Writing skills practice

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: Module 1. Types of syllables. Module 2. Spelling rules. Module 3. Types of writing. 5

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MODULE 1 TYPES OF SYLLABLES UNIT 1 WRITING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES I. Lead-in 1. Tick any of the statements below which are true for you. Then compare your answers with your partner’s. How similar are they? What would you say about your partner’s attitude to writing? What do you think about your writing? 1. 2. 3. 4.      5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

I think writing in English is more difficult than speaking. _____ I think I don’t really have many problems in writing in English. _____ I don’t write very much in my first language. _____ Writing is important to me because I may have to write in English in a job._____ I have to pass examinations in English. _____ I want to write to my English friends. _____ ……………………………………….. ……………………………………….. I expect to do a lot of writing in class. _____ I expect to do a lot of writing by myself at home. _____ I usually check through my writing before I hand it in. _____ I expect the teacher to mark all of the mistakes in my work. _____ I want my teacher to write comments about what is good or not good in my writing. _____ 10.I make a careful note of the teacher’s corrections when I get work back. _____ 11.I usually read the comments and look at the grade but I don’t study the corrections in detail. _____ 12.I would like to see and peer-check other students writing sometimes. _____ 2. Get into small groups and discuss the following questions. Choose a student in your group to feed back to the rest of the class about your ideas. 1. How much writing do you do in your language/in English? 2. When do you usually have to write in English? 3. What does the writing process usually involve? What do you usually do when you write? 4. What makes the learning of writing an important experience? Think in terms of conveying ideas, arousing feelings, persuading and convincing other people, articulating and discovering ideas, transcending time and space? 5. Which of the following ideas by some EFL students on writing in English are you familiar with? 6

“Oh, I’ve no ideas …” “It is always not enjoyable to get started …” “If there is any satisfaction, it comes only at the end …” “I don’t think writing is a very satisfactory experience, because it takes a lot of time and also requires a lot of effort …” “The trouble is that people usually judge your knowledge by what you can write …” 6. What other problems do you usually face in the process of writing? Think of spelling, grammar, lack of vocabulary, cohesion etc.? (From: White R., Arndt V. Process Writing. Longman, 1997. P. 11)

3. Pair Work. In pairs share your experience and ideas on the questions below. Feed back to the rest of the class about what you have in common with your partner. What conclusion can you come about the role of modern technologies in your life and their influence on your written communication? Literacy, texting and modern technologies 1. How often do you use your mobile phone/smartphone/IPhone/tablet PC/ computer/iPad? 2. What do you use them for? 3. How often do you send text messages? 4. How long is the average text message that you send? 5. How much do you spend on your mobile phone/smartphone/IPhone/tablet PC/computer/iPad? 6. How often do you change them? 7. What would your life be like without these devices? II. Practice 1. Work on your own first and see how many text messages from the table below you can “translate” and write what they mean in English. When you finish, in pairs compare and share your answers. CUL8R LOL 4ever WUCIWUG v vvv gr8 ILNY EZ GF

BF GFI HAGD RU there? STU TYVM shhh UOK? w/e zzz


2. Gapped dictation. Your teacher will dictate the text below to you (don’t look at it yet!). As you listen write down only the initial and the last letter of each word. Example: She rarely journeyed farther than the corner grocery. S__e r___y j_____d f_____r t_____n t__e c______r g_____y. Then get together into small groups and try to reconstruct the whole text. After that, open the book and check your work. Texting and Literacy Lately, some people have been concerned that the explosion in text messaging among young people is having a negative effect on their literacy skills. Texting is fast and concise. This is to save time and space. A reader who is unfamiliar with texting will feel lost when they see abbreviations, acronyms and emoticons. For texters, this language is easy to read and write. The debate about the harmful effects of texting started many years ago. Teachers began noticing examples of texting language in their students’ exam papers. One case, a 13-year-old Scottish girl who wrote an entire description of her summer holidays in text language, became famous. Her teacher sent a sample of the essay to a national newspaper and readers sent in hundreds of letters giving their opinion. Do you think people who send a lot of text messages have serious problems with literacy? Have you had any problems? 3. Read the original Scottish girl’s essay extract. Work in pairs and try to “translate” it into English. Write down the correct variant. Check with the whole class. My smmr hols wr CWOT. B4, we used 2 go NY 2C my bro, his GF&thr 3: - @ kds FTF. ILNY, its gr8. Bt my Ps wr so {:-/ BC o 9/11 tht thay dcdd 2 stay in SCO & spnd 2 wks up N. Up N, WUCIWUG -- 0. I ws vvv brd in MON. 0 bt baas & ˆˆ

III. On Your Own 1. Write short messages in “text language” to each other in pairs. Then exchange messages and “translate” your partner’s messages. You can use the websites below to make up your messages: http://www.netlingo.com/acronyms.php http://www.techdictionary.com/chat.html 2. Discussion. Read the text below. State E. Johnson’s, D. Crystal’s and E. Jansen’s views on the link between the rise of the Internet and students’ writing skills. Whose stance do you support? Do you regard the Internet as a Motivator or anything else? Share and discuss your ideas in the group. 8

Students’ Writing and the Web: Motivator or …? Some teachers blame the Internet for an increase in spelling and grammar errors. But language experts praise it for making communication more expressive. The Internet is adding to vocabulary but, some argue, at a cost. Eleanor Johnson (an English professor at Columbia University in New York): “I think that text messaging has made students believe that it’s far more acceptable than it actually is to just make screamingly atrocious spelling and grammatical errors.” She says her students over the past several years have increasingly used less formal English in their writing. She says words and phrases like “guy” and “you know” now appear in research papers. And she now has to talk about another problem in class, she says – incorrect word use. For example, a student says “preclude” instead of “precede” when talking about one event coming before another. It sounds like “precede” but it means “prevent”. Professor Johnson suspects a strong link between the rise of instant and casual communication online and an increase in writing mistakes. But she admits there may not be much scientific evidence, at least not yet. David Crystal is a British linguist who has written more than one hundred books, including the book “Language and the Internet.” He says the actively changing nature of the Internet makes it difficult to stay current in studying its effects. But he believes its influence on language is small. David Crystal: “The main effect of the Internet on language has been to increase the expressive richness of the language, providing the language with a new set of communicative dimensions that haven’t existed in the past.” Erin Jansen is founder of Netlingo, an online dictionary of Internet and text messaging terms. She says the new technology has not changed existing language but has greatly added to the vocabulary. “Basically it’s a freedom of expression,” she says… Erin Jansen: “I always advocate, don’t get angry or upset about that, get creative. If it’s helping the kids write more or communicate more in their first draft, that’s great. That’s what teachers and educators want, is to get kids communicating.” But Erin Jansen and David Crystal agree with Eleanor Johnson on at least one thing. Teachers need to make sure students understand the uses and rules of language. (From: “


я . Academic Writing: English Phenomenon in Russian Interpretation”. . 42–43)


UNIT 2 THE FIRST TYPE OF SYLLABLE I. Lead-in 1. Do you know the Russian equivalents of the following terms and phrases? Check them out in the dictionary:  syllable;  consonant;  vowel;  mute letter;  silent consonant;  full stop;  comma;  colon;  semicolon;  exclamation mark;  capital letter;  heading;  to indent a new paragraph;  to draw a margin;  to omit a word. 2. Do you know how many types of syllables there are in English? 3. What does the first type of syllable consist of? Why do you think this type of syllable is also called “open syllable”? What do the letters stand for in the following table? Fill in the last column with the examples. The First Type of Syllable 1. 2.

C+V C+V+C (except r)+silent e

Examples: Examples:

II. Practice 1. Read the following extract from Dan Brown’s novel “The Da Vinci Code” and find the examples of the words with the 1st type of syllable. …Grabbing the gilded frame, the seventy-six-year-old man heaved the masterpiece toward himself until it tore from the wall and Sauniere collapsed backward in a heap beneath the canvas. As he had anticipated, a thundering iron gate fell nearby, barricading the entrance to the suite. The curator lay a moment, gasping for breath, taking stock. I am still alive. He crawled out from under the canvas and scanned the cavernous space for somewhere to hide. 10

A voice spoke, chillingly close. “Do not move.” On his hands and knees, the curator froze, turning his head slowly. Only fifteen feet away, outside the sealed gate, the mountainous silhouette of his attacker stared through the iron bars. The albino drew a pistol from his coat . “You should not have run.” His accent was not easy to place. “Now tell me where it is.” “I have no idea what you are talking about!” (Abridged from: Dan Brown “The Da Vinci Code”. P. 17)

2. In an open syllable the pronunciation of vowel letters coincides with their alphabetical definition: a [ei], e [i:] etc. But the same sounds may be represented by other combination of letters and in different position. What do we call the words that are pronounced in the same way, but spelled in a different way? Spell the following words in two ways each. [weist], [weit], [pi:s], [breik], [səU], [səU], [plein], [peil], [si:]. Which of the words contain the first type of syllable? Think of more examples of the homophones that contain the first type of syllable. 3. Group work. Running Dictation Student A puts this book open in one corner of the classroom. Student B sits in another corner. Student A reads one sentence below, memorizes it, goes to Student B, dictates it to him/her and let him/her write it down. Then Student A does the same with the rest of the sentences. After sentence 5, students swap roles. Student A: 1. English people often eat toast with butter and marmalade for breakfast. 2. Your hands are still dirty; wash them again with soap. 3. The boy looked hungrily at the loaf of brown bread in the shop-window. 4. The boy fell downstairs and the next day he was covered with bruises. 5. There were drops of dew on all the leaves. Student B: 1. The tourists were taken to the beach in a coach. 2. Roast beef is an English national dish. 3. A hot coal dropped from the fire and burnt a hole in a new Spanish carpet. 4. The boys stood close together, shoulder to shoulder and didn’t let anybody go through. 5. After due consideration he decided to accept the preposition. After the dictation look at the sentences in this book again and check your spelling. Find the words that contain the 1st type of syllable.


III. On Your Own Work in small groups. Make up a list of 10 words with the 1 st type of syllable. Exchange the lists of words with the other groups. Choose a genre (humour, horror, love, adventure) and make up a short story using as many words from another group’s list as possible. Listen to each other’s stories. Note down all the words with the 1st type of syllable that were used in the story. Can you identify the genre of your group mates’ story?


UNIT 3 THE SECOND TYPE OF SYLLABLE I. Lead-in 1. What is the second type of syllable called? 2. Say what the second type of syllable consists of using the following scheme: C+V+1-2 C/rr 3. Read the examples of the words with the second type of syllable and say how the letters in bold are pronounced in this type of syllable: 1) apple, cat, map, battle, barracks; 2) letter, tell, red, get; 3) sit, pit, slip, list, fit; 4) system, mystery, symmetry, symbol, myth, rhythm; 5) not, hot, bottle, sorrow; 6) nut, summer, hurry, butter. II. Practice 1. Close the book and listen to your teacher (partner) dictating the following words with the 2nd type of syllable very fast, write them down. Then, open the book and check your spelling. Man, men, cup, cap, hand, hen, map, tub, than, then, ran, rub, stand, stem, ten, tan, slip, list, still, live, fit, rich, fist, pit, fill, trip, hill, silly, dip, sit, whip, nut, hut, summer, hurry, worry, stomach, head, bread, pencil. 2. Spell the following pairs of words: [sli:p]-[slip], [fi:t]-[fit], [wi:p]-[wip].





3. In the following sentences fill in the gaps with the words containing the second type of syllable. 1) He was so … he could … sleep. 2) He slipped out of … and … up to the window. 3) Be careful, you may … here. 4) He … his hand into the bag and brought out a handful of wheat. 5) Here is a … , Mary. Fill it with water, will you? 6) … waters run deep. 7) He thought how cruel it was to … such a little boy. 8) I’m so tired that I’m not … for anything. 9) His feet are like ice. Give him something … to drink and put him to … . 10) The path led to a distant … . 11) The boy looked up and suddenly a pleased … appeared on his face. 12) After a thorough examination the patient was … to hospital. 13) Don’t forget that the child is … very weak. You must give her only light and nourishing food. 14) Treasure Island is one of the … books for children. 15) Don’t worry, your … is going to be all right in a couple of weeks. 16) The kitchen was clean and 13

bright, with an electric oven and lots of shining … and … . A delicious … of onion soup hung in the air. III. On Your Own 1. Read the following story. Memorize it as close to the original text as possible. Close the book and write down the story. Then open the book and check your writing. Is it close to the original text? Dictation by Memory Jim arrived home and discovered that he had forgotten his door key. Ha rang the bell, but nobody came to open the door. He rang again, and waited, but still there was no answer. He walked round the house to see if he could find an open window, but they were all locked. It was beginning to rain and he didn’t know what to do. Dorothy, his wife, had obviously gone out, and he didn’t know where she had gone to, or when she would return. He waited for half an hour. Still nobody came. Finally, feeling wet and cold and angry, he picked up a big stone and threw it through the kitchen window. Just as he had unlocked the window and was climbing it he heard the front door open. His wife had come back! Have you ever been in a similar situation? What would you have done in this situation? 2. Write out from the text the words with the 1st and 2nd types of syllable and arrange them into two columns. Make sure you know how to pronounce them correctly. Compare your table with a partner. 1st type of syllable

2nd type of syllable


UNIT 4 THE THIRD TYPE OF SYLLABLE I. Lead-in 1. Say what the third type of syllable consists of using the following scheme: C+V:+r 2. Read the examples of the words with the third type of syllable and say how the letters in bold are pronounced in this type of syllable: 1) tar, bar, target, farther, large, park; 2) nor, sword, forth, corn, torn, lord, cord, born; 3) oar, board, roar, boar, coarse, hoarse; 4) your, four, pour, court, source; 5) term, berth, perfect, certain, concern, mercy, serpent, German, serve, nerve, prefer, emerge, serf, refer; 6) fir, dirty, first, sir, birth, confirm, affirm, girl, firm, bird, stir, skirt, birch, thirsty, third, shirt; 7) hurt, surf, fur, curve, furnish, curse, furniture, surgeon, purse, turn, burn, return, surface, curtain, occur, curl, surname, disturb, burst, turnip, urgent. II. Practice 1. Work with a partner. Choose any 7 words from the list below, give the definitions of them, let your partner guess them and write them down. Check his words afterwards. Then swap roles. term skirt berth sermon fur pearl shirt curse surname mirth birch concern surface search firm earl nerve girl curtain sir purse curve mercy 2. Make up words with the 3d type of syllable from the following scrambled ones: ordsw, erclk, rnea, gentur, rdiht, gettar, krap, boaingrd, wardawk, monser, egreme, renrut, tyrdi, farerth, drol, roa, orar, puor, earlp, niptur, urbtsid, tureniruf, rthim. 15

3. In the following sentences fill in the gaps with the words containing the third type of syllable. 1) Don’t laugh at the boy, you will … his feeling. 2) A draught through the cracks in the window-frame … his night-… . 3) The boy caught at the … and his friends pulled him into the boat. 4) Why are you speaking in such a … voice? I caught cold yesterday at the skating-rink. 5) His appearance on the stage called forth a … of applause. 6) Will you draw the …, please? 7) It usually begins to thaw at the end of … . 8) He spends all his time in his little …, from dawn till dusk. 9) This is really an … situation. 10) I’m awfully … but I can’t find … shawl anywhere. III. On Your Own Read the story below. Find all the words in it that contain the 1st, 2nd and 3d types of syllable and write them out in three columns. Compare your table with the partner’s. Then write the end of the story. Compare your ideas with the group mates’. The Start of the Career One day an English writer told his friends about the first book he had written: ‘I was 22 years old when I wrote this book. The whole edition was sold out and I felt very happy. In two months the editor rang me up and asked me to come and have a word with him’. ‘Do you feel happy?’ my grandfather asked me. ‘Oh, yes,’ I answered. ‘Now I know that if I work very much, I can write really good books.’ The next day I came to the editor’s office and we made arrangements about the second edition. Then he said, ‘By the way, I’ve noticed that though the first edition of your book was sold out there was nothing in newspapers about it. I can’t understand it.’ Very soon I forgot all about it. I worked very much, indeed, and I wrote some books and they were sold out and all the newspapers wrote about them. Then my grandfather died and my mother asked me to attend to his letters. I started going through his books and among them I found… (Abridged from: К


. P. 33)

UNIT 5 THE FOURTH TYPE OF SYLLABLE I. Lead-in 1. Say what the fourth type of syllable consists of using the following scheme: C/V+V:+r/V 2. Read the examples of the words with the third type of syllable and say how the letters in bold are pronounced in this type of syllable: 1) stare, dare, fare, bare, declare, rare, spare, square, mare, prepare, compare, hare, ware, aware; 2) here, mere, sphere, atmosphere, severe, sincere; 3) fire, admire, require, inspire, hire, desire, expire, tyre; 4) cure, during, pure, curious, secure, furious, endure, obscure, fury. II. Practice 1. Fill in the missing letters in the words with the 4th type of syllable. F…ry, p…re, h…re, c…re, requ…re, w…re, d…re, nightm…re, d…iry, squ…re, decl…re, r…re, aw…re, sev…re, sinc…re, insp…re, exp…re, t…re. Find the examples of sentences with any 5 words from the list above in the dictionaries. Dictate them to your partner, let him/her write them down. Check his/her spelling. 2. Have you read the novel “Theatre” by W.S. Maugham? Read the extract from this novel, supply the missing letters and say which type of syllable each missing letter is used in. They h…d been rehe…rsing for a f…rtnight when Roger arrived from Austria. He had been spending a few weeks on a Carinthian l…ke, and after a day or two in London was to g… and stay with friends in Scotland. Since Michael had to d…ne early to go to the theatre, Julia went to meet him by h…rself. When she was dressing, Evie, sn…ffing as usual, told her that she was taking as much pains to m…ke herself look nice as if she w..re going to meet a young m…n. She wanted Roger to be proud of her, and c…rtainly she looked very young and pretty in her summer frock as she strolled up and down the platf…rm. You would have thought, but wrongly, that she was p…rfectly unconscious of the attention she attr...cted. Roger, after a month in the sun, was very brown, but he was st…ll rather sp…tty and he seemed th…nner that when he had left London at the New Year. She h…gged him with exuberant affection. He smiled slightly. (From: W.S. Maugham “Theatre”. P. 263)


3. Read the phrases in the box below. Find the words with the 3d and 4th types of syllable. Write a story entitled “Some More, Please” using all the phrases from the list. Then compare it with the original story given below the phrases. Is your story similar to the original? a Frenchman, to go on business, Germany, German firms, to visit an exhibition, not very large, to go sightseeing there, an overnight train, to travel first class, compartment, no buffet-car, by the end of the journey, to be hungry, to look forward to, Hamburg, to find a restaurant, a table near the window, to understand, one word on the menu, to order beef-steak, not far from, to have chicken, to say it in German, “Some more, please”, another plate. Some More, Please Once a Frenchman went on business to Germany. He was to visit an exhibition there. His firm was interested in developing trade contacts with German firms. Though the exhibition was not very large he hoped that he would be able to find something interesting for his firm as they always exhibited the latest models at such exhibitions. As the Frenchman had never been to Germany before he hoped that he would have time to go sightseeing there and would enjoy his stay in that country. He went there by an overnight train and hoped that it would not take him much time to get there. He enjoyed his trip by train. As he was travelling first class, there were only two passengers in his compartment and he was satisfied with his fellow travelers. But there was one thing which he didn’t like. The fact was there was no buffet-car on the train and by the end of the journey he was very hungry. So he looked forward to having a good dinner at the station restaurant. What he wanted to do first when he arrived in Hamburg was to find a restaurant. It took him some 15 minutes to get to the nearest restaurant. He left his coat in the cloak-room and went upstairs. The head-waiter showed him to a little table near the window. In a few minutes a waiter came up to his table and put the menu on the table. The Frenchman made his choice very quickly because there was only one word on the menu he could understand, it was “beef-steak”. So he had to order beefsteak; but it was so bad the Frenchman couldn’t eat it. At a table not far from him a man was eating chicken. The Frenchman wanted to have chicken too, but he didn’t know how to say it in German. Soon the man finished his chicken and said to the waiter: “Some more, please.” The waiter went out and a minute later came back with another plate of chicken. “Well,” thought the Frenchman, “now I know how to say ‘chicken’ in German.” So he called the waiter and said in German: “Some more, please.” The waiter went out and ten minutes later brought him another beef-steak. 18

III. On Your Own Written Brainstorming Look at the ideas below about smoking. Find in these sentences the words with the 3d and the 4th types of syllables. Which of the ideas do you share?  Smoking is harmful for your health.  Selling cigarettes is a good source of money for the government.  Nobody should smoke near children.  It’s unfair to non-smokers.  Smoking is a curse. Divide a piece of paper into two columns. In one column write down 1 idea about why smoking must be banned, in the other column write down 1 idea about why smoking should not be banned. Then pass over your paper to a partner clock wise and get one from another partner. On a paper you have got from your partner write down one more idea into each column. Don’t repeat the ideas! Continue in this way. Once you get your own paper read through all the ideas and rank them according to how plausible (convincing) they are. Get together into groups of 4–5, present the strongest arguments from your papers, together decide which arguments “for” or “against” smoking are stronger.


