An intensive course in Telugu
 8173421625

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AN INTENSIVE COURSE . IN TELUGU .

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Central Institute of Indian Languages Publication No. 560

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AN INTENSIVE COURSE IN TELUGU

Ramanarasimham

Central Institute of Indian Languages, ~anasagangotri,~ysore

An Intensive Course in Telugu Ramanarasimham, First Published

First Print

May 1985 Vaisakha 1907

Second Print

June 2006 (Revised} Jyashta 1928

©Central Institute ofIndian Lang11ages, Mysore, 2006.

This material may not be reproduced ur transmitted, either in part.or in full, in any form or by any means, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from: Prof. Udaya Narayana Singh Director Central Institute ofJndian Languages Manasagangotri, Mysore- 570 006, rNDIA Phone Grams

Fax

0091 / 0821- 2515820 (Director) BHARATI 009 t/0821 -2515032

Epabx : 0091/0821- 2345040 E-mail : [email protected] bhasha@sanchamet. in [email protected] Website: http://www.ciil.org

To contact: Head, Publications E-mail: borkar@: iil.stpmy.soft.net cii1@sanchamet. in

ISBN-81-7342-162-5 Price: Rs. 350-00 (US $. 20. 00) Published by: Prof. Udaya Narayana Singh, Director Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore Printed by Mr. S.B. Biswas, Manager Cover page design by: Mr.H.Manohara CILL Printing Press, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570 006, India

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FOREWORD

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I express my gratitude to Dr. D. P. Pattanayak, Director, Central Institute of Indian Languages, whose encouragement and constant guidance helped me at every level in completing this book. Dr. M.S. Thirumalai, Deputy Director and Editor of the Intensive Course Series has gone through this book page by page at the time of its preparation and revision, and offered valuable guidance in preparing the lessons and finally edited. The discussions I had with him have immensely enriched my outlook on Materials Production. He has also helped me in judging the appropriateness of the material from various angles, Dr. Thirumalai has always encouraged innovations and new ideas in Material Production. I received such an encouragement when I presented the idea of including cartoons in this material. I take this opportunity to record my indebtedness to Dr. Thirumalai. I express my thanks to Dr. K.V.V.L.Narasimharao, Principal, Southern Regional Language Centre, Dr. G. Sambasivarao, Reader-cum-Research Officer, C.I.I.L., Dr. K. Viswanatham, Lecturer, Southern Regional Language Centre for their valuable suggestions in various aspects of this book, and to Sri Paramananda Barik who has re-drawn the cartoons used in this book. I offer my special thanks to Sri N.H. Itagi who designed the cover, to the Editors of Andhra Prabha, Andhra Jyothi Sachitra Vara Patrika, Andhra Sachitra Vara Patrika and Chandamama for permitting to use various items such as cartoons, magazines, and to the cartoonists. Sarvasree V. Sundara Kesavulu, V.V.S.B. Kutumbarao (Srinivas), Katuri Krishnamurthy (Katuri), S.V. Varaprasad (Prasad), V. Srinivas Prasad (Jyothi), R. D. Ramesh Chander (Ramesh), S.T.Ramachari (Tulasiram), M.L.N. Bhaskar, P. Ramanamurthy (Murthy), C. Sashidhar, P. Geetha Subbarao (babi), P.G. Ranjan, Murali (Murali Ramana), R. Ramakrishnarao (Krishna), D.V. Pullarao, K.V. Durga Prasad (Babu), P. Rajendra Prasad (Rajendra), M. Ravindra Kumar (Ravindra), B. Vidyasagar (Vidya), and Dr. S.Krishna, Dr. S.Jayadev Babu (Jayadev), Kum. Ragathi Pandari Bai (Ragathi Pandari) for permitting to use their cartoons in this book. Of the many people who have helped me determine the content and organization of this book, I would particularly like to thank several batches of trainees of Telugu at the Southern Regional Language Centre who have had this meterial tested on them and who have been responsible for many modifications. I also thank those trainees whose names I have used in the dialogues. I would also like to express my thanks and appreciation to my wife who has provided a congenial atmosphere at home while I was working on this book many hours at late evenings and early mornings for many months. Finally I offer my thanks to Shri M.G. Kanakram, Asst. Director (Admn.) and Manager-in-charge Central Institute of Indian languages Press, the Staff of the Press, and Shri H. L. N. Bharati and Kum. P. Bina for the neat execution of printing. PARIMI RAMANARASIMHAM

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (Revised Edition) I am thankful to Prof. E. Annamalai, then Director, C.I.I.L., Dr. K. V. V. L. Narasimharao, then Principal, Southern Regional Language Centre, for considering my proposal for revision of this book and entrusting me with the responsibility of the revision. I am extremely benefitted by the Telugu Faculty members of SRLC/CIIL and my colleagues in SRLC/CIIL Prof. Kasturi Viswanadham (later retired as Dy. Director, CIIL), Sri G. Vijayasarathi, Dr. G. Prabhakar, Dr. Y. Sridhara Reddi and Dr. M. Parandhami Reddy, who used this book in teaching Telugu in the intensive teaching programme of the Southern Regional Language Centre and shared their views on the first edition of this book. Their suggestions and experience have been immensely helpful to me in the task of revising this book. I am extremely thankful to the present Director of the Central Institute of Indian Languages Prof. Uday Narayan Singh who took care in seeing that this book comes out in this form. I also thank my collaegues Prof. Sam Mohan Lal, Dy. Director CIIL Prof. Dr. I. S. Borker, Reader-cum-Research Officer and Head Publications and Printing Press, CIIL, Dr. B. Mallikarjun, Asst. Director (Admn.), Dr. Sarat Chandran Nair, Principal, S.R.L.C., Sri S. B. Biswas, Press Manager, Sri R. Nandeesh, Sales Executive (Publications), and the technical staff of the CIIL Press whose involvement at different points of time made the publication of this book possible. I thank Ms. P. Srilakshmi for taking the responsibility of typesetting the revised version. I thank Sri Varanasi Syamsundar, Sri H. Ganga Raju (Ph.D. Scholar in the Dept. of Telugu, University of Hyderabad) and Dr. B. Bhujanga Reddy for their dedicated cooperation in the tasks of typesetting, and proofreading. I must also thank my research (Ph.D.) students in the Dept. of Telugu Mr. Pagadala Gopalakrishna, Mr. Bharat Ravipati, and others for helping me at the time of proofreading. I would like to make a special mention of Ms. Naoko Yatani (from Japan) learning Telugu under the Study India Programme for a keen interest she has shown in the preparation of the press copy. I must always remember the learners of Telugu language, with whom I worked at different points of time all through my career, including foreign students in the University of Hyderabad, whose responses in the form of inquisitive questions at the time of my instruction have been of great help in my continuous learning the art of language teaching. I must be grateful all the time to my wife Leelakumari for providing me an excellent atmosphere at home for my research work. Hyderbad, 18th May 2006.

PARIMI RAMANARASIMHAM Professor of Telugu, University of Hyderabad

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INTRODUCTION TO FIRST EDITION LANGUAGE LEARNING From time immemorial individuals have been learning other's languages as well, in addition to their own. Some learn languages of others without a teacher or a textbook. In this case the community is the teacher and the classroom, and the social needs of the learner provide him/her with a curriculum. On the other hand, some learn with the help of a teacher and a textbook, in which case the curriculum is organized and planned. In the first context the learning is generally felt to be easy and more or less unconscious, natural and automatic. Competence acquired in such a learning may or may not be similar to competence of language acquisition in mother tongue. It may also be of a time consuming process in some cases. In most cases such a learning may be partial in the sense that the learners may be competent in using that particular language for some specific purposes only. Also the learner is invariably required to live in the particular area in which that language is spoken or he/she must have regular physical contact with the speakers of the language. In the second context, the learning is generally seen to be difficult, formal, conscious at every step and organized. Because of these formal conditions there can be a variety of exposure within the shortest span, thus raising the theoretical possibility of a more rapid learning of the particular language. Also the learner need not live in the particular language area. However, motivation is important in both the contexts. Learning a language in the second context is a complex activity. The term second language learning is generally restricted to this type of learning only. The success of learning a second language depends upon the method, material and the motivation of the learner. Use of systematically organized and planned material ensures the attainment of educational goals with ease and rapidity. The present Intensive Course is an attempt in this direction. The three principles of materials production, namely, selection, gradation and presentation are followed with care in the preparation of this book. The teachable items are carefully graded based on the pedogogical principles, namely, a progression of items from simple to complex and from known to unknown, and the relevance of the given linguistic situation. OBJECTIVES This Intensive Course is meant primarily for the teacher trainees of the Southern Regional Language Centre of the Central Institute of Indian Langugaes, who do not know Telugu earlier. This is the prescribed textbook for the Basic Course of the three phase ten-month course of 1100 hours of instruction. The

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other two phases are Intermediate Course and Advance Course. The Basic Course extends over a period of 14 weeks with 450 instructional hours. At the end of this course the learners are able to achieve the following objectives : 1. To perceive and reproduce the sounds and their meaningful sequences, which means identification of the sounds in their meaningful sequence, discrimination of the sounds in their meaningful sequence, and oral reproduction of the sounds in their meaningful sequence. 2. To form orally sentences from given patterns and lexical items. 3. To converse with the teacher and with fellow trainees on specified topics under controlled situations. 4. To narrate specified events and topics orally. 5. To read simple and graded passages with comprehension, which includes the recognition of the letters of the alphabet in isolation and in sequence, and the comprehension of passages containing simple sentences. 6. To write simple sentences and guided compositions on specified topics, which means the writing of the letters of the alphabet in the initial stage followed by words and sentences and writing of guided composition on the basis of the cues provided. Of the above objectives, this Intensive Course is meant mainly to achieve objectives from 2 to 4. To realise the other objectives, the other CIIL publications such as Telugu Phonetic Reader (1961), CIIL - K. V. S. Mother Tongue Series MANA BHASHA LEVEL I (1973) consisting a Textbook, a Scriptbook, a Copybook and a Teacher's Manual. Though the books in CIIL-K. V. S. Mother Tongue Series are prepared for children learning Telugu as a mother tongue, they could be effectively used by adult second language learner for the script learning purpose as the Telugu script is presented in the Scriptbook and Copybook on the basis of similarity of shape of the letters and the hand movements in writing them. The learners would do well to learn Telugu script before they commence using this book or learn it simultaneously while using this book.’ DESIGN OF THE BOOK This Intensive Course consists of 100* Lessons in 24* Units. Each Unit consists of two or more lessons covering a group of related grammatical patterns of a major grammatical structure. This is further divided into various teachable items. Each lesson deals with a few teachable items covering at least one of the structural patterns of the grammatical structure focussd in the Unit. Teachable item may be defined as a single minimum point that the teacher has to concentrate upon while ’ The Telugu script is also introduced in the revised edition in order to make this book self-sufficient. But to gain knowldege in the Phonetics of the Telugu Language the learners may consult Telugu Phonetic Reader (CIIL, 1961) * 64 lessons in 10 Units in the revised edition.

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teaching. This may also be a single minimum point that the teacher has to concentrate upon while constructing a test. The first 40 lessons cover a comparatively less number of teachable items than the later lessons. This is to accommodate the initial problems involved in learning the mechanics of writing and developing reading skill. There are two types of lessons in this Intensive Course : Unit lessons and Review lessons, Unit lessons are part of Units and they cover new teachable items. There are 84 Unit lessons, Each Unit consists of 5 components, namely, (i) Text, (ii) Drills, (iii) Exercises, (iv) Vocabulary and (v) Grammar Notes. The Text is mostly in the form of conversation. A few narrations, news items and a story are also there. In this component, new teachable items with a judicious mixture of old ones for reinforcement, are presented in a meaningful situation. Each sentence in the Text is provided with a free English translation to give a general comprehension of the sentence in particular and the total text in general. However, the translation does not maintain one-to-one correspondence with the structural elements of the Telugu sentence. The drills are designed to train the learner to speak through a mastery of the basic structural patterns of the language. The drills include repetition drill, build-up drill, substitution drill - both simple and manipulative, interlocked substitution drill, expansion drill, response drill, combination drill, transformation drill and conversation drill. Each drill is designed to bring out automatic accuracy and speed of performance. The drills are graded considering the complexity of manipulation involved in each drill. The drills, other than repetition and build-up drills, have a model set of stimulus and response. The drills are followed by different kinds of exercises. Both these components are confined only to the new teachable items covered in the lesson. No new vocabulary items are used in drills and exercises. Drills are for oral administration in the class whereas the exercises are for home practice. Clear and adequate instructions are provided at the beginning of every exercise. The exercises involve a higher degree of manipulative activity than the drills, helping a specialized practice and consolidation of the grammatical rules. The new vocabulary items of each lesson are listed separately in the order of their first occurence in the Text. The English equivalent is given against each item. This meaning is confined to the context of reference in the Text. The teacher has the liberty of bringing out the various shades of meanings and uses of a vocabulary item by way of proper explanation, wherever felt necessary. In Grammar Notes, grammatical explanations are provided in non-technical terms to the extent possible. They are functional in nature, and intended to cater to the needs of the teacher to teach the lesson successfully and help the learners in understanding the structures. The major and sub-points are numbered and a cross reference is provided wherever necessary. For example, 23.1.2. stands for the second sub-point under the first main point in the 23rd lesson.

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Each lesson ends with a cultural note, if any. There are two types of Review lessons in this Intensive Course : Unit Review lessons and Overall Review lessons. The Unit Review lessons are twelve in number and each of these is added, at the end of every two Units. The Overall Review lessons are four in number and they form the last four lessons in this book. They provide an overall review of the entire course, and help the learner a smooth switch over to a set of structure-free reading materials. In Review lessons Drills and Grammar Notes are not given, as these lessons do not contain any new teachable items. However, new vocabulary items are used in the text of these lessons. The text in these lessons presents the use of the structures covered so far in a different context and exercises provide a practice and consolidation of the structures. To provide variety, different formats such as letter, news item, story, cartoons are used in addition to the conversation format in the text of the Review lessons. The Review lessons are placed and timed in such a way that they can be used as a review and reinforcement of the week-long learning activity at the end of a particular week in an intensive language training programme. The exercises given in Review lessons can readily be used as a week-end tests. The lessons in this book are presented in Telugu script, unlike other Telugu learning materials for adults. However, the first ten lessons are provided with transcription in Parivardhita Devanagari, so that they can be read from the first day of their learning. As the learner acquires mastery over the Telugu script he is expected to switch over from Devanagari to Telugu script. The Devanagari is used here as a crutch to learn the pronunciation’. Using the target language script in a composite course like the one visualized here will enable the learners to read the written material fluently at the later stage. Our experience shows that the mastery of Telugu script can be achieved in about 15 to 20 clock hours spread over a period of 8 to 10 days. Hence this helps learning of the language go hand in hand with the development of reading skill in the target language. Use of cartoons for learning language is an innovation in this book. Language teaching materials for a second langugae course are necessarily under various constraints and controls of structures. Because of these constraints and controls the materials producer will have great difficulty in bringing out the naturalness of the situations. This could lead to partial handling of the content of a conversation, inadequate coverage and even misunderstanding. It could also lead to monotony since the constraints on structures would not help much variety and creativity. Accordingly to overcome the above listed problems, recourse has been taken to the use of cartoons in this book. Cartoons from various magazines are selected and used in the lessons where the captions of the cartoons contain the teachable items ’

In the revised edition the phonetic/phonemic transcription is also provided in addition to Devanagari in order to facilitate the foreign learners also so as to widen the utility of the book in respect of the clientele. However the additional scripts are used only upto lesson 6.

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focussed in the text. The cartoons, thus, make an additional text material. In some Review lessons the text is exclusively comprised of cartoons only. It has been found in the classroom while experimenting this material that the humour associated with the cartoons help the learners to remember the cartoon and thereby the teachable item the caption contains. For example, the fact that the word for water in Telugu is in plural number and its usage with plural verb in agreement is established in the cartoon in lesson 37*. Some cartoons using proverbs are also used. It has also been found while using this material that the use of cartoons help in teaching a natural language in the sense that elliptical and compound constructions that abound in native langugage are frequently exploited in the langugage used in the cartoons. These are two of the most difficult characteristics of a langugage the mastery of which would put the second language learner on par with the native speakers of the language. METHOD OF USING THIS BOOK This Intensive Course covers 300 hours of intensive instruction following a sequence of four basic steps, presentation, explanation, repetition and transfer in the basic course stage. The teacher using this book may find it beneficial to go through the analytical backgound provided elsewhere in the Introduction. It would help him/her greatly to have a thorough understanding of the scheme of presentation of the various structures in this book. He/She may prepare flash cards separately for each lesson. All that goes into a lesson should be available at a glance in a nutshell on the flash card. Here is a model :

Lesson 53* Teachable Items : 1. Gerund form -& Ar…/& Ðèþr… 2. After mono-syllabic bases &Ðèþr… Æ>Ðèþr…, ´ùÐèþr… etc. Elsewhere -&Ar… †¯èþr…, ^èþ§æþÐèþr… etc. 3. Mæü…sôý 4. Dubitative marker to express uncertainty

Vocabulary Items:

MæüçÙt… A…™é `Mæüsìý ÐðþË$™èþ$Ææÿ$ BïœçÜ$

C糚yæþ$ ºçÜ$Þ E…§ø Ìôý§ø! A™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðø M>§ø! *

See page xxiv for the corresponding lesson number in the revised edition.

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Mæü…sñý ^ðþyæþz ^èþ*í³…_ G糚yæþ* BsZ

This helps the teacher to take up the teachable items and vocabulary items without referring to the book for presentation in the class. The teachable items and vocabulary items may be introduced by adopting dramatization and/or demonstration creating suitable situations other than the one provided in the text. The ability to create suitable situations in the classroom makes the teacher successful in his endeavour. Grammatical explanations have to be avoided at the beginning of the Introduction. After all the teachable items are introduced, the necessary grammatical explanations may be given. For example, let us see the introduction of the Gerund forms in Telugu. Write the verbal bases on the black board for which the Gernund forms are being introduced. Æ>Æÿ$$, †¯èþ$, †Æÿ$$Å, etc. Announce to the class that the Gerund forms of these verbs are going to be introduced. Take a piece of paper and pen, and start writing something on the paper. Ask the question :

¯óþ¯èþ$ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$? You will get the answer "Ò$Ææÿ$

Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$' as this structure has already been

covered. Then, ask the next question :

¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>Äæý$r… Ò$Ææÿ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Æ>? The answer will be "^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²…'. Walk to the door, open it and say :

¯óþ¯èþ$ ™èþË$ç³# †Äæý$År… Ò$Ææÿ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

Follow it with some more demonstrations and ask question :

Ò$Ææÿ$ H… ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? Provide answers yourself :

¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>Äæý$r… ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$, ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™èþË$ç³# †Äæý$År…

^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$ and so on. Take out a biscuit, which you have taken along with you. Start eating it by biting it bit by bit. Say the sentences :

¯óþ¯èþ$ ¼òÜPr$t †…r$¯é²¯èþ$, Ò$Ææÿ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ H… ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? By now, the class should be in a position to answer the question by saying :

Ò$Ææÿ$ ¼òÜPr$t †¯èþr… ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²… Help the class by providing necessary props. M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ °{§æþ´ùÐèþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. GMæü$PÐèþV> †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. GMæü$PÐèþV> Ðèþ*sêÏyæþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. and so on. Do not use new structures and new vocabulary items while providing sentences like these. As you use the Gerund forms of various verbal bases, write those forms on the board against the verbal bases already written. Let the learners analyse for themselves what marker/suffix is added to the base to form the Gerund.

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The teachable items and vocabulary items need not be introduced in the order of their occurrence in the lesson. After the introduction is over, provide the grammatical explanations. Use of audio-visual aids is the most desirable one while introducing the teachable items and the vocabulary items. After the introduction is over, read the text of the lesson with normal speed. The class should be in a position to comprehend the lesson to a great extent as the teachable items and vocabulary items have already been covered. Providing translation should be the last resort after all possible efforts by demonstration and dramatization are used to bring home the meaning/concept to the learners. Group drill has to be administered with each one of the teachable items as and when it is introduced so as to help the learners to consolidate their learning. Before a sentence is given for drill while introducing a teachable item, utter the sentence several times so that the class will listen to the same properly. After the lesson is thus intorduced, administer a mass drill covering all the sentences of the text. These choral drills help the adult learners overcome their inhibitions such as shyness in uttering the sentences of the non-native language, and also help them learn the pronunciation. It also helps developing speaking skill. Now, take up the drills part of the lesson. Administer each drill in group and also individually. Use more sentences of your own if the sentences given in a drill are found to be insufficient. Use your own drills-preferably a question-answer drill. Administer this as a chain drill, i.e., you ask one person a question. He/She will answer you and will put the same question to his/her neighbour. The neighbour will answer and put the same question to the next person. Ultimately the last person will put the question to you and you will answer it. Let the exercises be the home task. Do not guide the learners for exercises in the class. Let them do these exercises themselves. Evaluate the learning by going through the exercises done by the learners. Use the exercises in the Review lessons as weekend tests. The method suggested above, however, is not the method of using this book. The following instructions will be found useful by the teacher. 1. The teacher should always bear in mind that a good method is comprehensive and eclectic. The valuable suggestions from different methods may be used whenever the situation demands. 2. Acquisition of good pronunciation forms an important part of language learning. The teacher should make the learner to acquire the capacity to recognize various speech sounds and produce them in isolation as well as in sequences. The phonetic drills in the Telugu Phonetic Reader may be used for effective pronunciation drill. The meaning of words may be ignored at this stage. 3. The articulatory description of a problem sound is a powerful prop. Facial diagrams can also be used. The contrasting pairs consisting of the problem sounds should be administered for drills.

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4. The script should be taught simultaneously with patterns. To get a mastery over the orthography the teacher should develop automatic association between written forms and speech sounds. 5. It is assumed that there will be a concurrent script teaching class on every day of instruction. Hence the teachers may illustrate the letters introduced in the script class with words and phrases taken from the structures introduced. 6. The dialogues in this course are situation centered. Before presenting the dialogue the teacher should prepare the students for understanding the patterns to be introduced. This can be done with the revision of the earlier lessons. 7. In introducing the pattern the teacher should pronounce each sentence first, followed by a choral and individual repetition of the same. 8. The teacher may bring many more contexts to teach the structures involved as already illustrated. Thus, a communicative operation of the language in use may be brought to the classroom. 9. Discourage the students from the habit of over-relying on translation for comprehension. Make the students think in the target language as early as possible. In the calssroom make a minimum use of a language other than the target language. 10. When new words are introduced special attention should be paid by the teacher to their correct pronunciation before they are used in the patterns. 11. A brief explanation on the similarities and differences of the patterns introduced in the lesson with reference to the learner's mother tongue may be given by the teacher provided he/she has a mastery over the learner's mother tongue. 12. In administering drills the teacher should not slow down from his natural speed. 13. The intonation pattern of each sentence as found in conversation should be maintained when it is given in isolation for drilling. 14. The teacher should not mimic the learner's mispronunciation. 15. The teacher should always remember that the exercises should be used for written task only after the oral administration of drills is over. 16. The grammar teaching is necessary to impart a knowledge of the basic structural priniciples. The learner must be described the strucre non-technically as far as possible. 17. In teaching grammar, the learner must be taught the terminology which will act as a convenient system of reference for the explanation. Being an adult and already educated, the learner may not have much difficulty in learning certain technical terms and understanding the metalanguage. 18. The learner need not be compelled to memorize the grammatical rules. He learns himself many things by analogy and analysis. Moreover, the drills and exercises are organised in such a way as to impose a particular grammatical rule indirectly. 19. The internal and external sandhi should be explained adequately. This may be represented in the form of rules as the learner is likely to be familiar with

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sandhi rules of his mother tongue. 20. The teacher should supply the learners with additional cultural notes wherever found necessary. 21. Testing is an essential ingredient in any teaching situation. The teacher should undertake the preparation of skillwise tests. The testing techniques such as translation, dictation, composition, multiple choice items, short answer items etc., should be used in the classroom. Careful analysis on the part of the teacher is highly expected in preparing and scoring test items. 22. The teacher should use audio-visual aids wherever feasible. These have to be prepared by the teacher follwing the materials to be presented in the class. These may include picture cards, wall pictures, flannel board and cut outs, puppets, film strips, tapes, records, films, television and so on. 23. Each lesson is potential enough for the teacher to prepare supplementary materials. Therefore, he/she may prepare the same as and when necessary taking into consideration of the time factor. Many more instructions are commonly found in the books on language teaching methods. The teacher is expected to get acquainted with them for effective and systematic teaching. LANGUAGE VARIETY USED IN THIS BOOK This Intensive Course aims at teaching standard spoken Telugu. It is needless to say that the 'standard variety' of a language is not a fixed point of reference and it is only an approximation of a range of usages. Since a standard variety is only a range, the forms used by other native speaker should not be construed as incorrect forms by the learners. However, it is in the best interest of their learning to follow the variety used in this book until this course is completed, as this book provides a systematic, progressive and graded approach to this particular variety of the language . The teachers using this book to teach the language can make the learning of the language more profitable if they strictly adhere to this variety of language, as long as they use this book as the textbook. Failure to do so and introduction of different varieties in the classroom would confuse the learners. In selecting different dialect forms (where both are accepted as standard) pedagogical advantages are kept in mind in choosing one in preference to the other. For example, consider the following instances.

1. ^óþíܯðþO, ÑÇW¯ðþO

2. ^óþÔéÆÿ$$, ÑÇV>Æÿ$$

Item 2 is preferred because item 1 requires an additional past tense marker

& C¯Œþ. Similarly Byæþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$ and Byæþ$Mæü$° are preferred in place of Byæþ$Mö…r$¯é²yæþ$ and Byæþ$Mö° for the following reasons. In this Intensive Course reflexive bases like ¡çÜ$Mø, °ÌZa and Mæü*Æøa are grouped

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together and shown as polysyllabic K ending bases. (Polysyllabic is to exclude ´ù). The above dicotomy is not possible with °ÌZa and Mæü*Æøa. Hence Byæþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$, Byæþ$Mæü$¯é²yæþ$, Byæþ$Mæü$°, °Ë$a…r$¯é²yæþ$, °Ë$a¯é²yæþ$, °Ë$a° are preferred. ç³yæþ$ is identified with A¯èþ$ group as the past tense forms of these bases have a geminated final consonant and take A / B as the past tense suffix.

†¯é²yæþ$, ç³yézyæþ$. The neuter singular from ç³yæþz¨ is preferred to ç³yìþ…¨ in accordance with the

A¯èþ²¨, †¯èþ²¨ forms of the group. While introducing the non-future forms of E…yæþ$, E…¨ is blocked and E¯èþ²¨ is only introduced in the beginning. This is necessary to establish the concord for present tense which is identical with that of the non-future forms of E…yæþ$

E¯é²¯èþ$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$ E¯é²yæþ$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ E¯é²… GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²… E¯èþ²¨ GMæü$P™èþ$¯èþ²¨ E¯é²Ðèþ# GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ# E¯é²Æÿ$$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$ E¯é²Ææÿ$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$ E…¨ is introduced as an alternative form of E¯èþ²¨ (see lesson 42)* only after establishing the paradigm E¯é²¯èþ$, E¯é²…, E¯é²Ðèþ# etc. Care has to be taken by the teacher to avoid an unwanted extension by the learners, of the analogy

E¯èþ²¨ = E…¨ Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯èþ²¨ = Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$…¨ which is not true ( E…¨ and E¯èþ²¨ are semantically same; but Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯èþ²¨ is present progressive and Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$…¨ is future / habitual.) ANALYTICAL BACKGROUND All points given in the Grammer Notes under each lesson in this Intensive Course constitute a reference grammar of standard spoken Telugu. In order to have a comprehensive picture of the structure of the language, the teacher using this book have to organize the different grammatical points in a cohesive manner. For example, the points related to past tense are scattered over different lessons where different groups of verbs are covered. All these points have to be put together to have a understanding of the past tense in this language. For the convenience of the users of this book a calssification of the verbal bases in terms of internal changes in the stems is presented here. Such classification and the scheme of its presentation in explicit terms is necessary because in Telugu the verbal bases with their stem *

See page xxiv for the corresponding lesson number in the revised edition.

xviii

alternants pose a relatively more complex problem than the other word classes. The base forms of the verbs, as introduced in this Intensive Course can be used in Imperative (non-honorific affirmative singular) except the following groups of verbs which will lose their final consonant when used in the Imperative (nonhonorific affirmative singular). ∪ i) (C)V Cus MæüË$‹Ü, Mæü$Ææÿ$‹Ü etc. ∪

(C)V Cuc AÆæÿ$^Œþ, í³Ë$^Œþ etc. _ iii) (C)V Cuc Hyæþ$^Œþ andyæþ$^Œþ. _ and iv) (C)V c Ìôý^Œþ The base forms are set up for convenient reference. If a particular verb has several stem alternants one of the alternants is chosen to be the base. The other alternant-forms of the verb are derived by specific rules. For example, the verb 'to write' in Telugu is represented by the forms Æ>‹Ü, Æ>ÄŒý$, Æ>§Šþ and Æ>Æÿ$$ in words like ii)

Æ>Ý뢯èþ$, Æ>Äæý*Í, Æ>§éª…, Æ>Æÿ$$ One of these alternants is set up as the base of this particular verb and rules are framed to derive the other alternants. The base is an arbitrary form and one can set up any one of the above as the base form and derive the others. However, principles of economy, generality and naturality dictate the choice. In any case one has to frame suitable rules to derive the other alternant forms. Reality in Usage Many of the Telugu verbal bases have only one stem alternant and the same is used without any change in the Impertive (non-honorific affirmative singular). Eg., GMæü$P, ¨Væü$, ™éVæü$ etc. In a pedagogical grammar it is more natural and expedient to take one of the freely occurring forms as the base. Earlier writers of grammars in Telugu have used the non-occurring or bound forms as the bases and derived the alternants. In terms of reality in usage (Ramanarasimham, 1981 and 1984.) this is counterintuitive in pedagogical situation. Therefore, the verbal forms as they occur in the Imperative non-honorific affirmative singular are taken as the bases in this Intensive Course. However, the ‹Ü ending and ^Œþ ending bases, as already mentioned above are the exceptions. (The reasons for not taking the Imperative forms of these verbs as bases have been dicussed in Ramanarasimham, 1978.) Accordingly Æ>Æÿ$$ is taken as the base form of the verb meaning 'to write' as this form occurs freely in the language as the Imperative form. Other writers took either Æ>‹Ü or Æ>Äæý$$ as the base. Similarly the reflexive verb. The Mø ending forms of these verbs such as ¡çÜ$Mø, ç³r$tMø are introduced as the bases. These forms occur as the Imperative forms. The other teaching materials in Telugu have taken ¡çÜ$Mö¯Œþ,

xix

¡çÜ$Mæü$¯èþ$, ¡çÜ$Mö¯èþ$ as bases.

It is also found while using this material in the class that the learners find it easier to go from an occurring free form to bound forms. Verb Stem Classification In Telugu verb stems are classified under various groups based on the internal changes in stems when different suffixes are added to them. Three classes of suffixes can be identified which trigger various changes in the verb stems. They are : A/B (i) Suffixes beginning with (ii)

Suffixes beginning with

(iii)

Suffixes beginning with

™Œþ/§Šþ C/æ–/H

According to the changes the suffixes trigger in the bases of the verbs, the verbs are classified into 11 groups. Group I Those verbs which do not undergo any change. GMæü$P , ¨Væü$, _…^èþ$, M>Ë$ etc. ∪



Ayæþ$Væü$, ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# etc. GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$, GM>P¯èþ$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$, ^èþ¨Ðé¯èþ$ (66.6)’

and trisyllabic bases of (C) VCVcu pattern. ’

GMæü$P , GMæüP…yìþ (41.6) ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#, ^èþ§æþÐèþr… (41.6, 43.2)’

etc.

Group II

Æÿ$$Å/Æÿ$$ ending verbs and ^èþ*yæþ$. ÐðþÆÿ$$Å, †Æÿ$$Å, Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å, ´÷Æÿ$$Å

etc., and

^èþ*yæþ$.

These verbs change their final syllable to ‹Ü and lengthen the penultimate vowel, if short, when the suffixes of class (ii) and (iii) follow. (48.1.; 48.2.; 66.3.; 66.4.)’

ÐóþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$, ÐóþÔé¯èþ$ (66.3.1.)’, ÐóþíÜ…¨, Ðóþ§éª… (60.3)’^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$, ^èþ*Ôé¯èþ$. Group III

r$t ending bases ¯ðþr$t, †r$t, ^èþ$r$t etc., ^ðþ糚 and Ððþâæý$Ï. The final r$t of these bases becomes yŠþ ; ^ðþ糚 becomes ^ðþ‹³; and Ððþâæý$Ï becomes ÐðþâŒý when suffixes of class (ii) follow. (48.3.; 46.2.; 54.2.; 60.2.)’ Möy颯èþ$, Möy骅 ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$, ^ðþ´ëª… Ððþâꢯèþ$, Ððþâꪅ. Group IV

C…^èþ$ ending bases (other than disyllabic bases like _…^èþ$ part of the stem)

^èþ*í³…^èþ$, Mæü°í³…^èþ$, GMìüP…^èþ$, BÌZ_…^èþ$, ¨…í³…^èþ$ ’

See page xxiv for the corresponding numbers in the revised edition.

xx

etc.

where C…^èþ$ is

These bases change their final C…^èþ$ to C‹Ü when followed by the suffixes of class (ii). (55.4.; 60.2.)’

BÌZ_çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$, BÌZ_§éª… (60.3.)’ Group V

A¯èþ$ group of verbs (49.1.; 50.1.; 71.3.)’. This group has four sub-groups. 1. A¯èþ$, ѯèþ$, †¯èþ$ and Mö¯èþ$ (Mæü¯èþ$ which also belongs to this sub-group is not introduced in this Course.)

2. E…yæþ$ 3. K ending bases other than ´ù °ÌZa, Mæü*Æøa, ¡çÜ$Mø, ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#Mø, Mæü¯èþ$MøP etc. 4. ç³yæþ$ and compound bases ending with ç³yæþ$ like CçÙtç³yæþ$, MæüçÙtç³yæþ$ etc. (^ðþyæþ$ which also belongs to this sub-group is not introduced in this course.) The suffixes beginning with ™Œþ change their ™Œþ to sŒý when they are added to the A¯èþ$ group of verbs except ç³yæþ$ sub-group. The bases of the sub-group 1 change their final ¯èþ$ to anuswaram (49.2.)’; E…yæþ$ drops its final yæþ$; the final K of these bases changes to E… (50.2.)’ when the suffixes of class (ii) follow. A…r$¯é²¯èþ$, A…§é… E…r$¯é²¯èþ$, E…§é… °Ë$a…r$¯é²¯èþ$, °Ë$a…§é… ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$, ¡çÜ$Mæü$…§é… These verbs take a different past tense suffix A/B (66.5.; 71.3.)’. Before this suffix, these bases undergo the following changes. The final ¯èþ$ becomes ¯Œþ² and the final yæþ$ becomes yŠþz. E…yæþ$ becomes E¯Œþ². The final K becomes E¯Œþ². A¯é²¯èþ$, A¯èþ²¨ E¯é²¯èþ$, E¯èþ²¨ ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²¯èþ$, ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯èþ²¨ ç³yéz¯èþ$, ç³yæþz¨ The final K of the bases becomes E¯Œþ when followed by the suffixes of class (iii) (75.2.3.; 79.2.)’.

°Ë$a° ¡çÜ$Mæü$° °Ë$a¯óþ ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯óþ Group VI ∪ Bases ending in ‹Ü. These are disyllabic bases and of (C)VCus pattern. (67.1)’. These bases lose their final ‹Ü when used in Imperative non-honorific affirmative singular (67.2)’.

™èþyæþ$! The final ‹Ü of these bases becoms ÐŒþ when followed by the suffixes of class (i) (67.5.)’. MæüËÐèþ…yìþ! MæüËÐèþr…Ìôý§æþ$ (67.3)’



MæüË$!

See page xxiv for the corresponding numbers in the revised edition.

xxi

Group VII Bases ending in

^Œþ. (68.1.)’ Ìôý^Œþ, í³Ë$^Œþ, Fyæþ$^Œþ etc. These bases drop the final ^Œþ when used in the Imperative non-honorific affirmative singular. Ìôý! í³Ë$! Fyæþ$! etc. The final ^Œþ becomes ‹Ü before a suffix beginning with ™Œþ (68.4.)’; §Šþ before a suffix beginning with §Šþ (68.5.); and ÐŒþ before a suffix begginning with A/B (67.3.)’. ÌôýÝë¢yæþ$, Ìôý§éª…, í³Ë$Ý뢯èþ$, Fyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$ ÌôýÐèþr…, í³ËÐèþr… (68.3.)’ ÌôýõÜ¢, ¯èþyìþõÜ¢, FyìþõÜ¢ (67.3, 63.3, 68.4)’

Group VIII The bases

Æ>, ™óþ, CÐèþ#Ó

and

^éÐèþ#. (46.2.; 66.4.; 67.6.; 69.4.1.; 91.1.;



91.1.1.) . Æ> becomes Ðèþ‹Ü; ™óþ becomes ™ðþ‹Ü; CÐèþ#Ó becomes C‹Ü

and ^éÐèþ# becomes

^èþ‹Ü

when the suffixes of class (ii) follow.

ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨ ™ðþçÜ$¢…¨ CçÜ$¢…¨ ^èþçÜ$¢…¨ ÐèþõÜ¢ ™ðþõÜ¢ CõÜ¢ ^èþõÜ¢ Ðèþ§éª… ™ðþ§éª… C§éª… ^èþ§éª… (60.3.)



Æ> becomes Ðèþ^Œþa; ™óþ becomes ™ðþ^Œþa; CÐèþ#Ó becomes C^Œþa and ^éÐèþ# becomes ^èþ^Œþa when suffixes of class (iii) follow.

Ðèþ^éaÆÿ$$

™ðþ^éaÆÿ$$

C^éaÆÿ$$

^èþ^éaÆÿ$$

Group IX _ Bases of the pattern (C)V C

^èþ$ M>Ë$a, ^óþÆæÿ$a, Ðèþ*yæþ$a etc. (69.2; 69.3.)’. The final ^èþ$ of these bases becomes E‹Ü when suffixes of class (ii) follow. M>Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$, M>ÍõÜ¢, M>Ë$§éª….

Group X The bases §é^èþ$ and

™ø^èþ$ (90.4.)’

The final ^èþ$ of these bases becomes ‹Ü when suffixes of class (ii) follow.

§éÝ뢯èþ$, ™øçÜ$¢…¨ etc. Group XI The bases

´ù and M>. These are irregular verbs. ´ùÄæý*¯èþ$, ´ùÆÿ$$…¨. (70.1)’ ´ùÆÿ$$¯èþ (75.1.2.)’ ´ùÆÿ$$¯é (90.1.1.)’ ´ùÄôý$ (75.2.1.), ´ù™óþ (63.3.1.)’ ´ù™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$, ´ù…yìþ (41.7.)’ ´ùÌôý§æþ$ (71.1., 41.7)’ ´ùÐèþr… (53.1.1.)’, ´ù! etc. M> has three alternants AÐèþ#, AÄŒý$ and M>. AÐèþ# occurs before suffixes of class



See page xxiv for the corresponding numbers in the revised edition.

xxii

(ii). AÄŒý$ occurs before suffixes beginning with ÄŒý$ and C, and M> occurs elsewhere. (70.2.1.)’

AÐèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$, AÄæý*Åyæþ$, AÆÿ$$…¨ (70.2.2.) ’, M>…yìþ! (41.7.) ’, M>Ðè þ r… (53.1.1.)’, M>Ìôý¯èþ$ (71.1., 41.7)’, M>! etc In addition to the gradation of the structure, a gradation of verbs is also attempted in this book. The bases of Group I are introduced first in the present tense lesson (lesson 45)*. The other verbs which undergo changes before various suffixes are gradually introduced in groups. For example, bases of Group II and III in present tense are introduced in lesson 48*. The present tense forms of †¯èþ$ group (Group V) are introduced in lesson 49* (A¯èþ$, ѯèþ$, †¯èþ$ and Mö¯èþ$), lesson 50* (E…yæþ$,

°ÌZa, Mæü*Æøa and other Mø ending verbs). This helps drilling of verbs together with those which undergo similar changes. The ‹Ü ending and ^Œþ ending bases (Group VI and VII) are postponed until after past tense is introduced. It is only in past tense that these verbs show the distinction ‹Ü/^Œþ ending. Before the suffixes of classes (ii) and (iii), they do not show any distinction.*

MæüË$, MæüËÐèþ…yìþ! MæüË$Ý뢯èþ$, MæüË$§éª…, MæüÍÔé¯èþ$ (66.3.1.)’. í³Ë$! í³ËÐèþ…yìþ!, í³Ë$Ý뢯èþ$, í³Ë$§éª…, í³Í^é¯èþ$.





The imperative forms of these verbs have the canonical pattern CVCV. This is same as that of other disyllabic bases such as ¨Væü$, ™ðþVæü$ etc. Introduction of these verbs only after past tense is to expose these verbs with their final consonant ‹Ü/^Œþ on their first occurrence to the learners. Whenever a new group of verbs is introduced in a lesson usages of those verbs with all classes of suffixes that are so far introduced in earlier lessons are shown in the Text of the lesson with necessary explanations in the Grammar Notes. For example, the usage of the ‹Ü/^Œþ ending verbs with other classes of suffixes such as suffixes beginning with A/B (class i), and ™Œþ/§Šþ (class ii) are also given in the past tense (whose suffixes belong to class iii) lessons where these verbs are first introduced (lesson 67* and 68*). Similarly the verbs of Group IX in lesson 69*. When a new suffix is introduced in a lesson, various groups of verbs with their changes before such suffix are shown in the text of the lesson with necessary explanation in the Grammar Notes. (Hortative forms in lesson 60*, Conditional forms in lesson 63* etc.) The gradation of the verbal bases in addition to the structures is the major difference of this Intensive Course from other materials of similar nature. The other major differences are the use of humorous cartoons, the comprehensive ’

See page xxiv for the corresponding numbers in the revised edition.

*

See page xxiv for the corresponding lesson number in the revised edition.

xxiii

coverage of the structures and a variety of drills and exercises. Still the author feels that there is a lot of scope for improvement in this book. He would be highly indebted to teachers who use this book and other scholars if they offer their critical comments and constructive suggestions for the improvement of this book. References Krishnamurti, Bh. 1972. Telugu Verbal Bses - A Comparative and Descriptive Study (Reprint). Delhi : Motilal Banarsidass. Krishnamurti, Bh. and Sivananda Sarma, P. 1968. A Basic Course in Modern Telugu. Hyderabad : Bh. Krishnamurti Lisker, Leigh. 1963. Introduction to Spoken Telugu. New York : American Council of Learned Societies. Ramanarasimham, P. 1978. 'Telugu Verbs in Second Language Teaching : A Problem'. In Telugu Vaani, Vol. III. Hyderabad : International Telugu Institute. Ramanarasimham, P.1981. 'Bhaashaa Boodhana - Telugu Dhaatuvulu'. In Bhasha jaanapadam. R.V.S. Sundaram and P. Ramanarasimaham (Eds.). Mysore : Telugu Samskritika Samithi. Ramanarasimham, P. 1984. 'Norms and Stem-alternants : A Case in Reality-in-usage in Pedagogical Grammars' (Mimeo). National Seminar on Language Teaching/Learning. Southern Regional Language Centre. CIIL., Mysore. Sivaramamurthy, N. 1971. Telugu - An Intensive Course. Trivandrum : Dravidian Linguistics Association. Subrahmanyam, P.S. 1974. An Introduction to Modern Telugu. Annamalainagar : Annamalai University. Venkateswara Sastry, J. 1972 Telugu Phonetic Reader. Mysore : Central Institute of Indian Languages. Venkateswara Sastry, J. and Krishnamurthy, N.D. 1975. Conversational Telugu - A Microwave Approach. Madras : M. Seshachalam & Co. Viswanatham, K. 1973 Mana Bhaasha (CIIL - K.V.S. Mother Tongue Series Text book, Scriptbook, Copybook and Teacher's Manual). Mysore : Central Institute of Indian Languages.



41.6. 41.7. 43.2. 66.6. 46.2. 48.3. 49.1. 49.2. 50.2.

= = = = = = = = =

* Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

2.12.2. 3.13.1. 15.5.1 28.6. 21.4. 22.3. 23.1. 23.2. 23.2. 37 42 45 48

= = = =

53.1.1 = 54.2. = 55.4. = 60.2. = 60.3. = 63.3. = 63.3.1.= 66.3.1.= 66.4. =

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

16 14 21 22

25.1.1. 25.4. 31.4. 26.6. 26.7. 32.2. 32.2.1. 28.3.1. 28.5.

66.5. 67.1. 67.2. 67.3. 67.5. 67.6. 68.1. 68.4. 68.5.

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

49 50 53 60

= = = = = = = = = = = = =

28.7. 33.1. 33.2. 33.3. 33.5. 33.6. 34.1. 34.4. 34.5. Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

xxiv

69.2. = 69.3. = 69.4.1.= 70.1. = 70.2.1.= 70.2.2.= 71.1. = 71.3. = 75.1.2.= 23 23 25 26

35.2. 35.3. 35.4.1. 37.1. 37.2.1. 37.2.2. 29.2. 38.2. 41.1.2.

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

63 67 68 69

75.2.1 = 75.2.3.= 79.2. = 90.1.1.= 90.4. = 91.1. = 91.1.1.=

= = = =

Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson

41.2.1. 41.3.1. 45.2. 53.1.1. 53.4. 55.1. 55.1.1.

32 33 34 35

INTRODUCTION TO THE REVISED EDITION The revised version of An Intensive Course in Telugu is prepared based on spiral or cyclic syllabus with an unmarked division of the material into two cycles with definable learning achievements - lesson 1 to 30 constituting the first cycle covering simple sentence patterns and lessons 31 to 60 constituting the second cycle covering the complex and compound sentence patterns, while the last four lessons provide an overall review. This makes the Course totally different from that of the first edition in terms of gradation though there is no difference between the two in terms of duration, coverage and format of the lessons. As the first edition was prepared based on linear syllabus a definable achievement of the learning cannot be claimed unless the learner completes at least 75 per cent of the Course. The division of the material into two cycles provides a facility to use the first cycle of this material in an intensive Telugu teaching programme of 30 days duration conducted by any agency. This Course consists of 64 lessons out of which 50 are teaching lessons, 10 are review lessons and 4 are overall review lessons. Each teaching lesson, as in the first edition, covers certain teachable items, where as the review lessons provide reinforcement of the structures covered in the Unit. The lessons are organized into 10 Units - each Unit consisting of five teaching lessons, involving classroom activity, and one review lesson, involving independent study by the learners. Thus every sixth lesson (the last lesson in a Unit) is a review lesson. The overall review lessons can be used by the learners as preparatory material for the final assessment or examination conducted at the end of the Course. In an intensive teaching programme where six and half contact hours a day are available with five working days in a week, each teaching lesson can be covered in four and half contact hours - introduction of the lesson in one and half hours, the oral practice of the drills and exercises in two hours, recapitulation and reinforcement in one hour with practice of the conversations, and the rest of the two hours for developing mechanics of writing (script learning and dictation) and listening skills (by using language laboratory). Thus each teaching lesson can be taught in one day during a week, and the learners can work independently on the review lessons during the week-ends. In this way, the each Unit can take a week, provided there are five actual working days in a week. With regard to the first Unit only the structure lessons can be covered in one week, as the script, though introduced inthe first 5 lessons, needs an additional time. It may take about 8 to 10 working days concurrently with the structure lessons.

xxv

The users of this book can learn the script along with the language in a graded way. The script lessons are included in the Grammar Notes of the first five lessons, as stated above. It is introduced in such a way that Devanagari or phonemic script can be used as crutch so that gradually the learners can switch over to Telugu script. While introducing the Telugu script similarity of the shapes of the letters is taken as the criterion for grouping the letters. However, the traditional order of the letters is presented after intorducing all the aspects of the script. Dividing the content of the book into two cycles, introducing the script in the teaching part of the book, providing phonemic transcription of all the Telugu material in addition to the Devanagari transcription in the first six lessons, giving phonemic transcription of the Telugu material used in the Grammar Notes for the benefit of any non-Telugu scholar consulting this book for any grammatical information of the language, providing English translations for the captions of the Cartoons, indexing the suffixes, particles and function words occurring in the Grammar Notes (Appendix 2), indexing the grammatical and linguistic terms used in the Grammar Notes (Appendix 3), giving list of words used in the Script exercises along with meanings (Appendix 4) are the new features of the revised edition. I am sure the users of this book will find these features useful. Before using this book the teachers/learners may see the introduction to the first edition of this book (pp. ix-xxiv). I welcome critical opinions on the book.

P. RAMANARASIMHAM

xxvi

Abbreviations acc. adj. adjl. adv. advl. caus. dat. dem. epi. eql. excl. fem. hon. hum. imp. incl. inf. interj. intr. masc.

n./N. neg. neut. nom. non-hon. non-inf. NP num. obl. per. pl. pos. pro. prox. rem. sg. tr. v. v.i./v.intr. v.t./v.tr.

accusative adjective adjectival adverb adverbial causative dative demonstrative epicene equal exclusive feminine honorific human imperative inclusive inferior interjection intransitive masculine

xxvii

noun negative neuter nominative non-honorific non-inferior noun phrase numeral oblique person plural possessive pronoun/pronominal proximate remote singular transitive verb verb intransitive verb transitive

Symbols used in Phonemic transcription M Ø ¡•¶£ª æ–    h ∂ ∂h ∆ ˚ ß ≈ ~ ¡_¶~ V ∪

V

C c j

Eo Amo o mo

homo-organic nasal before the stop consonants; /m/ in word final position (anusv¡ram) zero; symbol for the concept of 'no suffix' long vowels corresponding to a, i, u, e and o. long vowel as in words like cat, bat, rat, etc. retroflex stops retroflex nasal retroflex lateral retroflex fricative palatal fricative but pronounced as /s/ as in sand nasalized vowels corresponding to ¡ and ¶ a long vowel a short vowel a consonant voiceless palatal affricate; ch as in church voiced palatal affricate; j as in judge the short vowel e in Devanagari transcriptions the short vowel o in Devanagari transcriptions the m¡tra of the short vowel e in Devanagari transcriptions the m¡tra of the short vowel o in Devanagari transcriptions

xxviii

Table of Contents Foreword Acknowledgement Introduction to First Edition Introduction to Revised Edition Abbreviations Symbols

UNIT I

Lesson 1

v vii ix xxv xxvii xxviii

A¨ HÑ$sìý? BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

What is that? and Who is he? III person pronouns; Telugu Script 1.

Lesson 2

¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ!

Lesson 3

õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ CË$Ï

Lesson 4

Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°²?

Lesson 5

Ò$Ææÿ$, Ðóþ$…, Ðèþ$¯èþ…

REVIEW 1

Lesson 6

´ùÝëtïœÜç $ GMæüPyæþ?

UNIT II

Lesson 7

Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ AÐðþ$ÇM>ÌZ E¯é²Ææÿ$

1

Hello, Sir! 20 I and II person pronouns; Possessive (oblique) forms of the pronouns; Greeting; Imperative; Telugu Script 2.

Friend's house 45 Pronominal & Nominal adjs.; Kinship terms; Yes-no type question; Emphatic marker (to mark emphasis); Telugu Script 3.

How many in total? 70 Numerals; Plural suffix; Neutral plural pronouns; Locative case (in); Existential verb (be forms); Some postpositions (on, under, etc.); Telugu Script 4. You, We and We 95 I & II per. plural pronouns & oblique forms (forms capable of taking case suffixes); Human numerals; Coordinative constructions (x and y); Telugu Script 5. Where is the Post Office?

123

My father is in America 132 Non-future tense forms of existential verb (is, are...), affirmative & negative; Personal suffixes; Indicative

xxix

predicates; Inclusive marker (and and also).

Lesson 8

HÐèþ$…yîþ! »êVæü$¯é²Æ>?

Hello! How do you do? 150 Negative imperative; Inclusive marker to differentiate between two and both, three and all the three, etc.

Lesson 9

CÐóþÓâæý Ðèþ$¯èþ ™é™èþÄæý$Å ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk

Today is our grandfather's birthday 168 Pronominal predicates (mine, ours, yours, etc.); Human indicative predicates (There he is!...); Ordinal numerals (first, second, etc.); Interrogative words as pronouns, predicates and adjs.; Tag question.

Lesson 10 §æþçÜÆ> ç³…yæþVæü Dasara Festival 182 Oblique base of plural noun; Adjectival predicates (good one). Lesson 11

C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐðþ$…™èþ?

What is the time now? Time expressions; Fractions; More numerals.

REVIEW 2 UNIT III

Lesson 12

193

Mæü*ÆæÿV>Äæý$Ë$ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$? What vegetables are available?

205

Lesson 13

±Mæü$ E§øÅVæü… E…§é?

212

Lesson 14

Ò$ FâZå HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

Do you have a job? Dative case; Predicate markers; Degrees of respect. What are there in your town? Dative case contd.; Nominal and adjectival predicates.

234

´÷yæþ$ç³# Mæü£æþ A Riddle 256 Dubitative marker; Dubitative word; Use of k¡du (is not) and l£du (is not there).

Lesson 15

Lesson 16

Ò$Mæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ?

Lesson 17

±Mæü$ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$

What do you want? 272 Defective verbs k¡v¡li (want), oddu (don't want); Dative subject; Expressions like nothing, nobody, nowhere, etc.; Adverbial marker g¡. You don't need sugar 282 More defective verbs akkarl£du (don't need/require). c¡lu (be enough); Ablative case (from); More on dative; More numerals; Either...or... structure.

xxx

Væü$yìþ & ºyìþ

REVIEW 3

Lesson 18

UNIT IV

Lesson 19 ^èþ*yæþ$ ÒÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø! See who he is! 307 Some compound sentences; i ending verbs; More on dative. Lesson 20

Temple and School

302

¯óþ¯èþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ

I have to go to a movie 321 Obligatory forms (have to); Accusative case; Direct and indirect objects; Sociative case (with); Separable and inseparable possession (Ravi has a book; Ravi has sense.); More on dative and locative.

Lesson 21

Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ™ør

Lesson 22

H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

Lesson 23

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö…r$¯é²¯èþ$

REVIEW 4

Lesson 24

E™èþ¢Ææÿ…

UNIT V

Lesson 25

GMæü$PÐèþV> †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$

A mango grove 336 Present tense; Purposive case (for); Adverbializer of manner (looks like x, talks like y); Indefinite pronouns (someone, somebody, something, etc.); Address terms/ markers. What are you doing? 350 Present tense contd.; Locative function of dative suffix.; Some adverbs; Quantitative adjs. (those many, these many...). I am buying a radio 364 Present tense contd.; More on dative; Inferior address markers. A letter

376

Eating too much is not good Gerund (ing form of the verb); Present negative; Comparative marker (than); Dubitative marker to express uncertainty.

Lesson 26

382

íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ù§é…; ÐèþÝë¢Ðé?

Let's go to a movie; will you come? 396 Future tense; Hortative (Let us forms); Accusative forms of I and II person pronouns; More on dative subject.

Lesson 27 sìýMðüPr$Ï §öÆæÿMæüÐèþ# Tickets will not be available 413 Future negative; Dative as directional (towards); Compound verbs; Use of certain nouns and English words as verbs. Lesson 28

± ÆóÿyìþÄñý* »êVæü$^óþÔé¯èþ$

Past tense.

xxxi

I repaired your radio

425

Lesson 29

ѧæþ$Å^èþeMìü¢° Ðèþ–£é ^ðþÄæý$ÅMæü*yæþ§æþ$

We should not waste electricity 434 Infinitive; Past negative; Permissive (may); Prohibitive (shoud not); Persuasive form (why don't you...); Use of hortative in sentences expressing planning to, have a desire to; More on gerund; Directional (towards); Postpositions through, from inside, into, about etc.; More on instrumental case.

REVIEW 5

Lesson 30

CÐóþÓâæý Ò$ C…sZÏ Mæü*ÆæÿÌôýÑ$sìý? What vegetables did you cook for today?

UNIT VI

Lesson 31

450

A¯èþ²… †…r* ^èþ§æþÐèþMæü$

Don't read while eating 456 Present adverbial participle (eating while talking, came laughing, etc.); Present/progressive adjectival participle (playing children, etc.); Informative base (ask to eat, etc.); More on dative and dative subject; Sentences expressing Not only ... but also.

Lesson 32

A…¨™óþ kr$t A…§æþMæü´ù™óþ M>âæý$å

Catch by hair if you can; otherwise surrender 473 Conditional (if clause); Negative conditional; Request question (What shall I do? Shall I give you something?); Some oblique bases; Expression like I am planning that I must...; More on dative; Postposition within; More on conditional.

Lesson 33

Ðé¯èþ Mæü$Ææÿ$Ýù¢…¨

Lesson 34

ºËÏË$ ™èþ$yìþ^éÐé?

It is raining 489 s ending verbal bases; Obligatory adjectival participle (that one has to...); Future continuous (will be raining). Did you clean the tables? c ending verbal bases.

Lesson 35

498

{»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$

I am toasting the bread 506 Derived transitive verbs(to stop and stop something, etc.); Verbal base tæ– ; Feminine inferior address markers; More on dative.

REVIEW 6

Lesson 36

C§óþ¯èþ…yîþ Ðèþ* ´÷Ë…! xxxii

This is our farm, sir!

516

UNIT VII

Lesson 37

Ðèþ$$QÈjV>Ææÿ$ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒý AÄæý*ÅÆæÿ$

Mr. Mukharjee became the Principal 525 The verbs pª and k¡ in past tense; More defective verb forms (to know); More on dative subject; Expressions ago, otherwise; Use of conditional and dubitative; More on dative; Adverbializers to express As and like.

Lesson 38

¯é MøçÜ… GÐèþÆðÿO¯é Ðèþ^éaÆ>?

Did anybody come for me? 540 Expressions anybody, anywhere, whatever, whichever, etc.; More on time expression; More on verb pa∂u 'to fall'; More on compound sentences; More on sociative case suffix (with).

Lesson 39

Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ ç³È„æü ´ëçÜÄæý*Åyé?

Has your brother passed the examination? 554 More forms of the verb k¡ 'to become'; Compound verbs with uM∂u; Emphatic conditional (if clause with emphasis).

Lesson 40

ÔèýÆ>Ã! ±Mæü$ ÐðþÄôý$Åâæýå BÄæý$$çÙ$Û!

Sarma! You will live for thousand years! 561 c/s ending verbs in past negative; Peculiar use of conditional; Unless construction; More on gerund and dative.

Lesson 41

AMæüPyæþ °Ë$a¯èþ² Ðèþ$°íÙ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Who is the person standing there? 569 Past adjectival pariticiple (as in phrases like written word; that which came, etc.); Future/non-past adjectival participle (that which will go) ; Nominalized adjs. (that which came); Adjectival participle predicates as in sentences like You are the one who passed; Conjunction g¡ni in a compound sentence; More on dubitative marker used in a compound sentence; More on dative; Compound verb about to ....

REVIEW 7

Lesson 42

¯óþ°MæüPyæþ ò³sìýt¯èþ Mør$ HÐðþ$O…¨? What happened to the coat that I kept here?

UNIT VIII

Lesson 43

589

Ðé¯èþ Ðèþ^óþarr$Ï…¨

It looks as though it would rain now Derived manner adverb (in the manner as someone asked);

xxxiii

599

Expressions like It seems/looks like; Count pronouns (many) and mass pronouns (much); Negative adjectival participles (un-asked, undone, etc.); Nominalized negative adjectival participles (that which does not go); Expressions like as someone goes on talking...; More on the use of gerund.

Lesson 44 ¯óþ¯èþ$ AË$Ï™èþ$¯èþ²ç³šyæþ$ While I am knitting 612 Temporal adverbs (while coming, when came, etc.); Quantitative modifiers derived from verb (as many as, as much as); Expressions like It seems/looks like he did not give; By the time someone came...; More on the use of gerund; Adjectives of kind; Past tense of l£du; A special use of adjectival paticiple predicates in a verbless sentences like The one who came is Ravi. Lesson 45

^ðþí³µ, ^ðþç³µMæü$…yé...

Having told and without telling... 627 Past adverbial participle (having gone, having asked, etc.) and its negative (without going, without asking); More on dative.

Lesson 46

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ_a G…™èþ õÜò³O…¨?

How long since you came? 638 Some temporal expressions (expressions involving time); Expressions like intend/decide to..., need not....

Lesson 47

Mæü…ç³NÅrÆŠÿ çÜ…X™èþ…

REVIEW 8

Lesson 48

çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# AÇ^éyæþ$

UNIT IX

Lesson 49

BÐðþ$ Ðèþ_a E…r$…¨

Computer Music 646 A formal use of language as in newspapers; Sentences with reporting verb (direct and indirect speech). Subbarao shouted

657

She would have come 664 Expressions like will/would have..., will/would be...; Another Imperative negative form of the verb.

Lesson 50

^éÐèþ$$…yìþ Mö…yæþ Ò$§æþ

On the Chamundi Hill 671 Abilitative and its negative (can/cannot) forms; Expressions like as soon as; Postpositions equivalent to due to, because of...; Past obligatory form (had to...); Expression of distribution of things between and among; More on address markers.

xxxiv

Lesson 51

M>Ðèþ^èþ$a; M>Mæü´ùÐèþ^èþ$a!

May be or May not be! 684 Probabilistic (may, may not...); Reporting particle (It is told that...); Future obligatory (will have to...); More on dative; Compound verbal bases formed with the use of verbs ceyyi 'to do', pe  u 'to put/place' , and k¡ 'to become'.

Lesson 52

Æ>°ÐèþÓr… Æ>°ÐèþÓMæü´ùÐèþr…

Allowing or not allowing to come 696 Permissive verb (let/allow to...); Negative form of gerund (not doing); Obligatory conditional (if one has to...); An expression with assurance.

Lesson 53

Ðèþ_a¯é Æ>Mæü´ùÆÿ$$¯é

REVIEW 9

Lesson 54

™ðþËÏÐéÆæÿr… & ´÷§æþ$ªVæü*Mæür…

UNIT X

Lesson 55

Ðóþ$Mæü¯èþ$ ç³r$tMæü$¯èþ² Mö…yæþ_Ë$Ðèþ

Whether comes or not 704 Concessive and its negative (though, thgough not); Defective verbs in various tenses; cu ending verbs; More on tag questions. Dawn and Dusk 716

The python that swallowed a goat 724 A special group of verbs; Auxiliary verb pª to express a sense of completeness to the verb; Stative verbs (It is dead; It is alive; He is sitting, etc.); Expression like immediately after (as soon as).

Lesson 56

BVæür… & Bç³r…

Stopping and Stopping (something) 732 Some sets of intransitive and transitive verbs; Auxiliary verb veyyi to express a sense of completeness to the verb.

Lesson 57

ç³NË$ MøÆÿ$$…_ CÝ뢯èþ$

I will get the flowers plucked and give Causative verbs; An expression of assurance.

Lesson 58

741

ç³âôýåË$ ™ðþ^èþ$aMæü$¯é²¯èþ$

I brought plates for myself 750 Reflexive verb (do for self); Oblique forms of some pronouns; Expression like What is there in it..., what is great about it....

xxxv

Lesson 59

™ðþ¯éÍ Æ>Ðèþ$Mæü–çÙ$~yæþ$ (Mæü£æþ)

Tenali Ramakrishnudu (a story) 760 Historical/remote past (expressions like used to...); Historical/ remote past continuous; Abilitative verb in different tenses (is/ was/will be able to...) and their negative forms; More on causative; Passive voice; Auxiliary verb t•ru to express a sense of definiteness and certainty to the verb; Royal/most formal/most honorific II per. pronouns; Expressions like could not remain without saying, remained without saying, etc.

REVIEW X Lesson 60

Ò$Ææÿ$ ÑÐéçßý… ^óþçÜ$MøMæü´ùÐèþsê°Mìü M>Ææÿ×ý…? What is the reason for you not marrying?

OVERALL REVIEW 1 Lesson 61

774

A糚ÍÐèþÓr…ÌZ Aç³NÆæÿÓ {ç³Äñý*Væü… A novel experiment in lending

787

OVERALL REVIEW 2 Lesson 62

õ³§æþÐéâæý$å

791

OVERALL REVIEW 3 Lesson 63

{ç³ç³…^èþ… ÌZ° Mö°² Ñ…™èþË$

OVERALL REVIEW 4 Lesson 64

The poor people

Some wonders of the world

796

A…V>ÆæÿMæü {Væüçßý…

802

The planet Mars

APPENDIX I List of Vocabulary Items introduced in the Course

805

APPENDIX II Index of the Suffixes, Particles and Function words occurring in the Grammar Notes

824

APPENDIX III Index of the technical and grammatical terms occurring in the Grammar Notes

834

APPENDIX IV List of words with glosses occurring in Script exercises

xxxvi

834

Lesson 1

UNIT I Lesson 1

A¨ HÑ$sìý? BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

WHAT IS THAT?

A{X E{_{Q? >Am`Z Eodé?

AND WHO IS HE?

adi £mi i? ¡yana evaru?

ÆæÿÑ : A¨ HÑ$sìý?

What is that?

a{d : A{X E{_{Q>? ravi : adi £mi i?

WÇ : A¨ Mæü$Èa.

That is a chair.

[J[a : A{X Hw$Mr©Ÿ& giri : adi kurc•.

ÆæÿÑ : C¨ HÑ$sìý?

What is this?

a{d : B{X E{_{Q>? ravi : idi £mi i? 1

An Intensive Course in Telugu

WÇ : C¨ ºËÏ.

This is a table.

{J[a : B{X ~ëbŸ& giri : idi balla.

ÆæÿÑ : C¨ Vøyæþ. A¨ ÐéMìüÍ.

This is a wall.

a{d : B{X JmoS>Ÿ& A{X dm{H${bŸ&

That is a threshold.

ravi : idi gª∂a. adi v¡kili.

C¨ M>Æÿ$$™èþ…. A¨ MæüË….

This is a paper.

B{X H$m{`V§Ÿ& A{X H$b§Ÿ&

That is a pen.

idi k¡yitaM. adi kalaM.

C¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. A¨ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ….

This is a book. That is a clock/watch.

B{X nwñVH§$Ÿ& A{X J{S>`ma§Ÿ& idi pustakaM. adi ga∂iy¡raM.

C¨ Mæü$MæüP. A¨ í³ÍÏ.

This is a dog. That is a cat.

B{X Hw$¸$Ÿ& A{X {n[„Ÿ& idi kukka. adi pilli.

WÇ : H¨ ™èþË$ç³#? H¨ MìüsìýMîü?

Which is the door?

{J[a : E{X Vbwnw? E{X {H${Q>H$s?

Which is the window?

giri : £di talupu? £di ki ik•?

ÆæÿÑ : C¨ ™èþË$ç³#. A¨ MìüsìýMîü.

This is the door?

a{d : B{X VbwnwŸ& A{X {H${Q>H$sŸ&

That is the window.

ravi : idi talupu. adi ki ik•. 2

Lesson 1

ÆæÿÑ : BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Who is he?

a{d : Am`Z Eodé? ravi : ¡yana evaru?

Ë™èþ : BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

He is a teacher.

bV : Am`Z _mï>éJméŸ& lata : ¡yana m¡ß arug¡ru.

ÆæÿÑ : BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Who is she?

a{d : Am_o Eodé? ravi : ¡me evaru?

Ë™èþ : BÐðþ$ sîý^èþÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

She is a teacher?

bV : Am_o Q>rMéJméŸ& lata : ¡me  •carug¡ru.

ÆæÿÑ : DÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? DÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Who is he and who is she?

a{d : B©`Z Eodé? B©_o Eodé? ravi : •yana evaru? •me evaru?

Ë™èþ : DÄæý$¯èþ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒýV>Ææÿ$. DÐðþ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

He is the Principal. She is the doctor.

bV : B©`Z [àpÝgnmb²JméŸ& B©_o S>mŠQ>éJméŸ& lata : •yana prinsip¡lg¡ru. •me ∂¡k arug¡ru.

ÆæÿÑ : BÄæý$¯èþ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ$. BÐðþ$ ÎËV>Ææÿ$. a{d : Am`Z am_mamdwJmé & Am_o brbJméŸ&> ravi : ¡yana r¡m¡r¡vu g¡ru. ¡me l•lag¡ru. 3

He is Mr. Ramarao. She is Ms. Leela.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ë™èþ : Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? ÎËV>Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

What is Mr. Ramarao? What is Ms. Leela?

bV : am_mamdwJmé Eodé? brbJmé Eodé? lata : r¡m¡r¡vug¡ru evaru? l•lag¡ru evaru?

ÆæÿÑ : Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# yéMæütÆæÿ$. ÎË sîý^èþÆæÿ$.

Ramarao is a doctor.

a{d : am_mamdw S>mŠQ>éŸ& brb Q>rMéŸ&

Leela is a teacher.

ravi : r¡m¡r¡vu ∂¡k aru. l•la  •caru.

Ë™èþ : DÐðþ$ MæüÐèþ$Ë. DÄæý$¯èþ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#.

She is Kamala.

bV : B© _o H$_bŸ& B©`Z gwã~mamdwŸ&

He is Subbarao.

lata : •me kamala. •yana subb¡r¡vu.

ÆæÿÑ : MæüÐèþ$Ë Ñ§éÅǦ°. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# ѧéÅǦ.

Kamala is a student. Subbarao is a student.

a{d : H$_b {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& gwã~mamdw {dÚm{W©Ÿ& ravi : kamala vidy¡rthini. subb¡r¡vu vidy¡rthi.

Ë™èþ : GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ? GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÑfÄæý$?

Who is Mohan?

bV : Eodé _mohZ²? Eodé {dO`?

Who is Vijaya?

lata : evaru mªhan? evaru vijaya?

ÆæÿÑ : BÄæý$¯èþ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ. DÐðþ$ ÑfÄæý$.

He is Mohan.

a{d : Am`Z _mohZ²Ÿ& B© _o {dO`Ÿ&

She is Vijaya.

ravi : ¡yana mªhan. •me vijaya. 4

Lesson 1

DRILLS a. Response drill Model (i)

A¨ HÑ$sìý? (ºËÏ)

A¨ ºËÏ.

A{X E{_{Q>? (~„)

A{X ~„Ÿ&

adi £mi i? (balla)

adi balla.

1. A¨ HÑ$sìý? (Mæü$Èa)

3. A¨ HÑ$sìý? (VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…)

A{X E{_{Q>? (Hw Mu)

A{X E{_{Q>? (J{S>`ma§)

adi £mi i? (kurc•)

adi £mi i? (ga∂iy¡raM)

2. A¨ HÑ$sìý? (MæüË…)

4. A¨ HÑ$sìý? (Vøyæþ)

A{X E{_{Q>? (H$b§)

A{X E{_{Q>? (JmoS>)

adi £mi i? (kalaM)

adi £mi i? (gª∂a)

Model (ii)

BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$)

BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

Am`Z Eodé? (_mï>éJmé)

Am`Z _mï>éJméŸ&

¡yana evaru? (m¡ß arug¡ru)

¡yana m¡ß arug¡ru.

1. BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (yéMæütÆæÿ$)

2. DÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ææÿ$)

Am`Z Eodé(S>mŠQ>é)

B©`Z Eodé (am_æ`Jmé)

¡yana evaru? (∂¡k aru)

•yana evaru? (r¡mayyag¡ru)

3. BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? ({í³°Þ´ëÌŒý)

4. DÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ïÜ™èþ)

Am_o Eodé ({àpÝgnmb²)

B© _o Eodé ? (grV)

¡me evaru? (prinsip¡l)

•me evaru? (s•ta)

Model (iii)

WÇ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$)

WÇ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$.

{J[a Eodé (_mï>é)

{J[a _mï>é &

giri evaru? (m¡ß aru)

giri m¡ß aru.

5

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅǦ)

3. Ë™èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (yéMæütÆæÿ$)

am_mamdw Eodé? ({dÚm{W©)

bV Eodé? (S>mŠQ>é)

r¡m¡r¡vu evaru? (vidy¡rthi)

lata evaru? (∂¡k aru)

2. WÇf GÐèþÆæÿ$? (sîý^èþÆæÿ$)

4. MæüÐèþ$Ë GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅǦ°)

{J[aO Eodé? (Q>rMé)

H$_b Eodé? ({dÚm{W©{Z)

girija evaru? ( •caru)

kamala evaru? (vidy¡rthini)

Model (iv)

H¨ ºËÏ? H¨ Mæü$Èa?

A¨ ºËÏ. C¨ Mæü$Èa.

E{X ~„? E{X Hw$Mu?

A{X ~„ & B{X Hw$MuŸ&

£di balla? £di kurc•?

adi balla. idi kurc•.

1. H¨ Mæü$MæüP? H¨ í³ÍÏ?

3. H¨ MæüË…? H¨ M>Æÿ$$™èþ…?

E{X H$w¸$? E{X {n[„?

E{X H$b§? E{X H$m{`V§?

£di kukka? £di pilli?

£di kalaM? £di k¡yitaM?

2. H¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…? H¨ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…?

4. H¨ Vøyæþ? H¨ ÐéMìüÍ?

E{X nwñVH§$? E{X J{S>`ma§?

E{X JmoS>? E{X dm{H${b

£di pustakaM? £di ga∂iy¡raM?

£di gª∂a? £di v¡kili?

b. Transformation drill Model (i)

1. A¨ Mæü$MæüP.

A¨ í³ÍÏ.

A¨ HÑ$sìý?

A{X {n[„Ÿ&

A{X E{_{Q>?

adi pilli.

adi £mi i?

2. A¨ Vøyæ..

3. C¨ MæüË….

A{X Hw$¸$Ÿ&

A{X JmoS> &

B{X H$b§ &

adi kukka.

adi gª∂a.

idi kalaM.

6

Lesson 1 Model (ii)

BÐðþ$ sîý^èþÆæÿ$.

BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Am_o Q>rMé&

Am_o Eodé?

¡me  •caru.

¡me evaru?

1. BÐðþ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$.

2. DÐðþ$ çÜ$Væü$×ý.

Am_o S>mŠQ>éŸ&

B© _ o gwJwU&

¡me ∂¡k aru.

•me sugu∆a.

Model (iii)

3. DÐðþ$ ѧéÅǦ°. B© _ o {dÚm{W©{Z & •me vidy¡rthini.

BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$.

BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Am`Z _mï>éŸ&

Am`Z Eodé?

¡yana maß aru.

¡yana evaru?

1. BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆæÿ$.

2. DÄæý$¯èþ ÔóýQÆŠÿ

3. DÄæý$¯èþ ѧéÅǦ.

Am`Z S>mŠQ>éŸ&

B© `Z eoIa²&

B© `Z {dÚm{W©&

¡yana ∂¡k aru.

•yana ≈£khar.

•yana vidy¡rthi.

EXERCISES a. Fill in the blanks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A¨/A{X/adi A¨/A{X/adi A¨/A{X/adi A¨/A{X/adi A¨/A{X/adi A¨/A{X/adi A¨/A{X/adi A¨/A{X/adi

_____________________ . (clock) _____________________ . (threshold) _____________________ . (wall) _____________________ . (table) _____________________ . (door) _____________________ . (chair) _____________________ . (cat) _____________________ . (dog) 7

An Intensive Course in Telugu

b. Fill in the blanks using A¨ A{X adi / C¨ B{X idi or BÄæý$¯èþ Am`Z ¡yana or BÐðþ$ Am_o ¡me / DÐðþ$ B©_o •me. Assume that the object is near if the picture is nearer, and distant if the picture is farther. 1. ________

-Mæü$MæüP Hw$¸$ kukka.

2. ________

-ºËÏ ~„ balla.

3. ________

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ _mï>é m¡ß aru.

4. ________

MæüÐèþ$Ë H$_b kamala.

5. ________

-ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… nwñVH§$ pustakaM.

6. ________

-ÐéMìüÍ dm{H${b

7. ________

-yéMæütÆæÿ$ S>mŠQ>é ∂¡k aru.

8. ________

-ÑfÄæý$ {dO` vijaya.

v¡kili.

8

Lesson 1

c. Answer the following questions. Assume the object is near if the picture is near and distant if the picture is farther.

1. C¨ HÑ$sìý? B{X E{_{Q>? idi £mi i?

2. A¨ HÑ$sì ? A{X E{_{Q>? adi £mi i

3. C¨ HÑ$sìý? B{X E{_{Q>? idi £mi i?

4. A¨ HÑ$sìý? A{X E{_{Q>? adi £mi i?

5. DÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? B©`Z Eodé? •yana evaru?

6. BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? Am`Z Eodé? ¡yana evaru?

7. DÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? B©_ o Eodé? •me evaru?

8. BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? Am_o Eodé? ¡me evaru? 9

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

A¨ HÑ$sìý Mæü$Èa C¨ ºËÏ Vøyæþ ÐéMìüÍ M>Æÿ$$™èþ… MæüË… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… Mæü$MæüP í³ÍÏ H¨ ™èþË$ç³# MìüsìýMîü BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ &V>Ææÿ$ BÐðþ$ sîý^èþÆæÿ$ DÄæý$¯èþ DÐðþ$ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒý yéMæütÆæÿ$ ѧéÅǦ° ѧéÅǦ

A{X E{_{Q> Hw$Mr© B{X ~„ JmoS> dm{H${b H$m{`V§ H$b§ nwñVH§$ J{S>`ma§Ÿ Hw$¸$ {n{„ E{X Vbwnw {H${Q>H$s Am`Z Eodé _mï>é -Jmé Am_o Q>rMé B©`Z B©_ o [àpÝgnmb² S>mŠQ>é {dÚm{W©{Z {dÚm{W©

adi

that (neut. pro.)

£mi i

what (pro.)

kurc•

chair

idi

this (pro.)

balla

table/bench

gª∂a

wall

v¡kili

threshold

k¡yitaM

paper

kalaM

pen

pustakaM

book

ga∂iy¡raM

clock/watch

kukka

dog

pilli

cat

£di

which (pro.)

talupu

door

ki ik•

window

¡yana

he (rem. hon.); that gentleman

evaru

who

m¡ß aru

a male teacher

-g¡ru

an honorific marker

¡me

she (pro.)

 •caru

teacher (pro.)

•yana

he/this gentleman (prox. hon.)

•me

she/this lady or girl (prox. hon.)

prinsip¡l

principal (pro.)

∂¡k aru

a doctor

vidy¡rthini

female student

vidy¡rthi

male student 10

Lesson 1

GRAMMAR NOTES 1.1. In this lesson equational sentences which are verbless in Telugu are introduced. These verbless sentences have a noun phrase (NP) as subject and another NP as predicate. A noun phrase can be a noun, or a pronoun or an adjective + noun combination. These sentences may be equated with Hindi and English sentences like:

dh _oO h¡Ÿ&

That is a table.

Here the ‘be’ form (‘is’ in the present example) which is called ‘copula’ is absent in the corresponding Telugu sentences. The article (a, an and the) which is normally used before a noun in English is not required in a Telugu sentence.

A¨ ºËÏ. A{X ~„Ÿ& BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆæÿ$. Am`Z S>mŠQ>éŸ& 1.2.

adi balla. ‘That (is a) table.’ ¡yana ∂¡k aru. ‘He (is a) doctor.’

The following pronouns are introduced in this lesson. to refer to remote objects

Third person neuter singular Third person human masculine honorific singular Third person human feminine honorific singular

to refer to proximate objects

A¨ A{X adi BÄæý$¯èþ Am`Z ¡yana

BÐðþ$ Am_o ¡me

C¨ B{X idi DÄæý$¯èþ B©`Z •yana

DÐðþ$ B©_o •me

1.3. The interrogative words HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i ‘what’; H¨ E{X £di ‘which’ and GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru ‘who’ are also introduced in this lesson. GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru is used for human nouns, and HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i and H¨ E{X £di are used for neuter nouns. (animals and non-living objects)

BÄæý$¯èþ / DÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Am`Z / B©`Z Eodé?

¡yana / •yana evaru?

‘Who is he?’ 11

An Intensive Course in Telugu

BÐðþ$ / DÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Am_o / B©_ o Eodé?

¡me / •me evaru?

‘Who is she?’

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# GÐèþÆæÿ$?

am_mamdw Eodé?

r¡mar¡vu evaru?

‘Who/What is Ramarao?’

ÑfÄæý$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

{dO` Eodé?

vijaya evaru?

‘Who/What is Vijaya?’

A¨ / C¨ HÑ$sìý?

A{X / B{X E{_{Q>?

adi / idi £mi i?

‘What is that/this?’

H¨ Mæü$MæüP / Vøyæþ?

E{X Hw$¸$ / JmoS>?

£di kukka / gª∂a?

‘Which is the dog/wall?’

1.3.1. Notice that the distinction between “what’ and ‘who’ in English sentences such as What is Ramarao? and Who is Ramarao? does not exist in Telugu. GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru when used as a predicate can stand for both what and who.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# GÐèþÆæÿ$?

am_mamdw Eodé?

r¡m¡r¡vu evaru?

‘Who/What is Ramarao?’

But, when used as the subject of the sentences, it (GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru) normally denotes ‘who’ alone.

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#? evaru r¡m¡r¡vu?

Eodé am_mamdw? ‘Who is Ramarao?’

&V>Ææÿ$ -Jmé -g¡ru is an honorific marker. When added to a 1.4. human noun, it denotes respect to the person denoted by that noun. &V>Ææÿ$ -Jmé -g¡ru can go with a common noun as well as with a proper noun. yéMæütÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$

S>mŠQ>éJmé

∂¡k arug¡ru

‘doctor (hon.)’

Ë™èþV>Ææÿ$

bVJmé

latag¡ru

‘Ms. Latha’

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ$

am_mamdwJmé

r¡m¡r¡vug¡ru

‘Mr. Ramarao’ 12

Lesson 1

`

BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

Am`Z S>mŠQ>éJméŸ&

¡yana ∂¡k arug¡ru.

‘He is a doctor (hon.)’

BÐðþ$ ÎËV>Ææÿ$.

Am_o brbJméŸ&

¡me l•lag¡ru.

‘She is Ms. Leela.’

GÐèþÆæÿ$ ïÜ™èþV>Ææÿ$?

Eodé grVJmé?

evaru s•tag¡ru

‘Who is Ms. Seeta?’

1.5.

Telugu Script I

In this lesson and in the next four lessons to come the Telugu script is introduced. The script is presented not in traditional order, but in groups of letters - each group consisting of letters with similarities in their shape. The consonant symbols in Telugu script just do not represent the respective consonant alone, and they represent the respective consonants along with the vowel A A a. 1.5.1.

Ë

A

B

™èþ

r

b

A

Am

V

Q>

la

a

¡

ta

 a

13

An Intensive Course in Telugu Read the following.



Br

Ë™èþ

™èþË

Ab

AmQ>

bV

Vb

ala

¡ a

lata

tala

AË™èþ

A™èþË

Ë™èþ™èþË

AbV

AVb

bVVb

alata

atala

latatala

1.5.2.

¯èþ

çÜ

Væü

Z

g

J

na

sa

ga

Read the following.

¯èþVæü

¯èþçÜ

VæüçÜ

B¯èþ

™èþ¯èþ

¯èþr¯èþ

B˯èþ

ZJ

Zg

Jg

AmZ

VZ

ZQ>Z

AmbZ

gasa

¡na

tana

na ana

naga nasa

¡lana

1.5.3.

C

p

×ý

B

Äm

U

i

ña

∆a

14

Lesson 1

Read the following:

CË Cr Væü×ýVæü×ý Bb

BQ>

JUJU

ila

i a

ga∆aga∆a

1.5.4.1.5.4.

… -§

M

Ææÿ uæÿ D m Äæý$ a

R>



P

`

ra

 ha



jha

ya

15

An Intensive Course in Telugu 1.5.4.1.

… -§ M is called sunna or anusv¡ram in Telugu.

It occurs only after a vowel. That can be followed by nothing, i.e, word final position, or by a non-nasal consonant, i.e., a word medial position. The following chart shows the pronunciation value of the sunna in different positions. CONTEXT Before velar stops

Before palatal stops

Before retroflex stops

Before dental stops

Before bilabial stops

Before semivowels and fricatives,

PRONUNCIATION

H$

I

ka

K

L²>

kha ga

gha

©

M

N>

P

>Äm²

ca

cha ja

jha

ñ

Q>

R>

>S>

T>>



 a

 ha

∂a

∂ha



V

W

X

Y



ta

tha

da

dha

n

n

\$

~

^>



pa

pha ba

bha

m

`

a

b

d>



ya

ra

la

va

e

f

g

h

ßa

sa

ha

≈a and word final position

J O

velar nasal

palatal nasal

retroflex nasal

dental nasal

bilabial nasal

bilabial nasal or m labiodental nasal [≥ ] as a dialect variation

Pronunciation of the Nasals Coming to the pronunciation of the above said nasals, the velar nasal /© / is pronounced like the n in English words bank, tank, monk etc. and the palatal nasal /ñ / like the n in English words pinch, messenger, etc. The retroflex nasal /∆ /, is pronounced like the n in English words like pint, pond, etc., but with a difference that for the English n the tongue touches the tooth-ridge where as for the 16

Lesson 1 Telugu retroflex nasal ∆ the tongue goes further back and touches the dome. The same is the case with all the retroflex consonants in Telugu. In order to facilitate this position of touching the dome the tongue is folded backwards, and hence these consonants are called retroflex consonants. The dental nasal is pronounced like the n in English words like panther, month, etc. The bilabial nasal m is like the m in English words man, name, camp, bomb, etc. The labiodental nasal ≥ is a dialect variation of the pronunciation of sunna or anusv¡ram … -§ M, occuring in the word final position, and before the semivowels and fricatives. It (the labiodental nasal) is pronounced very close to the m in English word emphasis. Thus the sunna or anusv¡ram … -§ M serves as a common symbol for the above said nasals. This can be comparable to the consonant n in English occurring in words like monk, tank, king, song, pinch, lunch, ginger, pint, sand, month, panther, etc. It (the n) is pronounced as velar nasal in the words monk, tank, king, song, since the following consonants k and g are velar sounds. In the words like pinch and lunch it is pronounced as palatal nasal since the following consonants ch represent a palatal sound. Similarly, it is pronounced as alveolar nasal in words like pint and sand since the following consonants t and d are alveolar sounds, and in words like month and panther it is pronounced as dental nasal since the following consonants th represent a dental sound. In this script lesson words with sunna occurring before dental stop ™èþ V ta, the retroflex stop r Q>  a, and the velar stop Væü J ga, and in the word final position are presented. The pronunciation of sunna in these words, as stated above, is as follows. WORDS

Væü…™èþ J§V gaMta Væü…r J§Q> gaM a Væü…Væü J§J> gaMga çÜVæü… gJ§ sagaM

PRONUNCIATION OF SUNNA [ganta] [ga∆ a] [ga©ga] [saga≥]

17

dental nasal retroflex nasal velar nasal bilabial or labiodental nasal

An Intensive Course in Telugu Read the following

Væü…r

Væü…™èþ

ËÄæý$… BËÄæý$… BÄæý$¯èþ

DÄæý$¯èþ

J§Q>

J§V

b`§

Amb`§

Am`Z

B©`Z

gaM a

gaMta

layaM

¡layaM

¡yana

•yana

Ææÿ…Væü… ™èþÆæÿ…Væü… A…™èþ

A…™èþ…

A¯èþ…™èþ… C…™èþ

a§J§

A§V§

AZ§V§

B§V

raMgaM taraMgaM aMta

aMtaM

anaMtaM

iMta

DVæü

¯èþVæüÆæÿ…

Væü…Væü

ÆæÿçÜ…

çÜÆæÿçÜ…

m×ým×

B©J

ZJa§

J§J

ag§

gag§

PUPU

•ga

nagaraM gaMga

rasaM

sarasaM jha∆ajha∆a

¯èþÄæý$… ¯èþÄæý$¯èþ… ™èþÆæÿ…

C™èþÆæÿ…

çÜVæü…

Væü×ýVæü×

Z`§

Z`Z§

BVa§

gJ§

JUJU

nayaM

nayanaM taraM

itaraM

sagaM

ga∆aga∆a

Va§J§

A§V

Va§

1.5.5.

E F yæþ Éæþ §æþ «§æþ £æþ C

D$

S>

T>

X

Y

W

u



∂a

∂ha

da

dha

tha

18

Lesson 1 Read the following.

Eyæþ™èþ

Fyæþ

§æþyæþ

Væü§æþ

«§æþVæü«§æþVæü

CS>V

D$S>

XS>

JX

YJYJ

u∂ata

¶∂a

da∂a

gada

dhagadhaga

Væü…«§æþ…

A…§æþ…

Væüyæþ

Byæþ

Ææÿ£æþ…

J§Y§

A§X§

JS>

AmS>

aW§

gaMdhaM

aMdaM

ga∂a

¡∂a

rathaM

«§æþ¯èþ…

™èþËVæüyæþ

§æþÄæý$

E§æþÄæý$…

E…yæþ

YZ§

VbJS>

X`

CX`§

C§S>

dhanaM

talaga∂a

daya

udayaM

uM∂a

«§æþ¯èþ«§æþ¯èþ

E…VæüÆæÿ…

B§æþÆæÿ…

E§æþÆæÿ…

«§æþÆæÿ

YZYZ

C§Ja§

AmXa§

CXa§

Ya

dhanadhana

u©garaM

¡daraM

udaraM

dhara

1.5.5.1. Notice from the above examples that the sunna … -§ M, represents ¯Œþ Z² n before §æþ X da and «§æþ Y dha, and it represents ׊ý U² ∆ before yæþ S> ∂a. 1.5.6.

Read the following sentences.

A{X H$m{`™èþ…. Adi k¡yi™èþ…. BÄæý$¯èþ Ææÿ{d. BÄæý$¯èþ Ææÿvi. D_o gwJ×w ý. Dme sugu ×ý.

C{X H$Ë…. Cdi kaË…. DÄæý$¯èþ ZmamÄæý$×ý DÄæý$¯èþ n¡r¡Äæý$×ý D_o brË Dme l•Ë

A{X Væü{S>`mÆæÿ…. Adi Væü∂iy¡Ææÿ…. B_o Ë™èþ. Bme Ë™èþ. B_o çÜÆæÿçÜ. Bme çÜÆæÿçÜ.

1.5.7. Rewrite the following sentences replacing the underlines letters with Telugu letters.

B{X JmoS>Ÿ&

A{X VbwnwŸ&

B©_o grVŸ&

idi gª∂a.

adi talupu.

•me s•ta.

B©`Z Zmam`UŸ&

Am_o bVŸ&

Am`Z a§Jæ`Ÿ&

•yana n¡r¡ya∆a.

¡me lata.

¡yana ra©gayya.

19

An Intensive Course in Telugu

UNIT I Lesson 2

¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ!

HELLO, SIR!

Z_ñH$ma_§S>r! namask¡ramaM∂•!

WÇ : ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ!

Hello, sir!

{J[a: Z_ñH$ma_§S>rŸ& giri :

namask¡ramaM∂•.

Æ>Ðèþ# : ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿ…. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Hello! Who are you?

amdw : Z_ñH$ma§Ÿ& _ré Eodé? r¡vu : namask¡raM. m•ru evaru?

WÇ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ ѧéÅǦ°.

I am a Kannada student

{J[a : ZoZw H$ÞS> {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& giri :

n£nu kanna∂a vidy¡rthini. 20

Lesson 2

C™èþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$ ѧéÅǦ.

He is a Telugu student.

BVZw VobwJw {dÚm{W©Ÿ& itanu telugu vidy¡rthi.

A™èþ¯èþ$ ™èþÑ$âæý ѧéÅǦ.

He is a Tamil Student.

AVZw V{_i {dÚm{W©Ÿ& atanu tami˚a vidy¡rthi.

BÐðþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$ ѧéÅǦ°.

She is a Telugu Student.

Am_o VobwJw {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& ¡me telugu vidy¡rthini.

DÐðþ$ Ðèþ$ËÄæý*âæý ѧéÅǦ°.

She is a Malayalam Student.

B©_o _i`mi {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& •me malay¡˚a vidy¡rthini.

Æ>Ðèþ# : ¯éõ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#.

My name is Ramarao.

amdw : Zm noé am_mamdw & ravu : n¡ p£ru r¡m¡r¡vu.

DÄæý$¯èþ õ³Ææÿ$ ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$.

His name is Mr. Sarma.

B©`Z noé e_©Jmé & •yana p£ru ≈armag¡ru.

BÄæý$¯èþ õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>gêÆ>ÐŒþ$.

His name is Rajaram.

Am`Z noé amOmam_²Ÿ& ¡yana p£ru r¡j¡r¡m.

VúÇ : ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ! ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ VúÇ.

Namaskaram Sir! My name is Gowri.

Jm¡[a : Z_ñH$ma_§S>rŸ& Zm noé Jm¡[aŸ& gauri : namask¡ramaM∂•. n¡ p£ru gauri. 21

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯óþ¯èþ$ íßý…© ѧéÅǦ°°.

I am a Hindi student.

ZoZw {hÝXr {dÚm{W©{Z{ZŸ& n£nu hiMd• vidy¡rthinini.

DÐðþ$ õ³Ææÿ$ çÜÆæÿâæý. BÐðþ$ õ³Ææÿ$ WÇf. B©_o noé gaiŸ& Am_o noé {J[aOŸ&

Her name is Sarala. Her name is Girija.

•me p£ru sara˚a. ¡me p£ru girija.

Æ>Ðèþ# : GÐèþÇ õ³Ææÿ$ WÇf?

Whose name is Girija?

amdw : Eod[a noé {J[aO? r¡vu : evari p£ru girija?

WÇf : ¯é õ³Ææÿ…yîþ!

My name, Sir!

{J[aO: Zm noa§S>rŸ& girija : n¡ p£raM∂•.

Æ>Ðèþ# : Ò$ õ³ÆóÿÑ$r…yîþ?

What is your name, Sir?

amdw : _r noao{_Q>§S>r? r¡vu : m• p£r£mi an∂•?

WÇ : ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ WÇ. C™èþ° õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ. A™èþ° õ³Ææÿ$ Ôèý…MæüÆŠÿ.

My name is Giri. His name is Ravi. His name is Sankar.

{J[a : Zm noé {J[a& BV{Z noé a{dŸ& AV{Z noé e§H$aŸ& giri :

n¡ p£ru giri. itani p£ru ravi. atani p£ru ≈a©kar.

Æ>Ðèþ# : GÐèþÇ õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ?

Whose name is Ravi?

amdw : Eod[a noé a{d? r¡vu : evari p£ru ravi? 22

Lesson 2

WÇ : C™èþ° õ³Ææÿ…yîþ!

His name, Sir!

{J[a : BV{Z noa§S>rŸ& giri :

itani p£raM∂•!

VúÇ : Ò$ÆðÿÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ?

Who/what are you, Sir?

Jm¡[a : _raoda§S>r? gowri : m•revaran∂•?

Æ>Ðèþ# : HÐèþ$…yîþ, Æ>gêÆ>ÐŒþ$V>Ææÿ*! ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°?

Hello, Mr. Rajaram! please tell. Who am I?

amdw : E_§S>r amOmam_JméŸ& Moßn§{S> ZoZod[a{ZŸ& r¡vu : £maM∂•, r¡j¡r¡mg¡r¶! cheppaM∂i. n£nevarini?

Æ>gêÆ>ÐŒþ$ : Ò$Ææÿ$ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒýV>Ææÿ$

You are the Principal.

amOmam_ : _ré {àpÝgnmbJméŸ& r¡j¡r¡m : m•ru prinsip¡lg¡ru.

Vøí³ : ÝëÆŠÿ! M>ïœ!

Sir! Coffee!

Jmo{n : gma! H$m\$rŸ! gopi : s¡r! k¡fi!

VúÇ : A™èþ¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ?

Who is he, Sir?

Jm¡[a : AVZoda§S>r? gowri : atanevaraM∂•?

Æ>Ðèþ# : HÐèþ$Äæý*Å! ^ðþ糚. ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ?

Mister! Tell, Who are you?

amdw : E_æ`mŸ& MoßnwŸ& Zwìdod[a{d? r¡vu : £mayy¡! ceppu nuvvevarivi?

23

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Vøí³ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ Asñý…yæþDz.

I am an attender.

Jmo{n : ZoZw AQo §S{Z©Ÿ& gopi : n£nu a eM∂arni.

Æ>gêÆ>ÐŒþ$ : A™èþ¯èþ$ Asñý…yæþÆæÿ$.

He is an attender.

amOmam_ : AVZw AQo §S>éŸ& r¡j¡r¡m : atanu a eM∂aru.

Æ>Ðèþ# : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Asñý…yæþÆæÿ$Ñ. ± õ³Ææÿ$ Mæü*yé ^ðþ糚.

You are an attender.

amdw : Zwìdw AQo §S>é{dŸ& Zr noé Hy$S>m MoßnwŸ&

Tell your name too.

r¡vu : nuvvu a eM∂aruvi. n• p£ru k¶∂¡ ceppu.

Vøí³ : ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ Vøí³.

My name is Gopi.

Jmo{n : Zm noé Jmo{nŸ& gªpi : n¡ p£ru gªpi.

Æ>Ðèþ# : A§óþÑ$sìý? BÄæý$¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ$?

What is that? who is he?

amdw : AXo{_{Q>? Am`Zodé? r¡vu : ad£mi i? ¡y¡nevaru?

Vøí³ : A¨ M>ïœ. BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $V>Ææÿ$.

That is coffee. He is a teacher.

Jmo{n : A{X H$m\$sŸ& Am`Z _mï>éJméŸ& gªpi : adi k¡f•. ¡yana m¡ß arug¡ru.

24

Lesson 2

DRILLS a. Response drill Model (i)

Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$)

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*çÙtDz.

_ré Eodé? (_mï>é)

ZoZw _mï>{Z©Ÿ&

m•ru evaru? (m¡ß aru)

n£nu m¡ß arni

1. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (yéMæütÆæÿ$)

3. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ÆæÿÑ)

_ré Eodé? (S>mŠQ>é)

_ré Eodé? (a{d)

m•ru evaru? (∂¡k aru)

m•ru evaru? (ravi)

2. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅǦ)

4. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅǦ°)

_ré Eodé? ({dÚm{W©)

_ré Eodé? ({dÚm{W©{Z)

m•ru evaru? (vidy¡rthi)

m•ru evaru? (vidy¡rthini)

Model (ii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (yéMæütÆæÿ$)

A™èþ¯èþ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$.

AVZw Eodé? (S>mŠQ>é)

AVZw S>mŠQ>éŸ&

atanu evaru? (∂¡k aru)

atanu ∂¡k aru.

1. C™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅǦ)

3. BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅǦ°)

BVZw Eodé? ({dÚm{W©)

Am_o Eodé? ({dÚm{W©{Z)

itanu evaru? (vidy¡rthi)

¡me evaru? (vidy¡rthini)

2. DÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (çÜÆæÿâæý)

4. A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (çßýÇ)

B© _ o Eodé? (gai)

AVZw Eodé? (h[a)

•me evaru? (sarala)

atanu evaru? (hari)

Model (iii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$)

Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? (_mï>é)

_ré _mïéJméŸ&

n£nu evarini? (m¡ß aru)

m•ru m¡ß arug¡ru.

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (yéMæütÆæÿ$)

3. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (sîý^èþÆæÿ$)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? (S>mŠQ>é)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? (Q>rMé)

n£nu evarini? (∂¡k aru)

n£nu evarini? ( •charu)

2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (ïÜ™èþ)

4. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (WÇ)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? (grV)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? ({J[a)

n£nu evarini? (s•ta)

n£nu evarini? (giri) 25

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (iv)

¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (ѧéÅǦ)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ñ§éÅǦÑ.

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? ({dÚm{W©)

Zwìdw {dÚm{W©{dŸ&

n£nu evarini? (vidy¡rthi)

nuvvu vidy¡rthivi.

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (ѧéÅǦ°)

3. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (Ë™èþ)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? ({dÚm{W©{Z)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? (bV)

n£nu evarini? (Vidy¡rthini)

n£nu evarini? (lata)

2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (Asñý…yæþÆæÿ$)

4. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? (WÇ)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? (AQ>|S>é)

ZoZw Eod[a{Z? ({J[a)

n£nu evarini? (a eM∂aru)

n£nu evarini? (giri)

b. Transformation drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3.

Model (ii)

Ò$Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ.

Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ

_ré a{dŸ&

_r noé a{dŸ&

m•ru ravi

m• p£ru ravi

¯óþ¯èþ$ WÇ°.

4.

A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý.

ZoZw {J[a{ZŸ&

AVZw Zmam`UŸ&

n£nu girini.

atanu n¡r¡ya∆a.

C™èþ¯èþ$ §æþÄæý*°«¨.

5.

BÄæý$¯èþ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#.

BVZw X`m{Z{YŸ&

Am`Z am_mamdwŸ&

itanu day¡nidhi.

¡yana r¡m¡r¡vu.

DÄæý$¯èþ Ææÿ…V>.

6.

BÐðþ$ WÇf.

B©`Z a§JmŸ&

Am_o {J[aOŸ&

•yana ra©g¡.

¡me girija.

BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

^ðþç³µ…yìþ, BÄæý$¯èþ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

Am`Z Eodé?

Moßn§{S>, Am`Z noao{_{Q>?

¡yana evaru.

ceppaM∂i, ¡yana p£r£mi i?

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°?

2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ?

3. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

ZoZw Eod[a{Z?

Zwìdw Eod[a{d?

_ré Eodé?

n£nu evarini?

nuvvu evarivi?

m•ru evaru?

26

Lesson 2

4. BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

5. DÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

6. DÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Am_o Eodé?

B© _ o Eodé?

B©`Z Eodé?

¡me evaru?

•me evaru?

•yana evaru?

c. Expansion drill Model (i)

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ?

AVZw Eodé?

AVZw Eoda§S>r?

atanu evaru?

atanu evaraM∂•?

1. BÐðþ$ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

2. BÐðþ$ çÜÆæÿâæý.

3. Ò$ÆðÿÐèþÆæÿ$?

Am_o noao{_{Q>?

Am_o gaiŸ&

_raodé?

¡me p£r£mi i?

¡me sara˚a.

m•revaru?

Model (ii)

± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚.

± õ³Ææÿ$ Mæü*yé ^ðþ糚.

Zr noé MoßnwŸ&

Zr noé Hy$S>m MoßnwŸ&

n• p£ru ceppu.

n• p£ru k¶∂¡ ceppu.

1. A™èþ° õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ.

2. ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚

3. Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ.

AV{Z noé Moßn§{S>Ÿ&

Zm noé MoßnwŸ&

_r noé Moßn§{S>Ÿ&

atani p£ru ceppaM∂i.

n¡ p£ru ceppu.

m• p£ru ceppaM∂i.

d. Substitution drill Model (i)

BÐðþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$ ѧéÅǦ°. Am_o VobwJw {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& íßý…© {hÝXr BÐðþ$ íßý…© ѧéÅǦ°. Am_o {hÝXr {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& Mæü¯èþ²yæþ H$ÞS> ™èþÑ$âæý V{_i Ðèþ$ËÄæý*âæý _b`mi 27

¡me telugu vidy¡rthini hiMd•. ¡me hiMd• vidy¡rthini. kanna∂a tami˚a malay¡˚a

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (ii)

¯é õ³Ææÿ$ ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ± õ³Ææÿ$ ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý. A™èþ¯èþ$

Zm noé Zmam`UŸ& Zwìdw Zr noé Zmam`UŸ&

n¡ p£ru n¡r¡ya∆a. nuvvu n• p£ru n¡r¡ya∆a.

C™èþ¯èþ$

Ò$Ææÿ$

AVZw

BVZw

_ré

atanu

itanu

m•ru

EXERCISES a. Match the following. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ZoZw

ÑfÄæý$ {dO`

n£nu

vijaya

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Zwìdw

MæüÐèþ$Ë° H$_b{Z

nuvvu

kamalani

Ò$Ææÿ$ _ré

ѧéÅÇ¦Ñ {dÚm{W©{d

m•ru

vidy¡rthivi

A™èþ¯èþ$ AVZw

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ _mï>éJmé

atanu

m¡ß arug¡ru

BÐðþ$ Am_o

yéMæütÆæÿ$ S>mŠQ>é

¡me

∂¡k aru

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

(

)

b. Answer the following questions using the clue words given in the parentheses, as shown in the model. Model

Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (yéMæütÆæÿ$)

¯óþ¯èþ$ yéMæütDz.

_ré Eodé? (S>mŠQ>é)

ZoZw S>mŠQ>a{ZŸ&

m•ru evaru? (∂¡k aru)

n£nu ∂¡k arni.

1. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (sîý^èþÆæÿ$)

2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ? (ѧéÅǦ)

_ré Eodé? (Q>rMé)

Zwìdw Eod[a{d? ({dÚm{W©)

m•ru evaru? ( •caru)

nuvvu evarivi? (vidy¡rthi)

28

Lesson 2

3. A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (Asñý…yæþÆæÿ$)

4. BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅǦ°)

AVZw Eodé? (AQo §S>é)

Am_o Eodé? ({dÚm{W©{Z)

atanu evaru? (a eM∂aru)

¡me evaru? (vidy¡rthini)

c. Fill in the blanks with adjective forms of the pronouns given in the parentheses.

õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>k.

¯é õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>k.

________ (ZoZw)

noé amOwŸ&

Zm noé amOwŸ&

________ (n£nu)

p£ru r¡ju.

n¡ p£ru r¡ju.

________ (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) ________ (Zwìdw)

õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ.

________

Model

1.

(¯óþ¯èþ$)

noé a{dŸ&

________ (nuvvu) p£ru ravi.

2. 3. 4.

________ (A™èþ¯èþ$) õ³Ææÿ$ WÇ. ________ (AVZw) noé {J[aŸ& ________ (atanu)

p£ru giri.

________ (C™èþ¯èþ$) ________ (BVZw)

õ³Ææÿ$ HÑ$sìý?. noé E{_{Q>Ÿ?

________ (itanu)

p£ru £mi i?

________ (BÄæý$¯èþ) õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å. ________ (Am`Z) noé am_æ`Ÿ& ________ (¡yana) p£ru r¡mayya.

5. 6.

________ (BÐðþ$) ________ (Am_o)

õ³Ææÿ$ ÎË.

________ (¡me)

p£ru l•la.

________ (Ò$Ææÿ$) ________ (_ré)

õ³Ææÿ$ ÑfÄæý$. noé {dO`Ÿ&

________ (m•ru)

p£ru vijaya.

noé brbŸ&

29

An Intensive Course in Telugu

d. Practice the following sandhi forms.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

õ³Ææÿ$ noé

+ + p£ru + BÄæý$¯èþ + Am`Z + ¡yana

+

¯óþ¯èþ$ ZoZw n£nu

+

A¨ A{X

+ HÑ$sìý + E{_{Q>

adi

+

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru

+

C¨ B{X

õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? noao{_{Q>?

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé>

= = = = =

evaru

=

¡yanevaru?

+ GÐèþÇ° + Eod[a{Z

= =

¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ZoZod[a{Z?

evarini

=

n£nevarini?

= =

A§óþÑ$sìý? AXo{_{Q>?

=

ad£mi i?

+ BÄæý$¯èþ + Am`Z

= =

GÐèþÆ>Äæý$¯èþ? Eodam`Z?

¡yana

=

evar¡yana?

A…yîþ A§S>r

= = = = = = = = = + + + + + +

C§æþ…yîþ BX§S>r

+ + idi + 7. HÑ$sìý + E{_{Q> + £mi i + 8. H¨ + E{X + £di + 9. õ³Ææÿ$ + noé + p£ru + 10. BÄæý$¯èþ + Am`Z + ¡yana +

HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i

£mi i

aM∂•

A…yîþ A§S>r aM∂•

A…yîþ A§Sr> aM∂•

HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru 30

p£r£mi i?

BÄæý$¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ$? Am`Zodé?

idaM∂•

HÑ$r…yîþ E{_Q>Sr> £mi aM∂•

H§æþ…yîþ EX§Sr> £daM∂•

A…yîþ = A§S>r = aM∂• = A…yîþ = A§S>r = aM∂• =

õ³ÆóÿÑ$r…yîþ noao{_Q>§S>r p£remi aM∂•

BÄæý$¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ Am`Zoda§S>r ¡yanevaraM∂•

Lesson 2

e. Combine the following.

1. A™èþ¯èþ$ AVZw

+ + +

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé

+ + +

A…yîþ A§S>r

+ + +

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé

4. BÄæý$¯èþ + Am`Z + ¡yana +

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé

5. A¨ A{X

+ + +

HÑ$sìý E{_{Q>

+ + +

HÑ$sìý E{_{Q>

atanu

2. HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i

3. C™èþ¯èþ$ BVZw itanu

adi

6. C¨ B{X idi

7. õ³Ææÿ$ noé p£ru

+ + +

= = =

evaru

= = =

aM∂•

+ + +

evaru

A…yîþ A§S>r aM∂•

= = =

= = =

evaru

= = =

£mi i

£mi i

HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i 31

+ + +

A…yîþ A§S>r

+ + +

A…yîþ A§S>r

aM∂•

aM∂•

= = = = = =

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿ…

Z_ñH$ma§

namask¡raM

DÄæý$¯èþ &A…yîþ

B©`Z -A§S>r

•yana aM∂•

BÄæý$¯èþ Ò$Ææÿ$ íßý…© ¯óþ¯èþ$ DÐðþ$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ BÐðþ$ C™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ ™ðþË$Væü$ Ò$ A™èþ¯èþ$ C™èþ° ™èþÑ$âæý A™èþ° Ðèþ$ËÄæý*âæý HÐèþ$…yîþ õ³Ææÿ$ M>ïœ HÐèþ$Äæý*Å! Asñý…yæþÆæÿ$ ^ðþ糚 ± ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé

Am`Z _ré [h§Xr ZoZw B©_o H$ÞS> Am_o BVZw Eod[a VobwJw _r AVZw BV{Z V{_i AV{Z _b`mi E_§S>r> noé H$m\$s E_æ`m! AQo §S>éŸ Moßnw Zr Zwìdw Hy$S>m

¡yana m•ru hiMd• n£nu •me kanna∂a ¡me itanu evari telugu m• atanu itani tami˚a atani malay¡˚a £maM∂• p£ru k¡f• £mayy¡! a eM∂aru ceppu n• nuvvu k¶∂¡ 32

‘an expression of obeisance of salutation’ ‘his (pos.) (prox. hon.)’ ‘an epicene/honorific’ ‘address marker’ ‘his (pos.) (rem. hon.)’ ‘you (hon.sg. and pl. pro.)’ ‘Hindi’ ‘I’ ‘her (pos.)(prox. hon. & eql.)’ ‘Kannada (adj.)’ ‘her (pos.)(rem. hon. & eql.)’ ‘he, this man/boy (prox. eql.)’ ‘whose’ ‘Telugu’ ‘your (hon. sg. and pl.)’ ‘he, that man/boy (rem. eql.)’ ‘his (pos.) (prox.eql.)’ ‘Tamil (adj.)’ ‘his (pos.) (rem.eql.)’ ‘Malayalam (adj)’ ‘hello, sir (polite addressing)’ ‘name (n.)’ ‘coffee’ ‘hey! (eql masc. addressing)’ ‘attender’ ‘tell/say’ ‘your (pos.) (non-hon. sg.)’ ‘(non.hon. sg. pro.) you’ ‘also’

Lesson 2

GRAMMAR NOTES 2.1. In this lesson subject NP of a verbless sentence is expanded as [pronominal adjective + Noun]. [Pronominal adj. + Noun] + NP

¯é

õ³Ææÿ$

Zm

noé



Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… am_Zaqgh§

p£ru r¡manarasiMhaM ‘My name is Ramanarasimham.’

2.2. The following pronominal adjectives which are also called the oblique bases of the pronouns are introduced in this lesson. PRONOUNS

PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES

(Nominative base)

(oblique base or possessive form)

¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó

ZoZw Zwìdw

Ò$Ææÿ$

_ré

BÄæý$¯èþ Am`Z DÄæý$¯èþ B©`Z A™èþ¯èþ$ AVZw C™èþ¯èþ$ BVZw BÐðþ$

Am_o

DÐðþ$

B©_o

GÐèþÆæÿ$

Eodé

n£nu ‘I’ nuvvu ‘you’ (non-hon. sg.) m•ru ‘you’ (hon.sg & pl.) ¡yana ‘he’ (rem.hon.) •yana ‘he’ (prox.hon.) atanu ‘he’ (rem.hon.) itanu ‘he’ (prox.hon.) ¡me ‘she’ (rem.hon.) &eql.) •me ‘she’ (prox.hon.) &eql.) evaru ‘who’

¯é ±

Zm Zr

Ò$

_r

BÄæý$¯èþ Am`Z DÄæý$¯èþ B©`Z A™èþ°

AV{Z

C™èþ°

BV{Z

BÐðþ$

Am_o

DÐðþ$

B©_o

GÐèþÇ

Eod[a

33

‘my’ ‘your’ (non-hon. sg.) m• ‘your’ (non-sg.& pl.) ¡yana ‘his’ (rem.hon.) •yana ‘his’ (prox.hon.) atani ‘his’ (rem.hon.) itani ‘his’ (prox.hon.) ¡me ‘her’ (rem.hon. &eql.) •me ‘her’ (prox.hon. &eql.) evari ‘whose’ n¡ n•

An Intensive Course in Telugu 2.2.1. An oblique base in Telugu is used as a possessive (or genitive) form. It expresses possession and adjectival relationship. This is one of the functions of the oblique base in Telugu. 2.3. Telugu predicate NP of a verbless sentence is also expanded as a nominal adjective + noun, in this lesson. NP

+

[Nominal adjective

+

Noun]

A™èþ¯èþ$

™èþÑ$âæý

ѧéÅǦ

AVZw

V{_i

{dÚm{W©

atanu

tami˚a ‘He is a Tamil student’

vidy¡rthi

2.4.

In this lesson the following pronouns are introduced.

2.4.1.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ZoZw n£nu ‘I’ : I person singular pronoun. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Zwìdw nuvvu ‘you’ : II person non-honorific singular pronoun.

2.4.2. This is used to refer to people with whom the speaker has a close or intimate relationship. 2.4.3. pronoun.

Ò$Ææÿ$ _ré

m•ru ‘you’ : II person honorific singular and plural

2.4.4. A™èþ¯èþ$ AVZw atanu ‘he’ : III person remote equal masculine singular pronoun. Here the term equal stands for non-honorific and non-inferior. This is used to refer to people of equal status. It does not carry any respect nor disrespect. 2.4.5. C™èþ¯èþ$ BVZw itanu ‘he’ : III person proximate equal masculine singular pronoun. This is also used to refer to people of equal status like A™èþ¯èþ$ AVZw atanu . It does not carry any respect nor disrespect. 2.4.6. A™èþ¯èþ$ AVZw atanu refers to remote person and C™èþ¯èþ$ BVZw itanu refers to proximate person. Recall the similar distinction in the third person pronouns. (see 1.2). 2.5. So far you have seen that the third person masculine singular pronouns show honorific (BÄæý$¯èþ Am`Z ¡yana / DÄæý$¯èþ B©`Z •yana - see 1.2.) and equal (A™èþ¯èþ$ AVZw atanu / C™èþ¯èþ$ BVZw itanu) distinction. The 34

Lesson 2 feminine counterpart for both these pronouns is only BÐðþ$ Am_o ¡me /DÐðþ$ B©_o •me. These are honorific as well as equal singular feminine pronouns.

BÄæý$¯èþ ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ$.

Am`Z a{dJméŸ&

‘He is Mr. Ravi.’

AVZw {J[aŸ&

‘He is Giri’

Am_o bVJméŸ&

‘She is Ms. Lata.’

Am_o {dO`Ÿ&

‘She is Vijaya.’

¡yana ravig¡ru.

A™èþ¯èþ$ WÇ. atanu giri.

BÐðþ$ Ë™èþV>Ææÿ$. ¡me latag¡ru.

BÐðþ$ ÑfÄæý$. ¡me vijaya.

2.6. Notice the concord between the subject NP and the predicate NP in a verbless sentence, when the subject is ¯óþ¯èþ$ ZoZw n£nu or ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Zwìdw nuvvu.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ&°. ZoZw a{d-{ZŸ&

‘I am Ravi.’

n£nu ravi-ni.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó WÇ&Ñ. Zwìdw {J[a-{dŸ&

‘You are Giri.’

nuvvu giri-vi.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ë™èþ&°. ZoZw bV-{ZŸ&

‘I am Lata.’

n£nu lata-ni

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÎË&Ñ. Zwìdw brb-{dŸ&

‘You are Leela.’

nuvvu l•la-vi. 2.7. Notice the use of GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru in all the three persons. This is a human interrogative pronoun. I Person:

¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°? ZoZw Eod[a{Z?

‘Who am I?’

n£nu evarini? II Person:

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ? Zìdw Eod[a{d? nuvvu evarivi?

Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? _ré Eodé?

‘Who are you (non-hon.sg.)?’ (hon.sg.&pl.)?’ ‘Who are you

m•ru evaru? III Person:

BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? Am`Z Eodé?

‘Who is he (hon.)?'

¡yana evaru?

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? AVZw Eodé?

‘Who is he (eql.)?’

atanu evaru?

BÐðþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? Am_o Eodé? ¡me evaru? 35

‘Who is she (hon. & eql.)?’

An Intensive Course in Telugu 2.8. The imperative forms of the verb ^ðþ糚 Moßnw ceppu ‘tell/say’ are introduced in this lesson.

± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚.

Non-hon. sg. :

Zr noé MoßnwŸ&

‘Tell your name.’

n• p£ru ceppu.

Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. _r noé Moßn§{S>Ÿ& ‘Please tell your name.’

Hon. sg.& pl. :

m• p£ru ceppaM∂i. 2.8.1. A…yìþ -A§{S> -aM∂i is imperative plural / honorific singular marker. It is added to the verbal base to form an imperative hon.sg. & pl/form.

^ðþ糚

+

A…yìþ

=

^ðþç³µ…yìþ

Moßnw

+

A§{S>

=

Moßn§{S>Ÿ&

ceppu

+

aM∂i

=

ceppaM∂i

‘Please tell!’

2.9. HÐèþ$…yîþ -E_§Sr>-£maM∂• ‘hello!’ and HÐèþ$Äæý*Å -E_æ`m>-£mayy¡ ‘hey!’ are the address terms used to draw the attention of the listener. 2.9.1. HÐèþ$…yîþ -E_§Sr>-£maM∂• is an epicene honorifiic address term used both in masculine and feminine genders.

HÐèþ$…yîþ, Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ*! E_§S>r, am_mamdwJmé ! ‘Hello, Mr. Ramarao!’ £maM∂• r¡m¡r¡vug¡ru!

HÐèþ$…yîþ ïÜ™èþV>Ææÿ*! E_§S>r, grVJmé !

‘Hello, Ms. Sita!’

£maM∂• s•tag¡ru! 2.9.2. HÐèþ$Äæý*Å -E_æ`m> -£mayy¡ is non-honorific address term used in masculine gender only.

HÐèþ$Äæý*Å, ÆæÿÒ!

E_æ`m, adr !

‘Hey Ravi!’

£mayy¡ rav•! 2.10. &A…yîþ -A§S>r>-aM∂• is an epicene honorific address marker. It is added to a sentence when the speaker of the sentence wants to give respect to the listener. (both male and female). Notice the difference between &V>Ææÿ$ -Jmé -g¡ru and &A…yîþ -A§S>r>-aM∂•. &V>Ææÿ$ -Jmé -g¡ru goes with a noun and &A…yîþ -A§S>r>-aM∂• goes with a sentence as a whole. &V>Ææÿ$ -Jmé -g¡ru attributes respect to the noun to which it is added &A…yîþ -A§S>r>-aM∂• attributes respect to the listener of the sentence. 36

Lesson 2 1.

ÆæÿÑ GÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ? a{d Eoda§S>r?

‘Who is Ravi, Sir?’

ravi evaraM∂•? 2.

ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? a{dJmé Eodé? ‘Who is Mr. Ravi?’ ravig¡ru evaru?

3.

ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ? a{dJmé Eoda§S>r?

‘Who is Mr. Ravi, sir?’

ravig¡ru evaraM∂•? In the above three sentences, sentence (1) attributes respect to the listener, sentence (2) attributes respect to the person who is known as Ravi, and sentence (3) attributes respect to both listener and Ravi. 2.11. Notice the spelling system when a word or suffix beginning with a vowel is added to word ending with ‘…’ (sunna).

¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿ… Z_ñH$ma§ namask¡raM

C¨ MæüË… B{X H$b§

+ + + + + +

A…yîþ = ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ! A§S>r = Z_ñH$ma_§S>r! aM∂• = namask¡ramaM∂•! A…yîþ = C¨ MæüËÐèþ$…yîþ! A§S>r = B{X H$b_§S>r! aM∂• = idi kalamaM∂•!

‘Namaskaram, sir!’

‘This is a pen, sir!’

idi kalaM From the above it can be equated as follows: … + vowel = ÐŒþ$ + vowel -§ + vowel = _² + vowel sunna + vowel = m + vowel

In other words, sunna + vowel combination is written as ÐŒþ$ + vowel (_² + vowel, m + vowel) combination 2.12.

Notice the following sandhi processes:

2.12.1.

Ææÿ$ + é+ ru + yéMæütÆæÿ$ S>mŠQ>é ∂¡k aru

° {Z ni

+ + +

= = = ° {Z ni

Dz {Z© rni

= = = 37

yéMæütDz S>mŠQ>{Z© ∂¡k arni

An Intensive Course in Telugu 2.12.2. The final short vowel of a word or a verbal base is dropped when followed by a suffix or a marker beginning with a vowel.

^ðþ糚 Moßnw

+ + ceppu + HÑ$sìý + E{_{Q> + £mi i + GÐèþÆæÿ$ + Eodé + evaru + BÄæý$¯èþ + Am`Z + ¡yana +

A…yìþ A§[S> aM∂i

A…yîþ A§S>r aM∂•

A…yîþ A§S>r aM∂•

A…yîþ A§S>r aM∂•

= = = = = = = = = = = =

^ðþç³µ…yìþ Moßn§{S>

‘Please tell’

ceppaM∂i

HÑ$r…yîþþ E{_Q>§S>r

‘What, sir?’

£mi aM∂•

GÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ Eoda§S>r

‘Who, sir?’

evaraM∂•

BÄæý$¯èþ…yîþ Am`Z§S>r

‘It is he, sir!’

¡yanaM∂•

2.12.3. The final short vowel of a word is dropped when followed by a word beginning with a vowel. This process is normally regular in speech and optional in writing. In Speech

¯óþ¯èþ$ ZoZw

+ + n£nu + BÄæý$¯èþ + Am`Z + ¡yana + C¨ + B{X + idi + 2.13.

In Writing

GÐèþÇ° = ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? Eod[a{Z = ZoZod[a{Z? evarini = n£nevarini? GÐèþÆæÿ$ = BÄæý$¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ$? Eodé = Am`Zodé? evaru = ¡yanevaru? HÑ$sìý = C§óþÑ$sìý? E{_{Q> = BXo{_{Q>? £mi i = id£mi i?

¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°?/¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ZoZw Eod[a{Z?/ZoZod[a{Z? n£nu evarini?/n£nevarini?

BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?/BÄæý$¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ$? A`Z Eodé?/Am`Zodé? ¡yana evaru?/¡yanevaru?

C¨ HÑ$sìý?/C§óþÑ$sìý? B{X E{_{Q>?/BXo{_{Q>? idi £mi i?/id£mi i?

In addressing the final vowel is lengthened.

ÆæÿÒ! çÜ$Væü$×>! Æ>Ðèþ$*! ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ*!

adr! gwJwUm$! am_y! a{dJmê$!

rav•! sugu∆¡! r¡m¶! ravig¡r¶! 38

Lesson 2 2.14.

Telugu Script - 2

In the previous lesson you have learnt some of the Telugu letters. In this lesson the remaining letters are introduced. With this you will learn all the primary symbols of the vowels and the consonants. 2.14.1.

G H I ç³ çœ ç œ $ Eo

E

Eo

n

\$

K>

e

£

ai

pa

pha

gha

çÙ Ðèþ Ðèþ$ çßý f

d

_

h

ßa

va

ma

ha

Read the following:

G…™èþ

GÆæÿ

H™èþ…

ç³yæþÐèþ

ç³Væü

Eo§V

Eoa

EV§

nS>d

nJ

eMta

era

£taM

pa∂ava

paga

ç³Væüyæþ…

ç³yæþÐèþ$Ææÿ

Væüyæþç³

ç³…r

BÐèþÆæÿ×ý

nJS>§

nS>_a

JS>n

n§Q>

AmdaU

paga∂aM

pa∂amara

ga∂apa

paM a

¡vara∆a

39

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çœË…

EçÙ

çœ$¯èþ…

çœ$¯èþ™èþ

çÜ…çœ$…

\$b§

Cf

KZ§

KZV

g§K§

phalaM

ußa

ghanaM

ghanata

saMghaM

ÐèþË

ÐèþÆæÿ…

Ðèþ…§æþ

Ðèþ…r

Ðèþ$…r

db

da§

d§X

d§Q>

_§Q>

vala

varaM

vaMda

vaM a

maM a

Ðèþ$Ææÿ

Ðèþ$uæÿ…

Ðèþ$Ðèþ$™èþ

Ðèþ$™èþ…

Ðèþ$§æþ…

_a

_R>§

__V

_V§

_X§

mara

ma ham

mamata

mataM

madaM

ÆæÿÐèþ$

EÐèþ$

Açßý…

Fçßý

çßýÆæÿçßýÆæÿ

a_

C_

Ah§

D$h

haha

rama

uma

ahaM

¶ha

harahara

J

K

L

f



2.14.2.

Amo

Amo

Am¡

o

ª

au

ja

©a

º

¿æý

º$$

^èþ

bèþ

ba

bha

R

ca

cha

~

^

G$

40

O M

L> N>

Lesson 2 Read the following.

JÆæÿ f¯èþ… fËf ç³…fÆæÿ… ¿æýÆæÿ™èþ ^èþ˯èþ… ^èþÆæÿ×ý…

Kyæþ f¯èþ™èþ Ææÿ…f¯èþ AºË ¿æýf¯èþ ^èþ…§æþ¯èþ… B^èþÆæÿ×ý

LçÙ«§æþ… fVæüyæþ… Væüf… ¿æýÄæý$… º$$×ý… ^èþ§æþÆæÿ… Ðèþ$…^èþ…

fÄæý$… fËVæü ºË… Ææÿ…¿æý Ææÿ^èþ¯èþ Ðèþ…^èþ¯èþ Ë…^èþ…

2.14.3.

Mæü

„æü

H$

j

ka

kßa

Read the following:

MæüË Mæü…™èþ ™èþMæü™èþMæü GMæüÆæÿ… ¿æý„æü×ý… ÆæÿMæü…

MæüË… º…Mæü Mæü×ý… Mæü„æü „æüÐèþ$ ^èþMæü^èþMæü

JMæü Ðèþ…MæüÆæÿ Mæü…Mæü×ý… Ë„æü ç³…Mæü… ç³Mæüç³Mæü

I

Ôèý

e

âæý

kha

≈a

˚a

HMæü… MæüÐèþ^èþ… Mæü…ç³ „æü×ý… MæüË™èþ Ææÿ„æü

2.14.4.

Q

i

This group consists of letters of dissimilar shapes. 41

Mæü…^èþ… MæüÆæÿ×ý… ç³…Mæüf… ™èþ„æü×ý… çÜMæüË… Ææÿ„æü×ý

An Intensive Course in Telugu Read the following.

Ôèý…Q… BÔèý…çÜ ™èþâæý™èþâæý

Ðèþ$$Q… Q¯èþ¯èþ… Ôèý…Mæü BÔèý…Mæü Væüâæý… Ðèþ$…Væüâæý…

ÔèýÆæÿ… Mæüâæý Ôèý…MæüÆæÿ

BÔèý MæüâæýMæüâæý

2.14.5. So far the primary symbols of the vowels and consonants are introduced. Presented below is the conventional order of the same. VOWELS

A

B

C

D

E

F

A

Am

B



C

D$

a

¡

i



u



º$$

º$* G

H

I

F$

G$

Eo

E

Eo

R

®

e

£

ai

J

K

L



Amo

Amo

Am¡



o

ª

au

(sunna)

42

Lesson 2 CONSONANTS

Mæü

Q

Væü

çœ$



H$

I

J

ka

kha

ga

gha

©a

^èþ

bèþ

f

m



ca

cha

ja

jha

ña

r

uæÿ

yæþ

Éæþ

×ý

 a

 ha

∂a

∂ha

∆a

™èþ

£æþ

§æþ

§« þæ Y

¯èþ

Z

ta

tha

da

dha

na

ç³ n

çœ

\$

º

¿æý

Ðèþ$

pa

pha/fa

ba

bha

ma

Äæý$

Ææÿ

Ë

Ðèþ d

Ôèý

e

ya

ra

la

va

≈a

çÙ

çÜ

çßý h

âæý

i

„æü

j

ßa

sa

ha

˚a

kßa

M Q>

V

` f

N> R>

W

a

g

O S>

X ~

b

43

K

P T>

^

L> Ì

U

_

An Intensive Course in Telugu 2.14.6.

Read the following sentences.

Adi Hmi i A{X H{_{Q> BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþru BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþé Bme EçÙ B_o EçÙ çßýri GÐèþru? çßý[a GÐèþé? ¯èþÐèþ$sk¡ÆæÿÐèþ$…∂• ¯èþÐèþ$ñH$mÆæÿÐèþ$…S>r

Cdi ºlla. C{X ºëb. DÄæý$¯èþ n¡r¡Äæý$×ý DÄæý$¯èþ ZmamÄæý$×ý Dme çÜÆæÿâæý D_o çÜÆæÿâæý çßýri Ðèþ$Ëy¡âæý vidy¡rthi çßý[a Ðèþ$Ë`mâæý {dÚ{W© n¡ p£ru r¡Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿsimçßý…. Zm noé amÐèþ$¯èþÆæÿqgçßý….

vifÄæý$g¡ru

{dfÄæý$Jmé

2.14.7. Write the following sentences replacing the underlined ones with Telugu letters. itanu kanna∂a vidy¡rthi

idi evari kalaM?

BVZw H$ÞS> {dÚ{W©Ÿ&

B{X Eod[a H$b§?

adi n¡r¡ya∆a ga∂iy¡raM

ußa tami˚a vidy¡rthini.

A{X Zmam`U J{S>`ma§Ÿ&

Cf V{_i {dÚm{W©{ZŸ&

¡me p£ru jalaja

•me p£ru sucarita

Am_o noé ObOŸ&

B©_o noé gwM[aVŸ&

≈£khar evaru?

≈£khar a eM∂aru.

eoIa Eodé?

eoIa AQo S§ >éŸ&

44

Lesson 3

UNIT I Lesson 3

õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ CË$Ï ñZo{hVw{S> B„þ

FRIEND’S

sn£hitu∂i illu

HOUSE This is a photograph of Jawaharlal Nehru.

´ëç³ : C¨ fÐèþçßýÆŠÿÌêÌŒý ¯ðþ{çßý* ¸ùsZ.

nmn : B{X Odhabmb² Zho ê² $ \$moQ>mŸo & p¡pa : idi javaharl¡l nehr¶ fª ª

DÄæý$¯èþ ™èþ…{yìþ õ³Ææÿ$ Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý.

His father’s name is Motilal.

B©`Z V§{S´> noé _moVrbmb²Ÿ& •yana taM∂ri p£ru mªt•l¡l.

™èþÍÏ õ³Ææÿ$ çÜÓÆæÿ*ç³Æ>×ìý. V{„ noé ñdê$nam{UŸ&

His mother’s name is Swaroopa Rani.

talli p£ru svar¶par¡∆•.

MæüÐèþ$Ë fÐèþçßýÆŠÿÌêÌŒý ¯ðþ[çßý* ¿êÆæÿÅ. H$_b Odhabmb² Zoh²ê$ ^m`©Ÿ& kamala javaharl¡l nehr¶ bh¡rya. 45

Kamala is Jawaharlal Nehru’s wife.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

C…¨Ææÿ fÐèþçßýÆŠÿÌêÌŒý¯ðþ{çßý* Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$.

Indira is Jawaharlal Nehru’s daughter.

B§{Xa Odha²bmb Zoh²ê$ Hy$VwéŸ& iMdira javaharl¡l nehr¶ k¶turu.

BÐðþ$ Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$.

She is Motilal’s granddaughter.

Am_o _moVrbmb² _ZdambwŸ& ¡me mªtil¡l manavar¡lu.

BÐðþ$ ¿æýÆæÿ¢ õ³Ææÿ$ íœÆøgŒýV>…«©.

Her husband’s name is Feroz Gandhi

Am_o ^V© noé {\$amoO²Jm§YrŸ& ¡me bharta p£ru firªz g¡Mdhi.

Æ>iÐŒþ C…¨Æ>V>…«© Möyæþ$Mæü$.

Rajeev is Indira Gandhi’s son.

amOrd² B§{XamJm§Yr H$moSw>Hw$Ÿ& r¡j•v iMdir¡g¡Mdh• ko∂uku.

BÄæý$¯èþ ¯ðþ{çßý* Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$.

He is Nehru’s grandson.

Am`Z Zoh²ê$ _ZdSw>Ÿ& ¡yana nehr¶ manava∂u.

Æ>Ðèþ$Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : Æ> ѯø§Šþ! C§óþ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ CË$Ï.

Come, Vinod! This is my friend’s house.

am__y{V© : am {dZmoXŸ² & BXo Zm ñZo{hVw{S> BëbwŸ& r¡mam¶rti : r¡ vinªd! id£ n¡ sn£hitu∂i illu.

ѯø§Šþ : D ´ëç³ GÐèþÆæÿ$? ± õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ Mæü*™èþ$Æ>? {dZmoX² : B© nmn Eodé? Zr ñZo{hVw{S> Hy$Vwam? vinªd : • p¡pa evaru? n• sn£hitu∂i k¶tur¡? 46

Who is this girl? Your friend’s daughter?

Lesson 3

Æ>Ðèþ$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. Mæü*Æøa!

Yes. Sit!

am_ : AdwZwŸ& Hy$Mm}Ÿ& r¡ma : avunu. k¶rcª.

ѯø§Šþ : ´ë´ë! A¨ H… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…?

P¡p¡! What is that book?

{dZmoX² : nmnm! A{X E§ nwñVH§$? vinªd : p¡p¡! adi £M pustakaM?

´ëç³ : C¨ ¯é ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢MæüÐèþ$…yîþ! A¨ C…XÏçÙ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

This is my Telugu book, sir! and that is my English book.

nmn : B{X Zm VobwJw nwñVH$_§S>r! A{X B§½brfw nwñVH§$Ÿ& p¡pa : idi n¡ telugu pustakamaM∂•. adi iMgl•ßu pustakaM.

ѯø§Šþ : §é° õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

What is its name?

{dZmoX² : Xm{Z noao{_{Q>? vinªd : d¡ni p£r£mi i?

´ëç³ : §óþ° õ³Ææÿ…yîþ?

Whose name, sir?

nmn : Xo{Z noa§S>r? p¡pa : d£ni p£raM∂•?

ѯø§Šþ : ©° õ³Ææÿ$.

This one’s

{dZmoX² : Xr{Z noéŸ& vinªd : d•ni p£ru.

´ëç³ : ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… õ³Æ>? ©° õ³Ææÿ$ ‘fÐèþçßýÆŠÿ’ A…yîþ!

The name of the Telugu book: It is ‘Jawahar’ sir!

nmn : VobwJw nwñVH§$ noam? Xr{Z noé ‘Odha’ A§S>rŸ& p¡pa : telugu pustakaM p£r¡? d•ni p£ru ‘javahar’ aM∂•! 47

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ѯø§Šþ : AÌêV>! C¨ GÐèþÇ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…?

I see! Whose book is this?

{dZmoX² : AbmJmŸ& B{X Eod[a nwñVH§$? vinªd : al¡g¡! idi evari pustakaM?

´ëç³ : C¨ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>§æþ…yîþ! C¨ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Í ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

This is not my book, sir! This is my friend’s book.

nmn : B{X Zm nwñVH§$ H$mX§S>r! B{X Zm ñZo{hVwam{b nwñVH§$Ÿ& p¡pa : idi n¡ pustakaM k¡daM∂•. idi n¡ sn£hitur¡li pustakaM.

ѯø§Šþ : ± õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Í õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

What is your friend’s name?

{dZmoX² : Zr ñZo{hVwam{b noao{_{Q>? vinªd : n• sn£hitur¡li p£r£mi i?

´ëç³ : WÇf.

Girija.

nmn : {J[aOŸ& p¡pa : girija.

Æ>Ðèþ$ : Æ> ѯø§Šþ! A™èþ¯óþ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$ Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ#. A§óþ A™èþ° Væü¨. am_ : am {dZmoX²! AVZo Zm ñZo{hVwSw> amKdamdwŸ& AXo AV{Z J{XŸ&

Come on, Vinod: He is my friend Raghavarao. That is his room.

r¡ma : r¡ vinªd! atan£ n¡ sn£hitu∂u r¡ghavar¡vu. ad£ atani gadi.

ѯø§Šþ : ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ!

Namaskaram, sir!

{dZmoX² : Z_ñH$ma_§S>rŸ& vinªd : namask¡ramaM∂•!

48

Lesson 3

Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ# : ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿ…. DÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ$*ÃÈ¢?

Namaskaram. Who is he, Ramamurti?

amKdamdw : Z_ñH$ma§Ÿ& B©`Z Eodé amå_yVu? r¡ghavar¡vu : namask¡raM. •yana evaru r¡mm¶rt•?

Æ>Ðèþ$ : C™èþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$ ѧéÅǦ. õ³Ææÿ$ ѯø§Šþ.

He is Telugu student. His name is Vinod.

am_ : BVZw VobwJw {dÚm{W©Ÿ& noé {dZmoX²? r¡ma : itanu telugu vidy¡rthi. p£ru vinªd.

Æ>çœ$Ðèþ : Æ>…yìþ! Mæü*Æøa…yìþ.

Please come and sit.

amKd : am§{S! Hy$Mm]{S>Ÿ& r¡ghava : r¡M∂i k¶rcªM∂i.

Æ>Ðèþ$ : Mæü*Æøa ѯø§Šþ!

Sit, Vinod!.

am_ : Hy$Mmo© {dZmoX²! r¡ma : k¶rcª vinªd!

ѯø§Šþ : ÐéÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ…yîþ?

Who is he, sir?

{dZmoX² : dmé Eoda§S>r? vinªd : v¡ru evaraM∂•?

Æ>Ðèþ$ : ÐéÆæÿ$ Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ# ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$. ÐéÇ õ³Ææÿ$ ÝëÆæÿ¤V>Ææÿ$.

He is Raghavarao’s father. His name is Mr. Sarathi.

am_ : dmé amKdamdw ZmÞJméŸ& dm[a noé gma{WJméŸ& r¡ma : v¡ru r¡ghavar¡vu n¡nnag¡ru. v¡ri p£ru s¡rathig¡ru. 49

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ѯø§Šþ : ÒÆæÿ$?

And, she?

{dZmoX² : dré? vinªd : v•ru?

