YOUTH MOVEMENTS IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

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INFORMATION TO USERS

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2.

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University Microfilms 300 N orth Z e e b R oad Ann A rbor, M ichigan 48106 A X erox E d u catio n C om pany

LD3907 0 . E3 Maher, C h r isto p h e r H enry, 18771942 Y outh movements in v a r io u s c o u n t r ie s . M23 ... New Y ork, 194 2 . i i i , cl s , 211 t y p e w r it t e n l e a v e s , map, 29cm. F in a l document (Ecl.D. ) - New Y o r k u n i v e r s i t y , S c h o o l o f e d u c a tio n , 194 2 . B ib lio g r a p h y : p . 2 0 8 -2 1 0 . A3G195

Shelf List —

i

Xerox University Microfilms, Ann A rbor, M ichigan 48106

TH IS D ISSER TA TIO N HAS BEEN M ICRO FILM ED EXACTLY AS R ECEIV ED .

M#

Pinal Document'

Accepted, Datea —

YOUTH

MOV E ME N T S I N

VARIOUS

COUNTRIES

57 Christopher H. Maher

Submitted in p a rtia l fu lfillm en t of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education in the School of Education of New York U niversity.

New York, N.Y 1942



,.n .

1942 - J

PL EASE

NOTE:

Some pages may have indistinct prin t. Filmed as r e c e i v e d .

U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , A Xerox Education Company

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements..................................... Chap. I .

iiii

In tro d u c tio n . The P u rp o se o f th e S t u d y ......................

1

The P l i g h t o f Y o u t h .................................................

2

D e lin q u e n c y and C r i m e .........................................

11

t

Why Y outh Has U n re s t ................................................

16

!

The S i g n i f ic a n c e o f th e S tudy ...........................

19

« * ; Chap. I I .

C h a p te r S um m ary...........................................................

21

t '

The Y outh Movement i n E n g la n d . The B r i t i s h S i t u a t i o n ............................................

24

A fte rm a th o f th e F i r s t W orld W a r ...................

26

The Y outh H o s te l M o v e m en t...........................

28

W orkers E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n .....................

34

O th e r E n g lis h Y outh M o v e m e n ts...........................

38

Government A c t i v i t y i n A id o f Y o u t h

39

O th e r Y o uth O r g a n iz a tio n s ...................................

44

C h a p te r S um m ary..........................................................

46

Chap. I I I . The Y outh Movement i n Germany.

A8 6 1 0 5

The German B a c k g r o u n d ............................................

49

The W andervSgel ..........................................................

51

The German Y outh H o s t e l s .....................................

58

I n f lu e n c e o f th e W andervSgel and th e H ostel M o v e m en t..............................................................

60

—i i ~

P o st-W a r Movements .............................................. The Y outh Movement U nder N azi Germany . . . .

61 65

Emergenoe o f H i t l e r Y outh M o v em en t................. C hanging A s p e c ts o f German Y outh Movement C h a p te r Summary ............................................................ Chap. IV .

72 78

Y o u th Movements i n C z e c h o s lo v a k ia . H i s t o r i c a l B a c k g r o u n d ...............................................

81

The S o k o l ..........................................................................

87

Aims o f Y o u t h ................................................................

89

The E f f e c t o f U n em p lo y m en t...................................

89

The W andering B ir d s

C hap. V .

68

....................................

92

The S u d e te n Germans and t h e i r Y outh Move — m ents .....................................................................

94

The T urnov C o n fe re n ce o f 1922 ...........

96

C h a p te r S u m m ary .........................................................

97

The Y o u th Movement i n A u s t r i a . The Y o u th Movement i n U n i v e r s i t i e s ................. 100 Back to th e Land Movement ................................

101

The Je w ish Y outh P r o b l e m ........................................ 103 V o lu n ta ry Work S e r v ic e ......................................

105

The W anflervSgel ........................................................... 107 R ecen t D evelopm ents .................................................. 109 C h a p te r Summary .......................................................... . Chap. V I.

HI

The Y o u th Movement i n R u s s ia . The R u s s ia n B a c k g r o u n d ............................................ 114

I 1

—H i —

The N i h l i s t s ................................................................ 116 End o f V o lu n ta ry Y outh M o v e m e n ts.............. . . 118 The Komsomol .............................................................

118

C o n d itio n s o f R u s s ia n Y o u t h ...........................

183

E d u c a tio n a l Y outh Movements

...................... 184

* P re -Y o u th N M o v e m e n ts...............................................184 The R u s s ia n S t a t u s ......................................................185 C h a p te r Summary .............................................

187

C hap. V I I . Y o u th Movements i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . The A m erican S i t u a t i o n .............................................130 A m erioan Y o u th H o s te ls ............................................ 131 N a tio n a l Y outh A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .......................... 144 The C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C o r p s ........................ 155 The A m erican Y o u th C ongress .............................. 165 C h a p te r Summary .......................................................... 178 C h a p .V III. R e c a p i t u l a t i o n and E v a lu a tio n . 1.

E x te n t o f Y outh M o v e m e n ts.............................175

8.

I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m : The T urnov Conference 177

3.

S p o n tan eo u s Y outh M o v e m e n ts........................ 182

4.

O f f i c i a l l y S p o n so red Y outh O rganizations 188

5.

P a r a l l e l i s m s from C o u n try to C o u n try . 194

6.

C r o s s - I n f lu e n c e s .............................................. 198

7.

E v a l u a t i o n ...............................................................199

B i b l i o g r a p h y ....................................................................... 808

CHAPTER I#

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

The P u rp o se o f th e S tu d y . T h is s tu d y i s d e s ig n e d t o : exam ine th e developm ent o f t y p i c a l Y outh Movements in s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s ; e v a lu a te t h e s e movements i n te rm s o f t h e i r im m ediate and lo n g - te r m e f f e c t s : upon t h e i r members; and upon t h e

r e s t o f t h e p e o p le i n t h e s e

c o u n trie s . The p s y o h o lo g lo a l e f f e c t s , i n d e te rm in in g group o r w id e ly h e ld a t t i t u d e s , p o i n ts o f v iew , h a b i t s o f a c t i o n , e t c . , w i l l be s t r e s s e d r a t h e r th a n th e s t r i c t l y s o c i a l e f f e c t s o r th o s e o f a p o litic o - e c o n o m ic n a t u r e . R a th e r th a n a tte m p tin g to o o v er a l l c o u n t r i e s i n a v e ry s k e tc h y way, a few c o u n t r i e s t y p i c a l o f g r e a t g ro u p s o f p e o p le s w i l l be s t u d i e d .

Our own c o u n tr y , C z e c h o slo v a k ia a n d E n g lan d on

th e one s i d e ; R u s s ia , Germany a n d A u s tr i a on th e o t h e r , w i l l p r e s e n t th e two o p p o s ite s e r i e s .

The fo rm er t h r e e s e rv e us a s

ty p e s o f n a t i o n s w ith a d e m o c ra tic o u tlo o k i n th e l a r g e r and p e rh a p s v a g u e r s e n s e .

The l a t t e r t h r e e f u r n i s h exam ples o f

c o u n tr i e s i n which t h e r e i s no d e m o c ra tic t r a d i t i o n and i n w hioh th e o u tlo o k o f y o u th i s m ost s t r o n g l y c o lo r e d by t h e huge r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t fo llo w e d th e War o f 1 9 1 4 -1 9 1 8 .

B ro a d ly , y o u th movements may be g rouped i n t o two s e r i e s , e ao h r e p r e s e n te d w ith in e a c h o f th e s i x o o u n t r ie s s t u d i e d . The f i r s t s e r i e s , , t o r tiie h th e name "Youth Movements" more o o n sp io u o u sly a t t a o h e s i n g e n e r a l u s a g e , o o n s i s t s o f ( 1 ) : "a o o n so io u s r e v o l t o f th e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n , an d s e l v e s a s a means w hereby y o u th may p r o c la im i t s own i d e a s , v a l u e s , and sta n d a rd # w h io h a r e d i f f e r e n t from an d f r e q u e n t l y opposed to t h o s e o f th e o ld e r g e n e r a t i o n ." Such m ovem ents o p en ly c o n t r a d i c t th e c la im made t h a t th e e x p e r ie n c e o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , th ro u g h a u th o r iz e d g u id an ce o f t h e younger o n e , can b e s t g u a ra n te e th e c o n t i n u i t y o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . Such movements o r i g i n a t e w ith y o u th .

They r e b e l

n o t m e re ly a g a i n s t d i c t a t i o n and o o n t r o l , bu t e v en a g a i n s t i n f l u e n c e , fro m o l d e r g ro u p s . Behind th em a l l i s a s u f f i c i e n t d e g re e o f d e e p l y - f e l t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith e x i s t i n g m o ra l, s o c i a l or p o litic a l s itu a tio n s , to

b r i n g th e members t o g e t h e r f o r

a c t i o n i n t h e i r own b e h a l f . T here i s p r e s e n t a c o n s c io u s d e s i r e t o im prove c o n d i t i o n s . T here i s a lw ay s c o n fid e n c e i n th e power o f y o u th i t s e l f t o make su ch b e n e f i c i a l c h a n g e s . The second s e r i e s o f y o u th movements c o n s i s t s o f e d u c a ti o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , r e l i g i o u s o r p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s sp o n s o re d by o l d e r p e o p le . The p u rp o s e , i m p l i c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y , i s to t r a i n boys and g i r l s " to ta k e t h e i r p ro p e r p l a c e s i n a d u lt l i f e " —

in

su c h a d u lt l i f e a s i s view ed by t h e i r e l d e r s a s d e s i r a b l e .

The P l i g h t o f Y o u th . Up t o t h e F i r s t W orld W ar, s u c c e s iv e g e n e r a tio n s o f young p e o p le went th o u g h th e same d e v elo p m e n t, i n m ost c o u n t r i e s . They

(1) Hans Kohn. Y outh M ovem ents. S o g lfio e s, XV, p . 516.

E n c y c lo p e d ia o f t h e S o c i a l

p rep ared f o r manhood an d womanhood, s e c u r in g t r a i n i n g

v a r io u s v o c a tio n s th e y would p ro b a b ly f o llo w . a p p r e n t ic e s h ip s f o r v a r io u s t r a d e s .

Many

in th e s e rv e d

Then a s n o w ,la rg e numbers

o f th e y ounger p e o p le were a t t e n d i n g t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s . O th e rs , i n p o s s i b l y g r e a t e r n um bers,

went t o a g r i c u l t u r a l

s c h o o ls o f v a r io u s s o r t s , l e a r n in g to become b e t t e r fa rm e rs , o r t o do s p e c i a l i z e d ty p e s o f fa rm in g .

The r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g

p o p u la tio n i n m ost o o u n t r ie s d u r in g th e 1 9 th C en tu ry

produced

eoonomic p r e s s u r e f o r in c r e a s e d fo o d p r o d u c tio n . As a r e s u l t , a g r i c u l t u r a l so h o o ls and t h e i r e n ro lm e n ts in c r e a s e d by le a p s an d b o u n d s, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r a b o u t 1 8 9 5 .

The u se o f farm

m a o h in e ry , r e d u c in g th e number o f fa rm w o rk e rs f o r any s t a t e d am ount o f p r o d u c tio n , made up f o r th e d r i f t o f fa rm y o u th i n t o th e i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s . Y outh movements a s su c h were no n o v e lt y i n E u ro p e. They had e x i s t e d s p o r a d i c a l l y w henever o c c a s io n c a l l e d th e m f o r t h . A cu te d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y a s a f f e c t i n g t h e y o u n g er p e o p le ,h a d c a l l e d them i n t o e x i s t e n o e . An o p p o r tu n ity f o r ch an g in g su ch c o n d it i o n s c a l l e d y o u th movements i n t o e x i s t e n o e ,a s i n t h e p e r i o d j u s t b e fo r e 1848. But t h e r e was a t no tim e so w id e s p re a d , so g e n e r a l , o r so l a r g e a c t i v i t y i n y o u th movements a s s in c e 1 9 1 8 . N ever b e fo r e h ad t h e p o s i t i o n o f tgouth c a l l e d so u r g e n tly f o r r e m e d ia l a c t i o n . L e t u s s t a t e b r i e f l y th e s i t u a t i o n o f y o u th d u rin g th e W orld War and th e im m e d ia te p o s t-w a r y e a r s . I n e v e ry c o u n tr y , on t h e o u tb re a k o f w ar, y o u th was u rg ed by a l l d e v ic e s o f p ro p ag an d a and e m o tio n a lis m ,to u n d e rta k e " th e

G re a t A d v e n tu re ."

The m ost h a z a rd o u s and e x a c tin g s e r v io e was

e x a c te d o f th e b e s t e q u ip p e d y o u n g e r p e o p le .

C o lle g e g r a d u a te s

u n d e r tw e n ty - f iv e y e a r s o f age w ere i n s p e o i a l demand, a s in a v ia tio n .

I t was u rg ed in each la n d t h a t th e c au se was y o u th 's;

and y o u th r o s e g a l l a n t l y to f i l l th e o b l i g a t i o n s u rg e d .

Y outh

was t o l d i t was to "sa v e th e w o rld " . Y o u th beoame th e c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n .

By Im p assio n ed

sp e e c h e s o f e l d e r p a t r i o t s and s ta te s m e n , by fla m in g p l a o a r d s , th e im p o rta n c e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e y o u n g e r p e o p le were p r o ­ c la im e d e v e ry w h e re .

"Youth m ust be th e s a v io r o f c i v i l i z a t i o n "

was th e b u rd e n o f a l l t h a t was s a i d .

T hose who w ere th e y o u th

o f t h a t day s t i l l remember how a r d e n t l y th e y oame to b e lie v e t h a t th e y w ere d o in g an a lm o st h o ly and e v e n s a c r i f i c i a l t a s k . They remember how th e y w ere made to ta k e a t fa c e v a lu e th e i d e a l ­ ism s v o ic e d b y s ta te s m e n o f th e d ay. The m a jo r p a r t o f th e young men d i d , in f a c t , a c c e p t i n t o t o th e u r g e n t s i t u a t i o n t h a t th e y w ere c o n v in c e d fa c e d them ; th e y a c c e p te d e v e ry s t o r y o f enemy a t r o c i t y and w ere sw ept i n to a p a t r i o t i o and h u m a n ita ria n e x a l t a t i o n .

In d e e d , d u rin g th e F i r s t

W orld War, y o u th c o n s id e re d i t s e l f a lm o st a s a body o f c r u s a d e r s . T h is s ta te m e n t i s no mere r h e t o r i c a l e x a g g e ra tio n : y o u th d id f e e l t h a t way.

I t was a re m a rk a b le exam ple o f e m o tio n a l sw eeping o f

p e o p le in m ass: c a r r i e d away b y t h e i r e m o tio n s , th e y o u th o f th e day r a n t r u e t o w hat we know o f p sy c h o lo g y , m aking no e f f o r t s to a n a ly z e th e s i t u a t i o n . T h u s, o o u n tr ie s e m p tied t h e i r s h o p s , f a c t o r i e s and u n iv e r -

s i t i e s o f youth., a l l i n th e common c a u s e : to sav e t h e i r c o u n t r i e s and " to sa v e c i v i l i z a t i o n i t s e l f . " Many o f t h e young men w ere l u r e d on by t h e glam or o f w a r, w ith no th o u g h t o f what i t was a l l a b o u t. O th e rs w ent to war o n ly so t h a t th e y m ight a v o id t h e r i d i c u l e , e p i t h e t s and o stra cljjn s w h ich th e y f e a r e d w ould m eet them i f th e y w ere c o n s id e re d " s l a c k e r s " . U nder su o h c ir c u m s ta n c e s , i t was e a sy f o r governm ents to e n a o t and e n fo r c e any demands th e y m ig h t ohoose t o make, w h e th er upon y o u th o r upon t h e i r p e o p le s i n g e n e r a l . T hus, g r e a t m asses o f y o u th e n l i s t e d v o l u n t a r i l y f o r arm y s e r v i o e . I n t h e o o u n tr le s n o t y e t a t w a r, many c o u ld n o t w a it f o r th e c o n f l i c t to re a o h them . T hese J o in e d t h e f o r o e s o f o t h e r o o u n t r le s whose o a u se s th e y p e r s o n a l l y h e ld d e a r . I n e a c h la n d , y o u th power — i . e . , p h y s i c a l power a t i t s b e s t — was n e e d e d . I n e a c h l a n d , s i m i l a r a p p e a ls to y o u th were m ade. A l l th e tim e , th e o p p o sin g n a t i o n s w ere m aking a lm o s t th e same a p p e a l, i n a lm o st th e same w o rd s, t o y o u th .

N a tu ra lly ,

nobody m en tio n ed t h i s l a s t f a c t , a t l e a s t a t t h a t tim e . The F i r s t W orld War iin d e d . The a r m i s t i c e was s ig n e d ;e r e lo n g i t was c l e a r t h a t h o s t i l i t i e s would n o t be resu m ed . D e m o b iliz a tio n b eg an ; i t was o o m p leted a s th e p e a c e t r e a t i e s were s ig n e d and t h e v a r i o u s n a t i o n s s t r u g g l e d to resum e some sem b lance o f " n o rm a lo y ."

I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a d ju s tm e n t was

p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i o u l t f o r y o u th . Some unknown h a s aptly com pared th e s i t u a t i o n i n w hich th e y o u n g e r p e o p le t h e n found th e m s e lv e s t o t h a t e x i s t i n g on th e m orning a f t e r a n a lo o h o lio sp re e —

th e same g rim n e ss o f t h e g ra y dawn o f r e a l i t y , th e same

i n a b i l i t y t o fa c e and resum e e v e ry d a y l i v i n g . The y e a r from mid**1918 t o m id -1919 shows u s a s tr o n g co n ­ t r a s t i n th e s i t u a t i o n o f a t y p i c a l e n t h u s i a s t i c young man. I n 1918 he had been a o t i v e l y s e r v i n g h i s c o u n tr y . I n 1919 he was nov^Looking o u t f o r h im s e lf a s b e s t he m ig h t. No lo n g e r

was he

o a l l e d on f o r h a rd s h ip s o r even f o r s a o r i f l c e o f l i f e . No lo n g e r were th e d ay * s d o in g s so u r g e n t , so i n s i s t e n t , t h a t u n e r r in g judgm ent and e n t i r e s e l f - o o n f i d e n o e w ere n e e d e d .

The e n t i r e

fram e o f l i v i n g had la p s e d from h ig h t e n s i o n , back i n t o th e humdrum o f e v e ry d a y l i f e *

No lo n g e r d id he hav e s p e c i f i c

r e s p o n s ib ilitie s . Those who had been c a l l e d upon t o g iv e a l l , a n d who had g iv e n a l l , w ere now l e f t t o t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l r e s o u r c e s i n a d is o r g a n iz e d w o rld .

Each was l e f t t o make h i s own a d ju s tm e n t

a s b e s t he m ig h t — - t o f in d h i s way b ack t o h i s o ld jo b i f i t s t i l l e x i s t e d , o r to s t a r t l i f e anew i f h i s o ld Job had v a n is h e d .

The u t t e r d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e m ajo r p a r t o f th e

c i v i l i z e d w o rld made th e a d ju s tm e n t im p o s s ib le o r e x c e e d in g ly slow f o r g r e a t num bers o f ^oung f ie a p le . T h is p l i g h t o f y o u th was w orse i n some c o u n tr i e s th a n i n o th e rs .

I n t h i s im m e d ia te p o s t-w a r e r a , th e d i f f e r e n c e from

la n d t o la n d was one o f d e g re e o n ly , n o t o f th e e s s e n t i a l n a tu r e of th e d if f ic u lty .

A p p a re n tly th e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r y o u th j u s t

a f t e r W orld War I were a t t h e i r w o rs t i n d e f e a te d Germany and A u s t r i a , and in R u s s ia w here r e v o l u t i o n was s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s . I n F ra n c e , in E n g la n d , i n l i b e r a t e d C z e c h o slo v a k ia and P o la n d , le s d e a r num bers w ere a f f e c t e d , b u t th e c o n d itio n s were i n e v e ry

way s i m i l a r .

Even I n o u r own o o u n try , re a d ju s tm e n t to o l v i l i a n

l i f e p ro v ed d i f f i c u l t f o r many young men who had been I n th e A.E .F • When th e F i r s t W orld War b ro k e o u t , y o u th had l e f t fa rm , sh o p , f a c t o r y , mine o r s o h o o l i n an eoonomy t h a t p ro v id e d work f o r ev ery o n e a t l i v i n g wages o r b e t t e r . T h is was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , w here i n d u s t r i e s had been o p e r a t in g a t f u l l sp eed b eo au se o f s a l e s o f m u n itio n s to th e n a t i o n s w hioh had

e n te r e d t h e war e a r l i e r th a n o u r s e l v e s . R e tu r n in g from m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , young men found t h a t l i f e

had t o be l i v e d u n d e r c o n d itio n s d i f f e r i n g s h a r p ly fro m th o s e w hich e x i s t e d when th e y had d e p a r te d . These c o n d itio n s d i f f e r e d from th o s e o f army l i f e e q u a l ly s h a r p l y . young men th e m s e lv e s had ch an g ed .

What i s m ore, th e

I n E u ro p e, many had been i n

th e a rm ie s t h r e e and f o u r y e a r s , m a tu rin g with. tim e . They had gone ahead i n m e n ta l developm ent a c c e l e r a t e d by t h e i r v a r io u s new c o n t a o t s . Many were a c t u a l l y now to o o ld f o r th e jo b s t h a y had p r e v io u s ly h e l d . Many came b ack w ith n e rv o u s a f f l i c t i o n s a p p a r e n tly m in o r, b u t a c t u a l l y enough to p re v e n t t h e i r resum ing t h e i r fo rm e r work e ffe c tiv e ly .

O th e rs came b ack w ith b a d ly s h a t t e r e d n e rv e s ( s o -

c a l l e d " s h e l l s h o o k " ) ; o t h e r s a g a in w ith a ilm e n ts w hich d id n o t show up f o r some t im e , b u t w ere c h r o n ic i n n a t u r e . S t i l l o t h e r s r e t u r n e d w ith s e v e r e p h y s ic a l h a n d ic a p s due to w ounds. Upon a l l o f t h e s e , an a b ru p t t r a n s i t i o n from m i l i t a r y i n t o c i v i l i a n l i f e was im p o sed . The r e s t r a i n t s o f army l i f e were rem oved.

A f t e r l i v i n g w ith n e rv e s keyed s t e a d i l y t o th e

h ig h e s t p i t c h , t h i s t r a n s i t i o n was f a r to o a b ru p t f o r many to s t a n d . T h is " l e t down" i s t h e p rim a ry m e n ta l so u ro e o f th e d i s i ll u s io n m e n t and c y n ic is m whioh was so m a n ife s t i n th e e a r l i e r y e a r s o f th e ep o ch betw een th e two W orld W ars. C e r ta in eoonomic d ev elo p m en ts c au sed th e s i t u a t i o n to c o n tin u e h a rm fu l f o r a f a i r l y lo n g p e r i o d . T his c o n t i n u a t i o n was f a i r l y co m parable t o t h a t i& lch o o c u rre d i n o u r own c o u n try a f t e r th e War Betw een The S t a t e s . The p a r a l l e l i s m o f th e " p o s t b e llu m p e rio d " i n th e co n q u ered S o u th and th e w orld c o n d itio n a f t e r 1918 was s t r i k i n g . Only r a p i d econom ic developm ent o f th e p a r t s o f th e o o u n try s t i l l u n d ev elo p ed p re v e n te d s i m i l a r c o n d itio n s from e x i s t i n g th ro u g h o u t t h e U n ite d S t a t e s a f t e r 1865. The r e c u r r e n t c r i s e s and d e p r e s s io n s seem to be a no rm al p a r t o f e v e n ts i n o u r p r e s e n t econom ic sy ste m . The f i r s t o f t h e s e a f t e r W orld War I o c c u rre d i n 1921. I t was s i g n a l i z e d i n t h i s c o u n try by th e "b u y ers* s t r i k e " . T h is p e rio d d i s i l l u s i o n e d many who had gone t o war in th e s p i r i t o f c ru d a d e rs f o r a b e t t e r w o rld . The r e t u r n o f b e t t e r tim e s u n d e r "C o o lid g e P r o s p e r i t y " d id n o t p ro v id e th e y o u n g er p e o p le w ith employment a t a s u f f i c i e n t r a t e o f i n c r e a s e , t o rem ove th e t r o u b l e s . I n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h i s same p e rio d rem aindel one o f p a r t i a l i n d u s t r i a l s t a g n a t i o n , and o f little

d e c re a s e d unem ploym ent.

14 most c o u n tr i e s t h i s was an e r a o f c y n ic is m and d is h o n e s ty i n h ig h p l a c e s . Our own " T eap o t Dome" and s i m i l a r s c a n d a ls were t y p i c a l o f th e whole w o rld a t t h i s tim e . S i g n i f i c a n t i s th e f a c t t h a t b o th th e Ku K lux K la n h e re and th e f a s c i s t movement i n I t a l y re a c h e d t h e i r b ^ p h ts a t t h i s tim e . Changed a s o u r n a t i o n had become

from an a g r a r i a n p e o p le

o f e c o n o m ic a lly s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t fa rm e rs and sm a ll m e rc h a n ts ^ to one o f w ag e-w o rk ers i n l a r g e i n d u s t r y , th e e f f e c t s o f th e i n ­ s e c u r i t y in h e r e n t i n a w age-w orker s o c i e t y c o n tin u e d th ro u g h o u t th e "C o o lid g e P r o s p e r i t y " p e r io d . Then came 1929, w ith th e G re a t D e p re s s io n s t a r t i n g a b r u p tly and c o n tin u in g w ith o n ly m in o r p e r io d s o f l e s s e r r e c o v e r y , r i g h t i n to o u r own d a y s .

The w o rld o v e r, t h i s econom ic s t a n d s t i l l , a

t r u e c a s e o f a " c r i s i s due to p l e t h o r a " a s th e c l a s s i c a l econo­ m is t J . B. Say d e fin e d i t o v e r a c e n tu ry a g o , b l i g h t e d th e l i v e s o f h u n d red s o f th o u sa n d s o f young men and women th e w o rld o v e r. A s i g n i f i c a n t e x te n s io n o f , and r e v i v a l o f , Y outh M ovem ents, acncmpahylag t h i s w o rld w ide and lo n g c o n tin u e d d e p r e s s io n , to o k p la c e i n th e e a r l y 1930*s . A t th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L ab o r C o n feren ce o f 1935, h e ld a t G eneva, th e s e r io u s n e s s o f th e s i t u a t i o n f o r y o u th was w e ll b ro u g h t i n to fo c u s by th e p e t i t i o n p r e s e n te d j o i n t l y by th e A s s o c ia tio n o f Young W orkers and th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e ra tio n o f C h r i s t i a n T rad e U n io n s.

We q u o te t h i s in f u l l :

(1)

T h ere a r e many m i l l i o n s o f u s , young p e o p le , i n th e w o rld w ith o u t w ork. The t r a d e we have le a r n e d d o es n o t a f f o r d us th e m eans o f e a r n in g a l i v e l i h o o d . .. E n fo rc e d i n a c t i v i t y i s r a p i d l y d e p r iv in g us o f o u r a b i l i t y e v en t o w ork. We spend th e g r e a t e r p a r t o f e a c h day s e a r c h ­ in g , a s k in g , b e g g in g f o r w ork b u t , i n v a in ; our r e q u e s t s go u n h eed ed , o u r e f f o r t s un rew ard ed ; a l l r o a d s a re c lo s e d to u s.

R e p r in te d from E d i t o r i a l in The B ro o k ly n T a b l e t . M arch 2 3 , 1935

— 10—

Our m is e ry and o u r p r i v a t i o n s a re in c r e a s e d by th e th o u g h t o f th e u n c e r t a i n t y o f th e f u t u r e . D e s p ite e v e ry e f f o r t on our p a r t , we become th e u n w illin g v ic tim s o f d isc o u ra g e m e n t. T h ere a r e among u s th o s e who have re a c h e d th e age when a man d e s i r e d to e s t a b l i s h a h o u se­ h o ld o f h i s own. U nder p r e v a i l i n g c o n d itio n s we a r e c o n s t r a i n e d t o abandon a l l p la n s f o r th e f u tu r e o f t h i s n a tu re . The f a c t t h a t i t i s im p o s s ib le f o r th o u s a n d s o f our com rades t o f i n d work upon le a v in g s c h o o l, t h a t th e y a r e doomed a s c h i l d r e n to unem ploym ent, u n a b le t o e a r n a t r a d e , condemned to go a b o u t in i d l e n e s s , seems i n c o n c e iv a b le , b u t i s s a d ly t r u e 'n e v e r t h e l e s s . The n eed o f an e f f e c t i v e remedy f o r t h i s c . _ . d i r e s t a t e o f unemployment among y o u th , so p re g n a n t w ith d a n g e rs and h a rm fu l c o n seq u e n ce s f o r e v e ry community and f o r s o c i e t y a s a w h o le, i s e x tre m e ly u r g e n t. Do n o t m is u n d e rs ta n d u s . We do n o t w ant to l i v e in i d le n e s s and s l o t h . We a r e a n x io u s to r e ­ tu r n to o u r work b e n c h e s , to o u r m a c h in e s, to o u r o f f i c e s , to o u r w ork. We g r a t e f u l l y acknow ledge w hat h a s a lre a d y b e en done f o r u s unem ployed young p e o p le by th e o r g a n i z a t i o n s com posing th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fed­ e r a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n T rad e and U n io n s, and o f th e Young C h r i s t i a n W orkers. We hope t h a t th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L abor C o n fe r­ en ce w i l l c o n s id e r o u r program and w i l l i n s i s t on Governm ents e x p e d i ti n g th e r e a l i z a t i o n o f o u r w is h e s . P u b lic a u t h o r i t i e s m ust r e l i e v e th e c o n d itio n s o f unem ployed y o u th . 1. By o r g a n iz in g work in te n d e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r th e unem ployed y o u th , and w h ic h , a s f a r a s p o s­ s i b l e , s h a l l ta k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e i r p h y s ic a l f i t ­ n e s s , t h e i r t e c h n i c a l know ledge, and t h e i r n a t u r a l rig h ts . 2 . By a d o p tin g m ea su re s in te n d in g to p re v e n t th e u n d e r-n o u rish m e n t o f unem ployed young p e o p le , ~a c o n d itio n f r a u g h t w ith s e r i o u s c o n se q u e n c e s.

— 11

3 . By a r r a n g in g f o r unemployment in s u ra n c e and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t, g r a n t i n g t h e unem ployed y o u th th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f le a d in g a w orthy l i f e . 4 . By d e v is in g s p e c i a l means f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f unem ployed young p eo p le o f m a rria g e a b le a g e .

Rem arque*s b o o k , The Road Baok ( 1 ) , i s th e c l a s s i c document o f y o u th u n d e r p o st-w a r c o n d i t i o n s . I t b r i n g s i n t o s tr o n g r e l i e f th e u t t e r l y c o n fu s in g s i t u a t i o n s i n t o w hich t h i s p e rio d p lu n g ed t h e young p e o p le .

M r.Rem arque, h im s e lf

one o f t h i s " l o s t g e n e r a t i o n " , d e a l t w ith w hat happened in t h e ch ao s and d i r e p o v e rty o f d e f e a te d Germany. W ith due a llo w a n c e f o r th e two a l l e v i a t i n g p e r io d s — - t h e b r i e f b u r s t o f p r o s p e r i t y i n 1919-1920 and t h e i l l - d i s t r i b u t e d fa b u lo u s p r o f i t s i n 1924 to 1929 — th e p i c t u r e i s n o t f a r a f i e l d from w hat happened t o many young A m ericans a t t h i s tim e .

I n term s o f a t t i t u d e s and o f m e n ta l s e t s a c q u i r e d , i t

r i n g s t r u e . I t i s a n a u t h e n t i c r e c o r d o f th e " h e l l s and se w e rs" t h a t were c o u rs in g w ith in t h i s

group*s m in d s.

D elin q u en cy and C rim e. The p l i g h t of y o u th i n o u r d a y s makes t h e ro a d t o crim e c o n s p ic u o u s ly more i n v i t i n g t o many t h a n i t was p t r o r t o t h e F i r s t W orld W ar.

W ith due a llo w a n c e f o r th e e f f e c t o f

p r o h i b i t i o n i n m aking crim e a t t r a c t i v e u n d e r "C o o lid g e P r o s p e r i t y , •» we must add t h a t th e G re a t D e p re s s io n gave a new im p e tu s to th e

(1) E r ic h M aria R em arque. The Road Baok . ( E n g lis h t r a n s l a t i o n ) B o sto n , 1931. L i t t l e ,^ r o w n & Co.

--1 2 -

t r e n d to w a rd s c f i m i n a l i t y . I n a d i s c u s s i o n p u b lis h e d i n 1 9 3 5 ,( 1 ) ,D r.E le a n o r M. G lueck, r e s e a r c h a s s o o i a t e i n th e I n s t i t u t e of C rim in a l Law o f t h e H arv ard Law S c h o o l, s e t s f o r t h an a p p a l l i n g s i t u a t i o n . She e s t im a t e s t h a t a t t h a t tim e t h e r e were 200,000 c h i l d r e n i n th e s c h o o ls , who would so o n be i n th e ra n k s o f c r i m i n a l s . The "germ o f d e lin q u e n c y " , sa y s D r. G lu e c k ,is p la n te d p e rh a p s by home c o n d itio n s and t h e in a d e q u a c ie s o f th e s o h o o ls . I t f i n d s , a c c o rd in g to h e r , a f e r t i l e f i e l d f o r developm ent when th e y o u th le a v e s s c h o o l and f i n d s h im s e lf w ith o u t o c c u p a tio n ,a m o n g a h o s t o f o t h e r s lik e w is e unem ployed. U nder su c h c o n d i t i o n s ,t h e " i n f e c t i o n s g fe a d s r a p i d l y . " i s o n ly a s ta te m e n t b y a n a lo g y

( We o f c o u rs e remember t h a t t h i s and t h e "germ " and " i n f e c t i o n "

a r e mass m e n ta l e f f e c t s ) . D r. G lueck r e p o r t s t h a t I d le n e s s i s a g r e a t c o n t r i b u t o r y s o u rc e o f c rim e and d e lin q u e n c y . H ere l e t u s r e o a l l t h e o ld words o f Thomas C a r ly le :

"G ive me t h r e e h o lid a y s a week and I

w i l l f i l l your p r i s o n s . "

As e d u o a to r s , we o f to d a y m ight

c o n s id e r t h i s a r e a s o n f o r some r e a l and e f f e c t i v e work to w a rd s a c t u a l l y r e a l i z i n g "w o rth y u se o f l e i s u r e tim e " a s an e d u o a tio n a l p u rp o s e . Even to d a y th e p h ra s e i s u se d m e re ly to ex cu se i n e p t i t u d e s w ith in c u r r i c u l a . Commenting'. ■ on th e

f a o t s a s g iv e n , we m ight rem a rk t h a t

suoh a th r o n g o f 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 A m erican

y o u th s on t h e way t o c r i m e ,i s a

y o u th movement i n t h e w o rs t s e n s e o f t h e w ord: one f r a u g h t w ith

(1)

E le a n o r T . G lu e ck .

The F am ily,T he S c h o o l,a n d C rim e.

New Y ork T im es, M aroh 2 3 , 1935.

^

—13—

g ra v e d a n g e rs f o r s o c i e t y and s t i l l g r a v e r o n es f o r th e p a r ­ t i c i p a n t s in t h i s "m ovem ent." D r. G lueck a t t r i b u t e s m ost o f th e i l l s o f y o u th to f a u l t y so h o o l t r a i n i n g , re p r o a c h in g th e s c h o o ls f o r n o t p r e v e n tin g o r f o r e s t a l l i n g d e lin q u e n c y .

H er i n t e n s i v e stu d y o f 1000 j u v e n i l e

o f f e n d e r s showed t h a t th e a v e ra g e age o f f i r s t d e lin q u e n c y was 9 y e a r s 7 m o n th s.

Hence sh e i n f e r s t h a t th e t r e n d m ust have

b een d i s c e r n i b l e d u r in g so h o o l y e a r s f o r m ost o f th e s e b o y s.

As

w ith e v e ry p e rs o n w a n tin g t h e i r f a v o r i t e p u rp o se s s e rv e d by th e s c h o o ls , D r. G lueck i s u n re a s o n a b ly h a r s h i n b lam in g th e s c h o o ls # TShSr omtts r e f e r e n c e t o th e h u n d red s o f th o u sa n d s o f p o t e n t i a l d e ­ l in q u e n t s whom th e s c h o o ls have c a u g h t i n tim e and sa v ed . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e s o c i a l c o n d itio n s o f th e d e l i n ­ q u e n ts seem s to have e s c a p e d D r. G lueck.

Of h e r 1000 o a s e s , 20%

w ere f o r e ig n b o rn and o f th e re m a in in g 80%, a f u l l 70% o f th e t o t a l (87.5% o f th e n a tiv e b o rn ) w ere o f f o r e i g n p a re n ta g e .

At

t h i s p o i n t th e s u p e r f i c i a l i t y o f h e r s tu d y a t once a p p e a rs d e s ­ p i t e i t s c la im f o r b e in g " i n t e n s i v e . "

Fox she does n o t r e p o r t

on th e la n g u a g e s i t u a t i o n w i t h in th e homes. From tw e n ty -tw o y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e i n te a c h in g i n th e s o h o o ls o f New Y ork C i t y , th e w r i t e r h a s c o n c lu d e d t h a t i t i s n o t f o r e i g n n a t i v i t y o r p a re n ta g e b u t o u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t w i t h in th e home t h a t i s th e m ajo r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to th e gro w th o f d e lin q u e n c y .

T h is o u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t i s u s u a lly i n th e form o f

la n g u a g e d u a lis m .

E n g lis h i s th e b o y 's lan g u a g e and th e la n g u a g e

o f ^ a l l th e o t h e r b o y s and g i r l s .

I t i s th e la n g u a g e o f th e

-1 4 -

s c h o o ls .

B ut a t home a n o th e r la n g u a g e i s u s e d , and t h i s s e t s

up a b a r r i e r b etw een t h e boy and h i s fa m ily .

He ta k e s t o th e

s t r e e t , a v o id s home, and r e j e o t s th e in f lu e n c e o f th e a lm o st u n i n t e l l i g i b l e p a r e n ts who t a l k some o t h e r la n g u a g e .

Home t r a i n ­

in g n o rm a lly su p p le m e n ts t h a t o f th e s c h o o l; b u t in t h e s e c a s e s i t i s a b s e n t. To p u t i t e m p h a tic a lly , th e e f f e c t o f u se o f a f o r e i g n la n g u a g e i n th e home i s in many o a s e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y th e same a s i f th e boy w ere grow ing up i n a b ro k e n home, o r w ith no home a t a l l i n o t h e r th a n a p h y s ic a l s e n s e . T h at t h i s i s no mere th e o r y may be d e m o n s tra te d by anyone who w i l l exam ine t h a t re m a rk a b le p u b l i c a t i o n , The V oice o f Y o u th . (1) In-■fehiiSfy th e young p e o p le th e m se lv e s who a r e w ith in o e r t a i n r e fo rm a to ry i n s t i t u t i o n s i n New Y ork C ity sp e ak f o r th e m s e lv e s .

The same s t o r y a p p e a rs a g a in and a g a in ; n e g le c t a t

home; b ro k e n hom es; p a r e n t s o u t o f w ork; lan g u a g e i s o l a t i o n from p a r e n t s ; and so on.

The d isc o u ra g e m e n t o f th e young p e o p le ,

f o r l a c k o f a t t a i n a b l e o b j e c t i v e s , shows up c o n s p ic u o u s ly ; even th e ab sen o e o f any u rg e o r d r iv e to work when employment i s p o s­ s i b l e m akes i t s e l f s t r i k i n g l y m a n if e s t. A q u o ta tio n from one a r t i c l e in t h i s j o u r n a l , t h a t by M o rris Sohw artzm an, may em phasize th e p o in t: (2)

(1) The Y oioe o f Y outh ( p e r i o d i c a l ) New Y o rk , N. T . 1936 f f . (2) M o rris Sohw artzm an, Only Saps Work. M arch 1&36, I , 16.

The V oice o f Y o u th ,

— 15—

Y outh grow ing up i n th e l i g h t o f f l a r i n g beaco n s o f la w le s s n e s s and c o r r u p t i o n , sh ru g s i t s s h o u ld e r s : "O nly s a p s w o rk ," "Y outh o a n ’t g e t a jo b anyw ay," "W hat’ s y o u r r a c k e t ? " "W hat’ s y o u r r a o k e t , g e n tle m e n , you who howl f o r th e c u t t i n g o f so h o o l t a x e s , th e r e d u c t io n o f te a c h in g s t a f f s , th e s h o r te n in g o f th e sc h o o l y e a r , and th e c u r t a i l i n g o f so h o o l a c t i v i t i e s e x c e p t th e r i g h t o n e s? " O rg a n iz e d c rim e , o r g a n iz e d l a b o r , o rg a n iz e d b u s i n e s s , o rg a n iz e d p o l i t i c s , and o rg a n iz e d e x ­ p l o i t a t i o n p a r a l l e l and i n t e r l o c k . When tr o u b le b re a k s o u t , th e b ig one e s c a p e s o r g e t s o f f w ith a l i g h t s e n te n o e . The l i t t l e o n e s , our own Tony, Sam, and Jo e ta k e th e heavy r a p , and a re d i s t r i b u t e d to th e v a r io u s p r is o n s v i a th e n e c e s s a r y m ethod. T hese a r e th e c h i l d r e n , boys and g i r l s , young men and young women i n th e s t r e e t s , a l l e y s , p o o l­ room s, basem ent c lu b s , b arroom s and dance h a l l s on th e m arch to d e t e n t i o n homes, j a i l s and re fo rm ­ a t o r i e s . Onward, e v e r onward p r e s s e s th e e a g e r a d v e n tu ro u s th r o n g , l u r e d by th e hope o f a gaudy liv in g . The d e lin q u e n t y o u th j u s t d e s c r ib e d p r e s e n t a s p e c i a l l y a p p e a lin g problem i n t h a t th e y c an n o t be blam ed f o r th e p l i g h t i n w hioh th e y f i n d th e m s e lv e s .

By s u c c e s s iv e s te p s ^ th o s e who a re

unem ployed and have no d e f i n i t e o b j e c ti v e i n l i f e , f i n d them ­ s e lv e s h e a d in g i n to a l i f e o f o rim e.

F re q u e n tly ^ p re v io u s s i t u a ­

t i o n s and e a r l i e r m e n ta l e x p e r ie n c e s have c o n d itio n e d t h i s down­ ward d ev elo p m en t. I t i s a t r u is m , a commonplace o f p s y c h o lo g y , to s t a t e t h a t e x p e rie n c e p e r s i s t s a l i k e i n m en tal a t t i t u d e s and in th e sub­ c o n sc io u s b ack g ro u n d .

Even i n j u v e n i l e c o n d u c t p ro b le m s, th e

s i t u a t i o n in e a c h c a se in c lu d e s l e f t - o v e r s from " l i f e ’ s y e s t e r ­ day s".

I n t r e a t i n g d e li n q u e n c y ,t h is c o n d itio n has lo n g been it somewhat n e g le c t e d ; b u t nowAassum es i t s r i g h t f u l p la c e a s a m ajo r

f a c t o r t o be c o n s id e r e d {1)• Thus th e same e n v iro n m en t p ro d u c e s d i f f e r e n t m en tal p a t t e r n s , d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s o f e m o tio n a l d r i v e s , a c c o rd in g t o th e p re v io u s e x p e rie n c e o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . T h is i s m en tio n ed f o r a s p e c i f i c r e a s o n . The i n t e n t i o n i s t o em phasize t h a t a f a i r l y l a r g e p o r t i o n o f y o u th f u l d e lin q u e n c y a r i s e s from th e same home and s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s w hich p ro d u ce o n ly d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t s on o th e r i n d i v i d u a l s . We a r e d e a lin g w ith m il l io n s o f young p e r s o n s , n o t w ith an a b s t r a c t i o n , when we c o n s id e r " y o u th " . Any te n d e n c y t o t r e a t d e lin q u e n t young p e o p le .b y s ta n d a r d iz e d p ro c e d u re i s i n h e r e n t l y in a d e q u a te to m eet th e p ro b lem s in v o lv e d . T h is i s t r u e ev en i f we s h o u ld d iv id e th e s e p e o p le i n t o su p p o se d ly d e fin ite c a te g o rie s .

Why Y outh Has U n r e s t . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , th e p l i g h t o f Am erican y o u th h a s been th e c e n t e r o f th e d i s c u s s i o n . We c an n o t u n d e rs ta n d o u r own s i t u a t i o n u n l e s s we com pare w ith i t th e c o n d it i o n s , moods, and a c t i v i t i e s o f th e young p e o p le i n o th e r c o u n t r i e s .

Of c o u r s e ,n o a d e q u a te

tr e a tm e n t o f a l l n a ti o n s c o u ld be made w ith in th e sp ace l i m i t s o f t h i s study* T h e re fo re u se i s made o f a few s e l e c t e d , p resum ab ly t y p i c a l , n a t i o n s . T hese a l l happen t o be i n E u ro p e , a s i t seems t h a t o n ly in c e n t r a l N o rth A m erica and in E urope from B r i t a i n a c r o s s t o R u s s i a ,t h e p l i g h t and u n r e s t o f y o u th i s s u f f i c i e n t l y

( 1 ) . W illia m H e a ly . New L ig h t o n D elin q u en cy and I t s T re a tm e n t. New H aven,C onn. Y ale U n i v e r s i ty £ r e s s , 1936. ( I n s i t u t e o f Human R e la tio n s p u b l i c a t i o n s ) . p p . 7 ,8 ,9 ,1 7 .

C-r

—I I —

u rg e n t t o have found e x p r e s s io n i n o r g a n iz e d m ovem ents.

The

s i m i l a r i t y o f problem s f a c i n g y o u th in a l l t h e s e c o u n t r i e s , w i l l a p p e a r p l a i n l y . The Y outh Movements i n e ac h la n d r e f l e c t t h i s s im ila rity . l e t us t h e r e f o r e now arij£yze t h e r o o t c o n d it i o n s in v o lv e d . What i s term ed " th e Y outh P roblem " s p r in g s i n l a r g e p a r t fro m w id e sp re a d i d l e n e s s .T h is i d l e n e s s i s n e i t h e r d e s i r e d by y o u th n o r i n t e n t i o n a l on y o u th * s p a r t . P r i m a r i l y , t h i s i d l e n e s s i s th e r e s u l t o f th e econom ic o r g a n i z a t i o n w ith in w hioh we l i v e . I t s in o ld e n o e i s much in c r e a s e d by t h e c o n sp ic u o u s in a d e q u a c y o f o u r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . The h a rm fu l m e n ta l e f f e c t s o f t h i s i d l e n e s s a r e made g r e a t e r by th e a b sen c e o f a d e q u a te r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and even more by la c k o f a d e q u a te re o re fc tto a a ^ t r a i n i n g . S in c e i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t any a p p ro a ch to f i n d in g em ploym ent f o r a l l w i l l o c c u r in o u r tim e s , t h i s absenoe o f d e v e lo p e d means f o r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e v e n tin g t h e lo n g - te r m h a rm fu l e f f e c t s o f i d l e n e s s , h a s much s i g n i f i c a n c e . The e f f e o t o f I d l e n e s s i s u n r e s t .

The f a c t o f u n r e s t i s

t h e m e n ta l b a s i s f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f Y outh M ovem ents. T h is s i t u a t i o n i s w e ll fo c u s s e d i n i t s d e t a i l s , a s w e l l a s i n i t s t o t a l i t y , ’jithe b o o k .Y outh A W orld P ro b lem .(^ p u b lish e d in 1937 by th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n . I t r e p o r t s fro m 58 o o u n t r l e s , v i a S t a t e D e p artm en t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , on th e y o u th s i t u a t i o n .

(1 ).

A ubrey W illia m s , e x e c u tiv e d i r e c t o r o f

W. T h a tc h e r W inslow ( e d i t o r ) . Y outh A World P ro b le m . W ash in g to n , D. C. , 1937. G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i o e .

—18—

N.Y.A.^ g iv e s (1) e x a c tl y t h i s same a n a l y s i s o f th e o a u s e s o f un­ r e s t , w ith some em p h asis upon “te c h n o lo g i c a l unem ploym ent1* a s a c o n tr i b u to r y f a c t o r .

W inslow (2) b r i n g s t h i s o u t e f f e c t i v e l y ,

and i t may b e w o rth w h ile to sum m arize h i s argum ent. Winslow s t a t e s t h a t , d e s i r i n g an e d u c a tio n , y o u th s e e s b u t few jo b s and ev en few er s c h o l a r s h i p s a v a i l a b l e to m eet th e ex­ p e n se s in v o lv e d .

Then i n c h o o sin g a v o c a tio n w ith a p ro m is in g

f u t u r e , y o u th f i n d s t h a t ch an g in g t e c h n o lo g i c a l c o n d itio n s con­ s t a n t l y c r e a t e a demand f o r new t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s ^ S S i dispensation w ith n eed f o r th o s e t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s w hich p r e v io u s ly w ere in s t r o n g demand.

Y outh f i n d s t h a t s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g * as

w e ll a s d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t s and a p t i t u d e s ^ a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r su c ­ c e s s i n any o f th e many new f i e l d s o f w ork.

F u r t h e r , t h e r e a re

few r e a d i l y u s a b le and s a t i s f a c t o r i l y co m p lete s o u rc e s o f i n f o r ­ m atio n on v o o a tio n s w hich may be u se d f o r an i n t e l l i g e n t g u id an o e i n c h o ic e . We n o te h e re t h a t y o u th , a tte m p tin g to s e c u re a jo b , i s h an d ic ap p e d by l a c k o f e x p e rie n c e and by th e c o m p e titio n o f m i l l i o n s o f o l d e r p e o p le f o r th o s e same jo b s . W inslow i n th e same c o n n e c tio n p o i n ts o u t t h a t a Y outh Movement i s n o th in g to f e a r : t h a t i t i s n a t u r a l f o r y o u th to r e b e l a g a i n s t w hat i t b e li e v e s u n j u s t .

The d a n g e r, he s a y s ,

(1) Aubrey W illia m s i n Forew ord, Y outh A W orld P ro b lem , W ashing­ t o n , D. C ., 1937. (2) W. T h a tc h e r W inslow , i n Y outh A W orld P ro b le m , W ashington, D. C ., 1937, pp. 1 1 , 15.

-1 9 -

l i e s i n e i t h e r s c o f f in g a t y o u th o r t r y i n g to r e s t r i c t y o u t h 's freedom by i r o n r u l e .

The S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e S tudy Y outh i n m ost o f th e c o u n t r i e s f a c e s th e same p ro b le m s, o n ly s l i g h t l y c o m p lic a te d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by l o c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s . The in f lu e n c e o f th e F i r s t W orld War re a c h e d i n to e v e ry c o u n tr y . I t s e f f e c t s w ere u n ifo rm ly d e tr i m e n t a l to y o u th . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , c o n s i d e r a ti o n o f th e e x is te n c e o f u n r e s t and o f th e e f f o r t s t h a t y o u th i t s e l f h a s made to d i s p e l th e c a u s e s o f t h i s u n r e s t , have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r u s i n A m erica, w h e th er th e h i s t o r y i s r e p o r t e d from A u s t r i a , from E n g la n d , from Germany, o r e ls e w h e re . The s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s upon y o u th d i f f e r e d enough from c o u n try to c o u n try to make a c o m p a ra tiv e stu d y h ig h ly in f o r m a tiv e .

The

m ethods a d o p te d to m eet th e s e e f f e c t s a r e lik e w is e o f g r e a t u se ­ f u ln e s s i n a id in g u s to u n d e rs ta n d o u r own s i t u a t i o n . One m ig h t assum e t h a t a d e m o c ra tic n a ti o n would o f f e r to i t s y o u th l e s s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e a d ju s tm e n t a f t e r a w a r, th a n would a c o u n try u nder f a s c i s t o r o t h e r d i c t a t o r i a l governm ent.

The

s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y i n e x te n t o f d i f f i c u l t i e s and e x te n t o f un­ r e s t , r e g a r d l e s s o f form o f g o v ern m en t, w i l l a p p e a r in t h i s s tu d y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , th e r i s k s w hich we ru n th ro u g h m i s d i r e c t i o n o f Y outh Movements by s e l f - a g g r a n d i z in g p e r s o n s , a re p ro b a b ly b ro u g h t i n t o m ore n o t ic e a b l e prom inence when we c o n s id e r w hat happened i n Geimany.

Germany, d e f e a te d i n th e F i r s t W orld War and w ith i t s eoonomic s t r u c t u r e h p p e le s s ly d i s r u p t e d , h a s shown u s th e extrem e ca se o f w hat may h ap p en .

Y outh t h e r e was d e s p e r a t e ,f e a r i n g ev en

a c t u a l s t a r v a t i o n . Freadom was in f a c t s a c r i f i c e d u n d er th e b lu d g e o n in g o f f e a r . F e a r a ro u s e d a n im p u lse t o e s c a p e , by any avenue t h a t o p e n ed .

And th u s t h e young men o f Germany were

w i l li n g a u d i t o r s when U r. H i t l e r came a lo n g .

He prom ised

" b re a d and w o rk "; th e prom ise l e d t o f o llo w in g h i s l e a d , to a c c e p tin g h i s l e a d e r s h i p .

