Women and men in Somaliland

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Ministry of Planning and National Development

Facts and figures 2018

ii \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Ministry of Planning and National Development

Facts and figures 2018 Somaliland 2018

PREFACE The Ministry of Planning and National Development is proud to produce and present the first (2018) edition of Somaliland Women and Men Booklet which is first comprehensive Gender booklet on the Somaliland population. Somaliland Gender booklet has been highlighted opportunities across some sectors of the society, including economic participation, employment, education, health and decision-making. This booklet is supported technically and financially by Statistics Sweden and the Swedish Agency for Development and International Cooperation (Sida). This publication will be updated annually where more information will be encompassed as it becomes available. The ministry is delighted to welcoming comments and suggestions regarding this booklet from its readers and users.

iv \ Women and Men in Somaliland

CONTENTS Preface .................................................................... iv Gender equality ......................................................... 2 Guide for readers....................................................... 4 Population ................................................................ 5 Health ............................................................................ 20 Education....................................................................... 38 Employment .................................................................. 53 Crime and violence ........................................................ 69 Influence and Power ...................................................... 76

Women and Men in Somaliland / 1

GENDER EQUALITY Gender equality refers to a situation where women and men have equal conditions for realizing their full human rights and potential such that they are able to contribute equally to national political, economic, social and cultural development and benefit equally from the results. It pertains to equal distribution of resources and benefits and participation of women and men in all areas of society and also to the need to give equal weight to the knowledge, experience and values of both women and men in society. Gender Equality entails that the underlying causes of discrimination are systematically identified and removed in order to give women and men equal opportunities. The absence of discrimination on the basis of one’s sex in the allocation of resources or benefits or in access to services is the hallmark of any society which practices gender equality.

Gender equality in Somaliland Since the reassertion of its sovereignty in 1991, the Republic of Somaliland has focused on peace-building and the reconstruction of its nation, which was adversely affected by the war. The process of peace-building and socio-economic reconstruction towards national development required a concerted effort of both men and women to ensure growth and good governance in all sectors. Women played an active role in this process but were soon affected by some negative traditions and customs that perceived national development as a male domain. This perception stemmed from the patriarchal lineage 2 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

of the clan-based system, which recognizes male dominance and perpetrated gender inequality through customary laws. The norm of gender inequality, which was once a feature of nomadic society, is gradually getting better to meet with the national development plan. Politically, public attitude has been tending to favour male dominance over women, although the Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland does not condone any form of discrimination. By virtue of Article 8 of the Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland: ‘All citizens of Somaliland shall enjoy equal rights and obligations in the practice of the law, and shall not be accorded precedence on grounds of color, clan, birth, language, gender, property, status, opinion etc.’. It is further provided that: ‘Precedence and discrimination on grounds of ethnicity, clan affiliation, birth and residence is prohibited; and at the same time programmes aimed at eradicating long-lasting bad practices shall be a national obligation’. Respect to women and their rights was one of the main aspects of religious and cultural characteristics of people of Somaliland. In recent years, both the public and private sectors are encouraging the participation women in development actions in Somaliland. Indications are that disparities exist between men and women in actual power sharing, participation and control over decisionmaking processes and resources are still major problem.

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GUIDE FOR READERS The information in this booklet is collected from different surveys.

The source is given in conjunction with each table/graph. In most places, the tables and graphs provide absolute numbers and/or proportions (%) for certain attributes for both women and men. Proportions (%) are used in two ways: •

Proportion (%) of all women and proportion (%) of all men with certain characteristics, such as literacy rate.



Distribution of sex within a group, such as head of household.

The total figures in the tables are not always in agreement with the partial figures because of rounding off.

4 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

POPULATION The chapter on population gives background information to the statistics presented in the booklet. In this chapter you find information about how women and men in Somaliland are distributed over different age groups, regions and types of residence. The chapter also contains information about sex ratio, total fertility rate, head of households and marital status.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 5

Population by age, 2014 Percentage distribution and numbers in thousands Age 85+ 80-84 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-40 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4

Females 1,729

20

15

10

5

0

0

Males 1,779

5

10

15

20

Percent Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014

The population of Somaliland is young; more than half of the population are younger than 20 years. There are almost as many women as men.

