Wonders of the National Parks

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Wonders of the National Parks

Table of contents :
Professor Biography
Table of Contents
Course Scope
Lecture 1—Yellowstone: Microcosm of the National Parks
Lecture 2—Yellowstone’s Cataclysmic Origins and Future
Lecture 3—Grand Teton and Jackson Hole
Lecture 4—Hawaii Volcanoes: Earth’s Largest Mountains
Lecture 5—The Hawaiian Islands and Maui’s Haleakala
Lecture 6—Mount Saint Helens, Lassen Volcanic, Rainier
Lecture 7—Crater Lake, Olympic, North Cascades
Lecture 8—Volcanoes of Alaska: Katmai and Lake Clark
Lecture 9—Alaska’s Glacier Bay and Kenai Fjords
Lecture 10—Yosemite: Nature’s Cathedral
Lecture 11—Redwoods, Sequoias, and the Sierra Nevada
Lecture 12—Pinnacles to Joshua Tree: The San Andreas
Lecture 13—Denali to Gates of the Arctic
Lecture 14—Death Valley and Great Basin: The Rift Zone
Lecture 15—Shenandoah: The Collision of Old Continents
Lecture 16—Great Smoky Mountains and Hot Springs
Lecture 17—National Rivers: Gorges, Falls, and Meanders
Lecture 18—Great Dune Fields of North America
Lecture 19—National Seashores and Lakeshores
Lecture 20—Reefs: Virgin Islands, Florida, Texas
Lecture 21—National Marine Sanctuaries and Monuments
Lecture 22—Acadia’s Highlands and Islands
Lecture 23—The Dakota Badlands
Lecture 24—The Grand Canyon’s 2-Billion-Year Staircase
Lecture 25—Carving the Grand Canyon
Lecture 26—Petrified Forest and Other Fossil Parks
Lecture 27—Bryce Canyon, Canyonlands, Arches
Lecture 28—Zion, Gunnison’s Black Canyon, Capitol Reef
Lecture 29—Mesa Verde and Ancient Settlements
Lecture 30—The Colorado Rocky Mountains
Lecture 31—Montana’s Glacier and the Canadian Rockies
Lecture 32—Big Bend on the Rio Grande and Saguaro
Lecture 33—Mammoth Cave, Wind Cave, Carlsbad Caverns
Lecture 34—The Everglades and the Congaree Bottomland
Lecture 35—Voyageurs, Isle Royale, the Canadian Shield
Lecture 36—Assembling North America, Park by Park
Bibliography
List of Parks
Photographic Credits

Citation preview

Topic Science

Wonders of the National Parks

Subtopic Earth Science

A Geology of North America Course Guidebook

Ford Cochran Geologist and Program Director National Geographic

PUBLISHED BY: THE GREAT COURSES Corporate Headquarters 4840 Westfields Boulevard, Suite 500 Chantilly, Virginia 20151-2299 Phone: 1-800-832-2412 Fax: 703-378-3819 www.thegreatcourses.com

Copyright © The Teaching Company, 2015

Printed in the United States of America This book is in copyright. All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of The Teaching Company.

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Ford Cochran Geologist and Program Director National Geographic Expeditions

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eologist, journalist, and educator Ford Cochran is Director of Programming for National Geographic Expeditions. He selects and manages the expert scholars, writers, photographers, explorers, and staff sent by the National Geographic Society on expeditions for travelers to destinations around the world. Mr. Cochran studied English literature as an undergraduate at the College of William & Mary, where he edited the century-old student newspaper, The Flat Hat IRU WZR \HDUV +H GLG ¿HOG UHVHDUFK RQ +DZDLL¶V YROFDQRHV and Mount Saint Helens, with a focus on biogeochemistry and climate change, as a graduate student at Harvard and Yale Universities. Mr. Cochran earned a Master of Philosophy degree in Geology at Yale, where he was awarded competitive Global Change fellowships from both NASA and the 'HSDUWPHQWRI(QHUJ\+HZDVHOHFWHGWRUHSUHVHQW/HFWXUH@ Sharp, Robert P., and Allen F. Glazner. Geology Underfoot in Death Valley and Owens Valley. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company, 7KHDXWKRUVSUHVHQWWKHIDVFLQDWLQJJHRORJLFDOVWRU\RI'HDWK9DOOH\ 1DWLRQDO3DUN>/HFWXUH@ ²²² Geology Underfoot in Southern California. Missoula, MT: 0RXQWDLQ 3UHVV 3XEOLVKLQJ &RPSDQ\  7KH DXWKRUV GHYRWH VHYHUDO

