A Lebanon Defied: Musa al-Sadr And The Shi'a Community 0813383188, 9780813383187

Traces the emergence of the Shi'a community as part of the turbulent international conflicts that swept Lebanon in

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A Lebanon Defied: Musa al-Sadr And The Shi'a Community
 0813383188, 9780813383187

Table of contents :
Contents
List of Tables
Acknowledgments
Introduction
1. The Shi'a in Lebanese History
2. Shi'a Society by Numbers
3. Traditionalism and Revolution
4. Leader and Movement
5. Mythos and Praxis
Conclusion
Appendixes
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
About the Book and Author

Citation preview

A Lebanon Defied

A Lebanon Defied Musa al-Sadr and the Shi'a Community Majed Halawi

Westview Press BOULDER • SAN FRANCISCO • OXFORD

A ll rights reserved. N o part o f this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in w riting from the publisher. Copyright © 1992 by W estview Press, Inc. Published in 1992 in the United States o f Am erica by W estview Press, Inc., 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80301-2847, and in the United Kingdom by W estview Press, 36 Lonsdale Road, Summertown, Oxford 0X2 7EW

Library o f Congress Cataloging-in-Publkation Data Halawi, M ajed. A Lebanon defied : Musa al-Sadr and the Shi'a community / by M ajed Halawi. p. cm. Includes bibliographical références and index. ISBN0-8133-8318-8 1. Shi' ah— Lebanon— H istory— 20th century. 2. Sadr, Músa. 3. Lebanon— Politics and government— 1946- I. Title. BP192.7.L4H35 1992 322'. 1'095692— dc20

Printed and bound in the United States o f Am erica

©

The paper used in this publication meets the requirements o f the American National Standard for Permanence o f Paper for Printed Library M aterials Z39.48-1984.

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To Hala and 'Adnan

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Contents

U st o f Tables M aps A cknow ledgm ents

xv

Introduction Notes, 14 1

1

The Sh i'a in Lebanese H istory

19

Shi'ism in Lebanon, 29 N otes, 43 2

S h i'a Society b y N um bers Agriculture and the Shi'a Community, 52 Unequal Development and Relative Deprivation, 60 Exodus and Proletarianization, 68 Emigration Overseas and the Birth of a Shi'a Bourgeoisie, 74 mi

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The Persistence of Communal and Regional Links, 75 Notes, 77 Traditionalism and Revolution

82

Confessionalism and die Communal Balance of Power, 95 Nasirism and Arab Nationalism, 101 Alienation and Radicalism, 106 Notes, 114 Leader and M ovem ent

121

Notes, 157 M ythos and Praxis

163

N otes, 195 Conclusion

200

N otes, 216

A ppendix 1: Lineage o f the Txoelue Imams A ppendix 2: Kfarshuba and its M odem D ecline A ppendix 3: V Enquête p ar Sondage su r la Population A ctive au lib a n A ppendix 4: Lebanon during the C ivil War A ppendix 5: W ork C onditions at the G handur Factory G lossary Bibliography Index A bout the Book and A uthor

220

221 222 223 224 226 231 246 252

List of Tables

2.1

22 23

2.4

25

Lebanon: M ajor population groups in 1932 and estim ates for 1956,1975, and 1988 by religion South Lebanon: Average per capita income among tobacco growers in LL in 1972 Lebanon: Illiteracy rates, average income, indices of com fort, and distribution o f population and resident active population by sector of economy by region Lebanon: Educational status of w ife and husband, average fam ily income, husband's occupation, and w ife's work experience before and after m arriage by religious group in 1971 Lebanon: Mean yearly income by husband's occupation and religious group in 1971

50 59

62

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2.6 2.7

3.1 32 33

3.4 33

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A Lebanon D efied

Lebanon: Distribution of religious groups by district and d ty size in 1971 Lebanon: Percentage o f Lebanese among inhabitants of the bidonvilles and their districts of origin in 1973

Lebanon: M ajor Shi'a parliamentary families (1920-1972) Lebanon: Speakers of parliament (1943-1984) Lebanon: Distribution of class I civil service posts among the various communities (1946-1974) Lebanon: Patterns of cabinet membership by religious group (1943-1961) Lebanon: Qualitative distribution of dass I civil service posts by religious group in 1974 Lebanon: Religion and political alienation among university students in 1971

69

69

84 84

98 99

100 107

Lebanon and its Muhafazat

Source: Adapted from Thomas Cállelo, ed., Lebanon: A Country Study, Area Handbook Series (W ashington, D.C.: Government Printing Office for the Library of Congress, 1989).

Lebanon: Broad concentration of religious groups

a EE)

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M aronite Greek Orthodox Greek Catholic Mixed M aronite and G reek Catholic Shia Muslim Sunni Muslim Druze Mixed Druze and G reek Orthodox

Ropuktion shifts ceased by the June 1982 IsreeH inhesion ere not depicted.

Boundary raprasantation not naoaaaarily authoritative

Source: Adapted from Thomas Cállelo, ed., Lebanon: A Country Study, Area Handbook Series (W ashington, D.C.: Government Printing Office for the Library of Congress, 1989).

The Bidonvilles in the agglomeration of Beirut

Source: Adapted from Thomas Cállelo, ed., Lebanon: A Country Study, Area Handbook Series (W ashington, D.C.: Government Printing O ffice for the Library o f Congress, 1989).

Acknowledgments

Rarely Is a work requiring extensive research completed without the aid of friends and colleagues; this book is no exception. Initially, I wish to acknowledge the contributions of Diya Bhattacharya who devoted considerable time and energy to various drafts of the manuscript. I am greatly indebted to her. As it stands, A Lebanon D efied owes much to the suggestions of Profs. Lisa Anderson, Richard W. Bulliet, and Joseph Rothschild, who oversaw the doctoral dissertation that was its origin. Other professors who have commented on various chapters include Peter Awn, Gregory Gause, Mahmoud Haddad, and Mohamad Hammour. Prof. Michael M. J. Fischer's seminal works, Iran: From D ispute to Revolution and D ebating M uslim s, w ere invaluable references upon which I drew. His response to this book is particularly appreciated. Many o f the questions I had w hile researching this work were answered by people who prefer to remain anonymous. I can only thank them collectively for their candidness. Among those whose identity I need not conceal, I would like to thank Ahmad Ism a'il, Muhammad Sh'ayto, Sayyid Ja'far Sharaf al-Din, and Sayyida Rabab al-Sadr Sharaf alDin and Sayyid Husayn Sharaf al-Din for facilitating my research in Lebanon. His Excellency the late Kazim al-Khalil had valuable insights into Lebanese Shi'a history and politics. Talal Jaber graciously provided

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me w ith a copy o f his doctoral dissertation, a source of valuable inform ation to this book. Many thanks ate also due to Prof. Harpreet Mahajan and Stephen Sadoski of the SIPA computer lab at Columbia University, Prof. Halim Barakat for permission to publish Table 3.6 on p. 107, Cambridge University Press for permission to publish Tables 2.4-2.6 on pp. 64, 66, and 69 as well as the corresponding text, and to the Federal Research Division-Country Studies Program of the Library of Congress for permission to reproduce the maps on pp. xi-xiii. Sim ilarly, I would like to thank W estview Press for agreeing to publish this book, and Amos Zubrow in particular for his patience. M y friends Arianne Ateshian, Shirley Bé, Bob Cessna, Tayyeb el-H ibri, Bassam Ramadan, Sima Rawda Ramadan, Suha Sabbagh, Carla Chammas and Neguin Yavari were ever supportive. Randa Abousleiman, Sana Sabbagh and Khalid al-Yahya were w ith me all the way. Only I know what their friendship has meant over the years. The support of my family was crucial to this endeavor from its inception. I intruded on tiw space of my sisters with no com plaint from them. The moments I spent with my late cousin Ahmad in Lebanon provided a refuge from what often seemed to be an interminable project. They taught me much about myself. Ahmad is always with me. A last word about two special persons: my aunt, Hala Halawi, and uncle, 'Adnan Halawi. They have presented me with the most enduring o f all gifte, my education. For this, I am forever grateful.

AUTHOR'S NOTE In transliterating Arabic, I have relied on the system suggested by the International Journal o f M iddle East Studies while nonetheless elim inating diacritical marks and initial hamzas so as not to overburden the nonArabic speaker. Non-Western terms are italicized only once and are defined either in the text or in the glossary. All years prior to 1412 are followed by either C.E. (Common Era) or A.H. (After Hijra). In converting Islam ic dates to Common Era dates I have relied on G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville's The M uslim and C hristian C alendars (London: Oxford University Press, 1963). M ajed H alaw i

Introduction A ssum ing an ethnic identity is an insistence on a pluralist, m ultidim ensional or m ultifaceted concept o f self: one can be many differen t things. —Michael M. J. Fischer, W riting C ulture The w ork c f 60 years o f the Indian N ational Congress w as standing before us, fa ce to fa ce w ith centuries-old India o f narrow loyalties----- Som e c f the ablest men in the country cam e before us and confidently and em phatically stated that language in this country stood fo r and represented culture, race, history, individuality, and fin ally a sub-nation. —Jaw aharlal Nehru

h e "Su n n is are h om icid al and th e S h iite s are su icid a l/' Fou ad A jam i asserted b efo re th e C on g ression al Su bcom ­ m ittee on E u rope and th e M id d le E ast on 15 Ju ly 1985.1 O r a s D an iel B . D rooz p u t it le ss ju d icio u sly in th e A tlan ta Jou rn al an d C on stitu tion on 29 N ovem ber 1980: "W here th ere are S h i'ite s, th ere is tro u b le."2 T hey w ere rig h t ab ou t th e S h i'a , o f co u rse, a s far as A m erican m ed ia and cu ltu re w ere concerned .3 It is n o t a t a ll an ex ag g eratio n to say th at p rio r to th e Iran ian rev o lu tio n in 1979, q u estio n s ab ou t d ie S h i'a scarcely fig u red in A m erican p u b lic d isco u rse. S in ce th e Israeli in v asion o f Lebanon in Ju n e 1982, h ow ev er, an d th e su bsequ ent d efeat o f U .S. p o licy in th at cou n try , th e term s S h i'a an d S h i'ism h av e com e to ev o k e im ages th a t are

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p erceiv ed as a lie n , retrog rad e, an d g ratu ito u sly h o stile to W estern p o w er, in terests, an d valu es. A t th e cen ter o f th e reaction to th e trou blesom e S h i'a , a reactio n exacerb ated b y th e p ronou ncem ents o f exp erts lik e A jam i and D rooz, is th e lon g stan d in g attitu d e tow ard Islam , th e A rab s, and th e O rien t in g en eral th at Edw ard Said h as called O rien talism .4 A s a sch ool o f in terp retatio n , O rien talism sp eaks fo r an d rep resen ts —ev en creates—th e "O rien tal" a s an an ti-th esis, alw ays in th e lig h t o f W estern p o sitio n al su p eriority . A s dogm a, it p resen ts Islam as a d o ctrin al m on olith con stan tly th reaten in g W estern civ ilizatio n . A s a sy stem o f know led ge, O rien talism p erp etu ates W estern im p erialism in v ario u s stag es and form s. It also u n d erm in es the d issem in ation o f altern ativ e system s o f know led ge throu gh its hegem ony over m u ch o f w h at is said , tau ght, and p erceived ab ou t Islam ; an d b y rew ard in g a ll th ose w illin g to p rop ag ate its tru th s ab ou t th e O rien t, its p eo p les, an d cu ltu res. It w as th erefore irrelev an t fo r A jam i and D rooz to co n sid er w h at th e Iranian o r L ebanese S h i'a fe lt ab ou t A m erican p o licy in th e M id d le E ast, th eir h op es an d fru stratio n s, o r th eir asp iratio n s fo r th eir so cieties. N or d id th ey ch oose to qu estion th e leg itim acy o f th ose ch ro n iclers o f p o litical d ynam ics in th e M id d le E ast w h o, a s late as 1973, w ere b u sy elab oratin g on L eb an on 's exp erien ce o f m odern ization w ith ou t rev olu tion , w h ile con ven ien tly ig n o rin g th e p ro cess o f the m ob ilization th at cam e to occu p y th e h eart o f the S h i'a p rob lem atic in th e U nited States ju s t a d ecad e later.5 T he aim o f th eir d iscu ssio n o f S h i'a p ro cliv ities w as to rep resen t the S h i'a O th er a s a m alevolen t and u n th in kin g essen ce, w h ich in tu rn served to allev iate th e p u b lic's an xiety , con firm its self-rig h teo u s­ n ess, an d p rov id e th e p o litician s w ith a h ow -to gu id e to solv in g th e S h i'a rid d le con fou n d in g them .6 M y p u rp ose h ere is su b stan tially less am b itiou s. A lthou gh a g en eral critiq u e o f th e p arad igm s o f O rien talism is im p lied , m y im m ed iate ob jectiv e is to in volv e the read er in a p articu lar p hase in th e h isto ry o f the Lebanese S h i'a com m u nity and in the resp on se o f th is com m u nity to the ch allen g es it con fron ted in the d eterm in in g d ecad es o f th e six ties and seven ties. S p ecifically , I w an t to rep resen t th is resp on se as a cou n ter-text to red u ction ist n arrativ es o f th at h isto ry , and a s an altern ativ e in terp retatio n o f th e p assio n s and th e in terests behind S h i'a activ ism .

Introduction

3

O f cou rse/ to do so is n o t to claim th at th e acts th at fa ll u n d er th e ru bric o f "S h i'a terrorism /" su ch as d ie tak in g o f the W estern h o stag es o r th e h ijack in g o f th e TW A a irlin er in Ju n e 1985, are ju stifie d , o r to take the p o sitio n th at th ere is n o su ch th in g a s S h i'a terrorism a s su ch .7 H ow ever/ th ere is a larg er p o in t th at n eed s to b e m ad e and m ad e again . It is th a t w h en com p lex rea lities su ch as th e strateg ic u se o f terrorism are sim p listically in terp reted as fan aticism an d relig io u s h atred , it n o t o n ly d isp lay s "h isto rical ig n o ran ce, b u t b lo ck s access to reb u ild in g grou n d s fo r u n d erstan d ­ in g , b y essen tializin g , carto o n izin g , an d d istan cin g ."8 C learly , a t a tim e w h en to ta l w ar h as resu rfaced as a v iab le op tion in co n flict resolu tion , an d "sm art bom bs" in flict "near-ap ocalyp tic resu lts u p on th e econ om ic in frastru ctu re o f . . . a rath er h ig h ly u rban ized and m echanized society " tak in g it b ack to a "p re-in d u strial ag e,"9 m u tu al u n d erstan d in g am ong ad v ersaries is cru cial fo r su rv iv al. T o take th e longterm and m ore n u an ced p ersp ectiv e o n L eba­ n ese S h i'a so ciety m eans to sp eak from w ith in . I w ou ld lik e to argu e th at w h at h as b een called th e "S h i'a aw aken in g" in L eban on is b est u n d erstood in th e p o litica l sp ace b etw een m ovem ent and in ertia, stren g th an d w eakn ess, p riv ileg e and d ep riv ation , and th at it is first an d forem ost a stru g g le fo r eq u ality , and ag ain st w retch ­ ed n ess and ob liv ion .10 In d oin g so , I p resu m e th e n eed to p resen t th e S h i'a exp erien ce in Leban on from a S h i'a p ersp ectiv e a s fou nd in sou rces th at articu late th e p o sitio n o f th e S h i'a su b altern . I claim th e need to recogn ize th e d istin ctiv en ess o f th at v o ice an d its rig h t to b e h eard . I do n o t claim th at I rep resen t it. I am u sin g th e term "su baltern " h ere as a h eu ristic d ev ice, tak in g a s giv en th e th eo retical im p lication s en u n ciated b y G ram sd in th e P rison N otebooks and elab orated b y G u ha, Sp iv ak , an d oth ers in th e con text o f a rev isio n ist In d ian h istoriog rap h y. T h e p o litically an d in tellectu ally con n otativ e p ow er o f th e term m u st n o d ou bt m ake it cen tral to sim ilar stu d ies o f con tem p orary p o litica l m ov em en ts in th e M id d le E ast. T h ese u n d ertakin gs h ow ever m u st first ad d ress su ch th orn y issu es as th e su b altern 's tru e a b ility to "sp eak ,” th e d egree to w h ich su b altern m ov em en ts can b e seen a s au to n om ou s, and the accessib ility o f sou rces o f su b altern h isto ­ ry .11 I am ab le to acknow led ge b u t n o t ad d ress th ese con cern s. C on seq u en tly , I take a n arrow er and less critica lly in terp retiv e read in g o f th e term "su b altern ," a read in g w h ich I h op e is b road ­

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en ed in fu tu re in terp retatio n s o f L eban ese S h i'a and oth er p o liticiz­ atio n s. I u se th e term "su baltern " in tw o d istin ct b u t related w ays. T h e su b altem ity o f th e S h i'a w ith resp ect to th e larg er L eban ese so ciety is th e first p rem ise. W ith in th e S h i'a com m u nity in tu rn , the "m asses"—gen erally p o o r, d isenfranchised , and w ithou t a h isto rical­ ly recogn ized and record ed p o litical v o ice—d efin e a secon d id e n tifiab ly su b altern p op u lation .12 T h e la tter stan d s in ju x tap o sitio n to th e "d om inant" o r "elite" o f Leban ese S h i'a so ciety , i.e ., th e b ig lan d ed o r m erch an t fam ilies w h ose statu s w as larg ely estab lish ed d u rin g O ttom an tim es and w ho h av e com e to m on op olize the co m m u n ity 's p o litics in in d ep en d en t Leban on, an d th e m ajo r 'ulam a and say y id fam ilies. R ecen t sch olarsh ip o n th e su b ject cau tio n s th a t th e su b altern an d elite categ o ries are an yth in g b u t hom ogeneou s an d w atertig h t u n its. In fa ct, th ey are often h ig h ly stratified in tern ally , and m ay overlap co n sid erab ly su ch th at an elem en t o r a class m ay b e d om in an t in on e co n text b u t d om inated in an oth er. L eban ese h isto ry o ffers ap p rop riate exam p les. T ake fo r in stan ce th e segm en t o f th e em ergen t S h i'a b o u rg eo isie an d stu d en t p o p u latio n w h o, u n ab le to tran slate th eir n ew ly-acqu ired econ om ic an d ed u catio n al statu s in to so cio p o litical m o b ility w ith in th e sy stem , cam e to view th em selv es as d isen fran ch ised . O b v iou sly, su ch realities create d efin itio n al am b igu ities. "It is th e task o f research to in v estig ate, id en tify an d m easu re th e sp ecific n atu re and d egree o f th e d ev iation o f th ese elem en ts from th e id eal and situ ate it h isto rica lly ."13 In arg u in g th at th e p o sitio n o f th e S h i'a su b altern m u st b e in corp orated in to L eban ese S h i'a h isto rio g rap h y , I d o n o t d a id i th at su b altern an d e lite h isto ries are m u tu ally exclu siv e. A cknow l­ ed g in g th at th ese exp erien ces are in terd ep en d en t, th is w o rk fo cu ses sp ecifically o n th e co n stitu tiv e ro le o f th e S h i'a m asses in th e m ovem ent led b y Say yid M usa al-S ad r in L ebanon. It ad d ress­ es w h at th e recen t literatu re on S h i'a p o liticizatio n h as larg ely ov erlooked , n am ely, th at a n im p ortan t segm ent o f th ese m asses exp ressed its d issatisfactio n w ith th e statu s qu o in L eban on , b o th p rio r to th e ad v en t o f th e say yid an d d u ring th e p erio d o f h is ascen d an cy , in m od es th at w ere qu ite d istin ct an d ev en an tagon is­ tic to h is.14 In a n attem p t to co rrect a m ajor lacu n a in th e av ailab le acco u n ts o f th e m ov em en t, I th erefore m ake th e u n iq u e relatio n -

Introduction

5

sh ip b etw een M usa al-S ad r an d th e su b altern w ho cam e to view h im a s th eir im am a cen tral con cern o f m y research . I certain ly h op e th at b esid es record in g th e S h i'a v o ice in recen t L eban ese h isto ry , th is w o rk w ill a lso call in to q u estion th e receiv ed w isd om o f m em bers o f th e L ebanese acad em ic estab lish m en t and e lite , an d rem ind d iem o f d ie n o t-so -co sm op olitan L eban on w h ich th ey so o ften om it from th eir ro m an tid zatio n o f d ays p ast. O ne o f th e d istu rb in g b y-p ro d u cts o f the recen t Leban ese co n flict h as b een th e em ergen ce o f a kin d o f "sch olarsh ip in ex ile” th at h as u n criti­ ca lly rep rod u ced and g lo rified v ario u s asp ects o f p re-1975 L ebanon, h i its in terp retatio n s, th is sch olarsh ip h as n o t on ly o b literated d ie im p act o f n early tw o d ecad es o f civ il w ar on th e cou n try , b u t h as effectiv ely leg itim ized th e p articu lar p ow er stru ctu res th at w ere th e sou rce o f th at co n flict in th e first p lace. Sam ir K h alaf, fo r in stan ce, from h is p o sitio n a s a v isitin g p ro fesso r o f sociolog y a t P rin ceton , w rites: Ras-Beirut, this once vibrant, mixed, and open suburban communi­ ty in W est B eiru t. . . was, albeit on a much more modest scale, the closest the Arab W orld could ever get to having its own "Green­ wich Village," 'L atin Quarter," or perhaps a "Bloomsbury Group" or a "Vienna Circle." By virtue of such openness, it engendered sentiments of trust, mutual respect, and deference to pluralistic life-styles. . . . Ras-Beirut stands today at the edge of a historic watershed. Refugees and displaced groups from other warring areas, in progressively large numbers, are converging on it and expediting its demise. The demographic preponderance o f Shi'ites, compounded by the often assertive and intim idating behavior associated with dislodged groups, is . . . beginning to provoke . . . apprehensions among Sunnis and other threatened minorities. If uncontained, and the recent escalation of chaos and violence in the area indicates that they have already become both rampant and irreversible, then toe entire community m ight perish. Such an eclipse is grievous and lamentable. It heralds the end of the last bastion or oasis of liberalism in a region seething with dogmatism and intolerance. Lebanon w ill lose its one and only viable example of successful pluralism. The Arab world w ill also have to live without its coveted safety valve.15

K h alafs terminology describing the S h fa "harbingers of . . . disquieting transform ations" and their cataclysm ic im pact on his

6

A Lebanon D efied

b elo v ed R as-B eiru t is, a t th e v ery lea st, p atro n izin g .16 It is a v oice exp ressin g a sen se o f su p erio rity ov er th e m asses o f th at com m uni­ ty , a su p erio rity n u rtu red b y an d reflectiv e o f th e so cio p o litical ord er in p re-civ il w ar Lebanon. Fu rtherm ore, K h a la fs claim th at R as-B eiru t w as th e "on ly v iab le exam p le o f su ccessfu l p lu ralism " in d ie co u n try is u nfou nd ed and sim p listic. It is d ie resu lt o f h is refu sal to qu estion : (1) the co n trib u tio n o f R as-B eiru t's "liberalism " to a so ciety th at w as p ractically a t w ar w ith itself, (2) th e seed s o f th e stu d en t rad icalism th at en g u lfed R as-B eiru t in th e early sev en ties, and (3 ) th e p o sitio n an d ro le o f an A m erico-p hile su b u rb an cu ltu re in d ie fab ric o f th e larg er Su n n i B eiru ti society . O ne w on d ers how the class cleav ag es th at fed th e L ebanese civ il w ar co u ld h av e b een a s d iv isiv e o r d eterm in in g in th eir im p act on L eban ese so ciety if R as-B eiru t w ere a s lib eral an d in clu sion ary as K h alaf su gg ests. Isn 't it m ore lik ely th at, lik e p re-civ il w ar L eban on itse lf, R as-B eiru t too con tain ed th e seed s o f its ow n d estru ction . K h alaf, it seem s, w ould have p ro fited from u sin g th e cav eat th at "th e L eban ese n ev er seem to lea rn from th eir h isto ry " to in form h is ow n stu d y .17 A L eban on D efied is a sto ry o f u p h eav al w h ich traces an d in terp rets th e tran sform ation o f a larg e segm en t o f th e Leban ese S h i'a m asses in to a rev olu tion ary force dem anding a ch an ge in th e statu s qu o. It co n trasts th e socioeconom ic co n d itio n s am ong th e S h i'a in Ja b al 'A m il, th e B a'lab ak -al-H irm il reg io n , an d in th e su b u rb s o f B eiru t to th at o f th e oth er m ajor Leban ese co n fessio n al grou p s, n o tab ly th e Su n n is an d M aronites; b u t it is n o t strictly a sto ry ab o u t th e com m u n ity 's relatio n to th e larg er Leban ese m o saic.18 It also exam in es d ie lead ersh ip an d p o litical cu rren ts w ith in th e com m u nity a s it w as absorbed in to th e Leban ese R ep u blic th rou g h years o f im m ense p o litical u p h eav al in th e reg io n al as w ell in tern atio n al aren as; and y et it is n o t m y in ten tio n , a t least d irectly , to p resen t a w o rk o f p o litica l h isto ry . M y fo cu s in stead is on p ro cess. O n th e one h an d , th ere is th e p o litica l lead ersh ip o f Sayyid M usa al-S ad r, w h ich drew u p on S h i'ism as a rev olu tion ary p arad igm in ord er to p rov oke th e tran sform ation o f th e S h i'a m asses in to a self-co n scio u s and p o litically articu late grou p .19 O n th e o th er h an d , th ere is th e exp erien ce o f m od ern­ izatio n w h ich the S h i'a com m u nity u nd erw ent in n early th ree

Introduction

7

d ecad es o f L eban ese in d ep en d ence. T h e d ynam ic in teractio n b etw een th e tw o is th e p rim ary co n cern o f th is stu d y. In exp lo rin g th e in terp lay b etw een lead er and led , b etw een cata ly st an d com m u n ity, th e literatu re o n p o liticized eth n icity and eth n ic m o b ilizatio n ö fters a n u m ber o f co g en t m od els. A m ong th ese, I fin d Josep h R o th sch ild 's an aly sis o f th e p o liticizatio n o f eth n icity p articu larly u sefu l an d take h is d efin itio n o f "eth n icity ” as m y p o in t o f d ep artu re. H e w rites: The terms ethnic and ethnicity are used generically . . . to refer to the political activities of complex collective groups whose member­ ship is largely determined by real or putative ancestral inherited ties, and who perceive these ties as system atically affecting their place and fate in the political and socioeconomic structures of their state and society.20 E th n icity , in th e co n text o f R o th sch ild 's w o rk and m in e, is p artly ascrib ed and p a rtly v o litio n al, situ atio n al, an d strateg ic. E thnic b o u n d aries, I b eliev e, are flex ib le, sp atially an d tem p orally flu id , an d p erm eab le.21 E th n ic grou p s can b e seen a s in volv ed in m an ip u latin g th eir eth n ic id en tity in ord er to ad v an ce th eir strateg ic g o als, o r as M cK ay an d L ew in s su g g est, o f assem b lin g an d d issem b lin g th eir id en tity .22 N elso n K asfir o u tlin es th e im p licatio n s o f th is ap p roach fo r p o litical an aly sis: First, the relationship between traditional culture and ethnicity is em pirical and variable, rather than definitional and constant. Second, identifying someone as a member of an ethnic category at a particular time and in a particular place does not mean that, for political purposes, he w ill continue to hold that identity in other places and at other times. Again, this question must be described em pirically. Third, if categories are fluid, identity may shift dram atically not only from one ethnic category to another, but from ethnicity to class or religion. Fourth, and most important, by accepting that the identities people assume are both multiple and interm ittent, the researcher m ust consider the situation that activates the particular identity the individual chooses.23

8

A Lebanon D efied

E th n ic m o b ilizatio n , d efin ed a s "th e p ro cess b y w h ich a grou p org an izes alo n g eth n ic lin es in p u rsu it o f grou p en d s,"24 is n o t sim p ly th e b y -p ro d u ct o f an teced en t in con g ru ities th at som ehow p rov oke renew ed eth n ic self-id en tificatio n an d organ ization . A cco rd in g to R oth sch ild , eth n ic m o b ilizatio n m u st b e seen in the co alescen ce o f: (1) a lead ersh ip w ith th e a b ility an d d ie in cen ­ tiv e—r e lig io u s , econ om ic, so cial o r p o litic a l-to m o b ilize th e grou p alo n g eth n ic lin es as com p ared to m o b ilizatio n alo n g som e oth er b o u n d aries, o r in activ ity , and (2) th e p ro cess o f m od ern ization w h ich ten d s to in ten sify in tereth n ic com p etition o v er valu ed reso u rces in m ost con tem p orary so cieties, th u s g en eratin g a n d /o r exacerb atin g sy stem s o f stru ctu red in tereth n ic in eq u ality . T h ereaf­ te r, th e eth n ic m ark ers "are n o lon g er sim p ly 'd ie w ay w e do th in g s' o r 'th e w ay w e a re ,' b u t are ap p reciated as u n iqu ely p recio u s, b in d in g th o se w ho sh are th em in to a sp ecial com m u nity p u rsu in g co llectiv e goals."25 O b v io u sly , th e p ro cess b y w h ich an eth n ic grou p ev olv es from a su b p op u lation o f in d iv id u als w ith a shared corp u s o f eth n ic m ark ers, th rou g h m o b ilizatio n , in to an em ergen t an d p o liticized co llectiv e, is n o t a d eterm in ate one. T h e u se o f eth n icity fo r th e p u rp oses o f m o b ilizatio n req u ires tran sform ation s a t th e in d iv id u al an d grou p lev els. T h e m od el u n d er rev iew h ere su gg ests th at th ese tran sform ation s are in larg e p art a resp on se to th e exig en cies o f m od ern ization . T h e v ario u s so cial p ro cesses th a t fall u n d er th e ru bric o f "m od ernization" p rom ote h eightened lev els o f ethnic self-id en tifica­ tio n . U rb an ization d eep ens eth n ic so lid arity b y exp osin g the eth n ically u n ev en d istrib u tio n o f reso u rces in m ost p lu ralistic so cieties, and b y p ro v id in g so cial aren as w h ere com p etition fo r v alu ed co llectiv e good s su ch as em p loym ent, ed u catio n , serv ices, e tc ., is m ore in ten se th an in ru ral areas, "and w h ere d aily encou n­ ters activ ate co llectiv e rep resen tation s o f se lf and oth er, w e and th ey ."26 U rb an izatio n also en h an ces th e creatio n o f eth n ic en clav es —fam ily asso ciatio n s, so cial clu b s, e tc —w h ich h elp resettle new m ig ran ts, and th u s p rom o te eth n ic alleg ian ce.27 T h e sp read o f ed u catio n creates n ew strata su scep tib le to p o liticizatio n . M od em m ed ia, in frastru ctu ral d evelop m ent, an d o th er exp and ed n etw orks o f com m u nication in ten sify "aw areness o f so cial com p etition w ith in n atio n al an d reg io n al aren as."25

Introduction

9

M od ern ization th erefo re "co n trib u tes to th e rap id d estru ctio n o f p o litica l ap ath y an d iso latio n ."29 It also fo sters th e ero sio n o f trad itio n al p o litica l ties, and g en erates an eth n ically co n scio u s lead ersh ip w ith a n in terest in m o b ilizin g eth n icity in to p o litica lly u sab le cu rren cies "fo r th e p u rp ose o f alterin g or rein fo rcin g . . . sy stem s o f stru ctu red in eq u ality b etw een and am on g eth n ic categ o ries."30 O n th e attitu d in al lev el, th e su ccess o f th a t lead er­ sh ip im p lies its ab ility to p rom ote th e "em ergence o f an eth n ic dom ain o f p o litica l relev an ce—i.e ., th e co n so lid atio n o f th e b e lie f th at eth n ic id en tity is a relev an t and ap p rop riate co n sid eratio n fo r p o litica l b eh av io r.'01 O n th e in stitu tio n al and b eh av io ral lev els, it d ep end s on: (1) th e sym bolism s, m y th olo g ies, and th e m aterial and h u m an resou rces o f th e eth n ic grou p , (2) th e d egree o f organ iza­ tio n al and in stitu tio n al so p h isticatio n , in clu d in g th e cap acity to su stain a certain lev el o f leg itim acy fo r th e id ea o f eth n ic p o liticiza­ tio n , th e existen ce o f in form ation n etw o rk s, form al org an ization s, e tc ., an d (3) con sen su s w ith in th e grou p on th e n atu re o f th e go als b ein g sou gh t, th e altern ativ e m eans b y w h ich to ad d ress th em an d , m ore sp ecifically , on p roceed in g to form u late, articu late, an d p u rsu e p o litical d em and s in th e nam e o f eth n ic su rv iv al an d w elfare.32 T h e m o d el o f eth n ic m o b ilizatio n p resen ted ab ov e y ield s a stron g g en eral fram ew ork th at I have u tilized in th is stu d y o f L eban ese S h i'a p o liticizatio n . H ow ever, fo u r sp ecific q u alificatio n s a re in o rd er h ere. In th e first p lace, I con cu r th at altern ativ e lin es o f cleav ag e and o f so lid arity are in d eed o p tio n ally av ailab le in m o st tran sitio n al (m od ernizing) an d m o d em m u ltieth n ic states. M y assu m p tion h ere is th at "p sy ch olog ically , eth n icity h a s one ad v an tag e o v er o th er m od es o f p erson al id en tity and o f so cial lin k ag e, n am ely , its cap acity to arou se an d to en g age th e m o st in ten se, d eep , and p riv ate em otio n al sen tim en ts."33 In th is sen se, resu rg en t eth n ic id en tificatio n can b e se en as a retreat in to th e "H ou se o f M u um bi," an d an affirm atio n o f a certa in cu ltu ral id en tity th at th e fo rces o f m od ern ization th reaten to co n sig n to ob liv ion .34 H ow ever, in ord er to av oid ch arges o f ov ersim p lificatio n an d ro m an tid zatio n , I m u st em p hasize th at "th e em otio n al p o ten cy o f th e eth n ic b on d " can n o t b e d isengaged from its u se in "hard in terest-lev erag e. N eith er is a m ere ep ip henom enon o f th e o th er,

10

A Lebanon D efied

an d n eith er fu n ctio n s alo n e." In d eed , "th e p o litica l g en iu s o f eth n icity . . . lie s p recisely in its a b ility to com bine em otio n al su sten an ce w ith calcu lated strateg y ."35 O r, as B arbara L ai argu es, eth n icity is b o th a "gen u in e cu ltu re" and a "stratificatio n p henom e­ n o n .'06 A second p o in t th a t I realize is self-ev id en t and yet th at I th in k w o rth em p h asizin g is th at m em bers o f an eth n ic grou p do n o t react m o n o lith ically to relev an t issu es. P eop le m ay stress d ifferen t asp ects o f th e sam e eth n ic id en tity , u nd erstand k ey elem en ts in v ary in g —ev en op p osing—w ay s, and g en erally p ro ject th e id io sy n cra d e s o f th eir ow n exp erien ces d irectly onto th e eth n ic p lan e. S im ilarly , d ifferin g cu ltu ral co n texts can p rov oke d ifferin g reactio n s in th e nam e o f th e sam e eth n ic id en tity . Stu d y in g w h at sh e ca lls a "cu ltu re acq u isitio n p ro cess” am ong Iran ian s in the U n ited S tates, D iane H offm an observ es th at som e re ly "u p on an ad ap tiv e strateg y th a t m ig h t b e called cu ltu ral eclecticism , in w h ich th e learn er co n sd o u sly p ick s an d ch ooses w h at h e o r sh e p erceiv es to b e self-con son an t v alu es p resen t in th e oth er [A m erican] cu ltu re, ad d in g them o n to form a n ew and id eally im p roved v ersio n o f se lf." O th ers ten d to v iew th eir cro ss-cu ltu ral exp erien ce a s a th reat to th eir cu ltu ral self-id en tity .37 T h ird , in th e co n text o f th is stu d y, I fin d it fu tile to ad d ress th e d ebate o v er w h eth er u n iv ersal h isto ry is th e "biog rap h y o f g reat m en ," o r if so cial an d p o litical change is th e resu lt "o f th e aggre­ g ate o f co n d itio n s.'08 A s I see it, th e g en eral q u estio n s th at u n d erg ird th e d ebate are q u ite sim p ly, W h at is p o litica l lead ersh ip , W ho lead s, an d W hy do w e follow ? G iven th e ch oice o f u n d ertak­ in g a d etailed d iscu ssio n o f th e top ic an d record in g th e n atu re o f th e assu m p tion s th at I b rin g to b ea r o n th e su b ject o f lead ersh ip , I op t fo r tiie latter. L ead ersh ip , I fe el, ca n b e exp lain ed o n ly b y th e con ju n ction o f th e n atu re o f th e lead er, th e g rou p , an d o f th e issu es con fron tin g th e group.39 T o b e su re, th e lead er m u st p ro ject th at "q u ality o f a p erson th at p asses fo r som ething ou tsid e th e ev ery­ d ay " th at W eb er h as d efin ed as C harism a.40 H ow ever, one m u st ag ree th a t ch arism atic ap p eal can n ot becom e th e b a sis o f co llectiv e actio n u n less it is p erceiv ed , in v ested w ith m ean in g, an d acted u pon b y th o se w ho resp on d to th is ap p eal. T h e lead er, in a d ialectical w ay , th erefo re, is created b y th e grou p and in tu rn com m ands on th e b a sis o f h is new ly-accord ed leg itim acy . F in ally , w e follo w p resum ­

Introduction

II

ab ly b ecau se th e lead er is ab le to articu late a relev an t m essage: one th at sp eaks to o u r u n fu lfilled n eed s an d o ffers u s som e p rom ise o f ev en tu al realizatio n .41 In th eir d iscu ssio n o f lead ersh ip , P eter W o rsley an d Sid n ey H ook ag ree th at w ith ou t satisfy in g som e in d iv id u al an d grou p in terests th e lead er can n ot in flu en ce the h isto rical ev en ts.42 A ccord in g to W orsley: . . . . The analysis of charismatic authority has to be interactionist: one in which followers w ith possibly utopian or at least diffuse and unrealized aspirations cleave to an appropriate leader because he articulates and consolidates their aspirations. He then specifies and narrows these aspirations converting them both into more concrete and visible goals towards whose achievement collective action can be oriented and organized, and into beliefe which can be validated by reference to experience.43 H ook ad v an ces th e p o in t in ob serv in g th at th e lead er . . . always retains a considerable degree of freedom in choosing which interests to further and which to suppress or weaken. The behavior of most historical figures in relation to political and social issues can be explained in terms of the interests that speak through them. But there are individuals in history who not only talk about but react in such a way as to modify the original relations of social interest in a radical way.44 C learly , a fu nd am ental asp ect o f th e lead er-led relation sh ip is th e ab ility o f th e form er to d raw u p on th e cu ltu ral u n iv erse o f th e la tter, in clu d in g its recu rren t th em es, id eals, v alu es, fan tasies, im ag ery , sy m b ols, m y th s an d legend s.45 In th is relatio n sh ip , th e p o litica l fu n ctio n o f trad itio n al b eh av io rs u n d erg oes ren ew al and red efin itio n . A s w ith th e u se o f th e v e il d u rin g th e A lg erian stru g g le fo r lib eratio n , trad itio n al stru ctu res an d in stitu tio n s take on ad d ed d im ensions. W ith in th is co n text, the lead er h im self b ecom es a p ro jectio n , a sym bol. T h is d oes n o t m ean th at th e lead er m an ip u lates th e b iases o f h is com m u nity to h is ow n end s. R ath er, th e im age b ecom es a n in teg ral p art o f th e lead er-led relatio n sh ip , w ith o u t w h ich th e fo rm er's ran k is seriou sly in d ou bt an d h is lead ersh ip in jeo p ard y . A fo u rth and fin al cav eat atten d s m y u se o f th e R oth sch ild ean m o d el. A s M . C raw ford Y ou ng n o tes, m an y p o litician s fin d the

12

A Lebanon D efied

eth n ic rou te th e su rest an d sw iftest w ay to estab lish a con stitu en ­ cy .46 T h u s, p o litica l in terest m ay b e seen a s occu rrin g on tw o d istin ct lev els th at are n o t n ecessarily con gru en t: (1) th e instru m en­ ta l g o als o f th e grou p , an d (2 ) th e am b ition s o f th e lead ersh ip itse lf. H ow ever, w h at th e situ atio n al eth n icity m od el cou ld take m ore p rom in en tly in to accou n t is th at in an ag e o f h eig h ten ed p o litica l co n scio u sn ess, in effectiv e eth n ic lead ers can b e , and ind eed a re, co n stan tly rep laced . T h e ro le o f ex tern al in terv en tio n in th e p o liticizatio n o f eth n icity is cen trally im p o rtan t to m y th esis h ere an d as su ch I feel d eserv es a d ig ression ary n ote. It seem s larg ely self-ev id en t th at, w h ile lead ersh ip an d m od ern ization are th e v ariab les on w h ich eth n ic m o b ilizatio n d ep en d s, o th er in terv en in g v ariab les m ay p lay an im p o rtan t ro le as feed b acks to eth n ic strateg ies. T h e m ost im p or­ tan t am ong th ese v ariab les fo r m y p u rp oses h ere o ccu r on the d om estic, reg io n al, and in tern atio n al lev els. O n th e n atio n al fro n t, th e leg itim atio n an d in stitu tio n alizatio n o f eth n icity in p o litics "in creases th e lev el o f eth n ic m o b ilizatio n am ong a ll eth n ic grou p s, . . . [both] am ong th o se p rev iou sly m ob ilized as w ell a s am ong th ose w ho m o b ilize fo r th e first tim e in resp on se to th e p o liticizatio n o f eth n icity ." It also "d eterm in es th e bou n d aries alo n g w h ich eth n ic m o b ilizatio n a n d /o r co n flict w ill o ccu r b y settin g dow n th e ru les fo r p o litica l p articip atio n an d p o litica l access."47 In term s o f in terstate relatio n s a s w ell, th e ev id en ce in d icates th a t th e m u ltieth n ic ch aracter o f m ost contem p orary so cieties h as itse lf b een in stru m en tal in th e em ergence o f p o liticized eth n icity . In g en eral, eth n ic grou p s are relu ctan t to rely on d ecisiv e ex tern al in terv en tio n u n less o r u n til th ey are in extrem is (m ilitarily and p o litica lly ), o r w hen th e situ atio n is view ed a s zero-su m , and th erefo re seen as p reclu d in g coop eration . Fu rth erm ore, one cou ld co n ceiv e o f m an y scen ario s w h ere it w ou ld b e m ost irratio n al and cou n ter-p rod u ctiv e fo r co n flictin g eth n ic grou p s to seek extra­ n atio n al h elp , esp ecially w h en th e d isso lu tio n o f th e state is n o t a t issu e. A s R othschild in d icates, ex tern al in terven tion in n atio n al p o litics is m ost o ften con sid ered b y eth n ic grou p s in m u ltieth n ic states a s a p o licy -in p u t th a t is in ten d ed to h ave a d efin itiv e im p act. T h is is u su ally th e case in co u n tries o f h isto ric im m igration lik e th e U nited

Introduction

13

S ta tes w h ose organ ized eth n ic grou ps o ften seek to in flu en ce gov ern m en tal p o licies in fav o r o f "th e m oth er cou n try ," o r w h ere eth n ic grou p s are au to ch th on ou s, as in th e case o f th e M aron ite C h ristian s in L eban on w ho h av e alw ays p ressed fo r a less-p an A rab an d m ore p ro-W estern face fo r th e cou n try.48 In m u ch o f th e T h ird W orld in p articu lar, th e in terstate im p act o f p o liticized eth n icity u su ally p resen ts itse lf in th e gu ise o f rev iv alist id eo lo g ies th at seek to erad icate "v estig es o f co lo n ialism " an d create—o r recreate—lo y alties b ey o n d th e n atio n -state b y cap italizin g on eth n ic cleav ag es in targ et so cieties. T h u s, A rab N ation alism ap p ealed to th e A rab sen sitiv ity tow ard th e lo n g aw aited dream o f A rab p o litical u n ity , an d in th e p ro cess, created a p o w erfu l m ovem ent th a t d eleg itim ized the co lo n ial d iv isio n o f th e A rab w o rld in to in d ep en d en t and so v ereig n en tities an d led to d estab ilizatio n in th e p ro-W estern A rab states. T h is stu d y o f lead ersh ip an d com m u nity in th e L eban ese S h i'a co n text is b ased on th e foreg oin g m od el and its elab o ratio n alon g th e lin es in d icated . H ow ever, w h ile I have p ro fited from m y read in g s in th e p o litica l scien ce literatu re on eth n ic m o b ilizatio n , th e com p u lsion to w rite th e stu d y o f th e S h i'a m ovem ent led b y M u sa al-S ad r is a p erso n al one. It is n ecessarily m ed iated b y th e p o litica l ag en cy w h ich I rep resen t. A s Said h as n oted , "n o on e h as ev er d evised a m eth od fo r d etach in g th e sch o lar from th e circu m ­ stan ces o f life , from th e fact o f h is in volv em en t (con sciou s o r u n co n scio u s) w ith a class, a set o f b elie fs, a so cial p o sitio n , o r from th e m ere activ ity o f b ein g a m em ber o f a so ciety ."49 I b rin g to b ea r d irectly on th e top ic m y exp erien ces a s a stu d en t in th e U n ited S tates o v er th e p a st d ecad e. H ere, a s a Leban ese and a S h i'a , I acqu ired fo r th e first tim e th e exp erien ce o f b ein g a stereoty p ed an d m u ch m aligned O ther. A s th e w ar in L eban on p ro g ressed an d A m erica's en cou n ter w ith terro r in ten sified , I co n fro n ted th e co n so lid atio n o f a M anichean v isio n o f u s, th e W est, th e altru istic an d freed om -lovin g , v ersu s th em , th e sin ister, zealo u s, an d b lo o d th irsty .50 It w as b ew ild erin g to w atch th e p ro liferatio n o f su ch sim p le-m in d ed d ich otom ies as th ey acqu ired th e au th o rity o f tru th b y th e sh eer p ow er o f rep etitio n .51 M y research exp erien ce in Leban on fu rth er con v in ced m e o f th e d ire ex ig en cies o f th e S h i'a stru g g le. I en cou n tered a n elab orate w eb o f stereoty p es and in to leran ce th at had su cceed ed in n early

14

A Lebanon D efied

o b literatin g its civ il and p o litical in stitu tio n s an d con tin u ed to w reak h avoc in th e cou n try. T h ere w ere m an y w ho sp oke o f S h i'ism a s a n ab erran t m an ifestation o f Islam , and w h o red u ced th e S h i'a to a m illio n p ow er-h u n gry av en g ers, com p arin g th eir in flu x in to B eiru t to th e M ongol in v asion o f Baghdad . M any o f the ch aracteristics attrib u ted to th e S h i'a w ere d ehu m anizing; som e w ere ev en m u tu ally exclu siv e. H ow ever, th is in n o w ay a ltered the u tility o f flie se clich és. T h ey fu lfilled a n em otio n al fu n ctio n fo r the p eo p le w ho h eld th em , and ju stifie d th eir failu re to com e to term s w ith th e d eterm in ation o f th e h ith erto "m argin al" m asses to ex ert a n in flu en ce on th e co u n try 's p o litica l eq u atio n an d to b e a m ajor p articip an t in a sh arp ly reform ed L eban ese p o lity . A L eban on D efied b rin g s tog eth er m y p erson al co n v ictio n s an d acad em ic com m itm ents. M y p o litical an d in tellectu al con cern s are th ere in th e an aly sis an d d escrip tion o f th e rise o f th e S h i'a com m u n ity to th e cen ter o f p o litical life in L ebanon. I view m y in terp retatio n o f S h i'a p o liticizatio n a s an attem p t to w rest co n tro l o f th is p h ase in S h i'a h isto ry from its scrib es an d cu rato rs, O rien talist and o th ers, an d to p resen t th e sp ecifically S h i'a p ersp ectiv e on th eir ow n stru ggle fo r a p lace in h isto ry .521 w ou ld lik e to th in k th at m y em p ath y tow ard S h i'a so cio p o litical asp ira­ tio n s an d cu ltu ral sen sitiv ities h a s com p elled th e stu d y a t hand an d em pow ered m e to u n d ertake it w ith in sig h t. A long th e w ay , I h av e tried to m eet th e stan d ard s o f a critica l in q u iry , con vin ced o f th e u rg en t need to p rod u ce an accou n t w h ich th e S h i'a com m u­ n ity itse lf w ou ld con sid er a n ad equ ate rep resen tatio n o f its m o d em exp erien ce in Leban on. T h at co n sid eratio n is o f fu nd am ental im p o rtan ce b ecau se it is how th e S h i'a th em selves en d u re, and th u s d efin e p o litica l actio n . If P au l Fried rich is rig h t, an d "all rep resen tatio n is m isrep resen tation —b u t th ere is tru th in som e m isrep resen tatio n ,'63 th en th at tru th m u st b e S h i'a .

N O T ES 1. Congress, House, Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Europe and the M iddle East, Islam ic Fundam entalism and Islam ic R adicalism : H earings before the Subcom m ittee on Europe and the M iddle East o f the Com m ittee on Foreign A ffairs, 99th Cong., 1st sess., 24 June, 15 July, and 30 September 1985,154.

Introduction

15

2. Quoted in Edward W . Said, Covering Islam (New York: Random House, 1961), 81. 3. According to S. Husain M. Jafri, The O rigins and Early D evelopm ent c f Shi'a Islam (New York and Beirut: Longman Group Ltd and Librairie du Liban, 1979), 2, the term Shi'a, in its literal meaning, designates followers, party, group, association, partisans, or supporters. It can be used as an adjective or as a noun, and applies equally to singular and plural numbers as w ell as the masculine and feminine genders. I n these meanings the word Shi'a occurs a number of tim es in the Qur'an. In its applied meaning as a particular designation for the followers of 'A li [Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law] and the people of his house, and thereby a distinct denomination within Islam against the Sunni, the term Shi'a w as a later usage. In foe infant years of Islam ic history, one cannot speak of . . . Sunna and . . . Shi'a, but rather only of two ill-defined points of view that were nevertheless drifting steadily . . . ap art" A t the death of the Prophet Muhammad, "foe events which took place during . . . [his] lifetim e . . . in favor of 'A li led to the crystallization of a point of view concerning the succession to the leadership of the community in w hich a number of Muhammad's companions felt that 'A li was foe m ost suitable person to keep the covenant in tact In the heated debates . . . right after the Prophet's death, these companions did not hesitate to voice their opinions. The resulting disagreement marks the beginning of what w as eventually to develop into a permanent a division of the Umma between Sunni and Shi'a also Hassan al-Amin, Islam ic SU 'ite Encydopeadia (n.p.: a d .), 1 :1 . 4. Edward W . Said, O rientalism (New York: Random House, 1978). 5. M odernization w ithout Revolution: Lebanon's Experience is actually Elie Adib Salem 's book, w hich was published by Indiana University Press in 1972. 6. Said, Covering Islam , 8. 7. See Edward W . Said, The Q uestion o f P alestine (New York: Vintage Book, 1979), x. 8. M ichael M. J. Fischer and Mehdi Abedi, D ebating M uslim s: C ultural D ialogue in Postm odem ity and Tradition (M adison, W I: The University of W isconsin Press, 1990), xxii. 9. United Nations, Security Council, R eport to the Secretary-G eneral on H um anitarian N eeds in Kuwait and Iraq in the Im m ediate Post-C risis Environ­ m ent, S/22366 (20 March 1991), 5. 10. Thom Sicking and Shereen Khairallah, "The Shi'a Awakening in Lebanon," V ision and Revision in A rab S ociety-1974, no. 2, Center for the Study of the M odem Arab W orld-Saint Joseph's University (Beirut: Dar

16

A Lebanon D efied

al-M ashreq, 1974), 97-130; and Marc Yared, "Le Réveil du Chiisme Libanais," L 'O rien t-L e Jour (Beirut), 1 9 ,2 1 ,2 3 , and 26 March 1974. 11. See Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, "Can the Subaltern Speak?" in M arxism and the Interpretation o f C ulture, ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 271-313. 12. Ranajit Guha and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, eds., Selected Subaltern Studies, w ith a foreword by Edward W. Said (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988). 13. Ibid., 44. 14. Ibid., v-x. 15. Sam ir Khalaf, Lebanon's Predicam ent (New York: Columbia Universi­ ty Press, 1987), 261-92. 16. Ibid., 264 17. Ibid., 265. 18. Jabal 'Am il today is divided between the m uhafaza o f Sayda and the muhafaza of al-Nabatiyya (see Map 1). H istorically, however, and according to Ahmad Rida in "al-Shi'a aw al-M atawila fi Jabal 'Am il" [The Shi'a or the Matawila in Jabal /Amil], d -Irfa n 2, no. 5 (Jtity 1910): 237-42, Jabal 'Am il covered an area of 3,200 km2—80 kms long and 40 kms wide—between the Biqa' valley and the M editerranean. It extended from "the Awwali river north of S id o n . . . to die south of the village of al-Zib," including many villages that were given to Palestine by international agreements. Under this delim itation, Jabal 'Am il included parts of the Palestinian Galilee as w ell as the m ajor southern centers of Jizzin and Sidon, both of which were excluded from less extensive definitions. See also Chibli M allat, SM'i Thought from the South o f Lebanon, Papers on Lebanon, no. 7 (Oxford: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1988), 3. 19. According to Barbara Kellerman, ed., in Leadership: M ultidisciplinary Perspectives (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984), 71, "political leadership implies some kind of partisan (or ideological) leadership, a personal push for particular changes in group goals, activities, or stru ctu re.. . . [It also suggests] an ongoing struggle for control among competing individuals who have différent notions of w hat should be done and how, and who should get what and why.” 20. Joseph Rothschild, Etim opolitics (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981), 9. 21. Frederick Barth, "Introduction," in Ethnic Groups and Boundaries, ed. Frederick Barth (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1969), 9-38; and Joane Nagel, "The Political Construction of Ethnicity," in C om petitive Ethnic R elations, ed. Susan Olzak and Joane Nagel (Orlando, FL: Academic Press, 1986), 95.

Introduction

17

22. Jam es McKay and Frank Lewins, "Ethnicity and the Ethnic Group: A Conceptual Analyste and Reform ulation/' Ethnic and R acial Studies \, no. 4 (October 1978): 412-27. 23. Nelson Kasfir, "Explaining Ethnic Political Participation/' W orld P olitics 31, no. 3 (April 1979): 372. 24. N aget "The Political Construction of Ethnicity/” 96-97. 25. Rothschild/ Ethnopciitics, 2 7 ,248, and 29/ respectively. 26. [M.J Crawford Young, 'H ie Temple of Ethnicity,” W orld P olitics 35, no. 4 (July 1983): 652-62. Quotation is on 655. 27. Susan Olzak, "Competition Model of Ethnic Collective Action/” in C om petitive Ethnic R elations, 20-21/ defines an ethnic enclave as ”a structure in which members of an ethnic population exploit a common occupational niche/ participate in common ethnic institutions and organizations, and form a dense interaction of network communication, inform ation, socialization, and m arital endogamy.” "The role of ethnic enclaves in producing ethnic collective action," Olzak argues, "involves an interaction between the strength of ethnic enclaves and the intensity of ethnic competition. In this view, rates of ethnic collective action rise when two conditions hold: (1) existence of strong ethnic enclaves provides an organizational resource base for collective action and makes ethnic identity a strong determinant of an individual's role in productive activities and community life, and (2) economic expansion beyond the enclave boundaries increases competition w ith other ethnic populations." Khalaf in Lebanon's Predicam ent, 174, notes that the number of Lebanese Shi'a fam ily associations jumped from 4 percent of those organized during the forties to close to 50 percent of all associations established during the formative sixties. 28. Young, "The Temple of Ethnicity,” 656. 29. M yron W einer and Bert F. Hoselitz, "Economic Development and Political Stability in India,” D issent 8, no. 2 (Spring 1961): 173-74. 30. Rothschild, E tfm opolitics, 2. 3 1 .1 owe the delineation of the attitudinal, institutional, and behavioral levels to Yosef Lapid, "Ethnic Puzzles in W orld Politics: Two North American Examples,” (Ph.D. dtes., Columbia University, 1981), 35-45. Quotation is on 38. 32. Ibid., 41-43; and Raymond Breton, "Stratification and Conflict between Ethnolinguistic Communities w ith Different Social Structures,” The Canadian Review o f Sociology and A nthropology 15, no. 2 (May 1978): 156. 33. Rothschild, E thnopditics, 60.

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A Lebanon D efied

34. According to Harold Isaacs, "Basic Group Identity: The Idols of the tribe," in Ethnicity: Theory and Experience, ed. Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981, 5th printing), 30, the "House of Muumbi is . . . the hom e of the progenital mother of the Kikuyu tribe in Kenya." 35. Rothschild, Ethnopolitics, 60-62. 36. Barbara Ballis Lai, "Perspectives on Ethnicity: Old W ine in New Bottles," Ethnic and R acial Studies 6, no. 2 (April 1983): 154. 37. Diane M. Hoffman, "Self and Culture Revisited: Culture Acquisition among Iranians in the United States," Ethos 17, no. 1 (March 1989): 42-44. 38. "Do Leaders Change History," and Thomas Carlyle, "The Leader as Hero," in P olitical Leadership: A Source Book, ed. Barbara Kellerman (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1986), 3-4, and 5-9, respectively. 39. Kellerm an, "Leadership as a Political Act," 73. 40. Max W eber, Econom y and Society, trans. and ed. Guenther Rod) and Claus W itdch (New York: Bedminster Press, 1968), 24. 41. See Peter W orsley, The Trum pet Shall Sound, 2d ed. (New York: Schocken Books, 1968), ix-liii. 42. Ibid., and Sidney Hook, "The Eventful Man and the Event-M aking M an," in P olitical Leadership, 24-35. 43. W orsley, The Trum pet Shall Sound, xiv. 44. Hook, "The Eventful Man and die Event-Making M an," 34. 45. Bruce M azlish, "Leader and Led," in P olitical Leadership, 276416. Quotation is on 278. 46. M. Crawford Young, "Cultural Pluralism in the Third W orld," in C om petitive Ethnic R elations, 122. 47. Nagel, "The Political Construction of Ethnicity," 98. 48. Rothschild, E thnopolitics, 173-212. Quotation is on 199. 49. Said, O rientalism , 10. 50. See Larry Pintak's Beirut O uttakes: a TV Correspondent's P ortrait o f A m erica's Encounter w ith Terror (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1988). 51. See Salman Rushdie, "In Good Faith," in Im aginary H om elands: Essays and C riticism 1981-1991 (Granta Books and Vikings: London, 1991), 397. 52. See Said in Selected Subaltern Studies, vii. 53. Quoted in M.E. Combs-Schilling, Sacred Perform ances (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), xiv.

The Shi'a in Lebanese History The h istory . . . o f w ar and peace, o f science and w ealth . . .is the history o f the strong. —Muhammad Husayn Fadl Allah, al-Islam roa M antiq al-Q uwwa The Lebanese Shi'a are as old as Lebanon itself. They have participated w ith the other com m unities in cultivating its plains and m ountains, developing its land, and protecting its fron tiers. The Shi'a have survived in Lebanon in prosperity and adversity. They have soaked its soil w ith the blood o f th a t children, and have raised its banners o f glory in its sky, fo r they have led m ost o f its revolts. — Musa al-Sadr

h a t h isto ry is w ritten b y , fo r, an d ab ou t th e v icto r is axiom ­ a tic. A nd th at it is fram ed b y th e au th o r's d efin itio n o f the w o rld , b y h is in volv em en t a s a h u m an su b ject in h is ow n circu m ­ stan ces is also a g iv en .1 B oth o f th ese b ia ses h av e ad d led L eban ese S h i'a h istoriog rap h y. It com es as n o su rp rise th erefore to fin d th at m o st b ooks w ritten on Leban on accord its S h i'a com m u nity little m ore th an a few p assin g rem arks. N or is it u n ch aracteristic fo r D avid U rqu h art, a n in eteen th -cen tu ry trav eler, to d ism iss th e S h i'a as "u n classib le,"2 o r fo r Fouad A jam i, h im self a S h i'a from So u th L eban on, to red u ce 19

20

A Lebanon D efied

th e h isto ry o f th e com m u nity to "one o f su b m ission .'0 U rqu h art is m erely rep eatin g th e n ow -d iscred ited O rien talist eq u atio n o f S h i'ism w ith P ersian n ation alism . A jam i, on th e o th er h an d , is im p o sin g h is ow n p recon cep tion s ab ou t th e "L ev an tin e p rop en sity to com p rom ise" o n Leban ese S h i'a h isto ry , d esp ite ev id en ce co n trary to h is claim s w h ich can b e fou n d in th e v ery sou rces u p on w h ich h e relies. In h is accou n t o f th e rise o f Say yid M u sa al-S ad r, A jam i claim s to p ro v id e in sig h ts in to "th e w orld d ie cleric ad op ted ," a w o rld o f "tu ck ed aw ay v illa g e s . . . ru in ed la n d s c a p e . . . [and] p o v erty th at d rov e m en from th is h in terlan d to th e fa r en d s o f th e earth ." W e are ask ed to b eliev e th at w h at sep arated th e Iran ian S h i'a from th eir L eban ese cou n terp arts, an d th erefore M usa al-S ad r from h is co n stitu en cy , w as p recisely th eir co n flictin g tem p eram en ts. Iran w as a v ast lan d , a "S h i'a u n iv erse." Ja b a l 'A m il, in co n trast, w as a "backw ater," "an in articu late h in terlan d ." 'T o r ov er fo u r cen tu ries, sin ce th e in tro d u ctio n o f Sh ia Islam to Iran , Iran ian u lam a h ad su p p orted an d op p osed k in g s, raised an d p aid fo r p riv ate arm ies, p u t to g eth er co alitio n s th at sp an ned th e en tire p o litical sp ectru m , a ll th e w ay from rich m erch an ts to u rb an m ob s." C on v ersely , th e L eban ese S h i'a "w ere a m argin al com m unity—an d th e b ea rers o f a trad itio n o f lam en t and su b m ission ."4 T h an ks to th e (Iran ian ) M u sa al-S ad r, A jam i im p lies, th e oth erw ise d ocile L eban ese S h i'a w ere aw akened to actio n . T h e fo llo w in g p ag es are certain ly fa r from a com p reh ensiv e n arrativ e o f Leban ese S h i'a h isto ry . It m ak es the p o in t th at the S h i'a rise to p o litical p rom in en ce in L ebanon d id n o t occu r in a vacu um . A nd th at th is rise is a critica l d evelop m en t in a con tin u ­ u m larg ely ign ored b y a h istoriog rap h y th at is m ore o ften th an n o t a reflectio n o f th e p ow er relatio n sh ip s in th e resp ectiv e so cieties. Fu rth erm ore, it attem p ts to con vey to th e read er a sen se o f the larg er S h i'a sto ry , an d to p rov oke som e in terest in th e m o d em h isto ry o f Jab a l 'A m il and th e B a'lab ak -al-H irm il reg ion , b o th o f w h ich rem ain m u ch n eg lected cases, d eserv in g m ore sch o larly research and scru tin y . S h i'a n arrativ es an d fo lk tales attrib u te th e ad v ersities th at h it th eir lan d and eclip sed th eir h isto ry to the C ru sad es an d to A hm ad P asha al-Ja z z a r, O ttom an w ali o f Sy ria (1720-1804), w ho alleg ed ly d estroyed th e im p ortan t S h i'a lib raries o f th e am irate o f B an i

The Shi'a in Lebanese H istory

21

/A m m ar in T rip o li (1058 C .E . o r 1070 to 1109 C .E .) an d th o se o f Ja b a l 'A m il, resp ectiv ely .5 B u t o f cou rse th is w as n o t a ll. O th er ev en ts b eyon d th e co n fin es o f S h i'a so ciety ad d ed to its d em ise an d sh attered th e h isto ry o f its in h ab itan ts. A t th e d eath o f th e P rop h et M uham m ad in 632 C .E ., a n u m ber o f h is com p an ion s look ed to 'A li, M u ham m ad 's co u sin an d so n -in law , a s th e ob v iou s su ccesso r, o r calip h , to p rov id e th e lead ersh ip fo r th e com m u nity. T h is exp ectatio n stem m ed from th e b e lie f th at th e P rop h et, h av in g p u b licly reiterated 'A li's p reem in en ce o v er a ll o th ers, h ad w ish ed th e la tter to su cceed h im a s lead er o f d ie M u slim s and d efen d er o f the faith . 'A li h ad b een one o f th e ea rlie st b eliev ers in M u ham m ad 's m essage a s w ell a s th e P ro p h et's "m ost lov ed o f m en ." H e w as also M u ham m ad 's ad op ted son an d , th rou g h h is m arriage to Fatim a, th e fath er o f H asan and H u sayn, th e o n ly on es am ong M u ham m ad 's gran d son s to liv e to ad u lth ood . 'A li, w e are to ld , w as one o f th e ab lest an d m ost g allan t fig h ters in th e Islam ic arm y a s w ell a s th e stan d ard -b earer a t th e d ecisiv e b a ttle s o f B ad r and K haybar. In d eed , "in ev ery good qu ality—in v irtu es, in kn ow led ge, in b rav ery , in faith fu ln ess, in gen erosity and reliab ility —'A li w as su p erio r to oth ers; h e w as secon d on ly to M uham m ad ," h is su p p o rters b eliev ed .6 In d ie d ebates a t S aq ifa, th e old p o rtico in M ed ina w h ere th e urnm a gath ered a s soon a s th e n ew s o f th e P ro p h et's d eath sp read , h ow ever, th e m ajo rity o f M u slim s rejected th e claim s o f 'A li's ad v ocates, an d sw ore a bay'a to A bu B ak r al-S id d iq , M u ham m ad 's fath er-in -law an d one o f h is clo sest com p an ion s, estab lish in g h im as th e calip h . T h e en su in g co n flict ig n ited w h at w ou ld u ltim ately em erge a s a m ajo r schism am on g M u slim s b etw een th e S h i'a , from sh i'a t 'A li o r th e p artisan s o f 'A li, an d th e Su nnis. 'A li h im self w as n o t p resen t a t S a q ifa , b u t accep ted th e selectio n o f A bu B ak r fo r th e calip h ate a t a tim e w h en d ie rid d a w ars w ere th reaten in g th e v ery fou n d ation s o f th e Islam ic ord er. H e w as p assed ov er ag ain tw ice, and it w as on ly a fter th e assassin atio n o f th e th ird calip h , T Jth m an b in 'A ffe n , in 656 C .E ., th at h e w as ch o sen to b e th e new calip h . 'A li, in tu rn , w as k illed in 661 C .E . T h e calip h ate th u s p assed to th e U m ayyad b ran ch o f th e P ro p h et's c la n , w ith M u 'aw iya ib n A b i Su fy an a s calip h . F o r th e d escen d an ts o f 'A li, th e 'A lid s, th e accessio n o f th e U m ayyad s to th e calip h ate w as yet an o th er in ju stice com m itted

22

A Lebanon D efied

ag ain st th e h ou se o f /A li. T h e 'A lid s b eliev ed th at th e h on or o f th eir an cestry a s lin ea l d escen d an ts o f M uham m ad h im self leg itim ized th eir claim to th e lead ersh ip o f th e com m u nity. T o th is p o litical claim , w h ich in th e in fan t years o f Islam ic h isto ry seem s to h av e b een th e m ost im p ortan t elem en t in S h i'ism , w ou ld soon b e ad d ed an o th er o f sp iritu al n atu re. Su b seq u en tly, m any S h i'a "cam e to d istin g u ish b etw een calip h ate—actu al p o litical lead er­ ship—an d im am ate—the th eo retical rig h t to lead ersh ip ." In th is v iew , th e su p rem e lead er an d m od el fo r th e M u slim s to em u late w as a n /A lid , w h o w as also called an "im am " in th e sen se o f b ein g th e ’b e s t" o f th e p eop le o f h is tim e. T h e im am , th e S h i'a h eld , "shou ld also b e calip h , th ou gh circu m stan ces m ig h t p rev en t him from attain in g th is o ffice. Even if h e p assed h is life in u n reliev ed ob scu rity , th e one G od -giv en im am fo r an y p eriod w as, in the view o f h is fo llo w ers, the on ly rea l au th o rity fo r th e sp iritu al and p o litica l life o f h is ag e."7 T h e grow th in th e size o f th e ' A lid com m u nity an d , con seq u en t­ ly , in the n u m ber o f riv al 'A lid claim an ts to th e m an tle o f th e P rop h et, d eep ly d iv id ed them and th eir follow ers. D isagreem en ts o v er p o litico -th eo lo g ical qu estion s w ould sp lin ter w h at w as alread y a m in o rity grou p w ith in th e Islam ic w h ole. A nd th e term "S h i'a ," from its in itia l id en tity as a p o litical exp ression o f su p p ort fo r 'A li's claim to th e calip h ate, w ould com e to d esign ate a m u ltitu d e o f v aried an d o ften co n flictin g d octrin es. It is d ifficu lt to ascertain h ow m any o f th ese d octrin es really cry stallized in to actu al h isto rical en tities. W hat is certain is th at o f th e few th at have su rv iv ed u n til to d ay , the m o st im p ortan t are: (1) T w elver S h i'ism , to w h ich th e L eban ese, Iran ian , Iraq i, an d the m ajo rity o f th e S h i'a b elo n g , (2) Z ayd i S h i'ism , (3) Ism a'ili S h i'ism , an d (4) 'A law i o r N u say ri S h i'ism . T h e fo llo w ers o f all th ese grou p s ag ree th at th e calip h ate shou ld rem ain w ith in a h l al-b ay t o r th e fam ily o f th e P rop h et, i.e ., 'A li, Fatim a, an d th eir d escen d an ts. T h ere is no d isp u te am ong th e S h i'a ov er th e su ccession o f th e first fo u r im am s, 'A li, h is son s H asan and H u sayn, and h is gran d son , Z ay n a l-'A b id in . T h ey d iv erge a fter th at w ith each grou p u p h old in g th e rig h t o f a d ifferen t im am . W e ob v iou sly lim it ou rselv es h ere to th e T w elv er S h i'a w ho b eliev e in th e su ccession o f th e tw elve im am s, th e la st o f w hom w ent in to o ccu ltatio n in 874 C .E ., an d from w h ich h e is exp ected to em erge a t th e en d o f tim e to reestab lish th e reig n

The Shi'a in Lebanese H istory

23

o f p eace an d ju stice. O ne o f the m ost renow ned im am s o f th is sch o o l is th e six th im am , Ja 'fa r al-S ad iq , w ho p rov id ed it w ith its th eo ry o f th e im am ate—h en ce th e d esig n ation Im am i Sh i'ism —an d w ith its d istin g u ish in g featu res in m atters o f th e ap p roach to , and in terp retatio n o f Islam . K now n a s al-M ad hhab a l-Ja 'fa ri (T h e Ja 'fa ri D o ctrin e), th is sch ool is nam ed a fter h im (see app. 1). Su n n i A rab heresiograp h y treated S h i'ism as a sch ism atic m o n o lith , a n on -A rab , n on -Islam ic m an ifestatio n th at u nd erm ined G o d 's m essage an d th e su n n a o f h is Prophet. Su n n i p olem ics, b y ch allen g in g S h i'ism 's A rab Islam ic id en tity , in ten d ed to d eleg itim ize th e S h i'a claim to p ow er, itse lf a n exp ression o f th e sp ecial statu s th at ah l al-b ay t h o ld in th e A rab M u slim co llectiv e. R ely in g o n Su nni sou rces gen erated b y th e earlier Eu rop ean co n tact w ith th e Su n n i Islam th en in p ow er, W estern C h ristian stu d ies o f Islam h av e larg ely rep rod u ced th e Su n n i b iases again st S h i'ism .8 T h is co n textu ally d elim ited ap p roach h as n atu rally accord ed little atten tio n to cu ltu ral d ifferen ces am ong the v ario u s S h i'a grou ps. F o r T w elver S h i'ism , th is h as m ean t th e assim ilatio n o f its h isto ry , a t least u n til recen tly , u n d er th e ru b ric o f th e S h i'a m ov em en t a s a w h ole. T h e S h i'a , in d efen d in g th eir d octrin al in d ep en d en ce in th e face o f U m ayyad , 'A b b asid , o r o th er p ersecu tio n s, d evelop ed taqiy y a, a d octrin e th at au th o rizes th e faith fu l, u nd er circu m stan ces o f great d an g er, to h id e th eir relig io u s affiliatio n . C on versin g w ith M u 'alla b in K hu nays, Im am Ja 'fa r al-S ad iq reiterated : 'Keep our affair secret, and do not divulge it publicly, for whoever keeps it secret and does not reveal it, God w ill exalt him in this world and put light between his eyes in the next, leading him to Paradise. O M u'alla, whoever divulges our affair publicly, and does not keep it secret, God w ill disgrace him in this world and w ill take away light horn his eyes in the next, and w ill decree for him darkness that w ill lead him to the Fire. O M u'alla, verily tire Taqiya is of my religion and of the religion of my fattier, and one who does not keep the Taqiya has no religion. O M u'alla, it is necessary to worship in secret as it is necessary to worship openly. O M u'alla, tire one who reveals our affairs is the one who denies them .'9 T aq iy y a w as th e p ragm atic and excep tio n al "resp o n se o f an em b attled m in ority to a larg er Su n n i w orld and to a h arsh b alan ce

24

A Lebanon D efied

o f fo rc e s/40 a n escap e to th e v aleu rs refu g es. It aro se d u rin g th e p articu larly d ifficu lt tim es o f M uham m ad al-B aq ir (6 7 6 -7 3 2 ,7 3 5 , or 743 C . E .) an d h is so n Ja 'fa r al-S ad iq , th e fifth an d six th im am s, resp ectiv ely . B y estab lish in g th e h ered itary claim to th e im am ate b ased on n ass an d on 'Um, al-B aq ir an d al-S ad iq exclu d ed a ll o f the o th er claim an ts, th u s risk in g b lood y co n fron tation s w ith th e ru lin g 'A b b asid s w ho also claim ed th e sp iritu al lead ersh ip o f the com m u nity. T he reig n o f th e secon d 'A b b asid C alip h al-M an su r (754-775 C .E .) w as n o tab ly rep ressiv e ag ain st th e 'A lid s and th eir fo llo w ers w ho m u st h av e com e to b eliev e in taq iyy a a s in teg ral to th eir su rv iv al, an d a ll the m ore so w h en it cou ld b e ju stifie d b y v erses from th e Q u r'an o r th rou gh trad itio n s from th e h ad ith estab lish in g th e p reced en t fo r su ch a p ractice. H ence, it is cited th at th e P rop h et M uham m ad h im self resorted to d issim u lation b efo re th e v erse ord erin g h im to com m ence h is ca ll w as rev ealed : "O you A p ostle, rev eal th e w h ole th at h as b een rev ealed to you from you r lo rd ; if you do it n o t, you h av e n o t p reach ed h is m essage an d G od w ill n o t d efend you from w icked m en .'41 E xclu d ed from activ e p u b lic p articip atio n , and d ep rived o f op en self-exp ressio n , th e S h i'a w ere left w ith on ly tw o altern ativ es: (1) op en rev o lt, w h ich th ey often d id b u t w h ich carried w ith it th e risk o f an n ih ilatio n , o r (2) w ith d raw al to th eir trad itio n al in stitu tio n s an d v alu es o f th eir relig io u s and d o ctrin al id en tity . In an ap p aren t p arad ox in S h i'a th ou gh t, tw o seem in g ly op p osin g tem p eram en ts w ere eq u ally accep ted and lau d ed . In a p h ilosop h y in w h ich m artyrd om and red em p tion p lay ed a cen tral ro le , taqiyy a w as se en a s th e ap p licatio n , p u sh ed to th e lim it, o f the p rin cip le o f p assiv e resistan ce to op p ression . It w as also em blem atic o f th e m illen arian cu rren t th a t cam e to sh ap e m u ch o f S h i'a p o litico -relig io u s d iscou rse. A t one tim e, "it w as n o t a t a ll n ecessary fo r a d iv in ely ap p oin ted Im am to rise in reb ellio n and try to becom e a ru ler. T o h im h is p lace w as above th at o f a ru ler, w ho shou ld o n ly carry o u t w h at a n Im am d ecid es a s a su prem e au th o rity o f relig io n .'42 Y e t, am ong the m ost—if n o t th e m ost—celeb rated fig u res in S h i'a h isto ry is th e th ird im am , H u sayn, w ho fou gh t tyran n y ag ain st over­ w h elm in g od d s an d cou rted certain m artyrd om . H ow th ese tw o tem p eram en ts are recon ciled is b ey o n d file scop e o f th is w ork. W h at is critica l is th at taq iy y a, view ed as a ratio n al altern ativ e an d w id esp read in p ractice, n ev er exclu d ed o th er form s o f resistan ce,

The Shi'a in Lebanese H istory

25

su ch a s aim e d reb ellio n , an d th at it w as "sh ap ed a s m u ch b y p o litical and h isto rical circu m stan ces a s b y th e grow th o f a n in creasin g ly in tricate b o d y o f S h i'i d o ctrin e."13 T h is n eed to reso rt to taqiyy a fo r th e p reserv atio n an d th e p ro p ag atio n o f th e S h i'a h eritag e m ay h av e led to th e con cealm en t o f certain h isto rical trad itio n s sind to th eir rew ritin g in sym bolic form s th a t are n o t read ily d ecip h erab le today. T h e effo rt a t se lfp reserv atio n , th erefo re, m ay h av e d riv en S h i'a h isto rio g rap h y u n d erg rou n d , and th ereb y in ad v erten tly erased im p o rtan t segm en ts o f th at h isto ry . A s a creatu re o f th e tw en tieth cen tu ry , m o d em L eban ese S h i'a h isto rio g rap h y first ap p eared in d ie p ag es o f al-T rfim w h ich b eg an p u b licatio n in S id o n in 1909. It w as la ter d evelop ed in th e w ork s o f 'A li al-Z ay n , M uham m ad Ja b ir A l S afa, and to a lesser ex ten t, Sh aykh M uham m ad T aq i al-F aq ih .14 T h e tex ts w h ich con stitu te th e raw m aterials o n w h ich th ese w orks relied p rov id e glim p ses o f v ario u s facets o f S h i'a life b u t do so in a larg ely fragm ented w ay. T h e em p h atic featu re o f th is av ailab le L eban ese S h i'a h isto rio g ­ rap h y is its overarch in g elitism . D ifferen t v ersio n s o f th is h isto rio g ­ rap h y em p h asize th e ro le o f d ifferen t in d iv id u al lead ers and in stitu tio n s as th e m ain o r m otiv atin g fo rces b eh in d S h i'a h istory . H ow ever, th e featu re com m on to them a ll is d ie rep resen tatio n o f S h i'a p o litica l w ill an d actio n as a phenomenal expression of the goodness of the native elite with the antagonistic aspect of their relation t o . . . [Ottoman and French rule] made, against all evidence, to look larger than its collabora­ tionist aspect, their role as promoters of toe cause of the people than that as exploiters and oppressors, their altruism and selfabnegation than their scramble for toe modicum of power and privilege granted by the rulers.15 In th e w o rk s o f A l Safa and al-Z ay n , th e S h i'a zu'am a (p i. o f za'im ) are d esign ated as th e ag en ts o f change in S h i'a h isto ry . V ery little , if an y th in g , is said o f th e in volv em en t o f th e S h i'a m asses in p rom u lg atin g th at ch an ge. B eyond th is, th e au th o rs' sp ecific in terp retatio n s reflect th eir in d iv id u al p o litical alleg ian ces d efined a g ain st th e backd rop o f th e p o litical cu rren ts in th e A rab E ast a t th e tu rn o f th e p resen t cen tu ry , and d ie p ow er stru ggle fo r p o litica l su p rem acy am ong th e p rom in en t S h i'a fam ilies in Ja b a l 'A m il.

