Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture 9782940496013

The book demonstrates not only how and where a range of visual communication skills are needed to inform a design proces

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Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture
 9782940496013

Table of contents :
Chapter 1: Understanding landscapes: Observational drawing --
Travel sketchbooks --
Photography --
Case study 1: Berczy Park
Mapping --
Case study 2: The Fairytale of Burscough Bridge // Chapter 2: Design exploration Design sketchbooks --
The process of conceptualizing --
Case study 03: National Memorial Park design competition
Sketch design
Developmental models Case study 04: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2012 // Chapter 3: Visualizing in 2D --
Evolution of a landscape graphic --
Plan graphics --
Case study 05: Media City
Section/elevation --
Case study 06: Aberdeen City Gardens competition proposal --
// Chapter 4: Visualizing in 3D --
Perspective --
Aerial perspective --
Axonometric and isometric projection --
Case study 07: St. Peter's Square
Presentation model --
Case study 08: Gardens by the Bay // Chapter 5: Implementation --
Working up detail --
Dimensions --
Drawings for contractors --
Case study 09: Private garden design --
Case study 10: Angel Field --
// Chapter 6: Presentation: Audience
Conveying complexity --
Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016
Layout
Format --
Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook
Portfolio.

Citation preview

BASICS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE 03

Trudi Entwistle Edwin Knighton

VISUAL COMMUNICATION FOR LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture

An AVA Book Published by AVA Publishing 50 Bedford Square London WC1B 3DP Tel: +44 0207 631 5600 Email: [email protected] Distributed by Macmillan Distribution (ex-North America & Canada) Brunel Road Houndmills Basingstoke Hampshire RG21 6XS Tel (Home): +44 (0) 1256 302 692 Tel (Home): +44 (0) 1256 812 521 Tel (Export): +44 (0) 1256 329 242 Tel (Export): +44 (0) 1256 842 084 Distributed in the USA & Canada by Macmillan Orders: MPS P.O. Box 470 Gordonsville, VA 22942-8501 Phone: 888-330-8477 Fax: 800-672-2054 Email: [email protected] Returns: MPS Returns Center 14301 Litchfield Drive Orange, VA 22960 Phone: 888-330-8477 © Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2013 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission of the copyright holder. ISBN 978-2-940496-01-3 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Entwistle, Trudi and Knighton, Edwin Basics Landscape Architecture 03: Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture / Trudi Entwistle and Edwin Knighton p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 9782940496013 (pbk.:alk.paper) eISBN: 9782940447534 1. Landscape architecture. 2. Landscape architecture – Technique. 3. Landscape architecture – Practice. SB472.3 .B375 2013 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Design: an Atelier project (www.atelier.ie) Cover image: Olivia Anderson Production by BMAG Production Mgt. LLP, Singapore Email: [email protected]

Location: Island Park, Leeds, UK Designer: Lindsay Robinson The plan graphics illustrate the landform and vegetation used to manipulate surface water run-off to create a biodiverse recreational space.

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Contents

Introduction

06

1 Understanding landscape

8

Observational drawing

10

Travel sketchbooks

24

Photography

28

Case study 01: Berczy Park Mapping

2 Design exploration

44

Design sketchbooks

46

The process of conceptualizing

Evolution of a landscape graphic 78

50

Plan graphics

84

Case study 05: Media City

96

32

Section/elevation

98

34

Sketch design

Case study 06: Aberdeen City Gardens competition proposal 106

60

Developmental models 66 Case study 04: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2012 74

Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture Æ

76

Case study 03: National Memorial Park design competition 58

Case study 02: The Fairytale of Burscough Bridge 42

Contents Introduction

3 Visualizing in 2D

5

Location: Doncaster, UK Designer: John Flinn This photomontage technique uses appropriated imagery to give a loose conceptual impression of the design character, human activities and palette of materials.

4 Visualizing in 3D

108

5 Implementation

140

6 Presentation

Perspective

110

Working up detail

142

Audience

Aerial perspective

164 166

124

Dimensions

146

Conveying complexity 168

Axonometric and isometric projection

126

Drawings for contractors 152

Case study 07: St. Peter’s Square

132

Case study 09: Private garden design 160

Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 172

Presentation model

134

Case study 08: Gardens by the Bay

Case study 10: Angel Field

162

138

Resources

Layout

174

Format

184

Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook

188

Portfolio

190

196

Acknowledgements

200

Picture credits

197

Working with ethics

201

Index

198

6

Introduction

Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture is a vital resource for those seeking to understand not only how and where a range of visual communication skills are needed to inform a design process, but also why they are crucial skills essential for becoming a successful landscape architect. This book is aimed at students and developing practitioners of landscape architecture who seek practical and inspirational direction in the use of traditional and digital representational techniques. It focuses on a broad spectrum of recent student developmental work, balanced with examples from leading practitioners. Visual communication and the design process The structure of this book explicitly embeds representational techniques as an integral part of a creative design process in the way that it is normally encountered, that is to say, as part of a design sequence. Using representational techniques as part of the design process rather than as standalone exercises will help you to better understand their relevance and scope. Visual communication and landscape architecture In common with other designers, landscape architects recognize the importance of having a good idea as well as the creative challenge involved in communicating it: one without the other is not enough. Capturing the character and qualities of this imaginary world (that exists only in the designer’s mind) through persuasive illustrative drawings has the power to inspire audiences and sell ideas.

Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture Å!

Contents Introduction Understanding landscape

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This reflects the designer’s focus on the visual (rather than textual) communication of ideas as part of a universal visual language. We will explore how particular representational techniques can be sensitively applied in a range of contexts, and how they respond to the range of design challenges typically encountered in landscape architecture projects. Landscape architects value a sensitive understanding of the human relationship to the environment; it is therefore important to visualize proposed environments that incorporate the range of human experience anticipated for them. A defining characteristic of landscape architecture is the importance of designing spatially in a wide range of scales in both urban and rural contexts. Equally, representing how designs evolve over time is significant for landscape architects and this fourth dimension includes seasonal change, as well as the longer-term ecological management of landscapes. The visual content for this book has been chosen with the aim of sharing an exciting and comprehensive visual language that establishes the fundamental principles of a range of key techniques. Images were selected primarily to illustrate their role in the design process. Some projects have been implemented whilst others remain design ideas. The rich diversity of techniques examined will help you to explore your own style and develop this with the freedom of your own personal interpretation. This is more important than adopting a formulaic approach as is the constant need to experiment and practise the techniques covered here.

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Hand-drawn and digital techniques

1. Understanding landscape

Knowledge of and skill in a diverse range of hand-drawn and digital representational techniques are essential for landscape architects to engage effectively with a range of audiences. However, representational techniques for illustrating designs can be inspiring as well as challenging. Interestingly, practitioners have identified tensions between hand-drawn and digital representation – a dynamic that we will explore throughout this book.

This chapter establishes the importance of understanding ‘place’ and its ‘genius loci’ as an essential prerequisite to a landscape architect’s exploration of design interventions. This section features observational sketching and the recording and analysing of place through sketchbooks and plan-based graphics.

Structure The structure and content of the book follows the narrative of the design sequence. Themes running across chapters reveal the rich language of drawing as well as the need for a range and blend of media skills and their sensitive application to different parts of the design process. Reference is also made to some key historic precedents, as well as to the wider art and design context, to help inform your understanding of the evolution of current illustrative techniques. Each chapter features inspirational images and includes case studies, tips and exercises to reinforce your understanding of theory and its sensitive application; as well as to encourage experimentation with and proficiency in a broad palette of representational techniques.

2. Design exploration Here, creative thinking and concept development are explored, focusing on designers’ ‘private conversations’, characterized by a range of loose drawings and models to reflect ‘soft ideas/soft lines’ as an initial response to a design brief and site. 3 & 4. Visualizing in 2D and 3D Moving into the public arena, these chapters select key parts of the designer's process to share and sell the idea. They illustrate a range of 2D and 3D techniques, such as perspectives, orthographic projection, scale drawings and models. 5. Implementation Once approved, design drawings are developed further so that a project can be built. This chapter includes refined and accurate contract drawings, and the use of digital media, such as CAD, with examples of detail implementation, including planting and management plans. 6. Presentation The book concludes by bringing together important principles of presentation that can be applied to a range of formats. It illustrates techniques for students to assemble a design portfolio, in preparation for professional practice.

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1 Understanding landscape 1.1 Location: Thames Barrier Park, UK Designer: Alistair W. Baldwin Associates The contrast of coloured pencil alongside white space highlights the play of light and shadow in this formal planting bed.

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The design process begins on site. Developing an awareness of and understanding of the meaning of a place is a fundamental skill for landscape architects because any intervention in the landscape will refer to its context in some way. When designing spaces, it is crucial to know how to read and record them. This chapter explores different ways of observing and recording visual data. The aim of ‘reading the landscape’ is to capture the nature of a range of environments, their threedimensional characters and the processes that affect their development. Observation and analysis both take place when exploring the elements that make up a landscape: the recording and communication of this quantitative and qualitative data is known as ‘survey and analysis’ in the initial stages of a project. As there can be overlap when communicating these two types of data, this chapter will explore the techniques used for both observation and analysis together. The way in which this information is presented graphically and the techniques used are dictated by the site, the aspirations of the landscape architect and the client brief.

Understanding landscape Observational drawing

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Observational drawing

As a student of landscape architecture, you no doubt already have some artistic and graphic ability, such as knowing how to use different media, and how to compose and proportion a drawing. In this section, we will explore various sketching techniques and approaches that can be used to identify and communicate the features, characteristics and qualities that make a place distinctive. The objective here is for you to experiment with expressive ways of sketching that respond to the landscape, rather than aiming to produce artistic masterpieces! Practise is key to distilling an intuitive response to a landscape, and to developing a personal style of drawing and recording your observations. Carrying a sketchbook around is essential! 1.2

A way of seeing John Ruskin (the leading Victorian critic and artist, 1819–1900) saw drawing as the foundation of visual thought. He believed that his mission was not to teach people how to draw but rather how to see. Sketching is about exploring our relationship with landscapes; how we see them, how we record their qualities and what they mean to us. The more we understand landscape, the easier it is to simplify a sketch, editing out detail to emphasize and capture something that photography alone cannot. Sketching is usually one of the most personal parts of the design process and so may not necessarily be used as a communication tool for a client. The full value of sketching goes beyond the start of a design process, so it is essential to practise sketching as an observational tool, too: it will ultimately help you to develop sensitivity and spatial awareness as a designer, which will in turn inform your future design work.

Understanding landscape Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks

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1.2 Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Designer: David Smith A rapid yet accurate sketch from a student sketchbook that highlights prominent features in the landscape.

‘We always see with memory, and seeing each person’s memory is different: we can’t be looking at the same things.’ David Hockney, Artist David Hockney: The Art of Seeing BBC1 TV documentary

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1.3 Location: Ferry Bridge Power Station, UK Designer: Richard Contini Observations don’t have to be a realistic record of space. This simplified sketch captures a personal memory and first impression of place, creating a more powerful and memorable image than a photograph might have done.

1.4 Location: China Designer: Nick Bonner ‘To me it was as much as remembering I was there. The use of line and colour create an exaggerated feel of the place. Through allowing for quirks and mistakes, opportunity and discovery for design are revealed’.

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Observational drawing

Approach

1.5

To compose a view, you need to understand the relationship between objects in a space. The composition of a drawing requires you to translate that relationship into a series of expressive marks. As a designer, it is therefore important to develop an understanding of the fundamental elements of visual expression, including line, tone, texture, pattern, colour, form and space. It is through the construction of observational drawing that we can begin to understand how these elements make up a place, which will then have a major influence on inspiration and visualization within the rest of the design process. These elements can be applied to the composition of both hand and digital techniques.

1.5 Location: Robin Hood’s Bay, UK Designer: Mark Coskie A simple line drawing can usefully edit information. Here, the sketch highlights the character and scale of the buildings in context to the road and backdrop of trees.

1.6 Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Fiona Anderson

‘The capacity to see comes from persistently analyzing our reactions to what we look at, and their significance as far as we are concerned. The more one looks, the more one will come to see.’ Louis L. Kahn Architect

Understanding landscape Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks

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Using lines of soft charcoal can be a way of editing out unnecessary detail by blocking out areas or defining contrast between light and shade. The contrast created here emphasizes depth and highlights the entrance to the woodland space. Dark tones highlight the space between the trunks rather than on individual trees.

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Line

TIPB Where to start?

The line is the fundamental element of drawing. It has its own expressive qualities. At its simplest, a line can outline an object to contour shape or give structure to define perspective and context. Each line has character, therefore it is important to master your hand–eye coordination skills and so develop confidence to express what it is that you want to convey. It is important to practise mark making using a variety of different media.

Before making any mark on paper, you need a firm sense of what it is that you are trying to communicate. Choose a position to draw from that will enable this observation. Decide which techniques and media will most effectively communicate what can be seen. Set up the skeleton of the drawing by placing the horizon line and roughing out the main lines to reveal the rhythm and proportion of shapes and forms. Then start working on the drawing in more detail. Drafting out main lines first will help you to establish a strong structure to your drawing, thus giving you the confidence to use your chosen medium expressively.

Hold your chosen medium lightly and move it freely: a single stroke in graphite can be altered by applying a change of pressure and angle to create varying line weights. Exercise your hand–eye response through short, repeated motions of parallel strokes, wiggles, spirals, spheres and spikes. Through different rendering techniques of line, you can give tone and detail to a drawing to express the three-dimensional nature of space.

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Observational drawing

1.7 Location: York Gate, Leeds, UK Designer: Kate Dowdall A soft 6B pencil lead creates a smooth tone to give form to this formal topiary garden.

1.7

Tone Tone defines the light and dark values in a drawing. Tonal values are created by the reflection of light casting varying degrees of shade and shadow onto a surface. Tone highlights the form of an object, the depth of a space and the atmosphere of a drawing. Many shading techniques can be used to convey tonal values. A smooth gradation of tone can be created through shading. Smooth tones can reveal shade on hard smooth surfaces with no texture, and large areas where detail is edited out. This technique is usually associated with the use of soft graphite, crayon and charcoal.

Understanding landscape Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks

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When using a fine line, such as that created by pen or harder graphite pencil, hatching is the most commonly used technique. This applies the repetition of short parallel strokes to create tone. Prior to starting a drawing, a decision needs to be made about the type, angle and range of hatching so that there is no risk of confusion in the drawing. Density and direction (vertical or diagonal) strokes affect the tonal value. Cross hatching occurs when the parallel strokes cross: this can be ordered at right angles or at random to create a chaotic texture. Rounded random lines also create a tonal value.

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Texture Most elements within a landscape have a degree of texture and detail. Texture is the quality of a surface that light reveals. Perception of different textures, their directional emphasis, density and rhythm can be represented by a series of coherent marks, appearing as simplified patterns. As with any line, whether singular or tonal, a repetitive texture needs to be created with a loose and confident hand. Density of texture influences light, shade and shadow, which is especially important when trying to distinguish different types of vegetation. Over time, you will develop specific techniques to denote vegetation, water, landform and physical structures in the landscape. Try to avoid over-detailing of tone and texture as this can lead to a flat, confusing drawing. You may find it helpful to practise using the techniques of other artists and designers.

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1.8 Location: Derek Jarman’s garden, Dungeness, UK Designer: Alistair Baldwin This monochrome sketch captures the intimacy of the garden, the detail of flora and unique collection of objects. The choice of media brings out the contrast between the black corrugated building and the pebbled texture of the beach. The choice of the close-up view, combined with the use of a sharp pencil, highlights the importance of texture and detail.

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Observational drawing

1.9

Colour Tone can be rendered through colour. Colour has three distinguishing attributes: hue, intensity and value. Hue is the property of a colour determined by the dominant wavelength of light; intensity (also known as ‘saturation’) is the brightness of a colour; value is the lightness or darkness of a colour. The value of colour is the only property that can be represented through black-and-white rendering. Colour media include water-based washes – such as ink – watercolour and gouache, colour pencil, crayon and pastel. As long as you are clear about what it is that you want to communicate, combining different media with colour can offer rich and unique interpretations of tone and texture.

Understanding landscape Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks

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1.9 Location: Leeds City Art Gallery, UK Designer: Mark Coskie Water-based washes are usually applied on top of pen drawings. They can indicate a general hue and tonal value; their transparency can also be used purposefully to obscure detail and highlight the forms established by the pen. This quick-wash technique gives an indication of the tonal value of the smooth, York stone building material, whilst also depicting the mass of the building and its relationship to its setting.

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Landscape as ‘place’ Particular locations have a special quality, significance or function. In other words, they hold some meaning to people, for a range of different reasons, that makes them recognizable and different from other places. This is known as the ‘genius loci’ or ‘spirit of place’. Developing an awareness of place is very important to our growing understanding of the relationship that people have with their surroundings. Kevin Lynch, in his book Site Planning, claims that a designer must understand the essential character of a place in order to reveal its hidden potential. Being able to demonstrate an understanding of place is a key part of a landscape architect’s design process.

‘Whereas “space” denotes the three-dimensional organization of elements which make up place, ‘character’ denotes the general “atmosphere” which is the most comprehensive property of any place.’ Christian Norberg-Schulz Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture

1.10 Location: Dartmoor, UK Designer: Richard Hare Minimizing the line and applying a quick wash in this gesture sketch gives a personal interpretation and memory of a moorland landscape. Reducing the number of lines on a page encourages you to think about which ones are the most important, thereby instinctively making the sketch that much more personal.

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Observational drawing

Time It is important to understand how places change according to different times of the day, as well as to seasons and weather conditions: these changes also influence our perception of place. The activity of sitting down and drawing on-site will enable you to capture such temporal changes. People People convey scale, activity and atmosphere to place. Whether they are individuals, people momentarily passing through, stopping, conversing or gathering into a large crowd, it is important to represent them in your drawing. People can be difficult to draw due to their movement and details, so it can prove useful to simplify the human form. Try to ignore the flurry of detail before you by simplifying the figure as a head, body and legs. Record postures and how people react with one another, as well as how they group or move through a space. Using a larger medium alongside a rapid-sketch technique will help to eliminate detail, for example by using soft, thick graphite or charcoal. Practising this rapid figure drawing will help you to personalize your technique.

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Location: Leeds, UK Designer: John Regan A rainy winter’s day with black, looming clouds adds drama to this sketch. It highlights the warm glow of the building interior, as suggested by the yellow lighting. This contrasts with the dark clouds that dominate the plaza with people silhouetted as they rush through the rain.

‘I know this place; I have learnt over time to understand what it is I am looking at. There’s nothing invisible or hidden beneath the surface. The landscape locates us by place, by time and day. And it is this understanding, knowledge of the visual particularity and the material qualities of the place that inspires and shapes my design ideas.’ Kathryn Moore Overlooking the Visual: Demystifying the Art of Design

Understanding landscape Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks

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TIPB Recording place

1.12

As you sit and draw, examine the character of a place. Whether the drawing is for pre-design work or is just general daily observation, peel back the layers and record processes occurring in a landscape through analysing the following: 1. Perceptual qualities: – visual: surface, form, space, colour, texture, pattern, light and shade; – sounds: wildlife, wind-induced, water, human, machinery (near or distant); – smells: familiar, alien, pleasant, evocative, unpleasant; – touch: rough, smooth, soft, hard. 2. Physical properties: sizes, dimensions, distances, proportions, scale, function. 3. Environmental conditions: light, exposed, open, sheltered, dark, damp. 4. Vegetation: type and influence in space, habitat for animals. 5. Signs of the past: old boundaries, architectural features, industry workings, alterations of stream flow, coppicing. 6. Signs of human intervention: management, erosion, recreation. 7. Geology: ground form, slope, drainage pattern, rock type. 8. Change: anticipate the effects of temporal change.

1.12 Location: Night-time concert, Copenhagen, Denmark Designer: Richard Hare This crowd of people at a nighttime concert has been sketched individually as a silhouette in the foreground and then blocked-in as a group as they recede into the background.

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Observational drawing

Landscape as sequence No place exists in isolation – it is always connected to other places and features to make up a larger whole: for example, a house is connected to a garden, a garden to a street, a street to a park and a park to a city. The usual way in which we experience the landscape is as a sequence of spaces through which we pass en route between different places. Spaces come in different shapes and sizes, and design theory posits that the greater the richness and variety of spaces that we encounter along a particular route, the better the quality of the overall experience. This idea of spatial sequence is illustrated by Gordon Cullen in The Concise Townscape and in Edmund N. Bacon’s diagrams in Design of Cities. This analytical technique can also be used later on in the design process to compare the existing with the proposed user experience.

Understanding landscape Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks

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1.13

1.13 Location: Holy Island, UK Designer: Catherine Quinn Panorama drawing captures wide-angle views. This example captures the essence of a flat, coastal landscape. Including foreground gives a sense of depth and immersion in the space. The size of the sheet allows the freedom to move the media in sweeping gestures to convey wilderness and drama.

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1.14 Location: Glastonbury Tor, UK Designer: Richard Hare These sketches show a sequence around a landscape feature, capturing the change of its appearance from a moving bus. From a distance, the Tor appears as a strong silhouette nestled in a shallow concave valley. On approaching, the outline softens, until the last sketch arrives at the Tor itself. This technique of pencil and wash enables rapid coverage of large areas of drawing, giving both volume and spatial differentiation.

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Observational drawing

Depth Perspective is one of the most important methods for organizing forms in space in order to create an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface. Through using perspective, an object will decrease in size thereby making it appear more distant. Perspectives are constructed by working with vanishing points; any two or more parallel lines will have the same vanishing point. After setting out a drawing, the techniques used to apply detail may also enhance the illusion of depth. In natural landscapes, this method of constructing perspective is less obvious and other methods need to be considered to convey depth. As elements in the landscape recede into the distance, outlines become less precise, details are lost, and texture and colour intensity also fade away. You will see these changes in most drawings, where they are often represented and simplified in three layers: the foreground, middle ground and background. It is essential to understand these layers in order to convey a sense of depth. The foreground will have more pen weight, texture or intensity of colour than the background, which will be less pronounced to enhance a sense of depth.

1.15

1.15 Location: Holbeck Urban Village, UK Designer: John Regan A perspective with a single main vanishing point is a simple method to convey depth between two parallel elements within the built environment.

TIPB Simplifying the image Try half-closing and squinting your eyes to help find layers in the landscape. This blurred view will also help simplify the rendering technique drawn on top of the initial image. Don’t think of the landscape in terms of objects, as we have been preconditioned to do, but instead, look at the spaces in-between. Just as in music, the spaces between the notes are just as important as the notes themselves.

