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ADVANCE YOUR ENGLISH GRAMMAR Учебно-методическое пособие

Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации Сибирский федеральный университет

ADVANCE YOUR ENGLISH GRAMMAR Учебно-методическое пособие

Красноярск СФУ 2019

УДК 811.111'36(07) ББК 81.411.2.052я73 M928 Ре ц е н з е н ты : М. А. Битнер, кандидат филологических наук, доцент, заведующий кафедрой английского языка ФГБОУ ВО «Красноярский государственный педагогический университет им. В. П. Астафьева». Т. В. Стрекалёва, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры технических иностранных языков ФГБОУ ВО «Сибирский государственный университет науки и технологий им. академика М. Ф. Решетнева».

M928 Advance Your English Grammar: учеб.-метод. пособие / сост. Е. С. Мучкина, И. В. Кошкина. – Красноярск : Сиб. федер. ун-т, 2019. – 84 с. Пособие содержит тренировочные упражнения по курсу грамматики современного английского языка. Особое внимание уделяется глаголу, так как его категории представляют наибольшие трудности для изучающих английский язык. В пособии также представлен комплекс упражнений, формирующих представление о современных образовательных моделях английского языка. Предназначено для студентов 2-4 курсов отделения иностранных языков Института филологии и языковой коммуникации СФУ, может быть интересно студентам других направлений, а также широкому кругу читателей, желающих совершенствовать знания английского языка.

УДК 811.111'36(07) ББК 81.411.2.052я73 Электронный вариант издания см.: http://catalog.sfu-kras.ru © Сибирский федеральный университет, 2019

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1. WORD FORMATION 1.1. FORMING NOUNS 1.1.1. Nouns Formed From Phrasal Verbs 1.2. FORMING VERBS 1.3. FORMING ADJECTIVES 1.4. FORMING ADVERBS 1.5. NEGATIVE PREFIXES 1.6. EXAM PRACTICE 2. KEY WORD TRANSFORMATONS 2.1. GRAMMAR PATTERNS 2.1.1. Tense Change 2.1.2. Modal Verbs 2.1.3. Conditionals 2.1.4. Passive Voice 2.1.5. Reported Speech 2.1.6. Inversion 2.1.7. Cleft Sentences 2.1.8. Comparatives 2.1.9. Gerund vs Infinitive 2.1.10. Subjunctive Mood 2.1.11. Clauses 2.1.12. Miscellaneous 2.2. VOCABULARY PATTERNS 2.2.1. Phrasal Verbs 2.2.2. Idioms and Fixed Phrases Appendix A. Fixed Phrases Appendix B. Word Formation List Appendix C. Prepositions with Word Phrases References

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4 5 5 11 13 14 15 16 20 26 26 26 28 29 32 34 36 39 42 44 45 46 48 54 54 56 62 67 78 83

INTRODUCTION “Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of expression available in English.” David Crystal, "In Word and Deed," TES Teacher, April 30, 2004

English grammar is one of the most important elements of the language study. It explains the forms and structure of words (called morphology) and how they are arranged in sentences (called syntax). In other words, grammar provides the rules for common use of both spoken and written language, which is useful in different situations, from informal conversations to professional communication. The aim of the book is to help learners understand English grammar structure through comprehensive theory tables, functional examples and practical exercises. The book consists of two parts, each focusing on a particular grammar topic. The first part presents the rules of word formation in English including forming nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Each rule is followed by a number of exercises. The second part provides the structures, patterns and exercises for the key word transformation tasks. Lists of phrasal verbs, fixed phrases and prepositional phrases are presented in the appendices. The book is addressed for students of 2-4 year of study at the Linguistics Department, Institute of Philology and Language Communication, Siberian Federal University. It could also be of great importance for all learners of English at upper-intermediate and advanced levels. The book can be used for self-study or in the classroom as a supplement to any course.

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1. WORD FORMATION Part 3 of the Reading and Use of English paper, Word Formation, consists of a short text with 8 gaps with an additional gap as an example at the beginning. The candidate has to complete each gap with the correct form of the stem word, which appears in capitals at the end of the line. This paper tests your knowledge of how words are formed in English, including the use of prefixes and suffixes and spelling rules associated with these changes. To be successful, read the complete text first to get a global understanding of the content. Then examine the sentence structure to identify the part of speech required such as a noun verb, adjective or adverb. Remember that the words you need might have to change into a negative or a plural. It is also advisable to check the spelling carefully. 1.1. FORMING NOUNS Nouns are one of the four major word classes, along with verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Nouns are the largest word class. A noun refers to a person, animal or thing. Some examples are: student, boy, Maria, cat, stone, etc. Most nouns are common nouns, referring to classes or categories of people, animals and things. Proper nouns are the names of specific people, animals and things. They are written with a capital letter at the start. Concrete nouns refer to material objects which we can see or touch. Abstract nouns refer to things which are not material objects, such as ideas, feelings and situations. Look at the most common noun suffixes (Table1). Table 1 Most Common Noun Suffixes SUFFIX -acy

USE forms a non which describes a state or quality

-age

forms a noun which describes a collection, a set, or a group; a process, or the result of an action; a state, condition, or relationship; a house, or a place; a charge, or fee; a rate

-al

forms a noun that describes a process or state

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EXAMPLES delicacy, fallacy, privacy, etc. acreage, baggage, passage, breakage, bondage, parentage, orphanage, postage, dosage, mileage, marriage, usage, hermitage, voyage, breakage, coinage, wreckage, baggage, village, etc. arrival, burial, deferral, refusal denial, survival, renewal, etc.

Table 1 -er -or -ee -ist

-dom -eer -er -ism

forms a noun that describes sb’s occupation, or what sb does, or expresses sb’s belief

forms a noun that describes a condition or state forms a noun that says what activity sb does forms a noun that describes what sth does forms nouns denoting philosophies

-ance/-ence -hood -ity -ment -ness -ry -ship -sion -(a)tion -(i)tion -th

form abstract nouns

employer, shopper, teacher, writer, etc. actor, investor, invigilator, sailor, supervisor, etc. journalist, artist, physicist, violinist, etc. employee, refugee, etc. anarchist, Buddhist, etc. boredom, freedom, kingdom, etc. auctioneer, mountaineer, engineer, etc. cooker, hair dryer, dishwasher, grater, tin-opener, etc. capitalism, Marxism, socialism, etc. reliance, defence, insistence, admittance, emergence, etc. brotherhood, childhood, neighbourhood, motherhood, etc. brutality, equality, cruelty, possibility, electricity, etc. amazement, disappointment, etc. happiness, kindness, usefulness, etc. entry, ministry, robbery, etc. friendship, membership, workmanship, partnership, etc. expression, population, complexion, compilation, omission, etc. width, breadth, depth, growth, length, warmth, wealth, etc.

TASK 1. Use a suitable form of the verbs below to fill in the spaces in the sentences. suggest

attract

recognise demonstrate hesitate cancel tempt imagine

explain

promote

1. I can resist everything – except ________. (O.Wilde) 2. ________ is more important than knowledge. (A. Einstein) 3. The ________ between Sean and Yvonne was immediate. 4. The Oscar award was in ________ of her great acting ability. 5. I can say without ________ that she’s the best teacher I’ve ever had. 6. He couldn’t give the court any ________ for his strange behaviour. 7. I’d like a job with good ________ prospects. 8. We’re fully booked but sometimes there are last-minute ________. 9. Can I make a ________? Why don’t we take a taxi? 10. The student decided to hold a ________ against higher fees. 6

TASK 2. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. 1. I calculate the bill as being much less. COMES According to my ................ to much less. 2. They were determined to educate their daughter the way they wanted. GIVE They were determined to ................ they wanted. 3. Will he be fit enough to compete in the match on Saturday? TAKE Will he be fit enough to ................ on Saturday? 4. The authorities are planning to investigate the crash thoroughly. THOROUGH The authorities are planning to carry ................ into the crash. 5. Shortly afterwards, Dawson was invited to speak at the conference. GIVEN Shortly afterwards, Dawson ................ to speak at the conference. 6. They celebrate New Year’s Day in the main square of the city. HELD New Year’s Day ................ the main square of the city. TASK 3. Fill in the spaces in the following text using a suitable form of the word in bold. It’s no (1) ________ (EXAGERATE) to say that the world has become а global village. Modern methods of (2) ________ (COMMUNICATE) have made the world much smaller and the problems we face such as (3) ________ (POLLUTE) are not restricted to this country. The (4) ________ (DESTROY) of the rainforests in Brazil is everyone’s problem and he (5) ________ (STARVE) which is common in many African countries is a challenge for Europe too. The (6) ________ (EXTINCT) of rare species is a tragedy for the planet as a whole and the (7) ________ (EXHAUST) of oil supplies will shake the (8)________ (FOUND) of the world’s economy. The (9)________ (PROTECT) of the environment is the responsibility of all nations, rich and poor. However, uncontrolled economic (10)________(COMPETE) between strong and weak nations leads to the (11)________(CREATE) of greater inequality between the rich and poor nations of the world. TASK 4. Write abstract nouns for the following words, using one of the following suffixes: -ance, -ence, -ment, -ness, -th. 1. inherit 6. develop 11. innocent 2. convenient 7. kind 12. improve 3. clumsy 8. effective 13. willing 4. obey 9. fair 14. retire 5. invest 10. prefer 15. silent 7

16. disappoint 17. excite 18. polite 19. argue 20. punish 21. selfish

22. disturb 23. correspond 24. emerge 25. sleep 26. resist 27. insure

28. annoy 29. empty 30. defend 31. commit 32. wide

TASK 5. Complete each of these common expressions with an appropriate form of an abstract noun from the list. You will need to use one of the nouns twice. business

silent

absent

accident

ignorant

appear

patient

1. ________ are deceptive. 2. ________ makes the heart grow fonder. 3. ________ will happen. 4. ________ before pleasure. 5. ________ is bliss. 6. ________ of the law is no excuse. 7. ________ is a virtue. 8. ________ is golden. TASK 6. Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences. Don’t forget to use an -s or a negative prefix if necessary. 1. Unfortunately, accidents are a common _________ along this road. (OCCUR) 2. It’s difficult to believe in the _________ of aliens. (EXIST) 3. The police are looking for _________ of the attack. (EVIDENT) 4. She thinks everyone hates her and needs _________ from her friends all the time. (REASSURE) 5. Scientists believe that the mysterious _________ of millions of bees is due to disease. (APPEAR) 6. 100% _________ is necessary to pass this course. (ATTEND) 7. I’m the only person who believes in his _________. Even the police think he’s guilty. (INNOCENT) 8. I’m excited because I’ve just got a letter of _________ from Oxford University! (ACCEPT) 9. The _________ on their faces was worthy of a photograph. (AMAZE) 10. My first _________ for a holiday would be Okinawa. (CHOOSE) 11. _________ is now at more than 20% in Spain, which is catastrophic. (EMPLOY) 12. Helping companies to create jobs is the best way to stimulate _________ in an economy. (GROW) 13. I’m afraid of _________. (HIGH) 8

14. People need to increase their _________ of nutrition, especially about the dangers of sugar, red meat and refined flour. (KNOW) 15. For the first time, there is _________ that using baby formula has a negative effect on babies’ health. (PROVE) 16. The initial government _________ was to deny everything. In the end, however, the minister was forced to resign. (RESPOND) 17. The _________ of the Toyota Prius has been very encouraging for people who want a better planet. (SUCCEED) 18. The _________ to the energy crisis is not nuclear, because of the enormous hidden costs, the toxic waste and simply because it is not renewable. (SOLVE) 19. Thanks to all the great improvements, _________ now fill the streets of Valencia. (TOUR) 20. There is a huge _________ of rice dishes in Valencia, apart from paella. (VARY) TASK 7. Write the correct form of the word in brackets to complete these sentences. Don’t forget to use an -s or a negative prefix if necessary. 1. On Saturday we had a long _________ about where to go for our summer holidays. (DISCUSS) 2. Whose _________ was it to make sure the bills were paid? 3. There is a _________ of a new earthquake in the region. (POSSIBLE) 4. The _________ of the bomb was heard several kilometres away. (EXPLODE) 5. What made you choose law as a _________? (PROFESS) 6. If you don’t do more _________ before the exam, you’re not going to pass. (REVISE) 7. There has been an increase in the _________ of bank robberies lately. (FREQUENT) 8. This insurance plan can offer your family financial _________ in case of accident. (SECURE) 9. The _________ of people in this city live in flats because it’s cheaper. (MAJOR) TASK 8. Read the text below. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits the space. HOW TO LEARN VOCABULARY Students are under enormous (1) _________ (PRESS) to learn huge amounts of vocabulary but they are rarely given (2) _________ (GUIDE) as to how to go about it. They have a (3) _________ (TEND) to try and learn long lists by heart, but this is hardly the most efficient approach to the problem. The golden rule is to do lots of (4) _________ (REVISE) at regular intervals. Secondly, students should concentrate on words with the highest (5) _________ (FREQUENT), particularly everyday words which also improve the students’ 9

spoken (6) _________ (FLUENT). They should also take every opportunity to use the words in communication – there is considerable psychological evidence that learners who like using the foreign language improve their oral (7) _________ (PERFORM) and their overall (8) _________ (ACQUIRE) OF the language much more rapidly than students who are reluctant to practise the language in real situations. TASK 9. Complete the second sentence so that it is as similar in meaning as possible to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. 1. The economic crisis forced them to close the factory. LED The economic crisis _______________ of the factory. 2. I am very pleased to introduce our next speaker. GIVES It _______________ to introduce our next speaker. 3. For the next three years they corresponded regularly. CONTINUED They _______________ for the next three years. 4. We don’t have any proof that life exists on other planets. PROVE We _______________ of life on other planets. 5. Louise was very patient with me when I was ill and irritable. SHOWED Louise _______________ with me when I was ill and irritable. 6. We agreed never to refer to the matter again. MAKE We agreed not _______________ to the matter again. 7. The Curies are best known for discovering radium. FAMOUS The Curies are _______________ of radium. 8. It could rain tomorrow. IS There _______________ rain tomorrow. 9. Peter has always been very generous with his friends. GREAT Peter has always _______________ towards his friends. 10. You will be able to take the exam one more time. GIVEN You will _______________ to retake the exam. TASK 10. Put the words in the correct form. 1. Does it make any ___________________ (DIFFER) to them if we pay by cheque? 10