26

A Lebanon D efied

T h ese cu rren ts cam e to th e fo re a t a p articu larly tu m u ltu ou s tim e in th e h isto ry o f th e O ttom an E m p ire, and w ere exacerb ated b y E u rop ean co lo n ial sch em es d esign ed to ru p tu re th e h isto rical co n tin u ity o f O ttom an ru le. T h ey can b e id en tified a s follo w s: (1) a n Islam ic refo rm ist cu rren t, ad v ocatin g d ecen tralization w ith in the Islam ic w h ole, an d (2) a n A rab n atio n alist cu rren t esp ou sin g the creatio n o f a n in d ep en d en t A rab state in the A rab p a rts o f the em p ire. It is ag ain st th is b ackgrou n d th at th e co n flictin g in terp retatio n s p resen ted b y A l Safa and al-Z ay n shou ld b e view ed . A l S afa, in T arikh Ja b a l 'A m ü, ch am p ion s th e A rab n atio n alist cau se, co n sisten t­ ly rep resen tin g th e 'A m ilis, led b y K am il bek a l-A s'ad , a s th e h eart an d so u l o f its su p p ort. A ccord in g to h im , "th e A rab m ovem ent on th e w h ole, an d th e attem p t to sav e th e A rab hom eland from the in ju stice o f T u rk ish ru le w as an id ea w h ich crossed th e m ind o f ev ery A rab in tellectu al an d n atio n alist zealo u s [and] k een to resto re th e g lo ries o f h is p eo p le.'46 'A li al-Z ay n , on th e o th er h an d , reflects h is fa m ily 's stro n g Islam ic refo rm ist trad itio n and its ongoing attem p ts to co n test the p o litica l hegem on y o f th e al-A s'ad s in Jab a l 'A m ü . h i li-l-B a h th 'an T arikhin a f i Lu bnan and elsew h ere, h e p rom otes th is trad itio n b y q u estio n in g th e h istoriog rap h y o f A1 S afe, th e in teg rity o f th e A rab m ov em en t, an d th e 'A m Ü is' cen tral role in it. For th is S h i'a h isto rian , fo llo w in g in th e fo o tstep s o f the M u slim refo rm ists, M uham m ad 'A b d u (1849-1905) and Jam al al-D in al-A fg h an i (18391897), req u ires "th e p reserv ation o f the su blim e O ttom an state [as] th e th ird o f th e [cen tral] b eliefs a fter the b e lie f in G od an d in H is M essen g er, fo r it alon e p reserv es the su p rem acy o f th e relig io n ."17 Ign orin g th e p o litics o f th e p eo p le, su ch a s th e p o litica l w ill an d ro le o f th e S h i'a m asses in in itiatin g th e p ro test ag ain st th e Fren ch m an d ate in Leban on and fo r th e A rab n atio n alist cau se, L eban ese S h i'a h istoriog rap h y p rov id es on ly a n arrow an d p artial form u la­ tio n o f key m ovem ents in S h i'a h isto ry . M ore im p o rtan tly, it in v alid ates an d obscu res m u ch o f th e d eterm in in g sou rces o f th at h isto ry . P resen t-d ay Leban on is th e exten sio n o f G rand L iban (G reater L eban on) created b y d ecrees 299 o f 3 A u gu st, 3 1 8 ,3 2 0 , and 321 o f 31 A u gu st, an d 336 o f 1 Sep tem ber 1920, b y ord er o f th e H igh C om m ission er o f th e Fren ch m an d atory p ow er G en eral H enri

The Shi'a in Lebanese H istory

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G ou rau d . T h e new en tity com bined d ie relativ ely au tonom ou s m u tasarriftyya o f M ount Lebanon (1861-1915) an d n eig h b orin g Sy rian territo ry w h ich had h ith erto b een p art o f th e O ttom an w ilay as o f B eiru t and o f D am ascu s: (1) T h e qad as o f B a'lab ak , H asbayya, R ashayya, an d a l-B iq a ', h ith erto p a rt o f th e w ilaya o f D am ascu s (2) T h e follo w in g p arts o f th e w ilay a o f B eiru t: (a) T he san jaq o f Sid on , m in u s th ose areas attrib u ted to P alestin e b y in tern atio n al agreem en ts (b ) T h e san jaq o f th e city o f B eiru t itse lf (c) P arts o f th e san jaq o f T rip o li, in clu d in g th ose p arts o f th e qada o f 'A k k ar, situ ated sou th o f N ahr al-K ab ir, th e qad a o f th e city o f T rip o li itse lf, in clu d in g the m u d iriy y as o f D inniyya an d M in y a, and p a rt o f th e qad a o f H usn al-A k rad , situ ated sou th o f th e n o rth ern fro n tier o f G reater L ebanon, d efin ed in sectio n 1 ab o v e.18 G reater Leban on con stitu ted a m ore v iab le econom ic en tity th an an ind ep en d ent M ou nt L ebanon w ou ld have b een . Y et th is g ain in reso u rces w as o ffset b y the lo ss in coh esio n : W h ile th e p op u lation in M ou nt Leban on w as p red om in an tly M aronite C h ristian , the p op u lation in th e form er w ilayas w as overw helm ingly M u slim , larg ely Su n n i in T rip o li, /A kkar and in Sid o n , and larg ely S h i'a in th e B iq a ' valley an d in th e reg ion so u th east o f Sid o n and T yre. A nd w h ile m any o f th e Su n n is w ere u rban , literate, an d con tin u ed "to form th e 'M u slim estab lish m en t' inasm u ch as Su n n i Islam w as th e o fficial co n fessio n o f th e O ttom an state," th e S h i'a , fo r th e m ost p a rt, form ed a p oor and illiterate p easan try .19 M ore im p o rtan tly, th e creatio n o f G reater Leban on w as p u rely a g eograp h ical en terp rise. T h rou gh textbook s and o fficia l govern­ m en t p u b licatio n s, the h isto ry o f M ount L ebanon, and m ore sp ecifically th at o f th e rise o f th e M aron ite com m u nity in th at reg io n , b ecam e d ie m o d em h isto ry o f Lebanon. A fter b ein g tran sform ed , u n d er the d irectio n o f its clerg y an d d u e to th e con v erg en ce o f sp ecific lo ca l, reg io n al, an d extra-reg io n al facto rs, in to a n "h istoric b lo c,"20 th e M aronite com m u nity lob b ied fo r the creatio n o f G reater L ebanon, an d attem p ted and in d eed su cceed ed in im p osin g its h egem on y ov er th e state on ce it w as estab lish ed . T h e e ffect w as th e eq u atin g o f L eban ese n atio n alism w ith M aronite id eo lo g y , th u s d en yin g th e v ery p lu rality o f L ebanon, effacin g the h isto rica l an d cu ltu ral con texts o f th e "annexed " reg ion s, and

28

A Lebanon D efied

d ep riv in g th e o th er com m u n ities "from stu d yin g th eir h isto ries o r from stu d yin g th e com m on n atio n al h isto ry ."21 T h e ascen t o f th e M aron ites shou ld n o t b e view ed in iso latio n from th e larg er h isto ric ch an ges w h ich th e Islam ic so ciety w as co llectiv ely exp erien cin g u n d er O ttom an hegem ony. T h e rise and exp an sio n o f th at p ow er cou ld n o t p rev en t th e eb b in g o f the Islam ic cy cle o f em p ire. From th e seven teen th cen tu ry onw ard/ a crisis grip p ed th e Islam ic w orld . T h is w as ev id en ced in th e C ap itu latio n s, th e rise o f local n atio n alism s in v ario u s p arts o f th e em p ire lead in g to its fin al dism em berm ent, th e p artitio n o f Syria an d th e creatio n o f G reater Lebanon an d , u ltim ately , th e lo ss o f P alestin e. T rad itio n al O ttom an so cial form ation s in creasin g ly con fron ted th e sw eep in g p ressu re o f Eu rop ean econ om ic and p o litical p en etratio n . H ow ever, b y leg itim izin g th e ex istin g lo ca l stru ctu res in h erited from th e p reced in g m ed iev al p erio d , the O ttom an state h ad effectiv ely com p rom ised its ro le in fo sterin g th e ch an ge need ed to w ith stan d th e extern al ch allen g es. T h e reform s attem p ted throu ghou t th e n in eteen th cen tu ry m o stly end ed in failu re; th ey w ere to o little too late. E d u cation am ong O ttom an M u slim s, fo r in stan ce, w as m on op olized b y the 'u lam a w ho h ad a v ested in terest in p reserv in g a th eo lo g ical trad itio n o f learn in g to th e exclu sio n o f a ll oth ers. A s a co n se­ qu en ce, secu lar Islam ic ed u cation lan gu ish ed , w h ile O tto m an C h ristian s b en efitted from the sp read o f m issio n ary sch o o ls am id st C h ristian co n cen tratio n s a ll ov er th e em p ire.22 In d ie field o f trad e, co n tro l ov er d evelop m ent fe ll to C h ristian in term ed iaries w ho b ecam e th e m ain in stru m en ts o f W estern cap italist p en etra­ tio n in to th e reg ion .23 Leban ese S h i'a so ciety , in p a rticu lar, su ffered m ore th an its Su n n i cou n terp art fo r its p h y sical in su larity , its leg al in v isib ility , and th e exclu sion o f th e com m u nity from p articip atio n in d ie th eater o f E u rop ean p ow er p o litics o f th e n in eteen th cen tu ry . E u rop ean colon ialism p erp etu ated itse lf in th e gu ise o f p ro tect­ in g m in o rities w ith in th e O ttom an realm . T he S h i'a , w h o w ere n o t con sid ered a m illet in th eir ow n rig h t, w ere n o t affected . T h is ex clu sio n d eterm in ed th e statu s th is com m u nity w as to en jo y u p o n th e creatio n o f a con fession al Leban ese en tity in circu m stan ces in w h ich E u rop ean co lo n ial in terests p lay ed a d ecid in g role. G ab riel

The Shi'a in Lebanese H istory

29

C h arm es su m m arizes th e S h i'a p o sitio n in th e tw ilig h t o f the O ttom an era: Perhaps they could have played in Syria a role sim ilar to that of the . . . M aronites, had a big European power taken them under its protection. For, in Syria, a race that is not protected by Europe declines and weakens fast. This is what happened to the Mitwalis. Pursued at once by die Druze and the Maronites, persecuted by the Turkish Pashas, half-expelled from [Mount] Lebanon, not having die help of anyone, they live today under the government of their feudal chiefs.24

SH TISM IN LEBA N O N T h e corn erston e o f Leban ese S h i'a h istoriog rap h y is th e im age o f a com m u nity w h ich h as b een A rab sin ce tim e im m em orial and w h ose S h i'ism is said to h av e b een in itiated b y A bu D h arr a lG h ifari, th e fam ou s com p anion o f the P rop het M uham m ad.25 T h is is rep orted in ev ery sou rce on L eban ese S h i'a h isto ry w h ere it is em p hasized th at Ja b a l 'A m il w as nam ed a fter "'A m ila . . . a trib e fro m Y e m e n . . . th at m ig rated to al-Sh am [geograp hical Sy ria] and settled n ear D am ascu s o n a m ou n tain th at b ecam e know n as Ja b a l 'A m il."26 It is also cited th at th is com p anion o f th e P rop h et, kn ow n fo r h is stro n g 'A lid sy m p ath ies, w as b anished b y th e C alip h 'U th m an b in 'A ffa n to Sy ria. M u 'aw iya ib n A bi Su fy an , th en gov ern or o f th at p ro v in ce, sen t him in to ex ile. A bu D harr liv ed in Jab a l 'A m il w h ere h e p reach ed th e p recep ts o f S h i'a Islam am ong its C h ristian p op u lation . So u rces rep ort th at h e liv ed in M ays al-Ja b a l an d in Sarafan d , tw o v illag es in sou th ern Leban on. M oreo v er, th ese v ersio n s stress th a t Jab al 'A m il w as am ong the first reg io n s to co n v ert to S h i'a Islam : "S h i'ism in Ja b a l 'A m il is o ld er th an in oth er reg ion s excep t al-H ijaz."27 If d iese trad itio n al accou n ts are accu rate, th en S h i'a Islam en tered Leban on d u rin g th e governance o f M u 'aw iy a in Sy ria, in th e m id d le o f th e sev en th cen tu ry C .E . B u t if w e d efin e S h i'ism acco rd in g to th e Ja 'fa ri d o ctrin e, a s a sy stem o f b elie fs, a ju risp ru ­ d en ce, an d a w ay o f life th at com p lem ent one an oth er, th en S h i'ism m u st h av e em erged in Leban on a t th e tim e o f Im am Ja 'fa r

30

A Lebanon D efied

al-S ad iq in th e first stag e o f 'A b basid reig n in th e m id d le o f th e eig h th cen tu ry C E . T h e 'A b b asid d eclin e in th e ten th cen tu ry C .E . b e n e fite d S h i'ism ; th e p erio d cam e to b e know n as th e "S h i'a C en tu ry ." T h e grow ing w eakness o f th e Su n n i calip h ate in Baghdad w as com ­ p ou nd ed b y th e ascen d an cy o f S h i'a d y n asties a n d /o r m ov em ents a ll o v er th e Islam ic w o rld , an ascen d an cy h ard ly im ag in able in the p reced in g cen tu ries: T h e C arm ath ian s estab lish ed a state in B ah rain and attem p ted m any u n su ccessfu l in cu rsio n s in to S y ria and M esop otam ia; d ie Ism a 'ilis, also u n able to p ro sp er in S y ria and M esop otam ia, tran sferred th eir activ ities to N orth A frica in 909 C .E ., w h ere th ey fou nd ed the Fatim id state; th e Id risid s, u n d er th e lead ersh ip o f Id ris b in 'A b d A llah , reach ed th e M agh rib , w h ere th ey estab lish ed th e first g reat M oroccan D ynasty (789-985 C .E .) u n til th ey w ere d efeated b y th e Fatim id s; an d th e Z ay d is con ­ tro lled T ab aristan in P ersia, in term itten tly b etw een 864 C .E . and 1126 C .E ., b efo re fallin g to an oth er S h i'a grou p , th e Ism a 'ilis o f A lam u t, an d su rvived p o litically a m illen n iu m an d m ore in the Y em en u n til 1962. T w elver S h i'ism in p articu lar th riv ed in M esop otam ia, a t th e h eart o f th e 'A b b asid C alip h ate, fo r m ore th an a cen tu ry , w ith the B u yid s (945-1055 C .E .), in n o rth ern Sy ria w ith th e H am danid state cen terin g on A leppo (944-1003 C .E .), and in sou th ern Sy ria w ith th e am irate o f B an i M ird as cen terin g on Sid on (1021-1028 C .E .), th e am irate o f A bu T alib b in 'A m m ar cen terin g on T rip o li, and the am irate o f 'A y n al-D aw la b in A b i 'A q il cen terin g on T yre (1058-1124 C .E .). B oth citie s, T y re and T rip o li, w ere flo u rish in g p orts and m ajo r cu ltu ral cen ters u n til the C ru sad es d estroyed T rip o li a t arou nd 1109 C .E ., an d overw helm ed T y re a t ab ou t 1124 C .E .28 B y th e en d o f th e second h a lf o f th e tw elfth cen tu ry C .E ., F atim id ru le in Egypt had alread y en d ed . Su b seq u en tly, C airo b ecam e th e cap ital o f th e A yyu bid s an d o f th e M am lu k su ltan s w h o, a fter ch asin g th e C ru sad ers o u t o f Sy ria, red irected th eir m ilitary exp ed ition s ag ain st th e Sh i'a-p op u lated K israw an reg io n o f M ou nt Leban on (see ap p . 1). T h e m ost im p ortan t and la st o f th e M am lu k exp ed itio n s occu rred on 25 Ju ly 1305 C .E .:

The Shi'a in Lebanese H istory

31

[The A n n ies]. . . ascended Mount Kisrawan from its most difficult trails. The soldiers converged on them [the Kisrawanis], surrounded their mountains, and set foot in land its inhabitants thought no one could trample. Their vineyards were plundered, their homes were destroyed, and many of them were killed and were scattered throughout the country. . . . Asandamur, [foe Mamluk ruler of Tripoli], employed some of them. . . . [However, the majority] retreated into foe hinterland, their influence vanished, and they regressed into oblivion.29 T h is M am lu k exp ed itio n em p tied K israw an o f its S h i'a in h ab it­ a n ts w ho to o k refu g e in BaT abak, Jiz z in , Jab a l 'A m il, and in som e lo ca lities arou n d B eiru t and Sid on. T h ey resorted to taq iy y a, w h ich allow ed th em to d eclare S h a fi'i Su nnism as th eir d o ctrin al id en tity an d escap e an n ih ilatio n . T h is b eg an a m ajor S h i'a d eclin e in M ou nt L eban on w h ere S h i'ism w as h en ceforth con fin ed to sm all com m u­ n itie s to th e ea st o f Ju b ay l (B y b lo s), su rv iv in g u n til tod ay. T h e d ynam ics w h ich accelerated th e S h i'a d eclin e in n o rth cen tral L eban on, a d eclin e w h ich con tin u ed w ell in to th e eig h teen th cen tu ry , w ere also effectiv e in the rise o f th e M aron ites in the reg io n d u rin g M a'an i (1516-1697) and Sh ih ab i (1697-1842) tim es. T h e p o licy in au gu rated b y th e A m ir Fakhr al-D in al-M a 'n i n, ru ler o f M ou nt Leban on, and con tin u ed b y h is su ccessors, to en cou rage M aron ite p easan ts to p op u late th eir d om inion ev en tu ally created a n im p o rtan t d em ograp hic d isequ ilib riu m in M ou nt Lebanon in fav o r o f th at com m u nity.30 T h e v icto ry o f th e O ttom an s ov er th e M am lu ks in 1516 d id n o t h a lt th e p ersecu tio n o f th e S h i'a . T h e O ttom an Em pire w as em p h atically a Su n n i state. In d iv id u als w ere classified a s M u slim , C h ristian , o r Jew ish , w ith the S h i'a classified a s m em bers o f the first grou p w ith ou t acknow led gem ent o f th eir m ad hhab. A lso, "o n th e lev el o f im p erial p o litics, the O ttom an state had lon g b een en g aged in p rotracted co n flict w ith the (Sh ia) Safav id state in P e r s ia .. . . M en cau g h t on th e w ron g sid e o f fo e divide—Su n n i in S afav id realm s, Sh ia in th e O ttom an state—w ere d estin ed to su ffer."31 It w as u n d er O ttom an d om in ation th a t fo e S h i'a p op u la­ tio n o f L eban on, and sp ecifically th at o f Jab a l 'A m il, rein forced th eir tie s w ith th eir co relig io n ists in Iran . H aving estab lish ed th eir dom inion ov er fo e eastern A rab w o rld , fo e O ttom an s retain ed a sy stem n o t u n lik e th at w h ich h ad existed

32

A Lebanon D efied

u n d er th e M am lu k su ltan s b efo re them . In d irect ru le w as exercised th rou g h th e lo cal lead ersh ip w h ose au th o rity w as alm ost ab so lu te, p articu larly in th e h igh lan d d istricts w h ere cen tral ru le w as m u ch w eak er th an alo n g th e co asts. T h e conqu ered territo ries cam e to b e reg ard ed p rim arily a s sou rces o f rev enu e. Sy ria w as d iv id ed in to th ree w ilay as, A lep p o, D am ascu s, an d T rip o li. T h e S h i'a h in terlan d o f Ja b a l 'A m il, u n d er th e lead ersh ip o f th e sh ay kh s o f th e A1 ' A li a lS ag h ir, A l S a l), A1 M u n kir (o r M u n qir), and o f th e o th er clan s, and th a t o f B a'lab ak -al-H irm il u n d er th e resp ectiv e co n tro l o f the H arfu sh an d th e H am ad i clan s, b ecam e p art o f th e w ilaya o f D am ascu s.32 W ith in th is fram ew ork o f in d irect ru le, S h i'a so ciety rem ain ed u n d er th e iq ta' sy stem , a n essen tially feu d al stru ctu re w h ich w as n o n eth eless d istin g u ish ab le from th e E u rop ean p ro to ty p e o f the M id d le A ges, u n til th e tan zim at o f 1864.33 A t th e ap ex o f th e lo cal so cial p yram id w as th e iq ta 'i, a n eo -feu d al lord w ho "p rou d ly traced h is an cestry b a ck to a d esert A rab ian trib e." H e exercised exclu siv e co n tro l as w ell a s lim ited ju d icia l fu n ctio n ov er th e 'u hda, d ie d om ain o v er w h ich h is gov ern in g p ow ers exten d ed . T h e iq ta 'i b ecam e th e m ain lin k b etw een the cen tral au th o rities an d th e p op u lace. H is fu n ctio n and relatio n to th e P orte rev olv ed arou nd th e sp ecified am ou nt o f tax to b e p aid to th e cen tral treasu ry. Som ew h at in d ep en d en t o f th e iq ta 'i w ere th e 'u lam a fam ilies w h o "belon ged to a ll strata o f so ciety a s fa r as so cial p restig e and m arriag e tie s w ere con cern ed ." A nd lastly o f co u rse w ere th e 'am m a o f p easan ts. O b viou sly, a ll o f th ese cïasses w ere also h ig h ly stratified in tern ally "w ith m arked so cial d istin ctio n s o n th e b a sis o f statu s an d k in sh ip affiliatio n s."34 L eft to its ow n d ev ices, S h i'a so ciety in Ja b a l 'A m il w itn essed m ajo r u p h eav als as th e reg ion exp erien ced rap id econ om ic and cu ltu ral grow th d u rin g th e sev en teen th an d eig h teen th cen tu ries. T h is w as p rim arily d u e to th e 'A m ili su ccess in cu ltiv atin g h ig h q u ality co tto n a t a tim e w h en the dem and fo r co tto n tex tile from th e E ast w as on th e rise in E u rop e and N orth A frica. W hat d istin g u ish ed 'A m ili co tto n clo th , w e are to ld , w as th e secret red d ye w h ich th e p rod u cers u sed in co lo rin g th eir th read . The d u p licatio n o f th is secret b y th e F ren ch resu lted in a m arked d ecrease in th eir im p o rt o f 'A m ili colored co tto n fab ric a fte r the eig h teen th cen tu ry .

The Ski'a in Lebanese H istory

33

T h e relativ e p ro sp erity o f Ja b a l /A m il com p ared to M ou nt L eban on , fo r in stan ce, w as n oted b y m an y a Eu rop ean trav eler, on e o f w hom observ ed th at Jab a l 'A m il p aid tw o h u n d red p u rses (a p u rse is eq u iv alen t to fiv e hu nd red q irsh , a cu rren cy u n it) in m al-m iri, fifty p u rses m ore th an M ou nt L ebanon. M ore im p o rtan tly , th at p ro sp erity p rov id ed th e 'A m ilis w ith th e op p ortu n ity to an n ex T y re in 1766, and enhan ced th eir a b ility to p reserv e th eir au tono­ m y ag ain st in tru d ers. T o th is en d , th ey occu p ied th e C ru sad ers' fo rtresses th at had b een le ft stan d in g a ll ov er Jab a l 'A m il, d evel­ op ed a form id ab le m ilitary cap ab ility estim ated a t tw en ty -fiv e h u n d red cav aliers an d th irty -fiv e h u n d red in fan trym en , and on m any o ccasion s en gaged th e n eig h b orin g am ir o f M ou nt L eban on an d th e w alis o f D am ascu s an d Sid o n in b a ttle s th a t w ere o ften su ccessfu l.36 T h e term M ataw ila cam e to u n iq u ely id en tify the S h i'a o f L eban on w h o "u sed th e nam e . . . to arou se th e fa ith , d ed icatio n , an d sen se o f p rid e am ong th e you ng d u rin g reg io n al an d com m u n al co n flicts.’07 T h ey also a t the b eg in n in g o f th e 1770s con clu d ed th eir allian ce w ith D h ah ir a l-T Jm a r, th e reb ellio u s m tdtazim o f th e w ilaya o f Sid o n , w h ich w as to p ro v e im m en sely d etrim en tal to th e v ery fou n d ation s o f th eir so ciety , if n o t to th eir su rv iv al. T h e eig h teen th -cen tu ry trav eler, B aron d e T o tt, cap tu red th e sp irit o f th is com m u nity: The M utualis who inhabit the Anti-Lebanon, from Sidon to Acre, are less numerous than the Druses; but the castles they occupy render them as sw ift to rebel and as difficult to su bju gate. . . [and] the cavalry in the pay of their Cheiks are much more warlike. — The expedition w hich advanced the glory of the M utualis to its highest pitch was when 40,000 Druses, armed to assist the Porte, and animated by the hope of plunder, issued from their mountains to lay w aste the country—The Cheik N assif, at the head of 3000 horsemen, supported by some auxiliary troops from Cheik-Daher, Governor of Acre, advanced to m eet them under foe w alls of Sidon; he attacked them in good order, and put them to flight at foe first onset—This celebrated victory rendered the name of the Mutualis formidable, and deprived the Druses of that superiority they had always maintained in Syria.38 T h e 'A m ili allian ce w ith D h ah ir a l-T Jm a r, lik e m ost 'A m ili b a ttle s ag ain st th e M a'n i an d Sh ih ab i am irs o f M ou nt Leban on,

34

A Lebanon D efied

sh ou ld b e view ed in th e w id er co n texts o f p ro v in cial d efian ce ag ain st trib u te p aym en t to th e O ttom an c e n te r and th e p erp etu al stru g g le o f clash in g h egem on ic in terests. T h e in terest o f the Su blim e P orte in com m and ing d ie o b ed ien ce, if n o t th e lo y alty , o f h is su b jects, an d in m ain tain in g a co n stan t flow o f rev en u e in to the im p erial v au lt in Istan b u l collid ed w ith th ose o f th e sh ay kh s o f Ja b a l 'A m il w h o w orked to release th em selves from th e tax b u rd en , exten d th eir su zerain ty in to con tigu ou s lan d s, and th w art th e en croach m en t o f h o stile elem en ts, b e th ey D ru ze, M aron ite, S h i'a , Su n n i, /A m ili, M ou nt L eban ese, Sy rian , o r O ttom an. T h is allian ce also coin cid ed w ith th e era o f th e m ost activ e E u rop ean econ om ic p en etratio n o f th e E ast, an d b ecam e p art o f a g en eral m ovem ent o f reb ellio n throu ghou t d ie em p ire th at w as op en ly su p p orted b y th e R u ssians d u rin g th e R u sso-O ttom an w ar o f 1768-1774. T h at th is allian ce w as a fo o lish in trig u e is clea r o n ly in h in d sig h t. A s w ith a ll b alan ce o f p ow er situ atio n s w h ere m o b ility an d th e tim ely sh ift o f allian ces are cru cial fo r th e su rv iv al o f th e d isad v an taged , th e /A m ilis p aid d early fo r th e m iscalcu la­ tion . A fter th e assassin atio n o f D h ah ir a l-T Jm a r in 1776 and th e resto ratio n o f th e statu s quo an te in th e w ilaya o f Sid o n , d ie p o licy o f A hm ad Pasha al-Jazzar, th e n ew ly ap p oin ted w ali, w as d esign ed arou n d a p rin cip al aim , n am ely, to con qu er a ll reb ellio n s in h is d om in ion , and to p u n ish th ose w ho p articip ated in o r coop erated w ith th e in trig u es o f a l-T Jm a r and h is allies ag ain st th e Su b lim e P orte. H e w orked a t su b ju gatin g th e S h i'a h interland —an en d w h ich h e attain ed in a d ecisiv e b a ttle in th e sou th ern v illag e o f Y aru n ag ain st th e 'A m ili fo rces u n d er the lead ersh ip o f Sh ay k h N a sif al-N assar.39 T h e resu ltin g carn age w as so severe th at the m em ory o f "th e ty ran t" b ecam e in grain ed in S h i'a trad itio n s an d fo lk tales. It seem ed th at th e v ery fou n d ation s o f 'A m ili so cia l stru ctu re had b een erad icated , and its trad itio n al eq u ilib riu m u p set. M ore th an a h a lf cen tu ry la ter, D avid U rqu h art an d P errier Ferd inand w ere to b e told o f th e cru elty to w h ich Ja b a l 'A m il w as su bjected .40 C on stan tin -F ran çois V oln ey ev en d ou bted th e a b ility o f th is "n atio n " to su rvive.41 W ith m ost o f its lead ersh ip p h y sically elim in ated , an d th e rest fleein g to M ou nt Leban on an d th e B iq a ', th e 'A m ilis saw no oth er op tion b u t to reso rt to a form o f so cia l b an d itry a s a con tin u ed exp ressio n o f p ro test ag ain st exto rtio n s b y al-Jazzar. T h is led to th e em ergen ce o f th e first o f th ese m ov em en ts

The Ski'a in Lebanese H istory

35

in Jab a l /A m il w h ich cam e to co n stitu te th e n u cleu s o f /A m ili op p osition to a ll op p ression , in itially th at o f al-Jazzar an d th e O ttom an state, and su b sequ en tly o f th e French m an d atory p ow er. W h at fu rth er exacerbated th e 'A m ili p lig h t w ere d ie p erio d o f g en eral p o litica l an d m ilitary ten sio n w h ich the territo ry o f Sid o n w itn essed b etw een 1770 and 1804, th e N ap oleon ic w ars, and the ev en tu al d evelop m en t o f co tto n cu ltiv atio n in E gypt an d the A m ericas, a ll o f w h ich led to a com p lete h a lt in co tto n p ro d u ctio n in th e w ilaya o f Sid on , th e d eclin e o f th is p o rt, and th e ev en tu al rise o f B eiru t.42 O n th e p o litical fro n t, Jab a l /A m il retu rn ed to the iq ta ' system a fter th e d eath o f al-Jazzar in 1804, b y v irtu e o f a p act con clu d ed b etw een th e /A m ili lead er, F a n s ib n N asif al-N assar, an d th e n ew O ttom an w ali o f Sid on , Su laym an P asha. It to o k u p arm s ag ain b etw een 1832 an d 1840, th is tim e on th e O ttom an sid e ag ain st th e E gyp tian s and th eir Sh ih ab i a llie s, to p ro test its form al ab so rp tio n b y M ou nt L ebanon u n d er th e su zerain ty o f the A m ir B ash ir al-Sh ih ab i II (1788-1840). T he iq ta ' system con tin u ed u n til 1864 w h en th e new O ttom an tan zim at w ere p u t in to effect. A t th at tim e, Ja b a l 'A m il b ecam e p art o f th e w ilaya o f B eiru t and d irect O ttom an ru le w as in stitu ted .43 D evelop m ents in B a'lab ak -al-H irm il follow ed a sim ilar p ath to th o se in Jab a l 'A m il. T h e d estin y o f th is reg io n w as m ore clo sely lin k ed to th e Sy rian in terio r th an to the m aritim e litto ral. A s p rev io u sly n oted , th e reg io n o f B a'lab ak w as u n d er th e co n tro l o f th e H arfu sh am irs from th e tim e o f th e Islam ic con q u est o f b ilad a lsham . T h e H irm il, on th e oth er h an d , rem ained th e stron gh old o f th e H am ad i sh ay kh s w h o, alo n g w ith th eir fo llo w ers, are said to h av e com e h ere from Y em en o rig in ally an d su b sequ en tly m ig rated in to th is reg io n from B u khara. From th e H irm il, th e H am ad is exp and ed in to th e p red om in an tly M aron ite areas to th e n o rth and w est b y raid in g th e reg io n s o f B ish arri and D inniyya as early a s th e m id -fifteen th cen tu ry .44 In th e p erio d o f th eir ap og ée, th e H am ad is con tro lled al-H irm il, m u ch o f N orth Leban on, as w ell a s 'A k k ar in to w h ich th ey m oved d u ring th e secon d th ird o f th e six teen th cen tu ry . T h ey w ere, h ow ever, grad u ally d isp ossessed o f a ll o f th eir "new " territo ries, first b y a M aronite p easan t u p risin g in 1762, en cou raged b y th e w ali o f T rip o li, and d ien b y th e A m ir Y u su f al-Sh ih ab i in the b attle o f A m yun in 1766. T h is d efeat

36

A Lebanon D efied

releg ated th e H am ad is to B a'lab ak -al-H irm il w h ere th ey con tin u e to ex ert sig n ifican t in flu en ce to th e p resen t.45 T h e ex p u lsio n o f th e H am ad is from N orth L eban on p rov oked a p artial exod u s o f th eir follo w ers from th e v illag es o f th is reg io n to th at o f B a'lab ak -al-H irm il. T h is exod u s d iv id ed th e ham adiyyu n (th e H am ad i shaykhs and th eir follo w ers) in to tw o con greg ation s: (1) a grou p o f S h i'a p easan ts in th e d istricts o f Ju b ay l and K israw a n , som e o f w h ose fam ilies are a con tin u in g p resen ce tod ay and b ea r th eir an cestral nam es o f Z 'a y tir, Ja 'fa r, N asir al-D in , N un, e tc., an d (2) a grou p o f ém ig rés w ho settled th e eastern slop es o f M ou nt L eban on, a few in th e p lain s area on th e low er slo p es, an d th e m ajo rity in th e u p p er v alley s o f th e b arren H irm il h in terlan d , th e ju rd . T h is ém ig ré grou p shared th e new territo ry accord in g to a sp ecific clan -b ased d iv isio n o f b ro th ers and co u sin s b etw een B ay raq 'A lm a (th e Sh am as grou p ) and B ayraq A fqa (th e Z 'a y tir grou p ) w ith each grou p itse lf d ivid ed in to d ifferen t p atrilin eal asso ciatio n s know n a s th e 'asha'ir (pi. o f 'ash ira).46 O n th e econom ic fro n t, B a 'lab ak continu ed in its ro le a s an im p o rtan t p rod u cer o f co tto n , cereals an d ra isin s, to b e exp orted to E u rop e th rou g h th e p o rt a t T rip o li and to A n atolia th ro u g h H am a. T h e H irm il, on th e oth er h an d , co n stitu ted a v ast w ood­ lan d , estim ated a t forty-tw o thou sand h ectares, and a m ajo r sheep reserv e. G iv en B a 'la b a k 's lo catio n on th e Sid on -D am ascu s tran s­ v erse, and on carav an rou tes lin k in g n o rth ern S y ria, sou th ern S y ria, an d P alestin e, th e reg io n w as a m ajo r co n trib u to r to th e cen tral Sy rian p ro sp erity o f th e six teen th an d sev en teen th cen tu ­ ries. T h e city also fu nctioned a s th e cap ital o f a reg io n called a'm ol B a 'lab ak com p risin g m an y citie s an d a n a lle r tow n s o f th e w ilay a o f D am ascu s. H istorical record s estim ate its p o p u latio n th en to h av e b een sev en to eig h t thou sand in h ab itan ts. T h is ag g lom eration rem ained p rom in en t u n til th e en d o f th e eig h teen th cen tu ry , b u t b eg an to d eclin e th ereafter follo w in g w h at seem s to h av e b een a p rolon g ed stru ggle b etw een th e H arfu sh am irs, th e O ttom an au th o rity , a n d /o r th e am irs o f M ou nt L eban on. A s in Ja b a l 'A m il, th e reg io n p aid d early in term s o f th e p h y sical d estru ctio n and p o p u latio n exod u s w h ich it su b sequ en tly w it­ n essed . T h e con tin u ou s reb ellio n b y th e H arfu sh am irs ag ain st O ttom an ru le resu lted in th e an n ih ilatio n o f th eir lead ersh ip an d th e en d o f th eir h isto rical p resen ce in L eban on b y 1864. B a 'la b a k

The SM'a in Lebanese H istory

37

w en t in to a p rolon g ed d eclin e, accen tu ated b y th e sim u ltan eou s d eclin e o f H am a. C arav an s avoid ed its rou tes. A nd a new city , Z ah la, b eg an a stead y rise to p rom in ence.47 T h e im p o sition o f d irect O ttom an ru le, com ing in th e w ak e o f th e m om en tou s, th ou gh b rief, E g yp tian occu p ation , coin cid ed w ith th e m o st v iru len t era o f E u rop ean co lo n ial exp an sio n . T h e ad m in istratio n w as m od ern ized , and m ilitary serv ice w as in tro ­ d u ced , lead in g to im p o rtan t tran sform ation s in Ja b a l 'A m il an d in th e B a'lab ak -al-H irm il reg ion . A bove a ll, th e n ew O ttom an p o licy o f fav o rin g altern ativ e cen ters o f p ow er to th e iq ta 'i fam ilies g reatly red u ced th eir statu s in th e lo a d so cial stru ctu re. T o reta in a sem blan ce o f th eir form er p o sitio n o f in flu en ce, th ese fam ilies h ad to becom e state fu n ctio n aries—th e rep resen tativ es o f th e state to th e lo ca l p o p u la tio n -ra th e r than tire o th er w ay arou nd . W ith th e state fu n ctio n in g a s a cou n terw eig h t to trad itio n al stru ctu res, the sch ism b etw een th e lead ersh ip p rov id ed b y th ese fam ilies an d th eir co n stitu en cy w id ened . W ith in th is fram ew ork, in Ja b a l /A m il th ere em erged th e w ujaha (p i. o f w ajih ) w ho "w ere in o rig in a m id -to -late n in eteen th cen tu ry grou p o f . . . grain m erch an ts, a sm all nu m ber o f w hom m ad e u se o f th e new O ttom an law to b rea k in to th e m ore lu crativ e an d m ore p restig io u s class o f za'im th rou g h b ecom in g m u ltazim s an d o fficers o f th e state," w h ile B a'lab ak w itn essed the rise o f th e H ayd ar clan o n th e ru in s o f the H arfu sh am irate.48 P arven u s su ch as R id a al-S u lh , a p rom in en t Su n n i 'A m ili w ho started h is career as a reform in g qa'im aqam in al-N ab atiy y a, R u stum H ayd ar, and oth ers, su ccessfu lly ch allen g ed th e estab ­ lish ed hegem on y o f th e old er trib al class o f w h ich on ly th e a lA s'a d , a l-F ad l, and th e H am ad i cla n s rem ain ed . T h is new lead ersh ip b ecam e th e v eh icle th rou g h w h ich som e reform s w ere channeled . For in stan ce, R id a al-S u lh p lay ed a m ajo r ro le in fou n d in g Ja m 'iy y a t al-M aq asid al-Islam iy y a in 1879, an Islam ic b en ev o len t so ciety in volv ed in op ening sch o o ls an d exten d in g so cial serv ices to n eed y M u slim s. H e also estab lish ed a lM ad rasa al-H ad ith a (th e M od em Sch o o l) in al-N ab atiyya in 1882, w h ich w as am ong th e first sch o o ls to teach m o d em , secu lar su b jects a t th e p rim ary an d ev en tu ally secon d ary lev els. L iterary an d p o litica l so cieties sp ru ng u p a ll over Ja b a l 'A m il and B a'la b a k to d ab b le in to p ics stron gly censored b y th e O tto m an sta te, esp ecially a fter th e failu re o f th e C om m ittee o f U nion and P rogress

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o f th e Y ou ng T u rk s' rev o lu tio n o f 1908 to satisfy b asic A rab rig h ts an d asp iratio n s. A rab -Sy rian n ation alism b ecam e th e esp ou sed b ran d o f nationalism / and al-S u lh and oth ers p rov id ed th e n u cleu s fo r th e m ovem ents th at w ere to shap e th e dom inant p o litica l id eas in S h i'a so ciety a t th e tim e an d to seek its activ e in teg ratio n w ith in th e A rab -Sy rian fold . T he jo u rn a l a l-Ir fa n , w h ich b eg an p u b licatio n in Sid on in 1909 soon b ecam e th e forem ost au th o rity o n Leban ese S h i'a society . T h ese sig n s o f ch an ge fo r th e better/ th ou gh w id e­ sp read , h ad lim ited im p act u p on th e p easan t m ajo rity w hose p o sitio n rem ained p recariou s and im p overish ed . Je a n D on on p rov id es a glim p se o f th e m iserable ag rarian co n d itio n s in Sy ria a s a w h ole a t th e end o f th e O ttom an p eriod : The villagers Mho live on h e latifundia, by cultivating the soil apparently under a métayage system, furnish their work and that of their fam ily. They receive from the proprietor the funds, the instruments of work (how veiy little and rudimentary), the draught animals, the seed, etc., . . . on a advance basis which they w ill reim burse, the harvest completed, at a rate that can be described, w ithout hesitation, as usurious. The harvest completed, the cultivator w ill not be richer than b efo re .. . . He w ill still have the prospect of contracting new debts until the next harvest, lest he prefers to look elsewhere for conditions of existence as precarious. Serf of a big landowner he is, serf he w ill remain, attached to the land by ancestral tradition.49 T h e v icto ry o f th e A llies in 1918 b rou g h t a new se t o f ru lers to th e A rab E ast alo n g w ith h ig h h o p es fo r th e im p end ing settlem en t. T h e A rab n atio n alists w ere o b liv iou s to the in co n sisten cies b etw een th e Sy k es-P icot A greem ent o f 9-16 M ay 1916, w h ich d iv id ed th eir lan d in to A n g lo-Fren ch sp h eres, and th e H u sayn-M cM ahon corresp on d en ce o f 1915-1916, w h ereb y "th e B ritish , in ord er to g ain th e S h a rif o f M ecca's in terv en tio n ag ain st th e T u rk s, o ffe r e d . . . to su p p ort th e estab lish m en t o f n ativ e governm ents in p arts o f S y ria an d M esop otam ia, ap art from th e in terests o f th eir Fren ch ally ."50 T h ey th erefore reg ard ed th e en d o f th e w ar a s th e daw n o f a tim e w h en th eir p o litica l asp iratio n s w ou ld b e ach ieved . W ith th e retreat o f th e O ttom an arm y, p ro v isio n al A rab gov ern m en ts in th e nam e o f K ing H u sayn w ere estab lish ed a ll over S y ria, a s w ell a s in T y re, Sid o n , an d B a'lab ak -al-H irm il u n d er the lead ersh ip o f

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39

'A b d A llah Y ahya K halil/ R iyad al-S u lh , so n o f R id a, an d A s'ad H ayd ar, resp ectiv ely . T h e S h i'a z u 'a m a 's in itia l d isp o sitio n tow ard Sy rian u n ity w as exp ressed in th e m yriad statem en ts th ey issu ed an d m eetin g s th ey h eld o n its b eh alf.51 It w as also ev id en t in th eir resp on se to th e K ing-C rane C om m ission/ a fact-fin d in g team assign ed b y th e M and ate C om m ission o f th e P eace C on feren ce a t th e req u est o f P resid en t W ood row W ilson o f th e U nited S tates to ascertain n atio n al sen tim en t in Sy ria. T h e d ifferen ces in tactics b etw een th e B iq a 'is w ho b o y co tted th e K ing-C rane C om m ission and th e /A m ilis w h o receiv ed it d id n o t ab o rt th e S h i'a strateg ic su p p ort fo r Sy rian u n ity u n d er a m on arch y h ead ed b y P rince Faysal [son o f H usayn] as king.52 A fter a v isit o f sev eral m onths to th e area in 1919/ "K in g and C ran e rep orted u n exp ected ly stron g exp ression s o f Sy rian n atio n al feelin g an d gen eral rev u lsio n a t the id ea o f a Fren ch m and ate/ excep t am ong p arties in L eban on [m ainly M aronite an d G reek C ath olic]/ w ho d esired a sep arate state w ith Fren ch collab oration ."53 H ow ever/ local/ regional/ an d extra-reg io n al facto rs w ere to stan d in th e w ay o f th e A rab n atio n alist d ream . T h e fin al d efeat o f th e Leagu e o f N atio n s' C oven an t on th e flo o r o f th e U n ited States Sen ate on 2 0 M arch 1920, and th e su bsequ en t iso latio n ist cu rren t in th at co u n try w eakened the p o litical th ru st b eh in d W ilso n 's id eal o f th e rig h t o f self-d eterm in ation . T h e con verg en ce o f F ran ce's com m ercial and co lo n ial in terests w ith M aron ite effo rts o n b eh a lf o f L eban ese ind ep en d ence facilitated th e creatio n o f G reater Leban on. O n 1 Sep tem ber 1920/ G en eral G ou raud p roclaim ed the estab lish m en t o f th e new en tity . S ix years later/ on 23 M ay 1926/ la R ép u bliqu e L ib an aise (th e Leban ese R ep u blic) cam e in to ex isten ce, w ith a w ritten co n stitu tio n and form al b ou n d aries. T h e S h i'a attitu d e tow ard th e A rab n atio n alist gov ern m en t, the F ren ch m an d ate, an d th e state o f G reater L eban on, and ev en tow ard th e L eban ese R ep u blic d u rin g its form ativ e y ears, reflected a sp ecific orien tation . It, in essen ce, w as an attach m en t to a relig io cu ltu ral h eritag e w h ich an in d ep en d en t Leban on th reaten ed to sen ten ce to ob liv ion . A series o f p o litica l actio n s w h ich defend ed th e A rab Islam ic id en tity and exp ressed a refu sal to p art w ith th e rem ain s o f a n atio n al existen ce w ere d erived from th is orien tation . T h ese in clu d ed : (1) the con certed reso lu tio n o f M u 'tam ar al-H u jay r (T he C on feren ce o f al-H u jay r) on 2 4 A p ril 1920, b y th e zu 'am a o f

40

A Lebanon D efied

Ja b a l /A m il th at th eir lan d b e lin k ed to a n A rab gov ernm ent u n d er d ie lead ersh ip o f Faysal,54 (2) th e b a y 'a o f th e 'a sh a 'ir to th e H ash im ite am ir, (3) d ie reb el activ ities o f th e b an d s o f S ad iq H am za, A d ham K h an jar, T aw fiq H u lu H ayd ar, and o th ers, (4) the p o p u lar rev o lts o f Jab al 'A rn il an d o f th e B iq a ' (1919-1920), and (5) th e second rev o lt o f th e B iq a7 in 1924, w h ich w as in teg rated in to th e g reat Sy rian rev o lt o f 1925-1926 an d cu lm in ated in th e v icto ry a t F isan on 18 M ay 1926, ag ain st th e French an d th eir clien ts.55 U n d erlyin g th is situ atio n o f p o litical du x w as th e d eep -seated am b iv alen ce w ith w h ich th e m ajo rity o f th e S h i'a zu 'am a regard ed S y rian u n ity -a n am b iv alen t su p p ort fo r an A rab n atio n alist cu rren t w h ich , if triu m p h an t, cou ld restore th eir p ast g lory , an d a fear o f m issin g th e o p p ortu n ities a t hand . Follow ing a p o licy o f "on e fo o t in th e fallo w , and an o th er in th e tilled ,” th e S h i'a zu 'am a ta citly n eg o tiated w ith th e F ren ch w h ile tactically su p p orted d ie rebels.56 T h is ex p lain s th e lack o f th ese zu 'am a am ong th e reb el lead ersh ip w h ich w as com p rised oh Z ayn M ir'i Ja 'fa r o f d ie B iq a7 rev o lts and th e b a ttle o f F isan w ho w as a "cou sin " o f 7A bd 7A li S a7d u n, th e sh ay kh o f th e Ja 7fa r 7ash ira, T aw fiq H ulu H ayd ar w ho w as a "nep hew " o f A s7ad b e k H ayd ar, th e lead er o f d ie H ayd ars, an d Sad iq H am za w ho w as a "d istan t relatio n " o f K am il b e k al-A s7ad , th e 7A m ili ch ieftain . It is sig n ifican t to n o te th e tie s o f econom ic in terest th a t b ou n d Ja b a l 7A m il an d B aT abak-al-H irm il tog eth er o n th e one h an d , and o th er p arts o f so u th ern S y ria, n o rth ern P alestin e, and th e S y rian in terio r on th e o th er, form in g tw o w ell-in teg rated , th ou gh arch aic, com m ercial netw orks. P alestin ian cu rren cy p red om in ated in Ja b a l 7A m il u n til 1952, w h ile th e co al o f th e H irm il w as larg ely m arketed in th e Sy rian in terio r u n til d ie severan ce o f th e cu stom s u n io n b etw een th e tw o co u n tries in 1950.57 A ttem p tin g to overcom e S h i7a h o stility tow ard th eir p resen ce an d tow ard th e state o f G reater Lebanon, th e French m an d atory au th o rities em barked on a p o licy o f d iv id in g th e Sh i7a ran ks b y co o p tin g th e trad itio n al lead ersh ip a n d /o r creatin g new cen ters o f p ow er w ith in th e com m u nity. In D ecem ber 1923, th ey en d orsed th e m o tio n o f th e fiv e S h i'a d ep u ties in th e first "elected " R ep resen­ tativ e C ou n cil (25 M ay 1922-13 Jan u ary 1925), to recogn ize th e S h i'a "rite" an d th e rig h t o f th e S h i'a 'u lam a to in stitu te trib u n als. T h ree years la ter, o n 2 7 Jan u ary 1926, w h ile d ie d iscu ssio n s w ere

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u n d erw ay to d eterm in e th e d istrib u tio n o f o fficial p o sts accord in g to co n fessio n al crite ria , th e S h i'a lead ersh ip , afraid o f h av in g its rig h ts to rep resen tatio n fu sed w ith th a t o f th e Su n n is u n d er a com m on Islam ic tick et, obtain ed from th e F ren ch gov ern or a d ecree recogn izin g th at 'the Shi'a Muslims in Greater Lebanon form an independent religious community; they are to be judged in matters of personal status according to the principles of the rite known as the Ja'fari rite' (a rt 1) by their Qadi (art. 2) and on appeal by a special Chamber of the Court of Cassation, composed of the President and two assessors to be chosen from among foe Shi'a jurists (art. 3).50 T h ese first step s tow ard reco g n itio n , cou p led w ith o fficia l M aron ite cou rtsh ip o f th e S h i'a , p rod u ced th eir in ten d ed resu lts. B y 1936, if n o t earlier, th e S h i'a zu 'am a seem ed to h av e op ted fo r la raison du p lu s fo r t. T h eir con tin u ed rh eto rical su p p ort fo r the A rab cau se w as ju s t th at, w h ile n eg o tiatin g th e d iv isio n o f gov ernm ent sp o ils b ecam e the p aram ou n t con cern . N otw ithstand ­ in g its ad h eren ce to reu n ificatio n w ith Sy ria a t th e second M u 'ta m ar a l-S ah il (T he C onference o f th e C o ast), w h ich m et on 10 M arch 1936, th e S h i'a lead ersh ip , lik e its Su n n i co u n terp art, b eg an stressin g its d esire "to liv e w ith th eir b reth ren , m em bers o f th e d ifferen t sects, in lastin g secu rity an d tru e co o p eratio n fo r th e sake o f th e p u b lic good" a s m em bers an d citizen s o f Lebanon.59 D escrib in g fo is p ro cess, Isk an d ar R iach i, a p rom in en t Leban ese jo u rn a list, notes: The Shi'a [zu'ama] became politically independent of foe Sunnis and formed, from that tim e, a major force that has since allowed them to advance their own corporate identity. There is no doubt that foe . . . strength [of foe Shi'a zu'am a] was responsible more than anything else for establishing Lebanese entity on a firm basis after foe evacuation of foe French. Fearing fois entity, foe French had imposed it through sheer w ill on foe two Muslim communities who constitute nearly half of foe population of foe country, and who did not accept the creation of Lebanon and had never once conceded that it was foe embodiment of their dream and their final homeland.60

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A Lebanon D efied

T h e S h i'a e lite 's p articip atio n in L eban ese p o litical life affected th e com m u nity in a t lea st one m ajo r resp ect. It w id ened th e socioeconom ic gap b etw een the m asses an d the lead ersh ip . W hile th e S h i'a lead ers jo ck ey ed fo r governm ent p osition s/ th e actu al liv in g con d ition s in S h i'a v illag es d eteriorated as "the p roblem o f ru ral p ov erty and in d e b te d n e ss. . . w as attack ed in v ario u s w ays, b u t effectiv ely solv ed b y n on e."61 T h e S h i'a areas p aid m ore taxes an d receiv ed less governm ent fu n d s th an M ou nt Lebanon. W h ile 82 p ercen t o f governm ent rev en u es cam e from d ie M u slim areas, governm ent exp en d itu re on M ou nt L eban on in 1927, fo r in stan ce, accou n ted fo r 80 p ercen t o f d ie to ta l b u d g et allo cated fo r in frastru ctu ral d evelop m ent. Sim ilarly , p riv ate M u slim sch o o ls receiv ed o n ly 7.5 p ercen t o f the gov ern m en t's aid b u d g et to su ch sch o o ls in 1934 (3.6 p ercen t fo r d ie Su n n i, 2 .3 p ercen t fo r d ie S h i'a , an d 1.5 p ercen t fo r th e D ru ze), as com pared to 92.5 p ercen t fo r th eir C h ristian cou n terp arts (47.4 p ercen t fo r th e M aron ite, and 45.1 p ercen t fo r th e o th er C h ristian d enom inations). Fu rth erm ore, th ere w as n o t a sin g le h osp ital in a ll o f sou th ern Leban on in 1943. A lso ab sen t w ere irrig atio n sch em es; th e b u lk o f the p eo p le d ran k stagn an t w ater.62 O n th e p o litical fro n t, th e con fession al system fostered b o th a S u n n i-S h i'a estran g em en t a t d ie lead ersh ip lev el, an d a S h i'a -S h i'a d iv isio n b etw een lead ers and follo w ers. T he co n flictin g p o sitio n s tak en b y Sab ri and S a 'a d A llah H am ad i, w ho coop erated w ith th e Fren ch , and som e o f th eir follo w ers, w ho fou gh t fo r th e cau se o f Sy rian u n ity , ru p tu red th e h isto rical asso ciatio n b in d in g th em togeth er. It also b ecam e com m on fo r A hm ad al-A s'ad an d oth er estab lish ed S h i'a lead ers to accu se the Su n n i com m u nity o f m on op olizin g the sh are o f governm ental ap p oin tm en ts reserv ed fo r th e M u slim s, w h ile o th er less estab lish ed S h i'a p erso n alities coop erated w ith th e Su n n is u n d er a com m on Islam ic u m b rella. Su ch d iv ision s h ad far-reach in g con seq u en ces th at im p acted u p o n d ie S h i'a com m u nity as a w h ole b y alien atin g th e trad itio n al lead ersh ip from a slow ly p o liticizin g g en eration w h ose p o litica l id en tificatio n w as A rab N atio n alist, as op p osed to S h i'a and L ebanese. T h ese con seq u en ces cam e to th e fo refro n t w ith th e rise o f th e E gyp tian lead er Jam al 'A b d al-N asir in th e fiftie s an d six ties, w ho p rov id ed th e fru strated S h i'a w ith a v eh icle th rou g h w h ich th ey exp ressed th eir rejectio n o f th e Leban ese estab lish m en t a s w ell

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43

a s th o se am ong th eir ow n lead ers w ho su p p orted it. In th is co n tex t, N asirism p lay ed a critica l ro le in su stain in g a p o litica l con­ scio u sn ess am ong th e S h i'a th at u n d erw en t m an y tran sform ation s in a p ro cess th at con tin u es in to d ie p resen t.

N O T ES 1. See Said, O rientalism , 11. 2. David Urquhart, The Lebanon (M ount Souria): A H istory and a D iary, 2 vols. (London: Thomas Cautley Newby, 1860), 1: 95. 3. Fouad Ajami, The Vanished Imam (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986), 6 1 ,1 7 1 , and elsewhere. 4. Ibid., 1 6 1 ,1 1 9 ,3 1 ,6 3 ,4 7 , and 51, respectively. 5. See Muhammad 'A li Makki, "La Politique C hi'ite au Liban du Xlèm e au XlVème Siècle," in C olloque 'A shura/ Cahiers des Lettres, no. 5 (Beyrouth: Ecole Supérieure des Lettres, 1974), 22-45. 6. Mahmud Shahabi, "The Roots of Shi'ism in Early Islam ic History," in Ski'ism : D octrines, Thought, and Spirituality, ed. and annotated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Hamid Dabashi, and Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1988), 16. 7. Roy P. M ottahedeh, Loyalty and Leadership in an Early Islam ic Society (Princeton, N ]: Princeton University Press, 1980), 10-15. Quotations are on 14. 8. See Etan Kohlberg, "W estern Studies of Shi'a Islam ," in Shi'ism , R esistance, and R evolution, ed. Martin Kramer (Boulder, CO, and London: W estview Press and Mansell Publishing, 1987), 31-44. 9. Quoted in Jafri, The O rigins and Early D evelopm ent o f Shi'a Islam , 298. 10. Ajami, The V anished Imam, 57. 11. Jafri, The O rigins and Early D evelopm ent o f Shi'a Islam , 289-312. Quotation is on 299. 12. Ibid., 293. 13. Etan Kohlberg, "Some Im am i-Shi'i Views on Taqiyya,” Journal o f A m erican O riental Society 95, no. 3 0uly-Septem ber 1975): 395-402. Quotation is on 395. 14. 'A li al-Zayn, liA -Bahth 'an Tarikhina f i Lubnan [In search of our history in Lebanon] (Beirut: n.p., 1973); Muhammad Jabir Al Safa, Tarikh Jabal 'Amil [The history of Jabal 'A m ilj, new and rev. ed. (Beirut: Dar alNahar li-l-N ashr, 1981); and Muhammad Taqi al-Faqih, Jabal 'AmU f i alTarikh [Jabal 'Am il in history] (Beirut: Dar al-Adw a', 1986). 15. Ranajit Guha, "On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India,” in Selected Subaltern Studies, 37-43. Quotations are on 38.

44

A Lebanon D efied

16. Al Safa, Tarüch Jabal 'AmU, 165-230. Quotation is on 206. 17. al-Zayn, li-l-B ahth 'an TarikM w f i Lubnan, particularly 23-35. Quotation is on 29. 18. Edmond Rabbath, La Form ation H istorique du U ban P olitique et C onstitutionnel, new ed. (Beyrouth: Publications de l'U niversité Libanaise/ 1986)/ 367-68. 19. Philip Hitti/ Lebanon in H istory, 3d ed. (London: M acMillan, 1967), 490-91; and David McDowall, Lebanon: A C onflict o f M inorities, M inority Rights Group, no. 61 (London: MRG, 1983), 18. 20. According to Antonio G ram sd, Selections from the Prison N otebooks, ed. and trans. Quinton Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971), 366, "Structures and Superstructures form an 'historic bloc.' That is to say the complex contradictory and discordant ensem ble of the superstructures is the reflection of the ensemble of the social relations of production.” See also Talal Jaber, "Chi'ites et Pouvoir Politique au Liban (1967-1974),” (Thèse du Doctorat du 3ème Cycle, Université du Paris V II, 1980), 55; and Waddah G u ara, F i Usul Lubnan alT a'ifi [At the origins of confessional Lebanon] (Beirut: Dar al-Tali'a, 1977), 74-75. 21. Muhammad 'A li Makki, Lubnan 635-1516: min al-Fath al-'A rabi Ua al-Fath al-'U thm ani [Lebanon 635-1516: from the Arab conquest to the Ottoman conquest] (B eiru t Dar al-Nahar li-l-N ashr, 1977), 8. 22. See Evelyn Aleene Early, "The Amiliyya Society of B eiru t A Case Study of an Emerging Urban Za'im ,” (M.A. thesis, the American University of Beirut, 1971); and Aman Atiyyah, 'Developm ent of Shi'ite Education in Lebanon," (M.A. thesis, the American University of Beirut, 1972). 23. See Claude Dubar and Salim Nasr, Les C lasses Sociales au U ban (Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1976), 19. 24. Gabriel Charmes, Voyage en Syrie-Im pressions et Souvenirs, ed. Calman Lévy (Paris: Imprimerie P. M ouillot, 1891), 40-41. Also quoted in Jaber, "Chi'ites et Pouvoir Politique au Uban (1967-1974)," 67. 25. See Tarif Khalidi, "Shaykh Ahmad 'A rif al-Zayn and al-Trfan,” in In tellectual U fe in the A rab Fast, 1890-1939, ed. Marwan Buheiry (B eiru t American University Press, 1981), 110-24. 26. al-Zayn, li-l-B ahth 'an Tarikhina f i Lubnan, 158-59. 27. Ahmad Rida, "al-Shi'a aw al-M atawila fi Jabal 'A m il," 239. 28. M akki, "La Politique C hi'ite au U ban du Xlèm e au XlVème Siècle," 26-35. 29. Salih bin Yahya, Tarikh Bayrut [The history of Beirut], ed. Kamal Salibi and Francis Hours (Beyrouth: Iter al-M ashreq, 1969), 27.

The Ski'a in Lebanese H istory

45

30. N asib Nimr, "al-Thani al-M a'ni al-Kabir Mawrana Thulthay Jabal Lubnan" [The second M a'ni the great Maronitized two thirds of M ount Lebanon], al-N ahar (Beirut) (31 August 1988): 9; and Dominique Chevall­ ier, La Société du M ont Liban à l'Epoque de la R évolution Industrielle en Europe (Paris: Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner, 1971), 7-9. It should be noted here that die use of the tide "amir" and die term "amirate” to describe die ruler of Mount Lebanon and his dominion should in no w ay be construed to mean that this region enjoyed de-jure autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty, or could be compared to European city-states, principalities, and others. In every way indeed, the am ir of Mount Lebanon w as a state functionary and a subject of die Porte, the territory under his control ultim ately a property of the Sublime Ottoman state. 31. Ajami, The Vanished Im am , 54. 32. See M as'ud Dahir, "Adwa' 'ala Jughrafiyyat al-Tatawwur al-Tarikhi li-l-M uqata'at al-Lubnaniyya" [Lights on die historical and geographical evolution of die Lebanese districts], D irasat, Université Libanaise —Faculté de Pédagogie, 3èm e année, no. 1 (1975): 55-95. It should be mentioned that the adm inistrative zoning of Jabal 'Am il and die BaTabak-al-Hirmil area changed in 1660, in 1861, in 1864, and in 1887: In that foremost year when Jabal 'A m il was incorporated into die newly-created wilaya of Sidon; in 1861 when al-Hirmil was formally integrated into Mount Lebanon through becoming a nahiya of the qada of al-Batrun, a link which persisted for the period of die m utasarriftyya; in 1864 when Ottoman Syria was reorganized into two wilayas, that of Syria com pris­ ing the former wilayas of Sidon and Tripoli, and that of Aleppo with both Shi'a areas becoming parts of die wilaya of Syria; and finally in 1887 when the w ilaya of Beirut was created and Jabal 'Am il was absorbed into it. 33. The iqta' in die Ottoman sense was norm ally a temporary grant of land to an iqta'i for the collection of taxes. For a discussion of die evolution of die "eastern" iqta' system as distinct from European feudalism , see, among others, M as'ud Dahir, ed-Intifddat al-Lubnaniyya did al-N izam (d-M uqata'ji [The Lebanese uprisings against die iqta' system] (Beirut: Dar al-Farabi, 1988), 15-37. 34. Khalidi, "Shaykh Ahmad 'A rif al-Zayn and al-Trfan," 118-23; and Khalaf, Lebanon's Predicam ent, 22-29. 35. Antoine Abdel-Nour, T ijarat Sayda ma' al-G harb min M u n tasafalQ am al-Sabi' 'A skar üa A w akhir al-Q am al-Tham in 'Ashar [The commerce of Sidon w ith die W est from the m iddle of the seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth century] (Beyrouth: Publications de l'Université Libanaise, 1987), 165-70

46

A Lebanon D efied

36. Ibrahim Baydun and others/ eds., Safahat min Tarikh Jabal 'Am il [Pages from the history of Jabal 'Am il] (Beirut: Dar al-Farabi, 1979)/ 52105; Amnon Cohen/ Palestine in the 18th Century (Jerusalem: The Magnes Press, 1973)/ 98-104; and Adel Ismail/ D ocum ents D iplom atiques et C onsulaires R élatifs à l'H istoire du Liban et des Pays du Proche-O rient du X VIIèm e S iècle à nos fou rs, 32 vols. (Beyrouth: Editions des Oeuvres Politiques et H istoriques/1975), vol. 2 :2 0 5 ,2 1 0 ,2 1 2 ,2 2 5 ,2 5 3 -5 4 , and vol. 3 :5 2 . 37. al-Zayn, li-l-B ahth 'an TarikM na f i Lubnan, 481. The etymology of Matawila (pi. of M itwali) is as obscure as controversial. Shi'a historians suggest its origins from the root w aliya. Taw alla and taw ala, the fifth and sixth verbal forms of w aliya, respectively, mean to choose somebody to represent, or to have allegiance to. At the time of foe Umayyad caliphate, a tenant of 'A lid legitim acy was known as "Mutawalli or Mutawali li-Abi Turab;" Abu Turab being a sobriquet of 'A li. The phrase "tawalla ahl albayt" was in fact frequently used to refer to a Shi'a. Hence foe term M itwali w hich is no more than a colloquial version of Mutawalli or M utawali. See Ahmad Rida, "al-Shi'a aw al-M atawila fi Jabal 'Am il," 23738; and Henri Lammens, "Les Perses du Liban et l'O rigine des M étoualis,” M élanges de l'U niversité Saint Joseph 14, no. 2 (1929): 30-31. 38. [François], Baron de Tott, M ém oires du Baron de T ott, 4 vols. (Amsterdam: n.p., 1784), 4:122-23; and M em oirs o f Baron de T ott, 2 vols., trans. from foe French (London: G.G.J. and J. Robinson, 1785), 2: app. "A Historical Memoir concerning foe Druses," 64-67. The quotation combines both the French and the English editions. 39. al-Faqih, Jabal 'Amil f i al-T arikh, 397-415. 40. Urquhart, The Lebanon (M ount Souria), 330; and Perrier Ferdinand, La Syrie Sous le C ooem em ent de M ehm et-A li (Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1842), 234. 41. M. C—F Volney, Voyage en Syrie et en Egypte, 2 vols., 2d ed. (Paris: Desenne, 1787), 2: 82-83. 42. Antoine Abdel-Nour, Introduction à l'H istoire U rbaine de la Syrie O ttom ane (X V Ièm e-X V IlIèm e Siècle) (Beyrouth: Publications de lTJniversité Libanaise, 1982), 368. 43. Al Safa, Tarikh Jabal 'Amü, 135-43. 44. See Tannus al-Shidyaq, K itab A khbar al-A 'yan f i Jabal Lubnan [The history of foe notables in Mount Lebanon], 2 vols. (Beyrouth: Publications de lTJniversité Libanaise, 1970), 1:192-97, and elsewhere. 45. See Raymond A. Adams, "The Social Organization of a Shi'ite Community in Northern Lebanon, (Ph.D. diss., foe University of M anchester, 1978), 97-106; and Suwaydan Nasir al-Din, "al-Ard wa al-N as wa al-Tarikh fi Ba'labak-al-H irm il" [The land, foe people, and the history

The SM a in Lebanese H istory

47

in Ba'labak-al-H irm il], a sociological series that appeared on the pages of at-Safir in the summer of 1988. The information on the Hamadis is provided in no. 2 (6 June 1988): 6-7. 46. It is alleged that the 'asha'ir belonged to a confédération called the Bani Mazhaj which originated in the Yemen. According to this argument the Bani Mazhaj included the Hamadi 'asha'ir, w hich in turn were divided into Bayraq Afqa (the Z'aytir group) and Bayraq 'Alm a (the Shamas group). The exact number of the 'asha'ir is not very clear. A government survey in 1971 listed fifteen. It should also be noted that w hile recognizing the shaykhly role of toe Hamadis most of toe 'asha'ir seem oblivious to toe Bani Mazhaj confederation. W hen questioned, m ost leaders of the 'asha'ir mention the region of Jubayl as their ancestral land. According to Yusuf Muhammad 'Amru, in "Nazra 'ala Madi wa Hadir al-Shi'a fi Bilad Kisrawan wa Jubayl" [A look at the Shi'a past and present in toe regions of Kisrawan and Jubayl], al-'hfan 72, no. 2 (January 1984): 62-73, toe total number of Shi'a still residing in the regions of Jubayl and Kisrawan is about 70,000 inhabitants. 47. Abdel-Nour, Introduction à l'H istoire U rbaine de la Syrie O ttom ane, 346-50. 48. Khalidi, "Shaykh Ahmad 'A rif al-Zayn and al-'Irfan,” 121. 49. Jean Donon, "La Question Fonçière en Syrie et au Liban," L'A sie Française 23, no. 208 (Janvier-Février 1923): 22-23. 50. W illiam Shorock, French Im perialism in the M iddle East (Madison, W I: University of W isconsin Press, 1976), 3-4. 51. The involvement of toe Lebanese Shi'a in toe Arab nationalist movement is well documented in many sources, among which we find 'A li 'Abd al-M un'im Shu'ayb, M atalib Jabal 'AmU, al-W ihda wa al-M usaw at f i Lubrtan al-K abir, 1900-1936 [The demands of Jabal 'Am il, the unity and equality in Greater Lebanon, 1900-1936] (Beiruti al-M u'assasa al-Jam i'iyya li-l-D irasat wa al-Nashr wa al-Taw zi', 1987), 59-110; Hasan Muhammad Sa'd, Jabal 'AmU bayn al-A trak wa al-Faransiyyin, 1914-1920 [Jabal 'Am il between toe Turks and toe French, 1914-1920] (Beiruti Dar al-Kutub, 1980); and Nasir al-D in, "al-Ard wa al-Nas wa al-Tarikh fi Ba'labak-alH irm il/’ no. 3 (8 June 1988), 4 (10 June 1988), and 5 (12 June 1988). 52. See al-A lw ah, nos. 14 (March 1951): 3-6, and 15 (April 1951): 2-4. A copy of the speech by Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din (1873-1957), the m arja' o f Tyre, in which he emphasized "the desire and hopes of the ['A m ilij umma in Syrian unity. . . under the leadership of Prince Faysal" before the King-Crane Commission is in the author's possession. 53. Shorock, French Im perialism in the M iddle E ast, 81.

48

A Lebanon D efied

54. Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn ä ia ra f al-D in, "Safahat min Hayati" [Pages from my life], al-A lw ah, no. 15 (April 1951): 2-4; and Ahmad Ism a'il, "M u'tam ar W adi al-Hujayr" [The conference of W adi al-Hujayr], d -Irfa n 75, nos. 1 & 2 (1987-1988): 88-106. 55. N asir al-Din, "al-A id wa al-Nas w a al-Tarikh fí Ba'labak-al-H irm il," no. 3 (8 June 1988): 6-7. 56. According to Sa'd, Jabal 'Amil bayn al-A trak w a d-F aran siyyin, 74, the principle reason behind the Conference of al-Hujayr was a letter from the leaders of the Arab movement to Kamil bek al-A s'ad in his capacity as the m ain 'A m ili za'im warning him to take a clear stand on the issue of Syrian unity or bear the consequences. Sa'd Allah Hamadi, the leader of die Hamadi clan, on the other hand, had been a lieutenant in the French Army since 1920. The Muslim representation in the various Frenchsponsored senates, m inistries, and parliaments between 1920 and 1943 is w ell documented in Henri Abu Fadil, d-B arlam an [The parliament] (Beirut: M anshurat al-Harf, 1985), 21-150. 57. Waddah Chrara, Transform ation d'une M anifestation R eligieuse dans un V illage du Liban-Sud (A shura), Publications du Centre de Recherches de lTJniversité Libanaise-Institut des Sciences Sociales, no. 5 (Jounieh, Liban: Imprimerie Modernes de Kreïm, 1968), 24; and Nasir al-Din, "al-Ard wa al-N as wa al-Tarikh fí Ba'labak-al-Hirm il," no. 4 (10 June 1988): 6. 58. Pierre Rondot, Les Institutions P olitiques du Liban (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1947), 65-66. 59. Communication by the Muslim National Council, a grouping of M uslim leaders, to the French High Commissioner in April 1937, quoted in Hani A. Faris, "Tension-Management and Conflict-Resolution in a M ultireligious Society: Lebanon," (Ph.D. diss., the University of Calgary, 1973), 240. 60. Iskandar Riachi, Q abl wa Ba'd [Before and after] (Beirut: Dar alHayat, 1953), 215, quoted in Faris, ibid., 234. 61. Stephen Longrigg, Syria and Lebanon Under the French M andate (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1958), 280-81. 62. N ajla W adih Atiyah, "The Attitude of the Lebanese Sunnis Towards the State of Lebanon," (Ph.D. diss., the University of London, 1973), 79-89; and Ajami, The Vanished Im am , 61.

2 Shi'a Society by Numbers

The L á m ese Shi'a passed through the dark tim es o f colonialism . Then independence cam e to heal the toounds, and to grant freedom and ju stice. The Shi'a adopted i t . . . and have since w orked to deodop this country, to narrow the differences am ong its citizenry, and to protect it from any threats.. . . But these initiatives have rem ained unappreciated . . . and have even faced the hurdles o f neglect and preoccupation w ith parochial and private interests. —Musa al-Sadr

h e d aw n o f th e six ties m arked a new era in L ebanon. T h e tran sform ation th a t its econom y h ad b een u n d erg oin g sin ce th e n in eteen th cen tu ry cam e fu ll circle .1 B eiru t h ad acqu ired th e tra its o f an id eal en trep ôt. It em erged as the cen ter o f a trian g u lar trad e n etw ork lin k in g th e in d u strial w orld w ith th e oil-p rod u cin g areas o f th e M id d le East/ w h ich estab lish ed th e city in its p o sitio n a s th e u n d isp u ted fin an cial and com m ercial h eart o f th e region . B en efitin g from (1) its strateg ic lo catio n and geograp h y, (2) the clo su re o f H aifa, B e iru t's m ain com p etitor, and o f th e Su ez C an al in th e afterm ath o f th e 1948 and th e 1967 A rab P alestin ian -Israeli w ars, resp ectiv ely , (3) th e av ailab le p ool o f cap ital from th e o ilp rod u cin g states o f the A rab ian P en in su la, (4) refu g ee d ep o sits from p o litically trou b led A rab co u n tries, a s w ell as (5) rem ittan ces from em ig ran ts to th eir fam ilies, L ebanon in the six ties an d early 49

50

A Lebanon D efied

Table 2.1 Lebanon: Major population groups in 1932 and estimatesfor 1956,

1975, and 1988 by religion 1932

1956

1975

1988

Muslim

383,180

624,434

1,530,000

2,405,204

Druze Shi'a Sunni

53,047 154,208 175,925

88,131 250,605 285,698

178,500 688,500 663,500

218,204 1325,499 861,046

Christian

392,544

769,558

1,020,000

1,639380

45,999 226,378

87,788 423,708

127,500 586,500

165,612 999,672

25,462 76,522

63,679 148,927

_b

178,500

163,190 271,984

785,543

1,407,868

2,550,000

4,044,784

Religious Group

(Catholic) Greek Catholic Maronite (Orthodox) Ar. Orthodox* Greek Orthodox Population Sources:

1932: Youssef Courbage and Philippe Fargues, La Situation Démographique au Liban, 2 vols. (Beyrouth: Publications de l’Université Libanaise, 1973 & 1974), 2: 21. 1956: Estimates by al-Nahar (26 April 1956) 1975: Fiches du Monde Arabe, Lebanon— Economy: Population Data, IL-17 (24 September 1980). 1988: My own estimates based on figures by David McDowall, Lebanon: A Conflict of Minorities, Minorities Rights Group 61 (London: MRG, 1983), 9, and the rates of natural increase for the various religious groups provided by Joseph Chamie in Religion and Fertility (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 85. These are: Druze, 1.8%; non-Catholic Christians, 1.7%; Catholics, 2%; Shi'a, 3.8%; and Sunnis,

2 .8%. 'Armenian Orthodox. 'The dash indicates that no figure was given in the original source.

sev en ties exp erien ced a p henom enal serv ices-cen tered econ om ic b o o m w ell-illu strated in th e stead y rate o f th e G ro ss D om estic P rod u ct (G D P ) p er cap ita a t 3.1 p ercen t b etw een 1965 an d 1974.2 From tw en ty -th ree in 1950, th e nu m ber o f b an k s in creased to eig h ty in 1974, w h ile th e volu m e o f b an k d ep osits and its size relativ e to n atio n al incom e ju m p ed from 215 m illio n L eban ese p ou n d s (L L) an d 20 p ercen t to L L 8,220 m illio n an d 120 p ercen t,

Shi'a Society by Num bers

51

resp ectiv ely , o v er th e sam e p eriod .3 Sim ilarly , tran sit traffic th rou g h th e p o rt o f B eiru t in creased from 317,000 to n s in 1965 to 5.3 m illio n ton s in 1974, w h ile B eiru t In tern ation al A irp ort grew in to one o f th e b u siest and m ost im p ortan t airp o rts in th e w o rld , h an d lin g o v er 2.3 m illio n p assen g ers in 1974, an in crease o f 45 p ercen t ov er 1967. A record 2 .2 m illio n to u rists v isited Leban on in 1974, earn in g the co u n try L L 880 m illio n , an in crease o f 80 p ercen t and 85 p ercen t o v er 1960, resp ectiv ely .4 A ll in a ll, th e sh are o f th e tertiary se c to r-fin a n c ia l an d b an k in g activ ities, com m erce, tou rism , m ed ical and ed u catio n al serv ices, etc.—in th e G D P grew from 62 p ercen t in 1960, to n early 72 p ercen t in 1970. T h e p rep on d eran ce o f th e tertiary secto r w as accom p anied b y a m od est grow th in th e in d u strial secto r, an d exp osed the relativ e d eclin e in th e ag ricu ltu ral secto r: B etw een 1948 an d 1974, th e sh are o f th e in d u strial secto r in th e G D P grew b y 2 .2 p ercen t, b u t th e ag ricu ltu ral se cto r's p lu m m eted from 20 p ercen t to less th an 9 p ercen t. T h e segm en t o f the activ e p op u lation w o rk in g in ag ricu l­ tu re d im in ish ed m arkedly—from 48.9 p ercen t in 1959 to 17 p ercen t in 1974. A ltog eth er, in 1 9 7 0 ,1 9 .1 p ercen t o f th e activ e p op u lation w as fou nd in th e p rim ary sector (18.9 p ercen t in ag ricu ltu re, and 0 .2 p ercen t in ex tractiv e in d u stries su ch a s q u arryin g and salt p ro d u ctio n ), 25.1 p ercen t in th e secon d ary secto r (17.6 p ercen t in m an u factu rin g in d u stries and 7.5 p ercen t in in frastru ctu re and u tilitie s, e .g ., co n stru ctio n , w ater, and electricity ), and 55.3 p ercen t in th e tertia ry sector.5 P arallelin g th ese stru ctu ral ch an ges in th e n atio n al econom y has b e e n a sig n ifican t dem ograp hic in crease in th e co u n try 's S h i'a p o p u latio n o v er the la st fou r d ecad es. N o o fficial cen su s h as b een con d u cted in Leban on sin ce 1932, a fact w h ich clearly rev eals the sen sitiv ity o f th e issu e. H ow ever, it is gen erally know n th at the S h i'a to d ay co n stitu te th e sin g le larg est co n fessio n al grou p in the cou n try . T ab le 2 .1 , alth ou g h o n ly ap p roxim ate, d elin eates the ex ten t o f th is dem ograp hic ev olu tion . T h e tran sform ation o f Leban on from "an ag rarian rep u b lic into a n exten d ed city state,"6 an d th e ram ification s th at en tailed fo r the S h i'a com m u n ity have p rov en to b e one o f th e d eterm in in g fo rces b eh in d its p o liticizatio n . T he dem ograp hic rev o lu tio n and in ten se so cia l m o b ilizatio n th is com m u nity h as u n d ergon e, the "clan ism " th a t h as ch aracterized th e L ebanese p o lity , an d sp illo v er from

52

A Lebanon D efied

reg io n al an d in tern atio n al d y n am ics h av e a ll b een m ajo r facto rs su stain in g th is p o liticizatio n .7

A G R IC U LTU R E A N D T H E SH TA C O M M U N ITY T rad itio n ally , ag ricu ltu re w as the m ain sou rce o f liv elih ood in So u th Leban on and th e B iq a '. U n til th e late fiftie s, it em p loyed n early 90 p ercen t o f th e av ailab le w ork force. T h e m ajo rity o f the p easan ts liv ed o n sm all h old in g s and p racticed d ry-farm in g: In 1970, 65 p ercen t o f lan d h old in gs in th e So u th and 45 p ercen t o f th o se in th e B iq a ' w ere less th an tw o h ectares in size. A sam p le stu d y con d u cted in 1 9 7 2 b y th e Food an d A gricu ltu re O rg an ization (FA O ) in co o p eratio n w ith th e lita n i A u th ority , a L eban ese gov ern m en tal in stitu tio n , estim ated th e to tal cu ltiv ated area in so u th ern Leban on to b e fo rty -eig h t thou sand h ectares, d istrib u ted a s follo w s: 8 2 .4 p ercen t fo r n on -irrig ated cro p s, w h ile irrig ated cro p s (an n u al an d lon g -term ) rep resen ted 17.6 p ercen t o f the cu ltiv ated area. A n oth er stu d y in 1973 p u t the to ta l cu ltiv ated area in th e B iq a ' p lain a t eig h ty -sev en thou sand h ectares (ou t o f a to tal o f 170,000), d istrib u ted as follow s: 7 p ercen t irrig ated , 2 2 p ercen t seaso n ally irrig ated , and 71 p ercen t n on -irrig ated . O n th e w h o le, an d accord in g to th e sam e stu d ies, th e con trib u tion o f th e B iq a ' an d o f So u th Leban on to th e gross ag ricu ltu ral p rod u ct in Lebanon w as 30 p ercen t in 1973 an d 26 p ercen t in 1974, resp ectiv ely .8 O n e o f th e salien t featu res o f L eban ese ag ricu ltu re sin ce th e fiftie s h as b een th e grad u al d isin teg ratio n o f ru ral society . In S o u th L eban on an d th e B iq a ', b ig agrib u sin esses em erged th rou g h th e acq u isitio n b y en trep ren eu rs an d S h i'a ém igrés o f large tra cts o f lan d th a t h ad form erly b elon g ed to th e dom inant fam ilies o f th e reg ion s. T h is cap italist p en etratio n , th e hegem ony o f com m ercial in terests ov er m u ch o f th e ag ricu ltu ral secto r, an d governm ent n eg lect an d lax su p erv isio n com bined to a lter th e stru ctu re o f ag ricu ltu ral p rod u ction in Leban on, and allow ed th e ex p lo itatio n o f the sm all p easan try at ev ery stag e o f th e p rod u ction cy cle. B o th o f th ese tren d s w ere m an ifest in th e follo w in g p attern s: (1) Sp ecializatio n in a few cro p s a t th e exp en se o f m ore trad itio n al p rod u ce. A lthou gh L eban ese ag ricu ltu re cou ld p o ten tially sa tisfy th e food n eed s o f th e lo cal m ark et, a s w ell a s th e d em and s o f th e

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su rrou n d in g A rab cou n tries/ in d ep en d en t L eban on g rad u ally b ecam e a n e t im p o rter o f m ost b asic ag ricu ltu ral an d d airy p ro d u cts. C ash cro p s lik e d tru S/ ap p les, grap es, tobacco/ an d su g ar b e e t crow d ed ou t cereals and an im al p rod u cts. T h e area u n d er w h eat, b arley , co m , and legu m e cu ltiv atio n sh ran k b y 42.1 p ercen t b etw een 1950 an d 1971, w h ile p rod u ction d eclin ed b y 38.6 p ercen t o v er th e sam e p eriod . T h e trad e d eficit in cereals in gen eral rep resen ted 82 p ercen t o f th e ag ricu ltu ral trad e d eficit in 1964.9 T h e area u n d er citru s an d ap p le cu ltiv atio n , on th e oth er h an d , exp and ed b y 68.6 p ercen t an d 176.9 p ercen t b etw een 1955 and 1971, w h ile p rod u ction in creased b y 115.0 p ercen t and 590.9 p er­ cen t, resp ectiv ely , ov er th e sam e p eriod . B etw een 1965 an d 1971, ag ricu ltu ral ex p o rts d eclin ed from 44.5 p ercen t to 24.6 p ercen t o f a ll exp o rts. Im p orts o f m eat an d an im al p rod u cts in gen eral in creased b y ab ou t 90 p ercen t b y th e late six ties, an d b y alm ost 900 p ercen t in v alu e an d 300 p ercen t in volu m e, resp ectiv ely , b etw een 1956 an d 1966. h i 1969 alon e Leban on im p orted 37.6 thou sand to n s o f m eat an d 217.1 th ou san d ton s o f m ilk an d related d airy p ro d u cts, accou n tin g fo r 56 p ercen t and 70 p ercen t o f its consu m p­ tio n , resp ectiv ely . T he ag ricu ltu ral trad e d eficit fo r file y ears 19691971 w as n early L L 832 m illio n , rep resen tin g 58.2 p ercen t o f th e o v erall v alu e o f im p orts o v er th e sam e p erio d .10 (2) Su b ju g atio n o f ag ricu ltu ral p o licy to p riv ate con cern s. H ere th e case o f th e su g ar b eet p rod u ction is v ery in d icativ e. Su gar b eet cu ltiv atio n in Leban on took o ff in 1959 w ith th e com p letion o f th e co u n try 's first p ro cessin g facto ry a t M ajd al 'A n ja r in the B iq a'. U n til th a t y ear, th e sm all qu an tity o f th is crop th at th e reg ion p rod u ced u sed to b e ship ped to Sy ria fo r p ro cessin g , w h ile su gar p ro d u ctio n in Leban on w as larg ely con fin ed to refin in g im ported raw su g ar, esp ecially a fte r 1956 w h en lo cal can e p rod u ction fo r in d u strial u se cam e to a h alt. B etw een 1959 an d 1972, b eet p ro d u ctio n in creased n early sixteen fold to 190,000 to n s, w h ile the acreag e u n d er cu ltiv atio n m ore th an d ou bled from sev en teen h u n d red to th irty -fiv e h u n d red h ectares b etw een 1965 and 1973. A stu d y in 1967 estim ated th at th e Leban ese su g ar in d u stry cou ld h av e satisfied th e lo cal dem and fo r su gar w ell in to th e eig h ties, an d a t th e sam e tim e exp orted con sid erable q u an tities to n eig h b or­ in g cou n tries. Fu rth erm ore, th e cap acity o f th e p la n t at M ajd al 'A n ja r co u ld have d ou bled w ith a 20-25 p ercen t in crease in

54

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in v estm en t, w h ile a d ou bling o f th e cap ital o f the com p any w ou ld h av e in creased th e p rod u ction from fiv e hu nd red to tw en ty -fiv e h u n d red to n s p er d ay.11 B u t an ab solu te rise in lo ca l p ro d u ctio n ran co n trary to th e in terests o f th e su gar cartel w h ich , n o t su rp ris­ in g ly , also h ad a near-m on op oly on th e im p o rtation o f su gar, th u s reg u latin g lo cal ou tp u t accord in g to p rices in th e w orld m arket. W hen th ese soared ag ain in 1973-1974, it seem ed op p ortu n e to en cou rage b eet cu ltiv atio n and th e p la n t's refin in g cap acity from elev en h u n d red to tw o th ou san d ton s p er day. H ow ever, risin g ag ricu ltu ral p rod u ction co sts an d th e low p rices d ie p lan t p aid to farm ers h ad alread y fo rced m any p rod u cers to aban d on b eet cu ltiv atio n : P rod u ction fell to fifty -fiv e th ou san d ton s in 1973 an d th e acreag e u n d er cu ltiv atio n p lu m m eted to one thou sand h ectares in 1974. T h e p lan t w orked fo r on ly tw en ty -fiv e d ays d u rin g th at y ear, p rod u cin g o n ly six ty -six hu nd red ton s o f su g ar, w ith L eban on im p o rtin g eig h ty -fiv e thou sand ton s a t a co st o f LL 175 m illio n , o r ev en tw ice w h at th e co st o f lo cal p rod u ction w o u ld h av e b een h ad th e dem and o f th e grow ers fo r a 100 p ercen t in crease in th e p rice p er k ilo o f b eet b een m et. O b viou sly, th e go v ern m en t's com m itm ent to the co u n try 's su g ar in d u stry w as sh o rt-liv ed , callin g in to qu estion th e ro le o f the cartel in in itia tin g th at com m itm en t in th e first p lace.12 (3) T h e w retch ed con d ition s o f th e ag ricu ltu ral w ork ers and sm all lan d o w n ers, i.e ., th o se w ith h old in g s o f less th an tw o h ectares, w ho co n stitu ted n early 72 p ercen t o f th e ag ricu ltu ral p op u lation in th e early seven ties. D aily w ages in th e ag ricu ltu ral secto r averaged L L 7 p er m an , LL3-5 p er w om an, and L L 1.5 p er ch ild , b rin g in g th e to ta l av erag e an n u al in com e fo r a m ed iu m -sized fam ily o f fiv e to six p erson s to ab ou t L L 2,000, or n early on e-th ird o f th e L L 6,247 th a t th e L ebanese Fam ily P lanning A ssociation (L FP A ) estim ated to b e th e av erag e fam ily incom e in L eban on in 1971.13 T h is w as a t a tim e w h en th e rise in th e co st o f liv in g in d ex w as estim ated a t 50 p ercen t. W orse still, ag ricu ltu ral w ork ers w ere n o t recogn ized a s p art o f th e lab o r force in th e lab o r cod e o f 23 Sep tem b er 1946, an d h en ce w ere n o t en titled to an y b en efits, com p en sation , o r in su ran ce from eith er th e em p loyer o r file state. (T he lab or cod e w as p a rtially am end ed on 13 A p ril 1974, follo w in g th e co n v en in g o f file first N ation al C on gress o f A gricu ltu ral W orkers in M arch 1973). N o law s w ere ev er en acted in Leban on settin g a m in im u m

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w ag e in th e ag ricu ltu ral secto r o r ev en reg u latin g th e h irin g and firin g o f w ork ers. For th e m ost p art, su rv iv al in th is environm ent m o st o ften m ean t h old in g a second jo b a n d /o r b ein g p erp etu ally in d eb t to th e lan d lord . T h e FA O in 1972 estim ated th at the in d eb ted n ess o f h old in g s o f less th an tw o h ectares in sou th ern Leban on in creased from 30 p ercen t to 69 p ercen t in a few years. A n oth er stu d y estim ated th at 52 p ercen t o f th e ag ricu ltu ral w o rk ers in 1973 su p p lem ented th eir in com e th rou g h second jo b s. (4) M on op olization o f the fertilizers trad e and th e m ark etin g o f ag ricu ltu ral p rod u ce b y a h an d fu l o f trad ers in th e early seven ties. T w o lo cal fertilizers trad in g firm s, U n ifert an d th e C om p toire A g ricole, d iv id ed th e b u lk o f th e m arket b etw een th em , d riv in g u p p rices o f am m onium su lfate, fo r exam p le, b y m ore th an 300 p ercen t betw een 1973 an d 1975. T h e p ro fits en joyed b y p esticid e an d fu n gicid e im p o rters, on th e oth er h an d , soared astron om ically: T h e sam e in secticid e th at w as sold in Sy ria fo r fo rty -th ree Sy rian p ou n d s, eq u iv alen t th en to L L 33, co st b etw een six ty -eig h t and eig h ty -sev en p ou nd s in Lebanon. A nd it w as estim ated th at tw en ty -fiv e in term ed iaries con tro lled m ore th an tw o-th ird s o f the m arketin g o f ap p les in 1970, w h ile tw en ty o th ers co n tro lled 80 p ercen t o f th at o f citru s. P rices ch arged to con su m ers averaged 200 to 300 p ercen t above th o se p aid to p rod u cers. (5) W eakening o f ag ricu ltu ral cred it b y th e p u b lic secto r an d its d om in ation b y b an k s, ag ricu ltu ral con cern s, and in d iv id u al m on eylen d ers. T h e ov erall am ou n t o f cred it w h ich th e Banque de C red it A g ricole, In d u striel e t Fon cier (B .C .A .L F), a 40 p ercen t p u b lic-60 p ercen t p riv ate com p any, exten d ed in d ie m id -six ties d w ind led to th e p o in t w h ere its co n trib u tio n accou n ted fo r little m o re th an 5 p ercen t o f th e to tal am ou nt o f in d ebted n ess o f th e ag ricu ltu ral secto r.14 Sim ilarly , cred it exten d ed b y th e com m ercial secto r d eclin ed b y 50 p ercen t betw een 1964 and 1973, goin g from 6.6 p ercen t to 3 .4 p ercen t o f th e to tal am ou nt o f com m ercial cred it to th e v ario u s econom ic sectors. In terest rates v aried from 5 and 5 .5 p ercen t from th e B .C .A .I.F fo r in d iv id u al grow ers and coop era­ tiv es, resp ectiv ely , to 10-15 p ercen t from th e p riv ate b an k s and com p an ies, and to as m u ch as 40-50 p ercen t from th e m on eylen d ­ ers. T h e to ta l am ou n t o f in terest p aid b y th e grow ers to p riv ate co n cern s w as p u t at LL 45 m illio n an n u ally in th e early sev en ties, o r 3 5 p ercen t o f th e to tal an n u al am ou nt o f cred it.