MODULE 2 SPELLING RULES UNIT 1 DOUBLING THE FINAL CONSONANT I. Lead-in 1. Look at the list of words below and say why a final single consonant letter is doubled in A and is not doubled in B. A: red-redden, begin-beginner, thin-thinner, sit-sitting, shop-shopping, bigbigger, hot-hottest, forget-unforgettable. B: open-opened, limit-limited, look-looked, turn-turned, hot-hotly, forgetforgetful. Say why the words below are exceptions: handicap-handicapped, kidnap-kidnapped, outfit-outfitted, worshipworshipping. 2. Look at the list of words with the final ‘r’ and say why it is doubled in A and is not doubled in B. A: occur-occurred, prefer-preferred, refer-referred, infer-inferred, conferconferred, abhor-abhorrent. B: differ-differed, appear-appeared, infer-inference, confer-conference, preferpreferable. 3. Look at the list of words with the final ‘l’ and say why it is doubled in A and is not doubled in B. A: travel-travelling, expel-expelled, cancel-cancelled, rebel-rebelled, levellevelled, signal- signalling. B: reveal-revealed, deal-dealing, sail-sailing, boil-boiled, heal-healed, concealconcealed, kneel-kneeled. 4. Alternate spellings. When adding suffixes to certain words, American spellings differ from British spellings. Examples include: American British channeled, channeling channelled, channelling penciled, penciling pencilled, pencilling caroled, caroling carolled, carolling traveler, traveling traveller, travelling chiseled, chiseling chiselled, chiselling modeled, modeling modelled, modelling American dictionaries will often show that both spellings of these words are acceptable. 20

There are also other words with two acceptable spellings: EITHER canceled, canceling, cancelation OR cancelled, cancelling, cancellation; benefited, benefiting OR benefitted, benefitting Write your preferred spelling of these words: pencil + ed __________ carol + er __________ travel + ing ____________ cancel + ing __________ benefit + ed __________ model + ing ____________ II. Practice 1. Explain the cases of doubling in the sentences below. 1. I grabbed his shirt to slow him down. ‘Don’t grab my shirt!’ he shouted. 2. He was sad because Arsenal had lost, sadder than I’d ever seen him before. 3. Bergkamp doesn’t like travelling by air. He prefers to travel by train. 4. If you want to stay slim or be slimmer, just have some salad for lunch. 5. I think you shouldn’t ban smoking in pubs, but banned it soon will be. 6. He was gulping, not sipping his wine. ‘You should sip wine’, I said. 7. My wife prefers red wine, but I’ve always preferred white. 8. It’s going to be hot today. It may prove to be the hottest day of the year. 9. I’m just slipping out for a coffee. Do you want some? – Don’t bother. I’m going to slip out myself for some fresh air. 10.He had conferred with his lawyers before he came to a final decision. 2. Which of these words doubles its final consonant in the Past Indefinite? 1) differ-occur-appear; 2) fear-thin-start; 3) cook-rub-want; 4) kidnap-look-turn; 5) reveal-expel-conceal; 6) open-answer-equal; 7) repeat-develop-worship; 8) refer-limit-heal; 9) boil-infer-fear; 10)pour-water-shrug. 3. Fill in the sentences with the forms of the words given. 1. My puppy gave me the (big + est) ________, (wet + est) ________ kiss ever! 2. The back tire is even (flat + er) ________ than the front one. We’ll need to get it (repair + ed) ________. 3. The boss (refer + ed) ________ to problems in the (propel + er) ________. 4. It (occur + ed) ________ to the struggling player that he didn’t want to be known as a (quit + er) ________. 5. We’ll be (get + ing) ________ dinner after we finish our (shop + ing) ________. 6. I (conceal + ed) ________ the sound of the (drip + ing) ________ faucet. 21

4. Circle the correct spelling in each word pair. If both words are acceptable, circle both of them. 1) modeling – modeling; 2) forgotten – forgotten; 3) benefitted – benefited; 4) traveller – traveler; 5) referred – refered; 6) droping – dropping; 7) siter – sitter. 5. Circle the misspelled words in this story. Spell them correctly. It just so happened that while we were picnicking, we noticed a small skunk traped under a log. He was clearly in pain, sufferring from a broken leg. It was, indeed, an unusual occurence. We enterred into a discussion. Were we really equiped to help the animal? In all deferrence to him, we did not want to receive any propelant the little guy might spray. Finally, we felt compeled to assist the poor creature. Just as we were begining to release his leg, his “gift” was transmitted. It was, sadly, for us a regretable rescue. 6. Circle the misspelled words. Spell them correctly. Mary listened carefully before enterring the room. Once she decided it was safe, she quietly openned the door and crept inside. Suddenly, an earspliting sound sent her runing outside. She spotted the thieves joging to their car. Prefering not to get involved in a chase, she dialled 9-1-1. III. On Your Own 1. Take a piece of paper. Distribute the sentences below among the members of your group. Copy your sentence at the top of the piece of paper. Pass it over to your partner and get one from another partner. Look at the sentence, memorise it in 30 seconds, fold the paper so that you can’t see the sentence and write it down. Unfold it and check your spelling. Pass the paper again to your partner and get a new paper from your other partner. Do the same. 1. The girl was so embarrassed by her brother’s behaviour that her face began to redden immediately. 2. The earth was scarred with hoof prints and wheels and the vegetables were mashed into the soil. 3. It was the hard work, the many children and the nagging husband that had changed her. 4. He took her hand, pulled her to her feet and propelled her into an orderly room. 22

5. Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries must have been a fearsome chaos of warring tribes and kingdoms. 6. The king conferred a knighthood on several distinguished men. 7. The man was digging a hole in his garden when something happened behind his house. 8. The bus driver was an olive-skinned young man with beautifully combed hair and a pleasant smile. 9. The performance of that theatre company was cancelled because only ten tickets had been sold out. 10.My friend is a regular globe-trotter, he has travelled all over the world. 11.It never occurred to him that he could be expelled from school for such behavior. 12.He was a hot-tempered man, though he usually controlled his anger no matter how hard it sometimes was. 2. Group work. a) Distribute the extracts below between the members of your group. Don’t look at the other extracts! Learn your extract by heart. Dictate it to the rest of the group to write it down. Let other students do the same with their extracts. b) Once you have written down all the extracts, find all the cases of doubling the final consonant in them. Check your spelling. c) Together decide how to arrange the extracts to make a logical story. How do you think the story will continue? Extract 1. “Oh”, said the men, we could have another drink, we have enough time to catch the train. We can make it.” They had another drink and were planning to get on the train, but their train had already left the station. Extract 2. Three men were sitting in a railway station bar. They had asked the railway porter to tell them when the next train, which one of them was going to take, was due at the station. Some time later the porter came to say that the train was arriving at platform 2 in 5 minutes. Extract 3. “I don’t know, where they are going to,” the man stirred in his chair and answered. “They just came to see me off.” Extract 4. They returned to the bar. An hour later another train arrived and the same thing occurred. The missed the train again. Two hours later the porter told them that the last train was due in 5 minutes. 23

Extract 5. “By the way,” the barman asked him when he sat down at a table. “What town are your friends travelling to?” Extract 6. Again the men preferred to take another drink and when they came to the platform, the train had already started. Two of them could catch the train, but the third one missed it and walked back to the bar.


UNIT 2 MUTE FINAL e I. Lead-in 1. Look at the list of words below and say why final mute “e” is dropped before a suffix in A and retained before a suffix in B: A: fame-famous, refuse-refusal, guide-guidance, amuse-amusing, ignoreignorance, endure-endurance. B: safe-safety, nine-nineteen, care-careful, whole-wholesome, like-likely, announce-announcement. 2. Look at the following words and say why they are regarded as exceptions: age-ageing, due-duly, true-truly, whole-wholly, argue-argument, nine-ninth. 3. Why is “e” kept in the following examples? Mind the preceding letter. shoe-shoeing, toe-toeing, canoe-canoeing, tiptoe-tiptoeing. 4. Look and the words below and say what “ie” change into in the verbs before -ing? lie-lying, tie-tying, die-dying. 5. Look at the examples below and say what happens to double “e” before all suffixes (except those beginning with “e”): agree-agreeable, agreement; see-seeing, free-freeing, freed. 6. In the examples below final “e” is retained to show pronunciation. Make sure you know how to pronounce the words. Advantage-advantageous, service-serviceable, courage-courageous. II. Practice 1. Your teacher (partner) will read to you the words below (don’t look at them at this moment!). Write down only the words in which final mute “e” is retained. Then look at the words in the book and check your spelling. Hopeless, leaving, lovely, amusing, ageing, tiptoeing, argument, truly, careful, ninth, wholly, seeing, advantageous, famous, safety, senseless, engagement, nervous, movable, dancer, trader, noticeable, tasteful, excitement, peaceful, strangely, useful, improvement, changeable, canoeing, duly. 2. Gapped dictation. Your teacher will dictate the text below to you (don’t look at it yet). As you listen write down only the initial and the last letter of each word. Example: She rarely journeyed farther than the corner grocery. S__e r___y j_____d f_____r t_____n t____e c______r g_____y. 25

Then get together into small groups and try to reconstruct the whole text. After that open the book and check your work. Kathy was twelve and always played with the boys. Her parents decided that she should stop playing with boys and learn to act like a young lady. They decided that Kathy should enroll immediately in the School of Ballet where she would learn to be more graceful and to walk about more delicately. Some neighbours scoffed at the idea, saying that Kathy was completely unchangeable and the lessons would be largely a waste of time. But her parents desperately wanted their daughter to become more manageable, and truly believed that ballet lessons would accomplish this. After talking with the director, who was wholly agreeable to the idea, Kathy was enrolled in the school. It was very difficult for her at first, but through courageous endurance, she learned the fine art of tiptoeing. After six month, she had been changed from a tomboy into a young lady and the parents rewarded her handsomely for her successful efforts. (Abridged from: я .


я -

: . P. 21)

3. Read the beginning and the end of a short story. Comment on the cases of dropping or retaining final mute “e”. Think of the main part of the plot and write it down. Compare your version with your group mates. Then read the main part below. It is the same as yours or your group mates’? Power of Imagination Beginning Mr. Brown liked it in America, but he liked travelling very much. He made a trip to Europe and Asia, and he visited India too. Once after a long trip from England to America he arrived at a small country place. There was a small lovely hotel there. Mr. Brown got at the hotel late in the evening. At the hotel he asked the receptionist whether there were any vacant rooms there. At that moment another traveler arrived at the hotel and asked the receptionist for a room too. The receptionist immediately checked if there were any vacant rooms. Unfortunately, the only vacant room he could offer was a double room. “Would it be convenient to you if you shared the room” the receptionist asked. “It’d be less expensive for you, you’d each pay half.” At first they disliked the idea, but just then it began raining heavily and they were too tired to go to another hotel. End When they woke up the next morning they were surprised to see that Mr. Brown had broken to pieces a large mirror.


Main part They spoke to each other and told the receptionist that they agreed to spend the night in the same room. A porter showed them to their room, took in their things and wished them a good night. Soon the two men went to sleep. Suddenly Mr. Brown heard some noise. He opened his eyes but didn’t see anything. It was quite dark. “What’s the matter?” Mr. Brown asked in surprise. The second traveler answered, “I’m very sorry, I had to wake you up. I’m not well. Please, open the window quickly.” Mr. Brown got out of bed and began looking for matches, but he couldn’t find them in the dark, so he tried to find the window. It took him some time and at last he thought he had found it. He couldn’t open the window. As the voice of the traveler became weaker and weaker, Mr. Brown took a chair and broke the window with it. The man said he was much better. The two of them slept until morning. (Abridged from: К

. P. 61)

III. On Your Own Make up your own exercise on the rules of spelling final mute “e” on a separate card. Exchange your exercises with your group mates, do your group mates’ exercises and check each other’s work.


UNIT 3 FINAL y AND ITS MODIFICATIONS I. Lead-in 1. Look at the list of words below and say why final “y” is changed into “i” in A and is retained in B: A: cry-cried, merry-merriment, pity-pitiful, clumsy-clumsier, happy-happily; gay-gaily, day-daily. B: day-days, pay-payment; dry-drying, apply-applying; Mary-Marys, Gatsbythe Gatsbys; baby-babyhood, copy-copyist, lady-ladyship, lady-ladylike, anyanything; shy-shyer, shyness. Note! Final “y” changes to “e” before “-ous”: pity-piteous, beauty-beauteous. II. Practice 1. Write down five sentences comparing your life now and before. Use appropriate degrees of comparison of the adjectives below. Show your sentences to your partner. Let him/her check the spelling of the adjectives. Ask him/her if the sentences are also true for him/her. Happy, busy, shy, easy, early, lazy, heavy, merry. 2. Think of 10 nouns ending in “y”, dictate them to your partner and let him/her write down the plural form of those nouns. Let him/her do the same. Check each other’s spelling. 3. Pair dictation. Student A, the one whose transcription sheet begins with the unaltered text, begins to read, slowly and clearly. This student (reader) must monitor Student B (writer), who fills in the missing words in the cloze half of the sheet. Student A must not show the text to B, and if a writing error is detected, A must stop reading, and spell out the mistaken word. When the cloze is completed, B then starts reading the bottom half of the text, while A writes. Student A A famous English essayist once wrote about an incident that occurred during his babyhood, saying that although he had been too young at the time to remember the event personally, he had heard the story retold many times. His aunt, Lady Astor, had a glass eye, but this was a well-kept secret that was known only to the family and servants. One evening, his aunt and uncle were giving a party at their home in the English countryside. It was his aunt’s birthday, and the atmosphere was a joyful one. There was one guest present among the ladies and gentlemen who had never met Lady Astor; he decided that matters would be easier if he just walked up to her and introduced himself. 28

After________ _________, he _________that her ______ _______ _____________. The ___________ who was ___________ ________ _____ __________, said ___________ ___________, “________, didn’t they do a fine job of ________ ______ ______ _______ _____ _______ ______ ____________!” At that ____ ________ _________red and ______________. Lady Astor _______________ ___________ _______ ___________, declaring that she ___________ __________ ________ ________________of the secrets of _______ _____________. The butler ________ ______ _______ ______________, but Lady Astor ________ ____________. This ___________ took place in ______ _____ ______ _______ ___________, to the _________ _____________of _________ ____________. Student B A ________English ________once wrote about an _______ ________ ________during __________, _______that ______ _______ _______ ______ ______ at the time____ ________ ____ _____ ________, he had heard the story_______ _______ _________. ______ _______, Lady Astor, _____ ____ _____ ______, but this was ___ ____–_____ _______that was known _______ _____ ______ ________ ______ __________. One evening, ______ ________ ______ ________ _______ ________ ____ ________at their home in ______ ____________ ____________. It was his________ __________, and ______ _______________was a __________ ________. There was one ________ ___________among ______ _________ _____ ____________who had never met Lady Astor; he decided that ________ ________ _____ ___________if he just walked up to her and _________ ______________. After doing so, he remarked that her eyes were beautiful. The butler who was walking by with the trays, said without thinking, “Yes, didn’t they do a fine job of matching her new eye to her old one!” At that the guest turned red and disappeared. Lady Astor immediately fired the butler, declaring that she wouldn’t tolerate this betrayal of the secrets of one’s employer. The butler begged to be reinstated, but Lady Astor was merciless. This incident took place in front of all the guests, to the great enjoyment of everyone present. Check each other’s spelling. Find in the whole text all the cases of final “y” and its modifications and comment on the spelling rules. What do you think of the butler’s behaviour? III. On Your Own Make up 10 sentences with the words ending in “y” in brackets, where your partner will have to use a suitable derivative of these words to complete the sentences. Check your partner’s spelling. Example: He was well aware that this particular debt demanded prompt (pay). 29

UNIT 4 HOMOPHONES I. Lead-in 1. What is the difference between HOMOPHONES AND HOMONYMS? Give examples of both. 2. Cover the right-hand column in the table below. In the poem in the left-hand column some words have been substituted by homophones. It proves that computer spelling checkers are not infallible! Can you find all the mistakes? Rewrite the poem substituting the homophones by the correct words. Uncover the right hand-column and check your spelling! Eye Halve a Spelling Chequer

I Have a Spelling Checker

Eye halve a spelling chequer It came with my pea sea It plainly marques four my revue Miss steaks eye kin knot sea.

I have a spelling checker It came with my PC It plainly marks for my review Mistakes I cannot see

Eye strike a quay and type a word And weight four it two say Weather eye am wrong oar write It shows me strait a weigh.

I strike a key and type a word And wait for it to say Whether I am wrong or right It shows me straight away

As soon as a mist ache is maid It nose bee fore two long And eye can put the error rite Its really ever wrong.

As soon as a mistake is made It knows before too long And I can put the error right It’s rarely ever wrong

Eye have run this poem threw it I am shore your pleased two no Its letter perfect in it’s weigh My checquer tolled me sew.

I have run this poem through it I am sure you’re pleased to know It’s letter perfect in its way My checker told me so

(Sauce unknown)

(Source unknown)

II. Practice Quiz 1. Which is the correct word? 1. I didn’t ____ what she said. a) here; b) hear. 2. They forgot to take ____ printouts. a) there; b) their; c) they’re. 30

3. Venison is the meat from a ____. a) dear; b) deer. 4. She held the ____ in her hand. a) reigns; b) rains; c) reins. 5. They tried to ____ the painting. a) steel; b) steal. 6. He had to ____ the button on. a) sew; b) sow; c) Either could be used here. 7. He was a medieval ____. a) knight; b) night. 8. The building ____ is huge. a) site; b) sight. 9. She’s as mad as a March ____. a) hair; b) hare. 10. She gave him a ____ of her mind. a) peace; b) piece. 11. They didn’t ____ us of the danger. a) warn; b) worn. 12. It’s made from wheat ____. a) flower; b) flour. 13. They’ve got a ____ at the Ritz. a) suit; b) suite; c) sweet. 14. On the ____, I enjoyed it. a) hole; b) whole. 15. It’s not much ____ to go. a) farther; b) father.


