Wound Care. A Collaborative Practice Manual for Health Professionals [4 ed.] 9781608317158, 2011027050

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Wound Care. A Collaborative Practice Manual for Health Professionals [4 ed.]
 9781608317158, 2011027050

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Table of contents :
Cover
Title Page
Copyright
Dedication
FOREWORD
PREFACE
A NEW LOOK FOR THE FOURTH EDITION
NEW FEATURES OF THE FOURTH EDITION
ASSEMBLING A WORLD-CLASSINTERDISCIPLINARY TEAM
ORGANIZATION OF THE FOURTH EDITION
OUR AUDIENCE
MAKING A DIFFERENCE: A VISION
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
CONTRIBUTORS
REVIEWERS
APPRECIATIONS AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
CONTENTS
PART I: Introduction to Wound Care
References
CHAPTER 1: The Wound Care Process
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
STEP 1: ASSESSMENT
STEP 2: DIAGNOSIS
STEP 3: PROGNOSIS AND GOALS
REEVALUATION
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 1A: Patient History Form
APPENDIX 1B: Focused Assessment for Wounds
APPENDIX 1C: Sample Case Report Using HCFA-700
CHAPTER 2: Skin and Soft Tissue Anatomy and Wound Healing Physiology
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKIN AND SOFT TISSUES
WOUND HEALING PHYSIOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW
INFLAMMATORY PHASE
HYPOTHERMIA, PLATELET ACTIVATION, AND THE COAGULATION CASCADE
VASODILATION
INFLAMMATORY PHASE IN CHRONIC WOUNDS
EPITHELIALIZATION PHASE
EPITHELIALIZATION PHASE IN CHRONIC WOUNDS
PROLIFERATIVE PHASE
PROLIFERATIVE PHASE IN CHRONIC WOUNDS
REMODELING PHASE
REMODELING PHASE IN CHRONIC WOUNDS
SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 3: Assessment of the Patient, Skin, and Wound
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
FACTORS AFFECTING WOUND HEALING
THE WOUND ASSESSMENT PROCESS
ASSESSMENT OF SKIN AND WOUND ATTRIBUTES
WOUND CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
WOUND SEVERITY DIAGNOSIS
EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING STATUS
ASSESSING WOUNDS IN THE INFLAMMATORY PHASE
ASSESSING WOUNDS IN THE PROLIFERATIVE PHASE
ASSESSING WOUNDS IN THE EPITHELIALIZATION PHASE
REFERRAL CRITERIA
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 4: Wound Measurements and Prediction of Healing
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN WOUND MEASUREMENT
WOUND MEASUREMENT: LINEAR METHODS
WOUND MEASUREMENT: WOUND TRACINGS
WOUND MEASUREMENT: WOUND PHOTOGRAPHY
REFERRAL CRITERIA AND SOURCES
SELF-CARE GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
RESOURCES
REFERENCES
SUGGESTED READINGS
CHAPTER 5: Tools to Measure Wound Healing
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING WOUND HEALING TOOLS
WOUND CHARACTERISTICS ASSESSED IN WOUND HEALING MEASUREMENT TOOLS
SUSSMAN WOUND HEALING TOOL
PRESSURE ULCER SCALE FOR HEALING
THE BATES-JENSEN WOUND ASSESSMENT TOOL
WOUND HEALING ASSESSMENT TOOLS DEVELOPED FOR SPECIFIC NEEDS OR POPULATIONS
CONCLUSION: CLINICAL UTILITY OF WOUND HEALING ASSESSMENT TOOLS
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
APPENDIX 5A: LONG FORM SWHT AND PROCEDURES FOR USING THE SWHT
APPENDIX 5B: PRESSURE ULCER SCALE FOR HEALING AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
APPENDIX 5C: POMPEO INDIVIDUAL PATIENT PRESSURE ULCER SCALE FOR HEALING FORM
APPENDIX 5D: THE BATES-JENSEN WOUND ASSESSMENT TOOL (BWAT)
CHAPTER 6: Vascular Evaluation
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
PROCEDURE FOR VASCULAR EVALUATION
NONINVASIVE ARTERIAL STUDIES
INVASIVE ARTERIAL STUDIES
STUDIES OF VENOUS INSUFFICIENCY
REFERRAL CRITERIA
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 7: Assessment and Treatment of Nutrition
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
NUTRITIONAL SCREENING
NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT
THE ROLE OF NUTRIENTS IN WOUND HEALING
NUTRITION BASED ON WOUND ETIOLOGY
NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT
DOCUMENTATION OF MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
Appendix 7A: Mini Nutritional AssessmentMNA®
Appendix 7B: Mini Nutritional AssessmentMNA®
Appendix 7C: Medical Nutrition Therapy Quarterly/MDS Progress Note
Appendix 7D: Monthly Medical Nutrition Therapy Tube Feeding Progress Note
PART II: Management by Wound Etiology
CHAPTER 8: Management of Acute Surgical Wounds
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
FACTORS AFFECTING HEALING IN ACUTE WOUNDS
ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF THE ACUTE SURGICAL WOUND
SURGICAL WOUND HEALING BY SECONDARY AND TERTIARY INTENTION
OUTCOME MEASURES
REFERRAL CRITERIA
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 9: Pressure Ulcers: Pathophysiology, Detection, and Prevention
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
PRESSURE ULCER SIGNIFICANCE
PRESSURE ULCER PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF PRESSURE ULCERS
PRESSURE ULCER DETECTION
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
PRESSURE ULCER RISK SCREENING
PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION STRATEGIES
IMPLEMENTING PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION PROGRAMS: WHAT WORKS?
