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Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society [1 ed.]
 9781442683075, 9780802071743

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Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society EDITED BY J. DON VANN and ROSEMARY T. VANARSDEL

The circulation of periodicals and newspapers is thought to have been larger and more influential than that of books in Victorian society. J. Don Vann and Rosemary T. VanArsdel have brought together commissioned bibliographical essays on Victorian periodical literature by some of the world's greatest experts in the field, whose contributions support this view. The essayists guide the reader into avenues for exploring Victorian society and the professions (law, medicine, architecture, the military, science); the arts (music, illustration, theatre, authorship and the book trade); occupations and commerce (transport, finance, trade, advertising, agriculture); popular culture (temperance, sport, comic periodicals); and both lower- and upper-class journals (workers' and university students'). They seek to identify the ways that periodicals informed, instructed, and amused virtually all of the people in the many segments of Victorian life. The periodicals demonstrate the emergence of professionalism in the various areas of human endeavour. Professional societies were formed to regulate each discipline and each had its own journal or journals. The growth of professionalism also dictated a rapid pace of change in Victorian society, and change, in turn, demanded closer and more accurate communication of new ideas through periodical literature. J. DON VANN is a member of the Department of English, University of North Texas. ROSEMARY T. VANARSDEL is Distinguished Professor of English, Emerita, University of Puget Sound.

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Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society Edited by J. Don Vann and Rosemary T. VanArsdel

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS Toronto Buffalo

www.utppublishing.com University of Toronto Press Incorporated 1994 Toronto Buffalo Printed in Canada Reprinted in paperback 1995 ISBN 0-8020-0522-5 (cloth) ISBN 0-8020-7174-0 (paper)

Printed on acid-free paper

Canadian Cataloguing in Publication Data Main entry under title: Victorian periodicals and Victorian society Includes index. ISBN 0-8020-0522-5 (bound) ISBN 0-8020-7174-0 (pbk.) 1. English periodicals - Great Britain - History 19th century. 2. Great Britain - Social life and customs - 19th century. 3. British periodicals — History - 19th century. 4. Great Britain Intellectual life - 19th century. I. Vann, J. Don (Jerry Don), 1938- . II. VanArsdel, Rosemary T. PN5124.P4V53 1993

052'.09034

C93-094202-7

Contents

Preface/vii Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Works / xi Documentation/ xiii Introduction/3 PART ONE: VICTORIAN PERIODICALS AND THE PROFESSIONS 1 2 3 4 5

Law Richard A. Cosgrove/ 11 Medicine M. Jeanne Peterson /22 Architecture Ruth Richardson, Robert Thorne / 45 Military Albert Tucker/62 Science William H. Brock / 81 PART TWO: VICTORIAN PERIODICALS AND THE ARTS

6 1 8 9

Music Leanne Langley /99 Illustration Patricia Anderson /127 Authorship and the Book Trade Robert A. Colby/ 143 Theatre Jane W. Stedman/162 PART THREE: VICTORIAN OCCUPATIONS AND COMMERCE

10 Transport John E.G. Palmer (1932-1990), Harold W. Paar/179

vi / Contents 11 Financial and Trade Press David J. Moss, Chris Hosgood/199 12 Advertising Terence Nevett/219 13 Agriculture Bernard A. Cook/235 PART FOUR: VICTORIAN PERIODICALS AND POPULAR CULTURE 14 Temperance Olwen C. Niessen / 251 15 Comic Periodicals J. Don Vann/218 16 Sport Tony Mason/ 291 PART FIVE: TWO VIEWS OF VICTORIAN SOCIETY 17 Workers'Journals Jonathan Rose / 301 18 Student Journals Rosemary T. VanArsdel, John S. North/ 311 Notes on Contributors / 332 Index/339