16. He’s the ____ to the throne. a) heir; b) air. 17. She’s the ____ owner. a) sole; b) soul. 18. The book is ____ back at the library in two weeks. a) dew; b) due. 19. You slow a car with the ____. a) brake; b) break. 20. The negative feeling you get when you do something wrong is ____. a) guilt; b) gilt. 21. It was ____ madness. a) sheer; b) shear. 22. The eagle is a bird of ____. a) pray; b) prey. 23. We have to make sure the timing’s right- we must be in ____. a) sync; b) sink. 24. After standing for an hour in the heat, he ____. a) feinted; b) fainted. 25. He’s very ____ and worries about his appearance all the time. a) vein; b) vane; c) vain. 2. Fill in the text below with appropriate words. Then think of a homophone for each word you filled in. If you can’t think of a homophone for the word, think of a different word to fill in because all the missing words have homophones. Julita lives in Manchester. She is tall and slim, with long blond 1) ________. Julita is a student and her husband Edward is a personnel manager. Julita is studying English at City College. When she has finished her 2) ________ she wants to do a business degree at university. Julita and Edward are both Polish. 3) ________ been 4) ________ years now since they came to the UK. They have 5) ________ married 6) ________ ten years and they have three children; two boys and one girl. Their 7) _______ Marek is 8) _______ 32

years old and their daughter Ewa is 9) _______. Their other son Jerzy is 10) _______ years old and goes to a crèche. The flat they live in at the moment is 11) _______ small, so they have applied for a mortgage to 12) ______ a house. Julita and Edward both love animals and have 13) _______ cats and a dog. Their dog Snoopy is a puppy that they bought from an 14) _______ in the paper. Snoopy is quite naughty and often 15) _______ the furniture. When they move to a bigger 16) _______, they plan to 17) _______ another dog to keep him company. 3. Write the correct word for each clue. 1. ____________________________ couple ____________________________ fruit that grows on a tree 2. ____________________________ beef, pork, ribs, poultry ____________________________ talk to someone for the first time 3. ____________________________ bucket ____________________________ light-colored 4. ____________________________ colorful part of a plant ____________________________ white powder used for cooking 5. ____________________________ lines; opposite of columns ____________________________ red flower with a thorny stem 6. ____________________________ six-legged creature that digs tunnels ____________________________ your father’s sister Super Teacher 7. ____________________________ dog’s feet ____________________________ to stop, halt, or freeze 8. ____________________________ detect things with your eyes ____________________________ place where dolphins, sharks, and whales live 9. ____________________________ not warm ____________________________ spicy bean and beef meal served in a bowl 10. ____________________________ time when you’re sleeping ____________________________ someone that protects a king 11. ____________________________ mother’s boy ____________________________ hot ball of burning gas in space 12. ____________________________ opposite of low ____________________________ greeting 13. ____________________________ to put in the ground and cover with dirt ____________________________ small, round fruit; straw, black, or blue 14. ____________________________ 60 minutes ____________________________ belonging to us

4. Find 19 spelling mistakes in text A and 14 mistakes in text B below. Spell the words correctly. Compare your answers with your partner. What do the original words in the text mean? 33

Text A It was one of those October daze when it was a pleasure to be alive. The sky was blew and the heir cold and sharp with a cent of wet earth as the mourning sun warmed the chilled countryside. And then I court site of a lonely bie struggling to find the pollen of a final flour. Wear had he bean, this sad worker, doomed so soon to dye? I marvelled at his energy as he climbed along so many bear storks. Finding nothing, he flue on and disappeared from cite. I continued my walk to a country in where, sitting outside, I contentedly sipped my bier, musing all the wile on the mixed fortunes of life. Text B As a buoy, there was nothing I liked more than to spend my time on the beech. There was a good selection of baize as my home was on a peninsula and so it was always possible to find a plaice sheltered from the wind wile enjoying the best of the weather. Each day was a succession of swimming until I was frozen followed by lying on the hot sand until my body was warmed by the son and then it was back to the see again. Toward the end of the day, as the waters rose over the warm sands, I wood billed a large damn to defy the waives. But, in spite of all my efforts, I almost never one this unequal contest. There was a time when, whether by design or chance, I had placed my castle at the turn of the tied and so it survived the waves only to be beaten down by the feat of holiday-makers as they returned home at the end of the day. III. On Your Own Make up a crossword using the definitions of the words-homophones. You can make up an online crossword at http://puzzlecup.com and share it with your group mates.


UNIT 5 SILENT CONSONANTS I. Lead-in 1. What do you think silent consonants are used in the words for? Think of all the possible reasons and then compare your ideas with the answers below. 1. They help the reader to distinguish between homophones: to/too/two, know/no, whole/hole, knot/not. 2. A silent letter can help us work out the meaning of the word and it also can change the pronunciation even though it’s silent – sin/sign. 3. They show the origins and history (etymology) of a word. 2. There are some rules about what letters are silent before or after certain letters (but like all English spelling rules there are exceptions to the rule). silent ‘k’ before ‘n’





silent ‘w’ before ‘r’





silent ‘g’ before ‘n’





silent ‘p’ before ‘s’





Some words have silent letters in the middle or at the end. ‘l’ is often before ‘k’


‘b’ is often silent after ‘m’


‘n’ is often silent after ‘m’


‘t’ is often silent after ‘s’


Arrange the words in the list below into 6 columns according to the silent consonants. Make sure you know how to pronounce and translate the words. “b” “c” “g” “k” “p” “w” Doubt, knee, scent, wring, resign, pneumonia, knob subtle, design, pseudonym, scene, knife, sword, sign, wrong, dumb, lamb, debt, psalm, excellent, gnaw, knuckle, tomb, reign, knit, scissors, climb, knowledge, thumb, gnome, kneed, awkward, science, bomb, towards, except, foreign, gnarled, knock, receipt, psychology, wrath. Add more examples of your own to each column. 3. One way to start to love spelling and improve it is to take an interest in words, to discover the logic in the spelling system and to understand the background and history of words, and this especially true for learning silent letters. 35

1. Do you know why there are silent letters in these words: Knife, knock, know, knee, gnat, gnaw? What’s the origin of words with the silent k and g? 2. Why is there a silent b in plumber? 3. Why are there silent letters in doubt, debt, receipt? 4. What’s the origin of the words with the silent ‘gh’ like daughter, night, light, bright, dough, bough (branch of a tree) and why is ‘gh’ in cough and enough pronounced with a ‘f’? Check the answers below. 1. Knife, knock, know, gnat, gnaw are all Viking words which used to be pronounced but we leave the letters in there to see the origin and history of the word (in Sweden they still say the silent letter in knife kneefe). 2. Plumber is a Roman/Latin word from the Roman for lead pipe – plum bum. 3. 16th century academics messed around with our spelling by wanting to make it more Latin and so added letters to words like debt, doubt and island. 4. That difficult -gh- letter pattern is from the Anglo-Saxons – daughter, night, cough, dough, bright... the -gh- used to be -h- and pronounced like the Scottish loch, a hard sound – until the French invaded and messed around with our spelling and added the g. Then the -gh- became silent or pronounced with a ‘f’ sound. II. Practice 1. Fill in the missing silent consonants in the words in the sentences below. Make sure you know how to pronounce the words. Translate the sentences. 1. The lam… is a dum… animal. 2. He clim…ed the hill to the tom… but his lim…s became num… . 3. Com… your hair, but do not thum… your book. 4. Bom…s are now commonly called “shells”. 5. The de…tor, who was a su…tle man, dou…ted his word, and gave not a crum… of comfort. 6. Take your …salter and select a joyous …salm. 7. Do not condem… the …rong person. 8. I made a solem… vow not to clim… on the crum…ling bluffs. 9. The plum…er hummed my favorite hymn. 10.Do your …nuckles hurt when you …nit? 11.Does your …rist hurt when you …rite? 12.The …restler had a very …rinkled face. 13.Please tie my …napsack with a tight ...not. 14.I …rapped the …reath in the …rong paper. 15.I have a …nack for …neading bread dou… . 2. Pair dictation. Student A, the one whose transcription sheet begins with the unaltered text, begins to read, slowly and clearly. This student (reader) must monitor Student B 36

(writer), who fills in the missing words in the cloze half of the sheet. Student A must not show the text to B, and if a writing error is detected, A must stop reading, and spell out the mistaken word. When the gaps are completed, B then starts reading his/her part of the text, while A writes. Amazing Dubai Student A Have you ever heard of _________? Dubai is a part of _____ _______ ________ __________. _______ ______ ______ _______ the Arabian Peninsula, _______ ______ ______ _________ ________. Although it began as a fishing village, _________ ______ _______ ______ __________ ________ of nearly two million people. _____ ____ _____ _____ _______, Dubai has become known for its mind-boggling architecture. _____ _____ ______ _______ ______, Dubai can build it! _____ _______,______ _____ ______ _____ _______ ________ was a blank canvas. _______, ______ _______ _______ __________ to build the city of the future. _______ _______ _____ _______ _____ ______ for business and tourism in the region. _____ _____ _____ ______ _______ _________ was the answer. _______ ______ ______ that they were right! ________ _____ _____ ________ ____________ _________ _______ ________: The Palm Islands, Dubailand, Ski Dubai. _____ ______ _______ _______, what outrageous thing will Dubai build next? Student B ________ ________ _______ _______ _______ Dubai? _______ ______ a_______ ______ _______ the United Arab Emirates. It is located on _____ _________ __________, south of the Persian Gulf. ___________ _______ _________ ____ _____ _______ _________, today it is a bustling city _____ _______ ______ ________ __________. In the past twenty years,________ ______ _______ ________ _____ ______ ______– ________ _____________. If you can dream it, _______ ______ _______ _______! In 1990, much of the area around Dubai _____ ______ _______ _______. Then, city planners began a campaign _____ _____ ______ _____ _____ ____ ________. They wanted to become a center _____ ______ ____ ______ ___ _____ ______. They thought that creating fantastic buildings ______ ____ ___________. Many would say ______ _______ ______ ________! Some of the most exciting designs are these: ______ ______ _______, __________, _____ _______. The only question is, ______ ____________ _________ ______ _______ ______ ________? Find in the text the examples of the words with silent consonants. Then together with your partner say what you know about Dubai, whether you have been there and what you have seen/would like to see there. 37

3. Read the first part of the story below. Find all the words in it with silent consonants. Write down the continuation of the story. Then read the original part and compare it with your version. The Wrong House (after James N. Young) The house was dark. The two men ran towards it quietly. They slipped quickly through the dark bushes which surrounded the house. They reached the porch, ran quickly up the steps, knelt down, breathing heavily, in the dark shadows. With one of the keys the men opened the door silently and entered the house. Whispering, they discussed the situation. “Oh, there isn’t anybody awake!” And the soft rays of a flashlight swept the room. Dust lay like a light snow over everything. The man who held the flashlight spoke first. “Well, Blackie,” he said, “we’re in luck. Looks as if the family’s away.” Hasty Hogan and Blackie Burns were in luck. Luck had been with them every moment – but one. That moment had come just one hour before, when Blackie, driving the car, ran over a policeman. And Blackie, thinking of the suitcase at Hasty’s feet, had driven away swiftly. There had been a chase, of course. And they had to abandon the car. But luck or no luck. here they were with the suitcase with nearly three hundred thousand dollars. “We have to get a car,” said Hogan. “And we can’t steal one and use it. It’s too dangerous. We have to buy one. That means that we have to wait until the stores open.” “But what are we going to do with that?” and Burns pointed to the suitcase. “Hide it right here.” And they buried it deep in some coal which lay in a corner of the cellar. Just before the dawn, they slipped out. “Say, Blackie,” Hogan remarked as they walked down the street, “the name of the gentleman we’re visiting is Mr. Samuel W. Rogers. I saw it on some of their books.” Shortly before nine, Mr. Hogan and Mr. Burns had a car. Fifty yards from the house they stopped. The front door was open. What happened next? Continued… “Leave it to me, kid,” Mr. Hogan told Mr. Burns. Ten minutes later he was consulting a telephone directory. A moment later he was talking to the surprised Mr. Rogers. “Hello,” he began, “is this Mr. Rogers. Mr. Samuel Rogers?” “Yes, this is Mr. Rogers.” “Mr. Rogers,” he said, “this is Police Headquarters talking. I am Sergent Simpson, of the detective division” – ‘Yes, yes,’ was the answer. “The Chief of Police has ordered me to get in touch with you. He’s sending me out with one of 38

our men to see you,” Mr. Hogan said. “Am I in trouble of some kind?” asked Mr. Rogers. “No, nothing like that. But I have something of great importance to talk to you about.” “Very well,” came the voice of Mr. Rogers. “I’ll wait for you.” Within ten minutes “Sergeant Simpson” and “Detective Johnson” were speaking with the surprised Mr.Rogers. Hogan told him the whole story. Very much changed. Mr. Rogers was surprised but delighted. He accompanied Hogan to the cellar, and they dug up the suitcase. They took it to the living room and saw that it had not been touched. Bills, bills, bills. “And now, Mr. Rogers,” he announced in his best official manner, “Johnson and I must hurry. We have to catch the rest of the robbers.” He picked up the suitcase and rose. Burns also rose. Mr. Rogers also rose. The trio walked to the door. Mr. Rogers opened it. “Come in, boys,” he said, and the boys did. Three large, strong men. Men in police uniform. “What does this mean, Mr. Rogers?” asked Hogan. “It’s quite simple,” said Mr. Rogers. “It just happens that I am the Chief of Police.” (Abridged from: К

. P. 165)

III. On Your Own Work in small groups. Together make up a short story using ALL the words from the following list. Listen to each other’s stories. Have other groups used all the words from the list. Whose story is funny, sad, frightful, boring? debt, doubt, excellent, design, sight, high, forehead, honour, rhythm, knife, cupboard, listen, awkward, answer, wrong


MODULE 3 TYPES OF WRITING UNIT 1 PERSONAL WRITING I. Lead-in 1. Look at the following types of writing classified by T. Hedge (1993) and arrange them as headings in the table below: – Social writing – Study/Academic writing – Professional/Business writing – Creative writing – Personal writing ?

? essays business letters research reports progress reports summaries resumes/ reviews curriculum vitae annotations applications abstracts public notices notes contracts etc. memoranda minutes advertisements articles etc.

? notes letters invitations messages instructions etc.

? diaries journals reminders addresses recipes shopping lists packing lists etc.

? poems stories rhymes drama scripts lyrics etc.

2. Which type of writing do you resort to most often in your everyday life? 3. Look at the strategies “a good writer” usually uses. Mark the ones you use regularly in writing. Can you call yourself “a good writer”? A Good Writer Before Writing:  reads the question/s carefully and underlining key words;  identifies the type of format required (e.g. a letter, a report etc.);  thinks about the target reader; is it a friend, a prospective employer?  considers why they are writing;  decides which information from the instructions to include;  brainstorms ideas;  brainstorms vocabulary;  organizes relevant points into a paragraph plan. 40

While Writing:  thinks of the reader;  refers back to the question;  considers the format;  thinks about the range of vocabulary;  includes a variety of grammatical structures;  considers whether it is sufficiently formal or informal;  keeps in mind whether it is well-organised;  ensures the sequence of events is clear. After Writing:  checks that they have indeed answered the question;  checks spelling and vocabulary;  checks grammar; tense formation and usage;  checks linking between clauses, sentences and paragraphs;  checks agreement; subject-verb etc.  checks correct use and non-use of articles;  checks punctuation; capitalization;  checks word order;  checks that it is the correct length;  considers the appropriacy of the register;  considers whether it is generally interesting to read and has an interesting introduction and end. 4. Which forms of personal writing: diaries, journals, blogs, reminders, recipes, shopping lists, packing lists do you resort to more often in your everyday life? Under what circumstances? II. Practice 1. Have you ever kept / Do you keep a diary, a journal (an online journal) or a blog? What is the difference between them? Share your ideas in the group. 2. Read the text below and say how the difference between a diary, a journal and a blog is explained in it. Have you outlined the same differences while sharing your ideas in task 1? Diaries, Journals & Blogs The words diary, journal and blog are terms often used interchangeably to mean the same thing. Most people associate a diary with a special book that is closed with a padlock to keep your thoughts and feelings private. Journals are recorded entries that are often not as private, although you may choose to keep it so. A blog is often used to publicly share your thoughts on specific topics. Blogs have become so popular that even companies are using them to update people on changes in their industry or in their company. However, each is different and unique and they can be put to different uses. You may even choose to use one, two or all three. 41

Diaries A diary is often the most personal of the three. They are often arranged by date and have space for you to write what has happened over the course of the day. A diary is a book that is used to record daily activities. This means that, in a diary the writer will write a description of how the day was spent, what was done during the day, their usual routine and anything that needs to get done additionally such as a ‘to do list’. A diary is a more disciplined form of writing where an individual will make a log of events that happened, whether it was successfully completed, whether there is additional work to carry forward, any achievements, goals and targets. Diaries are used on a daily basis; usually at the end of each day where a log of events is made. Diary writing is quite simple and can be done by anyone who wishes to record and remember how their days are spent. Many diarists often think of their diaries as a special friend that they can confide to. For example, some people give names to their diaries and begin their entries with Dear…, so as though they are writing to a dear friend that they can tell all of their secrets to. The naming of a diary has a unique psychological effect as it gives the writer a feeling of someone listening to his or her inner secrets and feelings. The word diary comes from the Latin diarium (“daily allowance”, from dies “day”). A diary tends to be more focused on daily thoughts and events, while a journal can be written sporadically. The diary goes back hundreds of years and one of the first most popular diaries belonged to Samuel Pepys. Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) is the earliest diarist who is well-known today; his diaries, preserved in Magdalene College, Cambridge, were first transcribed and published in 1825. Pepys was amongst the first who took the diary beyond mere business transaction notation, into the realm of the personal. Pepys’ contemporary John Evelyn also kept a notable diary, and their works are among the most important primary sources for the English Restoration period, and consist of eyewitness accounts of many great events, such as the Great Plague of London, and the Great Fire of London. Several books have been published from diaries as well. It is these diaries that have given us great insight and knowledge into history from all parts of the world. One of the most famous modern diaries, widely read and translated, is the posthumously published The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank, who wrote it while in hiding during the German occupation of Amsterdam in the 1940s. Journals A journal is a diary in a sense. It can be used to document life events like a diary, but it is not necessarily a daily activity. There are also several different types of journals that a person may keep. There are travel journals to document your various travels across your state, country or the world. There are workout journals that help to keep track of the type of workout you do and make comments on it. 42

The word journal comes from Old French journal (“daily”), from Latin diurnālis, from diurnus (“of the day”), from diēs (“day”). Journals have also become popular in schools. Teachers often give students a writing prompt to get them started in their journal writing. Each week the students may write from the prompt and then share the journal with their teacher. These are excellent because they get children to think creatively and to learn to put their thoughts and feelings down on paper. This is an important step in teaching children to express themselves and communicate effectively through the written word. While a journal may include daily activities, it also has details about how the person felt during the day, about any special event or issue that came up, about a specific person or incident and how these various things made the writer feel within that day. A journal is quite emotional and private and allows the writer to express their inner feelings privately, and journals are generally meant to be kept private unless when journal writing is encouraged at schools where students may be asked to share their writing. A journal generally has no format, does not need editing or careful planning or thinking. It is just a process of thoughts and feelings being written down as they come without restrictions. Journals are not written on a daily basis and can be written more often than daily or less often depending on the writer’s needs to express their feelings. Journals may have other items alongside writing such as pictures, poems, quotes, drawings, etc. Blogs A blog (a truncation of the expression weblog) is another form of diary or journal, but it is one that is digital and on the Internet. These are often referred to as online diaries/journals or personal blogs. They may document your day-to-day experiences or even social commentary, you can write about your travels, what you are reading, your thoughts or opinions. You write in it as often as you want, and your entries, or “posts”, typically appear in reverse chronological order, marked by the time and date that you wrote them. Many people use personal blogs as a way to keep in touch with friends and family, as well as to share with them their thoughts and feelings on certain subjects. You may choose to keep your blog personal or to share it with the world. By sharing it with the public, you can open the blog up to personal comments from those who view and read the blog. This is unique to the blog and many personal opinions are common throughout the world of blogging, some are kind and others may be quite blunt. The term “weblog” was coined by Jorn Bargeron 17 December 1997. The short form, “blog”, was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999. Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used “blog” as both a noun and verb (“to blog”, meaning “to edit one’s weblog or to post to 43

one’s weblog”) and devised the term “blogger” in connection with Pyra Labs’ Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms. One of the first online diaries or blogs was Claudio Pinhanez’s “Open Diary”. This was the first web site that was published in a diary format on a web page. This site was published in 1996 by the MIT Media Lab. Since, there were several different online diaries that popped up and now the web is full of them. There have also been several websites open up since then to allow people to have their own online journals and diaries. They are especially popular with teenagers and college students. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of a single individual, occasionally of a small group, and often covered a single subject. More recently “multiauthor blogs” (MABs) have developed, with posts written by large numbers of authors and professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, universities, think tanks, advocacy groups and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The blog has also changed the world in terms of marketing. In 2006, Entrepreneur magazine listed it as one of the top marketing tools of the year that can get your website noticed. Website promotion is a common hurdle in marketing an online business and because blogs are easy to set-up and use, they have become a popular way of sharing information and news with the online community. There are many different types of blogs, differing not only in the type of content, but also in the way that content is delivered or written:  Personal blogs.  Collaborative blogs or group blogs.  Microblogging.  Corporate and organizational blogs.  By genre (political blogs, health blogs, travel blogs (also known as travelogs), gardening blogs, house blogs, book blogs, fashion blogs, beauty blogs, project blogs, education blogs, classical music blogs, quizzing blogs and legal blogs (often referred to as a blawgs) or dreamlogs.  By media type (comprising of videos – a vlog, comprising of links – a linklog, containing a portfolio of sketches – a sketchblog, comprising of photos – a photoblog, with shorter posts and mixed media types – tumblelogs, blogs that are written on typewriters and then scanned – typecast or typecast blogs).  By device (A blog written by a mobile device like a mobile phone or PDA could be called a moblog). (Reviewed from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog http://www.inboxjournal.com/articles/difference-between-diary-journal-and-blog.php http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-journal-and-vs-diary/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_diary https://www.creative-writing-now.com/how-to-write-a-blog.html) 44

3. What are the main reasons for keeping a diary, a journal and a blog? Discuss your ideas in the group. You can use the prompts in the box if you wish.         

share with your family and friends; share with the world; make money; reflect on what you do; organise your life; to keep track of your past; to think about the future; to regulate mood and emotions; promote an existing business.

