A Handbook of English Intonation [2 ed.]

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A Handbook of English Intonation [2 ed.]

Table of contents :
Frontmatter......Page 1
Preface.......Page 6
CONTENTS.......Page 7
Phonetic Symbols used.......Page 9
Gramophone Records.......Page 10
Intonation.......Page 11
Method of Indicating Intonation.......Page 12
Connection between Stress and Intonation......Page 13
I. Tune I.......Page 14
Rhythm.......Page 17
Further Analysis of Tune I. to show Its application to shorter sentences......Page 18
Use of Tune I.......Page 19
a) Simplest kind of statement (word, phrase or sentence).......Page 21
b) Questions requiring an answer other than "yes" and "no"......Page 24
c) Commands.......Page 26
d) Exclamations.......Page 27
Method of Treating Long Groups.......Page 28
II. Tune II.......Page 29
Use of Tune II.......Page 30
a) Sentences in which something is implied.......Page 32
b) Questions to which the answer may be "yes"or "no."......Page 33
c) Requests.......Page 34
III. Sentences containing more than one sense group.......Page 35
b). Tune II. followed by Tune I.......Page 36
The Treatment of Parentheses.......Page 37
a) Tune I. repeated......Page 40
b) Tune I repeated more than once.......Page 42
c) Tune II followed by Tune I......Page 43
d) Tune II. followed by Tune I. (more than two groups).......Page 44
e) Tune I followed by Tune II......Page 45
IV. Longer sentences and connected texts involving the use of the two unemphatic intonations.......Page 46
B. Emphatic Sentences.......Page 53
I. Tune I with Intensity.......Page 54
Examples I. Tune I. with Intensity.......Page 57
II. Variation of Tune I., due to special prominence being given to one or more ideas.......Page 58
Examples IIa. a) The last-stressed word made specially prominent, the rest having normal stress and intonation.......Page 59
b) Any one word made specially prominent, the rest unstressed.......Page 61
Examples IIb. One word made specially prominent, the rest unstressed......Page 62
Examples IIc. Two or more words made specially prominent, the rest unstressed.......Page 64
Tune I. unemphatic:......Page 65
III. Variation of Tune II., due to special prominence being given to one or more ideas.......Page 66
Examples IIIa. a) One non-final word emphasised......Page 68
Examples IIIb......Page 71
Examples IIIc.......Page 72
d) Last stressed word emphasised (in addition to one or more others):......Page 73
I) FaII-rise spread over a number of syIIabIes.......Page 75
II) Fall-rise spread over two syllables.......Page 76
III) Fall-rise compressed into one syllable ending in a voiced sound......Page 77
IV. Emphatic Tunes I. and II. with Additional Emphasis.......Page 79
I. Rise-level.......Page 80
II. Rise-fall.......Page 81
III. ¨Rise-fall-rise.......Page 82
V. Sentences containing more than one sense-group.......Page 84
VI. Longer sentences and connected texts involving the use of both tunes with and without emphasis.......Page 85
a) Simplest kind of statement (word, phrase, or sentence).......Page 103
b) Questions requiring answers other than ''yes" or "no".......Page 105
c) Commands.......Page 106
a) Sentences in which something is implied.......Page 107
c) Requests.......Page 108
a) Tune I. Repeated.......Page 109
c) Tune ll. followed by Tune I.......Page 110
e) Tune I. followed by Tune II.......Page 111
Longer sentences and connected texts involving the use of the two unemphatic intonations.......Page 112
Examples I. Tune I. with Intensity.......Page 116
Examples IIa. The last stressed word made specially prominent, the rest having normal stress and intonation......Page 117
Examples IIb. One word made specially prominent, the rest unstressed......Page 118
Examples IIIa. a) One non-final word emphasised.......Page 119
I. Fall-rise spread over a number of syllables.......Page 121
III. Fall-rise compressed into one syllable ending in voiced sound.......Page 122
I. Rise-level.......Page 123
III. Rise-fall-rise.......Page 124
Longer sentences and connected texts involving both tunes with and without emphasis.......Page 125
The Little Queen.......Page 133
After the Theatre.......Page 134

Citation preview

A

HANDBOOK OF

ENGLISH INTONATION

HEFFER · ·CAMBRIDGE

l) ll s-7' 'r'

----·

,·,,

11

11 ~

7. 'v \ -

',t

,.

