Watchmaking , Horology
 9780856677045

Table of contents :
WORKSHOP AND EQUIPMENT
HAND TOOLS
FINISHING STEEL AND BRASS
TURNING
WHEELS AND PINIONS
MAKING SMALL COMPONENTS
JEWELLING
ESCAPEMENTS
MAINSPRINGS AND ACCESSORIES
MOVEMENT DESIGN
THE BALANCE AND SPRING
CASEMAKING
ENGIME TURNED CASES AND DIALS

Citation preview

GEORGE DANIELS

WATCHMAKING

I ~dtti

Philip \ ilson Publi hers

Dan et 1981

li•JO

f rst pubh htJ 1981 R pnn ed with dd1tionr. 1985 Rt:v c;e )ork NY 10010 978

85607-704 5

n hlli n"Wrvt"d No part of thia pqlllll.lll. .

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tem or transnutted 1n any

ot the publishen>

PREFACE TO THE

THIH.D EDITIO

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t}!e nurd [d1h(1fl

Preface , marke t for L'XPl'nsiv1.· hand-finished -duced th l: • ction, .l I~o r1. unild not -..uppnrt an antiquated :lu pr(l( . b the !at~ 19.,0s - ·• . c ... which, ) fi c , ..,cd 1n En,•land in the 1930s. \\'lltch • d tr\' TM11't' C t truction and with th1.· neg lec tt>d .1ppcarancc 0 .. . m c11mmental store uf disuse The mo::;t :.1.gmficanl a'>pc·ct o t- lll" here•t th1l for the mo::;t part, tlw purpo::;e W ir .1bility but it w.1s true tha! t~ad)ilf 111nph hed by the ex1w ril!110• i.;ilim•d in making

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componc nh by lht• '>kilful manipulation of s1mph• toob. ·1hat wa .. thl' r· n~li..,h method a~d it .... aw the ri..,e and fall of an induo;try which hn,1lly l'ndt•d with the dc.1th nf Sidm·) Bcttl'r in London in the mid -19 ~0-. . In w n ..idcnng my own tool to ma~h·r thdr idiosyncr,1s1c.,. rh1., l.Htcr is fl'Ot·ctt-d in the quality (lf work prodUl"l'd in thl' past on L>qu1prncnt that would tod.w be con..,idered l' 'trl·nwly crudt•. I could afford to do no mon• than fol111w pcbt l'>.amplc ,1nd pl'rH.'\'l'rt.' with the lathe 'I hw.. equipped for work, tlw first w.111 h w,1 l.1id down on paper The following two )'l' .1r.. were "'PL' llt in cxpl•rimcnt and practin• to acquire an undt•rs tanding of the technical requirt•mcnb of ,1 watch ,ind to karn thl' technique-. of its manutacture from the raw m.11l'rial. Mr. A. I. Oliver, a Cd!>cmakcr of r,1re :.kill who at th.1t time had a 01d.l•n.. i.111 work hop in Clerkenwl.'ll, agreed th,lt for a ..,um of moncv I ..,l\Ould ha\'c tlw priv1lebc oi m.1king my fir,t w.1tchca..,e under his guidance. TI1c \\ork toutton in , the rainr trom the chronog he right, de>" n J,•ane the pillar w e~het tnoth . Further ';~~: P~" 1,pnng ~~ at B to engage a ra h When rekase hed back t• the pillar wheel one toot so that it will J:>e P"' _; · t 0 t the paw h )eft anu ra1>e the pntn h tchet tooth. eel w t e left J:>y the >lope of t eraow the action enl;''g The diagrams below ,h '.th cams zero

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r1 t-v{atch 1ritl1 one-minute toz1rbillo11 witJ1 Daniels a ial e capement, ba 1a11ce witl1 eccentric gold adjusting

· h . Jn,rar balance spring with terminal curve free prun . il ·er dial "'ith gold chapter rings, subsidiary Liial

for seconds and reserve of wirldi1l.g. Gold \l.·an ~. ~evet~ dial with day and date re\1 ealed b 1?ressing the tt n 8 o'clock position wltile the 'iVatcll. · c, rtied n t r· Signed 'Daniels London'.