The mere f a c t t h a t h i s d o c tr i n e s m ig h t

be e n t i r e l y w ith o u t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o f a c t was no o b s ta c le t o a c c e p tin g t h e m . . . . f o r he a lo n e p ro m ised b re a d and w ork. H is a d r o i t c o u p lin g o f " n a t i o n a l h o n o r" w ith an a p p e a l to t h e n e e d s o f e a c h young i n d i v i d u a l , was s u c c e s s f u l . The r e s u l t s a r e o n ly to o w e ll known to u s . H i t l e r was u s i n g a sound p s y c h o lo g ic a l p r i n c i p l e when he p u t a l l y o u th , b o th boys and g i r l s , i n t o v a r io u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R e g im e n ta tio n was a d r a s t i c , y e t an e f f e c t i v e a n t i d o t e , t o th e m e n ta l d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s o f e n fo r c e d i d l e n e s s . W ith t h i s exam ple show ing u s th e im p o rta n c e o f th e Youth M ovem ents, l e t u s now exam ine t h e c lo s e l y p a r a l l e l l i n g h i s t o r y o f su ch movements in t h e s i x t y p i c a l la n d s c o v e re d in t h i s s tu d y .

F o r o u r own n a t i o n a l g u id a n c e , l e t u s u n d e rs ta n d what

h ap p en ed—

and why i t h a p p en e d .

— 2 1 -

CHAPTER I SUMMARY

P r i o r t o th e F i r s t W orld W ar, y o u th fo llo w e d th e e x - ' am p les s e t by t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , p r e p a r in g th e m se lv e s f o r th e v a r io u s o c c u p a tio n s w hich th e y w ished t o fo llo w and im p ro v in g t h e i r o u tlo o k in such ways a s th e ch an g in g tim e s and demands w a rra n te d .

T h ere w ere y o u th movements w henever

t h e r e w ere u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d itio n s f a o in g y o u th . A t th e o u tb re a k o f th e w a r, y o u th became th e m ost im­ p o r t a n t p a r t o f th e p o p u la tio n .

The w in n in g o f th e w ar d e­

pended p re d o m in e n tly on y o u th . M ass e m o tio n a lis m was a ro u s e d by th e p l e a o f s ta te s m e n t o sa v e t h e w o rld . c o u n t r i e s a t w ar.

The same m ethods w ere u se d i n a l l Y outh re sp o n d e d o v erw h elm in g ly .

When th e w ar was o v e r , y o u th r e t u r n e d home and found l i f e had t o be l i v e d u n d e r c o n d itio n s d i f f e r i n g g r e a t l y from w hat i t had b e e n . ju s tm e n t.

I t was l e f t to y o u th to make th e ad ­

T h ere was much a n x ie ty among y o u th i n th e y e a r s

im m e d ia te ly fo llo w in g th e w a r, a s g r e a t num bers o f them who " sa v e d th e w o rld " found i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a s u i t a b l e p la c e f o r th e m s e lv e s who had " sa v e d th e w o r ld ." The d e p r e s s io n b e g in n in g i n 1929 was a v e ry s e v e re blow t o y o u th .

The number o f unem ployed y o u th in o r e a s e d to

m illio n s .

Of n e o e s s i ty t h e r e was g r e a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n

among y o u th , and y o u th movements in c r e a s e d b e c a u se o f t h i s

32-

fa c t. As a r e s u l t o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and unem ploym ent, a te n d e n c y to w a rd s crim e I n c r e a s e d c o n s p ic u o u s ly .

T h is had re a o h e d

s e r i o u s p r o p o r t io n s , b u t was e x a g g e ra te d by a l a r m i s t s . Y outh f a c e d , i n d i f f e r e n t d e g re e , th e sam e p ro b lem s in a l l c o u n trie s .

I n t o t a l i t a r i a n c o u n tr i e s t h e y o u th p ro b lem

was m et by a r e g im e n ta tio n o f y o u th .

I n d e m o c ra tic c o u n tr i e s

v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s by v o lu n ta r y a c t i o n o f y o u th a n d by governm ent a id t o y o u th h a v e b een e v o lv e d .

CHAPTER I I .

THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND

-2 4 CHAPTER I I THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN ENGLAND

The B r i t i s h S i t u a t i o n I n s tu d y in g Youth Movements In v a r io u s o o u n t r i e s , we e x p e c t to f in d — and do f in d — t h a t c o n d itio n s in some la n d s a r e more f a v o r a b le f o r th e fo rm a tio n s o f y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s th a n a r e th o s e i n o t h e r s . I n g e n e r a l , i t a p p e a r s t h a t c o l l e c t i v i s m , u n if o r m ity , and r e g im e n ta tio n c h a r a c t e r i z e th e la n d s w here su c h movements m ost f l o u r i s h .

The t h r e e g r e a t e x c e p tio n s to th e s e c o n d itio n s

have been up t o now, E n g la n d ,F ra n c e and t h e U n ite d S t a t e s . P e rh a p s b e cau se o f t h e d e m o c ra tic n a t u r e o f th e p e o p le i n th e s e c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e h a s been l e s s i n c l i n a t i o n to w a rd s o rg a n iz e d n a t i o n a l y o u th movements i n th e s e la n d s th a n am ongst th e c i t i z e n s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . F r a n c e , re m a in in g s tr o n g l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , may be d is m is s e d h e re w ith th e rem ark t h a t i t was w ith o u t any y outh movement o f enough s i g n i f i c a n c e to m e n tio n . The U n ite d S t a t e s i s tr e a te d in a l a t e r c h a p te r. E n gland shows c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t y o u th m o v e m e n ts.(l) M arkedly p r o g r e s s i v e , E n g la n d i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s tr o n g ad h eren c e t o t r a d i t i o n s .

The t r a d i t i o n a l o u tlo o k on l i f e , th e

s tr o n g f e e l i n g f o r " th e a o c e p te d t u r n am ongst t h e B r i t i s h , mark

way” i n even th o s e o f r a d i c a l th e p e o p le o f E ngland o f f fro m

th o s e o f m ost o t h e r g r e a t m odem n a t i o n s .

The B r i t i s h e r s o f

o u r tim e s k e e p t h e i r own w ays, c o n s o lo u s ly and d e l i b e r a t e l y ,

(1 ).

J e a n e t t e C. D ic k ie . E n g lis h Y outh on t h e R oad. The Forum , A p r i l , 1937, p . 2 4 7 .

b e c a u se t h e y r e a l l y l i k e j u s t th e s e w ays. T r a d i t i o n i s an a c t i v e f o r c e am ongst th e E n g lis h t o an e x te n t h a r d ly b e l i e v a b l e . T h is s t r e n g t h o f t r a d i t i o n I s th e more re m a rk a b le , when we c o n s id e r t h e d iv e r s e o r i g i n s o f th e E n g lis h p e o p le .

The e x te n t

to w hioh, e v en i n our own t im e s , a s te a d y flo w o f im m ig ran ts fro m o th e r la n d s h a s been a b s o rb e d i n t o t h e B r i t i s h n a t i o n i s l i t t l e r e a l i z e d . ( l ) p e r h a p s th e r e s u l t i s b e s t shown by th e c a se of EBr. W inston C h u r c h il l , th e most E n g lis h o f a l l p ro m in e n t E nglishm en i n o u r tim e , whose m other was A m erican. The econom ic h i s t o r y o f E ngland

p r o v id e s u s w ith th e

im m ediate background o f th e r i s e o f i t s i j o u t h m ovem ents. commerce d o m in a ted A f te r

B ritis h

th e w orld i n t h e m id d le o f t h e 1 9 th C e n tu ry .

a b o u t 1880? B r i t i s h econom ic hegemony was re d u c e d by th e

com m ercial ad vance o f Germany.

From p e rh a p s a b o u t 1895, th e

U n ite d S t a t e s s e c u re d a m ajo r p a r t o f th e in c r e a s e o f w o rld commerce, a n d t h u s re d u c e d t h e r e l a t i v e l e a d e r s h i p o f E n g la n d . By 1921 th e c e n t e r o f w o rld commerce and f in a n c e had a c t u a l l y s h i f t e d from London t o New Y ork; but t h i s A m erican p redom inance soon v a n is h e d .

L a te r d ev elo p m en ts were th e grow th o f t h e

v a r i o u s o v e rs e a dom inions o f t h e B r i t i s h orown i n t o in d e p e n d e n t o r p a r t l y in d e p e n d e n t co m m ercial u n i t s , no lo n g e r b u s in e s s s a t e l l i t e s o f E n g la n d . The E n g li s h p e o p le were n o t stam peded by t h i s c h an g e, b u t

(1) The w r i t e r w ould m en tio n su c h s t r i k i n g exam ples a s th e most fam ous P rim e M in is te r o f E ngland i n th e 1 9 th C e n tu ry , Lord Beacons f i e l d , h a v in g bjjta th e g ra n d so n o f a H o lla n d e r ; th e r e c e n t prom inenoe o f L e s lie H o r e - B e lls h a , an E n g lish m an o f M oroccan p a r e n ta g e ; th e em inence o f L ord B e a v e rb ro o k ,a "blue**nosen fro m Nova S c o t i a . The g r e a t v a r i e t y o f fa m ily names among th e B r i t i s h shows t h e i r d iv e r s e o r i g i n s .

— 26—

m a in ta in e d t h e i r m anner o f l i f e w ith t h e u tm o st c a lm n e ss . T his c o n s t r e s t s s t r i k i n g l y w ith th e f r a n t i c e f f o r t s o f Germany to r e g a i n t h e l o s t com m ercial p o s i t i o n , a f t e r 1919, a t a l l c o s t s . I t c o n t r a s t s e q u a lly w ith t h e a c q u ie s c e n c e o f A u s tr ia i n l o s t g re a tn e s s . The f i r s t n o t i c e a b l e a p p e a ra n c e o f any y o u th movement in E n g lan d was i n 1931, when th e Y outh H o s te l A s s o c ia tio n (Y .H .A .) was s t a r t e d .

T h is body made i t p o s s i b l e f o r y o u th from th e c i t i e s

t o w ander th o u g h th e E n g lis h c o u n tr y s id e , g a in in g know ledge o f E n g lis h c o u n tr y l i f e and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " M e rrie E ngland" o f v i l l a g e and fa rm . The lo v e f o r t r a d i t i o n was c o n sp ic u o u s i n t h i s e f f o r t. (1 ).

A fte rm a th o f th e F i r s t World W ar. Y outh i n th e B r i t i s h a rm ie s fo u g h t t h e war to a s u c c e s s f u l ou tco m e. Y outh s u f f e r e d th e p r i v a t i o n s a n d h a r d s h ip s o f w a r;y o u th was l e f t maimed and b ro k en i n h u n d red s o f h o s p i t a l s when th e c o n f l i c t e n d ed . Y outh i n E n g la n d , a s i n F ra n c e , B elgium an d e ls e w h e re ,w a s l e f t w ith a c o h e re n t m ass o f b ro k e n p ro m ise* : n o t w ith m e re ly a few p ro m ise s b ro k en b u t w ith a p p a r e n tly a s y s te m a tic b re a k in g o f e v e ry p ro m ise made them d u r in g th e w ar i t s e l f * No lo n g e r th e herc% o f t h e h o u r ,g r e a t num bers o f th e s e young men w ere l e f t w ith o u t any means o f s u p p o rt when th e y had b een "demobbed" and had oome beck i n t o c i v i l i a n l i f e *

(1)

D ic k ie , l . o . , p . 248

~2?~

Unemployment became c h ro n ic in th e s e im m ediate p o st-w a r y e a r s in E n g lan d .

T h is was by no m eans w h o lly due to th e e f f e c t s

o f th e w a r, b u t m ust be a s c r i b e d l a r g e l y to t h i s same " te c h n o lo ­ g i c a l unem ploym ent" t h a t was so c o n sp ic u o u s i n o u r own o o u n try . W orst a f f e c t e d was th e huge c o a l-m in in g i n d u s t r y , p r e v io u s ly th e r e a l b a s e o f th e B r i t i s h econom ic o r g a n i z a t i o n .

As in A m erica,

c o a l had become a " s i c k i n d u s t r y " , ev en b e fo r e th e w ar.

As in

A m erica, th e number o f m ines and o f m in e rs had become to o g r e a t ) b e c a u se o f im proved m eth o d s, o f o p e n in g o f new c o a l f i e l d s ( t h a t have o f K e n t, in th e s o u th o f E n g la n d , w hich c o u ld n o t^ b e e n o p e ra te d a t a l l u n d e r th e undev elo p ed m ethods o f even 1900, i s th e m ost s t r i k i n g o a s e ) , and b e c a u se o f th e i n c r e a s in g u se o f gasolfene and D ie s e l e n g in e s f o r b o th t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s t a t i o n a r y power. The s u f f e r i n g s o f y o u th , in th e se n s e o f a c t u a l p h y s ic a l w a n t, w ere d e f i n i t e l y l e s s th a n i n many c o u n tr i e s a t t h i s p e rio d . T h is was due p r i m a r il y t o th e i n s t i t u t i o n o f th e " D o le " , th e g o v e rn m e n ts sy stem o f r e l i e f .

I n s t i t u t e d i n 1918, th e d o le

a p p lie d t o a l l e x - s e r v i c e men u n t i l 1921*

■; Jfa ttie form o f a

sy stem o f unemployment co m p en satio n now f a m i l i a r to us it c o u n t r y f o u n d g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n from 1920 onward. .

in t h i s

But d o le s n e v e r do s a t i s f y y o u th ; and E n g lis h y o u th in th e 1920’ s was no e x c e p tio n to t h i s human d i s c o n te n t.

I d l e n e s s and

no hope f o r f u t u r e developm ent i n to s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g members o f th e oommunity s t i l l a te a t th e h e a r t s o f E n g lis h young men and women.

Y o uth became a c u te ly c o n s c io u s i n t h i s p e rio d t h a t t h e r e

was a c o n s ta n tly d im in is h in g em p h asis upon th e p u rp o s e s , aim s and a c t u a l acco m p lish m en ts f o r w hich th e y had fo u g h t.

— 26—

Such c o n d itio n s among E n g lis h y o u th l e d t o a re m a rk a b le d evelopm ent in th e f i e l d o f e d u c a tio n .

The F i s h e r A ct o f 1918,

d e v e lo p in g e d u c a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s , d id l i t t l e th e n a ti o n who had b een a c t i v e l y i n th e w ar,

f o r th e y o u th o f I t d id

h e lp m a t e r i a l l y th o s e o f th e n e x t y o u n g e r g ro u p , th e n c o m p let­ i n g th e p e rio d o f r e q u ir e d s c h o o lin g , by p r o v id in g e x te n s io n and v o c a tio n a l s c h o o ls o f many m ost u s e f u l s o r t s .

The F is h e r a c t

made th e n orm al and t y p i c a l E n g lis h e d u c a tio n c o n s i s t o f com. p u ls o r y s c h o o lin g from th e age o f se v e n to t h a t o f f o u r t e e n , w ith c o n ti n u a t i o n s c h o o ls on a p a r t - t im e b a s i s and com pulsory a t t e n ­ d an ce up to th e age o f e ig h t e e n .

T h is l e f t th e w a r-tim e y o u th

w ith o u t any p r o v is io n f o r i t s n e e d s. A re m a rk a b le sp o n ta n e o u s developm ent o f e d u c a tio n to o k p la c e among E n g lis h y o u th , and a l a t e r s e o tio n o f t h i s c h a p te r w i l l d e a l w ith i t .

We t u r n f i r s t to th e Y outh H o s te l movement b e -

o ause o f i t s more im m ediate s i g n i f i c a n c e .

The Y outh H o s te l Movement. E ngland was n o t th e w o r ld ’ s p io n e e r i n Y outh H o s te ls , a s th e German W andervBgel o r g a n i z a t i o n had d e v e lo p e d them a t l e a s t a s e a r l y a s 1905ll)»The E n g lis h grow th o f Y outh H o s te ls d a te s o n ly from 1 9 3 1 , and i s a d l r e o t p ro d u c t o f th e e r a o f econom ic d e­ p r e s s i o n , r a t h e r th a n o f th e a f te r m a th from th e F i r s t W orld War. Y e t w ith o u t th e im m ediate p o s t-w a r c o n d itio n s a s p r e v io u s form a­ t i v e f a c t o r s , i t i s s u r e l y d o u b tf u l i f th e Y outh H o s te ls w ould have had so u n i v e r s a l an a p p e a l and so g r e a t an e x te n s io n . (1) See C h a p te r I I , p p .5 8 , f f .

The Y outh H o s te l A s s o c ia tio n i s a g e n u in e Y outh Movement, I t had i t s in o e p tio n i n th e in d e p e n d e n t e f f o r t s o f th e young p e o p le th e m s e lv e s . I t was a d i r e c t o u tg ro w th o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith e x i s t i n g c o n d it i o n s .

The Y .H .A . i s a g ro u p in g o f y o u th

i n if e e l f to s u p p ly a n eed e n t i r e l y n e g le c te d by th e th e n e x is tin g o rg a n iz a tio n o f B r i t i s h l i f e . The aim s o f th e Y outh H o s te l A s s o c ia tio n I n c lu d e :

h e a lth

o f mind and body; enjoym ent o f t h e E n g lis h o o u n tr y s id e ; enjoym ent o f p o in ts o f h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t ; p r e s e r v a t i o n o f th e n a t u r a l b e a u ty o f th e c o u n tr y . T hese en d s a re prom oted by m a in ta in in g h o s t e l s f o r t h e u s e o f young p e o p le i n e x te n s iv e p e d e s t r i a n a n d c y c lin g t o u r s o f th e c o u n tr y . Thus th e Y .H .A . s e r v e s th e c o n sc io u s d e s i r e o f y o u th t o b re a k away from th e m onotonous r o u t i n e o f d u l l c i t y l i f e . O nly to o many o f th e Y .H .A . members had known l i t t l e

e l s e ; o n ly to o many o f them had s e e n t h i s

d u l l humdrum o f u n i n t e r e s t i n g l i v i n g a c c e p te d by t h e i r e l d e r s a s i f i t were t h e f i a t o f n a t u r e . The Y .H .A . was a b le to r e p o r t , a s e a r l y a s 1933, a m em bership of 2 5 ,0 0 0 p e rs o n s , w ith a p p ro x im a te ly 180 h o s t e l s th e n in o p e r a t i o n . By s o lv in g t h e pro b lem o f h y g ie n ic and s a f e o v e r n ig h t q u a r t e r s a t p r i o e s w ith in t h e r e a c h o f y o u th , th e Y .H .A . has prom oted much t r a v e l , m o b il i ty , and m u tu al c o n ta c t f o r f r i e n d s h i p am ongst th e young p e o p le o f E n g la n d . I t s f u n o t io n m ig h t n o t im p ro p e rly be com pared w ith th o s e o f R o ta ry o r K iw anis among th e o l d e r and e s t a b l i s h e d b u s in e s s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l men.

L ike t h e s e , i t s e r v e s i t s own group by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y

" m o b iliz in g f r i e n d s h i p " w ith in th o s e com peting i t s g ro u p .

- .3 0 —

The s c a l e o f o o s ts i s t r u l y re m a rk a b le .

M em bership i s 2s

6d (60 c e n ts a t th e r a t e o f exchange p re v io u s to 1 9 3 9 ), f o r p e r ­ so n s u n d er 25 y e a r s o f age and 5s ($ 1 .2 5 ) f o r th o s e above t h i s age.

At each

h o s t e l th e .c h a r g e p e r n ig h t i s lOd (20 c e n t s ) j a n d

m e a ls can be had f o r

as l i t t l e

a s a t o t a l o f 2s o r 2 /6 p e r day.

Some members a c t u a l l y t r a v e l f o r an o u tla y o f 3s 6d (80 c e n ts ) p e r day f o r a l l a c t u a l money o u t l a y s . A ll k in d s o f b u ild in g s have b e en tu r n e d to s e r v ic e a s y o u th h o s te ls .

Some w ere b o u g h t; o t h e r s d o n a te d ; and a few w ere b u i l t

f o r th e p u rp o s e .

A ll were e q u ip p e d f o r sim p le l i v i n g .

A young

p e rso n s t a r t i n g o u t i n th e m o rn in g , w i l l t r a v e l a l l d a y , to r e a c h a Y outh H o s te l aro u n d sundown.

H ere he w i l l f i n d a bed and

b l a n k e t s , c o o k in g u t e n s i l s , and w ash in g f a c i l i t i e s , q u ite a f t e r th e manner o f th e c lim b e r s ' h u ts m a in ta in e d i n o u r A m erican m o u n tain s by su c h b o d ie s a s th e A p p a la c h ia n M ountain C lub.

The

h o s t e l s a re o p e r a te d w ith a minimum num ber o f r u l e s and a m in i­ mum o f p a id w ork.

T here i s no s e r v i c e i n th e h o s t e l s : each m ust

s e rv e h im s e lf f u l l y .

O rder and good b e h a v io r a re r e q u i r e d , and

th e Y .H .A .*s own w arden in each h o s t e l , h im s e lf o r h e r s e l f o f th e same age g ro u p a s th e v i s i t i n g m em bers, e n f o r c e s th e few n e o e s s a ry r e g u l a t i o n s .

T hese in c lu d e m a in ly k e e p in g th e h o s t e l

I t s e l f c le a n , t i d y and undamaged. sh a re i n t h i s

Those who

w ill not bear th e ir

e f f o r t s u f f e r th e one p e n a l t y , l o s s o f m em bership

and i t s p r i v i l e g e o f u sin g th e h o s t e l s .

E ach h o s t e l w arden has

th e power to ta k e aWay a m em ber's c a rd and th u s end m em bership,

— 31—

f o r i n f r a c t i o n o f th e s e s e lf-im p o s e d r u l e s f o r th e g e n e r a l w e l­ fa re . D is c u s s in g th e d a i l y l i f e o f th e s e h o s t e l s , D ic k ie (1) t e l l s us th a t: Many o f them ( th e h o s t e ls ) a r e e x tre m e ly f i n e b u i l d ­ i n g s , p r o v id in g s p a c io u s common room s, s le e p in g d o rm i­ t o r i e s , and coo k in g and w ashing f a c i l i t i e s . T h ere a r e few new b u i ld i n g s : o ld and h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s have b een u sed a lm o st e x c l u s i v e l y , b e c a u se o f t h e i r in e x p e n s iv e ­ n e s s . B ut r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e and a g e , th e E o s t e l s a re alw ays c le a n . Each h o s t e l o f f e r s bed and b l a n k e t s . Each h o s t e l i s in c h arg e o f a w arden, who i s a fir m s u p p o r te r o f th e p u rp o s e s o f th e Y outh H o s te l A s s o c ia tio n and u n d e r­ s ta n d s th e p e o p le who t r a v e l u n d er i t s a u s p ic e s . In c a se o f i l l n e s s o r em ergency o f any k in d , he w i l l be o f i n ­ v a lu a b le a s s i s t a n c e . E very h o s t e l h a s i t s l i b r a r y , and o f t e n a r a d i o and a gram­ ophone.

T here a re maps o f th e s u r ro u n d in g c o u n try , show ing m ile ­

a g e s and r o a d s . g irls .

T h ere a r e s e p a r a te d o r m it o r i e s f o r boys and

(We m ig h t e x p la in t h a t among t h e B r i t i s h , a " d o rm ito ry "

alw ay s means a l a r g e room w h e re in a r e many b e d s , and n o t , a s i n A m erloan u sa g e , a b u i l d i n g i n w hich s t u d e n t s a t a c o lle g e have s e p a r a t e ro o m s).

T here i s a common-room, w here th e w a n d e re rs

assem b le f o r r e a d in g , w r i t i n g , p la y in g gam es, e a t i n g m e a ls , and f o r su ch impromptu e n te r ta in m e n ts a s may be o rg a n iz e d .

Here th e y

have oommunity s in g in g and h e re c o n v e r s a tio n g ro u p s g e t to d i s ­ c u s s in g p ro b lem s ( th e A m erloan te rm f o r t h i s i s " b u l l s e s s i o n s " ) . I n th e k i t c h e n , some o f th e t r a v e l l e r s p re p a re t h e i r own m e a ls , b u t th e w arden books f o r th o s e who may b e u n a b le to do so o r who c an pay th e low c h a rg e s f o r m e a ls .

(1) D ic k ie , I . e .

G re a t s t r e s s i s p la c e d upon c l e a n l i n e s s and h y g ie n e .

T here

i s o f c o u rs e a s e p a r a te bed f o r eac h p e rs o n , b u t e a c h g u e s t m ust u se a s p e c i a l ty p e o f s le e p in g b a g i n s t e a d o f bed l i n e n .

Members

may c a r r y t h e i r own s le e p in g b a g s , o r may h i r e one a t each h o s t e l f o r a few p e n ce .

From w hat h a s a p p e a re d a s th e r e s u l t o f f i n d in g

l a c k o f h y g ie n e among w ar e v a c u e e s d u r in g 1939 and 1940, we can u n d e rs ta n d t h a t t h i s em phasis upon s a n i t a t i o n i s a sp o n ta n e o u s e f f o r t by y o u th i t s e l f t o e sc a p e from d i s g u s t i n g c o n d it i o n s j n o t h i t h e r t o g e n e r a lly r e c o g n iz e d jb u t w e ll known to o n ly to o many o f th e young p e o p le a t f i r s t hand. N a t u r a l l y , y o u th a s i t v i s i t s t h e s e h o s t e l s in c lu d e s n o t o n ly th e u n m a rrie d , b u t many young m a rrie d c o u p le s . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t o f th e sp o n ta n e o u s o r i g i n and d e m o c ra tic n a tu r e o f th e Y .H .A. t h a t t r a v e l l e r s may n o t come by m otor o a r and u se th e h o s t e l s , b u t o n ly on f o o t o r by b i c y c l e .

The A m erican

r e a d e r may wonder a t t h i s , B u t he m ust r e c a l l t h a t E ng lan d i s f a r l e s s a m o to r-m inded n a tio n th a n a r e w e, and t h a t th e " c u t down f l i v v e r " so f r e q u e n t ly u se d by A m erican y o u th in th e 1 9 2 0 's and th e " te n d o l l a r j a l o p p i e s " o f A m erican y o u th i n 1940 a r e l i t e r a l l y unknown i n E n g la n d .

Even th e f o u r th -h a n d o r f i f t h - h a n d m o to rc y c le

i s h a r d ly known among any sav e th e e c o n o m ic a lly p r i v i l e g e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o th e aim s o f enjoym ent o f th e o u td o o rs and r e l i e f from th e b u sy o r humdrum l i f e o f th e c i t i e s , a n o th e r p u r­ p o se o f th e Y outh H o s te l movement i s to prom ote tm u tu a l- u n d e r­ s ta n d in g lanaon*.. y o u n g er p e o p le o f d i f f e r e n t econom ic c l a s s e s , o f d i f f e r e n t v o c a tio n a l t r a d i t i o n s (s h o p k e e p e rs , s k i l l e d w o rk e rs ,

— 33—

u n s k i l l e d w o rk e rs , w h i t e - c o lo r w o r k e rs , e t c . ) , o f d i f f e r e n t r e . g io n s w i t h in E n g la n d , and o f d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s .

We o f

A m erica, b e in g by h a b it m ig ra to ry and h a v in g no suoh d i f f e r e n c e s among us a s e x i s t among th e B r i t i s h , w here th e Y o rk sh ire m a n ’ s ' sp e e c h i s h a rd ly u n d e rs to o d by th e C ornishm an, may u n d e r e s tim a te th e v a lu e o f t h e r e g i o n a l m ix in g . Toung p e rs o n s from th e communist t o th e f a o i s t s , from th e r o c k - r ib b e d r e a c t i o n a r y to th e open-m inded l i b e r a l , from th e f a c t o r y w o rk e r to th e s tu d e n t from a p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l, from th e farm la d to th e j u n io r c l e r k , a l l m in g le in th e s e h o s t e l s on th e . common ground o f th e one a im :— to e n jo y o u td o o r l i f e w ith a l l t h e i r n a t u r a l young e n th u s ia sm .

And t h i s was d e l i b e r a t e l y c a r r i e d

f u r t h e r t i l l w ar s h u t i t o f f , by m aking a rra n g e m e n ts f o r welcom­ in g y o u th from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .

C om radeship u n d er th e s e f i n e

r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n d itio n s i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n b re a k in g down o l a s s h a tr e d s and n a t i o n a l a n im o s i t ie s .

The Y outh H o s te l i s d e s ig n e d ,

and d id b i d f a i r t i l l th e Second W orld War choked o f f i t s e f f o r t s , to h e lp s a fe g u a rd a g a i n s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r i n d u s t r i a l s t r i f e —by th e m o b il i z a ti o n o f f r i e n d s h i p .

W orkers E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n The W orkers E d u o a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n a o t u a l l y b eg an in 1903, foun d ed by A l b e r t M a^sbridge, and (1)

(1) A r t i c l e A d u lt E d u c a tio n . (A le x a n d e r D. L in d s a y , a u t h o r ) ; E n c y c lo p e d ia B r i i a n n i c a , New Y o rk , 1 4 th E d i t i o n , 1929, v o l. 1 , p . 185

— 34

" . . . . o r i g i n a l l y aim ed a t b r in g in g t o g e t h e r w orking c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s to p ro v id e f o r an e d u c a tio n , de­ sig n e d , n o t t o ta k e men ou t o f t h e i r o l a s s o r t r a d e ,h u t t o e q u ip them , w h a te v e r t h e i r o c c u p a tio n in l i f e sh o u ld b e , f o r th e work o f c i t i z e n s h i p . I t was to be a highw ay, n o t a l a d d e r . The e d u c a tio n i t d e s i r e d t o b r in g in to b e in g was t o be b r o a d ,i m p a r t i a l ,a n d s c h o l a r l y . . , . " The g r e a t grow th o f t h e W.E.A. came im m e d ia te ly a f t e r th e F i r s t World W ar.

A lth o u g h a p re -w a r n u o le u s e x i s t e d , th e h i s t o r y

o f i t s developm ent m ust o l a s s i f y t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a s one o f th e g r e a t , g e n u in e , sp o n ta n e o u s y o u th movements i n p o st-w a r E n g la n d . By 1928, th e W .E.A. had oome to in c lu d e 2 5 ,0 0 0 members, n e a r l y 8 ,0 0 0 a f f i l i a t e d u n i t s , and n e a r l y 600 " b ra n c h e s " o r l o c a l u n i t s . The te rm , " th e e d u c a tio n a l s i d e o f t h e la b o r m ovem ents" h a s o f t e n a n d c o r r e c t l y b een a p p lie d t o t h e W .E.A. About 800 la b o r u n io n s

a r e d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d o r a s s o c i a t e d w ith l t ( l ) .

The

W .E.A.

i t s e l f i s a c o n s t i t u e n t o f th e T rad e U nion C o n g re ss, th e

m ost p o w e rfu l u n fy in g fo ro e w ith in B r i t i s h l a b o r . V a rio u s p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t e a e h e r s , t h e A d u lt S chool Movement (a n o rg a n iz e d a s s o c i a t i o n ) , The C lub and I n s t i t u t e Unicaa,

t h e Y .M .C .A ., and o t h e r gro u p s a re a l l c o o p e ra tin g w ith

th e W .E.A.

I n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e a s w e ll a s i n name, th e W .E.A. i s

b o th n o n - p o l i t i c a l a n d n o n - p a r t i s a n , a s w e ll a s n o n - s e c t a r i a n . T h is l a t t e r f e a t u r e i s o f s p e c i a l im p o rt i n E n g la n d , where c h u rc h l i n e s have in th e p a s t s t r o n g l y d iv id e d th e p e o p le . I n th e W.E.A. n e i t h e r a d v e rs e comment b e ca u se o f any member’ s churoh c o n n e c tio n n o r p ropaganda f o r any c h u rc h ’ s d o c t r i n e s f i n d p l a c e . The f i g u r e s f o r 1939 show t h a t a p p ro x im a te ly 30,000 p e o p le

(1)

The e x a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o th e W .E.A. v a ry g r e a t l y , and f o r t h a t r e a s o n t h i s d o u b le te rm o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s u s e d h e r e .

—3 5 —

a tte n d e d W.E.A. c l a s s e s i n t h a t y e a r . 6 f wh'lnii1 two t h i r d s were men.

The women do n o t seem to s e g r e g a te th e m se lv e s i n t o any p a r ­

t i c u l a r s u b je c ts o f in s tr u c tio n .

The g r e a t m a j o r it y o f th e W.E.A.

p e o p le a r e w e ll w i t h in th e age ra n g e t h a t b r in g s them under th e te rm " y o u t h ." The M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a tio n h a s in r e c e n t y e a r s p ro v id e d f i ­ n a n c ia l g r a n t s - i n - a i d each y e a r , to h e lp th e W.E.A. c a r r y on i t s w ork. We d e s c r ib e th e o r g a n i z a t i o n and p ro c e d u re o f W.E.A. by th e fo llo w in g q u o ta tio n from S ta n le y H igh: (1) The A s s o c ia tio n i s o rg a n iz e d on a f e d e r a l b a s i s . The u n i t ' i s th e b ra n c h . T h is b ra n c h can form anywhere i n an i n d u s t r i a l o e n te r , a tow n, o r an a g r i c u l t u r a l comm unity. I t form s a l o c a l c o u n c il whose f u n c tio n i t i s to k eep a l i v e th e i n t e r e s t o f th e community i n th e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T hese b ra n c h e s have been form ed i n th e m ost rem ote p a r t s o f E n g lan d . F o r th e f i r s t tim e in many y e a r s , n o n c o n fo rm ists and members o f th e E s ta b ­ l i s h e d C hurch have come t o g e t h e r to u n i te on t h i s com­ mon program . The work i s u n d e r th e s u p e r v is o r y d i r e c t i o n o f th e U n iv e r s ity J o i5 tC o m m itte e s , who se e t o i t t h a t h ig h s ta n d a r d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , h ig h s c h o l a r l y l e v e l s , a re m a in ta in e d . N a tio n a l i n i t s s c o p e , th e movement in c lu d e s s e v e r a l g ro u p s o f y o u th .

One g ro u p c o n s i s t s o f th o s e t r y i n g t o e q u ip th e m se lv e s

f o r p o s i t i o n s f o r w hich th e y a s p i r e , b u t f o r w hich th e y la o k th e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n , due to th e d e f e c t i v e so h o o l o r g a n iz a tio n o f th e o l d e r o r d e r .

(1) S ta n le y H ig h .

O th e rs who a r e in W.E.A. o l a s s e s a r e m o tiv a te d

The R e v o lt o f Y outh. New Y o rk ,

p. 38

—3 & -

by d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith th e s o c i a l o r d e r , and se e k e d u c a tio n in o r d e r t h a t th e y may be com petent to ta k e t h e i r p lac es i n b u i l d ­ in g a b e t t e r s o c i e t y . The work c a r r i e d on f a l l s i n to s e v e r a l g ro u p in g s . P e rh ap s m ost s i g n i f i c a n t , b e c a u se u s u a l l y th e y a re t h e r o u te by w hich new members e n t e r in to W.B.A. a c t i v i t i e s , a re th e oney ear c la s s e s .

Such c l a s s e s c o v e r , i n t e r a l i a : — p o l i t i c a l p ro b ­

lem s; p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l p h ils o p h y ; s o c i a l p ro b lem s; E n g lis h l i t e r a t u r e ; C o n tin e n ta l l i t e r a t u r e s ; b io lo g y ; and m u sic.

The

u s u a l m ethod o f o p e r a t io n i s th e " s tu d y c i r c l e " , w i t h some member o f th e g ro u p a c t i n g a s l e a d e r . T h ere a re v a r io u s in te r m e d ia te g ro u p in g s o f w ork, w hich v a ry so much f o r l o c a l re q u ire m e n ts t h a t i t w ould b e d i f f i o u l t to d e s c r ib e them a d e q u a te ly . The h ig h e s t l e v e l o f work i s th e " T u t o r i a l C la s s e s " , w hich These

c o v er t h r e e y e a r s o f work.Head^have a s t h e i r aim m aking th e mem­ b e r s a b l e , a s s c h o l a r s , to h a n d le stu d y a t th e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l ( c o rre s p o n d in g ro u g h ly to th e sophom ore y e a r and upw ards o f th e c o lle g e s in A m e ric a ).

In d e e d , u n i v e r s i t y p ro c e d u re s a re q u ite

avow edly c o p ie d , u n d e r a g en u in e scheme o f s tu d e n t s e lf - g o v e r n ­ m en t.

C la s s e s m eet tw e n ty -f o u r tim e s i n s i x m o n th s, f o r tw o -h o u r

s e s s i o n s , and p r a c t i o a l l y e v e ry n o n - te c h n ic a l s u b j e c t o f th e " p r e p a r a to r y s c h o o l" l e v e l i s c o v e re d .

N a t u r a l ly th e U n iv e r s ity

J o i n t C om m ittees g iv e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to t h i s p a r t o f th e W .E .A .'s a c tiv itie s . The c h a r a c t e r o f th e s t u d i e s p u rsu e d gives us th e key t o th e

—3 * ~

u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e W.E.A.

Q u ite c l e a r l y i t i s n o t a movement

from w hich th e young p e o p le hope t o r e o e iv e " p r a c t i o a l b e n e f i t " in th e m o n etary s e n s e o r in th e se n se o f aim in g t o e sc a p e from t h e i r econom ic g ro u p in g s i n to o t h e r and more fa v o r a b le o n e s. Such s u b j e c t s a s m odem h i s t o r y , The V i c t o r i a n Age, N in e te e n th C en tu ry E n g lis h L i t e r a t u r e , s o c i a l p s y c h o lo g y , and eoonom ics, c e r t a i n l y do n o t o f f e r v o c a tio n a l v a lu e s t o w orkingm en.

The

w hole movement i s p e rm e ated w ith th e d e s i r e f o r a l i b e r a l edu­ c a t i o n , w ith th e t r u e l i b e r a l p o in t o f view o f w a n tin g to u n d er­ s ta n d th e w o rld in w hich we l i v e . The s p i r i t o f t h e W.E.A. movement i s w e l l shown by th e s e two e x c e r p ts from c o n v e r s a tio n s r e p o r t e d by High ( 1 ).

A Y ork­

s h i r e m echanic spoke th u s : The Workmen’s ' E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n h a s shown me th e t r u e s p i r i t o f e d u c a tio n . Now I f i n d t h a t ed­ u c a tio n im p a r ts to me a hope, a jo y , so m e th in g con­ s ta n tly to s t r i v e fo r, b u t never a tta in e d , in f a c t, i t is l i f e i ts e l f . T h is so g e ts h o ld o f one t h a t one w an ts t o t e l l everybody a b o u t i t , w a n ts ev ery o n e to r e a l i z e th e h a p p in e s s i t g iv e s . A shop a s s i s t a n t spoke a s f o llo w s : I t may b e d i f f i c u l t f o r you t o r e a l i z e how much . th e W orkers' E d u o a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n summer sc h o o l means t o th o s e o f u s who a re more o r l e s s I s o l a t e d and whose l i v e s a re c irc u m s c rib e d by th e n arro w l i m i t s im posed by econom ic c irc u m s ta n c e s . I t was n o t so much w hat I g a in e d from any l e c t u r e , b u t a m e n ta l and s p i r ­ i t u a l s tim u lu s . The p r a c t i c a l v a lu e o f even a w e e k 's stu d y d o e s n o t l i e in t h e amount o f know ledge g a in e d a t t h a t tim e , b u t in th e d i r e c t i o n and g u id a n c e w hich en­ a b le us t o g r a p p le w ith th e problem o f o u r s e lv e s . We a re h e lp e d to h e lp o u r s e lv e s .

(1) S ta n le y H ig h , I . e . , pp. 3 4 , 41

— 38—

T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s c e r t a i n l y j u s t i f i e d i t s w o rth to th e n a t i o n , when a m e c h a n ic ’ s a s s i s t a n t ( " m a c h in e s t’ s h e lp e r " a s we w ould c a l l him in A m erica) u s e s su c h e f f e c t i v e E n g lis h .

T h is

m ec h an ic, l i k e m ost W.E.A. m em bers, view s e d u c a tio n a s "some­ th in g to s t r i v e f o r , b u t n e v e r to a t t a i n . "

In d e e d , he h a s th e

Jo h n Dewey p o in t o f view i n c o n s id e r in g e d u c a tio n a s a n e v e re n d in g p ro c e s s o f g ro w th , l a s t i n g th ro u g h l i f e .

O th e r E n g lis h Y outh M ovem ents. T here a r e s e v e r a l y o u th movements o f a r e l i g i o u s n a tu r e i n E n g lan d .

One o f t h e s e , The G r a i l , i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n c h a r a c t e r ,

a s b ra n c h e s have b een o rg a n iz e d i n Germany and The N e th e rla n d s a s w e ll a s i n G re a t B r i t a i n .

The Second W orld War has a p p a r e n tly

d e s tro y e d th e s e b ra n c h e s f o r a t l e a s t a tim e .

The G r a il i s l i m i ­

t e d t o C a th o l i c s , and h a s ^ l t s c e n t r a l o r g a n iz a tio n young women who have ta k e n vow s^but who d r e s s i n th e s e o u la r f a s h i o n o f o u r own tim e s .

The o b j e c t o f t h i s s o c i e t y i s " to g iv e C a th o lic

y o u th wholesome r e c r e a t i o n , t r u e o u l t u r e , and to combat th e dan ­ g e r s o f th e t i m e s ."

E d u c a tio n a l a c t i v i t y , m odeled a f t e r th e

W.E.A. i s c o n d u c te d . The S tu d e n t V o lu n te e r Movement, e v a n g e li c a l i n n a tu r e and e x i s t i n g m a in ly among n o n c o n fo rm is t y o u th , d a te s b ack t o 1892, w ith i t s f i r s t c o n v e n tio n i n 1896.

A lth o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l in

i

c h a r a c t e r , G re a t B r i t a i n and e s p e c i a l l y E n g la n d , h a s alw ays b een i t s c e n t e r and home.

The f o llo w in g q u o ta tio n w i l l g iv e us

i t s g e n e s is , (1) and no d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s r e c e n t s t a t u s i s h e re n eeded: S h o r tly a f t e r a c o n v e n tio n h e ld i n Des M oines, i n 1892, R o b e rt W ild e r s t a r t e d f o r I n d i a and sto p p e d o f f i n E ngland on h i s way. He g iv e s th e f o llo w in g r e ­ p o r t f o r E ngland and S c o tla n d : " I spoke i n C am bridge, O x fo rd , E d in b u rg h , G lasgow , A berdeen and London. I t i s a s t o n is h in g how r a p i d l y th e id e a o f th e S tu d e n t V olun­ t e e r s p re a d a b ro a d . The f i r s t c o n v e n tio n o f th e S tu d e n t V o lu n te e r Movement was h e ld i n L iv e rp o o l i n 1896. T here w ere o v e r se v en h u n d red d e l e g a t e s from tw m n ty -th re e d i f ­ fe re n t n a tio n a litie s . I t l e d to th e e x te n s io n o f th e V o lu n te e r Movement to many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . " G overnm ental A c t i v i t y i n A id o f Y outh I n th e i n tr o d u c to r y c h a p te r i t h a s b e en m entioned t h a t a l i n e m ust be drawn b etw een sp o n ta n e o u s Y outh Movements and g o v ern m en tal a c t i v i t y f o r y o u th .

Thus i t i s n e c e s s a r y to s e p a ­

r a t e i n to t h i s s e c t i o n a num ber o f s i g n i f i c a n t o f f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f th e B r i t i s h governm ent. Thanks to th e p r e s s u r e o f v o lu n ta r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and i n p a r t a s a t a k i n g o v e r o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , th e E n g lis h g o v e rn ­ ment and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have g iv e n much a t t e n t i o n to y o u th w e lf a r e .

B e fo re th e p a s s a g e o f th e Unemployment A ct o f 1934,

em p lo y ers had to c o n tr i b u te t o th e Unemployment In su ra n c e Fund f o r a l l em ployees aged 16 y e a r s and o v e r. w o rk e rs w ere p r e f e r r e d .

H ence, p r e - a d o le s c e n t

The 1934 a c t e n c o u ra g e d y o u th to rem ain

i n sc h o o l beyond th e age o f com pulsory a tte n d a n c e , by an i n ­ g e n io u s m ethod o f unem ploym ent in s u r a n c e c r e d i t f o r sc h o o l a t ­ te n d a n c e . #,Y outh la b o r" i s now e n t i t l e d to r e l i e f a f t e r t h i r t y

(1) Gordon P o r th e a d , The S tu d e n t V o lu n te e r Movement.

-4 0 w eekly c o n t r i b u t i o n s have b e en made by em ployer and em ployee, fu rth e r B ut th e a c t^ p r o v id e s t h a t f o r e v e ry sc h o o l y e a r o f a tte n d a n c e beyond th e com pulsory age l i m i t , each young p e rs o n s h a l l r e c e iv e c r e d i t f o r th e e q u iv a le n t o f t e n w eekly paym ents to w ard Unemploy­ m ent I n s u r a n c e . I n 1 9 20, J u n io r I n s t r u c t i o n C e n te rs w ere e s t a b l i s h e d , su b ­ s i d i z e d b y th e M i n i s t r y o f L ab o u r.

The p u rp o se s in te n d e d w ere

to keep unem ployed y o u th , b etw een a g es 14 and 18 o f f th e s t r e e t s and o u t

o f m i s c h i e f , and to p ro v id e t r a i n i n g t o p re p a re them f o r

work a s soon a s th e y c o u ld f i n d jo b s .

An a tte m p t was made to

have a l l unem ployed young p e o p le a tt e n d th e s e c e n t e r s . A tte n d a n c e r e q u ir e d a t C e n te r c l a s s e s t o t a l l e d 15 h o u rs p e r w eek.

S u b je c ts g iv e n (and u s u a lly r e q u i r e d o f a l l th o s e in th e

c la s s e s ) w ere: E n g lis h , a r i t h m e t i c , c i v i c s , sp e e c h t r a i n i n g , e l o c u t i o n , h y g ie n e , and s c i e n c e , t o g e th e r w ith " p r a c t i c a l c o u rs e s " ( r e a l l y p r e v o c a tio n a l o r s e m i- v o c a tio n a l c o u rs e s i n th e e le m e n ts o f m e ta l w o rk in g or wood w o rk in g ).

The p u rp o se and o r i e n t a t i o n

o f th e work i s th u s d e s c r ib e d by W illia m s (1 ): "They (th e p u p ils ) a r e n o t t r a i n e d f o r any p a r ­ t i c u l a r k in d o f em ploym ent, b u t f o r a n y th in g t h a t may t u r n u p , th ro u g h th e i n c u l c a t i o n o f h a b i t s o f c o n c e n tr a ­ t i o n , p u n c t u a l i t y , a l e r t n e s s , and c a re i n th e u se o f e quipm ent and m a t e r i a l s . In th e o r y , i f n o t i n f a c t , a l l s u b j e c t s a re d e s ig n e d to be b ro u g h t i n t o r e l a t i o n w ith e a c h o t h e r , and t h e i r c o n ta c t s w ith *

th e e v e ry d a y e x p e rie n c e s o f l i f e a re intended to b e s t r e s s e d w h erev er p o s s i b l e .

I n view o f th e " fo rm a l d i s c i p l i n e " p u rp o se s

(1) W. T h a to h e r W illia m s . Y outh A W orld P ro b lem . W ashington, D. C ., Government P r i n t i n g o f f i c e , 192^. p. 46

— 41—

aim ed a t , we may w e ll have d o u b ts a b o u t th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n ( 1 )• V

The M in is tr y o f :a b o u r s u b s id iz e d each J u n io r I n s t r u c t i o n

7

C e n te r t h a t had been s e t up by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s , w ith g r a n t s - i n a id c o v e rin g 75# o f th e m ain ten a n ce c o s t o f e ac h C e n te r . L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o u ld n o t be com p elled to e s t a b l i s h c e n t e r s , b u t i n n e a r l y e v e ry i n d u s t r i a l community th e y d id s o . The p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e o f o rg a n iz e d l a b o r s e c u re d t h i s r e s u l t . L abor E xchanges w ere s e t up by an Act o f P a rlia m e n t i n 1909. They a r e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d to w a rd s a id f o r y o u th . S in c e th e y s e r v e y o u th e x t e n s i v e l y , th e y m ust have b r i e f m en tio n h e r e . Eaoh c h i l d le a v in g sc h o o l i s r e p o r t e d to t h e l o c a l Labor E xchange, w ith f u l l in f o r m a tio n t o a id in h i s p la c e m e n t. S e v e re unem ploym ent i n t h e im m ed iate p o s t-w a r p e rio d l e t to c o o rd in a te d e f f o r t s , v i a t h e M in is tr y o f L a b o u r, t o make p la c e m e n t s e r v i c e more th a n l o c a l i n i t s w o rk in g . I n c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s p l a n , young p e rs o n s were s u p p lie d w ith c l o t h i n g , and w ith f a r e to l o c a l i t i e s where eaem ploym ent c o u ld be h a d .

When wages i n jo b s th u s se c u re d

were i n s u f f i c i e n t , t h e Government made u p , v i a th e d o le , th e minimum-wage s ta n d a r d o f 25s ($ 6 .2 5 ) p e r week. E ach L abor Exchange had an a d v is o ry c o m m ittee , r e p r e s e n t i n g e m p lo y e rs, w o r k e r s ,t e a c h e r s , and th e l o c a l governm ent b o a rd s .

A C e n tr a l A d v iso ry Committee f o r E ngland and one f o r W ales c o o r d in a t ed th e work o f th e l o c a l c o m m itte e s. F o r th e

A m erioan r e a d e r , n o te m ust M

made

(1) W illia m s ( l . c ) i s o u r a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e s e p u rp o s e s . He i s q u o tin g a ^ r i t i s h in f o r m a n t, a p p a r e n t l y n o t an e d u c a to r . The o b s o le te p y s c h o lo g ic a l dogma im p lie d may be o n ly th e w ordinc of th is r e p o r te r.

-4 a h e re t h a t th e g e n e r a l l e v e l o f p r i c e s , house r e n t s , e t o . , i s much lo w er i n E ngland th a n i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , and h a s had t h i s same r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r more th a n h a l f a c e n tu r y .

25s i n E ngland w i l l

amount to a s much in " r e a l w ages" a s $ 1 1 .0 0 to $ 12.00 i n th e U ni­ te d S ta te s . A n o th e r, and i n some ways f o r o u r p u rp o se th e m ost s i g n i f i ­ c a n t , o f th e g o v ern m en tal o rg a n s d e a l in g w ith y o u th i n E n g la n d , i s th e s e r i e s o f j u v e n i l e O r g a n iz a tio n s Com m ittees w hich came i n to e x is te n c e im m ed iately fo llo w in g th e F i r s t World War.

An o f f i c i a l

com m ittee was form ed by th e Home O f f ic e d u rin g t h a t w a r, i n a n a tte m p t t o m eet th e p ro b lem o f ju v e n ile c rim e .

L a t e r t h i s com­

m it t e e was t r a n s f e r r e d to th e B oard o f E d u c a tio n , who have con­ tin u e d t o have th e a p p o in tm en t o f th e com m ittee. T h is n a t i o n a l com m ittee makes no g r a n t s o f money, b u t g iv e s a d v ic e to and c o o r d in a te s th e work o f th e l o c a l J u v e n ile O rg a n i­ z a t i o n C om m ittees.

The l o c a l c o m m ittee s, fu n d -h o ld in g b o d ie s , a re

oomposed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s and g ro u p s in ­ t e r e s t e d i n y o u th a c t i v i t i e s . The m ain f u n c tio n s o f th e l o c a l J . O . C . ’ s a re f i v e : 1.

To a o t a s m e e tin g g ro u n d s f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f ju v e n ile

o r g a n i z a t i o n s and f o r a l l p e rs o n s engaged i n ju v e n ile w ork, f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f conmon p ro b lem s and common a c t io n . 2.

To a c t a s a body r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l J u v e n ile o r g a n i­

z a t i o n s , e x p r e s s in g t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e o p in io n on th o s e m a tte r s ab o u t w hich th e y can sp e ak w ith one v o ic e .

—49—

3.

To a c t a s a l i n k b etw een j u v e n i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l o o a l

e d u c a tio n a u t h o r i t i e s which prom ote ju v e n i l e w e lf a r e . 4.

To a s s i s t v o lu n ta r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n r e c r u i t i n g l e a d e r s

and h e l p e r s , and to a c t a s c l e a r i n g h o u s e s , f in d in g s u i t a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n ju v e n ile o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r p e rs o n s whose s e r ­ v ic e s a s l e a d e r s a re to be had. 5.

I n g e n e r a l, to c a r r y onward

a c t i v i t i e s w hich a re be­

yond th e scope o f any s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . "The p r o j e o t s c o n d u cted by th e Com m ittees c o n s i s t c h i e f l y o f e d u c a ti o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r j u v e n i l e s . They in c lu d e e v e n in g c l a s s e s , a r t s and c r a f t s w o rk , d ra m a tic so ­ c i e t i e s , p h y s ic a l t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s , and th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f oamping t r i p s , and a r e made p o s s ib l e by fu n d s w hich a r e s u p p le ­ m ented by e q u a l amounts p a id by th e n a t i o n a l B oard o f E d u c a ti o n ." (1)

S ays W illia m s o f t h i s e f f o r t :

(2)

"The j u v e n i l e O r g a n iz a tio n s Com m ittees a re an e x c e l l e n t ex­ ample o f th e c o o p e r a tio n betw een th e governm ent and v o lu n ta r y b o d ie s w hich i s an o u ts ta n d in g f e a t u r e o f B r i t i s h s o o i a l a d m in is­ tra tio n . " T here i s a ls o a N a tio n a l C o u n cil f o r S o c ia l S e r v ic e , w hich m ust h e re be m en tio n e d b e c a u se th e group o f men and women imme­ d i a t e l y above 18 y e a r s o f age a r e i t s c h ie f i n t e r e s t and b e n e -

(1)

W illia m s , I . e .

p .47.

