Virgil: Aeneid Book VIII 0521290473, 9780521290470

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Virgil: Aeneid Book VIII
 0521290473, 9780521290470

Table of contents :
COVER
......Page 1
SERIES
......Page 3
Recto......Page 5
Verso
......Page 6
CONTENTS......Page 7
PREFACE......Page 9
MOTTO
......Page 11
MAP
......Page 12
I. VIRGIL'S CAREER AND REPUTATION......Page 13
(i) Structure
......Page 16
(ii) Aeneas
......Page 23
(iii) Typology
......Page 26
(iv) Aeneas' Arrival in Latium--The Events of Book VII
......Page 32
(ii) Evander
......Page 36
(iii)
Topography......Page 41
(iv) Myth as Allegory
......Page 48
(i) The Epic Style
......Page 54
(ii) The Hexameter
......Page 56
(iii) Periods, Paragraphs and Hemistichs
......Page 58
(iv) Feeling and Rhetoric
......Page 61
NOTE ON THE TEXT......Page 63
SIGLA......Page 64
P. VERGILI MARONIS AENEIDOS LIBER
OCTAVVS......Page 65
1-17
......Page 89
18-101
......Page 93
102-189
......Page 108
190-305
......Page 118
306-369
......Page 135
370-453
......Page 145
454-584
......Page 156
585-625
......Page 169
626-728......Page 173
729-31 Epilogue
......Page 196
THE PROOPHECY OF TIBERINUS (36-65
)......Page 200
VIRGIL'S HEXAMETERS......Page 203
1.
Editions, Commentaries and Translations......Page 205
2. Other Works
......Page 206
1. Latin Words
......Page 208
2. General
......Page 210
COVER BACK
......Page 216

Citation preview

AENEID BOOKYIII

EDITED BY K. W. GRANSDEN

,

CAMBRIDGE GREEK AND LATIN CLASSICS

GENERAL EDrroRS

P. E. EASTERLING

RegillJ Pro/nsor ofGrul:. Unl C.n,lon.Jgry. nliaioo, mytholocy and lopoa.apby. Th.iI will be evident from the j>qQ which I'ollow, at abo will be the lise ol my cmeral debt to my prcd« :>no Warde Fowler', ..t-... ., 1M m. ..t R.- dia _ the fint 10 admit Wt hia _ _ r I " 7' ·" -.liut V.,";" (Wonlaworthin a letter IOScotI, 7 November ,80.5, uuly olin ...ed Wt DryrJ-p 'bat neither a tavkr heart ftOI" a iofl:y n=oe ofmooal di,ruly '). Nevertbde., it remai.nI, with ill potl. Miltoni lOr the a ... pIe of hit OWD. ed.ia- ofLuocmiIif III in!hit.ma. and abo b hiafuMmtin( advice, bdp _ ~ ~ C'\uy -tate of thit ed.ib. Witbwt biI wpport, ;1 woWd pe'u bavc beCII undert· ...... fingb.... He _ Mn P. E. EutcrliDc have ..Wid me fiva:I UIO" cbaa I eaR 10 r' 11M Illbe!'.

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IIOTL Thioo pi i Cr _ wriuCII, ~ 0IP. T. BdcII', edition

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_p'Mod. 1 'he the oIbooII VIII (I -i' , 197~. _II

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Our dotiny, our nature, and OW" home h wi!h infinitude, and only !here; With hope i1 is, hope that can never die, Effort, and cxpct.lation, and desire, And Klmething evmn(Jre aboul to be. W OItO.WOItTH, hdw 6.538-.2

History . .. is a looking both before and after; .., indeed, the coming TIme aJ..eady waic., \U1It'Cn, yet definitely shaped, predetermioed and inevitabJe, io the Tune come; and only by the combination of both is the mearun, of either completed. CAItLYLit. 0"

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INTRODUCTION I. VIRGIL'S CAREER AND REPUTATION Publius VCl'JiliWl Muo becatne .. dusic in bis own lifelime and remaiMd 10 Ih""'Khoul antiquity. at witne. the .plmdic:l m ....>lCripa ofh;'.wlll wrinen in rutlie capitals and the comrnen .... ry olScrvi... (roul1h- firth centuries A.D.) which oontai... the ~nn;nlP of an entire tradition of ..Utl",ical a~. The proCound veneration in which be was hdd durinS the middle '"IQ illhown in hiI' .....aken;n'· by nUlIe in the DiWwc.-dy - .. unique pica: olliteraty bomace. To Ibe hicruchic and rcnre">I"1'hap". in .. that !hit ultimale vis;"'"

rnd

"""*"

lumbJa

perpeh~lIy

on the brink of realisation. The douhll .ods

criticisms which me poem u" poIit;calllatemenl raiaco arc embodied in, and becomt: pan of, the poem'. larger ~aning as "statement .boot the moral ~volulion of mankind. When we bye tbt Aene» is a type or prefiguration 01 August ... _ have, aner all, dotle very Hille to explain why the AGVili is It ill a

iaKt

great poem in ~e twentieth «ntury, whleh care. no more for AUl"'t ... than r.. Aene.. _ pc.ha"" if any thin" rather less. For all i" faceliousnea W. H. Auden'. poem 'Secondary EpOc' which condemlll Virgil} art AI a 'mUle: betrayed' by Iubocrvience to the Augustan polilidtJ iH08' ..... me. offen a ..IUlary if unintentional rd.,. " ........... 01 lbe ArJUmenl that tbe ktwiJ &eel nothin, Ixyood that ~me and tbl ill effect is IhudOrc nullified by history. Virail· • .en,e oIlhe put eonlinually cbcdt. and modifica his vWon 01 the futJ!e. The ruins 01 lUt"'tx KUlemenll which Ev&neier mows Aeneu in a.3~~-7 COiIUIlefIt with lilent yet eloquent irony on the ...iJ .......... kd $how that all politicalllOluliOlll are: 'lOr the lime 00",'. Mot""...,:, althou,h the AGVili is an epic poem OQ the traditional heroic thdne 01 war, no poetry. not even Wilfred Owen',. hal apr ed an inlJu.er haired of war. F« Vi"lil. the o"';re to kill is, quite limply, ;~e. and he ")'110, ofTumUl, in booI! IX,-,,", . .. UP {iff_ w..... (..,.1,.• . 11 is with violence, death, and oacri1ese thallhe ........... mdIo. We '-ve 10 tum back to booI! I to remind ounelYCI of jupiter'. prop~ 01 peace, when

,,

,



2. THE AENEID

11

Furor impiua intul llleua lederu super arma et centum uirn::tua a~nis poot teOWUm nodis rreme! horridua ore eruento.

(ii )

AUIII A'

Aeneas was a Trojan hero in the I I ..... who IUrviveci the war' that the race of Dardanua might not pcriah ' (I Ii•• 20.308, Comm. 731 ). He was not the only ouch survivor who traditionally settled in Italy, thou,h Virgil i ... ists that he was the fi ... t to "'ttle in Latium;' Antenor is praented as having already "'ttled on the Adriatic coast, thus providing Venua with a cauae ror complaint &f]aimtJupiter rOf withholdinl! a similar peacerul destiny rrom htt own lOll Aeneat.' From atnOflJ! the victorioua Greeks there occurred limilar migratiom: Diomede is already ",tiled when Aeneas comes (Comm. gfr.); Od)'1lCUl allO p·red thtoUJlh, though he did not stay, becomil\Jl'. according to Greek tradition , the founder of the Latin race.' A ICSend abo exiltcd that DardanUl, rounder of the royal bouae or Troy, was born in Jt&ly (Comm. fr.), and Virgil uteSlhis legend to tnruf'orm Ame..• arrival inlO a 'IIOSIOJ' (homecoming) modelled on the relum ofOdyueus in Homtt.· Thi. was of the greatest importance dynastically. As a euhu ..... hero and rounder of the Roman ... tion, Ameas came rrom outside, came, indeed . like 5.tum lon, berore (Comm. '1~-27) as an aile ; but the ita '''Ienrlu. whoo.e coming the prophecies had wretold (Comm. ~3) .Iso genea10Sically ' belonged ' and th ... entttUI into his rill:hlrui heritage , becoming ita not by UlUrp;llOOn Of by conquest but by lawful election. So too AugwlIUI returned in triumph to Rome in Augwt 29 I .e. after two yea ... in the east , A .... • .•. Me G. K. GoJi,..ky, ' T roiac qui prim.... b 01' .. ', ( e · I( 28

I,.

(.g6g)

.-.8. It/a., ..,.,ho ,,'forI ....u,..... f"W, . .• '

• A .... 1.2y.-3. S« WIoooIt 32- * ct. alto Aen:. y isit 10 Hdm ......... 01 Priam, and Andromlchr, '.294ff., &rid h .. p&r1.i", word. 10 them, '.+93ff. , ''';..ik ;".14 I i . .. . ... ' _. JUt Iii .Ii;' ""/_ _ _I

• Heo.iod, ~ • •0. ' - t6. On Od~ ... &rid Italy"", £. D. Phillipo, ] .H.s. 73 ( '9!>') !>!-67· • On Aen.'. homecominl ct. lhe wnh 01 tho orad" 01 Apollo., '.94-6 fO* ""'. bJit uM.. ......... 1_I_iliH .. ! rI • ."....... , ..~ri.. _ .... AMh ..... mioint...".., ....... riddle 10 ref., 10 Cut •. homeland 01 the Trrojan kina: Teu«r.

1Ii.,.,,,-· '1,_

"u....