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Fi:?· A Wl1ecl Lrai11 cnlculation":i for tlie

,c1Lar/r,idereal wat(.,ftes

Sidereal train

fill x Z5 x 10

~ x ~ x ~ = 16 268.571 vibrations per solar hour 10 53 6 I

Solar train

~ x 75 x ~ x 26 = 16, 224.15 vibrations per solar hour 10 10 7

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161 268 ·571 == 1:1.002737924 16, 224.1,5

A better figure would be 1.002737909 and the difference i ().0()0000015. 1.5 x 10-s x 31,557,600 solar seconds per year = 0.4 seconds fast per year.

Fig. A

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Fig. B Calcitlations for moon phases and equatiot1 of time The moon train derives from the sidereal motion work: §Z x 113

2

83

=

59.222891

29.611445 1· 002737924

= 29.611445

2

sidereal days

per lunar cycle

= 29.530593 solar days per lunar cycle

= 0.422 second slow

The equation is derived from the solar motion vvork:

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Fig. B

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7x ~ = 365 days per revolution of the equation cam.

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Fig. C

ig ( The eels I of th olar train and W2 of the sid . , al train dri wh ls fl and [2 continuously while

:a eh is running. 'h int rmediate wh eel N can be •



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, L \ / f tl1 la r t r d • n ~ 11 d l \f2 f t h tr. in i 1 , }1 f. . /1 Jl \. ].... c11ti11u u~i)' '"'l1il ~ · run11i11g-. Tl1r /- tt. \. ri,1e tl1e seconliS rr1ed ( n th arb r of tl1e '' l1eel C, t ") sl1·T\'\' either l r Jar _e'~ nd . s i11ustrateLi, le,rer Lis resting r.1n f c1utc11 le' er R to clisengage the clutch and tl ~ -011d_- hand. V\fl1en A is pushed by the button in 1

tl and of the case, 5 is turned one tootl1 to release le\ er l a1 d allol\T R to rise and engage the clutch carried on the ar r of the ~econds hand. At the same moment zeroing le\'er Mis raised to rest on catch E. When A is again pushed l i- lifted on to the ramp of R to disengage the clutch and tof the seconds hand but M remains locked on E. To zero the seconds ha11d Y is pressed by the second button in the band of the case to lift E and release M to fall onto the zeroing earn on wheel C.

s Fig. D The clutch is engaged by the bow spring beneath and released by the fork of R drawing down the clutch cone p wheel C to rotate idly on the seconds arbor S.







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Watch "'ith one-minute to11rbil/011 with Daniels co-axial e capement, thre -armed balance with eccentric goJd adjusting iV ights, Elinvar sprjng witl1 termjnal c11rve, minute repeating on two gongs, perpetual calendar with instantaneous cl1ange of all functions at midnight, phase

the ffi()On, s~lver dial :Vi:h ins:t gold chapters, nc\ se'-on~ gl)ld ha11ds, silver subs1d1ary dials for l1ay a11d moY\tn \\'.ft\ 1 leap year indication, centigrade thern\on\ ter, t e rewi e of tl1e gold case with aper tu re for tl1e t: qlr t1 , . , t1t\\~ \ \\\, setting cale11dar and re{fil®~{ID1f §~(ID~'@~i ~ ·~ ~ ~ ~

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\imf' on the dral,ving itself.

