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English Pages  Year 1969
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Most of us start our day with coffee and a commute; Finn starts hers with surfing. With her twin passions of food and th
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A thorough examination of where government succeeds and where it fails. A thorough examination of where government suc
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Help your child better understand how food fuels and effects our bodies inAre You What You Eat?a book that uses color an
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George F. Will purports that the proper goals of statecraft, are justice, social cohesion, and national strength. Theref
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Table of contents : Contents......Page 6 List of Illustrations......Page 7 Section 1: Introduction......Page 8 Section 2
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Table of contents :
YOUR COMMUNITY ...
Stanford University Libraries
3 6105 120 852 343
Kenya African National Union . Press and Publicity Dept.
What a KANU government offers you.
2947 A98K3A3 COPY 2
S E I
HOOVER INSTITUTION Cu War, Revolution , and Peace FOUNDED BY HERBERT HOOVER , 1919
What aa KANU government offers
Kenya . African national Union .. Press and 11
A personal message from Jomo Kenyatta This booklet contains the outline of the policy which your
K.A.N.U. Government will carry out. Immediately after the elections we shall negotiate with the British Government for the holding of a final constitutional conference. At that
meeting the necessary arrangements for Kenya's early inde pendence will be made.
Our achievement of independence, for which we have
struggled for so long, will not be an endin itself. It will give us the opportunity to work unfettered for the creation of a democratic African socialist Kenya. DEMOCRATIC because we believe that only in a free society can each individual develop his talents most fully to serve his fellow citizens. There will be no place in the Kenya we shall create for discrimination by race, tribe, belief or any
other manner . The personal rights and safety of all and of their property will be protected. AFRICAN because our nation must grow organically from what is indigenous. While adapting that which is suitable from other cultures, from the East and from the West, we must give our people pride and self-respect, building upon all that is good and valid in our traditional society. SOCIALIST because political freedom and equality are
not enough. Our people have the right to be free from economic exploitation and social inequality. We aim to build a country where men and women are motivated by a sense of service
and not driven by a greedy desire for personal gain. Every one of you has a duty to help create this new nation. You must strive to exercise your rights fully and with under
standing. Above all, the future prosperity upon which our plans, our hopes, our aspirations, depend, needs your efforts. Whatever your task in our society we must have hard work
from you if we are to make a success of our independence.
YOUR FAMILY The family is the fundamental unit both in our traditional society and in the Welfare Socialist State we are to build .
YOUR HOME Too many of our people still live in unsanitary dwellings, or occupy mere bed spaces, which fail to provide the back ground conditions for a decent home life.
The K.A.N.U. GOVERNMENT will rectify this by : (a) The backing of local government, employer and private
housing schemes, including tenant purchase arrangements ; (b) The provision of plans, technical information and similar assistance to individual house -builders ;
(c) The encouragement of self-help , communal home building, such as our people have always practised. 2
HEALTH No family or society which goes constantly in fear of sickness, disease or sudden death can aspire to a full and happy life. Moreover, the HARD WORK which we shall require of every citizen depends upon fitness and good health. We must start by expanding staff and medical facilities with a view to reducing our infant and maternal mortality rate .
Kenya's leading position in Africa in the development of medical centres and medical teams is something of which we can be proud. We shall continue to lead in this field. The K.A.N.U. GOVERNMENT will see that more of our
educated young men and women pursue medical studies to the graduate level to improve the doctor/population ratio . The traditional respect and care for the aged among our people must continue and find modern expression in the use of the latest aids to their wellbeing. o
THE GOVERNMENT WILL AIM AT FREE TREATMENT AND HOSPITALISATION FOR ALL CITIZENS. WHILE ANYONE WILL BE AT LIBERTY TO PAY FOR MEDICAL
SERVICES , WE NEED HARDLY RACIAL HEALTH INSTITUTIONS OR SCHEMES WILL HAVE NO PLACE IN INDEPENDENT KENYA . SAY
YOUR CHILDREN'S EDUCATION Having raised a healthy family your concern will be to see that your children have adequate schooling. K.A.N.U. intends that every child in Kenya shall have a minimum of seven years' free education . The first aim of that education will be to produce good
citizens, inspired with a desire to serve their fellow men. The democracy we shall create is more than a set of laws and
institutions. It will depend upon the understanding partici pation by all the people in the democratic processes. The vestiges of a colonialist mentality in the educational system must go .
The next aim will be to set our young people's feet on a path of instruction which will correspond with the require ments of the new nation and meet their desire for careers . 4
WE MUST BEAR IN MIND THAT WHILE WE INTEND TO ACCELE
RATE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOP MENT OUR GREATEST NEED IS FOR EFFICIENT FARMERS.
