A basketball manual to supplement a course in basketball theory taught at California State Polytechnic College

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A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillmerit of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Edward J. Jorgensen August 1950

UMI Number: EP46390

All rights reserved IN FO R M A TIO N TO ALL U S E R S The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

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TAw project report, written under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and approved by him, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in p a rtia l fulfillm ent of the requirements fo r the degree of M a s te r of Science in Education.

D ate

/ .......................................




INTRODUCTION ....................................


The p r o b l e m ..................................


Statement of the p r o b l e m ...................


Importance of the problem

. . . . . . . . .


. . . . . . . .


Scope and method of procedure

Scope of the s t u d y .......................... . . . . .


Limitations of the study .....................


Review of the l i t e r a t u r e .....................




Method of procedure






Organization of remaining chapters ........ II.






Part I, Basic fundamentals .



How to teach f u n d a m e n t a l s .................


P a s s i n g ....................................


Passing p o i n t e r s ..........


Chest push p a s s .........................


Bounce p a s s ..............


Hook p a s s ................................



PAGE Baseball pass



The one-hand underhand p a s s .............



............ .....................


. .................


Shooting fundamentals Poul shooting

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .


One-hand shot

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Lay up shot



Chest s h o t ......................... Dribbling Footwork






Catching . . ................................


P i v o t i n g ....................................


S c r e e n i n g ............ ......................


Inside stationary screen . . . . . . . . .


The rolling screen . . . . . . . . . . . .


Part II, Drills for fundamentals ..........


Hints in handling d r i l l s ................... Passing drills Dribbling drills Shooting drills







Screening and cutting d r i l l s ..................

6 I4.

Footwork drills



Combination d r i l l s ............................

7 I4.


PAGE Part III, Player positions

...................... 8 l

Qualifications of the f o r w a r d ................. 82 Rules for the forward

82 ............. 814.

Qualifications of the center

Rules for the c e n t e r ............................ Sip Qualifications of the guard

................. 85

Rules for the g u a r d .................


Part IV, Team o f f e n s e ............................ 87 Individual offensive pointers The fast break





Rules for the fast b r e a k ...................... . 9 5 The delayed a t t a c k ........................... . . Part V, Team d e f e n s e ................... Individual defensive pointers The defensive stance

97 103



.................. 106

The zone d e f e n s e ............................... 107 Two-out-three-in z o n e ......................... 107 Advantages of a zone d e f e n s e ............


Disadvantages of zone defense


. . . . . . . .

Man-to-man defense ............................ 109 Playing the man-to-man defense with zone principle

. .................

. . . . . . .

11 5

Advantages of the man-to-man d e f e n s e .......... Il 6 Disadvantages of the man-to-man defense


Il 6


PAGE Part VI, Selected annotatedreferences


. . . .

S U M M A R Y .....................................

122 128

Summary of basic fundamentals ofbasketball


Summary of drills for basic fundamentals of b a s k e t b a l l .................................. Summary of

player positions

. . . . . . . .

Summary of

team offenses for basketball

. .

Summary of

team d e f e n s e s .............


Summary of

annotated references

. . . . . .

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................

12 9

129 13 0

130 131




The Two-Lane Passing D r i l l ...........


Pass for Speed D r i l l ......................... . •



Three-Man Pass and Go Behind R e c e i v e r .........


Five-Man Pass and Go Behind R e c e i v e r ...........



Star Formation for Pass D r i l l ...........



Line Drill for Jump-Hook Pass



Peripheral Vision Passing Drill


"Bull Pen" Pass D r i l l ..........................



Rebound Passing D r i l l ..........................


Back Bounce Pass Drill



Wind Sprint Dribble D r i l l .............


Peripheral Vision Drill



Circle Dribble Drill


. . . . . . . . . . ................


..................... ...............

Retrieve Loose Ball Dribble D r i l l ..........


50 .



Double Circle Dribbling D r i l l ..................


16 .

Dribble Obstacle R a c e ..........................



Feint and Dribble B r i l l ...................



Three-Man D r i b b l e ..............................



Dribble T a g .....................................



Shooting D r i l l ...................................



Basketball Golf




Triangular Rebound Drill




. .




Getting Set D r i l l ................................



Passing and Lay-Up D r i l l ........................



Two-Versus-Two D r i l l s ...................


Two-Versus-Two Drills, Variation ................



Three-Versus-Three Drills




The Chair Drill




Reverse Pivot Drill




Double Line-Cross Court Dribble and Pivot Pass .



Change of Pace and Direction Drill .



Five-Man Pass and Pivot


Combination Drill for Teaching Various Fundamen­

. .


. . . . . . . . . . . .

tals and Offensive Phases



• • • • • . . . . .

3 I4..

Combination Drill for Fast Break Fundamentals


Call Number Cutting D r i l l s ........... .. ........


Long Pass and Cut Drill


Drill for Advancing the Ball Over the Line When




77 78

Met by G u a r d s ................................


Team Variation Race



Developing the

Fast Break, Step O n e ..........





Fast Break, Step Two





Fast Break, Step Three


Developing the


TLe Delayed Attack, Variation One . . . . . . .


The Delayed Attack, Variation T w o .......



. .. . . . . . . . . .

Fast Break, Step F o u r .....


94 98





The Delayed Attack, Variation T h r e e ........... 100


Figure Eight Offense, Option


Attacking a Zone Defense



........ . ............. 102


Three - T w o

Zone, Ball at C e n t e r ........................... 110



Zone, Ball at Right




Zone, Ball at Center

. . . . . . . . .



Zone, Ball at R i g h t ...................... Ill



Two-One-Two 'Zone, Ball at C e n t e r .................. 112




Two-Two-One Zone, Ball at Center


Two-Two-One Zone, Ball .at R i g h t .................... 113


One-Two-Two Zone, Ball at C e n t e r .................. Il4


One-Two-Two Zone, Ball at Right . . . . . . . . .


Tight Man-To-Man, Ball at R i g h t .................... 117

Zone, Ball at Right •

49B * Man-To-Man with Zone Principle, Ball • 50.

112 .............. 113


The Pressing Defense, Ball Out-of-Bounds . . . .



. 117 121

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION "Players are born and not made” . been disproved hundreds of times.

This statement has

Most good players, "get

that way" because of sound and thorough instruction by their coaches.

Many coaches know how the game should be played

but limit their successes because of their inability to con­ vey to their players the essentials of winning basketball. I.


Statement of the problem.

The purpose of this study

was to create a manual to accompany a course in Basketball Theory taught at California State Polytechnic College.


manual will provide basic facts and techniques essential to success in coaching high school basketball. Importance of the problem.

Prom application question­

naires it has been found that students at California State Polytechnic College who are interested in coaching careers are a heterogeneous group.

These students range in background

from no previous experience to four years of participation in college basketball. This manual should be of value to these students major­ ing in physical education who are about to go out to their

first basketball coaching positions.

The manual was designed

to contain basic information and skills needed for the begin­ ning high school coach in developing a basketball team. II.


Scope of the study.

An effort was made to survey the

pertinent material on basketball coaching.

The principal

sources of material were The Athletic Journal and Scholastic Coach, and the books written by many of our leading authori­ ties in the field. In addition suggestions made by experienced coaches interviewed about the subject have been included.


presented are coaching aids received from attended coaching schools. It Is not the purpose of this study to propose any revolutionary ideas in the game itself, but rather to present the main ideas needed In a simple, straight forward way which can be understood and appreciated by the. beginning coach.


should serve as a source of information upon which the basket­ ball coach can build and improve his teams at the start of each new season. Method of procedure.

The first step in approaching

the problem was to gather basketball information from recent periodicals.

The Readers Guide to Periodical Literature and

the Education Index were utilized in determining which periodicals contained information pertinent to this problem. The periodicals found to contain the desired material were reviewed, and the references catalogued by title and content• The next step was to survey all the obtainable books on the subject of basketball written by leading authorities in the field. After the initial survey, the phases of basketball to be included in the study were selected and placed in the order that they would be useful in developing a basketball team.

The available reference materials were reread and notes

of the reading recorded on index cards under -the prospective chapter headings.

The material thought to be adaptable to

the beginning basketball coach was then presented. III.


This study was concerned only with the presentation of basic basketball facts and skills, and the development of techniques for their teaching.

No attempt has been made to

analyze styles of play, team strategy, team conditioning, scouting or other subtleties of basketball that might be i

found in collegiate or professional play.



Discussions dealing with the individual methods of successful coaches were found in#many of the athletic journals and magazines.

These proved valuable in making

possible comparisons of the various methods, as well as affording an opportunity to choose the strongest and simplest system with regard to coaching basketball in high school. The material used in this investigation was confined to the study of literature dealing with coaching of basket­ ball, to textbooks on coaching of basketball, to magazine articles, and to extracts from various periodicals.


was given to a diligent study of articles written by coaches who are considered to be the best authorities in this field. BOOKS Training, Conditioning and the Care of Injuries.'*' This book, expressing the viewpoint of the college physician, stresses the non-exercise phases of training and the care and treatment of injuries.