Understanding landscape Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks

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Exercise 1: Conveying depth

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1.16 1.16 Location: Hardcastle Crags, UK Designer: Trudi Entwistle a

b

It is a challenge to define depth within a woodland setting. In this example, the lie of the land and its relationship to the canopy overhead is more important than the individual trees. The foreground can highlight the textures of the bracken and tree trunks, which become silhouettes against the distant background light. Mass and space are represented rather than the form of individual objects.

c

In natural landscapes, how to go about constructing a perspective may not be entirely obvious (image a). However, by observing and sketching the layers in the landscape you will begin to comprehend the range of depth that is present. This is the key to properly expressing the relationship between mass and space. The aim of this exercise is to simplify the way in which a landscape is perceived. 1. Choose a landscape and then, using only pencil line, draw three lines to set out fore-, middle and background layers (images b and c). Use such features as the topography, tree canopy, ground cover, light intensity and colour to define these layers. 2. Copy your initial image three times by tracing or scanning.

3. Apply and exaggerate the required degree of detail to each layer by varying: 1. line weight and tone 2. texture . colour. Practise a different technique on each of the three copies. For example, to apply texture, foreground trees might show the form of branches and also leaf texture; middle-ground trees might be defined only by trunk height and canopy shape; and background trees might simply be represented by smooth lines or block tone representing a group cluster.

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Travel sketchbooks

The start of a process

Annotation

The sketchbook is an essential piece of kit for the landscape architect as a dialogue between the designer and the landscape needs to be established. As well as recording sites pre-design, the designer must also visit and record other designed spaces to expand their visual vocabulary and critical thinking. Carrying around a sketchbook will tempt the designer to sit, sketch and observe.

Exploration of places is personal and documenting observations on-site is essential in order to record them as and when thoughts arise. This is achieved through annotation. Annotations are short, written statements used alongside or within a sketch, both for reference and for use as inspiration during the design process. One word or a short sentence can be enough to trigger a memory.

Designers have their preferences regarding sketchbook size, paper, weight and format: whether it is square, landscape or portrait bound, A6 (5.8 x 4.1 inches) or A3 (16.5 x 11.7 inches), a hardback book or spiral bound. A large sketchbook may allow for more expression with the media used, whereas a small pocket sketchbook may be handier and allow discreet sketching with a fine pen. Sketching is something to enjoy, take pride in and reflect on. Don’t be too precious; a lined diary sketched with a ballpoint pen can be a rich resource too. Sketchbooks may be used for project-specific work, visiting places or as a daily record to develop observation.

These spontaneous comments recorded at the time will reflect your feelings about a place. They can prove useful later on in the process as it is often difficult to remember your thoughts afterwards. For legibility, annotations are usually written in capitals and, if detached from the drawing, a fine vertical line can be used to link text to the subject.

1.17 + 1.18 Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Designer: David Smith This double page from a student sketchbook uses coloured pencil. Here, colour highlights the architectural elements in the distance and a subtle hatching technique distinguishes the water from the grass in the foreground.

1.17

Understanding landscape Å!

Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks Photography

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1.18

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Travel sketchbooks

1.19

1.19

Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Designer: Nika Cufer On these sketchbook pages, the perspectives are complemented by a plan, which clarifies the layout, spatial relationships, shape and scale of spaces. Mixed media of pen, coloured pencil and wash were used effectively to edit out detail.

Understanding landscape Å!

Observational drawing Travel sketchbooks Photography

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2

Analytical drawing Through combining multiple sketches of a place – such as plans, sections and elevations – a more complete picture of a space can be built up. These twodimensional methods of sketching will highlight the vertical and horizontal elements of a space, which in turn will help you to analyse the scale and form of a space – something that the solitary perspective cannot convey. Isometric and axonometric sketches, which are scaled projections from a plan, will also help to reveal the elements that make up a place. This technique is known as orthographic projection (see chapter 3, page 98).

At this stage of the process, elements only need to be sketched in proportion and not to scale, but marking approximate size and dimensions is useful. A sketchbook displaying a combination of techniques will develop into a lively and informative resource for future design work (Chapter 3 focuses on how these representational techniques can also be used as tools for design presentation).

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Photography

In skilled hands, photography can provide a useful aide-memoire of a site which, when combined with other observational techniques described in this chapter, can help the designer to build up a useful first impression.

1.20 Project: Gutenbergstrasse regeneration Location: Ingolstadt, Germany Practice: asom asom

However, photographs can sometimes also contain too much information and it can be all too easy to assemble a jumble of images rapidly, resulting in a superficial understanding of a site.

Photography has been used in combination with quick gesture sketches to highlight the shapes and forms in the landscape. Paul Melia, of asom asom, asserts that: ‘Through this combination of rhyming words and simple outlines, I tried to convey a certain element of sparkle to a somewhat dismal area adjacent to the motorway – an attempt to say that every space has its value!’

In common with sketching, it is important to use photography selectively to edit, focus and creatively convey key understandings of a site. Photography should not, however, be treated as a substitute for hand-drawn sketches.

1.21 Project: Art Gallery Square Location: Walsall, UK Practice: b:d landscape architects Layering information on top of photographs is a simple representational tool that can be used to communicate an analysis of place. This visual of an existing square incorporates future developments and desired pedestrian lines.

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Travel sketchbooks Photography Case study 01: Berczy Park

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Eye level Photography can illustrate accurately the physical relationships between mass, space and detail, but it may not immediately convey the designer’s personal perception of a place without the use of photoediting techniques and other presentation methodology. With the use of digital cameras and software, the designer has extensive tools and techniques to edit and present. Photo-editing software, such as Photoshop, offers tools such as filters, as well as the means to stitch photographs together and to apply layers of text and visual data.

The digital camera, with its moving image, panorama and 3D photography, has made the camera a highly valuable creative tool. Digital technology is constantly evolving and provides exciting opportunities for exploring new techniques; but overindulgence can be time-consuming. Designers should be inquisitive but it is important to balance experimentation with communication to ensure that the message is told simply and clearly.

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Aerial

Project: Site analysis

The use of aerial photography is particularly appropriate when working at larger scales, such as with city regions or rural heritage landscapes. Photographs taken from above, for example from Google Earth, now give the landscape architect excellent quality, up-to-date and easily accessible information about a site. In the initial stages of a project, this can be invaluable in giving the designer a general feel for the character of a site, which then informs the content of more detailed work later on.

Location: Eccles, UK Designer: Lindsay Whitley Historical aerial photography can illustrate and compare changes to the environment over time. Annotation can be overlaid to highlight keypoints.

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With practise, landscape architects are able to interpret a lot of detailed site information about natural and human elements by examining aerial photographs. Changes in the character of a place over time can be studied by comparing current photographs with those from the past. Aerial photographs can also be used as an alternative to traditional base plans.

Project: Eco-home Location: Devon, UK Practice: b:d landscape architects An aerial photograph is overlaid with graphic symbols and simple analytical text. This is a userfriendly way of communicating key information to inform an eco-home development.

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‘The camera is nearly like we see, but not quite. For some people, the “nearly” is good enough. But it’s not, for me, at all.’ David Hockney, Artist My Yorkshire

Case study 01: Berczy Park

Project: Berczy Park Location: Toronto, Canada Practice: Jenny Humberstone and Gehl Architects in collaboration with 8–80 cities Date: 2012 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

Mapping

Theorist William H. Whyte believed in the power of observation. His ‘Street Life Project’ was a pioneering study of pedestrian behaviour in New York’s plazas and streets, carried out in the 1960s. His analysis was based on observational research and behaviour mapping. His research demonstrated how well-used public spaces in the city are vital for community interaction and cohesion, which in turn is important for people’s quality of life as well as for a sense of democracy more generally. His ideas, along with the observational and mapping methods that he used, have been highly influential; they also helped to establish the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) in New York. The methods demonstrated that people’s use of the space was strongly influenced by the path of sunlight as it moved across the plaza. The importance of seating and the adaptability of the space for personal needs, gender preferences and exposure to sun were observed, but ultimately Whyte concluded that ‘what attracts people most, it would appear, is other people’. The example shown opposite is informed by Whyte’s peoplemapping technique. The designers have recorded on plan people’s activities and how they are distributed through the park in different patterns, depending on the time of day. This observational research informed their site and behavioural analysis.

‘Look hard, with a clean, clear mind, and then look again – and believe what you see.’ William H. Whyte The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces

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Photography Case study 01: Berczy Park Mapping

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Mapping is a diagrammatic technique used simply to communicate complex information. It is frequently used by landscape architects to understand and communicate the existing character of a landscape. Mapping exercises build upon on-site observations established through sketches and photographs, in combination with off-site, ‘desk-based’ study. The character of the landscape is assessed by recording natural elements (e.g. ecology, climate, soil, hydrology and landform) and human elements (e.g. settlement patterns and their development over time, buildings and land use, access and modes of transport). This technique can be adapted to a range of scales appropriate to both urban and rural landscapes. Information is then recorded diagrammatically on to a ‘base plan’, which is simply a plan drawn to scale. Layers Landscapes are often complex and therefore data is usually recorded diagrammatically by a series of thematic plans which may include sections. This information is usually presented as separate overlays or layers, with all irrelevant detail removed, before it is all brought together again and summarized in one drawing.

1.24 Project: Ecological survey Location: Amsterdam, Netherlands 1.24

Practice: DRO Thematic mapping of an urban landscape represented by the simple use of block colour and clear graphic symbols overlaid on a base plan, with irrelevant data edited out.

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Mapping

Relationships The landscape architect Ian L. McHarg (1920–2001), in his book Design with Nature, used an analytical mapping technique to identify critical aesthetic, social and physical factors in thematic maps. He then superimposed these on top of each other so that they acted as a ‘sieve’, using layers of tracing paper over a base plan. Using this sieve technique, McHarg attempted to identify and rank the most appropriate land for development, such as routing a highway through a landscape. Today, landscape architects usually present this sort of data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, which has become an industry standard, particularly for large-scale work. This software enables data to be organized in relevant layers that are both flexible and appropriate to the project’s needs.

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Project: Urban analysis

Project: Landscape character assessment

Location: Manchester, UK Designer: Ed Cardwell

Location: Ilkley, UK

This analysis of an urban landscape diagrammatically summarizes key findings from a range of thematic studies. Symbols have been overlaid onto a base plan, which has been cross-referenced into a key.

Practice: Barber, Okubo, Lawrence, Catlow The size of symbols relate to the angle and distance of views in the landscape, which are then overlaid onto an aerial photograph.

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Topography It must be remembered that, as landscapes are rarely flat and include slopes and changes of level, scale models may also need to be used to properly establish the shape of the land and other spatial relationships. Modelling can be built physically or digitally and each will have their different use and merits during the design process. Topography can also be mapped through drawing contour lines on plan. Physical models are a very effective way of communicating topography. Not only are they a good visual aid to understanding levels, scale, orientation and land form, they are also a practical tool to work with later on in the design exploration. As scale enlarges, the particular use of a model as a design aid will change.

1.27 Project: Topographical survey Location: Kibera, Kenya Designer: Jack Campbell Clause This model has had the plan layout of built form laser-cut into the contour levels. This model is at a small scale to show the density and layout of informal settlement pattern on the hillside.

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1.28 Project: Component of visual assessment Location: Lake Coniston, UK Designer: Andy Millard This three-dimensional map has been made using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. It gives a realistic representation of landform, with its 3D qualities further enhanced by the addition of shadow patterns. This digital model can also be reused later on in the design process; for example, the visual impact of new woodland or a wind farm can be established as they are added into the landscape. As a base plan, the model can be quickly spun around so that the design intervention can be viewed from a range of angles to inform and test design work.

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1.29 Project: Shadow analysis Location: Manchester, UK Designer: Ian Morton Microclimate considerations illustrate the importance of the impact of shadows from buildings on neighbouring open spaces. Most 3D software offers the facility to monitor shadow at different times of the day and across the seasons. The technique also helps designers to represent the 3D qualities of an urban landscape.

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1.30 Project: Comparative studies Location: Leeds, UK maroon indicates areas of shade

orange denotes areas in sun

Designer: Matthew Payne A series of aerial photographs of three urban spaces, all illustrated at the same scale, allow quick comparison of size and character.

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Comparison

TIPB Checklists

Comparative studies are a useful way of comparing and contrasting scale and character from similar projects. At a simple level, the comparison might involve using transparent overlays (or tissue studies) of similar successful examples, which are then overlaid onto a scale plan or aerial photograph of the proposed site.

Site data checklists can be really useful to help guide the selection and gathering of key information to inform site analysis. Part of the skill of a landscape architect is to customize a checklist so that only key information relevant to the project is selected. In this way, each project has its own unique database.

Time Understanding how a landscape changes over time, throughout the day and over the seasons, is an important consideration for the landscape architect. For example, recording microclimate, changes of use, importance of vegetation and historical context will inform the value of a place.

Try to avoid the temptation of being overzealous by gathering information for its own sake. The designer needs to ask ‘is this information absolutely necessary?’ and ‘how does this information inform the project?’. It can be daunting for the designer if too much detailed information is gathered early on in the design process, which later turns out not to be relevant to the task. This can lead to information overload for the designer — commonly known in design circles as ‘analysis paralysis’. It’s important to remember that the gathering of information is not an end in itself, but exists to inform the process of design. The landscape architect’s checklist 1. Physical data: geology and soil, water, topography, climate, ecology, built structures, sensuous qualities. 2. Cultural data: resident population and site users, on-site and adjacent activities, site history and future, images. 3. Data correlation: classification of site by areas of similar structure, quality and problems; identification of key points, lines and areas; analysis of current and likely future changes; identification of significant problems and opportunities. (Adapted from Site Planning by Kevin Lynch)

Case study 02: The Fairytale of Burscough Bridge

Project: The Fairytale of Burscough Bridge Location: Burscough Bridge, Lancashire, UK Practice: BCA Landscape, UK Date: 2008 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

Mind map in pen

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What makes a special place can be complex. For this project, it was the cultural and social context, as well as the site’s physical context that intrigued the landscape architects. They researched the town’s rich heritage, unique character and traditional values. They were inspired by the simplicity and functionality of the architecture, as much as by the flamboyant spirit, songs and traditions of the people. Inspiration from the place and its people led to an imaginative interpretation for a unique project. This family tree from the designer’s sketchbook (image a) represents the stories, memories and tales recounted to the designers, as they investigated the multilayered detail of the place and its people. The research process uncovered a rich history including a Viking settlement, a street dance, an American airfield, a medieval abbey, a nature reserve and a bird sanctuary. The project design incorporated aspects of this history by referencing them in the design of customized elements, such as the paving. Their project, rather than being located in one place, stretched through the settlement as a series of episodes (image b). It aimed to reinforce and renew a sense of identity and community.

‘The Fairytale of Burscough Bridge was a working title at first – like an old Brothers Grimm story or a Tim Burton movie – since this was a place filled with tall tales of nine-toed boatmen, window peepers and Grumman Hellcats. Have we managed to catch something of the uniqueness of the place and the people? We sincerely hope so, but only time will tell if these marks we have made on the landscape will add something meaningful and lasting to the unfolding tale of Burscough Bridge.’ Andy Thompson, Director, BCA Landscape

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Mapping Case study 02: The Fairytale of Burscough Bridge

CASE STUDY 02

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2 Design exploration 2.1 Project: Sun, fun, involvement Designer: Denis Wilkinson Drawing doodles can reveal ideas for potential projects or just release the imaginary world of the mind.

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For the landscape architect, visual exploration is a key element that allows for a more tactile and sensual engagement with the generation of design ideas. This chapter highlights techniques used to generate and explore ideas as the designer progresses towards a resolved design. This exploratory process is driven by the designer’s hand, heart and eye, combined with their response to the site and project brief. It is a cyclical process wherein the designer defines problems and opportunities, and develops, experiments and implements ideas and then reflects upon them. The designer’s creative process is both intuitive and rational, recorded using a range of techniques. Drawing is a way of generating inspiration, as well as of capturing important moments. It can be used to help develop thinking, make connections and generate ideas about what’s possible. It’s not too important what a drawing looks like, as long as it allows a conversation to develop.

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Design sketchbooks

Sketchbooks are essential to all artists and designers. Often hidden from public view, this is where designers depict their ideas in the form of a visual diary. Sketchbooks are a place to collect and record ideas, and play with them to drive creativity. This is one place where ideas can be explored through drawing.

2.2 Designer: Nika Cufer This student sketchbook takes inspiration from the textures, colours and patterns of everyday objects that may inform the designer’s abstract interpretation for a landscape project.

Sketchbooks are usually either specific to a project or form a collated sourcebook of ideas – or sometimes they are a mixture of the two! The content and style of a sketchbook will reveal the character of the designer. A sketchbook can be beautiful in its own right and although the drawings may look effortless, it takes time to practise and develop a personal style. The sketchbook becomes a close companion during the design process and also through the course of a designer’s life. Inspiration Design sketchbooks can become great places to archive inspiring images from art, design and everyday life. Yet, the visual vocabulary of a landscape architect is also in constant need of replenishment. Once recorded, visualizations are planted like a seed, which may then germinate during the design process. Currently, some designers use personal blog sites in preference to a traditional notebook to record and make public their thoughts and inspiration (see for example, www.land8lounge.com). They allow the designer to easily add information in a diary-like format, which then creates an active platform for discussion with other designers and disciplines.

Design exploration Design sketchbooks The process of conceptualizing Æ

2.3 Designer: Suzanne Riley These drawings take inspiration from textures found in a woodland landscape. The organization of the images on the page illustrates an expressive approach to a design process used to inform the character of a planting design concept.

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A sketchbook can also be assembled through the accumulation of single sheets of paper, usually to a set format, such as A3 (16.5 x 11.7 inches). These sheets should be collated in a way that represents the designer’s thought processes.

Design development It is not possible to predict when an idea will come, therefore it is essential to grab and record spontaneous thoughts as and when they happen. An idea will not arise if there is no engagement or diligent design process – the sketchbook should create an environment for this inspiration. A design sketchbook inspires a designer’s creative process through (amongst other things) sketches, plans, diagrams, collage, photomontage and photographs of models. These visualizations may be punctuated with text from the designer and together they help the designer to record, evaluate and reflect on individual ideas and their evolution. Sketches can range from simple lines directing thoughts and organizing space, to detailed and sophisticated representations.

Throughout your design education, you will learn the value and importance of recording and collating your design processes in a sketchbook. It is a discipline that you will take beyond your studies into your professional life.

‘When we consider drawing literally as a language, we can recognize it as a fluid, ever-evolving means by which to express, discuss and state ideas or tell anecdotes with a multitude of accents and mannerisms and even with wit.’

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Will Jones and Narinder Sagoo Architects’ Sketchbooks

These images are a selection of drawings from a design notebook. They illustrate a range of techniques used to explore ideas during the design process, such as aerial perspective, plan and section.

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Project: Cathedral Quarter Location: Doncaster, UK Designer: Emma Oldroyd

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The process of conceptualizing

A concept is an idea about the design approach: it is the strategy or underlying theme of a design. The concept is the result of the coming together of site analysis, needs and potential, alongside the designer’s intuitive response. Concepts shouldn’t be fixed or rationalized too early on in the design process. Such simplifications are often too one-dimensional to allow rich explorations of site. Instead, designers need to develop processes of conceptualizing that provide a dynamic framework for their exploration. The purpose of visualizing a concept is to help to explain a complex idea in simple terms. This sets the scene for the designer to carry forward the design process. Visualizations can depict the aesthetic, spatial, experiential, functional or thematic nature of a design. The landscape architect will usually employ a diagram, sketch, collage or model to communicate a concept, which is then developed into a plan or 3D visualization. Drawings, at these initial stages of the design process, are an abstract representation of the idea. Sketchy in character, with a loose style, simple drawings convey the atmosphere without necessarily committing to physical form.

Conceptual ideas and processes may be simplified when the design is later shared with a client as part of the narrative of a project presentation. Visualizing the essence of a concept with graphic clarity can be as memorable and persuasive for a client as the more sophisticated final design drawings. Some noted landscape architects are known for having innovative conceptual skills that have become part of their distinctive approach. For example, Kathryn Gustafson uses drawings to inform three-dimensional models made of clay or plaster as part of a fluid and tactile intuitive design process; whilst Lawrence Halprin’s observational sketches of Californian landscapes in turn informed his design projects.

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2.5 + 2.6 Project: Lovejoy Plaza Location: Portland, USA Designer: Lawrence Halprin

‘The creative process in all the arts needs to become a vital part of the training of landscape architects so that they can develop, grow and mature as artists and human beings.’ Lawrence Halprin Landscape Architect

This is an example of ‘ecology of form’ by Lawrence Halprin from 1969, a noted twentieth-century American landscape architect. He took inspiration from nature, its form and processes in the Californian landscape. In this example, he sketched an aerial perspective (2.6) which documents his observations of nature’s processes along a water course. This was used to create a framework of meaning, and an approach to site for Lovejoy Plaza (2.5), a timeless historical reference that has been an inspiration to many landscape architects.

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Diagramming 2.7

Diagrammatic representation is characterized by graphic simplicity that edits out unnecessary detail. Examples of concept diagrams include: bubble, zone, flow, schematic, system, functional and spatial relationship diagrams. As their names suggest, they show relationships, connections and sequences. The graphic style chosen helps the designer to focus directly on the concept. Through the use of symbols, annotations, images and key words, diagrams can convey the ideas and principles guiding the concept. They are generally typified by the careful use of colour and weight of line to represent and organize elements. Diagrams are not necessarily made to scale and may be illustrated in either two or three dimensions. Because landscape projects can be complex, it may be useful to explore opportunities and concepts thematically before bringing the themes together in an overall concept plan.

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Project: Wykebeck Park proposal

Project: Smith Dock River Tyne

Location: Leeds, UK

Location: N. Shields, UK

Designer: Chris Hughes

Designer: Cherry Tian

In this blob diagram, the project’s functional zones are identified on a simplified base plan. The extents of the zones are loosely drawn using blobs of colour and key words convey their different use and characters.

This student project uses a series of concept diagrams which build upon a thematic analysis. It establishes design principles and strategies to create a green infrastructure along the riverside corridor.

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Sketching a concept Developmental sketches at the initial concept stage give physical form to an idea, making thoughts visible. They are a quick and indicative representation of an idea. Cartoon-like in simplicity, they establish the overall character of the concept without resolving a lot of detail design. Usually, hand-drawn, developmental sketches depict the personality and key elements of the place: in essence, they compose a portrait. Later on, as ideas develop, these sketches can be rendered or combined with handdrawn work to make more accurate and sophisticated visualizations for presentation.