A HANDBOOK·OF

9

ENGLISH INTONATION by LILIAS E. ARMSTRONG, B.A. and IDA C. WARD, D.LIT.

W. HEFFER & SONS LTD CAMBRIDGE

First Edition • Second Edition. Last reprinted •

Printed in Great Britain by Lowe & Brydone (Printers) Ltd., London

~----,-. -----------

TO PROFESSOR DANIEL JONES

Preface. In preparing this book we have purposely avoided consu\tbg any other works on English Intonation, and have made our analysis from personal observations only. We have to acknowledge, however, that we have used Professor Klinghardt's 1) system of notation with some modifications. We have represented stressed syllables by lines, and unstressed syllables by dots. By this means, the connection between the stress and intonation of a sentenc~ is more easily grasped than by other methods of representation; and the rhythmic scheme, which is of great importance in English speech, is clearly indicated. Our thanks are due to Mr. Robert Lynd and the "Daily News" for permission to use extract No. 25 (Section B), to the auth~ress of "Love" and "A Solitary Summer" and Messrs. Macmillan~ Co. for extracts No. 17 and 27 (Section B), and to Mr. E. V. Lucas and Messrs. ~Iethuen for extracts No. 19 (Section A), and No. 26 (Section B). Numbers 25, 26, 27 (Section ll) are recordcrl on the third gramophone record. University College. London.

L.E.A. I. C.W.

1) Ubungen im engliscben TonfoU. French Intonn.tion.

CONTENTS. Intonation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Method .of iudfoating intonation . . . . Connection between Stress and Intonation English intonation analysed . . . . .

. . . ·

:! 4

SECTION A. Unemphatic.Sentences. 1. Tune I . . . . . . . Unstres~eas. . ~:,~. ... it s a 'nju: WAn... •./ . ~ ............ 'plsntI..~ ....• ai 'faund It Osa..... ~.... ~ ....... . 'fr-ta1m .. ~ • ... ai k,m 'si· It. ..~ ...• ~ ....... . 'oupan ....~ ... a1 m ma 'hAn. :.. ..~ .....~ . ~ ...• '8reok ju...~ ...... .

Two stresses. I

-

o

gud 'a·fta nu:n. . ~.................. :::'.\ ..

'kwa1t 'ra1t. 'not at ':>:I.

.......................:::'.\........

·

................. ....""\. ...... 'tu: 'Joo. ...................... '.':\ " 'not 'bred. ......................~. . 'vm 'd1fiklt. .............•. ""\. ........ Oret waz 'bredlI pra'naunst..~ ...:....: .. ~....~ .."'\..................................... d s 'ta1m fa gst 'Ap. ..· ...•. "'\. ....................................

It 'woznt 'rsd1.

'8ri' a 'faa. a1 'dount 810k a1 'kren.

·...............·..~ . ·... "'\ ... · ·

· ..

..........................

...................

......................

........................ ····""'············

11

(

·,i

•.··

ar 'dount wont fa 'gou. ar 'wAnda wot lJe1 '810k abaut rt.

·.~~. ~.. -: ...~ ..:'\.....•.•..

hi 'e,oks ar m 'd3ouk10.

.'"'· .......... -~ ...... .

hi 'kwait a'gri:z w,lJ mr.

-~.......................~ ......... .

wi ':>:I went ta 'kju:. oa 'flauaz wa 'bju·hful. ar 'ko·nt Anda'strend rt. lJret s a 'vm gud 'buk. a1 'ko·nt si lJat rt 'mretaz mAtJ. a1 m hrevro a'lc.sn a'de,.

"ai v 'lost mar 'hrendbreg",Ji sc.d m d1strc.s.

.

.

.. . .: ..................~..........

-· .......................> .... . • Houn,••,·,,, ..



·,,,J...... ,,,

...

O h . UO,OO,o •OOO OOH O H . , , ' " ' " " ) , . u H

-

~-••oh•-••••••••••••~, ••,. ... ,,

~.....:..~--~·-···········~ --~-.. :":\ ....~.

.

-~•.••. •• •--~.a ... .-,_&,,L•. , A••

a1 '810k rt kosts 'srkspans.

·,,-,,. •••• ·,_.,.., :-'\.u_,a,_

ar v 'd3Ast b:rt a 'hret.

.' .................. :... ""'\.... .

