disks

one. A plaver snapping one of his tiddlywinks into the cup has an extra turn.

The

first pla\"cr

to get all four disks in

the tup wins the game. If a

tiddly wink lands on top of one

of

*

Games for Indoors and Outdoors another color, the lower one may be taken out and placed beside the one that is on top. If a disk lands on one of the same color, the player must snap it out

he can.

as best

You can buy jackstraws, make \our own. wooden toothpicks. D\c some

Jackstraws.

but

it

is

interesting to

Take fift\of them red, others \ellow, others blue or green, and lea\e some white. For a hook, bend a hairpin into the shape of the letter J. Put the straight end of it into the eraser at the end of a pencil, for a handle. In some straw games, the straws

may be shaped

like guns, spears,

or axes. Each has a different \alue in scoring.

Your

count

your blue,

low,

2;

5;

red

toothpicks 3;

and the white,

1.

Set your

own

Ihe

remove one of the straws with the hook, without moving any of the others. I'he placer who succeeds in doing so gets another turn. When the last straw has been hooked, the player whose straws count the most wins the game. Hearts. Any number of plavers, from two to seven, may plav this game with one deck of cards. Tlie object of the

game

is to get rid of your hearts or to a\oid taking any trick on which hearts

ha\e been played. Tlie plaver taking the fewest heart cards wins. However,

one player can capture

stra\\s are

dumped

in a

bunch on

all

in if

the hearts, he

wins.

lire cards are dealt out evenly. cards left over are laid face

down

Any

in the

center of the table. These, called the

"widow," go

\-alucs.

19

plavers take turns trying

to

could

the green or yel-

The

the table.

the plaver taking the

to

first trick.

The

player to the left of the dealer

game, or "leads."

he is caulow card, as there may be some hearts in the widow. Other players must follow with a card

starts the

tious,

he

of the

If

will usuallv play a

same

suit

if

possible.

The

card of that suit takes the trick. player has

no card

of the suit led,

high If

a

he can

plav anv card. Usuallv, he will get rid of a heart or

be

another high card that would

likely to take a trick.

The

player tak-

ing the trick leads again, and keeps on

leading until

The

someone

play goes on until

else takes a trick.

the cards have been played. Sometimes the queen of

known

spades,

made

to

count

as as

1

all

the Black Betty,

is

3 hearts.

Each plaver is given a card with numbers on it, and each card has a

Lotto. 1

'

5

;._^-'5£>j^$t_ This

little

mother

to

girl has challenged Grandplay a game of "Jackstraws."

"Pinning the Tail on the Donkey" has brought gay laughter

different

group of numbers. Each plaver

also gets a set of blank disks.

known

as

bered

disks.

down, on

One

num-

the Caller, has a set of

These

placed,

are

face

a table.

When

the

players

are

disks, reads

it,

and

calls

out

the

ready,

numbered

Caller picks up one of the

The

pla\'cr,

its

number.

number on his number with one of his blank disks. The Caller keeps turning up numbered disks and calling their numplayer having that

card covers the

bers until one of the players has covered all

the spaces on his card.

so calls out "Lotto,"

"Bingo"

is

The is

first

to

do

the winner.

also pla^ed in this way.

Party or

When

and

you go

to

many

a

happy

party.

on ha\e pla\'cd two or three games, you be ha\'ing a good time. BuHon, BuHon, Who's Got the Button? The players sit in a circle, \\ith the one who is IT in the center. Each player in the circle holds his hands with the palms together and the fingers pointing out. One of them holds a button between \

will

his hands.

He starts passing the button by slipping his two hands between the hands of the next player, and dropping the button into his neighbor's hands. Or he can pretend to drop the button if he likes. The next player, if he has the button, or pretends to have it, docs the same, and so on, around the circle. IT

Group Games

tries to

guess

who

has the button.

If

he

your

guesses right, the one caught \\ith the

friends to one, you expect to play games.

button takes his place. Passing the Ring is pla\cd in the same

to a party or invite

Eyer}'one can take part, and hv the time

Games for Indoors and Outdoors as "Button, Button, Who's Got the Button?" except that a ring is passed in-

way

stead of a button.

Any

ring will do. Slide

and

pieee of string

it

onto

a long

the ends of the

tie

string together.

The pkucrs form a eircle, holding the One pla\cr covers the ring with

string.

one hand and slide

it

the center, ring. If

who

slides

it

or pretends to

to the next one. IT, standing in

who

to guess

tries

has the

he guesses correctly, the player

has the ring becomes IT.

Pinning the

Tail

on the Donkey

is

al-

ways a favorite game at parties. Take sheet of wrapping paper and draw on a picture of a large donkcv without

Then

tail.

a

attach the picture to the wall

adhesive thumb tacks, Cut out as many paper tails as or

with pins, tape.

and run

there are players,

each

a it

a variation of

a picture of a

his pile.

through

game

the donkey.

By the time

all

donkey's nose or est its

player

the players have had

may be

ears,

tails on the and others on the

who

pins the

their turns, there

The

is like

Animal Calling. All you need for this is a deck of cards. The plavcrs sit around a table. Each decides what animal he wants to be in the game. One player may choose to be a dog, another a cat, or another a kangaroo. Each must be a different animal and tell everyone else what he is. Deal out all the cards as equally as possible. Everyone keeps his pile of cards, face downward, in front of him. The first plaver starts by turning up his top card and laying it, face up, in front of

a pin

tail.

Each player is blindfolded, in turn, and given a tail. He is then turned around three times to make him a little dizzy before he tries to pin the tail on

wall.

Putting the whiskers on the cat tail on the donkey.

pinning the

tail

near-

proper place wins the game.

Pussycat's Whiskers

the donkey game.

is

Draw

pussycat on wrapping paper, with a small circle for the head and a larger circle for the

body.

Make

the eyes, nose,

and mouth with crayons, but do not draw whiskers. Attach the pussycat to the wall. Blindfold and turn each plaver as in the donkey game. Give each a crayon of a different color. 'T]^e one who can draw the whiskers nearest their proper place wins.

The

player to his left turns his

top card, face up, and so on, each player taking his turn. The excitement comes

when one

player turns up a card that matches the upturned card of another plaver. Then they both try to remember each other's animal name. Tlie first one

who er's

calls it

out wins

upturned

the other play-

when they turn up their must turn the cards AWA"^' from

All players, cards,

all

cards.

-HILDCRAFT

"A stitch in time saves "Make hav while the sun shines;" "A barking

them. Otherwise, they could see their

erbs, such as:

cards before the other plavers could. If

nine;"

he is out of the game. Tlie games goes on until one

"Curiositv killed the cat;"

dog ne\er

player, the winner, has all the cards.

also often used.

a player loses all his cards,

Charades

is

a

wonderful partv game.

Each player takes a turn in acting out a word or a sentence without making anv sounds. He mav announce the number of syllables there are in the word, or the

number of words in the sentence. But he may not shape the syllables or words with his mouth. Only motions and gestures are allowed.

The

players are di\ided equally into

two teams. Suppose there are fi\e plavers on each team. The players on Team 1 write five different words on as manv slips of paper. These are kept secret from the members of Team 2. The players on Team 2 do likewise. One of the plavers on Team 2 is now handed one of the slips of paper prepared by Team 1. He glances at it, but may not show it to his teammates. He is given four minutes in which to act out his word or sentence. His teammates tr\to guess what it is that he is tr\ing to tell them.

If

minutes,

they guess correctlv within four they score five points. The

members so wrong

of

Team

1

know

the answer,

guesses of the other side, and

the antics of the player trying to act out the word, are amusing. After the time is up, or the right answer

hands a

slip

is

given,

Team

of paper to a player

2

on

Team

1. He must then act out the word on it. The team guessing the most words wins the game. Try acting out such words as infancy, in-fan-sea; decorate, deck-oar-ate; and

or sentence

handkerchief, hand-cur-chief. You will want to think of man\' new ones. Sentences used in Charades are often prov-

bites." Advertising slogans are

Twenty Questions is a guessing game \ou can plav with any number of per-

One

sons.

plaver writes the

name

of a

person, an animal, or an object on a slip

He lets no one see or know what he has written. It must, howe\'er, be something or someone that is well known. One of the other players tries to guess what or who it is. He is allowed of paper.

onlv twenty questions. The questions can be answered only by "Yes" or "No,"

know."

rectlv before using his

he guesses cortwenty questions,

word

for another player

or "I don't

he can choose

a

If

to guess. If there are several plavers, each

mav gi\'e

ask a question in turn. The the correct answer wins.

Your chance

of

winning

will

first

to

be better

\ou begin bv asking some general "Does it belong to the animal kingdom?" or "Is it a person?" Or, if a person, "Is he or she alive?" Hide the Thimble. Count out to see who shall be IT. While the others hide a thimble or any other small object, IT leaves the room. The thimble should not be hidden inside or under anything. When it is hidden, IT is called back and gi\cn a chance to find the thimble. The if

question, such as

other players

comes

sit

in a circle.

When

IT

close to the hiding place, the oth-

ers call out "Warm." If he comes closer, he is "Warmer," and, if still closer, "Hot." But, if IT is far from the hidden "Colder," or object, he is "Cold," "Freezing." As soon as IT finds the object, he may join the circle. Then an-

other plaver takes his place.

The game may be

\aried

if

someone

Games for Indoors and Outdoors the piano and plays loudly for

at

sits

"Mot," and Forfeits.

softly for "Cold." Before starting to plav this

game, write

number of some

a

stunts on sepafor boys to do, Fold the papers and the boys in one bowl,

The

23

whose forfeit has been drawn then redeems it. Here arc a few suggested stunts that may amuse ^^ou: Lap up a saucer of milk without using player

rate slips of paper,

your hands.

and some

Push a penny across the table with your nose. Hop back and forth across the room, holding one toe in )our hand. Eat a cracker, and before swallowing

for girls.

place those for

those for the

Now

girls in

another.

choose a Leader and a Judge.

The Judge

is

Then

blindfolded.

the

Leader collects from each of the other pla\ers a penny, a ring, a handkerchief, or something else. These are the forfeits. The girls' forfeits arc placed in one bowl or tray,

last

of

whistle

it,

Show how

"Yankee Doodle." and

a horse gallops, trots,

runs.

Pretend vou are a dog bur\ing a bone. Drink milk out of a babv bottle with

The

and Leader then picks up one of the forfeits from either tray. He holds it over the head of the Judge, who is seated, and the bo\s' in another.

the

a

nipple on

Dance

it.

a jig

while singing a lullabv.

Place a handkerchief on the floor and it up with \'our teeth. Musical Chairs, also called "Going to is always an exciting game

pick

says:

"Heavy, heavy hangs o\er your head. What shall be done to redeem it?"

Jerusalem," for a party.

The Judge If it is

"Fine;"

it

if

middle one less

of the room. Tlicrc should be

a girl's, "Superfine."

chair than players. If there are ten play-

The owner get

Line up a row of chairs

"Fine or superfine?" a bov's forfeit, the answer is asks,

of the forfeit

back, or redeem

it.

He

must now can do so

ing, line

up nine

in the

each chair

chairs. Place

facing in the opposite direction from the

ones next to

To

the music of a piano

only by obeving the Judge's order. The Judge draws one of the slips of

or a phonograph, the players

paper from the boys' tray

single

if

"Fine;"

from the girls' if "Superfine." The Leader opens the ]:)apcr and reads it.

A

rollicking

game

of

it.

march

in

file around the chairs. When the music stops, as it may at any moment,

each pla\cr scrambles for

musical chairs will bring any party

a

chair.

to life.

One

C HILDCRAFT

24 will

be

left

Then one

out.

He

lea\-es

the game.

of the remaining chairs

i,s

re-

moved, and the music starts again. The last one to remain in the game wins. No one going to Jerusalem may stop, or touch a chair, until the music stops. Neither ma\' he turn a chair around or pull it out from under someone else. Egg and Spoon Race. In this race, \ou and your partner first race against another team. Stand behind a line at one end of the room, while \our partner stands behind a line at the other end. Place the handle of a teaspoon between your teeth and put a hard-boiled egg in

Your partner holds a teathe same way, but \\ith no egg

the spoon.

spoon in in

the peanut behind the

When the signal is given, you run room to your partner, and without either of you using your hands, transfer the egg into your partner's spoon. Your partner then runs to the line from which \ou started. If the egg falls out of the spoon, the player carrying it must pick it up without using his across the

fourth peanut.

The

first

plaver to finish

No

one may touch any of the peanuts with his hands or with anything except the knife. He may not push the peanut against the \\all or any piece of furniture to get it on the knife. Memory Test. Lay about ten familiar objects on a table or trav. Co\'er them v\'ith a towel. Select such things as a teaspoon, a penny, a button, a thimble, a

pair of scissors,

Be

an

eraser, or a safety pin.

sure to select ordinary things.

Give each of your guests paper, and ha\-e each \\rite

Now, and

objects

a pencil his

and

name

at

take the towel from the

lea\'e

them unco\ered

for

four minutes.

At the end of that time, they are again co\'ered. Each player is asked to \\rite the names of the objects he can remember having seen. Fi\'e minutes are allowed for this. The one who has the longest correct

hands. After the first t\\o teams finish, two race against each other, then another pair, until all the teams have had a turn. The winners of each race are then paired off, and so on until the finals, when one team becomes the

Each does

wins.

the top.

it.

line.

the same with the second, third, and

list is

the winner.

Running Games

Running games not only

more teams

are

great

fun, but also wonderful exercise.

Some

games can be played well as in summer.

of these as

Run, Sheep. Run.

The

in winter

players are di-

Members

champion. Peanut Race. Place four peanuts in a row in front of each player. The first peanut is placed three feet beyond the starting line, and the others three feet

\ided evenly into t\\o teams.

apart.

sheep, except the captain, seek hiding

Each is At the starting signal, each pla\cr must run forward and pick up a peanut with his knife. Then, balancing it on the knife blade, he must run back and drop of the players

knife.

given a dull

one team are called the Sheep; of the other, the Hunters. Each team chooses of

a captain.

You places.

select- a

The

home

base. Tlien

all

the

captain goes out with his

team and sees that all are hidden. Then he returns to home base and joins the Hunters, who go out looking for the Sheep. WHien the captain of the Sheep

Games for Indoors and Outdoors thinks that his flock can get back to

home

base without being canglit, he

"Run, sheep, run."

shouts:

"I'hc

Sheep

come out from hiding and make a dash for home. The Hunters also race for home. Whichever side gets all its pla^'e^s to

home base first, plays the Sheep Pom Pom PuUaway. Draw two

lines at least thirty feet apart.

who

The

next.

long

plaver

IT stands midwav between the

is

Tlie other players stand along one

lines.

of the lines, ready to run.

when IT

Tlie signal comes

"Pom pom come,

I'll

pullawav!

If

calls:

the others must cross the space between the lines and trs' to reach the

other side without being tagged by IT. Whoever is tagged first, joins IT in the tagging. The game continues, the players racing back and forth, until all are

The last to be caught wins the game. The first one caught becomes IT caught.

in the ne.xt

game.

Hide and Seek. In usually selected for

this

who

is

eyes.

Then he counts

IT stands

WTiile he

is

game,

a tree

HOME. The

is

player

there and closes his

loudly up to loo. counting, the other plaj'ers

hide.

When

IT has finished counting, he calls, "All around mv base are IT. One two three." Then he tries to find the hiders. As soon as he sees one, he calls him by name, and says, "I spv Johnny" or the name of the one he sees. At that signal, the two race for Home.

— —

the hider gets there

he shouts, "Home free!" That means that he is safe and will not have to be IT in the next game. But if IT reaches the goal first, the hider is the next to be IT, unless he is freed or unless IT is unable to find all the hiders. If he can do that. first,

25

call,

After finding the

"All outs in free." hider,

first

IT goes

out again, and keeps on searching until he has found or freed all the players.

Any

hider, after the

first,

may

goal ahead of IT,

who

reaches

one or more of the hiders who have been caught. He can call, "I free Johnny," "I free Mary," and so on, naming as many of the hiders as he wishes. If he frees all the hiders, the one who was IT must be IT again. The first one caught is IT in the next game.

vou don't

pull \'ou awa\-."

Now

If

he must quickly

free

The

Prisoner's Base.

players are di-

\ided equally into two teams, with a captain for each. Draw two lines about

30 feet apart. Behind each line draw a 5 feet wide and 10 feet long. Tliese are the prisons. Tlie space between the

box

lines

the battleground.

is

The game

begins

one team sends

when

the captain of

a player to the

middle

the battleground to dare, or challenge, the other team. At this, the capof

tain of the other his

men

team sends out one

to tag the challenger.

The

he

is

of

chal-

lenger then starts to run back home.

If

tagged before he reaches home, he

becomes a prisoner, and must stand in the box behind the enemy line. While one player is being chased, his captain

may send out another man

someone always chasing someone else. But tag the chaser. In this way,

is

a

may

only tag an enemy plaver has run out into the field before

player

who

to

him. As soon as a player has tagged an enemy, he may not be tagged until he has touched home base and run out into the field again. Besides capturing pris-

oners in this game, each side

cue

its

teammate manages ground

tries to res-

prisoners from the enemy. If a

without

to cross the battle-

being

tagged,

and

Childcraft

26

touches a prisoner, both may return home without being chased. A prisoner is required to keep only

one foot

in the box.

foot in the box.

He and

there are sev-

mav keep

onlv one

eral prisoners,

clasp

WTien

the others

hands and form a chain reaching

out closer to their base. Only one

oner

The

players are divided

The Hares

fi\e-minute head bits of

paper

as

are gi\'en a

but thev drop they go. In this wav thev start,

leave a trail for the

Hounds

to follow.

But thev can make

false and dead-end Hounds. the Hares have been out for

to deceive the

When fifteen

minutes, they

start

back for

which is unkno\\n Hounds. This is usuallv near the

secret goal

to

a

the

starting

point. If thev can reach the goal before

anv one is tagged by the Hounds, thev win the game. Tom Tidler's Ground is another tag game. Draw a long line to mark the boundary of Tom's ground. The plaver who is IT is Tom Tidier and stands bethis line.

behind

it.

The

other

Tlie fun starts

across the line

and

sing:

pla\'ers

when "Here

Tidler's ground, picking

stand

thev run I

am on

up gold

silver!"

While they are on Tom's ground, he them. Those who can run back to their ow n side are safe. The first one tagged must take Tom's place. Blind Man's BuH. One pla\er is blindtries to tag

folded and turned around several times

catch one of

who he

mav go

is.

close to the Blind

Man

and tease him bv shouting in his ear and ducking out of reach. But uhen

"One, two, three

scraps of paper.

and

tries to

happens, the Blind

two teams. One team is made up of Hares, the other of Hounds. Each Hare carries a bag filled with

Tom

plaver

out,

paper chase.

yond

Any

this

into

trails

then

the players and guess

pris-

one team arc in prison. Hare and Hounds is sometimes called a

Man"

"Blind

is

other players scatter. ITie

rescued at a time. The continues until all the players on

mav be

game

The

facing.

his

mav

know which way he

so he does not

At that stand If is,

still

Man may

—stop."

signal, all the pla\ers

one of them

until

is

call

must

caught.

Man

can tell who the plaver the handkerchief is remoNcd from his

the Blind

and the player caught becomes the Blind Man. Otherwise, the Blind Man turned around again and the plavers

eyes,

is

scatter as before.

Tag. There are several ways of playing Tag. In the simplest game, one player, chosen as IT, chases the others and tries to tag one of them. Whoever he tags becomes IT in his place. Cross Tag. If a player runs between IT and a player who is being chased, he in turn

is

ger only

chased.

He

can get out of dan-

when another

between him Squat Tag. to tag one of simple game.

pla\er crosses

and

his pursuer.

The

player

who

is

IT

tries

the other players as in the

But any player

of being tagged

may

squat

in

danger

down

so that

on his heels. In this position is safe. But the moment he gets up, he may be tagged. Nose and Toe Tag. A player is safe from being tagged in this game only when he is holding his nose \\'ith one hand and one of his feet with the other he he

is

sitting

hand.

Shadow Tag is a game for a sunn\daw A player is safe so long as he stands shadow cast by one of the other

in a

players, a building, or a tree.

Grass

Tag

should

be

played

on

Games for Ixdoors wd Outdoors where

ground

arc onl\' small patches of grass. A pla\er is safe while standing on the grass. Japanese Tag starts out in the usual

The

way.

first

there

plaver to take IT's place

players, the Geese, take places along the

The Fox now

outer path.

tries to catch runs out along one of the straight paths or spokes. On reaching the circular path, he may follow the

one of them.

Me

must, while chasing the others, keep one

Gccse around on

hand on the spot where he was

the other paths into which thev may dodge. Neither Fox nor Geese may step outside any of the paths. The Geese,

tagged.

Tlie next pla\er to be tagged does the

and so on, to the end of the game. Fox and Geese is sometimes called

.same,

Wheel

Tag, because the players make

the shape of a wheel on the ground.

game

is

often

pkncd

in the

snow

The

or

on

damp

sand of a beach. about four feet wide is marked on the ground. From the center the

A

circle

of this circle paths are at six points, like the

The

made, cutting

it

spokes of a wheel.

paths should be at least three feet

from one path

chosen to be the Fox,

stands in the small circle in the center of the wheel,

or the goal.

The

other

anv space inside

the

and mav not be tagged. Only one Goose mav be there at one time. If another Goose comes running into it, the first Goose must leave the goal immediately or is

safe

change places with the Fox. Otherwise, the first player to be tagged becomes the Fox.

plaver,

stands

smaller circle or the goal

to be

One

across

any of

to another.

Any Goose who

wide and ten feet long. A circular path is drawn around the ends of these paths. three feet wide.

may jump

howc\er,

This also

is

that, or along

Bull in Xhe Ring. Select a spot or a tree

Home. About 30 form

yards away, the

bv holding hands. One of the players, chosen as the Bull, stands inside the circle. He must now

pla\'ers

a circle

break his way out. He is not allowed, howe\er, to duck under the other players'

hands.

After he has broken through, he runs for Home, while the others chase and tr\-

to catch

him.

Whoever

before he reaches Bull. If

he

is

Home

catches

him

becomes the

not caught, he plays the

Bull again.

Cat and Mouse. All but two players stand in a pla\er

"Fox and Geese," an old favorite

is

circle,

chosen

holding hands. One as Cat, another as

Mouse. Mouse stands inside the circle. Cat outside. Cat tries to catch Mouse. Both may run in and out of the circle, llie pla\ers try to help Mouse by raising their arms to let him in or out. They try to hinder Cat by blocking him with their arms. But they must keep their

Childcraft

28

hands clasped whether aiding Mouse or blocking Cat. If Cat catches Mouse, he

becomes Mouse

Cat and a new Cat is

for the next round.

then joins the circle

Drop the Handketchiei

also called

is

One player is chosen be IT and to drop the handkerchief.

tiskct, a tasket.

to

The

others stand in a circle, facing the but not holding hands. ITiey

center,

must not look around as IT walks circle behind the backs of the players. IT holds a handkerchief, and as he walks, he sings: around the

you

let

one," the

my

Scamp

I

tisket, a tasket, a

green and yellow basket;

wrote a

my

letter to

.4nd on the

And one And put It isn't

He

way

lo\e,

dropped

I

of \ou has picked it

it,

dropped up

I

it

it.

in his pocket, pocket.

you ...

It isn't

you

." .

.

repeats the last line several times

as he passes players. Then he drops the handkerchief behind one of the players, and calls, "It's you!" IT now runs

around the circle in the same direction that he has been walking. Tlic player at whose heels the handkerchief has been dropped turns around, picks up the handkerchief, and tries to catch IT. If b\-

IT can reach the place

the pla\'er

who

is

chasing

left

\acant

him before

replies.

thing that the

Scamp

does. If the

Scamp

within a certain length of time,

sav fi\e minutes, he takes his place in

Scamp chooses

the circle and the

other Gardener.

Scamp and

Follow the Leader. Tlie players form in line behind the Leader and follow him as he starts to walk or run. Now the\- must imitate ever\thing the Leader does, no matter how hard or how silly it may be. If the Leader flaps his arms as if he were a bird, his followers must do the same. The Leader may turn a somersault, or

jump over

a stone, or

be playing a viohn. Any to do exactly what the Leader does, is dropped from the game.

pretend plaver

The

to

who

fails

players

may

Leader. Treasure Hunt.

take turns acting as

A

treasure

mav be something

thing which like a

chosen

the plavers can share,

cand^•.

leading to the treasure. first

clue.

This clue leads them to the second. Tliat

them

be the Gardener, and another, the Scamp. The rest of the players form a

clue will lead

holding hands. The space inside the circle is the Garden. The Scamp stands in the Garden, while the Gardener stands outside.

must alwavs put the clue back

to

circle,

hidden.

Clues are written on paper and put in various places

box of

slips of

all

is

funny, or some-

Tlie players are gi\en the is

an-

the Gardener catches

If

names another Gardener.

place in the circle, and the one with the handkerchief becomes IT. But if he is tagged before getting around, he must be IT again. Tliis game is often plaved

player

Scamp

on hands and knees, or hops on one leg, the Gardener must do likewise. If the Gardener fails to catch the crawls

It

One

Scamp

chases the

and out of the circle. But while chasScamp, he must imitate everv-

ing the

the other tags him, he takes that player's

without the song. Garden Scamp.

"No

garden?"

the Scamp, he becomes the

"A

Scamp,

the

to

calls

in

The Gardener now in

chosen.

A

The Gardener

"Who

to the third,

so on, to the treasure.

next plavers can find

For example, the

"Go

The

and

"hunters" so the

it.

first

to the tree at the

clue might end of the

read, lane.

Games for Indoors and Outdoors then look to the riglit." I'lic second clue should be placed where the treasureseekers can find it by following the directions.

A

hunt may be planned so that each player is out for himself. But treasure

often the players are divided into teams. Each team races to be the first to find

29

wheelbarrow, take hold of his ankles,

and wheel him along as fast as vou can. If a large group of boys and girls are entering this event, divide them into groups. Or have one pair race against another,

llie

winners

can

then

race

other until one pair becomes the champion wheelbarrow team. against each

Three-legged Race. This

the treasure.

another

is

which you will need a partner. The left leg of one partner is tied to the other's right leg. Be sure you are tied securely for, if the cord falls off, you must take time out to tie it on again. If \ou ha\c enough space, four or fi\e race in

Races

Backward Race. Decide on a starting and a finish line. The racers must

line

walk,

run,

finish line.

to see

where thev

this

easy, just try

is

to

back\\'ards

skip

or

They may not

the

turn around

are going. If

you think

it.

You run

on all fours. That is, on hands and feet. Your knees must not touch the ground during Bear Race.

this race

the race.

Walking Race. In ground

at the

ing this

rule

should be is

this race, the walk-

mav not ha\c both

ers

a

feet

off

the

same time. Anyone breakloses.