2.9 Project: Media City Location: Salford, UK Practice: Gillespies LLP A design concept for a civic plaza is conveyed in this aerial sketch. It illustrates the sweeping landform and geometry of the new plaza. As more detailed designs evolved, the ‘spirit’ of the concept sketch was repeatedly revisited to ensure that the organic nature of the concept was not lost in translation.

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2.10 Project: Bath Western Riverside Location: Bath, UK Practice: Grant Associates This thematic concept diagram is hand-drawn on an overlay to a base plan. It uses only two colours and key words to establish the principles and elements for an ecological matrix. For clarity, all other information from the base plan is eliminated and only the river is kept to help orientation.

2.11 Project: Groenblauwe Slinger Location: Zuid, Netherlands Practice: Bureau B+B Quickly hand-drawn with a clear cartoon graphic, this concept sketch has a work-in-progress style. The drawing simplifies an idea, capturing the principles of the concept without working to scale. It illustrates potential daily, weekly and monthly cycling and walking routes from residential areas to nearby natural landscapes.

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Collage A collage is an assemblage of materials and images that make a whole new visual. This visual will give an abstract representation of an idea. The composite image is often sourced from influential case studies identified in earlier research, which capture the character of the project. Collage establishes a collection of evocative and representative images, colours and textures, and a palette of materials for inspiration and visual reference.

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Photomontage is a more realistic collage technique, which involves using photographs of the site onto which other photos are then layered. This technique is useful to help understand the character of the design in its context.

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Project: Public competition

Project: Public garden

Location: Paris, France

Location: London, UK

Designer: Edwin Knighton

Designer: Tim Spain

This photomontage makes use of appropriated imagery from other projects and design sourcebooks to convey the visual character of the proposed user experience.

A collection of visual imagery can help feed the designer’s imagination. As visual thinkers, we not only get inspiration from case studies but from a wide range of other sources too. This example is a composite image which layers the site qualities together with abstract representations of images collected from a range of sources to inform the future character of the project.

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Case study 03: National Memorial Park design competition

Project: National Memorial Park design competition Location: Wellington City, New Zealand Practice: Isthmus, New Zealand Date: 2008 Visual communication techniques used: Æ Concept model Æ Photography Æ Photoshop plan graphics

This memorial landscape aims to engage people in a dialogue regarding the national identity of New Zealand. The main design concept was to generate an abstracted landscape formation of hill, bay and headland formed through the interaction of a green blanket with the dominant landscape and built forms of the city. The blanket is symbolic of the domestic in military life, a small piece of home taken to foreign lands to provide personal support, comfort and shelter. The ripples and gathers of the fabric create evocative spaces that offer both prospect and refuge. The green blanket is laid out at the foot of the memorial in a gesture of respect and humility, and provides the ground through which to trace the history of conflict involving New Zealanders. Concept — The concept is illustrated through a number of visual techniques. The photographs of military action reference the historical context (image a), whilst a sketch model (image b) illustrates the vision in an abstract way.

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Plan — The plan was developed by drawing in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and then rendering in Photoshop (image c). At each stage of design development, tracing paper was used to sketch over the plan, which was then brought into CAD and finally Photoshop. This was the design process for the competition: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Research – precedents, site analysis and imagery. Concept generation – imagery and collage. Testing forms and urban context using 2D sketches. Draft plans on tracing paper. Plans created using CAD. D model design development. Photoshop plan. Final modelling perspectives and sections in Photoshop. Layout of presentation boards. Design diagrams. Extra text for booklet.

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At this stage, concept ideas are being explored and design ideas evolved towards a final resolution. Sketch design takes the relatively abstract idea of a concept and refines it at a scale specific to both the site and project brief. Initial ideas are traditionally hand-drawn and for most designers today this is still the quickest way to visualize ideas. As the design develops, drawings will become more detailed and refined. Ideas should move rapidly, exploration should be rich and experimental, and the choice of media and graphic techniques should be chosen to express this fluidity. Visualizing thoughts through computer software packages can help to test spatial ideas, but if the majority of the sketch design work is led by a computer, it can limit the vitality of the design process. Computer software applications are becoming easier to use, which helps to facilitate the 3D representation of more complicated landscape forms that can be used as a base for perspectives in sketch designs. Sketch designs on paper often begin by exploring on plan. It is important that this is complemented with sectional elevations and perspectives to facilitate the threedimensional exploration of landscape design.

TIPB Materials and media • Using thin semi-transparent paper, known as tracing or detail paper, is the best way to explore sketch designs. It is relatively cheap and can be bought in white or yellow rolls or in books. Designers tend to be less precious about their design work when using tracing paper. Its semi-transparent quality makes it easier for designers to develop and evaluate designs quickly when they are partly visible and layered upon the drawing from the sheet below. An additional advantage is that its surface is lightly absorbent, but inks will rarely bleed through. • It helps to use colour in the sketch design phase. Have a limited palette of colours to represent materials – grass, trees, water, paving, walls and so on. Coloured pencil is a good media to help keep ideas fluid. • Experiment with mixing analogue alongside digital techniques; for example, computer software could provide a skeleton for perspective sketching by hand.

Spatial organization The concept needs to be tested at scale by arranging spaces on plan. Within a sketch design, the exploration on plan may start as a simple zoning diagram, but will develop in more detail as the designer works with the scale, use, orientation, enclosure and relationship of spaces.

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2.14 Project: Loch Garden Location: Scotland, UK Practice: Alistair W. Baldwin Associates These sketch designs organize space through experimenting with the drama of the landform and vegetation. Several sketches were drawn at speed before settling on the final plan. The use of pencil and pen over a CAD-based plan enabled the contours to be seen whilst drawing. Vistas are expressed as red lines to connect the domestic landscape to the wider rural scene.

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Design layout After the basic arrangement of space has been resolved, ‘blob’-style diagrams evolve into a more detailed design layout. This stage involves the exploration of the form and fabric which make up a landscape design, with focus on the design and detail of elements, such as structures, landform, vegetation and water. Detailed exploration additionally starts to focus on texture and colour, with the visual character of the space starting to emerge and the finer detail of scale and proportion being developed. It is essential at this stage to use three-dimensional sketches to complement plan-based exploration.

2.15 Project: County Hall Square Location: Wakefield, UK Designer: Gillespies LLP John MacCleary of Gillespies LLP describes their approach thus: ‘Starting with analysis and zoning sketches of the site revealed the functions of the different spaces and the alignment of the bus route. Into the mix were thrown some fixed points: the war memorial, the Hepworth sculpture and the healthy, existing mature trees. Through combining all this information, the sketch emerged relatively quickly.

The form came from the desire to give shape to the pedestrian movement through the site and not allow the road to dominate, as it previously did. Time was very limited, so hand-drawing was chosen as it allowed the designers to work quickly and fluidly. CAD was used only to accurately map roads, bus routes and existing features. Once the commission was won, we moved on to using CAD and SketchUp.’

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Design alternatives Plans are a useful way to present a number of alternative ideas for feedback. Offering an idea using a loose sketchy format early on in the design encourages others to engage and contribute to the scheme before it is fixed. If plans are presented digitally, great care needs to be taken with the technique used for line and colour so that they appear developmental. Sometimes, the graphic style of digital representations can give a false impression to others that a design is fixed, which suggests that it cannot be changed. A better approach is to present design alternatives: a quick way of moving the design forward is to identify a preferred option before then moving on to more detailed design. 2.15

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2.16 Project: City and Islington College courtyard design Location: London, UK Practice: Cracknell For this project, three alternative sketch plans with a simple palette of colours were drawn up to consult with the client and students for the college courtyard.

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Exploratory sketches Alongside the exploration of design layout on plan, the three-dimensional nature of design has to be explored. Unless a designer is confident at drawing rapid perspective sketches to represent their ideas, the use of section, elevation and axonometric/isometric projection (discussed in Chapter 4, pages 126–131) are essential to explore the spatial aspects of design. At a large scale, these techniques reveal the important interrelationships between the horizontal and vertical planes, the scale of the space and how the design sits in its context, including the immediate topography, surrounding vegetation and built form. At a small scale, they explore rich detail, including the textures, colours and habits of plants, the detail and form of structural elements and their relationship to the users in the space. They must be kept sketchy and rapid to respond to design thinking.

‘Being process-orientated, not product-driven is the most important and difficult skill for a designer to develop.’ Matthew Frederick 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School

As design ideas develop and resolve, there will be time to use and try out perspectives to visualize an idea. Three-dimensional computer software programs are particularly appropriate for the construction of complicated forms, which can then be used as a base for quickly hand-drawn sketches. Design exploration Å!

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2.17 Project: East Beach regeneration Location: Selsey, UK Practice: Terra Firma These sketches explore the design of a play area, showing how section and plan can be used together to inform and enrich the design process. The simultaneous use of cross-sections and plans complement each other, which encourages a rapid exploration of the 3D qualities of the design.

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2.18 Project: East River competition Location: New York, USA Designer: David Hooley The quick drawings produced in a sketch design can have an immediacy and liveliness that communicates more powerfully than a finished presentational sketch. The sketch section adds information about subtle level changes which are not as evident in the perspective.

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Developmental models

Physical and digital working models are used by designers to explore ideas and relationships in three dimensions, focusing on either specific elements or the whole design. They can start as simple abstract models making use of materials to symbolize and represent more conceptual aspects of a design. As ideas develop, the models explore three-dimensional ideas in a direct and accessible way that is harder to achieve through pen and paper alone. They can be used to explore a range of design issues: from the arrangement of spaces within the master planning stage; remodelling topography in site design; exploring mass, space and structure; to the refinement and expressive nature of experimenting with sculptural forms. These developmental models are good for tactile engagement with a site, helping you to recall its qualities. Models can initiate a design idea, as well as test or help to visualize an existing one that has been initially developed on paper. Sometimes, developmental models are so effective for spatial communication that they are used for presentation to the client (see pages 74–75).

Hand-made model Making a physical model by hand is an essential skill to apply and communicate ideas within the design process. Materials should always be kept at hand in a studio during a design project, as the designer never knows when they may be needed to explore a three-dimensional challenge. Materials shouldn’t be expensive at this stage: collect various thicknesses of card, different objects, wire and old foam board. As ideas develop, sketches or photographs can record the evolution of the model as elements are added and taken away. Once photographed, these images of models can be used as an aid to draw on, to help visualize more detail of an idea (discussed further in Chapter 4, pages 134–139).

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2.20 Project: Amager Strand Beach Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Designer: Jenny Humberstone Modelling helps to simplify ideas and quickly test the feasibility of a design. This developmental model was created to help investigate initial design concepts for a wooden pier structure.

2.19 Project: Urban Green Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Kerrie McKinnon Models of a site, whether or not made in the survey stage, can be a useful tool to develop design ideas in the site’s wider context, such as the existing landscape or built environment. Within the built environment, models are particularly useful in the planning stage of a project. This model helped the designer to assess the scale of a number of alternative ideas in relation to the built form and layout.

‘Developmental models are deliberately built out of things found in the office, such as modelling clay, wire and cardboard, to underline the fact that the model represents an idea under discussion. These types of materials have very tactile qualities; the opposite of a rendered drawing.’ Paul Melia asom, asom

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• Equipment needed: cutting board, glue gun or strong glue, pliers, metal ruler (with relief top) and cutters (model-making and fine cutting knives), first aid kit. • Non-precious materials are best. You may need: thin, thick or corrugated card, foam board, wire, sponge, scourers and modelling clay. • Use a light to cast shadow onto the model. Shadow and changing light conditions give another dimension to the spaces that you design. • Take photographs of the model as it evolves. This will make you feel less precious about the model when you need to remove or add parts to it. • Photographs of the model at this process stage can form the basis for perspective drawing or be used as a photomontage (see Chapter 4, pages 134–137). • Neutral colours, such as grey or beige, are better for topographical models as shadows and relief will be sharper and deeper. White tends to flatten things out.

2.21 Project: National Botanical Garden of Wales Exhibition Location: Carmarthen, Wales, UK Designer: Trudi Entwistle Modelling helps to simplify ideas, creating a feel for the feasibility of the design. This developmental model helped to clarify and create the strong three-dimensional geometry of a large earth-mounding project. At first, only a few elongated pyramidal forms were made by hand; the rest were added in Photoshop. This image was then put forward as a proposal to the client.

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Form is perceived differently depending on light conditions. The quantity and direction of light and the shadows that are cast upon the surfaces of objects dramatically influence the experience of a space. Shadows elongate and jump over the surfaces of objects and along the ground plane. Definition of shadows will be determined by how sunny or direct the light is. Artificial light at night can also have a big impact on the experience and mood of a place, often lending an extra colour dimension to the experience. This exercise uses simple model making to observe and explore the interplay of light and shadow on form.

Material needed: Card (preferably beige or grey), glue, cutting knife, metal rule, spot light, camera. 1. Choose a three-dimensional geometric shape – cylinder, cone, sphere, square or triangular-based pyramid, cube or cuboid. 2. Choose dimensions (no more than 20cm/8 inches in length and height) and make 8–10 of these shapes from the card. 3. Arrange the shapes on a large white base board (you could try a grid, line, circle, square or random layout). 4. Use a spot light to illuminate your shapes, exploring the range and length of shadows by changing the direction and angle of the light. 5. Photograph your results and observe how the light alters the edges, and the severity and smoothness of the forms. Record how the shadows move and how the mood of the overall grouping of geometric forms change the feeling of the space.

Keep on exploring through experimenting with the following: — cut shapes in the base card to shine light from below; — change the spotlight intensity by cutting a hole or multiple holes in a piece of card and placing it in front of the light; — use a colour filter in front of the spot light; — rearrange the layout of the forms whilst the light is static; — slice the forms in half or cut down the base at an angle to change the tilt of each form; — add texture to the surface of the forms. Explore and record!

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Digital model Digital modelling has a role in developing ideas. It should be intuitive and seen as an exploratory tool in a similar way to hand modelling. You will need to spend time on acquiring a good level of technical competence with digital modelling in order to use it effectively to visualize and explore designs.

2.22 Project: Colour Park Location: Virtual Practice: Estell Warren Landscape Architecture Digital exploration moves away from conventional forms of hand modelling. Some of these forms are more difficult to realize through using plaster or resin. These terrain models and shapes were built in Studio VIZ with Photoshop images draped over.

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Points to consider: • It is usually best to have inspiration in the mind’s eye first and to then start to explore and test it out on the computer. • As with all explorations on a computer, there can be a lack of spontaneity and intuitive response within the design process. • Visuals may look too complete, which can discourage the designer from making changes or trying out other alternatives. • It is still very difficult to develop organic landforms or fluid sculptural shapes on a computer because the technology tends to direct the designer. Modelling clay is still probably the best way to explore, mould and build organic forms. • Don’t get carried away with technology and visual gimmicks but keep focused on the design concept; remember that the CAD software is just another tool in the box.

TIPB The benefits of digital media • It opens a new, three-dimensional world to designers who may lack traditional analogue sketching skills, by offering a technique that can explore the relationship of form and space in a sophisticated way. • Software programs are making it easier to grasp the basic techniques, giving the designer confidence to start an exploratory 3D dialogue. • Modelling techniques can create forms that are difficult for a human brain to conceive. • Computer models made in the developmental stage may be timeconsuming but these can be rendered and produced for presentation drawings, saving time later on.

‘Ideas created for fun, straight out of the head… consider them as playing around that might come in handy for a project one day – in fact, most of the skills we developed to do these have been applied on real jobs ever since.’ Steve Warren Estell Warren Landscape Architects

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Combining techniques A project does not have to be led by a single digital, hand-model or sketch approach. It can be explored through the imaginative interplay of all of these techniques. Whichever methods or combination of techniques a designer chooses to use, the process still needs a rapid and spontaneous approach.

2.23 Project: Proposal for Pocket Park in a sunken roundabout Location: Stevenage, UK Designer: Trudi Entwistle The complicated site lent itself to making a model to visualize the design as one sculptural space. Exploration moved between sketch plan (image a), hand models (images b and c) and SketchUp (image d) during the design process. It was only when the design was accepted that a digital presentation image was constructed in Studio VIZ (image e). a

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Project: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2012 Location: London, UK Practice: LDA Design, UK and George Hargreaves Associates, USA Date: 2008–12 Visual communication techniques used: Æ Developmental model

The Olympic Park is the largest new urban park in London since the Victorian era, and was intended to become a catalyst for the regeneration of East London. The site is divided into a wilder northern half and more urban southern half connected by the banks of the River Lee. This previously canalized river has been designed into an ecologically rich area of wetland, swales, woodlands and meadows to manage flood risk. Sustainability was considered in all aspects of design and delivery. Minimizing waste at every stage of the project resulted in the majority of existing site material being recycled within the park. Thousands of semi-mature trees were planted, setting the scene for the creation of new habitats after the games. A legacy masterplan incorporates future development to keep the park alive and regenerate the neighbourhood. This model (image a) of the Olympic masterplan site was made at the beginning of the project. Originally intended as a working model, it later became an invaluable tool for client meetings and discussions with stakeholders, community groups and planners. An important feature of the model was that it could be viewed simultaneously from different angles (images b and c) to further inform discussion. The landscape architects made other working models during the design process, but this was the largest and most informative model. It highlights the strong visual impact of the earthworks and landscape corridor and its relationship with architectural elements.

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CASE STUDY 04

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3 Visualizing in 2D 3.1 Project: Em’s Place Location: Sarrat, Hertfordshire, UK Designer: Olivia Andersen This section-elevation illustrates the character and use of a range of woodland spaces.

Chapters 3 and 4 are about producing convincing visualizations to convey the character and structure of a designed place. This is important because landscape practitioners win commissions based upon their ability to visualize designs in the best possible way. The chapters are closely linked: two-dimensional techniques are explored in this chapter, followed by three-dimensional techniques in chapter 4. Together, the chapters share a range of persuasive and refined visual presentation techniques used by landscape architects. This stage of the design process is about sharing ideas with others. As always, the project continues to form part of a private conversation, but this now moves into the public arena. Although some landscape architects employ professional illustrators, graphic designers and model makers, they are also expected to have a range of well-developed visualization skills of their own that they can draw on, depending on their style, ability and the time available. Designers must focus on audience needs too, so that they can engage in the design process.

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3.2 Project: Antony House Location: Torpoint, UK Designer: Humphrey Repton Date: 1812 This perspective using ink and watercolour is taken from one of Repton’s famous Red Books. Before and after perspectives were used to compare the vision with the existing site. Shown here is a plan for Anthony House, c.1812 (watercolour on paper) by Humphrey Repton (1752–1818). 3.2

Our graphic techniques are very much dependent upon the tools available to us. It is easy to forget that up until the 1970s, landscape architects relied exclusively on hand-drawn graphics, which resulted in a distinctive graphic style. Landscape architects worked mainly on drawing boards, drawing in pencil and technical pens on tracing paper. Any changes to the design meant starting again or scratching out, before printing out black-and-white drawings. Typography was also drawn by hand, typified by an architectural handwriting style, later superceded by applying adhesive letters. Colour rendering was then applied by hand, using pastels, coloured pencil, crayon, pens and watercolour.

Contemporary graphic techniques derive from a long tradition that stretches back over many centuries. As the landscape profession became more fully established in the twentieth century, distinctive styles of representation emerged. Landscape graphics have also evolved in response to developments in visual culture and technology. They have been influenced by art and design, as well as by the availability of textbooks, communication media and materials. Graphic techniques continue to evolve as digital technology opens up exciting possibilities for today’s landscape architects.

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Project: Birkenhead Park Location: Liverpool, UK Designer: Joseph Paxton, 1803–1865 Date: Opened 1843 An etched plan showing the park’s distinctive circulation pattern. This was the first designed public park, which had a profound influence on Olmsted’s design for Central Park, New York.

‘Ultimately the best design still results from thinking, designing and representing with multiple scales, views and methods.’ Ken Smith Digital Drawing for Landscape Architecture, Bradley Cantrell, Wes Michaels and Ken Smith

The limited number of subject-specific textbooks available up until the 1990s also affected how landscape projects were presented. This led to the creation of a standard but timeless landscape graphic style using technical pens, coloured markers and coloured pencils, which is still used today. Other landscape architects appropriated techniques from art and design, using media more expressively; for example, by cutting and pasting images to make collages.

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3.4 Project: Combe Abbey Location: Warwickshire, UK Designer: William Miller (1828–1909) Date: 1897 A pen and watercolour drawing of a formal garden. The graphics clearly represent the features in the large private park, which include parterres, formal plant beds, kitchen garden and woodland walks.

Towards the end of the twentieth century, things changed dramatically with the advent of accessible computers and the development of design software. CAD and other programs unleashed a new, realistic but perhaps harsh landscape graphic. Experimentation with style was slow at first, as landscape architects took time to grasp complicated programs. Although designers were in a sense liberated from the burden of physically producing drawings, the end result did not necessarily convey character or a lively graphic style. It was only when Photoshop and similar programs were developed that landscape architects had their first real taste of the digital rendering of colour, texture and photomontage that gave personality to a computer image.

As computer software programs became more user-friendly, they started to save designers time, so that more energy could be applied to experimentation with graphic style. Images became not just more realistic but had personality, too. These significant advances in computer graphics marginalized the role of the traditional hand-drawn graphic.

3.6 Project: Moody Gardens Location: Galveston, Texas, USA Designer: Sir Geoffrey Jellicoe (1900 – 1996) Date: 1985 Jellicoe’s impressive and evocative freehand technique uses pen and ink on tracing paper, overlaid with colour pencil. He believed that attractive user-friendly drawings formed an important link between the designer and client.

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3.5 Projects and Locations: Garden design, Beach House, Santa Barbara, USA (top right); Garden design, Duque de Caxias Square, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (top left); Ibirapuera Park, São Paulo, Brazil (left). Designer: Roberto Burle Marx, 1909–1994 Date: 1948/1948/1953 Burle Marx adopted a painterly approach to plans, using gouache on paper for these two projects. The designs display both his artistic and ecological concerns, and created innovative patterns with paving mosaics that make reference to Brazil’s Portugese heritage through the use of native Amazonian flora.

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In current practice today, landscape architects are expected to have a good grasp of graphic software balanced with traditional hand-drawing skills. This has resulted in a wonderful range of hybrid techniques emerging that mix traditional and digital technologies, which have brought life and personality back to landscape visualizations. Nowadays, we constantly swap over from digital to hand-drawings to get the results we want. These new methods have provided landscape architects with a wealth of inspiration from which to explore and develop their own unique style.

3.7 Project: National Mall competition Location: Washington, USA Practice: Michael Maltzan Architecture and Tom Leader Studio for Sylvan Theater Date: 2012 Today, 3D software programs have made the photo-real representation of designs a very real possibility.

