Worship in the Early Church: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Volume Three (vol. 3)

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Worship in the Early Church: An Anthology of Historical Sources. Volume Three (vol. 3)

Table of contents :
Abbreviations xi
*
Introduction xxiii
Chapter IX. Fifth Century. West ι
Africa ι
97. Alypius of Thegaste. Ordo Monasterii 1
98. Augustine of Hippo 1
98-A. On the Lord's Sermon on the Mount 7
98-B. Eighty-Three Diverse Questions 8
98-C. Against Faustus the Manichaean 9
98-D. Questions on the Gospels 10
98-E. Confessions 11
98-F. On Baptism: Against the Donatists 14
98-G. Rudimentary Catechesis 15
98-H. Against the Letters ofPetilian the Donatist 16
98-I. On the Forgiveness and the Just Deserts of Sins, and the
Baptism of Infants 16
98-J. Homily Three on the First Letter of John 23
98-K. On the Trinity 24
98-L. Homilies on the Gospel of John 25
98-M. Answer to Julian the Pelagian 27
98-N. Enchiridion of Faith, Hope, and Love 28
98-O. Exposition of the Psalms 29
98-P. On the Care to be Taken of the Dead 32
98-Q. The City of God 32
98-R. On Christian Doctrine 35
98-S. On Heresies 36
98-T. To the Catechumens regarding the Creed 36
98-U. Corrections yj
98-V. Rule of Saint Augustine 38
98-W. Letters. 22; 23; 29; 36; 41; 54; 55; 64; 71; 82; 98; 149; 153; 158;
185; 211; 228; 258; 265; 28 (To Novatus) 38
98-X. Sermons. 17; 49; 51; 56; 57; 58; 67; 94 A; 125; 132; 142 A; 159;
162 C; 172; 176; 198; 213; 214; 216; 218; 219; 220; 221; 223; 224; 227;
228; 230; 231; 232; 243; 252; 254; 255; 256; 260 A; 262; 272; 284; 293
A; 294; 301 A; 302; 303; 304; 305 A; 311; 315; 324; 325; 326; 336; 342;
352; 37A 392 57
99. Possidius 82
99- A. Life of Augustine 83
100. Arnobius "the Younger" 83
100- A. Commentaries on the Psalms. Psalms 110; 148 84
101. Victor of Vita 84
101- A. History of the Vandal Persecution in Africa 85
102. Synods 86
102- A. Synod of Carthage V (401) 86
102-B. Synod of Carthage VI (407) 87
102-C. Synod of Milevis (416) 87
103. Inscription. Epitaph from Hippo 88
Italy 88
104. Chromatius of Aquileia 88
104- A. Sermons on Matthew's Gospel. 14; 16; 17 89
105. Rufinus of Aquileia 93
105- A. Commentary on the Apostles' Creed 93
V
106. Paulinus of Milan 94
106- A. Life of Saint Ambrose 94
107. Gaudentius of Brescia 95
107- A. Sermons 96
107-A-1. Sermon 2. On Exodus 96
108. Innocent I, Pope 97
108- A. Letters. 2; 6; 17; 25; 30 98
109. Zosimus, Pope 103
109- A. Letter 9 103
110. Paulinus of Noia 104
110- A. Letters. 18; 32 104
110- B. Poems. 23; 25; 27 108
111. Celestine I, Pope 110
111- A. Letters. 4; 21; 23 110
112. Peter Chrysologus 111
112- A. Sermons. 11; 43; 67; 117; 166 112
113. Leo I, Pope 114
113- A. Letters. 4; 6; 9; 10; 16; 59; 80; 88; 108; 119; 127; 131; 138; 159;
166; 167; 168 117
113- B. Sermons. 6; 12; 13; 16; 18; 19; 20; 22; 25; 26; 27; 41; 43; 44; 47;
48; 49; 50; 63; 64; 70; 75; 78; 91 129
114. Maximus of Turin 140
114- A. Sermons. 13; 13a; 22a; 35; 36; 44; 50; 54; 55; 63; 67; 73 141
115. Gelasius, Pope 151
115- A. Letters. 14; 37; Fragment 7; Letter against the Lupercalia 152
115-B. Tract on the Two Natures in Christ 154
115-C. The "Deprecatio Gelasii" 154
115- D. Tract "Ne Forte" on the Bond of the Anathema 156
116. Synods 157
116- A. Synod of Rome (ca. 400?) 157
116-B. Synod of Rome (488) 158
117. Inscription. Lateran Φ Baptistery 158
Gaul 159
118. John Cassian 159
118-A. Conferences 160
118-B. The Institutes 163
119. De septem ordinibus ecclesiae 175
120. Prosper of Aquitaine 178
120-A. Capitula Caelestini 179
120- B. The Call of All Nations 179
121. Salvian of Marseilles 180
121- A. De gubernatione Dei 180
122. Sidonius Apollinaris 181
122- A. Letters. Book IV, Letter 11; Book V, Letter 17 181
123. Faustus of Riez 182
123- A. On the Grace of God 183
123-B. On the Holy Spirit 183
123- C Sermons. 3; 17; 28 183
124. Gennadius of Marseilles 185
124- A. On Ecclesiastical Dogmas 185
124-B. On Illustrious Men 187
125. Statuta ecclesiae antiqua 188
126. Synods 193
126-A. Synod of Riez (439) 193
126-B. Synod of Orange I (441) 194
126-C. Synod of Vaison (442) 196
126-D. Synod of Arles II (between 442 and 506) 197
126-E. Synod of Angers (453) 199
126-F. Synod of Tours I (461) 199
126- G. Synod of Vannes (between 461 and 491) 200
Iberia 201
127. Uranius 201
127- A. Letter. On the Death of Paulinus of Noia 201
128. Synods 202
128- A. Synod of Toledo I (400?) 202
British Isles 203
129. Synods 203
129-A. Irish Synod I (between 450 and 456) 203
129- B. Irish Synod II (after 456) 204
Serbia 205
130. Nicetas of Remesiana 205
130- A. On the Vigils of the Servants of God 206
130- B. On the Usefulness of Psalmody 206
Chapter X. Fifth Century. East 213
Asia Minor 213
131. Palladius of Helenopolis 213
131- A. The Lausiac History of the Friends of God 213
131- B. Dialogue on the Life of Saint John Chrysostom 214
132. Philostorgius 215
132- A. Epitome of the Church History of Philostorgius 215
133. Socrates 215 '
133- A. Church History 216
134. Theodosius II 226
134- A. Theodosian Code 226
135. Pseudo-Hippolytus. Homily. On the Pasch 228
136. Callicinius. Life ofHypatius 244
137. Council of Chalcedon (451) 245
Syria 246
138. Theodore of Mopsuestia 246
138- A. Catechetical Homilies. 12; 13; 14; 15; 16 247
139. Theodoret of Cyr 275
139- A. On the Interpretation of the Psalms 276
139-B. On the Interpretation of the Song of Songs 277
139-C. Interpretation of the Fourteen Letters of Saint Paul 277
139-D. Religious History 277
139-E. Church History 278
139-F. Eranistes or Polymorph 285
139-G. History of Heresies 286
139- H. Letter 146. To the Monks of Constantinople 287
140. Balai 287
140- A. Hymn for the Dedication of a New Church 288
141. Narsai of Nisibis 288
141- A. Homilies. 17; 22; 21 289
142. Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ 305
Persia 336
143. Märütä of Maipherqat 336
143-A. The Seventy-Three Canons 337
Palestine 338
144. Sozomen 338
144-A. Church History 338
145. Jerome 349 ,
145-A. Dialogue betzveen a Luciferian and an Orthodox Christian 330
145-B. Life of Hilary 352
145-C Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians 352
145-D. Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew 353
145-E. Preface to the Rule of Pachomius 353
145-F. Against Vigilantius 334
145-G. Dialogue against the Pelagians 353
145-H. Homilies 355
145-H-1. On Psalm 91 (92) 355
143-H-2. On Psalm 149 336
145-H-3. On Mark 11:13-17 336
145-H-4. On Mark 13:32-33; 14:3-6 357
143-H-5. On the Nativity of the Lord 337
145-H-6. On Psalm 41 (42). To the Neophytes 337
143-H-7. On Easter Sunday 358
145- I. Letters. 14; 22; 41; 46; 48; 51; 52; 60; 71; 77; 82; 98; 107; 108; 109;
113; 120; 130; 146 358
146. Mark the Deacon 368
146- A. Life of Porphyry, Bishop of Gaza 368
Egypt 370
147. Apophthegmata Patrum 370
148. Cyril of Alexandria 372
148-A. Dialogue on the Trinity 373
148-B. Adoration and Worship of God in Spirit and in Truth 373
148-C Glaphyra 373
148-D. Commentary on the Gospel of John 374
148-E. Apology to the Emperor 373
148- F. Letter 9. To Posidonius 375
149. Isidore of Pelusium 376
149- A. Letters 376
Index to Volume Three 377