2. The two boys should receive a just punishment. Their ___________________ (BEHAVE) at the inauguration ceremony was really outrageous. 3. Mutual accusations will get you nowhere. You’d better try to find а more reasonable ___________________ (SOLVE) to your conflict. 4. The main cause of the current crisis in the party seems to be the deep ___________________ (DIVIDE) between its members. 5. Unfortunately, none of us managed to convince the director of the benefits that our experiment might bring. His ___________________ (APPROVE) grew even stronger when Jack mentioned the possible cost of the venture. 6. Cindy and Mike’s close ___________________ (FRIEND) finally developed into a profound feeling and culminated in their marriage last year. 7. Tom has lost his ___________________ (CONFIDE) in conventional medicine after many years of unsuccessful treatment and has opted for acupuncture. 8. What’s the ___________________ (LONG) of this rope? – It’s six metres long. 9. Besides innumerable human victims, the tornado has caused an enormous ___________________ (DESTROY) to the buildings in the area. 10. A sudden ___________________ (GROW) in food prices will certainly bring about violent protests from the population. 11. A number of world-renowned ___________________ (HISTORY) addressed the conference. 12. The results of the medical tests showed that the patient had several ___________________ (NORMAL) of the brain that required urgent treatment. 13. The computer system requires several ___________________ (MAINTAIN) checks a month. 1.1.1. NOUNS FORMED FROM PHRASAL VERBS There are many compound nouns formed with a verb + preposition or preposition + verb combination.  At the outbreak of war I was just three years old.  These breakthroughs paved the way for the blood depots.  Here is an update on the news.  The health system is suffering from cutbacks in its budget. TASK 1. Complete the sentences with a compound noun formed from up at the end of the words in the box below. back

slip

shake

hold

1. something used for support if the main one fails 11

At the end of a day’s writing, I make a copy of my work as a ______________ . 2. a careless mistake that spoils a plan There was an administrative ______________, and the emails weren’t sent in time. 3. a situation in which a lot of changes are made There’s been a big ______________ at work. They’ve fired six managers and restructured the whole company. 4. a delay Sorry for the ______________ – we’re having a few technical hitches with our software today. TASK 2. Complete the sentences with a compound noun using the word in bold as the first word. Use the definitions to help. out 1. the final result of an election, or negotiations We are all waiting for the ______________ of the meeting. 2. a set of clothes worn together She bought a new ______________ for the wedding. 3. what is expected to happen in the future The ______________ for tomorrow’s weather is bleak. 4. a shop or company through which products are sold Starbucks has retail ______________ in all the major cities throughout the world. take 5. a meal you buy in a restaurant to eat at home Shall we eat out or get a ______________? 6. getting control of a company by buying most of its shares Business sections of newspapers are full of company mergers and ____________. down 7. information obtained from the Internet For free ______________, click here. 8. failure or ruin following success She had a great career, but alcohol was her ______________. 9. a lot of rain that falls fast and heavily I got soaked in yesterday’s ______________. break 10. new and dramatic development There have been great ______________ in organ transplants in the last 20 years. 11. a serious mental illness After his mother died, Paul suffered a complete nervous ______________. 12

12. end of a relationship Sarah was very depressed after the ______________ of her marriage to Tony. TASK 3. Choose some of the words in the box. Use a dictionary if necessary and write a definition and an example sentence with a gap. Test other students. 1. showdown 7. offshoot 2. upturn 8. setback 3. write-off 9. upkeep 4. drawback 10. lookout 5. outburst 11. comeback 6. knockout 1.2. FORMING VERBS It is not always possible to identify a verb by its form. However, some word-endings (suffixes) can show that the word is probably a verb (see Table 2). Table 2 Verb Forming Suffixes Suffix -ate -en -ify -ise/ -ize

Examples appreciate, celebrate, congratulate, hyphenate, complicate, dominate, irritate, frighten, soften, widen, lengthen, strengthen, harden, awaken, moisten identify, specify, qualify, clarify, beautify, signify realise, recognise, modernize, commercialize, advertise, economise, industrialize, symbolize

The verb suffix –ise is used mainly in British English; -ize is more common in American English, but is becoming increasingly common in Britain and other English-speaking countries.  a ‘justice’system to criminalise homeless people. OR... to criminalize... TASK 1. Form verbs from the words in brackets. 1. For the plants to grow well, the soil needs to be ______________ (FERTILE). 2. Next week the government will ______________ (WIDE) this narrow road. 3. The prisoner has to ______________ (PROOF) that he is not guilty. 4. Mother ______________ (PURE) the water by boiling it. 5. To obtain potassium oxide, you need to ______________ (HOT) the mixture. 6. Ultimately the king has ______________ (CONQUEST) his enemies. 7. What does such loud thunder ______________ (SIGN)? 13

8. The policemen tried to ______________ (PEACE) the crowd but to no avail. 9. Mary ______________ (BEAUTY) herself by skilfully putting on make-up. 10. A long-term aim of the European Union is to ______________ (HARMONY) rules and regulations among the member states. 1.3. FORMING ADJECTIVES Adjectives are words that describe nouns. We can make adjectives by adding prefixes and suffixes (see Table 3). Table 3 Adjective Forming Suffixes Suffix

Meaning

-able/-ible

able, can do

-al

relating to

-ish

inclined to or tending to relating to quality or place receiving effect origin, nature full of origin, nature having the nature of; caused by origin, nature

-ive

causing effect

-ian

origin, nature

-less

without

-like -ly

like like

-ous

quality, nature

-y

like

-ant/-ent -ary -en -ese -ful -i -ic

Examples of adjectives drinkable, portable, flexible, understandable, capable, readable, incredible, preventable, adaptable, predictable, credible brutal, formal, postal, mathematical, functional, influential, chemical, theatrical, natural, criminal, seasonal pleasant, resistant, vacant, compliant, vigilant, defiant, brilliant, reliant customary, complimentary, dietary, cautionary, budgetary, planetary, military, honorary broken, golden, wooden Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese forgetful, helpful, useful, bashful, helpful, harmful Iraqi, Pakistani, Yemeni classic, Islamic, poetic, artistic, manic, rustic, terrific British, childish, Spanish active, passive, productive, submissive, intuitive, inventive, attractive Canadian, Malaysian, Peruvian homeless, hopeless, useless, sleeveless, hopeless, groundless, restless lifelike, ladylike, warlike, childlike, birdlike… daily, monthly, yearly cautious, famous, nervous, gorgeous, dangerous, adventurous, fabulous cloudy, rainy, windy

TASK 1. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences. Make adjectives with the same root as the underlined word. 1. Our house color is a kind of yellow. → We live in a ________ house. 2. He often acts like a child. → He often acts in a ________way. 3. The event was a big success. → We enjoyed a ________event. 14

4. We enjoyed the sound of the drum’s rhythm. → We enjoyed the drum’s ________sound. 5. She adopted a dog without a home. → She adopted a ________dog. 6. Look out, that plant is poison. → Look out for that ________plant. 7. It looks like it will rain today. → It looks like we’ll have ________weather today. 8. She always acts with courtesy. → She always behaves in a ________manner. 9. Her hair is pretty. → She has the ________hair. 10. We go for a walk each day. → We go for a ________walk. 1.4. FORMING ADVERBS Adverbs are one of the four major word classes, along with nouns, verbs and adjectives. We use adverbs to add more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a clause or a whole sentence and, less commonly, about a noun phrase. Adverbs have many different meanings and functions. They are especially important for indicating the time, manner, place, degree and frequency of something. Adverbs have a strong connection with adjectives. Adjectives and adverbs are usually based on the same word. To form adverbs, add the suffix –ly to the adjective (see Table 4). Table 4 Forming Adverbs RULE adjective + ly Adjectives ending in –le form adverbs by changing –le to –ly. Adjectives ending in –y form adverbs by changing –y to –ily. Adjectives ending in –ic form adverbs by adding –ally. Irregular adverbs

ADJECTIVE beautiful effective excited

ADVERB beautifully effectively excitedly

gentle probably terrible

gently probably terribly

I simply don’t believe you.

easy noisy

easily noisily

He breathed noisily through his nose.

heroic tragic

heroically tragically

The soldiers fought heroically.

public good full true

publicly well fully truly

He publicly confessed to his crimes.

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SAMPLE She plays the violin beautifully.

Note: 1. Some adverbs which end in –ly come from nouns: daily, weekly, hourly, monthly, yearly, etc. 2. We cannot add –ly to adjectives which end in –ly. We use in a… manner/fashion/way: She spoke in a silly way. 3. Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives: drive fast, sit still, work hard, fly high, etc. 4. There is a small group of adverbs which end in -ward(s) or -wise. The ward(s) words can end in either -ward or -wards: inwards, eastwards, upwards, downwards, clockwise, lengthwise, likewise, etc. For example, The doctor asked her to move her head upwards but she couldn’t. / Turn the handle clockwise to start it. TASK 1. Complete the sentences using the correct adverb form of the adjective or noun in brackets. 1. He treats his dog _____________. (TERRIBLE) 2. If the phone doesn’t work, you get your money back _____________. (AUTOMATIC) 3. She touched him on the arm _____________. (GENTLE) 4. She turned up at the party _____________. (UNEXPECTED) 5. It is _____________ too late to catch the plane now. (PROBABLE) 6. The exam was _____________ easy and everyone passed. (SURPRISING) 7. She has to take the medicine _____________. (HOUR) 8. There was a _____________ beautiful view from the bedroom. (TRUE) 9. The firemen fought _____________ to put the fire out. (HEROIC) 10. Kent _____________ disagreed with his fellow doctors on many occasions. (PUBLIC) 11. The romantic novel started with a young woman staring _____________ into the fire. What a cliche! (DREAM) 12. John muttered _____________ under his breath about the volume of work he’d been given but he didn’t dare complain to the boss. (CONTENT) 13. As I climbed aboard the plane I was _____________ reminded of the previous time when my plane almost crashed. (COMFORT) 14. The newspaper reported that an old woman had been _____________ treated while she was in hospital. (SHAME). 1.5. NEGATIVE PREFIXES Negative statements are the opposite of affirmative statements. In English, one way to make negative statements is by adding negative prefixes to nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Here are some most common English negative prefixes: dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, non-, un-, mis-, etc. Words that take il- as a negative prefix always begin with the 16

letter l: legal – illegal; legible – illegible; logical – illogical; literate – illiterate, etc. Words that take im- as a negative prefix always begin with the letter m or p: mobile – immobile; moral – immoral; perfect – imperfect; possible – impossible, etc. Words that take ir- as a negative prefix always begin with the letter r: rational – irrational; regular – irregular; reconcilable – irreconcilable; resistible – irresistible, etc. Words that take dis- as a negative prefix may begin with a vowel or a consonant: agree – disagree; comfort – discomfort; orient – disorient, etc. Words that take in- as a negative prefix can begin with a vowel (except i or u) or a consonant. The in- prefix (from which im-, il-, and ir- are derived) is generally the least useful of the negative prefixes, as it only goes with certain Latin-derived stems and is highly conventionalized: accurate – inaccurate, eligible – ineligible, organic – inorganic, sane – insane, capable – incapable, etc. Note: There are many words that begin with in– that are not words with a negative prefix. For example: incline, idulge, insist, invoke, illuminate, irradicate, etc. The un- prefix is commonly attached to Latin derivatives that end in suffixes such as -ed and -able, resulting in adjectives such as unfounded, unassailable, unbelievable, unable, unhelpful, unprepared, uninteresting, etc. The prefix non- is the most useful negative prefix, as it can be attached to virtually any noun, verb, adjective, or adverb and is not confusable with other common morphemes. Unlike in-, and un-, which often create nonabsolute negatives, non- is generally used to create a word that describes the complete opposite of its nonnegative form. In other words, for example, a nonconformist is someone who absolutely does not conform. If we were to coin the nouns uncomformist and inconformist, they wouldn’t have the same sense. When affixing non- to a word, no hyphen is needed unless the stem is a proper noun. Spell-checkers might catch any unhyphenated non-words you invent, but this doesn’t mean your coinages are incorrect: nonfiction, nonsense, nonconformist, etc. The prefix mis- is added to verbs and their derivatives: misbehave, mistaken, misunderstand, mismanage, misinform, mislead, etc. The prefix de- is usually affixed to verbs to denote reversal of an action: deactivate, decode, defrost, etc.  is affixed to adjectives ending in -al: apolitical, atypical, atheist etc.  anti- means against. TASK 1. Make the following words negative by adding a negative prefix. answered complete homogeneous correct expensive sufficient resolved symmetric supported 17

avoidable capable understanding probable conclusive leading certain successful typical

necessary defined reliable efficient accurate sensitive realistic adequate solved

practical convenient proven flexible satisfactory consistent effective logical

TASK 2. Add a negative prefix to the correct form of the word. Attempts to communicate in a foreign language can easily (1)__________ (FIRE). I’m always (2)__________ (APPOINT) by my attempts to speak Greek. The waiter on Myconos (3)__________ (UNDERSTAND) what I wanted and instead of beetroots brought me mushrooms. I (4)__________ (LIKE) mushrooms intensely but when I asked him to replace them with beetroots he smiled, went into the kitchen and returned with a plateful of aubergines. He also (5)__________ (TAKE) my friendly attitude towards everyone I met and when I complained that they had (6)__________ (COOK) the meat, Manuel (that was his name if I’m not (7)__________ (TAKE) grinned and twirled his moustache. To cap it all, I (8)__________ (READ) the bill and accused the poor man of overcharging me! It was just my awful Greek again. TASK 3. Add a negative prefix. 1. In many countries it is __legal to keep a rifle in your house. 2. You shouldn’t eat chicken that is __cooked. 3. There was some __agreement over the bill. 4. We were very __satisfied with the service at the restaurant. 5. His speech was completely __intelligible. I understood nothing. 6. This country is basically __inhabitable and extremely __hospitable with the exception of the coastline. 7. Your behavior in this class has been __acceptable, which is why I’m sending a letter home to your parents. 8. The customers were __reasonable and demanded a full refund. 9. Children should never be __respectful toward their parents. 10. The team was __capable of scoring, so they lost the game. 11. The students got in trouble for acting __mature during class. 12. Many couples get divorced because of __reconcilable differences. 13. The changes are __reversible. 14. His speech was __comprehensible. 15. I was __aware of the problem until you told me. 16. Those cupcakes look __resistible. 17. He is __willing to use the same pattern twice, because each customer wants his or her tattoo to be unique. 18

18. The results were __conclusive and received mixed responses from listeners. 19. But in the realm of public debate, science and religion frequently seemed like __reconcilable enemies. 20. He let out an __voluntary scream. 21. The __escapable truth is that we are not good enough. 22. This document is still __titled. 23. The location is quite __accessible. 24. I am __decided. I don’t know what to do. 25. Our efforts were __sufficient. 26. Paul was __practical and dreamy. 27. Seems the judges either __regarded the referee’s order or ignored it which is pretty much the same. TASK 4. Add either dis- or mis-. 1. If you are ___loyal, you betray your friends or your country. 2. The worst enemy in a relationship is ___trust. 3. I don’t think the police will be able to ___arm the drug dealers. 4. Her father ___approved of her dating John. He thinks John is a bad influence. 5. When you’re done using the computer make sure to ___connect it. 6. What ___heartens me most of all is their blandness. 7. I decided to be happy every day no matter what comes, discomfort or ___fortune. 8. In 1986, the company nearly went bankrupt, a victim of cash flow ___management. 9. Correct your child every time she ___pronounces a word. 10. He would be __loyal to all the Chelsea fans. TASK 5. Explain the difference between the underlined adjectives in the following pairs of sentences. 1. It was an awesome movie. vs. It was an awful movie. 2. It was childish behaviour. vs. It was childlike behavior. 3. We are confident about winning. vs. The message is confidential. 4. We had a fun time at the movies. vs. We saw a funny movie. 5. He is a loving son. vs. He is a lovable son. 6. She is reliant on money from her parents. vs. She is reliable. 7. He is selective about what he eats. vs. They are selling selected items. vs. Select people can live there. 8. He is a sensible person. vs. He is a sensitive person. 9. The company is responsive to customers’ needs. vs. The company is responsible for product safety. 10. Your food is tasty. vs. You are a tasteful dresser. 11. He is a worthy competitor. vs. He is a worthless competitor. 19