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3.8 Project: Botanical Research Institute Location: Fort Worth, USA Designer: Diane Balmori Date: 2010 By creatively working with digital media, landscape architects can create a trademark graphic style to give their practice or project a distinct brand or identity.

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A plan represents a view of a site from above and is a very common type of drawing used to present a design. The plan is a two-dimensional measured scale drawing which has no distortion. It maps out the horizontal aspects of a design, indicating the shape, position, proportion and relationship of elements in space. Some clients and lay people do not always easily understand plans. It is therefore important for the designer to capture a sense of space, scale and context. This needs to be supported by a careful choice of graphic style and the clear use of symbols. There are no set rules to plan graphics but they must be informed by a consideration of audience needs and by the design and scale of the project. Plans are usually accompanied by sections and may be supported by other types of drawings to represent the third dimension.

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Project: North Shore competition

Location: Nelson, UK

Location: Brisbane, Australia

Practice: Landscape Projects

Practice: AECOM, Design + Planning, Australia

This extract from a masterplan illustrates private gardens and communal spaces for a housing renewal project. A Vectorworks plan was used to provide an accurate dimensional base with a more expressive overlay created in Photoshop. The colourful and textural symbols of trees, vegetation and floorscape lend vibrancy to the image.

Project: Whitefield Housing

A limited palette of green tones defines the extent of tree groups and the spread of tree canopies in this example. Lighter green tones are used for grass, which subtly distinguishes the extent of public and private spaces. The plan was rendered in Photoshop, with varying degrees of opacity and absence of texture giving the impression of a watercolour wash.

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Symbols Symbols are used to represent elements of the landscape, which includes buildings, vegetation, landform, ground surfaces and water. Graphic symbols can be integrated with supporting annotation on simple plans. The use of a legend or key can help to organize the components of more complex plans into logical groupings. Annotation can be added to the key so that important aspects of detail are more fully described. The scale of the plan will also dictate which types of symbols are used.

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3.10 Project: Warrior Square Gardens

In landscape architecture, vegetation is usually the key element of a design and includes various types and sizes of trees, shrubs and ground cover. Trees are often represented by a circle or similar indicative shape to represent the spread of the tree canopy. As the tallest element of vegetation, trees normally have the strongest weight of line. Sometimes, they are shown only as an outline or by the tracery of branches which enables the shrub and groundcover layers to be seen underneath.

Location: Southend-on-Sea, UK Practice: Gillespies LLP The designer has chosen to represent existing mature trees in winter with simple silhouettes. This gives an uncluttered feel to the design and complements the simplicity of this recomposed English garden square. The plan was rendered in Photoshop at a 1:200 scale.

A cluster of trees or mixture of shrubs may be represented by overlapping groups of circles of different sizes, or they can be blended together to create a block of vegetation. Ground-cover plants can be defined by a much finer outline, less texture and by the use of less opaque colour. Finally, by adding texture through hatching, tone through colour and differentiating the weight of line, the overall qualities and subtle detail of vegetation can be fully communicated.

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Layers There are multiple layers and many elements to a landscape. For this reason, it is often not possible to show all the required detail in a single plan. For presentation purposes, the landscape architect needs to edit information and decide which style will convey the vision and character of their design in context. It is important to consider the weight, density and opacity of line, as well as tone, texture and colour when building up different layers within a plan. Using semi-transparent tones can help to reveal elements that would normally be hidden from view.

3.12 Project: East King Gardens Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Anthony Hodgson Simple blocks of colour represent the extent as well as the main elements of the design. This contrasts with the muted tones used to indicate the site context. Some buildings are blocked in white to communicate their importance and relationship to space. Blocks of colour tend to be used in large-scale strategic design to define areas and highlight spatial relationships rather than to illustrate character.

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Shadow Although plans do not deal directly with height, plan graphics should try to capture some sense of depth. Whereas line weight can define the solidity or density of an object, tone and texture may also contribute a three-dimensional quality to a plan. Dropping shadow from vertical elements on a plan will enhance depth and indicate the relative height of an object.

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Shadows can also communicate the form of other elements, such as stairs, topography, or low-lying vegetation. The stronger the shadow, the greater the threedimensional effect on the plan. However, take care that shadows do not dominate or confuse the rest of the plan graphics.

3.13 Project: York Gate Location: Yorkshire, UK Designer: David Smith Coloured pencil has been skilfully used to give a three-dimensional quality to the woodland mass. The textures represent the shade within the foliage mass of the trees. 3.14

3.14 Project: Bowcliffe Hall Estate Location: Bramham, UK Practice: Alistair W. Baldwin Associates Shadows cast by built form and vegetation convey a sense of depth. The shadows are rendered in lighter tones than the objects.

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Context Landscape architects design holistically to help ensure that a design fits well with its physical context. They demonstrate this design philosophy by showing their design as well as its relationship with its setting. For example, this could include physical connections beyond the site, such as a river or footpath network; or visual connections, such as a vista to a distant hill or building. The physical context for a design should be represented on drawings in a subtle way, so that it does not detract from the design itself.

3.15 Project: Harlow town centre regeneration Location: Harlow, UK Practice: MacGregor Smith At a site design scale, information on context can include detail such as links to buildings within a site or routes linking the site to its neighbourhood. This AutoCAD plan was rendered in Photoshop. Texture was added by scanning hand-coloured swatches and fragments of photographs, which were then digitally cut and pasted into place.

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Scale Landscape architects use a wide range of scales. Scale is defined by a ratio of distance on the plan to the corresponding distance on the ground. An appropriate scale is selected by the designer depending on the size of the site, the stage of the design process and the type of information that they need to convey. At a scale of 1:1000 or larger, plans can communicate the strategic planning and design framework for a project, which may include the organization and relationships of key elements, such as built form and landscape infrastructure, which will provide the overview for more detailed design later on. 3.16

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Project: Beckside Park

Project: Stanbridge mill house

Location: Llanelli, South Wales, UK

Location: Dorset, UK

Practice: Macgregor Smith Scale: 1:2500 This masterplan is for a 15-mile strip of Carmarthenshire coastline. It is drawn at a scale of 1:2500. An AutoCAD base was used and then handdrawn overlays were scanned into Photoshop and blended together with the base plan.

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Practice: Arabella LennoxBoyd Scale: 1:1000 This masterplan is for a private estate. The design included extensive tree planting, and the restoration and improvement of water meadows in conjunction with a management plan for wildlife and wetland areas. The plan is hand-drawn in ink and rendered with coloured pencil. Symbols are simple and a smooth shading tone displays a sensitive response to the landscape.

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1:500 to 1:1000 3.18

A scale of between 1:500 to 1:1000 is used for the overall site design of large projects, such as rural masterplanning, large gardens and city parks. It is still too large a scale to explore aspects of detail, so the designer will focus on the function, layout and experiential aspects of spatial design. Graphic techniques are chosen to define the relationships of mass, space and landform; such as scale, density, enclosure, circulation, access, sequence, and visual and physical links.

Project: Kirkleatham Location: Kirkleatham, UK Practice: Estell Warren Landscape Architecture Scale: 1:500 This plan has simple graphics and uses block colour to show the relationship of mass and space, as well as different vegetation types.

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3.19 Project: City Green Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Stefan Koenig Scale: 1:500 In this project, the student uses more intricate detail at a scale of 1:500 to show floorscape texture, colour, vegetation and earth mounds. The buildings are left uncoloured so that they form a discrete element of the drawing whilst still providing context for the landscape project.

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3.20 Project: Bath Western Riverside Location: Bath, UK Practice: Grant Associates Scale: 1:250 Colour and texture help to reveal the quality of the fabric of the design through the use of tone and shadow, which also helps to convey depth. Elements included in the design of this residential area were communal gardens, lawns, fruit and vegetable plots, and sensory planting beds.

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TIPB Essential plan components

1:100 and 1:250 Scales between 1:100 and 1:250 focus and reveal the layout of smaller areas of design. At such scales, vehicles and people can be represented, which helps to give a sense of scale. Circulation patterns and access into buildings can be shown. Texture and colour can start to reveal the inherent characteristics of landform, the palette of materials and types of vegetation. Shadow and subtle line-weight variation may start to define depth.

• A north sign – whenever possible, orientate your plan so that north is at the top.

1:20 and 1:50

• Indicate the scale in relation to the size of paper; for example, 1:500 @ A0 (46.8 x 33.1 inches).

Scales between 1:20 and 1:50 show precision in detail design and the use of the palette of materials. This can include surfaces, finishes, junctions and edging, drainage, changes in levels and detail of structures. The texture, shape and habit of individual species in planting schemes are also revealed.

• If you have a series of drawings at different scales, orientate them consistently so that north is always in the same direction. • Scale – draw the linear scale on your drawing so that it is still possible to accurately dimension if the drawing is enlarged or reduced.

• Legend/key for more complex drawings. • Annotation – wherever possible, labels and information should be provided directly on plan rather than on the legend. Carefully consider the hierarchy and line width of text so as not to confuse the overall plan graphics. • Context – include relevant surroundings.

3.21 Project: Leicester Square Location: London, UK Practice: Gillespies LLP Scale: 1:50 At this scale, the designer can reveal detail in a realistic way, accurately depicting the design elements and arrangement of a palette of materials. This plan shows much detail, such as the coursing of paving and its junction with other materials and elements. The drawing was made on an AutoCAD base and rendered using Photoshop as part of a design proposal to rejuvenate a major city square.

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Case study 05: Media City

Project: Media City Location: Salford, UK Practice: Gillespies LLP, UK Date: 2009 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

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A sequence of green spaces were designed for this new media city. Shown here is a refinement of the design idea developed from the concept sketch. The 1:250 scale plan (image a) shows the park within its immediate context. The graphics employ colour and texture to reveal the characteristics of material and vegetation. As the site design zooms in further, to a scale of 1:100 and beyond (images b and c), layout and arrangement of materials become more evident. This series of plans were created using AutoCAD line work which were then rendered in Photoshop. As Photoshop uses raster graphics, it is important to consider the output scale when using this method. A simple rule of thumb is that if you require an A (16.5 x 11.7 inches) output, you should set up your Photoshop drawing to be A at a reasonable resolution. The more you scale up the output from this default, the more pixelated the image becomes. Here, the overall plan needed to work at varying scales, so it was created at a high resolution for a large paper format (1:250 @ A0/46.8 x .1 inches). Some of the close-up plans also had to be created as stand-alone drawings at an appropriate scale, to ensure sharpness and to add more detail into the rendering. Adobe Illustrator offers an alternative to Photoshop when tackling the issue of pixelation due to zooming into a plan; but unlike Photoshop, Illustrator uses vector graphics, which allow you to zoom into a close-up view and achieve perfect sharpness. It also allows greater ability to revise imported line work. Output is still a consideration as the plan will need to be rendered to a suitable level of detail.

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TIPB Raster versus vector • Raster images are based on grids of pixels, therefore clarity is lost when magnifying an image. The higher quality and resolution an image is, the smaller and closer together the pixels are. Raster images are more commonly called bitmap images and are generally used for image editing. • Vector-based images are composed of vectors, also known as paths or strokes. Vector images can be scaled up without affecting quality. Vector graphics are suitable for page layout, type or illustration.

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A section is a scaled two-dimensional drawing that represents a vertical slice through a site. A section-elevation includes objects not directly on the line of the section, but behind the line, that the designer wishes to include to show context. These additional objects are drawn true to scale: there is no foreshortening and distortion. Section-elevations are a powerful tool for conveying the vertical elements within a site. This vertical measurement may be exaggerated if vertical features are too small to identify relative to the horizontal. If the horizontal and vertical scales are different, this should be clearly noted on the drawing. The profile ground line should represent the rock, soil or ground below, and be drawn boldly to give the section solidity. Understanding what makes up this profile underneath the ground level assists the choices made in the design above the ground. Plan, section and elevation are known as orthographic projection. Orthographic projection creates a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object or site. They are measured drawings produced to scale.

TIPB Working with the section line • The profile of the section line is often represented by a bold, thick line or a solid colour to contrast with, and clarify, the detail above and beyond. • Objects not on the section line do not change in scale but are represented by reduced line weight and less opacity as you move away from the section line. This helps to give a sense of depth. • Section-elevations have a strong relationship to plan and are usually aligned with the plan. Indicate the location of the section by drawing a line on the plan. The end of these lines are marked with letters or arrows in the direction of the elevational view. • It is worth spending time to set up the section line correctly. Use the plan to guide the horizontal section distances and set a scaled height bar at the side of the section to set up vertical heights (see Exercise 3 on pages 104–5).

Major facets of a subject are typically orientated parallel to the picture frame and hence no foreshortening occurs. Axonometric drawings (discussed in Chapter 4) are also a type of orthographic projection.

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3.22 Project: Sketch sectionelevation Location: Johor Bahru, Malaysia Practice: Mark Fuller, AECOM, Design + Planning, Australia This section-elevation shows the relationship between the landform, vegetation and buildings. The inclusion of people provides scale and suggests the activities provided by the design. As the drawing technique communicates clearly, only minimal annotation is needed.

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Landform It is rare that a site is completely flat. Consequently, it is important to show how any change in the level of a site will influence enclosure and divide space. Changes of level on the surface of the land can range from steps to undulations of the natural landform. Proposed changes to the existing landform can be drawn on the section line, which is useful for comparison. A different graphic or weight of line should be used to distinguish between existing and proposed profile.

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3.23 Project: Houndswood Housing Location: Somerset, UK Practice: Grant Associates This section-elevation demonstrates how the richness and diversity of the landscape character is introduced into a relatively flat landscape by using subtle changes in level and blocks of vegetation. The cross-section illustrates the benefits of integrating SUDS systems and a mix of planting types within a new neighbourhood.

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Case study 05: Media City Section/elevation Case study 06: Aberdeen City Gardens competition proposal

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3.24 Project: SH1 Transmission Gully Location: Wellington, New Zealand Practice: Isthmus This section-elevation is part of a series of images which illustrates the impact of a road profile in different parts of a mountainous landscape. The model behind the profile line was created with a 3D software program. The dashed line represents the existing landform of the mountainside. Leaving white beneath the section line can be as powerful as using a thick black line to define the cut.

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3.25 Project: Chaumont Festival des Jardins Location: Chaumont, France Practice: b:d landscape architects

Plants in elevations Vegetation and structures make up the fabric of a landscape design. Elevations are a great way to show the height, width, density and form of these vertical elements in relation to how they influence the spaces that they enclose.

This elevation conveys the vibrancy of colour against the undulating dynamic of earth-mounded planters. A photograph of the adjacent castle, with 50 per cent opacity, puts the design in context. AutoCAD was used to lay out the section and then a watercolour wash was placed over the section to create life and texture. The whole image was then taken into Photoshop to add realistic people, trees and site context.

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Case study 05: Media City Section/elevation Case study 06: Aberdeen City Gardens competition proposal

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Project: New Country House proposal

Project: Island Park

Location: Gloucestershire, UK

Designer: Lindsay Robinson

Designer: Alistair W. Baldwin Associates

Section-elevations are good at communicating things face-on with no distortion, such as the design of building facades, features and planting beds. Here, the elevation illustrates the diversity of planting, as well as its form, colours and textures.

This large scale section-elevation shows how a new building has been sensitively set within a woodland context. The absence of colour below the section line highlights the subtle changes to the existing landform.

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Location: Leeds, UK

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3.28 Original drawing from: AECOM, Design + Planning, Australia Location: Australia This illustration shows the degree of rotation and skew of plans for an axonometric, isometric and an aerial perspective before lines are projected up: a. shows levels; b. indicates objects on the section line; and c. illustrates objects drawn behind the section line.

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Case study 05: Media City Section/elevation Case study 06: Aberdeen City Gardens competition proposal

Exercise 3: Constructing a section-elevation

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The section-elevation shown on the facing page was constructed by initially establishing the major level changes and then colour rendering the main objects that cross the section line. All objects behind the section line are drawn without distortion with a finer pen line. This exercise describes how to set up a section-elevation by hand, by using a plan to align horizontal measurements and a height bar to set up vertical lines.

1. Choose a plan drawing with some interesting level changes. Adjust the scale of the plan, if necessary, so that the information you want to communicate can be appropriately shown. Carefully consider vertical level changes. If the scale is too large, the vertical height may not be visible or useful.

4. Draw a vertical line at the side of your baseline and mark on evenly spaced height measurements (image a). Spacing of the measurements depends on the scale of the section and how detailed you want your section to be. Draw horizontal lines from these measurements to cover the length of the section (as in image a).

2. Decide where a section line will slice through your plan. Orientate the plan so that the section line is horizontal and fix the plan in place. Mark the key spot heights on the plan.

5. Working from one side of the plan to the other, use the vertical edge of a set square to transfer major ground-level changes on the plan to the appropriate height. Join up the points to establish the landform of the section (as in image a).

3. Draw a horizontal baseline below the plan, allowing enough space for vertical projection. Set the baseline as height zero (as in image a).

6. Now, all objects that hit the section line on the plan can be drawn on top of the newly established landform. Make sure that the objects are drawn with a heavier line weight or blocked in with colour (as in image b). . Draw outline of objects with no distortion and less detail behind section line (image c).

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Case study 06: Aberdeen City Gardens competition proposal

Project: Aberdeen City Gardens, competition proposal Location: Aberdeen, UK Practice: Mecanoo Architecten. Cooper Cromar. Ian White Landscape Architects Date: 2011 Scale of plan: 1:500 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

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This plan and section-elevation were part of a presentation for a competition entry to design a ‘Green Heart’ city park for the centre of Aberdeen, Scotland. The brief for this four-hectare public garden included a contemporary arts programme, conference facilities and parking. The design proposed a large decorated grassed area that plays host to a multitude of events and users; from picnics to giant public performances, from frisbee games to art biennials. The garden has a central, open field framed by a more densely planted upper garden. The upper garden rises up as the public art centres surface above street level. The section cuts through the centre of the park, from west to east, looking north. Below the surface in grey, the cut reveals a car tunnel beneath the park. The section-elevation highlights the subtle undulations of the central area in relation to the scale of the trees, open space and the context of adjacent buildings. The context of the surrounding city is kept white and detail is edited out to highlight the richness of texture and colour of vegetation in the green park. The graphic style is similar for both the section and plan, allowing them to be easily read together. Shadow is added to the buildings on plan so that scale and the orientation of the plan can be immediately understood. Using Rhino D, Photoshop and Illustrator with these particular graphic techniques enabled the designers to achieve the clean and accurate lines of the buildings and pattern, together with the texture and painterly quality of the soft landscaping.

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Section/elevation Case study 06: Aberdeen City Gardens competition proposal

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4 Visualizing in 3D 4.1 Project: Meadow proposal Location: Danevirke, Germany Designer: Bureau B+B As elements in this landscape recede into the distance, outlines become less precise, and colour and opacity fades away to highlight foreground detail and create a particular mood to this perspective.

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Linking closely with chapter 3, this chapter will focus on the visualization of design ideas in three-dimensions, and will examine perspective, axonometric projection, aerial perspective and presentational models. Three-dimensional representations present a more realistic view of actual space and so are an accessible way to understand a design. A huge range of graphic techniques can be applied to 3D visualizations, from simple line sketches to photorealistic representations. Tenacity is required, as some of the more sophisticated techniques can be quite time consuming or may need several attempts before you are finally satisfied with the results. However, a seductive presentation drawing will not compensate for a poor design and poor drawings may obscure a good design: it’s worth remembering that simple drawings can be just as effective as complex ones. Equally, great presentation drawings can be the product of recycled designs or developed sketch design work; sometimes, however, reworking drawings can result in them losing their vitality and character.

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Perspective

Perspectives are three-dimensional drawings represented in a twodimensional plane. They communicate a realistic representation as perceived by a person within a design. A perspective drawing aims to capture the character of a place at an optimum time and maturity in the life of a design. For people who find it difficult to read a plan, section or elevation, perspective may prove to be a more readily accessible format and so perspective drawings provide an invaluable tool with which to communicate a design. They contribute greatly to the suite of drawings that a landscape architect creates.

Setting up Setting up a perspective involves correctly scaling and positioning the layout of objects in the third dimension. Only a handful of designers possess the natural ability to visualize and sketch on to paper a perfectly proportioned perspective directly from their mind’s eye. It is therefore important to master some basic methods of constructing perspective by hand. The most conventional method used is a ‘measured perspective’, which uses the plan as a basis for setting up. Many textbooks are available that give a step-by-step guide to setting up a perspective from a plan; however, this method can become very technical and time-consuming. A more intuitive freehand approach is to use the basic principles of one- and two-point perspective and to estimate the position and relative size of objects by using a grid for reference. A quicker way of constructing a perspective is to trace on top of a photograph of an existing site. Although software programs are making it easier to visualize designs and aid the setting up of perspective drawings, there is still a need to understand the basics of perspective. Render Once a perspective is set out, a technique must be chosen to render the drawing to enrich a sense of depth within the design. Whether digital or hand-drawn, designers must consider the principles of line, tone, texture and colour to render detail. Take care not to lose the life and vitality of sketches. Do not attempt to fill in every bit of detail: the skill is in deciding which detail to edit out and which to keep.

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4.2 Project: Victoria Park restoration project Location: London, UK Practice: LDA Design This perspective was set out by tracing over an existing photograph. The drawing was then photocopied and coloured with markers and pencils. It maintains a loose, sketchy feel, appropriate to illustrate the general look of the proposal prior to establishing the precise detail. Through reducing detail in the foreground, the eyes are focused on the richness of colour and texture in the background.

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4.3 Project: ‘Chips’, residential development Location: Manchester, UK Practice: Grant Associates This quick sketch was produced to convey an idea for a design team meeting to discuss ‘Chips’, a project to develop innovative landscape spaces between residential developments. It consists of a simple one-point hand-drawn perspective taken into Photoshop to add blocks of colour. The whole process took around 15 minutes! The addition of limited colours cleverly draws the eye towards particular features in the space.

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Photomontage and digital rendering The most common technique used to build up and render a perspective is to add texture and colour by cutting up and joining together a number of photographic images and textures. This process is known as ‘photomontage’. These assemblages of images can range in style, from a sketchy cut-and-paste collage to a seamless photoreal impression. Digital software has expanded the range of possibilities for combining images, and the Internet provides a limitless resource for finding textures and objects to use in montages. Build your own stockpile of imagery that can be used and reused in photomontages, and store them in subject-specific files. For example, vegetation could be saved under ‘type’, ‘habit’, ‘foliage’ or ‘seasons’. People could be stored in files marked ‘people sitting’, ‘running’, or ‘children’. Photographing aspects of the original site is important to place the image in context. Photographs, textures and colours can be mixed with hand-drawn sketching to produce an effective hybrid montage. Dropping shadows into photomontage adds realism.

