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VW Beetle: An Illustrated History
 0854295917, 9780854295913

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Niholaus Reichert & Hans Joachim Klersy

The VW Beetle celebrated its 50th birthday in October 1985 and, around the world, nearly 21 million examples have been sold. This makes the Beetle a motoring ex¬ perience shared by a colossal and unequalled proportion of the world’s population. When talk is about Volkswagen literally ‘people’s car’ - people automatically think of the Beetle. For the majority of owners the Beetle is not just a lifeless piece of technology, nor just a means of transport, but a real member of the family (who just happens to live in the garage!). VW Beetle - An Illustrated History is an affectionate celebration of this familiar, much-loved motor car which, in a multitude of different forms, engaged our enthusiasm and captured our hearts. Within this book’s pages are over 450 pictures - many in colour - ranging from the designer’s first sketches to the craziest modifications, and showing the ubiquitous Beetle as art object, toy, record-setting vehicle, as rac¬ ing car, film star and workhorse.

Jacket photos: front cover photo especially taken for this book by David Sparrow back cover photo by Andrew Morland. UK Price.£14.95

Nikolaus Reichert & Hans Joachim Klersy

We should like to give our cordial thanks to everyone who contributed to the successful outcome of this Beetle Kaleidoscope with information, photographs, or any other material. Also, we wish to express our gratitude towards the Beetle enthusiasts all over the world. And a very special thanks to the helpfulness and most of all the patience of those at Volkswagen AG's public relations department and the archives who have supported our project. Thanks!

PHOTOS: Albar, Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club (ADAC), Artz Automobile, Peter Aschwanken, Auto-Museum Wolfsburg, Autohaus Nordstadt, Automobil-Club Europa (ACE), Autopress, AUTO ZEITUNG, Chris Barber, Peter J. Baumann, Carrosserie Beutler, Car-Line, Doyle Dane Bernbach Werbeagentur, Deutsche Bundespost, Gerhard Dierssen, Franz Eder, Edition Roth Handle, Ivar Ericson, Fenderprize, Flughafen Frankfurt AG, Galerie Auto & Kunst, Bob Gilmore, GUTE FAHRT, Hans-Peter Hauer, Gero Hoschek, KAMEI, Wilhelm Karmann GmbH, Kerscher, Keystone, H.J. Klersy, Ruth Klersy, W. Kotauschek, LEGO, Lintas Werbeagentur, Museum Ludwig, Magnil Presseservice, Uwe Meier-Andrae, Hans-Otto Neubauer, Dipl.-lng. Gerhard Oettinger, Dr.-lng. h. c. F. Porsche AG, Nikolaus Reichert, Dr. Erwin Schollmayer, Dr. Markus Schmitt, Schutzpolizei Mainz, SIKU, Eric Staller, Gerd Treuwerth, Volkswagen AG.

A FOULIS Motoring Book

ISBN 0 85429 591 7 First published, by Motorbuch Verlag, 1986 This edition published 1987 Reprinted 1987, 1988 & 1989 © Motorbuch Verlag 1986 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission of the publisher. Published by: Haynes Publishing Group Sparkford, Nr. Yeovil, Somerset BA22 7JJ, England. Haynes Publications Inc. 861 Lawrence Drive, Newbury Park, California 91320, USA. British Library cataloguing in publication data Reichert, Nikolaus VW Beetle : the story in pictures. 1. Volkswagen automobile I. Title II. Klersy, Hans Joachim 629.2’222 TL215.V6 Library of Congress catalog card number 87-80507 Printed in England by: J.H. Haynes & Co. Ltd

Volkswagen designer Ferdinand Porsche in 1944 with Beetle in Prague.

Contents Preface

6

One for all

9

Beetle assembly lines worldwide

,23

Brochures, stamps, and post cards

25

Out of the ashes

41

The “millionth” Beetle

51

Beetle summary

52

Beetle international

57

The Beetle worldwide

73

Beetle engines

84

Beetle and sport

86

Beetle and art

97

Beetle ads

108

Beetle medley

116

Beetle variety

121

Beetles for any occasion

130

Colourful Beetle parade

137

50 Years VW Beetle

158

5

Preface At the time of its development in the thirties the technical concept of the Volkswagen was so advanced that it remained one of the best in the world for half a century. Reliability, robustness and versatility were the reasons for its success. Regular revision throughout its entire production kept it constantly ahead of its competitors. But had it been only for these rational advan¬ tages the Volkswagen would perhaps have just remained one car among many. What made it an actual ‘people’s car’ was its acceptance by the customers, which was based on more than a pinch of emotion. For the majority of its owners the Beetle - and the nickname itself is a very personal thing was not just a bit of technology, a means of transport, but a real member of the family that just happened to live in the garage or under the streetlamp. And as a member of the family the Beetle was naturally looked after, cared for and cosmetically ‘improved’. Vases with real or, for better keeping, artificial flowers gave a cosy atmosphere inside it, additional chrome turned the little car into a ‘mobile castle’ for personal security among the perils of the road. It was an ambassador of Germany throughout

6

the world, in all climatic zones and cultural regions. This was reflected in constant increases in produc¬ tion up to its zenith. Nobody was indifferent to the Beetle. This personal relationship between the Volkswagen and its owner still finds expression today in the many objects based on the Beetle. This is also a kind of comment on and honouring of this worthy automobile: unique in its history, its technology, its appearance which remained almost unchanged for decades, its astronomical production records, its popularity. All this made and makes the Beetle a product which is a phenomenon and which we believe will maintain its influence even into the next century.

Dr. C.H. Hahn. Chairman of the Board Volkswagen AG

Two early forerunners of the Beetle: The Porsche Types 12 and 32. Ferdinand Porsche built the forefather of the VW Beetle, the Type 12 in 1932 for Zundapp; three prototypes were produced.

The Type 32 was developed in 1934 forNSU. The three NSU prototypes already boast almost all the typical Beetle design features. The only car still in existence can be seen in the Wolfsburg A uto-Museum.

This is how Ferdinand Porsche saw the Volkswagen in his own mind. The drawing is from 1932.