Preface

Preparations for this book have been actively underway for some time, during which the editors have faced the death of one contributor and the withdrawal of another. Because of unavoidable circumstances, chapters on Police Gazettes in section four and Engineering in section one were withdrawn, although considerable information about engineering appears in the chapter on architecture and also in the railway chapter. Despite difficulties, we have been heartened by the faith our contributors have shown in the project and by their willingness to be patient as we worked toward solutions. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the support and encouragement given to this book by the officers and members of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals, and Barbara Quinn Schmidt, former editor, Victorian Periodicals Review. The University of Puget Sound has supported this project, particularly through the efforts of Christine M. Fisher, its inter-library loan librarian; the University of North Texas supplied generous financial assistance through their Faculty Development Leave Committee. Shelley S. Bott contributed valuable word-processing skills. Special mention should be made of the active role Harold W. Paar has taken in preparing the material for the railway chapter and in supervising careful last-minute revisions of the text. As always, the scholars who produced these essays are indebted to librarians all over the world who have cheerfully and efficiently aided them in their research. Finally, the editors would like to thank Anne Forte, managing editor of the University of Toronto Press, and Judy Williams, for the exceptional care they have given to the preparation of what was at times a difficult and complicated manuscript.

viii / Preface It is with great sadness that we record the death on 10 September 1990 of John Ernest Courtenay Palmer, aged fifty-eight, our longtime friend and colleague in periodicals research. As one of the most knowledgeable historians of early British railways, he had been invited, and had agreed, to contribute the essay on nineteenth-century British railway periodicals to this volume. At the time of his death he had completed the heart of the text, namely, the sections headed 'Bibliographies' and 'Sources and Annotated Listing.' They were found to be stored in his computer, retrieved by his son, Michael J. Palmer, and forwarded to the editors; a search was begun for someone who could complete the work. Inquiries led us to the Railway and Canal Historical Society, whose honorary secretary, G.H.R. Gwatkin, kindly directed us to Harold W. Paar, research officer of the Society from 1965 to 1991. As one who has published several books on railway history, and as John's personal friend and occasional collaborator, he was uniquely qualified to complete this task. Taking great care to preserve the letter and intent of John's work, he identified thirty-six places where references required expansion and where further identification of sources appeared to be necessary. By consulting records at the Science Museum Library, the Public Record Office, the British Library and its Newspaper Library at Colindale, A Bibliography of British Railway History (comp George Ottley, 1983) and its Supplement (1988), and a copy of John Palmer's thesis, 'Railway Periodicals of the Nineteenth Century Published in the British Isles: A Bibliographical Guide' (1959), Paar was able to finish the chapter. Grahame Boyes, chairman, Railway and Canal Historical Society, kindly read and offered suggestions on the manuscript; it was also approved by John Palmer's son, who actively supported the project throughout. Parts added to the chapter by Paar include the introduction and the last section, 'Other Modes of Inland Transport.' Acknowledgment should be made of valuable assistance to this project by Mrs Edna Paar, by fellow Society members M. Baldwin, H. Compton, J. Gillham, G. Knight, D. Steggles, P. Stevenson, and R. Taylor, and by the librarians of Leicestershire County Library and University College Library, London. John Palmer's family has donated his important collection of books and files on British railway history to Brunei University in Uxbridge. In the course of his work on this chapter, Paar made a preliminary

Preface / ix summary of the contents of the files, a copy of which may be obtained on loan from the editors. The editors, and Harold W. Paar, wish to dedicate this chapter to the memory of John E.G. Palmer. J. Don Vann Rosemary T. VanArsdel

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Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Works

