A Treatise of Melancholie 9780231877381

An early examination of the nature and cause of melancholy as a disease. Looks at how diet can effect this condition and

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A Treatise of Melancholie
 9780231877381

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A T R E A T I S E OF MELANCHOLIE iQft&i P U B L I C A T I O N NO. 5 0 OF THE FACSIMILE T E X T

SOCIETY

A TREATISE

OF

M E L A N CHO LIE By

T.

Reproduced edition

BRIGHT

from

printed

V autrollier,

the by

with an

duction by HARDIN

Published THE FACSIMILE BY C O L U M B I A

1586

Thomas introCRAIG

for

TEXT

SOCIETY

UNIVERSITY

NEW YORK :

M-CM-XL

PRESS

COPYRIGHT, 1 9 4 0 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, NEW YORK Foreign

a g e n t s : OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS,

Hum-

phrey Milford, A m e n House, London, E.C. 4, England, AND B. I. Building, Nicol Road, Bombay, India, MARUZEN COMPANY, LTD., 6 Nihonbashi, Tori-Nichome, Tokyo, Japan M A N U F A C T U R E D IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

INTRODUCTION

T H E W O R D "melancholy" meant to the Elizabethans, as to us also, not only settled depression, sadness, downcast and dispirited dejection, distress, misery, and hysteria, but also disease itself, not merely the symptoms of disease. It was a disordered condition of the body believed to be due to excess of black bile. This was natural melancholy. There was also unnatural melancholy, arising from a disordered physical condition of black bile itself, of choler, of blood, or even of phlegm, though a disordered condition of phlegm as a cause of unnatural melancholy was in dispute. T h e earlier pages of Bright's Treatise of Melancholie will make this clear. Gloominess was the primary symptom of the disease of melancholy.

vi

INTRODUCTION

but irascibility, sullenness, despondency, hypochrondria, morbidity, frenzy, and madness were also symptoms. These symptoms were and are very general in human life. Galen and his followers in medical science made the not unusual mistake of seeking one cause for one set of symptoms which arise from various causes, just as at the present time men seek cures for headaches and colds. The study of melancholy thus became a sort of baffled exploration of the superficies of the vaguer sorts of human suffering. The erroneous hypothesis of the four humors and four qualities might do well enough for the delineation of general classes of passions and sufferings; but like all false hypotheses it required, as soon as it was specifically applied, to be patched and adjusted. Consequently it grew complex in nature and covered an area at once too vague and too extensive. Our ancestors knew little enough

INTRODUCTION

Vli

about diet, and there was much error mixed with their knowledge. W e know that their food was inadequate in variety and often unwholesome. W e know that they ate too much—as we do. Their livers and kidneys must habitually have undergone great injury, and in consequence all sorts of distressing things must have happened to their hearts, their brains, and their nervous systems. In his Treatise Bright pays much attention to diet, and in that respect he is on the right track and is in some measure original. The men of Bright's time were unhygienically clothed and badly housed. Their medication was almost worse than useless. They grouped many ailments together and said, " I am melancholy," which was equivalent to saying, " I am alive and I am not happy." The only course they knew was to analyze that state. They learned that melancholy people were not stupid, ex-

viii

INTRODUCTION

cept with a certain sort of stupidity, that they were likely to be brave, witty, and thoughtful, and that they were liable to delusions and to frenzy and madness. T h e y had no way of particularizing except to observe, to study, and to expand. This kind of study was Bright's task, and he did it well. T h e subject of melancholy was an old one. A competently trained physician could talk about the subject and write treatises about it merely on the basis of what he had learned in the university, his reading, and his experience as a physician. T h e fact that Burton cites such multitudes of authorities in his Anatomy of Melancholy makes the writing of a treatise on melancholy seem an affair of special learning; but it was not so. M a n y physicians can and do write whole books on various aspects of medicine, particularly of popular medicine, without finding it necessary to quote au-

INTRODUCTION

ix

thorities. T h e y merely draw on the great reservoir of medical knowledge which, as trained physicians, they have learned from various sources. O f their particular subjects they give their own versions; and this is what Timothy Bright did. H e refers a number of times to Galen, whose De melancholia, sive atrae bilis morbo was the basis of the subject of melancholy. Bright's Treatise and, no doubt, all treatises on melancholy derive their form from G a l e n — definitions, symptoms, kinds, causes, and cures. Bright doubtless knew other books on melancholy. H e refers casually to Aetius on page 215. H e probably knew the Hippocratic works, De humoribus and De vulneribus capitis, Constantinus Africanus, De melancholia, and the works of Levinus Lemnius, whose Touchstone of Comflexions appeared in English translation in 1576. H o w many other books in Burton's great list Bright

X

INTRODUCTION

knew there is no way of telling. Caelius Aurelianus, Melanelius, Prosper Calenus, Rodericus a Fonseca, Thomas Erastus, Jason Pratensis, and half a dozen others lay, no doubt, in his way. It would be interesting to know if Bright was acquainted with Melanchthon, Vives, Cardan, and Paracelsus. Timothy Bright wrote as an authority on a well-known subject, and as such he took his place with his contemporaries. A n d yet in saying this, one has not finished with Galen. From the earliest times there had been a difference of opinion as to the relation of the soul and the body to the sufferings due to melancholy. Burton (Pt. I, sec. 2, memb. 5, subsec. i ) states the issue as follows: F o r as the distraction of the m i n d , a m o n g s t other o u t w a r d causes and perturbations, alters the temperature of the body, so the distraction and distemper of the body w i l l cause a distemperature of the soul: & 'tis hard to

INTRODUCTION

XI

decide w h i c h of these t w o do most harm to the other. Plato, . . .

Cyprian,

& some others

lay the greatest fault upon the soul, e x -

cusing the b o d y ; others again, accusing the body, excuse the soul, as a principal agent. T h e i r reasons are, because the manners follow

the temperature

proves in his book of that subject, Calenius, Mania,

Prosper

de A tra Bile, Jason Pratensis, Lemnius,

ers. A n d

c. de

I. 4 , c. 1 6 , and m a n y oth-

that w h i c h

m e n t e d , hom.

do

of the body, as G a l e n

Gualter

hath

10 in epist. Johannis,

comis most

t r u e ; concupiscence and original sin, inclinations, and bad h u m o u r s , are radical in every one of us, causing these perturbations, a f f e c tions, and several distempers, o f f e r i n g m a n y times violence unto the soul. The soul

Platonic

position

is u n t o u c h a b l e

by

was

that

physical

the

causes

a n d , if it d o e s its d u t y t h r o u g h t h e w i l l as t h e a g e n t o f a n e n l i g h t e n e d

reason,

m a y and should protect the body

from

s u f f e r i n g . I t m i g h t t h u s b e said t h a t i n m e l a n c h o l y t h e s o u l h a s b y n e g l e c t in-

xii

INTRODUCTION

jured the body. This point of view is implicit in such works as Cardan's De consolatione. The Galenic position is the more familiar one. According to it the ills of the body affect the well-being of the soul, drive it into misery and madness, so that it may be said that the body injures the soul. All treatises on melancholy as a disease are more or less Galenic. Under the impulse of an age turning more and more to science there was in all branches of medicine a great wave of Galenism in the late sixteenth and the early seventeenth centuries. From it came Vesalius, Burton, and Harvey. Bright also belongs to this wave of Galenism, although it was perhaps his reservations against Galenism that caused him to write at all. Bright was a student of divinity as well as medicine. H e gave up the cure of bodies for the cure of souls, and on June 8, 1 5 9 1 , we find him

INTRODUCTION

xiii

installed as rector of Methley, in Yorkshire.1 Although he believed with Galen that melancholy is a disease and therefore subject to medical treatment, he was unwilling completely to accept Galenic materialism. H e wished to provide a ground for the operation of his theology and therefore wrote his Treatise of Melancholie to show that, although Galenic therapeutics of melancholy was excellent and applicable, it might not be made to include contrition and those stings of conscience which God himself chooses to inflict on the sinner. Beyond this reservation there is nothing to withhold Bright from the society of writers on melancholy who became more and more numerous until Burton's time. Many of Burton's favorite authors, such as Franciscus Hildesheim, Hercules de 1 For the facts of Bright's life see William J . Carlton, Timothe Bright Doctor of Phisicke, London, 1911.

xiv

INTRODUCTION

Saxonia, Felix Plater, André du Laurens, Montaltus, Heurnius, Huarte Navarro, Thomas Wright, and Bishop John Abernethy, had not yet written.2 It must also be understood that the subject of melancholy took on new aspects during this period of intense exploitation. Medical interest continued. Huarte and others applied the doctrine of the humors to the choice of professions. Ben Jonson and others applied it to the presentation of character in drama 3 Many writers used the doctrine of the humors and faculty psychology (not then so-called) in the expression and delineation of passion. Bright's Treatise is an early simple handbook— 2 For an account of Burton's sources' see Paul Jordan-Smith, Bibliografhia Burtoniana. Stanford University, 193 i. 3 See Percy Simpson's introduction to Everyman in His Humour and to Everyman out of His Humour in Ben Jonson, ed. by Herford and Simpson, Vol. I.

INTRODUCTION

XV

at the opposite extreme from Burton's Anatomy. It will serve to show the principles from which the literature of melancholy developed. With Bright melancholy was not a mood; it was a disease. It had become a mood in the tragedies of Shakespeare and the comedies of Jonson, in contemporary writings, and to a considerable extent in the work of Burton; although to Burton melancholy was also a disease. Nashe knew the subject well, and perhaps he, Marston, Donne, Breton, and Burton (by his own confession) furnish us examples of melancholic careers. We cannot rob these men of a genuine feeling that life was futile, for gloom hung heavily over the period. Shakespeare mocks at melancholy in his early plays, but not in Hamlet, King Lear, and Timon of Athens.* 4 See " A n Essay on Elizabethan Melancholy," in G. B. Harrison's edition of Nicholas Breton's Melancholike Humours, London, 1929.

xvi

INTRODUCTION

Shakespeare may have known Bright's Treatise of Melancholie. It was available, simple, and authoritative. The stock of Thomas Vautrollier passed into the hands of Richard Field, Shakespeare's fellow townsman and the publisher of Venus and Adonis and The Rafe of Lucrece. The accurate description of melancholic symptoms in Hamlet and other plays reminds one of Bright. In Hamlet and in the sonnets there are a number of fairly close verbal echoes.5 But the question is not easily solved, since a good deal of the phraseology is current medical language and since the knowledge which Shakespeare possessed was also available in a number of other works, such as those of Lemnius, Boaistuau, La Primaudaye, Huarte Navarro, and various others. Neverthe5 See M a r y Isabelle O'Sullivan, "Hamlet and D r . Timothy B r i g h t , " Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, X L I , 6 6 7 - 7 9 .

INTRODUCTION

XVII

less the case for Shakespeare's having known Bright is good. A Treatise of Melancholic came out in three editions: i. A T R E A T I S E OF MELANC H O L I E . LONDON, by Thomas Vautrollier, 1586. COLLATION B Y SIGNATURES: * , 8 leaves; * * , 4 leaves; A , B, C, D , E , F , G , H, I, K, L , M , N , O, P, Q, R , S, each 8 leaves; total 1 5 6 numbered leaves. Leaf [**iij] has no signature riiark. COLLATION BY P A G I N A T I O N : [title], |A T R E A T I S E OF | MELANCHOLIE. CONTAINING T H E CAVSES I thereof, & reasons of the Strange effects it worketh | in our minds and bodies: with the phisicke cure, and | spirituall consolation for such as haue thereto ad- | ioyned an afflifted conscience. | The difference betwixt it, and melancholie •with diuerse | philosophical discourses touching aSiions, and af- | fe¿lions of soule, spirit, and body: the par- | ticulars whereof are to be seene | before the booke. \ By T . Bright

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INTRODUCTION

Doctor of Phisicke. | [printer's device — M c K e r r o w 1 6 4 ] | Imprinted at London by T h o m a s Vautrol- | lier, dwelling in the Black- | Friers. 1586. |, recto of [ * ] ; — [ b l a n k ] , verso of [ * ] ; — | [type-ornament head-piece] | T O T H E R I G H T | V V O R SHIPFVL M. | P E T E R O S B O V R N E , &c. | [signed] | A louer of your vertue, | T . Bright. | , recto of *ij to verso of [ * v ] ; — | [type-ornament head-piece] | T O H I S M E L A N - | cholicke friend: M . recto of [ * v i ] to recto of * * ; — [blank], verso of **; — | [type-ornament head-piece] | THE CONTENTES OF I the booke according to the j Chapters. | , recto of * * i j to verso of **iiij; — [text, with heading], | [type-ornament head-piece] | A T R E A T I S E | O F M E L A N - | CHOLIE. | , pp. 1 2 8 4 ; — | F I N I S . |, p. 2 8 4 ; — | Faults escafed in the fAnting . . . \ p. [ 2 8 5 ] ; — [ b l a n k ] , p. [ 2 8 6 ] . Page 25 is wrongly marked 35 ; 28 is 1 2 ; 102 is 82; 1 2 4 is 1 1 4 ; 138 is 1 5 8 ; 191 is 1 9 0 ; 222 is . 2 2 ; 223 and 224 are repeated; 252 is wrongly numbered 2 5 0 ; 253 is 2 5 1 ;

INTRODUCTION

xix

255 is 1 2 5 ; 2 7 3 is 1 7 3 ; 280 is 2 6 6 ; 281 is 280. C a t c h w o r d on p. 144 is "hinder" instead of " t h e " ; on p. 160, " l a r g e " ( w r o n g ) instead of " a r e " ; on p. 224, " d i n g " (right) instead of " g l o r i e " ; and on p. 246 it is " O f " instead of " a l l . " CONDITION: Size of leaf, 5 % c x 3 1 % e inches; 1 4 . 2 x 9 . 7 centimetres. Bound in brown crushed levant, gilt back, sides, inside borders, and edges; by the Club Bindery, 1 9 0 1 . T h e Hoe copy, with ex-libris; now in the Huntington Library. T h i s copy has been reproduced in the following facsimile. 2. A TREATISE OF MELANC H O L Y . LONDON,by lohn VVindei, 1586. COLLATION BY SIGNATURES : * , 8 l e a v e s ;

A , B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I, K , L , M , N , O , P , Q , R , each 8 leaves; S, 2 leaves; total, 1 4 6 numbered leaves. Leaf [Biiij] is numbered Biii. Leaves [ M i i ] , [ M i i i ] , and [Miiii] are numbered, respectively, M 2 , M 3 , and M 4 .

XX

INTRODUCTION COLLATION BY PAGINATION." [ t i t l e ] , | A

T R E A T I S E O F | MELANCHOLY. \ Contayning the causes thereof, and | reasons of the straunge effefts it worketh in our | minds and bodies: with the Phisicke cure, and | sfirituall consolation for such as haue | thereto adioyned affliSied | conscience. | The difference betwixt it, and melancholy, with di- | uerse fhilosofhicall discourses touching aSiions, and | affeSiions of soule, spirit and body: the farticu- | lars whereof are to be seene before | the booke. | By T . Bright Dodlor of | Phisicke. | [printer's device] | Imprinted at London by | Iohn VVindet. | 1586. |, recto of [ * ] ; [blank], verso of [ * ] ; | T O T H E R I G H T | WORSHIPFVL

M . P E | TER OSBOVRNE.

&c. | [signed] A louer of your vertue, T . Bright. | , recto of *ij to verso of *iij; | T O HIS ME- | lancholick friend M . | , recto of *iiij to recto of [ * v ] ; | [blank], verso of [ * v ] > | [type-ornament headpiece] | T H E C O N T E N T E S O F | the booke according to the | Chapters. | , recto of [*vi] to recto of [*viij] ; I [blank], verso of [*viij] ; |

INTRODUCTION

XXI

[text, with heading], | [type-ornament headpiece] | A T R E A T I S E | O F M E L A N - | CHOLIE. I , pp. I - [ 2 7 6 ] ; | F I N I S . | , p. [276]. N o irregularities in catchwords or pagination. Size of leaf: 5 % 6 x 3 1 % e inches; 13.5 x 9 centimetres. Bound in maroon russia. Gilt back, sides, inside borders & edges. Upper margins of pages 2 7 3 - 2 7 6 closely cropped, with loss of running titles and page numbers. T i t l e page torn, no loss of lettering. Signature on foreleaf and date, 1 8 3 7 . Huntington Library copy used in this description and collation. Faults noted in V a u trollier edition are corrected in this. 3. A n edition printed by William Stansby, 1 6 1 3 , follows the W i n d e t edition in wording of title-page: "afflicted conscience" instead of " a n afflicted conscience" as in Vautrollier edition. " F a u l t s " are corrected. T h e r e are no other apparent differences in matter.

A Treatise of Melancholie thus went through two editions in the year of its

xxii

INTRODUCTION

publication and was sufficiently important to be reissued twenty-seven years later. Bright wrote a number of other medical works, including a commentary on the Physica of Scribonius. One of them, A Treatise wherein is Declared the Sufficiencie of English Medicines, was published twice in 1580 and again in 1615. H e also contributed Animadversiones de traduce to the ^uxoAoyta of Goclenius (1590). Burton treats Bright as an authority on melancholy with a good deal of respect. These facts seem to indicate that Bright enjoyed a considerable reputation as a scientist in his own day. His most lasting fame, however, comes from his invention of a system of shorthand writing. His well known Characterie: an Arte of Shorte, Swifte, and Secrete Writing by Character was published in 1588. HARDIN CRAIG

Stanford University Dec. 1 j, 1939

A T R E A T I S E OF MELANCHOLIE FACSIMILE

A

TREATISE

OF

M E L A N C H O L I E . CONTAINING THE CAVSES thereof, & reafons of theftrangeefflfh it woikcth in ouf minds and bodies: with the phitiche cure,and ipiritilall confolation for fuch as baue thereto adioyned an affliited confcience. Tht difference betwixt it, and tneUnchtlie v'th diurtft fhiUfuphicaU difceurfet touching tflmni, and afftctiom o f f m / f , ß>irit, and Ud/: the farticular) thereof arc to be fetnt before the bcoif.