(2) W illia m sj l . c #

p. 4 8 .



fic ia rie s .

44 —

T h is body was form ed i n 1923, and r e c e iv e d an impe­

t u s i n 1 9 3 6 , when th e th e n P rin c e o f W ales c a l l e d p u b lio a t t e n ­ t i o n to th e n e ed f o r o c c u p a tio n a l c e n t e r s f o r th e unem ployed. T here w ere a b o u t 2 ,0 0 0 o f th e s e c e n t e r s i n 1939.

The M in is tr y

o f L abour p ro v id e d h a l f th e e x p e n se s f o r th e s e c e n t e r s u n t i l 1938.

O th e r Y outh O r g a n iz a tio n s W ith t h i s s u rv e y th e Y outh Movement o r g a n i z a t i o n s in th e s t r i c t se n se and th e o f f i c i a l a id i n g b o d ie s have now b e en c o v e re d . The r e a d e r w i l l no d o u b t n o t i c e th e a b sen ce o f m e n tio n o f num er­ ous b o d ie s , such a s th o s e c o n c e rn in g th e m a in te n a n c e o f p la y , s p o r t s and cam ping. s tric tly

The o m issio n i s i n t e n t i o n a l , f o r th e s e a re they

ju v e n ile r a t h e r th a n y o u th o r g a n iz a tio n s } a n d ^ a r e by no

means com parable w ith e i t h e r th e v o lu n ta r y y o u th g ro u p s o r th e o f f i c i a l a id in g b o d ie s . The fu n d a m e n ta l b a s i s f o r t h e i r o m issio n i s t h a t th e y d e a l w ith p e o p le y o u n g er th a n th o s e in c lu d e d i n t h i s stu d y ? and o nly i n c i d e n t a l l y w ith V o u th * i n th e se n se h e r e i n u s e d .

The J . O . C . ’ s

m ight come w i t h in t h i s b a s i s f o r n o n -m e n tio n , w ere i t n o t t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s l a p w e ll i n t o th e age group t h a t we a re c o n c e r­ n ed w ith . The o m is sio n o f Boy S o o u ts , G i r l S c o u ts , Boys* O lu b s, and th e l i k e i s o f c o u rs e due to t h e i r d e a l in g w ith j u v e n i l e s below th e age w ith w hich we a r e d e a l in g . No in f o rm a tio n h as b e e n found a s to a n y th in g c o rre s p o n d in g t o th e J u n i o r Red C ro ss i n A m erica; n o r h a s any been l o c a t e d on

r a d i c a l movements among y o u th o r r e a c t i o n a r y movements ( f a s c i s t ) th e re in .

--4 6 -CHAPTER I I SUMMARY

E ngland and t h e o th e r d e o m o c rac ie s a r e l e s s i n c l i n e d to w a rd s o rg a n iz e d y o u th m ovements th a n t h e more a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o u n t r i e s . E n g lan d h as alw ays h e ld t o i t s t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f l i f e , a lth o u g h i t h a s r e c e i v e d a n d absorbed num erous im m ig ra n ts from e ls e w h e re . E n g lan d lo n g d om inated th e w o rld i n commerce and b u s i n e s s . When t h i s l e a d e r s h i p e n d e d , E ngland s t a u n c h ly r e t a i n e d i t s t r a d i t i o n a l ways o f l i f e . T h is

was n o t f o r la c k o f p r o g r e s s iv e n e s s

b u t b e ca u se o f s i n c e r e l i k i n g f o r th e o ld B r i t i s h w ays. L ike th o s e i n o th e r c o u n t r i e s , th e y o u th o f E ngland s u f f e r e d much a f t e r t h e F i r s t World War, and f o r t h e same r e a s o n s . They fo u n d t h a t t h e p ro m ise s g iv e n them were n o t k e p t , a f t e r th e war was won. B r i t i s h y o u th did n o t s u f f e r a s much a s th o s e in t h e d e f e a te d c o u n t r i e s , b e ca u se t h e D ole sy ste m gave m onetary a id f o r th o s e i n d i s t r e s s . I n 1931 th e r e began a y o u th movement known a s th e Youth H o s t e l s . T h is was o f y o u th o r i g i n , a r e s u l t o f y o u th * s own d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The H o s te ls f u r n is h e d means by which y o u th i n th e l e s s fa v o r e d econom ic s t r a t a c o u ld b re a k away from th e humdrum o f d a i l y r o u t i n e , to e n jo y new s c e n e s , open c o u n tr y , and c o n ta c t w ith v a r io u s o t h e r g ro u p s . The H o s te l movement s p re a d r a p i d l y th ro u g h o u t E n g la n d . The W orkers* E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n , o rg a n iz e d a b o u t 1 9 0 3 , e n te r e d on r e a l grow th a f t e r th e F i r s t W orld War. I t s s e r v i c e was t o f u r n i s h men o f th e w orking c l a s s , e s —

— 47—

p e o l a l l y young m en, w ith an e d u c a tio n t h a t w ould a id them i n t h e i r work and make f o r good c i t i z e n s h i p .

T h is heoame a

l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n h a v in g 600 b ra n c h e s i n 1928 w ith a b o u t 2000 a s s o c i a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s .

F i n a l l y th e M in lstffry o f Edu­

c a t i o n p ro v id e d f i n a n c i a l g r a n t s f o r i t s s u p p o r t. E ngland h as i t s r e l i g i o u s m ovem ents*for ex am p le, th e G r a i l , an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r young women} th e S tu d e n t V o lu n te e r m ovem ent; and o t h e r s . The B r i t i s h governm ent i s m in d fu l o f y o u th w e lf a r e .

By

th e a c t o f 1934; y o u th i s e n c o u ra g e d to re m a in i n sc h o o l beyond t h e com pulsory age and unem ploym ent in s u ra n c e c r e d i t i s g r a n te d f o r s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e . I n 1920 j u n i o r I n s t r u c t i o n C e n te rs w ere e s t a b l i s h e d and s u b s id i z e d .

The p u rp o se o f th£se.w as to k e ep y o u th from 14 t o

18 o f f th e s t r e e t and g iv e them t r a i n i n g so t h a t th e y would be b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r jo b s . The L ab o r Exchange A c t o f 1909 p ro v id e d f o r y o u th a s w e ll as a d u lts .

It

aim ed a t b r i n g in g t o g e t h e r th e w orker and

th e jo b . D u rin g th e F i r s t W orld War an o f f i c i a l com m ittee was form ed by t h e Home O f f i c e t o m eet th e pro b lem o f j u v e n i l e c rim e .

The f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s w ere ta k e n o v e r by th e B oard o f

E d u c a tio n .

CHAPTER

III.

THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN GERMANY.

-4 9



CHAPTER I I I THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN GERMANY

The German B ackground German y o u th movements c a n n o t be u n d e rs to o d , n o r can th e y b e p r o p e r ly e v a l u a t e d , w ith o u t a know ledge, how ever s k e tc h y , o f th e background o f eoonomic and s o c i a l d e v elo p m e n ts a lo n g w ith w hich th e y a r o s e .

The f i r s t and fu n d am e n ta l c o n s i d e r a ti o n i s

t h a t Germany i s a "new c o u n try " e c o n o m ic a lly , d e s p i t e i t s lo n g and v a r ie d h i s t o r y . P r i o r to a p p ro x im a te ly 1860, Germany was s t i l l a backw ard c o u n tr y , l i t t l e

d e v e lo p e d i n d u s t r i a l l y , and w ith o n ly a sm a ll p o r­

t i o n o f i t s p o p u la tio n u rb a n o r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d .

The n e x t f o r t y

y e a r s saw th e developm ent o f Germany i n t o a le a d in g modern la n d o f m a n u fa c tu re and commerce, w ith th e Germans p u sh in g s t e a d i l y i n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l commerce.

What had been v i l l a g e s and sm a ll

tr a d i n g tow ns^grew i n t o huge i n d u s t r i a l and com m ercial c i t i e s w ith a lm o st s t a r t l i n g sp e e d .

The t y p i c a l German y o u th o f th e p e rio d

from 1890 to 1925 was a p e rs o n whose p a r e n ts had grown up on th e la n d ; y e t he h im s e lf was u rb an by b i r t h and u p b rin g in g ^ a n d knew o f th e s im p le r r u r a l l i f e o f h i s p a r e n t s o n ly by h e a rs a y and w hat was t o l d w i t h in th e fa m ily c i r c l e . We have th u s a n a tio n i n w hich th e t r a d i t i o n s w ere in co n ­ f l i c t w ith th e c u r r e n t econom ic l i f e . The p r e v io u s h i s t o r y o f Germany form ed th e German t r a d i t i o n and "fo lk -m y th U s" i n to a d i s t i n c t i v e form .

D iv id ed a s Germany had

b een in to s e v e r a l h u ndred s e p a r a te s t a t e s b e fo r e th e d a y s o f

— HO —

N a p o leo n , i n to t h i r t y - o d d s t a t e s from h i s tim e t i l l th e u n i f i c a ­ t i o n u n d e r P r u s s i a n d o m in a tio n in 1 8 7 0 , i t can be u n d e rs to o d t h a t th e f e e l i n g o f n a t i o n a l i t y was d i s t i n c t l y a h o p e , an e m o tio n , r a t h e r th a n an a c c e p te d f a c t .

T h is gave i t a s o r t o f " e v a n g e li-

o a l n c h a r a c t e r , i n t h a t th e id e a o f German n a t i o n a l i t y was a do c­ t r i n e to be p r o p a g a te d , b u t t r e s s e d b y a l l s o r t s o f c o n tr i b u to r y t h e o r i e s , and e n fo rc e d f i n a l l y a g a i n s t l e s s e r l o y a l t i e s . F u r th e r c o m p lic a tio n s a ro s e from th e fo llo w in g c o n d it i o n s : R e l i g i o u s l y , Germany was d i v id e d , w ith a p p ro x im a te ly th e n o r th e r n two t h i r d s o f th e p o p u la tio n a lm o s t e n t i r e l y P r o t e s t a n t , and th e s o u th e rn two t h i r d s uncom prom isingly C a th o lio .

S c a tt e r e d

th ro u g h o u t t h e c o u n try was a m in o r ity o f ab o u t two p e r c e n t ad­ h e r in g to th e Je w ish c h u rc h . Owing t o th e "D rang Nach O ste n " c o lo n i z a t io n from th e E lb e to th e V i s t u l a i n th e 1 2 th to 1 4 th C e n tu r ie s , l a r g e i s l a n d s o f p e o p le n o t o r i g i n a l l y German had b een su rro u n d e d and in m ost c a s e s had become G erm an -sp eak in g .

A t th e ex trem e e a s t , P r u s s i a had

c o n q u ered s e c t i o n s o f th e P o lis h and S i l e s i a n p e o p le , who i n s i s t e d upon r e t a i n i n g t h e i r own S la v ic sp eech and r e f u s e d to become i n ­ c o r p o r a te d i n t o th e German p e o p le in th o u g h t o r sp e e c h . The e x is te n c e o f A u s tr i a a s a s e p a r a t e em p ire (and a s a sm a ll r e p u b l i c a f t e r 1918) o u t o f f p o l i t i c a l l y a n o t i n c o n s id e r a b le p a r t o f th e German p e o p le from th e g r e a t m a j o r it y .

As o f 1900,

a p p ro x im a te ly 5 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 p e o p le , 4 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f them G erm ans, w ere b tff

w ith in th e German E m p ire; asw 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 Germans w ere o u ts id e th e E m pire i n c o n tig u o u s A u s tr i a and S w itz e r la n d .

The S w iss o f c o u rs e ,

th o u g h s p e a k in g t h e German la n g u a g e , had lo n g s in c e become c o n -

- 5 1 —

s c io u s o f th e m s e lv e s a s a s e p a r a t e n a t i o n a l i t y , n o t c o n s id e r in g th e m s e lv e s Germans i n any r e a l s e n s e . I n view o f th e s e c o n d i t i o n s , i t can be r e a d i l y u n d e rs to o d t h a t th e t r a d i t i o n o f "Germanism*1 m ig h t be p e o u l i a r i n i t s n a tu r e . From th e fo u n d a tio n o f th e U n i v e r s i ty o f B e r l i n in 1810 and th e l e c t u r i n g o f th e h i s t o r i a n T r e its c h k e t h e r e , a d o c tr i n e was s p re a d a s t o a supposed "German R ace" o f p u re "N o rd ic " o r i g i n , supposed by i t s p ro p o n e n ts to be th e r e a l s o u rc e o f a l l n a t i o n a l g r e a t n e s s . T h is t r a d i t i o n c a n n o t be ig n o r e d , b e c a u se i t s i n f lu e n c e a p p e a rs i n th e y o u th m ovem ents.

T h is document i s o f c o u rs e n o t d e v o te d

t o e i t h e r p r o o f o r d is p r o o f o f t h e t h e o r y , c& i “th e o n ly comment we n eed make i s t h a t e v id e n c e f o r i t i s e x c e e d in g ly hazy and te n u ­ o u s.

The s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g o f th e "German R ace" th e o ry i s i t s

d ev elo p m en t i n to a means o f a n ta g o n ism t o C h r i s t i a n d o c tr i n e ,a n d i n t o a t o o l to o a s t o u t o f th e community th e Germans o f th e Je w ish c h u rc h . We need h a rd ly b e s u r p r i s e d , i n view o f t h i s p e o u l i a r b a c k ­ g ro u n d , t h a t y o u th movements began c o n s p ic u o u s ly e a r l i e r i n Germany th a n e ls e w h e re .

The sudden u r b a n iz in g o f th e p o p u la tio n was in

a l l a p p e a ra n c e th e im m ediate e x c i t i n g c o n d itio n f o r t h i s gro w th .

The W andervogel K a rl F is o h e r was a young te a c h e r i n a gymnasium (1) a t S tjjg 1^-tz, n e a r B e r l i n , i n 1896.

A c lu b o f com m ercial s t u d e n t s u nder

h i s g u id a n c e , a r i s i n g o u t o f a sh o rth a n d c l a s s , d e v e lo p e d th ro u g h h i s g u id a n c e , i n to w hat we w ould to d a y o a l l a " h ik in g c l u b . "

T h is

(1) The German "gym nasium " i s a se c o n d a ry sc h o o l c o rre s p o n d in g ro u g h ly to th e A m erican s e n i o r h ig h sc h o o l and j u n i o r c o lle g e i n a g e - l e v e ls and e d u c a ti o n a l l e v e l s s e r v e d .

--5 2 —

was th e b e g in n in g o f a g r e a t movement, which to o k th e name o f " W a n d e r v d g e l ," - - l i t e r a l l y "w an d erin g b i r d s . " The im p o rta n c e o f t h i s movement can n o t be o v e r s t r e s s e d , s in c e i t i s th e s to c k whenoe a l l l a t e r y o u th movements in Germany have s p r o u te d . I t s in f lu e n c e s p re a d to A u s tr ia ,C z e c h o s lo v a k ia ,a n d in d ir e c t! ^ t o th e U n ite d S t a t e s ( a t a much l a t e r d a t e ) . The l e a d e r o f t h e W andervdgel, K a r l F is c h e r ( 1 ) , would ta k e h i s com panions on a l l - d a y h i k e s , on Sundays and h o l i d a y s . At n ig h t th e y w ould l i e aro u n d c a m p fire s i n t h e o p e n , t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e i r p ro b le m s. Mr. F i s c h e r t r i e d t o i n s p i r e

th e s e

y o u th s w ith h i s own i d e a l s . He was a man w ith a s tr o n g p a s s io n f o r fre e d o m . He lo o k ed upon freed o m a s so m e th in g

to be re a c h e d

by s t r i c t s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e . I t p le a s e d him to r e v i v e and r e t a i n th e o ld German c u sto m s.

He r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t th e i d e a l s o f th e

German m i l i t a r i s t i c s t a t e . The t y p i c a l German W andervogel h as been d e s c r ib e d (2 ) aa a brow n, su n b u rn ed ohap i n a s o f t f e l t h a t , som etim es d e o o ra te d w ith a few g ay r i b b o n s , and w e a rin g o ld , worn c l o t h e s . On h i s back he u s u a l l y c a r r i e d a r u c k s a c k , and o v e r h i s s h o u ld e r a s o o ty p o t

and a g u i t a r .

W hile th e s e W andervdgel d e li g h t e d i n

t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y t o th e t r a v e l l i n g s c h o l a r s o f t h e M iddle A ges, th e y d id no t i m i t a t e th e m e d ie v a l d r in k in g and d u e l l i n g . Around t h e i r c a m p fire s i n t h e e v e n in g s , th e W andervogel would p la y gam es, l i s t e n t o s t o r i e s , and s in g s o n g s . The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e so n g s changed when th e y came i n t o c o n ta c t w ith

( 1)

m .T .

S A a u fe r.

(2)

Hans B re u e r.

Youth and th e fle n a is s a n o e Movement. P e r J u p f g e lg e n h g u s e l,

p p . 238-239

-S 3 — th e p e a s a n t s a «teL"l5hey d is c o v e re d a new s t o r e o f f o l k songs w hich th e y e a g e r ly a d o p te d . I n a d d i t i o n to K a r l F i s c h e r , many o t h e r m a tu re s c h o l a r s to o k p a r t i n t h i s movement.

T hey, t o o , w ere a l l d i s s a t i s f i e d w ith th e

e x is tin g o rd er o f l i f e .

Among th e s e a d u l t l e a d e r s w ere found J a n s e n ,

Hans B re u e r and D ootor G ustave Wyneken. D o o to r Wyneken (1) w o rk in g w ith o t h e r s , e s t a b l i s h e d th e w e l lknown F re e S chool Community a t W ic k e rs d o rf, a s e a r l y a s 1906. T ho u san d s o f young t e a c h e r s o f th e gym nasia and t h e i r s tu d e n ts made p ilg r im a g e s m onthly t o t h i s p l a c e , t a k i n g home w ith them h i s i d e a l o f th e new s c h o o l. A t f i r s t th e y m et o p p o s itio n on a l l s i d e s from t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and th e a u t h o r i t i e s ; b u t o p p o s itio n i n t e n s i f i e d th e r e ­ v o l t and h e lp e d to s p re a d i t .

The movement a t f i r s t in c lu d e d

o n ly b o y s; th e n g i r l s . The a t t i t u d e

o f th e g a th e r in g s was e x p re s s e d

F o rm u la /'T h e F re e German

i n th e M e issn e r

Y outh w ith f u l l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and

d r i v e n by t h e i r own f e e l i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and o f i n n e r t r u t h w i l l s ta n d to g e th e r u n d e r a l l c o n d i t i o n s .

To form m u tu a l u n d e r­

s ta n d in g s th e y w i l l have F re e German Y outh d a y s." (2) The W andervogel, w ith i t s sm a ll b e g in n in g , g a in e d r a p i d l y i n n u m b ers, and was j o in e d by c l a s s e s o f y o u th from many d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a tio n s and s t a t i o n s i n s o c i e t y .

"W ith d i f f i c u l t y y o u th s had

e s c a p e d from t h e i r gloomy c la ss ro o m s t o e n jo y a t l e a s t a Sunday f u l l o f l i g h t , " s a y s S rn a Belm e. (3) (1) G ustave Wyneken, F re e S ohool Community a t W ic k e rs d o rf in Y outh S p r in g , 1 9 2 4 , Volume I I , p. 116. (2) S ta n le y H ig h , The R e v o lt o f Y o u th , p. 55. (3) S rn a B elm e, Why We w an d er, The New S t u d e n t . M arch 3 , 1923, P. 12.

-5 * t

The W andervogel o r i g i n a t e d b e o a u se o f a sp o n ta n e o u s demand f o r such a m ovem ent.

S ta n le y H igh makes th e fo llo w in g comment, (1)

T h is was a tim e o f g r e a t p r o s p e r i t y i n Germany ( th e 18 9 0 * 8 ). The th o u g h t and e n e rg y o f th e n a t i o n w ere devo­ t e d a lm o s t e x c l u s i v e l y to i t s m a t e r i a l d e v elo p m e n t. G re a t m a n u fa c tu rin g o i t i e s w ere grow ing up w ith g r e a t r a p i d i t y . T h e re was a w id e sp re a d movement away from th e la n d t o th e g r e a t e r o e n te r s o f p o p u la tio n . I n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s w ere i n th e aso en d an cy and th e h ig h e r a r t s d e s c e n d a n t. The s c h o o ls w ere d o m in a ted by th e P r u s s i a n s p i r i t . T h e re was l i t t l e tim e f o r s p o r t o f any k in d . T h is c o n s ta n t demand f o r e f f i c i e n c y te n d e d to s t i f l e th e freedom and c o n se ­ q u e n tly th e c r e a t i v e i n s t i n c t s o f th e s t u d e n t. . . . The W andervogel movement was a s p o n ta n e o u s u p r i s i n g among th e y o u th th e m s e lv e s , a g a i n s t th e s e i n f l u e n c e s . T h is movement was e v o lv e d from few w a n d e re rs a t f i r s t , i n t o a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o lv in g s o c i a l problem s o f y o u th .

I t expanded

so a s t o in o lu d e , n o t o n ly boys b u t g i r l s — o f a l l c l a s s e s .

It

g a in e d momentum from y e a r t o y e a r , and was b e g in n in g to have i t s e f f e c t upon th e s o c i a l o r d e r . I t was th e w r i t e r * s p r i v i l e g e to in te r v ie w a n A m erican c i t i z e n o f German b i r t h , Mr. R ic h a rd N e id in g , who was one o f th e s e w ander­ e r s in Germany i n 1905.

Mr. N e id in g gave th e f o llo w in g a c c o u n t

o f h i s e x p e rie n c e on a t r i p . S t a r t i n g o u t from n e a r th e c i t y o f M ainz w ith a number o f com panions, th e g ro u p w andered f o r days i n th e open c o u n try and th ro u g h s m a ll v i l l a g e s . Mr. N e id in g had j u s t f i n i s h e d h i s a p p r e n t ic e s h ip a s a t a i l o r a t t h i s tim e .

A f t e r th e d o s e c o n fin e m e n t i n l e a r n i n g h i s t r a d e ,

h e f e l t a n eed to throw o f f a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e s t r i c t i o n s t o w ander c a r e f r e e f o r d a y s , and t o l e a r n from a c t u a l e x p e r ie n c e so m e th in g o f th e o u ts id e w o rld .

He fo u n d k in d r e d s p i r i t s among

h i s com panions and among th e a o q u a in ta n o e s he m et.

(1) I b i d .

— 55" —

D e s p ite th e freedom o f f e r e d them i n t h i s o u t- o f - d o o r l i f e , t h e s e y o u th s d id n o t f o r g e t th e d e c e n c ie s o f l i f e o r p e rs o n a l c le a n lin e s s .

A t th e H e rb e rg e n , ( t h e b u i ld i n g s w here th e y w ere

p e r m itte d t o s t a y o v e rn ig h t) e v e ry w a n d ere r w ould se e t o i t t h a t n e c e s s a r y b a th s w ere ta k e n .

W hile t h e i r o u te r g arm e n ts w ere a l ­

ways v e ry s im p le , and o f te n sh a b b y , y e t th e y k e p t t h e i r b o d ie s c le a n .

T h e ir c lo t h i n g w as, in d e e d , som etim es g r o te s q u e .

No one

was su p p o sed to w ear new o r good s h o e s ; some d id n o t w ear h a t s , o r i f a h a t ware w o rn , i t was o f a n o n d e s c r ip t s o r t . c a rrie d

a ru c k s a c k w ith h i s minimum n e c e s s i t i e s .

a s m a ll amount o f money.

Bach w a n d e re r He a ls o c a r r i e d

I f anyone fo u n d h im s e lf e n t i r e l y d e s t i ­

t u t e , i t was th e custom f o r o t h e r s to c h ip in and h e lp him o u t o f h is tro u b le . Each H e rb erg e had a k e e p e r .

The b u i l d i n g was u s u a l ly an o ld

on e, ta k e n o v e r by th e k e e p e r and p u t in to c o n d itio n to s e rv e th e w a n d e re rs .

Though p l a i n , i t was c o m fo rta b le and s a n i t a r y .

Most

o f th e work was done by th e " g u e s t s " , and no one was a d m itte d to th e H e rb erg e who c o u ld n o t show h i s c a rd .

T h is c a rd gave th e wan­

d e r e r 's name and a d d r e s s , h i s o c c u p a tio n o r t r a d e , and showed how lo n g he had b een w a n d erin g .

W hile t h e r e w ere few g o v ern m en tal

r e g u l a t i o n s , one r u l e was a lw ay s e n fo rc e d : w a n d e re rs w ere checked on th e l e n g t h o f tim e t h a t th e y had b e en away from home.

The tim e

l i m i t was s i x w eeks, a f t e r w hioh th e y w ere r e q u ir e d to go baok to w ork. T h is p a r t i c u l a r group o f W andervogel was composed f o r th e m ost p a r t o f journeym en.

I t in o lu d e d many t r a d e r s , some s t u d e n t s ,

and a few fro m th e u p p e r c l a s s e s .

T h e ir o a r e f r e e w a n d e rin g s w ere

n o t d e v o id o f e f f o r t s a t s e l f im provem ent.

S tu d e n ts e x p la in e d

-5 6



th e ro o k f o r m a tio n s and th e c o n to u r o f th e c o u n tr y .

T here was.

a ls o an i n t e r e s t i n n a tu r e and fa n n in g m ethods. T hese w a n d erin g g ro u p s w ere checked n o t o n ly in th e H e rb e r­ g e n , b u t a ls o b y th e gendarm es i n th e open c o u n try .

T hese o f f i ­

c i a l s c o rre sp o n d e d somewhat to o u r s t a t e t r o o p e r s , b u t e x e r c i s e d

a ls o

th a t p o lic e c h e c k in g o f t r a v e l l e r s ' c r e d e n tia ls ^ w h ic h seems to b e an u n a v o id a b le r e s t r i c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y o f movement alw ay s found i n o e n t r a l E u ro p e. When w a n d e re rs m et i n th e H e rb e rg e n , t h e r e was no fo rm a l in tro d u c tio n .

They m ixed f r e e l y w ith s t r a n g e r s .

By way o f i n ­

t r o d u c t i o n , a w a n d ere r who w ish ed t o v i s i t w ith o th e r young p e r­ so n s whom he m ig h t e n c o u n te r , w ould knock w ith h i s k n u o k le s on a t a b l e o r a n y th in g e l s e n e a rb y .

When t h i s knock was answ ered i n

th e same w ay, a c o n v e r s a tio n s p ra n g up.

Q u e s tio n s and an sw ers

fo llo w e d in th e c o n v e r s a tio n , d e a lin g w ith m u tu a l i n t e r e s t s , o ccu ­ p a ti o n s , o p in io n s ,a n d i n c i d e n t s e x p e r ie n c e d a s w a n d e re rs. I n f o r m a l i t y and c o n g e n i a l i ty w ere e n c o u ra g e d . "When someone w ould s t r i k e up a c h o rd on a g u i t a r ) 1flMt h i s g ro u p w ould j o i n i n th e f a m i l i a r f o l k so n g s . m ig h t b r e a k i n to so n g .

O c c a s io n a lly th e e n t i r e assem b lag e

T h ere was no s p e c i a l o rd e r t o t h e i r a c ­

t i v i t i e s , no fo rm a l e n t e r ta i n m e n t, in th e H e rb e rg e n .

Some o f th e

y o u th w ould p la y q u i e t gam es, w hioh w ere r e s t f u l a f t e r a lo n g day a fo o t.

Some^who had a b i l i t i e s o r s p e c i a l t a l e n t i n m usic o r s p e a k ­

in g , m ig h t e n t e r t a i n th e o t h e r s . I t was a ls o custom ary f o r th o s e who had com p leted a p p r e n t i c e ­ s h ip s i n t h e v a r io u s t r a d e s to c a l l on p e o p le o f th o s e t r a d e s i n t h e v i l l a g e s th e y p a s s e d .

On su c h o c c a s io n s th e w a n d ere r m ig h t

a sk w hat h i s ohanoes w ere f o r w ork.

The w a n d e re rs w ere th e n u s -

— 57— u a l l y g iv e n sm a ll sums o f money, to h e lp them on t h e i r o u t in g s . A s t r i k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f th e W andervttgel was t h a t th e s e y o u th s , u n r e s t r i c t e d , seldom v i o l a t e d th e law s o f th e l a n d . T h is i s m e n tio n e d , in o r d e r to show t h a t y o u th , l e f t t o i t s own d e v ic e s and a llo w e d free d o m , does n o t abuse t h a t freed o m . V agrancy r e o e iv e d few — i n f a c t a lm o st n o n e — from th e r a n k s o f th e W andervttgel. F o r anyone who may o c n s id e r t h a t y o u th i s i n h e r e n t l y b a d , i n h e r e n t l y l a w le s s , th e r e c o r d o f th e s e W andervttgel i s m ost i n s t r u c t i v e . H ere was a movement by y o u th , n o t im posed from above, sp o n ta n e o u s w ith y o u th i t s e l f . I t i n d i c a t e d a g ro p in g by th e young p e o p le th e m s e lv e s to g e t away fro m th e m onotonous t r e a d m i l l o f t h e l i f e i n w hich th e y had been im m ersed. I t showed th e n eed f o r r e l a x a t i o n o f mind an d b o d y . T h is r e l a x a t i o n was to be b e s t found in w an d erin g ab o u t th e c o u n try f o r t h e jo y o f t h e h a p h a z a rd jo u rn e y on f o o t . A p o s s i b l e p s y c h o lo g ic a l e x p la n a tio n f o r th e W andervttgel may be found i n th e s u g g e s tio n o f R a u p ( l) : ’’The em o tio n s a r e g r e a t s p e n d e rs o f e n e rg y . They th ro w t h e o rg an ism i n t o s t r a i n t h a t must be r e l e a s e d by some k in d o f a c t i o n , and t h e r e l e a s e and th e r e t u r n to e q u il i b r i u m a re th e s a t i s f y i n g e le m e n ts . T h is would te n d to p u t i t beyond doubt t h a t s t r o n g annoyanoes a r e o f f - e q u i l i b r i u m c o n d itio n s and t h e s t r o n g s a t i s f a c t i o n s a r e tow ard-anfron c o n d i t i o n s ." The W andervttgel movement p a r a l l e l s c l o s e l y th e l a t e r Y outh H o s te l A s s o c ia t io n i n E n g la n d ( 2 ). S im ila r c o n d itio n s were r e s p o n ­ sib le f o r th e r i s e o f b o t h . Young p e o p le w ere molded i n b o th la n d s i n t o p a t t e r n s whioh d id n o t s a t i s f y th e young p e o p le .

They

rn

(1)

R .B .R aup.

C o m p lacen cy .th e F o u n d a tio n o f Human B e h a io r ,p .8 5

(2)

See Chap. I I , p p . 28 f f .

— S -8 —

to o k m a t t e r s i n t o t h e i r own hands and b ro k e away from th e fo im a lism im posed upon them , to f l n d ( i f p o s s i b l e ) r e l e a s e from t h e l i m i ­ t a t i o n s p la c e d upon them .

I n b o th o o u n t r ie s t h a t r e l e a s e to o k

th e same d i r e c t i o n .

The German Y outh H o s t e l s . M en tio n h a s b e e n made o f H e rb erg e n o r h o s t e l s i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e W andervogel.

In fo r m a tio n i s r a t h e r fra g m e n ta ry f o r

h a p p e n in g s b e fo r e 1910; b u t i t i s c l e a r t h a t th e o rg a n iz e d Wantt

d e rv o g e l a t l e a s t had some s o r t o f o v e rn ig h t eamps s y s t e m a t i c a l l y m a in ta in e d . W ith 1910 t h e Y o u th H o s te l a s su c h beoame a d e f i n i t e and r e a l l y a d i s t i n c t movement.

R ic h a rd S o h irrm a n n , a young s c h o o l­

m a s te r in S a s t P r u s s i a , who had h im s e lf b e e n a W andervogel, was t r a n s f e r r e d to a g r e a t i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r i n t h a t p a r t o f th e c o u n tr y .

He f e l t th e n eed f o r b r i n g in g th e c i t y c h il d r e n o u t i n ­

t o th e woods and i n t o th e m o u n ta in s , so t h a t th e y m ig h t g a in con­ t a c t w ith n a tu r e .

I t i s c l e a r t h a t no H erb erg en o f th e s o r t t h a t

W andervogel m a in ta in e d w ere a v a i l a b l e i n h i s r e g io n ; and t h i s la c k l i m i t e d h i s e f f o r t s to o n e-d ay e x c u r s io n s . I n 1 9 1 0 , M r. S o h irrm an n was a p p o in te d c u r a t o r o f th e h i s ­ t o r i c a l museum i n a t w e l f t h c e n tu r y c a s t l e , B urg A lte n a .

T here

he f i t t e d up some o f t h e u n oooupied room s a s d o r m ito r ie s f o r th o s e h ik in g o r b i c y c l i n g in th e n e a rb y o o u n try .

The f i r s t Y outh

H o s te l was q u ic k ly c o p ie d ; and b y th e end o f 1910 s i x t e e n more h o s t e l s had b e en e s t a b l i s h e d .

The re m a rk a b le f e a t u r e was th e

w ide p o p u la r re s p o n s e to th e n e ed : p e o p le had s e n t i n a s g i f t s money and f u r n i t u r e and e v en had o f f e r e d t h e i r homes a s g i f t s ,

59—

f o r Youth H o s t e l s . The F i r s t World War n a t u r a l l y h a l t e d th e d e v elo p m e n t, b u t I t was resum ed soon a f t e r V e r s a i l l e s . By 1933 h o s t e l s had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n alm o st e v e ry o o u n try i n Europe from t h e C a rp a th ­ ia n s to th e A t l a n t i c s e a b o a rd . F ra n c e a lo n e o f t h e m ajo r c o u n tr i e s seemed l i t t l e

in f lu e n c e d .

The German y o u th h o s t e l s were th e d i r e c t i n f lu e n c e le a d in g t o th e ^ c s ta b lis h m e n t o f th o s e i n A m erica. T h is o c c u rr e d th ro u g h th e v i s i t o f Monroe an d I s a b e l S m ith , o f N o rth am p to n , M a ss., to t h e German h o s t e l s i n 1933 ( 1 ) .

No e v id e n o e h a s b een found

t h a t th e German o r any o t h e r c o n t i n e n t a l h o s t e l s i n f lu e n c e d th e s t a r t i n g o f th e B r i t i s h Youth H o s te l m ovem ent. A c c o rd in g ly , no m en tio n o f any such i n f lu e n c e i s g iv e n in th e c h a p te r \>n t h i s V

document on G re a t Br i t i f t n ( 2 ) . By th e tim e th e Second W orld War b ro k e o u t ,

th e r e w ere o v e r

200 Y outh H o s te ls i n Germany. P e a s a n t hom es, o ld

c a s t l e s , s h ip s ,

s c h o o lh o u s e s , and many new b u i ld i n g s e r e c t e d s p e c i a l l y f o r h o s t e l u s e , were a l l s e r v i n g y o u th . ( 3 ) .

Some o f th e f i n e s t

exam ples o f modern f u n c t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r e were among t h e s e h o s te ls . A q u o ta tio n from B re u e r, about theV flbdervO gel and th e Youth H o s t e l s , a s t h e y o p e r a te d i n 1923, may show w e ll t h e i r c o m p le te ly u n i f i e d a c t i v i t i e s (1) (2)

(4 ): —

See C h a p te r V I I , p p . 131 f f . See C h a p te r I I , p p . 28 f f . I t seems v e ry p ro b a b le t h a t , d e s p i te la c k o f^ e v id e n c e , th e c o n t i n e n t a l h o s t e l s gave th e im p etu s to th e B r i t i s h movement. (3) Most o f t h i s s e c t i o n i s rew orded from p o r t io n s o f : C h a r lo t t e C rane R o o t, Youth H o s te lln g i n New E n g la n d . A p p a la o h la , N o. 9 1 , Ju n e 1 9 4 1 . pp.jWfarfMfcx 3 8 0 -3 8 9 . (4) Hans B r e u r. D e r ^ i p f g e i g e n h d y s e l . p p . 238-239

— toO —

We l e f t B e r l i n on Ju n e 2 3 , 1923, a t e le v e n o 'c lo o k a t n i g h t , c a r r y in g a ru o k sa o k w ith some l i n e n and some p r o v i s i o n s , a p o t f o r c o o k in g and two ru g s on o u r b a c k s . Bach o f u s was d r e s s e d i n knee b r e e c h e s . We had hob­ n a i l e d sh o e s on o u r f e e t and one o f us o a r r i e d a g u i t a r , s lu n g a t h i s s i d e . On th e m o rn in g o f th e f o llo w in g d a y , we a r r i v e d a t N flrnburg, from w hich we s t a r t e d on o u r jo u r n e y . We f i r s t w ent to th e y o u th s h e l t e r . W anderers g e t s h e l t e r a t th e y o u th s h e l t e r f o r a few p f e n n ig s , w ith th e p r i v i l e g e o f co o k in g o u r m e a ls . When ve r e tu r n e d i n th e e v e n in g i t was l i k e a b e e h iv e f u l l o f l i f e and jo y . T h ere was s in g in g and d a n c in g i n th e common room. S e v e r a l g ro u p s e n jo y e d th e m s e lv e s by s i n g in g th e o ld f o l k so n g s w hich o u r p e o p le l i k e so muoh. (They w ander th ro u g h th e c o u n tr i e s s i n g i n g them and p la y in g th e a c ­ companiment on th e g u i t a r o r f i d d l e . ) I n c o rn e r s o f th e room , young p e o p le p la y e d chess and o t h e r games o r p a tc h e d up t h e i r e q u ip m e n t, b u t m ost o f them w ere t a l k ­ in g . I t i s a p le a s u r e to s e e how t h i s w an d erin g l i f e makes p e o p le sim p le and s i n o e r e . A l l seemed t o be f r i e n d s . The young p e o p le had o p in io n s a s to th e s t a t e , th e f a m ily , m o r a l i t y , r e l i g i o n and many o t h e r p ro b le m s. They fo u nd t h a t th e y b e lo n g e d t o one g e n e r a t i o n , w hioh had found a new s t y l e o f l i f e opposed to th e o ld o n e .

I n f lu e n c e o f th e W andervogel and th e H o s te l Movement. When th e y o u th o f Germany w ere c a l l e d by th e S t a t e t o f i g h t f o r t h e i r F a t h e r l a n d , th e y d id n o t f o r g e t e n t i r e l y t h e i r s p i r i t . They b ro u g h t w ith them t h e i r o ld f o l k s o n g s .

The w ar a f f o r d e d

them o p p o r tu n ity t o m eet o t h e r young p e o p le o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l o l a s s e s i n t h e i r army r e g im e n ts .

"As m onth su o c ee d ed m onth, and

y e a r was added to y e a r , t h e r e came a g r e a t p a s s io n a te lo n g in g in

i

— 61—

e v e ry s tu d e n t h e a r t f o r th e day when s t u d i e s m ig h t he re s u m e d ."(1 ) T ren ch f e l l o w s h ip s , whioh became d e m o c ra tic i n s p i t e o f a l l o l a s s c o n s c io u s n e s s e s , had t a u g h t th e German young men to know and t o u n d e rs ta n d e a c h o t h e r .

"C orps-m en, "w orkingm en, fa r m e rs ,

s h o p k e e p e rs , e t c . , a l l found a common u n i t y . Even w h ile t h e a rm ie s w ere s t i l l i n th e f i e l d , a lo o s e s tu d e n t f e llo w s h ip was fo rm ed , f o r th e p u rp o se o f dem anding s tu d e n t r i g h t s , onee th e war s h o u ld be o v e r . (2) Some o f t h e y o u th w ere even i n c o n f l i c t w ith t h e i r m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s d u rin g t h e w ar y e a r s .

A m ee tin g i s r e p o r t e d , ( 3 ) , h e ld i n

1917, a t w hioh m i l i t a r i s t s p e a k e rs t r i e d t o imftuenoe y o u th i n th e d i r e c t i o n o f Pan-G erm anism .

At t h i s m e e tin g , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

o f th e W andervB gel, e x p re s s in g th e se n se o f y o u th , s a id : " We do n o t want to b e lo n g t o y o u r w o rld a t a l l . We do n o t in te n d t o s a c r i f i c e o u r s e lv e s t o pay f o r your c r im e s . How s h a l l i t p r o f i t u s i f we g a in t h e whole w o rld and lo s e o u r own s o u ls ? "

P o st-W a t M ovements. A f te r t h e F i r s t W orld War, th e scope o f th e German y o u th movements w idened g r e a t l y .

T hese movements d e v e lo p e d i n t o two

g ro u p s . One group i n c lu d e s th o s e w ith a s p e c i f i o p o l i t i c a l or re lig io u s o r ie n ta tio n .

The o t h e r group i s t h e more sp o n ta n e o u s

b o d ie s w ith o u t p o l i t i c a l o r r e l i g i o u s aim . S ta n le y H igh (4) m e n tio n s fo u r o rg a n iz e d y o u th b o d ie s o f t h e ty p e w ith s p e c i f i o a im . JT i (2 ) (3) (4)

T hese a r e : t h e S o c i a l i s t Y outh;

B e rn a rd i . f e e l l . The German S tu d e n t U n io n . S a in t S te p h e n C o lle g e B u l l e t i n , LXIV, 1 1 ; M ay,1923, p . 28 B e rn a rd I . B e l l , i b i d . II. B o o th . The German Y outh Movement. The H ib b e r t J o u r n a l , A p r i l , 1924“ ;; p .4 7 l S ta n lfr H ig h . The R e v o lt o f Y o u th , p . 62

t h e German N a tio n a l Y outh U n io n ; t h e D em ocratio Y outh Movement; and t h e C a th o lic Y outh Movement.

T hese o r g a n i z a t i o n s awed t h e i r

o r i g i n , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o a d u l t l e a d e r s h i p . They a r e o f t e n c o n s id e r e d a s n o t b e lo n g in g t o th e g e n e r a l y o u th movement ( Ju gendbew egung). But th e y have much i n common w ith th e sp o n ta n e o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The German N a tio n a l Y outh U nion i s d is c u s s e d f i r s t

b e ca u se

o f i t s h a v in g a r i s e n f i r s t . I t was n a t i o n a l in so o p e , o rg a n iz e d i n t o l o o a l u n i t s . I t had a t i t s h e ig h t 5 0 ,0 0 0 m em bers, m ost o f i them gymnasium s t u d e n t s . The l e a d e r s were men i n p u b lio l i f e , c o n n e c te d a o t i v e l y w ith p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The n a t i o n a l oom m ittee o o n s ls te d o f army o f f l o e r s , p r o f e s s o r s , c lerg y m en , e t o .

The

G .N .Y .U . was n a t i o n a l i s t i c , a n d C h r i s t i a n i n t h e se n se o f b e in g lin k e d to th e L u th e ra n o h u ro h . S ta n lty H igh (1) s a y s o f i t : $ t a im s to u p l i f t i t s members m o ra lly and s t r e n g th e n th em i n a lo v e f o r t h e f a t h e r l a n d and i n th o s e q u a l i t i e s w hich w i l l f i t them to t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n th e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Germany. T here was much o f P r u s s i a n d i s c i p l i n e , o f r e s p e c t f o r a u th o r ­ i t y , and o f o b e d ie n c e t o o l d e r l e a d e r s . The in f lu e n c e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n does n o t a p p e a r t o have been g r e a t . The D em o cratic Y outh Movement aim ed t o p ro v id e a p r e p a r a to r y sc h o o l f o r t h e German D e m o cratic P a r t y .

Ai s i g n i f i c a n t p a ra g ra p h

in i t s c o n s titu tio n re a d s : The U nion u n i t e s a l l young men and women who s ta n d on th e b a s i s o f t h e German D e m o c ra tic P a r ty and h a s a s i t s aim t h e i r e d u c a tio n f o r p o l i t i c a l work and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e w i l l o f t h e D em ocratic y o u th t o a p i io y o f s tr o n g i d e a l s w ith in th e p a r t y . H T h is movement was e v i d e n t l y an a tte m p t t o b re a k away from in f lu e n c e t h a t would r e s t r i o t th e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s p a r t y .

(1)

S t a n le y H ig h ., I . e . , p . 63

L ik e a l l o t h e r y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s , th e D em o cratic Y outh Movement was f i n a l l y f o r c i b l y m erged i n t o th e H i t l e r Y outh, some y e a r s a f t e r i t had p a sse d i t s peak o f i n f l u e n c e . The S o o l a l i s t Y outh Movement was an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f young p a r t y s o c i a l i s t s . T hese were a lr e a d y h o ld e rs o f t h e s o c i a l i s t p a r t y d o o t r i n e s , b u t were to o young t o be a d m itte d i n t o p a r t y m em bership.

The S o c i a l i s t Y outh Movement aim ed t o u n i t e th e s e

young w o rk in g p e o p le and s tu d e n ts ,w h o c o u ld n o t be a c t u a l membesa o f any p a r t y . S tu d e n ts i n c o ll e g e s and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o ls form ed a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e m em bership. The aim o f th e S o c i a l i s t Y outh Movement was t o e d u c a te young p e o p le i n t h e s o c i a l i s t w o rld v iew .

The p u r p o s e ,i n t h e lo n g r u n ,

was to o r e a t e a body o f In fo rm e d y ounger p e o p le who o o u ld o a r r y onward: i n t e l l i g e n t l y t h e S o c i a l D em o cratic P a r t y . T h is had been th e l a r g e s t and m ost c r e a t i v e g ro u p , when th e German R e p u b lic was form ed i n 1918. Towards t h i s end, em p h asis was l a i d upon t h e r a t i o n a l i s t i c p o in t o f view d p i r a c t e r i s t i e o f t h e S o o ia l D em o crats, and on th e non-com m unist form o f " o rth o d o x " M arxism c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f S o c i a l D e m o cratic t h i n k i n g . The o o rn e rs to n e o f su c h t h in k in g i s th e " h i s t m o r i c a l m a te r ia lis m " o r " d i a l e c t i c m a te r ia lis m " o f t h e M arxian sy ste m o f thoughts The te rm " m a te r ia lis m " h a s o n ly h i s t o r i c b e a r in g on M arxism . The M a rx is t v ie w p o in t i s s t r i c t l y m o n is ti c . The te rm " m a te r ia lis m "

h a s l e d Many to a s c r i b e to M arxism

a s e lf-s e e k in g

p o in t o f view and a low e t h i e a l b e a r in g . T h is i s d e f i n i t e l y in c o rre c t.

Such a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m ust be c a r e f u l l y a v o id e d

i n . Ju d g in g th e S o c i a l i s t Y outh Movement.

T h a t movement w as, i n t h e

u s u a l s e n s e o f th e te rm , p ro b a b ly more " i d e a l i s t i c " th a n any o t h e r

—M — i n Germany a t t h a t tim e . W hile o n ly th e C a th o lio Y outh Movement i s h e re d ls o u s s e d , t h i s d o es n o t mean i t was th e o n ly r e l i g i o u s movement. e v e ry r e l i g i o u s s e c t form ed i t s own y o u th movement.

A lm ost

The p rim a ry

purposes o f th e s e movements waSEto e d u c a te young p e o p le i n r e l i g i o u s p rin c ip le s .

The o r g a n i z a t i o n s a ls o s p o n s o re d o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s ^

a p a r t from th o s e p u r e ly r e l i g i o u s . The C a th o lic Y outh Movement was more f o r th e y o u th th a n by them .

I t i s a h ie r a r o h y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n .

g e n e r a l p r e s i d e n t had a h e a d q u a r te r s s t a f f .

S ays H i g h : (1) " I t s The o r g a n i z a t i o n pub­

l i s h e d a s many a s se v en p a p e rs t o t a l i n g o v e r 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 . p a id s u b s c r i p t i o n s .

T hese w ere

The c h i e f aim o f th e movement was th e e d u ca ­

t i o n o f th e y o u th t o th e C h r i s t i a n w o rld view a s r e p r e s e n te d by th e C a th o lic C h u rc h ." T h is movement came i n t o c o n f l i c t w ith th e g o v e rn m e n t^ e s p e c ia lly when th e l a t t e r d id n o t a g re e w ith th e C a th o lio c o n c e p tio n o f th e s ta te . A f t e r th e F i r s t W orld War, t h e r e was p o v e rty , i n f l a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l u n r e s t . on y o u th m ovem ents. gung ( t )

T h is c o n d itio n had a g r e a t in f lu e n c e

Winslow h a s t h i s to say a b o u t t h e Jugendbew e-

"Growing i n m em bership b e c a u se i t now e x p re s s e d a deep

d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith s o c i a l and econom ic c o n d itio n s w id e ly p r e ­ v a le n t among th e m id d le c l a s s e s , th e Jugendbew egung was s lo w ly tra n s fo rm e d from an in d e p e n d e n t and sp o n ta n e o u s e x p r e s s io n o f r e ­ v o l t a g a i n s t s o o ie ty on th e p a r t o f young p e o p le l i i t b an in s tru m e n t

(1) S ta n le y H ig h , R e v o lt o f Y o u t h , p . 66. (2) Y o u th , A W orld P ro b le m , p . 31.

-& 5 T —

to i n d o c t r i n a t e youth, w ith d e f i n i t e p o l i t i c a l , eco n o m ic, and r e ­ lig io u s b e lie f s ."

The Y outh Movement U nder N azi Germany The s p i r i t o f good w i l l and f r i e n d s h i p was th e c h i e f c h a ra c ­ t e r i s t i c o f m ost o f th e y o u th movements i n Germany, a s w e ll a s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , up to th e tim e when H i t l e r to o k o v e r th e g o v e rn ­ ment o f Germany.

U nder th e R e p u b lic t h i s s p i r i t re m a in e d , though

i t was te m p o r a r ily subm erged by th e F i r s t W orld War. An i n s i g h t i n t o th e hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s o f m odern German y o u th may b e fo u n d in th e fo llo w in g w ords:

(1)

T here i s a bond b etw een n a ti o n s w hich h as n o t b een s h a t t e r e d by w ar o r rum ors o f w a r. T hat i s th e bond w hioh e x i s t s among th e Y o u th o f a l l c o u n t r i e s . I t m akes no d i f f e r e n c e w h e th e r young p e o p le sp eak F re n c h , German, I t a l i a n , R n g lis h o r any o t h e r to n g u e . I f y o u th h a te s y o u th , i t i s b e c a u se o f b e in g f o s ­ t e r e d i n u n n a tu r a l c irc u m s ta n c e s and y o u th i s th e n a s t u n t e d p l a n t whose grow th i s r e t a r d e d and whose i n ­ h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e t w i s t e d by f a l s e i d e a l s . T h a t i s why th e i d e a ls o f y o u th a re so im p o rta n t. I f th e y a re founded on peach and p r o g r e s s , th e w hole w o rld w i l l be u n i te d i n a s i n g l e p u rp o se w hich w i l l b r e a k th e sw ord o f g re e d and p u l l down th e f l a g o f con­ q u e s t. I n th e m id s t o f d i s c o r d , a l l y o u th sp e ak s w ith th e v o ic e o f h o p e , a m b itio n f o r t h e f u t u r e and lo v e o f l i f e . And t h a t v o ic e i s th e s t r o n g e s t p l e a w hich e x i s t s to d a y f o r a u n i v e r s a l perm anent p e a c e . H i t l e r h a s n e v e r b een i n f a v o r o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l y o u th move­ m en ts o r o f any r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw een th e y o u th o f Germany and

(1) N ola W ey rick , Y o u th S peaks o f Hope i n a W orld o f D is c o r d . I n I n t e r n a t i o n a l News R eview , F e b ru a ry 2 6 , 1938, p. 7.

66 th o s e o f any o t h e r n a t i o n .

He b e l i e v e s t h a t th e German p eo p le

a r e s u p e r io r to a l l o th e r r a c e s ( th e th e o ry i s term ed "N ordic suprem acy"). M l He p ro p o se s to ta k e o v e r and c o n tr o l e v e ry phase o f German l i f e , th e r e b y s e t t i n g f o r t h th e g lo ry o f h i s reg im e.

He

w ould make B e r l i n a g r e a t c a p i t a l , a symbol o f Germany’s g r e a t n e s s — a s th e Roman C a e s a rs made Roma i n to su c h a sym bol.

He a d m its t h a t

a n c ie n t Rome e v e n tu a lly f e l l ; b u t , he s a y s , t h i s was b e o au se " th e p e o p le s in n e d a g a i n s t th e b lo o d law b y m ix in g w ith o t h e r r a c e s . (1 >

I t i s p e r f e c t l y c l e a r t h a t H i t l e r b e l i e v e s t h a t any i n t e r ­ c o u rs e o f y o u th o f Germany w ith y o u th o f o t h e r la n d s w ould be d e tr i m e n t a l to h i s scheme o f g o v ern m e n t,a n d n o t i n k e e p in g w ith h i s scheme f o r a dom inant Germany.

A ll p r e v io u s ly e s t a b l i s h e d

y o u th movements m ust be ab an d o n ed , w h e th e r th e y be r e l i g i o u s o r s e c u la r. D u rin g December 1937, s e v e n ty s t u d e n ts w ere e x p e l le d from German u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r a t t e n d i n g l e c t u r e s o r g a n iz e d by th e Conxn

f e s s i o n a l C h u rc h ,^ d e fia n c e o f a b an pronounced by th e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a tio n .