One for all The story of the VW Beetle

When people talk about the Volkswagen they automatically think of the VW Beetle. Not that the

safety and emission regulations. In

the

homeland

of the

Beetle,

the

Federal

Volkswagen got Its entirely appropriate nickname

Republic of Germany, the situation is now similar.

at home in Germany, as one might think, but in its

Over a million Beetles are still driving on Germany’s

second home, the USA.

roads. Despite falling registrations - last year only

Here the Beetle succeeded where many foreign

some 10,000 VW enthusiasts decided on the Beetle

competitors failed: it got accepted. Without reser¬

- it is still one of the most popular and best-loved

vation. Here this strange beast ‘made in Germany’

cars of all. When on

immediately made lots of friends. In

the

USA,

the

land

of

(almost)

endless

branch

15th May 1981

factory

at

Puebla,

in the Volkswagen Mexico,

some

120

possiblities, there also sprang up a whole series of

kilometres east of the capital

in part decidedly bizarre Beetle stylings, ‘special

20-millionth Beetle came off the line, this was an

bugs’, curiosities. We want to show you some of

all-time record in the history of the automobile and

these in our book.

one which is unlikely ever to be broken.

Even today the Beetle is popular with many Americans,

and

this

despite the fact that this

Mexico City, the

Even Henry Ford’s best-selling Model T, the Tin Lizzie,

‘only’

managed

around

fifteen

million

veteran has not been imported into the USA as a

examples during its production life of just under

new car since 1977. The reason for this is the stiffer

twenty years.

9

An early Volkswagen prototype, built in 1935 and desi¬ gnated VI. The similarity to the later mass-production Beetle ist startling.

In the Market Square in Tubingen, 1935: Ferry Porsche at the wheel of the experimental vehicle V2.

In the course of a continuous-running test drive in the spring of 1937, the Type VW 30 pre-production prototypes (29 sa¬ loons and one convertible), built at the Daimler-Benz body shop in Sindelfingen, covered some 2,4 million test kilome¬ ters without a serious fault. The Porsche development had proved itself in brilliant style.

Technically the veteran Beetle, despite all at¬

cannot,

as

a

result,

be

put

into

any

kind

of

tempts at updating, must be regarded as old-

convenient pigeon-hole. Rather they come from all

fashioned, and compared with the modern Volks¬

kinds

wagen designs completely outdated and no longer

occupation. The Beetle is a classless automobile in

competitive.

a class-conscious society.

What remains is the legend of the everlasting

This

of

population

study

groups

carried

out

and

in

all

the

kinds

sixties

is

of

still

Beetle. Only dyed-in-the-wool Beetle enthusiasts,

perfectly valid. The US magazine LIFE put it like

of which there are still quite a few, keep faith with

this: ‘A VW is a member of the family that just

the omnipresent animal.

happens to live in the garage'.

The reasons for the unparalleled global success

Maybe

exaggerated,

but

a

nonetheless

apt

of the Beetle can be found simply and solely in its

designation of the well-loved Beetle. When over 50

conception, production fifty years ago by Ferdi¬

years

nand Porsche.

development work for a people’s car he could not

ago

Ferdinand

Porsche

started

on

the

Furthermore the Beetle survives owing to its

of course foresee that he was laying the foun¬

patent qualities: solid workmanship, good equip¬

dation stone of the most successful and perhaps

ment and above all its proverbial reliability - it runs

best-loved automobile of all time.

and runs and runs ...

At the end

of the September

1931

Porsche

Additional reasons for the Beetle phenomenon

received from the Nuremberg Zundapp works, one

are doubtless its low purchase price and high

of the biggest German motorcycle manufacturers,

resale value even after years of use.

a commission to develop a low-cost four seat

And

a

Beetle

is low on

maintenance costs,

passenger car. First to emerge were three experimental cars

especially for repairs. Nor was the Beetle ever misused as a status

called

Porsche

Type

12

water-

cooled

analysis

US

driving the rear wheels. The gearbox was in front of

automotive industry, as a typical Beetle driver. They

the rear axle and formed a unit with the final drive.

the

office

of

statistics

of

the

engines

with

symbol. There is no such thing, according to an of

five-cylinder radial

equipped

at the

rear

11

One of the three experimental cars of the VW-3 series of 1936. The headlights are still mounted in the nose, the doors are hinged at the central pillars.

Five of 30 Type VW 30 pre-production cars. Although the test drives were carried out in strictest secrecy, contact with the public could not be avoided. Wherever the Volkswagen appeared, heads were turned.

Ferdinand Porsche (2nd from left) and a VW 30. A typical scene, for Porsche lost no opportunity of taking the wheel of his brainchild.

12

This power train arrangement, tried in practice

Three vehicles were built and thoroughly tested;

for the first time in the Type 12, was subsequently to

nonetheless the NSU small car also failed to go

prove itself millions of times over in the VW Beetle.

into series production. Instead

However for reasons of cost Zundapp dropped its

people’s

people’s car project and went on building mo¬

‘Quickly’.

torcycles. In

motorcycle

on

the

NSU

brought a

market,

the

NSU

At the beginning of 1934 Porsche presented to

1933 NSU, another well-known

motorcycle

the

Reich

Ministry

of

Transport

his

'proposal

manufacturer, asked Porsche to design a modern

concerning the construction of a German people’s

economical car for subsequent series production.

car’, a study in which Porsche stated his attitude to

With this Porsche was at last able to realise his

the concept of ‘Volksauto’.

idea of an air-cooled rear engine. As early as the

In Porsche's view a people's car should not be a

beginning of 1934 the plans were ready for the NSU

small car but a utility vehicle with normal dimen¬

car, the Porsche Type 32. This already had the

sions but relatively low weight.

design characteristics typical of all later Volks-

After intensive discussion between government

wagens - the central tube platform frame, indepen¬

offices and the Reich association of the German

dent suspension, a torsion spring axle with double

automotive industry (RDA), on 22nd June 1934 the

suspension arms in front and a swing axle at the

RDA and Porsche concluded an agreement by

rear also with torsion springs, shock absorbers

which

Porsche

undertook

to

deliver

the

first

and drum brakes on all four wheels which at that

Volkswagen prototype within only ten months. A

time were by no means a matter of course. Thus

further clause in the contract provided that on the

the NSU used for the first time torsion springs

basis of a 50,000-unit

instead of leaf springs, an idea of Porsche's. The

should cost no more than 990 Marks. The RDA,

heart of the vehicle however was the air-cooled

which at first viewed Porsche’s Volkswagen project

boxer

with the utmost scepticism, financed it to the tune

engine

with

two

pairs

of

horizontally-

opposed cylinders, a belt-driven cooler blower, 1.5 litres swept volume and 20 bhp.

production

run

the car

of 20,000 Marks per month. It was soon apparent that neither the time set nor

26th May 1938: Laying the cornerstone for the Volkswagen works near Fallersleben, today a district of Wolfsburg.