12. His economic theory was proved unsound. vs. He chose an economical car. 13. That was a historic moment. vs. This is a historical moment. 14. It’s not politic to ask such questions. vs. It was a political question. 1.6. EXAM PRACTICE 1. THE STORY OF MUSCLE CARS Muscle cars were never intended to be valuable. In fact, the whole idea behind muscle cars was to make them (1) __________ (EXPENSIVE) and fast. Muscle cars were stripped-down versions of the most (2) __________ (UTILITY) homely, and basic mass-produced cars to ever roll out of Detroit. These rattle trap, bare bones, crude devices were built to conform to a price point with little regard given to sophistication or (3) __________ (LONG), and aimed squarely at the (4) __________ (YOUNG) market. And this market couldn’t get enough of them. These were the cars every red-blooded American kid wanted. The image, the speed, the lifestyle were all highly addictive. Looking back, the muscle car years were (5) __________ (RELATIVE) brief moment in time that we will never see the likes of again. It was a perfect storm, just what the market wanted, and was presented at the right place in the right time. So how did these seemingly (6) __________ (DISPOSE) cars, built in large numbers and owned by kids who (7) __________ (LITERAL) tried to kill them from the first twist of the key, become so valuable? More importantly, why did they become so valuable? Most people are astounded when they hear the recent sales results of the most (8) __________ (DESIRE) muscle cars. We call them two-comma cars, cars that are worth so much money that you need two commas to separate all the zeroes in the price. 2. EXPLORING THE WORLD BY SEA People have been carrying out exploration by sea for thousands of years. Our distant ancestors set out on (1) __________ (PERIL) voyages on primitive rafts and ships with no guarantee of ever seeing land again. (2) __________ (BELIEVE) though it may seem, there is evidence to suggest that sailors from Polynesia began to undertake long and (3) __________ (RISK) journeys, as far back as 1200 BC. They may even have travelled as far as South America. (4)__________ (ANALYSE) of fossilized chicken bones found in Chile suggests that Polynesian sailors had made their way to South America long before the (5) __________ (ARRIVE) of the Spanish. While Polynesians were exploring the Pacific, Vikings were sailing the Atlantic. Viking explorers reached North America but did not establish a permanent (6) __________ (SETTLE) ........................... there. They returned home with tales of a land where grapes grew in profusion and fish were (7) __________ (PLENTY) too. It is impossible not ............... to feel great respect for the (8) __________ (BRAVE) of these intrepid early explorers. 20

3. EXERCISE AND HAPPINESS There is evidence to show that regular exercise and sport are associated not only with physical fitness but also with a lower incidence of depression. Scientists have been conducting research to discover why people who exercise on a regular (1) __________ (BASE) frequently report that physical activity improves their mood, making them feel calmer and less (2) __________ (APPREHEND). Explanations as to precisely why it is mood-enhancing differ, with some researchers arguing that exercise may be acting as a (3) __________ (DIVERT) from negative thoughts, while others claim that it is developing a (4) __________ (MASTER) of a new skill that is the most (5) __________ (SIGNIFY) factor. In addition, it is (6) __________ (DENY) true that the social contact which participation in sporting activities often involves also plays its part in mood enhancement. Whatever the reasons may be why (7) __________ (VIGOUR) activity should have such a powerful effect on how people feel, it has been shown that exercise is as potent as any medication against (8) __________ ( DEPRESS). 4. INTRODUCTION TO MEXICO’S LONG HISTORY Mexico has a long and fascinating history. For some people, Mexico is synonymous with the Aztecs, who dominated the country from the fourteenth century until they declined in the sixteenth, as a result of (1)__________ (CONQUER) by the Spanish, and disease. But before the arrival of Europeans, a number of (2)_________ (CIVILISE) existed in different parts of Mexico, going back at least to the Olmecs. The Olmecs are virtually (3) __________ (KNOW) now, but they flourished for over a millennium, from around 1500 BC. Mexico from the Olmecs to the Aztecs, by Michael D. Coe and Rex Koontz, is an excellent introduction to the period, and a very (4)_________ (INSTRUCT) guide to these early (5) __________ (INHABIT). The authors draw on numerous recent (6) __________ (DISCOVER), and discuss topics ranging from the beginnings of agriculture and writing to (7) __________ (RISE) against the ruling elite. Of particular interest is the authors’ discussion of recent developments in radiocarbon dating. The (8) __________ (IMPLY) of these are likely to transform our understanding of the timescale of the region. 5. THE ICT4D (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPMENT) COLLECTIVE The ICT4D Collective was initiated in 2004 and is a group of people with a commitment to undertaking the highest possible quality of research in the field of ICT4D, and making the results of this available freely to the (1) __________ (GLOBE) community. We do this (2) __________ (PRIME) in the interests of poor people and (3)_________ (MARGIN) communities, wherever they may be found. Membership of the Collective implies strict 21

(4)_________ (COMPLY) with its basic principles of membership and partnership. Based at Royal Holloway, University of London, the Collective carries out research and undertakes teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Collective also operates as a (5) __________ (CONSULT). The Collective draws on the (6)__________ (EXPERT) of staff, postgraduates and undergraduates in a range of academic departments. We welcome (7) __________(COLLABORATE) work with colleagues across the world who share our core objectives, and wish to establish partnerships with us to deliver practical ICT4D activities that will (8)__________( POWER) poor people. 6. A HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND SCIENTISTS Science can be a very personal activity. Throughout history, scientists, with few (1) __________ (EXCEPT), have carried out their investigations, motivated not by a desire for glory or wealth, but by a need to satisfy their own (2) __________ (CURIOUS) about the world around them. Some have gained lasting fame, while others have kept their (3) __________ (DISCOVER) to themselves, not caring about the (4) __________ (RECOGNISE) of others. Scientists build on the research of their predecessors, but they usually make their own contributions individually. I therefore decided to take a (5) __________ (BIOGRAPHY) approach to the history of science, in the hope of learning, to some degree, what makes scientists tick. There are even, I think, one or two somewhat surprising (6) __________ (REVEAL) contained in this book. This approach is out of favour with today’s (7) __________ (HISTORY) who may well dismiss me as being old-fashioned. But I trust that even if they consider my approach (8) __________ (ACCEPT) they will still give my comments a fair hearing. 7. JOB OPPORTUNITY IN IT The company is a major retailer with stores throughout the country. A vacancy has (1) __________ (EXPECT) arisen to join its information technology (IT) department. The company is planning to open a distribution centre at the beginning of next year, and requires a computer service (2) __________ (TECHNICAL) to start work as soon as possible. He or she will join an existing team responsible for the (3)__________ (INSTAL) of a new computer system before the opening of the distribution centre. The team’s duties will also cover the upgrading, repair and (4)__________ (MAINTAIN) of the computer systems currently in operation in the company’s stores, and provide support to users. Formal IT qualifications are (5) __________ (DESIRE) but not essential, provided you have a thorough working knowledge of computer hardware and software, excellent problem-solving skills and a (6) __________ (WILL) to keep up-to-date with IT developments. The company aims to achieve (7) __________ (EXCEL) in every aspect 22

of its activities, and expects all its (8) __________ (EMPLOY) to be committed to the same goal. 8. HUMAN INVENTIVENESS Humans are a species possessing great ingenuity. From the moment someone made the first sharp-edged tool, to the development of Mars rovers and the internet, several key (1) __________ (ADVANCE) stand out as particularly (2)__________ (REVOLUTION). Here is what we think is the most important invention of all time. Some people may argue that other contenders are more (3) __________ (DESERVE) but for us it’s the light bulb that gets the prize. After all, when all you have is natural light, people’s (4) __________ (PRODUCE) is limited to daylight hours. Light bulbs changed the world by allowing us to be active at night. According to one of our leading (5) __________ (HISTORY), two dozen people were instrumental in inventing incandescent lamps. Thomas Edison, however, receives (6) __________ (RECOGNISE) as the primary inventor because he created a completely functional lighting system, including a generator and wiring as well as a carbon-filament bulb. As well as initiating the introduction of electricity in homes throughout the world, this invention also had rather an (7) __________ (EXPECT) consequence of changing people’s sleep patterns. Instead of going to bed at nightfall and sleeping for periods throughout the night separated by times of being (8) __________ (WAKE) we now stay up except for the 7-8 hours allotted for sleep, and, ideally, sleep all in one go. 9. TRAINING SPORTS CHAMPIONS What are the abilities that a professional sports person needs? To guarantee that opponents can be (1) __________ (COME), speed, stamina and agility are essential, not to mention outstanding natural talent. Both a rigorous and comprehensive (2) _______ (FIT) regime and highly nutritious diet are vital for top-level performance. It is carbohydrates, rather than proteins and fat, that provides athletes with the (3) _________ (ENDURE) they need to compete. This means that pasta is more (4) _____ (BENEFIT) than eggs or meat. Such a diet enables them to move very energetically when required. Failure to follow a sensible diet can result in the (5) _____ (ABLE) to maintain stamina. Regular training to increase muscular (6) _____ (STRONG) is also a vital part of a professional’s regime, and this is (7) _____ (TYPE) done by exercising with weights. Sports people are prone to injury but a quality training regime can ensure that the (8) _____ (SEVERE) of these can be minimised. 10. PEOPLE OF THE FOREST This TV documentary follows a family of chimpanzees which live in the forest of Tanzania. Set in (1)_____ (SPECTACLE) scenery the programme gives us a fascinating insight into the life and social (2)_____ (ACTION of these creatures. (3)_____ (APPEAR) we humans share 98% of our genes with chimpanzees; indeed, they are our closest relative in the animal (4) _____ 23

(KING) and scenes in the documentary offer clear evidence of our (5) _____ (SIMILAR). The focus of the film is on Fifi and we first see her as a (6) _____ (PLAY) five-year-old who spends all her time annoying her younger brother. Meanwhile, the older male chimps seem to be involved in an endless fight for (7) _____ (SUPREME). And it is no surprise to learn that while all this is taking place the females are left to deal with day-to-day matters. Make sure you set aside an hour to watch this. The splendour of the location makes this programme worthwhile viewing, although our (8) _____ (LIKE) to these animals will make you think. 11. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Which of today’s technologies will shape tomorrow’s world? A new report compiled by the World Economic Forum reveals some of the (1)_____ (BREAK) innovations that are expected to (2)_____ (RADICAL) impact the global social and economic order. "From income (3)_____ (EQUAL) to climate change, technology will play a critical role in finding (4)_____ (SOLVE) to all the challenges our world faces today," says Jeremy Jurgens, Chief Technology Officer at the World Economic Forum. "This year’s (5)_____ (EMERGE) technologies demonstrate the rapid pace of human innovation and offer a glimpse into what a sustainable, (6)_____ (INCLUDE) future will look like." Making the list involves more than promising major benefits to the world. The emerging technologies must (7)_____ (POSITIVE) disrupt the existing order, be attractive to investors and (8)_____ (RESEARCH), and expect to achieve considerable scale within the coming 5 years. 12. THE GLOBAL VILLAGE: MEDIA IN THE 21st CENTURY The (1)_____ (LEGEND) media theorist, Marshall McLuhan, coined the term “The Global Village” to indicate the mass production and the mass (2)_____(CONSUME) of media images and content across the world. The term deNote the coming together of the countries of the world in one gigantic web of media landscapes. To take an example, the popular US news channel, CNN, and the venerable British news channel, BBC, are available throughout the world. (3)_____ (SIMILAR), in entertainment, we have the Star Group that is beamed throughout the world. In the 1990s with the liberalization of many countries in the world, the global (4)_____ (BROADCAST) entered countries like India in a big way. Though China had and still has (5)_____ (RESTRICT) on the kind of content that can be viewed in that country, the opening up of the Indian media landscape to foreign channels represented a (6)_____ (REVOLVE) in the way media is produced and consumed in the country. Many experts have pointed to the liberalization of the Indian (7)_____ (MIND) because of the consumption of global media. Indeed, many Indians were exposed to the West for the first time and the consumption of western lifestyle imagery and consumer choices meant that the (8)_____ (ASPIRE) values of Indians went up. 24

13. THE NEW YORK TIMES The New York Times, morning (1)_____ (DAY) newspaper published in New York City, long the newspaper of record in the United States and one of the world’s great newspapers. Its strength is in its editorial (2)_____ (EXCEL); it has never been the largest newspaper in terms of circulation. The Times was established in 1851 as a penny paper that would avoid sensationalism and report the news in a restrained and (3)_____ (OBJECT) fashion. It enjoyed early success as its editors set a pattern for the future by appealing to a cultured, intellectual (4)_____ (READ) instead of a mass audience. But its high moral tone was no asset in the heated competition of other papers for readers in New York City. Despite price increases, the Times was losing $1,000 a week when Adolph Simon Ochs bought it in 1896. Ochs built the Times into an (5)_____ (INTERNATIONAL) respected daily. Aided by an editor he hired away from the New York Sun, Carr Van Anda, Ochs placed (6)_____ (GREAT) stress than ever on full reporting of the news of the day, maintained and (7)_____ (EMPHASIS) existing good (8)_____ (COVER) of international news, eliminated fiction from the paper, added a Sunday magazine section, and reduced the paper’s newsstand price back to a penny.