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(6) T h e sta te 's irrig atio n and lan d reclam ation p o licies. In its attem p t to co n tain th e ag ricu ltu ral crisis, th e Leban ese gov ern m en t in 1963 in itiated a lan d reclam atio n d riv e know n as d ie P lan V ert (G reen P lan ) th e o b jectiv e o f w h ich w as to reclaim sev en ty th ou san d h ectares o v er an in itia l p h ase o f ten years. H ow ever, b etw een 1965 an d 1970 th e p lan w as ab le to reclaim o n ly 11,500 h ectares a t a co st o f n early LL 30 m illion . Fu rth erm ore, clo se scru tin y o f th e ow nership d istrib u tio n o f th e red eem ed lan d s rev eals n ep otism and corru p tion in th e So u th and th e B iq a ' in p articu lar, w h ere ab ject p ov erty p rev ailed and th e p lan w as m o st n eed ed . In a n assessm en t o f the activ ities o f th e P lan V ert in th e reg io n o f Ja b a l al-R ih an in d ie So u th b etw een 1965 and 1969, it w as rev ealed th at 2 2 .4 p ercen t o f a ll reclaim ed lan d in th e reg io n b elo n g ed to th ree ow ners. W hen qu estion ed b y a p easan t fro m 'D a y si, a v illag e n ear th e Israeli b o rd er, on th e statu s o f h is ap p licatio n , a rep resen tativ e o f d ie p lan exp lain ed th a t th e ap p licatio n w ou ld n o t b e honored b ecau se th e ow ners o f the caterp illar tracto rs and th e oth er h eav y equ ip m ent w ere afraid th at th e Israeli arm y m ig h t seize and d estro y them ; an d th at th e reclam ation p lan w ould n o t encom p ass th e fro n tier v illag es b ecau se en o u g h p ro tectio n cou ld n o t b e p rov id ed .15 Irrig atio n p lan n in g w as n o b etter. In sp ite o f th e fact th at L eban on is one o f th e co u n tries in th e M id d le E ast rich est in w ater reso u rces, th an ks to its riv ers an d am p le rain fall, in d ie ea rly sev en ties it u sed on ly 8 p ercen t o f its av ailab le w ater resou rces. T h e area o f irrig ated lan d ap p roxim ated fo rty -fo u r thou sand h ectares in 1972-1973, o r on ly 9.8 p ercen t o f th e to tal cu ltiv ated area in th e cou n try. T h is occu rred a t a tim e w h en th e retu rn on an irrig ated h ectare in th e B iq a ' w as estim ated a t L L 2,400 in 1973, in co n trast to LL430 fo r a n o n -irrig ated h ectare. Fu rth erm ore, th e area u n d er irrig atio n cou ld h av e risen to 224,000 h ectares, o r 4 9 .8 p ercen t o f th e to ta l cu ltiv ated area, h ad ev en a fractio n o f th e m an y irrig atio n schem es th at w ere p lan n ed b een execu ted . T h e lita n i R iver P ro ject alo n e cou ld have irrig ated 36,830 h ectares in th e So u th and the w estern B iq a '. A fter m any stu d ies an d m u ch fan fare, th e N ation al A u th ority o f d ie L itan i w as fin ally created o n 14 A u gu st 1954, to im p lem en t an irrig atio n p lan th a t w as d ivid ed in to tw o p h ases: P hase O ne w as su p p osed to co v er a to tal o f 14,570 h ectares in th e w estern B iq a ' and th e B eiru t-Sid o n co a sta l

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strip b y 1962; and P hase T w o targeted 22/360 h ectares fo r reclam a­ tio n in th e So u th b y 1972. In 1968, som e fifteen years after lau n ch in g th e p lan an d exp en d in g h u n d red s o f m illio n s o f pounds/ th e p ro ject h ad still n o t tak en o ff—an d n ev er d id fo r th at m at­ ter—an d the b u lk o f th e ag ricu ltu ral lan d in th e So u th an d th e B iq a/ still lacked w ater w h ile th e L itan i con tin u ed u n tou ch ed and u n abated to th e M ed iterran ean .16 N ow here w as th e im p act o f th e p rob lem s o f L eban ese ag ricu ltu re on S h i'a so ciety fe lt m ore th an in th e case o f tobacco cro p . T obacco cu ltiv atio n w as "q ad iy y at al-qad aya" (d ie issu e o f issu es) accord in g to Say yid M u sa al-S ad r an d , as S h a rif in d icates, th e sou rce o f m u ch o f So u th L eb an o n 's m isery . It is n o t know n w h en or b y w hom the p la n t w as in trod u ced to Leban on, le t alon e to Ja b a l 'A m il. A bu Sh aqra m en tio n s its ex isten ce in th a t reg io n w h en d escrib in g a b a ttle b etw een th e M ataw ila an d th e D ru ze n ear al-N ab atiy y a in th e secon d h a lf o f th e eig h teen th cen tu ry .17 O th ers claim th at the tobacco le a f en tered L eban on in th e sev en teen th cen tu ry , w h ile the cig arette, in its m o d em form , w as n o t p resen t b efo re 1880 an d its lo cal m an u factu re b efo re 1895. W hatever th e case m ay b e , tob acco o v er th e years grew to p lay a d istin ctiv e role in th e sou th ern econ om y , em p loyin g 72 p ercen t o f its p easan try b y th e m id ­ sev en ties, an d co v erin g six thou sand h ectares, or 70 to 75 p ercen t o f th e to ta l area u n d er tobacco cu ltiv atio n in Lebanon. T h e So u th con seq u en tly y ield ed a sim ilar p rop o rtion o f L eb an o n 's to tal tob acco p rod u ction d u rin g th e sam e p erio d .18 P easan t g rievan ces ag ain st th e tobacco in d u stry in th e So u th started sh o rtly a fter 1883 w h en th e P orte gran ted m on op olistic co n tro l o f th a t in d u stry in the w ilay a o f B eiru t an d in o th er p arts o f th e em p ire to d ie R égie C o-in téressée d es T ab acs de l'E m p ire O ttom an , a jo in t A u strian -B ritish -Fren ch -G erm an con sortiu m . T h e co n cessio n w as gran ted fo r a n in itia l p eriod o f th irty y ears en d in g 14 A p ril 1914, and w as exten d ed in 1913 fo r an oth er fifteen years. Sin ce th en , and excep t fo r a b rie f p eriod b etw een 1930 and 1936 w h en th e F ren ch governm ent ab olish ed d ie m onop oly in fav or o f a "free en terp rise sy stem " th a t b ecam e know n as th e ban d erole, the tob acco in d u stry in Leban on h as b een u n d er a co n stan t m onop oly: In Jan u ary 1935, th e F ren ch governm ent rein stitu ted th e m onop oly b y con ced in g th e exclu siv e rig h ts o f the tobacco in d u stry to the S o ciété A nonym e R égie C o-In téressée L iban o-Syrien n e d es T ab acs

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e t d es T om b acs fo r a p eriod o f tw en ty -fiv e y ears, en d in g 31 D ecem b er 1960. T h is b ecam e know n as th e R égie C o-In téressée d es T ab acs e t T om bacs o r sim p ly th e R égie after th e b reak in th e econ om ic u n io n b etw een Sy ria and L ebanon in 1950. T he state ag ain renew ed the con cessio n in 1960 and in 1973 ov er an d ab ove th e o b jectio n s o f th e m ajo rity o f th e grow ers.19 T h e h isto ry o f d ie relation sh ip b etw een th e R égie and th e p easan ts h as b een one o f exp lo itatio n an d stru ggle. T h rou gh its ab so lu te co n tro l ov er ev ery asp ect o f th e tobacco in d u stry , from th e au ctio n in g o f licen ses fo r th e cu ltiv atio n o f th e p lan t to th e p ro cessin g an d m arketin g o f d ie fin a l p ro d u ct, th e com p any h as w ield ed im m ense p ow er and in flu en ce ov er th e p easan ts. In m ore th an one w ay , th e R égie p erp etu ated th e classic form s o f p o litica l p atron age in th e So u th b y p rom otin g d ie d ep en d en cy o f th e p easan ts o n th eir zu 'am a, trad itio n ally also th e m ajor lan d o w n ers, b o th fo r g ran tin g licen ses an d p ricin g th e crop . It w ou ld su ffice to lo o k a t th e list o f th e n am es o f th e "m ajor grow ers," i.e ., th o se w h o are allow ed b y th e R égie to p lan t m ore th an 2 .5 h ectares, to ap p reciate th e ex ten t to w h ich p atron age p layed a p iv o tal ro le in th e g ran tin g o f th ese licen ses. Favored and w ell-con n ected ab sen tee grow ers receiv ed th e b u lk o f th e au ction ed licen ses an d in tu rn sold th em to th eir co n stitu en ts an d p o litical su p p orters a t su b stan ­ tia l p ro fit-p ro fit w h ich w as com p ou nd ed b y th e R ég ie's p ricin g p o licy . T h e p rice p er k ilo o f tob acco th e R égie offered its p referred cu stom ers in 1973 w as m ore th an th ree tim es th e p rice p aid to th e n on -p referred m ajo rity , th u s en ab lin g th e form er to b u y th e la tte r's crop a t little m ore th an th e o fficia l p rice an d in tu rn se ll it to th e com p any a t th e h ig h er rate. T h ese b latan tly u n fair an d ex p lo itativ e p ricin g and o th er p ractices b y th e R égie in fact p rom p ted th e tob acco grow ers to stage m ass d em on stration s in al-N ab atiyya in 1973. O n 2 4 Jan u ary o f th at y ear, th e governm ent sen t in th e arm y , k illin g tw o farm ers and in ju rin g and arrestin g m any oth ers. T h e w ord s o f Sartre are p articu larly ap t h ere: "F o r th e o n e, p riv ileg e an d hu m an ity are one an d th e sam e th in g ; h e m ak es h im self in to a hu m an b ein g b y freely ex ercisin g h is rig h ts. A s fo r the oth er, th e ab sen ce o f an y rig h ts san ction s h is m isery, h is ch ron ic h u n g er, h is ig n o ran ce, in sh o rt h is su bhum an statu s."20

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Table 2.2 South Lebanon: Average per capita income among tobacco growers in

LL in 1972 Number of grower* 18394 6,618 1,225 771 541 1,056 274 105 90 71

Average Income 614.5 1,020.4 1,710.4 2,357.2 3,011.0 4,678.5 7,930.9 11,482.7 15,769.9 26,401.5

Source: Michel Morcos, La Culture du Tabac au Liban, Publications du Centre de Recherches de l’Université Libanaise-Institut des Sciences Sociales, no. 16 (Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1974), 117.

H old ing a t b ay th e d evelop m ent o f th e lo cal tobacco in d u stry , tiie R égie prom oted its p referen ce fo r sh o rt-term p ro fits throu gh taxatio n o f im p orted cig arettes, th ereb y also serv in g th e in terests o f th e p ow erfu l tobacco im p orters. B etw een 1967 and 1972, the p rocessin g o f lo cal tobacco d ecreased b y 3 2 p ercen t from 2 .2 m illio n to 1.5 m illio n , w h ile the valu e o f im ported cig arettes b efore taxatio n in creased from LL9 m illion to LL39 m illio n . A ll o f th is cam e a t th e exp ense o f th e sm all sou th ern g row ers w h ose incom e in 1972 averaged L L 1,208.14, o r L L 8.14 m ore th an th e L L 1,200 th at th e In stitu t de R echerches e t d e Form ation en vu e du D évelop p em ­ en t H arm onisé (IR FE D ) in 1960-1961 id en tified a s d estitu te.21 T h e grow th in th e in d u strial and th e tertiary secto rs, and the relativ e d eclin e o f th e ag ricu ltu ral secto r, w ere som e o f th e m ajor p u sh facto rs th at forced thou sand s o f sh arecrop p ers in Sou th Lebanon and th e B iq a/ o ff th e land an d in to u rban cen ters, m arket tow n s, an d B eiru t. O n th is w as su p erim p osed from 1965 onw ard a sta te o f p erp etu al in secu rity on th e L eb an ese-Israeli b o rd er as So u th Lebanon in p articu lar b ecam e th e m ain grou n d s fo r th e A rab P alestin ian -Israeli quagm ire. T h e p resen ce th ere o f th e P alestin ian resistan ce, leg alized , reg u lated an d m any tim es re-reg u lated in a series o f agreem ents con clu d ed b etw een th e L eban ese gov ern m en t

60

A Libanon D efied

an d d ie P alestin e lib e ra tio n O rgan ization (P L O ) in th e ea rly seven ties/ fid a 'iy y in op eration s lau nched ag ain st Israel from th at region/ an d Isra e li rep risals and rep eated in cu rsio n s ev en tu ally forced th e sou th ern ers to flee in ord er ju st to su rvive.22 B y 1975, 50 p ercen t o f th e ru ral p o p u latio n o f th e B iq a ' and 65 p ercen t o f th at o f So u th Leban on h ad d em onstrated th a t th ey p referred to b e u p rooted an d d isp ossessed o f th eir lan d rath er th an face ch ron ic in secu rity and gov ernm ental n eg lect.23 T h e sto ry o f K farsh u ba (ap p . 2)/ a v illag e in th e Sou th , is illu strativ e o f m u ch o f w h at h as hap p en ed in th o se p arts o f w hat cam e to b e know n a s th e "fo rg o tten L eban on ."

U N EQ U A L D EV ELO PM EN T A N D R ELA TIV E D EPR IV A TIO N D ep riv ation in an y h u m an so ciety is d efin ed in th e rela tio n b etw een o b jectiv e con d ition s o f hu m an ex isten ce and th e su b jectiv e u n d erstan d in g o f th ese co n d itio n s-a relatio n w h ich is fo rev er in flu x. It is n o less so w h en th e d iscu ssio n is o f d ep riv atio n in th e L eban ese S h i'a com m u nity. For the p u rp oses h ere, th e im p o rtan t issu e rem ain s the them e o f d ep riv ation in th e d iscou rse o f a S h i'a m o b ilizin g lead ersh ip an d , above a ll, th e reson an ce o f th is th em e am ong th e in tellig en tsia and th e m asses o f th e com m u nity. T o b etter u n d erstan d th e ro le th e so d o -p o litico -eco n o m ic facto rs p lay ed in th e m o b ilizatio n o f th e S h i'a com m u nity in L eban on, it is u sefu l to view d ep riv ation in th e lig h t o f W illiam T a b b 's d efin itio n o f p ov erty a s "lack o f freed om and ab sen ce o f ch o ice." D ep riv ation in th is co n text is "d eg rad ation " em an atin g from n eg lect, from th e ab sen ce o f ch oice o v er em p loym ent an d ed u ca­ tio n in th e liv es o f th e p oor. Su ch a d efin itio n o f d ep riv atio n en com p asses certain fu n d am en tal asp ects o f th e Leban ese sociop o­ litica l sy stem in w h ich m an y econ om ically p riv ileg ed S h i'a n ev erth eless fou nd th em selves am ong th e d isen fran ch ised .24 T h e p ressu res b rou g h t to b ear on S h i'a so ciety b y th e rela tiv e d eclin e o f th e ag ricu ltu ral secto r w ere aggravated b y th e reg io n al, and th erefore com m u n al, con cen tration o f th e in frastru ctu re n eed ed fo r th e oth er secto rs o f the L ebanese econ om y in n o n -S h i'a areas. T h is co n cen tratio n , one m u st ad d , w as th e resu lt o f th e in d ifferen ce th at th e "m erch an t rep u b lic" o f th e ad m in istratio n s o f

Shi'a Society by N um bers

61

B éch ara el-K h o m y (1943-1952) and C am ille C ham ou n (1952-1958) d isp layed tow ard th e p erip h eral p red om in an tly S h i'a reg ion s o f th e co u n try w ith th e fu ll com p licity o f th e co m m u n ity 's trad itio n al lead ersh ip . T h is in d ifferen ce is in d icated in th e follo w in g excerp t from th e 1953 m an ifesto o f th e P rovision al C om m ittee fo r th e P erm anent C on feren ce o f M u slim O rgan ization s o f Lebanon. D ep lorin g th e con d ition s in th e co u n try 's p erip h ery/ th e com m ittee w rote: Thousands of Moslems in the Nabatiye area of Southern Lebanon actually suffer periodically from thirst during droughts due to the lack of basic minimum aid to develop water resources in that unfavored area. One of the m ost clear-cut examples of this type of manoeuvring was seen in die governmental struggle w ith Point IV [an American aid plan] over the water development project. The government wanted to give first priority to die luxury resort areas catering principally to foreigners in the Beirut area w hile the Ameri­ can technicians insisted on die greater need for die thirsty area of Jebel Amel and Nabatiye in South Lebanon.25 Fu rth erm ore, th e "on e Leban on rath er th an tw o" v isio n th at P resid en t Fouad C héhab (1958-1964) tried to ach iev e b y attem p tin g to im p rov e con d ition s in d ie u nd erd evelop ed reg ion s w ith ou t in terferin g w ith th e ex istin g sy stem o f u n brid led cap italism and p o litica l sectarian ism rem ained m o stly u n fu lfilled .26 T h e en or­ m ou s exp an sio n in p u b lic-w orks p ro jects n otw ith stan d in g, Sh ih abism cam e to n ou g h t, p rim arily b ecau se it failed to in g rain in th e L eban ese p o litical eth o s a sen se o f th e com m on good . W ith C héhab o u t o f o ffice, ag e-old w ays retu rn ed . "A p h enom enal econ om ic boom and an in tern atio n al cosm op olitan ism en su ed in B eiru t an d th e n earb y m ou n tain d istricts, m o stly M aron ite," w h ile th e o th er reg io n s, n o tab ly d ie B iq a ' an d th e So u th , stagn ated .27 T h is reg ion al-com m u n al u n eq u al d evelop m ent, m irrorin g a sim ilar state o f d iscrep an t p o litical access and p articip atio n , con trib u ted to th e so cial and econom ic d isp arities th at ch aracterized p re-1975 Leban on, and con sp ired to p erp etu ate th e socioecon om ic m arg in ality o f th e S h i'a com m u nity and th e h in terlan d w h ich it occu p ied .

62

A Lebanon D efied Table 2 3 Lebanon: Illiteracy rates, average income, indices of confort, and distribution ofpopulation and of resident active population by sector of economy by region Beirut

Suburbs of Beirut

Mount Lebanon

The North

The South

The Biqa**

Percent population

20.7

20.6

183

17.8

12.4

10.2

Percent income less LL3.000 per year“*

9.9

15.6

21.5

23.6

35.2

43.7

Percent illiteracy Men Women

30.2 413

36.6 503

35.2 48.4

45.0 60.3

423 63.1

40.6 62.6

Active population sector of economy4 Primary Secondary Tertiary

0.4 22.3 77.0

1.3 36.0 62.2

20.7 29.4 49.6

27.4 23.1 47.4

54.9 13.6 31.1

53.0 13.8 32.7

Percent households with no Kitchen Running Water Electricity

6.3 5.8 1.4

3.7 5.5 1.8

8.0 103 4.0

26.6 30.9 12.0

31.7 403 17.4

33.7 233 8.4

Characteristic^

Sources: Direction Centrale de la Statistique, L’Enquête par Sondage sur la Population Active au Liban, 2 vols. (Beyrouth: Direction Centrale de la Statistique, 1972), vol. 2. *Ives Schemed, Sociologie du Système Politique au Liban (Grenoble, France: Université de Grenoble n —Service de Reproduction des Thèses, 1976), 16. 'Unless otherwise indicated, all figures refer to the year 1970. 'The figures are for 1974. In that year, 1 US dollar averaged LL230. '‘See app. 3.

A cco rd in g to a ll in d icators—ed u catio n , occu p ation , incom e—the socioeconom ic d ifferen tials w h ich em erged b etw een reg ion s and relig io u s grou p s w ere v ery clean (1) So u th L eban on an d th e B iq a ' w ere b y fa r th e p o o rest an d least d evelop ed reg ion s in th e cou n try ; (2) In L ebanon, th e M u slim s w ere w orse o ff th an th e C h ristian s; an d (3) d ie S h i'a stood a t th e v ery b o tto m o f th e socioecon om ic scale.

Ski'a Society by N um bers

63

T h e illitera cy rates in N orth Leban on, So u th Leban on, a n d /o r th e B iq a ' w ere a t lea st fiv e p ercen tag e p o in ts h ig h er th an in M ount L eban on, o r in B eiru t in 1970 (T able 2.3). Illiteracy am ong m en in N orth Leban on w as at 45.0 p ercen t, the h ig h est in th e co u n try , follow ed b y So u th Leban on an d th e B iq a7 w ith 42.5 p ercen t and 40.6 p ercen t, resp ectiv ely . So u th ern w om en, h ow ev er, m an ifested an illiteracy rate o f 63.1 p ercen t, follow ed clo sely b y w om en from file B iq a7, fo r w hom th e fig u re stood a t 62.6 p ercen t, and th ose from N orth L eban on w ith 60.3 p ercen t illiteracy . N early 36.0 p ercen t o f th e m en , and 50 p ercen t o f th e w om en in th e S h i'a p op u lated su bu rbs o f B eiru t w ere illitera te, a s com p ared to 30.2 p ercen t and 41 .2 p ercen t w ith in th e d ty 7s m u n icip ality , resp ectiv e­ ly. T h e sam e p attern em erged in th e B iqa7 and th e So u th w h ere the in cid en ce o f illitera cy in file reg ion s7 Sh i7a-d om inated h in terlan d s ro se to 42.8 p ercen t an d 44.5 p ercen t am ong th e m en an d to 67.2 p ercen t an d 69.2 p ercen t am ong th e w om en, resp ectiv ely .28 T h e o th er statistics p resen ted in T ab le 2.3 fu rth er con firm th e relativ e d ep riv atio n an d u n equ al d evelop m ent o f So u th L eban on an d th e B iq a7. In 1974, n early 35.0 p ercen t an d 44.0 p ercen t o f the p o p u latio n in th ese tw o reg ion s, resp ectiv ely , had in com es o f less th an L L 3,000, in co n trast to 23.6 p ercen t in N orth Leban on, 21.5 p ercen t in M ou nt Leban on, 15.6 p ercen t in th e su bu rbs o f B eiru t, an d 9.9 p ercen t in B eiru t itself. A nd w h ile th e oth er reg io n s w ere en jo y in g th e b en efits from th e trem end ou s exp an sio n o f th e serv ices secto r, a relativ ely d eclin in g ag ricu ltu ral aren a still em p loyed 5 4 .7 p ercen t and 53.0 p ercen t o f th e resid en t activ e p o p u latio n in So u th Leban on and in th e B iq a7 in 1970, resp ectiv ely (see app. 3). S im ilarly , w h ile hom e to 22.6 p ercen t o f th e co u n try 's p op u lation in 1970, So u th Leban on an d file B iq a7 h ad o n ly 13 p ercen t o f its h o sp ital b ed s and 8.4 p ercen t o f its p h y sician s in th e early sev en ties, in co n trast to 77.1 p ercen t and 81.6 p ercen t fo r th e B eiru t-M o u n t L eban on area, resp ectiv ely , w h ich had 59.6 p ercen t o f th e p op u lation .29 In 1970, n early 34.0 p ercen t and 53.0 o f hom es in th e B iq a7 and So u th Leban on w ere w ith ou t a k itch en o r a b ath ro om , in com p arison to 8.0 p ercen t an d 23.6 p ercen t in M ou nt Leban on, an d 6.3 p ercen t and 14.0 p ercen t in B eiru t, resp ectiv ely .

64

Table 2.4 Lebanon: Educational status of wife and husband, average family

income, husband’s occupation, and wife’s work experience before and after marriage by religious groups in 1971 Characteristics

Catholic

NonCatholic

Sunni

Shi’a

Druze

W ife's education Average numbers of years completed Percent no schooling

4.4 29

5.2 20

33 49

1.6 70

43 23

Husband’s education Average numbers of years completed Percent no schooling

5.4 15

5.8 13

43 29

33 31

5.1 10

7,173

7,112

5371

4332

6,180

Average family income* Percent income less than LL1,500 per annum Husband’s occupation6 Professional/technical Business/managerial Clerical Army/police/guard Crafts/operadves Farming Peddlery Labor Other Total Proportion of wives who worked Before marriage After marriage N

6

8

15

22

11

6 17 14 9 20 10 0 18 6 100

6 21 13 5 24 8 1 16 7 100

4 16 14 5 22 7 3 23 6 100

2 13 10 5 15 11 4 35 5 100

3 20 11 7 27 8 1 20 4 100

28 10

27 10

15 8

14 6

22 13

925

592

564

567

119

Source: Joseph Chamie, "Religious Groups in Lebanon: A Descriptive Investigation,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 11, no. 2 (April 1980): 182. Reprinted by permission. *In 1971,1 US dollar averaged LL3.00 *See app. 3.

Shi'a Society by N um bers

65

T h e sta tistica l b reakd ow n b y relig io n co n firm s d ie u n en viab le p o sitio n th at th e S h i'a com m u nity occu p ied in in d ep en d en t L eban on (T able 2.4 ). T he av erag e nu m ber o f years o f sch oolin g com p leted b y m arried m ales in d ie n on -C ath olic, C ath o lic, and D ru ze com m u n ities w as 5 .8 ,5 .4 , and 5 .1 , resp ectiv ely . T h e Su n n i av erag e o f 4 .5 w as sig n ifican tly low er. H ow ever, the stark est fig u re w as th at o f th e S h i'a m arried m ale p o p u latio n w h ere on th e av erage o n ly 3 .3 years o f sch oolin g w ere com p leted . T h e p rop o r­ tio n o f S h i'a m arried m en w ith n o sch oolin g w as 31 p ercen t, com p ared to a n atio n al av erage o f 21 p ercen t. A sim ilar p attern ex isted w ith resp ect to th e ed u cation al lev els o f m arried w om en , ex cep t th at th e average fo r D ru ze w iv es w as 0 .9 years h ig h er th an th e n atio n al average o f 3 .6 , com p ared to th e h u sb an d s' 0 .2 y ears ab ov e th e n atio n al av erage o f 4 .9 , an d th at th e p ercen tag e o f S h i'a w iv es w ith n o sch oolin g san k to 70 p ercen t, n early tw ice th e n atio n al av erag e o f 4 0 p ercen t fo r m arried w om en b etw een 15 and 49 y ears o f age (see ap p . 3). C om p arison o f in com e lev els sh ow s th at th e S h i'a w ere the p o o rest sin g le co n fessio n al u n it in the co u n try (T able 2.4). T h e C ath o lic C h ristian s w ere th e rich est w ith a n av erage an n u al fam ily in com e o f L L 7,173, follo w ed b y th e n on -C ath olics w ith L L 7,112. N one o f th e M u slim grou p s attain ed th e n atio n al av erage o f L L 6,247. T h e D ru ze cam e clo se to it w ith L L 6,180, follow ed d istan d y b y th e Su n n is an d th e S h i'a w ith LL5,571 an d L L 4,532, resp ectiv ely . S im ilarly , th e p rop o rtion o f C ath olic and n on -C ath olic co u p les w ho earn ed less th an L L 1,500 p er annu m w as 6 and 8 p ercen t, resp ectiv ely . Som ew hat h ig h er w as th e fig u re fo r the D ru ze co u p les w h ich stood a t 11 p ercen t. T h e corresp o n d in g fig u re fo r Su n n i co u p les w as 15 p ercen t, alm ost d ou ble th e fig u re fo r the tw o C h ristian grou ps. T h e statu s o f th e S h i'a is ev en w orse th an th a t o f th e Su n n is; 22 p ercen t, o r on e in fiv e S h i'a co u p les liv ed on an an n u al in com e o f less th an LL 1,500. T h e S h i'a w ere also h ig h ly rep resen ted in th e least p restig io u s low statu s low in com e occu p ation s (T able 2.5 ). W h ile o v er o n eth ird , 35 p ercen t, o f S h i'a h u sban d s w ere lab o rers, on ly 2 p ercen t cou ld b e categorized as b elo n g in g in th e p ro fessio n a l/tech n ica l categ ory . In co n trast, am ong n on -C ath olic C h ristian m arried m en , 16 p ercen t and 6 p ercen t w ere p ro fessio n als; fo r th e C ath o lics the

66

A Lebanon D efied

Table 25 Lebanon: Mean yearly income by husband’s occupation and religious

group in 1971 Catholic

NonCatbolic

Professional/technical Business/managerial Clerical Anny/police/guaid Cnfts/operatives Fanning Peddlery Labor Other

18,050 12,482 8,600 5,113 5,407 2,927 *

18,218 11,418 9,361 5,221 4,578 3,963 •

3,809 8,140

Total

7,173

Characteristics

Sunni

Shi’a

Druze

13.50CP 9,108 6,257 4,207 3,883 3,237 3,750 2,376 6,170

*

3,241 7,908

16,088 11,146 7,593 5,864 3,902 1,538 2,500» 2,921 5,616

7,112

5,771

4,532

Husband’s occupation

8,750 8,354 * 5,780 * * 2,659 * 6,180

Source: Joseph Chamie, "Religious Groups in Lebanon," International Journal ofMiddle East Studies 11, no. 2 (April 1980): 183. Reprinted by pennission. ♦ Less than 10 cases in base. "See app. 3. b10-19 cases in base.

fig u res w ere 18 p ercen t an d 6 percent/ fo r th e D ru ze, 20 p ercen t an d 3 p ercen t, an d fo r th e Su n n is, 23 p ercen t an d 4 p ercen t, resp ectiv ely . P ed d lery w as th e m ain sou rce o f liv elih ood o f 4 p ercen t o f S h i'a h u sban d s in 1971, in con trast to 3 p ercen t o f th e Su n n i and 1 p ercen t o f th e D ru ze, resp ectiv ely . T h e C ath olic an d n on -C ath olic C h ristian s w ere n eg lig ib ly rep resen ted in th is occu p atio n al category. In ad d itio n , in a ll b u t tw o o f the occu p ation al categ o ries, th e m ean y early in com es am ong th e S h i'a w ere low er th an th ose in th e o th er grou p s (T able 2.5). F or exam p le, w ith in th e p ro fessio n al /te c h n ic a l categ o ry , th e average y early in com es o f th e d ifferen t con fession al grou p s, th e h ig h est to th e low est w ere: n o n -C ath o lic C h ristian , L L 18,218; C ath o lic, LL 18,050; Su n n i, LL16/188; and S h i'a , LL 13,500. Even in lo w -statu s occu p ation s, th e S h i'a receiv ed th e lo w est incom es: A m ong lab o rers, fo r in stan ce, th e C ath olic an d n on -C ath olic C h ristian s earn ed L I,400 and LL800 m ore p e r y ear

Shi'a Society by N um bers

67

th an th e S h i'a , w h ile th e Su n n is and D ru ze earn ed L L 545 an d LL283 m o re, resp ectiv ely . O n ly am ong th e farm ers and th e p ed d lers w as th ere a slig h t d ev iation from the g en eral p attern , n am ely, th at d ie annu al incom e o f S h i'a farm ers cam e secon d to th at am ong th e n on -C ath o lics, an d w as h igh er th an w h at C ath o lic and Su n n i farm ers m ad e in incom e p er year; S h i'a p ed d lers also earn ed m ore th an th eir Su n n i cou n terp arts. Fem ale lab o r p articip atio n w as th e low est am ong th e S h i'a (T able 2.4 ). W h ereas ov er 25 p ercen t o f C h ristian m arried w om en an d 22 p ercen t o f th e sam e su b set o f th e D ru ze p op u lation had w o rk exp erien ce p rio r to m arriag e, on ly ab ou t 14 p ercen t o f S h i'a w ives h ad w orked a s sin g le w om en. T h e p ercen tag e o f Su n n i w iv es w ho w ork ed b efo re m arriag e, 15 p ercen t, w as also sig n ifican tly low er th an the n atio n al average o f 22 p ercen t. A sim ilar p attern , b u t less m ark ed , w as in ev id en ce w ith resp ect to lab o r p articip atio n after m arriag e, ex cep t th at D ru ze w iv es w ere som ew hat m ore lik e ly to en ter the p aid lab or fo rce w o rk a fte r m arriag e th an th eir C h ristian cou n terp arts. T h e relativ ely sm all p rop o rtion s o f m arried w om en w ho rep orted b ein g em p loyed ou tsid e th e hom e at th e tim e o f th e su rv ey (b etw een 6 an d 9 p ercen t) p reclu d ed an aly sis o f d ie occu p ation al d istrib u tio n o f th e w iv es b y relig io u s affiliatio n . Y et, giv en the sig n ifican t ed u catio n al d ifferen ces am ong m arried w om en from the v ario u s relig io u s grou p s, it seem s reason able to su gg est th at am ong th o se w ho w ere em p loyed , S h i'a w iv es in p articu lar occu p ied low er statu s and p o o rer p ay in g p o sitio n s th an th eir Su n n i, D ru ze, C ath olic an d n on -C ath olic C h ristian cou n terp arts. A S h i'a from th e So u th or the B iq a ' w as lik ely to b e u ned u cated an d la ck access to ru n n in g w ater, electricity , a b ath ro om , a h o sp ital b ed , and a p h y sician . H e w as lik ely to b e p o o rer th an h is com pa­ trio ts in Lebanon. H is occu p ation w as lik ely to b e u n sk illed and u n iem u n erativ e. C on v ersely , a M aron ite from M ou nt Leban on, for in stan ce, w as m ore lik ely to en joy th e am en ities o f m o d em life , h av e b etter access to p rim ary h ealth care, an d exp ect a m ore secu re fu tu re. A s a resu lt o f su ch a skew ed d istrib u tio n o f reso u rces and in com e, the S h i'a anim u s tow ard d ie state, in stead o f b ein g d issip ated b y th e su p p osed in teg ratio n ist fo rces o f m od ern ization , b ecam e in fa ct enhan ced . It w as fu rth er bu oyed b y u rb an ization , em ig ratio n , an d in creased gov ern m en tal n eg lect an d in ertia. B y

68

A Lebanon D efied

co n fro n tin g th e L eban ese p o lity and d em and ing its reform , th e S h i'a m asses w an ted to rem ove from th eir rea lity th e sta in o f d isin h eritan ce, d ep riv atio n , and m argin ality . A t th e co re o f th e ir rev o lu tio n w as an in sisten ce on w h at th ey deem ed th eir h a rd earn ed rig h ts, and assertio n o f w h at th ey con sid ered to b e "a d eep an d ev erlastin g p act b etw een them an d th is lan d [L eban on ], a p a ct th at n eith er [sid e] w ill su rren d er."30

EX O D U S A N D PR O LETA R IA N IZ A TIO N T h e im p ortan ce o f stu d yin g th e S h i'a exo d u s to B eiru t is estab lish ed b y d ie fa ct th at b y 1971, n early h a lf o f th e L eban ese S h i'a p o p u latio n w as fou nd con cen trated in th e G reater B eiru t a rea (T ab le 2.6). T h ou gh th e cap ital h ad an ea rlier, relativ ely sm all com m u nity o f S h i'a resid en ts concentrated w ith in m u n icip al B eiru t, th ere is n o com p arison b etw een th is old n u cleu s an d th e p o o l o f n ew arriv als w h ose in cessan t in flu x qu ick ly led to th e fo rm atio n o f a "secon d S h i'a Lebanon" in th e sou th ern su bu rbs o f B eiru t an d in its bidonvilles, in w h at h as g en erally b een called th e b e lt o f m isery o r la ceinture de la haine et delà colère arou n d th e cap ital.31 H ere d ie S h i'a from th e So u th an d d ie B iq a ' started in teractin g o n a w id e scale, "w eav in g th e in terests o f w h at w ere n ow th ree g eo g rap h ically d istin ct S h ia com m u nities in to a sin g le n atio n al co n stitu en cy ."32 T h e new u rban ites w ere cram m ed in to u n san itary n eig h b orh ood s w h ere th e p op u lation d en sity reach ed 55,392 in h a b ita n ts/ Km 2 (in co n trast to an av erag e o f 26,382 in h a b ita n ts/K m 2 fo r m u n icip al B eiru t). T he m ore fo rtu n ate am ong them b ecam e th e p ro leta ria t in B e iru t's facto ries, w h ile th e m ajority jo in ed th e ran k s o f the "u n classified u rb an p oor," th e faceless crow d , or w h at th e Fren ch com m only called th e menu peuple.33 T h e satu ratio n o f em p loym ent in d ie serv ices secto r b y th e m id -six ties, and d ie relativ ely low ab so rp tiv e cap acity o f th e in d u strial secto r exp osed th e co u n try 's in a b ility to d eal w ith th is h u m an dram a: From 1960 to 1970, th e in d u strial sector ab sorb ed 23,000 n ew w o rk ers, in o th er w ord s o n ly 19.5 p ercen t o f th e av ailab le lab o r p o o l, m ost o f th em S h i'a , w ho w ere forced o ff th e lan d d u ring th e sam e p eriod . T h e S h i'a form ed

69 Table 2.6 Lebanon: Distribution of religious groups by district and

city size in 1971 Characteristics

Catholic

NonCatholic

Sunni

Shi*a

Druze

District Beirut City Suburbs M t Lebanon North Lebanon South Lebanon The Biqa‘ Total

18 19 38 14 0 11 100

29 19 10 15 4 23 100

42 13 2 33 7 4 100

15 30 3 2 41 9 100

29 9 55 1 0 6 100

City Size 10,000+ 1,000-9,999 less than 1,000 Total

45 34 21 100

60 28 12 100

84 4 12 100

55 22 23 100

46 9 45 100

N

925

592

564

567

119

Source: Joseph Chamie, "Religious Groups in Lebanon," International Journal ofMiddle East Studies 11, no. 2 (1980): 181. Reprinted by permission.

Table 2.7 Lebanon: Percentage of Lebanese among inhabitants of the bidonvilles

and their districts of origin in 1973 District Bidonvilles in municipal Beiruf suburbs of Beirut

Beirut

Mount Lebanon

The North

The South

The Biqa‘

Total

283

6.9

3.0

58.0

33

5219

8.4

3.0

63

733

8.7

2393

Sources: André Bourgey and Joseph Parés, "Les Bidonvilles de l’Agglomération de Beyrouth," Revue de Géographie de Lyon 48, no. 2 (1973): 107-39. "According to al-Nahar (3 March 1974), Franz Moulder, a Jesuit priest who was working in the Karantina, insisted that by 1974 the Lebanese d im alone numbered more than 8,000 residents due to the influx of southern refugees.

70

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80 to 9 0 p ercen t o f th e w orkers in th e facto ries o f B e iru fs sou th ern su b u rb s and 50 to 60 p ercen t o f th ose in th e p red om in an tly C h ristian eastern su bu rbs.34 Som e b ecam e w h at D u bar and N asr c a ll th e sem i-p rolétariats d e serv ice w h o, u p on a rriv in g to B eiru t, fou nd em p loym ent ou tsid e th e in d u strial sector.35 T h ese w ere th e cab -d riv ers, th e con cierg es, the p ed d lers, th e gang recru its, e tc., w h ose know led ge o f th e street an d its op in io n s and alleg ian ces m ad e them p articu larly u sefu l fo r th e p o litical m ach in e o f d ie u rb an p o litician . For d ie sem i-p roletariat, a zoasita, or a t least m in im al in itia l cap ital, w as n eed ed in ord er to acq u ire em p loy­ m en t. F or in stan ce, M uham m ad, a S h i'a con cierge from B a'lab ak , u sed recom m end ations from co u sin s occu p yin g m u ch h ig h er p o sitio n s th an h e, to get h is jo b . T h e m ajo rity o f S h i'a w ho arrived a fter 1967, how ever, w ere releg ated to th e ran k o f th e su b -p roletar­ ia n w h ose em ergence an d g en eral liv in g co n d itio n s w ere p rescien tly d efin ed b y M arx: Part of die agricultural population is . . . constantly on the point of passing over into an urban or manufacturing proletariat, and on the lookout for opportunities to complete this transformation. There is thus a constant flow from this source of the relative surplus popula­ tion. But the constant movement towards the towns presupposes, in the countryside itself, a constant latent surplus population, the extent of which only becomes evident at those exceptional times when its distribution channels are wide open. This forms a part of the active labour army, but with extremely irregular em ploym ent Hence it offers capital an inexhaustible reservoir of disposable labour-power. Its conditions of life sink below foe average normal level of foe working class, and it is precisely this which makes it a broad foundation for special branches of capitalist exploitation. It is characterized by foe maximum of working time and the minimum of wages.34 A stu d y o f tiie tw en ty -six b ig g est firm s o f th e eastern su b u ib s o f B eiru t cond u cted in 1974 con firm s th is scen ario. It fou nd th at 29 p ercen t o f th e w ag e earn ers h ad b een on th e jo b fo r less th an one y ear, 4 3 .6 p ercen t from one to fiv e years, w h ile o n ly 27.4 p ercen t had b een th ere fo r m ore th an fiv e years. T h e sam e stu d y also show ed th a t th e w ork ers in th e B eiru t factories w ere in v ariab ly d raw n from w h at w as essen tially view ed a s a you ng, u n lim ited , d o cile, and th erefore easily ex p lo ited , w ork force: 36 p ercen t o f th e

Shi'a Society by Num bers

71

to ta l w o rk in g p o p u latio n in th ese en terp rises, in clu d in g 48 p ercen t o f th e fem ale lab o r force/ w as u n d er tw en ty years old . C onversely/ on ly 10 p ercen t o f th e w ork fo rce w as above fo rty y ears o f age. O f cou rse/ th is reflected th e ru ral-u rb an m ig ration : A li F a'o u r show s th at th e com p osition o f th e d isp laced p op u lation o f th e v illag e o f K hyam in So u th L eban on stron gly favored you ng m a le s -4 1 .7 p ercen t b elon g ed to th e you ng age grou p (less th an fifteen y ears old )/ 52.3 p ercen t to th e m id d le age grou p (fifteen to sixty -fo u r) and 6 p ercen t to th e o ld er age grou p (sixty -fiv e an d over).37 T h e skew in g o f th e u rb an w ork force w as also facilitated b y the L eban ese L ab or Law w h ich allow ed em p loyers to p ay less th an the m inim um leg al w a g e -e v e n h a lf o f it—to th ose u n d er tw en ty y ears o f age. B etw een 1964 an d 1974/ th e av erage m on th ly w age o f th ese w ork ers in creased b y o n ly 4 7 p ercen t from L L 215 to L L 317, w h ile th e average ou tp u t p er w orker and the co st o f liv in g in d ex fo r the sam e p erio d in creased b y 70 p ercen t an d a t least 110 p ercen t, resp ectiv ely . B etw een 1969 and 1974, th e n u m ber o f u nem p loyed w ork ers ro se b y 41.6 p ercen t to 120,000 p erso n s, rep resen tin g 15 to 20 p ercen t o f th e to tal w ork force. T h e w orking co n d itio n s o f th e in d u strial lab orforce p rovoked u n rest in the last q u arter o f 1972. A s a resu lt o f retaliato ry actio n s b y th e gov ernm ent and su p p res­ sio n o f w o rk ers b y factory ow n ers, the u n rest en d ed in v io len ce, i.e ., th e d eath s o f tw o w ork ers and in ju ry to sev eral oth ers a t th e G hand u r facto ry , one o f th e old est and m ost im p ortan t in Leba­ non.38 E ric R ou leau (app. 4 ) and F aris B azzi (app. 5) have v iv id ly d escribed th e d egrad in g life th a t existed in th e b e lt o f m isery su rrou n d in g th e cap ital and th e w o rk con d ition s in sid e th e G h an d u r facto ry , resp ectiv ely . T h e stead y m ig ration to B eiru t engend ered a tran sform ation in th e p o litica l con sciou sn ess o f the S h i'a . A s the com m u nity grew m ore con sciou s o f its d isen fran ch isem en t relativ e to the o th er con fession al grou p s, its v isio n o f th e so cial stru ctu re and its relatio n to p o litical p ow er b ecam e rad icalized . T he earlier stan ce o f u n qu estion ed obed ien ce to' th e trad itio n al lead ersh ip w as grad u ally aband oned . T h e S h i'a in th e su bu rbs o f B eiru t cam e to em bod y the co m m u n ity 's p lig h t and sen se o f fru stratio n , and p rov id e a p o ten tially critical co n stitu en cy fo r p arties a t d ifferen t en d s o f th e p o litical sp ectru m . T h eirs w as a w orld in crisis. T h eir p o litica l alleg ian ces w ere in flu x. T h e w ork ers in th e B eiru t

72

A Lebanon D efied

facto ries b ecam e con sciou s o f b elo n g in g to a w id er so cial cla ss seek in g to restru ctu re a n u n ju st ord er th at sy stem atically m argin al­ ized them . M r. Z ., fo r exam p le, a S h i'a w orker in d ie su b u rb s w h o p rid ed h im self o n b elon g in g to th e w o rk in g class, offered so cialism a s th e d esired altern ativ e. A nd an oth er w o rk er, ech oin g th e g en eral v iew s o n con fession alism h eld b y h is co lleag u es, argu ed : 'Confessionnalism is a sign of underdevelopment; the w orkers' struggle m ust be a struggle of Christians and Muslims side by side; the shaykhs ['ulam a] and men of religion hinder consciousness by manipulating the confessional cleavage; the dom inant class [identified as the bankers who succeeded the zu'am a by Mr. Z] and im perialism support confessionalism in order to divide the country and the social forces.'39 T h is em ergen t class co n scio u sn ess, h ow ever, w as n o t ab le to tran sform its ad h eren ts in to a u n ited and solid w orkin g class th at cou ld reliab ly tran scen d co n fessio n al ch allen g es. P erh ap s th is sh ou ld b e attrib u ted to th e im m atu rity o f th e p ro cess, to its n ew n ess an d lack o f h isto rical d ep th and p reced en t in th e com m u­ n ity . A ltern ativ ely , it m ay w ell h av e b een a "false con sciou sn ess." A fter a ll, L eban on in th e six ties and early sev en ties w as still a so ciety in w h ich the v ery stru ctu re o f d ie so cio p o litical ord er "activ ely en cou raged frag m en tation and in d iv id u alism , th ereb y co n trib u tin g to th e co n tro l and su p p ression o f a p o ten tial class co n scio u sn ess am ongst th e u rb an p oor." C ap italism in the co u n try "h ad n o t yet tran sform ed so cial relatio n s b y fu lly tran sform in g the m od e o f p ro d u ctio n .” N or d id it g iv e rise to an in d u strial so ciety an d a larg e p ro letariat in co n flict w ith a b o u rg eo isie. R ath er, it p erp etu ated an econ om ic form ation th a t w as d eriv ativ e o f a so cial stru ctu re in h erited from th e p reced in g cen tu ry , w h ich w as p a rticu larly su scep tib le to frag m en tation alo n g lin es o f d ie n te list an d co n fessio n al alleg ian ces. T h e p ro letariat h ere w as still em bry­ on ic and n u m erically com p rised on ly a sm all segm ent o f th e u rb an p o o r—on ly 10 p ercen t in B eiru t and 15 p ercen t in th e su b u rb s, a s com p ared to 35 p ercen t and 20 p ercen t o f the salaried p e tit b o u rg eo isie, an d 20 p ercen t and 35 p ercen t o f d ie su b -p ro letariat, resp ectiv ely .40 T he fo rm er h ad n o t y et d eveloped th e in stitu tio n al m ech an ism s n o r th e p o litica l resou rces th at cou ld h av e assu red th e p erp etu atio n an d co n so lid atio n o f p o litical actio n . It cou ld also b e

Shi'a Society by N um bers

73

said th at class con sciou sn ess am ong th e S h i'a w o rk ers a t lea st w as grad u ally overcom e o r sw ep t aw ay b y th e v ery n atu re o f th e S h i'a p o litico -relig io u s d iscou rse itse lf w h ich su stained / a s w e sh a ll see b elo w , a n activ ist cu rren t th at exp ressed S h i'a fru stratio n s and h op es w ith in a m ore "ind igenou s" fram ew ork. A s fo r th e su b -p ro letarian m ajo rity , th eir p o litics w ere in co n stan t, reflectin g th e crisis m ilieu in w h ich th ey fou nd th em selves. T h ey v oted fo r th eir zu 'am a a t electio n s, celeb rated th e lead ersh ip o f Jam al 'A b d al-N asir and Say yid M u sa al-S ad r, a s w ell a s jo in ed the v ario u s p ro test m ovem ents th at en g u lfed B eiru t in th e late six ties and early sev en ties. A s a con seq u en ce, it w as am on g th is p op u la­ tio n in p articu lar th a t th e faith in th e v iab ility o f th e ex istin g Leban ese p o litica l in stitu tio n s w as p ro v en to b e illu so ry . L eb an o n 's d em ocracy, p red icated u p on m ain tain in g th e statu s q u o , w orked to p erp etu ate th e d ep end ency o f th is su b -p ro letarian m ajo rity on th eir zu 'am a. T h e co u n try 's electo ral law s p reem p ted th eir ab so rp tio n in to B e iru t's clien telist stru ctu res. T h e c ity 's p o litica l b o sses w ou ld n o t co u rt, fa r less serv e, a p op u lation th at cou ld n o t recip ro cate w ith electo ral su p p ort. A s K h u ri n o tes: The actual distribution of political roles and state posts, did not sufficiently adapt itself to the new factors that emerged after indepen­ dence. Thus despite die mammoth migration movement which left only 17% of the population in the rural areas, the political distribu­ tion of parliamentary seats remained unchanged. A citizen, irrespec­ tive of where he was living or for how long, was required to return to his hometown to exercise the right to vote. Shifting voting rights from one constituency to another is a complicated procedure that requires a court d ecision.. . . Consequently, die bulk of die country's political forces were pinned down to their original communities in die rural areas, despite the massive population drain which diese areas had suffered.41 Y et, a s th e six ties w ere com in g to a clo se, it b ecam e clea r th at th e "fa st m od ern izin g Leban ese so ciety . . . [w as overload in g] its p o litica l in s titu tio n s .. . . R apid so cial m od ern ization , rath er th an lead in g to p articip ato ry stab le d e m o cra cy ,. . . p rom ote[d ] p o litica l in coh eren ce."42 U rb an ization am ong th e S h i'a created new d e­ m an d s th a t th e ex istin g so cial, p o litica l, an d p sy ch o lo g ical com m itm en ts cou ld n o t satisfy . In stead , it b rou g h t h om e to th em

74

A Lebanon D efied

th e reality o f th e in stitu tio n alized d iscrim in ation an d n eg lect from w h ich th ey h ad su ffered . In ten se exp osu re to m ass m ed ia an d b e tter access to ed u catio n in B eiru t b rou g h t oth erw ise in ert strata in th e com m u nity w ith in reach o f p o litica l actio n . T h e exp erien ce o f shared d islocation and d isenfranchisem ent p rov id ed th e im p etu s fo r th e em ergen ce o f S h i'a grou p so lid arity . A bove all/ it created a lead ersh ip vacu u m th at en ab led M usa al-S ad r to p ro ject th is com m u nity on to th e Leban ese p o litical scen e. T h e im p ortan ce o f th e S h i'a su b -p roletarian in d ie su bsequ en t form ation o f a d istin ct S h i'a m ovem ent can n ot b e overem p hasized . It is th is p o p u latio n th at cam e to form th e n u cleu s o f su p p ort fo r M u sa al-S ad r an d H arakat al-M ah ru m in (M ovem ent o f th e D isin h erited )/ and p rov id e th e cleric w ith th e con stitu en cy th rou g h w h ich h e cou ld p ress h is claim as sp okesm an fo r L eb an o n 's d isen fran ch ised . D issatisfied w ith th e dom inant ord er b u t d isillu ­ sion ed w ith th e p rom ises o f the L eban ese left in gen eral/ th is p o p u latio n u ltim ately follow ed th e lead ersh ip o f M u sa al-S ad r lik e n o oth er. H e alon e cam e to p erso n ify its v isio n o f a tru e lead er: a m an o f g reat h ad ra, ch arism atic in a v ery W eberian sen se o f th e term / learn ed in d ie trad itio n s o f th e im am s, y et hu m ble and carin g , an d a m o st elo q u en t and sin cere articu lato r o f its cau se ag ain st ch ron ic d isp ossession an d h u m iliation .43

EM IG R A TIO N O V ER SEA S A N D T H E BIR T H O F A S H I'A BO U R G E O ISIE S h i'a em ig ratio n overseas follow ed a p attern sim ilar to th at o f th e exod u s to B eiru t. Sp u rred b y crises a t hom e and the p ro sp ect o f en rich m en t ov erseas, th ou san d s o f Leban ese S h i'a left th eir b irth p lace fo r A frica, th e A m ericas, th e A rab ian P en in su la, and o th er p arts o f th e globe. A lth ou gh sta tistics on th e volu m e o f em ig ration o f d ie d ifferen t co n fessio n al u n its are n o n existen t, it ca n b e stated w ith certain ty th at th e Leban ese S h i'a to d ay co n stitu te th e larg est p ro p o rtio n o f L eban ese ex p atriates in m an y W est A frican co u n tries, p arts o f th e U nited S ta tes, an d elsew h ere.44 T h e S h i'a d iasp ora en gen d ered a S h i'a b o u rg eo isie th at to o k ov er from th e state th e co n tro l o f d ie socioeconom ic d evelop m en t o f d ie tow n s an d v illag es acro ss So u th Leban on an d d ie B iq a '. B y th e late

Shi'a Society by N um bers

75

six ties, th e im p act o f th is new S h i'a w ealth w as stro n g ly fe lt in th e So u th w h ere it w as u sed to con so lid ate m any o f th e larg e ag ricu l­ tu ral estates th at h ad a t one tim e b elon g ed to th e old d om inant fam ilies o f th e region/ and to g ain fin an cial co n tro l o v er oth er secto rs o f th e L ebanese econ om y, nam ely, th e en tertain m en t in d u stry , com m erce w ith A frica, and real estate. W ith a few ex cep tio n s, su ch a s th e Jam m al T ru st B ank, h ow ever, th e p o ten tial im p act o f th is S h i'a b o u rg eo isie on th e n atio n al lev el w as lim ited , p artly a s a resu lt o f th e hegem on y exercised b y its Su n n i and M aron ite co u n terp arts o v er m u ch o f th e in d u strial and com m ercial sectors. Fu rth erm ore, its ab ility to tran slate itse lf in to a new p o litica l force w as im ped ed b y d ie sy stem o f old cla n p o litics th at p erv ad ed th e S h i'a an d L ebanese so cial an d p o litical life in gen eral.45 Faced w ith th ese ob stacles, th e new S h i'a b o u rg eo isie p ressed fo r ch an ge—th e sam e kind o f ch an ge th at Sayyid M u sa al-S ad r h ad a ll alon g b een ad v ocatin g . R ealizin g and resen tin g th eir exclu sio n from th e p o litical an d so cial e lite s, m an y from th is b ou rg eoisie b eg an to q u estion th e ru les o f th e gam e an d in th e p ro cess fou nd th at th eir in terests converged w ith th ose o f th eir co relig io n ists in th e su b u rb s o f B eiru t and elsew h ere. T he su p p ort th at th is segm ent o f th e S h i'a p op u lation ev en tu ally len t to M u sa al-S ad r sh ou ld b e view ed as em ergin g sp ecifically ou t o f th is co n text in w h ich a rad ical econ om ic sh ift in d ie Leban ese p o lity , b ein g u naccom p a­ n ied b y a corresp o n d in g sh ift in op p ortu n ities fo r m o b ility w ith in th e sy stem , le ft th is b o u rg eo isie w ith a sen se o f d islo catio n and d isaffectio n .

T H E PER SIST EN C E O F C O M M U N A L A N D R EG IO N A L L IN K S T h e m ig ran ts to th e B eiru t su bu rbs and elsew h ere in v ariab ly kep t in tou ch w ith th eir n ativ e com m u n ities and v illag es o f origin . W h at k ep t th e lin k a liv e w as th e w retch ed n ess o f th eir reality , the h arsh n ess o f ex ile, an d d ie b ru ta l cy cles o f violen ce th at p recip itat­ ed th eir in itia l exod u s and tu rn ed th eir lan d in to a cau se célèb re. T h at, in effect, th e v illag e an d com m u nity follow ed th e v illag ers in to th e city w as n o t a t a ll su rp risin g . T h e grad u al in teg ratio n o f th e L eban ese h in terlan d u n d er state ad m in istration an d the

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A Lebanon D efied

d om in an t B eiru t-b ased com m ercial and fin an cial in terests th at b eg an w ith in d ep en d en ce an d accelerated d u ring th e six ties, erased m u ch o f th e ru ral-u rb an d ich otom y in Lebanon, h i m any w ay s, L eban on effectiv ely b ecam e one b ig su burb o f B eiru t.46 T h e ag e stru ctu re o f th e m ig ratin g p o p u latio n in itia lly fav ored ad u lt m ales cap ab le o f w o rk w ith fam ilies to su p p ort. T h is served to m ain tain th e reg ion al-com m u n al con n ection . M ost o f th ese S h i'a d id n o t co n sid er th eir u rb an resid en ce as eith er th eir p erm an en t o r th e ir o n ly hom e. T he v illag e rem ained th eir real h om e and th ey con tin u ed to id en tify th em selves w ith th eir v illag e o f o rig in . L eisu re tim e, w h eth er o n w eekend s or d u rin g d ie su m m er seaso n , w as sp en t larg ely in th e v illag e an d m ost con sid ered end ogam y to b e p referab le to m arriag e o u tsid e o f it. T h e n atu re o f th e ru ral-u rb an lin k w as illu strated in th e lead er­ sh ip o f d ie Bayd u n fam ily w h ich m on op olized th e on ly S h i'a p arliam en tary seat in B eiru t: In th e sev en ties, m ore th an 50 p ercen t o f th e stu d en t b o d y a t th e 'A m iliy y a sch o o ls, p art o f a l-Jam 'iy y a a lK hayriyya al-Islam iy y a al-'A m iliy y a (T he 'A m iliy y a Islam ic B en ev o len t S o ciety ) fou nd ed in 1923 b y R ashid B ayd u n to serv e th e "son s o f Jab a l 'A m iT resid in g in B eiru t, retu rn ed to th eir n a ta l v illa g es ev ery sum m er. Fu rth erm ore, so cial and p o litical cleav ag es w ere tran sp orted to th e city su ch th at th e new u rb an d w ellers reg rou p ed accord in g to th eir p lace o f origin . In B eiru t, th ey en co u n tered th e sam e w eb o f relatio n s a s in th eir h om e v illag es: T h e co n cen tratio n o f th e Z 'a y tir cla n o f th e B iq a ' in th e Fan ar sectio n o f east B eiru t, fo r exam p le, led to th e estab lish m en t o f a n au ton om ou s v illag e th ere th at cam e to b e know n as H ayy a lZ 'a y triy y i (T he Z 'ay triy y i Q u arter).47 T h e co n fessio n al con sciou sn ess o f th e S h i'a w as fu rth er m ain­ tain ed b y th e fa ct th at L eban on a t h eart rem ained a so ciety w h ere co n fessio n al lo y alties d efin ed th e stron gest alleg ian ces. T h e b o n d s o f kin sh ip and relig io u s id en tity in Leban on p erm eated d aily life an d cu t acro ss d iscrep an t lev els o f w ealth , ed u cation , and so cia l statu s. T h e im p o rtan ce o f th ese b on d s w as th en exagg erated b y th e co u n try 's electo ral law s an d con fession al sy stem , a t th e exp en se o f extra-co m m u n al lo y alties. T h e S h i'a b ecam e refu g ees in th eir ow n cou n try . T h e o fficia l m otto a t th e tim e w as: "L eb an o n 's stren g th is in its w eak n ess." Fu rth erm ore, th e cosm op olitan so ciety to w h ich th ey h ad arriv ed co n stan tly rem ind ed them o f th eir "alien n ess"

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th ro u g h "frien d ly " jo k e s w h ich m im icked th eir accen t an d n o t-so b en ev o len t in stan ces o f o u trig h t d iscrim in ation . In B eiru t, th e S h i'a m ore o r le ss b ecam e th e eq u iv alen t o f th e co lo n ized n ativ e a s in d icated b y th e la b el M itw ali, u sed to d esign ate th e S h i'a su b altern in p articu lar, w h ich cam e to acq u ire a w h ole p ejo rativ e h o st o f co n n o tatio n s, i.e ., b ein g u n ed u cated , v u lg ar, sexu ally in satiab le, p rom iscu ou s, and th reaten in g , etc. In h er stu d y o f Bu rj H am m ud, an A rm en ian su burb in B eiru t w h ich b ecam e a S h i'a stron g h o ld , Su ad Jo sep h d escribes th e attitu d e o f th e A rm enians tow ard th e S h i'a : The M uslim is pictured as dirty, untrustworthy, rapacious, sexual. In Bourj Hammoud this image is applied to the Shi'ates. The Shi'ate is represented as a constant threat to Armenian fem ales.. . . The Church warns against too close an association w ith the Shi'ates and calls upon parents and brothers to guard over the honor and virginity of the daughters and sisters.4* A s if to ratio n alize its n eg lect o f th e S h i'a m asses, L eban ese society a s a w h ole created a n ap p ro p riately rep u lsiv e M itw ali "ch aracter" w h ich w as easily scap egoated w h en n ecessary . H ere one m u st ad d th at n eg ativ e stereoty p es are p erh ap s in ev itable am ong socioeth n ic g ro u p s -to th e S h i'a trad itio n alist, th e C h ristian s w ere n ajas, th e Su n n is v icio u s and greed y. Y et w h en th ese stereo ty p es are u sed to exacerb ate th e so cio lo g ical rea lities o f h ierarch y and d isen fran ch isem en t, th ey ten d to agg rav ate eth n ic ten sio n s and in m any in stan ces b ecom e, a s w e sh all see b elo w , im p o rtan t referen ts in the p o liticizatio n o f th e agg riev ed eth n ic grou p .

N O T ES 1. See Roger Owen, ed., Essays on the C risis in Lebanon (London: Ithaca Press, 1976), 1-32. 2. The growth rate of GDP per capita is based on the growth rate in real GDP between 1965 and 1974 estimated at 5.8 percent by Nasser H. Saidi, "Economic Consequences of die W ar in Lebanon," Papers on Lebanon, no. 3 (London: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1986), 3, minus die growth rate in population between 1960 and 1975 estimated at 2.7 percent

78

A Lebanon D efied

by tiie W orld Bank, W orld Bank A tias (W ashington, D.C.: W orld Bank, 1977) . 3. Dubar and N asr, Les C lasses Sociales au Liban, 69; and Salim N asr, "The Criste of Lebanese Capitalism ," M ERIP R eport 8, no. 10 (December 1978) : 9. 4. The Economist Intelligence Unit, Q uarterly Econom ic Review s, A nnual Supplem ent—Syria, Lebanon, Cyprus (London: EIU, 1975): 20-21, and 26; and Conseil National du Tourism au lib a n 0u ly 1972). 5. Dubar and N asr, Les C lasses Sociales au Liban, 67-75, and 93; and Direction Centrale de la Statistique, L'Enquête par Sondage su r la Population A ctive au Liban, 2 vols. (Beyrouth: Imprimerie de la Direction Centrale de la Statistique, 1972), 2 :1 1 8 . 6. Albert Hourani, "Lebanon—From Feudalism to M odem State," M iddle Eastern Studies 2, no. 3 (April 1966): 263. 7. Augustus Richard Norton, in Antal and the Shi'a: Strugglefo r the Soul o f Lebanon, m odem M iddle East series, no. 13 (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1987), 13-36, uses Karl Deutsch's social m obilization model in order to delineate the "sources and meaning of change among the Shi'a of Lebanon." 8. The Arab League, The O rdeal o f South Lebanon (B eiru t n.p., 1980), 1920; The Lebanese Communist Party, al-Q adiyya al-Z ira'iyya f i Lubnan [The Agrarian Question in Lebanon] (B eiru t M atabi' al-Am al, [1973?]), 214-17; and Farhan Salih, Janub Lubnan [South Lebanon] (B eiru t Dar al-Tali'a, 1973), 19-39. 9. al-Q adiyya al-Z ira'iyya f i Lubnan, ibid., 372-73; and B.J. Odeh, D ynam ics o f C onflict (London: Zed Press, 1985), 70. 10. al-Q adiyya al-Z ira'iyya f i Lubnan, ibid., 361-76; and Ahmad Baalbaki, al-Z ira'a al-Lubnaniyya [Lebanese Agriculture] (Beirut: M anshurat 'Uwaydat, 1985), 22, and 229-30. 11. Roy Athanas Karaoglan, "The Sugar Industry in Lebanon: A Case Study in Agricultural Protection," (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1967), 1-21, and 108-11; and Baalbaki, ibid., 109-12. 12. Nasr, "The Crisis of Lebanese Capitalism ," 9. 13. See Joseph Chamie, "Religious Groups in Lebanon: A Descriptive Investigation," International Journal o f M iddle East Studies 11, no. 2 (April 1980): 175-87. 14. See Fiches du Monde Arabe, Lebanon—Com panies/Banks: Banque d e C redit A gricole, Industriel et Foncier, L b n -2231/1 (14 December 1983). 15. Nasr, "The Crisis of Lebanese Capitalism ,": 6-9; al-Q adiyya alZira'iyya f i Lubnan, 17-51, 207-12, 218, and 301-42; The O rdeal o f South Lebanon, 67; Hasan Sharif, "South Lebanon: Its H istory and Geopolitics," South Lebanon, ed. Elaine Hagopian and Samih Farsoun, The Arab-

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American University Graduates, special reports, no. 2 (August 1978), 2728; Baalbaki, al-Z ira'a al-Lubnaniyya, 67-70; 72-75; 134-56; 186-91; 229-30; 243-9; and 254; and Talal Jaber, "Chi'ites et Pouvoir Politique au Liban (1967-1974)," 96-102. 16. See Hyam M allat, M iyah Lubnan—N aft Lubm n [The water of Leba­ non—The oil of Lebanon] (Beyrouth: Publications de l'U niversité Libanaise, 1982). 17. Yusif Abu Shaqra, al-H arakat f i Lubnan [The events in Lebanon] (Beirut: n.p., n.d.), 155. 18. The O rdeal o f South Lebanon, 67. 19. See Osama Alexander Doumani, "The Tobacco Growers of Southern Lebanon: Politics and Economics of Change," (Ph.D. diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1974), 55-67. 20. Jean-Paul Sartre, preface to Albert Memmi's P ortrait du C olonisé Précédé de P ortrait du C olonisateur (Paris: Gallim ard, 1985), 26. 21. Nasr, "The Crisis of Lebanese Capitalism ," 10; Sharif, "South Lebanon: Its History and Geopolitics," 11; and République Libanaise-M in­ istère du Plan, Besoins et P ossibilités de D éveloppem ent du Liban, 2 vols, and annex (Beyrouth: M ission IR FED -Liban, 1960-1961), 2 :9 3 . 22. Fiches du Monde Arabe, Lebanon—P olitics: Israeli M ilitary Interven­ tion, I-Ll-I-L4a, I-L94,1-L96, and I-L99 (1983); and L eban on -P olitics: The Lebanese Palestinian A greem ents, I-L54 (1976), and I-L55 (1978). 23. N asr, "The Crisis of Lebanese Capitalism ," 10. 24. W illiam K. Tabb, The P olitical Econom y o f the Black G hetto (New York: W . W . Norton, 1970), 4-5, and 81-82. 25. The Permanent Conference of Muslim Organizations in Lebanon, M oslem Lebanon Today (Beirut 1953), 9. 26. Kamal Salibi, "Lebanon under Fuad Chehab," M iddle Eastern Studies 2, no. 3 (April 1966): 211-26. 27. Sam ih Farsoun and W alter Carroll, "The Civil W ar in Lebanon," M onthly Review Press 28, no. 2 (June 1976): 19. 28. Direction Centrale de la Statistique, L'Enquête par Sondage sur la Population A ctive au Liban, 2:458-535. 29. al-Q adiyya al-Z ira'iyya f i Lubnan, 104-5 30. Musa al-Sadr, quoted in 'A dil Rida, M a' àl-l'tidhar li-l-lm am M usa al-Sadr [W ith an apology to tire Imam Musa al-Sadr] (Cairo: M atba'at M adbuli, n.d.), 93. 31. See Salim Nasr, "Les Formes de Regroupement Traditionnel dans la Société de Beyrouth," in L'Espace Social de la V ille A rabe, ed. Dominique Chevallier, (Paris: G.-P. Maisonneuve et Larose, 1979), 155-56; "Beyrouth et le Conflit Libanais-Restructuration de l'Espace Urbain," in P olitiques U rbaines dans le M onde A rabe, ed. George M utin and Jean M étrai, Etudes

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sur le Monde Arabe, no. 1 (Lyon, France: M aison de l'O rient M éditerrané­ en, 1984), 287-305. 32. Helena Cobban, "The Shia Community and the Future of Lebanon," The M uslim W orld Today, Occasional Paper, no. 2 (W ashington, D.C.: American Institute for Islamic Affairs, 1985), 3. 33. According to E.J. Hobsbawm, in Prim itive R ebels (New York: W .W . Norton, 1965), 113-14, nit was a combination of wage-earners, small property-owners and foe unclassifiable urban poor.” See also Salim and M arlène Nasr, "Morphologie Sociale de la Banlieue-Est de Beyrouth,” M aghreb-M ackreq, no. 73 (Juillet-Septem bre 1976): 79-90. 34. Ghassane Salamé, Lebanon's Injured Identities, Papers on Lebanon, no. 2 (London: Centre for Lebanese Studies, 1986), 12. 35. They are foe sem i-proletariats in the sense defined by Mao Zedong, "Analysis of foe Classes in Chinese Society," in Selected Readings from the W orks o f M ao Tsetung (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1971), 15-18, and 20fn l0. To M ao's definition of foe sem i-proletariat, however, Dubar and Nasr in Les C lasses Sociales au Liban, 187-88, add that contrary to an alm ost exclusively rural China of 1926, theirs is an urban population, and has emerged in function of Lebanon's services economy. It has an equivalent in the country's rural periphery. 36. Karl M arx, C apital: A C ritique o f P olitical Econom y, vol. 1, trans. Ben Fowkes (New York: Vintage Books, 1977), 796. 37. AU Fa'our in "M igration horn South Lebanon with a Field Study of Forced Mass M igration,” Population Bulletin ofECW A, no. 21 (December 1981): 33-36. 38. N asr, "The Crisis of Lebanese CapitaUsm," 10-12; and al-N ahar (November 1972-January 1973). 39. Dubar and Nasr, Les C lasses au lib a n , 310. 40. M ichael Johnson, C lass & O ien t in Beirut (Atlantic Highlands, N J: Ithaca Press, 1986), 5-6, and 34. 41. Fuad I. Khuri, "The Social Dynamics of the 1975-1977 W ar in Lebanon," Arm ed Forces and Society 95, no. 3 (Spring 1981): 392. 42. M ichael Hudson, "A Case of PoUtical Underdevelopment," The Journal o f P olitics 29 (1967): 836-37; and Tawfíc Farah, A spects ofC on sociationalism and M odernization: Lebanon as an Exploratory Test C ase, poUtics series, no. 1 (Lincoln, NB: M iddle East Research Group, 1975). 43. Max W eber in The Theory o f Social and Econom ic O rganizations, trans. A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parson (New York: Oxford University Press, 1947), 358-59, defines charisma as "a certain quaUty of an individual personality by virtue of which he is set apart from the ordinary men and treated as endowed w ith supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifical­ ly exceptional powers or quaUties. These are not accessible to the

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ordinary person, but are regarded as of divine origins or as exemplary and on that basis the individual is treated as a leader." 44. Although statistics on Lebanese em igration by confession are still lacking, an important stride in that direction was made by the Centre for Lebanese Studies at Oxford during its conferences, A C entury o f Lebanese Em igration and The Lebanese in A frica, held in September 1989 and September 1990, respectively. See also H.L. Van Der Laan, The Lebanese Traders in Sierra Leone (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), 235; Ahmad Baydoun, "Bint-Jbeil, M ichigan, suivi de (ou poursuivi par) Bint-Jbeil, Liban,” M aghréb-M achreq, no. 125 (Juillet-Septem bre, 1989): 69-81; and "In Dearborn, 10,000 Shiites Go About Their Life," New Y ork Tim es (21 June 1985). 45. Dubar and Nasr, Les C lasses Sociales au Liban, 84, 99-100, and 119; and Fiches du Monde Arabe, Lebanon: Com panies/Banks—Jam m al Trust Bank (December 1982). 46. Fuad Khuri, From V illage to Suburb (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1975), 8. 47. Suad Joseph, 'Politicization of Religious Sects in Bourj Hammoud," (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1975), 105-12; and Nasr,"La Morpho­ logie Sociale de la Banlieue-Est de Beyrouth," 81. 48. Joseph, ibid., 210-11.

3 Traditionalism and Revolution Lebanon has approxim ately one hundred fam ilies that consider them selves the proprietors o f this sm all country. —Yousef Beidas M odem history begins—at different m om ents in differen t places-vH th the principle o f progress as both the aim and m otor o f history. C ultures o f progress envisage fu tu re expansion. They are forw ard-looking because the fu tu re offers ever larger hopes. A culture o f survival envisages the fu tu re as a sequence o f repeated acts o f survival. Each act pushes a thread through the eye o f a needle and the thread is tradition. N o overall increase is envisaged. —John Berger, P ig Earth

h e p ecu liarities o f the S h i'a m o b ilizatio n in L eban on w ere d efin ed b y th e stru ctu ral realities o f th e Leban ese p o lity in in teractio n w ith th e sp ecific socioecon om ic and relig io u s sen sib ilities o f th e com m u nity. Som e o f th ese stru ctu ral facto rs gen erated cu rren ts w h ich affected th e p o litical cu ltu re o f th e o th er L eban ese com m u n ities as w ell: (1) a lim ited an d e litist d em ocracy , or w h at A rend L ijp h art h as called "co n so ciatio n alism ,"1 w h ich w as ap tly d escribed b y G eorges N accach e, th en ed ito r o f L 'O rien t, in 1952 a s "la d ictatu re d 'u n C lu b de N otables,"2 (2) th e co n fessio n al b a sis o f th e p o lity w h ich osten sib ly aim ed to b alan ce b etw een th e v ario u s con fession s, b u t in effect only p erp etu ated th e statu s q u o , an d (3) th e co u n try 's g eo p o litical v u ln erab ility to reg io n al and in tern atio n al d y n am ics, w h ich w as m ad e fu rth er p rob lem atic b y 82

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83

th e d iv erg en t an d som ew h at co n flictu al alleg ian ces o f th e Leban ese th em -selv es. P ecu liar to th e S h i'a com m u nity w ere: (1) a d em ograp h ic exp lo sio n th at exacerbated th e co m m u n ity 's p o sitio n a t d ie b o tto m o f th e socioecon om ic lad d er in th e cou n try/ an d (2) th e p o litico -relig io u s sy m b iosis ch aracteristic o f S h i'a Islam , to b e v iew ed in th e fram ew ork o f th e relation sh ip o f relig io n to p o litica l au th o rity and activ ism in S h i'a thou ght. T h e co n so ciatio n al arran gem en t form alized d ie za'am a o f som e o f th e S h i'a p atrician fam ilies o f th e O ttom an and Fren ch p eriod s.3 W ith th eir trad itio n al w ealth and statu s/ th e zu 'am a o f th e a lA s'ad / H am ad i, and th e oth er fam ilies/ also in h erited a stro n g b ase o f d ep end ents u p o n w h ich th ey b u ilt th e clien tele th at w ou ld form th eir electo ral co n stitu en cy in in d ep en d en t Lebanon.4 U n til v ery recen tly , th e lead ersh ip o f th ese zu 'am a w as th e organ izin g p rin cip le o f th e so cio p o litical ord er am ong th e S h i'a , as w ell as th rou g h ou t L eban on fo r th at m atter. "In p eacetim e/" th e z a 'im sp o ke "fo r h is clien ts a s a grou p o r a s in d iv id u als . . . [and w as] exp ected to tak e actio n in th eir and in h is in terest w h en ev er n ecessary ." M u ch lik e th e g od fath er o f a S icilian m afia, he h elp ed an d p ro tected them w h en ev er it w as n eed ed , w ith w h atev er m eans h e cou ld .5 "h i tim es o f w ar," th e za'im to o k "the field h im self, o r . . . [d ep u tized ] a son. T he grou p bou n d to him b y th e m an ifold tie s o f in terest and lo y alty . . . [served ] as h is arm ed follo w in g ."6 A s a d eep ly rooted and stro n g ly self-rep licatin g sy stem , the in stitu tio n o f th e za'am a in L eban on fu n ctio n ed to u n d erm in e the co n so lid atio n o f an y ch an ge. R arely w ere th e b ig zu 'am a, o r aqtab a s th ey w ere lab elled b y th e p ress, u n ab le to secu re p arliam en tary seats.7 C learly , m o b ility in th is sy stem w as lim ited . T h e am b itiou s in d iv id u a l's road to p arliam en t had to b eg in u n d er th e tu telage o f a n estab lish ed za 'im . P o litically asp irin g m en h ad to h av e en ou g h m on ey an d ed u catio n , a s w ell as th e "rig h t" lin eag e or fam ily co n n ectio n s, to ru n on th e z a 'im 's p arliam en tary slate. C on sid er­ ab le statu s an d p o w er d ifferen tiatio n also ex isted b etw een the zu 'am a, w ith th e tw o fam ilies m en tion ed above b ein g th e id eal p ro to ty p es o f th e S h i'a za'am a, and th e m ost p ow erfu l in Jab al 'A m il an d B a'lab ak -al-H irm il, resp ectiv ely . T h is d ifferen tiatio n fou nd its ex p ressio n in the form ation o f p o litical allian ces, in governm ent p atron ag e w h ich had b rou g h t som e o f th ese fam ilies

84

Table 3.1 Lebanon: Major Shi'a parliamentaryfamilies (1920-1972)

‘Usayran al-‘Abdallah al-As‘ad al-Khalil al-Padl al-Zayn Baydun Hamadi Haydar Source:

Year of Initiation

Numb« of Deputies

Number of Seats

Number of Chambers

1922 1937 1925 1937 1922 1920 1937 1925 1920

3 5 4 2 4 5 7 1 3

15 7 16 6 17 18 10 14 15

13 7 12 5 10 13 7 14 13

Antoine Nasri Messarra, La Structure Sociale du Parlement Libanais (19201976), Publications du Centre de Recherches de T Université Libanaise—Institut des Sciences Sociales, no. 18 (Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1977), 195, and 347-61.

Table 3 2 Lebanon: Speakers of parliament (1943-1984) Period Presided Ahmad al-As*ad

June 1951-August 1957

Kamil al-As‘ad

May 1964-October 1964 May 1968-October 1968 October 1971-15 October 1984

Sabri Hamadi

October 1943-October 1946 June 1947-5 June 1964 October 1959-May 1964 October 1964-May 1968 October 1968-October 1971

‘Adil ‘Usayran

August 1957-October 1959

Source:

Henri Abu Fadil, al-Barlaman [The parliament] (Beirut Manshurat al-Harf, 1985), 195.