Tlic walking race

rather long one.

small, the walkers

may go

If

space

over the

couples can race at once. Sact Race. Each person gets into a potato sack or a big laundrv bag, the

top of which

is tied, securely, around his One-two-thrce-GO! Now jump as fast as you can to the goal. Potato Race. Four or five potatoes arc placed on the ground, the first about four feet beyond the starting line and

uaist.

the

Heel and Toe Race race.

To win is

another kind of only by

You go forward

placing the heel of one foot against the toe of the other foot. Every step you

make must be made leave any space

in this way. If you between heel and toe at

step, you arc out of the race. Hopping Race. Hiis is run bv hopping on one foot from start to finish. In doing so, each person must prove that he is really hopping bv holding up the ankle of one foot for the whole distance. Wheelbarrow flace. la:

game

of

"London Bridge."

^^ "Blindman's Buff" is always a popular play at your own party.

game you can

can take part, and which a new pla\ci can join at any time. An acti\'e game, such as bhndman's buff or a race, sliould be followed by a quiet game. Plan to have a quiet just

game

before the refreshments are served.

directions for plaving many games will be found in the chapter. "Games for Indoors and Outdoors." Many of these, 1

with slight changes, can be made to carrv out your theme. Instead of pinning a tail on a donkc\ \ou can ask your guests to pin the ears or tail on a bunnv, or pin a cap or whiskers

on Santa Clans, to carry out your

partv theme.

"A

Tisket,

be played bv sending rock, or a dolly to

a

"my

drop a cloth bunny,

a

A Taskct" can bunny, a shamlove."

You can

paper shamrock,

or a rag doll instead of a handkerchief.

"Farmer

Jones's

Brook" can take the "Going to

der" rings his

much

bell.

he

as

caught. Santa

Looking

But he may dodge

likes.

When

Donder

as is

tell who he really is. hidden objects is always

must

for

fun at a party. Instead of hiding a thimyou can hide any small object in

place of "Musical Chairs" or

ble,

Jerusalem." I'he "brook," a small rug, is placed on one side of the room. The

keeping with your theme.

march around the room to mueach stepping on the rug in passing. When the music stops, the last plaver who stepped on the rug is told that he got his foot wet and must drop out of

At a patriotic party the players lined up for a relay race could be soldiers. But each of the soldiers, you explain, has lost one leg. So they must hop on one leg to the goal and back. And soldiers, of course, have to do their own mending.

the game. At Christmas time, you can

Who

use a wreath instead of a rug, and each

thread a needle, and get back to camp? After vou have gone over your list of

players sic,

player

he

must

step in the center of

it

as

passes.

There

are

several

ways of playing Christmas party,

blindman's buff. At a Santa could be blindfolded.

He

has lost

one of his reindeer. Tlie other players form a circle around him. He points to one of them, and calls, "Here, Donder!" "Donder," carrying a small bell, enters the circle. Wlienever Santa calls, "l^on-

will

be the

first

to run to the goal,

games, you will be surprised to see how many ways old games can be slightly changed to seem like new. Be sure to plan at least one more game than you think you will need. If you run out of games, it is not always easy to think of a new one in a hurry. As vour next step, make a list of the things \ou will need for the games. l''or

r

Childcraft

82

What

fun it is to blow out the candles on your own birthday cake! As you grow older it becomes harder to blow out all the candles with one breath.

7-^]^/4"^

If

you have sharp eyes, you can get together a These are pretty, and you will learn about

colorful collection of feathers at no

birds from them.

cost.

some

the woods, or along country lanes. Bovs

the patterns on

and

help the bird to hide from

girls li\ing

near a zoo will ha\e a

wonderful opportunit\- to collect feathers of man\' kinds of water fowl and tropical birds, especially

friends with

Each cial

one

if

the\'

make

of the keepers.

variety of bird has

its

own

spe-

kind of feathers. Your collection

might include a bright green feather from a parrot; a golden one from a canar\; an orange feather from a Balti-

more

oriole; a cardinal's red feather; or a

blue one from a jay. To these might be added a red or bronze-green feather of a

hummingbird,

a

showy brown one.

peacock's

feather, or a pheasant's

As you work on }our collection, you hooks at the edges These hold them together and protect the bird from rain and from the cold. You will notice how will notice the tiny

of the feathers.

These blend with

meadow

leaves,

a

of the feathers its

enemies.

background

grass, or twigs.

of dry If

\ou

chapter on birds in \^olume 7, you will learn many important things about birds which will help \ou will turn to the

with your feather collection. TTie Mexican Indians make pictures out of feathers. Perhaps you, too, will

become Tlie

interested in this feathers

mounted on

\ou

art.

collect

may be

cardboard. Leave a space at

the side for a picture of the bird itself in color.

You

can cut these pictures from

old magazines. Underneath, you can describe the bird's habits;

and

its

to the

used

it.

its

song,

if

any;

nest and eggs.

Birds' Nests. Birds

seldom come back

same nest after thcv ha\e once So there can be no harm in col-

Choosing a Hobby There

lecting old nests.

manv

are almost as

different kinds of nests as there

are birds. ole, for

The

nest of the Baltimore ori-

example,

is

shaped

like a

purse

and hangs from the limb of a tree so the babv birds are rocked in a treetop cradle. Tlie mcadowlark makes its nest in tall grasses.

The

grasshopper sparrow builds

123

structions for collecting tree lea\es.

Another interesting collection could be made of artificial flowers. Materials such as silk, linen, satin, velvet, gauze, paper, metal, shells, and glass are used to

make

artificial flowers.

snug little home. The nest of the cliff swallow looks like a tiny pot of clay. Marsh birds make their nests on rafts anchored to

are inexpensive

reeds.

gummed

a

tunnel

Flowers. will

leading

A

into

its

collection of wild flowers

appeal to every voung nature lover. are some wild flowers which are

found inand arranging

also in that \'olume, will be

and easy

Most

of

them

to find. Shal-

low boxes are the best places to keep them. The flowers may be sewed to the bottom of the box or held in place w ith paper. Sheets of cellophane over the tops of the boxes will protect

the flowers.

sheets of blotting paper or the pages of

and Moths. Facu the brightwhen pressed and butterflies and moths will keep their colors when preserved. There are butterflies and moths in your own neighborhood to provide you with a good collection. "Things to Do" in Chapter 7 of Volume 7 explains how to preserve butterflies for mounting. Moths and butterflies, and larger in-

and mounted on heavy paper. fastened with narrow

sects such as dragonflies, wasps, grasshoppers, and crickets are best mounted

There

protected and should not be picked. But vou can find others for \our collection

woods and fields and marshes. Or vou can collect many flowering weeds and grasses, as well as garden flowers. Many boys and girls have started a colin the

lection with a four-leaved clover.

Blossoms should be pressed between a book,

Tliey

mav be

The

Butterflies

est flowers will fade

mounted, but

Scotch tape. flowers can be according to the families to which they belong or the places where they grow. One group could be made up of meadow flowers. Others could be made up of uoodland, marsh, mountain, or desert flowers. You might even be able to gather some of the unusual flowers, such as the

on pins run through the center of the three parts making up the insect's bod^.

Venus's-flvtrap and others that eat in-

handled

strips of

classified either

sects.

Or \ou might

try to

make

a col-

lection of the state flowers or of those of

You

will find

the chapter on wild flowers in

CHILD-

the Canadian provinces.

CRAFT, Volume

7, a

guide in making

any kind of flower collection. In the chapter, "Trees and How They Grow,"

Tlie pins are then driven into the bot-

tom of a shallow box and the exhibit is covered uith cellophane. A drop of rubber cement ma\' be placed on the under side of smaller insects to fasten

them

the bottom of a cardboard box. tire of

If

to

you

chasing butterflies with a long-

net, tr^' raising them from caterfrom eggs, which are usufound on the under side of leaves.

pillars or e\'en

ally

With more than half a million known kinds of insects in the world, you will have no

difficulty in starting

and con-

tinuing a collection of these creatures. There are insects that can easily be mis-

Childcraft

124

taken for twigs or leaves, and the curious shapes of others will amuse you. After mounting them, you will probably want to

know more about them

—which

in-

our friends, and which are

are

sects

stones

pests.

Rocks, Ores, and Crystals. Rocks and

may

not seem very interesting at you could trace them back to vou would read in them wonderful stories, some of which are told in "The Earth and Its Treasures" in Volume 7. If you live near the mountains, near hills and cliffs, or near the seashore, you stones

But

first.

if

their beginnings, as geologists do,

will



agate,

turquoise,

opal,

and

amethyst. Tlie smaller specimens can be glued heavy cardboard or thin slabs of wood. A cabinet with shallow drawers or trays would be the best place for filing a to

collection of this kind.

Shell Collections. Boys

and

girls li\ing

near the sea can find hundreds of pretty

have an opportunity to make a

col-

along the beach at low tide. But you do not ha\e to live near the sea to

A

col-

discover shells.

lection of man\' kinds of stones. lection of rocks, stones,

be of

You

materials, how they were formed, and from where they came. You something should also learn about their uses. It may be that you can add to your collection some of the semiprecious different

little

will

value

if it is

and

crystals will

merely a jumble.

have to learn the names of the

shells

You can

them

in

ponds and brooks, under old logs

or

find

loose bark, or clinging to water plants.

Although

shells are

no longer used

for

These young nature lovers are proud of the beautiful butterflies which they have caught, mounted, and carefully arranged in special boxes with glass covers.

&^'.Bi These school children have collected and mounted all kinds of attractive colorful leaves.

monc}-, as they once were by some people, they are prized for their coloring

place

and shape. There are more than 50,000

and shells should give the name of each specimen and tell when and where it was found. Collecting Wood. If you are interested in collecting tree leaves, you may also want to collect samples of wood. You would not have to go far to find such specimens. You could obtain samples from dead trees or from fallen branches. Your collection in time might include wood from such trees as the pine, elm,

different kinds of shells.

Thev range

ers

in

color from the most delicate pearl gray and pink to purple. The smallest shells arc hardlv larger than a pinhcad.

Among

the largest are those of the sea snail,

which are about 2 feet long. Those of the giant clam measure about 4 feet across. like

Some

little

shells are spindle-shaped,

conical

spires.

shaped like trumpets. the shape of fans.

Among

Still

Others

are

others have

the most beautiful

them in shallow trays or box covon clean sand. Labels on your boxes

oak, poplar, linden, maple, willow, hickis

ory, black walnut, horse chestnut,

the rose-

You could

and

branch murex shell, which looks like a flower with rosy petals. Other beautiful kinds include the golden jingle shells;

s\camore.

chambered nautilus, a "ship pearl;" and the cockle shells, such Mistress Mary had in her garden.

of

The

as

or oblongs, and polished, would make an attracti\e exhibit. They should be mounted on cardboard with a picture of the tree itself at the side of each sample. The label should give the name of the

the

also

have samples

of fruit trees, such as apple, peach, pear, cherry,

Save only the perfect shells, clean them, and sort them according to size and kind. The smaller shells can be kept in boxes cushioned with cotton batting, llie larger specimens can be displayed on shehes. If starfish and sea urchins arc added to the collection, they should first be soaked in fresh water. Then dry and

tree

orange, lemon, and grapefruit.

samples, sawed into small squares

and other interesting information. Other Collections

Bottles girls

125

and Glassware.

'S

[any bo\'S and

eye their mothers' perfume bottles

Childcraft

[26

and can hardly \\ait until thev are emptied. These and other small bottles, e\'en when made bv machinery, have attractive shapes and colors. Some of these are made to imitate hand-blown bottles. Early American glass blowers

bottom of a box. Place the cardboard in the box about two inches abo\e the bottom. Cut slits in it the width of the plates, and insert the plates. Miniatures. Such a collection can be started with those }'0u find in some

made

bottles

hands,

fish,

packaged foods. A visit to the trinket counter of stores might offer sugges-

cn\iouslv,

in

the shapes of heads,

or violins. (See

Volume

Tlie collector will be lucky tain

one of

if

he can ob-

these. Also prized are the

bowls,

glass

13.)

vases,

mugs, and dishes

Such items

tions.

as toy dishes, minia-

ture airplanes, automobiles, street ears, doll furniture, miniature vases,

and

ani-

etched with delicate designs or decorated with designs in gold. If you begin a glass collection you may some day want specimens of the famous Venetian

mals are interesting to collect. You can mount \our miniatures either by runing a string through them or bv crossing

and red Bohemian glassware. They are usually rare and costly, but can often be found in curio or antique shops. Glass animals, which are not expensi\c, ap-

back of

peal to

many

can

be

mounted

in

square shallow boxes and held in place with Scotch tape. Tlie larger bottles can

be displayed on shelves. Plates and Pitchers. Most children's and dolls' dinner sets are now made of

aluminum lain,

which

from these

or plastic instead of porceis

easily broken.

Small plates decorated

sets, especially if

with storybook characters, make esting

collections.

Porcelain

inter-

plates

American make, decorated with

of

historic

scenes, birds, or flowers, are also fa\ored

by

collectors.

are

often

Those of European make and expensive. Many

rare

beautiful articles, such as Sevres vases

and Dresden china shepherdesses, were once made in Europe, and are highly prized. Cream pitchers of odd shapes and pretty colors, however, are inexpensive.

made

A

An

over

them and

tying the string to the

cardboard.

stiff

A

few miniature

etchings might even be included in the

enough of these small \ou could furnish a dollhouse

collection. W^ith articles,

of ^•our own.

collectors of all ages.

Small bottles

it

attractive collection could

be

of these.

holder for small plates can be made by using a strip of cardboard as the false

Models.

you have made a model want to keep it. TTiis first success maj' lead you to make other models and to collect them. Model sets of planes, automobiles, railroad cars, and ships, ready to be put together, may be bought in many stores. Some of these If

plane, \ou will

made only of wood or paper, are simple and inexpensive. Metal sets cost more. sets,

A

collection of plane models could

show

a complete histor\^ of a\iation from the first plane to the latest rocket plane. Other collections could tell the story of automobiles and trains. As your skill improves and your collection grows, you may become interested in models of furniture, bridges, or buildings.

The boy for a

or girl

who

chooses models

hobby soon becomes one

of a large

circle of friends, all eager to learn

more

about the subject. If \ou are among this number, you may have an opportunity

Some boys and girls like to play records of music and stories.

Leavitt. Freiieric

one of the well-known museums.

to visit

Among

these are the

Museum

of Sci-

ence and Industry in Chicago, or the Institution in famous Smithsonian Washington, D. C. In these museums, vou can study the life-sized models on display.

Records.

good

You may

phonograph

start a library or collection of

records?

ite

some

already ha\e

records.

Why

not your favor-

By looking through

the cata-

which you can get at any record store, vou can find many albums from which to choose. There are stories told with sound effects or with musical backgrounds. There are albums of cowboy songs, folk songs, and Christmas carols. logs

On

your tastes

may

run to

\'iolin,

piano,

or orchestra music. so manv records a\ailable, you do well to limit \our collection at But be sure to select the kind \ou like. Your collection will grow as \our parents and your uncles and aunts take an interest in it, or as you earn money yourself to spend on records. Records should be numbered and arranged in compartments according to tvpe. The name and number of each

With

will

first

to records of a certain kind.

Len

should then be written on cards filed in a narrow drawer. You would not want to collect records as a miser would hoard money. They \\ill be of little value unless }ou use them. By playing them often, for your own satisfaction or for your friends, you will learn to appreciate and understand good music, and to take an interest in the composers. You will find information about famous composers in

Volume

13.

Figurines. Statuettes of painted clay, plastic, or metal, sold at gift

.shops,

make

dime

excellent

stores

and

collectors'

might include dancing girls, musicians, and storybook and comic strip characters. Such souvenirs cost little, and can be attracti\ely displayed on shelves or in small cabinets. You might collect, also, small

items.

Your

collection

flower containers

made

dogs, rabbits, cows,

in the shapes of

and other animals.

Beads. Brightly colored beads appeal many kinds

especially to girls. Tlrere arc of beads,

some made

of coral, amber,

and ivory; others of stone, glass, metal, wood, shells, beans, and plastic. Some

Many kinds cost Beads, like shells, have

are exquisitely carved. little

27

to

buv.

Charle.

Members

tunnels, do

been used

all

for

money. Prayer beads, such may date from an-

as those in rosaries,

Indian Curios.

\er\' little.

used

An

Indian arrowhead

mav be the beginhome museum or collection of

of chipped flint

on

You

will also see

and

shawls

as

women

cient times.

made

Town

Train

Cli.

Charles Town, West Va., build their own train the wiring, and whatever repairs may be necessary from time to time.

of this electric-train club in

use

them

their backs.

gay scrapes

The

blankets.

to carrv their babies

The handuork

dians south of the Rio

of

In-

Grande Ri\er

is

ning of a Indian curios. Indians, especially those of the Southwest and Mexico, are natu-

cspccialh' colorful.

As you travel around the country, you will stop at places where the Indians have their wares on sale. Their pottery, baskets, blankets, and beadwork are colorful and not too expensive. If vou visit Mexico, vou uill see

arrows, pipes, dolls, beaded moccasins,

ral

in

artists.

the markets the lacquered plaques,

feather pictures, painted

tiles,

and

clay

kitchen utensils which vou can buv for

Among

other items that might go

into an Indian collection are stone axes,

miniature birch-bark canoes, and perhaps war bonnets and masks. Baskets and potter\' alone will make an attraeti\'C show ing. Fan Collections mav pro\e more expensi\'e than others, because decorati\'e fans

are

United

becoming more States,

rare

in

the

llie folded or pleated

Choosing a Hobby which

fan,

is

said to

ha\c originated in

Japan, is still used there. These fans were introduced in Europe during the sixteenth century. They were most popular in Spain and France. Even men at that time carried fans, as they still do in Japan and China. Folding fans arc made of silk, lace, or ostrich and peacock

and

feathers,

They

are

are

hand-painted.

often

mounted on

sticks

of

i\'ory,

sandalwood, or bone. Old-Fashioned Things. Antiques,

tortoise shell,

which to store the oldfashioned things you collect. But to own c\'en a few of them will gi\'e vou much kieking-mule banks, reach. It

pieces

of

or other pictures. Glass paperweights, snuffboxes, castors, and even

down

Once

a

person

to collect an-

starts

he

hobby

for the rest of his

is

usually interested in this life.

He may

attend auction sales and antique shows. As he travels, he is always on the lookout for pieces to

add

collectors have

to his collection. filled

priceless tapestries,

Some

v\arehouses with

wood

car\ings, furni-

and medie\'al armor brought from

Europe.

You

grinders

are

collectors'

items.

people have such treasures handed

from

their

parents

or

grand-

parents. If

will

you enjoy

like old-fashioned things, visits to

relics of colonial

vou

museums, where such

days as spinning wheels

and warming pans

are usually preserved.

Selecting a

Hobby

In choosing a hobby, select one that

tiques,

ture,

and

within your

of your older

print

treasured not onlv for their associations but also for their fine workmanship. A

museums.

some

you with some old a copper kettle, china, and an old sporting

candlesticks,

Many

be started from some interesting old object you might find in an attic. It has become a rather expensive hobb\-, however, as many articles of this kind are now so rare that they are found onlv in

may be

that

relatives can supply

coffee

may

may be

brass

as

collection of old-fashioned things

in

pleasure. Toys, such as china dolls

old things arc generally called, are

\'erv

129

warehouse

ma\' ne\cr ha\c to

buy

or rent a

will take your mind off your regular sehoolwork or your chores. Your hobbv should be PLAY. If it teaches you something or adds to vour skill, so much the better. It will be the answer to the question: "WHiat shall I do now?" If vou become interested in a hobbv, ^•ou \\ill nc\'cr ha^e dull moments. F^erv hour of your time will be happily occupied. Once \ou ha\c chosen a hobbw \'ou are on the road to an adventure.

BOOKS TO READ GiLMORE, Horace Herman. Model P/anes for Begjiniers. rev. ed. Hnr]5cr, 1947. Horowitz, Caroline. Child's Treasury oi Things-to-Do. Hart, 1945. Leeming, Joseph. Fun with Clay; drawings by Jessie Robinson. Lippincott, 1944. Petersham, Maud and Miska. America's Stamps; the Story of One Hundred Years Postage Stamps. Macmillan, 1947. Make More Things. Knopf, 1943. Let's Let's Make a Lot of Things. 1948.

V.

of

S.

Zarciiv, Harry. Let's

Make

Souict/iiiig. 1941.

PLAYMAKING

AND PLAY ACTING MOYNE

RICE SMITH

MAKE-BELIEVE

is an important part of most play. Our toy airplanes take us on imaginary trips above the clouds. Our dolls are almost like real persons who live and talk and play with us. The ." lead us into magic words, "Let's play that .

all

sorts

of

interesting

Smith opens doors

for

.

adventures. us

into an

Moyne

Rice

exciting

new

world as she describes the art of playmaking and play acting. This author is a dramatics teacher,

and the director of the Children's Community Theater in Princeton, jN. J.

The land of "make-believe" makes it possible for us to give full play to our imaginations. This boy and girl are enjoying themselves playing store.

at

him and making vour best bear

In doing

You

IET'S fore

pretend" fun starts long bewe can say any words. When

^a baby puts his hands in face

and someone

front of his

says, "\\Ticre

is

Baby?," the game of let's pretend has started even though Baby is not a vear old. You began to plav other games of make-believe at an early age. Perhaps, you pretended that vour toes were little pigs. Or, when you were just learning to walk, you may ha\c hidden behind the door and scared Daddy by popping out

this,

\

noises.

ou discovered the secret

of make-belic\e.

can be anyone

—an

ute and a witch the next.

elf this

min-

You can be a gate. You can

king or the beggar at his go anywhere to Grandma's house, the North Pole, an Enchanted Island, or the Moon. Y'ou can do any of these makebelieve things at any time because of your imagination. Imagination is the magic power of vour own thoughts to make pictures. It can make \our bed a ship and }'0u the captain. It can make your room a ca\'e and \ou a cave boy of long ago. And who has not played "cops

130



Playmaking and Play Acting and robbers" and

and

'coubows

In-

dians?"

The Fun Playing

of

Make-Believe

House.

Perhaps \ou have manv happv liours pla^•ing house. took a stick and marked out the You rooms under a big tree. One of \our playmates acted the part of the mother. Another was the father. The dolls, of course, were the children. You pretended to get them ready for school. Perhaps your doll had trouble with her first tooth. Or she might have had the measles, and vou ga\e her a make-believe spent

pill.

packing

After school,

tlic

children

you may ha\e gone

A young

to

off

to

market to

get supplies for the

week end. One

of

your playmates was the grocer. "Prices are SO high!" vou may have said, as vou ga\e him little paper squares for mone\'. You came home with a market basket filled with make-belie\'e oranges, bananas, candy bars, cabbages, and jam. Then you had a tea party with makcbclic\e tea and sandwiches, and conversation about make-believe things.

Playing Train. After your first train \ou probably played train as soon you got home. You went to the sta-

ride,

as

tion, train.

bought your

ticket, and got on the Perhaps the dining-room chairs

were the train ears. "All aboard," the conductor called. "Ding-dong," went the engine bell and }ou were off.

couple drop in for a make-believe cup of tea with their hosts.

Kouf.iiann. Fa

I

r.^,.-:

t-

Here Mr. and Mrs. are coming home from a

visit to

the store with

little

Miss.

pretending that you are somebody else, really play acting. For, in make-

you are

belie\e,

you play characters, or "parts,"

just as actors in the real theater do. You make up your words and your action as \ou play. You go from one room to an-

other, or to

all

parts of the back yard, or

park, or neighborhood. stay

where

his stage

is.

An He

actor has to is

acting for

an audience to see and hear him. But vou are acting just for your own fun. Sometimes you play house or soldier for days or perhaps for weeks. A real play,

must begin, tell its end within an hour or two. howe\'er,

story,

and

In your outdoor games, the action

more important Dressing Up. E\ery

fun

it

is

to "dress

up"

girl

knows what

in her mother's

old dresses. Boys, too, like to put on one

and plav "grownup." scarf around your shoulders can help you look like an old lady. Put on a red cape, and you are Red Ridinghood. Put on a big hat and a wide belt, and you are a cowboy. And with a feather in ^ou^ hair, vou can be Hiawatha. of their dad's hats

A

Start your scarv'cs,

string,

own

rags,

and

dress-up box. Ribbons,

old clothes, hats, masks,

lace are things that are likelv

come in handy in your make-belie\'e play. The more diflferent materials and colors \ou collect, the more dress-up fun to

you can have. Play Acting In playing games of make-bclie\e, or

Dressing up in mother's old clothes provides all kinds of fun for a girl.

is

to the story than the

Girls like to play house and do such as washing, ironing, and cooking.

words a

arc.

real

This

true, also,

is

plav out of doors.

games ha\e

believe

plavs do. Real aetors

plots

if

work

you gi\c

Your makejust

as

real

do what you do

in

vour make-believe games. Tliey use their imaginations to make thcmseh-es into characters who tell a st()r\- in words and deeds.

Playmaking

and }Our friends v.ould group and gi\e a You can have a meeting and decide

Perhaps like to

plav.

\()u

form

a theater

some important

questions. \\'hat play

do you want to give, and when and where will vou produce it? Do you want to give it more than once? Will it be outdoors, at somebody's home, in a classroom,

room on

or

in

the school assembly

what kind vou going to present

a real stage? Before

of an audience are

\our parents be invited, your schoolmates, or the other boys and girls Arc you going to neighborhood? your in charge admission and sell tickets or will vou send invitations? One of the best things about playmaking is that there is always something for everyone to do. Most of \ou will probably want to take an acting part. But if you all do this, you will each ha\c to find time when \ou are not acting to fix secnerv and to make costumes. Some it?

of

\\'ill

you

will

want

to design

and build

Some of \ou can be the stage crew who mo\e the secnerv and set up the "props." Some ma\' want to experiment with simple lighting. Still others may want to design and make costumes. You can trade jobs, too, so that everyone scenerv.

gets a

Selecting a Play. use a plav that

is

You

can,

if

you w ish,

already written. But

it

more interesting to WTite your own pla\-. There are many ways to start writ-

is

ing a play. Start with a situation. For

You

instance:

and

a stranger

the doorbell rings in.

You go on from own play.

and make \our

there,

"Let's pretend we're fairies,

in

a

characters.

and queens,

zoo." This

is

happen to each. Another wax to is

or ani-

starting with

You must then

these characters are doing

acters

cowboys, or

all

or Chinese children, or Indians,

or pioneers, or kings

mals

room

are in your living

when comes

supper,

after

decide what and what will

from charyou to choose a one of you wants

start a play

for each

of

fa\orite character. If

to be Cinderella, another Alice in ^\'on•

Snow \Miitc, Robinson CruSawver, or Simple Simon, you ha\e to figure out how you can all

derland. soe, will

Tom

be in the same

Another

chance to do different things. ^33

story.

wa\'

to

make

a

play

is

to

Childcraft

134

from a story which you know well. You have all done this. You ha\'e acted out stories like "The Three Bears," and "The Three Billy Goats Gruff." You can choose a story which has many build

it

characters in

it.