Æ>Ðèþ$ : Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ# AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$. ÒÇ õ³Ææÿ$ A¯èþçÜ*Äæý$V>Ææÿ$.

Raghavarao’s mother. Her name is Mrs. Anasuya.

am_ : amKdamdw Aå_JméŸ& dr[a noé AZgy`JméŸ& r¡ma : r¡ghavar¡vu ammag¡ru. v•ri p£ru anas¶yag¡ru.

ÝëÆæÿ¤ : Æ>çœ$Ðé! C™èþ¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ$? Ððþ…Mæü{sêÐé?

Raghava! Who is he? Is he Venkatrao?

gma{W : amKdm! BVZodé? do§H$Q´>mdm? s¡rathi : r¡ghav¡! itanevaru? veMka r¡v¡?

Æ>çœ$Ðèþ : Ðóþ…Mæü{sêÐèþ# M>§æþ$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ*! Æ>Ðèþ$*ÃÇ¢. ÕÐèþÄæý$ÅV>Ç Möyæþ$Mæü$.

Father, he is not Venkatrao. He is Rammurti. Mr. Sivayya’s son.

amKd : do§H$Q´>mdw H$mXw ZmÞJmê$Ÿ& amå_y{V©Ÿ& {edæ`Jm[a H$moSw>Hw$Ÿ& r¡ghava : veMka r¡vu k¡du n¡nnag¡r¶! r¡mm¶rti ≈ivayyag¡ri ko∂uku.

ÝëÆæÿ¤ : Ò$ ™é™èþV>Ç õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý »êº*!

What is your grandfather’s. name, dear!

gma{W : _r VmVJm[a noao{_{Q> ~m~y! s¡rathi : m• t¡tag¡ri p£r£mi i b¡b¶!

50

Lesson 3

Æ>Ðèþ$ : Væü…V>«§æþÆæÿ…V>Ææÿ$.

Mr. Gangadharam.

am_ : J§JmYa§JméŸ& r¡ma : gaMg¡dharaMg¡ru.

ÝëÆæÿ¤ : AÌêV>! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü…V>«§æþÆæÿ…V>Ç Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyìþÐé?

I See! Are you. Mr. Gangadharam’s. grandson?

gma{W : AbmJm! Zwìdw J§JmYa§Jm[a _Zd{S>dm? s¡rathi : al¡g¡! nuvvu gaMg¡dharaM -g¡ri manava∂iv¡!

Æ>Ðèþ$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ!

Yes, sir!

am_ : AdwZ§S>rŸ& r¡ma : avunaM∂•!

I am Mr. Sarathi’s granddaughter.

´ëç³ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÝëÆæÿ¤V>Ç Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Í°. nmn : ZoZw gma{WJm[a _Zdam{b{ZŸ& p¡pa : n£nu s¡rathi g¡ri manavar¡lini.

DRILLS a. Response drill Model (i)

ÆæÿÑ ™èþ…{yìþ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (ÕÐèþÄæý$Å)

2. BÐðþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyìþ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (ïܯèþ$)

a{d V§{S´> noao{_{Q>? ({edæ`)

Am_o _Zd{S> noao{_{Q>? (grZw)

ravi taM∂ri p£r£mi i? (≈ivayya)

¡me manava∂i p£r£mi i? (s•nu)

ÆæÿÑ ™èþ…{yìþ õ³Ææÿ$ ÕÐèþÄæý$Å.

3. BÄæý$¯èþ ™é™èþV>Ç õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?(Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ$)

a{d V§{S´> noé {edæ`Ÿ&

Am`Z VmVJm[a noao{_{Q>? (amdwJmé)

ravi taM∂ri p£ru ≈ivayya.

¡yana t¡tag¡ri p£r£mi i? (r¡vug¡ru)

1. çÜ$Væü$×ý ™èþÍÏ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (ïÜ™èþ)

4. BÐðþ$ Möyæþ$Mæü$ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (WÇ)

gwJwU Vpëb noao{_{Q>? (grV)

Am_o H$moSw>Hw$ noao{_{Q>? ({J[a)

sugu∆a talli p£r£mi i? (s•ta)

¡me ko∂uku p£r£mi i? (giri) 51

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (iii)

Model (ii)

± õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (ÆæÿÑ)

MæüÐèþ$Ë GÐèþÇ ¿êÆæÿÅ? (¯ðþ{çßý*)

Zr ñZo{hVw{S> noao{_{Q>? (a{d)

H$_b Eod[a ^m`©? (Zoh²ê$)

n• sn£hitu∂i p£r£mi i? (ravi)

kamala evari bh¡rya? (nehr¶)

¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ.

MæüÐèþ$Ë ¯ðþ{çßý* ¿êÆæÿÅ.

Zm ñZo{hVw{S> noé a{dŸ&

H$_b Zoh²ê$ ^m`©Ÿ&

n¡ sn£hitu∂i p£ru ravi.

kamala nehr¶ bh¡rya.

1. ± õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Í õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (ÑfÄæý$) 1. Ë™èþ GÐèþÇ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$? (Æ>Ðèþ$-Äæý$Å) Zr ñZo{hVwam{b noao{_{Q>? ([dO`)

bV Eod[a _Zdambw? (am_æ`)

n• sn£hitur¡li p£r£mi i? (vijaya)

lata evari manavar¡lu? (r¡mayya)

2. ÝëÆæÿ-¤V>Ææÿ$ GÐèþÇ ™èþ…{yìþ? (ÆæÿÑ)

2. ÒÇ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (çßýÇV>Ææÿ$) dr[a noao{_{Q>? (h[aJmé)

gma{WJmé Eod[a V§{S´>? (a{d)

v•ri p£r£mi i? (harig¡ru)

s¡rathig¡ru evari taM∂ri? (ravi)

3. çÜ$Væü$×ý GÐèþÇ ¿êÆæÿÅ? (Vøí³)

3. ÐéÇ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (WÇV>Ææÿ$) dm[a noao{_{Q>? ({J[aJmé)

gwJwU Eod[a ^m`©? (Jmo{n)

v¡ri p£r£mi i? (girig¡ru)

sugu∆a evari bh¡rya? (gªpi)

4. ± õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? (ѯø§Šþ)

4. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# GÐèþÇ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$? (Ðèþ$*Ç¢)

Zr ñZo{hVw{S> noao{_{Q>? ({dZmoX²)

amdw Eod[a _ZdSw>? (_y{V©)

n• sn£hitu∂i p£r£mi i?(vinªd)

r¡vu evari manava∂u? (M¶rti)

b. Completion drill Model

çÜÆæÿâæý ÑÐèþ$Ë ™èþÍÏ. ÑÐèþ$Ë çÜÆæÿâæý ........ ÑÐèþ$Ë çÜÆæÿâæý Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$. 1. çÜ$ÖË Æ>Ðèþ# Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$. Æ>Ðèþ# çÜ$ÖË .........

gai {d_b VpëbŸ& {d_b gai .........Ÿ& {d_b gai Hy$VwéŸ&

sara˚a vimala talli. vimala sara˚a ........ vimala sara˚a k¶turu.

gwerb amdw Hy$VwéŸ& amdw gwerb ........Ÿ&

su≈•la r¡vu k¶turu. r¡vu su≈•la ..............

52

Lesson 3

2. MæüÐèþ$Ë Vøí³ ¿êÆæÿÅ. Vøí³ MæüÐèþ$Ë ......... 3. ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý ÆæÿÑ ™èþ…{yìþ. ÆæÿÑ ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý ......... 4. C…¨Ææÿ Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$. Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý C…¨Ææÿ .......

H$_b Jmo{n ^m`©Ÿ& Jmo{n H$_b .......>&

kamala gªpi bh¡rya. gªpi kamala ..........

Zmam`U a{d V§{S´>Ÿ& a{d Zmam`U ......&

n¡r¡ya∆a ravi taM∂ri. ravi n¡r¡ya∆a ..........

B§{Xa _moVrbmb² _ZdambwŸ& _moVrbmb² B§{Xa ........Ÿ&

iMdira mªt•l¡l manavar¡lu. mªt•l¡l iMdira ...........

c. Expansion drill Model (i)

ÆæÿÑ, ^ðþ糚!

ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ*, ^ðþç³µ…yìþ!

a{d, MoßnwŸ!

a{dJmê$ Moßn§{S>Ÿ!

ravi, ceppu!

ravig¡r¶ ceppaM∂i!

1. çÜ$Væü$×ê, ^ðþ糚!

2. ÑfÄæý*, Mæü*Æøa!

3. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ, Æ>!

gwJwUm, MoßnwŸ!

{dO`m, Hy$Mm}Ÿ!

_mohZ², am!

sugu∆¡, ceppu!

vijay¡, k¶rcª!

mªhan, r¡!

Model (ii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ.

A™èþ¯óþ ÆæÿÑ.

AVZw a{dŸ&

AVZo a{dŸ&

atanu ravi.

atan£ ravi.

1. ÐéÆæÿ$ ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$.

2. ÒÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

3. C¨ ± Væü¨.

dmé e_©JméŸ&

dré _mñQ>éJméŸ&

B{X Zr J{XŸ&

v¡ru ≈armag¡ru.

v•ru m¡s arug¡ru.

idi n• gadi.

Model (iii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#.

A™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðé?

AVZw gwã~mamdwŸ&

AVZw gwã~mamdm?

atanu subb¡r¡vu.

atanu subb¡r¡v¡?

1. ÐéÆæÿ$ Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$.

2. BÐðþ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$. 3. C¨ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Í CË$Ï.

dmé _r ZmÞJméŸ&

Am_o S>mŠQ>éŸ&

B{X Zm ñZo{hVwam{b B„þŸ&

v¡ru m• n¡nnag¡ru.

¡me ∂¡k aru.

idi n¡ sn£hitur¡li illu.

53

An Intensive Course in Telugu

d. Transformation drill

A¨ sêÒ$. A{X Q>m_rŸ& adi  ¡m•. §é° õ³Ææÿ$ sêÒ$. Xm{Z noé Q>m_rŸ& d¡ni p£ru  ¡m•. 1. C¨ ç³#ïÜÞ. 2. ÐéÆæÿ$ ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý. 3. ÒÆæÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ææÿ$. Model (i)

B{X nwñgrŸ&

dmé Zmam`UŸ&

dré am_æ`JméŸ&

idi puss•

v¡ru n¡r¡ya∆a.

v•ru r¡mayyag¡ru.

Model (ii)

¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$ ÆæÿÑ. Zm ñZo{hVwSw> a{dŸ& n¡ sn£hitu∂u ravi. ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ. Zm ñZo{hVw{S> noé a{dŸ& n¡ sn£hitu∂i p£ru ravi. 1. ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$ çÜ$Væü$×ý 3. ÐéÇ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$ ѯø§Šþ. Zm ñZo{hVwambww gwJwU.

dm[a _ZdSw> {dZmoX².

n¡ sn£hitur¡lu sugu∆a

v¡ri manava∂u vinªd.

2. BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$ WÇf.

4. ± õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>çßý$ÌŒý.

Am`Z _Zdambw {J[aO.

Zr ñZo{hVw{S> noé amhþb²Ÿ&

¡yana manavar¡lu girija.

n• sn£hitu∂i p£ru r¡hul.

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions using the clue words as shown in the models. Model (i)

A¨ H… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…?(™ðþË$Væü$)

A¨ ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

A{X E_² nwñVH§$? (VobwJw)

A{X VobwJw nwñVH$§Ÿ&

adi £M pustakaM? (telugu)

adi telugu pustakaM.

1. A¨ H… õ³Ææÿ$? (™ðþË$Væü$)

3. A¨ H… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…? (íßý…©)

A{X E§ noé? (VobwJw)

A{X E§ nwñVH§$? (qhXr)

adi £M p£ru? (telugu)

adi £M pustakaM? (hiMd•)

2. A¨ H… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…? (Mæü¯èþ²yæþ)

4. A¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

A{X E§ nwñVH§$? (H$ÞS>)

A{X nwñVH§$Ÿ&

adi £M pustakaM? (kanna∂a)

adi pustakaM. 54

Lesson 3 Model (ii)

C¨ GÐèþÇ CË$Ï?(ÐéÆæÿ$)

C¨ ÐéÇ CË$Ï.

B{X Eod[a Bëbw? (dmé)

B{X dm[a BëbwŸ&

idi evari illu? (v¡ru)

idi v¡ri illu.

1. A¨ GÐèþÇ MæüË…? (¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$)

2. C¨ GÐèþÇ Væü¨? (™é™èþV>Ææÿ$)

A{X Eod[a H$b§? (Zm ñZo{hVwSw>)

B{X Eod[a J{X? (VmVJmé)

adi evari kalaM? (n¡ sn£hitu∂u)

idi evari gadi (t¡tag¡ru)

3. C¨ GÐèþÇ CË$Ï? (± õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$) B{X Eod[a Bëbw? (Zr ñZo{hVwambw) idi evari illu (n• sn£hitur¡lu)

b. Fill up the blanks with the correct forms of the pronouns/nouns given in parentheses. Model _____

(A™èþ¯èþ$) õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ.

A™èþ° õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ.

(AVZw)noé a{d&

AV{Z noé a{dŸ&

_______ _____

1. 2. 3.

(atanu) p£ru ravi.

_______

(C¨) õ³Ææÿ$ º…r$.

_______

atani p£ru ravi.

4.

_______

(A¨) õ³Ææÿ$ ç³#ïÜÞ.

(B{X) noé ~§Qw>Ÿ&

_______

(A{X) noé nwñgrŸ&

_______

(idi) p£ru baM u.

_______

(adi) p£ru puss•.

_______

(H¨) õ³Ææÿ$ sêÒ$?

_______

(ÐéÆæÿ$) õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å.

_______

(E{X)noé Q>m_r?

_______

(dmé) noé am_æ`Ÿ&

_______

(£di) p£ru  ¡m•?

_______

(v¡ru) p£ru r¡mayya.

_______

(ÒÆæÿ$) õ³Ææÿ$ ÑfÄæý$.

_______

(GÐèþÆæÿ$) õ³Ææÿ$ WÇf?

_______

(dré) noé {dO`Ÿ&

_______

(Eodé) noé {J[aO?

_______

(v•ru) p£ru vijaya.

_______ (evaru)

5. 6.

p£ru girija?

c. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. C…¨Ææÿ GÐèþÇ Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$?

2. C…¨Ææÿ GÐèþÇ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$?

B§{Xa Eod[a Hy$Vwé?

B§{Xa Eod[a _Zdambw?

iMdira evari k¶turu?

iMdira evari manavar¡lu? 55

An Intensive Course in Telugu

3. Æ>iÐŒþ GÐèþÇ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$?

5. MæüÐèþ$Ë GÐèþÇ ¿êÆæÿÅ?

amOrd² Eod[a _ZdSw>?

H$_b Eod[a ^m`©?

r¡j•v evari manava∂u?

kamala evari bh¡rya?

4. C…¨Ææÿ ™èþÍÏ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

6. MæüÐèþ$Ë ¿æýÆæÿ¢ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

B§{Xa Vpëb noao{_{Q>?

H$_b ^V© noao{_{Q>?

iMdira talli p£r£mi i?

kamala bharta p£r£mi i?

d. Answer the following questions AÐèþ#¯èþ$ AdwZw avunu or M>§æþ$ H$mXw k¡du.

1. C¨ MæüËÐèþ*?

3. C¨ M>Æÿ$$™èþÐèþ*?

B{X H$b_m?

B{X H$m{`V_m?

idi kalam¡?

2. DÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆ>?

idi k¡yitam¡?

4. DÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ*çÙtÆ>?

B©`Z S>mŠQ>am?

B©`Z _mï>am?

•yana ∂¡k ar¡?

•yana m¡ß ar¡?

e. Answer the following questions as shown in the models. Model (i)

C¨ ± ç³#çÜ¢MæüÐèþ*?

C¨ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>§æþ$.

B{X Zr nwñVH$_m?

B{X Zm nwñVH§$ H$mXwŸ&

idi n• pustakam¡?

idi n¡ pustakaM k¡du.

1. A¨ A™èþ° VæüyìþÄæý*ÆæÿÐèþ*?

3. BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆ>?

A{X AV{Z J{S>`ma_m?

Am`Z S>mŠQ>am?

adi atani ga∂iy¡ram¡?

¡yana dak ara?

2. BÐðþ$ sîý^èþÆ>?

4. A™èþ¯èþ$ ± õܲíßý™èþ$yé?

Am_o Q>rMam?

AVZw Zr ñZo{hVwS>m?

¡me  •car¡?

atanu n• sn£hitu∂¡?

Model (ii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ ± õܲíßý™èþ$yé?

AÐèþ#¯èþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$.

AVZw Zr ñZo{hVwS>m?

AdwZwŸ& AVZw Zm ñZo{hVwSw>Ÿ&

atanu n• sn£hitu∂¡?

avunu. atanu n¡ sn£hitu∂u.

56

Lesson 3

1. A¨ ± ç³#çÜ¢MæüÐèþ*?

3. C¨ Ò$ CÌêÏ?

A{X Zr nwñVH$_m?

B{X _r Bëbm?

adi n• pustakam¡?

idi m• ill¡?

2. BÄæý$¯èþ Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Æ>?

4. DÄæý$¯èþ Ò$ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Æ>?

Am`Z _r ZmÞJmam?

B©`Z _r _mîQ>éJmam?

¡yana m• n¡nnag¡r¡?

•yana m• m¡ß arug¡r¡?

VOCABULARY

´ë´ë

nmnm

p¡p¡

¸ùsZ ™èþ…{yìþ ™èþÍÏ Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$ ¿æýÆæÿ¢ Möyæþ$Mæü$ ¿êÆæÿÅ Æ> õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$ CË$Ï AÐèþ#¯èþ$ Mæü*Æøa H… C…XÏçÙ$ §é° §óþ° ©° AÌêV> Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$

\$moQ>mo V§[S´> V{ëb Hy$Vwé _Zdambw ^V© H$moSw>Hw$ ^m`© am ñZo{hVwSw> Bëbw AdwZw Hy$Mm} E_² B§½brfw Xm{Z Xo{Z Xr{Z AbmJm _ZdSw>

fª ª taM∂ri talli k¶turu manavar¡lu bharta ko∂uku bh¡rya r¡ sn£hitu∂u illu avunu k¶rcª £m ingl•ßu d¡ni d£ni d•ni al¡g¡! manava∂u 57

child(female), a little girl (an affectionate address term) a photograph Father (reference term) Mother (reference term) daughter grand daughter Husband son wife come! friend (male) house Yes sit What sort/ kind of (adj.) English its (rem.) Whose (neut.) its (prox.) I see! (interjection) Grandson

An Intensive Course in Telugu

M>§æþ$ H$mXw õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$ ñZo{hVwambw Væü¨ J{X ÐéÆæÿ$ dmé ¯é¯èþ² ZmÞ ÐéÇ dm[a ÒÆæÿ$ dré AÐèþ$à Aå_ ÒÇ dr[a ™é™èþ VmV »êº$ ~m~w

no friend (female) room he/she (rem. formal) father his/her (rem. formal) he/she (prox. formal) mother his/her (prox. formal) grandfather child (male), a little (an affectionate address term)

k¡du sn£hitur¡lu gadi v¡ru n¡nna v¡ri v•ru amma v•ri t¡ta b¡bu

GRAMMAR NOTES 3.1. From the sentence patterns used so far in the previous lessons we can conclude that a nounphrase may be a noun, or a pronoun, a pronominal adjective plus noun, or a nominal adjective plus noun. Noun Pronoun

ºËÏ ~ëb A¨ A{X

balla adi

Pronominal adjective + Noun

¯é Væü¨ Zm J{X

n¡ gadi

Nominal adjective + Noun

Ë™èþ Væü¨ bV J{X

lata gadi

NOUN PHRASE →

A further expansion of the NP is also possible as in sentences like :

fÐèþçßýÆŠÿÌêÌŒý ™èþ…{yìþ õ³Ææÿ$ Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý.

javaharl¡l taM∂ri p£ru mªt•l¡l.

Odha²bmb² V§[S´> noé _moVrbmb²Ÿ&

BÐðþ$ ¿æýÆæÿ¢ õ³Ææÿ$ íœÆøgŒýV>…«©.

¡me bharta p£ru firªjg¡ndh•.

Am_o ^V© noé {\$amoO Jm§YrŸ& 58

Lesson 3 The pattern is : Nominal adjective or

+ Nominal adjective

+ Noun

Pronominal adjective

fÐèþçßýÆŠÿÌêÌŒý

™èþ…{yìþ

õ³Ææÿ$

Odha²bmb²

V§[S´>

noé

javaharl¡l

taM∂ri

p£ru

BÐðþ$

¿æýÆæÿ¢

õ³Ææÿ$

Am_o

^V©

noé

¡me

bharta

p£ru

‘Jawaharlal’s father’s name’ ‘her husband’s name’

3.2. In this lesson the third person formal or most honorific epicene singular pronouns ÐéÆæÿ$ dmé v¡ru (remote) and ÒÆæÿ$ dré v•ru (proximate) along with their pronominal adjectives (oblique bases) ÐéÇ dm[a v¡ri and ÒÇ dr[a v•ri respectively are introduced. These pronouns are used in very formal situations like platform speeches etc. 3.3.

Emphatic marker -H -E -£ is introduced in this lesson.

C¨ + H = C§óþ B{X + E = BXo

idi + £ = id£ ‘only this’ (for sandhi see 2.12.3.)

3.4. In this lesson the yes/no type questions are introduced. &B -Am ¡ the interrogative suffix is added to a declarative sentence to form a Yes/no question.

BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆæÿ$. BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆ>? BÐðþ$ MæüÐèþ$Ë. BÐðþ$ MæüÐèþ$Ìê? A¨ MæüË…. A¨ MæüËÐèþ*?

Am`Z S>mŠQ>éŸ& Am`Z S>mŠQ>am? Am_o H$_bŸ& Am_o H$_bm? A{X H$b§Ÿ& A{X H$b_m?

For the sandhi involved in

¡yana ∂¡k aru ¡yana ∂¡k ar¡? ¡me kamala. ¡me kamal¡? adi kalam. adi kalam¡?

‘He is a doctor.’ ‘Is he a doctor?’ ‘She is kamala’ ‘Is she kamala?’ ‘That is a pen.’ ‘Is that a pen?’

yéMæüÆt > S>mŠQ>am ∂¡k ar¡ (yéMæüÆt ÿæ $+B S>mŠQ>é+Am 59

An Intensive Course in Telugu ∂¡k aru+¡) and MæüÐèþ$Ìê H$_bm kamal¡ (MæüÐèþ$Ë+B H$_b+Am kamala+¡) see 2.11. The Yes/No type question will have an answer ‘Yes’ (AÐèþ#¯èþ$ AdwZw avunu) or ‘No’ (M>§æþ$

H$mXw k¡du).

DÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆ>?

‘Is he a doctor?’

AÐèþ#¯èþ$ AdwZw avunu

‘Yes’

‘Is she Kamala?’

M>§æþ$ H$mXw k¡du

‘No’

B©`Z S>mŠQ>am? •yana ∂¡k ar¡?

DÐðþ$ MæüÐèþ$Ìê? B©_o H$_bm? •me kamal¡?

You have learnt another type interrogative sentence in lessons 1 and 2 in which an interrogative word such as HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i ‘what’, H¨ E{X £di ‘which one’ and GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru ‘who’ is used. These interrogative words in Telugu usually begin with G Eo e ‘which one’ or H E £ ‘which one’ (GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru, H¨ E{X £di etc). The interrogative word is replaced by an informative word in the reply without involving any change in the word order.

A¨ HÑ$sìý?

A¨ Mæü$MæüP

‘What is that?’

A{X E{_{Q>?

A{X H$w¸$Ÿ&

adi £mi i?

adi kukka.

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

A™èþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ.

‘Who is he?’

AVZw Eodé?

AVZw a{dŸ&

atanu evaru?

atanu ravi.

‘That is a dog.’

‘He is Ravi.’

§óþ°

The oblique bases (possessive forms) of the pronouns A¨ A{X C¨ B{X idi and H¨ E{X £di are §é° Xm{Z d¡ni, ©° Xr{Z d•ni and Xo{Z d£ni respectively.

3.6.

C B i is added to the &lu ending nouns, &V>Ææÿ$ &Jmé &g¡ru and

3.5. adi,

&yæþ$ &Sw> &∂u ending masculine nouns to use them as oblique bases (possessive forms). As stated earlier the oblique base expresses an adjectival 60

Lesson 3 relationship. Hence, the oblique bases (possessive forms) of the forms can be called nominal adjectives. They are equivalent to its forms in English.

Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$

manavar¡lu

_Zdambw

_Zdam{b noé

ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ$

ravig¡ru

a{dJmé

ÆæÿÑV>Ç Mæü$Èa a{dJm[a Hw$Mu

õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$

sn£hitu∂u

ñZo{hVwSw> 3.6.1.

Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Í õ³Ææÿ$

õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ CË$Ï ñZo{hVw{S> Bëbw

manavar¡li p£ru ‘granddaughter’s name’ ravig¡ri kurc• ‘Mr. Ravi’s chair’ sn£hitu∂i illu ‘friend’s house’

In expressions like

Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ# ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$

‘Raghavarao’s father’

amKdamdw ZmÞJméŸ& r¡ghavar¡vu n¡nnag¡ru

fÐèþçßýÆŠÿÌêÌŒý¯ðþ{çßý* ¿êÆæÿÅ

‘Jawaharlal Nehru’s wife’

Odha²bmb² Zoh²ê$ ^m`©Ÿ& javaharl¡l nehr¶ bh¡rya

Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$

‘Motilal’s granddaughter’

_moVrbmb² _ZdambwŸ& mªt•l¡l manavar¡lu

C…¨Æ>V>…«© Möyæþ$Mæü$

‘Indira Gandhi’s son’

B§{XamJm§Yr H$moSw>Hw$ inMdir¡g¡Mdh• ko∂uku

ÆæÿÑ ™èþ…{yìþ

‘Ravi’s father’

am{d V§{S´> ravi taM∂ri

çÜÆæÿâæý Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$

‘Sarala’s daughter’

gai Hy$Vwé sara˚a k¶turu 61

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ# amKdamdw r¡ghavar¡vu, Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý _moVrbmb² mªt•l¡l, ÆæÿÑ am{d ravi, çÜÆæÿâæý gai sara˚a etc You should have noticed that the proper nouns such as

are used as oblique bases are possessive forms (nominal adjectives) without any change. All the proper nouns in Telugu, except those which do not end in &yæþ$ &Sw> &∂u and many other nouns are used as nominal adjectives (oblique bases) without any change.

çÜ${ºçßýÃ×ýÅ… CË$Ï

subrahma∆yam illu

‘Subrahmanyam’s house’

mªhan kurc•

‘Mohan’s chair’

r¡manarasimham pustakaM

‘Ramanarasimham’s book’

gw~«h²_Ê`§ Bëbw

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ Mæü$Èa _mohZ² Hw$Mu

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… am_Zaqgh§ nwñVH§$

The first and second person concord markers &° &{Z &ni and &Ñ &{d> &vi 2.6. are added to the oblique bases.

3.7.

¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°?

n£nu evarini?

‘Who am I?’

nuvvu n¡ sn£hitu∂ivi

‘You are my friend.’

ZoZw Ed[a{Z?

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþÑ Zwìdw Zm ñZo{hVw{S>{dŸ&

¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>ÇÐèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Í° ZoZw am_æ`Jm[a _Zdam{b{ZŸ& 3.8.

n£nu r¡mayyag¡ri ‘I am Mr. Ramayya's manavar¡lini granddaughter.

AÌêV>! AbmJm! al¡g¡! ‘I see!’ is an interjection.

3.9. In this lesson some kinship terms are introduced. ¯é¯èþ² ZmÞ n¡nna and AÐèþ$à Aå_ amma are equivalents to ™èþ…{yìþ V§{S´> taM∂ri ‘father’ and ™èþÍÏ Vpëb talli ‘mother’ respectively. ¯é¯èþ² ZmÞ n¡nna and AÐèþ$à Aå_ amma are generally used in day-to-day life as reference terms and address terms as well. ™èþ…{yìþ V§{S´> taM∂ri and ™èþÍÏ Vpëb talli are used in formal narrations.

62

Lesson 3 Recall the sentence Ò$

3.10.

™é™èþV>Ç õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý »êº*? _r VmVJm[a noao{_{Q>

~m~y? m• t¡tag¡ri p£r£mi i b¡b¶? ‘What is your grandfather’s name, dear?’. In this sentence Ò$ _r m• is not used as an honorific pronominal. Here, it is equivalent to ± Zr n• ‘your’ the second person non-honorific singular form. In Telugu singular pronominals such as ¯é Zm n¡ and ± Zr n• are not used alongwith the kinship terms such as ™é™èþ VmV t¡ta ‘grandfather’, ¯é¯èþ² ZmÞ n¡nna ‘father’, AÐèþ$à Aå_ amma ‘mother’ etc. (more details in this regard are available in lesson 5.9).

H… E§ £m is an interrogative word, In expressions like H… ç³#çÜM¢ üæ …?

3.11.

E§ nwñVH§$? £m it functions as an interrogative adjective of kind ‘What kind/sort of’. 3.12. The imperative forms of long vowel ending bases Æ> am r¡ ‘come’ and Mæü*Æøa Hy$Mm} k¶rcª ‘sit’ are introduced.

Æ> Æ>…yìþ Mæü*Æøa Mæü*Æøa…yìþ 3.13.

am



‘come’

am§{S>

r¡M∂i

‘please come’

Hy$Mm}

k¶rcª

‘sit’

Hy$Mm]{S>

k¶rcªM∂i

‘please sit’

Notice the following sandhi processes.

3.13.1. The initial A A a of a suffix is dropped when it is added to a base ending in a long vowel.

Æ>

+ A…yìþ & Æ>…yìþ

am

+ A§{S>

‘please come.’

- am§{S> - r¡M∂i

+ aM∂i Mæü*Æøa + A…yìþ & Mæü*Æøa…yìþ r¡

Hy$Mm}

+ A§{S>

k¶rcª

+

3.13.2.

aM∂i

‘Please sit.’

- Hy$Mm]{S> - k¶rcªM∂i

The combination of the vowels C

63

B i and A A a is pronounced

An Intensive Course in Telugu as æ– (as in words like cat, mat, rat, etc.) and written as In writing

Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyìþÑ+B Væü¨ + B

gadi + ¡

J{X + Am

í³ÍÏ+B

pilli + ¡

{n{ëb + Am 3.14. (i)

(ii)

In pronunciation

manava∂ivæ–?

manava∂ivi + ¡ manava∂iv¡?

_Zd{S>{d + Am

B Am ¡.

Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyìþÐé?

‘Are you Grandson?’

gad¡?

gadæ–?

Væü§é?

‘Is it a room?’

pill¡?

pillæ–?

í³ÌêÏ?

‘Is it a cat?’

Notice the use of the elliptical sentences such as:

ÐéÆðÿÐèþÆæÿ$?

‘Who is he/she?’ ÐéÆæÿ$

ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$.

‘He is Mr.Sarma.’

dmaodé?

dmé e_©JméŸ&

v¡revaru?

v¡ru ≈armag¡ru.

ÒÆæÿ$?

Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ# AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$.

‘And he/she?’

‘She is Raghavarao’s mother.’

dré?

amKdamdw Aå_JméŸ&

v•ru?

r¡ghavar¡vu ammag¡ru.

C™èþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$ ѧéÅǦ. õ³Ææÿ$ ѯø§Šþ.

‘He is Telugu student. His name is Vinod.’

BVZw VobwJw {dÚm{W©Ÿ& noé {dZmoX²Ÿ& itanu telugu vidy¡rthi. p£ru vinªd. (iii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$ Æ>çœ$ÐèþÆ>Ðèþ#.

‘He is my friend. Raghavarao.’

AVZw Zm ñZo{hVwSw> amKdamdwŸ& atanu n¡ sn£hitu∂u r¡ghavar¡vu.

3.15. ´ëç³ nmn p¡pa ‘a little girl, female child’ and »êº$ ~m~w b¡bu ‘a little boy, male child’ can be used as affectionate address terms to grown up individuals also by older persons.

´ë´ë! A¨ H… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…?

‘What is that book, dear?

nmnm! A{X E§ nwñVH§$? p¡p¡! adi £M pustakaM? 64

Lesson 3

Ò$ ™é™èþV>Ç õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý »êº*!

‘What is your grandfather's name, dear?’

_r VmVJm[a noao{_{Q> ~m~y! m• t¡tag¡ri p£r£mi i b¡b¶! 3.16.

Telugu script-3

In the earlier lessons you have learnt the primary symbols of the vowels and consonants in Telugu. In this lesson the desyllabizing marker and consonant vowel combinations are introduced. 3.16.1.

Desyllabizing marker or pollu.

All the consonant symbols in Telugu contain an inherent A A a and hence they represent syllables. In order to make them pure consonants, i.e., to desyllabize the is added to the body of the consonant symbol. Notice that

üŠ

most of the consonant symbols have a TICK √ mark which is called talaka  u in Telugu. The desyllabizing marker which is called pollu in Telugu replaces the talaka  u. For the letters which do not have the talaka  u, pollu is added on the top of the letter on the right hand side.

Letters with talaka  u :

Mæü

MŠü

^èþ

^Œþ

Ææÿ

ÆŠÿ

³ç

³‹

Ðèþ

ÐŒþ

ka

k

ca

c

ra

r

pa

p

va

v

H$

H²$

M



a



n



d



™èþ

™Œþ

ύ $

œ‹ $

Ðèþ$

ÐŒþ$

çßý

‹ßý

ta

t

gha

gh

ma

m

ha

h

V



K



_



h



65

An Intensive Course in Telugu Letters without talaka  u :

Q

RŒý

f

gŒý

×ý

׊ý

r

sŒý

kha

kh

ja

j

∆a



 a

 

I



O



U



Q>

Q²>

º

»Œý

Ë

ÌŒý



\Šý



pŠÿ

ba

b

la

l

na

n

ña

ñ

~



b



L>

L²>

Äm

Äm²

Reading the following.

MæüÐèþ$ÌŒý ¿æýÆæÿ™Œþ ç³…™Œþ

ç³Ðèþ¯Œþ fÐèþçßýÆŠÿ Ë…yæþ¯Œþ

Ææÿ…f¯Œþ ÆæÿÐèþ$׊ý Ôèý…MæüÆŠÿ

^èþ…§Šþ AfÄŒý$ AÆæÿ»Œý

Consonant-vowel combination or gu∆iMtaM.

3.16.2.

The consonant -vowel combination is called gu∆iMtaM in Telugu. All the vowel symbols except A A a which is inherently present n the consonant symbols, have a secondary symbol. These secondary symbols are added to the consonant symbols to form the gu∆iMtaM of the consonants. The following are the secondary symbols of the vowels.

A

no secondary symbol. It is inherently present in the consonant.

B C D E F º$$ º$* G H I

ë ì îü $ * – — ðü óü ðüO

M> Mìü Mîü Mæü$ Mæü* Mæü– Mæü— Mðü Móü MðüO

V> W X Væü$ Væü* Væü– Væü— Vðü Vóü VðüO

^é _ ` ^èþ$ ^èþ* ^èþ– ^èþ— ^ðþ ^óþ ^ðþO 66

sê sìý sîý r$ r* r– r— sñý sôý sñýO

Ìê Í Î Ë$ Ë* Ë– Ë— Ìñý Ìôý ÌñýO

Lesson 3

J K L

ö Mö ø Mø ú Mú

Vö Vø Vú

^ö ^ø ^ú

sŸ sZ so

ÌŸ ÌZ Ìo

Reading the following.

ÎË ¯óþ¯èþ$ M>ïœ

3.16.3.

MŠü RŒý VŠü œ‹ $ ^Œþ bŒþ gŒý m sŒý uŠÿ yŠþ ÉŠþ ׊ý ™Œþ £Šþ §Šþ

Mæü Q Væü œç $ ^èþ bèþ f m r uæÿ yæþ Éæþ ×ý ™èþ £æþ §æþ

Vøí³ ÑfÄæý$ ÆæÿÑ ™èþ–×ý… BÐðþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ A¨ Ò$Ææÿ$ sîý Væü–çßý… sîý^èþÆæÿ$ HÑ$sìý Mæü–´ëMæüÆŠÿ Asñý…yæþÆæÿ$ ™é™èþV>Ææÿ$ ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý çßý–§æþÄæý$… Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… Ðèþ*™èþ–¿êçÙ òßýO§þæ Æ>»ê§æþ$

Æ>…yìþ GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ððþ…MæüsŒý

The following is the combinations of all the consonants and vowels.

M> Mìü Mîü Mæü$ Mæü* Mæü– Mæü— Mðü Rê S T Q$ Q* Q– Q— Rñý V> W X Væü$ Væü* Væü– Væü— Vðü çœ* íœ$ ïœ$ œç $$ œç $* œç $– œç $— òœ$ ^é _ ` ^èþ$ ^èþ* ^èþ– ^èþ— ^ðþ bé c d bèþ$ bèþ* bèþ– bèþ— bðþ gê h i k l f– f— gñý Ææÿn* Çn$ Èn$ m$ m* m– m— Æðÿn$ sê sìý sîý r$ r* r– r— sñý u> v w uæÿ$ uæÿ* uæÿ– uæÿ— uðÿ yé yìþ yîþ yæþ$ yæþ* yæþ– yæþ— yðþ Éé Éìþ Éîþ Éæþ$ Éæþ* Éæþ– Éæþ— Éðþ ×ê ×ìý ×îý ×ý$ ×ý* ×ý– ×ý— ×ñý ™é † ¡ ™èþ$ ™èþ* ™èþ– ™èþ— ™ðþ £é ¤ ¥ £æþ$ £æþ* £æþ– £æþ— £ðþ §é ¨ © §æþ$ §æþ* §æþ– §æþ— §ðþ 67

Móü Rôý Vóü õœ$ ^óþ bóþ gôý Æóÿn$ sôý uóÿ yóþ Éóþ ×ôý ™óþ £óþ §óþ

MðüO Mö Mø Mú RñýO RŸ RZ Ro VðüO Vö Vø Vú òœ$O òœ$$ òœ* œç ˜ ^ðþO ^ö ^ø ^ú bðþO bö bø bú gñýO gŸ gZ go Æðÿn$O Æðÿn$$ Æðÿn* Ææÿn˜ sñýO sŸ sZ so uðÿO uö uø uú yðþO yö yø yú ÉðþO Éö Éø Éú ×ñýO ן ×Z ×o ™ðþO ™ö ™ø ™ú £ðþO £ö £ø £ú §ðþO §ö §ø §ú

Mæü… Q… Væü… œç $… ^èþ… bèþ… f… m… r… uæÿ… yæþ… Éæþ… ×ý… ™èþ… £æþ… §æþ…

An Intensive Course in Telugu

§« þŠ §« þæ «§é «¨ «© §« þæ $ §« þæ * §« þæ – §« þæ — §« þ𠧫 þó §« þð O §« ö «§ø §« ú §« þæ … ¯Œþ ¯èþ ¯é ° ± ¯èþ$ ¯èþ* ¯èþ– ¯èþ— ¯ðþ ¯óþ ¯ðþO ¯ö ¯ø ¯ú ¯èþ… ³‹ ³ç ´ë í³ ï³ ç³# ³ç N ç³– ³ç — ò³ õ³ ò³O ´÷ ´ù ´û ³ç … œ‹ œç ¸ë íœ ïœ çœ# œç N 眖 œç — òœ õœ òœO ¸÷ ¸ù ¸û œç … »Œý º »ê ¼ ½ º$ º* º– º— »ñý »ôý »ñýO »Ÿ »Z »o º… ¿Œý ¿æý ¿ê À Á ¿æý$ ¿æý* ¿æý– ¿æý— ¿ñý ¿ôý ¿ñýO ¿Ÿ ¿Z ¿o ¿æý… ÐŒþ$ Ðèþ$ Ðèþ* Ñ$ Ò$ Ðèþ$$ Ðèþ$* Ðèþ$– Ðèþ$— Ððþ$ Ðóþ$ Ððþ$O Ððþ$$ Ððþ* Ðèþ˜ Ðèþ$… ÄŒý$ Äæý$ Äæý* Æÿ$$ Æÿ$* Äæý$$ Äæý$* Äæý$– Äæý$— Äñý$ Äôý$ Äñý$O Äñý$$ Äñý* Äæý˜ Äæý$… ÆŠÿ Ææÿ Æ> Ç È Ææÿ$ Ææÿ* Ææÿ– Ææÿ— Æðÿ Æóÿ ÆðÿO Æö Æø Æú Ææÿ… ÌŒý Ë Ìê Í Î Ë$ Ë* Ë– Ë— Ìñý Ìôý ÌñýO ÌŸ ÌZ Ìo Ë… ÐŒþ Ðèþ Ðé Ñ Ò Ðèþ# ÐèþN Ðèþ– Ðèþ— Ððþ Ðóþ ÐðþO Ðö Ðø Ðú Ðèþ… ÔŒý Ôèý Ôé Õ Ö Ôèý$ Ôèý* Ôèý– Ôèý— Ôðý Ôóý ÔðýO ÔŸ ÔZ Ôo Ôèý… Ù‹ Ùç Úë íÙ ïÙ Ùç $ çÙ* çÙ– Ùç — òÙ õÙ òÙO Ú÷ Úù Úû Ùç … Ü‹ çÜ Ýë íÜ ïÜ çÜ$ çÜ* çÜ– çÜ— òÜ õÜ òÜO Ý÷ Ýù Ýû çÜ… ‹ßý çßý à íßý ïßý çßý$ çßý* çßý– çßý— òßý õßý òßýO çߟ çßZ çßo çßý… âŒý âæý âê ã ä âæý$ âæý* âæý– âæý— âñý âôý âñýO ⟠âZ âo âæý… „Šü „æü „> „ìü „îü „æü$ „æü* „æ ü - – „æ ü - — „ðü „óü „ðü• „ö „ø „ú „æü… 3.16.4.

Certain peculiarities in the

³‹ ³‹ ÐŒþ$ ÐŒþ$ ÐŒþ$ ÐŒþ$ ÄŒý$ ÄŒý$

consonant-vowel combinations

œç $ œç $ œç $ gŒý ³‹ ³‹

+ + + + + +

B J K E B E

= = = = = =

çœ* òœ$$ òœ* k ´ë ç³# 68

+ + + + + + + +

F J B D J K B C

= = = = = = = =

³ç N ´÷ Ðèþ* Ò$ Ððþ$$ Ððþ* Äæý* Æÿ$$

Lesson 3

ÄŒý$ ÄŒý$ ÄŒý$ ÄŒý$ ÐŒþ ÐŒþ Ü‹ Ü‹ Ü‹ Ù‹ Ù‹

+ + + + + + + + + + +

D J K L E F B J K B J

= = = = = = = = = = =

Ù‹ ‹ßý ‹ßý ‹ßý ‹ßý ‹ßý ‹ßý „Šü „Šü „Šü

Æÿ$* Äñý$$ Äñý* Äæý˜ Ðèþ# ÐèþN Ýë Ý÷ Ýù Úë Ú÷

+ + + + + + + + + +

K B E F J K L B C D

= = = = = = = = = =

Úù à çßý$ çßý* çߟ çßZ çßo „> „ìü „îü

Read the following:

BàÆæÿ… íßý…© ™ðþË$Væü$ ™èþÑ$âæý… õ³Ææÿ$ Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ# Ðèþ$ËÄæý*âæý… ™èþÑ$âæý¯éyæþ$ ± õ³Ææÿ$ HÑ$sìý? ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý…. Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ HÑ$sìý? ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ Ððþ…Mæür糆Æ>k. A™èþ° õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? A™èþ° õ³Ææÿ$ ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý. C¨ M>Æÿ$$™èþ…. A¨ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… C¨ ™èþË$ç³#. H¨ Vøyæþ? A™èþ¯èþ$ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ. C™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$$Mæü$…§æþÆ>Ðèþ#. MóüÔèýÐèþÆ>Ðèþ# çßýǯéÆ>Äæý$×ý V>Ç Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$. C…¨Æ>V>…«© Ððþ*¡ÌêÌŒý Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$. §óþÐèþçÜàÄæý$…V>Ææÿ$ íœÍ‹³Æ>kV>Ç Möyæþ$Mæü$. BÐðþ$ fÐèþçßýÆŠÿÌêÌŒý Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$.

69

MóüÆæÿâæý Vú™èþ…

An Intensive Course in Telugu

UNIT I Lesson 4

Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°²?

HOW MANY IN TOTAL?

_moÎm§ Eo{Þ? mottaM enni?

çÜÆæÿâæý

: ÑfÄæý*! CÑ HÑ$sìý?

gai

: {dO`m! B{d E{_{Q>?

sara˚a

: vijay¡! ivi £mi i?

Vijaya! What are these?

ÑfÄæý$ : CÑ ºËÏË$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøa. {dO`

: B{d ~ëbbwŸ& Zwìdw B© Hw$Mubmo Hy$Mm}Ÿ&

vijaya

: ivi ballalu. nuvvu • kurc•lª k¶rcª.

70

They are tables/benches. Sit in this chair.

Lesson 4

çÜÆæÿâæý

: CÑ G°² ºËÏË$?

gai

: B{d Eo{Þ ~ëbbw>?

sara˚a

: ivi enni ballalu?

How many tables/benches are these?

ÑfÄæý$ : CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ ºËÏË$.

These are two tables/benches.

{dO`

: B{d a|Sw> ~ëbbwŸ&

vijaya

: ivi reM∂u ballalu.

çÜÆæÿâæý

: CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ ºËÏË$. A¨ JMæü ºËÏ. These are two tables. That is Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°² ºËÏË$? one table. How many tables

gai

: B{d ao§Sw> ~ëbbwŸ& A{X AmoH$ ~ëbŸ& _moÎm§ Eo{Þ ~ëbbw?

sara˚a

: ivi reM∂u ballalu. adi oka

are in total?

balla. mottaM enni ballalu?

ÑfÄæý$ : Ððþ$$™èþ¢… Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ºËÏË$.

They are three tables in total.

{dO`

: _moÎm§ _ySw> ~ëbbwŸ&

vijaya

: mottaM m¶∂u ballalu.

çÜÆæÿâæý

: D ºËÏË$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$?

gai

: B© ~ëbbw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`?

sara˚a

: • ballalu ekka∂a unn¡yi?

ÑfÄæý$ : Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. AÑ G°² Mæü$ÈaË$?

Where are these benches?

They are in the room. How many are those chairs?

{dO`

: J{Xbmo CÞm{`Ÿ& A{d Eo{Þ Hw$Mubw?

vijaya

: gadilª unn¡yi? avi enni kurc•lu?

71

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜÆæÿâæý

: AÑ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Mæü$ÈaË$.

gai

: A{d _ySw> Hw$MubwŸ&

sara˚a

: avi m¶∂u kurc•lu.

They are three chairs?

ÑfÄæý$ : B Mæü$ÈaË$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$?

Where are those chairs?

{dO`

: Am Hw$Mr©bw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`Ÿ&

vijaya

: ¡ kurc•lu ekka∂a unn¡yi?

çÜÆæÿâæý

: B Mæü$ÈaË$ Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

gai

: Am Hw$Mubw JmoS> X½Ja CÞm{`Ÿ&

sara˚a

: ¡ kurc•lu gª∂a daggara unn¡yi.

ÑfÄæý$ : AÑ HÑ$sìý? {dO`

: A{d E{_{Q>?

vijaya

: avi £mi i?

çÜÆæÿâæý

: HÑ?

gai

: E{d?

sara˚a

: £vi?

What are they?

Which ones?

ÑfÄæý$ : B Mæü$ÈaÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$, ^èþ*yæþ$. {dO`

: Am Hw$Mubmo CÞm{`, MySw>Ÿ&

vijaya

: ¡ kurc•lª unn¡yi. c¶∂u.

çÜÆæÿâæý

: AÑ MæüÌêË$.

gai

: A{d H$bmbwŸ&

sara˚a

: avi kal¡lu.

: A{d Eo{Þ H$bmbw?

vijaya

: avi enni kal¡lu?

look!They are in that chair.

They are pens.

ÑfÄæý$ : AÑ G°² MæüÌêË$? {dO`

Those chairs are near the wall.

How many pens are they?

72

Lesson 4

çÜÆæÿâæý

: AÑ ¯éË$Væü$ MæüÌêË$.

gai

: A{d ZmbwJw H$bmbwŸ&

sara˚a

: avi n¡lugu kal¡lu.

They are four pens.

ÑfÄæý$ : B ò³sñýt Ò$§æþ C…MöMæü MæüË… E…¨. There is one more pen on that {dO`

: Am noÅ>o _rX B§H$moH$ H$b§ C§{XŸ&

vijaya

: ¡ pe  e m•da iMkoka kalaM uMdi.

çÜÆæÿâæý

: H ò³sñýt Ò$§æþ?

gai

: E noÅ>o _rX?

sara˚a

: £ pe  e m•da?

box.

On which box?

ÑfÄæý$ : D ò³sñýt Ò$§æþ.

On this box.

{dO`

: B© noÅ>o _rXŸ&

vijaya

: • pe  e m•da.

çÜÆæÿâæý

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. B ò³sñýt Ò$§æþ C…MöMæü MæüË… E…¨.

gai

: AdwZwŸ& Am noÅ>o _rX B§H$moH$ H$b§ C§{XŸ&

sara˚a

: avunu. ¡ pe  e m•da iMkoka kalaM uMdi.

ÑfÄæý$ : AÑ Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°² MæüÌêË$? {dO`

: A{d _moÎm§ Eo{Þ H$bmbw?

vijaya

: avi mottaM enni kal¡lu?

çÜÆæÿâæý

: AÑ Ððþ$$™èþ¢… I§æþ$ MæüÌêË$.

gai

: A{d _moÎm§ EoXw H$bmbw?

sara˚a

: avi mottaM aidu kal¡lu.

Yes. There is one more pen on that box.

How many pens are they in total?

They are five pens in total.

73

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÑfÄæý$ : AÑ HÑ$sìý? {dO`

: A{d E{_{Q>?

vijaya

: avi £mi i?

çÜÆæÿâæý

: AÑ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$.

gai

: A{d nwñVH$mbwŸ&

sara˚a

: avi pustak¡lu.

What are those?

Those are books.

ÑfÄæý$ : B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ºËÏÒ$§æþ E¯é²Äæý*? {dO`

: Am nwñVH$mbw ~ëb _rX CÞm`m?

vijaya

: ¡ pustak¡lu ballam•da unn¡y¡?

Üç Ææÿâæý

: B ç³#çÜM¢ >Ë$ A±² ºËÏÒ$§æþ ÌôýÐèþ#. Mö°² ºËÏ Ò$§æþ E¯é²Æÿ$$. Mö°² ºËÏ Mìü…§æþ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

gai

: Am nwñVH$mbw AÞr ~ëb_rX bodwŸ& H$mo{Þ ~ëb _rX CÞm{`Ÿ& H$mo{Þ ~ëb qH$X CÞm{`Ÿ&

sara˚a

: ¡ pustak¡lu ann• balla m•da l£vu. konni balla m•da unn¡yi; konni balla kiMda unn¡yi.

ÑfÄæý$ : B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ÌñýMæüP ò³r$t.

Are those books are on the table?

All those books are not on the table. Some are on the table, and some are under the table.

Count those books.

{dO`

: Am nwñVH$mbw bo¸$ noÅx>Ÿ&

vijaya

: ¡ pustak¡lu lekkape  u.

çÜÆæÿâæý

: JMæüsìý, Æðÿ…yæþ$, Ðèþ$*yæþ$, ¯éË$Væü$, One, two, three, four, five, I§æþ$, BÆæÿ$, Hyæþ$, G°Ñ$¨, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, ™öÑ$è, 糨, 糧æþMö…yæþ$, 糯ðþ²…yæþ$, eleven, twelve, thirteen, 糧æþÐèþ$*yæþ$, 糫§é²Ë$Væü$, 糨õßý¯èþ$. fourteen and fifteen. These CÑ ç³¨õßý¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. are fifteen books. 74

Lesson 4

gai

: AmoH${Q>, a|Sw>, _ySw>, ZmbwJw, E¡Xw, Amé, ESw>, Eo{Z{_{X, Vmopå_{X, n{X, nXH$m|Sw>, nÞ|Sw>, nX_ySw>, nÜZmbwJw, n{XhoZwŸ& B{d n{XhoZw nwñVH$mbwŸ&

sara˚a

: oka i, reM∂u, m¶∂u, n¡lugu,aidu, ¡ru, £∂u, enimidi, tommidi, padi, padakoM∂u, panneM∂u, padam¶∂u, padhn¡lugu, padih£nu. ivi padih£nu pustak¡lu.

ÑfÄæý$ : ± MæüË… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ò$§æþ E…§é? {dO`

: Zr H$b§ nwñVH$§ _rX C§Xm?

vijaya

: n• kalaM pustakaM m•da uMd¡?

çÜÆæÿâæý

: ¯é MæüË… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ò$§æþ Ìôý§æþ$. ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … ç³MæüP¯èþ E…¨.

gai

: Zm H$b§ nwñVH$§ _rX boXwŸ& nwñVH$§ n¸$Z C§{XŸ&

sara˚a

: n¡ kalaM pustakaM m•da l£du. pustakaM pakkana uMdi.

ÑfÄæý$ : D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ G°²? B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ G°²? {dO`

: B© nwñVH$mbw Eo{Þ? Am nwñVH$mbw Eo{Þ?

vijaya

: • pustak¡lu enni? ¡ pustak¡lu enni?

Is your pen on the book?

My pen is not on the book. It is by the side of the book.

How many are these books? How many are those books?

75

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜÆæÿâæý

: CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$; AÑ Ðèþ$*yæþ$.

gai

: B{d a|Sw>; A{d _ySw> &

sara˚a

: ivi reM∂u; avi m¶∂u.

These are two. Those are three.

ÑfÄæý$ : Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°²? {dO`

: _moÎm§ Eo{Þ?

vijaya

: mottaM enni?

çÜÆæÿâæý

: I§æþ$.

gai

: EoXwŸ&

sara˚a

: a•du.

How many are in total?

Five.

DRILLS a. Expansion drill

CÑ VøyæþË$ (Æðÿ…yæþ$) B{d JmoS>bw (a|Sw>) ivi gª∂alu. (reM∂u) CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ VøyæþË$ B{d a|Sw> JmoS>bw ivi reM∂u gª∂alu. 1. AÑ Mæü$MæüPË$. (G°²?) A{d Hw$¸$bwŸ& (Eo{Þ?) avi kukkalu (enni?) 2. CÑ ™èþË$ç³#Ë$. (糯ðþ²…yæþ$) B{d VbwnwbwŸ& (nÞ|Sw>) ivi talupulu (panneM∂u) 3. C¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. (JMæü) B{X nwñVH§$Ÿ& (AmoH$) idi pustakaM. (oka) Model (ii) C¨ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…. (BÆæÿ$) CÑ BÆæÿ$ VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$ Model (i)

B{X J{S>`ma§Ÿ& (Amé)

B{d Amé J{S>`mambw &

idi ga∂iy¡raM. (¡ru)

1. A¨ M>Æÿ$$™èþ…. (™öÑ$è) 2. A¨ MæüË…. (糨) 3. A¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. (Hyæþ$)

A{X A{X A{X

ivi ¡ru ga∂iy¡r¡lu. H$m{`V§Ÿ& (Vmopå_{X) adi k¡yitaM (tommidi) H$b§Ÿ& (n{X) adi kalaM. (padi) nwñVH$§Ÿ& (ESw>) adi pustakaM. (£∂u)

b. Response drill Model (i)

CÑ G°² Mæü$ÈaË$? (Ðèþ$*yæþ$)

CÑ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Mæü$ÈaË$.

B{d Eo{Þ Hw$Mubw? (_ySw>)

B{d _ySw> Hw$MubwŸ&

ivi enni kurc•lu? (m¶∂u)

ivi m¶∂u kurc•lu.

76

Lesson 4

1. CÑ G°² Mæü$MæüPË$? (糧æþMö…yæþ$)

B{d Eo{Þ Hw$¸$bw? (nXH$m§oSw>)

ivi enni kukkalu? (padakoM∂u)

2. AÑ G°² M>Æÿ$$™éË$? (糧æþÐèþ$*yæþ$) A{d Eo{Þ H$m{`Vmbw? (nX_ySw>) avi enni k¡yit¡lu (padam¶du)

3. CÑ G°² MæüÌêË$? (糨õßý¯èþ$)

B{d Eo{Þ H$bmbw? (n{XhoZw)

ivi enni kal¡lu? (padih£nu) Model (ii)

Mæü$Èa GMæüPyæþ E…¨? (Væü¨ÌZ)

Mæü$Èa Væü¨ÌZ E…¨.

Hw$Mu Eo¸$S> C§{X? (J{Xbmo)

Hw$Mu J{Xbmo C§{XŸ&

kurc• ekka∂a uMdi? (gadilª)

kurc• gadilª uMdi.

1. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$?

nwñVH$mbw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`?

pustak¡lu ekka∂a unn¡yi?

2. Mæü$MæüP GMæüPyæþ E…¨? (ºËÏ ç³MæüP¯èþ) Hw$¸$ Eo¸$S> C§{X? (~ëb n¸$Z) kukka ekka∂a uMdi? (balla pakkana)

3. ºËÏ GMæüPyæþ E…¨? (Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ) ~ëb Eo¸$S> C§{X? (JmoS> X½Ja) balla ekka∂a uMdi? (gª∂a daggara) Model (iii)

A¨ JMæü Mæü$Èa. AÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæü$ÈaË$. Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°² Mæü$ÈaË$? A{X AmoH$ Hw$MuŸ& A{d a|Sw> Hw$MubwŸ& _moÎm§ Eo{Þ Hw$Mubw? adi oka kurc•. avi reM∂u kurc•lu. mottaM enni kurc•lu?

Ððþ$$™èþ¢… Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Mæü$ÈaË$.

_moÎm§ _ySw> Hw$MubwŸ&

mottaM m¶∂u kurc•lu.

1. A¨ JMæü MæüË…. CÑ ç³¨ MæüÌêË$. Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°² MæüÌêË$? A{X AmoH$ H$b§Ÿ& B{d n{X H$bmbwŸ& _moÎm§ Eo{Þ H$bmbw? adi oka kalaM. ivi padi kal¡lu. mottaM enni kal¡lu?

2. CÑ I§æþ$ M>Æÿ$$™éË$. AÑ Hyæþ$ M>Æÿ$$™éË$. Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°² M>Æÿ$$™éË$? B{d EoXw H$m{`VmbwŸ& A{d ESw> H$m{`VmbwŸ& _moÎm§ Eo{Þ H$m{`Vmbw? ivi aidu k¡yit¡lu. avi £∂u k¡yit¡lu. mottaM enni k¡yit¡lu? 77

An Intensive Course in Telugu

3. CÑ ¯éË$Væü$ ò³sñýtË$. CÑ ç³¨ ò³sñýtË$. Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°² ò³sñýtË$? B{d ZmbwJw noÅ>obwŸ& B{d n{X noÅ>obwŸ& _moÎm§ Eo{Þ noÅ>obw? ivi n¡lugu pe  elu. ivi padi pe  elu. mottaM enni pe  elu? Model (iv)

1.A¨ 2.A¨

A¨ Mæü$Èa. (Vøyæþ ç³MæüP¯èþ)

B Mæü$Èa Vøyæþ ç³MæüP¯èþ E…¨.

A{X Hw$Mu (JmoS> n¸$Z)

Am Hw$Mu JmoS> n¸$Z C§{XŸ&

adi kurc•. (gª∂a pakkana) ¡ kurc• gª∂a pakkana uMdi. ºËÏ.(Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ) A{X ~ëbŸ&(JmoS> X½Ja) adi balla. (gª∂a daggara) ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….(ò³sñýtÒ$§æþ) A{X nwñVH§$Ÿ&(noÅ>o_rX) adi pustakaM. (pe  em•da)

3.A¨ MæüË….(M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Mìü…§æþ) A{X H$b§Ÿ&(H$m{`V§ qH$X) Model (v)

adi kalaM. (k¡yitaM kiMda)

AÑ Mæü$ÈaË$. (Væü¨ÌZ)

B Mæü$ÈaË$ Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

A{d Hw$MubwŸ& (J{Xbmo)

Am Hw$Mubw J{Xbmo CÞm{`Ÿ&

avi kurc•lu (gadilª)

¡ kurc•lu gadilª unn¡yi.

1. AÑ ºËÏË$. (Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ)

A{d ~ëbbwŸ& (JmoS> X½Ja)

avi ballalu (gª∂a daggara)

2. AÑ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. (ºËÏ ç³MæüP¯èþ)

A{d nwñVH$mbwŸ& (~ëb n¸$Z)

avi pustak¡lu. (balla pakkana)

3. AÑ M>Æÿ$$™éË$. (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mìü…§æþ) A{d H$m{`VmbwŸ& (nwñVH§$ qH$X) avi k¡yit¡lu. (pustakaM kiMda) Model (vi)

C¨ ºËÏ. (Væü¨ÌZ)

D ºËÏ Væü¨ÌZ E…¨.

B{X ~ëbŸ& (J{Xbmo)

B© ~ëb J{Xbmo C§{XŸ&

idi balla. (gadilª)

• balla gadilª uMdi.

1. CÑ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. (ò³sñýtÒ$§æþ)

B{d nwñVH$mbwŸ& (noÅ>o_rX)

ivi pustak¡lu (pe  em•da)

2. C¨ MæüË…. (M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Mìü…§æþ)

B{X H$b§Ÿ& (H$m{`V§ qH$X)

idi kalaM. (k¡yitaM kiMda)

78

Lesson 4

3. CÑ Mæü$ÈaË$. (Vøyæþ ç³MæüP¯èþ)

B{d Hw$MubwŸ& (JmoS> n¸$Z)

ivi kurc•lu (gª∂a pakkana) Model (vii)

H¨ Mæü$Èa? (Væü¨ÌZ)

H Mæü$Èa Væü¨ÌZ E…¨.

E{X Hw$Mu? (J{Xbmo)

E Hw$Mu J{Xbmo C§{XŸ&

£di kurc•? (gadilª)

£ kurc• gadilª uMdi?

1. HÑ ºËÏË$? (Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ)

E{d ~ëbbw? (JmoS> X½Ja)

£vi ballalu? (gª∂a daggara)

2. H¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…? (VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… ç³MæüP¯èþ)

E{X nwñVH§$? (J{S>`ma§ n¸$Z)

£di pustakaM? (ga∂iy¡raM pakkana)

3. HÑ M>Æÿ$$™éË$? (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mìü…§æþ)

E{d H$m{`Vmbw? (nwñVH§$ qH$X)

£vi k¡yit¡lu? (pustakaM kiMda) Model (viii)

Mæü$ÈaË$ GMæüPyæþ Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$? (B Væü¨ÌZ & D Væü¨ÌZ) Hw$Mubw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`? (Am J{Xbmo - B© J{Xbmo) kurc•lu ekka∂a unn¡yi? (¡ gadilª - • gadilª)

Mö°² B Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. Mö°² D Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. H$mo{Þ Am J{Xbmo CÞm{`Ÿ& H$mo{Þ B© J{Xbmo CÞm{`Ÿ& konni ¡ gadilª unn¡yi. konni • gadilª unn¡yi.

1. MæüÌêË$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$? (ò³sñýtÌZ & ò³sñýtÒ$§æþ) H$bmbw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`Ÿ& (noÅ>obmo - noÅ>o_rX) kal¡lu ekka∂a unn¡yi? (pe  elª - pe  e m•da)

2. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$? (ºËÏÒ$§æþ & ºËÏ §æþVæüYÆæÿ) nwñVH$mbw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`? (~ëb_rX - ~ëb X½Ja) pustak¡lu ekka∂a unn¡yi? (balla m•da - balla daggara) Model (ix)

Mæü$ÈaË$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$? (B Væü¨ÌZ & D Væü¨ÌZ) Hw$Mr©bw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`? (Am J{Xbmo - B© J{Xbmo) kurc•lu ekka∂a unn¡yi? (¡ gadilª - • gadilª)

79

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Mö°² Mæü$ÈaË$ B Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. Mö°² Mæü$ÈaË$ D Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. H$mo{Þ Hw$Mubw Am J{Xbmo CÞm{`Ÿ& H$mo{Þ Hw$Mubw B© J{Xbmo CÞm{`Ÿ& konni kurc•lu ¡ gadilª unn¡yi; konni kurc•lu • gadilª unn¡yi.

1. MæüÌêË$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$? (VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… ç³MæüP¯èþ & ò³sñýt §æþVæüYÆæÿ) H$bmbw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`? (J{S>`ma§ n¸$Z - noÅ>o X½Ja) kal¡lu ekka∂a unn¡yi? (ga∂iy¡raM pakkana - pe  e daggara)

2. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$? (ºËÏMìü…§æþ & ºËÏÒ$§æþ) nwñVH$mbw Eo¸$S> CÞm{`? (~ëbqH$X - ~ëb_rX) pustak¡lu ekka∂a unn¡yi? (balla kiMda - balla m•da)

c. Transformation drill Model (i)

Væü¨ÌZ Mæü$MæüP E…¨.

Væü¨ÌZ Mæü$MæüPË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

J{Xbmo Hw$¸$ C§{XŸ&

J{Xbmo Hw$¸$bw CÞm{`Ÿ&

gadilª kukka uMdi.

gadilª kukkalu unn¡yi.

1. ò³sñýtÌZ ¸ùsZ E…¨.

noÅ>obmo \$moQ>mo C§{XŸ&

pe  elª fª ª uMdi.

2. ºËÏ Mìü…§æþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… E…¨.

~ëb qH$X nwñVH§$ C§{XŸ&

balla kiMda pustakaM uMdi.

3. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ò$§æþ MæüË… E…¨.

nwñVH§$ _rX H$b§ C§{XŸ&

pustakaM m•da kalaM uMdi. Model (ii)

Væü¨ÌZ Mæü$MæüP E…¨.

Væü¨ÌZ Mæü$MæüP Ìôý§æþ$.

J{Xbmo Hw$¸$ C§{XŸ&

J{Xbmo Hw$¸$ boXwŸ&

gadilª kukka uMdi.

gadilª kukka l£du.

1. ò³sñýtÌZ ¸ùsZ E…¨.

noÅ>obmo \$moQ>mo C§{XŸ&

pe  elª fª ª uMdi.

2. ºËÏ Mìü…§æþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… E…¨.

~ëb qH$X nwñVH$§ C§{XŸ&

balla kiMda pustakaM uMdi.

80

Lesson 4

3. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ç³MæüP¯èþ MæüË… E…¨.

nwñVH§$ n¸$Z H$b§ C§{XŸ&

pustakaM pakkana kalaM uMdi. Model (iii)

MæüÌêË$ ò³sñýtÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

MæüÌêË$ ò³sñýtÌZ ÌôýÐèþ#.

H$bmbw noÅ>obmo CÞm{`Ÿ&

H$bmbw noÅ>obmo bodwŸ&

kal¡lu pe  elª unn¡yi.

kal¡lu pe  elª l£vu.

1. ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ºËÏ Ò$§æþ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

Zm nwñVH$mbw ~ëb _rX CÞm{`Ÿ&

n¡ pustak¡lu balla m•da unn¡yi.

2. ™èþË$ç³# §æþVæüYÆæÿ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæü$MæüPË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

Vbwnw X½Ja a|Sw> Hw$¸$bw CÞm{`Ÿ&

talupu daggara reM∂u kukkalu unn¡yi.

3. ò³sñýt Mìü…§æþ M>Æÿ$$™éË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

noÅ>o qH$X H$m{`Vmbw CwÞm{`Ÿ&

pe  e kiMda k¡yit¡lu unn¡yi.

CÑ G°² MæüÌêË$? B{d Eo{Þ H$bmbw? ivi enni kal¡lu? D MæüÌêË$ G°²? B© H$bmbw Eo{Þ? • kal¡lu enni? 1. CÑ G°² ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$? B{d Eo{Þ nwñVH$mbwŸ& ivi enni pustak¡lu? 2. CÑ G°² Mæü$MæüPË$? B{d Eo{Þ Hw$¸$bw? ivi enni kukkalu? 3. AÑ G°² ¸ùsZË$? A{d Eo{Þ \$moQ>mobw? avi enni fª ªlu? Model (v) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æðÿ…yæþ$ MæüÐèþÆæÿ$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>. Zwìdw a|Sw> H$dbw© VrgwHw$amŸ& Model (iv)

nuvvu reM∂u kavarlu t•sukur¡.

Ò$Ææÿ$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ MæüÐèþÆæÿ$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>…yìþ.

_ré a|Sw> H$dbw© VrgwHw$am§{S>Ÿ&

m•ru reM∂u kavarlu t•sukur¡M∂i.

1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøa.

3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚.

Zwìdw B© Hw$Mr©bmo Hy$Mm}Ÿ&

Zwìdw Zr noé MoßnwŸ&

nuvvu • kurc•lª k¶rcª.

nuvvu n• p£ru ceppu.

2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D MæüÐèþÆæÿ$ ¡çÜ$Mø.

4. B ºËÏ Ò$§æþ ^èþ*yæþ$.

Zwìdw B© H$dé VrgwH$moŸ&

Am ~ëb _rX MySw>Ÿ&

nuvvu • kavaru t•sukª.

¡ balla m•da c¶∂u.

81

An Intensive Course in Telugu

EXERCISES a. produce at least 20 sentences from the following table suitably changing the number of the nouns given in the third column.



B{X

idi



A{X B{d

Æðÿ…yæþ$

MæüË…

a|Sw>

avi

H$b§

kalaM

糧æþÐèþ$*yæþ$

Mæü$Èa

nX_ySw>

padam¶∂u

A{d

nwñVH§$

pustakaM

reM∂u

ivi



ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…

AmoH$

oka

adi



JMæü

Hw$Mu

kurc•

™öÑ$è

Vmopå_{X

tommidi

™èþË$ç³#

Vbwnw

talupu

b. Write Telugu forms for the following numerals. 07___________ 11___________

15___________ 8

14___________ 10___________

3___________ 1

c. Produce at least 16 sentences from the following table.

VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… J{S>`ma§

ºËÏÒ$§æþ

ga∂iy¡raM

balla m•da

~ëb _rX

Væü¨ÌZ MæüÌêË$ kal¡lu

H$bmbw

Ìôý§æþ$

boXw

l£du

J{Xbmo

ÌôýÐèþ#

bodw

gadilª

l£vu

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ç³MæüP¯èþ nwñVH§$ n¸$Z

E…¨

pustakaM pakkana

uMdi

ºËÏ Mìü…§æþ

E¯é²Æÿ$$ CÞm{`

~ëb qH$X

balla kiMda

82

unn¡yi

C§{X

Lesson 4

d. Change the following sentences as shown in the model.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>! Zwìdw am! nuvvu r¡! Ò$Ææÿ$ Æ>…yìþ! _ré am§{S>! m•ru r¡M∂i! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌñýMæüPò³r$t. Zwìdw bo¸$noÅx>Ÿ& nuvvu lekkape  u. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^èþ*yæþ$. Zwìdw MySw>Ÿ& nuvvu c¶∂u. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B Væü¨ÌZ Mæü*Æøa. Zwìdw Am J{Xbmo Hy$Mm} nuvvu ¡ gadilª k¶rcª. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚. Zwìdw Zr noé MoßnwŸ& nuvvu n• p£ru ceppu.

Model

1. 2. 3. 4.

e. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model (i)

B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ºËÏ Ò$§æþ E¯é²Äæý*? (Væü¨ÌZ) Am nwñVH$mbw ~ëb _rX CÞm`m? (J{Xbmo) ¡ pustak¡lu balla m•da unn¡y¡? (gadilª)

B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ A±² ºËÏÒ$§æþ ÌôýÐèþ#. Mö°² ºËÏÒ$§æþ E¯é²Æÿ$$ Mö°² Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. Am nwñVH$mbw AÞr ~ëb _rX bodwŸ& H$mo{Þ ~ëb _rX CÞm{`Ÿ& H$mo{Þ J{Xbmo CÞm{`Ÿ& ¡ pustak¡lu ann• balla m•da l£vu. konni balla m•da unn¡yi. konni gadilª unn¡yi.

1. B MæüÌêË$ ò³sñýtÌZ E¯é²Äæý*? (ò³sñýt Ò$§æþ) Am H$bmbw noÅ>obmo CÞm`m? (noÅ>o _rX) ¡ kal¡lu pe  elª unn¡y¡? (pe  e m•da)

2. D Mæü$ÈaË$ Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Äæý*? (B Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ) B© Hw$Mubw J{Xbmo CÞm`m? (Am JmoS> X½Ja) • kurc•lu gadilª unn¡y¡? ( ¡ gª∂a daggara)

3. D M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mìü…§æþ E¯é²Äæý*? (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ò$§æþ) B© H$m{`Vmbw nwñVH$§ qH$X CÞm`m? (nwñVH§$ _rX) • k¡yit¡lu pustakaM kiMda unn¡y¡? (pustakaM m•da) Model (ii)

¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$…¨?(ºËÏ Ò$§æþ)

ºËÏÒ$§æþ E…¨; ^èþ*yæþ$!

Zm nwñVH$§ Eo¸$Sw>§{X? (~ëb _rX)

~ëb _rX C§{X; MySw>!

n¡ pustakaM ekka∂uMdi? (balla m•da)

balla m•da uMd•; c¶∂u!

83

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. A™èþ° MæüË… GMæüPyæþ$…¨? (ò³sñýtÌZ) 3. Ðèþ* ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? (ºËÏÒ$§æþ) AV{Z H$b§ Eo¸$Sw>{§ X? (noÅ>b o mo)

_m nwñVH$mbw Eo¸$Sw>Þm{`? (~ëb _rX)

atani kalaM ekka∂uMdi? (pe  elª)

m¡ pustak¡lu ekka∂unn¡yi? (ballam•da)

2. Mæü$Èa GMæüPyæþ$…¨? (Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ)

4. ò³sñýtË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? (ºËÏ Mìü…§æþ)

Hw$Mu Eo¸$Sw>§{X? (JmoS> X½Ja)

noÅ>obw Eo¸$Sw>Þm{`? (~ëb _rX)

kurc• ekka∂uMdi? (gª∂a daggara) pe  elu ekka∂unn¡yi? (balla kiMda)

VOCABULARY

Ððþ$$™èþ…¢

_moÎm§

G°²

total

mottaM



B{d

C…MöMæü

these (pro.)

B© bmo

H

this; these (dem. adj.) locative case marker 'in' (sec 4.5)

I§æþ$

a|Sw>

A±²

two

AmoH$

ÌôýÐèþ#

one (adj.)

EoXw

five

AÞr

all of them

bodw

neg.of E¯é²Æÿ$$

H$mo{Þ

some of them (neut.) under; below; beneath count (v)

l£vu

_ySw>

Mö°²

three

m¶∂u

GMæüPyæþ

which (pro.)

ann•

oka

Ðèþ$*yæþ$

E

aidu

reM∂u

JMæü

one more

£



Æðÿ…yæþ$

B§H$moH$

iMkoka



ÌZ

how many

enni

ivi

D

Eo{Þ

konni

Eo¸$S>

Mìü…§æþ

where

ekka∂a

E¯é²Æÿ$$ CÞm{`

qH$X

kiMda

ÌñýMæüPò³r$t bo¸$noÅx>

they (neut.)

84

Lesson 4 unn¡yi



A{d

are/were those (pro.)

lekkape  u

JMæüsìý

avi

B

Am

BÆæÿ$

that; those

X½Ja

Hyæþ$

at' near

E{d

seven eight

enimidi

MySw>

™öÑ$è Vmopå_{X

see! look!

nine

tommidi

¯éË$Væü$ ZmbwJw

糨

four

n¡lugu

n{X

ten

padi

noÅ>o

糧æþMö…yæþ$ nXH$m|Sw>

box

pe  e

Ò$§æþ

ESw>

G°Ñ$¨ Eo{Z{_{X

which (pl. pro.)

c¶∂u

ò³sñýt

six

£∂u

£vi

^èþ*yæþ$

Amé

¡ru

daggara



one (pro.)

oka i

¡

§æþVæüÆY ÿæ

AmoH${Q>

eleven

padakoM∂u

_rX

糯ðþ²…yæþ$ nÞ|Sw>

on; upon

m•da

twelve

panneM∂u

糧æþÐèþ$*yæþ$ nX_ySw>

E…¨

thirteen

padam¶∂u

C§{X

it is / was

boXw

neg.of E…¨

n¸$Z

by the side of

uMdi

糫§é²Ë$Væü$ nÜZmbwJw

Ìôý§æþ$

fourteen

padhn¡lugu

糨õßý¯èþ$ n{XhoZw

l£du

ç³MæüP¯èþ

fifteen

padih£nu

pakkana

GRAMMAR NOTES 4.1.

In this lesson the plural number suffix -Ë$ -lu is introduced. The

plural suffix is obligatorily added to a noun base to make it plural. Expect a few noun bases which are inherently plural, all the noun bases in Telugu express singularity. In other words, no suffix is requires when the noun bases are used in singular number. 85

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Vøyæþ VøyæþË$ MìüsìýMîü MìüsìýMîüË$ ™èþË$ç³# ™èþË$ç³#Ë$ ¸ùsZ ¸ùsZË$

gª∂a gª∂alu ki ik• ki ik•lu talupu talupulu fª ª fª ªlu

JmoS> JmoS>bw {H${Q>H$s {H${Q>H$sbw Vbwnw Vbwnwbw \$moQ>mo \$moQ>mobw

‘wall’ ‘walls’ ‘window' ‘windows' ‘door' ‘doors' ‘photograph' ‘photographs'

4.1.1. The plural suffix is obligatory when the noun is preceded by a numeral adjective other than JMæü AmoH$ oka 'one'

JMæü Mæü$MæüP. Æðÿ…yæþ$ ™èþË$ç³#Ë$. Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Mæü$ÈaË$. ¯éË$Væü$ MìüsìýMîüË$. BÆæÿ$ ºËÏË$.

oka kukka. reM∂u talupulu. m¶∂u kurc•lu. n¡lugu ki ik•lu. ¡ru ballalu.

AmoH$ Hw$¸$Ÿ& a|Sw> VbwnwbwŸ& _ySw> Hw$MubwŸ& ZmbwJw {H${Q>H$sbwŸ& Amé ~ëbbwŸ&

‘one dog.’ ‘two doors’ ‘three chairs’ ‘four windows’ ‘six tables/benches’

4.2. The noun bases ending in A… A§ aM change their final A… A§ aM when the plural suffix &Ë$ -bw -lu is added.

MæüË… + Ë$ → MæüÌêË$ 'pens'

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… + Ë$ → ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ 'books'

H$b§ + bw → H$bmbw kalaM + lu

nwñVH$§ + bw → nwñVH$mbw

→ kal¡lu

pustakaM + lu

→ pustak¡lu

4.3. The third person neuter gender forms - both affirmative and negative - of the existential verb meaning 'to exist; to be; to be available' are introduced in this lesson.

E…¨ E¯é²Æÿ$$

C§{X CÞmB>

uMdi unn¡yi

Ìôý§æþ$

boXw

l£du

86

‘It is; It exists’ ‘They (neut.) are; They (neut.) exist’ (plural of uMdi) ‘It is not (there), it does not exist’ (negative of uMdi)

Lesson 4

ÌôýÐèþ#

4.4. 4.4.1.

bodw

‘They (neut.) are not (there): they (neut.) do not exist’ (negative of unn¡yi and plural of l£du)

l£vu

The following interrogative words (1.3) are introduced in this lesson.

GMæüPyæþ Eo¸$S> ekka∂a 'where' is an interrogative place adverb. Mæü$MæüP GMæüPyæþ E…¨? ‘Where is the dog?’ Hw$¸$ Eo¸$S> C§{X? kukka ekka∂a uMdi?

4.4.2. G°² Eo{Þ enni 'how many' is an interrogative count neuter pronoun and adjective used in questions to elicit the number of the objects (countable neuter nouns). It can be used as a predicate also. Since it is a neuter pronoun it cannot be used with human nouns. AÑ G°² MæüÌêË$? ‘How many pens are they?’

A{d Eo{Þ H$bmbw? avi enni kal¡lu?

B MæüÌêË$ G°²?

‘How many pens are they?’

Am H$bmbw Eo{Þ? ¡ kal¡lu enni?

AÑ G°² Mæü$MæüPË$?

‘How many dogs are they?’

A{d Eo{Þ Hw$¸$bw? avi enni kukkalu?

B Mæü$MæüPË$ G°²?

‘How many dogs are they?’

Am Hw$¸$bw Eo{Þ? ¡ kukkalu enni? 4.4.3. HÑ E{d £vi 'Which ones' is the neuter interrogative plural pronoun. The corresponding singular one is H¨ E{X £di 'which one' (1.3.). HÑ ± MæüÌêË$? ‘Which ones are your pens?’

E{d Zr H$bmbw? £vi n• kal¡lu? 87

An Intensive Course in Telugu 4.5. The locative case is introduced in this lesson. locative case suffix. MæüË… ò³sñýtÌZ E…¨. ‘The pen is in the box.'

ÌZ -bmo lª is the

H$b§ noÅ>obmo C§{XŸ& kalaM pe  elª uMdi.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøa.

‘Sit in that chair.'

Zwìdw Am Hw$Mubmo Hy$Mm}Ÿ& nuvvu ¡ kurc•lª k¶rcª. 4.6. The following post-positions are used as locative case markers. Post-positions are word like elements which function as case markers.

Ò$§æþ _rX m•da MæüË… ºËÏ Ò$§æþ E…¨.

‘on; upon' ‘The pen is on the table.'

H$b§ ~ëb _rX C§{XŸ& kalaM balla m•da uMdi. Mìü…§æþ qH$X kiMda

ò³sñýt ºËÏ Mìü…§æþ E…¨.

‘under; beneath, below' ‘The pen is beneath the table.'

noÅ>o ~ëb qH$X C§{XŸ& pe  e balla kiMda uMdi. §æþVæüYÆæÿ X½Ja daggara

Mæü$MæüP ºËÏ §æþVæüYÆæÿ E…¨.

‘at, near' ‘The dog is at the table.'

Hw$¸$ ~ëb X½Ja C§{XŸ& kukka balla daggara uMdi. ç³MæüP¯èþ n¸$Z pakkana ‘by the side of' í³ÍÏ Vøyæþ ç³MæüP¯èþ E…¨. ‘The cat is by the side of the wall.'

{npëb JmoS> n¸$Z C§{XŸ& pilli gª∂a pakkana uMdi. 4.7. AÑ A{d avi 'those (ones)' and CÑ B{d ivi 'these (ones)' are the third person neuter plural pronouns. The former refers to the remote objects and the latter to the proximate ones. A¨ A{X adi 'that (one)' and C¨ B{X idi 'this (one)' 88

Lesson 4 are the corresponding singular pronouns, and HÑ E{d £vi 'which (ones)' is the corresponding interrogative pronoun. 3rd per.neut.sg. Remote A¨ A{X adi 'that (one)' Proximate C¨ B{X idi 'this (one)' Interrogative H¨ E{X £di 'which (one)' A¨ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…. 'That is a clock' AÑ

3rd per.neut.pl. AÑ A{d avi 'those (ones)' CÑ B{d ivi 'these (ones)' HÑ E{d £vi 'which (ones)' VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$ 'Those are clocks'

A{X J{S>`ma§&

A{d J{S>`mambwŸ&

adi ga∂iy¡raM.avi ga∂iy¡r¡lu C¨ MæüË…. 'This is a pen'

CÑ MæüÌêË$.

B{X H$b§&

B{d H$bmbwŸ&

idi kalaM.

ivi kal¡lu.

H¨ ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…?

HÑ ± ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$?

E{X Zr nwñVH§$?

E{d Zr nwñVH$mbw?

£di n• pustakaM?

£vi n• pustak¡lu?

'These are pens'

4.8. B Am ¡ 'that/those (ones)' and D B© • 'this/these (ones)' are the demonstrative adjectives. The former indicates remote objects and the latter indicates the proximate objects. The corresponding interrogative adjective is H E £ 'which'. These adjectives do not show any number distinction, as no adjectives in Telugu show any number distinction. (Nor they show gender distinction either.)

B MæüË… ; B MæüÌêË$.

'that pen' ; 'those pens'

Am H$b§ ; Am H$bmbwŸ& ¡ kalaM ; ¡ kal¡lu.

D ™èþË$ç³# ; D ™èþË$ç³#Ë$.

'this door' ; 'these doors'

B© Vbwnw ; B© VbwnwbwŸ& • talupu ; • talupulu.

H Mæü$Èa ; H Mæü$ÈaË$.

'which chair' ; 'which chairs'

E Hw$Mu ; E Hw$MubwŸ& £ kurc• ; £ kurc•lu. 89

An Intensive Course in Telugu 4.9.

Numerals from one to twelve are also introduced in this lesson.

4.10. Notice that there is no change in the form of a numeral whether it is used as a numeral adjective or a numeral pronoun except in the case of the numeral 'one'. In the case of numeral 'one' the numeral adjective is and the numeral pronoun is.

JMæü

oka

'One' (num. adj)

AmoH$

JMæüsìý

JMæü CË$Ï

oka illu

'One house'

AmoH$ BëbwŸ& oka i

'One' (num. pro.)

AmoH${Q>

A¨ JMæüsìý adi oka i

'That is one'

A{X AmoH${Q>

The numerals other than 'one' can be used as numeral adjectives and numeral pronouns as well, without any change.

Æðÿ…yæþ$ MæüÌêË$. a|Sw> H$bmbwŸ& reM∂u kal¡lu ‘Two pens.' AÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$. A{d a|Sw> avi reM∂u ‘Those are two.' Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Mæü$MæüPË$. _ySw> Hw$¸$bwŸ& m¶∂u kukkalu ‘Three dogs.' AÑ Ðèþ$*yæþ$. A{d _ySw>Ÿ& avi m¶∂u. ‘Those are three.' 糨 Mæü$ÈaË$. n{X Hw$Mr©bwŸ& padi kurc•lu ‘Ten chairs.' AÑ ç³¨. A{d n{XŸ& avi padi ‘Those are ten.' 4.11. HÑ$sìý E{_{Q> £mi i 'What' can go with singular pronouns and plural pronouns as well.

A¨ HÑ$sìý?

adi £mi i?

AÑ HÑ$sìý?

avi £mi i?

A{X E{_{Q>?

A{d E{_{Q>?

'What is that?'

'What are they?'

4.12. Mö°² H$mo{Þ konni 'some' is a neuter indefinite count pronoun(4.4.2). This can also be used as an adjective. (ie. neuter indefinite count pronominal adjective.)

Mö°² ºËÏ Ò$§æþ E¯é²Æÿ$$. H$mo{Þ ~ëb _rX CÞm{`Ÿ&

Mö°² MæüÌêË$ ò³sñýtÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. H$mo{Þ H$bmbw noÅ>obmo CÞm{`Ÿ&

konni balla m•da unn¡yi. 'Some are on the table.' konni kal¡lu pe  elo unn¡yi. 'Some pens are in the box.' 90

Lesson 4

A±² AÞr ann• 'all' is a neuter count pronominal. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ A±² ºËÏ Ò$§æþ ÌôýÐèþ#. pustak¡lu ann• balla m•da l£vu.

4.13.

'All the books are not on the table.'

nwñVH$mbw AÞr ~ëb _rX bodwŸ& 4.14.

Notice the use of the elliptical sentences such as:

ºËÏ Ò$§æþ C…MöMæü MæüË… E…¨.

balla m•da iMkoka kalaM uMdi. 'There is another pen on the table.' £ balla m•da? 'On which table?' • balla m•da. 'On this table.' n¡ pustakaM balla m•da l£du; balla kiMda uMdi. 'My book is not on the table; (It is) beneath the table.'

~ëb _rX B§H$moH$ H$b§ C§{X

H ºËÏ Ò$§æþ? E ~ëb _rX?

D ºËÏ Ò$§æþ. B© ~ëb _rXŸ&

¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ºËÏ Ò$§æþ Ìôý§æþ$. ºËÏ Mìü…§æþ E…¨. Zm nwñVH§$ ~ëb _rX boXwŸ& ~ëb {H§$X C§{XŸ& 4.15.

Telugu script-4

In this lesson the conjunct consonant symbols are introduced. Conjunct consonants are consonant-consonant combinations. Secondary symbol(s) of the non-inital consonant(s) of a conjuct consonant is/are written beneath the primary symbol of the initial consonant. CONJUNCT CONSONANT SYMBOL

4.15.1.

PRIMARY SYMBOL



OF THE INITIAL CONSONANT

SECONDARY SYMBOLS(S)

+

OF THE SUBSEQUENT CONSONANT(S)

Secondary symbols of the consonants.

In the following chart the symbols in boxes are the primary symbols and ones that one adjecent are the respective secondary symbols.

91

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Mæü P ^èþ a r t ™èþ ¢ ç³ µ Äæý$ Å Ôèý Ø

Q U bèþ e uæÿ x £æþ ¦ çœ ¹ { Ææÿ çÙ Û

Væ f yæþ §æþ º Ë çÜ

üY j z ª ¾ Ï Þ

çœ$ ƒ mm Éæþ | «§æþ ® ¿æý  âæý å çßý á

\ý ] pý q ×ý ~ ¯èþ ² Ðèþ$ à Ðèþ Ó „æü „

From the above chart it can be seen that some of the secondary symbols are similar in shape to that of the corresponding primary symbols. Some are totally different and some are slightly different. Considering this feature the secondary symbols of the consonants can be divided into three groups, viz. Secondary symbols with no change, total change and slight change. 4.15.1.1.

Secondary symbols with no change.

The consonant symbols which do not have talaka  u. (The tick mark 3on the top of the body except

r and Ë are also used as the secondary

symbols without any change. They are as follows.

Q



f

pý 92

×ý

º

Lesson 4 4.15.1.2.

Secondary symbols with total change.

Mæü P ¯èþ ² Äæý$ Å Ë Ï 4.15.1.3.

™èþ ¢ Ðèþ$ à Ææÿ { Ðèþ Ó

Secondary symbols with slight change.

The consonant symbols which are not included in the above two groups fall into this category. The difference between the primary symbols and the secondary symbols of this category is that the secondary symbols of this category do not have the talaka  u. That is, the primary symbols of this category can be changed into the secondary symbols by removing their talaka  u. The primary symbols are in boxes and the ones that are adjecent are the respective secondary symbols.

Væü Y çœ$ ƒ ^èþ a bèþ e mÆÿ$$ r t uæÿ x «ÿ « yæþ z Éæ þ| £æþ ¦ §æþ ª «§æþ ® ç³ µ çœ ¹ ¿æý  Ôèý Ø çÙ Û çÜ Þ çßý á âæý å „æü „ 93

An Intensive Course in Telugu 4.15.2. symbols.

Write the corresponding primary symbols for the following secondary

P

=

~ { Ø

=

=

² Ã Å

=

=

=

Ï

=

ª ¢

a Y

=

=

Þ

=

z ® q x

=

=

=

=

t ƒ

=

=

=

¦ Û

=

=

=

µ

=

¾ Â å

¹

=

U

j

=

94

=

| á

=

Ó e

=

=

m

=

=

=

=

=

=

Lesson 5

UNIT I Lesson 5

Ò$Ææÿ$, Ðóþ$…, Ðèþ$¯èþ…

YOU, WE AND WE

_ré, _|, _Z§ m•ru, m£M, manaM

Æ>k :

ÎÌê! Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

amOw :

brbm! dmùiw E|V_§{X?

r¡ju

l•l¡! v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi?

:

ÎË :

Ðéâæý$Ï BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ$.

brb :

dmùiw AméJwéŸ&

l•la

v¡˚lu ¡ruguru.

:

Æ>k :

Leela! How many are they?

They are six.

¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~. DÄæý$¯èþ JMæüÆæÿ$ Ðóþ$… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$? 95

I am one. He is one. How many are we?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

amOw

: ZoZw AmoH$pÊUŸ& B©`Z AmoH$é _| E|V_§{X[_?

r¡ju

: n£nu oka∆∆i. •yana okaru. m£M eMtamaMdimi?

ÎË

: Ò$Ææÿ$ C§æþªÆæÿ$.

brb

: _ré BÔéŸ&

l•la

: m•ru iddaru.

Æ>k

: Ðóþ$… C§æþªÆæÿ…. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæü™ðþÑ. Ðèþ$¯èþ… G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨Ñ$?

amOw

: _o§ BÔa§Ÿ& Zwìdw AmoH$Vo{dŸ& _Z§ E|V_§{X{_?

r¡ju

: m£M iddaraM. nuvvu okatevi. manaM eMta maMdimi?

ÎË

: Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ….

brb

: _Z§ _w½Jwa§Ÿ&

l•la

: manaM mugguraM

Æ>k

: C™èþ¯èþ$ JMæüyæþ$. DÐðþ$ JMæü™ðþ. Òâæý$Ï G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨?

amOw

: BVZw AmoH$Sw>Ÿ& B©_o AmoH$VoŸ& drùiw E|V_§{X?

r¡ju

: itanu oka∂u. •me okate. v•˚lu eMtamaMdi?

ÎË

: Ðéâæý$Ï C§æþªÆæÿ$

brb

: dmùiw BÔéŸ&

l•la

: v¡˚lu iddaru.

You are two.

We are two. You are one. How many are we?

We are three.

He is one, she is one. How many are they?

They are two.

96

Lesson 5

Æ>k

: Ðéâæý$Ï C§æþªÆæÿ$; BÄæý$¯èþ JMæüÆæÿ$. BÐðþ$ JMæüÆæÿ$. Ðéâæý$Ï Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

amOw

: dmùiw BÔéŸ& Am`Z AmoH$éŸ& Am_o AmoH$éŸ& dmùiw _moÎm§ E|V_§{XŸ&

r¡ju

: v¡˚lu iddaru; ¡yana okaru; ¡me okaru; v¡˚lu mottaM eMtamaMdi?

ÎË

: Ðéâæý$Ï ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæüyìþÑ Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

brb

: dmùiw ZbwJwéŸ& Zwdw AmoH${S>{dŸ& _ré E|V_§{X?

l•la

: v¡˚lu naluguru. nuvvu oka∂ivi. m•ru eMtamaMdi?

Æ>k

: Ðóþ$… I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ….

amOw

: _| EoXwJwa§Ÿ&

r¡ju

: m£M aiduguraM.

ÎË

: Ò$Ææÿ$ I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ$. Òâæý$Ï C§æþªÆæÿ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

brb

: _ré EoXwJwéŸ& drùiw BÔéŸ& _ré _moÎm§ E|V_§{X?

l•la

: m•ru aiduguru. v•˚lu iddaru. m•ru mottaM eMtamaMdi?

They are two. He is one. She is one. How many are they in total?

They are four. You are one How many are you?

We are five.

97

You are five. These are two. How many are you in total?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>k

: Ðóþ$… Hyæþ$Væü$Ææÿ….

amOw

: _| ESw>Jwa§Ÿ&

r¡ju

: m£M £∂uguraM.

ÎË

: Ò$Ææÿ$ Hyæþ$Væü$Ææÿ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü™ðþ°. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþ$$™èþ¢… G°Ñ$¨Ðèþ$…¨Ñ$.

brb

: _ré ESw>JwéŸ& ZoZw AmoH$Vo{ZŸ& _Z§ _moÎm§ Eo{Z{_{X_§{X{_Ÿ&

l•la

: m•ru £∂uguru. n£nu okateni. manaM mottaM enimidimaMdimi.

Æ>k

: Ðèþ$¯èþ… G°Ñ$¨Ðèþ$…¨Ñ$. DÐðþ$ JMæüÆæÿ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþ$$™èþ¢… ™öÑ$èÐèþ$…¨Ñ$.

amOw

: _Z§ Eo{Z{_{X_§{X{_Ÿ& B©_o AmoH$éŸ& _Z§ _moÎm§ Vmopå_{X_§{X{_Ÿ&

r¡ju

: manaM enimidimaMdimi. •me okaru. manaM mottaM tommidimaMdimi.

we are seven.

VøÑ…§æþ$ : Ò$Ææÿ$ ™öÑ$èÐèþ$…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~. Ðèþ$¯èþ… 糨Ðèþ$…¨Ñ$. JmoqdXw

: _ré Vmopå_{X_§{XŸ& ZoZw AmoH$pÊUŸ& _Z§ n{X_§{X{_Ÿ&

gªviMdu: m•ru tommidimaMdi. n£nu oka∆∆i. manaM padimaMdimi.

98

You are seven. I am one. We are eight in total.

We are eight. She is one. We are nine in total.

You are nine. I am one. We are ten.

Lesson 5

´ëÆæÿÓ† : Ò$Ææÿ$ 糨Ðèþ$…¨. Ðéâæý$Ï ç³§æþMö…yæþ$Ðèþ$…¨. Òâæý$Ï ç³¯ðþ²…yæþ$Ðèþ$…¨. Ðóþ$… 糨õßý¯èþ$Ðèþ$…¨Ñ$. nmd©{V

You are ten. Those are eleven These are twelve. We are fifteen.

: _ré n{X_§{XŸ& dmùiw nXH$&|Sw>_§{XŸ& drùiw nÞ|Sw>_§{XŸ& _| n{XhoZw_§{X{_Ÿ&

p¡rvathi : m•ru padimaMdi. v¡˚lu padakoM∂umaMdi. v•˚lu panneM∂umaMdi. m£M padih£numaMdimi. ***

***

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : X™é! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ?

Geetha! Who are you?

_mîQ>é : JrVm! Zwìdw Eod[a{d? m¡ß aru : g•t¡! nuvvu evarivi?

X™èþ

: ¯óþ¯èþ$ ѧéÅǦ°°.

JrV

: ZoZw {dÚm{W©{Z{ZŸ&

g•ta

: n£nu vidy¡rthinini.

I am a student (female).

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : Æ>Ðèþ$*! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ?

Ramu! Who are you?

_mîQ>é : am_y! Zwìdw Eod[a{d? m¡ß aru : r¡m¶! nuvvu evarivi?

Æ>Ðèþ$$

: ¯óþ¯èþ$ ѧéÅǦ°.

am_w

: ZoZw {dÚm{W©{ZŸ&

r¡mu

: n£nu vidy¡rthini.

I am a student (male).

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : A™èþ¯èþ$ JMæü ѧéÅǦ. BÐðþ$ JMæü ѧéÅǦ°. Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$? 99

He is a student. She is a student How many students are they?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

_mîQ>é : AVZw AmoH$ {dÚm{W©Ÿ& Am_o AmoH$ {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& dmùiw E|V_§{X {dÚmW©wbw? m¡ß aru : atan¶ oka vidy¡rthi. ¡me oka vidy¡rthini. v¡˚˚u eMtamaMdi vidy¡rthulu?

ïÜ™èþ

: Ðéâæý$å C§æþªÆæÿ$ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$.

grV

: dmùiw BÔé {dÚmW©wbwŸ&

s•ta

: v¡˚lu iddaru vidy¡rthulu.

They are two students.

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : Æ>Ðèþ$*! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ñ§éÅǦÑ. X™é! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ñ§éÅǦ°Ñ. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? _mîQ>é : am_y! Zwìdw {dÚm{W©{dŸ& JrVm! Zwìdw {dÚm{W©{Z{dŸ& _ré Eodé?

Ramu! You are a student (male). Geetha! you are a student (female). Who are you (pl.)?

m¡ß aru : r¡m¶! nuvvu vidy¡rthivi. g•t¡! nuvvu vidy¡rthinivi. m•ru evaru?

X™èþ, Æ>Ðèþ$$: Ðóþ$… ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë….

We are students.

JrV, am_w : _| {dÚmW©wb§Ÿ& g•ta, r¡mu : m£M vidy¡rthulaM.

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : ïÜ™é! X™é! Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Seetha! Geetha! Who are you?

_mîQ>é : grVm! JrVm! _ré Eodé? m¡ß aru : s•t¡! g•t¡! m•ru evaru?

ïÜ™èþ, X™èþ : Ðóþ$… ѧéÅǦ¯èþ$Ë….

We are students (female)

grV, JrV: _| {dÚm{W©Zwb§Ÿ& s•ta, g•ta: m£M vidy¡rthinulaM.

100

Lesson 5

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : ÆæÿÒ! Æ>Ðèþ$*! Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Ravi! Ramu! Who are you?

_mîQ>é : adr! am_y! _ré Eodé? m¡ß aru : rav•! R¡m¶! m•ru evaru?

ÆæÿÑ, Æ>Ðèþ$$: Ðóþ$… ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë…

We are students (male).

a{d, am_w : _| {dÚmWw©b§Ÿ& ravi, r¡mu: m£M vidy¡rthulaM

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : ÆæÿÒ! ïÜ™é X™é GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Ravi! Who are Seetha and Geetha?

_mîQ>é : adr! grVm JrVm Eodé? m¡ß aru : rav•! s•t¡ g•t¡ evaru?

ÆæÿÑ

: Ðéâæý$å ѧéÅǦ¯èþ$Ë$.

a{d

: dmùiw d{Úm{W©ZwbwŸ&

ravi

: v¡˚lu vidy¡rthinulu

They are students (female)

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : ïÜ™é! ÆæÿÒ Æ>Ðèþ$* GÐèþÆæÿ$? _mîQ>é : grVm! adr am_y Eodé?

Seetha! Who are Ravi and Ramu?

m¡ß aru : s•t¡! rav• r¡m¶ evaru?

ïÜ™èþ

: Ðéâæý$å ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$.

grV

: dmùiw {dÚmW©wbwŸ&

s•ta

: v¡˚lu vidy¡rthulu.

They are students (male).

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : ÆæÿÒ! Æ>Ðèþ$*! Ò$ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? _mîQ>é : adr! am_y! _r _mîQ>éJmé Eodé? m¡ß aru : rav•! r¡m¶! m• m¡ß arug¡ru evaru.

101

Ravi! Ramu! Who is your teacher?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÆæÿÑ, Æ>Ðèþ$$: Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ* Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

You are our teacher.

a{d, am_w : _ré _m _mîQ>éJméŸ& ravi, r¡mu: m•ru m¡ m¡ß arug¡ru.

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : ïÜ™é! Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÇ Ñ§éÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$? _mîQ>é : grVm! _ré Eod[a {dÚmW©wbw?

Seetha! Whose students are you?

m¡ß aru : s•t¡! m•ru evari vidy¡rthulu?

ïÜ™èþ

: Ðóþ$… Ò$ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë….

grV

: _| _r {dÚmW©wb§Ÿ&

s•ta

: m£M m• vidy¡rthuluM.

We are your students.

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ°?

Who am I?

_mîQ>é : ZoZw Eod[a{Z? m¡ß aru : n£nu evarini?

ïÜ™èþ

: Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ* Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$.

grV

: _ré _m _mîQ>éJméŸ&

s•ta

: m•ru m¡ m¡ß arug¡ru.

You are our teacher.

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : DÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÇ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$?

Whose teacher is he?

_mîQ>é : B©`Z Eod[a _mîQ>é? m¡ß aru : •yana evari m¡ß aru?

ïÜ™èþ

: BÄæý$¯èþ Mæü*yé Ðèþ* Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Æóÿ.

grV

: Am`Z Hy$S>m _m _mîQ>éJmaoŸ&

s•ta

: ¡yana k¶∂¡ m¡ m¡ß arug¡r£.

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : Ðóþ$… GÐèþÇÑ$?

He is also our teacher.

Who are we?

_mîQ>é : _| Eod[a{_? m¡ß aru : m£M evarimi? 102

Lesson 5

ïÜ™èþ

: Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ* Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$Ï.

grV

: _ré _m _mîQ>bw©Ÿ&

s•ta

: m•ru m¡ m¡ß arlu.

You are our teachers.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : C¨ GÐèþÇ M>ÏçÜ$?

Whose class-room is this?

_mîQ>é : B{X Eod[a Šbmgw? m¡ß aru : idi evari kl¡su?

ïÜ™èþ

: C¨ ÐéâæýÏ M>ÏçÜ$.

grV

: B{X dmùi ŠbmgwŸ&

s•ta

: idi v¡˚la kl¡su.

This is their class-room.

Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ : Òâæý$Ï GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Who are they (prox.)

_mîQ>é : drùiw Eodé? m¡ß aru : v•˚lu evaru?

ïÜ™èþ

: Òâæý$Ï Ðèþ* õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$?

grV

: drùiw _m ñZo{hVwbw?

s•ta

: v•˚˚u m¡ sn£hitulu.

They (prox.) are our friends.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : A¨ GÐèþÇ M>ÏçÜ$?

Whose class is that?

_mîQ>é : A{X Eod[a Šbmgw? m¡ß aru : adi evari kl¡su

ïÜ™èþ

: A¨ ÒâæýÏ M>ÏçÜ$.

grV

: A{X drùi ŠbmgwŸ&

s•ta

: adi v•˚la kl¡su.

That is their (prox.) class room.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : C¨ GÐèþÇ çÜ*PË$?

Whose school is this?

_mîQ>é : B{X Eod[a ñHy$bw? m¡ß aru : idi evari sk¶lu? 103

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ïÜ™èþ

: C¨ Ðèþ$¯èþ çÜ*PË$.

grV

: B{X _Z ñHy$bwŸ&

s•ta

: idi mana sk¶lu.

This is our school.

***

***

ÆæÿÑ

: ¯óþ¯èþ$ B…{«§æþ$×ìý~. Æ>Ðèþ$$ B…{«§æþ$yæþ$. Ðóþ$… GÐèþÇÑ$?

a{d

: ZoZw Am§Y«wpÊUŸ& am_w Am§Y«wSw>Ÿ& _o§ Eod[a{_?

ravi

: n£nu ¡Mdhru∆∆i. r¡mu ¡Mdhru∂u. m£M evarimi?

Vøí³

: Ò$Ææÿ$ B…{«§æþ$Ë$.

Jmo{n

: _ré Am§Y«wbwŸ&

gªpi

: m•ru ¡Mdhrulu.

ÆæÿÑ

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ* Æ>Ðèþ$* B…{«§æþ$Ë…. ™ðþË$Væü$ Ðèþ* Ðèþ*™èþ–¿êçÙ. Vøï³! ± Ðèþ*™èþ–¿êçÙ H¨?

a{d

: AdwZwŸ& ZoZy am_y Am§Y«wb§Ÿ& VobwJw _m _mV¥^mfŸ& Jmonr! Zr _mV¥^mf E{X?

ravi

: avunu. n£n¶ r¡m¶ ¡MdhrulaM. telugu m¡ m¡tRbh¡ßa. gªp•! n• m¡tRbh¡ßa £di?

Vøí³

: ¯é Ðèþ*™èþ–¿êçÙ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ….

Jmo{n

: Zm _mV¥^mf H$ÞS>§Ÿ&

gªpi

: n¡ m¡tRbh¡ßa kanna∂aM.

I am an Andhra. Ramu is an Andhra. Who are we?

You are Andhras.

Yes, I and Ramu are Andhras. Telugu is our mother-tongue. Gopi! What is your mothertongue.

My mother-tongue is Kannada.

104

Lesson 5

ÆæÿÑ

: ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$×ìý~. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$yìþÑ. Ò$Ææÿ$ ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$Ë$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$Ë….

a{d

: ZoZw ^maVr`wpÊUŸ& Zwìdw ^maVr`w{S>{dŸ& _ré ^maVr`wbwŸ& _Z§ ^maVr`wb§Ÿ&

ravi

: n£nu bh¡rat•yu∆∆i. nuvvu bh¡rat•yu∂ivi. m•ru bh¡rat•yulu. manaM bh¡rat•yulaM.

Vøí³

: Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…, ™ðþË$Væü$, ™èþÑ$âæý…, Ðèþ$ËÄæý*âæý…, JÇÄæý*, íßý…© Ðèþ$¯èþ ¿êçÙÌôý.

Jmo{n

: H$ÞS>,§ VobwJw, V{_i§, _b`mi§, Amo[a`m, qhXr _Z ^mfboŸ&

gªpi

: kanna∂aM, telugu, tami˚aM, malay¡˚aM, oriy¡, hiMd• mana bh¡ßal£.

ÆæÿÑ

: ¿êÆæÿ™èþ§óþÔèý… Ðèþ$¯èþ §óþÔèý….

a{d

: ^maVXoe§ _Z Xoe§Ÿ&

ravi

: bh¡ratad£≈aM mana d£≈aM.

Yes, I am an Indian. You are an Indian. You are Indians. We are Indians.

Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Oriya, Hindi are all our languages.

India is our country.

DRILLS a. Expansion drill

C¨ M>ÏçÜ$. (Ðèþ$¯èþ) B{X ŠbmgwŸ& (_Z) C¨ Ðèþ$¯èþ M>ÏçÜ$. B{X _Z ŠbmgwŸ& 1. C¨ CË$Ï. (Ò$) B{X BëbwŸ& (_r) 2. CÑ VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$. (Ðèþ*) B{d J{S>`mambwŸ& (_m) 3. AÑ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. (Ðéâæý$å) A{d nwñVH$mbwŸ& (dmùiw) Model (i)

105

idi kl¡su. (mana) idi mana kl¡su. idi illu. (m•) ivi ga∂iy¡r¡lu. (m¡) avi pustak¡lu. (v¡˚˚u)

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (ii)

Ðéâæý$å yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï. (C§æþªÆæÿ$)

Ðéâæý$å C§æþªÆæÿ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï.

dmùiw S>mŠQ>b©wŸ& (BÔé)

dmùiw BÔé S>mŠQ>b©wŸ&

v¡˚lu d¡k arlu. (iddaru)

v¡˚lu iddaru ∂¡k arlu.

1. Òâæý$å ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$. (Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$)

3. Ò$Ææÿ$ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$. (糨Ðèþ$…¨)

drùiw {dÚmW©wbwŸ& (_w½Jwé)

_ré {dÚmW©wbwŸ& (n{X_§{X)

v•˚˚u vidy¡rthulu. (mugguru)

m•ru vidy¡rthulu. (padimaMdi)

2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… sîý^èþÆæÿÏ…. (¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ…) _Z§ Q>rMb© §& (ZbwJwa§) manaM  •carlaM. (naluguraM)

b. Response drill Model (i)

CÑ GÐèþÇ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$? (Ðóþ$…)

CÑ Ðèþ* ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$.

B{d Eod[a nwñVH$mbw? (_|)

B{d _m nwñVH$mbwŸ&

ivi evari pustak¡lu? (m£M)

ivi m¡ pustak¡lu.

1. AÑ GÐèþÇ MæüÌêË$? (Ðéâæý$å)

3. CÑ GÐèþÇ Væü§æþ$Ë$? (Ò$Ææÿ$)

A{d Eod[a H$bmbw? (dmùiw)

B{d Eod[a JXwbw? (_ré)

avi evari kal¡lu? (v¡˚lu)

ivi evari gadulu? (m•ru)

2. C¨ GÐèþÇ §óþÔèý…? (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) B{X Eod[a Xoe§? (_Z§) idi evari d£≈aM (manaM) Model (ii)

Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$)

Ðóþ$… ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë….

_ré Eodé? ({dÚmW©wbw)

_| {dÚmW©wb§Ÿ&

m•ru evaru? (vidy¡rthulu)

m£M vidy¡rthulaM

1. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï)

3. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (sîý^èþÆæÿ$Ï)

_ré Eodé? (S>mŠQ>b©w)

_ré Eodé? (Q>rMb©w)

m•ru evaru? (∂¡k arlu)

m•ru evaru? ( •carlu)

2. Ò$Ææÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? (¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$Ë$) _ré Eodé? (^maVr`wbw) m•ru evaru? (bh¡rat•yulu) 106

Lesson 5 Model (iii)

Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (Æðÿ…yæþ$)

Ðóþ$… C§æþªÆæÿ….

_ré E|V_§{X? (a|Sw>)

_| BÔa§Ÿ&

m•ru eMtamaMdi? (reM∂u)

m£M iddaraM

1. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (Ðèþ$*yæþ$)

3. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (¯éË$Væü$)

_ré E|V_§{X? (_ySw>)

_ré E|V_§{X? (ZmbwJw)

m•ru eMtamaMdi? (m¶∂u)

m•ru eMtamaMdi? (n¡lugu)

2. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (I§æþ$) _ré E|V_§{X? (EoXw) miru eMtamaMdi? (aidu) Model (iv)

Ðèþ$¯èþ… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$? (BÆæÿ$)

Ðèþ$¯èþ… BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ….

_Z§ E|V_§{X{_? (Amé)

_Z§ AméJwa§Ÿ&

manaM eMtamaMdimi? (¡ru)

manaM ¡ruguraM.

1. Ðèþ$¯èþ… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$? (Hyæþ$)

3. Ðèþ$¯èþ… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$? (Æðÿ…yæþ$)

_Z§ E|V_§{X{_? (ESw>)

_Z§ E|V_§{X{_? (a|Sw>)

manaM eMtamaMdimi? (£∂u)

manaM eMtamaMdimi?(reM∂U)

2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$? (I§æþ$) _Z§ E|V_§{X{_? (EoXw) manaM eMtamaMdimi? (aidu) Model (v)

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (G°Ñ$¨)

Ðéâæý$Ï G°Ñ$¨ Ðèþ$…¨.

dmùiw E|V_§{X? (E{Z{_{X)

dmùiw E{Z{_{X _§{XŸ&

v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi? (enimidi)

v¡˚lu enimidimaMdi.

1. Òâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (™öÑ$è)

3. Òâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (糨)

drùiw E|V_§{X? (Vmopå_{X)

drùiw E|V_§{X? (n{X)

v•˚lu eMtamaMdi? (tommidi)

v•˚lu eMtamaMdi? (padi)

2. Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? (糧æþMö…yæþ$) dmùiw E|V_§{X? (nXH$m|Sw>) v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi? (padakoM∂u) Model (vi)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ? (B…{«§æþ$yæþ$)

¯óþ¯èþ$ B…{«§æþ$×ìý~.

Zwìdw Eod[a{d? (Am§Yw«Sw>)

ZoZw Am§Yw«pÊUŸ&

nuvvu evarivi? (¡Mdhrudu)

n£nu ¡Mdru∆∆i.

107

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ? (õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$)

3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ? (¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$yæþ$)

Zwìdw Eod[a{d? (ñZo{hVwSw>)

Zwìdw Eod[a{d? (^maVr`wSw>)

nuvvu evarivi? (sn£hitu∂u)

nuvvu evarivi? (bh¡rat•yu∂u)

2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇÑ ? (Æ>Ðèþ$$yæþ$) Zwìdw Eod[a{d? (am_wSw>) nuvvu evarivi? (r¡mu∂u) Model (vii)

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$? (C§æþªÆæÿ$) dmùiw E|V_§{X {dÚmW©wbw? (BÔé) v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi vidy¡rthulu? (iddaru)

1.

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï? (Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$) dmùiw E|V_§{X S>mŠQ>bw©? (_w½Jwé) v•˚lu eMtamaMdi ∂¡k arlu? (mugguru)

2.

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$? (¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$) dmùiw E|V_§{X ñZo{hVwbw? (ZbwJwé) v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi sn£hitulu? (naluguru)

3.

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ sîý^èþÆæÿ$Ï? (I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ$) dmùiw E|V_§{X Q>rMbw©? (EoXwJwé) v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi  •carlu? (aiduguru)

c. Transformation drill

A¨ Væü¨. A{X J{X& adi gadi. AÑ Væü§æþ$Ë$. A{d JXwbwŸ& avi gadulu. 1. A™èþ¯èþ$ ѧéÅǦ. AVZw {dÚm{W©Ÿ& atanu vidy¡rthi. 2. BÐðþ$ ѧéÅǦ°. Am_o {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& ¡me vidy¡rthini. 3. C¨ í³ÍÏ. B{X {npëbŸ& idi pilli. Model (ii) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B…{«§æþ$yìþÑ. Zwìdw Am§Y«w{S>{dŸ& nuvvu ¡Mdhru∂ivi. Ò$Ææÿ$ B…{«§æþ$Ë$. _ré Am§Y«wbwŸ& m•ru ¡Mdhrulu. 1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$yìþÑ. Zwìdw ^maVr`w{S>{dŸ& nuvvu bh¡rat•yu∂ivi. 2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþÑ. Zwìdw Zm ñZo{hVw{S>{dŸ& nuvvu n¡ sn£hitu∂ivi. 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyìþÑ. Zwìdw am_æ` _Zd{S>{dŸ& nuvvu r¡mayya Model (i)

manava∂ivi. 108

Lesson 5

C¨ ± Væü¨. B{X Zr J{XŸ& idi n• gadi. C¨ Ò$ Væü¨. B{X _r J{XŸ& idi m• gadi. 1. C¨ A™èþ° ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. B{X AV{Z nwñVH§$Ÿ& idi atani pustakam. 2. A¨ C™èþ° VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…. A{X BV{Z J{S>`ma§Ÿ& adi itani ga∂iy¡raM. 3. A¨ ¯é ò³sñýt. A{X Zm noÅ>oŸ& adi n¡ pe  e. Model (iv) BÄæý$¯èþ ѧéÅǦ. Am`Z {dÚm{W©Ÿ& ¡yana vidy¡rthi. Ðéâæý$å ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$. dmùiw {dÚmW©wbwŸ& v¡˚lu vidy¡rthulu. 1. BÐðþ$ sîý^èþÆæÿ$. Am_o Q>rMéŸ& ¡me  •caru. 2. A™èþ¯èþ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$. AVZw S>mŠQ>éŸ& atanu ∂¡k aru. 3. DÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$. B©`Z _mîQ>éŸ& •yana m¡ß aru.

Model (iii)

EXERCISES a. Fill in the blanks with suitable numeral pronouns.

1. A™èþ¯èþ$ JMæüyæþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæüyìþÑ. Ò$Ææÿ$ 2. 3. 4.

_____________ AVZw AmoH$Sw>Ÿ& Zwìdw AmoH${S>{dŸ& _ré _____________ atanu oka∂u. nuvvu oka∂ivi. m•ru _____________ Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$. Ðóþ$… ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… _____________ _ré _w½JwéŸ& _| ZbwJwa§Ÿ& _Z§ _____________ m•ru mugguru. m£M naluguraM. manaM _____________ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæüyìþÑ. Ðóþ$… I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… _____________ Zwìdw AmoH${S>{dŸ& _| EoXwJwa§Ÿ& _Z§ _____________ nuvvu oka∂ivi. m£M aiduguraM. manaM _____________ Ðéâæý$Ï ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþ$$™èþ¢… _____________ dmùiw ZbwJwéŸ& _Z§ ZbwJwa§Ÿ& _Z§ _moÎm§ _____________ v¡˚lu naluguru. manaM naluguraM. manaM mottaM __________

Ðóþ$… _| m£M or Ðèþ$¯èþ… _Z§ manaM. 1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ñ§éÅǦÑ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ѧéÅǦ°. _____________ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë…. b. Fill up the blanks with

_____________ {dÚmW©wb§Ÿ& nuvvu vidy¡rthivi. n£nu vidy¡rthini. _____________ vidy¡rthulaM.

Zwìdw {dÚm{W©{d. ZoZw {dÚm{W©{ZŸ&

109

An Intensive Course in Telugu

2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*çÙtDz. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$Ñ. BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$. _________ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿÏ…. ____________ _mîQ>>bªŸ& n£nu m¡ß arni. nuvvu m¡ß aruvi. ¡yana m¡ß aru. ____ m¡ß arlaM.

ZoZw _mîQ>{Z©Ÿ& Zwìdw _mîQ>é{dŸ& Am`Z _mîQ>éŸ&

3. BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆæÿ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ yéMæütDz.

_____________ yéMæütÆæÿÏ…. Am`Z S>mŠQ>éŸ& ZoZw S>mŠQ>{Z©Ÿ& _____________ S>mŠQ>bªŸ& ¡yana ∂¡k aru. n£nu ∂¡k arni._____________ ∂¡k arlaM.

4. Ò$Ææÿ$ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ѧéÅǦ°.

_____________ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë…. _ré {dÚmW©wbwŸ& ZoZw {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& _____________ {dÚmW©wb§Ÿ& m•ru vidy¡rthulu. n£nu vidy¡rthini. _____________ vidy¡rthulaM.

5. Ò$Ææÿ$ C§æþªÆæÿ$. Ðóþ$… ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ…. _____________ BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ…. _____________ AméJwa§Ÿ& m•ru iddaru. m£M naluguraM. _____________¡ruguraM.

_ré BÔéŸ& _| ZbwJwa§Ÿ&

6. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~. Ðéâæý$Ï C§æþªÆæÿ$.

_____________ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$? ZoZw AmoH$pÊUŸ& dmùiw BÔéŸ& _____________ E|V_§{X{_? n£nu oka∆∆i. v¡˚lu iddaru. _____________ eMtamaMdimi?

c. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the pronouns given in the parentheses.

A¨ ________ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. (¯óþ¯èþ$) A{X

________

A¨ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

nwñVH§$Ÿ&(ZoZw)

A{X Zm nwñVH§$Ÿ&

adi ________ pustakaM. (n£nu)

adi n¡ pustakaM.

1. C¨ ________ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…. (Ò$Ææÿ$) 3. C¨ ________ M>ÏçÜ$. (Ðóþ$…) B{X

________

J{S>`ma§Ÿ& (_ré)

B{X

idi ________ ga∂iy¡raM. (m•ru)

2. A¨ ________ çÜ*PË$. (Ðéâæý$å) A{X

________

________

ŠbmgwŸ& (_|)

idi ________ kl¡su. (m£M)

4. C¨ ________ §óþÔèý…. (Ðèþ$¯èþ…)

ñHy$bwŸ& (dmùiw)

B{X

adi ________ sk¶lu. (v¡˚˚u)

________

Xoe§Ÿ& (_Z§)

idi ________ d£≈aM. (manaM)

110

Lesson 5

d. Fill in the blanks with JMæüyæþ$ AmoH$Sw> oka∂u or JMæüsìý AmoH${Q> oka i or JMæüÆæÿ$ AmoH$é okaru.

1. ÆæÿÑ ________.

3. MæüË… ________.

________Ÿ&

a{d

H$b§

ravi ________.

________Ÿ&

kalaM ________.

2. BÄæý$¯èþ ________. Am`Z

4. ´ëç³ ________.

________Ÿ&

nmn

¡yana ________.

________Ÿ&

p¡pa ________.

e. Fill in the blanks with JMæüyæþ$ AmoH$Sw> oka∂u or with appropriate concord.

1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ________. Zwìdw

JMæüÆæÿ$ AmoH$é okaru

3. BÄæý$¯èþ ________.

________Ÿ&

Am`Z

nuvvu ________.

________Ÿ&

¡yana ________.

2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ________. ZoZw

JMæü™ðþ AmoH$Vo okate or

4. Ò$Ææÿ$ ________.

________Ÿ&

_ré

n£nu ________.

________Ÿ&

m•ru ________.

f. Produce at least 16 sentences from the following table make the changes wherever necessary.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðéâæý$å Òâæý$å

ZoZw Zwìdw _ré _| _Z§ dmùiw drùiw

JMæü™ðþ JMæüyæþ$ JMæüÆæÿ$ C§æþƪ ÿæ $ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆÿæ $ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ$

n£nu nuvvu m•ru m£M manaM v¡˚˚u v•˚˚u

111

AmoH$Vo AmoH$Sw> AmoH$é BÔé _w½Jwé ZbwJwé EoXwJwé

okate oka∂u okaru iddaru mugguru naluguru aiduguru

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

Ðéâæý$Ï

dmùiw

v¡˚lu

&Væü$Ææÿ$

-Jwé

-guru

Ðóþ$…

_|

they (hum. rem.) a human marker we (excl.)

m£M

JMæü™ðþ

AmoH$Vo _w½Jwé

mugguru

¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$

ZbwJwé

naluguru

&Ðèþ$…¨

-_§{X

-maMdi

M>썆$

Šbmgw

One (fem. non-hon.) three (hum.) four (hum.) a human marker class-room

kl¡su

ÒâæýÏ

drùi _Z

their (hum.prox.) our (incl.)

mana

Ðèþ*™èþ–¿êçÙ

_mV¥^mf

¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$yæþ$ ^maVr`wSw> bh¡rat•yu∂u

Ðèþ$âæýÄæý*âæý… _b`mi§ malay¡˚aM bh¡ßa

JMæüyæþ$

We (incl.)

drùiw Xoe§

they (hum. prox.) country

_m

our (excl.)

dmùi

their (hum.rem.) school

AmoH$Sw>

oka∂u

C§æþƪ ÿæ $ Ðèþ$¯èþ… manaM

Òâæý$Ï v•˚lu

§óþÔèý… d£≈am

Ðèþ* m¡

ÐéâæýÏ çÜ*PË$

ñHy$bw

sk¶lu

B…{«§þæ $yæþ$

H$ÞS>§>

an Andhra (masc.) kannada (n.)

V{_i§

Tamil (n.)

Amo[a`m

Oriya

^maVXoe§

India

Am§Yw«Sw>

¡Mdhru∂u

m¡tRbh¡ßa

¿êçÙ

_Z§

eMtamaMdi

v¡˚la

v•˚la

Ðèþ$¯èþ

BÔé

how many (hum.) one (masc. non-hon.) two (hum.)

iddaru

okate

Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆÿæ $

G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ E|V_§{X

^mf

mothertongue Indian (masc.) Malayalam (n.) language

Mæü¯èþ²yæþ… kanna∂aM

™èþÑ$âæý… tami˚aM

JÇÄæý* oriy¡

¿êÆæÿ™èþ§óþÔèý…

bh¡ratad£≈aM

§óþÔèý… d£≈aM 112

Xoe§

country

Lesson 5

GRAMMAR NOTES 5.1. In this lesson the following plural pronouns alongwith their oblique bases are introduced. 5.1.1. Ðóþ$… _o§ m£M 'we (excl.)' is the first person exclusive plural pronoun. The meaning of this pronoun is 'we excluding the listener(s)'. Hence it is called the exclusive pronoun. The oblique base of this pronoun is Ðèþ* _m m¡ 'our (excl.)'. ÆæÿÒ! Ðóþ$… B…{«§æþ$Ë…. 'Ravi! We are Andhras.'

adr! _o§ Am§Yw«b§Ÿ& rav•! m£M ¡MdhrulaM.

™ðþË$Væü$ Ðèþ* Ðèþ*™èþ–¿êçÙ.

'Telugu is our mother-tongue'

VobwJw _m _mV¥^mfŸ& telugu m¡ m¡tRbh¡ßa. In the above sentences it is understood that Ravi (the listener of these sentences is not an andhra, and Telugu is not his mother-tongue. 5.1.2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… _Z§ manaM 'We (incl.)' is the first person inclusive pronoun. The meaning of this pronoun is 'We including the listener(s)'. Hence it is called the inclusive pronoun. The oblique base of this pronoun is Ðèþ$¯èþ _Z mana 'our (incl.)'. ÆæÿÒ! Ðèþ$¯èþ… ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$Ë…. 'Ravi! We are indians.'

adr! _Z§ ^maVr`wb§Ÿ& rav•! manaM bh¡rat•yulaM.

C¨ Ðèþ$¯èþ §óþÔèý….

'This is our country.'

B{X _Z Xoe§Ÿ& idi mana d£≈aM. In the above sentences it is understood that Ravi (the listener of these sentences) is also an Indian, and the country also belongs to him. 5.1.3. Ò$Ææÿ$ _ré m•ru 'You hon.sg. & pl.' (2.2.) is used in this lesson as the second person plural pronoun. In lesson 2 its use as the second person honorific singular pronoun was shown. The oblique base of this pronoun, as shown in 2.2. is Ò$ _r m• 'Your (pl.). 113

An Intensive Course in Telugu 5.1.4. Ðéâæý$Ï dmùiw v¡˚lu 'they (hum. rem.)/those people' and Òâæý$Ï drùiw v•˚lu 'they (hum. Prox)/these people' are the third person human plural pronouns common for human masculine and human feminine genders. Ðéâæý$Ï dmùiw v¡˚lu is the third person remote human epicene plural pronoun. Òâæý$Ï drùiw v•˚lu is the third person proximate human epicene plural pronoun.

Ðéâæý$Ï Ñ§éÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$.

'They (rem.) are students.'

dmùiw {dÚmW©wbwŸ& v¡˚lu vidy¡rthulu.

Òâæý$Ï yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï.

'They (Prox.) are doctors.'

drùiw S>mŠQ>bw©Ÿ& v•˚lu ∂¡k arlu. 5.1.4.1. ÐéâæýÏ dmùi v¡˚la 'their (hum.rem.)' and ÒâæýÏ drùi v•˚la 'their (hum. prox.)' are the oblique bases of Ðéâæý$Ï dmùiw v¡˚lu and Òâæý$Ï drùiw v•˚lu respectively. AÑ ÐéâæýÏ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. 'They are their (hum.rem.) books.'

A{d dmùi nwñVH$mbwŸ& avi v¡˚la pustak¡lu.

A¨ ÒâæýÏ çÜ*PË$.

'That is their (hum.prox.) school.'

A{X drùi ñHy$bwŸ& adi v•˚la sk¶lu. 5.2. G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ E|V_§{X eMtamaMdi 'how many (hum.)' is the interrogative count human pronoun and adjective used in questions to elicit the number of the persons in a group.

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

'How many are they?'

dmùiw E|V_§{X? v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi?

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï?

'How many doctors are they?'

dmùiw E|V_§{X S>mŠQ>b©w? v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi ∂¡k arlu? The corresponding interrogative count neuter pronoun adjective is G°² enni 'how many (neut.)' (4.4.2.) 114

Eo{Þ

Lesson 5

AÑ G°² MæüÌêË$?

'how many pens are they?'

A{d Eo{Þ H$bmbw? avi enni kal¡lu?

Ðéâæý$Ï G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$?

'How many students are they?'

dmùiw E|V_§{X {dÚmW©wbw? v¡˚lu eMtamaMdi vidy¡rthulu? 5.3. In this lesson the human numerals (numerals referring to human nouns) are introduced. (For corresponding neuter numerals are 4.10.)

JMæüyæþ$ JMæü™ðþ JMæüÆæÿ$ C§æþƪ ÿæ $ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆÿæ $ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ$ BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ$ Hyæþ$Væü$Ææÿ$ G°Ñ$¨Ðèþ$…¨ ™öÑ$èÐèþ$…¨ 糨Ðèþ$…¨ 糧æþMö…yæþ$Ðèþ$…¨ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$Ðèþ$…¨ 糨õßý¯èþ$Ðèþ$…¨

AmoH$Sw> AmoH$Vo AmoH$é BÔé _w½Jwé ZbwJwé EoXwJwé AméJwé ESw>Jwé Eo{Z{_{X_§{X Vmopå_{X_§{X n{X_§{X nXH$m|Sw>_§{X nÞ|Sw>_§{X n{XhoZw_§{X

oka∂u okate okaru iddaru mugguru naluguru aiduguru ¡ruguru £∂uguru enimidimaMdi tommidimaMdi padimaMdi padakoM∂umaMdi panneM∂umaMdi padih£numaMdi

''one person (masc.)' ''one person (fem.)' ''one person (epi.)' ''two persons' ''three persons' ''four persons' ''five persons' ''six persons' ''seven persons' ''eight persons' 'nine persons' ''ten persons' 'eleven persons' ''twelve persons' ''fifteen persons' and so on.

5.3.1. Notice that &Væü$Ææÿ$ -Jwé -guru is added to numerals from 'three' to 'seven' and &Ðèþ$…¨ -_§{X -maMdi is added to numerals from 'eight' onwards. These are the human markers added to the numerals to change them into human numerals.

115

An Intensive Course in Telugu 5.3.2.

JMæüyæþ$ JMæü™ðþ JMæüÆæÿ$ 5.3.2.1.

Human numerals 'one' shows a gender distinction. AmoH$Sw> oka∂u 'one person' is human masculine numeral. AmoH$Vo okate 'one person' is human feminine numeral. AmoH$é okaru 'one person' is human epicene numeral. (common for masculine and feminine genders)

JMæüyæþ$ AmoH$Sw> oka∂u and JMæü™ðþ AmoH$Vo okate are non-honorific and

JMæüÆæÿ$ AmoH$é okaru is honorific. A™èþ¯èþ$ JMæüyæþ$.

'He is one.'

AVZw AmoH$Sw>Ÿ& atanu oka∂u.

BÐðþ$ JMæü™ðþ.

'She is one.'

Am_o AmoH$VoŸ& ¡me okate.

BÄæý$¯èþ/BÐðþ$ JMæüÆæÿ$.

'He/She is one.'

Am`Z/Am_o AmoH$éŸ& ¡yana/¡me okaru. 5.4. Human numerals introduced in 5.3. are pronouns. They can be used as predicates also. All these pronouns except those referring to 'one' (i.e. JMæüyæþ$ AmoH$Sw> oka∂u, JMæü™ðþ AmoH$Vo okate and JMæüÆæÿ$ AmoH$é okaru) can be used as adjectives as well. JMæü AmoH$ oka is the corresponding numeral adjective referring to human nouns also.

JMæü ѧéÅǦ.

'one male student'

AmoH$ {dÚm{W©Ÿ& oka vidy¡rthi.

JMæü ѧéÅǦ°.

'one female student'

AmoH$ {dÚm{W©{ZŸ& oka vidy¡rthini.

JMæü yéMæütÆæÿ$.

'one doctor (male & female)'

AmoH$ S>mŠQ>éŸ& oka ∂¡k aru. 116

Lesson 5

C§æþªÆæÿ$ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$.

'two students'

BÔé {dÚmW©wbwŸ& iddaru vidy¡rthulu.

Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$.

'three students' and so on.

_w½Jwé {dÚmW©wbwŸ& mugguru vidy¡rthulu. 5.5. Recall the concord between subject NP and predicate NP in the verbless sentences (2.6). Concord is marked in the predicate NP only when the subject NP is first person singular or plural, and second person inferior singular pronoun. No concord is marked for the second person honorific singular / plural pronoun. The concord for first person plural pronouns (both exclusive Ðóþ$… _o§ m£M and Ðèþ$¯èþ… _Z§ manaM inclusive) is marked in the predicate A…/Ñ$ A§/ {_ aM/mi NP Ñ$ {_ mi occurs after C B i ending bases (predicates) and A… A§ aM occurs after the other bases (predicates). Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨&Ñ$. 'How many are we?'

_o§/_Z§ E|V_§{X-{_. m£M/manaM eMtamaMdi-mi? Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… 糨Ðèþ$…¨&Ñ$. 'We are ten.'

_o§/_Z§ n{X_§{X-{_. m£M/manaM padimaMdi-mi.

Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… GÐèþÇ&Ñ$.

'Who are we?'

_o§/_Z§ Eod[a-{_? m£M/manaM evari-mi?* (* Concord is added to oblique bases. c.f.3.7. The oblique base of GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru is GÐèþÇ Eod[a evari c.f.2.12.2.) Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… yéMæütÆæÿÏ…. 'We are doctors.'

_o§/_Z§ S>mŠQ>bªŸ& m£M/manaM ∂¡k arl-aM.* (* ∂¡k arl-aM for sandhi c.f.2.12.2.)

117

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ò$Ææÿ$ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$.

'You are students.'

_ré {dÚmW©wbwŸ& m•ru vidy¡rthulu (no concord). 5.5.1.

Concord chart.

Subject

Noun phrase n£nu

¯óþ¯èþ$ ZoZw

predicate noun phrase+concord ѧéÅǦ + ° vidy¡rthi + ni

{dÚm{W© + {Z

Ðóþ$…

m£M

_|

ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$ + A… vidy¡rthulu + aM {dÚmWw©bw + A§

糨Ðèþ$…¨ + Ñ$

padimaMdi + mi

n{X_§{X + {_

Ðèþ$¯èþ…

manaM

_Z§

ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$ + A… vidy¡rthulu + aM {dÚmWw©bw + A§

糨Ðèþ$…¨ + Ñ$

padimaMdi + mi

n{X_§{X + {_

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó

nuvvu

Zwìdw

ѧéÅǦ + Ñ

vidy¡rthi + vi

{dÚm{W© + {d

5.6. Co-ordinative constructions like ÆæÿÒÆ>Ðèþ$* adram_y rav• r¡m¶ 'Ravi and Ramu' are introduced in this lesson. Telugu does not, normally, use a conjunction like 'and' in such co-ordinative constructions. Instead, the final syllables of the constituents participating in the coordinative construction are pronounced with extended length. Thus the final short vowels of the constituents become long in writing. In other words, extended length of the final syllables of the constituents of a co-ordinative construction functions as the conjunction 'and'. ÆæÿÑ & Æ>Ðèþ$$ ravi - r¡mu ÆæÿÒÆ>Ðèþ$* rav• r¡m¶ 'Ravi and Ramu'

a{d - am_w

adram_y

¯óþ¯èþ$ & ÆæÿÑ ZoZw - a{d 5.7. noun base.

n£nu - ravi

¯óþ¯èþ* ÆæÿÒ

ZoZy adr The plural suffix &Ë$ &bw &lu 118

n£n¶ rav•

'I and Ravi'

triggers the following changes in the

Lesson 5

C B i ending noun bases change their final C B i to E C u before the plural suffix &Ë$ &bw &lu. Væü¨ + Ë$ → Væü§æþ$Ë$ 'rooms'

5.7.1.

The

→ JXwbw gadi + lu → gadulu í³ÍÏ + Ë$ → í³Ë$ÏË$ {npëb + bw → {nëbwbw pilli + lu → pillulu J{X + bw

'cats'

5.7.2. The masculine nouns ending in yæþ$ Sw> ∂u which are borrowed from Sanskrit drop their final yæþ$ Sw> ∂u before the plural suffix &Ë$ &bw &lu. õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$ + Ë$ → õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$ 'friends'

ñZo{hVwSw> + bw

→ ñZo{hVwbw → sn£hitulu

sn£hitu∂u + lu 5.8. Notice the following sandhi processes: 5.8.1. The final short vowel of a word or a base is dropped when it is preceded by a single (nongeminated) consonant ÆŠÿ a² r and followed by a suffix or a post-position beginning with ¯Œþ Z² n or ÌŒý b² l.

yéMæütÆæÿ$ + ° S>mŠQ>é + {Z ∂¡k aru + ni

yéMæütÆæÿ$ + Ë$ S>mŠQ>é + bw

→ → → → → →

yéMæütDz S>mŠQ>{Z© ∂¡k arni (2.12.1.) yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï 'doctors'

S>mŠQ>bw©

∂¡k aru + lu ∂¡k arlu 5.8.2. The final syllable yìþ {S> ∂i of a word or base along with the initial ¯Œþ Z² n of a suffix/post-position will together change to ׊ý~þÊU² ∆∆. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~ ZoZw AmoH$pÊU 'I am one' n£nu oka∆∆i (oka∂u + ni) Here ° {Z ni is the first person concord marker and it is added to an oblique base (3.7.). The oblique base of JMæüyæþ$ AmoH$Sw> oka∂u is JMæüyìþ AmoH${S> oka∂i (cf. 3.6.). 119

An Intensive Course in Telugu 5.9. In 3.10. we have seen that Ò$ _r m• 'your (pl)' stands for ± Zr n• 'your (sg.)' in expressions like Ò$ ™é™èþV>Ææÿ$ _r VmVJmé m• t¡tag¡ru 'your grandfather'. In Telugu the possessive relationship is viewed at in two ways: collective possession and exclusive possession. The relationship with nouns such as CË$Ï Bëbw illu 'house', çÜ*PË$ ñHy$bw sk¶lu 'school', AÐèþ$à Aå_ amma 'mother' ¯é¯èþ² ZmÞ n¡nna 'father', ™é™èþ VmV t¡ta 'grandfather' etc. is collective one, in the sense that it (the relationship) is also shared by others. For example, a house belongs not only to an individual but also to the other inmates, ie. the other members of the family. A person is the father not only to an individual but also to his other sons and daughters. In Telugu singular pronominal adjectives are not used to express possessive relationship with the nouns of collective possession. Only plural pronominal adjectives are used in singular sense also. Kinship terms other than ¿êÆæÿÅ ^`© bh¡rya 'wife', ¿æýÆæÿ¢ ^V© bharta 'husband', Möyæþ$Mæü$ H$moSw>Hw$ ko∂uku 'son' and Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ Hy$Vwé k¶turu 'daughter', and nouns like house, village, institutions such as school, college etc., fixed property etc., are the nouns of collective possession.