Roofing ceremony at the Volkswagen works in April 1939.

After the laying of the cornerstone, these three Volkswagens of the pre-production series VW 38 (saloon, roller roof saloon and convertible) were officially revealed. Instead of Volkswagen the Beetle was now to be called ‘KdF-Wagen’ (KdF = Kraft durch Freude - Strength through Joy).

the financing was by any means sufficient. In spite

RDA however did not see themselves in a position

of this, at the cost of great effort the first five

to

Volkswagen

ap¬

production level under the conditions set without

peared between 1934 and 1936: the VI, V2 and the

State subsidy and then sell it at the fixed price of

VW3 series.

only 990 Marks.

To

prototypes

begin

with

of

various

Porsche

engines

design

were

experi¬

further

Porsche

develop

had

the

Volkswagen

meanwhile

to

conceived

series

a

re¬

mented with including a two-cylinder four-stroke

placement design, a pre-series car of which 30

and a two-cylinder double-piston two-stroke; in the

were built at the Daimler Benz bodywork factory in

end the four-cylinder four-stroke familiar from the

Sindelfingen

NSU

account of this the cars had the designation VW 30

was decided

upon.

But these first

boxer

at

engines did not prove ‘motorwayproof in practice.

and

This problem too was solved after comprehensive

subsequent Beetle.

modifications.

bore

Reutter's a

strong

in

Stuttgart.

similarity

to

On the

The VW 30 project was carried out in the strictest

Under the constant supervision of the RDA the prototypes

already

and

of the VW3

a 50,000

had heard a great deal of the Volkswagen had

kilometre endurance test drive on 10th October

never seen one. All told the 30 pre-series Volks-

1936. The three vehicles bore up astoundingly well.

wagens covered nearly 2.5 million test kilometres

Despite

without serious breakdowns, thus finally proving

initial

series

scepticism

the

began

secrecy, veiled from the public which although it

Porsche

design

proved itself splendidly. In the final report of the RDA the verdict was: The vehicle showed qualities

that Porsche’s concept was the right one. Finally in 1938 the entire Volkswagen project was

which appear to recommend themselves for further

taken

development’.

organisation

Now Hitler in person pressed for the Volkswagen

over

by

the

‘Strength

National Through

Socialist Joy'

leisure

(KdF).

Fi¬

nanced by the KdF a further 44 pre-series vehicles

great

were produced at Reutter’s in Stuttgart. With this

propaganda effect - to be gone with full steam

model, known as VW 38, the Volkswagen was given

ahead. The motor manufacturers belonging to the

its final shape. A further series, the VW 39, was not

project

-

from

which

he

anticipated

a

15

I

J^alkulatioo. des l^blkstuageos. Sbs Jabr derTk^^broatioQ des KclF Qhgeos

The Volkswagen was to cost only 990 Marks; that was roughly the price of a small motorcycle with 350 c.c. engine displacement.

-19 37

^rundsteinlegung zum kidF-Ufegenouerk.

in Iftn/sL. Arczahl der RS Bcnziriverbraucb in Itr/ioofem Lange d. Cibgens in cm Breite H&be -

^esdxuiQdigteeit

^rredoneter TVeis

26. 5. 19 38 400 24 7 420 150 145 RM 990

*

1938 KdFmodels: Above the saloon, which had an optional roller roof; below the convertible.

16

m j'

continued. At about the same time KdF employees

war. In addition during the war some 1,500 Type

agreed

VW 60

the

final

location

for

the

Volkswagen

(KdF)

Volkswagens were

produced, to¬

factory in which the Volkswagen was to be built on

gether with the military Beetle VW 82E (Beetle on

the American pattern in mass production.

jeep-type

On 26th May 1938, Ascension Day, Hitler laid the foundation stone of the Volkswagen factory on the

chassis)

and

VW

87

(all-wheel-drive

Beetle). At the end of the war, in May 1945, two-thirds of

bank of the Mitteland canal near the small town of

the Volkswagen factory was in

Fallersleben. He promised then that ‘every working

British occupation forces had taken over the plant

German’ should have the opportunity of buying his

they first set up a provisional repair shop for their

own KdF car (as the Volkswagen was from then on

own requirements. In order to prevent the threat¬

to be known) for only 990 Marks. An astonish¬

ened

ingly low price; it was about the same as that of a

parts stock. As early as March 1946 the 1,000th

350 cc motorcycle.

ruins. After the

demolition they built Volkswagens out of

Type 51 Beetle, a slightly modified military Beetle

On 1st August 1938 a special saving scheme was

VW 82E, came off the line, in October the 10,000th.

introduced with the aim of enabling all prospective

Most of these vehicles saw servive as CCG cars

customers to save up the 990 Marks.

(Control Commission for Germany).

But it was not to be. On 1st September 1939 the

In 1948 a new era began for the Volkswagen. On

second World War broke out. Production planned

1st January Heinz Nordhoff took over directorship

for the KdF car had to be postponed indefinitely.

of the ailing Volkswagen factory. He began with the

Armaments had priority. And so the dream of a car

formation of the sales and service network and

of their own never became reality for the 336,668

systematic model updating of the Beetle which was

savers. Meanwhile at the Volkswagen factory Type 82

immediately

military vehicles based on Porsche’s Volkswagen

1949 the 50,000th post-war Beetle came off the line,

and Type 128 and 166 amphibious vehicles came

the 100,000th following in March 1950. It would

off the lines. Some 70,000 units by the end of the

however take a while to reach the first million, on

also

allowed

to

be

exported

and

brought in valuable foreign exchange. By 13th May

17

Test drive for the press on the occasion of the International Automobile Exhibi¬ tion in Berlin in February/March 1939.

On a demonstration run through Germany in 1939.