More attention will be paid to this need at every level. Agricultural colleges will be expanded ; rural education work
will be increased . Community development and self -help schemes will be geared to the aim of accelerating the agrarian 1
To meet the requirements of the Civil Service and the
needs of our plans for industrial expansion, there will have to be a great expansion of our university and technical training facilities .
Adult education , evening classes and weekend and short
course schools of every kind will be increased. Help will be given to the self-help educational programmes of trade
unions, co -operatives and local communities. Every citizen lucky enough to possess some education or skill should be prepared to pass on his knowledge to those less fortunate. In particular those who can read will teach those who cannot. In the great task of educating our people the continued
participation of the Missions and other voluntary agencies who have served us so well in the past will be welcomed. Parents will be free to arrange for the education of their
children in private schools on a genuinely non - racial, non communal basis. Education must include the creation of one nation and
this K.A.N.U. believes can best be done by non -racial education and the growing together of all our youth . 5
YOUR SHAMBA The agrarian revolution already in progress in Kenya will be accelerated. The production of crops
for the market is recognised as the backbone of our economy. The K.A.N.U. Government will see to it that
changes are made in the under - developed areas, for only by a dynamic break - through in farming methods shall we finance the Welfare State we intend to build.
LAND CONSOLIDATION To this end every farmer must be sure of his land rights . Consolidation and the registration of title will be encouraged wherever the people so desire. The existence of such titles as security will facilitate the granting of loans by govern
mental and private agencies. We recognise some areas have a communal system of land ownership and will devise means of giving credit security facilities even in such cases.
CO-OPERATIVES Co-operation for farming purposes is a deeply ingrained practice among the people of Kenya. Such an attitude will be encouraged, extended and given forms appropriate to pro duction for the market. 6
Building upon our own traditions we shall borrow and adapt what we find valid in the methods of other lands . We are DEMOCRATIC socialists and any type of co-operative
practice which is introduced must have the full support of the people concerned .
PASTORAL PEOPLE The colonialists failed to bring education to the herdsmen of Kenya, Masai, Kalenjin , Turkana, Boran, Gabra, etc. and
used this as an excuse for the failure to encourage economic and social advance among them. Masailand and the Northern Province will have a special
place in the development plans of the K.A.N.U. GOVERN MENT. Complementary to the provision of water holes, roads and improved veterinary services we shall educate the pastoral people to adopt a modern attitude to their stock.
The vast potential of these areas for meat production must be realised in order that they may pay for the improvements.
THE LANDLESS The problem of the unemployed landless will be vigorously tackled and resettlement in the Scheduled Areas has a part
to play in meeting their desperate needs . At the same time we are aware that this process cannot continue indefinitely. We cannot afford to fragment economic farms which are
making a vital contribution to our national prosperity into units producing little more than subsistence. The main solution will lie in our determination to increase agricultural efficiency in all areas.
This will provide a basis for rural and cottage industries and for regular agricultural employment to absorb the landless. Attention will also be paid to the siting of larger industrial projects in rural areas where appropriate. Our plans for urban industrialisation will also help to solve this pressing problem . 7
LARGE ESTATES The K.A.N.U. GOVERNMENT will not tolerate the
holding of large under-developed tracts of land by anyone. At the same time those who have farms, estates and ranches
making a full contribution to the economy need have no fear of expropriation.
search and services will be increased but none of these will be of much avail unless
you , the farmer , make every effort to learn and acquire the skills which are taught and implement them on your own holding with REAL HARD WORK
Our country has a potential for industrial develop ment which has been neglected under colonial rule . We shall set about righting the position . While our industrialisation will be based upon local primary
products and upon the need to supply local require ments, the possibility of expansion in new directions will be investigated .
It is economic madness for us to continue to import finished goods which have been processed abroad from our own
primary products. Consumer goods, especially those made from raw materials available in Kenya or in neighbouring territories, will have priority in our programme for industrial expansion.
One factor which has inhibited greater industrialisation is the absence of a stable, skilled labour force. We shall see that
this situation is changed. K.A.N.U. believes in a high wage economy to encourage the acquisition of skills and for the good of the worker and his family. Proper apprenticeship schemes for local people must be expanded beyond the limited chances now available. Promotion prospects must
not be endangered by the unnecessary immigration of expatriates on contract. 9
decide to become a skilled worker living in an urban society, K.A.N.U. believes you must have security and a If you
decent environment. Urban housing must be designed to suit family men in a healthy, integrated society. Proper leisure and cultural facilities must be available for all the
family in the towns . Those who make the break with the traditional social patterns of the rural areas will have priority
in the government's plans for social security to protect them in times of temporary unemployment, sickness and old age. Under the conditions of full employment which we intend
to create there will be opportunities for making use of the skills and abilities of our womenfolk . In order that the
potential productivity of the women will not be lost to the country nursery schools with trained assistants will be
available to care for their children while they work.