Ðèþ* CË$Ï Ò$ çÜ*PË$ Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ² ÐéâæýÏ AÐèþ$Ã

m¡ illu ''my/our house' m• sk¶lu ''Your (sg. & pl.) school' m¡ n¡nna ''my/our father' v¡˚la amma ''his/her/their mother' singular pronominal adjectives, however, are also used with the nouns of collective possession to express legal right and emotional attachment of an individual. ¯é CË$Ï Zm Bëbw n¡ illu ''my house' (legal right) ¯é §óþÔèý… Zm Xoe§ n¡ d£≈aM ''My country' (emotional attachment) 5.10. GÐèþÆæÿ$ Eodé evaru 'who' (1.3.,1.3.1) the interrogative human pronoun is both singular and plural.

_m Bëbw _r ñHy$bw _m ZmÞ dmùi Aå_

BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? Am`Z Eodé? Ðéâæý$Ï GÐèþÆæÿ$? dmùiw Eodé?

¡yana evaru? ''Who is he?' v¡˚˚u evaru? ''Who are they?' 120

Lesson 5 5.11.

Telugu script-5

So far you have learnt all the primary and secondary symbols of the vowels and consonants in Telugu. In this lession, conjunct consonant and vowel combination is introduced. In a conjunct consonant + vowel combination the vowel is pronounced after the final consonant of the conjunct consonant. p-r-a l-l-i s-t-r-• As you have already seen in 4.12. in writing a conjunct consonant symbol the primary symbol is used to write the initial consonant and the secondary symbol(s) of the subsequent consonant(s) is/are written beneath the initial consonant. Since only the primary symbols of the consonants can take the vowel symbols (the secondary are written with the initial consonant of the conjunct consonant though it (the vowel) is pronounced with the final consonant (of the conjunct consonant). PRONUNCIATION SCRIPT ∂ri Primary symbol of ∂ + secondary symbol of i and secondary {yìþ symbol of r below. k ¡ pri-symbol of k + sec. symbol of ¡ and sec-symbol of   below. M>t sva pri-symbol of s which contains an inherent a and secondary symbol çÜÓ of v below. str• Primary symbol of s + secondary ï܈ symbol of • and secondary symbols of t and r below in that order. trya Primary symbol of t which contains an inherent a and secondary symbols {™èþÅ of r and y below in that order. From the above conjunct consonant symbols, it can be seen that; 121

An Intensive Course in Telugu (i)

the vowel is written with the first consonant (though it is pronounced with the last consonant), (ii) if a is the vowel the primary symbol of the initial consonant is enough since it has an inherent a, and (iii) the secondary symbols of the subsequent consonants are written below the primary symbol of the initial consonant + vowel combination. 5.11.1. Recongnize and learn the following conjunct consonant + vowel combinations:

MæüÅ {† çÜÓ ÐèþÅ ¯èþà §éŠǦ ÝëP r$t Ë$Ï {§ø {Ððþ$$ MæüP Mæü$P Mæü¢

{Væü {Ö ç³µ ™èþà çÜ*P Èa

Ùç t àÓ {Mæü §æþÅ {çßý* õܲ

5.11.2. There is an exception to what is said in writting the conjunct consonant + vowel combination. ppu is written with the secondary symbol of the vowel u added to the secondary symbol of the second consonant, which is as follows:

³ç š 5.11.3.

ç³# + ç³ = 糚

Read the following

Mæü$Èa í³ÍÏ Mæü$MæüP çÜ*PË$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ ¯ðþ{çßý* CË$Ï Ñ§éÅǦ ºËÏ ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿ… Mæü*Æøa…yìþ ™èþ…{yìþ Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $ HÐèþ$Äæý*Å! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? {í³°Þ´ëË$ Ððþ…Mæü{sêÐèþ# ÕÐèþÄæý$Å ¿êÆæÿÅ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# GMæüPyæþ §æþVæüÆY ÿæ ÌñýMæüPò³r$t ™öÑ$è 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ Ððþ$$™èþ¢… ò³sñýt E¯é²Æÿ$$ B…{«§þæ $yæþ$ B…{«§þæ $×ìý~ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþ×ìý~ C§æþƪ ÿæ $ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆÿæ $ Ðéâæý$å Òâæý$å Mæü¯èþ²yæþ… ÔèýÆæÿà ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó 5.11.4. âæýå combination can also to be written as âæýÏ Òâæý$å or Òâæý$Ï Ðéâæý$å or Ðéâæý$Ï 122

M>ÏçÜ$ õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ C…XÏçÙ$ ç³#ïÜÞ G°² ç³MæüP¯èþ ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$×ìý~ ^ðþ糚

Lesson 6

REVIEW 1 Lesson 6

´ùÝëtïœçÜ$ GMæüPyæþ?

WHERE IS THE

nmoñQ>m\$sgw Eo¸$S>?

POST OFFICE?

pªs ¡f•su ekka∂a?

Vøí³

: Æ>, çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#! Mæü*Æøa.

Jmo{n

: am, gwã~mamdw! Hy$Mm}Ÿ&

gªpi

: r¡ subb¡r¡vu! k¶rcª.

Come on, Subbarao! sit.

çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# : ± §æþVæüYÆæÿ Mæü¯éÅÔèý$ËP… E…§é? gwã~mamdw : Zr X½Ja H$Ý`mewëH§$ C§Xm? subb¡r¡vu: n• daggara kany¡≈ulkaM uMd¡?

123

Do you have kanyasulkam with you?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Vøí³

: E…¨. B ºËÏÒ$§æþ E…¨, ^èþ*yæþ$.

gªpi

Yes I have. It is there on : C§{XŸ& Am ~ëb _rX C§{X, MySw>Ÿ& the table, Look. : uMdi. ¡ balla m•da uMdi, c¶∂u.

çÜ$»ê¾

: C¨ Mæü¯éÅÔèý$ËP… M>§æþ$, Vøï³!

gwã~m

: B{X H$Ý`mewëH§$ H$mXw, Jmonr!

subb¡

: idi kany¡≈ulkaM k¡du, gªp•!

Vøí³

: B AËÐèþ$ÆæÿÌZ ^èþ*yæþ$; VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… ç³MæüP¯èþ.

Jmo{n

: Am Ab_abmo MySw>; J{S>`ma§ n¸$ZŸ&

gªpi

: ¡ alamaralª c¶∂¶; ga∂iy¡raM pakkana

çÜ$»ê¾

: C¨ Mæü¯éÅÔèý$ËPÐóþ$.

gwã~m

: B{X H$Ý`mewëH$_oŸ&

subb¡

: idi kany¡≈ulkam£.

Vøçí³

: ¡çÜ$Mø.

Jmo{n

: VrgwH$moŸ&

gªpi

: t•suko.

çÜ$»ê¾

: C¨ GÐèþÇ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…?

gwã~m

: B{X Eod[a nwñVH§$?

subb¡

: idi evari pustakaM?

Vøí³

: ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

Jmo{n

: Zm ñZo{hVw{S> nwñVH§$Ÿ&

gªpi

: n¡ sn£hitu∂i pustakaM.

Jmo{n

This is not Kanyasulkam, gwã~m Gopi!

See in that cup-board. Next to the time-piece.

This is Kanyasulkam.

Take it.

Whose book is this?

My friend's book.

124

Lesson 6

çÜ$»ê¾

: GÐèþÇ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…? {ç³Ý맊þ ç³#çÜ¢MæüÐèþ*?

gwã~m

: Eod[a nwñVH§$? àgmX² nwñVH$_m?

subb¡

: evari pustakaM? pras¡d pustakam¡?

Vøí³

: {ç³Ý맊þ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>§æþ$. ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. Not Prasad's book. It is Ravi's

Jmo{n

: àgmX² nwñVH§$ H$mXwŸ& a{d nwñVH§$Ÿ&

gªpi

: pras¡d pustakaM k¡du. ravi pustakaM.

çÜ$»ê¾

: AÌêV>! ÒÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

gwã~m

: AbmJm! dré Eodé?

subb¡

: al¡g¡! v•ru evaru?

Vøí³

: Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$.

Jmo{n

: _m ZmÞJméŸ&

gªpi

: m¡ n¡nnag¡ru.

çÜ$»ê¾

: ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ!

gwã~m

: Z_ñH$ma_§S>rŸ&

subb¡

: namask¡ramaM∂•!

book.

I see! who is this gentleman?

My father.

Namaskaram, sir!

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý »êº*! am_æ`

Whose book? Is it Prasad's book?

What is your name, dear!

: Zr noao{_{Q> ~m~yŸ&

r¡mayya : n• p£r£mi i b¡b¶!

çÜ$»ê¾

: ¯éõ³Ææÿ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ…yîþ! Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç õ³Ææÿ$ ÑÔèýÓ¯é£æþ…V>Ææÿ$.

gwã~m

: Zm noé gwã~mamd§S>r! _m ZmÞJm[a noé {dídZmW§JméŸ&

subb¡

: n¡ p£ru subb¡r¡vaM∂•! m¡ n¡nnag¡ri p£ru vi≈van¡thaMg¡ru. 125

My name is Subbarao, Sir! My father's name is Mr. Viswanatham

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : AÌêV>! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? am_æ`

I see! How many brothers are you?

: AbmJm! _ré E|V_§{X AÞXå_wbw?

r¡mayya : al¡g¡! m•ru eMtamaMdi annadammulu?

çÜ$»ê¾

: Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ! Ðèþ* A¯èþ²Äæý*Å, ¯óþ¯èþ*, Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ*.

gwã~m

: _| _w½Jwa_§Sr>! _m AÞæ`m, ZoZy, _m Vå_wSyŸ&

subb¡

: m£M mugguramaM∂•! m¡ annayy¡, n£n¶, m¡ tammu∂¶.

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : Ò$ A¯èþ²Äæý$Å õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? am_æ`

We are three, sir! My elder brother, myself and my younger brother.

What is your elder brother's name?

: _r AÞæ` noao{_{Q>?

r¡mayya : m• annayya p£r£mi i?

çÜ$»ê¾

: Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$Ï.

gwã~m

: d|H$Q>oídbw©Ÿ&

subb¡

: venka £≈varlu.

Venkateswarlu.

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ õ³Ææÿ$? am_æ`

And your younger brother's name?

: _r Vå_w{S> noé?

r¡mayya : m• tammu∂i p£ru?

çÜ$»ê¾

: VøÑ…§æþ$.

gwã~m

: JmoqdXwŸ&

subb¡

: gªviMdu.

Govind.

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : Vøï³! ´ùÝëtïœçÜ$ GMæüPyæþ$…¨? am_æ`

: Jmonr! nmoñQ>m\$sgw Eo¸$Sw>§{X?

r¡mayya : gªp•! pªß ¡f•su ekka∂uMdi? 126

Gopi! Where is the post-office?

Lesson 6

Vøí³

: ºÝët…yæþ$ §æþVæüYÆæÿ$…¨ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ*!

Jmo{n

: ~ñQ>m§Sw> X½Jé§{X ZmÞJmê$Ÿ!

gªpi

: bas ¡M∂u daggaruMdi n¡nnag¡r¶!

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : Æðÿ…yæþ$ MæüÐèþÆæÿ$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>. am_æ`

It is near Bus-stand father!

Bring two envelopes.

: a|Sw> H$db©w VrgwHw$amŸ&

r¡mayya : reM∂u kavarlu t•sukur¡.

çÜ$»ê¾

: MæüÐèþÆæÿ$Ï ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ$¯é²Æÿ$$. ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ.

gwã~m

: H$db©w Zm X½JéÞm{`Ÿ&VrgwH$m|{S>Ÿ&

subb¡

: kavarlu n¡ daggara unn¡yi, t•sukªM∂i.

I have envelopes with me. Please take them.

VOCABULARY

´ùÝëtïœçÜ$

Post-office

nmoñQ>m\$sgw pªs ¡f•su

AËÐèþ$Ææÿ

cup-board

Mæü¯éÅÔèý$ËP…

(A Telugu 'kany¡≈ulkam' H$Ý`mewëH§$ play written by Guraja∂a kany¡≈ulkam Apparao) ¡çÜ$Mø take

Ab_a

VrgwH$mo

alamara

t•sukª

A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$

brothers

A¯èþ²Äæý$Å

AÞXå_wbw

AÞæ`

annadammulu

annayya

™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$

Younger brother

ºÝët…yæþ$

Vå_wSw>

~ñQ>m§Sw>

tammu∂u

bas ¡M∂u

MæüÐèþÆæÿ$

Envelope

¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>

H$dé

VrgwHw$am

kavaru

t•sukur¡ 127

elder brother

Bus-stand

bring!

An Intensive Course in Telugu

EXERCISES a. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate forms of the words given in the parentheses.

1. C¨______(¯óþ¯èþ$) ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

10.

______(GÐèþÆæÿ$) õ³Ææÿ$ MæüÐèþ$Ë? B{X______(ZoZw) nwñVH§$Ÿ& ______(Eodé) noé H$_b? idi______(n£nu) pustakaM. ______(evaru) p£ru kamala? 2. A¨______(Ò$Ææÿ$) CË$Ï. 11. ______(H¨) õ³Ææÿ$ sêÒ$? A{X______(_ré) BëbwŸ& ______(E{X) noé Q>m_r? adi______(m•ru) illu. ______(£di) p£ru  ¡m•? 3. çÜ$Væü$×ý______(BÐðþ$) ™èþÍÏ. 12. A™èþ¯èþ$_____(Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ææÿ$) Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$. gwJwU______(Am_o) VpëbŸ& AVZw______(am_æ`Jmé) _ZdSw>Ÿ& suguna______(¡me) talli. atanu____(r¡mayyag¡ru) manava∂u. 4. C¨______(Ðèþ$¯èþ…) §óþÔèý…. 13. C¨______(Ðéâæý$Ï) M>ÏçÜ$. B{X______(_Z§) Xoe§Ÿ& B{X______(dmùiw) ŠbmgwŸ& idi______(manaM) d£≈aM. idi______(v¡˚lu) kl¡su. 5. A¨______(Ðóþ$…) çÜ*PË$. 14. ÆæÿÑ______(™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$) õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? A{X______(_|) ñHy$bwŸ& a{d______(Vå_wSw>) noao{_{Q>? adi______(m£M) sk¶lu. ravi______(tammu∂u) p£r£mi i? 6. C¨______(A™èþ¯èþ$) MæüË…. 15. C¨______(BÄæý$¯èþ) Mæü$Èa. B{X______(AVZw) H$b§Ÿ& B{X______(Am`Z) Hw$MuŸ& idi______(atanu) kalaM. idi______(¡yana) kurc•. 7. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó______(ѧéÅǦ) 16. ______(A¨) õ³Ææÿ$ ç³#ïÜÞ. Zwìdw______({dÚm{W©) ______(A{X) noé nwñgrŸ& nuvvu______(vidy¡rthi) ______(adi) p£ru puss•. 8. ¯óþ¯èþ$______(¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$yæþ$) 17. Vøí³______(õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$) õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? ZoZw______(^maVr`wSw>) Jmo{n______(ñZo{hVwambw) noao{_{Q>? n£nu______(bh¡rat•yu∂u) gªpi______(sn£hitur¡lu) p£r£mi i? 9. Ðèþ$¯èþ…______(ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$) 18. Ðéâæý$Ï______(ѧéÅǦ°). _Z§______({dÚmW©wbw>) dmùiw>______({dÚm{W©{Z)Ÿ& manaM______(vidy¡rthulu) v¡˚˚u______(vidy¡rthini)

128

Lesson 6

19. CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$______(í³ÍÏ).

20. Òâæý$Ï______(¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$yæþ$).

B{d a|Sw>______({npëb>)

drùiw______(^maVr`wSw>)Ÿ&

ivi reM∂u______(pilli).

v•˚˚u______(bh¡rat•yu∂u)

b. Rewrite the followingg sentences changing the nouns and pronouns into plural.

1. A¨ í³ÍÏ.

6. C¨ MæüË….

A{X {npëbŸ&

B{X H$b§Ÿ&

adi pilli.

idi kalaM.

2. C¨ ¯é Væü¨.

7. A¨ ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

B{X Zm J{XŸ&

A{X Zr nwñVH§$Ÿ&

idi n¡ gadi.

adi n• pustakaM.

3. A™èþ¯èþ$ ѧéÅǦ.

8. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþÑ.

AVZw {dÚm{W©Ÿ&

Zwìdw Zm ñZo{hVw{S>{dŸ&

atanu vidy¡rthi.

nuvvu n¡ sn£hitu∂ivi.

4. ¯óþ¯èþ$ B…{«§æþ$×ìý~.

9. BÄæý$¯èþ yéMæütÆæÿ$.

ZoZw Am§Y«wpÊUŸ&

Am`Z S>mŠQ>éŸ&

n£nu ¡Mdhru∆∆i.

¡yana ∂¡k aru.

5. BÐðþ$ ѧéÅǦ°.

10. C™èþ¯èþ$ Asñý…yæþÆæÿ$.

Am_o {dÚm{W©{ZŸ&

BVZw AQ>S| >éŸ&

¡me vidy¡rthini.

itanu a eM∂aru.

c. Fill in the blanks with suitable kinship terms.

1. Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ Ò$ 2. 3.

________________ _r ZmÞJm[a ZmÞJmé _r ________________ m• n¡nnag¡ri n¡nnag¡ru m• ________________ Ò$ Mæü*™èþ$Ç Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ Ò$ ________________ _r Hy$Vw[a Hy$Vwé _r ________________ m• k¶turi k¶turu m• ________________ Ò$ Möyæþ$Mæü$ Möyæþ$Mæü$ Ò$ ________________ _r H$moSw>Hw$ H$moSw>Hw$ _r ________________ m• ko∂uku ko∂uku m• ________________ 129

An Intensive Course in Telugu

4. Ò$ AÐèþ$ÃV>Ç ™èþ…{yìþ Ò$ 5. 6.

________________ _r Aå_Jm[a V§{S´> _r ________________ m• ammag¡ri taM∂ri m• ________________ Ò$ Mæü*™èþ$Ç Möyæþ$Mæü$ Ò$ ________________ _r Hy$Vwé H$moSw>Hw$ _r ________________ m• k¶turu ko∂uku m• ________________ Ò$ Möyæþ$Mæü$ Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ Ò$ ________________ _r H$moSw>Hw$ Hy$Vwé _r ________________ m• ko∂uku k¶turu m• ________________

d. Write Telugu words for the following numerals. 3 __________ 11 _________ 6 __________ 13 _________ 8 __________ 1 __________ 4 __________ 14 _________ 7 __________ 12 _________ 5 __________ 15 _________ e. Answer the following questions using the human numerals as per the numbers given in brackets.

1. Ðéâæý$å G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

4. Òâæý$å G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

dmùiw E|V_§{X?

drùiw E|V_§{X?

v¡˚˚u eMtamaMdi? (2)

v•˚˚u eMtamaMdi? (8)

2. Òâæý$å G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

5. Ðóþ$… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$?

drùiw E|V_§{X?

_| E|V_§{X{_?

v•˚˚u eMtamaMdi? (4)

m£M eMtamaMdimi? (6)

3. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

6. Ðèþ$¯èþ… G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$?

_ré E|V_§{X?

_Z§ E|V_§{X{_?

m•ru eMtamaMdi? (3)

manaM eMtamaMdimi? (5)

f. Change the following into plural.

1. ^èþ*yæþ$ ________.

2. ÌñýMæüPò³r$t ________.

________Ÿ& c¶∂u ________.

________Ÿ& lekkape  u ________.

MySw>

bo¸$noÅx> 130

Lesson 6

3. Mæü*Æøa ________.

5. E…¨ ________.

________Ÿ& k¶rcª ________. 4. Æ> ________. am ________Ÿ& r¡ ________.

________Ÿ& uMdi ________. Ìôý§æþ$ ________. boXw ________Ÿ& l£du ________.

Hy$Mm}

C§{X

6.

g. Write yes-no type questions for the following sentences.

1. C¨ MæüË….

2. A¨ ºËÏ.

3. C¨ ™èþË$ç³#.

B{X H$b§Ÿ&

A{X ~ëbŸ&

B{X VbwnwŸ&

idi kalaM

adi balla.

idi talupu.

Ðóþ$… _| m£M or Ðèþ$¯èþ… _Z§ manaM. 1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæüyìþÑ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~. ________________ C§æþªÆæÿ…. h. Fill up the blanks with

_______________ BÔa§Ÿ& nuvvu oka∂ivi. n£nu oka∆∆i. ____________ iddaraM. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~. BÄæý$¯èþ JMæüÆæÿ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæüyìþÑ. ______________ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ…. ZoZw AmoH$pÊU. Am`Z AmoH$é. Zwìdw AmoH${S>{d ______________ _w½Jwa§Ÿ& n£nu oka∆∆i. ¡yana okaru. nuvvu oka∂ivi. ___________ mugguraM. Ðóþ$… C§æþªÆæÿ…. Ðéâæý$å C§æþªÆæÿ$. ________________ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ…. _| BÔa§Ÿ& dmùiw BÔéŸ& ________________ ZbwJwa§Ÿ& m£M iddaraM. v¡˚˚u iddaru. ____________ naluguraM.

Zwìdw AmoH${S>{d. ZoZw AmoH$pÊU

2. 3.

i. Read the following.

Ò$ Ðèþ*™èþ–¿êçÙ HÑ$sìý? D Mæü$ÈaË$ ÌñýMæüPò³rt…yìþ. çÜ${ºçßýÃ×ýÅ…V>Ææÿ$ B…{«§æþ$yæþ$. Ðéâæý$å 糯ðþ²…yæþ$Ðèþ$…¨ ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$.

Ææÿ…VæüÝëÓÑ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$. CÑ ç³«§é²Ë$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. ™öÑ$è MæüÐèþÆæÿ$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>!

131

UNIT II Lesson 7

Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ AÐðþ$ÇM>ÌZ E¯é²Ææÿ$

MY FATHER IS IN

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : Æ>, ç³#Ææÿ$Úù™èþ¢…! AÌê Mæü*Æøa! M>ïœ ¡çÜ$Mø!

Come on Purushottam! sit there. Take this coffee.

ç³#Ææÿ$Úù™èþ…¢ : D A»ê¾Æÿ$$ GÐèþÆæÿ$, Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#?

Who is this boy, Ramarao?

Æ>Ðèþ* : Ðéyæþ$ Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ Möyæþ$Mæü$. Ðéyìþ õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ.

He is my younger brother's son. His name is Ravi.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$?

Where is your younger brother?

Æ>Ðèþ* : C糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$. Ðéyæþ$ AÐðþ$ÇM>ÌZ E¯é²yæþ$.

Now he is not here. He is in America.

132

AMERICA

Lesson 7

ç³#Ææÿ$ : AÌêV>! B A»ê¾Æÿ$$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

I see! Who is that boy?

Æ>Ðèþ* : Òyæþ$ Ðèþ* A»ê¾Æÿ$$. Òyìþ õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ$$.

He is my son. His name is Ramu.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : B AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$Ë$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Who are those girls?

Æ>Ðèþ* : A¨ Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$. §é° õ³Ææÿ$ çÜÆæÿâæý. C¨ Ðèþ* AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$. ©° õ³Ææÿ$ WÇf.

That is my youngerbrother's daughter. Her name is Sarala. This is my daughter. Her name is Girija.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : ´ë´ë! C¨ H… »ŸÐèþ$Ã? A¨ H… »ŸÐèþ$Ã?

Papa! What doll is this? and what doll is that?

WÇf : C¨ H¯èþ$Væü$ »ŸÐèþ$Ã…yìþ! A¨ Mø† »ŸÐèþ$Ã!

This is an elephant-doll, sir! That is monkey-doll.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : »êº*! D »ŸÐèþ$à HÑ$sìý?

Babu! What is this doll?

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : A¨ ç³#Í »ŸÐèþ$Ã…yîþ! çÜÆæÿâê! ± íÜ…çßý… »ŸÐèþ$à H¨?

That is a tiger-doll, sir! Sarala! Where is your lion-doll?

çÜÆæÿâæý : A§æþ$Vø, ¯é íÜ…çßý… »ŸÐèþ$Ã!

There it is my lion-doll!

ÆæÿÑ : C§æþ$Vø¯èþ…yìþ, Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç ¸ùsZ! Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ AÐðþ$ÇM>ÌZ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

Here is my father's photograph, Sir! He is in America.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : AÌêV>! H¨ CÌê CÐèþ#Ó! D ¸ùsZÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$?

I see! Give me! (Let me see it!) Who is/are there in this photograph?

ÆæÿÑ : ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ. ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ* Ðèþ* AÐèþ*à E¯é²Ææÿ$ B ¸ùsZÌZ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ìôý¯èþ$. Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Mæü*yé Ìôý§æþ$.

Take it, sir! see. My father and my mother are in that photograph. I am not there. My sister is also not there.

133

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜÆæÿâæý : B ¸ùsZÌZ ¯óþ¯èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am there in that photograph.

ÆæÿÑ : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌôýÐèþ#. ¯óþ¯èþ* Ìôý¯èþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… C§æþªÆæÿ… Ìôý…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… C…MöMæü ¸ùsZÌZ E¯é²….

You are not there. Nor I am. Both of us are not there. We are in another photograph.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : D ¸ùsZÌZ ¯èþ$ÐèþNÓ Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏË* G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÌôýÆæÿ$?

Why are you and your sister not there in this photograph?

ÆæÿÑ : A糚yæþ$ Ðóþ$… CMæüPyæþ Ìôý…; Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E¯é²….

At that time we were not here. We were in Guntur.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : A糚yæþ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E¯é²Æ>? AMæüPyæþ G…§æþ$Mæü$¯é²Ææÿ$?

Were you in Guntur at that time? Why were you there?

çÜÆæÿâæý : D ¸ùsZÌZ ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. ¯óþ¯èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. Ðéyæþ$Ìôýyæþ$.

Look at this photograph, sir! I am in this. He is not there.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : B ¸ùsZÌZ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó¯é²Ðèþ# ; D ¸ùsZÌZ A™èþ¯èþ$¯é²yæþ$.

You are in that photograph, He is in this photograph.

çÜÆæÿâæý : CÌê ^èþ*yæþ$, D ¸ùsZÌZ AÐèþ*à ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ ÌôýÆæÿ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… E¯é²…. B ¸ùsZÌZ AÐèþ$à E…¨.

Look here! Mother and father are not there in this photograph. We are there. Mother is in that photograph.

³ç #Ææÿ$ : Ò$Ææÿ$ A…§æþÆæÿ* CÌê Ææÿ…yìþ. D »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ.

All of you come here. Take these dolls.

Æ>Ðèþ* : ÆæÿÒ! ± ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk ºrtË$ HÑ?

Ravi! Where are your birthday clothes?

ÆæÿÑ : CÑVø ¯é ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk ºrtË$.

Here are my birthday clothes. 134

Lesson 7

ç³#Ææÿ$ : ± ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G糚yæþ$?

When is your birthday?

ÆæÿÑ : CÐóþÓâôý!

Today!

ç³#Ææÿ$ : CÐóþÓâæý ± ç³#sìýt¯èþ Æøgê?

Is today your birthday?.1

ÆæÿÑ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. A§æþ$Vø Ðèþ* AMæüPÄæý$Å. §é° ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk Æóÿç³#.

Yes. There is my elder sister. Tomorrow is her birthday.

ç³#Ææÿ$ : Ò$ AMæüPÄæý$Å ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk ºrtË$ HÑ?

Where are your sister's birthday clothes

ÆæÿÑ : AÑVø!

There they are!

ç³#Ææÿ$ : Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏË$ H¨?

Where is your younger sister?

ÆæÿÑ : C§æþ$Vø!

Here she is!

ç³#Ææÿ$ : ´ë´ë! D »ŸÐèþ$à ¡çÜ$Mø.

Papa! Take this doll.

DRILLS a. Expansion drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3.

Model (ii)

Ò$Ææÿ$ CÌê Ææÿ…yìþ. Ò$Ææÿ$ A…§æþÆæÿ* CÌê Ææÿ…yìþ. Ò$Ææÿ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>…yìþ. Ò$Ææÿ$ AMæüPyæþ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ. Ò$Ææÿ$ Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$Ï ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. 135

1. 2. 3.

A§æþ$Vø MæüË…! A§æþ$Vø¯èþ…yîþ MæüË…! C§æþ$Vø ÆæÿÐèþ$! AÑVø ¸ùsZË$! CÑVø Mæü$ÈaË$!

An Intensive Course in Telugu

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

B A»ê¾Æÿ$$ Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$. (Ðéyæþ$) Ðéyæþ$ Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$. B A»ê¾Æÿ$$ Ðèþ* A»ê¾Æÿ$$. (Ðéyæþ$) D A»ê¾Æÿ$$ ¯é Möyæþ$Mæü$. (Òyæþ$) B A»ê¾Æÿ$$ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ Möyæþ$Mæü$. (A™èþ¯èþ$) D A»ê¾Æÿ$$ ¯é ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ Möyæþ$Mæü$. (C™èþ¯èþ$)

Ðéâæý$å Ðéâæý$å A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$. 1. A™èþ¯èþ$ 2. A™èþ¯èþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$. 3. BÐðþ$ BÐðþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E…¨. 4. BÄæý$¯èþ BÄæý$¯èþ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðéyæþ$ Model (ii) Ðéyæþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$. B AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ Ðèþ* AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$. (A¨) A¨ A¨ Ðèþ* AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$. A¨ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E…¨. 1. B AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ yéMæütÆæÿ$V>Ç Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$. 1. ÆæÿÒ! Ðèþ$¯èþ… C糚yæþ$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²…? (BÐðþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ 2. D AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ ¯é Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$. (C¨) Ðóþ$… 3. D AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ ¯é ^ðþÌñýÏË$. (C¨) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó 4. D AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yìþ ^ðþÌñýÏË$. Ò$Ææÿ$ (DÐðþ$) 2. Æ>«§é! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ E¯é²Ðé? Model (iii) Ðóþ$… Ò$Ææÿ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðéyæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²…. Ðéâæý$Ï Ðóþ$… A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðóþ$… A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²…. 3. Ðéâæý$Ï A糚yæþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ BÐðþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²¯èþ$. BÄæý$¯èþ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$¯èþ… ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ðèþ#. Ò$Ææÿ$ 136

Lesson 7 Model (iv)

¯óþ¯èþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÐèþ#. Ò$Ææÿ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. Ðóþ$… Ðóþ$… A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðèþ$¯èþ… A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý…. Ðéyæþ$ Ðéyæþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$. BÄæý$¯èþ BÄæý$¯èþ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. BÐðþ$ BÐðþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. Ðéâæý$Ï

Ðéâæý$Ï A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. A¨ A¨ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$. 1. A糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ ÌôýÐèþ#. Ðóþ$… BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$¯èþ… BÐðþ$ 2. Ðéyæþ$ D ¸ùsZÌZ Ìôýyæþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðéâæý$Ï Ò$Ææÿ$ A¨ BÐðþ$ 3. Ðéâæý$Ï C糚yæþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ ÌôýÆæÿ$. Ðóþ$… ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó

c. Transformation drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#. A™èþ° õ³Ææÿ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#. 1. Ðéyæþ$ ÆæÿÑ. 2. Òyæþ$ Æ>Ðèþ$$. 3. A¨ çÜÆæÿâæý.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌôýÐèþ#. ¯èþ$ÐèþNÓ ÌôýÐèþ#/¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé ÌôýÐèþ#. 1. A™èþ¯èþ$ Ìôýyæþ$. 2. BÄæý$¯èþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. 3. ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ AMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$.

d. Response drill Model (i)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A糚yæþ$ AMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ðé?(Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ) ¯óþ¯èþ$ A糚yæþ$ AMæüPyæþ Ìôý¯èþ$; Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E¯é²¯èþ$. 137

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. 2. 3.

Ò$Ææÿ$ C糚yæþ$ ´ùÝëtïœçÜ$ÌZ E¯é²Æ>? (çÜ*PÌZÏ) Ðèþ$¯èþ… A糚yæþ$ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ E¯é²Ðèþ*? (Væü¨ÌZ) ¯óþ¯èþ$ A糚yæþ$ Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²¯é? (M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ)

Model (ii)

D ¸ùsZÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (A™èþ¯èþ$&C™èþ¯èþ$) A™èþ¯èþ$¯é²yæþ$; C™èþ¯èþ$ Ìôýyæþ$.

1. Væü¨ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (Ò$Ææÿ$ & Ðóþ$…) 2. M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (¯óþ¯èþ$ & ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) 3. CMæüPyæþ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (Ðèþ$¯èþ… & Ðéâæý$Ï)

Model (iii)

Model (iv)

± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… H¨? A. C§æþ$Vø ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. B. A§æþ$Vø ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. 1. ± »ŸÐèþ$à H¨? 2. VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… H¨? 3. Ò$ MæüË… H¨?

± ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ HÑ? A. CÑVø ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. B. AÑVø ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. 1. ± »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ HÑ? 2. VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$ HÑ? 3. Ò$ MæüÌêË$ HÑ?

e. Combination drill

2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ¸ùsZÌZ E¯é²Ðèþ#. ¯óþ¯èþ$ D ¸ùsZÌZ E¯é²¯èþ$. Ðéyæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$. 3. ¯óþ¯èþ$ AMæüPyæþ Ìôý¯èþ$. Òyæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$. Ðéyæþ$ AMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$. Ðéyæþ*Òyæþ* CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$. 1. Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E¯é²Ææÿ$. 4. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ E¯é²Ðèþ#. Ðèþ* AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E¯é²Ææÿ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ E¯é²yæþ$.

Model

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions using correct forms of the cue words as shown in the model.

GÐèþÇ õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ? (A™èþ¯èþ$) A™èþ° õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ. 1. GÐèþÇ õ³Ææÿ$ ѯø§Šþ? (Ðéyæþ$) 3. GÐèþÇ õ³Ææÿ$ çÜÆæÿâæý? (C¨) 2. GÐèþÇ õ³Ææÿ$ Vøí³? (Òyæþ$) 4. GÐèþÇ õ³Ææÿ$ WÇf? (A¨)

Model

138

Lesson 7

b. Fill up the blanks with whichever is appropriate.

E¯é²¯èþ$/E¯é²…/E¯é²Ðèþ#/E¯é²Ææÿ$/E¯é²yæþ$/E…¨

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ÌZ______ 7. Ðèþ$¯èþ… CMæüPyæþ______ A™èþ¯èþ$ A糚yæþ$ CMæüPyóþ______ 8. Ðèþ* AÐèþ$à AMæüPyæþ______ ¯óþ¯èþ* A™èþ¯èþ* Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ______ 9. Ðéâæý$Ï GMæüPyæþ______? 10.D ¸ùsZÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$______? Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðóþ$Ðèþ$* CMæüPyæþ______ 11.Ðéyæþ$ GMæüPyæþ______? ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C糚yæþ$ GMæüPyæþ______? 12.Ðèþ*çÜtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ AMæüPyæþ______ Ò$Ææÿ$ Væü¨ÌZ ______ c. Fill up the blanks with Ìôý¯èþ$/Ìôý…/ÌôýÐèþ#/Ìôýyæþ$/ÌôýÆæÿ$/Ìôý§æþ$ whichever is appropriate.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó CMæüPyæþ______ A™èþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ AMæüPyæþ______ ¯óþ¯èþ$ D ¸ùsZÌZ______ Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ CMæüPyæþ______ ¯óþ¯èþ* A™èþ¯èþ* CMæüPyæþ______ Ðéâæý$Ï Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ______

7. A™èþ¯èþ* BÐóþ$ CMæüPyæþ______ 8. ¯óþ¯èþ* ¯èþ$ÐèþNÓ AMæüPyæþ______ 9. Ðèþ* AÐèþ$à CMæüPyæþ______ 10. Ðèþ$¯èþ… M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ______ 11. Ðóþ$… CMæüPyæþ______ 12. Ò$Ææÿ$ AMæüPyæþ______

d. Write the plural forms for the following singular forms.

H¨ A¨ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó

: : :

Ìôý¯èþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ ÌôýÐèþ#

______ ______ ______

: : :

______ ______ ______

e. Write the plural forms for the following.by adding plural suffix.

Væü¨ : AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ : VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… :

MæüË… A»ê¾Æÿ$$ Vøyæþ

______ ______ ______

: : :

______ ______ ______

f. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the model.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü*yé Ìôý¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ* Ìôý¯èþ$. 1. Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ Mæü*yé E¯é²yæþ$.

2. BÄæý$¯èþ Mæü*yé D ¸ùsZÌZ E¯é²Ææÿ$. 3. A¨ Mæü*yé E…¨. 4. BÐðþ$ Mæü*yé CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$.

Model

139

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

AÐðþ$ÇM> E¯é²Ææÿ$1 AÌê A»ê¾Æÿ$$ Ðéyæþ$ Ðéyìþ E¯é²yæþ$ C糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ì- ýô yæþ$ Òyæþ$ Òyìþ AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ü A¨ §é° C¨ ©° »ŸÐèþ$à H¯èþ$Væü$ Mø† ç³#Í íÜ…çßý… A§æþ$Vø1 C§æþ$Vø1 CÌê CÐèþ#Ó

Ìôý¯èþ$ ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Ìôý§æþ$2 E¯é²¯èþ$ ÌôýÐèþ#2 Ìôý… E¯é²…

America; USA he/she (hon.) is/was; they (hum.) are/were in that way/direction/ manner boy; son (with pl. pro. adj.) he (rem. inf.) oblique base of Ðéyæþ$ he (inf. & eql.) is/was now; at present here; at this place neg. of E¯é²yæþ$ he (inf. prox.) oblique base of Òyæþ$ girl; daughter (with pl. pro. adj.) she (rem. inf.) çoblique base of A¨ she (prox. inf.) çoblique base of C¨ doll; picture

G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÌôýÆæÿ$1 A糚yæþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ AMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$2 E¯é²Ðèþ# ÌôýÆæÿ$2 E…¨2 A…§æþÆæÿ* ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk ºrtË$ CÑVø G糚yæþ$ CÐóþÓâæý A§æþ$Vø2 AMæüPÄæý$Å Æóÿç³# AÑVø H¨2

elephant monkey tiger lion There it is! Here it is!

in this way/direction/ manner give

C§æþ$Vø2 140

neg. of E¯é²¯èþ$ younger sister neg. of E…¨ I am/was neg. of E¯é²Ðèþ# neg. of E¯é²… we (excl. & incl.) are/ were why; for what reason neg. of E¯é²Ææÿ$ then; at that time Guntur (a city) there; at that place you (hon. sg. & pl.) are/were you (non-hon. sg.) are/were neg. of E¯é²Ææÿ$ she (inf.) is/was

all the people birth-day clothes here they (neut.) are when today there she (inf. & eql.) is elder sister tomorrow there they (neut) are who (fem. inf. & eql.) is? where she (inf.& eql.) is? here she (fem. & eql.) is

Lesson 7

GRAMMAR NOTES 7.1. In this lesson the non-future tense forms of the existential verb (4.3.) are introduced. This verb is like the verb be in English. In lesson 4 the neuter gender forms (both singular and plural) were introduced. With the forms introduced in this lesson the paradigm is complete, and it is as follows: Notice that there is a person-gender-number agreement between the verb and the subject marked by different suffixes which are called personal suffixes. Though these personal suffixes reflect person-gender-number we call them simply personal markers for easy reference. ¯óþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²¯èþ$. I am/was here. I per.* sg. n£nu ikka∂a unn¡nu. I per pl. (excl.) Ðóþ$… CMæüPyæþ E¯é²…. We are/were here. m£M ikka∂a unn¡M. I per. pl. (incl.) Ðèþ$¯èþ… CMæüPyæþ E¯é²…. We are/were here. manaM ikka∂a unn¡M. II per. non-hon. sg. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ðèþ#. You are/were here. nuvvu ikka∂a unn¡vu. II per. pl. & hon. sg. Ò$Ææÿ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$. You are/were here. m•ru ikka∂a unn¡ru. III per. inf. masc. sg. Ðéyæþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$. He is/was here. v¡∂u ikka∂a unn¡∂u. III per. eql. masc. sg. A™èþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$. He is/was here. atanu ikka∂a unn¡∂u. A¨ CMæüPyæþ E…¨. She is/was here. III per. inf. fem. sg. adi ikka∂a uMdi. III per. eql. fem. sg. BÐðþ$ CMæüPyæþ E…¨. She is/was here. ¡me ikka∂a uMdi. * epi.: epicene per.: person fem.: feminine incl.: inclusive eql.: equal excl.: exclusive

hon.: honorific hum.: human

masc.: masculine neut.: neuter

141

pl.: plural sg.: singular

An Intensive Course in Telugu III per. hon. hum. epi. sg. III per. formal hum. epi. sg. III per. hum. epi. pl.

BÐðþ$/BÄæý$¯èþ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

He/She is/was here.

¡me/¡yana ikka∂a unn¡ru.

ÐéÆæÿ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

He/She is/was here.

v¡ru ikka∂a unn¡ru.

Ðéâæý$å CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

They are/were here.

v¡˚˚u ikka∂a unn¡ru. III per. neut. sg.

A¨ CMæüPyæþ E…¨.

It is/was here.

adi ikka∂a uMdi. III per. neut. pl.

AÑ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

They are/were here.

avi ikka∂a unn¡yi. Note from the above paradigm that E¯é²Ææÿ$ unn¡ru is common for second and third person plural/honorific/formal singular; and E…¨ uMdi is common for third person inferior/equal feminine singular and neuter singular. 7.2. The corresponding negative forms of those presented in 7.1. are as follows: Affirmative Description form of the Negative forms of the existential of the existential verb person-genderverb. number E¯é²¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý¯èþ$. I am/was not here. I per. sg. n£nu ikka∂a l£nu. E¯é²… Ðóþ$… CMæüPyæþ Ìôý…. We are/were I per. excl. pl. m£M ikka∂a l£M. not here. E¯é²… Ðèþ$¯èþ… CMæüPyæþ Ìôý…. We are/were I per. incl. pl. manaM ikka∂a l£M. not here. E¯é²Ðèþ# ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÐèþ#. You are/were II per. nonnuvvu ikka∂a l£vu. not here. hon. sg. E¯é²Ææÿ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. You are/were II per. pl & m•ru ikka∂a l£ru. not here. hon. sg. E¯é²yæþ$ Ðéyæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$. He is/was not here. III per. inf. v¡∂u ikka∂a l£∂u. masc. sg. 142

Lesson 7

E¯é²yæþ$

A™èþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$.

He is/was not here.

III per. eql. atanu ikka∂a l£∂u. masc. sg. E…¨ A¨ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$. She is/was not here. III per. inf. fem. adi ikka∂a l£du. sg. E…¨ BÐðþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$. She is/was not here. III per. eql. fem. ¡me ikka∂a l£du. sg. E¯é²Ææÿ$ BÐðþ$/BÄæý$¯èþ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. He/She is/was III per. hon. hum ¡me/¡yana ikka∂a l£ru. not here. epi. sg. E¯é²Ææÿ$ ÐéÆæÿ$ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. He/She is/was III per. formal v¡ru ikka∂a l£ru. not here. hum. epi. sg. E¯é²Ææÿ$ Ðéâæý$å CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÆæÿ$. They are/were III per. hum. v¡˚˚u ikka∂a l£ru. not here. epi. pl. E…¨ A¨ CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$. It is/was not here. III per. neut. sg. adi ikka∂a l£du. E¯é²Æÿ$$ AÑ CMæüPyæþ ÌôýÐèþ#. They are/were III per. neut. pl. avi ikka∂a l£vu. not here Note from the above paradigm that ÌôýÐèþ# l£vu is common for II person nonhonorific singular and III person neuter plural, that Ìôý§æþ$ l£du is common for III person inferior feminine singular, III person equal feminine singular and III person netuer singular, and that ÌôýÆæÿ$ l£ru is common for II person plural and honorific singular, and III person plural and honorific/formal singular. 7.3. The tense forms of the verb in Telugu show an agreement with the person-gender-number of the subject. The personal suffixes which mark the person-gender-number of the subject are listed below.

¯óþ¯èþ$ n£nu

Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… m£M/manaM

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó nuvvu

: ¯èþ$ : nu : … : M : Ðèþ# : vu 143

E¯é²&¯èþ$

Ìôý&¯èþ$

unn¡-nu

l£-nu

E¯é²&…

Ìôý&¯èþ$

nn¡-M

l£-M

E¯é²&Ðèþ#

Ìôý&Ðèþ#

unn¡-vu

l£-vu

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ò$Ææÿ$

: m•ru : BÄæý$¯èþ/BÐðþ$/ÐéÆæÿ$ : ¡yana/¡me/v¡ru : Ðéâæý$å : v¡˚˚u : Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$ : v¡∂u/atanu : A¨/BÐðþ$ : adi/¡me : AÑ/CÑ : avi/ivi :

Ææÿ$

E¯é²&Ææÿ$

Ìôý&Ææÿ$

ru

unn¡-ru

l£-ru

Ææÿ$

E¯é²&Ææÿ$

Ìôý&Ææÿ$

ru

unn¡-ru

l£-ru

Ææÿ$

E¯é²&Ææÿ$

Ìôý&Ææÿ$

ru

unn¡-ru

l£-ru

yæþ$

E¯é²&yæþ$

Ìôý&yæþ$

∂u

unn¡-∂u

l£-∂u

¨/§æþ$

E…&¨

Ìôý&§æþ$

di/du

uM-di

l£-du

Æÿ$$/Ðèþ#

E¯é²&Æÿ$$ Ìôý&Ðèþ#

yi/vu

unn¡-yi

l£-vu

7.4. All the illustrations for the third person pronouns given in 7.1., 7.2. and 7.3. are the remote pronouns. The same personal suffixes hold good for the proximate pronouns also.

Ðéyæþ$/Òyæþ$ E¯é²yæþ$.

A™èþ¯èþ$/C™èþ¯èþ$ E¯é²yæþ$.

v¡∂u/v•∂u unn¡∂u.

atanu/itanu unn¡∂u.

BÐðþ$/DÐðþ$ E…¨/E¯é²Ææÿ$.

BÄæý$¯èþ/DÄæý$¯èþ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

¡me/•me uMdi/unn¡ru.

¡yana/•yana unn¡ru.

ÐéÆæÿ$/ÒÆæÿ$ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

Ðéâæý$å/Òâæý$å E¯é²Ææÿ$.

v¡ru/v•ru unn¡ru.

v¡˚˚u/v•˚˚u unn¡ru.

A¨/C¨ E…¨.

AÑ/CÑ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

adi/idi uMdi.

avi/ivi unn¡yi.

7.5. Notice that the above forms of the existential verb both affirmative and negative are in non-future tense. They express past tense and present tense as well.

C糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²¯èþ$.

Now I am here.

ippu∂u n£nu ikka∂a unn¡nu. 144

Lesson 7

A糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²¯èþ$.

At that time I was here.

appu∂u n£nu ikka∂a unn¡nu.

C糚yæþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$.

Now he is not here.

ippu∂u atanu ikka∂a l£∂u.

A糚yæþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ Ìôýyæþ$.

At that time he was not here.

appu∂u atanu ikka∂a l£∂u. 7.6. lesson.

The third person inferior singular pronouns are introduced in this

Ðéyæþ$ v¡∂u ‘he’ is the third person remote inferior masculine singular Ðéyìþ v¡∂i is the corresponding oblique base. It also means ‘his’. 7.6.2. Òyæþ$ v•∂u ‘he’ is the third person proximate inferior masculine singular pronoun. Òyìþ v•∂i is the corresponding oblique base. It also means ‘his’. 7.6.3. The neuter singular pronouns A¨ adi ‘it’ C¨ idi ‘it’ along with their oblique bases (1.2. and 3.5.) §é° d¡ni and ©° d•ni respectively are

7.6.1. pronoun.

also used as third person inferior feminine singular pronouns. 7.6.3.1. A¨ adi ‘it; she’ is the third person remote neuter and inferior feminine singular pronoun. §é° d¡ni is the corresponding oblique base. 7.6.3.2. C¨ idi ‘it; she’ is the third person proximate neuter and inferior feminine singular pronoun. ©° d•ni is the corresponding oblique base. 7.6.4. These inferior pronouns Ðéyæþ$ v¡∂u, Òyæþ$ v•∂u, A¨ adi and C¨ idi along with their oblique bases are used to refer to own and intimate children, and persons with intimate and inferior relationships. 7.7. AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ amm¡yi ‘girl’ and A»ê¾Æÿ$$ abb¡yi ‘boy’ also denote ‘daughter’ and ‘son’ respectively when used with plural pronominal adjectives, which in that context function as singular pronominal adjectives.

Ò$ AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ Ðèþ* A»ê¾Æÿ$$

m• amm¡yi m¡ abb¡yi 145

‘your (sg.) daughter’ ‘my son’

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ç AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ç A»ê¾Æÿ$$

≈armag¡ri amm¡yi ‘Mr. Sarma’s daughter’ r¡vug¡ri abb¡yi ‘Mr. Rao’s son’

7.8. Recall that the C i ending noun bases change their final C i to E u before the plural suffix & - Ë$ -lu (5.7.1.). Æ- ÿ$$ yi ending nouns are exceptions to this change.

AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$&Ë$ A»ê¾Æÿ$$&Ë$

amm¡yi-lu abb¡yi-lu

‘girls’ ‘boys’

7.9. Notice the use of the length of the final vowel to mean ‘also’ in sentences like ¯óþ¯èþ* Ìôý¯èþ$ n£n¶ l£nu ‘I am also not there.’ Here the length of the final vowel is equivalent to Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ ‘also’.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ìôý¯èþ$; Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Mæü*yé Ìôý§æþ$. n£nu l£nu; m¡ cellelu k¶∂¡ l£du.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ìôý¯èþ$; Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË* Ìôý§æþ$.

‘I am not there. My sister is also not there.’

n£nu l£nu; m¡ cellel¶ l£du.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌôýÐèþ#; ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü*yé Ìôý¯èþ$. nuvvu l£vu; n£nu k¶∂¡ l£nu.

‘You are not there. I am also not there.’

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌôýÐèþ#; ¯óþ¯èþ* Ìôý¯èþ$. nuvvu l£vu; n£n¶ l£nu. Recall the coordinative constructions (5.6.) like ÆæÿÒ Æ>Ðèþ$* rav• r¡m¶ ‘Ravi and Ramu’ where the length of the final short vowels of the constituents functions as the coordinative conjuction ‘and’. In both these places the extended length of the final syllables is functioning as an inclusive marker. (Hereafter we shall call this extended length of the final syllable of a constituent as inclusive marker.) 7.9.1. The inclusive marker (i.e., the extended length of the final syllable of a constituent), when used with more than one coordinative constituent in a sentence or a phrase, denotes ‘and’, and the inclusive marker when used with only one constituent it denotes ‘also’. 146

Lesson 7

D ¸ùsZÌZ ¯èþ$ÐèþNÓ Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏË* G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÌôýÆæÿ$? • fª ªlª nuvv¶ m• cellel¶ eMduku l£ru? ‘Why are you and your sister not there in this photograph.

D ¸ùsZÌZ AÐèþ*à ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. • fª ªlª amm¡ n¡nnag¡r¶ l£ru. Mother and father are not there in this photograph.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌôýÐèþ#; ¯óþ¯èþ* Ìôý¯èþ$. nuvvu l£vu; n£n¶ l£nu. You are not there; I am also not there.

ÆæÿÑ E¯é²yæþ$; Ë™é E…¨. ravi unn¡∂u; lat¡ uMdi. Ravi is there; Lata is also there. 7.10. G…§æþ$Mæü$ eMduku ‘why’ is an interrogative word (1.3.; 4.4.) used in questions for eliciting ‘reason’ and ‘cause’.

A糚yæþ$ appu∂u ‘then’, and C糚yæþ$ ippu∂u ‘now’ are the time G糚yæþ$ eppu∂u ‘when’ is the corresponding interrogative time adverb. AMæüPyæþ akka∂a ‘there’, and CMæüPyæþ ikka∂a ‘here’ are the place 7.12. adverbs. The corresponding interrogative place adverb is GMæüPyæþ ekka∂a ‘where’. 7.11. adverbs.

7.13. In this lesson the following indicative predicates are introduced. These indicative predicates can be used as independent sentences also, in the way the words AÐèþ#¯èþ$ avunu ‘yes’ and M>§æþ$ k¡du ‘no’ are used. 7.13.1. A§æþ$Vø adugª (remote) ‘There it is!’ and C§æþ$Vø idugª (proximate) ‘Here it is!’ are the neuter singular indicative predicates. The corresponding interrogative word is H¨ £di ‘which one’ (1.3.).

¯é MæüË… H¨? A§æþ$Vø! ± Væü¨ H¨? C§æþ$Vø?

n¡ kalaM £di? adugª! n• gadi £di? idugª!

‘Where/Which one is my pen?’ ‘There it is!’ or ‘That is (the one).’ ‘Where/Which one is your room?’ ‘Here it is!’ or ‘This is (the one).’ 147

An Intensive Course in Telugu 7.13.2. AÑVø avigª (remote) ‘There they are!’ and CÑVø ivigª (proximate) ‘Here they are!’ are the neuter plural indicative predicates. The corresponding interrogative word is HÑ £vi ‘which ones’ (1.3.).

¯é MæüÌêË$ HÑ? n¡ kal¡lu £vi? ‘Where/Which ones are my pens?’ AÑVø! avigª! ‘There they are!’ or ‘Those are (the ones).’ ± Væü§æþ$Ë$ HÑ? n• gadulu £vi? ‘Where/Which ones are your rooms?’ CÑVø? ivigª! ‘Here they are!’ or ‘These are (the ones).’ 7.13.3. A§æþ$Vø2 adugª (remote) ‘There she is!’ and C§æþ$Vø2 idugª (proximate) ‘Here she is!’ are the inferior or equal feminine singular indicative predicates. The corresponding interrogative word is H¨2 £di ‘where’ (1.3.).

ÆæÿÐèþ$ H¨? A§æþ$Vø! ÑÐèþ$Ë H¨? C§æþ$Vø? 7.14.

rama £di? adugª! vimala £di? idugª!

‘Where is Rama?’ ‘There she is!’ or ‘That one (is she).’ ‘Where is Vimala?’ ‘Here she is!’ or ‘This one (is she).’

Notice the following sandhi process.

C§æþ$Vø + A…yîþ = C§æþ$Vø¯èþ…yîþ?

‘Here it is, sir!’

idugª + aM∂• = idugªnaM∂• When the epicene honorific address marker &A…yîþ -aM∂• (2.10.) is added to a word (which is other than verb) ending in a long vowel a glide ¯Œþ n is inserted between the word and the address. However, if the long vowel is Bþ¡ the insertion of the glide seems to be optional.

C§æþ$Vø + A…yîþ = C§æþ$Vø¯èþ…yîþ?

‘Here it is, sir!’

idugª + aM∂• = idugªnaM∂•

A§óþ + A…yîþ = A§óþ¯èþ…yîþ?

‘That one is, sir!’

ad£ + aM∂• = ad£naM∂•

C…yìþÄæý* + A…yîþ = C…yìþÄæý*(A)…yîþ/ C…yìþÄæý*¯èþ…yîþ? ‘India, sir!’ iM∂iy¡ + aM∂• = iM∂iy¡(a)M∂• / iM∂iy¡naM∂•

148

Lesson 7 7.15.

When the imperative plural/honorific singular marker &A…yìþ -aM∂i

(2.8.1.) is added to a mono-syllabic long vowel ending base the long vowel optionally becomes short. The initial A a of the marker (suffix) &A…yìþ -aM∂i is dropped by the sandhi process stated in 3.13.1.

Æ> + A…yìþ = Æ>…yìþ/Ææÿ…yìþ r¡ + aM∂i = r¡M∂i/raM∂i ‘Please come.’ Ò$Ææÿ$ A…§æþÆæÿ* CÌê Ææÿ…yìþ. ‘All of you come here.’ m•ru aMdar¶ il¡ raM∂i.

CÌê il¡ ‘in this way/direction/manner’ and AÌê al¡ ‘in that way/ direction/manner’ are manner adverbs. But when used with the verbs Æ> r¡ ‘come’ CÐèþ#Ó ivvu ‘give’ ^èþ*yæþ$ c¶∂u ‘see/look’ Mæü*Æøa k¶rcª ‘sit’, etc. they 7.16.

also add a locative shade of meaning to the verb.

CÌê Æ>! il¡ r¡! ‘Come here! Come in this way! Come on!’ CÌê ^èþ*yæþ$! il¡ c¶∂u! ‘Look here! Look at this point.‘ AÌê Mæü*Æøa. al¡ k¶rcª. ‘Sit there.’ AÌê ^èþ*yæþ$! al¡ c¶∂u! ‘Look there! Look that side!’ CÌê CÐèþ#Ó! il¡ ivvu! ‘Give it (here/to me)!’ 7.17. CÐóþÓâæý ivv£˚a ‘today’ is pronounced as ivvæ–˚a. Because of this pronunciation some people tend to write this word as CÐéÓâæý ivv¡˚a.

149

UNIT II Lesson 8

HÐèþ$…yîþ! »êVæü$¯é²Æ>!

HELLO! HOW DO YOU DO?

AÆæÿ$×ý : HÐèþ$…yîþ! »êVæü$¯é²Æ>! MæüÆæÿ$×ý : Æ> AÆæÿ$×ê! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÌê E¯é²Ðèþ#? »êVæü$¯é²Ðé?

Hello, Madam! How are you doing? Come on, Aruna! How are you? Are you fine?

AÆæÿ$×ý : »êVæü$¯é²¯èþ$. Ò$Ææÿ…§æþÆæÿ* »êVæü$¯é²Æ>?

I am fine. Are all of you fine?

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : B! Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>ÆðÿÌê E¯é²Ææÿ$?

Yes! How is your father?

AÆæÿ$×ý : »êVæü$¯é²Ææÿ$.

He is fine.

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : Mæü*Æøa. Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$ÃyðþÌê E¯é²yæþ$?

Sit. How is your younger brother?

150

Lesson 8

AÆæÿ$×ý : »êVæü$¯é²yæþ$. Ò$ ´ëç³ »êVæü$…§é?

He is fine. How is your baby?

´ëç³ : »êVæü$¯é²¯èþ…yîþ! B Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*ÆøaMæü…yìþ. A¨ çÜÇV> Ìôý§æþ$. D Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ.

I am fine. Please don't sit in that chair. That is not all-right. Please sit in this chair.

AÆæÿ$×ý : ´ë´ë! CÌêÆ>! D »ŸÐèþ$à ¡çÜ$Mø.

Papa! come here. Take this doll.

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : Ððþâæý$Ï, ¡çÜ$Mø.

Go! Take it!

AÆæÿ$×ý : AÑ H… ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë…yîþ?

What are those books?

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : AÑ Æðÿ…yæþ* ™ðþË$Væü$ ¯èþÐèþËË$. CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ* C…XÏçÙ$ ¯èþÐèþËË$.

Those two are Telugu novels, these two are English novels.

AÆæÿ$×ý : CÐóþ¯é ™ðþË$Væü$ ¯èþÐèþËË$?

Are these the Telugu novels?

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. Òsìý õ³Ææÿ$Ï Ðèþ$…_Ðèþ$¯èþçÜ$, iÑ-™þè …-.

Yes, Their names are Mañci Manasu (Good Heart) and J•vitam (The life). Who are the authors of those books? These books are written by the same author, Aruna! Gopalarao. Papa! Turn on that light. Turn on the fan also. Open the window shutters. Papa don't turn on the fan. It is cold. Shut the windows also.

AÆæÿ$×ý : Ðésìý Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþË$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? MæüÆæÿ$×ý : Òsìý Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþ JMæüÆóÿ AÆæÿ$×ê! Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ#! ´ë´ë! B Ìñýr O $ ÐðþÄæý$ÅÐèþ*Ã! ¸ë¯èþ$ Mæü*yé ÐðþÆÿ$$Å! MìüsìýMîü ™èþË$ç³#Ë$ †Æÿ$$Å. AÆæÿ$×ý : ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü$ ´ë´ë! ^èþÍV> E…¨. MìüsìýMîüË$ Mæü*yé Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å. 151

An Intensive Course in Telugu

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : MìüsìýMîü ™èþË$ç³#Ë$ VæüsìýtV> ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæüÐèþ*Ã! Ððþ$ËÏV> ÐðþÆÿ$$Å!

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$…_ MæüÑ Mæü*yé!

Don't shut the window shutters so harsh, dear! shut them gently. Is Gopalarao the writer of those books? He is also a good poet.

AÆæÿ$×ý : B Æðÿ…yæþ* BÄæý$¯èþ ¯èþÐèþËÌôý¯é?

Are those two his novels?

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : B! BÄæý$¯èþ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ Mæü*yé Ðèþ$…_ MæüÑ.

Yes. His younger brother is also a good poet.

AÆæÿ$×ý : MæüÐé? Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™é?

A poet? or a writer?

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : Æðÿ…yæþ*! A™èþ° ¯èþÐèþË õ³Ææÿ$ çÜ$yìþVæü$…yæþ…

He is both. His novel is Su∂igu∆∂am (The whirlpool).

AÆæÿ$×ý : ÐéãϧæþªÆæÿ* Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌôý¯é?

Are those two writers?

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : MæüÐèþ#Ë$ Mæü*yé!

Poets also.

AÆæÿ$×ý : Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ* MæüÐóþ! ´ë´ë! »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ »êVæü$¯é²Äæý*?

My brother is also a poet. Papa! Are the dolls nice?

´ë´ë : »êVæü$¯é²Äæý$…yîþ!

Nice, madam!

AÆæÿ$×ý : CÌêÆ>! ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚! ¯é ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*ÆøaÐèþ*Ã!

Come here. Tell me your name. Sit by my side. dear!

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : ÐðþâæýÏÐèþ*Ã! ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚.

Go dear! Tell her your name.

AÆæÿ$×ý : Vø´ëËÆ>Ðóþ¯é Ðésìý Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþ?

152

Lesson 8

´ëç³ : ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ Ë™èþ. D ¸ùsZ ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü*yé E¯é²¯èþ$, »êVæü$…§é? AÆæÿ$×ý : »êVæü$…¨. Òâæý$Ï ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ* GÐèþÆæÿ$ ´ë´ë?

My name is Lata. See this photograph, I am also in that. Is it nice? It is nice. Who are these four, Papa?

´ëç³ : DÐðþ$ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$, WÇf.

She is my friend, Girija.

AÆæÿ$×ý : KçßZ! DÐèþ* (•mæ–) WÇf?

Oh! Is she Girija?

´ëç³ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

yes.

AÆæÿ$×ý : Ðéâæý$Ï ± õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Í ^ðþÌñýÏâêÏ?

AÆæÿ$×ý : ÐéâæýÏ Câæý$Ï GMæüPyæþ?

Are they younger sisters of your friend? These two are Girija's younger sisters. This is Rama Girija's younger sister. That is Uma, Girija's cousin. This is Suguna, a friend of Girija's sister. All these four are my friends. Where are their houses?

´ëç³ : Ðèþ* çÜÆøf C…sìý §æþVæüYÆæÿ. çÜÆøf C…sìý ¯èþ…ºÆæÿ$ 糧æþàÆæÿ$. ÒâæýÏ C…sìý ¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$ 糨õßýyæþ$.

Near Saroja's house. Saroja's house number is sixteen. Their house number is seventeen.

AÆæÿ$×ý : Ò$ ÉìþÎÏ {ç³Äæý*×ý… G糚yæþ…yîþ?

When is your Delhi tour. madam? In December.

´ëç³ : Òâæý$Ï C§æþƪ ÿæ * WÇf ^ðþÌñýâÏ ýæ $Ï. DÐðþ$ ÆæÿÐèþ$. WÇf Ý÷…™èþ ^ðþÌñýËÏ $. BÐðþ$ EÐèþ$. WÇf ò³§æþ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$. DÐðþ$ çÜ$Væü$×ý. WÇf ^ðþÌñýÏÍ õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$. Òâæý$Ï ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ* ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>âæý$å.

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : yìþòÜ…ºÆæÿ$ÌZ¯èþÐèþ*Ã! 153

An Intensive Course in Telugu

AÆæÿ$×ý : yìþòÜ…ºÆæÿ$ÌZ ÉìþÎÏ {ç³Äæý*×ýÐèþ*! yìþòÜ…ºÆæÿ$ÌZ ÐðþâæýÏMæü…yìþ. ^èþÍ GMæü$PÐèþ. AMøtºÆæÿ$ÌZ ÐðþâæýÏ…yìþ.

Delhi tour in December! Don't go in the December. It's cold. Go in October.

MæüÆæÿ$×ý : ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$. yìþòÜ…ºÆæÿ$ Ððþ$$§æþsìý ÐéÆæ ÿ …ÌZ ™è þ Mæ ü $PÐó þ ! Ò$ ç ³ È„æ ü Ë$ G糚yæþÐèþ*Ã?

There is no problem. The cold is not much in the first week of December. When are your examinations? They are in the last week of March, madam.

AÆæÿ$×ý : Ðèþ*Ça _ÐèþÇ ÐéÆæÿ…ÌZ-¯èþ…-yîþ! DRILLS a. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

Ðéâæý$Ï C§æþªÆæÿ* ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>âôýÏ. Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆÿæ $. Ðéâæý$Ï Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ* ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>âôýÏ. ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ$ BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ$ Model (ii)

Ðéâæý$Ï Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$Ï. sîý^èþÆæÿ$ Ðéâæý$Ï sîý^èþÆæÿ$Ï. ^ðþÌñýÏË$ õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$ Model (iv)

C¨ ÆæÿÑ ¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$. Æ>Ðèþ$$yæþ$ C¨ Æ>Ðèþ$$yìþ ¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$. ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$ Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Ðéâæý$Ï Òâæý$Ï Ðèþ* CË$Ï A¨

Vø´ëËÆ>Ðóþ¯é Ðésìý Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþ? çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðóþ¯é Ðésìý Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþ? Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$Ï Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ææÿ$ çÜ${ºçßýÃ×ýÅ… Vø´ëÌŒý WÇ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ 154

Lesson 8 Model (v)

Model (vii)

Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$Ï ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. Ðóþ$… Ðèþ* õ³Ææÿ$Ï ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. Ðéâæý$Ï Òâæý$Ï CÑ AÑ

¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ Mæü*Æøa. A™èþ¯èþ$ A™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ Mæü*Æøa. Ðéâæý$Ï AÑ A¨ Model (viii)

Model (vi)

1. 2. 3. 4.

´ë´ë! CÌê Æ>Ðèþ*Ã! (^èþ*yæþ$) ´ë´ë! CÌê ^èþ*yæþÐèþ*Ã! ´ë´ë! §æþVæüYÇMìü Æ>Ðèþ*Ã! (Ððþâæý$Ï) ´ë´ë! CÌê ^èþ*yæþÐèþ*Ã! (Mæü*Æøa) ´ë´ë! B ™èþË$ç³# ÐðþÄæý$ÅÐèþ*Ã! (†Æÿ$$Å) ´ë´ë! B »ŸÐèþ$à ^èþ*yæþÐèþ*Ã! (¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>)

¯é ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa. C™èþ¯èþ$ C™èþ° ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa. Òâæý$Ï CÑ A¨

b. Response drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

ÐéãϧæþªÆæÿ* MæüÐèþ#Ìôý! ÐéãϧæþªÆæÿ* MæüÐèþ#Ìôý¯é? 1. Ðéâæý$Ï Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ* Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌôý! 2. Òâæý$Ï Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ* ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Ìôý! 3. Ðèþ$¯èþ… A…§æþÆæÿ… õܲíßý™èþ$ËÐóþ$!

HÐèþ$…yîþ »êVæü$¯é²Æ>? »êVæü$¯é²¯èþ…yîþ? 1. Ò$ AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$ »êVæü$¯é²Æ>? 2. Ò$Ææÿ…§æþÆæÿ* »êVæü$¯é²Æ>? 3. Ò$ A¯èþ²Äæý$Å »êVæü$¯é²yé?

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

Òâæý$Ï GÐèþÆæÿ$? (± õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$) Ò$ ç³È„æüË$ G糚yæþ$? (Ðèþ*Ça) Òâæý$Ï ± õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$. Ðèþ*ÇaÌZ¯èþ…yîþ! 1. Ðéâæý$Ï GÐèþÆæÿ$? (çÜÆøh° ^ðþÌñýÏË$) 1. Ò$ {ç³Äæý*×ý… G糚yæþ$? 2. Òâæý$Ï GÐèþÆæÿ$? (çÜ$Væü$×ý õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$) (Ððþ$$§æþsìýÐéÆæÿ…) 3. Ðéâæý$Ï GÐèþÆæÿ$? (Væü…V>«§æþÆæÿ… V>Ç 2. Ò$ M>ÏçÜ$Ë$ G糚yæþ$? (yìþòÜ…ºÆæÿ$) Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþÆ>Ë$) 3. Ò$ ç³È„æüË$ G糚yæþ$? (_ÐèþÇÐéÆæÿ…) 155

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Transformation drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

A¨ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. AÑ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. 1. A¨ Ðèþ* CË$Ï. 2. BÐðþ$ Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$. 3. BÐðþ$ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$.

CÌê Æ>! CÌê Æ>Mæü$. 1. CMæüPyæþ Mæü*Æøa. 2. D »ŸÐèþ$à ¡çÜ$Mø. 3. ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>.

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*yæþ$. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*yæþMæü$. 1. B ™èþË$ç³# ÐðþÆÿ$$Å. 2. B ÌñýOr$ †Æÿ$$Å. 3. MìüsìýMîüË$ Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å.

B ÌñýOr$ ÐðþÄæý$Å…yìþ. B ÌñýOr$ ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü…yìþ. 1. Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. 2. D »ŸÐèþ$à ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ. 3. D Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ.

EXERCISES a. Fill in the blanks using the correct forms of the cue words given in the parentheses, as shown in the model. Model ______(A¨)

õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

3. ______(Ðéâæý$Ï) Câæý$å GMæüPyæþ? 4. Ò$______(CË$Ï)¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$ HÑ$sìý? 5. Ò$______(^ðþÌñýÏË$) õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? 6. Ò$______(™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$) õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

§é° õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? 1. ______(AÑ) õ³ÆóÿÏÑ$sìý? 2. ______(CÑ) õ³ÆóÿÏÑ$sìý?

b. Write the plural forms of the following.

CË$Ï : õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$ :

^ðþÌñýÏË$ yéMæütÆæÿ$

______ ______

: :

______ ______

c. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the models. Model (i)

Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$. Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ* yéMæütÆóÿ. 1. Ðèþ* õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$ MæüÑ.

2. Ðèþ* A¯èþ²Äæý$Å Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþ. 3. A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$. 4. Òâæý$Ï C§æþªÆæÿ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï. 156

Lesson 8 Model (ii) A. AMæüPyæþ

B.

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Mæü*Æøa! AMæüPyæþ Mæü*ÆøaMæü$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>! D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. ™èþË$ç³# ÐðþÆÿ$$Å. MìüsìýMîü Ðèþ$$Äæý$Å…yìþ.

AMæüPyæþ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ. AMæüPyæþ Mæü*ÆøaMæü…yìþ. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mø. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ. ÌñýOr$ ÐðþÄæý$Å…yìþ. ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚.

d. Combine the following.

C§æþ$Vø + A…yîþ = A§æþ$Vø + AÐèþ*à =

yìþòÜ…ºÆæÿ$ÌZ + A…yîþ = Ðèþ*ÇaÌZ + AÐèþ*à =

______ ______

______ ______

e. Answer the following questions in affirmation. Model

D »ŸÐèþ$à GÌê E…¨? »êVæü$…¨. 1. Ò$ ´ëç³ GÌê E…¨? 2. Ò$ AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$ GÌê E¯é²Ææÿ$?

3. 4. 5. 6.

Ò$ÆðÿÌê E¯é²Ææÿ$? Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ GÌê E¯é²yæþ$? D »ŸÐèþ$à ÌñýÌê E¯é²Æÿ$$? D ¯èþÐèþË GÌê E…¨?

f. Fill in the blanks with the oblique forms of the nouns/pronouns given in the parentheses.

´ë´ë! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ______ ç³MæüPü¯èþ Mæü*Æøa. (A™èþ¯èþ$) ´ë´ë! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A™èþ° ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa. 1. »êº*! ______ ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa. (¯óþ¯èþ$) 2. çÜ$Væü$×ý ______ CË$Ï Ðèþ* ç³MæüP¯èþ. (CË$Ï) 3. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ______ §æþVæüYÆæÿ E…¨. (A¨)

Model

VOCABULARY

»êVæü$

good; nice; well; fine (a bound form which always occurs with the existential verb forms such as »êVæü$…¨ ‘It is

GÌê B2 157

fine.’, »êVæü$¯é²¯èþ$ ‘I am fine.’, etc.) how; in which way/manner/direction yes

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜÇV> Ððþâæý$å ¯èþÐèþË Òsìý Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$¯èþçÜ$ iÑ™èþ… Ðésìý Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþ ÌñýOr$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Åü &AÐèþ*à ¸ë¯èþ$ †Æÿ$$Å ^èþÍV> Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å VæüsìýtV>1

Ððþ$ËÏV> MæüÑ çÜ$yìþVæü$…yæþ… Ý÷…™èþ ò³§æþ¯é¯èþ²

all right to go a novel oblique base of CÑ good the heart which is the seat or repository of emotions life oblique base of AÑ writer; author a lamp 1. to turn on, to switch on; 2. to shut (like a door or a shutter) feminine affectionate address marker ça fan 1. to turn off, to switch off ; 2. to shut (like a door or a shutter) chilly; cold (adv.) to shut

Câæý$å C…sìý ¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$ 糧æþàÆæÿ$ 糨õßýyæþ$ ÉìþÎÏ {ç³Äæý*×ý… yìþòÜ…ºÆæÿ$ ^èþÍ GMæü$PÐèþ AMøtºÆæÿ$ ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$ Ððþ$$§æþsìý ÐéÆæÿ… ç³È„æü Ðèþ*Ça _ÐèþÇ

in a harsh manner (adv.)

gently (adv.) a poet a whirlpool own (adj.) (See 8.17.2.) father’s elder brother; mother’s elder sister’s husband plural of CË$Ï oblique form of CË$Ï

number sixteen seventeen the city of Delhi journey December cold (n); chill (n) more October There is no problem; It is all right. first week a test; examination March last; final

GRAMMAR NOTES 8.1. In this lesson the negative imperative forms of the verb are introduced. &AMæü$ -aku is added to the verbal base to form non-honorific negative and &AMæü…yìþ -akaM∂i for its corresponding honorific singular/plural form.

158

Lesson 8

Ððþâæý$å + AMæü$ = ÐðþâæýåMæü$

‘Don’t go.’(non-hon. sg. 2.12.2.)

ve˚˚u + aku = ve˚˚aku

Ððþâæý$å + AMæü…yìþ = ÐðþâæýåMæü…yìþ

‘Please don’t go.’ (hon. sg. & pl. (2.12.2.)

ve˚˚u + akaM∂i = ve˚˚akaM∂i

Æ> + AMæü$ = Æ>Mæü$

‘Don’t come.’(non-hon. sg. 3.13.1.)

r¡ + aku = r¡ku

Mæü*Æøa + AMæü$ = Mæü*ÆøaMæü$þ

‘Don’t sit.’ (hon. sg. & pl. (3.13.1.)

k¶rcª + aku = k¶rcªku

ç š ceppu 8.2. Recall the imperative forms introduced so far, such as ^ðþ³ ‘Tell!’, ^ðþç³µ…yìþ ceppaM∂i ‘Please tell!’ (2.8.); Æ> r¡ ‘Come!’, Æ>…yìþ r¡M∂i (also Ææÿ…yìþ raM∂i c.f. 7.15.) ‘Please come!’, Mæü*Æøa k¶rcª ‘Sit!’, Mæü*Æøa…yìþ k¶rcªM∂i ‘Pease sit!’ (3.12.), etc. 8.2.1. A verbal base in Telugu can have four forms in the imperative mood which are as follows: Imperative Affirmative Singular verbal base + zero* Ððþâæý$å + Ø = Ððþâæý$å ve˚˚u + Ø ve˚˚u ‘Go!’

Negative

Plural# verbal base + A…yìþ aM∂i

Singular verbal base + AMæü$ aku

Plural# verbal base + AMæü…yìþ akaM∂i

Ððþâæý$å + A…yìþ = Ððþâæýå…yìþ@

Ððþâæý$å + AMæü$ = ÐðþâæýåMæü$@

Ððþâæý$å + AMæü…yìþ = ÐðþâæýåMæü…yìþ@

ve˚˚u + aM∂i ve˚˚aM∂i@ Please go!’

ve˚˚u + aku ve˚˚aku@ ‘Don’t go!’

ve˚˚u + akaM∂i ve˚˚akaM∂i@ ‘Please don’t go!’

* ‘Zero’ means ‘no suffix’. In other words, the base itself can be used as the imperative affirmative singular form. # Plural forms are used as honorific singular forms also. @ For sandhi c.f. 2.12.2.

159

An Intensive Course in Telugu 8.2.2. Most of the verbal bases introduced in this Course can be used as imperative forms in non-honorific affirmative singular without any suffix.

Æ> r¡ ‘Come!’ ¡çÜ$Mø t•sukª ‘Take!’

Ððþâæý$å ve˚˚u ‘Go!’ ^ðþ糚 ceppu ‘Tell!’, etc.

There are, however, some bases which are slightly modified when used in imperative affirmative singular. A mention will be made about these bases as and when they are introduced in the forthcoming lessons. 8.3. Telugu verbal bases, as introduced in this Course, can end in both a consonant (Lessons 33 and 34) and a vowel. The final vowel can be a short vowel or a long vowel. The final short vowel will always be E u. There are also a few C i ending bases and one A a ending base 糧æþ pada (Lesson 20) which is a type of defective verb as it occurs only in imperative affirmative (See 20.5.). In the case of C i ending bases, the final C i can be predicted by the presence of a consonant ÄŒý$ y in the final syllable. In other words, if there is a consonant ÄŒý$ y in the final syllable of a verbal base, the final vowel is C i. In all other cases of the short vowel ending bases, except 糧æþ pada, the final vowel is E u. In the case of long vowel ending bases, the final vowel can be B ¡ or H £ or K ª. In this lesson the following C i ending bases are introduced.

8.3.1. Imp. sg.

Imp. pl. & hon.sg.

Imp. neg. sg.

Imp. neg. pl. Root meaning & hon. sg.

ÐðþÆÿ$$Å

ÐðþÄæý$Å…yìþ

ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü$

ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü…yìþ

veyyi

veyyaM∂i

veyyaku

†Æÿ$$Å

†Äæý$Å…yìþ

†Äæý$ÅMæü$

tiyyi

tiyyaM∂i

tiyyaku

Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å

Ðèþ$$Äæý$Å…yìþ Ðèþ$$Äæý$ÅMæü$

muyyi

muyyaM∂i

muyyaku

ÐðþÆÿ$$Å + A…yìþ = ÐðþÄæý$Å…yìþ* veyyi + aM∂i = veyyaM∂i* 160

‘switch on; shut veyyakaM∂i (like a door)’ †Äæý$ÅMæü…yìþ ‘switch off; open tiyyakaM∂i (like a door)’ Ðèþ$$Äæý$ÅMæü…yìþ ‘shut; close’ muyyakaM∂i ‘Please switch on (the light); Please shut (the door)!’

Lesson 8

ÐðþÆÿ$$Å + AMæü$ = ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü$* veyyi + aku = veyyaku*

ÐðþÆÿ$$Å + AMæü…yìþ = ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü…yìþ* veyyi + akaM∂i = veyyakaM∂i* * For sandhi see 2.12.2.

‘Don’t switch on (the light); Don’t shut (the door)!’ ‘Please don’t switch on (the light); Please don’t shut (the door)!’

8.4. Ðésìý v¡ i and Òsìý v• i are the oblique bases of the neuter plural pronouns AÑ avi ‘those one’ and CÑ ivi ‘these ones’ (4.7.) respectively. 8.5.

Notice the use of the inclusive marker (7.9.; 7.9.1.) in sentences like

Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ* MæüÐóþ!

m¡ tammu∂¶ kav£! ‘My brother is also a poet.’

Compare this sentence with

¯óþ¯èþ* Ìôý¯èþ$. n£n¶ l£nu.

‘I am also not there.’

In both the sentences the inclusive marker denotes the meaning ‘also’ and is equivalent to Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ ‘also; too’(lesson 2). But there is a difference in usage. The first sentence contains an NP (noun phrase) MæüÑ kavi ‘poet’ with an emphatic marker &H -£ (3.3.) as its predicate, and the second sentence contains a verb Ìôý¯èþ$ l£nu as its predicate. 8.5.1. When the subject NP of a verbless sentence (1.1.) has the inclusive marker, the predicate NP will obligatorily have the emphatic marker &H £ (3.3.). [For an exception see 8.6. before.]

¯óþ¯èþ$ ѧéÅǦ°. n£nu vidy¡rthini. ‘I am a student.’ ¯óþ¯èþ* ѧéÅǦ¯óþ! n£n¶ vidy¡rthin£. ‘I am also a student.’ BÄæý$¯èþ MæüÑ. ¡yana kavi. ‘He is a poet.’ BÄæý$¯é MæüÐóþ! ¡yan¡ kav£! ‘He is also a poet.’ When Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ ‘also; too’ is used instead of the inclusive marker in the subject NP, the use of emphatic marker in the predicate NP is optional.

BÄæý$¯èþ Mæü*yé MæüÑ

or BÄæý$¯èþ Mæü*yé MæüÐóþ! ¡yana k¶∂¡ kavi or ¡yana k¶∂¡ kav£!

161

‘He is also a poet.’

An Intensive Course in Telugu 8.6. Notice the use of numerals like Æðÿ…yæþ$ reM∂u ‘two’ and C§æþªÆæÿ$ iddaru ‘two persons’ when their final vowels are lengthened (i.e., when they take the inclusive marker).

Æðÿ…yæþ$ reM∂u ‘two’ C§æþªÆæÿ$ iddaru ‘two persons’ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ m¶∂u ‘three’ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆÿæ $ mugguru ‘three persons’

Æðÿ…yæþ* reM∂¶ ‘both of them (neut.)’ C§æþªÆæÿ* iddar¶ ‘both of them (human)’ Ðèþ$*yæþ* m¶∂¶ ‘all the three (neut.)’ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆÿæ * muggur¶ ‘all the three (human)’

and so on. When the subject NP of a verbless sentence contains a numeral with inclusive marker, the use of emphatic marker in the predicate NP is optional. (Also see 8.5.1.)

AÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ ¯èþÐèþËË$. AÑ Æðÿ…yæþ* ¯èþÐèþËË$ AÑ Æðÿ…yæþ* ¯èþÐèþËÌôý!

avi reM∂u navalalu. avi reM∂¶ navalalu. avi reM∂¶ navalal£

‘Those are two novels.’ ‘Both of them are novels.’ ‘Both of them are novels!’

In these sentences the emphatic marker denotes emphasis on the word to which it is added. 8.7. B! ¡! ‘yes’ is an answer word expressing assent to a question containing an affirmative form of a verb.

»êVæü$¯é²Æ>? B! ÆæÿÑ »êVæü$¯é²yé? B! 8.8.

b¡gunn¡r¡? ¡! ravi b¡gunn¡∂¡? ¡!

The oblique form of

C…sìý ¯èþ…ºÆæÿ$ C…sìý §æþVæüYÆæÿ

‘Are you fine?’ ‘Yes.’ ‘Is Ravi fine?’ ‘Yes.’

CË$Ï illu ‘house’ is C…sìý iM i.

iM i naMbaru iM i daggara

‘the number of the house’ ‘near the house; at home’

8.9. Post-positions (4.6.) are added to oblique bases (2.2.1.). One of the functions of the oblique bases in Telugu is to be used with case suffixes. In other words, the nouns and pronouns in Telugu have two forms, viz., nominative base and oblique base. Nominative base is used where the noun or pronoun 162

Lesson 8 is used as subject, i.e., in nominative case, and also when no case suffix is added to it. Oblique base is used when the noun takes suffixes/postpostions of other cases. However most of the nouns and some of the pronouns in Telugu have the same form when used as nominative base and as well as oblique base. Some such nouns are mentioned in 3.6.1. and 4.6., and pronouns in 2.2. 8.9.1. A mention will be made in this Course about those nouns whose oblique bases show changed forms, as and when such nouns are introduced. Regarding the other nouns, it can be taken that they do not show any changes when used as oblique bases. In expressions like C…sìý §æþVæüYÆæÿ iM i daggara ‘near the house’, ¯é ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa n¡ pakkana k¶rcª ‘Sit by side of me.’, etc. it can be seen that the post-positions (§æþVæüYÆæÿ daggara ‘near’ and ç³MæüP¯èþ pakkana ‘by side of/ next to’) are added to oblique bases. Similarly, 8.9.2.

C…sìý ç³MæüP¯èþ C…sìý Ò$§æþ ± §æþVæüYÆæÿ A™èþ° ç³MæüP¯èþ ¯é Ò$§æþ

iM i pakkana iM i m•da n• daggara atani pakkana n¡ m•da

‘by the side of/next to the house’ ‘on the house’ ‘with/at you’ ‘by his side/ next to him’ ‘on me’

etc. are possible. 8.10.

The plural form of CË$Ï illu ‘house’ is Câæý$å i˚˚u ‘houses’

8.11. When the plural suffix &Ë$ -lu is added to Ë$ lu ending nouns the suffix &Ë$ -lu and the word final syllable Ë$ lu together become âæý$å ˚˚u.

^ðþÌñýÏË$ + Ë$ = ^ðþÌñýÏâæý$å

‘younger sisters’

cellelu + lu = celle˚˚u

çÜ*PË$ + Ë$ = çÜ*Pâæý$å

‘schools’

sk¶lu + lu = sk¶˚˚u

õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Ë$ + Ë$ = õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>âæý$å sn£hitur¡lu + lu = sn£hitur¡˚˚u 163

‘friends (fem.)’

An Intensive Course in Telugu

GÌê el¡ ‘how; in which way/manner/direction’ is the corresponding interrogative word of AÌê al¡ and CÌê il¡ (7.16.) the manner adverbs. 8.12.

Recall that the manner adverbs also add a locative shade of meaning to the verb, and can express a sense of direction (7.16). 8.13. &AÐèþ*Ã -- amm¡ is a non-honorific feminine address marker (2.10.). This is added to a sentence if the speaker wants to express affection and intimacy to a female addressee who is normally younger to him/her.

AMæüPyæþ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²ÆæÿÐèþ*Ã?

Who is there, dear?

akka∂a evarunn¡ramm¡?

&A…yîþ -aM∂• AMæüPyæþ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ…yîþ?

Recall the use of

the epicene honorific address marker (2.10.). Who is there, sir/madam?

akka∂a evarunn¡raM∂•? 8.14. Notice the use of the emphatic questions in the following sentences:

CÐóþ¯é ™ðþË$Væü$ ¯èþÐèþËË$?

Are these the Telugu novels?

iv£n¡ telugu navalalu?

Ðéãå§æþªÆæÿ* Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌôý¯é?

Are both of them writers?

v¡˚˚iddar¶ racayital£n¡? In these sentences the interrogative marker &B -¡ is added to forms which are inflected by the emphatic marker &H -£. [CÑ + H] + B = CÐóþ¯é? [ivi + £] + ¡ = iv£n¡?

(For sandhi see 8.15.2. below.)

[Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþË$ + H] + B = Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌôý¯é? (For sandhi see 8.15.2. below.) [racayitalu + £] + ¡ = racayital£n¡?

Ðéâæý$å Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌê?

Are they writers? (a normal question)

v¡˚˚u racayital¡?

Ðéâæý$å Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌôý¯é?

Are they writers? (an emphatic question)

v¡˚˚u racayital£n¡? 164

Lesson 8 Notice the shift of emphasis in the following setences: Ðéâæý$å Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌôý¯é? Are they writers? v¡˚˚u racayital£n¡? Ðéâôýå¯é Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþË$? Are they writers? v¡˚˚£n¡ racayitalu? 8.15.

Notice the following sandhi processes. Recall the sandhi process e + ¡ = æ– in pronunciation and the æ–

8.15.1. is written as B ¡ (3.13.2.). The combination of the word final G e and the interrogative marker & - B -¡ is also pronounced as æ– (the long vowel available in English words like cat, rat, mat, etc.) but written as B ¡.

BÐðþ$ + B? = BÐèþ*?

¡me + ¡? = ¡m¡? (in writing) ‘Is she?’ ¡mæ– (in pronunciation) But when emphatic marker &H -£ is added to the G e ending bases the bases drop their final vowel &G -e as described in 2.12.2.

BÐðþ$ + H! = BÐóþ$!

¡me + £! =

¡m£! ‘It is she!’

8.15.2. When the interrogative marker &B -¡ and the emphatic marker &H -£ is added to a long vowel ending base/form a consonant ¯Œþ n is inserted between the base/form and the marker.

Mæü$Èa + B? = Mæü$Èa¯é? kurc• + ¡? = kurc•n¡? ‘Is it a chair?’ MìüsìýMîü + H! = MìüsìýMîü¯óþ! ki ik• + £! = ki ik•n£! ‘It is a window!’ A§óþ + B? = A§óþ¯é?* ad£ + ¡? = ad£n¡?* ‘Is it?’ (* This is an emphatic question [8.14.]. A§óþ ad£ [A¨ + H! adi + £! (3.3.)] is a form with emphatic marker, and it ends in a long vowel H £. Interrogative marker &B -¡ is added to the form and the consonant ¯Œþ n is realized.) 8.15.3. Recall the sandhi process involved in C§æþ$Vø¯èþ…yîþ idugªnaM∂• (7.14.). The address marker &AÐèþ*à -amm¡ also triggers the same change as that of what &A…yîþþ-aM∂• does. C§æþ$Vø + AÐèþ*Ã! = C§æþ$Vø¯èþÐèþ*Ã! ‘Here it is, dear (fem.)!’ Ðèþ*ÇaÌZ + AÐèþ*Ã! = Ðèþ*ÇaÌZ¯èþÐèþ*Ã! ‘It is in March, dear (fem.)!’ 165

An Intensive Course in Telugu 8.16. Notice the use of the forms of the existential verb along with the bound form (=the form which does not occur in isolation as an independent word) »êVæü$& b¡gu- ‘good; nice; well; fine’.

»êVæü$…¨ (»êVæü$ + E…¨)

‘It/She is fine.’

b¡guMdi (b¡gu + uMdi)

»êVæü$¯é²Æÿ$$ (»êVæü$ + E¯é²Æÿ$$) ‘They (neut.) are fine.’ b¡gunn¡yi (b¡gu + unn¡yi)

»êVæü$¯é²yæþ$ (»êVæü$ + E¯é²yæþ$)

‘He (non-hon.) is fine.’

b¡gunn¡∂u (b¡gu + unn¡∂u)

»êVæü$¯é²Ææÿ$ (»êVæü$ + E¯é²Ææÿ$)

‘He/She (hon.) is fine; They (hum.) are b¡gunn¡ru (b¡gu + unn¡ru) fine; You (hon.sg. & pl) are fine.’ »êVæü$¯é²Ðèþ# (»êVæü$ + E¯é²Ðèþ#) ‘You (non-hon. sg.) are fine.’ b¡gunn¡vu (b¡gu + unn¡vu) »êVæü$¯é²¯èþ$ (»êVæü$ + E¯é²¯èþ$) ‘I am fine.’ b¡gunn¡nu (b¡gu + unn¡nu) »êVæü$¯é²… (»êVæü$ + E¯é²…) ‘We are fine.’ b¡gunn¡M (b¡gu + unn¡M) 8.17.

Cultural Note.

8.17.1.

Consider the following sentences:

GÌê E¯é²Ææÿ$?

‘How are you?’

el¡ unn¡ru? `

»êVæü$¯é²Æ>?

‘Are you fine?’

b¡gunn¡r¡?

Ò$ ¯é¯èþ² V>ÆðÿÌê E¯é²Ææÿ$?

‘How is your father?

m• n¡nnag¡rel¡ unn¡ru?

Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ »êVæü$¯é²yé?

‘Is your younger brother fine?’

m• tammu∂u b¡gunn¡∂¡? These are the expressions used in greeting the intimate persons.

166

Lesson 8

^ðþÌñýÏË$þsoMta cellelu in the conversation used in the text of the lesson. ^ðþÌñýË Ï $ cellelu means ‘younger sister’. Ý÷…™èþþsoMta

8.17.2.

Recall the phrase Ý÷…™èþ

literally means ‘own (adj.)’. In Telugu culture, the children of the father’s brothers and mother’s sisters are considered to be equal to brothers and sisters. Hence the term A¯èþ²Äæý$Å annayya ‘elder brother’, ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ tammu∂u ‘younger brother’, AMæüPÄæý$Å akkayya ‘elder sister’ and ^ðþÌñýÏË$ cellelu ‘younger sister’ are also used to refer to the children of father’s brothers and mother’s sisters. As such, in order to differentiate the brothers and sisters with same parents from the children of the father’s brothers and mother’s sisters, the adjective Ý÷…™èþþsoMta is used before the kinship terms A¯èþ²Äæý$Å annayya, and ^ðþÌñýÏË$ cellelu.

™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ tammu∂u, AMæüPÄæý$Å akkayya

A¯èþ²Äæý$Å/™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ annayya/ tammu∂u

Ý÷…™èþþA¯èþ²Äæý$Å/ Ý÷…™èþþ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$

‘elder/younger brother and parallel cousin’ ‘elder/younger brother’

soMta annayya/ soMta tammu∂u

AMæüPÄæý$Å/^ðþÌñýÏË$

‘elder/younger sister and parallel cousin’ ‘elder/younger sister’

akkayya/ cellelu

Ý÷…™èþþAMæüPÄæý$Å/Ý÷…™èþþ^ðþÌñýÏË$ soMta akkayya/ soMta cellelu

The use of the adjective Ý÷…™èþþsoMta is made only at the time of reference and not at the time of address.

167

UNIT II Lesson 9

CÐóþÓâæý Ðèþ$¯èþ ™é™èþÄæý$Å ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk

TODAY IS OUR GRANDFATHER'S BIRTHDAY

™é™èþÄæý$Å : í³ËÏË*! D ò³sñýtÌZ H… E…¨? çÜ$Ðèþ$ : ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… E…¨.

Children! What is there in this box? A book.

™é™èþÄæý$Å : B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþǨ?

Whose book is that?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : ÆæÿѨ.

It is Ravi's.

™é™èþÄæý$Å : ÆæÿÑ Hyìþ?

Where is Ravi?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : Ayæþ$Vø, AMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$.

He is there.

™é™èþ : B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþǨ?

Whose book is that? 168

Lesson 9

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : Vøí³¨.

It is Gopi's

™é™èþ : Vøí³ Hyìþ?

Where is Gopi?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : Cyæþ$Vø, CMæüPyóþ E¯é²yæþ$ Mæü§é!

He is here. Isn't he?

™é™èþ : D MæüÌêË$ GÐèþÇÑ?

Whose pens are these?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : JMæüsìý MæüÐèþ$˨; JMæüsìý ѯø§Šþ¨. ™é™èþ : Ðéãå§æþªÆæÿ* HÇ?

One is Kamala's and one is Vinod's. Where are those two?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : AÆæÿ$Vø!

There, they are!

™é™èþ : D çÜ…_ GÐèþǨ?

Whose bag is this?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : ¯é¨

Mine.

™é™èþ : D çÜ…_ÌZ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

What are there in this bag?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : ç³NË$¯é²Æÿ$$.

Flowers.

™é™èþ : B ç³NË$ GÐèþÇÑ?

Whose flowers are they?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : JMæü ç³#Ðèþ#Ó ¯é¨; JMæü ç³#Ðèþ#Ó ÑfÄæý$¨; JMæü ç³#Ðèþ#Ó çÜÆæÿâæý¨. ™é™èþ : Ðéâæý$Ï HÇ?

One flower is mine. One flower is vijaya's. And one flower is Sarala's. Where are they?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : C§æþ$Vø!

Here, they are! 169

An Intensive Course in Telugu

™é™èþ : D »ŸÐèþ$à GÐèþǨ?

Whose doll is this?

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : ¯é¨.

It is mine.

ÑfÄæý$ : ±¨ M>§æþ$; Ðéyìþ¨.

It is not yours. It is his.

çÜÆæÿâæý : Ðéyìþ¨ M>§æþ$; Ðèþ* A¯èþ²Äæý$Ũ.

It is not his. It is my brother's.

™é™èþ : D ò³sñýt GÐèþǨ?

Whose box is this?

çÜÆæÿâæý : ¯éÄæý$¯èþÐèþ$è.

It is my grandmother's.

™é™èþ : D ^öM>P GÐèþǨ?

Whose shirt is this?

Vøí³ : Ðèþ* »êÐèþV>Ǩ.

It is my brother-in-law's

™é™èþ : Ò$ »êÐèþV>Ææÿ$ HÇ?

Where is your brother-in-law?

Vøí³ : AÆæÿ$Vø!

There, he is!

™é™èþ : çÜÆóÿ! C糚yæþ$ Mö°² Ðèþ$$QÅÐðþ$O¯èþ {ç³Ôèý²Ë$.

Okay! Now some important questions.

çÜÆæÿâæý : C…M> G°² {ç³Ôèý²Ë$ ™é™èþÄæý*Å?

How many more questions are there, grandfather? Why all these questions, grandfather? The first question: What date is tomorrow? The second question: Whose birthday is that? Tell me.

Vøí³ : D {ç³Ôèý²Ë±² G…§æþ$Mæü$ ™é™èþÄæý*Å? ™é™èþ : JMæüsZ {ç³Ôèý²: Æóÿç³# G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? Æðÿ…yø {ç³Ôèý²: GÐèþÇ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk? ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. 170

Lesson 9

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : Æóÿç³# Æðÿ…yø ™éÈMæü$. C¨ AMøtºÆæÿ$ ¯ðþË. Æóÿç³# Ðèþ$à™éÃV>…«© ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk.

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$, CÐóþÓâæý Ðèþ$¯èþ ™é™èþÄæý$Å ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk. ™é™èþÄæý*Å! Ðèþ$Ç ^éMðüÏr$Ï HÑ?

Tomorrow is second. This is the month of October. It is Mahatma Gandhi's birthday tomorrow. Tomorrow is Gandhi Jayanti. Yes. Today is October the first. And it is our grandfather's birthday! Yes. Today is our grandfather's birthday. Then where are the chocolates, grandfather?

™é™èþ : CÑVø!

Here, they are!

ÑfÄæý$ : ^éMðüÏr$Ï »êVæü$¯é²Æÿ$$: Òsìý Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ ™é™èþÄæý$Å?

The Chocolates are tasty! What is the cost of them grandfather? All together, sixteen rupees.

ÑfÄæý$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. Æóÿç³# V>…«©fÄæý$…†. CÐóþÓâæý AMøtºÆæÿ$ JMæüsZ ™éÈMæü$. Ðèþ$¯èþ ™é™èþÄæý$Å ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk.

™é™èþÄæý$Å : Ððþ$$™èþ¢… 糧æþàÆæÿ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. ÑfÄæý$ : JMöPMæüP ^éMðüÏr$t G…™èþ? ™é™èþ : JMöPMæüPsìý JMæü Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$.

What is the cost of each chocolate? Each one was one rupee.

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : ± §æþVæüYÆæÿ Mö™èþ¢ çÜ…_ E…§óþ! D çÜ…_ Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ?

You have a new bag! What is the cost of this bag?

™é™èþ : ©° Qȧæþ$ 糨õßýyæþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$.

It is seventeen rupees.

çÜ$Ðèþ$ : ± Mö™èþ¢ MæüË… Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ?

What is the cost of your new pen? 171

An Intensive Course in Telugu

™é™èþ : C¨ Mö™èþ¢ MæüË… M>§æþ$ ´ë™èþ MæüËÐóþ$? ©° Qȧæþ$ 糧ðþ°® Ñ$¨ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$.

™é™èþ : ± ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk f¯èþÐèþÇÌZ.

This is not a new pen. It is an old pen. Its cost was eighteen rupees. When is my birthday, grandfather? Your birthday is in January.

ÑfÄæý$ : G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$?

What date is it?

™é™èþ : 糧ðþ®°Ñ$§ø ™éÈMæü$. ©° ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk íœ{ºÐèþÇ ç³§æþàÆø ™éÈMæü$.

It is on eighteenth. Her birthday is on sixteenth February.

ÑfÄæý$ : ¯é ç³#sìýt¯èþ Æøgñý糚yæþ$ ™é™èþÄæý*Å?

DRILLS a. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

í³ËÏË*! D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþǨ? MæüË… í³ËÏË*! D MæüË… GÐèþǨ? VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… CË$Ï ^öM>P

ÆæÿÑ! D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? MæüÌê-Ë$ ÆæÿÒ! D MæüÌêË$ GÐèþÇÑ? Câæý$å ç³#Ðèþ#Ó ^éMðüÏr$t

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

¯é Mö™èþ¢ MæüË… Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ? ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯é Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ? VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… çÜ…_ Mæü$Èa

D {ç³Ôèý²Ë±² G…§æþ$Mæü$ ™é™èþÄæý$Å? MæüÌêË$ D MæüÌê˱² G…§æþ$Mæü$ ™é™èþÄæý*Å? ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ M>Æÿ$$™éË$ Mæü$ÈaË$ 172

Lesson 9 Model (v)

Model (vi)

D çÜ…_ ÑfÄæý$¨. çÜÆæÿâæý D çÜ…_ çÜÆæÿâæý¨. ÆæÿÐèþ$ ѯø§Šþ Æ>k ™é™èþÄæý$Å ÆæÿÑ VúÇ BÐðþ$

D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ¯éÑ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ±Ñ. Ò$Ææÿ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… GÐèþÆæÿ$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ Ðéyæþ$ Ðóþ$…

b. Response drill Model (i) A. B.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (iii)

ÆæÿÒ Hyìþ? C§æþ$Vø, CMæüPyóþ E¯é²yæþ$ Mæü§é! Ayæþ$Vø, AMæüPyóþ E¯é²yæþ$ Mæü§é! Vøï³ Hyìþ? Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ Hyìþ? Ò$ A¯èþ²Äæý$Å Hyìþ? Æ>k Hyìþ?

ÆæÿÒ Æ>Ðèþ$* HÇ? A. C§æþ$Vø, CMæüPyóþ E¯é²Ææÿ$ Mæü§é! B. AÆæÿ$Vø, AMæüPyóþ E¯é²Ææÿ$ Mæü§é! 1. ÆæÿÐèþ* EÐèþ* HÇ? 2. í³ËÏË$ HÇ? 3. Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ HÇ? 4. Ò$ AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$ HÇ?

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Model (iv)

D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯é¨; JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ±¨. D Væü§æþ$Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? D ç³NË$ GÐèþÇÑ? D ^éMðüÏr$Ï GÐèþÇÑ? D Câæý$Ï GÐèþÇÑ? B M>Æÿ$$™éË$ GÐèþÇÑ? D sìýMðüPr$Ï GÐèþÇÑ? D MæüÌêË$ GÐèþÇÑ? 173

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Æóÿç³# G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? (BÆæÿ$) Æóÿç³# BÆø ™éÈMæü$. Æóÿç³# G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? (糨) CÐóþÓâæý G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? (JMæüsìý) V>…«©fÄæý$…† G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? (AMøtºÆæÿ$ Æðÿ…yæþ$) Ò$ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? (糧ðþ°® Ñ$¨) °¯èþ² G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? (™öÑ$è)

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (v)

Model (vi)

D ò³sñýtÌZ H… E…¨? (MæüË…) ©° Qȧðþ…™èþ? (BÆæÿ$) D ò³sñýtÌZ MæüË… E…¨. §é° Qȧæþ$ BÆæÿ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. 1. B Væü¨ÌZ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (Mæü$ÈaË$) 1. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Qȧðþ…™èþ? (™öÑ$è) 2. B ò³sñýtÌZ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (M>Æÿ$$™éË$) 2. D MæüË… Qȧðþ…™èþ? (糯ðþ²…yæþ$) 3. D çÜ…_ÌZ H… E…¨? (^öM>P) 3. B M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Qȧðþ…™èþ? (JMæü) c. Transformation drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Model (ii)

C¨ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯é¨. C¨ Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ç Væü¨. A¨ ÆæÿÑ ^öM>P. C¨ çÜÆæÿâæý VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…. A¨ Ðèþ$¯èþ »ŸÐèþ$Ã. C¨ Ò$ CË$Ï. C¨ Ðèþ* M>ÏçÜ$. A¨ Ðéâæýå CË$Ï.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

CÑ Ðèþ* ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ Ðèþ*Ñ. CÑ Ðèþ* Câæý$å. AÑ Ðèþ$¯èþ ç³NË$. CÑ Ò$ ^éMðüÏr$Ï. AÑ Ðéâæýå ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. CÑ Òâæýå MæüÌêË$. CÑ Òyìþ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$. AÑ A™èþ° VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$.

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions.

1. 2. 3. 4.

V>…«© fÄæý$…† G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? CÐóþÓâæý 糧ø™éÈMæü$. Æóÿç³# G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? Æóÿç³# 糨õßý¯ø ™éÈMæü$. CÐóþÓâæý G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? CÐóþÓâæý 糨õßýyø ™éÈMæü$. Æóÿç³# G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$?

b. Answer the following questions using the appropriate forms of the words given in the parentheses.

1. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþǨ?(Ðéyæþ$) 2. B CË$Ï GÐèþǨ? (Ðèþ$¯èþ…)

3. D VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? (Ðóþ$…) 4. D M>Æÿ$$™éË$ GÐèþÇÑ? (Ðéâæý$Ï) 174

Lesson 9

5. D ç³NË$ GÐèþÇÑ? (BÐðþ$) 6. B MæüË… GÐèþǨ? (¯óþ¯èþ$)

7. D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? (çÜ$ÖË) 8. D MæüÌêË$ GÐèþÇÑ? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) c. Fill up the blanks with HÇ/Hyìþ/H¨ whichever is appropirate. 1. Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$______? 4. Mö™èþ¢ ѧéÅǦ°______? 5. ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$______? 2. ÆæÿÑ õܲíßý™èþ$yæþ$______? 6. ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$______? 3. Ò$ AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$______? d. Give the opposite number of the following.

Væü§æþ$Ë$ ^éMðüÏr$Ï ^öM>PË$

ç³#Ðèþ#Ó CË$Ï M>Æÿ$$™èþ…

e. Match the following.

1. 2. 3. 4.

A§æþ$Vø Ayæþ$Vø AÆæÿ$Vø A§æþ$Vø

ÆæÿÐèþ$ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ ѯø§Šþ í³ËÏ-Ë$

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

VOCABULARY

™é™èþÄæý$Å í³ËÏË$ &¨ Hyìþ Ayæþ$Vø Cyæþ$Vø Mæü§é?

grandfather children predicate marker (neut. sg.) Where he (non-hon.) is? There he (non-hon. sg.) is! Here he (non-hon. sg.) is! a tag question (See 9.10.)



predicate marker (neut. pl.) HÇ Where he/she (hon.)/they (hum.) is are? AÆæÿ$Vø There he/she (hon.)/they (hum.) is are! çÜ…_/çÜ…` a bag ç³NË$ flowers (pl. of ç³#Ðèþ#Ó)

175

An Intensive Course in Telugu

H…2ü ç³#Ðèþ#Ó CÆæÿ$Vø ¯éÄæý$¯èþÐèþ$à ^öM>P »êÐèþ çÜÆóÿ! Ðèþ$$QÅÐðþ$O¯èþ {ç³Ôèý² C…M> &K G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$ ¯ðþË

what (pronoun) flower Here he/she (hon.)/they (hum.) is are! father's mother a shirt brother-in-law

Okay! Yes! important (adj.) a question more; still; yet ordinal marker ordinal count interrogative word (See 9.8.1.) date in the calander month month

Ðèþ$à™éà V>…«© Mahatma Gandhi V>…«© fÄæý$…† the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi

Ðèþ$Ç ^éMðüÏr$t Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ JMöPMæüP JMöPMæüPsìý Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$ Mö™èþ¢ ´ë™èþ 糧ðþ°® Ñ$¨ f¯èþÐèþÇ íœ{ºÐèþÇ

then; if so (as a sentence initiator) chocolate price how much rupees (pl. of Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$) one each (adj.) one each (pronoun) a rupee new old (opposite of new) eighteen January February

GRAMMAR NOTES 9.1. In this lesson the pronominal predicates and nominal predicates are introduced. &¨ -di and &Ñ -vi are added to an adjectival base to change the same into a predicate. &¨ -di marks for singular number and &Ñ -vi marks for plural number, both in neuter gender. 9.1.1. &¨ -di and &Ñ -vi are added to a pronominal adjective (2.2.) i.e., the oblique base of a pronoun to change the same into a pronominal predicate.

¯é¨ n¡di 'mine (sg.)' B MæüË… ¯é¨. ¡ kalaM n¡di. 'That pen is mine.' ¯éÑ n¡vi 'mine (pl.)' B MæüÌêË$ ¯éÑ. ¡ kal¡lu n¡vi. 'Those pens are mine.' The following are some of the other pronominal predicates: 176

Lesson 9 Singular

Ðèþ*¨ Ðèþ$¯èþ¨ ±¨ Ò$¨ Ðéyìþ¨ A™èþ°¨ *BÐðþ$¨ *BÄæý$¯èþ¨ ÐéǨ Ðéâæýå¨ §é°¨ Ðésìý¨

m¡di manadi n•di m•di v¡∂idi atanidi *¡medi *¡yanadi v¡ridi v¡˚˚adi d¡nidi v¡ idi

Plural

'ours (excl.)' 'ours (incl.)' 'yours (sg..)' 'yours (pl.)' 'his (one)' 'his (one)' 'hers' 'his (one)' 'his (one)/her' 'theirs (hum.)' 'hers/its (neut.)' 'theirs (neut.)'

Ðèþ*Ñ m¡vi Ðèþ$¯èþÑ manavi ±Ñ n•vi Ò$Ñ m•vi ÐéyìþÑ v¡∂ivi A™èþ°Ñ atanivi BÐðþ$Ñ ¡mevi BÄæý$¯èþÑ ¡yanavi ÐéÇÑ v¡rivi ÐéâæýåÑ v¡˚˚avi §é°Ñ d¡nivi ÐésìýÑ v¡ ivi

'ours (excl.)' 'ours (incl.)' 'yours (sg..)' 'yours (pl.)' 'his (ones)' 'his (ones)' 'hers' 'his (ones)' 'his (ones)/hers' 'theirs (hum.)' 'hers/its (neut.)' 'theirs (neut.)'

9.1.2. &- ¨ -di and &- Ñ -vi in singular number and plural number respectively, are added to a nominal adjective (i.e., the oblique base of a noun) to change the same into a nominal predicate.

Æ>Ðèþ$$yìþ¨

'Rama's (sg.)'

r¡mu∂idi

Æ>Ðèþ$$yìþÑ Æ>k¨

'Rama's (pl.)'

Æ>kÑ

'Raju's (sg.)'

ÑfÄæý$¨

'Raju's (pl.)'

ÑfÄæý$Ñ vijayavi

D Mæü$Èa Æ>k¨.

‘This chair is Raju's.'

D Mæü$ÈaË$ Æ>kÑ.

‘These chairs are Raju's.'

• kurc•lu r¡juvi 'Vijaya's (sg.)'

vijayadi *

‘These pens are Rama's.'

• kurc• r¡judi

r¡juvi *

D MæüÌêË$ Æ>Ðèþ$$yìþÑ. • kal¡lu r¡mu∂ivi

r¡judi *

‘This pen is Rama's.'

• kalaM r¡mu∂idi

r¡mu∂ivi *

D MæüË… Æ>Ðèþ$$yìþ¨.

D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÑfÄæý$¨.

‘This book is Vijaya's.'

• pustakaM vijayadi 'Vijaya's (pl.)'

D ç³#çÜM¢ >Ë$ ÑfÄæý$Ñ. ‘These books are Vijaya's.' • pustak¡lu vijayavi

* Recall that some of the pronouns and nouns do not show any change when they are used as oblique bases. (2.2.; 3.6.1.)

177

An Intensive Course in Telugu 9.2. The masculine singular and human plural indicative predicates and their corresponding interrogative words are introduced in this lesson. They, along with the other indicative predicates which are introduced in 7.13. are presented below.

Description

Interrogative words

Indicative Predicates ---------------------------------------------Proximate Remote

* Epi. Hon. sg. & pl. Masc. non-hon. sg. Fem. non-hon. sg. Neut. sg. Neut. pl.

HÇ £ri Hyìþ £∂i H¨ £di H¨ £di HÑ £vi

CÆæÿ$Vøþ irugª Cyæþ$Vøþ i∂ugª C§æþ$Vøþ idugª C§æþ$Vøþ idugª CÑVøþ ivigª

AÆæÿ$Vøþ arugª Ayæþ$Vøþ a∂ugª A§æþ$Vøþ adugª A§æþ$Vøþ adugª AÑVøþ avigª

(* Please see footnote under 7.1.)

ç³NË$þp¶lu is the plural form of ç³#Ðèþ#Ó puvvu 'flower'. 9.4. Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$þr¶p¡yi is the singular form, and Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ r¶p¡yalu 'rupees' is the plural form. But in pronunciation the vowel on ÄŒý$ y is not heard. 9.5. Nouns ending in r$t   u change their final r$t   u to sŒý   when the plural suffix &Ë$ -lu is added to them. ^éMðüÏr$t + Ë$ = ^éMðüÏr$Ï c¡kle  u + lu = c¡kle lu 'chocolets' 9.6. In this lesson the simple adjectives Mö™èþ¢ kotta 'new' and ´ë™èþ p¡ta 9.3.

'old (not new)' are introduced. 9.7. The interrogative mass (non-count) neuter pronoun G…™èþ eMta 'how much' is also introduced in this lesson. This is used when the interrogative noun denotes an object which cannot be counted.

Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ?

khar•du eMta? 'What is the price?' 178

Lesson 9 9.8.

Ordinal numerals are also introduced in this lesson.

&K -ª is

added to the numerals to change them into ordinals.

JMæüsìý + K = JMæüsZ oka i + ª = oka ª* 'first' Æðÿ…yæþ$ + K = Æðÿ…yø þ reM∂ª* 'second' (*for sandhi 2.12.2.) 9.8.1. Oridinal suffix &K -ª is added to the interrogative count pronoun G°² enni and the combination G¯ø² ennª is used as the interrogative word to elicit an Oridinal numeral JMæüsZ oka ª 'first', Æðÿ…yø reM∂ª 'second', Ðèþ$*yø m¶∂ª 'third', ¯éË$Vø n¡lugª 'fourth', etc. as answer. G°² + &K = G¯ø² enni + -ª ennª. A¨ G¯ø² Væü¨? A¨ BÆø Væü¨. adi ennª gadi? that howmany-ordinal suffix room?

adi ¡rª gadi. that sixth room

English has only the cardinal form of the interrogative word 'how many' (which can elicit only the cardinal numeral), and no ordinal form something like howmany+th.

C…M> iMk¡ 'more; still; yet' is an adverb. Remember the form C…MöMæü iMkoka introduced in lesson 4. C…MöMæü iMkoka is the combination of the two words C…M> iMk¡ and JMæü oka. AÑ ¯éË$Væü$ MæüÌêË$. B ò³sñýt Ò$§æþ C…MöMæü MæüË… E…¨. 9.9.

avi n¡lugu kal¡lu. ¡ pe  e m•da iMkoka kalaM uMdi. They are four pens. There is one more pen on that box. 9.10. Mæü§é kad¡ is used as a tag question. It is added to a declarative sentence. It is equivalent to English tag questions like Isn't it/she/he? Aren't they/you/we? Wasn't it/she/he/I? Weren't they/you/we? Won't I/we/you/he/ she/it/they? etc.

CÐóþÓâæý B¨ÐéÆæÿ… Mæü§é!

Today is Sunday. Isn't it?

ivv£˚a ¡div¡raM, kad¡! 179

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯óþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyóþ E¯é²¯èþ$ Mæü§é!

I am here. Amn't you?

n£nu ikka∂£ unn¡nu kad¡?

Ò$Ææÿ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$ Mæü§é!

You are a doctor. Aren't you?

m•ru ∂¡k aru kad¡? 9.11. Ðèþ$Ç mari is used as a sentence initiator for continuing the speech. It can be equated to English 'then' and Hindi {\$a Vmo.

Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ í³ËÏË$ CMæüPyóþ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

'My brother's children are here.'

m¡ tammu∂i pillalu ikka∂£ unn¡ru.

Ðèþ$Ç Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ GMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$?

'Then, where is your brother?'

mari m• tammu∂u ekka∂a unn¡∂u? 9.12.

In sentences like

D çÜ…`ÌZ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

'What are there in this bag?'

• saMc•lª £M unn¡yi?

D ò³sñýtÌZ H… E…¨?

'What is there in this box?'

• pe  elª £M uMdi? The interrogative word H… £M 'what' functions as interrogative neuter pronoun. Notice that it is used in both singular and plural like its human counterpart GÐèþÆæÿ$ evaru 'who' (5.10.). Recall the use of H… £M 'what' as an interrogative adjective of kind in constructions like H… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…? £M pustakaM? 'what book?' (3.11.) 9.12.1. The following chart shows the use of certain interrogative words as pronouns, predicates and adjectives. It can be seen from the chart that all the pronouns except H… £M 'what' are used as predicates. H… £M and HÑ$sìý? £mi i both mean 'what' and they are in complementary distribution in the sense that H… £M is used as pronoun and adjective, and HÑ$sìý £mi i is used as predicate. GÐèþÆæÿ$ evaru 'who', H¨ £di 'which one' and HÑ £vi 'which ones' are marked pronouns, and hence they are not used as adjectives. H… £M, G°² enni and G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ eMtamaMdi are adjectives. Adjectives in Telugu are also used as pronouns/nouns and predicates. 180

Lesson 9 Interrogative word

Its use as pronoun

Its use as predicate

HÑ$sìý

A¨ HÑ$sìý?

£mi i 'what'

adi £mi i? What is that?

Its use as adjective

H…

H… E…¨?

H… ç³#ççÜ¢Mæü…?

£M 'what'

£M uMdi? What is there?

£M pustakaM? What book?

GÐèþÆæÿ$

GÐèþÆæÿ$ E¯é²Ææÿ$?

£varu 'who'

evaru unn¡ru? atanu evaru? Who is/are there? Who is he?

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?



H¨ ± MæüË…?

± MæüË… H¨?

£di 'which (sg.)'

£di n• kalaM? Which is your pen?

n• kalaM £di? Which/Where is your pen?



HÑ ± MæüÌêË$?

± MæüÌêË$ HÑ?

£vi 'which (pl.)'

£vi n• kal¡lu? Which are your pens?

n• kal¡lu £vi? Which/Where are your pens?

G°²

G°² E¯é²Æÿ$$?

AÑ G°²?

enni 'how many (neut)'

G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ eMtamaMdi 'how many (hum.)'

enni unn¡yi? How many are there?

avi enni? How many are they (neut.)?

G°² MæüÌêË$?

enni kal¡lu? How many pens?

G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ E¯é²Ææÿ$? Ðéâæý$å G…™èþÐèþ$…¨? G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï? eMtamaMdi v¡˚˚u eMtamaMdi`` unn¡ru? eMtamaMdi ∂¡k arlu? How many (per- How many (perHow many doctors? sons) are there? sons) are they?

9.13. Üç Æóÿ! sar£! 'All right! Okay!' is used to express approval, agreement or an endorsement. 181

UNIT II Lesson 10

§æþçÜÆ> ç³…yæþ$Væü

DASARA FESTIVAL

çÜ$Væü$×ý : AÐèþ*Ã! §æþçÜÆ> ç³…yæþVæü G糚yæþ$?

Mother! when is the Dasara festival? This is the Dasara festival period. Dasara is a ten-day festival.The important celebra- tions fall on the last three days. What are the names of those days? The first day is 'Durg¡ß ami'. The second day is 'Mahar-navami'. The last day is 'Vijayada≈ami'.

´ëÆæÿÓ† : C糚yæþ$ §æþçÜÆ> ç³…yæþVóü. §æþçÜÆ> 糨 ÆøkË ç³…yæþVæü. _ÐèþÇ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ÆøkË$ Ðèþ$$QÅÐðþ$O¯èþ ç³…yæþVæüË$. çÜ$Væü$×ý : B ç³…yæþVæüË õ³ÆóÿÏÑ$sìý? ´ëÆæÿÓ† : Ððþ$$§æþsìýÆøk §æþ$Æ>YçÙtÑ$. Æðÿ…yø Æøk Ðèþ$çßýÆæÿ²ÐèþÑ$. _ÐèþÇüÆøk ÑfÄæý$ §æþÔèýÑ$. 182

Lesson 10

çÜ$Væü$×ý : ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$ G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$?

What is the date of Vijayadasami.

´ëÆæÿÓ† : CÆæÿÐèþÄñý*Å ™éÈMæü$.

20th of this month.

çÜ$Væü$×ý : CÐóþÓâæý 糧ðþ®°Ñ$§ø ™éÈMæü$. Æóÿç³# ç³…«§öÑ$è. GË$Ï…yìþ CÆæÿÐðþ.O AÆÿ$$™óþ ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$ GË$Ï…yìþ A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r!

Today is 18th. Tomorrow is 19th. The day after tomorrow is 20th. Then Vijayadasami is on the day after tomorrow.

*****

*****

ÑfÄæý$ : X™é! D ò³sñýtÌZ `ÆæÿË$ GÐèþÇÑ? X™èþ : Mö°²¯éÑ.

Gita! Whose saris are these in this box? Some are mine.

ÑfÄæý$ : CÑ Mö™èþ¢ `ÆæÿÌê?

Are these new saris?

X™èþ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. CÑ ç³…yæþ$Væü `ÆæÿË$. C糚yæþ$ §æþçÜÆ> Mæü§é!

Yes. They are festival saris. Now it is Dasara. Isn't it?

ÑfÄæ ý $ : AÐè þ #¯è þ $. D `Ææ ÿ Ë$ A±² ±Ðóþ¯é?

Yes. Are all these saris yours?

X™èþ : Mö°² ¯éÑ.

Some are mine.

ÑfÄæý$ : HÑ ±Ñ?

Which are yours?

X™èþ : D BMæü$ç³^èþa `Ææÿ, D Væü$Ìê½ Ææÿ…Væü$ `Ææÿ ¯éÑ.

This green sari and this rose sari are mine.

ÑfÄæý$ : Ñ$Wͯèþ `ÆæÿË$ GÐèþÇÑ?

Whose saris are the rest? 183

An Intensive Course in Telugu

X™èþ : G{Ææÿ `Ææÿ, ™ðþËÏ `Ææÿ Ðèþ* AÐèþ$ÃÑ. ç³çÜ$ç³#ç³^èþa `Ææÿ Ðèþ* AMæüPÄæý$Ũ. Ñ$WͯèþÑ Ðèþ* Ðèþ¨¯èþÑ. C§æþ$Vø D ¸ùsZÌZ BÑyæþ Ðèþ* Ðèþ¨¯èþ.

The red sari and the white sari are my mother's. The yellow sari is elder sister's. The rest are my sister-in-law's. Look here. The lady in this photograph is my sister-in-law.

ÑfÄæý$ : DÑyóþ¯é Ò$ Ðèþ¨¯èþ? DÑyæþ Ò$ M>ÌôýiÌZ ÌñýMæüaÆæÿÆŠÿ Mæü§æþ*? X™èþ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Is she your sister-in-law? She is a lecturer in your college. Isn't she? Yes.

ÑfÄæý$ : DÑyæþ õ³Ææÿ$ çÜÆøf Mæü§æþ*?

Her name is Saroja. Isn't it?

X™èþ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Yes.

ÑfÄæý$ : BÑyæþ C糚yæþ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ææÿ$?

Where is she now?

X™èþ : CMæüPyóþ E…¨. CÑ BÑyæþ `ÆæÿÌôý!

She is here. These are her saris.

*****

*****

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ÎÌê! D Mö™èþ¢ ºrtËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ?

Leela! Which are yours in these new clothes? This white gown/frock is mine. This red one is also mine.

ÎË : D ™ðþËÏVú¯èþ$ ¯é¨. D G{Ææÿ¨ Mæü*yé ¯é§óþ. MæüÐèþ$Ë : D G{Ææÿ¨ ±§é? D ^öM>P GÐèþǨ? ÎË : C¨ Ðèþ* »êº$¨.

Is this red one yours? Whose shirt is this? This is our Babu's.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : Ò$ »êº$ G¯ø² ™èþÆæÿVæü†?

Which class is your Babu in?

ÎË : BÆø ™èþÆæÿVæü†.

6th class.

184

Lesson 10

MæüÐèþ$Ë : CÑVø CÑ Ðèþ* ç³…yæþVæü ºrtË$. ¯é¨ BMæü$ç³^èþa Vú¯èþ$. Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ¨ ¯èþËÏ ^öM>P.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : BMæü$ç³^èþa Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ…Væü$ M>§é? BMæü$Ë$ BMæü$ç³^èþa.

Here are our festival clothes. Mine is the green gown/frock. My brother's is the black shirt. The red is a good/nice colour. The green and the black are not good/nice colours. The white is also a good/nice colour. Is not the green a good/nice colour? The leaves are green.

ÎË : ç³NË$ GÆæÿ$ç³#.

The flowers are red.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : BMæü$Ë$ A±² BMæü$ç³^èþa Ææÿ…Vóü! ç³NË$ A±² GÆæÿ$ç³# M>§æþ$. Mö°² GÆæÿ$ç³#. Mö°² ™ðþË$ç³#. Mö°² ç³çÜ$ç³#ç³^èþa. Mö°² Væü$Ìê½ Ææÿ…Væü$. ÎË : A§æþ$Vø Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$. CÐóþÓâæý òÜËÐèþ#. C…sìý §æþVæüYÆóÿ E¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ*! BMæü$ç³^èþa Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ…V>! GÆæÿ$ç³# Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ…V>?

All the leaves are green. But all the flowers are not red. Some are red, some are white, some are yellow and some are rose in colour. There my father is. It is holiday today. He is at home. Father! Is green a good / nice colour? or red?

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : A±² Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ…Væü$Ìôý¯èþÐèþ*Ã!

All are good/nice colours, dear!

ÎË : GÆæÿ$ç³# Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ…Væü$. BMæü$ç³^éa ¯èþË$ç³N Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ…Væü$Ë$ M>§æþ$. »êº$ : ™ðþË$ç³# Mæü*yé Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ…Vóü!

DRILLS a. Repetition drill. 1. A: B:

A:

B:

Æóÿç³# Ðèþ$çßýÆæÿ²ÐèþÑ$. AÆÿ$$™óþ ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$ GË$Ï…yìþ A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r

A: B:

GË$Ï…yìþ V>…«©fÄæý$…†. 185

AÆÿ$$™óþ GË$Ï…yìþ òÜËÐèþ¯èþ²Ðèþ*r! ¯é ³ç #sìý¯t þè Æøk AMøtºÆæÿ$ ³ç §æþÐèþ$*yæþ$. CÐóþÓâæý AMøtºÆæÿ$ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$. AÆÿ$$™óþ ± ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk Æóÿç³# A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r!

An Intensive Course in Telugu

B Mæü$ÈaÌZ BÐðþ$ Ðèþ* AÐèþ$Ã. D M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ* õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$. B M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ Ðéâæý$å Ò$ õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$.

2. D ¸ùsZÌZ BÑyæþ Ðèþ* Ðèþ¨¯èþ. D ¸ùsZÌZ BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ* A¯èþ²Äæý$Å. D Væü¨ÌZ A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$. b. Substitution drill. Model (i)

B ç³…yæþVæüË õ³ÆóÿÏÑ$sìý? ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë õ³ÆóÿÏÑ$sìý? ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$ í³ËÏË$ ¯ðþËË$ Model (ii)

Model (iii)

D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë Qȧæþ$ CÆæÿÐðþO Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. MæüÌêË$ D MæüÌêË Qȧæþ$ CÆæÿÐðþO Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. M>Æÿ$$™éË$ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ^éMðüÏr$Ï Model (iv)

CÐóþÓâæý BÆø ™éÈMæü$. 糧ðþ°® Ñ$¨. CÐóþÓâæý 糧ðþ®°Ñ$§ø ™éÈMæü$. ç³…«§öÑ$è CÆæÿÐðþO 糨õßýyæþ$

D ò³sñýtÌZ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? Væü¨ÌZ D Væü¨ÌZ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? çÜ…_ÌZ AËÐèþ$ÆæÿÌZ Mæü$ÈaÌZ

c. Response drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

CÑ H… `ÆæÿË$? (Mö™èþ¢) CÑ Mö™èþ¢ `ÆæÿË$? AÑ H… `ÆæÿË$? (ç³…yæþVæü) CÑ H… ºrtË$? (ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk) AÑ H… ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$? (Ðèþ$…_) AÑ H… ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$? (™ðþË$Væü$)

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 186

D ç³#çÜ¢M>ËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ? (Mö™èþ¢) B Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ¯éÑ. D `ÆæÿËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ? (G{Ææÿ) D ^öM>PËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ? (™ðþËÏ) D ç³#çÜ¢M>ËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ? (™ðþË$Væü$) D `ÆæÿËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ? (BMæü$ç³^èþa)

Lesson 10 Model (iii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (iv)

HÑ ± `ÆæÿË$? (BMæü$ç³^èþa, ™ðþËÏ) D ç³#çÜ¢M>ËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ? (´ë™èþ) D BMæü$ç³^èþa `Æóÿ ™ðþËÏ `Æóÿ ¯éÑ. B Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ¯éÑ. HÑ ± »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$? (Mø†, H¯èþ$Væü$) 1. D ^öM>PËÌZ HÑ ±Ñ? (™ðþËÏ) HÑ ± Mæü$ÈaË$? (Mö™èþ¢, ´ë™èþ) 2. D `ÆæÿËÌZ HÑ çÜ$ÖËÑ? HÑ ± ^öM>PË$? (G{Ææÿ, Væü$Ìê½Ææÿ…Væü$) (Væü$Ìê½Ææÿ…Væü$) HÑ ± ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$? (™ðþË$Væü$, íßý…©) 3. B `ÆæÿËÌZ H¨ çÜ$Væü$×ý¨? (G{Ææÿ)

Model (v)

D MæüÌêËÌZ H¨ ±¨? (G{Ææÿ) G{Ææÿ¨ ¯é¨. 1. D ^öM>PËÌZ H¨ ±¨? (Mö™èþ¢)

2. D `ÆæÿËÌZ H¨ Üç $Væü$×ý¨? (BMæü$ç³^èþa) 3. D ^öM>PËÌZ H¨ A™èþ°¨? (™ðþËÏ) 4. D MæüÌêËÌZ H¨ ÆæÿѨ? (´ë™èþ)

d. Expansion drill Model (i)

DÐðþ$ Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏË$. DÐðþ$ Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Mæü§æþ*? 1. BÑyæþ Ò$ ÌñýMæüaÆæÿÆŠÿ.

2. DÑyæþ õ³Ææÿ$ çÜÆøh°. 3. Æóÿç³# ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$.

4. Ò$Ææÿ$ Væü…VæüÆ>k.

Model (ii)

A. B.

CÐóþÓâæý A™èþ° ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk. CÐóþÓâæý A™èþ° ç³#sìý¯t þè Æøk A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r. AÆÿ$$™óþ CÐóþÓâæý A™èþ° ç³#sìýt¯èþ Æøk A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r!

1. çÜ$ÖË CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$. 2. çÜ$Væü$×ý Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ç Ðèþ$¯èþ$Ðèþ$Æ>Ë$. 3. ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$ GË$Ï…yìþ. 4. Æóÿç³# Ðèþ$¯èþMæü$ òÜËÐèþ#.

e. Transformation drill Model (i)

BÑyæþ çÜÆæÿâæý. BÑyæþõ³Ææÿ$ çÜÆæÿâæý. 1. DÑyæþ ÑfÄæý$.

2. BÑyæþ çÜÆøh°V>Ææÿ$. 3. DÑyæþ çÜ$ÖË. 4. A™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#. 187

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (ii)

C¨ G{Ææÿ^öM>P (GÆæÿ$ç³#) D ^öM>PÆæÿ…Væü$ GÆæÿ$ç³#. 1. C¨ ¯èþËÏ`Ææÿ. (¯èþË$çç³#)

2. C¨ ™ðþËÏ° M>Æÿ$$™èþ…. (™ðþË$ç³#) 3. A¨ BMæü$ç³^èþa M>Æÿ$$™èþ….(BMæü$ç³^èþa) 4. C¨ ç³çÜ$ç³#ç³^èþa `Ææÿ. (ç³çÜ$çç³#ç³^èþa)

Model (iii)

Ñ$Wͯèþ `ÆæÿË$ çÜÆæÿâæýÑ. D Ñ$WͯèþÑ çÜÆæÿâæý `ÆðÿË$. 1. D G{Ææÿ `ÆæÿË$ çÜ$ÖËÑ.

2. B ´ë™èþ Mæü$Èa Ðèþ* ™é™èþV>Ǩ. 3. D Mö™èþ¢ Mæü$ÈaË$ Ðèþ*Ñ. 4. D ™ðþËÏ ^öM>P Ðèþ* »êº$¨.

EXERCISES a. Combine the following sentences as shown in the model. Model

1. 2. 3. 4.

D MæüË… Qȧæþ$ 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. B MæüË… Qȧæþ$ I§æþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. D MæüÌêË Qȧæþ$ 糨õßý¯èþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Qȧðþ…™èþ? D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Qȧðþ…™èþ? D »ŸÐèþ$à Qȧæþ$ G°Ñ$¨ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. D »ŸÐèþ$à Qȧæþ$ 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. B ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … Qȧæþ$ ™öÑ$è Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Qȧæþ$ 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. D çÜ…_ Qȧðþ…™èþ? D çÜ…_ Qȧðþ…™èþ?

b. Write the following numbers in Telugu words. 17............................. 20........................... 18....................... 19.............................. 15............................ 14........................ c. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the models. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (ii)

C¨ Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö™èþ¢¨. A¨ ´ë™èþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. C¨ G{Ææÿ ^öM>P. A¨ ç³çÜ$ç³#ç³^èþa `Ææÿ. C¨ Væü$Ìê¼Ææÿ…Væü$ M>Æÿ$$™èþ….

1. 2. 3. 4. 188

CÑ Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ Mö™èþ¢Ñ. AÑ ´ë™èþ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. CÑ G{Ææÿ `ÆæÿË$. AÑ BMæü$ç³^èþa »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$. C¨ ¯èþËÏM>Æÿ$$™èþ….

Lesson 10

d. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. §æþçÜÆ> G°² ÆøkË ç³…yæþVæü? 2. §æþçÜÆ>ÌZ _ÐèþÇ Æøk H¨? 3. BMæü$Ë$ H Ææÿ…Væü$?

4. ç³N˱² GÆæÿ$õ³¯é? 5. ¸ùsZÌZ BÑyæþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? BÑyæþ õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

e. Build up conversations as shown in the model. Model

A: D 糨 ç³#çÜ¢M>ËÌZ BÆæÿ$ ¯éÑ. B: Ñ$Wͯèþ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ìñý°²? A: Ñ$WͯèþÑ ¯éË$Væü$. 1.A: D CÆæÿÐðþO M>Æÿ$$™éËÌZ ™öÑ$è B: .......................... ? A: .......................... ?

±Ñ.

2. A: D ³ ç §ðþ°® Ñ$¨ »ŸÐèþ$ÃËÌZ ³ç ¨ ¯éÑ. B: .......................... ? A: .......................... ? 3. A: B ³ ç §æþàÆæÿ$ Mæü$ÈaËÌZ I§æþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþÑ B: .......................... ? A: .......................... ?

VOCABULARY

§æþçÜÆ> Dasara festival ç³…yæþVæüü festival Æøk day §æþ$Æ>YçÙÑt $ Durgashtami festival Ðèþ$çßýÆæÿ²ÐèþÑ$ü Maharnavami festival ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$ Vijayadasami festival CÆæÿÐðþO twenty ç³…«§öÑ$èü nineteen GË$Ï…yìþ day after tomorrow AÆÿ$$™óþ if so A¯èþ²üÐèþ*r an expression of confirmation `Æðÿ/`Ææÿ BMæü$ç³^èþa

and inference (See 10.6.) saree green

189

Væü$Ìê½ü Ææÿ…Væü$ Ñ$Wͯèþ G{Ææÿ ™ðþËÏ ç³çÜ$ç³#ç³^èþa Ðèþ¨¯èþ

BÑyæþ

rose colour remaining red (adj.) white (adj.) yellow elder brother's wife; daugter (who is older than one's self) of mother's brother or father's sister; spouse's elder sister; a sister-in-law. she/that lady (rem.hon.)

An Intensive Course in Telugu

DÑyæþ M>Ìôýiü ÌñýMæüaÆæÿÆŠÿ Mæü§æþ*? DÑyæþ ü BÑyæþ

she/this lady (prox.hon.) college lecturer equivalent to Mæü§é? (see 10.5) her (pos.) (prox.hon.) her (pos.) (rem.-hon.)

Vú¯èþ$ ™èþÆæÿVæü† ¯èþËÏ GÆæÿ$ç³# ¯èþË$ç³# ™ðþË$ç³#ü BMæü$ òÜËÐèþ#

gown; frock class black (adj.) red (n) black (n) white (n) leaf holiday

GRAMMAR NOTES 10.1. In this lesson the oblique bases of the plural noun is introduced. &A -a is added to the nouns ending in plural suffix &Ë$ -lu to form the corresponding oblique bases (2.2.1.).

ç³…yæþVæüË$+A=ç³…yæþVæüË MæüÌêË$+A=MæüÌêËü ç³…yæþVæüË õ³Ææÿ$Ï MæüÌêË Qȧæþ$

paM∂agala kal¡la paM∂agala p£rlu kal¡la Khar•du

‘names of the festivals’ ‘cost of the pens’

10.2. Recall the pronominal and nominal predicates given in lesson (cf. 9.1., 91.1. and 9.1.2.). The suffixes &¨ -di and &Ñü-vi can also be added to adjectives to change them into adjectival predicates.

Ðèþ$…_&¨ mañci-di ‘good one (neut.)’ Mö™èþ¢&Ñ kotta-vi ‘new ones (neut.)’ B MæüË… Ðèþ$…_¨ ¡ kalaM mañcidi ‘That pen is good.’ D MæüÌêË$ Mö™èþ¢Ñü • kal¡lu kottavi ‘These pens are new.’ Similarly, ™ðþËϨ telladi 'the white one (neut.)', ™ðþËÏÑütellavi 'the white ones (neut.)', BMæü$ç³^èþa¨ ¡kupaccadi 'the green one (neut.)', BMæü$ç³^èþaÑü¡kupaccavi 'the green ones (neut.)', etc. are also possible.