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to p ow er in th e first p lace, an d in th e form ation o f p arliam en tary b lo cs w ith low er statu s zu 'am a b ecom in g th e clien ts o f h ig h er sta tu s on es b y eith er su p p ortin g th e la tte r in th eir ow n electio n to o ffice, o r b y jo in in g th eir p arliam en tary b lo cs.8 Id eology h ere w as synonym ou s w ith th e p o litica l in terests o f a p articu lar za 'im . T h e trad itio n al S h i'a p o litica l p arties, H izb a l-T a la 'i' (T he V an g u ard s' P arty ) o f R ashid B ayd u n , an d H izb al-N ah d a (T he R en aissan ce P arty ) o f A hm ad al-A s'a d , w ere n oth in g b u t "lead ersh ip grou p s m ad e an d u nm ad e b y co alitio n s an d qu arrels o f th e zu'am a o r b y th e w ish o f on e su ch za'im to b e 'm o d e m ' an d 'u p -to -d a te / T h eir g rass r o o t s . . . [w ere] th e p erso n al ties o f so d o -eco n o m ico -p o litical in terest b etw een th e za'im an d h is clien t."9 T h e S h i'a zu 'am a m ain tain ed th eir au th o rity th rou g h a p ecu liar m ixtu re o f co ercio n , m an ip u lation , an d con sen t.10 In th e p erio d o f its g reatest g lo ry u n d er O ttom an ru le, th e in stitu tio n o f th e za'am a "p rovid ed a p arallel m ach in e o f law and organ ized p ow er" to th e fo rces o f th e Su blim e P orte. "In d eed , so fa r a s th e citiz e n in th e area s u n d er its in flu en ce w as con cern ed , [it w as] th e on ly effectiv e law an d p ow er."11 T h e larg ely illitera te and iso lated p easan ts feared th e z a 'im w ith h is hen ch m en an d arm ed fo llo w ers, b u t th ey also resp ected h is "au ra" an d statu s and rallied b eh in d h im a s th eir o n ly sou rce o f p ro tectio n from th e O tto m an cen ter. H e w as th e fo cu s o f th eir en v y , lo v e, an d ad m iration . In sh o rt, th e z a 'im w as h is p e a sa n ts' "n atio n al h ero ." A nd it is p recisely th is elem en t o f co n sen t in th e lead er-led relation sh ip th at p artly exp lain s the en d u rin g za'am a o f a n a l-A s'ad o r a H am adi—a n elem en t w h ich , alth o u g h in tertw in ed w ith th e stru ctu res o f p atron ag e as in the m u tu al b en e fit an d lo y alty b etw een p ro tecto r an d p ro tected , h as ch arism a a s a p rim e in g red ien t. O n th e one h an d , th e z a 'im p ro tected h is p easan ts from ex to rtio n and d estitu tio n , g en erally im p rov in g on th eir "im age o f the lim ited good ," i.e ., o n th eir la ck o f "lan d , w ealth , h ealth , frien d sh ip and lo v e, m an lin ess an d h o n o r, resp ect and statu s, p ow er an d in flu en ce, secu rity and safety ."12 T he p easan ts, in tu rn , exp ressed d ev otion to fire z a 'im b y sen d in g fam ily m em bers to serv e in h is hom e, b rin g in g h im ch oice offerin g s from the p rod u ce o f th e lan d , p u b licly p raisin g h im , and p rov id in g so ld iers a t tim es o f w ar.19 Y et th ere w as—an d rem ain s—a n affectiv e tie in th e za'im -p easan t dyad, th e valu e o f w h ich tran scen d ed th e m aterial exch an g es it

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su bsu m ed . In a cu ltu re th at exalted g en ealog y an d celeb rated in p o etry th e ch aracter an d d eed s o f its "g reat m e n /' th e S h i'a zu 'am a d erived th e co n sen t o f . th eir follo w ers b y su ccessfu lly ev ok in g certain b asic p o w erfu lly reson an t im ages in th e S h i'a so cio relig io u s d iscou rse. T h is is ev id en ced in th e ch ron icles w h ich reg istered the ro o ts o f a ll o f th e h isto rical S h i'a p o litical fam ilies.14 T h e H am ad is, fo r in stan ce, claim ed d escen t from an an cesto r w ho fou gh t b esid e th e th ird S h i'a im am , H u sayn, on th e p lain o f K arbala in Iraq in 680 C .E ., w h ile th e al-F ad l cla n claim ed th e g reat S alah al-D in a lA yy u bi as a d irect an cesto r. A nd th e al-A s'a d fam ily traced its lin eag e b a ck to th e 'A n aza trib e in th e A rabian P eninsu la. N ote the follo w in g acco u n t o f th e h isto ry o f A1 'A li al-S ag h ir, th e alleg ed an cesto rs o f th e al-A s'ad s. It in essen ce attem p ts to recreate th e sto ry o f a h l a l-b a y t, an d exten d to th e variou s in d iv id u al lead ers o f th is cla n som e o f th e b asic attrib u tes th at S h i'a Islam b esto w s on its im am s, n am ely, th e rig h t to ru le an d th eir b ein g th e 'b e s t" o f th e p eop le o f th eir tim e: 'A li al-Saghir, die mighty and chivalrous ruler of Jabal 'A m il, is die son of Shaykh Husayn bin Ahmad al-N assar, him self a descendant of Muhammad bin Hazza', a leader of the 'Anaza 'ashira. After die attack of Banu Shukr who usurped die domain of Shaykh Husayn, his pregnant w ife, the only survivor of his household, took refuge w ith her clan in die desert where she conceived 'A li. When die latter reached twenty years of age, his mother informed him of his true origin. 'A li then returned to Jabal 'Am il where he avenged his father and reestablished die reign of peace and justice.15 T h is accou n t o f th e o rig in s o f th e al-A s'ad s is o f a p iece w ith m any o th er exag g erated , if n o t fictitio u s, accou n ts o f th e o rig in s o f p rom in en t A rab ru lin g fam ilies. W h at it d oes is p rov id e th e m em bers o f th is clan w ith a ch arter o f leg itim acy lin k in g them to b asic th em es in S h i'a-A rab con sciou sn ess. T hu s fo r the A1 'A li a lSag h ir and th eir d escen d an ts, th e story o ffers "p ro o f o f [their] r i g h t . . . to gov ern th e reg io n , in th e sam e w ay th at th e d escen ­ d an ts o f d ie P rop h et and th e Im am 'A li have th e rig h t to b e th e calip h s o f th e M u slim s."16 In th e in terreg n u m b etw een th e O ttom an tan zim at o f th e m id ­ n in eteen th cen tu ry and th e creatio n o f the Leban ese R ep u b lic u n d er Fren ch au sp ices in 1926, new fo rces w ere gen erated th at

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u n d erm in ed th e p ow er o f d ie al-A s'ad and th e H am adi za'am a, an d u ltim ately altered th e p atro n -clien t m od e o f asso ciatio n . T h e tan zim at o f 1864 elim in ated th e ro le o f th e iq ta 'i in th e so cial stru ctu re/ and erod ed som e o f th e sig n ifican ce o f fealty . T h e am b iv alen t attitu d e o f K am il al-A s'ad / th e ' A m ili ch ieftain , tow ard th e S h arifian m ovem ent as w ell a s the m an d atory pow er/ and the fu ll co o p eratio n o f th e H am ad is w ith th e latter/ sev erely u n d er­ m in ed th e bon d ty in g them to th eir follo w ers, h i B aT abak-alH irm il/ th e A rab n atio n alist cred en tials o f th e H ayd ar clan / w h ich h ad em erged on th e ru in s o f th e H arfu sh am irate, g reatly en ­ h an ced its p op u lar stan d in g a t th e exp en se o f th e H am ad is. In Ja b a l 'A m il, som e o f th e few fam ilies th at h ad m ad e u se o f th e n ew iltizam law s to carv e ou t a za'am a statu s fo r th em selv es w ere en cou raged b y th e French to ch allen g e th e trib al h eg em on y o f th e a l-A s'a d s an d th e al-F ad ls. M ore im p ortan tly/ th e p rocess o f g rad u ally in teg ratin g th e lo cal lead ersh ip in to a m o d em govern­ m en t ap p aratu s/ w h ich had b eg u n w ith the reform s and con tin u ed th ereafter/ p rov id ed th e fe rtile grou nd fo r th e em ergen ce o f a new k in d o f p atronage—"a p atron age m ore b u reau cratic th an feu d al in n atu re/ an d one th at cam e to p lay a p rom in en t role in th e p o litical life o f L eban on in su b sequ en t d ecad es."17 In h is ev o lu tio n as a p o litical player/ th e S h i'a z a 'im grew in to a b len d o f th e feu d al lo rd w ho sp o ke fo r h is follow ers/ an d the m o d em p o litician / con stan tly seekin g a p arliam en tary career b y n u rtu rin g a lo y al clien tele. M an ip u lation ev olv ed to g eth er w ith co ercio n an d consent/ an d th e b alan ce o f in stru m en tal and affectiv e tie s g rad u ally sh ifted in fav o r o f th e form er. In ad d itio n to th e z a 'im 's econom ic and so cial en d ow m en ts, th e m ain ten an ce o f the clien tele req u ired access to state p atron age and th e ad m in istrativ e m achine/ a s w ell as a co rrect read in g o f th e tem p eram en t o f the m asses. T h e d yadic relation sh ip b etw een th e p atro n and th e clien t con tin u ed ; serv ices o f v ario u s k in d s, in clu d in g th e cu ltiv atio n o f an attitu d e o f "ben ig n n eg lect" n ecessary fo r th e p rod u ction o f h ash ish in th e B iq a', w ere exch an ged m ost o ften fo r p o litical/ essen tially electo ral/ su p p ort.18 B u t th e relation sh ip w as in creasin g ly triad ic, in v o lv in g th e state b u reau cracy a s a th ird p ole. C lien telism a s su ch w as th e m odus v iv en d i o f th e n atio n al p o litica l life , co n stitu tin g w h at h a s b een called , "a kin d o f d egen erate su b stitu te fo r ratio n al­ ized p o litica l o rg an ization ."19

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T h e w asita p erv ad ed ev ery asp ect o f life in (h e co u n try , an d cu t a cro ss d iv isio n s o f w ealth , ed u cation , an d so cial statu s. It is p erh ap s in th is sen se th a t one talk s o f p atron age as a "h om eostat fo r a sy stem o f in eq u ality " in Lebanon. K eep in g a n ey e on th e d yn am ics o f p o litical su rv iv al is also u sefu l in ex p lain in g th e in itia l p ro -N asir attitu d e o f A hm ad a l-A s'ad an d h is so n K am il (g ran d son o f th e first K am il) d u rin g th e 1958 crisis in L eban on and th at so cie ty 's resp on se to th e u p su rge o f p op u lar N asirism am on g th e M u slim m asses in gen eral. H ow ever, th e in ten se social m ob ilization th at Leban on w itn essed in d ie six ties stru ck a h ard blow a t th e coh esiv en ess o f th e z a 'im p easan t d yad . In frastru ctu ral d evelop m en t an d th e ru ral-u rb an m ig ratio n n arrow ed th e d istan ce b etw een cen ter an d p erip h ery . Exp osu re to m ass com m u n ication s, p o litical ap p eal an d organ iza­ tio n s b ro u g h t v illag ers w ith in reach o f p o litical actio n . R u ral L eban on exp orted th e lab orforce th a t w orked B e iru t's facto ries, an d im p orted m u ch o f th e c ity 's p o litics an d id eo lo g ies. E ric H oog lu n d 's d escrip tio n o f th e ru ral you th d u rin g th e 1977-79 Iran ian rev o lu tio n cou ld a s easily h av e b een o f ru ral L eban on d u rin g th e six ties and early seven ties: Almost all have relatives living in the cities, and their fam iliarity w ith urban life is as extensive as any native's. They exhibit a great interest in national developments, which are often topics of conversations in social gatherings. They certainly consider them­ selves better than their fathers, and do not hesitate to make their views heard among village elders. Listening to the newscasts on radio is a pastime. During the revolution, many began to read the newspapers regularly and m ost have continued this habit on an irregular basis. Throughout all of 1978 these young men w ere aware of political developments and by the end of the year had become as politicized as any other group.20 L eb an o n 's h in terlan d th erefo re w as n o t im m une to th e w av e o f d isco n ten t th at en g u lfed th e cou n try in th e early sev en ties, an d th reaten ed its so cial fab ric, h i th ose y ears, sm old erin g p easan t d isco n ten t in th e n o rth , th e n o rth east, an d th e so u th m ad e its exp lo siv e en tran ce on to L eb an o n 's p o litica l stage. W h at th e B eiru t au th o rities em p h atically d escribed in N ovem ber 1970 a s a n "arm ed in su rrectio n " in th e 'A k k a r p la in , o r altern ativ ely a s "S y rian arm y

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in cu rsio n " in to Leban ese territory / w as in fa ct a n arm ed p easan t u p risin g ag ain st th e lan d lo rd s and th eir p riv ate m ilitias. T h e rev o lt w as d irected ag ain st th e lan d lo rd s' p lan s to d riv e p easan ts o ff th e lan d in o rd er to m ak e w ay fo r larg escale cu ltiv atio n o f sp ecialized ex p o rt cro p s. A su ccessio n o f ea rlie r m ed iation attem p ts h ad failed , an d p rom ised gov ern m en tal aid h ad n ev er m aterialized . In resp on se to d ie p easan t u p risin g , th e gov ernm ent o f P resid en t Sleim an F ran g ié, a t th e requ est o f D ep u ty Su laym an a l-'A li, a m ajo r 'A k k ar ch ieftain , sen t ou t h u n d red s o f tro o p s an d in tern al secu rity fo rces to h u n t d ow n th e 'A k k ar "ou tlaw s."21 M ean w h ile, in th e So u th , the tob acco crisis d iscu ssed p rev io u sly , to o k on n atio n al d im en sion s. A p eacefu l m arch from al-N ab atiy y a to B eiru t on 2 7 Jan u ary 1974, rallied m ore th an tw en ty thou sand p easan ts an d th eir sy m p ath izers a t B e iru t's A rab U n iv ersity . A nd on 15 A p ril o f th a t year, th e first N ation al C on gress o f T obacco G row ers w as con ven ed . T h eir dem ands in clu d ed th e rig h t to form a sy n d icate in th e S o u th , p ro tectio n o f th e lo ca l cig arette in d u stry h o rn im p o rts, an d exten sio n o f so cial secu rity an d h ea lth b en efits to tob acco grow ers. In h is attem p t to co n so lid ate and exp and h is follo w in g , th e z a 'im attem p ted to m ain tain a n effectiv e p o litical m ach in e co n sistin g o f m en strateg ically located a t v ario u s statio n s o f the so cial p y ram id . T h ese m en form ed w h at in Leban ese p o litical lex ico n w as kn ow n a s al-m afatih al-in tikh ab iy y a (th e electo ral k ey s), o r w h at A llu m in th e co n text o f N eap o litan p o litics id en tified a s th e "gran di-elettcri."'21 A m ong them th e w u jah a o f th e v ario u s to w n s and v illag es w ere the clo sest to th e z a 'im in th e h ierarch y . T h ey w ere th e lo cal p ow er b ro k ers w ho co n tro lled th e civ ic ad m in istratio n a s w ell a s m u ch o f th e lan d in th eir im m ed iate d istricts. L ik e th e za'am a, th e w ajaha w as trad itio n ally a n in h erited statu s. T h e m ajo r w u jah a fam ilies in th e b ig com m ercial cen ters w ere lin k ed to th ose o f th e zu 'am a b y m arriage. T he su p p ort o f the w a jih w as p articu larly cru cial to th e za'im in th o se areas w ith in h is co n stitu en cy w h ere th e la tter h ad n o d irect p erso n al tie s, su ch as th ro u g h lan d ow nership . T h is su p p ort d eliv ered th e v o tes, co n secrated an d p reserv ed the za'am a, an d assu red its co n tin u ity . T he w ajih rep resen ted th e z a 'im in m ajo r lo cal ev en ts, solv ed lo cal d isp u tes, an d con clu d ed th e allian ces w ith lesser w u jah a th at w ere

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n eed ed to secu re th e electio n o f th e za 'im . O n occasion , h e a lso p resen ted th e o n ly serio u s p o litical ch allen g e to th e z a 'im w h ich th e sy stem allow ed . In feet, a s m en tion ed ab ov e, alm o st a ll o f th e con tem p orary S h i'a zu 'am a b elo n g ed to w u jah a fam ilies th a t h ad su cceed ed in acq u irin g th e iltizam in O ttom an tim es o r a p arlia­ m en tary seat in in d ep en d en t L eban on , th u s en su rin g th eir z a'am a statu s.23 Som ew h at in a class o f th eir ow n, b u t p art o f th e g ran d i-eletto ri an d lin ked to th e zu 'am a and th e w u jah a clan s b y m arriag e, w ere th e m ajo r S h i'a 'u lam a fam ilies. T he h isto ry o f clerical in volv em en t in th e co m m u n ity 's p o litical life in L eban on h as gen erally n o t b een one o f a g itatio n and activ ism . W ith few ex cep tio n s, th e S h i'a 'u lam a w ere in v ariab ly eclip sed in th eir ro le a s p o litical rep resen ta­ tiv es o f th eir com m u nity b y d ie zu 'am a. T h e la tter had th e m on ey , th e p ow er, an d , ab ov e a ll, th e access to th e gov ernm ental fu n d s th at w ere allo cated to th e S h i'a relig io u s estab lish m en t. T h is d ep end ency on th e state, itse lf a leg acy o f O ttom an tim es, w as p erh ap s th e sin g le m ost im p o rtan t facto r in the retard atio n o f th e d evelop m en t o f an au tonom ou s an d co h esiv e S h i'a cle rica l m ov em en t in th e cou n try.24 T h ou gh th e lead in g Leban ese S h i'a 'u lam a w ere ou tflan ked b y th e zu 'am a a s p o litica l rep resen tativ es o f th eir com m u n ity, th ey d id n o n eth eless w ield sig n ifican t p ow er a s sym bols and in terp ret­ ers o f a h isto ric tru th so b asic to th e S h i'a id en tity . A s su ch , th ey co n stitu ted an ad d itio n al sou rce o f leg itim acy fo r th e zu 'am a, an d a p u b lic show o f resp ect and p riv ate fin an cial su p p ort b y th e la tte r w ere exch an ged fo r relig io u s ap p rob ation o f th eir actio n s b y th e form er. T h is lay -relig io u s en ten te reson ated , fo r in stan ce, in th e 1926 d ebate b etw een Sh aykh 'A b d al-H u say n al-S ad iq o f a lN abatiy ya and Say yid M u h sin al-A m in o f D am ascu s (thou gh a n ativ e o f Sh aq ra, a v illag e in Jab a l 'A m il), tw o o f th e m o st p rom in en t relig io u s lead ers o f th eir tim e, con cern in g th e S h i'a celeb ratio n o f 'A shura. T h e en su in g d isagreem en t b etw een th e tw o m en , w ith al-A m in lead in g th e ca ll to b a n th e o v ertly v io len t ta tb ir, ja n z ir, an d ¡atm p ractices from th e cerem on ies, and a l-S ad iq op p osin g it, p o larized th e sou th ern p o litical com m u nity in to tw o cam p s: T h e a l-A s'ad an d th e al-F ad l clan s su p p orted al-S a d iq , w h ile th e riv a l al-Z ay n fam ily rallied b eh in d al-A m in . A t issu e , accord in g to Ib rah im Farran ,

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was the straggle . . . for the domination of the South. The oppo­ nents of the violent rituals . . . wanted to preempt the crowd of spectators from coming every year to al-Nabatiyya, and conse­ quently deal a severe blow to foe influence of a major religious figure [al-Sadiq] w ith known political allegiances. This, in turn, would have humbled his political front represented by the al-Fadl clan and their follow ers, and ultim ately weakened foe power of their leader, Kamil al-A s'ad.25 T h e S h i'a 'u la m a 's recen t rise to p o litical p rom in en ce in L eban on is fu n d am en tally lin ked to (1) th e reem ergen ce o f th e /u lam a as a rally in g p o in t o f th e op p osition to th e ru le o f Sh ah M uham m ad R eza P ah lav i in Iran , and (2) as w e sh a ll see b elo w , th e A rab d efeat in th e 5 Ju n e 1967 A rab -Israeli w ar w h ich m arked the eclip se o f N asirism an d A rab N ation alism an d a n im p etu s fo r con tem p orary Islam ic id eologies and m ovem ents. O n th e d octrin al lev el, clerica l activ ism in Iran m u st b e seen in the co n text o f the p o litico -relig io u s sy m biosis in S h i'a Islam , an d is rooted in th e ev o lu tio n o f S h i'ism in th e p eriod follo w in g th e o ccu ltatio n o f th e tw elfth im am in 874 C .E . A t issu e are th e qu estion s o f ch arism atic au th o rity an d th e ro u tin izatio n o f ch arism a, th e ro le o f ijtih a d and th e d evelop m ent o f fiq h an d , m ore sp ecifically , th e relatio n sh ip s b etw een th e occu lted im am , th e 'u lam a, an d th e b o d y o f th e S h i'a .26 From its ea rliest m an ifestatio n a t S aq ifa to th e tim e o f th e o ccu ltatio n o f the tw elfth im am , S h i'ism b ecam e cen tered o n the id eal o f in h erited ch arism atic lead ersh ip . A t th e h eart o f the d o ctrin e o f th e im am ate as laid d ow n b y Ja 'fa r al-S ad iq w as a v ery W eb erian con cep t o f ch arism a.27 A cco rd in g to Ja 'fa r: (1) foe Imamate is a prerogative bestowed by God upon a chosen person, from foe fam ily of foe Prophet, who before his death and w ith the guidance of God, transfers the Imamate to another by explicit designation (N ass). The N ass thus initiated by foe Prophet came from 'A li to Hasan, from Hasan to Husayn, and then remained strictly in the line of Husayn; [and] (2) an Imam is a divinely inspired possessor of a special sum of knowledge of religion ['ilm ], which can only be passed on before his death to foe following Imam. This special knowledge includes both the external (zakir) and the esoteric (batin) meanings of the Q ur'an.1 2*

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A Lebanon D efied

O n th e au th o rity o f n ass an d 'ih n , th e im am s o f a h l al-b ay t, an d m ore sp ecifically th ose in th e H u saynid lin e, em erged a s em bod i­ m en t o f th e v ery raiso n d 'ê tre o f S h i'ism . T h e q u estion o f h ow T w elv er S h i'ism w as ab le to reco n cile itse lf to th e ab ru p t lo ss o f d ie tw elfth im am is a top ic o f cen tral im p ortan ce w h ich lie s b eyo n d th e scop e o f th is stu d y. H ere it su ffices to say th a t in th e in terreg n u m b etw een th e tw elfth im am 's o ccu ltatio n an d th e fa ll o f th e Q ajar state in Iran in 1925, th e p rocess o f th e ro u tin izatio n o f th e ch arism atic au th o rity in vested in th e im am s u n d erw en t sev eral ch an ges. B y th e early tw en tieth cen tu ry , a corp u s o f trad itio n s h ad alread y b e e n d evelop ed w ith in w h ich excep tio n al m u jtah id s w ere ab le to en jo y con sid erab le reco g n itio n an d assu m e m u ch o f th e ch arism atic au th o rity o f th e occu lted im am . T h is led to th e em ergen ce o f th e co n cep t o f m arja' a l-ta q lid , an d to th e title s o f ay atu llah , ay atu llah al-'u zm a, m u jaddid o r m u raw w ij, e tc., a s g iv en to V ah id B ih b ah an i, H u sayn B u ru ju rd i, M uham m ad ib n Y a'q u b a lK u lay n i, and o th ers, w h en th e m u jad d id s o f th e first an d secon d cen tu ries h ijra w ere th e Im am s Ja 'fa r al-S ad iq and 'A li al-R id a, resp ectiv ely . It also lay a t th e ro o t o f th e p o litica l activ ism o f m an y 'u lam a ag ain st w h at th ey p erceiv ed a s u n ju st governm ent o r fo reig n v io latio n o f n atio n al in d ep en d ence. In d eed , it is th is sam e fram ew ork w h ich Im am R u h u llah al-K h om ein i (1900-1989) u sed to exp ou nd h is th eo ry o f v ila y a t-i fa q ih , th e gov ern an ce b y th e ju risp ru d en t, cu lm in atin g in one o f th e g reatest p o litica l an d relig io u s u p h eav als in tw en tieth cen tu ry h isto ry . N ote in th e fo llo w in g ex cerp ts from Islam ic G overn m en t, A yatu llah K h o m ein i's p ron ou n cem en ts on th e issu e o f th e ro le an d p lace o f th e 'u la m a in society : Muhammad ibn Yahya relates . . . that the Imam Abu'l-Hasan M usa, son of Ja'far, (peace be upon them both) said: 'W henever a believer dies, the angels w eep, together with the ground where he engaged in the worship of God and the gates of heaven that he entered by means of his good deeds. A crack w ill appear in the fortress of Islam , that naught can repair, for believers who are fu qaha ate the fortresses o f Islam , like the encircling w alls that protect a city / W e have abandoned alm ost all aspects of our duty, restricting ourselves to passing on, from one generation to the next, certain parts of Islamic law and discussing them among ourselves. Many of the

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ordinances of Islam have virtually become part of the occult sciences, and Islam itself has become a stranger; only its name has survived. It is our duty to preserve Islam . This duty is one o f the m ost important obligations incumbent upon us; it is more necessary than even prayer and fasting. It is for die sake of fulfilling this duty that blood m ust sometimes be shed.29 O n th e organ izatio n al lev el, th e series o f con fron tation s b etw een th e clerg y and th e sta te th at b eg an in 1959 an d cu lm in ated in the p ro test in Ju n e 1963, in w h ich th ou san d s o f Iran ian s w ere k illed b y th e arm y , con v in ced activ ist 'u lam a o f d ie n eed fo r w id er m ob iliza­ tio n effo rts in o rd er to ch allen g e the m onarchy su ccessfu lly . T o th is en d , in stitu tio n s u n d er clerica l co n tro l w ere grad u ally tran sform ed in to in stru m en ts o f p o litical form ation . T h e m adrasa, th e Islam ic eq u iv alen t o f th e Jew ish yesh iva an d th e C ath olic Studium , cam e to p rep are p u p ils fo r a new aw aren ess o f se lf cen tered on a n Islam ic v isio n as th e o n ly m ean s b y w h ich to ch an ge th e op p res­ siv e stru ctu res o f society . A s Fisch er n o tes, "th e p ed ag o g ical id eal o f m ad rasa is p osed b y its m em bers as criticism o f th e secu lar ed u catio n sy stem w h ich is sp read in g at the exp ense o f th e m ad rasa sy stem ." Secu lar ed u cation is con cern ed w ith in frastru ctu ral d evelop m en t, w ith train in g a lab o rfo rce, and w ith scien tific and tech n olog ical in n ov ation s in ord er to m eet th e d em and s o f a w orld grow in g in com p lexity. "In the m ad rasa or y esh iv a, th ou gh th ere is activ e co n cern w ith so ciety an d citizen sh ip , w ith ju stic e and w elfare, th e fo cu s o f con cern is th e relatio n b etw een th e in d iv id u al an d G od , n o t th e lab o r fo rce and scien tific tru th p e r se."30 Fu rth erm ore, oth er in stitu tio n s su ch a s the M ahd iyya fou nd a­ tio n , estab lish ed b y th e clerg y w ith the su p p ort o f b azaar m er­ ch an ts, b eg an to lay th e grou n d s fo r a civ il in frastru ctu re ind ep en­ d en t from th e governm ent. T h e fou n d ation op ened Islam ic b an k s w h ich exten d ed in terest-free lo an s to sm all b u sin esses w h ile gov ernm ent-sp onsored com m ercial b an k s fin an ced m ain ly b ig in d u strialists, b u ilt h o sp itals an d m osqu es, an d in au gu rated Islam ic lib ra ries, Islam ic so cieties, and M u slim stu d en t asso ciatio n s. 'T h e se in stitu tio n s w ere fu n ctio n in g as a n u cleu s o f d u al p ow er in th e so ciety . From them th e clerg y attem p ted to reach ou t to the en tire so ciety and co n v ert m ore in stitu tio n s in to organ s o f 'p eo p leclerg y p ow er7—som eth in g th at m aterialized on ly w ith th e ou tbreak o f sp o n tan eou s m ass m ovem ent in 1977."31

94

A Lebanon D efied

T h e cen trality o f th e ro le th a t certain /u lam a assu m ed d u rin g p o litica l u p h eav als a t v ario u s in terv als o f S h i'a h isto ry raises th e q u estion o f th e lea d er's sig n ifican ce in th e tran sform ation al m ovem ent. T h e co n ten tio n h ere is th at th e lead er "can b e b o th a p rod u ct o f so cia l fo rces an d a sh ap er o f so cial fo rce s/' an d th at th e bon d th at allow ed M usa al-S ad r "to ex ercise an in creasin g ly d iffu se and in ten se in flu en ce ov er th e orien tation "32 o f h is fo llo w ers w as o n ly p o ssib le b y th e coin cid en ce o f th eir n eed s and action s/ an d h is ow n ch arism atic p erson ality . M u sa al-S ad r recogn ized th e em otion ­ a l p oten cy o f th e relig io -eth n ic b on d w ith in h is com m u nity/ and seized u p on it a s an ap p rop riate v eh icle fo r p raxis. In d oin g so , h e n o t o n ly retain ed "a con sid erab le d egree o f freed om in ch oosin g w h ich in terests to fu rth er and w h ich to su p p ress or w eak en . . . [bu t also m od ified ] th e orig in al relatio n s o f so cial in terests in a rad ical w ay ."33 T he d ynam ic th at em erged w as on e in w h ich th e com m u nity/ h avin g selected M u sa al-S ad r as a sy m b ol o f its asp iration s/ th en fou nd su sten an ce an d d irectio n in th e creativ e new agen d as w h ich h e p rom oted . T h is d oes n o t m ean th at M u sa al-S ad r exp loited th e b iases o f h is com m u nity to h is ow n en d . R ather/ th e im age b ecam e in teg ral in h is relation sh ip to h is com m u nity/ and h elp ed to v alid ate b o th h is lead ersh ip an d the m ovem ent th at w as h is b rain ch ild . A t th e low er en d o f th e z a 'im 's p o litical m ach in e w ere the qabad ay at (p i. o f qabaday) a n d /o r th e ziln t (p i. o f zalam i). T h ere w as n o h ard and fa st lin e b etw een d ie zalam i and th e qabad ay. In m any resp ects, th eir ro le as p art o f th e z a 'im 's co re grou p over­ lap p ed . B oth ep istem o lo g ically and cu ltu rally , h ow ev er, th e term "qab ad ay" had an au ra ab ou t it, w h ile th at o f "zalam i" acq u ired a p ejo rativ e co n n o tatio n in d icatin g to ta l su bm ission . In e a rlie r tim es, th e qabad ay cam e clo se to d ie so cial b an d it o f E ric H obsbaw m , "a m an w ho to o k from th e rich to giv e to th e p o o r an d n ev er killed b u t in self-d efen se o r ju st rev en ge."34 In p o p u lar fictio n , h e p erso n ified h on or and m ach ism o, liv ed o u t th e fan tasy o f o rd in ary m en, and w as g reatly ad m ired fo r it. A qabad ay co u ld h av e ev en b een a fu ll-fled g ed b u sin essm an w ho ow ed h is w ealth to th e p atron age o f th e z a'im . W hat d efin ed h is sty le a s a qabad ay in su ch cases w as th e "sty le" o f h is lead ersh ip . T h e zalam i, on th e o th er h an d , seem s to have alw ays b een a t th e lo w est end o f th e z a 'im 's p o litical su p p ort grou p , o ften a ch au ffeu r o r a b o d y g u ard .

Traditionalism and Revolution

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o r ev en a th u g w ho som etim es execu ted th e "d irty d eed s" fo r h is m aster. T h e q a b a d a /s serv ices to th e z a 'im w ere n o less im p o rtan t th an th o se o f th e w ajih . H e organ ized th e electio n cam p aign a t th e street lev el, w as th e z a 'im 's co n fid an t a s w ell a s d ie in term ed iary b etw een h im an d th e p o o rer segm en ts o f th e clien tele. T h e qabad ay le d th e z a 'im 's m ilitia and w aged a "w ar o f n erv es" to in tim id ate h is p a tro n 's op p on en ts a t electio n tim e. In sh o rt, h e w as "th e recru iter, co n so lid ato r an d p olicem an o f th e clien tele." A nd it w as h is efficacy in d iese ro les th a t rend ered h im su ch an im p o rtan t acto r in th e low er lev els o f S h i'a as w ell a s n atio n al p o litics.35

C O N FESSIO N A L ISM A N D T H E C O M M U N A L BA LA N C E O F PO W ER T h e b a sis o f th e sov ereig n L eban ese state th at em erged in 1943 fo llo w in g th e effo rts b y B éch ara el-K h o u ry , a M aron ite C h ristian , an d R iyad al-S u lh , a Su n n i M u slim , w as an u n w ritten agreem en t th a t b ecam e know n a s al-m ith aq al-w aian i (T he N ation al P act). It rev iv ed th e "C o n stitu tio n al P h ase" th at b egu n w ith th e 23 M ay 1926, co n stitu tio n , and w h ich th e m an d atory p ow er su spend ed on tw o o ccasion s: from 9 M ay 1932, to 24 Jan u ary 1937, follo w in g C h ristian u n rest prom p ted b y th e can d id acy o f a Su n n i M u slim , Sh ay k h M uham m ad a l-Jisr, to th e p resid en cy , and from 21 Sep tem b er 1939, to 18 M arch 1943, a s a resu lt o f W orld W ar H.36 P u b licly en u n ciated in a m in isterial statem en t b y al-S u lh on 7 O ctob er 1943, and in a nu m ber o f p resid en tial sp eech es b y e lK hou ry, th e p rin cip les th at co n stitu ted th e essen ce o f th e m ith aq w ere: 1. L eban on is a n in d ep en d en t rep u blic. 2. L eban on h as an A rab face an d is an in teg ral p art o f th e A rab w o rld . L eban on also h a s p articu lar ch aracteristics w h ich ob lige it n o t to cu t its tie s w ith th e W est. 3. T h e L eban ese v o catio n is in its co o p eratio n w ith the A rab states; it m u st m ain tain a state o f eq u ilib riu m in its relatio n s am ong them w ith ou t d istin ctio n o r p referen ce.

96

A Lebanon D efied

4 . T h e d istrib u tio n o f a ll sta te p o sitio n s w ill b e carried o u t eq u itab ly am ong a ll th e com m u n ities an d , fo r th e strictly tech n ical p o sts, com p eten ce alon e w ill b e tak en in to con sid eration .37 T h e N atio n al P act em bod ied th e p o litics o f accom m od ation an d b ecam e th e fo u n d ation fo r w h at el-K h o u ry often d escribed a s th e "co n ciliatio n o f th e com m u n ities." It h ad a ll th e elem en ts o f a so cial co n tract, and cou ld h av e arg u ab ly w ith stood th e test o f tim e h ad it n o t b een fo r th e o b stru ction ism o f th e co n tractin g p arties on certa in key issu es, su ch a s th e d istrib u tio n o f gov ernm ent p o sts am ong th e v ario u s co n fessio n s, w h ich cam e to lie a t th e h eart o f th e S h i'a co m m u n ity 's dem and fo r "p articip atio n ." T o its cred it, th e N ation al P act p rov id ed a w ork able so lu tio n to w h at w as in reality a fed eratio n o f relig io u s com m u n ities. B y stip u latin g p ro p o rtio n al co n fessio n al rep resen tatio n in a ll b ran ch es o f gov ernm ent, h ow ev er, th e p act red u ced p o litics in L eban on to a zero-su m gam e fo r w h ich a "m inim ax" strateg y w as op tim al; in o th er w ord s, it b ecam e a situ atio n w h ereby th e a cto rs con d u cted th eir a ffa irs so th a t each sou gh t th e lo w est m axim u m d isad v an tag e, i.e ., th e low est m axim u m ad v an tag e fo r th e su m o f a ll o th er actors.38 C on seq u en tly , in tercom m u n al co m p etitio n an d th e p o ssib ility o f co n flict w ere ev erp resen t. S tab ility in th e co u n try b ecam e p red icated o n th e co n sen t to p erp etu ate th e statu s qu o; a co n sen t w h ich th e S h i'a com m u nity qu a com m u nity in th e ea rly sev en ties th reaten ed to w ith d raw as it grew in creasin g ly in to leran t o f its u n d errep resen tation in th e h alls o f governm ent. C on fession alism as laid dow n in th e N ation al P act m erely con secrated and broad en ed w h at had b een a co n stan t in L eban ese p o litica l life sin ce th e 1926 co n stitu tio n . A rticle 95 o f th is co n stitu ­ tio n , m od ified b y a rticle 5 o f th e co n stitu tio n al am end m ent o n 9 N ovem ber 1943, stip u lated th at "p ro v isio n ally , and in o rd er to p rom o te ju stice an d h arm on y , th e com m u n ities w ill b e eq u itab ly rep resen ted in p u b lic o ffices an d in th e com p osition o f th e gov ern m en t, w ith ou t p reju d ice to th e in terests o f th e sta te." P rio r to 1975, it served a s th e keyston e o f th e en tire ed ifice o f th e state.39 It d ictated th e ch oice o f m in isters, th e d istrib u tio n o f cab in et p o rtfo lio s, as w ell as th e recru itm en t o f civ il serv an ts an d state ag en ts a t ev ery statio n o f th e b u reau cratic lad d er. H ow ever, A rticle 95 d id n o t p rov id e any sta tistica l b a sis fo r p ro p o rtio n al rep resen tatio n . A t the cab in et lev el, th is cam e to b e d eterm in ed b y

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tra d itio n an d p reced en t, alm o st in v ariab ly o p eratin g w ith th e tw o fo llo w in g lim itatio n s: (1) a fifty -fifty C h ristian -M u slim rep resen ta­ tio n ; an d (2) a p arity in th e d iv isio n o f M aron ite and Su n n i p o rtfo lio s. T h e allo tm en t o f d v il serv ice p o sts, o n th e o th er h an d , w as to h av e follow ed th e n u m eric form u la first d evised in 1943 b y G en eral Sp ears, G reat B rita in 's d eleg ate in L ebanon. In h is attem p t to m ed iate th e C h ristian -M u slim co n flict o v er th e d istrib u tio n o f p arliam en tary seats, G en eral Sp ears d rew u p on th e 1932 cen su s to p rop o se a ch am b er o f fifty -fiv e d ep u ties o f w hom th irty w ou ld b e C h ristian an d tw en ty -fiv e M u slim (o r six-elev en th s C h ristian and fiv e-elev en th s M u slim ). T h is so lu tio n w as con firm ed b y d ecree 312 p rom u lg ated on 31 Ju ly 1943, b y G en eral C atro u x, d eleg ate gen eral o f Free F ran ce in th e L ev an t, an d w as la te r ad op ted in th e N ation al P act. T h e p rop o rtion s o f rep resen tatio n in p u b lic o ffice and in gov ern m en t estab lish ed fo r each com m u nity w ere as follow s: 30.3 p ercen t fo r th e M aron ites, 20 .2 p ercen t fo r th e Su n n is, 19.2 p ercen t fo r th e S h i'a , 11.1 p ercen t fo r th e G reek O rth od ox, 6.1 p ercen t fo r th e G reek C ath o lics, 6.1 p ercen t fo r th e D ru ze, 5 p ercen t fo r the A rm en ian s, an d 2 p ercen t fo r th e o th er m in o rities (P ro testan ts, C h ald ean s, Jew s, etc.). G en eral S p ea rs' form u la exp lain s w h y the to tal nu m b er o f d ep u ties h ad alw ays b een a facto r o f elev en a s it w as in th e la st p arliam en t p rio r to th e civ il w ar w h ere th e C h ristian s had fifty -fo u r seats to th e M u slim s' fo rty -fiv e d istrib u ted as fo llo w s: T h irty M aron ite, tw en ty Su n n i, n in eteen S h i'a , elev en G reek O rth o d o x, six G reek C ath o lic, six D ru ze, an d sev en "oth er m in o rities." F in ally , th e P act reserved th e p resid en cy fo r the M aro n ites, an d th e p rem iersh ip fo r th e Su n n is. In 1947, fo llo w in g p ro tests b y S h i'a d ep u ties, th e ch air o f th e sp eak er o f p arliam en t w as con firm ed a S h i'a p ost.40 A lso o f fu nd am ental im p ortance to th is co n fessio n al stru ctu re w as th e p rom in en ce o f th e com m u nal rep resen tatio n an d p o rtfo lio s in th e cab in et and o th er sen io r p o sts. O ne in v ariab le M u slim com p lain t w as th at th e com m and o f th e arm y and six teen oth er sen io r p o sts rem ain ed exclu siv ely C h ristian dom ains. T h e cab in et o f P rem ier A m in al-H afiz, fo r in stan ce, n om in ated in 1973 b y P resid en t Sleim an F ran g ié, w as forced to resig n th ree m on th s a fter p assin g th e p arliam en tary v o te o f con fid en ce, p artly in resp on se to

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A Lebanon D efied

Table 3 3 Lebanon: Distribution of class I civil service posts among the

various communities (1946-1974) 1946

%

1962

%

1972

%

1974

%

Greek Catholic Greek Orthodox Maronite

1 6 12

3 19 39

7 11 18

10 16 25

9 10 28

9 11 30

8 14 39

6 10 28

Other Minorities

0

0

2

3

2

2

9

6

Subtotal

Druze Shi‘a Sunni

2 1 9

Subtotal

12

Percentage

Source:

7 3 29

6 2 24

31

9 3 34

52 7 15 23

46 70

7 16 25

50 10 29 31

48 94

7 21 22

70

45

32 39

70

49 54

61

Percentage

Total

38

19

50 140

David R. Smock and Audrey C. Smock, The Politics of Pluralism (New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1975), 127.

ch arg es "th at th e M u slim s nam ed to th e cab in et w ere n o t su ffi­ cien tly p rom in en t an d th e p o rtfo lio s th ey h eld w ere n o t o f com p arab le im p o rtan ce to th o se held b y C h ristian s."41 A cco rd in g to th e 1932 censu s/ th e S h i'a com m u nity co n stitu ted 19.6 p ercen t o f th e to tal Leban ese p op u lation / and 4 0 .2 p ercen t o f its M u slim h alf. B y th e d ictates o f th e N ation al Pact/ th is en titled th e com m u nity to 19.2 p ercen t o f th e co u n try 's p arliam en tary p osition s/ an d to th e n u m ber o f cab in et seats an d civ il serv ice p o sts com m ensu rate w ith its w eig h t am ong th e M u slim s. H ow ever, a s T ab le 3.3 sh ow s, th e p eriod b etw een 1946 and 1962 w as m arked b y stag g erin g S h i'a u n d errep resen tation in th e u p p er ech elo n s o f governm ent. O th er fig u res rev eal a sim ilar p ictu re fo r th e low er cla ss II an d class III ad m in istrativ e p osts. In file la te six ties, an d d esp ite m an y p rom o tion s, S h i'a fu n ctio n aries still occu p ied th irty fo u r class II and 115 class m p o sts (ou t o f a to tal o f 1218), m ak in g

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99

th e d eficit b etw een th e co m m u n ity 's rig h tfu l sh are in th ese classes o f civ il serv ice ap p oin tm en ts and w h at it actu ally g o t 5 7 p ercen t an d 55 p ercen t/ resp ectiv ely .42 Sim ilarly/ S h i'a cab in et m em bership in th e early y ears o ften on ly eq u aled th ose o f th e D ruze/ th e G reek O rth od ox, an d th e G reek C ath olics.

Table 3.4 Lebanon: Patterns of cabinet membership by religious group

(1943-1961) Size of cabinet

6

8

9

10

10

10

14

17

Druze Greek Catholics Greek Orthodox Maronites Shi'a Sunnis

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 2 1 2

2 1 1 2 1 2

3 1 1 3 1 2

3 1 1 3 2 2

3 1 1 3 1 3

3 1 2 3 2 3

4 1 2 4 3 4

Source:

Enver M. Khoury, The Operational Capability of the Lebanese Political System (Beirut Catholic Press for the Institute of Middle Eastern and North African Affairs, 1972), 291.

T h e n u m eric in crease in S h i'a rep resen tatio n n otw ith stan d in g, th e ad m in istrativ e reorg an izatio n o f 1974 w as still du bbed "a con sp iracy ag ain st the S h i'a com m u nity" b y m any o f its lead in g fig u res (T able 3.5). F or in stan ce, H u sayn al-H u say n i, th en a ju n io r p arliam en tarian from d ie B iq a ' (cu rren tly sp eaker o f p arliam en t), ch arg ed th at th e S h i'a "d id n o t get an y o f th e sen sitiv e p o sts in the gov ern m en t, o r an y o f th ose w ith d irect b earin g on th e d evelop ­ m en t o f th e back w ard areas."43 T o Say yid M usa al-S ad r, n eith er th e q u alities o f file ap p o in tees n o r th e p o sts th ey receiv ed w ere ad equ ate rep resen tatio n o f the a b ilities th at ex isted w ith in th e com m u nity. H e argu ed th at file p resen ce o f fifte en S h i'a d irecto r-g en erals an d sev en am b assad ors, th ou gh n u m erically im p ressiv e and lo n g overd u e, actu ally m asked file fa ct th a t th ey w ere assign ed to m in or gov ernm ent d ep artm en ts and less im p o rtan t cap itals. T h e S h i'a sh are in th e reorg an izatio n u n d ertak en in 1974 w as con sid ered to b e so p aten tly in effectu al b y

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Table 33 Lebanon: Qualitative distribution of class / civil service posts by

religious group in 1974 General Director­ ship

Autonomous Departments

Diplomatic Corps

Greek Catholic Greek Orthodox Maronite

5 7 19

0 2 8

3 4 12

Other Minorities

2

3

4

Druze Shi'a Sunni

7 IS 15

0 7 5

3 7 11

Total

70

25

44

Characteristics

Source: al-Nahar, 19 February 1974.

th e say yid th at h e d id n o t fe el it w arran ted an y m od u lation o f h is cam p aign ag ain st gov ern m en t in sen sitiv ity to h is co m m u n ity 's n eed s and d em ands. M ore im p o rtan tly, th e 1932 cen su s fig u res d id n o t rem ain con stan t. N eith er th e co n stitu tio n n o r th e N ation al P act w ere a b le to co n tain th e effects o f th e so cial, econ om ic, an d d em ograp h ic u p h eav al th a t th e S h i'a com m u nity u n d erw en t in in d ep en d en t Leban on. If an y th in g , accord in g to S h i'a o b serv ers, th eir com m u n i­ ty 's rep resen tatio n in L eban ese p u b lic life said as m u ch ab ou t th e n atu re o f L eban ese d em ocracy a s o f th e trad itio n al S h i'a lead er­ sh ip . F o r th em , b y th e m id -six ties, the p act o f 1943 w as a p iece o f a h isto ry th a t w as ov er, a co n tract th at h ad ou tliv ed its p u rp o se, an d a p rim e o b stacle to S h i'a m o b ility w ith in th e system . It w as th erefore on ly a q u estio n o f tim e b efo re th e com m u nity w ou ld com e to q u estion d ie leg itim acy o f its zu 'am a an d th e v ery sy stem th at u p h eld th eir za'am a. T h e lead ersh ip o f Say y id M u sa al-S ad r w as sim p ly a n ex p ressio n o f th e grow in g sen tim en t th at th e statu s qu o w as n o lo n g er accep table. R ev olu tion , h ow ev er, w as n o t th ou g h t to b e th e d esired so lu tio n to th e p rob lem . W hat w as ad op ted in stead w as a p o licy o f su asion and th reat, aim in g a t

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com m ittin g th e gov ernm ent to a sw eep in g reform p rog ram an d a n ew so cial co n tract.

N A SIR ISM A N D A R A B N A TIO N A LISM T h e g en esis o f p o litica l actio n am ong th e S h i'a m asses is cen trally rooted in th e cry stallizatio n and co n so lid atio n o f the id eology o f A rab N ation alism . In n o w ay ca n one d isasso ciate the S h i'a p o liticizatio n in L ebanon from its A rab N atio n alist roots w h ich in clu d e: (1) th e nahda from 1850 to 1914, (2) th e stru g g le fo r ind ep en d ence th at follow ed th e co llap se o f th e O ttom an E m p ire a t th e en d o f W orld W ar I an d lasted u n til th e m id -fifties, (3) th e lo ss o f P alestin e in 1948, w h ich d ealt a sev ere b low to A rab co llectiv e con sciou sn ess; th e ro le o f th e "U n ion ist M ovem ent," w ith th e late E g yp tian P resid en t Jam al 'A b d al-N asir as its m o st p ow erfu l sp okesm an , in ch an n elin g th e A rab in d ig n ation an d sen se o f h u m iliatio n tow ard reco g n itio n o f th e n ecessity o f a p an -A rab en tity th at w ou ld b e a t once th e focu s fo r A rab self-id en tity an d a new b a se o f p ow er, a s w ell as (4) a Leban ese S h i'a self-im ag e th at d efin ed itse lf as an in teg ral p art o f th e A rab w h ole, a ll o f w h ich p rov id ed th e fe rtile grou nd fo r th e su ccess o f p an -A rabism in th e S h i'a m ilieu .44 A rab N ation alism , b o th a s a literary m ovem ent and a p o litica l id eo lo g y , had b een a co n stan t p resen ce in L eban ese S h i'a life sin ce its b egin n in gs. In tellectu al so cieties in T y re, Sid on , and al-N ab atiy y a p rov id ed 'A m ili m en o f le tters w ith a read y fo ru m fo r d ebatin g th e ch allen g es th at con fron ted th eir w orld . T h e A rab n atio n , a t th e tim e, requ ired lib eratio n an d u n ity . A n ti-co lo n ialism d om in ated b o th d iscou rse and actio n . F oreign ru le cam e to b e v iew ed as a n ab erratio n , a tem p orary in terru p tio n o f a h isto ric co n tin u ity . L eban ese S h i'a activ ists w ere am ong th e first to b e arrested fo r co n sp irin g ag ain st th e Su blim e O tto m an P orte in 1915, an d eag erly engaged F ren ch tro o p s d u rin g th e g reat Sy rian rev o lt in 1925-26. S till, p o litics in th o se years rem ained th e p rero g ativ e o f th e few . T ies o f fealty larg ely dom inated th e p o litical con sciou sn ess o f th e S h i'a m ajo rity . It w as th e P alestin e w ar an d th e com in g to p o w er o f N asir in E g yp t w h ich jo lte d th e p erv asiv e ap ath y am on g

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th e m asses. U nqu estionably/ th e y ear 1948 w as critica lly form ativ e in th e p o litical con sciou sn ess o f th e A rab m asses. E v ery asp ect o f A rab so ciety , the so cial, econ om ic, cu ltu ral, p o litica l, and m ore fu n d am en tally, th e sp iritu al, w as su b jected to clo se scru tin y . P alestin e in itiated th e p ro cess w h ich w as to resu lt in th e ev en tu al d estru ction o f th e p rev ailin g p o litical ord er in th e p ow er cen ters o f tiie A rab w orld . W ith P alestin e cam e th e Free O ffice rs' R ev olt o f 1952, an d N asir, d ecid ed ly one o f th e m ost ch arism atic lead ers in m o d em A rab h isto ry . A nd w ith N asir, a new era ch aracterized b y id eo lo g ical ferm en t an d p o litica l activ ism aro se. T o ord in ary A rab s, N asir w as th e h ero th ey lo n g ed -fo r, an d th e an sw er to th eir em otio n al need s. H e w as th e m an w ith ch arism a an d a sp ecific v isio n o f th eir d estin y , th e lead er w ho filled th e vacu u m th at ex isted in th e w ake o f th eir m ilitary d efeat, th e id eologu e and the p o litical th in k er w ho com m and ed th eir en erg ies an d en th u siasm and ch an n eled th em tow ard th e fu lfillm en t o f th eir dream s.45 T o T h ird W orld in tern atio n alists, N asir "w as also a p ro d u ct and an im ator o f the sam e an ti-co lo n ial, an ti-im p erialist and m od ern isin g rev o lu tio n th at prod u ced N ehru and M ao T se T u n g, Su karn o and N kru m ah, C astro an d H o C h i M inh."46 W ith Saw t al-'A rab (T he V oice o f th e A rabs) b ro ad castin g h is m essage fro m C airo , N asir g alv an ized th e A rab m asses from th e G u lf to M orocco. P eop le in tern alized h is ev ery u tteran ce, celeb rated h is triu m p h s, absolved him o f h is failin g s, an d glossed o v er h is sh ortcom in gs. A m id st th e ch an t, 'T o D am ascu s to Jam al," m ore th an th ree hu nd red thou sand L ebanese from B eiru t, T rip o li, Sid o n , T y re, B a 'la b a k and oth er tow n s, p aid resp ect to th e ray y is d u rin g h is v isit to th e Sy rian cap ital in Febru ary-M arch 1958. N ot ev en A hm ad an d K am il a l-A s'a d , S a 'ib Salam , th e q u in tessen tial B eiru ti Su n n i z a 'im , an d K am al Ju n b lat, th e D ru ze ch ieftain , co u ld affo rd to forgo th e p ilg rim age.47 T h e M aronite P atriarch , B u lu s M a'u sh i, sen t a w elcom in g d eleg ation . A gain st a ll od d s an d d esp ite th e collap se in 1961 o f th e U nited A rab R ep u blic h e h ad created w ith S y ria, h is co stly in volv em en t in Y em en, an d ev en the n aksa o f 1967, N asir rem ained th e m ost p o ten t sym bol o f A rab N ation alism . In d eed , th e ra y y is' in con testab le h ayb a an d sw ay o v er th e m asses stay ed w ith him in to th e grave.48 T o L eban ese M u slim s, N asirism w as th e reaffirm atio n o f th e ir ow n sen se o f h isto rical rooted n ess, an d a n eg atio n o f th e co lo n ia l

Traditionalism and Revolution

103

d ik tat th at h ad d iv id ed them from th e rest o f th e A rab n atio n . Fu rtherm ore/ it w as th eir w eap on ag ain st w h at th ey view ed a s C h ristian d om in ation o f th e p o litical/ social/ and econ om ic life o f th e cou n try . T h e first d ecad e o f ind ep en d ence had p assed w ith ou t an y ch an ge in th e statu s qu o. T h e C ham ou n years p roved to b e eq u ally d isap p oin tin g. N asir, on th e oth er hand/ sp oke o f hope/ so cial ju stic e , d evelop m en t, an ti-im p erialism , an ti-Z io n ism , an d p an -A rabism . H is rh eto ric, th e reform s he carried ou t a t hom e, a s w ell a s h is sim p le lifesty le, served to con vin ce th e m asses th a t th eir tim e h ad com e; th ou san d s h eed ed h is ca ll an d to o k to th e streets in d em on stration s th at also exp ressed th eir d issatisfactio n w ith and rejectio n o f th e ex istin g p o litica l sy stem . T h is m ovem ent o f p ro test w as a n im p o rtan t in itia l p h ase in th e p o liticizatio n o f th e S h i'a an d M u slim m asses—a p h ase th at v ario u s o th er lead ers, p a rties, an d m ov em en ts, lik e th e B a 'th P arty , th e P alestin ian R esistan ce, and Say y id M u sa al-S ad r d rew u p on to m ob ilize th eir resp ectiv e co n stitu en cies. A lth ou gh N asirism d om inated th e A rab p o litica l lan d scap e in th e fiftie s and six ties, it rem ain ed a m ass m ovem ent w ith ou t an o rg an izatio n al stru ctu re o r a clearly form u lated p rogram o f actio n . T h is allow ed M u slim zu 'am a lik e al-A s'ad an d Salam , a s w ell a s o th er n atio n alist and leftist p arties to su rvive its im p act. T h e fo rm er ad op ted its A rab n atio n alist slo g an s and om itted its so cia list d im en sion , w h ile th e latter exp lo ited its organ ization al w eak n ess an d com p eted assid u ou sly fo r a p o litica l b erth . T h e m ost im p o rtan t p o litica l p arties am ong th e S h i'a d u rin g th e N asir era w ere: (1) H izb a l-B a 'th al-'A ra b i al-Ish tirak i (T he A rab R esu rrection S o cia list P arty ), b etter know n a s th e B a 'th , w h ich first em erged in D am ascu s o n 7 A p ril 1947. T h e p arty w as avow ed ly d o ctrin aire, w ith a sp ecific rev olu tion ary , so cialist, p an -A rabist creed . "O ne A rab N ation w ith an E tern al M ission ," w as its m otto. T h e p arty m em bership w as larg ely m ilitan t, organ ized , an d w ell-ed u cated . From a n in itia l sou th ern b ase draw n from th e in tellectu al and w o rk in g class circles in T y re an d Sid o n , th e B a 'th , b y th e m id fiftie s, h ad organ ized an elab o rate n etw ork o f fo llo w ers in a lN ab atiy y a, B in t Ju b ay l, and oth er tow ns an d v illag es a ll o v er the So u th . B a 'th ist p am p h leteers p lay ed a m ajo r role in in citin g the rio ts th a t grip p ed So u th L eban on d u ring th e 1958 civ il w ar.

104

A Lebanon D efied

(2 ) H arakat al-Q aw m iyy in al-'A ra b (T h e M ovem ent o f A rab N atio n alists, M A N ), th e n u cleu s o f w h ich w as form ed in d ie early fiftie s on th e cam p u s o f th e A m erican U n iv ersity o f B eiru t (A U B ) b y a grou p o f you ng A rab in tellectu als led b y G eorge H abash , fou n d er o f th e P op u lar Fron t fo r th e L ib eratio n o f P alestin e (P FL P ). A lth ou gh th e id eology o f th e m ovem ent ev olv ed w ith tim e, it n ev er stray ed from th ree co n stan ts, n am ely, th o se o f A rab u n ity , lib eratio n , an d rev en ge fo r th e lo ss o f P alestin e. From th e v ery sta rt, th e m ovem ent follow ed N a sh 's lead ersh ip an d w as th e B a 'th 's m ain com p etitor am ong th e S h i'a . F or a ll p ractical p u rp os­ e s , h ow ev er, it ceased to ex ist in th e w ake o f th e 5 Ju n e 1967 A rab d efeat, w h en it sp lin tered in to a n u m ber o f d ifferen t org an izatio n s. T h e m ost im p o rtan t o f th ese w ere: T h e M ovem ent o f L eban ese S o cialists, form ed b y m em bers o f d ie left w in g o f d ie L eban ese b ran ch o f th e m ovem ent; th e PFL P from M A N 'S P alestin ian sectio n ; and th e P op u lar D em ocratic Fron t fo r th e L ib eration o f P alestin e (P D FL P , now called D FLP) o f N ay if H aw atm i, itse lf an o ffsh o o t o f th e PFLP. (3) al-H izb al-Q aw m i al-S u ri a l-Ijtim a 'i (T he Sy rian S o cial N ation ­ a list P arty, SSN P ), fou nd ed b y A n tiin S a 'a d i in B eiru t on 16 N ovem ber 1932. l l i e p a rty 's g oal w as to p rom ote th e "rise o f d ie S y rian n atio n " w ith in its n atu ral geograp h ic en v iron m en t, i.e ., th e F ertile C rescen t (L ebanon, S y ria, Jo rd an , P alestin e, an d Iraq ). It rejected th e con cep t o f to tal A rab u n ity , p referrin g in stead to d iv id e th e A rab W orld in to fou r n atio n al com m u n ities, n am ely , S y ria , th e N ile V alley , th e A rab ian P en in su la, an d th e M agh rib , w h ich co u ld , if deem ed n ecessary , form a u n ited fron t. Its secu lar, an ti-feu d alist, an ti-C om m u n ist p rogram , and its early activ e op p o sitio n to th e Fren ch p resen ce in L ebanon w o n it a su b stan tial fo llo w in g from am ong th e ru ral m id d le an d low er-m id d le strata. A lon g w ith th e Leban ese C om m unist P arty , th e SSN P d om inated th e "p rog ressiv e" p o litical scen e am ong th e S h i'a in d ie p re-N asir e ra , and p osed a serio u s ch allen g e to th e "con serv ativ e" lead ersh ip g rou p s m en tio n ed ab o v e, H izb al-N ah d a o f A hm ad a l-A s'a d , an d H izb a l-T a la 'i' o f R ashid B ayd u n. T h e SSN P , h ow ev er, en tered a p erio d o f p rolon g ed d eclin e in th e fiftie s and six ties du e to its co n flicts w ith th e C om m u nists and the A rab N atio n alists. A nd it n ev er fu lly recov ered from its allian ce w ith the an ti-N asirist cam p ,

Traditionalism and R eodutw n

105

i.e ., th e H ashim ite regim es in Jo rd an an d Iraq , and C am ille C h am ou n 's governm ent in Lebanon.49 (4 ) al-H izb al-T aqad d u m i a l-Ish tirak i (T he P rogressiv e So cialist P arty/ PSP)/ fou nd ed in 1949-1950 b y K am al Ju n b lat, scio n o f the g reat D ru ze fam ily/ a n in tellectu al/ and th e lead er o f th e L eban ese N ation al M ovem ent (a co alitio n o f leftist p arties th at cam e to g eth er in 1969) u n til h is assassin atio n on 16 M arch 1977. T h e p arty d isavow ed n ation alism as "an in d iv id u al an d se lfish id ea" su p p ort­ ed an d u sed b y "cap italist in terests" to d iv ert th e m asses from th eir attem p t to b etter th e co n d itio n s o f th eir existen ce. Instead / th e P SP ad v ocated th e "p op u lar d em ocratic rev olu tion " b ased o n to tal econom ic/ social/ and p o litica l d em ocracy, and d esign ated to rid "th e m asses o f all th e fo rces w an tin g to exp lo it th eir ab ilities and reso u rces.'60 From its lea d er's n ativ e S h u f, th e in flu en ce o f th e P SP grad u ally sp read to th e S h i'a h eartlan d in th e So u th an d th e B iq a '. A m ong th e S h i'a you th s an d p easan ts, Ju n b la t's c a ll fo r an ag ricu ltu ral reform p rogram th at w ou ld reju v en ate ru ral L eban on stru ck a resp on siv e ch ord . P erh ap s th e m ost tellin g testim on y to th e su ccess o f b o th th e P SP an d th e LN M am ong th e S h i'a w ere Say y id M u sa a l-S a d r's accu satio n s, cited b y K arim P akrad ou n i, th at th ey exp lo ited th e S h i'a m asses a s "can on fod d er” d u rin g th e 1975-1976 civ il w ar in Leban on, an d th at Ju n b lat p erso n ally w an ted "to fig h t th e C h ristian s to th e la st S h i'a .'61 (5) al-H izb al-S h u y u 'i al-L u b n an i (T he L ebanese C om m u nist P arty , L C P ), o fficially fou nd ed in O ctob er 1924.52 In itially , S h i'a m em ber­ sh ip in the C om m unist P arty w as lim ited to a m in u te av an t gard e in tellig en tsia. T h e p arty w as greatly ad m ired fo r its an ti-im p erial­ ist, an ti-co lo n ialist p latfo rm , its activ e su p p ort o f th e g reat D ru ze reb ellio n ag ain st th e Fren ch in 1925-26, an d its 1931 d eclaratio n in fav o r o f A rab u n ity . H ow ever, w h at h in d ered th e C om m u nist cau se th e m ost w ith in Islam ic circles w as th e S o v iet U n io n 's accep tan ce, su p p orted b y th e lo cal p arty , o f th e 1947 p lan fo r the p a rtitio n o f P alestin e. T h is, follow ed b y th e B o lsh ev ik reco g n itio n o f the state o f Isra el, and th e p a rty 's op p osition to th e U n ited A rab R ep u b lic th at em erged o n 1 Febru ary 1958, raised serio u s q u estio n s o n th e p a rty 's p ro fessed d ed ication to th e cau se o f A rab u n ity , an d fu rth er alien ated th e M u slim m asses from C om m u nist id eology. T h e fortu n es o f th e LC P b eg an to im p rove in 1964-65 follo w in g its en ten te w ith th e N asirist cam p. T h e E g yp tian lead er m oved

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clo ser to K h ru sh ch ev 's So v iet U n ion , and M oscow , in tu rn , p ressu red th e E g yp tian C om m unist P arty in to jo in in g th e A rab S o cialist U n ion , E g y p t's on ly leg al p o litical o rg an ization a t the tim e. F ollo w in g th e m erg er, th e L eban ese C om m u nists fou nd th em selv es w o rk in g w ith th e v ariou s lo cal "n atio n al and p ro g res­ siv e fo rces," and b eg an m oving tow ard b u ild in g a g rassro o ts organ ization .53 H ow ever, th e p a rty 's tru e rise to p o litical p rom i­ n en ce occu rred in 1972, w h en L ebanon as a w h ole w as u n d erg oin g a p eriod o f in ten se so cial ferm ent u np reced en ted sin ce in d ep en ­ d en ce. R ev ertin g to th e classic C om m unist strateg y o f p o p u lar ag itatio n , th e LC P in creasin g ly estab lish ed itse lf in circle s w h ere th e M u slim s, and p articu larly th e S h i'a , w ere h eav ily rep resen ted . It stead ily gath ered su p p ort am ong th e stu d en t p o p u latio n , p articu larly at th e Leban ese U n iv ersity th rou g h th e U n ion o f D em ocratic Y ou th , as w ell a s am ong th e p easan try in th e S o u th an d th e B iq a ', an d th e trad e u n io n ists an d facto ry w o rk ers in th e su b u rb s o f B eiru t. T h e lab el "sh i'i sh u y u 'i" (a S h i'a , a C om m u n ist) th u s gained cu rrency. A nd from an in itia l C h ristian , and m ore sp ecifically G reek O rth od ox, b a se, th e LC P m em bership ro se to 5 0 p ercen t S h i'a , 15 to 20 p ercen t Su n n i an d D ru ze, and 30 p ercen t C h ristian b y 1975.54

A L IEN A TIO N A N D R A D IC A LISM T h e S h i'a y ou th s, seeth in g w ith d ie an g er o f th e d isp ossessed an d o f th ose trap p ed on th e frin g es o f so ciety , w ere read y fo r rev olu tion . T h e exp erien ce o f p rog ressiv e m arg in alizatio n d isto rted th eir relatio n to th e state and its au th o rity , and to th eir trad itio n al cu ltu re and society . It d efeated som e, red u ced o th ers, an d alien at­ ed m ost.55 E xam ining stu d en t p o litics in 1971, H alim B arak at fou n d th e S h i'a to b e th e m ost alien ated am ong u n iv ersity stu d en ts in Leban on (T able 3.6 ). Sim ilarly , N afh at N asr an d M onte P alm er fou n d th at 89 p ercen t o f S h i'a u n iv ersity stu d en ts fe lt th e n eed fo r rad ical ch an ges in governm ent in stitu tio n s in th e m id -sev en ties, com p ared to 65 p ercen t am ong th eir "least alien ated " M aron ite co u n terp arts, w h ile 81 p ercen t th ou gh t th at th e ex istin g L eban ese in stitu tio n s w ere n o t a "good reflectio n " o f th eir cu ltu ral h erita g e

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Table 3.6 Lebanon: Religion and political alienation among university students in 1971 *-W Degree of Alienation Low

Medium

High

Muslim Sunni Shi’a Druze

21 31 14

42 21 40

37 66 47

Christian Maronites Orthodox Catholics Others

42 33 24 39

35 38 59 39

24 30 18 21

Total

29

37

34

Source:

Halim Barakat, Lebanon in Strife—Student Preludes to the Civil War, modern Middle East soies, no. 2 (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1977), 126. Reprinted by permission. ‘Scale of dissatisfaction with political conditions and rejection of government policies and goals; does not include students at l’Université Saint-Joseph (USJ). wIn the early seventies, it was estimated that Shi’a students constituted less that 1 percent o f die student body at the American University of Beirut

o r h isto ry .56 T h is sam e need fo r sw eep in g reform w as also fe lt b y 83.3 p ercen t o f S h i'a ad m in istrators/ com p ared to 62.8 p ercen t o f th e M aronites/ 80.4 p ercen t o f the SunniS/ and 80 p ercen t o f the D ru ze.57 T h e S h i'a stu d en ts in Lebanon/ th ou gh rep resen tativ es o f th e d ilem m a th at faced th eir ow n com m unity/ shou ld b e view ed in the larg er co n text o f th e stu d en t p ro test m ovem ent in th e cou n try. In th e early seventies/ d isgru n tled stu d en ts w aged th eir ow n reform cam p aign as w ell as sh ou ld ered d ie resp o n sib ility o f articu latin g th e d em and s o f oth er d issatisfied grou p s in society . T h eir d iscon ­ ten t w as focu sed o n the fact th at o n e 's access to q u ality ed u cation in L eban on w as m ore often th an n o t p red eterm in ed b y o n e's back grou n d and so cial statu s. T h e m ost p restig io u s sch ools w ere p riv ate, o ften fo reig n , an d u su ally a ffiliated to ecclesiastical ord ers. T h ese e lite in stitu tio n s often ign ored state ed icts reg u latin g p riv ate

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ed u catio n , and to o k ad v an tage o f lax gov ern m en tal su p erv isio n to im p lem en t th eir ow n d id actic p h ilosop h ies.58 L eb an o n 's p riv ate ed u catio n sy stem p rid ed itse lf o n w h at it fe lt w as a co sm o p o litan d iv ersity in o u tlook s, m ed ia o f in stru ctio n , an d cu rricu la. W h at it co u ld n o t p rid e itse lf o n , h ow ev er, w ere th e m asses o f alien ated stu d en ts th at it p rod u ced . T h e ro o ts o f th e alien atio n am ong L eban ese stu d en ts w ere a s m u ch cu ltu ral as socioecon om ic. O b servers n oted th at th e ed u ca­ tio n al so cializatio n o f stu d en ts in th e fo reig n p riv ate sch o o ls serv ed to m alig n th eir relation sh ip to trad itio n al cu ltu ral fram es o f referen ce. T hey o ften p o in ted to th e en su in g estran g em en t b etw een g rad u ates o f th ese sch o o ls an d th eir com m u nities.59 T h e E u rop ean lan g u ag e itse lf h elp ed to p erp etu ate, on th e lo ca l lev el, th e hegem on ic relation sh ip betw een W estern and n on -W estem p eop les an d cu ltu res, cen ter an d p erip h ery , colon and colon isé. In L eban on , com m and o f th e Fren ch langu age w as a resp ected an d cov eted ach iev em en t, a p rereq u isite fo r so cial m o b ility and an in d icato r o f so cial statu s. A t th e Francop hone sch ools, stu d en ts acq u ired , to g eth er w ith th e lan gu age o f th e m an d atory p ow er, th e id eo lo g i­ c a l slan ts o f th e literatu re, a s w ell a s th e v alu e ju d g m en ts attach ed to su ch term s a s L evan t, A rab , E astern , civ ilizatio n , etc. T h ey id en tified w ith —ev en rep rod u ced —Fren ch stereo ty p ical a ttitu d es tow ard th eir ow n n ativ e cu ltu re, and in d eed , tow ard "n ativ es" ev eryw h ere: School children were thus led to internalize a set of values that were in some crucial respects at variance w ith those to which they were exposed in their hom e environment; values which they heard were characteristic of Europeans and had made them as strong, w ise, and powerful as they were. At the same tim e the children could not help being aware that these virtues w ere not practiced by their own fam ilies and neighbours. This, naturally, was merely an indirect way of suggesting inferiority.*0 A bove a ll, L eb an o n 's p riv ate ed u cation sy stem w as a b y p ro d u ct o f, an d th erefo re served to rein fo rce, th e trad itio n al cleav ag es in th e cou n try. T h is w as p articu larly tru e sin ce it h ad n o p u b lic co u n te rp a rt In 1971, w ith a n estim ated 18.3 p ercen t o f th e to ta l p o p u latio n o f Leban on, M ou nt .L eban on had 38 .2 p ercen t o f th e to ta l n u m b er o f sch o o ls in th e co u n try , com p ared to 17.8 p ercen t

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an d 22.1 p ercen t fo r N o rth L eban on, 12.4 p ercen t and 14.8 p ercen t fo r So u th Leban on, and 10.2 p ercen t an d 13.8 p ercen t fo r th e B iq a ', resp ectiv ely . O f th e estim ated 687 fo reig n p riv ate sch o o ls in th e co u n try in th e late six ties, an overw helm ing 77.5 p ercen t w as con cen trated in th e M ou nt L eban on -B eiru t reg io n , in co n trast to 9 .7 p ercen t in N orth Leban on, 6.5 p ercen t in Sou th L ebanon, and 7.5 p ercen t in th e Biqa". U n d en iab ly, th is w as p red om in an tly du e to th e gen eral co n cen tratio n o f m issio n ary activ ity in th at reg ion . B u t Sm ock and Sm ock in d icate th a t in th is p erio d a fu rth er skew in g o f th is d istrib u tio n al im b alan ce w as u nd erw ay: B etw een 1966 an d 1971, th e n u m b er o f sch o o ls in each reg io n , p u b lic and p riv ate, in creased b y 1.0 p ercen t in B eiru t, 1.4 p ercen t in M ou nt L eban on , an d 0 .7 p ercen t in N orth L eban on, w h ile it d rop ped b y 0 .5 p ercen t in So u th L eban on, an d 2.5 p ercen t in th e B iq a '.61 O th er d iseq u ilib ria w ere su p erim p osed on reg io n al ed u catio n al in eq u ities. A lth ou gh o fficia l statistics on th e su ccess rate o f stu d en ts in p riv ate sch o o ls v ersu s th o se in p u b lic sch o o ls, o r on th e relig io u s o r socioecon om ic com p osition o f sch o o l sy stem s are n o t a v ailab le, E m ile V alin fou nd th at (1) p riv ate ed u catio n in L eban on p rod u ced m ost o f th e stu d en ts w ho to o k th e B accalau re­ a te exam , an d am on g th ese stu d en ts, th o se fro m fo reig n p riv ate w ere th e m ost su ccessfu l, (2 ) 75 p ercen t o f th e p o p u latio n o f the p riv ate sch o o ls w as C h ristian , an d th e m ajo rity o f M u slim stu d en ts w ere fou n d in p u b lic ed u cation al in stitu tio n s, an d (3) ch ild ren fro m m ore p riv ileg ed econom ic back grou n d s p u rsu ed ed u cation in th e p riv ate sy stem , w h ile d ie p o o r w as con cen trated in th e p u b lic. T h e rig h t o f ev ery citiz e n to a free elem en tary an d secon d ary ed u catio n , as gu aran teed in A rticle 10 o f th e Leban ese C on stitu ­ tio n , ex isted in p rin cip le b u t n o t in fact. V alin con clu d ed th at in L eban on th e rea lity w as on e o f "sch o lastic p red estin atio n ," i.e ., the len g th and n atu re o f a ch ild 's ed u cation w as d eterm in ed b y the socioecon om ic stratu m in to w h ich h e /s h e w as b o m .62 A t th e u n iv ersity lev el, n on e o f th e th ree p riv ate in stitu tio n s o f fo reig n origin —th e A m erican U n iv ersity o f B eiru t, th e B eiru t u n iv ersity C olleg e (B U C ), an d l'U n iv ersité Sain t Jo sep h (U SJ)— w o u ld m eet th e risin g d em and fo r q u ality ed u cation from stu d en ts in th e low er an d low er-m id d le classes. T h e state-ru n Leban ese U n iv ersity (L U ) offered a lim ited cu rricu lu m in L ib eral A rts and in Law , b u t w as w id ely view ed as a "p oor relatio n " to th e ab ov e-

110

A Lebanon D efied

m en tio n ed in stitu tio n s. A U n ited N ation s su rvey in 1970 estim ated th a t 4 7 p ercen t o f th e stu d en t b od y a t LU m ajored in Law w h ile th e rest w ere p rim arily con cen trated in L iteratu re—th is w as a t a tim e w h en th e g reatest need w as fo r th e d evelop m ent o f a critica l m ass o f in d ig en ou s tech n ical an d scien tific exp ertise an d a ram ified research in frastru ctu re.63 L ike its p o litica l cou n terp art th erefo re, L eb an o n 's ed u catio n al sy stem w as u n d er p ressu re. Sim m erin g d isco n ten t w ith th e seem in g ly en tren ch ed o fficial in sen sitiv ity to ex istin g p o litica l, econ om ic an d ed u cation al d isp arities exp lod ed in th e sp rin g o f 1971 w ith a series o f strik es led b y u n iv ersity stu d en ts. T he issu es in v olv ed in th ese p ro tests ranged from file h ig h tu itio n co sts o f th e p riv ate in stitu tio n s, to th e n eed s fo r exp an sio n o f LU . In on e in cid en t, fiv e th ou san d stu d en ts d ash ed w ith secu rity fo rces o n 11 M arch 1971, on th eir w ay to a sit-in a t B eiru t In tern ation al A irp ort. T h is p ro test ev en tu ally p red p itated th e resig n atio n o f M in ister o f E d u cation G h assan T u én i on 20 D ecem ber 1971. In resig n in g , M in ister T u én i ch arged P rim e M in ister S a 'ib Salam an d P resid en t F ran g ié w ith refu sin g to im p lem en t an y o f h is p rop osed refo rm s, an d w ith sh o rtsig h ted ly assu m in g L eb an on 's ex istin g sy stem o f p riv ate ed u catio n to b e satisfacto ry .64 If alien atio n b eg ets rad ical id eo lo g ies and is a p rereq u isite fo r rev o lu tio n ary ch an ge, th en th e S h i'a you th in th e early sev en ties fou n d am p le in sp iratio n fo r p o litical activ ism in th eir im m ed iate en v iron m en t an d in th e larg er A rab reality . T h ey b ecam e am on g th e m ost p ro g ressiv e an d left-w in g in th e A rab w o rld , ad v o catin g M arxism -L en in ism , M aoism , rev olu tion ary v io len ce, an d o th er "rad ical an d extrem e" v iew s th at th reaten ed th e estab lish ed m o d es in th eir society .65 M easu rin g th e relation sh ip b etw een relig io u s a ffilia tio n and p o litica l alleg ian ces am ong stu d en ts a t the A m erican U n iv ersity o f B eiru t, th e Leban ese U n iv ersity , and l'U n iv ersité S ain t Jo sep h , B arak at fou nd th at o f th e S h i'a stu d en ts: (1 ) 61 p ercen t con sid ered th em selves le ftists, com p ared to 45 p ercen t o f th eir Su n n i co u n terp arts, 35 p ercen t o f th e D ru ze, an d 20 p ercen t o f th e M aron ite; (2) 68 p ercen t agreed w ith th e statem en t: 'W h at is n eed ed [in Lebanon] is rev o lu tio n , n o t refo rm ,' com p ared to 50 p ercen t o f th e Su n n i stu d en ts, 5 7 p ercen t o f th e D ru ze, an d 2 4 p ercen t o f th e M aron ite; and (3) 67 p ercen t agreed th at u ltim a tely , p riv ate p rop erty shou ld b e ab olish ed in the co u n try , com p ared to

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4 3 p ercen t o f th e Su n n i stu d en ts, 4 0 p ercen t o f th e D ru ze, an d 23 p ercen t o f th e M aronite.66 Fu rth erm ore, com p risin g 50 p ercen t o f th e L C P m em b ersh ip , and eq u ally im p o rtan t p ercen tag es o f th e O rg an izatio n fo r C om m u nist A ctio n in Leban on (O C A L ) created in 1970 an d th e P SP , th e S h i'a as a p o litical grou p w ere, in fact, th e n u cleu s o f th e Leban ese left.67 T h e d efin itiv e an d trau m atic A rab d efeat in th e 5 Ju n e 1967 W ar w as w ith ou t d ou bt th e w atersh ed in in tra-A rab an d reg io n al p o litics in th e la te six ties. T h is tim e it w as th e P alestin ian fid a 'iy y in w ho to o k th e stage. T h e resistan ce m ovem ent attracted S h i'a in tellectu als, stu d en ts, p easan ts, as w ell as th e p o o r and o u tcast, i.e ., a ll th o se w ho fe lt it cou ld p rov id e a m ean s to th eir ow n lib eratio n . N in ety p ercen t o f th e S h i'a stu d en ts a t th e aforem en­ tio n ed u n iv ersities su p p orted th e P alestin ian com m and os, w h ile 3 7 p ercen t b eliev ed th a t p o p u lar arm ed stru g g le w as the on ly so lu tio n to th e P alestin e qu estion . W hen th e g u errilla s' attem p t to en ter So u th Leban on in 1969 encou n tered op p o sitio n h o rn th e govern­ m en t o f C h arles H élou , it w as to th is b ase o f su p p ort th at th ey tu rn ed in ord er to ach iev e th eir end . D efyin g th eir ow n arm y and gov ernm ent, th e S h i'a stu d en ts d em onstrated on b eh a lf o f th e com m and os, jo in ed th eir ran k s, an d sou gh t activ e in volv em en t in th e resistan ce. A s a n A rab "co n fro n tatio n state," th ey fe lt L eban on h ad to sh are in d ie 'b a ttle o f d estin y w ith the Z io n ist en em y." F id a'iy y in v io len ce cam e to d efin e th e road to em an cip ation , b o th from th e "fo reig n b o d y th at W estern g u ilt had tran sp lan ted in the A rab m id st, an d from th e stoog es o f im p erialism in th e reg io n ." It w as to u p lift th e A rab n atio n from its m alaise, from h av in g b een th e o b ject o f th e co u rse o f h isto ry to b ecom in g its Su b ject. T h e year 1967 also m arked an im p o rtan t b eg in n in g fo r contem ­ p o rary Islam ic id eo lo g ies and m ovem ents. A s F isch er and A bed i n o te, th e h a jj o f 1968, th e first su ch ev en t fo llo w in g u p on th e w ar, trig g ered a d ebate b etw een M u rtad a M u tah h ari (1919-1979) and 'A li S h a ri'a ti (1933-1977), tw o o f th e m ost com p ellin g in tellectu al fo rces b eh in d th e 1977-79 rev o lu tio n in Iran , o v er th e n atu re o f Islam , S h i'ism , an d Iran ian M u slim id en tity . It w as a t th is h ajj th at th e slo g an s, "Islam h ad n o t b een d efeated u p on th e b a ttlefield ; Islam h ad n o t en tered th e b attlefield ," w ere first raised .68 "[A rab] n atio n alism ," it w as argu ed a t the Islam ic C on feren ce o f Sch o lars con ven ed in tand em w ith th e h a jj, "w as d efeated b y relig io n : Jew s

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A Lebanon D efied

stayed tru e to th eir relig io n w h ile th e A rabs aban d on ed th eirs."69 U p on retu rn in g to Iran , M u tah h ari, w h o w as a p articip an t in the co n feren ce, lectu red o n M u tu al S erv ices o f Islam an d Ira n , an d b ecam e on e o f th e key ad v ocates o f th e them es: That religion had defeated nationalism ; that the Arabs had fought under the banner of nationalism w hile the Israelis had used the far more potent mobilization of religion; that nationalism at best was a force once powerful in Europe but now universally in decay; that nationalism was a tool of im perialism 's divide and rule, privUeging one racial group over others and dividing the subordinates against one another; that Nasser and the Baathists were but nationalists attem pting to revive the ancient Arab imperialism over non-Arab M uslims; and that Muslims had to learn a bitter lesson from the Jews: they had to recover their Islam and tight under it, abandoning nationalist perversions, be they Arab perversions, or be they the pre-Islam ic, Zoroastrian pretensions being promoted by the Pahlavi monarchy.70 S h a ri'a ti, w ho w as p resen t a t the hajjj o f 1968 b u t exclu d ed fro m th e C on feren ce o f Islam ic Sch o lars, ad v ocated a retu rn to Islam , b u t n o t th e Islam o f M u tah h ari and h is fellow 'u lam a. h i R etu rn to S elf, h is co u n terb rief to M u tahhari, and elsew h ere, S h a ri'a ti ca lled fo r a new "u n d erstan d in g o f Islam , and fo r a m o d em relig io n b ased u p on , an d tran scen d in g , scien ce in th e m an n er o f th e relig io u s feelin g s exp ressed b y E in stein (or in d eed D u rkh eim , w h o articu lated v ery sim ilar d escrip tio n s o f th e relig io n o f th e fu ­ tu re)."71 It w as to b e a "p ro testan t reform ation ," a rev iv al o f "'A law i S h i'ism ," th e S h i'ism o f Im am 'A li, th e Islam o f a h l al-b a y t, w h ich sto o d fo r ju stice , u n ity , an d lib erty , an d w as free o f su p erstitio n , d ogm atism , and clerical co rru p tio n an d m an ip u la­ tio n .72 S h a ri'a ti's retu rn to se lf w as also a retu rn to "au th en tic n atio n alism , n o t à la M u tah h ari in th e sen se o f ra cia l o r eth n ocen ­ tric ch au v in ism , b u t in th e sen se o f a n ev olv in g , sy n th esizin g , in teg rativ e cu ltu re."73 W hat is needed [is a return to Islam ]. . . not only because it is the religion of our society, the shaper of our history, the spirit of our culture, — but also because it is the human "self’ of our people. W e must take refuge in Islam , if only because it is a religion that transcends history and nationality------Islam has demonstrated its

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ability/ as an open, profound and realistic doctrinal world view and as a progressive and changing legal, structure to be extrem ely useful and adaptable to different times and environmental condi­ tions. Islam has drown itself to possess a scientific philosophy of history based on unity, general scientific determinism, and positive humanistic and historical optimism based on the notion of the inevitable victory of die weak and the oppressed classes. Finally, Islam has proven to be a progressive anthropological philosophy which is based on humanism and believes in m an's God-like essence, his ultra-m aterial aptitude, and his divine, universal responsibility and truth. Thus, Islam can be presented as "ideology," "direction," "guidance," "faith," "spiritual interpretation of the world," and as an answer to the m ost fundamental questions that occupy the volatile soul of contemporary man.74 A t its co re, th e d ebate b etw een M u tah h ari and S h a ri'a ti w as a co n test b etw een tw o "so cio lo g ical ty p es" o f th e T h ird W o rld , b etw een th ose in th is w orld w ith a m ore W estern ized ed u catio n an d cosm op olitan o u tlo o k , w ho w ish ed to u se th eir relig io -cu ltu ral h eritag es "to con stru ct a sh ield ag ain st su b ord in ation to th e W est b y in corp oratin g k ey W estern id eas, and th ose w ith a m ore trad itio n al b ack g rou n d , w ho feared b o th th e m arxism o f th e U SSR an d th e m od ernism o f Eu rope and A m erica a s eq u ally co rro siv e to su ch a sh ield ."75 It p aralleled th e d ebate th a t occu rred in A frica b etw een th e su p p orters o f N ég ritu d e, w h ich orig in ated a s a literary m ovem ent u n d er Fren ch colon ialism and rem ained larg ely co n fin ed to th e form er F ren ch co lo n ies, and its critics. M u tah h ari's retu rn to Islam , lik e N eg ritu d e's em p h asis o n b la ck au th en ticity , w as a n en d in itself. It tu rned "ag ain st th e cu ltu ral self-alien atio n o f t h e . . . [m asses an d in stilled ] in them a n aw aren ess o f th eir ow n h isto rica l and cu ltu ral trad itio n , w h ich em braced a n aw aren ess o f a ll d eform ation s su ffered a t th e h an d s o f' O th ers.76 S h a ri'a ti, on th e o th er h an d , follo w in g F an o n 's criticism o f N ég ritu d e an d an aly sis o f n atio n al cu ltu re, d ism issed M u tah h ari's v isio n as rom an tic and self-d estru ctiv e, an d d efin ed h is ow n retu rn to Islam a s a p assag e, a m ean s in the em an cip ation stru g g le o f th e op ­ p ressed .77 In fu sin g h is in terp retatio n o f Q u r'an ic exeg eses w ith id eas b orrow ed from M arx, S artre, and o th ers, S h a ri'a ti n o t on ly p reach ed w h at m ay b e called a lib eratio n th eo lo g y , 'b u t a lso , an d m u ch m ore im p ressiv ely , created a v ocab u lary w ith w h ich to

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th in k , w ith w h ich to critiq u e th e p ast, an d w ith w h ich to reco n c­ ep tu alize Islam fo r th e fu tu re."78 In th e six ties and early sev en ties, th e ch an ges tak in g p lace o n th e g eo p o litical an d id eo lo g ical scen es w ere o ccu rrin g sim u lta­ n eo u sly w ith th e d ram atic tran sform ation s w h ich L eban ese S h i'a so ciety w as u n d erg oin g. A s d ie first o f th e d ecad es cam e to a clo se, it b ecam e clea r th at th e S h i'a in L eban on w ere reexam in in g th eir o p tio n s, an d in th e p ro cess, lo o k in g fo r a new ord er. T h e su b altern m ajo rity ch o se th e altern ativ e th at M u sa al-S ad r p rov id ed . H avin g receiv ed th e m an d ate o f lead ersh ip from th e com m u n ity, th e say y id fou g h t ag ain st its fu rth er d isen fran ch isem en t. A s d efen d er o f th e faith , h e w as d eterm in ed to rev italize Islam an d cou n terp ose it to rad ical id eo lo g ies a s a n ap p rop riate v eh icle fo r ch an ge. A s d iscu ssed su b seq u en tly , M u sa al-S ad r, lik e S h a ri'a ti, re-p resen ted S h i'ism a s an in stru m en t o f h u m an lib eratio n , i.e ., th e attain m en t o f freed om in th e "q u est fo r h u m an com p letion ."79 It w as a m ovem ent th at in sp ired its follo w ers to ach iev e a n au th en tic co n scio u sn ess an d v alid ate it th rou g h p raxis. T h e S h i'a you th , on th e o th er h an d , ch o se th e rev o lu tio n ary p ro m ises o f th e Leban ese left. T h ey w ou ld reject th eir ow n trad itio n s and cu ltu re fo r th e sak e o f th is rev olu tion ary ag en d a, righ t its w ar, and d ie fo r its cau se. In d eed , th e rad icalism d isp lay ed b y th is segm ent o f th e com m u nity g reatly d iscon certed th e S h i'a relig io u s estab lish m en t and h ad a fu nd am ental im p act on th e form u lation o f M usa a l-S a d r's m o b ilizin g d iscou rse. T h e less p o litica lly d arin g S h i'a op ted fo r the co n tin u atio n o f th e statu s qu o. W h atever th eir ch o ices, it w as certain th a t th e S h i'a com m u nity w ould n o lo n g er b e a silen t an d m on olith ic p o p u latio n liv in g u n d er th e co n tro l o f a few zu 'am a. In fa ct, it w as b ein g cou rted b y riv a l id eo lo g ies as th e sin g le p o ten tially m ost im p o rtan t p o litica l grou p in th e cou n try. T he S h i'a en g agem en t w ith Leban ese p o litics h ad fin a lly b egu n .

N O T ES 1. Arend Lijphart, "Typologies of Democratic System s," C om parative P olitical Studies 1, no. 1 (April 1968): 3-44; "Consociational Democracy," W orld P olitics 21, no. 2 (January 1969): 207-25, and elsewhere.

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2. L'O rient, 28 April 1952, quoted in David R. Smock and Audrey C. Sm ock, The P olitics o f Pluralism (New York: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1975), 144. 3. Inform ation on the various aspects of the za'am a was provided by his Excellency the late Kazim al-Khalil (1901-1990) in a series of interviews in Lebanon in foe summer of 1988. 4. For an explanation of foe origins and evolution of foe tide "za'im ," see Arnold Hotdnger in "Zu'am a' in Historical Perspective," P olitics in Lebanon, ed. Leonard Binder (New York: John W iley & Sons, 1966), 85110; and Albert Hourani in "Ideologies of foe Mountain and foe City," in Essays on the C risis in Lebanon, 33-41. 5. The term "mafia" is used here in foe sense espoused by Hobsbawm in P rim itive R ebels, 30-56. 6. Arnold Hottinger, "Zu'am a' and Parties in foe Lebanese Crisis of 1958," M iddle East Journal 15, no. 2 (Spring 1961): 127-40. Quotations are on 128-29. 7. At face value, the various figures for the turnover rate of deputies in successive Lebanese Parliaments since independence provided by M ichael Hudson in The Precarious R epublic, 2d ed. (Boulder, CO: W estview Press, 1985), 211-61, Iliya Harik in "Political Elite of Lebanon," P olitical E lites in the M iddle East, ed. George Lenczowski (W ashington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1975), 20115, and others, are quite high- However, Khalaf, in Lebanon's Predicam ent, 132-33, suggests that "such numerical measures of elite circulation . . . becomes meaningful only if one probes into foe background of foe new entrants, particularly their kinship ties, and the process by which they are norm ally coopted or recruited by other political veterans. A considerable number of such new entrants are either heirs of political families or candidates w ith little personal political support but who secure a seat on foe coattails, so to speak, of a traditional political za'im or one of the aqtab. The patrons, in short, both foe aqtab and lesser zu'am a rarely change. It is the clients that experience foe turnover." 8. Smock and Smock, The P olitics o f Pluralism , 145-46. 9. Hottinger, "Zu'am a' and Parties in foe Lebanese Crisis of 1958,” 139. Hizb al-Nahda metamorphosed into al-Hizb al-Dimuqrati al-Ishtiraki [The Democratic Socialist Party] after 1958 under foe leadership of Kamil alAs'ad, w hile Hizb al-T ala'i' gradually faded from the scene after the heir to the Baydun za'am a in Beirut, Rashid Baydun, Joined Harakat Ruwwad al-lslah [The Movement of Reform Promoters] of Sa'ib Salam, foe Beiruti Sunni za'im .