Citation preview

Lawrence J. Johnson

worship 3 IN THE EARLY CHURCH An Anthology of Historical Sources VOLUME THREE

WORSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH An A nthology o f Historical Sources

Volume Three Worship in the Early Church is a fourvolum e collection of excerpts from early Christian writings illustrating the Church's liturgical practice in both East and West, from its Jewish beginnings through the end of the sixth century. Source material includes doctrinal and historical treatises, scriptural commentaries, sermons, letters, synodal legislation, early church orders, monastic rules, and baptismal and funeral epigrams. Each author or major selection is preceded b y a short introduction containing such information as dates, country of origin, and various other background details. A bibliography of pertinent periodical and liturgical literature is given as w ell as a bibliography referencing standard encyclopedias of religion and manuals of patrology. Volume 1— Jewish prayers from table and synagogue; Subapostolic Era: the Didache, Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, Pastor Hermas; Second Century: Justin Martyr, Irenaeus of Lyons, Melito of Sardis; Third Century: Tertullian, Cyprian of Carthage, Hippolytus of Rome, the Didascalia of the Apostles, Origen, the Apostolic Church Order; and others. Volume 2 — Fourth Century, West: Optatus of Milevis, Zeno of Verona, Ambrose of Milan, Pope Siricius, Hilary of Poitiers, Pacian of Barcelona, Synod of Elvira (ca. 300 ); Fourth Century, East: Lactantius, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, Pseudo-Ignatius, Gregory of Nyssa, the Council of Nicaea (325 ), John Chrysostom, Apostolic Constitutions; and others.

WORSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH

WORSHIP IN THE EARLY CHURCH

An Anthology of Historical Sources Volume Three

Lawrence J. Johnson

A P U E B L O BO O K Liturgical Press

Collegeville, Minnesota www.litpress.org

A Pueblo Book published by Liturgical Press Cover design by David Manahan,

osb

Excerpt (117), Inscription. Lateran Baptistery: from the article "The Fountain of Life in Manuscripts of the Gospels," by P.A. Underwood in Dumbarton Oaks Papers 5 (Cambridge, MA), 55. Reprinted courtesy of Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Trustees for Harvard University. Excerpt (140-A), Hymn for the Dedication of a New Church: from Eucharist and Eschatology, by G. Wainwright (London: Oxford University Press), p. 47. Copyright © 1971. Reprinted by permission of SCM Press. ' Excerpts (143-A), The Seventy-Three Canons: from The Canons Ascribed to Märütä ofMaipherqat and Related Sources, voi. 2, Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 440, ed. A. Vööbus (Leuven: Peeter's Publishers), pp. 94-95. Copyright © 1982. Reprinted by permission of the publisher. © 2009 by Order of Saint Benedict, Collegeville, Minnesota. A ll rights reserved. No part of this book m ay be reproduced in any form, by print, microfilm, microfiche, mechanical recording, photocopying, translation, or by any other means, known or yet unknown, for any purpose except brief quotations in reviews, without the previous written permission of Liturgical Press, Saint John's Abbey, PO Box 7500, Collegeville, Minnesota 56321-7500. Printed in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Johnson, Lawrence J., 1933Worship in the early church : an anthology of historical sources / Lawrence J. Johnson. p. cm. "A Pueblo book." Includes index. ISBN 978-0-8146-6197-0 (v. 1) — ISBN 978-0-8146-6198-7 (v. 2) — ISBN 978-0-8146-6199-4 (v. 3) — ISBN 978-0-8146-6226-7 (v. 4) 1. Worship— History— Early church, ca. 30-600. 2. Church history— Primitive and early church, ca. 30-600. I. Title. BV6.J64 2009 264.00937— dc22 2009035344