190

Lesson 10 10.3. BÑyæþ ¡vi∂a 'she/that lady' and DÑyæþü•vi∂a 'she/this lady' are the third person feminine honorific singular pronouns. They are similar to BÐðþ$ ¡me and DÐðþ$ •me respectively but for one difference. BÐðþ$ ¡me and, DÐðþ$ •me refer to youngsters also, whereas BÑyæþ ¡vi∂a and DÑyæþ •vi∂a refer to elders only.

BÐðþ$ Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$. ¡me m¡ cellelu. ‘She is my youger sister.’ BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ Ðèþ* Ðèþ¨¯èþ. ¡me/¡vi∂a m¡ vadina. ‘She is my sister-in-law.’ BÑyæþ/DÑyæþ ¡vida/•vi∂a like BÐðþ$/DÐðþ$ü¡me/•me, do not show any change when used as oblique bases.

BÑyæþ õ³Ææÿ$; DÑyæþ õ³Ææÿ$ 10.4.

¡vi∂a p£ru; •vi∂ap£ru

‘her name’

Notice the expression

¸ùsZÌZ BÑyæþ

fª ªlª ¡vi∂a ‘she (who is) in the photograph’. The verb of existence in such expression is implied. D ¸ùsZÌZ BÑyæþ Ðèþ* Ðèþ¨¯èþ. ‘The one (who is) in this photo• fª ªlª ¡vi∂a m¡ vadina. graph is my sister-in-law.’ D ò³sñýtÌZ `ÆæÿË$ GÐèþÇÑ? ‘Whose saris are those (which are) • pe  elª c•ralu evarivi. in this box?’ 10.5. Mæü§æþ*? kad¶? is also a tag question added to a declarative sentences like Mæü§é?ükad¡? (9.10). It is also equivalent to questions in English like 'Isn't it?' Amn't I? etc. (see 9.10.).

BÐðþ$ õ³Ææÿ$ Ë™èþ Mæü§æþ*? ¡me p£ru lata kad¶? ‘Her name is Lata. Isn't it?’ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÑÑ Mæü§æþ*? nuvvu ravivi kad¶? ‘You are Ravi. Aren't you?’ 10.5.1. The difference between Mæü§éükad¡ and Mæü§æþ* kad¶ is as follows. When both the speaker and the listener know the information Mæü§éükad¡ is used by the speaker to bring the matter to the notice of the listener. Mæü§æþ* kad¶ is used if the speaker's knowledge about the information is not certain and the listener's knowledge, in the opinion of the speaker, is definite and the speaker wants confirmation from the listener. 191

An Intensive Course in Telugu 10.6.

A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r annam¡ a is an idiom used when the speaker expresses

his opinion in confirmation with the listener's or his own statement. The sentence with A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r annam¡ a 'always' refers to and infers something from the previously conveyed information.

""CÐóþÓâæý ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$.''

‘Today is Vijayadasami.’

"ivv£˚a vijayada≈ami."

""AÆÿ$$™óþ CÐóþÓâæý òÜËÐèþ# A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r!'' "ayit£ ivv£˚a selavu annam¡ a!" 10.7.

10.8.

‘Then (I can take it that) today is a holiday.’

The ordinal form of an CÆæÿÐðþO iravai 'twenty'; is CÆæÿÐèþÄñý*Å iravayyª.

CÆæÿÐðþO+K = CÆæÿÐèþÄñý*Å iravai+ª = iravayyª ‘20th’ C…sìý§æþVæüYÆæÿ iM idaggara means 'at home' in sentences like Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ C…sìý§æþVæüYÆæÿ E¯é²Ææÿ$. ‘My father is at home.’ m¡ n¡nnag¡ru iM idaggara unn¡ru.

Compare this with the sentence Ðéâæýå

Câæý$å çÜÆøf C…sìý§æþVæüYÆæÿ.

v¡˚˚a i˚˚u sarªja iM idaggara. 'Their houses are near Saroja's house' given in lesson 8 (8.9.2). In the former case §æþVæüÆY ÿæ daggara means 'at' and in the later case it means 'near'.

192

Lesson 11

UNIT II Lesson 11

C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐðþ$…™èþ?

WHAT IS THE TIME NOW?

çÜÆæÿâæý : MæüÐèþ$Ìê C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ?

Kamala: What is the time now?

MæüÐèþ$Ë : C§æþ$Vø VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ….

Here is the watch.

çÜÆæÿâæý : CMæüPyæþ I§æþ$ VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$ E¯é²Æÿ$$!

There are five watches here.

MæüÐèþ$Ë :D Væü¨ÌZ I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ… E¯é²…. D Ðèþ$*yæþ$ VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>ËÌZ JMæüsìý ¯é¨, JMæüsìý ÆæÿÐèþ$¨, JMæüsìý ÑfÄæý$¨. B Æðÿ…yæþ$ VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>ËÌZ JMæü VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… çÜ$Ö˨; C…MöMæü VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… {糿æý¨.

There are five persons in this room. Among these three watches, one is mine, the other one is Rama's and the third one is Vijaya's. In those two watches one is Susila's and the other is Prabha's.

193

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜÆæÿâæý : C§óþÑ$sìý? JMæü VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ JMæüsîý CÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Væü$. C…MöMæü VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ JMæüsîý Ðèþ$$ò³O¹ JMæüsìý. D VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ JMæüsîý ¯èþË¿ñýO. B VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ JMæüsîý Äæý*¿ñýO. D VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ J…sìýVæü…r.

What is this? It is 1-24 in one watch and 1-31 in the other. It is 1-40 in this watch and 150 in that watch. And it is one O'clock in this watch.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : MæüÆðÿMæü$t sñýOÐèþ$$ JMæüsîý Ðèþ$$ò³O¹. ÆæÿÐèþ$ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… BÆæÿ$ °Ñ$ÚëË$ ÝùÏ. ¯é¨ JMæü °Ñ$çÙ… ¸ëçÜ$t. ÑfÄæý$¨ 糨 °Ñ$ÚëË$ ¸ëçÜ$t. {糿æý¨ CÆæÿÐðþO °Ñ$ÚëË$ ¸ëçÜ$t.

The correct time is 1-30. Rama's watch is running six minutes slow. Mine is running one minute fast. Vijaya's is running ten minutes fast and Prabha's is running twenty minutes fast. It is two o'clock in that clock. That is running one hour fast.

çÜÆæÿâæý : B Vøyæþ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$. A¨ JMæü Væü…r ¸ëçÜ$t. MæüÐèþ$Ë : M>§æþ$. A¨ AÆæÿVæü…r ¸ëçÜ$t. C糚yæþ$ MæüÆðÿMæü$t sñýOÐèþ$$ JMæüsìý¯èþ²Ææÿ Mæü§é! çÜÆæÿâæý : Ò$Ææÿ$ A…§æþÆæÿ* ¼.Äôý$¯é? MæüÐèþ$Ë : M>§æþ$. JMæüÆæÿ$ ¼.G., JMæüÆæÿ$ ¼.G‹Ü. íÜ., JMæ ü Ææ ÿ $ ¼.M>ÐŒ þ $. C§æ þ ª Æ æ ÿ $ yìþ´÷ÏÐèþ*.

No. It is running half an hour fast. Now the correct time is 1-30. Isn't it? Are all of you studying B.A.? No. One is doing her B.A. The other B.Sc., and the third one B.com. The rest of the two are doing diploma.

*****

*****

Væü$Ææÿ$¯é£æþ… : HÐèþ$…yîþ! C¨ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ºõÜÞ¯é?

Sir, is this Guntur (bound) bus?

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : M>§æþ$.

No.

194

Lesson 11

Væü$Ææÿ$ : C¨ 糨…»êÐèþ# ºçÜ$Þ M>§é? Æ>Ðèþ$ : M>§æþ$.

Is this not the bus sheduled for 10-15? No.

Væü$Ææÿ$ : C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ?

What is the time now.

Æ>Ðèþ$ : 糨¯èþ²Ææÿ.

10-30.

Væü$Ææÿ$ : ¯ésñýO… ™öÑ$è Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#.

It is 9-45 in my watch.

Æ>Ðèþ$ : Ò$ sñýO… ™èþ糚. Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ# Væü…r ÝùÏ. Væü$Ææÿ$ : Ðèþ$äÏ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ G糚yæþ$?

Then your watch is incorrect, it is running 45 minutes slow. When is the next bus to Guntur.

Æ>Ðèþ$ : ´ëÐèþ# Væü…r ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ ´ëíÜ…fÆæÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ. ¯èþË¿ñýO °Ñ$ÚëË ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ GMŠüÞ{ò³‹Ü ºçÜ$Þ.

There is a passenger bus 15 minutes later and an express bus after forty minutes.

*****

*****

´ëç³ : HÐèþ$…yîþ C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ?

Madam! What is the time now?

Ðóþ$yæþ… : C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Ðèþ$*yæþ* ¯èþË¿ñýO.

It is 3-40 now.

X™èþ : ´ë´ë! CÑ ± Mö™èþ¢ ºrtÌê?

X™èþ : AÌêV>! ± ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G糚yæþ$.

Papa! are these your new clothes? Yes, Madam! These are my birthday clothes. I see! When was your birthday?

´ëç³ : Ððþ$$¯èþ²

It was day before yesterday.

´ëç³ : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ! CÑ ¯é ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk ºrtË$.

195

An Intensive Course in Telugu

X™èþ : B Æøk H… ÐéÆæÿ…?

What day was that?

´ëç³ : Ôèý${MæüÐéÆæÿ…. ç³…«§öÑ$çø ™éÈMæü$.

It was Friday, the nineteenth.

ÆæÿÑ : ™èþ糚. Ððþ$$¯èþ² Ôèý${MæüÐéÆæÿ… M>§æþ$. CÐóþÓâæý ÝùÐèþ$ÐéÆæÿ…. °¯èþ² B¨ÐéÆæÿ…. Ððþ$$¯èþ² Ôèý°ÐéÆæÿ…. ´ëç³ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. BÆøk Ôèý°ÐéÆæÿ….

It's wrong. It was not Friday that before yesterday. Today is Monday. Yesterday was Sunday and the day before yesterday was Saturday. Yes. That day was Saturday.

X™èþ : ÆæÿÒ! ± ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G糚yæþ$?

Ravi! When is your birthday?

ÆæÿÑ : D ¯ðþËÌZ¯óþ.

It is in this month.

X™èþ : D ¯ðþËÌZ G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$?

What is the date in this month?

ÆæÿÑ : CÆæÿÐðþOÐèþ$*yø ™éÈMæü$.

The twentythird.

X™èþ : AÆÿ$$™óþ ± ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk GË$Ï…yìþ º$«§æþÐéÆæÿÐèþ$¯èþ² Ðèþ*r!

Then your birthday is the day after tomorrow!

ÆæÿÑ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. CÐóþÓâæý ÝùÐèþ$ÐéÆæÿ…. Æóÿç³# Ðèþ$…VæüâæýÐéÆæÿ…. GË$Ï…yìþ º$«§æþÐéÆæÿ….

Yes. Today is Monday. Tomorrow is Tuesday. And the day after tomorrow is Wednesday. When is your birthday, Madam?

´ëç³ : Ò$ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G糚yæþ…yîþ? X™èþ : ¯é ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk Çç³¼ÏMŠü yóþ Ðèþ$Æ>²yæþ$. ´ëç³ : AÆÿ$$™óþ Ò$ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk f¯èþÐèþÇ CÆæÿÐðþO Hyø ™éÈMæü¯èþ²Ðèþ*r! B Æøk H… ÐéÆæÿ…? 196

My birthday is on the day next to the Republic day. Then your birthday is on the 27th of January. What day is that?

Lesson 11

X™èþ : ÆæÿÒ! M>Ìñý…yæþÆæÿ$ÌZ ^èþ*yæþ$.

Ravi! see the calendar.

ÆæÿÑ : f¯èþÐèþÇ CÆæÿÐðþOHyæþ$ Væü$Ææÿ$ÐéÆæÿ….

January the 27th is Thursday.

X™èþ : D »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ GÐèþÇÑ ´ë´ë?

Whose dolls are these, Papa?

´ëç³ : JMæüsìý ¯é¨, JMæüsìý Òyìþ¨.

One is mine and the other is his.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

1. C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ ™öÑ$é ¯èþË¿ñýOI§æþ$. A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ 糧æþMö…yæþ* 糨. 2. C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ J…sìý Væü…r. A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Hyæþ$ Væü…rË$. 3. A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Hyæþ$…»êÐèþ#. C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ G°Ñ$¨¯èþ²Ææÿ.

A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ ™öÑ$è Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#. 4. D Ðèþ$*yæþ$ VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>ËÌZ JMæüsìý ¯é¨; JMæüsìý±¨; JMæüsìý A™èþ°¨. Ðèþ*ÌZ JMæüÆæÿ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$; JMæüÆæÿ$ sîý^èþÆæÿ$; JMæüÆæÿ$ ѧéÅǦ. JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯é¨; JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ±¨.

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ$ Væü…rË$. Ðèþ$*yæþ$ C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Væü…rË$. BÆæÿ$ Hyæþ$ 糨

C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ* 糨õßý¯èþ$. Hyæþ$ MæüÆðÿMæü$t sñýOÐèþ$$ Hyæþ$…»êÐèþ#. 糨 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ JMæüsìý

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ*糨õßý¯èþ$. Hyæþ$ C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Hyæþ* 糨õßý¯èþ$. G°Ñ$¨ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ JMæüsìý

A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ G°Ñ$¨¯èþ²Ææÿ. BÆæÿ$ A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ$¯èþ²Ææÿ. JMæüsìý Æðÿ…yæþ$ Hyæþ$ 197

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model(v)

Model(vi)

sñýOÐèþ$$ G°Ñ$¨ýÐèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#. BÆæÿ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ$ Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#. ™öÑ$è 糧æþMö…yæþ$ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$

Væü…r ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ. CÆæÿÐðþO °Ñ$ÚëË$ CÆæÿÐðþO °Ñ$ÚëË ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ. ¯èþË¿ñýO °Ñ$ÚëË$ 糨 °Ñ$ÚëË$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$

c. Interlocked substitution drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#. Ðèþ$*yæþ$ C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#. AÆæÿ C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$¯èþ²Ææÿ. 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$¯èþ²Ææÿ. ´ëÐèþ# C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$…»êÐèþ#. __________ JMæüsìý ______ _________________ AÆæÿ __________ ™öÑ$è _____ _________________ ´ëÐèþ# ___________¯éË$Væü$______ _________________ Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ# ___________I§æþ$ _________ _________________ ´ëÐèþ# ___________糯ðþ²…yæþ$ ______ _________________ Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#

± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… 糨 °Ñ$ÚëË$ ÝùÏ. ¸ëçÜ$t ± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… 糨 °Ñ$ÚëË$ ¸ëçÜ$t. CÆæÿÐðþO ± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… CÆæÿÐðþO °Ñ$ÚëË$ ¸ëçÜ$t. Æðÿ…yæþ$ ± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… Æðÿ…yæþ$ °Ñ$ÚëË$ ¸ëçÜ$t. Væü…r ± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$ ¸ëçÜ$t. ÝùÏ ± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$ ÝùÏ.

____________________

_______________ °Ñ$çÙ… ___ __________ BÆæÿ$ __________ __________ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ ______ __________ JMæü __________ ______________ Væü…r _____ _____________________ ¸ëçÜ$t __________ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ________ __________ ____ °Ñ$çÙ… ___ 198

Lesson 11 Model (iii)

CÆæÿÐðþO ¯éË$Væü$. Ðèþ$*yæþ$ CÆæÿÐðþO Ðèþ$*yæþ$ JMæüsìý CÆæÿÐðþO JMæüsìý Ðèþ$$ò³¹O Ðèþ$$ò³O¹ JMæüsìý

1. ¯èþË¿ñýO Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ____ BÆæÿ$ Äæý*¿ñýO _____ ____ Hyæþ$ Ðèþ$$ò³¹O _____ ____ G°Ñ$¨ CÆæÿÐðþO _____

d. Response drill. Model (i)

± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ sñýÐO þè $$ G…™èþ? (BÆæÿ$¯èþ²Ææÿ) 1. Ë™èþ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G糚yæþ$? (V>…«©fÄæý$…†) ¯é VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…ÌZ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ$¯èþ²Ææÿ. 2. A™èþ° ³ç #sýì ¯t þè Æøk G糚yæþ$? (Çç³¼ÏMüŠ yóþ) 1. ™öÑ$è Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ# 3. ´ëç³ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G糚yæþ$? 2. 糨…»êÐèþ# (ÆæÿÑ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk) 3. 糯ðþ²…yæþ$¯èþ²Ææÿ Model (ii)

Model (v)

Ðèþ$äå Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ G糚yæþ$? C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ? (Hyæþ* CÆæÿÐðþO) AÆæÿVæü…r C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Hyæþ* CÆæÿÐðþO. Ðèþ$äå Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ AÆæÿVæü…r ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ. 1. G°Ñ$© ¯èþË¿ñýO 1. Ðèþ$äå »ñý…Væü$âæý*Ææÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ G糚yæþ$? 2. ™öÑ$é Ðèþ$$ò³O¹ AÆÿ$$§æþ$ (´ëÐèþ#Væü…r) 3. BÆæÿ* CÆæÿÐðþO Æðÿ…yæþ$ 2. Ðèþ$äå ÑfÄæý$Ðéyæþ ºçÜ$Þ G糚yæþ$? Model (iii) (Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#Væü…r) B¨ÐéÆæÿ… G糚yæþ$? 3. Ðèþ$äå ºçÜ$Þ G糚yæþ$? (Væü…r) Ôèý°ÐéÆæÿ… ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ. 4. Ðèþ$äå M>ÏçÜ$ G糚yæþ$? (AÆæÿVæü…r) 1. Ôèý${MæüÐéÆæÿ… G糚yæþ$? 2. º$«§æþÐéÆæÿ… G糚yæþ$? Model (vi) 3. Ðèþ$…VæüâæýÐéÆæÿ… G糚yæþ$? CÐóþÓâæý B¨ÐéÆæÿ…. Æóÿç³# H… ÐéÆæÿ…? Æóÿç³# ÝùÐèþ$ÐéÆæÿ…? Model (iv) ± ç³#sìý¯t þè Æøk G糚yæþ$? (ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$) 1. °¯èþ² Ôèý°ÐéÆæÿ…. Ððþ$$¯èþ² H… ÐéÆæÿ…? 2. GË$Ï…yìþ Væü$Ææÿ$ÐéÆæÿ…. CÐóþÓâæý H… ÐéÆæÿ…? ÑfÄæý$§æþÔèýÑ$ Ðèþ$Æ>²yæþ$ 3. Æóÿç³# Ðèþ$…VæüâæýÐéÆæÿ…. °¯èþ² H… ÐéÆæÿ…? 199

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (vii)

CÐóþÓâæý CÆæÿÐðþO™öÑ$çø ™éÈMæü$. Ððþ$$¯èþ² G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? Ððþ$$¯èþ² CÆæÿÐðþOHyø ™éÈMæü$. 1. °¯èþ² CÆæÿÐðþOÐèþ$*yø ™éÈMæü$. Æóÿç³# G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? 2. Ððþ$$¯èþ² CÆæÿÐðþOBÆø ™éÈMæü$. CÐóþÓâæý G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? 3. CÐóþÓâæý CÆæÿÐèþÄñý*Å ™éÈMæü$. GË$Ï…yìþ G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? Model (viii) A

CÑ ± ç³#çÜ¢M>Ìê? : JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯é¨; JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ±¨; JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… A™èþ°¨

B

: JMæüsìý ¯é¨; JMæüsìý ±¨; JMæüsìý A™èþ°¨.

1. AÑ ± VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ìê? 2. CÑ ± »ŸÐèþ$ÃÌê? 3. AÑ ± MæüÌêÌê? Model (ix)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ò$Ææÿ$ yéMæütÆ>Ï? Ðèþ*ÌZ JMæüÆæÿ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$; JMæüÆæÿ$ sîý^èþÆæÿ$; JMæüÆæÿ$ ѧéÅǦ. Ðéâæý$Ï yéMæütÆ>Ï? Òâæý$Ï yéMæütÆ>Ï? Ðóþ$… yéMæütÆæÿÏÐèþ*? Ðèþ$¯èþ… yéMæütÆæÿÏÐèþ*?

EXERCISES a. Write the following time expressions in Telugu words. Model

Hours Minutes

Hours Minutes

9&20 ™öÑ$é CÆæÿÐðþO 11&44 ___________ 7&36 ___________

10&57 ___________ 12&16 ___________ 1&00 ___________

b. Write the following fractions in Telugu words. 11½ 10¼ 8¾ c. Write numerals from 20 to 59 in Telugu words. d. Answer the following questions.

1. Ò$ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? 2. CÐóþÓâæý H… ÐéÆæÿ…? G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$?

3. CÐóþÓâæý B¨ÐéÆæÿ…: Ððþ$$¯èþ² H… ÐéÆæÿ…? GË$Ï…yìþ H… ÐéÆæÿ…?

e. Combine the following.

1. 糨 + AÆæÿ 4. BÆæÿ$ + AÆæÿ

2. ™öÑ$è + Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#. 5. Hyæþ$ + ´ëÐèþ# 200

3. G°Ñ$¨ + ´ëÐèþ# 6. Ðèþ$*yæþ$ + Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#

Lesson 11

f. Rewrite the following as shown in the model. Model

1. 2.

™öÑ$é 糨õßý¯èþ$ 糩Ðèþ$$ò³¹O BÆæÿ* 糨õßý¯èþ$

™öÑ$è…»êÐèþ# 3. JMæüsîý 糨õßý¯èþ$ 4. Æðÿ…yæþ* Ðèþ$$ò³O¹

g. Combine the following as shown in the model. Model

1. 2.

BÆæÿ$ + 糧ðþ®°Ñ$¨ = BÆæÿ*糧ðþ®Ñ$¨ Hyæþ$ + Ðèþ$$ò³O¹¯éË$Væü$ 3. 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ + ¯èþË¿ñýO 糨 + ™öÑ$è 4. 糧æþMö…yæþ$ + CÆæÿÐðþO

h. Write Telugu names for the days of the week.

VOCABULARY

-sñýOÐèþ$$ Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹ü ¯èþË¿ñýO Äæý*¿ñýO J…sìýVæü…r MæüÆðÿMæü$t °Ñ$çÙ… ÝùÏüü ¸ëçÜ$t VøyæþVæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… Væü…r AÆæÿ ¼.G.üü ¼.G‹ÜíÜ. ¼.M>ÐŒþ$. yìþ´÷ÏÐèþ* ºçÜ$Þ ´ëÐèþ#

time thirty forty fifty one o'clock correct minute slow fast wall clock hour half B.A. B.Sc. B.Com. diploma bus quarter

Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ# ™èþ糚 Ðèþ$äå ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ ´ëíÜ…fÆæÿ$ GMŠüÞ{ò³‹Ü Ððþ$$¯èþ² Ôèý${MæüÐéÆæÿ… ÝùÐèþ$ÐéÆæÿ… °¯èþ² B¨ÐéÆæÿ… Ôèý°ÐéÆæÿ… º$«§æþÐéÆæÿ… Ðèþ$…VæüâæýÐéÆæÿ… Çç³¼ÏMŠüyóþ Ðèþ$Æ>²yæþ$ M>Ìñý…yæþÆæÿ$ Væü$Ææÿ$ÐéÆæÿ… 201

three-quarter fault; mistake; wrong again after passenger express

day before yesterday Friday Monday yesterday Sunday Saturday Wednesday Tuesday Republic Day The next day calendar Thursday

An Intensive Course in Telugu

GRAMMAR NOTES 11.1. The time expressions are introduced in this lesson. The final vowel of the numeral representing hours is lengthened when a numaral representing minutes follows.

BÆæÿ$+CÆæÿÐðþO = BÆæÿ*CÆæÿÐðþO

‘six-twenty (six hours and twenty minutes)’

¡ru+iravai = ¡r¶iravai

G°Ñ$¨+糨 = G°Ñ$©ç³¨ ‘eight-ten (eight hours and ten minutes)’ enimidi+padi = enimid•padi 11.2. The fractions are also introduced in this lesson. These constructions are used in measurement of time and the like.

´ëÐèþ# AÆæÿ Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#

´ëÐèþ#Væü…r p¡vugaM a ‘15 mnts.’ AÆæÿVæü…r aragaM a ‘30 mnts.’ Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#Væü…r mupp¡vugaM a ‘45 mnts.’ 11.2.1. ´ëÐèþ# p¡vu becomes …»êÐèþ# Mb¡vu when added to a whole number. Æðÿ…yæþ$+´ëÐèþ# = Æðÿ…yæþ$…»êÐèþ# reM∂uMb¡vu ‘two and a quarter’ 11.2.2. AÆæÿ ara changes to ¯èþ²Ææÿ nnara when added to a whole number. Æðÿ…yæþ$+AÆæÿ = Æðÿ…yæþ$¯èþ²Ææÿ reM∂unnara ‘two and a half’ 11.2.3. Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#ÿmupp¡vu changes to Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#ÿmmupp¡vu when added p¡vu ‘quarter’ ara ‘half’ mupp¡vu ‘three-quarter’

to a whole number.

Æðÿ…yæþ$+Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ# = Æðÿ…yæþ$Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#

‘two and three-quarters’.

reM∂ummupp¡vu 11.3. Notice that when fraction and a whole number are conjoined, a nasal sound is inserted in between the two.

JMæüsìý+´ëÐèþ#ÿ= JMæüsìý…»êÐèþ#ÿ oka iMb¡vu G°Ñ$¨+AÆæÿÿ= G°Ñ$¨¯èþ²Ææÿÿ enimidinnara 糨+Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#ÿ= 糨Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#ÿ padimmupp¡vu 202

‘one and a quarter’ ‘eight and a half’ ‘ten and three-quarters’

Lesson 11 These whole number and fraction constructions are also used in time measurement.

Æðÿ…yæþ$…»êÐèþ# reM∂uMb¡vu ‘2 hours and fifteen minutes’ Ðèþ$*yæþ$¯èþ²Ææÿ m¶∂unnara ‘three hours and thirty minutes’ JMæüsìýÐèþ$$ôëµÐèþ# oka immupp¡vu ‘one hour and fortyfive minutes’ 11.4. J…sìýVæü…r oM igaM a stands for the 'one o'clock. For two o'clock. Three o'clock etc. the following phrases are used.

Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Væü…rË$ ¯éË$Væü$ Væü…rË$ 糨 Væü…rË$

reM∂u gaM alu m¶∂u gaM alu n¡lugu gaM alu padi gaM alu

‘two o'clock’ ‘three o'clock’ ‘four o'clock’ ‘ten o'clock’ etc.

11.4.1. Notice the diffrence between J…sìýVæü…r oM igaM a 'one o'clock' and JMæü Væü…r oka gaM a 'one hour'. No such difference is there in the case of the other numbers used with the Væü…rË$ gaM alu 'hours’.

Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$ reM∂u gaM alu ‘two o'clock/two hours’ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Væü…rË$ m¶∂u gaM alu ‘three o'clock/three hours’ ¯éË$Væü$ Væü…rË$ n¡lugu gaM alu ‘four o'clock/four hours’ I§æþ$ Væü…rË$ aidu gaM alu ‘five o'clock/five hours’ 11.5. G…™èþ eMta 'how much' the interrogative mass neuter pronoun (9.7.) is used in questions to elicit time. sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ?  aimu eMta? 'What is the time (now)?'. 11.6. ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ tarv¡ta 'after' is a post-position (4.6.). As already stated post-positions are added to oblique bases (cf.8.9.).

糨 °Ñ$ÚëË ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ Væü…r ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ

padi nimiß¡la tarv¡ta 'after ten minutes' (10.1.) gaM a tarv¡ta 'after an hour' (8.9.1.)

11.7. In this lesson the numeral formation after CÆæÿÐðþOþiravai 'twenty' is shown. Numerals JMæüsìý oka i 'one' to ™öÑ$è tommidi 'nine' are added to 203

An Intensive Course in Telugu

CÆæÿÐðþOþiravai 'twenty', Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹þmupPhai 'thirty', ¯èþË¿ñýO nalabhai 'forty' Äæý*¿ñýþO y¡bhai 'fifty', etc. to form CÆæÿÐðþJO Mæüsìýþiravaioka i 'twentyone', Ðèþ$$ò³üO ¹Æðÿ…yæþ$ mupphai reM∂u 'thirtytwo', etc.

CÆæÿÐðþO CÆæÿÐðþOJMæüsìý CÆæÿÐðþÆO ÿð …yæþ$ CÆæÿÐðþOÐèþ$*yæþ$ CÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Væü$ CÆæÿÐðþIO §æþ$ CÆæÿÐðþB O Ææÿ$ CÆæÿÐðþOHyæþ$ CÆæÿÐðþOG°Ñ$¨ CÆæÿÐðþO™öÑ$è Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹ Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹JMæüsìý Ðèþ$$ò³üO ¹Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ$$ò³üO ¹I§æþ$ Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹™öÑ$è ¯èþË¿ñýO ¯èþË¿ñýÆO ÿð …yæþ$ ¯èþË¿ñýOG°Ñ$¨ ¯èþË¿ñýO™öÑ$è Äæý*¿ñýO Äæý*¿ñýOJMæüsìý Äæý*¿ñýOHyæþ$ Äæý*¿ñýO™öÑ$è

iravai iravaioka i iravaireM∂u iravaim¶∂u iravain¡lugu iravaiaidu

twenty twentyone twentytwo twentythree twentyfour twentyfive

iravai¡ru iravai£∂u iravaienimidi iravaitommidi mupphai mupphaioka i mupphaireM∂u mupphaiaidu mupphaitommidi nalabhai nalabhaireM∂u nalabhaienimidi nalabhaitommidi y¡bhai y¡bhaioka i y¡bhai£∂u y¡bhaitommidi

twentysix twentyseven twentyeight twentynine thirty thirtyone thirtytwo thirtyfive thirtynine forty fortytwo fortyeight fortynine fifty fiftyone fiftyseven fiftynine etc.

204

Lesson 12

REVIEW 2 Lesson 12

ÆæÿÑ

Mæü*ÆæÿV>Äæý$Ë$ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

WHAT VEGETABLES ARE AVAILABLE?

: HÐèþ$Äæý*Å! Mæü*ÆæÿV>Äæý$Ë$ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

Hey! What are the vegetables available with you?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : Ææÿ…yìþ ÝëÆŠÿ! ™égê Mæü*ÆæÿV>Äæý$Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$.

Please come, sir! Fresh vegetables are available.

ÆæÿÑ

Are brinjals available?

: Ðèþ…M>Äæý$Ë$¯é²Äæý*?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : Ðèþ…M>Äæý$Ë*, ½ÆæÿM>Äæý$Ë*, sŸÐóþ$sZË*, _Mæü$Pyæþ$M>Äæý$Ë*, §øçÜM>Äæý$Ë*, Móü»ôýi E¯é²Äæý$…yîþ! 205

Brinjal, b•rak¡y, tomato, beans, cucumber and cabbage are available, sir.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÆæÿÑ

: BMæü$Mæü*ÆæÿË$ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

What are the potherbs available?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : ™ørMæü*Æ>, ´ëËMæü*Æ>, º^èþaÍMæü*Æ>, Vø…Væü*Æ> E¯é²Äæý$…yîþ. Vø…Væü*Ææÿ ™égê¨. ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ.

Tª ak¶r¡, p¡lak¶r¡, spinach, gªng¶r¡ are available, sir. The gªng¶ra is fresh. Please take it. Don't you have green chillies?

ÆæÿÑ

: ç³_aÑ$Ææÿç³M>Äæý$Ë$ ÌôýÐé?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : E¯é²Äæý$…yîþ! CÑVø. ÆæÿÑ

We have them, sir! Here they are! What is the price of brinjal?

: Ðèþ…M>Äæý$Ë$ G…™èþ?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : MìüÌZ 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë…yîþ.

Rs. 12 a K.G., sir.

ÆæÿÑ

B•rak¡y?

: ½ÆæÿM>Äæý$Ë$ ?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : MìüÌZ 糧æþMö…yæþ$¯èþ²Ææÿ.

Rs. 11.50 a K.G.

ÆæÿÑ

How much does the cabbage cost? Rs. 10 a K.G.

: Móü»ô i G…™èþ?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : MìüÌZ 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. ÆæÿÑ

: Ðèþ…M>Äæý$Ë$ JMæü MìüÌZ, ½ÆæÿM>Äæý$Ë$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ MìüÌZË$ CÐèþ#Ó.

Give me a K.G. of brinjal, two K.Gs. of b•rak¡y.

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ.

Please take them.

ÆæÿÑ

Don't put those ones. Put good ones. These are good, sir.

: B M>Äæý$Ë$ ÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü$. Ðèþ$…_Ñ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å.

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : CÑ »êVæü$¯é²Äæý$…yìþ. 206

Lesson 12

ÆæÿÑ : Móü½i Mæü*yé JMæü MìüÌZ CÐèþ#Ó.

Give a K.G. of cabbage also.

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : Móü½i JMæüsìý¯èþ²Ææÿ MìüÌZ E…§æþ…yîþ!

This cabbage is weighing one and a half K.G., sir! Okay, give it. Give me a quarter K.G. of green chillies. Add 50 grams of ginger too.

ÆæÿÑ : çÜÆóÿ, CÐèþ#Ó. ç³_aÑ$Ææÿç³M>Äæý$Ë$ ´ëÐèþ#MìüÌZ CÐè þ #Ó. AËÏ … Mæ ü *yé Äæ ý *¿ñ ý O {V>Ðèþ$$Ë$ CÐèþ#Ó. Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : Ððþ$$™èþ¢… Äæý*¿ñýO™öÑ$è Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ÝëÆŠÿ.

It is, in total, Rs. 59, sir!

ÆæÿÑ : C¨Vø, ¡çÜ$Mø. C糚yæþ$ íÜsîý ºçÜ$Þ E…§é?

Take it. Is there any city bus now?

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ : Ìôý§æþ$ ÝëÆŠÿ. C糚yæþ$ sñýO… G…™èþ ÝëÆŠÿ.

No, sir! What is the time now, sir!

ÆæÿÑ : Hyæþ$ Ðèþ$$´ëµÐèþ#.

Seven and three quarters. ***

***

çÜ$Væü$×ý : 糧éÃ! »êVæü$¯é²Ðé?

Padma! How do you do?

糧æþà : B! Ò$Ææÿ…§æþÆæÿ* »êVæü$¯é²Æ>? Æ>, Mæü*Æøa. çÜ$Væü$×ý : Ò$ õܲíßý™èþ$Æ>Í CÌñýÏMæüPyæþ?

Fine. How are you? Come on, sit. Where is your friend's house?

糧æþà : GÐèþÇË$Ï?

Whose house?

çÜ$Væü$×ý : ÑfÄæý$ CË$Ï.

Vijaya's house.

207

An Intensive Course in Telugu

糧æþà : çÜÆøf C…sìý §æþVæüYÆæÿ. Ðéâæýå Câæý$å Ðèþ$¯èþ çÜ*PË$ §æþVæüYÆóÿ!

It is near Saroja's house. Their houses are near our school.

çÜ$Væü$×ý : çÜÆøf CË$Ï Ðèþ$¯èþ çÜ*PË$ §æþVæüYÆóÿ¯é?

Is Saroja's house near our school?

糧æþà : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. D ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GÐèþÇÑ? ±Ðóþ¯é?

Yes.Whose books are these? Yours?

çÜ$Væü$×ý : ¯éÑM>Ðèþ#. Mö°² Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$ÃyìþÑ. Mö°² Ðéyìþ õܲíßý™èþ$yìþÑ. 糧æþà : Ðéâæýå çÜ*Pâæý$å GMæüPyæþ ?

Not mine. Some of them are my younger brother's. Some of them are his friend's. Where are their schools?

çÜ$Væü$×ý : Ðéãå§æþªÇ çÜ*PË* JMæüPsôý.

They are from the same school.

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions using the cue words as shown in the model. Model

ÆæÿÑ Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²yé? (M>ÏçÜ$) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÆæÿÑ Væü¨ÌZ Ìôýyæþ$. M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ E¯é²yæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ E¯é²¯é? (ºËÏ) Ò$Ææÿ$ çÜ*PÌZÏ E¯é²Æ>? (M>Ìôýi) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÑ C…sìý §æþVæüYÆæÿ E¯é²Ðé? (Vøí³ CË$Ï) A™èþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yé? (AMæüPyæþ) Ðéâæý$å Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æ>? (M>ÏçÜ$) 208

Lesson 12

b. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the models. Model (i)

1. 2. 3.

Model (iii)

ÆæÿÑ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ Ìôýyæþ$; WÇ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ Ìôýyæþ$. ÆæÿÒ WÈ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ ÌôýÆæÿ$. çÜ$Væü$×ý CMæüPyæþ E…¨. WÇf CMæüPyæþ E…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ D ¸ùsZÌZ Ìôý¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ¸ùsZÌZ ÌôýÐèþ#. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü¨ÌZ ÌôýÐèþ#. A™èþ¯èþ$ Væü¨ÌZ Ìôýyæþ$.

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C¨ ¯é Mæü$Èa D Mæü$Èa ¯é¨. A¨ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. C¨ Ðèþ$¯èþ §óþÔèý…. CÑ Ðéâæýå Mæü$ÈaË$. A¨ Ðèþ$…_ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. AÑ Mö™èþ¢ çÜ…`Ë$.

Model (iv)

± ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … CÐèþ#Ó. ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèþÓMæü$. ÆæÿÒ! CÌê Æ>! Ò$Ææÿ$ D MæüË… ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøa. B ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

C糚yæþ$ sñýÐO þè $$ I§æþ$…»êÐèþ#. C糚yæþ$ sñýÐO þè $$ I§æþ* 糨õßý¯èþ$. C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$…»êÐèþ#. C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ$¯èþ²Ææÿ. A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ JMæüsìý…»êÐèþ#. A糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ 糨Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#. A糚yæþ$ sñýÐO þè $$ Æðÿ…yæþ$Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#.

2. 3. 4.

Òâæý$Ï ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï. AÑ ¯éË$Væü$ Mæü$ÈaË$. CÑ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ MæüÌêË$.

Model (v)

1.

CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ* ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$ õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$.

c. Fill in the blanks using the correct forms of the words given in parentheses. Model

.................. (A™èþ¯èþ$) õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? A™èþ° õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? 1. ............. (A¨) õ³Ææÿ$ HÑ$sìý? 2. ............ (AÑ) õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? 3. ............ (CÑ) õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 209

............ (Ðéyæþ$) õ³Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ. ............ (Òyæþ$) õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Ðèþ$$. ............ (Òâæý$Ï) M>Ìôýi GMæüPyæþ? Ò$ ....... (CË$Ï) ¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$ 32. D ....... (MæüÌêË$) Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

d. Answer the following questions.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CÐóþÓâæý Ôèý${MæüÐéÆæÿ…. Ððþ$$¯èþ² H… ÐéÆæÿ…? Æóÿç³# Væü$Ææÿ$ÐéÆæÿ…. °¯èþ² H… ÐéÆæÿ…? Çç³¼ÏMŠü yóþ Ðèþ$Æ>²yæþ$ G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$? GË$Ï…yìþ ÝùÐèþ$ÐéÆæÿ…. Ððþ$$¯èþ² H… ÐéÆæÿ…? °¯èþ² B¨ÐéÆæÿ…. CÐóþÓâæý H… ÐéÆæÿ…? V>…«© fÄæý$…† H ¯ðþËÌZ? G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$?

e. Write the following numerals in Telugu words.

46

39

57

25

14

9

40

50

18

f. Combine the following.

1. C§æþ$Vø+A…yîþ= .............. 2. ^ðþÌñýËÏ $+Ë$(plural suffix) ........... 3. Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþÌôý+B? = ................?

4. Mæü$Èa+B? = ............? 5. A§æþ$Vø+AÐèþ*à ............ 6. CË$Ï+Ë$(plural suffix) ............

g. Fill in the blanks with G°² or G…™èþ or G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ whichever is appropriate.

1. Ò$ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ ......... ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$¯é²Ææÿ$? 4. Ò$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Qȧæþ$ .......... ? 2. Ò$ Væü¨ÌZ ......... ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$¯é²Äæý*? 5. Ðéâæý$Ï ........... ? 3. AÑ ........ Mæü$MæüPË$. 6. C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ ......... ? h. Answer the question based on the picture.

C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ? ´ëÐèþ#Væü…r ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ? CÆæÿÐðþO °Ñ$ÚëË ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ? JMæü Væü…r ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ? ¯èþË¿ñýO °Ñ$ÚëË ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ sñýOÐèþ$$ G…™èþ?

* 6

*

*

*

210

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

9

AÆæÿ$Vø AÑVø Ayæþ$Vø A§æþ$Vø

*

Ðéyæþ$ Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$

*

3

i. Match the following.

1. 2. 3. 4.

12

*

*

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Lesson 12

VOCABULARY

Mæü*ÆæÿV>Äæý$Ë$ ™égê ½ÆæÿM>Äæý$

vegetables fresh the sharp angled cucumber fruit _Mæü$Pyæþ$M>Äæý$ the pod of bean plant BMæü$Mæü*Ææÿ potherb. green leafy vegetables ™ørMæü*Ææÿ a certain potherb º^èþaËMæü*Ææÿ Indian spinach ç³_aÑ$Ææÿç³M>Äæý$ green chilly AËÏ… ginger íÜsîýºçÜ$Þ city-bus

211

Mört™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ…M>Äæý$ sŸÐóþ$sZ Móü»ôýi M>Äæý$ ´ëËMæü*Ææÿ Vø…Væü*Ææÿ MìüÌZ {V>Ðèþ$$

shop-man (shopkeepter) brinjal fruit tomato cabbage green unripe fruit a certain potherb leaf of a hemp plant used as a vegetable kilogram gram

UNIT III Lesson 13

±Mæü$ E§øÅVæü… E…§é? Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : ÆæÿÒ! Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$Ï Ò$ Ðèþ*çÙtÆ>? ÆæÿÑ

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : Ðéâæýå¨ H FÆæÿ$? ÆæÿÑ

Ravi! Is Venkateswarlu your teacher? Yes. What is his native place?

: HË*Ææ ÿ $. D FâZå Mæ ü *yé BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ JMæü CË$Ï E…¨.

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : A™èþ°Mìü G°² Câæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$? ÆæÿÑ

DO YOU HAVE A JOB?

: Æðÿ…yæþ$ Câæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$. JMæüsìý CMæüPyæþ E…¨. JMæüsìý HË*Ææÿ$ÌZ E…¨. 212

Eluru. He has a house in this town also. How many houses does he have? He has two houses. One is here and the other is in Eluru.

Lesson 13

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : A™èþ°Mìü Æðÿ…yæþ$ FâæýåÌZ Câæý$å E¯é²Äæý*? A™èþ°Mìü G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$?

So, he has houses in two places? How many children does he have?

ÆæÿÑ

He has no children.

: BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ í³ËÏË$ ÌôýÆæÿ$.

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$Ï ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ Mæü§æþ*? A™èþ°Mìü G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$?

Narayana is Venkateswarlu’s younger brother. Isn’t he? How many children does he have?

ÆæÿÑ

Four children.

: ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$.

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : ò³§æþª í³ËÏÌê? _¯èþ² í³ËÏÌê?

Are they grown up or young?

ÆæÿÑ

All of them are grown up.

: A…§æþÆæÿ* ò³§æþª í³ËÏÌôý!

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : Byæþí³ËÏÌñý…™èþÐèþ$…¨? Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏ Ìñý…™èþÐèþ$…¨?

How many of them are girls and how many of them are boys?

ÆæÿÑ

Two girls and two boys.

: C§æþƪ ÿæ Ðèþ*ÃÆÿ$$Ë*, C§æþƪ ÿæ »ê¾Æÿ$$Ë*.

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : ÐéâæýåMæü$ G¯óþ²âæý$å?

How old are they?

ÆæÿÑ

The eldest daughter is 31. She has a daughter and a son. The younger daughter is 25 years old. The elder son is 28 years old. He has good education. But he does not have a job. The younger one is 22.

: ò³§æþªÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$Mìü Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹JMæüsZ Hyæþ$. BÐðþ$Mæü$ JMæü Byæþí³ÌêÏ, JMæü Ðèþ$Væü í³ËÏÐéyæþ*. _¯èþ²Ðèþ*ÃÆÿ$$Mìü CÆæÿÐðþO I§ø çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ…. ò³§æþª»ê¾Æÿ$$Mìü CÆæÿÐðþO G°Ñ$§óþâæý$å. A™èþ°Mìü Ðèþ$…_ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨. M>° E§øÅVæü… Ìôý§æþ$. _¯èþ²»ê¾Æÿ$$Mìü CÆæÿÐðþOÆðÿ…yóþâæý$å. 213

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : ò³§æþªÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$${† Mæü§æþ*! ÆæÿÑ

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ ò³§æþª Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$${™èþ$ ËÌZ BÐðþ$ JMæü™ðþ. BÐðþ$ ^éÌê Ðèþ$…_¨.

The eldest daughter is a writer. Isn’t she? Yes. She is one of the top writers in Telugu. She is a very good woman..

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$Ï Ðèþ$…_Ðéyóþ¯é?

Is Venkateswarlu a good man?

ÆæÿÑ

Yes. He is also a very good man.

: B! BÄæý$¯èþ Mæü*yé ^éÌê Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$.

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : BÄæý$¯èþ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$?

And his brother?

ÆæÿÑ

: BÄæý$¯èþ Mæü*yé Ðèþ$…_Ðéyóþ! BÄæý$¯èþ í³ËÏË* Ðèþ$…_Ðéâôýå. Ðéâæýå…§æþÆæÿ* Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæý$å.

He is also a good man. His children are good persons. They are all nice people.

Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : D E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$ÏMæü$ CÐèþ#Ó.

Give this letter to Venkateswarlu.

***

***

¯éMæü$ A…§æþ… E¯èþ²¨! I am handsome!

¯éMæü$ yìþ{X E¯èþ²¨!

E§øÅVæü… E¯èþ²§é?

I have a degree!

Do you have a job?

214

Lesson 13

Vøí³ : WÈ! ±Mæü$ ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? WÇ : ¯éMæü$ ¯èþ*sìýMìü AÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Væü$.

Giri! How many marks did you get in Telugu? I got sixtyfour percent.

Vøí³ : çßýÇMìü G°²? Æ>kMæü$ G°²?

How many did Hari get and how many did Raju? Hari got 70. Raju got 72.



: çßýÇMìü yðþ»ñýüO Â. Æ>kMæü$ yðþ»ñýüO ÂÆðÿ…yæþ$.

Vøí³ : çÜ$ÖËMðü°²? VúÇMðü°²? WÇ

: çÜ$ÖËMæü$ G¯èþ¿ñý.O VúÇMìü G¯èþ¿ñýJO Mæüsìý.

Vøí³ : HÐèþ$…yîþ ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Mæü$ ÌñýMæüPËÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$?

How many did Susila get and how many did Gowri. Susila got 80 and Gowri 81.

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯èþ*sìýMìü ¯èþ*Ææÿ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$.

Hello, Mr. Sarma! How many marks did you get in mathematics? I got cent percent.

Vøí³ : òÜO¯èþ$ÞÌZ G°²?

How many in science?

ÔèýÆæÿÃ : ™ö…¿ñýOBÆæÿ$.

Ninetysix.

***

***

çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å : HÐèþ$…yîþ! WÇV>Ææÿ* Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$?

Hello, Mr. Giri! How many brothers are you?



: ¯éMæü$ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$ ÌôýÆæÿ…yîþ! ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ôý~.

I have no brothers, sir! I am only one.

çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å : çÜÆæÿâæýV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å?

Ms. Sarala! How many sisters are you?

215

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜÆæÿâæý : ¯éMæü$ Mæü*yé AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å ÌôýÆæÿ…yîþ. ¯óþ¯èþ* JMæü™ðþ¯óþ!

I too have no sisters, sir! I am also (only) one.

çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å : HÐèþ$…yîþ! Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$?

Hello, sir! How many brothers are you?

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ…. ¯éMæü$ A¯èþ²Ë$ ÌôýÆæÿ$. C§æþªÆæÿ$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãâæý$å.

We are three. I don’t have elder brothers. I have two younger brothers. Do you have sisters?

çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å : Ò$Mæü$ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å E¯é²Æ>? Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : AMæüPË$ ÌôýÆæÿ…yîþ. C§æþªÆæÿ$ ^ðþÌñýÏâæý$å. çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å : Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏâæý$å CMæüPyóþ E¯é²Æ>?

I don’t have elder sisters, sir. I have two younger sisters. Are your sisters here?

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : JMæü ^ðþÌñýÏË$ {ç³çÜ$¢™èþ… CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$. ÑfÄæý$ÐéyæþÌZ Ðèþ* »ê»êÆÿ$$ V>Ç…sZÏ E…¨.

One is not here at present. She is at my uncle’s house in Vijayawada.

çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å : Ò$ »ê»êÆÿ$$V>ÇMìü í³ËÏË$ ÌôýÆ>?

Doesn’t your uncle have children? He has male children, and not female children.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏË$¯é²Ææÿ…yîþ; Byæþí³ËÏË$ ÌôýÆæÿ$. çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å : AÆÿ$$™óþ Ò$ »ê»êÆÿ$$V>ÇMìü Möyæþ$Mæü$Ë$ E¯é²Ææÿ$ M>° Mæü*™èþ$âæý$å ÌôýÆæÿ¯èþ²Ðèþ*r!

Then, your uncle has sons and not daughters!

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ C§æþªÆæÿ$ Möyæþ$Mæü$Ë$.

Yes, sir! He has two sons.

216

Lesson 13

DRILLS a. Repetition drill Model (i)

A™èþ°Mìü ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨; M>° E§øÅVæü… Ìôý§æþ$. çßýÇMìü Möyæþ$Mæü$Ë$¯é²Ææÿ$; M>° Mæü*™èþ$âæý$å ÌôýÆæÿ$. ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ Ðèþ$…_ Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$${™èþ$ËÌZ BÐðþ$ JMæü™ðþ. ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ ò³§æþª Ææÿ^èþÆÿ$$™èþËÌZ BÄæý$¯èþ JMæüÆæÿ$. A™èþ°Mìü G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? Æ>kMæü$ G°² yìþ{XË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$?

BÐðþ$Mæü$ G°² Câæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$? BÐðþ$Mæü$ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ í³ËÏË$. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýåâæý$å? ¯éMæü$ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å ÌôýÆæÿ$; ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü™ðþ¯óþ! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? ¯éMæü$ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$ ÌôýÆæÿ$; ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ôý~!

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

±Mæü$ ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? ÆæÿÑ ÆæÿÑMìü ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðóþ$… Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðéâæý$å çßýÇ A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$

BÐðþ$Mæü$ G¯óþ²âæý$å? BÄæý$¯èþ BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ G¯óþ²âæý$å? Ðéyæþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ VúÇ Æ>k Ò$Ææÿ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

G°² ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$? CË$Ï G°² Câæý$å? FÆæÿ$ çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ… Hyæþ$

Væü¨ÌZ H… E…¨? CË$Ïþ C…sZÏ H… E…¨? FÆæÿ$ Fâæý$å Câæý$å 217

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (v)

Model (viii)

Vø´ëÌŒýMæü$ ¯èþË¿ñýOÐèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. AÆæÿÐðþO Vø´ëÌŒýMæü$ AÆæÿÐðþOÐèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. ™ö…¿ñýO yðþ»ñýOü G¯èþ¿ñýO Äæý*¿ñýO

BÐðþ$Mæü$ Hyø çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ…. CÆæÿÐðþB O Ææÿ$ BÐðþ$Mæü$ CÆæÿÐðþOBÆø çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ…. CÆæÿÐðþÆO ÿð …yæþ$ ¯èþË¿ñýB O Ææÿ$ Äæý*¿ñýO™öÑ$è Ðèþ$$ò³¹O Ðèþ$*yæþ$

Model (vi)

Model (ix)

A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. (BÐðþ$) BÐðþ$ Ðèþ$…_¨. 1. A™èþ¯èþ$ ò³§æþªÐéyæþ$. (DÐðþ$) 2. C™èþ¯èþ$ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$. (BÐðþ$) 3. »êº$ Mö™èþ¢Ðéyæþ$. (´ëç³)

A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. (Ðéâæý$å) Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæý$å. 1. BÄæý$¯èþ ò³§æþªÐéyæþ$. (Ðéâæý$å) 2. C™èþ¯èþ$ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$. (Òâæý$å) 3. ѧéÅǦ Mö™èþ¢Ðéyæþ$. (ѧéÅÆæÿ$¦Ë$)

Model (vii)

Model (x)

1. 2. 3. 4.

BÐðþ$ _¯èþ²¨. (Ðéâæý$å) Ðéâæý$å _¯èþ²Ðéâæý$å. DÐðþ$ Mö™èþ¢¨. (Òâæý$å) ´ëç³ _¯èþ²¨. (´ëç³Ë$) B ѧéÅǦ° ò³§æþ¨ª . (B ѧéÅǦ¯þè $Ë$) ´ëç³ Ðèþ$…_¨. (í³ËÏË$)

Vø´ëÌŒýMæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? VúÇ VúÇMìü G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$. çÜ$Væü$×ý çßýÇ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ

Model (xi)

çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ ¯èþË¿ñýOBÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. yðþ»ñýOüÂG°Ñ$¨ çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ yðþ»ñýOüÂG°Ñ$¨ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. ™ö…¿ñýO™öÑ$è AÆæÿÐðþOÐèþ$*yæþ$ G¯èþ¿ñýOI§æþ$ 218

Lesson 13

c. Interlocked Substitution drill Model (i)

ÆæÿÑMìü JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèþÓ…yìþ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯éMæü$ JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèþÓ…yìþ. E™èþ¢Ææÿ… ¯éMæü$ JMæü E™èþ¢Ææÿ… CÐèþÓ…yìþ. Æðÿ…yæþ$ ¯éMæü$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ E™èþ¢Æ>Ë$ CÐèþÓ…yìþ.

A™èþ¯èþ$ ...... .......... ....... ...... ç³#Ðèþ#Ó WÇf ....... ........... ....... ....... Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$ Ðóþ$… ...... ............ ....... Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ........ ....... ....... MæüË…

Model (ii)

Model (iii)

A™èþ°Mìü ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨. Ìôý§æþ$ A™èþ°Mìü ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# Ìôý§æþ$. yìþ{X A™èþ°Mìü yìþ{X Ìôý§æþ$. Æ>k Æ>kMæü$ yìþ{X Ìôý§æþ$. A¯èþ²Ë$ Æ>kMæü$ A¯èþ²Ë$ ÌôýÆæÿ$. ........... í³ËÏË$ ...... çßýÇ ...................... ....... E§øÅVæü… ..... ........................ E…¨. .......... CË$Ï .............

BÐðþ$ Ðèþ$…_¨. BÄæý$¯èþ BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. Ðéâæý$å Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæý$å. ò³§æþª Ðéâæý$å ò³§æþªÐéâæý$å. _¯èþ² Ðéâæý$å _¯èþ²Ðéâæý$å. Ðéyæþ$ ................ ....... Mö™èþ¢ ....... A¨ .................. ....... ´ë™èþ ....... çßýÇ .....................

.......... ........... ........... ........ ........ ........ ........

d. Response drill Model (i)

Ò$§óþ FÆæÿ$? (MæüÈÐŒþ$¯èþVæüÆŠÿ) Ðèþ*¨ MæüÈÐŒþ$¯èþVæüÆŠÿ. 1. Ðéâæýå§óþ FÆæÿ$? (Væü$…r*Ææÿ$)

2. Ðèþ*§óþ FÆæÿ$? (HË*Ææÿ$) 3. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#V>ǧóþ FÆæÿ$? (†Ææÿ$糆) 4. Ðèþ¯èþf§óþ FÆæÿ$? (Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$) 219

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (ii)

HÐèþ$…yîþ! Ò$Mðü¯óþ²âæý$å? (64) 2. Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>ÇMðü¯óþ²âæý$å? (56) ¯éMæü$ AÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Vóüâæý$å. 3. Ò$ AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$Mðü¯óþ²âæý$å? (28) 1. BÐðþ$Mðü¯óþ²âæý$å? (34) 4. A™èþ°Mðü¯óþ²âæý$å? (43) Model (iii) Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#Mðü…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? (2 Byæþ; 1 Ðèþ$Væü) (A) Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#Mæü$ C§æþªÆæÿ$ Byæþí³ËÏË*, JMæü Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ*. (B) Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#Mæü$ C§æþªÆæÿ»ê¾Æÿ$$Ë* JMæü AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$*. 1. A™èþ°Mìü G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? (2 Byæþ; 2 Ðèþ$Væü) 2. ÝëÑ{†Mìü G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? (1 Ðèþ$Væü) 3. BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? (1 Byæþ; 1 Ðèþ$Væü) Model (iv) çÜ$Væü$×ê! ±Mæü$ ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? (66) ¯éMæü$ ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ AÆæÿÐðþOBÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. 1. ÔéÅÐèþ$Ìê! ¯éMæü$ ™èþÑ$âæý…ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? (73) 2. AÆæÿ$×ê! MæüÐèþ$ËMæü$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? (95) 3. HÐèþ$…yîþ! Ò$Mæü$ C…XÏçÙ$ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? (86) Model (v) ÆæÿÒ! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (3) Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ… A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË…. 1. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (4) 2. WÈ! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (2) 3. Ôèý…MæüÆŠÿ! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (5) Model (vi) ÆæÿÒ! ±Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (0 & 2) ¯éMæü$ A¯èþ²Ë$ ÌôýÆæÿ$; C§æþªÆæÿ$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãâæý$å. 1. Ððþ*çßý¯ŒþV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (2 & 0) 2. WÈ! ±Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (1 & 1) 3. HÐèþ$…yîþ! Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (2 & 2) Model (vii) WÇgê! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (3) Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ… AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæýå…. 220

Lesson 13

1. ´ëÆæÿÓ¡ Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (2) 2. çÜÆæÿâê! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (4) 3. 糧æþÃgê! Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (5) Model (viii)

Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýâÏ ýæ $å? ¯éMæü$ JMæü A¯èþ², JMæü ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$, JMæü AMæüP; ^ðþÌñýÏâæý$å ÌôýÆæÿ$. 1. Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýâÏ ýæ $å? 2. Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýâÏ ýæ $å? 3. Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýâÏ ýæ $å?

(1&1&1&0) (2&2&1&1) (1&1&2&0) (1&2&1&2)

d. Transformation drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

Ððþ*çßý¯ŒþMæü$ yìþ{X E…¨. Ððþ*çßý¯ŒþMæü$ yìþ{X Ìôý§æþ$. 1. ÆæÿÑMìü ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨. 2. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ CË$Ï E…¨. 3. Æ>Ðèþ#V>ÇMìü Æðÿ…yæþ$ Câæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$.

¯éMæü$ JMæü AMæüP. Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPË$? 1. BÐðþ$Mæü$ JMæü ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$. 2. ÆæÿÑMìü JMæü Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$. 3. A™èþ°Mìü JMæü ^ðþÌñýÏË$.

EXERCISES a. Fill in the blanks with

Mæü$ or Mìü.

1. ÆæÿÑ..... C§æþªÆæÿ$ Byæþí³ËÏË$. 2. BÐðþ$..... JMæü Byæþí³ËÏ. 3. Ò$..... E§øÅVæü… E…§é?

4. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#..... í³ËÏË$ ÌôýÆæÿ$. 5. BÄæý$¯èþ..... yìþ{X E…¨. 6. ¯é..... C§æþªÆæÿ$ í³ËÏË$.

b. Answer the following questions using the cue words.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Vøï³! Ò$ ™é™èþV>ÇMðü¯óþ²âæý$å? (78) DÐðþ$Mðü¯óþ²âæý$å? (32) çÜÆæÿâê! Ò$ AMæüPÄæý$ÅMðü…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? (2 Byæþ; 1 Ðèþ$Væü) ÆæÿÑMìü ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? (84) 221

An Intensive Course in Telugu

5. Æ>Ðèþ$$Mæü$ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? (93) 6. Ò$ »ê»êÆÿ$$V>ǧóþ FÆæÿ$? (ÐèþÆæÿ…VæüË$Ï) c. Fill in the blanks using the appropriate forms of the words given in the parentheses as shown in the model.

(A™èþ¯èþ$) C…XÏçÙ$ÌZ AÆæÿÐðþO Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. A™èþ°Mìü C…XÏçÙ$ÌZ AÆæÿÐðþO Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$.

Model.: ..........

1. .............. (A™èþ¯èþ$) ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ yðþ»ñýOü Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. 2. .............. (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) íßý…©ÌZ AÆæÿÐðþOÐèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. 3. .............. (Ò$Ææÿ$) G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? 4. .............. (Ðéyæþ$) G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? 5. .............. (Ðéâæý$å) G°² Væü§æþ$Ë$ E¯é²Æÿ$$? 6. .............. (Ðóþ$…) ™ðþË$Væü$ÌZ G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? 7. .............. (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) G°² Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$? 8. .............. (BÄæý$¯èþ) G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? d. Give the plural forms of the following.

AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ A»ê¾Æÿ$$ CË$Ï Hyæþ$ Byæþí³ËÏ

Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ FÆæÿ$ Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ$ ^ðþÌñýÏË$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$

e. Match the following.

1. çÜ$ÖË 2. B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ 3. B í³ËÏË$ 4. A™èþ¯èþ$ 5. BÄæý$¯èþ

A. Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$ B. Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæý$å C. Ðèþ$…_Ñ D. Ðèþ$…_¨ E. Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$ 222

( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) )

Lesson 13

f. Combine the following.

CË$Ï + ÌZ = FÆæÿ$ + ÌZ = ¯èþ*Ææÿ$ + Mìü = Hyæþ$ + Ë$ =

CË$Ï + Mìü = Fâæý$å + ÌZ = FÆæÿ$ + Ë$ = Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ + Ë$ =

g. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model (i)

Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (1&3) Ðóþ$… I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ… A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË…. ¯éMæü$ JMæü A¯èþ², Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãâæý$å. 1. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (2&1) 2. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (1&2) 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (1&1) 4. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? (2&2) Model (ii)

Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (1&2) Ðóþ$… ¯èþË$-Væü$-Ææÿ… AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæýå…. ¯éMæü$ JMæü AMæüP, C§æþªÆæÿ$ ^ðþÌñýÏâæý$å. 1. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (2&2) 2. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (1&2) 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (1&1) 4. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (2&1) Model (iii)

Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (1&0) Ðóþ$… C§æþªÆæÿ… AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæýå…. ¯éMæü$ JMæü AMæüP, ^ðþÌñýÏâæý$å ÌôýÆæÿ$. 1. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (0&2) 2. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (1&0) 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…¨ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å? (0&1) 223

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

-&Mæü$/&Mìü E§øÅVæü…ü FÆæÿ$ HË*Ææÿ$ FâZå Fâæý$å

yðþ»ñýOü G¯èþ¿ñýO ÌñýMæüPË$ ¯èþ*sìýMìü çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# M>° ^éÌê &¨ (fem.)

dative case suffix job; employment village, town Eluru (a town) locative form of

FÆæÿ$ (‘in the town’) plural form of FÆæÿ$ (‘villages/towns’)

ò³§æþªüü big; large; elder _¯èþ² small; little Byæþ female -Ðèþ$Væü male Hâæý$å plural of Hyæþ$ (‘years’) Hyæþ$ year Byæþí³ËÏüü girl Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ$ boy &ÐéÆæÿ$ human epicene honorific

mathematics

per cent year education but very (adv.) feminine non-honorific (See 13.4.)

Ðéyæþ$

masculine non-honorific predicate marker (See 13.4.)

ÑfÄæý$Ðéyæþ »ê»êÆÿ$$

Vijayawada (a city) father’s younger brother; mother’s younger sister’s husband

¯èþ*Ææÿ$ òܯO þè $Þ ™ö…¿ñýO A¯èþ² AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å AMæüP {ç³çÜ$¢™þè … C…sZÏ

(See 13.4.) human epicene plural predicate marker (See 13.4.)

E™èþ¢Ææÿ… A…§æþ… yìþ{X Ðèþ*Ææÿ$P AÆæÿÐðþO

eighty

predicate marker

predicate marker

&Ðéâæý$å

seventy

letter beauty

degree mark (n) sixty

hundred science ninety elder brother

sisters elder sister; AMæüPÄæý$Å at present, currently locative case form of CË$Ï (‘in the house’)

224

Lesson 13

GRAMMAR NOTES 13.1. In this lesson the dative case suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/-ki is introduced. &Mìü -ki occurs after the oblique bases ending in C i or D •. The D • ending oblique bases of the second person pronouns ± n• and Ò$ m• are exceptions. &Mæü$ -ku occurs after the other oblique bases including the D • ending oblique bases of the second persons ± n• and Ò$ m•. (See 8.9. and 8.9.1. for information about the oblique bases.) A™èþ°&Mìü atani-ki ‘to him (eql.)’ Ðéyìþ&Mìü v¡∂i-ki ‘to him (inf.)’ §é°&Mìü d¡ni-ki ‘to it; to her (inf.)’ ÆæÿÑ&Mìü ravi-ki ‘to Ravi’ Mæü$Èa&Mìü kurc•-ki ‘to the chair’ MìüsìýMîü&Mìü ki ik•-ki ‘to the window’ BÄæý$¯èþ&Mæü$ ¡yana-ku ‘to him (hon.)’ BÐðþ$&Mæü$ ¡me-ku ‘to her (eql. & hon.)’ ¯é&Mæü$ n¡-ku ‘to me’ ™èþË$ç³#&Mæü$ talupu-ku ‘to the door’ ±&Mæü$ n•-ku ‘to you (non-hon. sg.)’ Ò$&Mæü$ m•-ku ‘to you (hon. sg. & pl.)’ ÎË&Mæü$ l•la-ku ‘to Leela’ 13.2. The dative case suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/-ki has many functions in Telugu. Some of them are introduced in this lesson. They are as follows: 13.2.1. The dative case suffix is added to the noun denoting the recipient, i.e., one who gets or receives something. Here its function is ‘benefactive’ (= ‘for the benefit of’).

1. ÎËMæü$ D ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … CÐèþ#Ó l•laku • pustakaM ivvu. ‘Give this book to Leela’ 2. ÆæÿÑMìü MæüË… CÐèþÓ…yìþ. raviki kalaM ivvaM∂i. ‘Give the pen to Ravi.’ 3. çßýÇMìü AÆæÿÐðþO Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. hariki aravai m¡rkulu. ‘Hari got sixty marks.’ 4. Æ>kMæü$ Äæý*¿ñýO Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. r¡juku y¡bhai m¡rkulu. ‘Raju got fifty marks.’ 225

An Intensive Course in Telugu 13.2.1.1. Notice the difference between the sentences 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 above. The sentences 1 and 2 have the verb meaning ‘give’. They have also the benefactor (i.e., one who gives) which is implied since they are imperative sentences. The sentences 3 and 4 do not have the benefactor (the giver). They do not have the verb either. We will present more details at a later stage in this aspect. But in all the four sentences the nouns inflected by the dative case suffix are the recipients. 13.2.2. The dative case suffix also expresses ‘possession’. Here its function is ‘possessive’. The noun phrase denoting the person or thing who or which possesses something takes the dative case suffix. Such sentences use the existential verb, with certain exceptions which are explained below:

A™èþ°Mìü ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨. ataniki caduvu uMdi. ‘He has education.’ BÐðþ$Mæü$ CË$Ï Ìôý§æþ$. ¡meku illu l£du. ‘She does not have a house.’ A™èþ°Mìü CË$Ï Ìôý§æþ$. ataniki illu l£du. ‘He has no house.’ çÜ$Væü$×ýMæü$ C§æþƪ ÿæ $ í³ËÏË$. sugu∆aku iddaru pillalu. ‘Suguna has two children.’ BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ í³ËÏË$ ÌôýÆæÿ$. ¡yanaku pillalu l£ru. ‘He has no children.’ A™èþ°Mìü A¯èþ²Ë$ ÌôýÆæÿ$. ataniki annalu l£ru. ‘He has no brothers.’ BÐðþ$Mæü$ C§æþªÆæÿ$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãâæý$å. ¡meku iddaru tammu˚˚u. ‘She has two younger brothers.’ 13.2.2.1. Recall the sentences

Ðèþ* »ê»êÆÿ$$V>ÇMìü Möyæþ$Mæü$Ë$ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

m¡ b¡b¡yig¡riki ko∂ukulu unn¡ru. ‘My uncle has sons.’ Ðèþ* »ê»êÆÿ$$V>ÇMìü C§æþªÆæÿ$ Möyæþ$Mæü$Ë$. m¡ b¡b¡yig¡riki iddaru ko∂ukulu. ‘My uncle has two sons.’ Ò$Mæü$ AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å E¯é²Æ>? m•ku akkajelle˚˚u unn¡r¡? ‘Do you have sisters? Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ í³ËÏË$? m•ku eMtamaMdi pillalu? ‘How many children do you have? Notice from the above sentences that the affirmative form of the existential verb is not normally used when the kinship noun is qualified by a numeral 226

Lesson 13 adjective. However, the affirmative form of the existential verb when used in such cases - i.e., when the kinship noun is qualified by a numeral adjective adds an emphasis to the aspect of ‘possession’.

A™èþ°Mìü C§æþªÆæÿ$ Möyæþ$Mæü$Ë$. ataniki iddaru ko∂ukulu. ‘He has two sons.’ A™èþ°Mìü C§æþªÆæÿ$ Möyæþ$Mæü$Ë$ E¯é²Ææÿ$. ataniki iddaru ko∂ukulu unn¡ru. ‘He has two sons.’ 13.2.3. The dative case suffix is also used with the nouns denoting the objects whose age is expressed.

ÆæÿÑMìü 糨 Hâæý$å. raviki padi £˚˚u. ‘Ravi is ten years old.’ ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ ¯éË$Væü$ Hâæý$å. ramaku n¡lugu £˚˚u. ‘Rama is four years old.’ Ðèþ* Mæü$MæüPMæü$ Æðÿ…yóþâæý$å. m¡ kukkaku reM∂£˚˚u. ‘Our dog is two years old.’ In such sentences the existential verb is not used. (If the existential verb used it adds an emphasis on the age, as in the case of ‘possession’ stated in 13.2.2.1.) 13.3.

Notice the use of the pronominal predicates (9.1.) in sentences like:

Ò$¨ H FÆæÿ$? m•di £ ¶ru? Ðéâæýå¨ H FÆæÿ$ v¡˚˚adi £ ¶ru?

‘What is your native place/home town?.’ ‘What is his/her/their native place/home town?’

Nominal predicates are also used in such sentences as in

ÆæÿѨ H FÆæÿ$? ravidi £ ¶ru? ‘What is Ravi’s native place/home town?.’ çÜ$º¾Äæý$Ũ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$. subbayyadi guM ¶ru? ‘Subbyya’s native place/home town is Guntur.’ 13.3.1. Recall the concept of ‘collective possession’ introduced in lesson 5 (5.9.) as in expressions like Ðèþ* CË$Ï m¡ illu ‘my house’, Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ² m¡ n¡nna ‘my father’, etc. FÆæÿ$ ¶ru ‘village/town’ is also a noun which falls in the category of ‘collective possession’ and hence the plural pronominals are added as in Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ m¡ ¶ru ‘my/our native place/home town.’ 13.3.2. FÆæÿ$ m¡ ¶ru means ‘village’ or town’. When used with a pronominal or nominal predicate it means ‘native place’ or home town’. 227

An Intensive Course in Telugu 13.4. Recall the neuter predicate markers ¨ di (sg.) and Ñ vi (pl.) which are added to adjectival bases in order to change them into predicates (9.1.). In this lesson the following human predicate markers are introduced.

&Ðéyæþ$ -v¡∂u is the masculine non-honorific singular predicate marker &¨ -di is the feminine non-honorific singular predicate marker &ÐéÆæÿ$ -v¡ru the human epicene honorific singular predicate marker &Ðéâæý$å -v¡˚˚u the human epicene plural predicate marker BÄæý$¯èþ/BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ/ÐéÆæÿ$ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. ¡yana/¡me/¡vi∂a maMciv¡ru. ‘He/She (hon.) is a good person.’ ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. ravi maMciv¡∂u. ‘Ravi is a good person.’ Ë™èþ Ðèþ$…_¨. lata maMcidi. ‘Lata is a good person.’ ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. ravig¡ru maMciv¡ru. ‘Mr. Ravi is a good person.’ Ë™èþV>Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. latag¡ru maMciv¡ru. ‘Ms. Lata is a good person.’ Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ-¯èþ$/BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$…_-Ðé-yæþ$. v¡∂u/atanu/¡yana maMciv¡∂u. ‘He is a good person.’ Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæý$å. va˚˚u maMciv¡˚˚u. ‘They are good persons.’ 13.4.1. Notice that the predicate markers &Ðéyæþ$ v¡∂u and &¨ -di are not restricted to ‘inferior’ category in the degrees of respect. Even they are also used when the subject pronoun is an honorific one such as BÄæý$¯èþ ¡yana and BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ ¡me/¡vi∂a.

BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. ¡yana maMciv¡∂u. ‘He(hon.)‘ is a good person.’ BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ Ðèþ$…_¨. ¡me/¡vi∂a maMcidi. ’She (hon.) is a good person.’ These expressions are more informal rather than honorific. But the honorific predicate marker &ÐéÆæÿ$ -v¡ru is used in more formal situations. 13.4.2. The predicate markers are nothing but pronouns used as suffixes. ¨ di (sg.) and Ñ vi are the shortened forms of the pronouns A¨ adi and AÑ avi respectively. As such, the oblique bases of these predicate forms are similar to the oblique bases of the respective pronouns. 228

Lesson 13 Predicate form

Oblique base

Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$ maMciv¡∂u Ðèþ$…_¨ maMcidi Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$ maMciv¡ru Ðèþ$…_Ñ maMcivi Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæý$å maMciv¡˚˚u

Ðèþ$…_Ðéyìþ maMciv¡∂i Ðèþ$…_§é° maMcid¡ni Ðèþ$…_ÐéÇ maMciv¡ri Ðèþ$…_Ðésìý maMciv¡ i Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæýå maMciv¡˚˚a

13.4.3. The following are the expressions showing various degrees of respect in third person. Masculine inferior singular : Ðéyæþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. v¡∂u maMciv¡∂u. ‘He is a good person.’ Masculine equal singular : A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. atanu maMciv¡∂u. ‘He is a good person.’ Masculine honorific singular - informal : BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. ¡yana maMciv¡∂u. ‘He is a good person.’ Masculine honorific singular - formal : BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. ¡yana maMciv¡ru. ‘He is a good person.’ Feminine inferior singular and neuter singular : A¨ Ðèþ$…_¨. adi maMcidi. ‘She is a good person.’ Feminine equal singular BÐðþ$ Ðèþ$…_¨. ¡me maMcidi. ‘She is a good person.’ Feminine honorific singular - informal: BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ Ðèþ$…_¨. ¡me/¡vi∂a maMcidi. ‘She is a good person.’ Feminine honorific singular - formal: BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. ¡me/¡vi∂a maMciv¡ru. ‘She is a good person.’ Epicene formal or most honorific singular : ÐéÆæÿ$ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. v¡ru maMciv¡ru. ‘He/She is a good person.’ Epicene plural : Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæý$å. v¡˚˚u maMciv¡˚˚u. ‘They are good persons.’

229

An Intensive Course in Telugu Neuter plural :

AÑ Ðèþ$…_Ñ.

avi maMcivi. ‘Those are good things/animals.’

inferior & equal :

ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$.

ravi maMciv¡∂u. ‘Ravi is a good person.’ inferior & equal singular : Ë™èþ Ðèþ$…_¨. lata maMcidi. ‘Lata is a good person.’ Masculine honorific informal : ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. ravig¡ru maMciv¡∂u. ‘Mr. Ravi is a good person.’ honorific informal : Ë™èþV>Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$…_¨. latag¡ru maMcidi. ‘Ms. Lata is a good person.’ Honorific formal : ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ$/Ë™èþV>Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. ravig¡ru/latag¡ru maMciv¡ru. ‘Mr. Ravi/ Ms. Lata is a good person.’ 13.5. When the plural suffix &Ë$ -lu is added to the &yæþ$ -∂u ending nouns the &yæþ$ -∂u and &Ë$ -lu merge together and become &âæý$å -˚˚u.

Hyæþ$ + Ë$ = Hâæý$å £∂u+lu = £˚˚u. ‘years’ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ + Ë$ = ™èþÐèþ$$Ãâæý$å tammu∂u+lu = tammu˚˚u. ‘brothers’ But, remember that the nouns borrowed from Sanskrit drop their final &yæþ$ -∂u (5.7.2.). 13.6. Some of the &Ææÿ$ -ru ending nouns also behave like the above mentioned (13.5.) &yæþ$ -∂u ending nouns when plural suffix &Ë$ -lu is added. Two such nouns are FÆæÿ$ ¶ru ‘village’ and Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ k¶turu ‘daughter’.

FÆæÿ$ + Ë$ = Fâæý$å ¶ru + lu = ¶˚˚u ‘villages’ Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ + Ë$ = Mæü*™èþ$âæý$å k¶turu + lu = k¶tu˚˚u ‘daughters’ Since all the &Ææÿ$ -ru ending nouns do not behave like this a mention will be made as and when such nouns are introduced. However, the &Ææÿ$ -ru ending nouns borrowed from English such as yéMæüÆt ÿæ $ ∂¡k aru ‘doctor’, M>Ææÿ$ k¡ru ‘car’, etc. do not behave like this. 230

Lesson 13

yéMæütÆæÿ$ + Ë$ = yéMæütÆæÿ$Ï* ∂¡k arlu* ‘doctors’ M>Ææÿ$ + Ë$ = M>Ææÿ$Ï* k¡ru + lu = k¡rlu* ‘cars’ sîý^èþÆæÿ$ + Ë$ = sîý^èþÆæÿ$Ï*  •caru + lu =  •carlu* ‘teachers’ An example for a Telugu noun which does not change the final Ææÿ$ ru along with the plural suffix Ë$ lu remains without changing to âæý$å ˚˚u is õ³Ææÿ$ p£ru ‘name’.

õ³Ææÿ$ + Ë$ = õ³Ææÿ$Ï*

p£ru + lu = p£rlu* ‘names’

*For sandhi see 5.8.1.

í³ËÏË$ pillalu ‘children’ is epicene plural. 13.8. The plural form of Byæþí³ËÏ ¡∂apilla ‘girl’ is Byæþí³ËÏË$ ¡∂apillalu ‘girls’ and the plural form Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ$ magapillav¡∂u ‘boy’ is Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏË$

13.7.

magapillalu ‘boys’. 13.9. Notice the free variation between the words AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ amm¡yi (7.7.) and Byæþí³ËÏ ¡∂apilla ‘girl’, and similar free variation between A»ê¾Æÿ$$ abb¡yi and Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ$ magapillav¡∂u ‘boy’ in sentences like the following.

BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ C§æþªÆæÿ$ AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$Ë$/Byæþí³ËÏË$.

‘He has two daughters.’

¡yanaku iddaru amm¡yilu/¡∂apillalu.

BÐðþ$Mæü$ JMæü A»ê¾Æÿ$$/Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ$.

‘She has a son.’

¡meku oka abb¡yi/magapillav¡∂u. But, the words AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ amm¡yi (7.7.) and A»ê¾Æÿ$$ abb¡yi cannot be replaced by Byæþí³ËÏ ¡∂apilla and Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ$ magapillav¡∂u respectively expressions like the following.

AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ m• amm¡yi ‘your daughter’ Ðèþ* A»ê¾Æÿ$$ m¡ abb¡yi ‘my son’ B AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ ¡ amm¡yi ‘that girl’ D A»ê¾Æÿ$$ • abb¡yi ‘this boy’ Ðèþ$…_ AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ maMci amm¡yi ‘good girl’ Ò$

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðèþ$…_ A»ê¾Æÿ$$ maMci abb¡yi ‘good boy’ The rule is that the nouns AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ amm¡yi and A»ê¾Æÿ$$ abb¡yi cannot be replaced by Byæþí³ËÏ ¡∂apilla and Ðèþ$Væüí³ËÏÐéyæþ$ magapillav¡∂u respectively when the nouns are qualified by an adjective other than a numeral adjective. 13.10. FÆæÿ$ + ÌZ = FâZå ¶ru + lª = ¶˚˚ª ‘in the village/town’. Cf. Fâæý$å ¶˚˚u ‘villages’(13.6.). 13.11. AMæüP akka and AMæüPÄæý$Å akkayya (lesson 7) ‘elder sister’ are variants. Similarly, A¯èþ² anna and A¯èþ²Äæý$Å annayya (lesson 6) ‘elder brother’. 13.12. AMæüPgñýÌñýÏâæý$å akkajelle˚˚u ‘sisters’ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$ annadammulu ‘brothers’ are compound words. They are combinations of AMæüP+^ðþÌñýË Ï $ akka + cellelu and A¯èþ²+™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ anna+tammu∂u respectively. 13.13. In this lesson numerals from sixty to hundred are introduced. Recall the numeral formation beyond twenty introduced in lesson 11 (11.7.). Same pattern is followed for the numerals upto hundred.

AÆæÿÐðþO aravai ‘sixty’ yðþ»ñýO ∂ebbhai ‘seventy’ G¯èþ¿ñýO enabhai ‘eighty’ ™ö…¿ñýO toMbhai ‘ninety’ ¯èþ*Ææÿ$ n¶ru ‘hundred’ As stated earlier (11.7.) numerals JMæüsìý oka i ‘one’ to ™öÑ$è tommidi ‘nine’ are added to these numerals (except ¯èþ*Ææÿ$ n¶ru ‘hundred’) to form numerals such as AÆæÿÐðþJ O Mæüsìý aravaioka i ‘sixty one’, yðþ»ñýüO ÂÐèþ$*yæþ$ ∂ebbhaim¶∂u ‘seventy three’, G¯èþ¿ñýB O Ææÿ$ enabai¡ru ‘eighty six’, ™ö…¿ñýGO °Ñ$¨ toMbhaienimidi ‘ninety eight’, etc.

¯èþ*sìý& n¶ i- is the oblique base of ¯èþ*Ææÿ$ n¶ru ‘hundred’. ¯èþ*sìýMìü ¯èþ*Ææÿ$ n¶ iki n¶ru ‘cent per cent’ Ò$Mæü$ ¯èþ*sìýMìü AÆæÿÐðþO Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$. ‘You got 60%.’

13.13.1.

m•ku n¶ iki aravai m¡rkulu. ‘cent per cent’

232

Lesson 13 13.13.2.

Notice the difference between the expressions

1. Ò$Ææÿ$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? ‘How many brothers are you?’ m•ru eMtamaMdi annadammulu? 2. Ò$Mæü$ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ A¯èþ²§æþÐèþ$$ÃË$? ‘How many brothers do you have?’ m•ku eMtamaMdi annadammulu? In the first expression the listener of the sentence is also included in the number of brothers where as in the second expression the listener of the sentence is excluded. 13.14.

Notice the difference between

1. ¯éMæü$ ¯èþË¿ñýOBÆø Hyæþ$. ‘I am in my 46th year. (I am 45 years old and 2.

n¡ku nalabhai¡rª £∂u. the 46th year is in progress.)’ ¯éMæü$ ¯èþË¿ñýOBÆæÿ$ Hâæý$å. ‘I am 46 years old.’ n¡ku nalabhai¡ru £˚˚u.

Both the sentences express age. The first sentence expresses the age in ‘currently progressing year’ and the second sentence expresses age in ‘completed years’. 13.15.

M>° k¡ni ‘but’ is a conjunction. A™èþ°Mìü Ðèþ$…_ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨; M>° E§øÅVæü… Ìôý§æþ$. ataniki maMci caduvu uMdi; k¡ni udyªgaM l£du. ‘He has good education; but no job.’

13.16.

Notice the following sandhi process. A short vowel occurring between …sŒý M  and ÌŒý l is dropped.

C…sìý+ÌZ = C…sZÏ iM i+lª = iM lª ‘in the house’. C…sìý iM i is the oblique base of CË$Ï illu ‘house’ (8.8.).

233

UNIT III Lesson 14

Ò$ FâZÏ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

WHAT ARE THERE IN YOUR TOWN?

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: °…VæüÄæý$ÅV>Ææÿ*! D ò³sñýtÌZ H… E…¨?

Mr. Ningayya! What is there in this box?

°…VæüÄæý$Å: ïÜÝë E¯èþ²§æþ…yîþ!

There is a bottle, sir!

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: ïÜÝëÌZ H… E…¨?

What is there in the bottle?

°…VæüÄæý$Å: Ðèþ$…§æþ$.

Mandu.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: Ðèþ$…§æþ$ A…sôý HÑ$sìý?

What does mandu mean?

°…VæüÄæý$Å: Ðèþ$…§æþ$ A…sôý C…XÏçÙ$ÌZ

Mandu means medicine in English.

medicine. 234

Lesson 14

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: AÌêV>! Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GÐèþÇMìü? ±M>?

I see! For whom? Is it for you?

°…VæüÄæý$Å: D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¯éMæü$ M>§æþ$; Ðèþ* »ê»êÆÿ$$ V>ÇMìü.

This medicine is not for me. It is for my uncle.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: G…§æþ$Mæü$? fÓÆæÿÐèþ*?

Why? (Does he have) fever?

°…VæüÄæý$Å: fÓÆæÿ… M>§æþ$; Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯öí³µ. Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯öí³µMìü D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ^éÌê Ðèþ$…_¨.

Not fever; stomachache. This medicine is very good for stomachache.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : AÆæÿ$Vø Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $V>Ææÿ$. ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ!

°…VæüÄæý$Å : Ðèþ* »ê»êÆÿ$$V>ÇMìü.

There the master (is coming)! Namaskaram sir! Namaskaram. Hello, Mr. Ningayya! Who has the stomachache? My uncle.

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : »ê»êÆÿ$$V>Ææÿ$ A…sôý GÐèþÆæÿ$? Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyé?

Which uncle is this? Is he your father’s younger brother?

°…VæüÄæý$Å : M>§æþ…yîþ. Ðèþ* í³°²V>Ç ¿æýÆæÿ¢.

No, sir! My aunt’s husband.

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : í³°² A…sôý Ò$ AÐèþ$ÃV>Ç ^ðþÌñýÏÌê?

Aunt? You mean your mother’s sister?

°…VæüÄæý$Å : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ.

Yes, sir!

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : ¯éMæü$ Mæü*yé Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯ðþí³µ.

I too have stomachache.

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿ…. HÐèþ$…yîþ °…VæüÄæý$Å V>Ææÿ*! GÐèþÇMìü Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯ðþí³µ?

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÔèýÆæÿÃ

: ¯éMæü$ ™èþ˯öí³µ; fÓÆæÿ… Mæü*yé E…¨.

I have headache. And fever too.

»ñý¯èþÈj : ¯éMæü$ ™èþ˯öí³µ Ìôý§æþ$. ^ðþÑÌZ ¯ðþí³µ.

I don’t have headache. But I have earache. Good! All of you take this medicine.

°…VæüÄæý$Å : »êVæü$…¨. A…§æþÆæÿ* D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ. Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : çÜÆóÿ! CMæü ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþ…yìþ. Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ*! Ò$¨ H FÆæÿ…yîþ?

All right. Now listen to the lesson. Sir! What is your native place?

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : Ðèþ*¨ AÐèþ$Æ>Ðèþ†.

Amaravati.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : A¨ H Æ>çÙ‰…ÌZ E…§æþ…yîþ?

In which state is it?

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : B…{«§æþ{糧óþÔŒýÌZ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ hÌêÏÌZ E…§æþ…yîþ.

It is in Guntur District in Andhra Pradesh.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Ò$ FâZå HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : ÕÐéËÄæý$…, »o§æþ®çÜ*¢ç³… E¯é²Æÿ$$.

What (attractions) are there in your town? There are Siva temple and Buddhist Stupa.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : C…M> HÐóþ$… E¯é²Äæý$…yîþ?

What else are there?

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : Mæü–Úë~¯þè ¨ E…¨. Ðèþ$*ÅhÄæý$… Mæü*yé E…¨.

The river Krishna. There is also a museum.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Ò$ FÇMìü ÆðÿOË$ E…§é?

Is there a rail connection to your town? 236

Lesson 14

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : ÆðÿËO $ Ìôý§æþ$; ºçÜ$Þ Ðèþ*{™èþÐóþ$ E…¨.

No. There is only bus connection.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Ò$ FÇMìü ¸ù¯èþ$ E…§é? Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : E…¨. Ò$ FÆæÿ$ GMæüPyæþ E…§æþ…yîþ?

Is there telephone connection to your town? Yes, there is. Where is your (native) town?

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ çßýÆ>ůéÌZ E…¨

My (native) town is in Haryana.

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : AÐèþ#¯èþ$, Ò$Ææÿ$ çßýÆ>ůé& ÐéÆæÿ$ Mæü§æþ*! Ò$ÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ßç ýÆ>ůé Ðéâæý$å? G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ MóüÆæÿâæý& Ðéâæý$å? G…™èþÐ- þè $…¨ JÇÝëÞÐéâæý$å?

Yes, you are a Haryana person, aren’t you? How many of you are Haryana people? How many Kerala persons? and how many Orissa persons?

Ðèþ$–™èþ$Å…fÄŒý$ : Ðèþ*ÌZ ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~ JÇÝëÞ Ðé×ìý.~ BÄæý$¯èþ MóüÆæÿâæýÐéyæþ$. Ðèþ$$QÈj ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó »ñý…V>ÎÐéyìþÑ Mæü§æþ*! þ

Amongst us I am the one Orissa person. He is a Keralite. Mukharjee! you are a Bengali, aren’t you? Yes.

Ðèþ$$QÈj : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. Ðèþ$–™èþ$Å…fÄŒý$ : ™èþMìüP¯èþ Ðéâæý$å çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæý$å. Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : AÆÿ$$™óþ ™èþMìüP¯èþ 糨Ðèþ$…¨ çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæý$å A¯èþ²Ðèþ*r. ÔèýÆæÿà : M>§æþ…yîþ! A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$«§æþÅ{糧óþÔŒýÐéyæþ$. C™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$Æ>wÐéyæþ$. G°Ñ$¨ Ðèþ$…¨Ðóþ$ çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæýå….

237

The remaining persons are Haryana people. Then, the remaining ten persons are Haryana people. No, sir! He is a Madhya Pradesh person. He is a Marathi person. Only we eight are Haryana persons.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

±Ææÿf : ™è þ ç ³ µ…yî þ ! G°Ñ$¨Ðè þ $…¨ÌZ I§æþ$Væü$Æóÿ çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæý$å. ¯óþ¯èþ$ MæüÆ>~rMæü§é°². DÐóþ$ MæüÆ>~rMæü§óþ. Ðóþ$Ñ$§æþªÆæÿ… MæüÆ>~rMæüÐéâæýå…. gZÅ¡! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$àÆ>çÙ‰§é°Ñ Mæü§æþ*! gZņ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : AÐèþ#¯èþ$ ±ÆæÿfV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…ÐéÆæÿ$. BÐóþ$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…ÐéÆóÿ! DÐðþ$ Ðèþ$àÆ>çÙ‰ÐéÆæÿ$. ±Ææÿf : Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ ™ðþË$Væü$ÐéÆæÿ$ Mæü§æþ*? Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ. gZņV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ JMæüÆóÿ Ðèþ$Æ>wÐéÆæÿ$ Mæü§é!

It is not correct, sir! Out of the eight only five are Haryana persons. I am a Karnataka person. She is also a Karnataka person. We two are Karnataka persons. Jyothi! You are a Maharashtrian, aren’t you? Yes. Yes, Ms. Niraja! You are a Kannada person. She is also a Kannada person. She is a Maharashtrian. Sir! You are a Telugu person, aren’t you?

gZņ : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ! ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü§é¯óþ² Ðèþ$Æ>w §é°².

Yes madam. Ms. Jyothi! You are the only Marathi person, aren’t you? Yes, sir! I am the only Marathi person.

±Ææÿf : Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $V>Ææÿ*! C…Mæü ´ëuæÿ… ^ðþ³ç µ…yìþ.

Sir! Now teach the lesson.

Æ>Ðèþ$¯èþÆæÿíÜ…çßý… : C§æþ$Vø, C§óþ ´ëuæÿ…. çÜÆóÿ! C¨ Mæü*yé ѯèþ…yìþ.

This itself is the lesson. Okay! Listen to this too.

***

***

MæüÐèþ$Ë : çÜÆæÿâê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$…_§é°Ñ.

Sarala! You are a nice girl.

238

Lesson 14

çÜÆæÿâæý : ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_§é¯óþ²! Ðèþ$Ç ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$…_§é°Ñ M>§é?

I am a nice girl. And, are you not a nice girl?

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü*yé Ðèþ$…_§é¯óþ². Ðèþ$¯èþ… C§æþªÆæÿ… Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæýå…. AÑ H… ç³NË$?

I am also a nice girl. We both are nice girls. What are those flowers?

çÜÆæÿâæý : HÑ? ™ðþËÏ ç³NÌê? G{Ææÿ ç³NÌê? MæüÐèþ$Ë : B G{Ææÿ ç³NË$.

Which ones? The white flowers or the red flowers? Those red flowers.

çÜÆæÿâæý : G{ÆæÿÑ Væü$Ìê½ç³NË$.

The red ones are roses.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ™ðþËϨ Ðèþ$ÌñýÏç³#Ðèþ#Ó Mæü§æþ*! çÜÆæÿâæý : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. Ò$ C…sZÏ Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ^ðþr$t E…§é?

The white one is jasmine, isn’t it? Yes, it is. Do you have a jasmine plant in your house.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : B! JMæüsìý M>§æþ$; Æðÿ…yæþ$ ^ðþr$ϯé²Æÿ$$. AÑVø!

Yes. Not one; there are two. There they are!

çÜÆæÿâæý : Aº¾! Ò$ ^ðþrÏMæü$ ^éÌê ç³NË$& ¯é²Äôý$! Ò$ C…sZÏ Væü$Ìê½ ^ðþr$Ï ÌôýÐé?

Oh! Your plants have many flowers. Don’t you have rose plants in your house?

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ÌôýÐèþ#.

No.

çÜÆæÿâæý : Ðèþ* C…sZÏ JMæü Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ ^ðþr*t, JMæü Væü$Ìê½ ^ðþr*t E¯é²Æÿ$$.

We have one jasmine plant and one rose plant in our house.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ò³§æþª ^ðþsêÏ? _¯èþ² ^ðþsêÏ?

Are they big plants or small? 239

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜÆæÿâæý : Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ ^ðþr$t _¯èþ²¨; Væü$Ìê½ ^ðþr$t ò³§æþ¨ª . §é°Mìü BÆæÿ$ MöÐèþ$ÃË$¯é²Æÿ$$. MæüÐèþ$Ë : »êVæü$…¨. C¨ Mö™èþ¢ sôý‹³ÇM>ÆæÿzÆ>? çÜÆæÿâæý : AÐèþ#-¯èþ$. MæüÐèþ$-Ë : D sôý‹³ÇM>ÆæÿzÆæÿ$ f´ë¯Œþ§é?

The jasmine plant is small and the rose plant is big. It has six branches. Good. Is this a new tape recorder? Yes

çÜÆæÿ-âæý : M>§æþ$; C…yìþÄæý*§óþ! D ´ër ѯèþ$. »êVæü$…¨ Mæü§æþ*!

Is this tape-recorder made in Japan. No. It is an Indian one. Listen to this song. It is nice, isn’t it?

MæüÐèþ$Ë : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Yes.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

Ðèþ$…§æþ$ A…sôý HÑ$sìý? Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GÐèþÇMìü? ™èþ˯öí³µ GÐèþÇMìü? D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯öí³µMìü Ðèþ$…_¨.

¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü§é°². D FÇMìü ÆðÿOË$ Ìôý§æþ$; ºçÜ$Þ E…¨. Ò$ FÇMìü ÆðÿOË$…¨; ºçÜ$Þ Ìôý§æþ$. D ^ðþr$tMæü$ ç³NË$¯é²Æÿ$$.

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

ïÜÝë A…sôý HÑ$sìý? ºËÏ ºËÏ A…sôý HÑ$sìý? ™èþË ...... ......... A…§æþ… .. ......... ç³#Ðèþ#Ó ... ......... ™èþË$ç³# .. .........

Ðèþ$…§æþ$ A…sôý C…XÏçÙ$ÌZ medicine. Mæü$Èa Mæü$Èa A…sôý C…XÏçÙ$ÌZ chair. Væü¨ ....... ........... ......... CË$Ï ....... ........... ......... fÓÆæÿ…....... ........... ......... õ³Ææÿ$ ....... ........... ......... 240

Lesson 14 Model (iii)

Model (vii)

Ðèþ* FÇMìü ÆðÿOË$…¨. ÐèþÆæÿ…VæüË$Ï ÐèþÆæÿ…VæüË$ÏMæü$ ÆðÿOË$…¨. Ò$ FÆæÿ$ ÑfÄæý$Ðéyæþ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$

Ðéâæý$å çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæý$å. MæüÆ>~rMæü Ðéâæý$å MæüÆ>~rMæüÐéâæý$å. ......... »ñý…V>Î ..... ......... Ðèþ$Æ>w ....... ......... JÇÝëÞ ......

Model (iv)

Model (viii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ çßýÆ>ůéÐéyæþ$. Ðéâæý$å Ðéâæý$å çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæý$å. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ................ Ðóþ$… ................ Ò$Ææÿ$ ................

Ðèþ*ÌZ C§æþªÆæÿ… Ðèþ$Æ>wÐéâæýÃ…. Ðèþ$$Væü$Y Ææÿ… Ðèþ*ÌZ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ… Ðèþ$Æ>wÐéâæýå…. ........ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ… ............. ......... I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ… ............. ......... BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ… .............

Model (v)

Model (ix)

¯óþ¯èþ$ Mö™èþ¢Ðé×ìý~ »ñý…V>Î ¯óþ¯èþ$ »ñý…V>ÎÐé×ìý~. ...... _¯èþ² ....... ...... çßýÆ>ůé.... ...... AÐðþ$ÇM>...

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™ðþË$Væü$ÐéyìþÑ. ò³§æþª ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ò³§æþªÐéyìþÑ. ....... Ðèþ$Æ>w ....... ....... Ðèþ$…_ ....... ....... Ðèþ$«§æþÅ{糧óþÔŒý ..

Model (vi)

Model (x)

¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…§é°². _¯èþ² ¯óþ¯èþ$ _¯èþ²§é°² ...... ò³§æþª ....... ...... çßýÆ>ůé.... ...... AÐðþ$ÇM>...

Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆæÿ$. ò³§æþª Ò$Ææÿ$ ò³§æþªÐéÆæÿ$. ....... AÐðþ$ÇM> ... ....... Ðèþ$…_ ..... ....... JÇÝëÞ ..... 241

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Interlocked substitution drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðé×ìý~. ò³§æþª ¯óþ¯èþ$ ò³§æþªÐé×ìý~. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ò³§æþªÐéyìþÑ. »ñý…V>Î ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó »ñý…V>ÎÐéyìþÑ. Ò$Ææÿ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ »ñý…V>ÎÐéâæý$å. Ðóþ$… .................... ....... ™ðþË$Væü$ ........ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó .................. ....... AÐðþ$ÇM> ...... Ðèþ$¯èþ… ..................

¯óþ¯èþ$ _¯èþ²§é°². Mö™èþ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mö™èþ¢§é°². ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mö™èþ¢§é°Ñ. JÇÝëÞ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JÇÝëÞ§é°Ñ. Ò$Ææÿ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ JÇÝëÞÐéâæý$å. Ðóþ$… ................................ ...................™ðþË$Væü$ ........ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó .............................. .................. AÐðþ$ÇM> ...... ¯óþ¯èþ$ ................................

Model (iii)

Model (iv)

Ò$ÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å? Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å? ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å. »ñý…V>Î Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ »ñý…V>ÎÐéâæý$å. Òâæý$å .............. .................. ...... ............... JÇÝëÞ ....... Ðèþ$¯èþ… ............... .................. ......... I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ$ .................. Ðéâæý$å ............. ..................

Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå…? Ðóþ$… Ðèþ*ÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå…? BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ… Ðèþ*ÌZ BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ… ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå…. »ñý…V>Î Ðèþ*ÌZ BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ… »ñý…V>ÎÐéâæýå…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… .............. .................. ......... Hyæþ$Væü$Ææÿ… ................ Ðóþ$… ............. ............... ........ C§æþªÆæÿ… ............... Ðèþ$¯èþ… .............. ............... 242

Lesson 14

d. Response drill Model (i)

Model (iv)

™èþ˯ðþí³µ GÐèþÇMìü? (Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#) Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#Mæü$ ™èþ˯ðþí³µ. 1. Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯öí³µ GÐèþÇMìü? (çßýÇ) 2. fÓÆæÿ… GÐèþÇMìü? (A™èþ¯èþ$) 3. ^ðþÑÌZ ¯ðþí³µ GÐèþÇMìü? (yéMæütÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$)

Ðèþ* FÇMìü ºçÜ$Þ…§é? (ÆðÿOË$) Ò$ FÇMìü ºçÜ$Þ Ìôý§æþ$; ÆðÿOË$…¨. 1. AÐèþ$Æ>Ðèþ†Mìü ÆðÿOË$…§é? (ºçÜ$Þ) 2. Ðèþ* FÇMìü ÆðÿOË$…§é? (ºçÜ$Þ) 3. B FÇMìü ºçÜ$Þ…§é? (ÆðÿOË$)

Model (ii)

Model (v)

D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GÐèþÇMìü? ±M>? (Æ>k) A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¯éMæü$ M>§æþ$; Æ>kMæü$. Ò$Ææÿ$Mæü*yé Ðèþ$…_ÐéÆóÿ! 1. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþÇMìü? çßýÇM>? (WÇ) 1. C™èþ¯èþ$ ò³§æþªÐéyæþ$. 2. D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GÐèþÇMìü? çÜ$ÖËM>? (ÎË) 2. BÄæý$¯èþ Mö™èþ¢Ðéyæþ$. 3. B Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GÐèþÇMìü? ÆæÿÑM>? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) 3. ÆæÿÑ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéyæþ$. Model (iii)

Model (vi)

Ò$Ææÿ$ ™ðþË$Væü$ÐéÆæÿ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. A. AÐèþ#¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðé×ìý~. A. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé Ðèþ$…_ÐéyìþÐóþ! B. AÐèþ#¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$§é°². B. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé Ðèþ$…_§é°Ðóþ! 1. Ò$Ææÿ$ »ñý…V>ÎÐéÆæÿ$. 1. A™èþ¯èþ$ »ñý…V>ÎÐéyæþ$. 2. Ò$Ææÿ$ Mö™èþ¢ÐéÆæÿ$. 2. BÐðþ$ ò³§æþª¨. 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ ò³§æþªÐéÆæÿ$. 3. BÄæý$¯èþ _¯èþ²ÐéÆæÿ$. Model (vii) ± çÜ…`ÌZ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (MæüË…; M>Æÿ$$™èþ…) ¯é çÜ…`ÌZ MæüË…, M>Æÿ$$™èþ… E¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. Ò$ FâZå HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (Ðèþ$*ÅhÄæý$…, »o§æþ®çÜ*¢ç³…) 2. B ò³sñýtÌZ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…, MæüË…) 3. D Væü¨ÌZ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…, ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…) Model (viii) Ðèþ*ÌZ BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ… çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæýå…. (™ðþË$Væü$) Ðèþ*ÌZ BÆæÿ$Væü$Ææÿ… ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå…. 1. ÐéâæýåÌZ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å. (Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…) 243

An Intensive Course in Telugu

2. Ò$ÌZ 糨Ðèþ$…¨ Ðèþ$Æ>wÐéâæý$å. (»ñý…V>Î) 3. Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ C§æþªÆæÿ$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…Ðéâæý$å. (JÇÝëÞ) f. Expansion drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

BMæü$Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$. (^ðþr$t) ^ðþr$tMæü$ BMæü$Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. ç³NË$¯é²Æÿ$$. (MöÐèþ$Ã) 2. BMæü$Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$. (^ðþr$Ï) 3. MöÐèþ$ÃË$¯é²Æÿ$$. (^ðþr$t)

Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. CMæü Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. 1. ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþ…yìþ. 2. D M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ÌñýMæüPò³rt…yìþ. 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ.

Model (iii)

Ðèþ* FÇMìü ºçÜ$Þ E…¨. Ðèþ* FÇMìü ºçÜ$Þ Ðèþ*{™èþÐóþ$ E…¨. 1. D ò³sñýtÌZ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… E…¨.

2. Ò$ FÇMìü ÆðÿOË$ E…¨. 3. B Væü¨ÌZ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæü$ÈaË$¯é²Æÿ$$. 4. ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$ E…¨.

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions as shown in the models. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (ii)

çÜ$ÖÌê! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (™ðþË$Væü$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$§é°². ÔéÆæÿ§é! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (»ñý…V>Î) çÜ$Væü$×ê ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (MæüÆ>~rMæü) ÔéÅÐèþ$Ìê! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (Ðèþ$Æ>w) »êÌê! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (çßýÆ>ůé)

1. 2. 3. 4.

ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (»ñý…V>Î) ¯óþ¯èþ$ »ñý…V>ÎÐé×ìý~. Æ>Ðèþ$*! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (çßýÆ>ůé) çßýÈ! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (™ðþË$Væü$) Æ>l! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (Ðèþ$Æ>w) ÆæÿÐóþ$ÔŒý! ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÐèþÇÑ? (MæüÆ>~rMæü)

Model (iii)

¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (™ðþË$Væü$) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™ðþË$Væü$ÐéyìþÑ/™ðþË$Væü$§é°Ñ. 1. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (JÇÝëÞ)

2. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (MæüÆ>~rMæü) 3. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (Ðèþ$Æ>w) 4. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (AÐðþ$ÇM>) 244

Lesson 14 Model (iv)

¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (»ñý…V>Î) 2. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (™ðþË$Væü$) Ò$Ææÿ$ »ñý…V>ÎÐéÆæÿ$. 3. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (Ðèþ$Æ>w) 1. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (çßýÆ>ůé) 4. ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? (f´ë¯Œþ) Model (v) ± çÜ…`ÌZ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…, MæüË…) ¯é çÜ…`ÌZ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…, MæüË… E¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. ±ò³sñýtÌZ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (MæüË…, M>Æÿ$$™èþ…) 2. Ò$ FâZÏ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (»o§æþ®çÜ*¢ç³…, ÕÐéËÄæý$…) 3. Ò$ C…sZÏ HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…, ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…) Model (vi) D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GÐèþÇMìü? A™èþ°M>? (ÆæÿÑ) D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ A™èþ°Mìü M>§æþ$; ÆæÿÑMìü. 1. B MæüË… GÐèþÇMìü? Æ>kM>? (ÔèýÆæÿÃ) 2. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþÇMìü? çÜ$Væü$×ýM>? (çÜ$ÖË) 3. B Væü¨ GÐèþÇMìü? Ò$M>? (Ðéâæý$å) 4. D ´ëuæÿ… GÐèþÇMìü? ÐéâæýåM>? (Ðóþ$…) Model (vii)

Model (viii)

D ^ðþr$tMæü$ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (ç³NË$) ™èþ˯öí³µ GÐèþÇMìü? (çßýÇ) D ^ðþr$tMæü$ ç³NË$¯é²Æÿ$$. çßýÇMìü. 1. B MöÐèþ$ÃMæü$ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (BMæü$Ë$) 1. fÓÆæÿ… GÐèþÇMìü? (A™èþ¯èþ$) 2. Ò$ FÇMìü H… E…¨? (ºçÜ$Þ) 2. ^ðþÑÌZ ¯ðþí³µ GÐèþÇMìü? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) 3. Ðèþ* FÇMìü H… E…¨? (ÆðÿOË$) 3. Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯ðþí³µ GÐèþÇMìü? (Ðéâæý$å) 4. B ^ðþrÏMæü$ H… E¯é²Æÿ$$? (M>Äæý$Ë$) 4. sîý GÐèþÇMìü? (¯óþ¯èþ$) Model (ix) Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å? (¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$) A. Ðèþ*ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ Ðóþ$… ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ… ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå…. B. Ðèþ*ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ Ðéâæý$å ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å. 1. Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å? (Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$) 2. Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ Mö™èþ¢Ðéâæý$å? (C§æþªÆæÿ$) 3. Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ´ë™èþÐéâæý$å? (I§æþ$Væü$Ææÿ$) 245

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (x)

A. B. 1. 2. 3.

Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å? (G°Ñ$¨Ðèþ$…¨)) Ðèþ*ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ/Ðóþ$… G°Ñ$¨Ðèþ$…¨Ñ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå…. Ðèþ*ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ/Ðéâæý$å G°Ñ$¨Ðèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å. Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å? (™öÑ$èÐèþ$…¨) Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ Mö™èþ¢Ðéâæý$å? (糨Ðèþ$…¨) Ò$ÌZ/Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ´ë™èþÐéâæý$å? (CÆæÿÐðþOÐèþ$…¨)

Model (xi)

ç³#Í A…sôý HÑ$sìý? ç³#Í A…sôý C…XÏçÙ$ÌZ tiger. 1. íÜ…çßý… A…sôý HÑ$sìý?

2. Mö™èþ¢ A…sôý HÑ$sìý? 3. ºËÏ A…sôý HÑ$sìý? 4. ™öÑ$è A…sôý HÑ$sìý?

b. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the models. Model

1. 2. 3. 4.

ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. (çÜ$Væü$×ý) çÜ$Væü$×ý Ðèþ$…_¨. çÜ$ÖË Ðèþ$…_¨. (Ðéâæý$å) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ò³§æþªÐéyìþÑ. (Ò$Ææÿ$ pl.) A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$. (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) A™èþ¯èþ$ ´ë™èþÐéyæþ$. (BÐðþ$ hon.)

5. BÄæý$¯èþ Mö™èþ¢ÐéÆæÿ$. (Ðóþ$…) 6. ÔéÆæÿ§æþ Ðèþ$…_¨. (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó fem.) 7. Ðéyæþ$ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$. (¯óþ¯èþ$ masc.) 8. çßýÇ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$. (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó masc.) 9. çÜ$Væü$×ý ò³§æþª¨. (¯óþ¯èþ$ fem.) 10.Ðéyæþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéyæþ$. (BÐðþ$ eql.)

c. Give your responses as shown in the models. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. Model (ii)

1. 2. 3.

Ðèþ*ÌZ Ðèþ$$Væü$YÆæÿ$ Mæü¯èþ²yæþ…Ðéâæý$å. (™ðþË$Væü$) ™èþMìüP¯èþÐéâæý$å ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâêå? Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ C§æþªÆæÿ$ ò³§æþªÐéâæý$å. (_¯èþ²) ÐéâæýåÌZ ¯èþË$Væü$Ææÿ$ ´ë™èþÐéâæý$å. (Mö™èþ¢) ÒâæýåÌZ JMæüyæþ$ íßý…©Ðéyæþ$. (»ñý…V>Î) B Væü¨ÌZ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæü$ÈaË$¯é²Äæý*? (JMæü) JMæü Mæü$Èa Ðèþ*{™èþÐóþ$ E…¨. Ò$ FÇMìü ÆðÿËO * ºçÜ*Þ E¯é²Äæý*? (ºçÜ$Þ) B ò³sñýtÌZ 糨 ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$¯é²Äæý*? (I§æþ$) Ò$ C…sZÏ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü$Ìê½ ^ðþr$ϯé²Äæý*? (JMæü) 246

Lesson 14

d. Match the following.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>ÇMìü. D ^ðþr$tMæü$ Ò$ÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ Ðèþ$¯èþÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨Ñ$ D Ðèþ$…§æþ$

A. çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæýå… B. ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å? C. Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ¯öí³µ. D. ™èþ˯ðþí³µMìü ^éÌê Ðèþ$…_¨. E. M>Äæý$Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$.

VOCABULARY

Mæü–Úë~¯èþ¨ the river Krishna Ðèþ$*ÅhÄæý$… museum ÆðÿËO $ train Ðèþ*{™èþÐóþ$ only ¸ù¯èþ$ telephone çßýÆ>ůé the state of Haryana MóüÆæÿâæý the state of Kerala JÇÝëÞ the state of Orissa »ñý…V>Î Bengali ™èþMìüP¯èþ the remaining (adj.) Ðèþ$«§æþÅ{糧óþÔŒý the state of Madhya Pradesh Ðèþ$Æ>w Marathi MæüÆ>~rMæü the state of Karnataka Ðèþ$àÆ>çÙ‰ the state of Maharashtra ^ðþ糚 teach Aº¾! an interjection of grief or

HÐóþ$… ïÜÝë E¯èþ²¨ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ A…sôý

what (pl.) bottle (n) see E…¨ (lesson 4 & 7) medicine means (used to elicit the meaning of a word) fÓÆæÿ… fever Mæüyæþ$ç³# stomach ¯öí³µ/¯ðþí³µ pain í³°² mother’s younger sister or the wife of the father’s younger brother ™èþË head ^ðþÑ ear CMæü/C…Mæü now onwards/hereafter ´ëuæÿ… lesson ѯèþ$ hear AÐèþ$Æ>Ðèþ† Amaravati Æ>çÙ‰… a political State B…{«§þæ {糧óþÔŒý the state of Andhra Pradesh hÌêÏ district ÕÐéËÄæý$… Siva Temple »o§æþç®Ü*¢ç³… Bouddha Stupa

Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ ^ðþr$t MöÐèþ$à sôý‹³ÇM>ÆæÿzÆŠÿ f´ë¯Œþ C…yìþÄæý* ´ër 247

pain or admiration. jasmine tree/plant branch of a tree tape-recorder Japan India song

An Intensive Course in Telugu

GRAMMAR NOTES 14.1.

Some more functions of the dative case suffix are introduced in this

lesson. 14.1.1.

In the following sentences the dative case suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/ -ki

expresses ‘purpose’. The meaining of the suffix can be equated to ‘for’ in English in these sentences.

Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GÐèþÇMìü? maMdu evariki? ‘Whom is the medicine for?’ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ çÜ$Væü$×ýMæü$. maMdu sugu∆aku.‘The medicine is for Suguna.’ D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ™èþ˯ðþí³µMìü Ðèþ$…_¨. • maMdu talaneppiki maMcidi. ‘This medicine is good for headache.’ 14.1.2.

In the following sentences the dative case suffix is used to denote

a type of ‘destination’ and a ‘possessor’.

Ðèþ* FÇMìü ÆðÿOË$…¨.

m¡ ¶riki railuMdi.

This sentence has, in fact, two meanings. They are, (1) There is a train (going to) my town, and (2) My town has a train connection. In the first meaning the NP which has the dative case suffix denotes ‘destination’. In the second meaning the NP with the dative case suffix denotes ‘possessor’. In the same way the following sentences can also be interpreted.

Ðèþ* FÇMìü ºçÜ$Þ E…¨.

‘There is a bus going to my town.’; ‘My town has a bus connection.’

m¡ ¶riki railuMdi.

But the following sentences have only one meaning where the NP with the dative case suffix denotes ‘possessor’ only.

1. Ðèþ* FÇMìü ¸ù¯èþ$ E…¨.

‘My town has a telephone connection.’

m¡ ¶riki fªnu uMdi.

2. Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü ¸ù¯èþ$ E…¨. ‘My house has a telephone connection.’ m¡ iM iki fªnu uMdi. 248

Lesson 14 The following sentence is comparable with sentence 2 above in its meaning.

Ðèþ* C…sZÏ ¸ù¯èþ$ E…¨.

‘There is a telephone in my house.’

m¡ iM lª fªnu uMdi. 14.1.3. Recall the possessive function of the dative case suffix in sentences like A™èþ°Mìü ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨ ataniki caduvu uMdi ‘He has education’ (13.2.2.). In the following sentences also the dative case expresses ‘possession’.

çßýÇMìü fÓÆæÿ…. ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ ™èþ˯öí³µ. Æ>kMæü$ ^ðþѯðþí³µ.

hariki jvaraM. ramaku talanoppi. r¡juku cevineppi.

‘Hari has fever.’ ‘Rama has headache.’ ‘Raju has earache.’

Notice that in the above sentences the affirmative existential verb is not used. However, when it is used it adds an emphasis to the possession. (c.f. 13.2.2.1.)

¯éMæü$ fÓÆæÿ… E…¨. ÆæÿÑMìü ™èþ˯öí³µ E…¨.

n¡ku jvaraM uMdi. ‘I have fever.’ raviki talanoppi uMdi. ‘Ravi has headache.’

But the negative existential verb does not add any emphasis, and simply expresses the non-existence

¯éMæü$ fÓÆæÿ… Ìôý§æþ$. ÆæÿÑMìü ™èþ˯öí³µ Ìôý§æþ$.

n¡ku jvaraM l£du. ‘I don’t have fever.’ raviki talanoppi l£du. ‘Ravi dosen’t have headache.’

14.1.4. In the following sentences also the dative case suffix expresses ‘possession’.

B ^ðþr$tMæü$ ç³NË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

‘That plant has flowers.’

¡ ce  uku p¶˚u unn¡yi.

B MöÐèþ$ÃMæü$ BMæü$Ë$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

‘That branch has leaves.’

¡ kommaku ¡kulu unn¡yi. 14.2.

Consider the following expression.

™ðþË$Væü$Ðéyæþ$ teluguv¡∂u ‘a Telugu man/boy’ Ðèþ$Æ>w¨ mar¡ •di ‘a Marathi woman/girl’ 249

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çßýÆ>ůéÐéÆæÿ$ hary¡n¡v¡ru ‘a Haryana person (hon.)’ JÇÝëÞÐéâæý$å oriss¡v¡˚˚u ‘Orissa persons/people’ These are nominal predicates. (See 9.1., 9.1.2., 13.4., 13.4.1., 13.4.2., and 13.4.3.) 14.3. The nominal predicates, pronominal predicates and adjectival predicates also maintain concord (See 2.6., 5.5. and 5.5.1.) with subject NP in first person singular and plural, and second person inferior singular in verbless sentences (1.1.).

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðé×ìý~. n£nu maMciv¡∆∆i. ‘I am a good man/boy.’ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_§é°². n£nu maMcid¡nni. ‘I am a good woman/girl.’ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðé×ìý~. n£nu teluguv¡∆∆i. ‘I am a Telugu man/boy.’ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™ðþË$Væü$§é°². n£nu telugud¡nni. ‘I am a Telugu woman/girl.’ Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðèþ$…_Ðéâæýå…. m£M/manaM maMciv¡˚˚aM. ‘We are good persons.’ Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ…/ çßýÆ>ůéÐéâæýå…. m£M/manaM hary¡n¡v¡˚˚aM ‘We are Haryana persons.’ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$…_ÐéyìþÑ. nuvvu maMciv¡∂ivi. ‘You are a good man/boy.’ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$…_§é°Ñ. nuvvu maMcid¡nivi. ‘You are a good woman/girl.’ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JÇÝëÞÐéyìþÑ. nuvvu oriss¡v¡∂ivi ‘You are an Orissa man/boy.’ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JÇÝëÞ§é°Ñ. nuvvu oriss¡d¡nivi ‘You are an Orissa woman/girl.’ 14.3.1. Recall that the concord markers &° -ni and &Ñ -vi are added to oblique bases (3.7.). The oblique base of the predicate markers

&Ðéyæþ$ -v¡∂u is &Ðéyìþ -v¡∂i (7.6.1.), and &¨ -di (which is the shortened form of &A¨ -adi) is &§é° -d¡ni (3.5. and 7.6.3.1.). As these predicate markers are nothing but pronouns used as suffixes (see 13.4.2.), the respective oblique forms of the pronouns are used here also.

Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$ + ° = Ðèþ$…_Ðéyìþ&° = Ðèþ$…_Ðé×ìý~ (For sandhi see 5.8.2.) maMciv¡∂u + ni = maMciv¡∂i + ni = maMciv¡∆∆i ‘I am a good man/boy.’ 250

Lesson 14

Ðèþ$…_¨ + ° = Ðèþ$…_§é°&° = Ðèþ$…_§é°²

(For sandhi see 14.13.) maMcidi + ni = maMcid¡ni + ni = maMcid¡nni ‘I am a good woman/girl.’

14.4.

In this lesson a different use of locative case suffix &ÌZ -lª is shown.

Ò$ÌZ G…™èþÐèþ$…¨ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å?

‘Howmany of you are Telugu people?’

m•lª eMtamaMdi teluguv¡˚˚u? 14.5.

Notice the difference between the following two sentences.

1. Ðèþ*ÌZ C§æþªÆæÿ$ ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæý$å.

‘Two are Telugu persons among us.’

m¡lª iddaru teluguv¡˚˚u.

2. Ðèþ*ÌZ C§æþªÆæÿ… ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå….

‘We two are Telugu persons among us.’

m¡lª iddaraM teluguv¡˚˚aM. The speaker of the sentence 2 above is also one of the two Telugu persons, where as it is not so in sentence 1. The concord in sentence 2 indicates that the subject NP of the sentence is Ðóþ$… C§æþƪ ÿæ … m£M iddaraM and that Ðóþ$… m£M is implied. 14.6.

Consider the following sentence.

¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~ çßýÆ>ůéÐé×ìý~.

‘I am the lone Haryana person among us.’ n£nu oka∆∆i hary¡n¡v¡∆∆i. In this sentence JMæü×ìý~ oka∆∆i is an attribute to ¯óþ¯èþ$ n£nu ‘I’ the subject NP. It appears in this sentence that the attribute also maintains concord with the subject NP. However, note that only the predicate NP maintains concord with with subject NP as stated in 2.6. and 5.5. The anomaly is due to the fact that the above sentence is a combination of two sentences, viz.,

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~. n£nu oka∆∆i.

2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ çßýÆ>ůéÐé×ìý~. n£nu hary¡n¡v¡∆∆i.

‘I am one.’ (subordinate or embedded sentence) ‘I am a Haryana person.’ (main sentence or matrix sentence) 251

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~ n£nu oka∆∆i is merged with the matrix sentence the subject NP of the embedded sentence, i.e., ¯óþ¯èþ$ n£nu When the embedded sentence

is dropped as it is identical with the subject of the matrix sentence. But the predicate of the embedded sentence JMæü×ìý~ oka∆∆i with its concord is incorporated in the matrix sentence as an attribute. Thus we get the sentence

¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü×ìý~ çßýÆ>ůéÐé×ìý.~

‘I am the lone Haryana person (among us.)’ n£nu oka∆∆i hary¡n¡v¡∆∆i. 14.7.

HÐóþ$… £m£M is the reduplicated form of H… £M ‘what’ the inter-

rogative neuter pronoun (9.12.)

H… + H… = HÐóþ$…

£M + £M = £m£M (For sandhi see 2.11.)

Such reduplicated interrogative words denote plurality, and when used in a question, anticipate more than one object or a plural noun in the answer.

HÐóþ$… E¯é²Æÿ$$?

MæüË… M>Æÿ$$™èþ… E¯é²Æÿ$$.

£m£M unn¡yi? What (various things) are there?

kalaM k¡yitaM unn¡yi. ‘Pen and paper are there.’

± õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$ GÐèþÆðÿÐèþÆæÿ$(GÐèþÆæÿ$ + GÐèþÆæÿ$)? ÆæÿÒ, WÈ ¯é õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$. n• sn£hitulu evarevaru? rav•, gir• n¡ sn£hitulu. (evaru + evaru) ‘Ravi and Giri are my friends.’ ‘Who (various persons) are your friends?’

± MæüÌêË$ GMæüPyðþMæüPyæþ E¯é²Æÿ$$? (GMæüPyæþ + GMæüPyæþ)

¯é MæüÌêË$ AMæüPyé CMæüPyé E¯é²Æÿ$$.

n• kal¡lu ekka∂ekka∂a unn¡yi? n¡ kal¡lu akka∂¡ ikka∂¡ unn¡yi. (ekka∂a + ekka∂a) ‘My pens are there and here.’ ‘Where (at various places) are your pens?’ 14.8. Recall that Telugu does not normally use a conjuction like ‘and’ in coordinative constructions, and that the final syllables of the constituents participating in such coordinative construction are pronounced with with extended 252

Lesson 14 length (5.6.). When nouns ending in consonants and … M (sunna) are participating in a coordinative construction the final consonants are pronounced with an extended length, but this length is not represented in writing.

ºËÏ Ò$§æþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… MæüË… E¯é²Æÿ$$.

‘The book and pen are on the table.’ balla m•da pustakaM kalaM unn¡yi.

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ Vø´ëÌŒý õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$.

‘Mohan and Gopal are friends.’

mªhan gªpal sn£hitulu. 14.9. Notice the derivation of the adjectival predicates in the following expressions.

G{Ææÿ ç³NË$ erra p¶lu ‘red flowers’ ò³§æþª ^ðþr$t pedda ce  u ‘big tree’ AÑ ò³§æþª ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$.

⇒ ⇒

avi pedda pustak¡lu. ‘Those are big books.’

¡ pustak¡lu peddavi. ‘Those books are big (ones).’

C¨ ™ðþËÏ çÜ…`.





idi tella saMc•. ‘This is a white bag.’

G{ÆæÿÑ erravi ‘red ones’ ò³§æþ¨ª peddadi ‘big one’ B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ò³§æþªÑ

D çÜ…` ™ðþËϨ. • saMc• telladi. ‘This bag is white (one).’

But the following transformation is not possible.

A¨ Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ^ðþr$t.

adi malle ce  u.

adi malle ce  u. ‘That is a jasmine plant.’



B ^ðþr$t Ðèþ$ÌñýϨ.

¡ ce  u malledi. ¡ ce  u malledi.

The condition seems to be that the adjective should be one of the following: (i) An adjective which is in possessive relationship with the noun

C¨ ÆæÿÑ MæüË….



idi ravi kalaM. ‘This is Ravi’s pen.’

D MæüË… ÆæÿѨ. • kalaM ravidi. ‘This pen is Ravi’s.’

253

An Intensive Course in Telugu (ii) A qualitative adjective ⇒

C¨ Ðèþ$…_ MæüË…. idi maMci kalaM. ‘This is a good pen.’

D MæüË… Ðèþ$…_¨. • kalaM maMcidi. ‘This pen is good (one).’

(iii) A quantitative adjective ⇒

C¨ ò³§æþª Væü¨. idi pedda gadi. ‘This is a big room.’

D Væü¨ ò³§æþª¨. • gadi peddadi. ‘This room is big (one).’

(iv) An adjective whose semantic function denotes ‘belonging to’ or ‘made in’ ⇒

C¨ f´ë¯Œþ MæüË…. idi jap¡n kalaM. ‘This is a Japan pen.’

D MæüË… f´ë¯Œþ¨. • kalaM jap¡ndi. ‘This pen is made in Japan.’

(v) An ordinal numeral adjective ⇒

C¨ Æðÿ…yø MæüË…. idi reM∂ª kalaM. ‘This is second pen.’

D MæüË… Æðÿ…yø¨. • kalaM reM∂ªdi. ‘This pen is second (one).’

It may further be said that the adjective should not be (i) an adjective derived from a common noun which gives a group identity to the object denoted by the noun. ⇒ malle ce  u ‘Jasmine plant’

Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ ^ðþr$t

Ðèþ$ÌñýϨ malledi

and (ii) a cardinal numeral adjective. ⇒

CÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæü$MæüPË$ ivi reM∂u kukkalu. ‘These are two dogs.’ 14.10.

E¯èþ²¨ = E…¨

D Mæü$MæüPË$ Æðÿ…yæþ$Ñ. • kukkalu reM∂uvi.

unnadi = uMdi (4.3. and 7.1.)

The III person feminine and neuter singular form of existential verb 254

Lesson 14

E…¨ uMdi is a variant of E¯èþ²¨ unnadi. E…¨ uMdi occurs more in speech, and E¯èþ²¨ unnadi in both speech and writing. CMæü/C…Mæü ika/iMka ‘hereafter, henceforth, now’ is an adverb. 14.11. Notice its usage in the following sentences.

CMæü ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþ$/ C…Mæü ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþ$.

‘Now you (better) listen to ika p¡ haM vinu/ iMka p¡ haM vinu. the lesson.’

CMæü/C…Mæü ´ëuæÿ… ^ðþç³µ…yìþ.

‘Sir, now teach the lesson.’

ika/ iMka p¡ haM ceppaM∂i.

Aº¾! abba! is an interjection. It is used to express the intensity 14.12. of the emotions such as grief, pain, disgust, surprise or admiration. 14.13.

Notice the following sandhi process.

Ðèþ$…_§é° + ° = Ðèþ$…_§é°² maMcid¡ni + ni = maMcid¡nni (14.3.1.) A short vowel occurring between two identical consonants is dropped. 14.14. The verb ^ðþ糚 ceppu stands to mean ‘to teach’ when used with nouns such as ´ëuæÿ… p¡ haM ‘lesson’ as object.

´ëuæÿ… ^ðþç³µ…yìþ p¡ haM ceppaM∂i

255

‘Please teach the lesson.’

UNIT III Lesson 15

´÷yæþ$ç³# Mæü£æþ

A RIDDLE

™é™èþÄæý$Å: í³ËÏË*! A…§æþÆæÿ* CÌê Ææÿ…yìþ. Ò$Ææÿ…§æþÆæÿ* °¯èþ² ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… BÆæÿ$ Væü…rËMæü$ C…sZÏ E¯é²Æ>?

Children! All of you come here. Were all of you at home at 6 o’clock yesterday evening?

Vøí³ : ÌôýÐèþ$$ ™é™èþÄæý*Å! ºÝët…yæþ$ §æþVæüYÆæÿ JMæü Væü$yìþ E…¨ Mæü§é! B Væü$âZå °¯èþ² ¯érMæü… E…¨. Ðóþ$… A…§æþÆæÿ… °¯èþ² AMæüPyæþ E¯é²….

No grandfather. We weren’t. There is a temple near the bus stand. Isn’t it? There was a play in that temple yesterday. We were all there yesterday.

™é™èþÄæý$Å: ºÝët…yæþ$ §æþVæüYÆæÿ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü$âæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$. ¯érMæü… H Væü$âZÏ?

There are two temples near the bus stand. In which temple was the play?

256

Lesson 15

Vøí³ : ò³§æþª Væü$âZå.

In the big temple.

™é™èþÄæý$Å: ¯érMæü… G°² Væü…rËMæü$?

At what time was the play?

Vøí³ : BÆæÿ$ Væü…rË Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹ °Ñ$ÚëËMæü$.

at 6.30.

™é™èþÄæý$Å: AÆÿ$$™óþ Ò$Ææÿ…§æþÆæÿ* °¯èþ² ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… C…sZÏ ÌôýÆæÿ¯èþ²Ðèþ*r.

Then, you were all not at home yesterday evening.

Vøí³ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Yes.

™é™èþÄæý$Å: AÆÿ$$™óþ Æ>Ðèþ$$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$?

Then, where was Ramu?

Vøí³ : HÐðþ*! GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yø! íÜ°Ðèþ*àÌZÏ E¯é²yóþÐðþ*!

We don’t know where he was! He might be in a cinema hall.

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : Aº§æþ…® Vøï³! ¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ² E§æþÄæý$… C…sZϯþó E¯é²¯èþ$. °¯èþ² Ðèþ$«§éÅçßý²… Mæ ü *yé C…sZÏ ¯ ó þ E¯é²¯è þ $. ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… Ðèþ*{™èþÐóþ$ Ìôý¯èþ$. ™é™èþÄæý$Å: çÜÆóÿ! ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ò$ AËÐèþ$ÆæÿÌZ E…§é?

It is a lie, Gopi! I was at home yesterday morning. I was at home yesterday afternoon also. I was not at home only in the evening yesterday. Okay! Is my book there in your cupboard?

Vøí³ : Ìôý§æþ$.

No.

™é™èþÄæý$Å: Ðèþ$Ç GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨?

Then, where it is?

Vøí³ : HÐðþ*! GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²§ø!

We don’t know where it is.

257

An Intensive Course in Telugu

™é™èþÄæý$Å: Æ>Ðèþ$*! ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$. D ´ëç³ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# Mæü*™èþ$Ææÿ$ Mæü§æþ*! ´ë´ë! ¯èþ$ÑÓMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ðé?

Ramu! Search for my book. This child is Subbarao’s daughter. Isn’t she? Papa! You are here?

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : C§æþ$Vø ™é™èþÄæý*Å! ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CMæüPyæþ$…¨.

Here it is, Grandfather. Your book is here.

™é™èþÄæý$Å: GMæüPyæþ?

Where?

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : D çÜ…` ç³MæüP¯èþ.

By side of this bag.

ÑfÄæý$: C¨ ™é™èþÄæý$Å ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>§æþ$. CMæüPyæþ ™é™èþÄæý$Å ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ìôý§æþ$.

This is not grandfather’s book. His book is not here.

™é™èþÄæý$Å: AÆÿ$$™óþ Ò$ǧæþƪ ÿæ * Ððþ™èþMæü…yìþ. »êV> Ððþ™èþMæü…yìþ.

Then both of you search for it. Search thoroughly.

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : B ò³sñýtÌZ E…§óþÐðþ*!

It might be in that box (trunk)

Vøí³ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. ™é™èþÄæý$Å ÐèþçÜ$¢Ðþè #Ë$ A±² B ò³sñýtÌZ¯óþ E¯é²Æÿ$$. Æ>Ðèþ$$ : Vøï³! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mö…^ðþ… ³ç MæüPMæü$ fÆæÿ$Væü$. C§æþ$Vø ™é™èþÄæý*Å! ± ç³#çÜM¢ üæ …. D ò³sñýÌt Z¯óþ E…¨. ¡çÜ$Mø!

Yes. All those things which belong to grandfather are in that trunk. Gopi! Move a little to the side. Yes. Here is your book, gradfather. It is in this box.Take it.

Vøí³ : ™é™èþÄæý*Å! ± ç³#sìý¯t þè Æøk G糚yæþ$ ™é™èþÄæý*Å?

Grandfather! When is your birthday?

™é™èþÄæý$Å: ¯èþÐèþ…ºÆæÿ$ BÆø ™éÈMæü$¯èþ.

On the sixth of November. 258

Lesson 15

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : B Æøk¯èþ ©´ëÐèþã Mæü§é! ™é™èþÄæý$Å: AÐè þ #¯è þ $ ©´ëÐè þ ã Æøk¯è þ ¯é ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk. Æ>Ðèþ$$ : B ç³#çÜM¢ üæ …ÌZ H… E…¨ ™é™èþÄæý*Å! ™é™èþÄæý$Å: Ðèþ$…_ ´ërË$¯é²Æÿ$$. Ææÿ…yìþ. Ò$Ææÿ$ A…§æþÆæÿ* ¯é ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ. Æ>Ðèþ$* D ´ër ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. Ò$Ææÿ…§æþÆæÿ* ^èþ§æþÐèþ…yìþ. D ´ërÌZ Ðèþ$…_ ´÷yæþ$ç³# Mæü£æþ E…¨.

¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°?

On that day it was Deepavali. Isn’t it? Yes. My birthday is on Deepavali day. What is there in that book, grandfather? There are very good songs. Come on! All of you sit by side of me. Ramu! Read this song. All of you read it. There is a good riddle in this song. WHO AM I?

»êº*! »êº*! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ´ë´ë! ´ë´ë! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? Mæü§æþÍMæü E¯èþ²¨ M>Ë$ Ìôý§æþ$ MöË™èþ E¯èþ²¨ Ææÿ*ç³… Ìôý§æþ$ »êº*! »êº*! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ´ë´ë! ´ë´ë! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°?

Babu! Babu! Who am I? Papa! Papa! Who am I? There is no leg but movement. There is no shape but measurement. Babu! Babu! Who am I? Papa! Papa! Who am I?

G…yæþ!

Sun!

¯é õ³Ææÿ$ G…yæþ M>§æþ$ & §é° Ðóþyìþ ¯éMæü$ Ìôý§æþ$. ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ G…yæþ M>§æþ$ & §é° Ðóþyìþ ¯éMæü$ Ìôý§æþ$. & K

My name is not sun I don’t have its heat; My name is not sun I don’t have its heat. - O 259

An Intensive Course in Telugu

»êº*! »êº*! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ´ë´ë! ´ë´ë! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°?

Babu! Babu! Who am I? Papa! Papa! Who am I?

V>Í!

Wind!

¯é õ³Ææÿ$ V>Í M>§æþ$ & §é° ÔèýMìü¢ ¯éMæü$ Ìôý§æþ$. ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ V>Í M>§æþ$ & §é° ÔèýMìü¢ ¯éMæü$ Ìôý§æþ$. & K »êº*! »êº*! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ´ë´ë! ´ë´ë! ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°?

My name is not wind I don’t have its power; My name is not wind I don’t have its power. - O Babu! Babu! Who am I? Papa! Papa! Who am I?

M>Ë… AÐèþ#¯èþ$!

Time!

AÐèþ#¯èþ$!

Yes! Yes!

G…yæþ M>§æþ$ ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ V>Í M>§æþ$ ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ M>Ë… ´ë´ë ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ M>Ë… »êº* ¯é õ³Ææÿ$

Sun is not my name, Wind is not my name, Babu! My name is time, Papa! My name is time.

Mæü§æþÍMæü E¯èþ²¨ M>Ë$ Ìôý§æþ$ MöË™èþ E¯èþ²¨ Ææÿ*ç³… Ìôý§æþ$ »êº*! ´ë´ë! »êº*! ´ë´ë!

»êº*! ´ë´ë! »êº*! ´ë´ë!

There is no leg but movement. There is no shape but measurement.

¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°? ¯óþ¯ðþÐèþÇ°?

Babu! Papa! Babu! Papa! 260

Babu! Papa! Babu! Papa!

Who am I? Who am I? Who am I? Who am I?

Lesson 15

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : ´ër ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨ ™é™èþÄæý*Å! ™é™èþÄæý$Å: »êVæü$…§é? çÜÆóÿ! CMæü A…§æþÆæÿ* çÜ*PË$Mæü$ Ððþâæýå…yìþ.

The Song is very good, grandfather! Is it good? OK. All of you go to school now.

í³ËÏË$: çÜÆóÿ ™é™èþÄæý*Å!

OK grandfather!

™é™èþÄæý$Å: ´ë´ë! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ò$ C…sìýMìü Ððþâæý$å.

Papa! You go to your house.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

Hyø ™éÈMæü$¯èþ ©´ëÐèþã. B Æøk¯èþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ C…sZÏ E¯é²¯èþ$. ™öÑ$çø ™éÈMæü$¯èþ ç³È„æü.

G°Ñ$§ø ™éÈMæü$¯èþ ÆæÿÑ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa. çßýÇ Vøyæþ ç³MæüP¯èþ E¯é²yæþ$.

b. Expansion drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

Ðóþ$… AMæüPyæþ$¯é²… Ðóþ$… A…§æþÆæÿ… AMæüPyæþ$¯é²… 1. Ðóþ$… °¯èþ² CMæüPyæþ$¯é²…. 2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ¿êÆæÿ¡Äæý$$Ë…. 3. Ðóþ$… ™ðþË$Væü$Ðéâæýå….

¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ CMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>˱² CMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. Ò$ ÐèþçÜ$¢Ðèþ#Ë$ Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. 2. ÆæÿÑ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ AËÐèþ$ÆæÿÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$. 3. çÜ$Væü$×ý ºrtË$ ò³sñýtÌZ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. »êV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. 1. ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. 2. Ððþ™èþMæü…yìþ. 3. ^èþ*yæþ$.

ç³MæüPMæü$ fÆæÿ$Væü$. Mö…^ðþ… ç³MæüPMæü$ fÆæÿ$Væü$. 1. CÌê Ææÿ…yìþ. 2. AÌê Mæü*Æøa…yìþ. 3. CÌê ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. 261

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (v)

Model (vi)

ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… C…sZÏ Ìôý¯èþ$. ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… Ðèþ*{™èþÐóþ$ C…sZÏ Ìôý¯èþ$. 1. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ºËÏÒ$§æþ E¯é²Æÿ$$. 2. °¯èþ² ¯óþ¯èþ$ C…sZÏ E¯é²¯èþ$. 3. ÆæÿÑ E§æþÄæý$… C…sZÏ Ìôýyæþ$.

