What's in Your Food? A Dictionary of Food Additives

A handy pocket guide to all those additives listed on the packet. Know just what you are eating with this handy referenc

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What's in Your Food? A Dictionary of Food Additives

Table of contents :
What's in Your Food? - Front Cover
Printer's Imprint
Title Page / Contents
What’s in your Food?
Index of Names
Number dictionary
E100--
E200--
E300--
E400--
E500--
E620--
E900--
Rear Cover

Citation preview

WHAT'SIN YOUR FOOD? Ahandy pocket guide to all those additives listed on the packet

A Checkpoint Book No. H43 Published by Circle Books 38 Hans Crescent, London SW1 OLZ

Brown Knight & Truscott Ltd Tonbridge KentTN92TS

1988 © International Thomson Publishing Ltd

WHAT'S IN YOUR FOOD? A Dictionary of Food Additives by Peter Morrison

What's in your food?

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Index of names

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Number dictionary

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What's in Your Food? The 1980's are the time of mass-produced and high technology foods. A wide variety of additives are used during production. They flavour, colour, preserve our food, stick it together or separate it, moisten it or dry it out. Do you know what you're eating? Now is your chance to find out. This book will help you to understand what is going into the food that you and your family eat every day. Some of the additives can be harmful to your health or can cause an allergic reaction. Children, in particular, are sensitive to additives. The Hyperactive Children's Support Group has highlighted those additives which should be avoided if your child is sensitive and these are marked clearly with

e x. It is virtually impossible to avoid additives altogether, but this book will help you to avoid those which are potentially harmful. Whenever possible it is preferable to provide your family with fresh fruit, vegetables, meat and poultry in order to reduce their daily consumption of additives as much as possible. Armed with this useful pocket guide you will be able to make up your own mind about what you eat. Don't leave it to the manufacturer to decide for you!

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Looking at the Label When you look at a food label the ingredients often look completely incomprehensible, just a list of numbers and meaningless words. What do the numbers mean? The majority of additives have now been given a number. Those with an E in front are part of the EEC Code. To find out what the numbers mean, simply look them up in this dictionary of additives. What do the names mean? If an additive is identified on a label by its name, not by a number then look on pages 6-7 to find the number, then look it up in the dictionary of additives. e.g. Pectin is E440(a). There are many hundreds of additives, so this book concentrates on those which are most commonly used. What do the terms mean? What on earth is an emulsifier or an antioxidant? In the following two pages explanations are given so you can understand what happens to your food before it finally arrives on the supermarket shelf. Finally, don't forget that if a product says "No artificial additives or flavourings", it means that the food does not contain any chemical additives; but it can contain additives made from natural products. Beware - one should not assume that as something is natural it is good for you.

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Anti-Caking Agents These prevent food particles from sticking together, so food producers can sell products like sugar and salt which do not become lumpy.

Antioxidants As fats and oils come into contact with oxygen they oxidise and go rancid. Antioxidants drastically slow down this process.

Curing Agents Curing agents are used to preserve meat.

Colouring Colourings can be either chemical or natural and are added to replace colouring lost .during processing, or to create an illusion e.g. lemon foods are supposed to be more convincing if a bright yellow colour.

Emulsifiers These are used to bind together oil and water into an emulsion.

Flavourings These are added to replace flavour lost during processing, or to make a flavour out of nothing! They do not have to be specifically listed; labels will just say 'flavouring'.

Flavour Enhancers These increase natural and artificial flavours by sensitising the taste buds. 4

Gelling Agent These make food gel, and so increase the substance of foods.

Modified Starch Food labels will list modified starch but will not tell you anything more. Starch which has been 'modified' or changed in a chemical process is used in food processing to fill out and bulk foods. Beware, these starches are full of calories.

Preservatives Preservatives slow down the process of food decay by inhibiting the growth of mould, bacteria and fungi.

Sequestrants Industrial food production involves the use of metal machines, as a result, small traces of metal end up in the food. In some cases this might cause the food to deteriorate rapidly. Sequestrants bond with the traces of metal and prevent them from reacting with the food.

Stabilisers These act to keep oil and water together and to control their natural tendency to separate.

Thickening Agents These are used to bulk out food and make it look more solid.

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Index of names E260 Acetic Acid Acid Brilliant Green E142 Adipic Acid 355 E406 Agar E400 Alginic Acid Aluminium Calcium Silicate 556 Aluminium Sodium Silicate 554 Amaranth E123 Ammonium Alginate E403 Ammonium Carbonate 503 Ammonium Ferric Citrate 381 Ammonium Hydroxide 527 Ammonium Phosphatides 442 Annatto E160(b) Beeswax 901 Beetroot Red E162 Benzoic Acid E210 Bixin E160(b) Black PN E151 Brilliant Blue FCF 133 Brown FK 154 Brown HT 155 Butylated Hydroxyanisole E320 Butylated Hydroxy toluene E321 Calcium-Lascorbate E302 Calcium Acetate E263

Calcium Alginate Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride Calcium Citrate Calcium Hydrogen Sulphite Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Lactate Calcium Malate Calcium Silicate Calcium Sorbate Calcium Sulphite Caramel Carbon Black Carbon Dioxide Carmoisine Carnauba Wax Carob Bean Gum Carrageenan Citric Acid Cochineal Corn Sugar Gum Cream of Tartar Curcumin Erythrosine Fumaric Acid Glycerol Green S Guanosine 5 Guar Gum Gum Arabic Hexamine Indigo Carmine Inosine 5 Karaya Gum L-ascorbic Acid

