Wars of Lithuania : a systemic quantitative analysis of Lithuania's wars in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries 9786094372506

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Wars of Lithuania : a systemic quantitative analysis of Lithuania's wars in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries
 9786094372506

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A Systemic Quantitative Analysis of Lithuania's Wars in the

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Edited by Gediminas Vitkus

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UDC 355.48(474.5X091) Li239

Published by decision o f the Research Council of the Institute o f Military Science at the General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy o f Lithuania (Protocol No. VL-101 of 9 May 2014)

Preparation o f the publication was financed by the Research Council of Lithuania Contract No. LIT-5-15

Cover designer: Eglė Raubaitė Designer: Ramunė Lukstienė

On the cover: Soldiers of the Lithuanian Army’s Second Infantry Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas Regiment with the regimental flag, 1938. From the Lithuanian Central State Ar­ chives. Photographer: Izidorius Gircys. Published in Karys, the weekly newspaper o f the Lithuanian Army, 24 November 1938, No. 47, p. 1.

ISBN 978-609-437-250-6

© © © © © © © ©

Gediminas Vitkus, editing, preface, introduction, final remark, 2014 Virgilijus Pugačiauskas, Chapter 1,2014 Ieva Šenavičienė, Chapter 2, 2014 Gintautas Surgailis, Chapter 3,2014 Edita Jankauskienė, Chapter 4, 2014 General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy o f Lithuania, 2014 Eugrimas Publishing House, 2014 UAB „Metropolio vertimai“, translation into English, 2014

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Preface The idea to undertake the ‘Lithuania’s National War Experience in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: A Systemic Quantitative Analysis’ research project on the basis o f the methodology o f a project which is one o f the most universal and long-term studies o f warfare in the world developed rather unexpectedly. Although I had heard and read about the Correlates o f War project - an ongoing systematic quantitative analysis of wars that began in the United States in 1963 - much earlier, I was prompted to become more thoroughly acquainted with it by Resort to War,1 a book by Meredith Reid Sarkees and Frank Wayman published in the beginning o f 2010 by CQ Press. This book was extremely interesting to read. And not just because it presented the latest results of the progress of this project, i.e. covering all o f the wars from 1816 to 2007, but also because the project that was begun in the 1960s is still being successfully developed and continues to provide new insights and generalizations about the phenomenon of war for those who are interested. It goes without saying that in studying this new book with special attention - ‘under a microscope’, so to speak - I was also curious to find out what was written in it about Lithuania’s wars. Excluding the wars that our countrymen fought, either voluntarily or by force, for foreign interests, Lithuania took part in four large-scale wars during the period from 1816 to 2007 - these are wars which were fought under the Lithuanian flag and which resulted in more than 1,000 battle-related deaths per year. These wars are well known, and at first glance appear to have been thoroughly researched: the two uprisings in the nineteenth century, the struggle to defend the independence of the State o f Lithuania after it was re-established in 1918, and the partisan war against the Soviet Union that began before World War II had ended. Upon becoming acquainted with the data that Sarkees and Wayman present about these wars in their book, one is left with a twofold impression. On one hand, we can be satisfied with the fact that all o f the Lithuanian wars that took place during the period in question are indeed presented, in one way or another. On the other hand, we also have to admit that, across the board, the factual data presented about Lithuania’s wars are not sufficiently accurate, and that the understanding and interpretation o f them is also quite different from ours. However, this is not surprising. Naturally, the compilers o f Resort to War based their book on information that was available to them and studies that had been published in English; they did not have the opportunity to become more thoroughly acquainted with the full range of historiography written in Lithuanian, Russian and Polish. Let’s also bear in mind the scale of the researchers’ task - to include and describe all (!) o f the wars that have taken place in the world. So if there are some inaccuracies in describing a less influential state, this usually happens either because o f a lack o f research, or simply due to language barriers. It is only natural that the inaccuracies and errors left by the compilers o f the book and the data set encourage us to look into corresponding data and information in our own historiography: how much and to what extent it has been accumulated and made available to those interested. On one hand, o f course, there was no reason to doubt that 1Sarkees M. R„ Wayman F. W., Resort to War: a Data Guide to Inter-state Extra-state, Intra-state, and Non­ state Wars. 1816-2007, CQ Press, 2010.

quite a lot had been accomplished in researching the history of the wars that Lithuania was, in one way or another, involved in. Yet at the same time, it draws attention to the fact that the quality o f the existing studies and descriptions of Lithuanian wars does vary considerably. Alongside very detailed studies that delve into individual episodes and personalities, one can also find works that are rather superficial, inaccurate or overly literary. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for some studies of wars (especially the last partisan war) to be politically disputed. It was also quickly evident the many of the research results are not available in other more widely spoken languages. O f particular note is the fact that looking at the historiography of Lithuanian wars from the perspective of the Correlates o f War project, we managed to discover a significant gap in the historiography o f our wars which we otherwise wouldn’t have given thought to. One must admit that the research done thus far was lacking a well-considered and explicitly formulated theoretical framework which would allow for the presentation of an aggregate systematic quantitative picture o f the wars that have taken place. It was precisely this circumstance that became the key pretext for writing this book. This is when v*e came up with the idea o f taking it upon ourselves to carry out a systematic quantitative, Analysis of Lithuanian wars using the methodology developed in the United States to systematise information available in historiography and safeguarded in archival funds. We hope that this will give researchers from the Correlates o f War project an opportunity to utilise more comprehensive and reliable sources concerning Lithuania’s wars, and make corrections in the descriptions thereof. In a sense, we are grateful to them for the opportunity to better understand, reflect upon and summarize the experience of national wars that we have accumulated, and to share our knowledge with all those who are interested. In concluding this brief preface, I would like to thank everyone without whose help this book would not have been what it is. The publishing of a book is never just the result o f the efforts o f its initiator. It is difficult to decide in which order everyone should be thanked, so I will simply present an alphabetical list of all the people who have helped in one way or another. I would like to express my most sincere thanks to: Rima Bertašavičiūtė, Rima Cicėnienė, Žygintas Bučys, Teresė Birutė Burauskaitė, Terry Clark, Aurika Duobienė, Bernardas Gailius, Reda Griškaitė, Jūratė Guščinskienė, Rimantas Jokimaitis, Romas Kaunietis, Violeta Kelertienė, Regina Koženiauskienė, Ramunė Lukstienė, Vaida Mastauskienė, Jonas Minkevičius, Jūratė Novagrockienė, Eugenija Petrulienė, Valdas Rakutis, Gema Sabonytė, Meredith Reid Sarkees, Eulialija Stankevičienė, Vygantas Vareikis, Ona Vitčienė, Eugenijus Vosylius, and Agnietė Žotkevičiūtė. I would also like to thank the National Museum o f Lithuania, the Lithuanian Art Museum, the Lithuanian State Historical Archives, the Lithuanian Central State Archives, the Lithuanian Special Archives, the Museum o f Genocide Victims of the Genocide and Resistance Research Centre o f Lithuania, and the Šiauliai Aušros Museum for allowing iconographie material to be used in the book. And above all, I am grateful to the four authors o f the studies published in this book - Virgilijus Pugačiauskas, Ieva Šenavičienė, Gintautas Surgailis and Edita Jankauskienė, who accepted my invitation and decided to contribute to the understanding and recognition o f Lithuania’s national war experience. Vilnius, October 2013 Gediminas Vitkus

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C ontents List of

Illustrations................................................................................... 9

List of

Tables..................................................................................... 13

Gediminas Vitkus

Introduction........................................................................................................................ 17 I. Lithuania’s National War Experience and Correlates o f War............................ 17 1.1. The 1830-1831 and 1863-1864 Uprisings.................................................... 17 LII. The 1919-1920 Lithuanian War o f Liberation........................................... 20 I.III. The 1944-1953 Lithuanian Partisan War with the Soviet U n ion .......... 22 II. Application of the Correlates of War Methodology to Carry Out Research on Lithuanian Wars........................................................ 24 III. Structure o f the Book............................................................................................. 28

Virgilijus Pugaciauskas

Chapter 1. Lithuania and the 1830-1831 Uprising........................................................ 31 1.1. The Warring Sides: Status and Potential.............................................................. 35 1.1.1. Lithuania: Status and Potential................................................................... 35 1.1.2. Russia: Status and Potential......................................................................... 36 1.2. The Beginning o f the War......................................................................................37 1.2.1. Goals, Reasons and Pretexts of the War...................................................37 1.2.2. Dating the Beginning o f the War............................................................... 42 1.3. The Course and Main Stages o f the W ar............................................................ 43 1.4. ‘Geography’ of the War...........................................................................................46 1.5. The Burden o f the War.......................................................................................... 49 1.5.1. Size and Provisioning of the Forces...........................................................49 1.5.2. Allies................................................................................................................ 62

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1.6. War Losses................................................................................................................ 66 1.6.1. Fighters BCilled in A ction............................................................................. 66 1.6.2. Other War Casualties.................................................................................. 75 1.7. The End o f the War and Its Consequences........................................................ 78 1.7.1. Victors o f the War..........................................................................................78 1.7.2. Other Consequences o f the War................................................................. 78 1.8. Semantics o f the War...............................................................................................81 Instead o f Conclusion.....................................................................................................83

leva Senaviciene

Į »

Chapter 2. Lithuania and the 1863-1864 Uprising........................................

..91

2.1. The Warring Sides: Status and Potential............................................

..99

2.1.1. Status o f the Parties at War........................................................ 2.1.2. Parties’ Territories and Populations......................................... 2.1.3. The Economic Potential of the Parties Before the Outbreak o f Hostilities............................................................................................

.103

2.2. The Beginning o f the War....................................................................

.105

2.2.1. The Allies and Their Objective.................................................. 2.2.2. The Initiator of the Uprising; Lithuania Joins the Uprising..

.F07

2.3. The Burden of the War..........................................................................

.112

2.3.1. Russian Armed Forces................................................................

.112

2.3.2. Lithuanian Rebel Forces.............................................................

.114

2.4. The Course and Main Stages o f the War.............................................

.117

2.4.1. Number o f Battles........................................................................

.117

2.4.2. Stages of the W ar.........................................................................

.121

2.5. War L osses....................................................... ......................................

.133

2.6. The End o f the War: Victors o f the W ar............................................

.139

2.7. Semantics o f the War.............................................................................

.141

2.8. Commemoration o f the W ar...............................................................

.142

Instead of Conclusion...................................................................................

.142

Gintautas Surgailis

Chapter 3. The 1919-1920 Lithuanian War of Liberation ................................................ 149 3.1. The Warring Sides: Status and Potential........................................................... 154 3.1.1. World War I and Preconditions for Re-establishing the Lithuanian State........................................................... 154 3.1.2. Lithuania’s Foes.......................................................................................... 160 3.2. The Beginning o f the War................................................................................... 162 3.2.1. Goals, Reasons and Pretexts......................................................................162 3.2.2. The Start of Combat Operations...............................................................163

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3.3. The Course of the War......................................................................................... 165 3.3.1. The Front Against Soviet Russia...............................................................165 3.3.2. The Front Against the Bermontians........................................................ 179 3.3.3. The Front Against Poland...........................................................................184 3.4. The Burden o f the War......................................................................................... 196 3.4.1. Size and Provisioning of the Forces.......................................................... 196 3.4.2. Leaders.......................................................................................................... 199 3.5. Lithuania’s Allies.................................................................................................... 200 3.6. The Duration o f the War...................................................................................... 203 3.7. War Losses.............................................................................................................. 206 3.7.1. Lithuanian Soldier Casualties................................................................... 206 3.7.2. Lithuania’s Economic L osses.................................................................... 210 3.7.3. Economic and Demographic Consequences o f the War..................... 210 3.7.4. Geopolitical Changes................................................................................. 211 3.8. The End of the War................................................................................................212 3.9. Semantics o f the War.............................................................................................213 3.10. Commemoration of the War............................................................................. 214 Instead o f Conclusion...................................................................................................215

Edita Jankauskienė

Chapter 4. The 1944-1953 Lithuanian Partisan War with the Soviet Union .............223 4.1. The Warring Sides: Status and Potential............................................................ 232 4.1.1. The Soviet U n ion ........................................................................................ 232 4.1.2. Lithuania.......................................................................................................233 4.2. The Beginning o f the War.................................................................................... 236 4.2.1. The Initiator of the War............................................................................. 236 4.2.2. Goals and Causes o f the War....................................................................237 4.2.3. Dating the Beginning o f the War............................................................. 238 4.3. Soviet Military Units that Suppressed Partisan Resistance in Lithuania.... 240 4.4. Lithuanian Partisans - Underground Army in Occupied Land...................248 4.4.1. The Creation and Evolution of Military Organizational Structures and Governing Body............................................. 248 4.4.2. Insignia, Armament and Provision...... -..................................................255 4.4.3. Allies..............................................................................................................258 4.5. Leaders.................................................................................................................... 259 4.6. The Course and Main Stages o f the W ar...........................................................261 4.6.1. The First Stage o f the War..........................................................................261 4.6.2. The Second Stage o f the War.....................................................................266 4.7. The End and Duration of the War...................................................................... 272 4.8. War Losses..............................................................................................................272

4.8.1. Killed in Action........................................................................................... 272 4.8.2. Other Casualties......................................................................................... 275 4.9. Semantics o f the War............................................................................................ 276 4.10. Commemoration o f the War............................................................................. 278 Instead o f Conclusion...................................................................................................282

Gediminas Vitkus

Lithuanian Wars Under the Correlates of War Typology: Final Remark................................................................................................................... |9 i Index of Personal Names................................................................................................ 301 Index of Geographical Names........................................................................................ 311

List of Illustrations Chapter 1. Lithuania and the 1830-1831 Uprising 1.1. Vincentas Smakauskas, Angel presenting a rebel of 1831 with a pilgrim’s staff. Mid-nineteenth century, oil on canvas, 99x122 cm., Lithuanian Art Museum, T-81, photographed by Antanas Luksenas.................................................................................. 32 1.2. Seal of the Vilnius Chief Uprising Committee, National Museum o f Lithuania, S - 683 ...41 1.3. The military situation in Lithuania in 1831, A. Z. Wojna na Litwie w roku 1831, Krakow, 1913, s. 125...................................................................................................................... 44 1.4. Vilnius Governor General Matvey Khrapovitsky, National Museum o f Lithuania, IM ik - 213/1-3................................................................................................................................ 50 1.5. A Lithuanian rebel. Unknown artist, National Museum of Lithuania, T - 1597. 54...........52 1.6. Emilija Pliateryte, National Museum of Lithuania, ATV - 18560.......................................... 53 1.7. Maria Raszanowiczowna, lithograph, National Museum o f Lithuania, ATV - 18619........53 1.8. Kaunas district rebel leader Maurycy Prozor, lithograph, National Museum of Lithuania, ATV - 18564............................................................................................................ 56 1.9. Raseiniai district rebel leader Juliusz Gruszewski, lithograph, National Museum of Lithuania, ATV - 18591............................................................................................................ 56 1.10. District rebel leader Juozapas Giedraitis, National Museum of Lithuania, ATV - 18589...................................................................................................................................57 1.11. Siauliai district rebel leader Constantin Herubowicz, National Museum o f Lithuania, ATV - 18592...................................................................................................................................57 1.12. Fragment o f a stamped note written by Raseiniai district rebel leader Ezechiel Staniewicz, Lithuanian State Historical Archives, doc. f. 437, inv. 3, file 75, p. 50..................................................................................................................................... 61 1.13. A badge from the 1830-1831 uprising featuring the White Eagle and the Vytis, National Museum o f Lithuania, IM - 10698.............................................................................63 1.14. General Dezydery Adam Chiapowski, lithograph, National Museum of Lithuania, IMik -2526.............................................................................................................. 63 1.15. Map of the 1830-1831 Uprising in Lithuania. Compiled by Olga Mastianica, cartographer: Loreta Sutiniene.............................................................................................. 76-77

>Aaivi

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Chapter 2. Lithuania and the 1 8 6 3 -1 8 6 4 Uprising 2.1. 'Brother Zemaitians’. This proclamation poster was found posted on the Šaukėnai Church wall, in the county o f Šiauliai on 19 March 1863. The broken cross symbolized the persecution of Catholicism imposed by tsarist Russia. Ink, watercolour, 86.5x64 cm, National Museum of Lithuania, R-3468..................................................................................... 92 2.2. Map of the 1863-1864 Uprising in Lithuania and Rus’. Compiled by S. Zieliriski. From Stanislaw Zielihski book ‘Bitwy i potyczki 1863-1864 r'n Rapperswil: Nakladem Funduszu Wydawniczego Muzeum Norodowego w Rappcrswilu, 1913.............................................. 100 2.3. Seal of the National Government, Wikipedia, http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rz%C4%85d_ Narodowy _%28powstanie_styczniowe%29.......................................................................J..... 105 2.4. The flag o f the rebel cavalry regiment embroidered with the Polish and Lithuanian coats o f arms: the White Eagle and the Vytis, 1863-1864. Silk, 78x32.5 cm, National Museum o f Lithuania, IM-20.....................................................................................................110 2.5. Seizure o f Russian transport near Kazlų Rūda, 1 April 1863. 1863-1913. Album Powstania Styczniowego (w pięčdziesiątą rocznicę), Lwow: Nakladem S. W. Niemojowskiego i Spolki, 1913, p. 16....................................................................... į.... 115 2.6. Battle counts in Lithuania, the Polish Kingdom and Rus in each month of 1863 and 1864. Compiled by Ieva Šenavičienė.............................................................j,.... 119 2.7. Total numbers of battles in Lithuania, the Polish Kingdom and Rus’, 1863-1864. Compiled by Ieva Šenavičienė...............................................................................................

120

2.8. Rebel leader Boleslovas Dluskis (1826-1905). Photographer: Achille Giuseppe Bonoldi, Vilnius, late nineteenth century. From the rebel archive found at the Church of St Francis o f Assisi (Bernardine) in Vilnius in 1989, National Museum o f Lithuania, R-16026........................................................................................................................................... 124 2.9. Artur Grottger, The Battle. From the artists ‘Lithuania series created in Vienna in 1864 1866. Paper, print, 35.5x27 cm, National Museum of Lithuania, I Mik-9159/17-22..........................................................................................................................125 2.10. Rebel leader priest Antanas Mackevičius. Šiauliai 'Aušra Museum, pos. No 419 Vlll-av, p. 33........................................................................................................... 126 2.11. Rebel leader Zigmantas Sierakauskas. The Lithuanian State Historical Archives f. 439, ap. 1, b. 148, No 2, p. 34................................................................................................. 127 2.12. Number o f Russian and Lithuanian battle-related deaths for individual months o f 1863 and 1864. Compiled by leva Šenavičienė.........................137 2.13. Sum of Russian and Lithuanian battle-related deaths for 1863 and 1864. Compiled by Ieva šenavičienė...................................................................................................137 2.14. Michael Elviro Andriolli, The death o f Ludvikas Narbutas at Dubičiai, 1864-1865, paper, lithography, 46.8x55.3 cm, Lithuanian Art Museum, G-3752, scanned by Vaidotas Aukštaitis.................................................................................................................140 2.15. Belt buckle featuring the Polish White Eagle and the Lithuanian Vytis which belonged to rebel commander Boleslovas Koliška. Late nineteenth century. Brass, 8x7.2 cm, National Museum of Lithuania, IM-1....................................................... 141

Chapter 3. The 1 9 1 9 -1 9 2 0 Lithuanian War of Liberation 3.1.

Soldiers from the First Platoon o f the Sixth Battery of the Lithuanian Army Artillery on the front at Širvintos during the last battle. 21 November 1920. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives..............................................................................................150

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3.2. The Council of Lithuania, elected at the Vilnius National Conference on 21 September 1917. From Antanas Tylas book, Lietuva prie vasario 16-osios slenksčio. Vilnius: Katalikų akademijos leidykla, 2004..........................................155 3.3. The Act o f Independence of Lithuania of 16 February 1918, published on 19 February in the Lietuvos Aidas newspaper, issue No. 22 (7 0 )................156 3.4. German General Rüdiger von der Goltz. From the personal archive o f Gintautas Surgailis................................................................................................................. 161 3.5. Colonel Pavel Bermondt-Avalov (centre) with a group of officers. From the funds o f the Latvian War Museum........................................................................................................ 164 3.6. The commandant o f the county of Sejny’s platoon in April 1919. On the right is the platoon sergeant, NCO Matas Aguonis. Karys, 1940, No. 4, p. 2.................................. 175 3.7. The Red Army’s prisoners o f war in 1919. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives...................................................................................................................176 3.8. The Daugavpils front. The officers of the Second Grand Duke o f Lithuania Algirdas Infantry Regiments First battalion prepare for battle. 1919. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives...................................................................... 177 3.9. Colonel Virgolichs group of officers. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives................................................................................................................................. 180 3.10. Henri Albert Niessel. From the personal archive o f Gintautas Surgailis........................... 182 3.11. Weapons - the bounty captured from the Bermontians. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives......................................................................................183 3.12. The Seventh Artillery’s battery near Sejny in 1920. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives......................................................................................186 3.13. Lithuanian army soldiers on the front near Vievis in 1920. From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives................................................................................. 188 3.14. Soldiers from the Lithuanian army’s Grand Duke o f Lithuania Kęstutis Fifth Infantry Regiment digging trenches on the front near Vievis in 1920. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives.............................................................. 189 3.15. The front against Poland in 1920. The Fifth Lithuanian Grand Duke Kęstutis Regiment have lunch on the front. From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives................................................................................................................. 191 3.16. A Lithuanian army divisions staff on the Polish front in Seirijai September 1920. From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives.................... 192 3.17. The Suwalki negotiations. Vytauto Didžiojo mirties 500 metų sukaktuvėms paminėti albu­ mas. Kaunas, 1933, p. 362...........................................................................................................193 3.18. Soldiers from the Lithuanian army’s Sixth Margiris, Duke of Pilėnai, Infantry Regiment on the Polish front heading on a scouting mission towards Rūdiškės. 19 November 1920. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives............... 194 3.19. Captured Polish soldiers from Zeligowski’s forces are led through Žasliai Station. From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives................................................... 194 3.20. Soldiers from the Polish army’s Grodno Infantry Regiment, which was operating near Širvintos in November 1920, with their commander (centre). From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives.....................................................................195 3.21. The supreme commander of the Lithuanian army, General Silvestras Žukauskas. 1919. From the personal archive o f Gintautas Surgailis........................................................ 199 3.22. Lieutenant General Pranas Liatukas. From the personal archive of Gintautas Surgailis.................................................................................................................. 200 3.23. Lieutenant Colonel Kazys Ladyga. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives............................................................................................................................... 200

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3.24. Lieutenant Colonel Konstantinas Žukas. From the personal archive of Gintautas Surgailis......................................................................................................................200 3.25. Colonel Pavel Bermondt-Avalov. From the funds o f the Latvian War Museum..............201 3.26. The commander o f the Polish army, Edward Rydz-Smigty................................................. 201 3.27. Lieutenant General Lucjan Želigowski o f the Polish army. From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives............................................................................... 201 3.28. The Lithuanian army’s Tenth Infantry, Marijampolė Regiment, First Machine Gun Company on the front near Vilnius. 1920. From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives................................................................................204 3.29. Number of days of combat with Lithuania’s enemies per month. Compiled by Gintautas Surgailis...........................................................................................................».....205 3.30. The Daugavpils front. A house in KalkQni destroyed during battle. From the funds o f the Lithuanian Central State Archives......................................................206 3.31. At the graves o f Lithuanian soldiers on All Saints' Day. From the funds of the Lithuanian Central State Archives.............................................................................. .