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4.4 Project: Courtyard Location: Crystal Palace, London, UK Designer: Sîan Jones A perspective can be built up first by hand with photographs later layered on top. In this example, the sketch dominates the overall quality of the perspective with the montaged vegetation and people providing important secondary information. The style has a cut-and-paste feel to it, which gives it vitality. 4.6 Project: Next Wave Location: Bexhill-on-Sea, UK Practice: HTA Landscape Design In this montage of a coastal park, people add depth and indicate potential use of the space as they look towards the sea. To aid this impression, the tone of the people and the overall detail fade into the distance.

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TIPB Photomontage Photomontage with digital rendering is an enjoyable and intuitive process, but take care:

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• Don’t be drawn into visualizing your designs in an overly perfect way, or masking the true reality of the design. For example, happy people, sunny days, lollipop trees and pristine environments visualize a potentially real scenario but might also gloss over a poor design. Remember: you are selling a sophisticated design idea to an informed client – not selling a lifestyle to a naive public.

Project: King’s Cross Square competition

• Use images of real people, not models. • Make sure that you maintain the correct scale and perspective when pasting images.

Location: London, UK Practice: Landscape Projects This quick montage-style graphic enabled the designer to assemble a visualization that gave a characterful impression to the design.

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• Be aware of any copyright issues surrounding the images that you are thinking about putting into your perspective. Simply copying images without thinking may incur charges of plagiarism.

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Perspectives from 3D modelling Computers are making it easier to visualize designs three dimensionally. It may take time to learn how to use a particular software package but, once mastered, a valuable tool is gained. The advantage of building a three-dimensional model is that the end result should provide a quick and easy way to visualize and present a number of views to a client. Again, like most graphic techniques, style can range dramatically from building up basic forms and applying textures to photorealistic rendered representations.

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Project: Cambridge and Harrow Street public realm improvements Location: Moorthorpe, UK

Three-dimensional modelling software renders an image with tiles for texture and templates for objects. These can be easily obtained from the software package or through modelling websites. To add more detail and photorealistic atmosphere, plug-ins are available to complement packages such as SketchUp. Building a simple digital model of the basic form and level changes within a design can assist in setting up the framework for drawing a perspective on top, by hand, or by rendering in another graphic software program.

Practice: Estell Warren Landscape Architecture This image creates a clear, unfussy picture for the client. It was used to visualize design proposals for street and open-space improvements. SketchUp drawings were used for speed, efficiency and ease of changing images in response to community consultation.

4.8 Project: National Mall competition Location: Washington DC, USA Practice: Gustafson Guthrie Nichol and Davis Brody Bond for Union This photorealistic perspective was constructed and rendered using 3D modelling software. A lot of hard work is required for this type of visualization but this is often needed to sell an idea, as with this competition entry. Visualizing in 3D Perspective Aerial perspective

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4.10 Project: Wind farm Location: Llandinam, Wales Practice: Gillespies LLP As part of planning applications and environmental statements, landscape architects assess the visual impact of major developments in the landscape, such as wind farms, estuary barrages, highways and buildings. Here, a wireframe model maps out the existing topography and the location of proposed wind turbines. The follow-on montage assesses the turbines’ actual visual impact in a photorealistic way.

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4.9 Project: The Blue Ribbon Location: London, UK Designer: Philip Dugdale The first image shows the design built in D CAD using basic white building blocks, determining the general perspective. This view was then transferred to Photoshop to photomontage a backdrop, building facades, vegetation, water and people.

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4.11 Project: Richmond Castle Cockpit Garden Location: Richmond, UK Practice: Landscape Projects This contemporary heritage garden was designed to evoke the rich history of Richmond Castle. The images show part of a sequential walk through the upper garden. Hand-drawn thumbnail sketches, partially rendered in Photoshop, produce a strong outline that was quick to construct. The introduction of colour helps to create continuity between the images so that they are perceived as a sequence.

4.12 Project: Hampton Court Flower Show Location: London, UK Designer: Matt Noakes and Matt Jarvis A perspective viewed in isolation may not fully characterize the experience of a design. Places are designed as a series of spaces and therefore a series of perspectives visualizing a route through and around a space may represent the most realistic experiential interpretation of a design.

Visualizing in 3D Perspective Aerial perspective

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These images visualize a 60° sequence around a show garden. In the sequence, the floor, wall, hot tub and glass screens are coloured red to highlight the simple sculptural qualities of each element as you move around the garden.

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Time and place A perspective captures key moments along the timeline of the life of a design. It is important to think about time, whether daily, seasonal or long-term. Time will alter qualities such as light, colour and texture. Form will change as vegetation grows. The use of a design will also be different and perspectives are an immediate way of capturing this change of use. There are some simple techniques in Photoshop that transform an image from day to night. There are many video tutorials on the Internet that provide clear and simple step-bystep guides on how to achieve this.

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4.14 Project: Center for Novo Nordisk Location: Bagsværd, Denmark Practice: SLA It is crucial to show a perspective during different seasons. This pair of perspectives not only illustrate the change in colours as the place is covered in snow, but highlight how different native vegetation types will change and influence the character of the space.

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4.13 Project: City Park Location: Bradford, UK Practice: Gillespies LLP; images Ian Denby ltd At the heart of this city park is a mirror pool that can change hourly and daily in size and form. The two perspectives visualize how changes in water level can affect the character and activity of the space during the day and at night. They were created in Photoshop over a fully constructed D digital model. Convincing photorealistic images were needed to promote the design to the public, client and fundraisers.

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Before and after The strength of a design idea can be reinforced by comparing a perspective of the idea to a photograph of the existing site.

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Project: Housing redevelopment Minucciweg

Project: Landscapes without Livestock

Location: Ingolstadt, Germany

Location: North York Moors, UK

Practice: asom asom

Practice: LUC

In this residential improvement scheme, the perspective of a proposed design has been simply drawn in pen. It proves a quick and effective way to illustrate the addition of simple blocks of vegetation to both screen and green the place. The black-and-white photograph contrasts well with the coloured sketch to highlight the ‘before’ and ‘after’ appearance.

This before-and-after view envisages how, over a period of thirty years with different planting and farming methods, the character of this upland landscape will change. It illustrates how if current trends continue, there will be a reduction in grazing animals and an increase in woodland for energy production.

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An aerial perspective, typically known as a ‘bird’s-eye view’, is another useful way to look at a design from above. It is a perspective which gives a true-to-life impression of flying above the site. It is similar to constructing a perspective, but the horizon line is much higher. Whereas an eye-level perspective provides a better feeling of occupying the site, elevated perspectives tend to distance the viewer and give them a better overview of the whole site. These views are easily understood by clients, and are particularly useful for sketching over as this makes design discussions more of a spatial exercise than they would be otherwise.

4.1 Project: York Gate Location: Leeds, UK Designer: David Smith The perspective vanishes to one point on the horizon line behind the main house. The image shows the strong geometry, hedging and walls which divide the garden into a series of rooms. Mature trees are semi-transparent to reveal the space behind. The pencil crayon is soft and creates a smooth tone.

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4.18 Project: Neighbourhood growth strategy Location: Mount Gravatt, Australia Practice: AECOM, Design + Planning, Australia This example of a topographical map, projected as an aerial perspective, helps to communicate the spatial relationship between built form and the natural landscape on a large scale.

4.19 Project: Crewe Town Centre Location: Crewe, UK Practice: TPM Landscapes A typical birds-eye perspective, viewed as if you were flying overhead looking down onto the site. In general, the technique assumes that there is a notional vanishing point behind the plan. The plan stays the same proportion and scale but objects diverge as they rise higher.

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Axonometric and isometric projection

This section focuses on different ways to project a scaled three-dimensional view from a scaled plan. These projections place the viewer in an elevated position, and are useful to show the relationship between several sides of the same object, whilst keeping all elements to scale. The most commonly used projections in the landscape architectural profession are axonometric and isometric projections, which we shall explore further here. Nevertheless, be aware that other types of projection also exist, and that the term ‘axonometric’ is sometimes used in a generic manner to describe isometric, diametric and trimetric drawings. Although 3D software can make constructing an axonometric quicker and can be more convenient, creating one by hand often produces a better understanding of the three dimensions of a design. Furthermore, knowing the basics of how axonometric projections are constructed leads to a fuller understanding of design on the x, y and z axes of a computer program.

Axonometric Axonometrics are the most straightforward projections to produce. An axonometric uses a plan drawn to scale, with its true size, shape and proportion rotated either 45°/45°or 30°/60° to the x and y axes respectively, and is then projected vertically (to scale) to create the three-dimensional image. The 45°/45° angles convey more emphasis on the plan in relation to the vertical, whilst the 30°/60° may communicate more information on either the x or y axis depending on which way the plan has been orientated before rotating. The advantage of an axonometric is that there is no distortion and the real scale measurements of the space can be read easily. Nevertheless, axonometric does not represent real space and can therefore visually feel a little unnatural. Axonometric can also be referred to as ‘plan oblique’.

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Aerial perspective Axonometric and isometric projection Case study 07: St. Peter’s Square

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Project: Bishopsgate Public Realm Strategy

Project: Bus canopies

Location: London, UK

Practice: Gillespies LLP

Practice: Landscape Projects

Use of a 0°/60° axonometric gives a less severe tilt to this visualization than 45°/45° would. Sheltered spaces for sitting at a bus stop are shown and emphasized through the careful selection of colour. The image was first sketched over a CAD plan and then rendered in Photoshop. It was sketched primarily for speed, as getting to the desired style was quicker this way than manipulating a standard SketchUp output.

A series of three axonometrics tilted at 45°/45° illustrate street typologies in an area of London. They were constructed using Vectorworks with Photoshop overlay. This gives an accurate dimensional base, with superimposed naturalistic landscape features.

Location: Bradford, UK

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Axonometric and isometric projection

Isometric An isometric drawing appears at a slightly lower angle than an axonometric, due to the plan being redrawn at a skew of 30° angle from the horizontal, before the vertical lines are projected up. Everything is drawn to scale and there is no foreshortening. It may take time to set up the skewed plan, but the results represent a much more realistic experience of space. Three-dimensional software can easily rotate x and y axes to skew a plan so that it can then be projected in isometric form. If you are not confident with 3D software, graphic packages such as Photoshop have editing facilities to skew and rotate a two-dimensional plan. Once the plan has been set up, vertical projection lines can then be continued by hand.

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4.22 Project: Beckside Park Location: Bradford, UK Practice: Landscape Projects An aerial projection was generated in AutoCAD, then detail and texture were added in Photoshop. The addition of shadow enhances the three-dimensional qualities of the drawing.

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Aerial perspective Axonometric and isometric projection Case study 07: St. Peter’s Square

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Aerial perspective Axonometric and isometric projection Case study 07: St. Peter’s Square

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4.23 Original images from: Cracknell This illustration shows the degree of rotation and skew of plans for an axonometric, isometric and an aerial perspective before lines are projected up.

This exercise uses Photoshop to set up an appropriately skewed plan for both an isometric projection and an aerial perspective. The plan will then be used as a base to project hand-drawn lines upwards.

1. Open the plan in Photoshop. 2. Follow the steps below to alter the plan for each projection (refer to image opposite). Isometric • Rotate the x and y axes of the plan to a 45°/45° angle respectively, then press enter. • Push the top of the box surrounding the plan down until the angles skew to 0° to the horizontal. Aerial perspective • Rotate plan to a 45°/45° angle. • Use commands: edit – transform – perspective. • Pull bottom corners out and adjust to desired perspective. 3. When the plan has been rotated and skewed, it needs to be printed out and fixed, preferably on a drawing board with parallel motion. 4. An adjustable set square is used to project the vertical (z axis). Isometric The z axis is drawn to a measured height, and lines (x and y axes) on the plan are raised to this new height drawn with the angled face of the set square. All dimensions are to scale and there is no foreshortening.

Aerial perspective The lines on the x, y and z axes are not measurable and will all disappear to the vanishing point. 5. Erase all lines which lie behind the facing facade. 6. If the land falls (for example, if there are steps), treat the lowest point as zero and fix the top point first, drawing down from this height. 7. Varying line weight adds depth. Thick lines define edges and spatial boundaries, and thinner lines define surfaces, such as textures and pattern. 8. Objects that are not pure geometrical forms are more difficult to construct (for example, a statue is more difficult to create than a simple concrete block). First, draft out the object as a cube or cylinder and then use your eye to fill in the rest. 9. Built structures can be cut away to reveal elements behind. However, cutaway layers should be communicated clearly by defining line width or by editing colour.

Case study 0 : St. Peter’s Square

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Project: St. Peter’s Square Location: Manchester, UK Practice: AECOM, UK Date: 2010 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

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The visualizations shown here are selected from a presentation for St. Peter’s Square, an area of central Manchester, UK, enclosed by a number of important civic buildings, including the City Library and Town Hall. St. Peter’s Square represents a major point of arrival into the city. The proposal created one distinct space unified by an extensive carpet of stonework. The pattern was defined by differing scales of herringbone inspired by the interiors of the surrounding Victorian buildings. The public plaza is subdivided by a number of structures, colonnades, steps and trees. One image alone cannot capture all the spatial qualities and characteristics within a design – a range of visualizations need to be combined. The plan (image a) illustrates the location of these features in relation to the layout of paving. An aerial perspective (image b) is used to illustrate how people animate the space: in this case, it was for a ceremonial event. The perspective (image c) and section-elevation (image d) highlight the splash of colour from the arboretum trees in the peace garden, but they all convey a slightly different message.

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Axonometric and isometric projection Case study 07: St. Peter’s Square Presentation model

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The most accessible way of visualizing three dimensions is, of course, to do it through building a physical model. In chapter two, we explored the use of working models within design exploration. In this chapter, we have already looked at the use of modelling to assist setting up perspectives. Now, we will turn to look at the use and value of handmade presentation models for design visualization. At this stage, a model presents the finished design to a client and so it needs to be both refined and well-crafted. Models are a very accessible way to read the three-dimensional properties of a space, and can be one of the most memorable parts in a design presentation. Some practices value the success and use of handmade presentational models so highly that they employ specialist model makers to construct them.

4.24 Project: Herlev Hospital Location: Herlev, Denmark Practice: SLA A physical model can immediately capture the scale, proportion and impact of open space and its relationship with built form. This model shows a new landscape consisting of a number of courtyards and roof gardens. It is made from card, foam and plastic. Colour is minimal, with white representing the existing architecture and surrounding landscape, with green symbolizing the new ‘healing’ heart of the hospital.

Material and technique A presentational model will use more sophisticated materials and methods of construction than those developmental models used in the exploratory stage (explored in chapter two, pages 66–75). Materials such as card, masking tape and modelling clay used during exploration may advance to plywood, plaster, metal or perspex. Techniques used to build models will also change from using sharp knives, a glue gun and masking tape to building with woodworking machinery, and using techniques such as casting, carving and welding. Today, computers are becoming more extensively used to assist in this process, for example in the control of laser cutters and rapid prototyping. Laser cutters cut two-dimensional surfaces, whilst rapid prototyping builds three-dimensional models directly from a computer model. There are a number of choices to be made when constructing a handmade model. As a general rule, it is wise to keep all your intentions simple. Through using a minimal palette, simple forms and less detail, the three-dimensional nature of a design can be more usefully revealed. Colour and texture should be chosen carefully so as not to over-decorate the model. A neutral-coloured model helps to define the spatial qualities of a design, whilst the addition of external lighting can help to exaggerate depth through shadow. Neutral colours, such as grey or beige, enable sharper and deeper shadows to be created than does white. Developmental models may even be of high enough quality to present as a final model.

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Case study 07: St. Peter’s Square Presentation model Case study 08: Gardens by the Bay

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Model vegetation Application of vegetation can make or break the look of a model. If the wrong material is used or it is too detailed, it can distract from the spatial aspects of the design. If showing vegetation is the main intention for building a model, try to be abstract. Stay away from the realism of a model railway set, which may possibly hinder design discussion later on.

4.25 Project: Tree models Location: UK Designer: students A selection of model trees. Material and detail is kept simple, so that form, texture and habitat are emphasized.

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Case study 07: St. Peter’s Square Presentation model Case study 08: Gardens by the Bay

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Earthworks A handmade model can convey the sensitivity and reality of contouring. Fluid organic forms are still difficult to realize in digital modelling. Using modelling clay can be both exploratory and presentational.

4.26 Project: Mobras Reservoir Location: Mobras, France Designer: Kathryn Gustafson This model was initially made from clay. A rubber mould was cast and then plaster was poured into the mould to create a model showing the sculptural landscape around the reservoir. It is worth persevering with the lengthy process of making such a finely crafted model. This finished white model, with the addition of light, complements the elegance of the rippling earth mounds.

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Gardens by the Bay is a masterplan for the Marina South gardens in Singapore. The overall masterplan infrastructure allows the cultivation of plants that would not otherwise grow in Singapore. The narrative themes running throughout the garden are ‘plants and people’ and ‘plants and planets’. Iconic landmarks for the garden are the ‘Supertree’ structures. They are vertical gardens and environmental engines, containing solar hot water and photovoltaic collectors, rainwater harvesting devices and venting ducts. These ‘Supertrees’, ranging from 25–50 metres (82–164ft) in height, create a unique environment for the garden. Unique features give a design its sense of identity. In a similar manner to how a sculptor works, the landscape architect must make a model to visualize the finer qualities of the idea. The designer must decide whether it will be handmade or digital. Grant Associates used a model (image a) as part of their design process and presentation, saying: ‘This model, at 1:100 scale, helped fine-tune the details of the structures and turned D computer screen images into touchable objects.’ The perspective (image b) powerfully communicates the drama of the user experience. The section-elevation (image c) illustrates the imposing scale of the supertrees within the overall design.

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Presentation model Case study 08: Gardens by the Bay

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Case study 08: Gardens by the Bay

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5 Implementation 5.1 Project: Urban Green Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Rachel Forbes A 1:50 scale section and plan is supported by case-study research and manufacturer’s information. It shows how a rich palette of materials has been selected and then carefully organized in the detail design stage for an urban square.

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Chapter 5 illustrates how a design is further developed in detail and explores the type of drawings that are produced so that a project can be built. It’s about making the concept work. Further exploration and refinement of a design and its technical resolution require more scaled, detailed and accurate drawings. The drawings must clearly describe and dimension the range of elements and materials used in the design and explain how a contractor is to fabricate and assemble them on site.

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This part of the process bridges the gap between the design idea and its implementation on site. It links design with technology, in order to make a design possible. It is important to see this activity as the continuation of a creative design process, which transforms ideas into a tangible reality. This will involve exploring individual design elements in detail and then assembling them together in a carefully considered way that holistically resolves the design. Typically this process will involve: shaping the land through earth modelling, steps and ramps; vertical features such as trees, shrubs, walls and small structures; and horizontal surfaces such as paving, grass and water bodies. Plants are important design elements for landscape architects and the drawings can describe not just the design composition but may also include details concerning their establishment, maintenance and management.

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Drawing and developing detail Although the designer needs to consider many technical issues at this stage, it is also important not to lose sight of the original design concept. Designing in detail is not simply scaling up earlier design work, it requires a careful exploration of the design in much more detail, at a range of scales, using orthographic projection and models. It is important to identify and research the main elements and materials of the design and not to rush to quick decisions. Sometimes it takes a while to find the right combination of materials. It is vital to be rigorous in your method and willing to explore alternatives. Scaling up Scaling up a site design plan and sections to a larger scale, such as from 1:50 to 1:10, enables a designer to accurately put together the different elements and materials of a design. It is important to consider how each individual detail fits together with other parts of the project, which can be quickly explored by using detail scale-plan and section drawings. The detail design will evolve through a process of using additional research on construction methods and materials.

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5.2 Project: Taradale Town Centre Location: Napier, New Zealand Practice: Isthmus The designer’s annotation and quick sketches are drawn on top of an earlier SketchUp perspective, which illustrated how materials and elements came together. These notes start to refine and define detail of elements and materials, which were used to facilitate design discussions with the client and other design consultants. A number of refined perspectives were then made for public consultation.

‘Being able to see how all the components work together to create a space is so much more powerful in 3D; it makes communication easier and is an excellent design tool.’ Ralph Johns Isthmus

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5.3 Project: Pier Head Location: Liverpool, UK Designer: AECOM, UK Date: 2009 Using a large-scale plan drawing, a paving pattern was developed by the designer using five different-sized paving units. The plan was printed out at full-scale to test the interplay of the different units. Samples were used together with the paper plan to ensure that the paving materials, patterns and dimensions were fully resolved. The designer’s rigorous attention to detail ensured that the cutting of units was minimized so that construction costs were reduced and very little material was wasted.

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Implementation Working up detail Dimensions

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Exercise 5: Refining detail design

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By using paving materials as an example, this exercise gives you practice in exploring a process of detail design. Drawing full-scale mock-ups and making prototypes can be a very rewarding way of exploring materials, size and scale to finally resolve well-crafted details. 1. Select a unit paving material, such as a natural stone or pre-cast concrete. 2. Research your selected paving material, using suppliers’ and manufacturers’ information. 3. Choose three different-sized paving units of the same material; they can be different colours. 4. Draw a x metre (9.8 x 9.8 feet) square at a scale of 1:10 on a piece of paper.

5. Draw, colour and cut out your three unit-size blocks (approximately 50–100 of each) at a scale of 1:10. 6. Place the cut units on top of the square and arrange them to make two different patterns. 7. Through aligning or staggering the blocks in different layouts, consider their aesthetic value, such as the rhythm and texture of the units. Alongside this, consider the technical issues, such as ease of construction and limiting waste of materials through cutting. 8. Draw up your preferred option at 1:10 scale, using colour and texture to represent your paving material.

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Dimensions

Understanding and applying dimensions is fundamental to the detail design process. Designers use orthographic projections, such as plan, section and elevations together to explore and resolve dimensions. The designer explores the horizontal plane by using plans to establish exact distances between elements and the extent of materials. The vertical plane is explored by using sections and elevations to establish exact heights of elements and depths of materials, such as changes in levels, steps, ramps and ground modelling. Axonometric drawings are used to resolve complicated junctions of elements and materials.

An understanding of ergonomics helps the designer to establish dimensions for people’s activities and space requirements, for example the width of a path or the size of an outdoor theatre space. By being sensitive to the needs of all users through accommodating the full range of their spatial needs, you will ensure inclusive design that is accessible to all. This approach helps to ensure that dimensions are generous and have built-in tolerances that are more likely to accommodate future adaptations, which is important for enduring, sustainable design.