TELEHEALTH AND PRESSURE ULCER CARE
OUTCOME MEASURES
REFERRAL CRITERIA
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
RESOURCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 10: Management of Pressure by Therapeutic Positioning
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
NEED FOR THERAPEUTIC POSITIONING
EVALUATING PATIENTS FOR THERAPEUTIC POSITIONING
INTERVENTION IN THE SITTING POSITION
INTERVENTION IN THE RECUMBENT POSITION
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
RESOURCES
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 11: Management and Diagnosis of Vascular Ulcers
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
SIGNIFICANCE
ARTERIAL MACROVASCULAR SYSTEM
ARTERIAL MICROVASCULAR SYSTEM
VENOUS MACROVASCULAR SYSTEM
VENOUS MICROVASCULAR SYSTEM PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
CONCLUSIONS
REVIEW QUESTION
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 12: Management of the Neuropathic Foot
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
PATHOGENESIS AND TYPICAL PROGRESSION
SYSTEMS REVIEW AND EXAMINATION
FURTHER VISUAL AND PHYSICAL ASSESSMENTS
INTERVENTIONS
SURGICAL MANAGEMENT
CARE OF THE SKIN AND NAILS OF THE NEUROPATHIC FOOT
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
RESOURCES
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 13: Management of Common Foot Problems
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
TINEA PEDIS
PLANTAR FASCIITIS
ONYCHOMYCOSIS
MISCELLANEOUS CONDITIONS
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 14: Management of Malignant Cutaneous Wounds and Fistulas
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
MALIGNANT CUTANEOUS WOUNDS
FISTULAS
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 15: Management of Burn Injuries
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
BURN CLASSIFICATION
BURN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
BURN WOUND TREATMENT
CONCLUSION
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 16: Management of Scar
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
SCAR TISSUE: FORMATION AND COMPLICATIONS
ASSESSMENT OF SCARS
INTERVENTIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF SCAR
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
RESOURCES
REFERENCES
PART III: Management by Wound Characteristics
CHAPTER 17: Management of Necrotic and Nonviable Tissue
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
SIGNIFICANCE OF DEBRIDEMENT
DEBRIDEMENT FREQUENCY
RECOGNITION OF TISSUE FOR DEBRIDEMENT
DEBRIDEMENT OF NECROTIC TISSUE
OUTCOME MEASURES
REFERRAL CRITERIA
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CASE STUDIES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
RESOURCES
REFERENCES
Appendix 17A
CHAPTER 18: Management of Exudate, Biofilms, and Infection
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
SIGNIFICANCE OF EXUDATE
SIGNIFICANCE OF INFECTION
MANAGEMENT OF EXUDATE AND INFECTION
OUTCOME MEASURES
REFERRAL CRITERIA
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 19: Management of Edema
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
SIGNIFICANCE
ETIOLOGY OF EDEMA
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF EDEMA
ASSESSMENT
MANAGEMENT OF EDEMA
OUTCOME MEASURES
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
CONCLUSION
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 20: Management of the Wound Environment with Dressings and Topical Agents
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
INTRODUCTION TO MOIST WOUND HEALING
INTERACTIVE WOUND DRESSINGS
MISCELLANEOUS DRESSINGS
TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIALS
DRESSING CHOICE
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 21: Management of the Wound Environment with Advanced Therapies
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
GROWTH FACTORS
BIOLOGICAL SKIN SUBSTITUTES
SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 22: Management of Wound Pain
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF WOUND PAIN
PERSISTENT (NEUROPATHIC) PAIN
RESEARCH ON CHRONIC WOUND PAIN
VARIATIONS IN THE EXPERIENCE OF PAIN ACCORDING TO WOUND ETIOLOGY
ASSESSMENT OF WOUND PAIN
DIAGNOSIS OF WOUND PAIN
MANAGEMENT OF WOUND PAIN
REASONS FOR REFERRAL
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
DRUG TREATMENT
NONDRUG TREATMENT
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