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)' are oest itted into a f 1 Ial! y ~ ni.1k.In!! ::,... F l t' o ded ll~lf \ ·t the tin gers. or " ot ing very sn1 a II sc . •nl"I 1· lll f t :I duce the tend enc)' to Jc1n1 in tie slot. The d act h.> lh ''t ·~ •3nc re·ill cut j.., ,,erv lin1ited because the sidesepth to \.Vh (' , :' . • , tdp rr1i ,1 ft 1e~• 11 ~ .Jcra but t111s ddds to their usefulness fo er t01,1 1' cuttin~ .. u.,t:, . . ' r cuttn ' 1 rl . . ·"re the better tor taJ-1er111g to the botton1 ,. ,~ ~ \'\'1Uc 11 « . • 1-t Tlle triangul~~r file is tlle least usetttl to the \Vatch 1 c .c.,l,. ot ,·en' hne cut need be purchased. Roun 1 ~ ·r aJt , . d' bl t C1111 , not often used but are in I5J-1ensa e v-vhen they clr r .1] ,, election of siz~s fron1 ab~Ju"t 150 n1m ove~dll length 1 . 'd ~ nun in 111 ed1wn a11ti f11:t cuts. There 1s on(' kin 1 ~ n :u, l 80 that is parallel tliroug11out its le11gtl1 and ha.;, very • r ,. j . th l le r ,~ t especial!\' 111 ade for f,orm111g e grooves for the hill< P~ l b ,{ t. ir f l•t:

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cases and sn1al1 axes.

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Plier.. A pair of smooth-jawed, stee111a11d pliers will be us •f 1 l\-ork; a pair of brass-lined pliers will be needed t f u fur ~tntr co1nponents that need to be tigl1tly gripped; and a sina~; prote·ti ..i 1· '11 .f dnd d I pa 1r of roun d-noset..t p 1ers w1 sat1s y most ret]uirem t ' £ f. 1 . . 1 ..i en " and ' espe11t //lt.' .. 111" " • , • , :f 1:1 S t ;> 11 •Ii 1lt, • II i 1ut ,1t th1.: t. Utl 1.r '/ riloW Y [111 ' ,Jrl f1 ,pd ... ,, • tl.r(lJJIµ; bL'f11fl' !lr ~ Jl ~ \ CS by . thC' .-11•r1 ~s urr t 1l ,n•' eJµ;t' . ,11cirren1I1r;f th" r• ·llc t : • nk

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il tf rl' 1 r , , "'' nil(' .., 0 vi • • i >i r1 ' J'' '' J ·11 "'' th J l tl r< r rr>tfl( ·JJI •'" I , < rr 1~ t t'l h" I i• l hl' t e JJ' • . ' utl1 Cf'· •trl/ o 1

l \t111i1. . " ' t.' '~s t '\!•h, lht• l,l(Ji , ll ' 11\, 1,., 1 )~ ' '- l( ~

u£ .,. r 'h but these are not ma d e sma11 enough for watchw 1 is r• F or, Deeper holes that need to be parallel a n d to a p d. can be opened after drilling by forcing a smooth bre etPn111riru. roach tl " hole. Tum the broacl1 in steel to about on e and a half t· lrou.~rit ]]}](!') ll 1elen&1 of the hole to be opened . M a k e a small taper at on c ht>d. Thus tht· drilI cl'f·;J ptll fl> ll'< ll< l ' th l' c; ea the die damag;mg t11e remainder of the tlrr d reve t eh1

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. \Vhen ct 15 no longer necessary to cont'inue· th · "'-o t iu 0 11 ]lead, the unthrea d ed portion should be 1 f1 e thread reduced to the diameter of the thread e oversi,.ct up 1 the "'hole length of the shaft is in 1 and left partially un threaded, as in Fig SOc he th rt •d g. !;t)b 1 a bad appearance and the unthreaded p .' the screw ifficuJt to polish neatly. ortmn will be dWill

reduc~da~os~own ~~aS'° t)'l'es .;er screws are usree"' is tightenedaround which the ,;e • corrtponen t ' ,on o.. :'""" "'""'"" " It'•r1ve< .,;th•• the ed "'airclY in very o ld :;,.,. which Th' .lo""" are onents, as shoWIL iI> ih•"'""'P""'d»ni'"" to reta>" f''vot;1 de!'cribed earlier b"t do fora> the thre-' asthat the ,,,,derside of the fi& 52 ,,rew fron> the rod· Be. sure be "'ade to it after the not p,1rt tl d flat for no alternuon can t and tighten i . - true ,1n ' , d . t the cornponen 11e,1• .,1:., finished. Screw the ro in oil rnark on the rod to tl'le left po1>0nt as shown in Fig 55. Make a m ark w ith the graver

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'';:',"rev~Jve5· '!""'';"~,y,.,'::,~ke th~rrt.