Contents Abbreviations Introduction

xi xxiii

*

Chapter IX. Fifth Century. West Africa

ι

ι

97. Alypius of Thegaste. Ordo Monasterii

1

98. Augustine of Hippo 1 98-A. On the Lord's Sermon on the Mount 7 98-B. Eighty-Three Diverse Questions 8 98-C. Against Faustus the Manichaean 9 98-D. Questions on the Gospels 10 98-E. Confessions 11 98-F. On Baptism: Against the Donatists 14 98-G. Rudimentary Catechesis 15 98-H. Against the Letters ofPetilian the Donatist 16 98-I. On the Forgiveness and the Just Deserts of Sins, and the Baptism of Infants 16 98-J. Homily Three on the First Letter of John 23 98-K. On the Trinity 24 98-L. Homilies on the Gospel of John 25 98-M. Answer to Julian the Pelagian 27 98-N. Enchiridion of Faith, Hope, and Love 28 98-O. Exposition of the Psalms 29 98-P. On the Care to be Taken of the Dead 32 98-Q. The City of God 32 98-R. On Christian Doctrine 35 98-S. On Heresies 36 98-T. To the Catechumens regarding the Creed 36 98-U. Corrections y j 98-V. Rule of Saint Augustine 38 98-W. Letters. 22; 23; 29; 36; 41; 54; 55; 64; 71; 82; 98; 149; 153; 158; 185; 211; 228; 258; 265; 28 (To Novatus) 38 98-X. Sermons. 17; 49; 51; 56; 57; 58; 67; 94 A; 125; 132; 142 A; 159; 162 C; 172; 176; 198; 213; 214; 216; 218; 219; 220; 221; 223; 224; 227; 228; 230; 231; 232; 243; 252; 254; 255; 256; 260 A; 262; 272; 284; 293 A; 294; 301 A; 302; 303; 304; 305 A; 311; 315; 324; 325; 326; 336; 342; 352; 37A 392

57 V

vi

Contents 99. Possidius 82 99- A. Life of Augustine

83

100. Arnobius "the Younger" 83 100- A. Commentaries on the Psalms. Psalms 110; 148 101. Victor of Vita 84 101- A. History of the Vandal Persecution in Africa

84

85

102. Synods 86 102- A. Synod of Carthage V (401) 86 102-B. Synod of Carthage VI (407) 87 102-C. Synod of Milevis (416) 87 103. Inscription. Epitaph from Hippo Italy

88

88

104. Chromatius of Aquileia 88 104- A. Sermons on Matthew's Gospel. 14; 16; 17

89

105. Rufinus of Aquileia 93 105- A. Commentary on the Apostles' Creed 93 V

106. Paulinus of Milan 94 106- A. Life of Saint Ambrose

94

107. Gaudentius of Brescia 95 107- A. Sermons 96 107-A-1. Sermon 2. On Exodus

96

108. Innocent I, Pope 97 108- A. Letters. 2; 6; 17; 25; 30 98 109. Zosimus, Pope 103 109- A. Letter 9 103 110. Paulinus of Noia 104 110- A. Letters. 18; 32 104 110- B. Poems. 23; 25; 27 108 111. Celestine I, Pope 110 111- A. Letters. 4; 21; 23 110 112. Peter Chrysologus 111 112- A. Sermons. 11; 43; 67; 117; 166 112 113. Leo I, Pope 114 113- A. Letters. 4; 6; 9; 10; 16; 59; 80; 88; 108; 119; 127; 131; 138; 159; 166; 167; 168 117 113- B. Sermons. 6; 12; 13; 16; 18; 19; 20; 22; 25; 26; 27; 41; 43; 44; 47; 48; 49; 50; 63; 64; 70; 75; 78; 91 129 114. Maximus of Turin 140 114- A. Sermons. 13; 13a; 22a; 35; 36; 44; 50; 54; 55; 63; 67; 73 141 115. Gelasius, Pope 151 115- A. Letters. 14; 37; Fragment 7; Letter against the Lupercalia

152

Contents 115-B. Tract on the Two Natures in Christ 154 115-C. The "Deprecatio Gelasii" 154 115- D. Tract "Ne Forte" on the Bond of the Anathema

156

116. Synods 157 116- A. Synod of Rome (ca. 400?) 157 116-B. Synod of Rome (488) 158 117. Inscription. Lateran Baptistery Φ Gaul 159

158

118. John Cassian 159 118-A. Conferences 160 118-B. The Institutes 163 119. De septem ordinibus ecclesiae

175

120. Prosper of Aquitaine 178 120-A. Capitula Caelestini 179 120- B. The Call of All Nations 179 121. Salvian of Marseilles 180 121- A. De gubernatione Dei 180 122. Sidonius Apollinaris 181 122- A. Letters. Book IV, Letter 11; Book V, Letter 17 123. Faustus of Riez 182 123- A. On the Grace of God 183 123-B. On the Holy Spirit 183 123- C Sermons. 3; 17; 28 183 124. Gennadius of Marseilles 185 124- A. On Ecclesiastical Dogmas 124-B. On Illustrious Men 187 125. Statuta ecclesiae antiqua

185

188

126. Synods 193 126-A. Synod of Riez (439) 193 126-B. Synod of Orange I (441) 194 126-C. Synod of Vaison (442) 196 126-D. Synod of Arles II (between 442 and 506) 197 126-E. Synod of Angers (453) 199 126-F. Synod of Tours I (461) 199 126- G. Synod of Vannes (between 461 and 491) 200 Iberia

201

127. Uranius 201 127- A. Letter. On the Death of Paulinus of Noia 128. Synods 202 128- A. Synod of Toledo I (400?)

202

201

181

vu

viii

Contents

British Isles

203

129. Synods 203 129-A. Irish Synod I (between 450 and 456) 129- B. Irish Synod II (after 456) 204 Serbia

203

205

130. Nicetas of Remesiana 205 130- A. On the Vigils of the Servants of God 206 130- B. On the Usefulness of Psalmody 206 Chapter X. Fifth Century. East Asia Minor

213

213

131. Palladius of Helenopolis 213 131- A. The Lausiac History of the Friends of God 213 131- B. Dialogue on the Life of Saint John Chrysostom 214 132. Philostorgius 215 132- A. Epitome of the Church History of Philostorgius 133. Socrates 215 133- A. Church History 134. Theodosius II 226 134- A. Theodosian Code

' 216 226

135. Pseudo-Hippolytus. Homily. On the Pasch 136. Callicinius. Life ofHypatius

244

137. Council of Chalcedon (451)

245

Syria

215

228

246

138. Theodore of Mopsuestia 246 138- A. Catechetical Homilies. 12; 13; 14; 15; 16

247

139. Theodoret of Cyr 275 139- A. On the Interpretation of the Psalms 276 139-B. On the Interpretation of the Song of Songs 277 139-C. Interpretation of the Fourteen Letters of Saint Paul 277 139-D. Religious History 277 139-E. Church History 278 139-F. Eranistes or Polymorph 285 139-G. History of Heresies 286 139- H. Letter 146. To the Monks of Constantinople 287 140. Balai 287 140- A. Hymn for the Dedication of a New Church 141. Narsai of Nisibis 288 141- A. Homilies. 17; 22; 21