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E404 E170 509 E333 E227 526 E327 352 552 E203 E226 E150 E153 E290 E122 903 E410 E407 E330 E120 E415 E336 E100 E127 297 E422 E142 627 E412 E414 E239 E132 631 416 E300

L-Glutamic Acid 620 E270 Lactic Acid Lecithin E322 Locust Bean Gum E410 Magnesium Carbonate 504 Magnesium 553(a) Silicate Malic Acid 296 Maltol 636 Mannitol E421 Metatartaric Acid 353 Monosodium Glutamate 621 Niacin 375 Nicotinic Acid 375 Nisin 234 Norbixin E160(b) Orthophosphoric Acid E338 Patent Blue V E131 Pectin E440(a) Phosphoric Acid E338 Pigment Rubine E180 Ponceau 4R E124 Potassium Acetate E261 Potassium Alginate E402 Potassium Carbonate 501 Potassium Chloride 508 Potassium Dihydrogen Citrate E332 Potassium Hydroxide 525 Potassium Lactate E326 Potassium Malate 351 Potassium Nitrate E252

Potassium Nitrite E249 Potassium Sorbate E202 Propionic Acid E280 Quinoline Yellow E104 Red2G 128 Riboflavin E101 Silicon Dioxide 551 Sodium Alginate E401 Sodium Aluminium Phosphate 541 Sodium Benzoate E211 Sodium Bicarbonate 500 Sodium Carbonate 500 Sodium Citrate E331 Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite E222 Sodium Hydroxide 524 Sodium L-ascorbate E301 Sodium Lactate E325 Sodium Malate 350 Sodium Nitrate E251 Sodium Nitrite E250 E201 Sodium Sorbate Sodium Sulphite E221 E200 Sorbic Acid E420 Sorbitol Sulphur Dioxide E220 Sunset Yellow FCF E110 Talc 553(b) E334 Tartaric Acid E102 Tartrazine Tocopherols E306 E413 Tragacanth Triammonium 380 Citrate E415 Xanthum Gum 107 Yellow2G

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Number dictionary E100 Curcumin This is an orange-yellow colouring which is an extract from the turmeric root. There are no confirmed health risks but experiments in animals suggest a need for further investigation. May be found in: 8readcrumbs, banana yoghurt, sweets, savoury rice, frozen pastry, fish fingers, curry powder, processed cheese, ice cream. E101 Riboflavin (Vitamin 8 2) This is a natural orange-yellow colouring. It is a vitamin which is present in a variety of foods e.g., cereals, milk, meat, green vegetables and is involved in energy release from carbohydrate foods. May be found in: Sauces, processed cheese, added to foods as a vitamin supplement e.g. breakfast cereal. E102 Tartrazine X This is a yellow colouring which is widely used. It is an artificially-produced chemical dye. Tartrazine can produce allergic symptoms such as skin irritation, cold symptoms, blurring of the vision and hyperactivity. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those 8

who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. May be found in: Fruit squash, fizzy drinks, biscuits, cakes, soups, fish fingers, custard powder, jellies, tinned vegetables.

E104 Quinoline Yellow X This is an artificial dye which is used for greenish-yellow colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma and eczema. May be found in: Cake mix, ice cream, lemon-flavoured foods, fruit squash, fizzy drinks, smoked haddock. 107 Yellow 2G X This is an artificial dye which is used for yellow colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma and eczema. It is banned in America and no other country within the E.E.C uses this additive. May be found in: Sauces, sweets, tinned vegetables. E110 Sunset Yellow FCF X This is an artificial dye which is used for yellow colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who 9

suffer from asthma or eczema. May be found in: Sauces, cakes, cake mix, custard powder, fish fingers, ice cream, coffee whitener, lemon-flavoured foods, fruit squash, jams.

E120 Cochineal ~ This is a red dye which is prepared from dried female cactus insects. It is not widely used as it is expensive to produce. May be found in: Alcoholic drinks, biscuits, cakes, icing. E122 Carmoisine ~ This is an artificial dye which is used for red colouring. It is widely used. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. May be found in: Sauces, cakes, cake mix, custard powder, marzipan, yoghurt, blancmange, jam. E123 Amaranth ~ This is an artificial dye which is used for purple-red colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. It is banned in America. May be found in: Blackcurrant drinks, 10

yoghurts, jam, cakes, soup, fruit squash.

E124 Ponceau 4R X This is an artificial dye which is used for red colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. It is banned in America May be found in: Sauces, cake, cake mix, custard powder, fish fingers, savoury rice, milk-shakes, soup, jam. E127 Erythrosine X This is an artificial dye which is used for pink-red colouring. It can cause a sensitive reaction to light. If consumed in large quantities it can cause the thyroid gland to enlarge because of its iodine content. It is banned in America. May be found in: Glace cherries, chocolate, tinned fruit filling, luncheon meat, salami. 128 Red 2G X This is an artificial dye which is used for red colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. There is also concern that Red 2G may affect the formation of red blood cells. It is banned in 11

America and no other country within the E.E.C uses this additive. May be found in: Sausages, garlic sausage, milk shakes, jam.