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10. See P. A. Allum, P olitics and Society in Post-W ar N aples (Cambridge/ UK: Cambridge University Press, 1973), 10-12; and Johnson, C lass & C lient in Beirut, 47-50. 11. Hobsbawm, P rim itive R ebels, 35. 12. George Foster, in 'Peasant Society and die Image of die Limited Good," in Peasant Society: A R eader, ed. George Foster, Jack M. Potter, and May N. Diaz (Boston: Iitd e , Brown and Company, 1967), 304; and John Duncan Powell, "Peasant Society and C lientelist Politics," in Friends, Follow ers, and Factions: A R eader in P olitical C lientelism (Berkeley: Universi­ ty of California Press, 1977), 147-61. 13. Carl H. Landé, "Introduction: The Dyadic Basis o f Clientelism ," and James C. Scott, "Patron-Client Politics and Political change in Southeast Asia," in Friends, Follow ers, and Factions, ibid., xiii-xxxvii, and 123-46, respectively. 14. Talal Jaber, "Chi'ites et Pouvoir Politique au Liban (1967-1974)," 192-98. 15. Al Safa, Tarikh Jobal 'Amü, 28,42-43, and 50. See also Talal Jaber, ibid., 194. 16. Mounzer Jaber, "Pouvoir et Société au Jabal Amel de 1749 à 1930 dans la Conscience des Chroniques Chiites et dans un Essai d'Interpretation," (Thèse du Doctorat du 3ème Cycle, Université du Paris VII, 1978), 48-49, quoted in Talal Jaber, ibid., 195. 17. Khalaf, Lebanon's Predicam ent, 85. 18. Adams, "The Social Organization of a Shi'ite Community in Northern Lebanon," 110; and Howard F. Stein, "A Note on Patron-Client Theory," Ethos 12, no. 1 (Spring 1984): 30-36. 19. Hudson, The Precarious R epublie, quoted in Tabitha Petran, The Struggle over Lebanon (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1986), 36. 20. Eric Hooglund, "Rural Participation in the Revolution," M ERIP R eports, no. 87 (May 1980): 3-6. Quotation is on 5; and Norton, Am al and the Shi'a: Struggle fa r the Soul o f Lebanon, 1-36. 21. See Petran, The Struggle fa r Lebanon, 119-41. 22. Allum, P olitics and Society in N aples, 170. 23. See 'A dil Fayiz Mahbuba, "Susiugrafiyyat Jihaz Za'am a Rifiyya fi al-Janub al-Lubnani" [The sociography of the apparatus of a rural za'am a in South Lebanon] (M.A. thesis in Rural Sociology, al-Jam i'a al-Lubnaniyya—MaTiad al-'U lum al-Ijtim a'iyya, 1986), 25-40. 24. O fficial Shi'a clerics in Lebanon, like their Sunni counterparts, were part of the civil service and received state salaries. Others, like Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-D in (1873-1957), the m arja' of Tyre, who were not state functionaries, depended for their living on their private finances, or on the goodwill of believers. It should be mentioned here that, unlike

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in Iran, the Shi'a aw qqf alone, by reason of their poverty, could not have sustained an autonomous Shi'a clerical body. 25. Ibrahim Farran, "Ra'yan M ukhtalifan fi Kayfiyyat Iqam at 'Ashura" [Two Different Opinions on the Celebration of 'Ashura] in C olloque 'A shura', 2 0 4 5 . Quotation is on 42-43. 26. See Denis MacEoin, "From Shaykhism to Babism: A Study in Charismatic Renewal in S t i l Islam ," (Ph.D. diss., University of Cam­ bridge, 1979), 1-38. 27. W eber in Econom y and Society, 24, defines charism a as a "quality of a person that passes for something outside the everyday . . . because of w hich the person is appraised as equipped with powers or peculiarities that are not accessible to ju st any other person and which are super­ natural or super-human or at least specifically outside of the everyday." 28. Jafri, The O rigins and Early D evelopm ent o f Shi'a Islam , 290-91. 29. Imam al-Khomeini, Islam and Revolution—W ritings and D eclarations, trans. and annotated by Hamid Algar, (London: KPI, 1985), pp. 73-75. 30. M ichael M. J. Fischer, Iran: From R eligious D ispute to R evolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980), 12, 61 and 33, respectively. 31. M anochehr Dorraj, From Zarathustra to Khom eini (Boulder, CO, and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1990), 158. 32. R. Hrair Dekmejian, "Charismatic Leadership in Messianic and Revolutionary Movements," in R eligious R esurgence, ed. Richard T. Antoun and Mary Elaine Hegland (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987), 78-107. Quotation is on 80. 33. Hook, "The Eventful Man and the Event-M aking Man," 34. 34. Hobsbawm, P rim itive R ebels, 19; and Talal Jaber, "Chi'ites et Pouvoir Politique au Liban (1967-1974)," 203-10. 35. Johnson, C lass & O ien t in Beirut, 95. 36. See Rondot, Les Institutions Politiques au Liban, 11-15. 37. Rabbath, La Form ation H istorique du Liban P olitique et C onstitutionnel, 547; and W ade R. Goria, Sovereignty and Leadership in Lebanon 1943-1976 (London: Ithaca Press, 1985), 24-25. 38. Enver M. Koury, The C risis in the Lebanese System (W ashington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1976), 18. 39. Edmond Rabbath, La C onstitution Libanaise (Beyrouth: Publications de l'U niversité Libanaise, 1982), 517-18. 40. Rondot, Les Institutions Politiques au Liban, 17; and Fiches du Monde Arabe, Lebanon—P olitics: Institutions, I-L29 (26 November 1975). On 13 October 1946, parliament elected Habib Abu Shahla, a Greek Orthodox, as speaker to succeed Sabri Hamadi. Immediately, Shi'a mass protest engulfed the country, the Shi'a deputies threatened to resign, and the

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'asha'ir of the Hirmil threatened armed action if the election w ere not rescinded. As a result, Abu Shahla resigned on 7 April 1947, and Hamadi, who had received satisfaction that the post would henceforth be reserved for the Shi'a, was reelected in his lieu. 41. Smock and Sm ock, The P olitics o f Pluralism , 115; and Muhammad 'A li Dinnawi, al-M uslim un f i Lubnan: M uwatinun . . . la Ra'aya [The Muslims in Lebanon: Citizens . . . not Wards] (Beirut: n.p., 1973), 49-52. 42. A tef Fayad, "La Communauté Chiite au Liban et ses Droits Politiques," (Thèse du Doctorat d'Etat en Science Politique-U niversité de M ontpellier 1 ,1981), 156-58. 43. al-N ahar, 21 February 1974. 44. See Isaiah Berlin, "Nationalism: Past Neglect and Present Power,” in A gainst the Current: Essays in the H istory o f Ideas, ed. Henry Hardy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981), 333-55; and Abdallah Laroui, The C risis o f the A rab Intellectual (Berkeley, CA: The University of California Press, 1976), vii-viii. 45. Fawaz Turki, The D isinherited—Journal o f a Palestinian E xile (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972), 30. 46. Robert Stephens, "Nasser, a Reassessment," in N asser, A R eassess­ m ent, Robert Stephens and others, eds., Arab Papers, no. 8 (London: The Arab Research Centre, 1981), 10. 47. See Fahim I. Qubain, C risis in Lebanon (W ashington: The M iddle East Institute, 1961), 62-63. 48. For Malcolm H. Kerr in The A rab Cold War, 3d ed. (London: Oxford University Press for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1981), 155, it was "N asir's incredible luck [that] stayed w ith him into the grave." 49. See M icheál W . Suleiman, P olitical Parties in Lebanon (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967), 91-172; Fiches du Monde Arabe, Leba­ non—Politics: The Syrian Social N ationalist Party, I-L50-I-L51 (27 June-18 July 1979), and L eban on -P olitics: The O rganization fo r Com munist A ction in Lebanon, I-L39 (18 February 1976); and Fadl Shururu, al-A hzab xoa alTanzim at wa al-Q uwa al-Siyasiyya f i Lubnan, 1930-1980 [The parties, organizations, and political forces in Lebanon, 1930-1980] (Beirut: Dar alM asira, 1981), 63-78. 50. Shururu, ibid., 78-84. Quotations are on 79-80. 51. Karim Pakradouni, La Paix M anquée, 2d ed. (Beyrouth: Editions FMA, 1985), 106. 52. The Communist Party in Lebanon was first established as the Lebanese People's Party in October 1924. Originally, it was part of the Communist Party of Syria, and after the reorganization of 1928, of the Communist Party of Syria and Lebanon. It became the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP) on 31 December 1943, following the party's first

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congress during which it decided to split into its Syrian and Lebanese wings. 53. The LCP, along w ith the Ba'fo Party and the SSNP, was legalized in May 1970 by decision of Kamal Junblat, then M inister of the Interior. 54. Suleiman, P olitical Parties in Lebanon, 57-90; and Fiches du Monde Arabe, Lebanon—P olitics: The Lebanese Com munist Party, I-L46-I-L51 (25 February-16 May 1979). 55. See Turki, The D isinherited, 9. 56. N afhat Nasr and Monte Palmer, "Alienation and Political Participa­ tion in Lebanon," International Journal fo r M iddle Eastern Studies 8, no. 4 (October 1977): 493-516. 57. See Khalil al-N aqib, al-Biruqratiyya toa al-Inm a' [Bureaucracy and development] (B eiru t MaTiad al-Inm a' al-'A rabi, 1976), 204. 58. See Smock and Smock, The P olitics o f Pluralism , 176-88. 59. See Abdullatif K. Hares, "Education and National Integration in Lebanon," (Ph.D. diss., Teachers College—Columbia University, 1985), 11218, and elsewhere. 60. Gustav Jahoda, W hite M an (London: Oxford University Press, 1961), 122-23. 61. Sm ock and Smock, The P olitics o f Pluralism , 180; and Hares, "Education and National Integration in Lebanon," 103. 62. E. J.-P. Valin, Le Pluralism e Socio-Scolaire au Liban (B eiru t Dar alMashreq, 1969), 7 1 ,7 9 ,2 1 , and 173, respectively. 63. See Sam ih Farsoun, "Student Protest and the Coming Crisis in Lebanon," M ERIP R eports, no. 19, 3-14; and J.-P. Valin and Hend Boustany, Population de l'U niversité Libanaise, Publications du Centre de Recherches de l'U niversité Libanaise-Institut des Sciences Sociales, no. 8, (Beyrouth: Centre de Recherches, 1968). 64. al-N ahar, 6 June 1972; and Naji Karim al-H ilu, Hukkam Lubnan 19201980 [The rulers of Lebanon 1920-1980] (B eiru t M u'assasat Khalifa li-1Tiba'a, 1980), 145-50. 65. See Turki, The D isinherited, 39. 66. Halim Barakat, Lebanon in S trife-S tu den t Preludes to the C ivil W ar, M odem Middle East Series, no. 2 (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1977), 60-66. 67. The Organization for Communist Action in Lebanon was formed in 1970 from the fusion of two groups of the extrem e-left: the Movement of Lebanese Socialists, and Socialist Lebanon. It succeeded in establishing an important Shi'a following, prim arily because of its activities in organizing the labor strike at the Ghandur factories in 1972, the demon­ strations of the tobacco planters in foe South in 1974, and student rallies at the Lebanese, Arab, and American Universities in Beirut throughout

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the early seventies. See Fiches du Monde Arabe/ Lebanon—P olitics: The O rganization fo r Com munist A ction in Lebanon, I-L39 (18 February 1976). 68. Fischer and Abedi, D ebating M uslim s, 155. 69. Ib id ./174. 70. Ibid. 71. Ibid./ 213. 72. Ibid., xxviii. 73. Ibid., 206. 74. Ali Shari'ati, W hat is to be D one, ed. and annotated by Farhang Rajaee, w ith a foreword by John L. Esposito (Houston/ TX: The Institute for Research and Islam ic Studies, 1986), 53-55. 75. Fischer and Abedi, D ebating M uslim s, xxix. 76. Renate Zahar, C olonialism and A lienation, trans. W illfried F. Feuser, (Benin City, Nigeria: Ethiope Publishing Corporation, 1974), 64. 77. Ibid., 64-75. 78. Ibid., 213-14. 79. Paulo Freiré, Pedagogy o f the O ppressed, trans. Myra Bergman Ramos (New York: Continuum, 1984,22d printing), 31.

4 Leader and Movement

H e entered people's hearts w ithout a bribe. —Ahmad Ism a'il The imam cam e to Libanon and discovered the actuality o f the human bring in the B iqa',. . .in the South,. . . and in the m iserable suburbs o f Beirut. H e discovered that this human being is oppressed and exploited. . . . In turn, the disinherited realized. . . that M usa al-Sadr had com m itted him self to the service c f this human cau se. . . w ith honesty, sincerity and m ystical devotion, w hich issued from his fa ith , his learning, his m orality, and his delicate and vivid human sensibility. —Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din

ayy id M usa al-S ad r arriv ed in L ebanon in late 1959 to lead th e S h i'a com m u nity o f th e co astal d ty o f T y re a fter th e d eath o f its m a rja ' H u jjat al-Islam Say yid 'A b d al-H u say n S h araf al-D in , on 30 D ecem ber 1957.1 T h is w as h is secon d en cou n ter w ith the p eop le h e w as d estined to rein v ig orate h av in g b een in vited in 1956 b y Say yid 'A b d al-H u sayn fo r an in tro d u cto ry v isit to the land o f h is forebears. T h ere w ere clo se fam ily tie s b etw een the Sad rs an d th e S h a ra f al-D in s; th ey had th e sam e ro o ts.2 Sayyid 'A b d al-H u say n w as b o m in al-K ad h im iyya, Iraq , in 1873, to Say y id Y u su f S h a ra f al-D in an d Say y id a a l-Z ah ra' al-S ad r, the d au g h ter o f Say y id H adi al-Sad r. H e w as b rou g h t to Leban on b y

121

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h is h ith er w h en h e w as eig h t years o ld , and retu rn ed to Iraq a d ecad e la te r w ith h is w ife and in fan t d au gh ter fo r th e com p letion o f h is relig io u s ed u cation . H e le ft Iraq in 1905 to retu rn to L eban on w h ere h e settled in the city o f T yre. A m ong Say y id 'A b d a lH u say n 's sev en son s, Say y id M uham m ad Jaw ad (1907-1977) serv ed a s th e m u fti o f T yre from 1930 u n til h is d eath , an d Say y id Ja 'fa r (1920) is a p o liticia n an d a form er m em ber o f th e L eban ese p arliam en t (1960-1972). In h is tim e, Say y id 'A b d al-H u say n w as an en erg etic refo rm er, a sch o lar, an d an elo q u en t sp okesm an on b eh a lf o f h is com m u nity. H e su ccessfu lly fou g h t o ff O ttom an attem p ts to d raft th e S h i'a 'u lam a d u rin g W orld W ar I, w h ile exem p tin g th eir Su n n i an d C h ristian cou n terp arts w ho w ere the on ly o fficially recogn ized clerics in th e em p ire, and h e w as a t th e forefron t o f th e n atio n alist m ovem ent ad v ocatin g th e cau se o f Sy rian u n ity . H is ag itatio n ag ain st d ie m an d atory p ow er led to th e lo o tin g o f h is h om e in T y re b y F ren ch so ld iers an d to th e razin g o f an o th er resid en ce in h is n ativ e v illag e, Sh h u r. T h ereafter, Sayyid 'A b d al-H u say n w as forced in to ex ile in D am ascu s, b u t had to q u it th at city on 26 Ju ly 1920, a fter th e Sh arifian d efeat a t M aysalu n. From th ere, h e trav elled to H aifa, th en E g yp t, th en /A lm a al-B u h ay ra, a v illag e o n th e P alestin ian -L eb an ese fro n tier, ov er a p eriod o f fo u rteen m on th s b efo re G eneral H en ri G ou raud in v ited h im b ack to Lebanon. H e retu rn ed to T yre o n 2 4 Ju n e 1921. Say yid 'A b d al-H u say n w as eq u ally com m itted to ed u catio n an d to so cial am elio ratio n in a ll S h i'a areas w ith in th e b o u n d aries o f an in d ep en d en t Lebanon. H e co n stan tly p etitio n ed L eban ese lead ers in p u rsu it o f th ese com m itm ents, p resen tin g th em w ith lists o f d em and s th at p refig u red th e dem ands o f Say yid M usa al-S ad r on b eh a lf o f h is com m u nity m ore th an a q u arter o f a cen tu ry later. D u rin g a life th at exten d ed m ore th an eig h t d ecad es, Say yid 'A b d al-H u say n p enned m ajor treatises on th eolog y an d oth er issu es co n fro n tin g the M u slim s.3 H e w as p articu larly com m itted to estab lish in g a sch ool in T y re, a n id ea w h ich h e p rom oted b y em p h asizin g th e Q u r'a n 's and th e P ro p h et's stress on th e im p or­ ta n t ro le o f ed u cation , esp ecially in th e rise and sp read o f Islam ic civ ilizatio n . W ith th e u se o f th e m od est reso u rces a t h is d isp o sal, b an k lo an s, and con trib u tion s b y exp atriates in W est A frica, Say yid 'A b d al-H u say n w as ab le to realize th is dream in O ctob er 1938.

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T h e Ja 'fa riy y a w as in itially a p rim ary an d th en a secon d ary sch ool fo r b o y s, w h ich b ecam e co-ed u cation al in th e early six ties. It co n tin u es tod ay w ith m in im al governm ental assistan ce. H e also estab lish ed a sh o rt-liv ed sep arate sch o o l fo r g irls in 1942, a m osque/ and a relig iou s and cu ltu ral cen ter/ N ad i al-Im am a lSad iq. T h e ties betw een Say yid 'A b d al-H u say n and Say yid M u sa reflected th e cen tu ries-o ld n exu s b etw een Ja b a l 'A m il and Iran. T he im p o rtan t ch ap ters in th is h isto ry b eg an w ith Safav id ascen d an cy in Iran a t d ie tu rn o f th e sixteen th cen tu ry , h i 1494/ fiv e years a fter b ecom in g th e lead er o f th e Safav id ord er o f S u fis u p on the assassin atio n o f h is o ld er b ro th er 'A li, Ism a 'il, th en tw elv e y ears o ld , em barked o n d ie im p erial career w h ich ev en tu ally w on him a ll o f Iran a s fa r east as H erat in m o d em A fghanistan/ a s w ell a s D iyarbakr and Baghdad in Iraq. In T abriz/ in th e su m m er o f 1501, Ism a 'il crow ned h im self kin g o f P ersia. H e p roclaim ed T w elver S h i'ism th e o fficial relig io n o f h is d om inion.4 Sh ah Ism a 'il's ch oice o f T w elver S h i/ism w as a b o ld m ove. W ith th e ex cep tio n o f th e im p ortan t S h i'a cen ters o f Q u oi/ R ayy, N ish ap u r, an d m u ch o f K hurasan/ m ost o f Iran a t d ie tim e w as Su n n i. P rom inent Iran ian Im am i au th o rities scarcely existed . It is rep orted th at w h en Sh ah Ism a'il to o k T ab riz an d p roclaim ed T w elv er S h i'ism th e relig io n o f h is em p ire/ h e fou nd o n ly one classic b o o k b y th e g reat Im am i sch olar a l-'A llam a al-H illi (12501325 C .E .) in th at city .5 T each ers and ju rists w ere n eed ed to fill th is la ck o f a relig io u s an d sch olarly in frastru ctu re. Ja b a l 'A m il p rov id ed on e id eal sou rce from w h ich th ey cou ld b e draw n. F or a ll th e p o litical in stab ility and in term itten t p ersecu tio n to w h ich th is reg io n w as su bjected / th e h ig h trad itio n o f S h i'a Im am i learn in g n o n eth eless su rvived and flou rish ed th rou g h ou t Jab al 'A m il/ m ost n o tab ly in al-N abatiyya/ Ju b a'/ M ays al-Jab al, an d in K arak N uh to the n orth .6 Ind eed / b y d ie tim e o f d ie ad v en t o f the Safav id s, Ja b a l 'A m il had su rp assed H illa in Iraq a s th e m ain cen ter o f S h i'a sch olarsh ip .7 T h is trad itio n con tin u ed u n til th e accessio n o f Sh ah 'A b b as I in 1588. B y estab lish in g a n u m ber o f th eo lo g ical sem in aries in h is n ew ly -relocated cap ital/ Isfah an , Sh ah 'A b b as I w as ab le to in su re th e p rim acy o f th at city in th e S h i'a w o rld , a p o sitio n w h ich it h eld u n til Q ajar tim es w h en it w as su rp assed b y al-N ajaf, Q u m , an d M ashhad.

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It w as th is leg acy and th is h isto ry th at b ro u g h t Say y id M u sa to Leban on. A fter th e d eath o f Say yid /A bd al-H u say n , h is son s faced a lead ersh ip vacu u m . T h e al-S ad r fam ily , it w as fe lt, cou ld p rov id e th e b e st can d id ate fo r th e m arja'iyya o f T yre. In fa ct, Say yid 'A b d al-H u say n h im self h ad recogn ized th e in tellectu al alertn ess an d talen ts o f d ie you n g M usa and h ad rep eated ly p oin ted h im ou t a s a w o rth y su cce sso r* Say y id Ja /far/s req u est th at Say yid R eza a lSad r assu m e th e h o n o r w as refu sed . Sayyid R eza's am b ition w as to ad v an ce in th e clerica l w orld an d to b ecom e a n ay ato llah . In itia lly , Say yid M u sa also d eclin ed th e offer. H is reaso n s, h ow ev er, w ere n o t deem ed com p elling. A t th e in sisten ce o f Say y id Ja /far, an d o n th e ad v ice o f h is m en to r, th e G ran d M a ija ' A y atu llah Say y id M u hsin al-H ak im (1889-1970), Say y id M u sa relen ted . A m om entou s ch ap ter in the h isto ry o f L eb an on 's S h i'a com m u n ity b eg an .9 M u sa al-S ad r w as b o m in Q um on 15 M arch 1928, from th e u n io n o f Say y id S ad r al-D in al-S ad r (1882-1954) and Say yid a Safiy y a. In b o th h is p atern al and m atern al lin eag es, h e faced th e ch allen g e o f a d istin g u ish ed an cestry. H is m atern al g ran d fath er, A yatu llah H u sayn al-Q u m m i (1865-1947), w as a t th e fo refro n t o f th e op p o sitio n to th e p o licies o f Ira n 's R eza Sh ah (1925-1941), a n in volv em en t fo r w h ich h e w as exiled from h is n ativ e Iran . A yatu llah al-Q u m m i's in flu en ce w as so p rofou n d th at he b ecam e th e so le m a ija ' al-taq lid fo r th e en tire S h i'a w orld follo w in g th e d eath o f Say yid A bu al-H asan Isfah an i (1867-1946). O n h is p atern al sid e, Sayyid M u sa's g en ealog y cou ld b e traced b a ck to M u sa ib n Ja 'fa r, th e sev en th rSh i'a im am . H is w as on e o f th e m o st celeb rated clerica l fam ilies in th e S h i'a w orld . In h er d iary , G ertru d e B ell, th e B ritish trav eler an d O rien tal Secretary to th e H igh C om m ission er in Iraq , w rote: 'T h e re 's a grou p o f th ese w o rth ies in K ad h im ain , th e h o ly d ty , 8 m iles fro m B agd ad , b itte rly p an -Islam ic, a n tiB ritish . . . . C h ief am ong th em are a fam ily called Sad r, p o ssib ly m ore d istin g u ish ed fo r relig io u s learn in g th an an y o th er fam ily in th e w h ole Sh iah w o rld ."10 In Jab a l 'A m il, th e Sad rs w ere d escend ed from Say yid S a lih ib n M uham m ad ib n Sh araf al-D in w ho w as b o m in 1710 in Sh h u r, n ear T y re.11 Say y id S alih , w e are to ld , w as p ersecu ted b y a l-Jazzar d u rin g th e la tte r's cam p aign s ag ain st Ja b a l 'A m il. O n e o f Say y id S a lih 's so n s w as m u rd ered an d he h im self w as im p rison ed fo r n in e

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m on th s in A cre b efo re escap in g to th e S h i'a h o ly city o f a l-N ajaf in Iraq. H is w ife and tw o su rv iv in g son s, Say yid S ad r al-D in and Say y id M uham m ad 'A li, follow ed h im to a l-N ajaf, alo n g w ith h is b ro th er, M uham m ad. In th e N ajaf, b o th Sad r al-D in and /A li b ecam e 'u lam a. Say y id Sad r al-D in m arried th e d au gh ter o f th e g reat m u jtah id K ash if a l-G h ita ' Sh aykh Ja 'fa r ib n K h id r al-N ajafi (1743-1812) and m oved to Isfahan. T h is m arriage p rod u ced sev en sons. Say y id S ad r al-D in th en h ad a n eig h th son , Say yid Ism a'il (1839-1919), from h is second m arriage in to th e p rom in en t Iran ian m erch an t fam ily , th e N am azis. In th e m ean tim e, M uham m ad /A li m arried in to a n Iraq i fam ily. A m ong h is th ree so n s, Say y id H ad i, Sayyid M u sa, and Say yid 'Is a , Say yid H ad i and h is d escen­ dants—H asan and M uham m ad H usayn and th eir offsp rin g—becam e know n b y th e su rnam e al-S ad r in referen ce to h is p atern al u n cle, Sayyid S ad r al-D in , w ho raised h is th ree n ep h ew s a fter th eir fath er's d eath. Say yid M uham m ad al-Sad r—Sayyid H ad i's grand son th rou gh h is son H asan—becam e d ie fa m ily 's first statesm an. H e w as th e lead in g fig u re in th e Iraq i resistan ce to B ritish occu p ation . In 1928, Say yid M uham m ad ro se to th e p resid en cy o f M ajlis a lA 'y an , th e Iraq i Sen ate, a p o sitio n w h ich h e h eld fo r an in itia l p eriod o f six teen years u n til 1944, and su b sequ en tly from 1952 u n til h is d eath in 1955. In 1948, h e w as selected to serv e a s H is M ajesty 's P rim e M in ister fo r a p eriod o f six m onths. Sad r a l-D in 's you n g est so n , Ism a 'il (Sayyid M u sa's gran d fa­ th er), retu rn ed to al-N a ja f w h ere h e com p leted h is relig io u s stu d ies. H e rose to th e ran k o f grand m a ija ', w h ich h e h eld u n til h is d eath . H e w as su rvived b y Say yid M uham m ad M ahd i, Sayyid Sad r a l-D in (Sayyid M u sa's fath er), Say yid Jaw ad , and Sayyid H ayd ar. A yatu llah Sad r al-D in al-S ad r b eg an h is career b y fou nd in g a p ro g ressiv e relig io u s m ovem ent w h ile in h is tw en ties. H is nam e b ecam e lin ked w ith th e Iraq i literary ren aissan ce. A fter a b rie f stay in K h u rasan , w h ere h e m arried Say yid a Safiy y a, A yatu llah S ad r a lD in m ov ed to Q u m a t th e in v itatio n o f Sh ay k h 'A b d al-K arim Y azd i, to assist in th e d irectio n o f th e relig io u s sem in ary th ere. T h e p iety , sch o larsh ip , and sp iritu ality o f th e say yid b rou g h t him the g reat d istin ctio n a s one o f th e th ree m ain m a ija 's in th is cen ter o f S h i'a learn in g . Say yid Sad r al-D in estab lish ed m any ed u catio n al, relig io u s, m ed ical, an d so cial in stitu tio n s. H e h ad sev en d au gh ters

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on e o f w hom is Say yid a R abab, an d th ree so n s, /A li/ R eza, an d M u sa. W hen Say yid M u sa arriv ed in Leban on, h e h eld a law d eg ree from T eh ran U niversity—th e first 'b la c k tu rb an ,” it w as o ften said , to en ter th is secu lar u n iv ersity . So on a fter h is g rad u ation , h e b eg an teach in g fiq h and lo g ic a t th e sem inary in Q um w h ere h e also h elp ed to estab lish M aktab-i Islam (T he Islam ic S ch o o l), a relig io u s jo u rn al th at b ecam e th e m ost im p ortan t o f its kind in Iran . In 1954, Say yid M u sa m oved to Iraq , to th e sh rin es an d learn ed com m u nity o f d ie N ajaf, w h ere h e stu d ied u n d er th e tu telag e o f A yatu llah s Say yid M u h sin al-H ak im (1889-1970) and Say yid A bu al-Q asim a lK h u 'i (1899) in fiq h and u su l. T h is ed u catio n and train in g shap ed m u ch in th e m a n 's p erso n ality an d v isio n , an d w ith th em h e in sp ired h is fo llo w ers and effectiv ely d isarm ed h is en em ies. In L eban on, M usa al-S ad r d id n o t h av e to rely on the p ow er o f o ffice to create a con stitu en cy . H is w eap ons w ere h is in tellectu al ag ility , b read th o f learn in g , and p ow er o f com m itm ent. A nd in a cu ltu re th a t celeb rated the sp o ken w ord , he w as on e o f its m ost p ersu asiv e an d cap tiv atin g o rators. In d eed , th e say y id 's eru d itio n b ecam e a s m u ch an in teg ral p art o f h is hayba as the in d elib le op enm ind ed ness an d d ed ication th at d istin g u ish ed him th rou gh ou t. It h as b een m ore th an a d ecad e sin ce th e im am w as la st seen . Y et h is au ra still reso n ates in alm ost m y th ic p rop o rtion s. F rien d s, en em ies, ex p erts, b io g rap h ers, and follo w ers have a ll en larg ed th e h isto rical fig u re o f M u sa al-S ad r, m ak in g it d ifficu ii to d isen tan gle th e m an from th e m y th , h i m em oirs and h isto ries, h e h as b een tran sform ed in to a leg en d , a p rotean ch aracter o f m an y faces, v o ices, an d id en tities. Fouad A jam i, a w ou ld -b e b io g rap h er w ho attem p ts to "p u t to g eth er th e p u zzle” o f M u sa al-S ad r, p o rtray s th e im am a s "a creatu re n o t on ly o f an o th er kind b u t o f an o th er essen ce," "an in tim ate stran g er," an "ag ile" an d "ch am eleon -lik e" fig u re "w ho cu t d eals an d ju g g led d ifferen t tru th s," an d "w alked b etw een rain d rop s."12 G h assan T u én i, a Leban ese G reek O rth od ox p u b lish er and p o litician , o ffers a rev eren tial p o rtray al o f M u sa a lSad r. H e w rites: Calm , "die tranquil force," his face marked w ith deep gentleness, die Imam Musa al-Sadr seemed to come from nowhere and to disappear as mysteriously. Through charisma, he inspired his enemies and friends alike to respect his intuition. His credibility

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w as never In question, In spite of the rumors concerning his origins and his relations with Damascus. [He was] tall, very tall to die point of seeming to soar above the often frenzied crowds that his presence drew together: His black turban tilted back with a slight negligence. His enemies seemed charmed by his enigmat­ ic and benevolent smile, whereas to his friends, his bearded face always reflected a profound melancholy. And his hands gave the impression of gathering up his floating robe, the aboya in which he wrapped him self, as if he were preparing to step out of some antique miniature. Even when he exhorted the m asses, his words were calm and sibylline, like an oracle of love and hope, punctu­ ated with tiie mysterious accents of a mystic wisdom that appealed as much to reason as to the heart. His personal contacts were a ritual of seduction. When he humbly opened the door and invited you to enter a modest office, or the unpretentious living room of some hom e which sheltered him , one wondered why this man was there, by what mystery, and how such a mythical character could seem so fam iliar. Then, as in a Persian m iniature, one would sit at his feet, looking to reap the teachings of the m aster, only to leave w ith more questions than one had brought him .13 K arim P akrad ou n i o f th e L eban ese F orces, o ffers an oth er u n id im en sion al v iew o f th e m an. T o h im , M u sa al-S ad r w as handsome, charming and charism atic----- [He] was careful about his image and diction. When he first arrived in Lebanon, he slaughtered the Arabic [language]. When I m et him in 1975, he had become one of its m ost brilliant orators, keeping only a light Persian accent. Obstinate and ambitious, courageous and popular, he mastered the manipulation of religion in politics, theology in ideology, the spiritual in the temporal. H e made the Shi'a community conscious of the power of its numbers and h isto ry ,. . . and of its Lebanese identity. He knew the im pact of gestures, of signs and myths. This extraordinary individual disconcerted everybody. 'H e is a major philosopher, a visionary/ Assad told me one day. Fouad Chéhab hesitated before according him Lebanese nationality, considering him 'a man unlike others and dangerous/ President [Elias] Sarkis saw in him an 'enigm atic being' who operated in secret and surrounded him self with ambiguity. For, he said, Tie insinuates more that he proposes and worries more than he reassures.'14

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B u t th e m an w as m ore com p licated th an th e m yth s w ill allo w , m o re flaw ed an d hu m an. H e combined a number o f rem arkable qualities: he was a m odernist who avoided the tedious clichés of Islam ic modernism; an intellectual who persistently sought the company of other intellectuals but was also a political activist and organizer; a mass orator who could ju st as easily entrance an academic seminar; a bridge-builder between Islam and Christianity without parallel in m odem Islam ic clerical history who, w hile preoccupied w ith the social and educational welfare of die Shi'a, insisted that poverty in Lebanon was not exclusively a Shi'i problem; and, Anally, a man o f great hadrah, as Ibn Khaldun would say, literally towering over his environment, w ith an exquisite slightly self-disparaging sense of humor, head bowed as if in some private act of rever­ ence, a shy, boyish sm ile, but luminous and perceptive eyes. His speech was slow, deliberate, w ell-stressed, the accent derived from purest Farsi interspersed increasingly w ith Sh i'i slang and tilt15 M u sa al-S ad r w as u n d ou b ted ly "a m o st sin g u lar m an ." T h e v en eratio n th at h is fo llo w ers accord ed h im a t h is m ass ra llies w as p erh ap s th e m o st im p o rtan t v alid atio n o f h is ch arism atic ap p eal. S till, one m u st agree th at fo r M u sa al-S ad r to lead h is fo llo w ers in to a so cial co llectiv ity p u rsu in g strateg ic g o als, th is ch arism atic ap p eal h ad to b e "recog n ized , so cially v alid ated [and con stru cted ,] an d accord ed th e right, firstly to form u late p o l i c y . . . and th en to com m and su p p ort fo r th at p o licy ." Say yid M u sa's ch arism a th erefo re w as a s m u ch a fu n ctio n o f th e reco g n itio n accord ed h im b y h is fo llo w ers as an attrib u te o f h is u n iqu e p erso n ality . T h is ch arism atic q u ality en joyed a "leg itim atio n grou nd ed in a relatio n ­ sh ip o f lo y alty and id en tificatio n ," th rou g h w h ich h e, a s th e lead er, ev oked or p lay ed u p on th e in tellectu al an d em o tio n al p red isp o si­ tio n o f h is follo w ers. H e p resen ted them w ith a relev an t m es­ s a g e -o n e th at sp oke to th eir u n fu lfilled n eed s, an d offered th em som e p rom ise o f its ev en tu al realizatio n .16 A realistic ap p roach to u n d erstan d in g Say y id M u sa's p lace in L eban ese S h i'a h isto ry , th erefo re, req u ires a n an aly sis o f th e m an w ith in th e so cial and h isto rica l co n text o f h is tim e, h is id eas, h is actio n s, an d th eir resu lts.

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M u sa al-S a d r arriv ed in L eban on on th e th resh old o f th e tu m u ltu ou s six ties. T h e lib eratio n stru g g les o f co lo n ized p eo p les w ere fo rcin g th e su n to set on im p erial dom ains. G reat B ritain w as q u ietly retren ch in g , w h ile France w as in th e p ro cess o f con ced in g A lg eria to th e F ro n t de L ib ération N ation ale (FLN ). B oth W est and E ast fou g h t to cap tu re th e alleg ian ce o f th e n ascen t T h ird W orld n atio n s. T h e C h é G u evara m y stiqu e th at b eg an in L atin A m erica w as cap tu rin g th e im ag in atio n o f you th s a t d ifferen t en d s o f th e earth . In In d och in a, H o C h i M in h h ad alread y d efeated th e Fren ch and w o u ld u ltim ately u n d o the m y th o f A m erican in v in cib ility . In th e U n ited S ta tes, th e civ il rig h ts m ovem ent w as to fin d its in sp iratio n in th e m ag n etic lead ersh ip o f th e R everend M artin L u th er K ing, Jr. A nd cam p u s rad icalism w ould d eclare its w ar o n th e A m erican dream . C lo ser to hom e, N asir p rev ailed . H e w an ted to rig h t th e w ron g com m itted in P alestin e an d to realize th e d ream o f A rab p o litica l u n ity . A t h o m e, th e reform -m ind ed G en eral Fou ad C héhab w as p re sid e n t B eiru t w as em ergin g a s a m etro p o lis fo r th e beau m on de. T o m an y , th e city w as a n ecessity , a refu g e from d isp ossession , op p ression , p o v erty an d in secu rity , th e on ly free city in th e A rab E ast. T o o th ers, it w as T O rie n t de C h ateau brian d e t de N erv al," th e A lexan d ria o f D u rrell, th e B erlin o f Ish erw ood , and the C asab lan ca o f B ergm an an d B o g art.17 P seu d o-cosm op olitan an d W estern ized e lite s listen ed on ly to ro ck -n -ro ll o r cla ssica l m u sic, read on ly F ren ch n o v els, and atten d ed on ly d ie fo reig n p rog ram at th e B a la b a k In tern atio n al Festival. T h e "L eban ese N igh ts" segm en t o f th is ev en t, w h ich often featu red op eretta b y F ay ru z, "L eb an o n 's am bassad or to th e stars," w as n o t th ou gh t o f as refin ed . Fin d in g th eir E astem -n ess p rob lem atic an d d ifficu lt to recon cile w ith th eir W estern ized id en tities, Leban ese in tellectu als sou gh t a recog n izab le "L eban ese eth o s." M u sa al-S ad r u sed th e rev olu tion ary id io m s o f th e six ties in o rd er to tea r d ow n ag e-old p ercep tio n s o f clerical p aroch ialism an d ad v an ce th e in terests o f h is com m u nity. H e ad d ressed h im self p rom in en tly to th e n atu re o f th e lin k betw een scien ce an d relig io n . "In h erited faith ," Sayyid M u sa b eliev ed , "can n o t w ith stan d d ou bt an d scien tific cu rio sity ." O n ly acqu ired know led ge can con solid ate o n e 's co n v ictio n an d ch an n el it in to faith . "G od ord ained relig io n an d scien ce a s tw in s w h en h e form ed th e hu m an b ein g ," Say yid

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M u sa w rote in th e p reface to N atu ral S cien ces in th e Q ur'an b y Y u su f M u ruw w ah, "fo r th ere ex ists a fatefu l con n ection b etw een relig io n and scien ce; to g eth er th ey d eterm ine m a n 's d estin y an d h is p erfectio n . If scien ce . . . is a lig h t to u n cov er reality and to know th e tru th ; an d tru th is th e a ct o f G od an d h is com m and ; th en scien ce is a n atu ral w ay to see th e effects o f G od ." D u rin g th eir y ears o f in fan cy an d grow th, scien ce an d relig io n su ffered th e com m on ailm en ts o f "m yths and su p erstitio n s." P rim itiv e m an b ow ed to d isease, an d to th e fo rces o f n atu re. H e "w as lo st in th e m azes o f ig n o ran ce and d ie d eserts o f co n fu sio n ." So rcery an d m ag ic, totem an d tab o o , d efin ed h is u n iv erse. A nim ism triu m p h ed . T h en , Say y id M usa asserted , G od sen t h is m essen g ers and h is w o rd s to rescu e h u m an ity from th e d ark n ess o f ig n o ran ce. H en ceforth , d iv in e w ill w as to sh ap e h u m an actio n s, an d scien ce w as set free. A great m an y rid d les w ere solv ed an d civ ilizatio n ad v an ced . H ow ever, th ere cam e a tim e w h en th e h arm on y b etw een scien ce an d relig io n w as ag ain b ro k en , y ield in g to th e "ty ran n y o f th e m en o f relig io n w ho exp lo ited relig io n to im p ed e an d su b ju gate scien ce. . . . T h ey d eclared th at th e an cesto rs h ad d iscov ered a ll th e tru th s o f th e w orld and th at an yth in g n ew w as h eresy and d ev iatio n ." A s th e M id d le A ges cam e to an en d , Say y id M u sa con tin u ed , th e sto ry w as rep eated b u t th e traged y w as rev ersed : Scien ce rev olted and avenged its w ound ed p rid e; relig io n w as m ocked an d w as con sid ered "th e en em y o f ev ery so cial rev o lu tio n and ev ery m ean in gfu l ch an ge in o n e 's life ; it w as accu sed o f san ctio n in g ex p lo itativ e g ain s and illic it w ealth , o f ap p easin g th e op p ressed w ith em p ty p rom ises an d p rev en tin g th em from exercisin g th eir rig h ts." O u t o f th is lo n g an d com p lex h isto ry , th e say yid p o sited , th e tw en tieth cen tu ry h as created a n ew b alan ce. Science has calmed down------It has begun to discern the reality of religion, to believe in it, respect it, and depend on i t In turn, the men of religion have begun to appreciate the services of science to them and to . . . mankind. . . . W e are now at the beginning of the road, and on our horizon appears a true dawn hailing die birth of the true civilization and the beginning of a bright day for humanity, when man can realize his existence, individuality, and potential.1*

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Islam , M u sa al-S ad r d eclared in an o th er d iscou rse, is th e h u m an b e in g 's m ost su blim e u n io n w ith G od , w ith d ie rig h teo u s a fte r d eath , and w ith h is fellow h u m an b ein g s. It is h u m an ity 's in stru m en t o f lib eratio n from the tem p tation o f ev il. Islam is ah isto rical. T h e Q u r'an states th at th e m essage o f M uham m ad is th e fin a l ch ap ter in th e sequ ence o f d iv in ely rev ealed relig io n s and th a t M uham m ad is th e last o f d ie p rop h ets. T he ex altatio n o f m etap h ysical v alu es su ch a s th e "Islam ic sp irit," the say yid fe lt, sh ou ld n o t b lin d the M u slim s to th eir re lig io n 's lin k w ith h u m an is­ tic p h ilosop h y and a sen se o f so cial and econ om ic ju stic e , b o th o f w h ich shou ld b e regard ed as exp ression s o f th e sam e rev elation . Islam en cou rages scien tific ach iev em en t, M usa al-S ad r reiterated . E arly M u slim scien tists p rov id ed the n u cleu s fo r E u ro p e's scien tific rev o lu tio n , h e argu ed , and th at ev en in th e realm s o f p h ilosop h y , law , and art, Islam led th e w ay. A s th e g reat M u slim p h ilo so p h er, Sad r al-D in a l-S h irazi, also know n a s M u lla Sad ra, th eorized on th e ex isten tialist issu es th at w ere d ebated th ree cen tu ries later b y K arl Jasp ers an d Jean -P au l Sartre: From this very forum I want to declare that in die realm of philosophy and mysticism, the East still illum inates the w o rld .. . . In this regard, one must agree with the French scholar, Henri Corbin, who says that Eastern philosophy can still rescue Europe from decline, from confusion, and that Europe is in desperate need of that timeless wisdom that issued from the East.19 Say yid M u sa em p h asized th e d ynam ic and activ ist n atu re o f Ja 'fa ri d octrin e w ith in th e Islam ic w h ole. S h i'ism , h e in sisted , is "a v isio n an d a cod e o f con d u ct fo r M u slim s th at . . . su rp asses d o ctrin al in terp retatio n s, o r . . . p o litical stan ces. . . . It is the attem p t to p reserv e Islam as a m ov em en t, rath er th an a s an in stitu tio n w ith its ow n exigen cies an d self-serv in g in terests." S h i'ism is a "p u re Islam ic v isio n , and a p u re Islam ic cod e o f con d u ct th at p laces th e S h i'a b eliev ers a t th e fo refro n t o f th e u m m a."20 M u sa al-S ad r w as a reform er an d an a ctiv ist, exem p lify in g th e m o d em tren d in S h i'a Islam , o f w h ich the Iran ian rev o lu tio n h a s b een th e m ost p ow erfu l m an ifestation .21 T h e im am , in th e d octrin ­ a l sen se o f th e term , h e argu ed , rep resen ts th e d iv in e w ill w h ich h elp s m ankind in its ascen t tow ard p erfectio n . T he cou rse o f th is

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ascen t is m arked b y ob stacles and h u rd les w h ich v ary in d ifficu lty , an d fo r w h ich th e im am , a s th e lead er, su ffers th e m o s t N onethe­ less, in co n fo rm ity w ith G o d 's w ill, the im am is u n y ield in g in h is fa ith , b u t op en to ch an ge. Change and evolution here m eet firmness and absolutism . G od's absolute w ill demands continuous change. Thus the prophet, every prophet, and after him the imam legatee w ith his represen­ tatives [tiie men of religion] are responsible before God for the conduct of tiie people and for their continued drive toward perfection at whatever price and whatever the circum stances, even if this necessitates al-shahada [martyrdom].22 A s an in h erito r o f th e m an tle o f the im am s, th erefo re, Say y id M u sa b eliev ed th at th e m an o f relig io n had a d u ty to lead th e p eo p le in th e p ath and p ractice o f Islam , w h ich is com m itted to cu ltu ral creativ ity and scien tific ach ievem en t. T h is w as a ro le th a t h ad grow n m ore u rg en t an d m ore d ifficu lt in m o d em tim es. A s th e scien tific and cu ltu ral in n ov ation s o f th e E ast w ere tak en o v er an d su rp assed b y th ose o f th e W est, th a t w orld b ecam e m ore v u ln erab le to co lo n ial an d n eo -co lo n ial p en etratio n . W estern m ed ia in creasin g ly p rop ag ated th e id ea th at th e o n ly h isto ry w o rth con sid erin g w as th at o f Eu rope. E astern cu ltu res w ere o fte n sim p listically seen a s ritu alistic and in w ard -look in g. A nd elem en ts o f E astern p h ilosop h y w ere o ften ap p lied form u laically to th e so cial and in tellectu al d ilem m as o f a rap id ly-ch an gin g W estern w o rld . T h ese d evelop m en ts w en t u n ch allen ged b y m any m em bers o f tiie Islam ic clerg y w ho rem ained con ten t w ith d eliv erin g th e ir w eek ly serm on s an d lead in g th e d aily p ray ers. In co n tra st, M u sa al-S ad r m ad e an ex p licit com m itm ent to so cial ch an g e, seek in g to com bin e p ie ty w ith know led ge and w ork. H e w as con v in ced th at th e 'u lam a n eed ed to resu m e th eir lead in g ro le in ed u catin g m an kin d . In h is ow n w ord s: 'W h a t is d em and ed from th e m en o f relig io n is to retu rn to th eir lead in g role in ed u catin g m ankind an d in g iv in g a real con ten t to th eir ex isten ce le st th ey d o n o t co n tin u e to serv e th e aim s an d p rin cip les w h ich co n tro l tiie so ciety ."23 Say yid M u sa d irected h is effo rts tow ard tiie larg er p rob lem o f p o v erty in L eban on th an co n cen tratin g sp ecifically on tiie S h i'a p o o r. U n lik e m an y L eban ese clerics and laym en, h e d id n o t se ek th e b etterm en t o f h is com m u nity a t th e co st o f u n d erm in in g

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L eb an o n 's m u lti-co n fessio n al ch aracter an d h isto ric u n iq u en ess in th e reg ion . In a ch allen g in g series o f lectu res an d p ress releases tow ard th e end o f N ovem ber 1969, th e say yid w arned th e L eban ese ag ain st fan aticism and eg oism , w h ich h e b eliev ed w ere o b stacles to th e em an cip ation o f m ankind . H e in sisted th at Leban on w as "a cu ltu ral n ecessity fo r th e w o rld ," and its m u lti­ co n fessio n al ch aracter reflected a u n iv erse in creasin g ly b ro u g h t tog eth er b y m o d em tech n ology an d com m u nications. T h erefo re, fo r hu m an ity to su rv iv e, th e Leban ese exp erim en t h ad to su cceed . H ow ever, Say yid M usa argu ed , th e su ccess o f th is exp erim en t w as p rim arily th e resp o n sib ility o f th e Leban ese. Israeli ag g ressio n h ad tran sform ed So u th Lebanon in to a reg io n o f p o litical and civ il tu rm o il, he said , m ak in g th e sou th ern L eban ese p o p u latio n in d esp erate n eed o f th e su p p ort o f th eir fellow cou ntrym en. B u t, as h e rep eated ly p oin ted o u t, "w ho am ong u s sp eak s o f an y th in g b u t h is ow n in terests? W h ich d ep u ty from M ou nt L eban on h as ev er said th at th e So u th , or 'A k k ar and the H irm il fo r th at m atter, are d ep rived ? W h ich C h ristian cleric h as ev er con ced ed th at th e M u slim s are d ep rived ? W h ich M u slim cleric h a s ev er reg retted th at th e A rm enians are d ep rived ?" T h e p o in t w as th at, in ord er to b e eq u itab le an d ju st, th e state w ou ld h av e to rep resen t m ajo rities as w ell as p ro tect m in o rities. W e do not deny the existence of an oppressed and of an oppres­ sor, but w e do not want to turn the oppressed into an oppressor, nor the oppressor into an oppressed. W e need to develop intellectually. Our intellectual development, not only as a state but as a people, rests in tíre cultivation of the feeling of patrio­ tism , which we m ust pursue.24 M u sa a l-S a d r's strateg y w as to secu re a g reater sh are o f econom ic resou rces and p o litica l p ow er fo r h is com m u nity b y coop eratin g w ith th e leg itim ate Leban ese au th o rities. H is rh eto ric an d actio n s d u rin g h is first d ecad e in L eban on a ttest to h is d u al com m itm ent to m od ern ization and coop eration . Say y id M u sa's lectu res b efo re al-N ad w a al-L u bn an iy ya (T he L eban ese Foru m ), a g ath erin g o f Leban ese in tellectu als, and h is m any in terv iew s, sp eech es an d p ress co n feren ces em p hasized th at th ere w as n o th in g in h eren tly reg ressiv e or irred eem able ab ou t Islam ic relig io u s trad itio n s o r th eir cu stod ian s, th at Leban on w as th e "fin al h om e fo r

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th e S h i'a ," an d th a t w h ile th ey shared an d con tin u e to sh are in th e b u rd en s o f th e state/ th ey n ev er en joyed eq u al citizen sh ip w ith th e o th er com m u n ities.25 H e rejected p reju d ices ab ou t alleg ed "in n ate M u slim b ack w ard n ess/' fo rcefu lly articu latin g th e d em and s o f h is com m u nity w h ile attem p tin g to d isp el C h ristian an x ieties reg ard ­ in g "al-'im la q a l-sh i'i" (the S h i'a gian t). Say yid M usa d ep lored d ie fate o f th e S h i'a youth—th eir alien atio n and u n fu lfilled exp ectatio n s w h ich attracted th em to th e id eo lo g ical p rom ises o f M arxism L en in ism an d to th e p o ssib ility o f em igration . H e ap p ealed to the co u n try to em brace them / to in still in them a sen se o f th eir h erita g e, an d to earn th eir lo y alty to th e state and its in stitu tio n s. T h e say yid knew w ell th at h is com m u nity h ad to organ ize in ord er to claim its rig h ts, and h op ed th at d ie sta te w o u ld resp ond p o sitiv ely . H e th u s p roceed ed to b u ild th e o rg an ization al fram e­ w o rk th at w ou ld galv an ize th e com m u n ity's resou rces an d ch an n el th em in to effectiv e con certed actio n , as w ell as en h an ce its cap acity to en g ag e in a b arg ain in g p ro cess tow ard a new so cial co n tract in th e cou n try. M u sa al-S ad r ap p reciated th e p o ssib ilities o f d ialo gu e. A nd so , a d ialogu e it w as, in th e b eg in n in g a t least. L ittie h ad ch an ged in th e stan d ard o f liv in g in th e S h i'a com m u nity b y th e tim e M u sa al-S ad r arriv ed in L ebanon. P aved ro ad s, ru n n in g w ater, th e su p p ly o f electricity , sew age fa cilities, telep h on e serv ice, h o sp itals, and sch ools w ere m issin g , or a t b est in ad equ ate. T he com m u nity su ffered from w h at one ob serv er called the d elib erate u n d erd evelop m en t "w ield ed lik e a sw ord b y th e gov ernm ent ag ain st th e gov ern ed ." P rom ises w ere reg u larly m ad e b u t n ev er fu lfilled . T he S h i'a zu 'am a sp en t ov er LL5 m illio n in cam p aign s to b u y p o litica l in flu en ce w ith ou t ch an n elin g a n y fu n d s tow ard resou rce develop m ent, em p loym ent g en eration , etc. "W h en th e p eop le ask ed ab ou t th e p rom ised aid , jo b s, an d p ro jects, th e alm ig h ty b ecam e p ow erless." Incom p etence an d in d ifferen ce w ere alw ay s ration alized : "T h e b ek is ou t o f th e cou n try ;" "th e b e k is in th e op p osition ;" "th e b ek is n o t frien d s w ith th e gov ern m en t;" "th e gov ernm ent is n o good ;" "the b ek is n o t a m in ister." B u t ev en w h en th e b ek b ecam e a m in ister, th e gam e o f m islead in g th e p eo p le con tin u ed : "The gen eral d irecto r is n o t resp on d in g to th e b ek ;" "m in ister so-an d -so is n o t one o f u s;" "th e governm ent is n o t co o p eratin g ;" "in sh a ' A llah th in g s w ill ch an ge." T he b ek s u nd ou bt­ ed ly n ev er fo rg o t to rem ind th e p eop le o f th e ev ils o f th e le ft an d

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th e d an g ers o f "ath eism " an d oth er "su bv ersiv e" id eas.26 T h e follo w in g ex cerp ts from th e sp eech es o f th e d ep u ties o f B aT abak-alH irm il an d T y re, Say yid s S h afiq M u rtad a an d Ja 'fa r S h a ra f al-D in , resp ectiv ely , o n th e flo o r o f th e Leban ese p arliam en t in 1960 attest to th e co n d itio n s in th e S h i'a region s: W e, in the region of BaTabak-al-Hirmil, are in the . . . empty quarter of A frica.. . . Our wishes in life . . . today are confined to asking for water because we are thirsty, for food because we are hungry, and for seeds and fodder because our land is fallow and our livestock is famished. The region of Tyre has sixty villages, to which God Almighty gave all kinds of beauty, but which the rulers have deprived of their rights. O f these sixty villages, only ten have anything that could be called schools or paved roads. Over forty villages are without a school. . . or even a road------These sixty villages are without running water even in this ago of technology,. . . and live totally in darkness. Electricity is the good fortune of the more privileged districts------These sixty villages are alm ost deserted, inhabited only by old men and women; many of the young have left to toil in the heat of Africa or K uw ait Thousands more have come to Beirut, to toil among others of their kind.27 Say y id M u sa attem p ted to tack le th e im m ense so cial n eed s o f h is com m u nity b y fillin g th e role left v acan t b y th e state an d th e p o litician s. W hen h e arriv ed in Leban on, h e fou nd a n ad m in istra­ tio n w ith a resp on siv e ou tlook. P resid en t Fou ad C héhab w ish ed to in fu se a sen se o f so cial ju stice in to L eb an on 's feu d al cap italism , an d to am elio rate th e m isery o f th e p oor. W h eth er Sh ih abism as a p o litical p h ilosop h y w as o f the "rig h t" or o f th e "left" w as n o t the sa y y id 's con cern . M u sa al-S ad r w as an ti-com m u n ist; its ath eistic p h ilosop h y d efiled h is v ery b ein g . A nd Sh ih abism , N asirism , and a ll th e o th er "ism s" w ere im p ortan t o n ly to th e ex ten t th a t th ey im p in ged on h is im m ed iate agend a. H is stan ce w as "realp o litik p ar ex cellen ce," m an y w ou ld la ter say. T h e say yid b eg an b y rev italizin g Ja m 'iy y a t a l-B ir w a al-Ih san , a b en ev o len t so ciety th at had b een fou nd ed b y h is p red ecesso r Say y id 'A b d al-H u sayn. Soon h e w as ab le to tran sform th is so ciety fro m a relig io u s an d ch aritab le fou n d ation in to th e n u cleu s from w h ich m an y o f h is so cial p rogram s ev olved . O ne o f Sayyid M u sa's

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first a cts w as to b a n b eg g in g in T yre. T he c ity 's d estitu te, reg ard ­ less o f th eir relig io u s a ffiliatio n , h e argu ed , w ere th e resp o n sib ility o f a ll. S o cie ty 's d u ty w as to p rov id e th e p o o r w ith w o rk an d w ith th e op p ortu n ity to d evelop th eir p o ten tial, a n id ea w h ich h e p rom oted b y offerin g v ocation al train in g and secu rin g em ploym ent fo r th e cap ab le am ong them . C om bin in g a g ift o f h a lf a m illio n L eban ese p ou n d s from M aslah at a l-In 'a sh a l-Ijtim a 'i, a gov ern m en t b u reau o f so cial serv ices, a b an k lo an , and con trib u tion s from th e com m u n ity, Sayyid M u sa in au gu rated al-M u 'assasa al-Ijtim a 'iy y a (T he S o cial In stitu te) fo r th e c ity 's orp h an s and d estitu te. A nd in 1963, h e estab lish ed B ay t al-F atat (T he G irl's H om e), a sew in g sch o o l fo r g irls, as w ell a s a n u rsery . AU o f th ese in stitu tio n s, in clu d in g a n orp h an age ed u catin g and train in g m ore th an fiv e h u n d red ch ild ren , h av e b een m erged in to the p osth u m ou sly estab lish ed M u 'assasat al-Im am M u sa al-S ad r (T he In stitu tes o f th e Im am M usa al-S ad r), th rou g h th e d ilig en t effo rts o f Say yid a R abab al-S ad r S h a ra f al-D in . Say yid M usa lau nched M a'h ad al-D irasat a lIslam iy y a (T he In stitu te o f Islam ic Stu d ies) w h ere h e o ften lectu red , an d assu m ed a teach in g p o st a t th e 'A m iliy y a sch ool in B eiru t in ord er to ad d ress th e am bivalen ce o f th e S h i'a y o u th tow ard th eir relig io u s h eritag e, an d its relatio n to th e civ iliz a tio n o f th e tw en tieth cen tu ry . Say y id M u sa's cu ltu rally p lu ralistic ou tlook is esped aU y w e llU lustrated in a n in cid en t w h ich occu rred in T y re in th e e a rly six ties, and w h ich w as su b sequ en tly in corp orated in to th e b od y o f p o p u lar n arrativ e ab o u t th e m an. Jo sep h A n tip p a, a C h ristian ice cream v en d or, th e story g o es, com p lained to Say yid M u sa th at th e c ity 's M u slim s w ou ld n o t p atron ize h is stan d . T h e Islam ic relig io u s in terd ictio n b an n in g m eat h an d led b y C h ristian s su rely shou ld n o t ap p ly to ice cream , h e p etitio n ed . T h e S h i'a cleric conced ed th e p o in t. O ne Frid ay a fter th e p ray er and th e serm on , Sayyid M u sa led h is fellow w orsh ip p ers th rou g h the c ity 's m arket and dow n­ tow n area to A n tip p a's stan d . H ere h e ap p roach ed M r. A n tip p a, ask ed h im fo r som e ice cream , an d accep ted it w ith th an ks. A p o in t h ad b een m ad e and a b rid g e b u ilt. M u sa a l-S a d r's refo rm ist tem p eram en t and p ro m o tio n o f in ter­ com m u nal u n d erstan d in g in T yre cau g h t th e atten tio n o f M gr. G rég o ire H add ad, th e G reek C ath olic m etro p o litan o f B eiru t, an d fou n d er o f al-H arak a al-Ijtim a 'iy y a , a so cial m ovem ent w h ose

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agen d a w as th e socioeconom ic d evelop m ent o f th e p erip h eral reg io n s in th e cou n try. M gr. H addad v isited Sayyid M u sa in T y re, w h ereu p on th e la tter jo in ed th e m ov em en t's execu tiv e co u n cil.2* T h is m ove p rov id ed th e say yid w ith a n in stitu tio n al b ase ou tsid e o f th e S h i'a com m u nity, an d w ith th e n ecessary co n tacts th rou g h w h ich to n atio n alize h is cau se. W ith tim e, th e ad h eren ts to the m ovem ent b ecam e h is follo w ers a s w ell, ev en as h is cau se becam e th eirs. In al-H arak a al-Ijtim a 'iy y a , M usa al-S ad r fou nd w h at h e h ad alw ays hop ed fo r—a new an d v ig o ro u s m u lti-co n fessio n al o r, rath er, a-co n fessio n al m ovem ent, w h ich fou gh t to overcom e p o v erty an d in ju stice and resolv e co n flicts am ong th e L eban ese, to rep lace th eir p aroch ialism w ith a sen se o f u n d erstan d in g and com p assion. It is in terestin g to n o te th at th e reform -m in d ed m etro p o litan w ould com e to face p roblem s sim ilar to th ose b ein g con fron ted b y th e reform -m ind ed say yid . A s al-H arak a a l-Ijtim a 'iy y a grew in im p ortan ce and its p rog ram s an d id eals attracted a m u lti-co n fes­ sio n al fo llo w in g , q u estion s ab ou t M gr. H ad d ad 's relig io sity , h is p o litica l p h ilosop h y and am b itio n s, a s w ell as h is d ed ication to h is m issio n b eg an to su rface. H is d etractors d eclared th ese qu estion s w ere critica l sin ce th e u n d erstan d in g an d v alu es o f an en tire g en eratio n o f im p ression ab le you th s w ere a t stake. H ow ever, a m ore accu rate read in g o f th ese ev en ts su g g ests th at M etrop o litan H ad d ad 's p ro g ressiv e stan ce h ad su cceed ed in arou sin g th e an x iety o f th e con serv ativ e M elk ite h ierarch y w h ich fe lt th reaten ed b y a n ew p o litica l fo rce it saw gain in g m om entum am ong th e you ng. In a synod con ven ed in A u gu st 1974, d ie M elk ite relig io u s lead ersh ip called u p o n th e m etrop olitan o f B eiru t to reaffirm h is fa ith , an d eith er resig n o r accep t th e arb itratio n o f th e V atican . M gr. H addad accep ted th e la tter op tion , an d v ig orou sly d elin eated h is view p o in t in a p ress co n feren ce o n 31 A u gu st 1974.29 Say y id M u sa's m oral cen ter and so cio p o litical agend a am ou nt­ ed to a d eclaratio n o f w ar w ith th e statu s qu o. P eop le listen ed to h im an d cam e to b eliev e th at a sin g le p erson , b y sh eer fo rce o f ch aracter, cou ld in d eed seek an d ach iev e a n ew er ord er. T h e m om entum h e gath ered d iscon certed m any in th e p o litica l estab lish m en t, M u slim an d C h ristian alik e. R u m ors sp read th at h e had tie s to th e SA V A K , the Iran ian in tellig en ce, an d to th e C en tral In tellig en ce A gency (C IA ), and th at h e w as b ein g groom ed to

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rep lace th e trad itio n al S h i'a lead ersh ip . T h ere w as also talk o f h is alleg ed agnosticism / an d gossip ab ou t h is sexu al exp lo its. H is d etracto rs d id n o t an ticip ate th a t su ch p olem ics w ou ld fa il to faze o r in tim id ate th e m an , restin g as th ey d id on ch arg es th a t cou ld n o t b e su b stan tiated . If an yth in g , th e ru m ors h ard en ed h is resolv e an d con solid ated h is p o p u lar stand in g. Say yid M u sa co u n terat­ tack ed a t a p ress co n feren ce on 15 A u gu st 1966, w h ere h e p resen t­ ed th e cou n try w ith h is m ost fo rcefu l d isq u isitio n to d ate on the "su fferin g s and h op es" o f h is com m u nity. H ere h e sp oke o f th e m aterial an d p sy ch olog ical w ound s o f th e S h i'a m asses, an d rejected th e exp lan atio n th at a n alleg ed lack o f talen t in th e S h i'a com m u n ity accou n ted fo r its continu ed u n d errep resen tation in gov ern m en tal ap p oin tm en ts. H e argu ed th at in a co u n try w h ere reso u rces v ita l to d evelop m ent seem ed to b e allo tted on d ie b a sis o f d istan ce o f th e location area from th e cap ital, it w as read ily ap p aren t th at th e S h i'a reg ion s in th e deep So u th an d in B a 'la b a k al-H irm il in th e far n o rth east rem ained th e m ost w retch ed an d u nd erd evelop ed in th e cou n try. T h e S h i'a cau se w as a ju st cau se, Say y id M u sa d eclared , and a cau se lo n g fo rg o tten b y th e cou n try and its lead ersh ip . T h e L eban ese talk ed o f th e illitera te and u n cu ltu red S h i'a , h e said , b u t n ev er qu estioned th e reason s fo r th is state o f affairs. T he S h i'a p rob lem , Sayyid M usa in sisted , had to do w ith d ep riv atio n an d d egrad in g p h y sical co n d itio n s, th e lack o f sp iritu al an d cu ltu ral gu id an ce, and th e so cio p o litical rea lity o f b ein g a p art an d yet n o t fu ll p articip an ts in a cou n try. T h e in ev itab le resu lts o f th is w ere "th e lo ss o f self-esteem due to a feelin g o f d iv isiv en ess and d is u n it y ,. . . th e la ck o f faith in th e state an d its in s titu tio n s ,. . . an d th e fra il tru st in th e com m u n ity 's sp iritu al an d tem p oral lead ersh ip ." H ow ever, th e sayyid b eliev ed , th is m alaise and fru stratio n had n o t becom e in grain ed : th e co m m u n ity 's con sciou s­ n ess o f itse lf, "in stead o f d issip atin g . . . had co n sisten tly fo u g h t b ack .”30 "T h is is w h at th e S h i'a com m u nity w an ts," Say yid M u sa asserted : A n ap p aratu s th at w ou ld gu aran tee th e au ton om ou s con d u ct o f its relig io u s a ffa irs, and oversee end ow m ents an d p riv ate in stitu tio n s. It w ou ld h av e to b e one th at th e com m u n ity itse lf w ou ld organ ize and d irect accord in g to th e d ictates o f th e S h a ri'a .

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A s for those . . . who have linked my actions to local, Arab, and foreign political movements without the restraint of faith and conscience, . . . I cannot see any reason for these allegations except that I have placed the man of religion into the realm of active life removing from him the gathered dust of ages so that he can proceed w ith life . . . and grow in harmony w ith authentic religious thought.31 G iv en h is in terp retatio n o f th e n eed s o f th e S h i'a com m u nity, th e id ea o f al-M ajlis al-Islam i a l-S h i'i a l-A 'la (T he Su p rem e Islam ic S h i'a C o u n cil) w as a n atu ral n ex t step in Say yid M u sa's en d eav o rs, an d a m ore su ccessfu l attem p t th an earlier effo rts b y som e o f h is su p p orters. A few years p rio r to h is arriv al in L eban on, in 19541955, a grou p o f S h i'a p ro fessio n als form ed H ay 'at al-N id al a lIjtim a 'i (T he C om m ittee fo r So cial Stru g g le) as a foru m fo r v o icin g S h i'a d iscon ten t w ith and rejectio n o f th e statu s quo. "T h e com m it­ tee w as th e first gath erin g o f S h i'a you th s o u tsid e the realm o f p o litics an d p o litician s, the iq ta ' an d th e iq ta 'iy y in ." D u rin g the reform s o f P resid en t C h éh ab, the com m ittee p lay ed a ro le in secu rin g th e first S h i'a ap p o in tm en ts to h ig h er ad m in istrativ e p o sts. W h at th is org an ization lack ed , h ow ev er, w as lead ersh ip su ch as o ffered b y M u sa al-S ad r. In th e early six ties, a fter it en su red a m ore fo rcefu l rep resen tatio n o f its raiso n d 'ê tre in Say y id M u sa's w ork, th e com m ittee d issolved itse lf and jo in ed h is ran ks.32 A n oth er attem p t a t organ ization b y Sayyid S h afiq M u rtad a, th e d ep u ty o f B a'lab ak , in 1956, w ith th e su p p ort o f A hm ad a l-A s'a d , th e 'A m ili z a 'im , w as ab orted b y the governm ent o f P resid en t C am ille C ham ou n. From the relig io u s com m u n ity, Sh aykh M uham m ad T aq i Sad iq , a p rom in en t relig io u s au th o rity in So u th L eban on in th e fiftie s, attem p ted to create an o fficial b o d y to rep resen t th e S h i'a . A gain , the in itiativ e w as sh elved . T he S h i'a zu 'am a w ere n o t en th ralled th is tim e.33 T h e Su p rem e Islam ic S h i'a C ou n cil (SISC ) w as created b y A ct 7 2 /6 7 o f th e Leban ese P arliam en t d u ring its first sessio n in M ay 1967. Sev en m on th s la ter, in D ecem ber o f th at y ear, th e b ill w as signed in to law b y P resid en t C h arles H élou an d P rim e M in ister R ashid K aram i. "The Islam ic S h i'a com m u nity," h en ceforth becam e "in d ep en d en t in its relig io u s affairs, end ow m ents and in stitu tio n s w ith rep resen tativ es . . . [w ho sp oke and w orked ] o n its b eh a lf accord in g to th e p rescrip ts o f th e h on orab le S h a ri'a , an d the

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ju risp ru d en ce o f th e Ja 'fa ri d octrin e w ith in th e fram ew ork o f th e fatw as issu ed b y th e gen eral m a rja ' o f th e com m u n ity in th e w o rld " (A rt. 1). A t th e tim e o f th e v o te, Say y id M u sa, w h o w as clearly d ie p rin cip al p rop o n en t o f th e b ill, w as on a fu n d raisin g to u r in W est A frica, b u t reg u larly com m u nicated h is in terest in its p ro m p t p assag e in to law .34 T h e eu p h oric S h i'a reactio n to th e p assage o f th e lan d m ark leg islatio n n otw ith stan d in g , th e co u n cil, from its in cep tion , faced op p o sitio n , ev en from w ith in th e S h i'a p o litico -relig io u s estab lish ­ m en t. T h is exp lain s th e th ree-y ear in terv al b etw een th e 15 A u gu st 1966, p ress co n feren ce a t w h ich th e id ea o f th e SISC w as p u b licly in tro d u ced , an d th e fin a l ratificatio n o f th e b ill follow ed b y th e actu al o rg an izatio n and first electio n s o f th e co u n cil on 23 M ay 1969. A t issu e w as th e con tin u ed ind ep en d ence o f th e S h i'a cle rica l b o d y from d ie state. A n oth er O tto m an -style m illet co u n cil, it w as arg u ed , w ou ld n o t on ly w eaken th e alread y fra il Islam ic u n ity in L eban on b u t w ou ld also ren d er th e S h i'a clerical estab lish m en t fin an cially d ep end ent o n th e state, th ereb y ab o rtin g h isto rical S h i'a op p o sitio n to u n ju st ru le. T h e m ost effectiv e op p o sitio n to th e co u n cil, h ow ev er, w as th at o f th e Su n n i p o litica l estab lish m en t, w ith p erh ap s th e ta cit su p p ort o f its relig io u s cou n terp art. A lleg atio n s w ere m ad e th at th e new S h i'a co u n cil w ou ld o p erate a s a n A m erican -Iran ian ag en t th ereb y d iv id in g d ie Islam ic n atio n alist ran ks in L eban on , an d th at it w ou ld allow th e "W est's fav o rite clien t" in th e A rab w o rld , n am ely , th e M aron ite com m u ni­ ty , to p erp etu ate its h egem on y on th e L eban ese so cio p o litical scen e. In fa ct, Su n n i op p osition to th e co u n cil w as so v ig orou s th at th e d ien sp eak er o f p arliam en t, M r. S ab ri H am ad i, had to p erso n al­ ly con ven e an d ch air sev eral p arliam en tary com m ittees to d iscu ss d ie b ill. In form al and u n w ritten p arliam en tary p ro ced u res p erm itted th e S h i'a sp eak er to reso rt to su ch tactics. T h e P arlia­ m en tary C om m ittee fo r A d m in istration an d Ju stice u n d er w h ose ju risd ictio n th e b ill w ou ld n orm ally have fallen , w as ch aired b y M r. N azim al-Q ad ri, a Su n n i, w ho h ad vow ed th at th e b ill w ou ld n o t p ass a s lo n g as h e w as th e ch airm an o f th e com m ittee. D ep u ty al-Q ad ri w as co n fid en t th at h e h ad th e v o tes to d efeat th e b ill. It su rv iv ed , h ow ev er, su p p orted b y th e C h ristian d eleg ates.35 F or th eir p a rt, p rop o n en ts o f th e co u n cil argu ed th a t th e rea l reaso n b eh in d th e Su n n i p o lem ics w as th e fear th at th e estab lish -

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m en t o f su ch a b o d y w ou ld effectiv ely en d th e ex istin g Su n n i claim to rep resen t a ll M u slim s in L ebanon. A nd th at a S h i'a co u n cil w o u ld create a S h i'a p o st eq u iv alen t to th at o f th e "M u fti o f th e L eban ese R ep u b lic/' o fficially th e "relig io u s lead er o f th e M u slim s" in th e co u n try , w h ich d ie Su n n is h ad m on op olized . T h e S h i'a z u 'a m a 's co n cern , on th e oth er h an d , w as th a t th e co u n cil, on ce estab lish ed , w ould b e ground lo st n o t o n ly to Say yid M u sa, b u t also to a n em ergin g S h i'a in tellig en tsia an d w h at h ad b een trad itio n ally a d o cile clerica l grou p . T h e S h i'a su rely cou ld n o t b e accu sed o f eith e r d iv id in g lo cal Islam ic n atio n alist ran ks o r fo sterin g con fessio n alism in Leban on, th u s h in d erin g th e form ation o f th e n atio n al id en tity : O f th e sev en teen o fficially recogn ized co n fessio n al grou p s in L eban on, th e argu m ent co n tin u ed , th e S h i'a w ere th e n ex t to la st to organ ize a m illet co u n cil; an d o f the co u n try 's th ree M uham m adan grou p s, th ey w ere th e la st to a sk fo r su ch a cou n cil. T he Su n n is had b een giv en th eir ow n al-M ajlis a lS h a r'i al-Islam i a l-A 'la (T he Su p rem e O fficial Islam ic C ou n cil) b y A rticle 4 2 o f L eg islativ e D ecree 18 p rom u lg ated on 13 Jan u ary 1955, w h ile th e D ru ze organized al-M ajlis al-M ad h h abi li-l-T a 'ifa al-D u rziyy a (T he D octrin al C ou n cil o f th e D ru ze C om m unity) follo w in g th e L eg islativ e Law o f 13 Ju ly 1962.36 T h e S h i'a com ­ m u n ity n eed ed a cen tral m ech an ism to coord in ate its a ffa irs, to d efend its rig h ts, an d to oversee its in terests. Su ch w as th e in ev itab le con seq u en ce o f L eb an o n 's p o litica l co n fig u ratio n w ith its em p h asis on com m u nal p articu larism . Fu rth erm ore, ad v ocates o f th e SISC arg u ed , to ex p ect th e S h i'a com m u nity to articu late its Islam ic, A rab n atio n alist, an d Leban ese id en tities w ith ou t the b en efit o f an estab lish ed relig io -p o litical in frastru ctu re con cern ed w ith p ro tectin g its rig h ts and exp ressin g th o se id en tities, w h ile ev ery oth er com m u nity exp lo ited the o p p ortu n ities y ield ed b y th e frag m en ted L eban ese p o litical ord er w as b o th p rep o stero u s and h y p o critical. T he fact th at C h ristian v o tes w ere n eed ed to p ass th e reso lu tio n estab lish in g th e SISC w as clearly p a rt o f d ie d em ocratic p rocess. B u t p erh ap s th is m ean t th at S h i'a su p p ort w as also n ecessary in ord er to estab lish th e D ru ze co u n cil, an d M aron ite su p p ort in teg ral to th e creatio n o f th e Su n n i cou n cil. N eed less to say , in L eb an on 's p o litica l lexico n , th e C h ristian , A rm en ian , o r G reek O rth od ox v o tes, fo r in stan ce, w ere ak in to th e d iv isio n o f electo ral alleg ian ce am ong the D em ocratic,

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R ep u b lican , or Social-D em ocratic cam p s elsew h ere. In d eed , th e p o litics th at la y b eh in d th e creatio n o f th e SISC w as en tirely fam iliar to p articip an ts in th e Leban ese p o litica l th eater. In p u ttin g fo rth th e id ea o f th e SISC , it w as reiterated , th e S h i'a com m u n ity attem p ted to m axim ize its p o ten tial w ith in th e leg al d em ocratic n orm s, w ith o u t ex ercisin g u nd u e p ressu re on th e system . It w as a fa ir gam e in d eed . O n 23 M ay 1969, M usa al-S ad r w as elected th e first ch airm an o f th e SISC fo r a ren ew able term o f six years (A rt. 12). H e w o n th e p o st b y a m ajo rity v o te o f th e cou n ciT s execu tiv e an d leg a l com m ittees, a p ro cess th at w as p reced ed b y m u ch w ran g lin g , an d last-m in u te filib u sters. A n u m b er o f th e com m ittee m em b ers b o y co tted th e ev en ts a fter failin g in th eir b id to p ostp on e th e electio n s: O f th e 115 m em bers o f al-H ay 'a a l-S h ar'iy y a (T h e R elig iou s D irecto rate) o n ly fifty -eig h t atten d ed , an d o n ly fifty -o n e v oted . Sayyid M u sa's six-y ear term w as exten d ed eig h teen y ears to 15 M arch 1993, h is six ty -fifth b irth d ay , u p on the recom m end a­ tio n o f th e co n stitu en t assem b ly on 29 M ard i 1975.37 T h e title o f "im am " b estow ed on M u sa al-S ad r reso n ates in Islam ic h isto ry , h av in g b een u sed to refer to th e P rop h et M uham ­ m ad , as w ell as th e U m ayyad an d th e 'A b b asid calip h s. In A rab ic, "im am ” g en erally sig n ifies a lead er and m ay b e u sed to refer to an y m an lead in g an organized activ ity , esp ecially co n g reg atio n al p ray ers.98 A m ong th e S h i'a , in p articu lar, th e title 's p ow er resid es in tiie h isto ry o f early Islam th at it ev okes. In th e d o ctrin al sen se o f th e term , "th e im am is a h u m an b ein g n o t a G od o r a h alf-G o d , w h o h as attain ed th e p erfectio n Islam d e m a n d s .. . . A t th e sam e tim e, h e is th e lead er resp on sib le fo r gu id in g th e u m m a . . . . [T he im am ] is a su p erio r b ein g b u t n o t su p erio r to m an. H e is a leg atee an d n o t a p ro p h et." T h ere have b een on ly tw elve S h i'a im am s, th e last o f w hom w en t in to o ccu ltatio n in 874 C .E . in th e lab y rin th a t S am arra', Iraq , from w h ich he w ill em erge a t th e en d o f tim e to estab lish th e reig n o f p eace an d ju stice. A s a S h i'a m an o f relig io n , M u sa al-S ad r w as v ery m u ch aw are o f tiie lim in ality th at th e term "im am " p ro jected . A nd th is is p recisely w h y h e w as leery ab o u t accep tin g th e new title. F o r a reform m ovem ent still in its form ativ e y ears, h e fe lt, th e title b ro u g h t w ith it p rem atu re exp ectatio n s and an exagg erated d ep end ency on h is lead ersh ip . Say y id M u sa w an ted h is fo llo w ers

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to accep t to tal resp o n sib ility fo r th eir stru g g le, an d to realize th at th ey w ere "fig h tin g n o t m erely fo r freed om from h u n g er, b u t ' . . . freed om to create and to co n stru ct, to w on d er an d to v e n tu re /'*9 B u t th e p eo p le's en th u siasm triu m p hed an d th e new title en ­ dured . Im am al-S ad r in trod u ced h is agend a fo r th e SISC a t h is inau gu ­ ratio n sp eech o n 23 M ay 1969, and in su bsequ en t statem en ts su ch a s h is w elcom ing rem ark s to P resid en t C h arles H élou o n 29 M ay 1969, and in h is first p o st-electio n ad d ress on 6 Ju n e 1969. T h e m ain p rin cip les o f th e p rop osed p rog ram w ere: (1) T o organ ize th e a ffa irs o f th e com m u nity an d to w ork tow ard im p rov in g its socioecon om ic stan d ard s. (2) T o carry ou t h is resp o n sib ilities acco rd in g to th e d ictates o f scrip tu re. (3) T o striv e fo r eq u ality an d h arm ony am ong th e M u slim s. (4) T o coop erate w ith a ll Leban ese com m u n ities, an d to p ro tect th e in teg rity and freed om o f th e Leban ese n atio n . (5) T o fig h t ig n o ran ce, p o v erty , u n d erd evelop m en t, so cial in ju stice, an d m o ral d eterioration . (6) T o su p p ort th e P alestin ian resistan ce an d to p articip ate effectiv ely w ith A rab co u n tries fo r th e lib eratio n o f P alestin e.40

E v en b efo re Say yid M u sa's electio n to d ie SISC ch airm an sh ip , th e p recario u s secu rity an d territo ria l in teg rity o f So u th L eban on h ad b eg u n to d isin teg rate. T h e cy cle o f P alestin ian fid a 'iy y in raid s and Israeli rep risals soon w asted th e fro n tier reg io n , o ften sp illin g deep in to L eban on in clu d in g B eiru t. O n 14 Ju n e 1968, fo r th e first tim e in th e h isto ry o f th e reg ion , a sou th ern L eban ese v illag e, M ays al-Ja b a l, w as sh elled b y Israeli artillery , leav in g fifty -six w ound ed . O n 26 D ecem ber, Israel u sed a P alestin ian a tta ck on a n E l A1 B oein g 707 in A th en s, a s a p retext to m ou nt a forty -fiv e-m in u te b litzk rieg ag ain st B eiru t In tern atio n al A irp o rt, d estroyin g th irteen aircraft, in clu d in g eig h t b elo n g in g to L eb an o n 's M id d le E ast A irlin es (M E A ), w hose h an g ars w ere also b ad ly dam aged . O n 30 Ju ly , 11 an d 13 A u gu st, an d 1 Sep tem b er 1969, Israel focu sed sev eral attack s on d ie So u th targ etin g th e 'A rqu b reg ion . M ay 1970, h ow ev er, w as n e p lu s u ltra fo r th e im am : Follow in g a series o f

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Israeli rep risals (o n 3 Jan u ary w h en ten L eban ese so ld iers and elev en civ ilian s w ere "arrested " in a l-Q la /a and on 6 M arch w h en fiv e h ou ses w ere d estroyed in 'A lm a a l-S h a lj), a n Israeli fo rce o f a s m u ch a s one h u n d red tan k s an d tw o thou sand tro o p s m arch ed in to th e So u th th rou g h th e /A rqu b in m id -M ay, k illin g n in e L eban ese an d w ou n d in g n in eteen o th ers, as w e ll as a n u m b er o f P alestin ian fid a'iy y in . So on a fter, o n th e 22d , a n Israeli b u s w as h it b y a rtillery sh ells fired from So u th Lebanon. O ne h o u r la te r, Israel sh elled th e b o rd er v illag es (tw en ty civ ilian s w ere k illed , fo rty w ou nd ed , and eig h ty -th ree h om es d estroyed ). B y th e m o n th 's en d , a n estim ated fifty thou sand sou th ern ers from th irty v illag es h ad b ecom e refu g ees. T h e U n ited N ation s S ecu rity C o u n cil R eso lu tio n 295 called fo r a cessatio n o f Israeli raid s on 5 Sep tem b er 1970. B u t th e lu ll w as sh o rt-liv ed .41 Say yid M u sa resp on d ed first b y form in g H ay 'at N asrat a lJan u b (T he C om m ittee fo r th e A id o f th e So u th ) in co o p eratio n w ith relig io u s lead ers rep resen tin g a n u m ber o f d ifferen t so u th ern com m u n ities. T h eir actio n w as d esign ed to reassu re th e So u th "th at it [w as] n o t alon e" in its traged y. O n 25 M ay, th e im am issu ed a m an ifesto to th e co u n try , ap p ealin g to its co llectiv e co n scien ce, an d callin g fo r a gen eral strik e o n th e follo w in g d ay to p ro test "th e d an g er, d im in ish in g m ean s o f su b sisten ce an d n eg lig en ce th a t a re th e facto rs u p ro o tin g th e sou th ern citizen ."42 For a year and a h a l f . . . w e have been calling for the necessity o f attending to the situation in foe South. . . . Then the cria s began to advance in a shocking vacuum ,. . . killing, destroying, dispersing and threatening foe entire country.. . . After this, w hat do foe rulers expect? Do they want foe southerners to keep aien t about this neglect,. . . the calam ity, death and destruction? . . . The strike is foe minimum . . . first step which we hope w ill awaken in the rulers a spirit of responsibility and a sound national conscience.43 O n th e d ay o f th e strik e , Say y id M u sa sp oke to m ore th an fifty th ou san d d em on strators w ho gath ered b efo re th e SISC h ead q u ar­ ters in H azm iyya, B e iru t's eastern su bu rb. "W e liv e in th e tw en ti­ eth cen tu ry n o t th e M id d le A ges," h e said , "an d th e exod u s o f th e so u th ern L eban ese co n stitu tes a so cial an d p o litical p rob lem , o n e th a t tiie hu m an b ein g in L eban on rejects."