4. Read 2 sample papers below. Which is a diary and which looks more like a personal journal? Why? What are the entries about? Sample A March 3, 20____ Dear Diary, I’m so upset!! I don’t even know where to begin! To start off, I think I completely failed my geometry quiz, which I know I should’ve studied more for... my dad’s not gonna be happy about that. :( Then, we had a pop quiz in history on the reading homework from last night, and I completely forgot most of what I read, which made me even more upset because I actually did the reading! But what really made me mad was the note that Sarah slipped into my locker during passing period. She said she was sad that I’ve been hanging out with Jane more lately and thinks that I don’t want to be her friend anymore. I can’t believe she thinks that, especially after talking with her on the phone for hours and hours last month while she was going through her breakup with Nick! Just because I’ve been hanging out with Jane a little more than usual doesn’t mean I’m not her friend anymore. She completely blew me off at lunch, and when I told Jane, she thought that Sarah was being a “drama queen.” This is just what I need! My parents are getting on my case about doing more extracurricular activities, I have a huge paper due for AP English soon, and I can’t understand a thing in advanced Spanish! The last thing I need is for my best friend to think I hate her and barely text me back anymore. Uggh! I can’t concentrate on anything right now because of it. I hope she gets over it!!! Love, Kate


March 4, 20___ Dear Diary, Today was a little better. I texted Sarah last night asking if she wanted to have lunch with me today, just the two of us, and she said sure. I told her that just because I’m hanging out with Jane, it doesn’t change anything about our friendship. After all, we’ve been friends since first grade! She said that she knows that, but she just felt like the third wheel because she doesn’t think that Jane likes her and because Jane and I have a lot of classes together. I told her not to worry about what Jane thought and that I’d talk to her about it. Sarah felt a lot better, and after we both cried a little, we spent the rest of lunch catching up on the latest gossip, which I missed! During English, I talked to Jane about what Sarah said. She said that it’s not that she doesn’t like Sarah; she just thinks that she gets too worked up about things sometime, like her breakup with Nick. I explained why Sarah was so upset about it and how Nick had cheated on her, which Jane didn’t know, and she felt bad for saying mean things about Sarah. I think Jane’s really cool, but I wish she wouldn’t assume things about people. I’m worried she was saying mean things about Sarah to our other friends when she didn’t know the truth. She sometimes likes to spread rumors even when she doesn’t know if they’re true. I thought it would be fun for the three of us to get some coffee after school and try to make everything better. I’m not sure how well that worked, because even though Jane was trying really hard to be nice to Sarah, I could tell that Sarah was being really fake with Jane. When I texted Sarah later, she said everything was fine, but I know her well enough to know that’s not completely true. ::Sigh:: Oh well. I’m not her mom, and I can’t force her to feel anything. It just frustrates me because I don’t want things to change between us... We’ll see what happens. I have to get some math homework done now! Night! Kate March 6, 20__ Dear Diary, Sorry I didn’t get to write last night! It was such a busy day, and I was too tired to write anything... I was right about Sarah not being okay. Yesterday, she barely spoke to me, and anything she did say was a “yes” or “no” answer. I tried so hard to get her to cheer up, but of course she just kept saying, “I’m fine, I’m fine.” Uggh! I wish she would just be honest with me! I’m always honest with her! It’s not fair! Jane also seemed mad all day because she could tell that Sarah was being fake nice to her. I hate being in the middle of all of this. What am I supposed to 46

do? Sarah’s been my friend since forever, and Jane is my new friend, and I don’t want to hurt anyone’s feelings! But I think that Jane is right about Sarah. I think Sarah sometimes gets too dramatic about things. She’s being kind of a brat about all of this, but I don’t want to tell her that to her face, she’d never forgive me. I wish things were simple like they were in elementary school. :( :( :( Kate (From: http://m.wikihow.com/Write-a-Diary)

Sample B As I watched the tube fill from a glossy yellow to a deep red, I felt less alive than ever. It entered the machine, whirring and spinning as if inconvenienced. Meanwhile, I sat there. At first it seemed like hours, and it slowly became hours. What felt like the entire day ticked by – as slowly as the red in the tube – while I stared at the machine. I could be called, at best, an accessory to this process. Most of the other people plugged into their own machines were older than me. If this is something that adults need, why do I have to be here? Today marks six months since I started hemodialysis. I had to start because I got really sick. I have always been more or less healthy, but the doctors told my parents that I have “chronic glomerulonephritis.” You would think that word wouldn’t be a part of a normal high school sophomore’s vocabulary, and you’d be right. Believe me, even though it’s the biggest word I know, I wish I had never had to learn it. There’s this big scientific explanation about what is going wrong with the various structures in my kidneys, but that isn’t what I want to write here. If doctors can be relied upon for anything, certainly they can keep their own records. No, the important thing that you need to know is that the disease I have makes my kidneys almost useless. A year ago, I didn’t even know what kidneys do, aside from vaguely resembling a disgusting bean that bears their name. It turns out, though, that your body uses its kidneys to filter out the waste left over from other bodily processes. You wouldn’t think that “toxins” would be a significant label for very much in our bodies. Apparently, though, our bodily cells are cranking out toxic waste all day long. So, that’s my problem: lots of toxins in my blood, and my kidneys are no longer filtering them out. That’s why I have to get plugged into a dialyzer machine. Toxic blood goes in, but what else? Sometimes, I feel like the machine is sucking out who I am, too. Think about all of the people walking around with clean, non-dialysis-filtered blood. How many of them are even aware that their kidneys are keeping them alive? Maybe one percent? And that’s being generous. I, however, have learned way more than I ever wanted to about exactly how the bean47

shaped organs keep the toxins out of everyone’s veins and arteries. Everyone’s veins, it seems, but mine. If it weren’t for the machine, I would die. I remember my first time. I had been feeling very sick for a while, so I guess I was pretty hopeful. Yeah, I felt better afterward. But I had to go back again. And again. And again. For six months. I may even have to keep going back for my entire life, or what’s left of it. What kind of life do you have when you need to be plugged into a machine that performs an incredibly slow process that most people don’t even know exists. Sometimes I ask myself, “Is it worth it?” What I have learned from this is who I am and what is really important to me. I don’t know what the life expectancy is for people who have chronic kidney failure, but I can’t imagine it keeps pace with the life expectancies of normal people. This realization, while terrifying, has pushed me to write down my dreams, my fears, and my innermost thoughts. Ever since I could scrawl out little more than my name in crayon, I have always felt a pull toward writing, as if it were my life’s calling. It is, perhaps, the only way to experience who I really am – for other people as well as myself. In expounding my most personal self on paper, I hope to find both strength and meaning. Sincerely written, the events of our lives can transform into digestible lessons that nourish our souls’ growth. It could be that someone else who is suffering as I am might take solace in my writing. I certainly hope it helps them, because that process could never be performed by a machine. (From: http://m.wikihow.com/Write-a-Diary)

5. Read the tips on writing diaries and group them under the three categories in the table: Personalizing Your Making Decisions Writing Diary Entries Diary about Your Diary 1. Consider your diary type. The type of diary you choose depends on your writing style and other factors: your handwriting; how durable do you want your diary to be; whether you plan on carrying your diary with you; whether you want privacy and a diary with a lock; whether you want to keep a diary online. 2. Be honest. Diaries can be cognitively beneficial: writing about feelings honestly helps the brain regulate emotion and let go of inhibitions on the page and truly be themselves. 3. Use lots of details. Diaries are also important as they preserve moments in their immediate aftermath. Memory is fickle and precise details of an event tend to blur with time. Use details in your diary entries to try to preserve the moment. Think about your past before you begin writing in your diary. What do you wish you remembered? 48

4. Add illustrations. If you want make your diary more personal, consider adding illustrations. This can be a fun way to make your diary more personal. 5. Do not go overboard. Remember, it’s a diary and not a scrapbook. It can be fun to add mementos like concert tickets, photographs, and brochures from places you’ve visited. However, adding too much can make your diary look like a scrapbook. A diary should be primarily used for writing rather than collaging. 6. Maintain a schedule. Many people struggle to find the time to write a diary entry each day. If you’re interested in maintaining a diary, try to stick to something of a schedule. Write in your diary around the same time each day. This way, writing in your diary will become as much a part of your schedule as brushing your teeth at night or showering in the morning. 7. Decide what to write about. There are many different types of diaries. Some people use diaries to record daily events. Others use them to chronicle dreams. If you’re working towards a goal, like losing weight or completing a creative project, a diary can be a great means to discuss your feelings and progress. Some people record a mix of different things in their diary. It’s up to you what you feel is important to record. 8. Decide where to store your diary. If you want to keep your diary private, find a discreet place to store it in your home. Consider hiding it under your mattress, under your clothes in a dresser drawer, or any other place where people are unlikely to poke around. If you’re not worried about privacy, keep your diary in an easy-to-reach place close to your desk, bed, or wherever you plan on writing. 9. Consider how you’ll mark entries. There are various manners you can mark entries in a diary. Some people enjoy dating their entries so they’ll remember the rough timeframe when rereading their works. Other people prefer short titles to each entry. Be creative and have fun. Use whatever method feels right for you. Some people use signatures to mark entries. 10. Write short entries when you’re pressed for time. Everyone gets busy from time-to-time. If you’re in a rush, just write a shorter entry. Jot down the bare minimum of your feelings and thoughts. Get out whatever feels most pressing and immediate. You can always record more about an event later in the week when you have time. Simply try to get out the basic details before you forget. 11. Alter the cover. Some diaries come with decorative covers, but some are plain. If your cover is simply dull, you might want to add decoration. You can write your name in colorful, fun lettering. You can add stickers or glue on cut outs from magazines or newspapers. You can draw on the cover with colored pencils or markers. Have fun and be creative. 12. Buy a personalized journal. You can purchase personalized journals online if you don’t feel comfortable crafting yourself. You can usually choose from a handful of illustrations or templates and can add things like your name and address to the inside cover. Some journals, usually marketed towards a 49

younger audience, may include writing prompts and fill in the blank pages inside. 6. Use the prompts below to write an entry of a travel diary. Use some of the tips from above. Then compare your entry with the original one given after the prompts. Does your entry differ much? July 11, 20 ___ – London, England What a busy day! To start off, I could barely sleep last night because …………..! I’ve always wanted to visit London, and I’m finally here! After ………………. I …………………………………….. Since our hotel is in a great central spot, we were able to ……………….. What an experience! We wanted to try out London’s public transportation, and after ………………………….. Once our Buckingham Palace experience was over, we were already getting hungry for lunch. So a guide at the Palace recommended ………………………………………………. After the Eye, we wanted to make sure to find a double-decker bus so we could ……………………………. We decided to head back to our hotel after tea for ………………………………. After the show, we stopped at a little cafe for …………………………………… I can’t wait to head out to Paris tomorrow afternoon after some more souvenir shopping! I’m sure I’ll ……… Sample Travel Diary To start off, I could barely sleep last night because of the hard bed we slept on (can’t say I don’t miss my own bed from home!) and because of my excitement at touring London for the first time! I’ve always wanted to visit London, and I’m finally here! After Jim and I got ready in our tiny room, we went downstairs for our complimentary breakfast. The tea and pastries were delicious, and they made amazing pancakes! We asked the concierge about some hot spots she recommended, and with our list and map in hand, we were off! Since our hotel is in a great central spot, we were able to walk to a lot of places. First, we wanted to see about getting tickets to a show for the evening, since London theatre is top notch. Then we wanted to make our way to Buckingham Palace. What an experience! We wanted to try out London’s public transportation, and after having a hard time figuring out which way to go and which stop to take, we finally asked some locals, who were very friendly and helpful. The tube wasn’t very crowded, which was nice, and it wasn’t a very far ride, which was double nice! Once we got off the tube, it was a bit of a walk to the actual palace, but since it was such a nice day (only a little London drizzle), we didn’t mind. Plus, the Palace grounds are absolutely gorgeous!! I think I found my new 50

dream home. :) The gardens themselves are exquisite. We got to see the changing of the guards, which is one of the things I’ve always wanted to do, took lots and lots of pictures, and sent our regards to the queen! Once our Buckingham Palace experience was over, we were already getting hungry for lunch. So a guide at the Palace recommended a pub nearby that was within walking distance. Jim was especially excited about going to an authentic British pub; I was mostly really hungry and tired! The pub, which was called The Frog and the Toad, was adorable, and the food and drink hit the spot! We asked how to get to the famous London Eye, and the bartender recommended taking a taxi, since that can be fun too! It was! Especially because they drive on the other side of the road. When we got to the Eye, we knew we’d have to wait in line, but we didn’t think it would be two hours! Oh well... we really wanted the experience, and it was a great way to see all of London without having to walk so much. :) There were other Americans in our little pod, too! They were from Texas and were just as excited as we were about the London experience. After the Eye, we wanted to make sure to find a double-decker bus so we could see even more of the sights. Some highlights that we saw were Big Ben, the River Thames, and the Parliament building. Such history!!! Jim got his picture taken with everything! Our tour guide recommended a “charming little tea house” where we could experience afternoon tea. It was great to be able to sit in one place for a while and enjoy a bit of class. We felt quite elegant drinking our tea and eating our scones! We decided to head back to our hotel after tea for a much needed rest and to get ready for dinner and the show. Then, back out we went to a lovely bistro that our concierge recommended. It was delicious and romantic! We enjoyed it so much that we were almost late for our show! We rushed out of the restaurant and rushed over to the theatre (luckily it wasn’t too far away!!). We were very happy with our show choice, too; it was exquisite! After the show, we stopped at a little cafe for some coffee and then straight to bed! Jim passed out right away, but I just had to get it all down on paper while my head was still swimming with the day’s events... I can’t wait to head out to Paris tomorrow afternoon after some more souvenir shopping! I’m sure I’ll have just as many details of our experiences, and I hope they will be just as good as London’s! (From: http://m.wikihow.com/Write-a-Diary)

7. Look at another example of a personal type of writing. What is it? Read the model and underline the sequence words. What tenses have been used? How is each piece of information given? 51

Spaghetti Bolognese Ingredients ½ kg minced beef 1 large onion, chopped 2 cloves of garlic, crushed 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 1 tin plum tomatoes 1 teaspoonful salt 1 packet spaghetti 200 g Parmesan cheese, grated Preparation  First, heat the oil in a large pan and fry the onion and garlic until soft and golden.  Add the minced beef and stir.  Cook until the meat is browned.  Next, mix in the chopped plum tomatoes and salt, then add a glass of water.  Cover the pan and simmer on low heat for 50 minutes.  Meanwhile, boil the spaghetti in a separate saucepan.  Drain the spaghetti and place it in a serving dish.  After that, pour the hot Bolognese sauce in the centre of the pasta.  Sprinkle with the Parmesan cheese and serve immediately. (From: “Successful Writing. Upper-intermediate” by Virginia Evans. P. 26)

Do you find the dish tasteful? Have you ever tried to cook it yourself? Mind that when writing instructions, recipes, describing processes or giving directions, you should give detailed information in chronological order. Write short, clear sentences using the imperative! Each stage of the recipes, instructions or process is normally written on a new line. You may either number the various stages or use sub headings to separate them. Sequence words such as first, then, next, as soon as, after that, until etc. or expressions/verbs such as make sure, remember, be careful, do not, etc. can be used to link pieces of information. III. On Your Own 1. Write some entries of a journal or a blog to keep track of the most significant moments of your studies at this university/of your life/the most significant events in the life of your country/the world. Reflect on those events. Let your partner read your entries and compare them with his/hers. 52

There are lots of web sites that can help you start your own blog on a free blogging platform: https://ru.wordpress.com https://www.tumblr.com https://www.blogger.com https://medium.com https://svbtle.com https://www.livejournal.com https://www.weebly.com https://www.Postach.io https://www.Pen.io https://ghost.org http://startbloggingonline.com http://www.problogger.net etc. 2. Imagine that a cookery magazine is running a competition, asking its readers to submit a recipe for a typical dish from their country. Write your recipe. Pass around your recipes in the class. Read all your group mates’ recipes, assess them according to the assessment chart below, give points. Then count the total score each of you got and announce the winner! Assessment chart Parameters/Points

Student 1 Name

Student 2 Name

Layout/1–5 Sentence structure/1–5 Style/1–5 Grammar/1–5 Vocabulary/1–5 Intelligibility of the recipe/1–5 Compliance with the task requirements/1–5


UNIT 2 SOCIAL WRITING I. Lead-in 1. Which forms of social writing do you resort to more often in your everyday life? 2. What are the main reasons letters can be written for? Brainstorm the ideas in the classroom. Then compare your ideas with the reasons listed below:  giving information;  requesting information;  making complaints;  making corrections;  making suggestions;  asking for permission;  giving advice;  making an application;  recommending someone or something. Are these the reasons for writing formal or informal letters? or both? What are the main differences between formal and informal letters? Think of the style (the language) and the target readers? Could any of these reasons be used for writing messages and notes as well? 3. Look at the characteristics below and arrange them into two columns: those typical of informal letters and those typical of formal letters. FORMAL LETTERS


