A manual of supplementary duties to the coaching of basketball in a small high school

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A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Arnold Robert Verbic June 1950

UMI Number: EP46113

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T h is project report, w ritten under the direction o f the candidate’s adviser and app ro ved by h im , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty o f the School of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l fu lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

o f M a s t e r of

Science in E ducation.


... A d v is e r




INTRODUCTION............................. The problem and Its importance.........

• • •

Statement of the problem.............


Importance of the problem.



Definitions of terms used. ..........

. . . . .

Small high school......... Finance.

2 2



Basketball equipment.....................




Method of procedure.


Related studies...............................


Limitations of the study . . . . . . . . . . . .


Organization of the remaining chapters


. . . . .

FINANCING THE BASKETBALL BUDGET.................. Source of revenue. • • • • . . « . • School board



Gate receipts. • • • • • • . . • • • • . . . • Other methods


Criteria for selecting methods . . . . . . . . Financial administration......................

7 7 8 11 12 15 16

Internal accounting records. • • • . • • • . .


Basketball budget.............








PURCHASE AND CARE OF EQUIPMENT................ Purchase of equipment................... • • * Principles of buying

. . . . . . .

22 23

Factors in purchasing equipment..........


Purchasing procedure



Checking incoming shipments............. . •

31 32

Care of equipment......... Principles of equipment c a r e ..............


Equipment room



Drying room.



Marking system

................. .................

Check-out system



35 35

Check-in system...........................


Traveling care



Equipment inventory.........


S t o r a g e .......... . . • • • .............


Summary. •





Management of administrative functions . . . .


Permanent eligibility, participation, and scholastic records



Scheduling . . . . . . . .......... . . • • •


Contracting officials.



Local conference obligations• • • « . . . •



PAGE State athletic association regulations ♦ • . •


Publicity. . . . . . . . . . .




Manager selection and d u t i e s .................


Basketball awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Athletic banquets.


Game management...................... Home game responsibilities................... After-game responsibilities.

57 6l

Preparation for "away” g a m e s ...............


Summary.......................... V.




Causes of injuries . . . . . . . .



Factors in safe participation. • • . . . • • •


Basketball safety suggestions. • • • . . • • •





Sanitation suggestions . . . . . • • • . • • •


Treatment of injuries. . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Daily medical record


Procedures in administering first-aid. . . . .


Additional suggestions for treating injuries .


Summary....................................... 82





Summary . . . . . . . . ........ . ...........


Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .





PAGE Conditions Under Which School Boards Will Subsi­ dize Athletic Finances of Class A Schools in





Ratings on Management Requisites......... 52



PAGE Suggested Form for Budget Summary of Estimated Income . . . . . . . . . .




Suggested Form for Budget Summary of Estimated Expenses.............



Basketball Equipment Check-out Card.



Inventory F o r m ...............



Daily Medical Record



CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Basketball competition in our high schools has become popular to such an extent that it may now be considered a tradition*-

Interscholastic competition in this,sport has

reached a very high amateur and ethical level, and this is due mainly to the efforts of administrators and coaches to develop and improve the standards of competition.^ With inter­ scholastic competition established on an educational basis, it now behooves the coach to maintain _this_ perspective.


can accomplish much in this direction through the efficient handling of the various supplementary duties and responsi­ bilities which arise in conjunction with coaching procedures* I.


Statement of the problem.

It was the purpose of this

study to present the many and varied duties, supplementary to actual coaching procedures, for which the basketball coach In a small high _school is responsible* Importance of the problem.

Many of the numerous small

high schools in America employ only one man for the physical education and athletic coaching areas.

Ehis Individual then

must act in the capacities of an administrator, an instructor, and a coach.

The situation presents a momentous task,


especially: since the athletic, program may be evaluated in light, of management as well as team success •

It is, there­

fore, important and necessary that the coach handle the administrative affairs of the athletic program wisely and efficiently*

It is.desired that the material presented

serve as an aid toward this end, thus allowing the coach more time to devote to actual coaching procedures. This study should be of importance to coaches in small high schools and to students preparing for coaching careers who may soon be included in this group. II.


Small high school.

A small high school was considered

as any secondary school employing only one coach for the total athletic program. Finance.

Webster defines this term as the management

of monetary affairs.

It is concerned, in this study, with

the control and regulation of revenue and expenditures. Basketball equipment.

Basketball equipment was inter­

preted to mean all items.used by the basketball team whether expendable or non-expendable. III.


The methods of procedure employed in this study were as follows:

(1) an outline of chapter headings and points

3 to be covered was constructed; (2) related information appearing in books and periodicals was canvassed; (3) desir­ able, references were catalogued by title and content; (**) pertinent information was classified according to the outline; and (5) the materials were assembled and organized according to form and content. XV.


In a survey of the field, no research directly related to the supplementary duties to coaching basketball in a small high school was found.

Most studies in basketball

seemed to be concerned with methods of acquiring skills, coaching procedures, and evaluating achievement.


some studies in the field of athletics were found to be related in part. Elmer E- Bauermeister.



made a study on

financing an athletic program which covered revenue, expen­ ditures, care of equipment, and problems growing out of personal injuries. Elmer R. Johnson.

Another study on financing an

Elmer E. Bauermeister, "Financing,an Athletic ProGram, " (unpublished Master's thesis- The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1931*-)j 78 pp.

b athletic program was made by Johnson.


Information included:

(1) extent to -which winning games dominates the athletic pro­ gram; (2) the relationship between gate receipts and expendi­ tures; (3) the co-operation necessary between the school board and the athletic department; (*0 the extent to which equipment is furnished by the participants; (5) methods of financing the transportation of athletic teams; (6) type of officials keeping records; (7) acceptable conditions for making an athletic budget; (8) methods of financing athletic insurance; and (9) practices in the financing, cleaning, and repairing of equipment. James M. Eacutt.

3 Eacutt made a study of the factors

related to injuries incurred In secondary school athletics. This study was concerned with determining the types and causes of injuries commonly Incurred in athletic participa­ tion with a view to investigating some effective safety measures for reducing the incidence and decreasing the seri­ ous effects of such injuries.