B y T.Bright D o £ o r of Phificke.

Imprinted at London by Thomas VautrolJicrj dwelling in the Black« Frier«. 15 8 5 .

TO THE RIGHT V V O R S H I P F V L PETER

M.

OSBOVRNE,&C.

F all other praftife of phifick, that parte moil comendeth the excellecy of the noble facultie, which not only releeueth the bodily infirm ity,but after a fort euen alfo correfteth the infirmities oft he mind. For the inftrument of rcafon, thebraine, being either not of well tempered iubftance: or difordered in his parts: all exercife ofwifedomeij hindrcd: and where once vndcrftanding lodged, wit, memorie, SC quick

THK

EPISTLB

conceit, kept reiîdence.and the cxcel« lencic of man appcareth abouc all o thcr creatures : there vnconfiderate judgement, fimplicitie, & fooliflines make their feat.and as it weredifpoffeiiing rcafon, of her watch tower, fubieftcth che nature of man vnto the annoyance of infinite calamities, that force vpo vs in the courfe of this fraile life, Sc baicth it fàrre v nder the condition of brute beafts. T h e heart the feate ofaffeftion(and neither immoderate in temper, nor in figure or quantitie otherwife difpofedthen is expedient for good aftion ) the feate oftemperancie,ofiuftice,offortitndc and liberahtie, dayly pra&ice of phificke (beweth how much it is difnofed and framed to mediocritie of affection wherin vertuc coniiftçth, by iiich meanes as nature miniftreth, SC the phifitian hir great fteward according to her wilt, difpenlêth where need requireth:in fo much that what

rcafon

DEDICATOKIE. reafon bringcth to pafle by pcrfwafion and counfcll, that mcd icine and other helpcs of that kinde fcemeto worke by inftintt of nature. T h e dayly experience of phreniies, madnctte,luriafics,and melancholy cured by this heauenly gift of G o d , make manifeft demonftration hereof.Thc notable fruit Sc fuccefle ofwhich art in that kinde, hath ca®fed fomc to iudge more baiely ofthe foule, then agreeth with pictieor n a t u r e s hauc accompted all maner affcition thereo t t o be fubiett to the phiiicians had, notconiidcring herein any thing diume,and aboue the ordinarie cuents, andnaturall courfe of thinges: but hauc efteemed the vettues the felues, yea religion, no other thing but as the body hath ben tempered, and on the other fide,vice, prophanenefle,S£ neglcft of religion and honeftie, to haue bene nought elfe but a fault of humour. For correcting the iudge* iij

TH1

B U S TLB

met offuch as fo greatly mi flake the matter, and partly for the vfe of many that may neede inftruftion and coiinfeljin the (late ofmelancholy ,SC affettion of braineand hart, Si wold haue both to iatnfie their ownc doubts, and to anfwer the prophanc obie£tions of others, I haue taken this paincs to confute the abfurde errour o f the o n e , sc to fatisfie the rcafonable and modeft inquiry of the other that feek to be enformed. I haue layd open howe the bodie, and corporall things affeft the foule,&: how the body isaffefled ofitagaine:what the difference is betwixt natural melancholic, and that heauy handc of Godvpon the affli£lcd confciencc, tormented with remorfc ofiin ne, Sc feare of his iudgement: with a Chriftian refolutiS according to my skill for iucli as faint vnder that hcauie burthen. And that I might to the vttermoft of my endcuor (as other bu~ fineiTe

DF.DICATORIfc

fineflc wold permit mej comfort the in that eftate moil comfortles, I hauc added mine aduife of phificke hclpe: tvhat diet, what medicine, and what other remedie ismeete for perfons, opprefled with melanchol ie feare,&: that kind of heauinefle of hart.I haue interlaced my trcatifc befides with difputes of Philofophie that the learned ion of them, and fuch as are of quicke conceit,& delited indifcourfe ofreafon in naturall things,may find to pafle their time with, and knowe the grounds and reaibns of iheirpaffions, without which they might receaue more difcomfort, and greater caufe oferror. This I hauedcliucrcd in a fimple phrafe without any coih or port of words to a fuppoied frend i M . not ignorant ofgood lctters,that the difcourfe might be more familiar then ifit had caricd other direction itotherwife would be.Chaungethe letter, and it is indifferent to whome * iiij

THE

F.PIST11

foeuer ftandeth in need,or ihal m a k e vfcthereof. I write it in our mother t o n g that the benefit ( h o w fmall f o e ' u e r i t b e ) might be more c o m m o n , Sc as the praftifc ofall auncicntphilofophevs hath ben to write in their o w n e language their prccqus , w h c therconcerning nature, or touching maners of life, to the end their countrcy men m i g h t reapc the benefitc w i t h m o r e eafe, and fceke rather for found judgement o f vnderftanding, then for vainc oftentacion of ftrange t o n g s : which is alfoaftera fort foll o w e d in tianilations : fo I t o o k e it fneeteft to impart theiefewc poyntes ofphilofophie,ScphiiickeinEngli(h t o the end our pcople,as other natios d o , might acquaint them felues with f o m e part ofthis k i n d c , rather then with other firiuolous diicourfes, neither profitable to vie, nor delectable t o the vcrtuous, and well difpofed minde. T h i s m y (lender endeuour I dedicate

DEDICATORIE.

dedicate to your name right worfhipfull M.Oibourne, to whom besides I am particularly bcholdingc, your good nuouring of vertueand learning in certaine of my acquaintance of thebeftmatke hath moued mcto gate this fignificarion howe readie learning is to honor her fauorers. Aie hath many daughters, and they bcall knit in loue: betwixt thé there is neither cnuic, nor iealoufic: where one is honored and receiueth cntertainment,there all congratulate without dctraftion : andcuenas in a darke night one ftar breaking out ofathicke cloude, though it be but fmall, deliuereth a farre more cheerfull and comfortable light, then if it {hone with many in a cleereeuening: fo this vertue hath the more g r a c e d beauty in you , iniomuch as almoll allfuch planetshauea longtime either bene whollie edipfed, or quite fallcouc of their fphcres, to the great

THE EPIST. DEDIC. difcoforte o f fuch as trauaile in this kinde o f night workes,and buGcthc fducs at the lamps and arc carefull to vpholde with perplexed ihidie the fociety of mankinde by learning and inftruction . There be a fewe that (hinc with you, their honor grounded vpó vertuCjíhal Had for eucr:thc Mufes and the Chantes haue their names in perpetual] record: and I a feruant of theirs in their names pcrformc this duetie vnto you in this forte as I haue declared. Fare you welhfrom litle S.Bartlcmewes by Smithfieldthe 13 of May.i58¿. blotter

of your vertve,

T . Bright,

TO

HIS MELANcholicke friend: M.

X&fyteZRLT H O r G H deare vC^I^^^UW. your letter full of v^heauines , and vncom^k^y^^firtable plainits, hath in jitchfort affetted me, that (as it faireth with a true hartedfriend) your a f f l i ction draweth me into the fellowship of your mournefull eflate. Wherby lam fainetocail forfuch fnpporte, asreafon miniflrethto wifemen-.and am compelled as it were to put bit into the mouth of myouer vehement ajfefiion: andgiue checke as much as my flrenrth ferueth vnto my paffion feme what in this behalfe vnruly.Yet albeit our cafes are not equail, in fo much as the griefe isnotfo fenjibleto me as toyour f e l f e , whome it hath {I

fereeiue)entred to the quick, not oneìy of boielyfenfe : but hathpaffeddeeper andßettedthe tenderfìnevves ofthe foule andfpirite :yetl fay ,for*fmuch as futh ù the gracions prouidence of eur God,andthe manifoldgraces ofhis bountifull handvnto me», thatfearce appeareth any calamity, but if time be taken and opportuniie laid holde on, helpe and r eieafe doth asreadely prefent it felfe, to the comforte of fue h at trauiile vnder the burthen,as affli ¿lion is readie to charge them : and confidering on whome this kinde oferoffe is fatlenwpon a manexercifedin the ßudieofptetie, andapracítferof the fame, andone not ignorant ofthe préceptes of philofophie, vvherby wordly men, andfue h as are deßitute ofthe knowledge ofGod^ßay them feines in fuch cafes, which as it ferueth them butflenderly andis but a readenftaffe, to beare vp fo heauy a burthen, being *thervvife votdeì and vnfurnished

confideratton of naturall c auf es, and euentes-Jlande him inflea.de, who refleth not wholly there onjbut leaneth upon the maine pillar of Gods promt' fes, of mercy and grace > andi vaightethvvith patthe the appointed time of hü releafe. ihefe considerations to be feene in you, giue me confolation and the ratherinable me to ccmforte you my deare frtedjv vhofefoule Jper ceiue pat et h with heat of thatflamet which mofl nigh you fay in your feeling approchethvnto thofe tormentes dejenbedwher the worm diethnot andthefiregoeth not out-.whereofalthoughyouJeeme prefently tofeele the anguish for a time; yet haue comfort and attend the happie iffue , which doubtles ityourraifing'vp againeand more high aduaunctment into the affurance of Gods ¡cue andfauour. For as ef all met talis gold u tried with moß

vehement heute, and abideth the oftenefl bantering of workernen for the refyning , which being once fyned ferueth for thefeate of the Diamond, and for matter of precious vejfels to the royatifurniture of the tables of potentates and princes : fo now euen that heauenly refiner, holdeth you in this hoteflame for a time ¿ill being purified andcleared from that drojfe of finne whichcleaueth fo faß, to our degenerat nature, you may make hereafter a more glorious veffell, for hü feruice and honour of bis heauenly mateftie. Tour requefi is not onely that I should minifter vnto you, what my fender skill either in diuinitie or phificke may afford, but that I would at Urge declare vnto you the nature of melancholte,what caufethit, what effecles it worketh, how cured\ and farther to lay open, whatfoeuer may ferue for the knowledge thereof, with fush companions offeare ,fad. nes

nes,defterat/on,teares,weeping,fob. btngftghing, asfollow that mournC' fulitraine,yea ofte times, vnbrideled laughter, r'tfmg notfrom any eomforte of the heArt ,orgladnesoffpirit, hut from a difpofition in (itch forte altered, as by errour of conceits, that gefiure it in a counterfet maner beftov ved vpon that difagreeing paffion, vvhofe nature is rather to extinguish it felfe withteares, then ajpvvagedby the fvveete breath ofchearefulnes, otherwife to receiue refreshing: This your requeft chargeth me with that, whereto if my skillreatheth not ,yet mygoodwill andprompt mtnde, both in refpecl of your ejlate, whofe griefc 1 pitty and defire to mitigate, and the complaintes of diuerfe others alfo in like cafe opprejfed, drawe me, that both they ¿r you knovvingthegrouds of theft ptffwns: what parte nature path in thetragedie, and what confcience of fmne driueth vnto: what

difference betwixt them, how one nourisheth Another, how echrifeth, and the feuerali meanes, both of preventing and cure ofech, the de[perate difcouragementes, which rife vnto bodie andminde thui afflitfed may be at the leafl mitigated, andfome light giuen to the foule , (tumbling in the darke midnight ofignorance, and refreshings the comforteles hearte,diJlrailed with a thoufand doubtes and penfiue thoughtes ofdijpaire-.wherin according to your rerne(I, I haue copioufly entreated of thefe pointes, that both you might be the more comforted Andfat isfied byplentie of difcourfe, & being a matterfit ting your humor and pertinent to your prefent ejlate , you might haue wherewith topaffethe tedious time with more contentmet. Therefore as your griefe willgiue leaue and refpitt thereto ¡you may here know and learne that , which you deftre to know in this cafe, whereof

ifbyGohs blefjtngyoumay make vfe toyour cofort, I shallioye in my panes and you again ft other times of try ally by this experience, mayhaue canfe of more hope ofreleafe, and comfort in heauines, then through the ter~ tour of this ffraunge affiiciionyou prefentlyfeele.

THE

CONTENTES

OF

the booke According to the Chapters.

H

O w diucrfliethe word melancholy is takc.Cap.i. pag.i. Thecaufesof naturall melancholic, and ofthe exccfle thereof! Cap.i.pag-4. Whether good nouriihmcnte brcede mclancholie by fault of the bodie turning it into mclancholie., whether fuch humour is founde in nourilhmcnteSj or rather is made of

them, Cap-3.pag.7. Theaunfwerto obiefhons made againft the breeding of melancholicke humour out of nouriihmenr. Cap.4.pag,io. A more particular and farther anfwcrto the former obie&ions. Cap. 5.pag.iit ** ij

T h e caufes o f the increafe Sc exccffe of the melancholickc humour. C a p . 6 . pag 25. O f t h e m e l a n c h o l i c k e excremcnc Cap7.pag.31. W h a t burnt c h o l l e r i s , and the caufes thereof. Cap.8-pag.3z. H o w melancholic w o r k e t h fcarfiillpailions in the mind. Cap.9.pag.

33H o w the body affeð the foule Cap.io.pag.39. Obie&ions againft the manner h o w e the bodie affctteth the foule, w i t h a n f w e r t h e r e u n t o . C a p . i l pag. 49. A farther a u n f w e r to the former obieftions, and of the fimple facultie of the foule, andonelyorganicall of ipirit and bodie. Cap.12.pag.55. H o w e the foule by one fimple £1cultieperfourmeth f o manieand diuerfe aflions. Cap.13.pag.i7. T h e particular anfwers to the o b jections

ie&ions made in the 1 1 .Chap. C a p . 14.pag.72. W h e t h e r perturbations rife of humor,or not with a diuifion of the perturbations. Cap.15.pag.80. W h e t h e r perturbations which are not mouedby outward occaiions rife of humourjor not-.and h o w . Cap I6.pag.90. H o w melacholy procureth feare, fadnes,diipaire, and fuch other p anions. Cap.17.pag.10i ' O f t h e vnnatural melacholy rifing by aduftionrhow itaffcdech vs with diuerfc paflions. Cap.18.pag.no. H o w iickncs,and yeares feeme to alter the mind,and the caufe,Sc h o w the foule hath praftife of ienfes ieparated fro che bodie.Cap. 19.pag.n. T h e accidcntes which befall melancholieperibns. Cap.20.pag.12 3. H o w melacholy altcreth thequalitics of the bodie. Cap. 21 .pag. 115. H o w melancholy altcrcth thofc

aftions which rife out ofthe braine. Cap.22.pag.1z9. H o w aned pen, to the cunning writer; which only obfcureth,thc (hew ofcither art,and nothing diminiiheth of that facultic,which with better inftrument?, would fully content the eye with a faire hand; Scfatisfie the care with moil pleaiant and delegable harmonic. Otherwife the ioule rcceauctb no hurt from the bodie; it being fpirituall, and voyde of all paflion of corporal! thinges ; and the other grofle, earthie, andfarrc raaUeto annoy a nature of fuch excellcncic. CHAP.

OF

MILANCHOIII. CHAP.

JF

X.

