A Study of Teacher Morale

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A Study of Teacher Morale

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fey Lester W*r'Anderson

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in the Department of Education, in the Graduate College of the State University of Iowa August, 1950

ProQuest Number: 10902138

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon the quality of the copy subm itted. In the unlikely e v e n t that the a u thor did not send a c o m p le te m anuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if m aterial had to be rem oved, a n o te will ind ica te the deletion.

uest ProQuest 10902138 Published by ProQuest LLC(2018). C opyright of the Dissertation is held by the Author. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e M icroform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

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ACKH0WL1DGHMEHTS The writer is deeply indebted to Dr. P. J. Bloomers for his guidance and helpful criticisms In directing this study* He Is also very grateful for the Interest and suggestions of Dr* L. A* Van Dyke and Dr. A* W. Hieronymus* Gratitude is expressed to the school administrators and teachers who cooperated In making available data pertinent to this study*






Fag© Statement of theproblem


Review of Opinions Concerning Morale**** *** *•** The Croup Alma Should Be Carefully Defined .. . The Individual Must Be in Sen oral Agreement with the Alms of the Group• ....... ...**. The Alms Should Be the product of Voluntary and Co-operative Planning•••••*•*****•*.... ' The Individual Must Feel Confident of Attaining the Goals• * . . . * * * * * * * 1 The Particular Abilities and Interests of The Individual should Be Utilised*........ The Individuals Should Have a Feeling of Confidenee in Their Leaders ............. The Individual should Have a Feeling of Confidenee In His Group *....... The Individual Must Feel Confidence In Himself...... The Individual Must Feel Satisfied with the Manner in which the Community Accepts Him Socially*.. ..... The Individual Must Possess Adequate physical Health .... The Individual Must Feel Secure Economically* Student-Teacher Relations Must Be Agreeable.* Related Studies................................ Review of Previous Studies....... Morale Scales ...... Summary......

1 6 9 10 12 3 14 IS 17 19 20 21 22 22 24 24 39 42

Summary of Morale Fae tors*.... *.................... Method of I n v e s t i g a t i o n • * Methods Used by Other Investigators to Assess Morale*......... The Method of Assessing Morale Adopted for This Study......... Scoring the Questionnaire* ............ The Reliability of the Questionnaire.......

49 49 53 59 61


iv Teacher opinion Regarding the Relative Importance of Selected Factors of Morale.••* Collection of Certain Pertinent Information About the Teachers .................... Collection of Pertinent Information About The School as a Whole•..••*.*• ... The Selection of the Participating Schools.• VI


61 62 62 64

Analysis of Data............ The Difference in Morale for the Two Classes of Schools S t u d i e d Analysis of Individual Items.*... Analysis of Certain School Characteristics and Teacher M o r a l e . .......... Analysis of Certain Teacher Characteristics and Teacher Morale ..... Teacher Ratings of Eleven Factors Affecting Morale.......................





67 67 68 151 154



P*g® 1



Comparison of Teat Item Humber in the Opinion Survey and Its Corresponding Number in the outline of Morale Factors*.**


pertinent Character!atica of the Twenty Schools Studied..................


Summary of Analysis of Variance (SubCroups within Croups Design}*............ * 59 Extent of Faculty Discussion and Agreement Upon Goala and objectives*.................


Teacher Response to Decisions by the Majority* ..............


Teacher Agreement with School Policy on Curricular Offerings•*..••.*»...........


Teacher Agreement with School Policy on Belative Emphasis Given Vocational S u b j e c t s .


Teacher Agreement with School Policy cm Emphasis Given College preparatory Courses*


Teaeher Agreement with School Policy on &nphasia Given General Courses«...........


Teacher Agreement with School Policy on Student Guidance .......... Teacher Agreement with School Policy on Emphasis Given Extra-curricular Activities*

89 90

Teaeher Agreement with School Policy on Emphasis Given Inter-school Athletics..... * 91 Teaeher Agreement with School Policy on Emphasis Given Intra-mural Athletics




Teacher Agreement with School Policy on Discipline of student s ** *.........

• 95

Teacher Agreement with School Policy on Methods of Classroom instruction* ....


Teaeher Agreement with School Policy on Student promotion**...... •........


Teaeher Agreement with School Policy on Standards for Assigning Marks......




Teacher Agreement with School Policy on Use of Standardised Tests...*


Teacher Participation in Determining School Policy* ............. *. ..............


Degree of Voluntary Participation on Committees.................................




Matching Staff Qualifications and Teaching Assignments* ........ **



Reaction of Fellow Teachers to Other Teachers* * ......


Reaction of Administrator to Teacher. .*.*•*


Teacher Eatings of Their Fellow Teachers. .* 105 Adequacy of Reference and Library Books...*


Adequacy of Textbooks



Adequacy of Spec ial Equipment..............


Adequacy of Classroom Supplies*

.....*.. 107

Adequacy of Movies and Other AudioVisual Aids......



Adequacy of Classroom Furniture



Adequacy of Janitorial Services



Teachers Evaluate Their own Teaching Ability

no * ill



Congeniality of Teaching Staff.


Teacher Eatings of the Quality of Their School ..... ...p....................... U S Community Attitudes toward Teachers........ 114 Teaeher participation in Social Affairs of the Community.... ....


Teaeher Restrictions outside of School


Teacher Ratings of Superintendent In Management of School Business Af fairs..... • 117 Teaeher Ratings of Superintendent In ..... Securing Adequate Finances.


Teacher Ratings of Superintendent in Hi s Relation ships with Parent s........


Teacher Eatings of Superintendent in His Personal Relations with Teachers......• 120 Teacher Ratings of Superintendent in His Insight into Problems of Classroom Teaeher s..... ....


Teacher Ratings of Superintendent In His Willingness to Support Teacher Decisions. ....



Teacher Ratings of Superintendent In His Fairness in Dealing with Teachers..... * 123


Teaeher Ratings of Superintendent in Selection and Hiring of Teachers.••••••...• 124


Teacher Ratings of Principal* s personal Relations with Teachers ....


Teacher Ratings of Principal in Aiding Teachers with Educational Problems ....


Teacher Ratings of principal In Fairness in Dealing with Teachers. .....


vlii XLIX 1* 11

Teacher Eatings of Principal* s Support of Teachers In Disciplinary Hatters*..... * 128 Teacher Eatings of Principal* s Ability ...... to Set Along with Students.


Teacher Eatings of Principal’s Relation­ ships with parents and Community..*....



Teacher Ratings of Principal’s Effective­ ness in Managing Routine A f f a i r s 131


Teacher Ratings of Principal’s Overall Ability to Keep Things Running Smoothly... 132


Teachers Rate Their H







Adequacy of Community Recreational Facilities..........


Teacher Confidenee in Tenure.........


Teaeher Attitudes Regarding Present Salaries ......