2 Elmer R. Johnson, ‘'Financing Boys1 Interscholastic Athletics in the Class A High Schools of Kansas,” (unpub­ lished Master*s thesis, TheUniversity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19**6) > 111 pp* ^ James M. Eacutt, “Some Factors Related to Injuries Incurred in. Secondary School. Athletics,“ (unpublished Master *s project, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^8), 75 pp.

Robert Breitbard. An. analysis of athletic injuries h and. methods for. their prevention was made by Breitbard* It was concerned with the following points:

(1) the nature

of preventive hazards; standards of equipment for adequate protection; (3) standards essential for proper leadership and professional-training; (b) standards of instruction; (5) the causes of athletic accidents; (6) the methods of prevention of injuries; (7) the liability of school authori­ ties in relation to athletic accidents; and (8) standards for training procedure* V.


This study is limited to small_high schools and is concerned only, with-the duties and responsibilities of the coach supplementary to the actual coaching of basketball* The study is further limited to library research including books and periodical literature as the chief sources. VI.


Chapter II will present the various methods by which the basketball budget may be financed together with

** Robert Breitbard, "An Analysis of Athletic Injuries and Methods Used for Their Prevention,**. (unpublished Master's project. The University of Southern California, Los Angeles,




administrative responsibilities related to finance. Chapter III will discuss the -purchase and care of equipment.

The important factors and procedures involved in

this phase will be presented. Chapter IV will contain a discussion of management responsibilities.

General management responsibilities in

addition to specific details concerning the actual contests will be included. Chapter V will consider the welfare of the partici­ pants by discussing safety, sanitation, and the treatment of injuries. Chapter VI will present a summary of the material and several recommendations for possible needs in factors relat­ ing to the small .high school situation.

CHAPTER II FINANCING THE BASKETBALL BUDGET An athletic program, of which basketball is a major part, involves the raising of money for equipment and the responsible handling of these funds*

It was the purpose of

this chapter to consider the factors involved in each of these categories. I.


The raising of money for athletics in general and basketball specifically is a serious endeavor.

The coach

will certainly be fortunate if he finds himself located in a wealthy school district where the board of education is generous in supplying all of his needs.

That this is indeed

the exception rather than the rule is indicated by Campbell as he tells us: The majority of schools, and the small ones in particular, are faced with the difficulty of raising enough money to conduct the desired . program of athletics. Most coaches would like to have better equipment, take their teams on more trips, and improve their football fields or basketball courts; but they are kept ..from doing so because of insufficient funds.

William G. Campbell and Ralph K. Reed, Coaching High School Athletics (Los Angeles: C. C. Crawford, 1932), pi. 66.


Most small schools that wish to maintain an adequate athletic program must utilize gate receipts and student tickets, and/or, the school board as sources of revenue. When these major sources fail to produce sufficient revenue, special devices offer possible utilization. School board. Many school boards feel that the athletic program, including basketball, with its gate receipts, should pay its own way.

Thus, they hesitate to

approve any tax funds for athletic purposes. That experts in the field consider subsidation of athletics by the school board necessary is evidenced by McKown as he says: It will be a great day for interscholastic athletics, as well as for all extra-curricular activities in secondary schools, when school boards subsidize athletics and thus remove the main necessity for a winning team. Teams can still win and lose, but finances will not domi­ nate the picture.2 There appears to be a trend in recent years to real­ ize the importance of the athletic program.

If basketball

is to be kept on an educational basis, it would seem that the board of education should take an important part in financing the program. Table I indicates that progress is being, realized in

2 Harry C. McKown, Extra-Curricular Activities (Mew Yorks The Macmillan Company, 1939) > p. 634.




Number of Replies

Per Cent

On the basis of need



Appropriate s definite sum annually



Gate receipts must finance athletics




Elmer R. Johnson, “Financing Boys1 Interscholastic Athletics in the Class A High Schools of Kansas,1* (unpub­ lished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^6), p. **2.

10 this direction. Presented here are the findings obtained 3 by Johnson regarding subsidization by the school board. As shown, the school board subsidizes athletic finances in *t-0 per cent of the class A schools in Kansas. must meet expenses in

The gate receipts

per cent of the cases while in 13

per cent of the cases, the school board appropriates a definite sum annually. The subsidization of athletics by the school board is a large problem.

However, it still remains one with which

the coach is vitally concerned.

While he may be able to do

little in actually bringing about the desired end, he should, nevertheless, be well aware of the problem.

In addition, it

would be well for him to include this factor in his way of thinking or philosophy and seek to promote its cause in idiatever way possible. Forsythe touches upon this fact when he comments; It is legal for boards of education to pur­ chase athletic equipment for athletic teams. It is also the undeniable right of every boy or girl in the school to see his team play without paying an admission fee. Therefore, we should work for the subsidation of the athletic program by the local boards of education.4-


Elmer H. Johnson, “Financing Boys' Interscholastic Athletics in the Class A High Schools of Kansas," (unpub­ lished Master's thesis,,The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19*+6), p. **2. L. Charles E. Forsythe, The Administration of High School Athletics (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939)7 p. 23b.

11 Gate receipts.

The irregularity of gate receipts

makes this source of revenue very unpredictable.

There are

various conditions that cannot be controlled by the school such as weather, rivalry, downtown interference, sufficient seating, capacity, and the number of games won.

A poor year,

or a series of such misfortunes, could well result in meager receipts. It would be very desirable to be able to eliminate gate receipts as a principal source of revenue.

However, at

present the basketball program must be financed by those who enjoy the games from the bleachers. Hughes and Williams give the following explanation: Elimination of gate receipts would be desirable, but until such a time as the. public sees fit to finance all athletics as. a required part of the curriculum, athletic directors will continue to rely upon the gate as the principal source of revenue needed to maintain a well balanced depart­ ment •' Since the time is not yet here when gate receipts can be eliminated, it is imperative that schools control them for their own ends.

In this respect, it is advised by

6 that student fees and admission prices should be


^ William L. Hughes and Jesse F. Williams. Athletics in Education (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1931), p. 150. JohnsonT o p


p. 38.