, "

INTRODUCTION

following th~ def';', of Antony and Cleopatra at Actiurn, a wulward journey Ii • ., thai khis heroic predec ' F' or. Another tradition, thallh., Troja ... wer., ,hrinsel.. ,," ofGreck origin, is.bo alluded to by Virgil (Comm. 156) ICTVts lO emphw.c the uoily ofth .. Homme world from whose ashes Rome .prang. The revival of he Aeneas le,end (which probably eame 10 Rome • vi. Elmri.) was pired by rdigiOUl, political and cultural motives. On Ih" rdigiOUl levd , Aeneas' jIid.. both towards the goo. and lowards his family , aped.lly his r.thtt.nd lOll, illlt· cd by Virgil throughout the pm and transforms Aencas from .. Homeric hero into .. Rom&n ~e. BUI du, lecend also oe .... t:d 10 f'U'h Rome'. mythical .ncal~ b.d: .",hind the found.tion ofLavinium and Alba Long_, he. tradil!:na'aOCCltOl'-cilieo (App. A) to the Homeric bronze age. A numoo of import.arlt Roman ramil;et, among them the SeN Julia (rom Alba Longa, 10 which Julius Ceo.. and his adopted"'" AugustUi belondd. claimed Trojan de'O T...u.

r , •

=

..

I". _.

"

2. THE AENEID

Jettlement of Latium by Saturn and of Herewes' victory over or the events depicted on Aeneu' shield), hAve .. kind of'limultaneity ' (li"e archaeologic.aJ ' Iayen') by their presence in the poem u a structure of inlerrelated im.a.ces or aemplary

ean..,

·t~ '.

Th .... in boo" VIII there is a typological lin" between Rome', variOUl enemies thOUjlhout her poot-Romulcan history, depicted on Aeneas' Ihield, from Ponenna and Tarquiniut to Antony and Cleopatra, and earlier enemi.,. of civilisation, whether confronted by Aeneas himself (Tum .... and Mnentius) or already displiled ofbefore he Came (Cacus, killed by Hereul.,.). These: enemi.,. can be arranged as a leries of exemplary types, culminating in Antony and Cleopatra, just as the city" variOUl a.avioun and heroes may be arrang«l in a pa.rallel oeri.,., (rom Saturn to Augustus. But what Jinks the heroes is no! toIely, not even primarily, martial pm..ca. Iu Sy"", puts it (,00) ' Not by conquest .lone but by the foundation of a lasting ci ty, did '. hero win divine hon .... R in life and divinity after d.,.th ,' II is the hero'l •"tistie ' (or 'founding ') rather than his; purdy military function which Virgil emphasises throughout boo" VIII . It is in Ihis book that Virgil USet, for the only lime in the poem, the tide (Comm. "3), signilicandy ofEvander, f.... nder ofPallanteum, the ·..,.Rome·, .. man of peace. In the lasl book of the poem Aeneas proclairm that his own role when Trojanl and Lalinl are united will be l piritual and "listic : ...... i - u Ttwri I .C. t>.s. '97 ( '97' ) +t- 7i; Comm. 6]3. • 1•• 6.7. CI. abo l .tt .2, where Livy deocrib.$ TuUi ... Hootlli ..... fl ..... .n-.- R•• "b. , R"""ul. . .pPe*n, Iranofi""ed .. Qui,in ... and 'KCnCiled to R ........ , inJupitot'. wioion, ' .'29"'. • 6·,56-8~3 (omil ..... 'poolJOipt") - g8 w...: 8.~128 (omi ...... 'introduction') _ gglina. • VirJil abo won. Au.. into.he mythical . "".. try oA 1M Trojano : _ Comm • •,ti-,. 11>erc io. ',traqe.nd .... mor.bI~ pic",,,, oA Atlaa,.t on« • mountain and • &iatt •. .. """.If, batvqut, t"O'fn in ........ ..-.- ......elqut'

(Williamo.J /H.) .1

4 '~.s-~ •.

INTRODUCTION

"

Hercul"". the I.. let _ who once ahouldem:l Alia.' burden (Ovid, FA$li 1.,6.5) _ bciPJantiquity'. mOIl famout burdcn4boulduer.

II

Augustus Caesar ..• prof'"",, imperium; [aut alra tider. ,dl... ubi cadifer Alias

I

...

.,.em umerO torquet. •• nee: beru A1cid"" l.antum tdluris obiu;t . ..

Noc evjCUl (woodpecker) which 'uggeJlJ ,he ,o,em ofa ,ribal oommilne (d. ,he woodpecker which helped ,he woIhuckle Romulus and Umus, Pluwch, & •. 4.!I). According to Dionysius, , utin ... marri Rhome, the Trojan woman who gave her name to Rome.' Though ;1 hu a patlnral 'lett;ng, U lmus' templelcuria ;. a grand building, in conirasl to tlw: primitive hut_tllement of Evander on Ihe Pala';ne.' &i., il ;. an ambivalen. grandeur, eharacte,iolieally .dI.,.,ting the u~ of A~tan poeu at the hybriatic met,opolilan Iplendoun of time. Virgil describes it in a resounding line u la:ho • ...,..,_ ;;1,....., mIl_ ...Mi.., (7. 170): the word·play luggalJ an all.. 10 AugUllus' own house, w;lh ,he adjacenllemple of Apollo, on Ih~ Pala.ine j' but the dexription aJso ,.,.,alb, uneasily, the now Callen ~ace of Priam. Both pc 1' , 'led Ihe sacred laurel in the

..

4 . ilm

«iCC a",u. at the heaT! ol hiI bcroic: epic, in the E

,,;

of putoral. E".ndtt it a ehan.cterUticzolly a.:npozite firure. He ..... lBinilia with Nator in ~ IIJ and abo (b tho" gh. kine, be if poor) with Eumaeuz in CUy..." XIV. AItIlelU' nigh. journey ID PaUan'eum and biJ day and nitbl with Evander conupond ID Tdemacll...• journey to Pya and hiI day and niSbt with Nator (Knauer 2f9W, ) but in addition, IU ..... been noted, bis arrival at Palianleum w"aponds to Od'(IIeUI' ....... to Itb'u.5 On to tbae Creek modeb VirJil .....y • Livy ".8--'9. The pan.IIel ... P'Losted by5ain*~ bull am_ .WM'e that ...y modem. crill< bat punucd it. Tbc earUosl ........ lnl 01 N".... _ in Enai.., • 'J'ben: it .... a fainler ItCho oIApoIloni..• Lye.. (A'r, '",77"'. r,..,m , .,WI'. ).

,-,



, "

,

INTRODUCTION

arafted a.oJn... (NIeI, ErIn,...' 'C1'Oo!nI.i now I.."

have

......

indudi", perh,pI some reminiac:mce of of Acncaa' embauy to the kina of Alb.

vln

EvaDder'. chi function in book ill to IeI'W u the movthpiece for • .ma of abolotrical ditquisitiona, apl·jnt'li the origiDi of variout CUlIOftU I-t Ioc:a.tiooI. 1'heM: were: • feature of Hdlmiatic: pocU)'; Vircil ~btl_drew also on ROOl'n antiq"...w, and mylhopphic wri~ includin, EnNUI, CaIO" 0riPu. and V&I'TO" Iaol hQlOI'y of the Roman people - . tradition which culminated. in du: , OI""nin, boob oClLivy. Two important elemmb in all theee writinp. both o;:oI\IJ>icuou!! in Aafti VU1, are the family lqend and the fl>Ulld..tion·mym , The lalkl' iI Gredt, but the ronnel' oeema to have been peculiarly Rom·n. Evanckr'. hot.!1; lalilY to Aeneu it in the tradition of the m«>lleny. the rcccption of ~ sod or hero inlO" -.impl., dwcllin,. 1'hiJ originate. with Eumacuo' ~_pilality to Odr-u- (Neotol"'. ru:.piwily to Telco 'eb..." ia OCI. 100 (fNId • Kale 10 qualify) and bec.rne popular in Hcl1eniatic ,*"try. Callimachut de.cribed tbe entertainment of Heracla by. ~ maft, Mokwchw.. in hit Am., and WI ofTheoeUl, • ""cMc • the hare p-ound with I>oui( ..... te bCllrowN ••. And the fmig of 1M fvo L,t bt.' I

In 6., .38-9 the Hennie Ieada Arthur to hi> .....11 ~. In 6.9.16 Mdit-.. (a n'_ UIkcn ....,." Vircil'. lint ~, in which Titynll nfl"en oimpk

,-",talley to Mdihno.) inYiea Sir C·Iick>r.! into

~ ...... ~ ' - ' •

• I Iuove devdoptd the .....""'" of thio _lion 01 the InU"Od. at JrUIa" Jencth in !WI) anida on'The putoral ahemalive'. A...... ('910) I~"" '. 117-g6.



..

I,

INTRODUCTION

,

WIlen

w"" ..ind Meta did IWop

Td'entef at. narrow loop; AI!pnniNrc ill doon lO.traM T, 'ttaiD tbeauel ....

thl'OU3h HeaYeDI pte.