The major section of the book was

the work of Dr. Walter Meanwell of the University of Wisconsin. Knute Rockne, at that time head coach at Notre Dame, con­ tributed a section of work regarding football.

^Walter Meanwell, and Knute Rockne, Training. Condition­ ing and the Care of Injuries (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1 9 3 1 ), 179 pp.

The Science of Basketball for Men.^

In this book i*

Meanwell, basing his opinions on the experiences of years of successful basketball coaching, gives to the coach and player alike the common-sense rules of conditioning and training which are of value in emphasizing the importance of proper preparation for this sport. My Basketball Bible.

This book will be interesting

and instructive to the reader whether he is an athlete, a coach or a spectator.

Backed by seventeen years of coaching

experience with fifteen championships, Allen speaks with authority in the chapters on "Individual Defense’*, ’’Individual Offense”, and ’’Team Offense”.

Having had a wide experience

in handling injured athletes, he knows the treatment of ’’Athletic Injuries”.

Relying largely upon mental stimulation

in the training of his own teams, he has added an innovation in "Inspirational Coaching” .

With such a background his book

occupies an important place in the literature of sports.

2Walter E. Meanwell, The Science of Basketball for Men (Madison, Wisconsin: Democrat Printing Company, lQ2ii), 3 B 2 pp. 3Forrest C. Allen, M^ Basketball Bible (Third Edition: Kansas City, Missouri: Smith-Grieves Company, 1925), ^ 7 PP»


In this book the authors have attempted

to analyze the game scientifically and to present the material in a logical way.

Confusing points have been treated to a

clear definite analysis.

The authors, who have gone through

the experience of teaching boys and college youths the tech­ nique involved in the game, present the subject of basketball from the standpoint not only of its kinesiology, but also physiology and psychology. Practical Basketball.^

This book was concerned only

with those phases of the game which may become immediately useful.

The book is intended primarily for the coach or for

use in physical education courses.

The greater part of the

book deals with the system taught by the author, although other systems are explained.sufficiently to enable a coach to choose one best adapted to his material. Basketball. Individual Play and Team Play.^


book is a plain, practical, common-sense statement of the

W a r d l o w and Morrison, Basketball (New York, New York: New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1 9 2 3 ), 231 pp. ^Ward R. Lambert, Practical Basketball (Chicago, Illinois: Athletic Journal Publishing Company, 1 9 3 2 ), ?1;3 pp. / Justin M. Barry, Basketball, Individual Play and Team Play (Iowa City, Iowa: The Cleo Press, 1 9 2 9 ), 123 pp.

things that have worked.

It is drawn from innumerable ex­

periences gathered by the author.

Underlying each idea

presented is a suggestion for necessary adjustments in coach­ ing to keep pace with the progress of basketball. Basketball for Coaches and

P l a y e r s .^

This book on

basketball has been compiled from the lectures and demon­ strations made by the author in his summer school work. There is every reason to believe it will prove helpful to many basketball coaches of the country. How To Coach and Play Basketball.^

The author believes

that basketball fundamentals have become well standardized for the various systems of offense and defense and that the experienced coach is not interested in studying them.


this book deals with developments of system play for offense and defense.

All of the conservative systems of basketball

are presented in detail. Progressive Basketball.^

This book covers fundamentals

7 George P. Veenker, Basketball for Coaches and Players (Hew Yorki A. S. Barnes and Company, 1 9 2 9 )* 232 pp.


Craig J. Ruby, How To Coach and Play Basketball (Champaign, Illinois: Bailey and Humes, 192o), 2b8 pp. ^Everett S. Dean, Progressive Basketball (Stanford University, California: The Author, 19l{.2), 1 9 0 pp.

and style of offense and defense in a practical manner. Chapters on Coaching Methods, Condition and Training, Psychology and Strategy, and A Daily Practice Schedule are excellent.

Coaching philosophies contributed by nineteen

outstanding college coaches are an interesting and unique feature.

It is one of the best books on basketball.

Champ ionship Basketball.

This is a very complete

book covering all phases of the game.

It tells the philo­

sophy and system o f ’basketball as used at the University of Kentucky.

Coaching stories are a feature. STUDIES



made a study of a prognostic test on

3 6 5 high school basketball players.

He concluded that it was

possible to provide tests which could be used with accuracy to select the men to compose the varsity basketball squad. Kimball


made a study to compare the whole and part

^ A d o l p h F. Rupp, Champlonship Basketball (New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1 9 4 8 ), 239 PP» 11 Sanger W. Crumpaeker, A Prognostic Test for High School Basketball Players," (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1 9 3 3 ). ■^Edwin R. Kimball, "A Comparative Study of the Whole and Part Methods of Teaching Basketball Fundamentals," (un­ published Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 193^).

9 methods of teaching basketball.

A battery of six tests were

given to eighty-nine high school students in an experimental group and sixty-three boys in a control group.


concluded that all-around Improvement in the execution of fundamentals Is much faster when the part method of instruction is used rather than the whole method. In a study by Greene


an attempt was made to compare

the efficiency of the unguarded and guarded methods of prac­ ticing basketball goal throwing.

The investigation was

based on 110 pupils In the investigator’s physical education classes.

The final conclusion, after a series of four tests,

was that the guarded method of goal throwing practice is more efficient than the unguarded method. Mot t ^ made an analysis of the coaching techniques of leading college coaches.

Each basketball fundamental was

given complete coverage.

An illustration of a drill for

each of the fundamentals was included in the study. An interesting study was made by B e l l ^ to determine


M Reece H. Greene, A Comparison of the Efficiency of Unguarded and Guarded Methods of Practicing Basketball Goal Throwing,” (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1 9 ^ 3 ). ^•Robert A. Mott, "Basketball Fundamentals: An Analysis of the Coaching Techniques of Leading College Coaches (un­ published Master's thesis, The University of Southern Califor­ nia, Los Angeles, I9 I4.6 ). ^ R o b e r t W. Bell, "The Evaluation of Modern Basketball,” (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1950).

10 the evolution of basketball and its effect on the game as it is played today.

The study also determined how and why basic

defensive, and offensive trends have developed. It was concluded from this investigation that rule changes are inclined:

(a) to occur in response to an effort

to please the spectator,

(b) to facilitate uniform inter­

pretation of rules by coaches and officials, unsportsmanlike conduct and rough play,

(c) to eliminate

(d) to more nearly

equalize offensive and defensive types of play, and (e) to eliminate undesirable traits which tend to harm the values and spirit of the game. Zazueta1^* made a study of the whole and the part method in teaching basketball.

This study was conducted with ninety-

eight seventh grade boys in one group taught the part method, and seventy-eight seventh grade boys taught the whole method. All the boys had no previous instruction in basketball. Zazueta concluded that the whole method, for all practical purposes, may be used much more successfully in teaching basketball to a junior high school physical education class. - Cross


conducted a study of the comparison of the whole

William E. Zazueta, nA Comparison of the Whole and the Part Methods in Teaching Basketball," (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1950). 17

Thomas J. Cross, ”A Comparison of the Whole Method, the Minor Game Method, and the Whole Part Method of Teaching Basketball to Ninth-Grade Boys,1 * The Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health and Physical Education. 8749-5^., Decembe r , 1937 •

11 method,

the minor game method, and the whole part method

of teaching basketball to ninth grade boys. The procedure used in teaching the whole method was to give the group a basketball and let them play the game. In the second group, the minor game method was used by playing games such as indoor baseball, dodgeball, volleyball, and relay games in the gymnasium classes. These games were used to build up certain fun­ damental skills which it was believed would be carried over into basketball. In the third group, the wholepart method was used by dividing basketball into the fundamental ski1 1 s.1 ° Cross concluded that: 1. The simpler unitary skills (visual and hand co-ordination of catching ball, muscle coordination of passing ball, and changing from catch to throw) are best taught by the whole method. 2. The most complex skills and those that are intel­ lectually complex as well as complex from a motor point of view (muscular coordination of handling ball, stopping and grasping ball, skill in shooting, visual and hand coordination of dribble, muscular coordination of feet, and ability to start and stop) are best taught by the whole-part method. 3. Skills of intermediate degree of complexity and ones which are easily carried over from simpler games in identical form (such as pivoting, change from catch to throw, ability to start and stop, and ability to jump) are best taught by the minor game method.*9 V.


Chapter two is organized into a manual to provide prospective coaches with a condensed source of material to

^IbidL., p. 1+9 . 1 9 Ibid., p. 5 l+.

12 accompany a course In Basketball Theory taught at California State Polytechnic College.

Part one of this chapter presents

basic fundamentals of basketball.

Drills and execution of

fundamentals is presented in part two.

Part three covers

the qualifications of various positions in the game. four is concerned with team offenses. considered in part five.