It waz 'kwart 'tJi·p.

................ . . '"'\... ........ ..

.

wi 'did wot wi wa 'tould.

.............................:-:-:..

lJa 'baus rznt 'lo:d3 mAf.

. ~ ....................... .:....~.................... ~ ... ..':':\

a1 Jud 'la,k s.,m mfa'me1Jn. a, JI 'si: wot a1 kan'du· abaut 1t. hi waz 'strendro wear a, 'le.ft 1m. hi· z az 'hrep1 az hi dr 'za: vz fa bi. a, Jud 'la,k ju fa 'mH him. WAD kan 'nc.va b, 'Jua. "a1 'dount 810k a1 'kren'', hi sc.d famah.

12

-

.. ~--···· - .

. - .. . : .. . . .. ..........................., ...•.. - .. . .•..:...................:.~!1. . : ............................ - ~ ...... ill.

~

'

- . -...:'\........\\ .:............. - .. .~ ...:..................~..... . - .... ....... . 11

..

~................. , ~

Three stresses.

. . - ... ·'- ..

1t '1znt 1g'zrekth wot a1 'wont.

-.

a1 'hrevnt 'si·n him sms 'm,md1.

~. '.

1t s a've:n 'na·sh 'de1.

A

...............'."\

·-

l)a 'haus 1z 'ould-'freJnd.

.. .................'.:'\ ...... .

it s ifa 'famast '010 m c)a 'wa·ld.

·.

hi waz 'vm sak'se:sful m h1z 'we:·k. a1 'wont a 'tikit fa 'ba·m10.lm, pli'z. lli' z a've:n 'wAndafl 'p1amst. · 'nau a1 m .lZ 'fit .lZ a 'f1dl .lgem. l1e1 ':>:I 'br:rt ·os.l 'krem.lraz w1a a 'holad1z?

.~..............

................."'\....

............................. .... ,_

JU

~

I

•.

"'hau 'fo·r rz It ta 'wo·talu 'ste1Jn"? hi sed,_ lukro reoJash at c!a klok. -=~-'.. '..::.:.~:'.\........... I

wot 'kAlar 1z 'meanz 'he~?

.- • •

-



...................... "'\........

c) Co.:0.mands.

- . "\ . "\ - . "\...................... . .

'klouz c!a 'doa.

...............""\..······ ·······-·

'stop c!a 'bAS.

.................

......................

............

.......................

'te1k lla 'tju: b. 'let mi 'Jou ju.

····•· ........

'o·sk rm ta 'kAm 'hra.

....,... •. •... - ..,1',, .....

'send It 'brek at 'wAns.

..............-

'fetJ mi mar 'glAvz, mean.

...........~---~--~ ........ ,a.e-, ..--

16

-.

• __ ,,-,i.._, __ ,,

'

' r'

:;

.

'rAn an 'fetJ a 'hrema, tom.

·-·······- .•.. °"'--··· --·

'dount 'we1st sou 'mAtJ 'taim.

............. ..

'let mi 'Jou ju 'hau ta 'du· 1t. 'oupan jua 'buks.

-._ · - .. ~-·······---····· •. - ·."\.J - ..

·····••·• ····-····:':\ .......... .

1

famd 'pe1d3 'twenh 'nam.

·- ·-········-········ •.•:'I......

'ri:d a '81oz az 'su·n azju 'kren, w1l ju? ........ :::-:-..:..~.::...= . ~.·. - ... . 'dount let 1t bi a 'trAbi tu ju. .................... ,,,,.. .. ....'....... - ... - . . 'dount put juasclf ·aut abaut 1t. -. - .. 'let mi 'nou hau ju get 'on.

________

,

........... .

.................... . --:'_ .........

......

~

~ ~

.........................

let mi 'nou wm ju 'get c>ca.

1ks'kju:z mi 'wAn 'moumant. 'dount let mi dis 'ta: b ju. 'dount fa'gct ta 'ra1t tu 'a·nh.

24

.. •................ ..

........................... ------~ _.. __

.

. ·- - ................. . .. .. ........................... - ........ ........................

'

,-·••

-. -. - .. \,---

. ................

\

.•,.