207

Chapter 4. The 1 9 4 4 -1 9 5 3 Lithuanian Partisan War with the Soviet Union 4.1. Lithuanian partisans from the Jovaras Company o f the Liūtas Brigade (Vytautas district). The private collection o f Romas Kaunietis.....................................* ’.224 4.2. Anti-partisan operation carried out by soldiers o f the Two Hundred and Ninety-eigtyh Regiment o f the Fourth Rifle Division of the USSR MGB Internal Troops on 30 O ctober-1 November 1949 in the forest o f Šimoniai. The Museum of Genocide Victims o f the Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania (hereinafter LGGRTC GAM)........................................................................................................................... 244 4.3. 25 July 1949 deployment scheme for units o f the Fourth Rifle Division o f the USSR MGB Internal Troops operating in Lithuania,, LSA, doc. f. K-41, inv. 1, file 331, p. 46. Published: Starkauskas ]., Čekistinė kariuomenė Lietuvoje 1944-1953 metais, Vilnius, 1998, p. 477; Anusauskas A., Teroras, 1940-1958 m., p. 176............................................... 246 4.4. Lithuanian partisan regions and districts, 1949-1950. Prepared by the Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania and UAB Žemėlapių Artelė.............................. 248 4.5. Partisans from the Dainava district carrying out drills. LGGRTC GAM............................250 4.6. Representatives o f the Southern Lithuania Region on the way to the summit, accompanied by partisans from the Western Lithuania Region. Standing: Kęstutis District Commander Henrikas Danilevičius-Vidmantas (third from left), Western Lithuania Region Chief o f Staff Vytautas Gužas-Kardas (fourth from left), Tauras District Commander Aleksandras Grybinas-Faustas (fifth from left), Western Lithuania Region Commander Aleksandras Milaševičius-Ruonis (seventh from left), Southern Lithuania Region Commander Adolfas Ramanauskas-Vanagas (ninth from left), Kęstutis District Chief o f Staff Robertas Gedvilas-Remigijus (tenth from left), and head o f the Agitation and Propaganda Section of the Western Lithuania Region, Antanas Liesys Idenas (eleventh from left). February 1949. LGGRTC GAM...................251 4.7. Partisans wearing Lithuanian army uniforms with their main accoutrements; the partisan on the right is wearing a Riflemens Union pin. Armed with a German Mauser rifle and a Shpagin submachine gun. 1946. LGGRTC GAM..................................254 4.8. Lithuanian freedom-fighter uniform patches. LGGRTC GAM............................................ 255 4.9. Confiscated partisan weapons and items in the courtyard o f the MGB building in Vilnius. LGGRTC GAM........................................................................................256

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4.10. Juozas Lukša-Daumantas. Autumn 1950. LGGRTC GAM..................................................260 4.11. Jonas Žemaitis-Vytautas. LGGRTC G AM.............................................................................. 260 4.12. Adolfas Ramanauskas-Vanagas. LGGRTC GAM..................................................................260 4.13. Partisans from the Dainava district. Cizca 1945-1946. LGGRTC GAM.......................... 263 4.14. Partisans from the Prisikėlimas district. Circa 1950-1951. LGGRTC GAM....................265 4.15. A new issue o f a newspaper being prepared at the Dainava district headquarters. Summer 1948. LGGRTC GAM.......................................................................267 4.16. A USSR MGB soldier next to the bunker o f the Algimantas district headquarters in the forest o f Šimonys, which was destroyed during a military operation carried out on 30 O ctober-1 November 1949. LGGRTC GAM...................................................... 268 4.17. The monument to commemorate the 16 February 1949 declaration o f the Council of the Movement o f the Struggle for Freedom of Lithuania and its signatories, opened in the village o f Minaidai of the Radviliškis district on 22 November 2010. Author and sculptor Jonas Jagėla. Photo by Vilma Juozevičiūtė, 2014....................................................281

List of Tables Chapter 1. Lithuania and the 1830-1831 Uprising 1.1. Military operations and fatalities incurred................................................................................. 66

Chapter 2. Lithuania and the 186 3-1 864 Uprising 2.1. Populations o f Russia, Poland and Lithuania in the nineteenth century.............................103 2.2. Russian forces in the military district of Vilnius in January 1863-January 1864...............113 2.3. Russian forces in the military district of Warsaw in January 1863-January 1864..............113 2.4. Battle counts in Lithuania, the Polish Kingdom and Rus* in each month of 1863 and 1864............................................................................................................................ 118 2.5. Information on rebels who voluntarily left the uprising in the North-western Krai of Russia and pledged an oath to the emperor by 13 January 1864......................................130 2.6. Dynamics o f the Russian and Lithuanian battle-related death tolls for individual months o f 1863 and 1864.............................................................................................................. 136 2.7. Information about soldiers and rebels who were injured, shell-shocked or died in Russian hospitals and war hospitals in the military district o f Vilnius............ 138

Chapter 3. The 1 9 1 9 -1 9 2 0 Lithuanian War o f Liberation 3.1. Total number of weapons obtained between 27 January 1919 and the end of 1920......... 197

Chapter 4. The 1 9 4 4 -1 9 5 3 Lithuanian Partisan War with the Soviet Union 4.1. Number of military operations carried out by Soviet repressive structures and partisan attacks.................................................................................................... 271 4.2. Battle-related casualties sustained by the warring sides......................................................... 274

Gediminas Vitkus

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction O ver the period from 1816 to 2007, Lithuania took part in as m any as four large-scale wars; Lithuanians fought these wars under the Lithuanian flag and suffered m ore than 1,000 battle-related deaths per year. These are the two (1830-1831 and 1863-1864) uprisings against the Russian Empire that Lithuania fought together w ith Poland in the nineteenth century, the 1919-1920 War o f Liberation that arose after the re-establishm ent o f independence in 1918, and the Partisan War with the Soviet U nion that began before the end o f World War II. In both Lithuania and its neighbouring countries, these wars are fairly w ell-know n, and have b een researched exhaustively on m ore than on e occasion. However, upon b ecom in g acquainted with the publications that have been prepared on the basis o f the Correlates o f War project, it becom es clear that the com pilers o f this data set have by n o m eans accessed all o f the inform ation that has been accum ulated. Additional questions arise upon discovering w hat place the wars have been allocated in the typ ology o f war used by this project.

I. Lithuania’s National War Experience and Correlates of War It should be noted straightaway that it is on ly in the last book prepared on the basis o f the Correlates o f War project that all four o f Lithuania’s wars are m en tion ed in o n e way or another. In the earlier books written by Singer and Small in 1972 and 1982, on ly three wars are m entioned, since data on the last war - the Partisan War - were probably not available. L ets take a closer look at the descriptions o f the Lithuanian wars that are presented.

1.1. The 1830-1831 and 1863-1864 Uprisings The descriptions o f these wars are very similar, so we w ill discuss them together. In all three editions o f the book, the 1831 uprising was listed as the ‘First Polish War o f 1831’.' Analogously, the 1863-1864 uprising is called the ‘Second Polish War o f 1 8 6 3 -1864’.2 These nam es, o f course, are not surprising, since th e d istin ction o f Lithuania as a geopolitical unit separate from Poland 1Sarkees M. R., Wayman F. W., Resort to War: a Data Guide to Inter-state Extra-state, Intra-state, and Non­ state Wars, ¡816-2007, p. 351-352. *Ibid., p. 370.

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18 L I T H U A N I A ' S

WARS

or, all the more, as an independent political entity - was unim aginable at that tim e. However, the slightly m ore detailed narratives o f these wars presented in the 2010 edition o f the b ook are m ore disappointing: only m ilitary action related to the events in the Polish K ingdom 3 are recounted, and Lithuania is not even m entioned. Thus, the inform ation presented m ust be rectified for this alone. It w ould actually be interesting to assess precisely what contribution the Lithuanian fighters m ade to the overall fight, and com pare this w ith the Polish contribution. Yet all we find in the book is information: it is specified that during the 1831 war, w hich w ent on for alm ost a year, 20,000 Poles and 15,000 Russians dieij, while during the 186 3 -1 8 6 4 war, w hich continued for just over a year, 6,500, Poles and 10,000 Russians perished. A nd as the narratives o f the key parameters of these wars show, the data presented only reflect the consequences o f m ilitary action in the Polish K ingdom . ( The authors presented these figures based on quite a w id e spectrum o f abundant sources. In describing the 1831 war, studies published in as m any as three languages (English, Germ an and French) on the events o f 1830-1831 and the Russian Empire o f that tim e were used in addition to the m ain statistical data sets.4 Data on the 1863 -1 8 6 4 war are presented on the basis o f à* more m odest list o f sources.5 However, it is difficult not to notice that in both cases, the authors did n ot m ake use o f studies published in the Russian, Polish or Lithuanian languages. Thus, m uch cou ld still be done in this respect to more precisely establish the losses experienced by the warring sides. J In historiography, the term 'Kingdom of Poland’ is used in reference to two different entities: 1) the integral part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795; and 2) the artificial administrative unit that was incorporated by Russia in 1815 (sometimes referred to as 'Congress Poland’). In order to distinguish between these two geopolitical entities in this book, the term ‘Kingdom of Poland’ will be used in reference to the integral part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the term ‘Polish Kingdom’ will be used in reference to the administrative unit of the Russian Empire. *Hordynsky J., History of the Late Polish Revolution, Boston: Carter and Hendle, 1832; Brzozowski M., La Guerre de Pologne en 1831, Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1833; Gnorowski S. B., Insurrection of Poland London: James Ridgeway, 1839; Puzyrewski A., Der Polnisch-Russische Krieg ¡831,3 vols., Vienna: Kreisler and Groger, 1893; Schiemann T., Geschichte Russlands Unter Kaiser Nikolaus I, vol. 3. Berlin: George Reimer, 1913; Reddaway W. F., et. al., eds., The Cambridge History o f Poland, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941; Grunwald C , 7sar Nicholas I, New York: Macmillan, 1955; Leslie R. F., Polish Politics and the Revolution of November, 1830, London: London University, 1956; Curtis J. S., The Russian Army under Nicholas I, Durnham N. C.: Duke University Press, 1965; Clodfelter M., Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Causality and Other Figures, 1618-1991, Jefferson, N.C.: McFarlan, 1992; Philip C., Axelrod A., Encyclopedia o f Wars, vol. 1-3, New York: Facts on File, 2005; Stone R., A Military History o f Russia from Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2006. 5Edwards H. S., The Private History o f Polish Insurrection, London: Saunders, 1865; Reddaway W. F., et. al., eds., The Cambridge History o f Poland, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941; Florinsky M. T., Russia: A History and Interpretation, vols. 2, New York: Macmillan, 1953; Leslie R. F., Reform and Insurrection in Russian Poland, London: London University, 1963; Clodfelter M., Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Causality and Other Figures, 1618-1991, Jefferson, N. C.: McFarlan, 1992; Philip C., Axelrod A., Encyclopedia o f Wars, vol. 1-3, New York: Facts on File, 2005.

ntroduction

It w ould also b e quite interesting to return to a question that has seem ingly already been answered: w h o the warring sides were in these uprisings. In the 2010 edition o f the book, th e com pilers o f the Correlates o f War data set indicate that in both cases, the participants o f the war were Russia and ‘Poles’. It is obviously n ot difficult to understand what is m eant by the m ention o f Russia. However, it is crystal clear that the compilers o f the data set do not have a coherent grasp o f who the ‘Poles’ were. On one hand, Poland - or m ore precisely, Poland-Lithuania - no longer belonged to an interstate system after 1816. O n the other hand, it (they) did in any case belong to the international system, since it continued to m anifest itself as a geopolitical entity that had clear political objectives and was able, am ong other things, to challenge a state - a m em ber o f the interstate system - and participate in m ilitary action with considerable efficacy and duration. In the Correlates o f War database, these ‘non-state’ political entities are divided into tw o groups: geopolitical units and non-territorial entities. The first are associated w ith a specific territory, w hile the second are not (for example, international organizations or terrorist groups). There is probably no doubt that in the case o f this uprising, the ‘Poles’ are a geopolitical unit. Yet w ithin the context o f today’s historiography, it w ould at the very least be a misunderstanding to m ake the territorial borders o f this unit synonym ous w ith those o f the Polish K ingdom that was form ed after the C ongress o f Vienna. This is contradicted by the fact that the war had spread n o t o n ly throughout the Polish Kingdom , but also throughout the lands o f the form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania, w hich were already b ein g adm inistered as governorates o f Russia. It is also contradicted by the fact that the war left a deep im print in the historical destiny n o t only o f the Polish nation, but o f the Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian nations as well. It is not surprising that researchers working in distant lands do not understand this. O n e final observation. We w ill draw attention to the fact that in classifying these wars, they were both assigned to the intra-state war category. At first glance, it w ould seem that this is fine. The wars did in fact take place w ithin the Russian Empire. However, in light o f the fact that the wars took place on the territory o f the form er Polish-Lithuanian state, and bearing in m ind that the goal o f the uprising was to abrogate Russian rule and restore independence, it is a bit odd that the authors deem ed th ese wars to b e ‘civil wars over local issues’. This seem s strange because according to all their parameters, these wars were less like intra­ state wars and m ore like extra-state wars, when a state fights with a geopolitical entity that was once a state and which is trying to restore this status - one which seeks n ot to change the policies o f the empire and gain m ore rights therein, but rather to separate itself from it, com pletely and unconditionally.

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20 L I T H U A N I A ’ S W A R S

l.ll. The 1919-1920 Lithuanian War of Liberation In the 1972 book, w hich was the first to be com piled on the basis o f the Correlates o f War project, the Lithuanian War o f Liberation was not distinguished separately as either one war or as a group o f wars. The entire period from the 1917 Russian Revolution to th e very end o f the civil war in 1921 was included in the database under the strange nam e o f ‘Russian Nationalities War (1917-1921 )’. O ne m ight assum e that the Lithuanian War o f Liberation was also included in this generalization. The wars fought by Poland, Latvia and Estonia were ils o left undifferentiated.6 Researchers at that tim e were clearly lacking m ore precise data about this w h ole jum ble o f conflicts, w hich also coincided with the end o£W orld War I, the collapse o f the Russian Empire, and the Russian Civil War. At that time, it was only recorded that approximately 50,000 fighters died during this ‘war’.7 In the 1982 edition, w e see a m ore differentiated picture, but on e w hich is also rather contradictory. On one hand, this edition even includes an explanation o f w hy the fights fought against Soviet Russia b y the Baltic countries, which declared independence in 1918, cannot yet, in the opinion o f the authors, be regarded as inter-state wars. A ccording to th e authors, ‘the rebellious faction or self-proclaim ed independent entity m ust have satisfied our criteria ofl'ystem m em bership six m onths prior to the onset o f hostilities to m erit participation in an inter-state war. Thus the battles o f the Baltic peoples against Soviet Russia from 1918 to 1920 were n ot classified as inter-state wars despite their 1918 declarations o f independence; these rem ained in the colonial war category.’8 However, in this case, it rem ains unclear what the date o f Lithuania’s declaration o f independence is considered to be in this data set. If it is considered to be 16 February 1918, then six m on th s had already passed b y the tim e Russian Red A rm y forces appeared in Lithuania in D ecem ber 1918; in this case, the Lithuanian War of Liberation should have already been classified as an inter-state war. On the other hand, it is difficult to com prehend w hy the R usso-Polish War o f 1919-1920, w hich began on 14 February 1919, was nevertheless differentiated from the Russian N ationalities War and classified as an inter-state war, even though it did not m eet the established criteria, i.e. less than six m onths had passed since the declaration o f Polish in dependence o n 11 N ovem ber 1918. It should also be pointed o u t that despite the transfer o f the R usso-Polish War to another category, the num ber o f soldiers w h o died during the Russian N ationalities War rem ained unchanged: 50,000.9 6Singer J. D., Small M., 7he Wages o f War: 1816-1965 Statislical Handbook, p. 38. 59. 7 Ibid., p. 75. 8Small M., Singer J. D.. Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980, p. 53. 9 Ibid., p. 98.

Introduction

Q u ite evidently, the authors o f the ab ovem en tion ed b ook s and their assistants were lacking m ore precise data on Lithuanian war history. Since the earlier book s d o n ot include concrete descriptions o f wars or corresponding bibliographic references, it is difficult to determ ine from the enorm ous reference list at th e end o f the b o o k w hat exactly the authors used as a basis. In any case, it is encouraging to see that the situation has clearly improved, as evidenced by the substantially revised data presented in the 2010 edition. The general list o f inter-state, extra-state, intra-state and non-state wars no longer contains the fictional Russian N ationalities War (1917-1921); furtherm ore, the group o f inter-state wars that takes its place includes the R usso-Polish War o f 1919—1920,10w hich had already been recognized earlier, as well as the Estonian War o f Liberation o f 1 9 1 8 -1 9 2 0 11 and the Latvian War o f Liberation o f 1918— 1920,12 during w hich these countries, with the support o f Germ any and Finland, held off attacks o f the Red Army. This indicates that the developers o f the data set delved quite a bit deeper into the nuances o f the history o f that period and were able to describe the struggles that took place at that tim e m ore accurately. N evertheless, the Lithuanian War o f Liberation was n o t distinguished. D espite the fact that at o n e tim e, Lithuania was fighting three enem ies (Soviet Russia, the Berm ontians, i.e. m em bers o f the Russian W hite Guard supported by Germany, and Poland) in defence o f its independence, it is only the LithuanianPolish War o f 1920 that m erits discussion in the book as a separate war that resulted in a considerable num ber o f battle-related deaths (both o f the warring sides lost 500 m en each ).13 In the Correlates o f War database, this is the only inter-state war in w hich Lithuania, as a m em ber o f the inter-state system , is listed as a participant. It is therefore particularly interesting to see what data is presented on this war. The narrative briefly recounts the peripeteia o f Lithuania’s dispute with Poland over V ilnius, describes th e role o f Russia, G erm any and the League o f N ations, and nam es Poland as the initiator and revisionist o f the conflict.

10Ibid., p. " Ibid., p. ,z Ibid., p. 13 Ibid., p.

126. 124. 125. 131-132.

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22 L I T H U A N I A ’ S W A R S

Yet despite the fact that this description is based on authoritative sources,14 the authors failed to avoid certain errors and inaccuracies. The statem ent that is m ade in the text that Lithuania was part o f Poland until the en d o f the eighteenth century is n o t com pletely accurate.15 Secondly, the 16 February 1918 Act o f Independence o f Lithuania is con fu sed w ith the Act o f 11 D ecem ber 1917: the form er is described as the docum ent by w hich Lithuania declared its independence, but as a Germ an protectorate.16 The distinction in Resort to W ar o f the Lithuanian-Polish War as a separate war prom pted us to re-think w hether th e Lithuanian War o f Liberation should be considered one war or three. If, in Lithuanian discourse, this is frne war that was w aged for the sam e goal, w e can affirm that the com pilers o f the Correlates o f War data set did n ot see it as such. Alternatively, it is possible that this division o f the War o f Liberation in principle m eans that Lithuania’s fights with Soviet Russia and the Berm ontians are n o t considered war^ as they did n o t result in m ore than 1,000 battle-related fatalities. In this respect it was therefore im portant to find m ore inform ation and check already existing data on the num ber o f battle-related deaths. W ithout a doubt, this w ould help both the developers o f the database and us personally to better understand Sie scale and scop e o f these struggles.

Mil. The 1944-1953 Lithuanian Partisan War with the Soviet Union In the 1972 and 1982 b ook s, the Lithuanian Partisan War is not even m entioned, even though it took place during a period that data were already co llected for. T he reason for th is is probably ob viou s - the authors and

14Mowat R. B., A History o f European Diplomacy 1914-1925, London: E. Arnold, 1927; Langer W. L. European Alliances and Alignments, New York: Knopf, 1931; Rabinavisius H., “The Fate of the Baltic Nations", Russian Review, 1943 Autumn, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 34-44; Page S. W., “Lenin, the National Question and the Baltic States, 1917-1919“, American Slavic and Eastern European Review, 1948 February, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 15-31; Davies N.. White Eagle, Red Star: 'Ihe Polish-Soviet War 1919-1920, New York: St. Martins Press, 1972; Lieven A., Vie Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994; W hite J.D., “National Communism and World Revolution: The Political Consequences of German Military Withdrawal from the Baltic Area in 1918-1919“, Europe-Asia Studies, 1994, vol. 46., no. 8, p. 1349-1369; Kohn G. Ch., Dictionary o f Wars, New York: Checkmark Books, 1999; Hupchick D., Cox H., The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas o f Eastern Europe, Rev. and updated ed., New York: Palgrave, 2001. Clodfelter M., Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Causality and Other Figures, 15002000, 2nd ed., Jefferson, N. C.,: McFarland, 2002; Palmer A., The Baltic: A New History o f Region and its People, New York: Overlook Press, 2005; Philip C., Axelrod A., Encyclopedia o f Wars, vol. 1-3, New York: Facts on File, 2005. 15Sarkees M. R., Wayman F. W., Resort to War: a Data Guide to Inter-state Extra-state, Intra-state, and Non­ state Wars, 1816-2007, p. 131. 16Ibid.

ni r o d u c t i o n 23

researchers sim ply did n ot have enough inform ation about it. However, this war is already presented in the 2010 book. The fact that this was included in an authoritative database is therefore o f particular significance for those w h o are interested in the Lithuanian partisan war and w ho want the experience o f this war to be w idely know n and duly recognized. Granted, the am ount o f inform ation presented in the b ook on this war is still inadequate. The war itself is given the rom antic title o f the ‘Forest Brethren War o f 1 9 4 5 -1 9 5 1 ’ The warring sides are nam ed as the Soviet U nion and Baltic guerrillas. The b o o k states that the war was initiated by the partisans, but w on by the Soviet U n ion .17 A lthough the inform ation about the war is rather laconic, it is still som eh ow very telling, and reflects th e pros and con s o f the Correlates o f War database like a mirror. On o n e hand, as previously m entioned, it is com m endable that this war, w hich took so m any lives, has finally been recognized. O n the other hand, unfortunately, inaccuracies and contestable evaluations are again quite evident. The fact alone that the USSR’s opponent is inaccurately listed as ‘Baltic guerrillas’ speaks volum es. We are w ell aware that the Lithuanian resistance was purely national, focu sed on the restoration o f an independent Lithuanian state, rather than on regional issues o f relevance to all o f the Baltic States.18 The sam e can be said o f the Latvian and Estonian resistance m ovem ents. B oth the Latvians and the Estonians sought to restore their national states. Although the Latvian and Lithuanian partisans did work together to som e extent,19 this does n ot m ean that the m ovem ents were in principle coordinated from a single centre. By failing to recognize that th e Baltic partisans were fighting their ow n national wars, it is as if the authors o f the data set inadvertently adopted the view s o f M oscow, w hich treated all o f the partisan wars in the western part o f the em pire as a sin gle problem. Finally, attention m ust once again be drawn to the fact that just like the nineteenth century uprisings, the Lithuanian Partisan War is treated here as

l7Sarkees M. R., Wayman F. W., Resort to War: a Data Guide to Inter-state Extra-state, Intra state, and Non­ state Wars, 1816-2007, p. 408. ISGaškaitė-Žemaitienė N.. Lietuvos laisvės kovos sąjūdžio strategija, Genocidas ir rezistencija, 1999, nr. 1(5), http://www.genocid.1t/Leidyba/5/Nijole.htm#The%20Strategies%20of%20the%20Movement%20 for%20thc%20Liberation%20of%20Lithuania, 2013 10 05. 19 Strods H., Latvijos nacionalo partizanu karš, 1944-1956, Riga: Preses nams, 1996, 5761. (Cit. pagal: A. Anusausko parengtą knygos recenzija. Žr. Genocidas ir rezistencija, 1997, nr. 1, http://www. genocid.lt/Leidyba/l/heinrihsl.htm#Heinrihs%20Strods,%20Latvijas%20nacionalo%20partizanu%20 kar%C5%A 1,%201944%C2%A D 1956,%20R%C4%ABga,%20a/s%20%E2%80%9CPreses%20 nams%E2%80%9D,%201996,%20576%20lpp), 2013 10 05. Noormets T., “Ginkluotasis pasipriešinimo sąjūdis ir partizaninis karas Estijoje 1941 m." Genocidas ir rezistencija, 1997, nr. 2, http://www.genocid. lt/Leidyba/2/tiit.htm, 2013 10 05; Anušauskas A., “Ginkluotos kovos dėl Baltijos šalių ir Vakarų Ukrainos nepriklausomybės", Genocidas ir rezistencija, 1997, nr. 2, http://www.genocid.1t/Leidyba/2/Anusauskl. htm, 2013 10 05.