6 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Population by age, 2014 Percentage distribution

Percent

100

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Female

Male

Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014

About six out of ten women and men in Somaliland are 15–64 years. Almost four out of ten are children 0–14 years and 2 percent of women and 3 percent of men are 65 years or older.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 7

Population by type of residence, 2014 Percentage distribution 60 50

Percent

40 30 20 10 0 Rural

Urban IDP camps Nomads

Female

Male

Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014

More than 50 percent of the females and males in Somaliland lives in urban areas. The second most common type of residence is being a nomad.

8 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Sex ratio by age, 2014

Age

0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84

85+ Total 0

80

100 120 Sex ratio

140

160

Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014

Sex ratio is defined as the number of males per 100 females in the population. A sex ratio above 100 indicates that there are more men than women. The overall sex ratio for Somaliland is 102.9, indicating more males than females in the population.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 9

Sex ratio by type of residence, 2014 110

Sex Ratio

105

100

95

0 Rural

Urban

IDPs

Nomadic

Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014.

Among the nomadic, IDPs and in rural areas, there are more men than women, while there are more women than men in urban areas.

10 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Total fertility rate by type of residence, 2011 Average number of children per woman 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Rural

Urban

Total

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The total fertility rate (TFR) is a measurement on the average number of children that would be born per woman given that all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to the measured fertility rate at each age.

The TFR is higher in rural areas (6.1 children per woman) than in urban areas (5.0 children per woman). In total, a woman in Somaliland gives birth to 5.4 children during her reproductive period. Women and Men in Somaliland / 11

Total fertility rate by region, 2011 Average number of children per woman Maroodijeex/ Saaxil Sanaag Sool Awdal Togdheer 0

1

2 3 4 5 Total Fertility Rate

6

7

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The total fertility rate (TFR) is lowest in Maroodijeex/Saaxil, 4.9 children per woman, while all other regions have a TFR close to 6 children per woman.

12 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Total fertility rate by education level, 2011 Average number of children per woman 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 None

Primary Secondary or higher

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The total fertility rate is higher among women who have no education or only primary education compared to women who have secondary or higher education. TFR for women with no education or primary education is 5.7 and 5.6 respectively, compared to 3.5 among women with at least secondary education.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 13

Total fertility rate by wealth quantile, 2011 Average number of children per woman 7

Total Fertility Rate

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Poorest

Second

Middle

Fourth

Richest

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The total fertility rate is highest among women from the poorest quintile, 6.7 children per woman. Women from the richest quintile have the lowest TFR, 4.3 children per women.

14 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Head of household by type of residence, 2014 Sex distribution Rural Urban IDP Nomads Total 0

20

40

60 Percent

Female

80

100

Male

Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014

In Somaliland, it is most common that households have a man as the head. The share of female headed of households is highest in IDP camps (37 percent) and lowest among nomads (9 percent).

Women and Men in Somaliland / 15

Percent

Head of household by level of education, 2014 Sex distribution 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 None

Primary

Secondary

Female

Male

Tertiary

Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014

The share of female head of households is about two out of ten in households with no education or primary education. In households with secondary or tertiary education the share of female households is lower, about one out of ten.

16 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Population by marital status, 2014 Persons aged 15 years and above. Percentage distribution Abandoned Divorced Widowed Never Married Married 0

20

40 Percent Female

60

80

Male

Source: Population Estimation Survey of Somaliland, 2014

Out of all women aged 15 or older, 53 percent are married and 40 percent have never married. Of all men, 49 percent are married and 47 percent have never married.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 17

Women who first married or entered a marital union before their 15th/18th birthday by age, 2011 Percent of women aged 15–49/20–49 years 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 0

10

20

30

Married before 15

40

50

Married before 18

Source: 1Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

Among women aged 15–49, 9 percent were married before their 15th birthday. 31 percent of women aged 20–49 were married before their 18th birthday.

18 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Women who first married or entered a marital union before their 15th/18th birthday by type of residence, 2011 Percent of women aged 15–49/20–49 years 40

Percent

30 20 10 0 Married before 15

Urban

Married before 18

Rural

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The share of women who were married before their 15th or 18th birthday is higher in rural areas compared to urban areas.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 19

HEALTH The chapter on health includes statistics on mortality among girls and boys. It also includes information on different aspects of reproductive health: women with an unmet need for contraception and women who were assisted by skilled personnel when they gave birth. There is also information about female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C).