Sophisticated vocabulary, personal tone, direct address, more frequent use of the passive voice, impersonal tone, simple linking devices, contractions, complex grammatical constructions, advanced vocabulary, colloquial (spoken) and idiomatic English, less advanced vocabulary, less complex grammatical constructions., use of the active rather than the passive voice. Note! Remember that all letters should include the following:  An appropriate greeting (e.g. Dear John, Dear Sir/Madame, etc.).  An introduction with your opening remarks in informal letters (e.g. How are you?), with stating who you are in formal letters and your reasons for writing.  A main body, where each different issue should be discussed in a separate paragraph that starts with a topic sentence.  A conclusion where you can summarise the main points or make references to future actions and include your closing remarks (e.g. Write back soon) followed by an appropriate ending (in formal letters: Yours faithfully, … (if you 54

began the letter with Dear Sir/Madame) and Yours sincerely, … (if you began the letter with Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Smith); in informal letters: Yours, Bill; Lots of love, Susan; take care and write soon, Pam etc.) II. Practice 1. Look and the samples below and identify the type of social writing, e.g. a formal letter of apology etc.: A As you don’t drive, I presume that you’ll come on the train, so I’ll give you directions from the station. Go left as you come out of the station and then take the first turning on the right which will take you into Briar Road. Go past the school on your right and keep going until you get to a roundabout. Take the first turning on the right at the roundabout and you should find yourself on Grange Road, where I live. My house is on the left-hand side, opposite the church. B We’re currently doing some market research before the product launch in France. James (from the Marketing Dept) said you have a market report from last year. Could you send it to me, please? C Again, thank you for your generosity. I’m so excited about college. I’ll let you know all about it when I get settled. D We’re going to throw a party on Saturday, June 15, to celebrate John’s fiftieth birthday with a splash! Bring your swimsuits to Robert’s place by 5:00 p.m. and plan to have a great time. Of course, dress will be casual. Please RSVP regrets only by June 12 so we can plan accordingly. We hope to see you there. E 56 Disgruntled Street Somewhere Unhappy 1AM MAD Customer Service Manager That Awful Company Somewhere Awful UR BAD June 15, 2016 Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing today to complain of the poor service I received from your company on June 12, 2008. I was visited by a representative of That Awful Company, Mr. Madman, at my home on that day. 55

Mr. Madman was one hour late for his appointment and offered nothing by way of apology when he arrived at noon. Your representative did not remove his muddy shoes upon entering my house, and consequently left a trail of dirt in the hallway. Mr. Madman then proceeded to present a range of products to me that I had specifically told his assistant by telephone I was not interested in. I repeatedly tried to ask your representative about the products that were of interest to me, but he refused to deal with my questions. We ended our meeting after 25 minutes without either of us having accomplished anything. I am most annoyed that I wasted a morning (and half a day’s vacation) waiting for Mr. Madman to show up. My impression of That Awful Company has been tarnished, and I am now concerned about how my existing business is being managed by your firm. Furthermore, Mr. Madman’s inability to remove his muddy shoes has meant that I have had to engage the services, and incur the expense, of a professional carpet cleaner. I trust this is not the way That Awful Company wishes to conduct business with valued customers – I have been with you since the company was founded and have never encountered such treatment before. I would welcome the opportunity to discuss matters further and to learn of how you propose to prevent a similar situation from recurring. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, V. Angry F Dear Tom, I’m just writing to let you know I quit my old job and found something new. I was really fed up with being a brain surgeon because it wasn’t really much of a challenge anymore. You know me; if I’m not learning new tricks, I get bored too easily and have to find something new. I’m now teaching English as a foreign language in Vietnam and it suits me down to the ground. I teach two adult classes and a kindergarten class, which is not only challenging but also rewarding too. Can you believe it? I also have some other amazing news – I’m getting married. She was one of my first ever students and I guess it was love at first sight for both of us. Make sure you keep the first weekend in July free, so you can come and celebrate with us. Keep in touch, Chris 2. Read the rubric below and say what type of social writing it requires? This is a part of a letter you received from a friend. … and I know that I really need to speak English better. The problem is, I haven’t got time for extra lessons or regular study sessions. What else can I do to improve my English? Please write and tell me what you suggest. 56

Read the model of the letter below and say if it is appropriate to the rubric. Think about whether:  the paragraphs are clearly organized;  the writer follows the instructions;  the writer has included any irrelevant information in the main body;  the writer has used the correct style everywhere;  the style is appropriate for the target reader and what the target reader’s reaction will be;  the writing is grammatically correct. Dear Tim, Hi – how are you? I’m good but I have exams this week at school. I write to answer your letter in which you ask for my advice. There are a range of options you could choose from. But before I begin with those, I like to say it’s a shame you can’t take extra lessons. I had extra lessons when I wanted to improve my French and that it helped a lot, but that was also because of my teacher. She was the best! Anyway, you could listen to the English music often. Of course you shouldn’t spend hours to listen to music. That’s just a waste of time! Listening to songs in English is a good way to learn new vocabulary, and it’s fun too. Furthermore, if I was you I’d read more in English. You can also have conversations with a friend in English, and then correct each other’s mistakes. Be serious, though. I did it once and we just ended up laughing the whole time! I recommend that you accept these advices on the matter. Your sincerely, Angela. (From: “Upstream Upper Intermediate. Student’s Book”. P. 19)

3. Read the rubric below and say what type of social writing it requires. You and a group of your friends rented the holiday apartment in the advertisement below for a week. However, there were a number of problems and you left after just three days. You have decided to write a letter of complaint to the agency you rented the apartment from. Beautiful Beach-Front Apartment To Rent Spacious apartment 50 metres from sandy beach. Three bedrooms, well-equipped kitchen. Large balcony with great view. Good value. Read the model of the letter below and say if it is appropriate to the rubric. Think about whether:  the paragraphs are clearly organized;  the writer follows the instructions; 57

 the writer has included any irrelevant information in the main body;  the writer has used the correct style everywhere;  the style is appropriate for the target reader and what the target reader’s reac-

tion will be;  the writing is grammatically correct. Dear Sir, I want to tell you how angry and disgusted I am with the holidays apartment I rented from you on the 15th August. I think you’ve got a real cheek advertising it as “beautiful” because it was the ugliest apartment I’ve ever seen in my life. For a start, you lied when you said it was spacious. There wasn’t room to swing a cat inside. The rooms were also very dirty. I spent the first day of my holiday cleaning them. Next, you said the kitchen was well-equipped. Not at all! Lots of essential items were missing. After three days, I’d had enough and went home. I’m sure you can tell I am really angry. You have ruined my summer by spoiling my holiday. I demanded you give me some of my money back and should say sorry, too. If you don’t you’ll be in big trouble. Hurry up and reply to this letter. Yours sincerely, Helen Hunt.

(From: “Upstream Upper Intermediate. Student’s Book”. P. 36)

Rewrite the letter making it appropriate to the rubric. Compare your variant with your partner’s. III. On Your Own Look at the tasks below. Decide what type and style of letter or email message each requires. Choose one task below and write the letter or the message according to the task. 1. Your parents will not let you go on holidays as they want you to study for your exams. Write an email to your friend asking for his/her advice on this matter. 2. Your friend let you spend the weekend at his seaside cottage. While staying there you accidently stained an expensive Persian rug. Write a letter apologizing for the damage and offering to get it cleaned. 3. The head of your firm and his wife are celebrating their wedding anniversary and have invited you to the event. Write a letter thanking them for the invitation and saying why you will be unable to attend. 4. You are a former high school student trying to organize a reunion with classmates of ten years ago. Write a letter inviting them to the event. Include suitable information and directions from your old school to the restaurant where the venue will take place. 58

5. You are in Paris and want to hire a car when you realize you have left your driving license at home. Write a letter to your brother or sister asking for it to be sent to you by post. You should explain in your letter where it can be found and why you need it. Peer-check and assessment. Read your partner’s letter, check it, mark the mistakes using S for spelling, WO for word order, G for grammar and WW for wrong word. Then write an assessment of your partner’s writing. Cover the following points:  whether the style is appropriate for the target reader;  whether the greeting, the ending, the opening and the closing remarks are appropriate;  whether all the relevant points are covered;  whether the paragraphs are clearly organized.


UNIT 3 STUDY (ACADEMIC) WRITING I. Lead-in 1. Which of the following forms of study/academic writing have you written more often?  Essay  Dicto-comp (dictation-composition)/dicto-gloss (listening and noting down key words that are used as a base for reconstruction)  Summary/précis  Review  Annotation  Research report  Abstracts  Outline  Notes What are these forms of writing called in Russian? 2. You probably already have some experience in writing essays. Discuss the following questions with a partner or group. a) What is an essay? b) What are some ways in which writing a timed essay is different from writing an essay without a time limit? Which aspects might be challenging for you? c) In what situations have you written timed essays in your own language and in English? d) Do you know any good techniques for writing timed essays? II. Practice 1. Do you know the difference between “for and against” essays, opinion essays, problem essays and discursive essays? Match the definitions below with the types of essays? 1) an argumentative essay which gives advantages and disadvantages and in which a topic is considered from opposing points of view 2) a formal piece of writing that requires your opinion on a topic which must be clearly stated and supported by reasons 3) a formal piece of writing in which we suggest solutions to problem and mention any expected results or consequences 4) a type of essay in which the writer focuses on various aspects of the topic in turn and each viewpoint is supported by examples 60

a) problem essays b) “for and against” essays c) discursive essays

d) opinion essays

2. When we write academic/study papers we normally go through several steps to produce a piece of writing. Arrange the following steps of the opinion essay writing process in a logical order. Pre-writing Step One: … Step Two: … Step Three: … Step Four: … Step Five: … Step Six: … Drafting Step Seven: … Reviewing and revising Step Eight: … Step Nine: … Rewriting Step Ten: … a) Review structure and content. Check what you have written. Read your writing silently to yourself or aloud, perhaps to a friend. Look for places where you can add more information, and check to see if you have any unnecessary information. b) Choose a topic. Before you write you are given a specific assignment or some ideas of what to write about. If not, choose a topic yourself. c) Write. Write your paragraph or essay from start to finish. Use your notes about your ideas and organization. d) Revise structure and content. Use your ideas from the previous step to rewrite your text, making improvements to the structure and content. You might need to explain something more clearly, or add more details. You may even need to change your organization so that your text is more logical. Together, this step and the previous one can be called editing. Read your text again. This time, check your spelling and grammar and think about the words you have chosen to use. Check that you have corrected the errors you discovered and make any other changes you want to make. Now your text is finished! e) Organise. Decide which of the ideas you want to use and where you want to use them. Choose which idea to talk about first, which to talk about next, and which to talk about last. f) Gather ideas. When you have a topic, think about what you will write about that topic. g) Writing a strong thesis statement. Formulate a thesis statement. A thesis statement gives the author’s opinion or states an important idea about the topic. It should give an idea that can be discussed and explained with supporting 61

ideas. These are strong thesis statements. A thesis statement should not be a sentence that only gives a fact about the topic. A thesis statement should not state two sides of an argument. This could be a topic sentence. The paragraphs in the main body of an essay should always explain the thesis statement. In addition, each paragraph in the main body should discuss one part of the thesis. h) Structure. Think of the structure of an essay. It must have at least three paragraphs: introduction, main body, conclusion. The introduction explains the topic with general ideas. It also has a thesis statement. It usually comes at or near the end of the paragraph. The introduction is usually five to ten sentences and should catch the reader’s interest. The main body explains and supports the thesis statement and may contain one or more paragraphs. The conclusion summarises or restates the thesis and the supporting ideas of the essay. i) Outlining an essay. Making an outline in advance will support your essay by providing its structure, show you what to write before you actually begin writing, help make your essay well organized and clearly focused and keep you from forgetting any important points. Adding more information to an outline is called “fleshing it out”. j) Unity and coherence. Check your essay foe unity and coherence. Unity in writing is the connection of all ideas to a single topic. Make sure all three parts of an essay work together to explain your topic clearly. After you have written the essay, it is helpful to review the text and look for ideas that do not relate to the thesis or the topic sentence. Coherence is related to unity. Do you always follow the outlined steps when writing an essay? III. On Your Own 1. Read the tasks for essay writing below and identify the type of essay each of them requires. Choose any you like more and write an essay. A. Write an essay on the topic “Package holidays: Good or Bad?” using 120–180 words. Remember to use appropriate linking words and phrases. B. Write an essay expression your opinion on the following: “University students should not have part-time jobs” using 120–180 words. C. Write an essay entitled “What can be done to reduce the amount of crime in our society?” using 120–180 words. D. Write an essay on the topic “The Role of Marriage in Today’s Society” using 120–180 words. 2. Peer editing. 1. Do you know what peer editing is? What is it used for? How should you peer edit? Discuss your ideas in the group. Now read the information below and compare it with your ideas on peer editing. 62

What is peer editing? Showing your work to another student is a very useful way to improve your writing. This is called peer editing. You read your partner’s writing and your partner reads yours. You comment on your partner’s writing and your partner comments on yours. You might talk together, write comments on a sheet that your teacher may give you, or write directly on your partner’s work. Why do writers use peer editing? There are two reasons for peer editing. The first is to get a reader’s opinion about your writing. A reader can tell you that…  you should add more details or explanation;  something is not organized clearly;  you have some information that is not relevant;  there is something that is hard to understand. These comments will help you write your next draft. The second reason to share writing with others is for you to read more examples of writing. Other people will have had experiences that you haven’t. They may show you fresh ways of writing about experiences. Reading their paragraphs and essays can give you ideas to use yourself in the future. How do I peer edit? Read your partner’s work several times. The first time, just read from the beginning to the end. Ask yourself, “What is it about? What is the writer’s purpose?’ On your second reading, go more slowly and look at specific parts of the writing and make notes. Look for topic sentences and concluding sentences. Note places where you have trouble understanding something, where there seems to be unnecessary information, or where there is not enough information. Let the writer know which parts of the text are especially strong or interesting. Ask questions. This is a good way to let the writer know where he or she could add more information. Circle or underline words, phrases, and sentences that you wish to comment on. Don’t look for grammar or spelling mistakes. Pay attention just to the content and organization of the work. (Abridged from: Dorothy E Zemach, Lisa A Rumisek. Academic Writing from paragraph to essay. P. 21–22)

3. Read your partner’s essay and peer edit it. You may write your comments directly on your partner’s work or on Peer feedback-essay sheet given below. 63

Peer feedback-essay Writer’s name: Reader’s name: Assignment: 1. What is the topic of the essay? What is the main idea?

2. Read the introduction. Is it interesting? Does it give some background information? Does it include a thesis statement? If so, write it here:

3. Does each paragraph in the main body support the thesis statement? Write the topic sentence of each paragraph in the main body here:

4. Are there any places where the write could add more details? Do you have any questions for the writer?

5. Is there a conclusion to the essay? Does it restate the thesis or sum up the information or flow logically from the ideas in the essay? Does it contain any new points?

6. Is the essay coherent? Are the paragraphs united together logically?

7. What are some good things about this essay? (Abridged from: Dorothy E Zemach, Lisa A Rumisek. Academic Writing from paragraph to essay. P. 124)

4. Share your comments with the writer of the essay and discuss them together. Does your partner agree with everything? Have your comments been useful? 5. Have you ever checked anyone’s work for mistakes (spelling, grammar, vocabulary, punctuation, stylistics)? Do you know the error code? 64

Look at the error log chart with the symbols and their explanation, read the sentences below and match the mistakes underlined in the sentences to the error code symbols. The correction of the mistakes in the sentences is given in brackets. Error code sp wf wc wo sing pl art inf ? pron s/v v-tense v-form v-pass cs ro frag co inf/ger line through word prep punct c ¶ /\

Explanation spelling word form word choice word order singular noun plural noun article too informal meaning unclear pronoun subject/verb agreement verb tense verb form passive verb common splice run-on sentence fragment connecting word infinitive/gerund delete preposition punctuation capitalisation start a new paragraph add a word

№ of sentence

1. The law attempts ending smoking in all public building. (to end) 2. Completion /\ the project is expected in six to eight months. (Completion of the project…) (prep) 3. The boy was afeared of the dog. (afraid) 4. The laboratory lacks modern equipment, or it is still used for many experiments. 5. Several countries have signed to the peace treaty. (…have signed the peace treaty) 6. Amanda is reading always on her bed. (is always reading) 7. Several people from my country attends the class. (attend) 8. Because the cinema was old and no longer in use. (Because… in use, it was closed and the property was sold.) 65

9. The summer is long hot and humid. (…long, hot, and…) 10.They were education in many different countries. (educated) 11.The company’s profits continue to be good, so it will expand your product line. (its) 12.The shop ended its sale, it marked up the remaining goods. (…sale, and it…) 13.We bought the rug after describing the price. (discussing) 14.John works as an investment brokers. (broker) 15.If the temperature drops, the lake will freeze last year it froze for several months. (…freeze. Last year…) 16.I will be go to the dentist next week. (will go) 17.There are many advantage of living abroad. (advantages) 18.Number 10 Downing Street is the place of residence for the prime minister of the UK. (Number 10 Downing Street) 19.A enthusiastic employee is an asset for a company. (An) 20.Last year, we go to visit relatives in a neighbouring city. (went) 21.The committee is not gonna change the plans of the project. (going to) 22.Donations were given into the charity. (to) 23.The government plans to create every child goes to school. (plans to create a fund allowing every child to go to school) 24.The workers forced to work for twelve hours by management. (were forced) 6. Now check your partner’s essay for mistakes. Use the error code.


UNIT 4 CREATIVE WRITING I. Lead-in 1. What is creative writing in your understanding? How does it differ from academic or professional writing? Read the definition below and see if it differs from yours. “Creative writing is any writing that goes outside the bounds of normal professional, journalistic, academic, or technical forms of literature, typically identified by an emphasis on narrative craft, character development, and the use of literary tropes or with various traditions of poetry and poetics.” (From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_writing)

2. What forms of creative writing given below are you best familiar with? Which ones have you written yourself? Which ones are new to you?  Autobiography/Memoir;  Collaborative writing  Creative non-fiction (Personal & Journalistic Essays);  Epic;  Flash fiction;  Graphic novels/Comics;  Novel;  Novella;  Playwriting/Dramatic writing;  Poetry;  Screenwriting;  Short story;  Songwriting;  Bibliography;  Stream of consciousness (narrative mode). 3. Look at the examples of creative writing below and identify the form of each. A. Man May Love Robert Sharp “Miss Young, I want to ask you something,” and Geoffrey modestly pulled the sheets close up under his pink chin. “I suppose you’ll think me an awful bore for saying this to you so abruptly, but I’m dreadfully in earnest. Will you marry me, please?” Miss Young did not stop a minute in her deft arrangement of his breakfast tray. She didn’t even blush. “No, I don’t think I will,” she answered. “You see, I can’t marry everyone that asks me.” 67

“How many have you married already?” “Well, I haven’t married any yet.” “Then marry me.” (From: http://www.flashfictiononline.com/f_archives.html)

B. Scars A life in injuries David Owen On a hill in the neighborhood where I grew up, in Kansas City, was a suburban ruin that my friends and I called the Burned-Down House. There was a crumbling tennis court, which was enclosed by an overgrown chain-link fence, and there was a concrete slab with a dirt-floored crawl space underneath it, and there were two limestone chimneys. During the summer of 1972, when I was in high school, my friend Duncan and I sat on top of one of the chimneys lighting firecrackers with our cigarettes and throwing them at two other friends, who were sitting on a limestone retaining wall and throwing firecrackers at us. Between explosions, we tried to think of something less boring to do. Most of our firecrackers were Black Cats, but we had some cherry bombs, too, and one of those blew up a few inches above my left foot. When I could hear again, and when Duncan and I had stopped laughing, I noticed a nickel-size piece of cherry-bomb shrapnel embedded in the rubber toe cap of my sneaker. When I pulled on it, it came out of my foot like a cork, and blood spread up through the canvas and into the laces. Duncan drove me to the office of my doctor, a pediatrician. The waiting room was full of mothers and weepy three-year-olds, and I took off my shoe and handed it to the receptionist, to show her what the problem was. I can still make out the line of the wound. Over the years, your body becomes a kind of historical document, in which certain dramatic moments are memorialized in scar tissue. (Abridged from: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/03/19/scars)

C. FADE IN: EXT. CARIBBEAN SEA – DAY A gray, impenetrable wall of fog. From somewhere comes the FAINT SOUND of a LITTLE GIRL’S VOICE, singing, slow tempo, almost under her breath. YOUNG ELIZABETH Yo, ho, yo, ho, a pirate’s life for me Yo, ho, yo, ho, it’s a pirate’s life for me...