24 L I T H U A N I A ’ S W A R S

intra-state war - a civil war for local issues’ Since we have already touched upon this issue, we w ill add that the definition o f intra-state war used in the Correlates of War project clearly becom es even m ore problematic in the case o f the Lithuanian Partisan War. This is even m ore apparent in light o f the fact that the annexation o f Lithuania and the other Baltic countries was n ot recognized by m any countries as legitimate in general. In term s o f international law, the statehood o f the Baltic countries was therefore discontinued de facto, but not de jure, since som e 50 countries (the United States and other dem ocratic Western in particular) did not recognize the annexation o f the Baltic States in general and formally did not consider these countries to b e an integral part o f the Soviet U nion.20 In the introduction o f this book, we w ill not endeavour to criticize the decision taken by the Correlates o f War project executors to select such a system o f war typology. We w ill com e back to this issue at the end o f the boo^. N ow that w e have established the inaccuracies that exist in the description o f Lithuanian wars and set the goal o f correcting them , we should discuss in m ore detail the theoretical basis o f this work, w hich was form ulated according to the experience and work o f the com pilers o f the Correlates o f War database.

V

"r

II. Application of the Correlates of War Methodology to Carry Out Research on Lithuanian Wars W e shall n ote that all o f the key parameters o f the Correlates o f War project for accum ulation o f data about wars that have taken place were follow ed in this book. In analysing the Lithuanian wars, w e are first and forem ost interested in the question o f h ow m any battle-related fatalities the warring sides experienced per year. Efforts were also m ade to check and ascertain w hether and to what degree all four o f Lithuania’s wars d o correspond to the m ain criteria used in the Correlates o f War project for wars to be included in the database. A s we know, the project initiators decided that only an armed conflict during w hich the warring parties experienced at least 1,000 battle-related deaths com bined in on e calendar year shall be eligible for inclusion in the data set.21 20Hough W.J.H.III, “The Annexation of the Baltic States and Its Effect on the Development of Law Prohibiting Forcible Seizure of Territory", New York Law School Journal o f International and Comparative Law, 1985, vol. 6, no. 2 (also see a review of the article by Jaak Treiman in the Lithuanian quarterly Journal of Arts and Sciences Lituanus, 1988, vol, 34, no. 2, http://www.lituanus.org/1988/88_2_06.htm, 14 11 2010); Žalimas D., Lietuvos nepriklausomybės atkūrimo 1990 m. kovo 11d. tarptautiniai teisiniai pagrindai ir pasekmės [International Legal Grounds and Consequences o f the 11 March 1990 Restoration o f the Independence o f the Republic o f Lithuania], Vilnius: Demokratinės politikos institutas, 2005 - in Lithunian, summary in English, p. 24-36. 21Singer J. D., Small M., 7he Wages o f War: /8/6-1965 Statistical Handbook, p. 35.

I n t r o d u c t i o n 25 In the book, we also paid special attention to another issue that is o f interest to the com pilers o f the Correlates o f War project: the status o f the participants - the warring sides. W ho the participants o f the war are ultim ately depends on th e type o f war - w hether it is inter-state, extra-state or intra-state. In this respect, the Lithuanian War o f Liberation seem ed the least problematic. At that tim e, Lithuania was an independent state and was involved in an inter­ state war. However, the classification o f the tw o nineteenth century uprisings and Lithuania’s partisan war w ith the Soviet U nion as intra-state wars seem ed fundam entally debatable. Therefore, based on the experience o f Lithuanian wars presented in this book, w e resolved to form ulate som e proposals for im proving the existing Correlates o f War typology; these proposals are set forth at the end o f the book. Efforts were m ade in this study to answer, as com prehensively as possible, the question o f w h o bore th e bulk o f fighting in the case o f the Lithuanian wars. This question was very im portant in exam ining practically all o f Lithuania’s wars, w ith the exception o f the partisan war, w hen the Lithuanians fought alone. However, the nineteenth century uprisings, w hich were fought together with Poland, and th e War o f Liberation, at the beginning o f w hich the Lithuanians had assistance from Germany, were really quite interesting cases in this respect. D uring the study, we also looked for the m ost precise answers possible to other im portant questions related to the parameters o f the wars, i.e. the start and duration o f the wars, the initiators o f the wars, the w inners and losers o f the wars, and other consequences. On the other hand, n o t all o f the problem s exam ined in the Correlates o f War project were relevant in the case o f the Lithuanian wars. For exam ple, transform ation o f a conflict from on e type o f war to another did n ot take place in any o f the Lithuanian wars. The status o f the war participants also rem ained unchanged during the course o f all the wars, from start to finish. The circumstance that the study o f Lithuanian wars cannot compare, neither in its size nor scope, to the accum ulation o f data about all o f the world’s wars that has been taking place for m ore than h alf a century in the Correlates o f War database m ade it possible to apply a sim plified version o f the m eth od ology and variables used for this project. There are approximately thirty variables for the description o f wars in the Correlates o f War databases. The optional variables vary som ew hat depending on the type o f war being described, but th ey are basically very similar. They include the follow ing key parameters o f wars: 1. War Number. 2. War Name - the name given to the war. 3. War Type. 4. The Country Code or System Membership number for the participant on Side A. 5. The name o f the participant on Side A of the war.

26 L I T H U A N I A ’ S W A R S

6. The Country Code or System Membership number for the participant on Side B. 7. The name o f the participant fighting on the other side of the war (Side B). 8. Is the war internationalized (intra-state war case)? 9. StartMonth 1 - the month in which sustained combat began. 10. StartDayl - the day on which sustained combat began. 11. StartYearl - the year in which sustained combat began. 12. EndMonthl - the month in which sustained combat ended, or the month of the last major engagement after which fatalities declined below the war fatality threshold. 13. EndDayl- the day on which sustained combat ended, or the day after the last major engagement after which fatalities declined below the war fatality threshold. 14. End Year 1 - the year in which sustained combat ended, or the year of the last major engagement after which fatalities declined below the war fatality threshold. J 15. Start Month 2 - after a break in the fighting, the month in which sustained combat resumes. 16. Start Day 2- after a break in the fighting, the day on which sustained combat resumes. 17. Start Year 2 - after a break in the fighting, the year in which sustained combat resumes. 18. End Month 2 - after fighting resumes, the month in which sustained combat ended, or the month o f the last major engagement after which fatalities declined below the war fatality threshold. 19. EndDay2- after fighting resumes, the day on which sustained combat ended, or the day after the last major engagement after which fatalities declined below the war fatality threshold. 20. EndYear2 - after fighting resumes, the year in which sustained combat ended, or the year o f the last major engagement after which fatalities declined below the war fatality threshold. 21. Trans From - the War Number o f a preceding war that was transformed into this war 22. Where Fought - Region where combat occurred (1 = W. Hemisphere, 2 = Europe, 4 = Africa, 6 = Middle East, 7 = Asia, 9 = Oceania). 23. Initiator - the name o f the participant that began the war. 24. Trans To - the War Number o f the war that this war transformed into. 25. Outcome: coded as: (1 - Side A wins, 2 - Side B wins, 3 - Compromise, 4 - The war was transformed into another type o f war, 5 - The war is ongoing, 6 Stalemate, 7 - Conflict continues at below war level). 26. Side A Deaths - the battle-related combatant fatalities suffered by the Side A participant.

ntroduction

27. Side B Deaths - the battle-related combatant fatalities suffered by the Side B participant. 28. Version o f the data.22 By lim itin g the study to the scale o f Lithuania, it w as possible to sim plify these long lists o f variables by excluding obvious or irrelevant inform ation (e.g. th e continent w here the war was fought, the w ars cod e in the database, renewal o f th e war). O n the oth er hand, w e w ould like to draw attention to the fact that in exam ining Lithuania’s wars, it was beneficial to use other variables related to the developm ent o f the Correlates o f War project as well. As another reminder: in developing the project, sets o f related data have begun to be created alongside th e m ain data sets. Information was first collected about the material capabilities o f the countries to w age war, i.e. th e param eters o f each state, changes in annual m ilitary spending, th e size o f the arm ies, energy consum ption, iron and steel p rod u ction , total p op u lation and the population in urban areas. A nother set that began to be form ed was dedicated to form s o f state unions and diplom atic representation, m em bership in international organizations, territorial neighbours, cultural groups and trade. All o f these data were put to use in various scientific studies dealing w ith the causes o f wars.23W e decided to em ploy som e o f th ese variables (especially those related to Lithuania’s material capabilities to wage war) in carrying out the study o f Lithuanian wars as well. Thus, after reviewing and considering all the variables used by the Correlates o f War project, the follow ing reference plan for the description o f Lithuania’s wars w as selected: 1. The warring sides: status and potential. 1.1. Lithuania: status and potential (government, population, economy, military forces). 1.2. The opponent (-s): status and potential (government, population, economy, military forces). 2. Beginning o f the war. 2.1. Goals, reasons and pretexts o f the war. 2.2. Initiator o f the war. 2.3. Dating the beginning o f the war. 3. Course and main stages o f the war. The structure of this section may vary depending on the specific war. The section discusses issues such as the intensity of military

22More information on the data collection methodology and data coding is available on the Correlates of War project website: http://www.correiatesofwar.org/ ” Only some o f the data sets related to the main Correlates o f War data base are mentioned here. These and the other data sets arc now available on the above-mentioned project website.

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WARS

action, key battles, breaks in the war (from/to: year, month, date), renewal and/ or stages o f military action (year, month, date), involvement/withdrawal of third parties (year, month, date), the total number of months that actual military action took place (excluding breaks), and the geography of the war (where and to what extent it developed). 4. The burden o f war. 4.1. Size and provisioning o f the forces. 4.2. Leaders. 4.3. Allies. 5. War damages. 5.1. Fighters killed in action. This section focuses on the number of soldiers killed in battle (counting the number o f soldiers from all warring sides killed in battle or who later died due to illnesses or injuries experienced in battle). 5.2. Collateral damage (civilian casualties, repression, economic losses, etc.). 6. The end o f the war and its consequences. 6.1. Victors o f the war. 6.2. Other consequences o f the war (Lithuanian geopolitical changes, economic and demographic outcome, fate o f the armed forces). 7. Semantics o f the war (how the warring sides referred to one another and how this was reflected in their documents, publications and discourse; what names were given to the war by each o f the sides and by neutral countries during the development o f the war; how those names have evolved in historiography to this day; what name is used now, how it should be assessed, and whether or not it should be changed; perpetuation).

III. Structure of the Book The b ook consists o f four m ain chapters, each o f w hich is devoted to a different Lithuanian war. A ll four chapters o f the b ook were written by historians specializing in the history o f the corresponding period. The first chapter, w hich is devoted to th e 1830-1831 uprising, was prepared by D r Virgilijus Pugačiauskas, w h o is exploring the problem s o f nineteenth century Lithuanian history, and has studied the im pact o f N apoleons 1812 march into Russia on Lithuania. The author o f the second chapter, w hich exam ines the uprising o f 1863-1864, is D r Ieva Šenavičienė. Dr Šenavičienė has been researching the Lithuanian side o f the 1863-1864 uprising in both Lithuanian and foreign archives since 2004. She has published a num ber o f works on the subject o f the uprising, including

I n 1 r o d u c t i o n 29

a m onograph and num erous scientific articles and source publications. T he th ird chapter is d ed icated to the 1 9 1 9 -1 9 2 0 Lithuanian War o f Liberation. The author o f this chapter, D r G intautas Surgailis, is the editor-inch ief o f Karo archyvas (‘War A rch ive), a leading journal on Lithuanian military history. Dr Surgailis has also written num erous m onographs on the history o f the Lithuanian arm ed forces during the interwar period. Edita Jankauskienė wrote the fourth chapter, w hich deals w ith Lithuania’s partisan war against the Soviet U n ion . The author has been working at the G enocide and Resistance Research Centre o f Lithuania since 1996, where she is researching anti-Soviet resistance in Lithuania and has accumulated considerable experience on the topic o f the Lithuanian Partisan War. Efforts w ere m ad e to illustrate the p u b lication w ith m od eration and m eaning, in order to convey the spirit prevalent at the tim e o f the wars that were exam ined. The b ook concludes w ith suggestions regarding further rectification o f data o n Lithuania’s wars as well as observations in w hich, based on the case o f Lithuania, the typ ology o f war selected by the com pilers o f the Correlates of War database is critically assessed.

Virgilijus Pugačiauskas

Chapter 1 Lithuania and the 1830-1831 Uprising

1.1. Vincentas Smakauskas, Angel presenting a rebel o f 1831 with a pilgrims staff

Lithuania

and t he

1830-18 3 1 Uprising

In th ree b o o k s (1972, 1982 and 2010) that w ere co m p iled u sin g the Correlates o f War (C O W ) project as their basis, the uprising o f 1830-1831 is referred to as the ‘First Polish War o f 1831’.1 As m entioned in the preface, this nam e should com e as n o surprise, as it was not then the practice to distinguish Lithuania as a separate geopolitical unit. At that tim e, it was not uncom m on for all o f th e form er Polish-Lithuanian C om m onw ealth, w hich was partitioned by Russia, Austria and Prussia at the end o f the eighteenth century, to sim ply be called ‘Poland’ However, on reading the m ore detailed narrative o f this war presented in the 2010 book, one is forced to acknow ledge that the com pilers o f the data collection held to the m ore narrow understanding o f Poland as a g eo p o litica l unit and identified it w ith the Polish K ingdom ,2 w hich was subordinate to th e Russian Empire at that time. The significant circum stance that the war had spread n ot o n ly throughout the Polish K ingdom , but also to the form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania (hereinafter - Lithuania), was thus overlooked. N o reference is m ade at all to the uprising that began independently in Lithuania in March 1831 and w hich join ed the uprising that began in the Polish K ingdom in N ovem ber 1830; the battles that were fought in Lithuania by local rebels and corps o f the Polish regular arm y are also neglected. So, in essence, it is n ot the entire war that is described, but on ly parts thereof, which, o f course, d oes not contribute to the accurate and com prehensive item izing o f the nature o f this war and the losses experienced by the warring sides. Inform ation about m ilitary action in Lithuania is com pletely left out in the description o f this war. In the abundant historiography o f the war, w e w ill not 1Sarkees M.R., Wayman F.W., Resort to War: a Data Guide to Inter-state Extra-state, Intra-state, and Non-state Wars, ¡816-2007,Washington, D.C.: CQ Press,2010, p. 351-352. 11n historiography, the term ‘Kingdom of Poland' is used in reference to two different entities: 1) the integral part o f the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795; and 2) the artificial administrative unit that was incorporated by Russia in 1815 (sometimes referred to as 'Congress Poland’). In order to distinguish between these two geopolitical entities in this book, the term 'Kingdom of Poland’ will be used in reference to the integral part o f the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the term ‘Polish Kingdom’ will be used in reference to the administrative unit of the Russian Empire.

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find any significant doubt that the uprising in Lithuania was an integral part o f the insurrection that began in the Polish K ingdom , or that the rebels were fighting for the com m on goal o f liberation from Russia and the restoration o f the form er state - the Polish-Lithuanian C om m onw ealth. This chapter o f the book is therefore dedicated to liquidating this obvious om ission and, based on historiographical material and additional research, to clarifying and identifying the quantitative and qualitative parameters o f the uprising that took place in Lithuania in 1831 in accordance therewith. It sh ou ld b e n o ted that historiography o f the 1 8 3 0 -1 8 3 1 uprising in Lithuania is quite extensive, written over nearly tw o centuries by variousputhors and in various languages. Practically as so o n as the w eapons had falleti silent, m em oirs o f w itnesses and participants o f the uprising em erged, and researchers from various countries set to work; this process continues to this day. The course, strategies and tactics o f m ilitary operations have been elucidated in derail, and the arm ed forces o f th e contending parties have been described, yet fhus far, little attention has been given to the topic o f losses suffered by the warring sides. Nevertheless, m ore detailed inform ation about the Lithuanian fighters w ho were killed in th e battles o f this war, as well as officers and soldiers o f the Polish corps and Russian m ilitary units, can be fou n d in works by A lexander Puzyrewski,3 Waclaw Tokarz,4 O lga Gorbacheva,5 Jan Ziofek,6 and Jacek Feduszka.7O ne o f the m ost com prehensive pieces dedicated to exam ining the uprising that took place in Lithuania is Feliksas Sliesoriünass m onograph,8w hich presents a considerable am ount o f concrete data about the course o f m ilitary action in Lithuania. This has becom e a pivotal p oin t in continuing further studies, because it includes detailed descriptions o f the m ovem ent o f enem y m ilitary units and the course o f battles, as w ell as lists o f battle casualties: those w ho were killed, w ounded and taken prisoner. However, the author neither provided data that sum m arizes the battle circum stances resulting in fatalities, nor evaluated the credibility o f inform ation provided in prim ary sources in m ore depth. In order to present the m ost accurate and objective inform ation possible on the people killed from both warring sides in battles that took place within 3 Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska 1831 r. Warszawa, 1899. 4 The first edition o f the book was published in 1930. Tokarz W., Wojna polsko-rosyjska 1830 i 1831, Warzawa:Oficyna wydawnicza Volumen, 1993. 4Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi, Przęgląd Historyczno- Wojskowy, 2003, nr. 2 (197), s. 35-74; TapbanoBa B. B., Flaycmanue ¡830-1831 eadoū na Benapyci, MiHcieBflY, 2001; IapbanoBa B. B., Ydje/ibniKi naycmaimn 1830-1831 z.z na Benapyci, Mihck-.BUY, 2004. 6 Zi6lck J., Powstanie listopadowe na Litwie, Powstanie listopadowe 1830-1831: dzieje wewnętrze, militaria, Europa wobec powstania, pod red. Wladyslawa Zajewskiego, (wyd. 2), Warszawa:Panstwowe Wydawnictwo naukowe, 1990, s. 391-411. 7 Feduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Žmudzi, Teka Komisji Historycznej, 2004, t. 1, s. 110-160. 8Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas Lietuvoje, Vilnius:Mintis, 1974.

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the territory o f the form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania, m aterial safeguarded in the Russian State M ilitary H istorical Archive was reviewed. This includes d ocu m en tation o f Russian m ilitary authorities, reports o f com m anders of m ilitary units that fought in Lithuania, com m uniqués, and m ilitary operation journals that include data regarding casualties. N ew material previously unused in Lithuanian historical literature o n the rebels o f the A ugustôw Voivodeship has been found at th e Central Archives o f H istorical Records in Warsaw; this material reflects the course o f the uprising in Lithuanian districts. N ew material related to the assessm ent o f m ilitary action in Lithuania has been found in the M anuscripts D epartm ent at th e U niversity o f Warsaw Library. Therefore, based on the works o f the above-m entioned historians, and upon reviewing know n and n ew prim ary sources, opportunities em erged to carry out a n ew investigation o f th e uprising in Lithuania.

1.1. The Warring Sides: Status and Potential 1.1.1. Lithuania: Status and Potential After th e three partitions o f the Polish-Lithuanian C om m onw ealth at the end o f the eighteenth century, th e territory o f the Grand D uchy o f Lithuania was incorporated into the Russian Empire: the bulk o f the territory was restructured into the V ilnius (in Russian Bw/ibHa, in Polish W ilno), G rodno, M insk, Vitebsk and M o g ilev governorates; th e U žnem unė region, w hich w as given to the K ingdom o f Prussia after the partition o f 1795, and then later to the D uchy o f Warsaw, b ecam e part o f the Polish K ingdom in 1815. In the 1810s and 1820s, the population in the territories o f the form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania that had been annexed b y Russia was considered to b e average w ithin the Empire. There were 1,100,000 people livin g in the V ilnius Governorate, w hich was im m ersed in th e uprising, 753,000 in the G rodno Governorate, and 1,160,000 in the M insk Governorate. There were 480,000 people living in the Augustow Voivodeship, although only the counties o f Marijampolė, Kalvarija and Sejny were part o f the form er Grand D u ch y o f Lithuania. This data is based o n the Seventh C ensus R evision, w hich began to b e conducted in 1815. A ccording to 1811 data, there were an average o f 14.9 people per square kilom etre living in the V ilnius Governorate, and 14.6 in the G rodno Governorate. A lthough the population density in this area was average for Russia, it was two or three tim es lower than that o f Europe. The m ajority o f the residents lived in rural areas; urban dwellers m ade up less than 10% o f the population. A subsistence econ om y is characteristic o f Lithuania - an agricultural land, based on grain farm ing, flax cu ltivation and anim al husbandry. D om estic

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industry existed in th e villages as a part o f the subsistence econom y. Flax and grain were the m ost exported products, although grain export was lim ited due to problem s w ith the supply o f food to the Russian army. Sm all-scale industry was predom inate in Lithuania’s cities, and oriented toward the narrow local market. Large-scale industry developed at a slow pace due to, am ong other reasons, th e taxation policies im p osed on im ported products, tow nspeople and merchants. In V ilnius, the largest and m ost im portant city in the region, the population (w hich was m ore than 25,000 in 1830) grew slowly; several draperies and printing com panies operated alongside artisan w orkshops as the m ain m eans o f production. Incorporated into the Russian Empire, the region w ent through a period o f econ om ic stagnation in the early nineteenth d£ntury; this was deepened b y the war o f 1812, w h en Lithuanian agricultural capacity decreased b y half.9 I

1.1.2. Russia: Status and {Potential At that tim e, Russia w as a country o f tsarist absolutism , a huge?'scantly controlled bureaucracy, serfdom oppression, a com paratively low pofkilation density, vast space, an underdeveloped road system, a harsh climate, and feq u en t natural disasters (epidem ic diseases). Granted, at that tim e Russia w as’on e o f the five countries settling Europe’s political issues at the Congress o f Vienna (as a m em ber o f the H oly Alliance). O ne m igh t say that Russia’s physical m ight seem ed threatening, and it was a leader in the international arena. Russia had probably reached the apogee o f its m ight during this period. The potential o f the Russian Empire as that o f a major pow er was reflected in statistical parameters - 52 m illion inhabitants (the m ore than 3 m illion residents o f the former Grand D uchy o f Lithuania should be subtracted from this number); this in itself testifies to the country’s ability to d isp ose o f an extensive army. Russia is an agrarian country, but the state o f affairs in this area was not good: the level o f agriculture was low, and the structure o f social relations hindered its developm ent. M anufacturing production, w hich was concentrated in the fields o f m etallurgy and weaving, was primarily stim ulated by huge m ilitary orders.

9 Lietuvos istorija. Devynioliktas amžius: visuomenė ir valdžia, Bairašaukaitė T., Medišauskienė Z., Miknys R.,Vilnius:Baltos lankos, 2011, t. VIII, I dalis, p. 77, 133, 156-157; Aleksandravičius E., Kulakauskas A., Carų valdžioje. Lietuva XIX amžiuje, Vilnius:Baltos lankos, 1996, p. 196; Pietkiewicz M., La Lithuanie et sa dernière insurrection, Bruxelles:!!. Dumont, 1832, p. 127-128; Pugačiauskas V, Lietuvos nuostoliai 1812 m. kare, Karo archyvas, t. XXII, 2007, p. 110.

Lithuania

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Russia’s gross dom estic product per capita was 70% o f Europe’s statistical m ean.10 A continental nature o f dom estic trade was dom inant in the vast country, yet in spite o f the obstacles, it developed rapidly at that tim e.11 However, in financial terms, Russia had a deficit budget during the 1823-1831 period that was increased even m ore b y m ilitary expenditure resulting from the wars with Persia and Turkey. Even after the uprising began in Poland and then in Lithuania in M arch 1831, Emperor N icholas 1 took o u t a loan in the am ount o f 20 m illion silver roubles. At the b eginning o f the nineteenth century, the army - which was staffed b y conscription - com prised 400,000 soldiers and 1,056 cannons. A ccording to the emperor, this m ilitary force was for defending against external en em ies and m aintaining social order w ithin the country. D uring the 18 drafts that were held from 1802 to 1825, nearly tw o m illion soldiers were enlisted to land and sea. However, in reality Russia was able to concentrate som e one hundred and thirty thousand soldiers for the struggle with Poland and Lithuania. After a lon g period o f preparation, it had 120,000 troops at its disposal to fight against Turkey. Granted, in this case Russia was better prepared for unexpected m ilitary action in Poland and Lithuania, since it had m obilized troops for a possible cam paign against France, w hich was in the throes o f revolution.12

1.2. The Beginning of the War 1.2.1. Goals, Reasons and Pretexts o f the War In looking for an answer to the question o f what the reasons for the uprising were, it should be noted that various internal and external circum stances existed that were inter-related. First o f all, let’s take a look at what Russian governm ent officials regarded as the reasons for the uprising. Grand D uke C onstantine Pavlovich (1 7 7 9 -1 8 3 1 ), the Russian im perial viceroy o f the Polish Kingdom, m aintained that the reason for the insurrection in Lithuania was the econom ic

10Riasanovsky Nicholas V., Steinberg Mark D., A History o f Russia. Volume 1: To 1855, Seventh edition, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, s. 308,321-322; Польша и Россия в первой трети XIX века: из истории автономного Королевства Польского 1815-1830, Москва:Индрик, 2010, с. 201,219,234-235; Tokarz W , Wojna..., р. 63; Миронов Б. Н., Социальная история России периода империи (XV7M- начало XX в.): генезис личности, демократической семьи, гражданского общества и правового государства,СанктПетербурпДмитрий Буланин, 1999, с. 20; Ритер Гэтрелл,,'Бедная' Россия: роль природного окружения и деятельности правительства в долговременной перспективе в экономической истории России, Экономическая история России Х ІХ -Х Х вв.: современный взгляд, Москва;РОССПЭН, 2001, с. 209. "М иронов Б. Н., Внутренний рынок России во второй половине X V II - первой половине XIX в., Ленинград:Наука, 1981, с. 245. 12 For more information, see: Дюпюи P. E., Дюпюи T. X., Всемирная история войн, ¡800-1924, СанктПетербург, Москва:Полигон, т. 3, 1998, с. 110-112; Tokarz W., Wojna..., р. 64-65.