18

5th April 1955.

once described the post war Beetle most accu¬

By the end of the 50’s the Volkswagen factory was one of the biggest motor manufacturers in the world, fourth after three American producers. The Beetle

was

now

exported

to

more

than

140

countries. The biggest customer was the USA.

rately: ‘a wretched, ugly thing, a car with more defects than a dog has fleas’. Compared with the earlier models the Beetles of 1950 already showed numerous improvements. In addition to the two Beetle versions, standard and

Dipl.-lng. Heinz Nordhoff, previously member of

export,

the

Volkswagen

range

comprised

the

the Opel board and during the war head of the

2 + 2-seater Hebmuller convertible, the four-seater

then largest European truck factory in Branden¬

Karmann convertible and the latest product, the

burg, had made a thorough study of the produc¬

Transporter developed from the Beetle. This was

tion and sales methods of General Motors at their

internally known as the Type 2 and as a light truck

main works in the USA and knew that even the

was almost as successful as the Beetle.

technically

most

advanced

design

could

only

The

‘wretched,

ugly

thing'

had

meanwhile

succeed with the aid of an adequate sales and

become a serviceable, high quality everyday car

service organisation.

that need fear no unfavourable comparison.

Therefore in the following years in addition to the

In 1953 the hitherto customary split rear window,

construction of production facilities, the testing

also known as the pretzel window, was replaced

and development departments, he pressed ahead

with a somewhat larger oval one. One year later the

with

engine output rose from 25 to 30 bhp.

the

extension

of

an

efficient

dealer

and

workshop organisation, thus laying the foundation for the world-wide success of the Beetle. The Beetle of that time was not a thing of beauty; badly painted and cobbled together with much

In 1955 when the millionth Beetle came off the line

over

1,500

vehicles

per

day

were

being

produced. The Beetle was given a new exhaust muffler with twin end-pipes.

improvisation, it also represented an unpleasant

1957 saw some important changes, notably a

remnant of the Nazi period and as such was not

still larger rear window and a completely new

much loved, especially by the victors. Nordhoff

dashboard. In 1960 the engine output was again

19

An early example of the versatility of the Volkswagen: The Berlin-Rome car of 1939. Although built especially for the planned Berlin-Rome Rally, the three aerodynamic sport Volkswagens (VW 64) never fulfilled their intended role, for on the 1st September 1939 the Second World War broke out. Berlin-Rome had to be postponed.

This early Beetle with pick-up body never went into mass production; it was used inside the works as a transporter.

There was also a Beetle delivery van: however, only a handful were built and they too were only intended for service inside the works.

increased, this time by 13 percent to 34 bhp, a sensation at the time. In the sixties, when the Beetle had become the best selling production car in the world, over a million cars per year were coming off the lines and the Beetle was constantly being improved: flashing turn signals replaced the hitherto customary trafficators in 1960, in 1964 all models were given a larger glass area all-round, in 1965 the engine output was increased to 40 bhp, and from August 1970 to 44 bhp. In the same year a reworked Beetle appeared with larger luggage boot, new running gear with McPherson struts at the front and semi-trailing arm axle at the rear designated Type 1302, or 1302 S with 50 bhp engine. In 1972 came the VW 1303, actually the same

model but with panoramic windscreen and a new dashboard and in this form the last design in the constant development of the Beetle. By 12th February Beetle production had ex¬ ceeded that of the Model T Ford with more than 15 million units; barely nine years later the 20-millionth came off the line. So far over 20.6 million Beetles of all types have been produced, a unique record. World-wide there still exist some eight million Beetles; in the Federal Republic alone just under a million are still registered. Of the 5,115 components which go to make up a complete Beetle only one has remained unchanged throughout its years of maturity: the clamping strip for the bonnet seal.

!• Tl Members of the workforce pose proudly in front of the first mass produced Beetle ready for delivery in the war year 1941.

The VW Type 87, a Beetle with four wheel drive for the German army, better known under the name „ Kommandeurswagen “ (Commanding officer’s vehicle).

22

Beetle assembly lines worldwide Federal Flepubllc of Germany

1973-1976

Yugoslavia

1968-1977 (Import) 1954-

Malaysia

1938-1974

Wolfsburg

1964- 1978

Emden

1974-1975

Hanover Ingolstadt

1954-1972 (Import) 1975-

New Zealand

1965- 1969 1949- 1980

Osnabruck (Convertible)

1966-

Peru

(Import)

1959-1981 (Import)

Mexico Nigeria

1957-1976

Australia

1964-1976 (Import)

Philippines Portugal

1954-1975

Belgium

1968-1974 (Import)

Singapore

1953-

Brazil Costa Rica

1951-1979 1972-1974 (Import)

South Africa

1970-1975 (Import)

Thailand

1972-1976

Indonesia

1961-1982 (Import)

Uruguay

1950- 1977 (Import)

Ireland

1963-1981 (Import)

Venezuela

Instead of the planned mass production of KdF cars, it was the Kubelwagen (VW 82), the vehicle designed for all-terrain use, which rolled off the production line in large numbers. By the end of the war some 55 000 had been built.

Necessity is the mother of invention: Because of the acute lack of fuel, experiments were made during the war with Kubelwagens and Beetles equipped with wood gas generators.

One of the best-known Porsche designs based on the Beetle: The amphibian VW 166. By 1944 more than 14 000 had been built.

KdF-Wagen brochure from 1938

Brochures, stamps and post cards

25

i

Pahrg*

' 5kiWs «!e> KdF-Wagrns tnit aufmondcrten Vordewiueo, von oben geseKen

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TECHNISCHE EINZELHEITEN DaoFabrgcftcllbateincnburchStahlblecheabgebcchtcn Mtttclprofilrabmen mltelner binfercnGabelung z«r Aufnahme ber Antricboaggrcgatc (Motor, Kupplung, Getricbc, Differential unb Himeracbfe). Dae Referoerab ift auf bem Rabmcnl\opf atigebraebt. Daburd) aMrb bei ctroaigcn ZufammenftblJen bic Gefahr fur bic Infaffcn ftark hcrabgefetu. Dcr KbF=Wagcn ift mit Warmluftbcizung auegeftattet. Die angemarmte Gcbiafcluft bee. Motors roirb burdi Hohltragcr in ben Fabrgaftraum unb an bie Winbfdmfifchcibe zur Beheizung gcfOhrc. Antricb: Feberung:

Auf Hintcrrabcr. Durd) oerhapfcltc Drebftabfcbcrung. Jebce Rab ift einzelu aufgchangt (Votlfchioingacbfc). Sdimlcrung: Die rocnigen Sdmticrftellcn bee KbF=Wagcne finb mit Scbmiernippeln auegeltattet. Vierrabbremfe Die mccbanUcbe Brcmfc mlrht ale lnnenbad\cnbrcmfe auf ville 4 Raber. Die Bremsfcllc finb im Rahmcn gcfiihrt unb oollkomtnen gefdaii&t. Die zrolfehen ben VorbcrfiKcn angeorbnete Hanbbrcmfe roirkt ebcnfalle auf allc 4 Raber. Vorn unb hinten 4,5 16. ReifengroBc: Rabltanb: £400 mm, Spur: Vorn (£90 mm, hinten 1250 mm. Bobenfreihcit: 220 mm bel ciner Belaftung mit 4 Perfonen zu )e 75 kg unb etroa 5ohg Gepach. Eigcngcmichf: 550 kg fabrfertig. Wagcnlange: 4,20 m, Wagenbrcitc: i,55 m, Wagenhohe 1,55 m. In Ganzftablauofubrung ift ber StromUnicnform roeitgebenb angenabert. Sic bierct Karofferlc: beguern Plan fur 4 Pcrfoncn. Selbit auf langcren Rcifen hbnncn 4 Ermadifcnc unb i Kinb mit Gcp.ld* gut untergebraebt roerben. Laehierung: Blauarau.

o erlm^nlerdJef injt:F des KdF-VVagons, auch der Motor, gut augiuiglich sind und cbenso leicht inontiert werden kbrnieu. Forner werden eine game Heibe Austauschteile vorbereitet. Bei groUercn Unfallen tritt die Versiebcrung in Kraft.

0

8

27

Dcr Gangfcbalfcr unO Ole HanObremfc finO ziolfdicn Oen Slfccn angcorOnet, fo OaB Oao Elnflelgcn Don Ocr rechten Wagenfclte zum Fuhrerflt-, ungehlnOert cor rich gchen Kann. Ole brclteTflr Oco KOF*Wagene mlt Fenftcrhurbel unO Klinke.

Dcr Gepachraum ift belm KOF*Wagcn bcfonOero rclcbllch bemeffen. Audi auf lingered Fahrten relcht er filr 4 ble 5 Pcrfonen oollkommen aus. Hlntcr Oen Riichftften Ift eln Raum fur mehrere groBere HanOKoffer ncbft zufSfillchem Klclngepach role Schrcibmafchine, Grammopbon, BaOezeug ufro. Unter Ocr VorOerhaube kdnnen auBerOem Ruddachc, Dcchen oOer eln mtttlcrer Koffer untergebrachtrocrOen. Alle Fenfter

flnO fehr groB gchalten, auch Oao Ruchfenfter, Oao ebenfalls auo Glae befteht. Ubcr Oem Rttchfenfter bcflnOet flch Ole Wagenlnncnbeleucbtung. Der KOF*Wagen hat elncn Doppclfdielbcnn>lfdur. Der Antrleb Uegt oerOedd unterhalb Ocr WlnOfcbut>fcbeibe. Er ftSrt (omit nlcht Oae BllddelO.

Ocr Bemintanh im vorOerttii Oee K0F=Wagcn6 faBt 25 Liter eln* fchlitBlkh Referee. Die 3-4 Liter Rcferuebenzln rclcben zu elncr Fahr= ftrechc Don runO 50 Kllometern, fo 0a6 in }cOem Fallc cine Tanhftelle erreldit roerOen hann. Daoor Oao RcfcrocraO.

zwischen den Achsen, die reichliche Bemessung der Karosserie und die UnterbringungsmdgUchkeiten fur Gepack

15

28

KATSCHBERG deffen rafehe WicdcrauffGllung zu Dermcidcn, fo roar bclm KdF=Wa* gen ein ganz ahnlicbe® Problem durcb die roccbfclndc Bcfcnung mit eincr Pcrfon Oder mit fiinf Infaffcn zu bcroSltigen. Diefe® Problem rourde dadurcb ge= loft, daB bclm KdF=Wagen die Sific im Gcgcnfak zu den Auofuhrungen der melften Wagentypen fo roeit nacb oom Dcrlcgt rourden, daB die Gcrolcbteoerteilung nahezu unocr= andert bleibt, glelcbgultlg ob der Wagcn mit eincr odcr funf Perfonen befcht ift!

32% STEIGUNG I. GANG

Vorn bliebdann nodi genugend Plat} fur die Unterbringung dc® Tanh® und Rcferoerad®, roShrend der Mo= tor mltKupplung,GctriebcundDif= ferential, zu cincm Block zufammcn= gefaBt, im Hech de® Wagcn® untcr= gebraebt rourde.

Die groBe Windse.hutzscheibe sichert einen gnten StraBeniiberblick

Bci den grundlegenden Entrourfcn fur den Aufbau dc® KdF»Wagen® zog der Konftxuhtcur Dr.Porfchc olelfach feme Erfabrungen au® dem Rcnnitogcnbau heran. Obroohl der Vcrglclch cine® Diclhundert= pferdigen Rennfahrzcug®, da® auofchlicBlicb fGr die Entrolchlung hdcbfter Gefcbroindlgkeiten gebaut ift, mit cincm Fahrzcug fflr den taglicben Gcbraucb ciner mebrhdpflgen Familie auf den erften Bitch fonderbar erfebeinen mag, fo flndet der Tecbnlker docb bier mancberlcl Parallele: Da® Geroicbt dc® oollbefe&ten KdF*Wagcn® und da® de® ftartberelten Rennroagen® find nahezu glclcb, d. h. um 1000 kg. Radftand und Spur find bclm Rennroagen zroar etroa® grdBcr, aber binflcbrlicb der Federung und Gerolcbt®Dertcllung ergeben flch roertoollc Hinroeife der einen Konftruhtion auf die anderc. Wie c® betm Rennroagen Don grdBter Wtchtlghelt febien, cine Verfcblebung der GerolcbtoDertellung zroifeben Vorder* undHlnterrSdern durch die allmShliche Entleerung de® geroaltigen Benzintanh® und