BLM I, II, III, IV British Literary Magazines, vols 1-4 1 The Augustan Age and the Age of Johnson, 16981788(1983) 2 The Romantic Age, 1789-1836 (1983) 3 The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 (1984) 4 The Modern Age, 1914-1984 (1986) British Union Catalogue of Periodicals (1955-8) BUCOP CNL Catalogue of the [British Library] Newspaper Library (1975) DNB Dictionary of National Biography (1885-1900) Guide I Victorian Periodicals: A Guide to Research, vols I Guide II and II (1978, 1989) ILN Illustrated London News Jenkins Frank Jenkins, 'Nineteenth-Century Architectural Periodicals,' in John Summerson, ed, Concerning Architecture (1968), 153-60 Micro Microfilm available. See Library of Congress, Catalogue of Newspapers in Microform; also B. Hopkinson, ed, Guide to Microforms in Print (Munich: Saur 1991) Mitchell's Mitchell's Newspaper Press Directory (intermittently with subtitle: and Advertiser's Guide) 1845-1900* NCBEL New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature (1969)

xii / Abbreviations of Frequently Cited Works

NPD

Poole's TLS TTH UC ULS ULVS

VPN VPR VS Warwick WD I WD II WD III WI WL

Newspaper Press Directories Deacon's: Deacon's Newspaper Handbook and Advertiser's Guide, 1863?-1900+ Everett's: Everett's Directory of the Principal Newspapers of the World (1881) May's: Frederick May's London Press Directory and Advertiser's Handbook 1871-3; then, May's British and Irish Press Guide, 1874-1889; then, Willing's British and Irish Press Guide, 1890-8; then, Willing's Press Guide, 1899-1900* Sell's: Sell's Dictionary of the World's Press, 1883-1900+ Poole's Index to Periodical Literature, 1802-81 (1882; supplements 1888-1900+) Times Literary Supplement Times Tercentenary Handlist of English and Welsh Newspapers, Magazines and Reviews (1920) Union Catalogue of Periodical Publications in the University Libraries of the British Isles (1937) Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada (1965) Union List of Victorian Serials. A Union List of Selected Nineteenth-Century British Serials Available in United States and Canadian Libraries (1985) Victorian Periodicals Newsletter Victorian Periodicals Review Victorian Studies Warwick Guide to British Labour Periodicals, 17901970 (1977) Waterloo Directory of Victorian Periodicals, 18241900 (1976) Waterloo Directory of Irish Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900 (1986) Waterloo Directory of Scottish Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900 (1989) Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals, 1824-1900, 5 vols (1966, 1972, 1979, 1987, 1989) World List of Scientific Periodicals, 3 vols, 1963-5

Documentation

In this volume, places of publication are given only when other than London. The reader should consult the pages on Abbreviations, which are used throughout this book. Use of the symbol 1900+ indicates that a periodical continued into the twentieth century, and the term 'then' identifies a journal continuing, but under another title. Ampersands are spelled out, following the usage of the Chicago Manual of Style (1982). There was contemporary variation in the use of capital letters in titles. Readers should bear in mind that no style sheet or book of usage existed for nineteenth-century periodicals; usage could be whimsical on the part of editors, which makes uniform documentation, today, difficult. Another point to be emphasized is that uniform documentation has been rendered difficult in this volume precisely because of its interdisciplinary nature. One of the great strengths of this collection is its diversity, which, ironically, has presented problems of variation in technical terminology and usage. Every effort has been made to reconcile these problems but, inevitably, that has not been possible in every case.

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Victorian Periodicals and Victorian Society

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Introduction

The essays presented in this book afford a significant opportunity to demonstrate the pervasiveness of periodical literature in nineteenthcentury British society. The editors originally sought to examine not only the so-called literary periodicals, or those directed to the bettereducated, more intellectual reader, but to identify the ways that periodicals informed, instructed, and amused virtually all of the people in the many segments of Victorian life. The structure of the collection, divided among five sections of society, guides the reader through periodicals associated with the professions, the arts, occupations and commerce, popular culture, and both the university educated and the working classes. (For additional information on the arts, and on women's periodicals, see Guide II.) The objective throughout has been to illustrate the ubiquitous nature of Victorian periodical literature, and the juxtaposition of periodicals at a high and a low level in section five is meant to emphasize this. As the work advanced, however, certain additional themes emerged as contributors arrived independently at similar conclusions based on different bodies of material. Chapter authors often mentioned the sheer number and diversity of the titles that confronted them. 'The potential of Victorian periodicals is that they have as yet scarcely been touched/ says John S. North, the scholar who probably knows more about this subject than anyone else (Newsletter, Victorian Studies Association of Ontario, no 46 [Spring/Fall 1990], 7-10). It is his opinion that circulation of periodicals and newspapers was larger and more influential in the nineteenth century than printed books, and served a more varied constituency in all walks of life. His assertion is certainly borne out by the research discussed in this book.