The number o f s t u d e n t s i n P r o t e s t a n t T heology had been

g r e a t l y re d u c e d s in c e H i t l e r came i n to pow er. Y outh Movements i n Germany had b e e n f a r d i f f e r e n t from w hat th e y became a f t e r H i t l e r ’ s l e a d e r s h i p b e g a n .

They w ere a t f i r s t

a n a t u r a l and f r e e e x p r e s s io n o f y o u t h 's r e a c t i o n to c o n d itio n s b e fo r e th e w a r.

T here was n o th in g p la n n e d nor f i x e d a b o u t t h e i r

a c t i v i t i e s ; b u t tim e p a sse d and th e y grew m ore d e f i n i t e , fo llo w in g a program .

L e a d e rs a p p e a re d , some o f whom r e p r e s e n te d p o l i t i c a l

(1) A dolph H i t l e r , A Speech made i n B e r l i n , November 2 9 , 1937, a t th e C o rn e r-S to n e L ay in g o f th e F a c u lty o f M i l i t a r y S c ie n c e . Y o u th , An I n t e r n a t i o n a l News R eview , Deo. 4 , 1937.

- 6

7

-

t h e o r i e s ; b u t p o l i t i c s had b u t l i t t l e an ce a s l e a d e r .

p la o e u n t i l H i t l e r ’ s a p p e a r­

The H i t l e r Ju gend a b so rb e d n e a r l y e v e ry y o u th

movement, and f i n a l l y to o k o v e r th e t r a i n i n g and e d u c a tio n o f a l l young p e rs o n s from th e a g e s o f 10 to 18. H i t l e r d e o la r e d , (1) on May 1 , 1937; " F i r s t o f a l l , we made a s t a r t w ith th e T h ere a r e s t i l l among u s o ld f o g i e s who a r e f o r a n y th in g . A cco rd in g to t h e i r l e a n i n g s , e i t h e r to th e r i g h t o r to th e l e f t and p a s s much a s do dogs and c a t s .

n a t i o n ’ s y o u th . no lo n g e r good th e y s ta n d one a n o th e r

B ut t h i s d o es n o t d i s t u r b me. We w i l l ta k e away t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T hese we w i l l t r a i n and e d u c a te to become new German’s . We w i l l n o t p e rm it them to l a p s e i n t o th e o ld way o f t h i n k i n g , b u t w i l l g iv e them th o ro u g h t r a i n i n g . We w i l l ta k e them when th e y a re te n y e a r s o ld and b r in g them up in th e s p i r i t o f th e community u n t i l th e y a r e e ig h te e n . They w i l l n o t e sc a p e u s . L a t e r on th e y w i l l do two y e a r s o f m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Who s h a l l d a re say t h a t su ch t r a i n ­ in g w i l l n o t pro d u ce a n a ti o n ? " A m onth l a t e r , one o f th e l e a d e r s o f th e N a zi P a r t y , D r. A lfre d R o se n b e rg , (2) announced t h a t " N a tio n a l S o c ia lis m h a s won th e r i g h t to ta k e th e e d u c a tio n o f German Y outh f o r a l l e t e r n i t y u n d e r i t s own c o n t r o l . " Y outh movements in Germany had re a c h e d t h e i r peak i n th e e a r l y y e a r s a f t e r th e World War.

They a l l r e p r e s e n te d th e same i d e a : —

th e r e t u r n to n a tu r e a s a s o u rc e o f s t r e n g t h and r e l i e f , r e l i e f from a com plex s o c i e t y .

I t was y o u t h 's r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t th e r e ­

s t r a i n t s p la c e d upon i t ,

th e r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , th e P r u s s ia n

m i l i t a r i s m and th e c o n v e n tio n a lis m o f p re -w a r Germany.

Hans Kohn

(1) The New York T im es. May 2 , 1937. (2) I b i d . , June 7 , 1937. (3) Hans Kohn, The E n c y c lo p e d ia o f S o c ia l S c i e n c e s . V o l. XV.

(a)

d e s c r ib e s t h e s e movements th u s : The p re -w a r y o u th movement o f Germany was n o t i n any se n se econom ic; i t r e p r e s e n te d g ro u p s o f young p e rs o n s i n a h ig h ly p ro s p e ro u s s o o i e t y who to o k no p a r t i n eoonomic l i f e b u t who, a s sons and d a u g h te rs o f t h e w e l l - t o - d o , were r e l a t i v e l y o a r e f r e e . I t was an i d e a l i s t i c movement, i n s p i r e d by p h ilo s o p h y and p o e tr y and m a n if e s tin g i t s e l f th ro u g h th e s e m edia. I t r e f l e c t e d th e d e s i r e f o r a new way o f l i f e , f o r g r e a t e r l i b e r t y , s i n c e r i t y , and b e a u ty , a s opposed to th e m a te r ia lis m ,c o n v e n tio n a lis m , and i n d i n o e r i t y o f W ilh elm in e s o c i e t y . Emergence o f H i t l e r Y outh Movement. The H i t l e r Y outh movement d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y from a l l o t h e r s . Most o th e r s w ere s p o n ta n e o u s , o r i g i n a t i n g w ith y o u th i t s e l f . The movements w ere means by w hich .th e young p e o p le m ig h t p ro c la im t h e i r own i d e a s . Such id e a s o f t e n d id n o t c o in c id e w ith t h e view s o f t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t , th e im p u lse oomes fro m above i n t h e H i t l e r movem ent. I t i s im posed by th o s e i n a u t h o r i t y . The H i t l e r Y outh i s n o t

much a y o u th movement

a s a r e g im e n ta tio n o f y o u th , t o b u i l d a " n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t " s t a t e . H i t l e r and h i s h e l p e r s knew th e im p o rta n c e o f o r g a n iz in g y o u th i n th e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t y . They re c o g n iz e d t h a t t h e e a r l i e r movements e x te n d e d t o p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , t r a v e l , e d u c a tio n e t o . They saw t h e u s e f u l n e s s t o th e m se lv e s o f u n i t i n g a l l th e movements am ongst y o u th i n t o one a l l - i n c l u s i v e b o d y --w h ich th e y would c o n t r o l . T h is body was t o be p o l i t i c a l i n n a t u r e . I t s aim was t o f u t h e r th e N a tio n a l S o c i a l i s t P a r t y a s t h e s o le p o l i t i c a l f o r c e in Germany. By f o r c e , e v e ry y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e la n d was in c o r p o r a te d i n t o t h e H i t l e r Y o u th . When H i t l e r came i n t o pow er, th e s i t u a t i o n was i d e a l f o r him t o ta k e o v e r German y o u th . As c o n d itio n s had grown w o rse , a g r e a t

6 9 —

p e rio d o f i n f l a t i o n s e t i n ; p o v e rty s p re a d among a l l o l a s s e s . G re a t d i s s a t i s f a o t i o n w ith th e r u l i n g c l a s s s p re a d th ro u g h a l l p e o p le . o f th e y o u n g e r t t w a g . At t h i s tim e y o u th movements changed t h e i r c h a r a c t e r , th e tr e n d becom ing m ain ly p o l i t i c a l . T h ere w ere two t r e n d s o f th o u g h t a t t h i s tim e . Communists u rg ed th e o v e rth ro w o f th e governm ent.

F i r s t , th e They t a l k e d

o f th e b ro th e rh o o d o f w o rk e rs ; th e y w ould wage a c l a s s w ar to b r in g a l l c l a s s e s w ith in th e w o rk in g c l a s s .

The scope o f t h e i r

p la n e x te n d e d beyond th e c o n f in e s o f Germany.

Communism knew no

b o u n d a rie s save t h a t o f hu m an ity . H i t l e r and h i s f o llo w e r s d i f f e r e d e n t i r e l y from th e Commu­ n i s t i c schem e.

The F u e h re r t a l k e d o f a German d o c t r i n e .

l ie v e d i n u n i t i n g a l l c l a s s e s i n t o one E m pire.

He be­

He was co n v in c ed

t h a t n o th in g c o u ld be a cc o m p lish e d p e a c e f u l l y . I n s t e a d , by a show o f n a t i o n a l s t r e n g t h he w ould be a b le to r e p u d ia te r e p a r a t i o n s , do away w ith th e V e r s a i l l e s T r e a ty , and r e g a in th e l o s t c o lo n ie s . The p eo p le o f Gennany w ere a t th e tim e i n a s e r i o u s econom ic s i t u a ­ tio n .

Unemployment f i g u r e s w ere h ig h and s t a r v a t i o n was common.

H i t l e r p ro m ised "b re a d and w o rk ". C o n d itio n s c o n tin u e d t o grow w o rse . ta x e s c o u ld n o t be p a id .

Unemployment in o r e a a e d ;

S u f f e r in g was w id e -s p r e a d , and th e group

w hich s u f f e r e d m ost was th e g r e a t number o f unem ployed y o u th . tim e s c a l l e d f o r a l e a d e r ; H i t l e r re s p o n d e d to th e c a l l .

The

K unzer

(1) o f f e r s th e f o llo w in g commentary on th e p r e v a le n t c o n d itio n s a t t h i s tim e , th e e a r l y T h i r t i e s :

- (1) Edward J . K u n zer, The Y outh o f N azi Germany, J o u r n a l o f Educa­ t i o n a l S o c io lo g y , F e b ru a ry , 1938, pp. 3 4 6 -7 .

\

- 7 0 -

From 1933 o n , y o u th h a s p la y e d a m ost im p o rta n t r o l e i n Germany, and i f we a r e to re a d th e d e s t i n y o f Germ any, we m ust lo o k to th e H i t l e r Youths and stu d y t h e i r g ro w th . I t was and i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t cap ­ t u r e d th e im a g in a tio n o f a l l youths' and had an i r r e ­ s i s t i b l e a p p e a l w hioh th e o t h e r y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s d id n o t p o s s e s s . By a p p e a lin g to th e e m o tio n a l, p r i ­ mary w is h e s o f y o u th w ith sy m b o ls, m a r t i a l m u sic , th e u se o f c o lo r., u n ifo rm s , e t o . , y o u th was f i r e d w ith en ­ th u s ia s m f o r t h e i r new l e a d e r . I t was soon u n d e rs to o d , how ev er, t h a t th e e m o tio n a l a p p e a l o f th e s e sym bols a lo n e was n o t enough, and H i t l e r a p p e a le d to y o u th to u n ite a g a i n s t t h e i r common f o e s b o th w ith in and w ith o u t Ger­ many. He i n s t i l l e d i n t o them th e id e a t h a t i t i s g l o r i ­ ous to d i e f o r freedom and honor and o a ll e d upon y o u th to e s t a b l i s h a firm fo u n d a tio n f o r b u i ld i n g th e t h i r d and m ost g lo r io u s em pire t h a t Germany had e v e r known. The B e ic h s ta g f i r e , and th e e v e n ts t h a t fo llo w e d , made H i t l e r th e man o f th e h o u r, f o r he was lo o k e d upon by a l l a s th e one who had sav ed Germany from th e imme­ d i a t e menace o f communism. H i t l e r was l a v i s h i n h i s b e s to w a l o f c r e d i t f o r h i s s u o o e s s on y o u th and o th e r f o l lo w e r s . . . . U nder a b a rra g e o f p ro p a g a n d a , i n d iv i d u a l g ro u p s o f th e o ld y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s e i t h e r v o l u n t a r i l y d i s ­ b an d ed o r jo in e d th e H i t l e r Ju g e n d . The m ost sw eeping v i c t o r y came in th e summer o f 1934 when th e P r o t e s t a n t y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s , in f lu e n c e d by th e e n t r e a t i e s o f p r o - H i t l e r clerg y m en c o o rd in a te d t h e i r g ro u p w ith th e H i t l e r Y o u th -. T oday, a t l e a s t a sem blance o f u n i ty o f y o u th has b een a c h ie v e d and H i t l e r can on th e fa c e o f t h i s c la im th e w hole o f German y o u th a s h i s own. I n s p i t e o f a l l one h e a r s to th e c o n tr a r y t h e r e i s i n Germany a con­ s i d e r a b l e amount o f c r i t i c i s m o f N azi Y outh o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h is comes from v a r io u s s o u rc e s : 1. 2.

3.

U nderground movements o f o th e r p o l i t i c a l o rg a n ­ i z a t i o n s f o r y o u th . The c h u rc h l e a d e r s — th e o n ly a r t i c u l a t e oppo­ s i t i o n to H i t l e r f s p o l ic y a t th e p r e s e n t tim e i n Germany—who view w ith a la rm th e s p re a d o f pagan w o rs h ip i n y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T e a c h e rs who view w ith a la rm th e e v e r - i n c r e a s ­ in g demands o f th e s t a t e upon th e s c h o o ls and l e i s u r e tim e o f s t u d e n t s . Nor do t h e s e same t e a c h e r s , r e a l i z i n g th e e f f e c t upon im p re s s io n ­ a b le y o u th m in d s, c o u n te n a n c e th e ty p e o f p ro p ag an d a w hich th e y a r e f o rc e d to r e p e a t i n t h e i r c la s s ro o m s .

-

4.

71 —

P a r e n ts a re f e a r f u l o f w hat th e end p ro d u c t o f su ch c o m p lete r e g im e n ta tio n w i l l b e . I n ­ t e l l i g e n t p a r e n ts o b j e c t to th e i n c u l o a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r b ra n d o f r a c e h a t r e d , m y th i­ c a l o r o th e r w is e , and th e oom plete dom ina­ t i o n o f a c h i l d ’ s tim e , h i s i n t e r e s t s , and h is a ffe c tio n s .

O ld e r t e a c h e r s i n th e German s c h o o ls had to a d ju s t them­ s e lv e s t o th e new o r d e r .

They w ere s e n t to t r a i n i n g camps to

l e a r n th e p r i n c i p l e s o f N a tio n a l S o c ia lis m .

As to th e te x tb o o k s

now in u se i n Germany, K unzer p o in ts to th e f o llo w in g sam ple o f th e t h e o r i e s th e y te a c h .

The t i t l e o f one book i s :

" T ru s t no Fox

upon th e G reen H eath and no Jew upon H is O a th , A P i c t u r e Book f o r Old and Y oung."

As to th e c o n te n ts o f th e t e x t s , th e f o llo w in g

p a ssa g e (1) i s o f f e r e d to sam ple th e p r e j u d i c e s now b e in g i n c u l ­ c a te d among th e young r e a d e r s : When God th e L ord made th e W orld, He a ls o c r e a te d th e r a o e s : I n d i a n s , N egroes and C hinese L ik e w ise th e Je w s, th e e v i l b e in g s , And we to o , w ere a ls o t h e r e , The Germans among th e o t h e r s . Then he gave to a l l a p o r t io n o f e a r t h , T h at i t m ig h t be c u l t i v a t e d by t h e i r l a b o r . The Jew to o k no p a r t i n t h a t work B ut from th e v e ry b e g in n in g th e d e v i l s e iz e d him He w ish ed n o t to work b u t o n ly to d e c e iv e He was th e ra c e o f l i a r s L e a rn in g q u ic k ly and w e ll from h i s f a t h e r th e D e v il He w ro te a l l t h i s i n th e Talmud. P i c t u r e s o f handsome Germans and g ro te s q u e lo o k in g jew s a re shown and d e s c r ib e d th u s (S)

_

The (jerman i s a proud man Who can work and f i g h t . B ecause he i s so handsome and so f u l l o f co u rag e The Jew h a s h a te d him f o r manyy e a rs .'

(1) E l v i r a B a u e r, A P i c t u r e Book f o r Old and Young. S o c io lo g y , F e b r u a ry , 1938, pp. 3 4 7 -6 . (8) I b i d .

J o u r n a l o f E duc,



72 —

Here i s th e Jew you can se e a t once The g r e a t e s t scou n d rel in th e whole c o m tr y I He b e l i e v e s h in ise lf to be m ost handsome And y e t he i s so u g ly .

Comment upon th e s e g ro tesq u e t h e o r ie s must be sim ply t h a t th e y a r e w ith o u t r e l a t i o n t o any known f a c t s o f an th rop ology and s o c io lo g y . But German you th r e a l l y i s grow ing up under c o n s is t e n t and com plete in d o c tr in a t io n w ith them.

The w i l f u l e r r o r o f t h e s e d o c tr in e s i s a s

consp icu ou s a s th e harm th ey are d oin g to b oth t h e ir h o ld e r s and t h e ir v ic tim s .

The d e s t r u c t iv e m ental e f f e c t on th o s e who are ta u g h t such

d o c tr in e s i s t h e ir m ost s e r io u s harm.

Changing A sp ects o f German Youth Movement.

There has been a com plete a l t e r a t i o n in th e t r a in in g o f you th in modern Germany.

T h is change has been opposed by th e o ld e r Germans.

The

o ld e r Germans do n o t want th e government t o ta k e com plete c o n tr o l o f t h e i r c h ild r e n .

They want to in c u lc a t e t h e ir own id e a s i n t h e i r c h ild r e n ;

th e y want to te a c h them th e German fa m ily t r a d i t i o n s .

But a t p r e se n t t h is

i s a v a in hope.

Youth i s now tr a in e d f o r th e s t a t e , w ith com plete ob ed ien ce to e x i s t i n g a u t h o r it y .

B eginning a t th e age o f u n d erstan d in g (and even

e a r l i e r , c h ild r e n a r e in d o c tr in a te d w ith th e N azi i d e a s , by s c h o o l, r a d io , m o v ies, th e p r e s s , and e v ery o th e r means.

H it le r r e a li z e d t h a t h i s "reforms" had t o come through th e



c o o p e r a tio n o f y o u th .

73—

T h is i s shown by th e f o llo w in g p a ssa g e

a s c i t e d from Y o u th , A W orld P roblem : (1) The H i t l e r Youth i s d om inated by th e F u e h r e r - P r in ­ z ip ( th e l e a d e r s h i p p r i n c i p l e ) , w hich r e q u i r e s co m p lete o b e d ie n c e n o t o n ly t o th e suprem e l e a d e r , who i s , o f c o u r s e , C h a n c e llo r H i t l e r , b u t a ls o to th e w i l l o f o t h e r n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s and t o th e l e a d e r s i n d i f f e r e n t g ra d e s o f th e e n t i r e h i e r a r c h y above th e i n d i v i d u a l young p e r ­ so n . As a c o r r o l l a r y to t h i s i s th e id e a t h a t 'y o u th m ust be l e d by y o u t h ', so t h a t th e H i t l e r y o u th i s in l a r g e m easure c o n d u c te d by th e young p e o p le th e m s e lv e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s t r o n g l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c , i t s n a t i o n a l ­ ism e x te n d in g to in c lu d e G erm an-speaking p e o p le i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . The members o f th e H i t l e r Y outh a r e ta u g h t t o r e v e re n c e th e a c t u a l la n d o f Germany, s in c e t h i s i s c o n s id e r e d th e t r u e s o u rc e o f th e c o u n t r y 's s t r e n g t h . The id e a i s e x p re s s e d i n th e slo g a n B lu t und Boden (Blood and S o i l ) . The young p e o p le m ust n e v e r l o s e t h i s lo v e f o r th e la n d and m ust r e a l i z e t h e im p o rtan c e o f i t s c u l ­ t i v a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n . An im p o rta n t p a r t o f th e H i t l e r ' s Y outh id e o lo g y i s th e N azi d o c tr i n e o f r a c i a l p u r i t y , m ost • v i v i d l y e x e m p lif ie d in i t s a n ti - J e w i s h p o l ic y . F i n a l l y , c o n s id e r a b le em p h asis i s p la o e d on p h y s io a l a ch iev em en t and b o d ily f i t n e s s r a t h e r th a n on i n t e l l e c t u a l p ro w e ss. F i n a l l y a c i r c u l a r o f i n s t r u c t i o n is s u e d by th e M i n i s t e r o f th e I n t e r i c * : : i n November 1935 made t r a i n i n g i n th e H i t l e r Y outh a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a p p o in tm e n t to p o s ts i n th e p u b lic s e r v i c e . F o r j u s t i f i e d e x c e p tio n a l r e a s o n s an e x c e p tio n can be made in f a v o r o f an a p p l i c a n t , i f i t w ere im p o s s ib le f o r him to have o b ta in e d N a tio n a l S o c i a l ­ i s t y o u th t r a i n i n g o r m em bership i n th e H i t l e r ju g e n d . Such a n e x c e p tio n m ust have th e a p p ro v a l o f th e R e ic h ’ s M i n i s t e r o f th e I n t e r i o r and o f th e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f th e F u e h re r. D u rin g th e t r a n s i t i o n p e r io d , B a ld u r von S c h ric k was y o u th l e a d e r o f th e N a tio n a l S o c i a l i s t p a r t y .

He had p r e v io u s e x p e r­

ie n c e in y o u th l e a d e r s h i p and i n 1933 became th e German l e a d e r under th e new o r d e r , th e H i t l e r re g im e . governm ent to o k o v e r a l l y o u th m ovem ents.

By d e g re e s th e N azi The members o f th e

C a th o lic Y outh o r g a n i z a t i o n s , how ever, r e f u s e d to j o i n th e H i t l e r

(1) Y o u th . A W orld P ro b le m , 1937, p. 38.

-

7 4 —

Y o u th , and an im passe was c r e a t e d .

To b re a k i t , t h e r e was is s u e d

th e d e o re e o f December 1 , 1936, w hich s t a t e d ( 1 ) : 1 . A l l German y o u th w i t h in th e b o rd e r o f th e R eich a r e u n ite d i n th e H i t l e r Y o u th . A l l German y o u th , o u t­ s i d e p a r e n t s ' hom es, and s o h o o ls , a re t o be t r a i n e d , b o d i l y , m e n ta lly , s p i r i t u a l l y and m o r a lly , i n th e s p i r i t o f N a tio n a l S o o ia lls m f o r s e r v i c e t o th e N a tio n and to th e u n i f i e d p e o p le . The s e t - u p f o r H i t l e r Y outh t r a i n i n g i s a s f o llo w s : The H i t l e r Y o u th i s , s t r i c t l y

(2)

s p e a k in g , d iv id e d i n t o f o u r s e c t i o n s ;

The H i t l e r Y outh p r o p e r , w hich i s f o r boys betw een 14 and 18 y e a r s o f a g e ; th e German Young P e o p le f o r boys betw een 10 and 14; th e League o f German G i r l s f o r g i r l s betw een 14 and 21; and th e G er­ man Young G i r l s , f o r g i r l s b etw een 10 and 14. A com plex a d m i n i s t r a t iv e fram ew ork h a s b e e n b u i l t up f o r each o r g a n iz a tio n ^ e x te n d in g th ro u g h o u t th e e n t i r e c o u n try .

A t th e to p

s ta n d s von S c h rio k and h i s c e n t r a l o f f i c e o f tw e lv e d e p a rtm e n ts , w hich d i r e c t s th e a f f a i r s o f th e H i t l e r Y outh.

The m ost im por­

t a n t o f t h e s e d e p a rtm e n ts i s th e D epartm ent o f S o o ia l Work, T h is d e a l s w ith w e lf a r e r e l i e f f o r H i t l e r Y outh m em bers, y o u th l e g i s ­ l a t i o n , j u v e n i l e la b o r l e g i s l a t i o n , th e work o f young p e o p le in r u r a l d i s t r i c t s , and v o c a t io n a l g u id a n c e .

The o t h e r d e p a rtm e n ts

o f H i t l e r Y outh a r e : O r g a n iz a tio n , p e r s o n n e l, h e a l t h , p h y s ic a l t r a i n i n g , c u l t u r e , r a d i o , p r e s s and p ro p a g a n d a , h ik in g , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t a c t , ad­ m i n i s t r a t i o n and f in a n c e .

(1) G. B rooks P e t e r s , The New Y ork T im es. May 2 6 , 1940. (2) T h ach er W inslow , Y outh.* World P ro b le m .

- 7

5

-

T r a d i t i o n a l German e f f i c i e n c y and lo v e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a re s e e n i n th e e l a b o r a t e and com plex sy ste m p o in te d o u t i n th e p r e ­ c e d in g p a ra g r a p h s .

T hese tw e lv e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r d e p a rtm e n ts en ­

a b le th e governm ent to d i r e c t and c o n tr o l p r a c t i c a l l y e v e ry a c ­ t i v i t y o f y o u th .

Y outh i s a pawn i n N azi Germany; e v e iy p h a s e o f

y o u th a c t i v i t y i s re g im e n te d by th e a u t h o r i t i e s . T h ere i s a m arked s i m i l a r i t y b etw een S p a rta n and N a tio n a l S o o i a l i s t German e d u c a tio n .

F o r ex am p le, th e S p a r ta n s gave no

a t t e n t i o n to th e p h y s i c a l l y u n f i t , b u t a llo w e d them to p e r i s h . N a tio n a l S o c i a l i s t s em phasize th e im p o rta n t o f p h y s ic a l f i t n e s s , e x c lu d in g from a l l im p o rta n t p o s t s th o s e n o t s tr o n g and h e a lth y . F u rth e rm o re , th e S p a rta n s began th e gy m n astic and m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g o f t h e i r b o y s a t th e age o f se v en .

Com pulsory German

t r a i n i n g b e g in s a t t e n , and t h e r e i s v o lu n ta r y s e r v i c e b e g in n in g a t s i x , w ith em p h asis on s u p e r v is e d a t h l e t i c p la y . A n o th e r s i m i l a r i t y i s fo u n d in th e em phasis o f t h e e d u c a ­ t i o n a l p r o c e s s o f S p a r ta , w hich was p la c e d upon t u r n in g o u t w a rrio rs .

The p u rp o se o f th e N azi y o u th movement i s to t u r n o u t

good N a tio n a l S o c i a l i s t s , who a r e a l s o e x p e c te d t o be good f i g h t ­ e rs.

The German s c h o o ls te a c h n o t o n ly academ ic s u b j e c t s w ith

" c o r r e c t l y e d i t e d " t e x t b o o k s^ b u t a ls o d e fe n s e and m i l i t a r y su b ­ je c ts . The H i t l e r Y outh movement h a s l o s t m ost o f th e c h a r a c t e r ­ i s t i c s o f th e p re -N a z i m ovem ents.

One d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t th e new

o r d e r em braoes a l l German y o u th ; a l l movements have b e e n m erged i n to one.

The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s movement a re d e s c r ib e d by

P e t e r s a s f o l l o w s : (1)

(condensed h e re )

v o n th (1) C. B rooks P e t e r s , The Model fo -i* N EW YORK U N IV E R S IT Y May 2 6 , 1940, p . 23. S C H O O L OF ED U CATION LIBRARY o

le w Y ork T im es,

-76— B e g in n in g a t th e age o f t e n , e v e ry German c h i l d r e c e i v e s a w eekly p e r io d o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n N a tio n a l S o c i a l i s t Id e o lo g y . T h is p e r io d becom es lo n g e r a s th e c h i l d r e n become o l d e r . I t i s g iv e n a s a ” Heimabend" i n th e Heim o r h e a d q u a r te r s o f e a c h g ro u p . So f a r a s p o s s i b l e , e a c h group h a s i t s own Heim: t h i s b u i l d i n g o r room i s e i t h e r b u i l t o r f i t t e d up by t h e c h i l d r e n th e m se lv e s whenarer circumefcameee p e r m it.

The c h i l d r e n a re g a th e re d t h e r e f o r one

e v e n in g e a c h w eek. T h e ^ sin g , re a d d L o u d ,sp e a k and d e b a t e ,f o l l o w i n g a program worked o u t by n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s . T h is program i s i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l Heimabend s e s s io n s th ro u g h o u t t h e R e ic h on any one e v e n in g . Up t o th e age o f 14 chidtf em p h asis i s p la c e d upon p h jr s ic a l d ev elo p m e n t. C h i l d r e n l e a r n o b e d ie n c e ; th e y l i s t e n t o s t o r i e s o f th e l i f e

o f th e F u e h re r and h i s r i s e t o power i n s p i t e o f o b s t a c l e s .

For t h is

a g e , th e boys* o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e r u n a lo n g m i l i t a r y l i n e s ,

w ith -c o m p u lso ry p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( c a l l e d " s e r v i c e ”) . R e g u la r d u t i e s a r e a s s ig n e d , and m ust be p r o p e r l y f u l f i l l e d . F o r boys o v e r 14, t h e r e i s more em phasis upon id e o lo g y , b u t no l e s s upon p h y s ic a l t r a i n i n g o f a d e f i h i t e l y m i l i t a r y n a t u r e . T h is g o es on u n t i l t h e age o f e n tr a n c e i n t o t h e la b o r s e r v i c e , w hich i s a l s o o rg a n iz e d on m i l i t a r y m o d els.

The boys fro m th e age o f 14

up a r e s u p p lie d a m a n u a l," H itle r Y outh in S e r v i c e ” , w hich d e s c r i b e s th e more d i f f i c u l t g y m n a stic e x e r c i s e s , e x p la in s t h e s m a ll c a l i b e r r i f l e , a n d i n s t r u o t s i n m a p -re a d in g and m ap-draw ing. I n f a c t , i t i s an e le m e n ta ry m anual o f m i l i t a r y a r t s .

NEW YORK U N I V E R S I T Y S C H O O L OF EDUCATION • LIBRARY 9

- 7 7 —

The t r a i n i n g o f g i r l s u n d e r th e new o r d e r in Germany i s o f o o u rse n o t so s tre n u o u s a s t h a t o f b o y s , b u t i t in c lu d e s a l l g i r l s . "The t e n t h to th e s e v e n te e n th y e a r c o m p rise s an e d u c a tio n tow ard t h in k i n g ; th e 1 7 th to th e 2 1 s t , an e d u c a tio n to beoome a s o c i a l l y re s p o n s ib le p e rs o n a lity .

For th e a tta in m e n t o f t h i s seco n d g o a l

a new d i v i s i o n , F a i t h and B e a u ty , was o r e a te d w ith a new l e a d e r , C lem en tin e zu C a s t e l l . " (1) H au ser c o n tin e s :

(2) "An e q u a lly im p o rta n t e d u c a tio n a l p e rio d

i s th e ’a g r i c u l t u r a l y e ar* and a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e .

C ity g i r l s

a r e b ro u g h t in to th e country d u rin g t h e i r a d o le s c e n t y e a r s to l i v e a h e a lth y l i f e and a t th e same tim e to h e lp th e f a r m e rs .

G ir ls

a r e ta u g h t f i r s t - a i d f o r em ergency a c c id e n ts and a r e g iv e n in d u s ­ t r i a l tra in in g .

They a re ta u g h t f o l k d a n c e s , d o m e stic w ork, gym­

n a s t i c s , a i r d e fe n c e , h e a l t h s e r v i c e and work i n n a t i o n a l i n t e r ­ e s t ." The H i t l e r Y outh movement h as one m ain o b j e c t i v e . g a n iz e d f o r b o th d e fe n c e and o f f e n c e .

I t s p u rp o se i s to make Ger­

many and th e German p e o p le suprem e i n th e w o rld . i n t e r f e r e n c e w ith i t s p la n s . macy o f th e German p e o p le .

I t is o r­

I t b ro o k s no

I t i s i n d o c t r i n a t e d i n th e s u p re ­ In o r d e r to c a r r y o u t i t s l e a d e r s ’

p la n s Germany n e e d s y o u th , a l l y o u th ; and i t p ro p o s e s to t r a i n y o u th s o l e l y i n th o s e a c t i v i t i e s w hich w i l l in s u r e maximum man­ power and e f f i c i e n c y ^ i n o rd e r to consummate th e p u rp o se f o r w hich th e German n a ti o n i s b e in g u se d .

(1) H e in r ic h H a u se r, B a t t l e A g a in s t T im e, pp. 31 9 -3 2 0 , (C h a p te r X I I I , The S t a t e Y o u th ). (2) I b i d .

--7 8 CHAPTER I I I SUMMARY B e fo re th e m id d le o f t h e 1 9 th C e n tu ry , Germany was an a g r i ­ c u l t u r a l n a t i o n , S in c e th e u n io n o f Germany, i t h a s beoome a n u r b a n iz e d , i n d u s t r i a l , an d c o m m ercial n a t i o n . The sudden u r b a n i z a t i o n l e d t o a r a p i d grow th o f y o u th m ovem ents.

The f i r s t and most im p o rta n t o f t h e s e was th e

W andervttgel. T h is movement s p re a d r a p i d l y th ro u g h Germany. I t s t a r t e d in 1896, %s a r e s u l t o f th e e f f o r t s o f E a r l F i s c h e r . The German Youth H o s te ls w ere an o u tg ro w th o f th e W anderv O g e l. They were a s e p a r a te o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t se rv e d th e W andervttgel i n t h e i r v e ry e x te n s iv e t r a v e l l i n g . The F i r s t W orld War was th e s t a r t i n g p o in t f o r a g r e a t l y in o r e a s e d grow th o f y o u th movements i n Germany. T h is was due n o t o n ly t o th e e f f e c t s o f th e war i t s e l f , b u t to th o s e o f th e e h a e s t h a t su c c e e d e d German d e f e a t .

Youth s u f f e r e d th e

m ost s t r i k i n g e v i l r e s u l t s o f suoh o h e a s , and num erous movements w ere o r g a n iz e d t o oombat

th e s e c o n d it i o n s .

The movements o f th e 1 9 2 0 's were o f two g ro u p s . Some w ere s p o n ta n e o u s , o rg a n iz e d by th e young p e o p le th e m s e lv e s .

O th e rs

were sp o n so re d by p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s , and were c o n t r o l l e d by t h e o ld e r p e o p le .

Among t h e l a t t e r w ere th e

German N a tio n a l Y outh Movement, th e S o c i a l i s t Y outh, th e D em o cratic Y outh Movement, and q u i t e a number o f o r g a n iz a tio n s a tta c h e d eaoh to some c h u rc h .

— * 9—

A f te r

H i t l e r came t o pow er, a l l German y o u th movements

were f o r c i b l y m erged i n t o t h e H i t l e r Y o u th . T h is body i s a c o m p le te ly re g im e n te d o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t s e r v e s to t r a i n up m il young p e o p le , men and women a l i k e , i n t o th e N a zi way o f l i f e . German y o u th i s now s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n d o c t r i n a t e d w ith t h e f a l s e id e a s o f " N o rd ie s u p e r i o r i t y and w ith h a tr e d f o r a l l o th e r peo p le*

t

— 80 —

CHAPTER IV .

YOUTH MOVEMENTS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA

- 8 1 -

CHAPTER IV YOUTH MOVEMENTS IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA

H i s t o r i c a l B ackground C z e c h o slo v a k ia h a s b e en c a l l e d "The Y o u th Haven o f th e W o rld ."

T here i s a r e a l re a s o n why t h i s t i t l e

i s d e s e rv e d ,

and i t can be u n d e rs to o d o n ly i n th e l i g h t o f t h a t c o u n tr y ’ s h is to ry . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , to a v o id c o n fu s io n and c o m p lic a tio n due t o r e c e n t e v e n t s , an a r b i t r a r y l i n e i s drawn a s o f J a n . 1 , 1938, and e v e n ts a f t e r t h a t d a te a r e p u rp o s e ly l e f t o u t o f c o n s id e ra tio n .

What h a s happened s in c e th e n i s s t i l l tWVsttHtfr

i n f l u x , sad The r e s u l t s a re So l i k e l y to be changed by e v e n ts i n th e n e a r f u t u r e , t h a t an a r b i t r a r y d a t e , p r e v io u s t o th e f i r s t a c t u a l in r o a d s o f N azi Germany, m akes th e b e s t p o s s ib l e s to p p in g p o i n t.

We s h a l l t h e r e f o r e u se th e p r e s e n t t e n s e ,

p u rp o s e ly o v e rlo o k in g d e v elo p m e n ts s in c e 1938. C z e c h o s lo v a k ia was a p o r t io n o f th e o ld A u s tr ia n E m pire, and was to a l a r g e e x te n t a s u b j e c t n a t i o n .

D u rin g th e 1 9 th

C en tu ry a s te a d y s t r u g g l e to g a in l e g a l and g e n e r a l r e c o g n i­ t i o n o f th e C zech and S lo v a k la n g u a g e s , to re d u c e th e German­ s p e a k in g o v e r l o r d s h i p , went on.

The r e s u l t s w ere l a r g e , b u t

i n co m p ariso n to th e d e s i r e s o f th e C zechs th e y w ere o n ly th e s m a ll e s t o f c o n c e s s io n s . The c o n f l i c t s o f th e d i f f e r e n t la n g u a g e g ro u p s o r n a t i o n ­ a l i t i e s w ith in th e A u s tr ia n E m pire i s th e fo rm a tiv e p r o c e s s

-

82 —

w hich gave to th e Y o u th Movements i n C z e c h o slo v a k ia t h e i r d is tin c tiv e c h a ra c te r.

The f e e l i n g o f k i n s h i p w ith o th e r

n a t i o n a l i t i e s , and e s p e c i a l l y w ith th o s e s p e a k in g k in d re d la n g u a g e s o f th e S l a v i c g ro u p , i s th e d i r e c t p ro d u c t o f t h i s s tru g g le . C z e c h o -S lo v a k ia h as f o r c e n t u r i e s b een one o f th e oent e r s o f E u ro p ean c u l t u r e ; th e U n i v e r s i ty a t P rag u e i s one o f th e o l d e s t . fo r s tu d e n ts .

The c o u n try h a s lo n g been t r a d i t i o n a l l y a hav en T h e ir h ig h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s have b e e n open t o th e

s t u d e n ts o f a l l n a t i o n s , o f f e r i n g few er r e s t r i c t i o n s th a n w ere o f t e n f e l t in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .

The aim i s to l i v e h o n o ra b ly

in th e s p i r i t o f C h r i s t and H uss f o r a l i f e o f t r u t h and good­ n ess.

I n suoh an a tm o sp h e re t h e r e i s no room f o r i n t o l e r a n c e . A f u r t h e r f e a t u r e o f th e h i s t o r i c a l b ack g ro u n d in C zecho­

s lo v a k ia i s th e

p re s e n c e of a German m in o r ity w ith in th e

c o u n tr y , c e n te r e d m a in ly

i n a b o rd e r s t r i p b u t i n c lu d in g a ls o

" is la n d s * ’ o f Germans i n and n e a r P r a h a , B rn o , and o th e r l o ­ c a l i t i e s i n th e Thus th e s e

h e a r t o f th e Czech and S lo v a k o o u n try . m in o r i t y g ro u p s have

become tro u b le so m e u n i t s

w i t h in th e body p o l i t i c , I n th e u p h e a v a l o f 1918 C z e c h o slo v a k ia became an in d e ­ pendent s t a t e .

A t onoe t h e r e began a r e a d ju s tm e n t from wan

c o n d itio n s and in c o n fo rm ity w ith th e n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l d e ­ v elo p m en t.

The war had l e f t p r i c e s h ig h , w ages u n a d ju s te d ,

and s o c i a l c o n d itio n s c h a o t i c . Communist a c t i v i t y o c c u r r e d .

Henoe a b r i e f i n t e r l u d e o f

The m is e ry and e x h a u s tio n o f th e m asses o f w o rk e rs and fa rm e rs p re p a re d th e ground f o r th e r e v o l u t io n a r y i d e a , th e n c u r r e n t i n n e ig h b o r in g R u s s ia , H u n g ary , A u s tr i a and Germany.

The Communist p r o p a g a n d is ts f a i l e d , how ever, to

w in th e C zechs and S lo v a k s f o r t h e i r way o f th o u g h t, IBMH "B o u rg e o is d e m o c ra tic c a p i ta l is m " s u c c e s s f u l l y g o t i n t o o p e r a t io n a s a n a tio n -w id e econom ic sy ste m , c o n tin u in g th e p re -w a r mode o f l i f e . I n s p i t e o f th e e x is te n c e o f th e d e s p ite m in o r ity g ro u p s , a n d ^ s tr o n g e f f o r t s to work on them from th e o o u n t r ie s i n w hich th e s e same n a t i o n a l o r la n g u a g e g ro u p s w ere d o m in a n t, C z e c h o s lo v a k ia w ent i t s own way. The m in o r ity g ro u p s w i t h in C z e c h o slo v a k ia w ere s t i l l la rg e .

The f o llo w in g 1935 f i g u r e s a r e t y p i c a l o f th e e n t i r e

p e r io d from 1910 t o 1938 (1) The p o p u la tio n o f C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , a b o u t 9 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 was d iv id e d th u s : C zechs and S lo v a k s 66.92% Germans 22.32% H u n g a ria n s 4.78% C a rp a th o -R u s s ia n s 3.79% Jew s (m o stly German in lan g u a g e) 1.29% P o le s 0 .5 6 A ll o th e rs 0.34% P lu s 250,000 a l i e n s , o f w hich 94.437 w ere G erm ans, r e ­ s i d i n g w i t h in th e c o u n try .

(1) U. S . D ept, o f th e I n t e r i o r , O ffio e o f E d u c a tio n , B u l le ­ t i n 1935, No. 11.

-

84—

In th e b re a k -u p o f th e A u s tr ia n E m p ire, th e b u lk o f th e i n d u s t r i e s f e l l to C z e c h o s lo v a k ia . 1924 f i g u r e s :

We q u o te G ru b e r’ s

(1) P e rc e n ta g e o f A u s tr ia n I n d u s t r i e s f a l l i n g to C z e c h o s lo v a k ia S u g ar B re w e rie s M alt F a c t o r i e s L iq u o r G la ss m a n u fa c tu re L e a th e r C o tto n t e x t i l e s Woolen t e x t i l e s

92% 65% 95% 50% 90% 70% 75% 92%

Thus th e C zech o slo v ak p o p u la tio n was l a r g e l y i n d u s t r i a l i n em ploym ent,

i n f a c t , th e 1921 c e n su s f i g u r e s showed ab o u t

2 ,1 5 0 ,0 0 0 p e rs o n s em ployed i n i n d u s t r y and 2 , 350 , 000 i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h i s c o u n try . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l th e u r g e n t la b o r p ro b lem s had been ad­ j u s t e d to a t l e a s t a w o rkable modus v iv e n d i, by th e end o f 1920.

L abor l e g i s l a t i o n advanced q u ic k ly , u n d e r th e e n ­

l i g h t e n e d l e a d e r s h i p o f P r e s i d e n t Thomas G. M asaryk.

The

1918 la b o r la w , p a sse d im m e d ia te ly a f t e r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e g o v ern m en t, p ro v id e s th e f o llo w in g f e a tu r e s * wfrirh . them (G o n tra s t^ w ith th e fo rm er A u s tr i a n law o f maximum w o rk in g day i n f a c t o r i e s 11 h o u r s , i n m ines 9 h o u r s , o v e rtim e l i m i t e d to 1 h o u r p e r day.) (2) 1.

W orking day l i m i t e d to 8 h o u rs p e r d a y , 48 p e r.w e e k ,

192 i n 4 w eeks; o v e rtim e d r a s t i c a l l y l i m i t e d . (1) Quoted in Eugene S te r n . C z e c h o slo v a k ia . M acm illan ,' 1924, I n t r o d u c t i o n , p . v i . (2) I b i d , pp. 201-802

An u n i n t e r New Y ork,

— 85 r a p t e d r e s t p e r io d o f n o t l e s s th a n 32 h o u rs i n each w eek, t o f a l l on Sunday wherarer p o s s i b l e ,

Women w orking a s h o u se h o ld

s e r v a n t s a re in o lu d e d u n d e r t h i s law . 2 . N ig h t work (10 p .m .to 5 a .m .) l i m i t e d t o p u b lic s e r v i o e s and t o m ales o v e r 18 y e a r s o f a g e . 3 . C h ild re n u n d e r 14 n o t to be em ployed i n p r o f i t m aking e n t e r p r i s e s . J u n i o r s u n d e r 16 (m ale) o r 18 (fe m a le ) n o t t o be em ployed i n heavy work p o s s ib ly i n j u r i o u s to h e a l t h . M ines may n o t em ploy anyone l e s s th a n 16 y e a r s og a g e . A law o f 1920 su p p lem en ted t h i s by d e a l in g w ith o t h e r l a b o r n e ed s th a n r e s t r i c t i o n o f h o u r s . T h is a c t c r e a te d la b o r c o n c i l i a t i o n m a o h in e ry . I t s e t up j o i n t f u n d s , u n d e r com bined d i r e o t i o n o f la b o r and m anagem ent, f o r e d u o a tio n a l and h u m a n ita ria n p u r p o s e s , i n th e m ining i n d u s t r i e s . E d u o a tio n a l developm ent i n C z e c h o slo v a k ia was v e ry g r e a t i n th e e a r l y 1 9 2 0 's . We can h e re o n ly m e n tio n t h a t I l l i t e r a c y was n e a r l y w iped o u t i n th e o o u n try betw een 1918 and 1935. The h ig h q u a l i t y o f th e s c h o o ls h a s been t h e s u b j e c t o f fa v o r a b le and a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e p o r t ( 1 ) • I n t o l e r a n c e and h a tr e d ^ th e s o r r y le g a c y o f c e n t u r i e s o f o p p r e s s io n , su pposed t o have been l i q u i d a t e d by th e w a r, l e f t an unhappy p o l i t i c a l h e r i t a g e . V a rio u s r e l i g i o u s o r •’r a c i a l '1 g ro u p s t r i e d to make th e s t a t e s u b s e r v ie n t to th e m s e lv e s . They a lw a y s f a i l e d .

(1)

The a tte m p ts m a in ta in e d th e o ld b i t t e r n e s s .

S .K . T u r o s i e n s k i. E d u c a tio n i n C z e c h o s lo v a k ia . D e p t, o f th e I n t e r i o r , O ffio e o f I d u o a t i o n , B u l l e t i n 1935, No. 1 1 .

T .S .

— 86—

The f u t i l e a tte m p t t o I s o l a t e a n y gro u p w ith in C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , t o deny i t a s h a r e in t h e s t a t e , u n ifo rm ly f a i l e d — a s f a i l i t alw ay s m u s t. No " r a c i a l ” o r la n g u a g e o r r e l i g i o u s group h a s s u c c e e d e d , i n t h i s o r i n any o th e r l a n d , i n f o i s t i n g i t s b e l i e f s on th e e n t i r e p o l i t i c a l body f o r more th a n a s h o r t tim e . I n C z e c h o slo v a k ia th e words o f S ta n le y H igh w ere m ost re le v a n t(l): " I t i s o h i e f l y among th e y o u th , in f a c t , t h a t one f i n d s r e c o g n i t i o n 'o f i n t e r e s t s which s h o u ld u n i t e . " F re e y o u th s , l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v ic e s , and n o t u se d a s pawns by th o s e s e e k in g pow er, showed i n C z e c h o slo v a k ia a s e ls e w a h e re , t h a t t h e y w ould w ork f o r a u n i ty o f I n t e r e s t s , d is r e g a r d in g " r a c e " ( 2 ) , c re e d , o r p o l i t i c a l p h i lo s o p h ie s . One can n o t deny t h a t n a tio n a lis m s a t4 g r o u p p r e j u d i c e s may be fo u n d among y o u th ; n o r t h a t many young p e rs o n s would b o th deny t h e p o s s i b i l i t y and d o u b t t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f u n if y in g th e p e o p le s o f e a s t e r n E u ro p e.

Such young p e o p le have been

i n d o c t r i n a t e d by t h e i r e l d e r s , and s te e p e d i n p r e j u d i c e s a g a i n s t o t h e r g ro u p s .

O th e rs have been so Imbued thee a f e e l i n g f o r t h e i r

own " s u p e r i o r i t y " t h a t d e s p is in g o t h e r s h a s beoome "a lm o st c o n g e n i t a l ."

B ut t h in k i n g , e d u c a te d y o u th ta k e s

view o f su ch r e l a t i o n s h i p s .

a d iffe re n t

Such fo r w a r d -lo o k in g young men and

women a r e i n c r e a s i n g i n num ber. They a r e t r y i n g to c o r r e c t f a ls e id e a s .

They a r e alw ays w o rk in g t o e s t a b l i s h a b e t t e r oom-

(1)

S ta n le y H ig h , The R e v o lt o f Y o u th , p . 101

(2)

The w r i t e r w ould h e re i n s e r t a c a u tio n a s t o t h e v e ry lo o s e c u r r e n t u s e o f th e te rm " r a c e " f o r g ro u p s s e p a r a te d o n ly by la n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . T h is m isu se i s g e n e r a l i n m odern E urope*

m u n ity o f i n t e r e s t s .

The S okol The f o u n ta in - h e a d o f C zec h o slo v ak y o u th movements i s th e S o k o l. I n 1862 th e S o k o l, a p h y s ic a l c u l t u r e o r g y m n astic u n io n , w ith l o c a l s th ro u g h o u t w hat was th e n c a l l e d B ohem ia, was fo u n d ed .

I t was r e a l l y an a tte m p t to m eet th e m enace o f

G e rm a n iz a tio n th ro u g h th e s p re a d o f th e T u m v e rb a n d , w hich had s p re a d th ro u g h o u t German la n d s a s th e r e s u l t o f th e m is s io n a r y work o f J a h n .

(1)

C z ec h o slo v ak in d ep e n d en c e was a c h ie v e d i n 1918.

A fte r

t h a t th e movement d e v e lo p e d i n t o p o l i t i c a l and a t h l e t i c a s s o c ia tio n s .

T h ere was th e L a b o re rs* P h y s ic a l C u ltu r e

U n io n , th e members o f w hich b e lo n g e d to th e S o c i a l Demo­ c r a t i c P a r t y ; th e F e d e ra l L a b o re rs* P h y s ic a l C u ltu r e U nion, whose members b elo n g e d to th e Communist P a r t y ; and th e O re l ( o r E a g le ) o f th e C a th o lic P a r t y . Gedye (2) i s p e rh a p s o u r b e s t s o u rc e f o r an u n d e r s ta n d ­ in g o f th e S o k o ls* a s d b i s a c c o u n t o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , w r i t t e n i n r e c e n t y e a r s , may p r o p e r ly s ta n d f o r t h e i r e s s e n ­ t i a l s to ry : - "The S o k o ls a r e gym nasts who m eet e v e ry s i x y e a r s to

(1) E li z a b e th W iskemann, C zechs and G erm ans, p . 55, London, O xford U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1938. (2) Orr H. R. G edye, B e tr a y a l in C e n tr a l E u ro p e , pp. 4 1 7 -4 1 8 . New Y o rk , H a rp e r s , 1939.

-

88-

g iv e th e m ost am azing m ass g y m n astic e x h i b i t i o n s to be se e n anyw here i n th e w o rld .

And t h i s was a l l th e w o rld knew a b o u t

th e S o k o l C o n g ress i n P ra g u e .

B ut th e S okol o r g a n i z a t i o n s

have a f a r more im p o rta n t f u n o tio n th a n th e h o ld in g o f g y m n astic d i s p l a y s .

They w ere fo unded a t th e tim e when

o p p r e s s io n o f th e S la v o n ic m i n o r i t i e s by th e A u s tro -H u n g a ria n M onarchy was a t i t s h e ig h t .

W ith o u t u n i v e r s i t i e s , w ith o u t

c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s to form a bond b etw een th e S la v s whom A u s tria -H u n g a ry c o n t r o l l e d on th e p r i n c i p l e s o f d iv id e e t im p e ra , th e S okol o r g a n i z a t i o n s w ere d e v is e d w ith th e t a s k o f p r o v id in g a c o n n e c tin g l i n k betw een a l l th e S la v s o f th e M onarchy w hich s h o u ld be i n i t s form o f d r i l l an e x p r e s s io n o f th e t r u e S la v tem p eram en t, and s h o u ld a t th e same tim e d e . v e lo p th e f e e l i n g o f S la v b ro th e rh o o d .

As I s a t in P rague

S tad iu m and w atched 30 ,000 men i n w h ite s h i r t s and n a v y -b lu e t r o u s e r s m arch in g a s one g r e a t , p e r f e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d m achine and p e rfo rm in g a s one man a s e r i e s o f b e a u t i f u l rh y th m ic move­ m ents b e f o r e BeneS and 300,000 s p e c t a t o r s , I r e a l i z e d how w e ll th e f o u n d e rs had su c c e e d e d i n p r o v id in g a medium f o r th e ex­ p r e s s io n o f th e S la v tem peram ent in th e g y m n a stic a r e n a .

For

in a l l t h e s e S okol m ovem ents, d e s p i t e t h e i r a b s o lu te p r e c i s i o n , t h e r e was n o th in g o f m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e , n o th in g o f th e b a rr a o k s q u a r e ." "Coming a f t e r th e m o b il i z a ti o n o f May 2 1 s t and th e su c ­ c e s s f u l m anning o f t h e f r o n t i e r d e fe n o e s , th e Sokol C o n g re ss, w ith a l l ' t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f u n i t y , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f -

- 8 9 -

s a o r i f i o e w hich i t im p lie d , ro u s e d th e s p i r i t s o f th e C zecho­ s lo v a k p eo p le to a w h ite h e a t o f p a t r i o t i s m and w eld ed them a s n e v e r b e f o r e o r s in c e i n to one u n i te d f a m ily .

I t d id muoh

m ore— i t p ro v id e d f o r a moving e x p r e s s io n o f S la v u n i t y , r e a c h in g f a r a c r o s s th e f r o n t i e r s o f th e S t a t e . "

Alms o f Y outh A cco rd in g to S ta n le y H ig h , (1) we have th e f o llo w in g d e c l a r a t i o n by s t u d e n ts i n P ra g u e , C z e o h o -S lo v a k ia :

"We

w i l l p ro v e t h a t o u r s tu d e n t i s a b le , when i t i s n e c e s s a r y , to ta k e upon h i s s h o u ld e r s e v en th e m ost r e s p o n s i b l e t a s k s . We hope t h a t i n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e s t u d e n ts o f th e w hole w o r ld , i t w i l l be p o s s ib l e to b u i l d a new w o rld — a w o rld o f c r e a t i o n and n o t o f d e s t r u c t i o n , a w o rld w hich w i l l g iv e e v e ry i n d i v i d u a l f u l l l i b e r t y and a l l c o n d it i o n s n e c e s s a ry f o r th e d ev elo p m en t o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s le a d in g to th e p h y s i c a l , m e n ta l and m o ral d evelopm ent o f men.