Suddenly a massive SHIP emerges from the grey, the Winged Victory maidenhead looming. It’s a British dreadnought, the H.M.S. Dauntless. Formidable, frightening, twenty-five gun ports on a side, and rail guns to boot. EXT. H.M.S. DAUNTLESS – FORECASTLE – DAY ELIZABETH SWANN, strawberry blond hair, stands at the bow railing, gazing at the seas, still singing – ELIZABETH ...drink up me hearties, yo, ho... JOSHAMEE GIBBS, who was born old, skin a dark leather, clutches her shoulder, startling her. GIBBS Quiet, missy! Cursed pirates sail these waters. You want to call’em down on us? Elizabeth stares wide-eyed at him. NORRINGTON Mr. Gibbs. NORRINGTON, a dashing young man, Royal Navy to the core, glares sternly at Gibbs. Standing beside him is GOVERNOR WEATHERBY SWAN, a man of obvious high station, brass buttons on his thick blue jacket. He is Elizabeth’s father. NORRINGTON That will do. GIBBS She was singing about pirates. Bad luck to sing about pirates, with us mired in this unnatural fog – mark my words. NORRINGTON Consider them marked. On your way. GIBBS Aye, Captain. (as he moves off) Bad luck to have a woman on board, too. Even a miniature one. He returns to his deck-swabbing duties, surreptitiously takes a quick swig from flask. ELIZABETH I think it would be rather exciting to meet a pirate. NORRINGTON Think again, Miss Swan. Vile and dissolute creatures, the lot of them. 69

I intend to see to it that any man who sails under a pirate flag, or wears a pirates brand, gets what he deserves: a short drop and a sudden stop. Elizabeth doesn’t know what ‘a short drop and a sudden stop’ means. Gibbs helpfully mimes: a man being hung. (Abridged from: http://www.weeklyscript.com/Pirates+Of%20The%20Caribbean.html)

II. Practice 1. Discuss the following questions in the group. What kind of writing does creative writing usually include: descriptive, discursive or narrative? What is the difference between them? What person are narratives (stories) usually written in? What should you decide on first before writing a story? Now read the notes below and compare the information with your ideas. Creative writing usually includes two types of writing:  descriptive writing (to describe characters, acting, setting, scenery, special effects, direction etc.);  narrative writing (to tell the story, relate a personal account etc.). A narrative (story) can be written either in the first person or in the third person and describe a series of events, either imaginary or based on your own experience. Before writing the story you should decide on the theme (the central topic a text treats), plot line (the events which make up the story) and the setting (the historical moment in time and geographic location in which a story takes place, and helps initiate the main backdrop and mood for a story). 2. A narrative should consist of several parts. Match the parts of a narrative to their descriptions in the table below: Part a) an introduction b) a main body

c) the climax event d) a conclusion e) a twist

Description 1. A surprising ending that makes a long-lasting impression on the reader 2. A part in which the scene is set, that is when and where the story took place, who the people in the story were and what happened first 3. A part which concludes what happened at the end of the story, as well as people’s feelings, final comments or reactions 4. The paragraphs where the story is developed describing the events 5. The event where interest, suspense and feelings reach their peak 70

Note! A narrative may also have a catchy title in order to attract the reader’s attention, especially if it is for a magazine, newspaper, etc. 3. What tips and recommendation for writing narratives (stories) can you give? Share your ideas with your group mates. Consider the following points:  techniques to begin and end the story;  time words and sequence of events, flashbacks;  use of tenses;  use of adjectives, similes, descriptive techniques;  use of linking words;  use of senses;  variety of verbs. Now read the tips below and compare them with yours. 1. You should never start writing before you have decided on the plot and the setting. 2. To show the sequence of events in a story we can use linking words such as: at first, before, until, while, when, during, then, after, finally, as soon as, at that moment, by the time, next, eventually, meanwhile, after a while, suddenly etc. 3. To make a narrative more interesting to the reader, we should relate the characters’ moods and feelings by: – using a variety of adjectives (wonderful, fascinating, horrible, depressed, disgusted, exhilarating etc.) and adverbs (fearlessly, surprisingly, etc.) instead of simplistic ones (good, nice, bad). 4. Be careful with the tenses you choose. You can use the Past Continuous to set the scene, Past Simple to describe the main events of the story, or Past Perfect to give the background of the story. Sometimes the Present tenses are used in the narration to make the story more vivid and dramatic. Present and past participles can also be used. 5. Descriptions of people, places, objects or events and descriptive techniques can be used in a narrative when you want to emphasise specific parts of your narration. 6. When writing a narrative you can use flashback narration. This means you can start your story at a certain point in time (often a very exciting moment), then go back in time and describe events which happened before this time (usually in Past Perfect), lead the reader up to the specified time, then go on with your story and bring it to a conclusion. 7. An interesting beginning is important in order to catch the reader’s attention and make them want to continue reading. An interesting ending will make them feel satisfied. We can start a story by: – using the senses to set the scene and describe the weather, atmosphere, surroundings or people’s actions to create mystery and suspense. 71

– – – –

We can start or end the story by: using direct speech; asking a rhetorical question; referring to feelings and moods; addressing the reader directly. We can end the story by: describing people’s reactions to/feeling about the events developed in the main body.

4. Mark the statements about writing narratives True or False justifying your answers. 1. A story cannot begin with direct speech. 2. Time words should be used in stories. 3. Stories should not combine description and narration. 4. Use of senses to set the scene should be avoided. 5. Punctuation and paragraph planning are essential in stories. 6. Sequence of events is not important in stories. 7. You can narrate a story by moving back in time. 8. When writing a story, past tenses should be avoided. (From: “Virginia Evans. Successful Writing. Upper-intermediate”. P. 36)

5. Read the task and two models that follow and decide which one best answers the question. Task The editor of a magazine has invited readers to send in a story. The story must begin with the following sentence: “I can’t believe this is happening,” I thought, as I saw Jane walk into the restaurant. The best story wins a free meal at a restaurant of your choice. Write your story for the magazine. Model A “I can’t believe this is happening,” I thought, as I saw Jane walk into the restaurant. She hadn’t changed at all. She was still tall and beautiful, with wavy blonde hair and bright green eyes. I smiled and thought of how my life had changed since we had last met. It had all started when I noticed her at a party. I had followed her to the buffet and started talking to her about the food. “You seem very interested in food,” she laughed. “Well, I’m a great cook,” I told her. It was a lie, but I had to find an excuse to see her again. “Why don’t I cook you dinner sometime?” The dinner party was extremely embarrassing. I ordered food from a nearby restaurant and pretended that I had cooked it. She offered to wash up and found the delivery boxes in the kitchen. She laughed at me and felt awful. Angry with myself, I decided then and there to learn how to cook. 72

I never saw Jane after our terrible dinner date. I started a cookery course and found that I was good at it after all. I went on to train to be a chef. I worked hard and saved up until I was able to open my own restaurant. Now she had walked into my restaurant. Feeling as pleased as punch, I pretended I was a waiter and walked to her table. “Ready to order, madam?” I asked. Model B I can’t believe this is happening to me, I said to myself when Jane Harris was coming into the restaurant. It was a long time since we saw each other, but she didn’t look very different. She is still very nice and tall. Some weeks ago I met her at a party. We talked about food, we both liked food and I told her I was a chef. That was a lie. I wasn’t a chef but I wanted to see her again so I told her to come to my house for dinner. It was very bad. I couldn’t cook so I ordered take-away and told her I had cooked it. She believed me. When she went into the kitchen to wash the dishes, she found the empty boxes. She wasn’t angry, she only laughed at me, but I was shaking like a leaf. I never thought I would see her again, but I learnt to cook. I was very good. I became a chef and now I have my own restaurant Escargots. It’s very famous and my speciality is chicken and apple casserole. I have lots of wealthy customers and I have even won a few awards. But I never expected to see Jane here. It was a bit of a shock, but now I will cook her the best meal she ever had. (From: “Bob Obee-Virginia Evans. Upstream Upper-Intermediate. Student’s Book”. P. 135)

Compare and contrast the two models in terms of:  opening with the sentence as given in the task;  interesting beginning and ending;  use of adjectives and adverbs;  time words/phrases;  use of vocabulary;  use of tenses;  having a clear flashback section leading the reader back to the distant past;  describing the character’s feelings;  cohesion and unity of the paragraphs. In pairs, suggest ways of improving the weak model, then think of another ending. Compare your ending to other pairs. Which do you prefer? III. On Your Own 1. Choose any task below and write your own story. 1. Colour Coded Write a short story that begins with the sentence that contains the word “blue”, (or any other colour) and in which the first sentence of every paragraph 73

contains a word denoting colour. Use the “colour word” only once in each paragraph, but suggest the colour in as many ways as possible. For example: The world had turned grey. Nothing but mud and asphalt surrounded the unpainted house, little more than a box made of concrete blocks. Charlie, dressed in faded work pants, rubber boots, and a thick wool sweater, steadied himself with a hand on the top rail of a weathered cedar fence. Behind him, nothing but ash-coloured sky, bare trees, and plumes of smoke belching from the factory in the distance. A lone sparrow rested on a branch, one beady eye watching. 2. Turn a poem into a short story A poem uses tight language to convey emotional or intellectual ideas in an imaginative and new way. A single poem can provide a rich source of creative writing ideas for fiction writers who can use specifics in the poem as a starting point for a narrative. Use the poem of your choice for inspiration, create a character, a setting, a situation, and a character goal, from the poem and write a short story. (From: http://www.be-a-better-writer.com/creative-writing-activities.html)

3. A short story competition Imagine you have decided to enter a short story competition. You should write a story starting with the words “Who can this man be?” and ending with the words “It was only then that I realized they had mistaken me for someone else.” Entitle your short story “A Disastrous Evening.” 2. Assess and evaluate your partner’s short story, checking for the following: a) content: Is the story line interesting? Is it well developed? Is there a climax event, a twist? What is it? b) organization, cohesion and unity: – Are the vents organized in paragraphs? – Are the sentences/paragraphs well-linked together? c) accuracy: – Are there any errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar, etc.? What are they? d) range: – Is there a range of vocabulary and grammar in the story? Write your evaluation of your partner’s story and discuss it with him/her. 3. Read all your stories in the group and decide on the most interesting, original, instructive, funny, thrilling one.


UNIT 5 PROFESSIONAL (BUSINESS) WRITING I. Lead-in 1. Do you remember what forms of writing refer to professional (business) writing? Which of them have you written yourself? In what situations? 2. Make up a definition of professional (business) writing. Then compare your definition with the ones given below. Which is more precise in your opinion? “Professional writing is writing for reward or as a profession, or writing to a standard and style demanded by a particular profession. It involves the use of clear language to convey information in a way that is easily understood by the intended audience, and may be focused on information, persuasion or to stimulate debate.” (From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professional_writing)

“Memorandums, reports,proposals, emails, and other forms of writing used in organizations to communicate with internal or external audiences. Business writing is a type of professional communication.” (By Richard Nordquist, from: http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/ businesswritingterm.htm)

“Professional writing is a style of written communication used in a workplace environment that allows professionals (e.g. businesspeople, professors, doctors, lawyers, etc.) to make informed decisions. Professional writing typically has a formal tone and differs from written text that is considered literary or artistic, which generally seeks to entertain and/or convey a philosophical truth.” (By Vivian Taylor, from: http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-professional-writingdefinition-lesson-quiz.html)

3. What is the general purpose of professional (business) writing? 4. What are the most common specific functions of business writing? Choose from the ones below:  to encourage action;  to instruct;  to persuade;  to entertain;  to inform;  to affirm shared goals;  to share emotions etc.


II. Practice 1. Do you know the difference between a report and a proposal? Do they have anything in common? Discuss your ideas with the group mates. Now read the extract below and compare your ideas to the information given. Reports and proposals are usually written to present information in formal situations. Reports tend to be about past events or present situations. Proposals usually outline a course of action for the future. Sometimes (but not always), the proposal needs to be persuasive. In other words, the target reader should be convinced by what is written and likely to agree to the suggestions. For this reason, it is often helpful to include the benefits of the request being granted/the suggestions being put into effect, etc. Reports and proposals are usually divided into sections. Each section is written as a paragraph, in the same way as other types of writing, but the sections are given headings. A report or proposal should contain:  An introduction in which the reason for writing is stated.  A main body with headed sections. It is essential to choose appropriate section headings in order to answer the question properly.  A conclusion in which the main points are summarized. The conclusion may include a reference to future action. 2. Read two models below and say which of them is a report and which is a proposal. Explain why you think so. What do these pieces of writing have in common? Think of:  the contents;  the purpose of writing;  the style;  the beginning and the conclusion;  structure;  headings etc. Model A To: Mr S. Finch, Principal From: Hugh Jones, Year One Subject: Suggestions for “Topical Issues’ Course” Date: 5 November 20… Introduction The information below is in support of three subjects that, in my opinion, should be covered in the Topical Issues classes in the college.


World Debt One subject that would be a useful addition to the curriculum is a study of world debt. Although we are all very aware of the poverty gap, I believe that very few of us fully comprehend this complex issue. If it were to be included as part of the course, I think it would be very educational. A greater understanding of the situation and the reasons behind it could even go some way towards helping to find solutions to this unacceptable situation. Crime This is an issue which I feel is relevant to the majority of students. It would be beneficial to examine this subject from the perspective of, say, psychology or sociology. To my mind, only by examining the motivation behind offences can we fully understand the problem and concentrate on the important matters of protection and prevention. Environmental Concerns Another area that I consider to be worthy of further investigation is that of the imminent dangers to the environment. Many of us intend to take up positions in commerce o industry and since environmentally friendly policies are being increasingly adopted by companies, it is vital that we are aware of the latest developments. Furthermore, such knowledge could help to avert a potential ecological disaster. Benefits Apart from the specific benefits mentioned above, I am convinced that the running of such a course would be of use to students. Not only will these subjects be helpful in our future careers, but I anticipate that they will also provide us with a better understanding of the society we live in. (From: “Upstream Advanced. Student’s Book.”. P. 91)

Model B To: Mr Simkins, Principal From: Tom Wheeler, Debating Society Secretary Subject: Issues covered in the Summer Term Date: 18 June 20… Purpose The purpose of this ???? is to present the main issues discussed by the society in the last term. Crime By far the most controversial issue that we have covered is the crime rate in modern times. In the three separate debates, chaired by Jonathan Deacon, we had almost maximum attendance. A wide range of opinions was expressed and a final vote was taken, in which the majority were in favour of stricter policing but more lenient punishment. 77

Homelessness In the first of two debates, James Lawton put forward the suggestion that homelessness was a matter of choice. This led to a lively exchange with several members voicing their strong disagreement. The second debate focused on the government’s responsibilities in this area. A final vote on the question of whether the situation would improve in the near future revealed that over sixty percent of our members were undecided. Poverty The approach which the society took to this matter was two-fold. Firstly, it was suggested that banks should cancel debts owed by developing countries. After the facts were presented by Jane Howell and Doreen Rose, there was tremendous support for the motion and our members voted overwhelmingly in favour. In addition, it was suggested that the problem of debt needed to be addressed on a local level, with more focus on the individual. It was unanimously agreed that financial counseling should be made more freely available to members of the public. Conclusion All in all, this was a successful term, with over eighty per cent attendance on average. For the autumn term we hope to sustain these figures when we discuss the subjects of animal rights, urban anonymity and the use of surveillance cameras. (From: “Upstream Advanced. Student’s Book”. P. 89)

3. Say which of the statements below are true for Model A only, for Model B only, for both or none: 1. It is written in formal style. 2. It begins and ends like a letter. 3. It states the reason for writing at the very beginning. 4. It consists of sections with headings. 5. It presents the information in short sentences without linking devices. 6. It outlines a course of action for the future. 7. It analyses the events of the past. 4. Read the texts below. Can you say what form of professional writing they are? Are the texts structured in the same way? What is the difference? Text 1 Park Avenue Writers Meeting – 08 August 20___ Meeting called to order at 4:30 pm by meeting chair Jessalyn Boyce. Members present: Chair Jessalyn Boyce Grace Grayson Natalie Wilcox 78

Jon Mitchell Luna Stanford Sierra Winchester Adam Monroe Dick Richards Nick Nicholas Members not present: Andrew Anderson (pre-arranged) Andrea Anderson (pre-arranged) Reading of Agenda  Motion: To approve the agenda for 08 August 20__ Vote: Motion carried Resolved: Agenda for the meeting on 08 August 2012 approved without modification Approval of Minutes  Motion: To approve the minutes for 01 August 20__ Vote: Motion carried Resolved: Minutes from the meeting on 01 August 20__ approved without modification Business  Motion from Jon Mitchell: To select Luna Stanford’s manuscript for critique Vote: 6 in favor, 2 against, 1 abstain Resolved: Motion carried; Luna Stanford’s manuscript accepted for critique  Motion from Luna Stanford: To replace the meeting table using committee funds Vote: 3 in favor, 4 against Resolved: Motion failed Amendment: Nick Nicholas volunteered to repair the table at no cost  Motion from Sierra Winchester: To subscribe to Writer’s Digest using committee funds Vote: Motion carried Resolved: Subscription to Writer’s Digest to be purchased using committee funds. Amendment: Subscription will be in the name of Chair Jessalyn Boyce at special two-year rate Meeting adjourned at 5:15 pm. (From: http://www.wikihow.com/Take-Minutes)


Text 2 Westleigh Maintenance Company Ltd Annual General Meeting Monday 19 July 2010 Present Julie Culshaw, Mary Greenhalgh, Vera Sisson, Ingrid Kempster, Edward Kempster, Irene Rodger, Colin Rodger, Gerry Clarke, Edith Pickles, Pat Powell, Heather Pollitt, Roy Johnson. Apologies Manoj Hira, Reg Marsden, Lavinia Marsden, John Sillar 1. Minutes of the last AGM held on 22 July 2009 were accepted. 2. The accounts for the year ended 31 March 2010 were accepted. Although these showed an overall loss, this was due to late maintenance payments, and these had since been paid. 3. Appointment of accountants. The finance director suggested that we remain with our current accountants, and this was accepted. 4. Appointment of directors. The current directors were all standing for re-election. There were no nominations for new directors. The current directors were re-elected. 5. Appointment of company secretary. Julie Culshaw moved a vote of thanks and appreciation to the secretary and other directors in recognition of the amount of work they undertook on behalf of the Company. Heather Pollitt was elected as secretary. 6. Increase in service charge. Because of the lack of any surplus to pay for improvements and maintenance, the directors recently looked into the possibility of arranging a bank overdraft. This was not pursued because of the cost and the excessive bureaucracy attached. The possibility of extraordinary payments was also discussed and rejected in favour of an increase in the service charge. The meeting finally agreed that the directors should prepare a financial projection for the next one to two years, based on an increase in the annual service charge to somewhere between £1100 and £1200. Any Other Business 7. Managing agents. The directors recently decided to end the relationship with the Guthrie Partnership as managing agents, because it was felt that the directors themselves were able to act more efficiently on behalf of Westleigh and its interests. However, the advisory services of Alec Guthrie himself would be retained as and when required for legal purposes. 8. Maintenance. 80