III. Sentences containing more than one sense group. Connected speech consists of sense-groups ( either one or a series), each of which is an intonation group. Sections I and II describe the intonation of one sense-group. The following section deals with the intonation of a series of sense-groups. Certain points should be noted in connection with this: I. Different people divide their speech into different sense-groups, and there is a corresponding difference in their intonation groups. II. A speaker varies his sense - groups and consequently the rhythm and intonation of the passage he is reading or speaking, according to the style of his subject matter and the speed or deliberation with which he speaks. III; In conversational style the sense-groups are longer than in description or narration. The more deliberate the speech the more groups are made. In the gr.amophone records, because of the slow delivery necessary, more pauses are made than would be observed in a familiar reading of the same passages. IV. In a series of sense-groups, with either Tune I or Tune II .. variety is obtained by change of pitch, i. e. the pitch of one group may not descend so low as that ol the next, and the first stressed syllable of one group may be higher or lower than tha.t of o. neighbouring grnup. (Compare change of key within a. group, p. 18). In the connected texts ,vith the intonation marked, these changes of pitch have been noted. The student will do well to practise them, as in this way he will avoid a slavishly mechanical repetition of the tunes which makes for monotony.

25

a) Tune I. repeated. hi 'strould 'e1mfash 0baut lfa 'roud,

I

'k1k10 'stounz aut 0v h1z p0'0. Ji 'Juk 'hrendz

I 00

se:d Ji w0z 'glred

. . .. .

I

...................... ~ .........

-

~ ..~.

• .'.:'.'\...... ... • ........ .:::'\

.J. ~. . . ~. . . · ..~. :-

·

hi 3d 'kAm.

.. ..... ".... '.""\................................. .

Sentences of this type are, for the most part, co-ordinate sentences or phrases with a logical, though not necessarily a grammatical, dependence on each other.. If in the speaker's · mind the logical connection is very close, the first intonation group may be said with the second tune. But there are so many cases in connected speech where we have to rise at the end of the first group that it is a relief to fall when a choice is at all possible. 1)

b). Tune II. followed by Tune I.

'wen lJe1 0'raivd 0t lJ0 'stetj"n,

I lJe1

'faund lJ0t lJ0 'trem h0d 'goo.

--~·.=.·.~. . . . . . I...•... . ~

..-.. •.. • .. - ..•.....""\. ...................

Sentences of this type are those in which the first intonation group is incomplete. This is found in a large number of simple sentences which must· be divided into more than one intonation group, and in complete sentences in which the subordinate clause comes first. This use of Tune II. in non-final intonation groups is extremely important.

0t 'ells 'ge1m, I w1lJaut 'em 'tre1mo o 'prrekhs, Ihi w0z· 0'pa·hkt 'ma·sfa.

...=.~.J. . . . .=~·.. L~.\.:-. ~.~=.....:. ·

1) We do not raise the voice at all commas!

26

~

~

\

~~

c) Tune I. followed by Tune II.

J. . . . .

a1 'dount 810k hi :rt ta 'gou I wm hi ..~~ ~ ..~ ~ .. •. '.'.:\ .. z sou 'b1z1. ........... ... •.............................................

-

Sentences of this type are not very common. It will be seen that the examples given under this heading divide themselves into two groups - a) those in which the subordinate clause is added after the main clause, e. g. ai

JI 'td

1m

:rl a 'baut It

I WED

'kAmz on 'sretad1.

..

• . .•.. , ..... I

..-.........- ..,

....~.......................,.,.......... .

and b) those in which some word or phrase is added to the sentence, suggesting a kind of reservation _or limitation of the original idea,

e. g.

a1 'gou 'houm at 's1ks, I '~mrnh.

.~. =. .=. .~. .' .:\. l.

~

- . ! ..... ..

These sentences share the ·characteristics of Tune II. - i. e. lack of definiteness, a possibility of adding other remRrks. Many of them could, however, be inverted, the second part (Tune II.) · could be said first; they would then come under the hea.ding of the previous section.

The Treatment of Parentheses. When a parenthesis is inserted into the middle of a sentence, it breaks up the intonation group into two groups, and can itself form another group. For practical purposes, however, it is convenient to consider the parenth1;1sis as part of the preceding group.

27

-

r- -· -

a) In the following sentences, the parenthesis may be considered as the final unstressed syllables of a Tune I. intonation group: ----~ - ----~·-·······--·---*-····· -----

3nd 'nau, ~sntlman,

-

I.I-i>1s ·~. . .1z.~·-·-.!_·---=------~----_ : ".\_ _____ ma1 'faml wa:d.