PART IV: Management of Wound Healing with Biophysical Agent Technologies
BIOPHYSICAL AGENTS AND THEELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
BIOPHYSICAL AGENTS UNRELATED TO EMS
CANDIDACY FOR INTERVENTION
PRIMARY OR ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY
FUNCTIONAL WOUND COST OUTCOMES MANAGEMENT
UTILIZATION REVIEW AND COST OUTCOMES MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER 23: Electrical Stimulation for Wound Healing
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
THERAPEUTIC ELECTRICAL CURRENTS: CHARACTERISTICS AND TERMINOLOGY
PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION
CLINICAL TRIALS
CHOOSING ES AS AN INTERVENTION: CLINICAL REASONING
ELECTRICAL STIMULATION TREATMENT METHODS FOR WOUND HEALING
PREPARING AND ADMINISTERING ES PROCEDURES
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 24: Radio Frequency and Electromagnetic Energy
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
COMPARISON OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD DEVICES
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EMF
THERMOTHERAPY WITH SHORT-WAVE DIATHERMY
WOUND HEALING CLINICAL STUDIES
CLINICAL DECISION MAKING
EQUIPMENT
PATIENT TREATMENT
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
DOCUMENTATION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 25: Phototherapeutic Applications for Wound Management
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
THE SCIENCE OF RADIANT ENERGY
PHOTOTHERAPY DELIVERY SYSTEMS
THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET ENERGY
PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTERING UV THERAPY
LASERS AND LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 26: Therapeutic and Diagnostic Ultrasound
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
PROPERTIES AND TERMINOLOGY OF ULTRASOUND
PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF ULTRASOUND
INFECTION AND BACTERICIDAL EFFECTS
REPORTED CLINICAL EFFECTS OF US
CLINICAL STUDIES OF WOUND HEALING
HIGH-RESOLUTION DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND
EVALUATING CANDIDACY FOR THE INTERVENTION
SELECTING EQUIPMENT FOR ULTRASOUND APPLICATIONS
PROCEDURES
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
DOCUMENTATION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 27: Hydrotherapy
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
HISTORIC USE OF HYDROTHERAPY AND THERMOTHERAPY
MECHANISMS OF HEAT TRANSFER AND THERMAL REGULATION
PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSES TO HYDROTHERAPY
EVIDENCE OF THE EFFECT OF HYDROTHERAPY ON WOUND HEALING
USE OF HYDROTHERAPY FOR WOUND CLEANSING AND DÉBRIDEMENT
RISKS AND CANDIDACY FOR HYDROTHERAPY
SUMMARY
CHOOSING AN INTERVENTION: CLINICAL REASONING
DELIVERY OF CARE
PROCEDURES
EXPECTED OUTCOMES
SELF-CARE TEACHING GUIDELINES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 28: Pulsatile Lavage with Suction
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
BENEFITS OF PULSATILE LAVAGE WITH SUCTION
OUTCOME MEASURES
PRECAUTIONS AND CAUTIONS
PROCEDURE FOR PLWS
JET LAVAGE
CONCLUSION
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 29: Management of the Wound Environment with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
HISTORY OF NPWT
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
INDICATIONS FOR THERAPY
CONTRAINDICATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS
APPLICATION OF THERAPY
WOUND-SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS OF NPWT
NPWT AND SILVER
NPWT AND SKIN GRAFTS
PEDIATRICS
COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF NPWT
SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
CHAPTER 30: Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Management of the Hypoxic Wound
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
THE HISTORY OF HYPERBARIC OXYGEN
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN PHYSIOLOGY
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY INDICATIONS
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY CONTRAINDICATIONS
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY RISKS AND SIDE EFFECTS
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY FOR THE HYPOXIC WOUND
CLINICAL EVIDENCE SUPPORTING USE OF HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY
PATIENT SELECTION
TOPICAL OXYGEN
SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
REFERENCES
INDEX

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