Directors had spoken to Dave Roberts, who agreed to act as a point of contact for local maintenance services. It was stressed that this did not represent an agreement to cover the costs of any works commissioned: these could only be met following agreement of the directors. Gerry Clarke reminded the meeting that in cases where leaks from one apartment were affecting another, the costs of any repairs and redecoration were the responsibility of the owner causing the leaks. 9. Gardening. There was general dissatisfaction with the services provided by the current gardeners. A quotation from another local gardening service had been obtained, and it was agreed to change to this alternative service for a trial period once sufficient funds were available – probably towards the end of September. 10.Purchase of freehold. The purchase of the freehold was now complete, and Westleigh owners were in a position to either cease or continue making ground rent payments. Pat Powell suggested that the current payment should be included in the annual service charge, payable by one direct debit. This suggestion was accepted. 11.External re-decoration. The replacement of the finials, cleaning of driveways, and repainting of fascia boards was almost complete. A vote of thanks was extended to Edith Pickles for allowing the use of her garage for storage during these works. The meeting concluded at 20.15. (From: http://www.mantex.co.uk/2010/10/20/how-to-write-the-minutes-of-meetings/)

5. Have you ever been elected or assigned as secretary of the committee you belong to or as secretary of a meeting? Have you ever had to take minutes? Why are minutes important? What are they taken for? Do you know how to take, prepare and present minutes? Share your experience and ideas with the group. Compare your ideas with the tips given below. a. It is most likely that you will make rough notes during the meeting, then convert these to your formal minutes of the meeting after it has finished. Remember that you are summarizing the most important issues, so you need to use a number of skills at the same time  good listening skills;  the ability to summarize;  good note-taking skills. Your job is to distinguish the less from the more important points of discussion. For this you can use your own system of abbreviations. b. Many people find it difficult to listen carefully and make notes at the same time. This becomes even more difficult if they are an active member of the


meeting. For that reason a minutes secretary is not normally expected to participate as fully in a meeting as the other members. If the meeting is not too big, you can probably record people’s contributions using their initials (KP, HT, MA) rather than their full names. You can also do this in any minutes so long as the names appear in full in the list of attendees. The first time the name of an organisation is mentioned, it should be spelled out in full – as in Product Management Corporation, or the Queen Elizabeth Jubilee Trust. Thereafter, you can use acronyms formed by the initial letters of its name (PMC and QEJT). In very big meetings, these names and acronyms are often listed in an appendix. Prepare in advance as much as possible. Make sure you have a copy of the minutes of the last meeting, and that they have been circulated to other committee members. Making a record of a meeting is always easier if you know the agenda in advance, and even if you know who might be in attendance. Make sure you have a copy of the meeting agenda. Get to the meeting early so that you can record the names of other people as they arrive – if you know them. If you don’t know the attendees, wait until the meeting has started, then circulate a blank sheet on which people are asked to PRINT their names. Don’t circulate this attendance sheet before the meeting starts, because if some people arrive late, the chances are that they will be missed. c. At the meeting  listen attentively, jotting down key words;  use the agenda document as a template;  leave enough space between items for your jottings;  summarize what’s said, using a system of shorthand;  ask for clarification if necessary. d. To avoid wasting your time spent in meetings, be sure your notes and minutes answer these 10 questions: 1) When was the meeting? 2) Who attended? 3) Who did not attend? (Include this information if it matters.) 4) What topics were discussed? 5) What was decided? 6) What actions were agreed upon? 7) Who is to complete the actions, by when? 8) Were materials distributed at the meeting? If so, are copies or a link available? 9) Is there anything special the reader of the minutes should know or do? 10)Is a follow-up meeting scheduled? If so, when? where? why? e. Minutes need headings so that readers can skim for the information they need. Your template may include these: 82

1. Name of Organisation or group 2. Name of Meeting – it might be a regular meeting or one with a specific purpose 3. Date of Meeting 4. Names of those attending – plus their positions or the organisations they represent 5. Apologies for absence – those giving their apologies for non-attendance 6. Topics 7. Agenda item One – This is usually the minutes of the last meeting 8. Agenda item Two 9. Agenda item Three … and so on … 10.Decisions or Actions Agreed Upon Person responsible Deadline 11.Any other business 12.Next Meeting Date and Time Location f. Do write minutes soon after the meeting – preferably within 48 hours. That way, those who attended can be reminded of action items, and those who did not attend will promptly know what happened. g. Don’t skip writing minutes just because everyone attended the meeting and knows what happened. Meeting notes serve as a record of the meeting long after people forget what happened. h. Don’t describe all the “he said, she said” details unless those details are very important. Record topics discussed, decisions made, and action items. i. Don’t include any information that will embarrass anyone (for example, “Then Terry left the room in tears”). j. Do use positive language. Rather than describing the discussion as heated or angry, use passionate, lively, or energetic – all of which are just as true as the negative words. (Reviewed and abridged from: http://www.mantex.co.uk/2010/10/20/ how-to-write-the-minutes-of-meetings/; http://www.businesswritingblog.com/business_writing/2006/01/tips_for_writin.html)

6. Do you know the difference between a personal profile and a curriculum vitae (CV)? When are they written? What are their aims? Read the texts below and say which of them is a personal profile and which is a curriculum vitae. Where is a personal profile usually placed? Are these CV and a personal profile for a job or for university/college application? Explain why. 83

Text 1


Annette Bell Address: 28 Beaumont Road, Plymouth PL 1 4SQ Email: [email protected] Telephone: 01752 821617

Media organization experience Inter-Cinematics: International media 2014 Public relations assistant 6-month internship Contributed to the organization of press conferences London, UK Prepared press kits for journalists Proofread and copy-edited draft press releases Liaised with members of the press Editor of The Varsity Times: University newspaper 2014–Present Plymouth, UK Selected and edited potential articles Wrote weekly editorial column Ensured tight newspaper deadlines were met Awarded “Editor of the year” in 2008 and 2009 2014–Pesent University of Plymouth Plymouth, UK President of the University social committee Organised and promoted events Controlled budgets Negotiated prices of goods with suppliers Education Degree University of Plymouth BA in Public Relations 2012–2014 Plymouth, UK 1st Class Hons Secondary education A-levels in English Literature, French and Me2009 dia Studies Halford, UK Combertoon Secondary School Languages and IT skills English Mother tongue Languages French Fluent Spanish Proficient Keen tennis player and rower: represented UniversiInterests ty of Plymouth for 3 years Enjoy promoting local voluntary projects such as Arts for All and Silversurfers On request Referees (Reviewed from: “Intelligent Business. Workbook. Advanced Business English”. P. 35) 84

Text 2 A highly motivated and ambitious graduate with excellent organizational and communication skills. During my studies I successfully combined university assignments with an internship with an international media organization. I have also won two awards for my work editing the university magazine, The Varsity Times, demonstrating both writing and organizational skills as well as the ability to manage a team. As president of the university social committee, I also negotiated with suppliers and promoted university events including a music festival, which raised over $6,000 for charity. I have represented the university in tennis and rowing and worked on promoting local voluntary projects. I have a keen analytical mind with a practical approach to problems solving and am reliable, hardworking and eager to learn. I am passionate about promotion and wish to pursue a career in PR. (Reviewed from: “Intelligent Business. Workbook. Advanced Business English”. P. 35)

7. CVs for a job can be of different formats. Match the formats of CVs to their descriptions: CV format 1. Performance CV

2. Functional CV

Description A. This is a skills-based CV format. It can be useful if you’re looking for a career change. It focuses on your transferable skills and experience, rather than job titles, companies, and how long ago you got the experience. You promote your skills and achievements in three to six ‘functional headings’. For example, if you’re applying for work in a retail role then headings could include ‘customer service’ and ‘sales’ – both key skills for any retail role. It can be effective at highlighting your unique combination of skills. B. You might consider using this format if you’re still at school, college or university or if you’ve recently finished a full-time course. You highlight your qualifications first. If you’ve been in full-time education most of your life your qualifications will probably be your main achievement. If you don’t have a lot of work experience, try to make your course work relevant to the skills you’d use in the job. For example, you probably use time management, research and IT skills every day. You may also be able to say you’re a fast learner, and are up to date with the latest equipment and techniques in your field. 85

3. Targeted CV

4. Student or graduate CV

5. Alternative CV

C. This is a skills-based CV format. It can be useful if you’re looking for a career change. It focuses on your transferable skills and experience, rather than job titles, companies, and how long ago you got the experience. It’s called so because you use it to aim for a specific type of job. You only include details that are relevant to the job you’re applying for. These are listed in two separate sections: abilities and achievements, and you use the headings ‘abilities’ and ‘achievements’ rather than creating three to six individual skills headings. D.The most popular type of CV. It highlights job titles and company names, starting with your most recent job and working backwards. However, you begin with an ‘Achievements’ section, which highlights impressive achievements that can make you stand out from other candidates. Under each job title you list your responsibilities in the role. E. It uses an original and eye-catching format or clever wording to show off your creativity. You could consider using this approach if you apply for creative jobs such as a graphic designer or advertising executive. It’s impossible to summarise what usually goes into this type of a CV because all of them are original and different. But examples are: presenting your CV as an advert, printing your CV on decorative paper, presenting your CV details in a story format.

(Abridged from: https://nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk/advice/getajob/cvs/Pages/default.aspx)

8. Read the article below form the BBC site and sum up (in writing) the tips about how to write a successful CV for a job. Compare your summarized tips with the partner’s. Are they the same? How to write a successful CV By Kevin Peachey Personal finance reporter, BBC News Employers receive an average of 60 applicants for every advertisement for a low-skilled job, and 20 for every skilled job. Significantly, almost half of these candidates are perfectly suitable for the role, according to research by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD). So that makes their CV – or curriculum vitae – all the more important when attempting to stand out from the crowd. 86

Experts say there are some golden rules for getting a CV correct, not least accuracy, spelling and grammar. Don’t repeat the mistakes, they say, of a lawyer who stressed his “dew diligence”, or the applicant who ignored commas when describing his interests as “cooking dogs and interesting people”. If sending a CV as a hard copy, along with a job application, then it needs to be neat and typed if possible. Increasingly, applicants are asked to send a digital copy of a CV. If this is the case then the first set of “eyes” to see it might be an automated search for key words, so experts suggest applicants ensure mandatory requirements in the job advert are included in a CV. Corinne Mills, managing director of Personal Career Management, which provides career coaching, says that digital CVs should be in a simple format and font so readability is not affected on different screens. Other tips from Mrs Mills, the CIPD, and the National Careers Service include: – Tailor a CV to a specific job – it is vital to ensure the script is relevant to each job application, rather than sending the same generic CV. – Keep it simple – it should be easy to read and use active language. Two pages of A4 is enough with a mini profile included in the first half page. – Include key information – personal details, including name, address, phone number, email address and any professional social media presence should be clear. A date of birth is no longer needed, owing to age discrimination rules. A photo is only essential for jobs such as acting and modelling, otherwise it is a matter of choice. – Showcase achievements – offer evidence of how targets were exceeded and ideas created, but always be honest. – Check and double check – avoid sloppy errors, take a fresh look the next day and ask for a second opinion from a trusted friend or colleague. Mrs Mills says it is important that applicants put modesty aside and show self-confidence in their CV. “If you are not confident about your skills and abilities then why should an employer have faith in you,” she says. CVs have been around for years and Ruth Stuart, research adviser at the CIPD, says that she expects their format to evolve as technology changes. Some employers are asking for video CVs, where applicants describe their skills and experience on a short video filmed on their smartphone, or requesting jobseekers complete application forms online. However, she argues that CVs will always be useful. “If your CV is always up-to-date then you can quite easily fill in those online applications because you have got all that information to hand,” she says. There are plenty of useful tools and templates to assist people writing up their CV for the first time, or brushing up an existing one: CV writing factsheet and CV builders with various tips and templates. 87

CVs can be produced in a different format for job applications outside of the UK. For example, the equivalent of the CV in the US is the “resume”. This has much the same aims by outlining job talents, work history, education and career goals, as well as how a candidate’s experience and skills would be suited to the job being advertised. (Abridged from: http://www.bbc.com/news/business-15573447)

9. Do you know what else you usually have to write and enclose to your CV (with a personal profile) when you apply for a job or a university course/ academic programme? A cover letter or a letter of application is an important part of an application process. Have you ever written it? What is the purpose of it? What kind of information does it usually contain? What style is typical of a cover letter? How should you begin and end your letter? Discuss your ideas in a group. Then read the text below and check your ideas. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak CV/resume. The first thing a potential employer/university administration see in your job/university application is the cover letter. This doesn’t just support your CV – it’s an opportunity for you to stand out from the crowd and persuade the recruiter to put you through to the next round. Be wary of spending hours on perfecting your CV at the expense of your cover letter. Such a letter introduces you, explains your purpose for writing, highlights a few of your experiences or skills, and requests an opportunity to meet personally with the potential employer/university administration. Precisely because this letter is your introduction and because first impressions count, you should take great care to write an impressive and effective letter. Remember that the letter not only tells of your accomplishments but also reveals how effectively you can communicate. A cover letter is meant to: – Introduce yourself to the hiring manager/head of the department. – Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job/applicant for a course/academic programme. – Fill in places your CV cannot describe. – Further explain other aspects of your CV. A cover letter is usually a one page document that you send with your CV/resume when applying for a job or applying for an academic programme/course. The appropriate content, format, and tone for application letters vary according to the position and the personality of the applicant. A standard, conservative style is ideal for sectors such as business, law, accountancy, retail and education. For more creative sectors, a letter like this might be less appealing, and could work against you. 88

To begin your cover letter, include both the employer’s/university and your contact information. Find out to whom you’re writing! Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the company’s/university’s website or even give the company a call to ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. Introduce yourself. In the first paragraph of your cover letter, begin by telling the employer/the university administration the position/course or programme you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of how they align with the goals of the company/contents of the course. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager or the academic programme description. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to meet the company’s needs or how your previous education can help you succeed in your further studies. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the job/programme description in your cover letter. When applying for a job to go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to find out what they are doing – and why – given the current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that scheme, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have, or why your participation in the academic programme will be efficient. The final paragraph is called the “call to action” portion of your cover letter. Inform them that you’d want to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Thank them for spending the time to read your cover letter. Now analyse the sample below. 5 Hill Street Madison, Wisconsin 53700 March 15, 2005 Ms. Helen Jones President Jones, Jones & Jones 123 International Lane Boston, Massachusetts 01234


Dear Ms. Jones: I am writing to enquire if you have any vacancies in your company. I enclose my CV for your information. As you can see, I have had extensive vacation work experience in office environments, the retail sector and service industries, giving me varied skills and the ability to work with many different types of people. I believe I could fit easily into your team. I am a conscientious person who works hard and pays attention to detail. I’m flexible, quick to pick up new skills and eager to learn from others. I also have lots of ideas and enthusiasm. I’m keen to work for a company with a great reputation and high profile like [insert company name]. I have excellent references and would be delighted to discuss any possible vacancy with you at your convenience. In case you do not have any suitable openings at the moment, I would be grateful if you would keep my CV on file for any future possibilities. Yours sincerely, (Abridged and reviewed from: http://www.theguardian.com/careers/covering-letter-examples; https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/CoverLetters.html; https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide)

III. On Your Own 1. Role-play. The university where you study is planning to introduce a new English course which is to be called “Topical Issues”. The purpose of the course is to study social issues of national and international importance. The Head of the Department has asked the students to call the meeting of the Department debating society and discuss students’ suggestions for what should be included in the course. 1. Elect the secretary of the meeting, who will take notes and present the minutes of the meeting. 2. Elect the chairman of the meeting, who will write the report to the Head of the Department, clearly stating the ideas that have been suggested, and including any other relevant information, such as conclusions reached, students’ participation, etc. The chairman might need the minutes written by the secretary. You should write approximately 250 words. 3. After discussing the ideas and gathering opinions from the students, all other students should write a proposal to the Head of the Department, submitting up to three Best suggestions for consideration and saying why You think students would benefit from a deeper knowledge of these issues. You should write approximately 250 words. 2. Read each other’s papers from task 6 above. Is your partner’s paper relevant to the task? Assess and evaluate in writing your partner’s paper, checking for the following: 90

      

type and form of writing; purpose; target reader; structure, layout and organization (logical, easy to follow); style, tone; clarity of ideas; accuracy of language.

3. Divide into 2 groups. All the students of Group 1 should write a CV (with a personal profile) and a cover letter applying for a job (see the task for Group 1 below). All the students from Group 2 should write a CV (with a personal profile) and a cover letter applying for a 1 year academic programme (see the task for Group 2 below). To write a CV you can use the CV template below. CV Template First name Second name Address, Postcode Phone number Email address PERSONAL PROFILE A short statement that outlines: Who you are (e.g. degree studying); what you bring (e.g. experience, specific skills, motivation, knowledge or a unique selling point); what role you are applying for. EDUCATION Start Year – End Year University of Leicester Undergraduate Degree title and Grade (Received/Predicted) Relevant Modules Dissertation and/or appropriate projects Start Year – End Year Name of School, Location A level: Subject (Grade), Subject (Grade), Subject (Grade) (or equivalent qualifications) No. of GCSE’s (Grade Range) including Maths (Grade) and English (Grade) (or equivalent qualifications) RELEVANT WORK EXPERIENCE Start Date (Month/Year) – End Date Company/Organisation name, Location, Job title  Action Word (e.g. ‘Developed’ or ‘Delivered’) followed by key responsibility/achievement/skill(s) acquired/ learning gained/ insights gained Start Date (Month/Year) – End Date Company/Organisation name, Location, Job Title  Action Word (e.g. ‘Developed’ or ‘Delivered’) followed by key responsibility/achievement/skill(s) acquired/ learning gained/ insights gained 91

ADDITIONAL WORK EXPERIENCE Start Date (Month/Year) – End Date Company/Organisation name, Location, Job Title  Action Word (e.g. ‘Developed’ or ‘Delivered’) followed by key responsibility/achievement/skill(s) acquired/ learning gained/ insights gained POSITIONS OF RESPONSIBILITY Start Date (Month/Year) – End Date Company/Organisation name, job title  Action Word (e.g. ‘Developed’ or ‘Delivered’) followed by key responsibility/achievement/skill(s) acquired/ learning gained/ insights gained VOLUNTEERING Start Date (Month/Year) – End Date Company/Organisation name, job title  Action Word (e.g. ‘Developed’ or ‘Delivered’) followed by key responsibility/achievement/skill(s) acquired/ learning gained/ insights gained CLUBS & SOCIETIES Start Date (Month/Year) – End Date Club/Society Name, Role  Action Word (e.g. ‘Developed’ or ‘Delivered’) followed by key responsibility/achievement/skill(s) acquired/learning gained/insights gained QUALIFICATIONS & AWARDS  Date Achieved Type of Award: One or two sentences describing the activities within the award and learning you have gained from it.  Date Achieved Name of Qualification, Grade/Mark Received KEY SKILLS Key Skill 1  Specific example of demonstrating skill using the STAR technique (Situation/Task/Action/Result) Key Skill 2  Specific example of demonstrating skill using the STAR technique (Situation/Task/Action/Result) LANGUAGES  Language, (Mother Tongue/Fluent/Business/Conversational/Beginner)  Language, (Mother Tongue/Fluent/Business/Conversational/Beginner) TECHNICAL SKILLS  Skill or Technique  Skill or Technique INTERESTS Interests (relevant to the occupation/study applying for if possible) REFERENCES Available on request Task for Group 1 Read the job adverts below. Choose the job that you would like to apply to and write your CV (with a personal profile) and a cover letter for this job. 92