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system o f forced requisitioning that had exhausted the land.11*3M ikhail Muravyov, then a Russian official w ho contributed to governm ent actions directed against the spread o f the insurrection and w h o w ould later b e appointed to suppress another uprising in 1 8 6 3 -1 8 6 4 , asserted that the m ain reasons were w eak adm inistrative m anagem ent o f the region, ‘influence from Warsaw’ and a lack o f police supervision.14 Despite the transformations in political consciousness am ong certain nobles, the tradition o f confrontation w ith the tsarist governm ent rem ained vital in the form er territory o f the Grand D uchy o f Lithuania, even after the 35 years that had passed since the partitioning o f the Polish-Lithuanian Com m onweafth. First and forem ost, the incom patibility o f the Polish-Lithuanian Commorfwealths republican traditions w ith the d esp otism o f the Russian governm ent (dictate o f state institutions) becam e m ore and m ore apparent. This can be considered the m ain reason that determ ined the readiness o f Lithuanian society -! and, o f course, the nobility in particular - to resort to a radical m o d e o f fighting against Russian absolutism . W ithout doubt, specific facts can be nam ed that bear testim ony to the existence o f this fundam ental reason. After A lexander 1, w h o carried out a m oderate policy in the incorporated territories, Emperor N icholas I, th’l future ‘gendarm e o f Europe’, em ployed m ore extrem e m easures. The follow ing are a few exam ples o f m easures to w hich the local gentry reacted negatively. Firstly, it becam e com pletely clear that the n ew tsar had elim inated any plans o f restoring the Polish-Lithuanian C om m onw ealth from h is political agenda. Secondly, Russian officials were m ore and m ore frequently being appointed to governm ent position s in the governorates o f V ilnius, M insk and Grodno. This principle began to be applied w ithin low er-tier - county - adm inistrations, as well as at educational institutions, including V ilnius University. Finally, the case o f the Vilnius University students (the Philomaths and the Filarets) and the repressions that followed were m et with a very negative response w ithin Lithuanian society.15 Anupras Jacevičius (O nufry Jacewicz), one o f the leaders o f the insurrection, provided a clear explanation o f the need to take arm s in his memoirs: ‘it was the fight o f a nation that had fallen into a h op eless situation; one w hich wants, with em pty hands and w ithout any tactics or direction, to shatter the chains, and w hich, seeking to defend its rights and its h om es, bares its chest for the chance to fight and die on the ruins o f its h om e rather than to continue living

11Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 63. 14Записка о ходе мятежа в губерниях от Польши возвращенных, Крокотов Д. А., Жизнь графа M. Н. Муравьева, Санкт-Петербург, 1874, с. 505, 507. 15Beresnevičiūtė-Nosalova H., Lojalumų krizė: Lietuvos bajorų politinės sąmonės transformacija 1735-1831 metais, Vilnius:Vaga, 2001, pp. 125-126; Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., pp. 50-51, 54.

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a life o f violence and oppression.’16 In a w ill that he drew up before join in g the uprising, an anonym ous contem porary explained his m otivation as follows: ‘I go where H onour and D u ty to th e H om eland call.’17 Thus, only a propitious m om ent w as need ed for the transform ation into concrete action o f th e antagonism that had been building up against, as it was put in one o f the rebel appeals, b u r Tyrant in St Petersburg’, w ho ‘clearly wants to destroy our language and our faith’. 18 In 1830, the revolutionary events in France and B elgium , and especially the uprising that began in neighbouring Poland in late Novem ber, stirred up various strata o f society in Lithuania even m ore. The actions o f the Russian governm ent, w h en the 79,000 troops under Field Marshal Ivan Diebitsch-Zabalkansky (1785-1831) sent to suppress the uprising in Poland as well as other units were primarily funded from the resources o f local residents using th e system o f forced requisitioning, only increased the discontent.19 The uprising in Lithuania was evid en tly prepared for in advance, and attempts were m ade to coordinate these actions with the organizers o f the Polish insurrection. Jakub Grotkowski, the first em issary from Warsaw, arrived in Vilnius at the beginning o f 1831, with specific instructions. The C hief Com m ittee was form ed to organize an uprising in the lands o f the form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania, right to Vitebsk.20In line w ith the instructions sent by the provisional governm ent in Warsaw, the com m ittee prepared a plan for the uprising, and later sent representatives to Warsaw to report on the situation in the region, on their readiness to revolt, and that they were w aiting for the signal and support in the form o f w eapons. However, G eneral Jozef Chlopicki (1 7 7 1 -1 8 3 4 ), w ho is referred to as the dictator o f th e uprising, received the Lithuanian delegation coldly and did not agree to support this initiative. The general took the view that a shift o f m ilitary operations directly into the territory o f Russia (w hich the land o f th e form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania was considered) w ould not have

16 Pamiętnik Onufrcgo Jacewicza naczelnika sity zbrojnej powstania powiatu Telszewskiego w Księstwie Žmudzkicm, Zbidr pamiętnikow o powstaniu Litwy w r. 1831, Paryz, 1835, s. 3. 17 Einu ten kur šaukia Garbė, Lietuvos mokslų akademijos Vrublevskių bibliotekos Rankraščių skyrius (toliau LMAVBRS), f. 151-1171,1.1. 18 Sliesoriūnas F. ir Kruopas J., Nežinomas 1831 m. Lietuvos sukilėlių atsišaukimas lietuvių kalba, Lietuvos TSR mokslų akademijos darbai (toliau - LMAD),serija A, 1965, t. 1(18), p. 241. 19Zajewski W., Belgia wobec powstania Listopadowego, Powstanie Listopadowie 1830-1831..., p. 354;idcm, Powstanie Listopadowie 1830-1831, Warszawa:Dom wydawnicy Bellona, 1998, p. 126-127; Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 157.1n his 15 April 1831 report, Prussian ambassador to Russia Friedrich Scholer stated that the causes of the uprising in Lithuania are the Russians’ large requisitions and long distance (40-50 mile) supply o f food requisition. Koc6j H., Powstanie Listopadowie w relacjach posia pruskiego Fryderyka Scholera, Krakow:Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagielloriskiego, 2003, s. 13,26, 124. 20 The Chief Committee was formed by Antanas Goreckis, Stanislovas Šumskis, Liudvikas Zambžickis, Edvardas Riomeris, Justinas Hrebnickis, Mykolas Balinskis and Leonas Rogalskis. lt remains unclear who was in charge - Goreckis or Šumskis. Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 63-64; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 36-37.

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been expedient from a m ilitary p oin t o f view (the Polish m ilitary forces had deteriorated and w eakened, and there was n o real m ilitary force in Lithuania at that tim e) and w ould have negative consequences in the case o f any future peace talks w ith Russia. The Polish leader did not believe that war w ith Russia could end in a successful victory; rather, h e held high hopes for peace talks with Emperor N icholas I, and saw m ilitary action o n ly as a serious argum ent in the diplom atic gam e.21 H ence, the Lithuanians position was in clear disagreem ent with the m ilitary and political interests o f General Chlopicki, w ho was the leader o f the Polish K ingdom at the tim e. H ow ever, p u b lic o p in io n in P olan d on sh iftin g th e figh t b eyon d the Nem unas and Bug rivers w as m uch m ore favourable, and it gradually spread am ong th e soldiers as w ell.2223O p en invitations to an ‘advance into Lithuania appeared in D ecem ber 1830 in the pages o f Warsaw’s press and in the lin es of poets. Here Polish poet Stefan Garczynski em ployed verse to urge his compatriots to partake in th e ‘advance into Lithuania’: ' Krasne s$ Niemna doliny, Kraániejsze litwinów serca, Zlqczq si£ z nami litwiny A zyc skoiiczy przeniewierca, Dziá niech spólne grzmi^ modlitwy Do Litwy, wodzu, do Litwy.’

So wonderful, those valleys o f the Neniunas, More wonderful are the Lithuanians’ hearts, Let us march together with them as one? He who is a betrayer is ruined! Today, let our common prayers ring out To Lithuania, chief, to Lithuania!

N evertheless, neither the leader o f the uprising nor the other generals ch a n g e d th eir p o s itio n , a lth o u g h in p la n s p r esen ted to the g o v ern in g body, C olon el Ignacy Prqdzyñski (1 7 9 2 -1 8 5 0 ) Lieutenant C olonel W ojciech Chrzanowski (1793-1861), and C olonel D ezydery Chlapowski (1788-1879) officers o f the general staff o f the Polish arm y - spoke out in favour o f broadening m ilitary action to enem y lines o f com m unication in the eastern parts o f the form er P olish -L ith u an ian C o m m o n w ea lth . T he generals faced increased pressure due to the initiatives com in g from the Sejm (parliam ent) o f the Polish Kingdom . O ne such was that o f Joachim Lelewel - a historian and political figure w h o had worked as a professor at V ilnius U niversity from 1822 to 1824. On 24 January 1831, Lelewel spoke at the Sejm o f th e Polish K ingdom and declared

21Barzykowski S., Historiapowstania listopadowego, Poznan, t. 2,1883, s. 36;FeduszkaPowstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Zmudzi..., p. 120;ZgórniakM., Polska w czasach walk o niepodlegloác (1815-1864), Wielka Historia Polski, T. 7, Kraków:Fogra oficyna wydawnicza, 2001, s. 93. 23Zajewski W., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie..., p. 63-64, Fcduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Zrnudzi..., p. 119-120, 122. ' Garczynski S., 'Modlitwa obozowa (dnia 7 maja w obozie pod Rudzieidq)’ in Poezye Stefana Garczynskiego, t.l, Paryz, nakladcm autora, w drukarni i gisserni A. Pinard, 1833, s. 82.

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a Lithuanian act o f citizen solidarity’ with the Polish nation and its Sejm. This declaration was signed by m ore than 200 residents o f Lithuanian lands, and Lelewel presented it to the H ouse o f Representatives o f the Sejm (Izba Posielska) on the Lithuanians’ behalf. C ount W tadyslaw Ostrowski, Marshal o f the Sejm, spoke in favour o f this initiative, declaring a new and eternal union o f Poland, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia and Ukraine. However, this did not have any concrete m ilitary consequences, as the Polish generals still opposed plans to shift m ilitary action to the territory o f Lithuania.23 T h u s, preparation for the revolt in L ithuania u su ally took place separately from Warsaw, with w hich interaction was irregular. In Vilnius, the C h ief C om m ittee tried to m aintain its status as the centre coordinating action by sending its em issaries to the districts not on ly o f the Vilnius Governorate, but to those o f G rodno, M insk, M ogilev and Vitebsk as w ell.24 H o w ev er, fu r th e r p rep a ra to ry action developed fairly independently a n d u s u a lly s p o n t a n e o u s ly , a n d d e p e n d e d o n th e rapidly ch a n g in g situation w ithin Lithuania and beyond its borders. A cco rd in g to A n u p ras Jacevičius, a noblem an from Žemaitija (Sam ogitia) w h o w itnessed the events o f that period, ardour and restlessness had r ea ch ed th e h ig h e st d eg ree.’25 A ctio n s o f the R ussian govern m en t ( a r r e s t s a n d d e p o r t a t io n s fro m Lithuania) directed against the m ost untrustw orthy representatives o f the nobility as the organizers and leaders of potential resistance increased tensions

1 .2. Seal o f the Vilnius Chief Uprising Committee

significantly. O f n ote is the fact that the list included a num ber o f individuals (Mykolas Romeris, Kalikst Danilowicz, Duke Juozapas Giedraitis, Ignotas Zaviša, etc.) w ho actively supported N apoleon I during the 1812 war betw een Prance

MZajewski W,Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie..., p. 127-128; Zi6Iek J., Ziemie wschodnie Rzeczypospolitej w strategu powstari narodowych XIX wicku, Europa nieprowincjonalna: przemiany na ziemiach wschodnich dawnej Rzeczypospolitej (Bialorus. Litwa. Lotwa, Ukraina, wschodnie pogranicze III Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) w latach 1772-1999). Warszawa:Instytut Studidw Politycznych PANtRytm, Londyn:Po!onia Aid Foundation Trust. 1999, s. 1257-1259; Feduszka J., Powstanie I.istopadowie na Litwie i 2mudzi..., p. 122-123. u Szumski S., W walkach i wifzieniach. Pamiętniki z lat ¡813-1848, Wilno, 1931, s. 63; Gorbaczowa O, Z., historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 67-68; Feduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Žmudzi..., p. 120. ” Pamiętnik Onufrego Jacewicza..., p. 9.

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and Russia, and were officials o f the provisional governm ent o f Lithuania.24*26 The already com plex situation was further complicated by new circumstances: cases o f peasant disobedience incited by rumours regarding the abolition o f serfdom, information about the uprising in Poland, announcem ent o f the draft, and so on.27 These circumstances thus readied Lithuanian society, once and for all, to begin armed resistance, and the military action that began in the Polish Kingdom in 1831 becam e the decisive stim ulus that led to Lithuania’s final decision to take up arms.

1.2.2. Dating the Beginning o f the War i

W hen adverse circumstances prevented the C hief Com m ittee in Vilnius from resolutely coordinating preparations for the uprising, the region o f Žemaitija took on the role as the initiator o f the war. O ne could say that the decision to start the fight was born spontaneously, am id fears that the Russian governm ent w oûld take repressive measures upon finding out about the preparations that were being made. Preparation for war began on 17 March 1831, w hen regional noblem en gathered at the Tytuvėnai estate o f Antoni Przeczyszewski in the district o f Raseiniai and decided to start an uprising. However, the Lithuanian rebels did not officially proclaim war against Russia, so the beginning o f the war can be considered to be 25 March 1831, w hen a platoon o f fighters led by Surkont, a landowner from the town o f Kulautuva in the district o f Raseiniai, joined a battle in Vilkija with the Cossacks w ho were guarding the border, and killed three Russian soldiers, taking the rest prisoner. That sam e day, the uprising spread throughout rçiost of the district, and in the early m orning o f the next day the rebels m ade their move, led by three noblemen: Benedykt Kalinowski (1801-?), w ho m oved in from the Dubysa River, Sucharzewski, w ho advanced from Ariogala, and Juliusz Gruszewski (1 8 0 8 -1 8 6 5 ), w h o approached from Kelmė and Nem akščiai. Together, they stormed Raseiniai and, after a brief clash, disarmed the local garrison. Members o f the secret Raseiniai District C om m ittee assem bled people from their estates, w ho cam e on horseback, in carriages and on foot, and w ho were arm ed with hunting rifles, swords, spears and scythes. That day, the ch ief o f the Šiauliai police, Stackelberg, sent a message to Vilnius Governor General Matvey Khrapovitsky28 about the uprising that had begun.

24 Ziolek J., Powstanie lislopadowie na I.ilwie..., p. 393. Feduszka J., Powstanic Listopadowie na Litvvie i Zmudzi..., p. 117; Lietuvos laikinosios vyriausybės komisijos posėdžių protokolai, parengė V. Pugačiauskas, Vilnius:LlI, 2012, p. 29, 99. 27Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 68-69. 11 Ibid., pp. 134-135, 137; Pugačiauskas V., Kraštas 1830-1831 ir 1863 metų sukilimuose, Viduklė, Kaunas: Naujasis lankas, 2001, pp. 141-142; Purenąs P., 1831 metų sukilimas Lietuvoje, Kaunas, 1831. p. 33; Puzyrevvski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 175; Feduszka).. Povvstanie Listopadovvie na Litwie i Zmudzi..., p. 118.125-126.

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1.3. The Course and Main Stages of the War The uprising continued for alm ost eight m onths - from 25 M arch to 13 October. The partisan tactics em ployed by the rebel units and the Polish corps resulted in battles that often lasted just a few hours, and never longer than twenty-four. Several en em y clashes took place at the sam e tim e in various areas o f Lithuania. The larger battles took place in cities and tow ns or their surroundings; as a rule, the rebels avoided fighting in open areas with the troops o f the Russian regular army, w hich were usually m ore num erous. Thus, in the war that took place betw een the rebels and the Russian arm y in 1831, there were n o clear, long-term front lines. There were a lso frequent breaks in the m ilitary a ction , w h ich lasted anywhere from o n e to tw enty-nine days. The m ost intense fighting took place in May (23 battles), April (21) and July (18); June, August, Septem ber and October also saw several battles. However, the largest battle took place in June. Vast enem y forces were concentrated near Vilnius: the Russian units had 24,000-26,000 troops w ith 87 cannons, w hile the regular army corps o f the Polish Kingdom, led by G eneral A ntoni G ielgud (A ntanas Gelgaudas, 1792-1831),29 together w ith the Lithuanian rebels had 11,000-13,000 troops and 28 cannons. More than 1,000 troops from both sides were killed in the battle.30 A lthough he had preserved h is m ain forces, General G ielgud lost the battle over the country’s m ain city, w hich was o f great strategic and political significance; h e retreated to Kaunas and was forced to rethink h is com bat strategy and tactics. The other battles did not com pare in term s o f these parameters. Battles were usually fought by enem y units m ade up o f separate regim ents, squadrons or battalions. The rebels lost the potential majority o f battles w ith losses o f various extents. N ot even their quantitative advantage - which for the m ost part consisted o f infantry m ade up o f peasants arm ed with scythes - could save them. This is precisely what determ ined the huge losses experienced by the rebels in term s of people killed: during the Battle o f Šiauliai, 700 rebels died, w hile the Russians only lost 115; in M arijampolė the ratio was 300:11; in Kardžiūnai - 300:4; in Leipalingis - 200:9; and in Kaunas - 200:4. The Russians on ly experienced greater losses than the rebels in four battles (in Utena, 20 local fighters and 103 Russian soldiers were killed; in Darbėnai - 10 and 21 respectively; in Pikeliškės - 2 and 21; and in M eškučiai - 3 and 19).

,9This officer was a descendant of the Gelgaudas family, an old line of nobles from Žemaitija. His father Mykolas was a Lithuanian great clerk and marshal of the court. The general served in the army of the Polish Kingdom. Polski Slownik Biograficzny (PSB), t. VTI, Krakow, 1948-1958, s. 438-440. *°Sliesoriunas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 300, 302; Zi61ek J., Powstanie listopadowie na Litwie..., p. 408; Tokarz W„ Wojna..., p. 370; Feduszka J„ Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Žmudzi..., p. 153.

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In historical literature, the uprising in Lithuania is divided into tw o stages: the first being from the b eginning o f the war to th e arrival o f units o f the Polish regular army, and the secon d being from the joint action o f the Polish and Lithuanian fighters to the withdrawal o f the Polish corps to Prussia.31 However, in this war it w ould be expedient to single out a third stage with its ow n specific

Iap6awoBa

B. B., Ilaycramie 1830-1831 raaoii..., p. 87;Slicsoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas ... p. 110.

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features. Clearly, th e uprising lost its dynam ics w hen the allied Polish corps and part o f the local Lithuanian fighters retreated, yet nevertheless, rebel units fought Russian troops in various areas for alm ost three m onths, exclusively using sm all war’ tactics. • The first stage lasted for alm ost tw o m onths - from 25 March to the end o f May. A distinct feature o f this period is that the Lithuanian rebel units, using partisan war tactics, fought independently against Russian garrisons and regular arm y units. This stage saw 36 enem y battles, i.e. nearly h a lf o f all the battles that took place. With the exception o f Vilnius, the rebels m anaged to control a large part o f Lithuania’s territory, as the Russian governm ent was focusing all o f its attention on Poland. In addition, large regular arm y forces had not been concentrated in the region. • The second stage started at the end o f May, when the allied forces marched into Lithuania: first, a unit o f the Polish regular army led by General Chtapowski, and later - G eneral G ielgud’s corps; this stage ended in late July with the retreat o f the allies and som e o f the local fighters from the territory o f Lithuania. The largest enem y fights took place during this period o f the war, and the uprising spread to the governorates o f M insk and G rodno as well as to the Lepiel district o f Vitebsk Governorate. However, it was nam ely in th e V ilnius Governorate that the m ain battles were concentrated. • The third stage sto o d out for the fact that it lasted the longest - from the end o f July to O ctober - although the num ber and scale o f battles had by then dim in ish ed considerably, to just a few episodic arm ed clashes. However, in d ep en d en t rebel fighting took place in separate areas of Lithuania, and the retreat from Žemaitija to the K ingdom o f Prussia o f the uprisings m ost prom inent leaders, including Ezechiel Staniewicz (1 7 9 8 -1 8 3 1 ), Jozef Rym kiewicz and Juliusz Gruszewski, brought the end nearer. The last battle that we know o f that claim ed victim s took place on 13 O ctober in the tow n o f Balbieriškis.32 O ver the entire course o f th e war, i.e. alm ost eight m onths, the enem y fought 78 battles in Lithuania, and actual m ilitary action w ent on for 48 days.

n Ibid., pp. 372-373.

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1.4. ‘Geography’* of the War In exam ining th e course o f m ilitary action, the ‘geography’ o f the war m ust be discussed. We will actually be talking about the territory o f the form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania that stood until the partitions o f the Polish-Lithuanian C om m onw ealth, since in both the consciousness o f the Lithuanian nobility and the political aspirations that they fostered w h en th ey took up arms, it was the conception o f the territorial boundaries o f the former Grand D uchy o f Lithuania that existed from 1569 that prevailed. This w as aptly noted by historian Zita M edišauskienė: ‘Throughout th e entire nineteenth century, the tradition o f the Grand D u ch y o f Lithuania, w hich was linked b y union ties w ith the Kingdom o f Poland, w as a constant elem en t in the co n sciou sn ess o f the m em bers o f Lithuanian society - the nobility in particular - w hich held out and im pacted their w orldview and attitude, and was expressed through both sym bolic and concrete actions.’33 In 1831, the nobility understood the w ord ‘freedom9 as the dislodgem ent o f Russian m ilitary units from the lands o f the Grand D uchy that the latter received after three partitions.34 This territory is identified as five governorates o f the Russian Empire: Vilna, G rodno, M insk, M o g ik v and Vitebsk - otherw ise know n as the N orth-w estern Krai, as well as the lands o f the form er Grand D uchy o f Lithuania in the U žnem unė region, w hich were included in the Polish cou n ties o f Marijampolė, Kalvarija and Sejny. H aving begun in th e Vilna G overnorate, Žem aitija and the district o f Raseiniai, the war spread rapidly, m ovin g to th e districts o f Telšiai, Šiauliai, Kaunas and U pytė (Panevėžys) w ithin a m atter o f days. The fighting engulfed the V ilna Governorate in early May. The civil governor o f V ilnius stated that the entire governorate o f V ilna (11 districts) refused to recognize the ‘legitimate authority’ and that th e m o o d o f rebellion was spreading to other territories o f the former Grand D uchy o f Lithuania.35 At the sam e tim e that the fighting began in Žemaitija, rebels led by M ajor Karol Szon and A ntoni Puszet join ed the fight in the U žnem unė region (the districts o f M arijam polė, Kalvarija and Punsk) o f the Augustdw Voivodeship.36 W hen Raseiniai district rebel leader Staniewicz found out about the difficulties Puszet’s troops were having, h e sen t Surkont and dozens o f m en to help.37 'The term geography1is used in this context to define the spread of battles in the former lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. 33 Lietuvos istorija..., T. VIII, 1 dalis, p. 34-35. MGorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 57. 35 Report of the Vilnius civil governor, Lithuanian State Historical Archives (hereinafter - LSHA), doc. f. 380, inv. 1830, file 525, p. 176. 36Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 228;Sliesoriunas F., 1830-1831 metif sukilimas...,p. 156. 37 Pamiftnik Onufrego Jacevvicza..., p. 21.