Team defenses is

A selected annotated reference

list of basketball books is offered in part six. three contains the summary of the study.



by Edward J. Jorgensan August 1950

Ill PREFACE In the coaching of basketball, as in most any endeavor, the first attempt is very important.

Many beginning coaches,

and students preparing for coaching careers, feel insecure because of inadequate backgrounds in basketball. The purpose of this manual is to give a concise presentation of basic basketball facts and skills, and the development of techniques for teaching them:

these materials

can be considered the essentials of basketball coaching.


attempt has been made to present styles of play, team stra­ tegies, team conditioning, scouting or other finer points of the game. With the contents of this manual well in mind the prospective coach should face his first position with greater confidence and security.

15 PART I BASIC FUNDAMENTALS The importance of teaching sound fundamentals cannot he stressed too much.

Without a good foundation any struc­

ture will not stand long.

The difference in results obtained

during a basketball season is due many times to the methods used in preparing players to use the basic skills of the game. How to teach fundamentals.

Following are some points

for the inexperienced coach to follow in teaching a specific fundamental: 1.

Blow a sharp whistle to call the squad together.


Insist on strict attention.


Explain simply the fundamentals and its place

in the offense.

This gives a better understanding of the

fundamental, its use, and the coach’s methods. Ij..

The coach and senior players should demostrate

first at half speed apd later at normal speed. 5.

If the squad is average to large in numbers,

divide players into small units with a senior or experienced player acting as a player-coach. 6.

Motivate the drill by offering encouragement,

constructive criticism, and enthusiasm.

i6 7.

Use the."part method1* by stressing one or two

main points at a time. the execution.

As they learn go to other points in

Repeat the next day or few days and the next

week until well mastered.

Players learn better, the proper

execution of the fundamentals when they are reviewed at intervals, thus giving the pattern a chance to set. 8.

The first fundamental drill should be very simple

and not competitive.

After the mechanics are learned, then

use the exact game condition drill for purpose of efficiency in developing the whole pattern. 9.

Great players are fundamentalists:

don’t allow

carelessness. 10.

Don't practice too long on any one fundamental.

Maintain the enthusiasm and play spirit of the squad. 11.

Alternate hard drills with those less strenuous

to avoid excessive fatigue. Passing.

One of the most important fundamental is

that of passing the ball.

The first thing to look for on

an opposing team is how they ’’handle” the ball.

This is

the key that tells whether they are a high-class club or not. If they have smart and crafty passers who can size up the situations, who know when to pass and when to withhold the ball from play, who can pass true and with deception, then you can depend on an interesting evening, for the baskets will surely follow.

17 1.

Passing pointers,. (1) Good passing teams are hard to beat.


have the tools to manufacture scores and know it. (2) Good passing insures confidence and morale. (3) Teach a variety of passes which will be used in some game conditions.

Avoid teaching any passes

which are rarely used. (Ij.) Keep the ball moving. ball is moving, the offense is alert.

Keep it hot.

When the

More passing lanes

open up because of the movements of the defense. (5) One bad pass begets another.

When receiving

a bad pass, the receiver should try to regain his balance before passing. (6 ) Make passes snappy and sharp.

There will be

fewer interceptions on this type of pass. (7) Avoid careless passing.

Lazy, lob passes

are easily intercepted. (8 ) Don't force passes through.

Make the easy one.

(9) Learn to use the eyes properly.

More can be

done in deception with the eyes than with the hands or feet. (10) Avoid bouncing the ball before each pass. This act invites the guard to try to tie up the ball. is a very bad habit. (11) Precede many passes with fake passes.


(12) Slow cross-court or flat passes are too dangerous.

An interception is two points for the opponents. (13) Avoid fancy passes because they are unsound

and most of them go out of bounds or into the hands of the opponents. (lif) Do not pass across in front of opponent's basket unless it is necessary. (15) Ignore the flat-footed receiver.


should meet the ball and avoid the interceptions. (16 ) Follow your pass.

This is a good rule for

it makes possible more natural play situations. (17) Bounce pass around and under big men. big man's strength is from his waist up.


His weakness is

around his feet. (18) Pass to the little man's weakness. weakness is the high pass.


His quick reflexes may stop

passes directed at his strength. (19) Learn the technique of the hook pass.


in tight places, in the corners, along the side lines, under the basket, the hook pass, properly executed, is a lifesaver. (20) Pass to opposite side of receiver from the guard. (21) Always lead the running player.

Never make

him break stride or have to catch the ball on his hip.

19 (22) Pass a soft pass to a close receiver. 2.

Chest push pass.

chest with the thumbs well back. the ball. wrists.

The ball is brought against the

Just -the fingers touch

The ball is passed by a quick movement of the The thumbs and fingers also push the ball forward.

The arms should follow through just as in shooting.


player may also shoot from this position, and therefore, may change a shot into a pass or vice versa. pivot or dribble from this same position.

He may also

This pass may be

used when short, snappy passes are needed especially in scoring territory. 3* and is

Bounce pass.

This pass is used a great deal

effective against a zone defense, for the pass may

be made under the arms of the opponents.

The important

thing to remember is to bounce the ball ahead of the receiver.

There are a variety of bounce passes.

The bounce

pass may be combined with the chest pass, the one hand base­ ball pass, or the two-handed side pass. Hook pass.

The hook pass to be effective,

necessitates a great deal of practice. turns away from his opponent and carries to the


T]ie passer usually the ball back and

He then jumps into the air and while in the air

turns facing the receiver with the ball in one hand and touching the wrist.

At the highest point of the jump the

ball should be released by moving the arm forward.

20 5>.

Baseball pass.

This type of pass may be used

when a long accurate pass is needed.

The ball is drawn

back of the head with the fingers well spread.

It is then

brought forward in the same manner as is a baseball and released high enough so as not to throw too low.

The arm

should follow through and the player should be careful not to twist the wrist as this will curve the ball and make .the ball difficult to catch. The one-hand underhand pass.

While this pass is

a variation of the two-hand underhand pass, it is far more versatile.

It can be used more often in any style of offense

and does not require a certain type of offense to be fitted into as does the other pass. The ball is brought to the right hip with both hands. A crouched position with the ball at that point gives good protection.

The weight of the body is transferred to the

left foot by taking a short step with that foot,

-^‘ull cover­

age of the ball by the right hand, followed by a tonic snap from the muscles of the fingers, wrist, and forearm, with a good follow-through of the arm and right foot, makes this a very effective pass. .Shooting.

Since scoring is one of the immediate

objectives of basketball and since it is basketball "pay dirt,” it is very necessary that the coach not slight this

21 department. Shooting fundamental 3 .

The average length of

basketball shooting practice is about thirty minutes. However, much more basket practice follows in fundamental drills and scrimmage.

Since shots in the games must be

taken against opposition, it is imperative that a part of the shooting practice should be under game conditions.


of avoiding dull and uninteresting shooting practices are to have competitive shooting games.

Players usually do not

need this motivation during the first half of the season; therefore save it until the last half. The following are a number of tangible and intangible factors that effect accurate shooting: Cl) Relaxation (2) Confidence (3) Concentration (Ij.) Good temperament (5 ) Haturalness (6 ) Physical condition (7) Good balance (8 ) Fingertip control (9) Wrist action (10) Ball position (11) Near-rim target (12) Medium arch

(13) Natural English (14) Follow-through (15) Follow-up (16 ) Strong shooting Foul shooting.

Consistency and ability of players

from the foul line has won many games.

Therefore, it is

important that this fundamental be given the serious con­ sideration of every player and coach.

This is one phase

of basketball which can be perfected by constant practice. The underhand toss is probably the best method of shooting free throws; however, the player should use the method he likes the best.

Confidence and relaxation Influence foul

shooting a great deal.

The player should walk up to the foul

line as if there is no doubt about whether he is going to be successful in his attempt, take a deep breath and be sure he is directly In front of the basket and about one inch from the line.

The feet may be adjusted to the player’s liking.

The ball should not touch the palm of the hand but should rest on the finger tips with the thumb pointing toward the basket.

Fix the eyes on the front rim of the basket and

slowly crouch and spread the knees so that the ball may be brought between them.

As the dip or crouch is made the heels

leave the floor and the weight of the body is placed over the balls of the feet.

The upward movement should be faster and

there should be a snap of the wrists as the ball leaves the

23 hands, and is aimed over the front rim.

The thumbs will be

in contact with the ball at the last moment thus causing a rotation,

^he entire movement should be smooth and rhythmical. Things to remember in foul shooting are: (1) Relax. (2) Fix eyes on iron rim. (3 ).Make movements rhythmically not .jerky. (4) Line up correctly. (5) Have confidence. (6 ) Follow through. (7) Practice makes perfect. (8 ) D o n ’t bend the waist. (9) Try and "lay 11 the ball in the basket. (10) Arch the ball.