12 kept to a minimum or even abolished if possible. consideration comes first.


Thus, gate receipts can be so

adjusted that the public is paying for them.

Adults, in

most cases, expect to pay for their entertainment.


problem, then, becomes one of striking the happy medium between an educational service to the students and an enter­ tainment program for the interested adult. It is often necessary to limit attendance at basket­ ball games because of the lack of seating accommodations. If this is the case, provisions for the students should be made first.

In many such instances, this policy has been

instrumental in awakening the public to the need for addi­ tional facilities. Other methods.

Where the gate receipts or school

board funds do not make the basketball program self-support­ ing, as too often the case might be, the coach must promote other activities to help finance necessary, expenditures. Caution should be exercised in this procedurej though, for fear the student activity program becomes overcrowded.


too, continual pleas for money could easily place the school in poor esteem in the eyes of the community. The following methods of raising money for financing the basketball budget are suggested by Campbell.'7 No attempt 7

Campbell and Heed, eg. cit.. p. 67*

was made to exhaust all the possible ways of making money, but those presented have been found workable. Season tickets.

Tickets of various prices may be sold

including those for students, adults and children*

It is a

good policy to charge a moderate price which will attract larger crowds rather than, a high price which might bar many interested fans.

Possible means of stimulating the sale of

season tickets include sales contests between various classes sales contests between boys and girls; giving.a rooters* cap with each purchase; electing a basketball queen on the basis of sales made; and, giving a free ticket to students who sell a given, number of season tickets. Organize an athletic association.

Such an organiza­

tion can include all who are ready to support the school's athletic program.

In addition to increasing school spirit,

the athletic association, can also provide a source of revenue*

A small membership dues can net a substantial

cash return* Sell refreshments.

It is possible for even the very

small schools to make money, by having students sell refresh­ ments at the games.

When these sales are held regularly,

the people know beforehand .that .they, will be able to purchase refreshments at the game.

1** Sell, advertising space on programs.

If the high

school is large enough, providing programs presents a possi­ ble source of money while at the same time adding dignity to the contest.

Merchants are happy to purchase advertising

space on programs that will reach a large number of poten­ tial customers. Hold raffles. A season ticket would provide a very desirable item to be raffled.

More interest and larger sums

may be had if raffles are not held too frequently. Put on a circus, festival, dance. or athletic carnival. There are many times during the year when school affairs will draw well providing they are not sponsored too often.


yearly dance sponsored by the athletic association should realize a profit.

It is desirable to hold such a dance at

the conclusion of a particularly successful season for interest is greater then. Stage a faculty - varsity game.

There is always fun

when faculty members and students engage.in_an athletic con­ test.

Such a game can help provide a feeling, of. good will

and also bring in money.

Greater success is assured if the

event is held annually, rather than at irregular intervals. Run an independent basketball league or tournament. Many independent teams from the community may be glad of

15 the opportunity to use school facilities.

If the interest

and competition is keen, it is possible for the school to realize a profit.

Not to be forgotten, however, is the fact

that school facilities should be available for community use if the school is to function as the center of community activity. Criteria for selecting methods.

In raising money for

basketball, two things must be remembered.

Do not attempt

anything which will not meet with the approval of the com­ munity, and plan to repeat the method annually in order to build up tradition. Meyer


provides us with four criteria for the selec­

tion of acceptable methods of raising money, the first being educational.

If the method violates any educational prin­

ciple it should not be used. The second criterion is that of time.

Too much time

must not be required of the student or the teacher in carry-, ing out the procedures.

It is desirable that the method

give a maximum return in dollars for a minimum expenditure of hours. Labor is closely related to time.

Methods requiring

® Harold D. Meyer and Samuel M. Eddleman, Financing Extra-Curricular Activities (Hew York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1929)j p. 3*

16 excessive labor should not be used for labor requires time. A certain amount of labor is to be expected, but class work cannot be slighted. Public approval constitutes the fourth criterion.


the public is incessantly being, asked to support school money raising campaigns, they may soon develop antagonistic feel­ ings.

Try to use a method that will win the favor of those

who pay the bills. II.


It is essential in the handling of basketball.finances to have a simple, understandable .system and follow it. definite and brief, but be complete.


Complete records show­

ing receipts, disbursements, balances or deficits should at all times be open to inspection.

Remember that no trans­

action should be left unrecorded or unexplained. Internal accounting records.

It is noted by Forsythe


that in a great majority of high schools, activity funds are handled ,by the schools themselves rather than by the board of education.

In most cases they have their own internal

accounting systems.

Separate bank accounts are established

and funds are disbursed only by authorized school executives.

9 Forsythe, op. cit., p. 2h6.

17 As far as athletic finances are concerned, it appears to make little difference whether there is a separate athletic association treasurer or a central internal accounting system with a general school treasurer.

The latter plan, however,

enables each activity to be considered as a part of the entire school program.

It also enables the administrator to

view the general condition of all school activities in one complete picture.

Expenditures can be more easily checked

for authorization, and banking, institutions usually prefer this single school deposit account. Basketball budget. A budget is an estimate of probable income and expenditures.

Constructive planning by the coach

is necessary if he is to anticipate all of the probable factors involved.

This is made evident by examining the

sample budget summary forms in Figures 1 and 2.

While there

may be question as to the income to be realized, there can be little doubt as to the minimum necessary to finance the basketball season. Attempts by the coach to claim that his program is too small or that he does not have time to prepare a budget, are not legitimate excuses.

The need for budgetary procedure

is stressed by Wagenhorst in the following statement: The financial management of high school athletics is loose, disjointed and unbusinesslike. A complete financial- plan for a definite period— a budgetary procedure— based on careful estimates both of



Home Games Awav Games So. Receipts No. Receipts

Total Estimate


1. 2.


5. 6. 7.

Total estimated receipts



Estimated amount to be realized from student or general organ­ ization ticket s a l e



Amount to be received from the board of education. • .......... $________ Total of estimated receipts present year (sum of 1, 2, 3).


Total of estimated expenditures for present year............. . .


Estimated surplus (difference between b and 5)...............