Teaeher Satisfaction with Living Quarters. 137


Attitude of Students toward Teachers...... 138



Teacher Relationships with People Outside Teaching .......


Hours Per Day Spent by Teachers on School Work .....................


Method of Assigning Special Duties to Teacher ...........


Degree to which Extra-curricular Assign­ ments Match Teacher Interests and A M I itie s ...............


Attitude of Teachers toward Choosing Teaching as a Career ....


Enjoyment Teachers Receive from Teaching.. 144



Clerical Assistance Available to Teachers for Typing of Class Examinations.



Clerical Assistance Available to Teachers for Duplicating Class Examinations..»•*•**+ 146


Clerical Assistance Available to Teachers in Typing Special Study Materials*......... 14?


Clerical Assistance Available to Teachers in Duplicating Special Study Materials...•* 146


I SSSE3SS35S sXssssssssssssx a s a n a s & s a s s s s a s

It seems very unlikely that anyone would deny the importance of eeonomio security in its effect on morale, newspapers report daily accounts of strikes for greater eeonomio gains.

Sick leave, salary, tenure, and a satis*

factory retirement plan are some of the aspects of eeonomio security which are considered most frequently. Folmantler criticises the economic security of the typical teacher as follows; Salary schedules, tenure laws, leaves of absence, and retirement are inadequate. 1. dad Pepper writes* It is a known fact that salaries of teachers are not equal to other professions, is a result, our best men and women leave the teaching profession in order to provide adequately for their needs. 2. Hand writes that salary Is one consideration 3. that affects teacher morale. Factor fhls factor differs from the preceding eleven factors in that it is unique to the teaching situation. Studenfc-teaeher relations play an Important role in 1.

Polaantler, op. olt.» p. 290*291•

affecting teacher morale*

When a teacher experiences

feelings of pleasure from his contacts with students, his morale is affected favorably.

Conversely, the failure of

a teacher to find pleasure in his relations with students is likely to have a depressing effect on his morale. Yarbrough indicated that one of the reasons the teachers in the school in which she served had high morale was fee closeness between faculty and students.1 * HoCluakey and strayer indicate that pupil*teacher relations Is one factor which contributes to Job satisfaction, and indirectly to teacher morale. * Fleming also indicated feat working with enthusiastle children Is m e reason why teaching is enjoyable.®* fee foregoing discussion has set forth a number of conditions which authorities believe to affect morale. Chapter III will present a review of research related to the problem of teacher morale*

This research affords

additional support for some of these opinions; therefore, a summary outline of these factors will be reserved for presentation in Chapter IV. 1.

Yarbrough, op. clt.. p. 161.


HcGluakay, Howard and Strayer, Floyd, 11React ion of Teachers to the Teaching Situation,41 School Review, Vol. 48, Oct., 1940, pp. 612*623*


Fleming, B., #Something Besides Salaries,’1 Rational education Association Journal, vol. 37, Kerch, 1^48, p. 160.

Chapter H I RELATED STUDIES Vary little research has been done whleh deals directly with teaeher morale.

There are a few studies,

however, whleh deal with certain aspects of teacher morale, and there are some studies which deal with problems related to teacher morale.

It is the purpose of this chapter to

preseat a review of research projects whleh are pertinent to this study.

The results of a nationwide survey made in 1947, bf the Ration*» Schools magasine, indicated that 87# of the school administrators who replied to the question 9 Has teacher morale improved during the past twelve mem that11 were of the opinion that teacher morale had improved during this period.

A cheek list was used to determine the adminis*

trstars* opinions as to the reasons for this believed Im­ provement in teacher morale,

fee reasons whleh were common

to at least 12# of #h& administrators included the following; higher salaries, better qualified teachers, better staff relationships, more nearly adequate facilities and equipment, Improved physical environment in the school Itself, lighter work loads, and greater tenure.

Higher salaries were given.

is the opinion of the school administrators, as the principal 1. reason for the improvement in teacher morale • MeCluakey and gtrayer attempted to determine shat factors related to teaching contribute to Job satisfaction, and indirectly to teacher morale.

These investigators

used a Teaching Situation Test {questionnaire) composed of 107 statements listing common experiences of teaching. The table of specifications for this test consisted of a list of teacher statements about those things that had caused them conspicuous happiness and satisfaction and those things which had caused them unhappiness end dissatisfaction. The teachers contacted In this study were asked to check each statement in the Teaching Situation Test according to their feelings of like or dislike concerning the particular statement. For example, one statement in the Teaching Situation Test wass "To have the children chow the teacher a great deal of respect'!. Each teacher was asked to respond to this statement according to feelings of varying degrees of satisfaction*

For example, the

response indicative of the highest degree of satisfaction was, *Very unusual, extreme feeling of satisfaction*, while the one indicative of the lowest degree of satisfaction 1.

11Teacher Morale Is Improving,* Hat ion* a Schools, vol. 41, March, 1948, pp. 26*28.

g l m was, *Very unusual, extreme feeling of dissatis­ faction* « The questionnaire was distributed by the super­ intendent of the schools to 171 teachers serving In fifteen different schools*

The teachers were requested to respond

to the questions and to mall the completed blank to the in­ vestigators*

one hundred thirty-one teachers returned the

questieanalre* MeCluskey and Strayer found that the sources of teacher satisfaction and dlseatlsfactIon were eoncentrated slightly on problems dealing with the teaeher-pupll relation­ ship, but it was their conclusion, nevertheless, that the source of a teacher's satisfactions and dissatisfactions relate to the totality of his experience, in and out of the classroom*

Adjustments relating to the community, living

conditions, parental attitudes, financial security, social life, and administrative relationships are just as vivid to the teachers as adjustments relating to the speelfie conduct of the classroom.1 " Two criticisms of MeCluakey and Strayer* s study may be mentioned•

First, the possible responses to the

statements in the Teaching Situation Test do not appear to ll

McQluakey, Howard and Strayer, Floyd, "Reaction of Teachers to the Teaching Situation*11 School Review* vol. 46, Get*, 1940, pp. 616-23*

be as spec1fie la meaning as they might have been had they been adapted to each particular teaching situation covered* Second, the investigators could probably have secured more honest answers to their questions had one of them administered the materials personally Instead of having the superintendents distribute them to the teachers* Karl Garrison made a study similar to MeCluskey and Strayer*s using the seme teaching situation test and found somewhat the same attitudes on the part of teachers and student teachers participating In the investigation*1 * Hoppock Included the occupation of teaching as a part of a larger Investigation concerning the problem of Job satisfaction.