Htm the btdit efft&ttb thtfouU. TN this forte then are you to conceiue mc,Mulching thofe aftions,which the bodie feemeth to offer violence to the foule; in that no alteration offubftance,or nature,can rife there from, nor anie blemifh of naturaU faculcie, or decaye offuch qualities,as arc eiTenriaU vnto the foule: othcrwife^night it in the end periih,and deftroy that immortall nature; which can not by ante meanes dcoaic, but by the fame power which created i t . But thus onely doe (as I may fo call them)paifions force the foule; euc through the cuill difoofed inftrument of (be bodie, they depraue the moil excellent and moil perfeft afiions , whereto the foule is bent in the whole order of mans nature, and by corruption of the Spirites,which ihould be the facred band of vnitie,caufe fuch miflike,as the foule, without that mediation,diidaineth the bodies longer fellow(hip,andbetaketh itfelfe, to that contemplation,whereto it is by nature inclyned; and giueth ouer the grofle, and mechanicall aftions of the bodie,whereto,by order ofcreation, it was allotted in the earthly tabemaclc.But you wil fay vnto me,experience fcemeth to declare a further paflion of the foule from the bodie then I mendon:for we fee what iflues, bodelie thinges, and the bodie it felfe driue our mindes vnto:as fome kindeof muficke , toheauinesj other fome to chearefulnes; other fome to companion; other iome to rage ; other to modeftie; and other to C iiij

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wantonnes:Lkewifeofyifible thinges , certavne fturre vs to indignation and difdayne;and other to contentednes,and good Lkiog.ln like manner ccrtaine nature* take inwacd, mouc v$ to mirths at wynejand other to heauinesjiomc to rage,furie and frcnfie;andother(ooc to dulncs &heauinesof fpirite : as certainc poylones in both kinds do manifeit thele pafijons vntovsjbeiiJes fuch as life of our humours breddc inourowne bodies; which may be reafens, to one not well aduifed/o to miftake ihcfc cffcflcs of corporall thinees^s though the foulc rcceiucd farther inipre)fion,not oncly in aff..£hon, but alfoinvndcrftanding, then 1 hauc vnto you mentioned; for fatisfying of you, in which doubtes,you are diligently tu coniidcr,what I (hall declare, concerning the feucrall aftion* ofbodie, fouleand (pirite, and how, each one of thcfc performeth their aftions;which muft be kept diitin£t,for better vndei {landing of that I (hall hereafter in this difcourfe lay open vnto you. And firft, concerning the a&ions of ths.foulc:you remember how it was firft made by infpiration from God himfcjfe,a creature immortal!, proceeding from the cternalljwith whonie there is no mortality. The end of this creation was, that being vmted to the bodely fubftance, raifed and furniihed with corporall faculties from the carth,comroo with other liuing crcaturcs, there might rife a crcature ofmiddle nature betwixt Angels, 8cbeaftcs, to glorifie his name.This thefoule doth, by two kindes of adions:the one kinde,is fuch as it cx(rcifeth, feperated from thcbodie; which aro concern-

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41

contemplations of God,in fuch meafure as he it by naturall inihnftopened vnto it,with rcueret iccognilaunce of fuch blc(Tinges,as by creation it is endued with. Next vnto God , whatiocuer within compafleof her conceitcis inunortail, without tedioufncs.ortraucll,and with fpiritual ioyc inc¶ble.Thcfe adtios the is buficd with in this h f e / o Jong as (he inhabitcth her earthly tabernaclcjneither in luch perft£hon,nor yet lo freely,as ihe doth fepcrated, and the knot loo. fed betwixt her and the body, being withdrawe, by anions exercifcd with coi|>orallmftrumcnt, ofbafei fort. Thcfe are the oth.r kindc which thefouie,by the creators law is fubied vnto,for the continuance of the crcature, and maintenance of the whole nature,with duetjes thereto bebngmg;animall,vicall,natu;3)l;and whatfo:uer mixed, requireth iovnily . 11 three; as this (orporall praiiing of God for his goodncs, and praying vnto him for ncccflitics, rekcuing our brothers want, and defending him from wrong; with cuerie ones feucrajl vocation, wherein his peculiar charge lyeth;whether it be in peace,or in warrejat home,or abroadc,with our crtuntrymen,or with ftraungers^in our owne famtlies.or with our neighbours; whether it be fuperioricy of commaudement,or duety of obediccc: whicn differ in degree,as they be nighcr, or farther of the attions peculiar to the ioulc; or communicate more,or lcfl'c with thcm.Ifyou fay vntome; how commcth it to pa({c,ihat the ioulc being of (b finale, and diuine a nature , as the creation piaiufeftly Qieweth,intc:mcdlcih wi;h fo grofle



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«¿lions, as are common, not onely with brtiice beaftes;as fenfe, motion and appetite; but euen alio with natures of farreinferjour conditio^ •splantes,and mineralls: whereby it feemech, that,either the ioirie is not offuch excellency,as in truth it is; or elfe that our nature conimeth of three foules, to which Icuerall faculties, and actions are slotted. By deeper confide ration of the nature of the foule, this obieAiS may be eafily aunfwercd. The fouIc,as the fubftance therof moil pure, and pertcft, and far ofremoued from corruption;fo it is endued with faculties of likequalitie, pure, immortalland anfwerable co fo diuine a fubicit; 8c carrieth with it,an inftinft fcience,gotten,neither by precept,nor pra&ife; but natu.ally therewith furniihed; whereby it is able,wkh one vniucrf«ll,and iimple facukie , to performe fo many varieties of anions,as the in. ftrumcnt.by which it performeth them,carrieth an apt inclination thereto: as the braync being an inftrument of ronceite, it therewith conceiueth:the eye to fee^t fecckthe care to heare, it heareth:and fo the inftrument of fmelling, and tafte, wanting nothing of their naturall difpofition,the foule fmelleth with, & difcerneth tails: which otherwiic difpofed , it can not chcs , andhoncftie: which haue their diuerfe rooraes in the fame gcncrall nature, and do not one farther encounter the other . T h e other, haue one iîngle fubieâ,if they be of accidentary natures, or qualities : and there one cxpclleth the other:endurmgno fociety : as vertue, vice, liberality, couctoufncs, and prodigality : black, blew,yellow,and grccnc:light,darknes,&c.And thefc are at pcrpctuall warre,& admit notruice d a y , no not for a minute,& fo,bccaufe they will ncedes pofTefl'e the fame place,expel ech other, and are in Logick rearmed,Oppohres.Now thé whatfoeuer the foule fimplc,indiuiduall,& without mixture or compofitiongiueth en tertaynement of difagreeine natures, muftof ncceflity fall into one ofthele: that is,to the oppofiteor diuerfe.Theoppofite require, their owne times, and will not accord in the fame fubicâ at once, except you will accompt rclathiesof a milder difpofition, & more fociable then their fellow:* which notwithftanding by the diuerfe refpeft, are as farre difioyned as the reft. Now then, if we hold that the minde hath diuerfe faculties, then of neceflitie muft there be in the fame minde

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inindediuerfity offubie£t:which i f t h e r b e , then is the fimplicity thereof turned into multiplicity of fubftance, and composition of nature: a dilpofition contrarie both to the manner of the beginning of the ioule void of mixture, and that immortall perpetuitie, wherewith it is indued. Peraduenture it may f c c m c i h auge, and repugnant to the nature of thinges diucrfc,to d.lleuer them offubicft, feing foftnes and whitcnes, white and heate,and (uch Lkc,being diucrfc enter into the famefubicihas in Inoc, the one and the other in molton leade,or hote yron : which doubt, becaufcirferueth f o r p r o o f e o f this vnity of faculty , 1 will lay o p e n , and make playne rnto you.Of all things fubieit to corruption,the elementes arc moftiimple,which being diucrfly mixed,yeeld the variety, we fee of all compoud thinges vnder hcaucn:chefi haue ech of them, but one quality:fire hatc,aycr m o i d , earth dry, and water cold,if they ihould haue twayne,thcn ffluft they neede* either entercommunicatc, or two quallities concurre with the firft matter: entercommunication is there none : for then ihould they not be the elements of other things feing they (hould be elemets one o f ech other: two qualities make fuperfluities in the mixed, which nature efchueth in all her worke:thcn fupcrfluttic would be here in that there iliouldin the compound be found a dryr.es of bre,and the like o f carth:a coldnes o f the earth,and the like of water: a n d f o in die heat of fire,& ayre:which were more thenneede:reing fuch quallities arc (uficicnily imparted to the compound by one.

JB

A

TEIATISE

Now if che elementes which a ñ e r a fott receiue compofition of a groflc matter and f o r m e , do admit no diuerfe quality , much lefle doth the mindc of a more pure beginning,and fimplc fubfiance,reieft the lame. But how then commeth it to pafl'e,thatacole is black and hard,& chalk hardeaftd white,in the fame parte throughout, if diueriuics fettle no nighcr together? yea very well notwithftanding.For compounded things, (hough they make one n a t u r e , yet are they not by reafon of compoiition in all partes alike,neither arc the elements fo conful'ed in the mix. ture but in all partes they may be found diitinS by their qualities (imple or compound : which qualities although they be commonly attributed to the whole,yet properly and cheefely, belong they to the elementes whereof the whole có(meth:fo that in one nature, diuerfity of fubi c d is to be confídcrcd. Example fhall make it plaine:The heate ofgeppcr rifeth of the fiery elementjthe drynes and folidity, of fubftaunce which it hath of the earthie . In Rhubarb the purging vertue rifeth of the fubtle fubftancc',& the ftrcngthening facultie of the grofle and earthy. Chalk is white of the aiery moifture which it is endued with:and hath his hardnes of a earthie drynes . T h e roie herrednes of a certain« temper offingle moiftnes, concodcd with heat: and her fmell ,ofan aieric moiftnet mixed with an earthy drynes, attenuated with heate, and vertue of the fiery element? So we fee diuerfe thinges, which feemc to fall into one vniuerfall nature or fubieft, the matter being morenar-

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$9

rowly vined,betake them to their owne fubieir, proper and peculiar v n t o t h c m f c l u c s , and only Of communicating their fubftaunce with t h e whole,endue it alio with like qualities. But y ou will fay: if the elements h a u e but one qualitye (which firft was affirmed to the maintcynance ofiingle f a c u h y ) t h e n is not the clement of lire dry,nor of water moift,nor of aire warme.True: neither are they of their owne natures fuch.-buc that which is in fire b e l i d c h e a t c , is only an a b . fence o f m o i f t n e s : in the earth accompted cold, is an a b f c n c e o n l y o f heate:in the r e d likewife, and n o t an ingenerate quallity: more then h e » , ucn may be faid to be moift,becaufe it is n o t dry o r h o t e , b c c a u f e i t i s n o t cold:which indifferently refufcth all fuch kinde of quallity .Now an abfence of one quallity,is n o t ftraight waye an i n Ferringofthoothcr:butonlyinpriuants,wherof the o n e is a m e c r e a b f e n c e , and of that c o n t r a ry o n l y , which naturally (hauld b e p r e f e n t : at blindnes is n o t rightly (aid of a ftone, though it fee n o t at any time.In ¡he clcmetary q u a l i t i e s ^ is n o t fo:but they areallquallitics^importinga prefence: becaufe they adioyned to the firft n a t t e r of t h i n g e s , are the only formes of elementes:now abfence formeth nothing, and priuants are alwnyes contrary to forme and nature:It appearcth then,that elements which are Life fimplc then the foules of men are endued but with one faculty,and t h a t diucrfe thing s require a diucrfe peculiar feat, which being taken vp in fuch natures as will abide mixture , feemc as though they were of the whole mixed, when

to

A

TREATISE

a s but after a fort only they are fotobeaccopted.Thefe two pointes being fufficiently proucd cftablifh euidcntly the fimple and vniforme fa. culties of the foule: For hereby it is mod mani. felt that by rcafon of the GoopJc nature thereof, it cannot beare any mixture,or be fupport of di. uerfcthingcs:neitherthatdiuerfe will fo neigh, bourit together, as to dwell in one indiuiduaH fubie&.Then feing that they which of al the difagrecrSjlcaft difagree, will not fq nighly be Iinkcd.neither can any diucrfity of faculty in the minde,in a nature lo fimple, and impartible be coupled together, where thcr is no difagreemct offubflance, nor difTent of mixture, buteuery parte like the whole,and ech like other. Againe thefe pluralities being elientiall,can be but one: feing efience is not many, and nature alwayes farre vnlike the fword of Delphosj which ferued for diuerfe vfes,euer employeth one to one,and not to many: otherwifc wat ihould enforce her, which(ihe abounding with fufficiency) refufcch in all her a&ions.Moreouer being in euery part like it fclfe,and ech parte like other, no diflimi« litud e can arife by diftinftion of faculty. Accidental! if they be.-thenisthe minde indaunger otloofing all faculty,whichit cannot do leingk is fubied to no f o r c e , but of G o d himfelfe that made it.Now whatfoeuer natural] faculty in any thing fadeth,it is by reafon the thing firft fadetn which enioyeth that faculty:elfe would they alwayes continue: wherefore the minde beingcuerlafting, and exempt from chaunge and corruption,hcr faculty is alfu cflentiall,and of life pcrje.

O F M B L A N C H O L I I .

it

perpetuity: l n e e d e n o t yeeldreafonwhy c o n vary faculties, o r l i i c h a s w e call difparatesin logicke, can haue n o ruome in a nature io limple as the foulc i s , both in refpeft of the repuglunce within themfelues, and vnitie of the f u b ic&feing fuch as arc diuerfe only refufe t h a t cohabitation and neighboiirhood.Thus much ihal (office to proue the fimple faculty of the foule:it followcth t o proue the fpirite and body to b e wholly organicall :by organicalll m e a n c a difpoiition Scaprnes only, without any free workc or a f t i o n , other wife then at thenriindes c o m m j 4ement:elfe ftiould there be mo beginninges & caufes of a d i o n then one,in one n a t u r e : which popularity of adminiftrano,nature will none o f , •or yet with any holygarcicall or inixt:but c o m yiaiidcth only by one fouerainty:the reft being Taflals a t the beck of the foueraigne c o m m a n i e r . T h c k i n d e s o f n i f t r u n i c n t s a r e o f two forts: die o n e dead in it felfc,and deftitute of all m o t i M:as a f a w b c f o r e i t b e m o u c d . o f t h e w o i k m a n , lod i (hip before it be ftirred wuh winde , a n d boifcd o f f a i l e u h e other forte i j liuclv, arhd c a r l i e t h i n i t fclfcaptnes,and difpoiition of motio: U the b o u n d to h u n t with , and the haukc t o fowle w i t h , b o t h caried with hope of p r a y : t h e hand,to roouc at our plcafui c, and to vie any o thcrkindeof inft; u m c n t or t o o k . T h e fecond (ort o f t h e f e twaine,is alio to be dift:nguiflied in twaine, whereof the one obtaincth power in i t fdfe, and requireth d e r e f h o n only,as the b e a f t , •nd fowlc abouc m e n t i o n e d : and the oilier noc •nJy d i r e c t i o n , but impulilon alio from a n in-

€%

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Ttitrrss

ward rertue, and forcible power: as the motion of the hand, and the variety of the hand a ftiont do mofteuidendy declare. O f thele three kinds of mftrumepts, I place the fpirit and bodic both to the mind, as the faw or axe in the workman* bandar to the lute touched of the Mufician(ac* cording to the fundry qualities & conditions of the initrunienu of the body ) in the thirde fort; but fo, as the ipirir, in companion of.thc bodie, fareth as the hand to the dead inih umcntes. Of the firft fort they are n o t , becauie they partake oflife: of the fecond they may not b e , becauie of them fclues they haue no impuliion, as it appeareth euidendy in animall and voluntarie a & o n s , and ( although more obfeur'ely to be feene) m fuch as be called natu rail. For the fpirit being either withdrawne from the outwarde parts by vehement pai&6 of griefe,or ouer pro. digally fcattercd by ioy, or wafted by paine, the outward partes not only faile in their fenie and morion, but cuen nourwimentflt growth therby are hindered: and contrarily, though thtfpirit be prcfent, except the part be alfo well difpo. fed, not only feeling is impaired, 8c fuch aAioiu as require fenle and motion,but alfo concodk» and nourishment. Againe, the fpirit it fclfwithout impuliion of mmde lieth idle in the bodie. This appeareth in animall a&ions more plainly: as the mind imploving vehemently the Ipirir an other way, we neither fee that is let before our eyes, nor he are, nor fecle that which otherwile with delight, or diipleafure, would vehemently afie& vs. in natural! adieus and paro,it is store obfeure:

Or M i i i N C B o i t L t% obfcure:either bccaufe the fpirit can not be altogether fo feparated by the order of nature,bcing looted fo in the part, or becaufe the verie prefcocc of the foule in an organicall bodie,without fcrther faculticor a£tkm,carieth the life withal, tad i» not fubicft to arbitremenc and will: as the njrall eftatc of a Prince, moueth (¡lence, reuerence, and expectation, although there be no charge, orcommaundcmenttherofgiuen',"nor fiich purpofe of preience: fo'lifelieth rather in the cficnce.or fubftance of the foule, giuing it to afitorganedbody; rather then by any fucn facultierefidenttherein,except wc may thinke (hat lefle portion of fpirit ierueth for life onely, tben for life, fenfe, and motion, & fo the pant, contented with fmallcrprouifion thereof, are entertained with life, though fenfe and mouing require more plenty. But howfoeuer this be objure in naturall aftions, the mind tranfporting die fpints another way by fudden conceit^hidy or pailion; yet moft certaine it is, ifit holde on big, and releale not, the nodriihment will allb bile, the increafe ofthe body dimiitiih, and the lower ofbeautie fade, andfinallydeath take hi* CttaO hold: which commeth to pafle, not onely ky expence offpirit,but by leauing deftitute the fans,whercby declining to decay,they become Klength vnmecte for the entcrtainement of fo •oUe an inhabitant as is the foule, offtocfcedi-

¿flrumencs, they fall to the thirdkinde ,wbkh

¿4

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R I AT I J

a

being liuely, or at the leaft apt for life , require direftion, andalfo foreine impulfion: foraine, in rcfpeft of them (clues, deftitutc of f a c u l t i e s therwife then difpo(mon:but inward and domefticall, in that it proceedcth from a natural! power , ( refident in thefe corporall members) which wc call the foule: not working a s ineens, by a force voide of skill and cunning in it f.lfe,& by a motion giucn by deuile of the Mechemll: but farre otherwi!e indued with fcience , & pof. fcfled of the mouer:as if Architashadbinnim felfe within his flying doues, & Vulcanne within his walking ftoolcs, and the mouing engine as it were animated with the minde of the worker, therein excelling farre all induftrie of art. For here the natural Apellcs painteth as well within as without; and Pnydias is no leffe curious in poliihing the entralles, and partes withholdcn from the vicwe, then in garnifhing the outward apparance, and ihew of his frame: and which is yet more, here the crafts man entreth him felfe into all the parts ¿ f the worke, and neuer would rcLnquifh the fame. Although we place the (pint and body in the third kind of inftruments,yct is there great oddes, betwixt thele two. For the fpirit anfwercth at full all the organicall atiions of the (oulc, & hath in it no diftinftion of mem« ber?: the body is of more particular v f e s , compounded of i'undry parts, cch of them framed of peculiar duties,as the mind and fpirit employeth them. T h e fpirit is quicke, nimble, and of maruclous celeritic of motion; the body, flow, dull, and giucn to reft of it felfe: the fpirit the vcrie hand