Estimated deficit (difference between 5 and



* Cost of officials for home con­ tests. Home game contract guarantees

Cost of equipment, repairs, and maintenance.

Cost of awards Incidentals: team pictures, league fees, etc. Total estimate for sport for year.


Cost of new playing and game equipment. Cost of training, first-aid, and medical supplies.


sAway-game expenses •



Administration: Cost of bleach­ ers, tickets, printing, etc.





05 •a o ►S ct

20 expenditures, needs and probable income, is seldom or never developed. The classification, distribu­ tion and control of expenditures, and even the source of income, remain too frequently contin­ gent upon the emergencies of the moment.10 It is illogical to assume that the budget, once adopted, cannot be altered.

It is evident that changes in

the budget allowances will have to be made in certain instances.

Therefore, the budget must allow for flexibility

within the activity.

Such an attempt to balance receipts

and expenditures should be based upon the result of past experience in these matters.

If accurate records of incomes

and expenses are kept for one year, it is relatively simple to establish a budget for the coming year. Summary.

The coach in a small high school will likely

be faced with insufficient funds with which to conduct the type of athletic program he would desire. obviously involves the raising of money.

Such a situation Usually gate

receipts, student tickets, and/or the school board provide the major sources of funds.

When these sources prove

inadequate, various special devices for raising money may be utilized.

However, caution must be exercised in this respect.

Overcrowding such activities may result in a burden on the

10 Lewis H. Wagenhorst. Administration,and _Cost of High School Interscholastic Athletics (Hew York: Bureau of Publication, Columbia University, 1926), p. 108.

21 students and a nuisance to the community. When funds become involved there arises a responsi­ bility for their efficient handling.

This in turn necessi­

tates a clear but complete system of records showing receipts, disbursements, and balances or deficits.

CHAPTER III PURCHASE AND CARE OF EQUIPMENT One of the major responsibilities confronting the basketball coach in a small high school is the purchase and care of athletic equipment.

It was the purpose of this chap­

ter to present the important factors in these related cate­ gories with which the coach must be familiar. I.


In many small high schools the funds available for the purchase of basketball equipment may be limited.


therefore behooves the coach to spend each dollar wisely and well in order to get the most out of it.

He will be criti­

cized in this respect whether or not he has received previous training in the procedures.

Like all other business prac­

tices, the purchase of equipment entails certain techniques, and the coach as the purchasing agent must be familiar with them. That the purchase of equipment cannot be lightly regarded is emphasized by Forsythe when he states as follows: The buying of athletic equipment should not be a haphazard affair. There should be a regular time and procedure for this important transaction. Items should never be bought just because they are cheap, nor should they be bought from unknown firms. Experience will show that recognized and legitimate sporting goods dealers are the safest


23 ones from which to purchase materials. They need not necessarily be local merchants5 but, if athletic supplies can be bought as cheaply from them as from anyone, they should be given the business. Equipment should be bought only after needs are known. Regular inventories should be maintained. Purchase orders should be on regular school forms for that purpose.1 It would be a mistake to consider the suggestions in the preceding quotation superfluous as far as the small high school is concerned.

This point is made by Forsythe again

in the following statements There is just as much reason, or even more, for the small school to be businesslike in its athletic purchases. Usually there are less funds, proportionately, and equipment has to be used longer. Likewise, the more frequent changes in administration in small schools is an even greater reason why athletic purchases and the handling of funds in connection with2 them should be entirely clear and justified. Principles of buying.

It was considered appropriate

to include some fundamental principles which should guide the coach in the purchase of basketball equipment.

Some aid

should be forthcoming even if used only as a checklist.


principles which follow were derived from an excellent list 3 presented by Meyer* Charles E. Forsythe, The Adminlstration of High School Athletics (New Yorks Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939), pp. 208-209* 2 Ibid.t p. 209. ^ Kenneth L. Meyer, The Purchase. Care, and Repair of Athletic Eouipment (St. Louis: Educational Publishers, Inc., 194-b), pp. 6-7.



Know where the money comes from.


Make a careful study of the athletic budget.


Know what you want to buy, and establish your

needs in a scientific manner. b.

Know the purchasing procedure of your school in

detail, and make all purchases in writing. 5

. Know where

to buy.

reputable establishments.

Purchase equipment from

Patronize local dealers if they

can render equal service and keep in line on prices. 6.

Disregard sales pressure.


Prepare bids on large quantity purchases, stating

the description, quantity, and kind and quality of what is desired. 8.

Look for quality.

If one equipment house has

what is considered the best, then buy there.

If not, divide

your purchases. 9.

Buy early in respect to seasons whenever possible.


Buy in quantity whenever possible.


Always check the price and demand that it be con­

sistent with market conditions. 12.

Purchase only equipment that conforms to specifi­

cations. -13.

Keep a running inventory on all equipment includ­

ing new purchases. I1*.

Cheek all shipments received.

25 15*

Return all inferior and defective equipment at

the earliest possible moment. Factors in purchasing equipment.

Some of the factors

inherent in the effective purchase of basketball equipment were touched upon lightly in the preceding list of principles of buying.

While it might be said that experience is still

the best teacher, there are, however, several factors which constitute good buying that require more detailed treatment. Quality. Hughes and Williams


believe that because

good equipment looks and is better and lasts longer, experi­ enced buyers insist on quality and know what they should pay for it.

Nevertheless, it has been advanced that it is

impossible to know quality without a detailed study of all equipment in terms of structure, materials, manufacturing processes, et cetera.

The coach,-however, is not expected

to reach-such expert proportions in this respect.

While he

must necessarily rely on the knowledge and integrity of the dealer to varied extents, he will be expected to know the relationship between price ranges and quality.

With this

knowledge the coach can recognize and take advantage of bargains when he encounters them, for there are bargains in


William L. Hughes and Jesse F. Williams, Sports. Their.Organization and Administration (Hew York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 19^) , p. l86.

athletic equipment as in other lines of merchandise. It must be remembered though, that to be constantlyhunting bargains is a poor policy.

Not only will much time

be wasted, but so-called bargains frequently prove to be disappointments.