The principle of equal pay for equal work, without discrimination by sex, race or other criterion will be assured . The racial disbalance in the Civil Service,
commerce and the professions will be righted .
While maintaining standards in the Civil Service it will be the Government's policy to
give first priority to indigenous Africans until progress has been made towards a structure
reflecting the proportions of our society . Second preference will be given to citizens of expatriate origin . Only if positions cannot be filled by citizens shall we look outside.
Those non - citizens who are replaced will be protected by the agreed compensation terms.
WHAT ABOUT THE UNIONS ? The Labour movement has been in the vanguard of our struggle against colonialism. We welcome its continued co -operation in the inspiring task of nation-building which now faces us .
We believe that in its representation of the working people of Kenya it will in the future, as in the past, put national needs before narrow sectional interests.
The Marxist theory of class warfare has no relevance to
Kenya's situation. Attitudes which were appropriate when we were fighting for independence have to be revised. An all -out war by the unions now could only be waged against their own government and fellow - citizens. We have clearly stated our belief in a high -wage economy and the steps we intend to take to improve the lot of the workers. Naturally the unions will support these aims and we trust they in turn will instil in their members the need for HARD WORK at the job they are doing.
Remember that whatever your task, you are working for the prosperity of Kenya.
We are confident that the unions will constantly press employers to train their workers to the peak of their abilities. The basis for the settlement of disputes has been laid down both in legislation and in the Industrial Charter. Both sides of industry must use the proper procedures.
The guarantees for the preservation of the rights of trade unions lie in their recognition of the responsible
rolethey have to play in building a prosperous Kenya.
YOUR COMMUNITY K.A.N.U. has no desire to suppress the diverse cultures and communities which go to make up our nation. Indeed it is fundamental to our desire to create a truly AFRICAN society that local customs, arts and social patterns should be preserved and modernised .
Our people must be proud of their heritage. We intend to show that Africans have much to offer the world. That is
why we foster the resurgence and adaption of all that is valid for the twentieth century in our indigenous cultures. On the other hand the government will not tolerate the sabotaging of the national effort by those who would play upon tribal or racial differences.
We shall not allow the hopes and aspirations which our
people have for their independence to be disappointed by such wrecking tactics. The K.A.N.U. GOVERNMENT will welcome those non
Africans who choose to join with us in the noble task of building a Kenya nation . Their training, their skills and their knowledge will be of the greatest value to us. We are confident that those who show confidence in us will appreciate the need to pass on to the nation what they can teach the people. They will be fully accepted by us , not only through legal forms, but in our hearts. 12
We shall encourage a great surge forward in local initiative. Communal self-help schemes for such projects as road
building, digging wells and the erecting of health centres will expand.
We are confident that the dynamic spirit of hard work and self -reliance which will motivate the govern
ment will inspire the people throughout the land to great and still greater efforts for the betterment of their own communities.
K.A.N.U. acknowledges the important role which has
been played by Community Development and we regard the service as one of outstanding importance in building the new Kenya.
Much remains to be done. The inferior position allotted to women in most of our communities is contrary to the principles of social, economic and political democracy. It is an aspect of our country which attracts constant adverse criticism from
visitors and one which shames us. We support the efforts of the Maendeleo ya Wanawake movement, which will play its part in the great social revolution needed here.
Local Government, from the village to the regional level, has an important place in our view of a democratic Kenya. The process of unifying, democratising and modernising the local government system will be rapidly concluded .
Legislative, executive and judicial functions, where they still reside in one individual or group , will be immediately separated.
The position of traditional authorities in their traditional
spheres, not impinging on modern democratic practice, will be safeguarded .
YOUR COUNTRY K.A.N.U. WILL LEAD AND
KENYA WITH A DYNAMIC SPIRIT OF NATIONAL CREATION
AFRICAN SOCIALIST SOCIETY .
DIVISIONS OF TRIBE OR OF PARTY ,>
COLOUR , CUSTOM , CASTE
COMMUNITY, OF AGE OR FAITH OR
REGION , WILL BE SUBORDINATE TO THE NATIONAL EFFORT. 16
Far from accepting the inevitability of tribal and racial antagonisms, we believe these differences are a challenge and an opportunity for creating a nation united in its purpose, yet rich in the diversity of its peoples. Independent Kenya will adopt a Republican constitution because we believe this is a form of government appropriate
to our conditions and meaningful to our people.