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In May, the uprising gained m o m en tu m in the G rodno G overnorate, especially in the forest o f Bialowieza, where rebels from the districts o f Brest, Vawkavysk and P ruzhany were active. The Russian governm ent possessed accurate inform ation about public sentim ent. For exam ple, in on e report from special assignm ent officer K osowski it is em phasized that ‘the Grodno G overnorate m ay be a source o f bad intentions, as people w h o know this area claim that Navahrudak was always a place where form er Polish officers in the French service [officers w h o served in regim ents o f the Great A rm y and the Lithuanian regular army in the 1812 war) rallied, and that the landowners are in a belligerent m ood.’38 There is evidence that a secret rebel organization functioned in G rodno from th e b eginning o f 1831 w hich m aintained ties w ith the Vilnius rebel com m ittee. From M ay to A ugust, the uprising spread to the districts o f Lida, Navahrudak, Kobryn and Slonim , as well as to the forest o f Naliboki. With the help o f residents from Ashmyany, local fighters took over the district centre o f Vileyka on 13 April.39 First they attacked the postal stations (Voronov, Lida, Vileyka and elsewhere), obstructing com m unication with Vilnius. For example, the rebels abducted 45 horses at the Radvilos postal station and 54 at Lida, thus interrupting regular postal and transportation services. For som e tim e, on ly two postal stations operated betw een V ilnius and M insk.40 In the secon d half o f May, th e nobility from the districts o f Vileyka and D zisna in the M insk G overnorate began attacks against Russian garrisons. R esidents o f the D zisn a d istrict were in cited by rebels from neighbouring Braslaw, w h o were unable to prom pt an insurrection in their ow n district due to the Russian unit stationed there. Rebel representative Jozef Siem aszko w as sent to th e neighbouring district o f Barysaw w ith 25 cavalrymen, but their m ission was n o t successful.41 A lthough not as actively, residents o f the districts o f M insk, Babruysk, Igum ensky and Slutsky also joined the uprising. In the districts in the southern part o f the governorate - Mozyr, Rechitsky and Pinsk - the uprising did not take o n as large a scale as it did in th e south-w estern districts. The initiative there w as irresolute, and o n ly began w hen rebels arrived from Volhynia. The

звЗаписка чиновника особых порученийполковника Косовского, Российский государственный военно-исторический архив (toliau - РГВИА), ф. ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5094, ч. 21, л. 14-15. 19Sliesoriūnas Е, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 87; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi...,p. 45-46,55-56,64; Гарбачова В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., р. 85,88-89,95; Запискачиновника особых поручений полковника Косовского, Российский государственный военно­ исторический архив (toliau - РГВИА,), ф.ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5094, ч. 21, л. 14-15. 40Рапорт Гродненского гражданского Губернатора, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5094, ч. 24, л. 1; Записки Лидского предводителя дворянства, Ibid., д. 5083, ч. 96, л. 350. 41 Гарбачова В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., р. 78, 80-81; Dangei S., Rok 1831 w Minszczyinie, Warszawa, 1925, s. 39.

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48 L I T H U A N I A ’ S W A R S initiative for the uprising is ascribed to Feliks K ieniewicz, a noblem an from the district o f M ozyr w h o urged residents throughout the district o f Rechitsky to revolt, prom ising th e peasants land and freedom . However, he only m anaged to assem ble 32 rebels in the region o f th e Pripyat River. Em il Oskerko, w hose platoon o f 50 rebels was forced to surrender, was also unable to expand the uprising.42 The residents o f the Pinsk district were considerably late in join in g the insurrection - although they had planned an uprising in spring, they later decided to wait for th e rebels in Volhynia. W hen th e units o f the Polisluregular army withdrew, a noblem an nam ed Tytus Puslow ski organized a platoon of som e three hundred rebels (w hich later grew to 1,000), the ranks o £ w h ich included m en w ho cam e from Navahrudak, Slonim and even Volhynia. This platoon fought in the district o f Kobryn.43 The proactive efforts o f the tsarist governm ent becam e a serious obstacle for activation o f the uprising, in the south-w estern districts o f th e M insk Governorate. In the districts o f D zisna and Barysaw, C h ief Police Officer M ikhail M uravyov - a general o f the Russian Arm y Reserve - established a dense police netw ork m ade up o f local residents, and m ade m ass arrests o f suspicious persons.44 In the rem aining territories o f the form er Grand Duchy o f Lithuania that were incorporated by Russia during the first partition o f the Polish-Lithuanian C om m onw ealth in 1772, i.e. th e governorates o f M ogilev and Vitebsk, rebellious sentim ent did not spread. Residents o f the M ogilev Governorate were not active, and the situation was closely m onitored by local authorities. Muravyov, w h o had created a secret police network, was very active in the M ogilev Governorate. C olonel Danilov, w ho was the com m andant o f Polotsk, m ade sure that the Dzisna district rebels and other suspicious people were kept out o f the city: lists were com piled o f untrustw orthy landow ners from Vitebsk and M ogilev.45 H aving access to a strong network o f inform ants, Major General Alexander Gerua (1 7 8 4 -1 8 5 2 ) m ade an accurate assessm ent o f the situation, asserting that the uprising had spread from the Vilnius Governorate to the M insk Governorate and ‘it is n ot with indifference that the residents o f the Vitebsk Governorate are watching the rampage o f their western neighbours’ He underlined the influence that the nobles o f the V ilnius G overnorate had on the local Polish landlords.46 However, resistance lacked enough local initiative to develop o n a broader

42 Ibid., pp. 48-50,53—55; PSB, t. XXVIII, Wroclaw, 1985-1986,s. 534; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 65. 4! Ibid., pp. 62-64; Feduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i 2m udzi..., p. 140. 44 Dangei S., Rok 1831 w Minszczyžnie..., p. 48-50. 45 Ibid., p. 48. 46 Генерал-майор Геруа. Рапорт.30 марта 1831 .РГВИА, ф.ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5094, ч. 21, л. 2-3.

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scale, and the Russian governm ent applied security measures effectively. News o f the uprising in Warsaw reached Vitebsk on 14 Decem ber, and five days later a courier o f the Russian field m arshal Ivan D iebitsch-Z abalkansky arrived to announce that the Poles intended to start an uprising in Belarusian lands. The D zisna rebels sent their m essenger, Prior Adam Tatura, as well as several rebels led by Jdzef Siem aszko, to the district o f Lepiel. O n 11 May, the tow n o f Usach was taken over.47 Led by th e O dachow ski brothers, so m e o n e thousand rebels w h o had b een gathered in the M insk Governorate occu p ied the district o f Lepiel in the Vitebsk G overnorate and fought with Russian troops. However, w h en the rebels were defeated, n o new centres o f resistance em erged.48 In his correspondence at the end o f May, Emperor N icholas I wrote: ‘Vitebsk deputies cam e to see m e yesterday. If one was to believe their words, they are loyal to m e ... However, w e are faced w ith great insidiousness ... [so] I do not know w hich o f th em to believe.’49 H ence, it cou ld b e concluded that the geography o f battles was narrower than th e territorial bou n d aries o f the form er Grand D u ch y o f Lithuania. H owever, one should n ot forget that the residents o f districts w here m ilitary conflicts did n ot take place also took part in the fighting - th ey join ed the rebel units o f neighbouring districts. This practice was widespread in the governorates o f G rodno and M insk.50To be m ore precise, the battles spread through all o f the V ilnius Governorate and Žemaitija, w hich was its m ost active part; in the M insk G overnorate they covered the districts o f M insk, Vileyka, D zisna and Pinsk; and in the G rodno G overnorate - the districts o f G rodno, Brest, and Lida, and especially the territories o f the forest o f Bialowieza and the districts o f Slonim and Navahrudak, as well as Lepiel, the o n ly district in the Vitebsk Governorate.

1.5. The Burden of the War 1.5.1. Size and Provisioning of the Forces L ets start w ith th e Russian army. In Lithuania, the num ber o f Russian regular arm y troops fighting against th e rebels changed constantly, depending

47 Brežgo В.. Odglosy powstania 1830-1831 roku w Witebszczyinie i Inflantach, Pamiętnik V powszechnego zjazdu historykówpolskich w Warszawie, t. 1, Lwow, 1931, s. 369-372,379-380,382-383; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 57. 4Я Brežgo B., Materjaty odnoszące się do powstania 1830-1831 roku zgromazone w bylem archiwum Gubcrnjalncm w Witcbsku (odbitka z Ateneum Wileñskiego), Wilno, 1935, s. 3-6; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 53; Гарбачова В. В, Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь..,p. 82; Dangei S.,Rok 1831 w Minszczyžnie..., p. 43-44. 49Император Николай Павлович. Письма к графу П. А. Толстому, Русская старина, т. XXXI, 1881, с. 555. 50 Gorbaczowa О., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 65-67.

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on the m ilitary situation. The Russian field forces led by Field Marshal DiebitschZabalkansky that were concentrated in Lithuania crossed the border o f the Polish K ingdom o n 5 - 6 February 1831. Small Russian forces were deployed in the area: in V ilnius there was the Fifth Infantry D ivision (3,200 troops) led by Vilnius Governor General, M atvey K hrapovitsky; in Kaunas - part o f the Uhlan Division; in M insk - an infantry battalion o f the Arkhangelsk Regiment; and in G rodno - a rifle regim ent.51 At the beginning o f th e uprising, there m ight have been som e eight thousand soldiers: in V ilnius there were approximately 3,200 soldiers w h o m ade up the First Brigade o f the Fifth D ivision o f the Second Infantry Corps, as well as a battery o f the First C om pany o f the Fifth A rtillery Brigade, and 165 Cossacks from K uteinikovs D o n C ossack regim ent. A battalion o f the N inth Jaeger R egim ent was stationed in Kaunas, w ith the secon d battalion o f this regim ent in M erkinė and Alytus. A reserve brigade o f the First Hussar D ivision (1,392 soldiers) was stationed in Ukmergė. M ilitary garrisons in district towns consisted o f team s o f 6 0 -1 5 0 troops and soldiers serving as guards on the border o f Prussia and the Polish Kingdom. W hen the u p risin g sta rted in Ž em aitija, the rebels, therefore, had a largerlium ber o f troops available at first.52 A u n it o f 1,856 so ld ie r s w as d e p lo y e d to M in sk at th e e n d o f April. Provisional Military Governor o f the M insk G overnorate, N ikolai D olgorukov (1 7 9 2 -1 8 4 7 ), deployed small additional units in Chernavchitsy, N esvizh and Cimkowiczy, and set up military posts on the m ain roads.53 More accurate data is available reg a rd in g th e n u m b er o f R ussian troops once the Polish arm y marched in. The Russian com m ander-in-chief 1.4. Vilnius Governor General Matvey Khrapovitsky

f o r m e d an arm y> designating the socalled left- and right-hand colum ns

51Zajevvski W., Powstanie Listopadovve..., p. 129; Шпілуескі I. T., Бабровіч Л.А.,Сынхроністычная табліца падзей па^станьня на Беларусі, Літве і Польшчы.у 1830-1831 гг., Наш край, №. 10 (49), с. 27. 52 Sliesoriūnas Е, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas...,р. 132-133; Veikiančios kariuomenės rezervinės kavalerijos vado generolo leitenanto Bezobrazovo 1831 m. kovo mėn. 17 d. pranešimas Vilniaus generalgubernatoriui Chrapovickiui, Lietuvos TSR istorijos ša/fmifl/, Vilnius, 1955, t. 1, p. 414. ” Рапорт о числе войск в городе Минске, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5094, ч. 27, л. 5; Рапорт Минского временного военного Губернатора генерала-адъютанта князя Долгорукова, Ibid., л. 7.

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as w ell as the units deployed in Vilnius. H eaded by Lieutenant General Fabian Osten-Sacken (1 7 5 2 -1 8 3 7 ), the left-hand colum n consisted o f 32.5 squadrons, 5 infantry divisions and 63 cannons. In term s o f the num ber o f troops, there were 2,681 cavalrym en, 782 Cossacks and 11,877 infantrym en, for a total o f 15,340 officers and soldiers. The structure and size o f the right-hand colum n was similar: 21 cavalry squadrons, 9 C ossack squadrons, 17.5 infantry battalions and 52 cannons. There were 3,058 cavalrym en, 795 Cossacks and 11,551 infantrym en, for a total o f 15,404 soldiers. The Russian m ilitary authorities put V ilnius G overnor G eneral Khrapovitsky in charge o f 18 cavalry squadrons, 5 Cossack squadrons and 15.2 infantry battalions, all o f w hich had 2,543 cavalrym en, 527 C ossacks, 8,362 infantrym en and 32 pieces o f artillery.54 At this stage o f the war, Russian m ilitary forces consisted o f 8,282 cavalrymen, 2,104 Cossacks and 31,790 infantrym en - a total o f 42,176 troops and 147 cannons. A dm ittedly, R ussian forces directly in volved in battle w ere few er in num ber - so m e o f them were guarding V ilnius, th e regions m o st im portant city.55 After the Polish corp s w ithdrew from Lithuania and th e insurrection subsided, Russian troop s d ecreased and separate u nits w ere left to fight with th e rebels. N u m erou s Russian m ilitary units w ere still stationed in Lithuania, but in late Septem ber th e Russian m ilitary com m and decided, for security reasons, to d eploy elite C ossack u n its in different areas o f the region: M erkinė, Kaunas, K ačerginė and R aseiniai.56 A lack o f reliable sources m akes it difficult to give a precise answer to the question o f h ow m any forces Lithuania had. In his m em oirs, Ignacy Klukowski, one o f th e w itnesses o f the events, asserted that approxim ately thirty thousand local fighters had assem bled.57In official docum ents, the Russian m ilitary tended to round the num ber o f Lithuanian rebels w h o joined the corps o f the Polish K ingdom up to forty thousand.58 However, on e o f the Russian governm ent officials - M uravyov - claim ed that instead o f seventy thousand rebels, Gielgud o n ly m anaged to assem ble tw enty thousand in Lithuania.59

м Журнал военных действий против польских мятежников, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, д. 5156, л. 6-10; Записки военных действий главнокомандующего резервною армию Петра Александровича Толстого,Крокотов Д. А., Ж изнь графа М. Н. Муравьева..., р. 524-525. 55 Together with the local rebels, there were 18,000 soldiers in the Polish corps, while the Russian units concentrated in Lithuania had 49,000. Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 371. % 20 сентября 1831. Рапорт. Минского временого военного Губернатора генерала-адютанта князя Долгорукова, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, д. 5154, ч. 2, л. 188. і73а вольнасць і веру: Ігнацій Клюкоускі іягоуспаміны аб падзеях паустання 1830-1831 гадоуіукладаннс, пераклад на беларускую мову, уступны артыкул, каментарыі, паказальникі Вольгі Васільеуны Гарбачовай. Міиск:Лімарыус, 2007, с. 25. Matuseviciuss rebel unit had no more than 300 soldiers, but the Russians claimed there were 2,000. Dangel S., Rok 1831 w Mihszczyznic..., p. 76. 19Записка о ходе мятежа в губерниях от Польши возвращенных..., р. 516.

52 L I T H U A N I A ’ S W A R S

The first to present the num ber o f Lithuanian residents w h o were in v o lv e d in m ilita r y a ctio n was the historian Feliksas Sliesoriünas, raising the presum ption that there c o u ld have b e e n 2 5 ,0 0 0 -3 0 ,0 0 0 rebels in the first stage and 10 ,0 0 0 15,000 in the second.60 Rebels from th e g o v e r n o r a te s o f M in sk and G rodno were not included in this case. In turn, Polish historian Jan Z iólek indicated that in March-April there were 26,284 rebels in 25 units in the V ilnius G overnorate alone (including rebels from the Vileyka and D zisn a districts o f the M insk Governorate), the bulk o f which was m ade up o f 16,440 infantrymen. Five units had m ore than 2,000*troops, and the largest regiment, w hich was form ed by Stanislaw Radziszewski in the Vileyka district, had 3,300. However, there were 100-900 soldiers serving in alm ost half (12) o f all the units.61 Nevertheless, these statistics do not include information about the rebels w ho joined in the military action in May and July. So lets take a closer look at h o w the rebel units were formed, the num ber o f people who participated in the uprising, and the factors that impacted the changes therein. In Lithuania, rebel forces were form ed separately in each district, but the m ilitary authorities tried to d o so based on the principles o f regular army form ation, i.e. separate regim en ts w ere form ed, w h ich w ere d ivid ed into com panies and squads; battalions operated as individual outfits; and units were allocated according to the type o f com bat arms. Their structure and size clearly differed, but the m ethods used for their form ation were the same. The first and principal m eth od was for landow ners and nobles to bring their peasants, w ho were usually registered as ‘volunteers’; th e secon d m ethod was m obilization by draft (universal m obilization o f noblem en w as announced in individual districts); and the third was true volunteering. Jews were n ot traditionally included in the military conscription system, but there were exceptions to the rule. For example, Ashm yany Jews were obligated 60According to Telšiai rebel commander Jacewicz, 500-900 soldiers served in the rebel ranks. F. Sliesoriixnas, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 109-110. 61 Zidlek J., Powstanie listopadowie na Litwie..., p. 402.

Lithuania

to p ro v id e o n e cavalrym an and tw o infantrymen for every tw enty people in their community, with the right to choose their o w n officer.62 Józef G orski also m obilized all o f the Tartars in Ashmyany between the ages o f 18 and 60.63 W o m en a ls o j o in e d th e ra n k s, in c lu d in g E m ilija P lia te r y tė (E m ilia P later, 1 8 0 6 - 1 8 3 1 ) , M aria Prôszynska, M aria R aszanow iczôw na, W ilh e lm in a K a s p r o w ic z o w n a , A ntonina Rom aszewska and Eleonora M ikhailovskaya (w h o w ent b y the m ale nam e ‘Ferdinand K arp ow icz). W ithin th e rebel u n its, th eir r o les in c lu d e d th ose o f couriers, inform ants and arms smugglers; sin ce th ey tried not to stand out from the m ale context, they usually w ore m en’s clo th in g . Pliaterytė, w h o voluntarily joined forces with rebel units led b y Karol Z aiu sk i and K onstanty P arczew sk i, m ad e th e b ig g est m ark. The participation o f w om en in battles was an unusual occurrence, so the m en tried to take special care o f their female co u n terp a rts. H ow ev er, th is y o u n g , 24-year-old noblew om an was know n to b e a true fighter and participated in the uprising until the very end. She claim ed that her m ain reason for jo in in g the rebels was her ‘love for the fatherland’ as w e ll as o th e r fa c to r s , in c lu d in g ‘loneliness’ and her ‘ch ild h ood dream o f goin g to war’. Even during th e uprising,

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1.6. Emilija Pliaterytė

1.7. Maria Raszanowiczôwna

62 Ukmergės apskrities sukilėlių dokumentacija, LV1A, f. 437, ap. 3, b. 94, 1. 1; Bieliàski K., Powstanie Listopadowie w Wilnie i na Wilenszczyzne, Wilno, 1931, s. 10-11. 6i Kryczynski L., Tatarzy litewscy w wojsku polskiem w powstaniu 183! roku, Rocznik Tatarski, Wilno, t. 1, 1932, s. 129.

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she had already b ecom e a sym bol o f self-sacrifice for national freedom .64 The rebels in the governorates o f M insk and G rodno m ust not be forgotten either. C alculations m ade by Belarusian historian O lga Gorbacheva conclude that there were approximately tw enty sm all team s o f 5 0 0 -6 0 0 soldiers operating in the governorates o f M insk and G rodno.65 Evidently, som e tw o thousand local rebels joined Polish G eneral Chlapow ski’s unit in the districts o f Slonim and Vawkavysk in the G rodno Governorate. At the b eginning o f April, 2 5 0 -3 0 0 rebels from the districts o f Bialystok, Brest, Vawkavysk and Pruzhany assembled in the forest o f Bialowieza, and their num ber later grew to 8 0 0 - 1,000.66 Between 15 and 17 May, 4,000 fighters from the districts o f Vileyka and D zisna gathered in Luzhki, though o n ly 2,000 m oved out to the district o f U km ergé on 18 May, as not all o f them w anted to fight outside o f their ow n district.67 In June a platoon o f 1,000 rebels led by Tytus Puslow ski (1 8 0 3 -1 8 5 4 ) form ed in the districts o f Pinsk, Slonim and Navahrudak. In July the lbader o f the Navahrudak district gentry, Józef Kaszyc, brought together 400 people, and a platoon o f 350 soldiers (150 cavalrymen and 200 infantrymen) led by Mykolas Giedraitis was operating in th e forest o f Naliboki. In addition to these troops, a platoon o f 400 soldiers headed by Captain Stanislaw Paszkowski was operating in the aforem entioned territories, and Feliks Kieniewicz’s platoon o f 32 tjoops as well as a platoon o f 50 troops led by Em il and A nton Oskerko were operating in the districts o f M ozyr and Rechitsky. In sum m er Puslowski assembled a platoon of som e three hundred rebels, w ho rallied in the district o f Kobryn.68In the Pruzhany, Kobryn, Slonim and Lida districts o f the Grodno Governorate, defeated platoons were replaced by new ones led by Jakub Szretter, Jan Stanislaw Zyliriski (1806-?), Jan Dalubowski and Kalikst Niezabitowski (1808-?).69 In these governorates, there were evidently 6,232 rebels in the larger rebel platoons alone. Therefore, it can be concluded that at least ten thousand rebels had probably gathered in the Grodno and M insk Governorates from April to August. In ad d ition , so m e four th ou san d rebels participated in battles in the

MAccording to Russian government data, Mikhailovskaya was killed in the Battle of Vilnius. 183107 06 Vilniaus gubernijos valdybos raštas, LVIA, f. 437, ар. 1, b. 630, L 2,5; Swiadzę tem moim pismem..., Archiwum Gtowne Akt Dawnych w Warszawie (toliau - AG AD), Archiwum Plater6w z Antuzowa, sygn. 214, к. 1; Zakrzewski B., Emilia Plater, Žyciorysy historyezne, literackie i legendarne, pod redakeją Zofii Stefanowskiej i Janusza Tazbira, Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1980, s. 189-206; Emilia Plater, PSB, t. XXVI, Krakow, 1981, s. 652-653; Sliesoriūnas E, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 211,327. 65 Гарбачова В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь..,р. 99,101,103, 108. 66 Ibid., рр. 85,88-89,95. 61Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas...,p. 213; Dangei S., Rok 1831 wMinszczyznie..., p. 53-54,62-64. ** Гарбачова В. В., Удзельшм паустання ¡830-1831 гг. на Беларуси: 6\я6'\6л\яграф'\чны споунЫ, Мшск: БДУ, 2004, с. 281; idem., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 65, 67-69; Шпшуесю I. T., Бабров1Ч Л. А., Сынхрошстычная таблща падзей паустаньня..., p. 43-45. 69 Гарбачова В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., р. 135; Радзюк А . R,Паустание 1830-1831 гг. на Гродзеншчыне, Краязнаучыя затем, вып 4, Гродно, 1997, с. 100.