Eine Anordnung dcr oorgefehenen oier Zylinder In eincr Reihc hStfc nun aber einen zu langen rtfehroar* tigcnAuobaucrgcbcnundauBerdcm die Scbroerpunktlage ungiinftlg bc= einfluBt. Man griff daber zu der roeit hiirzcrcn und leicbtercn Borcr*An= ordnung, die cine geradezu al® ideal zu bezeiebnende GeroichtODcrtcilung Don etroa 44 Pro:, oorn und 56 Proz. hinten ergibt, die aucb dcr idealen Gcrolcbtooerteilung cine® Rcnn= roagen® entfpriebt. Al® felbftDcrftSndlicb erfcblen auBcr= dem die Konftruktion de®KdF»Wa= gen® al® Vollfchrolngachfcr, die fich niebt nur im Rcnnroagenbau, fon* dem aucb bel Zebntaufenden non deutfeben Gcbraucb®roagen beften® beroShrt hatte. Wabrend bel den Vorderradcrn hlcrfur ein parallel In Fabrtrtcbtung fcbrolngcnde® Syftem gcro5hlt rourde, ift hinten elne ela= ftifeb oerftrebte Pendelachfc oorge= feben - Scbroingadrofyftem, die fich in nahezuglelcbcr Auofuhrungbelm Auto»Unlon*Rennroagen oorfindet. Der Erfolg ift eine ganz au®gezelcb= nete StraBenlage. Ste glbt dem Fah= rer aucb beim Nebmen febarfer Kurocn in hohemTempo ein 3uBer= ordemliebe® Geflihl der Sicbcrhelt.

18"„ STEIGUNG II. GANG

. 9% STEIGUNG I III.GANG

IV. GANG 100 KM.

29

GROSSGLOCKKSR RENNSTfieCKE LANGE 1%bXm HOHFNONTER5CHIEO 2W1SCHEN START UNO ZlEL -1232 m

KOP.WAGEN 23, S PS 2PERSONEN SESETZUNG OURCWSCWNITT. 34, SOKm / Std. IN S^MIN S^H-SEK. 8ESTER RENNWAG6N USER 500 PS 1 PERSON 8ESETZUNG 0URCHSCWNlTT:~M*,T3Km/Std. IN DMIN S'f.H-SEK.

Bcfonber® angenehm ift e® ftir bie Infaffen, baB fich al® Folge be® angciocnbcten Hintcrachfenfyftcm® ber Wagenkaftcn In Kuroen faft tiberhaupt nlcht nadi bcr AuBenfelte ncigt. Die Lagc ber Sifce zrol* fdren ben Adrien, alfo im beften Febc* rungebcrcidr, laBt auch fchiocre StraBen* unebenheiten ben InfaHen haum bemerk* bar merben. Die locitere Folge baoon ift, baB mit bem KbF=Wagcn oleic hunbert Kilometer in cinemZugc zurudtgelegt merben hbnncn, ohne baB Infaffen unb Fabrer ermiiben; baburch roerben audr mcitc Reifen zu einer ungetrubten Freube!

Da© Armaturcnbrett tft fehr iiberfichtlich. Rccht® unb llnhe zroci Aufberoabrungehaften. Da* zroifchen Of r Tachometer (otoie ein Raum fur ein Runbf unhgerat. (Ftir ben KbF«Wagen roirb ein Spc: iaU runbfunhgerSt mit Europaempfang entioidult.) Der Tachometer enfbalt Gefcbroinbigheitemeffer unb Kilomeferzahler. Um ben Tachometer finb oier Kontrollampchen angcorbnet: Linh® oben melbct fich ein rote® Licht, rocnn ble Labearbeit bcr Licht* malchlne au® Irgenbioclcbcn Grunben unferbrochen ift. Daruntcr leuchtet cin griinee Ucht auf, toenn bcr O'lbrucb bcr Motorfchmterung nicht auorelcbt. Rccht® obcn zeigt ein gclbrote® Licht ble TStlgKeit ber Winker an, unb barunter ein blaue®, baB ble Scbcimocrfcr auf oollc® Licht gefchaltet finb. Unterhaib be® Tachometer® roirb mlt bem Schluffel ble Ztinbung eingtfchaltct. Link® baoon ber Be* btenungohebcl ftir ble Scbelbcmoifcbcr, rccht® fur ble Licbtfchaltung. In ber Mltfc be® Armaturenbrett® ift unten ber Starterknopf unb oben ber Bcbtcnungshcbel ftir bie Winhcr angebracht. Vor bem linken Vorberfit* bcflnbet fich ba® Lenhrab mit eingebautem Stgnalknopf.

Zur FuBbeOienung:

Scbcinrocrfcrumfcbaltung, Kupplung®*, Brcm®= unb Gaopcbal. Recht® ber Bcnzinumfchaltcr (Dreiioegcbahn),

13

30

HALT

Das Wesentliche der OKRASA- Hochleistungsanlage.2 Hochleistungszylinderkopfe mit28mm grofiem stromungstechnisch gunstigem Saugkanal 33 mm Saugventil und vergrofiertem AuslaBkanal. Verdichtung: 1 : 6,8 auf Wunscb auch hoher

das neue Spezialansaugrohr das gro6e Eiostizitat mit hoher Leistung verknupft, bei Beibehaltung des normalen Vergasers mit anderer Bestuckung PS

Leistungs- und Verbrauchskurve eines VWMotors 1184 ccm mit unserer OKRASA-Einvergaseranlage Modell 55 ausgerijstet. 30

Einbau:

Versand:

50

70

90

Die OKRASA-Hochleistungsanlage kann von jedem Fachmann eingebout werden, auf Wunsch auch in unserer eigenen Werkstatt. Einbauzeit: ca. 5 Stunden, Einbaukosten: etv/a DM 30,Die Anlage wird komplett einbaufertig mit Einbauanweisung versandt

Lcislu n asslcliicruniien fur Porsche und andere Fabrikatc auf An franc.

Oettinger’s Kraftfahrtechnische Spezial - Anstalt

Meine Beobachtungen hoben ergeben, do6 das Fahrzeug sowohl an Lebcndigkeif wie an Elaslizitflt sebr viel gewonnen hot. . .

Dipl. Ing. G. Oettinger • Friedrichsdorf.Taunus Burgholzhduser Str. 2

Telefon: Bad Homburg 3302

{Dr. Z. In F.)

. . . . Idi mufi Ihnen mein Komplimonf machen, Ich bin mii Ihror Arbeit 10&'i„ig zufrieden. . . . (J. / /. in R.) ... Ich bin mit der Leistvng des Wagens sehr zufrieden. . . .

{Prof Dr. k. in W.)