We b e l i e v e i n w o rk in g f o r th e

b e t t e r f u t u r e o f a l l s t u d e n t s ."

The E f f e c t of Unemployment: The V o lu n ta ry L abor S e rv ic e Owing to g e n e ra l econom ic c o n d it i o n s , th e q u e s tio n o f unem ploym ent i n C z e c h o -S lo v a k ia , a s i n o th e r s t a t e s , has b een a c u te .

T h is c o n d it i o n has p ro d u ced a bad e f f e c t upon y o u th .

Employment i s h a rd to f i n d .

(1) S ta n le y H ig h , The R e v o lt o f Y o u th , p. 108.

— 3 0 -

To m eet t h i s a d v e rs e s i t u a t i o n , th e M i n i s t e r o f So­ c i a l W e lfare i n s t i t u t e d a v o lu n ta r y l a b o r s e r v i c e f o r y o u th . T h is s e r v i c e c o n s i s t s o f two e x p e rim e n ta l w orking cam ps, w here highw ay and ra ilw a y b u i l d i n g a r e c a r r i e d o n , and o p p o r­ t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e p ro v id e d .

The w o rk e rs a r e g iv e n

a sm a ll amount o f m oney, to g e t h e r w ith fo o d , s h e l t e r and c lo th in g . The M i n i s t e r o f S o c i a l S e rv io e e m p h a size s th e d u ty o f e v e ry one to w ork.

The p u rp o se i n t h i s re q u ire m e n t i s to keep

th e y o u th o u t o f p o l i t i c s and to make th e s e camps c a r r y o u t th e p r o j e c t s o f th e o r g a n i z a t i o n .

I n t h i s way p o l i t i c a l

p ro p ag an d a i s a v o id e d . "A tte n d a n c e a t t h e s e camps i s open to young men b etw een 18 and 24 y e a r s o f a g e , i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n ta r y , and th e men may le a v e them a t any tim e upon g i v in g a w eek’ s n o t i o e . " 11) A d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e camp i s g iv e n by W inslow , (2) a s f o llo w s : The camps so f a r a s p o s s i b l e a r e s e l f - g o v e r n i n g .

Q u e stio n s

d e a lin g w ith p h y s ic a l t r a i n i n g , g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n , and c u l ­ t u r a l m a tte r s a r e s e t t l e d by chosen r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e members o f th e oamp, who form an autonom ous c o u n c il.

The

camps a r e d iv id e d i n to l a b o r te a m s , e a c h w ith a l e a d e r who i s r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e d i s c i p l i n e and work o f th e g ro u p .

(1) W. T. W inslow, Y o u th , p. 19. (2) I b i d .

-9 1 — We o f c o u rs e n o te th e s i m i l a r i t y betw een th e Czech v o lu n ta r y l a b o r s e r v i c e and t h e C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C orps i n th e U n ite d S ta te s (1 ).

I t seems t h a t i n C z e c h o s lo v a k ia ,th e members o f th e

camps a re g iv e n more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own c o n t r o l ,t h a n i s t h e oase i n th e

C .C .C . i n o u r own c o u n try .

I t i s a p p a re n t

t h a t th e Czech y o u th s met t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n th e camps i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y m anner. I n May, 1934, th e M u n ic ip a l C o u n c il o f P ra h a o rg a n iz e d l a b o r team s f o r s i n g l e men betw een 18 and 34 y e a rs o f a g e . T hese teem s c o n s i s t o f from 20 t o 30 men e a c h . They r e c e i v e t h e i r b o a d , t h e i r c l o t h i n g , and c a s h wages a t th e r a t e o f ab o u t $ 1 .4 0 f o r s i x d a y s . T hese l a b o r team s a r e a d m in is te r e d by t h e m u n ic ip a lity . T here a r e a l s o camps f o r s tu d e n ts d u rin g v a c a t i o n . The pay i n th e s e i s l ik e w is e s m a ll, b u t enough to make t h e s t u d e n t s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and in d e p e n d e n t. The e x p e n se s o f some such camps a r e met by p r i v a t e c o n t r i b u t i o n s . The B a ta show m a n u fa c tu rin g f i r m p ro p o sed a n o th e r p la n f o r g iv in g work t o unem ployed y o u th . The scheme was t o fo rm two " la b o r r e g im e n ts " , t o c o n s t r u c t a new ra ilw a y l i n e a c r o s s M o ra v ia, c o n n e c tin g Bohemia and S lo v a k ia .

The f ir m o f f e r e d to

o rg a n iz e and m a in ta in la b o r oamps and k i t c h e n s , to e s t a b l i s h a s o c i a l and e d u o a tio n a l p ro g ram , and t o s u p p ly shorn* and w orking c l o t h e s a t c o s t . The p la n was su b m itte d t o t h e g o v ern ­ ment j as i t r e q u i r e d an a p p r o p r i a ti o n o f fu n d s from th e un— T O ---------------------------



See Chapter 711, pp.155 f f .

—9 2 employment fu n d , th e governm ent d id n o t have tim e t o ta k e up th e m a tte r b e fo re German a g g re s s io n p u t an end t o a l l a id t o y o u th .

But th e B a ta f i r m began t h e p r o j e c t on i t s own

i n i t i a t i v e , p en d in g a c t i o n by th e g o v ern m en t.

The "W andering B i r d s " . The y o u th movement known a s th e W andering B ird s or W andervO gel

h as been d e s c r ib e d i n th e c h a p te r on Germany and w i l l be

r e f e r r e d t o a g a in i n t h a t on A u s t r i a . The same movement in c lu d e d n o t o n ly C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , bu t Y u g o s la v ia , H ungary and P o la n d . Here i s a good exam ple o f how y o u th movements c o u ld n o t b e hemmed i n by p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a rie s .

T hese young p e o p le w ere s e e k in g to

s a lv a g e what th e y c o u ld from p a s t c i v i l i z a t i o n s . I n C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , t h e W andering B ir d s , to o k t h e form o f th e " F i n k e n s t e l n e r s in g in g movement. I t o r i g i n a t e d i n th e G erm anrspeaking p a r t s o f th e c o u n tr y .

We q u o te M iss M e n te l(l)

a b o u t th e o r i g i n o f th e F i n k e n s t e l n e r movement i n P ra h a ( 2 ) : "B rag u e, th e c a p i t a l o f C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , i s a s t r a n g e , h i s t o r i c c i t y , f i l l e d w ith m y s te ry . N ear th e o a s t l e o f H radcany a re s t i l l to be se en (1 9 3 9 ) th e l i t t l e h o u se s o f th e a lc h e m is ts who l i v e d t h e r e i n th e 1 6 th c e n t u r y ." "Tyoho de B ra h e , th e famous a s tro n o m e r, i s b u r ie d i n S a in t Tynus C a th e d r a l. The i d e a s o f suoh i n d i v i d u a l s

as

(1)

M arianne M e n ta l. W andering B ird s o f C z e c h o s lo v a k ia . W orld Y outh, I , 2 1 , iJeo. 1 8 , 1937, p . 11

(2)

I n t h i s o h a jrte r we u n ifo rm ly u se th e Czeoh form s o f th e p la e e nam es, e x c e p t w here th e y a r e fo u n d i n o t h e r form s i n q u o t a t i o n s . T hus, o o d a s lo n a lly , a q u o ted p a ssa g e w i l l m e n tio n P ra g u e i n s t e a d o f P r a h a , e t o .

C om enius, th e M oravian p h ilo s o p h e r and g r e a t t e a c h e r , h i s d is c ip le s , th e M oravian b r o t h e r s , Ja co b Boehme, th e German m y s tic who l i v e d i n S i l e s i a , f e r t i l i z e even now some m in d s, Hobody can r e s i s t th e ro m a n tic im p re s s io n o f th e a tm o sp h ere o f Prague.** **No wonder t h a t one day i n J u l y , 1 9 2 3 , some young German men and women o f P ra g u e , fo n d o f m usic and b e lo n g in g to th e W andering B ir d s movement, d e c id e d t o spend a w hole week a t F in k e n s te in , a l i t t l e

v i l l a g e n e a r P ra g u e , and t o d e d io a te

t h i s tim e and th e m se lv e s e n t i r e l y t o m u s ic ." So th e f i r s t s in g in g week o c c u rre d i n J u ly 1923 and p ro v ed to b e a m arv e lo u s r e v e l a t i o n to them .

At f i r s t o n ly

German so n g s w ere su n g , a s th e e v e n ts o r i g i n a t e d w ith a g ro u p o f Germans.

But t h i s id e a soon b e g an to expand.

The s i n g e r s

went to Sweden, Norw ay, B e lg iu m , F i n l a n d , H o lla n d , Normandy, and B u l g a r i a , s e a r c h in g ev ery w h ere f o r p o p u la r s o n g s , e s ­ p e c i a l l y o ld songs o f th e 1 6 th C e n tu ry .

On t h e i r t r i p s th e y

w ould s in g i n tow ns and c h u rc h e s , p la y in g th e l u t e , th e l y r e , th e f l u t e and o t h e r o ld in s tr u m e n ts .

Many o f t h e i r program s

c e n te r e d aro u n d s p e c i a l and r e l i g i o u s h o lid a y s . N e a rly e v e ry p o l i t i c a l p a r t y had i t s y o u th g ro u p s , b u t t h e W andering B ird s knew n o th in g o f p o l i t i c s ; o r a t l e a s t p o l i t i c s had no in f lu e n c e on t h e i r m ovem ents.

They m ain­

t a i n e d t h e i r u n if y in g and s p i r i t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .

H ere we

have a movement e n t i r e l y u n s e l f i s h i n i t s m o tiv e s , and one i n p a r t a t l e a s t t h a t an sw ers a lo n g in g f o r th e f i n e r th in g s o f life .

f

-9 4 —

The, S u d e te n

Germans and t h e i r Y outh M ovem ents.

The German m in o r ity i n C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , e s p e c i a l l y u n d e r N azi in f lu e n c e s from a c r o s s th e b o rd e r a f t e r 1929, rem ained d e f i n i t e l y a lo o f from th e Czech y o u th movements and in d e e d d e v elo p ed t h e i r own movements o f y o u th , w ith German n a t i o n a l i s t a im s . We q u o te Wiskemann on t h e i r h i s t o r y ( 1 ) : From 5-929 y o u th s o v e r 21 w ere o rg a n iz e d by th e S u d e te n N a z is i n th e s o - c a l l e d F o l k s s p o r t , w hich behaved e x a c tl y l i k e H i t l e r ' s S torm T roops i n th e R e ic h , w e a rin g a s i m i l a r u n ifo rm . T here were many young S u d e ten Germans a t t h i s tim e w h o ,d e te rm in e d though th e y were t o rem ain o n ly n e g a tiv e to w a rd s t h e R e p u b lic , fo u n d th e German N a tio n a ls to o r e a c t i o n a r y and th e N a z is to o d r a s t i c — a t any r a t e t o s t a r t w ith . They c o n s o le d th e m s e lv e s in s u p p o r tin g th e o ld c u l t u r a l an d g y m n astic s o c i e t i e s .T h e o ld T urnverband and th e S c h u tz v e r e in e . w ith a changed name h e re and t h e r e , had ta k e n up t h e i r h i s t o r i c a c t i v i t i e s ; among t h e o h o r a l s o c i e t i e s th e F ln k e n s te ln e r b u n d was most p ro m in e n t. A f t e r th e War many young Germans i n Germany, A u s tr i a ,a n d C z e c h o slo v a k ia w ere d i l i g e n t members o f Y outh M ovem ents, W andervB gel. & o ., and s i n c e th e y w ish e d t o h a v e n o th in g t o do w ith C zech o slo v ak p o l i t i o s , th e young S u d e te n Germans c lu n g to th e ro m a n tic m y s tio is m which t h i s k in d o f t h in g p ro v id e d v e ry much lo n g e r th a n young Germans e ls e w h e r e . Those o f them who l a t e r j o in e d th e V o lk s s p o r t o r g a n i z a t i o n to o k a good many o f t h e i r W andervBgel dream s i n t o i t w ith them , w ith s e r i o u s p o l i t i c a l c o n se q u e n c e s t o f o llo w . The m y s t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d jo in e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e now fam ous K am erad so h aftsb u n d ( u s u a l l y a b b r e v ia te d to E .B .) ,w h io h was fo u n d ed a b o u t 1926 and came i n t o th e o p e n i n 19*0 w ith i t s m onthly re v ie w . D ie Ju n ee F r o n t . Among i t s fo u n d e rs w ere H e in ric h R u th a , w a i te r n e l n r i o h , and W a lte r B ra n d , a l l young men who d e v o u tly b e i l l e v e d i n so m e th in g m y s te rio u s and u n t r a n s l a t a b l e c a l l e d d a s B ttndlsche— an o r g a n ic b i n d i n g - t o g e t h e r , p e rh a p s . T he W andervBgel them­ s e l v e s w ere r e o r g a n iz e d i n 1930 by J o s e f Suchy i n t o % more s e v e r e l y d i s c i p l i n e d Bund. W hile th e S u d e te n N a z ia and th e V olk as p o r t y o u th s were more and more f o r th e e x p a n sio n o f tn e B e r lin R e io h ,th e K .B . p e o p le s t i l l ............ c lu n g t o a n A u s tr ia n a l l e g i a n c e

(1) W iskemann, lo o . c i t , p p . 136-139

- 9S-—

. . . . . . . . . The young men from Bohemia dream ed h a p p ily o f B o h e m ia's m e d ie v a l t r a d i t i o n s and t h e German m is s io n to sa v e i t a g a in * They came home t o p re a o h t h i s g o s p e l, and g a in e d many f o l lo w e r s ; in d e e d , th e y so o n won a dom inant in f lu e n c e i n th e v a r io u s S u d e te n German n a tio n a lis t s o c ie tie s . ( S e v e r a l p a ra g r a p h s o m itte d h e re a s n o t on y o u th movements b u t a l l i e d o r d i r e c t i n g s e n i o r movements)

)

The V o lk s s p o rt young men were t h e o n e s who s a i l e d c l o s e s t to th e w in d . They b e lo n g e d to t h e D .N .S .A .P .( l) w hich a t S a lz b u rg i n 1920, had r e g a r d e d i t s e l f a s t h e v e ry same th in g a s H i t l e r * s p a r t y , and w h ich e n t l a s i a t t i c a l l y r e c e iv e d D r. G o eb b els a s a v i s i t i n g s p e a k e r i n 1927 a n d D r. F r i o k i n 1928* They d re s s e d a s t h e German S .A . d i d , and in d u lg e d i n a s much m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g a s th e y c o u ld p ro v id e f o r th e m s e lv e s . A lre a d y i n 1929, t o ta k e one exam ple, th e y had s e n t a b ig group t o t h e N .S .D .A .P . (2) a n n u a l r a l l y a t N ttrnberg a n d had m arched b e n e a th th e m o tto T re u z u H i t l e r . X I 1931 N azi a n d V o lk s s p o r t u n ifo rm s were f o rb id d e n i n C z e c h o slo v a k ia , and a t l a s t i n th e summer o f 1932 t h e C zech o slo v ak Gov em inent d e c id e d to in d u lg e i n th e d a n g e ro u s lu x u r y o f a g r e a t tr e a s o n in d ic tm e n t, and la u n c h e d t h e fam ous V o lk s s p o r t t r i a l . Seven young members o f th e V o l k s s p o r t . m o st o f them s tu d e n ts o r n o t much m are, were> a c c u s e d o f h a v in g p re p a re d armed r e b e l l i o n i n conhedtfon w ith a f o r e i g i pow er, and w ith h a v in g p la n n e d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f C z e c h o slo v a k ia i n o r d e r to b r in g a b o u t a Pan-G erm an TUcn................... The armed r e b e l l i o n c h a rg e was dropped when t h e c a s e came up o n a p p e a l i n 1933, and th e t h r e e d e fe n d a n ts who were c o n s id e r e d most d a n g e ro u s were g iv e n p r is o n s e n te n c e s o f t h r e e y e a r s , re d u c e d t o two an d a h a l f .

T here was a g r e a t

German o u tc r y a g a i n s t t h e s e n t e n c e s . The f u r t h e r h i s t o r y o f th e S u d e te n Youth Movements i s t h a t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s in th e f a l l o f th e C zech o slo v ak R e p u b lic .

( 1 ) D e u tsc h e N a tio n a l- S o z ia lis tla c h e A r b e i t s p a r t e i . ( 2 ) N a t i o n a l - S o z i a l i s t i s o h e D eu tsch e A r b e i t e r p a r t e i . The two o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n n o te s 1 and 2 a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l ; th e fo rm e r was i n A u s t r i a , th e l a t t e r i n Germany.

-96



The T urnov C o n fe re n ce o f 1922 T u rn o v , i n C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , was th e sc e n e o f t h e f i r s t g r e a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l Y outh C o n fe re n c e .

The s t o r y o f t h i s

c o n fe re n c e b e lo n g s p r o p e r ly in th e c h a p te r d e a lin g w ith th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f y o u th movements and summing up th e whole s t o r y ; b u t i t m ust be m en tio n ed h e r e . (1) E ig h t y - t h r e e s tu d e n ts o f t h i r t y n a t i o n a l i t i e s , r e p r e ­ s e n tin g e v e ry r a c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , la n g u a g e and econom ic com­ p l i c a t i o n w ith in m id d le E u ro p e, form ed t h i s c o n fe re n c e .

It

was i n i t i a t e d by th e C z ec h s, b u t n o t d o m in ated by them .

They

w ere h o s t s , n o t b o s s e s . T h is c o n fe re n c e was a s t r i k i n g exam ple o f th e r e f u s a l o f youths to a c c e p t th e b a r r i e r s and th e h a tr e d o f t h e i r e l d e r s . I t s e f f e c t i n s t i m u l a t i n g y o u th w i t h in C z e c h o slo v a k ia was f a r - r e a c h i n g , b u t a lm o st im p o s s ib le to s e t f o r t h b e c a u se i t d id n o t g iv e r i s e to new o r g a n i z a t i o n s .

The e x i s t i n g S o k o ls ,

e t c . , w ere r e i n v i g o r a t e d . I n th e c h a p te r m e n tio n e d , we q u o te S ta n le y H ig h ’ s a d e q u a te and s y m p a th e tic a c c o u n t o f t h i s c o n fe re n c e .

(1)

See C h a p te r V I I I , pp. 177-181

CHAPTER IV SUMMARY

C z e c h o slo v a k ia had f o r a lo n g tim e b een a s u b j e c t n a ­ t i o n , p a r t o f th e A u s tr i a n E m pire. In t h i s la n d was a m ixed p o p u la tio n , s p e a k in g d i f f e r e n t la n g u a g e s .

The German sp e ak ­

in g p o r t i o n had th e dom inant in f lu e n c e i n th e o l d e r d a y s. The U n i v e r s i ty o f P rag u e was a c e n t e r o f E uropean c u l ­ t u r e , open t o th e s t u d e n ts o f a l l n a ti o n s .

C z e c h o slo v a k ia

had r i g h t l y been c a l l e d th e Y outh Haven. W hile th e c o n d itio n s i n C z e c h o slo v a k ia a f t e r th e F i r s t W orld War w ere d e p lo r a b le f o r many r e a s o n s , a l l comm unist p ro p ag an d a f a i l e d to a f f e c t th e C zech s.

The c o u n try was much

im proved u n d e r th e p re s id e n c y o f T. G. M asaryk.

L ab o r p ro b ­

lem s w ere a d ju s te d .

U nder h i s l e a d e r s h i p a g r e a t advanoe i n

e d u c a tio n was m ade.

M a sa ry k -th o ro u g h ly u n d e rs to o d th e e d u ­

c a tio n a l n eed s. The l e a d i n g y o u th movement i n C z e c h o slo v a k ia was th e S o k o l.

T h is movement b e g an i n 1862 a s a p h y s ic a l o u l t u r e o r

g y m n astic o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t l a t e r e n la r g e d i t s s p h e re o f i n ­ flu e n c e . B ecause o f th e g r e a t amount o f unem ploym ent, th e M i n i s t e r o f S o c ia l W e lfa re e s t a b l i s h e d a V o lu n ta ry L ab o r S e r v ic e f o r y o u th .

Y outh i n th e s e camps worked on p u b l ic w o rk s, i n r e t u r n

f o r w hich th e y w ere g iv e n f o o d , s h e l t e r , and c l o t h i n g , and a

-

s m a ll amount o f money. and 24 y e a r s o f a g e .

98-

I t was open t o young men betw een 18 Camps w ere a ls o e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s tu d e n ts

d u rin g v a o a tio n to e n a b le them to be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and in d e ­ p e n d e n t.

T h ere w ere o th e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r young men su c h a s

th e one p ro p o se d by th e B a ta Shoe Co. The W andervOgel in C z e c h o slo v a k ia was a movement o f con­ s i d e r a b l e in f lu e n c e among y o u th .

I t was p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e

i n P rag u e and v i c i n i t y . T h ere was a German movement i n C z e c h o slo v a k ia f o s t e r e d by German Y o u th .

I t was o rg a n iz e d by th e S u d e ten Germans. I t had

German i n t e r e s t s i n m ind.

CHAPTER V.

TEE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN AUSTRIA

-

100 -

CHAPTER V THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN AUSTRIA The Y outh Movement I n U n i v e r s i t i e s L ik e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , A u s t r i a had i t s y o u th m ovem ents, th e m ost im p o r ta n t o f w h ich may he found among y o u th o f th e u n i v e r ­ s itie s .

A u s t r i a h a s tw e lv e u n i v e r s i t i e s .

T here w ere 11,000 e n ­

r o l l e d i n 1925 in th e one i n V ie n n a . P e rh a p s th e u n i v e r s i t y y o u th s u f f e r e d m ost d u r in g th e p o s t ­ war y e a r s .

They w ere e a g e r to c o n tin u e t h e i r e d u c a tio n when th e

w ar was o v e r , b u t th e econom ic c o n d it i o n s made i t a lm o st im p o s s ib le . F o llo w in g 1 9 2 0 -2 2 , i n f l a t i o n became so g r e a t t h a t i t w ould r e q u i r e a b o u t 2 0 ,0 0 0 k r o n e r to e q u a l one A m erican d o l l a r . T h is c o n d itio n p ro d u ced c o n s t e r n a t i o n among s t u d e n ts and p ro ­ f e s s o r s , b u t n o t d e s p a ir.

G re a t p r i v a t i o n and alm ost s t a r v a t i o n

d id n o t l e s s e n y o u th ’ s a rd o r f o r an e d u c a tio n .

T hese u n i v e r s i t i e s ,

alw ay s c e n t e r s o f g r e a t l e a r n i n g , i n th e hope t h a t s t u d e n ts and p r o f e s s o r s from o t h e r E u ro p ean c o u n t r i e s m ig h t go to V ien n a d u r in g th e summer m o n th s, made a rra n g e m e n ts w hereby summer s e s s io n s f o r th e s tu d y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s w ere held^flB^gasffiflEiKsSSgB; G re a t s c h o l a r s from E ngland and o th e r p a r t s o f Europe gave o o u rs e s i n V ien n a d u r in g th e summer s e s s i o n s .

T h is movement began i n 1922.

L e c tu r e s i n b o th E n g lis h and German w ere g iv e n i n a l l c o u r s e s .

In

t h i s way th e u n i v e r s i t y was e n a b le d to c a r r y on. I n th e p ro s p e c tu s f o r t h e summer s e s s io n w i l l be found th e f o llo w in g w ords ( 1 ) :

" I f you a r e i n t e r e s t e d in C e n tr a l and E a s te r n

E urope and would l i k e t o make o b s e r v a tio n s and l e a r n on th e s p o t ;

(1) The U n i v e r s i ty o f V ienna Summer S ohool P r o s p e c tu s .

-1 0 1

i f you would l i k e to l e a r n la n g u a g e s i n th e o o u n t r ie s w here th e y a r e spoken; i f you a r e a n x io u s t o e n la r g e y o u r view s a s a s t u d e n t and s c h o la r w ith r e g a r d to y o u r own s u b j e c t ; i f you a r e w i l l i n g to h e lp a c o u n try f r e e i t s e l f from dependence upon c h a r i t y and r e p la c e r e l i e f b y a r e c i p r o c a l " g iv e and t a k e " , oome to V ien n a to a t t e n d th e V ien n a Summer S c h o o l." T hese m e e tin g s o f s tu d e n ts from v a r io u s E u ro p ean o o u n tr ie s p ro ­ m oted a b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g among th e o o u n tr ie s o f E u ro p e.

To

w hat e x te n t th e y a v e r te d f o r many y e a r s a o tu a l arm ed c o n f l i c t i s h a rd to t e l l , s in c e s i m i l a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l g ro u p in g s e x i s t e d and w orked in o th e r g ro u p s o f th e p o p u la tio n .

I t seems v e ry l i k e l y

t h a t some^who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e u n i v e r s i t y y o u th c o n ta o ts ^ w e re l a t e r among th o s e who w ere i n f l u e n t i a l i n th e many e f f o r t s made by R o ta ry I n t e r n a t i o n a l b etw een 1933 and 1938 to b r i n g t o g e t h e r o v e r th e c o n fe re n c e t a b l e r e s p o n s i b l e governm ent o f f i c i a l s o f o o u n tr ie s w hich m ig h t o th e rw is e have gone t o w a r.

The e f f e c ­

t i v e n e s s o f su c h R o t a r y - i n s p i r e d c o n ta o ts i n s e t t l i n g many con­ f l i c t s w hich m ig h t have b e en th e s p a rk s to s t a r t w a rs , i s a m at­ te r of re c o rd .

(1)

B a o k -to -th e -L a n d Movement A n o th e r movement s p o n s o re d by y o u th was t h e b a c k - t o - t h e - l a n d movement.

A f t e r th e F i r s t W orld War c o n d itio n s w ere so c h an g ed ,

and t h e r e w ere so few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e t u r n e d s o l d i e r s and y o u th a t home, t h a t th e pro b lem o f g e t t i n g enough to e a t had b e -

(1) The R o t a r l a n . C h ic a g o , 1 1 1 ., Nov. 1938.

- 1 0 2

come s e r i o u s .



T h e re fo re t h i s movement b ack t o th e la n d was i n ­

a u g u ra te d c h i e f l y by y o u th , i n 1920. •In l i t t l e

o v e r a y e a r t h i s movement h a s sw ept th o u sa n d s

o f young w o rk in g m en, s t a t e o f f i c i a l s and wounded s o l d i e r s from o v e rp o p u la te d V ie n n a i n t o th e o o u n try d i s t r i c t s .

I t i s an o u t­

gro w th o f t h e m u tu a l w e lf a r e a s s o c i a t i o n , form ed among i n v a l i d s o l d i e r s and o t h e r s d u rin g th e w ar f o r th e p u rp o se o f s e o u rin g an a d e q u a te fo o d s u p p l y ." (1) A l l u nused la n d s n e a r V ienna w ere u se d in t h i s way; and th o u sa n d s o f g a rd e n s w ere p u t i n t o s p e c i a l use f o r t h i s p u rp o s e . V ien n a i s a c i t y o f a p a rtm e n ts and f l a t s , w ith few s e p a r a te p riv a te h o u ses.

Thus th e f a m i l i e s d e p e n d in g on th e s u p p lie s now

o u t o f f l i v e d m o s tly in l a r g e a p a rtm e n t b u i l d i n g s , f r e q u e n tly w ith

h a v in g o n ly one room f o r a f a m ily ,a n d ^ a s many a s s e v e n ty - f iv e f a m i l i e s i n one b u i l d i n g . A f t e r th e w a r, even th o u g h th e p o p u la tio n o f V ie n n a had b een re d u c e d a b o u t 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 , y e t t h e r e was a g r e a t s h o r ta g e o f h o u s e s . O ld s t r u c t u r e s l e f t w ith o u t r e p a i r o r upkeep o f any k in d had tu m b led down.

Newly m a rrie d p e o p le n eed ed a p la c e i n w h ich to

liv e . B e fo re t h e w ar t h e r e w ere g r e a t f o r e s t s a ro u n d V ienna w hich w ere u sed a s h u n tin g gro u n d s f o r t h e E m peror and o th e r members o f th e r o y a l t y .

When th e H ap sb u rg d y n a s ty oame to an e n d , th e s e

f o r e s t s beoame th e p r o p e r ty o f th e new governm ent and t h e r e f o r e o f th e p e o p le .

(1) S ta n le y H ig h , Y outh V e rsu s C haos, p. 133.

-103 —

Hence y o u th and fo rm er s o l d i e r s to o k o y e r much o f th e f o r e s t , fo rm e rly u sed f o r h u n tin g g ro u n d s. t h e i r d o in g s o .

T here was no o p p o s itio n to

A s e ttle m e n t c o o p e r a tiv e s o c i e t y was o rg a n iz e d

and members w ere ta x e d i n o rd e r to d e v e lo p th e p r o p e r ty . developm ent was made on a c o o p e r a tiv e b a s i s . C ity o f P e a c e .n

T h is

They c a l l e d i t "The

I n o r d e r to c a r r y on t h i s w o rk , tim b e r was s o l d ,

ta x e s l e v i e d , l a b o r d o n a te d and a l l o th e rw is e w a ste m a t e r i a l was p u t to u se when p o s s i b l e . T h is p ro v ed to be an a lm o st s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g p r o j e c t o f o v e r 2 ,0 0 0 h o u s e s , w ith c h u rc h , s c h o o l, w orkshop and farm b u i ld i n g s as w e ll.

E ach house h as a l a r g e g a rd e n , and c o o p e r a tio n d o m in a tes

th e g ro u p .

I n t h i s c o n n e c tio n , H igh sa y s (1) t h a t "O th er s e t t l e ­

m en ts o f w o rk in g m en, t e a c h e r s , a r t i s t s , o f f i c i a l s and p r o f e s ­ s i o n a l p e o p le o f a l l c l a s s e s have b een d e v e lo p e d i n o th e r p a r t s o f A u s tr ia ." T hese s o c i e t i e s w ere g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by th e R e l i e f M is s io n o f th e F rie n d s i n V ien n a.

T h is movement h a s done an in c a lc u a b le

s e r v i c e to A u s t r i a in i t s d a r k e s t d a y s .

The Je w ish Y o u th Problem O ut o f th e 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 p o p u la tio n o f A u s t r i a , a b o u t 190,000 w ere a d h e r e n ts o f th e Je w is h c h u rc h , fo rm in g a m in o r ity amid a p o p u la tio n o th e rw is e a lm o st e n t i r e l y C a th o lic .

(1) S ta n le y H ig h , I . e . , p . 138

F or h i s t o r i c a l



10- 1“

--------

r e a s o n s t h i s c h u rc h group had d e v e lo p e d i n t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y a s e p a r a te com m unity, n o t ev en lo o k e d upon a s g e n u in e ly A u s tr ia n by th e r e s t o f th e p e o p le .

I t w as, in f a c t , a s e l e c t e d group o f We can re c o g n iz e t h i s th e A u s t r i a n s , d o m in a n tly o f h ig h a b i l i t y , KCXSSHxlKCXXsas^py con­

s i d e r i n g i t s two b e s t known members who have come to th e U n ite d S t a t e s —Supreme C ourt j u s t i c e F e l i x F r a n k f u r te r ,a n d Form er F e d e ra l D i s t r i c t A tto rn e y V io to r House o f New Y ork.

Among i t s more con­

s p ic u o u s members i n A u s t r i a w ere th e fam ous p s y c h i a t r i s t s F re u d , Ju n g and A d le r.

We m e re ly s t a t e h e re t h a t m ost o f th e Je w ish Aus­

t r i a n s w ere and a r e i n no way d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e a t s i g h t o r by even a n th ro p o m e tric m ethods from t h e i r C a th o lic o o m p a tr io ts . B ut from a p p ro x im a te ly 1930 onwards a grow ing t i d e o f i n ­ t o l e r a n c e e n g u lf e d th e s e Je w ish p e o p le and e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r y o u th . T h is t i d e was fa n n e d b y v a r io u s p o l i t i c a l g ro u p s , by no means a l l f a s c i s t i n n a t u r e , m ain ly o u t o f d i r e c t econom ic n e c e s s i t y .

The

a b l e r group was s a id to b e " m o n o p o liz in g th e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r ta le n t." Even b e f o r e th e a c t u a l a tta in m e n t o f u n io n w ith Germany, J e w is h y o u th i n A ustriaw rerse e x c lu d e d from governm ent and sem i­ o f f i c i a l em ploym ent.

Thus we f i n d t h i s group s u b s i s t i n g p r e c a r i ­

o u s ly oh a low econom ic l e v e l , and u n a id e d by any o r g a n i z a t i o n s . What i s mors re m a rk a b le i s t h a t w ith in th e Je w ish y o u th no e f f o r t was made to form t h e i r own Y outh O r g a n iz a tio n s and a t t a c k t h e i r own p roblem s by g ro u p e f f o r t .

The a b sen ce o f such a c t i v i t y i s a t

l e a s t w o rth y o f re c o r d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n .

— lOS —

V o lu n ta ry Work S e rv io e T h ere I s a l s o an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n A u s t r i a c a l l e d th e V olun­ t a r y Work S e r v io e .

I t was o rg a n iz e d u n d e r p r i v a t e a u s p ic e s i n

th e form o f la c ,b o r cam ps, b u t was ta k e n o v er a s th e A u s tr ia n Work S e r v io e , becom ing o f f i c i a l i n n a tu r e .

I t can be oom pared ro u g h ly

w ith th e C .C .C . i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n does w ork o f g e n e r a l b e n e f i t t o th e p u b l i c , and i n r e t u r n i s s u p p lie d w ith su ch n e c e s s i t i e s a s fo o d , c lo t h i n g and s h e l t e r . I n 1935 t h e r e w ere 1 4 ,7 1 9 o f th o s e v o lu n ta r y w o rk e rs , more th a n 9,070 o f whom w ere u n d er 25 y e a r s o f a g e .

Most o f th e s e

w o rk e rs l i v e d i n camps and w ere em ployed i n b u i ld i n g r o a d s , con­ s t r u c t i n g w a te rw o rk s, im proving a g r i c u l t u r a l and f o r e s t l a n d s , b u i l d i n g s e t t l e m e n t s , l a y i n g o u t a t h l e t i c f i e l d s and a s s i s t i n g i n s o c i a l w ork.

T here w ere young women v o l u n te e r s a s w e l l , who w ere

engaged in m aking c lo t h e s f o r th e unem ployed and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n h o u se h o ld econom ics.

They p re p a re d

t h e i r own m ea ls and f r e q u e n t ly th o s e f o r th e m e n 's camps. Winslow s a y s ,

(1)

(2) in d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e cam ps, t h a t "O rd e r and

d i s c i p l i n e a r e m a in ta in e d i n th e s e oamps, and a s p i r i t o f com rade­ s h ip i s f o s t e r e d , in o r d e r t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g b etw een c l a s s e s and a ls o to a b o li s h p o l i t i c a l a n ta g o n ism . and e d u c a tio n a l c o u rs e s a r e p e r i o d i c a l l y a r r a n g e d ."

Many l e c t u r e s T hese a c ­

t i v i t i e s w i l l be se en t o re se m b le th o s e o a r r i e d on in C zeeho-

(1) W. T. W inslow , Y o u th , p. 4. (2) I b i d . . p . 5.

- 1 0 6 —

S lo v a k ia , i n many r e s p e c t s . The V o lu n ta ry Work S e rv ic e u n d e rta k e s o n ly su c h work a s would o th e r w is e rem ain undone.

No p r o j e c t i s u sed w hich w ould i n any

way d e p riv e p a id w o rk e rs o f t h e i r J o b s .

T h ere i s no c o m p e titio n

w ith p r i v a t e in d u s tr y ? f o r i f t h e r e w e r e ^ it w ould d e f e a t th e p u r­ p ose f o r w hich i t was o r g a n iz e d , v i a , g iv in g th e unem ployed a ch an ce to e a rn a l i v i n g w ith o u t d e p r iv in g o t h e r s o f th e same p riv ile g e . I n 1932 a program was in a u g u r a te d f o r th e p u rp o se o f em ploy­ in g young w o rk e rs on th e farm s f o r s e a s o n a b le work i n s t e a d o f u s­ in g th e f o r e ig n w o rk e rs who had fo rm e rly b een em ployed f o r t h a t p u rp o s e .

T h is program was f in a n c e d by th e governm ent in i t s e f f o r t

t o a s s i s t th e unem ployed, e s p e c i a l l y unem ployed y o u th . I n 1930 th e program o f Jugend i n N o t, ("Youth i n D i s t r e s s " ) was begun to h e lp young p e o p le o f V ie n n a .

T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n p ro ­

v id e d m e a ls , p l a c e s to s ta y d u r in g th e d a y , and work c e n t e r s . W inslow (1) r e c o u n ts t h a t " I t i s managed b y a b o a rd o f g u a rd ia n s th e m em bership o f w hich in c lu d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f th e F e d e ra l M i n i s t r y f o r S o c i a l A d m in is tr a tio n , th e M u n ic ip a lity o f V ie n n a , and th e Chamber o f T ra d e , Commerce and I n d u s t r y ." Winslow (2) d e s c r ib e s f u r t h e r th e o r g a n i z a t i o n a s f o llo w s : "At f i r s t th e Y outh i n D i s t r e s s sim p ly f u r n is h e d homes w here young p e o p le c o u ld spend th e day d u r in g th e c o ld w in te r m onths and o b t a i n

(1) I b i d . (2) I b i d .

- 1 0 7 —

a noon m e a l.

By 1934 n e a r l y 120 homes had been e s t a b l i s h e d and

w ere o p e r a t in g on a y e a r l y b a s i s w ith a t o t a l a tte n d a n o e o f 1,789,393.”

The Wandervflgel When t h e y o u th o f th e C e n tr a l E uropean n a ti o n s p a sse d th ro u g h th e w a r, e v e r y th in g seemed c h an g ed .

T hings f o r w hioh th e y had

fo u g h t and s u f f e r e d p ro v ed f a l s e and w o r t h l e s s , B ro k e n p ro m is e s by th o s e whom th e y th o u g h t th e y c o u ld t r u s t , h a d a num bing e f f e o t on y o u th .

T h is g r e a t ohange f e l l m ost h e a v ily on t h o s e l i v i n g i n

c o u n t r i e s t h a t w ere d e f e a te d i n t h e w ar. I n an a tte m p t to r e a d j u s t th e m s e lv e s t o changed c o n d it i o n s , th e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d th e W andervSgel ("W andering B ir d s " ) grew up.

L ik e th e y o u th o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , th e s e w a n d e re rs w ere t r y ­

in g t o g e t b a c k to sim p le l i f e , to e n jo y th e o u t - o f - d o o r s , t o have a ohance to e n jo y n a tu r e f i r s t - h a n d .

I n r e v e r t i n g t o th e p a s t , th e

y o u th r e v iv e d th e o ld f o l k so n g s and sim p le games and d a n c e s o f c e n tu rie s p a s t.

They bo rro w ed th e b e s t from th e p a s t a s an a n t i ­

d o te f o r th e p r e s e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n w hich was n o t s a t i s f y i n g them . T hese a r e s e r i o u s y o u th w ith no d e s i r e f o r dance h a l l s o r c a b a r e t s . As M en tel s a y s , (1) "Our c i r c l e i s f o r th e m ost p a r t made up o f men and women who a r e lo n g in g f o r a w h o le , f o r an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t y . They do n o t w ant to se e t h in g s s i d e by s i d e , b u t in o rg a n io o r d e r i n a harm onious w o rld .

We a r e lo n g in g f o r t h a t w hich p a s t tim e s

have ab an d o n ed , f o r an a ll- e m b r a c in g oo sm o -o o n o ep tlo n i n w hioh we f e e l e n c lo s e d and s h e l te r e d * "

Marianne M entel. Wandering Birds of C zechoslovakia. World Youth, I , 21, Deo. 18, 19&7, p . l l . M iss Mentel, w ritin g prim arily about Czechoslovakiai provides much source Information on Austrian Wanderv0ge3jLn t h is a r t ic le .

They sa n g th e o ld so n g s b e c a u s e s in g in g h as an im m easurable u n if y in g e f f e o t .

For t h a t r e a s o n th e y s in g th e n a ti v e so n g s o f

many o o u n t r i e s , and th e s e so n g s s u p p ly a s p i r i t u a l v i t a l i t y o f g r e a t im p o rta n c e . I n t h e m eantim e t h e r e a r o s e th e q u e s tio n o f w hat th e young p eo p le a t t e n d i n g th e homes sh o u ld do d u rin g t h e i r l e i s u r e h o u rs . A c c o rd in g ly many e d u c a tio n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w ere s p o n s o re d , su c h a s l e c t u r e s , g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n a l c l a s s e s , m usio l e s s o n s , e n t e r ta i n m e n ts , e x e r c i s e s and s p o r t s . T h is l o o s e ly o rg a n iz e d s o c i e t y , c a l l e d th e W andervSgel ("W andering B ir d s " ) oame i n t o b e in g i n Germany, C z e c h o -S lo v a k ia and A u s t r i a .

I n t h e w ords o f M e n tel (1) ; " B e fo re th e w ar th e

y o u th o f C e n tr a l E urope had to u n dergo a c r i s i s .

They r e c o g n iz e d

t h a t t h i n g s c o u ld no lo n g e r rem ain a s th e y w e re; t h a t "good so ­ c i e t y " m eant h y p o c ris y ; t h a t m o ra ls w ere a s f a l s e a s th e y c o u ld be.

T h e r e fo r e many young men and women c r e a t e d o u t o f t h e i r i n ­

n e r s e l v e s new v a lu e s o f l i f e and m o ra ls w hioh c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p ly w ith th e id e a s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s .

T hese young ones had to s t r u g g l e

f o r t h e i r i d e a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s : to be p u r e , t r u e and s t r o n g i n c h a r a c t e r , mind and body.

They r e c o g n iz e d t h a t t h e r e had to be

a ohange i n s e x r e l a t i o n s ; women had no m ore to be lo o k e d a t a s an e x p e n s iv e to y o r a s tu p id d o l l ; she beoame th e r e a l com panion and b e s t comrade o f man.

On t h e i r e x c u r s io n s i n to th e m o u n tain

and f i e l d s , t h e s e young p e o p le d is c o v e r e d th e m a je s ty o f n a tu r e

(1)

M arianne M e n te l, l . o .

- 1 0 9

-

and th e o ld s a c r e d m eaning o f womanhood, a s th e e t e r n a l b i r t h g i v e r , was r e v e a le d to them .

Young women and g i r l s

began to g r a s p th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . *

R e ce n t D evelopm ents I n 1935 t h e r e w ere two l a r g e y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A u s tria .

One was sp o n so re d by th e C a th o lic C hurch, th e

o t h e r by th e M i l i t a r y L eague.

I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e w ere

s e v e r a l m inor r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , nam ely, The R e ic h s bund Ju g e n d , th e C h r i s t l i c h e D eutsche T u r n e r s c h a f t , and th e P f a d f in d e r k o r p s S a n k t G eorg. (1) b e f o r e th e F i r s t W orld War.

Some o f th e s e w ere founded

O th e rs w ere s e t up a f t e r th e

w a r, to c o u n te r a c t th e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e r a p i d l y grow ing a n t i - r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l i s t y o u th m ovem ents.

T hese l a t t e r

w ere f o r b id d e n a f t e r th e r i o t s i n F e b ru a ry , 1934.

i n May

1934, a f t e r a c o n c o rd a t w ith th e Pope had b een c o n c lu d e d , a l l th e C a th o lic y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s came to be j o i n t l y known a s th e K o n k o rd a tsju g e n d . T h e re w ere two p r i n c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s founded by th e M i l i t a r y L eag u e.

The p u rp o se o f b o th was th e c r e a t i o n i n

y o u th o f a w i l l to s a c r i f i c e i t s e l f ^ f o r th e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f A u s t r i a and f o r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a new s o c i a l o r d e r i n w hioh " th e d i f f e r e n c e b etw een r i g h t and wrong e x i s t s o n ly i n th e f u l f i l m e n t o f d u t i e s to w a rd s th e w h o le ." B e g in n in g i n 1 9 3 5 , th e Government e n d e a v o re d to u n i t e

(1) W inslow , Y o u th ,a W orld P roblem , p . 7.

a l l th e y o u th movements I n to one n a t i o n a l y o u th movement. B u t y o u th movements i n A u s t r i a w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from now on.

As i t i s now a p a r t o f Germany, A u s t r i a w i l l p ro b a b ly

s e e y o u th g ro u p s ta k e n o v er by th e governm ent and made i n t o H i t l e r Youth .

Of n e c e s s i t y , y o u th movements i n th e s e

o o u n tr ie s m ust f o r th e p r e s e n t rem a in d o rm an t. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o w r i t e a b o u t soma o f th e y o u th movements i n te rm s o f s p e c i f i c c o u n t r i e s .

S p o n tan eo u s

y o u th m ovem ents, by t h e i r c h a r a c t e r and i n t h e i r e s s e n c e a r e n o t c ir c u m s c rib e d by p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r ie s , n o r have th e y any b o u n d a rie s sav e t h a t o f h u m an ity .

Such a r e th e

W andervtfgel and th e Y outh H o s te l A s s o c ia tio n . The q u e s tio n a r i s e s a s t o w h eth er th e s e g ro u p s o f young p e o p le n e ed g u id a n c e i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .

P o s s ib ly

th e y a r e e n t i r e l y c a p a b le o f s e a rc h in g o u t f o r th e m se lv e s w hat th e y n e e d .

What th e y r e q u i r e m ost o f a l l , i s e n c o u ra g e ­

ment and a s s i s t a n c e .



111-

CHAPTER V SUMMARY

A f te r t h e F i r s t W orld War, y o u th d i s t r e s s showed most among th e u n i v e r s i t y s tu d e n ts in A u s t r i a .

I n f l a t i o n and unemployment

made i t im p o s s ib le f o r many t o c o n tin u e t h e i r s t u d i e s . Summer s e s s io n s i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l d e l a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d . P r o f e s s o r s and s tu d e n ts oams from o th e r o o u n t r i e s . Thus th e u n i v e r s i t i e s w ere m a in ta in e d . The u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n ts w ere e n a b le d t o o o n tin u e t h e i r s t u d i e s by th e "Back to th e Land movement. T h is a ls o o a re d f o r th e unem ployed y o u th from t h e crow ed c i t i e s .

T h is

movement r e sa u l t e d i n th e b re a k in g up o f huge e s t a t e s , and i n th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f new I n d u s t r i e s , n o t co m p etin g w ith th o s e p r e v io u s ly e x i s t i n g . An e x c e p tio n t o th e o rg a n iz e d movements o f y o u th i n A u s tr ia was th e Je w ish g ro u p . Y ouths o f t h i s o h u rch d id n o t i n i t i a t e a n y s e l f - h e l p o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r p ro g ra m s. The V o lu n ta ry Work S e r v io e , f i r s t a p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , but l a t e r ta k e n o v e r by t h e g o v ern m en t, a id e d in f u r n i s h i n g work f o r t h e unem ployed. T h is , l i k e t h e " Back t o th e Land" movement, d id n o t d e p riv e o t h e r w o rk e rs o f em ploym ent, b u t e s t a b l i s h e d n o n -o o m p etin g p r o j e c t s . I n A u s tr i a , u n u s u a l e f f o r t s were made t o se e t h a t no c o m p e titio n w ith e x i s t i n g means o f l i v e l i h o o d o c c u r r e d . The work u n d e rta k e n by any y o u th o r g a n iz -

— 112 —

Nfation d id n o t d e p r iv e o t h e r w o rk e rs o f em ploym ent. The Ju g en d i n N ot was an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r th e p u rp o se o f h e lp in g y o u th i n d i s t r e s s .

T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n p ro v id e d

m ea ls and p la c e s to s t a y d u r in g th e d ay . T h ere was a W andervOgel movement i n A u s t r i a v e ry much a f t e r th e p a t t e r n o f th o s e i n Germany and C z e c h o s lo v a k ia . T h ere w ere two l a r g e y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s by 1935 in A u s t r i a , v i z ; th e one sp o n s o re d by th e C a th o lic C hurch, and th e M i l i t a r y L eag u e. m ovem ents.

T here w ere s e v e r a l m inor r e l i g i o u s

The C a th o lic movement o r i g i n a t e d im m e d ia te ly

a f t e r th e C oncondat w ith th e Pope i n 1934. The M i l i t a r y League was o r g a n iz e d to oppose s u b v e rs iv e a c tiv itie s .

CHAPTER V I.

THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN RUSSIA

-

11^



CHAPTER VI THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN RUSSIA

I n a lm o st e v e ry r e s p e c t , th e Y outh Movement i n R u s s ia h as b e e n and i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n any o t h e r c o u n try c o n s id e r e d in t h i s docum ent.

C e r ta in s i m i l a r i t i e s a t o e r t a i n s t a g e s c o u ld

be found w ith th e d e v elo p m e n ts i n I t a l y ; b u t o th e rw is e th e s i t u a ­ t i o n i s l i t e r a l l y u n iq u e . R u s s ia , f i r s t o f a l l , d e v e lo p e d an in d e p e n d e n t Y outh Move­ m ent a t a v e ry e a r l y s t a g e .

T h is movement had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

n o t found in o t h e r sp o n ta n e o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f y o u th , and was d e f i n i t e l y a p ro d u c t o f th e R u s s ia n s i t u a t i o n .

S in c e th e lo n g -

a w a ite d and e a g e r ly h o p e d -fo r r e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s ia , sp o n ta n e o u s y o u th movements have l i t e r a l l y n o t e x is te d * h a t l b no o t h e r l a n d , n o t ev en H i t l e r i a n Germany, h as th e o f f i c i a l l y o rg a n iz e d y o u th been so e x te n s iv e and e f f e c t i v e an o b j e c t o f governm ent a t t e n ­ t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n . A ll t h i s i s th e p ro d u c t o f th e p e o u l i a r c o n d itio n s o f econom ic and p o l i t i c a l developm ent i n R u s s ia .

The R u s s ia n B ackground. To u n d e rs ta n d and p r o p e r ly e v a lu a te th e R u ss ia n y o u th move­ m e n ts , th e dev elo p m en t o f R u s s ia a s a n a t i o n and a c i v i l i z a t i o n m ust be k e p t i n m ind.

R u s s ia oame i n t o e x is te n c e as an o r i e n t a l

d e s p o tis m , d e p en d e n t upon th e w i l l and i n f a c t th e whims o f th e C zar f o r i t s g o v ern m en t, p o l i c i e s , and o u l t u r a l grow th.

S u p e r­

im posed on t h i s a u to o ra o y , t h e r e was added th e in f lu e n o e o f th e

c i v i l i z a t i o n and i d e a s o f w e s te rn E u ro p e , from a p p ro x im a te ly 1700 onward: . T h is e x p lo s iv e m ix tu re o f m odern l i b e r a l i s m , r e a c t i o n a r y a u to c r a c y , and p r i m i t i v e fo lk w a y s , had i t s l e g i t i m a t e and a lm o st p r e d i c t a b l e r e s u l t s i n th e o e n tu ry fro m 1840 t o 1940. The s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r c o m p lic a te d by t h e grow th o f an a l l - c o n t r o l l i n g o f f i c i a l b u re a u o ra c y , a s th e R u ss ia n e x p ir e A s t i l l f u r t h e r f a o t o r i n th e

e x te n d e d . s i t u a t i o n was th e R u ss ia n c h u rc h .

I n R u s s ia , th e cjuroh was o s t e n s i b l y C h r i s t i a n and r e l i g 'o u s . A c tu a lly i t was

su c h , o n ly t o a m inor d e g re e . T h is i s s a i d w ith

th e u tm o st r e g r e t , b u t w ith a d u t i f u l r e g a r d f o r t h e f a c t s a s everyw here o h r o n lc le d . The R u ss ia n C hurch was an in s tr u m e n t o f r e a c t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l c o e r c io n , h eaded by t h e C zar i n f a c t i f n o t i n name. I t was p r i m a r i l y u se d a s a m eans t o keep t h e m asses o f th e R u s s ia n p e o p le s u b s e r v i e n t . P e r v e r t e d fro m i t s o r i g i n a l s t a t e a s th e m ajo r g ro u p w ith in th e G reek O rthodox group o f th e h i s t o r i c a l l y d e v e lo p e d C hurch, i t had come t o p re a c h d i s t o r t e d d o c t r i n e s . Through t h e y e a r s i t s te a o h in g s had beoome s e l e c t e d b e c a u se th e y h e lp e d t o prom ote su b m is s io n t o t h e Czardom. S u p e r s t i t i o n was n o t m e re ly r i f e w ith in t h e C hurch.

I t was e n c o u ra g e d .