One-hand shot.

importance in this shot.

The position of the ball is of great The ball should be brought up to

a point in front of the right shoulder.

As the shot is

started with two hands the ball should be held close to the body and the ball should be dipped slightly forward with the left hand still in contact with the ball.

This is done for

the purpose of breaking the wrist to obtain relaxation and rhythm.

As the shot is started the motion by the arm should

be an upward vertical movement and not a lateral one.


vertical movement makes for a medium-arched shot which has

been aimed at and over the•front rim.

The position of the

ball is good because it is i n l i n e with the advanced foot, the shoulder, and the eyes.

As the ball is released from

the fingers, it is assisted by a hinge-like action of the wrist combined with an extended action of the arm.


shot is a wrist and arm shot, with very little assistance from the rest of the body except for a knee bend which is coordinated with the break of the wrist. In learning this shot, players should practice on shots not farther out than ten to fifteen feet.


the right-handed shooters stop or hesitate for balance with the right foot advanced:

locate the front rim of the basket

as the ball is brought to right shoulder with hands: the wrist and the knees at same time:


leave the floor slightly

as the ball is released from the fingers with an upward movement of the arm and a hinge-like action of the wrist. h*

kay up shot.

type of shot.

Form is very important in this

The player should approach the basket at a

45° angle and always use the backboard unless the approach is being made from in the front. take off.

Next in importance is the

The right hand shooters should take off on their

left foot and left handed players take off on the right foot. The players should not lower the ball when he leaps into the air but should raise the ball and place it gently against the backboard a foot above the basket and slightly to the

side. Themistakes the boy he broad jumps

makes in this type of shot is that

instead of high jumps and bangs the ball

against the backboard instead of laying it up gently. After shooting, the player should be ready for a follow up shot in case the basket is missed. Things to remember in a lay-up shot. (1 ) Lay the ball up:

don't bang it up.

(2) Take off the correct foot. (3) Don't release the ball too soon— wait until the arm is high in the air. (i|.) Control the ball with the fingehs. (5) Get up as high as possible by jumping. 5>.

Chest shot.

The chest shot is usually taken while

the player is not in motion and may be thought of as the set shot.

There are difference ways in which this shot may

be attempted but on the whole the principle is just about the same.

The following things should be kept in mind when

using this type of shot:

(a) the ball must not touch the

palm of the hands but rest on the fingers; must be kept close to the body; (d) fingers slightly spread; try to place the

(b) the elbows

(c) the body should be relaxed

(e) proper

follow through;


ball in the basket, don't just shoot at it;

and (g) arch the ball. Some boys

may like to shoot with

others prefer one foot in advance.

feet togetherwhile

In either case the weight

26 should rest slightly on the toes. Dribbling. basketball.

Dribbling is important in the game of

When used properly, it adds greater possibilities

to the offense, and when misused it is a real liability. much dribbling ruins team play.


It is not as important,

however, as many players believe.

Many players lose much

of their efficiency because they try to dribble in, around and through the entire other team. Uses of the dribble. (1) To advance the ball on offense. (2) To bring the ball out and away from the defensive board. (3) For close-in shots. (If) To get the ball out of congested areas. (5) As an offensive threat against the defense. In dribbling, the body should be crouched and leaning forward, with the head erect so that the dribbler may see where he is going.

The ball is pushed directly out in front

and away from the player.

The distance which the ball is

pushed away will depend upon the speed at which the dribbler is running. The ball should not be struck hard but rather pushed with the fingers.

The wrist and arm should recoil or give

slightly when the ball strikes the fingers.

The upward

progress of the ball is stopped and it is immediately pushed

27 down and forward with enough effort to have it bounce at just the right height, which should be just below the player1s waist. Things to remember in dribbling. (1

Lean forward when dribbling.


Keep the head erect.


Do not dribble blindly.


Know when to stop dribbling.


Don’t dribble into trouble.


Push the ball, don’t stop it.


Keep the wrist and fingers flexible.


Keep the ball well out in front of you.


Learn to change pace.


Protect the ball with the body when possible.


Dribble low when closely guarded.


Dribble high for speed.


Mastery of footwork makes every member of

the team a fine player in his own right.

Good footwork helps

a player to free himself of his guard without assistance from another player. Maneuvering speed.

Maneuvering to get open for

passes is a very important form of footwork. at varying speeds, from a walk to a sprint.

This is done It is most

effective when combined with starts, stops, change of direction,

28 change of pace, fakes, and feints.

Players should be taught

different combinations such as going from half-speed to full speed, going from a walk to a stop to quick start, and going from one-third speed to a hesitation with head and shoulder action to a quick start. Change of direction.

All actions in the execution

of the change of direction must be very positive with no hesitation or indecision.

To execute this move to the left,

the player starts right and suddenly pushes off his right foot on a cut to the left.

This move is accompanied by an

overemphasized head and shoulder feint. used in the feint partly for balance.

The arms are also The push off the right

foot 3hould be explosive, with all the drive the player can muster.

This is important because of the momentary dis­

advantage of the guard who is out-maneuvered by the feint to the right. Things to remember in footwork. (1) Feint with head, eyes, hands, and feet. (2) Use split vision. (3) Keep away from side-lines. (If) All movements must be without hesitation. (5) Use arms to maintain body balance. (6 ) Make your opponent declare himself. (7) Drive hard for the step advantage over your opponent.

(8 ) Cut in arcs, not circles. Catching.

Every player should be taught how to receive

the ball.

Even natural

players will improve when following

the rules

of good form.However, it is the unnatural


who need the practice most. The player should keep his eye on the ball.

There are

times when he can receive passes, without looking directly at the ball, but in doing this he uses his peripheral vision to see the ball and the field ahead in getting ready for the next play. extend

The receiver should advance to meet the ball and

his hands and arms to meet the pass.

above the waist, the thumbs

For all


should be together with the

fingers pointing upward, forming a ”cup” of "pockets” for the ball.

For all passes below

the waist, the little fingers

should be

together with fingers pointing downward. Things to remember in catching. (1) Catch the ball with the fingers. (2) Do not fight the ball. (3 ) Det the arms

give with the ball.

(i^.) Keep your eye on the ball until you have caught it. ^ (5) Always come in for the ball, (6 ) Don't turn your back to the ball. (7) Have confidence in yourself.

(8 ) Relax when catching the ball. (9 ) Don't try to shoot, pass or dribble until you have caught the ball. (10) Don't get rattled. (11) Always be on the alert for a pass at any time and from any angle. Causes for fumbling. (1) Hard pass. (2) Misjudged speed. (3) Inaccurate pass— too high or too low. (Ij.) Fatigue. (£) Fighting the ball. (6 ) Not keeping cool. (7) Weak fingers and wrists.

(remedy: pressing

small rubber ball.) Pivoting.

The pivot is used to elude an opponent, to

avoid jump balls, and to insure possession of the ball.


pivot is executed from either a running stride stop or a jump stop.

The player who is dribbling should stop five or six

feet from the guard to allow for his approach and to avoid a tieup.

If the pivot is made to the right, the right foot

should be even with the left or advanced.

To produce the

pivot, the left leg is swung around and the right shoulder is lowered as the whirl starts on the ball of the right foot.

31 From this low body position a player completes the pivot by transferring his weight and steps out with a long stride at right angles to get away from his guard.

The head and eyes

should be up looking for open teammates. Things to remember in pivoting. (1) Maintain your balance by. keeping your position low. (2) Protect the ball by keeping it away from the guard. (3) D o n ’t hold the ball too long. (Ij.) Avoid dragging pivot foot. (f>) Pivot away from the sideline. (6 ) Transfer your weight to the pivot foot. (7) Keep your eyes open for teammates. Screening.

Most offenses of today are using the screen

in some form, either intentionally or accidentally.


is nothing wrong with the screen game, as long as the screens are executed legally.

The rules provide that the defensive

man must have room for normal bodily movement in evading the screen being set on him. The safest way to execute the screen without liability of fouling is for the screener to take a set position three feet away from the guard being screened.

32 !•

Inside stationary screen.

The inside stationary

screen Is the easiest of all the screens to use.

It is also

the safest from the standpoint of violating the rule on screening. It is executed by coming to a stop, approximately three feet from the player to be screened.

The screener may

stand erect or bend over with his hands on his knees and in doing so will have no responsibility for fouling, provided he does nothing more.

In doing this he is legally blocking

out the guard by getting in his path. 2*

The rolling screen.

The rolling screen is some­

what more advanced and has a greater play possibility than the stationary screen.

It is important that a team know how

to use rolling screens when it meets a shifting man-to-man defense. The execution requires more finesse than the other screens.

The screener advances to approximately three feet

of the screenee, rolls away from the player screened, and continues slowly in a pattern similar to that of the offensive man.

The dribbler leads his guard into the screen after he

has used footwork fakes to hold his slow-moving teammate, the defensive player is forced to take the long way around, momentarily freeing the offensive man for a good shot or a pass.