People A detailed and sensitive interpretation of people’s needs drives the designer’s detail design process. To meet people’s needs fully, the landscape architect has to establish dimensions for all elements and materials. An understanding of anthropometrics and ergonomics informs this process. Anthropometrics is about the measurement of people, which takes into account that people come in all shapes and sizes; children, adults, the elderly and those with special needs, such as reduced mobility or physical disabilities.

5.4 Project: Bin store Location: Ingolstadt, Germany Practice: asom asom

‘Software does not resolve ideas but it does help to present designs in a way that makes people take notice.’ Paul Melia asom asom

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For this bin store, the designer has given careful consideration to ergonomics. The height of the store allows enough space for a householder to fill the bin from one side, which can also be easily manoeuvred and emptied by refuse collectors from the other side. The freehand sketches, models and Photoshop-rendered CAD drawing show that a lot of thought is needed to resolve and then present a small, yet important, design element.

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5.5 Project: City Park Location: Bradford, UK Practice: Gillespies LLP This preliminary sketch aimed at setting out the concept of stepped and ramped access to the boardwalk. The drawing was used to help the designer to clearly visualize in three dimensions and see the level changes required. The sketch was made in ink on tracing paper, primarily because it is a quick process that can be easily refined through overlaying more sketches, before preparing the final construction drawings in CAD.

Elements Elements are the components of a design. They include earthworks, vegetation (including trees, shrubs and grass), earth-retaining structures (including steps and ramps), walls and fences, paving, water features (including ponds) and sustainable drainage features. The main elements should have already been identified in earlier design work, but the rigour of the designer’s process in detail design may require changes to the original elements – resulting in a more carefully considered and improved design.

The dimensions of elements fall into three categories: fixed dimensions (for example, sports pitches), dimensions suggested in guidelines (such as car-parking bays and vehicle manoeuvring dimensions) and dimensions determined by the designer. Most elements, however, need a designer to make judgements on size, location and juxtaposition, based on site observation and analysis of best practice case studies. In this way, you will be able to define the spatial requirements of all elements of the design, both individually and collectively, so that the final design meets functional, aesthetic and technical considerations.

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5.6 Project: Wall detail, Parkhill estate Location: Sheffield, UK Practice: Grant Associates, UK These three-dimensional images show the detail development of a variety of retaining walls. The height and angles of the structures have been considered alongside the arrangement of the stonework, lending a richness of texture and colour to the overall design.

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TIPB Palette of materials

Materials

You need to fully appreciate the qualities of the materials that you work with in the realization of your projects. A combination of factors can influence the choice of materials:

There is an important relationship between the selection of materials and their appropriateness to the shapes in a design.

• Knowledge: it can take a while to develop a critical understanding of the wide range of building and horticultural materials available to the landscape architect. The better the knowledge base, the more you can explore a range of options. • Context: the context in which the materials are being used can influence choice. The physical appearance – such as colour, texture and scale of surroundings – can also prove a source of influence, as well as consideration of recycling from site or reusing locally sourced materials. • Durability: the durability of a design will depend on its intended lifespan and intensity of use. For example, the robustness of materials for a public plaza would be very different from those used in a private garden.

In surface finishes, for example, an organic shape for an area to be paved would suggest using a fluid surface material, such as tarmacadam, concrete or gravel, rather than unit paving, which would require lots of cutting. Unit paving, such as stone and concrete slabs, cobbles, tiles, mosaics, bricks and setts are supplied in known dimensions. With this knowledge, the designer can carefully dimension the shape and size of the space so that it is a multiple of a module. In this way, the designer considers the shape of the space as well as the shape of the material. The palette of materials chosen by the designer should reinforce the design concept as well as respond to the site context. This can be visualized by compiling a sheet of samples from case studies and manufacturers’ information.

• Cost: in addition to the costs of materials and labour to install, an understanding of the management and maintenance requirements is fundamental to the enduring success of a landscape project.

5. Project: Harbour Park Location: Copenhagen, Denmark

• Skill: consider the skills of the contractor employed to build the project. For example, the standards of workmanship from a professional contractor would be different to those of a community group building a project themselves.

Designer: Esther Kilner The paved organic shapes are made of resin-bound recycled aggregate, which contrasts with the regular, straight path made of reclaimed granite slabs and setts. Sustainability was addressed by reusing durable, local materials and by organizing them in a way that reduced waste. Photoshop, combined with AutoCAD, has given a realistic impression of the palette and layout of materials. Textual information, for specifications and levels, has been subtly included.

• Ethics: issues relating to sustainability, such as local sourcing, life-cycle costs, carbon footprint and energy efficiency are increasingly important considerations.

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It is important to remember that the purpose of construction drawings is to instruct the contractor. They form part of a legal document that explains to the contractor what the project includes and how it is to be constructed. There are three parts to this process: drawings, specification and quantities of materials. On simple projects, this information may be combined on a set of drawings, whereas on more complex projects it has to be separated.

Most practitioners today use CAD systems for communicating information to contractors. Software is constantly evolving and Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a recent development that offers the potential for multidisciplinary design teams to work simultaneously in three dimensions. In contrast, some practitioners still use manual techniques for construction drawing, particularly small scale, design–build practices.

Usually, separate drawings are made for the different types of contractors involved in constructing landscape projects, which include building, civil engineering, horticulture, artists and craftspeople. Specialist computer software programs, as well as manufacturers and suppliers information, help the designer to accurately describe design details. Drawings are made prior to the construction process and further drawings are usually needed whilst the project is being built on site. At the end of the construction process, a set of ‘as built’ drawings may be given to the client.

One disadvantage of working by hand, however, is that if major changes are needed the project may have to be completely redrawn. A benefit of digital drawing is that once created, changes can be made quickly and sent to other members of the design team immediately.

Drawings for contractors are normally black and white only and are drawn to scale. They clearly define the qualitative and quantitative aspects, so that the contractor can build the project. Drawings use standard drawing conventions and symbols so that the content can be correctly interpreted by the contractor.

Standards and regulations Drawings are made within the context of relevant standards of construction and specifications. It is important to be up to date with current regulations and manufacturers details. International regulations exist for many areas of construction, as well as technical codes, national and international standards and guidance, manufacturers’ recommendations and technical literature.

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Project: Pier Head, seat-wall Location: Liverpool, UK Practice: AECOM, UK This drawing shows how important it is to use a range of drawings to communicate the designer’s intentions to a contractor. It uses a common and effective technique, where the designer aligns the plan and section, which also include important horizontal and vertical dimensions. This technique is supplemented by a threedimensional visualization, which is needed to illustrate a complicated junction.

‘Make it your business to learn the language of the builder, the architect, the engineer and the surveyors. Best practice construction is a collaborative effort and problem-solving is rarely done in isolation.’ Rick Rowbotham Form Associates

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Collaborative drawings Sometimes, drawings are made in collaboration with sister professions and specialists, where further technical understanding is needed. For example, a landscape architect may develop a concept design drawing for a bridge, which could then be used to inform discussion and more detailed design and technical input from a structural engineer.

5.9 Project: Warrior Square Gardens, bespoke bench Location: Southend-on-Sea, UK Practice: Gillespies LLP The black-and-white freehand sketch was made early on in the design process to give a quick impression of the designer's intentions. A three-dimensional representation was then worked up and subsequently used to brief the steel fabricator, who resolved the detailed technical requirements in collaboration with the landscape architect.

When developing the customized elements of a project, it is important to develop a deeper understanding of the qualities of the selected materials so that you can creatively exploit their design potential. This can be achieved by consulting technical information, carrying out case study research and also by talking to technical specialists, such as a craftsperson who will fabricate the element.

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Earthworks Projects involving large-scale earth moving are usually carried out by a civil engineering contractor. Smaller projects may be carried out by a general building or specialist groundworks contractor. The drawings will show the existing site levels and the proposed levels by using plans and sections. Key levels are shown by spot heights, for example at the top and bottom of a slope, with the ground shape indicated by contours. The sections will show how layers of materials are used below the surface to construct any mounds. Most landscape architects try to balance the volume of ‘cut’ and ‘fill’ of material on site to avoid environmental damage.

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5.10 Project: Northala Fields Park Location: Ealing, London, UK Practice: Form Associates This innovative new park was constructed using 100,000m of inert waste material to create a new sculptural landform. The four large mounds (the largest is over 26 metres/8 .5 feet high) shield the new park from a major highway. The designer’s hand-drawn sketch informed the three-dimensional digital model, which was worked up in SketchUp and rendered in Photoshop. The contour plan was made in CAD with further detail resolved by the contractor’s excavator using GPS coordinates.

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Hard materials These drawings, sometimes described as ‘external works’ drawings, are intended for a building contractor. They describe the quantity and quality of building materials, as well as the quality of workmanship required. This is done by plans and sections, which may include axonometric projections showing important or complicated junctions of components. An overall site layout plan will identify and key-in design details.

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5.11 Project: Mandela Square Location: Barnsley, UK Designer: Estell Warren Landscape Architecture A CAD site layout plan at 1:200 scale shows the overall layout of materials for an urban square. Details of the junction of materials are shown on a sister drawing at the larger scale of 1:10. The detail drawings use plan and section, and give dimensions supported by specification notes.

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Plants Drawings are made by the designer for horticultural contractors to identify the names of plants and the quantity required. They can also identify any other specialist horticultural items, such as special topsoil mixes. A plant schedule will specify the quantities and qualities of the range of plants, which are divided into trees, shrubs, herbs and bulbs. The schedule will be accompanied by a planting plan showing where the plants are to be located. Schedules and plans need to be read together.

5.12 Project: Twelve Trees, Gas Works Park Location: London, UK Designer: James Turner This project uses three section-elevations to show the management principles that describe how naturalistic woodland is established and developed over time. The sections illustrate how the succession of plant species can be successfully achieved through landscape management techniques.

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Landscape management Working with living plant material and appreciating the dynamics of nature is an exciting dimension of landscape architecture. Management plans communicate how plants should evolve over time and the interventions required through management techniques to achieve the desired effect.

5.13 Project: Urban green Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Rachel Forbes This is a detailed planting plan that shows the range of plant species and how they are grouped. Simple patterns have been used to indicate where the different plant species are to be located, with groups of larger shrubs being linked together. Three different weights of line represent the different layers of vegetation; light for ground cover, medium for shrubs and bold for trees.

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Case study 09: Private garden design

Project: Private garden design Location: Radlett, Hertfordshire, UK Practice: Hudson De Maeijer, UK Date: 2011 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

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The detail planting design process started with the designer’s pencil plan drawings for trees and another for the herbaceous plants. These drawings were then scanned and translated into a CAD drawing and finally colour-rendered in Photoshop (image a). The purpose of the planting plan was to show the layout for the large beds of perennial plants, trees and sweeping evergreen hedges that divide the garden into outdoor rooms. An existing mature copper beech tree was retained to complete the vista from the house. The plant schedule (image b) for this private garden uses colour coding to identify the number of each plant required for each area of the planting plan, which is shown on the same drawing. The schedule states the size of the plants to be supplied and indicates how many are to be planted in a square metre. The designer then agreed the exact planting positions with the contractor on site. The media chosen for the planting plan, along with the schedule, produced a clear planting scheme that was easy for the contractors to read as well as for the client to understand.

‘A good planting plan for perennial schemes needs blocking in large flowing swathes. Clarity can be achieved by colour coding rather than by creating a complicated plan with lots of words.’ Jane Hudson Hudson de Maeijer

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Case study 10: Angel Field

Project: Angel Field – a bio-diverse public urban green space Location: Liverpool, UK Practice: BCA Landscape, UK Date: 2009 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

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Angel Field links Liverpool Hope University’s old and new campuses together. Inspired by the gardens of the Renaissance and emblematic of the University’s educational philosophy, it was designed to be a place of calm contemplation in the midst of a busy city centre. The design reused soil from the site to minimize the use of imported topsoil. Native plant species were added to a site previously categorized as having a very low ecological value. Hard surfaces and details were made out of granite and limestone. Accessibility was carefully considered so that the level changes across the site have been accommodated without the need for steps or steep ramps. The first drawing (a) shows a scale plan of the concept design rendered by hand, using coloured pencils. From this, the design was modelled in three dimensions to test the massing and scale, mainly by using SketchUp and Photoshop. This use of a blend of hand and digital drawing techniques informed the CAD drawings made later in the design process for the contractor. The hard landscape drawings (b) describe bespoke elements through the use of a combination of CAD scale plans and sections with specifications and dimensions. This set of drawings accurately describes key information about materials and dimensions for the contractors.

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Case study 09: Private garden design Case study 10: Angel Field

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6 Presentation 6.1 Project: Harbour Park Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Designer: Esther Kilner Panorama visualization of a winter scene for an exhibition of a new urban park.

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This chapter brings together several important dimensions of presentation. The chapter starts by exploring why designers should focus on the needs of their audience and the techniques that they can use to make presentations both informative and memorable. It discusses the key principles that underpin layout design and why they are appropriate for a range of formats. The chapter concludes by illustrating how student landscape architects and practitioners use portfolios to record and present their design capabilities.

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It is important to be able to present your projects in different ways, appropriate to the needs of a range of audiences. This requires thinking about your audience and modifying your presentation by selecting appropriate techniques. The purpose of any presentation is to help an audience understand, so that they can contribute positively to the design process. It is about representing ideas to share with a member of the design team, such as a tutor or architect, a client who is funding the project, a community group who may be the users of the landscape, or to a contractor selected to build the design. Design team As a landscape architecture student, initiating ideas and then sharing and evaluating them with the help of fellow students and tutors is all part of the course. This is great preparation for professional life, when such procedures continue with senior colleagues and design teams. Feedback from project reviews is best recorded at the time, using illustrations and text in a notebook. These notebooks can later act as aide-memoires that encourage reflection and a sensitive response to colleagues’ feedback. As a designer presenting to a fellow designer, you can use a full range of presentation techniques knowing that they should be understood. Often, an important part of a presentation will be representing the conceptual approach to the project as well as the design itself.

Presentation Audience Conveying complexity

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Clients and users Many clients and users have limited experience of working with designers, yet their contribution is critical to the success of a project. During the design process, a designer should select appropriate presentation techniques that will encourage client engagement so that their feedback informs the development of the project. This is why it is important to select different, appropriate presentation techniques. Perspectives, sketches and traditional models are good ways of encouraging engagement, which leads to useful feedback to inform the development of the project. Clients often respond well to simple hand-drawings or work in progress, which has a more familiar character. Sophisticated computerrendered models presented during the development of a project may pose a danger by wowing clients with seductive images so that they are no longer looking at the content of their project with a critical eye. As a design develops, consultations may include interactive sessions, such as design workshops. The finished design can be presented in a range or combination of formats, including a set of drawings, a report or an exhibition.

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Contractors Drawings for contractors have a different purpose to those intended for the design team, clients and users. They are largely instructional and illustrate how a project is to be built. Information for contractors is limited to factual information, which is usually drawn in black and white only. The standard conventions established for these drawings help to ensure the development of a shared understanding between designer and contractor.

6.2 Project: Arena Design Charrette Location: Leeds Metropolitan University, UK Designers: students and tutors The purpose of this charrette was to generate ideas and discussion between design teams. A range of quick freehand techniques were used, including a mind map created to establish a brief, a schematic diagram to explore connections to the city, and scale sketch plans to propose concepts. Drawings were pinned to the wall to generate discussion.

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The complexity of a project can be deconstructed into layers for effective presentation of the design using schematic diagrams. In landscape architecture, this essential graphic presentation tool can take the form of either a plan, section or axonometric. It describes aspects of a design as a series of thematic layers. In each layer, information is edited so that irrelevant detail is omitted, leaving only that which is essential to the intention of the design. The resulting diagrams are characterized by a graphic simplicity, which makes use of symbols, simple shapes and colours, and a minimal use of text. Layers Plans and axonometrics can be used to present layers of understanding relating to themes, such as defining the extent of a site, access and movement patterns, microclimate, uses and character areas within the site, visual and physical connections beyond the site and so on. Blocks of different colour and varying tone on top of a simplified plan can define areas and uses; graphic symbols such as arrows, dots and broken lines can define directions and boundaries.

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6.3 Project: Aire River Park Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Rob Charlton Masterplans often need to convey a lot of data. This digital drawing, made in Photoshop, uses a simple diagrammatic technique to present complex information. An isometric projection presents key components as a series of thematic layers that drop on to the exploded masterplan, located at the foot of the sheet. Presentation Å!

Audience Conveying complexity Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016

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6.4 Project: Refshaleøen Urban Village Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Designer: Esther Kilner These schematic diagrams abstract simple outline shapes derived from the scale base-plan. The graphics are simple and clear. A restrained colour palette, with black and white, uses block colour and black lines to represent five key factors relevant to the design concept. A one word title with a brief explanatory text interprets the graphic.

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In this exercise, you will practise making thematic layers to graphically represent your understanding of how a local public park works. You will be able to apply the same layering technique when you design a park or other landscape project.

1. Site: identify a public park near to where you live. 2. Identify themes: make a list of five factors that you think are key to the success of the park. You may wish to refer to examples in this chapter for guidance. 3. Site visit: go to the park, take your sketchbook and make drawings with notes to record how the park functions. 4. Base plan: make a scale base plan to fit on an A4 (11.7 x 8. inches) piece of paper and print a copy. You could use Google maps, or a similar source for a base plan. Mark on a linear scale and north point. Print off five copies, one for each of the factors that you wish to record, and put a different title on each of the five drawings.

5. Draft layers: refer to your sketchbook and mark on the A4 plans information only relevant to each of the thematic plans. Try using symbols and block colour, lines, arrows and minimal text to represent your understandings. 6. Presentation: refine the presentation of your draft layers. Edit out any information that is not relevant. Simplify and clarify the graphics of your drafts by carefully considering appropriate colours, symbols, representative titles and concise text. Put the five schematic plans in an order that best explains how your park functions.

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Cycles Landscape projects can often involve mediating complex cyclic natural and human processes. For example, a project may intervene in natural process cycles for water management or the human management affecting biodiversity and plant succession over many years. Simple diagrammatic techniques can be used to represent this important aspect of designing landscapes.

6.5 Project: Gardens by the Bay Location: Singapore Practice: Grant Associates This diagrammatic section illustrates a water collection and distribution cycle for a project. Elements of the cycle are represented in a simplified way, using symbols, lines and arrows.

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Audience Conveying complexity Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016

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6.6 Project: Watersmart concept Location: Australia Practice: AECOM, Design + Planning, Australia Some schematic diagrams are effective when they are less abstract. This conceptual section is used to communicate the application of design strategies to deliver water-sensitive urban design outcomes.

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Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016

CASE STUDY 11

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Project: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Practice: AECOM, UK Date: 2011 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

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This international competition-winning project grew from an idea for a new urban ecology rooted in the culture of Brazil. It sought to establish a new relationship between built form and environment, based on sport, recreation, sustainability and ecology. The 180-hectare site legacy plan included a new forest park and regenerated waterfront. For this international competition, it was important that the project could be presented with a minimal use of text, so that the multinational Olympic panel could easily understand the proposal. The designers chose to present their project using system diagrams and representative images alongside a more traditional masterplan. This type of presentation illustrates the value of simple graphics and universally understandable images for clarity of understanding. In this way, drawings can be seen as an international language. At the top of the facing page (image a), concept plan diagrams (schematics) illustrate a range of functional requirements for the site. On the plans, only a few contrasting colours are used. Symbols like arrows and lines communicate connections. Text is restricted to titles with no other explanations necessary. The masterplan (image b) illustrates very clearly the overall design by use of colour, weight of line and shadow projection without the need for any text. Whilst the masterplan provides a striking yet functional landscape for the Olympic Games, it also provides an efficient and innovative transition into post-Olympic development. An aerial perspective (image c) captures the overall character of this Olympic design and the relationship to its context.

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Conveying complexity Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 Layout

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Layout design is about composing a narrative for a project. A story needs to be engaging, informative and memorable. This requires careful organization and presentation of anything from a single sheet of paper to a set of drawings. The principles of the following process are applicable for a range of formats, be it a report, portfolio or exhibition. Finding a narrative A good way to start is by asking, ‘What is the story and how should it be told?’. An audience will be seeking to understand the ‘big picture’, which then encourages them to engage with subplots, the designer’s layers of detail, and key themes and components. It is important to develop editing skills, choosing what to include and what to exclude, in order to create a succinct and coherent story.

Content When selecting content, keep work that makes a strong visual impact and that is relevant to the story. There may be other images that have potential, but that need further development before they can be included in the final presentation. Reject work that is visually weak or not essential to the story. At this stage, the content is an ingredients list, but one ordered by both narrative and importance.

Research has shown that audiences particularly remember the start and end of presentations. There are many ways to tell a story. Often, the most effective presentations are simply told in a chronological sequence, reading from top left to bottom right.

6. Project: AVA book Location: Leeds, UK

Begin by literally drawing out the story. A mind map is a useful technique to order your thoughts and outline the content of the story. Then, lay out and order your images on a large flat surface or stick them to a wall in order to start drafting a storyboard. As the best ideas emerge, it is useful to record them by taking a photograph or by drawing.

Designers: Trudi Entwistle and Edwin Knighton Any presentation needs a rough draft. This was the authors’ initial layout prepared for this book, having previously agreed a narrative and content. Selected images were ordered and stuck to a large wall in a sequence that reflected the structure of the chapter content. Sticky notes indicated different titles and subheadings.

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Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 Layout Format

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‘For me, communication is about storytelling. A beginning, a middle, an end. A compelling narrative, a simple structure and an inspiring conclusion. The role of visuals is to support the story. Work out the story, the vision, then draw it!’ Professor Robert Tregay LDA Design

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Layout

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Project: East River Esplanade competition Location: New York, USA Designer: David Hooley This hand-drawn mock-up was used for drafting the layout of a competition entry with a specified limit and content, to include an overall plan and perspectives. It uses a grid structure to organize and align the different components, establishing a hierarchy of images that reads from left to right. The draft layout evolved into the final presentation, retaining its main idea but changing some elements.

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Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 Layout Format

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Structure At first, ordering a range of images and text on a blank sheet can appear daunting. A common technique used by designers is to establish a structure for a presentation by using a grid. This is used to give a consistent and flexible organizational structure appropriate for each page as well as for a set of drawings. This technique helps you to organize relationships between the components of the sheet, hierarchies of information, the balance of image and text, and the sequence and development of your story. Any structure for organizing information needs to be flexible and adaptable, so it is important to treat the grid as a guideline rather than as a rule. Experimenting with grids and layouts is best resolved using rough sheets or full-scale mock-ups. Through this iterative process of trial and error, a layout will be resolved that can then be taken through to a final presentational sheet.