-.

I.-.

................. -~...... ........ -• ___ ... ____________ ........................... ~- ................. ·--•------"a1 v 'kJ: Id 'sEvrnl 'fa1mz''; hi ssd, I"and 'ntva 'faund ju ()sa.'' ·------~---- ... . ............

-

_

...... ""\.- .......-• .. - . ·- -··-----•-----'------~---------=-- ~----~-- ....... -·"nou", hi std sta·nh, I "a1 v 'nsva 'bi:n ()53,"

"""~............... .. ...............................I-....... ....................-................................. • . ":\........... .. -................... "

"av 'kJas", hi sEd abrApth, ~ • 0 ., , O

t .........,,o,M ••~,O, .. •Ooo,,oooa, ... ,, .. ,NOOO! .....~0,0 ..

'sa·tnh, m1sta braun,

I ju

,,•

I

,

"'i>ret 'gouz w1l)aut 'seuo.''

,o,Oooo•••='~"'•O~UO,•O .. ,~ooooo .. ,,,~•••••••O••On=H .. oo,.'~""'''•••oo,

JI 'hrev 1t ba1 ()a 'fa·st 'poust.

~--. --------·- . . -.. -·--··-'----~------··---·=-----: -------=----~ -----~-'Juah, ma1 d1a,

I a1

v 'tould ju 'i>ret b1 'f:>a.

Compare those sentences on R· 6 which ha Ye similar phrases as final unstressed syllables. b) In the following sentences, the parenthesis forms part of the rise of the preceding Tune. II. intonation group.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -. . . . . ,. ... . . . . . . . . . .-.. . . . . . . =. . ~

'.°:"..

'd ju ~i'mtmba, stm8, I wi d1s'kAst i>1s 'kwtstfan 'ta·st 'jm?

~ ~

.... .........

~

~

...... , ..... ... -~-..... ......•. ____ __!____

=. =. .~- .~. . . ..

~--=--~---~-..:. .:-::. -~ . J. .~. . .

~

h1z 'rensasfaz, 1t ap1az, I had 'hvd fa ~sn3're1Jnz 111 'c)~t 'pa·t av i>a 'kAntn•

...... .~ . •. ··---~......... • .... ~---··1, .... ~.,--··-···-~" ........ ~ .....~ ......................

I "wi: v a 'gre1t sa'pra1z f:> . . . ~ . . . -~· ·- ~ . . ., ~ . . ,. . ~. . . . . .~ . . . -..~. . . . .!. . . :-~- ·- ······~······=·: ···-~·-· ..........

'''grrenma", sEd nrensi,

"'pa·st;tah", hi hAnd on, ; ''a1 pn'fa· 'd1kmz."

28

\

ju."

-

I

\·;~Z ;V l:~E~S \~~0·. 'cl~'< ~~.n~i~:d,\;,;,·~ '~ot ~i.'o~'J~.;;

i1·;~~ti;ie;d1°;a~ g~cl:d, ;,;re~ t~

~; 't;:;0, h;u;;;;·\

Ji

'0ru· h1z

;i~1~ b:;tw.i:~·d~·ft~: 1~~;t'r~~.

i~,~~:~.· t; sou

spi~k, \ 1: h1:· ;~~-

;~°;t s;·t .lV 010., a1 k~n;1d:, \ 'Judo: ~i ~·1~:d. Compare those sentences which have similar phrases as final unstressed syllables. c) In the following sentences it is better to consider the parenthesis as a separate group with the intonation of Tune I Many of these parentheses could be said as final syllables of Tune II, but because of the somewhat emphatic nature of the word or phrase, it is more natural for them to be said with Tune I.

. ::'.'\.........~ . . .~···I· ~. . ~. "::'. · ·[· · ·=· .. ~ . .:'."\

.

'cvnbod1, 1t 1z 'tru:, 'wudnt 'laik it.

J;·~~··\ ~;;··\ ·~~·;~~~j·;··:···;-k·;:rt.lr .lV :··;~,1 ·:;~;,, .cl:I 'ga:I.