E131 Patent Blue V X This is an artificial blue dye. Patent Blue V has been shown to cause allergic reactions such as nausea, low blood pressure and skin sensitivity. May be found in: Sweets, scotch eggs, ice cream. E132 Indigo Carmine X This is an artificial dye which is used for blue colouring. Indigo Carmine has been shown to cause allergic reactions such as nausea, low blood pressure and skin sensitivity. May be found in: Biscuits, sweets, cake decorations, swiss roll. 133 Brilliant Blue FCF X This is an artificial dye which is used for blue colouring. It is used with E102 Tartrazine, a yellow dye, to produce green shades. It can cause an allergic reaction. May be found in: Tinned peas, fizzy drinks, mint sauce.

E142 Green S (Acid Brilliant Green) X This is an artificial dye which is used for 12

green colouring. It is banned in America. May be found in: Jam, tinned peas, cakes, mint sauce, soft drinks.

E150 Caramel X Caramel can be used either as a brown colouring or as a flavouring. It is chemically produced in a variety of ways and is a widely used additive. This additive is of some concern although no definite health risk has yet been isolated. A vitamin B6 deficiency has been shown in rats. May be found in: Cola drinks, cakes, biscuits, chocolate, ice cream, crisps, bread, gravy, pickles, packet soup. E15l Black PN X This is an artificial dye which is used for purple-black colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. No other specific health risk has been isolated although pigs given the additive developed intestinal cysts. May be found in: Brown sauce, gravy granules, chocolate mousse. E153 Carbon Black X Carbon black is produced from burnt plant material. It is used for black colouring. There is concern that handling the dye 13

during manufacture may be linked with skin cancer. It is banned in America. May be found in: Chocolate-flavoured foods, jam, liquorice.

154 Brown FK X This is an artificial dye which is used for yellow-brown colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. Experiments on animal using Brown FK have produced changes in genes and possible cancerous changes. Its use is restricted in many other countries. May be found in: Smoked fish, crisps, gravy granules. 155 Brown HT X This is an artificial dye which is used for brown colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. Its use is restricted in many other countries. May be found in: Chocolate-flavoured foods, pickles. E160(a) Alpha-Carotene, Beta Carotene, Gamma Carotene These are natural plant pigments which are used for yellow colouring. The body 14

will convert carotene into Vitamin A. May be found in: Rice pudding, custard, margarine, processed cheese, salad dressing, thousand island dressing.

E160(b) Annatto, Bixin, Norbixin This yellow colouring is made from the seed pods of the Annatto tree found in the tropics. It is often used as the safer alternative to E102, Tartrazine. In itself safe but the chemicals used during the extraction process need further investigation. May be found in: Salad cream, coffee whitener, dried milk, cheese, fish fingers, ice cream, yoghurt, cake, custard. E160(c) Capsanthin This is a red-orange colouring produced from the red pepper. May be found in: Processed cheese. Given to poultry to intensify the orange colour of the yolk. E162 Beetroot Red This red-purple colouring is extracted from the beetroot. May be found in: Sweets, jam, jellies. E170 Calcium Carbonate This white colouring is made from a mineral and is also used as a calcium supplement. 15

May be found in: Flour, bread, biscuits.

E17l Titanium Dioxide This white colouring is made from a mineral. May be found in: Sweets, fruit fillings, horseradish sauce, lemon curd. E1BO Pigment Rubine This is an artificial dye which is used for red colouring. As a member of the azo group of dyes it can cause a reaction in those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma or eczema. May be found in: Cheese rind. E200 Sorbic Acid This is a preservative which inhibits the growth of yeast and mould. Sorbic acid can be artificially produced or extracted from fruits and berries. May be found in: Cheese spread, pickles, cake, yoghurt, frozen pizza, fruit pie.

E20l Sodium Sorbate E202 Potassium Sorbate E203 Calcium Sorbate These three additives are produced from Sorbic Acid (E200). They are preservatives and inhibit the growth of yeast and mould. May be found in: As E200. 16

E210 Benzoic Acid x Benzoic acid is a preservative which inhibits the growth of bacteria. It can be produced artificially or naturally. It is known to cause skin reactions, and those with asthma can be sensitive to it. May be found in: Jam, yoghurt, margarine. E211 Sodium Benzoate ~ E212 Potassium Benzoate E213 Calcium Benzoate ~

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This group of additives are produced from Benzoic Acid (E210). They can cause a skin reaction or affect those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma. May be found in: Orange squash, margarine, pineapple juice, sauces. Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate ~ Sodium Salt of E214 ~ Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate x Sodium Salt of E216 ~ Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate ~ Sodium Salt of E218 ~ This group of artificially produced preservatives inhibit the growth of yeast and mould. They may produce a skin reaction or affect those who are sensitive to aspirin or who suffer from asthma. May be found in: Pie filling, jam, salad cream, soft drinks, pickle, beer.