Voltmer and Esslinger put it aptly when

stating: Cut prices should be viewed suspiciously. High grade merchandise cannot be sold consis­ tently at a cut rate. Reputable equipment con­ cerns sell to schools and colleges at reasonable rates and they cannot afford to make a practice of cutting prices. Reliable companies guarantee the excellence of their products and this guaran­ tee is worth paying for. 5 The above statement was not intended to take exception to possible legitimate discounts such as, r,Two per cent with­ in ten days.0

The equipment house can afford to offer this

discount for the advantage of being paid within ten days after the goods are billed. Price.

Price does not always indicate quality, but.

it probably does more so in the case of athletic equipment than with the ordinary run of business •

Since few coaches

have the background necessary for an expert evaluation of the price of an article, the dealer must be trusted to a certain degree to give a price consistent with the market

5 Edward F. Voltmer and Arthur A. Esslinger, The Organization and„Administration.of Physical Education (New York: F . S. Grofts and Company, 1938), p. 3?1«

27 and quality of merchandise.

Of these factors of the dealer

and price, Meyer wrote as follows: The dealer who will survive the longest in the field of sporting goods sales competition will "take care11 of his customer coaches. This does not mean "friendly** discounts and conces­ sions . Any such offers should immediately arouse the coaches' suspicion. Educational institutions will get a school price consider­ ably lower than the standard retail price. Accept no more reduction than the school dis­ count except in the case of "marked down" mer­ chandise. All marked down items won't be seconds. For example, the dealer may wish to clear his stock, or perhaps he over-ordered and wishes to "move" the excess rapidly. This is another instance of where knowing the dealer will pay off.® 7 Voltmer and Esslinger are of the belief that it is a sound policy to buy within range of the ability to pay.


coach may be overanxious to equip his team with the best, and as a result, go to the extreme in buying and plunge into debt.

Miile quality merchandise is still advocated, small

high schools cannot afford to buy the same grade of equipment that large universities use. Quantity and sizes.

It is impossible to present as a

statement exactly how much the coach should buy#

By a care­

ful analysis of his inventory, he should be able to tell the amount of material on hand and its condition.

In this manner

^ Meyer, op. cit.. p. **9. ? Voltmer and Esslinger, oj). cit.. p. 350.

28 the coach can establish his needs.

In addition to study of

the inventory, a check of the squad personnel should be made for abnormal sizes requiring special orders.




that when working on a limited budget, special personnel should be looked over carefully and a decision made before buying him special equipment.

The special order should be

viewed with caution in a small school. Related to special orders is the question of how to fit the players.

It is just as important to get the proper

sizes as it is to get the correct quantity of each size. Boys seldom know their sizes so the only safe bet is to measure.

It would be desirable to have samples in various

sizes for the players to try on, but dealers seldom carry enough samples to make this possible.

In that case, use the

best information available and exercise the privilege of the exchange service for stock materials. Mien to buy.

It is generally agreed that the coach

should purchase the necessary equipment for the season at an early date.

Pall equipment should be ordered in the spring

and spring materials in the fall.

Early buying enables the

coach to select from actual samples and allows the firm ample time to work out the details during slack months.

q Meyer, op. cit.T p. 51.

29 Where to buy.

It was previously mentioned that the

coach must rely to a great extent upon the knowledge, honesty, and integrity of the dealer. These are difficult to measure. 9 Meyer advances three tangible criteria as valid requisites of the dealer.

They include expert knowledge, samples, and

exchange service. The dealer in this regard may be thought of as a com­ pany, salesman, or any sales organization.

It is not asking

too much to expect that they have expert knowledge of their field. The samples carried by the dealer are his "bill of goods" and he should be willing to show them at any time. The coach should be presented with an ample variety from which to make his selections.

On the other hand, the coach

should request samples only of those items he intends to consider for purchase. The coach must not misinterpret the privileges of exchange service.

He may expect to obtain exchanges on

stock items but not on special orders.

This factor offers

another reason why sizes must be accurate on special order equipment.

Such, equipment can only be altered, not


Ibid., p. 5^

30 Purchasing procedure.

The coach can minimize accom­

panying details by systematizing the purchase of all equip­ ment,

It will save time and possible misunderstanding.

Meyer makes this clear when he states: Upon entering a school system, become thoroughly acquainted with their forms, rules, regulations, and procedures in regard to buying. Follow them to the letter. Coaches have brought about much of their ill-repute in regard to their handling of school funds by haphazard business techniques. This must be remedied if coaches are to reach the high professional plane for which they are striving.10 The requisition.

While not often used in small high

schools, the requisition is nevertheless a procedure worth being familiar with.

It consists of a form whereupon the

coach states his needed equipment together with, the descrip­ tion and cost.

It is sent to a higher authority where it

will be approved, disapproved, or returned for revision. The approving authority then assumes responsibility for com­ pleting the business transaction. The purchase order.

Often in small high schools, the

coach will visit the sporting goods dealer and personally place the order.

The purchase order is frequently neglected

under these circumstances, and to do so is a mistake.


coach should get a detailed listing of the materials ordered

10 Ibid., p. 18

31 and their cost.

This should be demanded as a safeguard.

The Invoice.

The dealer, after receiving a purchase

order, will fill the order and make copies of the invoice, one of which the coach should make certain to receive.


invoice will include the number, quantity, description and price on all items shipped.

According to Meyer,


the coach

should check the invoice against the purchase order and the goods received. reference.

He should then file the invoice for future

In addition to elevating the coach above any

suspicion at all times, the invoice file may be valuable for Federal exise tax exemption.

It is the only valid source

from which to figure the total expense on athletic equipment. Cheeking, incoming shipments.

This important task

should be attended to by the coach personally.. A copy of the invoice or purchase order must be at hand from which to check the items.

If these are unavailable, the shipment

should not be unpacked until such a time as they are. Incoming shipments, as a further thought of Meyer,12 should be checked for quantity, sizes, conformity to style ordered and quality.

The articles should not be stamped

until the coach is positive they are satisfactory.