~. . .:. . . .~---=·· ·~---=··-~---~---~-~--~---~---.1.~. . : . . . ~. . .~----~----~. ~~l. ~. . ~....= . .:. ~. . =.~--=-~. ~. . .

hi 'JAt tla 'd::,ar .az tkwaxath az 'pos1bl, 1 m'tsnd11) ta gou tstreit ta 'bsd J and a'v::>1d sm 'fa·cJa ,konva'se1Jn.

-

·1

~--·· . . . . . . .~---·····=---·. .~. .~ . -~---~- ···=--~ - ~- -~- ~. . : .:. ::\..!·-~--~---=-~. ~--~---~--·. ~. . .~ .............. Ji ~stopt 'J::,·t m 'wot Ji ad bin 'seuo, 'noutlSIO tlat i·twoznt 'hsmo I and waz 'luk10 at ha wit! 1ktstri:m 'a·nastnas. 32

\

. . . ~ ... =· . .~. J.~ .~ . ··=···1 .=. . :'.::\.I. :...:-. ~ ..~...~.. ~.. ~ ··1 1t wez e 'fjuenes 'wmd1 'm~rmo, w1"tfan a ju "dmo?

-. .

................................................' .............. ""\............... hi "wount "hsn fa ''.ri:zn.

-·-. ·- . - . . .

................................

,.

"wot m as. Questions.

..::\. ....•..... '!..~--····---···-·····

:'\. ".. •...:'\...:\................... .

·- :'\ . .•...=:\. . . . . . . . - -.· ·

"wa1 dount ju "oltar 1t?

.:-\........... •.....•.. ~ .................

"Iiau d ju nou 1t s "roo?

wa1 dount ju "Ii: v It hl ta "morou? ....•..... • ..: "'\._,._..•. • ~ •... "hau msm ta1mz av ju "bi:n sa?

""'\...A.......

.."\.......... • ...• .. •.. : ..

The following example sums up and shows clearly the manner in which Tune I. is modified for emphatic speech, according to the position in the sentence of the emphasised word:

Tune I. unemphatic: ',

..... ,,,, . . . . ~ · · · · . . . . . · ... •

... .!'

bat ju 'mAst b1 'sianas abaut It.

Tune I. as under Ila.

~

~ ~ ............

... ... ........... , .... ... ..... ,

,

·····•·

bat ju 'mAst b1 "sianas abaut 1t.

Tune I. as under Ilb .

~

~ :~

..... ...........:.......... .......... ............. ,. ................... bat ju mast b1 "s1anas abaut 1t.

Tune I. as under II c.

~ .......~...~........ , ....................... -··-~- .. ~ ......:.~ .... ~ .......... . ·····-~···· ·-~- ..

b3t ju "mAst b1 "s13nas abaut 1t .

~ ~

.. ... -..

-~

~ .""\ .. .

.............! ..........

.............................. .

bot "ju: most b1 "Sionos o b a ~

III. Variation of Tune II., due to special prominence being given to one or more ideas. When a speaker uses Tune II. with emphasis, he implies, very definitely, soIIUJthing he does not express in words. The implication may be, and very often is, some c~ntrast in the mind of the speaker, some uncertainty, indecision, encouragement, warning, a wish to avoid appearing abrupt or dogmatic, a desire to continue the argument, a feeling of politeness: in all cases a lack of finality. Whatever the implication is, it is indicated with much stronger force when the intonation of emphasis is present. The intonation of the syllables which carry the pitch upward from the last stress is interesting. The rise often occurring

56

within the last of these final syllables is generally due to a slight secondary stress which it has not been considered necessary to record. Such a rise may take place within the final syllable f ea z in

....~ ..... ~

....... ~ ••.•••"!. ••••~

.. ··~· .......................................................-

a1 "nevar a·sk kwestfnz abaut jua 'pra1vat afeaz.

The rise in pronouncing em ph a tic stress:

haz is necessary if 'pra1vat has

~ ~ ...................................................~ .......... ~...~

.. .....

a1 "nevar a-sk kwestfnz abaut jua "pra1vat afeaz. Similarly

~

~

~ ~~

.~ . ..... ·············"···-··········~ .....:::::'.'..!.. ............................ .............. ...... wi "o:l ju·st ta du 'llret so·tav010. wi "o:lju·stta du "c!retso·tav010. But there is no tendency to raise the pitch within the final unstressed syllables in the following:

~ ~ ...... .

.. ......

- ..........

........................

a1 m "son tu av kept ju 'we1tio.

