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English Pages  Year 1955
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This text presents exercises which examine data from diverse natural languages - including Arabic, Chinese, Greek, Japan
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The founder of modern linguistics, Ferdinand de Saussure inaugurated semiology, structuralism, and deconstruction and ma
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Henry Allan Gleason,
The Hartford Seminary Foundation
Henry Allan Gleason,Jr. The Hartford Seminary Foundation
Copyright 1955 Copyright 1955 by Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Copyright renewed 1983 by Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. All rights reserved.
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 8th Floor, Orlando, Florida 32887.
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Operating on the assumption that each language must be described in terms of its own peculiar structure, descriptive linguistics is necessarily a system of analytic techniques more than it is a body of concepts. Even such units as the phoneme and the morpheme can perhaps best be viewed as devices to be used in language analysis, to be redefined and reinterpreted to fit the needs of any particular language structure. A student of deecriptive linguistics must therefore learn something of these techniques, and the only feasible way to do so is by actually working through language problems. Suitable materials for use in an introductory course are difficult to find. They must meet two apparently conflicting requirements: they must be within the ability of beginning students, and they must carry them far enough into the complexities of language structures that they can gain some appreciation of descriptive techniques. These oan only be met satisfactorily in a carefully planned set of graded problems. This workbook contains two such graded series dealing with morphology and phonology. The two are independent, and either can be used before the other. There is also a shorter sequence dealing with diachronio and geographic linguistics, but the chief emphasis is, as the title suggests, on synchronic description. There is also a set of exercises to assist in learning to make phonemic transcriptions of English. These may well be supplemented by additional assignments. It is of course assumed that some provision will be made for auraloral drill in phonetics, and oral presentation of phonemics problems.
All the problems represent real languages. There is, of course, a oertain amount of inescapable distortion in the process of selecting certain structures for presentation out of context. In addition, in a few instances there has been deliberate simplification, as in the Mi wok problem (9.C) where length is omitted; it is not pertinent to the problem selected, though of importance in stem formation* What liberties have been taken are all in the direction of greater simplicity for the student. The complexities are all genuine.
Most of the problems have been used with classes of students. Many others have been tried and discarded. Of those which are included here, a great number have been revised and reworked many times. Experience has demonstrated the value of the general outline, and has led to the inclusion of certain specific details. Instructors using this workbook in teaching are invited to write to the author, who will be glad to point out oertain special features in oertain problems and to explain some of his techniques in using this material. The preparation of this workbook has been a long process of joint experimentation. I wish to acknowledge especially the help of my colleagues in the Department of Linguistics who have shared in the teaching at the Hartford Seminary Foundation: Norma Bloomquist, Richard Oortwright, Flola Shepard, Warren Webster, and especially J. Maurice Kohlfeld. The many linguists and students who have furnished data are listed below. Many of them, as well as others who cannot be listed here, have helped with suggestions and comments. Gladys Engelbrecht, Donald DeBlois, Frances Gleason and Malcolm Pitt have helped with the preparation of copy. But the heaviest debt I owe to the students who have been long suffering through my experiments. H. A. Gleason, Jr.
55 Elizabeth Street Hartford 5, Connecticut
SOURCES dPfl^f WotKeoon
DficaifTim Linguistics. P*st
Four of the etems have phonologically conditioned allomorphs which can be found in this data. These are listed here, partly to assist you in dividing the words correctly. Supply the approximate meanings for these and list the other stems which occur in the data.
3tems (A) and (B) have allomorphs with a vowel following the first consonant but not after the second, or with a vowel after the second consonant but not after the first. What conditions this?
Stems (C) and (D) have allomorphs with a long vowel, or with a short vowel in What conditions this! the same place.
Stems (A), (B), and (C) have allomorphs ending with a vowel, or without this final vowel. What conditions this?
No allomorphs of stem (D) with a final vowel occur in the data. Is this a peculiarity of this stem, or could it be due to inadequate data! If the latter, what additional data oould be elicited to settle the question?
List the prefixes with their meanings.
List the suffixes with their meanings.
-ap-nee 9 -
If the forms of certain stems and of /-ap-/ and /-nee*-/ had not been given, what additional ambiguity would there be in the analysis?
Deschiptive Limsuistics. Pasc 40
nemic analysis of this datathe phonemes together with their alloph ones ar.d a list c an illus flkivp word for each. The latter should be given in both phonemic and phonetic transcription. [ty d7] represent alveopalatal stops. Workbook
Descriptive linguistics, page 65
(Sierra Nahuat dialect) (Mexico)
namoso*t 8 iwa*n
re'tata'ta'wti" li's o
he did it to me
he tells it
he chokes him
8 pa't 8 ka 7
kik was 7
he'll eat it
ho counts them
not 8 a'n
he buys them
kiiDk w is
he'll take them
he wont out
kit 8 i'wak
he did it
he scratches it
pit a o'ti'kh
kwa -li 7
k vowpats k vovsi'nkeh
8o't 8 it h
k wehk w elpat a tikh
k w eta's
kwowkeke*s k wowit h
tat 8 te'kkeh
k wowmeh lamat h
mok w9 ytia 7
t 8 ikt 8 i'n
he is lost
t 8 ope'kh
t 8 apo'li'n
Descriptive Linguistics, p*ge 66
a'ska*n ? epat h
lme'; n sokpa*l
his hand sole
? ohc'me ?
two by two
Make a phonemic analy^x^ of th6 aborc data. Prepare a list of the phonemes. Irdioate which r\I'j.s phones 3.TQ assigned to each phoneme. Illuetrato each aliopbone by siting a form in bcth phonetic and phonemic tifcooro^ipkion.
There is consider.".Mi- ft?© variation 5r the vowels. Thie is not indicated in the t? r^ocriptioa« £i] is written for vowels varying between [5.] qd3 (i] # [e] Le wit tan 1'o-r vowels varying between [e] and [e], fo c 3 lo T.T^Muen for vowels varying between If c\ DOJrC sr^C; pho:i3«ic transcription had been Ce*3 and [ei]. used in the corpus ; -hat of fact would it have had on your analysis? Vfhat additional date .*~uld you h.*ve to have i;o find the phonemic system of the latt^uagoo Treat eoneon&nt nequercr-o in v.hich on symbo.. is raised as unit segments. Foi fsnnplcj [to] Id an affricate. What reasons can you give for segmenting in thia way!
he is doing
korukxi ft ft
emrika ? £
State your reasoning in full.
What is its phonemic status?