E214 E215 E216 E217 E218 E219

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E220 Sulphur Dioxide X This is a widely used additive which is used as a preservative, antioxidant, and improving agent. It also bleaches flour but destroys a significant part of the Vitamin E content. It stabilises and preserves Vitamin C but destroys Vitamin 8 1 . Sulphur dioxide can cause irritation in the gut. If inhaled in a significant quantity by someone with asthma it can provoke a severe reaction. May be found in: Pickles, lemon curd, marmalade, fruit pie filling, glace cherries, wine, beer. E221 E222 E223 E224 E226 E227

Sodium Sulphite X Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite X Sodium Metabisulphite X Potassium Metabisulphite X Calcium Sulphite X Calcium Hydrogen Sulphite X This group of additives are products of sulphurous acid. They are used to sterilise and as an antioxidant. They prevent the browning process in apples and potatoes. In the past they have been used directly on food to keep it looking fresh. This use is now banned as inhalation of sulphites by an asthmatic can provoke a severe and possibly fatal reaction. They reduce the Vitamin 8 1 content and cause gut reaction and allergic skin reactions. 18

May be found in: Fruit juice, pickles, beer, wine, orange squash.

E230 E231 E232 E233

Biphenyl 2-Hydroxybiphenyl Sodium Biphenyl-2-yl Oxide Thiabendazole You will not see these four additives listed on a label. They are used as a fungicide to treat the outside of fruit. They can cause skin irritation and those working with the chemicals have suffered sickness and irritation to the eyes and nose. Wash fruit and wash your hands after handling fruit.

234 Nisin This additive is used as a preservative. May be found in: Cheese, cheese spreads. E239 Hexamine This is a preservative made from formaldehyde and ammonia. Formaldehyde in the gut may cause irritation. Experiments on animals have produced gene changes and a tendency to cancer. May be found in: Provolone cheese, marinated fish. E249 Potassium Nitrite This is made from a natural mineral and is used as a curing agent in meat. It acts 19

particularly against the bacteria that can cause botulism. There are a number of possible health risks with this additive. It can affect the blood and its capacity to carry oxygen. There is evidence that it can react in the stomach with other chemicals, called amines; the combination could cause cancer. This additive is banned from food prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Cooked meats, sausages.

E250 Sodium Nitrite X This is an artificially produced preservative and is used as a curing agent for meat. It preserves in particular against the bacteria that can cause botulism. As a nitrite the health risks are the same as for E249. This additive is banned from food prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Meat, pork pies, frozen pizza. E251 Sodium Nitrate X This is a natural mineral which is used as a preservative and a curing agent for meat. It is possible for a nitrate to be converted to a nitrite, consequently the health risks for this additive are the same as for E249. This additive is banned from food prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Meats, frozen pizza. 20

E252 Potassium Nitrate This is produced from waste products, both animal and vegetable. It is used as a preservative and a curing agent. If taken over a long period potassium nitrate can affect the kidneys and the digestive system. It is possible for a nitrate to be converted to a nitrite, consequently the health risks for this additive are the same as for E249. This additive is banned from food prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Cooked meats, sausages. E260 Acetic Acid Acetic acid is used in food processing as an antibacterial element, to stabilise the acid content of food and dilute colouring. May be found in: Sauces, pickles, lemon curd, mincemeat, salad cream. E261 Potassium Acetate This is a preservative. As it contains potassium a significant amount will affect those who have reduced kidney function. May be found in: Frozen vegetables. E262 Sodium Hydrogen Diacetate This is a preservative which mainly works against spore-bearing bacteria which grow easily in bread. May be found in: Bread, crisps. 21

E263 Calcium Acetate This additive acts to prevent mould developing and is also a firming agent. May be found in: Jelly, cake mix. E270 Lactic Acid Lactic acid occurs in milk when it turns sour. It is a preservative, a flavouring and enhances antioxidants. It should not be given to babies under the age of 4 months; it is difficult for them to digest. May be found in: Bread, margarine, cheese, milk-powder, beer. E280 Propionic Acid This is a preservative which acts against the formation of fungi in food. May be found in: Pizza, processed cheese, bread. E281 Sodium Propionate E282 Calcium Propionate E283 Potassium Propionate This group of preservatives have been reported as causing headaches. May be found in: Pizza, processed cheese, bread.

E290 Carbon Dioxide This gas, naturally present in the atmosphere, is also produced during fermentation. It can be used as a preservative and 22

to make fizzy drinks. Carbon dioxide increases the production of gastric juices so speeding up the absorption of liquid from the stomach. May be found in: Fizzy drinks, beer.

296

Malic Acid Malic Acid is found in some fruit and can also be artificially produced. It is used as an acid and as flavouring. It has the potential to act as an irritant and should not be given to babies. May be found in: Packet and tinned soup, mince-meat, jam, frozen vegetables, savoury rice.

297 Fumaric Acid This is produced by fermentation. It is used as an acid, for flavouring and as a raising agent. May be found in: Cake mix, jam, soft drinks. E300 L-ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) This is one of the few recommended additives! As well as being a vitamin it has uses in the production of processed foods. It is used as an antioxidant, to prevent cut fruit from browning, to preserve the colour of meat and as an improving agent in flour. May be found in: Bread, fruit juices, tinned fruit, fizzy drinks, powdered milk. 23

E301 Sodium L-ascorbate This is produced from L-ascorbic acid (E300). It is an antioxidant, preserves colour and provides vitamin C. May be found in: Sausages, pork pies, cooked meats, frozen pizza. E302 Calcium L-ascorbate Is used as an antioxidant, preserves colour and provides vitamin C. May be found in: Scotch egg. E304 6-0-Palmitoyl-L-ascorbic Acid Is used as an antioxidant, preserves colour and provides vitamin C. May be found in: Pork pies, sausages, cooked meat. E306 Tocopherols (Vitamin E) This vitamin, naturally found in vegetable oils, cereals and eggs, is used as an antioxidant. May be found in: Cooked meats, pork pies, vegetable oils. E307 Alpha-tocopherol E308 Gamma-tocopherol E309 Delta-tocopherol This group of antioxidants are synthetically produced Vitamin E. May be found in: Cooked meat, sausages.