D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…ÌZ Ðèþ$…_ ´ërË$¯é²Æÿ$$. D ç³#çÜM¢ üæ …ÌZ ^éÌê Ðèþ$…_ ´ërË$¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. D AËÐèþ$ÆæÿÌZ _¯èþ² »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$¯é²Æÿ$$. 2. D ò³sñýtÌZ Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$. 3. D Væü¨ÌZ ´ë™èþ ÐèþçÜ$¢Ðèþ#Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$.

c. Response drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

C¨ ¯é MæüËÐèþ*? C¨ ± MæüË… M>§æþ$; CMæüPyæþ ± MæüË… Ìôý§æþ$. 1. A¨ ÔèýÆæÿà VæüyìþÄæý*ÆæÿÐèþ*? 2. A™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðé? 3. A¨ çÜ$ÖË MæüËÐèþ*?

¯érMæü… G°² Væü…rËMæü$? (BÆæÿ$¯èþ²Ææÿ) a) BÆæÿ$¯èþ²ÆæÿMæü$. b) BÆæÿ$ Væü…rË Ðèþ$$ò³O¹ °Ñ$ÚëËMæü$. 1. M>ÏçÜ$ G°² Væü…rËMæü$? (糨¯èþ²Ææÿ) 2. ºçÜ$Þ G°² Væü…rËMæü$? (Hyæþ$…»êÐèþ#) 3. ÆðÿOÌñý°² Væü…rËMæü$? (Æðÿ…yæþ$Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#)

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

ÆæÿÑ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$? HÐðþ*! GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yø! 1. çÜ$ÖË GMæüPyæþ$…¨? 2. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? 3. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$?

ÆæÿÑ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$? (C…sZÏ) C…sZÏ E¯é²yóþÐðþ*! 1. çÜ$ÖË GMæüPyæþ$…¨? (M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ) 2. Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $V>Ææÿ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (Væü¨ÌZ) 3. ç³#çÜM¢ >Ë$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? (ò³sñýÌt Z)

d. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ² C…sZϯóþ E¯é²¯èþ$. Ððþ$$¯èþ² ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþ$$¯èþ² C…sZϯóþ E¯é²¯èþ$. E§æþÄæý$… Ðèþ$«§éÅçßý²… ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ…

§é°Mìü Ææÿ*ç³… Ìôý§æþ$. MöË™èþ §é°Mìü MöË™èþ Ìôý§æþ$. ÔèýMìü¢ Ðóþyìþ Mæü§æþÍMæü 262

Lesson 15 Model (iii)

Model (v)

ÆæÿÑ C…sZÏ E¯é²yæþ$. Væü¨ ÆæÿÑ Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²yæþ$. Væü$yìþ íÜ°Ðèþ*àË$ FÆæÿ$

AMæüPyæþ Æðÿ…yæþ$ çÜ*Pâæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$. CË$Ï AMæüPyæþ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Câæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$. íÜ°Ðèþ*àË$ Væü$yìþ FÆæÿ$

Model (iv)

Model (vi)

C¨ ^éÌê ò³§æþª ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. Mö™èþ¢ C¨ ^éÌê Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ´ë™èþ Ðèþ$…_ _¯èþ²

çÜ*PË$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$å. Væü$yìþ Væü$yìþMìü Ððþâæý$å. ºÝët…yæþ$ CË$Ï FÆæÿ$

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions as shown in the models. Model (i)

çÜ$ÖË GMæüPyæþ$…¨? HÐðþ*! GMæüPyæþ$…§ø! 1. ÆæÿÐèþ$V>Ææÿ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ææÿ$?

2. ¯é »ŸÐèþ$à GMæüPyæþ$…¨? 3. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$? 4. ¯é M>Æÿ$$™éË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$?

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (iii)

çÜ$ÖË GMæüPyæþ$…¨? (Væü$…r*Ææÿ$) Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E…§óþÐðþ*! Vøí³ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$? (íÜ°Ðèþ*àË$) Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$? (Væü$yìþ) ÎË GMæüPyæþ$…¨? (CË$Ï) Ò$Ææÿ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (FÆæÿ$) 263

1. 2. 3. 4.

C¨ G…™èþ ò³§æþª ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…? C¨ ^éÌê ò³§æþª ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. A¨ G…™èþ ´ë™èþ ^öM>P? A™èþ¯èþ$ G…™èþ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$? ÆæÿÑ G…™èþ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$? Ò$ MæüË… G…™èþ Mö™èþ¢¨?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

b. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the model. . Model (i)

M>ÏçÜ$ 糨¯èþ²ÆæÿMæü$. 2. ÆðÿOË$ ™öÑ$è…»êÐèþ#Mæü$. M>ÏçÜ$ 糨 Væü…rË Ðèþ$$ò³üO ¹ °Ñ$ÚëËMæü$. 3. ºçÜ$Þ G°Ñ$¨Ðèþ$$ôëµÐèþ#Mæü$. 1. ¯érMæü… BÆæÿ$¯èþ²ÆæÿMæü$. 4. M>ÏçÜ$ 糧æþMö…yæþ$…»êÐèþ#Mæü$. c. Combine the following. .

Væü$yìþ + ÌZ = Væü$yìþ + Ë$ = íÜ°Ðèþ*àË$ + Ë$ = íÜ°Ðèþ*àË$ + ÌZ = Væü¨ÌZ + H = C§óþ + B =

FÆæÿ$ + Ë$ = FÆæÿ$ + ÌZ = CË$Ï + Ë$ = CË$Ï + ÌZ = Væü¨ÌZ + B? = C…sZÏ + B? =

d. Fill in the blanks with the correct words given in the parentheses as shown in the model... Model

1. 2. 3. 4.

çÜ$Væü$×ê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó &&&& Ððþâæý$å. (Væü¨) çÜ$Væü$×ê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü¨Mìü Ððþâæý$å. ÔèýÆ>Ã! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ* &&&& Æ>! (CË$Ï) ÔéÆæÿ§æþV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ &&&& Ððþâæýå…yìþ (çÜ*PË$) HÐèþ$…yîþ! Ò$Ææÿ$ &&&& fÆæÿVæü…yìþ (ç³MæüP) ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó &&&&&& Ððþâæý$å. (Væü$yìþ)

M>§æþ$ or Ìôý§æþ$. CMæüPyæþ ± MæüË… .......... 5. C¨ Væü$Ìê½ ç³#Ðèþ#Ó ......... 6. ± MæüË… ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ç³MæüP¯èþ ........ 7. D ò³sñýtÌZ ïÜÝë .......... 8.

e. Fill up the blanks with

1. 2. 3. 4.

264

D MæüË… ÔèýÆæÿè ......... Hyø ™éÈMæü$¯èþ ©´ëÐèþã .......... ÆæÿÑ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk Æóÿç³# ......... D Mæü$Èa ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü$MæüP .........

Lesson 15

VOCABULARY

´÷yæþ$ç³# Mæü£æþ a riddle ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… evening Væü$yìþ temple ¯érMæü… theatrical play Væü$âæý$å plural form of Væü$yìþ; temples Væü$âZå in the temple A…§æþÆæÿ… all of us íÜ°Ðèþ*àË$ cinema theatre Aº§æþ®… a lie; a false statement E§æþÄæý$… morning Ðèþ$«§éÅçßý²… afternoon HÐðþ* It is not known (See &K2 Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ »êV> &HÐðþ*

ÐèþçÜ$¢Ðèþ# Mö…^ðþ… ç³MæüP fÆæÿ$Væü$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# Mæü§æþÍMæü M>Ë$ MöË™èþ Ææÿ*ç³… G…yæþ Ðóþyìþ K1

15.1.3.) dubitative marker (See 15.1.) search (v) well, nicely (adv.) dubitative particle (See

V>Í ÔèýMìü¢ M>Ë…

15.1.2.) a thing; an article just; a little side (n) to move a side; to move a little to read; to study movement leg measurement shape (n) sun heat (n) O! (an address particle; see 15.11.) air; wind (n) energy time

GRAMMAR NOTES 15.1. In this lesson expression of doubt and uncertainty in a sentence by using the dubitative marker & K -ª, the dubittive particile &HÐðþ* -£mª and the dubitative word HÐðþ* £mª is introduced. These dubitative elements express a condition of not knowing, uncertainty and doubt. 15.1.1. The dubitative marker & K -ª is added to an interrogative sentence voluntarily to express unknownness or uncertainty in the matter, or in response to the same interrogative sentence to express unknownness and uncertainty. Consider the following sentences. 265

An Intensive Course in Telugu

A¨ GMæüPyæþ E…¨?

A¨ GMæüPyæþ E…§ø? (E…¨ + K)

adi ekka∂a uMdi? ‘Where is it?’

adi ekka∂a uMdª? (uMdi + ª [2.12.2.]) ‘It is not known/certain where it is.’

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆø! (GÐèþÆæÿ$ + K)

atanu evaru? ‘Who is he?’

atanu evarª! (evaru + ª [2.12.2.]) ‘It is not known/certain who he is.’

15.1.2. The dubitative particle &HÐðþ* -£mª is added to a declarative sentence to express a condition of not knowing or uncertainty.

A¨ AMæüPyæþ E…§óþÐðþ*? (E…¨ + HÐðþ*) adi akka∂a uMd£mª! (uMdi + £mª [2.12.2.]) ‘It might be there/ Perhaps it is there.’

A™èþ¯èþ$ Æ>gôýÐðþ*! (Æ>k + HÐðþ*) atanu r¡j£mª! (r¡ju + £mª [2.12.2.]) ‘Maybe, he is Raju.’ 15.1.3. The dubitative word HÐðþ* £mª is an independent word. It is used always in response to an interrogative sentence.

MæüË… GMæüPyæþ E…¨?

HÐðþ*!

kalaM ekka∂a uMdi? ‘Where is the pen?’

£mª ! ‘It is not known / I don’t know.’

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

HÐðþ*!

atanu evaru? ‘Who is he?’

£mª ! ‘It is not known / I don’t know.’

BÐðþ$ Ë™é? (Ë™èþ + B )

HÐðþ*!

¡me lat¡? (lata + ¡ [2.12.2.]) ‘Is she Lata?’

£mª ! ‘It is not known / I don’t know.’

15.2. Notice the contrast between the negative forms M>§æþ$ k¡du (3.4.) and Ìôý§æþ$ l£du (4.3.). 266

Lesson 15 15.2.1. M>§æþ$ k¡du is used to negate a verbless sentence and as a negative answer to a verbless interrogative sentence, i.e., the yes/no type question (3.4.).

C¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü….

C¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>§æþ$.

idi pustakaM. ‘This is a book.’

idi pustakaM k¡du. ‘This is not a book.’

C¨ ç³#çÜ¢MæüÐèþ*?.

C¨ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>§æþ$.

idi pustakaM¡? ‘Is this a book?’

idi pustakaM k¡du. ‘This is not a book.’

M>§æþ$ k¡du can also be used as a negative response to a sentence with verb to negate a particular word or a phrase in that sentence.

CMæüPyæþ

CMæüPyæþ ± MæüË… E…¨.

CMæüPyæþ M>§æþ$; AMæüPyæþ E…¨.

ikka∂a n• kalaM uMdi. ‘Your pen is here.’

ikka∂a k¡du; akka∂a uMdi. ‘Not here; it is there.’

In this response E…¨ uMdi, the verb, is not negated, but the word ikka∂a is negated.

CMæüPyæþ ÆæÿÑ MæüË… E…¨.

ÆæÿÑ MæüË… M>§æþ$; ¯é MæüË… E…¨.

ikka∂a ravi kalaM uMdi. ‘Ravi’s pen is here.’

ravi kalaM k¡du; n¡ kalaM uMdi. ‘Not Ravi’s pen; my pen is (here).’

Here the phrase

ÆæÿÑ MæüË… ravi kalaM is negated.

15.2.2. Ìôý§æþ$ l£du is used to negate the existential verb E…¨ uMdi (4.3.) and as a negative answer to a sentence having a verb, particularly while negating the verb.

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CMæüPyæþ E…¨. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$.

pustakaM ikka∂a uMdi. ‘The book is here.’ pustakaM ikka∂a l£du. ‘The book is not here.’

15.3. Recall the existential verb forms, both affirmative and negative, express past tense and present tense as well (7.5.). In this lesson some more examples of the existential verb in past tense are given. 267

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ² AMæüPyæþ E¯é²¯èþ$.

‘I was there yesterday.’

n£nu ninna akka∂a unn¡nu.

Ðóþ$… Ððþ$$¯èþ² AMæüPyæþ Ìôý….

‘We were not there day-beforeyesterday.’

m£M monna akka∂a l£M.

15.4. Trisyllabic bases which contain only short vowels are also introduced in this lesson. The second and third vowels of these bases are always E u. (The bases which contain three vowels are called trisyllabic bases.)

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# caduvu ‘to read’, Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ 15.4.1.

vetuku ‘to search’, etc.

Imperative (Imp.) forms of the trisyllabic bases are as follows:

Imp. Singular (bases without any suffix - see 8.2.2.) ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#! caduvu! ‘Read!’ Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$! vetuku! ‘Search!’ Imp. Plural & Honorific Singular (base + A…yìþ aM∂i - see 8.2.1.) ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# + A…yìþ = ^èþ§æþÐèþ…yìþ! caduvu + aM∂i = cadavaM∂i * ‘Please read!’ Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ + A…yìþ = Ððþ™èþMæü…yìþ! vetuku + aM∂i = vetakaM∂i* ‘Please search!’ Negative Imp. Singular (base +

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# + AMæü$ Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ + AMæü$

AMæü$

aku - see 8.1.) = ^èþ§æþÐèþMæü$! caduvu + aku = cadavaku* ‘Don’t read!’ = Ððþ™èþMæüMæü$! vetuku + aku = vetakaku* ‘Don’t search!’

Negative Imp. plural & honorific Singular (base + AMæü…yìþ akaM∂i - see 8.1.) ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# + AMæü…yìþ = ^èþ§æþÐèþMæü…yìþ! caduvu + akaM∂i = cadavakaM∂i* ‘Please don’t read!’ Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ + AMæü…yìþ = Ððþ™èþMæüMæü…yìþ! vetuku + akaM∂i = vetakakaM∂i* ‘Plese don’t search!’ * For sandhi involved in these forms see 2.12.2. and 15.5.1. caduvu + aM∂i = caduv-aM∂i (as per 2.12.2.) and cadav-aM∂i (as per 15.5.1.) 15.5.

Notice the following sandhi processes.

15.5.1. The trisyllabic bases containing only short vowels (15.4.) change their second vowel E u to A a when followed by a suffix beginning with A 268

Lesson 15 a or

B ¡. (Suffixes beginning with B ¡ will be introduced later.) ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# + A…yìþ = ^èþ§æþ$ÐŒþ&A…yìþ (2.12.2.) ^èþ§æþÐèþ…yìþ ‘Please read!’ caduvu + aM∂i = caduv-aM∂i = cadav-aM∂i Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ + AMæü$ = Ððþ™èþ$MŠü&AMæü$ (2.12.2.) = Ððþ™èþMæüMæü$ ‘Don’t search!’ vetuku + aku = vetuk-aku = vetak-aku

15.5.2.

Væü$yìþ + Ë$ = Væü$yæþ$&Ë$

15.5.3.

yìþ + ÌZ (locative case marker 4.5.) = âZå

(5.7.1.) gu∂i + lu = gu∂u-lu = gu˚˚u

= Væü$âæý$å

‘temples’

∂i + lª = ˚˚ª

Væü$yìþ + ÌZ = Væü$âZå gu∂i + lª = gu˚˚ª ‘in the temple’ Recall FâZå ¶˚˚ª ‘in the town’(13.10) and C…sZÏ iM lª ‘in the house’ (13.16). 15.5.4. Recall the sandhi involved in forms like Mæü$Èa¯é kurc•n¡ ‘Is it a chair?’ (8.15.2.). Similar sandhi is involved in forms like the following:

Væü¨ÌZ¯é? (Væü¨ÌZ + B) gadilªn¡ (gadilª + ¡) = ‘Is it in the room?’ C…sZϯóþ (C…sZÏ + H) iM lªn£ (iM lª + £) = ‘In the house only.’ 15.6.

Notice the use of the dative case suffix in the following sentences.

15.6.1.

¯érMæü… G°² Væü…rËMæü$?

‘At what time is the play?’ n¡ akaM enni gaM alaku? ¯óþ¯èþ$ BÆæÿ$ Væü…rËMæü$ C…sZϯóþ E¯é²¯èþ$ ‘I was at home at 6 o’clock.’ n£nu ¡ru gaM alaku iM lªn£ unn¡nu. This is a type of locative case, i.e., location of time scale.

15.6.2.

çÜ*PË$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$å. sk¶luku ve˚˚u ‘Go to school.’ Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>. m¡ iM iki r¡ ‘Come to my house.’ Mö…^ðþ… ç³MæüPMæü$ fÆæÿ$Væü$. koMceM pakkaku jarugu ‘Move aside a little.’ 269

An Intensive Course in Telugu The noun denoting destination or goal takes dative case suffix. Motion verbs such as Æ> r¡ ‘come’, Ððþâæý$å ve˚˚u ‘go’, fÆæÿ$Væü$ jarugu ‘move a little’ take a noun of destination or goal which will be in dative case.

&¯èþ -na is a locative case marker used with some nouns like &ç³MæüP 15.7. -pakka ‘side’, ™éÈMæü$ t¡r•ku ‘day (in a month)’, Æøk rªju ‘day’, etc. ç³MæüP¯èþ pakkana ‘on the side of’ (See 4.6.); BÆø ™éÈMæü$¯èþ ¡rª t¡r•kuna. ‘on the sixth’; B Æøk¯èþþ¡ rªjuna. ‘on that day’ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÑ ç³MæüP¯èþ Mæü*Æøa. nuvvu ravi pakkana k¶rcª. ‘You sit by side of Ravi.’ ïÜ™èþ ç³#sìýt¯èþÆøk BÆø ™éÈMæü$¯èþ. s•ta pu  inarªju ¡rª t¡r•kuna. ‘Sita’s birthday is on 6th.’ B Æøk¯èþ ©´ëÐèþã. ¡ rªjuna d•p¡va˚i. ‘It was Deepavali on that day. 15.8. »êV> b¡g¡ ‘well; nicely’ is a qualitative adverb and ‘very’ (lesson 13) is a quantitative adverb.

^éÌê c¡l¡

»êV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. b¡g¡ caduvu. ‘Read well.’ »êV> Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$. b¡g¡ vetuku. ‘Search well (thoroughly).’ C¨ ^éÌê _¯èþ² Væü¨. idi c¡l¡ cinna gadi. ‘This is very small room.’ ´ër ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨. p¡ a c¡l¡ b¡guMdi. ‘The song is very good.’ Notice the use of the emphatic marker &H -£ (3.3) in sentences

15.9. like the following.

Ðéyæþ$ C…sZϯóþ E¯é²yæþ$.

‘He is in the house itself.’

v¡∂u iM lªn£ unn¡∂u.

MæüË… ò³sñýtÌZ¯óþ E…¨.

‘The pen is in the box itself.’

kalaM pe  elªn£ uMdi. 15.10. The words beginning with the vowels C D G H i • e£ are always pronounced with an initial ÄŒý$ y. Similarly, words beginning with vowels E F 270

Lesson 15

J K u ¶ o ª are pronounced with an initial ÐŒþ v. In writing, however, the initial ÄŒý$ y ÐŒþ v are used optionally. MæüË… ò³sñýtÌZ¯óþ E…¨/Ðèþ#…¨. ‘The pen is in the box itself.’ kalaM pe  elªn£ uMdi/vuMdi

Ðéyæþ$ C…sZϯóþ/Æÿ$$…sZϯóþ E¯é²yæþ$.

‘He is in the house itself.’

v¡∂u iM lªn£/yiM lªn£ unn¡∂u. 15.11. K ª is an address particle used before a noun denoting the person/ thing being addressed.

K ´ë´ë! ª p¡p¡! K »êº*! ª b¡b¶!

Oh! Papa! Oh! Babu!

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UNIT III Lesson 16

Ò$Mæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ?

WHAT DO YOU WANT?

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : HÐèþ$…yîþ! Ò$Mæü$ sìý휯Œþ H… M>ÐéÍ?

Sir, What tiffin do you want?

ÔèýÆæÿà : Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å M>ÐéÍ. ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ sìý휯Œþ.

First I need water. Then only tiffin.

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : CÑVø, Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å. CMæüPyóþ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

Water is here.

ÔèýÆæÿà : D ±âæý$å ^èþËÏV> ÌôýÐèþ#.

This water is not cold.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: sìý휯Œþ HÐèþ$$…¨?

What tiffin is available?

272

Lesson 16

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : CyîþÏ ç³NÈ Ñ$¯èþç³r*t ò³çÜÆæÿr*t E¯é²Æÿ$$.

There are idli, puri, minapattu, pesarattu and upma.

f¯èþ™éíÜ…VŠü: CyîþÏ ÐóþyìþV> E…§é?

Is idlli hot?

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : Ìôý§æþ…yîþ. ç³NÈ ÐóþyìþV> E…¨. Ñ$¯èþç³r*t ò³çÜÆæÿr*t Mæü*yé ÐóþyìþV> E¯é²Æÿ$$.

No sir. Puri is hot. Minapattu and pesarattu are also hot.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: H… f¯èþ™éíÜ…VŠü! ±Mæü$ Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>ÐéÌê? ò³çÜÆæÿr$t M>ÐéÌê?

Hey Janatasing! Do you want minapattu or pesarattu?

f¯èþ™éíÜ…VŠü : ¯éMæü$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðóþyìþ ò³çÜÆæÿr$Ï M>ÐéÍ. Ñ$¯èþç³r$t J§æþ$ª. ±Móü… M>ÐéÍ Ðèþ$–™èþ$Å…fÄŒý$?

I want two hot pesarattus but not minapattu. What do you want Mrutyunjay?

Ðèþ$–™èþ$Å…fÄŒý$ : ¯éMæü$ CyîþÏ M>ÐéÍ.

I want idli.

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : CyîþÏ ^èþËÏV> E¯èþ²§æþ…yîþ.

Idli is cold, sir.

Ðèþ$–™èþ$Å…fÄŒý$ : AÆÿ$$™óþ E´ëà M>ÐéÍ.

Then I want upma.

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : Ò$Móü… M>ÐéÍ?

What do you want, sir?

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: ¯éMæü$ ´ëË$ M>ÐéÍ.

I want milk.

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : ´ëË$ ÌôýÐèþ…yîþ. M>ïœ E…¨; sîý E…¨. »ZÆæÿ²Òsê Mæü*yé E¯èþ²¨. ÒsìýÌZ Ò$Móü… M>ÐéÍ?

Milk is not available, sir. Coffee and tea are available. Bournvita is also available. What do you want among these?

273

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Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: ¯éMæü$ HÒ$ Ðèþ§æþ$ª. ´ëÌôý M>ÐéÍ. çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : ´ëË$ ÌôýÐèþ…yîþ.

I don't want anything. I want milk. Milk is not available, sir.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: AÆÿ$$™óþ ^èþËÏ° Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å M>ÐéÍ.

Then I need only cold water.

ÔèýÆæÿÃ

The drinking water available in this hotel is not cold. All of us are here. Then who is there in the class?

: D ßç ZrÌZÏ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å ^èþËÏV> ÌôýÐèþ#.

Ðèþ$–™èþ$Å…fÄŒý$ : Ðèþ$¯èþ… A…§æþÆæÿ… CMæüPyóþ E¯é²…. Ðèþ$Ç M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$: GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. B M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Ò$§æþ G{ÆæÿV> E…¨: HÑ$r¨? ÔèýÆæÿà : A¨ JMæü Ððþ*yæþÆæÿ¯Œþ ò³Æÿ$$…sìý…VŠü.

Nobody is there. Something is reddish on that paper. What is it? It is a modern painting.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

¯éMæü$ ´ëË$ M>ÐéÍ; M>ïœ J§æþ$ª. Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å E¯é²Äæý*? ÌôýÐèþ#. Ðèþ$–™èþ$Å…fÄŒý$Mæü$ ò³çÜÆæÿr$t M>ÐéÍ; Ò$ C…sZÏ ´ëË$ E¯é²Äæý*? Ñ$¯èþç³r$t J§æþ$ª. Ðèþ* C…sZÏ ´ëË$ ÌôýÐèþ…yîþ. C¨ Ðóþyìþ M>ïœ. D M>ïœ ÐóþyìþV> E…¨. A¨ ™ðþËÏ ç³#Ðèþ#Ó. B ç³#Ðèþ#Ó ™ðþËÏV> E…¨. C¨ ^èþËÏ° M>ïœ. D M>ïœ ^èþËÏV> E…¨. b. Build-up drill

M>ÐéÍ. H… M>ÐéÍ? Ò$Mæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? HÐèþ$…yîþ! Ò$Móü… M>ÐéÍ?

J§æþ$ª Ñ$¯èþç³r$t J§æþ$ª. Ðóþyìþ Ñ$¯èþç³r$t J§æþ$ª. ¯éMæü$ Ðóþyìþ Ñ$¯èþç³r$t J§æþ$ª. 274

E¯é²Äæý*? ™ðþËÏV> E¯é²Äæý*? M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ™ðþËÏV> E¯é²Äæý*? B M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ™ðþËÏV> E¯é²Äæý*?

Lesson 16

c. Substitution drill Model (i)

¯éMæü$ CyîþÏ M>ÐéÍ. ´ëË$ ¯éMæü$ ´ëË$ M>ÐéÍ. ò³çÜÆæÿr$t E´ëà M>ïœ Model (ii)

¯éMæü$ Ðèþ$ÌñýÏç³NË$ J§æþ$ª. Væü$Ìê½ç³NË$ ¯éMæü$ Væü$Ìê½ç³NË$ J§æþ$ª. ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ç³NÈ Ðóþyìþ ´ëË$

íÜÓÑ$Ã…VŠü ç³NÌŒýÌZ ±âæý$Ï ÌôýÐèþ# ÝëÆŠÿ! There is no water in the swimming pool, sir!

d. Response drill Model (i)

Ò$Móü… M>ÐéÍ. (M>ïœ) ¯éMæü$ M>ïœ M>ÐéÍ. 1. ÆæÿÑMóü… M>ÐéÍ? (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…) 2. ¯éMóü… M>ÐéÍ? (VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…) 3. Ðèþ$¯èþMóü… M>ÐéÍ? (ò³çÜÆæÿr$Ï) Model (ii)

Model (iii)

CyîþÏ ÐóþyìþV> E…¨; ç³NÈ ^èþËÏV> E…¨. AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯éMæü$ CyîþÏ M>ÐéÍ. 1. ³ç NÈ ^èþËÏV> E…¨; ò³Üç Ææÿr$t ÐóþyìþV> E…¨. 2. M>ïœ ^èþËÏV> E…¨; sîý ÐóþyìþV> E…¨. 3. E´ëà ÐóþyìþV> E…¨; CyîþÏ ^èþËÏV> E…¨.

±Mæü$ CyîþÏ M>ÐéÌê? ç³NÈ M>ÐéÌê? ¯éMæü$ CyîþÏ M>ÐéÍ; ç³NÈ J§æþ$ª. 1. ±Mæü$ sîý M>ÐéÌê? M>ïœ M>ÐéÌê? 2. ÆæÿÑMìü ºËÏ M>ÐéÌê? Mæü$Èa M>ÐéÌê? 3. Ò$Mæü$ ´ëË$ M>ÐéÌê? M>ïœ M>ÐéÌê?

275

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (iv)

Model (v)

Ò$Mæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? Ñ$¯èþç³sêt ò³çÜÆæÿsêt? CÑ M>Æÿ$$™éË$. ¯éMæü$ HÒ$ J§æþ$ª. ÒsìýÌZ JMæüsìý ¯éMæü$ M>ÐéÍ. 1. Ò$Mæü$ H¨ M>ÐéÍ? MæüËÐèþ* M>Æÿ$$™èþÐèþ*? 1. CÑ Væü$Ìê½ ç³NË$. 2. Ò$Mæü$ GÐèþÆæÿ$ M>ÐéÍ? sîý^èþÆ> {í³°Þ´ëÌê? 2. CÑ Ðèþ* ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. 3. Ò$Mæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? ´ëÌê Ðèþ$…_±âêå? 3. AÑ Mö™èþ¢ Mæü$ÈaË$. e. Transformation drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

CMæüPyæþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ìôý§æþ$. CMæüPyæþ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. 1. CMæüPyæþ Ñ$¯èþç³r$t Ìôý§æþ$. 2. AMæüPyæþ Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ^ðþr$t Ìôý§æþ$. 3. Ðèþ* C…sZÏ ò³çÜÆæÿr$t Ìôý§æþ$.

¯éMæü$ M>ïœ M>ÐéÍ. ¯éMæü$ M>ïœ J§æþ$ª. 1. ¯éMæü$ ÆæÿÑ M>ÐéÍ. 2. ÆæÿÑMìü ò³çÜÆæÿr$t M>ÐéÍ. 3. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>ÇMìü sîý M>ÐéÍ.

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

CÑ Ðóþyìþ ò³çÜÆæÿr$Ï. D ò³çÜÆæÿr$Ï ÐóþyìþV> E¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. CÑ ™ðþËÏ M>Æÿ$$™éË$. 2. AÑ BMæü$ç³^èþa »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$. 3. CÑ ^èþËÏ° ´ëË$.

CMæüPyæþ Mæü$ÈaË$ E¯é²-Æÿ$$. CMæüPyæþ Mæü$ÈaË$ ÌôýÐèþ#. 1. CMæüPyæþ ±âæý$å E¯é²-Æÿ$$. 2. D V>ÏçÜ$ÌZ ´ëË$ E¯é²-Æÿ$$. 3. D Væü¨ÌZ Ðèþ$…_-±âæý$å E¯é²-Æÿ$$.

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions using the cue words given in the parentheses.

1. 2. 3. 4.

ÆæÿÑMìü H… M>ÐéÍ? (Mö™èþ¢ MæüË…) çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? (Væü$Ìê½ç³NË$) Ò$Mæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? (ò³çÜÆæÿr$t) ´ëç³Mæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? (´ëË$) 276

Lesson 16

b. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model (i)

Ò$Mæü$ Væü$Ìê½ç³NË$ M>ÐéÌê? (Ðèþ$ÌñýÏç³NË$) ¯éMæü$ Væü$Ìê½ç³NË$ J§æþ$ª; Ðèþ$ÌñýÏç³NË$ J§æþ$ª. 1. Ò$Mæü$ CyîþÏ M>ÐéÌê? (ò³çÜÆæÿr$t) 2. ÆæÿÑMìü M>ïœ M>ÐéÌê? (´ëË$) 3. Ò$Mæü$ sìý휯Œþ M>ÐéÌê? (M>ïœ) 4. ÆæÿÑMìü ´ë™èþ MæüË… M>ÐéÌê? (Mö™èþ¢ MæüË…) c. Fill in the blanks with Ìôý§æþ$/ÌôýÐèþ#.

1. Ðèþ* C…sZÏ M>ïœ _____. 2. Ò$ C…sZÏ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å _____. 3. Òâæýå C…sZÏ ´ëË$ _____.

4. Ðéâæýå C…sZÏ sîý _____. 5. ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ç…sZÏ Ðèþ$ÌñýÏ^ðþr$t _____.

d. Change the following sentences using the adverbs of the corresponding adjectives.

1. CÑ ^èþËÏ° ´ëË$. 2. AÑ ™ðþËÏ ç³NË$.

3. A¨ Ðóþyìþ M>ïœ. 4. A¨ G{Ææÿ ^öM>P.

e. Produce atleast 10 sentences from the following table taking one item from each column at a time.

ÆæÿÑ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# Ðèþ* A»ê¾Æÿ$$ ¯é ±

Mæü$ Mìü

G{Ææÿþ ^èþËÏ° Ðóþyìþ

277

ç³NË$ ´ëË$ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å CyîþÏ

M>ÐéÍ J§æþ$ª

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

M>ÐéÍþ is/are wanted/required çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ server; waiter sìý휯Œþ tiffin; a refreshment Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ firstly; at first Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å drinking water ±âæý$å water ^èþËÏV> cold (adv.) &V> an adverbial marker CyîþÏ idli; cake made of rice and ç³NÈ Ñ$¯èþç³r$t ò³çÜÆæÿr$t

baked on steam poori; a light flat cake wheet fried in deep fat a pancake made of black gram a pancake made of green gram.

E´ëÃ

upma; cooked coarse wheet flour or soojee used as an item for tiffin ÐóþyìþV> hot (adv.) Ðóþyìþ hot (adj.) J§æþ$ª is/are not required ´ëË$ milk sîý tea »ZÆæÿ²Òsê name of a patent health drink product 'Bournvita' ^èþËÏ° cold/cool (adj.) çßZrÌŒý a hotel íÜÓÑ$…VŠü ç³NÌŒý a swimming pool G{ÆæÿV> red (adv.) Ððþ*yæþÆæÿ¯Œþ ò³Æÿ$$…sìý…VŠü a modern painting

GRAMMAR NOTES 16.1. In this lesson the defective verb M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li ‘is/are wanted/ needed' is introduced. The defective verbs do not show any concord with the subject. The subject of a defective verb will normally be in dative case in Telugu. That is, the subject takes the suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/ -ki (13.1.). ¯éMæü$ MæüË… M>ÐéÍ. ‘I want a pen.’ n¡ku kalaM k¡v¡li. I-dative pen is wanted. (to-me pen is wanted) ¯éMæü$ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å M>ÐéÍ. ‘I want water.’ n¡ku maMcin•˚˚u k¡v¡li. I-dative drinking water is wanted/needed. (to me drinking water is wanted/needed) 278

Lesson 16

Ðèþ*Mæü$ MæüË… M>ÐéÍ. m¡ku kalaM k¡v¡li. ‘We want a pen.’ Ðèþ$¯èþMæü$ V>Í M>ÐéÍ. manaku g¡li k¡v¡li. ‘We need air.’ ±Mæü$ ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … M>ÐéÍ. n•ku pustakaM k¡v¡li. ‘You want a book.’ Ò$Mæü$ E§øÅVæü… M>ÐéÍ. m•ku udyªgaM k¡v¡li. ‘You need a job.’ ÐéyìþMìü ´ëË$ M>ÐéÍ. v¡∂iki p¡lu k¡v¡li. ‘He wants milk.’ A™èþ°Mìü M>ïœ M>ÐéÍ. ataniki k¡f• k¡v¡li. ‘He wants coffee.’ BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ sîý M>ÐéÍ. ¡yanaku  • k¡v¡li. ‘He wants tea.’ BÐðþ$Mæü$ sìý휯Œþ M>ÐéÍ. ¡meku  ifin k¡v¡li. ‘She wants tiffin.’ ÐéâæýåMæü$ MæüÌêË$ M>ÐéÍ. v¡˚˚aku kal¡lu k¡v¡li.‘They want pens.’ §é°Mìü G…yæþ M>ÐéÍ. d¡niki eM∂a k¡v¡li. ‘It needs sunshine.’ ÐésìýMìü ±âæý$å M>ÐéÍ. v¡ iki n•˚˚u k¡v¡li. ‘They need water.’ 16.2. J§æþ$ª oddu 'is/are not wanted' is the negative form of M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li. All the conditions given in 16.1. above are also applicable to J§æþ$ª oddu. ’ ¯éMæü$ MæüË… J§æþ$ª. n¡ku kalaM oddu. ‘I don't want a pen.' ±Mæü$ MæüË… J§æþ$ª. n•ku kalaM oddu. ‘You don't want a pen.' A™èþ°Mìü MæüË… J§æþ$ª. ataniki kalaM oddu. ‘He doesn't want a pen.' 16.3. M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li and J§æþ$ª oddu function like verbs but they do not exhibit all the properties of the verbs. For example, they are not conjugated for all the tenses/modes/aspects. They do not exhibit the concord for persongender-number of the subject, unlike the existential verb E¯é²¯èþ$ unn¡nu, E¯é²… unn¡M, E¯é²Ðèþ# unn¡vu, E¯é²Ææÿ$ unn¡ru, E¯é²yæþ$ unn¡∂u, E…¨ uMdi, etc. Hence these verbs are called defective verbs. 16.4. Notice the length of the final vowel (inclusive marker, 7.9.) in sentences like the following: ¯éMæü$ HÒ$ J§æþ$ª. 'I don't want anything.' or n¡ku £m• oddu. 'I want nothing.' M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. 'There is nobody in the class.' kl¡sulª evar¶ l£ru.

279

An Intensive Course in Telugu The lengthening of the final vowel of an interrogative word and the use of a negative verb along with it, denote something which we can equate with the English expressions like nothing, nobody, nowhere, etc. AMæüPyæþ HÒ$ Ìôý§æþ$. 'Nothing is there.' akka∂a £m• l£du. ÆæÿÑMìü HÒ$ J§æþ$ª. 'Nothing is required to Ravi.' raviki £m• oddu. AMæüPyæþ GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. 'Nobody is there.' akka∂a evar¶ l£ru. ± MæüË… D Væü¨ÌZ GMæüPyé Ìôý§æþ$. 'Your pen is nowhere in this room.' n• kalaM • gadilª ekka∂¡ l£du.

HÒ$ £m• is the combination of the inclusive marker (7.9.) and the 16.5. interrogative word H… £M (9.12.). The interrogative word HÑ$sìý £mi i does not take the inclusive marker. In the context where [HÑ$sìý £mi i + inclusive marker] has to be used [H… £M + inclusive marker] is used. sentences like the A¨ HÑ$sìý? adi £miti? HÒ$ Ìôý§æþ$. £m• l£du. (H… £M + inclusive marker) &V> g¡ is the adverbial marker.

16.6. some abstract nouns to form adverbs.

'What is that?' 'Nothing.' It is added to adjectives and to

Ðóþyìþ v£∂i 'heat (n); hot (adj.)' ÐóþyìþV> v£∂ig¡ 'hot (adv.)' ™ðþËÏ tella 'white (adj.)' ™ðþËÏV> tellag¡ 'white (adv.)' G{Ææÿ erra 'red (adj.)' G{ÆæÿV> errag¡ 'red (adv.)' ^èþÍ cali 'chill (n) (Lesson 8)' ^èþÍV> calig¡ 'chilly (adv.) (Lesson 8)' A¨ Ðóþyìþ M>ïœ. adi v£∂i k¡f•. 'That is hot coffee.' B M>ïœ ÐóþyìþV> E…¨. ¡ k¡f• v£∂ig¡ uMdi. 'That coffee is hot.' Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ Ðóþyìþ GMæü$PÐèþ. guM ¶ru˚ª v£∂i ekkuva. 'Heat is more in Guntur.' A¨ ™ðþËÏ ^öM>P. adi tella cokk¡. 'That is a white shirt.' B ^öM>P ™ðþËÏV> E…¨. ¡ cokk¡ tellag¡ uMdi. 'That shirt is white.' 280

Lesson 16

^èþËÏV> callag¡ is formed by adding the adverbial marker &V> g¡ to the adjective ^èþËÏ calla 'cold'. But the word ^èþËÏ calla is not used in modern Telugu. Instead, ^èþËÏ° callani 'cold (adj.)' is used in its place. . ^èþËÏ° M>ïœ callani k¡f• 'cold coffee' D M>ïœ ^èþËÏV> E…¨. • k¡f• callag¡ uMdi. 'This coffee is cold.' 16.8. Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å maMci n•˚˚u 'drinking water', ±âæý$å n•˚˚u 'water', and ´ëË$ p¡lu 'milk' behave like plural nouns in Telugu. That is, they take plural

16.7.

verbs in the sentences.

AMæüPyæþ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$.

'There is drinking water.'

akka∂a maMcin•˚˚u unn¡yi.

íÜÓÑ$…VŠüç³NÌZÏ ±âæý$å ÌôýÐèþ# ÝëÆŠÿ!.

'There is no water in the swimiMg p¶llª n•˚˚u l£vu s¡r!. swimming pool, sir!' D ïÜÝëÌZ ´ëË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$. 'There is milk in this bottle.' • s•s¡lª p¡lu unn¡yi.

281

UNIT III Lesson 17

±Mæü$ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$

YOU DON'T NEED SUGAR

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : H… M>ÐéË…yîþ?

What do you want, sir?

Ðèþ$à´ë{™èþ : ¯éMæü$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ñ$¯èþç³r$Ï M>ÐéÍ.

I want three minapattus.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ñ$¯èþç³sêÏ?

Three minapattus!

Ðèþ$à. : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. D çßZrÌZÏ Ñ$¯èþç³r$t ^éÌê _¯èþ²¨. ¯éMæü$ JMæüsîý Æðÿ…yæþ* ^éËÐèþ#.

Yes. The minapattu in this hotel is very small. One or two are not sufficient for me.

A…fÄæý$Å : Üç Æóÿ! BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ñ$¯èþ³ç r$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! Ðèþ*Mæü$ M>ïœ; ´ëç³Mæü$ ´ëË$.

Alright. Bring three minapattus for him; coffee for us, and milk for the child.

282

Lesson 17

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : D ´ëç³ Ò$ AÐèþ*ÃÄæý*?

Is this child your daughter?

A…fÄæý$Å : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Yes.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : ´ë´ë! ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$rÐèþ*Ã?

What is your name, dear?

´ëç³ : gZņ.

Jyothi.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Ðèþ$…_ õ³Ææÿ$.

A nice name.

A…fÄæý$Å : Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$V>Ææÿ*! Ò$¨ çßýÆ>ůé Mæü§æþ*! Ò$ FÇ°…_ CMæüPyìþMìü G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…?

Mr. Ratiram! You are from Haryana. Aren't you? How many days' journey is it from your place to this place? It is two nights and three days' journey, sir!

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : Æðÿ…yæþ$ Æ>{†âæý$å Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ç³Væüâæýå {ç³Äæý*×ýÐèþ$…yîþ! A…fÄæý$Å : AÆÿ$$™óþ Ò$ FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ ^éÌê §æþ*ÆæÿÐèþ$¯èþ²Ðèþ*r!

So, your place is far from here!

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ! §é§éç³# ÐðþÆÿ$$Å Ððþ$Oâýæ $å. çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ G°Ñ$¨ Ðèþ…§æþË G¯èþ¿ñýO Ðð þ $O â æ ý $å Æð ÿ O Ë $ {ç ³ Äæ ý *×ý…. AMæüP×ìý~…_ ¯èþ*r CÆæÿÐðþO Ððþ$Oâæý$å ºçÜ$Þ {ç³Äæý*×ý…. A…fÄæý$Å : Ðèþ$à´ë{™èþ V>Ææÿ*! Ò$ FÆæÿ$ JÇÝëÞÌZ E…¨ Mæü§æþ*!

Yes, sir! It's about thousand miles. The train journey is about eight hundred and eighty miles. After that, it is one hundred and twenty miles by bus. Mr. Mahapatra! Your native place is in Orissa. Isn't it?

Ðèþ$à´ë{™èþ : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ.

Yes, sir! 283

An Intensive Course in Telugu

A…fÄæý$Å : Ò$ FÇMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…?

What is the distance to your place from here?

çÐèþ$à´ë{™èþ : ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýO JMæüP Ððþ$Oâýæ $å.

Four hundred and ninetyone miles.

A…fÄæý$Å : Æðÿ…yæþ$ ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ýÐèþ*?

Is it two days' journey?

Ðèþ$à´ë{™èþ : Æðÿ…yæþ$ ÆøkË$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ…yîþ! JMæü Æ>{¡ JMæü ç³VæüË* ^éË$. çßýÈ! Ò$ FÇMì ü CMæ ü P×ì ý ~ … _ G…™è þ §æþ*Ææÿ…?

We don't need two days, sir! It is only a night and a day. Hari! How far is your place from here?

çßýÇ : çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË MìüÌZÒ$rÆæÿ$Ï. ÆðÿOÌŒýõÜtçÙ¯Œþ °…_ C…sìýMìü JMæü MìüÌZÒ$rÆæÿ$.

About three hundred kilometers, and one kilometer for my house from the railway station. What is the fare?

Ðèþ$à´ë{™èþ : sìýMðüPr$t G…™èþ? Ðèþ$*Ç¢ : çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ ¯èþ*rÄæý*¿ñýO Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$. Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : A…fÄæý$ÅV>Ææÿ*! Ò$ FÇMìü G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…?

Roughly one hundred and fifty rupees. Mr. Anjayya! How many days' journey to your place?

A…fÄæý$Å : Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ C§óþ!

This itself is my home-town.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : AÌêV>! AÆÿ$$™óþ, Ò$ C…sìýMìü G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…?

I see! How far is your house?

A…fÄæý$Å : GMæüP×ìý~…^èþ…yîþ!

From where, sir?

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : CMæüP×ìý~…^óþ¯èþ…yîþ!

From here. 284

Lesson 17

A…fÄæý$Å : ^éÌê §æþVæüYÆæÿ. çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ JMæü çœÆ>Ï…Væü$. çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : C§æþ$Vø¯èþ…yîþ M>ïœ. ´ë´ë, CÑVø ±Mæü$ ´ëË$.

It's very near. About a furlong.

Ðèþ$à´ë{™èþ : Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$! M>ïœ GÌê E…¨? »êVæü$¯èþ²§é?

Ratiram! How is the coffee? Is it good?

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : »êV> Ìôý§æþ$. ^óþ§æþ$V> E¯èþ²¨. HÐèþ$Ðèþ*Ã! ´ëË$ »êVæü$¯é²Äæý*?

It's not good. It is bitter. Is the milk good, dear?

´ëç³ : †Äæ ý $ÅV> Ìô ý Ðè þ …yî þ ! E¯é²Æÿ$$.

^è þ ç ³ µV>

It's not sweet, sir! It is insipid.

A…fÄæý$Å : HÐèþ$Äæý*Å! C¨ M>é? MæüÚëÄæý$Ðèþ*?

Hey, you! Is this coffee or decoction?

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : H§æþ…yîþ?

Which one, sir?

A…fÄæý$Å : C§óþ¯èþÄæý*Å! C…™èþ ^óþ§æþ$V> E…§óþ…? ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ Ìôý§é Ò$ çßZrÌZÏ?

This one! Why is this so bitter? Don't you have sugar in your hotel?

°…VæüÄæý$Å : ¯éMæü$ »êV>¯óþ E…¨.

It's all right for me.

A…fÄæý$Å : ±Mæü$ ^óþ§æþ$ M>ïœ AËÐér$. ±Mæü$ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. ¯éMæü$ M>ÐéÍ.

It is your habit to have coffee without sugar. You may not need sugar. But I need it.

°…VæüÄæý$Å : ¯éMæü$ ¡í³ AËÐér$ Ìôý§æþ$.

I am not accustomed to sweets.

285

Here is coffee, sir! Papa! This milk is for you.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

´ëç³ : ¯éMæü$ Mæü*yé M>ÐéÍ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ.

I too need sugar.

A…fÄæý$Å : çÜÆóÿ¯èþÐèþ*Ã!

All right, my dear

çÜÆæÿÓÆŠÿ : C§æþ$Vø¯èþ…yîþ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ.

Here is sugar, sir!

A…fÄæý$Å : A…™èþ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $. çÜVæü… ^éË$.

I don't need that much sugar. Half of it is sufficient.

´ëç³ : ¯éMæü$ Mæü*yé A…™èþ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; çÜVæü… ^éË$.

I too don't need that much. Half of it is fine.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : ¯éMæü$ çÜVæü… ^é˧æþ$.

Half of it is not enough for me.

A…fÄæý$Å : C糚yæþ$ »êVæü$…¨.

Now it is good.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨.

It's very good, indeed. .

G…™èþ ^ðþr$t Mæü…™èþ V>Í The larger the tree, the greater the breeze.

286

Lesson 17

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

D M>íœ C…™èþ ^óþ§æþ$V> E…§óþ…? ¯éMæü$ ^óþ§æþ$ M>ïœ AËÐér$; ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. ÆæÿÑMìü Æðÿ…yóþâæý$å. A™èþ°Mìü ºçÜ$ÞÌZ sìýMðüPr$t AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ^óþ§æþ$V> E¯èþ²¨; ¯éMö§æþ$ª. D sîý »êV>Ìôý§æþ$; ¯éMö§æþ$ª. Ò$ FÇMìü sìýMðüPr$t G…™èþ? ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ BÆæÿ$ ç³NË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$; ±Mæü$ G°² M>ÐéÍ? BÆæÿ$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ^éË$. ±Mæü$ C…™èþ M>ïœ M>ÐéÌê? ¯éMæü$ A…™èþ M>ïœ AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $; çÜVæü… ^éË$. ¯éMæü$ A…™èþ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; C…™èþ ^éË$. G…™èþ ^ðþr$tMæü$ A…™èþ V>Í. ÆæÿÒ! M>ïœ »êVæü$¯èþ²§é? »êV>¯óþ E…§æþ…yîþ!

D M>ïœ ¯éMæü$ ^é˧æþ$. D ´ëË$ ¯éMæü$ ^éËÐèþ#. CMæüP×ìý~…_ Ò$ C…sìýMìü G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ Ðèþ* FÇMìü Æðÿ…yæþ$ ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…. òßýO{§é»ê§æþ$ °…_ Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ BÆæÿ$ Ðèþ…§æþË AÆæÿÐðþ¯O éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâýæ $å. CMæüP×ìý~…_ Ò$ FÆæÿ$ G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? CMæüP×ìý~…_ Ò$ FÇMìü G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ çœÆ>Ï…Væü$Ë$. BïœçÜ$ °…_ º‹ÜÝët…yæþ$Mæü$ §é§éç³# ¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. Ðèþ* FÇ°…_ AMæüPyìþMìü çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ ¯èþ*rÄæý*¿ñýO MìüÌZÒ$rÆæÿ$Ï. Ðèþ* FÇMìü Æðÿ…yæþ$ ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…. Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü AÆæÿVæü…r {ç³Äæý*×ý….

b. Build-up drill

{ç³Äæý*×ý… ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý… G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…? FÇMìü G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…? Ò$ FÇMìü G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…? AMæüP×ìý~…_ Ò$ FÇMìü G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…?

Ððþ$Oâýæ $å. ¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. AÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. FÇMìü AÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. Ðèþ* FÇMìü AÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ Ðèþ* FÇMìü ¯èþ*r AÆæÿÐðþO¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. 287

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Expansion drill Model (i)

Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ §æþVæüYÆæÿ. Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ ^éÌê §æþVæüYÆæÿ. 1. Ðèþ* CË$Ï BïœçÜ$ °…_ §æþ*Ææÿ…

2. Ò$ C…sìý °…_ Ðèþ* CË$Ï §æþVæüYÆæÿ. 3. Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ §æþ*Ææÿ…. 4. CMæüP×ìý~…_ ºÝët…yæþ$ §æþVæüYÆæÿ.

Model (ii)

Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ ¯èþ*r¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. 1. ÉìþÎÏ°…_ Ò$ FÇMìü ÐðþÆÿ$$Å Ððþ$Oâæý$å. (A) Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ §é§éç³# 2. Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ ™öÑ$è ¯èþ*r¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýO Ððþ$Oâæý$å. (B) Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ 3. Ðèþ* FÇMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ BÆæÿ$ ¯èþ*r¯éË$Væü$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…. Model (iii)

Model (iv)

D M>ïœ ÐóþyìþV> E¯èþ²§óþ…? D M>ïœ C…™èþ ÐóþyìþV> E¯èþ²§óþ…? 1. B M>Æÿ$$™èþ… G{ÆæÿV> E¯èþ²§óþ…? 2. D sîý ^èþËÏV> E¯èþ²§óþ…? 3. B ç³NË$ ™ðþËÏV> E¯é²Äôý$…?

B ç³NË$ »êVæü$¯é²Æÿ$$. B ç³NË$ ^éÌê »êVæü$¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. A¨ Ðèþ$…_ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…. 2. D sîý ÐóþyìþV> E¯èþ²¨. 3. B ç³#Ðèþ#Ó G{ÆæÿV> E¯èþ²¨.

d. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

¯éMæü$ M>ïœ AËÐér$ sîý ¯éMæü$ sîý AËÐér$ »ZÆæÿ²Òsê ´ëË$ ^óþ§æþ$M>ïœ

M>ïœ C…™èþ ÐóþyìþV> E¯èþ²§óþ…? (^óþ§æþ$) M>ïœ C…™èþ ^óþ§æþ$V> E¯èþ²§óþ…? sîý C…™èþ ^èþËÏV> E¯èþ²§óþ…? (Ðóþyìþ) ´ëË$ C…™èþ ÐóþyìþV> E¯é²Äôý$…? (^èþËÏ) ±âæý$å C…™èþ ^èþËÏV> E¯é²Äôý$…? (G{Ææÿ) ç³NË$ C…™èþ G{ÆæÿV> E¯é²Äôý$…? (™ðþËÏ) 288

Lesson 17 Model (iii)

Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ ¯èþ$…_ Ðèþ* FÇMìü ™ö…¿ñýOI§æþ$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ¯èþ$…_ Ðèþ* FÇMìü ™ö…¿ñýOI§æþ$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. ÑfÄæý$Ðéyæþ òßýO{§é»ê§æþ$ »ñý…Væü$âæý*Ææÿ$ Model (iv)

†Ææÿ$糆 °…_ Ðèþ* FÇMìü ¯èþ*rÄæý*¿ñýO Ððþ$Oâæý$å. Ðèþ…§æþ †Ææÿ$糆 °…_ Ðèþ* FÇMìü Ðèþ…§æþ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. ™ö…¿ñýO ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ…§æþË ¯èþË¿ñýO ÐðþÆÿ$$Å Model (v)

Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ Ò$ FÆæÿ$ ¯èþ*r CÆæÿÐðþO Ððþ$Oâæý$å. Ðèþ$$ò³¹O I§æþ$ Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ Ò$ FÆæÿ$ ¯èþ*r Ðèþ$$ò³O¹I§æþ$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. ™ö…¿ñýOBÆæÿ$ G¯èþ¿ñýO™öÑ$è ™ö…¿ñýO G¯èþ¿ñýO Model (vi)

Ðèþ* FÇ°…_ Ò$ FÇMìü Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýOBÆæÿ$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. BÆæÿ$ Ðèþ* FÇ°…_ Ò$ FÇMìü BÆæÿ$ Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýOBÆæÿ$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å. ¯éË$Væü$ ™öÑ$è Hyæþ$ 289

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (vii)

Model (viii)

¯éMæü$ M>ïœ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! ÆæÿÑ ÆæÿÑMìü M>ïœ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! ÆæÿÐèþ$ WÇ çÜÆæÿâæý

¯éMæü$ M>ïœ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! sîý ¯éMæü$ sîý ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! ´ëË$ Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… JMæü MæüË…

e. Response drill Model (i)

D M>ïœ GÌê E…¨? D M>ïœ ÆæÿÑMìü »êV>Ìôý§æþ$; ¯éMæü$ »êV>¯óþ E…¨.

1. D CË$Ï GÌê E…¨? 2. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÌê E…¨? 3. Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ GÌê E…¨?

Model (ii)

Ò$Mæü$ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>ÐéÌê? ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… E¯èþ²¨; Ò$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯éMæü$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. 1. Ò$Mæü$ ¯é MæüË… M>ÐéÌê? 3. Ò$Mæü$ ¯é Ðèþ$ÌñýÏç³NË$ M>ÐéÌê? 2. ÆæÿÑMìü ¯é VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… M>ÐéÌê? 4. çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ Ðèþ$¯èþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>ÐéÌê? Model (iii)

Ò$Mæü$ »ZÆæÿ²Òsê M>ÐéÌê? M>ïœ M>ÐéÌê? ¯éMæü$ »ZÆæÿ²Òsê AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; M>ïœ ^éË$. 1. Ò$Mæü$ 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÌê? I§æþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÌê?

2. Ò$Mæü$ ´ëË$ M>ÐéÌê? Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å M>ÐéÌê? 3. Ò$Mæü$ Mö™èþ¢ çÜ…` M>ÐéÌê? ´ë™èþ çÜ…` M>ÐéÌê?

Model (iv)

Ò$ FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ…§æþË G¯èþ¿ñýOHyæþ$. Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ…§æþË G¯èþ¿ñýOHyæþ$ Ððþ$Oâæý$å.

1. BÆæÿ$ Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýOÐèþ$*yæþ$ 2. ¯èþ*r G¯èþ¿ñýOBÆæÿ$ 3. ÐðþÆÿ$$Å 4. ™ö…¿ñýO™öÑ$è 290

Lesson 17 Model (v)

Ò$ FÇMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ BÆæÿ$ 2. ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ýÐèþ*? (Ðèþ$*yæþ$) BÆæÿ$ ÆøkË$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ÆøkË$ ^éË$. 1. Ò$ FÇMìü Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ °…_ Æðÿ…yæþ$ 3. ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ýÐèþ*? (JMæü Æ>{† JMæü ç³VæüË$)

ÉìþÎÏMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ýÐèþ*? (Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ç³Væüâæý$å Æðÿ…yæþ$ Æ>{†âæý$å) Ò$ FÇ°…_ Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$Mæü$ ¯éË$Væü$ ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ýÐèþ*? (Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Æ>{†âæý$å ¯éË$Væü$ ³ç Væüâæý$å)

Model (vi)

±Mæü$ JMæü ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>ÐéÌê? JMæü C…XÏçÙ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>ÐéÌê? ¯éMæü$ JMæü ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… V>° JMæü C…XÏçÙ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… V>° ^éË$.

1. ±Mæü$ E´ëà M>ÐéÌê? CyîþÏ M>ÐéÌê? 2. ÆæÿÑMìü »ŸÐèþ$à M>ÐéÌê? MæüË… M>ÐéÌê? 3. Ò$Mæü$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÌê? D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>ÐéÌê?

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ò$ FÇMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…? Ò$ FÆæÿ$ Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ »ñý…Væü$âæý*Ææÿ$Mæü$ çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? Ò$ çÜ*PË$ °…_ Ò$ C…sìýMìü G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? Ò$ FÇMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ sìýMðüPsñýt…™èþ?

b. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model (i)

Model (ii)

D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÌê E…¨? D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯éMæü$ ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨; çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ »êV>Ìôý§æþ$. 1. Ðèþ* CË$Ï GÌê E…¨? 2. Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ GÌê E…¨? 3. ò³çÜÆæÿr$t GÌê E…¨?

D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÌê E…¨? D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… »êV>¯óþ E…¨; B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… »êV>Ìôý§æþ$. 1. D CË$Ï GÌê E…¨? 2. D Væü¨ GÌê E…¨? 3. D FÆæÿ$ GÌê E…¨? 291

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (iii)

±Mæü$ 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÌê? (¯éË$Væü$) 1. ±Mæü$ Mö™èþ¢ çÜ…` M>ÐéÌê? (´ë™èþ) ¯éMæü$ 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; 2. ÆæÿÑMìü Æðÿ…yæþ$ MæüÌêË$ M>ÐéÌê? (JMæü) ¯éË$Væü$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ^éË$. 3. ÆæÿÑMìü C…™èþ ³ç …^èþ§éÆæÿ M>ÐéÌê? (çÜVæü…) c. Give your responses to the following sentences as shown in the model. Model

B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… »êVæü$¯èþ²¨.

Responses

A. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… »êV>¯óþ E¯èþ²¨. B. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… »êV>Ìôý§æþ$. C. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^éÌê »êVæü$¯èþ²¨. D. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÌê E¯èþ²¨?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ò$ FÆæÿ$ »êVæü$…¨. D M>ïœ »êVæü$…¨. ò³çÜÆæÿr$t »êVæü$…¨. D Mö™èþ¢ ^öM>P »êVæü$…¨.

d. Rewrite the following sentences using the cue words given in the parentheses.

1. D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ^óþ§æþ$V> E…¨. (G{Ææÿ) 2. ± `Æðÿ BMæü$ç³^èþaV> E…¨. (™ðþËÏ)

3. B M>ïœ ^èþËÏV> E…¨. (^óþ§æþ$) 4. B Væü¨ ^èþËÏV> E…¨. (Ðóþyìþ)

^é˧æþ$/^éËÐèþ#. 1. ¯éMæü$ ¯éË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ .............. 3. Ðèþ*Mæü$ B CË$Ï .............. 2. çÜ$Væü$×ýMæü$ C…™èþ sîý ................ 4. çÜ$ÖËMæü$ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å .......... e. Fill up the blanks with

f. Fill up the blanks with the plural forms of the nouns given in the parentheses.

1. Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüP×ìý~…_ CÆæÿÐðþO ........ (Ððþ$OË$). 2. Ðèþ* FâZå ¯éË$Væü$ ........ (çÜ*PË$) E¯é²Æÿ$$. 292

3. Ðèþ* FÇMìü .......... (ÆðÿOË$) ÌôýÐèþ#. 4. Æðÿ…yæþ$ ............. (ç³VæüË$), Æðÿ…yæþ$ ............... (Æ>{†) A…sôý Æðÿ…yæþ$ ÆøkË$.

Lesson 17

g. Rewrite the following sentences using V>° as shown in the model.

ÆæÿÑMìü sîý M>ÐéÌê? M>ïœ M>ÐéÌê? 2. Ò$ FÇMìü ºçÜ$Þ E…§é? ÆðÿËO $ E…§é? ÆæÿÑMìü sîý V>° M>ïœ V>° M>ÐéÌê? 3. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÆæÿÑMìü M>ÐéÌê? ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ 1. çÜ$Væü$×ýMæü$ sîý M>ÐéÌê? ´ëË$ M>ÐéÌê? M>ÐéÌê?

Model:

h. Combine the following.

C§æþ$Vø + AÄæý*Å! = ................ CMæüP×ìý~…^óþ + A…yîþ = ...............

çÜÆóÿ + A…yîþ = ................. HÐðþ* + AÐèþ*à = ................

i. Produce at least 5 sentences from the following table taking one cue from each column at a time.

Ðèþ*

CË$Ï FÆæÿ$ BïœçÜ$

§æþ*Ææÿ… CMæüP×ìý~…_

^éÌê §æþVæüÆY ÿæ

j. Make at least 30 sentences from the following table taking one cue from each column at a time.

Ðèþ* Ò$

FÆæÿ$ FÇMìü

Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$¯èþ$…_ §é§éç³# CMæüP×ìý~…_ çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$

BÆæÿ$Ðèþ…§æþË$ ™ö…¿ñýOBÆæÿ$ MìüÌZÒ$rÆæÿ$Ï ¯èþ*rCÆæÿÐðþO Ððþ$Oâæý$å ÐðþÆÿ$$Å

j. Make at least 8 sentences from the following table.

ÆæÿÑMìü Vøí³Mìü çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$

JMæü

Ðèþ$…_ Mö™èþ¢

293

VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… MæüË…

¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿþ sugar AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$ not necessary ^éËÐèþ# not sufficient (pl.) &¯èþ$…_/&°…_ from Æ>{† night ç³VæüË$ day-time §æþ*Ææÿ… distance §é§éç³# approximately, Üç $Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å thousand Ððþ$OË$ a mile çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ approximately, §é§éç³# Ðèþ…§æþ hundred ¯èþ*r-& hundred and ..... ^éË$ sufficient MìüÌZÒ$rÆæÿ$ a kilometer sìýMðüPr$t ticket &V>° or

çœÆ>Ï…Væü$ ^óþ§æþ$ HÐèþ$Ðèþ*à †Äæý$ÅV> ^èþç³µV> MæüÚëÄæý$… C…™èþ &H… »êV>¯óþ AËÐér$ ¡í³ Væü*yé A…™èþ çÜVæü… ^é˧æþ$

a furlong bitter hey! (eql. fem. addressing) sweetly (adv.) insipidly (adv.) a medicated decoction which is bitter in taste this much why good/all right (with emphasis) habit sweetness also (a variant of Mæü*yé) that much half not sufficient

GRAMMAR NOTES 17.1.

AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$ akkarl£du

‘is/are not needed' is also a negative form of M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li ‘is/are needed; is/are wanted' (16.1.). J§æþ$ª oddu 'is/are not wanted' is the other negative form (16.2.). AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$ akkarl£du is also a defective verb.

ÆæÿÑMìü sîý M>ÐéÍ. raviki  • k¡v¡li. 'Ravi needs/wants tea.' ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ sîý AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. ramaku  • akkarl£du. 'Rama does not need tea.' çÜ$Ðèþ$Mæü$ sîý J§æþ$ª. sumaku  • oddu. 'Suma does not want tea.' 17.1.1. M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li has two semantic aspects, viz., to want something' and 'to need something'. J§æþ$ª oddu negates M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li in the aspect of 'wanting something', and AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $ akkarl£du negates in the aspect of 'needing something'. 294

Lesson 17

MæüÐèþ$ËMæü$ fÓÆæÿ… Ìôý§æþ$; BÐðþ$Mæü$ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. kamalaku jvaraM l£du; ¡meku maMdu akkarl£du. 'Kamala has no fever. She doesn't need/require any medicine.'

¯éMæü$ fÓÆæÿ…; Ðèþ$…§æþ$ M>ÐéÍ. M>° ^óþ§æþ$ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. n¡ku jvaraM; maMdu k¡v¡li. k¡ni c£du maMdu akkarl£du. 'I have fever. I need medicine. But I don't want a bitter medicine.' 17.2.

^éË$ c¡lu

'is/are enough/sufficient' is another defective verb. All the conditions given for the other defective verbs in 16.1. hold good for ^éË$ c¡lu also.

¯éMæü$ D M>ïœ ^éË$. n¡ku • k¡f• c¡lu. 'This coffee is sufficient for me.' 17.2.1. ^é˧æþ$ c¡ladu 'is not enough/sufficient' and ^éËÐèþ# c¡lavu 'are not enough/sufficient' are the negative forms of ^éË$ c¡lu in singular number and plural number respectively. Both these negative forms denote neuter gender, and they cannot be used with reference to human nouns.

¯éMæü$ JMæü ò³çÜÆæÿr$t ^é˧æþ$.

'One pesarattu is not sufficient for me

'n¡ku oka pesara  u c¡ladu.'

¯éMæü$ Ðèþ…§æþ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ^éËÐèþ#.

'Hundred Rupees are not sufficient for me' 'n¡ku vaMda r¶payalu c¡lavu.'

17.3. The Defective verbs M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li, J§æþ$ª oddu, AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $ akkarl£du, and ^éË$ c¡lu do not show any gender and number distinction where as the negative forms of ^éË$ c¡lu show a gender-number distinction. ^é˧æþ$ c¡ladu is neuter singular and ^éËÐèþ# c¡lavu is neuter plural. 17.4. C…™èþ iMta 'this much' and A…™èþ aMta 'that much' are the demonstrative mass (non-count) pronouns/adjectives. The corresponding intterogative word is G…™èþ eMta 'how much' (9.7.). 17.5. »êV> b¡g¡ 'well/nicely/fine' is an adverb (15.8.) and it is a variant of »êVæü$& b¡gu- (8.16.). »êVæü$& b¡gu- is a bound form which is used only with 295

An Intensive Course in Telugu the affirmative forms of the existential verb (4.3.; 7.1.) as »êVæü$…¨ b¡guMdi 'She/It is fine.',

»êVæü$¯é²yæþ$ b¡gunn¡∂u 'He is fine.' etc. (8.16.). »êV> b¡g¡

is not a bound form and it can be used with any verb including the affirmative forms of the existential verb.

»êV> E…¨. b¡g¡ uMdi. 'It is fine.' »êV> E¯é²yæþ$. b¡g¡ unn¡∂u. 'He is fine.' »êV> Ìôý§æþ$. b¡g¡ l£du. 'It is not good.' »êV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. b¡g¡ caduvu. 'Read well.' 17.5.1. In sentences like »êV>¯óþ E…¨ b¡g¡n£ uMdi. 'It is fine.' the emphatic marker &H -£ (3.3.) is used with »êV> b¡g¡. (See 15.9.) 17.6. Notice the usage of the interrogative word G…™èþ eMta 'how much' (9.7.) in the sentence sìýMðüPr$t* G…™èþ?  ikke  u eMta? 'What is the fare?', and G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…? eMta d¶raM? 'What is the distance?'. Recall its use in sentences like Qȧæþ$ G…™èþ? khar•du eMta? 'What is the price?' and sñýO… G…™èþ?  aiM eMta? 'What is the time?'. G…™èþ eMta is used in a question to elicit a mass noun in answer. (*Here sìýMðüPr$t  ikke  u means 'the price of the ticket', i.e., 'the fare'.)

&°…_/&¯èþ$…_ -niMci/-nuMci 'from' is the ablative case marker. In speech mostly &°…_ -niMci is heard, and in writing mostly &¯èþ$…_ -nuMci is used. Some people use &¯èþ$…yìþ -nu∆∂i also. The ablative case marker is 17.7.

added to the oblique base of a noun. (See 8.9.)

Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ Ò$ FÇMìü G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…?

'What is the distance from

mais¶ru niMci m• ¶riki eMta d¶raM.'

Mysore to your Place?

Ðèþ* FÇ°…_ Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$Mæü$ JMæü Æøk {ç³Äæý*×ý…. 'It is one-day journey from m¡ ¶riniMci mais¶ruku oka rªju pray¡∆aM.

my place to Mysore.'

(*&Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/-ki denotes destination. See 17.9.) 296

Lesson 17 17.8.

Notice the use of the dative case suffix in sentences like the following.

¯éMæü$ D M>ïœ »êV>Ìôý§æþ$.

'This coffee is not fine (tasty) for me.'

n¡ku • k¡f• b¡g¡l£du.

ÆæÿÑMìü sîý »êVæü$…¨.

'The tea is tasty to Ravi.

raviki  • b¡guMdi.

A™èþ°Mìü M>ïœ AËÐér$.

'(Drinking) Coffee is a habit for him.'

ataniki k¡f• alav¡ u. Here the function of the dative case suffix is to express 'possession' of feelings, habits, experiences, etc. (See 13.2.2.) Also in the Caption of the cartoon G…™èþ ^ðþr$tMæü$ A…™èþ V>Í eMta ce  uku aMta g¡li 'How much (big) the tree is that much is its wind' the function of the dative case suffix is 'possessive'. (See 17.21.) 17.9. The dative case suffix is also added to the noun denoting destination. (See 15.6.2.)

Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ °…_ Ò$ FÇMìü G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…?

'What is the distance from mais¶ru niMci m• ¶riki eMta d¶raM. Mysore to your Place? 17.9.1. distance.

Notice the optional use of the dative case suffix in expressing

CMæüP×ìý~…_ Ò$ FÇMìü/FÆæÿ$ G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…?

'What is the distance from ikka∆∆iMci m• ¶riki/¶ru eMta d¶raM.' here to your place?

17.10. The function of the dative case suffix is purposive in the following sentences.

¯éMæü$ ´ëË$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>.

'Bring milk for me.'

n¡ku p¡lu t•sukur¡.

ÆæÿÑMìü JMæü MæüË… ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>.

'Bring a pen for Ravi.'

raviki oka kalaM t•sukur¡. 17.11.

The plural form ofüÆ>{† r¡tri 'night' isüÆ>{†âæý$å r¡tri˚˚u. 297

An Intensive Course in Telugu 17.12.

The oblique base ofüFÆæÿ$ ¶ru 'village' isüFÇ ¶ri.

17.13. The oblique bases ofüCMæüPyæþ ikka∂a 'here', AMæüPyæþ akka∂a 'there' and GMæüPyæþ ekka∂a 'where' are CMæüPyìþ ikka∂i, AMæüPyìþ akka∂i and GMæüPyìþ ekka∂i respectively.

&H… -£M when added to an assertive sentence means 'why'. This 17.14. (&H… -£M) is a bound form and it behaves like a suffix. As such, it cannot be written separately. D M>ïœ C…™èþ ^óþ§æþ$V> E¯èþ²§óþ…?(E¯èþ²¨ + H…)

'Why is this coffee so bitter?' • k¡f• iMta c£dug¡ unnad£M (unnadi + £M)

17.15.

HÐèþ$Ðèþ*Ã £mamm¡ is the feminine non-honorific address term.

HÐèþ$Äæý*Å £mayy¡ (2.9.2.) is the masculine non-honorific address term and HÐèþ$…yîþ £maM∂• (2.9.1.) is the epicene honorific address term. These address terms are used to draw the attention of the persons addressed.

&AÄæý*Å -ayy¡ is the masculine non-honorific address marker. 17.16. Recall the feminine non-honorific address marker &AÐèþ*à -amm¡ (8.13.) and epicene honorific singular and plural address marker &A…yîþ -aM∂• (2.10.). These address markers are added to the sentence as a whole. They express the degree of respect or intimacy that the speaker wants to show with respect to the listener of the sentence. &AÐèþ*à -amm¡ is used to address female persons, and &AÄæý*Å -ayy¡ is used to address male persons. Both the forms (&AÐèþ*à -amm¡ and &AÄæý*Å -ayy¡) express a sense of affection and intimacy where as &A…yîþ -aM∂• is used to address both male and female persons with respect in singular number and with or without respect in plural number. &AÐèþ*à -amm¡ and &AÄæý*Å -ayy¡) are used to address very close and intimate persons. &AÐèþ*à -amm¡ is further used to address female children with affection. ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$rÐèþ*Ã? n• p£r£mi amm¡? ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$rÄæý*Å? n• p£r£mi ayy¡? Ò$ õ³ÆóÿÑ$r…yîþ? m• p£r£mi aM∂•?

'What is your (fem.) name (dear*)?' 'What is your (masc.) name?' 'What is your name, sir/madam?'*? (*This is to address female children with affection.) 298

Lesson 17 17.17.

When the address markerü&AÄæý*Å -ayy¡ is added to words ending

in long vowels except B ¡ a glide ¯Œþ n is inserted between the word and the address marker.

C§óþ + AÄæý*Å = C§óþ¯èþÄæý*Å id£ + ayy¡ = id£nayy¡ 'This is the one, Mr.!' Recall the same sandhi process when the address markers &AÐèþ*à amm¡ and &A…yîþ -aM∂• are added to a long vowel ending word (7.14. and 8.15.3.). 17.18. Formation of numerals upto 1000 is also introduced in this lesson. Ðèþ…§æþ vaMda means 'hundred' and ÐðþÆÿ$$Å veyyi means 'thousand'

Ðèþ…§æþ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ vaMda pustak¡lu 'hundred books' ÐðþÆÿ$$Å Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ veyyi r¶p¡yalu 'thousand rupees' Ðèþ…§æþ vaMda freely varies with ¯èþ*Ææÿ$ n¶ru (13.13.) when used in isolation, i.e., when not used in compound numeral like hundred and twenty, etc.

Ðèþ…§æþ/¯èþ*Ææÿ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ vaMda/n¶ru pustak¡lu 'hundred books' . 17.18.1. For numerals from 101 to 199 ¯èþ*r& n¶ a- 'hundred and .....' is prefixed to the numeral denoting 1 to 99.

¯èþ*r JMæüsìý n¶ a oka i 101 ¯èþ*r Æðÿ…yæþ$ n¶ a reM∂u 102 ¯èþ*r Ðèþ$*yæþ$ n¶ a m¶∂u 103 ¯èþ*r Hyæþ$ n¶ a £∂u 107 ¯èþ*r 糨 n¶ a padi 110 ¯èþ*r 糧æþMö…yæþ$ n¶ a padakoM∂u 111 ¯èþ*r 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ n¶ a panneM∂u 112 ¯èþ*r 糧æþÐèþ$*yæþ$ n¶ a padam¶∂u 113 ¯èþ*r 糧« é²Ë$Væü$ n¶ a padhn¡lugu 114 ¯èþ*r ç³…«§öÑ$è

¯èþ*r CÆæÿÐðþO n¶ a iravai 120 ¯èþ*r CÆæÿÐðþJO Mæüsìý n¶ a iravaioka i 121 ¯èþ*r Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹ n¶ a mupphai 130 ¯èþ*r Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹Æðÿ…yæþ$ n¶ a mupphaireM∂u 132 ¯èþ*r ¯èþË¿ñýO n¶ a nalabhai 140

¯èþ*r ¯èþË¿ñýOÐèþ$*yæþ$ n¶ a nalabhaim¶∂u 143 ¯èþ*r Äæý*¿ñýO n¶ a y¡bhai 150

¯èþ*r Äæý*¿ñýO¯éË$Væü$ n¶ a y¡bhain¡lugu 154

n¶ a paMdhommidi 119 299

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯èþ*r G¯èþ¿ñýOHyæþ$

¯èþ*r AÆæÿÐðþO n¶ a aravai 160 ¯èþ*r AÆæÿÐðþOI§æþ$

n¶ a enabhai£∂u 187 ¯èþ*r ™ö…¿ñýO n¶ a toMbhai 190

n¶ a aravaiaidu 165 ¯èþ*r yðþ»ñýOü n¶ a ∂ebbhai 170

¯èþ*r ™ö…¿ñýOG°Ñ$¨

¯èþ*r yðþ»ñýOüÂBÆæÿ$

n¶ a toMbhaienimidi 198

¯èþ*r ™ö…¿ñýO™öÑ$è

n¶ a ∂ebbhai¡ru 176 ¯èþ*r G¯èþ¿ñýO n¶ a enabhai 180

n¶ a toMbhaitommidi 199

Ðèþ…§æþ vaMda is used. Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË$ reM∂u vaMdalu I§æþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË$ aidu vaMdalu Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË$ m¶∂u vaMdalu Hyæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË$ £∂u vaMdalu ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ…§æþË$ n¡lugu vaMdalu ™öÑ$è Ðèþ…§æþË$ tommidi vaMdalu A a is added to Ðèþ…§æþË$ vaMdalu before adding the numerals denoting tens and units. The form thus formed (Ðèþ…§æþË vaMdala) means '.... hundreds and...'. Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË Ðèþ$*yæþ$ reM∂u vaMdala m¶∂u 203 Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹ reM∂u vaMdala mupphai 230 Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹™öÑ$è reM∂u vaMdala mupphaitommidi 239 Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË Æðÿ…yæþ$ m¶∂u vaMdala reM∂u 302 Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË CÆæÿÐðþO m¶∂u vaMdala iravai 320 ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ…§æþË ç³¨ n¡lugu vaMdala padi 410 ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ…§æþË Äæý*¿ñýOI§æþ$ n¡lugu vaMdala y¡bhaiaidu 455 I§æþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË ™öÑ$è aidu vaMdala tommidi 509 I§æþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýO aidu vaMdala toMbhai 590 BÆæÿ$ Ðèþ…§æþË CÆæÿÐðþOBÆæÿ$ ¡ru vaMdala iravai¡ru 626 Hyæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË Ðèþ$$ò³Oü¹¯éË$Væü$ £∂u vaMdala mupphain¡lugu 734 Hyæþ$ Ðèþ…§æþË yðþ»ñýOü £∂u vaMdala ∂ebbhai 770 G°Ñ$¨ Ðèþ…§æþË ¯èþË¿ñýOÆðÿ…yæþ$ enimidi vaMdala nalabhaireM∂u 842 ™öÑ$è Ðèþ…§æþË Äæý*¿ñýO tommidi vaMdala y¡bhai 950 ™öÑ$è Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýOI§æþ$ tommidi vaMdala toMbhaiaidu 995 ™öÑ$è Ðèþ…§æþË ™ö…¿ñýO™öÑ$è tommidi vaMdala toMbhaitommidi 999 ÐðþÆÿ$$Å veyyi 1000 (17.18,) 17.18.2.

From 200 onwards

300

Lesson 17 17.19. &V>° -g¡ni 'or' is added to all the phrases when there is a choice among them,

¯éMæü$ M>ïœ V>° sîý V>° ^éË$.

'Coffee or tea is fine with me.'

n¡ku k¡f• g¡ni  • g¡ni c¡lu. 17.20.

Recall the sandhi process given in 5.8.2. which is as follows:

yìþ + ¯Œþ = ׊ý~ ∂i + n = ∆∆ JMæüyìþ + ° = JMæü×ìý~ oka∆∆i The ׊ý~ ∂i + n = ∆∆ combination can also be written as yŠþ² ∂n. JMæüyìþ + ° = JMæü×ìý~/JMæüyìþ² '(I am) one.' oka∆∆i/oka∂ni

GMæüPyìþ + °…_ = GMæüP×ìý~…_/GMæüPyìþ²…_

'from where'

ekka∆∆iMci/ekka∂niMci

AMæüPyìþ + °…_ = AMæüP×ìý~…_/AMæüPyìþ²…_ 'from there' akka∆∆iMci/akka∂niMci

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðé×ìý~/Ðèþ$…_Ðéyìþ²

'I am a nice person.'

n£nu maMci v¡∆∆i/maMciv¡∂ni This variation is, however, only in writing. In speech it is always ׊ý~ ∆∆. 17.21. Notice the usage G…™èþ ^ðþr$tMüæ $ A…™èþ V>Í eMta ce  uku aMta g¡li in the text of the cartoon in the lesson. This is a proverb in Telugu meaning literally that the wind blowing from a tree is relative to the size of the tree. But it is used to say that a person's expenditure is relative to his income. The cartoonist, however, uses the word V>Í g¡li not in its metaphoric sense - i.e., expenditure but in its literal sense 'wind'. The dative case suffix expresses 'possession' in this sentence.

G…™èþ

^ðþr$tMæü$

A…™èþ

V>Í

Bigger the tree larger is eMta ce  uku aMta g¡li (its capacity of blowing) howmuch (big) tree-dative that much wind the wind.' 17.22. Væü*yé g¶∂¡ 'also' is a variant of Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ (lesson 2; 8.5.; 8.5.1.). Væü*yé g¶∂¡ occurs mostly in speech and Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ in writing. 301

REVIEW 3 Lesson 18

Væü$yìþ & ºyìþ

TEMPLE AND SCHOOL

Ðèþ* FâZå JMæü Væü$yìþ E…¨. B Væü$yìþ ^èþ$r*t™ør$…¨ B Væü$âZÏ JMæü »ŸÐèþ$$Ã…¨ & B »ŸÐèþ$ÃMæü$ {´ë×ý… 糨Ðèþ$…¨.

A temple in our town, A garden around the temple, An idol in the temple, Its life is the people.

Ðèþ* FâZÏ JMæü ºyìþ E…¨ B ºyìþ ^èþ$r*t™ør$…¨ B ºyìþÌZ JMæüÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$ & B ºyìþ í³ËÏËMæü$ Ðèþ*ÚëtÆæÿ$.

A school in our town, Around it a garden, One is there in the school, He, pupils’ teacher in the school.

Væü$âZÏ Æøl ¯ðþOÐóþ§æþÅ… FâZÏ Ìôý§æþ$ IMæüÐèþ$™èþÅ… FâZÏ ò³§æþªË$ {糆ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ…

Offerings in the temple daily, But people have no unity, Elders every evening, 302

Lesson 18

Væü$âZÏ ¡ÇMæü M>Ë„óüç³… ÐéâæýÏMæü$ ÌôýÐèþ# 糯èþ$Ë$ ´ërË$ ÐéâæýÏMæü$ M>ÐéÍ A…§æþÇ Ðèþ*rË$

In the temple while away As they spend time gay Into others’ problems interfering.

Ðèþ* FâZÏ JMæü Væü$yìþ E…¨ B Væü$yìþ ^èþ$r*t™ør$…¨ B Væü$âZÏ JMæü »ŸÐèþ$$Ã…¨ & B »ŸÐèþ$ÃMæü$ {´ë×ý… 糨Ðèþ$…¨.

As temple in our town, A garden around the temple, An idol in the temple, Its life is the people.

B ºyìþ ™ør Ææÿ…Væü$Ë ç³NË$ ºyìþÌZ í³ËÏË Ðóþyæþ$MæüË$ B ºyìþç³…™èþ$Ë$ »Z«§æþ¯èþË$ í³ËÏË ¿êÑMìü °^ðþa¯èþË$ {糆ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… BrË$ ´ërË$ EfÓË ¿êÑMìü ç³NË »êrË$

Colourful blossoms in the garden of the school, Mirth children make in the school. Preaches the teacher For the pupils’ future Every evening sports gay. A bright future’s successful way.

Ðèþ* FâZÏ JMæü ºyìþ E…¨ B ºyìþ ^èþ$r*t™ør$…¨ B ºyìþÌZ JMæüÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$ & B ºyìþ í³ËÏËMæü$ Ðèþ*ÚëtÆæÿ$.

A school in our town, Around it a garden, One is there in the school, He, pupils’ teacher in the school.

Væü$âZÏ ¡ÇMæü M>Ë„óüç³… ºâZÏ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#Ë Ðèþ$¯øÑM>çÜ… Væü$âZÏ Æøl AÆæÿa¯èþË$ ºâZÏ ¿êÑMìü °^ðþa¯èþË$ Væü$yìþ M>ÐéÌê ºyìþM>ÐéÌê? H… M>ÐéÍ Ò$Mæü$?

People spend time in the temple, School to uplift the pupils Services in the temple, School providing future to pupils Temple or school which one do you choose? Which one you choose?

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

M>Ë„óüç³… Ðèþ*Mö§æþ$ª JyæþË$ Ððþ$§æþyæþ$ËMæü$ ç³°Ðèþ$$§æþ$ª M>Ë„óüç³… Ðèþ*Mö§æþ$ª JyæþË$ Ððþ$§æþyæþ$ËMæü$ ç³°Ðèþ$$§æþ$ª. Ðèþ* Ðèþ* Ðèþ* Ðèþ*

FâZÏ FâZÏ FâZÏ FâZÏ

JMæü JMæü JMæü JMæü

We want time not to waste For body and mind work is taste We want time not to waste. For body and mind work is taste. A temple in our town, A school in our town, A temple in our town, A school in our town.

Væü$yìþ Ðèþ#…¨ ºyìþ Ðèþ#…¨ Væü$yìþ Ðèþ#…¨ ºyìþ Ðèþ#…¨.

Exercises a. Fill up the blanks with E¯èþ²¨/E¯é²Æÿ$$/E¯é²yæþ$/E¯é²Ðèþ#/E¯é²Ææÿ$/E¯é²…/

E¯é²¯èþ$. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý °¯èþ² ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… CMæüPyæþ ..... 6. ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ......... 2. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ ......... 7. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó °¯èþ² AMæüPyæþ ........ 3. B Væü¨ÌZ JMæü í³ÍÏ ........ 8. Ðóþ$… àçÜtÌZÏ ......... 4. °¯èþ² ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… BÆæÿ$Væü…rËMæü$ 9. ÆæÿÑ CMæüPyæþ ......... ¯óþ¯èþ$ M>ÌôýiÌZ .......... 10. ÐéãϧæþªÆæÿ* Ar$Ððþ$$¯èþ²Æ>{† àçÜtÌZÏ ....... 5. Ò$Ææÿ$ C糚yæþ$ Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ÌZ ....... Mæü§æþ*? 11. Ðèþ$¯èþ… B Æøk ÑfÄæý$ÐéyæþÌZ...... b. Rewrite all the sentences of a. above using the negative forms of the verbs. c. Fill up the blanks with Mæü$ or Mìü

1. CÐéÓâæý Ðèþ* ........... ´ëË$ M>ÐéÍ. 2. C糚yæþ$ ÆæÿÑ .......... sîý M>ÐéÍ. d. Fill up the blanks with Ìôý§æþ$ or ÌôýÐèþ#. 1. D ïÜÝëÌZ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ......... 2. D çßZrÌZÏ ´ëË$ ......... 304

3. B ´ëç³ ........ M>ïœ J§æþ$ª. 4. D AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ ...... H… M>ÐéÍ? 3. ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$Ï ........... 4. Ðèþ$¯èþ Æÿ$$…sZÏ sîý ..........

Lesson 18 e. Rewrite the following sentences using AËÐér$ or AËÐér$ changing the meaning.

1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ Æøl M>ïœ M>ÐéÍ. 2. çÜ$ÖËMæü$ Æøl M>ïœ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$.

Ìôý§æþ$ without

3. ÔéÆæÿ§æþ ™èþÐèþ$$ÃyìþMìü Æøl ´ëË$ AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $. 4. A™èþ°Mìü sîý M>ÐéÍ.

f. Fill up the blanks with plural forms of the nouns given in the parentheses.

1. Ðèþ* ÐèþNÆæÿ$ CMæüP-×ìý~…_ CÆæÿÐðþO .....(Ððþ$OË$) 3. Ðèþ* ÐèþNÇMìü ....... (ÆðÿOË$) ÌôýÐèþ#. 2. Ðèþ* ÐèþNâZå ¯éË$Væü$ ..... (çÜ*PË$) 4. Æðÿ…yæþ$ ....... (ç³Væü-Ë$) Æðÿ…yæþ$ E¯é²Æÿ$$. ...... (Æ>{†) A…sôý Æðÿ…yæþ$ Æøk-Ë$. g. Fill up the blanks using †Äæý$ÅV>/^èþç³µV>/^óþ§æþ$V>/ÐóþyìþV> 1. D M>ïœÌZ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ Ìôý§æþ$; .......E…¨. 3. D ´ëË$ ^èþËÏV> E¯é²Æÿ$$; ..... ÌôýÐèþ#. 2. D ´ëËÌZ ³ç …^èþ§éÆæÿ Ìôý§æþ$; ...... E¯é²Æÿ$$. 4. D ´ëË$ ^èþç³µV> E¯é²Æÿ$$; ..... ÌôýÐèþ#. h. Fill up the blanks with M>ÐéÍ/AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ fÓÆæÿ… Ìôý§æþ$. Ðèþ$…§æþ$......... 3. ¯éMæü$ ´ëË$ M>ÐéÍ; ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ Mæü*yé ....... 2. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#Mæü$ Æðÿ…yóþâæý$Ï. 4. ¯é §æþVæüÆY ÿæ MæüË… Ìôý§æþ$. ± MæüË… ¯éMæü$...... ÆðÿOÌZÏ sìýMðüPr$t ......... i. Answer the follwing questions as shown in the model. Model (i) Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

C糚yæþ$ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? C糚yæþ$ M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. ÔèýÆæÿà §æþVæüYÆæÿ HÐèþ$$¯é²Æÿ$$? çÜ$ÖËMæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? Ò$ Æÿ$$…sZÏ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? ±Mæü$ H¨ M>ÐéÍ? D MæüËÐèþ*? B MæüËÐèþ*?

±Mæü$ ³ç ¨ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÌê? (¯éË$Væü$) 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$, ¯éË$Væü$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ^éË$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ M>Æÿ$$™éË$ M>ÐéÌê? (JMæü) 2. ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ »ZÆæÿ²Òsê M>ÐéÌê? (sîý) 3. Üç $ÖËMæü$ sìý휯èþ$ M>ÐéÌê? (M>ïœ)

j. Answer the follwing questions.

1. Ò$ FÇMìü CMæüP×ìý~…_ G°² ÆøkË {ç³Äæý*×ý…?

2. Ò$Mæü$ Æøl Æ>{† 糨 Væü…rËMæü$ M>ïœ AËÐér$ E¯èþ²§é? 3. C糚yæþ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ H FâZÏ E¯é²Ææÿ$?

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An Intensive Course in Telugu k. Write Telugu words for the following numbers.

796 304 987 1000 382 176

104

100

l. Give the negative forms of the follwing.

Æ>! CÐèþ#Ó!

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#! Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$!

fÆæÿVæü…yìþ! ÐðþÄæý$Å…yìþ!

VOCABULARY

^èþ$r*t ™ørü {´ë×ý… ºyìþ Æøl ¯ðþOÐóþ§æþÅ… IMæüÐèþ$™èþÅ… {糆 ¡ÇMæü M>Ë„óüç³… ³ç ° Ðèþ*r Ðóþyæþ$Mæüüü

ç³…™èþ$Ë$ »Z«§þæ ¯èþ ¿êÑ °^ðþa¯èþ Br EfÓË »êr Ðèþ$¯øÑM>çÜ… AÆæÿa¯èþ Ððþ$§æþyæþ$ JyæþË$ Ðèþ$$§æþ$ª

around garden life school daily offering unity every leisure whiling away the time work word mirth; merriment

306

teacher teaching future ladder play; game

bright path mental enlightenment worship mind body

pretty

Lesson 19

UNIT IV Lesson 19

^èþ*yæþ$ ÒÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø!

SEE WHO HE IS!

ÔóýÚë{¨ : Ææÿ…yìþ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ*! Mæü*Æøa…yìþ!

Please come in Mr. Ramarao. Be seated!

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : Ò$ CË$Ï ^éÌê »êVæü$…§æþ…yîþ! A§ðþª G…™èþ?

Your house is very nice, Sir! What is the rent?

ÔóýÚë{¨ : A§ðþª CË$Ï M>§æþ…yîþ! Ý÷…™èþ CÌôýÏ!

This is not a rented house. It’s my own house.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : A…§æþ$Móü C…™èþ »êVæü$…¨.

That’s why it is so nice.

ÔóýÚë{¨ : ÔéÆæÿ§é! CÌêÆ>! ^èþ*yæþ$ ÒÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø?

Sarada! Come here. See who he is.

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : K! Æ>Ðè þ *Æ>Ðè þ #V>Ææ ÿ $ Mæ ü §æ þ *! ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿÐèþ$…yîþ! C…sZÏ A…§æþÆæÿ* »êVæü$¯é²Æ>?

Oh! Mr. Ramarao! Namask¡ram. Is everybody at home fine.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : B! Ò$ ´ëç³ H¨?

Yes. Where is your child?

ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : Væü¨ÌZ E…¨. ´ë´ë CÌêÆ>! ÔóýÚë{¨ : ÔéÆæÿ§é! ÐéÇMìü M>ïœ CÐèþ#Ó.

She is in the room. Papa! Come here. Sarada! Give him coffee.

ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : Ðèþ$$…© ¼òÜPr$Ï ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ.

Please have this biscuits first.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : H… ´ë´ë! ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

Papa! What is your name?

ÔóýÚë{¨ : Ðèþ*Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>ÇMìü ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sZ ^ðþ³ç š!

Tell uncle what your name is.

´ëç³ : Ë™èþ.

Lata.

Æ>Ðèþ* : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$…_´ëç³Ñ. Mö…^ðþ… §æþVæüYÇMìü Æ>Ðèþ*Ã! CMæüPyìþMìü Æ>! D ^éMðüÏr$Ï ¡çÜ$Mø! ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ Mæü*Æøa. D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$.

You are a nice child. Come closer. Come here. Take this chocolates. Sit beside me. See what is in this packet.

ÔóýÚë{¨ : ÐðþâæýåÐèþ*Ã! Ðèþ*Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ç §æþVæüYÇMìü Ððþâæý$å.

Go dear! Go to uncle.

Æ>Ðèþ* : Ë™é! D »ŸÐèþ$à ^èþ*yæþ$! »êVæü$…§é?

Lata! Look at this doll. Is it fine?

Ë™èþ : ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨. C¨ GÐèþÇMìü?

It is very fine. For whom is this?

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Lesson 19

Æ>Ðèþ* : ±Móü! ¡çÜ$Mø! C§æþ$Vø, D ¼òÜPr$t Mæü*yé ±Móü! †¯èþ$.

It is for you! Take it. This biscuit is also for you. eat it.

´ëç³ : ¯éMæü$ ¼òÜPr$t J§æþ$ª. »ŸÐèþ$à M>ÐéÍ. ¼òÜPr$t Ò$Æóÿ †¯èþ…yìþ!

´ëç³ : ¯éMæü$ C糚yæþ$ BMæüÍ Ìôý§æþ$, A…§æþ$Mæü$.

I want the doll, but not the biscuit. You please have the biscuit. Why don’t you have the biscuit? I am not hungry now.

ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : M>ïœ ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ.

Please take this coffee.

Æ>Ðèþ* : ¯éMæü$ C…™èþ M>ïœ Ðèþ§æþ$ª. Mö…^ðþ… †Äæý$Å…yìþ. ³ç …^èþ§éÆæÿ Mö…^ðþ… M>ÐéÍ. A…™èþÐðþÄæý$ÅMæü…yìþ. Mö…^ðþ… ^éË$.

ÔóýÚë{¨ : Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$ÌZ E…§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$.

I don’t want this much coffee. Please take out (reduce) a little. I want some sugar. Please don’t put that much. A little is enough. Please tell me your Ravi’s address. Sarada! write Ravi’s address in the diary. Where is your diary? It is not here. See if it is in the drawer.

ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : E…¨. ^ðþç³µ…yìþ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ*!

Yes, it is. Mr. Ramarao, Tell me.

Æ>Ðèþ* : 28, ´ùÎç Ü $ õÜt ç Ù ¯è þ $ Ò¤, Mö™èþ¢õ³r, Væü$…r*Ææÿ$.

28, Police station street, Kottapeta, Guntur.

ÔóýÚë{¨ : ÔéÆæÿ§é! B A{yæþÜç $ Mìü…§æþ X™èþWÆÿ$$Å. ËMîü‡! CMæüP×ìý…~ _ M>ïœ Mæü³ç š †Æÿ$$Å. B ºËÏÒ$§æþ ò³r$t.

Sarada! Please underline that address. Lakshmi! Take away this coffee cup. Keep it on that table.

Æ>Ðèþ* : ±Mæü$ ¼òÜPr$t G…§æþ$Mö§æþ$ª?

ÔóýÚë{¨ : Ò$ ÆæÿÑ A{yæþçÜ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. ÔéÆæÿ§é! yðþOÈÌZ ÆæÿÑ A{yæþçÜ$ Æ>Æÿ$$! ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : H© Ò$ yðþOÈ? CMæüPyæþ Ìôý§æþ$.

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : ËMîü‡! GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ðèþ#. ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> Æ>! C糚yæþ$ ç³NË$ MöÄæý$ÅMæü$. Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ Væü$Ìê½ Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$Ï ´÷Æÿ$$Å. ™èþÆ>Ó™è ç³NË$ MöÆÿ$$Å. ´ëç³ : BÆæÿ$¯èþ²ÆæÿMæü$ ¯érMæü… E…¨ Mæü§é, ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ*! ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ…yìþ. ÔóýÚë{¨ : ™ö…§æþÆæÿ G…§æþ$Mæü$? C糚yæþ$ I§æþ$¯èþ²Æóÿ! ÔéÆæÿ§é! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé ºÄæý$Ìôýƪ ÿæ $! Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ Mæü*yé Ææÿ…yìþ; Ðèþ$…_ ¯érMæü….

"Mæü¯éÅÔèý$ËP…'.

Lakshmi! Where are you? Come quikly. Don’t pluck the flowers now. Water that rose plants first. After that, you pluck the flowers. You know there is a play at 6.30, father! Let’s start. Why, such a hurry? It’s only 5.30 now. Sarada! You also start. Mr. Ramarao! Please join us. It’s a good play. Kany¡sulkam.

gôýº$ÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø †Æÿ$$Å!

Mö…^ðþ… §æþVæüYÆæÿMæü$ Ææÿ…yìþ!

Empty your pocket !

Please come closer sir!

310

Lesson 19

DRILLS a. Repetition drill.

^èþ*yæþ$ ÒÆðÿÐèþÆø! D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$! gôýº$ÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø †Æÿ$$Å! ò³sñýtÌZ E…§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$.

Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$ÌZ E…§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$.C§æþ$Vø D ¼òÜPr$t ±Móü! ¯éMæü$ C糚yæþ$ BMæüÍ Ìôý§æþ$. Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$Ï´÷Æÿ$$Å.

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$. D ¼òÜPr$t Mæü*yé ±Móü! Væü¨ ÆæÿÑ D Væü¨ÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$. D ¼òÜPr$t Mæü*yé ÆæÿÑMóü! gôýº$ çÜ$Væü$×ý CËÏ$ VúÇ çÜ…` ÑfÄæý$ Model (ii)

^èþ*yæþ$, ÒÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø! ÐéÆæÿ$ ^èþ*yæþ$, ÐéÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø! BÐðþ$ BÄæý$¯èþ Ðéâæý$Ï

Model (iv)

C…™èþ sîý AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; Mö…^ðþ… †Äæý$Å…yìþ. ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ C…™èþ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$; Mö…^ðþ… †Äæý$Å…yìþ. M>ïœ E´ëà »ZÆæÿ²Òsê

c. Expansion drill

± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚. (ÆæÿÑ) Model (ii) ÆæÿÒ ç³NË$ MöÆÿ$$Å. ÆæÿÑMìü ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚. ÆæÿÒ! ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> ç³NË$ MöÆÿ$$Å. 1. Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µ…yìþ. (¯óþ¯èþ$) 1. ÔèýÆ>Ã! CÌê Æ>! 2. Ò$ FÇ õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚. (ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$) 2. ´ë´ë! C…sìýMìü ÐðþâæýåÐèþ$Ã! 3. ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚. (A™èþ¯èþ$) 3. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþÐèþ…yìþ.

Model (i)

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèþ#Ó. (ÆæÿÑ) Model (iv) ´ë´ë! ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? ÆæÿÑMìü ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèþ#Ó. H… ´ë´ë! ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý? 1. 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ CÐèþÓ…yìþ. (BÄæý$¯èþ) 1. ÆæÿÒ! »êVæü$¯é²Ðé? 2. sîý CÐèþ#Ó. (Ðóþ$…) 2. ÔèýÆ>Ã! C™èþ¯ðþÐèþÆæÿ$? 3. ÆæÿÑ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… CÐèþ#Ó. (ÔèýÆæÿÃ) 3. çÜ$Væü$×ê! CMæüP×ìý~…_ Ò$ CËÏ$ G…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ…?

Model (iii)

d. Response drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

D »ŸÐèþ$à GÐèþÇMìü? (¯óþ¯èþ$) ¯éMæü$. D »ŸÐèþ$à ¯éMæü$.

ÔéÆæÿ§é! ^èþ*yæþ$, ÒÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø! (ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$) K! ÒÆæÿ$ ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$ Mæü§æþ*! 1. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþÇMìü? (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) 1. çÜ$ÖÌê! ^èþ*yæþ$, C§óþÑ$sZ! 2. B MæüË… GÐèþÇMìü? (ÆæÿÑ) (Mö™èþ¢ MæüË…) 3. D M>ïœ GÐèþÇMìü? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) 2. ÆæÿÒ! ^ðþ糚, C™èþ¯ðþÐèþÆø! (Vøí³) 3. Vøí³! ^èþ*yæþ$, C糚yæþ$ sñýO… G…™ø! (BÆæÿ$¯èþ²Ææÿ) Model (iii) ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ, D VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… G…™èþ »êVæü$¯èþ²§ø! (Mö™èþ¢) C¨ Mö™èþ¢ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… Mæü§æþ*! A…§æþ$Móü A…™èþ »êVæü$¯èþ²¨. 1. ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ, D CËÏ$ G…™èþ »êVæü$…§ø! (Ý÷…™èþ) 2. ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ, çÜ…` G…™èþ »êVæü$…§ø! (Mö™èþ¢) 3. ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ, D ç³#Ðèþ#Ó G…™èþ »êVæü$¯èþ²§ø! (Væü$Ìê½) e. Transformation drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (ii)

ÆæÿÒ! ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$. ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ*! ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ…yìþ. çÜ$Væü$×ê! Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$å´÷Æÿ$$Å. çÜ$ÖÌê! ç³NË$ MöÆÿ$$Å. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…ÌZ ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Æÿ$$. B Mæü糚 ºËÏÒ$§æþ ò³r$t 312

ÆæÿÒ! D ¼òÜPr$t †¯èþ$. A. ÆæÿÒ! D ¼òÜPr$t †¯èþMæü$.1. B. ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ*! D ¼òÜPr$t †¯èþ…yìþ. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ê! Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$Ï´÷Æÿ$$Å. 2. çÜ$ÖÌê! ç³NË$ MöÆÿ$$Å. 3. D M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Ò$§æþ X™èþË$ WÆÿ$$Å.

Lesson 19 Model (iii)

Model (iv)

ÒÆðÿÐèþÆø ^èþ*yæþ$. ^èþ*yæþ$, ÒÆðÿÐèþÆø! 1. ÆæÿÑ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yø ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ.

¯é ³ç #Üç M¢ üæ … GMæüPyæþ$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$.(ºËÏÒ$§æþ) ¯é ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … ºËÏÒ$§æþ E…§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$. 1. çÜ$ÖÌê! VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… GMæüPyæþ$…§ø Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$. (Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$ÌZ) 2. ÆæÿÑ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yø ^èþ*yæþ$. (Væü¨ÌZ) 3. MæüÌêË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Äñý* ^èþ*yæþ$. (çÜ…`ÌZ)

2. ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sZ ^ðþ糚. 3. ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$…§ø Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$. EXERCISES

a. Change the following sentences as shown in the model. Model (i)

D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? 2. ÆæÿÑ Væü¨ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? A. ^èþ*yæþ$, D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²§ø! 3. Ðèþ*ÚëtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? B. ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ, D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²§ø! 4. BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆæÿ$? 1. ¯é Mö™èþ¢ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… GÐèþÇ §æþVæüYÆæÿ$¯èþ²¨? Model (ii)

^èþ*yæþ$, D CËÏ$ G…™èþ »êVæü$¯èþ²§ø! (Ý÷…™èþ) 2. ^èþ*yæþ$, D ºçÜ$Þ G…™èþ C¨ Ý÷…™èþ CË$Ï Mæü§æþ*! A…§æþ$Móü C…™èþ »êVæü$-¯þè ²-¨. »êVæü$¯èþ²§ø! (GMŠüÞ{ò³‹Ü) 1. ^èþ*yæþ$ D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… G…™èþ »êVæü$¯èþ²§ø! 3. ^èþ*yæþ$ D íÜ°Ðèþ* G…™èþ (Mö™èþ¢) »êVæü$¯èþ²§ø! (´ë™èþ) b. Give your responses as shown in the model. Model (i)

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²§ø! (çÜ…`ÌZ) çÜ…_ÌZ E¯èþ²§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$. 1. MæüÌêË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Äñý*! (Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$ÌZ)

2. í³ËÏË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æø! (C…sZÏ) 3. Mæü$Èa GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²§ø! (Væü¨ÌZ)

c. Change the honorific forms into non-honorific and non-honorific into honorific in the following sentences.

1. ÆæÿÒ! D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ CÐèþ#Ó. 3. D M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Ò$§æþ X™èþË$ WÄæý$Å…yìþ. 2. çÜ$Væü$×ê! Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$å ´÷Äæý$ÅMæü$. 4. CMæüPyæþ Ò$ õ³Ææÿ$ Æ>Äæý$…yìþ. 313

An Intensive Course in Telugu

d. Rewrite the following sentences as directed.

1. Ò$Ææÿ$ ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> C…sìýMìü ÐðþâæýÏ…yìþ. (negative) 2. ÆæÿÑMìü D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèþ#Ó. (honorific) 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐðþÄæý$Å…yìþ. (negative) 4. MæüÐèþ$Ìê! D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… AMæüPyæþ ò³rt$. (negative)

5. çÜÆæÿâê! B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡ÝùP. (negative) 6. ç³NË$ MöÄæý$ÅMæü$ (honorific) 7. Æóÿç³# Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>. (negative honorific) 8. D Væü¨ÌZ Mæü*ÆøaMæü…yìþ. (affirmative)

e. Match the following. A

B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ò$Ææÿ$ MìüsìýMîü ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B ¸ë¯èþ$ D Mæü糚ÌZ ±âæý$Ï Væü$Ìê½ ç³#Ðèþ#Ó B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CMæüPyæþ

MöÆÿ$$Å ÐðþÆÿ$$Å ò³r$t Ðèþ$$Äæý$Å…yìþ ´÷Æÿ$$Å

( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) )

f. Produce atleast 16 sentences from the following table taking one word from each column.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ò$Ææÿ$

ÆæÿÑMìü MæüÐèþ$ËMæü$

C糚yæþ$ Æóÿç³#

± Ò$

õ³Ææÿ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… çÜ…`

g. Produce atleast 6 sentences from the following table.

çÜ$Væü$×ý MæüË… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÆæÿÑ

GMæüPyæþ Væü¨ÌZ

E…§óþÐðþ* E…§ø E¯é²yóþÐðþ* E¯é²yø 314

^èþ*yæþ$

^ðþ糚 ^ðþç³µ…yìþ CÐèþ#Ó CÐèþÓ…yìþ

Lesson 19

VOCABULARY

-A§ðþª A…§æþ$Mæü$ü K! ¼òÜPr$t Ðèþ*Ðèþ$Äæý$Å †¯èþ$ BMæüÍüü Ðèþ§æþ$ª A{yæþçÜ$ yðþOÈ Æ>Æÿ$$ Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$

´ùÎçÜ$õÜtçÙ¯èþ$üü Police station Ò¤ street õ³r a suburb or division

'rent (n. & adj.)' that is why; for that reason Oh! (interj.) biscuit meternal uncle eat hunger (n) a variant of þJ§æþ$ª oddu (L.16) address (n) diary write drawer of a table or box

X™èþ WÆÿ$$Å MöÆÿ$$Å Ððþ$$MæüP ´÷Æÿ$$Å ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$ ™ö…§æþÆæÿ gôýº$þ

of a big town/city line draw a line/picture cut; pluck (v)

plant (n) pour (v) go out; come out; set out; start (a journey) hurry (n); quickness pocket (n)

GRAMMAR NOTES 19.1. duced.

In this lesson the following compound sentence patterns are intro-

D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$.

‘See what is in this box.’

• pe  elª £muMdª c¶∂u.

ÐéÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø ^èþ*yæþ$.

‘See who he is.’

v¡ru evarª c¶∂u.

± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sZ ^ðþ糚.

‘Tell what is your name.’

n• p£r£mi ª ceppu.

yðþOÈ Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$ÌZ E…§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$

‘See if the diary is in the drawer.’

∂air• sorugulª uMd£mª c¶∂u.

315

An Intensive Course in Telugu 19.1.1. Recall the use of the dubitative marker &-K -ª (15.1.1)and the dubitative particle &HÐðþ* -£mª (15.1.2) in sentences like

A¨ GMæüPyæþ$…§ø!

‘It is not known where it is!’

adi ekka∂uMdª!

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆø!

‘It is not known who he is!’

atanu evarª!

A¨ AMæüPyæþ E…§óþÐðþ*!

‘It might be there.’

adi akka∂a uMd£mª! The above compound sentences (15.1) are the combinations of two simple sentences - one with a dubitative element and the other an imperative sentences. Here the dubitative marker &-K -ª and the dubitative particle &HÐðþ* -£mª are functioning as conjunctions. → D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$. → • pe  elª £mundª c¶∂u. → ± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sZ ^ðþ糚. → n• p£r£mi ª ceppu. → yðþOÈ Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$ÌZ E…§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$. → ∂air• sorugulª uMd£mª c¶∂u.

D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…¨ &K &^èþ*yæþ$ • pe  elª £muMdi -ª -c¶∂u

± õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý &K &^ðþ糚 n• p£r£mi i -ª -ceppu

yðþOÈ Ý÷Ææÿ$Væü$ÌZ E…¨ &HÐðþ* &^èþ*yæþ$ ∂air• sorugulª uMdi -£mª -c¶∂u

Notice that the dubitative elements which are functioning as conjunctions are added to the sentence which is not imperative one. In other words, they are added to the interrogative sentence and the declarative sentence. The structure is as follows. [(Interrogative sentence + ª )

[(Declarative sentence +

HÐðþ*)

+ +

Imperative sentence] Imperative sentence]

19.1.2. A change in the order of the constituent sentences of the above mentioned compound sentences is also possible as shown below.

D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø ^èþ*yæþ$. • pe  elª £muMdª c¶∂u.

→ →

^èþ*yæþ$ D ò³sñýtÌZ HÐèþ$$…§ø! c¶∂u • pe  elª £muMdª. 316

Lesson 19

ÐéÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø ^èþ*yæþ$. v¡ru evarª c¶∂u.

± õ³Æóÿ-Ñ$sZ ^ðþ糚. n• p£r£mi ª ceppu.

Ý÷Ææÿ$-Væü$ÌZ E…§óþÐðþ* ^èþ*yæþ$. sorugulª uMdemª c¶∂u.

→ → → → → →

^èþ*yæþ$ ÐéÆæÿ$ GÐèþÆø! c¶∂u v¡ru evarª.

^ðþ糚 ± õ³Æóÿ-Ñ$-sZ! ceppu n• p£r£mi ª.

^èþ*yæþ$ Ý÷Ææÿ$-Væü$ÌZ E…§óþ-Ððþ*! c¶∂u sorugulª uMdemª!

Notice from the above that the imperative sentences can occur as the constituent sentence 1 or 2. 19.1.3. It can be seen from the above compound sentences that the dubitative elements functioning as conjnuctions express 'unknownness'. When the speaker says ^èþ*yæþ$ ÒÆðÿÐèþÆ- ø! c¶∂u v•revarª 'See who he is.' the speaker does not know or pretends that he or she does not know who he is and is asking the listener to see and inform the speaker who he is. Hence the use of the verbs denoting 'inference' or 'information' or 'realizartion' such as tell, find out, see, take out etc. in the imperative sentence. 19.2. In this lesson some more verbal bases including some C i ending ones (8.3.1) are introduced in their imperative forms. (8.2.1) Imp.nonhon-sg.

Imp.pl.& hon. sg.

Imp.neg. non-hon.sg.

Imp. neg. pl. & hon. sg.

Root meaning

†¯èþ$

†¯èþ…-yþì

-†-¯èþMæü$

-†-¯èþ-Mæü…-yìþ

‘to eat’

tinu

tinaM∂i

tinaku

tinakaM∂i

-º-Äæý$-Ìôýª-Ææÿ-Mæü$

-º-Äæý$-Ìôýª-Ææÿ-Mæü…-yìþ

ºÄæý$-Ìôýª-Ææÿ$ ºÄæý$-Ìôýª-Ææÿ…-yìþ

‘to set off; to start bayald£ru bayald£raM∂i bayald£raku bayald£rakaM∂i (a journey)’ ò³r$t -ò³-rt…-yìþ -ò³-rt-Mæü$ -ò³-rt-Mæü…-yìþ ‘to put’ pe  u pe  aM∂i pe  aku pe  akaM∂i WÆÿ$$Å W-Äæý$Å…-yìþ -W-Äæý$Å-Mæü$ -W-Äæý$Å-Mæü…-yìþ ‘to draw (a line giyyi giyyaM∂i giyyaku giyyakaM∂i or picture)’ Æ>Æÿ$$ -Æ>-Äæý$…-yìþ -Æ>-Äæý$-Mæü$ -Æ>-Äæý$-Mæü…-yìþ ‘to write’ r¡yi r¡yaM∂i r¡yaku r¡yakaM∂i 317

An Intensive Course in Telugu

´÷Æÿ$$Å

-´÷-Äæý$Å…-yìþ

-´÷-Äæý$Å-Mæü$

-´÷-Äæý$Å-Mæü…-yìþ

poyyi

poyyaM∂i

poyyaku

poyyakaM∂i

MöÆÿ$$Å

-Mö-Äæý$Å…-yìþ

-Mö-Äæý$Å-Mæü$

-Mö-Äæý$Å-Mæü…-yìþ

koyyi

koyyaM∂i

koyyaku

koyykaM∂i

19.3.

The emphatic marker

&H

‘to pour’ ‘to cut; to pluck (flowers/leaves etc.)’

-£ (3.3), when added to a word, ex-

presses a stress on italics word which may be equated with 'only' in English.

C糚yæþ$ I§æþ$¯èþ²Ææÿ.

‘Now it is 5.30.’

ippu∂u aidunnara.

C糚yæþ$ I§æþ$¯èþ²Æóÿ!

‘Now it is 5.30 only.’

ippu∂u aidunnar£

ÆæÿÐèþ$ AMæüPyæþ E…¨.

‘Rama is there.’

rama akka∂a uMdi.

ÆæÿÐóþ$ AMæüPyæþ E…¨.

‘Rama only is there.’

ram£ akka∂a uMdi.

ÆæÿÐèþ$ AMæüPyóþ E…¨.

‘Rama is there only.’

rama akka∂£ uMdi The adverb ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> toMdarag¡ 'quickly' is formed by adding the

19.4.

adverbial marker &V> -g¡ (16.6) to the abstract noun. But the noun ™ö…§æþÆæÿ toMdara has two meanings 'hurry' and 'quickness'. 19.5.

Notice the following functions of the dative case suffix.

19.5.1.

It is the benefactive function (13.2.1) of the dative case suffix in the

sentence

Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$å ´÷Æÿ$$Å.

‘Water the plants.’

mokkalaku (plants-to) n•˚˚u (water) poyyi (pour!) Here the noun Ððþ$$MæüPË$ mokkalu 'plants' is the recipient (of water). Recall that the dative case suffix is added to the noun denoting recipient (13.2.1.)

318

Lesson 19 19.5.2. In the sentence BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚. ¡yanaku n• p£ru ceppu 'Tell him your name'. BÄæý$¯èþ ¡yana is also the recipient - recipient of information and hence the dative case suffix. (13.2.1) 19.5.3. In the following sentences the function of the dative case suffix is 'purposive' (see 14.1.1. and 17.10).

D ¼òÜPr$t ÆæÿÑMìü.

‘This biscuit is for Ravi.’

• biske  u raviki.

C¨ GÐèþ-ÇMìü?

‘Whom is this for?’

•di evariki? Notice that these are verbless sentences. 19.5.4. Recall the function of the dative case suffix in expressing the possession of feelings, desires, habits and experiences as mentioned in 17.8. The following sentence is another instance of the same. (cf. 14.1.3)

¯éMæü$ BMæüÍ Ìôý§æþ$.

‘I am not hungry.’

n¡ku ¡kali l£du. to me hunger is not (there) 19.5.5. The function of the dative case suffix in the following sentence is locative i.e., location (in time). (15.6.1)

BÆæÿ$¯èþ²ÆæÿMæü$ ¯érMæü… E…¨.

‘There is drama at 6-30.’

¡runnaraku n¡ akaM uMdi. 19.6. Recall that the dative case suffix is added to the noun functioning as destination (15.6.2.). But if the noun functioning as destination is not a place noun such as house, school, garden, village, office and the like, the dative case suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/-ki cannot be added to the noun directly. Instead, §æþVæüY-Ç daggari dative case suffix is added. §æþVæüY-Ç daggari is the oblique base of §æþVæüYÆæÿ daggara.

319

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÆæÿÑ §æþVæüY-ÇMìü Ððþâæý$å. ¯é §æþVæüY-ÇMìü Æ>! B ^ðþr$t §æþVæüY-ÇMìü ´ù!

ravi daggariki ve˚˚u. 'Go to Ravi.' n¡ daggariki r¡! 'Come to me.' ¡ ce  u daggariki pª! 'Go to that tree.' In the above examples, the nouns ÆæÿÑ ravi ¯óþ¯èþ$ n£nu and B ^ðþr$t ¡ ce  u are functioning as destinations. As such, they need the dative case suffix. But they are not place nouns. Hence §æþVæüY-Ç daggari is added to them before the dative case suffix is added. (§æþVæüÇ -Y daggari is added to the oblique base. Hence §æþVæüÇY daggari.) 19.6.1.

Notice the following sentences.

çÜ*PË$ §æþVæüYÇMìü Ððþâæý$Ï.

‘Go near the school.’

sk¶lu daggariki ve˚˚u.

çÜ*PË$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$Ï.

‘Go to the school.’

sk¶luku ve˚˚u. When the destination noun is a place noun (çÜ*PË$ sk¶lu in the above example), it can be used with or without §æþVæüYÇ daggari. Here §æþVæüYÇ daggari retains its meaning 'near'. But when it is added to a non-place noun such as persons, things etc. it loses its meaning 'near' and supports the dative case suffix in its destinative function, denoting destination.

320

Lesson 20

UNIT IV Lesson 20

¯óþ¯èþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ÐðþâêÏÍ

I HAVE TO GO TO A MOVIE

Vøí³ : ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯éMöMæü çÜàÄæý$… ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ

Ravi! You should do me a favour.

ÆæÿÑ

What is it?

: HÑ$sìý?

Vøí³ : HÒ$Ìôý§æþ$. V>Äæý${¡ sêMîüçÜ$ÌZ ™ðþË$Væü$ íÜ°Ðèþ* E…¨.

There is Telugu film in Gayatri talkies.

ÆæÿÑ

What about, then?

: AÆÿ$$™óþ HÑ$sìý?

Vøí³ : B íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ùÐéÍ.

I have to go to that cinema.

ÆæÿÑ

Go then!

: ´ù! 321

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Vøí³ : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé ¯é™ø Æ>ÐéÍ.

You should also come with me.

ÆæÿÑ

Why should I?

: ¯óþ¯ðþ…§æþ$Mæü$?

Vøí³ : G…§æþ$MóüÑ$sìý? íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$.

To see the cinema.

ÆæÿÑ

I have work.

: C糚yæþ$ ¯éMæü$ ç³° E…¨.

Vøí³ : H… ç³°?

What work?

ÆæÿÑ

I have to speak with the teacher. I have to take a book (from him). Talk tomorrow. Take the book tomorrow.

: Ðèþ*ÚëtÆæÿ$V>Ç™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$MøÐéÍ.

Vøí³ : Æóÿç³# Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ $. ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … Æóÿç³# ¡çÜ$Mø. ÆæÿÑ

: C…M> ÐóþÆóÿ 糯èþ$Ë$ Mæü*yé E¯é²Æÿ$$. ÆæÿÐèþ$ C…sìýMìü ÐðþâêÏÍ; Ðéâæýå ¯é¯èþ² V>Ç° ^è þ *yéÍ. BÄæ ý $¯è þ ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. ÆæÿÐèþ$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ã×ìý~ Mæü*yé ^èþ*yéÍ.

Vøí³ : Ðéâæýå¯èþ$ Æóÿç³# ^èþ*yæþ$. B 糯èþ$Ë$ Æóÿç³# ^ðþÆÿ$$Å. ÆæÿÑ

: CÐóþÓâôý ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ. íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ððþâæý$Ï. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐéâæýÏ Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ CMæüPyìþMìü ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>ÐéÍ.

þ Vøí³ : ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#.

There are some more things to do. I have to go Rama’s house. I have to see her father. I have to talk to him. I have also to see Rama’s brother. See them tomorrow. Do all those things tomorrow. I have to do them today itself. You go to the cinema. I have to bring their dog here. I don’t have money.

322

Lesson 20

ÆæÿÑ

: A§é ÑçÙÄæý$…? ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ E¯é²Æÿ$$. ¡çÜ$Mø!

Oh! Is that the matter? I have money. Take it.

Vøí³ : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé Æ>, ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$.

You also come with me.

ÆæÿÑ

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ê! D Mæü…^èþ… »êV>Ìôý§æþ$. Ðèþ$äå Mæüyæþ$Væü$.

It’s not possible to me. You can go. First let’s go to the mess. We have to eat food. Haven’t we? Narayana! This plate is not clean. Wash it again.

Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ : HÑ$sìý ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ê! ¯éMæü$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ìôý¯é!

What Narayana! Only three chapathies for me?

¯éÆ> : CÐéÓâæý ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ Mö…^ðþÐóþ$ E¯é²Äæý$…yîþ.

Today we have only few chapathies, sir.

Ææÿ†

I am not concerned with that. I need at least ten chapaties a day. Bring them.

: ¯éMæü$ ÒË$ Ìôý§æþ$; ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ððþâæý$Ï.

Vøí³ : Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ Ððþ$çÜ$ÞMæü$ 糧æþ. A¯èþ²… †¯éÍ Mæü§é!

: A¨¯éMæü$ A¯èþÐèþçÜÆæÿ…. ¯éMæü$ ÆøkMæü$ Mæü±çÜ… 糨 ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ M>ÐéÍ; ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>!

¯éÆ> : AÆÿ$$™óþ Ððþ$çÜ$Þ òÜ{MðürÈ° AyæþVæü…yìþ.

Then, ask the mess secretary.

Ææÿ† : Ððþ$çßýM>ÆŠÿ íÜ…VŠü! ±Mæü$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ ^éÌê?

Mehakar singh! Will three chapathies be sufficient for you? Don’t ask me anything. There is the secretary. Ask him.

Ððþ$çßý : ¯èþ¯èþ$² HÒ$ AyæþVæüMæü$. Ayæþ$Vø Ððþ$çÜ$Þ òÜ{MðürÈ. BÄæý$¯èþ¯èþ$ Ayæþ$Væü$. 323

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯èþ…§æþMæü$Ðèþ*ÆŠÿ : FÆøP, Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$!

Ratiram, be quiet.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$! JMæü ç³°^ðþÆÿ$$Å. ¯é ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ ¡çÜ$Mø!

Ratiram! Do one thing. You take my chapathies.

Ææÿ† : ± ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ JMæüsìý Mæü*yé ¯éMæü$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$.

I don’t need any of your chapaties.

ÔèýÆæÿà : AÆÿ$$™óþ ´ù, òÜ{Mðürȯóþ Ayæþ$Væü$.

Then, go and ask the secretary only. Yes (I will). Narayana! I don’t want if it is three chapathies. Take them away!

Ææÿ† : B! ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ê! Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯éMæü$ AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $. ¡çÜ$Mø´ù! DRILLS a. Repetition drill

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æóÿç³# ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>ÐéÍ. AMæüPyæþ Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. Ðèþ$¯èþ… »êV> ç³°^ðþÄææý*ÅÍ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó M>ïœ ¡çÜ$MøÐéÍ. HÒ$ A-yæþ-Væü-Mæü$. HÒ$ Ðèþ*sêÏ-yæþ-Mæü$ B Mæü…^èþ… »êV>¯óþ E…¨. ÔèýÆæÿà : ÆæÿÒ! íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Æ>! ÆæÿÑ : ¯éMæü$ ç³° E…¨. ÔèýÆæÿà : ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$, Æ>! ÆæÿÑ : ¯éMæü$ ÒË$Ìôý§æþ$; ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ððþâæý$Ï! MæüÐèþ$Ë : çÜ$Væü$×ê! Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$Ï´÷Æÿ$$Å. çÜ$Væü$×ý : ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëuæÿ… Æ>Äæý*Í. 324

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$; Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$Ï ´÷Æÿ$$Å. ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ ´ëuæÿ… Æ>Æÿ$$. çÜ$Væü$×ý : ¯éMæü$ ÒË$ Ìôý§æþ$; ¯èþ$ÐóþÓ Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$Ï ´÷Æÿ$$Å. Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯éMæü$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$/J§æþ$ª. ¯éMæü$ ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… JMæüsìý Mæü*yé AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. ÆæÿÑMìü ÆøkMæü$ Mæü±çÜ… 糨 ç³NÈ-Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. ÆæÿÑ° ^èþ*yæþ$. ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! í³ÍÏ° ^èþ*yæþ$. Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*yæþ$. MæüË… ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>!

Lesson 20

b. Expansion drill Model (i) Model (ii) A. ¯éMæü$ 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. ¯èþ¯èþ$² AyæþVæüMæü$. B. ¯éMæü$ Mæü±çÜ… 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. ¯èþ¯èþ$² HÒ$ AyæþVæüMæü$.

1. ÆæÿÑMìü ¯éË$Væü$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. 1. ÆæÿÑ° AyæþVæüMæü$. 2. Üç $Væü$×ýMæü$ ¯éË$Væü$ Mæü³ç šË$ M>ïœ M>ÐéÍ. 2. çÜ$ÖËMæü$ ^ðþç³µMæü$. 3. A™èþ°Mìü 糨 M>Æÿ$$™éË$ M>ÐéÍ. 3. ¯é™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþMæü$. Model (iii) ¯éMæü$ ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. ¯éMæü$ ± ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … JMæüsìý Mæü*yé AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $. 1. Vøí³Mìü ¯é ^èþ´ë¡ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$ 3. »êÚëMæü$ ± º…† AMæüP-ÆóÿÏ-§æþ$. 2. çÜ$Væü$×ýMæü$ Ò$ »ŸÐèþ$à AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. 4. A™èþ°Mìü ± MæüË… AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. Model (iv) ¯éMæü$ 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. (ÆøkMæü$) ¯éMæü$ ÆøkMæü$ Mæü±çÜ… 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. 1. ÆæÿÑMìü Ðèþ…§æþÆæÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. (5 ÆøkËMæü$) 2. Ðèþ*Mæü$ ¯éË$Væü$ MìüÌZË$ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ M>ÐéÍ. 3. A™èþ°Mìü CÆæÿÐðþO M>Æÿ$$™éË$ M>ÐéÍ. (ÆøkMæü$) c. Substitution drill

HÒ$ ^ðþç³µMæü$. Model (ii) òÜ{MæürÈ° Ayæþ$Væü$ CÐèþ#Ó Vøí³ HÒ$ CÐèþÓMæü$ Vøí³° Ayæþ$Væü$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$ çßýÇ †¯èþ$ WÇ ^ðþÆÿ$$Å VúÇ Model (iii) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ ^èþ*yéÍ. (Ayæþ$-Væü$-) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ AyæþV>Í. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý MæüË… Mö¯éÍ. (Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$) 2. ÑfÄæý$ ™èþË$ç³# †Äæý*ÅÍ. (ÐðþÆÿ$$Å) 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$MøÐéÍ. (¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù) 4. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó CMæüPyæþ Mæü*ÆøaÐéÍ. (°ÌZa) Model (i)

325

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯é §æþVæüÆY ÿæ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. Model (vii) Ðóþ×ý$ ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðéâæý$Ï ± §æþVæüYÆæÿ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. Ðóþ×ý$ ÐéâæýÏ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. A™èþ¯èþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðéyæþ$ ¯èþ$-Ðèþ#Ó BÐðþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ë™èþ-V>-Ææÿ$ -Ðé-yæþ$ Model (v) ÑfÄæý$¯èþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$. Model (viii) ¯é §æþVæüÆY ÿæ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. çÜ$Væü$×ý ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó çÜ$Væü$×ý¯èþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$ ± §æþVæüÆY ÿæ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. BÄæý$¯èþ A™èþ¯èþ$ BÐðþ$ Ðéyæþ$ Mæü$MæüP BÐðþ$ Model (vi) Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ã×ìý~ ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ Model (ix) Ððþ$çÜ$ÞMæü$ 糧æþ! Ðéyæþ$ CË$Ï Ðèþ* Ðé×ìý~ ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. C…sìýMìü 糧æþ! Æ>Ðèþ$$yæþ$ çÜ*PË$ Ðèþ$¯èþÐèþyæþ$ FÆæÿ$ Ðéâæý$Ï ´ùÝëtïœçÜ$ Model (x) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D »ŸÐèþ$à ^èþ*yæþ$! (í³ÍÏ) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D í³ÍÏ° ^èþ*yæþ$. 1. çÜ$ÖÌê! B MæüË… ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! (Mæü$MæüP) 2. çÜ$Væü$×ýV>Ææÿ*! Mæü$Èa ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù…yìþ. (´ëç³) 3. ÔéÅÐèþ$ËV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ* CË$Ï ^èþ*yéÍ. (AÐèþ$Ã)

Model (iv)

d. Response drill Model (i)

±Mæü$ ÆøkMæü$ G°² ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ M>ÐéÍ? (G°Ñ$¨) ¯éMæü$ Mæü±çÜ… ÆøkMæü$ G°Ñ$¨ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. 1. ±Mæü$ ¯ðþËMæü$ G°² Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÍ? (Ðèþ…§æþ) 2. ±Mæü$ Væü…rMæü$ G°² CyîþÏË$ M>ÐéÍ? (Æðÿ…yæþ$) 3. ±Mæü$ G°² M>Æÿ$$™éË$ M>ÐéÍ? (AÆæÿÐðþO) 326

Lesson 20

±Mæü$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ ^éÌê? Æðÿ…yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯éMæü$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. 1. ±Mæü$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ^éÌê? 2. ±Mæü$ ¯éË$Væü$ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ^éÌê? 3. ÆæÿÑMìü CÆæÿÐðþO M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ^éÌê? Model (iii) ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$ÒÓç³° ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ. (Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ & Ððþâæý$Ï) ¯éMæü$ ÒË$Ìôý§æþ$; ¯óþ¯èþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ÐðþâêÏÍ. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>ÐéÍ. (Mö™èþ¢ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) 2. ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é™øÆ>ÐéÍ. (E™èþ¢Ææÿ… & Æ>Æÿ$$) 3. HÐèþ$…yîþ, Ò$Ææÿ$ CMæüPyæþ JMæü Væü…r Mæü*ÆøaÐéÍ. (íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ & ´ù) Model (iv) ±Mæü$ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ M>ÐéÌê? ¯éMæü$ ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… JMæüsìý Mæü*yé AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ çÜÆæÿâæý ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>ÐéÌê? 2. Ò$Mæü$ Ðèþ* »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ M>ÐéÌê? 3. Ðèþ$¯èþMæü$ ÐéâæýÏ MæüÌêË$ M>ÐéÌê?

Model (ii)

e. Transformation dril

ÆæÿÒ! ÆæÿÒ! 1. Vøï³! 2 Ò$Ææÿ$ 3 Ò$Ææÿ$

Model (i)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é™ø Æ>! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é™ø Æ>ÐéÍ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>…yìþ. ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ Ò$ C…sìýMìü ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù…yìþ.

EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the correct case forms of the cue words given in the parentheses.

1. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ..... (¯óþ¯èþ$) A¯èþÐèþçÜÆæÿ…. 2. ..... (¯óþ¯èþ$) ..... (Æøk) ³ç ¨- Ææÿ*-´ë-Äýæ $Ë$ M>Ðé-Í. 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ Mö…^ðþ… ..... (ç³MæüP) fÆæÿVæü…yìþ. 4. ..... (¯óþ¯èþ$) HÑ$ AyæþVæüMæü…yìþ. 5. ..... (ÆæÿÑ) Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ…yìþ. 6. ..... (ÆæÿÑ) 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ Ayæþ$Væü$. 327

An Intensive Course in Telugu

b. Fill up the blanks with suitable suffixes given in the parentheses.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ ..... Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. (™ø, Mìü) Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó çßýÇ ..... 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ CÐéÓÍ. (°, Mìü) çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é ..... Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Æ>ÐéÍ. (™ø, Mæü$) çßýÈ! ÆæÿÑ ..... ± õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ糚 (Mìü, °) WÇgê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó MæüÐèþ$Ë ..... C…sìýMìü Ððþâæý$Ï. (Mìü, ™ø)

c. Change the following as shown in the model.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþÐèþ…yìþ. Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþÐéË…yîþ. 1. gꯌþV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ýÐèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ç™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ…yìþ! 2. MæüÐèþ$ËV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ Æóÿç³# çÜÆæÿâæý Væü¨Mìü Æ>…yìþ! 3. çÜ$ÖËV>-Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ! Model (ii) Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$-Ðèþ#. Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ-Ðé-Í. 1. gꯌþ! ¯èþ$-Ðèþ#ÓýÐèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ç™ø Ðèþ*-sêÏ-yæþ$! 2. MæüÐèþ$Ìê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æóÿç³# çÜÆæÿâæý Væü¨Mìü Æ>! 3. çÜ$ÖÌê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mø! Model (iii) Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ#! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó CÐóþÓâæý Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>ÐéÍ. (ÆæÿÑ §æþVæüYÆæÿ&Ððþâæý$Ï) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ §æþVæüYÇMìü ÐðþâêÏÍ. ¯éMæü$ ÒË$Ìôý§æþ$. 1. MæüÐèþ$Ìê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ. (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… & ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) 2. Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ç³° ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ. (Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ & Ððþâæý$Ï) 3. Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ#! D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. (íÜ°Ðèþ* & Ððþâæý$Ï) Model (i)

d. Answer the follwing questions as shown in the models. Model (i)

Model (ii)

±Mæü$ BÆæÿ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ^éÌê? ¯éMæü$ BÆæÿ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ AÆÿ$$™óþ AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $. 1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ CyîþÏË$ ^éÌê? 2. çÜ$Væü$×ýMæü$ MìüÌZ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ ^éÌê? 3. ±Mæü$ AÆæÿ Mæü糚 sîý ^éÌê?

±Mæü$ ¯é MæüÌêË$ M>ÐéÌê? ¯éMæü$ ± MæüÌêË$ JMæüPsìý Mæü*yé AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $. 1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ ÐéâæýÏ M>Æÿ$$™éË$ M>ÐéÌê? 2. çÜ$ÖËMæü$ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ M>ÐéÌê? 3. Ò$Mæü$ ÔèýÆæÿà »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ M>ÐéÌê?

328

Lesson 20

VOCABULARY

-íÜ°Ðèþ* çÜàÄæý$…ü ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ´ù &™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$ ÐóþÆóÿ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÑçÙÄæý$… ÒË$ Ððþ$çÜ$Þ ³ç §æþ A¯èþ²… Mæü…^èþ…

Mæüyæþ$Væü$ü ^èþ´ë¡

cinema help (n) do (v) go (v) with talk (v) other money matter possibility; convenience mess come on; let’s go! food; cooked rice. plate used to eat food

wash (v) chap¡t•; a pan-

cake made of wheat flour

A¯èþÐèþçÜÆæÿ… Mæü±çÜ… òÜ{MðürÈ Ayæþ$Væü$ ¯èþ¯èþ$²

not necessary at least secretary ask

FÆøP ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù

keep quiet

me (accusative form of ¯óþ¯èþ$ n£nu) take away

GRAMMAR NOTES In this lesson the obligatory form of the verb is introduced &BÍ/ &ÐéÍ -¡li/-v¡li is the suffix added to the verbal base to form the obligatory form. This form implies that the action denoted by the verbal base is to be performed obligatorily by the subject noun. 20.1.

¯óþ¯èþ$ CÐóþÓâæý ÆæÿÑ° ^èþ*yéÍ.ü

‘I have to see Ravi today.’

n£nu ivv£˚a ravini c¶∂¡li.

A™èþ¯èþ$ D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$MøÐéÍ.

‘He has to take this book.’

atanu • pustakaM t•sukªv¡li. 20.1.1. &ÐéÍ -v¡li occurs after the verbal bases ending in along vowel and &BÍ -¡li after the other bases.

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>&ÐéÍü ´ù&ÐéÍ Mæü*Æøa&ÐéÍ †¯èþ$&BÍ=†¯éÍ Æ>Æÿ$$&BÍ=Æ>Äæý*Í ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#&BÍ=^èþ§æþÐéÍ Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$&BÍ=Ððþ™èþM>Í

r¡-v¡li pª-v¡li k¶rcª-v¡li tinu-¡li (2.12.2) r¡yi-¡li(2.12.1.) caduvu-¡li (15.5.1; 2.12.2) vetuku-¡li(15.5.1; 2.12.2)

‘One should come.’ ‘One should go.’ ‘One should sit.’ ‘One should eat.’ ‘One should write.’ ‘One should read.’ ‘One should search.’

20.2. The accusative case suffix &¯èþ$/&°ü-nu/-ni is also introduced in this lesson. The accsative case suffix is added to the noun (oblique bases as stated in 8.9) functioning as the object (direct object) of the verb.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*çÙt-Ææÿ$V>Ç° ^èþ*yéÍ.

‘I have to see the teacher’

n£nu m¡ß ¡rug¡rini c¶∂¡li.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó BÐðþ$¯èþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$.

‘You see her’

nuvvu ¡menu c¶∂u. 20.2.1. &° -ni occurs after oblique bases ending in suffix &C -i or &D • and &¯èþ$ -nu occurs after the other oblique bases. Recall that the dative case suffix -&Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/ki has also a similar distribution. (see 13.1)

ÆæÿÑ&° MæüÐèþ$Ë&¯èþ$ Mæü$Èa&° BÐðþ$&¯èþ$

ravi-ni kamala-nu kurc•-ni ¡menu

‘Ravi (acc.)’ ‘Kamala (acc.)’ ‘chair (acc.)’ ‘her (acc.)’

20.2.2. The accusative case suffix is added to the animate nouns, i.e. nouns denoting the living being (humans and animals) and the pronouns used as substitutes for the animate nouns. Inanimate nouns and pronouns used as substitutes for the inanimate nouns rarely take the accusative case suffix.