The a n t i - r e l i g i o u s

a t t i t u d e so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f R u s s ia n age and y o u th a l i k e , i n our own d a y , i s th e p ro d u o t o f t h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h i s p e r v e r t e d C huroh. By th e 1 8 4 0 '8 , t h i s e x p lo s iv e m ix tu re o f d e s p o tis m , i n f i l t r a t e d w e s te rn l i b e r a l i s m , r e s t i v e n e s s u n d er a o o r r u p t b u re a u o ra o y , and r e v o l t a g a i n s t a o o rru p t c h u ro h , made i t s p re s e n c e e v id e n t i n th e m inds o f many R u s s ia n s ^

We f i n d p r a c t i c a l l y e v e ry m ajo r R u ssia n

s c i e n t i s t , p o e t, a u th o r , e d u o a to r and a r t i s t 'a m o n g th e r e v o l t e r s . The e x tta a sio n o f d e s p o tic governm ent t o th e r e o e n t l y co n q u ered

—1 1 6 -

peoples o f d iffe r e n t language, f a it h s , and cu ltu re, in Poland, E ston ia, Lithuania and L atvia, produced another exp losive s itu a tio n . Tj

p to t h i s p e r io d , a h o u t 1650, t h e o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n had been

t o r e s i s t a l l change and a l l r e fo rm . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e tim e and t h e s t a n d , was t h e s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n p la o e d upon th e p u b lis h in g o f n e w sp a p e rs , m a g a z in e s, and b o o k s . A ll o f th e s e were n o t o n ly s u b je o t t o o f f i c i a l o e n s o rs h ip b e fo r e p u b l i c a t i o n , bu t t o a r b i t r a r y and d r a s t i c c o n f i s c a t i o n , even i f p r e v io u s ly ap p ro v ed by a c e n s o r . P e n a l s e r v i t u d e fa c e d a u th o r and p u b l i s h e r , i f id e a s even s l i g h t l y o b j e c ti o n a b le t o th o s e i n power a p p e a re d i n p r i n t . P e n t- u p , u n v o io ed r e v o l t was th u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , when t h e r e came t o th e th r o n e t h e w eakly l i b e r a l C zar, A lex an d er I I I , i n 1655. The new C z a r, w e ll i n t e n t i o n e d b u t i n d e c i s i v e , a t f i r s t p ro c e e d e d i n th e d i r e c t i o n o f d e v e lo p in g R u s s ia i n t o a l i b e r a l e m p ire . As soon a s p o l i t i c a l te n d e n c ie s o b je c tio n a b le t o h im ,s u c h a s n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s among th e f o i e s and th e d e s i r e o f th e Jews t o be r e l i e v e d o f r e s t r i c t i o n s , had a p p e a re d , A lex an d er changed t o a re a c tio n a ry sta n d . The P o l i s h r e b e l l i o n o f 1863 b ro u g h t m a tte r s to a h e a d .

The N i h i l i s t s . A m erioan o p in io n h a s b een a lm o st e n t i r e l y u n ju s t t o th e N i h i l i s t s . They w e re , a s W endell P h i l l i p s s a id i n a sp e e c h n o t l o c a t e d , " th e P a t r i c k H e n r ie s , th e Sam uel Adam ses, and th e John Hanoooks o f R u s s ia •" The N i h i l i s t s were a Y o u th Movement in e v e ry s e n s e o f th e



117-

w ord: a sp o n ta n e o u s movement o f th e young men o f th e 1 8 6 0 ’ s , to remedy c o n d itio n s i n t o l e r a b l e

t o th e m se lv e s and

c e s s i v e l y h a rm fu l to t h e i r w hole

n a t i o n . They w ere

i n t h e i r view e x ­ p a t r i o t s in

th e m o st c o m p lete s e n s e : th e y aim ed t o r e g e n e r a te R u s s ia .

T h e ir

name was g iv e n them by th e g r e a t R u s s ia n n o v e l i s t , T u rg en y ev , b e ­ cau se i n t h e i r z e a l th e y r e p u d ia te d th e a u t h o r i t y o f a l l t r a d i t i o n a m ost n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n o f to a l l th e o o r r u p t t r a d i t i o n s

an e d u c a te d young man o f t h i s p e r io d o f R u s s ia .

The backbone o f th e N i h i l i s t s w ere th e young p e o p le who had had u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a tio n .

The l e a d e r s , C h e rn y sh ev sk y , D obrolubov

and P i s a r e v , a l l young men, a l l u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n e d , a p p e a le d to th e "y o u th i n t e l l i g e n t s i a " w hioh we have h eard o f so much i n l a t e r R u s s ia n d e v e lo p m e n ts.

T hese l e a d e r s w ere in r e v o l t a g a i n s t th e

m e n ta l r e g im e n ta tio n o f th e R u s s ia n u n i v e r s i t i e s and p re a c h e d a d o c t r i n e o f ex tre m e in d iv id u a lis m . N ih ilis m was n e v e r em bodied i n any g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , due no d o u b t t o th e r e s t r i c t i v e c o e r c io n t h a t th e im p e r ia l governm ent so s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d .

Here and t h e r e l o c a l " c e l l s " e x i s t e d a s

o rg a n iz e d s o c i e t i e s , u n t i l th e p o l ic e b ro k e them up f o r c i b l y . We q u o te th e E n c y c lo p e d ia B r i t a n n i c a 's e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f th e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f th e movement (1) "A new wave o f r e v o l u t io n a r y movement s e t i n . It p ro o eed ed fro m th e young g e n e r a tio n o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u ­ d e n ts . They e x p e c te d an a g r a r i a n r e v o l u t io n d i r e c t l y a f t e r th e l i b e r a t i o n o f p e a s a n t s . They w ere b u sy p r e ­ p a r in g f o r i t w o rk in g men, s o l d i e r s and p e a s a n ts th ro u g h p o p u la r e d u o a tio n . S e c r e t c i r c l e s w ere form ed, p ro c ­ la m a tio n s is s u e d and even a r e v o l u t io n a r y movement was

(1) E n c y c lo p e d ia B r i ta n n i o a , 1 4 th E d i t i o n , 1929, Vol. 19, p. 722



118 —

a tte m p te d i n o o n n e c tlo n w ith th e P o l i s h u p r i s i n g o f 1863. F i n a l l y , an a tte m p t was made by a s t u d e n t, K arakozov, to a s s a s s i n a t e th e T s a r i n A p r il 1866. A ll th e s e a tte m p ts w ere e x tre m e ly n a iv e ; a few young r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s w ere e x e c u te d o r s e n t to S i b e r i a and th e w hole movement was s t i f l e d i n i t s p rim a ry s t a g e . " "About 1869 a new young g e n e r a t i o n a p p e a re d w hich gave e x p r e s s io n to t h a t s t a t e o f m ind. R u ss ia n e m ig ra n ts i n S w itz e r la n d d is c u s s e d a t t h a t tim e a new r e v o l u t io n a r y d o c tr i n e w hich l a t e r on r e c e iv e d th e name o f " P o p u lis m ." L av ro v was g iv in g i t a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s , b u t B akunin found t h i s to o l e a r n e d and p l a i n l y i n v i t e d th e y o u th to g iv e up th e stu d y and go s t r a i g h t to th e p e o p le w ith th e aim o f in d u c in g d i s o r d e r . He found t h i s v e ry e a s y , s in c e R u s s ia n p e a s a n ts w ith t h e i r "commune" w ere b o rn s o c i a l i s t s . The y o u th o f R u s s ia , c h i e f l y th e young g i r l s who w ent to s tu d y ab ro ad a s t h e r e w ere no fem a le i n s t i t u t e s o f nl e a r a i n g i n R u s s ia , l i s t e n e d to t h e s e d is o u s s io n s i n Z u ric h a n d , o f o o u rs e , m o stly p r e f e r r e d B a k u n in ’ s a c t i v e optim ism t o L a v ro v ’ s l e a r n i n g . I n 1873 th e y w ere a l l o rd e r e d back t o R u s s ia by th e Government and th e y m et, when a t home, w ith many s tu d e n t c i r c l e s w hich w ere busy d i s t r i b u t i n g books and r e v o l u t io n a r y p a m p h le ts among t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l b ra n c h e s and w o rk in g men. N ic h o la s T c h a ik o v sk y , P r in c e P e t e r K ro p o tk in and S e r g iu s S te p n ia k w ere among th e l e a d e r s o f t h a t e d u c a tio n and ( l a t e r on) r e v o l u t io n a r y w ork. They d e c id e d , in th e s p r i n g o f 1874, to "go t o th e p e o p le " — a n a iv e c ru s a d e by in e x p e r ie n c e d y o u th , h a rd ly o u t o f t h e i r ’ t e e n s , i n o r d e r b o th to te a c h th e p e o p le and to l e a r n from them t h e i r s o c i a l i s t i c wisdom. Of c o u rs e th e y w ere n o t acknow ledged by th e p e o p le , in s p i t e o f t h e i r p e a s a n t a t t i r e , and w ere e a s i l y f e r r e t e d o u t by th e p o l i c e : 770 w ere a r r e s t e d and 215 s e n t to p r i s o n . They th e n d e c id e d t o change t h e i r t a c t i c s . A r e g u l a r s e c r e t s o o ie ty was fo u n d ed i n 1876 u n d er th e name o f "Land and L ib e r ty " (o r " W ill" ) . They s t i l l hoped to p rovoke a m ass u p r i s i n g a c c o rd in g to th e " i d e a l s o f th e p e o p le " ; b u t t h e i r v i l l a g e s e t tl e m e n ts p ro v e d u se ­ l e s s f o r r e v o l u t i o n w h ile i n th e tow ns th e y soon g o t en ­ gaged in a l i v e l y o o n f l i o t w ith th e p o l i c e . As a r e s u l t th e t e r r o r i s t s i d e o f t h e i r a o t i v i t y came to th e f o r e ­ f r o n t . I n th e autum n o f 1879 th e t e r r o r i s t g ro u p form ed t h e i r s e p a r a te p a r t y " th e P e o p le ’ s W i l l ," w h ile th e r e ­ m ain in g members l e d by P le k h an o v — u n d e r th e name o f "B lack P a r t i t i o n " ( I . e . , a g r a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n ) — rem ain ed i n a c t i v e ."



113



A f t e r th e e n d in g o f th e h e i g h t o f a c t i v i t y o f th e N i h i l i s t s , no s p e c i f i c s

r y o u th movements a s id e from th e g e n e ra l a n t i -

C a a r i s t r e v o l u t io n a r y movements e x i s t e d i n R u s s ia u n t i l imme­ d i a t e l y a f t e r th e R e v o lu tio n o f 1917.

U nder th e P r o v i s i o n a l

Government headed by K e re n sk y , an e r a o f l i b e r a l i s m n a t u r a l l y s e t in . An o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l i n g i t s e l f "L abor and L i g h t ," a y o u th movement f o r s e l f - e d u c a t i o n , was form ed.

T h is was composed o f

b o th b*^pgeois y o u th and i n d u s t r i a l w o rk e rs , and was e m p h a tic a lly n o n - p o litic a l in n a tu re .

F ig u r e s a s to i t s m em bership a r e n o t

to b e h a d , a s s e a r c h f o r them h a s so f a r been i n v a in .

The ed­

u c a t io n a l a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on seem to have b e e n e x te n s i v e , and w ith a p r a c t i c a l end alw ay s i n view : t h a t end was s e l f - a d vanoem ent. W ith th e c o ll a p s e o f th e P r o v i s i o n a l Government and th e e s ­ ta b lis h m e n t o f th e S o v ie t re g im e , "L abor and L ig h t" v a n is h e d * I t was ftZ S g r e p la c e d by a g o v e rn m e n t-fo s te re d League o f T o il i n g Y o u th , n o t d i s s i m i l a r b u t l a c k in g th e m o tiv a tio n o f p e rs o n a l econom ic advancem ent.

Each l a r g e r c i t y had such a L eag u e, o f w hich th e

m ost i n f l u e n t i a l was t h a t i n Moscow, o a l l e d T h ird I n t e r n a t i o n a l W orkers* L eague.

The Komsomol " O f f i c i a l " y o u th m ovem ents i n R u s s ia s in c e 1920 a re a l l i n ­ t e g r a t e d u n d e r th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o a l l e d The Komsomol.

T h is o r ­

g a n iz a tio n i s , i n f a c t , c lo s e l y hooked up to b o th th e Communist f



1 2 0 -

P a r ty and th e S o v ie t go v ern m en t, w hich a re t e c h n i c a l l y s e p a r a t e b o d ie s . L e n in o rg a n iz e d th e Komsomol, and we sum m arize h i s v iew s a t t h i s p o i n t: For L e n in , y o u th ’ s im p o rta n c e was found i n th e f a c t t h a t t h i s g e n e r a tio n w i l l b e h ig h ly i n f l u e n t i a l in th e communist p a r t y , t h a t y o u th sh o u ld know t h a t th e t a s k o f i t s l i f e i s th e c o n s tr u c ­ t i o n o f a com m unist s o c i e t y . The b a s i c aim o f th e Komsomol— communist t r a i n i n g and ed u ca­ tio n

o f y o u th — h a s rem ain ed

in 1936

s a i d : "The Komsomol

unchanged s in c e i t s fo u n d in g . S t a l i n i s a p ro p ag an d a o r g a n i z a t i o n , an o r ­

g a n iz a t i o n w hich d is s e m in a te s M a r x is t and L e n i n i s t p ro p a g a n d a , w hich e x p la in s to y o u th th e p roblem s t h a t y o u th d o es n o t f i n d c l e a r , and h e lp s ,to t r a i n y o u th i n th e s p i r i t o f commuhism.” I n 1936 th e t e n t h c o n g re s s o f Komsomols drew up a new p r o ­ gram and s t a t u t e s f o r th e Komsomol.

The d u t i e s o f th e Komosomol

a r e d e f in e d a s f o llo w s : " (a ) To stu d y th e w r i t i n g s o f M arx, E n g e ls , L e n in , and S t a l i n and to e x p la in th e M a rx is t-L e n m is t te c h n iq u e s to th e b ro a d m asses o f th e y o u th . (b) To c a r r y o u t th e d e c i s i o n o f th e B o ls h e v ik P a r ty and th e Komsomol, and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n th e p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f th e c o u n try . (c) To s e r v e a s an exam ple o f th e s o c i a l i s t a t t i ­ tu d e to l a b o r , to g u a rd s o c i a l i s t p r o p e r ty v i g i l a n t l y , to f i g h t a g a i n s t d ru n k e n n e ss and an unoom radely a t t i t u d e tow ard women. (d) To a c q u ir e c u l t u r a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and t e c h n i c a l know ledge. (e) To stu d y m i l i t a r y s c ie n c e , and to be re a d y to g iv e o n e ’ s l i f e , i f n e c e s s a r y , f o r th e g r e a t s o c i a l i s t 'f a t h e r l a n d .

-121 —

( f ) To f i g h t a g a i n s t v i o l a t i o n s o f r e v o l u t io n a r y law and o r d e r . (g) To f u l f i l l a l l t a s k s a s s ig n e d , and to f i g h t a g a i n s t r e l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e ." The Komsomol h as f i v e ty p e s o f a o t i v i t y —e d u c a tio n a l w ork, m ilita r y t r a i n in g , p a r tic ip a tio n in s o c i a l i s t c o n s tru c tio n , a n t i - r e l i g i o n prop ag an d a and work among women. The |£omsomel y o u th movement i s one o f l a r g e p r o p o r tio n s . In 1 9 3 6 , a c c o rd in g to th e S e c r e ta r y G e n e ra l o f th e Komsomol, th e r e w e r e :4 ,0 0 0 ,000 members o f th e L e n in ist Communist U nion o f Y o u th , w hich d i r e c t s th e e d u c a tio n and g ro w th o f an army o f 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 P i o n e e r s , 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 young S p o rtsm e n , 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 work­ in g y o u th s u n i te d in l a b o r u n io n s ; 1 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 s tu d e n ts i n c o ll e g e s and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o ls ; and m i l l i o n s o f l i b e r a t e d young women. The Komsomol in f lu e n c e s and d i r e c t s th e a c t i v i t i e s in po­ l i t i c a l e d u c a tio n , g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n , m o ral e d u c a tio n , m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s , s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , a n t i - r e l i g i o u s p ro p ag a n d a. T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s alw ays f e l t t h a t one o f i t s c h i e f aim s i s to l i b e r a t e th e m asses from r e l i g i o u s s u p e r s t i t i o n .

T h is was

done by p ro p a g a n d a , c o n fe r e n c e s , c lu b s , and l e c t u r e s . T hese p r o p a g a n d is ts w ere so r a b i d a t f i r s t , u p to ab o u t 1 9 2 4 5 t h a t ev en th e governm ent condemned t h e i r m eth o d s. At t h a t tim e any one p r o f e s s i n g any r e l i g i o u s f a i t h was p e rs e c u te d ^ c h u rc h e s and m osques w ere c lo s e d ; a l l form s o f r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s w ere r i d i c u l e d and condemned* B ut r e l i g i o n i s n o t dead in R u s s ia . i s c ro p p in g o u t ev en among th e members o f th e Komsomol.

It

I t may

b e i n a s t a t e o f suspended a n im a tio n , b u t n o t e x t i n c t . The women a ls o p a r t i c i p a t e in th e a c t i v i t i e s o f th e Komsomol.

-

12-2 -

The aim i s to s t a b i l i z e th e fa m ily and c a re f o r m o th e rs and c h ild re n .

I t te a c h e s th e w o rk in g g i r l how t o im prove h e r home

and how to spend h e r l e i s u r e tim e . Women a re ta u g h t h a b i t s o f c l e a n l i n e s s and a r e ta u g h t t o oppose d r in k in g h a b i t s , c o a r s e n e s s o f sp e ec h and unw orthy b e h a v io r . O f f i c i a l l y c a l l e d "The A ll- R u s s ia n L e n i n i s t Communist U nion o f Y o u th ," th e Komsomol i s a " n o n - p a r ty " a s s o c i a t i o n o f advanced and " p o l i t i c a l l y l i t e r a t e " y o u th .

I t em braces a l l y o u th from

c l a s s e s o f workmen, p e a s a n ts and em ployees from 15 t o 26 y e a r s o f a g e , who a r e l o y a l t o th e S o v ie t.

G overnm ent.

T here a r e

d i v i s i o n s i n t h i s a l l e m b ra c in g o r g a n i z a t i o n ; b u t a l l such b ra n c h e s a r e sp o n so re d and s u p e r v is e d by th e Komsomol.

T here

a r e su c h b ra n c h e s a s P i o n e e r s , Young S p o rtsm e n , W orking Y o u th s, and s t u d e n ts in c o ll e g e s and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o ls . The Komsomols do n o t b e lo n g to th e Communist p a r ty ^ o r a t l e a s t t h e i r members a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o be p a r t y members.

In

1931 o n ly a b o u t 6# o f t h e i r number w ere members o f th e Communist p a rty .

T h e ir r e l a t i o n to th e p a r t y i s b e s t e x p re s s e d by Dr.

Cox, a s f o llo w s (1) "The KomsojjSls o r Young Communists a re n o t members o f th e p a r t y b u t in a l l r e g a r d s th e y have p r a c t i c a l l y th e same re s p o n ­ s i b i l i t i e s a s th o s e o f t h e i r e l d e r s who do b e lo n g to i t .

W ith in

th e l i m i t a t i o n s im posed by o f f i c i a l p a r t y p ro n o u n cem en ts, th e y c r e a t e t h e i r own p o l i c i e s and c a r r y th ro u g h t h e i r own program .

(1) Y o u th s S u p p o rt Dominant P a r t y P ro g ram s. P h i l i p W. L. Cox, J o u r n a l o r th e N a tio n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , p p .281, 282.

-

123 -

T h e ir p r o t e s t s and s ta te m e n ts command r e s p e c t . "

C o n d itio n s o f R u s s ia n Y outh The s i t u a t i o n o f y o u th in R u s s ia was v e ry d is a d v a n ta g e o u s in th e e a r l y 1 9 2 0 ’ s .

T h is u n d o u b te d ly had much to do w ith th e

e a g e rn e s s w ith w hich th e Komsomols w ere a d o p te d by th e young p e o p le a s t h e i r norm al form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . q u o te w hat S ta n le y H igh h as to

I t may be in p o in t to

say o f c o n d itio n s

i n 1922: (1)

"About 90# o f th e U n i v e r s i ty s tu d e n ts i n R u s s ia a r e i n a s e m i- s ta r v e d c o n d it i o n .

The E uropean S tu d e n t R e l i e f i s a t th e

p r e s e n t tim e (1922) c a r in g f o r some 2 0 ,0 0 0 s t u d e n ts d a i l y , b u t su ch r e l i e f i s e n t i r e l y in a d e q u a te .

In fam ine a r e a s s u f f e r i n g

h a s b een m ost a c u t e , h u n d red s o f s t u d e n t s b e in g o b lig e d to l i v e on th e b a rk and le a v e s o f t r e e s , th e c o n se q u e n t undernourishm ent l e a v in g them th e p re y to th e m ost s e r i o u s d i s e a s e s .

In r e g a rd

to c lo t h i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n i s e q u a lly a p p a l l i n g , v e ry few have a n y th in g b u t t h i n t h r e a d - b a r e s u i t s and f r o c k s , and fe w er s t i l l have any u n d e rw ea r.

N ot o n ly i s t h e r e a fam ine o f th e m a t e r i a l

n e c e s s i t i e s , b u t t h e r e i s a fam ine o f m a t e r i a l s f o r m e n ta l g ro w th , su c h a s a p p a r a tu s , b o o k s , and s c i e n t i f i c S i r P h i l i p G ibbs w r i t e s a s f o llo w s : " I n an a p a rtm e n t house i n

Moscow

jo u rn a ls , e t c ."

(2.) f i l l e d w ith i n t e l l e c t u a l s —

p r o f e s s o r s and s t u d e n t s — I m et a la d y o f th e

o ld re g im e .

(1) S ta n le y H ig h , R e v o lt o f Y outh p. 138 (2) S i r P h i l i p G ib b s, i n R e v o lt o f Y o u th , p. 140

She was

-1 2 4 l y in g i l l i n b e d , b u t r e c e iv e d me v e ry g r a c i o u s l y and a sk ed w hich o f f i v e la n g u a g e s I would l i k e to s p e a k . She r e c e i v e d a s m a ll sum f o r te a c h in g h e r f i v e la n g u a g e s , a n d a v e ra g e d s i x l e s s o n s a d a y . She was w o n d e rfu lly b rav e i n h e r p h ilo s o p h y and s a i d h a rd s h ip had done good to th e younger p e o p le o f R u s s ia ; th o s e o f th e o ld reg im e had been to o l u x u r io u s and to o

tt ,i

u.

s o f t . Now, she s a i d , th e y have le a r n e d how to work and how t o s u f f e r ."

E d u c a tio n a l Y outh M ovem ents. The e d u c a tio n a l y o u th movement i n R u s s ia i s muoh l i k e th o s e o f s i m i l a r p u rp o se i n A u s t r i a , C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , and o th e r e a s t e r n E u ro p ean l a n d s .

The members have th e same hope t h a t s o c i a l and

p o l i t i c a l c o n d itio n s w i l l im p a ro v e . They have th e same aim o f t r a i n i n g th e m se lv e s f o r c a r e e r s . They hope t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e th e y w i l l be a b le t o f i n d o p p o r t u n i t i e s com m ensurate w ith t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . They hope t h a t a new R u s s ia w i l l some d a y em erge. T hen, th e y f e e l , th e n a tio n * s g r e a t n e ed w i l l be f o r t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p , su c h a s t h e y a r e p r e p a r in g th e m se lv e s t o p r o v id e . I t i s an u p h i l l f i g h t t h a t th e s e young R u s s ia n s a r e w ag in g ; y e t no p r i c e seem s to g r e a t f o r th em . A m bition le a d s them o n .

"P re -Y o u th " M ovem ents. The Komsomol in c lu d e s and s p o n s o rs v a r i o u s m ovem ents. One i s th e Young P i o n e e r s , made up o f boys and g i r l s from 10 t o 16 y e a r s o f a g e . T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n aim s to e d u o a te

th e

c h ild re n

— IS h ­

i n t o f u t u r e oom m unists.

I t to o k th e p la o e o f th e Boy S o o u ts.

UP to 1 9 2 4 , th e tim e o f L e n in * s d e a th , th e y w ere known a s S p a r­ ta n s .

B ut soon a f t e r t h a t , th e y w ere o o m p le te ly reovgfrlzed*

and in 1931 became known a s th e L e n in P io n e e r s .

The R u s s ia n S t a t u s The y o u th o f R u s s ia a re re g im e n te d .

Knowing th e in f lu e n c e

and v a lu e o f y o u th i n any g r e a t u n d e r ta k in g , b e i t w ar o r a s y s ­ tem o f g o v e rn m e n t, t h e l e a d e r s s e e to i t t h a t t h e i r p r o j e o t s a r e b ack ed up by th e g r e a t body o f y o u th .

The m ethod u se d i s

u s u a l ly p ro p a g a n d a . Owing t o th e f a c t t h a t th e g r e a t m ass o f y o u th i n R u s s ia was i l l i t e r a t e , i t was n o t d i f f i c u l t to h e rd them i n t o th e Komsomol; and th e n w ith y o u th l e a d e r s i t was e a sy t o im pose th e w i l l o f th e governm ent on th e y o u th . The S o v ie t sy ste m h as now grown »P p o w e rfu l t h a t t h e r e i s n o t much l i k e l i h o o d o f any sp o n ta n e o u s y o u th movement. Y outh i s ta k e n a t th e e a r l y age o f 7 y e a r s and th o ro u g h ly i n d o c t r i n a t e d w ith th e S o v i e t

S ystem .

p e o p le have l i t t l e

Up to th e tim e th e y re a c h manhood, young

freed o m o f a c t i o n o r th o u g h t. W hile th e y o u th

o f R u s s ia have i n r e c e n t y e a r s rea o h ed a much h ig h e r l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y , m easu red i n te rm s o f t o o l sub j e o t s , y e t th e y a r e more f e t ­ t e r e d in mind th a n th e y w ere 25 y e a r s ago. They now have p rao t i c a l l y no s p i r i t u a l fre e d o m , no freedom o f t h o u g h t, no i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The o n ly r e a s o n f o r th e e x is te n c e o f t h i s g r e a t y o u th o r g a n iz a ­ t i o n i s t o t r a i n y o u th i n th e s p i r i t o f communism.

I t is d ir e c tly

— 126—

an o rg a n o f th e Communist P a r t y .

I t h e lp s th e S o v ie t governm ent

and th e communist p a r ty t o b u i ld a comm unist s o o i e t y . We i n A m erica may f e e l i n c l i n e d to s n e e r a t , or to d i s l i k e su c h a s i t u a t i o n .

I n c o ld c an d o r we m ust adm it t h a t i t does n o t

m a t e r i a l l y d i f f e r from o u r own s y s te m a tic i n d o c t r i n a t i o n o f y o u th w ith o u r own i d e a l s .

We i n d o c t r i n a t e young p e o p le w ith f a i t h i n

o u r d em o cracy, i n o u r "ru g g ed i n d iv id u a lis m " i n m a tte r s econom ic, and i n th e whole Am erican sy ste m o f m o res. more s y s te m a tic th a n a r e we i n m olding y o u th

The R u s s ia n s a r e h a r d ly to th e n a t i o n a l

p o in t o f v ie w . W hether we l i k e i t o r n o t , l e t us f a c e t h e f a c t t h a t a l l e d u c a tio n i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n d o c t r i n a t i o n o f some s o r t .

The

d i f f e r e n c e betw een R u s s ia and o u r s e lv e s i s t h a t R u s s ia does n o t c o n c e a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n , does n o t t r y t o a v o id a d m ittin g i t s e x i s t e n c e . R u s s ia I n d o c t r i n a t e s more o p en ly th a n we, and w ith a t l e a s t a s much sy s te m . The mere f a c t t h a t we may d i s l i k e w hat R u s s ia I n d o c t r i n a t e s — w h eth er i t be communism, th e a n t i - r e l i g i o u s s ta n d whloh i s a le g a c y from Church c o r r u p t i o n u n d e r th e Czardom, o r any o t h e r d i s t i n c t i v e d o c t r i n e s — sh o u ld n o t b l i n d u s t o th e e d u c a ti o n a l so u n d n e ss w ith w hich t h i s t a s k i s b e in g h a n d le d .

A u th o r’ s n o te : T h is c h a p te r was w r i t t e n b e fo r e th e o u tb re a k o f th e German war a g a i n s t R u s s ia , and h as been l e f t w ith o u t c h a n g e . No in f o r m a tio n h a s been a c c e s s i b l e , t o i n d i c a t e w h e th er t h e war h a s a l t e r e d a n y th in g h e r e i n r e p o r t e d . A c c o rd in g ly , th e p r e s e n t te n s e h a s been l e f t i n r e p o r t i n g what e x i s t e d i n e a r l y 1 9 4 1 .



12 . 7 —

CHAPTER VI SUMMARY

R u s s ia n y o u th movements seldom f i n d a p a r a l l e l i n o t h e r c o u n trie s . The R u s s ia n Church e x e r te d a p o w e rfu l in f lu e n c e i n R u s s ia n governm ent and R u s s ia n c i v i l i z a t i o n . t io n a r y i n i t s p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s .

I t was r e a c ­

When C zar A le x a n d e r I I

came t o th e th ro n e h i s p o l i o i e s w ere l i b e r a l .

L a t e r when

p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s g ro u p s a sk ed r e l i e f , he became r e a c ­ tio n a ry . An im p o rta n t y o u th movement i n R u s s ia was th e N i h i l i s t movement s t a r t i n g in a b o u t th e y e a r 1860.

r

T ts aim was to

im prove R u s s ia by b r e a k in g away from R u s s ia n t r a d i t i o n s .

T h is

was made up o f young men w ith t r a i n i n g i n th e u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h e re was no w e ll foxmed o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s th e governm ent d id n o t a llo w su c h . A f t e r th e r e v o l u t i o n o f 1917 an o r g a n i z a t i o n o a ll e d L a b o r and L ig h t was fo rm ed , f o r th e p u rp o se o f s e l f - e d u c a t i o n . I t was made up p r i n c i p a l l y o f young workingm en.

L ab o r and

L ig h t d is a p p e a r e d on th e a d v e n t o f th e S o v ie t governm ent. S in c e 1920 a l l y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s have b e e n u n ite d i n one o r g a n i z a t i o n o a ll e d th e Komsomol. o l o s e ly r e l a t e d to th e Communist p a r t y .

T h is o r g a n i z a t i o n i s The d u t i e s o f th e

Komj^sol a r e w e ll d e f in e d , a s : th e s tu d y o f la s t M arx, E n g e ls , L e n in , and S t a l i n ; and to ta k e p a r t i n th e p o l i t i c a l l i f e of th e c o u n tr y .

-1 2 8 -

C hanges i n R u s s ia n governm ent s in o e th e F i r s t W orld War, t o g e t h e r w ith changed econom ic c o n d i t i o n s , w ere v e ry d e t r i ­ m e n ta l to R u s s ia n y o u th , e s p e c i a l l y among th e u n i v e r s i t y s t u ­ d e n ts .

E d u c a tio n a l y o u th m ovem ents i n R u s s ia do n o t d i f f e r

much from th o s e i n o th e r c o u n t r i e s .

They hope f o r a new R u s s ia

w here t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p w i l l b e i n demand. Y outh movements o f th e sp o n ta n e o u s ty p e a r e a t p r e s e n t p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t i n R u s s ia . On th e o t h e r h a n d , a s i n th e o t h e r t o t a l & r i a n c o u n t r i e s , y o u th i s re g im e n te d f o r n a tio n a l s e r v ic e .

CHAPTER V I I .

YOUTH MDVEldENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

CHAPTER V II YOUTH MOVEMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

The A m erican S i t u a t i o n E x a m in a tio n o f th e r e c e n t y o u th movements i n o th e r c o u n t r i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n E n g lan d , Germany, C z e c h o slo v a k ia , A u s tr i a and R u s s ia , h a s shown t h a t suoh movements n o rm a lly o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e d e s i r e o f young p e o p le to prom ote t h e i r own w e lf a r e . I n some i n s t a n c e s , th e g e n e r a l aim was t o b re a k away fro m m onotonous e v e ry d a y l i f e , t o f o llo w th e r o a d , t o se e k a d v e n tu r e . I n o th e r c a s e s , a more s p e c i f i o end was i n view : em ploym ent, w ith a co n c o m ita n t im provem ent i n econom ic s ta n d in g . W hatever th e a im , y o u th h a s d e m o n s tra te d t h a t i t can o rg a z in e v a rio u s g ro u p s , a n d can o p e ra te them e f f e c t i v e l y . Many such gro u p s have d e v e lo p e d i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s i n re c e n t y e a rs . a ll.

They now a re o f f i c i a l l y num bered as tw e n ty - f iv e i n

These in c lu d e r e l i g i o u s , p o l i t i c a l , a t h l e t i c , c o l l e g i a t e ,

a g r i c u l t u r a l , and la b o r y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t would c l e a r l y mean

a m ere s k e l e t o n iz e d r e p o r t t o d i s c u s s t h e s e a l l . The w r i t e r has t h e r e f o r e ohosen t o l i m i t th e s tu d y to

what

he o o n s id e r s th e fo u r m ost s i g n i f i c a n t among A m erican y o u th m ovem ents.

T hese f o u r a r e .b e l i e v e d t o p r e s e n t a c r o s s - s e c t i o n

o f th e t r e n d o f y o u th movements i n t h i s c o u n try ,b e c a u s e o f t h e i r s i z e , s t r e n g t h , i n f lu e n o e , and v a r i e t y . The f o u r movements t o be exam ined a r e :

th e

A m erican



131-

Y outh H o s t e l s , th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n , th e A m erican Y outh C o n g re s s , and th e C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C o rp s.

A m erican Y outh H o s te ls H i s t o r i c a l l y , th e Y outh H o s te l id e a had i t s o r i g i n i n t h e c i t y o f A lto n a , Germany i n th e y e a r 1911. (1)

I t was fo u n d ed by a young

t e a c h e r , R ic h a rd £$hirrmann, whose dream was an o r g a n i z a t i o n by means o f w h ich b o y s and g i r l s o f v a r io u s n a tio n s c o u ld t r a v e l to g e t h e r in a sim p le way.

A t f i r s t he tu r n e d th e a t t i c o f h i s sc h o o l i n t o a

p la c e w here th e y o u th o f t h e n e ig h b o r in g v i l l a g e s c o u ld spend th e n i g h t a f t e r a d a y 's h ik e i n t h e H arz M o u n ta in s. e q u ip p e d w ith s tra w m a t t r e s s e s and a c ru d e s to v e .

T h is a t t i c was T h is became th e

f i r s t h o s t e l and th e b e g in n in g o f a w o rld -w id e movement.

S o h irrm a n n 's

id e a h a s become a r e a l i t y , i n w hich tw e n ty n a t i o n s o f th e w o rld a f t e r ­ w ard s beoame u n i te d th ro u g h Y outh H o s t e l s , o p e ra te d by th e movement o r owned b y s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . The Y outh H o s te l movement i s d e s ig n e d to e n a b le y o u th to t r a v e l s im p ly , in e x p e n s iv e ly and i n th e m ost h e a l t h f u l way p o s s i b l e .

It

i s founded on th e id e a o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l f r i e n d s h i p and u n d e rs ta n d in g .

A German l e a d e r once s a i d t h a t th e i d e a l was "na­

t i o n a l d e fe n s e w ith f r i e n d s h i p s , n o t w a rs h ip s " .

T h is i d e a l s t i l l

p r e v a i l s , d e s p i te th e f a c t t h a t l a t e r on German y o u th d id n o t ad­ h e re to i t . D e ta ile d in fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g A m erioan Y outh H o s te ls i s to b e found i n th e R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a tio n F u b l i c a t i o n s .

(ft)

-

(1) W illa r d B. B e a tty , Y outh H o s te ls a t Home and A b ro ad . P r o g r e s ­ s i v e E d u o a tio n , A p r i l , l W 6 , p. £27. “ (2) Y outh Movements H ere and A broad, B u l l e t i n No. 1 3 5 , R u s s e ll Sage F o u n d a tio n , F e b ru a ry , 1936, p . 6.

-

We q u o te :

132. —

"The o n e - d o l l a r a n n u a l m em bership e n t i t l e s holder"te

t t e u s e o f any h o s t e l i n th e w o rld a t 25 o e n ts a n i g h t .

T here i s now

a c h a in o f 35 h o s t e l s in New E n g la n d , u n d e r c h a r t e r from th e n a ­ tio n a l o ffio e .

Loops i n New Y ork and th e Lake S t a t e s r e g io n s w i l l

b e n e x t e s t a b l i s h e d , and i t i s p la n n e d g r a d u a lly to oover th e e n ­ t i r e c o u n tr y .

A l l y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A m erica a r e i n v i t e d to

j o i n and b e n e f i t by th e h o s t e l s , f r e e from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s and p ro p ag a n d ism s.

The h o s t e l i s a f a c i l i t y , and n o t a program .

It

f o s t e r s i n y o u th a lo v e o f th e g r e a t o u t - o f - d o o r s , sim p le l i v i n g and S p a r ta n d i s c i p l i n e , and wholesom e co m rad esh ip w ith th e y o u th o f t h e i r own and o t h e r l a n d s .

Each h o s t e l i s i n c h a rg e o f a house

f a t h e r and m o th e r ." The i n d i v i d u a l m ost r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n tr o d u c in g th e Y outh H o s te l i n A m erica i s Monroe S m ith .

He was a W esleyan g r a d u a te ,

s c h o o lm a s te r , and coach a t th e Germantown F r i e n d s ' S chool i n P h i l a ­ d e lp h ia .

I n 1933, when he was s tu d y in g f o r h i s Ph. D. a t Colum bia

U n i v e r s i t y , he and h i s w i f e , who was an a r t i s t , w ere com m issioned by th e U n i v e r s i ty to le a d a h ig h s c h o o l p r o j e c t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l f r i e n d s h i p on a summer s tu d e n t t o u r o f E u ro p e.

So im p re sse d w ere

th e S m ith s w ith th e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f h o s t e l t r a v e l f o r c r e a t i n g b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g among young p e rs o n s o f d i f f e r e n t backgrounds^ t h a t th e y o ould h a rd ly w a it to d e l i v e r t h e i r o h a rg e s home b e fo r e re -e m b a rk in g t h a t same f a l l ^ f o r a y e a r 's i n t e n s i v e stu d y o f y o u th h o s t e l s on th e C o n tin e n t. I n v i t e d to a t t e n d t h e Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n fe re n ce o f Y outh H o s te ls t h a t y e a r a s g u e s t s , Mr. and M rs. S taith w ere o f f i ­ c i a l l y a p p o in te d by th e 1933 C o n fe re n ce to i n i t i a t e t h e movement

-133-

i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

In 1935 a t a c o n fe re n o e opened by Ramsay

MacDonald i n L ondon, th e i n f a n t A m erican Y outh H o s te l A s s o c ia tio n was welcom ed a s th e e ig h t e e n t h n a tio n i n th e w o rld f e llo w s h ip .

(1)

On th e way home from th e 1933 C onference^M r. and M rs. S m ith made a t e n t a t i v e p la n f o r Y outh H o s te ls in t h i s c o u n tr y .

They

drew up a p la tf o r m o f e i g h t p l a n k s , th e two m ost im p o rta n t o f w hioh w ere: (1) The Movement sh o u ld be f o r b o th b o y s and g i r l s ;

(2) T here

sh o u ld b e no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b etw een r a c e , c re e d o r c o lo r . Y o u th soon became i n t e r e s t e d i n th e movement.

B e s id e s th e

S m ith s , t h i r t y - f i v e e n t h u s i a s t i c young p e rs o n s w ere t e l l i n g o t h e r s of it.

L e t t e r s b eg an c i r c u l a t i n g dem anding t h a t Y outh H o s te ls be

o rg a n iz e d .

E v e n tu a lly th e A m erican Y outh H o s te l a c q u ir e d i t s

f i r s t b u i l d i n g , i n E a s t N o r t h f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e tts .

The d a te o f

o p en in g was Deoember 2 7 , 1934. S in c e th e f i r s t A m erican Y outh H o s te l was l o c a te d i n E a s t N o r t h f i e l d , t h i s m ig h t b e c a l l e d th e c a p i t a l o f Y outh H o s te ls . From t h i s o r i g i n a t i n g e s ta b lis h m e n t, th e developm ent o f h o s t e l s grew r a p i d l y ; and " h o s t e l r o u t e s " w ere s e t up.

The second one was

l o c a t e d a t Mount H olyoke C o lle g e , w here one o f th e d o r m ito r ie s was tu r n e d o v e r a s a summer h o s t e l .

I t was o a l l e d th e Mary E. W oolley

H o s te l , i n h o n o r o f t h e c h i e f s p o n s o r, P r e s i d e n t Mary E. W oolley. As th e movement grew and s p r e a d , th e t r a i l s l e d n o r th th ro u g h V erm ont, New H am pshire and M aine.

T h is r o u te was ta k e n b e o au se o f

th e d i v e r s i t y o f th e s o e n e ry , w hich o f f e r e d m o u n ta in s , l a k e s , r i v e r s and f o r e s t s .

T hese a re th e s t a t e s u s u a lly v i s i t e d by t o u r i s t s , and

( I T G. G. T e l f e r , Y outh F o llo w s New T r a i l s , S o h o la s tio a . A o r i l 4 . 1936, p. 14. -----------------------------------------

many e x p e n siv e h o t e l s a r e l o c a t e d h e re f o r th e ao o o m ad atlo n o f v a c a t i o n i s t s . The h o s t e l e r s a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s s o r t o f a o c o m sd a tio n , h u t r a t h e r i n t h a t f o r young p e o p le who t r a v e l on f o o t o r by b i c y c l e . The h o s t e l s a r e lo c a te d c lo s e to p la o e s o f In te re s t. The 1940 f i g u r e s a re : 245 Y outh H o s te l s ; 1 5 ,1 6 1 h o s t e l e r m embers; and a t o t a l o f 4 7 ,4 8 8 o v e rn ig h t v i s i t s . E ig h t m ajo r H o s te l r e g io n s have been s e t u p . T hat o f New E ngland h a s , i n a l l , 76 Y outh H o s te ls i n 1940. The h o s t e l s j u s t o u t s i d e t h i s r e g i o n , a s a t P in e P l a i n s and W ico p ee,H .Y ., e x te n d th e New England c h a in and c o n n eo t i t t o t h e a r e a w e st o f t h e H udson. The e n t i r e h ig h la n d r e g io n

a c r o s s th e m id d le o f New York

s t a t e i s se rv e d by a c h a in o f h o s t e l s , r e a c h in g t o C hautauqua C o u n ty . P e n n s y lv a n ia h a s 33 Y outh H o s t e l s , e x te n d in g fro m n e a r P h i l a d e l p h ia and th e L ehigh R iv e r , t o th e P i t t s b u r g h r e g i o n . T hese l i n k up i n a c h a in w ith th o s e i n New York s t a t e . The accom panying m a p (F ig .l) shows th e l o c a t i o n s o f th e Y outh H o s te ls i n w e s te rn New E n g la n d , ro u g h ly from th e Maine s t a t e l i n e to th e New York b o u n d a ry , t o g e t h e r w ith th e Hudson a r e a c o n n e c tio n . T y p ic a l o f t h e c e n t r a l s t a t e s i s W isco n sin , w ith 46 h o s t e l s r e p o r t e d i n 1940. A most a d e q u a te tre a tm e n t o f Y outh H o s te l l i f e , g iv in g th e re a l s p irit of i t ,

i s M iss R o o t* s 1941 a r t i c l e i n A p p a la c h ia . (1)

T h is i s n o t h e re q u o te d i n d e t a i l , s i n o e th e w r i t e r 's p e rs o n a l o o n ta o t and q u e s t io n n a ir e l a r g e l y r e p e a te d th e same p o i n t s .

(1) C B a rlo tte Crane R o o t, Y outh H o s te lln g i n New E n g la n d . A p p a la o h ia , No. 9 1 , J u n e ,1 9 4 1 . B o sto n , M a ss., A p p a la c h ia n M ountain C lu b •

F ig u r e 1 . L o c a tio n o f Y outh H o s te la i n W estern New E ng lan d .oop.nantlon l a ta_SflM-York s t a t e 74

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— 13k —

B u t e v e ry o n e i n t e r e s t e d i n Y outh H o s te ls sh o u ld r e a d w hat M iss Root t e l l s .

As a h o s t e l e r h e r s e l f , h e r p r e s e n t a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r ­

ly i n t e r e s t i n g . M iss R o o t’ s a r t i c l e em p h a size s a few a s p e c ts t h a t a r e n o t e ls e w h e re made q u ite so c l e a r .

We m ig h t s u s p e c t t h a t h o s t e l i n g

i s a summer a f f a i r o n ly ; a c t u a l l y i t i s an a l l - y e a r o r g a n iz e d a c t i v i t y , w ith n o t m e re ly w in te r s p o r t s , h u t s p e c i a l au tu m n al and s p r in g a c t i v i t i e s k e e p in g th e h o s t e l s a c t i v e th e y e a r ro u n d . A g a in , th e H andbook, a t 50 c e n t s , i s a m ost u s e f u l g u id e to th e l o c a t i o n s o f th e h o s t e l s , a c c e s s to them b y ro ad and by t r a i l , e tc .

A t th e p a r e n t h o s t e l a t E a s t N o r t h f i e l d , a q u a r­

t e r l y m ag a zin e, A. Y . H. K n a p sa ck , i s is s u e d . were. G roup p a s s e s ^ d e v e lo p e d s p e c i a l l y f o r u n d e r p r iv ile g e d g ro u p s, a t f i v e d o l l a r s e a c h .f W E ig h t p e rs o n s u n d er tw e n ty -o n e p lu s two l e a d e r s , o r n in e and one l e a d e r , may use th e p a s s a t one tim e ; and i t may be r o t a t e d w ith in a group. From M iss R o o t’ s a r t i c l e and o u r own o b s e r v a tio n , we w ant t o em phasize th e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f e a c h h o s t e l , i n i t s p h y s ic a l a s p e c t.

Some a re handsome s t r u c t u r e s ; some q u ite m odest and

s im p le .

Some a re o ld b u ild in g s o f h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t , and o t h e r s

have b e en e r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r h o s t e l u s e .

The p r e s e n t

N o r t h f i e l d h o s t e l i ? a r e b u i l t .h u g e f i n e o ld b a rn .

O th e rs a r e

fo rm er so h o o lh o u se s r e t i r e d from a c t i v e u se b e ca u se o f sc h o o l c o n s o l id a ti o n .

C o lle g e d o r m ito r ie s and w in te r c a b i n s 9su ch a s

t h a t o f th e D artm outh O u tin g Club on M t. M o o sila u k e , N. H . , a r e used a s h o s t e l s i n th e summer. M ost o f the b u ild in g s a re d o n a ted o r lo a n ed by p e r so n s in ­ t e r e s t e d in th e movement.

A ll o f th e h o s t e l s have to m eet a few

— 137—

b a s i c r e q u ir e m e n ts .

A ooording t o Young:

(1)

E ach h a s a common room u s u a l ly w ith a f i r e p l a c e , e s p e c i a l l y u se d f o r e v e n in g g a th e r in g s . E ach has c o o k in g f a c i l i t i e s , and s e p a r a t e d o r m ito r ie s w ith w ash in g and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s f o r boys and j j i r l s . The c o s t f o r a n ig h t i s 25 c e n t s o r l e s s . T h is in c lu d e s bed and b l a n k e t s , b u t e a c h g u e s t m ust p ro v id e o r r e n t f o r th e n i g h t , a k in d o f s le e p in g bag t h a t i s r e a l l y o n ly a o o u p le o f h a l f s h e e ts sewed t o g e t h e r a t th e b o tto m , and p ro v id e d w ith s t r i n g s . E ach g u e s t p ro v id e s h i s own fo o d , u s u a lly b u y in g i t l o o a l l y . I t i s cooked and e a t e n a t th e h o s te l. Each h o s t e l i s i n c h a rg e o f r e s i d e n t w a rd e n s , u s­ u a l l y a man and h i s w ife who have a f l a i r f o r young p e o p le . The r u l e s i n h o s t e l s a r e few and s im p le . T here i s no s e r v i c e . You h e lp y o u r s e l f . Conduct m ust be o r d e r l y , b u t t h e r e a r e few p o l i c e - l i k e "m u sts* . Smoking and a lc o ­ h o l i c b e v e ra g e s a r e p r o h i b i t e d . You a re n o t su p p o sed to s t a y more th a n one n i g h t a t th e same h o s t e l . The one i r o n c l a d r u l e i s t h a t th e g u e s t m ust le a v e h i s room n e a t e r th a n he fo u n d i t , i f p o s s i b l e . The "house p a r e n t s " a r e u s u a l ly a c o u p le o f v e ry good c h a r a c ­ te rs .

The house p a r e n t s t h a t th e w r i t e r h a s m et p e r s o n a l l y seemed

to be above th e a v e ra g e i n e d u c a tio n and c u l t u r e , and have gone i n t o th e work n o t f o r p r o f i t b u t f o r s e r v i c e . T e l f e r d e s c r i b e s th e house p a r e n ts in s p a r s e ly s e t t l e d r e g io n s a s f o l lo w s , (2) T hese house p a r e n ts seem t o b e e n jo y in g th e e x p e r­ ie n c e o f h o s t e l i n g q u i te a s much a s t h e i r young v i s i t o r s from th e c i t y . T alk w ith some o f th e s e p a r e n ts and you w i l l f i n d th e re a s o n why th e y go to no end o f tr o u b le to rem o d el th e c o r n e r ib a s a d o r m ito r y , r i g up d o u b le t i e r bunks in t h e hay l o f t , lu g heavy s to n e s f o r an open f i r e p l a c e , h a u l lo g s f o r a r e o r e a t i o n c a b in , o r dam up a b ro o k f o r a swimming p o o l f o r th e h o s t e l e r s who have come to mean so much in t h e i r i s o l a t e d l i v e s . E i t h e r t h e i r own c h i l d r e n have grown up and gone away le a v in g b e h in d a n

(1) T. D. Young. To See W hat’ s Over th e H i l l . The R o ta r ia n . A n r i l . 1936, pp. i o - i r : -----------------------------------------(2) G. G. T e l f e r , P a r e n ts M a g a z in e . A u g u st, 1937, pp. 2 2 -2 3 .

—138— a c h in g v o i d , w hich th e coming and g o in g o f o t h e r gay young p e o p le th ro u g h th e lo n g summer h e lp to f i l l , o r e l s e th e y have hoys and g i r l s o f h ig h sc h o o l a g e , who a r e n eeded to h e lp w ith farm c h o re s th ro u g h th e h o lid a y s h u t who w ould be d e s p e r a t e l y lonesom e and d is c o n te n te d i f i t w ere n o t f o r th e b r i g h t p r o s p e c t s o f new f a c e s from th e o u ts id e w o rld . Y outh h o s t e l s s e rv e a n o th e r im p o rta n t p u rp o se b e s i d e s th o s e m en tio n ed ab o v e.

I n H ygeia H e a lth M agazine (1) i s found th e f o l ­

lo w in g : The grow ing n e tw o rk o f A m erican H o s te ls i s p la n n e d to em brace s u rro u n d in g la n d s c a p e s o f th e e a r l y C o lo n ia l s e t t l e m e n t s , th e I n d ia n P u eb lo v i l l a g e s , th e m is s io n s o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a , and F l o r i d a , and p l a n t a t i o n l i f e in th e S o u th ; to f o llo w th e t r a i l b la z e d by th e p i o n e e r s , and to g iv e a o o e ss to th e s c e n ic w onderm ents o f th e Grand Can­ y o n , Y o se m ite , Y e llo w s to n e , G la c ia l and o t h e r N a tio n a l P a rk s. I f one lo o k s a t a map show ing Y outh H o s te ls i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , he can r e a d i l y se e t h a t h o s t e l s a re p la c e d a d v a n ta g e o u s ly , so t h a t th ro u g h o u t h o s t e l e r s can v i s i t im p o r ta n t p o i n ts o f i n t e r e s t jn ^ th e c o u n try and s t i l l f in d accom m odations a t n e a rb y h o s t e l s .

T hese maps a r e found

i n th e A m erioan Y outh H o s te ls handbook, p u b lis h e d by N a tio n a l Head­ q u a r t e r s , A m erican Y outh H o s t e l s , I n c o r p o r a te d , N o r t h f i e l d , M assa­ c h u s e tts . T hese h o s t e l s have b e en a boon to e d u o a to rs and s tu d e n ts a lik e .

I n p a r t i c u l a r , th e y have b e en a means f o r c a r r y i n g o u t e x ­

t e n s iv e p r o j e c t s t h a t w ould o th e rw is e b e im p o s s ib le , a t th e h ig h sc h o o l and c o lle g e l e v e l .

Such l a r g e p r o j e c t s , i n w hich fi& ld work

i s r e q u i r e d o v e r a w ide a r e a o r i n one d i s t a n t from th e sc h o o l in w h ich i t o r i g i n a t e s , w ould be f i n a n c i a l l y im p o s s ib le e x c e p t f o r th e s e r v i c e t h a t Y outh H o s te ls g iv e .

(1) H y g eia H e a lth M a g az in e , O o to b e r, 1935, p. 952.

-1 3 9 -

I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s e d u c a tio n a l s e r v i c e , m aking p o s s ib l e th e u se o f th e summer f o r a u n i f i e d p r o j e c t , m ust be r a t e d a s a m ajo r c o n t r i b u t i o n to th e new er o r “ p r o g r e s s i v e n p ro c e d u re s i n e d u o a tio n . I n e d u c a tin g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l and know ledge w i t h in such f i e l d s a s e n to m o lo g y , z o o lo g y , g e o lo g y , and t h e l i k e , th e v a lu e o f th e ex­ t e n s iv e p r o j e o t s made p o s s ib l e by th e u se o f y o u th h o s t e l s i s so o b v io u s t h a t no comment need b e made. “ I n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g 1*, " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " and th e o t h e r v a lu a b le b y - p r o d u c ts r e a l l y a re p e rh a p s th e m ost im p o rta n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f th e Y o u th H o s te ls .