He summarized his procedure as follows*

Five hundred teachers from 61 urban and rural communities in the northeastern united States estimated their own job satisfaction on 4 simple attitude scales, whleh were combined to obtain a composite Index* Using this index as a rough measure of satla faction, the 100 best satisfied and the 100 least satisfied were selected, and their replies to approximately two hundred questions were compared* Differences and standard errors were computed; a difference equal to $ times its standard error was consider­ ed to indicate practical certainty of relationship between job satisfaction and the response in question* Certain of the 1*

Garrison, Karl, 91Comparative Responses of Teachers and Student Teachers to Various Items on the Teaching Situation Test,* Elementary school Journal, vol. 46, ppm 334- 59*

relationships which might he expected to he influenced by age or sex were eheeked by supplementary comparisons of two groups of 40 persons each, matched for these two factors. All teachers participating were guaranteed anonymity. Their names did not appear on the blanks and no identifying symbols were used. Most of the blanks were distributed by friends of the author to friends of theirs and returned directly to the author by mall. 1. Hoppock reported that the satisfied showed fewer Indications of emotional maladjustments, were more religious, enjoyed better human relationships with superiors and associ­ ates, and felt more successful*

More of the satisfied were

teaching in cities above ten thousand population.


differences in average salary between the satisfied and dis­ satisfied was not statistically significant.

Family influence

mad social status were more favorable among the satisfied; more of the satisfied had selected their vocation; no teacher disliked children; and four fifths of the dissatisfied teach­ ers found their work interesting.

Monotony and fatigue were

reported more frequently by the dissatisfied teachers.


satisfied teachers were seven and a half years older than the average of the dissatisfied teachers. The two criticisms made of McOluskey and strayer* s study may also be made of Hoppock*s study, although it does 1.

Hoppock, Robert, Job Satisfaction, Harper and Brothers, Hew York and London, 1935, pp. £6-26•

appear that a somewhat greater effort was made to assure the teacher anonymity*

Moreover, the questions asked in

the questionnaire were not highly specific to the teaching situation* was*

For example, a typical item in the questionnaire

hoes your Job give you a chance to work off your ®-


The possible responses to this question ares

no, and not sure*


These responses suggest a further criticism.

Attitudes toward issues such as the one covered by the above question are not generally of an all or nothing type, but rather, are a matter of degree.

It would have been better,

therefore, had the responses allowed the teacher to specify a certain degree of feeling toward the particular issue covered by the questions*N One of the more comprehensive morale studies was conducted by the western Electric C o m p a n y ’Actually, this study consists of a series of related studies within the same industrial plant, which extended over a period of several years. Most of the information was collected by means of an ungulded interview between the worker and the Investigator. This method appears to be one of the best methods of Investi­ gating morale problems, but It is also so time consuming that 1*

Roethlisberger, F* 3 • and Dickson, W* J., Management and the Worker, Harvard University press. Cambridge. !SIa7r“lS*37

30 It is impractical except in situation a where the study can be extended ewer a long period of time end where the high costs present no objection* While isoat of the findings of the Western Electric study were intended for use In Industry, Watson, in an inter­ pretative description of this study, suggests the following findings as being applicable to educational situations* 1.

Morale Improved when the group participated in planning

their conditions of work.


Morale rose when the atmosphere

was friendly rather than autocratic* helped morale • 4.


Variety in work

Morale was better when the group developed

a teao-consciouaneas. S,

Group incentives did more for

morale than did individual incentives *


Morals was built

more easily in groups which enjoyed being together socially than in groups tec disparate in age to have common social Interests*


Problems In morale were sometimes found to

arise from personal emotional experiences occurring outside the group being observed* clashes of group mores*


other problems arose from the

Groups formed themselves and took cm

distinctive characteristics which needed to be respected and I understood* In the spring of 1048, the Gamma Chapter of Phi 1*

Watson, Goodwin, *ihe Surprising Discovery of Morale,*1 Progressive Education* vol. 19, Ian., 1948, pp. 33-42.

SI \

Delta Kappa conducted a questionnaire survey of the attitudes ef Missouri teachers and administrators toward certain con­ ditions in their profession which relate to morale*


questionnaire was sent to 2,300 teachers and administrators selected at random*

Only 707 usable replies were received*

The questionnaire was designed to elicit responses to a variety of conditions that were assumed to contribute to difficulties in teaching*

A summary of the findings Indicated

that in the opinion of those replying the following problems are Important in the teaching profession*



76$ indicated low salaries as an important factor in promoting confusion, frustration, and disunity among teachers.



than 50£ indicated that tenure Is an Important problem* 3*

Practically none felt any deep concern regarding the pro­

blem of professional and personal freedom*



per cent suggested that community appreciation was one of the three most important problems affecting the profession* 5*

Fifty-one per cent of the administrators and 51*£ of the

classroom teachers considered sharing in the formulation of school policy an extremely Important problem.


The large

majority seemed satisfied with their living and working con­ ditions*


Low certification qualifications for the pro­

fession was considered an important factor In promoting dis­ unity In the profession*


Most of the teachers felt a

need for a professional organ!sstion which would provide 2 wise and offsetlve leadership within the profession* The research staff of the national Education Association made a study in 1944 of teacher attitudes and ssrale• They distributed a questionnaire entitled "The Teacher Looks at Personnel Administration" to classroom teachers in ninety-five school systems in forty-two states* The questionnaire had been developed by a process of trial and revision* 2*

It included three types of quest lomss

those asking for the teacher* s opinion on the desirability

of various personnel policies; 3*

those regarding the personal

and professional status of the teacher reporting; and 3*


designed to ascertain the teacher* s attitude toward teaching and his present position* One aspect of the analysis of this study was the determination of the relationship between the teacher* s response to various items of the questionnaire and the status (high or low) of his morale*

High and low morale was de­

termined simply by the manner in which the teacher replied to the following single questions

suppose you could go back to

your college days and start all over again; in view of your present knowledge, would you become a teacher again? 1*

Fhi Delta Kappa, Gamma Chapter, "Missouri Teachers and Administrators Analyse Their Profession," University of Missouri, 2949*

t l «.>

Those teachera who replied they certainly would again become teachers made up the high morale group, and those teachers who replied they probably or certainly would not again become teachers made up the lew morale group* Ho relationship appeared to exist between high or lew morale and experience, level of preparation, number of teaching fields, amount of salary, and dependency load* Relatlonahlps whleh did appear ineluded the followings


morale teachers were more likely to report excellent healths high morale individuals were more likely to think their efficiency ratings were above averages married women teach­ ers were in the high morale group and in a slightly larger proportion than in the low morale groups and the high morale group reported more administrative helps and fewer hindrances than the low morale group.** One serious criticism of this aspeet of the study is the maimer la which teachers were classified as having high or low morale,

it seems improbable that the status of

an individual** morale can be accurately determined as high or low from the answer to a single question*