289

142. Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ

305

288

Contents Persia

ix

336

143. Märütä of Maipherqat 336 143-A. The Seventy-Three Canons Palestine

337

338

144. Sozomen 338 144-A. Church History 338 145. Jerome 349 , 145-A. Dialogue betzveen a Luciferian and an Orthodox Christian 330 145-B. Life of Hilary 352 145-C Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians 352 145-D. Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew 353 145-E. Preface to the Rule of Pachomius 353 145-F. Against Vigilantius 334 145-G. Dialogue against the Pelagians 353 145-H. Homilies 355 145-H-1. On Psalm 91 (92) 355 143-H-2. On Psalm 149 336 145-H-3. On Mark 11:13-17 336 145-H-4. On Mark 13:32-33; 14:3-6 357 143-H-5. On the Nativity of the Lord 337 145-H-6. On Psalm 41 (42). To the Neophytes 337 143-H-7. On Easter Sunday 358 145- I. Letters. 14; 22; 41; 46; 48; 51; 52; 60; 71; 77; 82; 98; 107; 108; 109; 113; 120; 130; 146 358 146. Mark the Deacon 368 146- A. Life of Porphyry, Bishop of Gaza Egypt

368

370

147. Apophthegmata Patrum

370

148. Cyril of Alexandria 372 148-A. Dialogue on the Trinity 373 148-B. Adoration and Worship of God in Spirit and in Truth 373 148-C Glaphyra 373 148-D. Commentary on the Gospel of John 374 148-E. Apology to the Emperor 373 148- F. Letter 9. To Posidonius 375 149. Isidore of Pelusium 376 149- A. Letters 376 Index to Volume Three

377

Abbreviations SCRIPTURE

Acts

Acts of the Apostles

Joel

Joel

Amos

Amos

John

John

Bar

Baruch

l John

i John

Cant

Canticle of Canticles

2 John 2 John

i Chr

i Chronicles

3 John

3 John

2 Chr

2 Chronicles

Jonah

Jonah

Col

Colossians

Josh

Joshua

l Cor

l Corinthians

Jude

Jude

2 Cor

2 Corinthians

Judg

Judges

Dan

Daniel

1 Kgs

l Kings

Deut

Deuteronomy

2 Kgs

2 Kings

Eccl

Ecclesiastes

Lam

Lamentations

Eph

Ephesians

Lev

Leviticus

Esth

Esther

Luke

Luke

Exod

Exodus

i Macc

i Maccabees

Ezek

Ezekiel

2 Macc

2 Maccabees

Ezra

Ezra

Mai

Malachi

Gal

Galatians

Mark

Mark

Gen

Genesis

Matt

Matthew

Hab

Habakkuk

Mie

Micah

Hag

Haggai

Nah

Nahum

Heb

Hebrews

Neh

Nehemiah

Hos

Hosea

Num

Numbers

Isa

Isaiah

Obad

Obadiah

Jas

James

i Pet

i Peter

Jdt

Judith

2 Pet

2 Peter

Jer

Jeremiah

Phil

Philippians

Job

Job

Phlm

Philemon

xii

Abbreviations

Prov

Proverbs

2 Thess

2 Thessalonians

Ps/Pss

Psalms

1 Tim

1 Timothy

Rev

Revelation

2 Tim

2 Timothy

Rom

Romans

Titus

Titus

Ruth

Ruth

Tob

Tobit

1 Sam

1 Samuel

Wis

Wisdom

2 Sam

2 Samuel

Zech

Zechariah

Sir

Sirach

Zeph

Zephaniah

1 Thess

1 Thessalonians

PERIODICALS AND BO O KS M O ST FREQUENTLY CITED

AB ABR AC AER Altaner (1961) Altaner (1966) Altaner (1978) ALW Amb ANF

Ant APB ApT Assem AThR Aug AugMag

BALAC

Analecta Bollandiana (Brussels, i882ff.). American Benedictine Review (Atchison, KS, i95off.). Antike und Christentum (Münster, 1929-50). American Ecclesiastical Review (Washington, D.C., 1889-1975). B. Altaner, Patrology, trans. H.C. Graef, 2nd ed. (New York, 1961). B. Altaner, Patrologie. Leben, Schriften und Lehre der Kirchenväter, 6th ed., rev. A. Stüber (Freiburg/Basel/ Vienna, 1966). B. Altaner, Patrologie. Leben, Schriften und Lehre der Kirchenväter, 8th ed., rev. A. Stüber (Freiburg/Basel/ Vienna, 1978). Archiv für Liturgiewissenschaft (Regensburg, i95off.). Ambrosius (Milan, 1925-60). A. Roberts and J. Donaldson, eds., The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of the Writings of the Fathers down to A.D. 325 (New York, 1885,1926). Antonianum (Rome, 1926ft.). Acta Patristica et Byzantina (Praetoria, i99off.). Apostolic Tradition. Assembly (Notre Dame, 1974ft.). Anglican Theological Review (New York, 1918ft.). Augustinianum (Rome, 1961ft.). Augustus Magister, Congrès international augustinien (Paris, Sept. 21-24,1954). Vols. I and II: Communications; voi. Ill: Acts. Bulletin d'ancienne litérature et d'archéologie chrétienne (Paris, 1911-14).

Abbreviations Bardenhewer (1908) Bardenhewer (1910) Bardenhewer (1913) Bardy (1929)

Bardy (1930)

Bautz BCE Bib BLE Bouyer BT BVC CA Campbell CATH CB CC CCL CE CH CHECL ChQ Chr CollMech ComL Con Courtonne CPG

xiii

O. Bardenhewer, Petrology: The Lives and Works of the Fathers of the Church, trans. T.J. Shahan (Freiburg i. B./ St. Louis, 1908). O. Bardenhewer, Patrologie (Freiburg i. B., 1910). O. Bardenhewer, Geschichte der altkirchlichen Literatur, 5 vols. (Freiburg i. B./St. Louis, 19x3-32). G. Bafdy, The Greek Literature of the Early Christian Church, trans. Mother Mary Reginald, Catholic Library of Religious Knowledge 2 (St. Louis, 1929). G. Bardy, The Christian Latin Literature of the First Six Centuries, trans. Mother Mary Reginald, Catholic Library of Religious Knowledge 12 (St. Louis, 1930). F.W. Bautz, ed., Biographisch-bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (Hamm Westf., 1970ft.). Bulletin du comité des études (Paris, 1953-70). Biblica (Rome, i92off.). Bulletin de littérature ecclésiastique (Toulouse, i899ff.). L. Bouyer, Eucharist: Theology and Spirituality of the Eucharistic Prayer (Notre Dame, 1968). The Bible Today (Collegeville, 1962ft.). Bible et vie chrétienne (Brussels/Paris, 1953-68). Cahiers archéologiques (Paris, i945ff.). J.M. Campbell, The Greek Fathers, Our Debt to Greece and Rome series (New York, 1929). G. Jacquemet, ed., Catholicisme, 9 vols. (Paris, i947ff.). Collationes Brugenses (Bruges, 1896-1954). La Civiltà Cattolica (Rome, i85off.). Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina (Tumhout, 1954ft.). Catholic Encyclopedia, 13 vols. + index (New York, 1907-14). Church History (Chicago and Tallahassee, i932ff.). F. Young, L. Ayres, and A. Louth, eds., The Cambridge History of Early Christian Literature (Cambridge, 2004). Church Quarterly Review (London, 1875-1968). Christus (Paris, 1954ft.). Collectanea Mechliniensia (Mechlin, 1927-70). Communautés et liturgies (Ottignies, i975ff.). Concilium (Glen Rock, NJ, etc., i965ff.). Y. Courtonne, ed., Saint Basile: Lettres, 3 vols. (Paris, 1957,1961,1966). M. Geerard and F. Glorie, eds., Clavis Patrum Graecorum, 5 vols. (Turnhout, 1974-87).