... Meine Anlage hat jetzf 130000 km hinter sidi, sodal) sich ein ROckschluC out die Frage erlaubt, ob der VW-Motor ein Frisieren oof die Dover vertrdgt. . . . (Dr. S. in S.i

Oettinger brochure from 1956

DIE ..SPIRIT OF SANTA PAULA1 FLOG UND FLOG UND FLOG.

E

Zehn, zwolf Stunden hintereinander in so einem kleinen Ding sind nicht gerade gemutlich."

s war ein typisch englischer Wett-

kleinste Flugzeug des Wettbewerbs wurde

bewerb Wer Lust und einen Pilo-

von einem serienmaBigen VW-1200-Motor

tenschein hatte, sollte versuchen,

angetrieben Sein Pilot war der geburtige

so schnell wie moglich vom Em¬

Tscheche und heutige Dusenjet-Pilot einer

pire State Building in New York zum Fernsehturm im Herzen von London zu kom-

amerikanischen Fluggesellschaft, Mira Slowak, 40. Nach einer strapaziosen Reise von

men. Den Gewinnern dieses transatlanti-

175 Stunden, 42 Minuten und 7,11 Sekunden

schen Rennens winkten fette Geldpramien der Londoner Tageszeitung Daily Mail Das

kam er am Ziel an Als Sieger seiner Klasse

Across the Atlantic Ocean with a plane powered by a Beetle engine Mira Slowak and his “Spirit of Santa Paula“

31

Zwt'i Modelle stehen zur Wahl; das Standard- und das Export- Motlrll, Die host bare Ausstattting des ExportMdell»> wnrde fur die unzahligeu auslandischen VWFreunde und fiir alle diejenigen geschaffen, die auf be¬ ar bteten Komfort und besonders bequemes Sehaiten VX >-rt l

Beetle as boat trailer in the USA

...

taking part in the Carnival in Mainz

... as pick-up Beetle

Beetle as tractor

as snowplough at OETTINGER

*•»•*♦*

GLOWBEETLE It glows and glows and glows... Eric Staller a New York architect and photographer changed his beetle by means of 1659 electric bulbs and a computer into a glittering thing that can sparkle into the most various light pat¬ terns desired. A generator which has been installed instead of the rear seat provides for the necessary electricity. Staller invest¬ ed five months of labour and approximately20 000 Dollar in his rolling Beetle light game.

Beetle and Art 97

“Kafer am Watdrand” by BerndSchwering (Roth Handle Edition)

98

99

The following Beetle drawings are from Walter Gotschke. ■Sill II fill II ISB:

£t m

Ferdinand Porsche surrounded by his employees in the yard of the Porsche villa in Stuttgart. The experimental Beetles are VI and 1/2 (left front and rear), the third (in the background) is one of the VW 3 series.

MURG MOTOR WORK! CONTROL AND T/J . _ MAK'AGEMEMI

A similar scene, this time however, 1946 in Wolfsburg

100

Traffic as usual in the KonigstraBe in Stutt¬ gart

101

102

Beetles in art: “Shortened” by J. Dodd

... as “Moloch Auto”

< Above: “Neubeginn ” is the name which the Swede Sune Envallgives his Beetle serigraphy (Galerie Auto & Kunst)

Below: “Private Parking ” by Don Eddy

103

Beetle as Pop Art by Tom Wesselmann

0

104

BEETLE MAGAZINES: Throughout the world there is a whole range of more or less well-known automobile journals that concern themselves almost solely with the Beetle. The oldest magazine is the GUTE FAHRT which is published in Germany (first published 1950).

nederlandse vw brillen vereniging

CLU62EITUNG DEC VW-vereCANEN-PBEUNDE

.tuning-moW^!l

VOLKSW^il

j®D§M

QCTOBEP

ttSTWOlHt woto^i

sssaSss*’*

itieB nf

VW/A'Jd'

Gabrielle D’lETEREN et Charlotte van MARCKE de LUMMEN

DEUX FEMMES AU VOLANT

20.



Les sourires de la victoire.. Photo Cap© Argus.

In 1951 the Belgians Gabrielle D’leteren and Charlotte van Marcke de Lummen took part in a Beetle in a rally right across the African continent from the Mediterranean to Cape Town. They came first in their class.

106

Das neue VW-Zentrum in USA in Englewood Cliffs, das New York gegenuber am anderen Ufer des Hudson liegt.

Der Automobilmarkt der USA, der bei weitem groBte in der Welt mit der leistungsfahigsten Automobilindustrie dieser Erde und mit einem Automobilbestand von uber 70 Millionen Wagen, hat von alien nichtamerikanischen Automobilen nur den Volkswagen in beispielloser Weise anerkannt und akzeptiert. Der millionste Volkswagen, der vor kurzem in den USA zugelassen wurde, ist ein erster Markstein in einer grolBartigen und einmaligen Entwicklung. An der Spitze der amerikanischen VW-Organisation, die heute 15 GroGhandler und 670 Handler zahlt, steht die Volkswagen of America, Inc., eine Tochtergesellschaft unseres Unternehmens. VW-Generaldirektor Prof. Dr. Nordhoff ubergab im Oktober das neue VW-Verwaltungsgebaude in Englewood Cliffs, NewJersey.der Bestimmung. Die Errichtung dieses VW-Zentrums wird in den USAals Zeichen des Vertrauens gewertet, mit dem das Volkswagenwerk seine Zukunft auf dem amerikanischen Markt sieht. ,,Heute wird ein Funftel der gesamten Volkswagen-Produktion nach den Vereinigten Staaten geliefert: jede Woche wird eine voile Tagesproduktion von rund 5000 Fahrzeugen nach dort verschifft", betonte Professor Nord¬ hoff bei der Einweihung des VW-Zentrums.

Als erster erhalt der VW-Generaldirektor das Teilnehmerabzeichen bei der VW-Handlerkonferenz; der General-Manager der Volks¬ wagen of America, Dr. C. H. Hahn (Mitte), ist der ndchste.

Excerpt of the 1961 Christmas tetter to the shareholders: On the small picture VW General Director Nordhoff, in the center former General Manager of “Volkswagen ofAmerika ” Carl Hahn. On January 5, 1959 VW boss Nordhoff had appointed his former assistant boss of “Volkswagen of America”. Hahn, at present Chairman of the Board of Volkswagen AG was 32years young back then.