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A ugustow V oivodeship o f the Polish K ingdom as part o f partisan units led by majors o f the Polish arm y A ntoni Puszet and Karol Szon. The rebels were called ‘Litwiny’ (a Polish term on ce used to refer to the residents o f the Grand D u ch y o f Lithuania) in reference to residents o f the districts o f Marijampolė, Sejny and Kalvarija.70 In July D u k e Tom asz Swiatopelk-M irski announced the form ation o f cavalry and infantry rifle units in the A ugustow Voivodeship, w hich were later reinforced by the rem ainder o f Puszet s unit. Incidentally, the nom in al rolls o f officers and soldiers w ho joined from P uszets unit testify to the fact that it included residents o f the Lithuanian districts in the Augustow V oivodeship (Lom ža), as well as the tow ns and districts o f Vilnius, Grodno and Lida. It even included officers w h o cam e from K am ianets-Podilskyi.71 In early August th e duke m anaged to assem ble a platoon o f 400 fighters (377 privates), and the village o f Lukšiai in the U žnem unė region was chosen as the place o f deploym ent, w h ile another unit was stationed in Prienai. It is difficult to say exactly h ow m any o f them m ight have been rebels from Lithuania. A fragmentary m uster roll testifies to the fact that there were num erous rebels w ho had withdrawn from Lithuania, as well as Polish soldiers w h o had fled Prussia.72 It cou ld be presum ed that they m ade up about one-quarter o f the platoon, i.e. approximately o n e hundred troops. Attem pts were m ade to supplem ent the rebel ranks by announcing a draft for th e infantry and cavalry units. In the district o f Ukmergė, the leaders o f the uprising m anaged to assem ble 1,154 riflem en, 551 lancers and 713 riders.73 In the district o f Raseiniai, there were 2,750 fighters serving in five units at the b eginning o f the war. Based on calculations m ade by the local authorities, this district had the potential to m obilize as m any as 5,212 infantrym en and 1,942 cavalrym en,74 w hich m eans that less than h alf o f the m obilization plan was carried out. Much poorer results were seen in the district o f Užneris, where they on ly managed to m uster 300 riflem en and 200 cavalrymen, even though the area had'the potential to m ob ilize 1,500 riders and as m any as 5,000 infantrym en.75 70 Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 187; Domariski T. D.. Bpoka powstania Listopadowego, Lublin:Norberlinum, 2000, s. 236. 71 Wszystkich Obywateli i Micszkaricovv Woiewodztwa Augustowskiego. Rodacy!, dnia 8 Lipca 1831 roku, AGAD, WCPL, syg. 697, k. 58; Lista imicnna Officerovv i Zolnierzy z Komendy Barona Puczota, Ibid., syg. 695, k. 1-3. 72 Lista zolnierzy Ochotnikovv organizuiacyh się pod naczelnictwem JO Xięcia Mirskiego w Woiewodstwie Augustowskim,AGAD, WCPL, syg. 695, k. 14-19. Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 367. 7SCzerwca 1831, AGAD, syg. 710, k. 118. 74Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 109; Naczelnik Powiatu Rosienskiego Ejzehel Stanievvicz, AGAD, syg 710, k. 71-72. 75 Ibid., p. 203; Wincenty Bortkiewicz do Jašnie Wielmožnego Prczesa Rządu Hrabi Krukovvskiego General Wojsk Polskich, Biblioteka uniwersytecka w Warszawie (toliau - BUW), Gabinet rękopisovv, Varia do dziejow Polski zlat 1781-1841, syg. 566, k. 84; Historyczne opisanie powstari powiatow Zavvilejskiego, Dzišnienskiego i Wilejskiego, przez Wincenta Bortkiewicza Naczelnika powstania Zawilejskiego prezesovvi Rządu w Radzie Ministrow Generolowi Krukovvskiemu podane, w Warszawie 1831 r. sierpnia. Zbior pamiętnikovv..., p. 268.

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56 L I T H U A N I A ' S W A R S

1.8. Kaunas district rebel leader Maurycy Prozor

1.9. Raseiniai district rebel leader Juliusz Gruszewski

The Šiauliai Econom y had 1,273 infantrymen and 191 cavalrym en , yet th ey m anaged to r e c r u it o n ly 5 3 6 in fa n tr y m e n and 229 cavalrym en .76 T h e R ussian m ilitary com m an d also tried to co u n t the rebels, m o st lik e ly on th e b a sis o f th e V iln iu s G overnorate census. In the notes o f Piotr T o lsto y , C o m m a n d in g G e n e r a l o f the R eserve A rm y in Lithuania, w e fin d the num ber 30,700, w hich is non e o t įe r than the m obilization potential.77 Thus, in the 11 d istricts o f th e V iln iu s G overnorate, th e n u m b e r o f reb els th a t c o u ld have b een m o b ilized by draft differec^ greatly depending on the circum stances: anywhere from 500 to alm ost 3,000, in the best case. M o b iliz in g a la r g e r n u m b e r w as difficult for tw o reasons: first, it inquired a fair am ount o f tim e, w hich w a^ iisually interrupted by Russian units; and second, this m eth od w as not particularly popular a m o n g th e p ea sa n ts. In th e d is tr ic t o f U ž n e r is , w h ic h o c c u p ie d a s tr a te g ic p o sitio n due to the road from V ilnius to the Daugavpils fortress, Russian troops were deployed, so only 500 rebels were assembled in place o f the 6,500 that had been planned.78 The eig h t largest parishes in the district o f Ukm ergė were controlled by a Russian unit headed by C olonel Litvinov, w h o not o n ly plundered livestock and horses from the residents, but also caught young m en to be drafted and arrested noblem en and sent them to the Daugavpils fortress. The

76 Janulaitis A., Valstiečiai ir 1831 m revoliucija Lietuvoje (Iš Šiaulių ekonomijos archyvo), Vilniuje, 1910,

p. 14. 77 Записки военных действий главнокомандующего резервною армию Петра Александровича Толстого..., р. 547. 78Historycznc opisanie powstan powiatow Zawilejskiego, Dziinienskiego i Wilejskiego..., p. 268-269.

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Russian unit in Biržai did the same.79 At the b eginning o f the uprising in the district of Raseiniai, estate supervisor Z ongolow icz assem b led 195 arm ed recruits from the parishes o f V eliuona and Seredžius, while U pytė d istrict landlords M ostow icz and W olff rallied 30 and 27 respectively, and A shm yany landlord Iwaszkiewicz rounded up 20 peasants. T h e lan d lord C hodžko inform ed the m ilitary com m ittee that his peasants had dispersed, and that h e would n o t b e able to assem ble the n u m b er o f recruits planned.80 T h e s e c a lc u la t io n s a llo w o n e to con clu d e that over the en tire p eriod o f the uprising, m ore than 40,000 residents participated in m ilitary operations as part o f rebel u n its, n o t in clu d in g th e Polish corps. Thus, the num ber o f local rebels was alm ost four tim es the size o f the corps o f the Polish K ingdom , and nearly equalled the army led by Tolstoy in Lithuania. However, w hen discussing the number o f rebels, o n e im portant p oin t m ust be emphasized: the question o f w hether there was a disparity betw een the total num ber of rebels and th ose w h o actually took part in m ilitary operations, especially w ith regard to the infantry units. From the v ery start o f th e war, there was actually a widespread tendency - for a variety o f reasons - for the peasants that had been rallied to sim ply d isp erse, refuse to m arch b ey o n d their

1.10. District rebel leader Juozapas Giedraitis

1 . 11 . Šiauliai district rebel leader Constantin Herubowicz

79Radcy Zywnosci powiatu Wilkomirskiego. Rapport, Czerwcza 18 dnia 1831, AGAD, syg. 710, k. 90-91. 30 The rebel leaders in Kaunas failed to complete a draft in 18 days because the Russians came back to die city. Ružancovas V, Iš 1831 m etų bylos (Kauno miesto valdybos archyvas), Karo archyvas, 1931, nr. 4, p. 15; Дяков В. А, Зайцев B. M., Обученкова Я. А., Социальний состав участников восстания 1830-1831, Историко-социологическое исследование, Москва:Наука, 1970, с. 88.

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58 L I T H U A N I A ’ S W A R S native areas, or b e released.81 In just a couple o f m onths, the platoon led by M aurycy Prozor, the leader o f the Kaunas district rebels, decreased from 1,000 soldiers to 120.82 The potential majority o f them were not killed in battle; rather, they decided not to continue the fight after the first clash w ith the enemy, and later, w hen the unit had m arched out o f its native district. A lbeit to a lesser extent, this trend also spread in Žemaitija, w hich was the hotbed o f th e uprising. Jacevičius, w ho was the rebel leader o f the Telšiai district, stated that in May, ‘th e m ilitary power in m y district decreased considerably. Not counting the num ber o f dead and injured, m any departed for h o m e ... The bulk o f the soldiers in Tautkevičius’s regim ent that was stationed in Plunge scattered w hen the Russian unit approached, and left hundreds o f Russian prisoners w ithout guard.’83 In this way, som e o f the platoons that had 800 or m ore soldiers at the b egin n in g o f the uprising were n o w left with 200 or less. In the districts o f Kaunas and Telšiai, the num ber o f rebels decreased by som e tw o thousand m en, w hich was approxim ately h alf o f the entire rebel forces. V incentas B ortkevičius, rebel leader o f the Užneris district,flet ‘the majority o f th e crowd arm ed with scythes and spears’ go hom e and s'et off for Žemaitija w ith select soldiers.84 The infantry unit thus lost several hundred troops instantaneously. The ranks o f Z aluski’s 5,000-troop unit were th in n ed out by a lack o f am m unition, food and w eapons, as well as peasant desertion and cholera. The leaders decided to reorganize the unit into sm aller platoons so that they could continue the fight in their districts.85 At the end o f April, the prolonged encam pm ent caused discipline to wane in Konstanty Parczew skis 1,000-rebel platoon, and springtim e forced som e o f the peasants to return h o m e to work on th e farms; in addition, so m e o f the m en did not want to leave their native areas. The com m anders took m ore stringent measures to restore order and announced penalties, but were nevertheless forced to perm it som e o f the infantrym en to leave the detachm ent due to a shortage o f weapons and gunpowder. Thus, the platoon was dim inished to 400 rebels.86 For the sam e reasons, o n ly 1,600 o f th e 2,500 m en w h o had been assem bled in 81Memo written by Raseiniai district chief adviser Gielgud to the administrator of the Adakavas parish. LSHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 3, file77, p. 102. April 1831 documentation of the rebel authorities of the Ukmergė district. Ibid., pp. 54-56, 59,63; Sliesoriünas F.( ¡830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 109. 82Maurycy Prozor, Pam içtnikobywatela powiatu Kowieriskiego, Zbiôr pamiçtnikôw..., p. 222. 83Pamiçtnik Onufrego Jacewicza..., p. 27-28; Sliesoriünas E, Klasiniai prieštaravimai 1830-1831 m sukilime, LMAD, serija A, 1965,1.1 (18), p. 98. 84 Historyczne opisanie powstah powiatôw Zawilejskiego, Dzisnienskiego i Wilejskiego, przez Wincenta Bortkiewicza Naczelnika powstania Zawilejskiego prezesowi Rządu w Radzie Ministrow Generolowi Krukowskiemu podane, w Warszawic 1831 r. sierpnia. Zbiôr pamiçtnikôw..., p. 268-269. 83Sliesoriünas E, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 199. 86Powstanie w okolicach Niemenczyna. Pamiçtnik Konstantego Parczewskiego (1831.), Pamiętniki polskie. t. III, p. 167,173.

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the Ashm yany district were left. Ignacy Klukowski, a rebel from the Ashm yany district, expressed his o p in ion as follows: ‘the peasants were active in joining the uprising; had there been m ore order, had they been better fed and dressed, there w ouldn’t have b een the slightest desire to desert.’87 In the district o f Trakai, G udaczewski’s rebel unit dim inished from 400 troops to barely 40 on the way from Daugai to Butrim onys.88 A 1,500-m an unit led by Ferdinand Grotkowski and M ichal Lisiecki later decreased to 598 - nearly a third o f w hat it had once been.89 So, according to our data, the rebel infantry units lost at least 5,000 people due to the above-m entioned reasons. This allow s us to conclude that a significant disproportion existed betw een the official num ber o f rebels and the num ber w h o actually participated in m ilitary operations. The cavalry units did not experience this kind o f m ass withdrawal from the rebel army. The Lithuanian rebel units handled the acquisition o f weapons, am m unition and uniform s on their ow n. There w ere tw o m ain sources: local resources (p erson al w eap on s and financial m eans) and war b o o ty - arm am ent and transport from Russian m ilitary warehouses and garrisons that had been taken captive. Local resources allow ed th e rebels to acquire only a very m inim al am ount o f weapons, particularly for the infantry, w hich was m ade up o f peasants; these fighters were usually arm ed only with straightened scythes, spears and axes, or - at the b egin n in g o f the war - w ith nothing at all.90 Parczewski’s unit was m ade up o f 1,000 rebels, o f w hom 80 were on horseback, 250 were arm ed with guns o f various calibres, and the rest with scythes and spears. The unit lacked gunpow der m ost o f all, and it o n ly had four or five bullets per gun.91 The 765 soldiers w h o had been assem bled in th e Šiauliai E conom y were probably the best arm ed, w ith 11 swords, 29 pistols, 105 rifles, 322 spears, 162 scythes, 1 axe, 1 halberd and 18 bardiches - a total o f 649 various weapons and instrum ents adapted for battle.92 In the region o f U žnem unė, residents from the districts of Kalvarija and Suwalki donated several d ozen w eapons - pistols and swords - to Girski’s rebels.93 The noblem en were better able to arm them selves, since it was com m on for them to have a firearm and sword o f their own. It is estim ated that only

67 За вольнасць i веру: 1гнацж Клюкоуск! i яго успамшы..., p. 26; Bielinski K., Powstanie Listopadowie..., p. 14. м Дъяков В. А, Зайцев В. M.( Обученкова Л. А., Социальний состав участников восстания 1830-1831..., p. 88;Sliesoriūnas F., Klasiniai prieštaravimai 1830-1831 m sukilime..., p. 104. 89Zidlek J., Powstanie listopadowie na Litwie..., p. 402; AGAD, WCPL, syg 710, k. 70. 90 O f the 3,000 soldiers in the Ukmergė district, only 300 had weapons. Powstanie powiatu Zawilejskiego, Historja powstania w 1831 roku na Wotyniu, Podolu, Ukrainie, Zmudzi i Litwie, Lipsk, 1875, L 1, s. 183. 91 Powstanie w okolicach Niemenczyna..., p. 167. 92 Janulaitis A., Valstiečiai..., p. 14. 93 Księga ofiar dobrowolnych, ADAG, syg. 707, k. 2-4.

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one-third o f the rebels had firearms: som e had m ilitary weapons, but m ost had hunting rifles.94 Granted, there were exceptions. For example, a platoon led by Jonas Ž ilinskis ( 1806-?) and Tadeusz Kraskowski ( 1803-?) was m ade up o f 400 soldiers and had 300 guns.95 However, fewer guns were fit for use, w hich, as evidenced by the figures put forth b y rebel leaders, w as because the w eapons that the peasants brought were old and o f poor quality and sm all calibre. This m eant that th ey often stopped working after intensive firing: the stocks w ould break, the barrels w ould crack, they w ould get jam m ed, or th e bolts w ould break.96 These w eapons were not m ade for warfare. At the b egin n in g o f the uprising, the only way in w hich rebel units were able to arm them selves w ith m ilitary rifles was to disarm local garrisons and take over their w eapon depots. A ccording to our data, a considerable num ber o f Russian w eapons fell into rebel hands; to put it m ore precisely, at leąst 2,580 carbines and 520 pistols.97H owever, supply o f w eapons rem ained a troublesom e problem, especially because the rebels w ould lo se significant numbers otfthem in battle.989The rebel leaders valued cannons, as these were particularly im portant and effective weapons; they probably had at least two dozen o f them in all, m ainly o f light calibre, m ade from w ood and copper. However, som e ę f them were lost: the Russians took hold o f one cannon in Panevėžys, tw o in Gargždai, one in Darbėnai, and tw o in Šiauliai; another tw o were burned in the village o f Kaliekiai." The hom e-m ad e cannons were n o t know n for their quality. For example, 94Sliesoriūnas E, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 118. Ignacy Domeyko, a participant in the uprising, recalls: T took a rifle and a pistol that were hidden under the floor the barn, and gunpowder from an empty beehive in the estate apiary.’ Pamiętniki Ignacego Domejki (1831-1838), Krakow, 1908, s. 27. 95 Pamiętnik о powstaniu Bialowieskiem, Рагуz, 1836, s. 10; Гарбачова В. В., Удзельнікі паустання 18301831 гг. на Беларусь.., p. 141,197. %Pamiętnik Onufrego Jacewicza..., p. 33; Pamiętnik obywatela powiatu Upitskicgo, Zbior pamiętnikow..., р. 173. 97 In the district of Ukmergė (Vilkmergė), rebel unit commander Juozapas Bilevičius organized a rebellion, took numerous Russians captive, and seized 500 pistols, 200 swords, 50 carbines, 6 barrels of gunpowder, as well as a mass o f overcoats, saddles and harnesses. After taking over a Russian depot in Ashmyany, Pšezdzeckis found 2,000 cartridges, felted wool, canvas and 2,000 florins. Pietkiewicz M., La Lithuanie..., p. 104-105. At the Russian arsenal in Ashmyany, rebels found 300 carbines with bayonets and 8,000 cartridges, and upon seizing transport 150 shotguns and several dozen French pistols. In the town of Vidzy, rebels seized 80 shotguns which belonged to the Russian disabled team. Klukowski J., Powstanie powiatu Oszmianskiego, Historja powstaniaw 1831 roku na Wolyniu, Podolu, Ukrainie, Žmudzi i Litwie..., 1.1, p. 160-161,182. Rebels found 200 carbines with daggers in Vileyka. W powiecie Wilejskim, Powstanie 1831 r. na Litwie..., p. 113. In the town of Ostroh, 300 carbines were found at a Russian arsenal. Niektore szczegčly z notatek K. Butkowskiego, Ibid., p. 173; W6dz Naczelny Rządu Narodowego. Zdaje sprawę z dzialaft gen. Chlopowskiego na Litwie. Nr. 1021,Žr6dla do dziej6w wojny polsko-rosyjskej..., p. 283; Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 359. 9ЯHowever, during the Battle of Darbėnai, the rebels lost 60 pistols, 90 spears, and ‘many shotguns’. Журнал военных действий против литовских мятежников..., РГВИА, ф.ВУА, on. 16, д. 5154, ч. 1, с. 76-78. 99 Журнал военных действий против литовских мятежников..., РГВИА, ф. ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5154, ч. 1, с. 63, 176; Sliesoriūnas Е, ¡830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 177,351.

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1.12. Fragment o f a stamped note written by Raseiniai district rebel leader Ezechiel Staniewicz

Fyodor B artolom ey (1 8 0 0 -1 8 6 2 ), a colon el in the Russian army, described the rebels’ cannons as follows: ‘the w ood en cannons with copper cylinders that they m ade them selves exploded w hen they tried to fire.’100 This fact is confirm ed by M ichal Lisiecki, head o f the U km ergė rebel platoon, w h o wrote in his m em oirs that after the eighteenth shot, o n e cannon exploded, w ounding a soldier, and the other was dism antled.101 Kaunas district rebel com m ander Prozor stated that the lack o f cannons and rifles prevented his platoon from fighting the Russian arm y in op en battle.102 In rare cases, the rebels m anaged to use cannons to their full advantage in battle, w ith the exception o f the battles at Anykščiai and the village o f Kaliekiai. The rebels clearly lacked officers and soldiers experienced in artillery fire.103 U p o n entering Lithuania, th e Polish arm y had 28 cannons, in addition to which General Chlapowski appropriated one Russian cannon in Hajnowszczyzna and two in Lida, together w ith gunpow der and round shots.104 However, the

100 1831 m etų žygio dienoraštis, Steponaitis V., Pik. Bartolomiejaus veikimas Lietuvoje..., p. 67. 101 Pamiętniki Michala Lisieckiego naczelnika povvstania nad granicą Kurlandzką, Pamiętniki polskie, Paryž, t. II. S. 99,105. 102Pamiętnik obywatela powiatu Kowieriskiego(przcz M. Prozora), Zbior pamiętnikow..., p. 222. l0’ Javvorovvski J., Lietuvių husarai ,‘desperatai' ir sukilėlių artilerija Lietuvoje 1831 metais, Žemaitijos dvarai pasipriešinimo centraiprieš Rusijos imperiją. XIX a. Konferencijos pranešimai, Šiauliai:Saulės delta, 2006, p. 56-58. 104Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 359; Szlakiem Legionow..., p. 64.

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Polish regular arm y corps did not always use all o f their artillery. In one o f his reports, G eneral Dem biriski noted that ‘I fired very little from the cannons, although the en em y was v ery generous with round shots; I did not fire from heavy cannons; usually just from one cannon.’105 Even in the m ost im portant battle over V ilnius, the Polish m ilitary leaders did not exhaust the potential o f the cannons they had.106 Granted, the Polish corps did use a larger num ber o f cannons during at least two battles, in Panevėžys and M olėtai.107So, the Russian units not o n ly had a quantitative artillery advantage - they also effectively used th e advantages provided by these w eapons in alm ost every major battle. Besides, the rebels lacked n ot on ly w eapons, but also cartridges, round shots and gunpowder, w hich cou ld prim arily o n ly be acquired in tw o ways: as war booty or by local production. A m m unition was particularly lacking at the beginning o f the uprising, w h en th e num ber o f rebels was grow ing rapidly.108

1.5|2. Allies As m entioned previously, the Lithuanian rebels fought the Russian^military garrisons and regular arm ed forces on their ow n for alm ost two m onths. The uprising in Lithuania created a n ew situation and prom pted the politicians and soldiers o f the Polish Kingdom to take concrete action. Initiative was taken by the Polish governm ent, led by Adam Jerzy Czartoryski (1 770-1861), w ho proposed that the Sejm adopt a resolution defining the prospects o f the Polish Kingdom ’s relations with the constituent parts o f the former state. On 26 April, the Chamber o f D eputies im m ediately passed the resolution by potential majority vote, but the Senate dem anded a broader discussion, after w hich both houses o f the Sejm passed the resolution b y m ajority vote (86 in favour, 6 against) on 5 May. In the first section o f the resolution o f the Sejm, it was declared that each part o f the form er state, w hich ‘rose in rebellion and join ed the uprising in the Kingdom shall becom e a part o f its com position in the sam e w ay as it was before the partitions (partition) and on the sam e terms, and shall return to its rights, which are not subject to prescription. The inhabitants o f these lands shall be guaranteed aid and defence, as well as participation in negotiations and contracts w hich the

105 Rapport generala Dembiiiskiego do generala Gielguda w Eyragale 5 lipca 1831, Pamiętniki polskie..., t. III, p. 119. At the 8 July 1831 Battle of Šiauliai, 29 cannons were silent, although 5 enemy cannons did fire. Pietkiewicz M., Lithuanie..., p. 196.During their attack, Russian artillerymen destroyed two rebel cannons. Действия отряда полковника Крюкова при нападении Польских войск и Виленских мятежников, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5156, л. 31. 106Sliesoriūnas Е, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 305; Tokarz W , Wojna..., p. 368 -369. 107The town of Panevėžys was defended by four rebel cannons, and six were used in Molėtai. Журнал военных действий против польских мятежников, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5156, л. 14. ,DBDuke Gicdraitis’s 12 April 1831 memo to the Vilnius district committee, LSHA, doc. f. 1135, inv. 4, file 371, p. 91.In Kaunas, the rebels only had three rounds of ammunition per soldier. Pamiętniki Ignacego Domejki..., p. 29.

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current parts o f the Kingdom o f Poland will participate in.’109 'Die aspiration shared by Lithuania and the Polish Kingdom to restore the Polish-Lithuanian C om m onw ealth was thus consolidated at a political level. O n 18 M ay 183 1 , C o m m a n d e r -in C h ief Jan Skrzynecki, pressed by politicians and public o p in io n , d ecid ed to h elp the Lithuanian rebels. In his proclam ation he urged L ithuanians to su p p ort th e Polish units, stressing that the two nations had one com m on interest.110 In late May, units o f the Polish regular arm y entered Lithuania. The first unit to be sen t to Lithuania was that o f General Chlapowski, w hich consisted o f 700 troops (the First U hlan R egim ent, 100 m ou n ted riflem en, a squad o f pontoniers, and 100 officer instructors and n on -com m issioned officers) and tw o cannons. A few days later, G eneral Chlapowski m arched in to the territory o f Lithuania, where he planned to leave instructors for the rebel troops and th en continue on to P olesia in accord an ce w ith p artisan war tactics.111 The head o f the Polish unit, who had returned to m ilitary service during the uprising after having been on leave for quite so m e tinie, was considered the uprising’s m o st g ifted gen eral - th o u g h com pliant and o ften in co n sisten t, h e w as resolute, energetic and courageous, and treated his subordinates properly.112 In h is m em oirs,

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1.13. A badgefrom the 1830-1831 upri­ singfeaturing the White Eagle and the Vytis

1.14. General Dezydery Adam Chlapowski

,n9Posiedzicnic Izby Poselskicj z d. 26kwietnia 1831 r., Dyaryusz sejmu z r. ¡830-1831, Krakow, 1910, t. Ill, s. 146; Posiedzienie Izb pofyczonych z 5 maja 1831 r., Ibid., p. 317, 319; Barzykowski S., Historiapowstania..., t. II, p. 298-301. 110Jaeger M., Dzialalnosc propogandowo-informacyjna wladz powstahczych (1794, 1830-1831, 1863-1864), Lublin:Towarzyslwo naukowe Kalolickiego uniwersytetu Lubielskiego, 2002, s. 192. 111 Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 358; Feduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Zmudzi..., p. 149; Zajewski W., Powstanie Listopadowie..., p. 128—131;Ziölek J., Powstanie listopadowie na Litwie..., p. 394. 1,2Tarczyriski M., Generalicja powstania Listopadowego, Warszawa:Wydawnictwo Obrony Narodowcj, 1980, s. 295,397.