Looking for a summer job?! Tourist Service Manager The city of Cambridge is the home of one Britain’s universities. We have a new position for the summer! We want a person managing visitors’ facilities. The successful applicant will have responsibility for: improving and updating facilities for visitors managing a team of 10 employees promoting the city abroad. Apply in writing with CV, to Director of Leisure Services, City of Cambridge Ben Jones 3, Town Street Cambridge Babysitter wanted! Weekends and some evenings. Experience with children necessary! Contact: Mrs. Lowerence tel: 6784567 Need a summer job? Do you enjoy meeting new people? Sol & Sombra Café needs waiters and waitresses! Sundays 11am–8pm Contact: Barry Murphy Sol & Sombra Café 3, Apple Street Brighton Tel: 8432712 [email protected] Computer Bytes Shop Shop assistant needed Sundays 11am–7pm. Good knowledge of computers necessary. Apply in writing to: Mr G. Jeffreys (Manager) [email protected] Task for Group 2 Read the descriptions and entry requirements for the academic courses at Durham University, University of Westminster, Lancaster University. Choose the one you are more interested in and write a CV (with a personal profile) and a letter of application applying for a course. 93

Durham University Community and Youth Work Entry requirements Normally an upper second class honours degree or equivalent. At least one year’s full-time practice experience in community and youth work or a related field (or part-time equivalent) is also required. We will take into account applicant’s individual circumstances in determining this, and are happy to consider both paid and voluntary experience in determining whether this requirement is met. Course description This programme provides an exciting opportunity to develop professional practice that is supported by an in-depth theoretical understanding for those working in a wide range of careers with young people and communities. The programme attracts practitioners from a wide range of contexts and countries, enabling learning in an internationally-comparative context. The fieldwork practice placements enable students to develop their practice within local agencies (e.g. local charities and nongovernmental organisations) with supported from experienced supervisors. Contact name School of Applied Social Sciences Contact web http://www.durham.ac.uk/sass/sociology University of Westminster English Language and Creative Writing Entry requirements Applicants are normally required to have a good experience in a relevant subject (eg English language, English literature, creative writing, TESOL or journalism). Applicants will be required to submit two academic references, and they may be invited to an interview (either face to face or via Skype). Course description The English Language and Creative Writing aims to allow you to explore the interconnections between your knowledge of how language is used and produced, and your literary compositions. It will provide you with a thorough understanding of the linguistic features of English from a wide range of perspectives (theoretical and applied, synchronic and diachronic), as well as leading you to explore the writing process across genres and taking the city of London as one of your main sources of inspiration. Furthermore, the MA will equip you with the intellectual perspectives and the scholarly skills that will prepare you to conduct independent research. The MA is suitable for students who have taken English language, literature and/or creative writing modules at undergraduate level, and others with experience in these fields. It is of particular interest to those wishing to pursue further study, and those aiming to apply their knowledge of language and the writing process in their careers. Contact name Admissions Enquiries Office Contact web http://www.westminster.ac.uk 94

University of Westminster Cultural and Critical Studies Entry requirements You are normally required to have a good first degree or equivalent in a relevant subject. You will need fluent written and spoken English to study at postgraduate level. The University offers pre-sessional Summer programmes if you need to improve your English before starting your course. Course description This interdisciplinary course offers the opportunity for the advanced study of cultural and critical debates across a range of areas such as the literary, visual and historical fields. The course will interest students with wide-ranging interests in the humanities and interested in contemporary theoretical debates. Contact name Course Enquiries Contact web http://www.westminster.ac.uk Lancaster University Professional Development Entry requirements Demonstration that the modules chosen meet the individual’s needs and the needs of their organisation. Course description This course enables you to choose optional modules in line with your professional development needs in subjects such as: • Leadership and management • Change management • Personal effectiveness You can start with one module and return later to build it into a qualification, or enrol for the qualification at the outset. The ‘step-on, step-off’ nature means you can pace your study to suit your own work/life balance. Progression routes to Postgraduate Diploma and Masters Degree are available via the Professional Practice route. Contact name Postgraduate Coordinator Contact web http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/shm/cetad (Abridged from: http://www.prospects.ac.uk/search_courses_results.htm?p=2&criteria.keyword=&criteria.su bjectsOfStudy=4278&featured=43289,108330)

Now each student should exchange his/her CV and a cover letter with a student from the other group. Read each other’s CVs and cover letters. Are they appropriate? Share your comments with each other. Would you invite an applicant to an interview, offer a job to an applicant/enroll an applicant on a course? Explain your reasons.


ANSWER KEY P. 6, ex. 1 CUL8R LOL 4ever WUCIWUG v vvv gr8 ILNY EZ GF

see you later laughing out loud for ever what you see is what you get very extremely great I love New York easy girlfriend

BF GFI HAGD RU there? STU TYVM shhh UOK? w/e zzz

boyfriend go for it! Have a great day Are you there? Same to you Thank you very much quiet Are you ok? weekend sleeping; bored or tired

P. 7, ex. 3 My summer holidays were a complete waste of time. Before, we used to go to New York to see my brother, his girlfriend and their three screaming kids face to face. I love New York, it’s a great place. But my parents were so worried because of the terrorism attack on September 11 that they decided we would stay in Scotland and spend two weeks up north. Up north, what you see is what you get – nothing. I was extremely bored in the middle of nowhere. Nothing but sheep and mountains. P. 10, ex. 2 Waste-waist; wait-weight; piece-peace; soul-sole; so-sew; plain-plane; pale-pail; see-sea. P. 12, ex. 2 sleep-slip; feet-fit; reach-rich; feel-fill; deep-dip; weep-whip. P. 12, ex. 3 1) hot; not; 2) bed; went; 3) slip; 4) dipped; 5) glass; 6) still; 7) whip; 8) fit; 9) hot; bed; 10) hill; 11) grin; 12) sent; 13) still; 14) best; 15) son; 16) pots; pans; smell. P. 14, ex. 2 Sword; clerk; earn; urgent; third; target; park; boarding; awkward; sermon; emerge; return; dirty; farther; lord; oar; roar; pour; pearl; turnip; disturb; furniture; mirth. 96

P. 15, ex. 3 1) hurt; 2) stirred; -shirt; 3) oar; 4) hoarse; 5) storm; 6) curtains; 7) March; 8) garden; 9) awkward; 10) sorry; your. P. 16, ex. 1 fUry; pUre; hIre; cUre; requIre; wIre; dAre; nightmAre; dAiry; squAre; declAre; rAre; awAre; sevEre; sincEre; inspIre; expIre; tYre. P. 16, ex. 2 They hAd been reheArsing for a fOrtnight when Roger arrived from Austria. He had been spending a few weeks on a Carinthian lAke, and after a day or two in London was to gO and stay with friends in Scotland. Since Michael had to dIne early to go to the theatre Julia went to meet him by hErself. When she was dressing, Evie, snIffing as usual, told her that she was taking as much pains to mAke herself look nice as if she wEre going to meet a young mAn. She wanted Roger to be proud of her, and cErtainly she looked very young and pretty in her summer frock as she strolled up and down the platfOrm. You would have thought, but wrongly, that she was pErfectly unconscious of the attention she attrActed. Roger, after a month in the sun, was very brown, but he was stIll rather spOtty and he seemed thInner that when he had left London at the New Year. She hUgged him with exuberant affection. He smiled slightly. P. 20, ex. 2 1) occurred; 2) thinned; 3) rubbed; 4) kidnapped; 5) expelled; 6) equalled; 7) worshipped; 8) referred; 9) inferred; 10) shrugged. P. 20, ex. 3 1. biggest; wettest; 2. flatter; repaired; 3. referred; propeller; 4. occurred; quitter; 5. getting; shopping; 6. concealed; dripping. P. 21, ex. 4 1) both; 2) forgotten; 3) both; 4) both; 5) referred; 6) dropping; 7) sitter. P. 21, ex. 5 trapped; suffering; occurrence; entered; equipped; deference; propellant; compelled; beginning; regrettable.


P. 21, ex. 6 Entering; opened; ear-splitting; running; jogging; preferring; dialed. P. 22, ex. 2 Extracts: 2; 1; 4; 6; 5; 3. P. 29, ex. 1 1) b-hear; 2) b-their; 3) b-deer; 4) c-reins; 5) b-steal; 6) a-sew; 7) a-knight; 8) a-site; 9) b-hare; 10) b-piece; 11) a-warn; 12) b-flour; 13) b-suite; 14) b-whole; 15) a-farther; 16) a-heir; 17) a-sole; 18) b-due; 19) a-brake; 20) a-guilt; 21) a-sheer; 22) b-prey; 23) a-sync; 24) b-fainted; 25) c-vain. P. 31, ex. 2 1) hair/hare; 2) course/coarse; 3) It’s/Its; 4) two/too; 5) been/bean; 6) for/four; 7) son/sun; 8) eight/ate; 9) four/for; 10) two/too; 11) too/two; 12) buy/by; 13) two/too; 14) ad/add; 15) chews/choose; 16) place/plaice; 17) buy/by. P. 32, ex. 3 1) pair-pear; 2) meat-meet; 3) pail-pale; 4) flower-flour; 5) rows-rose; 6) antaunt; 7) paws-pause; 8) see-sea; 9) chilly-chili; 10) night-knight; 11) son-sun; 12) high-hi; 13) bury-berry; 14) hour-our. P. 32, ex. 4 Text A: days; blue; air; scent; morning; caught; sight; bee; flower; where; been; due; bare; stalks; flew; sight; inn; beer; while. Text B: boy; beach; bays; place; while; sun; sea; would; build; dam; waves; won; tide; feet. P. 35, ex. 1 1. The lamB is a dumB animal. 2. He climBed the hill to the tomB, but his limbs became numB. 3. ComB. your hair, but do not thumB your book. 4. BomBs are now commonly called “shells.” 5. The deBtor, who was a suBtle man, douBted his word, and gave not a crumB of comfort. 6. Take your Psalter and select a joyous Psalm. 7. Do not condemN the Wrong person. 8. I made a solemN vow not to climB on the crumBling bluffs. 9. The plumBer hummed my favorite hymn. 10. Do your Knuckles hurt when you Knit? 98

11. Does your Wrist hurt when you Write? 12. The Wrestler had a very Wrinkled face. 13. Please tie my Knapsack with a tight Knot. 14. I Wrapped the Wreath in the Wrong paper. 15. I have a Knack for Kneading bread dough. P. 44, ex. 4 Sample A – Diary Sample B – Personal Journal P. 47, ex. 5 Personalizing Your Diary 4, 5, 11, 12

Making Decisions about Your Diary 1, 8, 9

Writing Diary Entries 2, 3, 6, 7, 10

P. 54, ex. 1 A-instructions (directions); B-message; C-thank-you note; D-invitation; E-formal letter of complaint; F-informal letter. P. 59, ex. 1 Essay– Dicto-comp/dicto-gloss – Summary/précis – Review – Annotation – Research report – , Outline – Notes – ,





P. 59, ex. 1 1 – b; 2 – d; 3– a; 4 – c. P. 60, ex. 2 a – step 8; b – step 1; c – step 7; d – step 10; e – step 4; 99

f – step 2; g – step 5; h – step 3; I – step 6; J – step 9. P. 63, ex. 5. Error code sp wf wc wo sing pl art inf ? pron s/v v-tense v-form v-pass cs ro frag co inf/ger line through word prep punct c ¶ /\

Explanation spelling word form word choice word order singular noun plural noun article too informal meaning unclear pronoun subject/verb agreement verb tense verb form passive verb common splice run-on sentence fragment connecting word infinitive/gerund delete preposition punctuation capitalisation start a new paragraph add a word

№ of sentence 3 10 13 6 14 17 19 21 23 11 7 20 16 24 12 15 8 4 1 5 22 9 18 2

P. 66, ex. 3 A – flash fiction; B – memoir; C – film script (screenwriting) of “Pirates of the Caribbean” “The Curse of the Black Pearl” P. 69, ex. 2 a – 2; b – 4; c – 5; d – 3; e – 1. 100

P. 71, ex. 4 1. F 2. T 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. T 8. F P. 74, ex. 3 the general purpose – to convey information to readers within the workplace context. P. 75, ex. 2 Model A – a proposal; Model B – a report. P. 77, ex. 3 1 – both; 2 – none; 3 – both; 4 – both; 5 – none; 6 – Model A; 7 – Model B. P. 77, ex. 4 Minutes (


P. 82, ex. 6 A personal profile is sometimes used on curriculum vitae and job application forms or when writing on professional websites (IN on a given CV). The aim is to summarise key information about the writer. It often contains brief information about skills, experience and specific achievements. It uses: – power words to get the reader’s attention (e.g. action verbs); – short punchy sentences; – positive language; – adjectives to highlight key information. P. 84, ex. 7 1 – D; 2 – A; 3 – C; 4 – B; 5 – E.






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.– .: - « “ ”», “Cambridge University Press”, 2001. – 224 . 2. / .: . . , . . , . . , . . . – .: « », 2002. – 256 . 3. , . . . . ./ . . – 3.– .: , 1999. – 304 . 4. : = A Course in Written English : . . . / . . , . . , . . .; . . . . – . : ; . : « », 2005. – 240 . 5. : . . . № 2103 « . .» / . . , . . , . . .– .: , 1983. – 208 . 6. . Academic Writing: English Phenomenon in Russian Interpretation : . / . . , . . .– : « », 2010. – 264 . 7. Barrall, I. Intelligent Business. Workbook. Advanced Business English / I. Barrall, N. Barrall. – Pearson Longman, 2011. – 96 p. 8. Brown, D. The Da Vince code / D. Brown. – Corgi Books, 2003. – 605 p. 9. Edwards, L. Upstream Advanced C1. Student’s Book / L. Edwards, V. Evans. – Express Publishing, 2006. – 264 p. 10.Evans, V. Successful Writing. Upper-Intermediate / V. Evans. – Express Publishing, 2007. – 116 p. 11.Obee, B. Upstream Upper Intermediate. Student’s Book / B. Obee, V. Evans. – Express Publishing, 2010. – 264 p. 12.White, R. Process Writing / R. White, V. Arndt. – Longman, 1997. – 186 p. 13.Zemach, D. E. Academic Writing from paragraph to essay. Macmillan Education / D. E. Zemach, L. A. Rumisek. – Oxford, 2007. – 131 p. 14.Agenda Web Hundreds of free English exercises [ ]. – URL : http://www.agendaweb.org/vocabulary/homonyms-exercises.html ( : 15.08.2015). 15.British Council. BBC. Teaching English [ ]. – URL : http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk ( : 10.07.2015). 16.Creative writing [ ] : Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. – URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creative_writing ( : 25.08.2015). 103

17.CVs and covering letters: advertising your value [ ]: National Careers Service. – URL : https://nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk/ advice/getajob/cvs/Pages/default.aspx ( : 17.08.2015). 18.David, O. Scars [ ] : The New Yorker / O. David. – URL : http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/03/19/scars ( : 05.09.2015). 19.Elliott, T. “Pirates of the Caribbean” “The Curse of the Black Pearl” [ ] : Weekly Scripts / T. Elliott, T. Rossio. – URL : http://www.weeklyscript.com/Pirates+Of%20The%20Caribbean.html ( : 07.09.2015). 20.Flash Fiction [ ]. – URL : http://www.flashfictiononline. com/f_archives.html ( : 01.09.2015). 21.Gaertner-Johnston, L. Business Writing [ ] / L. Gaertner-Johnston. – URL : http://www.businesswritingblog.com/business_writing/ 2006/01/tips_for_writin.html ( : 30.08.2015). 22.Ho to Take Minutes [ ] : wiki How to do anything. – URL : http://www.wikihow.com/Take-Minutes ( : 18.09.2015). 23.Homophone Worksheets [ ] : Super Teacher Worksheets. – URL : https://www.superteacherworksheets.com/homophones.html ( : 29.08.2015). 24.How to write the minutes of meetings [ ] : mantex. – URL : http://www.mantex.co.uk/2010/10/20/how-to-write-the-minutes-ofmeetings/ ( : 19.09.2015). 25.Nordquist, R. Business Writing [ ] : about.com / R. Nordquist. – URL : http://grammar.about.com/od/ab/g/businesswritingterm.htm ( : 12.10.2015). 26.Peachey, K. How to write a successful CV [ ] : BBC / K. Peachey. – URL : http://www.bbc.com/news/business-15573447 ( : 01.11.2015). 27.Professional writing [ ] : Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia. – URL : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Professional_writing ( : 15.12.2015). 28.ResumeGenius [ ]. – URL : https://resumegenius.com/ cover-letters-the-how-to-guide ( : 10.01.2016). 29.Screen Writing Tips & Advice. Film Scriptwriting [ ]: FilmScriptWriting.com. – URL : http://www.filmscriptwriting.com/category/ sample-scripts/ ( : 09.01.2016). 30.Silent Letters [ ] : Howtospell. – URL : http://www. howtospell.co.uk/silentletters.php ( : 15.08.2015).


31.Spelling-Words-Well.com [ ]. – URL : www.spellingwords-well.com ( : 10.06.2015). 32.The 10 best blogging platforms available for free [ ]: CB Creative Bloq. – URL : http://www.creativebloq.com/web-design/bestblogging-platforms-121413634 ( : 10.12.2015). 33.The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Cover Letters [ ] : The Writing Centre @ The University of Wisconsin-Madison. – URL : https://writing. wisc.edu/Handbook/CoverLetters.html ( : 20.01.2016). 34.Three excellent cover letter examples [ ] : theguardian. – URL : http://www.theguardian.com/careers/covering-letter-examples ( : 17.11.2015). 35.ToLearnEnglish.com [ ]. – URL : http://www.tolearnenglish.com ( : 25.01.2015). 36.UE UsingEnglish.com [ ]. – URL : http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/100.html ( : 29.08.2015). 37.What is professional writing? Definition&explanation [ ]: study.com. – URL : http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-profes-sionalwriting-definition-lesson-quiz.html ( : 16.01.2016).


CONTENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………


MODULE 1. TYPES OF SYLLABLES……………………………………………………… 5 Unit 1. WRITING AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES……………………………………… 5 Unit 2. THE FIRST TYPE OF SYLLABLE………………………………………………… 9 Unit 3. THE SECOND TYPE OF SYLLABLE…………………………………………… 12 Unit 4. THE THIRD TYPE OF SYLLABLE………………………………………………. 14 Unit 5. THE FOURTH TYPE OF SYLLABLE…………………………………………….16 MODULE 2. SPELLING RULES……………………………………………………………… 19 Unit 1. DOUBLING THE FINAL CONSONANT…………………………………………19 Unit 2. MUTE FINAL e………………………………………………………………………………24 Unit 3. FINAL y AND ITS MODIFICATIONS……………………………………………27 Unit 4. HOMOPHONES…………………………………………………………………………….. 29 Unit 5. SILENT CONSONANTS………………………………………………………………. 34 MODULE 3. TYPES OF WRITING……………………………………………………………39 Unit 1 PERSONAL WRITING…………………………………………………………………….39 Unit 2. SOCIAL WRITING……………………………………………………………………….. 53 Unit 3. STUDY (ACADEMIC) WRITING…………………………………………………. 59 Unit 4. CREATIVE WRITING……………………………………………………………………66 Unit 5. PROFESSIONAL (BUSINESS) WRITING………………………………………74 ANSWER KEY………………………………………………………………………………………… 95 …………………………………………………………………………………………101








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