ADd Iurdy when the alter A(e Sb:.J1 hitba- come in Pilgri......e• 'Ilbc sacmd pI_ 10 adon: . .. Mln will diopule bow their Eo::tcDt Within a\ICb dwadiab Confims weftt: ~_ will 'mile a, thiI, at well Ai.fRomliM hit BI c like CeD ,'



_".type

In the A:.ww,}..t .. Carthat'e io Ihc of~. 10 Dido', invitation 10 A FA in the fint half 01 the ......D io the ... Ii_type of EvandeI'·..• ~ !-d. him iDeo • pe'_ made 'pl H''IIiot by an (1.637-40) : at dooDUI inlUioc" npli tpkwIid· luxu u.tnaitur. _di;.quo: paeanl ctII'Niuia ,~~". , n

,

I

:: I~'::.e;,:=::~~ "

.eaJ Aene hill, and

,

3. BOOK VIII

I«k among the Ihapelesa and

"

en~

fragmentl the marble theatre, Ihe obclilb, the coIoaal uatuCl, the porticoel of Nero'. palace : IUfVey the other bilb of the city, tbe vacant .pace it intttTUpied only by rui ... and glUllem. The forum of the Roman people, where they uecmbled to enact their IaWl and elecl that magitttatCl, iI now enclosed fof the cultivation or pot.berm, oc thrown open for the r

' .c.

place for Aeneu!to receive the thicld. Bul there;' • more important Iymbolism : ro.. Aeneas, Caer.: was. friendly city ofGredr. origin; for the it wu • city which had once been Rome'. enemy and w .. now ~ .ubjecl' In AmnII 10. 1.53- 4> Tarchon king orc.ere beoomeoAeneu' itlly, i-wi' o;u/HdusI/W/rril, in the alliuce of Trojan and Etmvan, J later in the a1liancc of Trojan and Latin, Virgil p«I1gureo the uriified I laIy of the Auguttan settlement. Catte ;. cde~ated today for il:t rnacnificcnt EtnIloCan lombl, described by D. LaWTmce in £lr/UUII P/Mu. It ia uill isolated and thickly wooded, ~ivided by the valleys of thc Fwu. di Manganello, ere ed by lhe rOad leading out of Cuvc:ICri to lhc principal nccropoIiJ of the hiJt.Jical period, Banditaccia, and the FOlIa eli Mala on lhe other !.ide oIlhe town. Beyond Banditaccia lies a third lIream, the FOlIa d.i The lOllI/is ,,.,.. where Aeneu received the tbidd miaht have beenl in any of thc three locatiON.

Auguatanl

v..

Marronl. ,

,

(iv) MYTH AI ALLa o oav II hal been emW··i-.l. (pp. 8- 10) that lhc 'rut' subject oflhe A...nIialhe origi~ ofRomeand of AugutIUl. In this resp«!. book vnl

I

,

"

3. BOOK VIII

is clearly the most Roman and the mOIl Auguatan book of the poem: not only does iu Ktion ....e plaa on the ,ile of Rome, bul iu climax depid! Augustus' triumphal entry into the city whieh Anlcu cntertd with Evander. It is, perhapt, at this culminatin, point that typoiOlY end. and &1le"oq takes over. Virgil interweaves into the ttNCture of book VIII, with iujuxtapolition ol'limple put' and ' grand pr .. "nt', the moral ambi valences inhermt in tlO'O Gr«k mythf - the '(Olden age ' and the discovery of fire - to produce a cultural .ynthaia ol man's evolution from barbarism to civiliRtion. The 'Saturnia regna' arc described by Evander al 3 ' 5~7. Saturn wu identified with the Gr«k KrOfIOI in Haiodic myth, rather of Jupiter (Zeus) ancIJuno (Hera), the tlO'O principal deities who determine the action of Ihe "..wi/. in which Saturn plays no part, for he represents the legendary ua before llruules for power bqan. He was ailed from Olympus by his usurpin" IOn, and his downfall repreKnted the end of the fint of the races of men, the 'golden race'. But in the account given by Virgil and D.H. 1.,6, Satum fled to Italy where he established the fint pClceful reign ; thlt enabled the GrHir. Kronos 10 be identified with. primitive Italian a.ricultural deity and culture-hero, ancestor of Latinus, in whooc lemple his image Itands, alonl! with thai of other primitive ",raJ delti ... (7.'78-80) : ltalwque paterque Sabinus uitisalOr curuam KruatU sub imaline f.alcem, Saturnwque lena laniquc bifrontis imago. Evander'. account of Satum's reign ( 3~5), ~ ) I ,kf Ut ;.u ..pHI, echoes the description of Latinus' reign at 7.46 ....., ~ Ut JMu "pHI. The Latim pride themselves on retainin, the peace of Saturn'. reign voluntarily, not under legal cornpubiOl'l (7.2~ff.): neue ignorate Latinoo Saturn; gmtem haud uindo nee Jegibus aequam sfxHrI4 II•• uelerisquc dei K more tenentcm. Virgil'. account of the primitive inhabi tanll of Italy before Saturn'. corning is h·, cd on Lucreti .... They Ii~ wild in mountain caves (d'. 8.321 and Lucrcti.. 5.955 ui IW' ,....'fW QNIU rilM';_ nil"""'), knowing neither tM arb ol peace nor those ol agricuJu.m:o, .he tlO'O .. peeu ol the Salurnian Klliemeni (Camm. , ,6-17 ). They

-os



~

INTIlODUCTION

had DOl: 5'3:111--11, on

10 h&rvat Eden,

life

Of ~

food : d. Milton, PPU!u lMI

amall ltore will _ , when Ilore, AI' _ _ ripe Cor UK, hup 011 the nalk. Lucreth.. also ....ph··i, .. thai primilive man Ii"«l for the day, !.akin.: what natun: oR'..li.ed:

quod

J. atque imb.... dec!eranl. quod terra ~t

.; '" t ...

iii >d placab.t pectora donum.

(~93.,....a)

Vi";l idcalixa dUo •• pett of primitive life in hU nOllaJ&jC visioo of a 100t pNlOIlII .un~icity in GM-~s 1I.+92fF•• a famoua pap- v. in p..aiR of hali.n rural tire :

. V1. '"

UOI rami fi'aetUl, qUOl ipsa uokntl.a nata

In "eoi xlic

ul

.

I ere - , c:arptl.

m~

(b a Latin venion Jet: Ovid, Mil . 1.8gff.) and in the auo.ti.u. ~L"parian ISIVth, the pIdcn race __ a metapbw d .. ,ibi... tbe ~ .. bqiAninc of ....... ; be w .. ernted perfect, and hit PlUt.equeRt de-'4oPm ml.aboWl a falli", a_v from this ideal. Such .. view ofbinory IIOI, ~. MI Vi"';I'. lelcoJoticaI PU'I'" ., he thaefo..e ..tcp. alto the Ll>Cretian attOUftt of primitive man', evolution £rom barbarian tow. . . civilioation, IIIinfI Saturn to tyMboIill the fi ' . in this evolution. In l..ucRti ..... primitive man took what atunl1oR'ered, in the 'IOkim' or prdapu.rian -V, 001 had no idea of ~ pod Ol' of COI'PtraetI Ol' the laWl of propulV:

1aoe.

lmmUilC bonum potera.nt ipCCtan: neql>C uIliI ~ .... mtel' Ie ICibant Dec Je,ihul uti. (5.9~)

DeC

..

Jt........

To the ·th their profOund belief in !be value of I.w, thiI conk! OPIy mn" a .talC ofbubarism (CAo;ua in A-.:.i VIII ;. a Ibid' • .. well .. a .,....,.... of +",,;.). On the qdk tbeory of hillory, !be ci¥iliRnc wOIk fifat done in Latium by Satum mUll he periodieallV done 'Sd", wi~: eKh Iftsb threat to law and otder, each _ laple into barbariIm.. ~ won of eivilUtiorI iI cknc ..... in A.ww VIII by Hereul.. w~ he un. by AVCUOtuo..- . , tq.a d my 7 (1t..C. 6) and byYuJean: the~ of the Weld, whlch Ac:retian-Viftilian ~ ..oionuy tt.ew, wen! nc:pIoital in the retWooancc by PIero di c..u_ in • -'co cI pointinp okpioHint VttIca.... a IcaChcr cI ",...kind: _ E. P......y. 5, .. ill i '''IT (1 939. repr. 'soh) 4:t-.w'I



I

40

I

INTRODUCTION

Venus mmissi_ from V .... un the shield 00 which Uc depicted the evolution ol th~ Roman l tate from pasion.! primitivism (the Judling the lw1n. in a cave) 10 Augustan IIOphistication: the lUI Kmel on the are of nati_ .ubdued and "eat n\fUI con!J"OlJed. In Virci!" Venus-Vulcan tpisode, 8.37. Yen,," bcnthet the fire of JOYouch not, u \t.ey were IOc VirJil'. Il,ICL'ORUscd oft' (Dryden). Aeneas' .....i.. is abo. •...s... • or atum. hence 'uuchit·: He Ia'rod. , (ii) and 1:uK., 13600. Tiberin ....· wr:rnb echo Ath_', to Odr- on his mum to Ithaca, OJ. 13.339 :

".

,.

'I. . . .

caiTap

..: 7 " 1

trW "fb", 06 'lfOT'~, cW.' IvIIII'I'9

' I ne¥n doubted, 1 c.Iways knew in my bean that you woukI mum.' ce. also the wordo of AnchiKI to Am . in the Elyaian heIdt,6.687 : tandem, tuaque c.upoctata parenti ita' dUNDI pidas ?

l ..... it1.i

uiQI

"

..

COMMENTARY , 38-+1

»1 ' "1 the prt:diuuve puticiple if

aun~cled

into the ¥OCa_ I rncuical COQvmimce... in I.t83. on which Autun

live, ~bly r. baa a loud note. art '" I 'S.~'7 =7 .U . ' ' you who keep Troy we !'or eva' (i.e. .. 'newT ,',Rome). For _ _ 18gn. ct, Aeneu' prYytl' to Apollo, , ,85ft',. to.. Tn 'abidi", aly' ('R.~ _ _): _ ·It.,. TtoiH Pw,.-. also 1-f98-9 ...1lI...... _ I fWI " , R.o, ... P.t.n. _ . IF ~ the t-,., (oee Do 11-12, 3gru'1,) wbichaymbolite the continwty city.

c-,.

ct.

oi!the

1-."' h acmplifieo the eommoa ' epaqctic' .- ~ the copulative (d OC' ...,), in wbich I '''''ld pbraae parallels, b plaina OC' panpbrua the fint (HoImann S_t)'l' ,82- ,). ct. the UK of d .. a ~i ....te bu ......" twO panolId

'"

«I.