The screener has no responsibility toward fouling since

he moved away from the man screened out.

33 Things to remember in screening. (1) D o n ’t contact your opponent. (2) Maintain normal position. (3) Use variety of screens.

Cl+5 D o n ’t be too obvious in purpose. (5) Don't turn your back on the ball. (6 ) Keep from backing up into your opponent. (7 ) Be alert for possible pass. (8 ) Notice the guards movement to avoid screen.

3k PART II DRILLS FOR FUNDAMENTALS Systems of play and styles of offense and defense do not win championships.

If there were a secret In successful

basketball, then that secret would be drilling on fundamentals. Drills are of the most use early in the season.


ever, they may be used to advantage throughout the entire season.

These drills should become so thoroughly implanted

In the player’s mind that he will do them accurately in the game through sheer force of habit. It is well in using basketball drills to divide the players into groups of equally or nearly equally skilled players.

Each player trying to do better than the others

is the ideal scheme, and this grouping makes it more difficult to excell than in the miscellaneous grouping.

The drill is

also better motivated with this type of grouping as there is better execution and fewer mistakes. Hints in handling drills. 1.

Have a thorough knowledge of the drills you intend


Explain them carefully to the squad so they may

to use.

understand them thoroughly. 3.

Have an organized plan that will put them in

35 !{..

Be able to stop drills for Instruction and continue

rapidly. 5.

Know when to stop a drill and change to another


Experiment with drills and find the ones that


hold the interest of the players.


PASSING DRILLS Most basketball games will have between two and three hundred passes per game.

Poor shooting teams must necessarily

be fine passing teams in order to work the ball closer in to the basket.

Coaches with poor shooters should spend more

time on their passing practice and less on shooting practice and gain thereby. The following Diagrams 1, 2, 3» and 10 are passing drills.

5>» 6, 7* 8» 9>


DIAGRAM 1. The Two-Lane Passing Drill The squad Is divided and separated in two lines facing one another at a distance of fifteen feet. A ball is pro­ vided for each pair of plaje rs and the entire repertoire of passes is practiced from the standing position. If the coach so desires, the same pass may be practiced by the entire group or each set of players may work on a different pass. If movements are desired in the drills, one player may use the particular pass, follow it, and assume his teammate’s position in the other line. The receiver meets the pass and dribbles to the other side where he uses the pass being practiced and cuts back to the other line.




Offensive Player — |Screen V Defensive Player ■*-Dribble Path of Player — ~TT"} Turn or Pivot -►-Pass or Shot / ^ Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


-c - - o

DIAGRAM 2. Pass for Speed Drill This drill may well be used where a smooth wall sur­ face is available. A restraining line is drawn at a dis­ tance from this wall, depending on the type of pass to be used. The players retain their position behind this line and see which member of the group can execute the greatest number of passes in a given time. By varying the distance of the restraining line all types of passes may be used. The player may not corss the line.

LEGEND Q — | Screen O Offensive Player ^-Dribble X Defensive Player Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction *-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 3. Three-Man Pass and Go Behind Receiver This drill is for use as a conditioner and for prac­ tice in handling passes when cutting for the ball. Some value is received from the rapid stopping and changes of direction when cutting behind the receiver. Care must be taken that the players do not neglect the proper execution of the fun­ damentals involved in their desire to execute the drill at too great a speed. The drill is best set up under one basket with the three men carrying the ball as outlined to the opposite bas­ ket where a short shot i 3 made. The positions are resumed and the ball returned to the starting end of the floor where another basket is made. The next group of three continue with the same set-up.

LEGEND Q — | Screen 0 Offensive Player -Dribble X Defensive Player • ’ • • • " ) Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction __— ►-Pass or Shot l_2_5-4 Sequence of Passes





DIAGRAM ij.. Five-Man Pass and Go Behind Receiver This drill is a further development of the similar set-up involving three men. It is an excellent drill for executing the various offensive fundamentals, but is rather complex and requires considerable time to perfect. However, the complexity of the drill adds interest for the player.


Offensive Player O — L Screen Defensive Player -fr-Dribble Path of Player Turn or Pivot -■— — ►-Pass or Shot Chanse of Direction X-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



DIAGRAM 5. Star Formation for Pass Drill The five man or star drill is an effective drill for passing of all types. The advantages are that all passes are of the same length, and the passer has a definite player to whom he must pass. It may be used especially well in the drill for the two-handed, high, overhead pass. In this drill all passes are made high enough that the receiver must jump into the air and make his pass before coming down. The ball should not be batted, but caught and passed on with a definite wrist movement.



O— I

Offensive Player Screen Defensive Player *^-Dribble - A Path of Player — ) Turn or Pivot .— ►•Pass or Shot Change of Direction X-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes

DIAGRAM 6. Line Drill for Jump-Hook Pas 3 This is a simple line drill for the execution of the jump-hook or aerial baseball pass. The front man in the line dribbles down the floor, jumps into the air, and returns the ball 'by a jump-hook pass to the next man in line. Some variation can be added to the drill by having a trailer cut to one side or the other just as the passer goes into the air. This makes the passer use the proper fundamentals in order to locate the receiver before making the pass.

LEGEND Q Offensive Player Q — | Screen X Defensive Player -^wwww^-Dribble 1- Path of Player •— Turn or Pivot r-^-Pass or Shot / Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes

C k

'DIAGRAM 7. Peripheral Vision Passing Drill Six men form a straight line facing one man who stands about ten feet in front. The drill calls for two balls, one in the line and one in the hands of the player in front of the line. The balls should be kept separated as much as possible in order to give the player in front more peripheral vision practice. This drill is a fine push-pass developer and, at the same time, develops strong finger and arm muscles.

XJSGEND O Offensive Player O — L Screen -♦-Drib'ble )< Defensive Player — Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction ►-Pass or Shot 1-2-5-4 Sequence of Passes



c T

DIAGRAM 8 . "Bull Pen'* Pass Drill Fundamentals of passing, eye deception, and individual defense can be taught in a short time with this drill* A circle is formed by at least six players and not more than eight. A ball Is given to the players forming the circle. They pass the ball back and forth from one to the other. However, no player may pass to another on his immediate right or left. The defensive man in the circle takes the place of the player whose pass he deflected.

LEGEND O Offensive Player Q — | Screen X Defensive Player •>*•■►■Dribble 4- Path of Player — "^“ 0 Turn or Pivot -►•Pass or Shot / v Change of Direction X-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


GO DIAGRAM 9 . Rebound Passing Drill In this drill the center, C, and a defensive man, G, are stationed under the basket. Two forwards A and B take positions as shown in the diagram. Either may shoot a medium shot at the basket with C making rebound passes out to A and B as long as he is successful in obtaining the ball from the backboard. The guard makes every attempt to prevent C from rebounding and passing the ball out to the forwards C may catch the rebounds and pass while in the air or may dribble to the corner and return them with a jump-hook pass. When the guard recovers the ball the front man of the three lines take the places of A, B, and C.


Offensive Player Q — | Screen Defensive Player *****%>«*»■fr-Dribble £ Path of Player Turn or I1!?* ^ _ — -►-Pass or Shot Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



DIAGRAM 10 Back Bounce Pass Drill The players are teamed In pairs. Player B takes a post position with the ball. As A cuts by, B fakes to give him the ball. B then feints in the other direction, backbounces the ball with his right hand, and cuts to his left (opposite side from pass). A fakes to B as he cuts by and repeats the process. 1/hen A and B reach the basket two other teammates start the drill in other direction. Players C and D are making the drill more difficult by cutting across in front of the post after the pass and pivot.


Offensive Player o — Defensive Player — - 4Path of Player _ — *-Pass or Shot 1 -2 - 3 - 4 Sequence of


L Screen ^-Dribble j Turn or Pivot Change of Direction Passes

DRIBBLING DRILLS The use of the dribble has been discouraged by many coaches as the passing game has increased in favor.


ever, there is still a great need for the dribble in advancing the ball to the offensive sector, in changing floor positions, in breaks for the basket, and in other phases of the offensive.

Some time spent in teaching and practicing

the dribble will be time well spent by every coach.


following diagrams 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , ll|, 1 5 , l6 , 1 7 , 1 8 , and 19 are dribbling drills.

DIAGRAM 11. Wind Sprint Dribble Drill Where wind sprints are used as a conditioning drill, the wind sprint dribble drill may be used as an interesting variation. The men are lined up at the end of the floor and facing the floor. Each is given a ball. The coach takes his position in the center and at the side of the floor. He has a whistle. When he blows the whistle the players dribble as fast as possible and continue until the whistle is blown. They are then allowed to dribble slowly, weaving in and out of their course, or dribbling in place, until another blast of the whistle indicates full-speed dribble again.