11 Ibid.T p. 19. 12 Ibid.. p. 20.


32 unsatisfactory, he should take advantage of the exchange service.

If the shipment fails to comply with the invoice

or purchase order, notify the dealer at once. When the shipment is satisfactorily accounted for, it should be immediately entered on the inventory.

After sign­

ing the invoice to indicate satisfactory shipment, place it on file. II.


The value of efficient purchasing of athletic equip­ ment is lost if proper care is not given to the equipment during and after the season.

Good equipment is a sound

investment only if measures are taken to preserve the life of it.

Proper care of equipment will provide a considerable

saving over a period of years. The end of athletie equipment results from its either being worn out or stolen, and it is with these that proper care is primarily concerned.

Too often the coach views the

responsibility for care of equipment too time-consuming and bothersome and merely passes it on to usually unconcerned managers.

He can reduce the work and get it done well, how­

ever, through efficient organization, careful delegation of duties, and good supervision. Principles of equipment care. An efficient system of equipment care involves a number of factors.

These were

33 made clear, in the group of principles for the care of equip13 ment given by Meyer which served as the basis for the following list, 1,

Establish a definite policy.


Instruct the players in the care of equipment.


Assume direct responsibility for the care of

equipment. b,

Select capable and responsible managers.


Keep complete and accurate records.


Mark all equipment.


Establish a definite system regarding the issuance,

use and return of equipment• 8.

Dry equipment after each use if possible.


Clean or launder equipment frequently to prevent

excessive deterioration.

School launderies add much to the

life of equipment. 10.

Practice proper methods of out-of-season storage.

Equipment room.

A good equipment room is essential

to the proper care of athletic equipment.

While the coach

probably cannot do much about the present location and size of the equipment room, he can do a great deal in regard to its organization and utilization.

13 Ibid.« pp. 60-61.

A dirty, vermin-infested

room can do more damage than actual use on the court. Atmospheric conditions within the room are important. 1**Murray says that the equipment room must be kept cool and dry throughout the year.

Rubber goods are easily affected

by heat, and dampness will cause leather goods and fabrics to mildew.

In this latter respect, ventilation is also an

important item.

An ordinary house fan will probably serve

the purpose if a window is opened an inch or two. Space must be utilized to the. fullest extent.



further believes that shelves should be erected throughout the room, with smaller shelves around the sides of the room and larger bin-shelves in the center.

Chicken wire may be

used as a satisfactory shelving material for the storage of balls as it allows good ventilation. The equipment room should be run on a business-like procedure.

Managers and coaches should be the only ones

allowed in the room. satisfy this end. ing place.

A half-door or check-out window should

Do not permit this room to become a loaf­

Have the equipment issued in an orderly fashion

with all fittings done outside. Drying room.

It is unfortunate that drying rooms have

Frank J. Murray T »The Enuiranent Roomfr> Scholastic Coach. 19sl^> January, 1950. 15 Loc. cit.

35 not been included in many of the physical education plants. It is doubtful whether anyone will argue the fact that athletic equipment must be kept dry.

Lamar tells us:

Dirt and sweat are enemies of all types of equipment. Accumulations of both deteriorate the material and often cause serious infections, especially where the boys are forced to wear uni­ forms that never dry out enough, which is the., case in too many of our schools and colleges.1,0 Where no-drying room has been provided, the coach can only attempt to improvise.

Any room ean easily be converted

into a modern drying room.

It requires first, special heat­

ing and ventilation; and secondly, appropriate arrangements for hanging equipment. Marking system. some way.

All equipment should be marked in

It can.be done by stenciling a number or name of

the school upon the article or by means of a rubber stamp. A simple plan for marking equipment is suggested by Hughes 17 and Williams. The player.is given a number at the beginning of his first year of competition.

This number is retained by

him throughout his playing period, and he is responsible for each article issued with his number on it. Check-out system.

Issuing equipment requires

^ Emil Lamar, "Build Your Own Drying Hoorn,11 Scholastic Coach. 17:28, January, 19^8. ^

Hughes and Williams, op. cit.. p. 203.

36 co-operation between the coach.and managers.

The coach should

arrange a conference with his managers prior to the date the squad is to report.

Here they should plan_ the organization

of facilities within the equipment room, and in general, get everything ready to facilitate rapid and efficient issu­ ance.

18 It is emphasized by F o r s y t h e t h a t every .piece of equipment issued to a player should be charged to him on a permanent athletic equipment card which he should sign.


sample basketball equipment check-out card appears in Figure 3*

A general equipment card is sometimes used, and in other

instances, a separate card is maintained for each sport. In 19 the latter plan, Voltmer and Esslinger would use a special card of different color for each sport.

After obtaining the

signature for equipment issued, the card is filed alphabet­ ically according to its color. Check-in system.

At the end of the season the coach

should announce the time for athletic equipment to be checked in.

Too often the players are allowed to bring in the equip­

ment when they feel like it.

If times are specified, a rush

can be avoided and an accurate check made.

Alperin informs

Forsythe, op. cit.> p. 21*f. ^

Voltmer. and.Esslinger, op; cit., p. 361*-.


BASKETBALL EQUIPMENT RECEIPT Date______________ 19. Charge to______________________________Locker No. Address________________________________Phone___________ Authorized by__________________________Issued bv




Date in


Pants Jersey Shoes Supporter Socks Sweat shirt Sweat pants Towel I hereby agree to be personally responsible for the care and keeping of the above named articles and to return the same to the supply room upon the request of the school authorities. Signed



38 us: The greatest loss occurs in the collecting of athletic equipment. There are players, captains, parents and championship teams, -who, for senti­ mental reasons desire to keep a complete uniform, or some item, usually the jacket or shirt. This should be permitted if the player pays the pur­ chase price of the article.20 The coach should assume responsibility for checking in equip­ ment rather than placing it upon the managers alone.


all managers can be expected to aid with the procedures. According to a plan presented by Voltmer and Esslinger, equipment can be checked in far better by clearing lockers than by having each player check in his own.

This is the best

method of securing equipment from players who have more than is charged against them.

Each article should be closely

inspected and those needing cleaning and repairing should be cared for immediately.