. . . . I.S7

h; "

the

(In • (ill). ,~. ,.6m.), The pI!7 eM \IU&'C (?DOCber ..... ·mple of wbi~ if a, '7.-5) if to be dillinIuifhed (.om bmdiad,.. of thef.... d .... ,."".. type (utin .) in which the twordatedapoc> NON could be no'Ivkn:d by ali",k eompound Cormula.

KIIU!neI

l

,. We dW L77 d . . (IC, IlII ). perbaJII reallin( 6.6", wt ae Ac:n. if !old that ~ef.uu. I.e;• . , in ElyliUlJ! have _6"cd '+>11+' (...ui , _ &: .) undJ their reinc'rnation .. llorens. A-n",z' own 'wanderinr twO worlds' if FlOW 6 n iehM. end Tiberiz>..• WOldt m .., .trike him, end the. ~Ci', with..... n few .... : the .P'" eompleted, the J.hU .... t rulfillcd,. the promizcd 1TDd .mined. Tbe pbl'UC:iI .... hotd ~nat65(n.) andalsomcel .. 7.7 .. _ ' .. " ;'IN ut, end tlIie omem oC.ettJunmt which thn 101....... FOI' the im~ or mil: .. : ","' d . 77 - lt, III!. 619J!Ul., B,;hy 31. 01 "" oecun in V. only heR end a, 10.11. ?DOCber perentt ;. (_ _ rp,,): Soubiren .'1, end d. also ~ 1l1l 557 •

bc::'1tttl

(_ •• zI".).ld.ion

I

...-' 'All the r th end -ret 01 the p:Io baT died a_y.' Tbe .......... 01 WlU', wtiich Aco. iI,oid not to £ear, • the rs.dt 01 JUlIO', &"ft' 7.t86~: thiI -ret, wbich dominalel the eotit'.

.land.

in. Tbae lina wert: condemned u apuriOUl by Ribbcck. MOlt cdd. bBcket,.s. 43-6 are Icpeilted from 3.390-3, tbt: propbecyofHdcnUl. of which Tiberin .... now announe,," the fulfilment. It Ie ... probable that V. had not decided bow much 'cpetition he wanted ~. and ...cd ti6iri1tu (temporary propo) : tee further 'ntrod. 4 (iii).

a ; The portent is dClCribcd in two IWropiiatcly portenlOUl tiM:l : notice the .. r ..ted i and II l(lnNi., the aaonance ;...=1.: . 5..... and thc IDOOOIYllebic endi"" livin, • maned conftkt of metrif;al ictus with word Ioeccnt in the luttwo feet. V. \IIeI this ,peri' l cffed only 39 tims: cf. 679'1 ' This particular rhyme --..dine (...., ... -IW)_ IOmCthin, of 10 clicM: d. HeUqou&I'C'b Ii+. Hofmann-Saaatyr 707 •

found bcf~ V. 1st II one of V.', favourite wordl, oc:c:urrina ,68 timel in the Am. and '4 timet in this book. It .... uaI1y COOIVCYS oot merely,"*ta&e (10 we fed the WOld to be poopu 10 a heroic poeuo) but ..... por1entownat, 'lI'1n8m-, .. in +H. wha'c it ior appIicd 10 Am.'2 Ihidd.. Hen, it carrict • funbcr .,., e of 'pcecuanl' (d."", _ ".....). 11 itlllCd of Am. himKIhl]67 (n.) toempft"'u ru. HercuJeaa .t1l1u", iJI COOItrall wilh hit environment. \IIhm .pplied 10 • pia«. e.t. Cacuo' cave (141. 11,58) or a sacred trove (:w-, .597) it Dot only carriCil the _ t i o n of but impliCil at.o • quality proper to ..... tlocality (cf. h~) 00 WI we feel 'tbU ior what j, hal alwa)'l been liltc, and Gti£ht to be liltc'. It it tbU contralt bel. !In cwo _ .. fiddo. '.1r'1UIf'I:' 1M' • unborn " and • inhcrenl' 1M' • inborn'. whido m,t"

.,

Ute. I '] is

D(II

lb.."

a_.

,,,tic

.

COMMENTARY, 4~

the wOld 10 c:ffik:tive (u Cao_y pointed out ill hia 1'1 . ora 1, 114). Henry ..., .... ~ famouo (and c:haraeterinic) note .-wmc:e belWteD ictuI and accenl, a,ri' i in 70 even to the I'owth Coot where V. normally baa oonftict (Allen 338). The effect .. 10 Wilvey • P:W- of • heel aOO Wlimpedeel aetion. There . . . Itrona """trail with the oimile al U ---,5. before the river-aod'•• ppen. ance: thera, Au.. _ at tbe milt, oflhe '_VCl' oluur.iety, c:on!UKd

."'

OJ

COMMENTARY : 10-11

and un«rwo ; now, in the dawn, he hcMdI the walen in his hand, the ri~r (nalute) mb , "ubmi"o me hero ((iviliRtion) .

Iln.I~U",

The of thQ righi-line prayer is fonna! : a two-line ~Iio U foU~ by. one-line rtqU(:I' with double vub {am,i"' ... )i then mmb a four-line so:cond i_io and pledge, followed by • oecond and alt.c.tuding one-line reqU(:II , &gun with double yerb (am . . ./inNs) . The Homeric el iI OJ, 13-3¢-60. when: Odyucw prays to the nympht 0Cl tu. retum to Ithaca: C.... another eo:::bo of this pen' le s« 37-&. ,1--1

I

7' ·s« ' _ , '{i.gil h.u .bout +0 lines ending in nl pn:ceded by an elided. word; wbrrc: the Jailer is • dilyUabie. as here or at 9'~47 ( T ..ie .., ). the . ""'. is equiv-.ien •• 0 ,h •• p roduced by lwo monoIyllabka (d'. ~ ) : . uch mdingt are mclrically normal, the lwe monoIyllablet formin what is vinually • spooda.ic disyllable.

". cr. Ennius,

..... St V' UfW ptlkt TiHrizw '''''

atn>etian 01 the type o::omaxWy, bul mic!mdi"'Cir, d~bed .. \ '1M "'£hiM (the can lar""c the bu..,). Sueb (O ~eeh""'iuo· fRquaItly d .......... : me fiJUU known as ,hO ","':nU : HoCmann-Suntyr 8)1.-,5. E.J. Kenney, "

.,.

C.Q. rU "'-~~ . . ... p oput... . .-9- • 1-'70. (2111 .....,.• I.' " 7• • Scrvi.. leU. III ~t the Patili; and PiAarii pi. their orisinaJ i.-true-

hom dira:t r.... Hercults M!Y'"'J:f' .... ""~ '''~ ~ ;nil. :xP }O p.oo.oI lug 'IP I i , lla.wUj

...

-.tn_A'

p." , " 1"'9 ""Il ~ . . ·.el 2 ,27 ~

I

-~

1(1"" "tp:l!1fdZJbl W!II I1[U!1 'P!'I'" ~ .(100 ~1fI 'QI~H JO l!"Id~ :;t!I:;t'ftU!I' '! m»o JO Ju!ll~ ''11 ' .. j ... W

''1'

T.

"!'I UOI\I'" unoooq ;mv.W XIJ ,nd"IX nw 2 .. puw ...... ;1 ,' " f t m,sniny c:unJg:»d 'lnIl'WO)! ~!l 'o~H : +-11: ~ ", r;a. Gel.". "1.1. D! Gp! I!'fI ~ -.J(J : ("!l. E ' ponUj ~qu.v ~ ~~y 02 UO!'""IP V'I n m~ .(q wx ..... '"h u~ \Utll" ~l ~ 'CfU!'I :l«K{M 0>I\J0p] q1Jno} '"'II Dr PI!IP ''1.1. "'-'1 ';>UOP "!

~ U(I , . - . .

ro]l)

5

t:;'"''' ' , ,,., 'h='''jL'ju'''''._ l ''·T''''' ('''I''lU!~) ; --"'P,J,. o»s

6-W-t '1'3 'p pow 'u~tgt OSJ'I '(I-()o~ p ) ,Imlny ID!-Inig: ~ n u..... .(I~:) '! ~r~'H J,A..Jd f!tIl ul ...-.'" w:;>qlll~ III .,dw,nz

Iu!PnPj

'.'tDV e.QWl"w!',»tII ~_

+

· p;tl ....auJ

;>.101 ...

n Inq (£8&'g) ipOOW-II:>q ,2 'U041~ 1(1!'" •• ~ 01 ~. nl~ rttlL 'W!!) ~ 'pGJ1Ul) mlrnJny \II!", poIJedwoo "! Ojn:"'H 'P!l''' II! ::oJ.aid • '£09"9 ,. 02 J»PIlIP orp '! EJp.\'1 u ..... w71 '"'II JO j U!O!1 ~ ..c

. - ~ .,- r»A!1::..>fP'l :xoo Irnfl'l 0J '~ 'NO!I!PUOO :>g!,~ If!WlT.'3 npun U'"!.II'I p::.~p .O

'tIOl~pA!I::..>fpe

~lI1IPCI' completion of, rdiJious ceremony. 'I

,..,.

............. literally, •... e•• 'o .. " with ace'.

,., Evander 'Ii,btened the way with wide-rancilll c:onvenation'. ex wbe..., Dido, eI'Ier conductin, Aen . fOI.IIld Iw city, 'pt'Qloosed the evenilll with wide.tanJiI1, converu.tion' (-w _ _ HI :/ill It.w.t ). cr. eIto 3'off. with 1.• 18ft'.: Aen. wondered ,t ~ as now be wooden" PallanlC1Jm. Dido;' an anti-type or Evander, as CartbaJe is ofRomc (gg-IOO, 1711111.).