~.....~.........•............• :............- ...... ~

a1 "nju: ju wudnt 'du· It. If, however, we I t I o and d u• are pronounced emphatically, the pitch is, ./. This final rise cannot be said to be the result of a secondary stress on the unimportant syllables t I o and It. But, • does not occur in English intonation.

57

a) One non-final word emphasised. There is a. sudden drop in pitch in the apprClpria.te syllable of the emphasised word as in Examples II. ·

.·: ................ "'\..............-

...

·

a1 'dount "wont : lwe1z la1k 'lJret. . . ~.~ .............................-/................ wi "wount gou mtu :>·l lJret 'nau •. ~... ~ ................................... ~ ..... Ji z not sou "wd lJ1s 'ni:>·mo. ...~ ~ • ~ .......- . ~...... .. "lJret s 'stremq;. ...::'.:\ . . ..L...................................... ''let mi nou hau ju gst 'on. . ..... ~. .• .• . • • ... .L .. ...... ju luk "tmbh 'pe1l. ....~....~. "'\ ..............-'-...... a1 "dount 910k hi 'nouz. .. .....•..~ .................... _../. ..... . hi 'hreznt "d'shmth n'fju:zd. . ... ~ ......:- •. ""\................ ~ a1 fslt "sa·tn lJ1 a·hkl wud bi :>·l 'rait ..... ~... ~......~ .......................... -t. a1 d fa"gotn a1 tould ha 'lJret. ....~...... ......~ ............................ ~ .. a1 v "nou daut Gbaut 'lJret. .... ."'\ .............. -/.. .. bGt "JuGh ju mGst ·'nou. . ...7-....~ . ......... ....... . L .............. ai "ka·nt du it m G 'de1. .... ~... ~: ............................... L ...... .. aI DcVG "9:>·t GV 'lJret. .....~ ...:..... ~.... ~ ............L ... .' .... . ju 1 "nsvG bi e1bl tG ki·p it 'Ap. . ....~ . . ~- .•. • •.................L. ju nou a1 "nsvGr a·sk 'kwsstfnz. .....~ . . ~....~..""\ ........- . .~.. . ........ "du:. td mi wot ju·v bi·n 't:>·k10 Gbaut.:\. .. • :....... - ......~ ....:::::'.:.

·

60

·

~ .......... - .... ~ ........ .. ai "du: houp ju· I hrev a gud 'e 'ded oen a'laiv, I end 'flAO h1z po·t'mrentou , daun, I "e 'fa1a", hi krard, J "m oa 'ne1m ev 'hju:man 'tfrenhl I a 'ru·m end e 'faral" hi 'strempt I an 'Juk lfa 'snou from of himself m oa 'ba:, I and 'foloud misrz 'ho:1 mta he 'gest pa-la I ta 'strark biz 79

'bO'gan. and wrc! 'oret mAtj' mtra'dAkJn, 'oret I and a 'kApl av 'sovrmz flAO apon c!a terbl, I hi 'tuk AP h1z 'kw:rtaz m J

J

01 'm. 16.

a 'ven 'rebsnt-'mamd1d 'b1Jap I waz 'wAns 'trrevho bar 'trem I m h1z 'da1as1s, I and 'wrn oa 'hkrt-kalekta I 'ke1m fa c!a 'hk1ts 1 / ()a 'b1Jap 'kudnt "famd 'hrz. I "'neva 'mamd, mr lo:d", sed oa hk1t-kalekta, hu nju· him 'wel, I "rt 1 "du· at oa 'nekst 'ste1Jn". I bat at oa 'nekst 'ste1Jn I oea waz o;) 'se1m 'd1fiklh: I oa 'b1Jap 'kudnt 'famd hrz 'hk1t 'emwea.1 ""dount 'booar abaut rt; I rt "nah dAznt 'mreta", sed o., hkrtkalekta kamdh. I "'nou, 'nou, I a1 "mAst "famd rt", sed oa b1Jap m d1stres, I .,nd 't:rnro aut 1z 'pokrts az hi 'spouk, I "m 'wont ta 'nou wear ar m "9010." 17.