OP

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hand of the foulc; the body & bodily member» like flail-s/awes,or axes in tbe hand ofhim thac tfcth them. For as we fee G o J hath gcucn va reafou for all particular faculties, and hand for •llinftruments, ofpl;afure, of neccffitie, of offence, ofdcfcnce,that thereby, although man be borne without coueting,without tcetn,without hoofc or home,only with tender nailes,and thofe neither in fafluon, nor temper fit for fight: yet he clotheth him fclfe ,both againft the temped warme, ag^nft force of weapon with coate offteele, and makcth veto him fclfe weapons of warre, no tuih, nu h o m e , no hoofc, no In out of elephant in force comparable thereunto: fo the fpirits of our bodies, and this hind of our fouls, Uiough it be but o n e , yet handleih it all the lnftruaientsafourbody: and it being light, fubtilc, and yeelding, yet forccth it the heauieft, & groiTcft,&hardeft parts of our bodies, chewing •ith the teeth, and (hiking wiih the fid, & bearing downc with the thruft offtiouldcr, the refiftance of chat which ftandeth firme,and containing alone the force of all the members: feeth with the eye, hearcth with the eares,vndet ftandeth organically with the braine, diftributeth Irfe with the h a r t , and nourilhment wi:h the lifer, and whatiocuer other bodely aftionis praftifed. This hand is applied to the frolic inftru•enc, and the ctfeft brought topaife, yet noc «bfolutely ofit fclfe,but by impultio of ihe mind, which is placed the only agent, abfolute and foKraignenot oncly in refpeit of commaunding, btalib offscultic & execution.This place then

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TKEATISI

beareth the fpirics among t h e inftruments; and as the foule is one, and indued wick one only fa. culcie, fo the fpirit is alio o n e , and embraceth that one faculty, and diftributeth itamong_the corporal! members, as euerie one according to his diuerfe temper or frame, or both ioyntly to. getheris meete this way or t h a t way to be employed; yet fo that by d e g r e e s , and diuerfe dif. pcnfations,jtis communicated from the principall and chiefe partes with the reft. A s h r f t life and vitall fpirit,from the hart to the reft by arteries: nourifhmcnt and growth, from the liuer by vaines: fenfe and m o t i o n , f r o m t h e b r a y n e by nerues: not confufedly, and by equall portions adminiftred to all alike,but by lucn geometrical proporrio n as iuftice requirerh, and is neceffaiy for the office of euerie part. Thus you fee what nature the fpirit is of, and to what vfe itferueth in our nature, and o f w h a t fort of inftrumentit is to be accompted.Thc corporal] part an0

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TREATISE

of our bodies arc repaired,befides that which ri. feth of the internall l'piru of aliment, is continually drunkein vs, and paflcth into all the fecrcts o f o u r intrailes, ñiricth our humours,and diuerfly affeð all our organical p a r t e r a s the aire and loile, drie, open, & barren,maketh the bodies firme, hard, and c o m p a r a n d the fpinrj pure Si fubtile, wherby what action foeuer is to be performed of them , is more quicke, nimble, and ¡wompt,efpccially it nouriihmtt be proportional!, then of people of contrary habitation. O f all the former obie&ions, the humors of our bodies feeme moft to v r g e , & chalenge intcn ft in difpoiing of the mind,both in refpeft of thofc accidcnts, we fee perfons fall into ouercharged with them, as alfo, becaufc commonly the attcftions of the hart, as ioy,fadneffe, delight, dilplealurc, hope,feare,or whatfoeuer elle of tlitm is mix: d among the perturbations , commonly are all to them afcribed, which bccaufe it moft concerneththe chicfc drift of this diícourlé of melancholy, I will more ftand vpon, and afford it a more copious anfwer. C h a p . JC V. Whether the ptrtwbationt rift of the humour or not.

T

H t perturbations are taken commonlie to rife of melancholy,cholcr,blond,or fleunie; lo that men of haftie difpoiuion we callcholericke: of fad, melancholicke: ofheauie and dull flogmatickc: ofmcrie andchearfuil, fanguine:

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and not oncly t h e common opinion fo taketh it but thefe affeflions arc accompted of the Phiiitians for tokens of fuch c6plcxions,&fuch h u mours raigning in the bodie. I.et vs confidcr therfore, whether the truth be as they hold it,& perturbations hauc no other fountainc the thcic humours.What thclc humours are,we haueiufficicntly declared, and how they are ingendred: the vfc of them is t o nouriili the parts of the b o die, and to repairc the continual] expence thcro f t h r o u g h traucllesof this life; befides t h a t , which the naturall heat continually coniumeth. The perturbations thus moue v s , difiurbe our counlels,& diiquiet our bodies on this fort.Fii ft occafion r i f e t h f i o m outward things,wherin wc either take plealure, or wherewith we are offended :thi»obieft iscariedto'the internall fenfes from the outward ; which lfit be a matter lenfuallonely, the mindevfeth to impart it to the h a r t , by the organicall internall lenfes , which with loy cmbraccth it, or with indignation, a n d miflikc rcfufeth it; i f o f f u c h p o i n t $ , a s itfclfclik e t h , without their hclpe it giueth knowledge thereof to the hart by the fpints, which either cmbraccth the fame,impelled by the minds willing, or reieifteth it with miflike and hatred, according to her nilling.But before I proceed further in this C h a p t e r , « { h a l l b e n e c e f l a r i e to declare vnto you, all the fortes of perturbations, which being diftinguifhed vnto clafles or proer families , ihall deliuer great light v n t o v s : othin laying open their natures,and alfo compared with t h e nature of the h u m o u r s , make F

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TREATIS«

more cleare demonftration, what likelihood« they c a n e to be effe&s o f luch caufes as the hu< mours are. All perturbations are either fimple, or copoundcd o f the fimple.SimpIe arc fuch,a» h a u e n o mixture o f any other perturbation: and thsfe are either primitiue,and £rft,or deriuatiue anddrawne from them. T h e primitiues haue Jike or diflilceproperties vnto the. Loue 8thate are the firO kinds and primitiues o f the reft:loue being a vehement liking, and hate a vehement «ffc&ion ofdiflikmg: from thefe fpringe all the deriuatiues, which arifc either from l o u e , or h a t e , l i k e , or diflikc. F r o m Joue and liking o f a prefent good, fpringeth ioy and reioycing; if ic be to come,hope entcrtaineth the hart with exp e d i t i o n . From diflike and h a t e : if the thingbe eudl as the other g o o d , ( i n deede or in appa« rancc i : skilleth n o t ) and prefent, rifeth hcauineife o f hart, and difpofition o f f a d n c d e : if it be a future euill,feare rifeth fro the miflike ofhate; & thefe I take to be all the fimple perturbations, T h e c o m p o u n d , are fuch as haue part o f the fimple by m i x t u r e : and that either o f the primitiue fimple, or the deriuatiue: and o f the primitiues with fimple ones only, or mixed with deriu i u u c s . Such are mixed with primitiues onely, are cither mixed vnequallylof loue and liking,or o f miflike & hate; or equally o f the b o t h . O f the firft fort,& taking'more part o f liking,is the afFeftion which moueth vs to laugh;thjswe cal merinefle wherwith wc with fome difconccntment, take pleaiure at that,which is done or fayd ridiculously : o f which fort are deeds,or wordes, vnfccmcly or vnmeetjand yet moue no compafliu; at

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t s w h e n a man fcaldcth his m o u t h with t m p o t tage o r an hote p i c , w e are difcotented with t h e h u r t , y e t i o y c at the euent v n e x p e & c d o f t h e partie, and that we haue efcaped it; f r o w h e n c e commeth l a u g h t e r : which becaufe it e x c e e d e t h the miilike o f the thing that hurtcth , burfteth out i n t o v e h e m e n c y o n that fide, and p r o c u r c t h that m e t i e gefture.lf c n the other fide the thing be fuch as the m i f i i k e c x c e d c t h the ioy we h a u e o f o u r f r e e d o m e from that euill, then rifcth pity and c o m p a n i o n : and thefc perturbations rake their beginninges o f the primitiucs vncqually n i x e d , whereby one o f them doth after a l'orte obicurc t h e o t h e r . T h e other arc fuch as h a u e equal! m i x t u r e , and thoie are enuie and l d o f i e . If the thing we lone be fuch as we haue not part of, then fpringcth a n hate or miilike o f the p a r tie w h o enioyeth that we want and like o f , a n d fo breedeth e n u y , a grictc for the profpeiity o f another, or good fucccfl'e w h a t f o e u e r , w h e r e i n we haue no part. I f i t b e fuch benefit as we e n . b y , and are g r i c u t d it i h o u l d b e c o m m u n i c a t e d With other , and wherein w e refufe a partener, that is callcd ieloufie : and is feer.e manifeft in filch,as ar amoroufly a f f e f t c d , or o f a'piring n a tures : and thefc are c o m p o u n d e d o f the primitiues a l o n e , like or miilike, l o u e , or hate. T h o f c which arc mixed o f primi i u e s , or deriuatiues, are o f t w o fortes , according as the primitiues: thatis to fay mixed o f l o u e or h a t e . N o w e loue mixed with h o p e , b r e e d e t h truft : with loue and fcare diftruft.Hate or miilike compounded with h o p e , b r e e d e t h a n g . r : w h e u v y we are diiplea* ij

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led with that mifliketh v s , and by hope ofbeing (itisficd of that, that offered the diflike, are d n . uen to anger the afil-Aion of rcuenge. If it be a> ny thing wherein we haue difplcafcd our felues w i t h , it is callcd (hame : if it be compounded with feare, it is callcd bafhfulnefTe; if the miilike betaken from another, the compoiuion is of hate and anger, and thereof fpringeth, malicc. Thus haue you the pertuibations compounded of primitiue paifions with their deriuatiucs. Of deriuatiucs betwixt them felues anfe difpairr, and confident alTurance. Dilpaire is compounded ofheauinefle , griefe and feare: the other ofioy and hope: thus haue you after my minde the perturbations raunged into their feueral claiTes: to the ende,the aflmiue of caufe and cffc& (if any be ) betwixt them and the humours, may more eafily appcare; if none be, as in deed there is none,then the contrarie truth may with greater euidence, approue it fclfc vnto your iudgement. For loue or liking, hate or miflike, being but two primitiue paflions, howe may we with reafon referre them to the humours,which are foure: and if the perturbations (hould rife ofhumour,then (hould they aunfwerech other neither mo nor fewer: and as the one is compound, primitiue and dcriuatiue, fo (hould the humours be at the i n i h n t of thofe paflions, which is impoflfible: or if they be not at the in. ftant mixed,but before, the hart (hould not lyc indifferentto all p affront,and the mixture being once m a d e , by what meanes (hould they be againe vnmixed? Againc if they rife of humour,

Or M E I ANCHOtii. 8f thenfhould thofe part* wherein humours m o d abound, be inflruments of paffions, and fo the gall of anger, and the fplenc of fadnefie,and n o t the hart,which is the fcate of all thofe affeitioJ, which we call perturbations: from which both ofthofe partes, are parted by the midrifFe. But you will lay: thefe affc&ions rife cf the temper of the hart,and that temper of the humour.Not f o : for either t h e aftc&ions rife of the frame a loncof the h a r t , orclfe at t h e leaft ioyned with the t e m p e r : n o w c t h e humours haue fo fmall force in making temper, and framing the complexion, that them ielues are all t h e r o f f r a m e d , the ipirits applying the temper of the organical parts tothatbuiinefTe. Touching t h e frame of the hart,fuch as haue bin moft couragious haue * of fubftancc firme, c o m p a f t , and of qualitie moderate,the poores neither ouerlarge n o r n a rowe: in which points the temper and complexion hath no vfe: but the frame alonc.Againe, thefe paflions being wrought of the heart by a certaine enlarging of it felfe, ifit be pleafcd,and doling, if it be contrarily a f f e f t e d : which be afiions not of complexion, but of frame & (hapc, make fufScient proofe agamft the complexion in this parte, which only beareth it felf affefted to that which it toucheth , altering it, if i t b e of Viftualls into humours , and the humours into die fubftancc of the body, which it iudueth with the fame complexion. Againe it fareth oft time* that this o r that humour aboundcth by difordered diet, yet the complexion all o n e ; neither purgations of humour alter complexion^ fixed F iii

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TIIATUI

thing,ingenerate by nature, Scnocouerthrown but by Come venimous qualitie dircit oppofit againft ic, or long cuftome of other diibrder, whereby nature is fupplanted in time, & growing in acqu*intacc,wuh which fixftisra iHikcd,u ouernutched with acounteifet nature, gotten by vfc of that otherwife is vnnaturall. Thcfe points might be more at largclayed open, if it were neceuarie, or they did not withdraw from the purpofc 1 haue in band., to reft more vppon them. But how then cometti it to palfc,that melancholickc perfons are more fad then other, 8c cholcricke more angrie See. ifthcfc humour« bearsnofway herein/ Foranfwer ofwhichquc ftion,youare to vnderftand that both ioye and fadnefie are of two forts, asalfothcrcft fprutging from them: the one is naturall rifing vpon an outward accafion,ifthe bodic be well tempcred,and fault les in his inftrumcnts, and the ob> icd made no greater nor lefle then it is in deed, and the hart, aunfvrer proportionally therunto: the other is vnnaturall, and difordered, riling either ofno outward occafion, but from inward dclufion, or elfe fuch as are ( by fault of the report of the fcnfes,or euil difpoution of the hart) otherwife taken then the obieft requireth. la this fecond kind , the humours feemc to hauc greateft rule, which whether they haucfo, as caufes or not,& in what refpeft they enrermeddle,I wil now make plainevntoyou. Of tbefirft fort of perturbations naturall, and riiing vppon cuident occafion I ncede ftand lefle vpon, fciog as the hart is by outward caufes moued, lo is it neither

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MIIAKCHOIII.

neither more affefted of this humour then of that, neither can there be any fuch fudden reparation of humours be wrought inthebodie, whereby through anger cholcr {hould difioyne him felfe from his fellow humours, and poflefTe the hart : or melancholie in cauics of griefe, forowe,or feare, efpecially an humour ofgrofle & earthy panes, as it were the very lies o f the reft ofthebloud.Àgaine,itwere verie contrarie to rcafon, to attribute an «Ûion of lb nectlTary vfe, as are the perturbations vnto t h a t , which is no organe of our bodies, but only matter of fbode and nourishment ; of whjch fort are all the humours, keeping them felues within compalTe of eood temper. Moreouer if through anger the n a n be moued firft,then isit firft troubled, and the perturbations wrought, before the humour receaue impreifion : if the humor admit firft the motion of the thing loucly or hurtfull, & impart that to the h earr,then (hould it receiue a degree of excellence aboue the hart in this refpeâ,beingmore attendant vpon the (pint, the chiefs ft e ward of this facultie, then the hart is , which nexttothelpirit hathgreateft place inthebodie. But why thé fay you, haue the Phdofophers defined anger a boy ling of the bloud about the hart? ifit be according to that definition, then the morccholericke a man is,Co much the more angry is he: bccaufe the choler is fi/ft apt to boyle, as it werebrimftone to the match, in rcf p e â o f t b e other humours. That definicion of anger, is tobe taken not by proper fpeech , but by a metonymical! ph. afc, whereby the caulc is

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attributed to the eifeft. For firft the heart moueth, kindled with a n g e r , then the bloud rilcth, which being cholericke encrealeth the hcatc, but addeth nothing to the paflion : nowc becaufe welenfibly teele anextraordinarieheate about our hearts when wc beuioucd to angrie paffions, therefore they haue defined anger by that effedt: which boylinp,nfcth n o t o f t h c i]uality of the bloud, but by a fti lfe of a contrary motion in the heart at one time,the one being a contraction of it folic,andS retraite of the bloud and ccrtaine (pints not farrc o f : with miihlce of that offendcth, as in feare, which commandcth cuenfrom the extremejnd vrmoftparts:whereby it gathcreth great heate within, which breathing out againc with reucnge ,caufeth through vchemency ,& fuddennclTc of the motion, that boyling of heat, procured of anger: cfpeciallyif it be not deliuered by word and decde, whereby liberty is giuen for the paflion to breake foorth, which retrained in any fort,brecdeth an agony offuch feruency.as it may rcfcmble the fcalding of a boyling chaldron not vncoucicd,or an hote furnace clofed vpin all vents. Moreouer if perturbation ihould be caufed of humour, to whether fliolild we attribute it ? to the natural! humor,or to the excrement i the excrcmentis tar remoucd fro the hart, & is not fo ready to affeft i;,a great diftace being betwixt their leucral plac e s ^ in iaudcs,thc gal ouerflowwg the body,& parting through the vaines,& ftaining all parts, we fee them not fo affected, more angry then at other times,or their bodies being dccred from

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the t i n & u r c o f y e l l o w n e s . I f i t b e the n a t u r a l l h u mor,that is to fay,the fubtiltft part of t h e b l o u d , alwayes contained in the hart (whether you v n derftand that bloud which is comprehended in the two b o f o m s , or that wherwith the hart is f u ftained & nouriihed in etiery part)why is not the the hart alwayes afFcited wiihout i n t e r m i f f i o n , with iuch paiTionsas the bloud e n d i n e t h v n t o , feeing it is alwayes p r c f e n t , & k e e p e t h his difpofition alike? If y on wi!J haue it o f n e i t h e r , but o f that which is cotaincd in the great v a i n , rufhmg with violence into the right fide of t he h a r t , the quality o f that bloud being o f coclcr temper the tnac which the heart hath already e m b r a c e d , (hould ierue to mitigate the m o o d , rather then to adde m o ftickes to the fire. T o conclude this p o i n t , left I (hould f e e m e to light with a Iliadow: if either humor,or exc rement {hould haue part in mouing attentions, no counfel of philcfophy,nor precept o f wife men were comparable to o l r a c thefe raging p a f l l o n s , v n t o the purging potions o f P h i i i t i a n s , & in this cafe the k l l c b o rans o f Antieera-,the C o l o c y n t h i s of Spnine,and the R h u b a r b o f Alexadria,aboue all the fchools of Diuinitie or Philofophy. T h e lefle I labour a gainft thefe humors in the kinds o f naturall perturbations,or fuch as rife v p o n o c c c f i o n , b e caufe I thuike the.errour 1» f o n ; r e m o u e d , & requireth n o l o n g r e a f o n i n g . T h e other fort which moue vs w i t h o u t c a u f e , or externall o b i e f t , either t o f a d n e s , a n g e r , f e a r e , or i o y , becaufe they fceme alcogithet t o be e f f e f t s o f h u m o r s ^ i o other caufe being apparent whereto to a i c r t b e i h e m , 1 will