A

story like the "Expoti-

North Pole" from "Winnie Pooh" can use many boys and girls for Rabbit's friends and relations. "In the Great Walled Country" uses manv -actors because it is about a kingdom of tion to the

the

uho

children

live

next door to Grand-

The

story of

"The

Tailor of Gloucester" can have as

many

Christmas.

father

mice

you have boys and girls. Perhaps you will choose "The Three Wishes" as a story to make into a play. If so, read the complete storv in Volume 3.

as

In this story there are only three lead-

the

fairy.

parts.

A

—the woodcutter,

his wife, and But you can make up other There could be as many fairies

ing parts

group

trial of

of clever

the

Knave

young

actors put

you wish. You could also who drop in at the woodcottage at the most embarrassing

and ehes

as

have neighbors cutter's

times.

Selecting the Actors. Every boy or

who would

than once, a different set of characters can be chosen each time. There should also be an understudy for each part. The understudy should know the lines and action so well that he can step in and play the part at any time. Let everyone try out.

You should not

members

overlook the shy

of the group.

much to words when he

The boy who who mumbles may be just the

never has

say, or

his

talks,

one for the role of the \\oodcutter if he imagines himself to be that character. The shy girl who holds back may make

on a well-rehearsed play. This scene shows the from "Alice in Wonderland."

of Hearts, a character

Princeton Universit

«„>

girl

one of the parts can try playing it. Even after vou choose your players, you can plan on trading parts. If the play is to be given more like to play

9

on a play, it is important to pick the right person for the part. In putting

charming fairy or a modest violet. Music makes a plav more interesting and pleasant. It helps the actors in their a

mo\'ements.

and the

come

It

helps to explain the plav

characters. It helps the play be-

more exciting or and story indicate. There are many ways to use music. Your story may have good places for singing and dancing. Perhaps you will want to use music as a background for the entire play. Music has been written for some stories. There arc books of music and records for the I lums of Pooh, which fit faster or slower or

quiet, as the action

well with a play, or dramatization, of stories

from "\Vinnie the Pooh" and

"The House

at

Pooh Corner."

Sometimes you will find it interesting to play certain music for each character. In "The Three Bears," Goldilocks would have light music to which she moves and speaks. But it would change when the porridge is too hot, too cold, and just right. When she tries out the chairs and breaks one down, you would want a "crash bang!" You would plav a lullabv when she finds the little bed is just right. Each bear would lune his own music big, middle-sized, and little. You can present some of the plav bv a

number

of players saying lines together

to chords of music. Tliis

reading. It

is

good

is

to use

called choral

when you do

not want your play to depend on a few people saying most of the lines. One person can do the action while the chorus group says the words together. Any music you use in a plav, and anv

bad

it is

who

for the play. Tlie

bovs and

girls

furnish the music should ha\c

it

ready for the early practice, or rehearsals. They should help with the music during

and production. The Play Direc/or is the general manager of everyone who is working to produce the plav. He makes sure that all rehearsals

the actors understand the play.

He

also

makes sure that everyone who is helping with the play knows what he is to do and when. The producing of a plav is a needs as much teamgame. Every member of the entire group must have the same

group

work

acti\'itv.

It

as a football

idea of

what you

are trying to do.

The

play director helps the actors work out

the

meaning of each scene, the nicanint; and the meaning of

of each character,

singing, or dancing,

the lines. He helps the actors decide on their stage movements. This is called working out the "business." The director must see the play as the audience will see it. He works with everyone who

story

is

wise,

must add to the and meaning of the play. Otherno matter how good it is bv itself.

helping with the play. \our team.

tain of

35

He

is

the cap-

Some boys and girls enjoy making and painting the scenery.

The Scenery. If you like to make and paint, you will enjov design-

things

ing and

making the

scenerv'.

thing the audience sees rises

on

setting.

a play

This

is

tells

when

The

first

the curtain

the scener\- or stage

them something about

which \ou can decorate \\ish.

these.

Drapes are good to use for walls, or any kind of background. If you make drapes vou will need to get an for sky or

older person to help you.

Any kind

cloth which hangs well can be

of

used.

can be dyed any color \ou wish. Cotton flannel and unbleached muslin are It

good

to use for this purpose.

can make

sheets that your

Ask her loop

of curtains

all sorts

back wall of your

to

You can

make doorwavs and

entrances. Screens, also, are especially

handy

making

scenery. Tliev can be used in front of drapes or alone against a plain wall. You can co\er them bv sticking paper, cardboard, canvas, or cloth on them with Scotch tape. The for

chapter,

"Making Toys and Playthings," how to make a good screen.

shows you

anv wa\' \ou

You

stage.

can paint a

for the action.

The

right kind of

doorway can

gest an entire building.

The

sug-

right kind

of \\all can suggest a \\-hole courtyard.

Keep your outlines big and easy to see and understand. Powdered paint, which can be bought in boxes, is easily mixed with water. It can be put on quickly hv brushing, spraying, or spattering. Try different effects in \our painting to see

what

vou can get. Be same idea of the picture you want before you begin interesting colors

sure e\'erybody has the stage

work.

The

\\'orn

mother has discarded.

to save these for you.

drapes

And vou

from

in

can suggest the scene of \our

big picture, or mural, as a background

the time and the place of the action.

Scenery can be what is called realistic. That is, it can look like a room or a garden. Or scenery can just suggest

You

play by tacking paper or cloth across the

or

scenery usually

mood,

of the play.

tells

the feeling,

Suppose the

cur-

open on a garden wall with giant sunflo\\crs propped against it, a bright blue bench, a big red water can, and tains

sunlight flooding the scene.

ence

will smile

a ga\- comcd\-.

The

audi-

and get ready to enjoy If

they see dark drapes

with a single big \\indow of blue light, they are ready for mystery. If they see a

background funn\- trees

36

of

orange toadstools and

and purple rabbits

pla\'ing

Playmaking and Play Acting leapfrog, they

\\'in

hope

stage anv minute.

on the

an

elf

things. If the actors are dressed in eve-

You should

try

ning dresses, the audience knows the time of day. Costumes help to tell in what country the play is laid. They also

to find

to create not only a plaee but also a

mood

of make-belie\e.

WTien the

play director is ready for your scenery to be used, the stage man-

ager sees that the scenery is properly placed on the stage before he starts the

you do not ha\'e a separate stage manager, the boy or girl in charge of your scenery can do this job. Those who have made the scenery can be the stage workers, or stage crew. At the first rehearsal. If

rehearsals, the scenery workers will

mark

where the scenery is to be put on the stage, and where the entrances and windows are. Change the scenery if there is more than one scene. For this, you will need rehearsals of the stage crew, so that each person knows exactly what he is to do. You must learn to change scenery quickly, quietly, and safely. Tlie stage manager gives the signals to start each scene of the play, and pulls the curtain.

He

is

in general charge of the

can be out where the audience sits. Costumes. "Drcss-up" for your pla\

stage, so the pla\- director

front

is



the work of the costume director and

his helpers.

This group

the

way each

way

all

job

is

responsible for

and

for the

when they are on The first costuming

the actors look

the stage together.

Then

is

actor looks,

to study

and understand the plaw and the direccostumes that will be

discuss with the cast

tor the kind of best.

Costumes should be

a l^lendcd part of

the whole stage picture. Like the scenery,

they should

tell

the audience

many

Costumes are an important part of the They should be carefully studied.

play.

tell

the period of history, and whether

the actors are rich or poor, young or old, funny or serious. A court magician may

have golden owls pasted on a long, blue robe. The court mathematician may have big white numbers pasted on his black suit and four long pencils stuck in his wig. The audience knows who these people are from their costumes. And the audience knows that they will be funny characters. Tlie only good costume is one which is right for the character and the play. Otherwise it is wrong, no matter how beautiful it is. See how many of the costumes \ou can make by yourselves. Many of the things you need can be borrowed from your homes. All sorts of things are useful in making costumes: oilcloth, card-

Childcraft

38

board, cheesecloth, metal papers, muslin,

old scraps of material, ribbons, and

ing up, at the outside corners of your

Then your

eyes.

eves

appear as

will

Cloth can be dyed to get the right colors. Sewing can be done with big needles, coarse thread, and big stitches. You can also decorate cloth with paint and crayons. Costumes are the greatest help to the actors. But actors must feel as if their costumes really belong to them. They must wear them often and learn to handle them easily and naturally. Everyone in your playmaking group should help to get suitable costumes. The costumes should be put awav

your eyes will appear to ha\e drooping lids. Eyes will also stand out more behind lights if eye shadow is put on beneath them. Frown lines and wrinkles can be made with an eyebrow pencil or with charcoal. By the time vou have put on a wig and a mustache, and drawn a few wrinkles around \our mouth, you will hardly know yourself. Like costumes, make-up helps the actors them-

carefully after each plav.

selves

laces.

In this

\ou can gradually build up supply.

You

a

will find that the

\\'ay

costume same cos-

tumes can be used again and again. If you make a plav of "The Three Wishes," vou will require little costuming. For the woodcutter and his wife, use a leather jacket, an old pair of trousers, an old felt hat, and a gingham dress. For the fairy's costume vou will need only a pretty white dress, and a gold cardboard crown.

Make-up. \our plav, too.

it

If

\ou are dressing up for be fun to "make up"

will

Make-up helps to bring out a charface. Without it, the players'

though they actually slope up.

make

lines sloping

down

^•ou

If

at the corners,

by making them

really the characters

feel they are they are pretending

to be.

Properties are of two kinds. Stage "props" are the big pieces of furniture with which you set your stage. In a

the stage props might be a cupboard, table, and chairs. Hand props are smaller things, such as the bowls on kitchen,

the table, spoons, kettles, and so on.

props

Personal

which belong

hand

are

properties

to the actors.

These

in-

clude such things as the s\\ord of a soldier, ihe

Be

of a lady.

wand

of a fairy, or the fan

sure that the properties are

and place

acter's

right for the time

may look like a blur from the back rows. The bright lights seem to deaden the faces of the players and make them

Also, see that the properties are suitable

appear pale. For dim lights, also, makeup helps to bring out a character's face. Touch up \our cheeks with rouge. Eyes can be made up with an eyebrow pencil. The brous can be made darker. Even the shape of the eves can be changed by making lines around them. The lines of the eye can be sloped up or down, depending on the kind of char-

who ha\e

faces

you represent. If \ou are pla\'ing a Chinese part, you can make lines, slopacter

of the play.

to the scenery. It is

the work of the boys and

girls

charge of the properties to borrow or make the props needed. Many properties are easy to build. Even they can be make-believe. Always use what you already ha\'e when possible, such as cardboard, wallboard, paper, plywood,

canvas,

crayons,

wire,

and

plaster,

papier-mache,

make a list of need. Then study

paint. First,

the properties you will

your

list

effect

you want most

with the idea of getting the easily,

cheaply,

and

The properties for this play, "The Three were cleverly made by the

Little Pigs,"

children

who

staged this old favorite.

There are many good short

quickly.

Properties should be used in rehearsals. Before

you have

cuts.

the

all

final

props

you should provide substitute props to be used in rehearsals, or pracready,

tice.

All off-stage noises, such as bells,

tliundcr, door slams,

the

responsibility

and so on, the

of

are also

properties

group. Tickets and Programs. If vou are charg-

ing

admission,

the

tickets

should be

made and sold ahead of time. member of your theater group

anv

If

has a

small printing press, he can print \our

Or

be made on a tvpewriter. Several tickets could be typed at one time by using carbon paper. tickets.

tickets could

You may want

to give free tickets to

your teacher, the pastor of your church, or friends who ha\'e helped in producing your play. Anyone who has lent costumes or properties should not be forgotten. And you might also send tickets to the editor of your local newspaper, or to any merchants who may have displayed your homemade posters in their windows. Your program should be headed with the

name

of the plav

and that

author, or the author of the story,

of

its

if

the

based on one. It should list the characters and the names of the boys play

and

is

girls

who

act the parts, in the order

of their appearance.

A

program also

the scenes of the action, and the bers of the

lists

know about your play. Some you may want to make posters to may want to write stories about it for your local newspaper. Announcements may also be posted on bulletin boards. Everyone who works on a play is equally important to the fun and success of the production. exeryone to of

ad\crtise your play. Others

Producing a Play

Suppose you have decided to give a free play. You want to make a plav from a story which has action, little scenerv, and easy costuming. First read the story vou are considering before all the bovs and girls who are going to help with the play. How many scenes will you need?

Can

the

change

of

action

take

scenery?

scenes be used twice?

place

without

Can one of the Can you add char-

acters to the plav that are not in the

story?

mem-

Sometimes,

much

of the con\'ersation.

or dialog, can be used from the storv.

staff.

Everyone can help to make tickets and programs. This work is usually directed by the publicity group. If vou are planning to sell tickets, you will want

But often it is

making

necessary to

tion. Tliis

139

in

is

a story into a play

make up

the conversa-

called writing the script.

"The Three Wishes"

is

a

good

ex-

:

Childcraft

140

of a story that has only three

ample

But you can add as many characters as you wish, and you can easily imagine the words for the play.

The

characters are: Jan, a woodcutter; and the Fairy

my good dame! Coming!" "Well, come then. Your break-

"Coming, Jo.^n:

characters.

fast

is

(To

waiting.

herself)

Working

mv

poor hands to the bone for a bare living. If Jan weren't such a lazy."

Joan, his scolding wife;

bones.

you have more boys and girls to take part in the play, you might add a chorus of fairies and elves. They could dance to music in the forest early in the morning. When the \\'oodcutter

(Jan enters, yawns, and rubs his eves. He is dressed in a leather jacket. His red

Queen. But

if

comes, they could scurry away. You could also introduce curious neighbors, an innkeeper, a town gossip, and others. These could drop in at the woodcutter's hut after the sausage had been fastened to

his

nose.

The

sausage

"black pudding" in this long ago.

The

is

stor^-

called

written

action of the storv could be in



a

coach with four horses.

dressed in

silk

\\ish

." .

Jan:

.

and

satin.

And

I'd

be

Sometimes

I

.

"So

it's

WISHING

you

arc,

If wishes were horses, beggars could ride. I wish you'd have done with vour nagging and complaining. I'm tired

again.

sides. A large ax stands in one corA window at one side of the fireplace is open. A colored curtain is blo\\'-

ing in the wind.

From

outdoors

or a rooster crows. Joan,

a bird

mumbling

to herself, sets the table with a plate, a large knife, a loaf of dark bread,

and

a

of cheese.

Joan (calling): "Jan! Wake up! Are you ever coming to breakfast? Here it is sun-up alrcadv, and }ou are still snoring like a pig. High time you were up and taking your ax and getting out into Jan!" ( from wings, in sleepy voice ) .

.

sits

down

Jan: "Black bread and cheese again!

ner.

Jan

what's that \ou were sa\-

(Jan pulls out a chair and

both

.

"And

Joan: "I said if \ou weren t such a lazybones we'd be riding in a gold coach

to the table.)

A black pot hangs from a crane over the open fireplace. Pans hang from the walls on

the woods.

mussed.)

of it."

Kitchen of Jan's hut. Forest in early morning. III: Same as Scene I. II:

ing herself about the kitchen.

hunk

.

mg?"

I:

As the curtain rises, Joan, in a shabby gingham apron and a grav wig, is busy-

calls,

is

Jan:

a

three scenes: Scene Scene Scene

hair

.

Ho, hum!" Joan: "And what did \ou expect? Cake, perhaps, or a fine black pudding?" J.\n: "A fine black pudding! Now, that would be to my liking, indeed." Joan: "Take your ax then, and out into the woods with vou, or we'll be eating nothing tonight." This is onlv an outline of Act I. But it shows how you might build a ph\ from a story. To supply more con\ersation, or dialog, you could have the woodcutter tell his wife about the big tree he saw yesterday in the forest. Perhaps it looked enchanted to him. He wondered if a fairy prince were imprisoned it. And his wife might recall the fairy music she heard in her dreams last night. As she mentions music, it could be heard faintlv in the distance. The two

in

Playmaking and Play Acting could argue about whether or uot Jan should cut the tree, lire curtain falls on Act I as Jan takes his ax and leaves the hut.

Act II could open wiih fairies and dancing around the big tree. WTiy this tree be spared? Should the Fairv Queen explain before the woodcutter comes on the scene? As the wood-

elves

must

feather from the goose.

when

first girl

him stuck together. He reached the town where the King li\'ed. The Princess was so solemn that nobody could make her laugh. Tlie King had said that whoe\er could her.

Jan could find the dancing

Perhaps, after the sausage has grown

on

you would

Jan's nose,

the Fairv

Queen come peeping

going to cut

Your

into the line,

Jan

"I'm

ax,

make her laugh could

and properties can be you wish. A table and and a loaf bread would be all the necessary if

several pans, an ax,

Jack, of course, married the Princess. first

scene could be in the

The pudding, or sausage, to could be made balloon and fastened rubber out of a on with a small piece of Scotch tape. Imagine the fun and laughter when this happens in \our plav! "The Golden Goose," from Grimms'

last

forest.

The

All the characters

another good

is

stor\-

to

first

forest they

of a

man who had

two were

met

three

In the

selfish.

man

a little old gray

who was hungry and

They

thirsty.

wine and cake

would not share their with him. But Jack, the youngest fed him.

down

man Among its

The

a tree.

the

come

Princess.

entire plav could also take place in

the palace courtyard.

Your plav could start by having some some of the King's sol-

court ladies and

who

is

so

At the sound of trumpets, the

King's guards enter with the King and the sad Princess. The King proclaims that

anvone who makes the Princess

laugh can marrv her. A herald is sent to carry the news through the countryside. Each of the soldiers and guards then

make the Princess laugh, by dosome special stunt. But the Princess

tries to

into a play.

sons, lire

in

could

King and

sad.

It is a story

Or

scene in the castle of the King.

the entire play could happen

diers discussing the Princess,

make

and the

forest, the third in the country,

properties.

Fairy Tales,

home

of the three brothers, the second in the

be used

in a later scene,

marr\'

When the Princess saw Jack with the people stuck to him, she laughed.

there, including the

that tree."

stage

imaginative of

down

have

like to

window. And, for the closing might say, as he takes up his

chair,

all

Tlie

the tree.

fast.

ing

Or perhaps

and fairies and talk to the Fairy Queen, who might ask him not to cut

Rut

reached for a feather, The next person stuck fast to her. Jack went through the countryside with a line of people followthe

her hands stuck

cutter arri\es, the fairies could disappear.

elves

141

a golden

old

son,

told Jack to cut roots Jack

found



golden goose. Everyone Jack met the three daughters of the innkeeper, the

a

parson, and the sexton

—wanted

to pick

ing

only sighs and shakes her head. Suddenly, there

is

a great

commotion. Jack

with his golden goose enters, with the people who are stuck to him yelling and trving to pull loose. They look so silly that the Princess laughs.

The King tells Jack about the Proclamation. But Jack is still stuck to the other people. So how can he claim his reward, and marry the Princess? Jack

These young actors took part in "The Golden Goose" irom Grimm's Fairy Tales.

the King

tells

Then

the

how he old grav

little

forest appears.

He

got the goose.

man from

throws

off his

the grav

He

says that Jack is the most unand kindly person in the kingdom, for he shared his food with a poor, hungry man. He deserves to marry a Princess. He touches Jack with his wand, and the people fall back, one on top of cloak.

selfish

another, in a pile. Jack kneels before the King. The King invites everyone to

come

tune of "The King of France."

King and Princess take positions

The

in the

center of the stage as the guards and soldiers

do

trumpet

a militarv drill for

them. The

on the piano, again played and the King proclaims

new

law.

call,

A

or chords

arc his

herald goes off calling the

news of the Proclamation. Then each soldier and guard takes a turn at making the Princess laugh. One sings "Old King Cole." A second person

wedding

does acrobatic stunts to the tune of "Jack and Jill." A third person does a

action, color, and fun Musical accompaniment can be worked out for the entire play from nursery-rhyme music. First, the people in the courtvard might be moving about in a simple dance to the tune of "On the Bridge of A\ignon." This music continues while

funny dance to "Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush." A fourth does juggling tricks to the tune of "I Had a

inside the palace to the

celebration.

There can be this

in

they a

tell

play.

the story of the sad Princess. At call, or chords played on the

trumpet

piano, the soldiers stand at attention the ladies bow. Tlie King, his

and

guards, and the Princess enter to the

Little

Nut

Tree." After each perform-

ance, the court ladies laugh and clap,

but the Princess onlv sighs and turns away. The music changes to "Pop Goes the Weasel." In come Jack and his followers doing a chain dance, trying to pull away from each other every time the music goes "Pop." They circle around the courtyard and everyone, including the Princess, laughs. This music

142

Playmaking and Play Acting continues

softh'

while

the

King and

Jack speak to eaeli otlier. Then the old gray man enters to the

tune of "There Was a Crooked Man." This eontinucs while he talks with the King and waves his wand. It changes to "Pop Goes the Weasel" as all the people fall

from Jack. "LavenBlue," Jack kneels before the King

\\hen

Then, der's

they are

as the

and the

freed

music plays

softly

Those present go off wedding festival. They tune of "The King of the gay

Princess.

Daughters

of the Innkeeper, the Parson, and the Sexton. That makes

You can have as manv Ladies, Soldiers, Guards, and Heralds as you wish. After the actors have had a good chance at trying each a total of nine.

Court

of the parts,

you can agree on who will each part. Change around

start playing

dance to

until evcr\one

All the action in the play

is

open and

free

in large

must keep your for movement. The

groups, so you

stage court-

yard needs only a big wall with, perhaps, some cutouts of bushes and trees against

The plav needs bright, sunny lighting. garden bench is the only stage property needed. Hand props are: s\\ords for the soldiers, spears for the guards, a trumpet for the herald, a scepter for the it.

A

King, golden balls for the

juggler,

a

golden goose, and a wand for the old gray man. The costumes are the biggest job in this pla\-. You could use robes for the King and Princess, but all the costumes should be colorful, lliev must

When you are acting in a play, you should learn all about the character you are playing.

Old Gray Man, the

Princess, Jack, the

Three

in couples to the

France."

143

be ready to wear in early practices so that the actors can get used to them. The characters include: the King, the

is

sure

each of the parts. Playing Your Pait.

who

is

best for

When

vou are in you can about your character. You think about what he looks like, how old he is, and where he lives. He must become so real in your own mind that you know his whole story, not just the part of it vou are acting. Studv the whole plav and know what \our character's relation is a

play,

you should learn

all

to the other persons in the plav.

must know how he

feels

You

and thinks

about them. When you put on a play you ask the audience to pretend with you that what thev are seeing palace,

is

the court\ard of a

and that vou are

a

Prince or a

144

Whenever any person on

soldier.

stage stops pretending for

the

one second,

then the audience stops pretending too, and you have spoiled the magic of makeif something goes wrong you must stay in character. Anything you do that is out of character,

Even

believe.

in a play,

such as looking in the wrong direction, or fidgeting with your costume, draws the attention of the audience and the plav

is

spoiled at that point.

Listening

is

one of the most impor-

tant things an actor has to do. It

is

much

simpler to strut across the stage with

sword and say funny lines than to stand quietly as a guard or a court lady.

a

Wliat you must do is listen to \\'hat is as if you were hearing it for the first time. A play must always seem to the audience as if it is happening just

being said

this

minute.

The most important

thing

is

to

the audience understand what

is

make hap-

Your words must be distinct and loud enough to be easily heard. At pening.

the beginning of a play, the audience

looking at the scenery and the costumes and trying to learn what the plav

is

is

Then

about.

it is

especially important

for the actors to talk clearly

Give the audience stand everything.

a

No

and

slowlv.

chance to undermatter how clever

your acting or how good the no one can enjoy it if he has to strain to hear what you are saying. Think of the meaning of \our lines.

you are story

in

What

is,

knowing your character thorYou must know what you are so that vou can forget evcrvthing else and just ha\-e fun acting. Tlien \ou will be relaxed and your movements and \oice will be free and well controlled. E\'crything that your bodv from

oughly. to

do and sav

does should result from vour thinking what vour particular character would do

There should be no mo\ement or gestures without meaning. Rehearsals of a play should always be fun. You will talk about the meanings of the lines, and work out the action of the play and the positions of each actor at in a particular situation.

every

moment of the plav in the first re You will not memorize your

hearsals.

you have rehearsed several vou memorize lines before \ou rehearse, you will not fit your words to the action, and you will have a hard time trying to change lines wrongly learned. lines

until

times. If

Dress rehearsal is always a time of excitement in any theater. It means that the play is to be rehearsed as

great

nearly as possible like the finished per-

formance. Many things may go wrong the first time costumes, scenery, lights, and props are used. Costumes may come unfastened.

Wigs may

may wobble

or even

fall off.

Scener\'

mav over his robe. The curtain may get jammed or not be pulled at the right time. The lights may accidentally go off. Any number of sad and funny things fall.

Tlie King

trip

words in each Which speeches should be and which slowly? Don't get

can happen. Everyone will be excited. The PerioTmance. When the day of the play finally comes, the wall and

the bad habit of starting a speech clearlv and slowly and then letting it run down so that it can't be heard. The secret of all good acting is freedom of body and voice. This comes

bushes and trees are in place on the

are the important

sentence? said fast

stage.

The

lights are fixed so that all the

action can be clearly seen.

The bench

is

standing in front of the wall. Tire hand props are on a table near the stage en-

Before the play is performed, the actors take part in several full-dress rehearsals to make sure that costumes, properties, and lights are perfect.

trance.

The costumes

dressing rooms.

are ready in the

Those taking

care of

lights

The

go out.

Now

pubhcity and programs have arranged

The

stage lights go on.

curtain opens!

you are ha\ing the big

thrill

of

chairs for the audience. Tliey are wait-

acting before an audience. Something

ing at the door to give out programs and to your theater early, so

happens when that never happens in rehearsals. Tliere is a kind of magic which makes the peo-

that you can take plenty of time getting

ple out there in the dark a part of the

to help seat the guests.

You come ready.

You

will

know

the plav so well

that you will be able to go ahead with

the idea of the play even though lines

mav

the

pla\-

You

\\ill

be able to

and make up

lines until

go wrong.

stay in character

some

gets back to

manager,

before he takes his place at the curtain ropes.

on

Now

the soldiers and court ladies

stage, the other actors are waiting

at their entrances

ready.