We c an n o t em phasize to o s tr o n g ly t h a t th e even­

in g s i n th e common room s, engaged in t a l k o r gam es, p ro v id e e x te n ­ s iv e c o n ta c t s among t u r a l b a c k g ro u n d s.

y o u th o f th e m ost v a r i e d g e o g ra p h ic a l and c u l­ The New E n g la n d e r d is c o v e r s t h a t th e man from

w e st o f th e Hudson R iv e r i s n o t a ^ h a lf - e d u o a te d sa v ag e ^ b u t may i n ­ deed be more w id e ly c u lt u r e d th a n h im s e lf .

The S o u th e rn e r d is o o v e r s

t h a t th e "dam yankee" i s o f th e same mind a s h im s e lf on a l l t h a t m a tte rs .

The son o f r e c e n t im m ig ran ts from L it h u a n i a o r Luxembourg

i s d is c o v e r e d by th e d e sc e n d a n t o f th e e a r l y New H am pshire s e t t l e r s who came o n from I r e l a n d , to be o f th e same c a l i b e r , th e same i d e a s , a s h im s e lf ,

o p in io n s and a t t i t u d e s , u n c r i t i c a l l y p ic k e d up i n th e

home e n v iro n m e n t, v a n is h u n d er th e im p act o f t h i s d is c o v e r y o f th e b a s a l l i k e n e s s o f us a l i . The w r i t e r , by p e rs o n a l i n q u ir y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a s w e ll a s th ro u g h th e l i t e r a t u r e s e n t o u t from th e .American Y outh H o s te ls o r ­ g a n i z a t i o n , o f w hich he i s a member, h a s b een a b le to fo rm u la te a l i s t o f s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s and an sw ers r e g a r d in g some o f th e de­ t a i l s I n c o n n e c tio n w ith th e o p e r a tio n o f th e o r g a n i z a t i o n . l i s t f o l lo w s j th e a n sw e rs a re by o f f i c e r s o f th e A.Y .H.A.

T h is

— 140-

1.

Who sp o n s o rs Y outh H o s te ls ? A oommunity com m ittee r e p r e s e n t i n g s c h o o ls , c h u rc h e s , c h a r a c t e r - b u i l d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c i v i c and o u td o o r c lu b s . The com m ittee s e l e c t s h o s t e l and house p a r e n t s , and a s s u r e s m a in te n a n c e o f y o u th h o s t e l s ta n d a r d s .

2 . 4 Where a re h o s t e l s lo c a te d ? They a r e u s u a lly l o c a te d on c o u n try ro a d s from 15 to 30 m ile s a p a r t , i n c h a in s , lo o p s o r n e tw o rk s , so t h a t one may h ik e o r b ik e from h o s t e l to h o s t e l . 3.

How many h o s t e l s a re t h e r e i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s ? I n 1939 t h e r e w ere 209 c h a r te r e d h o s t e l s l o c a te d in th e f o llo w in g a r e a s ; G reen and W hite M o u n tain s o f Vermont and New H am p shire, e a s t e r n M a s s a c h u s e tts , Rhode I s l a n d , down th e C o n n e c tic u t R iv e r , th ro u g h th e B e r k s h i r e s j i n New Y ork S t a t e ; P e n n s y lv a n ia ; C e n tr a l West V i r g i n i a ; N o rth C a r o l i n a 's G re a t Sm okies; O zarks o f M is s o u r i; e a s t e r n Iowa; s o u th e r n W isco n sin and N o rth e rn I l l i n o i s ; C o lo rad o o u t from D enver; C a l i f o r n i a 's San F r a n c is c o Bay a r e a ; W a sh in g to n 's P u g e t Sound and Olympic p e n in s u la s e c t i o n ; C anadian h o s t e l t r a i l s from B r i t i s h C olum bia and th e P ro v in c e o f Quebec. S in g le lo o p s have b e en e s t a b l i s h e d n e a r P o r t l a n d , M aine; P i t t s b u r g h and D upont, P e n n s y lv a n ia ; B ro o k to n d a le , n e a r I t h a c a , New Y ork; C ham paign, I l l i n o i s ; B lo o m in g to n , I n d ia n a ; C o lf a x , C a l i f o r n i a ; C l a r k s v i l l e , G e o rg ia .

4.

Are t h e r e Y outh H o s te ls i n o th e r c o u n t r i e s ? I n 1939 t h e r e w ere a b o u t 5,000 Y outh H o s te ls i n tw enty c o u n trie s .

5.

A re th e r e r e q u ir e d e s s e n t i a l s f o r h o s t e l i n g ? One n e ed s to have an A m erican Y outh H o s te l p a s s , a Handbook, and a s h e e t s le e p in g b a g , a l l o b ta in a b le a t N a tio n a l H e a d q u a rte rs in N o r t h f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e tts , o r a t th e n e a r e s t h o s t e l .

6.

How may one o b ta in an A. Y. H. p a s s ? The p a ss may be o b ta in e d by p a y in g a f e e o f one d o l l a r i f u n d e r 21; two d o l l a r s i f 21 o r o l d e r . The p a s s a d m its th e h o ld e r t o a l l th e h o s t e l s i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , and f o r 25 c e n ts more one may o b ta in a f o r e i g n t r a v e l s t i c k e r to v a l i d a t e o n e 's p a ss in a l l f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s . I n a d d it i o n to th e p a s s , one a ls o r e c e i v e s th e q u a r t e r l y A m erican Y outh H o s te l m ag a zin e, and t h e A. Y. H. k n a p sac k . Even th o u g h one i s n o t an a c t i v e h o s t e l e r , i f he i s fo n d o f th e o u t - o f d o o rs and i s i n t e r e s t e d in th e y o u th h o s t e l way o f i n t e r n a ­ t i o n a l f r i e n d l i n e s s , :he; w ould w ant th e s i x t y - f o u r page

— 141 —

q u a rte rly . 7.

What i s th e A m erican Y outh H o s te l Handbook? I t i s a c o n v e n ie n t p a p e r -c o v e re d book o f 125 p a g es o f in f o r m a tio n and i l l u s t r a t i o n s . I t i s an e n c y c lo p e d ia o f a l l o h a r t e r e d y o u th h o s t e l s i n A m erica, g iv in g f a c i l i t i e s a t e ac h h o s t e l , l o o a t i o n o f g r o c e ry s t o r e s and p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t n e a r b y , c lo s in g d a te s o f t h e few h o s t e l s n o t open t h e y e a r a ro u n d , and p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s tio n s f o r d i e t , c y c lin g , s a f e t y , and so on. I t i s is s u e d a n n u a lly on th e f i r s t o f May, and o o s t s 50 c e n ts .

8.

What i s th e N. Y. A. s l e e p i n g sa c k ? Two sim p le s h e e t s o f d u r a b le c o tto n sewed t o g e t h e r l i k e a bag w ith g u s s e ts on s i d e s t o p re v e n t t e a r i n g a p a r t ; e n v e lo p e on u p p e r end o f lo w er s h e e t l a r g e enough to f i t o v e r m a t t r e s s to p o r accommodate a p illo w . S le e p in g sa c k and o a se com bined w eigh one pound and c o s t 50 c e n t s .

9.

Who may go h o s t e l i n g ? A i l th o s e betw een f o u r and 94 who e n jo y th e o u td o o rs and l i k e t o t r a v e l by b i c y c l e , f o o t , s k i i s , h o rse b a c k o r can o e. A u to s , t r a i n s o r b u se s a r e u se d o n ly to r e a c h th e s t a r t i n g p o in t o f h o s t e l i n g a d v e n tu r e . H o s te l e r s cook t h e i r own m e a ls , make t h e i r own b e d s , wash t h e i r own d i s h e s , and t i d y th e h o s ­ t e l s . T h ere i s no r a c i a l , c re e d o r c l a s s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . (The a u th o r i s i n c l i n e d to ta k e t h i s l a s t c la im w i t h some

s lig h t lim ita tio n s .

T h ere i s e v e ry re a s o n to th in k t h a t from

P e n n s y lv a n ia s o u th w a rd s, w h ile c o lo r e d y o u th i s n o t a c t u a l l y r e ­ fu s e d a d m itta n c e to any h o s t e l , a t a c i t u n d e rs ta n d in g e x i s t s t h a t h o s t e l l i n g i s l i m i t e d to w h ite s .

I t seem s v e ry l i k e l y t h a t s im i­

l a r u n d e r s ta n d in g s c au se th o s e o f A s i a t i c a n c e s tr y t o n e g l e c t to a tte m p t to use th e h o s t e l s i n th e f a r w e s t.

What i s m eant h e re i n

p a r t i c u l a r i s t h a t th e more u s u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y th o s e a s b e tw ee n th e t h r e e m a jo r c h u rc h g r o u p s , C a t h o l i c , Hebrew and P r o t e s ­ t a n t , a r e n o t made b a s e s f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .) 10.

How muoh p e r day d o es i t a c t u a l l y o o s t to go h o s t e l i n g ? H o s te l e r s a r e a llo w e d one d o l l a r p e r day f o r t h e i r t o t a l



M2 —

b u d g e t to co v er fo o d , o v e r n i g h t s , and a few e x t r a s . 11.

Are th e r e r u le s i n H o s t e ls ? T here a re no h a rd and f a s t r u l e s . The custom s and t r a d i t i o n s o f h o s t e l e r s , g iv e n on th e i n s i d e o f th e p a s s , a r e b a se d on th o u g h tf u ln e s s to o t h e r s and c o n s i d e r a ti o n o f th e g ro u p . E a r ly r i s i n g g iv e s f u l l e s t u se o f d a y li g h t h o u rs f o r th e d a y ’ s t r e k . H o s te l e r s t i d y th e h o s t e l b e ­ f o r e r e c e i v i n g t h e i r p a s s from th e house p a r e n t s and d e ­ p a r t i n g . I n o a se o f s e r i o u s i n f r a c t i o n o f custom s th e p a s s may be re v o k e d . T here i s no d r in k in g o r sm oking p e r ­ m it t e d . E a r ly h o u rs f o r r e t i r i n g come n a t u r a l l y a f t e r a d ay s p e n t i n th e open.

12.

I s lo n e h o s t e l i n g s a f e ? Y e s , from f i v e y e a r s o f e x p e r ie n c e , in c lu d in g 100,000 o v e r n i g h t s , th e A. Y. H. h a s found h o s t e l i n g s a f e ifoin b o th bo y s and g i r l s .

13.

How may one p la n f o r a h o s t e l t r i p ? I n f o r m a tio n may be o b ta in e d by c o n s u l ti n g th e A. Y. H. Handbook f o r t r i p s and by t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t th e amount o f tim e one h a s , th e way he p la n s t o t r a v e l , f i t n e s s , i n ­ t e r e s t s , h o b b ie s and com panions.

14.

Where does one o b t a i n in f o r m a tio n a b o u t t r i p s sp o n so re d by th e A. Y. H. ? The S p rin g A. Y. H. K napsack ( w r i t e to N o r t h f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e tts ) i s u s u a l ly d e v o te d to summer t r a v e l and g iv e s d e t a i l e d in f o r m a tio n on t r i p s in th e U n ite d S t a t e s , A la s k a , M exioo and S o u th A m erica. T h is may be o b ta in e d a t H e a d q u a rte rs .

15.

How can one go on a s h o r t t r i p w it h a group?

One sh o u ld g e t t o g e t h e r a gro u p o f f r i e n d s and p la n a t r i p t o g e t h e r . The s c o u t l e a d e r , a t e a c h e r , o r some o th e r r e l i a b l e y o u th l e a d e r s h o u ld go w ith su c h a group and h e lp p la n th e t r i p . One may a ls o go to a n e a rb y h o s­ t e l , w here th e house p a r e n ts w i l l in tr o d u c e him to o t h e r h o s t e l e r s , w ith whom he may s t a r t h o s t e l i n g . 16.

How many n i g h ts may one s t a y a t a h o s t e l ? Where th e l o c a l i t y i s r i c h i n i n t e r e s t i n g s u rro u n d ­ in g s , m o u n ta in s t o c lim b , museums to v i s i t , e t c . , th e maximum tim e i s t h r e e n i g h t s .

— 143—

17.

What equipm ent s h o u ld one ta k e ? One sh o u ld t r a v e l w ith a l i g h t paok. F o r a l i s t o f p r a c t i c a l minimum a r t i c l e s , one may c o n s u lt th e A. Y. H. K n ap sack , o r H andbook, p u b lis h e d by th e A m erican Y outh H o s t e l s , N o r t h f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e tts . T h ere i s no u n if o r m ity i n th e ty p e o f Y outh H o s te l .

The ones

w h ich th e w r i t e r v i s i t e d w ere f o r th e m ost p a r t fa rm h o u s e s :— l a r g e h o u s e s , u s u a lly w ith a d d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g t h a t m ig h t be p re s s e d i n ­ to s e rv ic e .

The house p a r e n t s w ere w e ll a d a p te d t o t h a t k in d o f

w ork; some o f them w ere c o lle g e g r a d u a te s , p a s t m id d le l i f e , b u t n o t o ld .

They r e c e iv e o n ly th e 25 o e n ts p e r n ig h t p a id by eac h

h o s t e l e r . Many o f them have eoonom ic s e c u r i t y ; a l l o f them seem g e n u in e ly i n t e r e s t e d in young p e o p le .

The A .Y .H .A .'s

agent

who h a n d le s th e l e a s i n g o f p r o p e r t y , e t c . , h a s to se e to i t t h a t th e house p a r e n ts m eet d e f i n i t e and r e a l l y h ig h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The h o s t e l e r s v a ry in age b u t th e m a j o r it y ra n g e from 16 to 21 y e a r s o f a g e . a fo o t.

M ost h o s t e l e r s have b i c y c l e s , a lth o u g h some go

They c a r r y a k i t w hich c o n ta in s such o b j e c t s a s a sm all

f r y i n g p an , sp o o n , k n i f e , f o r k , to w e ls , and a change o f c lo t h i n g . H o s te l e r s on b i c y c le s may c a r r y a s much a s 35 p o u n d s; b u t th e aim i s to have a s l i g h t a paok a s p o s s i b l e . H o s te le r s p la n t h e i r t r i p s so t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s know w here th e y a r e e a c h n i g h t .

Many o f them r e c e iv e te le p h o n e c a l l s from

p a re n ts a t h o s te ls .

S u p p lie s may be p u rc h a se d a t h o s t e l s o r a t

n e a rb y s t o r e s , or e n r o u t e . Among th e house p a r e n t s in te r v ie w e d by th e w r i t e r , t h e r e was no c o m p la in t o f any d i s o r d e r l y conduot o f any g u e s t . a p p e a r to be a good c l a s s o f young p e o p le .

The h o s t e l e r s

The movement i s grow­

in g and s p re a d in g r a p i d l y th ro u g h o u t th e c o u n tr y , i n d i c a t i n g th u s

— I44 — t h a t i t i s p o p u la r uttblthe y o u th p a r t i o i p a t i n g i n i t .

C le a r ly th e

h o s t e l e r s f e e l th e y s e c u re d e f i n i t e b e n e f i t s , to o .

N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n The N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n was e s t a b l i s h e d th ro u g h an e x e c u tiv e o r d e r o f P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e lt,o n June 2 6 , 1935.

I t is ,

t h e r e f o r e , n o t a movement o r i g i n a t i n g w ith Y o u th , b u t r a t h e r on be­ h a l f o f y o u th by th e F e d e ra l G overnm ent, and w orked o u t by th e v a r i ­ o us s t a t e s .

I t i s fin a n c e d and d i r e c t e d by th e G overnm ent.

Even b e f o r e th e d e p r e s s io n , P r e s i d e n t Hoover c a l l e d a W hite House C o n fe re n ce on C h ild H e a lth and P r o t e c t i o n .

T h is was i n 1930.

I t had t o do c h i e f l y w ith p e o p le u n d e r 18 y e a r s o f a g e .

At a b o u t

t h i s tim e th e p e r io d o f com pulsory sc h o o l a tte n d a n c e was le n g th e n e d . T h is C o n fe re n c e recommended t h a t p r o v is io n be made i n e v e ry com­ m u n ity f o r g iv in g s c h o l a r s h i p s to th o s e who w ere o b lig e d to le a v e sc h o o l f o r work a s soon a s th e c h il d l a b o r law p e r m itte d . The n e x t developm ent was th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n . T h is movement grew o u t o f n e c e s s i t y — th e n e c e s s i t y o f d o in g so m eth in g f o r th e y o u th who w ere i n d i r e n e ed .

I t i s t r u e t h a t th e

d e p r e s s io n a f f e c t e d th e young p e o p le much more th a n o l d e r p e o p le . A cco rd in g to S e c r e ta r y F ra n c e s P e r k in s ,

(1)

T h ere i s an o v erab u n d an ce o f y o u th i n many in d u s ­ t r i e s from r e p o r t s o f l a b o r ’ s r e l a t i o n s w ith management b e o a u se y o u th h as none o f th e wisdom and p r a c t i c a l common s e n s e o f o l d e r p e rs o n s i n t h e i r d e a l in g s w ith i n d u s t r y . They have th e c o u rag e and e n e rg y o f y o u th b u t n o t th e s t a ­ b i l i t y o f o l d e r men w ith f a m i l i e s t o s u p p o r t , homes to keep (1) F ra n c e s P e r k in s , S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r, New Y ork T im es. F e b ru a ry 1 0 , 1938.

-1 4 5 up and c h il d r e n to se n d t o s c h o o l. You d on*t hav e t o lo o k very f a r t o f i n d i n d u s t r i e s i n w hich th e number o f young p e o p le em ployed c o n s t i t u t e s a s m a ll p r o p o r tio n o f th e t o t a l . The f a o t o r s w hich m i l i t a t e d most a g a i n s t y o u th w ere: la o k o f e x p e r ie n c e i n work; and la o k o f v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g . W in slo w 's f i g u r e s on p lacem en t r a t e s f o r m ale w o ric e rs ,J u ly 1 1934 to June 30 1936, a r e Age:

i l l u m i n a t i n g : (1) 16 18 20 21 A ll

t o 17 t o 19

P la c e m e n t r a t e :

to 24 m ale w o rk e rs

26.4% 42.6% 60.3% 79.5% 95.8%

W hile i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r o ld e r w o rk ers who a re o u t o f employ­ ment to g e t j o b s ,t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f th e young p e o p le a re th u s se e n t o be much g r e a t e r . E m ployers u s u a l l y g iv e p r e f e r e n c e to th o s e who a r e b ead s o f f a m i l i e s . When q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r e l i g i b i l i t y r i s e , i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s u r p l u s o f a p p l i c a n t s f o r eaoh p o s i t i o n . F a o in g su c h a o o n d itio n , th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n u n d e rto o k t o e x te n d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f y o u th f o r j o b s . The p la n was t o g iv e a s s i s t a n c e t o th o s e who w ish e d to rem a in i n t r a i n i n g , b u t who c o u ld n o t a f f o r d t o do s o . G r e a t, and i n f a c t u s u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g , num bers o f young p e o p le w ere g ra d u a te d from h ig h s c h o o ls , a r t s and t e c h n i c a l c o l l e g e s , eao h y e a r . They fo u n d th e m se lv e s w ith o u t a n y th in g t o do a f t e r g r a d u a t io n . Those who c o u ld a f f o r d t o do so c o n tin u e d t h e i r v o c a tio n a l e d u c a ti o n . a f f o r d t o do t h i s .

O th e rs — in f a c t th e m a j o r it y — c o u ld n o t

T here a r o s e a w id e sp re a d f e e l i n g t h a t d is c r im ­

i n a t i o n a g a i n s t y o u th r e a l l y e x i s t e d . The u s u a l r e a s o n g iv e n by em p lo y ers was " la o k o f e x p e r i e n c e .w

(1) W .T hatcher W inslow. Y outh i n S e a rc h o f a J o b . I n World P ro b le m , p . 85

Y outh A

-1 4 6 -

The N. Y. A. was o rg a n iz e d in view o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n * VMS. 6ne o f i t s more s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s i s th e d e f i n i t e and c o n c e r­ te d e f f o r t t o b re a k t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e :

"Y outh c an n o t g e t jo b s b e ­

c a u se i t la c k s e x p e r ie n c e ; and y o u th c a n n o t g e t th e e x p e rie n c e w ith ­ o u t jo b s ."

I n f a c t , from th e p o in t o f view o f th e s o c io lo g y o f em­

p lo y m en t, t h i s may t u r n o u t t o b e i t s m ost s i g n i f i c a n t a c c o m p lish ­ m ent:

th e p r o v is io n u n d e r m odern c o n d itio n s o f th e e q u iv a le n t o f

th e a p p r e n t ic e s h ip p e r i o d , in w hich v o c a t io n a l e x p e rie n c e and .edu­ c a t io n o f a v o c a tio n a l s o r t a r e com bined. he The o b j e c t i v e s o f th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n may s t a t e d a s f o llo w s : 1.

E d u c a tio n a l A id s;

To p ro v id e fu n d s f o r th e p a r t - t i m e em ploy­

m ent o f needy se c o n d a ry s c h o o l, c o l l e g e , and g ra d u a te s tu d e n ts b etw een th e a g e s o f 16 and 2 4 , i n c l u s i v e , so t h a t th e y oan con­ t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a tio n . 2.

P a r t - ti m e Employment;

To p ro v id e fu n d s f o r young p e rs o n s b e ­

tw een 18 and 24 y e a r s o f a g e , i n c l u s i v e , on work p r o j e c t s .

The

p r o j e c t s a re d e s ig n e d p r i m a r il y n o t o n ly to g iv e th e s e young p e o p le v a lu a b le work e x p e r ie n c e , b u t to b e n e f i t y o u th g e n e r a l l y i n l o c a l co m m u n ities. 3.

To e s t a b l i s h job e x p e r ie n c e , c o u n s e lin g , and p la c e m e n t s e r v i c e s f o r y o u th . The N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n i s p a r t o f th e F e d e r a l S e c u r­

i t y A gency, o f w hich P a u l V. M cNutt i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r . i s A d m in is tr a to r o f th e N. Y. A.

Aubrey W illia m s

The N a tio n a l H e a d q u a rte rs i s l o c a t e d

a t 2145 0 S t r e e t , N .E ., W ashington, D. C. Funds f o r s c h o o ls a r e a l l o c a t e d by th e W ashington O f f io e t o th e stateSjOn th e b a s i s o f su ch f a o t o r s a s th e t o t a l number o f f a m i l i e s

—1 4 7 r e c e i v i n g p u b lic a s s i s t a n c e , t h e number o f needy y o u th , th e p a s t u s e o f s i m i l a r f u n d s , and th e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f a s t a t e ( a s i n th e c a se o f a d ro u g h t or a f l o o d ) • The p u rp o se o f t h e s tu d e n t-w o rk program i s to e n a b le young men and women betw een th e a g e s o f 16 and 24 t o e a rn s u f f i c i e n t money t o a llo w them to c o n tin u e i n s c h o o l, c o l l e g e , o r g ra d u a te s c h o o l. T h is a id i s p ro v id e d f o r young p e o p le , on t h e b a s i s o f n eed and o t h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , a s d e te rm in e d by th e l o c a l e d u c a ti o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s . S eco n d ary s c h o o l s t u d e n ts may e a rn a maximum o f s i x d o l l a r s o r a minimum o f t h r e e d o l l a r s p e r m onth, th ro u g h jo b s a s s ig n e d by th e s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s . C o lle g e s t u d e n ts may e a r n an a v e ra g e o f f i f t e e n d o l l a r s p e r m onth, w ith a maximtm o f tw e n ty d o l l a r s and a minimum o f t e n d o l l a r s p e r m onth, i n a s i m i l a r way. G ra d u ate s t u d e n t s , on th e same b a s is ,m a y e a rn a maximum o f th irty d o l l a r s and a minimum o f t e n d o l l a r s p e r m onth. The e d u c a ti o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , w i t h in g e n e r a l f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s , c o m p le te ly a d m in is te r th e s t u d e n t work p ro g ram . The governm ent i n s i s t s t h a t s t u d e n ts be p a id o n ly w hat h a s been a c t u a l l y e a r n e d , an d t h a t th e age l i m i t a t i o n s s h a l l be s t r i c t l y o b s e rv e d . Jo b s a r e m a in ly w ith in th e s c h o o l o r cam pus; b u t a s s i s t a n c e on o ff-c a m p u s p u b lic p r o j e c t s i s e n c o u ra g e d . H ourly r a t e s o f pay a r e s i m i l a r to t h o s e i n eaoh com m unity. T here a r e no s tu d e n t lo a n s u n d er t h i s program . A co m p ariso n w ith b o th W .P.A. and C .C .C . i s h e re i n e v i t a b l e . The fu n d a m e n ta l b a s i s i s a l i k e i n o e r t a i n f e a t u r e s . The N .Y .A ., l i k e t h e s e b o d ie s , p r o v id e s jo b s

w hioh o th e rw is e w ould n o t

— 1-48-

e x is t.

B u t b o th C. C. C. and W. P. A. a re on a s u b s t a n t i a l l y f u l l ­

tim e b a s i s , n o t p r o v id in g s p e c i f i c a l l y by tim e - a llo tm e n t o r o t h e r ­ w ise f o r c o n tin u a n c e o f e d u c a tio n a l work w ith in th e g e n e r a l fram e o f e x i s t i n g e d u c a tio n a l m a c h in e ry .

C. G. C. d o es p ro v id e i t s own

e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; b u t W. P . A. i s o rg a n iz e d w ith o u t r e f e r ­ e n ce to e d u c a tio n a t a l l . The f o llo w in g c i t a t i o n

(1) w i l l p o in t o u t w hat was done in

1940-41 (governm ent f i s c a l y e a r 1 940): B etw een J u ly 1 , 1940 and June 30, 1941, th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n w i l l p ro v id e p a r t - t i m e jo b s f o r a p p ro x ­ im a te ly 500,000 o u t o f s c h o o l y o u th . I n a d d i t i o n , th e N. Y. A. t h i s y e a r w i l l p ro v id e jo b s w hich w i l l e n a b le ap­ p ro x im a te ly 5 0 0 ,0 0 D s tu d e n ts t o c o n tin u e t h e i r e d u c a tio n i n s c h o o ls , c o ll e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h is l a t t e r p h ase o f N. Y. A. a c t i v i t i e s i s known a s th e s tu d e n t w ork program . A cco rd in g to t h i s same p u b l i c a t i o n ?t h e r e a re to d ay in th e U ni­ te d S t a t e s some 20 odd m i l l i o n young men and young women b etw een th e a g e s o f 15 and 2 4 .

A h ig h p e rc e n ta g e o f th e s e young p e o p le a re

e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o ls and c o l l e g e s . n e s s , in d u s tr y and a g r i c u l t u r e .

Many o t h e r s a r e em ployed i n b u s i ­ B ut t h e r e a r e more th a n f o u r m i l l i o n

young p e o p le i n t h i s age group^who have l e f t

h ig h sc h o o l and who have

b e en u n a b le to f i n d jo b s .

Y. A. i s to a s s i s t

The aim o f th e N.

y o u th who a r e f i n a n c i a l l y u n a b le to c o n tin u e in s c h o o l, and o t h e r s who a r e u n a b le t o f i n d jo b s . I n o v e r 3 ,0 0 0 w o rk sh o p s, l o c a t e d th ro u g h o u t th e n a t i o n , th o u ­ sa n d s o f young men and women a re g e t t i n g e x p e r ie n c e i n v a r io u s me­ c h a n ic a l p u r s u i t s .

Shops in c lu d e woodworking u n i t s , m e ta l, r a d i o ,

a i r c r a f t , e l e c t r i c a l , a u to m o b ile work and power se w in g , and g iv e

(1) The S to rv o f the N atio n al Youth A d m in istra tio n . D. C ., Government P r in tin g O ffic e , 1940. p. 1.

Washington,

— 143-

i young p e o p le th e o p p o r tu n ity to l e a r n th e use o f hand t o o l s a s w e ll a s power d r iv e n m a c h in e ry and eq u ip m en t. T h is p a r t i c u l a r ty p e o f o p p o r tu n ity i s a d m in is te r e d w ith o u t th e re q u ire m e n t o f h ig h sc h o o l o r c o lle g e e d u c a tio n on th e p a r t o f th o s e u t i l i z i n g th e s e r v i o e s .

The f i g u r e s a t hand show t h a t ro u g h ly

1 0# o f th o s e b e n e f i t e d a r e women; th e r e s t men. •

A stu d y o f th e r e p o r t s from a number o f s t a t e s (1) w i l l i n d i ­

c a te th e ty p e o f work a t w hich th o s e y o u th a re em ployed by th e governm ent.

Among th e s e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be f o u n d :c o n s tr u c ­

t i o n o f p u b lic b u i l d i n g s , su c h a s s c h o o ls , community c e n t e r s , l i b r a ­ r i e s , h o s p i t a l s and d o r m it o r i e s .

The w o rk e rs b e a u t i f y and im prove

p u b lic p a rk s and g ro u n d s a ro u n d p u b lic b u i l d i n g s , l a y o u t r e c r e a ­ t i o n a l a r e a s , c o n s t r u c t and r e p a i r h ig h w ay s, r o a d s , s t r e e t s and b r i d g e s , and c o n se rv e s o i l and f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s .

They b u i l d p l a y ­

g ro u n d s , t e n n i s c o u r t s , ssviftming and w ading p o o ls , s k i jum ps, s k a tin g r i n k s and b a s e b a l l diam onds. M o reo v er, th e s e s tu d e n t w o rk e rs a re em ployed a s r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i n community c e n t e r s and on p u b lic p la y g ro u n d s .

They p ro ­

v id e a s s i s t a n c e to u n d e r - s ta f f e d h o s p i t a l s , c l i n i c s , l i b r a r i e s , museums and o f f i c e s o f g o v e rn m e n ta l and s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s .

They

make and s e rv e h o t lu n c h e s f o r sc h o o l c h i l d r e n , a s s i s t i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , and work on a r t and h a n d i c r a f t p r o j e c t s . A c c o rd in g to th e Government p u b l i c a t i o n ( f t) , th e p r o p o r tio n o f N egro y o u th em ployed i s a b o u t one to t e n .

A d i v i s i o n o f N egro a f -

(1) R e p o rts w ere s tu d ie d from I n d ia n a , W iso o n sin , Ohio and New Y ork. (2) The S to ry o f th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m i n is tr a t io n , p. 7.

— 150 —

f a i r s i n th e c e n t r a l o f f i c e a s s i s t s i n th e developm ent o f s u i t a b l e p r o j e c t s f o r N egro y o u th ; M l a number o f s t a t e o f f i c e s have Negro r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on t h e i r s t a f f .

I The g r e a t m a jo r ity o f th e o u t- o f - s c h o o l y o u th em ployed by th e

N. Y. A. l i v e a t home w ith t h e i r f a m ilie s ^ a n d r e p o r t to t h e i r p ro ­ j e c t s i n th e same m anner th e y w ould to a job i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y . They spend a number o f h o u rs e a c h day a t t h e i r w o rk , and f r e q u e n t ly spend a d d i t i o n a l tim e a tt e n d i n g r e l a t e d t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s . F o r th e b e n e f i t o f y o u th ^ th e N. Y. A. h a s p re p a r e d and pub­ l i s h e d o v e r 100 com prehensive i n d u s t r i a l and o c c u p a tio n a l s t u d i e s . I n th e s e a r e o u t l i n e d th e ty p e s o f work in v o lv e d in e a c h in d u s tr y and o c c u p a tio n ; th e d u t i e s , th e t r a i n i n g r e q u ir e m e n ts , th e job p o s­ s i b i l i t i e s ; IS& th e w ages and w o rk in g c o n d itio n s .

T hese s t u d i e s a re

made a v a i l a b l e to t e a c h e r s , v o c a t io n a l g u id an c e c o u n s e lo r s , l i ­ b r a r i e s and to young p e o p le . A ll em ployees a r e r e q u i r e d t o a c c e p t a bona f i d e o f f e r o f p r i ­ v a te em ploym ent.

I n 1940, 100,000 young p e o p le l e f t th e N. Y. A.

p r o j e c t s to ta k e p r i v a t e j o b s . The q u e s tio n m ig h t a r i s e a s t o how y o u th r e a c t s t o th e o p p o r­ t u n i t y to work u n d er th e s e c o n d it i o n s .

Most o f th e young p e o p le

a r e v e ry e a g e r to g e t t h i s o p p o r tu n ity to p ie c e o u t an e x i s t e n c e , o r by so d o in g to b e a b le t o c o n tin u e t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n i n s c h o o ls and c o ll e g e s .

I t would seem to be a w rong i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e

A ct to say t h a t su c h em ployees a r e on r e l i e f . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s n o t uncommon.

U n f o r tu n a te ly t h a t

T hese young p e o p le e a r n a l l th e y

g e t , and g iv e f u l l r e t u r n s i n s e r v i c e s f o r th e sm a ll amount th e y a r e p a id .

In t h i s c o n n e c tio n , a c a s e in p o in t i s s e l e c t e d from

— 15-1—

The V oioe o f Y o u th . (1) tio n .

M iss Helen. D a lla s i s th e s tu d e n t i n q u e s­

She s p e a k s a s f o llo w s , i n p a r t : I work f o r th e N. Y. A. I am a la z Y , g o o d - f o r - n o th in g o o -ed w ith a p a s t h u t no f u t u r e . I l i v e d o f f th e governm ent b e c a u se I found t h a t l i v i n g o f f th e governm ent to o k l e s s e f f o r t th a n l i v ­ i n g o f f someone e l s e . F o r tw e n ty - f iv e h o u rs a m onth a t s i x t y c e n ts an h o u r, I th o u g h t o f ways to gyp th e N. Y. A. They d i d n 't g e t a n i c k e l 's w o rth o f work o u t o f me, b e ­ c au se when I was su pposed to be w orking I j u s t s to o d a ro u n d w a s tin g my tim e . T h a t’ s w hat th e y say a b o u t me. They a re th e sw iv e l c h a i r s i t t e r s who p r o g n o s t i c a te how lo n g i t w ould have ta k e n th e W. P. A. w o rk e rs to move a h i l l o r d i g a d i t c h o r any number o f t h i n g s . . . . As a t y p i c a l s tu d e n t who h a s worked f o r th e g o v e rn ­ ment u n d e r th e N. Y. A. I deny th e s e o h a rg e s t h a t have b e en made a g a i n s t me. I b e l i e v e th e y have b een made w ith ­ o u t i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; t h a t th e y a r e th e fig m e n t o f im ag in a­ t i o n ; t h a t th e y a r e v i c i o u s , l i b e l o u s l i e s made a g a i n s t a g ro u p o f young p e o p le who a r e m aking an e f f o r t t o sup­ p o r t th e m s e lv e s and go th ro u g h sc h o o l a t th e same tim e . My tw e n ty - f iv e governm ent h o u rs a re th e most, com­ p l e t e l y h a rd -w o rk in g h o u rs t h a t I have e v e r sp e n t i n my l i f e . They a r e crammed f u l l o f t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h t h a t m ust b e a c c u r a te and w e ll enough o rg a n iz e d to b e p u b lis h e d . My a s s ig n m e n ts a r e a d m in is te r e d by a p r o f e s s o r who i s e n t h u s i ­ a s t i c a b o u t h i s work and e x p e c ts me t o b e . At th e same tim e in s i x m onths I have le a r n e d a s much a b o u t t a x a t i o n , w hich h appens to be th e s u b j e c t on w hich I am w o rk in g , a s I le a r n e d i n t h r e e y e a r s o f p o l i ­ t i c a l s c ie n c e and econom ics i n c o l l e g e . And w h ile I am a c q u ir in g an e d u c a tio n I am l e a r n i n g t o make p r a c t i o a l u se o f i t . A p a rt from t h i s , th e jo b i s h e lp in g t o p u t me th ro u g h c o ll e g e . I t i s n o t to o p l e a s a n t to c a r r y 31 h o u rs o f c l a s s e s a week w o rk in g to w a rd s a M a s t e r 's d e g re e , and a t th e same tim e h o ld s e v e r a l p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s . To have b een g iv e n th e o p p o r tu n ity to make one o f th o s e jo b s a ls o s e r v e a s a la b o r a to r y f o r c o u rs e s I am t a k i n g i s a God­ se n d .

(1) Helen D a lla s , In Defense o f th e N atio n al Youth A d m in istra tio n . The Voice o f Y outh, Tune, 1936, p. 3.

— IS2.—

M iss D a lla s shows t h a t t h e work a c c o m p lish e d by th e N. Y. A. i s n o t ’•made w o rk ."

I t i s work t h a t n e e d s t o be done.

Many s t u ­

d e n ts become q u i t e e x p e r t i n th e f i e l d s i n w hich th e y a re w o rk in g , fSB They a r e h e lp in g to make no s m a ll c o n t r i b u t i o n t o th e g o v e rn ­ m ent and to l i f e

in g e n e r a l.

M iss D a lla s c i t e s a number o f su c h

c a s e s , su ch a s h e a l t h p r o j e c t s , a s tu d y o f i l l n e s s in i n d u s t r y , v a r i a t i o n s i n r u r a l and c i t y w o rk , c o m p a ra tiv e changes i n o ccu p a ­ t i o n , and th e l i k e . T h is t y p i c a l s tu d e n t s u c c e s s f u l l y c h a lle n g e s th e id e a t h a t t h i s g ro u p o f young w o rk e rs i s on r e l i e f .

She m ig h t add t h a t any­

one,w ho i s g e t t i n g minimum pay f o r any p r o d u c tiv e w o r k ,is n o t on re lie f.

I t w ould seem t h a t th o s e a m b itio u s young p e o p le a r e d o in g

a s p le n d id jo b ,a n d a r e to be commanded and e n c o u ra g e d .

The N. Y.

A. A ct i s one a c t w hich C ongress h a s p a s s e d ,t h a t i s p a y in g d iv id e n d s a lr e a d y . As h as b e en s t a t e d , th e tim e a llo w a n c e on N. Y. A. p r o j e c t s is re s tric te d .

S tu d e n ts s e l e c t e d f o r employment m ust c a r r y a t

l e a s t t h r e e - f o u r -^

o f th e norm al f u l l - t i m e program in th e sc h o o l

w hich th e y a r e a t t e n d i n g , and m ust m a in ta in a s a t i s f a c t o r y s ta n d ­ in g i n a t l e a s t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e i r s o h o s l a s t i o w ork.

Each

s t u d e n t , b e f o r e b e g in n in g w o rk , m ust make an a f f i d a v i t c e r t i f y i n g t h a t he i s a c i t i z e n o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ; and m ust e x e c u te th e o a th o f a l l e g i a n c e . The N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n g iv e s th e f o llo w in g r e p o r t (1) o f th e num ber o f y o u th em ployed:

D u rin g th e f i r s t y e a r o f

(1) The S tory o f th e N atio n al Youth A d m in is tra tio n , ^p. 14.

— 153-

o p e r a t i o n , J u l y 1 , 1935 th ro u g h June 30, 1936? th e N. Y. A. sp e n t 1 3 5 ,5 1 7 ,5 1 5 and em ployed an a v e ra g e o f 310,000 young p e o p le on th e a s w e ll a s s tu d e n t p ro g ram , 803^135,000 on th e o u t- o f - s c h o o l w ork program d u r­ in g th e second h a l f o f th e y e a r .

From J u ly 1 , 1 9 3 6 , th ro u g h June

3 0 , 1937, th e N. Y. A. s p e n t $ 6 5 ,6 1 2 ,1 9 5 and em ployed an a v e ra g e o f 580,000 y o u th .

From J u l y 1 , 1937 th ro u g h Ju n e 30, 1938 th e

N. Y. A. s p e n t $ 5 1 ,1 8 1 ,3 1 5 and em ployed 450,000 young p e o p le .

From

J u ly 1 , 1938 th ro u g h June 3 0 , 1939, th e N. Y. A. s p e n t $ 7 5 ,1 4 6 ,8 8 4 and em ployed 585,000 young p e rs o n s .

From J u ly 1 , 1939 th ro u g h June

3 0 , 1 9 4 0 , th e N. Y. A. s p e n t $ 9 4 ,4 2 7 ,4 1 7 and em ployed 705,000 p e r­ so n s .

F o r th e y e a r 1941 C o n g re ss h a s a p p r o p r ia te d $ 1 0 2 ,1 5 9 ,0 0 0 f o r

th e o p e r a tio n o f th e N. Y. A ., and i t i s e s tim a te d t h a t a t l e a s t 700,000 w i l l he em ployed u n d e r i t s d i r e c t i o n . Bach N. Y. A. w o rk er r e c e i v e s $22 p e r m o n th ^ fo r 60 h o u rs o f w ork.

A d m in is tr a tio n o f th e program o f N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tra ­

t i o n i s a s d e c e n t r a l i z e d a s e f f i c i e n c y w i l l p e rm it.

In each o f

th e 48 s t a t e s , D i s t r i c t o f C olum bia, A la s k a , H aw aii, o r P o rto R ico t h e r e i s a S t a t e Y outh A d m in is tr a to r who h a s th e m ajo r r e s p o n s i ­ b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g N. Y. A. program s in th e a r e a u n d e r h i s j u r i s ­ d ic tio n .

T h ere a re f i v e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e r s b etw een th e C e n tr a l

O f f ic e i n W ashington and th e s t a t e o f f i c e s . W ith in g e n e r a l n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s , th e s t a t e s d e te rm in e t h e i r own p ro c e d u re .

Some o f th e s t a t e r e p o r t s i n d io a t e t h a t an

e l a b o r a t e sy ste m i s u se d .

In Ohio v e ry m in u te d e t a i l s a r e c a r r i e d

o u t;a n d a c h e c k in g sy ste m i s u se d to d e te rm in e w h e th e r p r o g r e s s i s made i n o a r r y in g o u t th e p ro g ram s.

G re a t a t t e n t i o n i s g iv e n to

th e t r a i n i n g o f th o s e who d i r e o t th e w ork.

I

I n In d ia n a em phasis i s

— IS ^ —

g iv e n to th e p ro p e r p laoem ent o f w o rk e rs , and to t r y i n g them o u t i n a number o f a c t i v i t i e s i n an e x p lo r a to r y way.

W isco n sin p la o e s

s t r e s s on t e a c h i n g and d e v e lo p in g s k i l l s ^ s o t h a t th e w o rk e r may be p r e p a r e d to q u a l i f y f o r work i n i n d u s t r y .

I t oan t r u l y be s a i d

t h a t th e N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n j u s t i f i e s i t s e x i s t e n c e . The d e fe n s e e f f o r t o f th e n a t i o n , b e g in n in g i n 1940, may have m arked e f f e c t s on th e N. Y. A. in s ig h t as t h i s is w ritte n .

S ig n s o f su c h e f f e c t s a r e a lr e a d y The f i r s t and p ro x im a te e f f e c t i s

th e w ith d ra w a l o f fu n d s —n o t m erely a s r e f u s a l to i n c r e a s e N. Y. A. a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , b u t an a c t u a l r e d u c tio n i n th e a l l o t t e d am ounts. T h is i s p e rh a p s o f f s e t by a d e c re a s e d need f o r N. Y. A. s e r v i o e s , s in c e p resu m ab ly th e number o f a v a i l a b l e jo b s i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y i s g o in g to i n c r e a s e s t e a d i l y a s t h e d e fe n s e e f f o r t becom es s t r o n g e r . W hether th e d e fe n s e i n d u s t r i e s w i l l a b so rb th e y o u th from N. Y. A. j o b s , o r w i l l u t i l i z e o l d e r p e o p le m a in ly , c a n n o t a t t h i s s ta g e be to ld . A s tu d y o f one a r e a i n l a t e 1940 and e a r l y 1941 may s e r v e a s a ty p ic a l case.

We choose t h a t o f New Y ork, N. Y. and v i c i n i t y .

A c c o rd in g t o p r e s s r e p o r t (1) th e o r d e r was r e c e iv e d by th e l o c a l N. Y. A. o f f i c e from W ash in g to n , e a r l y in 1941, t h a t some 1 3 ,0 0 0 young p e o p le w ere to be d ro p p ed from th e r o l l s : F e b ru a ry and 6 ,0 0 0 more by Ju n e 3 0 , 1941.

7 ,0 0 0 i n

As t h i s i s w r i t t e n , i n

m id -1 9 4 1 , o n ly 2 6 ,0 0 0 young p e o p le a r e a t work in t h i s a r e a u n d e r N. Y. A.

More th a n 4 5 ,0 0 0 a p p lie d f o r th e more th a n 13,000 v a ca n ­

c i e s d u r in g t h e f i s c a l y e a r ended Ju n e 3 0 , 1941. I n m aking t h e c u t o f p e r s o n n e l, th e N. Y. A. i s r e t a i n i n g th o s e

(1) New Y ork T im es, F eb. 2 2 , 1941.

— ISS-— who a r e w o rk in g on d e fe n s e p r o j e c t s . th e b r u n t o f th e re tre n c h m e n t.

Those on n o n -d e fe n se jo b s b e a r

For ex am p le, th o s e s e r v in g th e New

Y ork C ity D epartm ent o f P a rk s w ere h a lv e d in th e f i r s t l a y - o f f . The o r i g i n a l e x p a n sio n o f t h e r o l l s l a s t November was made p o s s i b l e by a s p e c i a l d e fe n s e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f $ 3 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,o f w hich $ 1 ,8 1 3 ,0 0 0 w ent f o r th e New Y ork c i t y a r e a .

To keep th e r o l l s a t

p r e s e n t l e v e l , a d e f ic ie n c y a llo w a n c e o f $ 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 was r e q u i r e d l o ­ c a l l y ; b u t o n ly $ 1 ,3 2 0 ,4 7 0 was made a v a i l a b l e .

The C i v i l i a n O o n s e rv a tio n C orps The C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n Corps may be c o n s id e r e d a y o u th move­ ment o r i g i n a t i n g i n th e R o o s e v e lt A d m in is tr a tio n .

I t t h e r e f o r e d id

n o t b e g in w ith y o u th , b u t was o f governm ent o r i g i n f o r th e p u rp o se o f a id i n g y o u th .

I t aim ed to ta k e s i n g l e unem ployed y o u th b e tw ee n

th e a g es o f 18 and 25 from th e c i t y s t r e e t s and r u r a l homes? and f u r n ­ i s h them w ith h e a l t h f u l , g a i n f u l , and im p o rta n t w ork, m a in ly in th e fo re s ts . The C. C. C. i s c a r r i e d on by a g r e a t many a g e n c ie s , b u t th e id e a o r i g i n a t e d s o l e l y w ith P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e lt.

As M oley s a y s , (1)

Many y e a r s ago W illia m Jam es w ro te th e e s s a y , The M o ral E q u iv a le n t o f War. . . . I t i s h a rd t o say w h e th e r th e id e a was t r a n s m i t t e d to th e young s tu d e n t F r a n k lin D. R o o s e v e lt, who was in P r o f e s s o r J a m e s 's c l a s s a t H a rv a rd , b u t i t i s t r u e t h a t th e id e a o f th e C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C orps came a lo n e and e x c l u s i v e l y from th e P r e s i d e n t . I t i s p e c u l i a r l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y h i s own a s an e n t e r p r i s e i n th e c o n s e r v a tio n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f th e p h y siq u e and m o ra ls o f th e coming g e n e r a tio n o f young men. The C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C orps i s p ro b a b ly w o rth a l l i t c o s t s . The e n t i r e p r o j e c t was b a s e d on th e sim p le id e a o f sa v in g men and b u i ld i n g t h e i r c h a r a c t e r , and i n th e p r o c e s s , e x -

(1) S p e c ia l a r t i c l e by Ramond M oley i n , A. C. O l i v e r , J r . , and H aro ld M. D udley, T h is New A m erica, p. 32.

p l o t t i n g th e b e a u ty and u s e f u ln e s s o f th e v a s t f o r e s t - a r e a s . I t i s a p r a c t i o a l f u l f i l m e n t o f J a m e s 's id e a o f p r o v id in g a m o ral e q u iv a le n t f o r w a r. The A ct was p a s s e d on Maroh 3 1 ,1 9 3 3 .

I t o a ll e d f o r a pro g ram

o f em ergency c o n s e r v a tio n w ork. F o r t h i s r e a s o n f th e name C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n Corps was a d o p te d . At once a b o u t 250,000 men, fro m f a m i l i e s on r e l i e f r o l l s , w ere e n r o l l e d . They were grouped i n cam ps, and worked i n f o r e s t s , n a t i o n a l p a r k s ,a n d s o i l e r o s io n a r e a s . L a t e r , th e number was in o r e a s e d by 2 5 ,0 0 0 o l d e r , e x p e rie n c e d men, ta k e n fro m th o s e on r e l i e f and l i v i n g n e a r C .C .C . camps; f u r t h e r by 2 8 ,0 0 0 war v e te r a n s and 1 4 ,8 0 0 I n d i a n s .

The f i r s t two y e a rs*

e n ro lm e n t was a b o u t 353,000 men. By them end o f 1 9 3 5 ,e n ro lm en t re a o b e d 5 0 5 ,8 7 2 . A P r e s i d e n t i a l o r d e r , A p r il 5 , 1933, a p p o in te d R o b e rt F e c h n e r a s f i r s t D i r e c t o r o f t h e C .C .C .

T h is o r d e r a ls o p ro v id e d f o r

th e o o o p e ra tio n o f s e v e r a l governm ent d e p a rtm e n ts i n c a r r y in g o u t t h e p ro g ram . The D epartm ent o f L ab o r s e l e c t s t h e a p p l i c a n t s . The War D epartm ent e n r o l s them . T h is same d e p a rtm e n t lo o k s a f t e r t h e i r p h y s ic a l e x a m in a t io n ,t r a n s p o r t to th e cam ps, camp o o n s tu u c tio n and e q u ip m e n t,fia a a n r, s u p p l i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s a n i t a t i o n , m e d ic a l c a r e , h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , p a y , and p a r t o f t h e e d u c a tio n a l w ork. The D ep artm en ts o f t h e I n t e r i o r and o f A g r i c u l t u r e reootm end work program s an d s u p e r v is e a l l p r o j e c t s . But f lo o d c o n t r o l p r o j e c t s a r e u n d e r th e War D e p a rtm e n t. The V e t e r a n s 'A d m i n is t r a t io n h a n d le s a p p l i c a t i o n s o f war v e te r a n s f o r a d m issio n t o t h e C .C .C . The O f f ic e o f E d u o a tio n a p p o in ts t h e camp e d u c a tio n a l d i r e c t o r s . C o n cerning th e e d u c a tio n a l v a lu e o f th e C o rp s, M iss B arn ard m ates t h i s s ta te m e n t: (1)

EUnloe F u l l e r B a rn a rd . Now Y outh B a ls a s I t s V o ic e . New Y ork Tim es, A p r i l 1 2 ,1 9 3 5 .

-157-

Thus th e C. C. C . , s t a r t e d m e re ly a s a y o u th haven f o r r e l i e f and unem ploym ent, i s more and more p o in te d o u t a s a k in d o f m odel sc h o o l o f th e f u t u r e . F or i t i s w id e ly a d m itte d t h a t th e camps have o f t e n w ro u g h t a m ir­ a c l e o f r e a l i s t i c e d u c a tio n . T housands o f boys w honalways h a te d s c h o o l” have i n th e in fo rm a l atm o sp h ere o f th e u n i v e r s it y - in - t h e - w o o d s w i l l i n g l y le a r n e d t r a d e s , h o b b ie s , and ev en a b s t r u s e sc h o o l s u b j e o ts . They have d is c o v e re d o c c u p a tio n s th e y e n jo y , have come o u t eq u ip p e d f o r r e a l jo b s and f r e q u e n t l y have found them . In th e camp boys can t r y th e m se lv e s o u t a t from 300 t o 800 s p e c i f i c t a s k s f a l l i n g i n to 60 d i f f e r e n t jo b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , from th e b u i l d i n g o f r o a d s , b r i d g e s and h o u se s to t y p e w r i t i n g , co o k in g and n u r s in g . W hile th e Army i s r e s p o n s ib le f o r camp o p e r a t i o n , t h i s i s n o t a m i l i t a r y program .

no

T h ere i s no m anual o f a rm s,Am i l i t a r y d r i l l , no

m i l i t a r y d i s c i p l i n e , n o r any m i l i t a r y o b l i g a t i o n . E n ro llm e n t i s p u r e ly v o l u n t a r y , b u t when th e young man i s e n r o l l e d he m ust s t a y a t l e a s t s i x m onths. i s n e ce ssa ry .

T h is p e rio d o f tim e

I f e n r o l l e e s l e f t w henever th e y w ish e d , t h e r e m ig h t

be s e v e r a l v a c a n c ie s a t one tim e ; th e camp w ould n o t be ru n n in g a t f u l l c a p a c i t y , th e re b y e n t a i l i n g a l o s s . o a s e s a r e g iv e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

However, s p e c i a l

For ex am p le, a young man may be

p ro m o ted 9o r he may o b t a i n a s u i t a b l e job i n i n d u s t r y o r e ls e w h e re . The employment p e r io d s end on d e f i n i t e d a t e s , v i z . , M arch 31, Ju n e 3 0 , S eptem ber 3 0 , o r December 31.

Young men a r e g iv e n th e

p r i v i l e g e o f r e - e n r o llm e n t when th e p e r io d o f employm ent i s t e r ­ m in a te d .