:.,...s,

' .....11 The mood of joyf'..un-, dominant ever since 71,..,5 (SCi: 11.) ia cot\veyed by two linet with. comnMXI metrieal pattern, by the



COMMItNTARY: ,jO-,1S

'"

aDileradoa afn lind It, and byceatain key·"oodli:

«(/.gl,.6I,

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c::f.

Wib:I... Iand', 53 ('9S9)!r~-IOf. • . ' . • • sI'wiIliii1', "eu·jwubIF,FOI'f""" ...I ,w,.oaiJI'J-" " .... 1,5701"'·' . ,a11 1\, 'q &1 we u:Ie the Arne idiom: A --M'" ' . .b- with' all be-. I, ' r » ': $I.' • d. ~ n

,'w. '

•Eva""hr .. I ol VIqiI', _ OllIe

S

PH!

Tal

u

pte

•••

t:'

:

~

peclantic. • ~ I m e _ UlUq' 7 Tft A E7 E7 7 _-.ny Ipcb 0i:?>0.. ,"'......' WiarF Erion, but E'f7rdrr .. me",.,lkai ... _ 110 be N.i '; .. ~WaIk, ,~mT _Ii..-, co tbe ~ It" -t of r...chiD. G" r ~ ~:a. haft DOl de's: I IIn-'" P ....... Vq;iI'5 M EE

.1ec:tuJe_

I

'1,'

,.S -'-hr "1m "ic; line, .. bdi", the i 10"_ 01 E. 71FT. dIe'tppe'Of" 1U'• .- prof A? -77, 1I_'hlluMI A' : _ ,, oro. n ~ E ~'.. 0" • _'eo • _ , aocn: 1ft eIIQre I··ih , ."'" 0.:... ai CrequeDdj. 01 AFT ' 7 7 . . early .. I .S, 01 R-ww, 1 •• -,6. of SaNm. 8.351. Ayt\IItIII. 6.-,g.. See funber Inaocl., (no).

L_ · ...'

Sat

I

a.

Lucre t-sSo-r ..... ' - 'if it

t

,

__ ....

yu '9 p'

7,.'

_I

Or" • •"ail .,f1"-, aM hi F. " F _ ,,"ae m . . . . .ritl of ,.,,"" and ~ nympho r." 't. .prill oIlb _ : Bsi...,. ~-7. 1'beIe uC\"",a ~had pn>p-.... tk PCI>'OI (d. &uaiua, .bot. VO): Latialll _ ~~_ of aDd he odted the '01_,,·

F.uni· (1.81 nymph. tee

tee

F._ (,. ,)

-=

.'f

latrod. • (iv»; E........ er·....... her _



,t,J1

l

,., ., E.... d dE FCI ibel the primitive iahabiWlIl of Latium. anc' tbe rominc of~ the lim 'dwt alemlll' or 'cWtIU'e t..!,O·. For V:. mytbokJn. further Illtrod., (iv). II.J. Scbweitaer. V..,.,_ IlrU· (1961) N. Htw ',!I, uJa: ',0 ('9") Ilog.

'fi's,

,., 'Thill iI. I Aooce 10 the Greek myth (alluded co ...... okIjole • by Pmdcpe is! fU. '9-I&,) Ib.I early man. bad no pi coli but_ NtiiiE~ by the rick rrom rocb or U'ea. a . Ju," .1 6.1 I - I ' , . . . . . _ ,,+U-' .,4';1 . I&:.ta . 151. . . . ,.,.. _1,1 I :... 'F'. III H·:'od. W."L _ 0." IfsfF.. it iI the

"

,.. "., •• hr:Jj'J55

rI".

"

."

COWMBNTAJt.y: "~S26

violent men o(the thin:I. (bn:Iow:) ....:e who wen .. bee pi, alter the ,.t h'-lio.. o(theaJverr.ce.

:ttf -, I U ' a 11"*1 Roma" _de, .. 1.t6+. what Jupiter PC(l(L~

Coa_,. c:a1II it in

biI.otc ~

Am.', kcisric role in Latium :

.,

" ., u· _ I. t ..' devtbatV. ;,,' I •fi• "' I . '" I • ..u • ,m.. SaNrn .. a political pandipI, the 6nt in a tt,daaja'_ie•. , ...... , ' i" • . ,, - ' ; .". : : ;.thedoublemeaninp 0( Ibm- W"ocla are ocnu.l to V." ~I ill mil fI"':, 'llIcy bdu'" to the _lei. 0( acricultw'e ('yoke" ' _ ' , 'nrim'l and aIoo to that 0( politicc : Saturn _ both a primitiw: It·lia" acriculn;nl deity (he" app I , .. in 7.180) &lid a "waiver, .. that V. iI d " 'ribicc twoparallel ......... CJ / I" hOCC\&Slilliopolitical, p;,.. ........;.tdy below in the d'luiptiexl O(Satum', reipI uu); b L, • d . ~ aDd Lucn:tiUl ~.1"19, op the b ,inQinp o(dvililarim,"" 'it '''' -p I t ' , P; " ' ; b' jll • • (_ 'JjHU'e', 'buvc F op' tho: dd'cltedl lee 6.8"ola . ; EI'ieN. ' I

c,

i.'

',,"pn

JI, A liM', ill which there ila ocnu.l verb wi1b. two...,.. and two ""'_ d;'V','1 iD S)'1IUPetrical ...... m...,,-1pEW't ;, tho: 'II ,i"n'.. _ end of'the line: ce, 68.t _ 1.5191 wbich d;, .,;~ the a c-orimolthe .... w ... ol"·- - - : . ; "_-riS',;',,, f WliI. Tbe metrical patten> of' the pc '1t IiPes iI .. i E.ted m tho: IItXt two IiPes aad :at".,-, (App. Il. 'S

'---.

..-m

.,

.

,.. Cf'. Loneti.. ~.955 (I"trod, , (;'1)) • .. , UR· ,

,

• .. • • • •"

,••• ,.'

.... ___ '""'c · ·

.1

.• ' ,

........... ocoabCptp ce . . . . . ",.s=

wonI.pIa, : d . 5s;. .M6. and ApnIIoni.. "'717-'8. w' e 'Ant' H;' .aid tobavc t.-.IO M'd becu. . i l _ ae> 'I'd (:Io"\PjLw) ... tho: Arpa.1I (oima •• txll. in C.Ojm·cb ..).

, "'_airoo,..

,.. • ' n

. 'c&U'.

nu. traPlitivc lilt iI rue aad pnecicaI : d'.

II............. .,VO." . . . H , in c

OlIFF

2"

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iaCl'Ullitivc . . _

'J5.





'

51]£571"','

"h', /.,.. tbe

TbereilaatrikinsaUitcncivcpali: "of'~aadjin,"h_

Ibm



,,.

COMMENT .... RY , 32)..$29

,.5 Cf.

H·~-6:,..

In V.'. c:ydio; rell"

Sa,,,,,,',

aft

_

lMUttu " Iriu I

.. .~

itc

t- ",,,NI.

01 Italian hialory there iI • parallel bcl"ecn Latin....•.

"'r

pi 7 The aoI4m race did not have pkl. 01" ind-a any of the metaliurcical Wei wed by Vulcan. It __ c.be IIKC en of c.be m., I'lIa: who ~ tokI. and. in ... doi"l. at their oripnal I....ue (f ",',. IIIW = ~W'nished rue') and dqencrated into lUll for '" joo (~ +'+,.....). 11K; dedinc in ~ ItaDdanb __ • RO""o literary ~place (r ii-III aI70 panl&dI !bat 01 Am. birr " f, exiIc 10 Latium, a, lSI.., ; Am. _...., "'idcd by hiolllOCber, _ :.,as .mC. /, ..... __ f.u. . ~£CU\u, Apollo, 011 whoa; tbc nelm;Mtiac cmpl.. · of 'b .. !iDa Calk. _ the r'jd;,. deity alike olEV'da-, Am. and.-\updul : _Iatrod . II (iii) and d . 7Of, '12O-:an. P,ior to the dedigotian of the temple of Apollo on the hlatine, by AupItua m c., 11 __• only taaple to thio aod

m

,_L.,.

_ . ,

.

.

f,

7

.a ..

,.

COMNINTAflY : US-Sf I

'28

-1=

."""'" wbick

h alii haft re dedicated by

DS

,i' .....

Porta Canaeatali:a, the very Ipot which the two !d (M the nat lips .bow). Tbit lemplc- _ 011 bit birthday, SqM. ,1I"e.

ii'

'tbdurtbelclimituftbe_',i.e.tbcwat.