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If our demands are not m et w e who built the palaces of B eiru t w e shall occupy them and live in them. The palaces should be the actual homes of the children of the South, and not Red Cross te n ts.. . . Some are wondering what is intended by this strike. 1 hope they listen w ell: W e are demanding that the state bear responsibility for protecting the South, and that w e cooperate w ith die Arab armies. W e are not m ilitary experts but w e have [in die past] given the state the opportunity to exercise such responsibility, but it has not done so.44 F ollo w in g th e sp eech a t H azm iyya, M u sa al-S ad r ap p eared b efo re tw elv e hu nd red stu d en ts a t th e A m erican U n iv ersity o f B eiru t. H ere h e sp oke o f d ie th ree hu nd red n eg lected v illag es in th e So u th , o f th e h o sp itals th at h ad n ev er m aterialized , an d o f th e L itan i A u th ority w h ich h ad sp en t fou rteen years and L L 260 m illio n w ith ou t issu in g a sin g le b lu ep rin t fo r th e L itan i p ro je c t T he im am rem ind ed h is au d ien ce th at h e h ad g iv en six ty lectu res an d fo u r p ress co n feren ces, issu ed ten m an ifesto s, an d h eld sixty-tw o h u n d red sym p osia o n th e su b ject o f th e So u th , "b u t n o one h ad acted ." T h e stu d en ts a t th e u n iv ersity an d th e S h i'a con g reg ation w h ich th e d e ric h ad ad d ressed earlier th at m orn in g w ere on op p osite en d s o f th e socioecon om ic sp ectru m . V ery few in th e A U B crow d co u ld id en tify w ith th e su fferin g and d esp eration th at m arked the liv e s o f m o st in th e fro n tier reg io n o r ju st a few m iles aw ay in th e b e lt o f m isery en circlin g the cap ital. T rad itio n ally , th e u n iv ersity h ad b een th e "m ain cu ltu ral ou tp ost o f the W est in th e E ast." It h ad train ed gen eration s o f L eban ese and oth er M id d le E astern ers in m u ch -n eed ed p ro fessio n al sk ills an d , above a ll, in th e im p orted lib era l d em ocratic id eals th a t w ere oth erw ise alien to th eir so d eties. Y et a grow in g sectio n o f th e stu d en t p op u lation h ad b ro k en w ith th is "o fficial" id eology . T h ese stu d en ts o n th e A U B cam p u s in 1970 w ere v ery aw are o f and sen sitized to th e failu re o f th eir p a re n ts' g en eratio n to lib erate P alestin e an d ad d ress ch ron ic so cia l, econ om ic, and p o litica l p rob lem s a t hom e. T h e n aksa o f 1967 w as ju s t th ree years b eh in d . M arxism an d rev olu tion ary stru g g le, it seem ed , o ffered th e on ly p ath s to th e lib eratio n o f op p ressed p eo p les ev eryw h ere. A t th e sam e tim e, th e A U B stu d en ts w ere am b iv alen t ab ou t th e in tru sio n b y relig io u s au th o rities in to p o litica l realm s th at had

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form erly b een th e exclu siv e d om ain o f left-w in g av an t-g ard es. M u sa a l-S a d r's "p rogressiv e" cred en tials h ad to b e ch ecked . W hat d id h e th in k o f arm in g th e P alestin ian s in L eban on, Say y id M usa w as ask ed , and o f th e m ilitia fo rces o f th e v ario u s L eban ese p arties? In resp on se, th e say yid argu ed th at sin ce Israel w as th reaten in g th e A rab s, th e P alestin ian s an d th e L eban ese, th e so lu tio n w as to erad icate th e Israeli p resen ce in P alestin e, and th at strateg y o f fid a 'iy y in w arfare, i.e ., in filtra tio n from lan d b a ses con tig u ou s to Israel, w as co rrect in p rin cip le an d n o t in com p atib le w ith th e secu rity co n cern s o f Lebanon. It w as im p erative th a t th e P alestin ian s b e train ed and arm ed in co o rd in atio n w ith L eban ese m ilitary au th o rities, Say yid M usa in sisted . A s fo r th e arm ed L eban ese m ilitia s, th e im am , arg u in g th at said h e w as n o t "an exp ert in p o litical m atters," le ft th e resp o n sib ility o f d efen d in g L eban ese territo ry rests w ith th e governm ent.45 T h e strik e w as L eb an on 's first in tw o d ecad es and w as observ ed n ation w id e. B eiru t, tog eth er w ith its eastern an d so u th ern su b u ib s, v irtu ally sh u t dow n. T h e su ccess o f th e strik e w as a sig n o f b o th Sayyid M u sa's em ergin g n atio n al p o p u larity an d th e p eo p le's faith in h is m essage. It com p elled p arliam en t to con ven e th at v ery sam e d ay to co n sid er a d raft law p rep ared in con su lta­ tio n s w ith th e im am to estab lish a p u b lic o ffice th rou g h w h ich to ad d ress th e sp ecific econ om ic an d p o litica l co n cern s o f th e So u th . It also com m itted L L 30 m illio n fo r u se in d evelo p in g th e reg io n an d , ten d ay s la ter, on 6 Ju n e 1970, created M ajlis al-Jan u b (th e C o u n cil o f th e So u th ) as a sep arate com p on en t o f th e p rim e m in iste r's o ffice d esign ed to ov ersee th e allo catio n o f th ese and fu tu re fu nd s. C learly , 26 M ay 1970, stan d s as a w atersh ed in con tem p orary L eban ese S h i'a h isto ry . T he d ay m arked a com in g o f ag e fo r th e m asses o f th e com m u n ity, and p rov id ed irrefu tab le ev id en ce th at th ey w ere lo sin g p atien ce w ith "th e o ld in eq u alities an d th e trad itio n al n etw orks th at on ce cu sh ion ed th o se in eq u alities."46 F o r Say y id M usa sp ecifically , th e strik e m arked h is ex p licit em ergen ce a s a com m and ing p o litical fig u re. A nd ju s t a s h is 15 A u gu st 1966, p ress co n feren ce had set th e ton e fo r a series o f step s th at w o u ld cu lm in ate in th e creatio n o f th e Su prem e Islam ic S h i'a C o u n cil th ree years la ter, th e strik e to o k a s its agen d a th at w as n o th in g

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sh o rt o f th e restru ctu rin g o f th e Leban ese m osaic in to a new co h esiv e n a tio n al w h ole. M u sa al-S a d r m oved qu ick ly to su stain th e m om entum o f h is triu m p h. W ith a stro n g p o p u lar m an d ate an d a clearly articu lated d eterm in atio n to tran sform d ie statu s qu o, h e w as to leav e an in d elib le im p rin t on th e Leban ese so cio p o litical scene. A t th e n atio n al lev el/ th e m essag e w as u rg en t and u nam bigu ou s: E ith er th e state sh ou ld ers its resp o n sib ility fo r a ll its citizen s, or th e d isin h erited , o f a ll reg ion s and relig io n s, u n d er the au sp ices o f th e im am , w ou ld tak e m atters in to th eir ow n h an d s. T h ere w as also th e P alestin e qu estion . F o r M usa al-S ad r, th e d isp ossession o f th e P alestin ian s w as a t its core a stru g g le b etw een rig h t an d w ron g, occu p ied an d occu p ier, op p ressed and op p ressor. "Israel is an ab so lu te e v il," an "h isto rical ab erratio n ," he arg u ed , w h ile th e P alestin ian rev o lu tio n is "th e id eal and m ost sacred o f a ll rev olu ­ tio n s," a cau se th at ev ery b eliev er shou ld u p hold .47 Y et a h arsh reality th w arted h is h o p es o f reach in g a b alan ce b etw een h is rev o lu tio n ary im p u lses, h is P alestin ian sy m p ath ies, and h is co n cern fo r h is com m u nity. B y th e early sev en ties it had becom e ob viou s th at th ese w ere in com p atib le com m itm ents. W ith th e Leban ese arm y u n able to h old its ow n ag ain st th e Israeli D efen se Forces, th e p o licy o f allo w in g th e P alestin ian s in L eban on to p rov oke Isra e li rep risals o f w h ich th e sou th ern ers w ere the ch ie f v ictim s b ecam e u n ten ab le. O n the oth er h an d , cu rb in g th e P LO in Leban on w as also b ey o n d th e cap acity o f th e L eban ese state. T h e P alestin ian resistan ce, it seem ed , d id n o t care to p reserv e Leban ese life or p rop erty . A ccord in g to S h afíq al-H u t, th e P L O 's rep resen ta­ tiv e in L eban on , "th e P alestin ian resistan ce d id n o t com e to Leban on b y o fficial or p o p u lar in v itation . It d id n o t choose Leban on b ecau se it w as th e m ost n atio n alistic o r rev olu tion ary A rab cou n try . T he resistan ce land ed in L eban on b ecau se it w as a gard en w ith ou t fen ces."48 It w as clea r th at th e Israelis w ere qu ite p rep ared to d estroy th e sou th ern reg ion in ord er to create a rift b etw een L eban ese and P alestin ian s. A nd Sayyid M usa w as le ft to p lead fo r fid a 'iy y in restrain t, A rab actio n , and in tern atio n al p ressu re on Israel—a ll in v ain . It is im p o rtan t to n o te th at Sayyid M u sa's lead ersh ip o f th e com m u n ity, fo r a ll o f th e m ass p op u larity h e en jo y ed , w as n ot u nanim ou s. O n th e one h an d , th ere w as th e h o stile trad itio n al

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S h i'a lead ersh ip , rep resen ted b y K am il al-A s'ad / am ong oth ers. K am il b e k w as v in tag e p o litics. Ja b a l 'A m il w as h is b aklik. A t d ie ap ex o f h is p ow er in th e sixties/ P resid en t a l-A s'a d con tro lled a p ow erfu l ten -m en v o tin g b lo c in th e p arliam en t. In Say y id M u sa, h e saw h is n em esis. T h e an tagon ism b etw een "Sayy id al-T ay b i" an d th e im am / w h ich b eg an w ith th eir first en co u n ter in T yre in 1964/ w as n ev er am eliorated . K am il al-A s'a d h ad th en called o n Say y id M u sa a t th e la tte r's resid en ce w ith th e p u rp ose o f secu rin g h is su p p ort fo r a l-L a 'ih a al-S h a'b iy y a (T he P op u lar S la te) d u rin g th e electio n s o f th at year. A void in g th e fan fare th at h ad b een stag ed in w elcom in g th e bek/ th e cleric d eclin ed th e req u est w ith th e exp lan atio n th at th e m atter w as fo r th e m asses to d ecid e fre ely w ith o u t in terferen ce. T o one o b serv er, Sayyid M u sa aim ed a t "raisin g th e v alu e o f p op u lar op inion to K am il a l-A s'ad ."49 P ow er, p atro n ag e, p o licy , and id eology w ere a ll facto rs in th e en m ity b etw een th e tw o m en. If I have any com plaints against President al-A s'ad, the cause is that I do not know of an era in the history of Lebanon which had given so many opportunities to a politician from the South as this era had given to President Kamil al-A s'ad. And if these occasions were not sufficient for him to serve the South, dien when would the time come to demand justice for the South and heal its suffering?50 C ou n terin g th e accu satio n , K am il b ek rem ind ed an in terv iew er on 3 Jan u ary 1975, th at it w as h e and h is p arliam en tary b lo c th at h ad cham p ioned th e creatio n o f the SISC an d th e su bsequ en t electio n o f Sayyid M u sa as its ch airm an , an d th at d esp ite th is, the la tter h ad co n sisten tly resp on d ed n eg ativ ely to a ll o f h is o v ertu res fo r coop erativ e actio n . In su p p ort o f h is claim , al-A s'a d ch arged th a t d u rin g th e 1974 p arliam en tary b y -electio n in th e d istrict o f a lN ab atiy ya fo r th e seat le ft v acan t b y th e d eath o f Fahm i Sh ah in , Say y id M usa had actu ally orch estrated th e p o litica l allian ce o f th e al-Z ay n and 'U say ran fam ilies, w h ich w o n can d id ate R afiq Sh ah in tw en ty thou sand v o tes ag ain st th e fiv e thou sand receiv ed b y K am il 'A li A hm ad , a l-A s'a d 's ow n can d id ate.

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[Sayyid M usa's] strength does not come from his position as a man o í religion; it is unimportant whether he wears die turban or n o t His strength comes from the contributions by expatriates and the money that die State accords die SISC, which he spends to buy men and to polarize diem. There is more than one question concerning the plan being executed by Sayyid Musa alSadr and the persons behind him here and abroad, and the dimensions of this plan, both in Lebanon and abroad.51 H is d isagreem en t w ith th e L eban ese state lead ersh ip asid e, Say y id M usa also had to con ten d w ith th e "p rog ressiv e" p arties in th e co u n try , each o f w h ich p resen ted itse lf a s th e so le sp okesm an o f L eb an o n 's d isen fran ch ised . T h ey w ere feed in g o n -e v e n in flam in g —d ie kind o f class an im u s th at Say yid M usa deem ed u n reflectiv e o f th e L eban ese reality . N on eth eless, th ey articu lated gen u in e p ro test ag ain st rep eated gov ern m en tal failu re to reso lv e d ie ch ron ic p roblem s o f ru ral p o v erty , lack o f ad equ ate in frastru c­ tu re, in secu rity , e tc ., an d th erefore cou ld n o t m istak en ly b e d ism issed a s an ab erratio n o f th e sy stem . T o th e say y id , th e real sig n ifican ce o f th ese p arties lay in w h at th ey au gu red fo r the fu tu re o f L eb an o n 's p arliam en tary sy stem , if n o t th e co u n try 's v ery su rv iv al. A s h e stated : I am not harsh against the left as some m ight think, rattier, if we define the left as a force for change, then I consider m yself one of its pillars. However, I do not trust him who does not believe in God, for faith in my opinion is not an abstraction, but defines the features of one's personality and conduct both tactically and strategically. I am against atheists and those who have denied God. A t the same tim e, I fight those who worship themselves instead of God, in other words, the merchants of politics and the protectors of their own private interests. I fight all of them even if they hide behind slogans of progressiveness, the protection of Muslims and the national interest52 C au ght in th e p o litical sp ace b etw een Say yid M u sa, th e o ld e lite s, and th e secu lar rad icals w as the S h i'a m ajority . A s th e six ties d rew to a clo se, it b ecam e clea r th at th e S h i'a com m u nity had becom e a m icrocosm o f L eb an o n 's class stru ctu re, com p rised o f a few u n d erstan d in g zu 'am a w ho w ere b eg in n in g to v o ice th eir con cern s reg ard in g th e d eterio ratin g socioeconom ic co n d itio n s in

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th e S h i'a h eartlan d s/ a solid bou rg eoisie/ a stratu m o f m id d le-class b u reau crats, an in d u strial p ro letariat o n th e m argin s o f a grow in g m etro p o lis, an ex p atriate reserv e o f v u ln erab le gu est w o rk ers in th e o il-p rod u cin g co u n tries o f th e A rab ian p en in su la, a p ro d u c­ tive—a lb eit threatened —p easan t society , a rad icalized in tellig en tsia , an d an am b itiou s and en terp risin g co u n ter-elite articu latin g n ew d em and s. A ll o f th ese h ad b eg u n "to ch allen g e th e ru les o f th e gam e an d to qu estion th e d istrib u tio n o f p ow er in th e L eban ese sy stem ."53 Say y id M u sa's o b jectiv e w as to lib erate h is con stitu en cy from its feu d al p a st, to u n ite h is com m u n ity, an d to con tain th e fo rces o f th e left. T h e d isin h erited , in h is lex ico n , w ere n o t on ly th e d ow ntrod d en, b u t also in clu d ed th ose w ho w ere fo rb id d en to asp ire beyon d a certain lev el b ecau se o f th eir relig io u s alleg ian ces, th o se w h o w ere rejected b y B eiru t's cosm op olitan so ciety , th ose w h o co u ld n o t in v est in d ie d evelop m ent o f th eir h om e tow n s an d v illag es fo r lack o f an ap p rop riate p h y sical in frastru ctu re, and th ose w ho cou ld n o t d ep end on th eir n atio n to d efend them . H e recogn ized th e en o rm ity o f th e task o f in teg ratio n and com m u n ityb u ild in g u n d er th ese circu m stan ces, esp ecially w ith reg ard to b rid g in g th e gap b etw een th e S h i'a o f th e So u th and th eir co u n ter­ p a rts in th e B a'lab ak -al-H irm il reg ion . It w as n o t th e p h y sical d istan ce b etw een th e tw o p o p u latio n s a s m u ch a s th e d ifferen t m od es o f p rod u ction and so cial organ iza­ tio n s th at ex isted in th em th at p osed th e p roblem . So u th ern so ciety w as m ore stratified and h ad m ore clearly d elin eated stru ctu res o f au th o rity th an its n o rth eastern cou n terp art. T h e h isto rical p o sitio n o f Jab a l 'A m il a s a cen ter o f h ig h S h i'a learn in g m ad e th e sou th ern ­ ers m ore aw are o f an d sen sitiv e to th e triu m p hs and d efeats in th eir relig io u s h isto ry . In th e B iq a ', b efo re Say yid M u sa's rise to p rom in en ce, th e m en n ev er ritu ally m ou rned H u sayn, th e th ird S h i'a im am . N or d id th ey p ractice self-flag ellatio n . In a cu ltu re th at ex alted "m achism o," th e B iq a ' w as fam ou s fo r its "m anly" w ays. A B iq a 'i "d id n o t in voke state o r law in h is p riv ate q u arrels, b u t m ad e h im self resp ected and safe b y w inning a rep u tatio n fo r tou gh n ess and co in a g e , an d settled h is d ifferen ces b y fig h tin g. H e recogn ized n o ob lig ation s ex cep t th ose o f th e cod e o f h on ou r o r om ertà."64 T h e cy cles o f ven gean ce and cou n ter-ven g ean ce b etw een

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th e v ario u s 'a s h a 'ir cou ld often la st fo r gen eration s. M u sa al-S ad r rejected su ch a sy stem o f v alu es an d b eh av io r.55 W h ile th e sou th ern ers in teracted w ith in w h at w as b a sica lly a p easan t cu ltu re, th e de facto d iv isio n o f B iq a 'i so ciety b etw een a h l a l-b a lad , o r th e tow n sp eop le, an d a h l a l-ju rd , o r th e in h ab itan ts o f th e ju rd , w as a co n stan t sou rce o f so cial an d p o litica l ten sio n . T he d eterm in atio n o f som e in th e la tter grou p to allow on ly m in im al gov ern m en tal in terferen ce in th e a ffa irs o f th e reg io n , n am ely, th e lu crativ e h ash ish traffic and th e tran sm ission o f p oach ed good s, co llid ed w ith th at o f ah l al-b alad w ho gen erally favored the ex ten sio n o f state au th o rity and a cen ter-d irected in frastru ctu re. Say y id M u sa fou nd h im self in th e m id d le o f th e co n test o f p o litica l w ills. H is d em and s an d th ose o f ah l al-b alad w ere th e sam e, b u t th e im p ortan ce o f th e 'a sh a 'ir fo r the p u rp ose o f su stain in g a S h i'a m ovem ent cou ld n o t b e ign o red eith er. U n lik e th e z a 'im , w ho in su red h is p o sitio n b y n u rtu rin g a carefu l b alan ce b etw een th e requ irem en ts o f th e 'a sh a 'ir an d the n eed s o f a h l al-b alad , th e say yid cou ld n o t san ctio n com p rom isin g state au th o rity b y ov erlookin g illeg al exp loits. H e th u s ch allen g ed th e gov ernm ent to u nd erm ine th e v alu e o f th e h ash ish econ om y b y im p lem en tin g p rom ised d evelop m en t p ro jects, an d m ad e h im self av ailab le as a m ed iator b etw een th e co n flictin g p arties in th e reg ion . A nd on 10 D ecem ber 1973, he con ven ed a sp ecial m eetin g o f th e SISC to d iscu ss w ays to u n ite th e tw o flan k s o f th e S h i'a com m u nity. A fter co n su ltatio n s, th e co u n cil d ecid ed th at o v er a p erio d o f tw o m on th s, th e n eed s o f th e B a'lab ak -al-H irm il reg io n w ou ld b e assessed , a fte r w h ich a list o f "S h i'a D em ands" w o u ld b e d rafted and p resen ted to th e governm ent o f P resid en t Sleim an Frangié on b eh a lf o f th e L eban ese S h i'a com m u nity. T h e lev el o f v io len ce in th e So u th m ean w h ile w as cro ssin g a critica l th resh old . In retaliatio n fo r B lack S ep tem b er's m u rd er o f Israeli ath letes a t th e M u nich O lym p ic G am es in Sep tem b er 1972, Israel lau n ch ed a ir raid s ag ain st a refu g ee cam p in n o rth ern L eban on and ag ain st fid a 'iy y in b a ses in th e So u th , k illin g seven ­ teen and w ou nd ing th irty -sev en . T h is w as follo w ed b y th e m ost serio u s in cu rsio n in to L eban ese territo ry to d ate: O v er a th irty -h o u r p eriod on 15-16 Sep tem b er 1972, eig h teen L eban ese b o rd er v illag es w ere search ed , a hu nd red and fifty h om es b om b ed , and tw o b rid g es o v er th e L itan i riv er d estroyed . O ne h u n d red an d eig h teen

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p eo p le w ere k illed and fo rty -six w ound ed . O n 9 A p ril 1973, th e fid a 'iy y in m ou n ted tw o attack s in C yp ru s ag ain st th e Israeli am b assad o r's resid en ce and on a n E l A1 p lan e a t N icosia A irp o rt, resp ectiv ely . T h e n ex t d ay, Israel stru ck a t the v ery h eart o f B eiru t, m ou n tin g sim u ltan eou s raid s ag ain st th e D em ocratic Fron t fo r th e L ib eratio n o f P a lestin e's (D FLP) o ffice in th e Sabra refu g ee cam p , th e T all a l-Z a 'ta r cam p , th e O u za'i sq u atter area, an d the h o u ses o f th ree p rom in en t PLO fig u res on V erd u n Street. K am al N asir, M uham m ad Y u sif N ajjar, and K am al 'A d w an w ere assassin ated , a s w as N a jja r's w ife. T h e first th ree op eration s le ft fo rty P alestin ian d ead o r w ou nd ed ; fo u r Leban ese w ere also k illed an d an o th er tw enty-nine in ju red . P rem ier S a 'ib Salam su bm itted h is resign ation , p recip itatin g a p o litical crisis, w h ich w as accom p an ied b y a lu ll in th e So u th u n til th e ou tbreak o f th e fo u rth A rab -Israeli w ar in O ctob er 1973. E v eryth in g n ow seem ed to go w ron g on th e d om estic fro n t, w ith steep p rice in creases, w ild cat strik es, stu d en t and p easan t u n rest, an d risin g p o litical ten sio n s. L eb an on 's cap italism w as in d isarray . A ngry w o rk ers w ere d em and ing ev ery th in g from file u su al w age in creases, jo b secu rity , and an ti-in flatio n p o licies, to th e m ost b asic w elfare dem ands. A t issu e also w as A rticle 50 o f th e L ab or C od e w h ich gran ted em p loyers th e rig h t to a rb itra rily d ism iss w o rk ers w ith p ay m en t o f a n in d em n ity o f tw o-m on th s salary . E m p loyers exp lo ited th is law in ord er to m ain tain a d o cile w o rk force an d to co n tain th e tu rb u len ce o f th e lab o r m a rk e t In th e m ean tim e, clerics, so cial w o rk ers, an d o th er "citizen s o f co n scien ce" p ro tested an o th er in ju stice, i.e ., ch ild lab o r in B e iru t's facto ries. C o n cern s focu sed on rep orts o f ju v e n iles, tw elve an d fifte en y ears o ld , w o rk in g fu ll eig h t to n in e-h o u r d ay o r n ig h t sh ifts fo r sa la ries a s low as L L 2 to LL 3 a n ig h t o r LL 40 a w eek.56 T o th e im am friese d evelop m ents su gg ested th e n eed to ch an g e ta ctics. P eacefu l d ialo gu es w ith th e governm ent ap p eared to b e in effectu al. D ep riv ation , n eg lect, and co n fessio n al d iscrim in atio n lin g ered ; L eban ese territo ry w as le ft v u ln erab le to Israeli assau lts. A s h is irritatio n w ith o fficial in com p eten ce escalated , Say y id M u sa d ecid ed to in crease th e p ressu re on a gov ernm ent th at it seem ed w as alread y u n d er sieg e. Follow ing th e M ay 1973 clash es b etw een th e L eban ese arm y and th e PLO in B eiru t, its su b u rb s, an d elsew h ere, M u slim lead ers in ten sified th eir d em and s fo r "p a rticip a -

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tio n " (al-m u sh araka), a term th at d om inated th e L eban ese p o litica l lex ico n th rou g h ou t th e early sev en ties. Sin ce in d ep en d en ce in 1943, th e L eban ese M u slim p o p u latio n h ad b een com p lain in g o f w h at it co n sid ered a m arked d isequ ilib riu m in th e d istrib u tio n o f p o litica l p ow er and o f econ om ic p riv ileg e in a co u n try tow ard w h ich th ey h ad on ce b een sk ep tical, b u t in w h ich th ey now w ish ed to b e treated eq u itab ly . "P articip atio n ," as en v ision ed b y th e ch arter o f th e (Su n n i) Islam ic O rg an ization s an d A ssociation s, m ean t tak in g a n a ctiv e p a rt in th e a ffa irs o f th e co u n try , and sh arin g in the d ecision -m ak in g p ro cess w h ich h ith erto h ad b elon g ed ex clu siv ely to th e (M aron ite) p resid en t o f th e rep u b lic. R eform ist sen tim en ts th erefo re called fo r ch an ges in a sy stem ch aracterized b y th e in flatio n o f p resid en tial p rero g ativ es. It dem anded th at a system o f p resid en tial d em ocracy in w h ich the h ead o f state w ou ld b e elected b y u n iv ersal su ffrag e b e in stitu ted . U nd er su ch a sy stem , it w as fe lt, th e d em ograp h ic, h en ce electo ra l, w eigh t o f th e M u slim s w ou ld n ecessarily cou n terbalan ce th e au th o rity w ield ed b y th e ch ie f execu tiv e.57 T o th e S h i'a a s w ell a s o th ers, in clu d in g certain C h ristian com m u n ities and th e cen ter an d left-o f-cen ter in tellig en tsia, "p articip atio n " also m ean t rep lacin g an o b solete N ation al P act w ith a new econ om ic and so cial co n tract d esign ed to reco n cile th e n eed s o f th e d isen fran ch ised and th e m arg in al p o p u latio n s in th e cou n try w ith th e in terests o f th ose a t th e cen ter o f p riv ileg e w ith in the L eban ese system .58 In a first step tow ard th is en d , u n d er th e aeg is o f th e SISC and its ch airm an , th irteen o u t o f th e n in eteen S h i'a d ep u ties to th e Leban ese p arliam en t (th e ab stain ers w ere m em bers o f a l-A s'a d 's p arliam en tary b lo c) sig n ed a p act on 2 2 Ju n e 1973, v ow in g to esch ew p articip atio n in an y gov ernm ent th at w ou ld n o t w o rk tow ard th e satisfactio n o f S h i'a dem ands. T h e governm ent w as p resen ted w ith an in itia l d ead lin e o f fo u r m on th s w h ich p assed w ith o u t an y actio n b ein g taken . A fu rth er tw o-m on th exten sio n failed to p rod u ce resu lts a s w ell. In fa ct, th e governm ent o f Prim e M in ister T aq i al-D in al-S u lh rejected a ll u ltim atu m s. T he S h i'a m in isters, d esp ite th eir rh eto ric, failed to resig n in p ro test. Say y id M u sa w as u n d eterred . S h i'a civ il d isobed ien ce loom ed . Because of our faith in the dignity of man, and our refusal to tolerate oppression, ignorance, negligence, and all that contradicts that dignity; because of our loyalty to our fatherland, Lebanon,

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A Lebanon D efied the land open to all men, land of love where all can live in harmony and w ith respect for the dignity of all; because of our belief that justice is the foundation on which nations rise and by w hich they endure, especially nations like Lebanon whose greatest asset is its human resources; the Supreme Islam ic Shi'a Council feels that the present situation in Lebanon in which people live, as they do, in a world of anxiety facing a threatening future, is an obstacle to the aspirations of its citizens and to their hopes for a proper life and for dignity.59

T h is w as th e p ream ble o f th e "Shi'-a D em and s," an o fficia l SISC d ocu m en t p resen ted to th e cou n try on 2 D ecem ber 1974, fo llo w in g co n su ltatio n s b etw een Im am al-S ad r, form er p resid en t o f th e rep u b lic, C h arles H élou , and form er sp eaker o f p arliam en t, S a b ri H am ad i. T h e d ocu m ent ad m onished file gov ernm ent fo r th e ch ao tic secu rity situ atio n on th e n a tio n 's sou th ern fro n tier, th e d ep riv ation su ffered b y certain relig io u s com m u n ities an d certa in reg io n s in th e co u n try , as w ell a s fo r "th e fo rg o tten p lan ters, th e h elp less w o rk ers, th e alien ated you th , and th e stu d en ts try in g to escap e a n u n certain fu tu re." "T h e co u n cil," th e d ocu m ent in sisted , "w ill n ev er accep t less th an ju stice ," sp an n in g from fu ll p articip a­ tio n in th e p ro cess o f gov ernm ent to in volv em en t in th e a ctu al im p lem en tation o f ex ecu tio n o f lon g -aw aited develop m ent p ro jects.60 From th e co u n cil's o fficial statem en t o f its ag en d a, Say y id M u sa w en t ab ou t raisin g a storm . H e galv an ized h is cam p aign fo r th e d isin h erited w ith a series o f ch illin g and om in ou s o ration s in Y atir on th e sou th ern fro n tier, in B id n ay il in th e B iq a ', in D ayr al-M u k h allis in th e S h u f, a t the U SJ-M ed ical sch o o l, an d in B a'lab ak , Sid o n , an d T y re, resp ectiv ely . A p lan n ed p ro test ra lly and m ass sit-in in B eiru t w ere foiled fo r fear o f a co n fro n tatio n w ith righ t-w in g m ilitiam en . M usa al-S ad r w as a t d ie h eig h t o f h is p op u larity. A t th e m ass rallies in B a'lab ak o n 17 M arch , an d T yre on 5 M ay, th ou san d s resp on d ed to h is c a ll and sw ore w ith h im "to con tin u e th e cam p aign u n til no d isin h erited p erson s o r reg io n s rem ain in L eban on."61 A w eek a fter M usa a l-S a d r's ad d ress a t B a'lab ak , P rem ier a lS u lh d ecid ed it w as tim e to m eet th e say yid . O n 25 Ju n e 1974, P resid en t Fran g ié con ferred w ith th irteen S h i'a d ep u ties an d m in isters (a l-A s'a d 's p arliam en tary b lo c a g ain ab stain ed ) to d iscu ss fite S h i'a d em and s as form u lated b y th e Su p rem e Islam ic S h i'a

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C ou n cil. Even th e h ig h com m and o f d ie L eban ese arm y show ed an in terest in th e neg otiation s/ and o n 20 Ju n e form ed m ixed com m it­ tees o f its ow n sp ecialists and oth ers selected b y al-S ad r to stu d y sou th ern secu rity n eed s and w ay s to m eet them . F in ally , on 19 D ecem ber 1974, in p erh ap s one o f th e m ost elo qu en t m an ifesta­ tio n s o f com m u nal so lid arity in th e cou n try sin ce in d ep en d en ce, 190 p u b lic fig u res from v ario u s com m u n ities issu ed a jo in t d eclaratio n o f su p p ort fo r M usa al-S ad r and fo r "a m ovem ent th at reach es b ey o n d th e S h i'a com m u n ity." A s a con crete exp ression o f th is su p p o rt, an in ter-faith secretariat assistin g th e im am w as created as w ell.62 T h e M ovem ent o f th e D isin h erited (H arakat al-M ah ru m in ) h ad b een b o m as a n exp ressio n o f th e asp iratio n s o f th e S h i'a com m u­ n ity a t larg e, and in d eed th o se o f d ie Leban ese u n d erclass in g en eral. A t d ie com m u nity lev el, th e m ovem ent attem p ted to forg e th e b ro ad est m u lti-class co alitio n p o ssib le. T h rou gh governm ent refo rm s, it sou g h t to red ress w h at it p erceiv ed a s stru ctu res o f d iscrim in atio n and n eg lect th at h ad con sp ired to keep th e S h i'a com m u nity a t th e bottom o f th e co u n try 's socioecon om ic scale. It also sou gh t to p rev en t th e to tal d estru ction o f th e so u th ern h ab itat u n d er th e w eigh t o f th e P alestin ian -Israeli co n flict w ith th e estab lish m en t o f arm ed u n its know n o fficially a s A fw aj al-M u qaw am a al-lu b n an iy y a (The L ebanese R esistan ce D etachm ents) o r m ore com m on ly, A m al. In a p ress con feren ce on 6 Ju ly 1975, M usa a lS ad r p resen ted A m al to th e co u n try as sy m b olizin g th e sacrifice o f th ose "w ho resp ond ed to th e ca ll o f th e w ound ed h om eland ."63 Y et H arakat al-M ah ru m in n ev er form ally d efin ed itse lf as a S h i'a m ovem ent. Harakat al-Mahrumin in Lebanon is . . . an expression of the human am bition for a better life which drives him to resist all that undermines his life, dulls his talents, and threatens his future. Harakat al-Mahrumin is not a sectarian movement, nor a charitable organization— It is die movement of all die disinher­ ited, . . . of those who feel deprived . . . and fearful about their future, as w ell as those who bear responsibility toward the disinherited and the fearful w ith honor and dedication. It is die movement of the Lebanese toward the betterm ent [of their lives].

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D esp ite its o ften in su rrection ary rh eto ric, th e m o v em en t's p rog ram , w as b a sica lly refo rm ist and n atio n alistic. N one o f th e sev en p rin cip les exp ou nd ed in its ch arter cou ld q u alify a s rad ical. T h e secon d p rin cip le, fo r in stan ce, em p h asizes th e "g reat [S h i'a] h eritag e in Leban on an d a ll the E ast," w h ile th e six th p rin cip le u n d erlin es th at "H arakat al-M ah ru m in is a n atio n alist m ov em en t, th at u p h old s th e n atio n al sov ereig n ty , th e u n ity o f th e h om elan d , an d th e in teg rity o f its so il."64 H arakat al-M ah ru m in w as a S h i'a m ovem ent o n ly in asm u ch a s S h i'ism , a s a p ed agog y, tran scen d ed sectarian ism b y "aw aken in g" th e critica l con sciou sn ess o f th e op p ressed , th u s "m aking it p o ssib le . . . [fo r them ] to en ter th e h isto rica l p ro cess [o f self-affirm atio n ] a s resp on sib le Su b jects."65 P erhap s it ev olv ed in to w h at w as a m ov em en t fo r th e S h i'a m asses b ecau se am ong th e v ario u s grou p s w ith in th e L eban ese p o lity , th ey w ere am ong th e m ost d eep ly com m itted to th e w o rk o f reform u latin g th e p o litica l sy stem . A s G h assan T u én i argu ed , "th e S h i'a in L eban on h av e b eco m e, acco rd in g to m o d em socioecon om ic term in olo gy, th e 'p ro leta ria t o f th e ea rth ,' in oth er w ord s, th e class m ost su bd u ed in its ex terio r and m ost rev olu tion ary in its in terio r." P erhap s it w as "th e fate o f d ie S h i'a to b e a t th e fo refro n t o f d ie rev o lt o f all—a ll reg io n s, a ll co n fessio n s, and a ll classes." It m ay also w ell b e th a t th e m o v em en t's p lu ralistic id eal su ccu m bed b efo re th e so cial ch aracter o f L eban ese so ciety itse lf in w h ich su b n atio n al sectarian alleg ian ces w ere giv en th e u p p er h an d . H arakat al-M ah ru m in , b y em p h asizin g a w id er n atio n al m issio n , i.e ., to p rev en t th e b reakd ow n o f a so ciety in crisis, su ccessfu lly tran scen d ed a strictly S h i'a o rien tatio n . T h e d em and s fo r p ro tectio n o f So u th L eban on from Israeli attack s, fo r a gen u in e n atio n al d efen se p o licy , an d fo r su p p ort fo r th e P alestin ian cau se, w ere n o t p leas o n b eh a lf o f th e S h i'a , b u t fo r th e d efen se o f h u m an freed om and d ig n ity in gen eral. Sim ilarly , alleg atio n s o f u n fair d istrib u tio n o f gov ernm ent p o sts an d civ il serv ice jo b s, an d ch arg es o f d iscrim in atory socioecon om ic p o licies w ere n ev er in ten d ed to d eleg itim ize the ex istin g Leban ese en tity . B y risin g above com m u­ n a l claim s, and b y in teg ratin g itse lf w ith th e larg er n atio n al issu es o f th e h o u r, H arakat al-M ah ru m in in its in fan cy receiv ed im p o rtan t p u b lic su p p ort from ou tsid e th e S h i'a com m u nity. A nd it w as th is

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su p p ort w h ich in tu rn gave it th e p o ten tial to b ecom e th e sym bol o f a new in tercom m u n al con sciou sn ess. A s T u én i n oted : The challenge. . . of the 'Sh i'a revolt' i s . . . that it has transcend­ ed 'national' and traditional political issues, . . . and has been transformed into what is deeper . . . and more in touch with existential human needs. — It is die revolt of a confession, not a confessional revolt. It is not the revolt of one confession over an o th er.. . . It may even become the revolt of one confession in the name of all confessions------ The object of the Shi'a revolt is not to rule, for [it recognizes] that governance is for all [to share]. Rather, it is concerned w ith governmental injustice.“

N OTES 1. It should be noted here that neither Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn nor Sayyid Musa were muftis of Tyre. Ajami in The Vanished Imam, 35, and Norton in Am al and the Shi'a, 39, seem to have relied on die article by Sicking and Khairallah "The Shi'a Awakening," 95, which is incorrect in this regard. Both sayyids were m arja's of the city of Tyre, in other words, religious scholars who, by their learning and probity, were qualified to lead in all points of religious practice and law by die Shi'a masses. The consent of the N ajaf, the highest Shi'a religious authority, that of peers, and scholarly achievement are factors in the process through which a m arja' em erges. The tide of m ufti, on die other hand, is a Sunni tide. Its usage among the Shi'a in Lebanon dates back to Ottoman times when the state appointed Sunni muftis to serve the umma, irrespective of existing doctrinal variations. The practice continued during the French mandate and thereafter. As a result of die 1926 law recognizing die Shi'a commu­ nity in Lebanon as a m illet in its own right, however, the Shi'a became entitied to Shi'a muftis. Prior to die establishm ent of the Supreme Islam ic Shi'a Council (SISC) in 1969, those muftis, like their Sunni counterparts, w ere appointed by M ajlis al-Q ada' al-Shar'i al-A 'la [The Supreme Council o f Religious Law] and confirmed in their post by edicts signed by the President of the Republic and die Prime M inister. Unlike a m arja' who is financially dependent on the goodwill of believers, a m ufti, therefore, is a member of the civil service and thus receives a state salary. Since 1969, the task of appointing the Shi'a muftis was taken over by die SISC. In fact, from 1930 to 1977, it was Sayyid Muhammad Jawad Sharaf al-Din, Sayyid Abd al-H usayn's son, as indicated in the text, who occupied the post o f m ufti of Tyre.

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2. Biographical inform ation on the al-Sadrs and the Sharaf al-Dins was obtained from Harakat Amal, S ilsilat R ijal 'Ahadu A llah [A series of men who had made a covenant with God], no. 3, (Beirut: H arakat Amal, n.d.); Am al (a weekly mouthpiece o f the Amal movement), nos. 500 (21 August 1987), and 520 (1 January 1988); al-M a'had 3, nos. 1, and 2 (August 1947): 8 -1 0 ,3 (April 1947): 4 -5 ,4 (April 1947): 4-5, and 5 and 6 (May 1947): 4-6; and from numerous conversations w ith Sayyid 'Abd Allah Sharaf al-D in, a son of Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn, and Sayyid Husayn Sharaf al-D in, a grandson. See also Ajami, The Vanished Im am , 32-51. 3. Among Sayyid 'Abd al-H usayn's works, we find: al-N ass w a-1-ljtíhad [The text and the interpretation], al-K alim a al-G harra' f i Tqfdil al-Z ahra' [The honorable word in preferring al-Zahra'], and al-Fusul al-M uhim m a f i T a'lif al-Umma [The important chapters in the founding of the nation]. Perhaps his greatest literary contribution, however, remains al-M uraja'at [Revisions], a compilation of his lengthy discussions with Shaykh alAzhar Shaykh Salim al-Bashri on, among other things, the Shi'a doctrine of the Imamate and the succession of ahl al-bayt, which was reprinted eight tim es and translated into English, Persian, and Urdu. 4. See Moojan Momem, An Introduction to Shi'a Islam (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985), 86-146. 5. Ibid. 6. Albert Hourani, "From Jabal 'Am il to Persia," Bulletin o f the School o f O riental and A frican Studies XLIX, part 1 (1986): 133-40. 7. For a compilation of some of the works of som e of the great 'A m ili scholars who migrated to Iran, see 'A li Muruwwa, al-Tashayyu' bayn Jabal 'Amil wa Iran [Shi'ism between Jabal 'Am il and Iran], (London: Riyad alRayyes books, 1987). 8. Musa al-Sadr, quoted in Mona M akki, "Le Rôle Politico-Religieux de l'Im am Mousa al-Sadr, Chef de la Communauté Chiite au Liban," (Mémoire de M aîtrise en Sociologie, Paris V—Université René Descartes, 1976-1977), 54-57. 9. A copy of a letter dated 6 M arch 1960, from the prominent Shi'a scholar Sayyid Murtada A1 Yasin to Sayyid Ja'far expressing satisfaction at Sayyid M usa's acceptance of the invitation to come to Tyre is in the au thors possession. 10. The Letters o f G ertrude B ell, 2 vols., selected and ed. by Lady Bell (London: Ernest Benn Lim ited, 1927), 2:484. See also Ajami, The Vanished Im am , 36-37. 11. This inform ation on the al-Sadr's is provided in al-M ajlis al-Islam i al-Shi'i al-A 'la, Sirat Sam ahat al-Im am al-Sayyid M usa al-Sadr [D ie life of his em inence the Imam Musa al-Sadr] (B eiru t al-M ajlis al-Islam i al-Shi'i alA 'la, n.d.).

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12. Ajam i, The Vanished ¡m am , 12, 50, 29, 24 and 158, 199, and 157, respectively. 13. Ghassan Tuéni, Une G uerre pour les A utres (Paris: Editions JeanClaude lattès, 1985), 97-98; and Ajami, ibid., 49. 14. Pakradouni, La Paix M anquée, 105-7. 15. Fouad Ajami, review of The Vanished Im am , by Tarif Khalidi in The Journal o f P alestine Studies XVI, no. 3 (spring 1987): 150-53. 16. W orsley, The Trum pet Shall Sound, xii-xiv. 17. Thierry Desjardins, Le M artyre du Liban (Paris: Librairie Plon, 1976), 14; and Laurence Durrell, The A lexandria Q uartet (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1961). See also Tarqi 'A li, Street Fighting Years (Glasgow, UK: W illiam Collins & Sons, 1987), 63,114-62. 18. Musa al-Sadr,"al-Din wa al-'Dm," [Science and religion] in N im bar wa M ikrab, a collection ofSayyid M usa's speeches between 1960 and 1969, (Beirut: Dar al-Arqam, 1981), 143-55. 19. "al-Islam w a Thaqafat al-Qarn al-'Ishrin,” [Islam and the culture of the twentieth century], in M ihbar wa M ihrab, ibid., 37-57. 20. Musa al-Sadr, "Harakat al-M ahrum in-al-W ilada, Zuruf al-N asha', w a al-Aba'd" [The movement of the disinherited—the birth, circumstances of growth, and dimensions] in S ilsilat M uhadarat Sam ahat al-Im am al-Sayyid M usa al-Sadr [A series of lectures by his eminence the imam Sayyid Musa al-Sadr], 2d ed. (B eiru t Harakat Amal—Maktab al-'Aqida wa al-Thaqafa, 1986), 48-49, and 55. See also 'A dil Rida, M a' al-I'tidhar li-l-Im am M usa alSadr, 13. 21. See Jihad Taki Sadiq al-Hassani, "The Question of Imama. Political and Religious Authority, in Twelver Shi'ite Thought," (Ph.D. diss., the University of M anchester, 1974), 356-89. 22. Musa al-Sadr, "M as'uliyyat al-Imam al-Q a'id wa al-Shahada," [The responsibility of the imam-leader and martyrdom], al-'lrfan 75, nos. 9 and 10, (1988): 15-25. 23. Musa al-Sadr, quoted in Ism a'il, "Rajul al-Din fi M asirat al-Im am Musa al-Sadr" [The man of religion in the tifestory of Musa al-Sadr], 65; and 'A dil Rida, M a' al-I'tidhar li-l-Im am M usa al-Sadr, 100-2. Quotation is on 101. 24. Musa al-Sadr, "al-W ataniyya laysat Tarafan Fikriyyan" [Patriotism is not intellectual decadence]; "al-Qalaq 'ala Lubnan" [The anxiety over Lebanon]; "M antaqat al-Qalaq" [The region of anxiety]; "Hawla alTa'ifiyya w a al-Fi'aw iyya [On confessionalism and sectarianism ]; and "alTaw a'if Nawafith Hadariyya [The confessions are cultural windows], in M inbar wa M ihrab, 224-33, and 237-39. 25. Ajami, The Vanished ¡m am , 94.

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26. Khalil Ahmad Khalil, H arb Lubnan wa A zm at al-Thaw ra al-'A rabiyya [The Lebanese w ar and the crisis of the Arab revolution] (B eiru t al-Hizb al-Taqaddumi al-Ishtiraki-M arkaz al-Dirasat al-Ishtirakiyya, 1977), 96-97; and Peter Theroux, The Strange Disappearance o f Imam M usa al-Sadr (London: W eidenfeld and Nicholson, 1987), 19. 27. The Republic of Lebanon, M ahadir M ajlis al-N uwwab [Proceedings of parliam ent], 10th legislative period, 1960, proceedings of the second session, 43, and 66-67, respectively. See also Ajami, The V anished Im am , 86. 28. From an interview with Mgr. Grégoire Haddad in Tyre in the summer of 1987. 29. L 'O rien t-L e Jour, 1 September 1974. 30. al-T a'ifa al-Shi'iyya-A lam uha wa A m aluha [The Shi'a com m unitjr-its sufferings and hopes], proceedings of the press conference by Sayyid Musa. Pamphlet is in the author's possession. 31. Ibid. 32. Interview w ith Mr. Muhammad Sh'ayto, Permanent Secretary of tite Supreme Islam ic Shi'a Council and one of the founders of H ay'at alN idal al-Ijtim a'i in August 1987. 33. M allaf al-Shira', al-H arakat al-Islam iyya f i Lubnan [The Islam ic Movements in Lebanon] (B eiru t Dar Sannin, 1984), 53-54. 34. Qanun Raqm 72/67 (Law Number 72/67). Copy is in the author's possession. See also Tanzim Shu'un al-T a'ifa al-lslam iyya al-Shi'iyya [The organization of the affairs of the Islam ic Shi'a Community] (B eiru t M atba'at Sadir, 1969), 1 35. See Faris, "Conflict Resolution in a M utiireligious State: Lebanon," 249. 36. See Rabbath, La Form ation H istorique, 121-37. 37. Boyan Sam ahat al-Im am al-Sayyid M usa al-Sadr f i Ijtim a' al-H ay'a al'Amma li-l-M ajlis al-lslam i al-Shi'i al-'A 'Ia [Statement by the imam sayyid Musa al-Sadr during the meeting of the Supreme Islamic Shi'a Council], 3 M arch 1975. Copy is in the author's possession. 38. Patricia Crone and Martin Hinds, review of God's C aliph: R eligious A uthority in the First C enturies o f Islam , by Muhammad Qasim Zaman in Islam ic Q uarterly XXXIV, no. 3 (Third Quarter, 1990): 200-11. 39. Freire, Pedagogy o f the O ppressed, 55. 40. Sirat hayat al-Im am M usa al-Sadr, 6. 41. Republic of Lebanon: M inistry of Inform ation-D epartm ent of Lebanese Studies and Publications, South Lebanon, 1948—1986: Facts and Figures (B eiru t Dar Bilal, 1986), 3 -6 42. A fkar al-Im am M usa al-Sadr roa M aw aqifihi wa K hattihi al-N idali min KhUal K hitabihi wa M uhadaratM wa Bayanatihi wa T asrihatihi f i Sanawat 1966-1978 [The thoughts of the imam Musa al-Sadr and his stands and

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struggling line through his speeches, lectures, statements and declarations in the years 1966-1978] (Beirut: The Supreme Islam ic Shi'a Council, n.d.), 9 and 11. 43. Boyan Sam ahat al-lm am al-Sayyid M usa al-Sadr al-Mu'Um Sabah Yawm al-Idrab bi Tarikh 26-5-1970 [The statement by his eminence the imam sayyid Musa al-Sadr announced on the morning of the day of the strike, 05-26-1970]. Copy is in the author's possession. 44. al-H ayat, 27 M ay 1970. 45. al-N ahar, 27 May 1970. See also Ajami, The V anished Im am , 123-29. 46. Ajami, ibid., 127. 47. al-N ahar, 11 January 1975; and Samt al-M ahrum in 1, no. 2, (28 July 1978). 48. Shafiq al-Hut, 'Ushrun 'Aman f i M unazzam at al-T ahrir al-Filastiniyya [Twenty years in die Palestine Liberation Organization] (B eiru t Dar alIstiqlal, 1986), 185. 49. Interview w ith Ahmad Ism a'il, a longtim e confidant of Sayyid Musa al-Sadr, in Beirut in summer 1987. 50. Interview w ith Musa al-Sadr in al-H aw adith, 24 January 1975, also trans. and quoted in Sicking and Khairallah, "The Shi'a Awakening in Lebanon," 126. 51. Interview w ith Kamil al-As'ad in al-H aw adith, 3 January 1975, also and quoted in Sicking and Khairallah, ibid., 123-26. 52. 'A dil Rida, M a' al-I'tidhar lid-im am M usa al-Sadr, 111. 53. N asr, "La Transition Chiite vers Beyrouth," 95; and "Roots of the Shi'a M ovem ent" 12. 54. See Adams, "The Social Organization of a Shi'ite Community in North Lebanon," 230-37; Hobsbawm, Prim itive R ebels, 32; and Ajami, The V anished Im am , 127-28. 55. See, for example, Musa al-Sadr, "Ya A bna' BaTabak wa al-Hirm il, [O children of BaTabak and al-Hirmil] in a l-Irfa n 58, nos. 3 and 4 (JulyAugust, 1970): 423-25. 56. Nasr, "The Crisis of Lebanese Capitalism ," 11. 57. A study of the Lebanese presidency is provided in Raymond Sayegh's, Le Président de la République Libanaise, Publications du Centre de Recherches de l'U niversité Libanaise-Institut des Sciences Sociales, no. 17, (Beyrouth: Imprimerie Catholique, 1975). 58. See M arwan Hamadé, "L'Islam Libanais, du Nassérisme à la Participation," Travaux et Jours, 53 (Octobre-Décembre, 1974): 5-12; "Six documents on M uslim T artid p ation' in the National Lebanese life ," C ontroversy, D ialogue, and the New A rab M an, CEMAM Reports, no. 2, Center for the Study of the M odem Arab W orld-Saint Joseph's Universi­ ty, (B eiru t Dar el-M ashreq, 1973), 95-113; and Salim Nasr, "L'lslam

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Politique et l'E tat Libanais (1920-1975)/ L'Islam et L'Etat dans le M onde d'A ujourd'hui, ed. Olivier Carré, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1982), 31-43. 59. al-H ayat, 2 December 1974, also trans. and quoted in Sicking and Khairallah, "The Shi'a Awakening in Lebanon," 103-6. 60. Ibid. 61. al-N ahar, 18 March, and 6 May 1974. 62. al-N ahar, 20 December 1974. 63. al-N ahar, 7 July 1975. 64. Musa al-Sadr, M ithaq H arakat al-M ahrum in [The charter of the Movement of the Disinherited] (Hazmiyya, Lebanon: n.p., 1977). See also Norton, A m al and the Shi'a, 144-66. It should be noted that the charter o f H am kat al-M ahrum in is the same as that of Amal. 65. Freire, Pedagogy o f the O ppressed, 20. 66. Ghassan Tuéni, "Bu'asa' wa Mahrumin w a . . . Musallahun" [Poor, deprived and . . . armed], al-N ahar, 18 M arch 1974.

5 Mythos and Praxis I would like to speak o f the revolutionary potential o f those convictions and rituals uniquely Shi'a but w hich appear senseless, illogical, retrograde and alienating in the eyes o f the conscious, responsible, progressive and scien tific intellectual o f today. -'A U Shari'ati

m am M u sa a l-S a d r's su ccess in fom en tin g th e p oU tid zation o f L eb an o n 's S h i'a m asses m u st b e view ed in d ie co n text o f th e p o litico -relig io u s sy m b iosis w ith in S h i'a Islam . T h e socioecon om ic tran sfo rm atio n w h ich th e S h i'a com m u nity u n d erw en t in th e six ties an d early sev en ties w as in d eed a m ajo r sp u r goad in g its m asses to dem and a ch an ge in th e system . S h i'a id eology/ w ith its reso n atin g th em es o f su fferin g and m artyrd om , and th e p e o p le's ard o r fo r th e lead ersh ip o f M usa al-S ad r, in w hom th ese th em es fou n d a new and in n ov ativ e exp ressio n , form ed d ie ch an n el th ro u g h w h ich th ese dem ands w ere voiced . C ertain ly , th e failu re o f th e d om inant id eo lo g ies o f th e tim e, from A rab N ation alism to C om m u nism , to am elio rate con d ition s o f econ om ic op p ression , poU tical m arg in ality and so cial aU enation, as w ell as d ie fear o f lo sin g "au th en tic" n atio n al id en tity u n d er the sw eep ing p ressu res o f m od ern ization an d W estern ization , help ed to cem en t th e p ro cess o f S h i'a poU tid zation. M u sa al-S ad r h ere tru ly em erged as "a m an u n lik e oth ers," cap ab le o f em bod ying th e sp iritu al w ith in the

I

163

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tem p o ral, an d articu latin g th e asp iratio n s o f h is com m u n ity d u rin g one o f th e m ost critica l m om ents in its h istory . T h e n exu s o f relig io n and p o litics in S h i'ism m u st b e seen in th e d ialectic b etw een S h i'a d octrin e an d d iscou rse. W ith resp ect to d o ctrin e, th e cen tral issu e, as m en tion ed ea rlier, is "th e relatio n sh ip in S h i'ism b etw een ch arism a and au th o rity an d , in p articu lar, th e m an n er in w h ich ch arism atic ren ew al tak es p lace w ith in th e co n text o f S h i'ism a s a . . . sy stem ."1 C en tral to th is are th e issu es o f th e ro le o f th e 'u lam a in gu id in g th e faith fu l d u rin g th e p erio d o f th e tw elfth im am 's o ccu ltatio n , an d th e p sy ch o lo g ical, so cial an d p o litica l p ro cesses cataly tic to change. O n th e lev el o f d isco u rse, d iscu ssed h ere in th e co n text o f M usa al-Sad ris m o b ilizin g rh eto ric, th ere is th e h isto ric h eritag e o f S h i'ism w ith in th e b o d y p o litic o f Islam , im bu ed w ith th e them es o f red em p tion , sacrifice an d m artyrd om , w h ich h av e p rov id ed th e sym bolic v eh icles fo r S h i'a m ass p o litical op p osition . M u sa a l-S a d r's rh eto ric, p u b lic p ro file, an d so cial actio n w ere a ll th read s o f th e sam e clo th , d evelop ed and articu lated in resp on se to d efin ite exig en cies an d con cern s. O ne su ch exig en cy w as d ictated b y h is em ergen ce as th e cen tral S h i'a p o litica l fo rce in Leban on. O n e o f th ese con cern s w as th e d elicate b alan ce w h ich h e b eliev ed it w as n ecessary to m ain tain b etw een S h i'a p o litica l o rg an izatio n and th e larg er n atio n al m osaic. A secon d w as th e in filtratio n o f leftist id eo lo g ies, an d m ore sp ecifically o f th e L eban ese C om m u nist P arty, in to S h i'a society . Say yid M u sa's first d ecad e in Leban on w as one o f in trod u ction an d fou n d ation ­ lay in g —in trod u cin g h im self to th e v ariou s segm en ts o f th e com m u­ n ity , th e com m u nity to itse lf, an d th e n atio n an d th e com m u n ity to each other. It w as also a tim e o f b u ild in g , o f creatin g th e o rg an izatio n al fram ew ork fo r w h at he in ten d ed to b e a S h i'a p ressu re grou p . H is p rio rity w as fo r ch an ge th ro u g h d ialo gu e. H is rh eto ric a t th e tim e w as seld om co n fro n tatio n al. H ow ever, Say y id M u sa's selectio n a s sp okesm an fo r th e S h i'a su b altern , a h eig h ten ­ in g o f th e p olitico-econ om ic crisis in th e cou n try , an d th e ram ifica­ tio n s th at en tailed fo r the com m u nity a s a w h ole exp osed th e in ad eq u acies o f p eacefu l d ialogu e an d th e n eed fo r a tactical an d a rh eto rical tran sform ation . A s d efen d er o f th e fa ith , th e say y id so u g h t to co u n ter w h at h e saw as th e in sid io u s an d in exorab le p u ll th a t rad ical id eo lo g ies exerted am ong th e you th o f th e p o p u latio n .

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A s b eliev er in th e Leban ese m osaic, h e w orked to realize th e n eed s o f h is com m u nity w ith in th e fram ew ork o f th e ex istin g p o litica l in stitu tio n s in th e cou n try. A s th e im am o f th e Leban ese S h i'a , h e h ad to sp eak w ith h is fo llo w ers' accen t and lilt, con form to th eir agend a an d d efin itio n o f lead ersh ip , and v o ice th eir d em and s w ith a d irect p o litical sla n t th at stood in sharp co n trast to th e sch o lastic sty le w h ich d om inated h is d iscou rse th rou g h ou t th e six ties.2 A bove a ll, th e situ atio n called fo r a show o f S h i'a p ow er, w h ich th e p rev io u s ap p roach o f p eacefu l su asio n h ad le ft u n tap p ed . T h u s, it co u ld b e said th at th e lan gu age o f S h i'a m o b ilizatio n ev olv ed in to on e o f ag itatio n an d assertion . N o one w as m ore cap ab le o f articu latin g th e v ario u s facets o f th e S h i'a p rog ram a t th e tim e th an M u sa al-Sad r.3 In steerin g th e m asses o f h is com m u nity tow ard a m ore assertiv e p o litica l stan d , Say yid M usa p ron ou n ced "an in sep arab le b on d " b etw een G o d 's etern al w ill and h u m an ity 's u ltim ate g o al, eth ics an d p u b lic p o licy , th e sp iritu al and th e m u ndane. T h e rh eto ric o f th e so cial stru ggle in th e ea rly sev en ties b ecam e in creasin g ly ch arged w ith relig io u s sym bolism s, allu sio n s, and d o ctrin al con cep ts. T h e S h i'a m ovem ent itse lf en tered a n ew p h ase in w h ich th e ch arism atic gu id an ce o f th e im am w as co n stan tly com bin ed w ith th e relig io u s and th e p o litica l th rou g h h is system at­ ic in v o catio n o f th e co m m u n ity 's cu ltu ral u n iv erse. M u sa al-S ad r seized u p on th e S h i'a m ythos a s a n ap p rop riate v eh icle fo r p rax is.4 A s a resu lt, th e p o litica l fu n ctio n o f S h i'a m o tifs, v alu es and id eals n ecessarily u n d erw en t ren ew al an d red efin itio n . T rad itio n al S h i'a stru ctu res an d in stitu tio n s to o k on ad d ed d im en sion s. T h e altern ativ e th a t M usa al-S ad r p resen ted offered em an cip ation from w ith in a n au th en tic fram ew ork. In ev itab ly , it w as th e leg acies o f 'A li, Fatim a a l-Z ah ra' and S ay y id a Z ayn ab , and H u say n 's K arbala th at Say y id M u sa invoked w h en h e called u p o n th e S h i'a m asses in a d irect w ay in 1974 and 1975.5 'A li, d ie S h i'a m ain tain , w as "a sp ecial g ift o f G od to h u m an ity": H e w as ju st, in fa llib le , v irtu o u s, cou rag eou s, know l­ ed g eab le, th ou g h tfu l, farsig h ted , com p assion ate, reso lu te, and a m an o f reason.6 'A li's calip h ate, w e are to ld , w as th e exp ression o f d iv in e au th o rity , w h ich resto red th e ru le o f v irtu e an d ju stice th a t h ad ch aracterized Islam u n d er th e P rop h et M uham m ad. "B ein g 'A li," accord in g to S h a ri'a ti, m ean t a m an ifestatio n o f the

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tru e lead ersh ip o f th e p eop le: T h e im am sp en t th e first tw en ty th ree y ears o f h is life fig h tin g to sp read file m essage th at G od H im self h ad rev ealed to M uham m ad. In th e b attles o f Islam , h e p rov ed to b e a tru e "m an o f th e sw ord ," a g allan t an d cou rag eou s fig h ter w ith few eq u als in th e h isto ry o f th e faith . In th e en su in g tw en ty y ears, 'A h to lerated th e treach ery o f the first th ree calip h s, A bu Baler, T Jm ar, an d T Jth m an , and ch o se to do so in ord er to p reserv e th e u n ity o f th e um m a. /A li/s claim to th e calip h ate, th e S h i'a in sist, w as u nam bigu ou s. W h eth er in th e g ath erin g a t G h ad ir K hum , a sm all o asis b etw een M ecca an d M ed ina, o n 10 M arch 632 C .E ., w h ere th e P rop h et M uham m ad is rep orted to h av e d eclared , "H e o f w hom I am th e m aw la [the p atro n , m aster, lead er, frien d ?], o f h im 'A li is also th e m aw la," d u ring th e exp ed itio n to T ab u k w h en h e o sten sib ly told /A li, "Y ou are to m e w h at A aron w as to M oses excep t th at th ere w ill b e n o P rop het a fter m e" (in referen ce to one o f sev eral Q u r'an ic p assag es d ealin g w ith M o ses' req u est o f G od : "A nd give m e a m in ister from m y fam ily, A aron , m y b ro th er; ad d to m y stren g th th rou g h h im , and m ake h im sh are m y task "), an d in h u n d red s o f o th er cases and exam p les, th e S h i'a arg u e, it w as clea r th a t M uham m ad h ad w ish ed 'A li an d h is fam ily to con tin u e h is m ission .7 D u rin g th e la st fiv e years o f h is life , th e p eriod o f h is calip h ate, S h a ri'a ti con tin u ed , 'A li fou g h t fo r ju stice , an d p u t h is "in tellectu al an d p h y sical p ow ers in to th e serv ice o f th e n eed y an d th e d ep rived . H e b ecam e th e m ou th o f th ose w ho cou ld n o t sp eak and th e w eap on o f th ose w ho w ere d efen seless.'* P erh ap s th e m o st tellin g exam p le o f 'A li's attitu d e tow ard gov ern m en t, S h i'a trad itio n s rep ort, w as h is recom m end ations to M alik al-A sh tar, on e o f h is clo sest asso ciates an d th e ap p oin ted g ov ern or o f Egypt. In a letter, 'A li is said to have ad v ised M alik: You must be just, and the serving of file common man must be one of your prim e objectives; the gratification of the aristocracy is insignificant and can be ignored in the face of the happiness of the m asses. Look after file deprived and the dispossessed who need food and shelter. Give them generously from bait al-m al [public fund]. It is your duty to protect them and their fam ilies. Be kind to those you rule. The people w ill obey their ruler if they are immune from his abuse. Avoid nepotism and do not give land to your

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relatives. Do not base your rule on bloodshed, because this w ill weaken you and w ill turn the tide of events against you.9 /A li/s leg acy o f stru g g le fo r so cial ju stice an d u n ity am ong th e M u slim s w as carried on b y h is second son , H u sayn , th e S h i'a b eliev e. H u sayn, it is said , fou gh t ag ain st U m ayyad co rru p tio n o f Islam , d efied th eir m ig h t, an d sacrificed h im self an d h is fam ily a t K arbala in ord er to u p h old a p rin cip le an d p ass o n a m essage to fu tu re gen eration s.10 A tru e m om ent o f m eta-h istory , th e m artyrd om o f th e th ird im am , H u sayn , a t K arbala h a s left an in erad icab le im p rin t on S h i'a th ou gh t an d trad itio n . T o th is d ay, K arbala rem ain s "th e o v errid in g m o tif' in S h i'a rev olu tion ary con sciou sn ess an d d iscou rse. It p ro v id es "m od els fo r liv in g an d a m nem onic fo r th in k in g ab ou t h ow to liv e . . . [and] a w ay o f clearly d em arcatin g S h i'ite u nd er­ stan d in g from Su n n i u n d erstan d in g o f Islam an d Islam ic h isto ­ ry ."11 F o r b eliev ers, K arbala tran scen d s con v en tion al b ou n d aries o f tim e, geograp hy an d dom inion. It rep resen ts "th e etern al hu m an d ialectic b etw een good an d e v il, b etw een n o b ility an d b asen ess, b etw een p o litica l exp ed ien cy and m oral id ealism , b etw een th e trib a l eth o s and th e ratio n al co n scien ce w h ich asp ires to the fo rm atio n o f a n in teg rated um m a, b etw een m ercen ary m an and m a n o f p rin cip le."12 T h ey w ere d ark tim es u n d er th e reig n o f th e secon d U m ayyad calip h , Y azid ib n M u 'aw iy a, w e are told . T h e aristo cracy o f the ja h iliy y a w as b ein g rev ived . Islam 's h o liest id eals w ere b ein g th reaten ed . H u sayn saw n o altern ativ e b u t rev o lt. T he fa ct th at he co u ld n o t overcom e U m ayyad m ig h t m attered little. W orld ly K ingd om w as n o t h is en d . H e em bod ied its tem p tation s: In h is v e in s, h e carried th e b lo o d o f M uham m ad. 'A li and Fatim a w ere h is p ro g en ito rs. A n in tifad a w as n eed ed . H u sayn d ecid ed to b e in its fo refro n t.13 D eterm in ed and d efian t, th e S h i'a im am b eg an h is fatefu l jo u rn e y to K u fa on 10 Sep tem b er 680 C .E . T h e h isto ry w h ich p reced ed h im set th e stage fo r a show dow n. T h e K ufiins h ad rep eated ly requ ested H u sayn to assu m e th e m an tle o f h is gran d fa­ th er. T h e p lay o f K u fan p o litics, h ow ev er, w as n otoriou sly cap ricio u s. K u fan p o p u lar su p p ort, th ou gh n o t in con seq u en tial, w as rep u ted to b e in co n sta n t It had forced the second S h i'a im am , H u say n 's o ld er b ro th er, H asan , to su rren d er th e calip h ate in fav or

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o f (h e ir fa th e r's arch en em y, M u 'aw iy a flm A bi Su fy an , g ov ern or o f Sy ria an d fou n d er o f th e U m ayyad d yn asty. Faced w ith th e form id ab le ch allen g e from th e W est an d th e relu ctan ce o f th e K u fan s to fig h t fo r h is rig h t to th e calip h ate d esp ite th eir sw orn alleg ian ce to h im , H asan h ad ab d icated th e p o sitio n o f calip h in retu rn fo r certain co n cessio n s, th e sp ecifics o f w h ich a re s till d ebated b y Islam ic sch o lars, h i effect, th e S h i'a im am 's in terest o f p reserv in g th e u n ity o f th e M u slim s h ad to b e ach ieved a t th e co st o f "h is p erso n al and fam ily in terests and feelin g s."14 T h e arran gem en t w as th at M u 'aw iya w ou ld ru le acco rd in g to th e d ictates o f th e Q u r'an and th e su n n a, an d leav e th e se lectio n o f th e su ccesso r to th e calip h ate to the sh u ra o f th e com m u n ity. G iv en th e age d ifferen ce o f ab o u t tw en ty years b etw een th e tw o m en , th is le ft th e S h i'a im am as a p rim e con ten d er fo r d ie p ost. B u t th e shrew d g ov ern or had d esign s o f h is ow n. H e in ten d ed fo r h is so n to ru le a fter h im , a p lan w h ich n ecessitated th e rem oval o f H asan. T rad itio n al lo re rep o rts th a t M u 'aw iya b rib ed one o f th e im am 's w iv es to p o iso n H asan b y p rom isin g h er a larg e su m o f m on ey and m arriage to h is son , Y azid . T he w om an ob liged and w as p aid a s ag reed . B u t w h en it cam e to m arryin g Y azid , M u 'aw ­ iy a to ld h er th at he v alu ed th e life o f h is ow n son. It w as a sto ry H u sayn knew a ll to o w ell, h av in g b een rem in d ed o f it rep eated ly . T h e g reat M u slim h isto rian A bu Ja 'fa r a l-T ab ari reco rd s how th e p o et, al-F arazd aq , su m m arized K u fan tem p era­ m en t b y exh ortin g th e S h i'a im am : "The h earts o f th e [K u fan] p eo p le are w ith you , b u t th eir sw ord s a re w ith B an i U m ayya."15 B u t H u sayn w as u n d eterred . A fter th e d eath o f M u 'aw iy a an d th e com in g to p ow er o f Y azid , h e fe lt released from th e agreem en t h is b ro th er had m ad e. S h i'a trad itio n s fu rth erm ore relate th e w o rld ly ex cesses o f th e n ew calip h . Y azid , H u sayn is rep orted to h av e sa id , "abid ed b y ob ed ien ce to S atan an d aband oned obed ien ce to th e M ercifu l____[H e] d isp layed a ll corru p tion : an n u llin g th e lim its o f G od , u su rp in g th e p eo p le's w ealth , allow in g w h at G od h ad p ro h ib ited , an d p ro h ib itin g w h at [G od] h ad san ction ed ."16 C learly , fo r H u sayn and h is su p p orters, p eacefu l co existen ce u n d er U m ayyad ru le w as n o lo n g er a n h on orab le op tion . H u say n 's jo u rn ey to K ufa w as in terru p ted b y an U m ayyad arm y d etach m en t o f ab o u t one thou sand m en com m and ed b y H u rr b in Y azid al-T am im i al-Y arb u 'i. T h eir ord ers w ere to keep th e "reb els"

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aw ay fro m th e E u p h rates, and to p rev en t th em from h altin g an yw h ere excep t in d ie d e se rt H u it , h ow ever, h ad a certa in esteem fo r th e gran d son o f M uham m ad and d id n o t w an t to u se fo rce. H u sayn, in tu rn , refu sed to b e the first to tak e to arm s. O n 2 M u harram 61 A .H ./2 O ctob er 680 C .E ., H u sayn reach ed the p la in o f K arbala w h ere th ey p itch ed th eir ten ts. T rad itio n s h a s it th at w h en H u sayn w as in form ed th a t th e area w as kn ow n a s K arb ala, h e exclaim ed : O God in Thee do I take refuge from sorrow (karb) and calam ity (bala'). This is die place of sorrow and calam ity; dismount. Here w ill be the spot of die end of our journey, the spot whereon our blood shall be shed, and die spot of our graves. O f this my grandfather, the Aposde of God, informed me.17 F o r alm ost a w eek , th e p eace h eld th e day. N on eth eless, om ens o f th e cataclysm th at w as to en g u lf th e h ou se o f M uham m ad w ere in p lain sig h t. O n th e th ird o f M u harram , a n ew U m ayyad com m an d er and an ad d itio n al fo u r thou sand tro o p s arriv ed . O n th e ev en in g o f th e n in th , an u ltim atu m w as issu ed callin g fo r H u sayn to d eclare h is b a y 'a to Y azid u n d er th e th reat o f an n ih ila­ tio n . T h e S h i'a im am ask ed fo r and w as gran ted a resp ite o f on e n ig h b -a n ig h t o f p ray er, o f th an k in g h is com p an ion s fo r th eir su p p o rt, and o f releasin g th em from th eir o ath o f alleg ian ce to h im . T h e daw n o f M u harram 10 u sh ered in th e trag ic fate o f the fam ily o f th e P rop h et and its h an d fu l o f su p p orters. H u sayn exh o rted h is en em y, argu in g: "A m I n o t th e so n o f th e d au gh ter o f y o u r P rop h et, th e son o f h is w asi [leg atee], and th e son o f th e first b elie v er in w h at th e M essen ger o f G o d . . . b ro u g h t from h is G od? . . . D id you n o t h ear th at th e M essen ger o f G od said o f m e and o f m y b ro th er th at 'th ey are th e lo rd s o f th e you th s o f P arad ise'?"18 B u t it w as a ll in vain . Id ealism w as overcom e b y greed an d the p rom ise o f rich es. O n e b y on e, H u sayn 's com p an ion s su ccu m bed to U m ayyad sw ord s and arrow s. T h en , sh o rtly b efo re d u sk , it w as th e im am 's tu rn to d ie. H e w as stab bed th irty -th ree tim es, su ffered th irty -fo u r sw ord -cu ts, an d h is b o d y w as rid d led w ith arrow s. H e w as th en d ecap itated w h ile th e w om en and ch ild ren w atch ed and w ailed in agon y . H is b o d y w as tram p led b y the h o rses o f ten m ou n ted so ld iers. H is cam p w as ran sacked . H is clo th es, sw ord

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an d san d als w ere sto len . Even th e v eils an d garm en ts o f th e w om en w ere taken . AU th in g s, w e are to ld , v isib le an d in v isib le, P arad ise an d HeU, an d th e sev en h eav en s an d sev en earth s w ith a ll th eir in h ab itan ts w e p t T h e d ay b ecam e know n a s 'A sh u ra, d ie ten th d ay o f th e m on th o f M uharram . T h e pogrom d id n o t en d w ith th e slau gh ter. T h e b ro k en b o d ies o f H u sayn an d h is com p an ion s w ere le ft on th e san d s o f K arb ala, exp osed to th e b listerin g su n o f th e d esert. T w o d ay s later, on the m orn in g o f th e tw elfth , th e tro o p s d ep arted fo r K ufa. L ead in g th e p ro cessio n w ere so ld iers carry in g seven ty-tw o h ead s, each raised o n th e p o in t o f a lan ce, foUow ed b y th e rest o f th e arm y and th e cap tiv e w om en on cam els. T he h ead s w ere p u t on p u b lic d isp lay fo r th e K u fans to see b efo re b ein g sen t alo n g w ith th e w om en to Y a z id 's seat o f p ow er in D am ascu s. O n th a t v ery d ay , m em bers o f th e trib e o f B an i A sad b u ried th e b o d ies o f H u sayn an d h is com p an ion s on th e sam e site w h ere th ey w ere k illed . W ith K arb ala, H usayn becam e frozen in d eath a s larg er th an life . N o o th er b ein g h as ev er m ad e m ore o f a n im p act on S h i'a co n scio u sn ess th an h e did . A nd n o o th er grou p o f in d iv id u als h a s b een th e su b ject o f m ore v en eratio n th an h is com p an ion s a t K arbala. Som e h isto rian s h av e p ortrayed H u sayn a s a tra g ic, ob d u rate, and politicaU y n aiv e in d iv id u al w h o ov erestim ated h is ow n in v io lab ility as th e gran d son o f d ie P rop het. Su ch a read in g , it is said , fa ils to grasp th e essen ce o f H u say n 's actio n s an d m otiv ation s. In its m ost b asic m eaning, th e 'A lid s an d th eir S h i'a co n ten d , th e risin g o f H u sayn "w as on e o f se lf-sacrifice . . . [d esigned to draw ] . . . th e atten tio n o f th e um m a to th e d an g er, settin g it tow ard s co n fro n tin g th at d an g er an d releasin g in it th e p ow er o f th e rev o lu tio n and th e sp irit o f refu sal."19 T h e fig h t w a s fo r th e g lo ry o f G od , an d fo r th e v ictory o f Ught ov er d ark n ess. W ith h is so u l, fam ily an d ch ild ren , H u sayn is said to h av e red eem ed d ie relig io n o f M uham m ad. M ore im p o rtan tly , S h i'ism h o ld s, d ie real sto ry o f H usayn b eg an b efo re th e b eg in n in g o f tim e an d creatio n an d w ou ld en d on ly a t th e end o f tim e. T h e reap p ear­ in g M ahd i w ill d ie on th e D ay o f R esu rrection an d H u sayn an d h is com p an ion s a t K arbala w ill ru le in h is lieu fo r th ree h u n d red years. In th e en su in g fin a l b a ttle , ag ain fou gh t n ear K arb ala, H u sayn w ill b e v icto rio u s an d S atan d efeated . "T h en , 'G o d th e In v in cib le ( al-Jabbar) h im self w ill d escen d in clou d s o f fire w ith th e

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a n g e ls / and h is etern al d ecree w ill b e execu ted ." T h e cy cle th u s com p leted / "creatio n w ill retu rn to its o rig in al p u r i t y , . . . 'th e earth sh a ll b e ch an g ed to oth er th an th e e a r th / A ll d om in ion w ill b elo n g to G od ."20 S h i'ism griev ed fo r its folien im am and stro v e to keep the rev o lu tio n aliv e in th e p u b lic con scien ce. T h e im am s o f ah l al-b ay t (1 ) en cou raged th e com p osition and p ro p ag atio n o f a corp u s o f eleg iac w ritin g know n a s m arath i, (2 ) p rom oted th e p erform an ce o f ta'ziy a (m ou rning) cerem on ies on v ario u s occasion s th rou g h ou t th e y ear, b u t esp ecially d u ring th e first ten days o f M u harram lead in g to th e 'A sh u ra p ro cessio n s on th e ten th , an d (3) estab lish ed th e in stitu tio n o f th e ziy ara (v isitatio n ) to th e tom bs o f th e m artyred im am an d oth er m em bers o f h is h ou seh old .21 A s T am biah su g­ g ests, th e rep etitio n o f th is m artyrd om rep erto ry en abled "ritu al to im itate th e rh yth m ic im p erativ es an d p rocesses o f th e cosm os, and th ereb y to attach p erm an en ce an d leg itim acy to w h a t . . . [w ere] a ctu ally tem p oral so cial con stru ction s."22 It b rou g h t m y th ic tim e to th e p resen t, p ro jected the p resen t onto th e lev el o f m y th , an d led to th e in tern alizatio n o f H u say n 's m artyrd om b y th e m asses, th u s tran sform in g d eath and d efeat, and con v ertin g p assiv ity , su b m issio n , and su rren d er in to an im p etu s fo r actio n .23 T h e G h ad iriy y a, en com p assin g K arbala an d its im m ed iate en v iro n s, cam e to b e regard ed a s b ein g "o f d ie earth o f the H oly H ouse (bay t a l-M aq d is)" its so il a sou rce o f h ealin g and ab solu tion . "T h e sig h o f th e sorrow fu l fo r th e w ron g d on e" a t K arbala cam e to b e seen as "a n a ct o f p raise (tasbih ) [o f G o d ], h is sorrow . . . [an] act o f w o rsh ip " and aton em en t.24 It w as to exp iate m en fo r th eir failu re to liv e u p to th eir w o rd s, fo r b ein g lik e th e p eop le o f K ufo, foilin g to fig h t fo r H u sayn and th u s allo w in g tyran n y to ex ist.25 D ifferen t m en a t d ifferen t tim es, h ow ever, drew d ifferen t lesson s fro m K arbala. V ariou s circu m stan ces prom p ted v ario u s attitu d es. K arb ala "w as a tap estry o f m any th read s. N o tale o f su ch g reat p ath o s an d traged y co u ld h av e left m en w ith a sin g le u nam bigu ­ o u s m essage."26 F o r th e T aw w abu n, rep en tan ce fo r th e failu re to su p p o rt H u sayn h ad to b e exp ressed th rou g h th e aven gin g o f h is m u rd er. For o th ers, th e m essage w as a s one o f p atien ce and an ticip atio n o f th e m illen n iu m w h en th e occu lted M ahd i w ould reap p ear to fill th e earth w ith ju stice and fairn ess. G riev in g fo r H u sayn b ecam e a m eans fo r ach iev in g salv atio n in th e h ereafter,

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an d th e m em ory o f K arbala d id n o t im p act u p on "d ie d aily liv e s o f th e p eo p le a s a p o litica l cau se."27 F or th e /A lid s o f th e lin e o f H asan , d ie agen d a h ad to b e rev o lu tio n u n til v icto ry , w h ile fo r th o se o f th e lin e o f H u sayn , th e co rrect p ath la y in b u ild in g "a cu ltu ral stru ctu re fo r th e in d iv id u al M u slim an d [form ing] a cu ltu ral clim ate fo r o p p o s i t i o n . . . b y tran sform in g d ie S h i'a in to a n effectiv e in tellectu al fo rce in ord in ary so ciety ."” M ore recen tiy , rev isio n ist 'u lam a an d in tellectu als, b o th S h i'a an d n o n -S h i'a , h av e tried to strip th e m artyrd om o f H usayn o f its d om in an t o rien tatio n s o f in tercessio n , p assiv e lam en t, an d m illen arian exp ectation . U n d erlyin g th ese attem p ts w as th e rein terp retatio n o f H u say n 's m artyrd om a s sy m b olizin g tran scen ­ d en t tru th s an d reflectin g b asic u n resolv ed h u m an co n flicts. "H u sayn d ied ," it cam e to b e argu ed , "in p ro test o f th e h u n g er o f th e h u n g ry , th e p o v erty o f th e p o o r, an d th e op p ression o f th e op p ressed ."29 E veryw here in th e Islam ic w o rld , th e lesso n s learn ed a t K arbala w ere recon stru cted so as to ad d ress m o d em con cern s. In L eban on, Say y id M u h sin al-A m in , on e o f th e m o st in flu en tial m u jtah id s o f h is tim e, ign ited a storm w h en h e lau n ch ed th e cru sad e ag ain st th e m arked ly v io len t ta tb ir, ja n z ir, an d latm p ractices o f th e 'A sh u ra cerem on ies. H is cam p aig n , th ou gh d efeated , sp ark ed a m ajo r con tro v ersy in S h i'a th in k in g w h ich co n tin u es tod ay. R ally in g ag ain st al-A m in , Sh aykh 'A b d a lH u sayn al-S ad iq o f al-N ab atiy y a, Say yid 'A b d al-H u say n S h a ra f a lD in , an d o th ers, w ere in effe ct assertin g th at th ere w as a d irect relatio n sh ip b etw een d isp lay s o f em otion s an d so cial an d relig io u s com m itm en t, th at scars served a s a p h y sically com p ellin g "h isto ri­ c a l record o f sy m b ols d en otin g g r ie f' w h ich th u s tran sfo rm in d iv id u al acts in to so cial m ovem ents.30 M ean w h ile, follo w in g th e lo ss o f P alestin e in 1948, m em bers o f th e B a 'th p arty in the m ark et tow n o f B in t Ju b ay l, on L eb an o n 's so u th ern fro n tier, recast th e stru ggle b etw een th e S h i'a im am an d th e U m ayyad ru ler, tu rn in g it in to a langu age fo r th eir ow n so cia l v isio n . H u sayn b ecam e P alestin e, and Y azid a p réfig u ratio n o f Z ion ism . V ario u s asp ects o f the im am 's actio n s w ere sy m b o lically ap p rop riated an d m ad e to fit th e P alestin ian dram a. L ike Y a z id 's, it w as p red icted , th e Z io n ist v icto ry co u ld b e a tem p orary o n e, d oom ed to failu re u n d er the com bined w eig h t o f erro r, in ju stice, an d d eceit. T h e M ah d i w as fated to reap p ear, B a 'th ist p am p h le-

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te e rs argu ed ; b u t in stead o f th is occu rrin g a t th e en d o f tim e, h is ad v en t w ou ld b e m arked b y th e ab o litio n o f a ll so cial in eq u alities an d th e em ergen ce on earth o f a gold en age o f glob al socialism .31 In E gyp t, 'A b b as M ahm ud al-'A q q ad and 'A b d al-R ah m an a lSh arq aw i su p p lied th e m o d em A rab in telle ctu a l's im p ression o f H u sayn a s th e tru est o f h éro s an d m ost au g u st o f m arty rs. 'A q q a d 's sem in al w o rk , al-H u sayn A bu al-S h u h ad a' (H u sayn , the F ath er o f M artyrs), first p u b lish ed in 1944, d efin ed H u say n 's m artyrd om as th e stru g g le b etw een "tw o h isto ric tem p eram en ts," o n e w o rk in g fo r "rig h teou sn ess an d d ig n ity ," th e o th er fo r "in terest an d rich es." H u sayn ib n 'A li, acco rd in g to al-'A q q ad , em bod ied the b e st o f B anu H ashim (P ro p h et's M uham m ad clan ): H e had h is fa m ily 's ch aracteristic b en ev olen ce, cou rag e an d fid elity , stu d ied scien ce, literatu re an d h orsem an sh ip , an d w as elo q u en t, n o b le an d w ise. Y azid ib n M u 'aw iy a, on th e oth er h an d , "had in h im m any o f h is fa m ily 's failin g s an d few o f its lau d ed v irtu es:" H e loved d rin k in g and h u n tin g , and w as a d egen erate w h o liv ed fo r th e p leasu res o f th e flesh and d ied from th eir excesses. H u say n 's com p an ion s b eliev ed in h im , th o se w ith Y azid w ere attracted b y th e p rom ises o f rich es. T h e tru th , al-'A q q ad argu ed , w as th at K arbala w as "a w ar o f execu tion ers an d m arty rs," an d th at H u sayn liv ed on in h is d eath w h ile Y azid h ad in effect d ied o n th at d ay a t K arbala.32 A q u arter o f a cen tu ry a fte r al-'A q q ad , al-Sh arq aw i p resen ted C airo au d ien ces w ith T ha’r A llah (T he R evenge o f G od ), an ep icsty le stag e p ro d u ctio n o f th e ev en ts lead in g to the ten th o f M u harram . It w as n o t h isto ry th at en g aged th e p lay w rig h t p e r se , b u t rath er a search fo r m ean in g , and in d eed fo r h op e and in sp ira­ tio n am id st th e tu m u lt th at en g u lfed E gypt a t th e tim e. 'T o th e m em ory o f m y m oth er," al-Sh arqaw i w rote, "w ho tau g h t m e th at I lo v e H u sayn th a t sad lo v e m ixed w ith ad m iration , ad u latio n , an d so rro w , w h ich en g en d ers in the so u l a m y steriou s agon y , an d a trem en d ou s y earn in g fo r ju stic e , lib erty , fratern ity , an d th e d ream s o f red em p tion ." In th e clo sin g lin es o f the fin al a ct o f th is in terp re­ tiv e w o rk , th e S h i'a im am em erged from b eyon d tim e to ex h o rt the p eo p le: Remember me not through the shedding of the blood of others, but rem ember m e when you seek to save the truth from the claws of falsehood. Remember me as you struggle in order that justice may

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reign over you, remember me in your struggle___ W hen the song of brotherhood is forgotten and when the poor suffers and the pockets of foe rich are filled, remember me. . . . Remember my revenge so that you may exact it from tyrants. In this, life w ill find its victory. But if you hold your peace against deception and accept hum iliation, dien I w ill be slain anew. I w ill be killed every day a thousand tim es. I w ill be killed every tim e a zealous man is silent or a man of endurance weakens. I w ill be killed as long as Yazid rules over you and does what he pleases.33 H ow ever, th e m o d em u n d erstan d in g o f H u sayn, an d co n se­ q u en tly o f S h i'ism a s a relig io n a s w ell as a p o litica l id e n tity , receiv ed its fu llest an d m ost w id esp read articu latio n in Iran . T h e p o liticiz a tio n o f th e relig io u s id io m h as b een a co n stan t in Iran ian so cio p o litical life sin ce th e co n stitu tio n al rev o lu tio n o f 1905-1911, an d p o ssib ly earlier. T h e fig u re o f H u sayn , fo r in stan ce, w as cen tral to a m an y h ay 'at-i sen fi and v o lu n tary asso ciatio n s w h ich p lay ed a p iv o tal ro le in th at rev olu tion . M em bers o f th ese o rg an i­ zatio n s p roclaim ed th e S h i'a im am th e p atron o f a ll secret so cieties, an d in v ok ed h is m em ory as a rally in g p o in t fo r the stru g g le ag ain st d esp otism and fo reig n p en etratio n in to Iran ian territo ry .34 It w as u n d er d ie lead ersh ip o f A yatu llah K hom eini and th e p ro g ressiv e id eology o f 'A li S h a ri'a ti (1933-1977) th at S h i'ism assu m ed its d efin itiv e form a s a p o litical relig io n . T h e fu n d am en tal id eo lo g ical d ifferen ces b etw een th e tw o m en n o tw ith stan d in g , b o th called on p eop le to follo w in th e fo o tstep s o f th e tru e M u slim s a t K arb ala, and to d eny th eir fears an d m aterial attach m en ts in o rd er to testify to a h ig h er p assion . W h eth er in K h om ein i's m o d a s o r S h a ri'a ti's lectu res a t th e H u sayniyya Irsh ad , th e renow ned relig io u s in stitu tio n in T eh ran , Islam b ecam e th e p referred lan gu age o f p o litical d iscou rse, reson atin g th rou g h ou t Iran ian so ciety . T h rou gh th e ju x tap o sitio n o f secu lar an d relig io u s co n cep ts, an d th e recastin g in to an Islam ic m old o f th e p arad igm s o f W estern so cio p o litical th eo ry , S h a ri'a ti g alv an ized th e con sciou s­ n ess o f th e Iran ian in tellig en tsia and em erged as its m o st p o ten t w eap on ag ain st P ah lavi im p eriou sn ess. K hom eini, on th e o th er h an d , form u lated h is id eo lo g ical p rosp ectu s in a co n text th at w as ex clu siv ely Islam ic and p u rged o f secu lar orien tation s. T h e ay atu llah sp oke th e v ern acu lar, and relied on p op u lar relig io u s form s su ch a s th e raw d a, ta 'z iy a p ro cessio n s, and d asta o f you n g

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m en in o rd er to m ob ilize th e m asses. In th e p rocess/ h e cam e to b e view ed a s carry in g w ith in h im "th e g ift o f g race." In d eed , K hom ­ e in i g en iu s la y in h is ab ility to fu se th e sen sib ilities o f Iran ian s a t d ifferen t en d s o f th e p o litico -relig io u s sp ectru m in to a sin g le co llectiv e, p rom o te th e organ izatio n al stru ctu re, an d p rov id e th e lead ersh ip fo r a p ro test m ovem ent th at w ou ld v irtu ally erase the leg acy o f n early th ree m illen n ia o f a n elab orated d y n astic trad itio n in Iran. 'T ru e Islam ," K hom eini and S h a ri'a ti m ain tain , is "th e Islam o f th e p eo p le, o f th e exp lo ited , and th e p o o r.'05 It is "th e relig io n o f m ilitan t in d iv id u als w ho are com m itted to tru th and j u s t i c e , . . . tiie relig io n o f th o se w ho d esire freed om and in d ep en d en ce." Y et, as b o th activ ists recog n ize, th e exp erien ces o f fo reig n im p erialism an d "W estoxication " (g h arbzad eg i) h av e d isto rted M u ham m ad 's m essage an d d ep rived it o f its "v ita l, rev olu tion ary asp ect.'06 M ore im p o rtan tly, fo reig n d om in ation h as le ft th e Islam ic w orld in th e th ro es o f a fu n d am en tal crisis o f id en tity w h ich , acco rd in g to S h a ri'a ti, can on ly b e resolv ed b y rev iv in g th e Islam o f a h l al-b ay t, o r 'A law i S h i'ism , "an in tellectu ally p ro g ressiv e Islam ic m ovem ent a s w ell as a m ilitan t so cial fo rce, th e m ost com m itted , m ost rev olu tion ary Islam ic" d octrin e.97 T h is rev iv al, S h a ri'a ti co n tin u es, req u ires a n in sp ired lead ersh ip o f "en lig h ten ed th in k ers" (ran sh an fek ra n ), o rig in atin g from am ongst th e p eop le to d irect th e com m u ni­ ty on th e p ath o f H u sayn a t K arbala.38 O r as K hom eini em p h asiz­ e s, it m u st b e ach iev ed th rou g h the estab lish m en t o f a n Islam ic gov ernm ent ( hu ku m at-i Islam i) w ith a fa q ih a t th e helm . T h e exp erien ce o f su fferin g is th ou g h t to carry "w ith in itse lf its ow n refu sal. It is in essen ce refu sal to s u f f e r . . . [th ereby opening] itse lf to rev o lt an d to lib erty ."99 M artyrd om rep resen ts th e h ig h est ach ievem en t to w h ich hu m an ity cou ld asp ire. It is a w illed d eath , ch o sen an d d esired b y th e so ld iers o f Islam w h o, w h en "w eakened an d w ith ou t m ean s b y w h ich to s tru g g le ,. . . gu aran tee th eir liv es, fa ith , resp ect, h o n o r, fu tu re, and h isto ry w ith sh ah ad at [m artyr­ d om ]." A s fo r th e sh ah id (m artyr), h e is tiie heart of history. Like the heart, a shahid sends his own blood into tiie . . . body of the dying society, whose children have lost faith in themselves, which is slowly approaching death, which has accepted submission, which has forgotten its responsibility, which is alienated from humanity, and in which there is no life, move-

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m ent, and creativity. The greatest m iracle of shahadat is giving to a generation a renewed faith in itself. A shahid is ever-present and ever-lasting.40 M u sa al-S ad r w as v ery w ary o f the left exp lo itin g relig io n fo r "scien tific m aterialism ." H e ch erish ed th e w o rk s o f al-'A q q ad an d al-Sh arq aw i an d often referred to them in h is lectu res. B u t it w as S h a ri'a ti w ith w hom Say yid M u sa sh ared th e m ost. In m an y w ay s, th e say yid stood a t th e d iv id e b etw een th e Iran ian th in k er an d A y atu llah K hom eini. L ike S h a ri'a ti, M u sa al-S ad r saw h im self a s fo rg in g a n ew p ath b etw een trad itio n alism and m od ern ism , a n ew o rien tatio n w ith w h ich h e cou ld b e "m od em in a ll th e cap acities n eed ed fo r h an d lin g m od em tech n o lo g ies, w ith o u t lo sin g o n e 's cu ltu re and sen se o f id en tity ."42 S h a ri'a ti called fo r a rev iv al o f tru e Islam , o r 'A law i S h i'ism , w h ich h e d efin ed as th e S h i'ism o f scien ce and in n ov ation , free o f dogm a an d co rru p tio n , an d p u rged o f its su p erstition s an d d ep end ency u p on o b scu ran tist 'u lam a. M u sa al-S ad r in tu rn d eclared th at relig io n and scien ce are tw in s. B oth m en "red efin ed a M u slim a s a p erso n w ho h as a sen se o f so cial resp o n sib ility and carries ou t a m issio n in so ci­ ety ."44 A nd b o th b eliev ed in p reserv in g S h i'ism a s a m ov em en t, an d in m ain tain in g a s its fo ca l p o in t th e im ag es o f 'A li and H u sayn as th e id eal lead ers, u nbow ed in th e face o f tyran n y and d eath . P erh ap s n ow h ere w as th e lin k b etw een M u sa al-S ad r an d 'A li S h a ri'a ti rev ealed m ore clea rly th an in th e eu log y w h ich th e cleric gav e fo r th e activ ist m em ber o f th e Iran ian N ation al F ro n t fo rty d ay s a fter h is assassin atio n in London on 19 Ju n e 1977. M en liv in g in a so ciety w h ich fa ils to satisfy th eir asp iratio n s occu p y fo u r d istin ct categ o ries, th e cleric said . T h ere are th o se w h o su b m it to th e ex istin g statu s q u o, becom e p illa rs o f th at so ciety , an d con form to its w ays. A secon d grou p , feelin g th at it can n ot ch an ge th e rea lity w ith in w h ich it fin d s itself, rejects it and em ig rates. A th ird attem p ts ch an ge, b u t b eliev in g its cu ltu ral h eritag e to b e b an k ru p t an d in cap ab le o f g en eratin g th e n eed ed in stru m en ts o f ch an g e, tu rn s to fo reig n id eolog ies an d p ersu asion s. T h e fo u rth grou p a lso attem p ts ch an ge, b u t relies on th e id eo lo g ical d ynam ism o f its ow n cu ltu ral m atrix in th e stru ggle fo r ren ew al. 'A li S h a ri'a ti b elo n g ed to th is la st categ o ry , Say yid M u sa said , a grou p w h ich w as the

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o n ly one am ong th e fo u r th at cou ld b e said to rep resen t a w ay o f th in k in g th at w as tru e "to ou r h earts, h eritag e, and fa ith .'45 O n th e oth er han d , Sayyid M u sa rev ered K hom eini as one o f th e m o st in flu en tial relig io u s au th o rities and lead ers o f h is tim e. T h e a y a tu lla h 's op en rev o lt ag ain st th e sh ah in 1963 m ad e a p rofou n d im p act on th e say y id 's ow n th in kin g , h i reig n itin g th e o p p osition ag ain st P ah lavi o p p ression on 3 A p ril o f th at y ear, K hom eini n ot o n ly in trod u ced a new p ersp ectiv e on relig io u s activ ism , b u t also in itiated a m ovem ent th at drew th e relig io u s estab lish m en t in Iran o u t o f the q u ietist sh ell to w h ich it h ad retreated in th e p reced in g d ecad e. A s a resu lt o f h is actio n s, th e shap e o f th e Iran ian so cio p o litical lan d scap e w as irrev ocab ly altered . T o Say yid M u sa, K h o m ein i's lead ersh ip evoked th e eras o f th e tob acco rev o lt o f 1890-1892, th e co n stitu tio n al crisis o f 1906, and o f P rem ier D r. M oham m ad M ossad egh (1951-1953), d u rin g w h ich the 'u lam a had p lay ed a lead in g ro le in g alv an izin g th e p u b lic and th ereb y creatin g a form id able co llectiv e n atio n alist id en tity th at had d efied W estern n eo -co lo n ial hegem on y in Iran . K hom eini and Say yid M u sa, it is said , corresp on d ed ex ten siv ely , an d Say y id M usa en listed the h elp o f Pope P au l V I to h av e K hom eini released from p riso n in 1963. M ore im p o rtan tly , the say yid h im self w as a p iv o tal fig u re in th e Iran ian rev olu tion , h elp in g to sm u ggle record in g s o f K h o m ein i's sp eech es in to Iran th ro u g h Leban on, an d p rov id in g sh elter an d train in g grou n d s in th e B iq a ' fo r h u n d red s o f Iran ian an ti-sh ah d issid en ts. G row in g u p in Iran , Say yid M usa w as deep ly affected b y the cle rg y 's activ ism an d th e crisis o f id en tity and leg itim acy w h ich it w as facin g . T he secu lar law s p rom u lgated d u rin g th e reig n o f R eza S h ah h ad d eep ly in tru d ed in to relig io u s life . T he d riv e tow ard co n so lid atin g a m o d em cen tralized b o u rg eo is state h ad g reatly red u ced th e c le rg y 's sig n ifican ce in th e so cio p o litical stru ctu re.46 A s a d irect resu lt o f th is, en ro llm en t in th e sem in aries d rop ped sh arp ly as stu d en ts in creasin g ly avoid ed relig io u s ed u catio n an d career. M usa al-S ad r w as n o excep tion . A s he h im self ad m itted , "m y d ecisio n [to b e a m an o f relig ion ] w as n o t sp ecifically d ictated b y tibe fact th a t I am d escend ed from a relig io u s fam ily ------A t the b eg in n in g it w as alm o st a sacrifice m y fath er h ad ask ed m e to m ak e. . . . I acced ed to m y fa th e r's w ish an d w as fo rced to in terru p t m y secu lar ed u cation ."