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1f the secllred

Therednr~e

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52 Sholllder screw for revolving cotnPonent

pt~he

d·"""'"

53 O rientation the flange

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Oc Diameter of shank too small

: ~i;, ,II'~1 :r'.;~1:~:1n 1s n1 011· e 1a th rre j\Jade fr0 ·e ]lolder. Mark the centre w ith a pointed e to fi 1ctly, standard dr equal in diameter to the full d. gra Ver 1 the . ·al entrance iainet o fo Adjustable die ready for slotting a ccJllt lhlll t 11 1 g 11l 11 J \, 101·1 11, , '"'' • ,, • I t I • • ' :..h \\ '. t it•' ,.,,, ,1,u1i 'l· •~• I lt h•t\ h !•111 1 ''1'1•q 11''1 1•1 ' p 1 · I I I ' l h iJl l< l tf\\' \\l \11 1 ' ll l) \ t l \ t ' tl\t ' \lj 1lh ' ' l •1' " '1'1 "l I I flnnt•'• n ' I I f ll'\•1 r.11i1 n ,\ f r lt • ·'' inr •' d1• ' 11 ' g h 11 11 \1 ,,ir•'I' ' ' ,.,, \,H,·n ll ld '''' ·11·1 \ ~\\ \11 • 1

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64 Hardening box with iron-w·ire h andle

67 Iron-wire handle for plate screws

68

Metal container with iron-wire handle for small screws

• i~ ut u.11 f~·r w.itch components to be tempered after hardening. The

1 'l' IJ1l 1111,1!

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65 Hold small pieces above the coolant

Very smaJI pieces will cool qui ckly when out of the flame. Hi ' them immediately above the coolant during heating, as shown. Fig 65. Withdraw the flame before quenching. It is very raret~ a component is so small that it needs to be passed from the flai!l

tt>n1pEnng is dLn1e by heating, which softens the metal according to the an10~1nt of hec1t applied. This can be measured by the changing colour ot the metal as the temperature rises . .\Vhen P?ssible o~e surface is cleaned brigl1t with a buff stick or o1btone ~hp. The p1e.ce is held over the flame on a brass plate t1ntil the requlfed · colour is reached · If the component cannot easil b inade bright a separate piece of bri ht ste . y e the brass plate. This separate t lg . el can be laid alor\gside on

s ee piece n1ust[QJ~·~ surface as tl1e component to be t Q o 11 ost watch pieces can be t O dl!:!J LI U ~l!:!J LI This will leave then~ tougl1 en~:~l~r;: to. a n1e~it1in-blt1e coll)llr. g resist deformation wit . l1out

s1~ a~1d · .

~rea

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paste o , . b h. d . ' \ itc·Lt l . the bestpol1sh cannot e. ac Jeve . W1th p 1• t l 1t 1, action to obtain a polish so free of gra111 and scratches tha . wh 1 t· ._ turned to reflect the light away from the eye, tP.t 5t t ' l.':i .lt f l· quite black. Some of the success of diarnantine polishing can be cJttribu : the quality of the po\vder. The coarser po,-vder~, inore crv t Titese hard "tones a1'l:' n1ade fron1 ini ·ed crysta ls of nd Lhr...\n1iun1 l,., ide and can be obtained in a v . altunil\i 111 1 : ·-,_,s ~n1C1l~th or coarse surfaces are n•ade fore ariety of 8 1-.l . 1 0 "' •S 1"''" · ~ . ac11 sl lla "'lq retain a s harp edge and are especially u seful for '\ape. ·r1Pes 11... ~ ·· · 1 · t I ' reach1· \e ''d corners " 'hen tuus ung s ee con1ponents. l'\g into y \\>ill