The music

whole exciting experience. You are playing make-believe and thev are pla^'ing which makes both \ou and }our audience a part of the play.

make-believe,

Pageants and Festivals

the right place

again. "Places," says the stage

are

you have an audience

with their hand props begins. The audience

From the earliest times, people have come together to sing, dance, and act out stories. In the spring, the festi\'als were celebrated to welcome the return of the birds and flowers. In the fall,

when 145

crops were stored away, festivals

Childcraft

146

were held to celebrate the harvest. There were also many religious ceremonies of this kind and there were pageants in

ture

honor of national heroes. Our Easter, Christmas, and Thanksgiving were first celebrated with pageants and festi\als. At first, the story part of the celebration was not so important as the dancing, singing, and parading. But gradually, the early festi\'als began to take on a story form. As a storyteller recited, the chorus acted out the story as it sang and

Your story should be simple and diand your costumes should be like worn during the times you show. Pick out only the most important events. Put them together so that \ou can use processions and music. If -\ou

danced.

They might

and

include the story

white men in America, their meeting with the Indians, their learning to be friends with the Indians, the plantof the

first

ing of the of the

first

first

crops,

harvests.

and the celebration

From

these events,

you could make the story of our

first

You

could also make a pageant about the people who were the first leaders in America, the men who signed the Declaration of Independence. This might be a Fourth of July Pageant. An outdoor pageant could be centered around the mo\'ement of the Thanksgiving.

West. Tire pioneers with their scouts and wagon trains, their songs and their costumes, and their meetings with the Indians, could be carlv settlers to the

made

into an exciting show. Tlie history

of earlv voyages

Canada

to

furnishes

rect,

those

use speakers, or narrators, to

The

May

Festival,

own community

Find out

grew.

Ha\e

the earliest days of

its

start a festival

The

is

to

tume seated

story

of transportation or the story of agricul-

a

is

a parade, or pro-

Have

different cos-

Then the groups can be and become part of the audience

groups.

while the individual groups perform.

May Day

Festival could

show

A

spring-

time folk dances and songs of different countries. You might end with the May Pole dances and the crowning of the

May Queen. The

story

of

Sleeping

Beauty makes an interesting outline to follow for a spring storv as

if

A

the all

festi\'al.

fair\',

Tliink of the

\\'intcr,

put the

the birds and flowers to

Prince, as the Spring Sun, could

Tliere are

how

have

cession, with music.

awaken the court

a pag-

pageant

in a

good time for a Spring Festival. This should be presented outdoors. Decide first on the main idea you wish to follow. Then figure out the order of events, and begin work on your costumes. A good wav to

of

settlement and

history to the present time.

May Day

of

eant showing the important events from

movement,

action, or

and the pictures presented

sleep.

interest as a local pageant.

the

are the important parts.

court and

Community Pageant. The story own community would also be

tell

be sure that thev have good voices. Keep the speeches simple and easy to

storv,

pageants.

your

be interesting to present.

ful.

wonderful background material for such

^•our

also

understand.

Historical Pageants are exciting colorful.

would

In a pageant, you must be sure that the events \ou select are clear and color-

many

to

new

life

and beauty.

other stories of long ago

and other lands which could be adapted for pageants.

'The Pied Piper." a story told in \^ol2, would be especially colorful as a pageant. The pageant could open with the Mayor of Hamclin and his council-

ume

Many

Junior

Community Players

put on pageants and festivals out of doors.

men

manv

the

Peace Pageant. Life today is just as and important as at any time in histor\'. Perhaps you would like to make a pageant of world unity and peace. Your theme could be "The Children of a United World." A good way to start would be to ha\e your best readers tell simplv and clearly that we want the world in \\hich we li\e to be a neighborhood of understanding and friendhness. The bovs and girls could be di\ ided into groups dressed in the costumes of different nations. Tliey might march in these groups in a parade, or procession. Then each group could do a folk song and dance of the country it represents. Tlie group could also act out a scene showing

talking about the rat problem. As storyteller reads the poem, the mayor and eouneilmen break in with

conversation: "If there were only

town of

rats!

They

some way

of ridding this

are frightening everyone. Thc-y

arc devouring our grain.

They

are even eating tlic

food right off our tables!"

At

this

point in the story, the Pied He is dressed in a ragged

Piper enters.

many

suit of

eolors.

Mayor: "Well, sir?" Piper: "So! You ha\e been troubled bv rats." Mayor: "TROUBLED is no name for it. W'c have tried e\erything, but we can't get rid of them. .\re you a rat catcher?" Pipkr: "I'll make a bargain with vou. For a thousand guilders 1 will rid this town of rats." Mayor: "A thousand guilders! You are ask ing plenty, my man. But if the eouneilmen agree.

.

.

suggestions for striking costumes.

A

exciting

."

The eouneilmen nnirmur, but finallv and the reading goes on. The col-

agree,

ored pictures with the story of "TTic Pied Piper" in Volume 2 will give you

what its country can offer the world. At the end of the pageant all the actors could do a simple circle dance together, and march out with children in costumes from different countries.

147

A

pageant or

festival

is

a

big job.

Childcr-^ft

148

Many

actors

and helpers are needed to

A

from the

first

idea to the final produc-

pageant should

tion.

Then everyone

always be started in plenty of time, so that evoryone working on it can enjoy it

large

group working together.

give a successful one.

taking part will undcrstand the pleasure and \alue of a

BOOKS TO READ Melcher, Marguerite. Offstage. Knopf, 1938. Mills, Winifred Harrington, and Dunn, L. M. Shadow Them. Doubleday, 1938. Pashko, Stanley. Boy Showman. Greenl:)crg. 194". \\^\rd, \\^inifred Louise. Playniaking with

SchooJ. Appleton-Century. 1947.

Plays and

How

to

Produce

Children, horn Kindergarten to High

DRAWING AND PAINTING CAROLYN

S.

IIOWLETT

A\n ISABEL SMLIII

THE THRILL

Just as

cra\'ons

stories

of working with pencil, brush, or and creating your own pictures is one which anyone, old or young, can enjoy. Picture subjects are e\ervwhere around us, above and underfoot, and e\en in our hearts. Carolyn Howlett, head of the Junior School of the Chicago Art Institute, and Isabel Smith, her associate, tell us how to find these subjects, and how to express

some boys and girls like and compose poems, draw and paint.

to write so,

others like to

You

think about the things you like to

do, the funny things that other persons

our thoughts about them in pictures. Others nia\ then share our thoughts and see the things wc paint or draw as wc liavc seen them.

and how they look while doing Sometimes you just imagine You could not photograph such things as fairies or dragons. But you could draw or paint them. That is why

do,

them.

tilings.

SOMETIMES you feel like painting as vou feci like running or jumping, or eating an ice cream cone. Painting and drawing pictures can be just as much fun as plaving games, singing, or dancing. For manv, it is more fun to make pictures than to do anything else. Often, when you are thinking about something, you feel that you must draw a picture about it! One idea after another pops into vour head. just

it

is

so

much

fun

to

express

your

thoughts in pictures. You can let others you see them. You can even

see things as let

them read vour thoughts.

Some

persons have the idea that only can draw or paint pictures. As a matter of fact, all boys and girls can draw or paint pictures if they will ob-

artists

serve carcfullv

149

what thev

see.

Tliey

may

too,

Before you begin with your art work, be sure you have all the paper, crayon, pencils, and paints you need. Place your table near a window so you can get the best light possible for your work.

There is cannot make pictures of these things. You can draw and paint what you think and rememsee things that othqrs o\erlook.

no reason why you,

ber,

too,

and the things you

Where

to

see

and do.

Work and What

to

Use

vour adventures in painting and drawing, you will need a place in which to work. Look around vour home for a good place. It is best to have plenty of space so that you can move around while painting. Plan to work near a window, for you will always need good light for drawing and painting. On pleasant days, even in winter, vou can take \our drawing materials outdoors, on the porch, on the lawn, or in the park. If you are working in the park, First of

all,

for

a good plan to take only a tablet or notebook, and pencils. TTien you can make small sketches of the things you see. Later, you can use these small it is

a

sketches

to

make

bigger

pictures

at

or water colors, like to

when you is

with room to reach all around vour picture. But you may want to stand while vou make pictures. Then you can easily co\'er all the corners of your paper. If \ou like to draw while standing, you will want an easel, a small blackboard, or a wallboard to which you can attach a sheet of paper. Be sure that the board is larger than the picture you want to make. The center of the board, or paper, should be at the height of vour eves. Most artists, when using pen and ink

a table. But,

are painting

it if

board.

You best to have a low table and chair,

what }0u

you tack your paper to the wall or to a board resting on an easel. A piece of wallboard can be fastened to the wall, and on this vou can tack your drawing paper. If you are working at a table, the paper can be tacked to a drawing board, which rests on the table. Place a book under the back of the board so that the board is lower in front. Thumbtacks, pins, or drawing-board clips may be used to attach your drawing paper to the

home. It is

sit at

use paints and big brushes,

easier to see

jars, a

will need, also, at least

two

glass

small tray for mixing paints, or a

palette with compartments. If \ou are using chalk or ink, vou should have an apron or a smock. Diy Materials, such as pencils, colored chalk, crayons,

and charcoal, are easier you can work

to use than brushes. Also, faster with

several

house.

them.

kinds

Some

of will

You can probably

find

around the have hard leads, with pencils

which you can make fine, light marks. Others will be soft, and will make black, smudgy marks. But manj' prefer bright-

150

Dr-wving and Painting colored cra\ons.

\Micn \ou press down the\' make a briglit,

hard with them, shiny color. color

When

vou press

lightly,

the

pale and dull.

is

you want to make big pictures in a you can use big, fat, colored chalks. Chalks are softer than cra\'ons, and spread more easily o\cr the paper. And \ou can make the marks as wide as \ou like bv drawing with the long side of If

It

is

much

like chalk.

spreads and smears in the same way,

but

it is

black.

tures with

Wet known

it

camcl's-hair brushes are excellent to use. \Micn using wet materials, \ou will

probably get better results if you work some other flat surface, for

at a table or

hurr\',

the chalk. Charcoal

51

You can make

bigger pic-

than with pencils.

need

holding a brush you bear down too hard, the ink will spatter, and the paint will smear all oyer the paper. The brush or pen should be held lightly between the first and second fingers and the thumb. Ink is wet, like paints, but thinner. It is used mostly for line drawings, and to make fine lines, such as those with a little practice in

or a pen. If

Materials.

which

as

stitches

Inks and paints are wet materials. You need more

space to work with wet materials than

you need with dry materials. You can use your fingers to draw with dry materials. But to put paint and ink on your paper, you usually need a brush or a pen. In fact, you will need two brushes. Use a big, fat one to paint all the large things in your picture. Use a small, fine brush for the small things. Long-handled

may

these materials will run. First, you

you draw hair, eyelashes, or on dresses. It takes practice to pen just right. Younger boys and

hold a should use ink

girls

You

\yith a brush.

can use any kind of pen to make pictures. But to make \our lines dark or black, ter for

you will find India ink much betyour work than ordinary writing

ink.

Spread your paints, or water colors, on You can also mix them with a wet brush. The more water \ou haye on your brush, the the paper with a wet brush.

lighter

You

and thinner the color will be. need a jar or pan of water

will

handy.

Besides

paints lighter

water

to

make your

and thinner, you

will

need

water to clean the brush. After you haye used your brush with one color, be sure to wash and dry it before wetting it again and using another color. When you have finished your painting, clean and dry the brushes, and place them, brush side up, If

you are

in a jar.

like

most boys or

girls,

you

This homemade double easel makes it possible for these two boys to paint original pictures on large paper sheets.

When you

are finger painting, put newspapers under a large sheet of paper on the floor.

will like to paint or



draw

still

wet, or in the

paint box.

and

see

It is

little

your

trays of

interesting to experiment

how many

diflferent colors

vou

can make. Red and yellow will make orange; blue and yellow, green; red and blue, purple; black

and white,

Painting.

brushes, you

Instead

may even

like to

of

using

smear the

paint on with your fingers. Jars of finger paints can be bought at art supply stores.

But perhaps your mother or

ther will help you

make some

fa-

finger

paints. Have jars with tight lids ready to put the mixture in when it is done. Then you will have it ready to use whenever you wish. To make finger paint, vou will need 1/3 cup of glossy laundry starch, 2 cups of boiling water, and Vi cup of soap flakes.

Dissolve the starch in a small

amount of cold water, Then add the boiling

to

constantly.

make a paste. Cook the

it

becomes

clear,

Then remove

and

stir

the pan from

the sto\'e and add the soap flakes. Stir until the flakes are dissolved.

of the mixture into as

many

Pour some jars as you

want colors. Pour only a small amount if you are going to use only a little of some color. Add vegetable or calcimine coloring to the mixture in each jar to

make

the colors you want.

When

gray; red

and white, pink. Finger

mixture until

in bright colors

red, yellow, blue, and green. But von can get almost any color you wish by mixing your paints. You can do this either on your picture, while the paint is •

you are using

finger

paints,

spread newspapers on the table and floor where vou are working. A large pan of

water in which to dip vour paper before starting will be needed. But when you are ready, you can smear, splash, and pat the colors, and push them to the places on the paper where you want to use

them. Papers

to Use. You do not need to buy on which to draw and paint. You will find it is fun to paint on wrapping papers, cans, paper cartons, and even bottles and jars. If you ever happened to color the faces in newspapers with chalk, vou will find that it is

special kinds of paper

just

water.

52

easy to cover

as

Ilien

all

the printing.

vou can not even see that

it

is

Drawing and Many

boys and girls use paints on newspapers. The paint, also, eo\'ers the printing. So von ean paint and paint, with no fear of running out newspaper.

of paper. If

you want to take the creases or out of wrapping paper, you

wrinkles

should press it flat with a warm iron. W^iite paper will make your picture look dainty and light

if

the paint

is

Paip

153

suppose you have received a box of cravons as a birthday gift. You will want to see what you can do with them. Perhaps \ ou feel that }0u could learn to draw by copying the pictures in a book. But you will not have as much fun in doing this. The pictures you copy are not your own. Even if your own pictures are not so good, at least they have something of you in them. They stand for what vou

china and cloth.

see and feel. Boys and girls live in a wodd all their own. Every day brings new ad\enture. Life is gay. It is filled with balloon men,

handy

lollipops,

spread in even strokes. Coarse, rough

paper

Many

will

make your

picture look rough.

made on And a blackboard is drawing because it ean be used over and over. Clay is another good material to use in your art work. Wlien it is wet, vou can make pictures on it by using a pencil or sharp-pointed stick. You can rub out the lines, or the whole picture, as if on a blackboard. Tlien you can start the drawing again if you want to do so. When the clay is dry and hard, you can carve your picture on it with a nail. Pictures drawn on clay may also be painted. beautiful paintings are

for

Sooner or

to

Draw

later,

you

or Paint will

want

draw

But now.

There are interesting pictures all around you which you may want to draw or paint on paper.

cir-

flowers.

Wherever you feet,

or

look, around you, at your overhead, you see something

Things You See. You see houses and people and dogs. You see children skipping rope or racing back and forth on the playground.

You

cycles or roller skates.

see children

At your

on

bi-

feet, ants

are scurrying along, or caterpillars are

crawling.

Up

in the blue sky, cloud cas-

every shape and color are in the

making. to

pictures of the things you see, or touch,

or think about, or imagine.

and

interesting.

tles of

What

ice-cream cones, parties,

cuses, toylands, birds, trees,

E\'erywhere, on every side, there are pictures. Whatever you see, whatever you think or imagine, is a sub-

always

Childcraft

154 ject for

The

your pictures.

mail carrier the street, bringing good

comes down news to some, bad news to others. The milk wagon draws up at the curb. Dad comes home from work. You can make pictures of ever\thing that happens.

Look out the window. Does a beautiful

landscape?

are green.

trees

The

The sky

is

it

frame

grass

and

blue, the

clouds white and fleecy, like a flock of sheep.

The

distant hills are purple in the

haze. Buildings, too, are beautiful. are red, others white,

boy

in his play suit

Some

brown, or blue.

makes

A

a bright spot

Tlie things vou see are not always

the

still.

wind.

Trees bend and sway in

Squirrels

scamper

up

the

trunks of trees and peep out at you.

Shadows

fall

on houses. Clouds scud

before the wind. Trains sweep around curves. Airplanes di\-e

and zoom. Most

bovs and girls like to picture things in motion. But to do this, vou mav want to use onlv a few swift brush strokes.

Action pictures you may want to draw or paint include bareback riders in the circus leaping on their horses; a tightrope walker keeping his balance; vour playmates skating on the pond, or rollerskating on the sidewalk. A dog chasing an automobile runs so fast that only a speed camera could picture him in motion. No matter how fast vou worked with your pencil, you could never do it. So, if you want to make a picture of a dog running, watch him carefully. Does he have all four feet off the ground at once? Is his body humped up, and is his neck stretched out as he runs? Or, perhaps, he looks like a black streak to you. In any case, make your picture come to life as

The

carefully.

The

big

he gazes at you from behind the bars. Now he opens his mouth and \awns. The tigers walk back and forth restlessly in their cages. How lighth- that big tiger leaps up to his shelf! Tlie monkeys swing by their tails. Here is a bear seated on the ground, holding out his paws for peanuts. After \ou get home, see if \ou can draw these animals. Can \ou make the animal seem lion appears sleepy as

savage,

happy, sad, or lone-

Wlien you go

into a garden you see

friendly,

some? bees and butterflies hovering around the

of color.

standing

watch the animals

you yourself sec the dog. next time you go to the zoo.

A

flouers.

bird

is

taking a bath in the

spray of the lawn sprinkler. All these

make gay and

colorful pictures.

Suppose \ou look city.

The

Some

for pictures in the

street cars, buses, taxicabs,

automobiles are are red,

all

some

and

of different colors. are yellow,

some

are

green. Notice the gay colors of the maga-

on the corner stand. In the toy department of the big store vou will see all kinds of dolls and games, bicycles, scooters, wagons, and mechanical toys that spin and whirr. You could spend days zines

painting

some

of these pictures.

Perhaps \'0u would like to paint a big one in which you put together many ideas about trees, houses, animals, persons, and sky. Some boys and girls picture,

like to

draw pictures of

hills

and moun-

tains, or of lakes and beaches. A bathing beach in summer makes a ga}' picture. The \ellow sand, the blue water, the beach umbrellas, the bathing suits make bright colors for a picture. Did you ever try to paint an island? Did the island look to \ou as if it were floating in the sky? Would \ou ha\c liked to ha\e a

picnic there?

You do not have

to paint the things

LET'S Grown-up they

draw the things

artists

know

best.

DRAW

You can do

that

the same.



Playthings, surroundings, trips all are good subjects for your drawings. lane. Van, Walter, and Carole did that in making these unusual pictures.

A

bicycle

Jane,

age

is

a cherished possession.

eight, liked hers so well that

she took the time

to

draw

it.

A

boat means adventure to boys. Van, age seven, captures the memories of his boat trip in this drawing.

Drawing real persons can be fun. Walter, age ten, model in picturI

ing a

Our homes mean much

to us all. Carole, age six, has provided a large sunny yard for play and games.

stroll

in

the park.

Childcraft

156 you see

as

they really

ter to paint

them

are. It is

much

bet-

as they look to you.

Or

you can put only the things that interest you in a picture and leave out others. Suppose a group of boys and girls all painted a picture that might be called "Sue's Birthday Party." Each picture would be different. One might show

cause you would like to see a dog with blue and yellow spots. A house in your picture can be pink because pink favorite color. It

paint

things

is

just as

according

your fun to your own is

much

to

fancy as to paint them exactly as they So you may paint a robin bigger than a house, because the robin is more

are.

sees his subjects differently.

important to you. Things You Touch. There are things you like to touch, and other things which you would rather not touch. Rose petals feel cool and smooth. Tlie bark of an oak tree feels rough. A chestnut burr feels prickly. Jam feels sticky. Seaweed feels wet and slimy. Down feels soft and

buildings ma}- look crooked.

fluffy.

they might look like boxes.

you experiment with different mayou may be able to get into your picture the way things feel to the touch. Paint thinned with water and brushed on with smooth, even strokes, will make a surface look as smooth as satin. Short jabs with pen and ink will give a prickly appearance. Or you could make something look sticky by thickening your paint. Try using charcoal, ink, and chalk the next time you are painting a picture of a tree. See which makes the bark look

only the birthday cake with the candles

on it. Another might show Sue with her arms full of gifts. Perhaps another would tell about a game of "Drop the Handkerchief" or "Bhndman's Buf?." Each picture would tell about the party in a different way, for every artist

To one, tall To another, The shadows

on the snow might look yellow to one artist, and purple to another. How would you paint a tall building or shadows on the snow? If you were to paint a birthday party picture, or a picture suggested by your visit to the zoo, you would not have space enough to crowd in everything you saw. You would have to leave out some things and put in only what interested you most or seemed most important. In the zoo picture, it might be only a baby monkey or the zebras. If you wish, you can also paint into your picture things that you did not see. You can put in things that you know are there. You may, if you like, make a picture of the outside and the inside of a house at once. You can arrange things to suit yourself. If you are painting a landscape, you can place the trees anywhere you want them. You can move the houses around too. Sometimes you may paint things as you would like them to be. You might put blue and yellow spots on a dog be-

If

terials,

rough.

draw

With

yellow paint or crayons, an orange on rough pa-

a picture of

per to see what result \ou get. Things You Hear, Smell, or

Taste.

Often the things }0u hear, smell, or

may suggest pictures. You hear the raindrops pattering on the roof or the taste

snowflakes

dowpane.

splashing

Do

come

against

these sounds

the

win-

make

pic-

mind? Paint what you think about when you hear: tures

to your

Church

A

bells on a quiet Sunday morning. locomotive whistle echoing among the hills.

The The

roar

Bird

calls in

and crash of the

surf.

splash of a canoe paddle.

the woods.

Drawing and Painting Cowbells in the distance. The rustling of leaves in the wind.

The

chirp of crickets in the grass. Tlie tinkle of ice in a glass of lemonade.

The band playing in a parade. The squeak of chalk on the blackboard. The ticking of

The The

a clock.

crackle of burning logs in a fireplace.

screech of automobile brakes.

How

often, too, smells bring ]3icturcs

mind! For example, the smell of Dad's pipe might suggest a pieture of Dad in his easy ehair. I le mav be reading his newspaper with a eat purring at his feet. The smell of wet fur might remind you of the dav at the beaeh when vou tossed stieks into the water for \our dog to bring baek. Do ^'ou remember how he shook water out of his eoat, giving you an unexpeeted shower? Wlien you smell gasoline, does a pieture eomc to \ou of an automobile trip, and Dad pulling up to your

at a

filling

smells

station?

Do

make you think

Tangy pine

the following

of pictures?

needles.

Cookies baking. The steaming earth

after a rain

on

a

hot sum-

mer's day.

Burning leaves

New

in

autumn.

shoes.

Tastes, too,

ma\

inspire

vou to make

interesting pictures. For example, a sour

green apple, a salty eraeker, a strawberr\soda, or eurrant jam may give vou ideas

any number of pictures. Such tastes might make you think of a bov doubled up with stomach-ache, a bakery sho]), boys and girls at a soda fountain, and vour mother in the kitchen, making eurfor

rant jam. "\"ou

need nc\er be

at a loss for ideas.

While on a trip io New York, this young girl went to see the Statue of Liberty. She is

painting a picture of

it.

57

For you can pull them out of the air almost as a magician pulls rabbits out of a hat.

Things You Do. Sometimes you may like making pictures about the things you and your friends do. For example, you may want to make a picture of boys and girls on slides and teeterfeel

totters or playing other

You may want

to

outdoor games.

make

a picture of riding a bicycle, dressing up, tap dancing, or even painting pictures.

someone Perhaps

girls are playing hopscotch on Dad is working on his car. washing the dishes. You can get many ideas for pictures by watching oth-

the sidewalk.

Ellen

is

they work or play. Things You Remember.

ers as

you you

Some

pictures

will like best to paint are the

ones

from memory. Tliese may tell little stories. TTiey may bring back to mind good times \ou have Iiad and tell others about them. Do you remember the day your baby brother tried to will paint

work does not have

to be be interesting. It can be something you have imagined.

Art

real to

how he on his clothes? Do ^•ou remember how vou tried to teach vour pet kitten to drink milk from a saucer, and how she got her paws in the saucer, and milk all o\'er her face? What good pictures some of your memories would make! Among these might be memories of vour ride on the eat his

ice-cream cone, and

first

got most of

it

merr\-go-round, the school picnic, the snowball battle, the dav at the circus, or

rowing in the park lagoon. Memories of summer camp in the woods, of going shopping with \our mother, and of that wonderful automobile trip might make \ou think of more and more picthe

tures to paint.

StoiYbook Subjects. Poems and ries also

suggest pictures.

Almost

sto-

every-

one likes to hear about things that happened "once upon a time," or long ago. Boys like to draw pictures of cowbovs and Indians and soldiers. Girls often like to draw princesses, and pictures of Cinderella, Alice, and Snow WHiite hero-



ines of their favorite storybooks.

How

do you think Aladdin would look? What would an angel look like? WTiat do you think Cinderella's pumpkin looked like as it was being changed into a coach? As vou hear more stories and

read

more

many

pictures for

\ourself,

they will suggest

30U to draw and paint. Things Vou Imagine. At times, you probably like to be alone and dream. Sometimes there is no end to the things you can imagine. In your thoughts you can travel to strange lands to Cloud-



land, or to Fairyland, or even to the

moon.

you can imagine all animals, and trees. draw or paint some of them? What would men from Mars look like? Would they have big heads and tiny bodies? How would you like to paint a fierce, fire-breathing dragon, a pretty mermaid, or fairies and elves? And wouldn't it be Perhaps

kinds

of

Why

not

persons, tr\-

to

fun to paint a sugar-plum tree, a lollipop tree, or even a tree with umbrellas for leaves? Or vou could paint a picture of a happv dream which vou enjoyed after a picnic in the park. In pictures vou can imagine and paint anything vou wish.

Moods and Feelings. When it is vou may feel like dancing. Or you may feel lazy and sleepy. On rainy days perhaps you feel like curling up on the sofa with a storybook. Sometimes vou may feel sad and lonely, and now and then vou may e\en feel cross. Perhaps you would like to paint a picture of spring,

58

Drawing and Painting what you would like most to do at the moment. How would vou make pietures of yourself when you are espeeiallv happy or when you are cross? E\en when vou are painting something else, your picture often will tell others vour feelings while vou are these feelings or

painting

you

pictures will

show,

blind.

The

\ou are

musician who is cross gardener mav frighten

the

for

how

also,

feel about others. Perhaps

sorrv

street

you a little. Sometimes we also wonder about persons, and our thoughts show in our pictures of them. Do the balloon man's children ha\e balloons to play with? What are circus people like, and what do the\- do when they are not performing? Does the mailman wish that people didn't get so many letters? Animals and c\en objects seem to have their moods and feelings. Perhaps your puppy is mischievous and plavful. Your cat mav seem haughtv and "stuck up."