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E310 Propyl Gallate X E311 Octyl Gallate X E312 Dodecyl Gallate " Produced from gallic acid, these are antioxidants which are mainly used in fats and oils. They have been shown to cause irritation in the digestive tract and on the skin. Those who are sensitive to aspirin or suffer from asthma may be affected particularly. Questions have been raised about the effect on the liver and the reproductive system. These additives are banned from food prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Vegetable oils, margarine, instant mashed potato, breakfast cereals.

E320 Butylated Hydroxyanisole X This additive is widely used as an antioxidant, delays deterioration in fats and oils and holds the flavour. It is usually used with another additive which will promote its action. There are a number of health risks with this additive. It raises blood fats levels. High blood fats levels are linked with heart disease. During animal experiments, high levels caused cancerous growth. This additive is banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Margarine, biscuits, crisps, cheese spread. 25

E321 Butylated Hydroxytoluene X This is a widely used antioxidant which delays deterioration in fats and oils and holds the flavour. Research has shown that this additive can cause cancer in rodents and large doses affected their reproductive system. It can cause rashes particularly in those who are sensitive to aspirin. This additive is banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Margarine, cake mix, gravy granules, salted peanuts. E322 Lecithin Lecithin occurs naturally in all plant and animal tissue and is extracted from soya beans, seeds and egg yolks to be used as a food additive. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser and antioxidant. May be found in: Bread, margarine, dried milk, chocolate, biscuits. E325 Sodium Lactate E326 Potassium Lactate E327 Calcium Lactate These three additives are salts extracted from lactic acid (E270). They act to enhance the effect of antioxidants and prevent food from drying out. They are broken down in the liver and are not suitable for young babies. May be found in: Jam, ice cream.

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E330 Citric Acid Citric acid occurs naturally in citrus fruits and is produced for commercial use by the fermenting molasses. It enhances the effect of antioxidants and prevents browning. It preserves flavour, maintains the acidity in food and promotes setting in jam. It preserves vitamin C in food. If taken in very large quantities it can erode teeth and also act as a local irritant. However, it will not occur in these quantities in a normal diet. May be found in: Marmalade, fruit pie, fruit drinks, jam, lemon curd, packet soup, jelly. E331 Sodium Citrate This additive has a variety of uses: to enhance the effect of antioxidants, as an emulsifying salt, to maintain the acid levels in food. May be found in: Processed cheese, rice pudding, fruit filling, jam, marmalade, cakes, pork sausage. E332 Potassium Dihydrogen Citrate E333 Calcium Citrate These two additives are extracted from citric acid (E330). They are used as an emulsifying salt, an antioxidant and to maintain the acid levels in food. These citrates can cause a skin reaction and

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mouth ulcers if taken in large quantities; more than would be taken in the normal daily diet. May be found in: Processed cheese, sweets, jam.

E334 L-(+)-Tartaric Acid Tartaric acid occurs naturally in fruit. It is used in food production an an antioxidant, to enhance other antioxidants, as flavouring and to dilute colouring. If taken in large quantities it can cause gastric irritation. This amount is not normally found in the average daily diet. May be found in: Jam, soft drinks, biscuits, wine. E335 Monosodium L-(+)-tartrate E336 Cream of Tartar E337 Potassium Sodium L-(+)-tartrate These additives, which are salts of tartaric acid, are used as antioxidants, emulsifiers and to enhance other antioxidants. May be found in: Processed cheese, margarine, jam, marmalade.

E338 Orthophosphoric Acid Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric acid is produced from phosphate ore. It is used to enhance the effect of other additives, as an antioxidant and a flavouring. A high intake of phosphates

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can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium in the body, which is necessary for efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Sausages, cooked meat, cola drinks.

E339 Sodium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate This additive, formed from phosphoric acid, has a variety of uses including stabilising, emulsifying, enhancing antioxidants, and as a setting agent. A high intake of phosphates can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium in the body, which is necessary for the efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Sausages, processed cheese, cake mix, coffee whitener, ice cream, marmalade.

E340 Potassium Dihydrogen Orthophosphate This additive produced from phosphoric acid is used as an emulsifier, to enhance antioxidants and to maintain the acid balance in food. A high intake of phosphates can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium in the body, necessary for the efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Cooked meats, cheese sauce mix, coffee whitener, custard powder, packet soup.

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E341 Calcium Orthosphosphates These are produced from the mineral calcium phosphate. Their uses include: as an emulsifying salt, to maintain acid levels, to enhance antioxidants and as a raising agent. A high intake of phosphates can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium in the body, which is necessary for the efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Cake mix, self-raising flour, dried milk products, baking powder.