63

64 L I T H U A N I A ' S W A R S Ignacy D om eyko, a rebel w ho had joined the Polish unit, described the generals nature as follows: ‘h e was fairly strict with the patriots and soldiers w h o came, and ordered them to m aintain discipline and order; he seem ed to be m ore sad than happy, though h e generally attracted everyone w ith his behaviour.’1,3 The ranks o f the unit grew as it was joined by rebel platoons w h o had concentrated in the forest o f Biatowieza, and the general began form ing an infantry and cavalry brigade from the new volunteers. W hen it reached the district o f Vawkavysk on 29 May, the unit had already grown to m ore than 4,000 troops. N ew rebels continued to join the unit as it m arched toward Lida and Eišiškės. For exam ple, 250 o f Prince O gin sk is soldiers leagued togetherSwith the unit, and 350 V ilnius University students led by Gerard Gronostajski-'did the sam e in Kietaviškės. Four cavalry regim ents and two infantry regim ents were form ed from the approximately five thousand local fighters w h o had joined the unit.113114 D uring this period, the rebels therefore outnum bered the soldiers o f the Polish unit m ore than seven-fold. The local rebels received m u ch m ore substantial Polish reinforcem ent in the form o f G eneral G ielgu d s corps (14 infantry battalions and 7 cavalry squadrons with 26 cannons, o f w hich 10 were positional). Including Zaliwskis unit o f 1,200 partisans, the num ber o f soldiers reached 12,000.115 'Thus, tpgether with Chlapow ski’s unit, the Polish corps consisted o f 12,700 soldiers. Granted, it had originally b een planned to send approxim ately tw enty thousand soldiers to Lithuania.116 Later, in mid-June, the Polish regular army corps was joined by 15 Lithuanian rebel platoons, w hich were form ed into th e Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Uhlan Regim ents, the Sixth R egim ent o f M ounted Riflemen, and the Twenty-fifth and Tw enty-sixth Infantry R egim ents.117 Som e ten to twelve thousand local fighters joined G ielgud’s corps, m eaning that h a lf o f th e Polish corps w as m ade up o f locals.118 The rem aining rebels operated independently. G ielgud, the com m ander o f th e corps, began his m ilitary service in 1807 during th e N apoleonic Wars. D uring the French Invasion o f Russia, he formed

113Pamiętniki Ignacego Domejki..., p. 15. 1,4 A. Z. Wojna na Litwie..., p. 44, 46-47; Tokarz W„ Wojna..., p. 359; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorasi..., p. 58, 59; W6dz Naczelny Rzqdu Narodowego. Zdaje sprawę z dzialari gen. Chlapowskicgo na Litwie. Nr. 1021, 2r6dla do dziejow wojny..., t. Ill, p. 282-283. " s Szyndler B., Henryk Dembinski, 1791-1864, W arszawa:W ydawnictwo M inisterstw a O brony Narodowej, 1984, s. 109-110;Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 286; Feduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie..., p. 148, 151; Zajewski W„ Powstanie Listopadowie..., p. 132; Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 360. Wodz Naczelny Rządu Narodowego. Zdaje sprawę z dzialan gen. Gielguda na Litwie. Nr. 1020., 2r6dia do dziejdw wojny..., t. Ill, p. 281. 116Mysli o wyprawie na Litwie, BUW, Gabinet rękopisow, Varia do dziejow Polski z lat 1781-184l.sygn. 566, 1. 22-23. 1.7 Ibid., pp. 293-295. 1.8 Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 307.

Lithuania

and the

1830

’ 831

Uprising

the Twenty-first Infantry Regiment o f the D uchy o f Warsaw at his ow n expense. However, in spite o f h is lon g service and acts o f courage, this general never earned the confidence o f h is colleagues, w ho considered him the m ost talentless, stubborn and boastful com m ander in their ranks. N or was h e particularly popular am ong the officers and soldiers, as he disliked people w ho disagreed with him , and was rude and conceited. The officers accused the corps com m ander o f a lack o f energy and initiative.119 After nearly a m onth had passed since the Polish corps entered Lithuania, Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, President o f the Polish National G overnm ent, issued a resolution on 30 June by w hich he put the ch ief general’ in charge o f the units form ing in ‘the brotherly land o f Lithuania; the general was also ordered to participate in the activities o f the Provisional Polish G overnm ent in Lithuania (w h ich began on 11 June) in establishing the internal organization o f the institution. Instructions were also given to send reports to Warsaw. 'Ihe activities o f this tem porary institution o f authority, w hich was essentially form ed as part o f the Polish corps headquarters, were episodic and continued until 2 July.120 It sh ou ld b e em phasized that before G eneral G ielgud’s corps entered Lithuania, each d istrict there had its ow n rebel govern m en t and m ilitary leadership. The rebel governm ent (co m m ittee), w hich also carried out the fu n ction s o f civil authority (in the districts o f Telšiai, Ukm ergė, U žneris/ Švenčionys and V ilnius), was subordinated to on e person - the com m ander o f the district rebel arm y (in the districts o f Raseiniai, Kaunas and Trakai), w ho was also the highest official o f civil authority (in the districts o f Šiauliai and U pytė/Panevėžys). However, with the ever-changing situation o f military action during the uprising, the functions o f authority were often taken over by the com m ander o f the district m ilitary units (and frequently just by the head of the unit, w h o w as forced to solve not only m ilitary matters on his own, but also civil o n es related to them ). Given, the central governm ent o f Žemaitija existed for a m ere two w eeks.121 Thus, the allies took over leadership o f the uprising in Lithuania right up until their withdrawal at the end o f July. It is, however, necessary to clarify that the Polish generals were in charge o f the rebels in the operational area o f the

"* Tarczyriski M., Generalicja powstania Listopadowego..., p. 278-279, 298; PSB, t. VII, s. 438-440;Tokarz W.Wojna.... p. 371. IWPostanowienie Rz^du Narodowego w sprawie nominaeji i zakresu wladzy generate naczelnie dowodz^cego na Litwie. Z rod la do dziejow wojny..., I. Ill, p. 270-271; As of 30 June, General Chlapowski was supposed to have formally become the Commander in-Chief of the Polish army in Lithuania. However, the general did not have the opportunity to accept the decree. Ziolek J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie.... p. 395; Tarczyriski M., Generalicja powstania Listopadowego.... p. 299. For more information about the institutions of civil government established by the rebels, see: Sliesoritinas F., ¡830-1831 metif sukilimas... p. 84-102. 1,1Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 64-69; TapbaHOBa B. B.. Ha^cTaHMe 1830-1831 raAoft H a Benapyci..., p. 88-90.

65

66 L I T H U A N I A ' S W A R S corps, w hich inclu d ed the territory o f th e V iln iu s G overnorate and part o f the G rodno G overnorate; in the other areas (th e districts o f Pruzhany and Kobryn in the G rodno G overnorate, and the districts o f M ozyr, Rechitsky and Pinsk in the M insk G overnorate), the rebels operated independently. O n the other hand, Lithuanian units operated auton om ously for tw o m onths during the b egin n in g o f the uprising, and for another three m onths after the Polish corps withdrew.

1.6. War tosses I

ô "Š

1.6.1. Fighters Killed in Action 1.1. Military operations and fatalities incurred R u s s ia n 1 L o c a tio n

R e b e ls s o ld i e r s k ill e d

l

T o ta l

V

3

in

P a r tic ip a n ts o t b a t t le

I * i f

D a te

k ille d 1

2 5 M a rc h S u r k o n t ’ s r e b e l u n i t v s R u s s ia n C o s s a c k s

V i l k i j a 1,

3

1831 2 7 M a rc h

A r e b e l u n it v s a C o s s a c k u n it u n d e r

1831

Y e s a u l V o ro b y o v

1 A p r il

P e t r o v s k y 's r e b e l s v s R u s s ia n b o r d e r

1831

g u a rd s

2

3

N e a r A r i o g a l a *2’

5

-

P a la n g a 3 ’

12

-

12

N e a r V i d u k l ė 4 5’

133

1

134

Š v e n č i o n y s 3’

2

-

2

L ip u v k a 6 "

-

3

3

R e b e l f o r c e s ( le d b y R im k e v ič iu s , 5 A p r il 4

S t a n ie w ic z , B a u b l e v i č i u s a n d o t h e r s ) v s a 1831

R u s s ia n u n i t u n d e r C o lo n e l B a r t o l o m e y F ig h t e r s l e d b y t h e K u b l i c k i a n d

1 1 A p r il 5

B o r tk ie w ic z b r o th e r s v s u n its u n d e r 1831 G o r a is k y a n d S u r k o v 1 4 A p r il

5

I g n a c y J e s m a n 's r e b e ls v s C h H k o v ’ s u n it 1831

r Sliesoriūnas R, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 135. 2‘ Ibid., p. 141. 3' Kurjer Litewski, 1831, nr. 53. 4' This was the first battle the Lithuanian fighters fought against the Russian army which resulted in considerable losses. According to Russian data, i.e. a report issued by unit chief, Colonel Bartolomey, the rebels ‘left 400 people there’ who had been killed or severely wounded. When there is no possibility of cross-checking data presented in a sole source which gives one figure for the total num ber o f killed and wounded, it is assumed that one third of the total number were killed, so in this case, it can be concluded that there were some 133 fatalities. 1831 metų žygio dienoraštis. Steponaitis V., Pik. Bartolomiejaus veiki­ mas Lietuvoje 1831 metais, Karo archyvas, t. VI, p. 57,70; Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 148. 5‘ Ibid., p. 164. 6' Powstanie powiatu Wilenskiego, Pamiętniki polskie..., t. III, p. 88.

Lithuania

and

the

1830-1831

Uprising

1 .1 . (continued) 8 A p r il

L o c a l f i g h t e r s v s a R u s s ia n u n i t u n d e r

1831

C o lo n e l B a r t o l o m e y

7

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-

14

14

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10

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19

103

122

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-

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56

8 0 f ig h t e r s u n d e r F o r tu n a t P o d b e re s k i v s A p r il 1 8 3 1 a R u s s ia n u n it 1 0 A p r il

9

A t th e Š v e n to ji J a g i e l l o w i c z 's f i g h t e r s v s M a n t e u f f e l 's u n it R i v e r B’

1831 1 5 A p r il

R e b e l u n i t s v s a c o m p a n y o f a R u s s ia n

V illa g e o f

1831

u n i t le d b y C a p t a i n Y a k o v le v

K a l i e k i a i 10*

10

1 6 A p r il

F e lik s S t e l n i c k i ’ s r e b e ls ( 6 0 0 ) v s V e r z i l i n 's

1831

u n it (1 ,5 0 0 )

11

1 9 A p r il

R e b e l u n i t s le d b y L i s i e c k i a n d G r o t k o w s k i

1831

v s G e n e ra l S c h i r m a n 's u n it

12

M a j o r M o n c e v iC iu s ’ s r e b e l u n i t v s 2 0 A p r il 13

a R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r M a jo r G e n e ra l 1831 R ennenkam pf 2 0 A p r il

14

U n its h e a d e d b y Z a lu s k i, B ile v ic iu s , M ilo s z

V illa g e o f

a n d P rz e c z y s z e w s k i (a p p ro x . 3 ,0 0 0 ) v s

M o lu v ė n a i, n e a r

a R u s s ia n u n it ( a p p r o x . 5 0 0 )

R y k a n t a i’ 4*

1831

7'After a lengthy battle, the rebels rallied their forces (more than 10 rebel units participated) and occupied the city. There is no precise account o f rebel losses, but according to the chief of the Russian unit, they ‘should be considerable’ Report No. 323 written by Colonel Bartolomey to Fr Pavel Mikhail, War Archive, vol. VI, pp. 71-72; Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 150. e*Powstanie w powiecie Braslawskim, PamiętnikWilczynskiego (1831), Pamiętniki polskie..., t. Ill, p. 191. 9‘Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 223. 10' Pamiętniki Michala Lisieckicgo..., p. 59. 11"Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 43; Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 178; Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 229; Гарбачова В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., р. 69; In his report, Colonel Verzilin wrote that as many as 350 were killed Ashmyany and 150 were captured, of which 'some were shot’ by order of the Vilnius governor general. The report also indi­ cates that the Russians did not incur any losses, aside from two Cossacks. Some of those killed were local civilians. Colonel Verzilins report, LSHA.doc. f. 378, BS, 1831, file 306, p. 27. ,2*Pamiętniki Michala Lisieckiego..., p. 61. ,3‘Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas....p. 227. M*Vilnius Governor General Khrapovitskys 25 April 1831 report to Grand Duke Constantine, LSHA, doc. f. 378, BS, 1831, file 306, p. 40; Sliesoriūnas mentioned that one Cossack was killed, along with several doz­ en rebels (including rebel leaders šlageris, Mickevičius and Zaviša). Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukili­ mas..., pp. 184-185. Puzyrewski wrote that 120 enemy fighters were killed, as well as six Cossacks from Verzilins unit. Puzyrewski A. K, Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 300. In the instructions for the commander of the Russian army that was fighting with the rebels, the use of martial law was provided for when dealing with the ‘organizers and leaders’. Дъяков В, Зайцев В, Обученкова Л., Социальний состав участников восстания 1830-1831..., р. 81. At the beginning of the uprising, privates were shot in addition to com­ manders as a means o f intimidation. For example, Khrapovitsky ordered Colonel Tukhachevsky to shoot three peasants from Oginski’s unit (Žukauskas, Petrauskas and Šabdulskis) who had been taken prisoner during the clash at Žasliai. After the Ashmyany massacre, Emperor Nicholas I ordered ‘small-scale com­ manders' not to shoot the insurgents, but rather to send them to trial in Vilnius, Daugavpils and Minsk, with the exception of exceptional cases in the event of an urgent matter’. Император Николай Павлович Письма к графу Г1. А. Толстому, Русская старина, т. XXXI, 1881, с. 550-551 Sliesoriūnas F, Caro val­ džios priemonės 1830-1831 m. sukilimui Lietuvoje slopinti, LMA D, serija A, 1965, t 2 (19), p. 128.

67

68 L I T H U A N I A ' S

WARS

1 . 1 . ( c o n tin u e d )

2 0 A p r il

R e b e l u n it s v s a R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r

1831

P o r u c h ik S u r k o v

2 2 A p r il

P u s z e t 's a n d S z o n ' s r e b e ls v s a R u s s ia n

1831

u n it u n d e r L ie u te n a n t C o lo n e l K a n ib lo ts k iy

2 2 A p r il

G a d o n ’s r e b e l s v s a R u s s i a n p l a t o o n

1831

u n d e r B a r o n v o n M a n te u ffe l

15

16

17

D a u g ė l i š k i s ’ 4’

-

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M a r i j a m p o l ė ' 8’

300

11

311

S k u o d a s ’ 7’

17

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17

Š ia u lia i d is tr ie t, 2 3 A p r il

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1831

T y s z k ie w ic z

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66

24

1831

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20

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4

1831

21

2 9 A p r il

H o r o d e r i s k i 's r e b e ls v s a u n i t u n d e r

1831

G e n e r a l C h ilk o v

!

254

i ...

22

2 9 A p r il

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1831

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4

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32

i

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V iln iu s U n iv e r s ity s tu d e n ts ( w h o f o u g h t a

1831

C o s s a c k u n it )

2 9 A p r il

A s h m y a n y d i s t r i c t f i g h t e r s v s a R u s s ia n

A shm yany

1831

u n i t u n d e r C o lo n e l S e v a s t y a n o v

d i s t r i e t 24'

3 0 A p r il

M o n c e v i č i u s ‘s r e b e ls v s a R u s s i a n u n it

V illa g e o f

1831

u n d e r M a jo r G e n e ra l R e n n e n k a m p f

P ė s č i a i28'

24

N e a r E i š i š k ė s 24 *’

25

26

20

G e n e r a l S u l im a

1

20

21

100

13

113

10

i

11

l5‘ Bielinski K., Rok 1831..., p. 29. IA‘Totoraitis J., Sūduvos Suvalkijos istorija, Kaunas, 1938, d. 1, p. 444; Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 231; Purenąs wrote that 53 Russians perished. Purenąs P., 1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 51; Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 187. I7’ lbid., p. 228. ,8' Ibid., p. 190; Kuryer Litewski, 1831, nr. 62. ,9*Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 190; Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 302; Barzykowski S., Historja powstania..., t. IV, p. 212. 1VSliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 192. 2I‘ Ibid.,. 202;BieIinski R., Rok 1831..., p. 33-34; Szlakiem Legionow. Z pamiętnikow Generala Dezydera Chlapowskiego, T. II, Warszawa:Gebether i Wolff, 1903, p. 15. ” ’ Duke Giedraitis’s 20 April 1831 note to the Vilnius District Committee, LSHA, doc. f. 1135, inv. 4, file 371, p. 86.; Bielinski K., Rok 1831..., p. 33; Sliesoriūnas F , 1830-1831 metų sukilimas...,p. 201-202. iy Ibid., p. 196; Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 302; Callier E., Bitwy i potyezki..., s.99. Журнал военных действий с польскими мятежниками..., РГВИА, ф.ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5179, л. 62. The fact that it is risky to rely on memoirs as an accurate and objective source of data is evidenced by those of rebel unit leader Prozor. In his memoirs, he wrote that some 300 Russians died and drowned. Maurycy Prozor, Pamiętnik obywatela powiatu Kowiefiskiego..., p. 221. u' Callier E.. Bitwy i potyezki..., p. 100. Bielinski wrote that according to Russian data, 200 rebels were killed. Bielinski K., Rok 1831..., p. 36; Idem, Powstanie listopadowie..., p. 15; According to Klukowskis data, 100 people were killed. Powstanie powiatu Oszmiariskicgo.Z notatek J. Klukowskiego, Zbi6r pamiętnik6w..., p. 247. Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas...,p. 229,203.

Lithuania

and

the

183 0-18 3 1 Uprising

1.1. (continued) 3 0 A p r il 27

A R u s s i a n u n i t u n d e r G e n e r a l C h ilk o v

22

-

22

4

-

4

2

-

2

200

-

200

2

5

7

13

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Š a u k ė n a i35*'

7

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7

D a r b ė n a i38’

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31

G ie d r a iC ia i” *

1831 T h e e n v ir o n s o f 28

A p r il 1 8 3 1

F ig h t e r s f r o m K o n s t a n t y P a r c z e w s k i 's u n it

N e m e n č in ė a n d M a iš ia g a la 2728’ N ear

1 M ay 29

A R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r C o lo n e l T o rn a u 1831

P a n e v ė ž y s 29’ M in s k

4 M ay

A R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r M a jo r G e n e ra l

1831

S a fy a n o v

30

G o v e rn o ra te .

P r a s t a v o n ia i

4 M ay 31

A R u s s i a n u n i t u n d e r G e n e r a l S u l im a 1831 7 M ay 1831 7 M ay

33

F o lw a r k 31*’ P a š i r v in t i s

A R u s s i a n u n i t u n d e r C o m m a n d e r V e r z ilin

32

V i l e y k a 30’

R e b e ls t r a m K h r a p o v i t s k y ' s u n i t

F o lw a r k a ’

1831 P a r c z e w s k i 's . G i e d r a i t i 's a n d H o r o d e r i s k i ’ s 9 M ay 34

r e b e l p l a t o o n s v s a R u s s ia n g a r r i s o n u n ­ 1831

d e r M a j o r S h a m o v s k y , a n d V e r z i l i n ' s u n it

9 M ay

R e b e l u n i t s v s C o l o n e l B u l g a k o v ’s jo i n t

1831

J a e g e r b a t t a l io n

10 M ay

R e b e ls f r o m J a c e v i C i u s 's a n d T o m k ie -

1831

w i c z ' s p l a t o o n s v s a R u s s ia n u n it

35

36

27‘After ihe battle, the Russians shot Benecki and Stachowski, two noblemen who had been taken prisoner. Ibid., p. 203; Bielinski K., Rok 1831..., p. 34. 2B’ Rebels were killed in episodic collisions with the Russians. Powstanie w okolicach Niemenczyna..., p. 165, 174. Журнал военных действий с польскими мятежниками..., РГВИА, ф.ВУА, on. 16, д. 5179, л. 62. " Т а р б а ч о в а В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., р. 77; idem., Z historii powslania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 50; In his memoirs, one of the battle participants claimed that rebel losses were 'very few', while over 100 Russian soldiers were killed. He reasoned the large Russian losses with the expla­ nation that ‘valuing their cartridges, the rebels fired more accurately.’ W powiecie Wilejskim..., p. 123-124; Журнал военных действий с польскими мятежниками..., РГВИА, ф. ВУА, оп. 16, д. 5179, л. 62. 11‘This battle was fought between a Russian unit under General Sulima (2 battalions, 12 squadrons and 12 cannons) and several rebel units (approx. 7,000). The Russians lost one cornet, one non-commissioned of­ ficer and three soldiers. The rebel losses have not been accurately ascertained. It is known that command ers Puszynski and Milosz were killed. Sliesoriunas E, 1830-1831 metif sukilimas..., p. 199. One witness wrote that the num ber of killed 'was not large; there were more people who withdrew, since we didn’t have many spearmen and scythmen at that time.’ Wolni strzelcy Wilkomierscy, Pami^tnik Fortunata Kossowskiego, Pami^tniki polskie..., t. Ill, p. 266; Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 303; Barzykowski wrote that 200 Russians were killed or wounded. Barzykowski S., Historia powstania..., t. IV, p. 210-211; Tokarz W„ Wojna..., p. 230; Pami?tniki obywatela powiatu Upitskiego..., p. 196-197. J,‘ Sliesoriunas F., 1830-1831 metif sukilimas...,p. 207; According to Verzilin, the commander of the Russian unit, 40 rebels were killed and many were injured. LSHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 407, pp. 21-22. ” 'L)angel S., Rok 1831 w Minszczyznie..., p. 40 -41; W powiecie Dziinienskim, Powstanie 1831 r. na Litwie...,p. 134-135. i4‘Sliesoriiinas F., 1830-1831 metif sukilimas..., p. 211-212. ,5‘ Ibid., p. 237. 36‘ Ibid., p. 236; Puzyrewski A. K, Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 304; Russian commander Rennenkampf wrote in a report that he lost 12 soldiers, but killed as many as 600 insurgents and seized one cannon, Kuryer Litewski, 1831, nr. 79; Pami?tnik Onufrego Jacewicza..., p. 38.