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#/¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>!

‘Read/Bring the book.’

pustakaM caduvu/t•sukur¡.

330

Lesson 20

BÄæý$¯èþ¯èþ$/BÐðþ$¯èþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$!

‘See him/her.’

¡yananu/¡menu c¶∂u.

B Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ Mö¯èþ$!

‘Buy that dog.’

¡ kukkanu konu.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ° ^èþ*yéÍ.

‘I have to see Ravi.’

n£nu ravini c¶∂¡li.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÑfÄæý$¯èþ$ AyæþV>Í.

‘You have to ask Vijaya.’

nuvvu vijayanu a∂ag¡li.

Ðéyæþ$ í³ÍÏ° ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ùÐéÍ.

‘He has to take away the cat.’

v¡∂u pillini t•sukupªv¡li .

A™èþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯éÍ.

‘He has to eat food.’

atanu annaM tin¡li. We can also have sentences like the following.

B »ŸÐèþ$ïèþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$! B Mæü$Èa° ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>!

¡ bommanu c¶∂u. ¡ kurc•ni t•sukur¡.

‘See that doll.’ ‘Bring that chair.’

20.2.3. The accusative case suffix is added to the direct object. Direct object is the noun which undergoes or experiences the action denoted by the verb. The dative case suffix is added to the indirect object. Indirect object is the noun denoting the recipient.

¯éMæü$2 ± í³ÍÏ°1 CÐèþ#Ó.ü (ii) ÆæÿÑMìü2 ± õ³Ææÿ$1 ^ðþ糚. (i)

-n¡ku2 n• pillini1 ivvu. ‘Give me your cat.’ -raviki2 n• p£ru1 ceppu. ‘Tell Ravi your name.’

In the examples cited above, nouns marked 2 are indirect objects as they are the recipients and hence they are inflected by the dative case suffix. The nouns marked 1 are the direct objects as they undergo or experience the action denoted by the verb and hence they are inflected by the accusative case suffix. But, however, the direct object in the example (ii), õ³Ææÿ$ -p£ru name doesn’t show the accusative case suffix as it is an inanimate noun. (20.2.2.)

331

An Intensive Course in Telugu 20.2.4. The first and second person pronouns have some modified forms when declined for accusative case. In this lesson the first person singular pronoun is used in accusative case.

¯óþ¯èþ$ n£nu + accusative case suffix = ¯èþ¯èþ$² nannu ‘me (acc).’ ¯èþ¯èþ$² ^èþ*yæþ$. nannu c¶∂u. ‘See me.’ ¯èþ¯èþ$² Ayæþ$Væü$. nannu a∂ugu. ‘Ask me’ 20.3. Recall the use of the lengthening of the final vowel (inclusive marker 7.9) of the interrogative words with the simultaneous use of a negative form of the verb to denote something which we can equate with English expressions like ‘nothing, nobody, nowhere’ etc. (16.4.) In the following sentences also a similar function of the inclusive marker can be seen.

¯èþ¯èþ$² HÒ$ AyæþVæüMæü$.

‘Don’t ask me anything. (Ask me nothing.)’

nannu £m• a∂agaku.

HÒ$ ^èþ*yæþMæü$.

‘Don’t see anything. (See nothing.)’

£m• c¶∂aku. 20.4.

&™ø -tª ‘with’ is the sociative case suffix. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÑV>Ç™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. ‘You have to talk with Mr.Ravi.’ nuvvu ravig¡ritª m¡ l¡∂¡li.

Ðéyæþ$ ¯é™ø Æ>ÐéÍ.

‘He has to come with me.’

v¡∂u n¡tª r¡v¡li. Recall that the case suffixes are added to oblique bases. (See 8.9.) 20.5. A mention was made in lesson 8 (8.3.) about the lone A a ending base in Telugu 糧æþ pada ‘Come on let’s go!.’ This is a type of defective verb as it can occur only in imperative affirmative.

³ç §æþ! 糧æþ…yìþ!

pada! padaM∂i!

‘Come on, let’s go.’ (Imp. non. hon. sg.) ‘Please come on, let’s go.’ (Imp. hon. sg. & pl.)

332

Lesson 20 20.6. The phrases (a) ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$. parav¡l£du. ‘Doesn’t matter; Don’t worry; All right’ and (b) ÒË$Ìôý§æþ$. v•lul£du ‘Not possible’ (negative expression for ÒË$ E…¨. v•lu uMdi ‘It is possible.’) are very often used in conversation. (a) is used when the speaker wants to console or convince the listner. (b) is used to express the nonpossibility of doing something. 20.7.

yæþº$¾Ë$ ∂abbulu ‘money’ is used as a plural noun in Telugu.

20.8.

Compare the following two sentences.

(i) ¯é

§æþVæüÆY ÿæ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. (ii) ¯éMæü$ fÓÆæÿ… Ìôý§æþ$.

n¡ daggara ∂abbulu l£vu. ‘I don’t have money.’ n¡ku jvaraM l£du (14.1.3) ‘I don’t have fever.’ Dative case suffix expresses ‘possession’ (13.2.2.) Possession can be viewed as (a) separable possession and (b) inseparable possession. The postposition §æþVæüÆY ÿæ daggara along with the existential verb expresses separable possession. Dative case suffix expresses inseparable possession, ownership, legal right, kinship, relationships, feelings, sentiments, etc. come under the category of inseparable possession. Now look at the above two sentences. Sentence (i) involves separable possession. Sentence (ii) involves inseparable possession. The following are some more examples.

1. çßýÇMìü í³ËÏË$ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

‘Hari has children.’

hariki pillalu unn¡ru.

2. çßýÇMìü õܲíßý™èþ$Ë$ E¯é²Ææÿ$.

‘Hari has friends.’

hariki sn£hitulu unn¡ru.

3. çßýÇMìü CË$Ï E…¨.

‘Hari has a house.’

hariki illu uMdi.

4. çßýÇMìü E§øÅVæü… E…¨.

‘Hari has a job.’

hariki udyªgaM uMdi

5. çßýÇMìü ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# E…¨.

‘Hari has education.’

hariki caduvu uMdi

6. çßýÇ §æþVæüYÆæÿ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… E…¨.

‘Hari has a book’

hari daggara pustakaM uMdi 333

An Intensive Course in Telugu

7. çßýÇ §æþVæüYÆæÿ ò³sñýt E…¨.

‘Hari has a box.’

hari daggara pe  e uMdi.

8. çßýÇ §æþVæüYÆæÿ Câæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$.ý

‘Hari has houses (for sale).’

hari daggara i˚˚u unn¡yi.

9. çßýÇ §æþVæüÆY ÿæ E§øÅV>Ë$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

‘Hari has jobs (to be given to others.)’

hari daggara udyªg¡lu unn¡yi. The scope of the feature ‘possession’ in terms of ‘separable possession’ and ‘inseparable possession’ can be seen from the above sentences. 20.9. Notice the use of the dative case suffix in the following sentences to express possessive relationship.

¯éMæü$ ÒË$ Ìôý§æþ$. n¡ku v•lu l£du.

‘I don’t have any convenience (to do something).’

¯éMæü$ ç³° E…¨. n¡ku pani uMdi.

‘I have some work.’

Notice the use of the word Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ ‘also’ (lesson 2) in sentences like the following. 20.10.

± ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ JMæüsìý Mæü*yé ¯éMæü$ AMæüPÆóÿ§Ï þæ $. n• cap¡t•lu oka i k¶∂¡ n¡ku akkarl£du. ‘I don’t want even one of your chapatis.’ When a minimum expectancy is negated Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ and a negative verb are used in the sentence. Here Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ ‘even’ provides an emphasis.

¯éMæü$ JMæü ^èþ´ë¡ Mæü*yé AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$.

‘I don’t want even one chapti’

n¡ku oka cap¡t• k¶∂¡ akkarl£du.

AMæüPyæþ JMæüyæþ$ Mæü*yé Ìôýyæþ$.

‘There is not even a single person’

akka∂a oka∂u k¶∂¡ l£∂u.

íÜ°Ðèþ* àÌZÏ ç³¨Ðèþ$…¨ Mæü*yé ÌôýÆæÿ$.

‘there are not even ten persons sinim¡ h¡llª padimaMdi k¶d¡ l£ru. in the cinema hall.’ 334

Lesson 20 20.11.

Notice the use of AÆÿ$$™óþ ait£ ‘if’ in sentences like

Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯éMæü$ AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. m¶∂u cap¡t•lu ait£ n¡ku akkarl£du. ‘If it is only three chapatis I don’t need them’ 20.12.

Notice the use of dative case suffix in sentences like

ÆæÿÑMìü ÆøkMæü$ 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÍ.

‘Ravi needs ten rupees a day.’

raviki rªjuku padir¶p¡yalu k¡v¡li. Here the dative case suffix added to the noun Æøk rªju denotes ‘per’. It can also be used to denote to; in; for every; per, etc. as in the following sentences.

ÆøkMæü$ CÆæÿÐðþO ¯éË$Væü$ Væü…rË$.

‘There are 24 hours in a day.’

rªjuku iravai n¡lugu gaM alu.

Væü…rMæü$ 糨 Ððþ$Oâæý$å.

‘Ten miles per hour.’

gaM aku padi mai˚˚u.

糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$ËMæü$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ MæüÌêË$.

‘Two pens for ten rupees.’etc.

padi r¶p¡yalaku reM∂u k¡lalu. 20.13. The function of the dative case suffix is purposive (17.10.; 14.1.1.) in the following sentence.

A¨ ¯éMæü$ A¯èþÐèþçÜÆæÿ….

‘It is unnecessary for me.’

adi n¡ku anavasaraM.

¯éMæü$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ìôý¯é?

‘Only three chapatis for me?’

n¡ku m¶∂u cap¡t•l£n¡?

335

UNIT IV Lesson 21

Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ™ør

A MANGO GROVE

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ÆæÿÒ! B Mø†° ^èþ*yæþ$. B MöÐèþ$à Ò$¨ °…_ D MöÐèþ$ÃÒ$¨Mìü D MöÐèþ$ÃÒ$¨°…_ B MöÐèþ$ÃÒ$¨Mìü §æþ*Mæü$™ø…¨. D Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ™ør GÐèþ-Ç-¨?

Ravi! See that monkey. It is jumping from this branch to that branch and from that branch to this branch. Whose mango grove is this?

ÆæÿÑ

Ours only. mangoes.

: Ðèþ*§óþ. Ò$Mæü$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ M>ÐéÌê?

Do you want

ÑÐèþ$Ë : ¯éMæü$ JMæü M>Äæý$ ^éË$.

One is enough for me.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^ðþr$t GMæü$P ÆæÿÒ! M>Äæý$Ë$ MöÆÿ$$Å.

Ravi! You climb the tree and pluck the mangoes. 336

Lesson 21

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am climbing it.

ÆæÿÑ

Be careful. Climb slowly. Rock that branch.

: gê{Væü™èþ!¢ Ððþ$ËÏV> GMæü$P. B MöÐèþ$ïèþ$ Fç³#.

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : Fç³#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am rocking it.

ÆæÿÑ

Which branch are you rocking? That small branch doesn’t have any mangoes. Rock that big branch. Okay. Are the fruits falling down? Yes, They are.

: H MöÐèþ$ïèþ$ Fç³#™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#? B _¯èþ² MöÐèþ$ÃMæü$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. B ò³§æþª MöÐèþ$ïèþ$ Fç³#.

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : çÜÆóÿ, M>Äæý$Ë$ Æ>Ë$™èþ$¯é²Äæý*? ÑÐèþ$Ë : B! Æ>Ë$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : M>Äæý$˱² Ò$Ææÿ$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²Æ>? MæüÐèþ$Ë : B HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²….

Are you picking up all the mangoes? Yes, we are.

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : GÐèþÆæÿ$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$?

Who is picking them up?

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ¯óþ¯èþ$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ HÆæÿ$™èþ$ &¯é²yæþ$. ÑÐèþ$ËVæü*yé HÆæÿ$™ø…¨.

I am picking up. Ravi is picking. Vimala is also picking.

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$tÒ$¨¯èþ$…_ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. M>Äæý$Ë$ ^éÌê?

I am getting down from the tree. Are the mangoes sufficient?

ÆæÿÑ

Yes. Come down. Be careful. The branch is breaking down.

: B! ^éË$. Mìü…¨Mìü Æ>! gê{Væü™èþ¢. MöÐèþ$à ÑÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨. 337

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Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$. gê{Væü™èþ¢V>¯óþ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

It’s all right. I am getting down the branch carefully.

***

***

Ððþ…MæürÆ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : HÐðþ*ÄŒý$, Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>ÐŒþ! AMæüPyæþ JMæü Mæü${Æ>yæþ$ ±ÌêVóü E¯é²yøÄŒý$! Gr$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? Æ>Ðèþ* : ÆðÿOË$ õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ…yîþ! Ðèþ* AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ °…_ Ðèþ* AMæüPÄæý$ůèþ$ ¡çÜ$MöçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

Hey! Ramarao. There was a boy who looked like you. Where (Which side) are you going? I am going to the railway station, sir. My mother is arriving. She is bringing my elder sister from Guntur.

Ððþ…Mæür: 糧æþ, ¯óþ¯èþ$Væü*yé õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Móü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$. C糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó H… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#?

Come on, let’s go! I am also going to the station. What are you studying now?

Æ>Ðèþ* : ¼.C. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am studying B.E.

Ððþ…Mæür: ± ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#MøçÜ… Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ ^éÌê MæüçÙtç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé MæüçÙtç³yæþ$. »êV>^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#.

Your father is striving hard to educate you. You (should) also work hard. Study well.

Æ>Ðèþ* : ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ, GÐèþÆø Mæü${Æ>yæþ$ Ar$ ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢™èþ$¯é²yæþ$.

See, sir. Some boy is running in that direction.

Ððþ…Mæür: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. §ö…VæüÌêV> E¯é²yæþ$. ´ëÇ´ù™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Ayæþ$Vø B ´ùÎçÜ$Mæü$ ^ðþ糚, Ððþâæý$Ï.

Yes. He looks like a thief. He is running away. You go and inform that policeman.

Æ>Ðèþ* : AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ…yîþ! ´ùÎçÜ$Ë$Væü*yé ÐéyìþMøçÜ… ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ…yîþ!

No need, sir. The police are also running after him.

338

Lesson 21

Ððþ…Mæür: Ayæþ$Vø ^èþ*yæþ$. B §ö…Væü Cr$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢! ç³r$tMø!

Look here . That thief is coming in this direction. You also run. Catch him.

Æ>Ðèþ* : AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ…yîþ! ´ùÎçÜ$Ë$ Ðé×ìý~ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. Æ>…yìþ. Ððþ…Mæür: f¯èþ… çßýyéÐèþ#yìþV> Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. º…yìþ ÐèþÝù¢…§é?

No need, sir. The police are taking him away. Come on; let’s go, sir! People are going in a hurry. Is the train arriving?

Æ>Ðèþ* : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ! ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. BÄæý$¯èþ Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ H§ø Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$.

Yes, sir. He is asking you something.

Ððþ…Mæür: H… M>ÐéË…yîþ!

What do you want please?

ÔóýQÆŠÿ : Ò$Æóÿ¯é Ððþ…MæürÆ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ææÿ$? ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÔóýQDz.

Are you Mr. Venkataramaiah? I am Sekhar.

Ððþ…Mæür: Ò$ MøçÜÐóþ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

I am coming here only for you. Come on; let us go.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

A¨ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™ø…¨. AÑ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. MöÐèþ$à ÑÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨ MöÐèþ$ÃË$ ÑÆæÿ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. M>Äæý$Ë$ Æ>Ë$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. D ^ðþr$t Ò$¨°…_ B ^ðþr$t Ò$¨Mìü §æþ*Mæü$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. Ðóþ$… ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²…. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#. Ò$Ææÿ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ ÆæÿÑ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. MæüÐèþ$Ë ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™ø…¨. Ðéâæý$Ï ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. 339

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðéyæþ$ ^ðþr$t §æþVæüYÇ°…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÇMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$t Mìü…¨Mìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. ^ðþr$t Mìü…¨°…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç MøçÜ… ÆðÿOË$ õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ± MøçÜ… Ðèþ* Æÿ$$…sìý °…_ ± ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … ¡çÜ$MöçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. í³ËÏË$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþM>Äæý$Ë MøçÜ… çßýyéÐèþ#yìþV> Cr$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# ¯èþ¯èþ$² yæþº$¾Ë$ Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ´ùÎçÜ$Ë$ §ö…VæüMøçÜ… Ar$ ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ´ùÎçÜ$Ë §ö…Væü¯èþ$ Gr$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? ÆæÿÑ Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ H§ø Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. GÐèþÆø ѧéÅǦ Ò$ MøçÜ… ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ §ö…VæüÌêV> E¯é²yæþ$. BÄæý$¯èþ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#ÌêV> E¯é²yæþ$. C¨ Mö™èþ¢ ºçÜ$ÞÌêV> E¯èþ²¨.

b. Build-up drill.

ÑÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨. MöÐèþ$à ÑÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨. B MöÐèþ$à ÑÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨. gê{Væü™èþ¢! B MöÐèþ$à ÑÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨.

¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. Mìü…¨Mìü ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. gê{Væü™èþ¢V>¯óþ Mìü…¨Mìü ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ gê{Væü™èþ¢V>¯óþ Mìü…¨Mìü ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$, ¯óþ¯èþ$ gê{Væü™èþ¢V>¯óþ Mìü…¨Mìü ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ÐèþÝù¢…¨. Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Cr$ ÐèþÝù¢…¨. H§ø Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Ò$MøçÜ… Cr$ ÐèþÝù¢…¨. Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ H§ø Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ Ò$ MøçÜ… Cr$ ÐèþÝù¢…¨ A™èþ¯èþ$ Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ H§ø Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. GÐèþÆø AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ Ò$MøçÜ… Cr$ ÐèþÝù¢…¨. ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ, A™èþ¯èþ$ Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ H§ø Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. MæüçÙçt³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ^éÌê MæüçÙtç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#MøçÜ… ^éÌê MæüçÙtç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#MøçÜ… ^éÌê MæüçÙtç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#MøçÜ… ^éÌê MæüçÙtç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#MøçÜ… ^éÌê MæüçÙtç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyìþ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# MøçÜ… ^éÌê MæüçÙtç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. 340

Lesson 21

c. Substitution drill Model (i)

A™èþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑÌêV> E¯é²yæþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A™èþ¯èþ$ ± ÌêV> E¯é²yæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðéyæþ$ ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$

Model (iii)

Model (ii) A™èþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑMøçÜ… ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

¯óþ¯èþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯é MøçÜ… ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ… GÐèþÆæÿ$

çÜÆæÿâæý M>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™ø…¨. ÆæÿÑ ÆæÿÑ M>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðóþ$… Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðéâæý$Ï A¨

Model (iv)

Model (v)

Ðóþ$Ðèþ$$ ÆðÿOË$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²…. (¯óþ¯èþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆðÿOË$ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ ºçÜ$Þ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. (X™èþ) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ºËÏÒ$§æþ°…_ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#. (Ò$Ææÿ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ Vøyæþ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. (Ðéâæý$Ï) Ðéyæþ$ ÆðÿOË$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. (A™èþ¯èþ$)

Model (vi)

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþ$ËÏV> Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$. Ayæþ$Væü$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþ$ËÏV> Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ´ù ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> Æ> §æþ*Mæü$

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç° Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# ¯èþ¯èþ$² Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðéyæþ$ AMæüPÄæý$Å

d. Response drill.

GÐèþÆæÿ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (A™èþ¯èþ$) A™èþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 1. GÐèþÆæÿ$ H¯èþ$Væü$ Ò$¨°…_ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. (¯óþ¯èþ$)

Model (i)

341

An Intensive Course in Telugu

2. 3. 4. 5.

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. (Ðóþ$…) GÐèþÆæÿ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Fç³#™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (Ò$Ææÿ$) GÐèþÆæÿ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) GÐèþÆæÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (Ðéâæý$Ï) Model (ii) Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²Æ>? (X™èþ) Ðóþ$…M>§æþ$. X™èþ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™ø…¨. 1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆðÿOË$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ðé? (ÆæÿÑ) 2. ÆæÿÑ ºçÜ$Þ ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²yé? (¯óþ¯èþ$) 3. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ çÜ…` Fç³#™èþ$¯é²yé? (Ðóþ$…) Model (iii) ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó MöÐèþ$à Fç³#™èþ$¯é²Ðé? (Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ) B! ¯óþ¯èþ$ MöÐèþ$à Fç³#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ Væü*yé Fç³#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 1. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²Ðé? (X™èþ) 2. çÜÆæÿâê! ÆðÿOË$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ðé? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) 3. Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>ÐŒþ! Ðéâæý$Ï »êV> MæüçÙç³t yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Æ>? (Ðóþ$…) 4. çÜ$ÖÌê! X™èþ ºçÜ$Þ ¨Væü$™ø…§é? (ÐéâæýÏ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$) Model (iv)

Model (v)

GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? ÆæÿÑ H¨ Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$? GÐèþÆø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ÆæÿÑ H§ø Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 1. GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? 1. çÜ$ÖË H¨ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™ø…¨? 2. GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢ü¯é²Ææÿ$? 2. ÔèýÆæÿà H¨ ¡çÜ$MöçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? 3. GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÆðÿOË$ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? 3. ´ëç³ H¨ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù™ø…¨. EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the present tense forms of the verbs given in the parentheses.

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ çÜ…` ............. (Fç³#) 4. ÆæÿÑ MöÐèþ$ÃË$ ............ (Fç³#) 2. MæüÐèþ$Ë M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ........ (HÆæÿ$) 5. Ðóþ$… ÆðÿOË$ ....... (GMæü$P) 3. WÈ ÆæÿÒ ^ðþr$tÒ$¨°…_ ..... (§æþ*Mæü$) 6. Ò$Ææÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ ....... (GMæü$P) 342

Lesson 21

7. §ö…VæüË$ çßýyéÐèþ#yìþV> ...... (´ëÇ´ù) 11. 8. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ºçÜ$Þ ........... (¨Væü$) 12. 9. M>Äæý$Ë$ ......... (Æ>Ë$) 13. 10. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ° CMæüPyìþMìü ...... (¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>) 14.

ÆæÿÑ ^ðþr$t §æþVæüYÇMìü ...... (Ððþâæý$å) BÐðþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ °…_ ..... (Æ>) MöÐèþ$ÃË$ .......... (ÑÆæÿ$Væü$) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó H… .........? (^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#)

b. Frame at least 35 sentences from the following table using the present tense forms of the verbs given in the third column.

ÆæÿÑ ¯óþ¯èþ$ çÜÆæÿâæý ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ… A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðéâæý$å

^ðþr$t Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþM>Äæý$Ë$ M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ÆðÿËO $

HÆæÿ$ GMæü$P ¨Væü$

c. Write the present tense forms of the following verbs with

Ò$Ææÿ$, BÄæý$¯èþ, BÐðþ$ as subjects. Æ> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# Ððþâæý$Ï fÆæÿ$Væü$

¯óþ¯èþ$,

¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù ¨Væü$

d. Produce at least 16 sentences from the following table taking one word from each column.

ÆæÿÑ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðóþ$… ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðéâæý$Ï çÜÆæÿâæý

Ar$ Cr$ Gr$ 343

Æ> Ððþâæý$Ï ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢

An Intensive Course in Telugu

e. Fill up the blanks with the nouns/pronouns given in the parentheses using one of the following case suffixes along with them.

Mìü/MøçÜ…/°. 1. ÆæÿÑ ...... (Ò$Ææÿ$) Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 4. Vøí³ ....... (M>Ìôýh) Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. 2. ´ùÎçÜ$Ë$ ...... (A™èþ¯èþ$) ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢™þè $¯é²Ææÿ$.5. çÜÆæÿâæý ...... (ÐéÆæÿ$) Ayæþ$Væü$™ø…¨. 3. ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ* ....... (FÆæÿ$) ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 6. çÜ$ÖË ...... (BÐðþ$) ÐðþâZ¢…¨. f. Form at least 12 sentences from the following table.

¯óþ¯èþ$

^ðþr$t §æþVæüYÇ Mìü ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$ ºçÜ$Þ Ò$¨ °…_ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$ Mìü…¨

VOCABULARY

-Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ §æþ*Mæü$ü GMæü$P gê{Væü™èþ¢ Fç³# Æ>Ë$ HÆæÿ$ ¨Væü$ ÑÆæÿ$Væü$ HÐðþ*ÄŒý$ Mæü${Æ>yæþ$ &ÌêV> &KÄŒý$üü Gr$

mango (adj.) jump (v) climb Be careful!; carefulness shake, swing, rock (v) fall down; fall off glean or pick up one after another come down from a higher place; alight break (v.i) hey! (non-hon. epi. adressing lad like (adv.); similar to an epicene non-honorific address marker in which direction

ÆðÿOË$ õÜtçÙ¯èþ$ õÜtçÙ¯èþ$ ¼.C. &MøçÜ… MæüçÙçt³yæþ$ GÐèþÆø Ar$ ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢ §ö…Væü ´ëÇ´ù ´ùÎçÜ$ Cr$ ç³r$tMø f¯èþ… çßýyéÐèþ#yìþ º…yìþ Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ H§ø 344

rç ailway station station B.E. degree for work hard; struggle

somebody in that direction run (v.i.) thief run away police

in this direction catch (v.) people uproar; hurry (n.) cart; vehicle; train acc. form of Ò$Ææÿ$ m•ru something

Lesson 21

GRAMMAR NOTES 21.1. In this lesson the present tense is introduced. What we refer here by present tense is present continuous tense and the exact present tense doesn’t exist in Telugu. The present continuous tense expresses progression of the action. 21.1.1.

The present tense is formed by adding present tense suffix ™èþ$¯é²/

&™ø… -tunn¡/tªM and personal suffix (7.1.; 7.3.) to the verbal bases. Present tense  verbal base + & - ™èþ$¯é²-tunn¡/tªM + personal suffix &™ø… -tªM 21.1.2. &™ø… tªM occurs before the feminine inferior & equal, and neuter singular suffix & - ¨ -di. GMæü$P&™ø…&¨ ekku-tªM-di ‘She/It is climbing.’ and &-™èþ$¯é² tunn¡ occurs before the other personal suffixes. GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&¯èþ$ ekku-tunn¡-nu ‘I am climbing.’ GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&… ekku-tunn¡-M ‘We are climbing.’ GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&Ðèþ# ekku-tunn¡-vu ‘You (sg.) are climbing’ GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&Ææÿ$ ekku-tunn¡-ru ‘You (pl.) are climbing’ GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&Ææÿ$ ekku-tunn¡-ru ‘They (hum.) are climbing’ GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&yæþ$ ekku-tunn¡-∂u ‘He is climbing’ GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&Æÿ$$ ekku-tunn¡-yi ‘They (neut.) are climbing’ 21.2. The tense forms in Telugu show a person-gender-number agreement with the subject. For this purpose a person-gender-number suffix is added to the verb after the tense suffix is added. This person-gender-number suffix is called personal suffix for easy reference (7.1.). 21.2.1. Recall the personal suffixes used in the paradigm consisting of the affirmative forms of the existential verb (7.2.). The same personal suffixes are used in the formation of the present tense forms. 345

An Intensive Course in Telugu Persongender -number description I per. sg.

per-sonal

Illustration

suffix

¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. n£nu ce  u ekkutunn¡nu.

I per. pl.



II person non-hon sg.

Ðèþ# ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#.

II person hon.sg.& pl.

Ææÿ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$-¯é²--Ææÿ$.

III per.masc. inf. & eql.sg.

yæþ$ Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²yæþ$.

Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²….

‘We are climbing m£M/manaM ce  u ekkutunn¡M. the tree.’ ‘We are climbing the tree.’ nuvvu ce  u ekkutunn¡vu. m•ru ce  u ekkutunn¡ru.

‘You are climbing the tree.’ ‘You are climbing the tree.’

‘He is climbing v¡∂u/atanu ce  u ekkutunn¡∂u. the tree.’

III per.fem.inf. ¨ A¨/BÐðþ$ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™ø…¨. & eql.sg. & neut.sg. adi/¡me ce tu ekkutªMdi. III per.epi. hon.sg. & pl.

‘I am climbing the tree.’

Ææÿ$ BÄæý$¯èþ/BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ/ÐéÆæÿ$/Ðéâæý$å ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$.

‘She/It is climbing the tree.’ ‘She/He/They are climbing the tree.’

¡yana/¡me/¡vida/v¡ru/v¡˚˚u ce  u ekkutunn¡ru. III per.neut. pl.

Æÿ$$ AÑ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. avi ce tu ekkutunn¡yi.

‘They are climbing the tree.’

21.3. When some suffixes are added certain verbal bases change their shapes in different ways. We can classify the verbal bases taking such modifications into consideration. There are also some verbal bases which do not exhibit any changes. However, changes due to saMdhi such as losing the final short vowel when followed by a suffix beginning with a vowel (2.12.2) are common to all the bases. Hence the saMdhi changes are not considered as changes. 346

Lesson 21 21.3.1. GMæü$P ekku ‘to climb’; ¨Væü$ digu ‘to alight; to come down from a higher place’; Fç³# ¶pu ‘to rock; to swing; to shake’ ³ ç ÇVðü™èþ$¢ parigettu ‘to run’, etc. are the bases which do not undergo any modifications before any suffix.

GMæü$P! GMæüP…yìþ! GM>PÍ. GMæü$P&™èþ$¯é²&¯èþ$ ¨Væü$! ¨VæüMæü$. ¨V>Í. ¨Væü$&™èþ$¯é²&Ææÿ$

ekku! ‘Climb!’ ekkaM∂i! ‘Please climb!’ (2.12.2.) ekk¡li. ‘One must climb.’ (2.12.2.) ekku-tunn¡-nu ‘I am climbing.’ digu! ‘Come down!’ digaku ‘Don’t come down.’ (2.12.2.) dig¡li ‘One must come cown.’ (2.12.2.) digu-tunn¡-ru ‘Thye are come down.’ etc. This is an open ending group. In this course, we will be making a mention of the bases which modify their shapes before various suffixes as and when such bases are introduced. (Some of them are introduced in this lesson.) The rest of the verbal bases, that is, those which do not change their shapes, will fall in this open ending group. 21.4. Ððþâæý$å ve˚˚u ‘to go’ ÐðþâŒý ve˚ ; Æ> r¡ ‘to come’ ÐèþÜ‹ vas and ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> t•sukur¡ ‘to bring’ ¡çÜ$Mø‹Ü t•sukªs when followed by a suffix begining with ™Œþ t.

Ððþâæý$å ve˚˚u ÐðþâŒý&™èþ$¯é²&yæþ$ ve˚-tunn¡-∂u ‘He is going’ Æ> r¡ Ðèþ‹Ü&™èþ$¯é²&Ðèþ# vas-tunn¡-∂u ‘You are coming.’ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> t•sukur¡ ¡çÜ$Mø‹Ü&™ø…&¨ t•sukªs-tªM-di. ‘She is bringing.’ 21.5. Gr$ e u ‘in which direction’, Ar$ a u ‘in that direction’ and Cr$ i u ‘in this direction’ are directional adverbs.

MøçÜ… kªsaM ‘for’ is the purposive case suffix. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Vøí³ MøçÜ… Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$. ‘I am going for Gopi.’ 21.6.

n£nu gªpi kªsaM ve˚tunn¡nu.

´ùÎçÜ$Ë$ §ö…VæüMøçÜ… ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$.

‘Police are running for the thief.’

pªl•sulu do©gakªsaM parigettutunn¡ru.

347

An Intensive Course in Telugu 21.7. Notice the locative case post-positions Ò$§æþ m•da, Mìü…§æþ kiMda and §æþVæüYÆæÿ daggara (4.6) used in combination with the ablative case suffix &°…_/&¯èþ$…_ -niñci/nuñci (17.7). ^ðþr$t Ò$¨°…_ ce  u m•diniñci ‘from (the upper part of) the tree’ ^ðþr$t Mìü…¨°…_ ce  u kiMdiniñci ‘from (below) the tree’ ^ðþr$t §æþVæüYÇ°…_ ce  u daggariniñci ‘from (near) the tree’ 21.7.1. Recall the expression ^ðþr$t §æþVæüÇ Y Mìü Ððþâæý$å ce  udaggariki ve˚˚u (19.6) where a non-place noun functioning as destination take the locative post-position §æþVæüYÇ daggari before the dative (destinative) case suffix &Mìü -ki is added. Non-place nouns when used in ablative case also take a locative post-position before the ablative case suffix is added. 21.8. The oblique forms of the locative post-positions are as follows. The oblique forms are used when the locative and ablative case suffixes are added to them. Ò$§æþ m•da. ‘on/upon’ Ò$¨& m•diMìü…§æþ kiMda ‘below/beneath’ Mìü…¨&þ kiMdi§æþVæüÆY ÿæ daggara ‘near’ §æþVæüYÇ&þ daggari-

Mø† D ^ðþr$t Ò$¨°…_ B ^ðþr$t Ò$¨Mìü §æþ*Mæü$™ø…¨. kªti • ce  u m•diniñci ¡ ce  u m•diki d¶kutªMdi. ‘The monkey is jumping (the (upper part) of) this tree to (the (upper part of )) that tree.

ÆæÿÑ D Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÇ°…_ B Vøyæþ §æþVæüYÇMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. ravi • gª∂a dagg¡riniMci ¡ gª∂a daggariki ve˚tunn¡∂u. ‘Ravi is gonig from this wall to that wall.’

Mæü$MæüP D ^ðþr$t Mìü…¨°…_ B ^ðþr$t Mìü…¨Mìü ´ù™ø…¨. kukka • ce  u kiMdiniñci ¡ ce  u kiMdiki pªtªMdi. ‘The dog is going from (below) this tree to (below) that tree.’ 21.9. &ÌêV> -l¡g¡ ‘like’ is an adverbializer of manner and it is added to oblique bases. A™èþ¯èþ$ §ö…VæüÌêV> E¯é²yæþ$. atanu doMgal¡g¡ unn¡∂u. ‘He looks like a thief.’ A™èþ¯èþ$ ±ÌêV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. atanu n•l¡g¡ caduvutunn¡∂u. ‘He is reading like you.’ 348

Lesson 21 21.10. Notice the use of the question words such as H¨ £di ‘which one’; GÐèþÆæÿ$ evaru ‘who’, etc. along with the dubitative marker &-K -ª (15.1). These forms (the combinations of the question word and dubitative marker) function as the indefinite pronouns when used as non-predicates in a sentence. H§ø £dª ‘something’; GÐèþÆø evarª ‘somebody’, etc. HÐø £vª (the pl. of H§ø £dª)

1. GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? 1.(a) GÐèþÆø ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. 2. AMæüPyæþ H¨ E…¨? 2.(a) AMæüPyæþ H§ø E…¨.

evaru vastunn¡ru? ‘Who is coming?’ evarª vastunn¡ru. ‘Some body is coming’ akka∂a £di uMdi? ‘which one is there?’ akka∂a £dª uMdi. ‘Something is there.’ Similarly we can also have GMæüPyæþ ekka∂a ‘where’; GMæüPyø ekka∂ª ‘somewhere’; G糚yæþ$ eppu∂u ‘when’; G糚yø eppu∂ª ‘some times’; G…§æþ$Mæü$ eMduku ‘why’; G…§æþ$Mø eMdukª ‘for some reason’, etc. 21.10.1.

Compare the sentences 1(a) and 2(a) above with sentence like 3. A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$? ‘Who is he?’ atanu evaru? 3.(a) A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆø! ‘It is not known/certain who he is.’ (15.1.1.) atanu evarª!

In sentence 3(a) the form GÐèþÆø evarª is used as a predicate and in sentence 1(a) it is used as a non-predicate. Hence the difference in the meaning. 21.11. HÐðþ*ÄŒý$! £mªy! ‘hey!’ is the epicene non-honorefic and equal address term used to draw the attention of the listener in both masculine and feminine genders. It goes with the sentence as a whole. (cf. HÐèþ$…yîþ! £maM∂•! 2.9.1. and HÐèþ$Äæý*Å £mayy¡ 2.9.2). 21.12. &KÄŒý$ -ªy is the epicene non-honorific and equal address marker. (cf. &A…yîþ aM∂• 2.10.)

A™èþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÆøÄŒý$? atanu evarªy? ‘Who is he?’ Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ mimmalni is the accusative case form of Ò$Ææÿ$ m•ru

21.13. (pl.)’ (See 20.2.4.).

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‘You

UNIT IV Lesson 22

H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

WHAT ARE YOU DOING ?

Vøí³ : ÆæÿÒ! CMæüPyóþ… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

Ravi! What are you doing here?

ÆæÿÑ

: Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ç³âæý$Ï MøçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. HÑ$sìý B çÜ…`? A…§æþ$ÌZ HÐèþ$$…¨?

I am cutting the mangoes. What is that bag? What is in it?

Vøí³ : HÒ$Ìôý§æþ$. Rêä çÜ…`. ¯éMæü$ Væü*yé JMæü ç³…yæþ$ CÐèþ#Ó.

There is nothing in it. It is empty. Give me a fruit.

ÆæÿÑ

Take it. Are you going out?

: ¡çÜ$Mø! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó »ñýOsìýMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ðé?

Vøí³ : Ìôý§æþ$. A§æþ$Vø ^èþ*yæþ$! B ç³…yæþ$ ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨. A¨ MöÆÿ$$Å. HÑ$sìý »ôýÏyæþ$™ø MøçÜ$¢¯é²Ðé? Mæü†¢ E…¨ Mæü§é! 350

No. Look there! That fruit is good. Cut that one. Why are you cutting with a blade? There is a knife!

Lesson 22

ÆæÿÑ

: Mæü†¢Mìü 糧æþ$¯èþ$ Ìôý§æþ$.

That knife not shorp.

Vøí³ : Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ ÌZç³Ë H… ^óþÜç $¢¯é²yæþ$? : çßýÇMìü E™èþÆ¢ ÿæ … Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ™èþË$ç³# Mör$t. Ðéyæþ$ ± MøçÜÐóþ$ G§æþ$Ææÿ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. Ðéyìþ §æþVæüYÆæÿ çßýÇ A{yæþçÜ$ Ìôý§æþ$.

What is your brother doing inside? He is writing a letter to Hari. Tap the door. He is waiting for you. He does not have Hari’s address.

»êË$ : Vøí³! ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>! D E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Ò$§æþ çßýÇ A{yæþçÜ$ Æ>Æÿ$$.

Gopi! Come in. Please write Hari’s address on the letter.

Vøí³ : ç ß ýÇ A{yæ þ ç Ü $ yð þ O È ÌZ E…¨. Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$.

Hari’s address is in the diary. Search for it.

»êË$þ : C…§æþ$ÌZ GMæüPyé Ìôý§æþ$.

It is no where here in this (diary).

Vøí³ : C…MöMæü ÝëÇ Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$. G…§æþ$ÌZ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? A¨ ´ë™èþ yðþOÈ!

Search for it once again. Where are you looking into? That is an old diary.

ÆæÿÑ

: »ñýOr GÐèþÆø ™èþË$ç³# Möyæþ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. ™èþË$ç³# †Æÿ$$Å »êË*!

Some one is knocking door out side. Open the door Balu!

Vøí³ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. »ñýOr GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. V>ÍMìü ™èþË$ç³#Ë$ ^èþ糚yæþ$ ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$. ÆæÿÑþ : Üç Æóÿ! B Mæü$Èa° ™èþË$ç³# §æþVæüÇY Mìü ¯ðþr$t.

I am opening the door. Thre is no one out side. The doors are rattling because of the wind. Okay! Push that chair to that door.

Vøí³ : ¯ð þ yæ þ $¢ ¯ 鲯è þ $. C…§æ þ $ÌZ HÐø M>Æÿ$$™éË$¯é²Æÿ$$.

I am pushing it. There are some papers in this.

ÆæÿÑ

351

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÆæÿÑ

: Ðésìý Ò$§æþ D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ò³r$t.

Keep this book on them.

Vøí³ : ò³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am keeping it there.

»êË$ : Vøï³! Ðèþ$¯èþ… C糚yæþ$ D ç³#çÜM¢ >Ë MæürtË$ ÆðÿOË$õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$ ´ùÐéÍ Mæü§é! ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$.

Gopi! We have to take these book-bundles to the Railway station. Aren’t we? Start.

Vøí³þ : ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^éÌê E¯é²Æÿ$$.

The books are many.

»êË$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. WÇ, ÔèýÆæÿà Mæü*yé Ðèþ$¯èþ™ø ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯èþ$ÒÓ Mæürt ¡çÜ$Mø! WÈ C¨ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¡çÜ$Mø! C¨ ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ CÐèþ#Ó!

Yes. Giri and Sarma are also coming with us. You take this bundle. Giri, you take this. Give this to Sarma.

Vøí³ : »êË*! G…§æþ$Mæü$ Mæü$…r$™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#?

Balu! Why are you limping?

»êË$ : ¯é M>Ë$ ¯ðþí³µV> E…¨. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ ÐðþâæýÏMæü$.

My leg is paining. Don’t go fast (before me).

Vøí³ : AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯é ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ç³r$tMø.

Then hold my hand.

»êË$ : ± ^óþ†ÌZ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$ Mæü§é!

You have books in your hand!

Vøí³ : ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$. Æðÿ…yæþ$ ^óþ™èþ$ËÌZ ÌôýÐèþ#Væü§é!

Doesn’t matter. I don’t have the books in both the hands.

»êË$ : G…§æþ$Mæü$ ± GyæþÐèþ$Mæü…sìýMìü ±âæý$Ï ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$? Mæüâæý$å G{ÆæÿV> E¯é²Æÿ$$ Væü*yé!

Why are tears there in your left eye? Your eyes also look red.

352

Lesson 22

Vøí³ : Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæüâæý*å G{ÆæÿV> E¯é²Äæý*?

Are both the eyes red?

»êË$ : GyæþÐèþ$ Mæü¯èþ$² »êV> G{ÆæÿV> E…¨. Mæü$yìþMæü¯èþ$² Mö…^ðþ… G{ÆæÿV> E…¨.

The left eye is very red and the right one is also red but a little.

Vøí³ : GyæþÐèþ$ Mæü…sZÏ H§ø E…¨. A…§æþ$Móü Mæü¯èþ$² ¯öí³µV> E…¨.

There is something in my left eye. That’s why it is paining.

»êË$ : V>Í Ñç³È™èþ…V> E…¨. MæüâæýåÌZÏ §æþ$Ðèþ$$à ç³yæþ$™ø…¨. MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ò³r$tMø!

The wind is blowing fast. The dust is getting into the eyes. Put on the spectacales.

Vøí³ : gê{Væü™èþ¢! ± gôýº$Mæü$ _ÍÏ E…¨. yæþº$¾Ë$ Mìü…§æþ ç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. »êË$ : C§óþÑ$sìý? D §øÐèþÌZ C°² Ðèþ$$âæý$å E¯é²Æÿ$$? D Ðèþ$$Ë$Ï ^èþ*yæþ$. G…™èþ ò³§æþª§ø!

Be careful! You have a hole in your pocket and the coins are dropping down. What is this? There are so many thorns in this way. See how big is this thorn.

ÆæÿÑÿ : AÐèþ#¯þè $! gê{Væü™èþV¢ > Æ>! G…yæþ Væü*yé ¡{Ðèþ…V> E…¨. M>âæý$å M>Ë$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$.

Yes! Walk carefully. It is also very hot. My feet are burning.

»êË$ : WÇ, ÔèýÆæÿà Væü*yé ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æ>?

Are Giri and Sarma also coming?

ÆæÿÑ

: B! Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ$¯èþÐðþ¯èþMæü ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðéâæýå §æþVæüÆY ÿæ GMæü$PÐèþ ³ç #çÜM¢ >Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$.

Yes! They are coming behind us. They have more books.

»êË$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$, Ðèþ$¯èþ §æþVæüÆY ÿæ A°² ç³#çÜM¢ >Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. Ðèþ$¯èþ çÜ…` ºÆæÿ$Ðèþ#™èþMæü$PÐèþ.

Yes. We don’t have so many books. Our bag is less heavier (than their bag).

353

An Intensive Course in Telugu

DRILLS a. Build-up drill.

Ìôý§æþ$. HÒ$ Ìôý§æþ$. C…sZÏ HÒ$ Ìôý§æþ$. B C…sZÏ HÒ$ Ìôý§æþ$. E…¨. H§øÐèþ#…¨. Mæü…sZÏ H§øÐèþ#…¨. ± GyæþÐèþ$ Mæü…sZÏ H§øÐèþ#…¨.

ÌôýÆæÿ$. GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. Væü¨ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. B Væü¨ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$. ±âæý$å ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$. Mæü…sìýMìü ±âæý$å ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$. Mæü$yìþ Mæü…sìýMìü ±âæý$å ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$. A™èþ° Mæü$yìþ Mæü…sìýMìü ±âæý$å ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$. G…§æþ$Mæü$ A™èþ° Mæü$yìþ Mæü…sìýMìü ±âæý$å ÐèþÜç $¢¯é²Æÿ$$? ^óþçÜ$¢ ¯- é²-Æÿ$$. ^èþ糚-yæþ$ ^óþçÜ$¢-¯é²-Æÿ$$. ™èþË$-ç³#Ë$ ^èþ糚yæþ$ ^óþçÜ$¢-¯é²-Æÿ$$. MìüsìýMîü ™èþË$-ç³#Ë$ ^èþ糚yæþ$ ^óþçÜ$¢-¯é²-Æÿ$$. V>ÍMìü MìüsìýMîü ™èþË$-³ç #Ë$ ^èþ³ç šyæþ$ ^óþÜç $¢¯- é²-Æÿ$$. ¯ðþr$t. §æþVæüYÇMìü ¯ðþr$t. ºËÏ §æþVæüYÇMìü ¯ðþr$t. Mæü$Èa° ºËÏ §æþVæüYÇMìü ¯ðþr$t. D Mæü$Èa° ºËÏ §æþVæüYÇMìü ¯ðþr$t. çÜÆóÿ, D Mæü$Èa° ºËÏ §æþVæüYÇMìü ¯ðþr$t.

E¯é²-Æÿ$$. Ðèþ$$-âýæ $ϯ- é²-Æÿ$$. C°² Ðèþ$$âæý$Ï-¯é²-Æÿ$$. §øÐèþÌZ C°² Ðèþ$$âæý$Ï-¯é²-Æÿ$$. C§óþÑ$sì, §øÐèþÌZ C°² Ðèþ$$âæý$Ï-¯é²-Æÿ$$? E…¨. ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. »êV> ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. Mæü¯èþ$² »êV> ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. Mæü$yìþMæü¯èþ$² »êV> ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. ¯é Mæü$yìþMæü¯èþ$² »êV> ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. Mæü§é! ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ùÐéÍ Mæü§é! ÆðÿOË$õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ùÐéÍ Mæü§é! ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ÆðÿOË$õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ùÐéÍ Mæü§é! Ðèþ$¯èþ… ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ÆðÿOË$õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ùÐéÍ Mæü§é! 354

Lesson 22

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iv)

M>Ë$ ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. ™èþË ™èþË ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. ^ðþÆÿ$$Å GyæþÐèþ$M>Ë$ Mæü$yìþMæü¯èþ$² Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæüâæý*å M>Ë$

gôýº$Mæü$ _ÍÏÐèþ#…¨. çÜ…`Ë$ çÜ…`ËMæü$ _Ë$ÏË$ E¯é²Æÿ$$. ò³sñýt ^öM>P gôýº$Ë$ M>Æÿ$$™éË$

Model (ii)

Model (v)

D §øÐèþÌZ A°² ^ðþr$ϯé²Æÿ$$. GMæü$PÐèþ D §øÐèþÌZ GMæü$PÐèþ ^ðþr$ϯé²Æÿ$$. G°² ™èþMæü$PÐèþ C°²

ÆæÿÑ ÔèýÆæÿà Ððþ¯èþMæü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. ç³MæüP¯èþ ÆæÿÑ ÔèýÆæÿà ç³MæüP¯èþ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ Mæü$yìþç³MæüP¯èþ GyæþÐèþ$ç³MæüP¯èþ

Model (iii)

Model (vi)

C§óþÑ$sìý, D ò³sñýÌt Z C°² ç³#çÜM¢ >Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$? çÜ$ÖË çÜ…` MæüË… C§óþÑ$sìý, D çÜ…`ÌZ C°² MæüÌêË$¯é²Æÿ$$? çÜ$ÖË FÆæÿ$ çÜ*PË$ ^ðþÆÿ$$Å X™èþ §øÐèþ Ðèþ$$Ë$Ï CË$Ï Væü¨

MæüË…™ø Æ>Ýù¢…¨. Mæü†¢ MöÆÿ$$Å Mæü†¢™ø MøÝù¢…¨. M>Ë$ ¯ðþr$t ò³°ÞË$ Æ>Æÿ$$ »ôýy-Ï þæ $ MöÆÿ$$Å ^óþ™- þè $-Ë$ Mör$t

Model (vii)

ÆæÿÑ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. (Æ>Æÿ$$) 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢-¯é²Ðèþ#. (^èþ*yæþ$) ÆæÿÑ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 4. çÜÆæÿâæý ™èþË$ç³# ¡Ýù¢…¨. (Mör$t) 1. Vøí³ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ³ç âæý$å HÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. (MöÆÿ$$Å) 5. A™èþ¯èþ$ Mæü$Èa° ¡çÜ$-Mø-Üç $¢¯- é²yæþ$. (¯ðþr$t) 2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$-Ðèþ#-™èþ$-¯é²¯èþ$. (†Æÿ$$Å) 355

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c. Interlocked substitution drill Model

G…yæþ ¡{Ðèþ…V> E…¨. V>Í V>Í ¡{Ðèþ…V> E…¨. Ñç³È™èþ…V> V>Í Ñç³È™èþ…V> E…¨.

fÓÆæÿ… ............................. ....... ¡{Ðèþ…V> ................ ™èþ˯ðþí³µ ........................ ............... Ñç³È™èþ…V> ..... G…yæþ ......... ....................

d. Response drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

ÆæÿÑ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$? (CË$Ï) D Væü¨ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? ÆæÿÑ C…sZÏÐèþ#¯é²yæþ$. B Væü¨ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$. 1. Ðèþ$…§æþ$ GMæüPyæþ ÐðþÄæý*ÅÍ? (Mæü¯èþ$²) 1. ¯é çÜ…`ÌZ HÐèþ$$¯é²Æÿ$$? 2. §æþ$Ðèþ$$à GMæüPyæþ ç³yæþ$™ø…¨? (Mæüâæý$å) 2. ± gôýº$ÌZ HÐèþ$$¯èþ²¨? 3. ÆæÿÑ MæüË… GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? (¯é ^ðþÆÿ$$Å) 3. Ðèþ$¯èþ C…sZÏ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? 4. Ò$ Mæü$MæüP GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? 5. Ðéâæýå MæüÌêË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? Model (iii) ÆæÿÑ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (ç³#çÜM¢ üæ …&Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$) ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 1. Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ# H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (MìüsìýMîü †Æÿ$$Å) 2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$? (^èþ´ë¡Ë$&^ðþÆÿ$$Å) 3. çÜÆæÿâæý H… ^óþÝù¢…¨? (E™èþ¢Ææÿ…&Æ>Æÿ$$) Model (iv) ÔèýÆæÿà §æþVæüYÆæÿ CÆæÿÐðþO MæüÌêË$¯é²Æÿ$$. A°² MæüÌêË$ ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ ÌôýÐèþ#. 1. Ðéâæýå FâZå CÆæÿÐðþO ¯éË$Væü$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ^ðþr$ϯé²Æÿ$$. 2. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# §æþVæüYÆæÿ 糨 Væü$Ìê½ ç³NË$¯é²Æÿ$$. 3. Ðèþ*ÐèþNÇMìü ¯éË$Væü$ ÆðÿOâæý$å¯é²Æÿ$$. 4. X™é MæüÐèþ$Ìê H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? (ç³NË$&MöÆÿ$$Å) 5. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? (Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$&Mör$t) 6. ÔèýÆæÿà H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (¯èþ¯èþ$²&¯ðþr$t) 7. A™èþ¯èþ$ »ñýOsìýMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yé? (ÌZç³ÍMìü&Æ>) 356

Lesson 22

çÜ*PË$ÌZ ÆæÿÑ E¯é²yæþ$. ÔèýÆ>Ã! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó çÜ*PË$Mæü$ ÐðþâæýåMæü$; AMæüPyæþ ÆæÿÑ E¯é²yæþ$. 1. C…sZÏ Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ#V>Ææÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$. 3. »ñýOr Mæü$MæüP E¯èþ²¨. 2. ÌZç³Ë ç³#Í E¯èþ²¨. 4. ^ðþr$t §æþVæüYÆæÿ H¯èþ$Væü$ E¯èþ²¨.

Model (v)

d. Transformation drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

GyæþÐèþ$Mæü¯èþ$² Mö…^ðþ… G{ÆæÿV>Ðèþ#…¨. GyæþÐèþ$Mæü¯èþ$² »êV> G{ÆæÿV>Ðèþ#…¨. 1. Mæü$yìþM>Ë$ Mö…^ðþ… ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. 2. ™èþË Mö…^ðþ… ¯ðþí³µV>Ðèþ#…¨. 3. ± ^ðþÆÿ$$Å Mö…^ðþ… ÐóþyìþV>Ðèþ#…¨.

¯é M>Ë$ ¯ðþí³µV> Ðèþ#…¨. ¯é M>âæý$å ¯ðþí³µV> E¯é²Æÿ$$. 1. ¯é ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ^èþËÏV>Ðèþ#…¨. 2. ± Mæü¯èþ$² ^èþËÏV>Ðèþ#…¨. 3. CMæüPyæþ Ðèþ$$Ë$Ï…¨.

Model (iii)

B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…ÌZ HÐèþ$$…¨? A…§æþ$ÌZ HÐèþ$$…¨? 1. D çÜ…_ÌZ -Mæü-ËÐèþ$$…¨.

2. B ò³sñýtÌZ ± VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… E…¨. 3. Mö™èþ¢ ^öM>P H ò³sñýtÌZ E…¨? 4. ¯é çÜ…` H AËÐèþ$ÆæÿÌZ E…¨?

EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the present tense forms of the verbs given in the parentheses.

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ..... (Mæü$…r$) 2. M>ïœ ..... (M>Ë$) 3. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mìü…§æþ ..... (ç³yæþ$)

4. BÄæý$¯èþ ..... (Mæü$…r$) 5. ÆæÿÑ Mìü…§æþ ..... (ç³yæþ$)

b. Answer the following questions using the cue words.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÔèýÆæÿà Æÿ$$Ë$Ï GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? (çÜ*PË$Ððþ¯èþMæü) ÆðÿOË$ õÜtçÙ¯èþ$ GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? (´ùÎçÜ$ õÜtçÙ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$$…§æþ$) Ðèþ* Æÿ$$Ë$Ï GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? (ÆæÿÑ C…sìýMìü Mæü$yìþ ç³MæüP¯èþ) §æþ$Ðèþ$$à GMæüPyæþ ç³yæþ$™ø…¨? (± Mæü¯èþ$²) çÜ…` GMæüPyæþ$…¨? (¯é ^ðþÆÿ$$Å) 357

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c. Answer the following questions using the adverbs suggested in the parentheses.

1. G…yæþ GsêÏ Ðèþ#…¨? (¡{Ðèþ…V>) 3. V>Í GsêÏ Ðèþ#…¨? (^èþËÏV>) 2. Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ G…yæþ GsêÏ Ðèþ#…¨? (Ñç³È™èþ…V>) 4. M>ïœ GsêÏ Ðèþ#…¨? (ÐóþyìþV>) d. Rewrite the following sentences changing the verb into present tense with the nouns given in the parentheses as subjects.

1. 2. 3. 4.

B Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P! (¯óþ¯èþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ B Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ Mör$t! (Ò$Ææÿ$) D ç³° ^ðþÆÿ$$Å! (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) D ç³…yæþ$ MöÆÿ$$Å! (Ðóþ$…) ™èþË$ç³# †Æÿ$$Å! (ïÜ™èþ)

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*yæþ$! (BÄæý$¯èþ) »ñýOsìýMìü Ððþâæý$å! (í³ËÏË$) ^ðþrÏMæü$ ±âæý$å ´÷Æÿ$$Å! (í³ËÏË$) ÆæÿÑMìü E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Æÿ$$. (GÐèþÆæÿ$) ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ ÌZç³ÍMìü ¯ðþr$t! (Ðèþ$¯èþ…)

e. Rewrite the following sentences changing the underlined nouns into opposite number.

1. CMæüPyæþ Ðèþ$$Ë$ϯèþ²¨. 2. Ðèþ* Câæý$å Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ÌZ Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$. 3. ÆæÿÑ Mæü¯èþ$² G{ÆæÿV>Ðèþ#¯èþ²¨.

4. Ðèþ* AÐèþ$ÃV>Ç M>âæý$å ¯ðþí³µV> Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$. 5. Ðèþ* FâZå íÜ°Ðèþ*àË$¯èþ²¨. 6. A™èþ° ^óþ™èþ$Ë$ ^èþËÏV> Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$.

f. Answer the following questions in negation.

1. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²yæþ$?3. Ò$ C…sìý §æþVæüYÆæÿ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? 2. çÜÆæÿâæý ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ò$§æþ HÐèþ$$¯èþ²¨? 4. Ò$ §æþVæüYÆæÿ HÐèþ$$¯é²Æÿ$$? g. Conjugate the following verbs for present tense with ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó, BÄæý$¯èþ, ïÜ™èþ and í³ÍÏ as subject.

Ððþâæý$å

^èþ*yæþ$

†Æÿ$$Å

¯óþ¯èþ$, Ðóþ$…,

Mör$t

h. Frame at least 35 sentences from the following table using the present tense forms of the verbs given in the third column. 358

Lesson 22

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÑ BÐðþ$

Ððþâæý$å Æ> Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ Æ>Æÿ$$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#

»ñýOr ÌZç³Ë »ñýOsìýMìü ÌZç³ÍMìü

i. Match the following. A

1. ÆæÿÑ 2. ïÜ™èþ 3. ¯óþ¯èþ$ 4. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó 5. í³ÍÏ

B

^ðþr$t GMæü$P™ø…¨. ç³NË$ MøçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ÌZç³ÍMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ðèþ#. Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ Möyæþ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Ýù¢…¨.

( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) )

VOCABULARY

¯ðþr$t Mæürt Mæü$…r$ ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ^óþ†& ^óþ™èþ$Ë$ GyæþÐèþ$ Mæü…sìý Mæüâæý$å Mæü¯èþ$² Mæü$yìþ Mæü…sZÏ

ç³…yæþ$ fruit A…§æþ$ÌZü in that Rêä empty »ñýOr outside »ôýyÏ þæ $ blade Mæü†¢ knife 糧æþ$¯èþ$ sharpness ÌZç³Ëü inside Mör$t to beat; to hit; to knock G§æþ$Ææÿ$^èþ*yæþ$ await; look for C…§æþ$ÌZ in this &ÝëÇ time (as in first time two G…§æþ$ÌZ ^èþ糚yæþ$ü

times etc.) in what noise; sound (n)

Ñç³È™èþ…V> &ÌZÏ 359

to push (v.t) a bundle (n) to limp (v) a hand (n)

oblique base of ^ðþÆÿ$$Å hands (pl.form of ^ðþÆÿ$$Å) left (adj.) oblique base of Mæü¯èþ$² plural form of Mæü¯èþ$² eye right-hand side (adj.)

in the eye (locative form of Mæü¯èþ$²) severely; abundantly a variant of locative case suffix &ÌZ

An Intensive Course in Telugu

§æþ$Ðèþ$$à MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ò³r$tMø _ÍÏ §øÐèþ C°² Ðèþ$$âæý$å

Ðèþ$$Ë$Ï ¡{Ðèþ…V> M>Ë$ Ððþ¯èþMæü A°² ºÆæÿ$Ðèþ# ™èþMæü$PÐèþ

dust (n) spectacles to put on; to wear a hole path, way these many plural form of Ðèþ$$Ë$Ï

thorn severely to burn (v.i)

behind; back side so many weight less (n. & adj.)

GRAMMAR NOTES 22.1. Æÿ$$Å/Æÿ$$ yyi/yi ending verbal bases change their final Æÿ$$Å/Æÿ$$ yyi/yi to Ü ‹ s and lengthen the penultimate vowel, if it is short, when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t.

MöÆÿ$$Å + ™èþ$¯é²&¯èþ$ = Mø‹Ü&™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$ = MøçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$

‘I am cutting.’

koyyi + tunn¡-nu = kªs-tunn¡nu

Æ>Æÿ$$ + ™èþ$¯é²&yæþ$ = Æ>‹Ü&™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ = Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$

‘He is writing.’

r¡yi + tunn¡-∂u = r¡s-tunn¡∂u 22.2. ^èþ*yæþ$ c¶∂u ‘see’ becomes ^èþ*‹Ü c¶s when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t.

^èþ*yæþ$ + ™ø…&¨ = ^èþ*‹Ü&™ø…¨ = ^èþ*Ýù¢…¨

‘She/It is seeing.’

c¶∂u + tªM-di = c¶s-tªMdi 22.3. r$t   u ending bases change their final followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t.

r$t

Mör$t + ™èþ$¯é²&yæþ$ = MöyŠþ&™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ = Möyæþ$¢¯é²yæþ$

  u to

yŠþ

∂ when

‘He is beating.’

ko  u + tunn¡-∂u = ko∂-tunn¡∂u 22.4. The locative words ÌZç³Ë lªpala 'inside' and »ñýOr bai a 'outside' are introduced in this lesson. Their oblique bases are ÌZç³Í&þlªpali- and »ñýsO ýì &þbai i- respectively.

360

Lesson 22 22.5.

The plural form of ç³…yæþ$ paM∂u 'fruit' is ç³âæý$å pa˚˚u.

22.6. The instrumental case suffix &™ø tª is also introduced in this lesson. Recall that the same suffix is also used in sociative case (20.4.).

Mæü†¢™ø MöÆÿ$$Å! 22.7.

&Mæü$/Mìü

‘Cut with the knife’

kattitª koyyi!

Notice the causal relationship manifested by the dative case suffix ku/ki in sentences like:

V>ÍMìü ™èþË$ç³#Ë$ ^èþ糚yæþ$ ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$.

‘The doors are making noise g¡liki talupulu cappu∂u c£stunn¡yi. (rattling) because of the wind’ 22.8. The benefactive (13.2.1) function of the dative case suffix is found in sentences like.

{ç³Ý맊þ ÆæÿÑMìü E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

‘Prasad is writing a letter to Ravi’

pras¡d raviki uttaraM r¡stunn¡∂u. Here Ravi is the 'recipient.' 22.9. Notice the possessive function of the dative case suffix in the following sentences like

D Mæü†¢Mìü 糧æþ$¯èþ$ Ìôý§æþ$.

‘This knife does not have sharpness.’ (This knife is not sharp.)

• kattiki padunu l£du. (See 14.1.2; 14.1.3 and 14.14)

22.10. In the sentences like the following one the dative case suffix is used with the noun which denotes destination (15.6.2.) or goal.

B Mæü$Èa° ™èþË$ç³# §æþVæüYÇMìü ¯ðþr$t.

‘Push that chair to the door.’

¡ kurc•ni talupu daggariki ne  u.

§æþVæüYÇ daggari.) 22.11. The locative forms of A¨ adi, C¨ idi and H¨ £di are A…§æþ$ÌZþaMdulª C…§æþ$ÌZýiMdulª G…§æþ$ÌZ eMdulª (in addition to §é°ÌZ d¡nilª, ©°ÌZ d•nilª and §óþ°ÌZ d£nilª - i.e., oblique base +ÌZþlª [3.5.] respectively. (See 19.6. for the use of

361

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A¨ C¨ H¨ 22.12.

^ðþÆÿ$$Å

adi idi £di

= A…§æþ$ÌZ/§é°ÌZ = C…§æþ$ÌZ/©°ÌZ = G…§æþ$ÌZ/§óþ°ÌZ

iMdulª/d•nilª eMdulª/d£nilª

Oblique bases and plural forms of the nouns Mæü¯èþ$² kannu 'eye' and cheyyi 'hand' are as follows.

Noun

Mæü¯èþ$² ^ðþÆÿ$$Å

aMdulª/d¡nilª

Oblique Base

Mæüâæý$å ka˚˚u ^óþ™èþ$Ë$ c£tulu Mæü…sZÏ 'in the eye' is the locative form of Mæü¯èþ$² kannu. (Mæü…sìýÌZ 22.13. kaMtilª cf. C…sZÏ iMtlª 'in the house' 13.16.) kannu ‘eye’ ceyyi ‘hand’

Mæü…sìý ^óþ†

Plural Form

kaM i c£ti

22.14. The use of dative case suffix in locative function can be seen in the following sentences.

G…§æþ$Mæü$ ± GyæþÐèþ$ Mæü…sìýMìü ±âæý$å ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$?

‘Why are there tears in your left eMduku n• e∂ama kaM iki n•˚˚u vastunn¡yi? eye?’ ± gôýº$Mæü$ _ÍÏ E…¨. ‘Ther is a hole in your pocket.’ n• j£buku cilli undi.

Ñç³È™èþ…V> vipar•taMg¡ 'severely; abundantly' ¡{Ðèþ…V> t•vraMg¡ 'severely' and ¯öí³µV>/¯ðþí³µV> noppig¡/neppig¡ are the adverbs derived from abstract nouns Ñç³È™èþ… vipar•taM severity; abundance, ¡{Ðèþ… t•vraM 'severity' and ¯öí³µ/¯ðþí³µ noppi/neppi 'pain' respectively. 22.15.

22.16. Notice the use of the following structure involving the adverbs given in 22.15 above in the sentences given below. [abstract noun + adverbialiser

G…yæþ ¡{Ðèþ…V> E…¨. V>Í Ñç³È™èþ…V> E…¨. ïÜ™èþ M>Ë$ ¯öí³µV> E…¨. çßýÇ Mæü¯èþ$² ¯ðþí³µV> E…¨.

V> g¡ (16.6) + existential verb]

eM∂a t•vraMg¡ undi. ‘The sun is severe.’ g¡li vipar•taMg¡ uMdi. ‘The wind is severe.’ s•ta k¡lu noppig¡ uMdi. ‘Sita's leg is paining’ hari kannu neppig¡ uMdi. ‘Hari's eye is aching.’ 362

Lesson 22 The locative case suffix &ÌZ -lª becomes &ÌZÏ -llª when it is added to a noun which has a cluster of consonants in its final syllable. This feature is more common in speech than in writing.

22.17.

±âæý$å + ÌZ = ±âæýåÌZÏ n•˚˚u + lª = n•˚˚allª ‘in the water’ ^ðþr$Ï + ÌZ = ^ðþrÏÌZÏ ce la + lª = ce lallª ‘in the trees’ 22.18. A°² anni 'those many' and C°² inni 'these many' are the quantitative adjectives used with neuter count nouns.

A°² ºËÏË$ anni ballalu ‘so many (those many) benches’ C°² ºËÏË$ inni ballalu ‘so many (these many) benches’ A°² anni and C°² inni are the corresponding demonstrative forms of interrogative form G°² enni 'how many' (4.4.2.). G°² ºËÏË$? enni ballalu ‘How many benches’ 22.19. Notice the use of the inclusive marker with an interrogative word alongwith a negative verb in the following sentences. (See 16.4.).

C…§æþ$ÌZ GMæüPyé Ìôý§æþ$. »ñýOr GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$.

iMdulª ekka∂¡ l£du. ‘It is no where in this.’ bai a evar¶ l£ru. ‘Nobody is there outside’

Also compare the usage Æðÿ…yæþ* reM∂¶ 'both' (8.6.) with the usage Mæüâæý*å reM∂¶ ka˚˚¶ 'both the eyes' which have the inclusive marker.

Æðÿ…yæþ$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæüâæý$å Æðÿ…yæþ$ Mæüâæý*å Ðèþ$*yæþ$ MæüÌêË$ CÐèþ#Ó. Ðèþ$*yæþ$ MæüÌêË* CÐèþ#Ó.

reM∂u ka˚˚u

‘two eyes’

reM∂u ka˚˚¶

‘both the eyes’

m¶∂u kal¡lu ivvu.

‘Give three pens.’

m¶∂u kal¡l¶ iv vu.

‘Give all the three pens’

363

UNIT IV Lesson 23

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö…r$¯é²¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ

: Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#! CMæüPyóþ… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

Æ>Ðèþ* : Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÍÏ Mìü ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ

: ò³§æþª ºgêÆøÏ C…MöMæü Mör$t…¨. AMæüPyæþ Mö¯èþ$. B MösZÏ Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$…_ Ððþ*yæþË$Þ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

Mört™èþ¯èþ$: CÐéÓâæý ò³§æþª ºgêÆæÿ$ MörÏMüæ $ òÜËÐèþ#. Ðèþ* §æþVæüYÆæÿ Mæü*yé E¯é²Äæý$…yîþ Mö™èþ¢ Ððþ*yæþË$Þ. ÆæÿÑ

: D ´ëç³ GÐèþÆæÿ$? Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏÍ Mæü*™èþ$Æ>? 364

I AM BUYING A RADIO Ramarao! What are you doing here? I am buying a Radio for my sister. There is a shop in the main market. You buy there. There are very good models in that shop. The shops in the main market observe holiday today. We too have new models, sir! Who is this baby? Is she your niece (sister's daughter)?

Lesson 23

Æ>Ðèþ* : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Yes.

ÆæÿÑ

Papa! What are you eating?

: H… ´ë´ë! HÑ$sìý †…r$¯é²Ðèþ#?

´ëç³ : ^éMðüÏr$t †…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am eating a chocolate.

Æ>Ðèþ* : H©, D ÆóÿyìþÄñý* ò³rt…yìþ.

Please tune this radio.

""BM>Ôè ý Ðé×ì ý , Cç ³ šyæ þ $ Ò$Ææ ÿ $ íÜ°Ðèþ* ´ërË$ Ñ…r$¯é²Ææÿ$.'' ""F¶ A¯èþ$! F¶ F¶ A¯èþ$! L¯èþ¯èþ$, L¯ú¯èþ¯èþ$ ...........''

"ALL INDIA RADIO, NOW YOU ARE LISTENING TO FILM SONGS ...." "SAY YES! SAY YES, YES!......"

WÇf : D Ððþ*yæþË$ »êV> Ìôý§æþ¯èþ²Äæý*Å!

This model is not good, brother!

Æ>Ðèþ* : D Mæü…ò³±§óþ Æÿ$$…MöMæü Ððþ*yæþË$ H© Ìôý§é?

Don't you have some other model of this company?

Mör$tÐéyæþ$: E…§æþ…yîþ! C¨Vø, Æÿ$$¨ ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. WÇf : C¨ »êVæü$…¨.

Yes, sir. We have it. Please see this. This is good.

Æ>Ðèþ* : çÜÆóÿ, Æÿ$$¨ Æÿ$$ÐèþÓ…yìþ.

All right. Give this.

Mört™èþ¯èþ$: AÌêVóü!

Okay!

ç Ü $º¾Æ>Ðè þ $Äæ ý $Å: HÐð þ *ÄŒ ý $ Æ>Ðè þ *Æ>Ðè þ #! ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö…r$¯é²Ðé?

Hey! Ramarao! Are you buying a radio?

365

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>Ðèþ* : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ! Ò$Ææÿ$?

Yes, sir! And you?

çÜ$º¾ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü*yé JMæü ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö¯éËÄæý*Å! ¯èþ$ÑÓ¨ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ðé?

I too have to buy a radio Mr.! Are you taking this?

Æ>Ðèþ* : AÐèþ#¯èþ…yîþ. D Ððþ*yæþË$ »êVæü$…¨. Ò$Ææÿ$ Mæü*yé C§óþ ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ.

Yes, sir! This model is good. You too take this.

çÜ$º¾ : çÜÆóÿ! ¯éMæü$ Mæü*yé D Ððþ*yæþÌôý JMæüsìý CÐèþÓ…yìþ.

Okay! Give me also one which is of the same model.

Æ>Ðèþ* : çÜ$º¾Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ææÿ*! Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Ææÿ…yìþ; CMæüPyìþMìü §æþVæüYÆóÿ!

Mr. Subbaramayya! Please come to my house. It is very near from here.

***

***

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#:Ææÿ…yìþ çÜ$º¾Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ææÿ*! D Ýù¸ëÌZ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ.

Come in, Mr. Subbaramaiah. Please sit in this sofa.

çÜ$º¾ : ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$, D Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…r$ &¯é²¯èþ$.

Don't worry! I am sitting in this chair.

Æ>Ðèþ* : HÑ$sìý AÌê E¯é²Ææÿ$? BÆøVæüÅ… »êV>Ìôý§é?

Why do you look like that? Is not your health alright?

çÜ$º¾ : Ìôý§æþ$. Mö°² ÆøkË°…_ Væü$…yðþÌZ ¯ðþí³µ ÐèþÝù¢…¨.

No. I am suffering from heart pain for the last few days.

Æ>Ðèþ* : Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Æ>?

Are you taking any medicine?

366

Lesson 23

çÜ$º¾ : B! D C…sZÏ G°² ÆøkË°…_ E…r$¯é²Ðèþ#?

Yes. How long are you staying in this house?

Æ>Ðèþ* : ¯éË$Væü$ ¯ðþËË°…_ E…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am here for the last four months. The house is nice. Be here only. Does your landlord possess a lot of money?

çÜ$º¾ : CË$Ï »êVæü$…¨. CMæüPyóþ E…yæþ$. Ò$ C…r™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ »êV> yæþº$¾ E…§é? Æ>Ðèèþ* : B! ^éÌê Ðèþ#…¨. Mö…™èþ D FâZå »êÅ…Mæü$ÌZ Ðèþ#…¨. Mö…™èþ Ðéâæýå FâZå E…¨.

Æ>Ðèþ* : Ìôý§æþ…yîþ. ´ëË$ ™éVæü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. X™é! »êº$¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>!

Yeah. There is a good lot. Some amount is there in the bank in this town. Some amount is in his home town. Where is your son? Is he sleeping? No. He is drinking milk. Geetha! Bring babu here.

çÜ$º¾ : °Ë$a…r$¯é²yé?

Does he stand?

Æ>Ðèþ* : B C糚yìþ糚yóþ °Ë$a…r$¯é²yæþ$. »êº*! °ÌZaÆ>! X™é! çÜ$º¾Æ>Ðèþ$Æÿ$$ÅV>ÇMìü Væü*yé A¯èþ²… Ðèþyìþz…^èþ$. 糧æþ.

Yes. He is standing only in these days. Babu! Stand up. Geetha! Serve food to Mr. Subbaramaiah also.

çÜ$º¾ : H…Æ>! ¯èþÐèþ#Ó™èþ$¯é²Ðóþ! ¯èþÐèþÓÆ>, ¯èþÐèþ#Ó!

What, my dear boy! You are laughing! Okay, laugh!

çÜ$º¾ : Ò$ »êº$ Hyìþ? °{§æþ´ù™èþ$¯é²yé?

367

An Intensive Course in Telugu

DRILLS a. Build-up drill.

A…r$¯é²yæþ$. ÐðþâêåÍ A…r$¯é²yæþ$. íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ A…r$¯é²yæþ$. CÐéÓâæý íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ A…r$¯é²yæþ$. ÆæÿÑ CÐéÓâæý íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ A…r$¯é²yæþ$. A…sZ…¨. M>ÐéÍ A…sZ…¨. »ŸÐèþ$à M>ÐéÍ A…sZ…¨. Mø† »ŸÐèþ$à M>ÐéÍ A…sZ…¨. ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Mø† »ŸÐèþ$à M>ÐéÍ A…sZ…¨. Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$ Mø† »ŸÐèþ$à M>ÐéÍ A…sZ…¨. ÐèþÝù¢…¨. ¯ðþí³µ ÐèþÝù¢…¨. Væü$…yðþÌZÏ ¯ðþí³µ ÐèþÝù¢…¨. ÆøkË°…_ Væü$…yðþÌZÏ ¯ðþí³µ ÐèþÝù¢…¨.

Mö…r$¯é²yæþ$. »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ Mö…r$¯é²yæþ$. Ðèþ$…_ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ Mö…r$¯é²yæþ$. Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$…_ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ Mö…r$¯é²yæþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$…_ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ Mö…r$¯é²yæþ$. E¯é²Ðèþ#. AÌê E¯é²Ðèþ#. HÑ$sìý, AÌê E¯é²Ðèþ#?

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. C糚yóþ ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Mö°² ÆøkË°…_ Væü$…yðþÌZÏ ¯ðþí³µ ÐèþÝù¢…¨. C糚yìþ糚yóþ ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. b. Substitution drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

ÆæÿÑ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ †¯èþ$ ¯érMæü… ѯèþ$ VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… Mö¯èþ$ "MæüË… M>ÐéÍ' A¯èþ$

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ðèþ* FâZå ò³§æþòª ³§æþª Mör$Ï E¯é²Æÿ$$.(Ðèþ$…_) Ðèþ* FâZå Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$…_ Mör$Ï E¯é²Æÿ$$. D C…sZÏ ò³§æþª ò³§æþª Væü§æþ$Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$. (_¯èþ²) B ™ørÌZ Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$…_ ^ðþr$ϯé²Æÿ$$. (ò³§æþª) B Væü¨ÌZ Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$…_ Mæü$ÈaË$¯é²Æÿ$$. (Mö™èþ¢) CMæüPyæþ Ðèþ$…_ç³NË$¯é²Æÿ$$. (_¯èþ²) 368

Lesson 23 Model (iii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (iv)

ÆæÿÑ ç³NÈ †…r$¯é²yæþ$. çÜÆæÿâæý ^èþ´ë¡ çÜÆæÿâæý ^èþ´ë¡ †…sZ…¨. Ðéâæý$å Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ M>Äæý$Ë$ Ò$Ææÿ$ E´ëà ¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³âæý$å ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ò³çÜÆæÿr$t

1. 2. 3. 4.

ÆæÿÑ MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. (ò³r$tMø) ÆæÿÑ MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ò³r$tMæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$. çÜÆæÿâæý AMæüPyæþ Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ $™ø…¨.(Mæü*Æøa) Ðèþ$¯èþ… ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²…. (¡çÜ$Mø) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ° ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. (ç³r$tMø) çÜÆæÿâæý ç³NË$ Mö…sZ…¨. (ò³r$tMø)

c. Response drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (iii)

ÆæÿÑ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$?(ç³#çÜM¢ üæ …&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ïÜ™èþ H… ^óþÝù¢…¨?(MæüË…&Mö¯èþ$) Ðóþ$… H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²…?(Ñ$¯èþç³r$t&†¯èþ$) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? (± Ðèþ*rË$&ѯèþ$) A¨ H… ^óþÝù¢…¨? (ç³…yæþ$&†¯èþ$)

1. 2. 3. 4.

¯óþ¯èþ$ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²¯èþ$?(ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó "ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$' A…r$¯é²Ðèþ#. Ðóþ$… HÐèþ$…r$¯é²…?(CMæüPyæþ ÔèýÆæÿÃÌôýyæþ$) MæüÐèþ$Ë HÐèþ$…sZ…¨?(ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… M>ÐéÍ) Ðèþ$¯èþ… HÐèþ$…r$¯é²…?(MæüË… Ðèþ§æþ$ª) Ò$Ææÿ$ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (CÐéÓâæý íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ùÐéÍ)

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

»ŸÐèþ$à GMæüPüyæþ$¯èþ²¨?(Ðèþ* CË$Ï) »ŸÐèþ$à Ðèþ* C…sZÏ E¯èþ²¨. 1. ^éMðüÏr$t GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨?(¯é ^ðþÆÿ$$Å) 2. MæüË… GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨?(Mör$t) 3. §æþ$Ðèþ$$à GMæüPyæþ ç³yæþ$™ø…¨?(Mæüâæý$å)

³ç …^èþ§éÆæÿ GÐèþÇMìü M>ÐéÍ?(¯éMæü$, ÆæÿÑMìü) Mö…™èþ ¯éMæü$ M>ÐéÍ, Mö…™èþ ÆæÿÑMìü M>ÐéÍ. 1. E´ëà GÐèþÇMìü M>ÐéÍ?(¯éMæü$, A™èþ°Mìü) 2. çÜ$ÖË yæþº$¾ GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? (ÆæÿÑ §æþVæüYÆæÿ, ÔèýÆæÿà §æþVæüYÆæÿ) 3. ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ GÐèþÆæÿ$ ¡çÜ$MöçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? (çÜÆæÿâæý, çÜ$ÖË)

Model (v)

Ò$ MæüÌêË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? (ÆæÿÑ, ÔèýÆæÿÃ) 2. Ðèþ$¯èþ ¸ùsZË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? Mö°² ÔèýÆæÿà §æþVæüÆY ÿæ $¯é²Æÿ$$. Mö°² ÆæÿÑ §æþVæüÆY ÿæ $¯é²Æÿ$$. (Vøí³, Æ>Ðèþ$$) 1. ¯é M>Æÿ$$™éË$ GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? 3. Ðèþ* Câæý$å GMæüPyæþ$¯é²Æÿ$$? (çÜÆæÿâæý, ÑÐèþ$Ë) (ÑfÄæý$Ðéyæþ, Væü$…r*Ææÿ$) 369

An Intensive Course in Telugu

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions based upon the text of the lesson.

1. Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? 4. MæüâæýågZyæþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$ ò³r$tMüæ $…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? 2. Üç $º¾Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>Ç BÆøVæüÅ… »êV> E¯èþ²§é? G°² Æøk˯èþ$…_? 3. ´ëç³ H… ^óþÝù¢…¨? 5. »êº$ H… ™éVæü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$? b. Fill up the blanks with G…™èþ/G°²/Mö…™èþ/Mö°². 1. C¨ ........... ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ? 4. .............. §æþ*Ææÿ… ÆðÿËO $ {ç³Äæý*×ý…. 2. CÑ ............ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$? 5. ............... Ððþ$Oâýæ $å ºçÜ$Þ {ç³Äæý*×ý…. 3. ............. ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ±Ñ. c. Answer the following questions using the cue words. Model (i)

1. ïÜ™èþ H… ^óþÝù¢…¨? (MæüË…&Mö¯èþ$) 2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²…? (Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ç Ðèþ*rË$&ѯèþ$) 3. Mæü$MæüPË$ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Æÿ$$? (¼çÜPr$Ï&†¯èþ$) Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

d.

e.

çÜ$Æóÿ‹Ù, ÔèýÆ>à H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? (MæüâæýÏgZyæþ$&ò³r$tMø) Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²…? (ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$&¡çÜ$Mø) ÆæÿÑ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (°{§æþ´ù) MæüÐèþ$Ë H… ^óþÝù¢…¨?(Mæü$ÈaÌZ&Mæü*Æøa) Rewrite the following sentence adding Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ$…_, Mö™èþ¢ Mö™èþ¢, ò³§æþª ò³§æþª and _¯èþ² _¯èþ² in appropriate place. ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Conjugate the following verbs for present tense with ¯óþ¯èþ$, Ðèþ$¯èþ…, Ò$Ææÿ$, ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó, ïÜ™èþ and Mæü$MæüPË$ as subjects. 1. †¯èþ$ 2. ѯèþ$ 370

Lesson 23

f. Match the following.

1. 2. 3. 4.

A

B

ÆæÿÑ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ Vøí³ ¯é Ðèþ*rË$ Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ MæüË… »êº$ "»ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ M>ÐéÍ'

Ñ…r$¯é²yæþ$ Mö…r$¯é²yæþ$ A…r$¯é²yæþ$ †…r$¯é²yæþ$

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

VOCABULARY

ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö¯èþ$ü ºgêÆæÿ$ Mör$t Ððþ*yæþË$ ò³r$t BM>ÔèýÐé×ìý F¶ A¯èþ$ L¯èþ$ Mæü…ò³± AÌêVóü! &AÄæý*Å Ýù¸ë BÆøVæüÅ…

Væü$…yðþ heart E…yæþ$ be; exist; stay; wait (v) C…r™èþ¯èþ$ house-owner yæþº$¾ money Mö…™èþ some (mass) »êÅ…Mæü$ commercial bank °{§æþ´ù sleep (v) ™éVæü$ drink (v) °ÌZa stand (v) C糚yìþ糚yóþ only these days; very

radio buy bazaar; market area shop model switch on (a radio or T.V. set) Akasavani (All India Radio) yes say; utter yes; variant of AÐèþ#¯èþ$ company Okay! All right a masculine equal address marker sofa health

recently

371

Ðèþyìþz…^èþ$ H…Æ>!

serve food hey! (inf. masc. addressing)

¯èþÐèþ#Ó &AÆ>

laugh (v) a masculine inferior address marker

An Intensive Course in Telugu

GRAMMAR NOTES 23.1. In this lesson a new group of verbal bases which behave in a different way in present tense is introduced. Those are:

A¯èþ$

anu 'say, utter'; Mö¯èþ$ konu 'buy'; †¯èþ$ tinu 'eat' (lesson 19); ѯèþ$ vinu 'listen; hear' (lesson 14); E…yæþ$ uM∂u 'be, wait'; °ÌZa nilcª 'stand'; Mæü*Æøa k¶rcª 'sit' (lesson 3); and Mø kª ending bases like ¡çÜ$Mø t•sukª 'take' (lesson 6); ³ ç r$tMø pa  ukª 'hold; catch' (lesson 21), ò³r$tMø pe  ukª 'wear; put on' (lesson 22); etc. Here after these verbal bases will be refrred to as A¯èþ$ anu group. 23.2. When a suffix beginning with ™Œþüt is added to the A¯èþ$üanu group of verbal bases, the initial ™Œþüt of the suffix changes to sŒýü  and the follwing changes occur in the verbal bases. (i) The final ¯èþ$ünu of the bases changes to …üM (sunn¡); (ii) The final Küª of the bases changes to E…üuM and (iii) The base E…yæþ$üuM∂u loses its final yæþ$ü∂u.

A¯èþ$&™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ = A…r$¯é²yæþ$

‘He is saying/uttering.’

anu-tunn¡∂u = aM unn¡∂u

ѯèþ$&™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$ = Ñ…r$¯é²¯èþ$

‘I am listening.’

vinu-tunn¡nu = viM unn¡∂u

Mö¯èþ$&™ø…¨ = Mö…sZ…¨

‘She is buying.’

konu-tªMdi = koM ªMdi

†¯èþ$&™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$ = †…r$¯é²Ææÿ$

‘They are eating.’

tinu-tunn¡ru = tiM unn¡ru

¡çÜ$Mø&™ø…¨ = ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sZ…¨

‘She is taking.’

t•sukª-tªMdi = t•sukuM ªMdi

ç³r$tMø&™èþ$¯é²&Ðèþ# = ç³r$tMæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#

‘You are holding.’

pa  ukª-tunn¡-vu = pa  ukuM unn¡vu

°ÌZa&™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ = °Ë$a…r$¯é²yæþ$ nilcª-tunn¡∂u = nilcuM unn¡du 372

‘He is standing.’

Lesson 23

Mæü*Æøa&™ø…¨ = Mæü*Ææÿ$a…sZ…¨

‘She is sitting’

k¶rcª-tªMdi = k¶rcuM ªMdi

E…yæþ$&™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$ = E…r$¯é²¯èþ$

‘I am staying.’

uM∂u-tunn¡nu = uM unn¡nu 23.3. The meaning of an adjective is intensified, or a stress is added to its meaning when the adjective is reduplicated.

Mö™èþ¢Mö™èþ¢ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ò³§æþªò³§æþª ^ðþr$Ï

kotta kotta pustak¡lu pedda pedda ce lu

‘very new books’ ‘very big trees’

Such reduplication occurs only when the noun is in plural number. 23.4. Notice the purposive function of the dative case suffix (14.1.1. and 17.10) in sentences like

Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$ÃyìþMìü ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

‘I am buying a radio for my brother.’

m¡ tammu∂iki r£∂iyª koM unn¡nu.

Purposive case suffixþMøçÜ… kªsaM (21.6) can also be used in the place of the dative case suffix in the above sentence.

Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$ÃyìþMøçÜ… ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

‘I am buying a radio for my brother.’ m¡ tammu∂ikªsaM r£∂iyª koM unn¡nu. 23.5.

1.(a)

Notice the use of the dative case suffix in the following sentences.

CÐóþÓâæý MörÏMæü$ òÜËÐèþ#.

‘It is a holiday for the shops today.’

ivv£˚a ko laku selavu.

1.(b)

Æóÿç³# Ðèþ*Mæü$ òÜËÐèþ#.

‘It is a holiday for us tomorrow.’

r£pu m¡ku selavu. It is a sort of 'possessive' function of the dative case suffix in these sentences. 2. çÜ$º¾Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$ÅV>ÇMìü A¯èþ²… Ðèþyìþz…^èþ$. 'Serve food to Mr. Subbaramayya.' subbar¡mayya g¡riki annaM va∂diMcu Here the function of the dative case suffix is 'benefactive'. 373

An Intensive Course in Telugu

F¶ ¶~ is the nasalized F ¶ . This is used to express acceptance. Æóÿç³# ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðé? r£pu vastunn¡va? ‘Are you coming tomorrow?’ F¶! ¶~! ‘Yes.’ 23.7. C糚yìþ糚yæþ$ ippu∂ippu∂u ‘just recently’ is the reduplicated form of C糚yæþ$ ippu∂u ‘now’. 23.8. Notice the use of the manner adverb AÌê al¡ 'in that way/direction/manner' in sentence like following where it expresses only manner. HÑ$sìý AÌê E¯é²Ææÿ$? £mi i al¡ unn¡ru? ‘Why do you look like that?’ (Why are you like that) cf. AÌê Æ>! al¡ r¡! ‘come there.’; CÌê Mæü*Æøa il¡ k¶rcª 'sit here.' AÌê ^èþ*yæþ$ al¡ c¶∂u 'Look there, Look that side' etc. (7.16). 23.9. &AÆ> -ar¡ is the masculine inferior singular marker corresponding to &A…yìþ! -aM∂i (2.8.1). This is used with imperative singular (affirmative) 23.6.

form of the verb while addressing the intimate people, children and persons of inferior relationship. (See 35.5; 35.6. and 35.7.).

†¯èþ$+AÆ>= †¯èþÆ>! tinu+ar¡= tinar¡ (2.12.2) 'Eat!' (inferior) Æ>+AÆ>= Æ>Æ>! r¡+ar¡= r¡r¡ (3.13.1) 'Come!' (inferior) Notice that the forms like †¯èþÆ>! tinar¡! Æ>Æ>! r¡r¡! are inferior; †¯èþ$! tinu! Æ>! r¡! are equal; and non-honorific; and †¯èþ…yìþ! tinaM∂i! Æ>…yìþ! r¡M∂i! are honorific. 23.10. "H…Æ>!'£Mr¡! 'hey!' is the masculine inferior address term used as a sentence initiator while talking to intimate children, persons who are intimate or very much lower in status. c.f. HÐèþ$…yîþ! -£maM∂•! (2.9.1), HÐèþ$Äæý*Å! £mayy¡! (2.9.2), HÐèþ$Ðèþ*Ã! £mamm¡! (17.15), and HÐðþ*ÄŒý$! £mªy! (21.11) 23.11.

Mö…™èþ koMta is the neuter indefinite mass pronoun/adjective. Mö…™èþ yæþº$¾ koMta ∂abbu 'some money' Mö…™èþ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ koMta paMcad¡ra 'some sugar' 374

Lesson 23 Recall the neuter indefinite count pronoun/adjective Mö°² konni (4.12.) which is used to denote countable objects, where as Mö…™èþ koMta is used to denote non-countable mass nouns.

Mö°² ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ konni pustak¡lu ‘some books’ (countable) Mö…™èþ ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ koMta paMcad¡ra ‘some sugar’ (non-countable) 23.12. &¯èþ$…_/&°…_ nuMci/niMci the ablative case suffix (17.7) is used with time nouns also.

¯éË$Væü$ Væü…rË°…_ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. n¡lugu gaM alniMci caduvutunn¡nu. ‘I am reading from 4 o'clock.’

¯óþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyæþ Æðÿ…yæþ$ çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆ>Ë°…_ E…r$¯é²¯èþ$. n£nu ikka∂a reM∂u saMvatsar¡laniMci uM unn¡nu. ‘I have been staying here since two years.’ 23.13.

&AÄæý*Å -ayy¡ is non-honorific masculine address marker (cf.

&AÐèþ*à amm¡ the corresponding feminine address marker. See 8.13.) ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Mö¯éËÄæýæ *Å! n£nu oka r£∂iyª kon¡layy¡! 'I have to a buy a radio!' 23.14. yæþº$¾ -∂abbu 'money' is used to denote 'large amounts of money' and yæþº$¾Ë$ -∂abbulu 'money' (lesson 20) is used to denote small amounts of money.

A™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ yæþº$¾ E…¨.

‘He has (lot of) money.’

atani daggara ∂abbu uMdi.

A™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ yæþº$¾Ìôý§æþ$.

‘He has no money. (He is not rich man.)’

atani daggara ∂abbul£du.

A™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ yæþº$¾Ë$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

‘He has money (which is not a large sum).’

atani daggara ∂abbulu unn¡yi.

A™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ yæþº$¾Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ#. atani daggara ∂abbulul£vu.

‘He has no money.’ (This sentence does not mean that he is a poor man.) 375

REVIEW 4 Lesson 24

E™èþ¢Ææÿ…

A LETTER

Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$, BVæüçÜ$t 25, 1980.

Mysore, August 25, 1980.

{í³Äæý$Ððþ$O¯èþ ¯é¯èþ²V>ÇMìü ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆæÿ….

My dear father,

CMæüPyæþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ „óüÐèþ$…. AMæüPyæþ Ò$Ææÿ*, AÐèþ*Ã, _Ææÿ…iÑ WÇgê, Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ, „óüÐèþ$…V> E¯é²Æ>? Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ÌZ Ðé™éÐèþÆæÿ×ý… ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨. ^èþËÏV> E…¨. C糚yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ ÐèþÆ>ÛM>Ë….

Regards. I am doing well here. I hope you, mother, Chiranjiivi Girija and Mohan are doing well. The climate in Mysore is fine. This is rainy season here now and it is cold.

Ðèþ*Mæü$ M>ÏçÜ$Ë$ »êV> fÆæÿ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. Mö™èþ¿¢ êçÙ M>ºsìýt E™éÞçßý…V>¯óþ E…¨. ¯óþ°MæüPyæþ

Our classes are on the full swing. It is interesting to

376

Lesson 24

àç Ü t Ì ZÏ E…r$¯é²¯è þ $. Ðè þ * àç Ü t Ë $ C¯ŒþíÜtr*ÅsŒý °…_ çÜ$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$ Ððþ$OË$ §æþ*Ææÿ…ÌZ E¯èþ²¨. àçÜtÌZÏ Ððþ$çÜ$Þ E…¨. Ððþ$çÜ$ÞÌZ GMæü$PÐèþV> A¯èþ²… ò³yæþ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. CMæüPyìþ {ç³fË BàÆæÿ… A¯èþ²…. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Væü*yé Ððþ$ËÏV> CMæüPyìþ ç³Çíܦ†Mìü AËÐér$ ç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. WÇf çÜ*PË$Mæü$ ÐðþâZ¢…§é? {糆 B¨ÐéÆæÿ… ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ C…sìýMìü ÐèþÜç $¢¯é²yé? Ðéyìþ ³ç È„æü Üç …Væü† Ððþ…r¯óþ Æ>Äæý$…yìþ. ÐéyìþMìü Væü*yé çÜ*PË$ A{yæþçÜ$Mæü$ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. ¯é òÜÓrtÆæÿ$ ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ Ìôý§æþ$. ºçßý$Ôèý A¨ C…sZϯóþ E…yéÍ. CMæüPyæþ ^éÌê ^èþÍV> E…¨. ¯éMæü$ òÜÓrtÆæÿ$ M>ÐéÍ. Ððþ…r¯óþ §é°² ´ùçÜ$tÌZ ç³…ç³…yìþ. AÐèþ$ÃV>ÇMìü ¯èþÐèþ$ÝëPÆ>Ë$. í³ËÏËMæü$ BÖçÜ$ÞË$. Ððþ…r¯óþ E™èþÆ¢ ÿæ … Æ>Äæý$…yìþ. C…™óþ çÜ…Væü™èþ$Ë$ Cr$Ï Ò$ Mæü$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$yæþ$ ѯø§Šþ Mæü$Ðèþ*ÆŠÿ.

learn because it is a new language. I am residing in the hostel. Our hostel is located about a mile from our institute. There is a mess in the hostel. Rice is served more (often and in quantity) in the mess. The staple food of the people here is rice. I am also slowly getting accustomed to the situation here. Does Girija go to school regularly? Does my younger brother come home every Sunday? Please write to me about his examination soon. I am also writing to him to his school address. I don’t have my sweater with me. Probably it is left at home. It is very cold here. I need the sweater. Please send it by post. Please give my regards to mother and blessings to the youngsters. Please reply immediately. I close here. Your son VINOD KUMAR.

EXERCISES a. Change the verbs of the following sentences into nagative imperatives.

1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ððþ$ËÏV> Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$. 2. ÆæÿÑV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ Mö™èþ¢ òÜÓrtÆæÿ$ Mö¯èþ…yìþ. 3. çÜ$ÖÌê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²§ø Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$. 377

4. ÔèýÆ>Ã! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B ™èþË$ç³# Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å! 5. ´ë´ë! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B ™èþË$ç³# †Æÿ$$Å! 6. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ¼òÜPr$Ï ¡çÜ$Mø! 7. ÔéÆæÿ§é! Æóÿç³# ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>!

An Intensive Course in Telugu

b. Change the following as shown in the model. Model

A¯èþ²… †¯èþ$. °{§æþ´ù! 2. Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ Mör$t. ™èþË$ç³# ÐðþÆÿ$$Å. Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþ$, ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ °{§æþ´ù! 3. ÌñýOr$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å. MìüsìýMîüË$ †Æÿ$$Å. 1. ÔèýÆæÿÙø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$. D ç³° ^ðþÆÿ$$Å. 4. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. ç³NÈ †¯èþ$. c. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model (i)

Ò$ FâZå G°² M>ÌôýiË$¯é²Æÿ$$? Ðèþ* FâZå JMæü M>Ìôýi E…¨. 1. Ò$ FâZå G°² Væü$âæý$å¯é²Æÿ$$? 2. Ò$ FâZå G°² ºâæý$å¯é²Æÿ$$? 3. ± §æþVæüÆY ÿæ G°² Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ç³âæý$å¯é²Æÿ$$?

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

CMæüPyæþ G°² Ðèþ$$âæý$ϯé²Æÿ$$? B Mæü$MæüPMæü$ G°² Mæüâæý$å¯é²Æÿ$$? D »ŸÐèþ$ÃMæü$ G°² M>âæý$å¯é²Æÿ$$? D ºgêÆøÏ G°² Mör$ϯé²Æÿ$$? B »ŸÐèþ$ÃMæü$ G°² ^óþ™èþ$Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$?

Model (ii)

ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ H… M>ÐéÍ? (^èþ´ë¡Ë$) 2. C糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GMæüPyìþMìü ÐðþâêÏÍ? ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ M>ÐéÍÞ…§óþ! (»ñý…Væü$âæý*Ææÿ$) 1. ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ýMæü$ G°² ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ M>ÐéÍ? 3. Æóÿç³# ÆæÿÑ GÐèþÇ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ? (BÆæÿ$) (Ðèþ*ÚëtÇ™ø) Model (iii)

¯óþ°ç³šyæþ$ H… ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ? 2. ¯óþ°ç³šyæþ$ GMæüPyìþMìü ´ùÐéÍ? (^èþ´ë†&E´ëÃ) (ºgêÆæÿ$&M>Ìôýi) ¯èþ$ÑÓ糚yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡V>± E´ëÃV>± ^ðþÆÿ$$Å. 3. Ðóþ$… Æóÿç³# GÐèþÇ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ? 1. Ðóþ$… C糚yæþ$ H ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯éÍ? (ÆæÿÑ&ÔèýÆæÿÃ) (™ðþË$Væü$&C…XÏçÙ$) d. Fill up the blanks using

Mö…™èþ or Mö°².

1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ ............... ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ M>ÐéÍ. 2. çÜ$ÖË §æþVæüYÆæÿ ................ yæþº$¾…¨. 3. ................. §æþ*Ææÿ… ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐðþâêÏÍ. 378

4. Ðèþ* FÆæÿ$ CMæüPyìþ²…_ ........ Ððþ$OâæýÏ §æþ*Ææÿ…ÌZ E…¨. 5. Ë™èþMæü$ ...... ç³NË$ M>ÐéÍ.

Lesson 24

e. Fill up the blanks with suitable case suffixes.

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ çÜ$ÖË ......... Ðèþ*sêÏ-yé-Í. 4. D A{yæþçÜ$ ......... JMæü E™èþÆ¢ ÿæ … Æ>Æÿ$$. 2. çÜ$Væü$×ý ........... M>ïœ AËÐér$. 5. çÜ$ÖË ÔéÆæÿ§æþ ............ yæþº$¾Ë$ 3. ÆæÿÐèþ$ »êº$ ........... ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö…sZ…¨. Ayæþ$Væü$™ø…¨. f. Combine the following.

1. 2. 3. 4.

CË$Ï Mör$t Mæü¯èþ$² Mæüâæý$å

+ ÌZ + ÌZ + ÌZ + ÌZ

= = = =

5. ºyìþ + ÌZ = 6. ^ðþÆÿ$$Å + ÌZ = 7. Ò$Ææÿ$ + ° =

g. Match the following.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A

B

çÜ$ÖË Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü$MæüPË$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ò$Ææÿ$

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²… ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$ A¯èþ²… †…sZ…¨ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ# fÆæÿ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$ ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> ÐðþâæýÏ…yìþ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

h. Give your responses to the following sentences as shown in the model. Model (i)

ÔèýÆæÿà ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. 1. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# ÔèýÆæÿÙø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 2. çÜ$ÖË E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Ýù¢…¨. 379

3. Ðéâæý$Ï àçÜtÌZÏ E…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. 4. í³ËÏË$ ç³NË$ Mö…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. 5. ´ëç³ ¼òÜPr$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sZ…¨. 6. ÆæÿÑ Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ Möyæþ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model(ii)

A™èþ¯èþ$ §ö…Væü. 2. DÐðþ$ Ò$ ^ðþÌñýÏË$. A™èþ¯èþ$ §ö…Væü M>§æþ$. §ö…VæüÌêV> E¯é²yæþ$. 3. BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$¯èþ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒý. 1. BÐðþ$ ÔéÆæÿ§æþ. 4. C¨ Ðèþ$¯èþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Change the following into adverbs and use them in your own sentences:

gê{Væü™èþ¢ ^èþËϯèþ

Væüsìýt ™ö…§æþÆæÿ

^èþÍ Mö™èþ¢

Use the following verbs in your own sentences in present tense.

Mö¯èþ$ ò³r$t ò³r$tMø

Æ>Æÿ$$ MæüçÙtç³yæþ$ Æ>

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# AËÐér$ç³yæþ$ †¯èþ$

VOCABULARY

{í³Äæý$Ððþ$O¯èþ dear „óüÐèþ$…ü safe _Ææÿ…iÑ long living Ðé™éÐèþÆæÿ×ý… climate ÐèþÆ>ÛM>Ë… rainy season fÆæÿ$Væü$ takeplace; occur M>ºsìýt because E™éÞçßý… interest àçÜtË$ hostel C¯ŒþíÜtr*ÅsŒý institute {ç³fË$ people BàÆæÿ… food

ç³Çíܦ† situation; circumstance AËÐér$ç³yæþ$ accustom; habituate çÜ…Væü†üü matter; news Ððþ…r¯óþ immediately òÜÓrtÆÿæ $ sweater ºçßý$Ôèý perhaps ´ùçÜ$t post; mail ç³…ç³# send BÖçÜ$Þ blessing Cr$Ï saying so Mæü$Ðèþ*Ææÿ$yæþ$ son

380

Lesson 24

NOTES 24.1. {í³Äæý$Ððþ$O¯þè ü-priyamaina 'dear' is used to express affection, love and intimacy. This is used in letters. 24.2.

_Ææÿ…iÑ -ciraMj•vi 'long living' is used by elders in letters to refer

to children and youngsters. 24.3.

Cr$Ï -i lu 'saying so' is used in letters before concluding the letter.

24.4.

Notice the use of the dative case suffix in the sentences:

CMæüPyìþ ç³Çíܦ†Mìü AËÐér$ç³yæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

'I am getting used to the circum-ikka∂i paristitiki alav¡ u pa∂utunn¡nu. stances of this place.' Here the dative case suffix expresses a sort of goal (15.6.2; 22.10).

381

UNIT V Lesson 25

GMæü$PÐèþV> †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$

EATING TOO MUCH IS NOT GOOD

ÔèýÆæÿà : H… {ç³Ý맊þ! MæüâæýågZyæþ$ G°² ÆøkË °…_ ò³r$tMæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#? ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ò³r$tMør… C糚yóþ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

Hello! Prasad! How long have been wearing glasses? I see you wearing for the first time just now.

{ç³Ý맊þ : ¯éË$Væü$ ÆøkË °…^óþ ò³r$tMæü$…& r$¯é²¯èþ$. Ò$ õ³rÌZ Câæý$å RêäV> E¯é²Äæý*? ÔèýÆæÿà : G…§æþ$Mæü$?

I started wearing glasses for the last four days only. Do you have any houses vacant in your area? Why?

{ç³Ý맊þ : ¯éMæü$ M>ÐéÍ.

I want one. 382

Lesson 25

ÔèýÆæÿà : H…? Ò$ CË$Ï »êV>¯óþ E…¨V>? {ç³Ý맊þ : CË$Ï »êV>¯óþ E…¨; M>° E…yæþyæþ… ^éÌê MæüçÙt…V> E…¨. ÔèýÆæÿÃ

: H…? C…r™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyæþ$ M>§é?

{ç³Ý맊þ : C…r™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyóþ! M>° CËÏ…™é `Mæüsìý. G糚yæþ* ÌñýOr$ E…yéÍ. A…™óþ M>§æþ$. BïœçÜ$Mæü$ ^éÌê §æþ*Ææÿ… Væü*yé! Æ>Ðèþyæþ… ´ùÐèþyæþ… G…™ø MæüçÙt…. ÔèýÆæÿà : Ò$ õ³rÌZ Câæýå Mæü…sñý Ðèþ* õ³rÌZ Câæýå A§ðþªË$ GMæü$PÐèþ. {ç³Ý맊þ : AÆÿ$$™óþ H…? Ðèþ* õ³rÌZ Câæýå Mæü…sñý Ò$ õ³rÌZ Câæý$å »êVæü$¯é²Æÿ$$. ò³§æþªÑ Væü*yé! Ò$ C…r™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_Ðéyóþ¯é?

Why? Your house is all right. Isn’t it? The house is good. But it is getting difficult to stay in that house. Why? Is not your landlord a good person. The landlord is a good person. But the house is entirely dark. The lights should be on all the time. That is not all. It is also far off from the office. It is difficult to go and come back. The house rents are higher in our area than in your area.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Æóÿç³# òÜËÐóþ Mæü§é! Æóÿç³# E§æþÄæý$… Æ>!

So what? The houses in your locality are more convenient than in our locality. They are big too. Is your landlord a good man? Yeah! All people in our locality are good. No bad people here. There is one house vacant beside my house. Come with me. Now the time is not sufficient. It is not known whether bus is available or not. Tomorrow is holiday. Isn’t it? Come tomorrow morning.

{ç³Ý맊þ : AÌêVóü!

Okay.

ÔèýÆæÿà : B! Ðèþ* õ³rÌZ A…§æþÆæÿ* Ðèþ$…_& Ðéâôýå. ^ðþyæþÐz éâôýå ÌôýÆæÿ$. Ðèþ* C…sìý ç³MæüP¯èþ JMæü CË$Ï E…¨; Æ>! {ç³Ý맊þ : C糚yæþ$ sñýO… ^é˧æþ$. ºçÜ$Þ Mæü*yé E…§ø Ìôý§ø!

***

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ÔèýÆæÿà : Æ> {ç³Ý맊þ! Ðèþ* ç³MæüP CË$Ï RêäV>¯óþ E…¨. M>° Ðèþ…rÆÿ$$Ë$Ï _¯èþ²¨. {ç³Ý맊þ : 糧æþ. ^èþ*í³…^èþ$. ÔèýÆæÿà : Æ>! C§óþ CË$Ï. D ´ëç³ C…sìý& Ðéâæýå AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$. ´ë´ë! AMæüPÄæý$Å H… ^óþÝù¢…§æþÐèþ*Ã? ´ëç³ : ò³§æþMª üæ PÄæý$Å Ðèþ…rÆÿ$$…sZÏ E¯èþ²§æþ…yîþ. Ðèþ…r^óþÝù¢…¨. _¯èþ²MæüPÄæý$Å ³ç MæüPÐéâæýå AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$™ø Byæþ$™ø…¨. §é°Mìü G糚yæþ* BrÌôý¯èþ…yîþ! ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé Byæþ$. ´ëç³ : E§æþÄæý$… Byæþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ…yîþ!

Come on, Prasad. Our neighbouring house is vacant. But the kitchen is small. Come on; show it. Come. This is the house. This Papa is the daughter of the landlord. Papa! What is your sister doing? My elder sister is in the kitchen, sir! She is cooking. The younger sister is playing with a girl from next door. All the time she indulges in games. You too play!

ÔèýÆæÿà : AÌêV>! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^éÌê Ðèþ$…_§é°Ñ. D ^éMðür Ï $Ï ¡çÜ$Mø!

Playing in the mornings is not good, sir! I see! You are a good girl. Take these chocolates.

´ëç³ : JMæüsìý ^éË…yîþ! GMæü$PÐèþV> †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$.

One is enough, sir! Eating too much is not good.

{ç³Ý맊þ : ´ë´ë! C糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$ÐóþÓ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#?

Papa! What are you studying presently.

´ëç³ : C糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^èþ§æþÐèþr…Ìôý§æþ…yîþ! ç³#çÜ¢M>°Mìü Art ÐóþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

I am not studying anything now, sir! I am putting on a wrapper to this book. No, not that my dear! I am saying what class are you in now.

{ç³Ý맊þ : A¨ M>§æþÐèþ*Ã! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C糚yæþ$ G¯ø² ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ# A…r$¯é²¯èþ$. 384

Lesson 25

´ëç³ : Æðÿ…yø ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ…yîþ!

I am in second standard, sir!

{ç³Ý맊þ : AÌêV>! C糚yæþ$ Ò$ ºâZå H… ´ëuæÿ… ^ðþç³#¢¯é²Ææÿ$?

I see! What lesson are they teaching now in your school?

´ëç³ : C糚yæþ$ ´ëu>Ë$ ^ðþç³µr… Ìôý§æþ…yîþ! Mæü£æþË$, ´ërË$ ^ðþº$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ÐðþÄæý$År… Mæü*yé ¯óþÆæÿ$µ& ™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. ç³Ý맊þ : H¨, JMæü ´ër ´ëyæþ$.

Now they are not teaching any lessons, sir. They are telling stories, and teaching songs. They are also teaching drawing pictures. Then, sing a song.

´ëç³ : ´ëyæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$; ѯèþ…yìþ.

I am singing. Please listen, sir.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

X™é! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøar… G…™ø MæüÙç …t . çÜÆæÿâê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$ÌñýÏç³NË$ ò³r$tMør C糚yóþ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. ÆæÿÒ! ç³VæüË$ °{§æþ´ùÐèþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$ Vøï³! Æóÿç³# Ar$ ´ùÐèþr… ^éÌê MæüçÙt…. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Byæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Byæþr…Ìôý§æþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. C™èþ¯èþ$ Æ>Äæý$r…Ìôý§æþ$. A…§æþÆæÿ* Ðèþ$…_-Ðé--âôýÏ. G糚yæþ* †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$.

Væü¨ A…™é `Mæü-sìý. CËÏ…™é »êVæü$-¯èþ²¨. ÔèýÆæÿÃ- Mæü…sñý ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ$…_-Ðé-yæþ$. çÜ$-»ê¾-Æ>Ðèþ# Mæü…sñý- ÔèýÆæÿà ò³§æþª-Ðé-yæþ$. ± Mæü…sñý ¯óþ¯èþ$ _¯èþ²Ðé×ìý~. WÇgê! Ò$ C…sìýMìü Æ>Ðèþr… ¯éMæü$ G…™ø CçÙt…. ÔèýÆ>Ã! GMæü$PÐèþV> †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. `MæüsZÏ Ððþâæýår… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… A™èþ°Mìü ^èþ*í³…^èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. ¯éMæü$ ^èþ*í³…-^èþ$. »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ÐðþÄæý$År… ¯óþÆæÿ$µ™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$.

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BÐðþ$ †…r$¯èþ²¨. DÐðþ$ †¯èþyæþ…Ìôý§æþ$. ´ërË$ ^ðþ-ç³#¢-¯é²-Ææÿ$. ´ëu>Ë$ ^ðþç³µr… Ìôý§æþ$. ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mæü…sñý ±ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Qȧæþ$ GMæü$PÐèþ.

Ðèþ* C…sìý Mæü…sñý Ò$ CË$Ï ò³§æþª¨. ÔèýÆæÿà AMæüPyæþ E¯é²yø Ìôýyø! C糚yæþ$ ºçÜ$Þ E…§ø Ìôý§ø! ¯é çÜ…`ÌZ yæþº$¾Ë$ E¯é²Äñý* ÌôýÐø! C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ C…sZÏ E¯é²Æø ÌôýÆø!

b. Build-up drill

E…yéÍ. ÌñýOr$ E…yéÍ. G糚yæþ* ÌñýOr$ E…yéÍ. Væü¨ÌZ G糚yæþ* ÌñýOr$ E…yéÍ. Ðèþ* Væü¨ÌZ G糚yæþ* ÌñýOr$ E…yéÍ. A…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ…r$¯é²¯èþ$. H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ…r$¯é²¯èþ$. C糚yóþ… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯èþ$ÑÓ糚yóþ… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

MæüçÙt…. G…™ø MæüçÙt…. ´ùÐèþr… G…™ø MæüçÙt…. Æ>Ðèþr… ´ùÐèþr… G…™ø MæüçÙt…. BïœçÜ$Mæü$ Æ>Ðèþr… ´ùÐèþr… G…™ø MæüçÙ…t . C…sìý°…_ BïœçÜ$Mæü$ Æ>Ðèþr… ´ùÐèþr… G…™ø MæüçÙt…. BrÌôý! G糚yæþ* BrÌôý! ÆæÿÑMìü G糚yæþ* BrÌôý!

c. Substitution drill. Model (i)

Model (ii)

D Væü¨ÌZ †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. E…yæþ$ D Væü¨ÌZ E…yæþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. °{§æþ´ù Mæü*Æøa °ÌZa ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#

ÆæÿÑ B Væü¨ÌZ E¯é²yø Ìôýyø! ïÜ™èþ ïÜ™èþ B Væü¨ÌZ E¯èþ²§ø Ìôý§ø! ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$ ¯é Mæü$MæüP ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ Ò$Ææÿ$ 386

Lesson 25 Model (iii)

Model (v)

ÆæÿÑ ´ëyæþr… Ìôý§æþ$. ïÜ™èþ ïÜ™èþ ´ëyæþr… Ìôý§æþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðéyæþ$ BÄæý$¯èþ

¯óþ¯èþ$ AyæþVæüyæþ… Ìôý§æþ$. †¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ †¯èþyæþ… Ìôý§æþ$. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# MöÆÿ$$Å ¡çÜ$Mø ^èþ*yæþ$ Æ>Æÿ$$ Æ> ´ù

Model (iv)

Model (vi)

ÆæÿÑMìü G糚yæþ* BrÌôý! ´ërË$ ÆæÿÑMìü G糚yæþ* ´ërÌôý! ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ¯érM>Ë$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Ë$ Mæü£æþË$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…ÌZ HÐèþ$$…¨? Mör$t MösZÏ HÐèþ$$…¨? Væü$yìþ ºyìþ FÆæÿ$ Mæü¯èþ$² CË$Ï ^ðþÆÿ$$Å

d. Interlocked substitution drill. Model

ÔèýÆæÿà Mæü…sñý ÆæÿÑ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$. ïÜ™èþ ÔèýÆæÿà Mæü…sñý ïÜ™èþ _¯èþ²¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯é Mæü…sñý ïÜ™èþ _¯èþ²¨. ò³§æþª ¯é Mæü…sñý ïÜ™èþ ò³§æþª¨.

¯é Mæü…sñý ïÜ™èþ ò³§æþª¨. ÆæÿÑ .............................. ........... çÜ$ÆóÿÔŒý ............... A™èþ¯èþ$ ......................... ........... çÜÆæÿâæý ............... .................. _¯èþ² .................. Ðèþ$…_ 387

An Intensive Course in Telugu

e. Response drill Model (i)

ÌñýOr$ G糚yæþ$ E…yéÍ? 2. ÔéÆæÿ§æþMæü$ yæþº$¾Ë$ G糚yæþ$ M>ÐéÍ? ÌñýOr$ G糚yæþ* E…yéÍ. 3. G糚yæþ$ †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$? 1. ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ M>ïœ G糚yæþ$ M>ÐéÍ? 4. ÆæÿÑMìü G糚yæþ$ Mæü£æþË$ M>ÐéÍ? Model (ii) ÆæÿÒ! C糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó çÜ*PË$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ðé? C糚yæþ$ çÜ*PË$Mæü$ Ððþâæýår… ^éÌê MæüçÙt…. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ê! C糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³NË$ MøçÜ$¢¯é²Ðé? 2. ÔéÆæÿ§é! C糚yæþ$ MæüË… Mö…r$¯é²Ðé? 3. ÑÐèþ$Ìê! C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü ´ù™èþ$¯é²Ðé? 4. çÜ$ÖÌê! MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ò³r$tMæü$…r$¯é²Ðé? 5. ÆæÿÐèþ*! B Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…r$¯é²Ðé? 6. EÐèþ*! ÆæÿÐèþ$¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$MöçÜ$¢¯é²Ðé? Model (iii) Art §óþ°Mìü ÐóþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…) Art ç³#çÜ¢M>°Mìü ÐóþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. 1. ÆæÿÑ GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? (¯érMæü…) 2. WÇ GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? (ÕÐéËÄæý$…) 3. ÆæÿÐèþ$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sZ…¨? (fÓÆæÿ…) 4. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#? (BÆøVæüÅ…) Model (iv) Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ BÆø ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yé? (Ðèþ$*yæþ$) BÆø ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþÐèþr…Ìôý§æþ…yîþ! Ðèþ$*yø ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 1. çÜÆæÿâê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æðÿ…yø ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²Ðé? (JMæüsìý) 2. çÜ$ÖÌê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó G°Ñ$§ø ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²Ðé? (Hyæþ$) 3. ÔèýÆ>Ã! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³§ø ™èþÆæÿVæü† ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²Ðé? (™öÑ$è) Model (v) ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²Ðé? Ìôý§æþ…yîþ! ¯óþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþr…Ìôý§æþ$. 1. Vøï³! Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$ ± Væü¨ÌZ E…r$¯é²yé? 2. ÔóýçÙ*! C糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯érM>°Mìü ´ù™èþ$¯é²Ðé? 3. ÔèýÆ>Ã! í³ÍÏ ^ðþr$t GMæü$P™èþ$¯èþ²§é? 4. MæüÐèþ$Ìê! ËMìü‡ ± ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ç³r$tMæü$…r$¯èþ²§é? 5. ÑÐèþ$Ìê! çÜÆøgê çÜ$Væü$×ê ¯érM>°Mìü ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æ>? 388

Lesson 25

f. Transformation drill. Model

A™èþ¯èþ$ ´ërË$ ´ëyæþr…Ìôý§æþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ ´ërË$ ´ëyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà C…sìýMìü Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

2. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ ´ëuæÿ… ^ðþç³µr…Ìôý§æþ$. 3. çÜ$ÖË A¯èþ²… †¯èþr…Ìôý§æþ$. 4. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ±Mæü$ ¯é õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µr…Ìôý§æþ$.

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. {ç³Ý맊þ MæüâæýågZyæþ$ G°² ÆøkË °…_ 3. ´ëç³ ò³§æþªMæüPÄæý$Å H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? ò³r$tMæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? 4. ´ëç³ C糚yæþ$ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? 2. {ç³Ý맊þMæü$ B C…sZÏ E…yæþr… 5. C糚yæþ$ ºâZå H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? G…§æþ$Mæü$ MæüçÙt…V> E…¨? ´ëu>Ë$ ^ðþç³#¢¯é²Æ>? b. Make at least 8 sentences using Mæü…sñý bringing out comparison among WÇ, ÆæÿÑ, ÆæÿÐèþ$ and Ë™èþ. WÇMìü Ðèþ$*yóþâæý$å. Model ÆæÿÑMìü Æðÿ…yóþâæý$å. WÇ Mæü…sñý ÆæÿÑ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$. ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ ™öÑ$çóþâæý$å. Ë™èþ Mæü…sñý ÆæÿÐèþ$ _¯èþ²¨. Ë™èþMæü$ 糧æþMö…yóþâæý$å. c. Fill up the blanks with the gerund forms of the verbs given in parentheses.

ÆæÿÑMìü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… .............. (CÐèþ#Ó) Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. ÆæÿÑMìü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèþÓr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. D ç³° ........... (^ðþÆÿ$$Å) G…™ø MæüçÙ…t . 5. B MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ...... (ò³r$tMø) Ðèþ$…_¨. ç³VæüË$ ...... (°{§æþ´ù) Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. 6. AMæüPyæþ ...... (Mæü*Æøa) ^éÌê MæüçÙt…. ºçÜ$ÞÌZ ...... (^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) G…™ø MæüçÙt…. 7. G…yæþÌZ Ò$ C…sìýMìü ....... (Æ>) `MæüsìýÌZ B §øÐèþÌZ .... (´ù) ^éÌê MæüçÙ…t . ^éÌê MæüçÙt….

Model

1. 2. 3. 4.

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An Intensive Course in Telugu

d. Answer the following questions as shown in the model.. Model (i)

Model (ii)

°¯èþ² ÆæÿÑ C…sZÏ E¯é²yé? çßýÇMìü G糚yæþ$ sîý M>ÐéÍ? °¯èþ² ÆæÿÑ C…sZÏ E¯é²yø Ìôýyø! çßýÇMìü G糚yæþ* sîý M>ÐéÍ. 1. AMæüPyæþ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… E¯èþ²§é? 1. G糚yæþ$ ^ðþsñýtMæüPr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$? 2. ÆæÿÐèþ* Ë™é C…sZÏ E¯é²Æ>? 2. ±Mæü$ G糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å M>ÐéÍ? 3. A™èþ° gôýº$ÌZ yæþº$¾Ë$ E¯é²Äæý*? 3. çÜ$ÖËMæü$ G糚yæþ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ M>ÐéÍ? e. Change the following sentences into present negative.

1. ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²yæþ$. 2. çÜÆæÿâæý ™èþË$ç³# ÐóþÝù¢…¨. 3. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ ºyìþMìü ´ù™èþ$¯é²yæþ$.

4. MæüÐèþ$Ìê EÐèþ* C…sìýMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. 5. ´ëç³ Mìü…§æþ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…sZ…¨. 6. çßýÇ Ðèþ…r ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

f. Answer the following questions using the cue words given in the parentheses.

A

B

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4.

ÆæÿÑ GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? (¯érMæü…) Ò$Ææÿ$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. (fÓÆæÿ…) D FâZå E…yæþr… GÐèþÇMìü MæüçÙt…V> E…¨? (f¯èþ…) Vøí³ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (A¯èþ²…) çÜ$ÖË H… ^óþÝù¢…¨? (MæüË…&Mö¯èþ$) ÔèýÆæÿà H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (Mæü£æþ&^ðþ糚) Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (´ëuæÿ…&ѯèþ$) Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²…? (Ðèþ…r&^ðþÆÿ$$Å)

VOCABULARY

A…™óþ M>§æþ$ not only that BïœçÜ$ office G…™ø so much; a lot &Mæü…sñý than (comparative marker

MæüçÙt… difficulty A…™é all over; every where `Mæüsìý darkness ÐðþË$™èþ$Ææÿ$ light (n)

[See 25.5.]) 390

Lesson 25

Byæþ$ Art

^ðþyæþz bad ^èþ*í³…^èþ$ to show (v.t.) G糚yæþ* always BsZ auto-rikshaw ò³§æþª elder (adj.) Ðèþ…rÆÿ$$Ë$Ï kitchen Ðèþ…r cooking (n) _¯èþ² younger (adj.)

to play (v.) a wrapper; cover page of a book; a card board

»ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å ¯óþÆæÿ$µ ´ëyæþ$

to draw pictures (v.) teach (a skill) (v.) to sing

GRAMMAR NOTES 25.1. In this lesson the gerund form of the verb is introduced. Gerund is a type of verbal noun denoting the abstractness of the action denoted by the verb. &Ar…/&Ðèþr… -a aM/-va aM. is added to the verbal base to form the gerund.

†¯èþr… tina aM ‘eating’ Æ>Ðèþr… r¡va aM ‘coming’ 25.1.1. &Ðèþr… -va aM is added to the monosyllabic bases such as Æ> r¡ ‘to come’, ´ù pª ‘to go’, etc. The compound bases (formed by adding Æ> r¡ and ´ù pª to a base) such as ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> t•sukur¡ ‘to bring’ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù t•sukupª ‘to take away’, ´ëÇ´ù p¡ripª ‘to run away’, °{§æþ´ù nidrapª ‘to sleep’, etc. also behave like Æ> r¡ and ´ù pª. Hence they also take &Ðèþr… -va aM to become gerunds. Æ>Ðèþr… r¡va aM ‘coming’ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>Ðèþr… t•sukur¡va aM ‘bringing’ ´ùÐèþr… pªva aM ‘going’ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ùÐèþr… t•sukupªva aM ‘taking away’ °{§æþ´ùÐèþr… nidrapªva aM ‘sleeping’ ´ëÇ´ùÐèþr… p¡ripªva aM ‘running away’ 25.1.2. &Ar… -a aM is added to the other bases. †¯èþ$ + Ar… = †¯èþr… tinu + a aM = tina aM ‘eating’ (2.12.2.) ´÷Æÿ$$Å + Ar… = ´÷Äæý$År… poyyi + a aM = poyya aM ‘pouring’ Æ>Æÿ$$ + Ar… = Æ>Äæý$r… r¡yi + a aM = r¡ya aM ‘writing’ Mör$t + Ar… = Mörtr… ko  u + a aM = ko  a aM ‘beating/hitting’ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# + Ar… = ^èþ§æþÐèþr… cadava aM ‘reading’ (2.12.2.; 15.5.1.) 391

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$ + Ar… = Ðèþ*sêÏyæþr… m¡ l¡∂u + a aM = m¡ l¡∂a aM ‘talking’ ¡çÜ$Mø + Ar… = ¡çÜ$Mør… t•sukª + a aM = t•sukª aM ‘taking’ (3.13.1.) °ÌZa + Ar… = °ÌZar… nilcª + a aM = nilcª aM ‘standing’ 25.2. The gerund suffix &Ar…/&Ðèþr… -a aM/-va aM has a variant &Ayæþ…/&Ðèþyæþ… -a∂aM/-va∂aM. Hence we can have the &Ar…/&Ðèþr… a aM/-va aM forms and &Ayæþ…/&Ðèþyæþ… -a∂aM/-va∂aM forms for all the verbs without any change in the meaning.

†¯èþr…/†¯èþyæþ… tina aM/tina∂aM ‘eating’ Æ>Ðèþr…/Æ>Ðèþyæþ… r¡va aM/r¡va∂aM ‘coming’ Mæü*Æøar…/Mæü*Æøayæþ… k¶rcª aM/k¶rcª∂aM ‘sitting’ Byæþr…/Byæþyæþ… ¡∂a aM/¡∂a∂aM ‘playing’ 25.3. The present negative forms of the verb are also introduced in this lesson. The negative verb Ìôý§æþ$ l£du is added to the gerund form (25.1.; 25.2.) of the verb to form the present negative.

†¯èþr… Ìôý§æþ$ tina aM l£du ‘is/are not eating’ Æ>Ðèþr… Ìôý§æþ$ r¡va aM l£du ‘is/are not coming’ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþr… Ìôý§æþ$ m¡ l¡∂a aM l£du ‘is/are not talking’ ´ùÐèþyæþ… Ìôý§æþ$ pªva∂aM l£du ‘is/are not going’ 25.3.1. The present negative froms do not maintain any agreement with the person-gender-number of the subject noun. Hence no personal suffixes are used in the formation of the present negative forms.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

n£nu ve˚tunn¡nu. ‘I am going.’

n£nu ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘I am not going.’

Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþâæý$¢¯é²….

Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

m£M/manaM ve˚tunn¡M. ‘We are going.’

m£M/manaM ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘We are not going.’

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ðèþ#.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

nuvvu ve˚tunn¡vu. ‘You (non-hon. sg.) are going.’

nuvvu ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘You (non-hon. sg.) are not going.’ 392

Lesson 25

Ò$Ææÿ$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

Ò$Ææÿ$ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

m•ru ve˚tunn¡ru. m•ru ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘You (hon. sg. & pl.) are going.’ ‘You (hon. sg. & pl.) are not going.’

Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$.

Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

v¡∂u/atanu ve˚tunn¡∂u. ‘He (inf. & eql.) is going.’

v¡∂u/atanu ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘He (inf. & eql.) is not going.’

BÄæý$¯èþ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

BÄæý$¯èþ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

¡yana ve˚tunn¡ru. ‘He (hon.) is going.’

¡yana ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘He (hon.) is not going.’

A¨/BÐðþ$ ÐðþâZ¢…¨.

A¨/BÐðþ$ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

adi/¡me ve˚tªMdi. ‘She (inf. & eql.) is going.’

adi/¡me ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘She (inf. & eql.) is not going.’

BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

¡me/¡vi∂a ve˚tunn¡ru. ‘She (hon.) is going.’

¡me/¡vi∂a ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘She (hon.) is not going.’

ÐéÆæÿ$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

ÐéÆæÿ$ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

v¡ru ve˚tunn¡ru. ‘He/She (formal) is going.’

v¡ru ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘He/She (formal) is not going.’

Ðéâæý$å Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

Ðéâæý$å Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

v¡˚˚u ve˚tunn¡ru. ‘They (hum.) are going.’

v¡˚˚u ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘They (hum.) are not going.’

A¨ ÐðþâZ¢…¨.

A¨ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

adi ve˚tªMdi. ‘It is going.’

adi ve˚˚ataMl£du. ‘It is not going.’

AÑ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Æÿ$$.

AÑ Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

avi ve˚tunn¡yi. ‘They (neut.) are going.’

avi ve˚˚a aMl£du. ‘They (neut.) are not going.’

25.4. The verbal base ^ðþ糚 ceppu ‘to say; to tell; to inform; to narrate; to teach’ becomes ^ðþ³ ‹ cep or ^ðþº$ cebu when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t. 393

An Intensive Course in Telugu

^ðþ糚 + ™èþ$¯é²&yæþ$ = ^ðþ‹³&™èþ$¯é²yæþ$/^ðþº$&™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ = ^ðþç³#¢¯é²yæþ$/^ðþº$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$ ‘He is saying.’ ceppu + tunn¡∂u = cep-tunn¡∂u/cebutunn¡∂u Remember that the base Ððþâæý$å ve˚˚u ‘to go’ also reduces its final consonant cluster to a single consonant when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t (21.4.).

Ððþâæý$å+™èþ$¯é²&yæþ$ = ÐðþâŒý&™èþ$¯é²&yæþ$ = Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$

‘He is going.’

ve˚˚u + tunn¡∂u = ve˚-tunn¡∂u 25.5. Comparative marker &Mæü…sñý -kaM e ‘than’ is also introduced in this lesson. This is used to compare two or more objects. &Mæü…sñý -kaM e is added to the oblique base (8.9.; 8.9.1.) of a noun.

Ðèþ* C…sìý Mæü…sñý Ò$ CË$Ï ò³§æþª¨.

‘Yours house is bigger than our house.’

m¡ iM i kaM e m• illu peddadi.

ÆæÿÑ Mæü…sñý Vøí³ _¯èþ²Ðéyæþ$.

‘Gopi is younger than Ravi.’

ravi kaM e gªpi cinnav¡∂u. 25.6. Notice the use of the dubitative marker &K -ª (15.1.1.) in sentences like the following.

C糚yæþ$ ºçÜ$Þ E…§ø Ìôý§ø!

‘Whether or not there is a bus now.’

ippu∂u bassu uMdª l£dª!

A™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðø M>§ø!

‘Whether or not he is Subbarao!’

atanu subb¡r¡vª k¡dª! Here it expresses uncertainty. 25.7. The A… aM ending nouns change their final A… aM to B° ¡ni when followed by the accusative or dative case suffix.

MæüË… + acc. = MæüÌê° + acc.° (20.2.) = MæüÌê°&° = MæüÌê°² (25.9.) ‘pen (acc.)’ kalaM + acc. = kal¡ni + acc. ni (20.2.) = kal¡nni (25.9.) ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… + dat. = ç³#çÜ¢M>° + dat.Mìü (13.1.) = ç³#çÜ¢M>°Mìü ‘to the book’ pustakaM + dat. = pustak¡ni + dat. ki (13.1.) = pustak¡niki 394

Lesson 25 Recall that the ‘accusative case suffix is &° -ni and the dative case suffix is

-&Mìü -ki when the base ends in -&C i or &D • (20.2.; 13.1.). 25.8.

Notice the various semantic shades of the verbal base ÐðþÆÿ$$Å veyyi.

Art ÐðþÆÿ$$Å »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å ™èþË$ç³# ÐðþÆÿ$$Å ÌñýOr$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å 25.9.

a  a veyyi bommalu veyyi talupu veyyi lai u veyyi

‘to put a wrapper (on a book)’ ‘to draw a picture’ ‘to shut a door’ (8.3.1.) ‘to turn on a light’ etc.

Notice the following sandhi process.

§é° + ° = §é°²

(accusative form of A¨ adi [3.5.])

d¡ni + ni = d¡nni

ç³#çÜ¢M>° + ° = ç³#çÜ¢M>°²

(accusative form of ³ ç #Üç M¢ üæ … pustakaM [25.7.]) pustak¡ni + ni = pustak¡nni

395

UNIT V Lesson 26

LET’S GO TO MOVIE; WILL YOU COME?

íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ù§é…; ÐèþÝë¢Ðé? ÆæÿÑ

: Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ*Ï! Üç $»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#! Mæü–çÙÐ~ þè $*Ç¢ Ðèþ$¯èþͲ ^èþ*yéÍ A…r$¯é²yæþ$.

çÜ$»ê¾ : Ðèþ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ Mæü*yé ^èþ*yéÍ A…r$¯é²yé? ÆæÿÑ

: B! °¯èþ$², Ðé×ìý~ & C§æþȪ ² ^èþ*yéÍ A…r$¯é²yæþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ C糚yæþ$ Ððþâæýå…yìþ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ÐèþÝ뢯þè $.

çÜ$»ê¾ : Ðóþ$… Mæü*yé ÝëÄæý$…{™èþÐóþ$ ÐèþÝ뢅. 396

Venkateswarlu! Subbarao! Krishnamurti says that he has (wants) to see us. Is he saying that he has to see us also. Yeah! He says he has to see you and him both. You go now. I will go in the evening. We also come in the evening.

Lesson 26

ÆæÿÑ

: Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðéâæýå ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ Væü§é!

You have to talk to his father. Don’t you?

çÜ$»ê¾ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Yes.

ÆæÿÑ

: BÄæý$¯èþ D sñýOÐèþ$$ÌZ Æøl C…sìý §æþVæüYÆóÿ E…sêÆæÿ$. C糚yóþ Ððþâæýå…yìþ.

He will be at home at this time daily. You go right now.

çÜ$»ê¾ : çÜÆóÿ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ÐèþÝë¢Ðé?

Okay. Will you come in the evening? Yes. Sarada will also come with me in the evening.

ÆæÿÑ

: B! ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ¯é™ø ÔéÆæÿ§æþ Mæü*yé ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨.

çÜ$»ê¾ : C糚yæþ$ Ððþâæýåsê°Mìü Ðèþ*Mæü$ ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…§é?

Do we get bus to go now?

ÆæÿÑ

Yes. You get many. You stand (wait) there. Bus number thirteen will come.

: B! ^éÌê §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™éÆÿ$$. AMæüPyæþ °ÌZa…yìþ. 糧æþÐèþ$*yø ¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨.

çÜ$»ê¾ : sìýMðüPr$t G…™èþ?

What is the fare?

ÆæÿÑ

He will take (collect) four rupees and fifty paise

: ¯éË$Væü$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë Äæý*¿ñýO ò³çÜO Ë$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sêyæþ$.

çÜ$»ê¾ : çÜÆóÿ! Ðóþ$… Ððþâæý$¢¯é²….

Okay! We are going.

ÆæÿÑ

Sit for a while. There is time for the bus.

: Mö…^ðþ…õÜç³# Mæü*Æøa. ºçÜ$ÞMæü$ sñýOÐèþ$$ E…¨. 397

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜ$»ê¾ : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó MóüÆæÿ…»ZÆæÿ$z Byæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ# Mæü§é! Ðó þ $… Ðð þ âê¢ … . º‹ Ü Ýët ç ³ #ÌZ¯ó þ °Ë$a…sê…. Ayæþ$Vø, ± MøçÜ… Vøí³ ÐèþÜç $¢¯é²yæþ$. Ðóþ$… Ððþâꢅ. Ðéyæþ$ Ðèþ*rË™ø sñýOÐèþ$$ Ðóþ‹Üt ^óþÝë¢yæþ$.

You are playing carroms. Aren’t you? We will wait at the busstop itslef. See there! Gopi is coming. He will waste time with gossip.

***

***

Vøí³ : ÆæÿÒ! Cç³µsìý §éM> H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

Ravi! What are you doing till now? I am playing carroms.

ÆæÿÑ

: MóüÆæÿ…»ZÆæÿ$z Byæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

Vøí³ : íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ù§é… ÐèþÝë¢Ðé? ÆæÿÑ

: Æóÿç³# ´ù§é…. CÐóþÓâæý ¯érMæü… ^èþ*§éª….

Vøí³ : ÔèýÆæÿà íÜ°Ðèþ*Móü Ððþâꪅ A…r$¯é²yæþ$. ÆæÿÑ

: CÐóþÓâæý ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… Mæü–çÙ~Ðèþ$*Ç¢° ^èþ*yéÍ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé Æ>; Mæü–çÙ~Ðèþ$*Ç¢ C…sìýMìü Ððþâꪅ. AMæüPyìþ °…_ ¯érM>°Mìü Ððþâꪅ. Ðèþ$¯èþ™ø ÔéÆæÿ§æþ Mæü*yé ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨. íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Æóÿç³# ´ù§é…. D íÜ°Ðèþ* Gç³µsìý §éM> E…r$…¨?

Vøí³ : C…M> ¯éË$Væ ü $ ÆøkË §éM> E…r$…¨. ÆæÿÑ

: AÆÿ$$™óþ ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$; íÜ°Ðèþ* Æóÿç³# ^èþ*§éª…. 398

Let’s go to a movie. Will you come? We will go tomorrow. Let’s see a play today. Sarma says that we will go to movie. I have to see Krishnamurti this evening. You too come; let’s go to his house. From there let’s go to the play. Sarada will also come with us. We will go to the movie tomorrow. How long will this movie be screened? It will be for four days.