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Y ears later, h ow ev er, Say yid M usa w as to satisfy h is in terest fo r a secu lar ed u catio n an d ob tain ed h is d egree in Law fro m T eh ran U n iv ersity . N on eth eless, in h av in g to m ake a d ecisio n b etw een a secu lar an d a relig io u s ca reer, h e op ted fo r th e latter, b eliev in g th at it w as "m ore im p o rtan t fo r d ie S h i'a m an o f relig io n to assu m e, if h e cou ld , th e ro le o f gu id e in th e serv ice o f so ciety ." It w as th e sam e m o tiv atio n , h e ad d ed , th at exp lain ed h is d ecisio n to g o to L eban on.47 'T h e u m m a w as sile n t, fre e m en w ere fu g itiv es," Say y id M u sa o b serv ed , "fear h ad silen ced d iem . Islam w as th reaten ed ." A great sacrifice was needed to . . . stir feelings. The event at Karbala was that sacrifice.. . . Husayn put his fam ily . . . and even his life, in the balance against tyranny and corruption. Then die Islam ic world burst forth with this — revolution.4* The true arena where the battle of 'Ashura was fought is die arena of human values which cannot be separated from faith. Its dimen­ sions accompany man wherever he is . . . uniting him w ith all of humanity, and creating of him a reality which transcends the lim its of time and space and surpasses his powers and abilities. Through his martyrdom, Husayn upheld die [true human] values. Through his death, he revived them. And in [the shedding] of his blood, he expressed and inscribed diem on die temples of desti­ ny.49 Say y id M u sa in sisted th at h is fo llo w ers stan d to g eth er w ith H u sayn in u p h old in g "ju stice an d th e d estru ctio n o f ty ran n y ." T h e L eban ese S h i'a , h e often reiterated , h ad too often b een th e fo o tso ld iers fo r ev ery cau se o n th e p o litica l sp ectru m , ex cep t th eir ow n. T h ere w as su b stan tial S h i'a in volv em en t in th e rig h tist a lK ata'ib al-L u b n an iy ya (T he Leban ese P h alan ges) and al-A h rar (T he N ation al L ib eral P arty ), in th e leftist al-H arak a al-W atan iyy a a lL u bn an iyya (T h e Leban ese N ation al M ovem ent), in th e v ario u s o rg an izatio n s u n d er th e PLO u m b rella, a s w ell a s in ev ery o th er p o litica l grou p in g u n d er th e ru b ric o f n ation alism a n d /o r A rabism . W h at h is com m u nity n eed ed , th e cleric th o u g h t, w as a d ose o f its ow n relig io u s h isto ry , a sen se o f p rid e in its ow n triu m p h s, an d th e co u rag e to act in its ow n in terest. "T h is rev o lu tio n d id n o t d ie in th e san d s o f K arbala," Say yid M u sa told a co n g reg atio n a t th e 'A m iliy y a C o lleg e on th e ev e o f th e ten th o f M u harram in 1974.

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Instead, it had flowed into the life-stream of the Islam ic world, passing from generation to generation, down to the present It was a legacy placed in our hands so that w e may profit by i t and draw from it a new source of reform, a new position, a new movement, and a new revolution by which [we can] dispel the darkness, stop tyranny, and eradicate evil.50 H u sayn , Say yid M usa said on an o th er occasion , had th ree d etracto rs. O f th ese, th e first w ere th ose w h o k illed him and h is com p an ion s a t K arbala. 'T h e y w ere th e op p resso rs, b u t th e effects o f th eir o p p ression w ere m in or fo r th ou gh th ey k illed th e b od y [o f H u sayn ], ig n ited th e ten ts, an d sto le th eir b e lo n g in g s,. . . y et th eir actio n in effect tran sform ed m o rtality in to th e etern al an d ev erlast­ in g .” T h e secon d w ere th e 'A b b asid s am ong oth ers w h o, in th e cen tu ries follo w in g K arbala, "attem p ted to o b literate a ll traces o f H u say n 's e x is te n c e ,. . . d estroyed h is tom b , b u rn ed th e lan d in w h ich h e w as b u ried , and flood ed h is sh rin e w ith w ater.” Sim ilar­ ly , th e O ttom an s forbad e an y ritu al rem em brance o f K arbala. T h is secon d attem p t to d evalu e th e sym bolic w eig h t th at H u say n 's m artyrd om carried , Say yid M usa argu ed , "w as m ore d an gerou s th an th e first,” b u t h ad ob viou sly failed sin ce cerem on ies m ou rn in g th e S h i'a im am "are observ ed tod ay b y m ore th an one h u n d red m illio n p eo p le.” T h e th ird cam p aign w as w aged b y "tiróse w h o w an ted to d isto rt th e im age o f H u sayn, . . . and red u ce h is m em ory to th at o f tears . . . an d lam en tation .” It w as th e m o st d an gerou s o f th e th ree b ecau se it strip p ed th e m em ory o f H u sayn o f its activ ist an d refo rm ist con ten t. "W e cry fo r H u sayn, and w e cry fo r h im a g reat d eal, b u t w e n ev er stop a t cry in g ,” Say yid M u sa in sisted . In d eed , "cry in g ren ew s ou r sorrow s, resen tm en ts, d esire fo r v en gean ce, an d an g er a t falseh ood ." In th e etern a l co n flict b etw een rig h t an d w ron g, th e sayyid m ain tain ed , o p p res­ sio n to o k m an y and varied form s; K arbala served as a "d istin ­ gu ish ed lin k ," a b eaco n o f lig h t in th e h isto ry o f m ankind.51 T h e w o rld o f S h i'a activ ism allow ed a d efin itiv e ro le fo r w om en, h i h is sp eech es, Say y id M u sa g lo rified Fatim a a l-Z ah ra' as "th e w om an th a t Islam w an ts W om an to b e" w ho carried w ith in h er th a t "sp ecial know led ge" o f relig io n ('ilm ) so fu nd am ental to the v ery raiso n d 'ê tre o f T w elv er S h i'ism .52 A nd th e trad itio n also celeb rated th e cen trality o f h er d au g h ter, Say yid a Z ayn ab , w h o

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w itn essed th e m u rd er o f h er b ro th er an d liv ed to te ll th e M u slim s o f th e traged y in flicted a t K arbala. If M aryam b in t /U m ran—th e V irg in M ary—is th e m ost v irtu o u s w om an o f h er tim e/ Fatim a b in t M uham m ad is the m ost v irtu o u s w om an o f a ll tim es, S h i'a trad itio n s rep ort. Fatim a w as th e P ro p h et's fav o rite ch ild . A s h e o ften in sisted : "G od is co n ten t w ith h er con ten tm en t and is an gry w ith h er anger. Fatim a is p art o f m y bod y . W hosoever h u rts h er, h as h u rt m e, and w h osoev er h u rts m e h as h u rt G od ."53 In referrin g to a l-Z ah ra', Say yid M u sa recalled h er elo q u en ce, p ersev eran ce, and d ilig en ce in assertin g th e leg itim acy o f 'A li's claim s to th e m an tle o f h er fath er.54 T h e first calip h , A bu B ak r, an d h is w ou ld -b e su ccessor, 'U m ar, ch allen g ed th is claim to leg itim acy b y d en yin g Fatim a th e rig h t to in h erit th e estate o f Fad ak, a v illag e o f th e H ijaz, w h ich M uham m ad h ad acqu ired in th e M u slim con q u est o f th e Jew ish stron gh o ld o f K haybar. T h e calip h reason ed th at "to accep t th e rig h ts o f th e fam ily o f 'A li to th e in h eritan ce o f Fad ak m ig h t b e reg ard ed a s eq u al to ad m ittin g th eir rig h ts to the su ccession o f th e P rop h et in a ll sp h eres, sp iritu al a s w ell a s m aterial."55 Fatim a, h ow ev er, w ou ld n o t relen t an d fou gh t A bu B akr an d 'U m ar from th e m in b ar o f th e m osqu e an d in th e streets o f M ed ina. In th e en d , w h en th e rid d a w ars w ere th reaten in g th e very fo u n d ation s o f th e Islam ic ord er, n on eth eless sh e ch ose to fo rfeit b o th h e r claim an d 'A li's . B u t w h at p ersisted as d ie im age o f Fatim a in th e S h i'a tra d itio n w as o f th e tru e M u slim se lf d efian t in th e face o f in ju stice an d in eq u ity. A s fo r Z ayn ab, it w as sh e w ho saved th e life o f H u say n 's a ilin g so n , Z ayn ail-'A bidin, at K arbala b y co v erin g h is b o d y w ith h er arm s. It w as she w ho lifted h er b ro th er's m u tilated b od y , p resen t­ ed it to G od an d said : "O G od! A ccep t from u s th is sacrifice." A nd it w as Z aynab w ho "w en t w ith th e carav an o f p riso n ers to K u fa a n d . . . sp read the n ew s o f th e b attle from th e h eart o f file d esert to th e cap itals o f file M u slim w o rld , from K ufa to H um s to H am a to A lep p o to B a 'lab ak an d th en to D am ascu s." "T h e w om an a t K arbala com p lem ented th e m a n 's ro le an d h is stru g g le," Say y id M u sa said . Sh e eq u alled th e m an in h eroism th u s b rin g in g to th e b a ttle b o th "n o b ility an d g lo ry ," a s H u sayn h ad d esired . "Islam n eed s w om en o f th is k in d ," th e sayyid ad d ed , an d "w e, in ou r con tem p orary so ciety , are in u rg en t n eed o f fu lly

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realizin g th e m essage o f th e P ro p h e t W e need w om en w ho stren g th en th e w ill fo r w e n eed to en list a ll o u r resou rces to ach iev e w h at G od h as ord ain ed fo r u s."56 C learly , in callin g u p on th e w om en o f a h í al-b ay t, Say yid M u sa w as id en tify in g th e L eban ese S h i'a w om an as one o f h is m ost im p o rtan t b ases o f su p p o rt A s in ev ery o th er p atriarch al so ciety , Leban ese S h i'a p o litics w as a m a n 's w o rld . T h e w om an m erely rep resen ted an ad d itio n al v o te w h ich th e m ale h ead o f th e h ou sehold h ad a t h is d isp osal to su p p o rt h is can d id ate o f ch oice. T h is is n o t to d eny the ex isten ce in th e six ties an d ea rly sev en ties o f th e p ro g ressiv e an d p o litically activ e Leban ese S h i'a w om an. S h e, h ow ever, b elon g ed to a d istin ct m in o rity w h ose in flu en ce on th e ov erall p o litica l life o f th e com m u n ity rem ain ed larg ely in v isib le. W ith Sayyid M u sa's effo rts, th is w as su b stan tially altered . A fter h is arriv al in Leban on, the say yid activ ely relied on h is siste r, Say yid a R abab, to w id en the so cial in volv em en t and v isib ility o f th e Leban ese S h i'a w om an. T he com m itm en t to b rin g in g w om en to th e fo refro n t o f Leban ese so cial an d p o litica l life w as sym bolic o f th e c le ric 's lead ersh ip a s a w h ole. T h e change th at w as effected w as n o t rev olu tion ary in an y w ay , n o r w as it intend ed to b e. T h e aim w as to m ake p u b lic th e ro le o f th e o rd in ary w om an w ith in th e trad itio n al m old , to in volv e h er in a w orld th at com p lem ented th e d om estic p riv ate sp h ere in w h ich sh e op erated . It w as Sayyid M u sa's in ten tio n to in sp ire to a ctio n w h at h ad u n til th en b een a silen t and silen ced p op u lation and to h asten its en try on to th e p o litical scene. In th is cam p aign , he ev en su cceed ed in en listin g th e su p p ort and co o p eratio n o f th e "lib erat­ ed " S h i'a w om an w h o, alth ou gh am b iv alen t ab ou t th e relig io u s co n ten t o f h is m essage, w as attracted b y th e so cial and civ ic d im en sion s o f h is w ork. M ore im p o rtan tly , M usa al-S ad r fou n d an a rticu late sp o kesp erson on h is b eh alf, a s w ell a s a m ost effectiv e fu n d raiser fo r h is v ario u s p rog ram s o f ch an ge, b o th a t h om e and ab ro ad , esp ecially in W est A frica w h ere th ere w as a larg e exp atri­ a te L eban ese S h i'a com m u nity. Say yid M u sa's rh eto rical strateg y , m ean w h ile, activ ely ad ap ted itse lf to th e circu m stan ces, the au d ien ces, and the issu es. In ad d itio n to th e u se o f relig io u s sym bolism , p rom oted b y sch ed u l­ in g m ajo r m ass ra llies to co in cid e w ith im p o rtan t d ates on the S h i'a relig io u s calen d ar, th is strateg y w as b ased on a n eclectic

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co m b in atio n o f su ch tech n iq u es a s ex h o rtatio n , arg u m en tation , em o tio n al ap p eal, and th e u se o f rh eto rical q u estion s. T h e serm on , a gen re in w h ich th e im am ex celled , w as reserv ed fo r its m ore "n atu ral" settin g s in h o u ses o f w orship arou n d th e cou n try . T h e m o st tellin g exam p le o f Say yid M u sa's m o b ilizin g rh etoric in h is secon d d ecad e in L eban on w ere h is sp eech es d u rin g th e "seaso n o f S h i'a ra llies" b etw een Febru ary an d M ay 1974. T h ese sp eech es a t th e ra llies u sh ered in "a n ew ch ap ter in th e h isto ry o f . . . th e d em an d s fo r th e rig h ts o f th e d isin h erited an d th e op p ressed in L eban on ," w h en th e essen tially p acific lan gu age o f th e six ties w as n o lo n g er ad equ ate.57 T h ey cam e a t a tim e o f flu x in th e S h i'a com m u nity w h en th e im am w as a t th e h eig h t o f h is p o p u larity . B y th e early sev en ties, M u sa al-S ad r h ad su ccessfu l­ ly estab lish ed h im self a s th e p reem in en t S h i'a p o litical v o ice, th e m ain fig u re o f th e n atio n al reform m ov em en t, an d th e fo cu s o f a n in ter-com m u n al d ialo gu e th at w as w ithou t p arallel in th e co u n try 's h isto ry . It w as th erefo re u n d en iably th e op p ortu ne m om ent fo r th ru stin g th e d em and s o f th e S h i'a p op u lation , b u t w h ich w ere arg u ab ly also th o se o f th e Leban ese p o o r in g en eral, in to th e cen ter o f th e co u n try 's so cia l and p o litical life. M u sa a l-S a d r's ad d resses a t th e v ario u s Su n n i m osqu es an d ch u rch es o f d ifferen t C h ristian d en om in ation s w ere p a rt o f th is larg er effo rt, b ein g d esigned to allev iate fears o f "a l-'Im la q a l-S h i'i" (th e S h i'a G ian t), an d to assert th e co m m u n ity 's com m itm ent to in ter-com m u n al co existen ce an d op en n ess as w ell as to a d em ocratic an d in d ep en d en t L eban on. A m ong th ese, th e L enten serm on th at th e im am d eliv ered a t th e C ath éd rale Sain t-L o u is d es C ap u cin s in B eiru t on 19 Febru ary 1975, stan d s a s on e o f th e m ost com p ellin g exam p les o f h is o rato rical sk ills. T h e "seaso n o f S h i'a rallies" tau g h t L eban on o f th e im a m 's rh eto rical and p erso n al p ow ers. It d ram atically exh ib ited th e em ergin g S h i'a stren g th in th e co u n try , enhan ced th e p articip a n ts' so lid arity w ith th e grou p , an d fu rth er m ob ilized them ag ain st th e enem y w h ich Say y id M u sa o ften invoked sy m b olically in th e sp eeches.58 C om m em orating th e d eath o f th e fo u rth im am , Z ay n a l-'A b id in , a t B id n ay il in th e B iq a ' on 17 Febru ary, th e cleric b eg a n w ith a d iscu ssio n o f th e m ean in g o f K arbala an d its relatio n to th e p ro b lem s w h ich h is com m u nity faced in its d aily existen ce. A fter lin k in g th e stru g g le o f th e m artyred im am to h is ow n attem p t to

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"crea te a b e tte r an d h ap p ier w o rld /' Say yid M u sa p roclaim ed a n ew b eg in n in g fo r h is com m u nity m arked b y a renew ed d eterm i­ n ation / in search o f a n ew reality . "T h ey say w e are M ataw ila/' h e to ld h is au d ien ce o f sev en th ou san d , 'b u t ou r n am e is n o t M ataw ila, ou r nam e is th e rejectio n ists, d ie p ro testo rs, th e d issen t­ e rs, th e reb els ag ain st a ll op p ression , the o b stru cto rs in d ie face o f a ll ty ran n y ." It w as to b e d ie en d o f an era—a n era in w h ich th e L eban ese S h i'a com m u nity had qu iescen tly allow ed its fate to b e d eterm in ed b y circu m stan ce, an d in w h ich its relatio n to th e larg er L eban ese so ciety h ad b een th at o f th e op p ressed v ersu s th e op p ressor. In th e new e ra , th e S h i'a hom eland w as n o t to rem ain lik e So u th A frica. "T h ere is ap arth eid th ere, b u t h ere th ere is co n fessio n al d iscrim in atio n , and w e reject t h a t .. . . H u sayn stood ag ain st h is en em y w ith o n ly sev en ty [m en]. T od ay, w e are m u ch m o re; w e w a n t . . . to b rin g b a ck ou r g lorio u s h isto ry , th e h isto ry o f 'A li an d H u sayn.’69 Say y id M u sa m oved qu ick ly to id en tify th e term s an d con d ition s o f th is n ew b eg in n in g . H e ask ed : "W h at is ou r goal? Is it d estru c­ tio n fo r th e sak e o f d estru ctio n , rev o lu tio n fo r th e sak e o f rev olu ­ tio n , o r arm s fo r th e sak e o f arm s?" A nd h e answ ered : " N o , . . . d estru ctio n is n o t in ou r lexico n , and w e on ly w an t to serve op p ressed h u m an ity w h erev er it m ay b e."60 T w o o f th e key featu res cen tral to Say yid M u sa's rh eto ric a t the tim e also em erged in th is sp eech: T h e first o f th ese w as h is b e lie f th a t d ep riv ation in Leban on w as a s m u ch a n atio n al as a S h i'a p rob lem . W h ile it is tru e th at in th e sev en ties M u sa al-S ad r spoke o f d ep riv ation in th e n arrow er co n text o f th e S h i'a com m u nity, h e n ev er failed to exp ress h is co n cern w ith th e co n d itio n s in the S o u th , th e B iq a ', 'A k k a r, th e su bu rbs o f B eiru t, T rip o li, M ou nt L eban on , etc., w h ere m ajo r n o n -S h i'a p op u lation s liv ed . D ep riva­ tio n a s a h u m an p rob lem in Leban on clearly cro ssed sectarian an d com m u n al lin es. That LL984 m illion are spent in four years w ithout even LL1 m illion o f it being spent on BaTabak is deprivation. Deprivation for the South mean remaining without protection or defense, and being left to be destroyed. Deprivation for the Shi'a is to be bom discriminat­ ed against, and to then have no sch ools.. . . Deprivation is when [die government] takes from foe South and the Biqa' but spends on foe other regions.

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T h e secon d featu re w as th e u n am bigu ou sly co n fro n tatio n al to n e an d strateg y th a t b ecam e asso ciated w ith Sayyid M u sa's rh eto ric follo w in g th e b reakd ow n o f a ll d ialo gu e w ith th e governm ent o f Sleim an Fran g ié. It w as th is b reakd ow n th at led d ie say yid to ad o p t d ie tech n iq u e o f organ izin g m ass ra llies a s a show o f S h i'a p ow er. It w as also th is b reakd ow n th at p rom p ted him to rep eated ­ ly a ssert th at h e w ou ld co n tin u e h is cru sad e a s lo n g as o p p ression rem ain ed en tren ch ed in th e co u n try 's so cio p o litical life. The rulers say that die men of religion must only pray, and not m eddle in other m atters. They exhort us to fast and pray for them so that die foundations of their reign w ill not be shaken, w hile they move away from religion and exploit it in order to hold on to their seats [of power]. Do not think that men in power are opposed to atheism when they declare their opposition to Communism. . . . They are the m ost infidel of the infidels and die m ost atheist of the atheists. They w ant us to surrender to them, but I w ill struggle with you and for you. The official propaganda is deceiving and wants to throw the veil before your eyes.61 From B id n ay il, Say yid M u sa h ead ed so u th , to Y atir. A d d ressin g a co n g reg atio n on 'A sh u ra, the cleric u rged h is listen ers to reflect o n th e tru e m ean in g b eh in d th e ritu a l m ou rn in g fo r H u sayn. 'A sh u ra w as n o t to b e th ou g h t o f a s sy m bolizin g resig n atio n , d esp air o r g rief, h e argu ed . R ath er, it rep resen ted th e op p ortu n ity to ren ew o n e 's com m itm ent to the b a ttle ag ain st tyran n y an d in ju stice, an d av o id th e d an g er o f red u cin g relig io n to n o th in g m ore th an a con v en ien t sou rce o f com fort and su p p ort. H op in g to co m p el h is au d ien ce to actio n , Sayyid M usa ask ed : "If H u sayn w ere am ong u s an d saw th at n o t only w as no one actin g accord in g to w h at w as rig h t, b u t w ere m ak in g lig h t o f it, w h at w ould h e h av e d one?"62 It w as a t B a'la b a k , h ow ever, la ter th a t sam e y ear, th at L eban on w as at la st tru ly ap p rised o f th e S h i'a p o ten tial. O n 14 M arch 1974, one rep o rter n oted , th e crow d s w ere a s th ey m ig h t b e o n th e D ay o f R esu rrection . M ore th an ten th ou san d p ieces o f w eap on ry circu lated am ong n o less th an sev en ty -fiv e thou sand m en. T h e crack o f b u llets v ied w ith th e sh ou ts o f th e crow d : "M ay th e A s'a d i reg im e fall" (in referen ce to th e 'A m ili ch ieftain , K am il a l-A s'a d , th en sp eaker o f p arliam en t); "W ith [our] b lo o d , w ith [ou r] so u ls,

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w e sacrifice [ou rselves] fo r y o u , O im am ;" "O d escen d an t o f the lo rd o f m arty rs, H u sayn b in 'A li.” D elegation s cam e from a ll ov er th e cou n try . T h e o ccasio n w as th e fo rtieth d ay a fter 'A sh u ra. Say y id M u sa w alked from th e en tran ce to th e tow n to th e site o f th e festiv al, a sh o rt len g th o f fiv e hu nd red m eters th at to o k one h o u r to cro ss. A s soon as it w as annou nced th at h e w as read y to ad d ress th e au d ien ce, th e firin g in ten sified . T w en ty m in u tes p assed b efo re th e crow d fe ll silen t. "Stop firin g ," d ie cleric sh ou ted , "an d sav e y ou r b u lle ts fo r th e h eart o f th e Z io n ist enem y. I h av e w o rd s d ead lier th an b u llets." A nd h e continu ed : W e are here today because w e have refused to succumb to decep­ tion. W e have gathered in order to renounce it in the way our grandfathers did. Ba'labak does not have a single public school. There has been only one school here since the days of the French. . . . W hat does the government expect from us other than anger and revolt? Two thousand years ago, Ba'labak and its environs were irrigated through a network of dams. Today, water . . . is wasted, w hile the government withholds the funds needed to bring water to this town.63 Say yid M u sa th en elab orated on th e w ater p roblem p lag u in g S o u th L eban on , w o rk in g to u n d erscore th e ov erarch in g rea lity o f g ov ern m en tal n eg lect th a t u n ited the tw o flan k s o f h is com m u nity. A cco rd in g to g eo lo g ical estim ates, So u th Leban on w as one o f the p o o rest reg io n s in th e co u n try in term s o f its w ater su p p ly , h e told th e crow d . D esp ite th is, th e au th o rities had co n sisten tly sabotaged th e p e o p le's access to th e lita n i riv er, th e p rin cip al artery in th e reg io n . 'T h e y [th e governm ent] h av e sto len th ree hu nd red m illio n cu b ic m eters o f w ater from th e Sou th. A nd n ow th ey w an t to steal an o th er six ty m illio n fo r B eiru t, so th at th ey ca n sh atter th e last rem ain in g h op es w h ich file p eop le o f th e So u th p lace in th eir w ater su p p ly ." Say y id M u sa th en sp oke o f th ose w ho h ad b een "L eb an ese fo r a thou sand y ears," b u t had b een d enied th eir rig h t o f citizen sh ip , fo r n o reaso n o th er th an th eir b ein g M u slim s: 'A rab W ad i K halid (T h e A rab s o f W ad i K h alid ) in th e n o rth east w ere Su n n i, w h ile the in h ab itan ts o f th e eig h t sou th ern Leban ese v illa g es w ho fled th eir lan d u p on its fin al in co rp o ratio n in to th e state o f Israel in 1948

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w ere S h i'a . F u rth erm ore, Say yid M u sa em p h asized , th e S h i'a h ad b een u n fairly treated in term s o f ap p o in tm en ts to th e civ il serv ice: There isn 't a single Shi'a dean at any of the colleges at the [Leba­ nese] University. Shi'a ambassadors are delegated to less developed countries------There are twelve-hundred homeless children on the streets o f Beirut; eleven-hundred of them are Shi'a. . . . Does Husayn accept, does 'A li accept that his children rem ain homeless? . . . Injustice has exceeded all lim its.. . . Karbala cannot be far horn your minds . . . or from theirs.61 It w as on th is occasion a t B a'lab ak th at th e say yid u n eq u iv o cally stated h is in ten t on form in g a m ilitia to d efen d L eban ese territo ry ag ain st Israeli attack s. "B a'lab ak -al-H irm il is read y to tra in th e sou th ern ers an d giv e them arm s, so th ey can d efend th e So u th ," h e said . "W e w an t to raise a g en eratio n cap ab le o f b earin g w eap on s in one han d an d th e sick le in th e o th er," Say y id M u sa ad d ed , an d "I w ill a sk you to estab lish train in g c a m p s . . . in th e B iq a ' and th e S o u th , an d I w ill tra in w ith y o u .. . . T h is festiv al is th e la st w ord on o u r stan d .”66 It seem ed lik e a n old id ea w h ose tim e h ad fin a lly com e. T h e secu rity o f th e So u th h ad in fa ct b een on e o f th e c le ric 's co n cern s sin ce th e first Israeli in cu rsio n in to L eban ese territo ry o n 2 7 A u gu st 1965, in w h ich tw o h o u ses an d th ree w ater to w ers w ere d em olished an d on e w om an w as k illed . Say yid M u sa h ad a t first h op ed th at th e Leban ese arm y w ou ld sh ou ld er th e resp o n sib ility fo r "d efen d in g th e h om elan d ," an d h ad th erefore ad v ocated m ilitary con scrip tion . H e h ad also prop osed th e estab lish m en t o f a g ov ern m en t-train ed an d fu nd ed "civ ü d efen se fo rce" to serv e a s a lo ca l au xiliary to th e n atio n al arm y. H ow ever, h is in itia l id ea fo r a P alestin ian -L eb an ese coord in ation o f m ilitary strateg y w as later d rop p ed w h en it b ecam e clea r th a t Isra e l's p o licy w as to p u n ish th e sou th ern ers in d iscrim in ately fo r an y an d a ll fid a 'iy y in attack s, an d follo w in g th e grad u al d isin teg ratio n in relatio n s b etw een the L eban ese h o st an d th e P alestin ian g u est du e to la tte r's "in frac­ tio n s," o r ab u se o f L eb an o n 's ’h o sp ita lity " and p atien ce.66 Sin ce n o L eban ese governm ent h ad ev er con ceiv ed o f a d eterren t arm y d ep loyed in th e So u th , the S ay y id 's p rop o sals fe ll o n d eaf ears. T h e reg io n w as geograp h ically too rem ote from th e cen ter o f L eban ese life in B eiru t. B esid es, th e con cep t o f quzuw at a l-d u 'f (the stren g th o f

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w eak n ess) w h ich u n d erlay m u ch o f L eban ese d ecision -m ak in g a t th e tim e su gg ested th at Leban on cou ld on ly co n fro n t Israel b y n o t co n fro n tin g it. T h e sou th ern ers th erefo re w ere le ft w ith few op tion s—su ffe r th e con seq u en ces o f th e fig h tin g , tak e u p arm s, o r fle e th e region . T h ere w ere also ch arg es th a t M u sa al-S ad r w as a d em agogue fo r w h om Islam w as n oth in g m ore th an a con v en ien t p o in t o f d ep artu re, or ev en a p retex t, fo r h is ow n p o litical agen d a, th at h is ro le w as th at o f a p ro xy fo r fo reig n in terests, and th at h e h im self w as a p ow er m on g er w ho b etray ed th e v ery id eals w h ich h e w as o sten sib ly p rom o tin g am ong th e m asses. It w as g reatly sig n ifican t, b o th sy m b olically and p o litically , th at am ong th ose w h o lev eled th ese ch arg es ag ain st file sayyid w ere p ow erfu l relig io u s fig u res, su p p orted ta citly b y th e gov ern m en t, and op en ly b y K am il a lA s'a d and o th er p o litician s. T h rou gh im p licatio n an d in n u en d o, Say y id M u sa's cred ib ility a s a relig io u s fig u re w as b ein g q u es­ tio n ed . C learly , th e crow d a t B a 'lab ak ch o se to ig n o re th ese accu satio n s. A s m any am ong th e co u n try 's in tellig en tsia w ho ra llied in su p p ort o f th e cleric ob serv ed , "th e accu satio n o f d em agogu ery is w h at is lev eled ag ain st ev ery m an w ho su cceed s in p o litics from o u tsid e th e system ."67 Say yid M u sa d id n o t sid estep th e issu e o r av oid th e ch arg es. H e resp on d ed to th em "in a w ay th at su stain ed th e leg itim acy and m o ral in ten sity o f [his] . . . m ovem ent in th e m ind o f th e larg er p u b lic."68 H e argu ed th e w ay h e alw ay s d id , b y tak in g th e o ffen siv e. W hen th e dons o f L eb an o n 's p o litica l life felt th reaten ed b y th e ten acity an d th e en d u rin g p op u larity o f th e m essag e w h ich h e w as esp o u sin g , Say yid M u sa m ain tain ed , ch aracteristically th ey resp on d ed w ith a d isin form ation cam p aign th at o n ly served to d isg race th em fu rth er in th e ey es o f th e p u b lic. "Soon b efo re lon g ," h e ad d ed , "th e L eban ese h av e realized th at ou r m ovem ent is a tru e n a tio n a l [m ovem ent] stem m ing from ou r fa ith in L eban on and in G o d ." N on eth eless, M u sa al-S ad r w as stu n g b y th e accu satio n s th at h e w as m otivated p rim arily b y a lu st fo r p ow er an d h ad v ig orou s­ ly p u rsu ed file p erm an en t ch airm an sh ip o f th e Su p rem e Islam ic S h i'a C ou n cil. "W e w ithd rew th e p ro p o sal from [the agend a] o f the co u n cil so n o p retex t fo r su ch a n in terp retatio n w ou ld rem ain ," h e sa id , ad d in g: "I told th em , 'I do n o t w an t th e ch airm an sh ip , give m e th e d em and s o f th e com m u nity an d tak e m y re sig n a tio n /"69

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T h is offen siv e w as follow ed w ith oth er ap p eals ch aracteristic o f Say y id M u sa's rh etoric/ nam ely/ h is em p h asis on w h at h e id en ti­ fied a s a tran scen d en tal b o n d u n itin g h im w ith h is follow ers. "M y relation sh ip w ith you is n o t tra n sien t/' h e told th e crow d / "it is a relation sh ip o f stru g g le an d a relation sh ip o f fa ith ." H e also m ad e creativ e and effectiv e u se o f th e p ow er o f em otio n s in h is attem p t to co n so lid ate th e relation sh ip b etw een h im self an d h is su p p orters. In th e ea rly d ays o f th e m ovem ent/ h e o ften sp oke to au d ien ces, w h ich alth o u g h clearly com m itted to h is lead ersh ip , h ad n o t y et b e e n called u p on to tak e p o litica l actio n o f an y kind . In su ch in stan ces, rath er th an sy stem atically ou tlin in g fu tu re strateg ies a s a w ay o f m ain tain in g th e m om entum o f d ie m ov em en t, Say yid M u sa relied on em otio n al ap p eal in ord er to forg e b e lie f in th e m ovem ent an d in its lead er. O n th is occasion a t B a'la b a k , h is m essag e w as: My place is among you, in your hearts 1 have my throne, in your hand my strength, in your eyes my shield, my plans are fulfilled through you, in your gathering is my glory, your enemy is my enemy, your friend is my friend,. . . and 1 in this world shall accept no one in place of you.70 T h en , d riv in g hom e the em otio n al co n ten t o f h is m essage, h e ask ed th e crow d to raise th eir h an d s, tu rn in th e d irectio n o f th e K a'b a, and rep eat a fter h im : "W e sw ear b y G od A lm igh ty . . . to p e rsist in tire d em and s fo r th e rig h ts o f th e S h i'a com m u nity . . . w ith o u t fe a r, h esitatio n , o r c o m p ro m is e ,. . . to stan d up fo r th e op p ressed ev eryw h ere, . . . and to p ro tect th e hom eland . . . [against] its e n e m ie s .. . . A nd G od is a w itn ess to w h at w e say."71 In a m ost u tilita ria n w ay , th e tak in g o f o ath s serv e to cla rify and sim p lify h u m an in teractio n . In early Islam ic h isto ry , oath s w ere "a cen tral form to p o litical actio n ," a fu n d am en tal in stru m en t fo r "exp ressin g p o litica l loy alty " a s w ell as a n ecessary com p on en t "o f p o litica l co n sp iracies."72 B reak in g an oath w as tan tam ou n t to b lasp h em y. M en o ften d ied fo r it. O ath s h av e also b een an im p o rtan t featu re in the ritu a ls w h ich h av e h elp ed to fo rg e an d m ain tain m o d em so cial m ovem ents: O n on e lev el, o ath s p rod u ce "a w orth y aren a w h ere th e g reat issu es o f h u m an exp erien ce can b e exp ressed an d ca n b e to a certain d egree resolved —life and d eath , p ain and sorrow , h op e and h eartach e."73

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O n a d ifferen t lev el, m om ents o f oath -tak in g b ecom e "cerem on ies o f so lid arity " th at co u n ter th e sen se o f b ein g alo n e in a w orld w ith o u t m eaning. T h ey "estab lish a p articu larly solem n an d m agic atm osp h ere d esigned to im p ress th e can d id ate w ith th e seriou sn ess o f th e step h e is ab ou t to tak e, o r . . . b y im p ressin g u p o n h im the san ctio n s to w h ich a b reach o f lo y alty w ill exp ose h im ."74 In recitin g th e oath , th e p eop le a t B a 'lab ak ad m itted to a com m on d estin y. In ask in g fo r th e o ath , Say y id M usa effectiv ely n eu tralized th eir an im o sities. T h e b lo o d feu d s am ong th e 'a sh a 'ir trou b led h im . T h e q u arrels b etw een them an d ah l al-b alad ch ain ed b o th to an ex p lo itativ e p o litica l m achine. T h e d istan ce sep aratin g th e S h i'a o f th e B iq a ' from th eir cou n terp arts in th e So u th d w arfed th e S h i'a p o ten tial in th e cou n try. T h ese w ere th e kin d o f p roblem s th e cleric con fron ted . A n oath p rov id ed a sem blan ce o f h op e, fo r h im and fo r h is follow ers. From th e B iq a ', Sayyid M usa m oved on to o th er en gagem en ts in th e So u th , first in Sid o n on th e occasion o f th e P ro p h et's b irth d ay , th en in T yre fo r the celeb ratio n o f th e m em ory o f Fatim a al-Z a h ra '. T he sp eech a t Sid on is p articu larly n otew orth y b ecau se Say yid M u sa's au d ien ce on th is occasion w as overw helm ingly Su n n i. A nd it w as also a t th is ev en t th at th e say yid p ronou nced w h at m an y still co n sid er th e ep itom e o f h is th in k in g o n th e issu e o f arm ed stru ggle. "G od said in h is B ook: T a k e you r ad orn m en t a t ev ery m o sq u e,'" M usa al-S ad r d eclared , "w eap ons are m e n 's ad orn m en t, an d w e are fo r th is ad orn m en t and fo r carry in g w eap on s."75 In h is ad d ress a t Sid on , Sayyid M u sa ag ain cap tiv ated h is au d ien ce, an ticip atin g p o ten tial criticism ag ain st h im self and h is agen d a an d resp ond ing assertiv ely to th e ch arg es. A t th is tim e, h is relatio n s w ith th e governm ent had d eteriorated to th eir lo w est p o in t. It w as a b attle o f w ills. T h e governm ent w as fig h tin g ev ery w ay it cou ld or knew how . T h e cleric w as d eterm in ed to see the b a ttle th rou g h to th e b est o f h is a b ilities. In th e cou rse o f the sp eech , Say yid M u sa, tu rn in g to th e 'u lam a w ho had accom p anied h im in to th e 'U m ari m osqu e in th e old sectio n o f th e city , said : My brothers, men of religion, when you find yourselves incurring the rulers' wrath is when you realize that you are on the right path. Refuse to worship the gods and the tyrants of file earth whoever

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they are, and stand on die side of man, on the side of the wretched of the earth.76 A s th e ev en t p roceed ed , w h at b eg an w ith a celeb ratio n o f th e P ro p h et's b irth d ay en d ed w ith a celeb ratio n o f Islam ic u n ity . A fte r th e ad d ress b y Say y id M u sa, Su n n i clerics o f v ario u s o rg an izatio n s to o k th e p od iu m to exp ress th eir su p p ort fo r h im an d to em p ha­ size th e essen tial u n ity o f th e M uham m ad an m essage. S h ay k h Fah im A bu 'U b ay h , th e rep resen tativ e o f th e A zh ar in L eb an on , exp ressed it b e st w h en h e said : The black turban of Sayyid al-Sadr and my w hite turban are but like die black and die w hite of die eye, die one integrated with the other, the one complementing the other. W e are all the followers of Muhammad w ith no difference between one doctrine and another.77 S id o n w as a triu m p h . N o o th er S h i'a cleric in L eban on h ad ev e r b een receiv ed w ith su ch w arm th and en th u siasm b y a S u n n i crow d . It w as th e crow n in g ach ievem en t o f years o f e ffo rt b y Say y id M u sa in w h ich h e h ad tried to strik e a b alan ce b etw een th e n eed fo r a n in d ep en d en t S h i'a p o litica l v o ice in d ie cou n try an d th e im p ortan ce o f o v erall Islam ic coh esio n an d so lid arity . O n 8 M ay 1974, th e (Su n n i) Su prem e O fficia l Islam ic C ou n cil d eclared its fu ll su p p ort fo r th e S h i'a m ovem ent. A nd o n 10 Sep tem b er, th e E xecu tiv e C om m ittee o f th e Islam ic A sso ciatio n s, a grou p o f th e six m ajo r Su n n i o rg an ization s in th e co u n try , p resen ted th e govern­ m en t w ith a list o f M u slim dem ands th at in clu d ed th e S h i'a dem ands a s form u lated b y th e Su p rem e Islam ic S h i'a C ou n cil.78 In T yre on 5 M ay, Say y id M usa receiv ed yet an o th er w elcom e th a t riv aled th e o n e B a 'la b a k h ad g iv en h im fo rty d ay s earlier. A ju b ila n t crow d o f n early eig h ty th ou san d p eop le tu rn ed ou t to h ear th e im am . H istory record s it as an o ccasio n on w h ich on ce b itte r p o litica l en em ies w ere u n ited . In h is hom ecom ing ad d ress, Say yid M u sa called on F atim a, "d au gh ter th e M essenger o f G od ," say in g: W e are now beyond the stage of childhood. W e have come to m aturity. We do not need guardians. W e are not afraid anymore. W e have emancipated ourselves despite all of their efforts to keep the people from learning. W e have gathered in large numbers to

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confirm that no one holds jurisdiction over us anymore. O Fatima/ w e are on your path/ and w e w ill end as martyrs.79 Say y id M u sa th en sp o ke o f h is m any fu tile attem p ts to d raw gov ernm ent atten tio n to th e reality o f d ep riv ation w h ich faced th e L eban ese m asses, an d o f th e op p osition an d in d ifferen ce w h ich h is e ffo rts h ad en cou n tered . A t T y re, he called on h is fo llo w ers to "sav e th e co u n try from th e ru lin g cliq u e w h ich h ad red u ced it to a p riv ate estate," an d th reaten ed th e gov ernm ent w ith sim ilar d em on stration s in th e h eart o f th e cap ital. T h e sa y y id 's ad d ress a t T yre w as su ffu sed w ith an g er and an xiety . H e w as an g ry a t th e in ep titu d e o f th e gov ernm ent o f Sleim an Fran g ié, and a t th e h isto ry o f u n in volvem en t and ap ath y w h ich had in fa ct allow ed th e situ atio n in th e co u n try to d eterio­ ra te to su ch a p recario u s state. A nd h e w as an xiou s ov er th e ap ocaly p se w h ich h e fe lt w as im pend ing, h i w h at w as p erh ap s th e m o st com p reh en siv e statem en t o f h is th in k in g a t th e tim e, Say yid M u sa ad m onished : Every Lebanese knows teat Lebanon has two [distinct regions]: The [first is] tee belt of poverty encircling Beirut; [it is] Hayy al-Sillum , Burj Hammud, al-Karantina, al-Nahr, al-Dikwani and Tal al-Za'tar. [The second] is made up of tee frontier areas in tee country from tee far Soute to tee far N orte. The frontiers are what protect tee country, and tee surrounding region of tee capital is what protects tee capital. O rulers, develop bote regions because our homeland is in danger of fragmenting------The cause is not confessional, nor is it Shi'a------O rulers, the lessons of history are not far from you. A ll regions in the world and all human societies have revolted at one tim e or another in history. W e have asked you to deal with tee problem [in tee country]. And we have submitted our demands.90 In b id d in g farew ell, th e cleric once ag ain ask ed th e crow d to jo in h im in tak in g a n oath : h i tee name of tee beauty of Lebanon and of its mountains, its South, East, and N orte, . . . tee glories of its history, the generosity of its people, and tee love which binds its children,. . . tee blood of tee martyrs, tee tears of tee orphans, tee w ailing of tee m others, the pain of tee w ound ed,. . . the anxiety of tee students and the intelligentsia, tee fear of tee children in the border a re a s ,. . . tee

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destitute, the neglected ideas, unacknowledged dignity and lost initiatives, w e swear to save no effort in order to achieve what is right, to nullify what is w ron g ,. . . and to fight the enemies of the homeland and of the citizen.81 B esid es estab lish in g a p act b etw een a lead er and h is fo llo w ers, th e tak in g o f th e oath a t T yre sen t a m essag e to th e L eban ese ev eryw h ere. In a w ay , it w as a n oath b etw een a n em ergin g cu rren t an d its m ilieu , a clarificatio n o f in ten t. T h rou gh it, Say y id M u sa w as ab le to d efin e d ie fu nd am ental p rin cip les th at form ed th e essen ce o f w h at cam e to b e know n a s H arakat al-M ah ru m in , n am ely , th at the m ovem ent, thou gh larg ely S h i'a in m em b ersh ip , w as n o t a S h i'a m ovem ent, an d th at it d efin ed itse lf as d istin ctly L eban ese in ch aracter, d rew its in sp iratio n from L eb an o n 's rich cu ltu ral and relig io u s h eritag e, an d cham p ioned th e cau se o f p eo p le in ev ery cla ss o f Leban ese society . Say y id M u sa's m ost p u b licly acclaim ed sp eech w as th e L en ten serm on , al-Q u w a a lla ti T ashaq w a al-Q u w a a lla ti T u farriq (T he fo rces th a t cru sh an d th e fo rces th at d iv id e), w h ich h e d eliv ered a t th e C ath éd rale Sain t-L o u is d es C ap u cins in B eiru t on 19 Febru ary 1975. H ere th e sayyid "aim ed a t an im p lied au d ien ce n o t im m ed iately ob serv able y et p erm an en tly p resen t: T he essen tial m o ral cap acity o f h u m an n atu re."82 In d ram atic ton es, h e reiterated th e m o ral essen ce o f h is d em an d s in term s th a t clea rly cap tiv ated h is au d ien ce an d le ft it in cap ab le o f d isagreem en t. B y th e tim e th e ad d ress w as ov er, Say yid M usa had su cceed ed in co n v in cin g th e m em b ers o f h is co n g reg atio n o f th e fu n d am en tal u n ity o f "so u rce, p u rp ose, and d estin y" th at lay a t th e h eart o f a ll relig io n s, o f th e u n iq u en ess o f th e Leban ese exp erien ce, an d o f th e n eed to d evelop th e h u m an p o ten tial in th e cou n try and th e d an g er o f su p p ressin g it. Say y id M u sa opened h is sp eech p raisin g "o u r L ord , G od o f A braham and Ish m ael, G od o f M oses, Jesu s an d M u ham m ad , L ord o f th e op p ressed an d o f a ll creation . P raise b e to h e w ho av en ges a ll op p ression , d estroys ty r a n ts ,. . . p u n ish es d esp ots and an sw ers tiie cries o f a ll su p p lican ts." In a m o st d irect and u n orth od ox referen ce to th e cru cifix above h is h ead , th e im am ad d ed : "H ere w e are gath ered in a tim e o f fastin g , w ith y ou r h ou se o f w o rsh ip .’* 3 "R elig io n s are on e," th e cleric d eclared , "b ecau se th e sou rce w h ich is G od is one. T h e g o al w h ich is M an is one. A n d the

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d estin y w h ich is th is u n iv erse is on e." T h e p h rase, "relig io n s are o n e," w as rep eated th ree tim es. A nd Say y id M u sa qu oted altern a­ tiv ely from th e G o sp els, th e h ad ith , an d th e Q u r'an . T h e con cep t o f th e u n ity o f th e th ree d iv in e rev elatio n s w as articu lated in ord er to en h an ce th e c le ric 's th esis o f th e in d iv isib ility o f th e hu m an exp erien ce. H e reason ed th at if a ll relig io n s sh ared a fu n d am en tal u n ity b y v irtu e o f th eir com m on p u rsu it o f "tw o faces o f th e sam e tru th ," n am ely, "th e c a ll to G od an d th e serv ice o f h u m an ity," th en th e b eliev er co u ld n ev er d isen gag e h im self from th e n eed s o f h is fello w hu m an b ein g s. The human bring, . . . this creature formed in the image of the C reator,. . . is nothing more than the sum of his achievements in tiie various fields. For this reason, the more w e preserve his potential and develop it, the more w e honor and immortalize him.“ T h rou gh ou t h isto ry , h ow ever, v ario u s fo rces had attem p ted to stifle the h u m an sp irit an d im p ed e its creativ ity , th e cleric said . Freed om , th e m ean s b y w h ich p o ten tial is n u rtu red an d the en v iron m en t in w h ich p o ten tial flo u rish es, h as b een co n stan tly u su rp ed . O p p ression h as tak en d ifferen t form s, "from th e d en ial o f freed om , to tyran n y and co lo n ialism , from feu d alism to in tellectu al te r r o r is m ,. . . [and] from a p o licy o f n eg lect, to [one of] w ith h old ­ in g op p ortu n ities from certain p eop le an d in certain reg ion s." M od eration and so cial resp o n sib ility , Say yid M u sa ad d ed , w ould en su re th e fu tu re o f h u m an so cieties, w h ile m aterialism and in to leran ce w ou ld b e th e seed s o f th eir d estru ction : The problem begins when self-love . . . becomes self-adoration; when patriotism . . . is reduced to [a kind of] racist nationalism , as when man worships his country to the exclusion of God, and consequently permits him self to build the glory of his homeland on tiie ruins of others'. . . . [The problem arises] when our personal selfishness . . . turns into . . . tribalism . . . and to confessionalism . . . . [It begins when the love of the homeland] degenerates into Nazi n ation alism .. . . All of these are due to exaggerated selfishness, w hile self-love, fam ilial honor, tribal loyalty, patriotism , and nationalism are all [essentially] positive tendencies in human life as long as they rem ain w ithin lim its.85

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T h ese extrem es/ th e im am asserted , w ere th reaten in g d ie v ery fou n d ation s o f L eban ese so ciety , w h ile greed b lin d ed th e L eban ese to th e n eed s o f th eir fello w citizen s. Leban on, h e arg u ed , h ad to co n sid er th e h u m an b ein g its first and last asset. "If w e w an t to p reserv e L eban on," h e w arn ed , "th en w e m u st p reserv e th e h u m an b ein g in Leban on . . . a s w ell a s h is p o te n tia l.. . . W hen w e v iew th e reality o f d ep riv atio n , w e fin d th a t it is th e resu lt o f m isu se [o f reso u rces], fo r w h ich th e resp o n sib ility m u st b e sh ared b y all."86 In con clu d in g, Say yid M u sa exh orted h is au d ien ce: W e are facing the opportunity of a lifetim e, in which w e have begun a new chapter in Lebanon. Let us meet, O believers, with every human being, in B eiru t in the South, in 'Akkar, in the suburbs of Beirut, and in the Karantina and Hayy al-Sillu m . . . so w e can preserve this country as deeded [to us] by God and history.87 A S h i'a m an o f relig io n in au gu ratin g a series o f L en ten serm on s in a C ath olic h ou se o f w orship m arked a w atersh ed in th e h isto ry o f C ath o licism , C h arles H élou , form er p resid en t o f th e rep u b lic, ju b ila n tly observ ed . T h e au d ien ce w as aw ed an d m oved to tears. T h e h isto ric serm on w as featu red on d ie fro n t p ag e o f ev ery new sp ap er in d ie cou n try. In tellectu als d iscu ssed th e "p henom enon o f M usa al-S ad r," an d "h is m essage o f lov e an d coex isten ce." R u sh d i al-M a 'lu f, a p rom in en t com m en tator, b rag g ed ab o u t the L eban ese exp erien ce. 'W h e n ev en th e m ere co existen ce o f d ifferen t d en om in ation s and relig io n s . . . is n o t p o ssib le in C yp ru s, E th io p ia, Irelan d , an d oth er co u n tries o f th e w o rld ," h e w ro te, "and it is n atu ral in L eban on th at th e sp iritu al lead er o f th e S h i'a com m u n ity, Im am M u sa al-S ad r, stan d s o n th e p od iu m o f a C ath o lic cath ed ral to d eliv er th e first serm on o f th e L e n t ,. . . th is alon e sh ou ld forg iv e L eban on a thou sand sin s."88 T h e co u n try 's lead in g A rabic d aily , al-Nahar, an d its Fren ch co u n terp art, L'OrientLe Jour, ev en p rin ted larg e p h otograp h s o f th e S h i'a cleric, d w arfed b y th e cru cifix on th e w all o f th e tiled v au lt b eh in d h im . "The v o ice o f the Im am M usa al-S ad r, resou n d in g u n d er th e a rch o f the C ath éd rale Sain t-L ou is d es C ap u cin s, p roclaim ed th e tru th ," th e cap tio n in L'Orient—Le Jour read .89 In a b izarre tw ist o f h isto ry , h ow ever, th e extrem es th at h au n ted M u sa al-S ad r w ou ld soon co alesce w ith o th er d ynam ics to tear the

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co u n try ap art. O n Su n d ay, 13 A p ril, ex actly fifty -th ree d ay s a fter th e serm on , th e fire th at tou ch ed o ff L eb an o n 's n igh tm arish civ il w ar ig n ited . L aten t L eban ese an im osities su rfaced to sh atter the co ex isten ce an d d ialogu e w h ich th e cleric had so carefu lly n u rtu red . R eg ion al an d extra-reg io n al in terests tu rned th e co u n try in to a testin g grou nd fo r th eir co n flicts. V io len ce soon b ecam e an en d u n to itself. L eban on w as n o t to b e forg iv en an y o f its sin s.

N O T ES 1. M acEoin, "From Shaykhism to Babism,” 2. 2. See Fischer and Abedi, D ebating M uslim s, 182. 3. M y analysis of Musa al-Sadr's rhetoric draws on John H. Patton's, "M artin Luther King, Jr.,Min A m erican O rators o f the Tw entieth Century, ed. Bernard K. Duffy and Halford R. Ryan, (W estport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1987), 263-70. 4. See Talal Jaber, "Le Discours Shi'ite sur le Pouvoir,” Peuples M éditerranéens, no. 20 (Juillet-Septem bre 1982): 75-92; and Yves GonzalezQuijano, "Les Interpretations d'un Rite: Célébrations de la 'Achoura au Liban," M aghreb-M achreq, no. 115 (Janvier-M ars, 1987): 5 -2 8 .1 would like to em phasize that the usage of the term "mythos" to refer to Karbala and other constituent events in Shi'a religious history should in no way be interpreted as meaning that these events were not factual historical occurrences. "M ythos" is used here in an anthropological sense and has no connotation of being true or false. If anything, it is concerned with ultim ate reality and events of cosmological significance. 5. See Ajami, The Vanished Imam, 137. 6. Dorraj, From Z arathustra to Khom eini, 61 and 66. 7. 'A li Shari'ati, W hat is to be done, ed. and trans. Farhang Rajaee, with a foreword by John L. Esposito, (Houston, TX: The Institute for Research and Islam ic Studies, 1986), 66; Selection or Election, trans. Ali Asghar Ghassemy, (Houston, TX: Free Islamic Literatures, 1974), 4-6; and Jafri, The O rigins and Early D evelopm ent o f Shi'a Islam , 18-19. 8. Mehdi Bazargan, D el va Damagh [Heart and intelligence] (Tehran: Etahad Publications, 1964), 40-42, as quoted in Dorraj, From Z arathustra to K hom dni, 63. 9. As quoted in Dorraj, ibid., 50-51. 10. Ibid, 144. 11. M icheál M. J. Fischer, Iran: From R eligious D ispute to Revolution (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980), 8 ,2 1 , and elsewhere; and Jill Diane Swenson, "Martyrdom: M ytho-Cathexis and foe Mobiliza­

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tion of the M asses in the Iranian R evolution/ Ethos 13, no. 2 (summer 1985): 121-149. 12. Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-D in, The R ising o f A1 H usayn: Its Im pact on the C onsciousness o f M uslim Society, trans. I.K.A. Howard, (London: Muhammadi Trust, 1985), 22. See also Muhammad Husayn Fadl Allah, 'Ala Tariq K arbala' [On the path of Karbala] (Beirut: Dar al-Tayyar al-H adith, 1984). 13. M y account of the events leading to H usayn's martyrdom at Karbala is based on Jafri, The O rigins and Early D evelopm ent o f Shi'a Islam , 130-221; Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din, Thawrat al-H usayru Zurufuha al-Ijtim a'iyya wa A tharuha al-Ittsaniyya [The rising of al-Husayn: its social circum stances and human effects] (Beirut: Dar al-Andalus, n.d.); Muhammad Rida, al-H asan wa al-H usayn [Hasan and Husayn], 2d edition, (Cairo: M atba'at 'Isa al-Halabi wa Shuraka'ahu, 1964); Mahmoud Ayoub, Redem ptive Suffering in Islam , Religion and Society, no. 10, (The Hague, The Netherlands: Mouton Publisher, 1978); and the text of the 'Ashura cerem ony performed on the tenth of Muharram of every year in alNabatiyya, South Lebanon. 14. Shams al-Din, The R ising o fA l H usayn, 17. 15. Shams al-Din, Thawrat al-H usayn, 156. 16. Ayoub, R edem ptive Suffering in Islam , 107 17. Ibid., 109. 18. The text of the 'Ashura ceremonies, Act Three, also published in Frédéric Maatouk, La R eprésentation de la M ort de l'Imam H ussein à N abatieh (Liban Sud), Publications du Centre de Recherches de lTJniversité Libanaise—Institut des Sciences Sociales, no. 14 (Beyrouth: Imprim erie Catholique, 1974), 174-95. Quotations are on 183. 19. Shams al-Din, The R ising o f A l H usayn, 19. 20. Ayoub, Redem ptive Suffering in Islam , 229. 21. The Shi'a commemorations of Karbala have received a fair share of attention from among Islam ic scholars. In addition to the works of Shams al-Din, G irara, Maatouk, and Ayoub mentioned above, it is pertinent to add Ta'ziyeh: R itual and Drama in Iran, ed. Peter J. Chelkowski, Studies in Near Eastern Civilization, no. 7 (New York: New Yode University Press and Soroush Press, 1979); and George Saropheme Gedeon, "The 'A shura' Ceremonies in Lebanon," 2 vols., (Ph.D. diss., the University of London, 1963). 22. Stanley J. Tambiah, C ulture, Thought, and A ction: An A nthropological P erspective (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), 132; also quoted in Combs-Schilling, Sacred Perform ances, 29. 23. See Combs-Schilling, ibid.; and Swenson, "M artyrdom," 138-39. 24. Ayoub, Redem ption Suffering in Islam , 180-81 and 142, respectively.

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25. See Fischer and Abedi, D ebating M uslim s, 168. 26. Ajaini, The V anished Im am , 150. 27. Shams al-Din, The R ising o f A l H usayn, 111-13. 28. Ibid., 102. 29. Ayoub, R edem ptive Suffering in Islam , 233. 30. See Gedeon, "The 'A shura' Ceremonies in Lebanon," 1:132-35; and Dewight R. M iddleton, "Emotional Style: The Cultural Ordering of Em otions," Ethos 17, no. 2 Qune 1989): 193. 31. See Chrara, Transform ations d'une M anifestation R eligieuse dans un V illage du Liban Sud, 90-103. 32. 'A bbas Mahmud al-'Aqqad, al-H usayn Abu al-Shuhada' [Husayn, the father of martyrs] (Cairo: Dar al-H ilal, n.d.). Quotations are on 10,38, and 59, respectively. 33. 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sharqawi, Tha'r A llah [The revenge of God], a play in two volumes: vol. I, al-H usayn Tha'iran [Husayn as a revolution­ ary], and vol. H, al-H usayn Shahidan [Husayn as a martyr] (Cairo: Dar alKitab al-'A rabi li-l-Tiba'a wa al-N ashr, 1969). Quotations are in vol. I, dedication page, and vol. D, 186-89, respectively. See also Ayoub, Redem ptive Suffering in Islam , 233-34. 34. See Gustav Edward Thaiss, "Religious Symbolism and Social Change," (Ph.D. diss., W ashington University, 1973), 202, and 239-40. 35. As quoted in Dorraj, From Zarathustra to K hom dni, 140. 36. Khomeini, Islam and R evolution, 28. 37. John J. Donohue and John L. Esposito, and others, eds., Islam in Transition: M uslim Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press), 297. 38. Shahrough Akhavi, "Shariati's Social Thought," and Gregory Rose, nV dayat-e Faqih and the Recovery of Islam ic Identity in the Thought of Ayatollah Khomeini," in R eligion and P olitics in Iran, ed. Nikki R. Keddie (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983), 125-44, and 166-88, respectively. 39. Jean-Paul Sartre, Black O rpheus, trans. Sam uel W . Allen (Paris: Présence Africaine, 1963), 55. 40. Ali Shariati and others, eds., "Shahadat"[Martyrdom] and "After Shahadat" [After martyrdom] in Jihad and Shahadat [Struggle and m artyrdom], ed. Mehdi Abedi and Gary Legenhausen (Houston, TX: The Institute for Research and Islam ic Studies, 1986), 214 and 248, respectivety -

41. See H arakat Amal, H arakat al-M ahrum in, 69; and al-Shahada ai-Im am [The imam of martyrdom], a booklet published by the Amal movement containing Sayyid M usa's m ost im portant lectures on the subjects of martyrdom and Karbala, 117. 42. Fischer and Abedi, D ebating M uslim s, 202-20. Quotation is on 213.

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43. S ee, among others, Ali Shari'ah, Tashayyo-eh A lavi va Tashayyo-eh Safavi [Alavi Shi'ism and Safavid Shi'ism ] (Tehran: Hoseiniyeh Ershad, n.d.); and On the Sociology o f Islam , trans. Hamid Algar, (Berkeley, CA: Mizan Press, 1979). 44. Dorraj, From Z arathustra to K hom dni, 142. 45. al-N ahar, 15 August 1977; and Am al wa al-R isala (the weekly mouthpiece of the Amal movement), no. 13 (19 August 1977). 46. Azar Tabari, "The Role of the Clergy in M odem Iranian Politics,” in Keddie, R eligion and P olitics in Iran, 47. 47. Mona M akki, "Le Rôle Politico-Religieux de l'Im am Mousa alSadr," 6. 48. al-H ayat, 1 February 1974. See also Ajami, The V anished Imam, 143; and Sicking and Khairallah, "The Shi'a Awakening in Lebanon." 49. Musa al-Sadr, ”N ida' fi al-Yawm al-Husayni" [A call of the day of Husayn], in al-Shahada al-Im am , 10. 50. al-H ayat, 1 February 1974. See also Ajami, The V anished Im am , 143; and Sicking and Khairallah, "The Shi'a Awakening in Lebanon." 51. Musa al-Sadr, "Kul Ard Karbala" [Every land is Karbala], in a lShahada al-Im am , 17-33. 52. Ali Shariah, Fatim a is Fatim a, trans. Laleh Bakhtiar, (Tehran: The Shariah Foundation, n.d.), 224. 53. Ibid., and Hashim M a'ruf al-Husayni, Sirat al-A'im m a al-Ithna 'A shar [The life history of the twelve imams], 2 vols. (Beirut: Dar al-Qalam , 1981), 1: 69-147. 54. See Musa al-Sadr, "al-Zahra: Fasl min Kitab al-Risala" [al-Zahra: A chapter in the book of the message] in M inbar toa M ihrab, 161-79. 55. Jafri, The O rigins and Early D evelopm ent o f Shi'a Islam , 15-35. 56. Musa al-Sadr at the 'Am iliyya College on the occasion of 'Ashura, as cited in al-N ahar, 21 January 1975; and his lectures entitled "al-Dawr alZ aynabi* [Zaynab's role] in al-Shahada al-Im am , 130-57. 57. Musa al-Sadr at Yahr, cited in al-N ahar, 3 February 1974. 58. See David I. Kertzer, R itual, P olitics, and Pow er (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), 119-24. 59. Musa al-Sadr at Bidnayil cited in al-M uharrir and al-N ahar, 18 February 1974. 60. Musa al-Sadr at Bidnayil. 61. Ibid. 62. Musa al-Sadr at Yahr. 63. al-N ahar, 18 March 1974; and "al-Husayniyya Ghadab" [Husaynism is anger], in al-Shahada al-Im am , 158-85. 64. Ibid. 65. Ibid.

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66. Sayyid M usa's various suggestions for the defense of South Lebanon were proposed as early as 1968. See, for instance, U san al-H al, 17 September 1968; al-Jarida, 21 June 1969; and al-H ayat, 25 September 1969, and 3 October 1970. 67. Jean Aucagne, "L'Im am Moussa Sadr et la Communauté Chiite," Travaux et Jours, no. 53, Ecole Orientale de l'U niversité Saint-Joseph, (Octobre-Décembre, 1974): 50. 68. Patton, ’M artin Luther King, Jr.,” 267. 69. Musa al-Sadr at Ba'labak, cited in al-N ahar, 14 March 1974. 70. Ibid. 71. Ibid. 72. M ottahedeh, The M antle o f the Prophet, 49 and 53, respectively; and Ajami, The Vanished Im am , 149. 73. Combs-Schilling, Sacred Perform ances, 29. 74. Hobsbawm, Prim itive R ebels, 150-74. Quotations are on 150 and 152, respectively. 75. al-N ahar, 4 April 1974. 76. Ibid. 77. Ibid. 78. See al-N ahar, 8 May, and 10 September 1974. 79. al-N ahar, 6 May 1974. 80. Ibid. 81. Ibid. 82. Patton, M artin Luther King, Jr.," 268. 83. A copy of the speech was provided to the author by Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din. See also al-N ahar, 20 February 1975. 84. Ibid. 85. Ibid. 86. Ibid. 87. Ibid. 88. al-N ahar, 22 February 1975. 89. L'O rient—Le Jour, 20 February 1975.

Conclusion N o one has shown adequate concern over the disappearance o f the im am . 1 blam e everybody w ithout exception, frien d s, politician s, and religious men. A ll have been indifferent. They have not done enough. —Sayyida Rabab al-Sadr Sharaf al-D in

M

u sa al-S ad r w as la st seen in T rip o li, L ib y a, on F rid ay , 31 A u gu st 1978. H is d isap p earan ce seem ed d isco n certin g ly m y sterio u s, h in tin g a s it d id a t an u n d erly in g w eb o f in trig u e b etray al. Six m on th s la ter, on 1 Febru ary 1979, A yatu llah R u h u llah al-K h om ein i retu rn ed to a tem p estu ou s w elcom e in T eh ran , en d in g d ie reig n o f th e p eaco ck th ron e an d its cu sto d ian , Sh ah M uham ­ m ad R eza P ah lav i, an d p roclaim in g th e daw n o f th e Islam ic R ep u blic o f Iran . T h ese d evelop m en ts follow ed th e Israeli in v asion o f So u th L eban on on 15 M arch 1978, in w h ich effo rts to "liq u id ate terro rist b ases" alo n g th e L eb an ese-Israeli fro n tier" le ft hu n d red s d ead , 220 th ou san d h o m eless, and 600 km 2 o f L eban ese territo ry n ew ly d efin ed a s a "secu rity zone" u n d er de facto Israeli co n tro l.1 D uring, th e in terv en in g fiv e m on th s, L eb an o n 's d an ce o f d eath , the civ il w ar th at h ad eru p ted th ree years b efo re , con tin u ed u n abated . T h ese ev en ts now cam e tog eth er to p resen t a form id ab le ch allen g e to th e S h i'a m ovem ent in Lebanon. T h e first critica l fa cto r w as th e su d d en lo ss to th e m ovem ent o f its p o litical v o ice, n am ely , Say yid M u sa. R ecord s o f th e Su prem e Islam ic S h i'a C ou n cil d ocu m ent th e fa ct th at th e im am w as o fficially in v ited to L ibya to d iscu ss th e "d an gerou s situ atio n in

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L eban on " w ith C o lo n el M u 'am m ar al-Q ad h d h afi. T h e jo u rn ey th ere, arran ged b y th e late A lg erian P resid en t H ou w ari B ou m ed ien n e, w as p a rt o f d ie im am 's to u r o f A rab cap itals in ten d ed to im p ress u p on A rab ru lers th e u rgen cy o f iso latin g L eban on from th e scen e o f in ter-A rab co n flict. "W e, in L eban on, h ave n o th in g to lo se anym ore. L et o u r [A rab] b ro th ers, w ith a ll th eir fo rtu n es, lan d , p o w er, h eritag e, relig io n , civ ilizatio n , an d v alu es b ear th at in m in d ," th e say yid w as qu oted a s tellin g th e K u w aiti m ag azin e a lN ahda on th e ev e o f h is m eetin g w ith Q ad hd hafi.2 A ccom panying h im on d ie trip w ere Sh aykh M uham m ad Y a'q u b , an o th er cleric, an d 'A b b as B ad r al-D in , a frien d an d a jo u rn alist. T h ey too becam e ch aracters in d ie "m ystery" o f th e im am 's d isap p earan ce. M any fan tastic sto ries ab o u t Say yid M u sa's w h ereab ou ts h av e circu lated ev er sin ce. H e h as b een sig h ted a t v ario u s tim es in v ario u s p laces, in P aris, T eh ran , A m sterd am , D am ascu s, an d in a d esert p riso n on th e L ib yan -T u n isian fro n tier. In Febru ary 1988, on e A y atu llah R aw han i p red icted th e sa y y id 's im m in ent reap p ear­ an ce in C airo in sp rin g o f th at y ear. M ean w hile, F ilastin al-T hm ora, a m ou th p iece o f th e P L O , ch arged Q ad h d h afi "p erso n ally" w ith "co n cealin g Im am al-S ad r." T h is d esp ite rep eated claim s b y th e L ib yan gov ernm ent th a t M usa al-S ad r and h is com p an ion s h ad left T rip o li fo r R om e on b oard A litalia flig h t 881 on 31 A u gu st. T h e im am , "a g u est an d a frien d o f L ib ya," h ad d ep arted "u n exp ected ­ ly ," th e L ib yan s said , th u s m issin g h is aftern o o n ap p o in tm en t w ith Q ad h d h afi th a t day. T h e Italian in v estig atio n con clu d in g th a t the im am h ad n o t set fo o t in R o m e's Fiu m icino A irp o rt w as a sh am , sp o kesm en fo r the jam ah iriy y a in sisted , ad d in g th a t 'Ita ly , a s you kn ow , is u n ab le to com p letely in su re p u b lic safety , and the in cid en t w ith its form er Prim e M in ister [A ldo M oro] testifie s to th at."3 In fa ct, it is in B eiru t th at th e u n rav ellin g o f th e m y stery o f M u sa a l-S a d r's d isap p earan ce m u st b eg in . H ow ever, in the lab y rin th in e w o rld o f M id d le E astern p o litics in w h ich h in ts rath er th an certain ties, and ru m ors rath er th an fa cts are o ften th e on ly ev id en ce, it is clearly a n a ct o f op tim ism to an ticip ate d efin itiv e an sw ers. C lo se asso ciates o f th e im am in th e Leban ese cap ital told o f th eir w arn in g s to h im ab o u t th e im p en d in g d an g er on h is trip . T h e year 1978 w as a p articu larly b ad one fo r an y d ialogu e b etw een th e tw o m en , th ey said : Say y id M u sa h ad u n eq u iv ocally accu sed

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Q ad h d h afi o f u sin g Leban on and th e P alestin ian rev o lu tio n to serv e h is ow n en d s. T h e L ib yan lead er had vow ed to cru sh a ll th o se w ho w ere "attem p tin g to ab o rt th e p op u lar rev o lu tio n th at th e L eban ese n atio n alist fo rces h ad ig n ited in Leban on."4 E v en th ou gh , Say yid M u sa w as u n d eterred . A t th e tim e, th e co lo n el w as still a m ajo r p lay er in th e reg io n 's p o litics, h e reason ed . L ib y a 's in volv em en t w ith th e P alestin ian -leftist fo rces in L eban on m ad e Q ad h d h afi a d irect p articip an t in d ie co u n try 's civ il w ar. T o th e im am , th e trip to T rip o li w as th erefore im p erative. F o r th eir p a rt, th e c le ric 's d etracto rs ch arged th at M usa a l-S ad r w as actu ally su m m oned to L ibya to accou n t fo r th e th ou san d s o f d o llars in L ibyan aid h e h ad receiv ed . T h e im am , it w as said , h ad u sed th e m on ey to fin an ce th e estab lish m en t o f A m al, d ie train in g o f an ti-sh ah fo rces in d ie B iq a ' an d elsew h ere, a s w ell a s to m ain tain a reaso n ab ly com fortab le lifesty le. U nable to m arsh al an y ev id en ce in su p p ort o f th eir alleg atio n s, th ey n o n eth eless in sisted th at th e v isit w ith Q ad hd hafi w as an attem p t b y th e SISC ch airm an to salv ag e a flag g in g p o litica l rep u tation . Slan d ers an d d en ials asid e, th ere w ere fo u r m ajo r facto rs h av in g to d o w ith th e v ag aries o f L eban ese, L ibyan and M id d le E astern p o litics in g en eral w h ich , accord in g to a sen io r A m al lead er, ca n b e said to h av e p lay ed a m ajo r ro le in d eterm in in g Say yid M u sa's fate and ou r know led ge o f it.5 T h e first o f th ese w as th e arm ed P alestin ian p resen ce in So u th Leban on. B y 1978, it w as clea r th at th e sou th ern Leban ese w an ted to rid th em selv es o f th is lia b ility . T h e la tte r's "excesses" h ad grow n extrem e, p rov ok in g Israeli rep risals o f in creasin g fero city . T h e d ev astatin g lo sses in cu rred d u rin g th e Israeli in v asio n th at y ear b rou g h t S h i'a exasp eratio n w ith th e P alestin ian s to a b o ilin g p o in t. U nd er p ressu re from h is ow n com m u n ity, Say yid M u sa in tu rn b eg an callin g fo r new P alestin ian -L eb an ese treaties to rep lace th e 1969 C airo A greem en ts an d th eir su bsequ en t am en d m en ts, an d fo r the d ep loym en t o f L eban ese arm y con tin g en ts in th e fro n tier reg ion . "T h e real trag ed y o f th e So u th ,” he w arned K halid al-H asan , a h ig h -ran k in g P LO lead er, in 1978, "are th ese 'e x ce sse s.' . . . T h e sou th ern ers w ill soon exp lo d e; b ew are o f th e resu lts."6 T o th e P LO , o n th e oth er h an d , L eban on p rov id ed th e territo ri­ a l b a se th a t w as essen tial to its statu s a s a m ajo r p lay er in th e re g io n 's p o litics. T o the rad ical P alestin ian o rg an ization s in

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p articu lar, So u th Leban on w as th e m ost read ily accessed th eater o f o p eration s from w h ich to in itiate th e lib eratio n o f P alestin e an d , u ltim ately , th e en tire A rab w orld . N o on e, an d certain ly n ot som eone o f Sayyid M u sa's statu re, w as to b e allow ed to jeo p ard ize th a t o b jectiv e. T h e second facto r w as th e Sy rian -L ib y an "co ld w ar" to w h ich Q ad h d h afí's second -in-com m and , 'A b d al-Salam Ja llu d , allu d ed in a p ress co n feren ce in T eh ran on 4 M ay 1 9 7 9 / A s k eep er o f th e statu s quo w h ich accord ed him a p o sitio n o f ad v an tage and p riv ileg e in th e p o litics o f th e reg io n , S y ria 's "gran d m aster" H afiz al-A sad w as u n w illin g to su b ord in ate h is strateg ic in terests in L eban on to w h at h e fe lt w ere d ie p aro ch ial am b ition s o f "sm all­ tow n p o litician s" lik e M u 'am m ar al-Q ad h d h afi and Y asir 'A ra fa t.8 Sy ria th erefo re arm ed th e P alestin ian s an d th eir leftist a llie s, th row in g its w eig h t b eh in d th e rig h tist fo rces o n ly w h en th e goal o f a "m ilitary " settlem en t o f th e civ il w ar, fin an ced b y L ib ya, th reaten ed to p artitio n th e cou n try.9 Su p p ortin g th e Sy rian p o licy in L eban on, Say yid M u sa in effect d eclared h is d e facto o p p o sitio n to a L ibyan -based p o litical restru ctu rin g o f th e cou n try. It w as a d ecisio n th at w ou ld p u t h im in d irect co n flict w ith Q ad h d h afi and h is allies. T h e th ird facto r w as d ie b itte r and m ortal stru g g le th at en su ed in Iran b etw een w h at cam e to b e know n a s th e "fu n d am en talistrad ical" and th e "m od ern ist" w in gs o f the rev o lu tio n follo w in g th e overthrow o f th e sh ah and th e estab lish m en t o f th e Islam ic R ep u blic. A s a lead in g fig u re in a m ovem ent th e aim s o f w h ich h e on ce d escribed a s faith , lib erty , an d ju stice , an d w h ich w as in ten d ed to rem ind p eop le everyw here o f "d ie ap p eal o f th e p ro p h ets,"10 Say y id M usa w ou ld h av e b een a stau n ch op p onent to th e "fu n d am en talist-rad icals" w ho w orked to m on op olize a ll access to Im am K hom eini and h ad stron g d es to d ie PLO and L ib y a.11 It is in th e co n text o f th at stru ggle th at one m u st also view (a) the resu m p tio n o f norm al d ip lom atic relatio n s b etw een Iran and L ibya in 1979, o n ly six m on th s a fter a n Iran ian N ew s A gency (liria ) b ro ad cast o n 5 M ay 1979, w h ich stated th a t T eh ran h ad n o in ten tio n o f estab lish in g an y d ip lom atic relatio n s w ith T rip o li ’b e fo re th e m y stery o f Im am a l-S a d r's d isap p earan ce w as so lv ed ,"12 (b ) the fa ll o f th e "m od erate" governm ent o f M ehdi B azarg an on 6 N ovem ber 1979, tw o d ay s a fter th e occu p ation o f

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th e A m erican em bassy in T eh ran , (c) th e series o f p ron ou n cem en ts b y sen io r 'u lam a, in clu d in g K h om ein i, a fter th e rev o lu tio n con d em n in g S h a ri'a ti, an d (d ) th e p u b lic h u m iliatio n o f A y atu llah Say yid K azim Sh ari'atm ad ari (1904-1986), th e m o st in flu en tial m a ija ' al-taq lid p rio r to th e rev olu tion , and th e execu tio n in 1982 o f Sad eg h G h otbzad eh , Ira n 's fo reig n m in ister from N ovem ber 1979 to Sep tem b er 1980 and one o f Say yid M u sa's clo sest frien d s, fo llo w in g accu satio n s ag ain st th e tw o m en th at th ey h ad b een p lo ttin g to overthrow th e Islam ic R ep u b lic.13 A fo u rth and fin a l facto r th at m u st b e con sid ered a s cen tral to th e m y stery o f Say yid M u sa's d isap p earan ce, th e argu m en t co n tin u ed , w as th e eru p tio n o f th e Iran -Iraq w ar in Sep tem b er 1980. T o th e ex ten t th at th e w ar in creasin g ly iso lated Iran in th e reg io n an d in ten sified its need fo r a llies, it also effectiv ely en d ed a ll effo rts to u n co v er th e tru th b eh in d th e im am 's d isap p earan ce. In th e sh iftin g san d s o f p o litica l exig en cy , Q ad h d h afi's jam ah iriy y a w ou ld d eclare its su p p ort o f rev o lu tio n ary Iran , th e Islam ic R ep u blic w ou ld com e to rely on L ib yan w eap on su p p lies, an d Say y id M u sa w ou ld b e id en tified as y et an o th er m arty r in th e w ar b etw een Islam an d th e "co rru p t" o f th is w orld . Y et th e sto ry m ig h t also b e m u ch sim p ler th an th a t, a b ad tw ist o f fa te o r a m ere "accid en t" as rep orted in on e A m erican em bassy d isp atch . C itin g sou rces w h ose "cred ib ility co u ld n o t b e estab ­ lish ed ," d ip lom atic cab le 0780489-0390 o u t o f P aris in N ovem ber 1978 stated th at Say yid M u sa "h ad g otten in to a h eated d iscu ssio n w ith h is L ibyan h o sts" on 31 A u gu st. "T h e L ibyan s w ish ed to in tim id ate th e Im am and in th e co u rse o f th is in tim id atio n , a L ib yan stru ck th e Im am a leth al b lo w ." A fter a ll, th is w as L ibya w h ere p eo p le h av e alw ays d ied d u ring "h eated " d iscu ssio n s. N o n eth eless, an d reco g n izin g th at th e im am , as a fo reig n er, m ig h t n o t h av e b een aw are o f lo ca l cu stom s, th e cab le n o ted th at the "L ib yan h o sts" fe lt "rem orsefu l th at th e glove w as n o t v elv et en o u g h ."14 If th e p u rp ose b eh in d Say yid M u sa's "con cealm en t" w as to a rrest th e d yn am ics h e h ad h elp ed to set in m o tio n in th e L eban ese S h i'a com m u n ity, th en th e resu lt w ou ld b e a com p lete failu re. O ne d oes n o t h av e to search lon g in th e an n als o f h isto ry fo r p ro o f o f th e b u oy an cy o f so cial m ovem ents. T h e S h i'a com m u n ity certain ly d id n o t liv e in a vacu u m . T h e fa ct th at it affected and w as g reatly