DEFENCE The government will take all necessary measures to protect y
the security of the people and to preserve the national integrity of Kenya within its present borders. Our armed forces will be maintained at a level to carry out this role . We have no aggressive or imperialistic intentions.
We are prepared to consider working with other African states in any form of joint defence arrangement. In this
regard we shall naturally first hope to create an East African defence policy, working together with our neighbours. 17
RIGHTS .. The K.A.N.U. GOVERNMENT will steadfastly uphold the rule of law and guarantee the position of every citizen
according to the Bill of Rights. Freedom of belief and expres sion, of association and combination will be maintained .
Citizens will have the right to follow the profession and trade of their choosing and to own property according to the law . The judiciary will be independent of the other branches of state at all levels and customary law will be codified .
We shall not countenance oppression by minorities or by majorities. We strongly believe that the answer to communal fears lies in every citizen thinking and acting as a Kenyan , whatever his origin .
ANDIDUTIES It is the duty of every citizen to understand and to exercise
his rights. He (or she) must participate to the fullest extent in the functioning of the democratic machinery. More than the casting of a vote on polling days is involved. YOU must make every effort to understand the problems of your area and of your country. You should take part in the discussions and activities of the various groups which consider these issues . 18
Every individual has a duty to play his part in building national unity. Your duties are not limited to the
political sphere. You must endeavour to support social advance.
Above all, every one of you, what ever your task, has a role to play in helping to build a prosperous Kenya by your hard work .
THE NATION'S PURSE
THE PLAN K.A.N.U. has taken the initiative in having an economic
plan for Kenya prepared by experts of international repute. Under aa K.A.N.U. Minister and Parliamentary Secretary an Economic Advisory Committee has already been created . The World Bank Mission report has recently been published . In the light of the information at our disposal we shall approve a definitive five - year plan to guide the nation's development. The Government and its experts can only show the way .
Whether our country forges ahead or whether its economy declines further, depends upon every one of us. Our economic
survival depends upon the determination and hard work of every citizen .
We cannot afford to sit in the sun and beg other nations to sustain us. By our own sweat and labour shall we build
the new Kenya and demonstrate our determination to the world . 20
INVESTMENT POLICY We shall welcome both governmental and private investment in Kenya from overseas. We shall encourage investors to participate jointly in projects with our own government. This will be a guarantee to the provider of the capital of the security of his investment and to the people of Kenya that the undertaking is being directed according to our national policy and needs. While we intend following a liberal policy with regard to foreign capital, investments must be made
in accordance with Kenya's interests . To the extent that they serve our needs we shall protect them . In order to boost industrial expansion a system of Tax holidays for new investment will be considered . Infant industries will be protected .
Special consideration will be given to local investors but we shall have no time for those who
make large profits in Kenya and then fail to invest them in the country .
The institution of a Stock Exchange to facilitate investment will be considered. The possibility of extending the use of Bills and other issues to encourage saving and investment will also be
investigated . We are convinced of the need for a national bank and are prepared to consult with our neighbours to establish such an institution on an East African basis .
PUBLIC CONTROL CF INDUSTRY In keeping with our desire to create a socialist society we believe in a wide measure of governmental control of the
economy in the national interest. There are many ways of participation without acquiring public ownership. Our scarce capital resources have more urgent tasks to
perform than the buying out of private owners but if we find it imperative to take over a particular industry or part of an
industry, fair compensation will be given. 22
The common suffering of Africa at the
hands of imperialism has created a bond among our peoples. The K.A.N.U. GOVERNMENT of independent Kenya will build upon a basis of this Pan African unity to help make our continent a force for good in world affairs. We are aware that the pressure we can bring to bear will have to be based upon moral strength , not upon military might. 23
EAST AFRICAN FEDERATION We shall build on the foundations of the
East African Common Services Organisation and of the East African Common Market
to bring the peoples of Kenya, Uganda
Tanganyika and Zanzibar into closer political association .
As they achieve their freedom , Northern Rhodesia , Nyasaland and Southern Rhodesia
will be welcome to participate in the machin ery for co -operation which we establish. Our other neighbours to the North and to the West will also be encouraged to join with us in
these practical steps towards unity.
We strongly support the regional group ing, the Pan African Freedom Movement for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa
as astep towards African unity.
The organisation is playing a crucial role in the development ofpolitical and economic unity in the continent.