~~"~::~:;i1:~~~ wyacs of"-'Jel aM Ody.ew IN . b." ' ut, allrikincly JMlwaful Vitti';'n coirutce. which he u:.~ ~':;';:l~ iL

• . , , , ..

blot""" I··

m ~ pua~ af'teo- the~....,,iva a d .......tic.~ 10 the nun.tivt= hen:. Tbc final 'tact: of cbe walk -

. i-lr._ ... cuy-now _.._-

thf'OUIh the .-ancu of

JI" Ce 2 m:i; Catalmca _ an encimt Rlmler deity who pve ber ".-v. 10 fmoval caUed Cummtalia (10 which there_y be • h:,,"U_ 1It ~~-6, Ioee D.). SIM: _ conN~ted by VIUTO with ebiklblrth. When Evander _ ~poo a,ed in the ' :, ' 00. ol Rome, ........._ ¥J : j!.i6ed with bill mother. the nymph Th c 00. « Nico:-tralc (_ PI~, Vii. R... '1 ). She iUh.. natwaUyendh . ~ with P¥'" tic pJ}"UI (ha- n'me -.ld have bcal ........... ted with ra .. , by the kind ol_d-play of'¥tbicb tbc II_·M were fond) UId cal,", _10,. like ~ Sibyl (the word 0CC\In 16 UTIii in bed VI). The ocher 0!'QI,i • .!.ce cI the WOld ill VIII .. 687. ,CC....... to the prop-h",c"er 011 Vu'-n" obW,IcI.11ut Virail and Honce of'tm wed _ 10 deaCiihe the ~ (V. _ it olbj=p plf at '"'' aM d. tbr; iJuUWX 10 bit JlC" ell at 9 ,\ 6.",w _ .• ;-', FlI ). In Canaeatia, 'who inc lUll the f'u~ .. 7'r 01 the __ of An M' aDd "Obk Panen_', V . • ea UM. Fu .... ofbit_ •....tic· inopiration: tee fw1ber J. K. NEw" 'a, ................. _JI1'; (196,) logIf• • "edl 011. ~pr-wt epitbea.ae ..ED.

"'y

a'

I,, for

ae 5fII. Oa the 'eI)' -Joey',_ ",...,. _d.".y, hlatium-h".nteum., d. ~I;" 44lftO. n.thtwo l• .];,..... ; · tethedtyartilloci.. I with 11_"'" (cl whom EnMi/r it • 'Ir.tiItic:' poc6pration) and. the FIOnS Ly.inni=.. oIl1"""!': the 6r.t cl. iOlolQhiEiV i7--'" 10, " 5 the 'walk,' and. doc~rhl:l cl,t, __ !PT, s,-«.: ae Cunber latrod.. , (iii). By v ... a- both Ud beeP buill over. 1be eqlum by' ... like the ... • •

7

the m

tit

I I

,.

,..

CO.... INTAIlY: HI-st6

'r.peoClbeS,bineW'w :1',lOtbe', dooCP .. h·'FF 1, ...- It 10 iN " E lbe c:ity', p"p"'.rim: tee Uvy ' ... ud cI. 6s5ft" Grut 111. Like ia D,D', tbe inlci.rurim oC tbe ftI)'hIm _ 01 J: d. Do on

,..,.,;, b clc-w. The turd) _ It .tWo 'Ily --a&ed by Ct . .': I!Cf1Ien Ioac l ia ,::-..I'rim with 11_,1", _ 'Man' calle' (6:su .,. h" here..ad 10 belle bem. 'c:ellod after Pen Ltc: ..... IWC .... dbtc to Panl 'e'", )Fr.', Pail' ,;. _ . diluiet iD W. Ai' (lbe ecij. ilL UMd oC Lp.... cr eI 11 .,1 ) .Ii-I> induded ......, L," ' -.. birth· pI'er 0( Ze. LJtl _ (d. " . tn) _ t __ P"" oC lbe cui, oC Pen Lyi!"'_ .10ll: tbe p •• , , N IUlrureIiIed • P_",. L)" ..... I I P r _ On I Jo6oros _ 'waH". 'J1Je LujHlu ~ ckpiclt:d. on Am'''' ohiekl : fi6s-6n.

'we

OJ"

-t'.

MIl h, ' : I 4!l11, AlIo ueed oCtbe Ilowe 'I c. EFe .I:.:e Aea. reeri __ the ohidd, 597.

,t'"A: how

.... ,'iDtroduc:ecS ., '':7 d. the ,.,., T,.. iDm hel,. Ihtt. ~"",.t

" pi",

CI p f1 dCl.Fibm

firM

be IreMl'!eeI 'iDIti",ted . ' : . 2 iI: preeli caaft, • •PI '1,.,·,_ .. to I , d:Li . Yf, .8. ~ ,NO£ .... _ I'"~ >_..,.,.. 11 m. l.i.b the t.IIU Til ·· .. the..,.,.. .....'td I .bert t .he ;1_ iDtroduc:ecS to Uvy calli ;1 I . de'rier tone ..... pIn,cd by !be •.,.".,.. • oC 0 .... ·,

.....'C'U.

fLU '&1 _

"'- . .............. -. .1JIU ('" Lit,u); be"" it WClesponcb to wilUti;.lu'-W at '77. ' " A ' time-markin,' line (d. 280) rounds off the q>isode and provides a link with the nocturnal interlude which foUows; ...... ntil abo occun 6•.539_ The penonilication 0( Ni,ht is a literary wnc;cit (d_ 1-07-8n.) . More Itriking are 6-866 ""... etre eye trUli ,it,a: ,'II ~" when: Night', winp out the Ihadow of death 0Vff Matedl.. ; and '2.84.5, where the winged Furies (Di_) AU; laid to be the daUflhten or Xu illU¥lq (d. Milton', 'eldest Nishi', P.L. 2.~) .

" . US

This divine interlude in the human lIory or book VIII wnaisu 0( two oteGes. set an Olympua: and in the Cyclopes' cave, linked by • 'bridse-p'."~' depicti", Vulcan', descent from Olympua: to the cave. In the lint Ken(, '70-406, Ven.. be" anna (rom he.- h ....band Vulcan fO'd-'Priam,,. '.,', _ _ tbeTl:qje.'. ""'" _ , be wed hglEl, _ ' nee' CII' '1""''1''=', thoo a" dI . e eta._

,,,,:iUW :

,.

COMMENTARY: ,79-38+

'"

I: " to be: uy pualid iro the ...... (iro 5.6+.5 the rdumoc is ~Iy to the _ orPriam iro the Ii~ O(!f e). ,.. Trojan

: ill unpbauc: jlllt .. the fall oCTroy _ (ated, to 100 is the .mval in Italy: for the arpmml d . 1.238-9 wbett Vmlll COI"l1E1 .. tW'n to Jupiler, who tdk her or the dertUw:d Trojan victory ill Lati....". and the foundilll of Rome:. She thlll fedo j,.tiMd in M ki " , lOr bdp now• • ''r , it .. the RutWi, led by Turnlll (d'. In .) wOO have: 0W'f ' 'AD:..

E

I"",

cr.

Ion.

,.. ..... and to'; cf. +9477 7 LI - _. , the uawually banh rhythm combined with the two dm -.0 .. earIift' ill the line produca a • broken ' cfl'n:t or mppiiNItian. ) ' _ endi.. in two disyUalMer (or. disyll.ble followed by two .... -lOifUaIMs, which C("III!S meuica1Iy to Ihe _ !hi",) Ftc JUklally p"""c'=d by a mooooyllabk, .. at 400, ' " tai - . . sI : ill aucb Ii-El, which occur OII.~ in Ihe ~ onoe nay 100 IiMS, ictUI and VCUlt coinOclc ., the besinninc of Ihe fifth foot ill pc: eotdaDce with ..... mal Latin bell wu feAlibie. For the (OnItnlo;Uon d . 2.)4-6 II lifo"""-, li ___ ~ foUUI, r ;, i Lu, f .... A~iuJ f"'" hw,.J, r

'I

TN;,, _ _ _

.p," ,irw." au _OJ u .

... For abe rhythm of !be line-eno:Iin« ICe ,&:n.

" '- 4 ' Now whatever help m y .&ill ean prornix, whalever can be made wilb metal. whalever fire and my merJies cap aChwllpliah (oc:. will be done), Meanwhile put an end to !be doubts aboul your po~ O\I'er me wbich your prayer. imply, ' Notice the lhrice-ft:pealed under_ !Uins (lor the uoeoftrieolon d, +f'~' +fYI',) and !he hi,h1y effective anacoluthon after wi", : Vulcan', immediale dcaift: iI 10 make: love; bil impatience it further indicated by the breakina-off of hiI . ptteb in mid-line (for other ax. ofthialCe +f3, 583).

... Therepeated" have alOlcmneffecl, u bcfiu: a plcdlC, bul theft: may a1Jobe a Icari"" playfulecbooftbe"ofVenut' IUpplication, ,9830 . • 1' • c.forthe'jlO'e4-iecndinclCe)fO, fe5-4

,'m rl '

. , , 22,22

121., It. traoaitional or ' brid,e ' P" ' IC : while it;' nil! night, Vulcap rita Cnwn Venw:' bed and (1"=0"'" 10 zhe Cyclopea' ClIve 10 ICe to zhe Corsini of the arma, Unlike Homer'. H~tut, Vulcan;' no ,wutirIJI. lOcialIy interior artiI.an, but an anill who empioya a1ave-Jabour to euwlC hiI work. •• , . An intricate aamplc of mc:1oei", word-onler ; _ tiJ tHt,,", iI contained inlide e-, n,,,,,;.-:&, and the whole phraoc: inside the main 1eIl1mc:c:.

CO MME N TARY , ~"

138 __ I

tht;

nir.llt is alrudy half over.

7· 'dri-b': the

participle. pueive w .. oriainal1y a ~poraIlt:k>Uw:e (Palme.- 327). The per.mifi.. verba.I _j. eatiorl of Nitb' drivinc ber cbariot . . . . literary oomnMWIpb~ : d. sfiga. and ~ «I '.31i1. p'

widalno

jkJkct

I • IS A1t...... "" thiI simile pel bad; to Homer (n. u .433- .5. and cf. aI.o Apollol'liu. 3-'9,8"., 4. I062fF.) nothin« oouId be more Roman than Vircil'. ptfcure of the ch.atte Roman matroll or widow, an IF ; ;'. and the anti-type 0( Dido and Ckopatra in her dC¥Otion to home and I&mil~. The p"age eo", .. a. the ' atilt cmtn ' of the molt AUfUlt&n book Or thc: A... ,.., (d plJochl 170) and pethapl ico1ec.. the imponanc:c al'..:hed by " .....IUlIO hia iiMhW and .... uimonw Jqis. Iabor. : .eo: ~ I!A.... S4. R.C. 6. 1. 8.,. and d . G. Willi",N in ] .R.$.