LEGEND O Offensive Player Q — |Screen V Defensive Player ■fr-Dribble Path of Player — — } Turn or Pivot -*-Pass or Shot / ^ Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 12. Peripheral Vision Drill In this drill the dribbler has no set course but must keep his head up and look at the ball only as a last resort. This is sometimes known as the blind man dribble drill. The drill is a splendid practice for the ball handling involved in the dribble. The drill develops peripheral vision or ability to focus the attention on more than one object at the same time, and develops the touch necessary in good dribbling.


OX Defensive Offensive

Player o — l Screen -►•Drihhle Player j Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction -►-Pass or Shot l_g_3 _ 4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 13. Circle Dribble Drill The players are formed in a circle. One man, A,, is designated as the dribbler at the start. He dribbles in and out, alternating in front and behind players of the circle. When he returns to his original position in the circle he passes the ball to the next man to his right who continues the drill. Stress the fact that dribblers must learn to travel in broken paths and not in a straight line. Allow the players of the circle to fake at the dribbler as he passes but do not allow them to hit the ball as it encourages the man to dribble in too wide a circle and not set the feet as he passes the man and makes a sharp turn. Dribbler should alternate dribbling hands.


Offensive Player

o — L Screen -'►-Dribble Path of Player Turn or Pivot »-Pass or Shot X ^ Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes

Defensive pi,sy6r


DIAGRAM li|. Retrieve Loose Ball-Dribble Drill Place the men in a semi-circle near the center of the floor. The coach from under the basket rolls the ball toward the men; they pick up the ball and dribble in for a short shot. The drill is valuable in teaching men to drop the hips and knees and be free and loose in recovering this type of ball or passes. It also teaches them to break fast on the dribble.


Ox Defensive Offensive — —

O — I Screen Player n w i^o ^ Dr ibble Player ----^ Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction *-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 15. Double Circle Dribbling Drill A large outer circle of from ten to fifteen players is formed. Prom three to five men are placed inside of this circle. These men have basketballs and must keep dribbling them. An extra man designated as the guard is also placed inside of the circle. The dribblers must evade the guard and still keep away from the men in the outer circle. These men are allowed to reach as far as possible toward the dribblers without shifting their feet and attempt to break the dribble and get the ball. If a man in the circle obtains the ball, he takes his place in the center as a dribbler and the man who lost the dribble becomes the guard, with the man who was guard replacing the man who left the circle. If the guard Is successful in obtain­ ing the ball, the dribbler and guard change places. All in­ fractions of the rules are to be called.

LEGEND O Offensive Player O — L Screen y Defensive Player ibble £ Path of Player l~) Turn or M-Jot pass or Shot / Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes




O G °

00.0 DIAGRAM 16. Dribble Obstacle Race A number of chairs or other obstacles are placed at a distance of about 8 - 1 0 feet apart in a straight line down the center of the floor. The player must dribble in and out through these obstacles, changing dribbling hands ashe changes his course, using his left hand on the left side of the obstacle and his right hand on the right side of the obstacle. He reverses his course in coming back to the starting point.

LEGEND o Offensive Player 0 — 1 Screen **~Dribble X Defensive Player — ■ j Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction — — *“ Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



DIAGRAM 17. Feint and Dribble Drill The players are paired and form a half-circle as shown. The coach stands in the free-throw lane and signifies the direction of the dribble by raising his right or left hand. The offensive players try to outraaneuver their respective guards and drive to the basket. If successful in scoring or returning the ball to the teammate stationed behind them, they continue on the offense. If the ball is lost in attempt­ ing the dribble or a bad pass is made, the players exchange positions. If the defensive players watch one another in determining the direction of the dribble, the coach can give each dribbler a different assignment.

LEGEND O Offensive Player O — L Screen ~*-Drlbble X Defensive Player — Turn or Pivot -*— Path of Player Change of Direction -►-Pass or Shot 1-2-5-4 Sequence of Passes







o DIAGRAM 18. Three-Man Dribble

A passes to B and sets an inside screen or block on his imaginary guard. B breaks out with a dribble across the floor and makes his last bounce to C who dribbles across the floor and allows his last bounce to go to A. This crossing may be continued for any number of times, with one dribbler finally breaking for the basket and the other two men rebound­ ing until the basket is made. This drill stresses the ball handling necessary in picking up the dribble of another man without loss of time. The drill may be used by not allowing the men to catch the ball in both hands but to continue the other man’s dribble.


o— t

Screen 0 Offensive Player ♦ “Dribble X Defensive Player Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction *-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



DIAGRAM 19. Dribble Tag Players are given a ball and distributed about the court. One player is designated It. The It player must dribble and tag, while dribbling, the evading dribbling players. All infractions of the rules are to be called. If infractions are made or a player goes out of bounds while trying to keep from being tagged that player becomes It. The drill aids In peripheral vision and develops the touch necessary in good dribbling. In can also be used as a conditioning device. Players enjoy the drill.


O Offensive Player O — L Screen ■fr-Dribble X Defensive Player t ~~) Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction -*-Pass or Shot l_2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


SHOOTING DRILLS Players usually maintain their interest in basket shooting and little difficulty is experienced in holding their attention.

There are a number of types of shots needed by

the average basketball player in the execution of the offense and the following drills can be used in teaching these shots. The drills for teaching rebound shooting can be especially valuable.

Players should be schooled in the execution of as

many shots as possible.

Practice shooting under guarded

conditions gains the best results.

The following Diagrams

2 0 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 2 3 , and 21). are shooting drills.


DIAGRAM 20. Shooting Drill Simple formation for the two-hand shot. One ball to three players makes a satisfactory arrangement. This forma­ tion lends itself to three phases of basket shooting, the first of which is a stationary shot about twenty feet out. In learning shooting form, it is best for the player to be fairly close to the basket and to make the shot unopposed. For second week of practice the squad should move backward ten feet, thus giving the players room to dribble forward to their original positions. Third week the player shoots the ball and follows it. Upon recovery of the rebound, he passes to his teammate, and immediately assumes a defensive position against him. This gives the shooter practice against opposition and gives both men good practice in rebounding.


OV Defensive Offensive

Player Screen Player •***"*»-■♦“Dribble path of Player — Turn or Pivot — ►•Pass or Shot Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 21. Basketball Golf Using a radius of about 1$ to 20 feet and with a spot directly under the basket as a center point, describe an arc that meets the end line toward each side line as shown. Locate nine points of approximately equal distances apart. Mark these points on the floor. These spots are the equivalent of the tees in golf. The object of the game is to make the basket (the hole) in the least number of shots. The player shoots until the bas­ ket is made; his opponent then shoots from the spot until he makes it. The play may be either match play (by holes) or medal play (by strokes or shots). Another way of playing this game is to shoot in rota­ tion, each player advancing as he makes the shot, with the first player through winning the contest.

LEGEND O Offensive Player O — L Screen V Defensive Player "♦“Dribble — Path of Player — Turn or Pivot ►-Pass or Shot Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes

6o Most Long Shots Another interesting game is to divide the players into two squads of five or six men each and shooting back of a de­ signated spot or mark, count the long shots made until a certain total (usually 1 0 ) is made. All other members of the squad are encouraged to rebound and return their teammates’ shots. This drill will provide wholesome and interesting competition, offers practice on basket shooting under somewhat the stress and hurry, of game situations, and encourages proper ball handling in order to obtain the greatest number of shots. Rebound Drill Without The Basket This drill may be executed against a gymnasium wall. A single player may be used or an entire group. The ball is tossed against the wall and the players must rebound it back against the wall for a number of times. This drill is effective for practice in timing spring and in overhead fundamentals of rebounds prior to the use of other drills given. Insist on the players catching the ball and shooting in the air. Some consideration may be given to slapping or batting the ball hard against the wall as a last resort if the individual rebounds it from that attempt. Drill For Teaching Men To Leave Floor On Short Shots The coach should obtain some short twigs about J4. feet long and just large enough in diameter to be rigid. The coach or a manager holds these at a height of 2 feet from the floor and at the position of the greatest height of the feet of the man shooting. The proper place to hold it for each man may be easily determined after a short experience. Stress the point that the shooter should jump high rather than like broadjumping.


DIAGRAM 22. Triangular Rebound Drill The three players take their positions as shown. A fourth player or the coach shoots at the basket from' a distance of 15 to 30 feet. It is the duty of the three rebound men to jump and rebound shots at the basket until a goal is made. If a player is forced to change his position the others should change until the triangular formation Is regained. Players should be warned about 11slapping" at the ball and should be taught to catch the ball and shoot while in the air. Players should be encouraged to tap the ball from time to time to the other two men in the formation. This will make for alertness on the part of all of the men. A defensive man may be placed in the middle of the group to add to the drill as the participants increase in skill.