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affected b y its im m ed iate m ilieu w as in teg ral to its em ergen ce a s a m ajo r p lay er in a n ew ord er w h ich red rew ex istin g lin es o f g eo p o litical alleg ian ce in th e M id d le E ast and u n n erved b o th su p erp ow ers. T h e 1977-79 Islam ic rev o lu tio n in Iran claim ed th e L eban ese S h i'a , and su stain ed th eir m ob ilization . In itia lly , it con tain ed th e lo ss and d iso rien tatio n th at follo w ed th e su d d en d isap p earan ce o f Say yid M u sa, th e n eu tralizatio n o f H arakat a lM ah ru m in b y th e civ il w ar, and th e in ab ility o f an in fan t A m al to m atch th e firep ow er o f an y o f its m ajo r ch allen g ers. O n th e o th er h an d , A yatu llah K h om ein i's Iran had a n agen d a th at d id n ot d irectly ad d ress th e p articu larities o f th e L eban ese S h i'a situ atio n . T h e Islam ic R ep u b lic w as k een on exp ortin g its rev o lu tio n , fig h tin g im p erialism an d th e Z io n ist en em y, an d seek in g m artyrd om to th ese en d s. T h eir now p o liticized 'b ro th e rs" in L eban on w ere to b e called u p on to en gage "th e forces o f S atan in th e b a ttle o f d estin y ." K hom eini knew little o f L eban on and its S h i'a com m u nity. M ost o f th o se w ho follow ed M u sa al-S ad r w an ted im proved m aterial con d ition s, governm ent p rotection , eq u al op p ortu nity, and a b e tter fu tu re fo r th eir ch ild ren . T h ey celeb rated th e triu m p h s and d efeats in S h i'a h isto ry , m ou rned H u sayn and ex alted h is v irtu es, b u t also d anced in th e v illag e squ are d u rin g w ed d ing cerem on ies an d w ere affected b y th e "W estoxicatin g " cu ltu re o f th e tw en tieth cen tu ry . T h eirs w as a so ciety in tran sitio n , a b len d o f th e o ld and th e n ew , o f trad itio n an d m od ern ity, E ast and W est. T h e K hom ein ist v isio n o f a "p u re" Islam ic ord er seem ed v ery fa r rem oved from th eir ob jectiv es and asp iration s. M u sa al-S ad r w as w ell aw are o f th e d iv ersity o f id en tities an d alleg ian ces w ith in h is co n stitu en cy , an d clearly u n d erstood its g en eral d istru st o f m en o f relig io n tu rn ed p o litician s. T h e L eban ese S h i'a , u n lik e th eir Iran ian co -relig io n ists, d id n o t h av e a stro n g trad itio n o f p rom in en t 'u lam a in volv em en t in p o litics. T h is g reatly in flu en ced th e say y id 's p u b lic p ostu re an d restricted h is ro le in the p o litica l aren a. A s ch airm an o f the SISC , M usa al-S ad r co u ld n o t affo rd to forego an y o ffer o f coop eration from the S h i'a zu 'am a, p erh ap s in clu d in g K am il al-A s'ad . In stead , h e aim ed fo r a "rain b ow co alitio n " o f so rts. T he SISC w as a grou p in g o f com m u ­ n ists, co n serv ativ es, an d M u slim m ilitan ts, w ith th e cen trists form in g th e m ajority . A m al, m ean w h ile, "d ev oted [itself] to n atio n al sov ereig n ty and in d ep en d en ce" and aim ed to rein fo rce

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"L eb an o n 's statu s a s a cu ltu ral w indow th rou g h w h ich W e s t . . . m eets E ast.”15 L eb an o n 's civ il w ar, w h ich ig n ited o n 13 A p ril 1975, w as th e qu ietu s o f th e "L eban ese m iracle." V iolen ce an d d eath w ou ld d efin e th e co u n try fo r lon g years to com e, im p o v erish th e con ­ scien ce o f m an y an d m u tilate th e reality o f m ost. B eiru t, th e on ce m ag n etic m etro p o lis, w ou ld b e en g u lfed a t tim es b y th e extrem es o f h ate an d an g er and a t oth ers b y h o p efu l resig n ation . It w as th e ab y ss M u sa al-S ad r, G rég oire H add ad, and m an y o th ers h ad fo reseen an d often w arned again st. O n 2 7 Ju n e, th e say yid b eg an a h u n g er strik e a t th e Safa m osqu e o f th e 'A m iliy y a C o lleg e in B eiru t a s a p ro test ag ain st th e v io len ce an d ag ain st a ll th o se w ho h ad "d efiled th e co u n try ." In a statem en t to h is fellow citizen s, th e cleric allu d ed to a co n sp iracy ag ain st L eban on and th e P alestin ian rev o lu tio n , an d im p lored th em to u p h old co existen ce an d th e p rin cip les o f eq u ality and so cial ju stice in th e cou n try. Sin ce "w eap ons do n o t so lv e th e crisis, b u t fo ster th e d estru ction o f th e cou n try ," h e said , "w e w an t to extin g u ish . . . d ie v iolen ce w ith th is strik e, w ith fastin g an d d ev otion ."16 T h e strik e w as h ailed a s a 'b le sse d step " tow ard p eace and lo v e am id st th e carn ag e th at h ad becom e Lebanon. It w as b ro k en fiv e d ay s la ter, on 1 Ju ly , follo w in g the annou ncem ent o f th e fo rm atio n o f a gov ernm ent o f n atio n al u n ity th at p rom ised to p roceed w ith th e task o f n atio n al reco n ciliatio n . F or a w h ile, it seem ed th at the ta ctic o f "m oral p ressu re" w as a gen u in e and v iab le altern ativ e to th e lan gu age o f v iolen ce. B u t a s th e Leban ese w ou ld so o n learn , Say yid M u sa's "m essage o f p eace" itse lf w as to fa ll v ictim to the d ictates o f a new era. O n 6 Ju ly , the cleric w as forced to an n ou n ce, p rem atu rely , th e b irth o f A m al, an o rg an izatio n b o m o f L eb an o n 's aband onm ent o f its sou th ern territo ries, an d Isra e l's attem p ts to b rin g th e reg io n to its knees. A m al, Say yid M usa d eclared , h ad b een in th e m ak in g sin ce 1974. Its fig h ters, he said , w ere train ed b y th e P LO , an d w ere strictly forb id d en to becom e in volv ed in th e co u n try 's civ il w ar. A sked ab ou t th e ram ification s o f th e p ro liferatio n o f arm s am on g th e p u b lic, w h ich th e creatio n o f A m al in effect p rom o ted , th e cleric in sisted th at h e h ad alw ay s b een in fav o r "o f in teg ratin g a ll o f th e m ilitia s in to a governm ent in stitu tio n ,. . . an au x iliary to th e

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reg u lar L eban ese arm y th a t w ou ld b e cap ab le o f rep u lsin g Israeli attack s."17 S till, th e fa ct w as n o t lo st th at th e S h i'a m ov em en t h ad crossed a new th resh o ld , a d evelop m en t w h ich , Sayyid M u sa's su p p orters w ou ld la ter say , w as u n avoid able. T h at is th e ev en tu al con fron ta­ tio n o f A m al, a sp ecifically S h i'a m ilitia , m ad e u p o f an d fo r th e S h i'a , an d su p p orted b y th em , w ith th e o th er Leban ese m ilitia s w as an in ev itab ility m ore th an a ch o ice. In a civ il w ar to m Lebanon w h ere th e im m ed iate enem y cou ld as read ily b e M aron ite, P alestin ian , D ru ze, o r Su n n i as Isra eli, A m al w ou ld fin d itse lf in file u n en v iab le p o sitio n o f h av in g to d efend S h i'a hom es in th e su b u rb s o f B eiru t an d elsew h ere, w h ile sim u ltan eou sly con fron tin g th e gov ernm ent w ith a vow to "shed th e la st d rop o f b lood " in th e fig h t fo r S h i'a civ il rig h ts. T o th e ex ten t th a t th e v io len ce su rrou n d in g th e S h i'a com m u­ n ity au th o red th e creatio n o f A m al, it also m arked th e d isso lu tio n o f H arakat al-M ah ru m in . In a so ciety a t w ar, a p eacefu l and m u lti­ co n fessio n al m ovem ent o f ch an ge seem ed to ev oke a w o rld o f p o litica l p assio n an d so cial com m itm en t th at stood in sharp co n trast to th e Leban ese so cio p o litical reality o f th e m id -sev en ties. In a so ciety w h ere fan aticism slow ly crep t over a ll v estig es o f to leran ce, an d zealo try b ecam e a co n stan t, an y ta lk o f com m u nal u n d erstan d in g w as a lu xu ry , an d on e th at th e average m an on the stree t co u ld n o lo n g er affo rd . F u rth erm ore, th e w ar d elim ited th e S h i'a m o b ilizatio n and d efin ed its id eo lo g ical ton e. L ike th e M aron ites and file D ru ze, the S h i'a n ow n eed ed a clear agen d a and a p ow erfu l p atron . A s the co u n tless ceasefires failed to stem file v io len ce, it b ecam e clear th at L eban on w as b ein g claim ed b y tw o p rin cip al p o litica l cu rren ts lock ed in a b a ttle fo r su prem acy. T h e first, a "rev olu tion ary" cu rren t, w as try in g to overthrow th e statu s qu o, d islod g e the M aron ite h eg em on , an d estab lish a "d em ocratic, n atio n alist, secu lar" ord er. L eban on w as to b e th e first to fall in a d om in o-lik e e ffect th a t w o u ld u ltim ately u p root th e "reactio n ary " m on arch ical reg im es o f file A rab ian P eninsu la. T h is, as p rev io u sly m en tio n ed , w as th e p rog ram o f th e L eban ese N atio n alist M ovem ent, su p p ort­ ed tactica lly b y Y asir 'A ra fa t an d h is Fath org an ization , and activ ely b y L ibya and th e m ore "extrem e" P alestin ian organ ization s. T h e secon d , a n "iso latio n ist" cu rren t, w an ted to m ain tain its grip

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o n p o w er, elim in ate P alestin ian p resen ce in its m id st, and red u ce L eb an o n 's en tan g lem en t in A rab p o litics. F ailin g th at, it w ou ld op t fo r p artitio n . T h is w as d ie p rog ram o f th e Leban ese Fron t, a grou p in g o f th e M aron ite olig arch y , su p p orted m ore o r less b y a ll o f th e rig h tist fo rces in th e co u n try , th e con serv ativ e A rab reg im es, an d Israel. T h e S h i'a , Say yid M u sa b eliev ed , b elon g ed to n eith er cu rren t. T ru e, th ey w ere d issatisfied w ith th e d om in an t ord er in th e co u n try , b u t th ey w ere also w illin g to n eg o tiate its reform . "L eb an on w as th e d efin itiv e hom eland fo r th e S h i'a ,” th e cleric claim ed , sin ce th ey , lik e th e C h ristian s, b elon g ed to a m in o rity th at h ad n o ch an ce fo r eq u itab le treatm en t in th e larg er Su n n i A rab w o rld . H e fau lted th e L eban ese Fron t fo r its arrogan ce tow ard the L eban ese M u slim s, arg u in g th at it d id n o t h av e "th e rig h t to trea t th em a s traito rs.” A s he told K arim P akrad ou ni in th e m id ­ sev en ties, "th e ru lin g rig h t h as n eg lected th e So u th sin ce th e d aw n o f in d ep en d en ce sind th e S h i'a h av e becom e th e d isin h erited , th e su b -p ro letariat o f Lebanon. L et no one b e m istak en ! E v ery in ju stice p ro v o k es a n ex p lo sio n ."18 T h e P alestin ian cau se, o n th e o th er h an d , w as, acco rd in g to Say y id M u sa, th e m o st n o b le o f a ll h u m an cau ses, and on e th at h ad to b e u p h eld b y ev ery b eliev er. H ow ever, th e P alestin ian resistan ce h ad ab u sed L eb an o n 's to leran ce in gen eral and th e su p p ort o f its S h i'a com m u nity in p articu lar, h e w arn ed , and w as b ein g p u sh ed tow ard b ecom in g a "reg io n al m ovem ent" w h ose aim w as "to top p le th e A rab reg im es, b eg in n in g w ith L eban on."19 G iv en th at th e resista n ce 's raiso n d 'ê tre w as to lib erate P alestin e, Say yid M u sa m ain tain ed th a t an y agen d a sh o rt o f th is am b itiou s o b jectiv e co u ld n o t b u t b etray th e h op es and asp iratio n s o f th e P alestin ian p eo p le. A s fo r th e L eban ese le ft and its gu ru K am al Ju n b lat, th ey w an ted to "fig h t th e C h ristian s to th e la st S h i'a ," Say y id M u sa in sisted . T h at th eir p lan s h ad grow n u n realistic, th eir p o lem ics m ore ab stract, an d th e releg atio n o f th e rig h tist cam p to p o litica l iso la tio n h ad n o aim b u t to p ro tract th e b lood sh ed .20 Say y id M u sa d id n o t h av e to ag on ize in search o f th e altern a­ tiv e. A fter h is in itia l flirta tio n w ith th e Leban ese N ation al M ov em en t-P alestin ian allian ce d u rin g th e 1975-1976 p h ase o f the c iv il w ar, h e ju m p ed sh ip in fav o r o f Sy rian p o licy in th e cou n try . T h e

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m ov e w as m otiv ated b y in terest rath er th an id eo lo g y an d end ed in a m arriag e o f con ven ien ce: P resid en t A sad calcu lated th at S y rian secu rity co u ld n o t to lerate a n ab id in g ch an ge in th e L eban ese p o litica l lan d scap e/ irresp ectiv e o f its sou rce. A nd Say yid M u sa co n clu d ed th at h is com m u n ity 's b est b e t w as to tak e on a ro le in a m u lti-co n fessio n al Leban ese p o lity com m ensu rate w ith its d em ograp h ic and econ om ic stren gth / th at Sy ria w as th e on ly in su ran ce p o licy ag ain st an y p lan s to carv e ou t a w atan b ad il (su b stitu te hom elan d ) fo r th e P alestin ian s in Sou th Leban on, and th a t a L eban ese S h i'a m ov em en t, th ou gh refo rm ist-cen trist/ w ould n o t fin d n eed ed su p p o rt in an y o th er A rab co u n try b u t in S y ria.21 W ith Say yid M u sa's d isap p earan ce, th e S h i'a m ovem ent w as in creasin g ly deem ed b y its p rop o n en ts a s a b a ttle fo r th e v ery su rv iv al o f th e com m u nity. W h en a ll tilin g s w ere said an d d on e, th e S h i'a im am w as view ed as h av in g van ish ed in a Su n n i lan d , a t th e h an d s o f a Su n n i ru ler—a rep lay o f an h isto ric en m ity th at n ev er seem to ab ate.22 H ad th e S h i'a-S u n n i d iv id e ceased to b e an issu e to th e A rab s, m an y o f th e say y id 's asso ciates w ou ld later arg u e, th en Q ad h d h afi h im self w o u ld n o t h av e con fron ted th e d eleg atio n o f clerics w ho called u p on h im in D am ascu s a t th e su m m it o f th e "stead fastn ess an d co n fron tation " states on 21 Sep tem b er 1978, to d iscu ss th e fate o f th eir lead er w ith the qu estion : "I am to ld h e is a n Iran ian , is h e n o t?"23 B y raisin g th e issu e o f Say yid M u sa's Iran ian id en tity a t a n A rab su m m it, the lo g ic w en t, th e L ibyan lead er w as in fact qu estion in g th e A rab h eritag e o f th e L eban ese S h i'a , and w ith it th e leg itim acy o f S h i'ism a s a n A rab m an ifestatio n . T h e q u estio n also rem ain ed a s to w h y th e A rab sta tes d id n o t h o ld Q ad hd hafi accou n tab le fo r th e d isap p earan ce o f a cleric w ith Say y id M u sa's statu re. W orse still, w h y in 1978 had D ar al-F atw a, the cou n cil rep resen tin g th e Su n n i com m u nity in L eban on, p u b lish ed a n a rticle b y 'U m ar T ad m u ri in a l-F ik r a l-Isla m i su g g estin g th e p o ssib ility o f th e em ergen ce o f a Sh i'a-M aro n ite allian ce in Leban on th at w ou ld d istan ce th e cou n try fro m its A rab -Islam ic en v iron m en t? T ad m u ri h ad an alog ized th e p rop o sed allian ce to alleg ed co n tacts b etw een th e S h i'a o f K israw an and th e C ru sad ers in C yp ru s tow ard th e end o f th e th irteen th cen tu ry , w h ich osten sib ly had in cited th e M am lu ks to th e series o f m ilita ry cam p aign s ag ain st th at Leban ese region .24 T h at th ere w as in a ll o f th ese d evelop m en ts th e clear in d icatio n th at som e A rab

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sta tes h ad b eg u n to fe a r th e effects o f th e Leban ese S h i'a exam p le o n th eir ow n "d isin h erited " S h i'a p o p u lation s, an d th erefo re w ere n o t alto g eth er u n h ap p y w ith h av in g M usa al-S ad r o u t o f th e w ay , an d th at th e Leban ese Su n n i estab lish m en t in p articu lar had n o t fo rg iv en th e im am fo r effectiv ely b rin g in g th eir h egem on y ov er th e M u slim v o ice in L eban on to a n en d . T h e im am 's leg acy , fu rth erm ore, w as m ore th an an y o f h is a sso ciates co u ld liv e u p to . L ike a ll fig u res o f h isto ry , M u sa al-S ad r attracted oth erw ise w arrin g m en. W ith h is u n tim ely d isap p earan ce, th ey h u rried to ap p rop riate h is m an tle. T h e lea d er's w o rd s w ere in terp reted a s su p p ortin g riv a l tru th s, and h is v isio n recast in d ifferen t an d o ften co n trad icto ry lig h ts. In th e years a fte r 1978, fo r in stan ce, A m al w itn essed a b eh in d -th e-scen e p ow er stru g g le b etw een th e m ore estab lish ed p o litical factio n o f H u sayn a lH u sayn i, w ho h ead ed th e m ovem ent from A p ril 1979 to A p ril 1980, and th e you n g er grou p o f N abih B irri. T h e selectio n o f B irri to th e lead ersh ip o f A m al on 4 A p ril 1980, w as seen as th e triu m p h o f th e m ilitary w in g ov er th e p o litica l in th e m ovem ent. A m al's loose organ ization al stru ctu re, m eanw hile, allow ed reg ion al lead ers to ch allen g e th e au th o rity o f th e cen ter in B eiru t, w h ich in th e eb b an d flow o f L eban ese factio n al p o litics cou ld and in d eed d id o n o ccasio n red u ce th e territo ry u n d er B irri's co n tro l to som e stree ts in th e sou th ern su b u rb s o f th e cap ital an d a few iso lated p o ck ets in th e So u th and th e B iq a '. H ow ever, th e m ost seriou s ch allen g e to A m al's rep resen tatio n o f th e S h i'a com m u n ity, an d to its su rv iv al, cam e fro m th o se A m al m em bers w ho saw Say yid M u sa's w o rk in L eban on as p a rt o f th e larg er Iran ian v isio n o f Islam ic rev o lu tio n . W ith tim e, th is grou p w ou ld b rea k aw ay to form Islam ic A m al, feed th e ran ks o f H izb A llah , Ira n 's m ajor L eban ese S h i'a a lly an d th e m o st cred ib le th reat to A m al's h eg em on y am on g st th em , o r stay in th e m ovem ent an d attem p t to ch an ge its ch aracter fro m w ith in .25 Im ag es o f Say y id M u sa still com m and . It is a testim on y to th e m a n 's com p lexity an d to th e m u ltid im en sion al n atu re o f h is ap p eal th at h e sh ou ld b e rem em bered so d ifferen tly b y so m any. H is d etracto rs still in sist th at h e b etrayed th e v ery id eals w h ich form ed th e sy m b olic and rh eto rical co re o f the m ovem ent h e in itiated . H e w as a m an o f in co n stan t p o litica l w ill, th ey ch arg e, w h o secretly d ealt w ith th e sh ah o f Iran an d th e C IA , an d in fa ct w as n o th in g

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m o re th an a p aw n in a larg er p lan to d estroy rev o lu tio n ary m ov em en ts in th e M id d le E ast. T h e p o litical ob serv er, o n the o th er h an d , rem em bers M u sa a lS ad r a s a n ad ro it strateg ist, a m an o f stron g b elie fs an d a k een and p ra ctica l sen se o f p u rp ose. H e w as id ealistic and altru istic, it is sa id , b u t no illu sio n ist. A nd th at h e w as b reath tak in g in h is co n v ictio n th at h e co u ld h elp fom en t a rev o lu tio n in h is com m u ni­ ty an d still b e ab le to m ed iate th e settlem en t th at w ou ld b rin g th e larg er Leban ese so ciety acro ss th e ab y ss to ren ew al o n th e oth er sid e.26 T h e co n fid an t rem em bers M u sa al-S ad r th e v isio n ary , th e m an w ith th e b lazin g green ey es w ho co u ld com m and an au d ien ce lik e n o n e oth er. T h at the seem in g con trad iction s in th e p o litical stan d s tak en b y th e im am fall aw ay u n d er h is sin g le-m in d ed d ed icatio n to th e fo rtu n es o f h is com m u nity. M u sa al-S ad r m old ed th e p o litica l o rien tatio n o f h is fo llo w ers to w h at h e saw a s an op tim al co u rse, b u t h e also respond ed to th eir m ood. H e th u s a llied h im self w ith S y ria, ad op ted a n atio n alist refo rm ist p latfo rm , ch ose n eith er le ft n o r rig h t, an d w avered in h is su p p ort o f P alestin ian arm ed stru g g le from So u th Leban on a t a tim e w h en h is com m u ni­ ty w ou ld n o lon g er to lerate th e fid a 'iy y in in th eir m id st. If an y­ th in g , it is asserted , it w as th e Leban ese reality th at b etray ed the c le ric 's strateg y o f p eacefu l d ialogu e: M usa al-S ad r w o u ld h ave b e e n th e la st to allow h is com m u nity to rem ain d efen seless b efo re Israeli m ig h t o r b e tak en h o stag e b y th e cu lt o f v io len ce th at p rev ailed in Lebanon. T h e S h i'a su b altern w h ose life M u sa al-S ad r irrev ocab ly ch an ged sp eak o f th e cle ric 's u n u su al em p ath y fo r th e ord in ary , tiie p o o r and the p o w erless, a ll o f th ose w hom L eban on h ad lon g forg otten . In d eed , th e im am 's g reatest leg acy m ay b e th e h o sp itals, orp h an ag es, sch o o ls an d v ocation al in stitu tio n s estab lish ed u n d er h is in itiativ e an d , le ss tan g ib ly , h is b e lie f in th e S h i'a ab ility fo r renew al. W h atever v erd ict h isto ry ren d ers on th e years M u sa al-S ad r sp en t w ith h is com m u n ity, th is is certain : It w as h isto ry in th e m ak in g. T h e say yid 'b ro u g h t a p assio n to p u b lic life , a sen se th at gov ernm ent in th e h an d s o f th e rig h t p eop le cou ld b e m ob ilized fo r som eth in g goo d ."27 T h e attem p ts on the p a rt o f h is d etracto rs to ca st a shad ow on h is m em ory m iss th e p oin t. W hat M u sa a l-

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S a d r's su p p orters co n tin u e to ch erish tod ay is h is d em onstrated ten acity in p u rsu in g so cial ju stice . T h at leg acy certain ly stan d s u n ch allen ged .28 In th is stu d y I h av e attem p ted to an alyze th e S h i'a p o liticiza­ tio n in Leban on u n d er th e lead ersh ip o f Say yid M usa al-S ad r in th e co n text o f th e recen t literatu re on p o liticized eth n icity an d eth n ic m o b ilizatio n . M ore th an exp ressio n o f "b asic grou p identity*' in v o lv in g co n g ru ities o f k in sh ip , lan g u ag e, cu stom , and o th er "assu m ed giv en s" o f so cial existen ce, I tak e eth n icity to b e p a rtly ascrib ed an d p artly v o litio n al, situ atio n al an d strateg ic.29 E th n ic relatio n s, I b eliev e, can "tran slate th em selv es in to sets and series o f strateg ic an d tactical situ atio n s p lay ed o u t o v er tim e a s co n ten d in g eth n ic grou p s seek to a lter th eir resp ectiv e statu ses v is-à -v is on e an oth er."30 A s R oth sch ild n o tes, It is therefore insufficient—though partially correct—to explain the persistence and even the revival of ethnicity into and in file m odem era as reflecting a primal "need to belong" to supposedly m ore enduring, more nearly comprehensive, more organic, more supportive psycho-cultural collectivities than the adm ittedly secular, specific, functional, utilitarian ones generated in modem societies around the foci of profession, occupation, legal claim , and other rational interests. Such an explanation must be amplified and extended to incorporate also the perception that to politicize ethnicity is no less instrumental and rational a mode of interest-assertion than the organization of these other types of voluntary, albeit impersonal, groups and entities is. Indeed, precisely in this rational and instrumental component of politi­ cized ethnicity lies the possibility of reconciling it w ith loyalty to a multiethnic state.31 H avin g selected th is fram ew ork, I d o n o t in ten d to d en y th e exp lan atory p ow er o f altern ativ e m od els o f so cial ch an ge. N or d o I su g g est th a t eth n icity op erates in a vacu um an d is th erefo re in d ep en d en t o f a so ciety 's socioecon om ic stru ctu res. A ll alo n g , I h av e tried to av oid m od els o f m od ern ization an d so cial ch an ge b u ilt on w h at M ilton G ord on h as called th e "lib eral exp ectan cy " in th e W estern in tellectu al trad itio n , n am ely , th at "p rim ord ial (o r in an y case an teced en t), d ifferen ces b etw een grou ps w ou ld b e exp ected to b ecom e o f lesser sig n ifican ce" in m o d em an d m od ern ­ izin g so cieties u n d er th e com bined effects o f tech n olog y , leg a l

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refo rm s, a u n iv ersal ed u catio n al sy stem , etc. Su ch fu n ctio n alist th eo ries ign o re th e eth n ic grou p s in th eir search fo r lo y alties b ey o n d th e n atio n -state, w h ile d evelop m en talism an ticip ate th e ero sio n o f trad itio n al in stitu tio n s b y th e in ev itab le fo rces o f secu larizatio n . T h e m eth o d ological w eakn ess o f th ese ap p roach es lie in th eir lin ea r co n cep t o f h isto ry , w h ich p reclu d e th e p o ssib ility o f th e u n exp ected in terferin g w ith th e p ro cess o f h isto rica l d evelop m ent. W ith M arxism , o f co u rse, th e "lib eral" exp ectan cy flo w s in to th e "rad ical" exp ectan cy , th at a ll stru g g les acq u ire th e d im en sion s o f cla ss co n flict co n stitu tin g th e fu n d am en tal fa cto r in p o litica l u p h eav als. T h is ap p roach is u n ab le to ex p lain th e ex istin g d ifferen ces in th e p o litica l cu ltu res o f states w ith sim ilar so cio eco ­ n om ic b ase. M ore im p o rtan tly, M arxism , as a p arad igm o f ch an g e, seem s to h av e b een eclip sed b y th e resu rgence—o r em ergence—o f eth n icity . E th n ic b on d s tod ay h av e b ecom e th e fu n d am en tal lan gu age o f p ro test, reson atin g th rou g h ou t th e w o rld , an d sh ak in g th e fou n d ation s o f m ost m o d em an d m od ern izin g states. C lea rly , k eep in g an ey e on th e in teractio n b etw een th e cu ltu ral an d th e socioecon om ic is essen tial to trace th e d ev elo p m en t o f S h i'a m o b ilizatio n , to d elin eate its o rig in s, an d to end ow su b sequ en t ev en ts w ith som e sem blance o f lo g ic. T h rou gh it a ll I h av e attem p ted to p resen t th e S h i'a sid e o f th e sto ry . T h is is an o th er w ay o f u n d erlin in g m y in telle ctu a l an d p erso n al com m itm ent to o ffer som e n o tes tow ard an u n d erstan d ­ in g o f w h at th e S h i'a w an t in m o d em Leban on an d an in sig h t in to th e w h y an d th e h ow o f it.33 P ersp ectiv al tru th , p a rtia l a s it m ay seem , is critica l fo r d em ystifyin g th e O th er, an d fo r d elin eatin g th e issu es in co n ten tio n an d w ays to ad d ress them . U n til th e m id -tw en tieth cen tu ry , th e field o f exp ressio n o f th e w ill o f th e S h i'a com m u nity w as le ft larg ely in th e h an d s o f a sm all nu m b er o f zu 'am a. T h e lead ersh ip w h ich th ey p ro v id ed w as a t b e st d isin terested an d a t w o rst self-in d u lg en t an d ex p lo itativ e, th eir p rim ary v eh icle o f leg itim acy b ein g a w eig h ty an d u nexam ­ in ed b o d y o f receiv ed trad ition . T h is op p ressiv e b o n d b etw een lead ers an d follo w ers w as sym p tom atic o f th e stag n atio n th at ch aracterized S h i'a so ciety a s a w h ole on th e ev e o f L eban ese in d ep en d en ce.

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A n y an aly sis o f th e d y n am ics o f th is situ atio n h as to co n sid er th e con verg en ce o f certain lo ca l, reg io n al, and ex tra-reg io n al facto rs. A m ong th ese are: (1) th e so cial o rg an ization o f early S h i'a so ciety in Lebanon and th e tran sform ation o f th e M aron ite com m u nity in to an "h istoric b lo c,” w ith a ll o f th e con seq u en ces th at th is en tailed fo r th e o th er Leban ese com m u n ities; (2) d ie assu m p ­ tio n o f h egem on ic co n tro l b y su ccessiv e Su n n i d y n asties in th e eastern A rab w o rld , an d elsew h ere fo r th at m atter, co u p led w ith th e rise o f (n on-A rab) Iran as th e on ly S h i'a p ow er in th e Islam ic w o rld ; (3) th e g en eral m alaise exp erien ced in M u slim so ciety co llectiv ely a t th e en d o f the Islam ic im p erial cy cle; and (4) th e ex clu sio n o f th e L ebanese S h i'a com m u nity, lik e a ll O tto m an M u slim s, fro m the th eater o f Eu rop ean p ow er p o litics o f th e n in eteen th cen tu ry th at w as eag er to ru p tu re th e h isto rica l co n tin u ity o f O ttom an ru le. A s d iscu ssed , th is ex clu sio n w as p iv o tal in d eterm in in g th e statu s w h ich the S h i'a com m u n ity w as to occu p y u p on th e creatio n o f a co n fessio n al L eban ese en tity . U n d er co n d itio n s o f g en eral so cietal tran sform ation in L eban on , th e six ties m arked th e p o litica l m ob ilization o f th e L eban ese S h i'a com m u nity. B y a ll in d ices, Lebanon in th ose y ears u n d erw en t rap id , alb eit u n ev en , so cial m ob ilization . T h e ru d im en ts o f m od ern ity w ere slow ly tran sform in g age old tru th s, an d in trod u c­ in g p rev io u sly in su lar m en an d w om en to new id eas. G eog rap h ic m ob ility—b o th u rb an ization an d em igration —w as key to co n scio u s­ n ess tran sform ation . T he su ccess o f th e S h i'a d iasp ora b rou g h t th e com m u n ity u n exp ected w ealth , an d w ith it th e d esire fo r a rep resen tativ e so cio p o litical v oice. T h e less fo rtu n ate S h i'a su ffered th rou g h the d eclin e in L eban on 's ag ricu ltu ral secto r, th e trau m a o f a n ew life in th e su bu rbs o f B eiru t, an d the in secu rity o f liv in g in a fro n tier reg ion frau gh t w ith v iolen ce. T h e you ng an d ed u cated S h i'a em braced N asirism , A rab N ation alism , B a 'th ism , M arxism L en in ism , an d ev ery oth er m an ifestatio n on th e A rab p o litica l lan d scap e. In its m om en ts o f g lo ry , each o f th ese id eo lo g ies w as th ou g h t to b e cap ab le o f p ro v id in g effectiv e w eap on s ag ain st a heg em on ic W est, an d th e an tid ote to a w o rld ch aracterized b y id eo lo g ical b an kru p tcy an d so cial in ju stice. A m ong th e con testan ts fo r th e atten tio n an d alleg ian ce o f th e S h i'a com m u nity w as M u sa al-S ad r. H is lan gu age w as sim p le, h is id io m s fam iliar, h is dem ands rev olu tion ary . H e rem oved "th e d u st

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o f ag es" fro m th e m an o f relig io n an d , in th e p ro cess, led d ie p rev io u sly "m argin al" an d org an izatio n ally in ch o ate m asses in to fo rcefu lly articu latin g th eir sen se o f reju v en atio n and reb irth . T o h is fo llo w ers, Say yid M u sa w as a p ro jectio n o f h op e, th e sy m b ol o f th eir d eterm in ation to ch an ge th e statu s quo an d th e w eap on ag ain st a sy stem th at h ad fo rg o tten o r ign o red th eir existen ce. In b o th h is d iæ o u rse an d th e p rax is w h ich h e set in m o tio n , S h i'ism em erged as a m o ral trad itio n , an in stru m en t o f lib eratio n , an d a p ed agog y o f d ie op p ressed .34 M u sa a l-S a d r's g reatest su ccess in d eed m ay h av e b een h is ro le in fo sterin g th at new S h i'a con ­ scio u sn ess tow ard w h ich h is com m u nity h ad b een striv in g . So o n , H arakat al-M ah ru m in w ou ld becom e th e fo cu s fo r a ll th o se w h o w ere in terested in a g en d er L eban on , p eop le w h o h ad fe lt d isen ch an ted w ith o r d isin h erited b y th e g ross in eq u alities th at d iv id ed th e h av es from th e h av e-n ots in th e cou n try. O n 3 0 Sep tem b er-22 O cto b er 1989, tw en ty y ears a fte r th e estab lish m en t o f th e Su prem e Islam ic S h i'a C ou n cil and fou rteen y ears a fter th e creatio n o f A m al, rep resen tativ es o f th e com m u nity n eg o tiated w ath iqat al-m ith aq al-w atan i (th e D ocu m ent o f th e N ation al P act) w ith lead ers o f th e o th er m ajo r co n fessio n al grou p s in d ie cou n try . O therw ise know n as th e T a 'if A greem en t in referen ce to th e Sau d i A rabian city w h ere it w as sig n ed , the d ocu m ent b ecam e the b a sis o f a new co n stitu tio n , ap p rov ed b y p arliam en t on 21 A u gu st 1990 an d sig n ed in to law b y P resid en t E lia s H raw i th e follo w in g 21 Sep tem ber. A rticle 24 o f th is co n stitu ­ tio n p rov id ed fo r "equ al rep resen tation am ong th e co n fessio n al grou p s," an d fo r "p rop ortion al rep resen tation am on g th e co n fes­ sio n al g rou p s w ith in each relig io u s com m u n ity." A s a resu lt, m em bership in th e p arliam en t w as in creased from 99 to 108, and d ie nu m b er o f S h i'a d ep u ties from 19 to 2 2 , eq u allin g th at o f the Su n n is. A rticle 4 4 enhan ced b o th th e p ow er an d th e p restig e o f the S h i'a sp eak er o f p arliam en t b y effectiv ely exten d in g h is ten u re to fo u r years an d b y d irectly in v olv in g him in th e selectio n o f the p rim e m in ister. A rticle 49 sig n ifican tly red u ced th e p ow er o f the M aron ite p resid en t o f d ie rep u b lic to th at o f a "sym bol" an d a cerem o n ial "head o f state." A nd article 95 stip u lated th at "a n atio n al com m ittee sh all b e form ed . . . to stu d y and p rop ose the m ean s b y w h ich to en su re th e ab olition o f con fession alism ." A n oth er key S h i'a d em and , w h ich w as p art o f the T a 'if A greem ent

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b u t n o t in clu d ed in d ie co n stitu tio n , w as th e estab lish m en t o f an econ om ic an d so cial d evelop m ent co u n cil in ord er to en su re "th e p a rticip atio n o f rep resen tativ es o f th e v ario u s secto rs in th e fo rm u latio n o f th e econ om ic an d so cial p o licy o f th e gov ern m en t b y p ro v id in g ad v ice an d su g g estion s.'05 If a cata ly st o f th e S h i'a p o liticizatio n in Leban on w as th e relu ctan ce o f L eban ese so ciety to ad d ress th eir g riev an ces, th en th ey d efied th at society . If th e o b ject o f th eir m o b ilizatio n w as to refo rm th e sy stem , th en th ey op ted fo r th e m id d le road b etw een acq u iescen ce and rad icalism . L eban on w as a s m u ch th eirs a s it w as o th ers'. A n eq u itab le co ex isten ce am ong th e Leban ese w as th e op tim al ch o ice, th ey b eliev ed . In d eed , th e civ il w ar m ay h av e d erailed M u sa a l-S a d r's o rig in al g oal an d th e asp iratio n s o f h is follo w ers. T h e p ro v isio n s o f th e new co n stitu tio n fe ll sh o rt o f A m aTs d em and fo r a to tal an d im m ed iate d istrib u tio n o f p o litica l p o w er alo n g "secu lar-d em ocratic" lin es. N on eth eless, th e m ov e­ m en t itse lf is irrev ersib le. L eban on can no lo n g er tak e its S h i'a com m u n ity fo r granted .

N O T ES 1. South Lebanon: Facts and Figures, 8-10. 2. Sabab Ikhfa' al-Im am ai-Sadr [The reason behind the concealment o f imam al-Sadr], a detailed memorandum of three chapters by the Supreme Islam ic Shi'a Council that summarizes the m ediation efforts which Sayyid Musa undertook during the 1975-77 first phase of the civil war in Lebanon. Quotation is in I: 29. 3. See M ulakhkhas bU -ljra'at wa al-Ittisalat wa al-M asa'i al-M unjaza f i Q adiyyat Ikhtifa' Sam ahat al-Im am al-Sadr toa M urafiqih [A summary of the procedures, contacts, and efforts undertaken in the m atter of the disappearance of imam al-Sadr and his companions], a memorandum by the SISC, 22, and 30. See also al-Q arar al-N iha'i liA-Q ada' al-ltali f i Q adiyyat Ikhfa' al-Im am M usa al-Sadr wa Rafiqayh [The final report of the Italian judiciary on the m atter of the concealment of imam al-Sadr and his two com panions], published by the SISC in its original Italian as well as in Arabic. 4. Sabab Ikhfa' al-Im am al-Sadr, 1 :25-28. 5. From an interview in w inter 1988 w ith a prominent Amal leader who declined to be identified.

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6. As cited in d-Sayyad (a Lebanese weekly), 26 January 1978. Two other im portant references delineating Sayyid M usa's statements on PLO presence in South Lebanon in 1978 are his Friday sermon in the al-Safa mosque in Beirut on 3 February, as w ell as his interview w ith Le N ouvel O bservateur on 15 February, which was subsequently translated into Arabic and published by the daily d-L iw a' on 9 March, and the weekly al-R aya in its 19 March issue. See also Pierre Georges, "Où est donc l'Im am Moussa al-Sadr,” Le M onde, 30 September, 1978. 7. The official text of Jallud's press conference in Tehran, as published by the SISC. 8. Patrick Seale, "Assad: Kibitzing on Syria's Grand M aster," The In tem ation d H erald Tribune, 19 M ay 1989. 9. See Sabab Ikhfa' d-lm am M usa d -S ad r, II: 24. 10. Musa al-Sadr, "L'Appel des Prophètes," Le M onde, 23 August 1978; also translated into Arabic and published by d -S afir, 15 September 1978; and Jerom e Carole, The M an in the M irror (Ontario: Key Porter Books Lim ited, 1987), 258-68. 11. From an interview w ith prominent Iranian activists who declined to be identified in the United States in the fall of 1989. 12. See M ulakhkhas bi-l-Ijra'at wa d -Ittisalat wa d-M asa'i d-M unjaza f i Q adiyyat Ikhtifa' Sam ahat d-lm am d -S ad r wa M urafiqih, 17. 13. Ayatullah Sayyid Kazim Shari'atm adari w as the m ost prominent opponent to Khom eini's vilayat-i faqif. In April 1982, he was accused of supporting a plot to overthrow fire Islamic Republic and, in a very controversial and unprecedented move, w as stripped of his rank as m arja' al-taqlid. 14. Ajami, The Vanished Im am , 184. 15. M ithaq H arakat A m d, Arts. V and VII. 16. d-A nw ar, 28 June 1975; and d-H aw adith (a Lebanese weekly), 11 July 1975. 17. d-N ahar, 7 July and 12 July 1975. Sayyid Musa felt compelled to acknowledge tire existence of Amal on 6 July, two days after anti-tank explosives its trainees were learning to use in fire Biqa' accidently went off, killing 26 and wounding 43 more (the victim s were 35 dead and a 100 wounded according to d-H arakat d-Islam iyya f i Lubnan, 65). 18. Pakradouni, La Paix M anquée, 106. 19. d-A nw ar, 12 August 1976. 20. Sayyid M usa's attitude toward fire Lebanese National MovementPales tinian program in Lebanon was also detailed in his speech at fire festival by Harakat al-M ahrumin that commemorated the "Day of fire M artyr" at Unesco Hall in Beirut on 23 May 1976.

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21. See M artin Kramer, "Syria's Alawis and Shi'ism ," in Shi'ism , R esistance, and R evolution, 237-54. 22. From an interview in die w inter of 1988 w ith a senior Amal member who declined to be identified. 23. al-M asira ila "Mu'tom ar Qimmat ai-Sum ud wa al-T ahaddi”f i D im ashq bi Tarikh 21-9-78 (The journey to the "conference of the summit of steadfastness and confrontation" in Damascus on 21 September 1978], a memorandum by fite SISC detailing th e Lebanese Shi'a delegation's meeting with die Arab heads-of-state and Qadhdhafi. Quotation is on 3. 24. See 'Um ar 'Abd al-Salam Tadmuri, "al-Mawarina wa 'Oaqatihim b i1-Muslimin fi Tarikh Lubnan al-Islam i" [The M aronites and their relations w ith die Muslims in the history of Islamic Lebanon], al-F ikr al-Islam i V II, nos. 5:5 7 -6 4 , and 6: 79-88. 25. Islam ic Amal emerged in June 1982 as an offshoot of the m ain­ stream Amal movement. It was, according to its founder, Husayn alMusawi, a "reaffirm ation" of the Islam ic identity of Amal, laid down by Musa al-Sadr him self at Am al's first congress in Tyre in 1976, and confirmed by the movem ent's fourth congress in March 1982. By serving in the Syrian-sponsored National Salvation Committee of June 1982, Nabih Birri, the elected head of Amal, Musawi asserted, had deviated from die movement's declared line, and caused the split in its ranks. Hizb Allah, on die other hand, was die "brainchild" of Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Fadl Allah who feared the impact of ahzab al-ku fr wa al-ühad (the parties of unbelief and atheism ) on the M uslims, and thus called for a genuine Islam ic movement to rally diem, and govern their affairs. This, according to Hizb Allah, acquired a new dimension with the triumph o f the Khomeinist vision in Iran, which gave Islam "a political and international power base” necessary to all those working to spread its message on a world scale. The real take-off of the movement followed its claim s to the spectacular operations against Israeli forces in South Lebanon after 1982, and the unwavering financial, political, as well as m ilitary support by Iran. For further inform ation on Islam ic Amal and Hizb Allah, see al-H arakat al-lslam iyya f i Lubnan, 145-65,217-34, and 24568; and Marius Deeb, M ilitant Islam ic M ovem ents in Lebanon, Occasional Paper Series, (W ashington, D.C.: Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, 1986), 12-17. See also Fadl Allah, al-Islam wa M antiq al-Q uwwa; the M iddle East Insight, nos. 2 (June-July 1985): 12-19,45 (1986): 4-13; and M artin Kramer, H ezbollah's V ision o f the W est, Policy Papers, no. 16 (W ashington, D.C.: The W ashington Institute for Near East Policy, 1989). 26. See Tom Mathews, "Remembering Bobby," N ew sw eek, no. 19 (9 May 1988): 26-29.

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27. See M argaret B. Carlson, "The Last Hero," in Tim e, no. 19 (9 May 1988): 18-21. Quotation is on 18. 28. See "W hat Dr. King W rote, and W hat he did," an editorial in the N ew York Tim es, 13 November 1990. 29. See Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation o f C ultures: Selected Essays (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 259; Isaacs, "Basic Group Identity: The Idols of tiie Tribe,” 29 and 35; and Nagel, "H ie Political Construction of Ethnicity,” 95. 30. Stanford M. Lyman and W illiam A. Douglass, "Ethnicity: Strategies of Collective and Individual Management,” Social R esearch 40, no. 2 (summer 1973): 344-45. 31. Rothschild, E tfm opolitics, 248-49. 32. Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan, "Introduction;" and M ilton M. Gordon, 'Tow ard a General Theory of Racial and Ethnic Group Relations," in Ethnicity, 7 and 88, respectively. 33. See Turki, The D isinherited, 8 and 14. 34. See Fischer, Iran: From D ispute to R evolution, viii-ix; and Turki, The D isinherited, 101. 35. The T ai'f Agreement and the new constitution as trans. and annotated in The Beirut Review 1, no. 1 (spring 1991): 119-72. See also "L'Accord de Taëf: Le Document d'Entente Nationale," and Joseph Maïla, "Le Document d'Entente Nationale: Un Commentaire," in Les Cahiers de l'O rient, no. 16-17 (1990): 115-33, and 135-217, respectively.

Appendixes

1. LINEAGE OF THE TWELVE IMAMS

Tw elver Shi'ism , also known as the Imami Shi'ism , believes in the succession of twelve imams, the last of whom went into occultation in 874 C.E., and from which he w ill emerge at the end of time to reestablish the reign of peace and justice. The imamate, the Twelver Shi'a m aintain, w as passed on from 'A li to Hasan, from Hasan to Husayn, and rem ained in the latter's progeny. The twelve imams are: (1) 'A li (d. 661 C .E.), (2) Hasan (d. 699 C.E.), (3) Husayn (d. 680 C.E.), (4) Zayn al-'A bidin (d. 711 C.E.), (5) Muhammad al-Baqir (d. 733 C.E.), (6) Ja'far al-Sadiq (d. 765 C.E.), (7) Musa al-Kazim (d. 799), (8) 'A li al-Rida (d. 818), (9) Muhammad al-Taqi (d. 835), (10) 'AU al-Naqi (d. 868), (11) Hasan al-'A skari, and (12) Muhammad al-M ahdi (occultation in 874 C.E.). The reUgious affiliation of the population of Kisrawan during the Mamluk expeditions, on the other hand, has been the subject of m ajor controversy. An exhaustive study of the different ideological perspectives o f Lebanese historians on this issue is provided by Ahmad Beydoun, Identité C onfessionnelle et Temps Social chez les H istoriens Libanais Contem porains (Beyrouth: PubUcations de l'U niversité Libanaise, 1984), 77127.

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2. KFARSHUBA AND ITS MODERN DECLINE

As the village was affected by capitalist penetration, its economy and population declined, and it internal cohesion disintegrated. A small number of villagers enlisted in the French Army at one point, while em igration increased. During die Arab-Israeli war of 1948, many peasants Joined the Arab Liberation Army and its posts that were spread in the hills overlooking the village in the Upper Galilee. Two young men—the sons o f die village warden—were honored for elim inating the iqta'i Kamil al-Husayn who appropriated lands in the Hula and the Galilee and sold them to Zionist organizations. After 1948, the South w as h it hard w ith an economic depression, a state of insecurity, and a human exodus toward Beirut. Many young men enlisted in the Lebanese Army or joined the local civil service. But faced w ith the decline of agriculture, the end of oeno culture and of sericulture, and the dom ination of capitalist ethics, m ost migrated to the G ulf w hile others moved to the dty. A t tiie end of the fifties and the rise of the Nasirism, Kfarshuba becam e a center of the 1958 rev o lt The deteriorating security situation on tiie Lebanese-Israeli frontiers in the sixties caused another wave of urbanization and em igration to the Gulf. As a result, agricultural production dwindled, and internal cooperation broke down. W ith the construction of tiie road in 1965, and the resultant further spread of the capitalist m arket system to tiie villages, people grew increasingly nostalgic about tiie p a st After the Arab defeat of 5 June 1967, the village became a center for the Palestinian resistance. Israeli forces attacked twice and bombed Kfarshuba repeatedly. At the end of 1972, the village emptied in face of daily bombardments and the destruction of its homes. Its population was scattered in die Biqa', al-Nabatiyya, Sidon, and Beirut. Israeli occupation posts spread in tiie surrounding hills. Then tiie people came back to bury their dead and reconstruct their lives. The village was made anew. Its inhabitants, however, were like hotel guests, their income sent from abroad. And Kfarshuba, the village, rem ains tiie quintessential village of "Green Lebanon," its history the history of every village.

Source: Author's adaptation and translation from Khaldun al-Khalid's "Kfarshuba wa al-Tadahwur al-Hadith," [Kfarshuba and tiie M odem Decline], M ulhaq al-N ahar, 28 April 1974,6-7.

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3. L'ENQUETE PAR SONDAGE SUR LA POPULATION ACTIVE AU LIBAN

In 1970, the Lebanese government conducted a survey of about30,000 households, which represented approximately one-fifth of all the households in Lebanon at the time. This stratified cluster sample of Lebanese households provided a variety of basic demographic informa­ tion, for example, age-structure, marital status, geographic, educational and economic distribution by sex and age. It was published in 1972 under the title L'Enquête par Sondage sur la Population A ctive au Liban. The survey estim ated the "resident” population in Lebanon at 2,216,000, excluding Palestinans living in refugee camps and seasonal Syrian workers. The resident active population (workers and job seekers), on foe other hand, was estim ated at 572,000, or 27 percent of foe total population. Excluding foe permanently unemployed (estimated at 6 percent of foe active population), this m eant that 538,410 people, or one resident in four, w ere providing for foe needs of foe total population. One striking, but no doubt intended, shortcoming of that survey was that it did not ask for religious affiliation. As a result, its data were not useful in comparing religious groups. However, using these 30,000 households as a sampling frame, foe Lebanon Family Planning Association (LFPA) selected a 10 percent subsample in order to investigate fertility and fam ily planning patterns in Lebanon. This subsample was the first national sample of a m ajor portion of foe Lebanese population in which religious affiliation w as ascertained. The LFPA survey, involving interviews with 2,795 m arried woman between foe ages of 15-49, provided the basis for Cham ie's article, "Religious Groups in Lebanon: A Descriptive Investigation," used in the text. Although there were 17 recognized religious groups in Lebanon, the LFPA survey distinguished between 5 major religious groups: Among the M uslims, (1) Sunnis, (2) Shi'a, and (3) Druze; and among foe Christians (4) Catholics, including foe M aronites and the Greek Catholics, and (5) foe non-Cafoolic Christians, including foe Greek Orthodox and the Armenian Orthodox. Furthermore, the LFPA survey classified occupational categories as follows: a. Professional/technical: teacher, doctor, dentist, engineer, lab technician, law yer, editor, pharm acist (generally those with at least two years of college).

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b. Business/m anagem ent: banker and financial investor, insurance employee, owner of business. c. Q erical/sales: clerk in government or private industry, sales worker, typist, secretary, bookkeeper. d. P olice/arm y/guard: watchman, concierge, soldier. e. Crafts /operatives: metal worker, machinist, plumber, carpenter, mechanic, welder, driver, shoemaker, weaver, repairman. f. Farming: gardener, farm er, (own farm and tenant), dairy worker. g. Labor: unskilled and semi-skilled laborer, worker on construction and roads, sweeper, factory worker, fruit picker, porter. h. Peddlery: travelling peddlers for fruit, food, clothes, glass, etc. i. Other: fisherman, teacher without college training, generally jobs which do not fit above.

Sources: Joseph Chamie, "Religious Groups in Lebanon: A Descriptive Investigation," International Journal o f M iddle East Studies 11, no. 2 (April 1980): 173-87. Reprinted by perm ission; and Fiches du Monde Arabe, Lebanon—Population D ata, I-L38 (31 December 1975).

4. LEBANON DURING THE CIVIL WAR The Belt of M isery

Beirut: A nauseous stench rises from the numerous garbage heaps lining the narrow alley. Children w ith fly-covered faces wade in foe muddy puddles. Crouched in foe door of a hovel, foe em aciated face of an old man, and the m istrusting look of a youth intensely follow foe stranger's passage. Contrary to traditional Lebanese hospitality, foe stranger is not invited in for coffee. The house is too cramped. This hut of rusted sheet-metal houses children, parents, and grandparents. The squatters in this shanty town in the heart of Beirut are painfully aware of their abandonment. They have but to raise their eyes to contemplate foe proud buildings with flower-planted verandas where live wealthy Christians. The shells which destroy their homes are indelibly stamped w ith the Fhalangist sniper's cross or with the m ark of other M aronite m ilitia men. Six hundred thousand people are crowded into foe "belt of m isery" which strangles Beirut and her suburbs. In foe financial metropolis of the

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M iddle East, where banks crum ble under die w eight of uninvested cash liquidity, more than one-third of the population subsists on the brink of famine. The m ortality rate there is two to three tim es the national average. Low paid workers and the unemployed alike find it difficult to feed themselves due to exploding prices. Decent housing is nearly out of reach as rents have tripled in two years due to real estate speculation. For their children, schooling and medical care are virtually out of reach. A large portion of the urban proletariat has taken refuge in the impoverished ghettos with such naipes as La Q uarantaine [al-Karantina], Bourg Hammoud [Burj Hammud], Ñdbaa [al-N ab'a], Tal Zataar [Tal alZ a'tar], Chiyah [Shiyyah], Bourg Brajneh [Burj al-Barajni], Sabra, or C hatila [Shatila]. In this d ty where the cost of living equals that in New York, 72 percent of the workers earn an average of 425 Lebanese Pounds per month [$187]. This is half the bare minimum necessary for a fam ily o f six for food and healthful lodging without counting clothing, transportation, school fees, medical care, etc. Many workers barely earn the minimum guaranteed monthly wage of 315 pounds per montit. Islands of distress fester like cancers on the body of B eiru t Palestin­ ian refugees founded the first core of shanty towns more than a quarter of a century ago. Sunni M uslim workers (Arabs or Kurds) increasingly moved in beside them. But the great majority of inhabitants in the belt of misery today are Shi'ite Muslims who fled their inhospitable countryside. Attracted by the industrial boom 's mirage, about ten years ago, they deserted the "peripheral" under-developed regions such as H erm el [alHirm il], Bekaa [the Biqa*] and South Lebanon, where their religious community is in the m ajority.

Source: Eric Rouleau, "Le Liban dans the Guerre G v ile," a series of five articles published in Le M onde between 21 and 25 September 1975. The above excerpt is from installm ent no. 3, entitled "Le Révolte du Tiers Etat,” published on 23 September, as trans. in SWASIA, 17 October 1975, and republished in M ERIP R eports, no. 44 (1976): 13.

5. WORK CONDITIONS AT THE GHANDUR FACTORY

The exploitation and degradation of the workers begin from the moment they solicit work. The workers know that Mr. Ghandur hires new labor every Monday. He orders the applicants to queue, scrutinizes

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each carefully, and chooses only those ones who look strong but stupid. H e then inspects their identity cards and hires only those under twenty years of age. In this way, Mr. Ghandur avoids paying die minimum wage o f LL183/m onth and all of the insurance benefits guaranteed by law to those above that age. The hum iliation of the hiring process is compounded by the w ay the Ghandur factory treats its labor force. The workers are supposed to punch in four tim es a day, in the morning, at and after lunchbreak, and at the end of the day. If they forget to punch in once, they loose a whole day's pay. If they are five minutes late, they are immediately fired. And if they are absent for one day, for whatever reason, they are suspended for two days w ithout pay of course, and are penalized an amount equivalent to their daily wage in addition to that of an overtim e workday. The workers are subjected to daily inspections. They are insulted in various ways by the foremen. The women workers have vulgarities directed against them in addition to having to put up w ith the foremen entering their bathrooms, which also lack die minimum hygiene requirem ents. More than half of the workforce is female, and the m ajority are juveniles who have not yet turned eighteen. The old workers usually ask the new ones ironically at pay time: "W hat is your-price?” The latter do not know their actual pay before they receive their first paychecks, when Ghandur "prices" him /her according to standards which he arbitrarily sets. W ith the exception of the Palestinian women who live in die Tal alZ a'tar refugee camp, all of the other workers come from die villages of the South and the Biqa', and live in the suburbs of B eiru t There are few technicians from the W est side of the capital as w ell.

Source: Author's translation and adaption from Faris Bazzi's, "Kayfa W ajahat al-Ahzab al-Taqadumiyya wa al-Haraka al-Niqabiyya Idrab 'Um m al M a'am il Ghandur fi Kharif 1972?” [How did the Progressive Parties and the Syndicate Movement face the W orkers' Strike at the Ghandur Factories in the Autumn of 1972?] (M.A. thesis, the Lebanese University^-MaTiad al-'U lum al-Ijtim a'iyya, 1974), 8-9.

G lossary

'abaya, form ally 'aba'a: a cloak-like woolen wrap. 'alaw i: see 'Alaw i Shi'ism below. 'Alaw i Shi'ism , also Nusayri Shi'ism : Shi'a followers o f Muhammad ibn Nusayr al-Nam iri. Considered by som e to be disbelievers and idolaters for their alleged deification of 'A li and other beliefe, the 'Alaw is were confirmed a Shi'a group by the Supreme Islam ic Shi'a council in Lebanon in 1973. At present, the 'Alaw is are politically dom inant in Syria where they form alm ost 12 percent of the population. 'amma: masses 'ashira (pi. 'asha'ir): clan. 'ashura: tit. the tenth day of Muharram. In the Shi'a calendar, it denotes the death of the third imam, Husayn, at Karbala in 680 C.E. 'ilm , tit knowledge* In Twelver Shi'ism , the term re fu s to one of the two fundamental principles of the theory o f the imamate expounded by Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth imam. According to Ja'far, the imam possesses a special sum of knowledge of religion, which can only be passed on before his death to the following imam. This special knowledge, including both the external (zahir) and the esoteric (batin) meanings of tire Q ur'an, was transmitted to Husayn, who inherited the imamate from his older brother Hasan, and remained in the form er's progeny. 226

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'uhda: dom ain over which the governing powers of the iqta'i extended. 'ulam a, (pi. o f 'alim ): learned men o f religion, a'm al: dependencies of. ahl al-balad: the townsmen. ahl al-bayt: the people of die house. In Twelver Shi'ism , it refers to die immediate members of Prophet Muhammad's fam ily, i.e., his daughter, Fatim a, his cousin and son-in-law, 'A li, his two grandsons, Hasan and Husayn, and Husayn's progeny, ahl al-jurd: the inhabitants of die jurd. Al: one's fam ily or kinsmen. Not to be confused w ith die definite article al-. ayatullah, lit the m irror of God: a Shi'a religious tide, ayatullah al-'uzm a, lit. the supreme m irror of God: a Shi'a religious tide. baklik: domain, bani: clan of. bay'a: declaration of allegiance bayraq: flag, banner, b a y t household bek: Ottoman courtesy tide, bilad al-sham : geographical Syria, b in t daughter. Carmathians: Ism a'ilis active on the southern shores of the Arabian peninsula who did not believe in the religious sanctity of the Fatimid rulers in Egypt. dasta: groups of young men, usually in black shirts, who beat their chests w ith their hands, or their backs w ith chains, during religious processions. See latm and janzir below, faqih: an expert in fiqh. fatwa: formal legal opinion. fida'iyyin: those who sacrifice themselves for a cause, fiqh: religious jurisprudence. hadith: in Shi'ism , traditions attributed to die Prophet Muhammad and to the twelve imams, hadra: presence, hay'at-i senfi: guild-union, hayba: appeal. hujjat allah, lit. the proof of God: a Shi'a religious tide. Idrisids: Shi'a followers of Idris bin 'Abd Allah, a descendant of the second imam, Hasan, who founded die first of die great Moroccan dynasties toward die end of the second century hijra. ijdhad: reliance on reason to interpret the law.

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iltizam : the tax-forming system in Ottoman tim es, imam, lit. one who stands in fro n t In Shi'ism , it refers to the legitim ate successors to die Prophet Muhammad as leaders of the M uslims; also religious leader of the community, or leader of the prayer in die mosque. Imami: see Imami Shi'ism . Imami Shi'ism : the Shi'a who believe in die succession of Twelve imams, die last of whom, Muhammad al-M ahdi, went into occultation in 874 C.E., but from which he w ill emerge at the end of time to establish the reign o f peace and justice. iqta': feudalism Ottoman style; also land granted by such tenure, iqta'i: feudal lord, holder of die right to an iqta'. Ism a'ili Shi'ism : Shi'a who believed that Ism a'il, son the sixth Twelver Shi'a imam, Ja'for al-Sadiq, had not died but in fact was concealed by his father out of fear for his safety and that he w ill return as die awaited imam. jabal: mountain. jahiliyya: pre-Islam ic age o f ignorance, jam ahiriyya: republic. janzir: back beating w ith a chain, practiced by Shi'a men during the 'ashura cerem onies, jihad: religious war. jurd: barren land. kashif al-ghita', lit. the uncoverer of errors: a Shi'a religious tide. latm : breast beating; one of the Shi'a practices during 'Ashura. madhhab: doctrine. madrasa: school. m al-miri: Ottoman land tax. m arathi: elegiac w riting. m arja': an authoritative religious scholar. m arja' al-taqlid, lit. source of em ulation: one who through his learning and probity is qualified to be followed in all points of religious practice and law by die generality of Shi'a. M atawila (pi. of M itwali): a sobriquet for the Shi'a in Lebanon, m illet: religio-national communities, m iri, from am ir, prince: state property, m ubaya'a : declaration of allegiance. mudiriyya: directorate, an Ottoman adm inistrative unit. It is im portant to note that die Ottoman adm inistrative divisions have no real equivalent today. m ufti: official expounder of religious law , principally among the Sunnis. muhafaza: adm inistrative unit in modem Lebanon.

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mujaddid: lit renewer, a Shi'a religious tid e mujtahid: one who has studied sufficiently and achieved the level of com petence to obtain permission to expound judgm ents on religious law using reason and the principles of jurisprudence, multazim: Tax-farm er in Ottoman tim es, murawwij, lit propagator: a Shi'a religious tide, mutasarrifiyya: subdivision of a wilaya in Ottomam times, nahda: renaissance. nahiya: canton, an Ottoman adm inistrative unite, najas: im pure naksa: setback, d efeat nasab: lineage. nass, lit text. In Twelver Shi'ism , the term refers to die second principal tenet of the theory of die imamate. God, it is argued, has bestowed die imamate upon a chosen person from die fam ily of the Prophet who before his death and with the guidance of God, transfers it to another by explicit designation. Nusayri Shi'ism : see 'Alawi Shi'ism qa'im aqam : h i Ottoman tim es, an adm inistrative officer at die head o f a qada'. qabadayat (pi. of qabaday): strong-arm men. qada': sub-district, qadi: judge. qutb (pi. aqtab), lit. pole: a political powerhouse, rawda: preachment; hom iletic sermon, rayyis, slang for ra'is: president, ridda wars: wars of apostasy, sanjaq: district in Ottoman times. sayyid (pi. asyad or siyyad, fern. Sayyida), lit s ir / madam. In Shi'a lexicon, a descendant of die Prophet Muhammad. Among Shi'a 'ulam a, a sayyid is identified by his black turban. Shafi'i, from al-Shafi'iyya: in reference to die Imam Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad bin Idris al-Shafi'i, founder of one of the four Sunni schools of law. shahada: martyrdom, shahid: martyr, shari'a: religious law. shaykh, lit. an elder: a man of religion, or a clan leader, shura: consensus of die community. surma, lit custom. In Shi'a lexicon, it refers to die traditions of die Prophet Muhammad and die twelve imams, ta'ziya: mourning ceremony, tanzim at: Ottoman adm inistrative reforms.

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taqiyya: precautionary dissimulation. tatbir: head wounding; another 9 ü 'a practice during 'Ashura. tawwabun, lit. penitents: those who believed that they could only prove their real repentance for failing to support Husayn at Karbala by exposing themselves to death w hile seeking vengeance for his blood. Twelver Sh iism : see Imami Sh iism , umma: community/ nation, usul: principal elem ents of religion, vilayat-i faqih: the rule by the jurisprudent, wajaha: notable-ship, w ali: governor of a wilaya. w aqf (pi. awqaf): religious endowments, w asita: mediation, wilaya: province in Ottoman times, w ujaha' (pi. of w ajih): local notables, za'am a: leadership, za'im (pi. zu'am a): political leader, zalami (pi. zilm ), lit man: strong-arm man. Zaydi Shi'ism : followers of Zayd, son o f the fourth Shi'a imam, Zayn al-'A bidin. Zayd asserted a claim to the imamate on the basis that it belonged to any descendant o f 'A li and Fatima who is learned, pious and comes forward openly to claim the imamate (i.e. raises a revolt), and thus came into open disagreem ent with his half-brother, Muhammad al-Baqir, tiie fifth Shi'a imam, who also claimed the prerogatives of the imamate. ziyara, lit v is it In Shi'ism , it refers to the pilgrimage to the shrines of the imams and other members of ahl al-bayt.

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Index

Lebanon, 90-91 'Um ar, Dhahir al-, 33-34

'Abbasid, 23, 2 4 ,3 0 ,1 4 2 'Abdu, Muhammad, 26 'Abidin, Zayn al- (fourth imam), 22, 180,183 'Affan, 'Uthman bin, 2 1 ,2 9 'Akkar, 2 7 ,3 5 ,8 8 ,8 9 ,1 3 3 ,1 8 3 ,1 9 4 'A li (first imam), 21-22,173,180, 183,185-86; as caliph, 164-65 'Alaw i Shi'ism (doctrine), 22 'Am iliyya, al-, 76,136, 207 'Aqqad, 'Abbas Mahmud al-, 173, 176 'Arafat, Yasir, 203, 207 'Arqub, 143-44 ‘asha’ir, 3 9 ,9 7 ,1 5 1 ,1 8 9 ; definition of, 36 'Ashura, 90-91,167,169-72,178,181, 184-85 ‘Irfan, oí-, 25, 38 ' ulama: 3 ,1 2 2 ,1 2 5 ,1 3 2 , 204-5,164, 172, 176-77,190; political role in Iran, 92-94; political role in

Abedi, Mehdi, 111 Afghani, Jam al al-Din al-, 26 Africa, 75,135; North, 3 0 ,3 2 ; South, 183; W est, 7 4 ,1 2 2 ,1 4 0 ,1 8 0 Agricultural sector: 214; share in foe GDP, 51; transformation, 52-60 Ahrar, al-, 178 Ajami, Fouad, 1 ,1 9 , 2 0 ,1 2 6 ,1 2 8 Aleppo, 30, 32,181 Amal (Afwaj al-Muqawama alLubnaniyya): 215-16; change in leadership, 210; establishm ent of, 155, 205-7 American University o f Beirut (AUB), 103,107,109-10,145 Amin, Muhsin al-, 90,172 Arab Nationalism, 1 3 ,9 1 ,1 0 1 ,1 6 3 , 214 Arab Socialist Union, 105

246

Index Arab W orld, 5 ,1 3 ,3 1 ,1 0 2 ,1 0 4 ,1 1 0 , 1 4 0 ,1 5 3 ,2 0 3 ,2 0 6 ,2 1 4 Arabian peninsula, 4 2 ,7 4 ,8 6 ,1 0 4 , 150,207 Armenians: 141; number, 50; share in government, 7 7 ,9 8 A s'ad, Ahmad al-, 42,84-85,88,104, 139 A s'ad, Kamil al-, 26, 40 A s'ad, Kamil al- (grandson), 85,102, 1 4 8 ,1 5 3 ,1 5 4 ,1 8 5 ,1 8 7 , 205 Asad, Hafiz al-, 203 Ba'labak, 2 7 ,3 1 , 7 0 ,1 0 2 ,1 2 9 ,1 3 8 , 154,180,184-90; -al-Hirm il, 6 ,2 0 , 2, 35-40, 83, 87,1 3 5 ,1 3 8 ,1 5 0 -5 1 , 186 Badr al-Din, 'Abbas, 201 Baghdad, 1 4 ,3 0 ,1 2 3 Barakat, Halim, 106-7,110 Baydun, Rashid, 76,104 Bazargan, Mehdi, 203 Bazzi, Faris, 71 Beidas, Yusuf, 82 Beirut, 5 -6 ,1 4 , 27, 31, 35, 3 7 ,5 7 , 59, 61, 75-76, 88-89, 102-4, 106, 10911,129, 135-37,139,143-48, 15254, 167, 180, 182, 183, 185-87, 191-92, 194, 201-2, 206-8, 210, 214, 216; comparison to other regions, 62-63; rise of, 49-51; Shi'a exodus to, 68-77 Beirut Arab University, 89 Beirut International Airport; 51,110, 143 Beirut University College (BU Q , 109 Berger, John, 82 bidonvilles, 68-69 Bint Jubayl, 104,172 Biqa', 2 7 ,3 4 ,4 0 ,8 7 ,9 9 ,1 0 5 -6 ,1 0 8 -9 , 120, 149, 177, 182-83, 186, 189, 202, 210; attitude toward Lebanon, 40; comparison to other regions, 62-63; contribution to agriculture, 52-53, 56-57; in te g ra tio n in to G re a te r

247

Lebanon, 2 7 ,34; migration from, 59-60, 68-69, 74, 76; poverty of, 6 1 ,6 7 Bird, Nabih, 210 Burj Hammud, 77,190 Cairo, 1 0 2 ,1 6 7 ,1 7 3 ,1 7 4 , 201; Agreements, 202 Catroux, General, 97 Census of 1932, 51, 97-98,100 Chamoun, Camille, 6 1 ,1 0 4 ,1 3 9 Charisma, 1 0 ,85, 9 1 ,1 0 2 ,1 2 6 ,1 2 8 ; 164; definitions of, 80n43,116n27 Charmes, Gabriel, 29 Chéhab, Föuad, 6 1 ,1 2 6 ,1 2 8 ,1 3 4 , 138 Clientelism in Lebanon, 85, 87 Consodationalism , 82 Crusaders, 30, 33, 209 Cyprus, 152,194,209 Damascus, 2 7 ,2 9 ,3 2 -3 3 ,3 6 ,9 0 ,1 0 2 , 1 0 3 ,1 2 2 ,1 2 7 ,1 7 0 ,1 8 1 ,2 0 1 , 209 Donon, Jean, 38 Drooz, Daniel B., 1 Druze, 29,34, 42,57, 207; alienation among youth, 107; comparison to other groups, 64-67, 69; council, 141; number, 50; and PSP, 105; share in government, 97-100 Education, 60, 62, 64, 74, 76, 83, 88, 107-110, 113,122, 126,177-78; as index o f social m obilization, 8; in Ottoman times, 28 Egypt, 1 0 1 ,1 0 5 ,1 2 2 ,1 6 6 ,1 7 3 Ethnicity and ethnic mobilization, 710, 12-13, 212-13; definitions of, 7 Fadak, 180 Fadl Allah, Muhammad Husayn, 19, 167 Fanon, Frantz, 114 Farran, Ibrahim, 90

248

A Lebanon D efied

Fatima (daughter o f Prophet Muhammad), 21-22, 165, 166, 189,191; in Shi'a mythos, 179-81 Ferdinand, Perrier, 34 Fikr al-lslami, al-, 209 Fischer, M ichael, 111 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 52, 55 Frangié, Sleiman, 8 9 ,9 7 ,1 1 0 ,1 5 1 , 15 4 1 8 4 1 9 1 Friedrich, Paul, 14 Ghadir Khum, 166 Ghotbzadeh, Sadegh, 204 Gordon, M ilton, 212 Gouraud, Henri, 27,122 Gramsci, Antonio, 3 Greater Lebanon: establishm ent of, 26-28; Shi'a attitude toward, 3941 Greek Catholic: 136; comparison to other groups, 64-67; and LCP, 106; number, 50; share in government, 97-100 Greek Orthodox: 126,141; comparison to other groups, 6467; number, 50; share in government, 97-100 Guha, Ranajit, 3 Habash, George, 103 Haddad, Grégoire, 136-37, 206 H afiz, Amin al-, 97 H aifa, 49,122 Hakim, Muhsin al-, 1 2 4 126 Hama, 181 Hamadi, Sabri, 4 2 ,8 7 ,1 4 0 ,1 5 4 ; history o f dan in Lebanon, 32, 35-37 Hamdanid, 30 Hamza, Sadiq, 40 Haraka al-Ijtim a'iyya, al- (Social Movement), 136-37 Haraka al-Wataniyya al-Lubnaniyya, a l(L e b a n e s e N a tio n a l Movement), 105 ,1 7 8 ,2 0 8

Harakat al-Mahrumin (Movement o f the Disinherited): 7 4 131, 176, 192, 205, 207-8, 215; emergence of, 155-56 Harakat al-Qawmiyyin al-'A rab (Movement of Arab Nationalists), 103 Hasan (second imam), 21-22,167-68, 172 Hasan, Khalid al-, 202 Hawatmi, Nayif, 104 Haydar, A s'ad, 38 Haydar, Rustum, 37 Haydar, Tawfiq Hulu, 40 Hélou, Charles, 111, 1 3 9,143,154, 194 Hijaz, al-, 29 Hirmil, al-, 40, 9 7 ,1 3 3 ,1 8 6 ; (see also Ba'labak-al-H irm il) Hizb Allah, 210 Hizb al-Ba'th al-'A rabi al-Ishtiraki, al- (Arab Resurrection Socialist Party), 103-4 172 Hizb al-Qawmi al-Suri al-Ijtim a'i, al(Syrian Social Nationalist Party), 104 Hizb al-Shuyu'i al-Lubnani, al(Lebanese Communist Party), 104-6,164 Hiza al-Taqaddumi al-Ishtiraki, al(Progressive Sodalist Party), 104 Hobsbawm, Eric, 94 Hooglund, Eric, 88 Hook, Sidney, 11 Husayn (third imam), 21-22,24,165, 167-76, 178-81, 183-86, 193, 205 (see Karbala also) Husayni, Husayn al-, 99, 210 ibn Abi Sufyan, M u'awiya, 21, 29, 167-68,173 imamate, 22-24 91,122 Iran, 20, 31, 111, 126, 210, 214-15; clerical activism in, 90-93; and Musa al-Sadr's disappearance, 203-5; relationship to Jabal

Index 'A m il, 123-24; revolution in, 1, 8 8 ,1 3 1 ,1 6 7 ,1 7 7 ; and Shi'ism as revolutionary paradigm, 174-75; w ar with Iraq, 204

recen 59

Islam , 2 ,1 4 ,1 9 ,2 0 ,2 3 -2 4 ,2 7 ,2 9 ,8 3 , 86, 91-93, 111-14, 121, 123, 126, 128,131-32,142,153,163-68,17172,174-7 6 ,1 7 8 -8 1 ,1 8 7 ,2 0 4 ,2 1 0 Islam ic Amal, 210 Ism a'ili Shi'ism , 22 Israeli: 56,146-47,155,156,202,207, 210-11; wars w ith Arab world, 49, 59; incursions into Lebanon, 60, 133, 143-44, 151-52, 186; invasion of Lebanon in 1978, 200; invasion of Lebanon in 1982,1 Ja'far, Zayn M ir'i, 40 Jabal 'AmiL 6,20-21, 25-26, 31, 76, 148,150; attitude toward Greater L e b a n o n , 3 9 ; h is t o r ic a l boundaries, 16nl8; and Iran, 12324; under French mandate, 38-43; under Ottoman rule, 31-37; politics in, 83-96; in Shi'a historiography, 29 Jallud, 'Abd al-Salam , 203 Jazzar, Ahmad Pasha al-, 2 0 ,3 4 ,3 5 , 124 Jizzin, 31 Joseph, Suad, 77 Jubayl, 3 1 ,3 6 Junblat, KamaL 102,104,106, 208 Karami, Rashid, 139 Karbala, 8 6 ,1 6 5 ,1 8 3 ,1 8 6 ; Husayn's martyrdom at Karbala, 167-70; interpretations of, 170-76; in Musa al-Sadr's discourse, 178-81 Kasfír, Nelson, 7 K ata'ib al-Lubnaniyya, al- (Lebanese • Phalanges), 178 Kfarshuba, 7 Khalaf, Samir, 5-6

249

Khalil, 'Abd Allah Yahya, 38 Khan jar, Adham, 40 Khomeini, Ayatullah Ruhullah, 92, 93,165-66,174-77, 200, 203-5 Khoury, Béchara él-, 6 1 ,9 5 Khyam, 71 Kisrawan, 30-31, 36, 208 Kufa, 167-68,170-71,180-81 Lai, Barbara, 10 Lebanese Fam ily Planning Association (LFPA), 54 Lebanese Front, 207 Lebanese Republic, 6 ,3 9 ,8 6 ,1 4 1 Lebanese University, 106,109-10 Lebanon: 1-6,13, H 19, 20, 39-42, 21-22,124,126-29,132-35,139-41, 143-44,163,164,167,171-72,17779, 181-83, 187,190-92,194, 200203, 205-16; creation of, 26-27; economy of, 49-76; political ferm ent in, 146-156; political groups in, 101-7; political system, 82-84,95-101; Shi'ism in, 29-36; student politics in, 107-111 Lewins, Frank, 7 Libya, 200-204,207 Lijphart, Arend, 82 Litani Authority, 52,145 M a'luf, Rushdi al-, 194 M a'ni, Fakhr al-Din al-, 31 M ajlis al-Janub, 145 Mamluk: m ilitary campaigns against Kisrawan, 30-31 Mandate, French, 26, 34, 39, 42,120 Maronites: 6 ,3 1 ,1 0 6 -7 , 207, 209; comparison to other groups, 6467; number, 50; rise in Lebanon, 27-31; share in government; 97-

102 Marx, Karl, 70,113 Matawila (Mitwali): 29, 33, 57, 77, 183; etymology of, 46n37 McKay, James, 7 Mithaq al-W atani, al- (National

250

A Lebanon D efied

Pact), 95 Mount Lebanon: 2 7 ,3 0 -3 6 ,4 2 , 62, 67, 69, 108-9, 133, 183; comparison to other regions, 6365 Muhammad, Prophet, 2 1 ,2 4 ,2 9 ,8 6 , 91,122 ,1 4 2 ,1 6 5 -6 6 ,1 6 9 -7 0 , 173, 180,181,188-90 Murtada, Shafiq, 135,139 M uttahari, Murtada, 111-13 Nabatiyya, al-, 37,57-58,89-91,101, 1 0 3 ,1 2 3 ,1 4 8 ,1 7 2 Nadwa al-Lubnaniyya, al- (Lebanese Forum), 133 Naher, ai-, 193 Nasir, Jam al 'Abd al-, 42, 73,101-4, 129 Nasr, Nafhat, 106 Négritude, 114 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 1,102 Nusayri Shi'ism (see 'Alawi Shi'ism ) Organization o f Communist Action in Lebanon (OCAL), 110; establishm ent of, 119n67 L'Orient-Le Jour, 194 Orientalism , 2 Pakradouni, Karim, 105,127, 208 Palestine, 27-28, 33, 36, 40,101-2, 104,105, 111, 128-29,143,145-47, 152,172, 203, 208 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 60, 147, 152, 178, 201-3, 206 Palm er, Monte, 106

Sadiq, Ja'far al- (sixth imam), 23-24, 29,91-92 Sadr, Musa al-, 19, 20, 49, 57; and A m al, 154, 205-6 214-16; ancestry, 121-26; and civil w ar, 205-6; disappearance in Libya, 201-203; discourse, 178-83; early activities in Lebanon, 134-39; and Harakat al-Mahrumin, 154-56; as imam, 141-42; and Kamil alA s'ad, 146-48; and Khomeini, 176-77; leadership of, 4 -6 ,1 3 ,7 3 7 5 ,9 7 ,9 9 -1 0 0 ,1 0 3 ,1 1 4 ,1 2 7 ,1 4 7 151, 203-5, 212-14; and leftist parties, 149, 207-8; legacy, 21011; Lenten sermon of, 182, 192OS; m em ories o f, 209-11; program o f a ctio n , 143; reflections on, 126-28; rise to prominence, 143-46; role in SISC, 138-43; and "season of Shi'a rallies," 182-92; and Shari'ati, 176-77; and Shi'a demands, 15254; and Shi'a mythos, 163-76; and situation in Lebanon, 143-147; and Syria, 208; thought of, 129-34 Sadr Sharaf al-Din, Rabab al-, 126 1 3 6 ,181,200 Safa, Muhammad Jabir Al, 25-26 Said, Edward, 2 Sartre, Jean-Paul, 58,113,131 Shahin, Fahmi, 148 Shahin, Rafiq, 148 Sharaf al-Din, 'Abd al-Husayn, 90, 121,172,193 Sharaf al-Din, Ja'far, 1 2 2 ,1 2 4 ,1 3 5 Sharaf al-Din, Muhammad Jaw ad,

122 Qadhdhañ, Mu'ammar al-, 201-4, 209 Qum, 123-26 Rothschild, Joseph, 7 ,1 2 , 212 Rouleau, Eric, 71 Sadiq, 'Abd al-Husayn al-, 172

Shari'ati, 'Ah, 111-14,163,165-66, 174-77,204 Shari'atm adari, Ayatullah Sayyid Kazim, 204 Sharqawi, 'Abd al-Rahman al-, 173, 176 Shi'a: 6 ,1 3 ,1 4 ,1 2 1 -2 5 ,1 2 7 ,1 2 8 ,1 3 1 , 132, 194, 200-202; 204, 205, 207-

Index 216; and Amal, 155; and Arab Nationalism, 101-6; cou ncil 13842; demands for "participation," 1 5 2 -5 5 ; d ia s p o ra , 7 4 -7 5 ; differences am ong, 148-51; dissatisfaction, 144-46; early history in Lebanon, 29-31; exodus toward Beirut; 68-74; under French mandate, 39-43; and Harakat al-Mahrumin, 156-57; h isto rio g rap h y , 19-29; m obilization, 6-7, 9, 82-83; mythos, 163-82; number, 50; under Ottoman rule, 31-39; radicalism of youth, 106-11,114; rallies, 182-92; relation to native v illa g e s, 75-77; sh are in governm ent, 95-100; social needs, 132-142; as subaltern, 4-5; traditional politics, 82-95; and W est, 1-2 Shihabi, Bashir al-, 35 Siddiq, Abu Bakr al-, 2 1 ,1 6 6 ,1 8 0 Sidon, 25, 27, 30-36, 38,5 7 ,1 0 1 -3 , 154,189-90 South Lebanon: 1 9 ,5 2 -5 3 ,1 0 3 ,1 0 6 -11, 120, 133, 139, 144-45, 156, 183, 185-86, 189, 191, 194, 200, 202-3, 208-11; comparison to other regions, 62-63; exodus from 59-60, 68-69, 74; tobacco cultivation in, 57-59 Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, 3 subaltern, 3 -5,25, 7 7 ,1 1 4 ,1 6 4 ,2 1 1 Sulh, Rida al-, 37 Sulh, Riyad al-, 3 8 ,9 5 Sulh, Taqi al-Din al-, 153 Sunni, 1 ,6 ,2 3 ,2 7 -2 8 ,3 0 -3 1 ,3 4 ,3 7 , 4 1 -4 2 ,6 9 ,7 5 ,8 5 ,9 0 ,9 5 ,1 0 2 ,1 1 0 , 121-23, 153, 167, 182, 186, 214; comparison to other groups, 646 7 ,6 9 ; and Musa al-Sadr, 189-90, 207-10; number, 50; and SISC, 140-41; share in governm ent 9798, 100; and "Shi'a demands," 190; student politics, 106-7;

251

Supreme Islam ic Shi'a Council (SISQ : 144, 188, 205, 215; and disappearance of al-Sadr, 200, 201-203; establishm ent of, 139-44; and Kamil al-A s'ad, 148; and leadership of al-Sadr, 186; and "Shi'a demands," 151-54,190 Syria, 20,28-30, 32-33, 36, 38-41,53, 55, 58, 102, 104-5, 168, 203, 209,

211 T a'if Agreement, 215 Tadmuri, 'Um ar, 209 taqiyya, 23-25, 31 Tobacco: 53, 89, 111, 177; role in South Lebanon's economy, 57-59 Tott, Baron de, 33 Tripoli (Lebanon), 21, 2 7 ,3 0 ,3 2 ,3 5 3 6 ,1 0 2 ,1 8 3 Tripoli (Libya), 200-203 Tuéni, Ghassan, 1 1 0 ,1 2 6 ,1 5 6 ,1 5 7 Twelver Shi'ism , 22-23, 30, 92, 122, 179 Tyre, 2 7 ,3 0 ,3 3 ,3 8 ,1 0 1 -3 ,1 2 0 -2 1 , 123,134-36,147,153,188-91 Université Saint-Joseph (USJ), 107, 109,154 Urquhart, David, 19, 34 Valin, Emile, 109-10 Volney, M. C -F , 34 Weber, Max, 10 W orsley, Peter, 11 Ya'qub, Muhammad, 201 Yazid, 167-70,172-74 Zaydi Shi'ism , 22 Zaynab (daughter of 'A li and Fatima), 165; in Shi'a mythos, 179-80 zu'ama, 25, 38-41, 58, 72-73, 83, 85 -86,89-90,100,103,114,134,139, 1 41,149,205, 213

About the Book and Author The 1980s were a watershed in die history of the Shi'a community in Lebanon. From die attacks on Israeli forces in South Lebanon in the aftermath of the 1982 invasion, through the final withdrawal of the multinational force from Beirut in March 1984, the Shi'a have decisively thrust themselves into die international political arena. Majed Halawi explores the origins of düs Shi'a movement and its determination to become a major participant in a sharply reformed Leb­ anese polity. The tale is rooted in Lebanon's history and sociopolitical culture, in die seeds of its civil war, and in the mobilization of the hitherto "m arginal" masses. A Lebanon D efied is therefore an analysis of the dynamics of politici­ zation. On the one hand, there is die political leadership of Sayyid Musa al-Sadr, which drew upon Shi'ism as a revolutionary paradigm in order to provoke the transformation of the Shi'a masses into a self-conscious and politically articulate group. On the other hand, there is the experience of modernization that the Shi'a community underwent in nearly three decades of Lebanese independence. The interaction between these two factors is the primary concern of this study. Halawi's critical analysis is informed by die need to produce an account that the Shi'a community itself would consider an adequate representation of its modem experience in Lebanon. Majed Halawi is an independent consultant on Middle Eastern affairs.