xiv

Abbreviations

CPGS Cph CPL CR CRI Cross CS CSEL CV

DACL DCA DCB DDC DDCon DEC Deiss DGA DHGE DictSp Did Didas Di Sante Div Dix DLW Dolbeau

M. Geerard and others, eds., Clavis Patrum Graecorum Supplementum (Turnhout, 1998). Classical Philology (Chicago, i9o6ff.). E. Dekkers and A. Gaar, eds., Clavis Patrum Latinorum, 3rd ed. (Turnhout/Steebrugge, 1995). The Clergy Review (London, 1931-87). Comptes-rendus de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (Paris, i857ff.). F.L. Cross, The Early Christian Fathers (London, i960). Chicago Studies (Mundelein, IL, 1962ft.). Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum (Vienna, i866ff.). G.M. Diez, Concilios visigóticos e hispano-romanos (Barcelona/ Madrid, 1963). F. Cabrol and H. Leclercq, eds., Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie, 15 vols. (Paris, 1913-53). W. Smith, ed., A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities, 2 vols. (London, 1876-80). W. Smith and H. Wace, eds., A Dictionary of Christian Biogra­ phy, Literature, Sects and Doctrines, 4 vols. (London, 1877-87). R. Naz and others, eds., Dictionnaire de droit canonique, 7 vols. (Paris, 1935-65). P. Palazzini, ed., Dizionario dei Concili, 6 vols. (Rome, 1963-67). N.P. Tanner, ed., Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils (London/ Washington, D.C., 1990). L. Deiss, Springtime of the Liturgy: Liturgical Texts of the First Four Centuries (Collegeville, 1979). P.-P. Joannou, ed., Disciplina Generale Antique (Rome, 1962). A. Baudrillart, ed., Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques (Paris, I9i2ff.). M. Viller and others, eds., Dictionnaire de spiritualité ascétique et mystique (Paris, i937ff.). Didache. Didascalia Apostolorum. C. di Sante, Jewish Prayer: The Origins of the Christian Liturgy, trans. M J. O'Connell (New York, 1991). Divinitas (Vatican City, i957ff.). G. Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy, 4th ed. (Westminster, 1949). J.G. Davies, ed., A Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship (New York, 1972). F. Dolbeau, ed., Vingt-six sermons au peuple d'Afrique / Augustin d'Hippone; retrouvés à Mayence, Collection des études augustiniennes, Série Antiquité 147 (Paris, 1996).

Abbreviations DPAC DR DT DTC DV EC ED EEC

EEChr EgT Elbogen (1962) Elbogen (1993) EO EOr EphL ERP EstAg Et ETL ETR ExpT FF FLDG Folia FThSt FZPT

GCS Goodspeed

xv

A. di Berardino, ed., Dizionario Patristico e di Antichità Cristiane, 3 vols. (Marietti, 1983-88). Downside Review (Bath, England, i88off.). Divus Thomas (Fribourg i. S., 1871-1953). A. Vacant, E. Mangenot, and E. Amann, eds., Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, 15 vols. (Paris, 1903-50). Dieu vivant (Paris, 1945-55). P. Paschini and others, eds., Enciclopedia Cattolica, 12 vols. (Vatican City, 1949-54). Euntes Docete (Rome, 1948ft.). A. di Berardino, ed., Encyclopedia of the Early Church, trans. A. Walford, with a foreword and bibliographic amendments by W.H.C. Frend, 2 vols. (New York, 1992). E. Ferguson, ed., Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, 2 vols., 2nd ed. (New York, 1997). Eglise et théologie (Ottawa, 1970-99). I. Elbogen, Der jüdische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung, 4th ed. (Hildesheim, 1962). I. Elbogen, Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History, trans. R.P. Scheindlin (Philadelphia/New York, 1993). Echos d'Orient (Paris, 1897-1942). Ecclesia Orans (Rome, i984ff.). Ephemerides Liturgicae (Rome, i887ff.). Etudes religieuses, philosophiques, historiques, et littéraires (Paris, 1888-1940). Estudio Teologico Augustiniano (Valladolid, Spain, I973ff.). Etudes (Paris, i897ff.). Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses (Louvain, i924ff.). Etudes théologiques et religieuses (Montpellier, i926ff.). The Expository Times (Edinburgh, i889ff.). Francefranciscaine (Lille, 1912-29). Forschungen zur christliche Literatur- und Dogmengeschichte (Mainz/Paderborn, 1910-38). Folia. Studies in the Christian Perpetuation of the Classics (Worcester, MA, 1959-79). Freiburger theologische Studien (Freiburg i. B., i9ioff.). Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie (Fribourg i. S., i 954 ff.). Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten (drei) Jahrhunderte (Berlin, i897ff.). E. J. Goodspeed, A History of Early Christian Literature, rev. and enl. R. Grant (Chicago, 1966).

xvi

Abbreviations

GOTR Greg

Greek Orthodox Theological Review (Brookline, MA, i954ff.). Gregorianum (Rome, i92off.)‘.

Hamell Hänggi

RJ. Hamell, Handbook of Patrology (New York, 1968). A. Hänggi and I. Pahl, Prex Eucharistica: Textus e Variis Liturgicis Antiquioribus Selecti (Fribourg i. S., 1968). Harp: A Review of Syriac and Oriental Studies (Kerala, India, 1987-2000). C.J. Hefele, Histoire des conciles d'après les documents originaux, trans. H. Leclercq, 11 vols. (Paris, 1905-52). C.J. Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church: From the Original Documents, trans. W.R. Clark and H.N. Oxenham, 5 vols. (Edinburgh, 1871-96). Hispania sacra (Madrid, i948ff.). Harvard Theological Review (New York, 1908-9; Cambridge, M A, i9ioff.).