346 Wonders of the National Parks: A Geology of North America

chapters of this volume to landscapes shaped by the San Andreas and other WUDQVIRUPIDXOWVLQVRXWKHUQ&DOLIRUQLD>/HFWXUH@ Smith, Robert B., and Lee J. Siegel. Windows into the Earth: The Geologic Story of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. New York: Oxford 8QLYHUVLW\3UHVV7KLVEHDXWLIXOO\LOOXVWUDWHGYROXPHSURYLGHVDWHUUL¿F LQWURGXFWLRQWR/HFWXUHV@ Spearing, Darwin. Roadside Geology of Texas. Missoula, MT: Mountain 3UHVV 3XEOLVKLQJ &RPSDQ\ 7KLV VXUYH\ RI VWDWH JHRORJ\ FRYHUV %LJ %HQG1DWLRQDO3DUNDQGWKHVXUURXQGLQJUHJLRQ>/HFWXUH@ Tucker, Dave. Geology Underfoot in Western Washington. Missoula, MT: 0RXQWDLQ 3UHVV 3XEOLVKLQJ &RPSDQ\  )URP 1RUWK &DVFDGHV 0RXQW Rainier, and Olympic National Parks to Mount Saint Helens, the Columbia 5LYHU*RUJHDQGWKH6DQ-XDQ,VODQGVZHVWHUQ:DVKLQJWRQ¶V JHRORJ\KDV VRPHWKLQJIRUHYHU\RQH>/HFWXUHV@ U.S. Geological Survey. USGS Geology in the Parks. http://www.nature. nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/project/home.html. This site, coproduced by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service, provides a portal to geological information and geology-focused photographic tours of many of $PHULFD¶VQDWLRQDOSDUNV>/HFWXUH@ Van Diver, Bradford B. Roadside Geology of New York. Missoula, MT: 0RXQWDLQ 3UHVV 3XEOLVKLQJ &RPSDQ\  7KLV UHYLHZ FRYHUV WKH HQWLUH state of New York, including Niagara Falls, Fire Island and Long Island, 0DQKDWWDQDQGWKH$GLURQGDFNV>/HFWXUHV@ Williams, Felicie, and Halka Chronic. Roadside Geology of Colorado. 0LVVRXOD070RXQWDLQ3UHVV3XEOLVKLQJ&RPSDQ\5RFN\0RXQWDLQ Great Sand Dunes, Mesa Verde, and Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Parks, as well as Dinosaur and Colorado National Monuments, all get ¿QH WUHDWPHQW LQ WKLV FRORUIXO JUDSKLFDOO\ ULFK DQG FRPSHOOLQJ VXUYH\ >/HFWXUHV@

List of Parks

National Parks of the United States (59) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

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348 Wonders of the National Parks: A Geology of North America

29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59.

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List of Parks 349

Other Parks in the United States (85) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

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350 Wonders of the National Parks: A Geology of North America

28. Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, Texas and Louisiana, >/HFWXUH@ 29. )RVVLO%XWWH1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW:\RPLQJ>/HFWXUH@ 30. *DUGHQRIWKH*RGV1DWXUDO1DWLRQDO/DQGPDUN&RORUDGR >/HFWXUH@ 31. Gerry E. Studds Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, 0DVVDFKXVHWWV>/HFWXUH@ 32. *HWW\VEXUJ1DWLRQDO0LOLWDU\3DUN3HQQV\OYDQLD>/HFWXUH@ 33. *LQQLH6SULQJV)ORULGD>/HFWXUH@ 34. *OHQ&DQ\RQ1DWLRQDO5HFUHDWLRQ$UHD$UL]RQDDQG8WDK >/HFWXUHVDQG@ 35. *ROGHQ*DWH1DWLRQDO5HFUHDWLRQ$UHD LQFOXGLQJ$OFDWUD] &DOLIRUQLD >/HFWXUH@ 36. *UD\¶V5HHI1DWLRQDO0DULQH6DQFWXDU\*HRUJLD>/HFWXUH@ 37. *UHDW)DOOV3DUN3RWRPDF5LYHU9LUJLQLD>/HFWXUH@ 38. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, Golden Gate, &DOLIRUQLD>/HFWXUH@ 39. +DJHUPDQ)RVVLO%HGV1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW,GDKR>/HFWXUH@ 40. Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, +DZDLL>/HFWXUH@ 41. ,QGLDQD'XQHV1DWLRQDO/DNHVKRUH,QGLDQD>/HFWXUH@ 42. -RKQ'D\)RVVLO%HGV1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW2UHJRQ>/HFWXUH@ 43. /DNH0HDG1DWLRQDO5HFUHDWLRQ$UHD$UL]RQDDQG1HYDGD >/HFWXUH@ 44. /DNH3RZHOO1DYDMR7ULEDO3DUN $QWHORSH&DQ\RQ $UL]RQD >/HFWXUH@ 45. /DYD%HGV1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW&DOLIRUQLD>/HFWXUH@ 46. /HZLV &ODUN1DWLRQDO+LVWRULF7UDLO,OOLQRLVWR:DVKLQJWRQ >/HFWXUH@ 47. Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Northern Marianas ,VODQGV>/HFWXUH@ 48. 0DURRQ%HOOV6QRZPDVV:LOGHUQHVV$UHD&RORUDGR>/HFWXUH@ 49. 0LVW\)MRUGV1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW$ODVND>/HFWXUH@ 50. 0RQLWRU1DWLRQDO0DULQH6DQFWXDU\1RUWK&DUROLQD>/HFWXUH@ 51. 0RQWHUH\%D\1DWLRQDO0DULQH6DQFWXDU\&DOLIRUQLD >/HFWXUH@ 52. 0RQWH]XPD&DVWOH1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW$UL]RQD>/HFWXUH@