6.9 Project: Interdisciplinary project, House of Hope Location: Haiti Designer: Laura Jagota and Bryan Harrison This design report documents design options for a children’s centre in Haiti, following the devastating earthquake in 2010. A grid layout was developed using InDesign, which the designers used for experimenting with different arrangements of typefaces and images. The colour palette makes reference to its Caribbean context.

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The final printed size of paper should accommodate space for margins and binding when planning layout. Paper is usually to standard dimensions, orientated portrait or landscape, but may be non-standard as appropriate to the narrative and type of design project. For example, a long thin format may be appropriate for a river system project. Desktop publishing software facilitates easy manipulation of layout design and the means to explore alternatives, which can be reformatted for different purposes.

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Text content Most presentations will need some text to help their image-based content, with each drawing requiring an appropriate title. A good title needs to be representative of the project, as well as being intriguing and attractive to the audience.

6.10 Project: Kissing Sleeping Beauty Location: Scarborough, UK Practice: West 8 This evocative title seeks to capture the imagination of the reader by the use of metaphor. In his prologue to the design report, Adriaan Geuze of Dutch Landscape Architects West 8, wrote in a graphic way about the need for a new spirit to capture the dormant beauty of this once popular seaside town.

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For text, it is generally best for the designer to be economical with words, keeping to captions which support and help the viewer to interpret images. A designer’s strength should be their drawings and good drawings shouldn’t need much text. Images should speak for themselves as they usually communicate faster than text. As an alternative to text, a key can be a useful tool to help interpret more complex drawings or in areas where information needs to be repeated. However, the decision to use a key, label or caption needs to be carefully considered to ensure efficient communication and ease of understanding for the reader.

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Case study 11: Olympic and Paralympic Games, 2016 Layout Format

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Positioning text on a page needs careful thought; it may be grouped or woven into a drawing so that it becomes a subtle element that does not detract from a strong image. It is also important to establish an appropriate hierarchy to the text and to experiment with point size to get the desired effect. Wide blocks of text are difficult to read quickly and should be avoided. There is a large range of typefaces to choose from. When selecting, it is important to consider appropriateness and legibility. Avoid using too many different typefaces: keep it simple. People with dyslexia may have difficulty reading typefaces with serifs. It is also worth remembering that legible, distinctive handwriting still has an important role to play in personalizing presentations.

Project: Olympic Legacy Location: London, UK Designer: Philip Dugdale This student project proposed a ribbon of green-blue space along the Regents Canal in London to link Islington with the Olympic Park. The typefaces chosen have a simple elegance and clarity. Text is brief and grouped in small horizontal blocks, located close to the relevant part of the drawing. To help legibility, text for key landmarks is smaller and orientated vertically. On the plan, the drawing is left uncluttered by the use of symbols which are described in the key.

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Image content A grid structure should help to establish a hierarchy for the images that are to be positioned together on a sheet. Each image needs to be considered in terms of its relative importance and its grouping with others, as well as how it fits alongside other drawings and text in a sequence. Avoid crowding too much visual information on to a drawing, which can make it confusing for the reader. Remember, sometimes less is more: a badly chosen image can ruin or detract from a good presentation. Scale drawings should be presented using only a few recognized scales. It is best to avoid the temptation to ‘shrink-to-fit’ the space available. When reducing drawings, it is important to ensure that all line widths are still clear and that any text is readable. Scale should be clearly indicated, either written or drawn by use of a bar scale. All plans should be orientated the same way, usually with north upwards, marked with a symbol. Plans should be aligned with sections and elevations, located directly above or below, drawn to the same scale. The section line should be clearly marked on the plan.

6.12 Project: Art of Placemaking Location: Leeds, UK Designer: John Walker This sheet has a user-friendly style appropriate for its purpose, which was to promote temporary, locally initiated planting projects as part of urban regeneration. The presentation relies on the simplicity and accessibility of the graphics, without the need for text.

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6.13 Project: Urban Village Location: Crystal Palace, UK Designer: Sîan Jones A scale masterplan with sections to the same scale illustrate the overall design. Three design interventions for the project are described using a consistent format: the title and a large perspective of the proposal with three small supporting images; a location plan which crossreferences to the masterplan; a photograph of the existing site; a case study followed by explanatory text. The text has a clear hierarchy and is aligned in small blocks, located outside the drawings for clarity.

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Production

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Project: Landscape Architecture Relief

Attention to detail in the production is very important in order to do justice to all the work done in the preparation of a layout. For example, the quality of drawings will depend upon resolution, quality of ink and type of paper. There can also be a difference between the colour shown on a monitor and a printed version.

Location: Kibera, Kenya Designer: Jack Campbell Clause This is a student project for a shanty town in Kenya. The presentation was printed on inexpensive unbleached wallpaper lining paper. The paper and colours were chosen to reflect the project’s African context, evoking a sense of identity by using a style complementary to the design concept.

Before printing out the final version, it is prudent to do a test print to resolve any final niggles. This is where a second pair of eyes comes in useful – objective and accurate feedback from a colleague can be invaluable in fine-tuning what was thought to be the final proof. Another useful test is to view the work from a distance, thus reducing a drawing to its main elements, decreasing detail, so as to focus on the overall layout design. Presentation Å!

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TIPB Sheet layout checklist • Format Establish a consistent sheet size and orientation – standard sizes are usually best, but if there is a good reason, such as the shape of a project, size can be customized. • Sequence Order your content to flow logically, from left to right, top to bottom. • Structure Set up a grid to organize content. This will help to establish rhythm and order, through balancing size and the position of elements. • Edit Be selective with image choice: limit content to the essential. • Composition Group images and text content in a logical way. They should be organized to establish relationships within a grouping and also between one grouping and the next.

• Borders Placing borders between elements can help to draw attention to the content. Elements can stop abruptly or bleed into the edges of another part of the grid. • Colour and texture Use colour and texture to help the audience understand sequence, rhythm and grouping. Colour contrast and texture can highlight key elements. • Text The choice of typeface, size and spacing between words and lines are important. The typeface should be legible and appropriate to the project. Keep text short and to the point. Spell and grammar check. • Title A good title needs to be representative of the project, and also intrigue and attract the audience.

• Style The style of graphic presentation should complement and be consistent with the project. It’s important not to try too hard and risk imposing a style that could detract from the content and its • Hierarchy The larger the element, the communication. The style of your more importance it has. Once the viewer’s presentation should emerge naturally as attention has been captured, smaller part of the developmental process. drawings and text give a more in-depth understanding of a project. • Alignment Align text and image, using the grid. Consider alignment within the group and the relationship of one group to another.

• Space Do not underestimate the importance of a blank space. It separates components and helps legibility.

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Landscape architects need to be skilled at presenting their projects using a mixture of image, text and spoken word. As their project develops, they present their findings by selecting appropriate formats such as a report, poster or exhibition. Because designers are visually trained, the power of their presentations tends to focus on the visual representation of ideas, supported by text and verbal presentations. A good designer is responsive to feedback from presentations, which informs and enriches the development of their project.

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6.15 Project: Broadcasting Bridge Location: Leeds, UK Designer: Kerrie McKinnon A movie was chosen to present a proposal for sculptural planting on top of a bridge. The narrative started by setting the scene of the site then revealed the design process, concluding with a photomontage of the final proposal.

6.16 Project: Viaduct Park Location: Leeds, UK 6.16

Practice: Estell Warren Landscape Architecture This PowerPoint was used as a visual aid for a client presentation. It showed site analysis, character and visualizations to support a proposal for a derelict railway viaduct to be transformed into an elevated linear city park. PowerPoints are a convenient format that allow the designer to reorder visuals, as well as to alter and edit a presentation for different audiences.

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Layout Format Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook

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Verbal presentations

Moving image

Designers need to be able to engage with audiences and talk about their projects in a simple and direct way, which may reveal points not readily apparent in drawings. Project reviews happen several times as a project develops, which gives opportunities for a structured and direct dialogue between designer, design team, clients and users.

Moving image offers the potential for sophisticated presentations that mix video, still images and text in a narrated sequence to an audience. The use of a soundtrack can add a special sense of engagement and atmosphere to a presentation.

Verbal presentations are made to support and interpret graphic-based work, which is frequently presented in an exhibition format or digitally projected using PowerPoint. Verbal presentations usually begin with the general and move to the specific, following the chronology of a project. You should seek to connect a talk closely with the images, by directly referring to all the drawings, models and so on. It is important to carefully structure the content of a talk and to rehearse your delivery, so that it works within any imposed time limits.

Due to the increasing simplicity of editing software, moving image is becoming a more common format to use and is likely to play an increasingly important role in landscape architecture presentations.

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Format

Competitions Competitions are important to designers because they are a great way to get noticed by peers or clients. The format and content of competitions is usually specified by the organizers. Often, an exhibition accompanies a competition, either to help the jury make its decisions or at the end of the process to showcase the winners. In this exhibition format, the legibility of a design from a distance becomes essential. The drawings may need to be read from several metres away and sets of drawings must be clearly numbered, so that they are viewed in sequence.

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Layout Format Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook

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Reports Reports may be needed to give general design guidance or to present a site design project. They may be used as standalone documents or to accompany large format drawings. Resizing large drawings to fit into a smaller report format needs to be undertaken so that all text and drawings are legible.

6.1 Project: National Mall competition Location: Washington DC, USA Practice: Peter Walker and Partners with Roger Marvel Architects This presentation is carefully organized across six large panels. There is a clear organization and hierarchy of content, which relies on a bold use of perspectives and colour. Supporting graphics include schematics, sections and a material palette to help explain the design in more detail. Text is kept to a minimum because the drawings are self-explanatory.

Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook

Project: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook Location: Chicago, USA Practice: Hitchcock Design Group, Chicago, USA Date: 2006 Visual communication techniques used: Æ

Hand-drawn visuals – plan, axonometric and section-elevation

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This action guide was aimed at the general public to create a greener and more environmentally sustainable Chicago. It showcased innovative, environmental technologies to help manage storm water, reduce heat wastage, promote recycling and conserve energy. Chicago is characterized by an extensive network of alleyways, and this guide established new alley designs that conserve resources and so improve the environment. Hand-drawings are a major feature of the book. They give it a user-friendly feel and a cartoon-like simplicity. The strong outlines to the features are hand-coloured and include shade and shadow to give depth to the illustrations. One spread shows a hand-drawn axonometric (image a), which is supported by brief annotations to highlight drainage improvements. The following layouts (image b) follow a consistent format, with the top half of the page having simple diagrammatic hand-drawings with brief captions and explanatory notes. The bottom half of the page is text, which clearly explains the rationale and benefits. The ‘Pilot Approach’ pages (image c) show the sensitive application of these techniques. Plans and sections are supported by keyed explanatory text which is shown side-by-side to allow the reader to make quick comparisons.

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Format Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook Portfolio

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Portfolio

Digital portfolios, such as PDF format or PowerPoint, are commonly used and are especially useful when making a portfolio presentation to a large audience. Digital portfolios are more sustainable and adaptable to suit different interviews. Copies can be printed on demand, content can be edited for specific purposes and the portfolio can be incrementally updated with new work.

The portfolio is a visual record of a landscape architect’s design skills and individual style. It is an autobiographical, visual curriculum vitae that can be presented in a creative way, thus making it a powerful marketing tool. Traditionally, portfolios are made up of a series of loose sheets presented on a standard paper size, such as A (16.5 x 11.7 inches) or A2 (2 .4 x 16.5 inches). Larger sizes, such as A1 ( .1 x 2 .4 inches) or A0 (46.8 x .1 inches) can be difficult to transport and also more expensive to print. Each page will describe a different project and a narrative is adapted to suit each interview. Increasingly, hard copy portfolios are being formatted into brochures, newspapers and books. Hard copy can be printed locally or online printing services can be used. Many publishing companies have made the production and publication of books relatively easy and inexpensive, although it is important to consider the paper quality and binding.

Portfolios have a long and interesting history in landscape architecture. Humphry Repton, an 18th-century landscape architect, became famous through the use of the red books that he made for clients. They contained beautiful visualizations that simply communicated the site before and after his design proposal.

6.18 Project: Portfolio Location: Exhibition Designer: Glen Wallace

‘A good student portfolio shows that someone has experimented with their work, but also has a firm grasp of the concept that every illustration is telling a story. A well puttogether portfolio will pick excerpts that show the process of the design and carry the project concept. This is different from just picking the ‘flashiest’ renderings from each assignment.’ Adam Nicklin PUBLIC WORK office for urban design and landscape architecture, Canada

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Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook Portfolio

This student presented his portfolio in a newspaper format. His objective was to encourage the exhibition visitor to sit down and browse through his work and perhaps for a potential employer to take it away and then contact him later. The newspaper had a distinctive, yellow padded wallet, which also contained a sticker and business card.

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6.19 Project: Portfolio Location: Exhibition Designer: Jack Tupper This undergraduate portfolio showcases selected examples of work. In an elongated format, each project has a title page and uses a similar typeface, positioned consistently for continuity. The variety of work shows a wide range of skills, including D visualizations, schematics, photographs, plans, sections and construction drawings.

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Content The content of a portfolio depends on its purpose. Where a portfolio is required for a specific purpose, its content can be designed to meet these requirements. The content should be driven by research about the targeted audience and an understanding of their likely expectations. Whilst on a landscape architecture course, it is important to keep a good record of projects to illustrate the depth and breadth of your abilities. This comprehensive record can be seen as your showcase for types of project, different contexts, range of scales, variety of processes and hand and digital techniques. The content should play to your personal strengths, interests and abilities. As well as showcasing work, a portfolio may also become an invaluable reflective tool.

Practitioners often make quick judgements about a portfolio, therefore it is important to order the content so that it begins and ends strongly, seeking a balance between quality and quantity. Your most recent projects are likely to be more complex and interesting, and therefore will present a strong start to a portfolio. A limited amount of text can also be used to introduce and support images. As with all digital work, you should keep backup files, keeping the TIFF or JPEG file size to 00dpi. For non-digital work, always keep a copy by scanning or photographing it. Originals should never be used just in case they are accidentally lost. Process work from notebooks can be scanned; whilst photographs can record models and large-format work.

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6.20 Project: Yearbook e-portfolio Location: Website Practice: b:d landscape architects This e-portfolio is presented as a digital yearbook that illustrates a year in the life of a landscape architect’s practice. It uses a mixture of drawings and photographs to portray the range of work undertaken, which includes drawings and images of completed projects. This portfolio can be accessed via the company’s website or from that of the online book publishers.

E-portfolio The Internet is a valuable showcase for a designer’s portfolio. It is now an established creative platform to promote a designer’s profile and to reach the public through an online community. Any method of showcasing or publishing work through the Internet is known as presenting an e-portfolio. The online visitor is unknown and can range from a casual browser looking for inspiration or a curious peer, through to a prospective employer. The layout and information content has to be designed to standalone. There are many photographic and video-hosting websites, for example Vimeo and Flickr, that allow the uploading and publishing of work.

Most sites enable visitors to add comments, therefore becoming potentially useful platforms for critique. Blogs are discussion sites that consist of discrete entries known as ‘posts’, which are listed in chronological order. They can include photographs, video and text. Functioning as a personal diary, they might include such things as updates on current work, thinking, reviews and sources of inspiration; or they might present a complete profile of a designer. Micro-blogging and social networking sites also enable discussion and debate but at a faster and more immediate pace.

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Website A website allows designers to showcase their work to a wide and diverse audience. However, it needs to be carefully designed to work as a successful portfolio. As websites are non-linear, ease of navigation is fundamental to their success. A website has to be logical to explore, have easy to scroll through information and allow easy return to previous pages. Good layout and style can attract visitors, but ease of access around the site will also retain their attention. The homepage should make obvious references to the designer’s identity, present a range and style of projects, as well as showcase the designer’s particular field of expertise.

Once the practicalities of navigation, narrative and content have been addressed, style and layout need to be considered. Originality should initially derive from the work itself, but a unique layout will make a website stand out from the crowd and hold the visitors’ interest. Website design software is readily available and increasingly easy to use for those who wish to construct a website for themselves. However, website construction and maintenance can be expensive and time-consuming.

A main menu bar on the homepage should help to direct the viewer to a biography, portfolio and contact details. This menu should be present across the website and so assist in navigating back to key pages or sections. As the landscape architecture profession covers a broad range of projects, these are often sorted by type – for example, housing, commercial, public parks, historical sites, urban regeneration and so on. Other designers categorize their work alphabetically, chronologically or geographically. Be selective about the choice of project. A strong narrative with a few examples of landmark projects is better than lots of work presented in a random order.

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Case study 12: The Chicago Green Alley Handbook Portfolio

6.21 Project: Website Location: Online (www. gustafson-porter.com) Designer: Gustafson-Porter This homepage (image a) has a strong logo, background and image. A similar format is used throughout the website. The following page (image b) explains the distinctive approach of the practice by using strong visuals, including photographs, models and drawings. A combination of photographs, models and drawings are used to show the breadth of design philosophy. The third page (image c) focuses on a specific project, presenting a main image and a selection of thumbnails located above, which can be enlarged.

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Resources

The following books and journals will help further exploration of representational techniques. Exhibitions of landscape architecture held in art galleries and architecture centres can also prove inspiring.

Zell, M. The Architectural Drawing Course Thames and Hudson, London, 2008

Further reading

Adobe Creative Team Adobe Photoshop CS5, Classroom in a Book Adobe Press Books, Berkeley, California, 2010

Graphic techniques Adams, E. Power Drawing: Space and Place The Campaign for Drawing, London, 2004 Adams, E. Drawing: A Tool for Design The Campaign for Drawing, London, 2009 Brereton, R. Sketchbooks: The Hidden Art of Designers, Illustrators & Creatives Laurence King, London, 2009

Digital

Cantrell, B., Michaels, W. & Smith, K. Digital Drawing for Landscape Architecture John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2010 Hanna, K. GIS for Landscape Architects Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California, 1999 Tal, D. Google SketchUp for Site Design John Wiley, New York, 2009

Brown, J. The Art and Architecture of English Gardens Rizzoli, New York, 1989

Model making

Ching, F. D. K. Design Drawing John Wiley, New Jersey, 2010

Dunn, N. Architectural Modelmaking Laurence King, London, 2010

Farrelly, L. Basics Architecture: Representational Techniques AVA Publishing, Lausanne, 2008

Mills, C. Designing with Models John Wiley, New York, 2005

Halprin, L. The RSVP Cycles: Creative Processes in the Human Environment George Braziller, New York, 1969

Detail

Hockney, D. My Yorkshire Enitharmon Editions, 2011

Littlefield, D. Metric Handbook Routledge, London, 2012

Hutchinson, E. Drawing for Landscape Architecture Thames and Hudson, London, 2011

McLeod, V. Detail in Contemporary Landscape Architecture Laurence King, London, 2008

Laseau, P. Freehand Sketching: An Introduction Norton & Co, New York, 2004

Zimmerman, A. Constructing Landscape: Materials, Techniques, Structural Components Birkhauser, Basel, 2009

Meeda, B et al. Graphics for Urban Design Thomas Telford, London, 2009

Holden, R. & Liversedge, J. Construction for Landscape Architecture Laurence King, London, 2011

Process and Theory

Reid, G. W. Landscape Graphics Watson-Guptill, New York, 2002

Frederick, M. 101 Things I Learnt in Architecture School MIT Press, Massachusetts, 2007

Sullivan, C. Drawing the Landscape John Wiley, New York, 2004

Gosling, D. Gordon Cullen Academy Editions, London, 1996

Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture Resources Index

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Jellicoe, G. The Landscape of Man Thames and Hudson, London, 1987 Jones, W. & Sagoo, N The Architects Sketchbook Thames & Hudson, London, 2011 Knight, C. & Glaser, J Diagrams RotoVision, Switzerland, 2009 Lynch, K. Site Planning MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1971 McHarg, I. Design with Nature John Wiley, New York, 1995 Moore, K. Overlooking the Visual: Demystifying the Art of Design Routledge, Oxfordshire, 2010 Motloch, J. Introduction to Landscape Design John Wiley, New York, 2001 Norberg-Schulz, C. Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture Rizzoli International Publications, 1980 Waterman, T. The Fundamentals of Landscape Architecture AVA Publishing, Lausanne, 2009 Whyte, W. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces PPS, New York, 2004 Picture credits Images used with courtesy of: AECOM UK: 132–3, 144–5, 153, 172–3; AECOM Design + Planning Australia: 99, 104, 125, 171; Alistair W. Baldwin Associates: 8–9, 15, 61, 87; Arabella Lennox-Boyd: 91; asom asom: 28, 123, 146–7; b:d landscape architects: 28, 30, 102–3, 192–3; Balmori Associates, Landscape and Urban Design + Hugh Hardy Collaboration Architecture: 83; BCA Landscape: 42–3, 162–3; Bridgeman Art Library: 78 (The south front with east front in perspective, from the Red Book for Antony House, c.1812 (w/c on paper), Repton, Humphry (1752–1818/Private collection/The Stapleton Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library); Bureau B+B: 55, 108–9; Cracknell: 62–3, 130–1; Denis Wilkinson: 44–5; Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening (DRO), Physical Planning Department, city of Amsterdam: 34–5; Edwin Knighton: 56–7, 175; Estell Warren Ltd.: 70, 92–3, 114, 156–7, 184; Gillespies LLP: 54, 62–3, 85, 95, 96–7, 116, 121, 127, 148, 154; Grant Associates: 55, 94, 100, 111, 138–9, 149, 170; Gustafson Guthrie Nichol and Davis Brody Bond for Union, used with courtesy of Ashley Rook at Rational 360: 115; Hitchcock Design Group: 188–9; HTA

Landscape Design: 113; Hudson de Maeijer Landscapes and Gardens: 160–1; Isthmus Group Ltd: 58–9, 101, 143; Jenny Humberstone MA Hons MLA: 33 (public life survey developed by Jan Gehl and Gehl architects in collaboration with 8–80 cities), 67; Joseph Paxton, Birkenhead Park, Liverpool, UK, from The American Cyclopaedia, v.13, 1879, p. 103: 79; Kathryn Gustafson: 137, 195; Landscape Projects: 84, 113, 118, 126, 128–9; Lawrence Halprin: 50–1; LDA Design: 74–5; LUC: 123; Macgregor Smith Ltd.: 88–9, 90–1; Mecanoo architecten: 107; Michael Maltzan Architecture and Tom Leader Studio for Sylvan Theater, used courtesy of Ashley Rook at Rational 360: 82; Nokes Jarvis Design: 119 (Fifteen Degrees, Hampton Court Flower Show, 2004); Peter Fink, Form Associates (155); Peter Walker and Partners with Rogers Marvel Architects for Constitution, used courtesy of Ashley Rook at Rational 360: 186–7; Philip Dugdale: 116–7, 179; RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collections: 80 (Design for the formal gardens at Combe Abbey, William Miller); 81 (Design for the Moody Gardens, Galveston); Richard Hare: 19, 21; Roberto Burle Marx: 81 (Burle Marx, Roberto (1909–1994): Garden Design for Beach House for Mr and Mrs Burton Tremaine, project, Santa Barbara, California, Site plan, 1948. New York, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Gouache on board, 50 ¼ x 27 ¾" (127.6 x 70.5cm). Gift of Mr and Mrs Burton Tremaine. Acc. n.: SC19.1966.copyright 2012. Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence; Burle Marx, Roberto (1909–1994): Burton Tremaine Residence. Project: Garden plan, 1948. New York, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Gouache on board, 50 ¼ x 27 ¾" (127.6 x 70.5cm). Gift of Mr and Mrs Burton Tremaine. SC44.1948 copyright 2012. Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence; Burle Marx, Roberto (1909–1994): Ibirapuera Park, project, São Paulo, Brazil, 1953. New York, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Gouache and graphite on board. 39 ½ x 59 ½" (100.3 x 151.1 cm). Gift of Roblee McCarthey Jr. Fund and Lily Auchincloss Fund. Acc. num. 157. 1991. Copyright 2012. Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence; SLA: (120, 134–5); The Terra Firma Consultancy: 64–5 (prepared by Alice Cooper for Terra Firma’s 2009 regeneration masterplan for Selsey); TPM Landscape (125); Trudi Entwistle: 68, 72–3, 175; West 8 Urban Design and Landscape Architecture: 178. With thanks to the following students and staff of Leeds Metropolitan University, UK: Andy Millard (39); Anthony Hodgson (86); Cate Quinn (20–21); Cherry Tian (53); Chris Hughes (52); David Hooley (65, 176); David Smith; (10, 24–5, 87, 124); Ed Cardwell (36); Emma Oldroyd (49); Esther Kilner (151, 164–5, 169); Fiona Anderson (12); Glen Wallace (190); Hilary Barber, Mami Okubo, Claire Lawrence and Michelle Catlow: 36; Ian Morton (40); Jack Campbell Clause (38, 182); Jack Tupper (191); James Turner (158); John Flinn (4–5); John Regan (18, 22); John Walker (180); Kate Dowdall (14); Kerrie McKinnon (66, 184–5); Laura Jagota (177); Lindsay Robinson (3, 103); Lindsay Whitley (30); Mark Coskie (12, 16); Matthew Payne (40) (aerial imagery copyright: Google images); Nick Bonner (11); Nika Cufer (26, 27, 47); Olivia V. J. Andersen (cover, 76–7); Rachel Forbes (140–1, 159); Richard Contini (11); Robert Charlton (168); Sîan Jones (112, 181); Stefan Koenig (92); Suzanne Riley (47); Tim Spain: 56–7. All reasonable attempts have been made to trace, clear and credit the copyright holders of the images reproduced in this book. However, if any credits have been inadvertently omitted, the publisher will endeavour to incorporate amendments in future editions.