We

with different moods of nature. After a rain the streets look black and .shiny. The trees and grass look greener. On a misty day things look mysterious. In the moonlight even the common, everyday things look romantic.

The

it.

Your

Cows look peaceful and contented. may imagine that a big, yellow

159

day. Appearances of other things change

sky and water are always chang-

ing, too. set

it

is

The sky is blue, or gray. At sunpink or red. At night it is black

The sea has manv shades of blue and green. Did vou ever notice the silverv path the moonbeams

and

mysterious.

make

as thev are reflected in the water?

Where

does this shimmering path of

\cr lead? If you could follow

it,

sil-

what

v\ould you find at the other end?

The world

is

derful things to

manv wondraw and paint that vou so full of so

could make a different picture everv day. You should nc\cr waste your time drawing the

same thing

o\'er

and over, or

copying the work of others.

How

to

Make

Better Pictures

haunted. A an old witch. A downtown street looks busy and excited. Have vou noticed that some houses, with their doors and \\ indows, look verv much like people sometimes happv, sometimes sad? Our pietures of these things can show others how we think

Sometimes your pictures may not turn out just as you had planned. But if \-ou keep on painting and drawing, and tr\ing to learn something new each time, vour pictures will get better and better. First of all, you should learn more about \our materials. Use of Vour Materials. There are manv wavs in which to use \our paints, brushes, and crayons. You can save time and make better pictures by choosing

they seem to

the

pumpkin gav. it

An

is

jolh-,

and that flowers are house looks as if dead tree might seem

old, neglected

were;

like



feel.

The world have kling,

moods

of nature, too, seems to

—smiling,

frowning,

crisp, frosty davs,

laughing,

spar-

We

have

weeping.

sunny davs, gray

davs,

We

golden days, and storm v davs. can paint these moods into our pictures. can paint a restful landscape or a stormy

We

for each subject. can use more than one kind of material in the same picture. Clouds against a painted sky will look white and fluffv if drawn with chalk.

best

Often

Use

a

materials

\'0u

sharp pencil, or pen and ink to

You might try mixing wet and drv materials, or use make

fine, delicate lines.

Childcr.^

i6o

white paint on colored paper, just to sec what happens. Try using vour brush in different ways, first with a fine point, then when it is rough and shagg^'. You might even trv using the handle. Sometimes you can get an idea for a picture just by playing with your materials. For example, vou might try spreading the paint on wet paper. Here arc a few pointers which may help }ou: To keep wet materials from spreading, wait until

one color

is

dry before

can rub one color gentlv o\cr the other.

To make brushes flat

big pictures fast, use big

full of paint, or large

chalk.

Rub

pieces of

the side of the chalk, not

the point, on the paper.

To make

things

look rough, use rough paper. Dab on the paint with short, jerkv strokes, with very little

water on \our brush.

Remember

to wash vour brushes clean each time 30U finish painting. If you should happen to forget sometime and let your brushes stand, they will be-

putting another color next to it. Don't wet \our brush too much. If the paint is

come

too wet after you ha\e put it on, soak it up with a dry brush, a bit of blotting

with soap and water. Studying Your Subjects. As 3 ou learn more about your subjects, vou will be surprised at how quickly and how much vour paintings improve. Notice espe-

paper, or a cloth.

To

blend your colors, apply one color thc\- arc both wet. They will then run together. Or, if you wish, you can add another color o\er the first while it is still wet. Brush the second color on lightly at first. Use only a little at a time. Colors made bv chalk or crayon can be blended b\' rubbing them at the same time on the paper. Or vou next to another while

stiff. If

this

brushes in water.

happens,

first

soak the

Then wash them

clean

cially

the shapes and parts of your sub-

jects.

What do

they remind you of?

Do

Does an aulong box on wheels?

the houses look like boxes?

tomobile look

like a

elm

tree shaped like a vase? a long train remind vou of a snake? Colors may be light, or bright and \i\id. Sometimes they are deep and dark, or dim and dull. na\e you ever thought about how things would look if Is

that big

Does

thev were only black and white?

As you learn more about your subjects, vou may notice that the same thing looks different at different times and from different points of \iew.

Houses and trees and people look different from above. Imagine that you are in an airplane. How would these things look to vou? Or suppose you were sitting on the ground peeking through a fence. Perhaps a dandelion is right in

H you want

to make large pictures, use a big brush full of paint, or use the long side of your chalk or crayon.

To get a good drawing, study your subject very carefully. Then arrange it to make one thing the center of interest.

front of your nose.

But what

is

behind

the dandelion and behind the fence? Can )ou see one thing beyond another,

and something more beyond that? As you stand at a eorner, looking at a tall building, the sides seem to meet at an angle. Look down a long street. The automobiles seem to get smaller and smaller as the\- get farther away. buildings, c\en the big ones,

smaller too.

And

seem

The to get

the street seems to get

narrower until both sides meet in a point. But if \ou think that the street should get wider towards the end, and the buildings bigger, \ou ean have fun painting them that way. Some artists do, and get some interesting effeets. Cartoonists usually draw long things longer, and big things bigger than they really are. Thev make wide mouths wider, big chins bigger, funny noses funnier. To a cartoonist a happy boy would

be mostly smile. Cartoonists make every line count, and use as few lines as possible. Often thev leave out lines altogether. WTiatever makes a subject different, is the important thing in any picture, but es]5eciallv in a cartoon. Planning Your Picture. If \ou are trying to make your pictures better, you should learn how to arrange your subjects.

would stand out as an important part. Another wav to make one part of your picture stand out from the rest is to

make

these objects and arrange you. But you

them

may want your

move

to suit

in

your picture.

painting a group of boys and

and have the others dressed in blue. Still another way to make a part of your picture stand out

to

is

make

that part

much

larger or smaller than the other things.

Usually, vou will

place the

want

from the

to stand out

part you rest in the

center of your picture. Plan your picture so that the person looking at

the most important thing

How

In painting a picture in which

there are several objects, you can

the color different from other col-

Perhaps you are girls, but \\ant one to stand out. You could paint a pink or yellow suit or dress on that one

ors

Every

makes

to

it

will see

first.

Judge Your Pictures an adventurer when he he starts to paint never sure what will hap-

artist is

a picture.

an idea, he

is

When

pen, or exactly what the picture will

picture to

onlv one thing. If so, you must make one part stand out from the rest. You can do this bv making its shape different from other shapes in your picture. For example, a boy alone in a forest of trees

look like

tell

when

it is

finished.

How ean vou tell when you have painted a good picture? If the idea is \our own, and if you ha\e chosen your colors and arranged the subject to fit the i6i

Ci nLDCR.\FT idea,

you

may

look

will feel satisfied.

may

The

picture

differences that

make an

artist's

style.

like to save

some

look fanciful,

Perhaps you would

must somehow make others see the subject through your eyes. It must

of your best pictures

and frame them.

They should be hung

so that their cen-

bring out your idea.

ter

but

real,

or

it

it

No

about the height of your

is

two artists see the same thing in the same way. Each uses his materials differently. You, too, feel and paint dif-

can use pictures, too, to

ferently at different times.

of expressing your

It

is

these

\itations

and place

make

cards.

eyes.

You

party in-

But you may

wish only to draw and paint for the joy

own

ideas.

BOOKS TO READ Bannon,

L,\ur.\.

Patty Paints

Carlson, Charles X. Junior

a Picture.

Arti.st's

Whitman,

ABC; horn

HoGEBOOM, Amy. FamiJiar Animals, and and How to Draw Them. 1945.

How

A., 1946. Pencil to Paint. Melior Books. 1946. Draw Them. X'anguard, 1946. Birds

to

WRITING

OUR THOUGHTS PAUL ENGLE .

THERE

When put together they can con\'ey your thoughts, ideas, Writing about your experiences in prose or poetry is one of the most pleasurable of all activities. Paul Engle, Professor IS magic in words!

Learning to express your own thoughts about everyday things will bring you and

skillfully,

and

feelings to others.

of English at the State

Gordon, Century

your many iriends real pleasure.

University of Iowa, de-

how you can develop this gift for creative He is the author of Corn, West of Midnight, and The American Child, and of many magazine articles on writing. scribes

What

expression.

MIICH

to

Write

You do

not have to look in books to find something about which to write. You have only to look around von.

as an artist can share his thoughts by making pictures, you can share your thoughts by making word pictures. You do this when you tell your friends about something you have seen or done. You do the same thing when you put your thoughts in writing. You can share the experiences you cnjoved at a birthday party or at the circus. You can make others see the children dancing to the organ grinder's music, just as you saw them. Or you can write about the ad\cntures of a snowball battle, a picnic at the beach, or walking home in the rain.

Think day

happen e\erv happy and amusing experi-

of the things that

—^your

and even \our disappointments. For writing should be about all your life,

ences,

not

just a part of

it.

Anything you see or feel or think makes a good subject about which to write. Perhaps you were scared when a train rumbled or whizzed by you at a station, but when you were on the train its swift motion soothed you. You mav have watched a robin patiently listening with one car to the ground to hear a worm crawling. And later, you may ha\e seen the robin pull the

163

worm

out.

\Mien

Childcraft

164

you turn on a radio you hear a low hum before that first faint sound of music comes into the room. You think a child is generous and then, one day, you find that he will not share his to\s \\ith his playmates. What a shock to you this is! But when you are seeing and feeling and thinking about the things that happen e\'crv da\',

remember

that this

derful world to live in e\en

is

a \\on-

when

it

is

sad.

Think

of a simple thing like light.

Suppose the world were alwavs dark and \ou li\'e forever the way \'ou do now at nighttime. Suppose someone said that in twelve hours something called "light" would come to the earth. You did not even have a word for light because there had ne\'er been anv. So you waited in wonder. Then gradually, far awav in the east, vou saw a thin, gray line. The gray color turned into blue and climbed up the sky. Then you looked around, seeing the world for the first time in all its daytime beauty. Imagine seeing the grass, the trees, the flowers, your friends, your doll, and your toy fire engine for the first time! Soon the whole sky would be full of light and seem to blaze at vou as

it were on fire and, suddenly, \ou would know what daylight was. How surprised and excited ^ou would be! And \et this happens e\er\- dav, and vou if

are not surprised or excited simply be-

cause

it

comes every day and you do not

think about

Many

it.

things in our lives are as won-

derful, as strange, as exciting as daylight.

When

30U are writing, you should try to share with other people that wonder and excitement which you yourself feel. To do this, you should try to see all the things in life as if you were seeing them for the first time.

When you talk to another person, you share what is in your mind. TTiat is what \ou do when \ou write. You use words in talking to describe what has happened or how you feel about a new book or a new neighbor. Your voice rises and falls as you say certain things louder or more gently than others. Perhaps you use your hands or your head to gesture and emphasize what you are saying. Word Magic. In writing, you don't have gestures or special voices, so you have to make the words do what your voice and your gestures might otherwise

Working on an

invitation to a

important for you to use the exact words to express party.

It

is

your message correctly.

The more words you

collect

and

master, the easier it will be for to write interestingly.

you

do. Writing

not

is

putting on paper

just

the same things you say aloud. You must think how to put the words to-

gether so that they will excite the person reads them. Make the words rise

who and

fall.

Choose the most exact and

teresting words.

You

in-

find after a

will

while that vou will get the word which describes the thing you are writing

about in such an exciting way that anyone can see it. Beginning

and

is

trying to

derstand what

is

Write

to

Every bov or girl way, a writer, for he

who

talks

is,

in a

make

choosing words someone else un-

in his

mind. Tliercfore,

is

wav to begin writing is to think about what \ou say aloud and try to make your spoken words better. Think of all the different words you might use for what you are saying. the simplest

Collecting

words terflies

just as

Words. You can

some persons

or stamps. Learn

all

collect

collect but-

the words

you can. Use all the words vou can. And listen to the sounds of words when other

You

can get to like words so much that vou can even taste them when you say them. Repeat words persons are talking.

quietly to yourself and you will find that you can get the sound of them on your tongue. Only if you love to have words in your mind and in your cars can you ever put them together so that you can

express vourself well.

Long before you can even write a word on paper, you can be collecting words. And \ou can ha\e the sound of words singing in your mind. Many persons have good things to say. But unless they have a feeling for the sound of words they can nc\cr put them together in an interesting and appealing way. As \ou sav words over to yourself, notice

what

different feelings they have.

and friendly word. word which seems to swell out when you say it. "Purple," with its "Doll" is "Bulge" is full

a gentle a

sound, describes the full rich color. has the sharp and quick feeling itself. "Grab" is blunt and

"Hawk"

of the bird solid, as is

the act of grabbing.

seems to be

as

round and stocky

"Hog" as the

animal.

Repeat cverv new word vou learn, nien vou will fix its sound in your mind, for vou should know the sound of a word as well as its meaning. After you have fixed the sound of a word in vour .65

Childcraft

l66

mind,

try using

it

with another word.

Then

use those two words with others, you have built up a whole sentence. There are boys and girls who have such a good feeling for the sound of words that they can use them more interestingly than many grown persons. First Writing Experiences. If you already know the sounds and tastes of words, you will enjoy your first \\'riting experiences. As soon as you can form letters on paper you can, perhaps, begin until

to write

some words. You

will find that

you can use words to put sounds on paper much as a musician puts notes on paper to stand for certain sounds. Help your mother make shopping lists, writing the easier words first. If you have a party, write vour

Grandma

own

invitations.

WTien

Writing Letters.

"Thank vou." Letters,

too,

a

for you to begin writing. You probably will not even remember the first letter \ou write to Santa Clans. But \ou can write letters just to tell something. Almost every boy or girl has some-

good way

whom

he or she would

like to tell

something. Perhaps you want to tell about the wav the first snow looked when it fell on the oak trees that still

You may want to denew puppy the neighbors have. want Or you may to tell how funnv vou looked when vou had the mumps. In had

their leaves

scribe a

these letters, trv to use every word vou have learned. Try to think that even the stories you read in books are just letters addressed bv the author to anvbodv who wants to read them.

How

Stories

Are Made

Anyone who likes to listen to stories them for himself will want to

or to read

their voices in order to

Then

naturallv.

down

can begin to put

^'ou

the words that sound best.

Take, for example, a story like "Cinit is such a good

derella." Tlie reason

storv

and has lasted so many years

that

is

written in an exciting and dramatic

it is

way. Cinderella was, of course, a fine person. But a good storv takes more

than tell

that. Tlie

what they

way

purpose of

stories

are about in as

is

moving

to a

as possible.

Real Persons.

w are

would look like and what kinds of would have. Decide about make them talk

story

\oices they

sends \ou a tov \ou cspcciallv

like, learn to \\ritc:

one to

make up a story of his own. This means not simply describing something. You have to decide what is the most exciting way to tell it. Think about the best kind of ending, and what the persons in the

rite

\our

own

Remember when vou stories to tell

things and real persons.

they might use just as

them when

talking to a

about

real

Use the words you would say friend. Only if

you make your own stories as exciting and real as your own life will you be able to get people to read them. The way to make stories like that is shown by the storv of Cinderella.

A

Problem. First of

there

is

a

the story. girl

problem

What

all,

notice that

at the beginning of

will

happen

to the poor

Cinderella, so cruelly treated by her

stepmother's daughters?

The

rest of

the

what happens. In your own story, then, be sure you haxe something at the beginning which will make the reader wonder what is going to hapstorv

shows

just

pen.

Perhaps your story will be about a bov who goes boating with older friends. As thev row along, one of them says, "Here is the place where my friend Jim hooked a big fish last summer. He had

Writing letters will keep you in touch vnXh your friends and relatives, wherever they are.

to fight it."

it

ten minutes before he landed

At once the reader

feels, just as

the

person telling the storv feels, a little thrill of excitement as he thinks that maybe he, too, could hook and land

When

you read the story of Cinderella, vou wanted to know how her life would turn out. So, too, the reader of your story will want to know whether or not the boy really had the chance to land a big one. Suspense. In the end we find that Cinderella is rewarded for being an honest and good human being. For she meets the Prince and he marries her. But this is not as important as the fact that before the end we follow se\'cra] incidents which keep us from finding this out. These incidents are necessary in orsuch a

der to

fish.

make

the story attractive to us.

Cinderella leaves the dance three times

before the story ends. In this way the

kept

reader

is

how

will end.

in

suspense, wondering

This makes the end all the more dramatic when it comes. Notice that the story is not all sweetness

it

and sentiment.

No effort

soften the nastiness of the

and

their

is

made

two

arc writing, that the best stories

tually

mother. Remember, when vou

is.

Was

Cinderella different from

Perhaps not, but she was did she want? Only what most of us want, some delight in life. Think of yourself in her place and ask what you would have done. Would you have been as patient? Probably not, for Cinderella was a person of enormous patience. And yet you would surely have other

girls?

very pretty.

What

refused to act as selfishly as the other the story. When telling about your characters, make them like ordinary persons. Don't hide their bad qualities, if they have any. For example, if you are telling the story about the boys in the rowboat, you may have a boy who thinks he knows all about boats because he has been at the lakes before. Let him tell what he knows about fishing and boats. Let him show

girls in

off his fish

knowledge so that he hook while he

get off his

and misses catching "Cinderella," like

to

sisters

do not

hide things just because thcv are ugly. Tlicy try to keep close to life as it ac-

lets a is

big

talking,

it.

all

good

stories,

has

suspense and the excitement of things ha])]3cning and the real sound of char,67

In using the typewriter for a letter or

you should plan your thoughts you begin to write.

story,

carefully before

write groups of them together. Meaning. You must know what is going to mean before you

when you

A

\our storv write

it.

Stories aren't plain accounts of

Even a simple storv, such as "Cinderella," has meaning. In the story of the boat, your meaning could be to keep tr)'ing. And don't brag. If you know what your storv is going to mean, you can make everything that happens in it emphasize that meaning. But do not write out the meaning in the story, because then you would have no reason to write the ston,-. things that happened. fair\-

acters talking. In \our own storv \ou should trv to ha\e these same qualities. Perhaps there will be three times when the younger boy has a chance to catch a fish. The first time he may lose his bait. The second time his hook mav get caught on a sunken log. But the third time, he may enjoy the thrill of catching a big bass.

Writing Your Story

W^hen \ou

write your storv, be sure

that vou understand or animal, in

what each person,

Do

not

is

reallv like.

make any person

so

good that he could

never have lived.

Do

it

not describe things happening, but show them happening. Tell what everyone says, and make

The "what if" story is a favorite one. You can begin by thinking what would happen if you could know what was in books simply by placing them, opened, on your face for a few minutes. How much you could learn and how quickly! You can show in your story how much our lives depend on chance and on decisions that could easily have been different. What if you had not cancelled vour reservation on an airplane? Then vou might have arrived early enough at your destination to see a colorful parade. Remember that every day is crammed \\ith all

kinds of exciting events, as well as

e\cnts that could easily not have hap-

pened

at

all.

Poetry

\oices sound like the voices of persons

you know. Let them use slang words, if necessary, and let their \oiees rise and fall

the way real voices do.

get loud as

and it sound

it

says

A

\oice will

something important,

will get soft as a person tries to

someone. Listen, also, for the sounds which the words make close to

about e\erything in your can be about all the things you

Poetrv life.

It

is

do and say and feel. It puts those things which have rhythm. into words (Rhvthm is simply the wav the voice rises and falls in talking.) Those things are written in poetry to emphasize

68

Writing Our Thoughts them. Poems often have the same sound at the ends of lines. This rhyme, as it is called, is there for emphasis, too, and to

make

poem sound better. The poem was written by a boy:

the

lowing

A

pale yellow

Plump, jazzy

Mad

like

yellow

Rolling

fat.

you are easy to write, for e\'er\onc has interesting events happening almost e\ery day. Ma\'be it could be going to farm and being chased by a hissing One small boy wrote the following poem about the way he felt cold whenever he went into the shadow of tall trees at his grandmother's house.

a

goose.

on a pale blue dish. shimmering like a fish. bedecked with orange jev\els. the moonlight on deep dark pools.

jelly

jelly,

Fat. jolly jelly,

Gleaming

fol-

.•\t

jelly, rocking with glee. laughing at mc.

what they are describing. The jelly could have been described as "Tliick, quivering jelly," but that would have been much duller than "Plump, jazzy jelly." The "plump" is exactly the right word, for have you not seen jelly looking fat and sleek on a dish? And the jazzy is it

not

suggests so

merely

the

many

kinds

way

jelly

shakes, but the special, jumpy, jouncing

way it moves. "Shimmering like a fish," tells us that jelly has the same wet gleam which fish have. It is a good example of comparing one thing to another. Comparison makes vou SEE an object in a way which other description could not. It was not best

When I



trees

go underneath

I

shut up

Because It's

I

my

coat always think

colder there.

ARriiuR R.

Your poem should make the person

who reads it feel your idea. Perhaps you have heard music that has seemed to sway in your ears, just the way something you could see might sway. The music may have seemed to hit you as if it were a musical hammer. If so, you might be able to tell the reader about the experience so that he could hear music sway and feel it himself. Tlie following poem was written by a boy who listened to music and wanted to tell about it in just the wa\- it came to him. \\'hen

I

go to hear ninsic

hear the sway of

I

an outworn word such as "bedecked." A\oid using such words in your own poems. Do not use words which you have not heard people say. This is what you must do in your own poem find the really right word, the one which sounds like what you arc describing. This poem makes the jelly come alive as a real thing laughing back at the author. Its words even describe the live way jelly slips over a dish. Poems about things that happen to to use

tall

each side of the road. They close up their branches At the top.

the words are well chosen to emphasize

things,

grandmother's house

On

W.

Notice how the rhymes make the poem more musical. Notice, too, how

of

my

There are two Jkrold

\\'onderful, for

169

In

mv

it

mind.

mv heart like a hammer And makes mv world a happ\' one. strikes

It

Urick K.

Wliat a good, solid, simple poem that is! There is nothing fancy about it. There is not any talk about fairies. It is just a real experience.

poems

Make

your

own

that way.

Your First,

Own Poems

read poetry so )0u

know what

— Childcraft

lyo it

looks like and

how many

different

which it can be written. Listen for the sound of words. Try to put all kinds of words together in your mind. Then write them down on paper, even if they do not make real sentences. Try putting your words together in shapes like the poems you have read, but do not bother about rhyme at first. Do this as you would play at drawing, or painting, or sewing, or making something out of wood. ways there are

in

You can even write some poems with your friends, each of you writing one line. Or you could have a friend fill in words you especially want. Perhaps you could read a Mother Goose poem and a group of you might write your own Mother Goose poem. Remember

that

anything can go into your poem. What matters is that you should make the sound of the poem beautiful. You can put into your poems such things as a hurt dog, the sudden scare a storm might give you, the exact way a flower looks, the sadness of a monkev in a cage, or the things that you think a doll might think about. You can pretend

some new maan automobile or a vacuum

that there are fairies in

chine like

You

can even put in your verses some little animal such as a crab, a worm, or a butterfly. And vour feelings happy, hopeful, unhappy, or hurt can always be put in your poems. After you have written a poem, read cleaner.



aloud. This is the way all poems should be read, for words are really sounds. Does your poem sound like

it

something that has actually happened? Are the words exciting? Instead of writing about the "sound" of a bell, perhaps vou wrote "clang," which is more like the real sound of the bell. Did a'Ou say

one thing was

another? This

like

is

called using imagery. Instead of writing

that a small girl walked "carefully delicately"

it

seemed better

and

to write:

"She walks like a grave kitten on a fence." * Don't you think that the picture of the cat

on the narrow fence de-

scribes the little girl's

much

way

of walking

better than dull words such as

and delicately? Another time this same girl thought in books were more real than those she found in the world around her. They were more real becarefully

that happenings

cause she

felt safer

with them

just lived inside books.

poem which

when they

Following

is

the

expressed these thoughts:

Books were the actual world she touched and knew Where trolls were real and friendly goblins hid Under the bed, and gentle dragons blew Smoke from their mouth and talked the wav she did.

W'ohes between the co\ers of a book Wandered all dav their safe, familiar land. Brown squirrels came down from colored trees and took Imaginary acorns from her hand.*

You, too, may have

when

reading a

felt

book.

the same wav

Authors work

hard on lines like these. Some of these lines were perhaps written over, and

many as ten times. And many may have been thrown away. Write your poem over and over until, when you read it aloud, you feel that it expresses your own thoughts and feelover, as

other lines

While you are reading your poems be sure to listen for the sound the words ings.

make

together.

Improving Your Writing After you have \\rittcn a story, a letter, or a poem, read it and ask yourself ;iusf,

PuljIUhers.

Copyright

Writing Our Thoughts these questions: If

not,

Is it

it

will

Is it

me?

interesting to

not interest anyone

written simply and naturally?

else.

Does

make people SEE \\'hat I am writing about? Arc the words used in a new and exciting wav? Do the words ha\'C a good sound when read aloud, or are they hard it

tur little birdliousc builds

its

nest.

Childcraft

230

BOOKS TO READ Jordan, Nina R. Mother Goose Handicraft. Harcourt, 1945. Holiday Haudicnift. 1938. Lee, Tina. What to Do Now. Doubleday, 1946. Leeming. Joseph. Fun with Boxes. How to make things for pleasure and profit, out

and material. Lippincott. 1937. Newkirk, Louis Y. and Zutter, LaVada. Your Craft Book. International Textbook

of emptA- boxes of even' size, shape,

Co., 1946.

Robinson,

Jessie.

Things to

Make horn Odds and Ends.

Appleton-Century, 1945.

PUPPETS

AND

MARIONETTES ALICE M. HOBEN

PUPPETS AND appeals to

marionettes have an interest that

young and

old.

They

are easy to

make

and

will furnish endless fun and opportunities for play. Alice M. Hoben, author of The Beginner's Puppet Bool:, describes in this chapter how to make and use these delightful plavthings.

For thousands of years, puppets have brought pleasure to children and grownups in almost every part of the world.

creative

NOBODY puppets

who inxcnted when and where they

kno\\s or

were first used. But these cleverlooking little actors have been found in Eg\ptian tombs that were more than three thousand years old. In India, there were puppets which were made of ivory and gold. Puppets were widely used by persons in acting out Bible stories during the Middle Ages. A number of them were used to act out the storv of the Virgin Man,'. For that reason,

some

of

them became known

as

marionettes, or "httle Marys." Puppets

ha\e been used in performances before kings and emperors in royal palaces, and before

monks

in their

Scholars, poets,

and

dim monasteries. have made

artists

puppet shows their hobbies. And famous composers ha\e written lively music for these animated dolls. Few hobbies can give you more pleasure than the making of puppets and the staging of puppet plays. You can take up this hobbv bv yourself. Or you can interest your friends and organize a pu]3pet theater group for the purpose of gi\ing shows. As a "puppeteer," you can use your imagination frcclv. In staging pup-

Childcraft

232

Kinds of Puppets

pet shows, you can entertain others as well as yourself. You can begin bv mak-

There

arc se\eral kinds of puppets.

ing two or three puppets and gixing a

Some

simple plav. Even if vou onh' give vour show at home, with a doorway or a win-

and each kind

dow

as the stage,

fun.