107

Volks Augsn Qifcf nt ab DM 4200,- 3.WVolkjwos«a gib* «* oh OM

Wie Si© Ihren 53er zum 63er machen konnen. Fast. iehen iOiohm olta Wagon bus wio •0 Johns ol?e W Nkhr io d#r Volkswagen, Dos liegt emmul ganz elnfoth an seiner form Von lotion vwbessem wir den VW framer ond f«war wibfjef; Seine form verdndem yylr mdit. MehUifi’i

Wozu oud»V Si© lit vemunfiig. Prokflsehii Gel dyrdidadit, Dos llegt zum andereo ganz einfatii on seiner

Quolifai Und woim

CO. - a W,

Das ist alles, was ubrigblieb vom 48er VW.

Rave in Herne. Westfalen. It iditieb uns: ,10 Jahre hobo ich in molnem VW hinter mjck

7Tei!e.

Acer den Res? das VW hcben wir verbosser*.

Die wir in !6 jahren nicht verbessor? haben.

Von Anfang on. Von hirten bis vorn.

gebracht. Und 3-tSOOOkm.Mcin Wagon sieht

{Wei! es on ihren nkhts Zu veroessem gob.i

Won siehr diese Vwbessarungen nicht auf den

IhxIi o

4896 WV-Servke-Slaiionon sorgvn rfcifOr, daft Sia sidi soyar m denvcrlassensronGegonden froropos nle vorlosson zu Uihlon brouchen lUnd daft Sh oinon Sioftdompfor bekommen, wenn Si© ihn broutheo) 8oi oil dieser MOho hobtm wlr bis heule niemondoft gdondon. dor dio Na¬ gel firulel, bovor sio Ihnen die lull ouj don Reifeft lassm. Niemond is! vollkommon.

Hier sehen Sie den ersten Wagen von Antarctica. fur die Anlorklis geboul.*

>ias ist dor ersle VW im SOdpolgcbiel. Er Isl

Uber Eis. Durdi Sdmco. Bel 32 Grod unler Null.

lo* ersle fohrzeug in dor Anlorklis, dos oldrt

Er fohrt ilvn nifJit zum Vorgnugeo.

falls Slo, stott durdi die Eiswuslo, durch dio

pozlell fur dio Anlorklis gobaut isl.

Er fabri ibn ols Erkundungswagen. Als Begleil-

Wuslo fahren wollon:

Vie Roupenschlepper. Trokloren. Hundosddil-

fobrzeug fur Trakloronzugo. Als Scbloppor fur

Wlr hoben ouch omen Wagen, der spozicl!

en. R. McMotion, toiler einer australischen

Hundesdilillon.

fur die Wuslo geboul zu soin sdieinl.

orsdiungsgruppu, fdhn diosenWogen.

Me Mabon:.Dor Wagen fohr»,alssei orspozlell

Mil Sonnendod).

109

© >»« w*tr i?.»i t.

.■

A tfr

Walt Disneys neuerStar kommt aus Wolfsburg. Fa«

Er ist klein, hat wenig Chrom und ist importiert. Was machtihndann zum viertgroBten Auto inAmerika? ZurvficfHt war er druben mehr'ein Ulk. typon an vierTer Slolte. . Dte Tantcyvarto usditan vow rvodb dtm Old iOUte ha*1«n s^ch i zunnqbist w6b?.' Motor. Aof dor fjffh Avenue gob cs bint, v^oniger lor don VW ols g«gen Detroit gen Auftauf, gfs dodder ersts KoferporVontsdtledan, S)o warop das v/olo EJecti te. Und gbaidn m ein poor Dutzond Col' letd. legos untersyehtco dl« Studpnten, svlevicl Spdtor mermen i»,e, dad das Ding aucti lautft man fij, dtpsas' UnIfewim' .hind fab»* i j fuftr, Bn bifSdm sdjpaUar'■ sogor ats die kommb iWeilrokords 23l Pollzel out den Highways erlcubt. Mftute findet JtiA feoym otnor, rnebr ko-( Sift lornton iu sdtdtzen, ohne Mob,® In mhUf. Vor adorn ntcht die Kon'rurronz; tost jede PofHddft hinftlnruifcommftn. In der yedcaul&slptlJbk sfetil dor VW 1300 Slo fond an es (etzi solbstvorstdedlkti, vor andftrftrv amodkanlscbert WagenI doft man fur olno Saute Im Kotfluyet nlfht

242

VWA

110

B £r Ist.Mftin . . , Splflgol Nr. 17 voip 10. 4. &A K f t 5., iilw. 456A PA

gleich dos holbo Auto renovieren mvft. Sondorn nur dun Kotf/ugot puiwedhsfttt, FOr oio poor Dollar, (Nicht |eder Amert. ta.nor helfif KpdefftSlor.) , Sift k6nn«n kouftt nocti verjtfthen, wnrum eln Auto nod) wentgon Jpbnsn Mop' porn mu 6, Und daft der Volkswagen Importiert habftp vlftfe; Amnrlfeon«J,r sdton fast vcrgesuen. Fur sto Ist der Kdfor otnorirnnisth gvAvrden. ' Wlodlft FVankfurlerWilrs'rhon.

/v'

In dun grofien Omevikanischen Ur men .und, einon Film mil dorr. Koto? r"" w oufluhrungsfclnos kind und I6ult und 10 marhen I Putt soil Wochon vor ousvrjrkguflen Wornm eigontlkh? Hdiijtjrn ein turbolenler Forbfllm dor Ganr otnloctt. Sie vorsprochen sich Wolt-DiSOftY'lVoduktiOn .The love vn ihrtmt nouftn Star ein Geschdlt Buy". I,.tin toller Kotor."! Denn dm Kcilur is! out dot gan/en Well Iseliobi „Wohl lom Auto hat Dio Hauptrolle in dtosem abendv»viei Zuneigung und Zortlichkiui getiillorKien Jwx spielt niern Harbw uu«Wall Oi»n»r» • Mm .tin tall.r Kale* Germany", sdrttob unidngsleiname' fr h«ifif Herbie und Iteibl u halb Stundon long 0100 Mongo Unlug I t roittt rieir-his vo yvil> HihWi rjlht tr oh DM •USi'S - n,W. HU■, UttiKir.'Uoim*

~r .

Iu I I I I I I I IJiffl



" _



_ _

1

_

ESOINVESTIRNOFUSCA. Wie lange werden wir die Lirtie haiten? Hi*/ it* *«ch»

R*d* von tie*

0>*t«

Id** bob*** A