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TKBATISI

more copioufly debate this point in the Chap» tcr following. CHAP. XVI. yyhtthtr ptttwb*uo>,which rrt tut MlUtdby v*rd occtfioni rijt »f hfmourt tr noiiand

M*. hnt

X 7t 7 E do fee by experience certainc perfont V V which enioy all the comfortes of this life whatfoeuer wealth can procure, andwhatfoe. Her friendship offereth of kindnes*and whatfoeuer fecurity may allure t h e m : yet to be oucrwhclmed with heauines,and difmaide with fuch f e a r c , as they can neither rcceiue confolation, nor hope of afiurance, notwithstanding ther be neither matter of feare,or difconrencment, not yet caufe of daunger,but contrarily of great cofort,and gratuIation.This paiTio being not molted by any aduerilty prefent or imminent,^ attributed to melancholic the groflcft part of all the blood,either while it is yet contained in the vaines:or aboundcth in the fplene,(ordained to purge the blood of that droffc and letling of the humours) furrharged thcrwith for want offrce uent,by reafon ofobilru&ion^r any wayes elfe the paflage being let of cleare auoy dance. The rather it leemeth to be no lefle, becaufe purgatioh,opening o f a vayne,diet,and other order of cure and medicine,as phifick prefcribeth, haue ben? meanes of chaunging this difpofition, and mkigatio of thofe forowes,and quieting of fuch feares, as melancholic perfons haue fancied to chemfclues ,& haue as it feemeth r eft ore d both wit and courage. Hitherto we haue bcneled by reafon of the obiedion from humors,which im-



A

TKBATISI

more copioufly debate this point in the Chap» tcr following. CHAP. XVI. yyhtthtr ptttwb*uo>,which rrt tut MlUtdby v*rd occtfioni rijt »f hfmourt tr noiiand

M*. hnt

X 7t 7 E do fee by experience certainc perfont V V which enioy all the comfortes of this life whatfoeuer wealth can procure, andwhatfoe. Her friendship offereth of kindnes*and whatfoeuer fecurity may allure t h e m : yet to be oucrwhclmed with heauines,and difmaide with fuch f e a r c , as they can neither rcceiue confolation, nor hope of afiurance, notwithstanding ther be neither matter of feare,or difconrencment, not yet caufe of daunger,but contrarily of great cofort,and gratuIation.This paiTio being not molted by any aduerilty prefent or imminent,^ attributed to melancholic the groflcft part of all the blood,either while it is yet contained in the vaines:or aboundcth in the fplene,(ordained to purge the blood of that droffc and letling of the humours) furrharged thcrwith for want offrce uent,by reafon ofobilru&ion^r any wayes elfe the paflage being let of cleare auoy dance. The rather it leemeth to be no lefle, becaufe purgatioh,opening o f a vayne,diet,and other order of cure and medicine,as phifick prefcribeth, haue ben? meanes of chaunging this difpofition, and mkigatio of thofe forowes,and quieting of fuch feares, as melancholic perfons haue fancied to chemfclues ,& haue as it feemeth r eft ore d both wit and courage. Hitherto we haue bcneled by reafon of the obiedion from humors,which im-

Op MILANCHotn. 91 poned great power in them of affe&ng the oiinde.lr wasanfwered before generally,whatfoeuerwas doneiri the body of any parte t o b e done organically,and that was applied fpeciaUy tocertaineobie&ions before aunfwered : i t r e maineth h e r e , that the fame be applyed alio to our humours, which haueno other power to affeft the minde, then to alter the fíate of the inftrumentes:which next to the minde, &fouJc « f e l f e a r e t h e onlycaufcsof alldireft aftionin the body. So here we are to confider , in what fort the humours moitethefe perturbations aboue mentioned:whetheras cheefe workers,inftruments, or other Icinde ofhclpers:and fohow they may clainie any intereft in terrifying,or foliating the minde,tnis way or that way, as the obie&ions before mentioned would beare vs in hand.11 hath ben declared before how the mind isthefole mouerinthc body, and how the reft of the partes fare as inftrumente*, andminifters:whereby in naturall affeftionsthe humors •re fecluded from checfe d o e r s , and being no organicall partes feruc for no inftrumentes.For whatfoeuer hath any conftant and feme aihon in our bodies , the ftate of health remayning firme,is done either by foule,or by the partes of the body : of which the humours are neither, and fo vtterly fecluded of nature from any peculiar aftiC to any vie o f t h e body .For that rhcy are faid to nourifh, itfignifieth only a pafliuc difpofition, by which through our nouriflung power , they receiue the Charaifter of our nature , and are altered into the fubftauceof the



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TREATISB

fame, they themielucs giuingoucr their priuate a&io,and fubmitting to the naturall conco&iue T e r t u c , which deftroyeth all particularities of nouri(hment,and bnngeththem to that vnifor. mity which our nature requireth . T h e n while the body is in health,the humors beare no fway o f priuate aftion,but it being once altered, and they euilldifpofed,andbrcakingfrom that regiment whereunto they fhould be f u b i c i t , arc To farre of from fubic&ion to the difpofition of our bodies,and itrength of our partes,that they op. prefle chcm,and as it appeareth in iimptomaricall eucntcs in ficknes,difpife that gouernment, wherto by nature» la w they ftand bound . Thus then I hold humours to be occaiions of diforderly perturbations,euen as they arc oaeanes of deprauing the inftrumcnt of perturbation, and turning it dtherwife, then nature hath difpofed, whofe gouernment whenit hath ihaken o f , it affe&cth v i two maner of wayes: the one by the corporall fubftance , whereby it annoyeth the corporall maiie ofbodies,and complexion,and breaketh out into (bares, Empofthumcs, or otherfuch anoyances:the other by afpiritwhich it poffcffeih, either contrary altogether, or diuerfe at the lcaft from o u r s , wherewith many way es it difturbeth the orderly aftions,& weakneth the yigor o f t h e f a m e : now both by fubftahce , and by fpirite it altereth complexion where it preuaileth,and thereby giueth greateft itroake to the organicall members. T h e n feing all anions are performed both by fpirite ana corporall infti u m c n t , and the humours excee-

Or MilANCHoin. ding'the gouernment of nature, and withdrawing themlclues from fubieftion thereof,affeft vs both wayes/pirite againft fpirite,and corporall fijbftancc againft his like, we are toc ôfîder,how by thefe two meaner our aftions futfer through their diforder,and where their operation taketh moft place in working fuch phantaftical perturbations wherewith we are dcluded.Of all partes • f t h e body,in ech perturbation,two are cheifly aflfeftcd • hrftthebrayne, that both apprehen. deth the offenfiue or plcaiaunt obie&,& ludgeth of the fame in like f o r t , and communicateth ic with the h a r t e , which i s t h e / e c o n d p a r t affeâed: thefc being troubled carie with them all the reft of the partes into afimpathy,they of all the reft being in refpeftof aftcâior. of moil importance . The humours then to worke thefc efFe&cs,which approch nigh to naturall perturbations grounded vpon iuft occaiîon,ofneccflîty,alter either brayne or hart : if the braync be altered,and the obieft not rightly apprehended then is it deliuered otherwilc then it ftandeth in nature,and fo the hart moued to a diforderly paflion. Againe though the brayne be without faulte,and report dclyuered to the hart fincerely:yet that being diftempered, or altered in coplexion by faulte of humour,doth not aunlwere in afFeâion as the obieft requireth: but more or kfrc,as the diftemper m'iileadethùfboth parte* be oucrcharged othumour,che apprehcnfion& tffc&ionbath are corrupted, and mifle of their right aftion,and fo all thingcsmiftakcn,ingcnder that confuted fpirite , and thole ftormcs of

A TftBAflSl o b t r i g j o u t loue,hatred, hope or f c a r e , wherewith bodies io paflionare are here and there, tofTcd with difquiet.Now particularly the fpirite of the humour being fubttler,thinner,and hoter then is m e c t e , raaketh the apprehenfion quicker then itfhould b e , and the difcretion more h t f t y , then is meete for the vpright deliuery to t h e n act,what to embrace or to refute: this caufcth proncnes to a n g e r , when we are offended without caufe, commonly called teaftines, and frowardnes, If the humour alfo with his fpirite «>

/r

I



L

1

f

if

*

difperfed,which caufeth fines of fuch paflios to be of longer continuancc:and thus the har.t may b t abufed from the bray n e : n o t much vnlike as it falleth often out in communication of fpcach amongeft vs-.a man of hafty difpofition,ready to aunfwere, and quickwitted, will make reply to t h a t which fhould be faid, before the tale be halfe told,whereby h e faileth in his replication, and aunfwereth from the purpofe: which if he had bene firft aflured,whcao to reply,he fhould n o t hauc mifled.This appeareth plaine in Choh r k k e perfons,or fuch as are difpofed to anger: fuch are offended where they haue n o caule in truth, but by miftaking: and where they haue caufe t h e vehemency of the apprehenfion ,and the fuddenes o f t h e report from the brayne vnto t h e f e a t e of perturbation, infovceth double the paffion: efpecially when the h a r t is as flexible, as the brayne is light: t h e n r a u n g e t h i t into all cxtrc-

O r

MBIANCHOIII.

nttremity. This commeth to pafle, not by any power of anger in (be Cholcrick humour:but by rcafon the inftrumentes arc mifordercd, either by vapour riling from that humour, or (he very fiibftanceof the f a m e . They are difordered in this fort through Cholcr.The n J rural] fpirit and complexio ofthefe partes become fubtiler, thinner,and quicker,proner to action, then of their natures they fhould be,through the heat which rifeth of C holer, and his fpirit intermixed with ours:by this mobility of vapour, ourfpirit (of a quieter and more (table difpofition.) is either made more rare,then it expedient for the vfe of our bodies, or elfe ftriuingas it were to fubdue this baftard lpirite and vnwelcctnr gheft, can not giue that attendance vpon his proper duety, which naturally it fhould: andfo the adions thereupon rife depraued, and hauing wherwith kisencumbrcd within, admitterhthecaufeof difpkafure more eafily which rifeth abroad ¡being an addicio to that which molefteth at home: and thefe natures for the moll parte are troubled with a Cholerick humour, or fretting, like to Choler, about the mouth of the ftomach, which is of all the inward partes of quickeft fenfe and feeling.This caufcth them, efpecially failing, before the humour be mitigated, and delayed with nourishment, to be moft prone t o that angry paflion. I h e t e a f t y waywardnesof fickperfons , fuch as are vexed with payne or fcauer,wherby the humors of the body become more fell maketh euident proofe hercoCWc fee howiinallmatters put them out ofparicnce, 8c

96 A TABATIJZ euery thing offbndeth: whereat in h:alth the fame occaiions would litle, or nothing moue. I he teafon is becaufe,they meafure all outward accidents,bv that they findc of difcoatentmcnt within:not that the humor that difcontenteth is any inftrumcntofpafGon,or carieth with it faculty to be difplealed: but bccaufe it difquieteth the body,and giueth difcontentmcntto nature, it is occafion why difpleafures are made great: and where there is no caufe , nature troubled within, faireth as greatly diipleafed with that which outwardly (hould not difpleafc:the griefe within,being.added to anindifterct thing without,and drawing it into like fclowfhip of djfplcafurc,eucnbut for that it pleafcth not.-like as in a troubled fea,a great yeflcll is more eafily (lured with imal ftrenjgth,thenin the calme hauen, or qOict ftreame: (o our (pirites, andorganicallm. ftruments of paflion, tne parte toficd with ftorjny weather ofinteraall difcontentment^i with litle occafion difquietcd, yea with the (haking of a ru(h,tbat hath no (how of calming thofe domefticalliVornies, thatarife moretroublefome, andboiftcrous to our nature, then all the blufieringwindes intheOcean.fea. For when out paffionisonce vpby fuch occafion , the cooam& fenfe is alfo caried therewith, and diftinftion of outward t hinges hindered at ;he leaft, if not taken away,all things beingwayedby that which nature findeth offece at within:euen as the taft altered in feauers by cholerick vapours, maketh fweetething« feemebitter, and vnpleafaunt, which of thcmfclues are moft delegable to the tafte,

Oi> M i r A N C i i o L i « ,

J7

taft , a n d would greatly fatisfic the f. m t partie, the bitter relifh thic-ugh t h a t tame of choller once takenaway. And in this foi t i n my opinion arifech the dilordcrly, & vnruly pallion of choller, both incrcafed, where forne occafion is offered, and procured by inward dilpofition of t h e bodic and f p i n t , when there is n o p r e t e n c e , or iheweof caufc. T h i s i s f c e n e a s plainly in n u r t h andioye, which rifcth as well vpon inward h a r monic of fpirir, h u m o u r , and complexion, as v pon glad tidings, or external! benefitc whereof we take reioycing. A bodie of l'angunie complex i o n ^ commonly we call it, although complexion be a n o t h e r t h i n g , then condition of h u mors)rhc fpirits being in their iuft temper in refpect of q u a h t i e , a n d o f f u c h plenty as nature r e q u i r t t h , n o t mixed or defiled, i>y any ftiaunge fpirit or vapor, t h e humours in quantity &qua=litierated in geometricall, and iuft proportion, the fubfcancc alio of the b o d i : , a n d oil the m e m bers fo qualified by mixture of elemcntcs, as all tonfpire together in due p r o p o r t i o n , breedeth in indiffcrencic to all paflions.Nowe ifbloud a bound, a n d k e e p e his fincetity,and the body r e ccaue by it, and tho fpirits rifing from the fame, »comfort in t h e fenfible partes., without doubc then, as'anecr without caul's external!,rofevpo inward difpleafure; fo this fpirit,thefe humours, and this temper,may moue an inward ioy,whcrofno external! obiccft may be accompted as iuft occafion. This is the caufc t h a t maketh f o m e men prone to ioy, and laughter at fuch thinges, a« other m e n are n o t drawne with into a n y p a f -

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iïon, and maketh them pickc out, and feeke for caufes of laughter, not oncly to moue others to the like,but to expreifc their mery pafiîô,which rifcthby the ludgement of our fenfes imparted to the hart, not regarding whether the caufc be inward or outward,that m o u e i h , which taketh comfort t h e r e a t , as though the obieft were e x ternalLThis efpecially commcth to pafle if the bloud be fuch about the hart,as his purcnelTe & fincercnelle wiih fweetneffe that carieth moderation of temper doth fo c o m f o r t , and mollifie it,that it eafily,& aptly enbrgeth it fclfc thé fuch bloud or fuch vapor that hath this tickling qualifie, caufcth a delight concerned in the brainy and communicated with the h a r t , procureth, a comfortable gratulation,and inward ioy of thai whereof nature taketh pleafure.For as we hauc fights, taftes, fmellcs, noyfes, pleafant obicâei without v s , and on the contrary part, as manie odious, and hatefull, which do force our fenfes) (o hauc we alio all thefe internall, pleafaunt or vnplcafaunt:& as wc hauc of fenfuall obieôs internall,fo in like manner pleafure 8c difpleaiure is communicated fro within of the braine to the h e a r t , of fuch things as wc are not able direâiy to referre to this or that qualitie i as we fee it fare th with tafts oftentimes : fuch mixtures may

which giueth this occafion carieth force of gentle and light fpirits: as wine, and ftrong drinkc, and all aromacicall fpiccs, which hauc a power to