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2. KEY WORD TRANSFORMATIONS The Key Word Transformation part tests your ability to paraphrase through your knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. A wide range of language could be tested here, however some patterns appear quite often. Here are some tips to follow when attempting the Key Word Transformation task:  Read a sentence and then complete a second sentence with 3-6 words so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence.  Look out for two necessary changes in each sentence. At advanced level you will often be required to make more than one change in the transformed sentence such as using a set expression as well as a change from active to passive.  Don’t forget to include the key word and remember not to change the form of the word.  Use between 3 and 6 words - no more. Sometimes the sentence can be completed with only 2 words or more that 6 but these answers are not valid. Remember that contractions count as two words.  Certain language points tend to feature in this task such as active to passive, formal to informal, the use of phrasal verbs and other set expressions. Make a note of any new patterns you come across each time you try a Key Word Transformation task. 2.1. GRAMMAR PATTERNS 2.1.1. TENSE CHANGE I’ve never heard such a sad story. EVER It’s the saddest story I have ever heard. He started painting fifteen years ago. BEEN He has been painting for fifteen years. She hasn’t finished decorating the flat yet. STILL She is still decorating the flat. I’ve never eaten Chinese food before. FIRST It’s the first time I have ever eaten Chinese food. When did they graduate from college? SINCE How long is it since they graduated from college? AGO How long ago did they graduate from college? He didn’t begin talking until everyone had sat down. BEFORE He waited until everyone had sat down before he began talking. We haven’t been to the theatre for a year. TIME The last time we went to the theatre was a year ago. LAST We last went to the theatre a year ago. It’s two years since I went on holiday. HAVE I have not been on holiday for two years. 26

It was the first time they had travelled by boat. NEVER They had never travelled by boat before. 1. They confidently expect the broadcast to go ahead at 6 p.m. SURE They_________________________________ go ahead at 6pm. 2. I’d planned a meeting with her at the weekend but she called it off. GOING I_____________________________ at the weekend but she called it off. 3. It was discovered that she had been stealing money, and she was fired. EMERGED She was fired because ______________________________ stolen money. 4. The voting process is the same as it was last year. CHANGED The voting process________________________since last year. 5. We were late arriving at the cinema and so missed the start of the film. BY The film had_______________________we arrived at the cinema. 6. By the end of the month, it will be two years since Hendrik came to England. FOR By the end of the month, Hendrik____________________two years. 7. Many of the emigrant first saw the sea on the day they set sail to America. TIME For many emigrants, the day they set sail to America was_______________the sea. 8. Robin has not been back to his birthplace for over twenty years. LAST It is over twenty years ______________ to his birthplace. 9. We missed the start of the concert because we arrived at the venue late. BY The concert _____________ we arrived at the venue. 10. When she was at school, Sandra was fascinated by the idea of hypnotism. USED Sandra _________ of hypnotism fascinating when she was at school. 11. We arrived at the football match too late to be able to play. BY The football match ________________________ time we arrived.

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2.1.2. MODAL VERBS It’s forbidden to go near the launch pad. MUSTN’T You mustn’t go near the launch pad. ALLOWED You aren’t allowed to go near the launch pad. I’m certain Andrew didn’t reveal your secret. CAN’T Andrew can’t have revealed your secret. Do you think Laura will leave for Chicago earlier than she thought? LIKELY Is Laura likely to leave for Chicago earlier than she thought? It isn’t necessary for Ron to pay for our tickets. HAVE Ron doesn’t have to pay for our tickets. NEED Ron doesn’t need to pay for our tickets. I’m sure Robert realised how wrong he was. MUST Robert must have realised how wrong he was. It wasn’t necessary for her to come early, but she did. HAVE She needn’t have come early. 1. Perhaps we missed the train and will have to get a later one. MIGHT We _______________________________the train and will have to wait. 2. I’m sure that it was the sound of the rain that disturbed me. MUST It ____________________________ of the rain that disturbed me. 3. It’s impossible that you saw John last night - he’s in the USA! HAVE John’s in the USA, so ____________________________him last night. 4. This was Peter’s biggest challenge to date. FACED Peter ______________________challenge before. 5. At 6 p.m. , he probably was on his way home from work. MAY At 6 p.m., ____________________________________ on his way home from work. 6. It’s not possible that you saw Liam at the supermarket. He is Germany this week. HAVE You _______________________________ Liam at the supermarket. He is in Germany this week. 7. There must be a simple way to explain what happened. BOUND There is___________________for what happened. 8. Karen says it takes less than an hour to drive there, but I’m sure she has got it wrong. MUST 28

Karen says it takes less than an hour to drive there, but she___________________a mistake. 9. Students wishing to enroll on the course should complete all sections of the application form. REQUIRED 10. Students wishing to enroll on the course_________________in all sections of the application form. 11. I really messed up the first question in the exam. I wish I had considered it more carefully before answering. THOUGHT I really messed up the first question in the exam. I should__________________it more carefully. 12. The factory has been able to reduce its CO2 emissions by 50% in the last year. SUCCEEDED The factory_________________back its CO2 emissions by 50% in the last year. 13. Jack has such a vivid imagination, it is possible that he invented the whole story. MADE Jack has such a vivid imagination that he might___________________the whole story. 14. It looks like it might be sunny later. POSSIBILITY There____________________________sunshine later. 15. I don’t believe that Jane ran that distance in only five minutes! POSSIBLY Jane___________________that distance in only five minutes! 16. Colin couldn’t possibly afford any of the paintings in that gallery. FAR The paintings in that gallery are__________________buy. 17. I think it was a mistake to lend your car to Joe. SHOULD I don’t think_________________your car to Joe. 2.1.3. CONDITIONALS Idon’t think it’s a good idea to lie to your parents about what happened. WERE If I were you, I wouldn’t lie to my parents about what happened. If you sit next to the fireplace. you’ll get too hot. ELSE Don’t sit next to the fireplace or else you’ll get too hot. It rained heavily all day. so they didn’t go out. FOR But for the heavy rain, they would have gone out. If you don’t act quickly. you may find yourself in trouble. 29

UNLESS You may find yourself in trouble unless you act quickly. Sam ran out of time: that’s why he didn’t go shopping. WOULD If Sam hadn’t run out of time, he would have gone shopping. If Helen gets a grant, she will be able to continue her studies. PROVIDED Helen will be able to continue her studies provided she gets a grant. Tony wants to buy a new car, but he hasn’t got enough money. WISHES Tony wishes he had enough money to buy a new car. Jack would prefer to learn Italian rather than learn German. RATHER Jack would rather learn Italian than German. Mary regrets not studying hard for her exams. WISHES Mary wishes she had studied hard for her exams. You should join a gym. BETTER You had better join a gym. Why don’t you make an effort to improve your life? WOULD I wish you would make an effort to improve your life. It’s a pity I missed your graduation. WISH I wish I hadn’t missed your graduation 1. I wish I had paid more attention to what you were saying as I am lost now. ONLY _____________________more notice to what you were saying because I am completely lost. 2. I only told you because I thought you would be excited about the opportunity. TOLD I ____________________________ you if I thought you weren’t excited. 3. You should get up earlier in the morning so as not to be late. BETTER You ________________________________ up earlier so that you are not late. 4. He wouldn’t have been interviewed by the police if he hadn’t seen the robbery. WITNESS The police wouldn’t have interviewed unless he ________________the robbery. 5. The paramedics were told that they should never place a human life at risk trying to rescue an animal. CIRCUMSTANCES The paramedics were warned that _____________________ place a human life at risk trying to rescue an animal. 6. If you need any help please don’t hesitate to ask. ASSISTANCE If I can __________________________ please don’t hesitate to ask. 30

7. If it has to be cancelled the show will take place at a later date. EVENT In _____________________________ cancelled the show will take place at a later date. 8. I wish I had tried harder when I was at school. REGRET I really ____________________________when I was at school! 9. I don’t want to take part in the project. RATHER I ____________________________ part in the project. 10. I don’t have any free time, so I can’t come to the theatre with you. WOULD If I ____________________________________come to the theatre with you. 11. Staying another night would have meant paying more. IF I would have had to__________________________________another night. 12. People will always want entertainment, providing that they have the time to enjoy it. LONG There will always be a need for entertainment_______________________ the time to enjoy it. 13. It was heavy snow on the line that delayed the train. HELD The train would have arrived on time if it ______________________heavy snow on the line. 14. I don’t speak Spanish, that’s why I didn’t get the job. SPOKE If _______________________, ____________________have got the job. 15. If Ann were not so wealthy, Oliver wouldn’t be marrying her. FOR But ___________________________________, Oliver wouldn’t be marrying her. 16. Emily’s hair badly needs cutting. TIME It is high _______________________cut. 17. For me this is the best place to live. RATHER There _____________________________live. 18. I wish I hadn’t said that to her. TAKE If only______________________ I said to her. 19. Please tick this box if you don’t want us to inform you about future events. 31

RATHER Please tick this box if you _______________________sent any information about future events. 20. It’s a long walk home, so I advise you not to miss the last train. BETTER It’s a long walk home, so ______________________the last train. 21. If her party wins the election, which is unlikely, she’ll become President. EVENT In the ________________________the election, she’ll become President. 22. Tom missed his plane because he was late leaving for the airport. TIME If only______________________ for the airport, he wouldn’t have missed the plane. 23. ‘You won’t get a good seat if you come late’, said Leslie to me. UNLESS Leslie said that_______________, I wouldn’t get a good seat. 24. It looks like you didn’t sleep well last night. IF You look ______________________much sleep last night. 25. If you hadn’t helped me, I could never have moved the wardrobe. HELP But_________________, I could never have moved the wardrobe. 26. It’s a pity Nico is so unreliable. COUNT I wish I __________________Nico. 2.1.4. PASSIVE VOICE It is known that the explosion caused major damage to the buildings. HAVE The explosion is known to have caused major damage to the buildings. The Lumiere brothers invented the first film-making equipment. WAS The first film-making equipment was invented by the Lumiere brothers. Bob doesn’t like people asking him questions about his job. BEING Bob doesn’t like being asked questions about his job. They hired a famous architect to design their house. HAD They had their house designed by a famous architect. Someone stole his bike while he was in the bank. HAD He had his bike stolen while he was in the bank. They will punish you if you go on causing trouble. GET You will get punished if you go on causing trouble.

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1. It is said that these herbs are good for you. SAID These herbs _________________________good. 2. It is said that children are afraid of ghosts. ARE Children____________________________ afraid of ghosts. 3. They say that women live longer than men. IS It _____________________________________ longer than men. 4. They think she has written a book. THOUGHT She is _________________________________ a book. 5. People believe he is working in Germany. IS He ______________________________ in Germany. 6. People believe that John Lennon was a great musician. BELIEVED John Lennon ________________________________a great musician. 7. It is thought that the government was building new schools. THOUGHT The government is __________________________new schools. 8. It was believed that he had lived in London. BELIEVED He _________________________________________ in London. 9. They don’t allow people who arrive late at the opera house in until the interval. ARE People who arrive late at the opera house _______________________ until the interval. 10. I couldn’t go away for the weekend because I didn’t have enough money. PREVENTED I was ____________________ for the weekend by lack of money. 11. Some people have been saying what a good move emigrating would be. ARGUED It _________________________________emigrating would be a good move. 12. I’ve been looking for my keys for hours, but I haven’t found them anywhere. NOWHERE My ________________________________ found. 13. There’s a rumour going round that they are no longer together. SPLIT They ___________________up. 33

14. They put Roger in charge of health and safety at the factory. MADE Roger ______________________for health and safety in the factory. 2.1.5. REPORTED SPEECH Introductory Verb

+ to - Inf agree claim demand offer promise refuse threaten

Direct Speech

Reported Speech

‘Yes. I’ ll lend you the money.’ ‘I saw the robbers.’ ‘Give me the money.’ ‘Would you like me to help you?’ ‘I’ll return the book to you soon.’ ‘No. I won’t call her.’ ‘Stop shouting or I’ll punish you.’

‘You should eat more fruit .’ ‘You can go to the party. + sb +to - Inf advise allow ask beg command forbid invite order remind warn

‘Could you do me a favour? ‘ ‘Please, please don’t hurt me.’ ‘Put your hands up.’ ‘You mustn’t stay out late.’ ‘Will you come to my wedding? ‘ ‘Go to your room!’

He agreed to lend me the money . He claimed to have seen the robbers. He demanded to be given the money. He offered to help me. He promised to return the book to me soon. He refused to call her. He threatened to punish her if she didn’t stop shouting. He advised te to eat more fruit. He allowed me to go to the party. He asked me to do him a favour . He begged them not to hurt him. He commanded them to put their hands up. He forbade me to stay out late. He invited me to (go to) his wedding . He ordered me to go to my room. He reminded me to buy some milk He warned me not to touch the iron.

‘Don’t forget to buy some milk.’ ‘Don’t touch the iron.’ + -Ing form accuse sb of admit (to) apologise for boast about/of complain to sb of deny insist on suggest

‘You committed the crime.’ ‘Yes . I gave away your secret.’ ‘I’m sorry I’m late.’ ‘I’m the best student in my class.’ ‘I have noisy neighbours.’ ‘No. I didn’t use your computer.’ ‘You must finish by Friday.’ 34

He accused her of committing/ having committed the crime. He admitted (to) giving/ having given away my secret. He apologised for being late. He boasted about/of being the best student in his class. He complained of having noisy neighbours. He denied using/ having used my

‘Let’s go out to dinner .’

explain to sb + how

+ that - clause explain inform sb exclaim/remark

computer. He insisted on me/my finishing by Friday. He suggesbd going out to dinner .

‘That’s how it works .’

He explained to us how it worked .

‘I don’t like him because he’s rude.’ ‘The results will come out tomorrow .·

She explained that she didn’t like him because he was rude. He informed us that the results would come out the next day. He exclaimed/ remarked that it was a glorious day.

‘What a glorious day!’