You can

also

members

make,

A

others,

in a different

are the easiest to

over the puppeteer's, or operator's, hand. They are also called fist, slip

or mitten, puppets. Tliey consist simplv of a

head and

a

loose

garment some-

thing like a nightgown.

Usually thev

have no legs, or, if they do, the legs are limp and dangling. The index finger of your hand fits into a hole at the bottom of the puppet's head. Your thumb and your middle finger fit into the sleeves. By wiggling the thumb and the two fingers, vou can bring the puppet to life. You will be delighted at the number of things you can make a hand puppet do. He can nod or wag his head. He can wave his arms and clap his hands. He can scratch his head and brush his

or Christ-

mas gifts. Even a single puppet can keep vou amused for hours when you arc on a long trip, and can find little to do.

KNOTTED HANDKERCHIEF PUPPET

make than

worked

Hand Puppets, which

will

make welcome birthday

is

way.

have plenty of of your family, or some of your schoolmates to the show. Perhaps you will want to make a puppet stage that can be folded up and carried around. Your group could give a performance in \'our school, in the church recreation rooms, or in a park field house. You could take your show to a children's hospital ward and give an entertainment. You could even raise monev with vour show for the Red Cross or for crippled children. Puppets

you

invite the

are easier to

/%

PAPER-BAG PUPPET

hand puppet can be made readily by knotting a handkerchief and draping around your hand- A painted paper-bag puppet is just as easy for you to make.

it

Puppets and Marionei

233 Cardboard legs and feet

Finger position in glove

Paper figure glued to glove

GLOVE PUPPET

A

FINGER PUPPET

glove or finger puppet will provide you with hours of jolly entertainment.

clothes,

sit

down

in a chair, or take a

bow. He can tnrn the pages of a book or c\en chmb a tree. He bunnv-hops rather than walks across the stage, and a twist of \our wrist gi\es him a jaunty swaying motion. Put one of these puppets on each hand. Then gi\e those around you some fun bv making the two wrestle or box.

The

simplest form of

hand puppet

is

knotted handkerchief draped around your hand. The knot takes the place of the head, but the puppet has no arms. You can make a paper-bag puppet in a few minutes. Take a small paper bag and draw a line across one side of it about a third of its length from the top. a

Between this line and the top, paint or draw a face. You can use colored crayons. Glue some varn on top for hair. Gather in the bag at the neck, where the line has been drawn, and tie a string loosely around it. Then slip vour hand

into the bag,

and \ou ha\e

a funn\'-look-

iug puppet.

Glove and Finger Puppets are

first

hand puppet. The

first

cousins of the

and second

an old glove are cut ofT either half way or all the way. Glue a figure \\hich you have cut out to the back of the glove. Slip your hand into the glo\e. Your first and second fingers

make

fingers of

the legs. \\'ith the

thumb and

other two fingers curled into the palm of

your hand, you have a wonderful little dancing doll. Another finger puppet can be made

making a rag doll from the waist up. skirt must be wide enough so that slip vour hand into it at the back. It is sewed to the body at the front and left open at the back. Sew a strip of elastic to the top of the open part of the b\-

The

\ou can

Tliis will hold it tightly around vour hand. Roll two pieces of cardboard skirt.

into tubes

and glue them

firmlv. Tliey

Childcr.\ft

234

first and second finThese make the puppet's legs. If vou like, vou can paste small paper shoes at the bottoms of the

should

o\er the

fit

gers of vour hand.

tubes.

You can

also place wires in the

an apple.

An

cut in

for

it

old tennis ball with a hole

\our finger will make an Paint eyes, nose, and apple should be cored used for a head.

head.

excellent

mouth on

An

it.

and varnished

if

You

Cloth Heads.

need the folmaking cloth

arms of the puppet. These can be bent in any position you wish. For operating, your hand rests against the back of the

heads:

doll.

cloth or stocking; needle and thread; scissors; cot-

Rod Puppets are usualh' cutouts mounted on rods at the side or at the bottom. They can be sho\ed across the

ton;

stage or raised to the stage

le\-el

Thev can be made with

flat,

by rods. \\ooden

bodies and jointed arms and legs. They can be worked bv rods attached to the

heads or bodies.

worked

b\- finer

And

thev can also be

rods, such as umbrella

lowing

cardboard;

string;

felt;

ger.

the length of your index

fin-

cyl-

mals. Puppet stage scenery

also often

is

moved in and out by rods. Shadow Puppets are cut out of cardboard or some other heavy material, and attached to wooden sticks. When held between a strong light and a screen, their shadows are thrown on the screen. These puppets ha\e one advantage over the others.

By changing the

position of

the light or the puppets, you can a single

puppet take on many

make

sizes

and

shapes.

Hold the cardboard together with rubball.

it

into the hole in the

Wrap

a stocking heel or a

square of cloth around the

ball,

and

bottom. Outline the eves, nose, and mouth \\'ith embroiderv yarn. Or, if you wish, bits of cloth of different colors can be sewed in place for in at the

it

the eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and eye-

made of felt and sewed to the head. Finally, paint the head with clear shellac and touch up the brows. Ears can be

face \\ith paints.

Wooden Heads. To make wooden heads, \ou w

ill

need the following mate-

rials:

block of balsa wood, pine, spruce, or cedar; knife; augur; plastic wood; glue; paint; brass tacks; paper

Making Heads most important parts of puppets. Puppet heads should be large compared to their bodies, and are

Heads

it

ber bands. Poke

gather

ani-

yam;

inder as big around as vour index finger.

Rod puppets make

good

rubber bands; embroidery show-card paint.

shellac;

Roll a strip of cardboard into a

a hole in

cotton

especially

will

for

To make a simple head, take a ball of cotton about four inches across. Punch

attached to their hands and feet. Jointed rod puppets can be very lifelike. ribs,

materials

are the

made about four inches long. You can car\c puppet heads out of balsa wood or model them in plasticine, plastic wood, or papier-mache. You can also make them in plaster molds. You can usually

use a doll's head, a rubber ball, or e\en

and pencil; carbon paper; orangewood First,

stick.

decide on the kind of head you

wish to carve. A picture in a book may serve as a model. Take a block of soft wood about three inches square and four or five inches long. It will be easiest merely to car\'e out an egg-shaped head.

You can

car\'e

a

wooden neck if you bottom about

wish. Bore a hole in the

three-fourths the length of vour index

Pup: 'ETS AND IMARIONETTES

35

COTTON BALL WRAPPED A STOCKING

IN

A

puppet's head

is

important.

It

can be

Or you can omit the neck, and the hole in the bottom of the head. Using the picture as a guide, cut out

finger. l^ore

a

face. Then trace mouth on the egg-

paper pattern of the

the eyes, nose, and

shaped block with carbon paper. Paint the face white and allow the paint to dry. Paint in the features, using

blue or brown for eyes, red for the nose

and mouth, and pink for the cheeks. Blur the paint on the cheeks slighthwith \our fingers. The hair, too, can be painted, unless your puppet is to have a

wig or a cap.

You

can, however,

make

the nose, mouth, cheeks, and cars from

v\ood which you mold on the wooden head. I'hc eyes, nose, mouth, plastic

and ears can be made of colored cloth and pasted on the head. Brass tacks mav be used to make shiny eye sockets, and lips

you

prefer.

eves. E\'cbrows,

may be

car\cd

if

made from wood,

cotton, or lead.

Papier-Mache Heads. tlic

You

will

wallpaper paste; water; newspaper; oil water colors; cardboard; rubber bands.

A

need

following materials:

papier-mache head

and

to make,

it

is

not

paint

or

difficult

always looks well on a

puppet. It should be made extra large, because the material shrinks in drving. Two cups of wallpaper paste will be

enough

for several heads. Into this mix-

little squares of newspaper, about 1V2" in size. Knead the mixture with your hands until it is thick enough to keep a shape. Make a cardboard tube to fit your finger. You can hold the tube together with rubber bands. Then build an egg-shaped mass of your paste and newspaper mixture around the tube. Let the mass dr\' before vou paint in the

ture pour

features. Plastic

Wood

Heads. For

this purpose.

Childcrai"

236

Beard

Wigs and beards help

wood

Plastic

made

wood

as

papier-mache

You can make \our own

wood bv mixing sawdust with thick

plastic

glue until

Finishing Your Puppets

yarn for hair, or other material such as shredded rope, cellophane, wood sha\'ings; metal pot cleancloth: needle

and thread;

Your puppet not paint

will

its hair.

scissors: glue.

a wig if you do perhaps you will

need

And

want to make a mustache or whi.skers as well. Hair and beards can be made of materials, including yarn, shred-

ded rope, cellophane, wood shavings, metal-pot cleaners, chenille thread, and soft leather cut into strips.

for

thumb

look like real actors.

the yarn to the cloth in two par-

seams close together.

make

The seams may be in

the part. Tlie part

the middle or at one side of the puppet's head. Glue the cloth strip around the puppet's head. Then, dampen the yarn curl it around a pencil, if you wish your puppet to haye curly hair. Hands. To make the hands, you will need the following materials: cardboard,

cloth,

felt,

or

oilcloth:

needle

and

To make

a wig, lay strands of yarn, or

strip of cloth

about 1V2"

hairline

\yidc.

The

strip

enough to reach from the on the brow to the back of the

.should be long

A puppet's hands, as well as its head, should be made extra large. They may be cut out of cardboard, thin wood, felt, or oilcloth. The hands may be glued or sewed to cardboard cuffs. The cuffs, in turn, are sewed to the ends of the sleeyes.

Hands,

can be made in the form Make them out of several

also,

of mittens.

one layer can be stitched to look like fingers. Fine wire or hairpins twisted into the shape of hands and fingers can be bound at the wrist la\ers of cloth or felt, or stuff

with

other material you use for hair, along a

neck.

tube

finger or

thread; cotton, kapok, or tissue paper; glue.

terials:

many

Sew will

A

felt,

cardboard

and

enough to mold.

Wigs and Beards. To make wigs and beards, you will need the following ma-

ers:

or

allel

or wood-pulp heads are

same way

Thin wood,

make your puppets

or sawdust; glue; paint.

in the

heads.

it is

to

need the following materials:

voLi will plastic

of

wood shavings

Bangs

cotton.

with tape. Costumes.

The

mittens

Hand puppets

are usually

dressed in baglike cloth garments three

Puppets and Marionettes

•37

inches wide and four inches long. The bag may be gathered at the neck and fastened to the tube into which vour finger is

inserted.

A

max be added. A mav be sewed to the

necktie

jacket with sleeves

garment.

The right-hand slce\e is the one in which you place the thumb of \'our right hand. 'Hiis sleeve is sewed in about one inch from the neck. Tlie other sleeve is sewed an inch lower. For a puppet worn on the left hand, the sleeve on the right side is the one sewed lower. Trousers may be sewed to the waistline, or beltline, of the garment, and padded. If legs are used, the puppeteer should wear a sleeve of the same material to hide his arm. looselv

Animal Puppets.

All

sorts

of

funn\-

animals such as elephants, pigs, ducks,

wohes, and rabbits, can be made in much the same way as other puppets. The heads can be made of papier-mache, and \ou will want a baglike garment for the body, even if you use fur. You can make the bodv of cloth and glue on bits

Costumes

for

your puppets are made

loose cloth garments which you

of

may

adorn to make them more interesting.

some of vour animals you even want to make clothes. eyes. I'or

may

Hand Puppet Stage Unless you want to use toy furniture for your play, hand puppets need no platform for a stage. A window sill, if it is high enough from the floor to hide

of fur.

the operator, will

Scraps of felt stiffened with glue can be used for horns and beaks. Brightcolored beads or buttons make good

formance. An open doorwav, draped or boarded up part way, can also be used. A draw curtain can be strung on a

This clever group made a stage fixing up an old carton.

by

ser\'e

well for a per-

Childcr-\f-

238 Heel

of

Wood

show should be

stocking

simple.

The backdrop,

or curtain, should merely suggest the

strip inside

place, indoors or outdoors,

action takes place. yourself

You can

where the decorate

with paints or crayons.

it

You

can also paint in furniture if you wish. Scenery, cut from cardboard, may be fastened to sticks and shoyed on and off the stage. The light should come

from abo\e. A goose-neck desk lamp, set on a small tabic in front of the stage, \\ill make a good light. Marionettes Jointed puppets, \\orked with strings from abo\c the stage, are known as marionettes.

same

Their heads can be made

vyay as

in the

those of hand puppets.

Other helpful directions a screen mav be found in the chapter, "Making Tovs and Pla\-

Their bodies can be flat or rounded, but the rounded bodies are better. You can make a funn\- little marionette out of six peanuts. Select a small, round peanut for the head, a long one for the body, and four others for the arms and legs, and se\^ them together. Attach a thread to the top of Mr. Peanut's head, and you can make him dance. Another simple marionette can be cut out of cardboard. Draw a pattern first on plain paper. Make the head and neck 2 inches long, and the body, 3^/2 inches, tapering in at the waist. The arms and legs should each be cut in separate pieces. Tlic arms should be about 3V2 inches long, and the legs, about 4 inches. Make holes through the joints. Fasten the parts together with spreading brads. These carf be bought at any store that sells paper supplies. Be sure to fasten the brads loosely enough to allow your puppet to mo\c freely. A stocking can also be used to make

things."

a marionette.

Cardboard

'

soles

inside the feet

Old stockings Avill be found useful making some excellent marionettes.

in

rod, or even on a string, tacked to the doorway. You can use safety pins to attach the curtain to the string so it will slide easily.

A

table or a packing

be used

a cloth can

ble stage can be

A

\\ith

porta-

of a three-panel

The

center panel should be about

feet wide.

The two side panels may be You can make an opening

screen. 3

box draped

as a stage.

made

1 feet wide.

at the

by

18.

top of the center panel 24 inches You can decorate the front with

paint, crayons,

or colored paper.

screen can be folded ried

for

up

easily

and

The car-

around.

making

Scenery and Lighting for a puppet

Cut

off

only the heel and the

the foot, leaving leg.

Then

stuff

PliPPFTS AND MARlONF/nF.S

i^9

the heel to form the liead. Gather in the stoekiiig

with

below the head and tighten it rows of stitehes. Now \()n

fi\e or six

liavc a neck.

A

strip

wood

of

three inches long

placed crosswise nnderneath the stitches

makes the shonlders. Gather the

stock-

ing at the waistline with several rows of stitches. Stuff waistline.

If

it

abo\e and below the

legs are desired,

slice

the

stocking up the middle and sew the sides together,

making

stitches at the knees

and ankles. Stuff the

legs.

Insert cardboard soles

i

V2 inches long,

add cotton stuffing, and sew up the toes. Now \ou ha\'e the feet. Arms can be made separately out of any material. The material should be gathered to form elbows and wrists, and attached to the ends of the shoulder rod. Paint the eves, nose, and mouth, or attach a mask. Tlicn dress the marionette.

Controls. Marionettes are

worked

b\-

running from \arious parts of their bodies to a T-shaped holder held in the puppeteer's left hand. Some holders, or controls, have two crossbars. Others arc double T's, held together by a peg where the pieces cross. For a simple

Front

Back

Strings for working marionettes are attached to a T-shaped holder. This is held in the puppeteer's left hand and tilted at

various angles as he works.

strings

the marionette's head. Attach

Connect

the center.

lines at

of the crossbar with the knees.

it

above

each end

From

the

6 inches long,

screw eves midway between the center and ends of the crossbar strings, attach the marionette's elbows. The cord at

the other 8 inches long. Glue or tack

the end of the handle runs to the mario-

the pieces together in the form of a T.

nette's back,

control, use

inches \\ide.

two

flat

strips of

Make one

wood

2

Use the 8-inch strip as the top of the T, and the shorter one as the handle. Place small screw eyes at each end and at the center of the crossbar, and at points halfway between the center and the cuds. Also place one at the cud of

From

above the waist.

someone

adjust the strings, have

hold the marionette upright on a table as

you attach the

Then hold

string to

the head.

the control so that the mar-

ionette stands with the string alone. At-

tach the other string so that thcv are tight as the marionette stands motion-

the shorter bar.

the center screw e\e of the

crossbar, run a thread or strip of fish-

hne about 20 inches long

To

to the back of

less.

Another crossbar may

also

be used

to operate the marionette's feet.

You

will

soon learn

how

to

make

the

Chi

240 marionette perform by trol at various angles

tilting tlie con-

and bv pulling on

the strings with vour free hand. The Stage for marionettes needs a floor. If a

doorway

is

used, a shelf

may

at a convenient height from the floor. At a point about 18 inches above the stage, the doorway should be draped or boarded up. This will hide the puppeteer from the audience. A low window sill can also be used as a stage. Tlie shield can be made of wallboard, or cardboard, and decorated. An orange crate or a small packing box open at the top and at one side

can write your o\\'n or base one on any of your fa\orite stories. Select a plav with only a few characters. Then you can

be placed

makes a good stage. A shield high enough to hide the puppeteer, who stands or

sits at

the stage level, can be

fastened to the box at the open side. Cut out an oblong piece the height and

width of the

two narrow where the shield may

stage, leaving

strips at the sides

be fastened

to the box.

Plays for Puppets and Marionettes If

you are planning

you should ing the

select 3'our

little

actors.

puppet show, play before mak-

Manv

puppet plays have been written. But ) ou

to

fit

these char-

If

vou

select a storv for

vour plav, vou

make up the lines as you go along. Or you can write them out and read can

them. Your play should not last more than fifteen or twentv minutes. In the chapter, "Playmaking and Play-Acting," you will find directions for writing or adapting a simple play. You could have a master of ceremonies, perhaps in the form of a clown, to announce the acts. A phonograph can supplv the music, but this should not be so loud that it drowns out the words of the actors. Sound effects are easily produced off stage. Tapping two coconut shells on a table will sound like a horse galloping. BB shot dropped on a drum head will sound like rain, and, if rolled on the drum head, they will sound like thunder.

a

interesting

make your puppets

acters.

Puppets and marionettes are espemake, because their depend entirely on you. It up to you to bring them to life.

cially interesting to

])crsonalities is

BOOKS TO READ AcKLEY, Edith Flack. Marionettes; Easy to Make! Fun to Use! Lippincott, 1929. BuFANO, Remo. Magic Strings; Marionette Plays with Production Notes. Macmillan, 1939.

EvERsoN, Florence McClurg. Puppet PJays for Children. Bccklc\-Cardv, 1929. Warner, Frances Lester. Ragamuffin AJariouettes. Houghton, 1932.

SEWING FOR FUN CATHERINE CORLEY ANDERSON

There is no end to ;what you can make with needle and thread. There are new-

SEWING

IS not only one of the most interesting, but also one of the most useful, hobbies for boys or girls. It cnn be done in odd moments, or while listening to a radio program. Catherine Corley Anderson is the author of many articles, and was formerly artcraft instructor for the Chicago Park District. She tells yon, in words and illustrations, how to use needle and thread to make such interesting things as rag dolls, stuffed animals, and Indian costumes.

things to make and old things to over. This girl is embroidering.

along the thread until

meets the knot. as you like, cut the thread, and remove the needle. Tlien tie the two ends of the

HAVE you

String together as

chain togctlicr.

ever strung bright-colored buttons on a thread to

make way needle and

a necklace? Tliis

is

Sewing on Buttons

one

One

the first and most useful things to know about sewing is how to sew on a button. It is easy to sew one on all by yourself. Thread the needle, double the thread, and knot it as you did before. For the first buttons you sew on, select ones with only two holes

to get used to handling a thread.

Pull

the

it

many buttons

thread

through the eye of the needle until the two ends meet. Then tie a knot in the two threads. Select a button with a small hole so that the knot will not slide through. Push the needle through the hole in the button, and slide the button

of

because thcv are easier to attach.

241

make

ClIILDCR/\FT

242

5.

3.

and thread up through a hole in butt Bring needle

Boys and

the "shank"

girls will find

Start the needle

it

useful to learn

the button. Pull the needle and thread through until the knot catches in the cloth. Put the needle through one of

the holes in the button, and slip all

Then put

the

how

sew on buttons

to

Picture

on the underside of

the material at the place where you want

ton

Side view showing

let

way down the

the butthread.

Materials:

old

sheetmg:

broider\-

A a

thread

well.

Sewing

square or rectangle of muslin or large needle; bright-colored em or

yarn;

carbon

paper;

pencil;

scissors.

Most boys and

do picture sewing. Perhaps \ou can draw a picture directly on a piece of cloth bv using a girls like to

the needle through the other

pencil or crayon, but drawing your pic-

back through the material. Now run the needle through the material at the spot where it first \\ent in, so that it \\ill come through the first hole in the button. Poke the needle down through the second hole, and pull the thread

ture on paper may be easier. Place carbon paper on a cloth and place a sheet of paper on top of the carbon. Pin the paper and carbon to the cloth. Draw or trace a picture of a dog, a cat, a monkey,

hole and

Pull the thread through.

through.

Do

this fi\e or six times.

Make

a knot on the underside of the material by taking three small stitches, one o\er the other, and cut off the thread. Buttons with four holes mav be attached by sewing first two holes on one side, then two on the other. You can also sew them from corner hole to cor-

ner hole, crossing the threads in the cen-

To make a stronger fastening, wind the thread tighth- around the thread between the cloth and the button to make a "shank." Then make a knot on the ter.

underside.

an elephant, a house, or even a simple landscape with trees, hills, and clouds. Tlien take off the paper and carbon. Thread \our needle. Double the thread and knot the ends. If vou are making a landscape, use thread of different colors,

green for the grass, pink for the clouds,

blue for the

hills.

Hold the

cloth in vour left hand. with the knot on the underside in the lower right-hand part of the picture. Pretend that the needle is a little worm Star,t

tunnelling through the garden.

It sticks

head in and out, and pulls its tail behind it. Follow the lines of the drawing with large, in-and-out stitches. These are its

Sewing for Fun "running" stitches. When you ha\e stitched around the drawing, make a knot on the underside, and cut off the thread. Hang \our picture up, so that everyone can admire it. Learning to use the scissors is also part of learning to sew. Start with roundbladed scissors, and cut bright-colored scraps of goods. It will be easier to cut a straight edge if you cut a small notch in the edge of the goods, and pull out a thread from the center of it. Tliis will called

leave a space, or line, in the material,

which vou can follow with \ our scissors. \ou can cut out the material for

Now

the sewiu" ijictures.

243

coarse material;

pins;

needle and thread; colored

enibroidcr\' thread.

After you lunc made a sewing picture, perhaps you would like to hem the edges to keep

them from

picture

may be used

doily, a

fraying.

Then your

runner or napkin or place mat, or a doll as a table

cover.

Clip off the corners of the material, shown in the drawing. Turn up the

as

edge V4"; then turn up again Vi". Pin and baste the edges, one edge at a time. A basting stitch is a large running stitch which \ou use to hold the material in place. Then complete the hem with a running stitch of colored thread. Rip out the basting stitches.

Another easy way to make tabic runand place mats is to cut

ners, napkins,

them out of clean burlap or other coarsely woven material. Pull out at least six threads

from the edges on

all

four sides of the material. This will gi\e

edge which does not need to be hcnmied. Decorate with rows of even

a fringed

By using colored threads on old you can make interesting pictures

cloth,

of

an

animal, house, or other object.

stitching.

Use thread

The rows may or they

der,

of different colors.

follow the edges in a bor-

may be

placed unevenh'

mav also be You could make lunch cloth in this wav, with small napkins to match. This luncheon plaid pattern.

in a

Tliev

crossed in large cheeks.

It

is

when

it

always is

lying

easier flat

on

to

cut

material

a table. Slip the

material between the blades of the

scis-

Hold the scissors so that the blades straight up and down, with the lower

sors.

are

a small

set

would make

a useful

and

attractive

gift.

blade resting on edge against the table.

Keep cut.

this

edge against the table as \ou table covered with oil-

Keep the

cloth or newspapers to protect

its

sur-

face.

Table Runners, Place Mats, Napkins, Doll Covers Materials:

Your sewing

picture; burlap or otlici

Useful table runners, place mats, doilies and even napkins are easy to make.

Childcraft

244 Beanbag and Stuffed Animals

Materials: Strong cloth; pins, needle, and coarse thread; scissors; dried beans or peas. For annnals, use scraps of felt or soft leather; cotton or kapok;

yarn or embroidery

It

is

easy to

floss;

small buttons.

make

a beanbag.

Cut

a

piece of strong material 8" x 5". I'old it

in the center crosswise so that

it is

4"

wide and 5" long. Pin it in several places to keep it from slipping. Start Vz" from the upper right-hand corner and sc\\down along the right side and across the bottom. Make \our stitches Vli" from

This is how you overcast the top edge with a neat over-and-over stitch.

You can

the edge.

cut the beanbag in the shape

Make

of a cat, duck, or rabbit.

and paws of the animal out felt.

Make

make felt

the ears

of scraps of

and and feet of felt. Insert the between the two layers of

a side view of the duck,

its bill

pieces

cloth before sewing.

Be

sure the ani-

mal's paws or feet, ears, and

bill

are in

They should face inward. Then, after 30U sew the scams and turn the beanbag right side out, these the right places.

parts will stand out

How you

a

can make your

own beanbag

Use a backstitch. Make it by taking backward stitch on the upper side of

the

material.

Then

bring

the

needle

through the underside, and up in front of the back stitch. Tliis locks the stitches together,

and makes

a

than the running

stitch.

Turn the bag

inside

from the

sides as

they should. Leave an open space at the top for stuffing. Stuff, then close the

opening with overcasting. Siutted

Animals.

Make

the pattern

you wish. kapok or small, white rags. Use buttons for eves, and make the nose

larger for stuffed animals

if

Stuff with

stronger seam

Make two

Leave open

out and pack

loosely with dried beans, peas, or tiny

Turn the top edges in toward each other, about V2" from the edge, and pin and baste together. Then oxercast the top edge. To do this stitch, bring the needle from the underside of the bag through to the upper side. Carry the thread o\'er and over the edge. Space pebbles.

the stitches about

1/4" apart.

is easy to make sewing scraps of old It

stuffed animals felt

together.

by

Sewing for Fun and mouth of yarn or

flos?;. ( )r

245

use scraps

and mouth. Cut a and put it on the animal

of felt for eyes, nose, jacket

little felt

to dress

it

up.

Marble or Jack Bag Materials: sors;

Heavy

cloth; needle

and thread;

scis-

pins; cord or braided yarn; small safety pin

Make

a

marble or jack bag in almost

the same way as the beanbag. Cut the material ii"x7". Fold down the center crosswise so that it is 7" long and s':"

Sew up two sides with the backstitch. Turn down the top Y^". Fold over again 1". Pin and baste. Hold the top of the bag in the left hand with fingers inside the bag, to make sure you will not sew the two wide.