At least it

may be said that such a classification could certainly be made with much greater accuracy by means of a composite score 1*

national Education Association, "The Teacher hooks at Personnel A&mini stratlon," Research Bulletin* vol. 23, no * d, Bee *, *

derived from a large

of items desired to register

feelings sad opinions of teachers with respeet to a variety ©f footers believed to affect morale. This study, however* remains as one ©f the more comprehensive studies which have been made pertaining to teseher morale* grails and Burton asked a staff of eity teachers to turn in unsigned statements listing any Illustrations of spool fie irritations, frustrations, or blocks whleh were inimical to their happiness or destructive of their initiative and efficiency*

A selected number of those who turned in

written reports and who signified a willingness to be identi­ fied and Interviewed were so interviewed at length*


following outline is Cralle and Burton* s summary of the frustrations growing out of administrative and supervisory policies which iaterfer with teacher morale* A*

Frustrations related to participation and right relationships for resolving conflicts 1. 3* 3* 4* 6*


Disagreement with policy Conflicts In the application ©f policies No provision for participation in local school administration Conflicts between central policies and local school administration Conflicts between goals of the policies and goals of the particular school

Frustrations related t© channels for adjusting grievances sad personal maladjustments 1*

Too much work for the teachers

35 Um 3. 4« 5* 6* 0.

Frustrations related to inadequacy of specific supervisory guidance 1. 2* 3* 4* 5*


Feed of more supervision Disagreements between teachers* and principalis ideas of method Initiative hampered due to administrative prescription of methods of getting results Blocking initiative and freedom to use professional insight Where teachers know the recitation method and are required to work under the newer methods, It is a frustration if we do not have adequate guidance

Frustrations related to inadequate recognition of efforts 1* 2* 3* 4*

Unfair criticism of the teachers' work Inadequate provision for the teacher to talk ever personal problems with supervising officers Display of favoritism Inadequate consideration In changes of assignment Complaints in the administration of the salary policy

Lack of adequate encouragement After working hard on a special study to have no recognition of it or followthrough11 Feeling of not being judged upon merit for appointments or promotions A feeling that reward and security are not related to effort, ability,, and achievement

Frustrations related to general personal relationships 1* 2* S«

Interruption of class work Duties not clearly defined Inadequate explanation of central office instructions

'4# 5* 6# 7. 8*

Lack of a plan for effecting unity within a school Influence of poll ties, manipulation of positions for personal rather than professional reasons Manipulation of salary without a policy Laek of good practices among parents in the matter of giving or 1tic isms of teacher's work Critic lam by parents without having all the facts in the situation* 1*

ftirton in analysing a study lay White which had to do with the morale of municipal employees In Chicago selected the following six psychological factors as basic to good morale* 1.

the desire for justice, individual and group; 2.

desire for recognition; 3,


the desire for stimulating leader­

ship and personal and institutional loyalty; 4*

the desire

for stimulating social contacts with one's fellows; 5* desire to satisfy one's sense of achievement; and @«

the the

desire for security through adjustment to one's job* * In 1838, Mllhouse studied opinions regarding work­ ing conditions of 335 teachers serving in the public schools of Bes Moines, Iowa*

A form was distributed to all teachers

in the system on which they were asked to describe any !•

Cralle, Robert B«» and burton, William H.» "An Examination of Factors stimulating or Depressing Teacher Morale]’ California Journal of Elementary Education, vol. 7, Aug., pp.t-te. 1.. 1'


Burton, William H., "The Teacher's Morale As An Important Factor in Teaching Success," California Journal of Elementary Education, vol. 6, no. 4, May7^§3§7 P* 219*

situations in their teaching or living experience that were annoying or irritating, or that handicapped their work, and to deaorihe alao the situations which were equally pleasant or satisfactory, or policies with which they were in agreemeat* la order to secure store detailed Information, the administration of this Teacher Reaction Blank was followed by interviews with approximately 100 teachers who cooperated In the study* The following were described as satisfactory by twenty or more teachers? 1* S* 3, 4* 6* 6* 7. 8* 9* 10* II* 18. 13* 14* lb* 16. 17* 18. 19* SO* 21. 22*

Comfortable, satisfactory living quarters Wo personal restrictions good Janitor servlee hikes end enjoys teaching Supervisor or principal helpful Cooperative faculty pleasant friendly relations with principal or supervisor Freedom in teaching Likes study*group plan Cooperative parents Acceptable or satisfactory clerical work Satisfactory social contacts Friendly, cordial spirit among teachers Classroom attractive or otherwise satisfactory Good support of teachers in criticism or discipline democratic supervision Likes membership In professional organisations Likes progressive methods in use Likes twelve-month paycheck Issuance Light pupil load Favors present married-women policy Good cooperation with principal

33 23* £4* 28, 28, 27« £8* 28»

Building attractive ©r in good repair Sufficient income Consideration shown for teachers* feelings JttlWB tsashing to other professions Freedom to discuss problem aand to express opinions Liberal supplies and teaching material Annual letter satisfactory 1« Unsatlafaotory reactions reported by Milhouse wares

1, 2* 3* 4« 5* 6* 7* 8. 9* 10* XI* 12* 13* 14* 15. 18* IT* 18* 19. 20* 21* 22* 23*


Inadequate cupboards, shelves, and storage space go teacher rest room goiae from other parts of thebuilding Unsatisfactory ventilation Poor heating or temperature control Basting neglected or poorly done Inadequate time for preparation and planning Many or difficult preparations So vacant periods Classes too large Moo much clerical work Inadequate or poor clerical help fee many meetings Annual letter unsatisfactory Inadequate supervisory assistance Control of courses taken for salary credit Lew salary Inoperative salary schedule Sick leave not made cumulative Late contracts Inadequate library and reference materials Inadequate teaching materials and equipment Lack of materials for activity and construction work

Milhouse, xvan C*» "The Reactions of Des Moines Teachers to Various factors in Their Occupational and Living Environment,* Bee Moines Teachers1 Federation, May, 1940, p* 10*

39 24* 26* SO* 27« 28* 29* 20*

Income too low for suitable standard of living I4.ving expenses too high In proportion to salary received Rental for living quarters to© high Pupil noise and confusion hack of time for social contacts Excessive fatigue Feeling of uneasiness and insecurity 1* Morale Scales 4 serious limitation in the study of teacher morale

has been the lack of a satisfactory instrument with which to measure teacher morale.

However* a few attitude scales have

beam developed for the measurement of morale in the more general situation* Rundquist and Sletto developed one such scale In 1956 *2 ^feis scale consists of twenty-two statements toward which the individual is asked to Indicate varying degrees of agreement or disagreement*

For example* one item in Rundqulst

and Sletto*'a morale scale 1st J-XFE IS m m 0HK WORHJf AFTER ASTOTHER Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Each Item is scored by assigning the responses arbitrary values (one to five) • Hence* a total morale score can be obtained by adding the scores on the individual items* Ibid.* pp* 16—26* 2*

Rundqulst* E* A*> and Sletto* R* F*» personality in the Depression* University of Minnesota press* 1936.