Note: The following verbs can also be followed by a that – clause in reported speech. He claimed that he had won a prize He promised that he would call. He complained that he didn’t earn enough money. He threatened that he would leave. He denied that he had taken the money. He reminded me that I had a meeting that afternoon. He insisted that I (should) work on Saturday. He admitted that he was wrong. He suggested that we (should) take out a loan. 1. My best friend stated that he would not be coming through on his promise because of personal reasons. REFUSED My best friend ___________________________ his promise for personal reasons. 2. ‘You look really upset,’ he told his brother. SAID He ________________________________________really upset. 3. ‘What do you think of my new girlfriend?’ he asked me. ASKED He _____________________________________his new girlfriend. 4. ‘I’ll call you tomorrow morning,’ John promised. ME John promised that ____________________________ day in the morning. 5. ‘I have finished reading this book.’ said the boy. SAID The boy___________________________ finished reading that book. 35

6. ‘Why don’t you come tonight?’ SUGGESTED She ________________________ that night. 7. ‘You can finish the report tomorrow,’ he told her. TOLD He ____________________________finish the report the following day. 8. ‘What time do you finish work today?’ he asked John. ASKED He _____________________________work that day. 9. “I think Joe should seriously reconsider his plans”: said the careers advisor, RECOMMENDED The careers advisor ______________________________________his plans. 10. Mr Smith said that he is strict with his employees. ADMITTED Mr Smith ______________________ strict with his employees. 11. ‘You should stop your children watching so much television’, Mary’s sister told her. LET Mary’s sister advised her ________________________so much television. 12. Jane’s lawyer suggested that she ignored all the reporters. ATTENTION Jane’s lawyer advised ________________________all the reporters. 13. People believe that Leonardo da Vinci foresaw the invention of aircraft. BELIEVED The invention of aircraft ___________________foreseen by Leonardo da Vinci. 2.1.6. INVERSION There are two ways to invert the subject and the verb. 1. be/have/modal/auxlllary verb + subject + main verb It is used in the following cases: a) in questions. e.g. Is Peter taking an exam today? b) after the following words or expressions, when they come at the beginning of a sentence. Seldom Only in this way Rarely Only then Little Hardly (ever) ... when Barely No sooner ... than Nowhere (else) Not only ... but (also) 36

Never (before) Not until/till Not (even) once In no way On no account In/Under no circumstances Only by Not since, etc. e.g. Never (before) have I seen such a beautiful woman. Not only did they make a donation but they (also) promised to build a shelter for the homeless. Seldom do we go out since the baby was born. But: We seldom go out since the baby was born. (There is no inversion because the word seldom does not come at the beginning of the sentence.) Note: When the expressions only after, only by, only if, only when, not until/till come at the beginning of a sentence, the inversion is in the main clause. e.g. Only after she started working was she able to save some money. Only if you follow my advice will you succeed. c) with so, neither, nor, as to express agreement. e.g. ‘I love chocolate ice cream.· ·’So do I.· (We use ·so· to agree with an affirmative statement.) ‘1 can’t stand violent films.’ ‘Neither/Nor can I.’ (We use ·neither/ nor’ to agree with a negative statement.) She was a talented musician, as was her sister/and so was her sister. d) with should, were, had when they come at the beginning of an if-clause instead of ‘if’. e.g. Type 1: Should he call, tell him I’m out. ( = If he should call ...) Type 2: Were I you. I wouldn’t trust her. ( = If I were you ...) Type 3: Had I been told, I would have offered my help. ( = If I had been told ...) 2) main verb + subject It is used in the following cases: a) after verbs of movement or adverbial expressions of place when they come at the beginning of a sentence. e.g. Outside the house was a sports car. On the sofa sat an old man. Here comes the bride. There goes the bus. If the subject is a pronoun, there is no inversion. Here she comes. Up you get. b) in direct speech when the subject of the introductory verb is a noun. e.g. ‘1 don’t like this hotel,’ said Henry. (OR: ... Henry said.) ‘I’ll call you a taxi.’ said the doorman. (OR: ... the doorman said.) But: ‘What can I do for you?’ she asked. (NOT: ... asked she. because the subject of the introductory verb is a pronoun.) 37

1. As soon as you realise you have made a mistake, let me know. SOONER ___________________________that you have made a mistake, let me know. 2. I didn’t realise that she would suffer in the first place. DID Little____________________________ would suffer in the first place. 3. He would never have guessed that at the age of 17 he would be playing for his country. LITTLE __________________________________ that at the age of 17 he would be playing for his country. 4. The moment I shouted he ran away SOONER No ______________________ he ran away. 5. She realised she’d lost her keys the moment she arrived home. SOONER No ____________________ she realised she’d lost her keys. 6. I did not understand why she was angry until she told me what had happened. I Only when she told me what had happened _____________________was angry. 7. I didn’t know you were going to be there, otherwise I’d have gone too. I Had _______________________________to be there, I would have gone too. 8. As soon as the tennis players went onto the court, it started raining. HAD No _______________________onto the court than it started raining. 9. They didn’t mention the subject of unpaid holidays until the end of the interview. BRING Not until the end of the interview ________________________the subject of unpaid holidays. 10. I had only just got home when the phone rang. SOONER No _________________________the phone rang. 11. Only the timely arrival of the police prevented the fight from escalating. BEEN Had it _____________________of the police, the fight would have escalated. 12. Signing the contract without the director’s approval is not allowed. CIRCUMSTANCES 38

Under ______________________sign the contract without the director’s approval. 13. You’ll need to practise every day if you want to be a professional musician. DO Only by __________________you stand a chance of becoming a professional musician. 14. I´ve not seen such a fantastic performance before. NEVER __________________________________ such a fantastic performance before. 15. I´ve not seen such a fantastic performance before. NEVER __________________________________ such a fantastic performance before. 16. I had only just arrived when he insisted on going out again. SOONER __________________________________ he insisted on going out again. 17. She´s never been in greater need of a friend than now. HARDLY __________________________________ in greater need of a friend. 18. They split up and then realized that they loved each other. ONLY ________________________________ did they realize that they loved each other. 19. You must never disturb someone when they are sleepwalking. CIRCUMSTANCES _____________________________ disturb someone when they are sleepwalking. 20. I had only just got on the train when it left! BARELY __________________________________ on the train when it left! 21. She never doubted that she would be able to meet the challenge. TIME ______________________________ that she would be able to meet the challenge. 2.1.7. CLEFT SENTENCES We can put emphasis on certain words or parts of a sentence with: 1. It is/was...who/which/that e.g. a) Sheila is planting flowers in the garden. It is Sheila who/that is planting flowers in the garden. (emphasis on the subject = Sheila) 39

b) Sheila is planting flowers in the garden. It is flowers that Sheila is planting in the garden. (emphasis on the object = flowers) c) Sheila is planting flowers in the garden. It is in the garden that Sheila is planting flowers. (emphasis on the adverbial phrase = in the garden) d) The dog’s barking didn’t wake me up, the alarm clock did. It wasn’t the dog’s barking which/that woke me up, it was the alarm clock. Note: We use who, which or that to put emphasis on the subject. We normally use that to put emphasis on the object or the adverbial phrase. 2. All (that) = the only thing e.g. All (that) she cares about is money. All (that) he did was call me to say goodbye. 3. What e.g. a) Jogging keeps me in shape. (subject) What keeps me in shape is jogging. OR Jogging is what keeps me in shape. b) I need a holiday. (object) What I need is a holiday. OR A holiday is what I need. 4. What ...do (to put emphasis on verbs) e.g. a) Sharon designs clothes. What Sharon does is (to) design clothes. b) Greg updated the files. What Greg did was (to) update the files. 5. Question word + ever (usually shows surprise) e.g. Who ever told you I was getting married? Where ever did you find this old map? Which and whose are not used in this case. e.g. Whose idea was it? (NOT: Whose ever idea ...) Note: Question words + ever (except for why) can be written as one word. e.g. Whoever told you ... ? We also use ever to put emphasis on negative sentences. e.g. Nobody ever explained this to me. I haven’t seen this man ever before. 6. We use do/does/did + bare infinitive in the present simple, past simple or the imperative to give emphasis.

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e.g. a) She believes in supernatural powers. She does believe in supernatural powers. b) He went to the reception. He did go to the reception. c) Stay a little longer. Do stay a little longer. 1. What I want to leave nice and clear is the need to practice your English every day. ACROSS The point I ___________________________that you need to practice your English every day. 2. I took the only course open to me and changed my job. DID What I ______________________ , which was the only course open to me. 3. I have decided to make a definite plan for my future career. AM What _________________________________is make a definite plan for my future career. 4. I made the decision to go to university after all. DECIDED What __________________________________ to university after all. 5. He clearly felt very strongly about the situation, which took me by surprise. STRENGTH It _________________________ about the situation that took me by surprise. 6. Kent didn’t pass the exam because he ran out of time. RUNNING Kent ____________________________why he didn’t pass the exam. 7. The trees blown down in the storm were not cleared away for weeks. BEFORE It ___________________the trees blown down in the storm were cleared away. 8. Many people were discouraged from emigrating by the idea of crossing the Atlantic. OFF What ________________the idea of crossing the Atlantic. 9. I need a weekend away, so I booked something on the Internet. DID I need a weekend away ______________________________ something on the Internet. 10. I object to hanging around in airports. WHAT 41

___________________________ hanging around in airports. 11. I resolved the problem by taking an extra suitcase. TAKE ____________________________________ an extra suitcase. 12. It worries me that I don´t speak another language well. WHAT ____________________________________ I don´t speak language well.

another

2.1.8. COMPARATIVES Beth is more intelligent than Kate. AS Kate isn’t as/so intelligent as beth. LESS Kate is less intelligent than beth. Can’t you drive any faster than that? FASTEST Is that the fastest you can drive? Fiona has received the same number of letters as me. MANY Fiona has received as many letters as me. I’ve never read such an interesting book. THE It’s the most interesting book I’ve ever read Nora is the most careful driver of all. AS No one else drives as carefully as Nora does. THAN Nora is more careful than any other driver.’ Nora is a more careful driver than anyone else. Nora drives more carefully than anyone else. As she gets older, she becomes more sophisticated. THE the older she gets, the more sophisticated she becomes. 1. The pizza was so good we had to ask for seconds. SUCH It _________________________________ we had to ask for seconds. 2. The rate of unemployment hasn’t increased quite as much this year compared to previous years. SLIGHTLY This year the rate of unemployment has increased __________________ did in previous years. 3. It has rained much more in London over the last 10 years than it has ever done in previous decades. CONSIDERABLY Over the last 10 years, the rainfall in London has ______________________ in previous decades. 4. The comedian was less funny than the audience expected. NEARLY The comedian ______________________________ the audience expected. 42

5. Every time he talks about going on holiday I get really excited. THE The more he talks about going on holiday _____________________get. 6. What was much better than I expected was the costume design. EXCEEDED What________________________________ the costume design. 7. He wondered how likely it was that he would get top marks again. CHANCES He asked himself what __________________________________ top marks again. 8. This weekend has been much cooler than last week. COLD Last week ________________________________________this weekend. 9. People are more interested in history than you might expect. LESS You _______________________ interested in history. 10. When it comes to population, Beijing’s is much bigger than Auckland’s. POPULATED Beijing is _______________________________ than Auckland. 11. The judges were generally less keen on portraits painted from photos than portraits painted from life. TENDED The judges_______________________on portrait painted from life than portraits painted from photos. 12. It’s encouraging to discover that the group is both talented and enthusiastic. ONLY It’s encouraging to discover that the group shows____________________as well. 13. Men outnumber women by two in this profession. TWICE There are______________________in this profession. 14. Of all the cities I know, there are few that are more beautiful than St Petersburg. LOVELIEST St Petersburg is one_______________________visited.

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2.1.9. VERB PATTERNS (GERUND VS INFINITIVE) I think it’s difficult to raise children nowadays. RAISING I think raising children is difficult nowadays. She made him accept full responsibility for the accident. WAS He was made to accept full responsibility for the accident. Could you post this letter for me, please? MIND Would you mind posting this letter for me, please? She was amused by the story and burst out laughing. FOUND She found the story amusing and burst out laughing. He had difficulty finding her house. DIFFICULT It was difficult for him to find her house. They let me watch the rehearsal. ALLOWED I was allowed to watch the rehearsal. The party was so boring that we didn’t enjoy ourselves. TOO The party was too boring for us to enjoy ourselves. Someone saw Ben throw an envelope in the rubbish bin. WAS Ben was seen to throw an envelope in the rubbish bin. Using the office photocopier is not allowed. ALLOW We do not allow anyone to use the office photocopier. 1. I think it would be a good idea if you joined the beginner’s class. SUGGEST I _______________________________________ the beginners class. 2. Sandra would only go to the supermarket on a Saturday. ON Sandra _________________________________to the supermarket on a Saturday. 3. I managed to finish all the homework before the deadline’ SUCCEEDED I _______________________ the homework before the deadline’ 4. If you feel stressed, breathing slowly should calm you down. MAKE Breathing slowly ___________________ if you feel stressed. 5. I’m sorry that I didn’t help him. REGRET I __________________________________ him. 6. It was only after telling everyone that it was his birthday that John got lots of cards. HAVING John only got lots of cards____________________________________ it was his birthday. 7. Whatever film you want to see will be good for us. MIND 44

We___________________________________________________ film you want. 8. The irate customer refused to speak to anyone other than the store manager. ON The irate customer ______________________to the store manager and no one else. 9. Although I’m not looking forward to telling her that her son has been arrested, I have to. RELISH I ______________________________ that her son has been arrested, but I have to. 10. I would be very happy to employ your company in future. HESITATION I would have______________________your company in future. 11. I don’t think we’ll see Simon before he goes to New York. LIKELIHOOD There’s________________________Simon before he goes to New York. 2.1.10. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD to suggest: suggested (that) (I, he, they, etc) + past tense that + (should) do sth possessive (my, his, etc) doing sth (formal) e.g.I suggested he saw/he see/he should see/his seeing a specialist. to demand: demanded that sb (should) do sth. Note: Note: demand to (with the verbs see/know + question word+ change of tense) e.g. He demanded that she give him back the money he had lent her. He demanded to know where I had been. to predict: predicted that + would e.g. He predicted that the government would lose the next election. 1. Her GP advised her to do more exercise. SUGGESTED Her GP_______________________________________more exercise. 2. The Prime Minister was asked very forcefully to consider resigning. DEMANDED They _______________________________________.resign. 3. If I were she I would look for a job that is not so stressful. RECOMMEND I_______________________________________for a job that isn’t so stressful. 4. John asked her not to disturb him while he was writing. THAT 45

John asked___________________________________ him while he was writing. 5. On no account should you eat anything the night before your surgery. THAT It is critical _______________________________________anything the night before your surgery. 6. Jane was advised to work harder by her Maths teacher. RECOMMENDED The Maths teacher ________________________________harder. 7. Fernanda refused to wear her sister’s old dress. NOT Fernanda said that____________________her sister’s old dress. 8. Mats promised to ring as soon as he got home. MOMENT Mats said that______________________he got home. 2.1.11. CLAUSES The man waving at me is my cousin Stewart. WHO The man who is waving at me is my cousin Stewart. She got up early because she wanted to do some shopping before she went to work. SO She got up early so as to do some shopping before she went to work. THAT She got up early so that she could do some shopping before she went to work. The jewellery kept in that safe belongs to my mother. WHICH The jewellery which is kept in that safe belongs to my mother. The party was a success, so we all stayed very late. SUCH The party was such a success that we all stayed very late. Having missed the last bus, Laura had to walk all the way home. BECAUSE Laura had to walk all the way home because she had missed the last bus. Although he is hardworking, he is not paid well. SPITE In spite of his being hardworking, he is not paid well. Children growing up in cities often get very little exercise. WHO Children who grow up in cities often get very little exercise. That’s the cafe where we used to go when we were students. TO That’s the cafe we used to go to when we were students. 1. The burglar wore gloves so as not to leave any fingerprints behind. AVOID The burglar wore gloves in____________________ any fingerprints behind 46