Sew a hem with running stitch about '4" from the

sides of the top together. a small

top of the bag.

Make a second row of running stitches about '/-'/' below the first. The space between the two rows of stitching is to be used for a drawstring which will close the top of the bag. Turn the bag right side out.

Underbody

— make

A

marble bag which you have made

yourself

comes

in

handy

in the spring-

time.

Carefulh cut a small hole in the top laver of goods in the center of the drawstring space. Tie a small safety pin to the

colored thread.

tv

Follow these patterns and you

will

end of

about 1 5" or 20" long. Push the pin and cord through the hole and around the space between the lines of running stitches. Remove the pin. pull the ends of cord together tightly, and tie in a bow. If you wish, you may decorate the bag with bright buttons or felt flowers. You can even stitch a picture, ofl»your name, in a strong cord or braided yarn,

be the proud owner

of a stuffed

lamb.

Childcraft

246 Lambikin, a Stuffed

Lamb

black bnttons.

This soft, \\ooly little lamb, named Lambikin, is eas\- to make, for there arc only three parts. Cut each part on doubled cloth, so that there will be two

Sew the two parts of the undcrbody together along the center Pin and baste the two parts of the upper body together from x to x. Lea\e the center back open for stuffing. Now sew the upper body to the underbody as shown. Turn the material right of everything.

line.

side out. Stuff firmly with cotton or ka-

Turn

pok.

ter back,

Sew

in the

open edges

at the cen-

and overcast firmh' together. button on each side of the

a black

head

sugar sack; colored material for ruffles; pins, needle, and thread; scissors; two small black buttons; two small red buttons; crayon; red yarn.

or

Materials: Terry cloth, or soft toweling; cotton or kapok; needle, thread, and scissors; two small

for eves.

Coco looks as if he had just stepped out of the circus! Cut a paper pattern like the drawing, but make it a little than \'0u want the doll to be. all the way around for seams. Pin the pattern to a double piece of

larger

Allow V2"

and cut

material,

two

sides

out.

together,

Backstitch

space at the top for stuffing.

the

an

open

Turn

inside

lea\ing

out. Stuff with cotton, kapok, or small

white rags. Overcast the sides of the opening together.

Sew on buttons mouth.

Color

for eyes, nose,

and

the

cheeks with red crayon. Add scraps of red yarn for hair. Cut a wide cone from the muslin for a cap. Fold it over and sew along one

Turn

edge.

inside

and

out,

Cut out the ears. Fold each ear down the center, and sew along the cur\'ed edge. Turn right side out, and stuff

yarn for the top of the cap and for but-

Turn the open edges in and Sew the ears to the sides of

tons. You can find out how to make pompons in this chapter under "Trim-

loosely.

baste.

Lambikin's head.

when

Its ears will

then flop

Materials:

Cotton

thread, and scissors; embroidery thread.

Cut the two

cloth

or

cotton

or

needle.

kapok;

colored

mayou use cotton cloth. around the edge on the wrong sides out of cotton

it

side.

Lea\'e a space for stuffing. Tlien

turn

right

side

out,

and

stuff

in

of

colored material 2" wide

to 12" long.

These strips are to around Coco's neck, arms, and legs. Fold in half lengthwise, and gather with a large running stitch. To gather, pull your thread so that the ma-

make

oilcloth;

terial or oilcloth. If

sew

strips of

and 8"

Stuffed Pussycat

stitch

Make pompons

mings."

Cut

it A\-alks.

A

place on Coco's head.

ruffles

terial puckers into gathers. Fit the gathered side of the ruffles around Coco's neck, arms, and legs, and sew tighth' in

place.

firmlv.

Sammy,

Sew

the open space together. Embroider eyes, nose, and mouth. If you use oilcloth, o\ercast the edges, lca\ing a space for stuffing. Stuff, and o\crcast the opening.

Coco, a Stuffed Clown Doll Materials: Paper and pencil; old muslin sheeting

a Stocking Doll

Materials: Pencil and paper;

a

man's plain

cot-

ton or woolen sock; gingham cloth; cotton, kapok, two white buttons; red. black, or brown yarn; large needle and hea\'V black thread; or rags for stuffing;

scissors;

You

string;

cardboard; bias tape.

Sammy, for, whatever happens, he always comes up smiling. will like

Sewing for Fun

These patterns show you

how

Cut off the foot of the sock. This will make Samniv's head and bodv. Stuff the toe solidh- with rags, cotton, or kapok, for

about 3^2". Tie a strong cord or

to

make

247

a stuffed

clown

3V2". These parts will

doll.

make Sammy's

legs.

body above the legs. With strong thread or matching Stuff the

yarn,

thread around the stocking at this point

overcast the inside edges of the legs.

form the neck. a 1" slit on each side of the sock, just below the neck. These are for the

Stuff the legs more lightly than the bodv, so that they can move. Tie the ends tightly. Sew two small, white button eves in place with black thread. Make a little black .\ with thread or yarn, for a nose. Embroider a red mouth with yarn. To make Sammv's hair, wind black or

to

Cut

armholes.

For arms, from one edge of the leg part of the sock, cut a piece about 9" long,

and

1

V2" w ide on the

fold.

Use

a

backstitch to sew about Vi" in from the

long edge on the open side.

Turn the

and stuff it with cotton or rags. Tic each end tightlw Tliis long, narrow piece makes both of Sammy's piece inside out,

arms.

Do

not cut

Pull the

it

in half.

arm piece through the

slits

in

the sides of the sock. Allow each side to

extend for about 3". At the bottom, or heel part of the sock, cut a slit through both thicknesses up the center for about

brown varn

thickly

around

a piece of

cardboard 6" long and 3" wide. Slip the yarn off the cardboard and tie it loosely through the center to hold it in place. Place the yarn on Sammy's head. Then overcast through the whole thickness of the varn at the center and through the stocking head. Cut off the holding yarn. Trim the ends and spread to cover

Sammv's head.

Childcraft

.48

Sammy's Clothes. To make Sammy, enlarge the patterns

clothes for

for blouse along the scams \\ith a backstitch. Hem all edges neatly. Use bias tape for overall straps. Sew one piece on each side of the overall top at the back. Tlien cross the straps over Sammv's shoulders and sew in front.

and

overalls. Se\\'

Susie Materials: Pencil, paper, and carbon paper; cotton cloth; printed material; silk; a strip of felt; pins,

needle, thread, and string; colored yarn or

embroidery thread;

scissors;

cotton or kapok; black

oilcloth, plastic, or cardboard.

Susie

is

sure to be a favorite doll.

Make a pattern first on paper. The head, arms, and body are in one piece. Place the pattern on two thicknesses of material.

Make pieces.

the

legs

of

two rectangular

Cut double width. Fold the

legs

lengthwise, and sew with a backstitch on

the sides and bottom. Leave the top

open

for stuffing.

Sew the two and body with

sides of the head, arms, a backstitch, leaving the

lower side open. Turn the legs and bodv right side out, and stuff with cotton or kapok. Turn in the edges at the bottom of the bodv, and baste each edge. Overcast the top of each leg, and pin it in place between the basted edges. Baste the legs in place. Remove the pins. Overcast the legs to the body. Overcast the remaining basted edges together.

Susie's Clothes.

Cut out

a

paper pat-

Sew

the side seams on the wrong side

of the material \\ith a small, running stitch.

Turn up the hem

V2".

Turn

Turn Turn the

stitch.

up

right side out.

material under V4" around

the neck and armholes.

Cut

tiny snips

around the neckline, before turning the material under. Pin and baste. Make a '4" wide ruffle for the neck, and a 1^2" ruffle for each sleeve. Make the ruffles the same as for Coco, the clown. Pin and baste them in place. Sew to the material

with

Bonnet.

a small

Cut

running

stitch.

paper pattern large enough to fit Susie's head. Pin the pattern on a doubled piece of material. Pin the straight edge of the pattern on the a

Cut out the bonthe right side of the material, turn the edges in about V2" to\\ard each fold of the material.

net.

On

other, and baste together. Finish with a buttonhole stitch in a differently colored yarn or embroidery thread.

A

buttonhole stitch

is

much

like

the

overcast stitch, except that after \ou insert the

needle through the material to-

ward 30U, you bring the thread around under the needle from right to left to form a loop. Pull the needle through this loop and tighten the thread. Place the next stitch about V4" awav from the first stitch, and keep all stitches about V-t" in from the edge. Finger crochet two strings with which

You can

tern for Susie's dress. Follow the picture

to tie the bonnet.

shown. Try the paper pattern on Susie to see if it fits. You allow Vz" for seams, and 1V2" for the hem. Be sure to make the pattern large enough. Lay the pattern on a doubled piece of printed cot-

to finger crochet in this chapter

ton material, with the shoulders on the fold. ITien cut.

it

again 1", and baste close to the top of the last turn. Sew with a plain hemming

find out

how

under

"Trimmings." Shoes.

two

To make

shoes for Susie, cut

o\als out of black oilcloth, plastic,

or cardboard. Cut a top for each shoe. Tlien place the two ends of each shoe

top together, and

make

a

seam V2" from

Sewing for Fun

HOW TO MAKE A

STOCKING DOLL

249

Childcr.\ft

250

Baste legs

^,-v

'

j

|

Overcast gs in

place

"Susie"

is

another type of doll you will find interesting

the edge. Baste the sole and shoe top together. Overcast the edges together.

Heavy matcri:!) such as felt or and scissors: paper and

needle,

Embroider Susie's e^'cs, nose, and mouth. Or vou niav cut them out of felt, and sew them in place. Make a thick braid of yellow yarn to hang down on cither side of her face. Use six

enibroiderv thread.

strands of yellow yarn, about 3' long, for each part of the braid. How to braid is shown in this chapter under "Trimmings." Sew the braid to the top of Susie's head. Tie on her sunbonnet. Design other patterns for Susie's costumes.

make

Caps Materials:

Plaee on Susie's feet. Finishing.

to

thread,

burlap; pencil;

Here is a basic pattern for caps which vou may cut out of cloth. Cut at the lower dotted line if vou wish to turn up the bottom one fold. Cut ofT at the upper dotted line if you do not wish to hem the bottom. Trace the pattern on heavy paper and cut it out. Fold the material so that you can cut two sections at once. If you are using felt, do not fold, because it is too thick to cut more than one section at a

Sewing for Fun time. Pin

tlic

251

pattern to your material,

Pin and Sew with a backout flat. seams stitch. Spread If you are making a burlap cap, make a buttonhole stitch around the edges of each seam to keep the seams from ra\ek

and cut out

six triangular pieces.

baste these together.

Pin and baste the sections together.

To make

the

hemming

needle through

stitch,

put the

the cap and the

the material between hem, bringing the nee-

dle toward vou.

The knot

will be inside not show. Start about from the edge. Pick up one thread from the cap section with the needle, sewing from right to left. Bring the needle through from the underside of the

the

W

hem and

hem and

will

tighten the thread. Space about apart. Pick up one thread from cap section, and continue as before. When you come to a side seam, spread the two parts out so that they lie flat inside the hem. stitches

A

pattern to follow in

making each

W

of the

six sections of the cap.

Trim the cap

to match your belt. button to the top center, or make a bow of crocheted \arn or felt to sew ling.

Sew

on

a

top.

If you wish to turn up the bottom of your felt cap to make it stronger, use a "pick-up" or hemming stitch, because of

the thickness of the

felt.

How you

can make a burlap cap

Childcraft

252 Purses and Bags

Crochet or braid

Materials: Burlap, old woolen scarf, taffeta from an old dress, or attractive cotton cloth: lining material;

pins,

needle,

and

thread:

yarn;

felt:

button: snaps; plastic ring or old bracelet.

Purses to match your cap and belt sets are easy to make.

it

up

at that point to

of \'our purse. Pin

the purse.

Sew

to the center of the

it

flap.

Turn the burlap right side out and insert the lining. Turn in the edges of the flap lining and slipstitch to the edges

Burlap Envelope Purse.

Cut

a piece of

burlap about 15" long and 81/2" wide. Measure 5^2" from the bottom and turn

a short length of bur-

lap thread or yarn for a loop to fasten

form the

and baste the

of the burlap.

A

slipstitch

the "pick-up" stitch for

is

much

like

hemming.

In-

sides

needle between the lining and burlap, so that the needle and thread

sides

come through

sert the

the lining toward \ou.

together.

Then sew sides with burlap thread pulled from the material. Use a

Pick up one or two threads from the burlap with the needle. Bring the needle

backstitch.

back and pick up one or two threads from the edge of the lining where it is turned under. Continue around the flap.

Turn down the

flap. Measure the poloop and sew a button in Trim the purse with running stitches of bright \cun or with embroidered yarn flowers. Felt Purse. You can make a felt purse

sition of the

place on the side of the purse.

lining. Use the same pattern as Turn up the sides and pin them in place. Sew the edges together on the outside with )arn, using a

without

for the burlap purse.

buttonhole buttonhole

stitch.

Finish the flap with a

stitch.

Sew snaps

the flap and

These patterns show you how to make a fringed envelope purse from burlap.

Material extending beyond the sewed is the flap. Pull out four to six

sides

threads from the three edges of the flap to

as

make a fringe finish. Cut the lining material the same size the purse. Sew up the sides the same

way, using sewing thread.

\

side for closing.

d

.>.>^^^^A^ \

/

in place

Cut

on

a nar-

Sewing for Fun row

and sew it eacli end for

strip of felt

of the purse at

six

a liandle.

equal parts to braid. Use scotch tape to fasten three strands of the material you

You

can trim the purse with felt flo\\-^ ers, or other designs, such as initials, or funny animals. If you wish to make a

pocket inside vour purse, cut a rectangle about 3" X 4". Slipstitch the sides and bottom to the inside back of the purse before sewing up the sides.

Make tangle a

pocket.

by cutting a recsmaller than your 3" x 4"

a coin purse little

Cut

another

deeper, to allow for a

and sew the two

down

sides

rectangle flap.

2"

Pin, baste,

and bottom. Turn

the flap and sew the snaps in

place. Finger crochet or braid a

cord.

Sew one end

narrow

of the cord to the

or nine strands. Divide into three

wish to braid to the edge of a table. Bring No. 3 strand over No. 2, which

No.

brings

Bring No.

over No.

but always evenly.

move

3,

making No.

When

the tape and

tie a

ends of the braid. Finger CrocheHng

make

cords and

1

is

finished, re-

knot

at

both

another way to

Use the same mateand as many strands you wish, but keep them all together

rials as

ties.

for braiding,

as

as a unit.

Cut the

to the center. See drawing.

left-hand strand over the center. Tighten the cords firmlv or loosely as desired,

end inside vour purse. A Stiff Purse can be made by slipping a piece of buckram or pliable cardboard between the lining and the purse before joining the flaps.

3 i

the center. Continue bringing the righthand strand over the center, then the

corner of the coin purse, and the other

little

253

to the back

stiffening a

smaller than the purse pattern.

Trimmings Simple Braiding. Braided \arn, cord, or lacing niav be used for many things, such as purse strings, belt ties, blouse neck fastenings, cap strings, and mitten cords, nirce-strand braids are simple to make. If a thicker braid is desired, use

T~l

Cords and

by

ties

can be

made very simply

crocheting with your fingers.

Wind

heav\'

\arn or string around

\our left first finger, to form a loop. Slip the loop off \our finger. Bring the righthand thread in a loop through the first Three-strand braids can be used to make ties, mitten cords, belts, and other things.

loop and tighten it. Bring the right-hand thread through the second loop, forming a third loop.

Childcraft

2 54

Tighten, and continue to the length you wish. To end, slip the loop off your finger, bring the right-hand thread through

you bring

the last loop, and pull tight.

wound with

Pompons make for nianv articles

attractive decorations

\ou

will sew.

Use them

on your caps, purses, glo\es, slippers, and on the ends of cro-

blouses, dresses,

cheted or braided cords. Cut two cardboard circles about 2V4" in diameter.

Cut

a circular hole in the

center of each, about Vi" in dianieter. Slit

the cardboards on one side. Place

them

matching the slits. Keep the slits to the right, and wind yarn from right to left around the two cardboards.

Slip the yarn through the

until

slits each time around. Continue winding

it

the

circle

is

and

firmh-

closely

yarn.

strong thread between

Place a

the cardboards and around the \arn which comes through the center holes. Tie the

ends of the string tighth- around the \arn. Slip a scissors blade between the edges of the two cardboards, and clip the edges of the yarn all the wa\- around.

Separate the cardboards slightlw Slip off the cardboards

together,

the

pompon. You

fluffy

will

and

fluff

be surprised

out

at its

roundness. Indian Costume for Boys

Materials:

newspaper,

Burlap, flour sack, or cotton cloth:

and

wrapping

needle, thread, and scissors.

paper;

cravens;

pins,

For moccasins: Soft

leather or felt; a punch; leather lacing or cord.

It is great

fun to play Indian, espe-

when you make your own costume. You can make the top part, or cially

gunny sacks, dved flour brown cotton material. Make a headband of cloth. Cut pieces of paper, and color them like feathers. Sew them to the headband. Use vour own

tunic,

from

sacks, or cheap,

khaki o\eralls for trousers.

To make

the tunic,

first

cut a news-

paper pattern. Cut a hole about the size of your head in the center fold of a double sheet of newspaper. Cut a s" slit in the newspaper from the back center of the hole. Put vour head through the opening with the slit in the back. This is

the neck opening. Pull the newspaper shoulders.

down around your

You can use pompons on caps, gloves, purses, and on many other things.

Ask someone to hold the sides of the newspaper around vour arms and then along the sides. Mark the sleeves and sides with pins.

Be sure

to allow plent\-

Se\\ing for of space for seams

and

a loose

fit.

Fun

Your

mother can be a great help with this. Now remove the new spaper carefulh Smooth it out and cut the sleeves and sides as marked with the pins. Sew the seams on the wTong side of the material with a strong thread and a large needle, using the backstitch. Al-

low Vi" for seams. Make a strong knot beginning and at the end.

at the

Turn the material I2"

slits

for

right side out.

Make

fringe.

Cut Indian tunic

the fringe

about 2" deep around the bottoms of

CUT

the slee\es and tunic. But STOP 1" awav from both sides of

TING

Headband

all

seams.

Use crayons to decorate the tunic Indian lines,

designs.

diamonds,

straight lines.

Indians

used

triangles, squares,

Some

in

zigzag

and

of their designs look

and people. Cut a cloth band 3" wide and 1" longer than it takes to fit around vour head. Fold the band lengthwise and sew it together on the wrong side along the top edge. Turn the band right side out. Hold the ends together and pin them Vz" from the edge. TTien sew them with a backstitch. Turn right side out. Decorate the band with cravons in Indian like birds, animals,

designs.

You can cut feathers from colored drawing paper or from wrapping paper Sew

the feathers

apart.

Cut another

colored with cravons. to the

band about z"

strip of cloth or

paper 2" wide and

These patterns

making

will

be helpful

to

you

in

a colorful Indian costume.

5" 1

Sew one end of this to the back of the headband. Sew feathers along this band to hang down vour back. long.

paper, This should be 4" long

wide.

Now

and 5" \ou have the pattern for

Moccasins. Stand barefooted on a piece of paper and draw a line

vour moccasins. Cut out the patterns. Pin them to a piece of soft leather such as chamois

foot. Now, make a line 2" outside the first fine all the wav around. Draw an oval, also, on

used for cleaning, and cut them out. Felt ma\ be used instead of leather. Cut two of each piece.

Indian

around the outside of one

Childcr,\ft

256

Start at point X. Use a strong needle and heavy thread to sew around the edge of the bottom piece of the moccasin. Sew about Vi" from the edge. Continue to X on the opposite side. Gather the leather to form the toe of the moccasin. Measure on \o\ix foot before making the knot in the thread. If the moccasin seems loose, pull the thread, making the it is tight, loosen the thread before making the knot to fasten

gathers tighter. If

the gathers. Fit the oval piece into the toe. Pin

it

and sew it into the bottom part, from X to X, around the front of the moccasin. Sew on the outside. W'ith leather or paper punch, punch holes V2" apart and Vi" from the edge, around the top edge of the back of each moccasin. Continue the holes across the in place,

top of the oval centerpiece. Pull leather lacing, felt stripping, or

braided cord through the holes, starting at the center front of the oval piece.

and end the Leave the ends of the lacing long enough to tie in a bow. Tighten the lacing to fit. Glue an inner sole of correct size inside the moccasin. These moccasins make comfortable lounging slippers and wonderful gifts. You can decorate them bv sewing on beads if \ou wish. Continue around the

heel,

lacing at the center front.

How

to

Use the Sewing Machine

After you have learned to sew by hand, you may want to learn how to use the sewing machine. Ask your mother to show you how to use the machine. A sewing machine saves time, and does more even stitching than vou can do b\hand, ^^^^ether \o\i have an electric machine or a treadle model, the operation and threading are somewhat the same.

An

apron which beginners can make

The treadle machine has a foot pedal which you must push up and down. Place both feet in the center of the treawith the than the right. dle,

The

left

electric

foot slightly higher

machine

is

usuallv

worked bv knee pressure against a lever, or by arm or foot pressure. You regulate the speed of the sewing by the amount of pressure.

You

will

want

to learn

first

how

to

Sewing for Fun thread the machine. Different machines require different threading. Your ma-

chine will ha\e directions for

its

use.

But

be easier for you to learn if your mother shows you how to sew with it. Place a piece of material under the sewing foot to practice. Mother will it

will

257

show 30U how

to raise

and lower the

sewing foot, which protects the needle. Let the bobbin, or bottom thread, and the top thread extend about 4" bevond the needle.

machine by pressure which wheel at the riglit mo\ing, and the needle going up and down through the material. Alwa\s be sure to Start the

w

start the big

ill

lower the sewing foot before starting to sew.

Use c\'en pressure to keep the wheel running smoothly. Guide the material beneath the sewing foot. Practice until you can control the line of sewing, and keep it straight. To stop sewing, stop the pressure.

To turn the material under the sewing foot, release the lever to raise the

Cut waistband,

ties,

and shoulder

straps

on

fold.

ties

to

waistband.

Piece

Make

sewing foot, but keep the needle in the material. Turn the material, lower the sewing foot, and continue sewing. BE \'ERY CAREFUL never to get your fingers in the way of the needle. Practice until vou can handle the machine well. Practice stopping and starting the machine, and turning the material.

heart pocket.

Aprons Paper

Materials:

cloth



and

or leftover

used,

pencil;

.scissors;

material,

or flour

cotton sacks;

thread; rickrack tape for trimming.

Aprons

are easy to

ways useful.

make, and are

A simple one,

al-

for beginners,

can be made of used material, such as bleached or dved flour sacks, or lefto\'cr cloth.

Cut paper two for a

patterns for the center and

side panels.

and

for seams,

Allow

W

at least 2"

on each side on the bottom

hem.

Baste the two side sections to the cen-

How you

can make a sweetheart apron

ter panel,

one on each

side.

Then sew on

.58

Childcraft Turn apron to the outAllow about 2" width for waistband on the inside, and 2V2" on the wrong side. Turn '2" of the waistband under on the wrong side, and baste and sew along the seam. material in view.

APPLE POCKET

side.

You can the

use cloth of another color for

waistband

and

ties.

flower or fruit design in the

Appliqued same mate-

and band, or a ruffled pocket make attracti\e trimmings. You can make another apron with shoulder straps and bodice. Trim with rial

as the ties

rickrack, binding, or eyelet ruffles.

You can make a sweetheart apron from one yard of white material, plain red material for ties and pocket, and some red rickrack. It will be just the thing to wear if you are hostess at a Valentine partv. Bolero

Making an apron with

a fruit design

Boleros add a bright touch to any cos-

sewing machine, on the wrong side material. Allow about 4" of thread to extend beyond the material before breaking the thread at the end of the seam. Always allow about this much thread at the beginning of a seam, also. The thread ends can then be tied together to strengthen the seams. Make paper patterns for the waisttlic

of

the

band and

ties. These should be cut on the fold. Fold the ties lengthwise on the wrong side of the material. Pin. baste, and then sew along one short side and along the long edge. Turn right side out. Place the waistband wrong side up

tume. Only two parts are needed for the paper pattern. Cut out a back and try it

Cut two sides from a pattern on doubled material. Allow 1" all around for seams. Baste and sew sides and back together at shoulders and down the sides. Bind the neck and slcc\es. Also bind the front and around the bottom. If the bolero is made of heavy material, trim it with felt flowers and wool embroiderv. If \'0u for size. laid

make

of cotton, sharkskin, or ra\on for summer, trim it with buttons or appliqued designs. Appliqued trimming is another bit of cloth attached with an o\ercasting, or buttonit

gabardine, prett\-

along the top edge of the right side of the apron. Baste in place. Sew on the machine.

hole, stitch.

Fold the waistband up over the seam, bringing the right side of the waistband

ing from a piece of your material.

To bind an edge of material, use bias binding tape or cut your own bias bind-

To

cut on a bias, fold a large square of

Sewing for Fux tlie

form

a triangle. Tlie material along the

fold will be fold.

2=59

material from corner to eonier to

Then

Cut more

on the

bias.

Cut along

this

eut a band about i" wide. strips

along the same

Join bias strips together

on the

and sew

to

you make bias need your mother's help

in

of the material, strips. If

lines.

straight

make

longer

vou will sewing them

strips,

together.

Place the tape against the edge to be bound, with the right side of the tape against the right side of the cloth. Stitch

V4" from the edge. other edge of the tape finished.

Then

Turn under the if it is

not already

fold tape over the edge.

Baste right sides, turn,

How you

stitching

it

used

a

as

openings,

can learn

and

to cut

stitch

on a bias

Binding is often neat finish for necks, neck

at the seam.

open armholes, and sleeve

bottoms.

Facing is almost the same as binding, except that a wider piece of bias mateused, and it is eut from the mate\ou are using. Facing is used for finishing necklines, dress openings, and fronts of Irlouses, dresses, and coats. rial is

rial

Common Seams Basting. '

it

Large,

even stitches about

:" long are used to hold material until

can be stitched permanently.

We

these basting stitches. Basting a a

seam makes

it

much

e\en seam or make

easier to

a

hem

width. After the stitching

is

call

hem

or

sew an

the same

done, the

basting threads are pulled out. Plain

two Patterns for

making a bolero

Seam,

lliis

is

made by sewing

sides of material together.

press the

seam

flat.

To

To

finisli,

prevent ra\elling.

Childcraft

260 a plain

seam may be pinked on both

edges with pinking shears.