40 The norma for the teat are base# on the scores of 1,000 youngpeople* including 400 college students* 200 high school aenlora* and 400 youthful employed and unemployed persons enrolled In continuation classes at the high school level* Estimated reliability coefficients of *79 {for males) and *81 (for females) were obtained by calculating the correlation coefficients between the scores on two forms of the moral© scale and correcting this value by means of the Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula* There are two basic objections to the application of the Rundquist and Slot to scale to the measurement of teacher morale*

First, the statements and responses were

Intended for use in a general rather than a specific situation and hence are not always meaningful when applied to teaching* Second* the norms provided were also intended to be applicable to a general population and are representative of a younger age group than Is usually found in teaching* The Minnesota personality Scale has a section whleh is Intended to provide a measure of morale *^*Th© morale section Is based* to a great extent, on the Rundquist end Sletto morale 1*

Barley, yohn 9* and McNamara, W. J*, "Minnesota personality Seale** The Psychological Corporation, Hew York *

41 scale*

In fact, fourteen of the twenty-two Items of the

Rundqulst and 31etto seals are included in the morale section of the Minnesota personality scale, and the other items in it are sons trusted In a manner similar to those of the Rundqulst and Slotto scale*

Consequently, Insofar as the

measurement of teacher morale la concerned, the criticisms made of the Rundqulst and Sletto scale may also be applicable to the morale section of the Minnesota Personality scale* Another scale for measuring morale was developed by Sail in connection with a study dealing with the effect of unemployment on men*a attitudes*

This scale consisted of only

flee statements toward which an individual could express his attitude by designating one of the five following classes; I strongly agree; agree; undecided; disagree; strongly disagree* * fhe nature of the items of Hall’s scale is very similar to that of the items of the Rundqulst and Sletto scale* Consequently, the objection that the statements and responses are not sufficiently specific to the teaching situation is also applicable to Rail’s scale* tm 1941, Harding constructed a scale for measuring civilian morale in a war time situation*

His scale assumes

the group to be the adult cltlsenry of the Rnlted States mad 1*

Rail, 0. Milton, ''Attitudes and Unemployment,rt archives of Psychelogy* no* 195, 1934*

the group task to be "national defense* .1#?hia seals was eonstrusted in ateh the sane manner as these discussed earlier; that is, a stateneat is presented toward whieh the individual registers his reaction hr designating one of five possible degrees of agreement or disagreement* The statements need in Harding's seals were s p e d fie to the war situation in the united states in 1941 •

As an

example* the following statement is taken from his seals* labor unions should be suppressed daring the present national emergency * 2 * Statements such as this can not be expected to function properly except in the immediate situation for whieh they are intended*

Consequently, Harding's scale sen not be

applied to a study of teacher morale •

fhe number of research studies dealing with teacher morale has been relatively small.

In general, the purposes

of the studies which have been done in relation to teacher morale have been either to determine the status of teacher morale or to determine various factors which affect teacher morale* 1*

Harding# JTohn, WA Seale for Measuring Civilian Morale,* Journal of Psychology, vol. 12, 1944, pp. 101-110.



43 $hs method of Investigation employed to study morale has usually been by means of a questionnaire* Interview* or a combination of a que atlonnalr e followed by an Interview* One of the big problems in the construction of morale scales has been the matter of validity*

Morale appears

to have so many aspects which are unique to a specific situ­ ation that It scarcely seems practical to construct a scale whieh will serve in a variety of situations*


It is necessary to this study to construct a morale scale for the specific purpose of measuring teacher morale* Zn Chapter IX factors believed by authorities to affect morale were presented*

In this chapter certain re­

search studies have been reported which provide additional Information regarding factors affecting

bio rale*

Xhe factors

reported in these two chapters are summarized In outline form in the next chapter*

rhls outline was used as a table of

specifications in the preparation of the teacher morale scale developed for use in this study*

44 Chapter XV s u m m a r y o f m o e a i ^b f a c t o r s

Different authorities, as well as various research studies, suggest a variety of factors affecting morale•


ever# careful analysis of these opinions and findings discloses a number of fee tors applicable to the teaching situation on which there appears to be fairly general agreement*.


following descriptive outline la Intended to present a summary of such factors*

Ho claim is made that this outline of factors

believed to affect morale is all-inclusive, but it does re­ present a rather extensive sampling of such factors*


outline was employed as the table of specifications for the construction of the Instrument used in the measurement of teacher morale* FACTORS AFFBCTIN0 TEACHER MORALE X*

Statement of Croup Alms A«

Define the task to be performed 1. 2*


deals are defined positively Everyone need s a w e thing to look forward to, a magnetic pole toward which the aspirations are drawn

Alms of the individual are Integrated with the alms of the group 1* 2*

Special Interests are secondary to group interests $he individual feels as though he shares the group goals

45 Gm

Alma are determined cooperatively 1. 2m


Understanding of common problems results from participation in planning participation in solving problems is voluntary


There is a conviction of the worthwhileness of the goals, by the group and the individuals of the group


Each individual la aware of the problems which face the group

Attainment of Goals Am

There is confidence that defined goals can be attained 1*

There is means of workable 2 m There is B*

The full Intellectual equipment of everyone is utilized 1* 2* 3.


confidence that the plan and carrying out the plan is in the immediate situation a channel for action

There is confidence in the individual’s chance to contribute to the attainment of goals Everyone contributes in ways in keeping with his abilities and interests v Effort is made to assign the right job to the right man so that chances of success are greatest

There is a realization of advancement toward the achievement of goals

Peelings of Solidarity A*

There is confidence in the leaders 1* 2b 3* 4*

Leaders are well trained Confidence prevails that suggestions by individuals will receive attention Leaders are friendly and good humored Confidence is present that there Is fair treatment to teachers by adminis­ trators and supervisors

4G 5*

There la confidence In •thlos of the leaders 6 • There is an absence of T* Inhere Is eonfldenoe in the leaders to perform effectively B*

2. 3*

There is confidence in the ability of the group to achieve goals There is eonfldenoe of fair treatment within the group There is confidence in the professional ethlos of the group and its members

There Is confidence in one’s self 1* 2. 3* 4*


fear of leaders the ability of responsibilities

There is eonfldenoe In associates and the group !•


the professional

There is confidence There Is confidence There is confidence There is confidence

in one’s ability in one’s training in one’s past experience in one’s future success

Bach person feels a personal responsibility to participate In the group 1* loyalty to the group is essential 2 m There is a willingness to saeriflee personally for the good of the group


Group actions are Integrated and co-operative 1. 2. 3*


Individual aims are identified with group aims and purposes There is a tolerance for temporary minorities The will of the majority determines action

There is confidence in "respect for the individual" 1* 2*

Freedom of speech and thought is present There is a recognition of value for growth of the Individual




Aggression and hostility are expressed toward common problems rather than toward Individual a within the group


Pride In the group is evident

Social Statue of the Individual A*

She community shows appreolation for services of the teacher 1* 2« 3*


People are Interested in The community displays a attitude toward teachers a gossipy one Recognition is given for

the school positive rather than achievement


Teachers are treated as social equals by the community


Reasonable community service outside the school la encouraged

personal problems of Individual A*

The Individual has sufficient health and energy to perform his teaching duties 1* 2m 3.