Ithas an even more urgent taskin helping those members still under colonial or local
minority rule to achieve their freedom . No effort will be spared to help the remaining British colonies to achieve their independ ence .
As regards Southern Rhodesia, the Portuguese Territories, South Africa
and South West Africa, we believe the time for mere resolutions and
déclarations of support is past. We shall support the struggle of our brothers in whatever means they find necessary to overthrow the Fascist
Regimes. We promise that they will get from us all that is within our means.
No Kenyan can fully rejoice in his own freedom , nor can he feel secure in it, while our brothers continue to suffer under such barbaric oppression. 25
PAN AFRICANISM Our government will work with other nations of Africa
genuinely seeking Pan African Unity . We believe we must beware of
outside forces which seek to disrupt or control the movement by back
ing one nation or group of nations against another. The success of PAFMECA
illustrates the validity of Pan Africanism and shows the way for continent-wide unity, free of external influence.
Practical steps for co -operation 2
in such fields as defence, communi cations, science and education can
be undertaken without delay. be 26
IN THE WORLD TODAY NON -ALIGNMENT In external affairs we shall follow absolutely and
firmly a policy of non-alignment. We shall seek friendship with every nation that will return it. The
establishment of such a relationship will not entitle 1
any friend to choose our enemies for us . Our policy is one of non -alignment, not of non commitment. We fully commit ourselves to support what we believe to be right and just in international
affairs. But each case will be judged on its merits.
While our own experience and that ofour brothers has rendered us particularly conscious of the
remaining examples of direct, Western imperialism in Africa, we are aware that colonialism can take more subtle forms and can come from communist
as well as from capitalist sources. We must avoid any fixation or obsession about imperialism . We shall not be misled by empty slogans. In accordance with the principles of non alignment we shall not permit the existence of foreign military bases on our soil.
The trade unions and other groups in our society must not get involved in international commitments which would compromise the nation's determination to remain non -aligned.
THE ARMS RACE The build -up of nuclear weapons of absolute destruction by the communist world , led by the Soviet Union , and by the Western countries, led by the United States, is suicidal madness.
If the race is not halted the day may come when the buttons are pressed . That day will see not only the mutual annihilation of the communist and capitalist states. Africa and the whole of humanity may be destroyed with them . Kenya will add its voice to those of the other non - aligned
nations who are pressing these dangerous giants to disarm . The resources, the skills and the manpower wasted in preparing for destruction could be diverted and part of them devoted to succouring the sick and starving peoples of the under -developed countries. 28
THE UNITED NATIONS Just as we see PAFMECA as a step towards Pan Africanism , so we view African unity as a stage towards world -wide understanding. We believe the United Nations and its agencies are playing an important role in developing international friendship and co -operation. With certain reservations we salute the role the U.N. has
played in the Congo. While we support the U.N. we believe its organisation is outmoded. There has been a failure in its structure to take into account changes which have occurred in Africa and Asia
changes which the U.N. has played a part in bringing about. We believe the U.N. will run into greater difficulties if it is not organised to give the larger role which their numbers deserve to the newer countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America .
THE COMMONWEALTH We believe the Commonwealth is doing a great service
by uniting nations of different races and of varying political systems from all parts of the world. We shall apply for membership of this freely - associating group of sovereign states, knowing it to be an example to the world of international understanding and co-operation.
THE EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET We have no intention of seeking Associated Territory
status with the E.C.M., whatever Britain may eventually do. We are not satisfied that membership will not involve political strings, nor do we believe that the terms would be
wholly advantageous to our own economic plans. We shall seek satisfactory trade agreements with the E.C.M. countries, as with other states of the world.
CONCLUSION During the past decade or so Kenya has been through some
progress has been made in many spheres, in agriculture, in health, in education and in the more subtle realms of human relations. We must consolidate these advances and build upon
the foundations which have been laid . Every individual
must face the challenge which independence offers to the nation .
K.A.N.U. recognises that the people of Kenya have four basic enemies. Colonialism knows no tribe, nor do poverty , ignorance or disease . We all must struggle together to build a united nation to eradicate these evils.
Thanks are due to the East African Standard for permission to use some of their photographs reproduced here.
A48 KЗАЗ . py 2 Co
Published by the Press and Publicity Department, Kenya African National Union , Nandhra House, Jeevanjee Street, Box 12394, Nairobi, and printed by Printing and Packaging Corporation Limited, Liverpool Road , P.O. Box 30080, Nairobi.
STANFORD LIBRARIE To avoid fine, this book should be returned on or before the date last stamped below