Harp Hefele (1905) Hefele (1871) HS HThR

Idelsohn 1ER Imp

A.Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development (New York, 1967). Irish Ecclesiastical Record (Dublin, 1864-1968). Impacts: Revue de l'Université catholique de l'Ouest (Angers, i967ff.).

Ire 1st

ITQ Jasper JBL JECS JEH Jeremias (i960) Jeremias (1966) JL JLH

JQR JR JThSt JucL Jurgens

Irénikon (Amay, i926ff.). Istina (Paris, i954ff.). Irish Theological Quarterly (Dublin, 1906-22; Maynooth, i95iff.). R.C.D. Jasper and G.J. Cuming, Prayers of the Eucharist: Early and Reformed, 3rd rev. ed. (Collegeville, 1992). Journal of Biblical Literature (Boston/New Haven, i890ff.). Journal of Early Christian Studies (Baltimore, 1993!!.). The Journal of Ecclesiastical History (London, i95off.). J. Jeremias, Die Abendmahlsworte Jesu, 3rd. ed. (Göttingen, i960). J. Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, trans. N. Perrin (London, 1966). Jahrbuchfür Liturgiewissenschaft (Münster, 1921-41). Jahrbuchfür Liturgie und Hymnologie (Kassel, i955ff.). The Jewish Quarterly Review (London, 1889-94; New York, 1896-1908). The Journal of Religion (Chicago, i92iff.). The Journal of Theological Studies (London, 1900-1905; Oxford, 1906-49; n.s. i95off.). Jucunda Laudatio (Milan, i963ff.). W.A. Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers, 3 vols. (Collegeville, 1970-79).

Abbreviations

xvii

Kat

Katholik: Zeitschrift für katholische Wissenschaft und kirchliches Leben (Mainz, 1821-89).

Labriolle

P.C. de Labriolle, Histoire de la littérature latine chrétienne, 3rd rev. ed. (Paris, 1947). P.C. de Labriolle, History and Literature of Christianity from Tertullian to Boethius, trans. H. Wilson, History of Civilization (New York, 1968). L'Ami du clergé (Langres, France, 1888-1968). Latomus. Revue d'études latines (Brussels, i937ff.). Laurentianum (Rome, i90off.). E. Leigh-Bennett, Handbook of the Early Christian Fathers (London, 1920). Liturgisches Jahrbuch (Münster, 1951ft.). La Maison-Dieu (Paris, i945ff.). Le messager des fidèles (Mardesous, 1884-89). P. Schaff and H. Wace, eds., A Select Library ofNicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church (repr. Grand Rapids, i95iff.). Lex Orandi (Paris, 1944-71). Liturgiegeschichtliche Quellen und Forschungen (Münster i. W., 1918-39). Laval théologique et philosophique (Quebec, 1970-82). W. Kasper and others, eds., Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 11 vols., 3rd ed. (Freiburg i. B., 1993-2001). Lumière et vie (Bruges, 1951-60). Liturgical Week Proceedings, North American. Liturgiewissenschaftliche Quellen und Forschungen (Münster i. W., 1919-2005). Septuagint.

(1947) Labriolle (1968) LAC Latomus Lau LeighBennett LJ LMD LMF LNPF

LO LQF LThPh LTK LV LWP LwQF LXX Mansi Mel Millgram MüS Mnem MRR-i

MRR-2

MS MSR Mus

J.D. Mansi, ed., Sacrorum Conciliorum Nova et Amplissima Collectio, 31 vols. (Florence, 1759-98). Melto. Melta. Recherches orientales (Kaslik, Liban, 1965-69). A.E. Millgram, Jewish Worship (Philadelphia, 1971). Milltown Studies (Dublin, i978ff.). Mnemosyne: Bibliotheca classica Batava (Leyden, 1852ft.). J. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Sollemnia), trans. F.A. Brunner, 2 vols. (New York, 1951). J. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite: Its Origins and Development (Missarum Sollemnia), trans. F.A. Brunner, rev. C.K. Riepe (New York, 1959). Mediaeval Studies (Toronto, i939ff.). Mélanges de science religieuse (Lille, i944ff.). Le Muséon (Louvain, 1882-1916, i92iff.).

xviii

Abbreviations

NCE NCES NDSW Not NRTh NTes NTS NWDLW

OC OCA OCP ODCC Oesterley (1911) Oesterley (i 9 25 ) OLZ OrSyr OstkSt

New Catholic Encyclopedia, 14 vols. + index (New York, 1967) + 3 supplementary vols. 16-18 (1974-89). New Catholic Encyclopedia, Second Edition, 15 vols. (Detroit/ Washington, D.C., 2003). P.E. Fink, ed., The New Dictionary of Sacramental Worship (Collegeville, 1990). Notitiae (Rome, 1963ft.). Nouvelle revue théologique (Tournai, 1869-1913,1920-39, i 945 ff·)· Novum Testamentum (Leiden, i956ff.). New Testament Studies (London, 1934ft.). J.G. Davies, ed., The New Westminster Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship (Philadelphia, 1986). Oriens Christianus (Wiesbaden, 1931-39, i933ff.). Orientalia Christiana Analecta (Rome, i933ff.). Orientalia Christiana Periodica (Rome, 1933ft.). F.L. Cross, The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed., ed. E.A. Livingstone (New York, 1997). W.O.E. Oesterley, The Religion and Worship of the Synagogue, 2nd ed. (London, 1911). W.O.E. Oesterley, The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy (Oxford, 1923). Orientalische Literaturzeitung (Berlin, i909ff.). L'Orient syrien (Paris, i936ff.). Ostkirchliche Studien (Würzburg, i952ff.).

PO PP PrO PrOChr

Paroisse et liturgie (Bruges, 1946-74). Pastor Bonus (Trier, 1889-1943). A.F. von Pauly, Paulys Real-encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (Stuttgart, 1894-1919). H. Cancik and H. Schneider, eds., Der neue Pauly. Enzyklopädie der Antike (Stuttgart, 1991ft.). J.P. Migne, Patrologia Graeca, 162 vols. (Paris, 1857-66). Philologische Wockenschrift (Leipzig, 1881-1940). J.P. Migne, Patrologia Latina, 221 vols. (Paris, 1844-64). J.P. Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus. Series Latina Supplementum, ed. A. Hamman (Paris, 1958ft.). Parole de l'Orient. Metto dmadnho (Kaslik, Lebanon, 1970ft.). Parole et pain (Paris, 1964-73). Présence orthodox (Paris, 1967-81). Proche-onent chrétien (Jerusalem, 195iff.).

QL QLP

Questions liturgiques (Louvain,·ΐ97θίί.). Questions liturgiques et paroissiales (Louvain, 1919-69).