O F MELANcaotit. 99 to comfort the braine, and h a r t , and affeft all our bodie throughout with cclcritic and quicktic(re,before their fpirits be fpent in the paiTage: then the brainc giueth raerie report, & the hart glad for it fclfe, and all the fellow members, as it werc,daunceth for ioy, and good liking,which it receaueth of fuch internall prouocaciont.Thc as we fee wine eiue orcaiion of mirth by his excellent lpirit, wherewith our fpirit is delighted, and greatly incrcafed,if it be drunke with m o d e ration; fo fuch as arc of merie difpoliuons,enioy t naturall wine in their bodies, efpecially harts Ctbraines, which caufeth them to laugh at the wagging of a feather, and without iuft matter of laughcer,without mode ft regard of drcuftancc, to bcare them felues light & ridiculous: & this myfriende M. I take to be thecaufe of mernc greekes, who feeke rather to difcharge them Iclues of the iocond afFeihon.ftirred vp by their humour, then require true outward occafion of folaceand recrcation. Nowe a i before I haue faydthat cholerprocureih anger, not as caufc, but as occafion,to likewife blond thus tempered and replenished with thefe aromaticali and merie fpirits, giueth occafion only of this plcafantnefle,and is no caufe thereof, the hare making iuft daime to thefe atfeftiont as the only inftrutnent, & vnder the foule, chiefc author of thefe vnruly companions: which inftrument is jo difpofedjthat obeying the mind,and thofe naturall rules whereby all things are efteemcd', good or bad, true or falfe, to be done or not to be done, twothcrwifethenby a cjuilliubicftion ruled by

too

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eounfell & no conflraint, it rcpugncth o f t time« all the (Irong cocluiions whatlocuer reafon can make to the contrary. Thus you v n d c r f t i d how a m a n m a y be a n g u s and mene without external] o b i e f t , o r outward caufe : now let vs conlid c r , h o w e f a d n c f T c a n d fcare , the points which moft belong to this difcourie, »nd your prefent itate,may alio arifc without occaiion o f outward terror cither prcfently molcihng, or fearing v j by likelihood, or poflibdity of future danger. As the nature o f choler is fubnle, hote, bitter, and o f a fretting and biting qualitie, both itfelfe and the vapors that pa(Tc From it, and bloud temperate, fwcet, and full of cheerefulland comfortable fpirits, anfwcrable to t h o f c w e h i u c i n g c n e r a t c , e f p e c u l l y if they become a r o m a a c a l l , as I may termc t h e m , and o f a fragrant n a t u r e , by naturall temper, or by meanes of diet: lo melancholic of qualitie, grofle, dull, and o f f e w e comfortable fpirits; and plentifully replenifhed with f u c h as darken all ihc cl erne lie o f thofe faneuincous, and ingrofle their fubtilnefle,defile their purenelfc with the fogge'of that i l i m e , and fennie Cubflancc, and (hut v p t h e hart as it were in a dungeon o f o b f c u r i t y , c a u f e t h manic fearefull f a n c i e s , by abufing (he braine with vglie illulions, & loeketh vp the gates of the hart,whereout the fpirits lhould brcr.ke forth vpon iuft occ a l i o a , to the comfort of all the family of their fellowc members: whereby we arc in hcauincfle, fit comfortlcffc, f c a r e , diftruft,doubt, difpaire, and lament, when no caufe rcquireth it, but rather a bchauiour bcfccminge a heart vppon

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tot

h i f l c a u f e , and found reafon m o d c o m f o r t a b l e , a n d c h e a r f u l l . T h i s doth melancholic work,not otherwife t h e n the former h u m o u r s , giuing o c c a f i o n , and falle matter o f thefe p a f f i o n s , and n o t b y any dilpofition as o f i n f t r ument t h e r e u n t o . O f all the othcj- humours mclancholie is full e f t o f v a r i c t i e o f p a f l i o n , b o c h according to the diueriitie o f place w h e r e it f c t l e t h , as brayne, iplenc, mcfaraicke v a i n c s , hart, w o m b , and ftom a c h j a s alio through the diuerfe ki'ndes,as n a tural] , vnnatu^all: natural!, either o f the f p l e n e , o r o f the v a i n e s , faultie only by cxcciTe o t q u a n t i t i e , or thickneflc o f f u b f t a n c e : vnnaturallby c o r r u p t i o n , and that either o f bloud a d u f t , c h o i e r , o r melancholic natural], by e x c c f f i u e diftemper o f h e a t e , turned in c o m p a r i f o n o f the natural], i n t o a (harpe lye by f o r c e o f aduftion. T h e f e diuerfe forts nauing diuerfe matter, caufe m o ftraunee f y m p t o m c s o f fancic and a f f e d i o n t o melancholike perfons, t h e n their humour t o f u c h as arc f a n g u i n e , c h o l c n c k c , o r flegmaticke: w h i c h fleume o f all the reft fcrueth lea ft to ftir v p any afFcdion: but b r e e d i n g rather a kind o f ftupiditie, and an impafTionate Hart, then cad ty m o u e d to embrace or r c f u f c , to forowc or ioye, a n g e r or contentcdneiTc : except it be a l a k e flcumc,th£approcheth it to the natur o f c h o l c r , & in like fort t h e r o f rifeth anger & f r o w a r d n e t . CHAP,

X V I I.

How melancholy frocurtth fttre,f*irni, difpatre, tndfucb othtrpaffioni. O w l e t vs c o n f i d e r w h a t paffions they a t e that melancholy d r i u e t h v s v n t o , and the C iij

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MELANCHOLIC.

tot

h i f l c a u f e , and found reafon m o d c o m f o r t a b l e , a n d c h e a r f u l l . T h i s doth melancholic work,not otherwife t h e n the former h u m o u r s , giuing o c c a f i o n , and falle matter o f thefe p a f f i o n s , and n o t b y any dilpofition as o f i n f t r ument t h e r e u n t o . O f all the othcj- humours mclancholie is full e f t o f v a r i c t i e o f p a f l i o n , b o c h according to the diueriitie o f place w h e r e it f c t l e t h , as brayne, iplenc, mcfaraicke v a i n c s , hart, w o m b , and ftom a c h j a s alio through the diuerfe ki'ndes,as n a tural] , vnnatu^all: natural!, either o f the f p l e n e , o r o f the v a i n e s , faultie only by cxcciTe o t q u a n t i t i e , or thickneflc o f f u b f t a n c e : vnnaturallby c o r r u p t i o n , and that either o f bloud a d u f t , c h o i e r , o r melancholic natural], by e x c c f f i u e diftemper o f h e a t e , turned in c o m p a r i f o n o f the natural], i n t o a (harpe lye by f o r c e o f aduftion. T h e f e diuerfe forts nauing diuerfe matter, caufe m o ftraunee f y m p t o m c s o f fancic and a f f e d i o n t o melancholike perfons, t h e n their humour t o f u c h as arc f a n g u i n e , c h o l c n c k c , o r flegmaticke: w h i c h fleume o f all the reft fcrueth lea ft to ftir v p any afFcdion: but b r e e d i n g rather a kind o f ftupiditie, and an impafTionate Hart, then cad ty m o u e d to embrace or r c f u f c , to forowc or ioye, a n g e r or contentcdneiTc : except it be a l a k e flcumc,th£approcheth it to the natur o f c h o l c r , & in like fort t h e r o f rifeth anger & f r o w a r d n e t . CHAP,

X V I I.

How melancholy frocurtth fttre,f*irni, difpatre, tndfucb othtrpaffioni. O w l e t vs c o n f i d e r w h a t paffions they a t e that melancholy d r i u e t h v s v n t o , and the C iij

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101

A

TRUTISI

realonhowit dothfo diuerfiy diftra&thofe that arc opprefled therewith. The perturbations of melancholy arc for the molt parte , fadde and fearcfull, and fuch as rife of them: as diftruft, doubt, diffidence,or di1paire,fometimcs furious, and fomctimes merry mapparaunce,through a kinde ofSardonin,and falfc laughter,as the humour, is difpofed that procureth thefc diueriities.Thole which are fad and peniiuc,nfe of chat melancholick humour,which is the grotfeit pare of the blood, whether it be iuicc orexcrcmcnr, not palling the natural! temper in heat whereof it parcaketh, and is callcd cold in comparifon oncly . This for the moft part is fetled in the fpleane,and with his vapours anoycth the harte and palling vp to the braync,counterfcttcth terible obicftcs to the fanta(ic,and polluting both the fubftancc,and fpirits of the brayne, caufeth it without external! occaiio,to forge monftrous fiitions,and terrible to the conceite, which the iudg;ment taking as they arc prefented by the difordered inftrument, dcliuer ouer to the hart, which hath no iudgemcnt of difcrction in it IcJf, but gluing crcdite to the miftaken report of the braine, breaketh out into that inordinate pa (lion , againftreafon.Thiscommeth topafle,bccaulc the inftrument of difcrction isdepraued by thefc melancholick fpirites, and a darknes & cloudes ofmelancholievapours t iling from th.it pudle of the fplenc obfeure the clearenes,which our fpirite s are endued with, and is rcquilite to the due difcrction of outward obieftcs .This i t the firft is not fo cxtrcame, neither doth it fliew

OR

MELAKCHOLII.

103

fo apparauntly, asinproccflcoOimc , when the fubftance of the brayne hath plentifully drunke of that fpleneticke fogge , whereby bis nature is become of the fame quality , and the pure and bright fpintcs fo defiled,and cclipf e d , that their mditicrcncy alike 10 all fenfible thinges,is now drawen to a partiality, and inclin a t i o n ^ by melancholy they are mforced. For where that naturall and internall light is darkened,their faniies arifc vayne,falfe, and voide of ground: eucn as in the externall lenfibk darkencs,afalfetllufionwill appeare vnto our imagination, which thelightbeingbroughtmis uneth,for thefe fcnfible matters repoiingtruft in the corporall miniftcrs, whofe mifcreport, no more ought to difctedite the mindc, or draw it into an acceflary crime of error, then the iudicial! fentence is to be blamed, which pronounceth vpon the oth and crcdite ot a iurie impanelled of luch as arc reported men of honefty,credite,and difcrction though their verdift be not pcraduenture according at the caufe committed to them doth require. The memory being thus fraight with perills paft: and embracing only through die braynes diforder that which is of dtfeomforte, caufeth the fantafie out of iuch recordes , to forge new matters ofiadnes and feate, whereof nooccafion was atany time before, nor like to be giuen hereafter: to thefe fanfics the hart anfweringwi:hlike melancholicke affeOion, turneth all hope into feare, afTurance into diilruft and difpaire, ioyeinto difcomforce : and as the melancholic nature,or bodie any waie corrupt, defileth the pure and holefome nouriihment, 8c conuertethit into the fame kindcof impuride: and as thefireof all kindcof matter giuetb in» crcafe of bcatc,wbcthct it be woodjftoncynctal,

toé

A

T H Í T I S I

or liquorrfo t h e body thus poflefled with the vn> c h e a r e f u l l , a n d difcomfortable darknes o f melác h o l i c , obfcureth the S o n n e and M o o n e , and all the comfortable planetts o f our natures , i n f u c h fort,that if they apj>earc, they a p p e a r e all d a r k e , a n d m o r e then h a l f c e c l i p f e d o f t h i s m i f t o f b l a c i ; e n e s , n í í n g f r o m t h a t l u d i o u s l a k e : and i n a l l t h i n g c s comtort;!l>le,either curioufly pryeth o u t , and fnatchech at whatfoeuer o f miiljke «nay be d r a w e n to the nourifhment o f i t f e l f e :or clfe negleifteth altogether that w h i c h is o f other q u a l i t i e s hen f o o d e , and p a f t u r e of t h o f e m o n g e r s , w h i c h nature ncuer bred, nor p e r f e t t iince c o n c e r n e d , nor m e m o r i e v n c o r r u p t would cuer allow c n t c r t a i n c r a e n t , but are h a t c h e d out of this muddie humour,by a n v n n a t u r a l l t e m p e r i e b a f t a r d fpiute,to the d i f o r d e r oí the whole regim e n t o f h u m a n e nature,both in iudgement and a f f e f t i o n . T h u s the h a rt a while being a c q u a i n ' ted,with n o t h i n g e l f e , b u t d o m e ü i c a l terror,fear e t h euery thing,and the b t a y n e (impathctically partaking with die h a r t e s f e a r e , m a k e t h doubt, d i t t r u f t c t n , & l u f p e & e t h without caufe,alwayes (landing in awe o f g r i e u a u n c e : w h e r w i t h in time it b c c o m m c t h fo tender,that the leaft t o u c h , a» it were ones nailc in an vlcer, giueth difcouragen i e n t t h e r e t o , rubbingit v p o n t h e g a l e t x u l c e r a t e with forow and fearc.-neither only doubleth it forrow vpon f m a l o c c a f i o n , b u t taketh it where n o n e is offered:euen as the C h o l e r i c k m a n f c e d c t h his p a í l i ó with ridiculous caufes of difplcaiiire.For"firft(the generall being in al natures aftions before the p a r t i c u l a r ) the h e a t t b y the braine

Op MilANCHOLII. 107 brame folicited t o paiTio,& r f e d to grief & f e a r e , takech t h e a c c u f t o m e d way of fligl lie a n d a u o y d a n c e , a b h o r r i n g & fearing t h o f e t h i n g e s , w h i c h oftheirf< lues are m o f t amiable a n d g r a t e f u l l : a t the firft n o t b e i n g a d u i f e d , w h e r e t o t o apply t h e p a f f i o n : c u e n a s o n e c o n d e m n e d to d e a t h w i t h v n d o u b t e d e x p e c t a t i o n of e x e c u t i o n , fearing e u e n c knock at t h e p r i f o n d o o r e , h.ith h o r r o u r , t h o u g h t h e m e f l c n g e r of p a r d o n with knock r e quire t o b e a d m i t t e d & let in, a n d eucry mcil'eng c r , where d a u n g c r n feared, though he come w i t h c h e r e f u l l c o u n t e n a n c e , g i u e i h c a u f c of diftruft w h e n t h e r e may b e aflurancc:cuen f o , t h e h e a r t o u e r c o m e with inward h e a u i n c s , a n d s t a red with inward f c a r c s , faireth as t h o u g h w h a t , focuer caufc of a f f e i i i o n and p e r t u r b a t i o n w e r e m i n u t e r of prefeiu gricfe,or mcflengcr of f u t u r e d a u n g e r , by m i f t a k i n g o n l y , a n d w i t h d r n w c t h it fclfe,and i h r o u d e t h it as lccretc a n d clolfe, as n a t u r e will fufFer, f r o m t h a t , which if cufionic h a d n o t b e n t i t a n o t h e r way , v p p o n aduifemcnc (nowbanifhed through fwiftnes a n d v e h e m c c y of pair>on)ic would h a u e with ic.yfi.il c h e a r c c m b r a c e d . F o r cue as we fe in outward l"enfe:the e y , or t h e care l o n g a n d vehemently a f f e i l c d with colour,or f o u n d , o r t h e nofe with ftrong fent:ret a i n c t h c verie c o l o u r , ( b u n d , a n d f e n t i n t h e i n . ftrumentes , t h o u g h t h e t h i n g be r c m o u e d t h a e yeeldcd f u c h qualities ; (o t h e intcrnall fenfes m o l e f t c d continually with this fearefull o b i c f t of i n t c r n a l l d a r k n e s , cfccemcth cuery thing ot" t h a t n a t u r e : t h e true qualitie thereof being o b icurc,by chat w h i c h h a t h taken p o i T c i f i n n o f t h ^

ÏO8

A

T R E A T I S «

befotc.The brayne thus aflfcfted, and the heart anfwermghis paillon thereafter driucthvs into t h o f j extremities othcauy ino8de,which ailaile and dilpollllle o f right vie o f reaionthofe who aremelancholickly diipoied: much more if the h e a r t b e as mclancholitkly b e n t , as thebrayne; then diucrie nines ùoih it prcuent the fancie with feare,antl as a man traniported withpafîiô it vtterly berctt of aduiiemér,caufeth the fenfes both outward & inward prepofteroufly t o c o n ceiue,as the heart vaincly feareth . T h i s melancholy a s t h e p a r t s a r e diuerfe,& a&ions vary,fo doth it as it ii feated.or paflcth this or that way, breed diuerilty of paiHon:as in the heart a trembling, in t h e f t o m a c h a greedy appetite : in the brayne f>lfe illufions,andin the other partes as they are difpofed:fo deprauing their attions, it caulcth much variety of cffcéh,which are not in the nature o f the humor,but as it difturbeth the achue inftrumentes,no more then darknes caufeth fomc to ftuble,other f o m e t o g o o u t o f t h e i r w a y , & w a n d e r , & other fomc to bringe topaiTe fuch purpofes, as light would bewray & hinder, al as they be difpofed & occupied w take thé to their builnes in th e dark,& not through any fuch efte&uall operatic of darkenes, which is naught elfe but meerc abfence o f l i g h t . Neither doth fo many ftraunge fortes of accidentes follow melScholie through diueriity o f p a n s only-.but as the niftomc oflitc hath bene before,& the fancie, & heart fome way vehemently occupied : there through this humour all the faculties afbrc named, are cai ù e d the fame w a y , as it were with

OP

M s t

AWCHOIIE.