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d ch,... rgc i·e~f''.'i;I'< v.J11f"-· . fer11J.nd p ·orners ..\ltcn1.1th·eh· the ,,•heel .::an be poli ·I.f'rdocluce a b L • •c -., C t1 e und l"l) 1 , ....-c .:i:;; - '"nm F1.: , - · ement 1e ''"heel ''ith erhal' r • f · "it11 ,unJ.t'n centre to bnng the point uf the shellar t rI J 1 h h rod l ot I surfa..::e ot the "- lt'e. - O\"e t e."- eel ''ith a c1.r 0\v do • rod O\'te th.1t could mark the puuons of d . ng tc r

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. , ." . . - d t tt.. . n Ve ell), .'\tone tune this •\ .L one mos e ectivelv with b n CCir , . k . read '- np oil rnto a Jough Pn.1pnetary ta~ ·y materials are n 0 "-t icJ • de> the -same \York n1ore con,·en1entlv. \\• ~ 1 ' t'J -

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... .. To pofuh the end of the thread hold the sere\\' .

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Fi£ 73, and rub on n·ood charged n•ith di in_ • r ~ . hil anic.irt 1 1 holder ben,•een the fingers \\' e s\veepmg the 1 1 The 11olders are made for· broaching the pipest:'ng•J: of if and need to na··e the bole lll the thread plug"'ed . • ~ scren·s are being held. The heads can be pobl. h"nl . d h . . 15 E:J method but 1·.J.th t~e tm:ea. e~d 1n a pm vice Alt \ can be polished 1 rhiJe spmrung ill the lathe. Tr:;itJ a5 ir.

76 "Bolt tool

, ·1

L~111/0'{~ Fridv . . \Vhen the length Jf ci curved surface is bounded at each. end with a , kp, care 111u1. d l1 Ware th i11 ''tit "' l ' nt>t rulle 1?11t:'ath sn1a1J-d.1 1 at ll '''•·r t()f 1. tl1t cr.1\ < r " a 11eter 1~ p · llt1, bre J....1~he" Fig 91, to correct any ova1ness or curvature of the rod. r,When n is true and round bring the graver into fuJJ con tc1et t. tht'

0 . point and to increase the speed of reduction, as in Fig pre• . 'er·lf i

QJ 'lrumg cut with the point uf the

·

gr.iver

92 Use the broad Clltting edge to preserve the point

92

Titrning and Polishing tlze Hub The balanc~ seat must now be tu~ned so ~ha t. the balance fits in, the arbor without freedom and w 1th out b1nd1ng in Op1ur t . . . :-... o ensw a full seahng agarnst the shoulder, as shown 1n Fig 93. If th~ hi' of the seat 1s t(J be polished it should be don e at this stage. Fi~

n·duce the dia1neter of the rod nearly to the final diameter of the balance spring collet arbor and further reduce the diameter of the end for the pi vot, as in Fig 94. Turn the back-slope and make

clearance for the polisher, as in Fig 95. The surface of tlle l1t1b sl1ou ld be s~ooth ,1nJ bright from the graver and nee m tij_lr{/. 0)~

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0 a .: 01il ik ~l!:LJ LI lQJ nmovtd with thl' graver before attempting to polish. a~tent1~n fr~m the oilstone polisher. Any grooves

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94 Red uce th e c•nd

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97 Sharpen the edg 95 Turn the bacJ..-slope

96 Polish the hub

Use the oilstone polisher under th e hub so that full Cont u~u.a YI ~f!tl e ' l)llet is not to be too tight. To · ·t en tica 1 1 c · of ihe arbnr is qu1_eh JI t '11d possible dan\age to the spring . l. t ti 111 ot t e co e " ·1 1 .ivo1d l is or t l ll irbor should be polished untl j . , sub~cquent re1nuva Ho' ' · . t 1e:l

l urm~ 1: 1t 'prino--fit easily ren1oved with a thin ,p/let IS J 1g 1 , s t1 , in the slot, as in Fig 100. Turn the arbor to lengtl """''' 0, .is.ist entry into th• coll et. Press on the co

blade tvv1steL ·rw~

0 l~OI Qc

e after po

l'15t...ing "

rf : t.:d(J -..,

I

1i1mirv;