T h is p r i v i l e g e may be d e n ie d i f th e y have n o t p erfo rm ed

th e i r d u tie s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .

In su c h c a s e ^ th e y a r e g iv e n an hon­

o r a b le d is c h a r g e , b u t a r e n o t e l i g i b l e f o r r e - e n r o llm e n t a t any tim e . M ost o f th e work in t h e C. C. C. i s somewhat s tr e n u o u s o u t­ d o o r w ork.

Many o f th e boys a r e f i r s t sendr to a c o n d itio n in g camp

f o r a few w eek s, w here th e y a r e g iv e n v ig o ro u s a t h l e t i c e x e r c i s e s

— 158—

and a o e r t a i n amount o f m anual l a b o r 1to h a rd e n them f o r th e ro u g h o u td o o r l i f e . T h ere a re work camps i n e v e ry s t a t e i n th e U nion. young men form th e group i n eaoh oamp.

About 200

T hese camps a r e l o c a t e d i n

a p p r o p r ia te p la o e s , w here t h e r e i s work to be done. i n th e N a tio n a l f o r e s t s , some i n N a tio n a l p a rk s .

Some camps a r e

T hese a r e u n d er

th e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e F o r e s t S e rv ic e o f th e D epartm ent o f A g r i c u l t u r e . Q u ite a number o f camps a re s i t u a t e d n e a r p r o j e c t s w hich a re b e in g d i r e c t e d by th e S o i l C o n se rv a tio n S e r v ic e . P e rh a p s one o f th e m ost im p o rta n t t a s k s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i n c h a rg e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h a t o f c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g .

C o lo n el

B r a s te d comments a s f o llo w s on t h i s s u b j e c t , C h a ra o te r i s th e hope o f men and n a ti o n s . P o s s e s s in g i t th e r e i s th e w i l l t o do t h in g s t h a t make f o r b o th th e in d iv id u a l and th e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . I n g e n e r a l th e p e r ­ c e n ta g e o f u n d e s i r a b i l i t y i n c i t i z e n s i s e q u a l t o th e p e r ­ c e n ta g e o f d e f i c ie n c y i n exem plary c h a r a o t e r . . . The p u rp o se o f th e C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n Corps i s tw o­ f o l d , m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l . I t aim s to c o n se rv e b o th th e m a t e r i a l and c h a r a c t e r r e s o u r c e s o f th e N a tio n . T hat a l a r g e m easure o f s u c o e s s h a s b e e n a t t a i n e d in a c c o m p lish in g t h i s h ig h o b j e c ti v e i s known to a l l who a r e f a m i l i a r w ith t h i s movement. U nder com p etent l e a d e r s h i p , th e s e young men keep t h e i r hands and b r a i n s a c t i v e i n d o in g t h in g s w o rth w h ile , spend­ in g t h e i r l e i s u r e h o u rs in w o rth w h ile r e a d in g and sc h o o l w o rk , p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a t h l e t i c s , and e n jo y in g good w hole­ some r e c r e a t i o n . They s t r e s s t h e im p o rta n c e o f r e l i g i o n a s an in d is p e n s a b le f a o t o r i n c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g . (1) The young men w h ile a t work a r e s u p e r v is e d by forem en a p p o in ­ te d t o o a rry on th e w ork.

They g e t t h e i r a p p o in tm e n ts from th e

d i f f e r e n t a g e n c ie s w hich th e y s e r v e ; and two o r t h r e e R eserv e Army

(1) S p e c ia l a r t i c l e by C o lo n el A lva J . B r a s te d , C h ie f o f C h a p la in s , U. S. A ., i n A. C. O l i v e r , J r . , and H a ro ld M. D udley, i . e . p . 15.

- 159-

o f f i o e r s s u p e r v is e e ao h camp. Those w o rk e rs who a re a s s ig n e d to work i n th e oamp, suoh a s o l e r k s , c o o k s, tr u c k d r i v e r s , and g e n e r a l r e p a i r m en, a r e ta k e n from among th e e n r o l l e e s .

A premium i s p u t on th e developm ent o f

le a d e r s h ip ^ b y p ro m o tin g t o p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p th o se who show o u ts ta n d in g a b i l i t y . $30 p e r m onth.

The b a s i c c a sh a llo w a n c e f o r e a c h e n r o l l e e i s

As many a s n in e p e rc e n t may r e c e i v e $36 p e r month

a s a s s i s t a n t l e a d e r s ; and s i x p e r c e n t may r e o e iv e $45 p e r m onth a s le a d e rs .

The e n r o l l e e s u s u a l ly sen d home $25 p e r m onth to h e lp

t h e i r d e p e n d e n ts .

The young men have v e ry l i t t l e e x p e n se , b e c a u se

fo o d , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n and m e d io a l o a re a re f u r n is h e d by th e governm ent. E x ce p t i n c a se o f em erg en cy , th e e n r o l l e e s work 40 h o u rs e a c h w eek, e i g h t h o u rs

a day from Monday th ro u g h F r id a y .

T h is v a r i e s

som ewhat, d ep en d in g p r i n c i p a l l y on w e a th e r c o n d itio n s and i n em er­ gency o a s e s ; b u t a p p ro x im a te ly an a v e ra g e o f 40 h o u rs a week i s m a in ta in e d . Eaoh oamp h as i t s own ty p e o f w ork.

A camp r e c e n t l y v i s i t e d

by th e w r i t e r has a s i t s m ain p r o j e c t th e c le a n in g up and b e a u t i f y of in g ^ a S t a t e P a rk . T h is p a rk i s i n D u tc h e ss C ounty, New Y ork S t a t e , and i s c a l l e d S t a t e P a rk No. 58.

The young men w ere c o n s t r u c t in g

a g o lf c o u rs e and d o in g la n d s c a p e g a rd e n in g i n a g e n e r a l w ay, d ra in , in g o f f w a te r , o u t ti n g b a ck b r u s h , and a num ber o f o t h e r u s e f u l a c ­ tiv itie s .

T h is oamp had n o t b een l o o a te d t h e r e v e ry lo n g .

The man

o f a n o th e r oamp, lo o a te d i n a p le a s a n t p l a c e , i n New J e r s e y , had co m p leted t h e i r work t h e r e and had moved to th e p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n .

There are about 175 men in t h i s camp; the average age is about 19 y e a rs .

The oamp i s lo o a te d in a p le a sa n t p la o e , where the seen-

—160 — e ry i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y b e a u t i f u l .

The b o y s have a lm o st e v e r y th in g

th e r e t h a t a community o f t h a t s i z e w ould n e e d .

The b a r r a c k s and

o t h e r b u i ld i n g s a r e v e ry p l a i n , s c r u p u lo u s ly c le a n , and v e ry oomfo rta b le .

D i s c i p l i n e i s f ir m b u t n o t r i g i d .

be happy and c o n te n te d .

The men a l l seemed to

They a p p e a re d to be a v e ry h e a lth y g ro u p

o f young men. A r e s i d e n t d o c to r lo o k s a f t e r th e h e a l t h o f th e men i n t h i s oamp and one o t h e r oamp. e v e ry t h r e e m o n th s. p a re d .

A d e n t i s t sp e n d s two weeks w ith them a b o u t

T h e ir fo o d i s good and i s s c i e n t i f i c a l l y p r e ­

Cooks a r e t r a i n e d from members o f th e camp.

The e d u o a tio n a l program o f th e C. C. C. i s one o f i t s m ost s ig n ific a n t fe a tu re s . An a n a l y s i s o f th e e d u c a tio n a l b ackground o f th e e n r o l l e e s r e ­ v e a le d th e n e c e s s i t y f o r a program t h a t i s b o th v a r i e d and f l e x i b l e . I n F e b ru a ry 1 9 3 6 , 50 p e r c e n t o f th e e n r o l l e e s had n o t co m p lete d th e e ig h th g ra d e ; 46 p e rc e n t had gone to h ig h s c h o o l, b u t o n ly 15 p e r c e n t had g r a d u a te d ; s l i g h t l y o v e r t h r e e p e r c e n t had e n te r e d c o l ­ l e g e ; o n ly 1 /5 o f 1 p e r c e n t had g r a d u a te d .

The m ost v e x in g p a r t

o f th e s i t u a t i o n was t h a t a p p ro x im a te ly 10# o f th e e n r d l e e s w e re , d e s p i t e ex p o su re to sc h o o l f o r fiu r y e a r s or m o re, v i r t u a l l y i l ­ lite ra te s . The m ain o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e e d u c a tio n a l program a r e a s f o llo w s : 1.

To e li m in a te i l l i t e r a c y

2.

To r a i s e th e l e v e l o f e n r o l l e e s d e f i c i e n t i n s c h o o l su b ­ je c ts

3.

To p ro v id e i n s t r u c t i o n on oamp work jo b s and p r o j e c t s

4.

To p ro v id e v o c a t io n a l t r a i n i n g

— 161— 5 . To p ro v id e t r a i n i n g i n c o n s t r u c t i v e and w o rth w h ile u se o f l e i s u r e tim e . 6 . To p ro v id e c u l t u r e and g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . 7 . To p ro v id e t r a i n i n g i n h e a l t h , f i r s t a id ,a n d s e * e t y . 8 . To p ro v id e c h a r a o te r and c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g . 9 . To a s s i s t e n r o le e s i n f i n d i n g em ploym ent. I n e a c h oamp, t h e r e a re d a i l y c l a s s e s in a number o f s u b j e c t s . The e d u o a tio n a l d i r e c t o r a t each camp i s r e s p o n s i b l e ,n o t o n ly f o r p r o v id in g such c l a s s e s a s a r e n e e d e d , b u t a ls o f o r s e e in g t h a t th o s e who n eed any o f t h i s s c h o o lin g a re in d u o ed t o v o l u n te e r f o r i t . i

The e n ro le e m u s t,o f n e c e s s i t y , l e a r n much t h a t i s v a lu a b le . To th e o b s e rv e r and i n q u i r e r , th e f o llo w in g r e s u l t s o f l i f e i n th e C .C .C . a p p e a r e v id e n t: The e n ro le e knows more th a n th e a v e ra g e young man ab o u t h y g ie n e . *

He h as le a r n e d how t o t h i n k , b e cau se th e r o u t i n e r e q u i r e s

i t . He h a s le a r n e d how t o c o o p e r a te , and t o g e t a lo n g w ith o t h e r s . He h a s le a r n e d p a t i e n c e , o b e d ie n c e ,a n d a t t e n t i o n to d u ty . He h a s le a r n e d t o know n a t u r e : th e t r e e s , t h e f l o w e r s , a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s i n th e f o r e s t s . He i s more accustom ed t o c o n s t i t u t e d a u t h o r i t y . A ll t h e s e l e a r n i n g s h e lp t o make good c i t i z e n s . The boys a re p ro v id e d w ith many s p o r t s , su c h a s p o o l,p in g p o n g , b a s k e t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , and o t h e r a t h l e t i c s . They have r a d i o s ; onoe a week th e y have m otion p i o t u r e s . S a tu rd a y i s

a

day o f f f o r most

o f th e b o y s. T hen, many who l i v e n e a r enough, go home. Som etim es th e y go t o th e m ovies i n h e a rb y c i t i e s .

They a l l seem a b le t o f i t i n to

t h e p a t t e r n o f camp l i f e , v e r y r e a d i l y . P e rh a p s some f i n d i t f i r s t , to f o llo w a r e g u l a r r o u t i n e ,' such a s a l l l i g h t s o u t

h a rd

at

10

at

162 —

p . m. , and g e t t i n g up a t 6 :0 0 a . m.

The f a c t t h a t i t i s v e ry h e a l t h ­

f u l w o rk , how ever, i s shown by th e c la im a t t h i s oamp m e n tio n ed above, t h a t th e a v e ra g e g a in in w e ig h t o f t h e s e men i n th e s ix -m o n th p e rio d i s tw e lv e pounds. "Happy Days” i s a n a t i o n a l w eekly new spaper f o r th e C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C orps.

W ritte n by and f o r th e boys o f t h e C. C. 0 . ,

t h i s w eek ly i s p u b lis h e d i n W ash in g to n , D. C. c o n ta in s 16 p a g e s , 12 in c h e s by 16 in c h e s .

T h is p a p e r u s u a l ly

The is s u e exam ined by

th e w r i t e r was d a te d F e b ru a ry 2 2 , 1 9 4 1 , and h as a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f a r t i c l e s and i l l u s t r a t i o n s c o v e rin g th e w hole U n ite d S t a t e s .

One

ite m t e l l s o f a new ru lin g ^ w h ic h i n d i c a t e s t h a t o f f i c e r age l i m i t i s l i k e l y to be b o o s te d f iv e y e a r s , w ar v e te r a n s to be e l i g i b l e t o th e age o f 55.

I n t h i s is s u e o f "Happy D ays" t h e r e a re ite m s from 32

d iffe re n t s ta te s . A c c o rd in g t o Y o u th . A W orld P ro b le m . (1) t h e work done by th e C. C. C. i s d iv id e d i n to th e f o llo w in g ta n g e n e r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : 1.

S t r u c t u r a l im provem ents ( in c lu d in g b r i d g e s , f i r e to w e rs , s e rv ic e b u ild in g s , e tc .)

2.

T r a n s p o r t a ti o n im provem ents ( in c lu d in g t r u c k t r a i l s , m in o r r o a d s , a i r p l a n e la n d in g f i e l d s , e t c . )

3.

B ro s io n c o n tr o l ( in c lu d in g check dam s, t e r r a c i n g , t e r r a c e o u t l e t t i n g , v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r in g , e t c . )

4.

F lo o d c o n t r o l , i r r i g a t i o n and d ra in a g e ( in c lu d in g dams, c h a n n e l w ork, d i t c h i n g , e t o . )

5.

F o r e s t c u l t u r e ( i n c l u d in g p l a n t i n g o f t r e e s , s ta n d im prove­ m ent, n u r s e r y w ork, se e d c o l l e c t i o n )

6.

F o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n ( in c lu d in g f i r e f i g h t i n g , f i r e p re v e n ­ t i o n , p e s t and d i s e a s e c o n tr o l)

(1> Y° Uth' A W°r ld Problem , W ashington, D. 0 . p. 88.

— 163 —

7.

L andscape and r e c r e a t i o n ( in c lu d in g p u b lic om p and p i c ­ n i c ground d e v e lo p m e n t, la k e and pond s i t e c l e a r i n g , l a n d s a r a p in g , e t c . )

8.

Range ( in c lu d in g s to c k d riv e w a y s, e l i m i n a t i o n o f p re d a ­ to r y a n im a ls , e t o . )

9.

W ild l i f e

( i n c l u d in g stre a m im provem ent, s to c k in g f i s h ,

em ergency w ild l i f e f e e d in g , food and c o v e r p l a n t i n g , e t c . ) 10.

M is c e lla n e o u s ( i n c l u d in g em ergency w o rk , s u r v e y s , m o sq u ito c o n tro l, e to .)

No camp i s engaged in a l l ty p e s ty p e s may be o a r r i e d

of

w o rk , th o u g h a

number o f

on in one camp.

As p r e v io u s ly s t a t e d , t h e p e rio d o f e n ro llm e n t i s s i x m onths. T h is d o es n o t mean t h a t a l l o f th e boys s t a y s i x m onths.

Many young

men a r e a b le to o b t a i n s u i t a b l e jo b s e ls e w h e r e , H I I n su ch i n s t a n c e s th e y a r e p e r m itte d to le a v e t h e camp.

I n th e y e a r 1 9 3 6 ,t h i s Humber

was a b o u t 1 2 ,0 0 0 p e r m onth f o r th e e n t i r e c o u n try .

A la rg e p e r­

c e n ta g e o f th e e n r o l l e e s s t a y th e maximum p e rio d o f tim e , 1 . e . two y e a rs.

A t th e end o f t h a t t im e ^ i f n o t b e f o r e th e en d , th e y have

im proved t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a lo n g t h e i r l i n e s o f i n t e r e s t , so t h a t th e y a re much more l i k e l y to o b ta in p o s i t i o n s th a n th e y w ere p re v io u s to t h e i r s t a y in camp. The oamp d o es a g r e a t d e a l f o r th o s e who a re i n d i r e c irc u m ­ s ta n c e s .

I n a C. C. C. oamp a l l a re

s p e c i a l a b i l i t y i s re c o g n iz e d . and a l l g e t a sq u a re d e a l . s iv e .

on e q u a l f o o t in g .

Of co u rse^

B ut a l l s t a r t from th e same p o in t

The new e n r o l l e e i s u s u a l l y a p p re h e n ­

The a c c o u n t i s g iv e n o f w hat one young man th o u g h t o f th e

-164-

f i r s t day in a C. C. 0 . oamp, b e c a u se h i s e x p e rie n c e may be ta k e n as ty p ic a l.

(1)

A f t e r a te d io u s -and t i r i n g t r i p o v e r a w in d in g and tr e a c h e r o u s r o a d , I a r r i v e d a t camp, f e e l i n g l i k e a p e r ­ son a b o u t t o fa c e th e f i r i n g sq u ad . I tim o ro u s ly ask ed w here I s h o u ld w a it u n t i l my p h y s io a l e x a m in a tio n . Re­ c e iv in g t h i s in fo rm a tio n from a p o l i t e young man, I p ro ­ ceed ed t o amuse m y se lf by ta p p in g th e c h a i r w ith my f i n g e r t i p s . T a u t n e r v e s began to r e l a x , and t a k i n g a m e n ta l n o te o f my s u rr o u n d in g s , im agine my s u r p r i s e to se e th e home o f so many b o y s a s im m a c u la te ly c le a n a s a w e ll- k e p t home. No fem ine hand was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s . How many boys c o u ld you p ic k up a t random , throw t o g e t h e r , and e x p e c t to k eep th e oamp a s c le a n a s t h i s ? I d e c id e d t h a t th e c a r e f u l s u p e r v is io n o f th e o f f i c e r s was r e s p o n s i ­ b l e and l a t e r was j u s t i f i e d in th e th o u g h t. A l i t t l e l a t e r we w ere summoned f o r o u r e x a m in a tio n . H ere a g a in I found a m ild s u r p r i s e a w a itin g me. U n lik e th e a n n u a l e x a m in a tio n we w ere f o r c e d to p a s s f o r e l i g i ­ b i l i t y to p la y b a s k e t b a l l , a th o ro u g h s u rv e y was made o f th e body. L i t t l e ch an ce f o r im p e r f e c t o r deform ed boys to j o i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . From h e re I w ent t o th e r e c r e a t i o n a l h a l l , w hich housed a l l th e d e v ic e s f o r d i v e r t i n g th e m ind from o h a n n e ls o f crim e to o c cu p y in g th e mind w ith i n t e r e s t i n g gam es, b o o k s, and m u s ic . How d i f f e r e n t from th e l o c a l h ig h s c h o o l, w here th e o n ly chance o f amusement was b a s k e t­ b a l l o r b o o k s. The c l e a r p e n e t r a t i n g sound o f a b u g le awakened me from my m e d ita tio n t o th e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t we w ere w anted f o r so m e th in g . B u t w h a t? T ak in g my cue from an o ld e r e n ­ r o l l e e I fo llo w e d h im , t r y i n g n o t to a p p e a r too c u r io u s . L ik e a hom ing p ig e o n he head ed f o r t h e m ess h a l l w ith me r i g h t on h i s h e e l s . We l i n e d u p , s i n g l e f i l e , to e n t e r th e h a ll. I c o u ld n o t r e s t r a i n m y s e lf from com paring t h i s to th e n o t o r i o u s l y famous l i n e . B ut w hat a c o n t r a s t ; th e c e w ere no dow ncast Ihces h e re o r l i n e s o f a n x ie ty m ark in g them . A m eal means d i r t y d is h e s so l i n i n g up we w ashed them . P r i o r to M arch 1933, c o u n tl e s s num bers o f young men in o u r c o u n try w ere e a g e r to w o rk , b u t w ere u n a b le to f i n d employment in

(1) A. C. O l i v e r , J r . , and H a ro ld D u d ley , Op. O i t . . pp. 6 7 -6 8 . (A ccount g iv e n by E n r o lle e V i c to r K a n to r)

-

p riv a te in d u s try .

165

"—

Through no f a u l t o f t h e i r own, th e s e young p e r ­

so n s found no jo b s . s o lv e d t h e i r p ro b lem .

I t was th e C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C orps w hioh The fu n d s w hich th e U n ite d S t a t e s Government

sp en d s on t h i s p r o j e c t a r e w e ll s p e n t and a re g iv in g v a lu a b le r e t u r n s . The work a cc o m p lish e d by th e C orps i s n e c e s s a r y work. The m a tte r o f c o n s e r v a tio n i n t h i s c o u n try h a s b e e n g r e a t l y n e g le c t e d , and t h e r e i s much y e t to b e done. pose h a s b een a cc o m p lish e d by th e G overnm ent,

Hence a tw o fo ld p u r ­ I n a d d it i o n to th e

l a r g e - s c a l e program o f c o n s e rv in g and im proving th e n a t u r a l r e ­ s o u rc e s o f th e l a n d , th e Government i s a t th e same tim e t a k i n g ch arg e o f g r e a t num bers o f young men who m ig h t, th ro u g h unem ploym ent, d r i f t i n t o v a g ra n cy and c rim e .

By m aking h e a l th y , u p s ta n d in g young men

o f th e s e y o u th , th e C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n C orps i s e n h a n c in g t h e i r c h a n c e s to make t h e i r own way^when the'irwork i n th e oamp and th e ir t r a i n i n g p e rio d s in th e Corps a r e en d ed .

The A m erican Y outh C ongress A nsw ering a o a l l from th e " C e n tr a l B ureau f o r Young A m erica" , a v o lu n ta r y o r g a n i z a t i o n sp o n s o re d by v a rio u s p ro m in e n t p e r s o n s , d e le g a t e s o f a g r e a t number o f y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s a tte n d e d a Y outh C o n g re ss, h e ld a t New York U n iv e r s ity in A u g u s t, 1934.

The w r i t e r ,

who a tte n d e d t h i s m e e tin g , saw d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith t h e m ethod o f p ro c e d u re i n s e l e c t i n g d e l e g a t e s . and c o n d u c te d t h e i r own s e s s io n . A m erioah Y outh C o n g ress.

The " L e f t Wing Group" w alked o u t T h is was th e b e g in n in g o f th e

I t c o n s is ts of a fe d e ra tio n o f n e a rly a

th o u san d y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s w ith a m em bership o f a b o u t a m i l l i o n an —

th e movement^and such i d e a l s o o u ld n o t he o ire u m s o rib e d . They s p re a d t h e i r wholesome in f lu e n c e o v e r A u s t r i a , C zecho­ s l o v a k ia and c o n tig u o u s o o u n t r i e s , so t h a t th e W andervOgel beoame one o f th e g r e a t e s t y o u th movements i n h i s t o r y . The W andervB gel,as found i n th e d i f f e r e n t E uropean o o u n t r i e s ^ d i f f e r e d so l i t t l e

i n o r g a n i z a t i o n and aim s t h a t

th e y may be c la s s e d a s one movement. The y o u th movement i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s known a s th e Y outh C o n g r e s s ,is s a i d to be p a tt e r n e d a f t e r y o u th movements i n R u s s ia .

R u s s ia n y o u th ,u p to th e tim e o f th e r e v o l u t i o n

o f 1917, had b een h e ld i n s u b j e o ti o n by t h e i r go v ern m en t. O rg a n iz e d movements w ere n o t p o s s i b l e , so t h a t t h e r e w ere no movements o t h e r th a n th e N i h i l i s t s .

T h i s , f o r o b v io u s

r e a s o n s , was n o t an o rg a n iz e d movement.

The i n c e n ti v e was

p r e s e n t , b u t y o u t h 's freedom was to o l i m i t e d to p e rm it o f an o r g a n iz e d m ovem ent. S in c e th e r e v o l u t i o n ,t h e y o u th movement h a s b e e n p re ­ d o m in a n tly com m unistic*and o u r Y outh C ongress s a v o r s o f th e same i d e a l s . /

Y outh H o s te l s w ere an o u tg ro w th o f th e W andervOgel. The H o s te l i s a n e c e s s a r y a d ju n c t o f th e W andervOgel;

In

a l l th e H o s te l m ovem ents, we f i n d v e ry s i m i l a r r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r d e v elo p m e n t,

i n E ngland, h o w ev er, th e y o r i g i n a t e d

a b o u t th e y e a r 1 9 3 1 ,a s a r e s u l t o f th e econom ic d e p r e s s io n . The sy ste m o f H o s te l s i n E ngland e n a b le d th e m id d le and

--1 9 7 -p o o r e r c l a s s e s of y o u th to t r a v e l . W ithout a s e p a r a t e movement o f th e "W andervtJgel" t y p e , t h e f i r i t i s h Y outh H o s te ls s u p o lie d th e n eed f o r m o b ility am ongst y o u th . The A m erican Y outh H o s te l movement was l a r g e l y in f lu e n c e d by s i m i l a r movements i n Germany and E n g la n d ; b u t p a r a l l e l i s m i s more n o t ic e a b l e th a n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . The n etw o rk o f h o s t e l s a l l o v e r th e U n ite d S t a t e s and e x te n d in g i n t o C anada, i s e v id e n c e t h a t h e r e , a s o v e r s e a , a r e a l need i s b e in g m et. H o s te lin g h a s n a t u r a l l y s u f f e r e d s in c e th e o u tb re a k o f th e Second World W ar.

The p r e s e n t c o n d itio n can h a r d ly be known, b u t

i n E ngland th e h o s t e l s have been tu r n e d to u s e f u l w ar p u rp o s e s . We m erely em phasize t h a t th e h o s t e l s met a n eed o f y o u th , in e v e ry c o u n tr y . Many o f th e e d u c a tio n a l movements in t h e v a r io u s la n d s show i d e n t i c a l m o tiv e s .

O fte n th e y show i d e n t i c a l m eth o d s.

F or

ex am p le, b o th th e N a t io n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s and t h e W orkers* E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n i n E ngland aim to a s i s t w orking c l a s s y o u th t o o b t a i n an e d u c a tio n . B oth o f th e s e a v o id d i s r u p t i n g th e " r e g u l a r program o f l i f e " f o r th o s e a id e d . "Baok t o th e Land" m ovem ents, a s in Germ any a n d A u s tr i a , show s i m i l a r c a u s e s , s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s , and s i m i l a r m eth o d s. Only a d m i n i s t r a t iv e d e t a i l s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n d i f f e r .

— 198—

6.

C r o s s - I n f lu e n c e s I n th e v a r io u s c h a p t e r s o f t h i s d o c u m e n t,it has b een

se e n w ith f a i r fre q u e n c y t h a t a movement i n one c o u n try h a s g iv e n e i t h e r a s t a r t i n g im p u lse o r a g u id in g d i r e c t i o n to t h a t i n a n o th e r .

The e x te n t t o w hich su ch c r o s s - i n f l u e n c e s

e x i s t e d , i s p e rh a p s a s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f y o u th m ovem ents, and s u r e l y r e q u i r e s some c o n s i d e r a ti o n . The m ost c o n sp ic u o u s c a s e , n a t u r a l l y , i s t h a t o f th e d e l i b e r a t e c o p y in g o f th e German Y outh H o s te ls i n th e e s ­ ta b lis h m e n t o f th e A m erican Y outh H o s te ls o r g a n i z a t i o n .

T h is

h a s b een r e f e r r e d to so o f t e n , t h a t m ere m en tio n w i l l h e re s u ffic e . The W andervffgel, o r i g i n a t i n g i n Germany, w ere th e p a r e n t body f o r s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w ith in A u s t r i a , C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , H ungary, P o la n d , and s e v e r a l o f th e s m a lle r la n d s to th e s o u t h e a s t. The v a r io u s p h a se s o f th e y o u th movement i n R u s s ia w ere avow edly th e m odel f o r th o s e who b ro u g h t i n to e x is te n c e th e A m erican Y outh C ongress#

vbl

I t i s c u r io u s to n o te t h a t ,

d e s p i t e f a r - r e a c h i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een th e R u s s ia n and th e A m erican s i t u a t i o n a s to su c h f a c t s a s tem peram ent o f th e p e o p le in v o lv e d , econom ic and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n th e two o o u n t r i e s , and so f o r t h , th e A m erican Y outh C o n g ress c o n ti n u e d ,t o i t s l a s t a p p e a ra n c e *t o u se th e la n g u a g e o f th e R u s s ia n movements and t o have c o n v in o ed i t s e l f t h a t R u ss ia n

— 199 -

th o u g h t, R u s s ia n m ethods o f a c t i o n , e t c . w ere i t s p ro p e r w ays. No p o s i t i v e e v id e n c e o f c r o s s - i n f l u e n c e b etw een th e y o u th movements i n c o n ti n e n t a l E urope and th o s e i n E ngland seem s t o be a v a i l a b l e .

N e v e r t h e l e s s , th e s i m i l a r i t y i s g r e a t

en ough, and o o n ta c t b etw een t h e S B c o u n tr i e s was l a r g e enough i n th e p e r io d o f g r e a t e s t g ro w th o f th e m ovem ents i n E n g la n d , to m ake i t re a s o n a b le to i n f e r t h a t th e German e x ­ ample d id i n f lu e n c e E n g la n d . No e v id e n c e o f c r o s s - i n f l u e n c e s from C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , A u s t r i a , and th e U n ite d S t a t e s o u tw a rd s to o th e r c o u n tr i e s h as b e e n fo u n d .

We have d is c u s s e d t h e in f lu e n c e o f A u s tr ia

upon C z e c h o s lo v a k ! a ,in th e c h a p te r on th e l a t t e r c o u n tr y .

7.

E v a lu a tio n . I n th e s tu d y o f y o u th m ovem ents, e s p e c i a l l y th o s e o r ­

g a n iz e d by y o u th i t s e l f , one f a c t s ta n d s o u t c o n s p ic u o u s ly : t h a t i s th e i d e a l o f peace i n o n e 's own c o u n try and among a l l th e c o u n t r i e s o f th e w o rld .

From th e s e m ovem ents,one

can f i n d e v id e n c e t h a t th e y o u th o f e v e ry c o u n try do n o t d e­ s i r e w a r.

The y o u th o f th e W andervOgel d id n o t a d v o c a te w ar.

"Peaoe th ro u g h f r i e n d s h i p s , n o t w a rs h ip s " was one o f t h e i r s lo g a n s .

The same was t r u e i n a l l c p u n tr i e s o f E u ro p e , a s

w e ll a s i n Germany.

Though y o u th movements a re e s s e n t i a l l y

d i f f e r e n t i n many o f t h e i r a im s ^ y e t th e i d e a l o f peaoe seems to p erm eate them a l l . T hese movements a r e 'som etim es c la s s e d a s r a d i c a l , y e t

— 2 0 0 —

one o f t h e i r f i r s t aim s i s f o r p e ao e . i s th e A m erican Y outh C o n g re ss.

An exam ple o f t h i s

The Y outh H o s te l movements

a l l o v e r th e w o rld haW&for a m o tto "P e ao e , U n d e rsta n d in g and Good F e llo w s h ip " . and w id e .

They have s p re a d t h a t d o c t r i n e f a r

Ju d g in g from c o n v e r s a tio n s w ith h o s t e l p a r e n t s ,

i t h a s had i t s e f f e c t even among th o s e o f th e o ld e r g e n e ra ­ tio n . Y outh n e v e r h a s w anted w a r, u n le s s i n d o c t r i n a t e d by e l ­ d e r s and made to th in k i t was a g l o r io u s a c t i v i t y f o r a g l o r io u s e n d . The m ost s i g n i f i c a n t th in g i n y o u th movements t h e r e f o r e i s th e i d e a l o f p e a o e .

I t s ta n d s o u t , a s E l b e r t H ubbard

m ight s a y , " l i k e M ars a t p e r i h e l i o n . " Y o u th movements a r e o f c o u rs e o n ly one among th e groups w hich worked a c t i v e l y f o r th e a b o l i t i o n o f a g g r e s s iv e w a rs. T h ere i s some c o n n e c tio ^ iiiL ^ la e e f f e c t s o f th e a n ti- w a r t \ ----------e f f o r t s o f th e y o u th m ovem ents^and th o s e o f v a r io u s a d u l t g ro u p s. E f f e c t i v e work i n p r e v e n tin g w ar was d o n e , a t th e same tim e a s th e work o f th e y o u th m ovem ents, and i n much th e same w ay, by th e i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f b u s in e s s and p ro ­ f e s s i o n a l men, n o ta b ly R o ta ry I n t e r n a t i o n a l and K iw an is I n ­ te rn a tio n a l.

The m ethod was th e same a s t h a t o f y o u th g ro u p s:

t o f o r e s t a l l c o n f l i c t s by p ro m o tin g m u tu a l a c q u a in ta n c e and m u tu al u n d e rs ta n d in g o f each o t h e r 's d i f f i c u l t i e s .

Com parable

to th e T urnov C o n fe re n ce o f y o u th i n 1 9 2 3 ,a r e th e v a rio u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n tio n s o f th e s e r v i c e o lu b s .

R o t a r y .i n

—2 0 1 -

f a o t , takes o r e d i t f o r h a v in g p r e v e n te d s e v e r a l t h r e a te n e d w ars i n th e B a lk a n s by h a v in g b ro u g h t t o g e t h e r , i n c o n f e r ­ e n c e ,th e R o ta r ia n members o f th e c a b i n e t s o f th e c o n f l i c t ­ in g c o u n tr ie s in e a c h c a s e . The peaoe e f f o r t s o f t h e v a r io u s c h u rc h e s do n o t l i n k up a s c l o s e l y w ith th o s e o f y o u th m ovem ents, e i t h e r i n s p i r i t o r in m eth o d , a s th o s e o f th e a d u lt s e r v io e o lu b s t B u t th e r e i s good e v id e n c e , some o f w hich i s em bodied i n th e e a r l i e r p a g e s o f t h i s docum ent, a s to th e d r iv e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n e x e r t e d on th e c h u rc h e s by th e v e ry e x is te n c e o f th e y o u th m ovem ents. The Roman C a th o lic C h u rch , th ro u g h i t s l e a d e r s , h a s c o n s i s t e n t l y a d v o c a te d peace w ith j u s t i c e .

P iu s X and Bene­

d i c t XV, d u r in g th e p e rio d o f th e F i r s t World W ar,w orked con­ s t a n t l y w ith t h i s aim i n v iew .

Popes P iu s XI and X I I , i n

r e c e n t tim e s , th ro u g h e n c y c l i c a l s and l e t t e r s , h a v e s t r i v e n fo r peade.

I n Summl P o n t i f i c a t u s , (1) th e Church e x h o r ts

a l l to p ra y f o r a b e t t e r u n d e rs ta n d in g among p e o p le and n a ­ tio n s . The M e th o d is ts have a l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n known a s th e F e d e r a tio n f o r S o c i a l S e r v ic e . t i o n w ith la y l e a d e r s h i p . p ro m o tio n o f p e a o e .

T h is i s a la y m e n 's o r g a n iz a ­

One o f i t s p r i n c i p a l aim s i s th e

The N a tio n a l F e d e r a tio n f o r p e a o e , headed

(1) Summi P o n t i f i c a t u s . p p . 1 1 , 1 3 , 27.

New Y o rk , N. Y.* P a u l i s t F a th e r s , 1930.

-2 0 2 L -.

by th e F r i e n d s , h a s done much to m o b iliz e peaoe s e n tim e n t among a l l d e n o m in a tio n s . Y outh movements i n a l l o o u n tr ie s had a p ro fo u n d e f f e o t on th e r u l e r s .

H i t l e r t o l e r a t e s none e x c e p t th e H i t l e r Ju g e n d ,

w hich he d o m in a te s ; a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i s tr u e in I t a l y .

Thus

th e d i o t a t o r s f e a r y o u th movements and p e r v e r t them f o r s e l f i s h e n d s. Y outh movements i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s had a d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t . Y outh had b eg u n to fe rm e n t.

The a i r was c h a rg e d w ith a g e n e r­

a l c o n c e rn a b o u t y o u th , and s ta te s m e n a s w e ll a s o th e r g ro u p s were t a k i n g c o g n iz a n c e o f th e f a c t t h a t more w ould have to be done to m eet th e n e c e s s i t i e s o f th e y o u n g e r g e n e r a tio n .

T h u s,

in a d e m o c ra c y ,a y o u th movement i s a s t r o n g fo ro e f o r s o c i a l p ro g re ss. Y outh movements have done much to f u r t h e r e d u o a tio n . In A u s t r i a th e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d V o lu n ta ry Work S e rv ic e p ro v id e d f o r l e c t u r e s and e d u c a tio n a l c o u rs e s .

I n R u s s ia ,

L ab o r and L ig h t was form ed f o r th e s e l f - e d u c a t i o n o f w o rk e rs. The Komsomol drew up a program in w hich e d u c a tio n and c u l t u r e o co u p ied a l a r g e p o r t i o n .

In E n g lan d t h e r e i s th e W o rk ers'

E d u c a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n , whose aim i s t o f u r n i s h young men w ith an e d u c a tio n w hich w i l l a id them i n t h e i r work and make them b e t t e r c i t i z e n s . C z e c h o slo v a k ia n y o u th movements made t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to e d u o a tio n .

One n eed o n ly m e n tio n th e c o n fe re n c e a t T u rn o v ,

to show t h a t th o s e y o u th w ere p u t t i n g f o r t h t h e i r g r e a t e s t e f f o r t s t o f i n d ways t o f u r t h e r th e c h a n c e s o f o b ta in in g an e d u o a tio n , n o t o n ly f o r th e m se lv e s b u t f o r p e o p le in o th e r S iro p e a n c o u n t r i e s a s w e l l.

We f i n d a ls o t h a t th e Czeoh

- 2 0 3 "

w o rk in g camps a id e d th e p o o re r s tu d e n ts t o o a rr y on t h e i r work in th e u n i v e r s i t i e s . Movements i n Germany had an e d u c a tio n a l a d v a n ta g e .

By

m eans o f th e H o s te l Movement, p r o f e s s o r s w ere a b le t o ta k e t h e i r c l a s s e s to many p la c e s w here p r o j e c t s c o u ld be worked o u t on th e g ro u n d .

G la s s e s i n h i s t o r y , g e o lo g y , b o ta n y ,

z o o lo g y , g e o g ra p h y , e t c . , a l l p r o f i t e d by th e H o s te l Move­ m en t.

The same I s t r u e i n o t h e r E uropean c o u n t r i e s ; a ls o

i n th e u . S . and C anada.

The H i t l e r Y outh a re g iv e n a

th o ro u g h t r a i n i n g u n d e r d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e g o v e rn ­ m ent. The N a tio n a l Y o u th A d m in is tr a tio n in t h i s c o u n try has done much to e n a b le y o u th to c o n tin u e t h e i r e d u c a tio n , by f u r n i s h i n g p a r t tim e em ploym ent^so t h a t needy s t u d e n t s w i l l n o t b e o b lig e d to le a v e c o ll e g e .

The C i v i l i a n C o n s e rv a tio n

C orps s t r e s s e s th e e d u c a ti o n a l n e e d s .

The o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s

s e v e r a l e d u c a ti o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , such a s to p ro v id e c u l t u r e and g e n e r a l e d u o a tio n , t r a i n i n g i n h e a l t h , f i r s t a id and s a f e t y , c h a r a c t e r and c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g , u se o f l e i s u r e t im e , e t c . The A m erican Y outh C o n g ress had one p la n k i n i t s p l a t ­ form w hich demanded l a r g e r a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r s c h o o ls . Y outh m ovem ents, t h e r e f o r e , have been o f g r e a t s e r v i c e i n a d v a n c in g th e c a u se o f e d u c a tio n . fu rth e r, Y outh movements ,^ S S K * l» 9 2 h a v e b een o f g r e a t value^

n o t o n ly I n t h e i r advooacy o f b e t t e r v o c a t io n a l t r a i n i n g . They h av e awakened th e e d u c a to rs - - and th e p e o p le i n g e n e r a l , to o — t o an u n d e rs ta n d in g o f th e n e c e s s i t y o f

g r e a t l y e x te n d in g th e

work in b o th g u id a n c e and v o c a t io n a l t r a i n i n g . On y o u th i t s e l f , a l l t h e s e movements seem t o have had a v e ry l i m i t e d e f f e c t . T h is i s s a id w ith f u l l know ledge o f th e s t r o n g d o c t r i n a l b i a s e s g iv e n by th e a c t i v i t i e s o f su c h c o n t r o l l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s th e Komsomol and th e H i t le r ju g e n d .

in y e f f e c t s

t r a c e a b l e t o v o lu n ta r y y o u th m ovem ents, seem t o hav e v a n is h e d a s t h e members o f t h e movements grew on i n t o m id d le l i f e . I s a b e l van M eter on t h i s :

We q u o te

(1)

’•When f i n a l l y t h e s e young men s e t t l e d down, th e y beoame e x c e l l e n t fa rm e r and workmen, and what th e y u n d e rto o k , th e y d id w ith ! a l l t h e i r h e a r t . ” T hese comments h a r d ly i n d i c a t e any p o s i t i v e o r l a s t i n g r e s u l t s f r o r t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n y o u th m ovem ents. E v id en ce i s , i n o u r ju d g m en t, e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g , t o show t h a t th e y o u th movements , a s s u c h , have e x e r te d any l a s t i n g e f f e c t s upon t h e i r m em bers.

They c l e a r l y have f u n c tio n e d a s

n o rm al modes o f e x p re s s io n o f th e d e s i r e s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r members, w h ile th o s e p e rs o n s were betw een (ro u g h ly ) 18 and 28 y e a rs o f a g e . I n so d o in g , and th e r e b y i s o l a t i n g y o u th from

c a p tu r e

by t h e v a r io u s p r o p a g a n d is ts o f I d e o l o g i e s , th e y p ro b a b ly have se rv e d and c o n tin u e t o s e r v e , a v a lu a b le

s o c i a l p u rp o s e .

The i s o l a t i n g from p ro p ag an d ists and c a p tu r e i s , o f c o u r s e , t o

(1)

I s a b ih van M eter. I n World

U n ity ,

Feb. 1929, Vol3,N o.5

—205— be e s tim a te d a s good o r a s h a a f u l , a o c o rd in g to o n e 's own e s tim a te o f th e m e r it o r d e m e rit o f e a c h sy stem o f t h o u g h t. To th e e x te n t t h a t y o u th movements have fo s te re d ,a m o n g t h e i r m em bers, r e l i a n c e upon o n e 's own t h in k in g i n s t e a d o f upon a u t h o r i t y , we must re o o g n iz e t h e s e movements

a s u s e f u l I n s tr u m e n ts o f younger

a d u lt e d u c a tio n . The e v id e n o e f o r t h e v a lu e j u s t s u g g e s te d c o n s i s t s o f th e r e c o r d o f o a p tu re and i n d o c t r i n a t i o n o f y o u th m ovem ents. Such c a p t u r e , suoh p e r v e r s i o n , h a s been one o f t h e f i r s t s t e p s ta k e n , w henever a d i c t a t o r s h i p h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d . c la s s ic a l case.

Germany i s t h e

i n e x a c tly s i m i l a r p r o c e s s had ta k e n p la c e i n

R u s s ia more th a n a decade e a r l i e r .

R e fe re n o e has a l s o been made

in t h i s s tu d y , t o t h e I t a l i a n s e i z u r e o f y o u th movements u nder th e F a s c is t d ic ta to r s h ip . T hese e v e n ts p o i n t to th e s o c i a l v a lu e o f y o u th m ovem ents. Y outh m ovem ents, i n th e m s e lv e s , do n o t seem t o have d ev elo p ed s tro n g le a d e rs h ip .

T hose who hav e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n movements ,and

who have p e rh a p s b e n e f i te d t h e r e b y , do n o t a p p e a r t o have any s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n y o u th m ovem ents, once th e y have " g ra d u a te d ” i n t o m iddle l i f e .

T h e ir e f f o r t s a r e e x e r te d i n becom ing i n t e g r a t e d

i n t o th e group w ith in w hich th e y f i n d th e m s e lv e s .

Nor do t h e

r e o o r d s show t h a t l e a d e r s i n y o u th o r g a n i z a t i o n s have become l e a d e r s a g a in , a s th e y grew o l d e r . Our e v a lu a tio n s o f y o u th movements w i l l t h e r e f o r e sum I t s e l f up i n t h e f o llo w in g s ta te m e n ts : 1.

P re v io u s t o t h e swamping o f y o u th movement* by th e

t o t a l i t a r i a n t i d e , y o u th movements were among t h e s i g n i f i c a n t

g ro u p s w orking t o p r e s e r v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a o e .

They were n o t

th e o n ly su o h g ro u p s ; n o r were th e y p ro b a b ly even t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l g ro u p s . 2.

Due to th e f o r c e f u l e f f o r t s o f th e y o u th movements o f

sp o n ta n e o u s o r g i n , a d o le s c e n t and a d u lt e d u o a tio n h av e a d v an ced , f a r more r a p i d l y th a n would o th e rw is e have been t h e c a s e , i n many o o u n t r i e s . T h is i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f v o c a t io n a l e d u o a tio n . 3.

The e f f e c t s o f th e y o u th movements on th o s e p a r t i c i p a t i n g

i n them seem to have been e ^ ^ e m e ra l. 4.

S p o n tan eo u s y o u th movements i n a lm o s t e v e ry c o u n try

m ust be c o n s id e re d a s h a v in g t h i s a s t h e i r c h i e f v a lu e : th e y a r e norm al and u s e f u l o u t l e t s f o r th e e n e rg y and d e s i r e s o f t h e i r members•

NEW YORK UNI V E RS I T Y S C H O O L OF EDUCAT I ON #, LI BRARY o

BIBLIOGRAPHY

— 2.08 —

BIBLIOGRAPHY B a r n a r d , E u n ice F u l l e r . How Y outh R a is e s i t s V o ic e. New Y ork T im es, A p r i l 1 2 , 1936. B a u e r, E l v i r a . A P i c t u r e Book f o r Young and O ld . J o u r n a l o f E d u o a tio n a l S o c io lo g y , F eb . 1938, pp. 347-348. B e a t t y , W illa rd B . Y outh H o s te ls a t Home and A broad. P r o g r e s s iv e E d u c a tio n , A p r i l 1 9 3 6 , pp. 287 f f . B e l l , B e rn a rd I d d in g s . The German S tu d e n t U nion. S a i n t S te p h en C o lle g e B u l l e t i n , V o l. 1X£V, No. 1 1 , May 1923, p. 28. B elm e, S r n a . Why We W ander. 1923, p. 12.

The New S tu d e n t, M arch 3 ,

B o o th , M. The German Y outh Movement. A p r il 1924, pp. 471 f f .

The H ib b e rt j o u r n a l ,

Cox, P h i l i p W. L. Y ouths S u p p o rt Dom inant P a r ty P ro g ram s. J o u r n a l o f N a tio n a l E d u o a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , V o l. 2 4 , No. 9 , Dec. 1935, pp. 281-282. D a l l a s , H e le n . I n D efence o f th e N a tio n a l Y outh A dm inis­ t r a t i o n . V o ice o f Y o u th , June 1 9 3 6 , pp. 5 -1 4 . D ic k ie , J e a n e t t e C. E n g lish Y outh on th e Road. A p r i l 1 9 3 7 , pp. 247-248.

The Forum,

G a ss e t y O rte g a . Man M ust Make P e a o e . The R o t a r i a n , C h ica g o , 111. Nov. 1938, V ol L I I I , No. 5. Gedye, G. H. R. B e tr a y a l i n C e n tr a l E u ro p e. H a rp e rs 1939, pp. 417-418.

New Y o rk ,

G lu e ck , E le a n o t T . The F a m ily , th e S c h o o l, and C rim e. Y ork T im es, March 2 3 , 1935. H a u s e r, H e in ric h . The B a t t l e A g a in s t Tim e. S c r i b n e r s , pp. 31 9 -9 2 0 .

New

New Y o rk ,

H e a ly , W illia m . New L ig h t on D e lin q u e n cy and I t s T re a tm e n t. I n s t i t u t e o f Human R e la tio n s P u b l i c a t i o n s , Y ale U ni­ v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1936. pp. 7 -9 , 17. H ig h , S ta n le y . The R e v o lt o f Y outh. A bingdon P r e s s , 1924.

New Y ork and C in c in n a ti

—2 0 9

H i t l e r , A d o lf. 1937.



Speech q u o te d i n New Y ork T im es, May 2 ,

H i t l e r , A d o lf . Speech made i n B e r l i n , Nov. 2 9 , 1937. Y o u th , An I n t e r n a t i o n a l News R eview , Dec. 4 , 1937. Kohn, H ans. Y outh M ovem ents. E n c y c lo p e d ia o f th e S o c ia l S c ie n c e s , V o l. XV, p p . 516 f f . K u n z er, Edward J . The Y outh o f N azi Germany. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l S o c io lo g y , F eb. 1938, pp. 346-47. L in s a y , A le x a n d e r. A d u lt E d u o a tio n . E n c y c lo p e d ia B r l t a n n i c a , 1 4 th E d i t i o n , 1929, V o l. I , p. 185. M e n te l, M a rian n e . W andering B ir d s o f C z e c h o slo v a k ia . World Y outh (B o sto n , Mass.) V o l. I I , No. 2 1 . Deo. 1 8 , 1937, p . 1 1. L u c e , H e n ry .

Y o u th s M eet.

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L y o n s, E ugene, M rs. R o o s e v e l t 's Y outh C o n g re ss. A m erican M e rc u ry , A p r i l 1940, V o l. XLIX, No. 196, p. 481. M e e tin g th e P roblem s o f Y o u th . F e d e ra l S e c u r i t y A genoy, N a tio n a l Y outh A d m in is tr a tio n . W ash in g to n , D. C. 1940. O l i v e r , A l f r e d , j r . , and D u d ley , H a ro ld . T h is New A m erica. New Y o rk , Longmans, p p . 15, 32, 6 7 -6 8 . P e r k i n s , F r a n c is .

Q uoted in New Y ork T im es, F eb . 2 0 , 1938.

P e t e r s , C. B ro o k s. The M odel f o r N azi Y o u th . T im es, Dec. 1 , 1936.

New Y ork

P o r t e a d , G ordon. The S tu d e n t V o lu n te e r Movement, New Y o rk , S tu d e n t V o lu n te e r Movement f o r F o re ig n M is s io n s , 1930. Raup. R . B. Com placency, The F o u n d a tio n o f Human B e h a v io r. New Y o rk , M a cm illa n , 1925. pp. X I I , 197. Rem arque, E r ic h M a ria . The Road Back (E n g lis h T r a n s l a t i o n ) . B o s to n , L i t t l e Brown and C o ., 1931. R e v o lu tio n a ry Wave. E d i t i o n , 1929.

The E n c y c lo p e d ia B r ita n n io a , 1 4 th V o l. XIX, p. 722.

—2 1 0 -

R o o t, C h a r lo t t e C ra n e. Y outh H o s te lin g i n New E n g la n d , A p p a la c h ia No. 91. A p p a la c h ia n M oun tain C lu b , B o sto n , M a s s ., Ju n e 1941, pp. 380-389. S chw artzm an, M o r ris . O nly Saps Work. M arch 1936, V o l. I , p. 16.

The V oice o f Y o u th ,

S t e r n , E ugene. C z e c h o s lo v a k ia , New Y ork M a c m illa n , 1924, pp. V I, 201-202. Summi P o n t i f i c a t u s , E n c y c lic a l L e t t e r by Pope P iu s X II. Y o rk , The P a u l i s t P r e s s , pp. 1 1 , 1 3 , 27. T e l f e r , G. G. Y outh F o llo w s New T r a i l s . A p r i l 4 , 1936, pp. 1 4 , 2 2 , 23.

New

S o h o la s tic ,

T ragedy o f Unemployed Y o u th , The P e t i t i o n p r e s e n te d a t th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L ab o r C o n fe re n ce h e ld in G eneva, 1935. Q uoted from , The T a b l e t ; No. 1 , B ro o k ly n , March 2 3 , 1935. T u r o s i e n s k i, S. K. E d u c a tio n i n C z e c h o s lo v a k ia . W ashing­ t o n , D. C ., D ep artm en t o f I n t e r i o r , O f f ic e o f E duca­ t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 1 1 , 1935. Van M e te r , I s a b e l , The M eaning o f Y outh M ovem ents. U n ity , Feb. 1929, p. 339.

World

V oice o f Y o u th , The ( P e r i o d ic a l ) New Y o rk , 1936 f f . W ey rick , N o la . Y outh S peaks o f Hope i n a World o f D is c o rd . I n t e r n a t i o n a l News R eview , Feb. 2 6 , 1928, p. 7. W illia m s , A ubrey. Forew ord, i n Y outh a W orld P roblem . in g to n , D. C ., Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1937.

Wash­

W inslow , T h a tc h e r W ., E d i t o r . Y outh, a W orld P roblem , W ash in g to n , D. C ., Government P r i n t i n g O f f i o e , 1937. W lskemann, E l i z a b e t h , C zechs and Germans. London, o x fo rd U n i v e r s i ty P r e s s 1938, pp. 5 5 , 136-139. Wyneken, G u atav e. F re e S c h o o l Community a t W ic k e rs d o rf. Y outh S p r in g , 1924, V o l. I I , p. 116. Young P e o p le Dropped from N .Y .A . E d i t o r i a l , New York T im es, Feb. 2 2 , 1941. Y outh in W ashington. ^ No. 3 , p. 4 .

S c h o l a s t i o , F eb. 1 9 , 1940, V o l. 36,

Y outh Movements H ere and A broad. F o u n d a tio n , 1936, p . 6.

New Y o rk , R u s s e ll Sage

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