Demands upon the individual** time and energy are felt to be reasonable There is satisfaction with recreational activities The physical environment is comfortable

There is confidence of eeehomle security, sick leave, tenure, and a satisfactory retirement plan


There is eonfldenoe in the opportunity for professional advancement


&ie individual has conviction of personal aspirations and ideals which make life worthwhile


There is reasonable satisfaction with living quarters

48 Wm

Family life is happy


Counseling service it available for personal problems


peelings of pleasure are experienced in student-teacher relations


Job placement is sash that the chances of success are greatest* The duties are in keeping with the abilities of the Individual

Chapter V METHOD OF IHVESTIGATIOH The purpose of this chapter is to review the method of investigation used*


to determine whether or not there

is a significant difference between the level of teacher morale In secondary schools ranked high with respect to student achieve­ ment as compared to secondary schools ranked low with respect to student achievement; 2,

to determine the degree of relation­

ship which exists between selected characteristics of the school and the overall morale of the teaching staff; and, 3*

to determine the degree of relationship which exists

between the individual teacher morale and various personal characteristics of teachers* Methods Used bg Othg£ SSSStliSSiSS


Several methods have been used to assess morale* Benge states that the principal means by which morale studies have been conducted are; 1* 2• 3* 4* 6*

The labor audits or personal inventories Exit interviews or possibly interviews of ex-employees Suggestion systems Essay contests on some subject lis 11Why Our Company Is a Good Company0 or 11What I would Do to Improve Our Company” Guided Interviews where a skilled Interviewer covera a certain number of previously stipulated points

6* 7*

Waguided interviews where employees are allowed to talk at random Morale Questionnairea *• Essay contests, suggestion systems, and unguided

interviews make use of a free response technique in whieh an individual la encouraged to express his feelings and opinions more or leas at random*

These methods are useful

for uncovering specific problems in s p e d fie situations; but they are very time consuming and tend to give an incomplete coverage of the many possible factors which may affect morale* Moreover, they are difficult to evaluate with a very high degree of reliability* Because one of the major concerns of this study is to obtain a measurement of teacher morale in different schools rather than to attempt to uncover additional factors whieh affect morale, a method Is needed which provides consistent and reasonably good coverage of specific factors which authorities believe to affect morale*

It is also

neeessary to employ a method In which the responses can be evaluated objectively, and a method which is not too demand­ ing of the teacher’s time* The questionnaire is a type of Instrument which Insures a consistent and adequate coverage of questions 1*

Benge, Eugene J., Bow to Make a Morale Survey, national Foremen* s Institute ine•/'Hew Fork, i94l, p* 12.

51 comeszoning morale factors; it can be scored objectively; and it It economical in time demands; therefore, the question­ naire technique 1« used la thle study. At least f e w methods of construction have been used in building morale questionnaires • 1*

A series of statements is presented to whieh

the individual being examined responds with varying degrees of agreement or disagreement•


sample of this method is

taken from Rundqulst and Sletto* s morale seal©* IT 13 DIFFICULT TO THINK CLEARLY THESE DAYS* , Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree strongly disagree** M«

A second method is to present a series of

statements whieh the individual evaluates as being true or false*

This method is illustrated by an Item taken from a

morale questionnaire used by the Hew Holland Machine Company, Mew York* {


I ththk my Job is extremely interesting.2 * 3*

A third approach Is to ask a question and pro­

vide a number of possible answers from which the individual 1»

Rundqulst. Edward A. and Sletto. Raymond E.» Personality in the Depression. The University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis* 1936. « S M M W


M S M M w r

Benge* Eugene J», Bow to Make a Morale Survey. National Foremen*s Institute Inc., Mew York, 1941.

ehoses the one which semes the elosest to representing hie feelings regarding the question,

Ihe following illustration

of this method was also taken from the morale questionnaire used by the Mew Holland Machine Company* Sew do you like the Company »s pension plant ( ( { < (

) A* > B, ) G* ) D, ) E, 4*

I am opposed to it* Some things about it I don’t like, Xta all right, % guess, I like it quite well, I think its a wery good plan,** A fourth method Is to ask a question and sail

for a free response,

Thia method is illustrated in the

following samplei Shat general feeling does your family (parents, husband, wife, eto,} hare about the company? '1

~"rr ~

~~ ~


■ '


an objection, for purposes of this study, to the items used by Eundquiat and Sletto (as was discussed in Chapter III) is that the statements, or more particularly the responses, are not sufficiently specific In meaning and are intended for general use rather than for use with a particular occupation,





The true-false type of question does not provide for sufficient differentiation among the various attitudes which may he obtained with regard to each question#


of a morale factor is not an all-or-none proposition.

It Is

rather a matter of degree, and true-false Items do not pro­ vide for sufficiently fin® distinctions. Free response Items are useful for locating specific sources of irritation, hut the responses in addition to being difficult to evaluate reliably are likely to vary so widely from teacher to teacher that the results would not be comparable. The Method of Assessing Morale Adopted for This Study

W N M N l

m M M H M IM t



S S M M M M B N iS M B






■ ttB S B flN M O S S

Of these four methods, the individually administered, multiple choice type questionnaire has been selected as best for use In this study.

It Is possible with this method to

devise responses which not only provide for an adequate degree of distinction, but can be scored objectively.


values can be assigned to the various responses, making it possible to obtain a total morale score for each Individual and to draw comparisons between different classes of individuals 1 and schools. * The summary outline of factors which authorities consider to affect morale, and which was presented in chapter 1.

See appendix for sample of questionnaire.

54 Ilf, was used as the table of specifications for the construction of the questionnaire *

For example, on© statement in this out­

line of factors proposes that the goals.be defined positively* The following Item was constructed to reflect this statement* Which of the following statements is most characteristic of the extent to which your faculty has discussed and agreed upon its specific goals and objectives? 1* '

We have done little, if anything, as a group in getting together and thinking through what we are really trying to accomplish in our school*

2 * We have discussed to a certain extent what m ig h t be called our goals and objectives but th e y a re really too vague to be of much value* 3 * W© seem to be in pretty general agreement as to what we are trying to do, but our policies need to be more definite if they are to be of much help to us in our daily work* 4 * We have numerous discussions about the things we are trying to accomplish and are generally in agreement on major plans and policies* 5*

We seem to have a never-ending discussion concerning policies* consequently, we have a very real awareness of what our goals and objectives are* 1*

The other items in the questionnaire were constructed in a similar manner.