"S Tum the rin?t to 1engtli

99 Undercut th, . t

\

l"ll'et

) . the pivot 103 Turning I

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100 Tool f »r remo\ 1n~ tfoe collet

101 Ren1u\·ing an unslotted LUllf'I 104 Use the pivot

hole a1o a gauge

105

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~l;JJ 10'

1e.~ ·unn~ th~ I n"11' ~lf tht• hul•

·n point revolVl g . g t le 1 112 Centrtn ' ·t off to J

point

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1\'llt"· 1·,.. 1 I 'l\ Ii( !\> tht• 1.ipt•r h\'lt • ill I h , . It' d I ht• I ' , •'I tht• .1rbnr llfl(i/ ltl ' " " " ''"''' °1 tl 'nu . ' •1·· l '1t·s1 1llt11 1,, •11·1 I I k' 111 11,• tub t 1,, ''~" ~ · • n ' eqtta UY in1po 1e ro!Jer1.1Jr. "-'ill"tle.r h~1~ 11·1tli,)ut dainage. rtant . W1JJ b 1>1'11 t . , s1n,.Ple e le lllv

1

US Fittin.~ t11e in1pulse roller

the Lou•er Pil•ot Detennine the lengtll of the Trtn11J1in., /J Irr 1) 111 tentres art.:.' a t.-iper ht in tfi 1, nose of t1 , . _ Wor~. \., r 1 vir; l

H arden bo th ends of the run n er /e··

.

fh E· grooved J1a rd a nd temper the lante rn e nd to a . . . pa. 1e-blu"e CoJou ece" . . clamped by two screws. The ferrule Will .. e ttl l 1nce · [1sh Uet • r 0 the co tder. 1 To it•r, of l' Y l ,f thJ'tlt ,•1111. f ,, v t •J 1J111 Jo 1011,, ,·er is u.7 . ge bu . ,.., l'd, ~· the gra ro\ ide t11e clearance below the edg . !,if the• gl'u1 ·is Tl)eked to P · h. brigl1t f'1n1s · e, It IViJJ cut rap dt•r d 1 are a t.·le"n " an e 11 i·v can equally well be cut \Vith the g I)' 1 The ho o . k f b k" raver . . . 153, to aroid any r1s o. rea tng the Point nf 'llverteu u1 Fig 1'th t11e leaves. There is no special merit t .th(' &ra1· ,is , ntact l'l' . o E'Hh et b. co ed flat will cut f.aster t h an an mv tip. Sl 1f lht' Fig Ac:f \'a . 4

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1117 Turning betwt•t•n re11tn•s in the l,1 thc

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·t_>t.i ". ht.>n centre tunung if t11 !I r' ~a' e con1 it '"1 ~ .., 1 ,n, 1on in tJ1e latht.>, but the arl: Pone hh to u.u• " . . ')ors sh T\t · ~ht fl'u~ ..., 1tJi t't the pl'Ints H'lIJ be lost. • Ottjd l f·l-~'rtheu• ··t· tr >tfl?Ileu l re 111 con1n1L)J1 u~e 1 Has the pra ·t· turn· \\'e . . . 1 L ice t ,. t 1t L ,u ~ • l e 0 ·1 V 1• ,1 ' ' _, 011 the 1101u er. rota te the 1 .~ t 01 )1 d · · i th•' P''' · • " ' 1n ,re~.~ tl ' • · \'Vo . 1. 1e th< . f' ct'.· 1 1i"/1t f t )\~· Ven ' litt1e press ure 1·s ' " iv 1·tJ 1 .~rr· ' · 1 ;1/1 • · 1· th 1·. ,tf.1< . ·n•' f'ft·· .1 Jt ivilJ also prevent tJ1e pa(j SJ:>r tht a lllt.)ndttn1. The radius of curvature R of this addt. 1 it1r1 i f ,Lt11d by multiplying the module with tl1e f. r l tllt intersection of the column for the rc1tic)

  • \ l f(lf 12 lea\res and is found to be 0.47Y rr 11 .