An inventory taken at this time will

indicate the equipment consumed during the season.

It will

also indicate how the equipment has stood up in comparison with other makes during previous years. Traveling care.

A popular system for traveling in

basketball, and one particularly adapted to the small high

20 Daniel M. Alperin, “Practicing Strict Economy in the Athletic Program,1* Nations Schools. 16:53, October 1935. Voltmer and Esslinger, 0£. cit., p. 365*


39 school, Is to make each individual responsible for his own playing equipment with the exception of the uniform.

A good

fair-sized trunk will serve very well to carry all of the uniforms.

Thus, in addition to centralizing responsibility

to an extent, prompt return.and proper care of the uniforms is better realized.. To carry all of the equipment in a cen­ tralized, unit places too great a burden upon the managers and may fail to instill any sense of responsibility for equip­ ment in the players. It is thought by Meyer


that a large percentage of

the damage done to equipment, is due to negligence in. travel­ ing care.

Whatever method is selected for the care of equip­

ment on trips, certain training in this respect must be given to those involved. Equipment inventory. At the close of the basketball season an inventory of all equipment on hand should be made. 23 Meyer is strong in his emphasis that the coach should per­ form this task personally.

This inventory, or detailed

account, should be kept as simple as possible while still doing the desired job. While it is unnecessary to have a printed blank for

22 Meyer, op. cit.T p..111. 23 Ibid.. p. 68.

the purpose of inventory, some type of form is desirable. Figure b indicates a sample inventory form which may be quickly ruled on a blank sheet of paper.

It can be seen

from the headings that all the necessary data is available for the coach to use in preparing purchases for the next season.

He knows exactly what equipment is on hand and its

condition,. He knows, in addition, what has been purchased or lost during the season.

The purposes of an inventory

have been realized. Storage.

In many, instances equipment is thrown into

a corner or upon a shelf and left to collect dust, dirt and mildew until the next season.

Under such conditions many

players do not hesitate to carry off desired items of equip­ ment.

Tremendous importance is attached to the storage of

equipment by Murray.

He states:

By careful and proper storage of athletic equipment, enough equipment may be saved to cut the athletic budget in half. It is therefore, of utmost importance that every precaution be 2b taken to prolong the life of athletic equipment. 25 When the season has been concluded, Forsythe would have all the basketball equipment cleaned or laundered.


addition, have all articles repaired which, need it and are

Frank J. Murray,.^‘Storage of Athletic Equipment,11 ipurnal. 30:16, ^0:16. January, Athletic Journal. January, 1950. 19 Forsythe, ep. cit., p. 220

Total Good Fair To be destroyed On hand for next season Sent to cleaners Returned


On hand to start season Received dun ing season


worthy of repair.

All equipment, then, should be properly

conditioned for the off-season and stored.

Following are

some suggestions for the conditioning and storage of basket­ ball equipment. Basketballs. ; A good procedure to be followed is given by Hurray.

Nothing, he feels, can. ruin a ball as quickly

as idleness.

Basketballs should first be cleaned thoroughly

with a good ball cleaner and slightly deflated.


basketballs should never be deflated more than one-fourth their normal playing pressure.

They should be stored in

separate containers, those in which they came if possible, thus preventing contact with each other. Basketball shoes.

Canvas shoes may be eleaned with

soap and warm water and formaldehyde may be added as a deodorant.

Dry the shoes at a normal temperature, replace

laces, and store them in a dry place. Fabrics. Murray


would dry clean all woolens, satins,

silks and rayons as soon as possible to prevent mold and mil­ dew.

They should, then be stored in tightly sealed boxes and

sprinkled thoroughly^with moth flakes to prevent moths,


Murray, loc. cit.

27 Ibid.T p. 58.

*+3 roaches and rats from causing destruction. Cotton garments.

Cotton goods should be laundered

thoroughly and may be stored in the same manner as fabrics. Summary.

Because the coach in a small high school

often has only a limited budget available, he must spend each dollar wisely so as to get the most out of it.

He must, in

order to accomplish this, be familiar with the factors and techniques constituting good buying. The value of good buying is lost if after the equip­ ment is purchased, it is not given proper care during and after the season. stolen.

Equipment either becomes worn out or is

It is with these two factors as a basis that the

principles of proper care act to prolong the life of basket­ ball equipment.

CHAPTER IV MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES The size of the school has little bearing on the importance of efficient management.

The necessity for effi­

cient management of basketball policies and contests is proi

portionately as important in the small high school as in the large school.

This chapter purports to present the respon­

sibilities inherent in the efficient management of basket­ ball administrative functions in addition to basketball contests, I.


Within the category of administrative functions falls various responsibilities pertaining to the basketball program as a whole.

It is well for the coach to realize that the

details of management may serve as the basis by which the entire athletic program is judged. Permanent eligibility, participation,.and scholastic


It is an advantage to establish a system for cen­

tralizing records, believes Forsythe,"*” thus providing easier


Charles E. Forsythe. The.Administration of High School Athletics (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1939), p. 193.



**5 access to sources of information for the preparation of eligibility lists.

Some state athletic associations have

devised forms to accomplish this end.

Such a card would pro­

vide the athletic and scholastic history of the individual, and this would greatly aid in making the eligibility list. Regardless of the method used, the record should be con­ sistent and faithful.

Complete records should be available

for a new principal or coach coming into the school. Scheduling.

It is natural for the coach to desire to

arrange an attractive schedule as possible.

There are a few

general policies or rules of which he should be aware in this matter, but he should be willing to co-operate with other coaches in the conference or area.

This is emphasized by

Veenker when he states: Most coaches are too particular in demanding certain dates with certain opponents and to obtain their end will do a lot of petty bickering. Since schedules are made out so far in advance, with the exception of a few general rules in this connection, no one can tell just how the schedule arranged is going to work out. Games which appear in the wrong spot at this time may turn out to be advanta­ geous later on, while certain games which appear to be placed just right, may^later on develop into the worst possible situation.^ There may be certain days or dates which are more

2 George F. Veenker, Basketball for Coaches and Plavers (New York: il, S. Barnes and Company, 1929), p. 1.


desirable for iiome games from the attendance standpoint. These should be filled for home games if possible.


tions with other school dates should be avoided although basketball games usually have preference. A few games will always be played at the beginning of the season with teams outside the regular league or confer­ ence.