It is not claimed that all possible

factors affecting moral© have been covered in the question­ naire, but it is felt that at least a sampling of such factors sufficiently adequate to make the questionnaire reasonably valid for purposes of this study has been included. II

See appendix for sample of questionnaire

Table I present a the number of each item in the questionnaire (Opinion Survey} and the outline number of the morale factor with which the test item la concerned*


example. Item one In the Opinion Survey is based on factor Xf A* t of the outline of morale factors* in all items of the questlonnalr e, the responses are arranged in order of low to high prevalence of the factor being considered*

For example, in the item Illustrated on page

54, the first response reflects the opinion that definition of goals mad objectives prevails to a relatively low degree*


response increases in the degree to which goals have been defined, with response member five representing the highest degree, relatively speaking, to which the particular factor being considered may prevail* dn important consideration In the construction of a morale questionnaire is the determination of the feelings with respect to the factors which authorities consider as effecting morale*

In other words, the important thing is not

so much how good or bad a situation may actually be, as It la how good or bad the teacher feels the particular situation to be*

This makes it necessary to employ a method of soliciting

the feelings of teachers which will result in a truthful and aninhibited expression of those feelings* 1.

g e e C h a p te r I T

It Is Important

f o r Summary O u tlin e o f M o ra le F a c to rs

56 Table I Comparison of Tost Item Humber in the Opinion Survey and Its Corresponding Humber In the Outline of Morale Factors

Test Item Humber

Factor Outline Humber

Test Item Humber

Paetor Outline Humber


I, A*




I, B*




I, B.


V, A


I, G.


V, A


I, C.


V, B


II, B.


V, B


Ill, B.


V, E


Ill, A.


V, H


Ill, H.




II, A*


V, A






Ill, 0.


V, I


Ill, H.


V, H


17, A.


V, H


IV, B*


V, I


IV, B.

that the teacher understand that there are no right or wrong answers to the question* aeked, end that it is hie own indi­ vidual opinion that is desired. In order to aid in securing such attitudes, the questionnaire was administered personally by the investigator said to each teacher individually,

it was felt that this

personal contact aided greatly In establishing the proper motivation and also provided the investigator an opportunity to assure the teacher that his answers would be kept completely confidential • The questionnaire was introduced In the same manner to every teacher except for answering the occasional questions raised by some teachers eoneernlmg the use, purpose, etc., of the survey.

The introductory remarks of the investigator were

as followst

*The purpose of this survey is to determine what

the opinions of teachers are concerning various Issues, practices, and policies within your school mad community.

In order to get

at these opinions, I have constructed a multiple choice type of questionnaire In which 1 ask you a question, or raise an issue, mad then give you some possible responses to these questions or issues.

You are asked to check the response which comes

the closest to describing what your opinion is regarding the question asked. *Yhe reason 1 an here conducting this Interview

58 personally and Individually Is that the nature of seme of the question* is such that X want to he sure your answers do «ot pass through the hands of your principal, superintendent, or any other teacher in your sehool •

In order to give you as

wash assurance as possible that your answers to the quest!ont nalre will net be repealed to anyone in your school, X have here a stash of completed questionnaires1 *into which X want you to place your copy of the questionnaire when you have Completed it*

feu nay place It in the stack anywhere that

you desire, and I do not want you to sign the opinion part Of the questionnaire** yhe teacher was then given a copy of the questionnalre and told to proceed according to the directions printed eh the sever*

occasionally a teacher asked for additional

information concerning the nature of the survey*


questions were always answered before the teacher started to answer the prepared questions*

So effort was made to have

any teacher indicate his answers until he seemed reasonably 1*

At this point, a stack of completed questionnaires was shewn to the teacher*


Bach copy of the questionnaire was coded so that the investigator could identify it for purposes of analysis, hat in no instance was a teacher* s answers revealed to anyone else*


See appendix for sample copy of Sehool Staff Inventory •

convinced that his responses would bo hold In atriot confidence and until he appeared satisfied with hi a understanding of the purpose of the survey* Usually the standard introduction* described above, was sufficient to acquire a satisfactory attitude on the part of the teacher* After completing the questionnaire* each teacher placed his copy in the stack of completed questionnaires* The teacher was encouraged to place his copy at any desired position in the stack*

it was the investigator*s observation

that this procedure contributed considerably to the develop* cent of a favorable attitude by the teachers in answering the opinion part of the questionnaire*

The teachers seemed

to have complete eonfldenoe that no one in their school would see their answers* and they appeared completely willing to express their frank opinions to the questions asked in the quest lonaaire . Thus* the technique used to collect the needed information in this study may be described as a questionnaireinterview method* Scoring the questionnaire


The questionnaire {Opinion Survey) was scored by assigning to each item a value equal to the number of the response seiseted by the teacher*

Certain items were composed

of a masher of sub*items (see items three* ten* seventeen* eighteen* and thirty-one)*

The scores for such items were

obtained by calculating the mean value of the sub-items*


example* seven types of supplies and services are listed in item number ten of the questionnaire•

The teacher was re­

quested to check one of the five possible answers for each of these seven types of services and supplies.

The five possi­

ble answers describe various degrees to which these supplies mad services are available and are arranged from lowest to highest in degrees of availability*

The five possible answers

were assigned numerical values from one to five*

Each of the

seven sub-items checked by a particular teacher was assigned the number equal to the numerical value of the response checked* The score for this teacher on item tea was the mean value of the seven sub-item numbers*

Items three* seventeen* eighteen*

and thirty-one were scored in a similar manner* Bach teacher* s total score was determined by susmilng the item values for questions one through seventeen and nineteen through thirty-one*

Item eighteen was not included

in the total score because it was found inapplicable to most of the smaller schools*

Items thirty-two through thirty-six

were not included In the total*

These items (except for

number thirty-two) call for personal information about the teachers which was studied in relationship to morale*


01 items are not a part of the basic questionnaire even though, for reasons of convenience, they were incorporated into it* The average of the total scores for the teachers within a particular sehool was taken to be the sehool score* ffae Reliability of the Questionnaire S S B 0E 9E

J N B M ttS B M M B tn M flB M R S B flM M '

3B C 0

JM H 0 H B


A reliability coefficient of *86 was obtained for the questionnaire*

The method of calculation used involved

the determination of the correlation coefficient between the individual teacher* a total score for the odd numbered items of the questionnaire and the individual's total score for the even numbered items*

This correlation was **76»


of the Spearman-Brown prophecy Formula to this coefficient resulted In an estimated reliability of *86* Teacher Opinion Regarding j&SSSJmp the SmSSEESEEEZSSSSE^ Relative


« 2 m 3 m m 2 m S !m 2 2 « S *5 »

Importance of Selected Factors ssss of -jm Morale aaw s—

aBsesbsnsacs&sssssr sees: i- r a x . -1 .,1t-auas;

Item thirty-two called for each teacher to rank, In order of importance, eleven factors believed to affect the morale of teachers*

Ranking these particular factors

in orderof importance is not purpose of this study, but

directly related to the major

it was thought that the securing

of such a consensus might prove helpful In studying the general problem ©f teacher morale*

The number of factors to

b st h a a readred was limited to eleven because of the difficulty involved in attempting to rank a large number of items*


selection of the eleven footers used was arbitrary* end they vere presented la random order* Collection of pertain l ^ n a U m

ertlnent persona.