LEGEND O Offensive Player 0 - 1 Screen «*-Dribble X Defensive Player — j Turn or Pivot Path of Player / ^ Change of Direction — •— *-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 23. Getting Set Drill The squad is divided into two group 3 . Half of the players are stationed out-of-bounds, each with a ball in his possession. The other players are located at various points in front of the basket. The drill is designed to teach players to move, recover the ball, and get "set” for the shot. Be­ fore passing the ball- to the shooters, the passers call the name of a certain player and bounce the ball to a point which will force the receiver to change his position. The passers recover the ball following the shots and the drill is repeated. After a time the passers become shooters.


OX Defensive Offensive


Player Screen Player *w kw «fr-Drlbble -I- Path of Player — Turn or Pivot -►-Pass or Shot / x Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 2l±. Passing and Lay-Up Shot Drill This drill offers quick passing practice, ending up with a lay-up shot. All passes should be preceded with a fake and the player using as much peripheral vision as pos­ sible without causing poor passes. A passes to B; B passes back to A; A then passes to C who passes to D cutting in for a lay-up shot. G gets the rebound and passes (hook-pass) to D who has gone to A's original spot. A moves up to spot B; B takes spot where G was and C goes to shooting line.



O Offensive Player Screen ♦-Dribble V Defensive Player — Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction »-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



SCREENING AND CUTTING DRILLS Objectives of the screening offense are:

to set up

an easy continuity style of offense, to screen out the de­ fense for shots behind the screen, and to set up cutaway plays. The following Diagrams 25, 26, and 27 are a series of drills calling for two offensive players versus two defensive players who practice on many two-man play possib­ ilities.

In these drills they learn the play situations,

the timing, and the fundamentals needed for their execution. Some of these play possibilities are screens, cutaways, shots behind blocks, double and triple screens, and others.


o o

o o


o o

DIAGRAM 2^. Two-Versus-Two-Drills 2f>A 2$B 2f>C 25D

The screen. The shot behind a block. The drop pass and cutaway. Another sideline cutaway play.

LEGEND O Offensive Player O — X Defensive Player — Path of Player -►-Pass or Shot 2_2-3-4 Sequence of

L Screen -fc-Drib'ble j Turn or Pivot Change of Direction Passes


© o o

DIAGRAM 26. Two-Versus-Two-Drills (variation) 26 a 26b

26c 26d

The outside block. A fake block and lead pass. Cutaway from the inside screen. Cutaway by the forwards.

LEGEND o Offensive Player O — L Screen -►-Dribhle X Defensive Player — '~j Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction -►-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



« T 3 ® O G

DIAGRAM 27. Three-Versus-Three Drills 27A 27B

G passes to P, who dribbles by the L{. man block set by G and C. The pass is made to F, who dribbles by the screen.and passes to C, who returns pass to P or G in shooting position.

LEGEND O Offensive Player O — L Screen \/ D 0 f G3isiv0 pi --MDribble Path of Player — Turn or Pivot *-Pass or Shot Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


FOOTWORK BRILLS In all offensive systems footwork or pivots* stops and turns are the mediums offensive players use to elude the defensive men.

Players must be able to stop and start

rapidly; they must be able to change their direction and pace suddenly to throw their defensive men off guard.


mu3t be equipped with some of the standard footwork or pivots, such as the forward pivot, the reverse pivot, and the stride stop. There is a lot of drudgery connected with the practice of footwork, but interest may be injected by using different drills from time to time and in mixing the drills on footwork with drills on other fundamentals.

The following Diagrams

28, 2 9 , 30, 3 1 * and 32 are footwork drills.


DIAGRAM 28. The Chair Drill Place a chair or other obstacle on the floor. Have the men dribble to this obstacle and execute the various footwork of stops and turns. The drill is recommended in early season work where the various steps in the fundamentals are being stressed. The value of the drill decreases as the routine of the fundamental is less stressed and more importance is placed on speed and utility of the footwork.

LEGEND o Offensive Player Q— f y Defensive Player ^Dribble ^ __ Path of Player ^ P 11 or K K * ►-Pass or Shot Change of Direction 1 -2 -3 - 4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 29. Reverse Pivot Drill Place players in three lines. Player A dribbles, stops, and executes a reverse pivot on his right foot, passes an underhand pass to the next man who after dribbling in to the foul line executes the same movement. The third man dribbles into the basket for a lay-up shot. The players change lines after their turns.


Offensive Player O — L Screen Defensive Player '-fe-Dribble Path of Player — Turn or Pivot -.— — ►-Pass or Shot / Change of Direction -2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



DIAGRAM 30. Double Line-Cross Court Dribble and Pivot-Pass A dribbles cross court, uses stop and turn and then passes to B of the other line who has cut for the pass. B dribbles cross court, uses stop and turn and passes to C, who continues the drill. The men change lines after each dribble, thus getting stop and turn practice from each side of the floor. Stress speed in dribbling and accuracy of the footwork and passing.

LEGEND O Offensive Player O — L Screen ~>“Drib'ble X Defensive Player — T"~) Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction *-pass or Shot 1 _2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 31. Change of Pace and Direction Drill Defensive player takes his position between the offensive man and the basket. The coach is stationed under the basket with the ball. The offensive man breaks and changing his pace and direction frequently attempts to elude the defensive man and receive a pass from the coach for an under-basket shot. Rapid stopping, changing the direction, head-bobbing, and shoulder-shrugging, and change of pace are important fundamentals in eluding guards. This drill gives a practice formation that is valuable for both the offensive and the defensive men.

LEGEND O Offensive Player 0 “H Screen V Defensive Player ■*-Dribble — Path of Player Turn or Pivot pass or Shot / ^ Chanee of Direction 1-2-5-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 32. Five-Man Pass And Pivot In this drill, five offensive men are placed in the offensive sector. They may pass, pivot and cut, but are not allowed to shoot. This is a good warm-up drill prior to scrimmages. Hard cutting, pivots at full speed, and well led passes are to be given the emphasis.

LEGEND O Offensive Player o — i Screen X Defensive Player *HDribble £ Path of Player — Turn or Pivot — - — ►-Pass or Shot / ^ Chanse of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes

COMBINATION DRILLS The drills listed under this heading are general drills for stressing more than one fundamental.

Most drills include

practice on several fundamentals but place the major emphasis on one specific one.

The combination type of drill may be

adapted to the teaching of fast break offense elements or defensive work.

They are valuable in that they will keep the

entire squad working all of the time.

They add interest and

are valuable in introducing game conditions or elements in­ volving a large portion of the floor.

The following Diagrams

33* 3h> 35* 3 6 , 37* and 38 are combination drills.


DIAGRAM 33. Combination Drill For Teaching Various Fundamentals and Offensive Phases In this drill the coach shoots at the basket. E, a guard recovers the rebound and brings it out with a jump-hook pass to the forward B breaking down the sideline. B dribbles across the center line, uses a forward pivot and passes to C crossing the floor. B then crosses the floor fast and sets his foot and drives across the pivot man A. C after receiving the pass from B dribbles, uses a forward pivot and passes to D who passes to the pivot man. B crosses the pivot, followed first by C and then by D. E trails the play and occasionally the ball is thrown out to him for a long shot with all men rebounding.



Offensive Player O — L Screen Dribble X Defensive Player — j Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction -►-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes



DIAGRAM 3i^. Combination Drill For Fast Break Fundamentals In this phase of the drill, E rebounds and passes to D who dribbles fast straight through the center and feeds the forwards, B and C feeding under. The center A pulls to either side of the floor and feeds to either of the forwards. D may start through fast, pivot and feed E the trailer who will drive through and feed the forwards or the center. The ball may occasionally be passed out to the center in the corner for a shot with E, B, and C rebounding.

LEGEND Q — O Offensive Player X Defensive Player ----Path of Player -►-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of

| Screen ►-Dribble 3 Turn or Pivot Change of Direction Passes


DIAGRAM 35. Call Number Cutting Drill In this drill the men are formed in a semi-circle and given numbers. The coach and a ball catcher or manager station themselves in some position in the front court. coach will call the number and the man who has that num­ must cut for the basket as soon and as fast as possible. Two or three balls may be used in the drill by having the men who shoot, take the ball off the bank and return it to the ball catcher. The ball catcher places the ball at the side of the coach, who picks up one of the balls and calls the number, feeds the man breaking. Additional use may be made of this drill by giving combination commands, such as No. 7 forward pivot--No. 2 cut and shoot. No. 7 must break for the pass, use a forward pivot when the imaginary guard is encountered and then feed the ball to No. 2 who must wait and time his feed. Other fundamentals may be practiced with this. are may The ber

LEGEND O Offensive Player O — L Screen ♦-Dribble X Defensive Player Turn or Pivot Path of Player Change of Direction -►-Pass or Shot 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 3 6 . Long Pass and Cut Drill B retrieves a shot from the backboard and comes out with dribble, and jump-hook pass to other guard, C. This man uses a long baseball pass to the center, A who comes out to meet the pass high and feeds to either B or C cutting into the basket.