The. first game may be relatively easy, but after that,

it is well to have competition comparable to that which will be met in conference play.

It is also a good idea to have

at least one of these games away from home so as to familiar­ ize the players and managers with conditions encountered on trips• High school basketball games will usually be played on Friday and. Saturday nights.

If these two games are to be 3 played away from home, Veenker thinks it a good idea to play

the easier game first, thus insuring one victory.

The regu­

lars can be used sparingly so as to have plenty of "kick" left for the following night.

Beware of the so-called easy

game though.

An "upset" might be in the making.. b Hughes and Williams enumerate a number of general

policies to be considered before arranging a schedule.


this list were derived the following items considered

3 Ibid.. p. 2. ** William L. Hughes and Jesse F. Williams, Sports. Their Organization and Administration (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 19*+^) , p. 230.

h7 important to the coach in a small high school: 1.

Schedule games as far as possible with schools

that offer equal or nearly equal competition. 2.

Go-operate in arranging schedules.


Limit schedules to a reasonable number of games—

fifteen to eighteen. b.

Attempt to schedule.on-weekends or before holidays,

especially the games which attract wide interest. 5.

Arrange schedules so that absences from class

are kept to a minimum. 6.

Prepare schedules far enough in advance to permit

proper planning of the budget. Contracting officials.

It is believed by Forsythe


that basketball officials for the home games for the follow­ ing year should be engaged as soon as possible.


officials are better known and do a better job of handling games than others.

Such officials are in great demand and

their services must be contracted early.

However, the same

official should not be used in.too many games.

It is not

considered a good policy for any concerned. Local conference obligations.

Every state has numer­

ous high school athletic conferences composed of schools of the

5 Forsythe, ap. cit•, p. 196.


same approximate size and in the same general locale. Concerning the advantages of belonging to a high school athletic conference, Voltmer and Esslinger state: When schools are organized into leagues, athletic competition can be regulated, and many of the objections to interscholastic athletics, such as competing against larger schools and traveling long distances, can be eliminated. High school conferences have done much to place athletics on an educational basis^and thus win the co-operation of educa­ tors. If membership in a conference is maintained, all obli­ gations such as attendance at meetings, playing of full league schedules, and payment of dues should be fulfilled. If responsibilities cannot be maintained, resign from the organization. State athletic association regulations.

It is the

responsibility of the coach to know and understand the state athletic association eligibility and contest regulations. This is necessary for his own protection.

Also, state

posters concerning eligibility requirements should be dis­ played on the bulletin board. Publicity.

Publicity in a small high school does not

assume nearly the magnitude that it does in a large city


Edward F. Voltmer and.Arthur A. Esslinger, The Organization a,nd Administration of Physical Education (New York: F. S. Crofts and Company, 1938), p. 232.



For example, an announcement made at an assembly

in a small school will reach virtually all..of the fans in the town.

The publicity program then becomes important in

order that various details be made known to the public.


is hoped that publicity may be eventually used in its broader sense of keeping the public informed as to the real values of athletics, rather.than merely to advertize some game. There are numerous avenues of publicity available as 7 tabulated by Hughes and Williams. They include newspaper stories, advertisements and news service, posters, windshield stickers, circulars of information and direct mail, programs, school papers, bulletin boards and alumni letters, year books, official reports, talks, moving pictures, surveys, special campaigns, photographs, radio programs, handbills, leaflets, cards, folders, letterheads and envelopes, booklets, and such.novelties as blotters, seals, tags, banners, show cards, bus signs, and window displays. With such an array _to_.choose from, the methods selected will depend largely upon the local situation.

However, in

smaller towns the local newspaper will probably offer the most effective avenue of publicity.

^ Hughes a n d Williams..o p . cit., p. 235*

The significance of the newspaper is stressed by Williams and Brownell as follows: Practically everyone reads the newspaper. More­ over , the printed column carries an authority fre­ quently more potent than the spoken word. Newspapers are powerful; their influence may be constructive in publicizing a worthy community enterprise, or destructive in organizing opposition against it. It behooves members of the department to know what aspects of the program can be publicized to best advantage, and.to develop a co-operative rela­ tionship with newspaper representatives.0 Thus, it may be seen that it is essential for the coach to be on friendly terms with the local newspaper and particularly the sports editor. Manager selection and duties.

An able student manager

can do much to relieve the coach of considerable burden by assuming many of the details which accompany the basketball season. The coach must first decide on a definite managerial 9 system to be used. A popular plan offered by Meyer is the “class progression system.'*

Candidates are chosen from each

class and advance as they progress in school.

In this manner,

the head varsity manager would be a senior while the assistant

® Jesse F. Williams, and Clifford L. Brownell, The Administration of Health and Physical Education (Philadelphia and London: W. B. Saunders Company, 19^6), p . 398. Q 7 Kenneth L. Meyer, The Purchase. Care, and Repair of Athletic Equipment (St. Louis: Educational Publishers, Inc., 19^-S), p. 62l

would be a junior.

A sophomore would act as “B1' squad mana­

ger and a freshman as the frosh manager*

Adaptations of

this system can be made in accordance with-the size of the school and the number of squads. According to Hughes and Williams,


the selective

merit system is the plan in vogue today for the actual selec­ tion of managers.

In this system, the candidate proceeds to,

demonstrate his ability and service in open competition. In perhaps one of the most complete studies ever pre­ pared on_the selection of managers, Nordly11 developed a plan for their selection by means of a rating scale.

The items

were selected after a study of managerial duties and sub­ mitted to twenty coaches for a rating according to importance. A rating of ten considered the item absolutely essential and a rating of one indicated little value.

In Table II are

shown the items together with the mean value as determined by the ratings. While the validity of the scale has not been estab­ lished, it still represents a distinct improvement over previous methods.

However, its value in the small school

situation may be somewhat limited as no great screening

Hughes and Williams,