4 / Introduction Repeatedly, the contributors remark on this. For example, as pointed out below by Leanne Langley, in music there were over two hundred titles in England, Scotland, and Wales, from 'music society annuals to music hall weeklies.' Illustration, which began in the 1840s, was so commonplace by the end of the century that all titles cannot be identified. There were one thousand scientific journals by mid-century, 60 per cent of which were commercial. In law, 'the proliferation of journals in the Victorian period marked an important step in the standardization of legal culture' (see Cosgrove, below). The leading bibliography for agriculture lists more than four hundred titles, a total which Bernard Cook says is far from complete. Advertising 'saw an enormous increase in volume' (Nevett). In medicine, *by the end of the nineteenth century 458 periodicals with some sort of claim to being "medical" had made at least brief appearances in Britain ... The sheer numbers are nearly overwhelming' (Peterson). Study of the theatre discloses that, during the second half of the century, society was 'rife' with stage weeklies (Stedman), while Richardson says, 'The sheer mass of these architectural journals is staggering.' Twenty-five years ago, very little use had been made by Victorian scholars of this vast repository of contemporary culture, but during the last two decades a number of valuable reference books have appeared to guide researchers in their work. Many of them are cited in this volume. However, much remains to be done. The challenge of making informed use of this enormous mass of material emerges as a second theme, almost as corollary to the first. In advertising, 'The value of advertisements [in periodicals] as source material [for research] was for too long overlooked' (Nevett). Legal periodicals 'represent an aspect of Victorian history too long neglected' (Cosgrove). The field of illustration is 'largely uncharted terrain' (Anderson); and in music, periodicals are 'largely untouched by scholars' (Langley). The temperance press 'remains a relatively unexplored area' (Niessen). There are signs that this trend may be changing. Richard Altick, in his Presence of the Present (1991), speaks of the use of 'topicality' as an important way of interpreting the Victorian age and then proceeds to draw heavily on periodical literature to illustrate his point. The editors hope that the present book will also alert ever more scholars to the possibilities waiting to be explored. A third recurring theme is the interdisciplinary nature of many of the specialities. Study of science, for instance, may take many forms,

Introduction / 5 such as astronomy, chemistry, pharmacy, physics, geology, biology, natural history, and botany, to name a few. In agriculture, one is involved not just with the crops but also with the principles of farming, botany, economics, forestry, gardening, horticulture, and veterinary science. Temperance cuts across moral, social, legal, and theological issues beyond the simple problem of mere abstinence, while medicine reflects the growing sophistication of specialities such as obstetrics, gynaecology, ophthalmology, the allied fields of dentistry nursing, and pharmacy, and the 'fringe' pursuits of homeopathy, mesmerism, and herbalism. Many fields are related to architecture, such as the building trades, mechanics, illustration, and 'decoration, furniture, mining, engineering, and sanitation' (Richardson/Thorne). The fourth common idea to appear independently in many of the essays is the sense of an emergent professionalism throughout the nineteenth century in nearly all walks of life. In the chapter on Authorship, one sees how periodicals influenced the progress of the 'professional' writer, how the successful pursuit of international copyright laws, the royalty system, and the literary agent tended to 'elevate the prestige of authorship' and also to create a 'sociology of authorship' (Colby). Science became 'professionalized' and 'came to replace theology and philosophy as the supreme example of man's intellectual endeavours'; it is also noted that *by the 1830s almost all initial scientific communication took place through specialist periodicals rather than books' (Brock). In law, the 'new culture of academic law was professional in its goals' (Cosgrove), while military periodicals represented the 'professionalization of the military services after the Crimean War' and promoted 'professional training and study for officers' and a 'professional study of warfare' (Tucker). Railways, moving from short, utilitarian lines to become massive carriers of both goods and passengers, brought the railway press, 'which grew out of the public's need to know in the midst of a railway mania' and became, ultimately, a source for railway history (Palmer/Paar). 'The rise of architectural journalism is clearly related to the development of the profession' (Richardson/Thorne). Advertising holds the key to 'an understanding of the evolution of urban society and dovetails with trade and finance which saw the shift away from small shopkeepers and toward the large-scale retailer, such as Lipton and Pears' (Nevett). The nineteenth century saw the 'professionalization' of medicine, the evolution of medical ideas, and the social construction of medical knowledge; the medical periodical became 'the preferred form of communication among professional men and women' (Peter-