350 Sodium Malate This is a salt extracted from Malic Acid (296). It is used to keep the level of malic acid in food constant. May be found in: Jam, foods containing malic acid. 351 Potassium Malate This is a potassium salt extracted from malic acid. It is used to keep the level of malic acid in food constant. May be found in: Jam, foods containing malic acid. 352 Calcium Malate This is a calcium salt extracted from malic acid. It is used to keep the level of malic acid in food constant. May be found in: Jam, foods containing malic acid. 30

353

Metatartaric Acid Is prepared from tartaric acid. It is used in food production as a sequestrant. May be found in: Wine.

355 Adipic Acid This additive is used as a raising agent, as flavouring and to maintain acid levels in processed foods. May be found in: Baking powder, gelatine. 375 Nicotinic Acid (Niacin) This is one of the B vitamins found in cereals, milk and vegetables. It is used in food production to preserve colour and is added to replace vitamin content lost during food preparation. May be found in: Breakfast cereal, bread, flour. 380 Triammonium Citrate This is a salt extracted from citric acid E330 and is used as an emulsifier and to maintain acid levels in food. Could react with food to release ammonia, which can irritate the nervous system. May be found in: Processed cheese, cheese spread. 381 Ammonium Ferric Citrate This is an iron supplement which can be 31

added to foods to provide this necessary mineral. May be found in: Flour, baby milks.

E400 Alginic Acid Alginic acid is extracted from brown seaweed. It is used as a stabiliser, emulsifier and gelling agent. May be found in: Ice lollies, sweets, processed cheese, jam. E401 Sodium Alginate This is extracted from brown seaweed. It is used as a stabiliser, emulsifier, thickening and gelling agent. May be found in: Cake mix, ice cream, fruit filling, jelly, yoghurt. E402 Potassium Alginate E403 Ammonium Alginate E404 Calcium Alginate These are salts extracted from alginic acid (E400) from brown seaweed. They are used as emulsifiers, stabilisers, thickening and gelling agents. May be found in: Ice cream, cake, cheese spread, salad cream, tinned vegetables, yoghurt.

E405 Propane-1, 2-diol Alginate This is formed from alginic acid (E400). It is an emulsifier, stabiliser, thickening and 32

gelling agent. It is also used in beer brewing to produce the foam on the top of your pint! May be found in: Ice cream, dessert topping, beer, thousand island dressing.

E406 Agar Agar is produced from seaweed and is used as a stabiliser, thickener and gelling agent. In large doses it can cause gastric problems such as wind and diarrhoea. The amount taken in an average daily diet should not be enough to cause these symptoms. May be found in: Ice cream, frozen cake, icing, sweets, yoghurt. E407 Carrageenan Carrageenan is produced from seaweed and is used for stabilising, thickening and gelling. If it is broken down it forms degraded Carrageenan which has been linked with gastric diseases e.g. ulcerative colitis and gastric ulcers, and with cancerous tumours in animals. Carrageenan can be broken down to degraded Carrageenan in the gut. For this reason foods containing Carrageenan should be viewed with caution. May be found in: Chocolate mousse, ice cream, milk-shakes, pork pies, blancmange, yoghurt. 33

E410 Locust Bean Gum (Carob Bean Gum) This additive is extracted from the pods of the Locust or Carob tree. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, thickening and gelling agent. May be found in: Ice cream, salad cream, cottage cheese, tinned vegetables.

E412 Guar Gum This is extracted from pea seeds. It is used as an emulsifier, a thickening agent and in food specially produced for diabetics. In large quantities it can produce gastric upset with wind and nausea, but it is unlikely that sufficient could be consumed in the average daily diet. May be found in: Baked beans, chocolate mousse, sponge pudding, cottage cheese, horseradish sauce, ice cream, milk-shakes, yoghurt. E413 Tragacanth This gum is extracted from a bush found in the Middle East. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser and a thickening agent. In large quantities it can cause intestinal upset but it is unlikely that sufficient would be consumed in the average daily diet to cause this condition. May be found in: Salad cream, horseradish sauce, cottage cheese, yoghurt. 34

E414 Gum Arabic This gum is extracted from trees in the Acacia family found mainly in the Middle 'East. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser, a thickening agent, to glaze and to slow down sugar crystallisation. May be found in: Cola drinks, dryroasted peanuts, sweets. E415 Xanthum Gum (Corn Sugar Gum) This is a by-product of carbohydrate fermentation. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser and thickening agent. May be found in: Cake mix, horseradish sauce, packet soup, frozen pizza. 416 KarayaGum Karaya gum is extracted from trees found in South East Asia. It is used as an emulsifier, stabiliser and a thickening agent. May be found in: Cheese, sauces, ice cream, sweets.

E420 Sorbitol Sorbitol is found in fruit but is also commercially manufactured. It is a sweetener and stabiliser. It is slowly converted to sugar by the body which, makes it of some advantage in a diabetic diet. Too much sorbitol causes wind, diarrhoea and stomach-ache. It is banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. 35

May be found in: Chocolate, sweets, ice cream, diabetic foods.