ParL PB PEA (1894) PEA (1991) PG PhW PL PLS

Abbreviations

xix

Quasten

J. Quasten, Patrology, 4 vols. (Westminster, MD, i962ff.). (Voi. 4,1986, is a translation of voi. 3 of Patrologia, ed. A. di Berardino.)

RAC RACh

Rivista di Archeologia Cristiana (Rome, i924ff.). Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, ed. T. Klauser (Leipzig, i95off.). Revue d'ascétique et de mystique (Toulouse, 1920-71). Revue pratique d'apologétique (Paris, 1905-21). Recherches augustiniennes (Paris, i958ff.). Revue bénédictine (Maredsous, i89off.). Revue biblique internationale (Paris, i89iff.; n.s. i904ff.). Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire (Brussels, i922ff.). Revue du clergéfrançais (Paris, 1894-1920). Revista catalana de teologia (Barcelona, 1976-88, i99off.). Revue de droit canonique (Strasbourg, i95iff.). Revue des études augustiniennes (Paris, 1955ft.). Revue d'histoire de l'Eglise de France (Paris, i9ioff.). Revue des études grecques (Paris, i888ff.). Revue des études juives (Paris, i88off.). Revue ecclésiastique de Liège (Liège, 1905-67). Revue des études latines (Paris, 1923ft.). Résurrection (Paris, 1956-63). Restoration Quarterly (Abilene, TX, 1957ft.). Revista espanola de teologia (Madrid, 1940ft.). Revista augustiniana de Espiritualidad (Calahorra, Spain, 1960-79). Revue augustinienne (Louvain, 1901-10). Revue des sciences religieuses (Strasbourg, 1921ft.). Revue d'histoire ecclésiastique (Louvain, i90off.). Revue d'histoire et de littérature religieuse (Paris, 1896-1922). Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses (Strasbourg, 1921ft.). Revue internationale de théologie (Berne, 1893-1910). Rivista di Ascetica et Mistica (Florence, 1956ft.). Rivista Liturgica (Turin, 1914ft.). Rocznik theologico-kanoninczne (Lublin, Poland, 1949-90). Revue de philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes (Paris, 1845-47; n.s. 1877-1926; 3. s. i927ff.). Römische Quartelschrift für christliche Altertumskunde (Freiburg i. B., i887ff.). Revue des questions historiques (Paris, 1866-1939). Revue réformé (Saint-Germaine-en-Laye, France, 1950ft.). Review for Religious (St. Louis, 1942ft.).

RAM RAp RAug RB RBibl RBPh RCF RCT RDC REAug REF REG REJ REL RELA Res ResQ RET RevAgusEsp Rev Aug RevSR RHE RHL RHPR RIT RivAM RL Rocz RPLH RQ RQH RR RRel

XX Abbreviations RSPT RSR RT RTAM RTL RTP RUO

Revue des sciences philosophiques et théologiques (Paris, 1907ft.)· Recherches de science religieuse ‘(Paris, îçioff.). Revue thomiste (Paris, 1924-65). Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale (Louvain, i969ff.). Revue théologique de Louvain (Louvain, i97off.). Revue de théologie et de philosophie (Lausanne, i92iff.). La revue de l'Université d'Ottawa (Ottawa, 1931-87).

Sal SC SCA ScE SChr SCJ

Salesianum (Turin, i939ff.). Scuola Cattolica (Milan, 1902ft.). Studies in Christian Antiquity (Washington, D.C., 1941-85). Science et esprit (Montreal, 1928ft.). Sources chrétiennes (Paris, 1941ft.). Second Century: Journal of Early Christian Studies (Abilene, TX, 1981-92). Scripture (London, 1969-75). Sacris Erudiri (Bruges, 1948ft.). Scottish Journal of Theology (Edinburgh, etc., i948ff.). Studia Monastica (Barcelona, 1959ft.). Studia Patristica: Acts of the International Conventions of Oxford (TU) (Berlin, 1957ft.). Studia Patristica Mediolanensia (Milan, 1974ft.). Studi e Testi (Rome, 1900ft.). Studia Catholica (Nijmegen, 1924-60). B. Steidle, Patrologia: seu Historia Antiquae Litteraturae Ecclesiasticae, Scholarum Usui Accommodata (Freiburg i. B., 1937). Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums (Paderborn, 1907ft.). Studia Theologica (Lund, 1947^). C. Jones and others, eds., The Study of Liturgy, rev. ed. (New York, 1992). Studia Patavina (Padua, 1954ft.). H.L. Strack and P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch, voi. iv/i, 2nd ed. (Munich, 1956). Study Encounter (Geneva, 1965-76). Studia Liturgica (Rotterdam, 1962ft.).

Scr SE SJT SM SP SPMed ST StC Steidle StGKA STh StLit StP Strack StudEnc StudLit TD Theol ThGl ThQ ThStKr Tixeront

Theology Digest (St. Louis, i953ff.). Theology (Norwich, England, i976ff.). Theologie und Glaube (Paderborn, 1909ft.). Theologische Quartalschrift (Stuttgart/Tübingen, 1831-1928; various places, 1929ft.). Theologische Studien und Kritiken (Gotha, 1828-42). J. Tixeront, A Handbook ofPatrology, trans. S.A. Raemers (London/St. Louis, 1947).

Abbreviations Tra

xxi

TZ

Traditio: Studies in Ancient and Medieval History, Thought, and Religion (New York, 1943ft.). G. Krause and G. Müller, eds., Theologische Realenzyklopädie (Berlin, 1976 ff.). Theological Studies (Baltimore/Woodstock, 1940ft.). Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte de altchristlichen Literatur (Berlin, 1882ft.). Theologia Viatorum: Jahrbuch der kirchlichen Hochschule Berlin (Berlin, 1948/49-1979/80). Theologische Zeitschrift (Basel, i945ff.).

VC VerC VetChr VS

Vigiliae Christianae (Amsterdam, 1947ft.). Verbum Caro (Taizé, France, 1947-69). Vetera Christianorum (Bari, 1964^). La Vie Spirituelle (Paris, 1919ft.).

WEC

L. Johnson, ed., Worship in the Early Church: An Anthology of Historical Sources, 4 vols. (Collegeville, 2009). E. Werner, The Sacred Bridge: The Interdependence of Liturgy and Music in Synagogue and Church during the First Millennium (London/New York, 1959). Worship (Collegeville, 1932ft.; formerly Orate Fratres, 1926-51). F. A. Wright, ed., Fathers of the Church: Tertullian, Cyprian, Arnobius, Lactanius, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine: A Selection from the Writings of the Latin Fathers (London, 1928). F.A. Wright, A History of Later Greek Literaturefrom the Death of Alexander in 323 b.c. to the Death of Justinian in 545 a .d . (London, 1932). Wiener Studien: Zeitschrift für klassische Philologie (Vienna, 1879ft. ).