2. I enjoyed the view from the top of the tower despite the fact that I hate being in high places like that. HEAD Although I________________________I enjoyed the view from the top of the tower. 3. However hard I look, up to now I haven’t been able to find a job. ALTHOUGH I haven’t been able to find a job ________________________________looking really hard. 4. He is a black belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu; therefore, he knows how to defend himself. BEING ______________________________ black belt, he knows how to defend himself. 5. Caroline got the job even though she had never work in sales before. SPITE In ______________________________ in sales before, Caroline got the job. 6. She decided to move to a part-time job so that she could spend more time with her young children. ORDER She decided to move to a part-time job_____________________able to spend more time with her young children. 7. Mr Smith was well-known as a bad-tempered man, but he was also fair. REPUTATION Despite_________________ bad-tempered, Mr Smith was also fair. 8. Lucy succeeded in passing her driving test, even though she had flu. MANAGED Despite_____________________her driving test. 9. Sven would have called yesterday if he had had more time. SHORT Sven didn’t call yesterday_______________________time. 10. I wasn’t sure who was to blame for the accident. FAULT I couldn’t tell___________________was. 11. After Ranjit had discovered the truth, he reported the facts to the police. OUT Having_______________________, Ranjit reported the facts to the police. 12. Mr Porter has to lock all the doors at night after everyone has left. RESPONSIBLE The person who____________________all the doors at night after everyone has left is Mr Porter. 13. Rousseau painted fabulous pictures of the rainforest although he had 47

never travelled outside Europe. SPITE Rousseau painted fabulous pictures of the rainforest _______________travelled outside Europe. 14. We stopped in an absolutely beautiful place for lunch. WHERE _______________________________ lunch was absolutely beautiful. 2.1.12. MISCELLANEOUS likely/unlikely + to + infinitive He is likely to come. He is unlikely to come. He is sure/certain to come. 1. There isn’t much chance of the weather improving today. LIKELY The weather ________________________________________today. 2. The meeting probably won’t last more than a few minutes. UNLIKELY The meeting________________________________________on for more than a few minutes. 3. The band probably won’t do another tour this year. UNLIKELY The band________________________________________another tour this year. 4. This old car probably won’t last for more than a year. UNLIKELY This old car________________________________________for more than one year. 5. Mike probably won’t come to the party. UNLIKELY Mike________________________________________ to the party. 6. It’s unlikely that it’ll stop snowing soon. TO It isn’t ________________________________________ snowing soon. 7. He’ll probably win the race. LIKELY He’s ________________________________________the race. 8. She’ll probably be late for the meeting. UNLIKELY She’s ________________________________________ for the meeting. 9. She’ll probably be nominated for an award. LIKELY She________________________________________for an award. 48

10. We are highly likely to win the tournament. PROBABILITY There ________________________ we will win the tournament. 11. It’s very unlikely that John will get a pay rise this year CHANCE There is very _____________________________________a pay rise this year. be (well) worth Ving there’s no point (in) Ving = it’s no use Ving see the point of Ving be on the point of Ving = be about to do smth 1. There’s no point in asking George to help. WORTH It ________________________________________George to help. 2. It wasn’t worth going to the market because it was closing. POINT The market was closing, so _______________________________going there. 3. It’s not worth saving this left-over food. POINT There’s ______________________________________this left-over food. 4. He was about to start the car when someone called him. POINT He was ________________________________________the car when someone called him. 5. She has already made up her mind so it is not worth trying to convince her. POINT She has already made up her mind so _______________________________trying to convince her. 6. It’s useless to worry about what has already happened. POINT There is ____________________________________ what has already happened. 7. I don’t see why I should try harder. WORTH In my opinion, it _____________________________________harder. 8. I shouldn’t bother washing my car today because it’s going to rain. WORTH It _________________________________ my car today because it’s going to rain. 9. Learning to sew seemed a waste of time to Lisa. POINT 49

Lisa couldn’t ___________________________________ learning to sew. 10. I was just about to call you to see what time you were coming. POINT I __________________________________you to see what time you were coming. 11. There’s no point arguing about this small detail, in my opinion. WORTH This small detail ______________________________________in my opinion. 12. I was on the point of calling him when he rang me instead. ABOUT I was just ______________________________________when he rang me instead. 13. Tom hates parties, so don’t try to persuade him to go. WORTH It _______________________________Tom to go to parties because he hates them. 14. There’s no point in trying to convince her to go. USE It’s _______________________________________ to convince her to go. 15. Learning to drive is a waste of time unless you already have a car. POINT There ________________________________to drive unless you already have a car. 16. When writing for the student magazine you should remember that teachers will read it too. WORTH When you write for the school magazine ______________________________mind that teachers will read it too. 17. Sally was all ready to leave the office when her boss asked her to type up a report. POINT Sally was______________________________________ the office when her boss asked her to type up a report. 18. I think learning to use a typewriter is a waste of time. POINT I can’t ________________________________________ how to use a typewriter. 19. Nadia’s friend arrived just as she was about to leave the restaurant. POINT Nadia was just _____________________________________the restaurant when her friend arrived. 20. It’s only because of the quality of the lead singer’s voice that people listen to the album. WORTH 50

It’s the quality of the lead singer’s voice that ____________________________to. 21. There is no point worrying about jet lag. WORTH Jet lag is______________________________________. 22. It might not be worth getting into detail during the annual meeting. POINT There might not_____________________ into detail during the annual meeting. 23. I was just about to call you to tell you about the rearranged meeting. POINT I was _____________________________ you to tell you about the rearranged meeting. prevent smb from doing smth = stop smb doing smth avoid doing smth allow smb to do smth let smb do smth make smb do smth be made to do smth 1. My parents wouldn’t allow me to go to the party. PREVENTED My parents________________________________________to the party. 2. Because of its price, the book may never become a bestseller. PREVENT The price of the book may_____________________________a bestseller. 3. There are various ways of avoiding insect bites. PREVENTED Insect bites can________________________________________various ways. 4. “You should stop your children watching so much television,” Mary’s sister told her. LET Mary’s sister advised her _______________________________so much television. 5. Because he was injured he couldn’t play in the next game. PREVENTED His________________________________________ in the next game. 6. The waiter carried the tray very carefully so that he wouldn’t spill any of the drinks. AVOID The waiter carried the tray very carefully so _______________________________ any of the drinks. 7. I wasn’t able to get to the airport on time because of the bad weather. 51

PREVENTED The bad weather________________________________________to the airport on time. 8. It was impossible for us to go to school because of the bus strike. PREVENTED The bus strike________________________________________ to school. 9. They don’t let us use mobile phones in the library. ALLOWED In the library________________________________________use mobile phones. 10. I don’t know why Sarah left the party so suddenly. MADE I don’t know______________________________________ the party so suddenly. 11. Claire was not allowed to stay out late when she lived at home with her parents. LET Claire’s parents ________________________________ stay out late when she lived at home. 12. Floods meant rescue workers could not get through to the village. PREVENTED Rescue workers________________________________________ through to the village by floods. 13. Because of the parade, we weren’t allowed to park in the High Street. LET Because of the parade the police wouldn’t____________________________in the High Street. 14. We didn’t really enjoy our walk along the seafront because it was so windy. PREVENTED The strong wind________________________________our walk along the seafront. 15. I was angry when Sandra was rude to me this morning. MADE Sandra’s rudeness ________________________________my temper this morning. There’s hardly any tea left. There was hardly a cloud in the sky. Hardly anyone has bothered to reply. She hardly ever calls me. Hardly a day goes by without my thinking of her. I can hardly keep my eyes open. Hardly had we sat down to supper when the telephone rang. It’s hardly the time to discuss it now. 52

The picture is of little value, it is hardly worth the money paid. It is hardly worth watching soap operas. 1. This is a very dry part of the country. HARDLY On this part of the country ________________________________rains. 2. Almost all the tickets for next Saturday’s concert have been sold. HARDLY There are______________________________________for next Saturday’s concert. 3. It’s unusual for Carol to get angry with her staff. HARDLY Carol______________________________________temper with her staff. 4. It isn’t really worth trying to fly the kite when there is no wind. HARDLY It______________________________________fly the kite when there is no wind. 5 It is unusual for Zoe to be rude. HARDLY Zoe________________________________________rude. 6. I go out very little these days. HARDLY I________________________________________days. 7. We very rarely go to the cinema these days. HARDLY We________________________________________ the cinema these days. 8. There are virtually no hotels of any quality on the west side of the lake. HARDLY There are________________________________________hotels on the west side of the lake. 9. At the end of the race, he had very little strength left. HARDLY At the end of the race_______________________________________left. 10. I’ve just noticed that the car has almost run out of petrol. HARDLY I’ve just noticed that_________________________________left in the car.

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2.2. VOCABULARY PATTERNS 2.2.1. PHRASAL VERBS 1. They’ve cancelled the meeting as the boss couldn´t make it. OFF They have _______________________________________ the meeting because of the boss´s absence. 2. We wondered if we should have the meeting a few days earlier but couldn’t agree on a time. FORWARD We considered _______________________________________a few days but couldn’t agree on a time. 3. He’d been struggling to think of a really original birthday present. COME No matter how he tried . _______________________________________an idea for a really original birthday present. 4. Her teacher said she wasn’t progressing as well as other students with her assignments. DANGER Her teacher warned her that she was ______________________________behind with her assignments. 5. David thought it unfair that his team resented him for not scoring a goal. AGAINST David thought it unfair that his team should _______________________________ for not scoring a goal. 6. Holly decided that she’d ask to be transferred to another department. REQUEST Holly decided to put _______________________________________a transfer to another department. 7. We decided we wouldn’t go with him to the airport after all. SEE We decided not to ___________________________________ the airport after all. see him off at 8. He no longer thinks he can find a job before the end of the year. HOPE He has given____________________________ a job before the end of the year. 9. This milk is bad - it smells terrible! OFF This milk________________________it smells terrible! 10. He is an expert at flipping pancakes. 54

COMES When _____________________________pancakes, he’s an expert. 11. Some people mistake her shyness for aloofness. ACROSS She is quite shy, but she can _____________________________________ to some people. 12. The patient took 20 minutes to regain consciousness after the operation. ROUND It took the _________________________________after the operation. 13. She still hasn’t recovered from her husband’s death last year. OVER Her husband died last year, but _________________________ yet. 14. His manager persuaded him not to hand in his resignation. OUT His manager ____________________________________in his resignation. 15. A traffic jam delayed me for two hours. HELD I ______________________________________for two hours by a traffic jam. 16. Several of the applicants were not considered because of their age. PASSED Several of the applicants_________________________to their age. 17. Dan abandoned his studies at university because he was ill. RESULTED Dan’s.____________________________ his studies at university. 18. ‘We’ll have to postpone the meeting until next week, as a lot of people are on leave’, the manager said. OFF The manager said the meeting______________________until the following week, as a lot of people were on leave. 19. Although Karen and Mark have very different personalities and interests, they seem to have a good relationship. ALONG Although Karen and Mark have very different personalities and interests, they seem to________________________another very well. 20. I’d like to invite you to dinner to say sorry for forgetting your birthday. MAKE I’d like to_______________________your birthday by inviting you to dinner.

55

2.2.2. IDIOMS AND FIXED PHRASES 1. Sally gets on well with her father-in-law. TERMS Sally is ___________________________________ her father-in-law. 2. The contract said that we didn’t have to accept the conditions immediately. OBLIGATION The contract said that we were _________________________________ accept the conditions immediately. 3. Does he ever give you the impression that he would rather be talking to someone else? FEELING Do you ever _______________________________________would rather be talking to someone else? 4. Jenny’s generosity means that people exploit her good nature. ADVANTAGE Jenny’s so _______________________________________ of her good nature. 5. She needs to consider the amount the holiday is going to cost. ACCOUNT She needs _______________________________________ much the holiday is going to cost. 6. The speaker rambled on for ages before stating what the lecture was about. POINT It took ages for the speaker to __________________________________ of what the lecture was about. 7. We’d like to implement the idea immediately but we should wait a while. PRACTICE We’d like to____________________________________immediately but we should wait a while. 8. She’s renowned for her expertise in human psychology. FIELD She’s a renowned ____________________________________ human psychology. 9. My application for the job was turned down because I didn’t have the right qualifications. GROUNDS My application for the job was turned down __________________ didn’t have the right qualifications. 10. I am confident that he will be successful in his career. CHANCES I am confident ._________________________________ in his career. 56

11. I am really bad at remembering people’s names when I meet them. MEMORY I _____________________________ people’s names when I meet them. 12. He lost his job because he was inefficient. GROUNDS He lost his job __________________________________ his inefficiency. 13. I wish people wouldn’t talk during the performance – it makes me really uptight. NERVES It really .______________________________people talk during a performance. 14. He is so ambitious - he’s determined that he’ll be successful in the company. MARK He is determined .____________________________. in the company. 15. Can you suggest a way of turning dreams into reality for ambitious people. TRUE Can you suggest how ________________________for ambitious people. 16. It’s difficult for a poorly performing company to make a profit. TURN If a company is performing poorly, it’s difficult ___________________________ one. 17. The number of people travelling through the airport was highest in August. REACHED The number of people travelling through the airport ___________________in August. 18. The number of visitors to the island has fallen dramatically. STEEP There _________________________ the number of visitors to the island. 19. We have maintained the level of visitors to the museum this year. STABLE The number of visitors to the museum __________________________ this year. 20. The shares index fell slightly before recovering to its previous level. BRIEF There __________________________the shares index before it recovered to its previous level. 21. Although many travel companies had financial difficulties last year, they seem to have recovered now. TREND Al though many travel companies had financial difficulties last year, it seems as though _______________________________ now. 57

22. The size of the population is unlikely to change much in the near future. STABLE The size of the population_________________________in the near future. 23. It doesn’t matter if you think you know the subject well, you must rev ise for the exam. HOWEVER You must revise for the exam, _____________________ you know the subject. 24. However hard she tries, she still manages to offend people. MATTER It __________________________________ she tries, she still manages to offend people. 24. I expect I’ll leave home before I’m twenty. TIME I expect I will _____________________________I’m twenty. 25. I know that I’ll find the right job soon. MATTER I know _________________________ before I find the right job. 26. I’m sure he’ ll get a promotion very soon. LONG I’m sure it _______________________________ he gets a promotion. 27. Scientists have made an unexpected discovery in the treatment of cancer. BREAKTHROUGH There ___________________________ in the treatment of cancer. 28. I thought very hard but couldn’t remember the answer. RACKED I _____________________________ to remember the answer. 29. The only thing I didn’t love about the concert was the price. FROM I loved everything _________________________ the price. 30. My sister was totally shocked when she won the lottery. CAME Winning the lottery ___________________________my sister. 31. The manager should think about experience when hiring new staff. CONSIDERATION The manager should ____________________________when hiring new staff. 32. He lost no time in telling what he wanted us to do. BUSH He _______________________________ about what he wanted us to do. 33. I advised John not too buy such an old car, but he ignored me. EAR 58

I told John it wasn’t a good idea to buy such an old car, but _______________to my advice. 34. Mike explained to me what had happened. PICTURE Mike ______________________________ about what had happened. 35. My new car is not only very big but also fast and comfortable. MENTION My new car is very big, _______________________ fast and comfortable. 36. I can’t understand why anyone would want to buy such an old house. BEYOND It ________________________why anyone would want to buy such an old house. 37. His last book helps to understand what the world of beer brewing is really like. INSIGHT His last book ________________________________ the world of beer brewing. 38. ‘The fired me because of Sam’, said Anna. CAUSE Anna said that ____________________________ of her being fired. 39. Instead of the £2 million of last year, this year we have a budget of £8million OPPOSED This year’s budget is £8 million, _______________________________, which was only £2. 40. The pickpocket was caught while attempting to steal a man’s wallet. ACT The pickpocket was caught __________________________to steal a man’s wallet. 41. Tom was invited to the wedding, but he didn’t turn up. APPEARANCE Although Tom was invited to the wedding, he _____________________________ 42. How likely is Kevin to win the competition? CHANCES What _________________________________. the competition? 43. Very few people buy video players these days. DEMAND Video players _____________________________________ these days. 44. No one really expected Thomas to finish the marathon. CAME It __________________________________ when Thomas finished the marathon. 45. She is not a well-educated person. 59

WAY She doesn’t ______________________________________ of education 46. I think he was offended at your comments about his work. EXCEPTION I think __________________________ your comments about his work. 47. Her father was talking, but she was not listening to him. NOTICE She didn’t ___________________________________ her father said. 48. I don’t mind at all if you use my laptop. OBJECTION I have ______________________________________. my laptop. 49. Your attitude will cost you your job”. Said the manager to Patrick. LEAD According to the manager ______________________________ him losing his job. 50. After the scandal the managing director was forced to resign. CHOICE After the scandal the managing director ____________________resign. 51. Adam is by nature a success-driven person. NATURE It is __________________________________ a success-driven person. 52. I will support you whatever you decide to do. MATTER I will support you ________________________________________you take. 53. Do you mind if John joins us for the meeting? TO Do you have _____________________________us for the meeting? 54. The government has banned all exports to the country except for food and medicine. EXCEPTION The government has banned all exports to the country _________________food and medicine. 55. The other students don’t mind whether you give your presentation on Thursday or Friday. DIFFERENCE It __________________the other students whether you give your presentation on Thursday or Friday. 56. ‘‘What are you thinking of doing for the college’s centenary celebration?’ the tutor asked the students. MIND The tutor asked the students what _______________for the college’s centenary celebration. 57. Dr. Rasmesh’s colleagues regarded him so highly that they forgave his inability to remember people’s names. 60

HELD Dr. Ramesh ______________________by his colleagues that they forgave his inability to remember people’s names. 58. As learning new languages had never been a problem for her, Katy didn’t expect to have any difficulties when she went to live abroad. COME Learning new languages had _______________________her so Katy didn’t expect to have any difficulties when she went to live abroad. 59. The change in the company’s logo didn’t make any difference to the majority of its customers. CONSEQUENCE The change in the company’s logo ________________________to the majority of its customers. 60. I almost forgot to bring my keys with me. BARELY I __________________________to bring my keys with me.