Then no problem. We will go to the movie tomorrow.

Lesson 26

Vøí³ : ¯érMæ ü … G°Ñ$¨ Væ ü …rËMæ ü $. Aç³µsìý §éM> CMæüPyóþ E…§éÐèþ*?

The play is at 8 o’clock. Shall we stay here till then?

ÆæÿÑ

We will sit here. You will play chess. Won’t you? Let’s play chess for a while. Later we go for a stroll on the road. On the way we halt for ten minutes at Krishnamurti’s house. From there we go to the play. Giri may also come for the play.

: CMæüPyóþ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…§é…. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^èþ§æþÆæÿ…Væü… Byé¢Ðèþ# Mæü§é! M>õÜç³# By骅. ™èþÆæÿÐé™èþ AÌê Æøyæþ$z Ò$§æþ M>õÜç³# †Ææÿ$Væü$§é…. §éÇÌZ Mæü–çÙ~Ðèþ$*Ç¢ C…sZÏ ç³¨ °Ñ$ÚëË$ BVæü$§é…. AMæüP×ìý~…_ ¯érM>°Mìü Ððþâꪅ.

Vøí³ : WÇ Mæü*yé ¯érM>°Mìü ÐèþÝë¢yóþÐðþ*! ÆæÿÑ

: 糧æþ! Ðéãå…sìý §éM> Ððþâꪅ. Ðéyæþ$ Mæü*yé ÐèþÝë¢yóþÐðþ* Ayæþ$Væü$§é….

Vøí³ : ¯éMæü$ BMæüÍV> E…¨. ÆæÿÑ

: §éÇÌZ ÐèþçÜ…™èþ ÑàÆŠÿÌZ ÐóþyìþÐóþyìþ CyîþÏ E…r$…¨; †…§é….

Vøí³ : òÜOMìüË$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù§éÐèþ*? ÆæÿÑ

: ÔéÆæÿ§æþ Mæü*yé ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨ Mæü§é! òÜMO üì Ë$ Ðèþ§æþ$ª. §é°² CMæüPyóþ ò³y骅. ± çÜ…` Mæü*yé CMæüPyóþ ò³r$t. A§æþ$Vø ÔéÆæÿ§æþ Mæü*yé ÐèþÝù¢…¨; CMæü Ðèþ$¯èþ… ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$§é….

Vøí³ : çÜÆóÿ! 399

Then, come on! Let us go to his house and ask whether he would also come. I am hungry. On the way at Vasanta Vihar hot idli will be available. Let us eat. Shall we take the bicycle? Sarada is also coming. Isn’t she? bicycle is not required. Let’s keep it here. Keep your bag also here. See there! Sarada is also coming. Then let’s proceed. Okay!

An Intensive Course in Telugu

DRILLS a. Buildup drill

§öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…§é? ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…§é? Ðèþ*Mæü$ ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…§é? Ððþâæýåsê°Mìü Ðèþ*Mæü$ ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…§é? C糚yæþ$ Ððþâæýåsê°Mìü Ðèþ*Mæü$ ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…§é? E…r$…¨. Gç³µsìý §éM> E…r$…¨? C…M> Gç³µsìý §éM> E…r$…¨? D íÜ°Ðèþ* C…M> Gç³µsìý §éM> E…r$…¨. FâZϯóþ ±âæý$ÏÌôýÐèþ#. Möº¾ÇM>Äæý$ÌZ Ðèþ*{™èþ… GÌê E…sêÄæý$…yîþ! There is no water even in the town. So, how could there be in the coconut?

400

Lesson 26

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

ÆæÿÑ J…sìýVæü…rMæü$ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$. †¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ J…sìýVæü…rMæü$ †…sêyæþ$. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ¡çÜ$Mø Ððþâæý$å Mö¯èþ$ Æ>Æÿ$$ ´ù E…yæþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>

¯óþ¯èþ$ C…sìýMìü Ððþâꢯèþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C…sìýMìü Ððþâê¢Ðèþ#. Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðéyæþ$ Ðéâæý$å Ò$Ææÿ$ BÄæý$¯èþ çÜÆæÿâæý A¨ AÑ

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

WÇf ÆæÿÐèþ$¯èþ$ yæþº$¾Ë$ Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$…¨. ÆæÿÑ WÇf ÆæÿÑ° yæþº$¾Ë$ Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ… A™èþ¯èþ$ BÐðþ$ BÄæý$¯èþ A¨ Ðéyæþ$

C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#§é…. C…sìýMìü&´ù C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… C…sìýMìü ´ù§é…. ´ëuæÿ…&ѯèþ$ ºgêÆæÿ$Mæü$&Ððþâæý$å ´ërË$&´ëyæþ$ ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$&^èþ*yæþ$ CMæüPyæþ&E…yæþ$ E™èþ¢Ææÿ…&Æ>Æÿ$$ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$&Mö¯èþ$ AMæüPyæþ&Mæü*Æøa ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…&¡çÜ$Mø Æøyæþ$zÒ$§æþ&†Ææÿ$Væü$ 401

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Interlocked substitution drill Model

¯óþ¯èþ$ Æóÿç³# Æðÿ…yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ †…sê¯èþ$. ïÜ™èþ ................................................. ïÜ™èþ Æóÿç³# Æðÿ…yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ †…r$…¨. ...................................... ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> ïÜ™èþ Æóÿç³# Æðÿ…yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ ¡çÜ$MøçÜ$¢…¨. ...................... ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ................... ïÜ™èþ Æóÿç³# Æðÿ…yæþ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ¡çÜ$MøçÜ$¢…¨. Ðóþ$… ................................................. Ðóþ$… Æóÿç³# Æðÿ…yæþ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ¡çÜ$MøÝ뢅. ....................................... ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# Ðóþ$… Æóÿç³# Æðÿ…yæþ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™é….

Vøí³ GË$Ï…yìþ BÆæÿ$ç³#çÜM¢ >Ë$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™éyæþ$. ïÜ™èþ ................................................. ........................ ............ ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù ........................ M>Æÿ$$™éË$ ........... Ðóþ$… .............................................. ...................................... ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> ......................... VæüyìþÄæý*Æ>Ë$ ........ ...................................... Mö¯èþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… .......................................... ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó .......................................... ......................... ¯èþÐèþË ................ Ðéâæý$å ..........................................

d. Response drill Model (i)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó G糚yæþ$ ÐèþÝë¢Ðèþ#? (Æóÿç³#) ¯óþ¯èþ$ Æóÿç³# ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà G¯ø² ™éÈMæü$¯èþ CMæüPyìþMìü ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$? (BÆæÿ$) 2. Ò$Ææÿ$ G糚yæþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Ððþâê¢Ææÿ$? (G°Ñ$§ø ™éÈMæü$) 3. çÜÆæÿâæý Æóÿç³# GMæüPyìþMìü ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨? (Ò$ C…sìýMìü) C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ*Mæü$ H ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…¨? (BÆæÿ$) C糚yæþ$ Ò$Mæü$ BÆø ¯ðþ…ºÆæÿ$ ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…¨ 1. C糚yæþ$ ¯éMæü$ H ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…¨? (Ðèþ$*yæþ$) 2. Æóÿç³# ÆæÿÑMìü H ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…¨? (糯ðþ²…yæþ$) 3. C糚yæþ$ A™èþ°Mìü H ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…¨ (糧ðþ®°Ñ$¨)

Model (ii)

Model (iii)

C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (¸ë¯èþ$&ÐðþÆÿ$$Å) C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… ¸ë¯èþ$ Ðóþ§éª…. 402

Lesson 26

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Æóÿ³ç # Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (»ŸÐèþ$ÃË$&WÆÿ$$Å) GË$Ï…yìþ Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (íÜ°Ðèþ*&^èþ*yæþ$) Ôèý°ÐéÆæÿ… Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (ÔèýÆæÿÙø&Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (CMæüPyæþ&°ÌZa) D ç³#çÜ¢M>°² H… ^óþ§éª…? (ºËÏÒ$§æþ&ò³r$t)

D íÜ°Ðèþ* Gç³µsìý §éM> E…r$…¨? (糧ø ™éÈMæü$) D íÜ°Ðèþ* 糧ø ™éÈMæü$ §éM> E…r$…¨. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà Ððþ$OçÜ*Ææÿ$ÌZ Gç³µsìý §éM> E…sêyæþ$? (GË$Ï…yìþ) 2. çÜÆæÿâæý CMæüPyæþ Gç³µsìý §éM> E…r$…¨? (ÝùÐèþ$ÐéÆæÿ…) 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ AMæüPyæþ Gç³µsìý §éM> E…sêÆæÿ$? (f¯èþÐèþÇ)

Model (iv)

Aç³µsìý §éM> H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? (A¯èþ²…&†¯èþ$) Aç³µsìý §éM> A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²¯èþ$. 1. Aç³µsìý §éM> H… ^óþ§éª…? (^èþ§æþÆæÿ…Væü…&Byæþ$) 2. Aç³µsìý §éM> H… ^óþ§éª…? (¯èþÐèþË&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) 3. Cç³µsìý §éM> H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? (ÆæÿÑ™ø&Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$)

Model (v)

Model (vi)

ÆæÿÑMìü GsêÏ E…¨? (fÓÆæÿ…) ÆæÿÑMìü fÓÆæÿ…V> E…¨. 1. çÜ$ÖËMæü$ GsêÏ E…¨? (™èþ˯ðþí³µ)

2. ±Mæü$ GsêÏ E…¨? (Mö™èþ¢) 3. A™èþ°Mìü GsêÏ E…¨? (BMæüÍ) 4. A™èþ°Mìü GsêÏ E…¨? (MæüçÙt…)

EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the accusative forms of the pronouns given in the parentheses.

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ....... (Ò$Ææÿ$) ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. 3. ïÜ™èþ ....... (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) õ³Ææÿ$Ï Ayæþ$Væü$™ø…¨. 2. ÔèýÆæÿà ....... (¯óþ¯èþ$) yæþº$¾Ë$ Ayæþ$Væü$& 4. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ....... (Ðéyæþ$) ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ayæþ$Væü$. ™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 5. Ðóþ$… ....... (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) ^èþ*Ý뢅. 403

An Intensive Course in Telugu

b. Produce at least 35 correct sentences from the following table taking one word from each column using future tense forms of the verb.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó BÄæý$¯èþ Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðóþ$… Ðéyæþ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ ïÜ™èþ AÑ

Æóÿç³#

†¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# Mö¯èþ$ ѯèþ$ ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢

A¯èþ²… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯é Ðèþ*r »êV>

c. Match the following. A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

B

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… ïÜ™èþ ÆæÿÑ Ðéâæý$å

¯é™ø ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™éyæþ$ ¯èþ¯èþ$² ^èþ*yéÍ A…r$¯é²Ææÿ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Ððþâꢯèþ$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$…¨ A¯èþ²… †…sê…

( ( ( ( (

d. Match the following. A

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

´ërË$ BrË$ ÆæÿÑ™ø Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ°

B

Ayæþ$Væü$§é… Ðèþ*sêÏy骅 ´ëy骅 Ððþâꪅ By骅 404

( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) )

) ) ) ) )

Lesson 26

e. Answer the following questions using the cue words.

1. 4. 2. 3. 5. 6.

Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (MæüË…&¡çÜ$Mø) Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æóÿç³# H… ^óþ§éª…? (^èþ§æþÆæÿ…Væü…&Byæþ$) Ðèþ$¯èþ… GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâꪅ? (ÔèýÆæÿÃ&CË$Ï) Ðèþ$¯èþ… C糚yæþ$ H… ^óþ§éª…? (´ëuæÿ…&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) Aç³µsìý §éM> H… ^óþ§éª…? (ç³NË$&MöÆÿ$$Å) ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (íÜ°Ðèþ*&^èþ*yæþ$)

e. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Mæü–çÙ~Ðèþ$*Ç¢ GÐèþÇ° ^èþ*yéÍ? Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$Ï, çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# C糚yóþ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ? ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ÆæÿÑ™ø GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÐèþÝë¢Ææÿ$? ÆæÿÑ Cç³µsìý §éM> H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? ÔèýÆæÿà GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâꪅ B…r$¯é²yæþ$? B íÜ°Ðèþ* C…M> Gç³µsìý §éM> E…r$…¨?

VOCABULARY

Ðèþ$¯èþͲ Ðèþ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ °¯èþ$² §öÆæÿ$Mæü$ ò³çOÜ &õÜç³# MóüÆæÿ…»ZÆæÿ$z º‹ÜÝëtç³# ÐóþçÜ$t^þð Æÿ$$Å

Cç³µsìý& &§éM> Aç³µsìý& ^èþ§æþÆæÿ…Væü… M>õÜç³# †Ææÿ$Væü$ §éÇ òÜOMìüË$ Möº¾ÇM>Äæý$

acc. form of Ðèþ$¯èþ… acc. form of Ðóþ$… acc. form of ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó to be available; to be found paisa; 1/100th of a rupee time carrom board bus-stop to waste

405

oblique form of C糚yæþ$ till; untill; upto oblique form of A糚yæþ$ chess a short while to go round; wander way; path bicycle coconut (fruit)

An Intensive Course in Telugu

GRAMMAR NOTES 26.1. In this lesson the future tense is introduced. The future tense forms are formed by the combination of the verbal base, the future tense suffix and the personal suffix (7.3.) in the said order. Future Tense  Verbal base + future tense suffix + personal suffix The same personal suffixes used in present tense (21.2.1.) are also used in the formation of the future tense forms.

&™é/&™èþ$… -t¡/-tuM is the future tense suffix. &™èþ$… -tuM occurs before the feminine inferior & equal, and neuter 26.2.1. singular suffix & ¨-di. A¨/BÐðþ$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#&™èþ$…&¨ ‘She (inf. & eql.) will read’. 26.2.

adi/¡me caduvu-tuM-di

A¨/Mæü$MæüP ^ðþr$t GMæü$P&™èþ$…&¨

‘It/Dog will climb the tree’.

adi/kukka ce  u ekku-tuM-di 26.2.2.

&™é -t¡ occurs before the other personal suffixes. ¯óþ¯èþ$ §æþ*Mæü$&™é&¯èþ$ ‘I will jump.’ n£nu d¶ku-t¡-nu

Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… §æþ*Mæü$&™é&…

‘We will jump.’

m£M/manaM d¶ku-t¡-M

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó §æþ*Mæü$&™é&Ðèþ#

‘You (non-hon.sg.) will jump.’

nuvvu d¶ku-t¡-vu

Ò$Ææÿ$ §æþ*Mæü$&™é&Ææÿ$

‘You (pl.&hon.sg.) will jump.’

m•ru d¶ku-t¡-ru

Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$ §æþ*Mæü$&™é&yæþ$

‘He (inf. & eql.) will jump.’

v¡∂u/atanu d¶ku-t¡-∂u

BÄæý$¯èþ/ÐéÆæÿ$ §æþ*Mæü$&™é&Ææÿ$

‘He (hon. & formal) will jump.’

¡yana/v¡ru-d¶ku-t¡-ru 406

Lesson 26

BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ/ÐéÆæÿ$ §æþ*Mæü$&™é&Ææÿ$

‘She (hon. & formal) will jump.’

¡me/¡vi∂a/v¡ru d¶ku-t¡-ru

Ðéâæý$å §æþ*Mæü$&™é&Ææÿ$

‘They (hum.) will jump.’

v¡˚˚u d¶ku-t¡-ru

AÑ §æþ*Mæü$&™é&Æÿ$$

‘They (neut.) will jump.’

avi d¶ku-t¡-yi 26.3. Since the future tense suffix is also begins in &™Œþ -t like the present tense suffix (21.1.1.), all the changes that occur in the verbal bases before the present tense suffix will also occur before the future tense suffix.

Æ>

: r¡ : Ððþâæý$å : ve˚˚u : ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> : t•sukur¡ : MöÆÿ$$Å : koyyi : Æ>Æÿ$$ : r¡yi : ^èþ*yæþ$ : c¶∂u : Mör$t : ko  u : †¯èþ$ : tinu : E…yæþ$ : uM∂u : ¡çÜ$Mø : t•sukª :

Ðèþ‹Ü&™é&yæþ$ = ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$

‘He will come.’ (21.4.)

vas-t¡-∂u

ÐðþâŒý&™é&¯èþ$ = Ððþâꢯèþ$

‘I will go.’ (21.4.)

ve˚-t¡-nu

¡çÜ$Mø‹Ü&™é&Ðèþ# = ¡çÜ$MøÝë¢Ðèþ#

‘You will bring.’ (21.4.)

t•sukªs-t¡-vu

Mø‹Ü&™èþ$…&¨ = MøçÜ$¢…¨

‘She/It will cut.’ (22.1.)

kªs-tuM-di

Æ>‹Ü&™èþ$…&¨ = Æ>çÜ$¢…¨

‘She/It will write.’ (22.1.)

r¡s-tuM-di

^èþ*‹Ü&™é&yæþ$ = ^èþ*Ýë¢yæþ$ c¶s-t¡-∂u

MöyŠþ&™é&Ðèþ# = Möyé¢Ðèþ#

‘He (non-hon.) will see.’ (22.2.) ‘You will hit/beat.’ (22.3.)

ko∂-t¡-vu

†…&sê&Æÿ$$ = †…sêÆÿ$$

‘They (neut.) will eat.’ (23.2.)

tiM- ¡-yi

E…&sê&Ææÿ$ = E…sêÆæÿ$ uM- ¡-ru

¡çÜ$Mæü$…&sê&¯èþ$ = ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sê¯èþ$ t•sukuM- ¡-nu 407

‘They (hum.) will be /stay.’(23.2.) ‘I will take.’ (23.2.)

An Intensive Course in Telug

^ðþ糚 ceppu

: ^ðþ‹³/^ðþº$&™é&¯èþ$ = ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$/^ðþº$™é¯èþ$ : cep/cebu-t¡-nu = cept¡nu/cebut¡nu

‘I will tell.’ (25.4.)

26.4. The future tense forms are also used to express present indefinite and habitual tenses. Present Indefinite

: He comes.

Ðéyæþ$ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$. v¡∂u vast¡∂u.

I Stay there.

¯óþ¯èþ$ AMæüPyæþ E…sê¯èþ$. n£nu akka∂a uM ¡nu

Habitual

: I drink tea daily.

Æøl ¯óþ¯èþ$ sîý ™éVæü$™é¯èþ$. n£nu rªj¶  • t¡gut¡nu.

Cats climb trees.

í³Ë$ÏË$ ^ðþr$Ï GMæü$P™éÆÿ$$. pillulu ce lu ekkut¡yi.

26.5. The hortative form of the verb is also introduced in this lesson. Hortative form expresses a proposal by the speaker involving both the speaker and the listener in performing the action indicated by the verb. Therefore, the subject for the hortative verb will always be Ðèþ$¯èþ… manaM ‘we (incl.)’ the first person inclusive plural pronoun. 26.5.1. &§é… -d¡M is the hortative suffix added to the verbal base to form the hortative form.

(Ðèþ$¯èþ…) ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#&§é…. manaM caduvu-d¡M.

‘Let us (incl.) read.’

26.6. The changes, if any, the verbal bases undergo before a suffix beginning with §Šþ d are similar to those changes they (the verbal bases) undergo before a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t. (i) Æÿ$$Å/Æÿ$$ yyi/yi ending bases change the final syllable to Ü‹ þs and the penultimate vowel is lengthened if it is short. (22.1.)

^ðþÆÿ$$Å + §é… = ^óþ‹Ü+§é… = ^óþ§Šþ&§é… ceyyi + d¡M = c£s-d¡M = c£d-d¡M 408

(26.7.)

= ^óþ§éª…

‘Let us do.’

Lesson 26

Æ>Æÿ$$ + §é… = Æ>‹Ü+§é… = Æ>§Šþ&§é… (26.7.) = Æ>§éª… ‘Let us write.’ r¡yi + d¡M = r¡s-d¡M = r¡d-d¡M (ii)

r$t  u ending bases change the final syllable to yŠþþ∂. (22.3.) Mör$t + §é… = MöyŠþ+§é… = MöyŠþ&§é… = Möy骅 ‘Let us hit/beat.’ ko  u + d¡M = ko∂-d¡M = ko∂-d¡M

(iii) Among the A¯èþ$ anu group of verbs the ¯èþ$ nu ending verbs change their final ¯èþ$ nu to … M (sunna); E…yæþ$ uM∂u drops its final yæþ$þ∂u; and K ª ending verbs change their final K ª to E… uM. (23.2.)

A¯èþ$ + §é… = A…&§é… = A…§é…

‘Let us say.’

anu + d¡M = aM-d¡M

E…yæþ$ + §é… = E…&§é… = E…§é…

‘Let us stay/wait.’

uM∂u + d¡M = uM-d¡M

¡çÜ$Mø + §é… = ¡çÜ$Mæü$…&§é… = ¡çÜ$Mæü$…§é…

‘Let us take.’

t•sukª + d¡M = t•sukuM-d¡M

Mæü*Æøa + §é… = Mæü*Ææÿ$a&§é… = Mæü*Ææÿ$a…§é…

‘Let us sit.’

k¶rcª + d¡M = k¶rcuM-d¡M (iv) Ððþâæý$å ve˚˚u becomes ÐðþâŒý& ve˚- (21.4.), and comes ^ðþ‹³& cep- or ^ðþº$& cebu- (25.4.)

Ððþâæý$å + §é… = ÐðþâŒý&§é… = Ððþâꪅ

^ðþ糚

ceppu be-

‘Let us go.’

ve˚˚u + d¡M = ve˚-d¡M

^ðþ糚 + §é… = ^ðþ‹³/^ðþº$&§é… = ^ðþ´ëª…/^ðþº$§é…

‘Let us tell.’

ceppu + d¡M = ceppu/cebu-d¡M (v) Æ> r¡ becomes Ðèþ‹Ü& vas- (21.4.), and comes ¡çÜ$Mø‹Ü& t•sukªs- (21.4.)

Æ> + §é… = Ðèþ‹Ü&§é… = Ðèþ§Šþ&§é…

(26.7.) r¡ + d¡M = vas-d¡M = vad-d¡M

¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>

= Ðèþ§éª…

t•sukur¡ be-

‘Let us come.’

¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> + §é… = ¡çÜ$Mø‹Ü&§é… = ¡çÜ$Mø§Šþ&§é… (26.7.) = ¡çÜ$Mø§éª… t•sukur¡ + d¡M = t•sukªs-d¡M = t•sukªd-d¡M 409

‘Let us bring.’

An Intensive Course in Telugu

^èþ*yæþ$ c¶∂u becomes ^èþ*‹Ü& c¶s- (22.2.). ^èþ*yæþ$ + §é… = ^èþ*‹Ü&§é… = ^èþ*§Šþ&§é… (26.7.) = ^èþ*§éª… ‘Let us see.’

(vi)

c¶∂u + d¡M = c¶s-d¡M = c¶d-d¡M = c¶dd¡M

‹Ü s of a verbal base changes to §Šþ d when followed by a suffix beginning with §Šþ d. ‹Ü + §Šþ = §Šþª s + d = dd ‹Ü + §é… = §éª… s + d¡M = dd¡M ^óþ‹Ü + §é… = ^óþ§éª… ‘Let us (incl.) do.’ 26.7.

Sandhi : The final

c£s + d¡M = c£dd¡M

^èþ*‹Ü + §é… = ^èþ*§éª…

‘Let us (incl.) see.’

c¶s + d¡M = c¶dd¡M

Ðèþ‹Ü + §é… = Ðèþ§éª…

‘Let us (incl.) come.’

vas + d¡M = vadd¡M

¡çÜ$Mø‹Ü + §é… = ¡çÜ$Mø§éª…

‘Let us (incl.) bring.’

t•sukªs + d¡M = t•sukªdd¡M 26.8. The accusative forms of ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó nuvvu, Ðóþ$… m£M and Ðèþ$¯èþ… manaM are °¯èþ$² ninnu, Ðèþ$Ðèþ$ÃͲþmammalni and Ðèþ$¯èþͲþmanalni respectively. Recall that the first and second person pronouns have some modified forms when declined for accustive case (20.2.4.). Pronoun

¯óþ¯èþ$ n£nu I per.incl.pl. Ðóþ$… m£M I per.excl.pl.. Ðèþ$¯èþ… manaM II per.inf.sg. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó nuvvu II per.pl.&hon.sg. Ò$Ææÿ$ m•ru I per.sg.

Accusative case form ‘I’ ‘we’ ‘we’ ‘you ‘you’

410

¯èþ¯èþ$² nannu Ðèþ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ mammalni Ðèþ$¯èþͲ manalni °¯èþ$² ninnu Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ mimmalni

‘me’ ‘us’ ‘us’ ‘you’ ‘you’

Lesson 26 26.9.

&§éM> -d¡k¡ ‘till; upto’ is a postposition (4.6.). ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… §éM> CMæüPyóþ E…sê¯èþ$, ‘I will be here till evening.’ n£nu s¡yaMtraM d¡k¡ ikka∂£ uM ¡nu. Ðèþ* C…sìý §éM> Ððþâæý$å! þ ‘Go upto my house!’ m¡ iM i d¡k¡ ve˚˚u!

A糚yæþ$ appu∂u ‘then’, C糚yæþ$ ippu∂u ‘now’, and G糚yæþ$ eppu∂u ‘when’ are Aç³µsìý& appa i, Cç³µsìý ippa i and Gç³µsìý eppa i respectively. &õÜç³# -s£pu ‘time’ is a bound form. That is, this form can not be 26.11. 26.10.

The oblique bases of

used in isolation as an independent word. It is always used along with an adjective.

A…™èþ õÜç³# C…™èþ õÜç³# G…™èþ õÜç³# Væü…r õÜç³# 26.12.

‘That much time’ ‘This much time’ ‘how much time’ ‘an hour time’ etc.

aMta s£pu iMta s£pu eMta s£pu gaM a s£pu

Notice the following sandhi process.

The yæþ$ ∂u ending bases normally drop the final E u when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t or §Šþ d . However, if the suffix begins with ™èþ$ tu or ™èþ* t¶ the final E u of the base is optionally dropped in writing.

Byæþ$ + ™èþ$¯é²&¯èþ$ = Byæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$/Byæþ$¢¯é²¯èþ$

‘I am playing.’

¡∂u + tunn¡-nu = ¡∂utunn¡nu/¡∂tunn¡nu

Byæþ$ + ™é&yæþ$ = Byé¢yæþ$ þ

‘He will play.’

¡∂u + t¡-∂u = ¡∂t¡∂u

Byæþ$ + §é… = By骅

þ

‘Let us play!’

¡∂u + d¡M = ¡∂d¡M 26.13.

Notice the benefactive function (13.2.1.) of the dative case suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/-ki in the following sentence. 411

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðèþ*Mæü$ ºçÜ$Þ §öÆæÿ$Mæü$™èþ$…§é?

‘Do we get a bus now?. (Will a bus be available to us now?)

m¡ku bassu dorukutuMd¡? 26.14. sentence.

Notice the use of the locative case marker &ÌZ -lª in the following

A™èþ¯èþ$ D sñýOÐèþ$$ÌZ C…sìý §æþVæüYÆæÿ E…sêyæþ$.

‘He will be at home at this time.’ atanu •  aimulª iM i daggara uM ¡∂u. 26.15.

Notice the use of the dative subject in the sentences like the following.

¯éMæü$ BMæüÍV> E…¨.

‘I am hungry.’

n¡ku ¡kalig¡ uMdi.

ÆæÿÑMìü ™èþ˯ðþí³µV> E…¨.

‘Ravi has headache.’

raviki talaneppig¡ uMdi. This is a possessive functionof the dative case suffix. (cf. 14.1.3.; 14.1.4.; 20.8.) 26.15.1. Recall the use of the following structure introduced in lesson 22 (22.16.) : [abstract noun + V> g¡] + existential verb E…¨ uMdi. The sentences presented in 26.15. above show the use of such structure along with a dative noun. Dative noun + [abstract noun +

V> g¡] + existential verb E…¨ uMdi.

¯éMæü$ BMæüÍV> E…¨.

‘I am hungry.’

n¡ku ¡kalig¡ uMdi.

ÆæÿÑMìü ™èþ˯ðþí³µV> E…¨.

‘Ravi has headache.’

raviki talaneppig¡ uMdi.

412

Lesson 27

UNIT V Lesson 27

sìýMðüPr$Ï §öÆæÿMæüÐèþ#

TICKETS WILL NOT BE AVAILABLE

ÔèýÆæÿà : çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ#! Vøï³ ¯óþ¯èþ* íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²…; ÐèþÝë¢Ðé? ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé Æ>! çÜ$»ê¾ : CÐéÓâæý ¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>¯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ Mæü*yé Æ>yæþ$. Ðóþ$… Ðèþ*ÆðÿPr$tMæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ. Ò$Ææÿ$ Væü*yé Æ>…yìþ. íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Æóÿç³# ´ù§é…. Vøí³ : Ðóþ$… Æ>Ðèþ$$. CÐéÓâæý B¨ÐéÆæÿ…. Mör$Ï E…yæþÐèþ#. C糚yæþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ù§é…. Æ>…yìþ. 413

Subbarao! Gopi and I are going to a movie. Will you come with us? Ravi! You also come with us. I will not come today. Ravi also will not come. We have to go to market. You also come with us. We will go to the movie tomorrow. We will not go. Today is Sunday. Shops will not be open. Come, We will go o the movie.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

çÜ$»ê¾ : C糚yæþ$ sñýOÐèþ$$ BÆæÿ$…»êÐèþ#. sìýMðüPr$Ï §öÆæÿMæüÐèþ#.

It's now 6.15. Tickets will not be available.

ÔèýÆæÿà : ç ³ Ææ ÿ ÐéÌô ý §æ þ $. §öÆæ ÿ $Mæ ü $™éÆÿ$$. Ò$ǧæþªÆæÿ* ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ…yìþ.

Don't worry. They will be available. Start, both of you.

çÜ$»ê¾ : çÜÆóÿ Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# Mæü*Æøa…yìþ. Ððþâꪅ. ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü*Æøa¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ºÄæý$Ìôýƪ >¢Ðé ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿÐé?

Okay. Please sit down for sometime. We will go. (Let's go.) I will not sit. Will you start or not?

çÜ$»ê¾ : ºçÜ$Þ A…§æþ$™èþ$…§é?

Can we get the bus?

ÔèýÆæÿà : ºçÜ$Þ A…§æþ§æþ$. sñýO… ^é˧æþ$. BsZÌZ Ððþâꪅ.

We can't get the bus. There is no time. We will go by auto. (Let's go by auto.) See there! Prasad and Mohan are coming. we will ask them if they will also come. They won't come. They are returning from the movie only.

Üç $»ê¾ : AÆæÿ$Vø {ç³Ý맊þ, Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ ÐèþÜç $¢¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðéâæý$å Væü*yé ÐèþÝë¢Æÿó Ððþ* Ayæþ$Væü$§é…. ÔèýÆæÿà : Ðéâæý$å Æ>Ææÿ$. Ðéâæý$å C糚yæþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*°…^óþ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. ÆæÿÑ

: ¯óþ¯èþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Æ>¯èþ$. C…sìýMìü ÐðþâêåÍ. Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ †yé¢Ææÿ$.

ÔèýÆæÿà : †rtr… G…§æþ$Mæü$! Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ç™ø ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^ðþ´ë¢¯þè $. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æóÿç³# E§æþÄæý$… JMæüÝëÇ CMæüPyìþMìü Æ>. ***

I will not come to the movie. I have to go home. My father will scold me. Why should he scold you? I will speak to your father. You come here once tomorrow in the morning. ***

414

Lesson 27

ÔèýÆæÿà : Æ>, ÆæÿÒ! ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ¯óþ¯èþ$ JMæü Ðèþ*ÅhMŠü ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. §é°Mìü Mö°² HÆ>µr$Ï ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mö…^ðþ… çÜàÄæý$… ^óþÝë¢Ðé? ÆæÿÑ

: B! H… ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ?

Ravi! Come on! I am going to perform magic this evening. We need to make some arrangements for it. Will you help me a little? Yes. What should I do?

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯óþ¯èþ$ D ºËϯèþ$ AÐèþ™èþÍMìü ¯ðþy颯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³r$tMø! ^éË$!

I will push this table. You hold it. That's enough.

ÆæÿÑ

What am I to do further?

: C…M> H… ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ?

ÔèýÆæÿà : B V>ÏçÜ$ CÐèþ™èþË ò³r$t. D Mæü$Èa CÐèþ™èþÍMìü fÆæÿ$ç³#. D Mæü$…yæþ B Æðÿ…yæþ$ ºËÏË Ðèþ$«§æþÅ ò³r$t. D Væü$yæþz B Mæü$…yæþ Ò$§æþ Mæü糚. B Mæü$Èa Cr$ ç³MæüPMæü$ †ç³š.

Keep that tumbler this side. Push this chair this side. Put this pot between those two tables. Cover this cloth over that pot. Turn that chair this side.

ÆæÿÑ

I am turning it.

: †ç³š™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$.

ÔèýÆæÿà : BVæü$, ¯óþ¯èþ$ †ç³š™é¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D A§æþª… AÐèþ™èþË ò³r$t.

Wait. I will turn it. You keep this mirror on that side.

ÆæÿÑ

I am keeping it.

: ò³yæþ$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

ÔèýÆæÿà : D §éÆæÿ… ¡çÜ$Mø. ©°² B Mæü{ÆæÿMæü$ ^èþ$sêtÍ.

Take this thread and wind it to that stick.

ÆæÿÑ

To this big stick?

: D ò³§æþª Mæü{ÆæÿMóü¯é?

ÔèýÆæÿà : M>§æþ$. _¯èþ²Mæü{ÆæÿMæü$ ^èþ$r$t; ò³§æþMª üæ {ÆæÿMæü$ ™éyæþ$ ^èþ$sêtÍ. 415

No. You wind it to the small one. You have to put a rope round the big stick.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÆæÿÑ

: AÌêVóü!

Okay.

ÔèýÆæÿà : ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ¯éMæü$ C§æþƪ ÿæ $ Ðèþ$¯èþ$çÙ$Ë™ø ç³° E…r$…¨. ¯éMæü$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C§æþƪ ÿæ $ Mæü${Æ>âæýå¯èþ$ HÆ>µr$ ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ.

In the evening I need two persons for my work. You have to arrange two boys for me.

ÆæÿÑ

: AÌêVóü ^óþÝ뢯èþ$. M>° C§æþªÆæÿ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ$çÙ$Ë$ §öÆæÿMæür… MæüçÙt…. JMæü Ðèþ$°íÙ° ¡çÜ$MöÝ뢯èþ$.

All right, I will do it. But it is not possible to get two persons. I will bring one.

ÔèýÆæÿà : çÜÆóÿ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ$äå ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… I§æþ$ Væü…rËMæü$ Æ>! BËçÜÅ… ^ðþÄæý$ÅMæü$. D ÑçÙÄæý$… Ò$ õܲíßý™èþ$ËMæü$ Mæü*yé ^ðþ糚.

Okay! You come at 5 o'clock in the evening. Don't delay. Inform also your friends about this programme.

DRILLS a. Build-up drill.

Ayæþ$Væü$§é…. Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢ÆóÿÐðþ* Ayæþ$Væü$§é…. ±™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢ÆóÿÐðþ* Ayæþ$Væü$§é…. BÄæý$¯èþ ±™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢ÆóÿÐðþ* Ayæþ$Væü$§é….

çßýÌZ! DhsŒý C¯ŒþçœÆóÿÃçÙ¯Œþ yìþ´ëÆŠÿtÐðþ$…sŒý? ¯óþ¯óþ M>ÌôýiÌZ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯ø ^ðþ´ë¢Æ>? Hello! Is it information department? could you please tell me in which college I am studying?

^èþ*§éª…. ÐèþÝë¢yóþÐðþ* ^èþ*§éª…. Ððþ…r¯óþ ÐèþÝë¢yóþÐðþ* ^èþ*§éª…. A™èþ¯èþ$ Væü*yé Ððþ…r¯óþ ÐèþÝë¢yóþÐðþ* ^èþ*§éª….

416

Lesson 27

Ðèþ* íÜ°Ðèþ*ÌZ K VæüÄæý*Åã ¿êÆæÿÅMæü$ ¿æýÆæÿ¢ ÐóþçÙ… ¯èþ$ÐðþÓÄæý*ÅÌZÄŒý$! I would like you to play the role of a husband of a quarrelsome woman, in our picture.

AÆÿ$$™óþ yðþOÌêVæü$ ÌôýÒ E…yæþÐèþ¯èþ²Ðèþ*r! Then, there would be no dialogues for me.

b. Substitution drill. Model (i)

ÆæÿÑ Væü*yé ÐèþÝë¢yóþÐðþ* Ayæþ$Væü$§é…. ´ù ÆæÿÑ Væü*yé ´ù™éyóþÐðþ* Ayæþ$Væü$§é…. †¯èþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$ ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$ E…yæþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>

Model (ii)

Model (iii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ òÜËÐèþ#ËÌZ C…sìýMìü ´ù¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó òÜËÐèþ#ËÌZ C…sìýMìü ´ùÐèþ#. Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðéyæþ$ A™èþ¯èþ$ ïÜ™èþ Ðéâæý$å

ÆæÿÑ Ððþ…r¯óþ ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿyæþ$. MæüÐèþ$Ëþ MæüÐèþ$Ë Ððþ…r¯óþ ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ§æþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðóþ$… ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ºçÜ$Þ ÆðÿâO ýæ $å Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðéâæý$å 417

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (iv)

Model (vi)

ÆæÿÒ! B Mæü$Èa° AMæüPyæþ ò³r$t. CMæüPyæþ ÆæÿÒ! B Mæü$Èa° CMæüPyæþ ò³r$t. AÐèþ™èþË B ç³MæüP¯èþ D ç³MæüP¯èþ

ÆæÿÑ B ºËÏ ¯ðþyé¢yæþ$. (fÆæÿ$ç³#) ÆæÿÑ B ºËÏ fÆæÿ$ç³#™éyæþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà Ææÿ†Æ>ÐŒþ$¯èþ$ Möyé¢yæþ$. (†r$t) 2. çÜÆæÿâæý WÇf¯èþ$ †yæþ$¢…¨. (¯ðþr$t) 3. Ðéâæý$å ™èþË$ç³# Möyé¢Ææÿ$. (¯ðþr$t) 4. BÄæý$¯èþ §éÆæÿ… AMæüPyæþ ò³yé¢Æÿæ $. (^èþ$r$t)t

Model (v)

ÆæÿÑ ™èþË$ç³# ¡Ýë¢yæþ$. (Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å) ÆæÿÑ ™èþË$ç³# Ðèþ$*Ýë¢yæþ$. 1. ÔéÆæÿ§æþ ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐóþçÜ$¢…¨. (†Æÿ$$Å) 2. ÆæÿÐèþ*, EÐèþ* ç³NË$ ¡Ýë¢Ææÿ$. (MöÆÿ$$Å) 3. ÔèýÆæÿà E™èþ¢Ææÿ… ^èþ*Ýë¢yæþ$. (Æ>Æÿ$$) 4. çÜÆøf »ŸÐèþ$à XçÜ$¢…¨. (^èþ*yæþ$) c. Response drill. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Model (ii)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ÐèþÝë¢Ðé? ÆæÿÑ B Mæü$Èa° H… ^óþÝë¢yþæ $? (Ar$&†ç³š) ¯óþ¯èþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Æ>¯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ B Mæü$Èa° Ar$ †ç³š™éyæþ$. ÔèýÆæÿà CÐéÓâæý ¯érM>°Mìü ÐèþÝë¢yé? 1. ÔèýÆæÿà H… ^óþÝë¢yæþ$? (Væü$yæþz&Mæü糚) çÜÆæÿâæý M>ïœ ™éVæü$™èþ$…§é? 2. Vøí³ H… ^óþÝë¢yæþ$? (´ëuæÿ…&^ðþ糚) Ò$ Mæü$MæüP ¼òÜPr$Ï †…r$…§é? 3. çÜÆæÿâæý H… ^óþçÜ$¢…¨? (^óþ™èþ$Ë$&†ç³š) Ðèþ$¯èþ… íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ù™éÐèþ*? 4. MæüÐèþ$Ë H… ^óþçÜ$¢…¨? (Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$&Mör$t) Ðóþ$… C糚yæþ$ D Væü¨ÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…sêÐèþ*? 5. Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþÝ뢅? (ºËϯèþ$&¯ðþr$t) Ò$Ææÿ$ Ôèý°ÐéÆæÿ… ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢Æ>? 6. ÔèýÆæÿà H… ^óþÝë¢yæþ$? (°¯èþ$²&†r$t)

EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the future tense forms of the verbs suggested in the parentheses.

1. ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… 糨 Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ ............... (Ayæþ$Væü$) 2. Ò$ AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$ G糚yæþ$ C…sZÏ ............? (E…yæþ$) 3. Vøï³! ïÜ™èþ GË$Ï…yìþ ......... (Ððþâæý$å) 418

Lesson 27

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ ......... (Mör$t) MæüÐèþ$Ë B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Cr$ ....... (†ç³š) Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ ´ëuæÿ… ...... (^ðþ糚) Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#! ÔèýÆæÿà ¸ë¯èþ$ ..... (ÐðþÆÿ$$Å) ¯óþ¯öMæü »ŸÐèþ$ïèþ$ ...... (WÆÿ$$Å) BËçÜÅ… AÆÿ$$™óþ ÆæÿÐèþ$¯èþ$ Ò$Ææÿ$ .....(†r$t) ÔèýÆ>Ã! ÆæÿÑ Æóÿç³# ....... (Æ>)

b. Fill up the blanks with the plural forms of the nouns given in the parentheses.

1. 2. 3. 4.

AMæüPyæþ C§æþªÆæÿ$ .... (Mæü${Æ>yæþ$) E¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯érM>°Mìü ..... (HÆ>µr$) ^ðþÆÿ$$Å! ¯éMæü$ ç³…¨Ðèþ$…¨ .... (Ðèþ$°íÙ) M>ÐéÍ. D Æøk ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é™ø I§æþ$ ........... (Væü…r) Væüyæþ´ëÍ.

c. Fill up the blanks with the future negative forms of the verbs suggested in the parentheses.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ÆæÿÑ CÐéÓâæý íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ..... (´ù) Ò$Ææÿ$ ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ..... (^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) çÜÆæÿâæý GË$Ï…yìþ ¯érMæü… ..... (^èþ*yæþ$) Ðèþ$¯èþ… ç³VæüË$ ..... (°{§æþ´ù) Mæü$MæüPË$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³âæý$å ..... (†¯èþ$) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¸ë¯èþ$ ..... (ÐðþÆÿ$$Å) Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ íßý…©ÌZ ..... (Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^ðþr$Ï ..... (GMæü$P)

d. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÔèýÆæÿà A¯èþ²… †…sêyé? ÔèýÆæÿà A¯èþ²… †¯èþyæþ$. ÝùÐèþ$ÐéÆæÿ… íÜ°Ðèþ* sìýMðüPr$Ï A…§æþ$™éÄæý*? Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æóÿç³# »ñý…Væüâæý*Ææÿ$ Ððþâê¢Ðèþ*? Ðéâæý$å ç³NË$ MøÝë¢Æ>? ÔèýÆæÿà ±™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢yé? çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# D Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…sêyé? 419

An Intensive Course in Telugu

e. Match the following. A

B

1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ™ø 2. çÜÆæÿâæý ¯é™ø 3. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðéâæýå™ø 4. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÔèýÆæÿÙø 5. Ò$Ææÿ$ Vøí³™ø

Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÐèþ# Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ§æþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ…

( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) )

f. Conjugate the following verbs for future tense each time with one of the pronouns/nouns given bellow as subjects.

¯óþ¯èþ$ 1. Ððþâæý$å 2. †ç³š

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó

ïÜ™èþ

Ðóþ$…

3. ^ðþ糚 4. MöÆÿ$$Å

AÑ 5. ^èþ$r$t 6. ¯ðþr$t

VOCABULARY

A…§æþ$ †r$tü Ðèþ*ÅhMŠü HÆ>µr$ AÐèþ™èþË V>ÏçÜ$ CÐèþ™èþË fÆæÿ$çç³# Mæü$…yæþ Ðèþ$«§æþÅ Væü$yæþz Mæü糚 †ç³š

be available; be in one's reach scold (v) magic arrangement that side tumbler this side move aside (v.t.) pot middle, centre cloth close; cover (v.t.) rotate, turn

A§æþª… §éÆæÿ…üü Mæü{Ææÿ ^èþ$r$t ™éyæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ$çÙ$Ë$ Ðèþ$°íÙ BËçÜÅ… VæüÄæý*Åã ÐóþçÙ… ÐðþÆÿ$$Å yðþOÌêVæü$ çßýÌZ! 420

glass, mirror thread (n) stick (n) wind (v.t.) rope (n) pl. form of Ðèþ$°íÙ person; human being

delay quarrelsome (fem.) role in a drama or cinema play a role (in a drama or cinema) dialogue hello!

Lesson 27

GRAMMAR NOTES 27.1. In this lesson the future negative is introduced. It is formed in the following pattern. Future neg.  verbal base + Future neg. suffix &A -a Personal suffix Ððþâæý$å+A+¯èþ$ = Ððþâæýå¯èþ$ (2.12.2) 'I will not go.' ve˚˚u+a+nu = ve˚˚anu Notice the difference in the formation of the present negative (25.3.) and future negative. The present negative does not show any agreement with the person-gender-number of the subject where as the future negative does. Hence the use of the personal suffix in the future negative. 27.1.1. The personal suffixes used in the negative forms of the existential verb (7.2. and 7.3) are used in the formation of the future negative.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>¯èþ$. (Æ>+A+¯èþ$) 3.13.1

‘I will not come.’

n£nu r¡nu. (r¡+a+nu)

Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… †¯èþ…. (†¯èþ$+A+…) 2.12.2

‘We will not eat.’

m£M/manaM tinaM. (tinu+a+M)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÐðþâæýåÐèþ#. (Ððþâæý$å+A+Ðèþ#) 2.12.2

‘You (inf.sg.) will not go.’

nuvvu ve˚˚avu. (ve˚˚u+a+vu)

Ò$Ææÿ$ ^èþ§æþÐèþÆæÿ$. (^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#+A+Ææÿ$) 2.12.1; 15.5.1 m•ru cadavaru. (caduvu+a+ru)

Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$ ´ëyæþyæþ$. (´ëyæþ$+A+yæþ$) 2.12.2

‘You (pl.&hon.sg.) will not read.’ ‘He will not sing.’

v¡∂u/atanu p¡∂a∂u. (p¡∂u+a+∂u)

BÐðþ$/BÄæý$¯èþ/ÐéÆæÿ$ Æ>Äæý$Ææÿ$. (Æ>Æÿ$$+A+Ææÿ$) 2.12.2 ‘She/He (hon.& formal ¡me/¡yana/v¡ru r¡yaru. (r¡yi+a+ru)

Ðéâæý$å ç³° ^ðþÄæý$ÅÆæÿ$. (^ðþÆÿ$$Å+A+Ææÿ$) 2.12.2

will not write.)’ ‘They (hum.) will not work.’

v¡˚˚u pani ceyyaru. (ceyyi+a+ru)

BÐðþ$/A¨ ´ù§æþ$. (´ù+A+§æþ$) 3.13.1 ¡me/adi pªdu. (pª+a+du)

421

‘She(eql.& inf.)/It will not go.’

An Intensive Course in Telugu

AÑ AMæüPyæþ E…yæþÐèþ#. (E…yæþ$+A+Ðèþ#) 2.12.2 avi akka∂a vuM∂avu.

‘They (neut.) will not be there.’

27.2. Like the future tense forms the future negative forms also express present indefinite and habitual tenses (see 26.4.). Present indefinite:

Vøí³ MæüçÙtç³yé¢yæþ$ (MæüçÙtç³yæþ$+™é+yæþ$) (26.12) Æ>Ðèþ$$ MæüçÙtç³yæþyæþ$. gªpi kaß apa∂t¡∂u. (kaß apa∂u+t¡+∂u) ‘Gopi works hard.’

r¡mu kaß apa∂a∂u. ‘Ramu does not work hard.’

í³Ë$ÏË$ ^ðþr$Ï GMæü$P™éÆÿ$$.

Mæü$MæüPË$ ^ðþr$Ï GMæüPÐèþ#.

pillulu ce lu ekkut¡yi. ‘Cats climb trees.’

kukkalu ce lu ekkavu. ‘Dogs do not climb trees.’

27.3. In this lesson two verbal bases Mæü糚 kappu 'cover (v.t.)' and †ç³š tippu 'turn (v.t.)/ rotate' are introduced. These verbal bases do not behave like ^ðþ糚 ceppu 'say; utter; tell; teach; narrate' though they end in 糚 ppu when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t. or §Šþ d. (^ðþ糚 ceppu become ^ðþ³ ‹ cep or ^ðþº$ cebu when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t or §Šþ d ) [see 25.4. and 26.3])

^ðþ糚 ceppu ^ðþç³#¢¯é²¯èþ$/^ðþº$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ceptunn¡nu/cebutunn¡nu. ‘I am saying.’ ^ðþ´ëª…/^ðþº$§é…. cepd¡M/cebud¡M. ‘Let us say.’ Mæü糚 kappu Mæü糚™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. kapputunn¡nu. ‘I am covering.’ Mæü糚§é…. kappud¡M. ‘Let us cover’ †ç³š tippu †ç³š™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. tipputunn¡∂u ‘He is rotating’ †ç³š§é…. tippud¡M. ‘Let us rotate.’ 27.4. The verbal bases ^ðþ糚þ ceppu mean 'tell, narrate, inform, report'. When used with ´ëuæÿ… p¡ haM 'lesson' it also means 'teach' (see 14.3). When 422

Lesson 27 it is used in the meaning 'narrate, tell or teach', the noun standing for the recipient will take dative case suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/-ki. (13.2.1)

ÆæÿÐèþ$ MæüÐèþ$ËMæü$ Mæü£æþ ^ðþ´ù¢…¨.

‘Rama is narrating a story to kamala’

rama kamalaku katha ceptªMdi.

Vøí³ ÆæÿÑMìü B ´ëuæÿ… ^ðþ´ë¢yæþ$.

‘Gopi will teach that lesson to Ravi.’

gªpi raviki ¡ p¡ haM cept¡∂u.

A™èþ¯èþ$ ±Mæü$ õ³Ææÿ$ ^ðþ´ë¢yé?

‘Will he tell you his name?’

atanu n•ku p£ru cept¡∂¡? But, when ^ðþ³ ç š ceppu is used in the meaning 'inform' or 'report', the noun standing for the 'inform' or 'reported' (ie. recipient of the information) takes either sociative case suffix &™ø -tª (20.4.) or dative case suffix &Mæü$/&Mìü -ku/-ki.

Vøí³ ±™ø D çÜ…Væü† ^ðþ´ë¢yé?

‘Does Gopi inform this matter to you?’

gªpi n•tª • saMgati cept¡∂¡?

Vøí³ ±Mæü$ D çÜ…Væü† ^ðþ´ë¢yé?

‘Does Gopi inform this matter to you?’

gªpi n•ku • saMgati cept¡∂¡?

CÐèþ™èþÍ -ivatali and AÐèþ™èþÍþavatali are the oblique bases of CÐèþ™èþËþ ivatala 'this side' and AÐèþ™èþËþavatala 'that side' respectively. 27.6. The plural form of Ðè þ $°íÙþ manißhi 'human being' is Ðèþ$¯èþ$çÙ$Ë$þmanußulu. 27.5.

27.7.

Notice the use of the dative case suffix in 'directional' function.

D Mæü$Èa° B ç³MæüPMæü$ †ç³š?

‘Turn this chair towards that side.’

• kurc•ni ¡ pakkaku tippu? 27.8.

Recall the saMdhi process where the final E u of the yæþ$ ∂u ending

bases is dropped when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t or §Šþ d (26.12). The same applies to Ææÿ$ ru and Ë$ lu ending bases also.

ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$+™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ# = ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#/ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#. 'You are starting.' bayald£ru+tunn¡vu = bayald£rutunn¡vu/bayald£rtunn¡vu. 423

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>Ë$+™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$ = Æ>Ë$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$/Æ>Ë$¢¯é²Æÿ$$.

'They (neut.) are falling.'

r¡lu+tunn¡yi = r¡lutunn¡yi/r¡ltunn¡yi

ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$+™é… = ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆ>¢…

'I will start.'

bayald£ru+t¡M = bayald£rt¡M

ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$+§é… = ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆ>ª…

'We will start.'

bayald£ru+d¡M = bayald£rd¡M

BMæü$Ë$ Æ>Ìê¢Æÿ$$ (Æ>Ë$+™é+Æÿ$$)

'The leaves will fall.'

¡kulu r¡lt¡yi (r¡lu+t¡+yi) 27.9. The verbal base order to use them as verbs.

^ðþÆÿ$$Å ceyyi 'do' is added to certain nouns in

ç³°. pani ‘work’ ç³°^ðþÆÿ$$Å paniceyyi. ‘to work’ HÆ>µr$ £rp¡ u ‘arrangement’ HÆ>µr$^ðþÆÿ$$Å. £rp¡ uceyyi. ‘to arrange’ BËçÜÅ… ¡lasyaM ‘delay (n)’ BËçÜÅ…^ðþÆÿ$$Å. ¡lasyaMceyyi.‘to delay’ ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ceyyi ‘do’ can also be added to certain English words in order to use as verbs.

ÐóþçÜ$t

v£s u ‘waste’

ÐóþçÜ$t^ðþÆÿ$$Å v£s uceyyi

424

‘to waste’ (lesson 26)

Lesson 28

UNIT V Lesson 28

± ÆóÿyìþÄñý* »êVæü$^óþÔé¯èþ$

I REPAIRED YOUR RADIO

Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿ$Ï : ÆæÿÒ! °¯èþ² ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ¯èþ$ÐèþNÓ, çÜÆæÿâê Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Ðèþ^éaÆ>?

Ravi! Did you and Sarala come to my house yesterday evening?

ÆæÿÑ

Yes. We came at 5 o'clock. You were not home then. But your scooter and bicycle were there. We looked for you a long time. We asked (enquired) your brother also (about you). He told us that you had gone to the hospital.

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. I§æþ$ Væü…rËMæü$ Ðèþ^éa…. A糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌôýÐèþ#. ± çÜ*PrÆæÿ* òÜOMìüË* E¯é²Æÿ$$. ± MøçÜ… ^éÌê õÜÐèþ# ^èþ*Ôé…. Ò$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ã×ìý~ Mæü*yé AyìþV>…. Bçܵ{†Mìü Ððþâêåyæþ$ A¯é²yæþ$.

425

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ððþ…Mæü : AÐèþ#¯èþ$; Bçܵ{†Mìü Ððþâêå¯èþ$.

Yes. I went to the hospital.

ÆæÿÑ

Why did you go to the hospital?

: Bçܵ{†Mìü G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÐðþâêåÐèþ#?

Ððþ…Mæü : ^ðþÑÌZ ¯ðþí³µV> E…¨.

I had pain in the ear.

ÆæÿÑ

Did you take any medicine?

: Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²Ðé?

Ððþ…Mæü : ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²¯èþ$.

Yes, I took it.

ÆæÿÑ

Was the pain gone?

: ¯ðþí³µ ™èþWY…§é?

Ððþ…Mæü : C糚yìþ³ç šyóþ ™èþVæü$Y ™ø…¨. ÝëÄæý$…& {™é°Mìü ç³NÇ¢V> ™èþVæü$Y™þè $…¨ A¯é²Ææÿ$ yéMæütÆæÿ$.

It is coming down slowly now. " It will be gone completely by the evening," said the doctor.

ÆæÿÑ

I repaired your radio.

: çÜÆóÿ, ± ÆóÿyìþÄñý* »êVæü$^óþÔé¯èþ$.

Ððþ…Mæü : AÌêV>! ¡çÜ$Mö^éaÐé?

Oh! Did you bring it?

ÆæÿÑ

Here it is.

: C§æþ$Vø.

Ððþ…Mæü : MæüÐèþ$Ë °¯èþ² ÝëÄæý$…{™èþÐóþ$ ÆóÿyìþÄñý* ¡çÜ$Mæü$Ææÿ…yìþ A¯èþ²¨. §é°Mìü Mö°² ÐèþçÜ$¢Ðèþ#Ë$ M>ÐéÍ A¯é²Ðèþ# Mæü§é! AÑ §öÇM>Äæý*? ÆæÿÑ

: B! ÐèþçÜ$¢Ðèþ#Ë$ §öÇM>Æÿ$$; ç³° ç³NÇ¢^óþÔé¯èþ$. 426

Kamala asked me to bring the radio yesterday evening itself. You said some parts were required for it. Were they available? Yes. They were available. I have completed the work also.

Lesson 28

DRILLS a. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iv)

MæüÐèþ$Ë çÜÆæÿâæý™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyìþ…¨. ^ðþ糚 MæüÐèþ$Ë çÜÆæÿâæý™ø ^ðþí³µ…¨. Byæþ$ ´ëyæþ$ Ððþâæý$å

ÆæÿÑ °¯èþ² ^ðþ´ëµyæþ$. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ÆæÿÑ °¯èþ² ^èþ¨Ðéyæþ$. †Ææÿ$Væü$ Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ fÆæÿ$Væü$

Model (ii)

Model (v)

ïÜ™èþ ´ëuæÿ… ^ðþí³µ…¨. ´ër´ëyæþ$ ïÜ™èþ ´ër ´ëyìþ…¨. ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$ ç³MæüPMæü$ fÆæÿ$Væü$

¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ² íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*Ôé¯èþ$. ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐðþÆÿ$$Å ¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ² ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐóþÔé¯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ° ^èþ*yæþ$ »ŸÐèþ$à WÆÿ$$Å E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Æÿ$$

Model (iii)

Model (vi)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A¯èþ²… †¯é²Ðèþ#. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯é²Ðèþ#. ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþ$ ç³…yæþ$ ¡çÜ$Mø MæüâæýågZyæþ$ ò³r$tMø D Ðèþ*rË$ A¯èþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ÌZ E…yæþ$ º…† ç³r$tMø Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³…yæþ$ †¯èþ$

¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²Ðèþ#. Ðóþ$… Ò$Ææÿ$ ÆæÿÑ ïÜ™èþ Ðéâæý$å Mø™èþ$Ë$ A™èþ¯èþ$ 427

An Intensive Course in Telugu

b. Interlocked Substitution drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

CMæüPyìþMìü GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ðèþ^éaÆæÿ$? (¯éÆ>Äæý$×ýÆ>Ðèþ#) CMæüPyìþMìü ÔèýÆæÿà Ðèþ^éayæþ$. °¯èþ² Ò$ C…sìýMìü GÐèþÆö^éaÆæÿ$? (MæüÐèþ$Ìê»êÆÿ$$) Ððþ$$¯èþ² CMæüPyìþMìü H… Ðèþ^éaÆÿ$$? (Mø™èþ$Ë$) ´÷§æþ$ª¯þè Ò$ C…sìýMìü GÐèþÆö^éaÆæÿ$? (Ðéâæý$å) °¯èþ² Æ>{† Ò$ Væü¨Mìü GÐèþÆö^éaÆæÿ$? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) Ððþ$$¯èþ² çÜ$…§æþÆæÿÆ>k¯èþ$ GÐèþÆæÿ$ MösêtÆÿæ $? (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) Væü…VæüÆ>k H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? (ç³NË$&MöÆÿ$$Å) Væü…VæüÆ>k ç³NË$ MøÔéyæþ$. MæüÐèþ$Ì H… ^óþíÜ…¨? (Mæü$ÈaÌZ&Mæü*Æøa) Mæü$MæüPË$ H… ^óþÔéÆÿ$$? (¼òÜPr$Ï&†¯èþ$) Ò$Ææÿ$ H… ^óþÔéÆæÿ$? (^ðþr$t&GMæü$P) ÔéÅÐŒþ$ çÜ$…§æþÆŠÿ H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? (ÆóÿyìþÄñý*&»êVæü$^ðþÆÿ$$Å) °Ææÿ…f¯Œþ H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? (»ŸÐèþ$ÃË$&¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>) ¯óþ¯èþ$ H… ^óþÔé¯èþ$? (´ëuæÿ…&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) Mæü$MæüP H… ^óþíÜ…¨? (§ö…Væü¯èþ$&ç³r$tMø)

c. Transformation drill. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ÆæÿÑ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ^éayæþ$ çÜÆæÿâæý ç³NË$ MøçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. Mæü$MæüPË$ Vøyæþ GMæü$P™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²…. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™èþË$ç³# ¡çÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#. Ò$Ææÿ$ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#. ÆæÿÑ WÇ° Möyæþ$¢¯é²yæþ$. WÇ ™èþË$ç³# ÐóþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 428

ÆðÿOË$ Ððþâæý$¢…¨. ÆðÿOË$ Ððþãå…¨. ÆæÿÑ ç³NË$ Mö…sêyæþ$. ÑÐèþ$Ë Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþM>Äæý$Ë$ HÆæÿ$™èþ$…¨. çÜ$ÖË »êV> Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$…¨. Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ ÐèþÝë¢Ææÿ$. BÄæý$¯èþ ÆóÿyìþÄñý* »êVæü$ ^óþÝë¢Ææÿ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ XÝë¢yæþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… B ÑçÙÄæý$… Mæü¯èþ$Mæü$P…sê…. ÆæÿÐèþ$ MæüË… Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$™èþ$…¨.

Lesson 28

EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions using the cue words.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ÆæÿÑ °¯èþ² H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? (Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþ ç³âæý$å&MöÆÿ$$Å) ÔèýÆæÿà Ððþ$$¯èþ² H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? (^èþ´ë¡Ë$&†¯èþ$) Vøí³ °¯èþ² H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? (¯èþÐèþË&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) ÆæÿÐèþ$ H… ^óþíÜ…¨? (Mæü$ÈaÌZ&Mæü*Æøa) ¯èþ$ÐóþÓ… ^óþÔéÐèþ#? (yæþº$¾Ë$&¡çÜ$Mø) ÔéÅÐèþ$Ë H… ^óþíÜ…¨? (CMæüPyóþ&E…yæþ$)

b. Fill up the blanks with the past tense forms of the verb given in the parenteses.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ÆæÿÑ °¯èþ² ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… ¯érMæü… Væü$Ç…_ ........... (Mæü¯èþ$MøP) ÔéÅÐèþ$Ë Ððþ$$¯èþ² Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ....... (Ððþâæý$å) ¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ²¯óþ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$°…_ ....... (Æ>) Ò$Ææÿ$ ¯é ÆóÿyìþÄñý* ........ (¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>) Ðèþ$¯èþMæü$ °¯èþ² ºçÜ$Þ ....... (§öÆæÿ$Mæü$) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é Ðèþ*rË$ ....... (ѯèþ$) Ðéâæý$å AMæüPyæþ .......... (E…yæþ$)

VOCABULARY

™èþVæü$Y ç³NÇ¢V>ü »êVæü$^ðþÆÿ$$Å Bçܵ{† ç³NÇ¢^ðþÆÿ$$Å

reduce (v.i.) completely repair; set right hospital finish; complete (v.tr.)

429

An Intensive Course in Telugu

GRAMMAR NOTES 28.1. In this lesson the past tense is introduced. Past tense forms of the verb are formed in the following pattern. past tense = verbal base + past tense suffix + personal suffix The same personal suffixes used in the affirmative forms of the existential verb (7.1. and 7.3), and in present tense and future tense forms (21.2.1 and 26.1.) are also used in the past tense forms. -æ– / &C… ü-æ– / -iM is the past tense suffix used with verbal bases other than the A¯èþ$ anu group of verbs (23.1) and ´ù pª 'go'. 28.2.

28.2.1. &C… -iM occurs before the feminine inferior and equal singular and neuter singular suffix &¨ -di.

BÐðþ$ Mæü£æþ ^ðþí³µ…¨. (^ðþ糚 C…+¨) 2.12.1

‘She narrated a story.’

¡me katha ceppiMdi. (ceppu iM-di)

BMæü$ Æ>Í…¨. (Æ>Ë$+C…+¨) 2.12.1

‘The leaf fell/dropped down.’

¡ku r¡liMdi. 28.2.2. -æ– occurs before the other personal suffixes. The sound -æ– does not have a script in Telugu. Therefore, the secondary symbol of B ¡ is used for -æ– in writing the past tense form. But the pronunciation is -æ–. (see 3.13.2)

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþâêå¯èþ$ (Ððþâæý$å+æ–+¯èþ$ ) (2.12.2) n£nu ve˚˚æ–nu. (ve˚˚u+æ–+nu) Ðóþ$…/Ðèþ$¯èþ… ^ðþ´ëµ…. (^ðþ糚+æ–+…) m£M/manaM cepp¡M. (ceppu+æ–+M) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯ðþsêtÐèþ#. (¯ðþr$t+æ–+Ðèþ#) nuvvu ne  æ–vu. (ne  u+æ–+vu) Ò$Ææÿ$ Mæü´ëµÆæÿ$. (Mæü糚+æ–+Ææÿ$) m•ru kapp¡ru. (kappu+æ–+ru) Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$ ´ëyéyæþ$. (´ëyæþ$+æ–+yæþ$) v¡∂u/atanu p¡∂¡∂u. (p¡∂u+æ–+∂u)

430

‘I went.’ ‘We said.’ ‘You (pl.&hon.sg.) pushed’ ‘You (non.hon.sg.) coverd.’ ‘He (inf.&eql.) sang.’

Lesson 28

BÐðþ$/BÄæý$¯èþ/ÐéÆæÿ$/Ðéâæý$å HÆ>Ææÿ$. (HÆæÿ$+æ–+Ææÿ$) ¡me/¡yan/v¡ru/v¡˚˚u £r¡ru. (£ru+æ–+ru) AÑ Æ>ÌêÆÿ$$. (Æ>Ë$+æ–+Æÿ$$) avi r¡l¡yi. (r¡lu+æ–+yi) 28.3.

‘He/She (hon.& formal)/ They (hum.) picked up.’ ‘They (neut.) fell/ dropped down.’

The Æÿ$$Å/Æÿ$$ yyi/yi ending bases change their final Æÿ$$Å/Æÿ$$ yyi/

yi to Ü ‹ s and lengthen the penultimate vowel, if it is short, when follwed by a suffix beginning with C i or æ–. (recall that these bases undergo similar change before a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t 22.1 or §Šþ d [26.6. (i)].)

MöÆÿ$$Å koyyi Mø‹Ü+æ–+¯èþ$= MøÔé¯èþ$ (28.3.1) kª≈æ–nu ‘I cut.’ ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ceyyi ^óþ‹Ü+C…+¨= ^óþíÜ…¨ c£siMdi ‘She (inf.&eql.)/ It did.’ Æ>Æÿ$$ r¡yi Æ>‹Ü+æ–+yæþ$= Æ>Ôéyæþ$ (28.3.1) r¡≈æ–∂u ‘He (inf.& eql.) wrote.’ Æ>Æÿ$$ r¡yi Æ>‹Ü+C…+¨= Æ>íÜ…¨ r¡siMdi ‘She (inf.&eql.)/It wrote.’ 28.3.1. ‹Ü s+æ– combination is written as Ôé. 28.4. ^èþ*yæþ$ c¶∂u 'see' becomes ^èþ*‹Ü c¶s when follwed by a suffix beginning with C i or æ–. (Recall that this base undergoes similar) change before a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t 22.2. or §Šþ d 26.6. (vi).) ^èþ*yæþ$ c¶∂u ^èþ*‹Ü+æ–+Ðèþ#= ^èþ*ÔéÐèþ# (28.3.1) c¶≈æ–vu ‘You (non-hon) saw.’ ^èþ*yæþ$ c¶∂u ^èþ*‹Ü+C…+¨= ^èþ*íÜ…¨ c¶siMdi ‘She (inf.&eql.)/ It saw.’ 28.5. Æ> r¡ 'come' becomes Ðèþ^Œþa& vacc-, and ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> t•sukur¡ 'bring' becomes ¡çÜ$Mø^Œþa& t•sukªcc- when followed by suffix beginning with C i or æ–. Æ> r¡ : Ðèþ^Œþa+æ–+¯èþ$ = Ðèþ^éa¯èþ$ vacc+æ–+nu ‘I came.’ 431

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ> r¡ : Ðèþ^Œþa+C…+¨ = Ðèþ_a…¨ vacc+iM+di ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> t•sukur¡ : = ¡çÜ$Mø^éa¯èþ$ t•sukªcc+æ–+nu ¡çÜ$Mø^Œþa+æ–+¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> t•sukur¡ : ¡çÜ$Mø^Œþa+C…+¨ = ¡çÜ$Mø_a…¨ t•sukªcc+iM+di

‘She/It came.’ ‘I brought.’ ‘She/It brought.’

28.6. The trisyllabic bases containing only short vowels (15.4) change their second vowel E u to C i when followed by a suffix beginning with C i or æ–. (Recall that these bases change their second vowel E u to A a when followed by a suffix beginning with A a or B ¡ 15.5.1.)

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#+æ–+¯èþ$= ^èþ§æþ$ÐŒþ+æ–+¯èþ$= ^èþ¨Ðé¯èþ$ (2.12.2)

‘I read.’

Ayæþ$Væü$+C…+¨= Ayæþ$VŠü+C…+¨= AyìþW…¨ (2.12.2)

‘She/It asked.’

caduvu+æ–+nu= caduv+æ–+nu= cadivæ–nu a∂ugu+iM+di= a∂ug+iM+di= a∂igiMdi

The A¯èþ$ anu group of verbs (23.1) take a different past tense suffix &B/&A -¡/-a. &A -a occurs before the feminine inferior & equal, and neuter singular suffix &¨ di ; and &B ¡ occurs before the other personal suffixes. The following changes take place in the A¯èþ$ anu group of verbal bases before the past tense suffix &B/&A -¡/-a. 28.7.

(i) The final ¯èþ$ nu of the bases becomes ¯Œþ² nn; (ii) The final K ª of these bases become E¯Œþ² unn; and (iii) The base E…yæþ$ uM∂u becomes E¯Œþ² unn.

A¯èþ$ †¯èþ$ Mö¯èþ$ ѯèþ$ A¯èþ$ †¯èþ$

anu : tinu : konu : vinu : anu : tinu :

A¯Œþ²+B+yæþ$ †¯Œþ²+B+yæþ$ Mö¯Œþ²+B+¯èþ$ ѯŒþ²+B+… A¯Œþ²+A+¨ †¯Œþ²+A+¨

= = = = = =

ann+¡+∂u tinn+¡+∂u konn+¡+nu vinn+¡+M ann+a+di tinn+a+di 432

‘He said.’ ‘He ate.’ ‘I bought.’ ‘We heard.’ ‘She/It said.’ ‘She/It ate.’

Lesson 28

¡çÜ$Mø t•sukª : ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯Œþ²+B+Ðèþ#=¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²Ðèþ# ç³r$tMø pa  ukª : ç³r$tMæü$¯Œþ²+A+¨= ç³r$tMæü$¯èþ²¨ °ÌZa nilcª : °Ë$a¯Œþ²+B+¯èþ$=°Ë$a¯é²¯èþ$ Mæü*Æøa k¶rcª : Mæü*Ææÿ$a¯Œþ+A+¨= Mæü*Ææÿ$a¯èþ²¨ E…yæþ$ uM∂u : E¯Œþ²+B+Ææÿ$=E¯é²Ææÿ$ 28.7.1.

t•sukunn+¡+vu ‘You took.’ pa  ukunn+a+di ‘She/It held.’ nilcunn+¡+nu

‘I stood.’

k¶rcunn+a+di

‘She/It sat.’

unn+¡+ru

‘They (hum.) were/ stayed.’

Recall the existential verb forms such as E¯é²¯èþ$ unn¡nu,

E¯é²… unn¡M, E¯é²Ðèþ# unn¡vu, E¯é²Ææÿ$ unn¡ru, E¯é²yæþ$ unn¡∂u, E¯èþ²¨ unn¡di, E¯é²Ææÿ$ unn¡ru, E¯é²Æÿ$$ unn¡yi (7.1.). Structurally, these are the past tense forms of the verbal base E…yæþ$ uM∂u 'be; exist; stay; wait'. Semantically, they denote past tense and present indefinite as well.

ÆæÿÑ °¯èþ² AMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$.

‘Ravi was there yesterday.’

ravi ninna akka∂a unn¡∂u.

Vøí³ CÐóþÓâæý CMæüPyæþ E¯é²yæþ$.

‘gopi is here today.’

gªpi ivv£˚a ikka∂a unn¡du.

433

UNIT V Lesson 29

ѧæþ$Å^èþeMìü¢° Ðèþ–£é ^ðþÄæý$ÅMæü*yæþ§æþ$

WE SHOULD NOT WASTE ELECTRICITY

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : A…§æþÆæÿ* M>ÏçÜ$Mæü$ Ðèþ^éaÆ>? Vøí³ : çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# Æ>Ìôý§æþ…yìþ; ÆæÿÑ Mæü*yé Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. Ðéâæý$å C§æþªÆæÿ* Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. ÑfÄæý$ : Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ*! B M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ ¸ë¯èþ$Ï †Ææÿ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$; ÌñýOr$Ï ÐðþË$Væü$ ™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$.

Have all of you come to the class? Subbarao has not come, sir! Ravi too. Both of them have not come. Sir! The fans and lights in that classroom are on.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : AMæüPyæþ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$?

Who is there?

ÑfÄæý$: GÐèþÆæÿ*ÌôýÆæÿ$.

Nobody is there. 434

Lesson 29

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : AÆÿ$$™óþ B ÌñýOr$Ï, B ¸ë¯èþ$Ï †Æÿ$$Å. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ѧæþ$Å^èþeMìü¢° Ðèþ–£é ^ðþÄæý$ÅMæü*yæþ§æþ$.

Then turn off those fans and lights. We should not waste electricity.

ÆæÿÑ

My I come in, sir?

: Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ*! ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Ðèþ^éa?

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : Æ>! AMæüPyæþ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$?

Yes. Come in. What is Mohan doing there?

ÆæÿÑ

He is looking at the road through the window.

: MìüsìýMîüÌZ°…_ Æøyæþ$z ÐðþOç³# ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : Æøyæþ$zÒ$§æþ HÐèþ$$¯èþ²¨?

What is there on the road?

ÆæÿÑ

A crowd of people is gathering on the road. Why?

: Æøyæþ$z Ò$§æþ f¯èþ… Væü$Ñ$Væü*yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : G…§æþ$Mæü$? ÆæÿÑ

: AMæüPyæþ H§ø Ñ…™èþ fÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨. JMæü A»ê¾Æÿ$$ M>Æÿ$$™éË™ø ÆæÿMæüÆæÿM>Ë ç³NË$ ™èþÄæý*Ææÿ$ ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

Something is happening there. Some one is making different kinds of flowers with paper.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ! Ñ…™èþ ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ ^èþ*yæþ-& Ðèþ^èþ$a. Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþ$. í³ËÏË*! Ò$Ææÿ…§æþÆæÿ* sìý³ç š Üç $ÌꢯþŒ íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*ÔéÆ>? í³ËÏË$: ^èþ*Ôé… ÝëÆŠÿ.

Mohan! You can watch the fun later but pay attention to the lesson first. Children! Have you all seen the film Tippu Sultan? We have seen it sir.

ÑfÄæý$: ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^èþ*yæþÌôý§æþ…yìþ.

I did not see, sir. 435

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : ^éÌê Ðèþ$…_ íÜ°Ðèþ*. ^èþ*yæþ$. A…§æþÆæÿ* çßZÐŒþ$ÐèþÆŠÿP ^óþÔéÆ>? BÆø ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ¨ÐéÆ>? Vøí³ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ çßZÐŒþ$ÐèþÆŠÿP ^ðþÄæý$ÅÌôý§æþ$ ÝëÆŠÿ. ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ¨Ðé¯èþ$.

It is a good film. See it. Have you all done your homework? Have you all read the sixth lesson? I have not done my home-work, sir. But I have read the lesson.

ÑfÄæý$: ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþÌôý§æþ$ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ V>Ææÿ*! Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯èþÌôý§æþ$. C糚yæþ$ B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ §öÆæÿMæür… Ìôý§æþ…yìþ.

I did not read the lesson, sir. My father did not buy the book (for me yet). Now those books are not available, sir!

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : AÌêV>! ò³§æþºª gêÆæÿ$ÌZ JMæü ³ç #Üç M¢ >Ë Mör$t…¨. AMæüPyæþ AyìþV>Æ>?þ

I see! There is a book-stall in the main bazar. Did you ask (enquire) there? We did not go there, sir.

ÑfÄæý$: AMæüPyìþMìü ÐðþâæýåÌôý§æþ…yìþ. ÆæÿÑ

: B ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ C…M> Ðèþ*ÆðÿPr$tÌZMìü Æ>Ìôý§æþ$ ÝëÆŠÿ.

Those books have not yet come into the market, sir.

Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$ : çÜÆóÿ! Ò$Mæü$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ C…™èþMæü$ Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… Væü$Ç…_ ^ðþ´ëµ¯é?

Okay! Did I tell you about Srirangapatnam before?

ÆæÿÑ

: Ò$Ææÿ$ ^ðþç³µÌôý§æþ$ ÝëÆŠÿ! ^èþÇ{™èþ Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ ^ðþ´ëµÆæÿ$.

You did not tell, sir! The History teacher told us.

Ðèþ* : Ò$Ææÿ$ }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… ^èþ*ÔéÆ>?

Have you seen Srirangapatnam?

ÆæÿÑ

No, sir!

: ^èþ*yæþÌôý§æþ$ ÝëÆŠÿ. 436

Lesson 29

Ðèþ* : GË$Ï…yìþ B¨ÐéÆæÿ… Ðèþ$¯èþ… A…§æþÆæÿ… }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… Ððþâꪅ.

On the Sunday, the day-aftertomorrow, let's all go to Srirangapatnam.

***

***

ÔèýÆæÿà : ÆæÿÒ! C糚yé çÜ*PrÆæÿ$ MæüyæþVæür…? : CÐóþÓâæý B¨ÐéÆæÿ… Væü§é?

Ravi! Is this the time to wash the scooter? Today is Sunday. Isn't it?

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯óþ°ÐóþÓâæý }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… Ððþâꪅ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé Æ>Æ>§æþ*!

I am planning to go tot Sriranga patnam today. Why don't you also come?

ÆæÿÑ

By scooter?

ÆæÿÑ

: çÜ*PrÆæÿ$ Ò$§é?

ÔèýÆæÿà : AÐèþ#¯èþ$.

Yes.

ÆæÿÑ

: ¯éMæü$ Mæü*yé }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… ^èþ*§éª… A° E…¨. M>° D B¨ÐéÆæÿ… àÆÿ$$V> C…sZÏ E…§é… A¯èþ$& Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ C…™èþÐèþÆæÿMæü* }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… ^èþ*yæþÌôý§æþ$.

I too want to see Srirangapatnam. But I want to be at home this Sunday. So far I did not see Srirangapatnam.

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯èþ$ÑÓ…™èþÐèþÆæÿMæü* }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… ^èþ*yæþÌôý§é? AÆÿ$$™óþ ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆæÿ$.

You haven't seen Srirangapatnam yet? Then come on start!

ÆæÿÑ

No. Let's not go to Sriranga patnam today. Let's go to zoo.

: M>§æþ$. CÐóþÓâæý Ðèþ$¯èþ… }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… ÐðþâæýåÐèþ§æþ$ª. lMæü$ Ððþâꪅ.

ÔèýÆæÿÃ : H…?

Why? 437

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÆæÿÑ

: CÐó þ Óâæ ý }Ææ ÿ …Væ ü ç ³ r²…ÌZ H§ø E™èþÞÐèþ… fÆæÿ$Væü$™ø…¨. f¯èþ… ^éÌê Ðèþ$…¨ ÐèþÝë¢Ææÿ$. B f¯èþ…ÌZ Ððþâæýår… MæüçÙt….

There is a festival in Srirangapatnam today. There will be a lot of people. It will not be possible to go in that heavy rush.

ÔèýÆæÿà : çÜÆóÿ! CÐóþÓâæý l ^èþ*§éª…. Ðèþ* BÑyæþ Væü*yé ÐèþÜç $¢¯þè ²¨. Ò$ BÑyæþ¯èþ$ Mæü*yé ¡çÜ$Mæü$ Æ>Æ>§æþ*!

All right! We will go to the zoo today. My wife will also be coming. Why don't you bring your wife too? Okay! All of us will go.

ÆæÿÑ

: AÌêVóü! A…§æþÆæÿ… Ððþâꪅ. 糧æþ!

ÔèýÆæÿà : Ar$ÐðþâæýåMæü*yæþ§æþ$. A¨ Ðèþ¯Œþ Ðóþ {sêíœMŠü. ¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ² D Æøyæþ$z Ò$§æþ M>Ìôýi ÐðþOç³# °…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. A糚yæþ$ ´ùÎçÜ$ ç³r$tMæü$¯é²yæþ$. DRILLS a. Build-up drill.

A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ^èþ*§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ´ë糯èþ$ ^èþ*§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. Ò$ ´ë糯èþ$ ^èþ*§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. CÐéÓâæý Ò$ ´ë糯èþ$ ^èþ*§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

We should not go that side. That is one-way traffic. Yesterday I was coming on this road from the college side. Then the police caught hold of me.

AÌêV>! AÆÿ$$™óþ Ðèþ*Mæü$ Ðóþ$… {糆ÐéÆæÿ… ç³{†MæüË$ Mö…sê…. Ò$ C…sìý ç³MæüP¯èþ JMæü CË$Ï A§ðþMª üæ $ ^èþ*yæþÆ>§æþ$! We buy magazines every week.

E…¨. ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨. ç³° ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨. B ç³° ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨. ¯éMæü$ B ç³° ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨. 438

Oh! I see! Then why don't you find a house for me next to yours!

Lesson 29

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iv)

ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †¯èþÌôý§æþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþÌôý§æþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðéâæý$å çÜ$Væü$×ý Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðóþ$… A¨ AÑ

ÆæÿÑ ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþÌôý§æþ$ (^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) ÆæÿÑ ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþÌôý§æþ$. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý ç³NË$ MöÄæý$ÅÌôý§æþ$ (HÆæÿ$) 2. ÔéÅÐèþ$Ë Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. (Ððþâæý$å) 3. ÔèýÆæÿà MæüË… ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. (¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù) 4. ´ëç³ AMæüPyæþ Mæü*ÆøaÌôý§æþ$ (°ÌZa) 5. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ÆæÿÑ° ^èþ*yæþÌôý§æþ$. (Ayæþ$Væü$) 6. Ðóþ$… MæüË… Mö¯èþÌôý§æþ$. (Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$) 7. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó E™èþ¢Ææÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþÌôý§æþ$. (Æ>Æÿ$$)

Model (ii)

Model (v)

¯óþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþÐèþ^éa? ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ¯óþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ ^ðþÄæý$ÅÐèþ^éa? ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. ´ër ´ëyæþ$ C…sìýMìü Ððþâæý$å

CMæüPyæþ ´ëyæþMæü*yæþ§æþ$. °ÌZa CMæüPyæþ °ÌZaMæü*yæþ§æþ$. E…yæþ$ Mæü*Æøa Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$

Model (iii)

Model (vi)

GMæü$PÐèþV> íÜ°Ðèþ*Ë$ ^èþ*yæþMæü*yæþ§æþ$. M>ïœ&™éVæü$ GMæü$PÐèþV> M>ïœ ™éVæüMæü*yæþ§æþ$. A¯èþ²…&†¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ™ø&Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$ {ç³Äæý*×ý…&^ðþÆÿ$$Å BrË$&Byæþ$

ÆæÿÑ MìüsìýMîüÌZ°…_ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. (Væü¨) ÆæÿÑ Væü¨ÌZ°…_ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 1. ´ëç³ C…sZÏ°…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. (çÜ*PË$) 2. MæüÐèþ$Ë Væü¨ÌZ°…_ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯èþ²¨. (CË$Ï) 3. A™èþ¯èþ$ ò³sñýtÌZ°…_ ¡çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. (çÜ…`) 439

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (vii)

Model (viii)

MæüÐèþ$Ìê! ¯èþ$ÑÓ糚yæþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþÆ>§æþ*! ´ëuæÿ…&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# MæüÐèþ$Ìê! ¯èþ$ÑÓ糚yæþ$ ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþÆ>§æþ*! C…sìýMìü&´ù MæüË…&¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> ç³NË$&MöÆÿ$$Å

CÐóþÓâæý Ðèþ$¯èþ… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯èþÐèþ§æþ$ª. Ayæþ$Væü$ CÐóþÓâæý Ðèþ$¯èþ… ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… AyæþVæüÐèþ§æþ$ª. ¡çÜ$Mø ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>

Model (ix)

ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ ¯érMæü… ^èþ*§éª… A° E…¨. (ç³#çÜ¢Mæü…&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) ÔèýÆæÿÃMæü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#§é… A° E…¨. 1. WÇfMæü$ ´ëuæÿ… Æ>§éª… A° E…¨. (´ër&´ëyæþ$) 2. ´ëç³Mæü$ ¼òÜPr$Ï †…§é… A° E…¨. (´ëË$&™éVæü$) 3. MæüÐèþ$ËMæü$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Ððþâꪅ A° E…¨. (CMæüPyìþMìü&Æ>) 4. BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ lMæü$ Ððþâꪅ A° E…¨. (CMæüPyóþ&E…yæþ$)

c. Interlocked substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

çÜÆæÿâê! C…sìýMìü G糚yæþ$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? (Æóÿç³#.) Æóÿç³# Ððþâꪅ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. 1. çßýÈ! ç³È„æü Æ>Ýë¢Ðé? (Ðèþ^óþa çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ…) 2. MæüÐèþ$Ìê! Ò$ ¯é¯èþ² V>Ææÿ$ BÆø ™éÈMæü$ ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … Mö…sêÆ>? (Hyø ™éÈMæü$) 3. ÆæÿÒ! C糚yæþ$ Ë™èþ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢Ðé? (Æóÿç³#) 4. Ææÿœç $*! C糚yæþ$ M>ïœ ™éVæü$™éÐé? (GË$Ï…yìþ)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ^éayé? C…M>Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. çÜ$ÖË A¯èþ²… †¯èþ²§é? ´ëç³ ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ¨Ñ…§é? ÔèýÆæÿà E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Ôéyé? çÜ$Væü$×ý ´ër ´ëyìþ…§é? ±Mæü$ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Ðèþ_a…§é?

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

ÆæÿÑ Gr$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? ÆæÿÑ ¯é ÐðþOç³# ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà Gr$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? (ºgêÆæÿ$) 2. çÜ$ÖË Gr$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? (MæüÐèþ$Ë) 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ Gr$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. (Væü$yìþ)

ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ^éayé? (Vøí³) ÆæÿÑ Æ>Ìôý§æþ$; Vøí³ Ðèþ^éayæþ$. 1. çÜ$ÖÌ A¯èþ²… †¯èþ²§é?(ÑfÄæý$) 2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*ÔéÐèþ*?(Ðéâæý$å) 3. Ðéyæþ$ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Ôéyé? (¯óþ¯èþ$)

440

Lesson 29 Model (v)

Model (vii)

ÆæÿÒ, ¯óþ¯èþ* Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÐèþ^éa? ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Ðèþ^éa? ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÐèþ^èþ$a; ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ-& A. Æ>Ðèþ^èþ$a. B. Æ>Mæü*yæþ§æþ$. Mæü*yæþ§æþ$. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ê ÑfÄæý* ´ër ´ëyæþÐèþ^éa? 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý M>ïœ ™éVæüÐèþ^éa? 2. WÈ Vøï³ ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Ðèþ^éa? 2. ÆæÿÑ ´ër ´ëyæþÐèþ^éa? 3. ¯óþ¯èþ* Ðéyæþ* sîý ™éVæüÐèþ^éa? 3. ÑfÄæý$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþÐèþ^éa? Model (vi)

Model (viii)

¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ ¯éË$Væü$ MæüÌêË$¯é²Æÿ$$. JMæü MæüË… ¯éMìüÐèþÓÆ>§æþ*!Vøí³ 1. ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$. 2. ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ BÆæÿ$ M>Æÿ$$™éË$¯é²Æÿ$$. 3. §æþVæüYÆæÿ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ç³{†MæüË$¯é²Æÿ$$.

Vøí³ Gr$°…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.(M>Ìôýh) M>ÌôýhÐðþOç³#°…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà Gr$°…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (ºyìþ) 2. çÜ$Væü$×ý Gr$°…_ ÐèþÝù¢…¨? (Væü$yìþ) 3. í³ËÏË$ Gr$°…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$?(™ør)

d. Trasformation drill. Model (i)

Model (iii)

Ðèþ$¯èþ… íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*§éª…. ¯éMæü$ ¯érMæü… ^èþ*§éª… A° Ðèþ#…¨. Ðèþ$¯èþ… íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*yæþÐèþ§æþ$ª. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯érMæü… ^èþ*§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. 1. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏy骅. 1. ¯éMæü$ C…sìýMìü ´ù§é… A° Ðèþ#…¨. 2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… CÐéÓâæý çÜÆæÿâæý C…sìýMìü ´ù§é…. 2. BÐðþ$Mæü$ JMæü ´ër Æ>§éª… A° Ðèþ#…¨. 3. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æóÿç³# JMæü MæüË… Mö…§é…. 3. ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ ç³NË$ Mø§éª… A° Ðèþ#…¨. Model (ii)

Model (iv)

A™èþ¯èþ$ ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Ðèþ^èþ$a. A™èþ¯èþ$ ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Mæü*yæþ§æþ$. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý FÇMìü ÐðþâæýåÐèþ^èþ$a. 2. ÔéÅÐèþ$Ë M>ïœ ™éVæüÐèþ^èþ$a. 3. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÐèþ^èþ$a. 4. AMæüPyæþ Mæü*ÆøaÐèþ^èþ$a.

çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# Ðèþ^éayæþ$. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà ´ër´ëyéyæþ$. 2. çÜ$ÖË AMæüPyæþ Mæü*Ææÿ$a¯èþ²¨. 3. ÑfÄæý$ ç³NË$ MøíÜ…¨. 4. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# yæþº$¾ AyìþV>yæþ$. 441

An Intensive Course in Telugu

e. Conversation drill. Model

ÆæÿÐèþ$ çÜÆæÿâæý ÆæÿÐèþ$ çÜÆæÿâæý 1. ÑÐèþ$Ë

: çÜÆæÿâê! ¯óþ¯èþ$ ò³çÜÆæÿr$t ^óþÝ뢯èþ$. (´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) : ò³çÜÆæÿr$t ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^óþÝ뢯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþÆ>§æþ*? : C糚yæþ$ ¯éMæü$ ò³çÜÆæÿr$t ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨. : çÜÆóÿ, AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯èþ$ÐóþÓ ò³çÜÆæÿr$t ^ðþÆÿ$$Å. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™é¯èþ$. : ´ëÆæÿÓ¡! C糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ »ŸÐèþ$Ã&XÝ뢯èþ$. (E™èþ¢Ææÿ…&Æ>Æÿ$$) ´ëÆæÿÓ† : ................................. ÑÐèþ$Ë : ................................. ´ëÆæÿÓ† : ................................. 2. Vøí³ : Æ>Ðèþ$*! ¯óþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyìþMìü ÆæÿÑ° ¡çÜ$MöÝ뢯èþ$. (ÔèýÆæÿÃ&¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>) Æ>Ðèþ$$ : ................................. Vøí³ : ................................. Æ>Ðèþ$$ : ................................. 3. MæüÐèþ$Ë : Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ! D çÜ…` ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mö…sê¯èþ$. (MæüË…&Mö¯èþ$) Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : ................................. MæüÐèþ$Ë : ................................. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ : ................................. EXERCISES a. Rewrite the following sentences filling up the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in the parentheses.

1. 2. 3. 4.

¯óþ¯èþ$ CÐéÓâæý C…sZÏ A¯èþ²… ............... (†¯èþ$) A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ÆæÿÐèþ$ Æóÿç³# M>ÌôýiMìü ......... (Æ>) A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯èþ²¨. Ðéâæý$å CMæüPyæþ .......... (Mæü*Æøa) A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. çÜ$Væü$×ý JMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ........... (¡çÜ$Mø) A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯èþ²¨.

442

Lesson 29

b. Answer the following questions as shown in the model: Model (i)

Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðèþ$¯èþ… 1. Ðèþ$¯èþ… 2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… 3. Ðèþ$¯èþ… 4. Ðèþ$¯èþ…

CÐéÓâæý Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³âæý$å †…§éÐèþ*? (Æóÿç³#) CÐéÓâæý Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³âæý$å †¯èþÐèþ§æþ$ª. Æóÿç³# †…§é…. D Væü¨ÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…§éÐèþ*? (B Væü¨) Mæü¯èþ²yæþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mæü$…§éÐèþ*? (™ðþË$Væü$) C糚yæþ$ ÆæÿÑ° †yéªÐèþ*? (ÔèýÆæÿÃ) C糚yæþ$ ç³NË$ Mø§éªÐèþ*? (ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ…)

Model (ii)

¯èþ$ÑÓÐéÓâæý H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#? (íÜ°Ðèþ*&^èþ*yæþ$) ¯óþ°ÐéÓâæý íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà CÐéÓâæý H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Væü$…r*Ææÿ$&Ððþâæý$å) 2. ÆæÿÐèþ$ D çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ… H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯èþ²¨? (¼.G.&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) 3. A™èþ¯èþ$ H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (ÌñýOr$&ÐðþÆÿ$$Å) Model (iii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯é²yé? Mö¯èþÌôý§æþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ ´ëË$ ™éV>Æ>? çÜ$ÖË Ðèþ_a…§é? ÆæÿÑ MæüË… ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²yé? ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ¨ÐéÐé? BÐðþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Ððþãå…§é?

c. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the model. Model (i)

Model (ii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ C…sìýMìü Ððþâꢯèþ$. ¯éMæü$ C…sìýMìü Ððþâꪅ A° Ðèþ#…¨. 1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÔèýÆæÿÙø Ðèþ*sêÏy颯èþ$. 2. çÜÆæÿâæý CMæüPyóþ E…r$…¨. 3. BÐðþ$ JMæü ¯èþÐèþË Æ>çÜ$¢…¨. 4. Ðéâæý$å íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Ððþâê¢Ææÿ$.

çÜ$ÖË ´ëuæÿ… Æ>Äæý$Ìôý§æþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>Äæý$Æ>§æþ*! 1. çÜ$ÖË yæþº$¾Ë$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. 2. A™èþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$MøÌôý§æþ$. 3. Ðéyæþ$ ´ër ´ëyæþÌôý§æþ$. 4. Ðéâæý$å yæþº$¾ AyæþVæüÌôý§æþ$. 443

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (iii)

Model (iv)

ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÐèþ^èþ$a. Ðèþ*sêÏyæþMæü*yæþ§æþ$. 1. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# yæþº$¾ AyæþVæüÐèþ^èþ$a. 2. A™èþ°² ^èþ*yæþÐèþ^èþ$a. 3. çÜ$ÖË M>ïœ ™éVæüÐèþ^èþ$a. 4. ÔèýÆæÿà CMæüPyìþMìü Æ>Ðèþ^èþ$a. 5. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó B MæüË… ¡çÜ$MøÐèþ^èþ$a.

ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³…yæþ$ MöÆÿ$$Å. A. ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³…yæþ$MöÄæý$ÅÐèþ^èþ$a. B. ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³…yæþ$ MöÄæý$ÅMæü*yæþ§æþ$. C. ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³…yæþ$ MöÅÄæý$Æ>§æþ*! 1. ÔéÆæÿ§é! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ´ëË$ ™éVæü$. 2. çÜ$ÖÌê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó yæþº$¾ ¡çÜ$Mø. 3. Vøï³! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó D E™èþ¢Ææÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#.

VOCABULARY

ѧæþ$Å^èþeMìü¢ Ðèþ–£é^ðþÆÿ$$Åü &Ðèþ^èþ$a

&Æ>§æþ*!

electricity waste (v.) an auxiliary verb denoting may &ÌZ°…_ through &ÐðþOç³# towards Væü$Ñ$Væü*yæþ$ gather (v.i.) Ñ…™èþ something which causes wonder; wonder; oddity. ÆæÿMæüÆæÿM>Ë$ different types ™èþÄæý*Ææÿ$^ðþÆÿ$$Åü prepare; make (v.t.) çßZÐŒþ$ÐèþÆŠÿP homework &ÌZMìü into C…™èþMæü$Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ heretofore; before this; previously }Ææÿ…Væüç³r²… Srirangapatnam &Væü$Ç…_ about ^èþÇ{™èþü history çÜ*PrÆæÿ$ scooter A¯èþ$Mø think; plan (v)

A°E…¨/ A°Ðèþ#…¨. àÆÿ$$V> C…™èþÐèþÆæÿMæü$ &Ðèþ§æþ$ª l E™èþÞÐèþ… &BÑyæþ &Mæü*yæþ§æþ$ Ðèþ¯ŒþÐóþ{sêíœMŠü Æøyæþ$z ç³{†Mæü

444

auxiliary used in the suggestive form of the verb. have/has a desire that ... happily; pleasently hitherto; till this time; up to now auxilary used in the formation of negative hortative zoo festivity wife (only when used with a plural pronominal adjective) should not one way traffic road magazine

Lesson 29

GRAMMAR NOTES 29.1. In this lesson the infinitive form of the verb is introduced. Infinitive is a type of verbal base (a higher level base) to which certain auxiliary verbs are added. &A -a is added to the verbal base to form the infinitive. Infinitive has no independent usage. infinitive = verbal base + Aüa Ððþâæý$å+A= Ððþâæýå ve˚˚u+a = ve˚˚a ‘2.12.2.’ †¯èþ$+A= †¯èþ tinu+a = tina ‘2.12.2.’ ^ðþÆÿ$$Å+A= ^ðþÄæý$Å ceyyi+a = ceyya ‘2.12.2.’ Æ>+A= Æ> r¡+a = r¡ ‘3.13.1.’ °ÌZa+A= °ÌZa nilcª+a = nilcª ‘3.13.1’ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#+A= ^èþ§æþÐèþ caduvu+a = cadava ‘2.12.2; 15.5.1’ 29.2. The past negative is formed by adding &Ìôý§æþ$ül£du to the infinitive. Like present negative (25.3.; 25.3.1) the past negative forms also do not maintain any agreement with the person-gender-number of the subject noun. Hence no personal suffixes are used in the formation of past negative forms. Past negative  Infinitive + &Ìôý§æþ$ül£du Ððþâæýå+Ìôý§æþ$ = ÐðþâæýåÌôý§æþ$ü 'Did not go' ve˚˚a+l£du = ve˚˚al£du ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐðþâæýåÌôý§æþ$. ‘I did not go.’ n£nu ve˚˚al£du. Ðèþ$¯èþ…/Ðóþ$… ^ðþÄæý$ÅÌôý§æþ$. ‘We did not do.’ manaM/m£M ceyyal£du. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ´ùÌôý§æþ$. ‘You did not go.’ nuvvu pªl£du. Ò$Ææÿ$ MörtÌôý§æþ$. ‘You did not beat.’ m•ru ko  al£du. Ðéyæþ$/A™èþ¯èþ$/BÄæý$¯èþ AyæþVæüÌôý§æþ$. ‘He did not ask.’ v¡∂u/atanu/¡yana a∂agal£du. BÐðþ$/BÑyæþ ^èþ§æþÐèþÌôý§æþ$. ‘She did not read.’ ¡me/¡vi∂a cadaval£du. 445

An Intensive Course in Telugu

A¨ Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. Ðéâæý$å/AÑ Æ>Ìôý§æþ$.

adi r¡l£du. ‘She/It did not come.’ v¡˚˚u/avi r¡l£du. ‘They (hum. & neut.) did not come’

Compare the present negative form (25.3) with the past negative form. The present negative is formed by adding Ìôý§æþ$ l£du to the gerund (25.1) and the past negative is formed by adding Ìôý§æþ$ l£du to the infinitive. 29.3. infinitive.

The permissive form is formed by adding &Ðèþ^èþ$a -vaccu to the Permissive  Infinitive + &Ðèþ^èþ$a -vaccu

ÐðþâæýåÐèþ^èþ$a. ve˚˚avaccu. ‘One may go.’ †¯èþÐèþ^èþ$a. tinavaccu. ‘One may eat.’ Æ>Äæý$Ðèþ^èþ$a. r¡yavaccu. ‘One may write.’ çÜ$Væü$×ý ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Ðèþ^èþ$a. sugu∆a lªpaliki r¡vaccu. ‘Suguna may come in.’ Ò$Ææÿ$ M>ïœ ™éVæüÐèþ^èþ$a. m•ru k¡f• t¡gavaccu. ‘You may drink coffee.’ Ðéyæþ$ CMæüPyæþ Mæü*ÆøaÐèþ^èþ$a. v¡∂u ikka∂a k¶rcªvaccu. ‘He may sit here.’ 29.3.1. The permissive form is used with interrogative marker &B ¡ to express a request for permission.

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Ðèþ^éa? ÆæÿÑ sîý ™éVæüÐèþ^éa?

n£nu lªpaliki r¡vacc¡? ravi  • t¡gavacc¡?

‘May I come in?’ ‘Can Ravi drink tea?’

29.4.

The negative permissive or prohibitive form is formed by adding &Mæü*yæþ§æþ$ -k¶∂adu to the infinitive. Negative permissive or prohibitive  Infinitive + &Mæü*yæþ§æþ$ -k¶∂adu to the infinitive çÜ$Væü$×ý ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ>Mæü*yæþ§æþ$. ‘Suguna should not come in.’ sugu∆a lªpaliki r¡k¶∂adu. ÆæÿÑ sîý ™éVæüMæü*yæþ§æþ$. ‘Ravi should not drink tea.’ ravi  • t¡gak¶∂adu. Ðèþ$¯èþ… AMæüPyìþMìü ÐðþâæýåMæü*yæþ§æþ$. ‘We should not go there.’ manaM akka∂iki ve˚˚ak¶∂adu.

446

Lesson 29 29.5. &- Ðèþ§æþ$ª is added to the infinitive to form the negative hortative. (For hortative see 26.5. and 26.5.1) Negative hortative = Infinitive + Ðèþ§æþ$ª

Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþâꪅ. manaM ve˚d¡M. ‘Let us go.’ Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðèþ§éª…. manaM vadd¡M. ‘Let us come.’ Ðèþ$¯èþ… ÐðþâæýåÐèþ§æþ$ª. manaM ve˚˚avaddu. ‘Let us not go.’ Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æ>Ðèþ§æþ$ª. manaM r¡vaddu. ‘Let us not come.’ 29.6. &Æ>§æþ*! -r¡d¶ is added to the infinitive to form the persuasive form. Persuasive = Infinitive -+ Æ>§æþ* r¡d¶ This form is used to persuade the listener to do the action denoted by the verb. ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C糚yæþ$ C…sìýMìü ÐðþâæýåÆ>§æþ*! ‘Ravi! Why don't you go home?’ rav•! nuvvu ippu∂u iM iki ve˚˚ar¡d¶! çÜ$Væü$×ê! D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþÐèþÆ>§æþ*! ‘Suguna! Why don't you read this book?’ sugu∆¡! • pustakaM cadavar¡d¶! 29.7.

A¯èþ$Mø

In this lesson the sentence pattern Hortative + form of the verb anukª 'plan; think' is introduced.

¯óþ¯èþ$ CÐóþÓâæý íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. n£nu ivv£˚a sinim¡ c¶dd¡M anukuM unn¡nu. ‘I am planning to see a movie today.’

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏy骅 A¯èþ$Mæü$¯é²¯èþ$. n£nu ravitª m¡ l¡∂d¡M anukunn¡nu. ‘I planned/wanted to talk to Ravi.’ In this pattern of sentences the subject need not be Ðèþ$¯èþ… manaM we (incl.) though the horatative form is used (see 26.5).

ÆæÿÑ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Ððþâꪅ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$. ravi guM ¶ru ve˚d¡M anukuM unn¡∂u. ‘Ravi is planning to go to Guntur.’

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$¯é²Ðèþ#? nuvvu £M c£dd¡M anukunn¡vu? ‘What did you want to do?’ 447

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ò$Ææÿ$ GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâꪅ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? m•ru ekka∂iki ve˚d¡M anukuM unn¡ru? ‘Where do you want to go? (Where are you planning to go?)’ 29.8. Another syntactic pattern involving the use of hortative is also introduced. This is to express some desire or wish. The pattern is:

A°Ðèþ#…¨ A°E…¨

Horatative + ----------- ani(v)uMdi In this pattern of sentence the subject noun (or phrase) must be in dative case; and it need not be Ðèþ$¯èþ… manaM 'we (incl.)' alone.

¯éMæü$ CÐóþÓâæý lMæü$ Ððþâꪅ A° E…¨.

‘I have a desire to go to zoo Today. n¡ku ivv£˚a j¶ku ve˚d¡M ani uMdi. (I want to go to zoo today)’ A™èþ°Mìü ™ðþË$Væü$ íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*§éª… A°Ðèþ#…¨. ‘He has a desire to see a Telugu movie. ataniki telugu sinim¡ c¶dd¡M anivuMdi. (He wants to see a Telugu movie.)’ Ò$Mæü$ B ç³° ^óþ§éª… A°E…§é? ‘Do you have a desire to do that work? m•ku ¡ pani c£dd¡M aniuMd¡? (Do you want to do that work?)’ 29.9.

Notice the use of the gerund (25.1) forms in sentences like:

C糚yé A¯èþ²… †¯èþr…?

‘Is this the time of eating food?’

ippu∂¡ annaM tina aM? In lesson 25 the use of gerund in sentences like.

GMæü$PÐèþV> †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$.

‘Eating more is not good.’

ekkuvag¡ tina aM maMcidi k¡du.

AMæüPyæþ E…yæþr… MæüçÙt….

‘Staying there is difficult.’

akka∂a uM∂a aM kaß aM. etc. has been introduced. 29.10. In this lesson directional case marker &Ððþç³ O # -vaipu is introduced. &ÐðþOç³# vaipu is a postposition (4.6.; 8.9). ¯éÐðþOç³# ^èþ*yæþ$. n¡vaipu c¶du. 'Look towards me.' çÜ*PË$ÐðþOç³# Ððþâæý$å. sk¶luvaipu ve˚˚u. 'Go towards the school.'

448

Lesson 29 29.11. &ÌZMìü lªki (ÌZ lª [4.5] + Mìü ki [13.1] ÌZ°…_ lªniMci (ÌZ lª + °…_ niMci [17.7]). 'through; from inside' are the combinations of two case markers. They also function like postpositions/case markers.

A¨ Ðèþ*ÆðÿPr$tÌZMìü Æ>Ìôý§æþ$.

‘It did not arrive into the market.’

adi m¡rke  ulªki r¡l£du.

ÆæÿÑ C…sZÏMìü Ððþâêåyæþ$.

‘Ravi went into the house.’

ravi iM lªki ve˚˚¡∂u.

Vøí³ MìüsìýMîüÌZ°…_ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

‘Gopi is looking through the window.’

gªpi ki ik•lªniMci c¶stunn¡∂u.

ïÜ™èþ Væü¨ÌZ°…_ Ðèþ_a…¨. s•ta gadilªniMci vacciMdi.

gôýº$ÌZ°…_ MæüË… †Æÿ$$Å. j£bulªniMci kalaM tiyyi.

‘Sita came out from (side of) the room.’ ‘Take out the pen from (indide of) the pocket.’

29.12. Notice the use of the instrumental case suffix &™ø -tª (22.6) in sentences like the following.

M>Æÿ$$™èþ…™ø ç³NË$ ™èþÄæý*Ææÿ$ ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

‘He is making flowers with papers.’

k¡yitaMtª p¶lu tay¡ru c£stunn¡∂u. 29.13. &BÑyæþ -¡vi∂a is third person feminine honorific singular pronoun (10.3). When used with a plural pronominal adjective (2.1.; 5.9) it denotes 'wife'. When &BÑyæþ -¡vi∂a is used to denote 'wife' the plural pronominal adjectives Ò$ m•, Ðèþ* m¡ etc. denote singularity. (Also see 51.3.)

Væü$Ç…_ -guriMci 'about' is a postposition (4.6.l; 8.9). ¯é Væü$Ç…_ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþMæü$ n¡ guriMci m¡ l¡∂aku. 'Don't talk about me.' 29.15. Notice the use of the adverb C…M> -iMk¡ (9.9) 'still, yet, more'

29.14.

with the verb in past negative, where it means 'yet' in Engish.

ÆæÿÑ C…M> Æ>Ìôý§æþ$.

ravi i©k¡ r¡l£du.

449

'Ravi has not yet come.'

REVIEW 5 Lesson 30

CÐóþÓâæý Ò$ C…sZÏ Mæü*ÆæÿÌôýÑ$sìý?

WHAT VEGETABLES DID YOU COOK FOR TODAY?

çßýÌZ! BM>ÔèýÐé-×ìý ÑfÄæý$Ðéyæþ Móü…{§æþÐóþ$¯é? M>çÜ¢ Ðèþ* AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$° ¿Zf¯é°Mìü ÐðþâæýÐÏ þè $¯èþ…yìþ ¯éÄæý$¯é, ÆóÿyìþÄñý*ÌZ! Hello! Is it Vijayawada Radio Station? Please tell my daughter through the radio to go and eat her lunch.

450

Lesson 30

Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æøl °^ðþa¯èþË$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>Ðèþr… C…sìýÐéâæý$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ùÐèþr… ¯éMóüÒ$ »êV>Ìôý§æþ$ Ðèþ¨¯é!

CÌê °ÌZayæþ… ^éÌê MæüçÙt… Ðèþ¨¯èþV>Ææÿ*!

I don’t like this that we bring the ladders each time and others in the house take them away...

Standing like this is very difficult my dear sister-in-law!

CÌê çÜ*tË$ Æøl C…sZÏMüî ºÄæý$rMîü Ððþ$$Äæý$År…, G…yæþMæü$ Vöyæþ$Mæü$ ç³r$tMøÐèþr… G…™ø MæüçÙt…V> E…¨ MæüÐèþ$Ìê! Carrying the stools and umbrellas outside and bringing them back inside day in and day out in the hot sun is very difficult Kamala!

451

C糚yæþ$ ^ðþ糚! Ò$ C…sZÏ Mæü*ÆæÿÌôýÑ$sìý? FâZÏ HH íÜ°Ðèþ*Ë$ E¯é²Æÿ$$?

OK! Now tell me what did you cook today! What movies are they showing in the town?

An Intensive Course in Telugu ^èþ*yæþ$! »ñýOr 144 òÜ„æü¯èþ$…¨. ÐéâæýÏ…§æþDZ JMóüÝëÇ »ñýOsìýMìü ç³…ç³Mæü$! Look! There is section 144 in the town. Don’t send them out together.

EXERCISES a. Give your responses to the following sentences as shown in the models. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (iii)

Vøï³! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ r… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. ÖÌê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ JMæü E™èþÆ¢ ÿæ … Æ>Æÿ$$. ÔéÆæÿ§é! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æóÿç³# VúÇ C…sìýMìü ´ù! ÆæÿÒ! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó CMæüPyóþ °ÌZa! ÆæÿÐèþ*! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó EÐèþ$¯èþ$ yæþº$¾Ë$ Ayæþ$Væü$.

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4.

¯óþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ C…sìýMìü ´ùÐéÍ. ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$; Æóÿç³# ´ùÐèþ^èþ$a. ÔèýÆæÿà C糚yæþ$ ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐéÍ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ CÐóþÓâæý íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*yéÍ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C糚yæþ$ Müæ Ðèþ$Ë™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … ¡çÜ$MøÐéÍ.

Model (iv)

ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²yé? C糚yæþ$ †¯èþr…Ìôý§æþ$; ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ †…sêyæþ$. çÜ$Væü$×ý E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Ýù¢…§é? 1. WÇ Mæü$Èa° ¯ðþyæþ$¢¯é²yé? 2. ÆæÿÐèþ$V>Ææÿ$ ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Ñ…r$¯é²Æ>? 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ C糚yæþ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Æ>? 4. 452

ÆæÿÑ MæüË… Mö…r$¯é²yé? °¯èþ²¯óþ Mö¯é²yæþ$. ÆæÿÑ ¯èþÐèþË ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yé? ÔéÆæÿ§æþ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Ýù¢…§é? Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³…yæþ$ †…r$¯é²Æ>? Ðéyæþ$ Mæü£æþ ^ðþç³#¢¯é²yé?

Lesson 30 Model (v)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Model (vi)

ÆæÿÑ H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? HÒ$ ^ðþÄæý$ÅÌôý§æþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ H… Æ>ÔéÆæÿ$? WÇ H… ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²yæþ$? Ðéyæþ$ H… ^èþ¨Ðéyæþ$? çÜ$Væü$×ý H… †¯èþ²¨? BÄæý$¯èþ H… Ðèþ*sêÏyéÆæÿ$?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþ…yìþ. ^èþ¨Ðé¯èþ$. M>ïœ ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ. Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>…yìþ. AMæüPyæþ Mæü*Æøa…yìþ. D ç³…yæþ$ †¯èþ…yìþ. ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ºËÏÒ$§æþ ò³rt…yìþ.

b. Answer the following questions using the cue words as shown in the model. Model (i)

Model (ii)

ÆæÿÑ sîý ™éVæüÐèþ^éa? (M>ïœ) ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþr…Ìôý§æþ$. (¯óþ¯èþ$) ÆæÿÑ sîý ™éVæüMæü*yæþ§æþ$; M>ïœ ™éVæüÐèþ^èþ$a. ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$; ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ™é¯èþ$ Mæü§é! 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý A¯èþ²… †¯èþÐèþ^éa? (CyîþÏ) 1. çÜ$ÖË yæþº$¾ ¡çÜ$Mør…Ìôý§æþ$.(ÆæÿÐèþ$) 2. WÇ íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*yæþÐèþ^éa? (¯érMæü…) 2. Vøí³ Æ>Ðèþr…Ìôý§æþ$. (ÆæÿÑ) 3. Ðèþ$¯èþ… D ÐðþOç³# ´ùÐèþ^éa? (B ÐðþOç³#) 3. ÆæÿÐèþ$ ¯èþ¯èþ$² ^èþ*yæþr…Ìôý§æþ$. (Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ) 4. ArtÒ$§æþ Æ>Äæý$Ðèþ^éa? (M>Æÿ$$™èþ…Ò$§æþ) 4. A™èþ¯èþ$ Æ>Äæý$r…Ìôý§æþ$. (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) Model (iii) çÜ™èþůéÆ>Äæý$×ý H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (A¯èþ²…&†¯èþ$) çÜ™èþůéÆ>Äæý$×ý A¯èþ²… †…§é… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…sZ…¨? (sîý&™éVæü$) 2. Ò$Ææÿ$ H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (ç³NË$&MöÆÿ$$Å) 3. Ðéâæý$å H… ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (MæüË…&†çÜ$Mø) Model (iv) ÔéÅÐèþ$ËMæü$ H… ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨? (´ër&´ëyæþ$) ÔéÅÐèþ$ËMæü$ ´ër ´ëyæþ$§é… A° E…¨. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ýMæü$ H… ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨? (sîý&™éVæü$) 2. ¯éÆ>Äæý$×ýMæü$ H… ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨? (çßýÇ°&^èþ*yæþ$) 3. ÐéâæýåMæü$ H… ^óþ§éª… A° E…¨? (Mæü£æþ&^ðþ糚) 453

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Answer the following questions in negation.

1. 2. 3. 4.

C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ù§éÐèþ*? Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æóÿç³# ÆæÿÑ° ^èþ*§éªÐèþ*? Ðèþ$¯èþ… B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mæü$…§éÐèþ*? Ðèþ$¯èþ… Mæü$Èa° B Væü¨ÌZ ò³yéªÐèþ*?

d. Give your responses to the following sentences as shown in the model. Model

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ðéyæþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢yæþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Mæü*yé Ðèþ*sêÏy骅. BÐðþ$ ç³NË$ MøçÜ$¢…¨. ´ëç³ C糚yæþ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨. çÜ$gê™èþ ´ër ´ëyæþ$™èþ$…¨. A™èþ¯èþ$ ÌñýOr$ ÐóþÝë¢yæþ$.

5. Ðéâæý$å A¯èþ²… †…sêÆæÿ$. 6. A™èþ¯èþ$ CË$Ï ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sêyæþ$. 7. Ðéyæþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*Ýë¢yæþ$. 8. A™èþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyóþ E…sêyæþ$. 9. 糧æþÃf D Væü¨ÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…r$…¨. 10. Mø† sZï³ ò³r$tMæü$…r$…¨.

e. Build up conversations as shown in the model. Model

Æ>Ðèþ# : ÆæÿÑ : Æ>Ðèþ# : 1. Æ>Ðèþ# : ÆæÿÑ : Æ>Ðèþ# : 2. ïÜ™èþ : X™èþ : ïÜ™èþ : 3. ïÜ™èþ : X™èþ : ïÜ™èþ :

¯óþ¯èþ$ ÔèýÆæÿÙø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. ¯óþ¯èþ* ÔèýÆæÿÙø Ðèþ*sêÏy骅 A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$.(X™èþ) ÔèýÆæÿÙø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþMæü$; X™èþ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÆ>§æþ*! ¯óþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ C…XÏçÙ$ ´ëuæÿ… Æ>Äæý*Í. ................................................... (™ðþË$Væü$) ................................................... ¯óþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ Ðèþ$ÌñýÏç³NË$ ò³r$tMøÐéÍ. .................................................. (Væü$Ìê½ç³NË$) .................................................. ¯óþ¯èþ$ C糚yæþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ. .................................................. (¯érMæü…) ..................................................

454

Lesson 30

f. Give negative replies to the following questions.

1. Ë™é! C糚yæþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C…sìýMìü Ððþâê¢Ðé? 4. A™èþ¯èþ$ Æóÿç³# íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*Ýë¢yé? 2. ÔéÅÐèþ$Ìê! Ððþ$$MæüPËMæü$ ±âæý$å ´ùÝë¢Ðé? 5. Ðóþ$… C糚yæþ$ CyîþÏ †…sêÐèþ*? 3. Ò$ C…sìýMìü CÐóþÓâæý ÆæÿÒ Vøï³ ÐèþÝë¢Æ>? 6. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æóÿç³# Æ>Ðèþ#¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$MöÝë¢Ðèþ*? g. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the model using one plural form in the place of both the underlined words. Model

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Ðé×îý~ Ææÿѱ Vøí³ †yé¢yæþ$. Ðéâæýå¯èþ$ Vøí³ †yé¢yæþ$. °¯èþ*² ¯èþ¯èþ*² ÆæÿÑ yæþº$¾ Ayæþ$Væü$™éyæþ$. ¯èþ¯èþ*² Ðé×îý~ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# ^èþ*Ýë¢yæþ$. °¯èþ*² °¯èþ*² ¯óþ¯èþ$ Möy颯èþ$. A™èþ±² Ðéâæýå¯èþ* Òyæþ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. BÐðþ$Mæü* A™èþ±Mîü ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ ^èþ*í³…^èþ$. ±Mæü* Ðèþ*Mæü* MæüÐèþ$Ë ´ëu>Ë$ ^ðþç³#¢…¨.

VOCABULARY

Mæü*Ææÿ curry; vegetable Móü…{§æþ…ü centre ¿Zf¯èþ…^ðþÆÿ$$Å to eat meal ¿Zf¯èþ… meal Væü$Ææÿ$¢^þð Æÿ$$Å remind òÜ„æü¯èþ$ section JMæü^ørü at one place ^óþÆæÿ$1 to gather (v.intr.); to as-

JMóüÝëÇ çÜ*tË$ ÐóþçÜ$Mø Ððþ$$Æÿ$$Å Vöyæþ$Væü$ HÄôý$

semble (v.intr.)

455

at once; at a time; simultaneously a stool to put for one’s self to carry (a load) an umbrella what kinds/sorts of

UNIT VI Lesson 31

A¯èþ²… †…r* ^èþ§æþÐèþMæü$ ÆæÿÑ

: Vøï³! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… HÑ$sìý?

DON’T READ WHILE EATING Gopi! What is the book you are reading?

Vøí³ : .......................................

...........................

ÆæÿÑ

: Ñ°í³…^è þ r…Ìô ý §é? A¯è þ ²… †…r* HÑ$sìý ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#?

Are you not able to listen? What are you reading while eating?

Vøí³ : A¯èþ²… †…r* ^èþ§æþÐèþr…Ìôý§æþ$; ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ* A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am not reading while eating. I am eating my food as I am reading. Both are the same. Don’t read the novel while you are eating.

ÆæÿÑ

: Æðÿ…yæþ* JMæüsôý! AsêÏ A¯èþ²… †…r* ¯èþÐèþË ^èþ§æþÐèþMæü$. 456

Lesson 31

Vøí³ : H…?

Why?

ÆæÿÑ

: A¯èþ²… †…r* ¯èþÐèþË ^èþ§æþÐèþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$.

Reading the novel while eating is not good.

Vøí³ : C¨ ¯èþÐèþË M>§æþ$. ±Mæü$ çÜÇV>Y Mæü°í³…^èþr…Ìôý§é?

This is not a novel. Are you not able to see properly?

ÆæÿÑ

: Mæ ü °í³ç Ü $¢ ¯ è þ ²¨. A¨ ¯è þ Ðè þ Ìô ý ! Aº§æþ®Ðèþ*yæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#.

I see it properly. That is a novel. You are lying.

Vøí³ : HÑ$sìý? VæüsìýtV> ^ðþ糚. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A…r$¯èþ² Ðèþ*rË$ ¯éMæü$ Ñ°í³…&-^èþr… Ìôý§æþ$.

What? Say it aloud. It is not audible what you are saying.

ÆæÿÑ

I am talking aloud only. My words are audible to everybody. All are listening to them also. You are reading a novel. That is why you are not able to hear. First you stop reading the novel. Eat your food. Later read the novel. Are you stopping or not? What are you thinking? I am not thinking anything.

: ¯óþ¯èþ$ VæüsìýtV>¯óþ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯é Ðèþ*rË$ A…§æþÇMîü Ñ°í³çÜ$¢& ¯é²Æÿ$$. A…§æþÆæÿ* Ñ…r$¯é²Ææÿ$ Mæü*yé! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯èþÐèþË ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™þè $¯é²Ðèþ#. A…§æþ$Móü ±Mæü$ Ñ°í³…^èþr…Ìôý§æþ$. ¯èþÐèþË ^èþ§æþÐèþr… Bç³#. Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþ$. ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ ¯èþÐèþË ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. Bç³#™èþ$¯é²Ðé Ìôý§é? HÑ$sìý BÌZ_çÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

Vøí³ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ HÒ$ BÌZ_…^èþr…Ìôý§æþ$. ÆæÿÑ

: Üç Æóÿ! Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ ¯éMîü ÑçÙÄæý$… ^ðþ³ç š. ¯è þ $Ðè þ #Ó ÝëÄæ ý $…{™è þ … GMæ ü Pyì þ Mì ü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? 457

All right! First tell me this. Where are you going this evening?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Vøí³ : GMæüPyìþMîü Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$.

I am not going anywhere.

ÆæÿÑ

: AÆÿ$$™óþ WÇ° ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… BÆæÿ$ Væü…rË ÌZV> CMæüPyìþMìü ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$.

Then, ask Giri to come here before 6 o’clock in the evening.

Vøí³ : CÐóþÓâæý ÐéyìþMìü AçÜË$ ¡ÇMæü Ìôý§æþ$. CÐóþÓâôý M>§æþ$; Æóÿç³# Mæü*yé ÐéyìþMìü ¡ÇMæü Ìôý§æþ$.

He is not free today. It is not only this day. He is not free even tomorrow.

ÆæÿÑ

Why?

: G…§æþ$Mæü$?

Vøí³ : ÐéyìþMìü HÐø 糯èþ$Ë$ E¯é²Æÿ$$.

He have many things to do.

ÆæÿÑ

: çÜÆóÿ! ¯é ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … Ðéyìþ §æþVæüÆY ÿæ E…¨. A¨ Æóÿç³# ´÷§æþ$ª¯èþ ç³…í³…^èþÐèþ$¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

All right. My book is with him. Ask him to send it to me tomorrow morning. I am going.

Ðèþ$$Ææÿã : A¯èþ²Äæý*Å! ÆæÿÑ° Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# E…yæþÐèþ$¯èþ$.

Brother! Ask Ravi to wait for a while.

Vøí³ : ÆæÿÒ! °¯èþ$² Ðèþ* ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ E…yæþ& Ðèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$; BVæü$.

Ravi! My brother is asking you to wait for some time. Hold on. Why?

ÆæÿÑ

: G…§æþ$Mæü$?

Vøí³ : Ðéyæþ$ Mæü*yé ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yóþÐðþ*!

May be, he is coming with you.

ÆæÿÑ

Murali! Are you also coming?

: Ðèþ$$Ææÿä! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ðé?

Ðèþ$$Ææÿã : C糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>Ðèþsê°Mìü ÒË$ 458

It is not possible for me to go

Lesson 31

Ìôý§æþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ M>Ìôýi ¯érM>°Mìü WÇMìü Væü*yé Mö°² sìýMðüPr$Ï CÐèþ#Ó. Ðé×ìý~ JMæü sìýMðüPr$t ¡çÜ$MøÐèþ$¯èþ$. Ñ$WͯèþÑ Ðéyìþ õܲíßý™èþ$ËMæü$ CÐèþÓÐèþ$¯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ

: AsêÏVóü!

Ðèþ$$Ææÿã : C…MöMæü çÜ…Væü†. Ðé×ìý~ CÐóþÓâæý ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ ´÷Ðèþ$ïèþ$. ¯érMæü…Ðéâæý$å BÆæÿ$ Væü…rË ÆðÿOÌZÏ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðèþ$*Ç¢° Mæü*yé õÜtçÙ¯èþ$Mæü$ ÐðþâæýåÐèþ$¯é²¯èþ$. Ðéyæþ$ Mæü*yé Ððþâê¢yæþ$. Mæü°í³…^èþr… Ìôý§æþ$ Mö…^ðþ… sZï³ †Äæý$Å…yìþ!

out now. Give some tickets for our college drama to Giri also. Ask him to take one ticket, and to give the remaining tickets to his friends. Okay! One more thing. Ask him to go to the Railway Station this evening. The drama troupe is coming by the 6 o’clock train. I asked Murthi also to go to the station. He too will go there.

Ò$Ææÿ$ A…r$¯èþ² Ðèþ*rË$ AçÜË$ Ñ°í³…^èþr… Ìôý§æþ$ Mö…^ðþ… VæüsìýtV> Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ…yìþ yéMæütÆŠÿ!

I can’t see. Please take off your hat!

I can’t hear you at all. Please speak up, sir!

Ear Clinic

ò³r$tMø ¯éÄæý$¯é!! No, please put it back on!

459

An Intensive Course in Telugu

¯óþ¯óþ G糚yæþ* Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ °ÌZaÐéÌê? DÐéâæý Ðèþ$Ò$ð Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ °ÌZaÐèþ$¯èþ$! Why must I always stand in front? Today ask mummy to stand there!

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †…r* ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. BÐðþ$ ç³NË$ MøçÜ*¢ Ë™èþ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ $™ø…¨. çÜÆæÿâæý ´ëyæþ$™èþ$¯èþ² ´ër ^éÌê »êVæü$…¨. çÜÆæÿâæý MøçÜ$¢¯èþ² ç³NË$ H… ç³NË$?

Vøí³ M>ÌôýhMìü Ððþâæý*¢ ¯é™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ $™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ÆæÿÑ ^ðþ³ç #¯¢ þè ² Ðèþ*rË$ ¯éMæü$ Ñ°í³…^èþr…Ìôý§æþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó †…r$¯èþ² ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ »êVæü$¯é²Äæý*? Ò$Ææÿ$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² ¯èþÐèþË õ³ÆóÿÑ$sìý?

ÆæÿÑ BÌZ_çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$; ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé BÌZ_…^èþ$. Ë™èþ A¯èþ²… ÐèþyìþzçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨; ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü*yé Ðèþyìþz…^èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ±Mæü$ ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*í³çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$; ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*í³…^èþ$. ÆæÿÑ° ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$; CMæüPyæþ Mæü*ÆøaÐèþ$¯èþ$. çÜ$Ö˯èþ$ C…sìýMìü ´÷Ðèþ$ïèþ…yìþ. ïÜ™èþ BÐðþ$¯èþ$ ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…sZ…¨. Vøí³ ÆæÿÑ° ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ °¯èþ$² E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Äæý$Ðèþ$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðé×ìý~ »êV> ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$¯éÍ. 460

Lesson 31

a. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iv)

ÆæÿÑ ç³âæý$å †…r* Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. HÆæÿ$ ÆæÿÑ ç³âæý$å HÆæÿ$™èþ* Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù MöÆÿ$$Å Mö¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mø ^èþ*í³…^èþ$

¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. (^èþ*í³…^èþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*í³çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. 1. ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²yæþ$. (Ðèþyìþ…z ^èþ$) 2. çÜÆæÿâæý H§ø ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™ø…¨. (BÌZ_…^èþ$) 3. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ´ëuæÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²…. (^èþ*í³…^èþ$) 4. ¯éMæü$ ÆóÿyìþÄñý* Ñ°í³Ýù¢…¨. (Mæü°í³…^èþ$)

Model (ii)

Model (v)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¡çÜ$MöçÜ$¢¯èþ² ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÆæÿѨ. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÆæÿѨ. Æ>Æÿ$$ ArtÐðþÆÿ$$Å ^èþ*yæþ$

ÆæÿÑ° 糨 Væü…rË ÌZV> ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$. G°Ñ$¨ ÆæÿÑ° G°Ñ$¨ Væü…rË ÌZV> ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$. 糯ðþ²…yæþ$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ Æðÿ…yæþ$

Model (iii)

Model (vi)

ÆæÿÑ ¯èþ¯èþ$² †¯èþÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ÆæÿÑ ¯èþ¯èþ$² ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$. Byæþ$ Mæü*Æøa °{§æþ´ù E…yæþ$ Æ>

ÆæÿÑ ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ BÌZ_…^èþÐèþ$¯é²yæþ$. ^èþ*yæþ$ ÆæÿÑ ÔèýÆæÿïèþ$ ^èþ*yæþÐèþ$¯é²yæþ$. Æ> ´ù †r$t ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# Mæü*Æøa 461

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Expansion drill

ç³VæüË$ °{§æþ´ùÐèþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. 2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó AsêÏ Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ r… »êV>Ìôý§æþ$. ç³VæüË$ °{§æþ´ùÐèþr… AçÜË$ Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. 3. ÐéyìþMìü ¡ÇMæü Ìôý§æþ$. 1. GMæü$PÐèþV> †¯èþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. 4. Vøí³ M>ïœ ™éVæüyæþ$. d. Response drill Model (i)

ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²yé? Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yé? (A) ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †…r* Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. (B) ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ* A¯èþ²… †…r$¯é²yæþ$. 1. 糧éÃÐèþ† ¯érMæü… ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ²§é? sîý ™éVæü$™èþ$¯èþ²§é? 2. ´ùÎçÜ$Ë$ §ö…Væü˯èþ$ Möyæþ$™èþ$¯é²Æ>? ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù™èþ$¯é²Æ>? 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³âæý$å MøçÜ$¢¯é²Æ>? †…r$¯é²Æ>?

Model (ii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. 2. BÐðþ$ MæüË… ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯èþ²¨. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>çÜ$¢¯þè ² E™èþÆ¢ ÿæ … ¯éMæü$ ^èþ*í³…^èþ$. 3. çÜÆæÿâæý Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³âæý$å MøçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. 1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö…r$¯é²¯èþ$. 4. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑMìü »ŸÐèþ$à ^èþ*í³çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. Model (iii)

Model (iv)

CMæüPyæþ ÆæÿÑ Ìôýyæþ$. (ÔèýÆæÿÃ) B Væü¨ÌZ GÐèþÆæÿ$¯é²Ææÿ$? (Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ) ÆæÿÐóþ M>§æþ$ ÔèýÆæÿà Mæü*yé Ìôýyæþ$. B Væü¨ÌZ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ E¯é²yóþÐðþ*! 1. Æóÿç³# Ðéâæý$å ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. (Ðóþ$…) 1. CMæüPyìþMìü GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$?(ÔèýÆæÿÃV>Ææÿ$) 2. D çÜ…_ÌZ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$¯é²Æÿ$$. (MæüÌêË$) 2. D ç³° GÐèþÆæÿ$ ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. (çÜÆæÿâæý) 3. B çßZrÌZÏ ´ëË$ ÌôýÐèþ#. (M>ïœ) 3. Vøí³ GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$?(M>ÌôýiMìü) Model (v)

çÜÆæÿâæý HÐèþ$…r$¯èþ²¨? (ÆæÿÒ D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) çÜÆæÿâæý ÆæÿÑ° D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$…r$¯èþ²¨. 1. Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>ÆóÿÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (MæüÐèþ$Ìê! B Ððþ$$MæüP˯èþ$ ^èþ*yæþ$) 2. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (ÆæÿÒ! B Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Æøa) 462

Lesson 31

3. {ç³Ý맊þ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ! C…sìýMìü ´ù) 4. ÆæÿÑ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Ë™é! VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… ò³r$tMø) 5. Ðéyæþ$ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (¯éÆ>Äæý$×ê! Mö…^ðþ… fÆæÿ$Væü$) Model (vi)

ÆæÿÑ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$ & ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) ÆæÿÑ Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË õÜç³# ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$. 1. MæüÐèþ$Ë HÐèþ$…r$¯èþ²¨? (糨 °Ñ$ÚëË$ & E…yæþ$) 2. ÑÔèýÓ¯é£æþ…V>Ææÿ$ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË$ & Mæü*Æøa) 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó HÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#? (Mö…^ðþ… & Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) 4. Ðèþ$¯èþ… HÐèþ$…r$¯é²…? (GMæü$PÐèþ & ç³° ^ðþÆÿ$$Å)

Model (vii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Model (viii)

¯éÆ>Äæý$×ý GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? GMæüPyìþMîü Ððþâæýår…Ìôý§æþ$. ´ëç³ GÐèþÇ° ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? í³ËÏË$ GMæüPyæþ Byæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? Væü$×ýÔóýQÆŠÿ GÐèþÇ° Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$? çÜ${ºçßýÃ×ýÅ… GÐèþÇ° Möyæþ$¢¯é²yæþ$?

Mæü–çÙ~Ðèþ$*Ç¢ M>ïœ ™éVæü$™éyé? AçÜË$ ™éVæüyæþ$. 1. Ðéyæþ$ »êV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™éyé? 2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó MóüÆæÿ…»ZÆæÿ$z Byæþ$™éÐé? 3. Væü…V>«§æþÆæÿ… CMæüPyìþMìü ÐèþÝë¢yé? 4. Ððþ…MæüsôýÔèýÓÆæÿÆ>Ðèþ# ±™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢yé?

e. Transformation drill Model (i)

¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. ¯éMæü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mæü°í³çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. 1. ÆæÿÑ° ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. Model (ii)

2. Ò$Ææÿ$ B »ŸÐèþ$ÃË$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. 3. çÜÆæÿâæý B Câæýå¯èþ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. 4. WÇf B ^ðþr$t¯èþ$ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. Model (iii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ ± ´ër Ñ…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ÆæÿÒ! Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# E…yæþ$. ¯éMæü$ ± ´ër Ñ°í³çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. ÆæÿÑ° Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# E…yæþÐèþ$¯èþ$. 1. ± Ðèþ*rË$ Ðéâæý$å Ñ…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. 1. Vøï³! B Ýù¸ëÌZ Mæü*Æøa. 2. ÆæÿÑ A…r$¯èþ² Ðèþ*r Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ…r$¯é²…. 2. Ë™é! ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ JMæü E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Æÿ$$. 3. X™èþ ´ëyæþ$™èþ$¯èþ² ´ër Ë™èþ Ñ…sZ…¨. 3. Mæü$r$…ºÆ>Ðèþ#! Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>! 463

An Intensive Course in Telugu

f. Conversation drill Model

Æ>k: ÆæÿÒ! C…sìýMìü Ððþâæý$Ï. ÆæÿÑ : G…§æþ$Mæü$? (A¯èþ²…&†¯èþ$) Æ>k: A¯èþ²… †¯èþsê°Mìü. 1. Æ>k: ´ùÎçÜ$Ë$ ç³ÇVðü™é¢Í. ÆæÿÑ : G…§æþ$Mæü$? (§ö…Væü¯èþ$&ç³r$tMø) Æ>k: ................................. 2. Æ>k: çßýÇ° Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$. ÆæÿÑ : G…§æþ$Mæü$? (WÇ™ø&Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) Æ>k: .................................

3. Æ>k: ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó çÜÆæÿâæý¯èþ$ ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$. ÆæÿÑ : G…§æþ$Mæü$? (ç³NË$&MöÆÿ$$Å) Æ>k: ................................. 4. Æ>k: WÇf¯èþ$ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ´÷Ðèþ$ïèþ$. ÆæÿÑ : G…§æþ$Mæü$? (ÆæÿÐèþ$¯èþ$&^èþ*yæþ$) Æ>k: ................................. 5. Æ>k: ¯éMæü$ ±âæý$å M>ÐéÍ. ÆæÿÑ : G…§æþ$Mæü$? (Mæü…^èþ…&Mæüyæþ$Væü$) Æ>k: .................................

EXERCISES a. Combine the following pairs of sentences using the adverbial participles as shown in the model. Model

¯óþ¯èþ$ BÌZ_çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ BÌZ_çÜ*¢ Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. 1. ÆæÿÑ ºyìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. Vøí³™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 2. MæüÐèþ$Ë ç³…yæþ$ †…r$¯èþ²¨. ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ²¨.

3. ÑÐèþ$Ë Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ç° ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. ´ëuæÿ… Ñ…r$¯èþ²¨. 4. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ ^ðþr$t ¨Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ¯èþ¯èþ$² ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 5. Vøí³ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$. M>ïœ ™éVæü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$.

b. Combine the following pairs of sentences using adjectival participles (relative participles ) as shown in the model. Model

¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. A¨ »êVæü$…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… »êVæü$…¨. 1. ÆæÿÑ M>ïœ ™éVæü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. A¨ ^óþ§æþ$V> E…¨. 2. MæüÐèþ$Ë ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$ Mö…r$¯èþ²¨. AÑ ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢M>Ë$. 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³…yæþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#. A¨ Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³…yæþ$. 464

Lesson 31

4. Ò$Ææÿ$ íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. 5. çßýÇ Mæü$ÈaÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…r$¯é²yæþ$.