69

1 .1 . (continued) 10 M ay

T a u t k e v i f i i u s 's a n d K a l i n o w s k i ' s r e b e ls v s a R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r M a jo r G e n e ra l

37 1831

N e a r P a l a n g a 1' *

3

-

3

N e a r V a r n ia i3**

150

-

150

30

-

30

17

5

R ennenkam pf

11 M a y 38

S i e m a s z k o 's , U r b a n o w i c z 's . H u b a r e w i c z 's a n d o th e r r e b e l u n it s v s H o w e n 's u n it

1831

12 M a y

L ia u g a u d a ’ s g a r r i s o n I r o m t h e c i t y o f V illa g e o f T e lš ia i v s a R u s s i a n u n i t u n d e r C o lo n e l

39 1831

R a in ia i34* B a r to lo m e y

40

J a c e v i č i u s ' s r e b e l f i g h t e r s v s a R u s s ia n 13 M ay u n it u n d e r M a jo r G e n e ra l R e n n e n k a m p f 1831

P a l a n g a 40*

'r

( m o r e th a n 1 .0 0 0 s tro n g )

O '"

F o re s t o f 41

13 M ay

R e b e ls le d b y S z r e t t e r

v illa g e o f

1831

V /

B ia lo w ie ž a , 30

30

S v e f li c z a n k a 41* 16 M ay

K a z im ie r z H u m w a lt 's r e b e l p la t o o n v s a

F o r e s t o f B ia lo -

1831

R u s s ia n C o s s a c k p la to o n

w i e ž a . H v o ž n a 47*

17 M ay

R e b e l p la t o o n s v s a R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r

P anem unė

1831

M a jo r M a lin o v s k y

C a s t le 43*

G e n e ra l S c h ir m a n 's u n it

N e a r T a u r a g ė 41*

T h e v a n g u a r d o f a r e b e l u n i t l e d b y F e lik s

V it e b s k G o v e r -

a n d I g n a c y O d a c h o w s k i v s a d i v is io n

n o r a te . v illa g e o f

u n d e r L i e u t e n a n t G e n e r a l K a b lu k o v

B a b c h a 41*

18 M ay

H o f e n 's r e b e ls v s P u t t a t a 's C o s s a c k

N e a r th e K e rn a v ė

1831

p la to o n

F o lw a r k * * *

20 M ay

R l m k e v i č i u s ’s r e b e l s v s a R u s s i a n u n i t

1831

u n d e r M a jo r G e n e ra l R e n n e n k a m p f

42

43

/ 4

2

-

20

B

10

-

10

-

2

2

85

7

92

h

18 M ay 44 1831

18 M ay 45 1831

46

47

V- 2 8 У "

Ž a d v a in a i4'*

Ibid., p. 36. •' Sliesoriūnas F., 1830- ¡831 metų sukilimas..., p. 238; Pamiętnik Onufrcgo Jacewicza..., p. 40-41. "'Ibid., p. 41. 4 According to Jacevičius, who led the battle, 'considerably more Russian soldiers were killed than ours due to better aim.’ Pamiętnik Onufrego Jacewicza..., p. 42; Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas...,p. 240. 41’ Dangei S., Rok 1831 w Miriszczyznie..., p. 43-44; Гарбачова В. В, Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., р. 96. Powstanie w pusezy Bialowiczkicj. Pamiętnik doktora Jozefą Szczapiriskiego (1831), Pamiętniki pols k ie ...,t II, p. 154. 4 rO dzialaniach powstania 1831 r. w powiecie Telszewskim, Zbi6r pamiętnik6w..., p. 57; In defending, the rebels lost two units chiefs - Bilevičius and Daujotas, but the num ber o f privates who were killed is unknown. Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 252. **' Ibid., p. 247. One witness to the events claimed that Russian losses in terms of killed and wounded were several times higher. О dzialaniach powstania 1831 r..., p. 57. However, Colonel Bartolomey, head of the Russian unit, noted in his diary that he lost 30 men who had been killed or wounded, but that 'the insur­ gents’ losses were very high and numbered over 1,000 people’. 1831 metų žygio dienoraštis, V. Steponaitis, Pik. Bartolomiejaus veikimas..., Karo archyvas, t. VI, p. 62-63. ty Гарбачова В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., p. 82. 46*Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 269. 47‘ Ibid., p. 245; Pamiętnik Onufrego Jacewicza..., p. 50;Puzyrcwski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 33; In this case, the Russian commander was being objective by stating that the number of rebel fatalities could not be ascertained due to the dense forest and darkness of night. They found 85 dead on the road and in open areas. Журнал военных действий против литовских мятежников..., РГВИА, ф. ВУА, д. 5154, ч. 1, л. 85.

1.1. (continued) 21 M a y 48

N e a r t h e v ill a g e R e b e l f i g h t e r s v s N ik o l a y e n k o 's u n i t

1831

22 M ay

H o f e n ’ s r e b e l u n i t v s C a p t a in V i d i n k s y ’ s

V illa g e o f

1831

com pany

Ž ė r o n y s 49"

49

T h e j o i n t f o r c e s o f P r o z o r , S u r k o n t a n d th e 23 M ay 50 1831

A u g u s td w V o iv o d e s h ip r e b e l c o m m a n d e r

A p la t o o n o f V iln iu s U n iv e r s it y s tu d e n ts 3 0 M ay 1831

31 M ay 53

51

20

B

28

40

40

80

2

-

2

V illa g e o f P a l ie p ia i50,

N ear T e r l e c k i 's r e b e ls v s L i t v i n o v ' s u n i t

1831

52

-

M a jo r P u s z e t

29 M ay 51

51 o f P ie lia i48*

a n d r e b e l s le d b y M a t u s e v i č i u s v s a R u s ­

P a n d ė ly s 5'*

V illa g e o f

200

9

209

L id a 53’

1

-

I

Š ia u li a i5*"

62

16

78

600

500

1100

200

4

204

M ič iū n a i“ "

s ia n u n it u n d e r C o lo n e l S e v a s ty a n o v

G e n e ra l C h f a p o w s k i's u n it

1831 16 June

T h e N in e te e n th In f a n t r y R e g im e n t u n d e r

1831

C o lo n e l S z y m a n o w s k i a n d r e b e ls u n its

19 June

G e n e r a l G i e l g u d 's c o r p s v s R u s s ia n

V iln iu s , h ills o f

1831

s o ld ie r s u n d e r G e n e ra l O s te n - S a c k e n

P a n e r ia i51"

2 6 June

L it h u a n i a n f i g h t e r s a n d a P o l i s h r e g i m e n t

1831

u n d e r C o lo n e l K ie k e r n e c k i

54

55

56

K a u n a s 55*

“ ’Sliesoriunas F., 1830-1831 m e t if sukilimas...,p. 242. *’"Ibid., p. 271-272; Bielinski K., Rok 1831..., p. 74. 50"Pami^tnik obywatcla powiatu Kowienskiego..., p. 226. sl\Sliesoriunas K, 1830-1831 metif sukilimas..., p. 217. ” "Sliesoriunas indicated that only 100 rebels were killed. Ibid., p. 276; In other literature, 200 rebels are mentioned. KieniewiczSt., Zahorski A., Zajewski W., Trzy powstania narodowie, Warszawa :Ksi^zka i Wiedza, 1992, s. 226; Callier E., Bitwy i potyezki..., p. 172- 173;Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 30; Colonel Sevastyanov’s 20 May 1831 letter to Vilnius Governor General Khrapovitsky, LSHA, doc. f. 437, inv. I. file 40, pp.18-19. August Przyluski was killed. Callier E., Bitwy i potyezki..., p. 174. M"Wypatki pod Szawlami, Pami?tniki polskie.., t. Ill, p. 198-200; It is known that two rebel commanders were killed - Jarudis and Ostrovski. Sliesoriunas F., 1830-1831 m e t if sukilimas..., p. 322.Without citing a source, Purenas stated that Szymanowski, who led the attack, lost 25 officers and 500 soldiers. Purenas P., 1831 metij sukilimas..., p. 75; Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 307. 55‘ Lasting four hours, the Battle of Vilnius was lost by the rebels, of whom 600 were killed, including 400 local rebels, according to General Gielguds report. Kiernow, 20 czerwca 1831. List gcnerala Gielguda do gcnerala Dembinskiego, Pami^tniki polskie.., t. Ill, p. 24; Sliesoriunas F, 1830-1831 metif sukilimas..., p. 300,302,307; Feduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Zmudzi..., p. 154; Kieniewicz S., Zahorski A., Zajewski W., Trzy powstania narodowie..., p. 228; Zajewski W., Powstanie listopadowie..., p. 132; Ziolek J. , Powstanie listopadowie na Litwie..., p. 408; Other historians have argued that the Russians’ overall losses amounted to 364 killed and wounded. Sliesoriunas F., 1830-1831 metif sukilimas..., p. 307; Puzyrewski A. K. , Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 348; Военный сборник, издаваемый при штабе Отдельного гвардейского корпуса, t. 39, р. 340-343; Barzykowski S., Historia powstania..., t. IV, p. 257. *" Ruzancovas A., Kaunas 1831 ir 1863-1864 m. sukilimuose, Kaunas, 1927, p. 5. The author indicated that the Russians killed or wounded 500 rebels in Kaunas. Puzyrewski A. K, Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 353; One Russian report states that as many as 500 rebels were killed and wounded. Журнал военных действий против польских мятежников, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, д. 5156, л. 14. Among the people killed were 20 Polish officers/instructors. Barzykowski S., Historia powstania..., t. IV, p. 264.

72 L I T H U A N I A ' S

WARS

1 .1 . ( c o n tin u e d )

57

G e n e r a l D e m b i r t s k i ’ s u n i t v s R u s s ia n

K u p iš k is

C ossacks

M a n o r 4' '

N e a r L id a * '

June 1831

58

June 1831

G e n e ra l C h la p o w s k i's u n it

59

June 1831

G e n e ra l C h la p o w s k i's u n it

-

10

10

4

-

4

-

8

e

Š ia u li a i“ '

102

5

108

J a n k ū n a i 61'

10

-

f 10

100

16

B a is io g a la “ ’

15

15

P a n e v ė ž y s 64'

130

33

V illa g e o f U g o s tė » '

3 J u ly

S e m e t a ’ s r e b e ls v s a R u s s ia n u n i t u n d e r

1831

C o lo n e l K r y u c h k o v

60

V a n g u a r d o f t h e F i r s t U h la n R e g i m e n t 61

4 J u ly u n d e r P o l is h c o l o n e l B o r k o w s k i v s a 1831 v a n g u a r d o f a C o s s a c k r e g im e n t N o t f a r fro m 5 J u ly

T h e r e b e l a r m y v s a R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r

P le m b e r g a s , o n

1831

G e n e r a l B e l lin g s h a u s e n

th e b a n k s o f th e

62

116

D u b y s a R iv e r “ ' 5 J u ly

A P o l is h u n i t u n d e r G e n e r a l R o h l a n d v s

1831

K n o r r in g 's C o s s a c k s

5 J u ly

P r o z o r 's r e b e ls v s G e n e r a l D e m b i r t s k i 's

1831

u n it

7 J u ly

Z a l i w s k i ’ s u n i t o f 6 0 0 r e b e ls v s R u s s ia n

o f S o k o ld a

1831

C o s s a c k s le d b y C o l o n e l M a s k e

b e tw e e n G ro d n o

63

64

,{

30

*

163

1. N e a r t h e v ill a g e

65

400

-

V400 '

a n d B i a l y s t o k 65*

sr Raport generate Dembinskiego do generate Chlapowskicgo, Lesnowka, 3 lipca 1831, Pamiçtniki polskie..., t. Ill, p. 118. Pamiçtniki Michate Jackowskiego podpulkownika bylego dowôdcy brygady jazdy (1831), Pamiçtniki polskie..., t. II, p. 167. Ibid. w Raport generate brygady Jozefą Szymanowskiego....Cytowiany, dnia 4 lipca 1831, Pamiçtniki polskie..., t. Ill, p. 209-211; Slicsoriünas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas...,p. 324. After the Battle of šauliai, in the beginning of July, Poruchik Morycz was killed near Jurbarkas, and Jonas Giedraitis, commander of the Twelfth Uhlan Regiment, died of wounds. Pamiçtniki Michate Jackowskiego..., p. 167, 182 -183. 6I‘Sliesoriūnas F., ¡830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 333. Ibid., p. 334; Vilnius Cathedral Vicar Petrulevičius and Lieutenant Vidzga were among the people killed. Pietkiewicz M., La Lithuanie..., p. 187. Записки военных действий главнокомандующего резервною армиую Петра Александровича Толстого..., р. 531. 6УRapport generate Rohlanda do generate Chtepowskiego szefa sztabu glownego, Hrynkiszki, 6 lipca о siôdméj z rana 1831, Pamiçtniki polskie..., t. Ill, p. 212; Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 337. M’ Ibid., p. 336. Commanders from both sides tended to exaggerate the number of enemy fatalities. For example, Polish General Dembiriski asserted that ‘twice as many (Russians] were killed’. However, the rebels clearly had no way to accurately assess Russian losses, since they retreated from the city. In this case, the Russians occupied the city and were able to count the dead soldiers from both sides without hindrance. They probably did not count the num ber of rebel fatalities very accurately, so in his report, General Tolstoy noted: up to 2,000 rebels were killed, and up to 4,000 wounded’, and losses were ‘three non-commis­ sioned officers and up to 500 killed and wounded’. Записки военных действий главнокомандующего резервною армиую Петра Александровича Толстого..., р. 533; Rapport generate Dembinskiego do generate Gielguda w Eyragole. Pamietniki polskie..., t. III, p. 119; Журнал военных действий против польских мятежников, РГВИА, ф. ВУА, д. 5156, л. 25. 65' Sliesoriūnas F, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 309; Puzyrewski A, K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 363-364.

Lithuania

and t he

1830-1831

Uprising

1 .1 . (continued) 66

8 J u ly

T h e P o lis h a r m y v s a R u s s ia n u n it u n d e r

1831

C o lo n e l K r y u k o v

8 J u ly

T h e P o l is h a r m y v s a R u s s i a n u n i t u n d e r

K a r d ž iū n a i

1831

G e n e r a ! B e l lin g s h a u s e n

F o h v a r k * 7’

G e n e r a l B e l l i n g s h a u s e n 's u n i t

M e š k u ič ia i“ *

1 0 J u ly

A P o lis h u n it u n d e r G e n e ra l R o h la n d v s a

N e a r P avandenė

1831

R u s s i a n u n i t u n d e r G e n e r a l B e l lin g s h a u s e n

a n d V a r n ia i“ ’

G e n e ra l D e m b ir is k i’ s u n it

G e n e ra l B e m b in s k i’ s u n it

Š ia u li a i“ ’

700

115

815

300

5

305

3

19

22

2

33

35

N e a r M o l ė t a i 70’

133



133

P a b r a d ė 7’ ’

-

2

2



;

1

20

-

20

133

14

147

150

-

150

B

-

8

67

68

1 0 J u ly 1831

69

1 6 J u ly 70 1831 1 7 J u ly 71 1831 G e n e ra l B e m b in s k i's u n it a n d M a tu s e v i1 8 J u ly 72

T h e e n v ir o n s o f C i u s ' s r e b e ls v s R u s s i a n s o l d i e r s u n d e r

1831

Z u lo v a s 77' H i U m e i s t e r G o f r a a n ____

2 9 J u ly

C o l o n e l S i r e v i C i u s 's r e b e ls v s S c h i r m a n ' s

V illa g e o f

1831

u n it

G i n t e n i a i 73’

8 Au-

A u n it o f 1 ,0 0 0 r e b e ls le d b y T y tu s

P in s k d t s t r i e t ,

g u s t1 8 3 1

P u s l o w s k i v s C o l o n e l M in s k y ’ s c a v a l r y u n it

n e a r N e v e P 4'

7 S e p te m ­

M i r s k i ’s r e b e l s v s a R u s s i a n u n i t u n d e r

V illa g e o f

b e r 1831

G e n e r a l S a v o in i

K o n e t s b o r 75'

73

74

75 28 76

V 6 t r i n s k i s ' s r e b e l s p l a t o o n v s a R u s s ia n

S e p te m b e r

V i š a k i o R ū d a 76’ u n i t u n d e r C o lo n e l B u l g a k o v

_ J f i l 1__________

w It is difficult to accurately determine rebel losses; according to Russian data, 2,000 were killed. Действия отряда полковника Крюкова при нападении Польских войск и Виленских мятежников, РГВИА, ф. ВУА, д. 5156, л. 31; General Major Schirmans 8 July 1831 report, LSHA, doc. f. 378, BS, 1831, file 219, pp. 35-43; the rebels were actually the attacking side, and attacked the enemy seven times in trenches and in the city. Pietkiewicz, who witnessed the events, claimed that 'our losses on that day were higher than those suffered in the Battle of Vilnius’. Nineteen officers were killed in the Seventh Regiment alone. During the Battle of Šiauliai, the rebels did not use 29 cannons, but the Russians actively shot from five. Pietkiewicz M., \a Lithuanie..., p. 196. According to Barzykowski, rebel losses in terms of wounded and lolled came to 2,000..Barzykowski S., Historia powstania.., t. IV, p. 270; Puzyrewski A, K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 358. It is known that 125 riders of the Žemaitija Squadron were killed in the streets of the town from Russian artillery, including the renowned rebel Narbutas along with his three sons. Sliesoriūnas E, 1830-1831 metų sukili mas..., p. 341 -342; Szyndler B., Henryk Dembinski..., p. 132; Pamiętniki Michala Jackowskiego..., p. 175. 67' Purenąs P., 1831 m. sukilimas Lietuvoje..., p. 91; Puzyrewski A. К., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 359; Журнал военных действий против польских мятежников, РГВИА, ф.ВУА, д. 5156, л. 32; Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..„p. 343. “ *Ibid., p. 356. 6,’The number of private rebel soldiers who were killed is unknown. Ibid., p. 349. 70‘ Ibid.,p. 359; Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 348-349; Tokarz W., Wojna..., p. 377; Barzy­ kowski S., Historia powstania..., t. IV, p. 409-411. 7I’ Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 359. Rittmeister Gofman’s report, LSHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 1, file 40, p. 41. ” • Ibid...., p. 362. Гарбачова В. В., Паустание 1830-1831 гадой на Беларусь.., р. 99; Feduszka J., Powstanie Listopadowie na Litwie i Žmudzi..., p. 140; Dangei S., Rok 1831 w Minszczyžnic..., p. 64. 75‘ Sliesoriūnas F., 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..„p. 368. 76’Ibid., p. 371.

73

74 L I T H U A N I A ' S

WARS

1.1. (continued) 1 3 O c to b e r 77

Town of M i r s k i ' s r e b e ls

18

2

20

5 .5 9 0 *

1 ,1 9 5

6 .7 8 5

B a lb ie r iš k is " "

1831

TOTAL

It should be added that due to a lack o f m ore precise data, these statistics do n o t include the num ber o f people w h o died from battle w ounds. In larger battles, the enem y frequently counted their w ounded (som etim es m entioning critically w ounded separately), w hose num bers often exceeded 100.122However, it is practically im p ossib le to determ in e h o w m any o f them died frojn their w ounds. O bviously, this cou ld have b een a significant num ber, giv en that there w ere usually n o opportunities to provide the rebels w ith even m inim al m edical care. However, we d o have exam ples o f w here the rebels did have access to an acceptable level o f m edical treatm ent. In the district o f Raseiniai, treatm ent was adm inistered by the M edical C om m ittee, w hich was responsible for the hospital operating in the city. S om e o f the rebel platoons used to set up tem porary m ilitary hosp itals, and had doctors and a m edical service. In the U pytė district, V iln iu s U niversity m edical students u sed to act as platoon surgeons, and the hospital in th e city o f U km ergė treated rebels and Russian soldiers alike.123 In Žemaitija at the end o f the second stage o f the war, there were not enough wagons in General Gielguds corps to transport the wounded; they were also short o f doctors and medicine, and they tried to collect w ound dressings from the local residents.124 After the battle in Šiauliai, General Gielgud, in an effort to execute the plan for withdrawal to Prussia as quickly as possible, decided to leave the wounded to fate - their precise number is n ot know n.125 In Užventis, General Rohland also

"•ibid. ' This is the total number of rebels killed, including Lithuanians and soldiers from the Polish regular army units, as it is impossible to identify them separately. Following are a few battles with more accurate numbers of wounded: rebels in Molėtai - 267; the Russian army In Šiauliai, Vilnius, Žadvainai and Darbėnai - 358,201,54,35 seriously injured, respectively. Sliesoriunas E, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas..., p. 359,343,237, 245, 307. 12320 June 1831 memo of the Raseiniai District Medical Committee, LSHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 3, file 77, p. 116. The detachment led by Duke Juozapas Giedraitis had two doctors (Sauka and Zorgo). Duke Giedraitis’s 26 April 1831 memo to military commissioner Karol Rutkowski, LSHA, doc. f. 1135, inv. 4, file 371, p. 92; Pamiętniki Michala Lisieckiego..., p. 105; W powiecie Dzišniehskim, Powstanie 1831 r. na Litwie..., p. 136; Stanevičius' 25 April 1831 report, I.SHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 3, file 75, p. 60; Pamiętnik obywatela powiatu Upitskiego..., p. 177; Ukmergė district doctor Savickas’s 11 April 1831 memo, LSHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 3, file 94, p. 180. 124Polish Corps Military Commissar Bogdanski’s 7 June 1831 memo to Veliuona administrator Abramavičius, LSHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 3, file 77, p. 20; 26 June 1831 memo of Lukasz Hryniewicz, adviser to the Raseiniai District Committee of Internal Affairs, I.SHA, doc. f. 437, inv. 3, file 77, p. 121. 125Pamiętniki Michala Jackowskiego..., p. 117; Sliesoriunas E, 1830-1831 metų sukilimas...,p. 342; Kasparek N., Powstaricy epilog. Žoinierze listopadowi w dniach klęski i inlernowania 1831-1832,01sztyn:Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warminsko-Mazurskiego, 2001, s. 75.

Lithuania

and the

1830-1831

Uprising

decided to leave the wounded and sick in the hospital that had been set up. However, the Russians burned the hospital down, and the fate o f the patients is uncertain.126

1.6.2. Other W ar Casualties As far as w e know, 213 civilians were killed in this war. The Russian army generally did n ot take extrem e repressive m easures against civilian s w ho supported the rebels, although there were such cases in Žemaitija and the district o f Ashmyany. After breaking into the town o f Ashmyany, Russian Cossacks killed so m e tw o hundred civilians - w om en, children and elderly people - w h o were h iding in the church.127 As Jacevičius recalls in his m em oirs, the Russians killed ‘m any in n ocen t peasants, w om en and ch ild ren 128 in Darbėnai and Kretinga. In other cases, civilian casualties were a rare exception. Russian colonel Alexander Tukhachevsky (1 7 9 3 -1 8 3 1 ) sentenced estate m anagers Rusickis and Babravičius from the tow n o f V ievis as well as Paulavičius from Kietaviškės to be shot for providing th e rebels with food. At the Daugirdas estate in the district o f Raseiniai, tw o landlords were killed during a Russian attack, and Cossacks killed V ilnius University student O tto Fress at the approach to Vilnius, as well as Justyn D m ochow ski in Giedraičiai.129O n 20 April, Russians shot the landowner M adejski and h is estate m anager in M arijampolė.130 It was o n ly under extraordinary circum stances that the rebels carried out death sentences for Russian officials or local supporters. We have on ly a few exam ples at our disposal: R aseiniai postm an G rzegorzew ski w as hung in Raseiniai, and estate manager D ziem ski was at the Szczorsy estate; and in Jonava local Russians were sentenced to death for looting estates and peasant farm s.131 G eneral Dem biriski ordered a local Russian to be convicted and shot for robbery; h e also sentenced to be shot a Jew w h o had been w ith the Cossacks w ho plundered the Kupiškis estate.132

I2ASzyndler B., Henryk Dembiriski..., p. 139; Barzykowski S., Historia powstania..., t. IV, p. 277. 127 In Polish Commander-in-Chief Jan Skrzynecki s report about the march of Gielguds corps to Lithuania, it is indicated that some 300 women were killed. Žrodla do dziejow wojny polsko-rosyjskej..., p. 281. In his memoirs, a witness noted that approximately 80 civilians were killed. Klukowski. J., Powstanie powiatu Oszmiariskiego..., p. 241-242; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Biatorusi..., p. 43;Puzyrewski A. K., Wojna polsko-ruska..., p. 178; Giunterytė-Puzinienė G., Vilniuje ir Lietuvos dvaruose, Vilnius: Regionų kultūrinių iniciatyvų centras, 2005, p. 139. 128Pamiętnik Onufrego Jacewicza..., p. 16. 129 Sliesoriūnas F., Caro valdžios priemonės..., p. 128; 1831 metų žygio dienoraštis..., p. 60, 67; Callier E., Bitwy i potyczki..., p. 100-101. ,w Totoraitis J., Sūduvos Suvalkijos istorija...,d. 1, p. 444. 1,1 Krasicki K., Wspomnienia z roku 1831, o osobliwie z czasow wyprawy Chlapowskiego na Litwie, Zbior pamiętnikow do historyi powstania Polskiego..., p. 423; Gorbaczowa O., Z historii powstania Listopadowego na Bialorusi..., p. 68. ш Raport generala Dembiriskiego do generala Chlapowskiego, Lesnowka, 3 lipca 1831, Pamiętniki polskie..., t. Ill, p. 116.

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