E421 Mannitol Mannitol is extracted from coniferous trees and from seaweed. It is used as a sweetener and to provide texture. It can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and sickness; it is sold by pharmaceutical companies as a laxative. It is banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Chewing gum, sweets, ice cream. E422 Glycerol Is found naturally in plants and is commercially manufactured as a by-product of soap. It is used as a sweetener, a solvent and to keep some foods moist. In large quantities it can cause headaches, nausea, thirst and diarrhoea. It is unlikely that sufficient could be consumed in the average daily diet. May be found in: Chewing gum, sweets, liqueurs. icing. 430 Polyoxyethylene (8) Stearate This additive is used as an emulsifier and as a stabiliser. It is banned in America as it has been linked with gastric problems and the formation of kidney stones. May be found in: Bread, cake. 36

431 Polyoxyethylene (40) Stearate This additive is used as an emulsifier. Experiments with rodents have shown a potential for producing cancerous cells. May be found in: Bread. 432 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monolaurate

433 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Mono-oleate

434 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monopalmitate

435 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Monostearate

436 Polyoxyethylene (20) Sorbitan Tristearate This rather complex sounding group of additives is produced from Sorbitol. Their uses include; emulsifying, stabilising, keeping food moist and maintaining oil in food. They may encourage the body to absorb more of certain types of fat. Further research will be needed to isolate any other side effects of these additives. May be found in: Cakes, ice cream, bread, cream, cake mix.

E440(a) Pectin Pectin is manufactured from the leftovers of oranges and apples. It is used as an emulsifier, gelling agent and thickener. If taken in large quantities it can cause 37

wind but is capable of reducing blood fat levels. Raised blood fat levels have been linked with heart disease. May be found in: Jam, yoghurt, jelly, ice cream.

442 Ammonium Phosphatides Used as a stabiliser and an emulsifier. May be found in: Chocolate products.

E450(a) Disodium Dihydrogen Diphosphate

E450(a) Trisodium Diphosphate E450(a) Tetrasodium Diphosphate E450(a) Tetrapotassium Diphosphate This group of additives are made from salts extracted from Phosphoric Acid (E338). They are used as emulsifiers, raising agents and to maintain acid levels in food. As they are products of phosphoric acid one should be aware that a high intake of phosphates can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium in the body, which is necessary for the efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Cake, self-raising flour, instant mashed potato.

E450 (b) Pentasodium Triphosphate E450 (b) Pentapotassium Triphosphate These two additives are used to emulsify, 38

to maintain acid levels in food and to provide texture. As they are products of phosphoric acid one should be aware that a high intake of phosphates can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium in the body, which is necessary for the efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Processed cheese, pork sausages, cooked meats, custard powder, packet soup.

E450(c) Sodium Polyphosphates E450(c) Potassium Polyphosphates Used to emulsify, to stabilise and to provide texture in the food. As they are products of phosphoric acid one should be aware that a high intake of phosphates can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium in the body, which is necessary for the efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Beefburgers, cheese spread, fish fingers, packet soup, pork pies.

E460 Microcrystalline Cellulose E460 Alpha-cellulose These two additives are produced from plant fibres. They are mainly used to bulkout food, particularly slimming foods. Other uses include: anti-caking agent, stabiliser, thickening agent. There are no known health risks from these additives

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but a high-bulk, low-nutrient diet will be detrimental over a long period. They are banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Slimming foods, dried foods.

E466 Carboxymethylcellulose Is extracted from cellulose. It has many uses in food processing which include thickening, stabilising and as a gelling agent. It can cause gastric symptoms such as wind and stomach-ache. May be found in: Orange drink, ice cream, cake mix, instant mashed potato. E470 Salts of Fatty Acids These are used as emulsifiers, stabilisers and anti-caking agents. If taken in large quantities they will act as a gastric irritant. It is unlikely that sufficient can be consumed in the average daily diet. May be found in: Crisps, cake mix.

E471 Mono- and di-glycerides of Fatty Acids These are artificially produced from glycerin and fatty acids. They act as an emulsifier, stabiliser and a thickening agent. May be found in: Cake mix, custard powder, bread, chocolate mousse, coffee 40

whitener, dried milk, gravy granules, ice cream.

E472 Acid Esters of mono- and di-glycerides of Fatty Acids This group of additives are prepared from a variety of acids. Uses include emulsifying and stabilising. May be found in: Bread, cake mix, ice cream, packet soup.

E475 Polyglycerol Esters of Fatty Acids Are used as emulsifiers and stabilisers. May be found in: Cheese cake mix, cake mix, cake. 476 Polyglycerol Esters of Polycondensed Fatty Acids of Castor Oil This additive is used as an emulsifier and stabiliser and to eke out chocolate. May be found in: Chocolate-coated foods.

E477 Propane-1, 2-diol Esters of Fatty Acids Used as an emulsifier and stabiliser. May be found in: Dessert topping, milkshake.

E481 Sodium Stearoyl-2 Lactylate Made from Lactic Acid (E270), it is used as a stabiliser and emulsifier. 41

May be found in: Bread, frozen pizza, cakes.

E482 Calcium Stearoyl-2-lactylate Made from lactic acid and is used as an emulsifier and stabiliser. May be found in: Gravy granules. 500 Sodium Carbonate Bicarbonate of Soda This group of additives includes bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) which we use in our home cooking. In food processing it is used as a raising agent and to balance acid/alkaline levels in food. In large quantities it can cause gastric upset but is unlikely that sufficient will be taken in the average daily diet. May be found in: Apple pie, biscuits, cake, custard.