.a ( .g~) . &--.g.~ ;; ( lg6lI) ..a--t6.

Bodl Vukt" ~ the .;.. won after OIIly • rew houn' 1Ikep• •pwred on by Ck n c. " d the ....... inr .......IioI> : the woman'. cbildrm aymbol~ : the PPm?n' wbote hillOI'y will be abowft Oft me ,biekl : d . the ~ of Romulut, Rem.. and the Ibe-woIf, &,0-4FOI' the rdincUeij beartIa·fin in 4 10 d: SoP aad _ rurtbc:r R. W. " .... ., .... (1!M6) IOI-ll. Tbe picNR ol . pool" en.ttwdi, Virfif,1 but i ajle("bLo cL .....ticity offen &II Inllnty with EvUlder', bo!"e. Fortbe rtruetun:oltbio f 7 "re_furthet-Intnoc!. , (iyl •

·JI:,oricaI

........

tn'

....

,~

,+'e ..... _idiom. ·to ...

... •

••

• I

,

'

(

IC.

.L _ _ eat ) •••_.......:

~.L It· II"'•

fo,ri'" with Rutl&li.

.,. •

w,

Tbc: noioe and r. The alliteration and a.onance in

ft'

...

7 ..

,,;,. , .. oui.... iniolY< .. WOld-play of the kind. Latin writen wen:

lpecially addictc:ld to, whidl d\en..,u q\l&lltiay.' ddi&ncc: d . il.49+ Jl oN Mi; .... iJJ. ;.tril ~ I ''''--W; HofmADn5za.Dty1" '1O!J. F~ other exlL in VIII (including 'etymolosical' word· play of the J'a"FUINm- PaI.tium type) tee , .........

2)8J

7,.. ,.,..

J.

cr ... . ' CI for Ibe rhetorical Itn>cture (lOr colon with _pfoora) d. 1.1.5H1 • ...,']6-7. ~IM • .s86-7. in No dcaire to hul'TY on !he work, Vukatl 'lOpI,pnki... ;i mid,.bcz'metcr : d. +"4. H"-1

.., _.h J...._. _j. 7

, ..

!III.,.....

IlZdd ( , for thuc:nle.bl'Ek c:f. 62 (n.), 449, 4.5' ••.53. ........ m ' D I cf. 11. 162 MN .. . m:1r" ('definina' or 'appll'itiooal' ~tiff) .

+0

ttl

C-,.

t tbeaclj'''notaUelledt.dOnoV, (eI, • ./ " ..... '.) and OCCWI ooI)'l ben: in his work, bul il it probable thaI (like otbet com.-mcb) be it (rom eadier writen, u he did fMiNru in S4O> and other .jau aucb u Iwni./i- and laIiJau. See P,I_ '011-3 and Nori:Ien OIl 6,196. -if., not auated bcJuo; V. INI panUdlO • ~ of adjt. in :/. UMd by EnniUl and LlKntiUl. • bron K, &old , 'U'OII • , I" . Api n a In' ad',e COIIIInKtlon "e

rr.mpoundl

....,... 0 '



.,

COMMENT ... RY:+H....U3 +t7""9, +49-51 arc both uicola, d. 40'''''' +t'DD .

• 11 t 'Tht; lhidd CCCMj'ted of teIIeD circular plaiel wdded 0Dt.: upon the other: ;1 is aU epic objekb, from Aj.P' (1IlMc of teIICD hldea, lit 1400w:w, 7.220) 10 TW'n .... ' (4" I"iN .6iJ, n .9lI)); one is thUi warned apiml buildi", over-daborale tymboljs_ upon convmriQn,I &:On'apoo..t"""" The Dumber ICIICD bad , Iperi,1 Iipificancc: in Pytharwc.an numcrlorY, ct. C. Buller, 1f_1"!.I "JiM (1970) 7-8; iI oceun frequenLly in den;",,' IiteralU«. Other pOO

COMMENTAR.Y : 56()....B

IS'

,.. .. with the ph ' "Dt .ubj. ape ' 1:1 a wiah that ~ •.......kI happen now. Ci. 6.187-8 Ii _ u ItHU iJU . _ .1 : ...... 1 ,11.1': 111 .. ''4 Ue".,.1 In .... ch OOI'IItruetiona an ellipte it involved : lee nD . on ~ I , ,568-7e .

"I •

eH." - 'the man I w ... •.... ill Horac:e. C. 4. e.3 _ _ fIOIIIiJ tuM . " .. 1 .... '.".. CiJw;r.,. Hen: '"' mUlt WICIenund ' 10 that I mi,ht be'. the modem Pall:ltrin., • city of impoary' 10 Evancicra remin~ : a,oud Clomocd. Mil_ ....ptIr the .unik in L".+· (168-71) into. triumphanl im,I"' ofChrittian~ ; 'So arb the day ....... in the ....... " bed, I ADd yet . _ ~ IWr droopinc held, I And tricb bUr beamI, aIOd with _~ Oft I Flamesin th.,fot' I·~d of the momi.naalz:y.' I znfO''' the: pl'Td Vea ... wh.ic:b aw n both .1 evalinc aIOd '1 da_ : ........ zp Vi.tsil" eomparilon .. with P....., Vea. _'chet 0Ye!" the convoy beca\lle iF «?ntaUu her own Nbc• . I _ Acneu, to wbooa abe Ippea.n 11608- z.5. Ac:cordiftc to Vano, q.nl ed by Sa". on •.lIoz, the a1IT of Vea... WII vilible to Am. from the time he left. Troy \&nEil he 'EZ:Leed Latium. See alto 680-zn. 1Ad Cor. di..... . _i o(the momi.na a1IT II I Iymbol of VOl.' prCMeetiaG. Wlozol 80-1.



I

'"9'

COMMENTARY : )92-600

,r

A vivid Picture _ the bonemm ridina: out, the aiknl womm walchi", (rom die citadel, the cloud 01 dutt (d . g.:!!!). the ,I... mi... bronze (_ (~n.) . the Ien'ain. ,.,

~ • c:....

f

...,."b

"

do 92...,. The vio ..... detail linD the

with their azrlval, another lood ;.......... 01' riDe·

Trojanl'

:p:7~orr ·ymmchY'

d . ,,7-"8, 657Jlft. iii-ie Plqain at ' .7' .... 10mer tojou.mey'. end, a metapbo.(rom the t v : colJ.ne. They take the obortat roote to their delrin·ti .... ,

evm

,,711

,ha",p thJ ••k a

them over

n.lI.ICh ..... md.

"" A ( - . . exampk of _ropoei· (the .effect becinl al it d .> in m ). uocd by • n.m 0( dadylo, inlerlac:cd allitct'aboa (f , / , ' . ,) aDd ......ted _til (_. II). 1'hc line Ran, wi'" lbe eb'..,e of __ (or n: .~ 1.1 11 ,875. VUJil baa dc:yd,'Ptd· at! Enni." pma.e,

-"':r'"

k . " (....... ...... t77. 439 VOl· ,., _ .. . h 7' openina 1Ormw. for IIA ecpbruit 01' Iet. piece of the kind kno~. 11",,;,. d M dptioo of pi..... The ' at ' oprninr (_ • there g') iI aonnaI. EaniUl, A-. RS V' uI '-u &'Jl r • ',In t ~ ;6rt..., : for .. varialioll_ above, fl6n. Tbia ficwe it fint £ound in IHom.:r (e., . the pnkftt of AIci"'NI in CU. 7.llsft, tbe IIIlirtMbi ~ialaOO ",hicb Iia -.en:. tbc: bay (rom tbr; Cyc"'p II in Oi. 9 . ' 16ft'. ), opta' eD. in the ...... an a' 1. 1,59ft'., t 48oft'·, , ..s6!K.. I , .~,ft See ' fill;,... TOM 6378'. The ficvre dto Ort..n in En,lioh, e. • . H-" ..., . ,67 ' l'berc io .. wiUow 110 •• brook. I That oM_ bia ' - kava in me ....y .tream j I 'Then: with fantutic pri.uIdI did ~ (O)iht ••• • J

'"

e.,.

F

T

. . . .

"'"1.

he 51 d . 0'£2 ' hi

~t and

431'1. 479ft. and Illtrod. , (iii),

.. II'.' ' ~~' ';'~ thaI he .. 10 KOOve evidenee 01 Rome'. hisIOric dellmy, ..... i ' .. ,u . r.... the fonnuta d , !W>. An analOC)' may be inlmded wilh Ihe 'srove and day' laCl'ed 10 HeTCUles at Rome, d . 26g, 271 . Both cilies have an ancient tradition 01 rdi&io\II ou. ocme and with the treaty-breakinc in .4.... XII (~ ~.). Me"...• punishmenl _ to Qve hi. body dtaaed uunder by tw i:I tbIM ,..oeiatea with the beginninp of Roman likrw, .. theme cootinued in th (oUowilll scm.,. Tarquiniw was taken in by Lan Ponenn.a, kin, the Etruscan city of Qua.ium : there is .. parallel hen: with the tiIe]p given by TumUl tn the exiled Meuntiua: ~ ~ . " ... ft' iU . _, for the emphatic npetition. which does not upc.de "';Ih the connective, d . 6gg.

Me _ , bere a co-ordinali"l connective ...;th intensive but no temporal for«.