List of Parks 351

53. 0RQXPHQW9DOOH\1DYDMR7ULEDO3DUN8WDKDQG$UL]RQD >/HFWXUH@ 54. 0RXQW5XVKPRUH1DWLRQDO0HPRULDO6RXWK'DNRWD>/HFWXUH@ 55. 0XLU:RRGV1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW&DOLIRUQLD>/HFWXUH@ 56. National Marine Sanctuary of American Samoa, American Samoa, >/HFWXUH@ 57. 1DWXUDO%ULGJHV1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW8WDK>/HFWXUH@ 58. 1HEUDVND6DQGKLOOV1DWLRQDO1DWXUDO/DQGPDUN1HEUDVND >/HFWXUH@ 59. 1HZ5LYHU*RUJH1DWLRQDO5LYHU:HVW9LUJLQLD>/HFWXUH@ 60. 1HZEHUU\1DWLRQDO9ROFDQLF0RQXPHQW2UHJRQ>/HFWXUH@ 61. 1LDJDUD)DOOV1DWLRQDO+HULWDJH$UHD1HZ/HFWXUH@ 62. 2O\PSLF&RDVW1DWLRQDO0DULQH6DQFWXDU\:DVKLQJWRQ >/HFWXUH@ 63. 3DFL¿F&UHVW1DWLRQDO6FHQLF7UDLO&DOLIRUQLDWR:DVKLQJWRQ >/HFWXUH@ 64. 3DFL¿F5HPRWH,VODQGV0DULQH1DWLRQDO0RQXPHQW:DNH,VODQG >/HFWXUH@ 65. 3DGUH,VODQG1DWLRQDO6HDVKRUH7H[DV>/HFWXUH@ 66. 3DSDKƗQDXPRNXƗ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List of Parks 353

Mexico Basaseachic Falls National Park, Barrancas del Cobre (“Copper &DQ\RQ´ &KLKXDKXD>/HFWXUH@ 2. Cañon de Santa Elena Flora and Fauna Protection Area, Chihuahua, >/HFWXUH@ 3. &KLFKHQ,W]D$UFKHRORJLFDO=RQH/HFWXUH@ 4. &XPEUHVGH0RQWHUUH\1DWLRQDO3DUN1XHYR/HyQ>/HFWXUH@ 5. (O3LQDFDWH\*UDQ'HVLHUWRGH$OWDU%LRVSKHUH5HVHUYH6RQRUD >/HFWXUH@ 6. ,W]DFFLKLKXDWO3RSRFDWHSHWO1DWLRQDO3DUN(VWDGRGH0p[LFR >/HFWXUH@ 7. 0DGHUDVGHO&DUPHQ)ORUDDQG)DXQD3URWHFWLRQ$UHD&RDKXLOD >/HFWXUH@ 8. 3DOHQTXH1DWLRQDO3DUN&KLDSDV>/HFWXUH@ 9. 3LFRGH2UL]DED1DWLRQDO3DUN9HUDFUX]DQG3XHEOD>/HFWXUH@ 10. 6LHUUDGH6DQ3HGUR0DUWLU1DWLRQDO3DUN%DMD&DOLIRUQLD >/HFWXUH@ 11. 9ROFDQ1HYDGRGH&ROLPD1DWLRQDO3DUN&ROLPD>/HFWXUH@ 1.

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Photographic Credits

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Photographic Credits 355

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356 Wonders of the National Parks: A Geology of North America

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