    The dt)(iendu1n Dis equal to the addendum while the WI'd t h W.IS CP . 2 Tl1e pinion dedendum is (A + 0.4)M, while tl1e tip is ~or~ed according to the number of le~Fo\ b~~OJ;"~@1l ~ in Fig 198. lib LI U~llli ulQJ

    lQJ@u

    base cif'C\eS o radii.JS ofdiUS >( cos 20 = pitch ra

    201

    ., . -ip e l H'involute l I rtl'IL .. i es to ,1 sCco "' • ... ld . titJ.L:,:~ cyclliidal. cur~d be done then further difficulties wou an.se f'rt'nic - t'c ible. If.it cou 1 ' for an equa lly precise · engagement of the patrs . iJ11P 1 , necessity D ngt1gement would cause excessive . in1 t ie d lead eep e ' t~< rn/;Llre a go.o . of the wheel teeth and a shallow engagement tt : n ,1t the tips . action before the centre line. Both would be ,1ctw , •xcess1ve . . df b uld c\'t'rt' WI 1 ) . . l rtict1/,ir Y :;t. unced than would be the case with the og1va p.1 be more pro~o . . wo1iid . 'S witl1 rt·lieved tips. 1eriva11ve . f th·~" cutter are known the wheel blank can be 1. th , origin• o vVhcn · l , T ,et fu JI di,nneter and the cutter passed through I 1n the 1.01 t. • • l turne.L t ·ill illow the curves to meet without reducing t 1e / 'ith t 11.1 \'\ ' • • 1 .it" q t tl L of the cutter are not known 11Jnk When the. ur1g1ns l• . · 111 clCl''J ,ji, 1 11 h r 1.• bl app 8 · the n lf71•• ,f~i:e the teet are not tip-relieved is lls,, . 1,Teo.:beultl. l t . "ill! -uttl1 .:-> 1 n ~~~t:'-"'J:ll.\. • t~l l\, 11 ini e.· .er. Ji nu pattern d 1 . d X!Shng or determi11e the mo u e require . Use the fuJJ . aJ 0giv itch cen tre5 d h d. . f . t/ . a jdendu111 curves an 1t e ra lUS tom1 tor 1e '.h . 1Will equc1J the tooth . 0 n a rniece of steel w1t a c ean stra1g 1t edge, see Fig 215' u·1dth.

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    C Of ,1 . vernierd g£1J WI"tli the sliding point, advit1io1I ( df! JI >!Jr II .

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    t ' ikin•.'t, tool. Fit up the staking tool with the broach above a hole in the table, as iI1 Fig 314. Use the smallest possible hole in the tnbk and check the alignment of tl1e broach before placing the roller in position. The radius of the ~in can be accurately fixed with the punch located against tl1e oversized flange of tl1e safety roller, vihich can later be red11ced to size. 111

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    "t"fldardsllape of n1oder1l. jewel holes make them un 't bl ' .. I ')ttr ,111t.1 • • su1 a e tf/lt' co t es itl w h1ch tl1ey would look out of place Wh 11 i ,r Il -I \vatc . e\\' V\'atcl1 t h e co1our o f th e stones sll.ould be m. t hend

    . 1s . most easily . done by using art·f· a c e wadays tl11s . 1 1 11 115 lt ]lottt a11 ~i d f . . i ic1a thftJtlg c be pure lase rom n1ater1al suppliers in a r These ~111 . d . . ange t neS· . itside 111 1

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    t '.. -1 ( l''l'k 11h·k . 1111'1 H 11)11'd "'' 1 1 fr' · 111111 I l'otsr. fv '' ,· ' • ·'''' .,,., ,1rt• • f l'lllJ ll'tll' \'\' ll 'lt ll'pl,l(•ptf . 1 .Jitllb {I 11111 • 1df. •ii Ill 'I/ • , 1rllllll' i>\,11 \\h 11 fr fll'•l It 1/11"1 I •• I I \\ •111 t ht ,,i.I•' . ,,,,,..,,,lltt•11 lf r.1 11 , ,l•J,· ·•' th• ''J \l 'if/t flll '/1111.· 1ll l I I t 11 Il (f < /r.111 .