109

t h e ftreameofa t i d e , d r i u e n w i t h a b o y f t e r o u s w i n d ; w h i c h c a u l e t h t h a t melancliolicke m e n , »re n o t all of o n e n a t u r e p a f l i o n a t e this w a y . t h c o n e taking his d o l o r o u s p a f l i o n f i o m h i s l o u e , • n o t h e r from his wealth: t h e o t h e r f r u h i s p l e a lures , w h e r e o f hi$ m e l a n c h i lie b e a r e t h him i n h a n d t h e p r e f e n t loflc, or i m m i n e n t d a u n g c r of t h a t w h e r e i n a f f c i h o n in f o r m e r n m e s h a d l u r e d footing: & o n t h e o t h e r pa; c , w h i c h b e f o r e a m a n moft abhorred, that newe the humor vrg e t h with molt v e h c m c n c i e . A g a m c a > i t i s m i x e d with o t h e r h u m o u r s , e i t h e r k e e p i n g m e d i o c r i t y , o r a b o u n d i n g ; fo likewiie b r c a k c t h it f o r t h intoluch diucriines, & manie times into plaine c o n t r a r i e t i e s of c o n c c i t a n d p e r t u r b a t i o n . ! h u s you v n d e r f t a n u , h e w e f e s r e s a n d f o r o w e s rile, w i t h o u t caufe f i o m n a t u r a l l m c l a n c h o h e , w h e t h e r it be i u y c e , or e x c r e m e n t , n o t t h r o u g h chiefe a f t i o n , as f r o m w o r k e o f f a c u l t i e , but by a b u f e o f i n f t r u m e n t t h r o u g h occalion . If t h e f p l e n e t i c k c e x c r e m e n t i u r c h a r g c t h e bodie,noc b e i n g p u r g e d by h e l p e of t h e f p l e n e : t h e n a r e thefe perturbations farre more outragious,and h a r d e t o b e m i t i g a t e d by c o u n l e l l o r p e r i w a Hon: and more do they enforce v s , the partes b e i n g altered with corpor.-.ll h u m o u r , t h e n with fpirituallvapour: and fo are the psflions loner in c o n t i n u a n c e , a n d m o r e e x t r c c m e in v e e t n e n c i e . F o r as t h e flame c a r r i c t h n o t luch f o r c e o f b u r n i n g as t h e colc,nci;hcr c o n t a y n c t h t h e h e s t e f o l o n g e ; c u e n ;o t h e p a i t e s aft'efted w i t h t h e h u m o u r , w h i c h c a r r i c t h b o t h grofTcnclTc of i u b f t a n c e , w i t h continuall f u p -

110

A

TfcBATI««

plie of that dimme v a p o u r , fettlcth a more iixed paflion of fcarc and heauincffe , then t h a t which rifethfrom the vapour onely, partly of the ownc accorde more eafily vanilhing a n d partly with greater facillitie wafted by natures ftrite and refiftance. Nowe it followcth to declare,howe the other vnnaturall melancholy annoyeth with paftions, & abufeth vs with coutcrfet caufe of perturbation,whereof there is no ground in truth , b u t onely a vaine and fantalbc all conccit. Chap, xviii. Of the vttnaturaUmtiatubolie rifing dy *dufli of fuch n a t u r e , fo befet with infinite fcares and diftruft,that it e a filie wafteth the pure fpirit, congclcth the liuely bloud, and ftnkcth our nature in fuch i o r t , t h a t i t f o o n e bccommcth melancholicke, vile a n d bale, and turneth reafoninto f o c l i f h n t f l c , a n d difgrace th the bcautie of the countcnance, and transformeth the ftouteft Nabucadnezar in t h e wotldintoa brute beaft;fo eaiily is the body f t ' b . ieft t o alteration of minde, & foone loofeth with anguiih and diftruftion thereof, all the fupport o f h i s e x c e l l e n c e . Beiides this in y o u , vaine feares, and falfe conceits of apparitions, imagU nation of a voyce founding in youreares,frightfulldreamesjdiftrullofthe coniumption, and putrifying of one part or other of your bodie, & the reft of this ciuc, are caufcs of moleftation, which are whclpes of that melancholicke litter, fic are bred of the corrupted i h t e of t h e body alls'ij

IJI

A

TKBATISI

altered in fpirit, in bloud,in f u b f t a n c e and c o m « p l e x i o n , by t h e a b o u n d a n c c o f this f e u l i n g o f the b l o u d , w h i c h w c call m c l a n c h o l i e . T h i s m creafech the tcrrour o f the a f f l i & e d m i n d e , doubling the f e a r e & d i f c o u r a g e m e n t , & f h u r t e t h v p the meanes o f c o n f o l a t i o , w h i c h is a f t e r another fort t o be conucyed to the m i n d c , then the way w h i c h the t e m p t a t i o n takcth t o b r e e d diftruft of C o d s m e r c y , & p a r d o n . F o r that hath finne the m e a n e s , w h i c h needeth n o conueyaunce , b u t is bred with v s , & entreth euen into our c o n c c p t i o : neither is the guiltinelfe brought v n t o vs by f o rcinc r e p o r t , but the k n o w l e d g e rifeth from the eonfciencc o f the o f f c n d e r : t b e m e a n e s ( l

roeane

t h e o u t w a r d e meanes o f confolation and c u t e ) m u d needs pafl'e by our fenfes t o enter the mind w h o f c inftrument being altred by the h u m o r , & their finccrky f h i n e d with t h e o b f e o r e and dark fpots o f m c h n c h o l y , r e c e i u e n o t i n d i f t e r t t l y the m c d i c m c o f c o ! o h t i 6 . S o it b o t h miilake[h,that w h i c h it apprchcndeth.and dcliuereth it impcrf c f l l y to the minds c o n f i d e r a t i o . A s their brains arc thus euill difpoied , l b their harts in n o better cafe

acquainted with terror, & ouertbrown

with that fcarlul p a f l i o , hardly fet free the cherf u l l f p i r i r s , f e c b l e d with the c o r p o r a l l p r i f o n of the b o d y , & hardly y e e l d to p e i f u a f i o n o f comf o r t what f o c u e r k b r i n g e t h o f aflurance. T h i s c a u f e t h rlic r c l i a f c o f the affltttion to be l o n g & hard,and n o t anlwerable to the f w i f t n e f l e o f the p r o c u r i n g caufc,hauing f o many wayes t o p afle, & e n c o u n t r i n g f o many lets b e f o r e it m e e t wirh i h c f o c e J o r as tho cauic r e f p e & c t h n o t time nor placc,

OF MSIANCJJOIIH.

197

place,no circumftan'cc of perfon,nor condition > leeketh no opportunity of corporall imbecilhty » but breakeath through all fuch confiderations, & b e a r e t h d o w n e all refinance: fo the c o m f o r t requircth them all agreablc, & miffing any o n e , worlceth tcble e f t c f t s , & flow. Here the c o f o r t e r s perfon,his maner,thc t i m e , & place, may hinder t h c c o n f o l a t i o : h e r e thcbrainc & hart, being as it were the gates & e n t r a u n c e vnto the l o u l e , as they b e affc£ted,ayd,or hinder the coniclati6;!o that the c o n f c i t c e diftrefl'ed falling into a m c l i choly ftatc o f b o d y , t h e r b y receiucth delay o f r e ftoring in r e f p e f t o f outward meanes ; t h o u g h the grace o f G o d , & his m e r c y , his comfortable f p i r k , & g r a c i o u s f a u o r in like Iwiftncfle without m e a n e s m a y reftore the m i n d e t h u s d i f t r e f l c J : which Jieth equally o p e n to the kind of cure,cue a s it lay to the wound.Thus 1 cocludc this point of difference, & marke betwixt melancholy «nd the foules proper anguiih,whofe only caulc proccedeth from G o d s vengeance & wrath apprehended o f the guilty foule: neither doth m e l a n choly a l o n e , ( t h o u g h it may hinder the outward meanes o f c o n f o h t i o n , a s it hath bin before ihew e d ) a n y thing i^ake men m o r e fubieft vnto this k i n d o f a f f l i f t i o . Firft becavifc the body worketh nothing vpon the foule altogether imp.-.tiblc o f any other fauing of G o d a l o n e . i . T l i e torment is f u c h a s r i f e t h f r o a n efficient that rcquircth n o difpoiitio of m e a n s ; G o d himfelf.3 .The cofort is not procured by any corporal i n f t r u m i ts,fo n e i ther is the d r c o f o r t procured or increalcd that w a y j morcouer the cauie,thc fubieft,the proper N ii;

t?B

A

TEIATIS*

efFeftsare other then corporali. For although in that cafe the hart is heauy,deliuering a palliò anfwerablc to thefearfull apprehenfion, yctthe fenfe of thofe that are vnder this croffc fccle an angui ih farre beyond all affliihó ofnaturall paffion couplcd with that organicall feare and hea* uincfle of heart. The melancholy difpofeth to feare,doubt,diftruft,& heauinefle, but all either without caule, or where there is caufc aboueit inforceth the paflion. Here both the moft vehement caufc vrge(h,and alwaves carieth a paflàó therwith aboue the harts affc£hon,euen the en • try of thofc torments, which cinot be coceaued • t full,as our nature now ftadcth, nor deliuered by report. Here in this paflion, the caufc is not feare nor paflionategriefe, but a torment procuring thefe affe&ions : and euen as the punithment of bodily racking is not the paflion of the hart,but caulcth it only ; fo the hart farcth vnder this fore ofthe mind, which hercproperlie fretteth and ftraineth the finnes of the foule, wherefrom the heart taketh his grieuous diicouragement, andfainteth vnder Gods iuftice. Hirherto you haue defcribed that which your foule feelcth, not to inftruft you,but that other may more truly iudge of the cafe,and the diftinftion betwixt melancholy & ir, may be more apparane CHAP.

XXXV.

Tht affliftion ofmind to whtt ftrfoni it btfalltth^nd by what mi tout. A Lthough no man is by na'ture freed fio this xXaffli&ion, in fo much as all men arc finners, and

t?B

A

TEIATIS*

efFeftsare other then corporali. For although in that cafe the hart is heauy,deliuering a palliò anfwerablc to thefearfull apprehenfion, yctthe fenfe of thofe that are vnder this croffc fccle an angui ih farre beyond all affliihó ofnaturall paffion couplcd with that organicall feare and hea* uincfle of heart. The melancholy difpofeth to feare,doubt,diftruft,& heauinefle, but all either without caule, or where there is caufc aboueit inforceth the paflion. Here both the moft vehement caufc vrge(h,and alwaves carieth a paflàó therwith aboue the harts affc£hon,euen the en • try of thofc torments, which cinot be coceaued • t full,as our nature now ftadcth, nor deliuered by report. Here in this paflion, the caufc is not feare nor paflionategriefe, but a torment procuring thefe affe&ions : and euen as the punithment of bodily racking is not the paflion of the hart,but caulcth it only ; fo the hart farcth vnder this fore ofthe mind, which hercproperlie fretteth and ftraineth the finnes of the foule, wherefrom the heart taketh his grieuous diicouragement, andfainteth vnder Gods iuftice. Hirherto you haue defcribed that which your foule feelcth, not to inftruft you,but that other may more truly iudge of the cafe,and the diftinftion betwixt melancholy & ir, may be more apparane CHAP.

XXXV.

Tht affliftion ofmind to whtt ftrfoni it btfalltth^nd by what mi tout. A Lthough no man is by na'ture freed fio this xXaffli&ion, in fo much as all men arc finners, and

OP M I T A N C n o m . iff and being culpable o f the breach of G o d la wet, lncurre the punifhment of condemnation : yet is the mclancholiclcc perfon more then any fubieft thenïhto:not that the humor hath fuch p o wer,which hath before bin declared to ftand far a l o o f c o f f u t h effeftjbut by reaibn the melacholicke perfon is moft doubtfull, & iclous of his eflate, not only of this l i f e , but alfo of the life to comejthis maketh him fall into debate with him ielfe,& to be more then curious; who finding his aftions not fitting the natural],or written line o f righteoufneiTe,& wiring that archpiller o f faith & aflurance in (Thrift Iefus our hope,partly thorough feare findcth the horror, and partly ( if it pleafc G o d fo far totouch)fcelcth the verie anuiih due vnto the finner,& in that moft miferale condition fallcth into flat difpaire.This commeth to paflc,whcn the curious melancholy c a . rieth the minde into thefenfes of fuch miftcrics a s cxceed humayne capacity, and is dclîrous to know more thé is reuealed in the word of truth: or being ignorant o f that which is reuealed thorough importunate inquirie, of a fudden falleth into t h a t e u l f c of G o d s f e c r c t counfelles which fwallowetovp all conccit o f m a n or angcll : and meafuring the tructh o f fuch depth of miftcrics by the (hallow modill of his owne wir, is caught It deuouredof that which his prefumptuous curiofitie moucd him to attempt ro appreh-nd. O f melancholy perions, efpecislly fuch as pre moft contemplatiur,exccpttheybe well grounded in die word o f G o d , & r e m o u c n o t o n e hairc therfrom in their (peculations, are this waves moft N iiij

f

loo

A

TKIATISI

ouertaken, & receaue the puniflimentof ouerbold attcpt of thofe holy things,which the Lord hath rcferued to hisownc counfcli: while they ncglcft the declared truth, propounded for rule o f h f e and praitife, in written wordes rcuealed; not remembring the exhortation of Movies to the children of lfraell: the fecrets are the Lords but the reuealed will, appertaincth to vs, & our children. And this in nune opinion is one caufe wherefore melancholicke perfonnes are more prone to fall into this pitte, then fuch as are in their organicall members otherwife afFe&ed. Nowe contemplations are more familiar with melancholicke petfons then wit h other, by reafon they be not fo apt for action, confifting slfo of a temper ftill and flowe according to the nal u r e o f t h e mchncholie h u m o u r , whichifitbc attenuated with heate, deliuereth a drie,fubtile and pearcingfpiritc, morcconftant and (table then anie other humour, which is a great helpe to this contemplation. As the melancholickcis m o d fubieft to the calamitie before mentioned, and efpecially the concemplatioe, fo of them m o f t o f all, luchwhofe vocation coniifteth in ftudie of hard poin tes of learning, and that p h i ' lofophicall ( cfpecially of Nature ) haue caufe in this cafe to carie a lowe fail?,and fometime to ftrike, and lay at the anker of the Scripturcs of G o d , left by tempeft of their prefumprion,they be caried into that whirle poole, whereout they be in daunger (without the efpeciall grace of Gods mercie) neuer to deliuer them fclues. Such except they be well ballaced with know-

OF

MitANCHOtic.

LOT

ledge of the Scripture», and .-.durance o f G o r l j (pirite, arc ncuer able to abide the ouglintlfe o f their finnes , when they ihallbe -once vnfolden,and the narrowe point ofreprobration and c l e f t ion propounded vnto rhcirmelancholickc b r u n e ; and h e a m , and moil iriifcrale polluted fouies: vnacquainted with G o d t c o u c u a p n t o f mercie, and that earned o f his fauour,tbe com • fottablc fpirit of his g t a c e . O f iucb as haue fomc knowledge in the worde, and praftife o f obedience,the want o f the true apprehending of god J reuealed wil touching e l e f t i o n a n d teprobation, and the right method c f learning & concerning the dottrine,caufeth tóme to ftumble,and fall at t h i s f t o n e . F o r a i a i w o r d e taken at the wrong end is readie to wound the hand qf the taker, & held by the h a n d b is a fit weapon of dcfence ; e u e n f o t b e d o f h j n e o f prcdcfhnation being prepoQeroufly conceiued,may through fault of ¿he eonceiucr procure h u r t ; whereas o f it felfeir u the m o d firong rocke of ailurance,in all ftormes of tépiacions that can befall vnto bodie or foule. T h e one part of predeilination, is G o d s immutable will, the railie and rule of all iuftice, : n d vttermoft of all reaion in his wo.kes : the other partis the execution o f that will, according to mercie or iuftice, failing or condemning, with all the meancs thereto belonging: C hrHVIefus in thofe o f whom the Lorde will fliewe mcrcie, and the iuft d e f e r t o f a finner on w h o m e h e is determined to fhewe the iuftice of his wrath. If this moil comfortable doctrine, znd the fiime ancher of our profciTzon be net in all partes

101

A THAT

i n

equally a p p r e h e n d e d , we may not onely mifle the benefice therof through our owne fault,but rcceiue wounde and daungerous hurte thereby. For it the confiderationbe bent vpon Gods will and counfd only, without r c f p e d of the means, it is impoifible but the frailcy of mans nature muft needes be diftrafted into diuerfc perilous and defperate feares, finding nothing in it felfe t h a t may anfweic his lufticc, and wi'.hftand the fearefull fentence of condemnation: if it ftay in t h e meanes of his iultice only, and haue not eye vpon his mcrcy in his fonnc Chrift , then likewife a n f e t h an aflurance of cternall deftru&io n to the confciece defiled, and the guilty foule deformed with iniquity:ifthemeanes of his met cy be regarded without farther refpeft of his ctcrnall decrce and immouable iuftice, then if there alfo no aflurance of hi» mercy vnto miferable man,who mclteth like fnow and vanifheth like a vapour before his iuftice, and doubting of t h e continuance of his fauour alwayes hangeth in fufpence. All thefe confiderations thus (cuerally falling into the melancholickperfon,moue doubt and care,and either breed a refolnte defperatnes,or a continual! d i f t r u f t , tofling hither and thither the foule not cftabliihedby knowledge and faiih in Gods etcrnall counfell, & the molt wife, iuft and mercifull meanes of his executiomwhich being perfedly knowr.e according t o the word,and fealed vp in the chriftian heart by the worke of Gods fpirite, is fo farre of from difquieting the fpirit or b r e e d i n g doubt,that the children of G o d in all temptations findc the immutability

Or

MILAKCHOIII.