TRE TS TU TV

Werner

Wor Wright (1928) Wright (1932) WSt

ZAW ZKG ZkTh ZNeW ZNW ZTK / []

Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft (Berlin/New York, i88iff.). Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte (Gotha, 1877-1930; Stuttgart, i 93 iff.). Zeitschrift für katholische Theologie (Innsbruck, 1877-1940; Vienna, 1947ft ). Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche (Giessen/Berlin/New York, igooff.). Zeitschrift für Missionswissenschaft (Münster, 1911-37). Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche (Tübingen, 1891ft.). = "or," e.g., 543/554 Textual material supplied by translator of the original source or by the present editor/translator

Introduction Recent decades have witnessed numerous Christian denominations reforming and renewing their communal worship structures. Well before such a venture occurred, there took place, mainly though not exclusively in Europe, a scientific study of the early development of the Church's com­ mon prayer, a study that continues today. Both professional and amateur historians have applied and are applying their expertise to this important task, for understanding the past is not merely an intellectual exercise but offers one of the all-important keys for understanding the present. Yet many students of worship have but little direct contact with the great literary heritage that witnesses the way Christians lived their litur­ gical life during the early ages of Christianity. Often a person's acquain­ tance with the primitive Church's written documentation is only by way of citations in end- or footnotes. Frequently access to the excellent English language collections of early source material is limited, since these are for the most part found only in the libraries of theological schools and major universities. The same is true of texts related to particular subjects, e.g., initiation. Furthermore, a large amount of pertinent material has simply not appeared in English. Texts in Latin, Greek, and other languages— apart from their inherent problems for many students of the liturgy— are no less difficult to obtain. The four volumes of the present series aim to present a selection or the­ saurus (representative, to be sure) of a wide selection of source material illustrating the growth of the Church's common prayer, in both East and West, from its Jewish roots down to the end of the sixth century. Included are texts from homilies, dogmatic and spiritual treatises, letters, monastic rules, church orders, prayer formulas, conciliar and synodal legislation, inscriptions, and the like. The subject matter is not only sacramental cele­ bration but also the liturgical year, the times of the day for personal or group prayer, music and song, the physical arrangement of the church building, times for fasting (considered to be so closely allied with prayer), veneration of the martyrs, liturgical roles, decorum within and without the church, etc. The user of these volumes fortunate enough to have access to a major theological library may well profit from the references to patristic and other manuals, as well as from the bibliography of pertinent periodical ar­ ticles and treatises. In a few cases the most recent edition of a text was, for various rea­ sons, unavailable to me. Also, several texts initially intended to appear in XXlll

xxiv

Introduction

this work are in fact not included since a particular volume could not be obtained. It should be noted that, unless otherwise indicated, the enumeration of the psalms follows the Hebrew. All cited texts have been translated by the present editor from the source indicated ("Translated from . . .") or are taken from a preexisting translation ("Translation from . . ."). A note on format Each subhead (author, anonymous document, synods, etc.) is assigned an identification number, which is usually followed by a letter indicating a particular work of an author or a particular synod. The internal enumeration of paragraphs usually corresponds to that of the edition from which the text was translated. Marginal numbers, run­ ning sequentially, are assigned to paragraphs of the text. Cross-references are indicated by the abbreviation for Worship in the Early Church, i.e., WEC, followed by the volume number and then either the subhead number in bold text (e.g., WEC 3:102 or WEC 3:ii5-C) or else the marginal paragraph number (e.g., WEC 3:2749). There are three types of footnotes: daggers, letters, and numbers. Dag­ gered notes indicate the sources from which translations have been made, lettered notes contain explanations for words and phrases used in the text, and numbered notes indicate scriptural references. * * *

No work of this kind can reach completion without the encouragement and assistance of many people. And thus I must express my gratitude to Mr. Peter Kearney for sharing his expertise in Latin and Hebrew. To the Rev. James Challancin, a priest of the diocese of Marquette, Michigan, and a former professor of liturgy, for his many words of encouragement. To the staff (especially Jessica) of the Escanaba, Michigan, Public Library for such gracious assistance in procuring by means of interlibrary loans ever so many volumes from libraries throughout the country. To the whole publishing team at Liturgical Press and especially to Stephanie Lancour, m y copy editor, whose careful reading of the text has saved me from any number of embarrassing moments. And especially to m y wife, Marlene Winter-Johnson, not only for her patience throughout this endeavor but especially for the numerous hours in researching materials found in the library of The Catholic University of America and in that of the University of Notre Dame, as well as for helping to prepare the work's manuscript for publication.

Chapter IX Fifth Century. West AFRICA 9 7 . A L Y P IU S OF T H E G A S T E . O R D O M O N A S T E R I V

The Ordo Monasteri, which greatly influenced later monastic rules, is generally attributed to Alypius (d. ca. 430?), bishop of Thegaste in North Africa and a long-standing and good friend of Augustine (WEC 3:98). CPL no. 1839c * Bautz 1:136 * CATH 1:386 * CE 1:374 * DHGE 2:902-4 * DPAC 1:139-40 * EC 1:888-89 * EEC 1:27 * NCE 1:317-18

2. We describe how we should pray or render the psalms: namely, at Matins three psalms are said: Psalms 62, 5, and 89. A t Terce first there is a responsorial psalm, then two antiphons,3a read­ ing, and a conclusion; the same is true for Sext and None; at the lucernarium there is one responsorial psalm, four antiphons, again a responsorial psalm, a reading, and a conclusion. A t a fitting time after the lucemarium, when all are seated, the lessons are read; afterwards there are the customary prayers before sleep. Regard­ ing the prayers during the night: during November, December, January, and February there are twelve antiphons, six psalms, and three readings; during March, April, September, and October there are ten antiphons, five psalms, three readings; during May, June, July, and August there are eight antiphons, four psalms, and two readings. 9 8 . A U G U S T I N E OF H I P P O

Born on November 13, 354, in Thagaste in Numidia (modern-day Annaba in Algeria), Augustine was the son of Patricius, a town official, and Mon­ ica. Patricius, a pagan for most of his life, was baptized on his deathbed in 371. On the other hand, Monica, the daughter of a Christian family, was a devout and pious believer who enrolled her son as a catechumen when he was still an infant. +Translated from L. Verheijen, La Règle de s. Augustin, Etudes Augustiniennes, voi. 1 (Paris, 1967) 148-49. The psalm numbers are those of the LXX. a. The Latin antiphonae here and throughout probably means "antiphonal psalm­ ody." See R. Taft, The Liturgy of the Hours in East and West (Collegeville, 1986) 94-95.

1

249f

249