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Appendix A Fixed Phrases Phrase

Definition

a matter of time

a question of time

a means by which

a way of

against the law

not legal

ages ago

a long time ago

all in all

on balance

any day now

soon

as a result

in the end

as far as I know

I gather

as it happens

as a matter of fact

as long as

provided that

as soon as

at the moment of

as though

as if

as well as

in addition to

at a guess

I am no expert, but

at its height

in the best moment

at that time

then

at this point

At a time

be about time + past

at long last

be at fault be better/worse than expected

be to blame not as good as first though

be bound (infinitive

be likely

be capable of

be able + infinitive

be in demand

be popular

be in one's interest

be good for 62

Sample It is only a matter of time before you find a girlfriend. He is very determined, a means by which he always achieves successful results. You are not allowed to do that; it´s against the law. It seems like ages ago since we last spoke. All in all, the meeting went as had been planned. I will get paid any day now. As a result, we were late for the show and missed the first act. As far as I know, we will need to replace the motor. As it happens, I have met you before. As long as he arrives on time, I don´t mind what he does. As soon as you arrive, give me a call. He seemed as though he were uninterested. As well as his lack of punctuality, he also reeks of alcohol. At a guess, I would say that the play will last for 4 hours. At its height the American economy was one of the most successful of all time. At that time, I still hadn´t found out about his mental problems. At this point I was beginning to get frustrated. It is about time you got a job and moved out of your parent´s house. He was at fault for the error. The weather is going to be worse than expected. It is bound to happen again if you don´t try to change your habits. You are much more capable of learning a language than you think. Electric cars are in great demand nowadays. It is in your interest to attend the meeting.

be in two minds

be undecided

be just about (infinitive)

be at the point of

be on good terms with

get on well with

be praised for

receive a compliment for

be reluctant (infinitive)

not want

be similar to

like/ be alike

be up to date

be current

be willing (infinitive)

want to

be worth + ing

deserve the effort

bear in mind

take into consideration

beforehand

in advance

brace yourself for

be prepared

by accident

without intention

by all accounts

according to

by chance

by coincidence

by no means

not at all

by oneself

on one´s own

by the time

when

change your mind

adapt your viewpoint

day by day

step by step

drop a hint about

insinuate

during which

in this time

ever since

from that point

every now and then

occasionally

for a long time to come

from now on 63

I am in two minds on whether to order the fish or a salad. I was just about to say that! You tool the words out of my mouth. Although they are divorced, they are still on good terms. I was praised for being the best student on the programme. I am reluctant to take up a new hobby. It is similar to what happened yesterday. I am not up to date with the gossip in our office. I am willing to try again if you give me the chance. Is it worth travelling to the west coast of the USA? We ought to bear in mind the deadline when making our plan of action. I would book beforehand if I were you. You ought to brace yourself for any issues that might come up. I broke your vase by accident, please forgive me. By all accounts he is one of the best lecturers in the field. By chance, they had the exact thing I was looking for. By no means is he the strongest candidate. I enjoy working by myself more than in a team. By the time the bus left, I was already fast asleep. I was going to go out but I have changed my mind now. I seem to be improving day by day, My teacher dropped a hint that the exam would be tough. I did an internship during which I made some useful contacts. Ever since you told me the news, I can´t think about anything else. I get a little bit worried about my studies every now and again. I think you shall enjoy your life here for a long time to come.

for some… for others

not for everyone

from day to day

each day

from time to time

every now and again

get something across to someone

explain something to someone

go ahead

permission to proceed

go with the flow

let yourself be influenced by the environment

had better (bare infinitive) have (little/no) difficulty in

should have no trouble (ing)

have no recollection of

not remember

i´d rather + (bare infinitive

would prefer

in a nutshell –

to sum up

in fact

actually/ in reality

in no time

soon

in relation to

linked to

in terms of

regarding/ with regards to

in this day and age

currently

instead of

rather than

it so happens that

as a result

just because

not reason behind something

just in case

if needed

last, but not least

at the end but not less important

lead the way

give direction to

little by little

bit by bit

64

For some people this means the end of a relationship, for others it does not. From day to day you seem to be getting lazier and lazier. Could you come and visit me from time to time? It can sometimes be difficult to get your point across to someone else. You can go ahead and continue with your studies if you like. I prefer to just go with the flow instead of trying to control everything. We had better set off early if we want to arrive on time. I have difficulty in learning phrasal verbs I have no recollection of that happening. I would rather unwind by reading than disconnect by watching TV. In a nutshell, you could either order by phone or online. He is quite lazy, in fact, I am thinking of firing him. I learned German in no time. In relation to the meeting yesterday, we need to check out your progress in the company. What do you do? In terms of work, I mean. In this day and age the job market is extremely competitive. Instead of complaining about it, maybe you should look for a solution. It so happens that I speak fluent Spanish. Why do you like eating chocolate? I´m not sure, just because. Just in case you need any information, you can visit our website. We must do the shopping and last by not least, take the dog for a walk. Part of running a company is leading the way by example. Little by little you will recover from your injury and the accident.

make ends meet

have enough money to pay for everything

make sense

be logical

make up one´s mind

decide

no longer

not any more

not be bothered (infinitive)

not fancy

on account of

owing to

on and on

again and again

on average

as a norm

on balance

in conclusion

on foot

walking

on purpose

intentionally

on the outskirts

in the suburbs

on time

at the correct time

on/at the point of

just about to

only just

be the skin of one´s teeth

owing to

As a result of/because of

pay attention to

focus on

place the blame on

say someone is at fault

pull yourself together

focus on something

regret (not) + ing

feel sorry for

run out of

not have any left

safe and sound

secure

see no point in/of

not understand the logic behind

shed light on something slip out of sooner or later

reveal information about drop at some point in time 65

I find it hard to make ends meet on such a low salary. That makes sense since you used to work in the USA. I can´t make up my mind what to order. No longer am I going to wait for you to get ready. I can´t be bothered to do my homework this evening. On account of the weather, the trip shall be cancelled. You should persist and go on and on. On average, people take about 4 months to prepare for the exam. On balance, I think you ought to practise every day to improve. Do you go to work on foot? I´m so sorry, I didn´t do it on purpose. When I have kids, I´d love to live on the outskirts of the city. If you can´t arrive on time, you should get up earlier. I was on the point of dropping out of university when I was offered a scholarship, so I stayed. We only just made it out alive. Owing to delays on line 3, you ought to try and take a bus. We must pay attention to the teacher. I placed the blame on one of my employees. Before we begin you need to pull yourself together and be ready to start. I regret not getting the job at the law firm. We have run out of time to finish the exam. We arrived home safe and sound at around 8pm. I don´t see the point in learning Catalan. I hope that this new information sheds some light on the situation. The vase just slipped out of my hand. Sooner or later, you will have to tell him the news.

sort of

more or less

stand the test of time

show its value over a long period

take a chance

risk

take a look at

view/check out

take ages (infinitive)

take a long time

take by surprise

not expect

take care of

look after

take for granted

not give credit for

take place

be in a location

the benefit to/of

the advantage of

the downside of

the drawback of

the pros and cons of

the advantages and disadvantages of

to result in

ending in

under no circumstances

no way

undergo a change

experience a change

66

I sort of enjoy spending time at the beach. I reckon the internet will stand the test of time. I don´t want to take any chances on the deadline. Could you take a look at my bike, please? It took ages to find a job in the end. I was taken by surprise by her initial reaction. We ought to take care of ourselves. You should not take your friends for granted. The film takes place in Tokyo. The benefits of having good language skills are endless. The downside of being so intelligent is that most other people seem a little dim. The pros and cons of being selfemployed are debatable. The project resulted in us having to repeat almost all of the investigation. Under no circumstances should you be late for the exam. The company is undergoing huge changes.

Appendix B Word Formation List Nouns -age Verb

break cover pack post store wreck

-ence Noun

breakage coverage package postage storage wreckage

Adjective short

Noun shortage -al

Verb (dis)approv e arrive bury deny dismiss propose rehearse remove renew revive survive reverse dispose

Noun (dis)approval arrival burial denial dismissal proposal rehearsal removal renewal revival survival reversal disposal -ance

Verb annoy (dis)appear attend disturb endure enter ignore inherit perform rely resemble resist signify

Noun annoyance (dis)appearance attendance disturbance endurance entrance ignorance inheritance performance reliance resemblance resistance (in)significance

Verb

-ful Noun

confidence (in)dependenc e difference existence insistence obedience occurrence offence persistence recurrence

confide depend differ exist insist obey occur offed persist recur

Noun

arm cup fist hand house room spoon

Noun (Quantity)

armful cupful fistful handful houseful roomful spoonful

-hood Person Abstract Adjective adult adulthood absent Noun child childhood (in)compete absence father fatherhood nt (in)competenc man manhood (in)convenie e mother motherhood nt (in)convenien neighbour neighbourhood evident ce parent parenthood innocent evidence woman womanhood intelligent innocence Adjective Noun (im)patient intelligence likely likelihood present (im)patience -iety violent presence Adjective Noun violence anxious anxiety notorious notoriety sober sobriety various variety -cy -ity Adjective Noun Adjective Noun (in)accurate (in)accuracy (un)able (in)ability (in)adequate (in)adequacy (in)active (in)activity (in)decent (in)decency complex complexity (in)efficient (in)efficiency credible credibility (in)frequent (in)frequency curious curiousity immediate immediacy (un)equal (in)equality infant infancy (un)famili (un)familiarity intimate intimacy ar ferocity (il)literate (il)literacy ferocious (in)flexibility pregnant pregnancy (in)flexibl (in)formality private privacy e generousity redundant redundancy (in)formal hostility secret secrecy generous immunity 67

tolerate

(in)tolerance

Adjective arrogant distant (un)importa nt (ir)relevant reluctant

Noun arrogance distance (un)importance (ir)relevance reluctance

urgent vacant -dom Adjective bored free wise Person king star

-ment achieve (dis)agree amaze amuse announce argue arrange commit content develop disappoint discourage embarrass employ encourage enjoy entertain excite govern improve invest involve judge manage measure move (re)pay punish refresh replace require retire settle treat

-ness

achievement (dis)agreement amazement amusement announcement argument arrangement commitment contentment development disappointment discouragement embarrassment employment encouragement enjoyment entertainment excitement government improvement investment involvement judgment management measurement movement (re)payment punishment refreshment replacement requirement retirement settlement treatment

urgency vacancy Noun boredom freedom wisdom Abstract Noun kingdom stardom -ship

Abstract Noun championship companionshi p friendship leadership membership ownership partnership scholarship* sponsorship**

Person champion companion friend leader member owner partner scholar sponsor

*scholarship money give to someone to help pay for their studies **sponsorship money given to someone/ organization to help pay for something, e.g. an event Adjective

hostile immune intense major minor (im)mobil e objective (un)origin al personal (un)popula r prosperous (im)pure (in)secure (in)sensiti ve severe similar simple (in)sincere stupid subjective (in)valid

-ing Verb advertise build gather like live meet record say set suffer

Noun

hard

hardship -sion

Verb

Noun

collide comprehend conclude confuse convert decide

collision comprehensio n conclusion confusion conversion

68

intensity majority minority (im)mobility objectivity (un)originaityl personality (un)popularity prosperity (im)purity (in)security (in)sensitivity severity similarity simplicity (in)sincerity stupidity subjectivity (in)validity

Noun advertising building gathering liking living meeting recording saying setting suffering -sis

Verb analyze base diagnose emphasize -son Verb compare -ation

Noun analysis basis diagnosis emphasis Noun comparison

Adjective (un)aware careless close (un)conscio us deaf eager (in)effective (un)friendly great hard hopeless (un)selfish serious stiff thorough tired useful weak

divert divide erode evade Noun exclude (un)awareness expand carelessness explode closeness include (un)consciousne intrude ss invade deafness persuade eagerness supervise (in)effectivenes s (un)friendliness greatness hardness hopelessness (un)selfishness seriousness stiffness thoroughness tiredness usefulness weakness

-tion

decision diversion division erosion evasion exclusion expansion explosion inclusion intrusion invasion persuasion supervision

Verb

Noun

adapt administer apply combine compile consider expect explain identify imagine inflame inform inspire interpret observe prepare present publish (dis)qualif y realize resign vary

adaption administration application combination compilation consideration expectation explanation identification imagination inflammation information inspiration interpretation observation preparation presentation publication (dis)qualificati on realization resignation variation -y Noun

-th

Verb

Noun

accommoda te (re)act associate collect complicate compose (dis)connect contaminate demonstrate direct evolve hesitate imitate inhibit investigate (de)motivat e operate perceive predict prescribe

accommodation (re)action association collection complication composition (dis)connection contamination demonstration direction evolution hesitation imitation inhibition investigation (de)motivation operation perception prediction prescription reception recognition