A¨ Mö™èþ¢¨. A¨ ´ë™èþ¨.

c. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. Vøí³ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? 4. ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GÐèþÇ §æþVæüYÆæÿ E…¨? 2. ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ*rË$ Vøí³Mìü G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÆæÿÑ §é°² G糚yæþ$ CÐèþÓÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$. Ñ°í³…^èþr…Ìôý§æþ$? 5. Ðèþ$$Ææÿã ÆæÿÑ° G…§æþ$Mæü$ E…yæþÐèþ$…& 3. Vøí³ ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ… GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? r$¯é²yæþ$? d. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model (i)

CMæüPyìþMìü ÆæÿÑ ÐèþÝë¢yé? 2. A™èþ¯èþ$ yæþº$¾ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sêyé? AçÜË$ Æ>yæþ$. 3. Ðéyæþ$ »êV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™éyé? 1. Ë™èþ WÇf™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$…§é? 4. BÐðþ$ ±Mæü$ E™èþ¢Æ>Ë$ Æ>çÜ$¢…§é? Model (ii) WÇ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (ÆæÿÒ! Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# E…yæþ$.) WÇ ÆæÿÑ° Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# E…yæþÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$. 1. çÜ$Væü$×ý HÐèþ$…r$¯èþ²¨? (MæüÐèþ$Ìê! Mö…^ðþ… fÆæÿ$Væü$.) 2. Ððþ…MæüsŒý HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (WÈ! 糨 °Ñ$ÚëË ÌZV> ºÄæý$sìýMìü ´ù.) 3. ÝùÐèþ$çÜ$…§æþÆæÿ… HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Ë™é! ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mø.) 4. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (B ™èþË$ç³# †Æÿ$$Å.) 5. {ç³Ý맊þ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Æóÿç³# íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Æ>) e. Rewrite the following sentences as shown in the model. Model (i)

(A) A¯èþ²… †¯èþ$. 2. §ö…Væü¯èþ$ ç³r$tMø…yìþ. A¯èþ²… †¯èþÐèþ$¯èþ$. 3. Æóÿç³# ´÷§æþ$ª¯èþ Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü Æ>! (B) A¯èþ²… †¯èþ…yìþ. 4. D sìýMðüPr$t ¡çÜ$Mø…yìþ. A¯èþ²… †¯èþÐèþ$¯èþ…yìþ. 5. D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. 1. E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Äæý$…yìþ. 6. ºyìþMìü ´ù. Model (ii) D MæüË… GÐèþÆæÿ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (çÜ$ÖË) D MæüË… çÜ$ÖË ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯èþ²§óþÐðþ*! 465

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. 2. 3. 4. Model (iii)

1. 2. 3. 4. Model (iv)

1. 2. 3.

ÆæÿÑ H íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ ´ù™èþ$¯é²yæþ$? (™ðþË$Væü$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$) §óþÐèþ§é¯èþ… GÐèþÇ° ºyìþMìü ¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù™èþ$¯é²yæþ$? (í³ËÏ˯èþ$) çÜÆæÿâæý H… MøçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? (Væü$Ìê½ ç³NË$) ÔéÅÐèþ$Ë GÐèþÇ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™ø…¨? (Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ç™ø) VøÑ…§æþ$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? (A¯èþ²…&†¯èþ$) VøÑ…§æþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþsê°Mìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. ÎË G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? (WÇf¯èþ$&^èþ*yæþ$) ÆæÿÐèþ$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? (´ë糯èþ$&¡çÜ$Mæü$´ù) WÇ ÆæÿÑ° G…§æþ$Mæü$ ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…r$¯é²yæþ$? (sìýMðüPr$t&¡çÜ$MøÐèþ$¯èþ$) §æþÄæý*°«¨ çßZrË$Mæü$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? (M>ïœ&™éVæü$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþsê°Mìü C…sìýMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$. (sìý.Ñ.&^èþ*yæþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþsê°Móü M>§æþ$ sìý.Ñ. ^èþ*yæþsê°Mìü Mæü*yé. ÔèýÆæÿà ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … ^èþ§æþÐèþsê°Mìü MæüâæýågZyæþ$ Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. (E™èþÆ¢ ÿæ …&Æ>Æÿ$$) Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ Ððþâæýåsê°Mìü ¯éMæü$ ¡ÇMæü Ìôý§æþ$. (íÜ°Ðèþ*&^èþ*yæþ$) Æ>Ðèþ# ™èþË$ç³# ÐðþÄæý$Åsê°Mìü Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. (MìüsìýMîüË$&Ðèþ$$Æÿ$$Å)

VOCABULARY

Ñ°í³…^èþ$1 AsêÏü Mæü°í³…^èþ$ Aº§æþ®Ðèþ*yæþ$ VæüsìýtV>2 Bç³# BÌZ_…^èþ$ü &ÌZV>

AçÜË$

to be audible in that manner (a varient of AÌê) to be visible; to appear to lie (v.intr.); to give a false statement loudly to stop (v.tr.) to think within; before

ç³…í³…^èþ$ BVæü$ AsêÏVóü Ðèþ$Ò$à sZï³ ¯éÄæý$¯èþ

466

an emphasiser of the negative aspect of the verb (See 31.18.) to send to stop (v.intr.) okay! allright (a varient of AÌêVóü) mother a cap dear! (masc.)

Lesson 31

GRAMMAR NOTES 31.1. In this lesson the participle forms of the verb are introduced. The participle can be an adverbial participle or an adjectival participle. The adverbial participle functions as an adverb, i.e., it modifies a verb. They (the adverbial participles) show a past and present distinction. Adjectival participle functions like an adjective, i.e., it qualifies a noun. They (the adjectival participles) show a past, present (progressive) and future (non-past)/habitual distinction. 1. ¯èþÐèþ#Ó™èþ* Ðèþ^éayæþ$. navvut¶ vaccæ–∂u. ‘He came smiling/laughting.’ 2. ¯èþÐèþ#Ó™èþ$¯èþ² A»ê¾Æÿ$$. navvutunna abb¡yi. ‘the smiling/laughting boy’ In the above two expressions ¯èþÐèþ#Ó™èþ* navvut¶ is an adverbial participle as it modifies the verb Ðèþ^éayæþ$ vaccæ–∂u, and ¯èþÐèþ#Ó™èþ$¯èþ² navvutunna is an adjectival participle as it qualifies the noun A»ê¾Æÿ$$ abb¡yi. 31.2. participle.

&™èþ* -t¶ is added to the verbal base to form the present adverbial

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ* †…r$¯é²yæþ$.

‘He is eating while reading.’

caduvu-t¶ tiM unn¡∂u.

†…r* Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™ø…¨.

‘She is talking while eating.’

tiM- ¶ m¡ l¡∂utªMdi.

†¯èþ$ + ™èþ* = †…r*

tinu+t¶ = tiM- ¶ (23.1.) The present adverbial participle expresses simultaneous action.

31.3. &™èþ$¯èþ² -tunna is added to the verbal base to form the present/ progressive adjectival participle.

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$

‘the reading Girl caduvu-tunna amm¡yi (the Girl who is reading)’ ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ² í³ËÏË$ ‘the viewing children c¶stunna pillalu (children who are viewing)’ ^èþ*yæþ$ + ™èþ$¯èþ² = ^èþ*‹Ü&™èþ$¯èþ² = ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯èþ² (22.2.) c¶∂u + tunna = c¶s-tunna = ch¶stunna Byæþ$™èþ$¯èþ² í³ËÏË$ ‘the playing children ¡∂utunna pillalu (children who are playing)’ 467

An Intensive Course in Telugu 31.3.1.

The adjectival participle can express various case relationships..

ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$

‘the girl who is pustakaM caduvutunna amm¡yi reading a book’ AÐèþ*ÃÆÿ$$ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ‘the book which the amm¡yi caduvutunna pustakaM girl is reading’ ¯óþ¯èþ$ E…r$¯èþ² CË$Ï ‘the house in which n£nu uM unna illu I am living’ E…yæþ$ + ™èþ$¯èþ² = E…r$¯èþ² uM∂u + tunna = uM- unna etc.

(nominative or subjective case) (objective or accusative case) (locative case) (23.2.)

31.4. C…^èþ$ iMcu ending bases change thier final C…^èþ$ iMcu to C‹Ü is when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t or §Šþ d.

Ñ°í³…^èþ$ + ™ø…&¨ = Ñ°í³‹Ü&™ø…¨ = Ñ°í³Ýù¢…¨

‘It is audible’

vinipiMcu + tªMdi = vinipis-tªMdi = vinipistªMdi ^èþ*í³…^èþ$ + §é… = ^èþ*í³‹Ü&§é… = ^èþ*í³§éª… (26.7.) ‘Let us show.’ c¶piMcu + d¡M = c¶pis-d¡M = c¶pid-d¡M 31.5. In this lesson the informative base is introduced. A¯èþ$ anu as an auxiliary verb is added to a verbal base to change it into an informative base. When A¯èþ$ anu is added to a base, a conjoining element AÐŒþ$ am comes in between the verbal base and the auxiliary A¯èþ$ anu.

†¯èþ$ + A¯èþ$ = †¯èþ$&AÐŒþ$&A¯èþ$ = †¯èþÐèþ$¯èþ$ tinu + anu = tinu-am-anu = tinamanu

¡çÜ$Mø + A¯èþ$ = ¡çÜ$Mø&AÐŒþ$&A¯èþ$ = ¡çÜ$MøÐèþ$¯èþ$ t•sukª + anu = t•sukª-am-anu = t•sukªmanu

‘to ask someone to eat’ (2.12.2.) ‘to ask someone to take’ (3.13.1.)

31.5.1. The informative base, since it is formed by adding the base A¯èþ$ anu, falls in the A¯èþ$ anu group of verbal bases (23.1.). Hence it (the informative base) shows all the changes as that of the A¯èþ$ anu group of verbal bases, as illustrated below:

^èþ*yæþÐèþ$¯èþ$ + ™é & yæþ$ = ^èþ*yæþÐèþ$…&sê&yæþ$. (23.2.)‘He will ask someone to see’ c¶∂amanu + t¡-∂u = c¶∂amaM ¡∂u 468

Lesson 31

MörtÐèþ$¯èþ$ + §é… = MörtÐèþ$…&§é… (26.6.[iii]) ‘Let us ask someone to beat’ ko  amanu + d¡M = ko  amaM-d¡M

^ðþç³µÐèþ$¯èþ$ + B&¯èþ$ = ^ðþç³µÐèþ$¯Œþ²&B&¯èþ$ = ^ðþç³µÐèþ$¯é²¯èþ$ ceppamanu + ¡-nu = ceppamann-¡-nu

ÐðþâæýåÐèþ$¯èþ$ + A&¨ = ÐðþâæýåÐèþ$¯Œþ²&A&¨ = ÐðþâæýåÐèþ$¯èþ²¨ ve˚˚amanu + a-di = ve˚˚amann-a-di

(28.7.) ‘I asked someone to tell.’ (28.7.) ‘She asked someone to go.’

31.6. The informative bases of the verbs Æ> r¡ ‘to come’ and ´ù pª ‘to go’ are ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$ rammanu ‘ask someone to come’ and ´÷Ðèþ$ïèþ$ pommanu ‘ask someone to go’ respectively. ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$ : ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…r$¯é²yæþ$ ‘He is asking someone to come.’ ü rammanu : rammaM unn¡∂u ´÷Ðèþ$ïèþ$ : ´÷Ðèþ$ï鲯èþ$ ‘I asked somone to go.’ pommanu : pommann¡nu 31.7. The informative bases always takes the direct object which will be in accusative case. ÆæÿÑ° Ðèþ*sêÏyæþÐèþ$¯èþ$. ‘Ask Ravi to talk.’ ravini m¡ l¡∂amanu. ¯èþ¯èþ$² ÆæÿÐèþ$ïé²Ðé? ‘Did you ask me to come?’ nannu rammann¡v¡? 31.8. The verbs Ñ°í³…^èþ$ vinipiMcu ‘to be audible’ and Mæü°í³…^èþ$ kanipiMcu ‘to be visible’ take dative subjects (i.e., subject in dative case) like the defective verbs (16.1.) M>ÐéÍ k¡v¡li, J§æþ$ª oddu (16.2.), and ^éË$ c¡lu (17.2.), etc. ÆæÿÑMìü Ñ°í³Ýù¢…¨. ‘It is audible to Ravi.’ raviki vinipistªMdi. ÆæÿÐèþ$Mæü$ Mæü°í³Ýù¢…¨. ‘It is visible to Rama.’ ramaku kanipistªMdi. 31.9. The inclusive marker (7.9.) can also go with different case forms of the interrogative words. (See 20.3.) 469

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. D MæüË… GÐèþÇMìü M>ÐéÍ? 2.

3.

(D MæüË…) GÐèþÇMîü J§æþ$ª.

• kalaM evariki k¡v¡li? ‘Who want this pen?’

(• kalaM) evarik• oddu. ‘No one wants (this pen).’

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇ° ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

(¯óþ¯èþ$) GÐèþDZ ^èþ*yæþr…Ìôý§æþ$.

nuvvu evarini c¶stunn¡vu ‘Whom are you looking at?’

(n£nu) evarin• c¶∂a aM l£du. ‘(I am) looking at none.’

±Mæü$ yæþº$¾ GMæüP×ìý~…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨?

(¯éMæü$ yæþº$¾) GMæüP×ìý~…` Æ>§æþ$.

n•ku ∂abbu ekka∆∆iMci vastuMdi? (n¡ku ∂abbu) ekka∆∆iMc• r¡du. ‘Where does money come ‘(I get money) from no where.’ from to you?’ 4.

AMæüPyæþ GÐèþÆæÿ$ E¯é²Ææÿ$?

(AMæüPyæþ) GÐèþÆæÿ* ÌôýÆæÿ$.

akka∂a evaru unn¡ru? ‘Who is there?’

(akka∂a) evar¶ l£ru. ‘No one is (there).’

AsêÏ a l¡ ‘in that manner’ is a variant of AÌê al¡ (7.16.), and AsêÏVóü a l¡g£ ‘okay! All right!’ is a variant of AÌêVóü al¡g£ (23.15.). 31.11. &ÌZV> lªg¡ ‘within’ is a postposition 94.6.; 8.9.) added to time

31.10.

expressing nouns.

Æðÿ…yæþ$ Væü…rË ÌZV>? reM∂u gaM ala lªg¡ ‘within two hours’ (Also see 32.11.) 31.12. Recall that the dubitative particle &HÐðþ* -£mª is added to the declarative sentence to express unknownness and uncertainty (15.1.2.). Ðéyæþ$ Mæü*yé ÐèþÝë¢yóþÐðþ* (ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$ + HÐðþ* [2.12.2.])! ‘Maybe, he will also v¡∂u k¶∂¡ vast¡∂£mª (vast¡∂u + £mª) come.’ 31.13. The dative case suffix expresses purposive relationship when used with -Ar… a aM form of the verb (the gerund, 25.1.). Ððþâæýåsê°Mìü ve˚˚a ¡niki ‘for going’ (See 31.14.) †¯èþsê°Mìü tina ¡niki ‘for eating’ Æ>k A¯èþ²… †¯èþsê°Mìü Ððþâêåyæþ$. ‘Raju went for eating food.’ – r¡ju annaM tina ¡niki ve˚˚æ∂u. 470

Lesson 31 31.14. Remember the sandhi process where the A… aM ending nouns change their final A… aM to B° ¡ni when followed by the accusative or dative case suffix (25.7.). The gerunds also behave in this way as they also end in A… aM.

Ððþâæýår… + Mìü = Ððþâæýåsê°&Mìü ve˚˚a aM + ki = ve˚˚a ¡ni-ki ‘for going’ 31.15. The dative case suffix expresses purposive relationship where there is a possibility of inserting a gerund (Ar… a aM form ) 25.1.).

ÆæÿÑ A¯é²°Mìü Ððþâêåyæþ$

==> ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †¯èþsê°Mìü Ððþâêåyæþ$ – ravi ann¡niki ve˚˚æ∂u ==> ravi annaM tina ¡niki ve˚˚æ–∂u ‘Ravi went for food.’ ‘Ravi went for eating food.’ 31.16. Notice the following sentence pattern which can be equated with English sentence pattern involving not only ..... but also.

CÐóþÓâôý M>§æþ$, Æóÿç³# Mæü*yé ¡ÇMæü Ìôý§æþ$. ivv£˚£ k¡du, r£pu k¶∂¡ t•rika l£du.

Ðéyóþ M>§æþ$, ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü*yé Ððþâêå¯èþ$.

‘Not only today, he is not free even tomorrow also.’ ‘Not only he, I too went.’

v¡∂£ k¡du, n£nu k¶∂¡ ve˚˚æ–nu. Notice that the Telugu sentence pattern uses the emphatic marker &H -£ (3.3.) with M>§æþ$ k¡du together meaning ‘not only’, and Mæü*yé k¶∂¡ meaning ‘also’. 31.17. Recall that the present tense suffix &™ø… -tªM occurs before the feminine inferior & equal, and neuter singular suffix &¨ -di resulting in the form &™ø…¨ -tªMdi. The present tense suffix &™ø… -tªM has a variant in &™èþ$¯èþ² -tunna. Therefore we can have the present tense forms with &™ø…¨ -tªMdi and &™èþ$¯èþ²¨ -tunnadi as well in feminine inferior & equal, and neuter singular.

ÆæÿÐèþ$ ÐèþÝù¢…¨/ÐèþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨.

‘Rama is coming.’

rama vastªMdi/vasutunnadi.

ºçÜ$Þ ´ù™ø…¨/ ´ù™èþ$¯èþ²¨.

‘The bus is going.’

bassu pªtªMdi/ pªtunnadi. 471

An Intensive Course in Telugu 31.18. AçÜË$ asalu is an adverb used to intensify the negative aspect of the verb. (Also see 47.4.)

ÆæÿÑ Æ>yæþ$.

‘Ravi will not come.’

ravi r¡∂u.

ÆæÿÑ AçÜË$ Æ>yæþ$.

‘Ravi will never come.’

ravi asalu r¡∂u.

± Ðèþ*rË$ Ñ°í³…^èþr…Ìôý§æþ$.

‘Your words are not audible.’

n• m¡ alu vinipiMca aMl£du.

± Ðèþ*rË$ AçÜË$ Ñ°í³…^èþr…Ìôý§æþ$.

‘Your words are not at all audible.’

n• m¡ alu asalu vinipiMca aMl£du.

AçÜË$ asalu can be equated to Hindi {~bHw$b bilkul to some extent. The difference is that {~bHw$b bilkul can emphasise the positive (affirmative) aspect of the verb besides its negative aspect, where as AçÜË$ asalu can emphasise only the negative aspect. Thus we can say in Hindi 1.

‘It is very good.’

dh {~bHw$b AÀN>m h¡Ÿ& vah bilkul acch¡ hai.

2.

‘It is not at all good.’

dh {~bHw$b AÀN>m Zht h¡Ÿ& vah bilkul acch¡ nah• hai.

where as AçÜË$ asalu can be used only in the sense as in sentence 2 above.

A¨ AçÜË$ »êV> Ìôý§æþ$.

‘It is not at all good.’

adi asalu b¡g¡ l£du. In the sense as in sentence 1 above, Telugu uses other intensifiers such as ^éÌê c¡l¡ ‘very’ (15.8.), G…™ø eMtª ‘a lot; so much’ (lesson 25), etc.

A¨ ^éÌê/G…™ø »êVæü$…¨.

‘That is very/so good.’

adi c¡l¡/eMtª b¡guMdi.

472

Lesson 32

UNIT VI Lesson 32

A…¨™óþ kr$t A…§æþMæü´ù™óþ M>âæý$å

CATCH BY HAIR IF YOU CAN; OTHERWISE SURRENDER

ÔèýÆæÿÃ : Vøï³! CÌê Æ>!

Gopi! Come here.

Vøí³ : G…§æþ$Mæü$?

Why?

ÔèýÆæÿà : ±MöMæü Ðèþ*r ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$.

I will tell you something.

Vøí³ : HÑ$sìý?

What is it?

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÐèþõÜ¢ ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$.

I will tell you if you come.

Vøí³ : ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^ðþõ³¢ ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$.

If you tell me I will come. (You tell first; then I will come.) 473

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÔèýÆæÿà : çÜÆóÿ! Ðèþ* BïœçÜ$ÌZ JMæü sñýOí³çÜ$t E§øÅVæü… RêäV> E…¨: Aò³•Ï ^óþÝë¢Ðé?

All right! there is a vacancy for the post of typist in our office. Will you apply for it?

Vøí³ : Rêä E…sôý Aò³•Ï ^óþÝ뢯èþ$. Aò³•Ï ^óþõÜ¢ ¯éMæü$ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨ A…sêÐé?

I will apply if there is a vacancy. Will I get it if I apply?

ÔèýÆæÿà : Ðèþ$$…§óþ GsêÏ ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$?

How can I tell you beforehand?

Vøí³ : ¯è þ $Ðè þ #Ó Ðè þ ç Ü $¢ … ¨ A…sô ý Aò³• Ï ^óþÝ뢯þè $.

I will apply if you assure me that I will get.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Aò³Ï• ^ðþÆÿ$$Å. Ðéâæý$å JMæü ç³È„æü ò³yé¢Ææÿ$. B ç³È„æüÌZ GÐèþÇMìü GMæü$PÐèþ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$ ÐèþõÜ¢ B E§øÅVæü… ÐéâæýåMæü$ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨.

You first apply. They will conduct a test (for the candidates). Whoever scores maximum in that test will get the job.

Vøí³ : ç³È„æü Væü$Ç…_ ÑÐèþÆæÿ…V> Mæü¯èþ$MøP!

Please find out about the test in detail. You come tomorrow. It will be better if you ask for those details. It doesn’t look nice if I ask. Okay. I will come.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Æóÿç³# ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>! B ÑÐèþÆ>Ë$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Mæü¯èþ$Mæü$P…sôý¯óþ »êVæü$…r$…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ AyìþW™óþ »êVæü$…yæþ§æþ$. Vøí³ : AÌêVóü ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$. ÔèýÆæÿà : ç°ÆæÿÏ„æüüÅ… ^ðþÄæý$ÅMæü$. D AÐèþM>Ôèý… ´ù™óþ Ðèþ$äå Æ>§æþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó AMæüPyìþMìü ÐèþõÜ¢ ± Væü$Ç…_ Ðèþ* Ðóþ$¯óþfÆæÿ$Mæü$ ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$. Ò$ A¯èþ²Äæý$Å Hyìþ? 474

Don’t neglect it. If you miss this opportunity you will not get it again. If you come there I will tell our Manager about you. Where is your brother?

Lesson 32

Vøí³ : ÌZç³Ë E¯é²yæþ$. Ayæþ$Vø Ðèþ^éayæþ$.

He is inside. See, he came.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ! çßýÇ G…™èþ õÜç³sìý ÌZV> ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$? °¯èþ²sìý °…_ Ðéyìþ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyé˯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

Mohan! By what time Hari will come? I am thinking of talking to him since last evening.

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ: ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþ$$¯èþ²sìý °…_ A¯èþ$Mæü$…& r$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am thinking since the day before.

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯éMæü$ Ðéyìþ™ø Ðèþ$$QÅÐðþ$O¯þè ³ç ° E…¨. A¨ Æóÿç³sìý ÌZV> ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ. Ðéyìþ 糧æþ®† A…¨™óþ kr$t A…§æþMæü´ù™óþ M>âæý$å ÌêV> E…¨. A¨ ¯é §æþVæüÆY ÿæ ç³°^ðþÄæý$ŧæþ$. Ðéyæþ$ Gç³µsìýMìü ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$? X™èþ : C…MöMæü Væü…rÌZ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$. ±Mæü$ H… CÐèþÓ¯èþ$? sîý CÐèþÓ¯é? M>ïœ CÐèþÓ¯é?

I have an important business with him. That has to be done by tomorrow. His style is as though holding others by hair; otherwise surrendering. That doesn’t work with me. By what time he would come? He will come in an hour. What shall I give you? Shall I give you coffee or tea?

ÔèýÆæÿà : M>ïœ ™éW™óþ ¯éMæü$ Mæüyæþ$ç³#ÌZ ¯ðþí³µ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨.

I get stomachache if I drink coffee.

X™èþ : AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æøl M>ïœ ™éVæüÐé?

Then, don’t you drink coffee daily? Not daily. I will drink now and then.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Æøl ™éVæü¯èþ$; A糚yæþ糚yæþ$ ™éVæü$™é¯èþ$. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ: Ðèþ$Ç sîý §öÆæÿMæüMæü´ù™óþ H… ^óþÝë¢Ðèþ#? 475

What will you do if you don’t get tea?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÔèýÆæÿà : FÆæÿ$P…sê¯èþ$.

I will keep quiet

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ: ´ëË$ ™éVæüÐé?

Don’t you drink milk?

ÔèýÆæÿà : ´ëË$ Ðèþ$$r$tMæü$…sôý ¯éMæü$ yøMæü$ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨.

I will vomit if I touch (take) milk.

X™èþ : ± Ðèþ*rË$ Ñ…sôý ¯éMæü$ ¯èþÐèþ#Ó ÐèþÝù¢…¨. C§æþ$Vø sîý! ç³…^èþ§éÆæÿ C…M> Mö…^ðþ… ÐðþÄæý$ůé?

Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ: Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# ^èþ*yæþ$. Aç³µsìýMìü Mæü*yé Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ Ðéâæýå C…sìýMóü Ððþâæý$å. Ðóþ$…Væü*yé Æ>Ðèþ*?

I am getting a fit of laughter on listening your words. Take this tea. Shall I put (add) some more sugar? Not necessary. Tea is fine. What am I to do if Hari doesn’t come now? Wait for sometime. If he doesn’t come by then go to his house. Shall we also come with you?

ÔèýÆæÿà : Æ>…yìþ ´ù§é…. AMæüP×ìý~…_ Ðèþ* C…sìýMìü ´ù§é….

Come on! Let’s go. From there we will go to my house.

X™èþ : Ò$ C…sZÏ H… ^ðþÄæý$Å…? Ò$ BÑyæþ Mæü*yé E…yæþ§æþ$.

What shall we do in your house? Your wife also will not be there. It is a holiday today for her school. She would be at home. Gopi! Don’t forget to apply. Negligence in such matters is not good.

ÔèýÆæÿà : AMæüPÆóÿϧæþ$. sîý »êVæü$…¨. C糚yæþ$ çßýÇ Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ H… ^ðþÄæý$ůèþ$?

ÔèýÆæÿÃ: : Ðéâæýå çÜ*PË$Mæü$ CÐóþÓâæý òÜËÐèþ#. C…sZϯóþ E…r$…¨. Vøï³! Aò³•Ï ^ðþÄæý$År… Ðèþ$Ça´ùMæü$. Cr$Ðèþ…sìý ÑçÙÄæý*ËÌZ °ÆæÿÏ„æüüÅ… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. 476

Lesson 32

¯é 糧æþ®† A…¨™óþ kr$t A…§æþMæü ´ù™óþ M>âæý$Ï!

A¨ ¯é §æþVæüYÆæÿ ç³° ^ðþÄæý$ŧæþ$ ÝëÆŠÿ! That won’t work with me sir!

I work like this : either I pull their hair I kneel at their feet.

DRILLS a. Build-up drill

A…sêÐé? ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$ A…sêÐé? AyìþW™óþ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$ A…sêÐé? ¯óþ¯èþ$ AyìþW™óþ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$ A…sêÐé? ÆæÿÑ ¯óþ¯èþ$ AyìþW™óþ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$ A…sêÐé?

»êVæü$…r$…¨. Ðèþ*sêÏyìþ™óþ »êVæü$…r$…¨. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*sêÏyìþ™óþ »êVæü$…r$…¨. ÑÐèþÆ>Ë$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*sêÏyþì ™óþ »êVæü$…r$…¨. B ÑÐèþÆ>Ë$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*sêÏyìþ™óþ »êVæü$…r$…¨.

b. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

ÆæÿÑ Ðèþ*sêÏyìþ™óþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏy颯èþ$. GMæü$P ÆæÿÑ GMìüP™óþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ GMæü$P™é¯èþ$. ¨Væü$ †ç³š Mæü糚

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Byóþ¢ A™èþ¯èþ$ Byé¢yæþ$. fÆæÿ$Væü$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó fÇW™óþ A™èþ¯èþ$ fÆæÿ$Væü$™éyæþ$. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# fÆæÿ$ç³# Ayæþ$Væü$ 477

An Intensive Course in Telugu Model (iii)

Model (iv)

H Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³…yæþ$ †¯èþ¯èþ$? ^èþ*yæþ$ H Ðèþ*Ñ$yìþç³…yæþ$ ^èþ*yæþ¯èþ$? Mö¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> MöÆÿ$$Å

çÜÆæÿâæý ´ù™óþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ù™é¯èþ$. Æ> çÜÆæÿâæý ÐèþõÜ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$. Mö¯èþ$ Mæü*Æøa Ððþâæý$å

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™èþË$ç³# ¡õÜ¢ ÔèýÆæÿà †Äæý$Åyæþ$. (ÐðþÆÿ$$Å) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™èþË$ç³# ÐóþõÜ¢ ÔèýÆæÿà ÐðþÄæý$Åyæþ$. 1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó »ŸÐèþ$ïèþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sôý MæüÐèþ$Ë ¡çÜ$Mø§æþ$. (^èþ*yæþ$) 2. X™èþ ç³NË$ HÇ™óþ ÆæÿÐèþ$ HÆæÿ§æþ$. (MöÆÿ$$Å) 3. Ë™èþ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… AyìþW™óþ ÆæÿÑ AyæþVæüyæþ$. (Æ>Æÿ$$)

Model (v)

Model (vi)

Model (viii)

ÆæÿÑ Væü…rÌZ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$. AÆæÿVæü…r ÆæÿÑ AÆæÿVæü…rÌZ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$. I§æþ$ °Ñ$ÚëË$ Æðÿ…yæþ$ ÆøkË$ BÆæÿ$ Væü…rË$ ´ëÐèþ#Væü…r

ÆæÿÑ Aç³µsìý°…` ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. °¯èþ² ÆæÿÑ °¯èþ²sìý°…` ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. Ððþ$$¯èþ² Ar$Ððþ$$¯èþ² G糚yæþ$ Æóÿç³#

Model (vii)

Model (ix)

sîý CÐèþÓ¯é? ™éVæü$ sîý ™éVæü¯é? ^ðþÆÿ$$Å Ayæþ$Væü$ ¡çÜ$Mø

ÆæÿÑ Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ WÇ Æ>yæþ$. ´ù ÆæÿÑ ´ùMæü´ù™óþ WÇ ´ùyæþ$. †¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> Mæü*Æøa 478

Lesson 32

c. Interlocked substitution drill

Ðéyæþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯éÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$. ........ ç³…yæþ$ .................................... Ðéyæþ$ ç³…yæþ$ †¯éÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó .............................................. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³…yæþ$ †¯éÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#. ................... Mö¯èþ$ ........................... ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³…yæþ$ Mö¯éÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ................................................

¯óþ¯èþ$ ç³…yæþ$ Mö¯éÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ........ ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … .................................. Ðéyæþ$ ............................................. .................. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# ....................... .................. Æ>Æÿ$$ ......................... ........ E™èþÆ¢ ÿæ … ................................. ................... ¡çÜ$Mø ...................... Ðèþ$¯èþ… ...........................................

d. Response drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

ÔèýÆæÿà ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$. ÔèýÆæÿà ÐèþõÜ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþâꢯèþ$. 1. ÆæÿÑ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…sêyæþ$. 2. Ðéyæþ$ ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…sêyæþ$. 3. çÜÆæÿâæý Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$…¨.

X™èþ Æ>§æþ$. X™èþ Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>¯èþ$. 1. ÔèýÆæÿà ^èþ§æþÐèþyæþ$. 2. ÆæÿÑ °{§æþ´ùyæþ$. 3. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ Mæü*ÆøaÆæÿ$.

Model (iii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

ÆæÿÑ HÐèþ$¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ÐðþâêåÍ) ÆæÿÑ Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ÐðþâêåÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# HÐèþ$¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*yéÍ) Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ HÐèþ$¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (ç³È„æü ò³sêtÍ) çÜÆæÿâæý HÐèþ$¯èþ$Mæü$…sZ…¨? (´ër ´ëyéÍ) Vøí³ HÐèþ$¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (°{§æþ´ùÐéÍ)

Model (iv)

WÇ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó & Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) (A) WÇ ± Væü$Ç…_ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. (B) °¯èþ$² Væü$Ç…_ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 479

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. MæüÐèþ$Ë H… ^óþÝù¢…¨? (ç³È„æü & BÌZ_…^èþ$) 2. ÆæÿÑ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (ÔèýÆæÿà & Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) 3. Ò$Ææÿ$ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? (Mö™èþ¢ CË$Ï & BÌZ_…^èþ$) e. Transformation drill Model (i)

Model (ii)

¯óþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþ¯é? Ðóþ$… A¯èþ²… †¯èþÐèþ*? 1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþ¯é? 2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëË$ ™éVæü¯é? 3. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ºyìþMìü Ððþâæýå¯é?

¯óþ¯èþ$ H ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯èþ¯èþ$? Ðóþ$… H ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… Mö¯èþ…? 1. ¯óþ¯èþ$ H ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþÐèþ¯èþ$? 2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ H íÜ°Ðèþ*Mæü$ Ððþâæýå¯èþ$? 3. ¯óþ¯èþ$ GÐèþÇ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ¯èþ$?

Model (iii)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÐèþõÜ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^ðþõ³¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$. 1. ÆæÿÑ ÐèþõÜ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþâꢯèþ$. 2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó M>ïœ ™éW™óþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ$…_±âæý$å ¡çÜ$MöÝ뢯èþ$. 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*sêÏyóþ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ñ…sê¯èþ$. 4. çÜÆæÿâæý ç³NË$ HÇ™óþ çÜÇ™èþ M>Äæý$Ë$ MøçÜ$¢…¨. 5. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ ç³È„æüò³yóþ¢ í³ËÏË$ »êV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™éÆæÿ$. 6. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó AMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâôý¢ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mæü¯èþ$Mæü$P…sê¯èþ$. 7. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Aò³•Ï ^óþõÜ¢ B E§øÅVæü… ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨. Model (iv)

Model (v)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÐèþõÜ¢ Ë™èþ †…r$…¨. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ Ë™èþ †¯èþ§æþ$. 1. ÆæÿÑ ^èþ¨Ñ™óþ ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏy颯èþ$. 2. ´ëç³ ºyìþMìü Ððþâôý¢ ïÜ™èþ Væü$yìþMìü Ððþâæý$¢…¨. 3. ÔéÆæÿ§æþ sîý ^óþõÜ¢ Ò$Ææÿ$ ™éVæü$™éÆæÿ$.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÐèþõÜ¢ Ðéyæþ$ E…yæþyæþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ Ðéyæþ$ E…sêyæþ$. 1. ÆæÿÐèþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyìþ™óþ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ´ëyé¢Ðèþ#. 2. MæüÐèþ$Ë ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$…sôý BÐðþ$ ^èþ§æþÐèþ§æþ$.ü 3. WÇ ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐðþÄæý$ÅÐèþ$…sôý Ë™èþ ÐðþÄæý$ŧæþ$.

480

Lesson 32

f. Combination drill Model

1. 2. 3. 4.

çÜ$Væü$×ý Æ>§æþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþâꢅ. çÜ$Væü$×ý Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ððþâꢅ. MæüÐèþ$Ë A¯èþ²… †¯èþ§æþ$. BÄæý$¯èþ Væü*yé †¯èþyæþ$. Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ Ðèþ*ÆðÿPr$tMæü$ Ððþâæýåyæþ$. ÆæÿÑ Æ>yæþ$. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ Æ>Ææÿ$. í³ËÏË$ VöyæþÐèþ ^óþÝë¢Ææÿ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó °{§æþ ´ùÐèþ#. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ër ´ëy颯èþ$.

EXERCISES a. Combine the following pairs of sentences as shown in the model. Model

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Æ>. ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÐèþõÜ¢ ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™èþË$ç³# ÐðþÆÿ$$Å. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¸ë¯èþ$ ÐóþÝ뢯èþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ Æ>…yìþ. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëuæÿ… ^ðþ´ë¢¯èþ$. »êV> ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. Ðèþ$…_ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$PË$ ÐèþÝë¢Æÿ$$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó CMæüPyóþ E…yæþ$. ºçÜ$Þ A…§æþ$™èþ$…¨. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³NÈË$ †¯èþ$. M>ïœ ¡çÜ$MöÝ뢯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó sîý ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™éVæü$™é¯èþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ C…sìýMìü ´ù…yìþ. MæüÐèþ$Ë Mæü°í³çÜ$¢…¨.

b. Fill up the blanks with the conditional forms of the verbs given in the parentheses.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Ðèþ* ^ðþÌñýÏË$ ^èþ´ë¡Ë$ .......... (^ðþÆÿ$$Å) Ðèþ$¯èþ… †…§é…. EÐèþ$ A¯èþ²… .......... (†¯èþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëË$ ™éVæü$™é¯èþ$. Ææÿ…VæüÄæý$Å ´ëË$ .......... (™éVæü$) çÜ*Ç °{§æþ´ù™éyæþ$. »êº$ ........... (°{§æþ´ù) AÐèþ$à WÇf™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ BïœçÜ$Mæü$ ........... (Ððþâæý$å) ÑÐèþÆ>Ë$ Mæü¯èþ$Mæü$P…sê¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ........... (Mæü*Æøa) BÐðþ$ ´ër ´ëyæþ$™èþ$…¨. BÄæý$¯èþ ........... (Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ…sê…. 481

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. E§øÅVæü… GÐèþÇ BïœçÜ$ÌZ RêäV> E…¨? A¨ H E§øÅVæü…? 2. B E§øÅVæü… GÐèþÇMìü CÝë¢Ææÿ$? 3. Vøí³ ÔèýÆæÿà BïœçÜ$Mæü$ Ððþâôý¢ ÔèýÆæÿà H… ^óþÝë¢yæþ$? 4. ÔèýÆæÿà çßýÇ™ø Gç³µsìý°…_ Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? 5. ÔèýÆæÿà sîý §öÆæÿMæüMæü´ù™óþ H… ^óþÝë¢yæþ$? 6. ÔèýÆæÿà M>ïœ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ™éVæüyæþ$? ´ëË$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ™éVæüyæþ$? 7. çßýÇ ç³§æþ®† GsêÏ E…¨? d. Answer the following questions using the cue words.

1. WÇ Gç³µsìý ÌZV> D ç³° ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (Æóÿç³#) 2. Vøí³ G…™èþ õÜç³sìýÌZ ÐèþÝë¢yæþ$? (AÆæÿVæü…r) 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó HÐèþ$¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²Ðèþ#? (MæüË… Mö¯éÍ) 4. çÜÆæÿâæý HÐèþ$¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯èþ²¨? (°¯èþ$² ^èþ*yéÍ) e. Fill up the blanks with the negative conditional forms of the verbs given in the parentheses.

1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ........... (Æ>) BÐðþ$ A¯èþ²… †¯èþÆæÿ$. 2. ÔèýÆæÿà ............ (E…yæþ$) ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ¯èþ$. 3. çÜ$º¾Äæý$Å ............þ(Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$) Ðèþ$¯èþ… FÆøP…. 4. Ðèþ$…§æþ$ ............. (¡çÜ$Mø) fÓÆæÿ… ™èþVæüY§æþ$. f. Match the following. A

1. 2. 3.

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðóþ$… Ðèþ$¯èþ…

B

H… ^ðþÄæý$Å…? ( H… ^óþ§éª…? ( H… ^ðþÄæý$ůèþ$? ( 482

) ) )

Lesson 32

VOCABULARY

kr$t hair sñýOí³çÜ$t typist Aò³•Ï^ðþÆÿ$$Å to apply (v.tr.) GsêÏ a variant of GÌê ç³È„æüò³r$t to give a test ÑÐèþÆæÿ…V> in detail Mæü¯èþ$MøP1 to enquire ÑÐèþÆæÿ… detail (n) °ÆæÿÏ„æüÅ…^ðþÆÿ$$Å to neglect AÐèþM>Ôèý… opportunity Ðóþ$¯óþfÆæÿ$ manager °¯èþ²sìý oblique form of °¯èþ²

Ððþ$$¯èþ²sìý Æóÿç³sìý 糧æþ†®

oblique form of Ððþ$$¯èþ² oblique form of Æóÿç³# procedure; way of behaving; way of doing things ç³°^ðþÆÿ$$Å to work (v. tr.) A糚yæþ糚yæþ$ now and then Ðèþ$$r$tMø to touch yøMæü$ vomiting (n) ¯èþÐèþ#Ó laughter BÑyðþ a variant of BÑyæþ Ðèþ$Ça´ù to forget °ÆæÿÏ„æüÅ… negligence

GRAMMAR NOTES 32.1. In this lesson the conditional form of the verb is introduced. the conditional is formed by adding &C™óþ -it£ to the verbal base. Conditional  Verbal base +

Byæþ$ + C™óþ = Byìþ™óþ

&C™óþ -it£

‘if someone plays’ (2.12.2.)

¡∂u + it£ = ¡∂it£

Mæü糚 + C™óþ = Mæüí³µ™óþ

‘if someone covers’ (2.12.2.)

kappu + it£ = kappit£

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# + C™óþ = ^èþ¨Ñ™óþ

‘if someone reads’ (2.12.2; 28.6.)

caduvu + it£ = cadivit£ 32.2. Recall that some verbal bases undergo certain changes before a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t. When &C™óþ -it£ is added to these bases the following changes take place.

483

An Intensive Course in Telugu (i) The conditional suffix &C™óþ -it£ is treated as a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t, and all the changes which occur in the combination of such bases and a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t will take place. That is, the final Æÿ$$Å/Æÿ$$þyyi/yi of the bases changes to Ü ‹ s and the final r$tþ  u (of the bases) changes to yŠþ ∂, etc., and (ii) the C i of the suffix &C™óþ -it£ is dropped.

Æ>Æÿ$$ + C™óþ = Æ>‹Ü&C™óþ = Æ>õÜ¢ ‘if someone writes’ (22.1.) r¡yi + it£ = r¡s-it£ = r¡st£

^èþ*yæþ$ + C™óþ = ^èþ*‹Ü&C™óþ = ^èþ*õÜ¢ ‘if someone sees/looks at ’ (22.2.) c¶∂u + it£ = c¶s-it£ = c¶st£

Mör$t + C™óþ = MöyŠþ&C™óþ = Möyóþ¢

‘if someone hits/beats’ (22.3.)

ko  u + it£ = ko∂-it£ = ko∂t£

^ðþ糚 + C™óþ = ^ðþ‹³/^ðþº$&C™óþ = ^ðþõ³¢/^ðþ¼™ó * ‘if someone tells’ (25.4.) ceppu + it£ = cep/cebu-it£ = cept£/cebit£ Ððþâæý$å + C™óþ = ÐðþâŒý&C™óþ = Ððþâôý¢ ‘if someone goes’ (21.4.) ve˚˚u + it£ = ve˚-it£ = ve˚t£ †¯èþ$ + C™óþ = †…&C™óþ = †…&™óþ = †…sôý‘if someone eats’ (23.2.) tinu + it£ = tiM-it£ = tiM-t£ = tiM £ °ÌZa + C™óþ = °Ë$a…&C™óþ = °Ë$a…&™óþ = °Ë$a…sôý ‘if someone stands’ nilcª + it£ = nilcuM-it£ = nilcuM-t£ = nilcuM £ (23.2.) ¡çÜ$Mø + C™óþ = ¡çÜ$Mæü$…&C™óþ = ¡çÜ$Mæü$…&™óþ = ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sôý if someone takes’ t•sukª + it£ = t•sukuM-it£ = t•sukuM-t£ = t•sukuM £ (23.2.) ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþ$ + C™óþ = ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…&C™óþ = ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…&™óþ = ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…sôý ‘if someone asks to come’ rammanu + it£ = rammaM-it£ = rammaM-t£ = rammaM £ (31.5.1.) E…yæþ$ + C™óþ = E…&C™óþ = E…&™óþ = E…sôý ‘if someone exists/stays’ (23.2.) uM∂u + it£ = uM-it£ = uM-t£ = uM £ Æ> + C™óþ = Ðèþ‹Ü&C™óþ = ÐèþõÜ¢ ‘if someone comes’ (21.4.) r¡ + it£ = vas-it£ = vast£ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> + C™óþ = ¡çÜ$Mö‹Ü&C™óþ = ¡çÜ$MöõÜ¢ ‘if someone brings’ (21.4.) t•sukur¡ + it£ = t•sukos-it£ = t•sukost£ *Notice that the C i of the suffix &C™óþ -it£ is not dropped in ^ðþ¼™ó cebit£. 484

Lesson 32 32.2.1. The conditional form of the base ´ùþpª ‘to go’ is ´ù™óþ pªt£ ‘if someone goes’. Similarly °{§æþ´ù™óþ nidrapªt£ ‘if someone sleeps’ and ´ëÇ´ù™óþ p¡ripªt£ ‘if someone runs away’ are the conditional forms of the bases °{§æþ´ù nidrapª ‘to sleep’ and ´ëÇ´ù p¡ripª ‘to run away’ respectively. 32.3. The negative conditional is formed by adding &AMæü´ù™óþþ -akapªt£ to the verbal base. Negative Conditional  Verbal base + &AMæü´ù™óþ -akapªt£

^èþ*yæþ$ + AMæü´ù™óþ = ^èþ*yæþMæü´ù™óþ

‘if someone does not see’ (2.12.2.)

c¶∂u + akapªt£ = c¶∂akapªt£

^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# + AMæü´ù™óþ = ^èþ§æþÐèþMæü´ù™óþ

‘if someone does not read’ caduvu + akapªt£ = cadavakapªt£ (2.12.2.; 15.5.1.) Æ> + AMæü´ù™óþ = Æ>Mæü´ù™óþ ‘if someone does not come’ (3.13.1.) r¡ + akapªt£ = r¡kapªt£ ^ðþç³µÐèþ$¯èþ$ (31.5.) + AMæü´ù™óþ = ^ðþç³µÐèþ$¯èþMæü´ù™óþ ‘if not ask(ed) to tell’ ceppamanu + akapªt£ = ceppamanakapªt£ (2.12.2.) 32.4. In this lesson the use of the future negative form of the verb in a ‘request question’ is introduced. This use can be in both yes/no type question (3.4.) and question in which an interrogative word is used. Request question (yes/no type)  Future negative form of the verb + interrogative suffix &B -¡

Ðóþ$… Æóÿ³ç # Væü$…r*Ææÿ$ ÐðþâæýåÐèþ*? (Ððþâæýå… + B) ‘Shall we go to Guntur tomorrow?’ m£M r£pu guM ¶ru ve˚˚am¡? (ve˚˚aM + ¡) (2.11.) C糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ™èþË$ç³# †Äæý$ůé? (†Äæý$ůèþ$ + B) ‘Shall I open the door now?’ ippu∂u n£nu talupu tiyyan¡? (tiyyanu+¡) (2.12.2.) Request question with an interrogative word  Interrogative word + future negative form of the verb

C糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ H… ^ðþÄæý$ůèþ$?

‘What shall I do now?’

ippu∂u n£nu £M ceyyanu? 485

An Intensive Course in Telugu

±Mæü$ G°² ç³âæý$å CÐèþÓ¯èþ$?

‘How many fruits shall I give to you?’

n•ku enni pa˚˚u ivvanu?

C糚yæþ$ Ðóþ$… GMæüPyìþMìü Ððþâæýå…?

‘Where shall we go now?’

ippu∂u m£M ekka∂iki ve˚˚aM? Ðóþ$… G°² ç³NË$ MöÄæý$Å…? How many flowers shall we pluck? m£M enni p¶lu koyyaM? In this type of request question the subject will always be in PERSON.

FIRST

32.5. &õÜç³sìý -s£pa i, &Ððþ$$¯èþ²sìý -monna i, &°¯èþ²sìý -ninna i and &Æóÿç³sìý -r£pa i are the oblique forms of &õÜç³# -s£pu (26.11.) ‘time’, &Ððþ$$¯èþ² -monna ‘day-before-yesterday’, &°¯èþ² -ninna ‘yesterday’ and &Æóÿç³# -r£pu ‘tomorrow’ respectively. 32.6.

Notice the sentence

¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðéyìþ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$.

I am thinking that I should n£nu v¡∂itª ma l¡∂¡li anukuM unn¡nu. talk with him.’

This is a compound sentence ie., a combination of two sentences. The first sentence ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ðéyìþ™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ n£nu v¡∂itª ma l¡∂¡li ‘I must talk with him’ expresses an obligation where as the second one ¯óþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. n£nu anu- kuM unn¡nu ‘I am thinking/planning/proposing to myself’ expresses a proposal. 32.7. A糚yæþ糚yæþ$ (A糚yæþ$ + A糚yæþ$) appu∂appu∂u (appu∂u + appu∂u) ‘now and then; rarely’ is reduplicated form of A糚yæþ$ appu∂u ‘then’. 32.8.

Notice the use of the dative case suffix in sentences like the following:

¯éMæü$ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Ðèþ_a…¨. ÆæÿÑMìü E§øÅVæü… Ðèþ_a…¨. ÐéyìþMìü ™èþ˯ðþí³µ Ðèþ_a…¨. ¯éMæü$ ¯èþÐèþ#Ó ÐèþÝù¢…¨.

n¡ku uttaraM vacciMdi. raviki udyªgaM vacciMdi. v¡∂iki talaneppi vacciMdi. n¡ku navvu vastªMdi.

486

‘I got a letter.’ ‘Ravi got a job.’ ‘He got headache.’ ‘I am getting a fit of laughter.’

Lesson 32 32.9. A short vowel occurring between yŠþ ∂ and ™Œþ t, ÆŠÿ r and ™Œþ t, ÌŒý l and ™Œþ t, and âŒý ˚ and ™Œþ t is dropped in speech, and optionally dropped in writing. (c.f. 26.12. and 27.8.)

32.10.

M>Í™óþ/ M>Ìôý¢ k¡lit£/k¡lt£ ‘if (it/they) burn(s)’ Byìþ™óþ/ Byóþ¢ ¡∂it£/¡∂t£ ‘if (someone) play(s)’ ºÄæý$ÌôýªÇ™óþ/ ºÄæý$ÌôýªÆóÿ¢ bayald£rit£/ bayald£rt£ ‘if (someone) start(s)’ GsêÏ e l¡ ‘how’ is a variant of GÌê el¡ (8.12.). Recall the use of &ÌZV>þ-lªg¡ (31.11.) a postposition (4.6.; 8.9.)

32.11. with time-expressing nouns. It can also go with time-expressing pronominals

A糚yæþ$ appu∂u ‘then; that time’ C糚yæþ$ ippu∂u ‘now; this time’ and G糚yæþ$ eppu∂u ‘when; what time’.

Væü…r ÌZV> Aç³µsìý* ÌZV> Cç³µsìý* ÌZV> Gç³µsìý* ÌZV>ý

gaM a lªg¡ appa i* lªg¡ ippa i* lªg¡ eppa i* lªg¡

‘within an hour’ ‘within that time’ ‘within this time’ ‘within what time’

* These are the oblique forms of A糚yæþ$ appu∂u, C糚yæþ$ ippu∂u and G糚yæþ$ eppu∂u (26.10.), and the postpositions are added to the oblique bases (8.9.). 32.12.

Notice the use of the conditional form in the following sentence.

± Ðèþ*rË$ Ñ…sôý ¯éMæü$ ¯èþÐèþ#Ó ÐèþÝù¢…¨.

‘I am getting a fit of laughter on n• m¡ alu viM £ n¡ku navvu vastªMdi. listening your words.’

Compare this sentence with

´ëË$ Ðèþ$$r$tMæü$…sôý ¯éMæü$ yøMæü$ ÐèþçÜ$¢…¨.

‘I (will) get vomitting (senstion) p¡˚u mu  ukuM £ n¡ku ∂ªku vastuMdi. if I touch milk’.

The verb in the first sentence is in present tense and future tense in the second sentence. The conditional form expresses ‘condition’ (equivalent to ‘if’ clause in English) only when the main verb is in future tense. It (the conditional form) 487

An Intensive Course in Telugu expresses REASON when the main verb is in present tense. Hence, the conditional form in the first sentence above does not express CONDITION, but it expresses REASON. 32.13. A…¨™óþ kr$t A…§æþMæü´ù™óþ M>âæý$å aMdit£ ju  u aMdakapªt£ k¡˚˚u ‘catch by hair if possible, otherwise surrender’ is a proverb. It literally means the following:

A…¨™óþ andit£ ‘if one can reach; if it is in one’s reach’ kr$t ju  u ‘hair’ A…§æþMæü´ù™óþ aMdakapªt£ ‘if one cannot reach; if it is not in one’s reach’ M>âæý$å k¡˚˚u ‘legs/feet’ This proverb is used to denote opportunism.

488

UNIT VI Lesson 33

Ðé¯èþ Mæü$Ææÿ$Ýù¢…¨

IT IS RAINING

ÔèýÆæÿà : ÆæÿÒ! ¯óþ¯èþ$ AÆæÿj…r$V> Ðèþ*ÆðÿPr$tMæü$ ÐðþâêåÍ. ± çÜ*PrÆæÿ$ Æÿ$$Ðèþ#Ó.

Ravi! I have to go to the market urgently. Lend me your scooter. The horn of my scooter gave trouble. Yesterday I gave it for repairing. He met me a few minutes ago. He told that he would give it tomorrow.

ÆæÿÑ

: ¯é çÜ*PrÆæÿ$ àÆæÿ¯èþ$ Mö…^ðþ… {rº$Ë$ C_a…¨. °¯èþ² »êVæü$^óþÄæý$yé°Mìü C^éa¯èþ$. C…§éMæü Mæü°í³…^éyæþ$. Æóÿç³# CÝ뢯èþ$ A¯é²yæþ$.

ÔèýÆæÿà : AÆÿ$$™óþ ± òÜOMìüË$ Æÿ$$Ðèþ#Ó.

Then, give me your bicycle.

ÆæÿÑ

Take it. But wait for some time. It's raining.

: ¡çÜ$Mø. Mö…^ðþ… õÜç³# BVæü$. Ðé¯èþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ$¢¯þè ²¨. 489

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÔèýÆæÿà : °¯èþ² Ðèþ* õ³rÌZ {ºàÃ…yæþÐðþ$O¯èþ Ðé¯èþ Mæü$ÇíÜ…¨. HÑ$sìý AsêÏ E¯é²Ðèþ#? fË$»ê?

It rained cats and dogs yesterday in our area. You seem to be sufferring from cold?

ÆæÿÑ

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. CMæüPyæþ Væü*yé Ðé¯èþ Mæü$ÇíÜ…¨. A糚yæþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ BïœçÜ$ °…_ Æÿ$$…sìýMìü ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. B Ðé¯èþÌZ ç³NÇ¢V> ™èþyìþÔé¯èþ$. A…§æþ$Móü fË$º$ ^óþíÜ…¨.

Yes. It rained here also. I was returning home from office at that time. I got drenched in that rain completely. That's why I have a cold.

ÔèýÆæÿà : A§æþ$Vø Ðé¯èþ C糚yóþ ÐðþË$çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. ¯ó þ ¯è þ $ ºgêÆæ ÿ $ÌZ ^ð þ Äæ ý *ÅÍÞ¯è þ 糯èþ$Ë$ ^éÌê E¯é²Æÿ$$.

See, it is clearing now. I will go. I have to do a lot of work in the market.

ÆæÿÑ

Wait for some more time. It is not good to get drenched in this rain.

: C…M> M>õÜç³# BVæü$. D Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþÐèþr… Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$.

ÔèýÆæÿà : D Ðé¯èþ C糚yæþ$ ç³NÇ¢V> ™èþVæüY§æþ$. C¨ Csêϯóþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ*¢ E…r$…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ

It will not stop completely now. It will rain continuously. I will, go.

: ºgêÆæÿ$ÌZ Ððþ*çßý¯èþÆ>Ðèþ#¯èþ$ MæüË$. A™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ ¯é Vöyæþ$Væü$ E…¨. A¨ ¡çÜ$Mø.

You meet Mohan Rao in the market. My umbrella is with him. Take that one.

ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþ*çßý¯èþÆ>Ðèþ#¯èþ$ MæüÍõÜ¢ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sê¯èþ$. ÐéyìþMìü Vöyæþ$WõÜ¢ ´ëyæþ$^óþÝë¢yæþ$. G糚yæþ* CÐèþÓMæü$. ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$. òÜOMìüË$ Æ>{†Mìü ç³…í³…^èþ¯é? Æóÿç³# ç³…í³…^èþ¯é?

If I meet him I will take it. If you give umbrella to Mohana Rao he will spoil it. Don't give it to him any more. Shall I send you the bicycle by tonight or tomorrow.

490

Lesson 33

ÆæÿÑ

: ç³ÆæÿÐéÌôý§æþ$. Æóÿç³# ç³…í³…^èþ$.

Don't worry. You send it tomorrow morning. I will send it tomorrow morning.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Æóÿç³# E§æþÄæý$… ç³…í³Ý뢯èþ$. DRILLS a. Repetition drill.

ÆæÿÑÐé¯èþÌZ ™èþyìþÔéyæþ$. ¯é ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ™èþyìþíÜ…¨. Ðéâæý$å Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$! Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$§éª…. ¯éMæü$ ±ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÐèèþ#Ó. ±Mæü$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ yæþº$¾ CÝ뢯þè $. ÆæÿÑMìü ÔèýÆæÿà ÆóÿyìþÄñý* C^éayæþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… BÄæý$¯èþMæü$ ³ç #Üç M¢ üæ … C§éª….

D Ðé¯èþ C糚yæþ$ ÐðþËÐèþ§æþ$. Ðé¯èþË$ Mæü$ÇõÜ¢ Ðèþ$…_¨. Ðé¯èþË$ Mæü$ÆæÿÐéÍ. C糚yæþ$ Ðé¯èþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ$¢…¨. °¯èþ² Væü*yé Ðé¯èþ Mæü$ÇíÜ…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ° MæüÍÔé¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*çÙÆt ÿæ $V>Ç° MæüË$! ™èþ$…Væü¿æý{§æþ Mæü–çÙÌ~ Z MæüË$çÜ$¢…¨. Äæý$Ðèþ$$¯èþ Vø§éÐèþÇÌZ MæüËÐèþ§æþ$.

G糚yæþ* Æ>Mæü$. G糚yæþ* CÐèþÓMæü$. G糚yæþ* Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþÐèþMæü$.

b. Build-up drill.

E¯é²Æÿ$$. ^éÌê Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$. 糯èþ$Ë$ ^éÌê Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$. ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍÞ¯èþ 糯èþ$Ë$ ^éÌê Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$. AMæüPyæþ ^ðþÄæýæ *ÅÍÞ¯èþ ³ç ¯èþ$Ë$ ^éÌê Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ AMæüPyæþ ^ðþÄææý*ÅÍÞ¯èþ 糯èþ$Ë$ ^éÌê Ðèþ#¯é²Æÿ$$.

E…r$…¨. Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ*¢ Ðèþ#…r$…¨. Csêϯóþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ*¢ Ðèþ#…r$…¨. 糨 ÆøkË$§éM> Csêϯóþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ*¢ Ðèþ#…r$…¨. Ðé¯èþ 糨 ÆøkË$§éM> Csêϯóþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ*¢ Ðèþ#…r$…¨. D Ðé¯èþ 糨 ÆøkË$§éM> Csêϯóþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ*¢ Ðèþ#…r$…¨.

491

An Intensive Course in Telugu

c. Substitution drill. Model (i)

Model (ii)

ÆæÿÑ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ* Ðèþ#…sêyæþ$. çÜÆæÿâæý&Byæþ$ çÜÆæÿâæý Byæþ*¢ Ðèþ#…r$…¨. ÆðÿËO $&Æ> ºçÜ$Þ&Ððþâæý$å ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó &°{§æþ´ù Ðèþ$¯èþ…&Æ>Æÿ$$

Ðèþ$¯èþ… ^èþ§æþÐéÍÞ¯èþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÆæÿÑ ^èþ¨Ðéyæþ$. ^èþ*yæþ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… ^èþ*yéÍÞ¯èþ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ÆæÿÑ ^èþ*Ôéyæþ$. Æ>Æÿ$$ CÐèþ#Ó Mö¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mø

Model (iii)

ÆæÿÑ çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ çÜ*PrÆæÿ$ C^éayæþ$. MæüÐèþ$Ë MæüÐèþ$Ë çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ çÜ*PrÆæÿ$ C_a…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ò$Ææÿ$ Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ðéâæý$å d. Response drill. Model

ÆæÿÑMìü fË$º$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ^óþíÜ…¨? ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyìþÔéyæþ$. 1. çÜÆæÿâæýMæü$ fË$º$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ^óþíÜ…¨? 2. ¯éMæü$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ fË$º$ ^óþíÜ…¨?

3. Ðèþ$¯èþMæü$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ fË$º$ ^óþíÜ…¨? 4. ±Mæü$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ fË$º$ ^óþíÜ…¨? 5. Ò$Mæü$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ f˺$ ^óþíÜ…¨?

e. Trasformation drill. Model (i)

ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyìþÔéyæþ$. a. ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$Ýë¢yæþ$. b. ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 1. çÜÆæÿâæý Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyìþíÜ…¨.

2. 3. 4. 5. 492

Ðé¯èþ Mæü$ÇíÜ…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ° MæüÍÔé¯èþ$. Ðé¯èþ ÐðþÍíÜ…¨. MæüÐèþ$Ë ¯éMæü$ M>ïœ Æÿ$$_a…¨.

Lesson 33 Model (ii)

ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. 3. Ðé¯èþ Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþÐèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. 4. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ#¯èþ$ MæüË$çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. 1. Vøí³, Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. 5. ¯óþ¯èþ$ MæüÐèþ$ËMæü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$. 2. Ðé¯èþ ÐðþË$çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. EXERCISES a. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. ÔèýÆæÿà ºgêÆæÿ$Mæü$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$? 2. ÔèýÆæÿà Ððþ*çßý¯èþÆ>Ðèþ# §æþVæüÇY ²…_ Vöyæþ$Væü$ ¡çÜ$Mæü$…sêyé?

3. ÆæÿÑ çÜ*PrÆæÿ$¯èþ$ H… ^óþÔéyæþ$? 4. ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ G糚yæþ$ ™èþyìþÔéyæþ$?

b. Change the following past tense forms into present affirmative, and negative and future affirmative and negative.

1. ÆæÿÑ Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyìþÔéyæþ$. 2. MæüÐèþ$Ë ÆæÿÑMìü Vöyæþ$Væü$ Æÿ$$_a…¨. 3. MæüÐèþ$Ë A¯èþ²… Ðèþyìþz…_…¨.

4. Ðé¯èþ ÐðþÍíÜ…¨. 5. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÑ° MæüÍÔé¯èþ$.

c. Give the past tense forms of the following verbs with çÜÆæÿâæý as subjects: ™èþyæþ$, MæüË$, CÐèþ#Ó. d. Match the following. A

1. MæüÐèþ$Ë 2. ÆæÿÑ 3. Ðé¯èþË$ 4. Vøí³° 5. Ðé¯èþ

B

™èþyìþÔéyæþ$ ÐðþÍíÜ…¨ C_a…¨ Mæü$ÇÔéÆÿ$$ MæüÍÔé¯èþ$

493

( ( ( ( (

) ) ) ) )

¯óþ¯èþ$, AÑ,

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

Ðé¯èþ Mæü$Ææÿ$‹Üü

™èþyæþ$‹Ü get drenched; become wet fË$º$^ðþÆÿ$$Å catch cold ÐðþË$‹Ü stop or cease, as rain;

rain (n) rain (v); shower (v.i.); fall (like rain) urgently horn (n) trouble (n) a while ago

AÆðÿj…r$V> àÆæÿ¯èþ$ {rº$Ë$ C…§éMæü {ºàÃ…yæþÐðþ$O¯èþ heavy; huge fË$º$ cold or catarrh (n)

CsêÏ MæüË$‹Üüü ´ëyæþ$^ðþÆÿ$$Å

fade (v.i.) in this manner/way; variant of CÌê meet (v.i.) spoil (v.i.)

GRAMMAR NOTES 33.1.

In this lesson the ‹Ü s ending verbal bases are introduced.

™èþyæþ$‹Ü+™èþ$¯é²+¯èþ$ = ™èþyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

‘I am getting drenched.’

ta∂us+tunn¡+nu.

(Ðé¯èþ) Mæü$Ææÿ$‹Ü+™èþ$¯èþ²+¨ = Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. (31.17) (v¡na) kurus+tunna+di.

™èþyæþ$‹Ü+§é… = ™èþyæþ$§Šþ+§é… = ™èþyæþ$§éª….

‘It is raining.’ (literally, 'Rain is showering.') (26.7) ‘Let us get drenched.’

ta∂us+d¡M = ta∂ud+d¡M. The ‹Ü s ending bases drop thier final ‹Ü s when they are used in non honorific imperative affirmative singular. (cf.8.2.2.) 33.2.

MæüË$‹Ü = MæüË$! ™èþyæþ$‹Ü = ™èþyæþ$!

kalus = kalu! ta∂us = ta∂u!

‘Meet!’ ‘Get drenched!’

33.3. A disyllabic base ending in a consonant (such as MæüË$‹Ü kalus) also changes it's second vowel E u. (like trisyllabic bases, cf. 15.5.1; 28.6) (i) to A a when follwed by a suffix beginning with A a or B ¡ and (ii) to C i when follwed by a suffix beginning with C i or æ– 494

Lesson 33

MæüË$‹Ü+A…yìþ = MæüË‹Ü+A…yìþ = MæüËÐèþ…yìþ

‘Please meet!’

kalus+aM∂i = kalas+aMdi = kalavaMdi

MæüË$‹Ü+BÍþ= MæüË‹Ü+BÍþ= MæüËÐéÍ (33.5)

‘One should meet.’

kalus+¡li = kalas+¡li = kalav¡li

Mæü$Ææÿ$‹Ü+Ar… = Mæü$Ææÿ‹Ü+Ar…þ= Mæü$ÆæÿÐèþr… (33.5)

‘raining’

kurus+a aM = kuras+a aM = kurava aM MæüË$‹Ü+æ– +¯èþ$ = MæüÍ‹Ü+æ– +¯èþ$ = MæüÍÔé¯èþ$ (28.3.1)þ‘I met.’ kalus+ æ– +nu = kalis+æ– +nu = kali≈æ–nu ™èþyæþ$‹Ü+C…+¨þ= ™èþyìþ‹Ü+C…+¨ = ™èþyìþíÜ…¨þ ‘It/She got drenched.’ ta∂us+iM+di = ta∂is+iM+di = ta∂isiMdi Mæü$Ææÿ$‹Ü+C™óþþ= Mæü$Ç‹Ü+C™óþ = Mæü$ÇõÜ¢ (33.4) þ‘if it rains’ kurus+it£ = kuris+it£ = kurist£

‹Ü s and ™Œþ t it is dropped. (cf. 32.9) Mæü$Ç‹Ü+C™óþþ= Mæü$ÇõÜ¢ kuris+it£ = kurist£ (33.3) þ 33.5. The Ü ‹ s ending bases change their final Ü‹ s to ÐŒþ v when followed by a suffix beginning with A a or B ¡. Mæü$Ææÿ$‹Ü+Ar…þ= Mæü$ÆæÿÐŒþ+Ar… = Mæü$ÆæÿÐèþr… (33.3) ‘raining’ kurus+a aM = kurav+a aM = kurava aM þ ‘One should get ™èþyæþ$‹Ü+BÍ = ™èþyæþÐéÍ (33.3) ta∂us+¡li = ta∂av¡li drenched.’þ ‘Please meet!’ MæüË$‹Ü+A…yìþ = MæüËÐèþ…yìþ (33.3) 33.4.

A short vowel between

kalus+aM∂i = kalavaM∂i

MæüË$‹Ü+A+¯èþ$ = MæüËÐèþ¯èþ$ (33.3)

‘I will not meet.’

þ 33.6. The verbal base CÐèþ#Ó ivvu 'to give' becomes C‹Ü-- is- when follwed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ t or §Šþ d ; and it (CÐèþ#Ó ivvu) becomes C^Œþa- iccwhen follwed by a suffix beginning with C i or æ– (Recall that the bases Æ> r¡ 'to come' and ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> t•sukur¡. 'to bring' also behave in a similar way. cf. kalus+a+nu = kalavanu

21.4; 26.6 (v) and 28.5) 495

An Intensive Course in Telugu

CÐèþ#Ó+™é+¯èþ$ = C‹Ü+™é+¯èþ$ = CÝ뢯èþ$

‘I will give’

ivvu+t¡+nu = is+t¡+nu

CÐèþ#Ó+C™óþ = C‹Ü+™óþ = CõÜ¢ (33.4)

‘If someone gives’

ivvu+it£ = is+t£

CÐèþ#Ó+ §é… = C‹Ü+§é… = C§Šþ+§é… = C§éª…

‘Let us give.’

ivvu+d¡M = is+d¡M = id+d¡M CÐèþ#Ó+æ–+¯èþ$ = C^Œþa+æ–+¯èþ$ = C^éa¯èþ$ ivvu+æ–+nu = icc+æ–+nu

‘I gave.’

33.7.

The obligatory adjectival participle is formed by adding &íܯèþ -sina

to the obligatory form (20.1).

^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ+íܯèþ = ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍÞ¯èþ (33.7.1.) ceyy¡li+sina = ceyy¡lsina ¯óþ¯èþ$ D ç³° ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ ==> n£nu • pani ceyy¡li ==> ‘I have to do this work.’

‘that one has to do’

C¨ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍÞ¯èþ ç³° idi n£nu ceyy¡lsina pani ‘This is the work which I have to do’

33.7.1. This final (C i ) of the obligatory form is dropped before a suffix beginning with Ü ‹ s. 33.8. The future continuous is also introduced in this lesson. It is formed by adding the future tense form of the verb E…yæþ$ uM∂u 'to be' (23.1) to the non-past/progressive adverbial participle of the verb. Here E…yæþ$ uM∂u functions as an axiliary verb. Future continuous => Non-past adverbial participle + the future tense form of E…yæþ$ uM∂u

Mæü$Ææÿ$çÜ*¢ E…r$…¨. kurust¶ uM uMdi. ‘It will be raining.’ ÆæÿÑ ´ëyæþ$™èþ* E…sêyæþ$. ravi p¡∂ut¶ uM ¡∂u. ‘Ravi will be singing.’ The E…yæþ$ uM∂u forms can also be written with an intial ÐŒþ v such as Ðèþ#…sêyæþ$ vuM ¡∂u, Ðèþ#…r$…¨ vuM uMdi etc. 496

Lesson 33 33.9.

Notice the use of the inclusive marker with a question word G糚yæþ$

eppu∂u simultaneously with negative form of a verb in the following expression. ÐéyìþMìü Vöyæþ$Væü$ G糚yæþ* CÐèþÓMæü$. ‘Never give the umbrella to him.’ v¡∂iki go∂ugu eppu∂¶ ivvaku. Here Gç³µyæþ* eppu∂¶ in association with the negative form of the verb means never. (cf. HÒ$ AyæþVæüMæü$ £mi a∂agaku 'ask nothing.' 20.3.) The verb ^ðþÆÿ$$Å ceyyi 'to do' along with the noun fË$º$ jalubu 'cold' means 'to catch cold'; and the verb takes dative subject.

33.10.

¯éMæü$ fË$º$ ^óþíÜ…¨. n¡ku jalubu c£siMdi. 'I caught cold.' CsêÏ i l¡ 'in this way/direction/manner' is a variant of CÌê il¡ (7.16). CULTURAL NOTE 33.12.

While taking leave form a person, one is expected to say that ¯óþ¯èþ$

ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$ n£nu vast¡nu

'I will come.' and not ¯óþ¯èþ$

go.'

497

Ððþâꢯèþ$ n£nu ve˚t¡nu 'I will

UNIT VI Lesson 34

ºËÏË$ ™èþ$yìþ^éÐé?

DID YOU CLEAN THE TABLES?

MæüÐèþ$Ë : X™é! Ò$ AÐèþ$ïèþ$ í³Ë$.

Gita! call your mother.

X™èþ : BÐðþ$ ç³°ÌZ E¯èþ²¨ A™èþ¢Äæý$Å V>Ææÿ*! í³ÍõÜ¢ ç³ËMæü§æþ$.

She is busy with her work, auntie! She will not answer if I call.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ò³§æþªV> í³Ë$. ç³Ë$Mæü$™èþ$…¨.

Call loudly. She will answer.

X™èþ : Ò$Æóÿ í³ËÐèþ…yìþ. A§æþ$Vø Ðèþ* AÐóþ$à Ðèþ_a…¨.

You please call her. See there. My mother has come.

çÜÆøf : ÌZç³ÍMìü Æ> MæüÐèþ$Ìê!

Come in Kamala.

X™èþ : AÐèþ*Ã! ¯èþ¯èþ$² çÜÆæÿâæý í³Ë_…¨. Ððþâæý$¢¯é²¯èþ$.

Mummy! Sarala called me. I am going.

498

Lesson 34

MæüÐèþ$Ë : G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ò$ »êº$ Ððþ$$çßý… AsêÏ E¯èþ²¨?

Why does your son look like that?

çÜÆøf : Cç³µsìý §éM> Hyéayæþ$. G…§æþ$Mø °¯èþ²sìý²…_ FÇMìü¯óþ Hyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$.

He was weeping till now. He has been weeping since yesterday. (without any cause). Is he walking?

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ¯èþyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²yé? çÜÆøf : C…M> ¯èþyæþÐèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. Ðèþ* X™èþ G°Ñ$§ø ¯ðþËÌZ¯óþ ¯èþyìþ_…¨. ËMîü‡! Ðèþ$¯èþ$çÙ$Ë Ò$§æþ §æþ$Ðèþ$$à ³ç yæþ$™èþ$¯èþ²¨. ¯ðþÐèþ$èV> Fyæþ$.

çÜÆøf : AÆÿ$$™óþ CMæüPyæþ FyæþÐèþMæü$. ÐèþÆæÿ…yé Fyæþ$.

He has not started walking yet. Our Gita started walking in her eighth month itself. Lakshmi! The dust is falling on us. Sweep slowly. I am sweeping only slowly, madam! The wind is blowing heavily. Then, don't sweep here. Sweep the varaM∂¡.

ËMìü‡ : Fyéa¯èþÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ*! Ðèþ…r CË$Ï FyæþÐéÍ.

I swept it already, madam. I have to sweep the kitchen.

çÜÆøf : çÜÆóÿ! MæüÐèþ$Ìê! Ìôý! Ðèþ$¯èþ… B Væü¨ÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…§é….

All right. Get up Kamala! We will sit in the other room.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : MìüsìýMîüË$ ™ðþÆæÿ$§éªÐþè *? V>Í Æ>Ðèþr… Ìôý§æþ$.

Shall we open the windows? We don't get the breeze inside.

çÜÆøf : AÌêVóü. ËMîü‡! B MìüsìýMîüË$ ™ðþÆæÿ$!

Okay! Lakshmi! Open those windows.

ËMìü‡ : ¯ðþÐèþ$èV>¯óþ Fyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ…yîþ! V>Í GMæü$PÐèþV> E¯èþ²¨.

499

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ËMìü‡ : ™ðþÇ^é¯èþÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ Mö…^ðþ… ÌôýÐèþ…yìþ. Ýù¸ë ™èþ$yæþ$Ý뢯èþ$. çÜÆøf : Ýù¸ë ™è þ $yæ þ Ðè þ r… Cç ³ šyé? ºËÏË$ ™èþ$yìþ^éÐé?

I opened the windows, madam! You please get up. I have to clean the sofa. Is this the time for cleaning the sofa? Did you clean the table?

ËMìü‡ : C…§éMæü ™èþ$yìþ^é¯èþÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ*! Ò$Ææÿ$ ÌôýÐèþ…yìþ.

I have cleand them already, madam. You get up from there.

çÜÆøf : ÌôýÝ뢅. Mö…^ðþ… BVæü$. ËMìü‡ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ CÐéÓâæý ò³…§æþÌêyóþ ´ùÐéËÐèþ$à V>Ææÿ*!

We will get up. Wait for sometime. I will have to go early today, madam!

çÜÆøf : çÜÆóÿ! Ìôý^é…, ™èþ$yæþ$!

Okay! got up. Clean it.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

ÆæÿÑ ™èþË$ç³# ™ðþÇ^éyæþ$. çÜÆæÿâæý ™èþË$ç³# ™ðþÆæÿ$çÜ$¢…¨. ÑÐèþ$Ìê! ™èþË$ç³# ™ðþÆæÿÐèþMæü$. ´ëç³ MìüsìýMîüË$ ™ðþÆæÿÐèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. çÜÆæÿâê! MìüsìýMîüË$ ™ðþÆæÿ$! »êº$ ÆæÿÑ° í³Í^éyæþ$. ÔèýÆæÿà ÆæÿÑ° í³Ë$Ýë¢yæþ$. çÜÆæÿâæý MæüÐèþ$˯èþ$ í³ËÐèþ§æþ$. çÜÆæÿâê! MæüÐèþ$˯èþ$ í³Ë$!

´ëç³ Hyìþa…¨. ÔèýÆæÿà Hyæþ$Ýë¢yæþ$. ÆæÿÑ HyæþÐèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. ËMîü‡! ÐèþÆæÿ…yé ¯óþ¯èþ$ FyæþÐèþ¯èþ$; ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Fyæþ$!

ÔèýÆæÿà Ìôý^éyæþ$. MæüÐèþ$Ìê! ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> Ìôý! çÜÆæÿâæý ÌôýÐèþr…Ìôý§æþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ ÌôýÐèþ…yîþ. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÌôýÐèþMæü$. GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÌôýÝë¢Ææÿ$? ÆæÿÑ ÌôýÐéÍ. 500

Lesson 34

b. Build-up drill

Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. AsêÏÐèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. FÇMðü¯óþ AsêÏÐèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Ððþ$$¯èþ²sìý °…_ FÇMðü¯óþ AsêÏ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. G…§æþ$Mø Ððþ$$¯èþ²sìý°…_ FÇMðü¯óþ AsêÏÐèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. c. Substitution drill Model (i)

Model (iii)

MæüÐèþ$Ë ¯èþyìþ_…¨. í³Ë$^Œþ MæüÐèþ$Ë í³Í_…¨. ™èþ$yæþ$^Œþ Ìôý^Œþ Fyæþ$^Œþ Hyæþ$^Œþ ™ðþÆæÿ$^Œþ

ÔèýÆæÿà FÇMìü¯óþ Ððþâêåyæþ$. Æ> ÔèýÆæÿà FÇMìü¯óþ Ðèþ^éayæþ$. Hyæþ$^Œþ í³Ë$^Œþ ç³Ë$Mæü$ Ìôý^Œþ ™èþ$yæþ$^Œþ

Model (ii)

Model (iv)

MæüÐèþ$Ë ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ²¨. í³Ë$^Œþ MæüÐèþ$Ë í³Ë$çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. Fyæþ$^Œþ Hyæþ$^Œþ Ìôý^Œþ ™èþ$yæþ$^Œþ

ÔèýÆæÿà C…M> ^èþ§æþÐèþr…Ìôý§æþ$. ¯èþyæþ$^Œþ ÔèýÆæÿà C…M> ¯èþyæþÐèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. Ìôý^Œþ ç³Ë$Mæü$ Hyæþ$^Œþ ™ðþÆæÿ$^Œþ

501

An Intensive Course in Telugu

d. Response drill Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Model (iii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

MæüÐèþ$Ë Hyæþ$çÜ*¢ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯èþ²§é? (Byæþ$) MæüÐèþ$Ë Hyæþ$çÜ*¢ Æ>Ðèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. Byæþ$™èþ*ÐèþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. ÔèýÆæÿà ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ* MìüsìýMîüË$ ™ðþÆæÿ$çÜ$¢¯é²yé? (Hyæþ$^Œþ) ÆæÿÑ °¯èþ$² Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ* ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yé? (í³Ë$^Œþ) Ðèþ$¯èþ… ™èþyæþ$çÜ*¢ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ*? (™èþ$yæþ$^Œþ) ËMìü‡ Fyæþ$çÜ*¢ ´ër ´ëyæþ$™èþ$¯èþ²§é? (Ìôý^Œþ) ïÜ™èþ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ* ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ²§é? (¯èþyæþ$^Œþ) ÔèýÆæÿà H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (Ðé¯èþÌZ&™èþyæþ$‹Ü) ÔèýÆæÿà Ðé¯èþÌZ ™èþyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. çÜÆæÿâæý H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? (Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ*&Ýù¸ëË$ ™èþ$yæþ$^Œþ) Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²…? (Fyæþ$çÜ*¢&í³Ë$^Œþ) Ðéâæý$å H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? (BËçÜÅ…V>&Ìôý^Œþ) Ò$Ææÿ$ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? (™ö…§æþÆæÿV>&¯èþyæþ$^Œþ) ËMìü‡ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? (¯ðþÐèþ$èV>&Fyæþ$^Œþ) ÔèýÆ>Ã! Ðèþ$¯èþ… C糚yæþ$ H… ^óþ§éª…? (ÆæÿÑ°&í³Ë$^Œþ) ÆæÿÑ° í³Ë$§éª… ËMîü‡! Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (MìüsìýMîü&™èþ$yæþ$^Œþ) ÆæÿÒ! Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æóÿç³# H… ^óþ§éª…? (™ö…§æþÆæÿV>&Ìôý^Œþ) Vøï³! Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…?(ÆæÿÑ°&MæüË$‹Ü) WÇgê! Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^óþ§éª…? (E™èþ¢Ææÿ…&Æ>Æÿ$$)

EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the past tense forms of the imperative forms of the verbs given in the parentheses.

1. ÔèýÆæÿà Hyæþ$çÜ*¢ ............ (Ìôý) 5. MæüÐèþ$Ë ºËÏË$ ............ (™èþ$yæþ$) 2. ÆæÿÑ MìüsìýMîüË$ ............... (™ðþÆæÿ$) 6. Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# ¯èþ¯èþ$² ........... (í³Ë$) 3. ÑÐèþ$Ë Ðé¯èþÌZ ............. (™èþyæþ$) 7. ÔèýÆæÿà ......... (Byæþ$) 4. ËMìü‡ ............ (Hyæþ$) 502

Lesson 34

b. Answer the following questions based on the text of the lesson.

1. X™èþ G…§æþ$Mæü$ ºÄæý$sìýMìü Ððþâæý$¢¯èþ²¨? 2. »êº$ G…§æþ$Mæü$ Hyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? Gç³µsìý°…_ Hyæþ$çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$?

3. X™èþÐéâæýå AÐèþ$à H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨? 4. çÜÆøf G…§æþ$Mæü$ "MæüÐèþ$Ìê! Ðèþ$¯èþ… B Væü¨ÌZ Mæü*Ææÿ$a…§é…' A…r$¯èþ²¨.

c. Given below are the imperative forms of some verbs. Rewrite them

changing into past tense, future tense and present negative with ¯óþ¯èþ$ and MæüÐèþ$Ë as subjects, and in hortative with Ðèþ$¯èþ… as subject.

í³Ë$! Æ>Æÿ$$!

MæüË$! ™èþyæþ$!

Hyæþ$! ™èþ$yæþ$!

Ìôý! Byæþ$!

Æ>! ç³yæþ$!

Model

¯èþyæþ$: Past tense Present negative Future tense Hortative

¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþyìþ^é¯èþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþyæþÐèþr… Ìôý§æþ$ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯èþyæþ$Ý뢯èþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… ¯èþyæþ$§éª….

çÜÆæÿâæý ¯èþyìþ_…¨. çÜÆæÿâæý ¯èþyæþÐèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. çÜÆæÿâæý ¯èþyæþ$çÜ$¢…¨

VOCABULARY

™èþ$yæþ$^Œþ í³Ë$^Œþü A™èþ¢Äæý$Å ç³Ë$Mæü$ ò³§æþªV> Ððþ$$çßý… Hyæþ$^Œþ FÇMóü¯óþü

¯èþyæþ$^Œþ ¯ðþÐèþ$èV> ÐèþÆæÿ…yé Ìôý^Œþ Fyæþ$^Œþ ™ðþÆæÿ$^Œþ ò³…§æþÌêyìþüü

wipe away call (v) aunt respond loudly face weep for no reason

503

walk (v) gently varanda get up sweep (v) open early

An Intensive Course in Telugu

GRAMMAR NOTES



34.1. In this lesson the ^Œþüc ending bases are introduced. These bases may be in the following shapes. shape (i) : *(C) V piluc - í³Ë$^Œþü 'to call' _ C uc shape (ii) : *(C) V_ C uc ¶∂uc - Fyæþ$^Œþ 'to sweep' shape (iii) : *(C) Vc l£c - Ìôý^Œþ 'to get up'

í³Ë$^Œþ+C…+¨ = í³Í^Œþ+C…+¨ = í³Í_…¨ (33.3) ‘She called.’ piluc+iM+di = pilic+iM+di 34.2. The ^Œþüc ending bases drop their final ^Œþüc when they are used in non-honorific imperative singular. (cf.8.2.2; 33.2)

í³Ë$^Œþ  í³Ë$! piluc  pilu ‘to call’ Fyæþ$^Œþ -  Fyæþ$! ¶∂uc  ¶∂u ‘to sweep!’ Ìôý^Œþ  - Ìôý! l£c  l£ ‘to get up!’ 34.3. The ^Œþüc ending bases change their final ^Œþüc to ÐŒþþv when followed by a suffix beginning with Aüa or Bþ¡ (cf. ‹Üþs ending bases 33.5.) í³Ë$^Œþ+Ar… = í³Ë^Œþ+Ar… (33.3) = í³ËÐŒþ+Ar… = í³ËÐèþr… piluc+a aM = pilac+a aM

= pilav+a aM = ‘calling’

™ðþÆæÿ$^Œþ+BÍ = ™ðþÆæÿ^Œþ+BÍ (33.3)

= ™ðþÆæÿÐŒþ+BÍ

= ™ðþÆæÿÐéÍ

teruc+¡li

= terav+¡li

= ‘one must open’

= terac+¡li

Fyæþ$^Œþ+Ar… = Fyæþ^Œþ+Ar… (33.3) = FyæþÐŒþ+Ar… = FyæþÐèþr… ¶∂uc+a aM = ¶∂ac+a aM

= ¶∂av+a aM = ‘sweeping’

Ìôý^Œþ+AMæü$

= ÌôýÐŒþ+AMæü$

= ÌôýÐèþMæü$

l£c+aku

= l£v+aku

= l£vaku

Ìôý^Œþ+BÍ

= ÌôýÐŒþ+BÍ

= ÌôýÐéÍ

l£c+¡li

= l£v+¡li

= l£v¡li

‘Don't get up.’ ‘One must get up.’

_______________________________



_ *C : consonant; V : long vowel; V short vowel; ( ) : optional 504

Lesson 34 34.4. The ^Œþüc ending bases change their final ^Œþüc to Ü ‹ þs when followed by a suffix beginning with ™Œþ tü.

í³Ë$^Œþ+™é+yæþ$ = í³Ë$‹Ü+™é+yæþ$ = í³Ë$Ýë¢yæþ$

‘He will call.’

piluc+t¡+∂u = pilus+t¡+∂u = pilust¡∂u

Fyæþ$^Œþ+™é+Ðèþ# = Fyæþ$‹Ü+™é+Ðèþ# = Fyæþ$Ýë¢Ðèþ# ¶∂uc+t¡+vu = ¶∂us+t¡+vu

‘You will sweep.’

= ¶∂ust¡vu

Ìôý^Œþ+™èþ$¯é²+¯èþ$ = Ìôý‹Ü+™èþ$¯é²+¯èþ$ = ÌôýçÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$

‘I am getting up.’

l£c+tunn¡+nu = l£s+tunn¡+nu = l£stunn¡nu

¯èþyæþ$^Œþ+C™óþ

= ¯èþyìþ^Œþ+C™óþ

naduc+it£

= na∂ic+it£

= ¯èþyìþ‹Ü+C™óþ = ¯èþyìþõÜ¢

‘If someone walks’ = na∂is+it£ = na∂ist£ (33.3; 33.4)

34.5. The final ^Œþ c becomes §Šþ d when followed by a suffix beginning with §Šþ d. (cf. 26.7)

í³Ë$^Œþ+§é… = í³Ë$§Šþ+§é… = í³Ë$§éª…

‘Let us call.’

piluc+d¡M = pilud+d¡M

Fyæþ$^Œþ+§é… = Fyæþ$§Šþ+§é… = Fyæþ$§éª…

‘Let us sweep.’

¶∂uc+d¡M = ¶∂ud+d¡M

Ìôý^Œþ+§é… = Ìôý§Šþ+§é… = Ìôý§éª…

‘Let us get up.’

l£c+d¡M = l£d+d¡M _ 34.6. The ^Œþ c ending bases of (C)VCuc [shape (ii) of 34.1] drop their second vowel Eþu when follwed by a suffix beginning with C i or æ– except the conditional suffix &C™óþþ-it£. Hyæþ$^Œþ+æ–+yæþ$ = HyŠþa+æ–+yæþ$ = Hyéayæþ$ ‘He wept.’ – – £∂uc+æ+∂u = £∂c+æ+∂u

Fyæþ$^Œþ+C…+¨ = FyŠþa+C…+¨ = Fyìþa…¨

‘She swept.’

¶∂uc+iM+di = ¶∂c+iM+di But the conditional forms of these bases are HyìþõÜ¢ £dist£ 'If someone weeps' and FyìþõÜ¢¢ ¶dist£ 'If someone sweeps' respectivaly 34.7. AÐèþ$ÃV>Ææÿ$þammag¡ru 'madam' is used by the people of lower strata to address and refer ladies of higher strata. 505

UNIT VI Lesson 35

{»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²¯èþ$

I AM TOASTING THE BREAD

MæüÐèþ$Ë : HÐèþ$…yîþ! CÐéÓâæý sìý휯èþ$Mæü$ {»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$çÜ$¢¯é². †¯èþ…yìþ.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ò³¯èþ… »êV> ÐóþyìþV> E…¨.

My dear! I am toasting the bread toast for breakfast. Please have it. If you toast it like this, it is no good. You have to toast it for some more time. That's enough. Don't over toast it. See, it is burning. The pan is very hot.

Æ>Ðèþ* : ^èþ*yæþ$ GsêÏ Ðèþ*yéaÐø? {»ñýyŠþ M>Ëar… Csêϯé? ÆæÿÒ! C…MöMæü {»ñýyŠþ ™óþ!

See how you have burnt it. Is this the way of toasting the bread? Ravi! Get another bread.

Æ>Ðèþ*Æ>Ðèþ# : CÌê M>ÍõÜ¢ »êVæü$…yæþ§æþ$. C…Mö…^ðþ… M>Ë$a. Ðèþ*yæþaMæü$. A§æþ$Vø Ðèþ*yæþ$™èþ$¯èþ²¨.

506

Lesson 35

ÆæÿÑ

: ™ðþÝ뢯èþ$ yæþº$¾ÍÐèþÓ…yìþ.

Æ>Ðèþ* : C§æþ$Vø! ™ö…§æþÆæÿV> ™óþÐéÍ Æ>! ÆæÿÑ

: AÆÿ$$§æþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$ËMæü$ B MösZÏ _ËÏÆæ E…yæþ§æþ$.

I will get it. Please give me money. Here it is. You have to get it soon. You will not have change for five rupees in that shop.

Æ>Ðèþ* : C…MöMæü MösZÏ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a.

Change it in another shop.

ÆæÿÑ

Why is this five-rupees note torn like this? If you hold it, it will be torn further. This will not be accepted. It will be accepted. You go.

: D ¯ør$ CsêÏ _°W…§ó þ …? ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ. ç³r$tMæü$…sôý C…Mö…^ðþ… _¯èþ$Væü$™èþ$¯èþ²¨. C¨ Ðèþ*Ææÿ§æþ$.

Æ>Ðèþ* : Ðèþ*Ææÿ$™èþ$…¨. ÐðþâæýåÆ>! MæüÐèþ$Ë : C糚yæþ$ B ¯ør$ Ðèþ*Ææÿar… G…§æþ$Mæü$? ¯é §æþVæüÆY ÿæ _ËÏÆÿæ E…¨. B Mört™þè °Mìü Ðèþ$¯èþ… Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ »êMîü E¯é²…. Æ>Ðèþ* : B »êMîü ¡Ç…¨ Væü§é! Ðèþ$äå A糚 ^óþÔéÐé? MæüÐèþ$Ë : E§æþÄæý$… Mæü*ÆæÿV>Äæý$Ë$ ™ðþ^éa¯èþ$. Æ>Ðèþ* : çÜÆóÿ! Ðèþ$$…§æþ$ B A糚 ¡Ææÿ$a! Ñ$Wͯèþ yæþº$¾™ø {»ñýyŠþ ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! MæüÐèþ$Ë : Üç *PË$ G糚yæþ$ ™ðþÆæÿ$Ýë¢Æÿæ $? X™èþ¯èþ$ çÜ*PÌZÏ ^óþÆ>aÍVæü§é! 507

Why do you change that fiverupees note now? I have change. We owe two rupees to that shop-keeper. The previous loan was cleared. Did you borrow again? I brought vegetables in the morning. All right! You clear his account first. Get bread with the balance amount. When will the school be reopened? We have to admit Gita in the school.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>Ðèþ* : ^óþÆæÿ$§éª…. Æóÿõ³ ™ðþÆæÿ$Ýë¢Ææÿ$. X™èþ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ A¯èþ²Äæý$ÅÐéâæýå Üç *PÌZÏ ^óþÆ>¢¯þè $. Æ>Ðèþ* : HyæþÐèþMæüÐèþ*Ã, A¯èþ²Äæý$Ũ òßýOçÜ*PË$ Væü§é! D çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ… GÍÐðþ$…rÈ çÜ*PÌZÏ^þó Ææÿ$. ™èþÆ>Ó™èþ òßýOçÜ*PË$. ÆæÿÑ

: ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ*! C§æþ$Vø {»ñýyŠþ. B Mör$t §æþVæüYÆæÿ çßýyéÐèþ#yìþV> E…¨.

Æ>Ðèþ* : G…§æþ$Mæü$Æ> çßýyéÐèþ#yìþ? ÆæÿÑ

: C…§éMæü ò³§æþª V>ÍÐé¯èþ Ðèþ_a…¨ Væü§é! A糚yæþ$ B Mör$t ç³…¨Ç Mæü*Í…¨.

X™èþ : ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ*! D ™èþ$´ëMîü õ³Ër… Ìôý§æþ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ õ³Ëa…yìþ. ÆæÿÑ

: H¨? ¯éMæü$ CÐèþÓÐóþ! ¯óþ¯èþ$ õ³Ë$Ý뢯èþ$. Ðèþ$äå ±Móü CÝ뢯óþ.

We will admit (her). The school will be reopend tomorrow only. I will join the school where the elder brother is studying. Don't cry, my dear! Your brother is in a high school. You join the elementary school this year. Later you can go to high school. Daddy! Here is the bread. There is some commotion at that shop. Why? There has been a high gale and rain, you know! Then the outer roof (pandal) of the shop fell down. Daddy! This gun is not working. You please fire it. Let me see! Give it me. I will fire it. Don't worry. I will give it back to you.

DRILLS a. Repetition drill

{»ñýyæþ$z M>Í…¨. çÜ$ÖÌ {»ñýyæþ$z M>Ía…¨. çÜÆæÿâê! {»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$a. Vøï³! {»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²Ðé?

ò³çÜÆæÿr$t Ðèþ*yìþ…¨. BÐðþ$ ò³çÜÆæÿr$t Ðèþ*yìþa…¨. ¯é ^öM>P Ðèþ*Ç…¨. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ¯é ^öM>P Ðèþ*Æ>aÐèþ#. 508

Lesson 35

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó {»ñýyæþ$z M>ÍõÜ¢ »êVæü$…yæþ§æþ$. {»ñýyŠþ M>Ëar… Csêϯé? ¯óþ¯èþ$ Ððþ$$¯èþ² çÜ*PÌZÏ ^óþÆ>¯èþ$. ¯èþ¯èþ$² Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ çÜ*PÌZÏ ^óþÆ>aÆæÿ$. ´ùÎçÜ$Ë$ ™èþ$´ëMîüË$ õ³Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. í³ËÏË$ ™èþ$´ëMîüË$ õ³ÌêaÆæÿ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ D Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$Mìü _ËÏÆæÿ Ðèþ*Ææÿa…yìþ. ÔèýÆæÿà ÐéÆ>°Mìü JMæü ^öM>P Ðèþ*Ææÿ$Ýë¢yæþ$. A™èþ¯èþ$ Æøl ^öM>P Ðèþ*Ææÿayæþ$ ± ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… CÌê ™óþ! ¯óþ¯èþ$ ±MöMæü MæüË… ™ðþ^éa¯èþ$; ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ™óþÌôý§æþ$. Æóÿç³# ÔèýÆæÿà Ðèþ$¯èþMæü$ JMæü VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ… ™ðþÝë¢yæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ºyìþMìü MæüË… ™óþÐèþr…Ìôý§æþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™óþÐéÍ. M>ÐéÍÆ>! M>ÐéÌôý!

¯é »êMîü ¡Ç…¨. ¯óþ¯èþ$ »êMîü ¡Æ>a¯èþ$. ¯é ™èþ$´ëMîü õ³Í…¨. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™èþ$´ëMîü õ³Ë$a. °¯èþ² ç³…¨Ç Mæü*Í…¨. D ç³…¨Ç° GÐèþÆæÿ$ Mæü*ÌêaÆæÿ$? ç³âæý$å Æ>Ë$™èþ$¯é²Æÿ$$. Æ>Ðèþ$$ ç³NË$ Æ>Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó BMæü$Ë$ Æ>Ë$a. »êº* CÌê Æ>Æ>! Vøï³ Ar$ ^èþ*yæþÆ>! ´ë´ë CÌê Æ>Ðóþ! çÜÆæÿâê! JMæü ´ër ´ëyæþÐóþ! CÝ뢯èþ$Æ>! CÝ뢯óþ!

b. Build-up drill.

E…r$…¨. _ËÏÆæÿ E…r$…¨. I§æþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$ËMæü$ _ËÏÆæÿ E…r$…¨. A™èþ° §æþVæüYÆæÿ I§æþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$ËMæü$ _ËÏÆæÿ E…r$…¨.

E¯é²¯èþ$. »êMîü E¯é²¯èþ$. ¯éË$Væü$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ »êMîü E¯é²¯èþ$. A™èþ°Mìü ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¯éË$Væü$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë$ »êMîü E¯é²¯èþ$.

c. Substitution drill. Model (i)

Model (ii)

ÔèýÆæÿà ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ™ðþ^éayæþ$. Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$&Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a ÔèýÆæÿà Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$ Ðèþ*Æ>ayæþ$. M>Æÿ$$™èþ…&M>Ë$a »êMîü&¡Ææÿ$a ™èþ$´ëMîü&õ³Ë$a

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó {»ñýyæþ$z M>ÍõÜ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ* M>Ë$Ý뢯èþ$. Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$&Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$ Ðèþ*ÇõÜ¢ ¯óþ¯èþ* Ðèþ*Ææÿ$Ý뢯þè $. ç³…¨Ç Mæü*Ë$a E´ëÃ&Ðèþ*yæþ$a »êMîü&¡Ææÿ$a 509

An Intensive Course in Telugu

d. Response drill. Model (i)

Model (ii)

çÜ$Væü$×ý H… ^óþÄæý*Í? (Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$&Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a) ç³…¨Ç G…§æþ$Mæü$ Mæü*Í…¨? (ÔèýÆæÿÃ) çÜ$Væü$×ý Ææÿ*´ëÆÿ$$ Ðèþ*Æ>aÍ. ÔèýÆæÿà Mæü*Ìêayæþ$. 1. A™èþ¯èþ$ H… ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ? (™èþ$´ëMîü&õ³Ë$a) 1. ´ëç³ çÜ*PÌZÏ GÌê ^óþÇ…¨? 2. Ðèþ$¯èþ… H… ^ðþÄæý*ÅÍ? (»êMîü&¡Ææÿ$a) (Ðèþ* ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$) 3. }«§þæ ÆŠÿ H… ^óþõÜ¢ »êVæü$…r$…¨?(CË$Ï&Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a) 2. ç³#çÜM¢ üæ … G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ðèþ*Ç…¨? (¯óþ¯èþ$) 4. Ò$ ¯é¯èþ²V>Ææÿ$ H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? 3. E´ëà G…§æþ$Mæü$ Ðèþ*yìþ…¨? (çÜÆæÿâæý) (ç³âæý$å&™óþ) 4. »êMîü GÌê ¡Ç…¨? (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) e. Tranfsformation drill. Model (i)

Model (ii)

D ^öM>P Ðèþ*Ææÿ$™èþ$…¨. (A™èþ¯èþ$) A™èþ¯èþ$ D ^öM>P¯èþ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$Ýë¢yæþ$. 1. B CË$Ï Mæü*Í…¨. (GÐèþÆø) 2. ´ëç³ çÜ*PÌZÏ ^óþÇ™óþ Ðèþ$…_¨. (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) 3. {»ñýyæþ$z Ðèþ*yìþ™óþ »êVæü$…yæþ§æþ$. (¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó) 4. D »êMîüË$ ¡Ææÿr… G糚yæþ$? (A™èþ¯èþ$)

A™èþ¯èþ$ D ¯ør$ Ðèþ*Ææÿayæþ$. D ¯ør$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ§æþ$. 1. D »êMîü ¡ÇõÜ¢ Ðèþ$…_¨. 2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ D MæüË… Ðèþ*Ææÿ$Ý뢯èþ$. 3. A™èþ°² M>ÌôýiÌZ ^óþÆ>aÍ. 4. ¯óþ¯èþ$ {»ñýyæþ$z M>Ëar…Ìôý§æþ$.

Model (iii)

1. »êMîü ¡Æ>aÐé? 2. MæüË… Ðèþ*Æ>a¯èþ$.

3. A™èþ°² M>ÌôýiÌZ ^óþÆ>a…. 4. {»ñýyæþ$z M>ËaÌôý§æþ$.

EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the suggested forms of the verbs given in the parentheses. 1. Vøí³ °¯èþ² ™èþ$´ëMîü .......... (M>Ë$a) (past) 2. çÜÆøf C糚yæþ$ ™èþ$´ëMîü ......... (õ³Ë$a) (present) 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³NË$ ....... (Æ>Ë$a) ¯óþ¯èþ$ HÆ>¢¯èþ$. (conditional) 4. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ......... (™óþ) Ðèþ$…_¨ M>§æþ$. (gerund) 510

Lesson 35

b. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model

D ç³âæý$å Æ>ÌêÄôý$…? (ÆæÿÐèþ$) 2. ò³çÜÆæÿr$t Ðèþ*yæþ$™èþ$¯èþ²§óþ…? (WÇf) ÆæÿÐèþ$ Æ>Ía…¨. 3. B ç³…¨Ç Mæü*Í…§óþ…? (Ðéâæý$å) 1. }«§þæ ÆŠÿ B M>ÌôýiÌZ ^óþÆæÿ$™èþ$¯é²yóþ…? (¯óþ¯èþ$) 4. Ðèþ$¯èþ »êMîü ¡Ææÿr…Ìôý§óþ… (Ðèþ$¯èþ…) c. Change the following sentences as shown in the model. Model

çÜ$Væü$×ý¯èþ$ M>ÌôýiÌZ ^óþÆæÿayæþ… Ðèþ$…_¨. 2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó M>Æÿ$$™é°² M>ÍõÜ¢ ^èþ*Ý뢯èþ$. çÜ$Væü$×ý M>ÌôýiÌZ ^óþÆæÿr… Ðèþ$…_¨. 3. B BMæü$˯èþ$ Æ>ÌêaÍ. 1. D ™èþ$´ëMîü° GÌê õ³Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? 4. D »êMîü° GÌê ¡Æ>aÐèþ#? d. Make sentences with the present negative, future tense, hortative, past tense and obligatory forms of the following verbs with Ðèþ$¯èþ… as subject and the suggested nouns as objects. Verb

Object

M>Ë$a Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a Æ>Ë$a Mæü*Ë$a ™óþ

Ñ$¯èþç³r$t çÜ…` ç³NË$ ^ðþr$t VæüyìþÄæý*Ææÿ…

Model Verb M>Ë$a Present negative Future tense Hortative Past tense Obligatory Past neg. Future neg.

Ñ$¯èþç³r$t Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>Ëar… Ìôý§æþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>Ë$Ý뢅. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>Ë$§éª…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>Ìêa…. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>ÌêaÍ. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>ËaÌôý§æþ$. Ðèþ$¯èþ… Ñ$¯èþç³r$t M>Ëa…. Object

511

An Intensive Course in Telugu

VOCABULARY

{»ñýyæþ$z/{»ñýyŠþ M>Ë$aü C…Mö…^ðþ… Ðèþ*yæþ$a Ðèþ*yæþ$ ò³¯èþ… ™óþ &Æ> _ËÏÆæÿ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a ¯ør$ _¯èþ$Væü$ Ðèþ*Ææÿ$üü »êMîüE…yæþ$ »êMîü ¡Ææÿ$

A糚^ðþÆÿ$$Å raise a loan A糚 loan; debt ¡Ææÿ$a clear (a loan) (v.t.) ^óþÆæÿ$a join (v.t.) ^óþÆæÿ$ join (v.i.) òßýOçÜ*PË$ high school GÍÐðþ$…rÈ elementary school çÜ*PË$ V>ÍÐé¯èþ storm; rain with gales ç³…¨Ç pandal Mæü*Ë$ collapse; fall down ™èþ$´ëMîü gun õ³Ë$ blast (v.i.) &AÐóþ a feminine inferior ad-

bread fry (v.t.); toast (v.t.); burn (v.t.) some more burn (v.t.) burn (v.i.) frying pan bring a masculine inferior address marker. money in the form of coins; change (n) change (v.t.) note (n) be torn change (v.i.) owe (v.i.) loan; debt be cleared (as a loan)

dress marker.

õ³Ë$a &H2

blast (v.t.) a feminine inferior address marker

GRAMMAR NOTES 35.1. In this lesson some intransitive verbs and their transitive counterparts are introduced.

M>Ë$ k¡lu 'burn; fry' M>Ë$a k¡lcu

'make something to get burnt/fried/toasted'

Intransitive verbs are those which do not take direct object (20.2.3).

{»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$™èþ$¯èþ²¨.

bre∂∂u k¡lutunnadi. 'The bread is getting toasted.' 512

Lesson 35 The verb may be inherently inrtansitive (´ù pª 'go'; Æ> r¡ 'come'; M>Ë$ k¡lu 'get burnt'; fÆæÿ$Væü$ jarugu 'move aside' etc.) or inherently transitive (†¯èþ$ tinu 'eat'; ™éVæü$ t¡gu 'drink' etc.) There are derived transitives also. They are derived from a intransitive verb by adding a transitivising suffix. M>Ë$a k¡lcu is one such derived transitive as it is derived by adding &^èþ$ -cu to the intransitive verb M>Ë$ k¡lu 'to get burnt/fried/toasted'. 35.2. &^èþ$ü-cu is added to yæþ$ü∂u, Ë$ülu, Ææÿ$üru ending intransitive bases to form transitives. The final vowel of these bases is droped when &^èþ$ücu is added. Intransitive

Ðèþ*yæþ$

m¡∂u ‘to burn; to char’

Transitive

Ðèþ*yæþ$+^èþ$ = Ðèþ*yŠþ+^èþ$ = Ðèþ*yæþ$a m¡∂u+cu = m¡∂+cu = m¡∂cu ‘to burn/char something’

M>Ë$

k¡lu ‘to burn/fry/toast’

M>Ë$+^èþ$ = M>ÌŒý+^èþ$ = M>Ë$a k¡lu+cu = k¡l+cu = k¡lcu ‘to burn/fry/toast something’

Ðèþ*Ææÿ$

m¡ru ‘to change’

D {»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$a.

Ðèþ*Ææÿ$+^èþ$ = Ðèþ*ÆŠÿ+^èþ$ = Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a m¡ru+cu = m¡r+cu = m¡rcu ‘to change something’ ‘Toast this bread.’

• bre∂∂u k¡lcu.

´ë糯èþ$ çÜ*PÌZÏ ^óþÆ>aÍ.

‘(We) have to admit Papa in the school.’

p¡panu sk¶llª c£rc¡li.

¯óþ¯èþ$ D ^öM>P¯èþ$ Ðèþ*Ææÿa¯èþ$.

‘I will not change this shirt.’

n£nu • cokk¡nu m¡rcanu. The final yæþ$aü-∂cu, Ææÿ$aürcu, and Ë$aülcu of the bases become yæþ$‹Ü&üdus, Ææÿ$‹Üü---rus and Ë$‹Ü&ülus respectively when followed by the conditional suffix C™óþü--- it£ and any other suffix beginning with ™Œþ&üt or §Šþþd. 35.3.

M>Ë$a+™é+¯èþ$ = M>Ë$‹Ü+™é+¯èþ$ = M>Ë$Ý뢯èþ$. k¡lcu+t¡+nu = k¡lus+t¡+nu = k¡lust¡nu. 513

‘I will burn/fry/toast (something).’

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a+™èþ$…+¨ = Ðèþ*Ææÿ$‹Ü+™èþ$…+¨ = Ðèþ*Ææÿ$çÜ$¢…¨.

‘She will change (somem¡rcu+tuM+di = m¡rus+tuM+di = m¡rcutuMdi. thing).’ Ðèþ*yæþ$a+C™óþ = Ðèþ*yæþ$‹Ü+C™óþ = Ðèþ*yìþÜ‹ +C™óþ=Ðèþ*yìþõÜ¢ ‘if someone burns/chars m¡∂cu+it£ = m¡∂us+it£ = m¡∂is+it£ = m¡∂ist£ something’(33.3; 33.4.) (»êMîü)¡Ææÿ$a+§é… = ¡Ææÿ$‹Ü+§é… = ¡Ææÿ$§Šþ+§é… = ¡Ææÿ$§éª…. ‘Let us clear the (b¡k•)t•rcu+d¡M = t•rus+d¡M = t•rud+daM = t•rudd¡M. debt.’(26.7) 35.4. Another monosyllabic base ™óþüt£ 'bring' is introduced in this lesson (Æ>ür¡, and ´ùüpª are the other monosyllubic bases introduced so far.). The pronunciation of the vowel of this base is like æ–.

™óþ! ™óþ…yìþ! ™óþÐéÍ. ™óþÐèþr…. ™óþÌôý§æþ$.

t£! [tæ–] t£M∂i (t£+aM∂i) [tæ– M∂i] t£v¡li [tæ– v¡li] t£va aM [tæ– va M] t£l£du [tæ– l£du]

‘Bring!’ ‘Please bring!’ (3.13.1) ‘One should bring.’ (20.1.1) ‘bringing’ (25.1.1) ‘did not bring’ (29.2)

35.4.1. ™óþüt£ becomes (i) ™ðþÜ‹ üt£s before a suffix beginning with ™Œþüt or §Šþüd and (ii) ™ðþ^Œþa-- tecc- before a suffix beginning with Cüi or æ–

™óþ+™é+¯èþ$ = ™ðþ‹Ü+™é+¯èþ$

‘I will bring.’

t£+t¡+nu = tes+t¡+nu

™óþ+§é… = ™ðþ‹Ü+§é… = ™ðþ§Šþ+§é… = ™ðþ§éª…

‘Let us bring’ (26.7).

t£+d¡M = tes+d¡M = ted+d¡M = tedd¡M

™óþ+C™óþ = ™ðþ‹Ü+C™óþ = ™ðþ‹Ü+™óþ = ™ðþõÜ¢

‘if someone brings’ (33.4).

t£+it£ = tes+it£ = tes+t£ = test£

™óþ+C…+¨ = ™ðþ^Œþa+C…+¨ = ™ðþ_a…¨

‘She brought.’

t£+iM+di = tecc+iM+di = tecciMdi ™óþ+æ–+¯èþ$ = ™ðþ^Œþa+æ–+¯èþ$ = ™ðþ^éa¯èþ$ t£+æ–+nu = tecc+æ–+nu = teccæ–nu

‘I brought.’

Remember that CÐèþ#Ó ivvu 'give'; Æ>þr¡ 'come' and ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>þt•sukur¡ 'bring' also behave in a similar way in the same environments. 514

Lesson 35

CÐèþ#Ó = C‹Ü&, C^Œþa ivvu = is- and icc- (33.6) Æ> = Ðèþ‹Ü&, Ðèþ^Œþa r¡ = vas- and vacc- (21.4; 26.6 (v); 28.5) ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ> = ¡çÜ$Mø‹Ü&, ¡çÜ$Mø^Œþa t•sukur¡ = t•sukªs- and t•sukªcc 35.5. Æ>ür¡ is the masculine inferior address marker (cf.2.10; 8.13). Æ>ür¡ has a variant in &AÆ>üar¡ (23.9) which occurs only with the imperative affirmative inferior singular form of the verb. Æ>ür¡ occurs with other forms. (See 35.7) C¨ HÑ$sìýÆ>? idi £mi ir¡? ‘What is this?’ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐðþâêåÍÆ>! n£nu ve˚˚¡lir¡! ‘I have to go.’ C¨ Mö™èþ¢ MæüË…Æ>! idi kotta kalaMr¡! ‘This is new pen!’ Ððþâæý$å+AÆ> = ÐðþâæýåÆ>! ve˚˚u+ar¡ = ve˚˚ar¡! ‘Go!’ (2.12.2; 23.9) Æ>+AÆ> = Æ>Æ> r¡+ar¡ = r¡r¡ ‘Come!’ (3.13.1; 23.9) 35.6. &Hü---£ is the feminine inferior address marker. (cf. r¡ in 35.5.) &Hü-- £ has a variant in &AÐóþü--- av£ which occurs only with the imperative affirmative inferior singular form of the verb. &Hü---£ occurs with other forms. (See 35.7) C¨ HÑ$sôý? (HÑ$sìý+H) idi £mi £? (£mi i+£) 2.12.2 ‘What is this?’ ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÐðþâêåÌôý! (ÐðþâêåÍ+H) n£nu ve˚˚¡l£! (ve˚˚¡li+£) 2.12.2. ‘I have to go.’ C¨ Mö™èþ¢ MæüËÐóþ$! (MæüË…+H) idi kotta kalam£! 2.11. ‘This is a new pen.’ AÐóþ av£ occures with imperative affirmative inferior singular form of the verb. †¯èþ$+AÐóþ = †¯èþÐóþ! tinu+av£ = tinav£! (2.12.2) ‘Eat! (inf. fem.)’ Æ>+AÐóþ = Æ>Ðóþ! r¡+av£ = r¡v£! (3.13.1) ‘Come! (inf. fem.)’ 35.7.

The inferior markers, address markers and inferior pronouns such as &AÆ>ür¡ (23.9); &Æ>ü&r¡ (35.5.); &Hü&£, AÐóþüav£ and Ðéyæþ$üv¡∂u and A¨üadi are used normally to address/refer to intimate friends, younger and intimate persons within the family and from families which are quite intimate to the speaker. 35.8.

Notice the use of the dative case suffix in the sentences like:

B Mört™èþ°Mìü Ðèþ$¯èþ… »êMîü E¯é²….

‘We owe (some money) to ¡ ko  ataniki manaM b¡k• unn¡M. that shop-keeper.’ I§æþ$ Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$ËMæü$ _ËÏÆæÿ Ìôý§æþ$. ‘Change is not available aidu r¶p¡yalaku cillara l£du. for five rupees.’ (20.12) 515

An Intensive Course in Telugu

REVIEW 6 Lesson 36

C§óþ¯èþ…yîþ Ðèþ* ´÷Ë…!

THIS IS OUR FARM, SIR!

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : C§óþ¯èþ…yîþ Ðèþ* ´÷Ë….

This is our farm, sir.

´ë{™ø : G°² GMæüÆ>Ë…yîþ?

How many acres is it, sir?

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : ¯éË$Væü$ GMæüÆ>Ë$. Ò$§óþÐèþNÆæÿ$ »êº*?

Four acres. Which place do you hail from?

´ë{™ø : Ðèþ* ÐèþNÆæÿ$ ç³NÈ §æþVæüYÆæÿ. JÇÝëÞÌZ E…¨.

My village is near Puri. It is in Orissa.

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : C…™èþ §æþ*Ææÿ… Ðèþ^éaÆóÿ…?

You came very far?

516

Lesson 36

´ë{™ø : Ò$ Æ>çÙ‰… ^èþ*yæþsê°Mìü Ðèþ^éa¯èþ$.

I came to see your state.

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : HÄôý$ Fâæý$å ^èþ*ÔéÆæÿ$ »êº*?

Which places do you seen?

´ë{™ø : ^éÌê Fâæý$å ^èþ*Ôé¯èþ$. ÑÔéQç³r²…, ÑfÄæý$Ðéyæþ, Væü$…r*Ææÿ$, J…VøË$ ^èþ*Ôé¯èþ$. C…M> ^èþ*yéÍÞ¯èþ Fâæý$å ^éÌê E¯é²Æÿ$$. D G§æþ$ªË$ Ò$Ðóþ¯é?

I saw many places. I saw Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Guntur, and Ongole. But there are many places yet to be seen. Are these oxen yours?

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : AÐèþ#¯èþ$ »êº*!

Yes sir.

´ë{™ø : BÐèþ#Ë$ Væü*yé E¯é²Äæý*?

Do you have cows also?

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : JMæü BÐèþ#, JMæü Vóü§ðþ E¯é²Æÿ$$ »êº*!

I have a cow and a buffalo, sir.

´ë{™ø : Ò$ ´÷Ë…ÌZ HÐóþ$Ñ$ ç³…yæþ$™éÆÿ$$?

What do you grow in your land?

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : Ððþ$rtç³…r˱² ç³…yæþ$™éÄæý$…yîþ! Ðèþ$$QÅ…V> Ððþ$Ææÿç³, Mæü…¨, ´÷V>Mæü$ GMæü$PÐèþV> ç³…yìþÝ뢅.

We have all dry crops, sir. We grow mainly chillies, red-gram and tobacco.

´ë{™ø : ÐèþÇ ç³…yæþ§é?

Does't paddy grow here?

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : C¨ Ððþ$rt ¿æý*Ñ$ Væü§é! Ðèþ*V>°ÌZ Ðè þ Ç ç ³ …yæ þ $™è þ $…¨. Ðè þ *Mæ ü $ ç³…rËMæü$ ÐèþÆ>ÛÌôý B«§éÆæÿ….

This is dry land, you see. Paddy grows only in wet lands. We have to depend on rain for our crops. When do you plough the land?

´ë{™ø : ´÷Ë… G糚yæþ$ §æþ$¯èþ$²™éÆæÿ…yîþ? 517

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : D ¯ðþËÌZ §æþ$¯é²Í. Æðÿ…yæþ$ Ðèþ$*yæþ$ ÆøkÌZÏ §æþ$¯èþ$²™é…. D Üç …Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ… Cç ³ µsì ý §éM> Ðè þ $…_ Ðè þ Æ>Û Ë $ Mæü$ÆæÿÐèþÌôý§æþ…yîþ! C…MöMæü ¯ðþËÌZ Ðèþ$…_ ÐèþÆæÿ…Û Mæü$ÆæÿÐèþMæü´ù™óþ MæüçÙ…t . ´ë{™ø : Ðèþ* ÐðþçO³# Ðèþ$…_ ÐèþÆ>ÛË$ Mæü$ÇÔéÆÿ$$. ^ðþÆæÿ$Ðèþ#ÌôýÒ ÌôýÐé CMæüPyæþ? Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : Cr$ÐðþOç³# ^ðþÆæÿ$Ðèþ#Ë$ ÌôýÐèþ…yîþ. Ðèþ^óþa çÜ…Ðèþ™èþÞÆæÿ… ¯éV>Ææÿ$j¯èþÝëVæüÆŠÿ M>ËÐèþ ±âæý$å ÐèþÝë¢Äæý$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. A糚yæþ$ JMæü GMæüÆæÿ… Ðèþ*V>° ^óþ§éª… A¯èþ$Mæü$…r$¯é²¯èþ$. ´ë{™ø : Ððþ$$™èþ¢… Ðèþ*V>° ^ðþÄæý$ÅÐèþ^èþ$aMæü§é! Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : GÌê ^ðþÄæý$ůèþ…yîþ? ^éÌê yæþº$¾ M>ÐéÍ. Cç³µsìýMóü »êÅ…Mæü$ÌZ A糚 ¡çÜ$Mæü$¯é²¯èþ$. B A糚 G糚yæþ$ ¡Ææÿ$™èþ$…§ø! ¯éMæü$ B A糚 ¡ÆæÿarÐóþ$ MæüçÙt…V> E…¨. ´ë{™ø : Ò$ ç³MæüP ´÷Ë…ÌZ »êÑ E…§óþ! H™èþ… Væü*yé E…¨.

518

We have to plough it in this month. We will plough it in two or three days. We did not have good rains so far during this year. It will lead to difficulties, if it does not rain for another month. There were good rains in our area. Don't you have any lakes here? There are no lakes in these areas. They say that we get water from Nagarjua Sagar canals. I am planning to convert one acre into wet land then. You can convert the entire land into wet land. Can't you? How can I do it, sir? A large amount of money is needed. I have already taken some loan from a bank. I don't know when that loan will be cleared. It has become very difficult for me to cleare that loan itself. There is well in the neighbouring land. Isn't it? There is a device also to draw the water from the well.

Lesson 36

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : AÐèþ#¯þè …yîþ! A糚yæþ³ç šyæþ$ B ±âôýå Ðóþ$… Væü*yé ´÷Ìê°Mìü ò³r$tMüæ $…sê…. ^èþ*yæþ…yìþ »êº*! BÄæý$¯èþ GÐèþÆø, Ñ$Ðèþ$ÃͲ í³Ë$çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

Yes. We draw water from that well sometimes for our land also. Look Babu! somebody is calling you.

´ë{™ø : çÜÆóÿ¯èþ…yîþ! ÐèþÝ뢯èþ$.

Okay, sir! I take leave.

Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å : Ðèþ$…_¨ »êº*!

Okay, Babu!

EXERCISES a. Fill up the blanks with the conditional forms of the verbs given in the parentheses.

1. ÐèþÆ>ÛË$ .......... (ç³yæþ$) ç³…rË$ ç³…yæþ$™éÆÿ$$. 2. ÆæÿÐèþ$ ç³NË$ ......... (MöÆÿ$$Å) ¯óþ¯èþ$ HÆ>¢¯èþ$. 3. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ........... (Æ>) çÜ$ÖË Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$…¨. 4. ´ë糯èþ$ çÜ*PÌZÏ .......... (^óþÆæÿ$a) Ðèþ$…_¨. 5. MæüÐèþ$Ë M>ïœ ......... (¡çÜ$Mø) ¯óþ¯èþ$ ¡çÜ$Mø¯èþ$. 6. Ðéâæý$å A¯èþ²… .......... (†¯èþ$) ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó †¯èþÐé? b. Answer the following questions using the cue words.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# H… ^óþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? (^öM>P&Ðèþ*Ææÿ$a) Vøí³ H… ^óþÝë¢yæþ$? ({»ñýyæþ$z&M>Ë$a) ´ëç³ H… ^óþçÜ$¢…¨? (™èþ$´ëMîü&õ³Ë$a) ¯èþ$ÐóþÓ… ^óþÝë¢Ðèþ#? ({»ñýyæþ$z&M>Ë$a) Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å H… ^óþÝë¢yæþ$? (´÷Ë…&^èþ*í³…^èþ$) ÎË H… ^óþçÜ$¢…¨? (A¯èþ²…&Ðèþyìþz…^èþ$)

c. Answer the following questions using the hortative forms of the verbs as shown in the model. Model

ÔèýÆæÿà HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? (´ëuæÿ…&^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#) ÔèýÆæÿà ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#§é… A…r$¯é²yæþ$. 519

An Intensive Course in Telugu

1. çÜÆæÿâæý HÐèþ$…r$¯èþ²¨? (ç³NË$&MöÆÿ$$Å) 4. ÆæÿÑ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? 2. ´ëç³ HÐèþ$…r$¯èþ²¨? (ç³…yæþ$&†¯èþ$) (FÆæÿ$&Ððþâæý$å) 3. ÆæÿÐèþ$ ™èþÐèþ$$Ãyæþ$ HÐèþ$…r$¯é²yæþ$? 5. Ðéâæý$å HÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$? (ÝëÄæý$…{™èþ…&Æ>) (íÜ°Ðèþ*&^èþ*yæþ$) d. (a) Read the following dialogue and frame similar dialogues using the phrases given below.

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : Vøï³! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó C糚yæþ$ »ñý…Væü$âæý*Ææÿ$ ÐðþâæýåÆ>§æþ*? Vøí³ : C糚yæþ$ GÌê Ððþâæýå¯èþ$? Æóÿç³# Ððþâꢯèþ$. 1. ç³NË$ MöÆÿ$$Å. 5. yæþº$¾ ¡çÜ$Mø 2. íÜ°Ðèþ* ^èþ*yæþ$ 6. E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>Æÿ$$ 3. ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ# 7. ºËÏ ¯ðþr$t 4. C…sìýMìü Æ> 8. »êMîü ¡Ææÿ$a (b) Read the following dialogue and frame similar dialogues using the phrases given in (a) above.

Æ>Ðèþ$$ : HÐèþ$…yîþ! Ò$Ç糚yæþ$ »ñý…Væü$âæý*Ææÿ$ ÐðþâæýåÆ>§æþ*? Vøí³ : C糚yðþÌê Ððþâæýå…? Æóÿç³# Ððþâꢅ. e. Give your responses to the following sentences in both ways as shown in the model. Model (i) (a) (b)

1. 2. Model (ii)

1. 2. 3.

ÔèýÆæÿà ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. 3. Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å ´÷Ë… §æþ$¯èþ$²™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Væü*yé ^èþ§æþÐèþ¯é? 4. çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# çÜ…` ¡çÜ$Mæü$…r$¯é²yæþ$. Ðóþ$… Væü*yé ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ*? 5. ÔéÅÐèþ$Ë ¿Zf¯èþ… ÐèþyìþzçÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. MæüÐèþ$Ë A¯èþ²… †…r$¯èþ²¨. 6. Ðéâæý$å BÌZ_çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. ÆæÿÐèþ$ E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯èþ²¨. 7. A™èþ¯èþ$ CMæüPyìþMìü ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. ÔèýÆæÿà °{§æþ´ù™éyæþ$. 4. ÆæÿÐèþ$ {»ñýyæþ$z M>Ë$çÜ$¢…¨. ÔèýÆæÿà °{§æþ´ù™èþ*E…sêyæþ$. 5. A™èþ¯èþ$ íÜ°Ðèþ*Ë$ ^èþ*Ýë¢yæþ$. ÆæÿÑ A¯èþ²… †…sêyæþ$. 6. A™èþ¯èþ$ ¯èþ¯èþ$² MæüË$Ýë¢yæþ$. çÜ$ÖË ´ëuæÿ… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$…¨. 7. ´ë™èþ 糨Ææÿ*´ëÄæý$Ë ¯ør$Mæü$ _ËÏÆæÿ Æ>Ðèþ$Äæý$Å ´÷Ë… §æþ$¯èþ$²™éyæþ$. Ðèþ*Ææÿ$çÜ$¢…¨. 520

Lesson 36

f. Combine the following pairs of sentences as shown in the model. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Ðéyæþ$ Ððþâæý$¢¯é²yæþ$. ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. Ðéyæþ$ Ððþâæý*¢ ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²yæþ$. çÜ$ÖË Ayæþ$Væü$™èþ$¯èþ²¨. ^ðþç³#¢¯èþ²¨. Ðéâæý$å ç³ÇVðü™èþ$¢™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ $™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$. Ò$Ææÿ$ Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$. í³ËÏË$ ¼òÜPr$Ï †…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. Mæü$MæüP¯èþ$ Möyæþ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$.

Model (ii)

¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ $. ѯèþ$. 2. Üç $ÖÌê! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó A¯èþ²… †¯èþ$. MæüÐèþ$Ë™ø Ðèþ*sêÏyþæ $. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ*¢ ѯèþ$. 3. ÆæÿÐèþ*! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó »ŸÐèþ$ÃWÆÿ$$Å. ¯èþ¯èþ$² ^èþ*yæþ$. 1. ºgêÆæÿ$ Ððþâæýå…yìþ. Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ…yìþ. 4. MæüÐèþ$Ìê! ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mø. ´ëuæÿ… ѯèþ$. Model (iii) ¯èþ$ÐöÓMæü ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#. B ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯éMìüÐèþ#Ó. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#™èþ$¯èþ² ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¯éMìüÐèþ#Ó. 1. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæü ç³…yæþ$ †…r$¯é²Ðèþ#. B ç³…yæþ$ HÑ$sìý? 2. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðèþ*rË$ A…r$¯é²Ðèþ#. B Ðèþ*rË$ ¯éMæü$ Ñ°í³…^èþr… Ìôý§æþ$. 3. ÔèýÆæÿà JMæü E™èþ¢Ææÿ… Æ>çÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$. B E™èþ¢Ææÿ… GÐèþÇMìü? 4. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó JMæü C…sZÏ E…r$¯é²Ðèþ#. B CË$Ï GMæüPyæþ$¯èþ²¨? g. Answer the following questions as shown in the model. Model (i)

1. 2. 3. 4.

CMæüPyìþMìü GÐèþÆæÿ$ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²Ææÿ$? CMæüPyìþMìü GÐèþÆæÿ* Æ>Ðèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. CÐéÓâæý GÐèþÆæÿ$ Ðèþ*sêÏyæþ$™èþ$¯é²Ææÿ$? ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó GÐèþÇ° ^èþ*çÜ$¢¯é²Ðèþ#? ÆæÿÑ GMæüP×ìý~…_ ÐèþçÜ$¢¯é²yæþ$? ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ´ëuæÿ… GÐèþÇMìü ^ðþç³#¢¯é²Ðèþ#?

Model (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 521

ÔèýÆæÿà Ðèþ^éayé? Æ>Ìôý§æþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ™ðþ^éaÐé? çÜ$Væü$× Î˯èþ$ í³Í_…§é? Ðé¯èþ Mæü$ÇíÜ…§é? ´ëç³ Hyìþa…§é?

An Intensive Course in Telugu

h. Rewrite the following as shown in the model. Model (i)

ÔèýÆæÿà §æþVæüYÆæÿ MæüË… Ìôý§æþ$; M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Ìôý§æþ$. ÔèýÆæÿà §æþVæüYÆæÿ MæüËÐóþ$ M>§æþ$ M>Æÿ$$™èþ… Væü*yé Ìôý§æþ$. 1. CÐéÓâæý ÔèýÆæÿà Æ>Ðèþr… Ìôý§æþ$; ÆæÿÐèþ$ Æ>Ðèþr… Ìôý§æþ$. 2. ¯óþ¯èþ$ ´ëË$ ™éVæü$™é¯èþ$; sîý ™éVæü$™é¯èþ$. 3. M>ÏçÜ$ÌZ çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# Ìôýyæþ$; ÔèýÆæÿà Ìôýyæþ$.

i. Complete the following conversations as shown in the model. Model (i)

1.

2.

3.

4.

MæüÐèþ$Ë : ÔéÆæÿ§é! D ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþ$Ðèþ#. ÆæÿÐèþ$ : ÔéÆæÿ§é! ±Mæü$ Ñ°í³…^èþr… Ìôý§é? MæüÐèþ$Ë °¯èþ$² ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$…r$¯èþ²¨. ÔéÆæÿ§æþ : MæüÐèþ$˯óþ ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$¯èþ$. MæüÐèþ$Ë : ¯óþ¯èþ$ ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$¯èþr… Ìôý§æþ$. Ðèþ*çÙtÆæÿ$V>Ææÿ$ ^èþ§æþÐèþÐèþ$…r$¯é²Ææÿ$. B Ðèþ*sôý ±™ø ^ðþç³#¢¯é²¯èþ$. ÆæÿÑ : ÔèýÆ>Ã! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# §æþVæüYÇMìü ´ù! Vøí³ : ....................... ÔèýÆæÿà : ....................... ÆæÿÑ : ....................... AÆæÿ$×ý : WÇgê! JMæü »ŸÐèþ$à WÆÿ$$Å. çÜÆøf : ....................... WÇf : ....................... AÆæÿ$×ý : ....................... ÆæÿÐèþ$ : Vøï³! ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ™ðþË$Væü$ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… ¡çÜ$Mæü$Æ>! ÆæÿÑ : ....................... Vøí³ : ....................... ÆæÿÐèþ$ : ....................... VúÇ : WÇgê! ÆæÿÑ ç³#çÜ¢Mæü… GMæüPyæþ$…§ø Ððþ™èþ$Mæü$! ÆæÿÐèþ$ : ....................... WÇf : ....................... VúÇ : ....................... 522

Lesson 36 Model (ii)

ÐéçÜ$ : çÜ$»ê¾Æ>Ðèþ# CMæüPyìþMìü Æ>ÐéÍ. Ðóþ×ý$ : AÆÿ$$™óþ ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Ðé×ìý~ ÆæÿÐèþ$ïéÍ. ÐéçÜ$ : ¯óþ¯èþ$ ÆæÿÐèþ$Ã…sôý¯óþ Ðéyæþ$ÐèþÝë¢yé? Ðóþ×ý$ : AÐèþ#¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó ÆæÿÐèþ$ïèþMæü´ù™óþ Ðéyæþ$ Æ>yæþ$. 1. ÐéçÜ$ : ÔèýÆæÿà ´ër ´ëyéÍ. 3. WÇf : MæüÐèþ$Ë ç³NË$ MöÄæý*ÅÍ. Ðóþ×ý$ : .................................. çÜ$Væü$× : .................................. ÐéçÜ$ : .................................. WÇf : .................................. Ðóþ×ý$ : .................................. çÜ$Væü$×ý: .................................. 2. çÜÆæÿâæý : BÐðþ$ ´ëË$ ¡çÜ$MøÐéÍ. 4. Ðé×ìý : çÜ$Væü$×ý Ðèþ*sêÏyéÍ. ÑÐèþ$Ë: .................................. WÇf : .................................. çÜÆæÿâæý : .................................. Ðé×ìý : .................................. ÑÐèþ$Ë: .................................. WÇf : .................................. VOCABULARY

´÷Ë… field, farm GMæüÆæÿ…ü acre ÑÔéQç³r²… Visakhapatnam J…VøË$ Ongole G§æþ$ª Ox BÐèþ# cow Vóü§ðþ buffalo ç³…yæþ$ ripe, yield (v.) Ððþ$rtç³…r dry crop Ðèþ$$QÅ…V> mainly Ððþ$Ææÿç³/Ñ$Ææÿç³ chillies Mæü…¨ red-gram ´÷V>Mæü$ tobacco ÐèþÇ paddy

H™èþ…

523

An Intensive Course in Telugu

Ðèþ*V>°/Ðèþ*V>×ìýü low lying land Ððþ$rt¿æý*Ñ$ ç³…r ÐèþÆæÿ…Û B«§éÆæÿ… §æþ$¯èþ$² ^ðþÆæÿ$Ðèþ#

with irrigation. dry land crop (n.) rain (n.) source, support (n.) plough (v.) lake, tank

M>ËÐèþ MæüçÙt…V> »êÑ H™èþ…

canal in a difficult manner well (n.) a device to draw water from wells.

ò³r$tMø

(with ±âæý$å) allow water to flow into (the field/ farm)

CULTURAL NOTE 36.1.

"»êº*!' is a polite and humble way of addressing men.

used to address male children (3.15).

524

It's also

Lesson 37

UNIT VII Lesson 37

MR.MUKHARJEE BECAME THE PRINCIPAL

Ðèþ$$QÈjV>Ææÿ$ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒý AÄæý*ÅÆæÿ$ ÔèýÆæÿà : ÆæÿÒ! GMæüPyìþMìü ´ù™èþ$¯é²Ðèþ#?

Ravi ! Where are you going?

ÆæÿÑ : Ðèþ$$QÈjV>Ç…sìýMìü ´ù™èþ$¯é²¯èþ$. BÄæý$¯èþ ÐéâæýÏ M>ÌôýiMìü {í³°Þ´ëË$ AÄæý*Åyæþ$ Væü§é!

I am going to Mr. Mukharjee's house. He is appointed as the principal of that college, you know! Oh!

ÔèýÆæÿà : AÌêV>! ÆæÿÑ : ±Mæü$ D ÑçÙÄæý$… ™ðþÍÄæý$§é? ÔèýÆæÿà : ¯éMæü$ H ÑçÙÄæý*Ë$ ™ðþÍÄæý$Ðèþ#. ¯óþ¯èþ$ Mìü…§æþsìý ÐéÆæÿ… ÐéâæýÏ C…sìýMìü ´ùÄæý*¯èþ$ Væü*yé! 525

Don't you know this information? I don't know anything. I had been to his house last week too.

An Intensive Course in Telugu

ÆæÿÑ

: °¯èþ² ¯éMæü$ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ ^ðþ´ëµyæþ$.

Mohan told me yesterday.

ÔèýÆæÿà : Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ GÐèþÆæÿ$?

Who is Mohan?

ÆæÿÑ

Don't you know Mohan?

: ±Mæü$ Ððþ*çßý¯Œþ ™ðþÍÄæý$§é?

ÔèýÆæÿà : K ™ð þ Ë$ç Ü $. Ðè þ $Ça´ùÄæ ý *¯è þ $. Ðèþ$$QÈj V>Ç A»ê¾Æÿ$$ Væü§æþ*!

Oh! I know him. I forgot it. He is Mukharjee's son. Isn't he?

ÆæÿÑ

Yes. Will you also come?

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. ¯èþ$Ðèþ#Ó Væü*yé ÐèþÝë¢Ðé?

ÔèýÆæÿà : 糧æþ ´ù§é…. AÆÿ$$™óþ Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ# ÐðþO‹Ü {í³°Þ´ëÌŒý AÐèþ#™éyæþ¯èþ²Ðèþ*r.

Let us go. Then Gopalarao will become the vice-principal.

ÆæÿÑ

: AÐèþ#¯èþ$. Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ#Mæü$ VæüÆæÿÓ… GMæü$PÐèþ. ™è ¯ è þ $ A…§æ þ ÇMæ ü …sô ý Vöç ³ µÐé×ì ý ~ A¯èþ$Mæü$…sêyæþ$.

Yes. Gopalarao is egoistic. He thinks that he is a greatman.

ÔèýÆæÿà : A…™óþM>§æþ$. A…§æþÆæÿ* ™èþ¯èþ Ðèþ*sôý ѯéÍ A¯èþ$Mæü$…sêyæþ$.

Not only that. He thinks that everybody should obey his words. But there is a lot of difference between Mr. Mukharjee and Gopalarao. You see, he became Principal now. When his colleagues go to his residence, he does not speak as principal. He speaks like a friend. All right. Let's not bother about him. Do we get a bus now? If there is no bus, it would be difficult to go.

ÆæÿÑ

: M>° Ðèþ$$QÈjV>ÇMîü, Vø´ëËÆ>Ðèþ#Mæü* ^éÌê ™óþyé E…¨. BÄæý$¯èþ C糚yæþ$ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒý AÄæý*Åyæþ$ Væü§é! ÐéâæýÏ M>Ìô ý i Ðéâæ ý $Ï C…sì ý Mì ü Ðð þ âô ý ¢ {í³°Þ´ëÌŒýV> Ðèþ*sêÏyæþyæþ$. JMæü õܲíßý™èþ$yìþV> Ðèþ*sêÏyé¢yæþ$.

ÔèýÆæÿà : AÐè þ #¯è þ $. Vø´ëËÆ>Ðè þ # ç Ü …Væ ü † C糚yðþ…§æþ$Mæü$? Ðèþ$¯èþMæü$ ºçÜ$Þ ÌôýMæü´ù™óþ ´ùÐèþr… MæüçÙt…. 526

Lesson 37

ÆæÿÑ

: ºçÜ$ÞMæü$ sñýOÐèþ$$ AÆÿ$$…¨ Væü*yé!

It is the time for bus.

ÔèýÆæÿà : 糨 °Ñ$ÚëË {Mìü™èþ… JMæü ºçÜ$Þ ´ùÆÿ$$…¨.

One bus left ten minutes ago.

ÆæÿÑ

Now another bus will come

: Ðèþ$äÏ C糚yæþ$ Æÿ$$…MöMæüsìý ÐèþçÜ$¢