'h1., wi v bi·n teri: 'jmz I 'bend m oa 'kAntn, I ""d az 'hrep1 az ., 'ba:d I oa 'houl 'tarm. Jar 'sex az., "ba:d, I b1koz "Aoa pi:pl hav ju:zd oret s1m1h·I t., d1s'kra1b "reb'salu·t 'tj'1aflnas, I ::rloou ar 'dount brli:v 'ba:dz ar tem 'hrepr., oan 'rn1wAn 'cls, I .,nd cle1 "kworl d1s"gre1sfuh. I a1 v bi·n 'hrep1 clrn, wi 1 sex, I az cla "best av ba: dz, I .,nd av hred 'si: znz ;)V 'sohtju:d I .,t 'mtavlz I b1f:>a 'nau I 'dju.,no 'w1tj' J 'dAl 1z cl., tta·st 'wa:d ta d1s'kra1b mar 'steit av 'mamd. J "evnbod1, I rt rz 'tru:, I 'wudnt 'lark It, I .,nd a1 hred sam 'vIZit.,,z h1.,r I ., 'f:rtnart .,gou I hu ·'left I O'fta 'steuo abaut ., 'wi·k / .,nd "kh.,h not m"qpuo o;)mSelvz: I cle1 'faund it 'dAI, I ar 'nou, I bat "oret, .,v koas, waz cle.,r 'oun "folt; I 'hau kan ju me1k a 'pa·sn 'hrepr atgemst h1z 'w1l? I ju kan 'nok ., tgred 'di:l mta hrm I m c!a 'we1 av "la: mo I .,nd wot oa 'sku: lz 'ko: I "ekstrnz, I b.,t rf ju 'tra1 far "ev., I ju 'wount 'nok tem 'hrep180

1

n.:ls I mtu .) 'bho hu "hreznt got 1t "m him te "bi: hrep1, I eh 'ounh n'ZAlt, j 'prob.:lbh, I wud "bi: I cl.:lt ju 'nok ju.:lr "oun aut .:lV ju.:l"sslf. 18.

1t 1z 1k'stri:mh 'drfrklt I t.:l 'ge1c\3 cl.:l 'ws.:lr .)fi 'ts.:lr .:lV 'wa·k I lfat wi e 'not 'ju·st te 'du:. I 'svn 'mren I 1z 'rept te '0rok h1z "ne1ba hrez an'i'z1 'taim .:lV It. I 'hi: hu 'ddvz far 1z 'brsd I 't::rks n 1f '':>:1 cle 'wa·k av cle 'wa:ld waz tdAn ba1 'hrendz. I cla 'mren ev "b1znes I '81oks m 1z "ha·t, I clat "poits .)nd "pemtn "ple1. \ cla 'mren .:lV 'lstez I 'snv1z cl1 0'h zren I hu·z 'wa·k 'grouz tau.:l bar 'au.:l I m ns'pons fa cl1 'sfat 'spent on 1t. I ., "pla:nt.:lz laif I saundz la1k an 'sv.:l !0'sho 'hohd1 on 'h:,·sbrek. I .:lnd "moust av .:lS I hav 'ha:d av m1st.:l 'da:wmz 'hauski·pa I hu '0:,·t ha 'ma·sfa wud b1 t:>:1 cla 'bsta I fa "' SAm810 te 'du:''. 1

1

1

19 .

.:lV 'w!lj.:lm .:ln '-r1 w1tf hi dr'kls.:ld t.:l b, tha1h 'krerakt.:l'nshk I .:lV cla "ms0edz I ba1 w1tf cler me1d else 'fo·tfanz .:lnd p.:l'z,Jn. I 'wsn cle1 wa 'jAtJ 'msn .)f oa 'ba:; j 'hrev10 hred e 'strouk av pm 'fcJr,tel 'lAk, cle1 d1'ta:mmd t.:l "sshbre,t or .:lke13n I bai hrev10 a 'dm.:lr .)t a 'trev.:ln I .:lnd 'go,u fa o.:l 'pier. I 'wsn it W.:lZ 'tarm te 'k:>:1 fa ifa 'rskr,i10, I "w!lj.:lm skot I 'dropt a 'g1m. I 'hi end h1z 'brAoa tsa·tft for rt m vem, I an 'ke1m te cle ken'klu:3n I oat 1t ad 'fa'ln bitwi·n cla 'b:>:dz I ev cl1 An'ka·p1hd 'fba. I ""01s 1z e 'bred 'c\3ob", ssd wiljam; I "wi mast 'g1v Ap cla 'pte1." I

r

81

~·'stop a 'bit", sed