501 Potassium Carbonate Is used to balance acid/alkaline levels in food. May be found in: Malted drinks.

503 Ammonium Carbonate This is used to maintain acid levels in food and as a raising agent. Could react with food to release ammonia, which can irritate the nervous system. May be found in: Biscuits. 42

504 Magnesium Carbonate This additive is made from a mineral. Its uses include maintaining acid levels in food and as an anti-caking agent. It is sold by pharmaceutical companies to reduce acidity in the stomach, and as a laxative. The amount taken in the normal daily diet are not sufficient to cause these results. May be found in: Icing sugar, bread, table salt.

508 Potassium Chloride This is used in food as a salt substitute. If taken in large quantities it will cause nausea or gastric ulceration. This is unlikely in the average daily diet but can happen when potassium chloride is taken in tablet form for medicinal purpose. May be found in: Frozen vegetables.

509 Calcium Chloride This salt is used as a sequestrant and as a firming agent. In large quantities it can cause gastric irritation, but it is unlikely that sufficient will be taken in the average daily diet to cause this. May be found in: Tinned vegetables.

524 Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) 525 Potassium Hydroxide Are used to reduce acid levels in food. In large quantities or concentrates they are 43

highly toxic and irritating. These large quantities would not occur in the average daily diet. May be found in: Savoury biscuits.

526 Calcium Hydroxide This additive is prepared from lime and is used to reduce acid levels in food, and as a firming agent. May be found in: Cheese, cocoa products, crisps. 527

Ammonium Hydroxide Is used as a solvent for food colouring and to reduce acid levels in food. Could react with food to release ammonia, which can irritate the nervous system. May be found in: Foods containing colouring.

540 Dicalcium Diphosphate Can be taken from minerals or artificially produced, it is used to keep acid/alkaline levels constant. May be found in: Crisps, cheese.

541 Sodium Aluminium Phosphate This additive is used as a raising agent and as an emulsifier. The aluminium element in this additive can cause problems if absorbed during the digestive process; it affects the nervous system.

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May be found in: Cake mix, processed cheese.

544 Calcium Polyphosphates 545 Ammonium Polyphosphates These are used for emulsifying and to hold water in food. As they are products of phosphoric acid one should be aware that a high intake of phosphates can upset the balance of phosphorus to calcium, which is necessary for the efficient use of both minerals. May be found in: Beefburgers, cheese.

551 Silicon Dioxide This is manufactured from sand, and is used as an anti-caking agent and to thicken and stabilise foods. May be found in: Crisps, sweets. 552 Calcium Silicate This additive has a variety of uses: anticaking, glazing, polishing. It is sold by pharmaceutical companies as an antacid but there is not sufficient in the average daily diet to have this effect. May be found in: Rice, sweets, salt. 553(a) Magnesium Silicate This additive has a variety of uses including: anti-caking, glazing and polishing. May be found in: Rice, sweets, salt. 45

553(b) Talc This is a natural mineral used for anticaking and to prevent food sticking to machinery. It has been linked with cancer. May be found in: Rice, salt, sweets. 554 Aluminium Sodium Silicate 556 Aluminium Calcium Silicate These are natural minerals used for anticaking in food processing. The aluminium element can affect the nervous system if absorbed during the digestive process. May be found in: Cheese sauce mix, coffee whitener, gravy granules.

575 D-Glucono-1 , 5-lactone This additive, made from glucose, mainly used as a sequestrant. May be found in: Cake mix.

is

620 L-Glutamic Acid X This additive is used as a flavour enhancer and as a substitute for salt. Research has not yet shown any health risks but it is not recommended for baby foods. May be found in: Many different savoury processed foods.

621 Monosodium Glutamate X This well known and widely used additive is used to enhance the flavour of food. Whether it is safe or not has been a matter 46

of great debate. It has been linked with a variety of symptoms: hot flushes, headaches, nausea, dizziness and chest pain. It appears to act on nerve endings as a stimulant. It is banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Many different savoury processed foods.

627 Guanosine 5 This is a flavour enhancer. It is recommended that it should be avoided by those who suffer from gout or other associated conditions. This additive is banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Gravy granules, cooked meats. 631 Inosine 5 635 Sodium 5-ribonucleotide These are used as flavour enhancers. It is recommended that they are avoided by those who suffer from gout or other associated conditions. 635 is banned from foods prepared specifically for babies. May be found in: Cooked meats, crisps, gravy granules.

636 Maltol This is used as a flavouring agent and to give a 'baked' flavour to bread and cakes. May be found in: Bread, cakes, ice 47

cream, flavoured drinks.

900

Dimethylpolysiloxane This additive is used to repel water and to reduce foaming. Can contain the chemical formaldehyde which is under suspicion for causing cancer. May be found in: Frozen vegetables, jam, soft drinks.

901 Beeswax This is made from honeycomb. It is used as a glazing and polishing agent. May be found in: Sweets. 903

Carnauba Wax Used as a glazing and polishing agent, it is made from the surface of leaves. May be found in: Sweets, chocolate.

905

Mineral Hydrocarbons This additive is made from petrol. It is used for polishing and glazing. It may, in large quantities, inhibit vitamin absorption, and has been linked with bowel cancer. May be found in: Dried fruit, sweets, cheese rind.

920 L-Cysteine Hydrochloride This additive is used as an improving agent and as flavouring. May be found in: Flour, chicken stock. 48

WHAT'SIN YOUR FOOD? Know just what you are eating with this handy reference book.

5 010791 00032