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Jellicoe, G. The Landscape of Man Thames and Hudson, London, 1987 Jones, W. & Sagoo, N The Architects Sketchbook Thames & Hudson, London, 2011 Knight, C. & Glaser, J Diagrams RotoVision, Switzerland, 2009 Lynch, K. Site Planning MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1971 McHarg, I. Design with Nature John Wiley, New York, 1995 Moore, K. Overlooking the Visual: Demystifying the Art of Design Routledge, Oxfordshire, 2010 Motloch, J. Introduction to Landscape Design John Wiley, New York, 2001 Norberg-Schulz, C. Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture Rizzoli International Publications, 1980 Waterman, T. The Fundamentals of Landscape Architecture AVA Publishing, Lausanne, 2009 Whyte, W. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces PPS, New York, 2004 Picture credits Images used with courtesy of: AECOM UK: 132–3, 144–5, 153, 172–3; AECOM Design + Planning Australia: 99, 104, 125, 171; Alistair W. Baldwin Associates: 8–9, 15, 61, 87; Arabella Lennox-Boyd: 91; asom asom: 28, 123, 146–7; b:d landscape architects: 28, 30, 102–3, 192–3; Balmori Associates, Landscape and Urban Design + Hugh Hardy Collaboration Architecture: 83; BCA Landscape: 42–3, 162–3; Bridgeman Art Library: 78 (The south front with east front in perspective, from the Red Book for Antony House, c.1812 (w/c on paper), Repton, Humphry (1752–1818/Private collection/The Stapleton Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library); Bureau B+B: 55, 108–9; Cracknell: 62–3, 130–1; Denis Wilkinson: 44–5; Dienst Ruimtelijke Ordening (DRO), Physical Planning Department, city of Amsterdam: 34–5; Edwin Knighton: 56–7, 175; Estell Warren Ltd.: 70, 92–3, 114, 156–7, 184; Gillespies LLP: 54, 62–3, 85, 95, 96–7, 116, 121, 127, 148, 154; Grant Associates: 55, 94, 100, 111, 138–9, 149, 170; Gustafson Guthrie Nichol and Davis Brody Bond for Union, used with courtesy of Ashley Rook at Rational 360: 115; Hitchcock Design Group: 188–9; HTA

Landscape Design: 113; Hudson de Maeijer Landscapes and Gardens: 160–1; Isthmus Group Ltd: 58–9, 101, 143; Jenny Humberstone MA Hons MLA: 33 (public life survey developed by Jan Gehl and Gehl architects in collaboration with 8–80 cities), 67; Joseph Paxton, Birkenhead Park, Liverpool, UK, from The American Cyclopaedia, v.13, 1879, p. 103: 79; Kathryn Gustafson: 137, 195; Landscape Projects: 84, 113, 118, 126, 128–9; Lawrence Halprin: 50–1; LDA Design: 74–5; LUC: 123; Macgregor Smith Ltd.: 88–9, 90–1; Mecanoo architecten: 107; Michael Maltzan Architecture and Tom Leader Studio for Sylvan Theater, used courtesy of Ashley Rook at Rational 360: 82; Nokes Jarvis Design: 119 (Fifteen Degrees, Hampton Court Flower Show, 2004); Peter Fink, Form Associates (155); Peter Walker and Partners with Rogers Marvel Architects for Constitution, used courtesy of Ashley Rook at Rational 360: 186–7; Philip Dugdale: 116–7, 179; RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collections: 80 (Design for the formal gardens at Combe Abbey, William Miller); 81 (Design for the Moody Gardens, Galveston); Richard Hare: 19, 21; Roberto Burle Marx: 81 (Burle Marx, Roberto (1909–1994): Garden Design for Beach House for Mr and Mrs Burton Tremaine, project, Santa Barbara, California, Site plan, 1948. New York, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Gouache on board, 50 ¼ x 27 ¾" (127.6 x 70.5cm). Gift of Mr and Mrs Burton Tremaine. Acc. n.: SC19.1966.copyright 2012. Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence; Burle Marx, Roberto (1909–1994): Burton Tremaine Residence. Project: Garden plan, 1948. New York, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Gouache on board, 50 ¼ x 27 ¾" (127.6 x 70.5cm). Gift of Mr and Mrs Burton Tremaine. SC44.1948 copyright 2012. Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence; Burle Marx, Roberto (1909–1994): Ibirapuera Park, project, São Paulo, Brazil, 1953. New York, Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Gouache and graphite on board. 39 ½ x 59 ½" (100.3 x 151.1 cm). Gift of Roblee McCarthey Jr. Fund and Lily Auchincloss Fund. Acc. num. 157. 1991. Copyright 2012. Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Scala, Florence; SLA: (120, 134–5); The Terra Firma Consultancy: 64–5 (prepared by Alice Cooper for Terra Firma’s 2009 regeneration masterplan for Selsey); TPM Landscape (125); Trudi Entwistle: 68, 72–3, 175; West 8 Urban Design and Landscape Architecture: 178. With thanks to the following students and staff of Leeds Metropolitan University, UK: Andy Millard (39); Anthony Hodgson (86); Cate Quinn (20–21); Cherry Tian (53); Chris Hughes (52); David Hooley (65, 176); David Smith; (10, 24–5, 87, 124); Ed Cardwell (36); Emma Oldroyd (49); Esther Kilner (151, 164–5, 169); Fiona Anderson (12); Glen Wallace (190); Hilary Barber, Mami Okubo, Claire Lawrence and Michelle Catlow: 36; Ian Morton (40); Jack Campbell Clause (38, 182); Jack Tupper (191); James Turner (158); John Flinn (4–5); John Regan (18, 22); John Walker (180); Kate Dowdall (14); Kerrie McKinnon (66, 184–5); Laura Jagota (177); Lindsay Robinson (3, 103); Lindsay Whitley (30); Mark Coskie (12, 16); Matthew Payne (40) (aerial imagery copyright: Google images); Nick Bonner (11); Nika Cufer (26, 27, 47); Olivia V. J. Andersen (cover, 76–7); Rachel Forbes (140–1, 159); Richard Contini (11); Robert Charlton (168); Sîan Jones (112, 181); Stefan Koenig (92); Suzanne Riley (47); Tim Spain: 56–7. All reasonable attempts have been made to trace, clear and credit the copyright holders of the images reproduced in this book. However, if any credits have been inadvertently omitted, the publisher will endeavour to incorporate amendments in future editions.

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Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements The creation of this book would not have been possible without the help of many people. Firstly, we would like to thank our families for their support and understanding. We are extremely grateful to our friends, colleagues, students and practitioners for their useful advice and illustrations. It would not have been possible without you. Our landscape architecture colleagues at Leeds Metropolitan University gave much valued support and advice. We express our thanks to Sandra Ashton, Mark Burgess, Catherine Burrage, Marilyn Elm, Fleure Gething, Steve Heywood, Emma Oldroyd, Andy Millard, Chris Royffe, John Regan, Debbie Samuel, Alan Simson, Lindsay Smales and Denis Wilkinson. We are proud of our students’ and graduates’ work, which provides us with a constant source of inspiration. It’s a privilege to have taught so many talented designers on our courses in landscape architecture, garden design and urban design. This book provides a snapshot of more recent examples but unfortunately it has not been possible to include everybody. We had a rewarding dialogue with many landscape architects as we developed the book. They were generous with their time and made insightful comments which we found enlightening. We are particularly grateful to: Alistair Baldwin (A. W. Baldwin Associates), Rob Beswick (b:d), Cath Chatburn (AECOM, Design + Planning, Australia), Phil Dugdale (AECOM UK), Lionel Fanshaw (Terra Firma), Keith French (Grant Associates), Steve Goodchild (Fairhursts), Adam Greatix, Simon Hall, John MacCleary (Gillespies LLP), Richard Hare (Copenhagen University), Andrew Harland, Rob Tregay (LDA Design), Jane Hudson (Hudson De Maeijer), Ralph Johns (Isthmus), Emma Mazzullo (Arabella Lennox-Boyd), Paul Melia (asom asom), Adam Nicklin (Public Work), Rick Rowbotham (Form Associates), Mike Smith (Macgregor Smith), Neil Swanson (Landscape Projects), Carl Taylor (TPM Landscape), Andy Thompson (BCA Landscape), Craig Verzone (VWA), Steve Warren (Estell Warren). Finally to our editorial team, a special thanks to Colette Meacher, for her editorial guidance, reviewers for their informative feedback, Rachel Parkinson for picture research and Atelier David Smith for the book’s design.

Visual Communication for Landscape Architecture Å!

Index Acknowledgements Working with ethics Æ

BASICS LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE



Lynne Elvins Naomi Goulder

Working with ethics



Publisher’s note note

The framework The subject of ethics is not new, yet its The framework positions positions ethical ethical consideration consideration within the applied visual consideration into into four four areas areas and and poses poses questions arts is perhaps not as prevalent as it questions about about the the practical practical implications implications that might be. Our aim here is to help a new that might might occur. occur. Marking Marking your your response response to generation of students, educators and to each each of of these these questions questions on on the the scale scale shown practitioners find a methodology for shown will will allow allow your your reactions reactions to to be be further structuring their thoughts and reflections further explored explored by by comparison. comparison. in this vital area. The case The case study study sets sets out out aa real real project project AVA Publishing hopes that these Working and and then then poses poses some some ethical ethical questions questions for with ethics pages provide a platform for for further further consideration. consideration. This This is is aa focus focus point consideration and a flexible method for point for for aa debate debate rather rather than than aa critical critical incorporating ethical concerns in the work analysis analysis so so there there are are no no predetermined predetermined right of educators, students and professionals. right or or wrong wrong answers. answers. Our approach consists of four parts: A A selection selection of of further further reading reading for for you you to The introduction is intended to be to consider consider areas areas of of particular particular interest interest in in more an accessible snapshot of the ethical more detail. detail. landscape, both in terms of historical development and current dominant themes.

Working with ethics



Introduction Introduction

Ethics Ethics is is a a complex complex subject subject that that interlaces interlaces the the idea idea of of responsibilities responsibilities to to society society with with a a wide wide range range of of considerations considerations relevant relevant to to the the character character and and happiness happiness of of the the individual. individual. ItIt concerns concerns virtues virtues of of compassion, compassion, loyalty loyalty and and strength, strength, but but also dence, imagination, also of of confi confidence, imagination, humour humour and and optimism. optimism. As As introduced introduced in in ancient ancient Greek Greek philosophy, philosophy, the the fundamental fundamental ethical ethical question question is: is: what what should should II do? do? How How we we might might pursue pursue aa ‘good’ ‘good’ life life not not only only raises raises moral moral concerns concerns about about the the effects effects of of our our actions actions on on others, others, but but also also personal personal concerns concerns about about our our own own integrity. integrity.

In In modern modern times times the the most most important important and and controversial controversial questions questions in in ethics ethics have have been been the the moral moral ones. ones. With With growing growing populations populations and and improvements improvements in in mobility mobility and and communications, communications, itit is is not not surprising surprising that that considerations considerations about about how how to to structure structure our our lives lives together together on on the the planet planet should should come come to to the the forefront. forefront. For For visual visual artists artists and and communicators, communicators, itit should should be be no no surprise surprise that that these these considerations considerations will will enter enter into into the the creative creative process. process. Some Some ethical ethical considerations considerations are are already already enshrined enshrined in in government government laws laws and and regulations regulations or or in in professional professional codes codes of of conduct. conduct. For For example, example, plagiarism plagiarism and and breaches dentiality can breaches of of confi confidentiality can be be punishable punishable offences. offences. Legislation Legislation in in various various nations nations makes makes itit unlawful unlawful to to exclude exclude people people with with disabilities disabilities from from accessing accessing information information or or spaces. spaces. The The trade trade of of ivory ivory as as aa material material has has been been banned banned in in many many countries. countries. In In these these cases, cases, aa clear clear line line has has been been drawn drawn under under what what is is unacceptable. unacceptable.



Specific questions questions such Specific such as as these these may may lead to to other other questions questions that lead that are are more more abstract. For For example, example, is abstract. is itit only only effects effects on humans humans (and (and what what they on they care care about) about) that are are important, important, or that or might might effects effects on on the the natural world world require require attention natural attention too? too?

Is promoting promoting ethical ethical consequences consequences Is justified even when when itit requires requires ethical ethical justifi ed even sacrifices along the the way? way? Must Must there there be be aa sacrifi ces along single single unifying unifying theory theory of of ethics ethics (such (such as as the the Utilitarian Utilitarian thesis thesis that that the the right right course course of of action action is is always always the the one one that that leads leads to to the the greatest greatest happiness happiness of of the the greatest greatest number), number), or or might might there there always always be be many many different different ethical ethical values values that that pull pull aa person person in in various various directions? directions? As As we we enter enter into into ethical ethical debate debate and and engage engage with with these these dilemmas dilemmas on on aa personal personal and and professional professional level, level, we we may may change change our our views views or or change change our our view view of of others. others. The The real real test test though though is is whether, whether, as as we ect on we refl reflect on these these matters, matters, we we change change the the way way we we act act as as well well as as the the way way we we think. think. Socrates, Socrates, the the ‘father’ ‘father’ of of philosophy, philosophy, proposed proposed that that people people will will naturally naturally do do ‘good’ ‘good’ ifif they they know know what what is is right. right. But But this this point point might might only only lead lead us us to to yet yet another another question: question: how how do do we we know know what what is is right? right?

Working with ethics

But remain open open to to But most most ethical ethical matters matters remain debate, and lay-people lay-people debate, among among experts experts and alike, we have have to to make make our our alike, and and in in the the end end we own basis of of our our own own own choices choices on on the the basis guiding principles principles or or values. guiding values. Is Is itit more more ethical to to work work for for a a charity ethical charity than than for for a a commercial company? company? Is commercial Is itit unethical unethical to to create something something that that others nd ugly create others fifind ugly or or offensive? offensive?







A framework for ethics

You What are your ethical beliefs?

Your client What are your terms?



Central to everything you do will be your attitude to people and issues around you. For some people, their ethics are an active part of the decisions they make every day as a consumer, a voter or a working professional. Others may think about ethics very little and yet this does not automatically make them unethical. Personal beliefs, lifestyle, politics, nationality, religion, gender, class or education can all influence your ethical viewpoint.



Using the scale, where would you place yourself? What do you take into account to make your decision? Compare results with your friends or colleagues.

Working relationships are central to whether ethics can be embedded into a project, and your conduct on a dayto-day basis is a demonstration of your professional ethics. The decision with the biggest impact is whom you choose to work with in the first place. Cigarette companies or arms traders are oftencited examples when talking about where a line might be drawn, but rarely are real situations so extreme. At what point might you turn down a project on ethical grounds and how much does the reality of having to earn a living affect your ability to choose? Using the scale, where would you place a project? How does this compare to your personal ethical level?





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01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10



In relatively recent times, we are learning that many natural materials are in short supply. At the same time, we are increasingly aware that some man-made materials can have harmful, long-term effects on people or the planet. How much do you know about the materials that you use? Do you know where they come from, how far they travel and under what conditions they are obtained? When your creation is no longer needed, will it be easy and safe to recycle? Will it disappear without a trace? Are these considerations your responsibility or are they out of your hands?



Using the scale, mark how ethical your material choices are.



Your creation What is the purpose of your work?



Between you, your colleagues and an agreed brief, what will your creation achieve? What purpose will it have in society and will it make a positive contribution? Should your work result in more than commercial success or industry awards? Might your creation help save lives, educate, protect or inspire? Form and function are two established aspects of judging a creation, but there is little consensus on the obligations of visual artists and communicators toward society, or the role they might have in solving social or environmental problems. If you want recognition for being the creator, how responsible are you for what you create and where might that responsibility end?



Using the scale, mark how ethical the purpose of your work is.





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01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10

Working with ethics

Your specifications What are the impacts of your materials?









Case study

Working with publicly owned spaces is an aspect of landscape architecture that involves the discipline with issues of politics, society and ethics. The creation or restoration of public parks and buildings, housing estates, city squares, infrastructure or coastlines is a multidisciplinary activity where decisions can have large-scale consequences. Projects often reflect social attitudes of the time towards nature, communities, integration and freedom of movement. The best interests of the public should ideally be maintained, but this might be difficult amongst conflicting pressures from financial interests or political reputations. Similarly, what might benefit the taxpayer may have an adverse impact on the natural environment. Having a clear ethical stance or code of conduct from the outset can be crucial to negotiating such conflicts with any conviction. Consulting with the public or directly involving them with the design process is one possible route to pursuing a more inclusive, diverse and ethical approach to creating public spaces. At the same time this might adversely create feelings of animosity or it could be considered an act of tokenism that only incurs the need for more time and money.



Central Park



Landscape architect Andrew Jackson Downing first voiced and publicized the need for New York’s Central Park in 1844. Supporters were primarily the wealthy, who admired the public grounds of London and Paris, and argued that New York needed a similar facility to establish its international reputation. The state appointed a Central Park Commission to oversee the development and in 1857, a landscape design contest was held. Writer Frederick Law Olmsted and English architect Calvert Vaux developed the Greensward Plan, which was selected as the winning design.



Before construction could start, the designated area had to be cleared of its inhabitants, most of whom were poor and either African Americans or immigrants. Roughly 1,600 people were evicted under the rule of ‘eminent domain’, which allowed the government to seize private property for public purposes.



Following its completion in 1873, the park quickly slipped into decline. This was largely due to lack of interest from the New York authorities. Times were also changing – cars had been invented and were becoming commonplace. No longer were parks used only for walks and picnics, people now wanted space for sports.

The outcome was the establishment of the office of Central Park Administrator and the founding of the Central Park Conservancy. Central Park was redesigned with a revolutionary zonemanagement system. Every zone has a specific individual accountable for its dayto-day maintenance. As of 2007, the Conservancy had invested approximately USD$450 million in restoration and management. Today, Central Park is the most visited park in the United States with around 25 million visitors annually.

What responsibility does a landscape architect have to ensure a public space is maintained once it is complete?

Was it unethical to evict people in order to build a public park? Would this happen today?



Would you have worked on this project?

Commissioned by clients to install barrier walls and private pathways that can keep out or discourage those who are unwanted, or hired to create private commercial experiences out of what may have been public space, many become complicit in structuring the urban language of separation. Ellen Posner (former architecture critic) ‘Cities for a Small Planet’ The Wall Street Journal

Working with ethics



In 1934, Fiorello LaGuardia was elected mayor of New York City and gave Robert Moses the job of cleaning up Central Park. Lawns and trees were replanted, walls were sandblasted, bridges were repaired and major redesigning and construction work was carried out (19 playgrounds and 12 ball fields were created). By the 1970s, Central Park had become a venue for public events on an unprecedented scale, including political rallies and demonstrations, festivals and massive concerts. But at the same time, the city of New York was in economic and social crisis. Morale was low and crime was high. Central Park saw an era of vandalism, territorial use and illicit activity. As a result, several citizen groups emerged to reclaim the park and called for proper planning and management.









Further reading

AIGA Design Business and Ethics 2007, AIGA

Eaton, Marcia Muelder Aesthetics and the Good Life 1989, Associated University Press



Ellison, David Ethics and Aesthetics in European Modernist Literature: From the Sublime to the Uncanny 2001, Cambridge University Press



Fenner, David E W (Ed) Ethics and the Arts: An Anthology 1995, Garland Reference Library of Social Science



Gini, Al and Marcoux, Alexei M Case Studies in Business Ethics 2005, Prentice Hall



McDonough, William and Braungart, Michael Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things 2002, North Point Press



Papanek, Victor Design for the Real World: Making to Measure 1972, Thames & Hudson



United Nations Global Compact The Ten Principles