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    • tiuring a fixed small angle of the total angle 1 c·'.L. !J 1tt011 "1CCltfS 'b . ~t"i • . f., 0 1se 'c' of tli.e balance v1 ration. The impulse angle

    ,1

    , 1111 'tota 1 ar ' . 1 . flit . 1,,, or aller u11locking ang e is called the ' escaping 111 rJ111 L' ·tI1 the s • l . h , t,1 tt1 . lt'd ,,v1 , ni.inUS the escaping a11g e is t e supplementary r1l111 t 1 tal arL L'l, ·I~· . fht> ~ Fi 429. . . rt< ·hLnN111I1 g is at rest the spring 1s unstressed or quiescent. 1 ce ~ tt b 1la.1 · · f or impu · l se b ecause a small .1fl 'i ,..., the ' . ourable pos1t1on \V 1t... 10 st tav l1.

    - . ffi· -ient to u11lock the escapement to energize the ·n be ~11 L . . . . 1 tio11\.\ least resistance of the spring. This is essential if

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    . f l \ be self-starting rom t 1e run-down condition. 1 11 l J', esc,1pe111e1lt JS· . t (lf tl e spring . . then, tl1e cent re l'ine of the 1s, 1 tht ·escent po111

    '[he qtti

    -af1ing angle. . turnec.i tl1 (lugh an angle of, say, 90° the spring eSL b l 11ce IS . . If the a a d Whet r 1 ~ Li it will return tl1e balance to the ,\'ill be stre~~~t ·but tht: nlt'n:t tlt~n1 of tl1e b~lanc.e w~ll cont~n':e

    quiescer~t Pand wiild the spr11lg in tl1e opposite d1rect1on unt1l 1ts its rotation. fficiei1 t to stop tlle balance and again reverse its 15 resistance fs~tion of tl1e balance pivots and absorption of energy 1 rnotion. T~ e rit:rt'ng coii1bined with the resistance of air, will reduce · th flexing sp ' . · in e f the vibrations u11t1l eventt1ally the balance will stop.

    4.29 Components of the ba\ance angle: Total arc of vib-ration = 27\)0 Unlocking angle = E{' lmp\.llse angle = .\.\)0 Escaping angle = ..\b0 S\.lpp\en1entary a-re = 270°- ..\b0 = 2~~0

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    '•1 •''' •·p11n. Aga1n le ren1aiPd .,,. .rlf r ·;..1. . • e:r f 1br .1 . · ' . ' ,. i r::- •1'"'11 it tbC ~ t11 , 11a turcll period of the syst o •I• • fi• ll , }l 1 ' j J J1 t: J d e1n • ,.;.1 • ,11•1 • t ,r111e< . n ·ill be c lange . ~ubt:r . .,, .II -C•-' •' L"- ..,..,,, escaP1 h d· 01111 ,:-'1" c.11t:•' --'1:1/t>. i ,,e . ents and t ea JUstment ava ·1 8 e -;i1J"'1fl. ·r111•e::o-"1 - - I requirern J able , 1 • thJ..• 1 'I ·/ lllJLcl J.t Ji'c lt

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    ories of escapement - frictional cat~gescapements the escape wJ1eeJ ;est · '-~:~iJer th~ frictional res me part of the balance axis d, a. ter ~Je~aJledl_· is focked ollb ~~nee is never free of the subtrautr~ng Ji1' '[he a . d f C Ion 7f11 ~e. .- 1111~T JJJ ~tat)· arc. . tz' n and the per10 o oscillation i ;;' ",,.,Jen1e . the fr1c o ' 1 s not tfrt ::-11Fr ·1vsed bi ht that since the supp ementary arc occu ,11 f