Adjective

Noun

broad deep long strong true warm wide young

breadth depth length strength truth warmth width youth

Verb grow Verb close compose depart expose fail please proceed sign

Noun growth -ure Noun closure composure departure exposure failure pleasure procedure signature 69

Adjective difficult (dis)hones t poor safe (un)certain

Verb

discover enter

difficulty (dis)honesty poverty safety (un)certainty

Noun

discovery entry

receive recognize reduce repeat (dis)satisfy (re)solve subscribe substitute

reduction repetition (dis)satisfaction (re)solution subscription substitution

People -ant Verb apply assist confide consult contest defend inhabit occupy participate Verb lie Verb represent

Person applicant assistant confidant(e) consultant contestant defendant inhabitant occupant participant -ar Person liar -ative Person representative

-ian Noun electricity history library mathematics music politics

Person electrician historian librarian mathematician musician politician

-ist Noun

Person bicyclist environmentalist motorist naturalist novelist psychiatrist scientist specialist violinist

bicycle environment motor(car) nature novel psychiatry science specialism violin

-er Verb employ lecture manufacture present read research win

Person employer lecturer manufacturer presenter reader researcher winner

-or Verb act collect communicate compete conduct contribute demonstrate distribute instruct invent spectate

70

Person actor collector communicator competitor conductor contributor demonstrator distributor instructor inventor spectator

Nouns formed with up, down, in, away, out, back upupbringing upkeep uprising uproar upset upturn

downdownfall downpour downside downturn

in-

-back comeback drawback feedback setback

-away getaway hideaway runaway takeaway

Noun

Verb

income input insight intake

out-

-out breakout checkout handout knockout lookout payout turnout workout -down breakdown

outbreak outburst outcome outline outlook output outset

backbackground

Miscellaneous Verb (mis)behave choose complain die give know laugh lose prove receive respond

(mis)behaviour choice complaint death gift knowledge laughter loss proof receipt response

Noun

sell succeed think try weigh

sale(s) success though trial weight

Adjective

Noun

high

height

Adjectives -able Verb accept advise afford agree apply appreciate approach avoid bear believe compare

Adjective (un)acceptable (in)advisable affordable (dis)agreeable (in)applicable appreciable (un)approachable (un)avoidable (un)bearable (un)believable (in)comparable

-ible Noun

Adjective (in)accessible (in)flexible (in)sensible* Adjective (in)comprehensible (in)defensible (im)perceptible (ir)resistable (ir)responsible (ir)responsible

access flexibility sense Verb comprehend defend perceive resist respond reverse -al

71

consider desire dispense forget imagine irritate note notice pay predict refer prevent regret rely remark respect understand work

Noun comfort fashion knowledge memory profit reason value

(in)considerable (un)desirable (in)dispensable (un)forgettable (un)imaginable irritable notable noticeable payable (un)predictable referable preventable regrettable (un)reliable (un)remarkable respect understandable (un)workable

Adjective (un)comfortable (un)fashionable knowledgeable (un)memorable (un)profitable (un)reasonable valuable/invaluable* -ant Verb Adjective ignore ignorant please (un)pleasant rely reliant resist resistant signify (in)significant tolerate (in)tolerant *invaluable: extremely useful, e.g. invaluable advice/experience/help -ent Verb Adjective appear apparent

Noun accident addition alphabet behaviour center culture ecology emotion environment exception experiment fact globe intention medicine method monument nation occasion occupation origin parent person practice profession sensation society temperament tradition universe

Adjective accidental additional alphabetical behavioural central cultural ecological emotional environmental exceptional experimental factual global intentional medicinal methodical monumental national occasional occupational original parental personal practical professional sensational societal temperamental traditional universal -ial

Noun benefit commerce controversy face finance industry influence manager matrimony residence secretary substance territory

-ate Noun accuracy 72

Adjective beneficial commercial controversial facial financial industrial influential managerial matrimonial residential secretarial substantial territorial

Adjective (in)accurate

confide depend insist obey persist recur Noun absence (in)competence (in)convenience evidence (in)frequency innocence intelligence (im)patience presence

confident (in)dependent insistent obedient persistent recurrent Adjective absent (in)competent (in)convenient evident (in)frequent innocent intelligent (im)patient present -ive

Verb act adopt appreciate assert attend attract communicate compete conclude construct cooperate create deceive decide defend describe destroy disrupt divide

Adjective (in)active adoptive (un)appreciative (un)assertive (un)attentive (un)attractive (un)communicative (un)competitive (in)conclusive (un)constructive (un)cooperative (un)creative deceptive (in)decisive defensive descriptive destructive disruptive (in)decisive

adequacy appropriacy consideration fortune moderation

(in)adequate (in)appropriate (in)considerate (un)fortunate (im)moderate

-ative Adjective administrative argumentative comparative consultative (un)imaginative (un)informative preventative provocative (un)representative -ing/-ed The following verbs can be used to form participle adjectives. e.g. worrying/worried alarm, amaze, amuse, annoy, astonish, bore, confuse, convince, depress, disappoint, disgust, embarrass, entertain, excite, exhaust, fascinate, frighten, frustrate, increase, interest, irate, motivate, move, refresh, relax, satisfy, shock, surprise, terrify, threaten, thrill, tire, worry The following adjectives are commonly used with the nouns in brackets. Verb Noun close closing (date) consult consulting (room) recur recurring (illness, nightmare, problem, run theme) support running (water) supporting (actor, actress, evidence, role) -ious Verb administer argue compare consult imagine inform prevent provoke represent

73

explode express extend impress include invent offend persuade possess produce progress protect receive respect respond speculate support

explosive expressive extensive (un)impressive inclusive inventive (in)offensive persuasive possessive (un)productive progressive protective (un)receptive (ir)respective (un)responsive speculative (un)supportive

Noun aggression effect expense secret sense Noun friend life time

Adjective (un)aggressive (in)effective (in)expensive secretive (in)sensitive -ly Adjective (un)freidnly lively (un)timley

Root beauty care cheer colour count deceit delight effort

-ful/-less -ful beautiful careful cheerful colourful ---deceitful delightful ---

Noun (dis)advantage ambition anxiety caution courtesy curiosity danger disaster glamour hazard humour luxury monster mystery nerve number poison religion suspicion Verb infect vary Noun chat cloud ease fault fog frost grass guilt hair hill mist mud rain rock sleep sun wealth -less/un_ful ------careless cheerless colourless countless ---------effortless 74

Adjective (dis)advantageous ambitious anxious cautious (dis)courteous curious dangerous disastrous glamorous hazardous humorous luxurious monstrous mysterious nervous numerous poisonous (ir)religious suspicious Adjective infectious various -y Adjective chatty cloudy easy faulty foggy frosty grassy guilty hairy hilly misty muddy rainy rocky sleepy sunny wealthy

end event faith fault flight gratitude hair harm heart help home hope hurt job meaning pain peace point power price relent resource respect skill sleep speech stress success taste thought time truth use waste wonder worth youth

--eventful faithful faulty --grateful hairy harmful --helpful ---hopeful hurtful --meaningful painful peaceful --powerful ----resourceful respectful skillful/skilled ------stressful successful tasty/tasteful thoughtful ---truthful useful wasteful wonder --youthful

endless uneventful unfaithful faultless flightless ungrateful hairless harmless heartless helpless/unhelpful homeless hopeless --jobless meaningless painless -----pointless powerless priceless relentless unresourceful disrespectful unskilled sleepless speechless unstressful unsuccessful tasteless thoughtless timeless untruthful useless ----worthless -----

-ic Noun allergy drama optimism pessimism science strategy Verb advise celebrate contradict explain

Adjective allergic dramatic optimistic pessimistic scientific strategic -ory Adjective advisory celebratory contradictory explanatory

-ary Noun caution literature revolution

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Adjective cautionary literary revolutionary

introduce migrate oblige prepare satisfy supervise

introductory migratory obligatory preparatory satisfactory supervisory

Verbs -ate Noun alien assassin difference value Adjective active captive dominant valid

-en Verb

alienate assassinate differentiate evaluate Verb activatae captivate dominate validate enNoun Verb act enact circle encircle courage encourage (discourage) danger endanger force enforce list enlist rage enrage trust entrust Adjective Verb able enable large enlarge rich enrich sure ensure -ify Noun Verb class classify example exemplify glory glorify identity identify note notify (dis)qualification (dis)qualify Adjective Adjective clear clarify just justify pure purify simple simplify solid solidify

Adjective black bright boad dark dead deaf deep fat flat fresh hard high light long less loose moist quick red ripe sad sharp short soft stiff straight strong sweet thick tight weak wide worse Noun threat

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Verb blacken brighten broaden darken deaden deafen deepen fatten flatten freshen harden heighten lighten lengthen lessen loosen moisten quicken redden ripen sadden sharpen shorten soften stiffen straighten strengthen sweeten thicken tighten weaken wideen worseen Verb threaten

-ize Noun character climate computer criticism emphasis maximum memory minimum moisture pressure revolution standard summary symbol sympathy

Verb characterize acclimatize computerize criticize emphasize maximize memorize minimize moisturize pressurize revolutionize standardize summarize symbolize sympathize

Adjective commercial familiar formal general item modern social special stable visual

Verb commercialize familiarize formalize generalize itemize modernize socialize specialize stabilize visualize

Verbs formed with up, down, over, under, out overdownovercome downgrade overcook download overeat downplay overestimate downshift overexpose downsize overflow underoverhear underachieve overheat undercharge overload undercut overlook underestimate overrate undergo overrule underline overrun underrate overshadow understate oversleep undertake overspend undervalue overstay overstretch overtake overthrow overuse overwork upoutupdate outgrow upgrade outlast uphold outlive uplift outnumber uproot outplay upset outrun upstage outstay

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Appendix C Prepositions with Word Phrases AT at .. km per hour at а cost at all costs at а disadvantage at а discount at а distance at а glance at а guess at а loss at а moment's notice at а profit/loss at all events at an advantage at any rate at breakfast/lunch at church/school at ease at first hand at first sight at hand (= close) at heart (= basically) at home at last at least at length

at liberty at night (note: in the night) at noon at odds with at once at one's request at peace/war at present at random at risk at sea at speed at the age of at the beginning of at the end of at the expense of at the front of at the last possible time at the latest at the moment at the point of at the present time at the same time at the time at times at work

BY by accident by all accounts by all means by appointment by auction by birth by bus/train/plane/car by chance by cheque by day/night by degrees by far by force by hand

by heart by land/sea/air by law by luck (= luckily) by marriage by means of by mistake by name by nature by now by one's side by oneself by order of by post/airmail by profession 78

by request by sight by surprise by the dozen by the end

by the side of by the time by the way by virtue of

FOR / FROM for а change for а moment for а visit/holiday for а walk for а while for ages for breakfast/lunch/dinner for certain for ever for fear of for good ( = forever) for granted for hire

for life for love ( = out of love) for nothing for once for sale for sb's sake for short for the moment for the sake of for the time being from memory from now on from time to time

IN in а (good/bad) mood in а hurry in а mess in а way (= to some extent) in action in addition (to) in advance (of) in agony in agreement with in all in answer to in any case (= anyway) in arrears in bed in blossom in brief in case ( + clause) in case of ( + noun) in cash in charge of in code in comfort in common (with)

in comparison with in compensation for in conclusion in confidence in control of in danger in debt in detail in difficulty in disguise in disorder in doubt in exchange for in existence in fact in fashion in favour of in favour with in fear of in flames in focus in front of in future 79

in gear in general in good/bad condition in hand in horror of in ink/pencil in length/width in love with in moderation in mourning for in name only in no time in one's free time in other words in pain in particular in person in pieces in place of in possession of in practice/theory in principle in prison/jail in private/public in progress in return in safety in sb's interest in sb's opinion in season in secret in self-defence

in sight of in some respects in stock in summer/winter in tears in the air in the beginning in the case of (= in the event) in the dark in the end in the flesh in the habit of in the meantime in the mood for in the morning in the mountains in the name of in the news in the nude in the right/wrong in time in time of in touch in town in tune (with) in turn in two/half in uniform in use in vain in view of in vogue

ON on а ... day on а diet on а farm on а journey on а trip/cruise/excursion on an afternoon/evening on account of on an expedition on an island on approval on average

on bail on balance on behalf of on business on condition that on credit on demand on duty on fire on foot on good/bad terms with 80

on holiday on impulse on leave on loan on no account on one's mind on one's own on order on paper on principle on purpose on sale on second thoughts on sight on strike on the agenda on (the) air

on the contrary on the front/back (of а book, etc.) on the increase on the job on the one hand on the other hand on the outskirts on the phone on the point of on the radio on ТV on the trail of on the way on the whole on time

OUT OF out of breath out of control out of danger out of date out of debt out of doors out of fashion out of hand out of luck out of order out of pity out of place

out of practice out of print out of reach out of respect for out of season out of sight out of stock out of the ordinary out of the question out of town out of use out of work

OFF off colour off duty off school/work

off the record off the road

ROUND round the corner TO to one’s astonishment to one’s surprise

to smb’s face to this day 81

UNDER under age under arrest under control under discussion under one's breath

under orders under pressure under repair under the impression under the weather

WITH/WITHOUT with а view to with difficulty with luck with reference to with regard to with the compliments of

with the exception of without delay without fall without success without warning

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REFERENCES 1. Dooley J., Evans V. Grammarway 4 with answers. / Express Publishing, 1999. – 224 p. 2. Norris R., French A. with Hordern M. Ready for Advanced. Workbook. rd 3 Edition. /Macmillan Exam: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2014 – 149 p. 3. Prodromou L. Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate: With Key / L. Prodromou.Harlow: Longman, 2005 – 320 p. 4. O’Dell F., Black M. Advanced Trainer: Six Practice Tests with Answers / F. O’Dell, M. Black. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press – 2015, 230 p. 5. Skipper M. Advanced Grammar and Vocabulary. Student’s Book. / Express Publishing, 1999. – 237 p. 6. Cambridge Dictionary, s.v. "Suffixes," accessed September 10, 2019, https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ru/%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D 0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0/%D0%B1%D1%80% D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B 8%D0%BA%D0%B0/suffixes. 7. Intercambio Idioms Online, accessed November 07, 2019. https://www.intercambioidiomasonline.com/category/exams/cambridge/ 8. Cambridge English, accessed November 07, 2019. http://www.aprendeinglesenleganes.com/personal-and-impersonal-passive.php 9. Flo-Joe, accessed November 07, 2019. https://www.flojoe.co.uk/cae/students/strategy/p3pt5a.htm 10. Quizlet, accessed November 07, 2019. https://quizlet.com/161491025/cae-use-of-english-part-5-key-wordtransformation-flash-cards/ 11. Tim’s Free English Lesson Plans, accessed November 07, 2019. https://freeenglishlessonplans.com/2017/02/28/78-cae-key-word-transformationexpressions/

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ADVANCE YOUR ENGLISH GRAMMAR Учебно-методическое пособие

Составители: Мучкина Екатерина Сергеевна Кошкина Инна Витальевна Компьютерная верстка И. В. Владимировой

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