20 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Percent

Probability of dying within the first month of life, 2006–2010 Number of deaths per 1 000 live births 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Girls

Boys

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The neonatal mortality is the probability of dying within the first month of life. Out of 1 000 newborn children 36 girls and 48 boys die within the first month of life.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 21

Percent

Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday, 2006–2010 Number of deaths per 1 000 live births 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Girls Boys Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

Infant mortality is the probability of dying between birth and the first birthday. Out of 1 000 newborn children 68 girls and 76 boys die before their first birthday.

22 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Probability of dying between exact ages one and five, 2006– 2010 Number of deaths per 1 000 children surviving to age one 25

Percent

20 15 10 5 0 Girls Boys Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

Child mortality is the probability of dying between the exact ages one and five. Out of 1 000 children 19 girls and 20 boys die between age one and five years.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 23

Probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday, 2006–2010 Number of deaths per 1 000 live births 100 90 80 Percent

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Girls Boys Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

Under 5-mortality measures the prevalence of children who dies before their fifth birthday and is expressed as the number per 1 000 live births. The mortality is higher among boys than girls. Out of 1 000 newborn children 86 girls and 95 boys die before their fifth birthday.

24 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Women who have had a live birth by age 15 and 18, by age, 2011 Percent 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 0

5

10

15 Percent

Live birth before age 15

20

25

30

Live birth before age 18

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

Out of all women aged 15–49, 3 percent had a live birth before they were 15 years old. Among women aged 20–49, 18 percent had a live birth before they were 18 years old.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 25

Women who have had a live birth by age 15 and 18, by type of residence, 2011 Women aged 15–49 and 20–49 years old. Percent 30 25

Percent

20 15 10 5 0 Rural

Urban

Live birth before age 15 Live birth before age 18 Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

It is more common for women in rural areas to give birth before 15 and 18 years age. 4 percent of women in rural areas gave birth before their 15th birthday compared to 2 percent in urban areas. 21 percent in rural areas and 15 percent in urban areas gave birth before they were 18 years old. 26 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Early childbearing by region, 2011 Women aged 15–19 years who had a live birth by age 15. Percent

Togdheer Awdal Sool Sanaag Maroodijeex/ Saaxil 0,0

0,5

1,0 1,5 Percent

2,0

2,5

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

In Togdheer and Awdal, 1.5 percent of all women aged 15–19 had a live birth before the age of 15.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 27

Early childbearing by wealth quintile, 2011 Women aged 15–19 years who had a live birth by age 15. Percent 2,5

Percent

2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 Poorest

Second

Third

Fourth

Richest

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

It is most common among women aged 15–19 in the poorest wealth quintile to have had a live birth by the age of 15. There are no early childbearing among women in the richest wealth quintile.

28 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Women with an unmet need for family planning by age, 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–49 who are currently married 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 0

5

10

15 20 Percent

25

30

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The chart shows the percentage of women 15–49 years currently married with an unmet need for contraception for spacing or limiting the number of children. In total 20 percent have an unmet need for contraception.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 29

Women with an unmet need for family planning by type of residence, 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–49 who are currently married 30 25

Percent

20 15 10 5 0 Rural

Urban

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

Out of women in rural areas, 19 percent have an unmet need for contraception. In urban areas, it is 22 percent.

30 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Women with an unmet need for family planning by region, 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–49 who are currently married Sanaag Awdal Togdheer

Sool Marodijeex/ Saaxil 0

10

20

30

Percent

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

Out of women in different regions the share who have an unmet need for contraception is highest in Maroodijeex/Saaxil (22 percent) and lowest in Sanaag (16 percent).

Women and Men in Somaliland / 31

Women with an unmet need for contraception by education level, 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–49 who are currently married 30 25

Percent

20 15 10 5 0 None

Primary Secondary+

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

20 percent of women with no education or primary education have an unmet need for contraception compared to 18 percent of women with secondary or higher education.

32 \ Women and Men in Somaliland

Women with an unmet need for contraception by wealth index quintile, 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–49 who are currently married 30 25

Percent

20 15 10 5 0 Poorest

Second

Middle

Fourth

Richest

Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Somaliland, 2011

The chart shows women in wealth quintiles who have an unmet need for contraception. The share is between 19 and 23 percent in the different wealth quintiles.

Women and Men in Somaliland / 33

Person assisted at delivery by type of residence and mother’s age at birth, 2011 Percentage distribution of women aged 15–49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey Mother's age Total

Type of residence at birth Urban

Rural