LEGEND o Offensive Player O — L Screen -►-Drib'ble X Defensive Player — Turn or Pivot Path of Player ___>_Pa,ss or Shot Change of Direction 1-2-5-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 37. Drill for Advancing The Ball Over The Line When Met By Guards The coach shoots and one of the guards retrieves the ball from the backboard, comes out with a dribble and advances it to, but not across, the centerline. The other guard hurries to a position a short distance from him. Have the defensive men attack them when they are in this position. The offensive men must use their footwork and offensive fundamentals to break through these men and get across the line. This is an important phase to practice as every team occasionally encounters a team that practices this sort of defense and this drill affords a similar set-up with all of the variations possible by the defensive being practiced and check plays given to the offensive men.

LEGEND ' o Offensive Player O — IScreen -MDrihble \ / ]DsfsnsiT6 Plstysp J- Path of Player XT') Turn or Pivot — — -►-Pass or Shot / ^ Change of Direction '^ 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes


DIAGRAM 38. Team Variation Race In this relay two or more squads are formed and va­ rious fundamentals must be executed during the course. In the setup shown the players must dribble to the chair, use a reverse pivot, dribble to the foul line, make a free throw, rebound the ball, dribble full speed to the other basket, make a short shot, rebound the ball and pass to the next in line. Where space and facilities permit, a number of fundamentals may be involved by introducing other variations.



Offensive Player O — L Screen. X Defensive Player ■fr-Drlbble Path of Player — Turn or Pivot *-Pass or Shot / v Change of Direction 1-2-3-4 Sequence of Passes

81 PART III PLAYER POSITIONS Every coach hopes for ideal material. win races without the horses.

It Is hard to

Coaches are constantly looking

for that ideal combination in a basketball team or squad that will be a top contender and come home with a championship* Of course, all coaches may not agree on just what this ideal combination is and just what ideal material consists of. Most coaches prefer to look for a combination of speed and size, with particular emphasis on the latter.

It is

granted that players must have reasonably good coordination and some natural basketball ability, desire, competitive attidue, and similar qualities. by coaching.

These factors may be developed

Speed and size can be improved but little.


is true that the coach can improve a player's speed slightly and teach him how to use his speed properly, but he cannot give the ability to run fast.

Neither can he give a boy an extra

foot in height. When the team is playing offensive basketball all play­ ers, regardless of position, are trying to collectively out maneuver their opponents and score.

Likewise when the team is

on defense all players, again regardless of position, are depending upon one another to collectively stop their opponents

82 from scoring.

However, generally speaking, different

positions require certain physical qualifications. Qualifications of the forward.

Speed is essential

in playing the forward position, especially since the present rules have come into effect.

The fast break type of offense

demands that the players must get down the court ahead of the defense if it is to be successful.

This type of play also

demands a great deal of endurance as the forward must also do a certain amount of guarding until his team secures pos­ session of the ball.

Probably next in importance is passing

ability and a good shooting eye.

The forwards on every team '

are expected to do the biggest share of the scoring, as they are in the best positions; therefore, they must necessarily be the best shots. The forward must also have aggressiveness and deter­ mination as he is relied upon to carry the attack to a great extent.

He should be a quick thinker with a more than usual

amount of initiative in order that he may decide quickly the problems which may arise in the game.

He should be ever on

the alert for scoring opportunities and be ready constantly to turn an opponent’s error into a score. Rules for the forward. 1.

Do not shoot unless you have an open shot.

83 2.

Drive in for tip off’s.


Try and outsmart the opponent.


Never take prayer or hope shots. Use two hands when possible.


Go out after the ball.


Be a hustler.


Keep your eye on the basket when shooting.


Follow through on all shots.


Remember y o u ’re a defensive player as well as an

offensive player. 11.

Be deceptive on all movements.


Always follow in for a rebound,


Arch all shots from the floor.


High jump rather than broad jump when going in

for a close in shot. 15.

Do not run at the same gait continually

1 6.

Do not confine your play to the corners


Always be alert.


Pass if it is impossible to shoo t.


D o n ’t alibi.


Learn to shoot when closely guarded.


Learn to shoot free throws well.


Think ahe ad!

Qualifications of the center* advantage in basketball, to have a

Height is an extreme

and, although it is not as essential

tall center since the ball is not thrown up at

center after each successful field goal and free throw, it does make some difference to have at least one tall man on the team.

There is not a great deal of difference between

the play of the center and the play of the forwards as the rules now are, except, perhaps, the center, being the tallest player, is expected to take the rebounds from both baskets. He must therefore have

a great amount of stamina and be in

excellent physical condition. Rules for the center. 1.

Practice for proper timing on jump balls.


Break in the opposite direction in which ball is


Keep your eye on the ball.


Use finger tips to top the ball.



Come down in a crouched position ready for either

defense or offense. 6.

Practice with forwards and guards.


Do not jump while the ball is going on.


Jump your best at all times.

9. . Jump straight up and not forward.

85 10.

Vary the tip o f f ’s.


Do not turn your back to the ball.


Be a defensive center

as well as an offensive

center. 13.

Do not loaf on defense.


Keep in good physical condition.


Be alert.

16 .

Follow in all shots, both your own and teammates.

The guard position. coolness,determination and his shoulders

The guard must have strength, must be a born scrapper.


rests a great deal of the defensive work.


must be responsible for getting a large share of the re­ bounds; therefore, it will be advantageous if he is tall, rugged, and willing to fight for possession of the ball. The guard must be shifty, a good dribbler and a fair outside shot.

He should also be a quick thinker and be able to analyze

a play.

Offensively the guards are the play makers directing

the plays and starting them off. Rules for the guard.

a shot.


Watch the ball and opponent.


Stay on toes and balls of feet whenever possible.


Slide across the floor without crossing legs.


Pick up a teammate’s opponent if he is open for

86 5-

Practice shifting players.

6 . Fight hard on all rebounds.


Time your jump when taking the ball off the back­

board. 8 . Try and play the ball as much as possible.

9. 10. 11.

Never let a man get behind you. D o n ’t play your man too close. Keep your back to the basket you are guarding.

1 2 . Keep between the dribbler and the basket.


If your opponent has not dribbled, don’t play him

too closely. 1 I4..

If your man has dribbled, then press him.


Be aggresive.

l6 *

Try to keep your opponent out after he has taken

a shot by keeping directly in front of the shooter.

87 PART IV TEAM OFFENSE The success of a team depends to a great extent on its offense and ability to score.

However, not until players

become well grounded in the habits, techniques, and funda­ mentals of basketball are they ready to be fitted into some type of team offense. The offense should be adapted to the material at hand without sacrificing team play for individual ability, utilizing fully the offensive threats of each man.

The team offense

should contain simple effective patterns which permit a max­ imum flexibility for the individual’s abilities. In planning your team organization there must be a coordination of the offense and defense.

Some coaches use

a zone defense because it helps their fast break by a constant frontline defense which is composed of the fastest men.


first man down on offense should not be expected to get back on defense first.

Neither should the guard carrying the

biggest defensive assignment be expected to carry the offen­ sive load.

There should always be a balance between the two

departments so that neither is made weak by the demands of the other. There are two distinct types of offense, namely, the

88 fast break and the delayed attack.

Usually the coach should

select one of the major types of offense and add to It the variations which he deems necessary. Individual offensive pointers.

The following pointers

are' an example of mimeographed material that should be passed out to the players.

A close study of these points will help

the players to apply them during practices and games. 1. deception.

Each player should be well versed in basketball He should always be ready to take advantage of

all scoring chances. 2.

A good offensive player does all his maneuvering

with a real purpose in mind. 3.

A player should study the man who is guarding him

and ask these questions: (1)

Is he a

fast or slow man?


Does he

play me close or loose?


Does he

give me good medium shots?


Does he

shift or scissor or go behind block?


Is he a

smart guard or a mechanical player?

Will a trick work twice on him? (6 )

Will he

leave his feet on my fake shot?


Will he

react quickly to fake passes so I

might get him out of position and dribble in?

89 (8 )

Does he play a charging game or is he

(9 )

Is change of direction effective against


him? i|.. If his defensive man plays too close, the player should try to lose him either in a block, or a fake and drive. 5 * A player must dominate his opponent. 6.

The offensive player must try to establish his

superiority over the opponent early in the game. 7.

Psychology of preparedness, based on fundamentals,

training, ambition, spirit, and harmony, means success.


THE PAST BREAK The main reason for using the fast break is to beat the defense to the basket.

As soon as a team secures poss­

ession of the ball from its opponent's basket or backboard it advances the ball toward its own basket as quickly as possible.

This type of offense is known as the fast break

because the players break fast down the floor.

The quicker

the ball is advanced down the floor in a fast break, using the shortest route possible and handling the ball the least number of times, the more chance there is in beating the defense to the basket. Developing the fast break.

Basketball is a habit

game and it is of great importance that correct coaching methods be used in developing correct playing habits. steps as shown in Diagrams 39, setting up this offense.