You

can also

overcast on each edge with small, firm

Or the raw edges may be turned under and sewed on the sewing machine

stitches.

close to the edge,

if

the material

thin.

is

This way of finishing seams is too bulky to use on thick materials, such as wool or corduroy.

Hemmed Fell Seam. Trim

one edge of scam to s" size. Fold the other edge under and bring it over to cover the first edge. Hem by hand. This seam is used on light fabrics, such as washable a plain

because

all

its

edges

are

turned

in

and stitched under. That makes it an excellent seam for clothes that have to stand hard wear, but it cannot be used on heavy or bulky materials. Top Stitch Seam. This is the seam usually used to join a waist and skirt. Turn one edge under the amount of the seam allowance, and baste. Lay this piece on the line of the seam allowance for the

'

silks and rayons and sheer cottons. FTencb Seam. This is a narrow, strong seam used on sheer materials. Sew the seam on the right side of the material. Trim seam to H". Turn to the wrong side of material, and machine or hand

PLAIN

SEAM

stitch to enclose the seam.

HEMMED

FELL

SEAM

FLAT FELL SEAM

Turn back edges for Clip the corner fold

plain lapel

TOP STITCHED SEAM Wrong side

Right

Square

side

corners

Directions for

making

Five of the most

a

common seam

common seams

other piece to be sewn. Pin and baste close to the folded edge.

Sew on the sew-

ing machine. Flat Fell Seam. Cut one seam down to Vs" width. Fold the other edge over to first edge and machine-stitch

enclose the it flat

to the material. Tlris

seam

for

clothes.

A

use

on

flat

fell

tailored

is

a strong

and

seam cannot

play ravel.

You

will find that the

fun of sewing

is

new things to make and old ones to make over. Perhaps you will even become so skillful that you can make your own never-ending, for there are always

designs.

Sewing for Fun

261

BOOKS TO READ Flack. Dolls to Make for Fun and Profit. Lippincot±, 1938. Jordan, Nina R. How to Sew. Ilarcourt, 1941. American Costume Dolh: How to Aiake and Dress Them. 1941. Homemade DoUs in Foreign Dress. 1939. Karasz, Mariska. Good Housekeeping See and Sew. A picture book of sewing Draw-

AcKLEY,

F,DiTii

ings by Christine Engler. Lippincott, 1943. Shields, Emma L. and Wemple, H. D. Knit One, Put] One; and CrocJiet Book. Stokes, 1938.

a LittJc

Gnl's Knitting

MAKING MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS DAVID DUSHKIN Freida Zylatra

EVERY INSTRUMENT

described and pictured

been made, tested, and plaved Yon will be surprised how much

in this chapter has

by boys and

girls.

make musical instruments, and how music you can get from them. David Dushkin is Director of the Dushkin School of Music at Winnetka, Illinois. In this chapter, he fun

it

much

is

to

Ever since early times, people have enjoyed making and playing their own musical instruments. This girl has just about finished making a xylophone.

real

describes

how

to

struments that

EARNING fun

I^You

if

make some simple musical

will

give

\'0u

in-

hours of pleasure.

make music can be you do not make work of it. to

vou learn "to read. In the same vvav, \ou can learn to play a musical instrument before vou can read even a note of music. Learning to make music in that way is fun. It is even more fun to make your learn to talk before

own You know how

musical instruments. interesting

things apart and put different way.

it is

to take

them together

By doing

this,

in a

vou may

even succeed in making something entirely new. There arc man\- things to be

found around the house, or in the neighborhood, from which you can make musical

instruments.

Bottles

and bottle

caps, drinking glasses, saucepan covers, cigar boxes, pieces of inner tube, wire,

rubber bands, glue, and other odds and ends will supply you with the necessary materials.

People have made and used musical instruments from the earliest times.

Drums have been made from hollow and skins, and many people lia\e danced to their rhvthm. Drums have logs

262

Making Musical Instruments been used for calling tribes toand for sending messages in the same \va}- that we send telegraph messages. Medicine men of dif-

also

gether,

much

made

ferent tribes ha\'e used rattles

of

gourds, animals' teeth, and shells.

As people grew more ci\'ilized, they wind instruments. Among

invented

these were the trumpet.

They invented

263

if you watch the movement of a little sand sprinkled on the drumhead. Tire musical vibrations of other percussion instruments such as the tambourine, cymbals, xylophone, and chimes are all produced by striking in various

With a string instrument such as the Hawaiian melodv-maker, or a violin, the sound is produced by making the

ways.

stringed instruments like the lyre, which

strings xibratc.

The music

simple harp. Most of these instruments were so simple that they might

struments such

as a

made by children. You, too, will make simple things at first. But if you have a box of tools and cle\'er hands, \ou can make better musi-

column

is

a

well have been

cal

instruments than some of the old And you will have no end of fun

trumpet

is

of

wind

in-

shepherd's pipe or a

made by

\ibrations of the

of air inside the instrument.

Ill directions for making the following instruments, " will stand for inches. for feet, and x for by. For example, a piece of wood 5 inches long. 5 inches wide, and '« inch thick would be '

V\

';"x "s".

ones.

learning to play them. As your proves, vou will

want to

skill

museums

visit

and studv sonic of the musical instruments of long ago. B)- doing this, you may get ideas for making new ones of vour own. In making musical instruments, tuning them, and plaving them, your hands will become more skillful, your eyes and ears more keen, and your mind more alert. Also you will become a good listener. And a good listener can usually become a good musician. Tlie easiest musical instruments to

make

Percussion Instruments

im-

Tom-Tom Tools:

opener; small paint-

plier

brush.

Materials

such pail,

for

drum

"shell":

A

large

tin

can

as a potato chip or coffee can, or a wooden small keg, or coconut shell. For drumhead:

A can

with the

bottom cut out

at first are

those which produce music by beating, rattling, or rubbing.

Kinds of Instruments

sound is produced by \ibration, or quivering. But different kinds of instruments produce these \ibrations in different ways. The sound of percussion instruments is produced by striking tlicni. I'or example, when you beat a drum you set up vibrations of the tightly stretched drumhead. You can see these vibrations All

Twisted wire holds drumhead in place a fine drum from a used and an old inner tube.

You can make coffee can

Chii.dcraft

264 A

piece of inner tubing, cloth, or parchment; a adhesive

piece of soft wire: airplane dope; cord: tape.

If you use inner tubing, stretch it o\'er the shell head and hold it in place by twisting the wire around the overlapping edges about 1" below the top.

W^ien

the wire

is

tight

enough

to hold

the rubber in position, pull the edges of the inner tubing

drumhead

is

down

tight

to

make

sure the

and smooth. Then and

holes for the cord at least edge of the drumhead.

1 1

/' from the

DTumsticks. A wooden dowel, ^2" thick and 8" to 12" long, makes a good drumstick. An excellent tapper which

can be used,

made by

also, to play

chimes, can be

dowel into the This small rubber ball may be bought at anv hardware or plumbing supph' store. Tambourine sticking a

hole in a Fuller

-Vir,"

ball.

give the wire a few additional twists

bend the ends against the shell.

You may

side of the

decorate the shell

if

you

wish.

parchment is used for the drumit must first be soaked in water. Then stretch it into position as you would rubber tubing. Parchment will shrink as it dries, making a tighter head.

Tools: Scissors:

hammer; small punch

or

drill.

A

Materials: pair of embroidery hoops; piece of cloth or parchment; airplane dope; six bottle caps; a few thin nails.

If

head

If

cloth

airplane give

it

a

is

used, spread several coats of

dope over it to stiffen it and mellow tone. Let each coat dry

You can make a pretty tambourine with strong, smooth cloth and a pair of embroidery hoops. Separate the hoops and spread the cloth over the smaller

Then press the outside hoop o\'er the cloth and the other hoop. Gentlv one.

before applying the next one. If the bottom of the can, keg, or pail you are using for a drum shell is removed, you can have two drumheads laeed together with cord. If vou lace the

Stretch the cloth

over inner hoop

heads together, strengthen the edges with adhesive tape. Be sure to ha\e the

f

O

Place the nails

and bottle caps between the hoops

how you can make use of six bottle caps, cloth, and an embroidery hoop to make a tambourine. This diagram shows

Padded spool

Plain

on a dowel

dowel

o

Fuller ball

on a dowel

pull the loose ends of the cloth until the

surface

is

tight.

Gi\c the cloth three or

four coats of airplane dope to shrink and

Drumsticks of many kinds can be to suit your own particular taste.

made

harden it. Trim the cloth edges close to the hoop.

Making Musical Instruments parchment is used, it must be soaked in water and plaeed in the hoops while wet. Drying stretehes and hardens If

the parchment. Six bottle caps with a hole punched or drilled in the center of

each will make

three sets of jingles. ITie holes can be

punched bv placing the caps on a block of wood and pounding a nail through the tops. Place the caps, top to top, on

tambourine. Then mount them looseh' on the frame with thin nails. the

Pound

the nails into the crack between

the two embroidery hoops. Jingle Rattle

265

have helped out many a home orchestra with their pleasant clang. Decorate them with tassels of colored string or \ am attached to the center handles. Castanets or Clappers Hammer; saw; drill for drilling Va" hole. Materials: Plywood, or other wood, about 'A" 2" wide and 19 '2 " long; stick of 'A", or Tools: thick,

smaller, half-round z" long (a round wooden stick tut in half lengthwise); two flat head nails I'A"

long.

Cut the pieces.

strip

Make one

of plywood into two piece 10" long and the

other 9V2" long. In the shorter piece, drill two Ys" holes. These should be Vo"

4%" from each end. the half-round across the center of the longer strip of plvwood. Place the short strip o\'er the half-round so that from each side and

Tools: IlaiiuiKT

ill

Materials:

iclcn

\;iil;

Now set

pliers.

drill;

dowel or small

wire; bells.

String the bells on a wire. Tlien put

the wire ends into a handle a

wooden dowel. Or

made from

use a small stick, in

the holes

come

exactly over the top of

drive your nails in through the half-round and the plywood beneath it. Leave the heads of the nails sticking up Vi c," above the upper piece of plywood so that

it

can swing

freely.

The

points of

the nails can be bent over with a

mer

Make a

hole

dowel

ham-

or clipped off with a pair of cutting

pliers

the

and smoothed w ith

a

file.

i

for

holding wire ring

How you

can make a jingle

one end of wliich

a small

vou

small enough, you can

make

pounding

in a small nail

out. If the hole in the

rattle

hole has been

drilled, for a handle. If

ha\'c

no

drill

the hole h\

and pulling

handle

is

it

too large

to hold tlic wire, dri\e a nail in along the side of the wire to grip

it.

Saucepan Cymbals. Saucepan covers, struck together with a glancing blow,

it.

Then

Make your own castanets or clappers

Childcrak

266

To

play the instrument, hold the long

your hand and clap out the rhythms by shaking the wrist. Sandpaper Blocks. Tliese blocks, with one face of each covered with sandpaper, make the suishing sound often heard in orchestras. Thev may be oblong or square, so long as they are easy to hold. The sandpaper may be glued or tacked on. Strips of soft leather or firm cloth, such as bed ticking, nia\- be tacked to the backs for handles. Triangle. If \ou have a \ise, \ou can make a musical triangle. Use a solid metal rod about ^4" thick. Clamp part in

strip

and hannner it into one arm of the V longer than the other. A 6" rod bent in this shape and held by a string tied at the bend will give clear, musical tones when struck. If vou wish, \ou can use a longer rod. After making the first bend, damp the other end of the rod in the vise and hammer it down to form a triof the rod in the \isc

the shape of a V,

Musical Glasses can easily be prepared to give pleasing music. Collect glasses of different sizes and set them in row on several thicknesses of cloth. Thin glasses will ring in the clearest a

tones. Play b\- tapping the glasses lighth'

uith

a stick. Arrange the glasses with the lowest sounding ones at the left, and the

highest sounding ones at the right. a little

Add

water to some of the glasses

want

to lower the pitch.

ha\c

a scale

of several

if you As soon as vou notes, vou can

play tunes.

Musical Bottles. Instead of glasses, you can use bottles to make a pleasant, tinkling sound. Hang them in a row from

\\'ith

angle.

When pend the

it

gers should

so that it

is

it

is

played,

triangle

be

from

is

best to sus-

a string.

quit-e close to

The

hcavv

nail or

fin-

the triangle

does not swing too wide

struck. It should

\^•ith a

it

when

be tapped lightly

some other

A

suitable

musical triangle

is

easy

to

make.

object.

a frame.

b\

Tune them

to different pitches

pouring various amounts of water

Tune

one on the left middle C on the piano. The next bottle should be a note higher, and so on. To make your scale you can experiment with bottles of different sizes. into them.

the

first

to lower or

To

plav, strike with the Fuller ball tap-

per described under Diumsticks. Musical Flowerpots. You can

Sandpaper blocks

ior orchestra

use

get

good music from flowerpots hung up-

Making Musical Insiruments side

down,

Select

from

like bells,

267

a crossbar.

flowerpots of different sizes to

gi\c different tones. Tie a knot at the

end of a heavy cord. Then run the cord from the inside of each pot through the hole at the base. Tlic knot will hold the flowerpot. Fasten the other end of the cord to a crossbar of wood. Tlic cord can be tied around the bar or to a nail dri\en in the wood. Tlic tone of anv pot

Chimes can be made from metal Doorstop lumber; of cardboard or plywood; two Materials:

2'.\

Knot the rope inside the pot

1

!4"; dowel; nails; felt

strips

ma3' be lowered

coating the inner

b\'

surface with plasticine.

To

play, strike

with the P'ullcr ball tapper described under Drumsticks. Chimes can be made of metal tubing

Cut the metal into pieces lengths. Then drill a small

or thin pipe.

and hang the tubes from

You can

of the tubes

Doorstop lumber is the easiest mateto use for making keys, or bars, for this excellent instrument. The lumber comes in strips about i%" wide and V2" thick. Be sure it is at least V2" thick, because it may sound rather dead if it is too thin. Cut strips of doorstop lumber into 15 pieces. Make one each of the lengths given below. Measure from the top of each length after it has been cut. and mark the proper nail-hole positions with a pencil. BAR LENGTH

SITION OF NAIL

the pitch of an\

bv cutting

a small slice off

by

filing

You can lower

some metal

off

the pitch

the side.

To

chimes at the top. Use the tapper described under Drumsticks. Xyiophone play, strike the

Tools:

Sau; hainiiicr;

M"

drill.

HOLE

(from top of bar)

nails driven in

raise

the lower end.

feet

wood,

of

weather stripping.

hole through each tube, about 1" from the top. Put a string through the holes a crossbar.

tubes. i2

rial

Making good music with flower pots

of different

i"x

about

9%" 9%" 8%" 8%" 8"

7%" 7%" 6%" 6%" 6"

I'Yiu"

21/18"

Childcraft

268 Next,

drill

with a V4"

the nail holes, as marked,

drill.

Be

sure you have the

correct nail-hole position for each bar length.

Be

careful to center the holes.

Now make this

you need

the xylophone frame. For a base of

cardboard or ply-

wood about V4" thick, 23" long, and 8" wide. You also need two strips of wood 2'

long, 1" thick,

and about iVz" wide.

Draw two lines along the strip of plywood or cardboard, slanting toward each other. Make the Imcs b^^" apart at the wide end and 3" apart at the narrow end. Turn your board upside down and set the 1" wood strips for the uprights at the same slant as your

lines.

Be

are set along the lines in such a

How you

sure thc\\\a\-

that

through the line into the go through the center of the securely. Turn the frame

nails driven strip will strip.

Now nail

over so that the 1" uprights are on top. Glue or tack to the top of each a narro\\strip of felt

weather stripping.

Now

put your wooden bars on the Place the longest at the left and the smallest at the right. Mark the bars in felt.

the center with the letters of the scale:

C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F, D, A, B, and C. Now drive a 1 Vz" flat head nail

through the 14" nail hole in each bar. Be sure to dri\e the nail through the felt and into the upright beneath. Leave about V2" of the nail sticking up above the bar. Keep about ^'k" space between

can use doorstop lumber in making a xylophone

notched for

tuning

Nail lid to

a box

Follow these diagrams

the bars

when you

in

making

drive your nails.

On

the other upright you also drive nails the felt, but between the bars.

sound box

a

Tune each bar it in the center. you have a scale of two octaves. Dinner Chimes

across until

into

nails will prevent the bars from touehing or slipping sideways when they

These

are played. Shellac or lacquer the bars

wood about i" x Ys" x iVz". Drill a V4" hole in the center of this block. Tlien push the Vi" dowel into it. If the fit is loose, glue the

dowel

Tools: Met:

in place.

hammer:

ioocl

a

2

few

or

scissors:

drills.

1

other

" nails;

two

elastic

strips

about

'A

" flat

head nails; of rubber inner tubing " wide and 6" long;

Materials: Cigar box; twelve

i 'A

adliesi\e tape; four thumb tacks; glue; two strips of wood about !4 " square and 9" long; a strip of

hard aluminum or soft

flat,

steel

about

long

will

nator,

make

for

these

a small

chimes.

If

not,

fi\^"

first

box about 9" x 5V2" x 2"

or 3" high. Before attaching the

of

3'

you can get an ordinary cigar box, make a good sound box, or reso-

If it

Now \'ou arc rcad^• to tunc your xylophone. Strike Middle C on tlic piano, and then tap the longest bar with vour tapper. If this bar sounds a little below C, cut off a sliver with your saw. Be sure not to cut too much. If this does not bring the note up to pitch, cut off a little more. If the bar sounds too high, turn it upside down and make a little saw cut

two

file;

if

you wish. For each tapper, use a V4" dowel about 8" long, and a small block of

for these chimes.

lid, drill

1" holes lengthwise along the center about "'s" apart. After the holes

it

may be placed on the box and attached with glue and the 1 •>" nails. Now glue two thin wood strips to the lid of the box. At the left, place the

are drilled, the lid

269

Childcraft

270

4%"

strips

apart (inside

measurement) Attach narrow

and 2" apart

at the right.

rubber

along the top of each

strips

wood

strip. Use a thumb tack at each end to hold them in place. If your elastic is long enough, place the thumb tacks on the sides of the box. Wind a few turns of

I/4"

simple tune. This was supposed to be the favorite instrument of Pan, the goatlike god of ancient Greece.

making

In

bamboo

use

small bottles,

made

tubes

this instrument, you can tubes open at one end,

empty

of

stiff

cartridge shells, or

paper.

Thev should

wide, just below the

either be of different lengths or the\'

you

hold bars are made bv

should be partly filled to different levels with modeling clav. Fasten these tubes

cutting the metal strip into the follow-

together between strips of wood clamped tight with thumb screws. Or you can put them between heavy sheets of cardboard to which the tubes are tied,

adhesive tape,

heads of the

nails

the bars in place.

The

will use to

ing lengths; 1

each: 8V4" long

7%" 6%" 5% 6"

" "

taped, or glued.

"

To

"

5yi6" you are careful in cutting these bars, you will have scarcelv an\' tuning to do. Nou' drill a •''Ic," hole in each bar, centering it about one fourth of the distance from the end. Put the bars in posiIf

tion,

the longest at the

holes in the box

Use

over the

left,

gently strike the bars.

To

this

tune,

tapper,

compare

them' with the notes C, E, G, C, E on the piano. If they are in tune, drive the nails into the holes. Also drive nails between the metal bars, on the opposite side, to hold the bars in position. If any of the bars arc flat, or below pitch, shorten them by filing the end before attaching them. If thev are too sharp, or high in pitch, file across the center of the underside of the bar. Decorate the

box

if

you wish.

Wind Pipes

o'

Pan.

Instruments

Long

ago,

it

was discov-

ered that a set of tubes of different lengths could be fastened together side

by

side,

sing into

and played upon

to produce a

across the

You can

it.

brating against your

them

tickle

open ends of

a little,

feel the lips,

but a

paper

and

comb

it

\'i-

will

orches-

is always fun. Shepherd's Pipe

tra

Tools: Coping saw; bench vise; ^/u" drill; file. Materials: Section of bamboo; cork to fit; piece

Fuller ball tapper, described

a

blow

Musical Comb. Merely wrap a sheet of tissue paper around a hair comb and

lid.

under Diumsticks. With

play,

the tubes.

of coat-hanger wire; fine sandpaper; thin stick of

wood,

dowel

or

Vi" across and at least

i'

long;

bamboo which

will

adhesive tape.

Get

a section of

hollow tube about Vs" across. From this you will be able to make a pipe pitched from C, with a full twogive

you

a

octave range and in

manv

of the half steps

between. First make the windway.

To

clamp the bamboo gently into vour bench vise, just tightly enough to keep it from slipping. With your coping saw make a shallow cut straight down into the bamboo about 1" from the top. Keep this cut parallel with the top. Then, starting about Vs" lower, cut into the bamboo with your coping saw at a slant towards the first cut you made. cut

this,

When

the cuts meet, a wedge-.shaped

You can make piece will

fall

a delightful shepherd's pipe from a piece of

out of the

bamboo

section.

Don't cut too deeply into the wood, for, if you do, the air hole will be too

The

big.

slanting \\'ood. cil

more than than V4" long.

hole should be not

V4" wide and a take your

Now

into the

little less file

and smooth

Then put

V-t"

the

off

the tip of pen-

hole and

\er\-

lightly

it against the edges, so that any fuzzy wood is pushed awa\. Roll sandpaper up in the shape of a little round stick, and clean the inside of the

press soft,

on one

bamboo.

side of the cork.

This cut

must

be smooth. Make it about V4" across at the narrow end and a little less than V'2" at the wider end. Now push the cork into the pipe so that the line with the hole

boo

When

pipe.

flat

you cut

the cork

surface in the is

is

in

bam-

in proper

bottom \yill be even with the wind hole.

position, the

the top of

You should

no\y be able to

make

a

pipe

sound by blowing gently into the instrument. This is the lowest note, and should be C. Compare it with middle C on the piano. If your pipe sounds low,

should also be cleaned out with a bottle brush or small wad of cloth on the end

cut a small piece off the lower end, using \'Our coping sa\y. To make the finger

of a stick.

iioles

fine

Be

hole.

tube.

The

sure there

The

next

windvyav by

end

of the

step

cut,

file,

is

no fuzz

to

first fitting

bamboo

ha\'e just cut.

be pushed

is

inside

entire

in

I'^it

of

left in

the

the

complete the

and out

of the tube.

for the other notes,

])cncil or

first

crayon line straight

draw

down

a

tlie

can

top surface of the pipe. Start directly below the center of the wind hole. Clamp \our bamboo in the vise again. Put some

Then

cloth around the outside of the jiipe so

the cork into the

nearest the hole vou

the cork so that

soft

it

or sandpaper a slanting surface

271

the vise will hold

it

firmly, witli little

Childcraft

272 danger of cracking

it.

Now

measure the

mark them. Yir," drill. Most

the holes and

for

places

Drill each hole with a

of the holes will need to be larger than

The

that.

sound

To

it

larger the hole, the higher the

makes.

tune,

smooth

off

the surface of the

holes and put a small patch of adhesive

tape over

blow

all

but the bottom hole. Now sound of the first

gently. If the

too low for D, heat the tip of a coat hanger wire and push it gently around in the hole to enlarge it. Then

hole

is

try again until

vou get

a

D. Next, take

notes, one more hole must be drilled and tuned. Tliis is the thumb hole, which is on the opposite side from the finger holes, or on the underside of the pipe. It should be about ^Vs" from the top of the pipe. Hold the instrument in vour hand after vou ha\e marked the place for this hole, and see if your thumb covers it easily. Drill it and tune it to D, an octa\'e abo\e the low D. Be sure that vour left middle finger is still covering hole. Notice, also,

its

the patch of adhesi\'e off the next hole. Blo\\' gcnth', and tunc in the same wa\-

thumb hole.

you get a true E. Continue in this wav until you have tuned the remaining holes to F, G, A, B, and C. This last C will sound an octa\e abo\e the first C.

at the top. If there are

until

You

will notice, b\-

stud\ing

\om

ing chart, that ^•ou^ middle finger

fingeris

used

to cover the hole of this C.

In order to get the second octave of

that to get the

second octave, or the notes higher than D, 3'ou put your left thumb nail in the

To

finish the instrument, cut a

any

beak

slight cracks

between the cork and the wood, fill them with glue. When dn', smooth the surface with sandpaper.

Wind

fine sand-

a thin stick and push it up and down inside the pipe under the holes, to make the inside surface smooth.

paper around

To

preserve the instrument, lacquer

both outside and

inside, except

it

around

the cork.

Stringed Instruments Inner tubing

Grunfer.

noisemaker is modeled Dutch children use dur-

'Iliis

after those the

mg their Christmas open neck

festi\'ities.

tubing. Stretch

it

tight

the neck with string.

Making

a noisemaker from a jug

Co\'er the

of a jug with a strip of inner

and fasten

Then

it

to

coat a small,

round stick with rosin. TTiis may be bought in music or hardware stores. Thrust the stick through a hole in the center of the rubber. As vou pump the stick up and down, a grunting sound will come from this instrument. Sguawter. Punch a hole through the center of the bottom of a tin can. Tie a small piece of wood to the end of a string, and thread the other end through

Making Musical Instruments

273

Childcr.\ft

274 ral

notes of the scale and red lines for

the sharps or

Next, nail the board to the knee sup6" blocks of wood, so that you can hold the instrument securely in your lap while playing. Use finishing nails and place the supports about 12" apart on ports, the

the underside.

To

string,

make

a loop,

one

if

is

not

already there, at one end of your steel wire. Place

it

over the nail

into the end of the board.

end

first

Run

dri\'en

the other

of the wire through the small hole

in the tuning peg.

your

touch

flats.

Turn the peg two

file,

so that the string will onlv

in the center of the right-hand

it

side. A nick made with a penknife or file where the string crosses the bridge will keep the string from slipping, and thus will impro\e the tone. To play, pluck the string with the finger or thumb held near the bridge.

Slide

the

mo\-able

bridge

along

the

board bv holding it between the thumb and middle finger of your other hand. If the notes are not perfecth' in tune, your bridge may be a little too high or

three times to secure the wire string.

too low. After vou ha\e

Use hardwood or plywood to make your mo\ablc bridge, with which you

musical instruments, \ou ma\' want to interest vour friends in making others.

play this melody-maker. Tlie bridge should be -""lo" square and iV-i" long. Slant the top of this bridge slightly with

^^'hat fun

or

\\i\\

orchestra!

made some

of these

it would be to form a small And, perhaps, you could even

gi\e a concert.

BOOKS TO READ CoMMiNS, Dorothy Berliner. Making an Oicbestia. Macmillan, 1931. Huntington, Harriet E. Tune up; tJie Instruments of the Qrcbestra and Their Doubledav, 1942. Lacey, Marion. Picture Book of Musical Instruments. Lothrop, 1942.

eis.

Powers, Margaret. Book of

Little Crafts.

Manual

Arts, 1942.

Play-

\

/

h

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