COMMENTARY , 66O-6Ii6

172

' - - I thefay wntora northern pc:opIe. rrlarilll alto to Vu.lcan'. mil in depictin, the contrail between the white: no:cka and the &Old ncd.laca of the ext line.

ill .... Is' i [ ' hU': .. u:fuena: to the Gallic: necklace ( ......,) which lave Maillius' SOlI hit ~ Torqual.. (d. 6.82$).

,

":s~

&mr 7. r.0man rcligiOUJ ruilds. Both the Sam (285n.) and the Luperci ~I the fint pari of book VIII. The li«nificancc of me " Lupercalia, hc,,\annually on '5 February, .-.:maina obIeuR (Ogilvie

SI) : ;IS cddx'd ts ran nak""- (from the Lupcrcal ?) alonl the Vi.

Sacra in wh;u ni:. y originally have bttn .. purification (H' fertility rite. For V. the inlcrJJn 01 the ce«:mony wu lymboUc : in it 'the Arm.VIc, and ups of the eli!y lave way to the li/wllr. and the .,.0$/#' (Ihom.!ait 347); it repr~led Rome'. putof'ai, • Atcadian' beginninp (- ' 341n. and d. Uvy 1.$. D.H. 1.32.79). The IDOl! fllmOUl hUtoric:al or;caJion of the lLupercalia was thai on which Antony offered the crown 10 Juli'i Ce .. u. The rite _ rcvi~ by AU(UII .. : see Suclonil.ll, A",. .'11;1 J.iU. '!!II ""'''' cr~. ,un-iil I'«""'j", doli,. . . III .• • ~ " t,lfJWW, IV v·uk• " " ..pI-

,, ~, tho:oe anci.... t cull..ymbola bc~ to tbe

Salii not me Luperei : linee A..... iliookina &t & pair ofwx"dI limul_ laneously, !he oi'-der oIlhe v"';"... "Iements iI not ..... Ulttltial ; -tw, ""tw, d r.re co-oildinatel, m" word-order being diclato:d by metrial IXInvenimce. .;ius weTe wooden heim"ts wilb bits of wool allached 10 tbeJ.; Servius says mil explaint the "trmolocY elj.-j_ • (prieltsj, 'f"~",j.... " yel another ex.ample elF",,'n fontlnea fOC" aetiolorieal -play. The .,.mi., home in proceaton by me Salii, • were lllUelda in the ahapc of IiIl".eI of eiSh! {fOt" the 'elymolosr' Jt: diiI'. n-e de:itiel ........ liD a ....... via t..YitUu.m like tbe euJt at tN I Ikt: lee adley 91 -11, F_1et 111-IR. Gelid; 16t~ s. W";PI !J, •• 1.R.S. ,a OteI paraIkIo becw!~ the thfl:e"i "tp"'" Romuluo, CamiIiUl (a' E ··oJ Romul ....... ~ to Livy 5#7) and AlllUltui (d. D.H.•.,.). Au:ord.i", to Dio (61 .• 1.9) A ......tIII departed rrom tradition In OM 1upu:1: he ~ at the head 0( the p"'i(i"'on, rouo ... ' i by the city macilu-a\el.. ~'" #t .. , o;anied a braneh 0(1aureI mel w.. e. !.vreI th. He the earthly penonification 0( Jupiw c.pi-

w, ...

100in\ll,

,I, •• • 17

v"

,"

I

w.

do 6,8, g

at t' be ooIemu"" ... immortal ¥ow to the..,. 0(

i ".

Italy' (u • '{nhpvinc Cor .victwy) , The ....ture ~.,~..0 ~I"~~ _ I ...,e,

I

0(

the _

"

II

'" rettorin,

COMMENT .... RY: 716-722

,,, ....uI'Dt\lt bepp hit prorralIUIX 0{ bWklinr ud R.ome', tnnpla in 28 • .c. He hi.meIr,..aY' (R.G. 20) that he 82 tcmpko : fOr the: number 300 'I« ....pp...... ,I'

2 Fl.

, ••

7 ... 7 m ... t..!

pi'

I

Rd"~

I'ftt~

(or the anaphon. d . 705-&.

cr. 666n. to the

1WfPl• •';."" public th&nbcivin, : cr. Uvy !I.n.

_ ...... , cr. (40.

,.. V. it tclacopinr evenll : the fAmOUl marblc tt;mple 0{ Apollo on the Palatine _ dediated by .... UptUi on 9 October 28 • .c ., Mvina; been vowed in 36 •.c. Am., pzin, in wonder at theM: ,plendoun, would recall E ... ndcr'. simple odtlemenl, • contrut continually n;pIoiled throurbou.l book VIII. C/. P'op... ti .... +' .3- 4 " ' " .......i .,.,., ~ p~ PJw..., I F..... ; ~ ;r.d-hoou. Am. prefirul'ft AUl\DIUI al 6.69'-70 when he "Y' al eum... sMiJ.. 111& ,,.,, 1nftIIl-1 iNtitwlll: Serviut noted Ihat A\lllDt .... til .... (ulfib hio ancator'. vow : 'I« abo 721-2.

'- P.,. . . ...

. -.. ... ,.' . .,..-11 71'1

hLiS

IF£ C l'eVlewt ,•

Another lypoIociea.I link wilb book III (d. 671, 679). AI , .28, Am. dediales a Jhidd at Actium by 6xl", itlo the entrance of

Apollo'. temple: itstifts .owN N-. Aen. then celebrates prnoes, a prototype of the I'Ut ' Actiaro Samet' instituted by Auptut al Nicopolil, lhe sitt; of hio camp, in COffimemot'atiOll of ru. victooy. Spoik were commonly to aflU:ed AI votive offerinp: d . 7. 183ff. where in Latinut' templeity. """ eM,,,,i.' : ~ tilk baa bem wed : Ib Ell are here iJI bracketa. Jt t: E! :e,1o 'WiQip I . ' ~tobil_pktecditioa oltlM: A. ,61 e::tCCqIt Cor 7. . h III ....t. V, e the "lczU>QL io to hill _tMy by

KpWate

,,¥eft

w.

edio- mlbcn booh

I • • "ITI O "" CO • • aMT • • , . . AltO TaAJI't.ATIOIU

AwWl. It.. G . .....: will. 1971.

,bil U.

7M

A..,,'llY. 19S,S.

o.;o,-.J. and NenlaIhip, H. WIriI "

'"$-

Virp . , .....

18~,.

0._1, It.. S. Aad:l' I. Dr,-d " J. (tranIl.). WorlI '" .......p . Jlcprintcd in Wodd', 0 ' =0 ... · m ed. J. Kindey. Iglil. Fowlet. W. W•. tiU '91,. 01 . ....0 - 01'1 .to! uiJ VIII. ('-'cr.) ...-W,;rJl j.Va.daI, lgI6. ct ; •• tio.Io!OQA-#VIJ. TM . . ",T_. lgl9-0h '.ao-(III,1.riIXII. Glli" ' in, A. 8nfh, Linc VIII. 19!50 Hmry. J. APlIn' . 4 vol.. ,813-91, Mvhi',J. W. 1M As 19!O- TeCl with brief«.....nentuy and kq: iDtrod"wO"· Nordm. E. A-u s.d VI. yd. eel. rfp6. Pare. T. B. 1M II m,il • vola. '8!M-lgoG. S:zl'i... Co 2h >. eel. C . Tbilo aad H. H',eft. , 'I'0Il. Ie,....

,6g,.

"=7" ., ,., "b..

I I

"'fI"iqil.

'

....

t

Tilly, 8. 7ir *"7 "p.u.,. , gG l. Stle,ted 11 'Sti en- boob VIII- XII, with tnne'·Iion, brid" _ t u y and b kS'WM 777

QQ'"

Willi t

-.

R. D. 7iI A,

A-if 111. Ip. A.Ii~ Y. 1960-

u."

"'q il. • _

. '913,

( '"J



I

'94

BIBLIOGRAPHY 2 . OTKKa WO ....



AUaldi, A. Lrl.1 ~ - ' 1M ulilu. 1{163.

Allen, W. S. ~ flAIl rA)to\IoI: ;,..dr/,.:;-;· ..t " Bailey, C. lUI;';'" u. y;,til. 1935. Binder,

" * .GmIc. '973.

o . ......" IINI A..,..,hIJ: i,""/W___ (_ B. BwII_ A-u.

'97 1.

I .......... C. M . P?", Vitp'" MihM. 194~ Cam~ W. A. ... WI ' t ...... lit Y;,li/'s ~ ,g6g. ?o P /lQu,~ : I (l gIIl ). II ( .gII,). III ( .g66). IV (1g6~). Conlier, A. &.. " _ _UvJ.i,. ~fW dMs f'tr.Jidt ', 1939. Dilke, C. A. W. t Do linNotab in the A.viJ abo. • preoccupation with agni~1 number~' "'oS. '7 (1967) !U-7. ~w. O . L. 71W .lulO? .frlo. A-oJ. 1!p7. Ownhil, o. A,boo,- JW..IIIt ,tl;,;... '91'. T,. by P. Krapp front.t. &lip,. '~iM .uMlflll. I g66. Ebrmberr. V. _ Jones, A. H. M . .o...u: 211111 ilIlIJINlin,t tAl mtrtJ ~ ..J ra"ia!. 2nd ed. 195~ IDeluda the hs WI" of

u

c.a,.

...,.,tIII

Au«UI1UI.

I

FonIycc, C. J . C,h'u",: I#Jtl"'" 20 LT' 7. 1961. Galinsky, G. K...t-, Sicily_ lWw. 1969. Granoden, K . . ' Typolory, Iymbolitm and allqor,' in the A..ul', P.V.s.• , (1973-+) '4--t7. Graftl, M. RILl'" " q;"" 1971. Grima!, P. ' PTomen.ad" d'tvandre ec d 'tn.!.: 10 I. I...... ik