About the J*eachers

A further consideration Important to the general problem of teacher morale has to do with the relationship between morale mad certain personal characteristics of teachera* such as*

age, amount of formal training# salary* sen* years of

teaching experience* and marital status*

School administrators

and supervisors are continually forced to make decisions in the selection of new teachers and In conjunction with the supervision of their staff which take into aeeount such personal eharaetori sties of teachers*

In many instances* it would be

helpful to know whether or not these personal characteristics tend to be associated with high or low morale*

Items thirty-

three through thirty*six of the Opinion Survey* together with part X of the School Staff Inventory* were used to collect such personal information about the individual teachers* Policetion of Pertinent Information About the School as a Whole 2% Is possible to identify a few overall character!sties

9f ft school which sft aspects of the factors believed by

authorities to affect morale.

To secure such Information

about the schools involved in this study* a separate question1. nalre was oonstrueted• It includes the administrator*s subjective rating of the morale of his teachers as a unit* as well as his rating of the morale of each high sehool teacher individually*

This questionnaire also required the

administrator to specify* for each of the years from 1945 through 1949* the number of teachers who were employed* the number of new teachers* the high sehool enrollment* the per pupil cost* and the enrollment of the senior class*

He was

also asked to provide the enrollment of the ninth grade for each of the years from 1942 through 1946* This information makes it possible to calculate the percentage turn-over of teachers and to estimate the pupil holding power of the sehool*

It also provides infor­

mation regarding the financial support given the sehool by the community* The percentage of teacher turn-over was calculated by dividing the number of new teachers by the total number of teachers and multiplying the resulting quotient by 100* An index of the pupil holding power was calculated by dividing the total ninth grade enrollment for the school years 1*

gee appendix for sample of Administrator Questionnaire

1949-1946 by the total twelfth grade enrollment for the aehool years 1946-1949* The per pupil pupil cost for the aohool year 1948 was used as an index of the community* s willingness to support its schools* The Selection of the Particigatlng Schools Selection of school staffs to be studied was made on the basis of sehool performance on the Iowa Tests of General E d u c a tio n a l Development*

There were two reasons f o r u s in g

these particular tests for this purpose* First* these tests constitute one of the best batteries of achievement examinations available*

Henry Chauneey* President

of the Educational Testing Service* substantiates this claim in his evaluation of them. •** this program of tests is probably the best conceived and executed battery that is available for use In the senior high sehool* 1. The second reason was that these tests had already been administered in 550 Iowa high schools* and these schools had been ranked according to their performance on them* so that may similar testing would be a needless expense end duplication of time and effort* The average of the percentile ranks of the composite 1*

Buros* Oscar* £»* The Third Mental Measurement Yearbook* Rutgers University Press* Few Brunswick* 1949* p. 12*

65 scores for grades sine through twelve was used as a selection score for the schools. The high cost (both from the point of view of time and money) of the investigation due to the individual adminis­ tration of the questionnaire limited the number of schools whieh could be studied.

It was felt that approximately twenty

schools would provide a fairly adequate sample of sehool9 and yet be a reasonable number for the Investigator to cover. Hence, It was decided to include twenty schools In this study. The twenty schools were divided into two groups of ten each.

One group was composed of ten schools whose se­

lection scores were seventy-five or higher.

The second group

was composed of ten schools whose selection scores were thirty or lower.

Thus* by eliminating the schools which had selection

scores between thirty and seventy-five, there was good assurance that the two groups selected represented populations of schools having relatively high and low student achievement as measured by the Iowa Tests of General Educational Development.

Table II

presents a summary of pertinent characteristics of the twenty schools selected for study.

Table 11

Pertinent Characteristics of the Twenty Schools Studied Low Achievement Qroup Number " High Selection of High School Score School Bareli* Teachers merit

High Achievement Group Number High Selection of High School Score School Enroll* _____ Teachers ment























































27 Total 120



18 146



Chapter VI ANALYSIS OF S U M The purpOBt of thlo chapter is to present the various analyses whioh wore mods of the data obtained from tbs teacher responses to the school Staff Inventory and from the Administrator1s Questionnaire.

The major purpose of this investigation was to examine the possible difference between the level of teach­ er morale in secondary schools ranked high with respect to student achievement and the level of teacher morale in secondary schools ranked low with respect to student achieve­ ment.

an analysis of variance (school groups within achieve­

ment groups) was used to investigate this problem. Two specifi© hypotheses were tested.

The first

was the hypothesis that there are no differences among the mean morale scores for the schools within the achievement groups.

This hypothesis was tested by means of an F*Teat.

The appropriate F is the ratio of the mean square for schools within achievement groups to the mean square for individual teachers within schools.

This hypothesis may

fee rejected with a level of confidence which is beyond j£.

Rejection of this hypothesis la evidence of the power

of the norale questionnaire to differentiate among schools within achievement groups.

It also indicates that the

mean square for schools within achievement groups is the appropriate term with which to evaluate the difference between the means for the achievement groups. The second hypothesis tested was that of no differ­ ence between the means of the two achievement groups.


hypothesis was also tested by means of an F-Test. in this instance* the appropriate F is the ratio of the mean square for achievement groups to the mean square for schools with­ in achievement groups.

This hypothesis may be rejected

with a level of confidence which is beyond 6$.

The rejection

of this hypothesis Is evidence of a real difference between the mean of the teacher morale scores for secondary schools racking high in pupil achievement and the mean of the teach­ er morale scores for secondary schools ranking low in pupil achievement •

The observed difference favored the group of

schools which ranked high in pupil achievement. The analysis of variance leading to the tests indicated above is summarised In Table 111. Analysis of individual Items

While ail the Individual items of the Opinion




flUBSBKfy o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e (3 uli C r o u p s W i t h i n G r o u p s D e s i g n )

Formulas For Su m s Of Squares 2 f 0

Source8 Achieve­ ment Croups



Degrees Of Freedom












362 *114 m.gsg


as o .rki 2,661

D e g r e e s o f F r e e d o h s 18,246 F .01