*OJ

muubility of G o d s counfcll, and the teftimony e f h i s f a u o u r in their confcicnccs by his'fpirite, tofupportc them in all ftormes of temptation, and to be the rocke aeainft which no violence of Sathan,or his mim(ters,or whati'ocucr their owne infirmity offereth of difcouragrmcnt can prcuaile . Beiidesthefe, fuch as read theword of G o d with pai&onatc h u m o u r , fall into this inconuenience: efpecially if without guide and inftruftion they carie any prefumption of minde and are nocmodcftand warie in their colleftions,fuch being melancholickc may eafily fall 111. to diftruft of G o d s m e r c y , & periih in difpaire. S o that ignorance and infidelity, are the chiefe caufes of this miferable cftate: whereinto many haue fallen, efpecially fuch as haue neuer bene able to be recomforted, which for the mod part arc they who with negleft of Godds fearc and hardnes of h e a r t , againft their confcience and knowledge,haue with defperate purpofe gathered ftrcngth in the wayesof finne,and haue c a d of all remorfc,til the Lordes venseaunce in thu fort oucrtakc them,or haue fallen into that fiim whereof the Apoftle fpeaketh of , that none ihould pray f o r , and which our Sauiou r calleth the finne againft the holy G h o f t . Other fome therbe(of which number I know you deate M . ) that fearing the Lord with fir.cerityof hearte, haue bene notwiihftandingthis way diftreflcd, the weight of their finnes exceeding for a time the ftrength of their f a i t h , whole cafe I take to b e t h u s f a r r e , other then fuch as I haue before mcntioncd:euen as in ftornuc tcnipcft the (hip

104

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ftirreth at euery blaft and fourgc of the fea t o h e ill daunger of w r a c k , and the yong aih bending t o cuery blaft of windc,fccmcth in pet ill of breaking & rooting v p , w h c b o t h t h c (hip k e p c t h h e t conftanccourle,& the tree yet hath h:s rooting; fo in you,& thofe o f y o u r difpoiitioninthiscale, t h e t e m p r ( l , a n d rtorme of tins temptation, rayfed partly by your owne w e a k e n e s , and parttly t h r o u g h S a t h a n s tcmpeftious malice: caufoth your faith to bend,and iceme feeble,Styeelding t o this force,while notvr ithftandir.g you be built o n the rocke,& planted with the h a n d of G o d in t h e Eden o f h i s gracious e l e d i o n , & remayne a plantc for euer in his paradifc of e t c m a l l felicitie.Such(as you your ielf)herm offend,that you meafurc your fclues by your infirmities, which h i t h f o farre vfein vs to breed a watchfull carc ouer our owne w a y e s n o t to difcourage vs: & confidcr t h a t we are as the Lord e f t e e m e t h , who is m o r e gloiificd in (hewing mcrcie , t h e in executing of his w r a t h : whole word declareth v n t o vs,that he loued vs being enncmies , a n d found vs wlie we were loft, and loathed not out polu:ion,but for himfelfe onely offered his m e r cy:fo that w e m u f t (land in that reckning of our felues which the Lord will haue vs to doe in his mercie:elfe fhal we be wi og mdges of the wayes of the Almighty. Euen as one that h a t h not had e x p c r i e n c e o f trauaile by fea,feareth euery wea uing of the (hip,& doubteth of perill, where t h e n a t u r e o f t h e trauailer is fuch without hazard or d a u n g e r ; Soy ou,& luch as are in like cafe affli&cd »imagine euery pufFeof this kinde of t c p tation

OF

MELANCHOUE.

»of

Cfltlon to be nothing elfe but the gate of deftruf t i o n , when as notwithftanding it is the veric courfc & way where through God doth lead hi« ¿eareftch:ldrcn : whofecounkllsarenot to be mealiircd,by our infirmities,nor by thSt we caft, forecaft, or doubt, but as he himiUfc hath pronouced of his own wayes,& as many of his children haue proucd before vs. Here the melucholie taketh aduantage and Sathan profecuteth a maine,\v biding your afte&io s to fearr,doubt,& diiiruit ,ftoppcth that confolation the mercy of god aftordcth,& which his childre are ready to miniftervntoyou. And thefe are melancholickes of another fort; who notwithftanding they endeuour to f e a r e G o d , yet not aduifed, through this bal* & vile humor, receme dilcouragemctin thcfelucs more then (through God« mercie) they haue need,til luch time as the cofort ofhisfpirire by due means, & alteration of their body by couenict remedy of the godly phificianraile the vpagaine.Thele arc melicholiks moftdifpofcd , by reafon of the euill temper of theirbodics tothisaffliifcon, not by power of the humor,which rcfteth in thcit bodies, & toucheth not the mindc,but by re^fo they are more cm ions & diftrullfull the other coplexios:which being ioyncd with ignorance, or a prepofterotu knowledge caft the into thcie laberimhes of fpi iituall forow , whereout very hardly are they at the length able to difpatch ihem'elues without great mercy of G o d , and diligent and careftill applyingof his meanes. lint you may fay v n t o m e , can a man by his cwne power drawc

toe

A

TKIATISI

o n this kinde o f crolTc, w h i c h y o u haue before declared to be the hand of G o d ? yea verily, if C o d s o n l y m e r c i e b e n o t his ( l a y , e u e n a s o u r firft p a r e n t s v o l u n t a r i l y g a u e t h e i r n e c k e s , a n d in t h e m all their p o f t c r i t y v n d e r t h e y o k e o f S a . t h a n : a n d as the v e n g e a n c e o f G o d s i u f t i c e a L w a y e s b u r n c t h a g a i n (I t h e w i c k e d , & h i s f w o r d continually e m p l o y e d , w h i c h n o t h i n g c a que'eh b u t t h e w a t e r o f h i s g r a c e flowing f r o m t h e fids o f his S o n n e , a n d that fpiritual c o m p l e t armour w h e r e o f S . P a u l fpeaketh of:fo fhould euen all o f v s i n t h i s l i f e t arte o f t h e h e a t e , & f e e l e t h e d i n t o f t h a t f w o r d , if his m e r c y in his S o n n e & for his Saintes caufe o n the e a r t h , h e (laied n o t t h e ielouiie o f his w r a t h : H i s anger our iinncs

pull

o n , b u t his m e r c y is only f o r h i m f c l f e . T h u s y o u h a u c heard what manner affli&ion this o f the nundc and confcience o f

finne,

not comforted

b y a i l i i r a n c c o f p a r d o n i s , h o w it d i f f e r e t h f r o m m e l a n c h o l y , h o w melancholicke peifons are m o f t f u b i e d therunto,andby what ineanes this c a l a m i t y is p r o c u r e d , w i t h t h e d i u e r f i t y o f p e r f o n s t h u s a m i i t e d : h e r e a f t e r YOU i h a l l v n d e r ftand

^whichisyourchiefedeiire)

andcure,bothin that

mycounfdl

ftateofmindcwherin

you

{land, and w h e r e o f the L o r d g r a u n t you (peedy a n d c o m f o r t a b l e r e l e a f e , a n d alio in w h a t y o u r c r a f e d b o d y furgay n c d w i t h m e l a n c h o l y and all his vncomfortable accidentes doth o f naturall & p h i f i c k h e l p o f m e d i c i n e r e q u i r e . B u t firft m y dcare M . gine w a y to my w o r d e s o f c o m f o r t , a n d for the ol J friendihips l a k e , a n d f w e e t e fociety w : h a u e h a d in times p a i l , alwayes f e a f o n e d

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with heauenly meditations and fpirituall confcrcnces, dcnic rrc not that intereit which (halbe both comfortable vnto you,and loy full to many of your friendes, whofc prayers arc with fobbes powrcd out for yourrclcafc : elpecially beware leaft vnaduifcdly you dtfhonour god in this kind of forovr,who is the God of peaccand comfort. Chap, A ctnfiUthn

Y

XXI,

vnto 1 be tjpfted enct.

conjii-

Ou feele (you fay) the wrath of God kindled agamft your foulc, and anguifli of confcience moil intolerable, and can finde (notwithftandingcontinuail prayers and inceflaunc fupplication made vnto the Lord)no releafe,& inyourowne iudgemcnt ftand reprobate from Gods couenant, and voide of all hope of his inheritance, expefting the confummaticn of your mifcry andfearcfull fcntence ofcternallcondenation:I prayyou(dearebrother)confiderGods mercies of old,and the former experience of his fauour, andthofc holy tcftimonics of elc&ion which you hauein times paft made plentifully (hew of,and confider whethe r it be not rather a tempta ion,then as you imagine, Gods anger againft you . Of temptations there are diucrfe fortes,(bme rifing fro our owne natures, otherfome from without vs: fuch is arc without our natures, either fpringc from our malitious enemic Saihan,orfrom luch allurcmentes, or terrors which the world toifcth vs withall: In thefe

OF

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107

with heauenly meditations and fpirituall confcrcnces, dcnic rrc not that intereit which (halbe both comfortable vnto you,and loy full to many of your friendes, whofc prayers arc with fobbes powrcd out for yourrclcafc : elpecially beware leaft vnaduifcdly you dtfhonour god in this kind of forovr,who is the God of peaccand comfort. Chap, A ctnfiUthn

Y

XXI,

vnto 1 be tjpfted enct.

conjii-

Ou feele (you fay) the wrath of God kindled agamft your foulc, and anguifli of confcience moil intolerable, and can finde (notwithftandingcontinuail prayers and inceflaunc fupplication made vnto the Lord)no releafe,& inyourowne iudgemcnt ftand reprobate from Gods couenant, and voide of all hope of his inheritance, expefting the confummaticn of your mifcry andfearcfull fcntence ofcternallcondenation:I prayyou(dearebrother)confiderGods mercies of old,and the former experience of his fauour, andthofc holy tcftimonics of elc&ion which you hauein times paft made plentifully (hew of,and confider whethe r it be not rather a tempta ion,then as you imagine, Gods anger againft you . Of temptations there are diucrfe fortes,(bme rifing fro our owne natures, otherfome from without vs: fuch is arc without our natures, either fpringc from our malitious enemic Saihan,orfrom luch allurcmentes, or terrors which the world toifcth vs withall: In thefe

tog

A

T R E

AT ! 3 S

S a t h a n is a w o r k e r , befides his ownc peculiar m a n n e r of tempting.His tcmprations are either by corporal] pollc(Iion,or with more Lbcrty and f r c e d o m e to the tempted. O f o u r ownc natures fpringe the temptations which rife of t h e r o o t e of originall finne,without any forrainc inftigation from t h e w o r l d . w h a t l o e u e r i s e i i h e r a b a y t e of pleafure, or fright of t e r r o r , which increale t h e a&uall finncs fpnnging f r o m t h e originall r o o t r , a n d lay a t it were compafle, and powreth o n w a t e r , to that vngracious ftock. N o w if this y o u r a f H i d i o n b e n o o t h e r , but fomc kindc ot rhefe t e p t a t i o s ( which I haue n o doubt t o make m a n i f e f i a n d playne vnto y o u ) t h e n are you to c f t c c m c o f y o u r cafc more conifortably t h e you d o , a n d to attend with patience the ifl'ue,which n o t o n e l y is n o t infallible to fignifi.- determinatl y o f eie&ion or r e p r o b a t i o n , but in fuch as are of hkc conuerfation v n t o y o u , and haue giu c n e u i d e n : teftimonies of a found faith grouded vpo knowledge,as you haue done, bringeth f o r t h t h e fruites of p a t i e n c e , experience, hope, increaie of f a i t h , and n o t onely in the end y : d d e t h plenty of fpirituallioy, and r o m f o r t e vnto rhemiclues, but furnillieth alfo w u h power,and hability to confii m e o t h e r s , b o t h by their owr.e example,and w o r d r s o f g i e a t c o n f o l a t i o n from their owne experience. In all ihe former kindes of t e m p t a t i o n s , there is h o p e , and examples are fundry in ech k i n d c : of which t h e corporall inhabiting of S a t h a n is t h e g r e a t e f t , f u l l c f t o f t c r tour a n d d i f p a i r e : yec the h i l l o r y o f t h e deedes • n d fayinges o f C h r i f t , i b e w j y t i n g e s o f t h e E uangclift

O r MILANCMOLIZ.

105

tiangclifb d o tcftifie of whole legions ctifpoffcffed of that h a b i t a c i ó n , by the power of C h r i f t mercifully extended vpon luch poore and [inferable capciues; which examples arc written for ourinftru of cockcrclls yeeld commendable nourifhment. O f f l e i h thefe aboue mentioned are molt agrcablcwith the diet cure of melancholic,&fuch parts of the

as I haue declared: the other cither breeding

»«O A T» EAT I s i a grofle,or ílimie nouriíhnient hard of digeftion and flowe of paflage. Generally fifh is not fo wholfome as flefh for chis vfe, becauic they be not fo well ftored with naturall heate and moyiture, except the imbecillitie of themclancholick itomacn be fuch as wil not beare the ftregth of fleih, then is the fifh to be boyled with wine, and to be eaten out of Tome wholcfome broth, or with good ftore of fweet butter,and fauoured with pepper. If the partiedefirefilh , thefe following are principal! among them. And firil generally fuch as arc of a middle bignefl'e, not too fat, nor leane, white, and brittle of fub fiance, & haunt the fwiftcft and pureft waters, arc molt commendable: for fuch breed fubtileft nourifhment, and lead fraight with excremcnts.Offalt water fifh that beare (hells,the oyfter is only for this diet,of thofe that are defended with a cruft, the ihrimp, and crayfilh go before the reft. Of other kind of featiih, fuch as haunt the rocket are excellent food for melancholicke perlons, corre&ed and rfed at I haue before fhewed: as the gilthead, the whiting, the fea pearch &c. Of other fort the mullet, the lucie, the haddocke, thefole, place, but, gurnard and rotchet arc to be admitted into this diet. Of frefh water fifh, thofe of the riuer are to be preferred: & the reft fcarfe to be touched,except they receaue corrcftion from the kitchin. Of riuer fifh thefe arc of the wholfomcft kinde : pearch,pike,gougeon,& trout. Thus of the fubftance of creatures you haue what I iudge meeteft for you in this cafe. Of the other fort, nothing is to be refuted but cow-

OF

MELANCHOLIZ.

I6T

cowmilke, all other forts carrying a thinner,and more liquid fubftance, and importing noperill ofobftru&ion, nor windineiTe:cfpcciall]y taken with fuger and a litle fait, & two or three houres before any other fuftenance. As cow milk is the grofleft and thickeft, fo marcs milke ( cxcept that of camels) is the t h i n n e d , next ofafle, goats milke is molt moderate, and ewes milke thicker then it. O f the partes of milke, whay dritnke with fuger is wholefome for m c h n c h o licke folke, neither is fre(h and new butter to be refiifed, cheefe made altogether of cowe milke is vnwholfome, mixed with ¡»oats, or aifes milk, maketh it not fo apt to breed obftiuftions. Eggs are good, and wholcfome fuftenance for melanchohcke bodies, rolled rather then fod or potched, and reare dreiTed fomwhat the yelk thicker then to be Tupped. Ofeggcs,hen$jfeafaunts, and turkics lay the wholefomeft egges, and are only for the melancholickcs difh. Thus much concerning the meatcs fit for their diet. Their drefling ought to be fuch as may maintaine their naturall iuyce as much as may be, with remouing of all rawnefle. Their fawces would be theiuyce of an orange orlymon,welI qualified with fuger and iwcet butter, cfpecially if vinegcr or veriuyce be part in (auce,more in vineger, & Jcfle in veriuyce. Their drinkc would be of barlie nftault brued with raine water,or fpring water which is much drawn of, next to thefe nucr water may take the third place of commend ation. It would be of a midle ftrcngth, & no t too ita le: beare rather thé ale,bccaulc the hops do greatR. iiij

I€1

A

T R I A T I S I

l y r e f p c f t their liucr and f p l t n c , & fcoureth the itomach,and makech purer, and readier way f o r diftnburion o f their nouriihmcnt. It (hall be v e ry ç o o d for them to drinke at m e a l e ï a draught o f wine o f g o o d ftrength : claret rather then white, and o f any kind wel] r e f i n e d , and full o f wine. If they drinke their wine with luger, it giueth greater cheering to t h e m , niakcth it t o pafle more eafily, and mitigarcth their melancholicke fowreneflc. Dr:nkc betwixt meales, or after meate is to be auoyded,except great caufc vrge. Hither to th cir fu ftenance,of what ki nde it oughc to be of, and among fucti varietie o f f o o d , and f o many goodbleflinges o f G o d that w a y , what choyce is t o be made : ai for their order o f eating, and drinking, and mcafure of b o t h , as liquid meates and brothes are molt conuenienc f o r them, f o I take i t , they may drinke largely, ( e x c e p t iome accident o f the ftomach difliiade) By reafon their digeftion is flowe, my aduife is, they eate l i t l c , and o f t e n : litlc becaufe their ftrength beareth not much, nor fuch mediocrity « o t h e r m e n : o f t e n , becaufe their fpirites arc f e w c , and neede repay ring: befides t h e c o l d e , f o w e r , and fetling humour of mclancholie is t o be refreihed as much as may b e , vyith frcih and pure nouriihment, and to be tempered, and m i tigated with that fweet and gentle mixture.The outward maintenance o f life , and fuftentation o f our fraile bodies conflit in houfe or habitatio, & appareil,which both muft carie thefe properties to be cleane and nete, and in all rcfpeâs as •auch as may be fatisfying (he mindc o f the melancho-

Oí ME tAN CHOLIE. If) lancholickc. For although meatesand drinkcs, and ayre, either vnwholcfomc, or vnplcafaunc bearc great Iway in difpofing the huniour, yet becaulethey haue not luch power roaffeft the minde and lénfcs as thefe other liaue, in r t f p e f t of the paifion, and mclancholike afteftion,ihey woike notfoprefent annoyaunce. The houíé except it be chccrefull and lightfome, trimme and n e a t e , fecmeth vnto the mclancholickc a prifon or dungeon, rather rhen a place of affuredrepofcand reft. And the apparellexccpt ic be light, cleanc, fitte, and well fitting,makcth ihewc of deformitie, to the melancholicke,and being cuer in his e y e , is a reprcfentation of his prcfentcalamitie, verie tedious vnto h i m , or ificbenot fo in his conceit, being nowc farrc altered: yet agreing with the humour,it may be meanes of increafc thereof, and augmenting th e fancie. The iituation of his h o u f e , or at the leaftofhis chamber,and place where he is m o d conuerfant , would be liich as might let in fuch kinde of ayre as I haue before declared, 8c feaced neither too lowe in anie bottome, nor vpon bill too high, except the melancholic be out of meafure, fadde and fullcn, then an high, loftie, and troubled ayre , and fuch feate of houfe will not be amilTc. If the melancholicke be of abilitie, the houle would not want ornament of piffcure, of gay and frefh colours, in fuch matter as (hall be rooft pleafaunt, and delightfull, and of all ornamentes of houfe, and h o m e , a pleafaunt gardin and hortycard: with a liuclic fpringe , is abouc all domcíU»

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