6 / Introduction son). Even sport was not immune from this trend as public tastes shifted from such activities as bear-baiting and cock fights to organized - and professional - recreation, to team games and those with established rules and regulations. Josef Altholz, in an allied study of periodical literature, also draws attention to this phenomenon: 'It was only in the middle of the nineteenth century that the Protestant ministry in Britain became a profession in the modern sense' (The Religious Press in Britain, 1760-1900, 1990). Finally, the sheer pace of change in Victorian life dictated another form of professionalism. In the discussion of temperance, for instance, Niessen comments that *by the early nineteenth century age-old drinking patterns conflicted with the demands of an increasingly industrialized and urbanized [and professional] society,' thus bringing about increasing pressure for more temperate habits among the populace. While in the arts, because of the physical multiplication of theatres in the latter part of the century, and hence of audiences and readers, more people demanded higher quality, that is, professionalism, than ever before. Because of the diversity of the material covered in this book, the editors suggested to individual contributors an organizational framework that was at once strong and focused, but one that could also accommodate variety and encourage creativity of approach. Individual essayists are, after all, the experts in their own fields, and to impose arbitrary structure on each would stifle opportunity for individual interpretation. Authors were asked to open with a general introduction to the subject: to provide notes on available bibliographic tools, and to comment if none exist, because that in itself is an important finding and a suggestion for further research; then to list the periodicals, with as much annotation as possible, including location. Suggestions for further research were also to be included. Scholars will note that there is considerable individual variation within this formula, usually dictated by availability of references. Some introductions are longer and more detailed than others; some authors preferred to suggest further research in the body of the paper rather than in a separate section. Annotations of journals vary as information varies, and in many cases authors supply only a 'selected' bibliography rather than an exhaustive one, for obvious reasons. Some have chosen to include bibliographies of background reading, as well as of periodicals themselves. Note should be taken that some of the bibliographies are listed chronologically and some alpha-

Introduction / 7 betically. Considerable thought was given to reconciling this problem, but in every case authors felt strongly that the method used was dictated by the material, so these differences were allowed to stand. In music, for example, the Fellinger lists are the starting point for bibliographic study and they are chronological. Langley states (in private correspondence), 'my discussion of journal types and what they contain is historical, so the reader may see a gradual evolution of the genre over the century; music scholars are generally interested in a style of music, a particular composer, or a specific period within the nineteenth century, so chronological order would seem to help them more readily.' With university magazines, on the other hand, so many of the titles were ephemeral, lasting only for one or two issues, that continuity is better served by alphabetical listing. In every chapter, regardless of its methodology, the information imparted draws on the accumulated wisdom of many years of experience and research. Nineteenth-century Britain was uniquely the age of the periodical. There are well-known, and often stated, reasons for this, of course technology, literacy, swift distribution, lower prices - but periodicals also came to constitute a literature in their own right. As Richard Altick noted many years ago, 'The topicality of the newspaper and many weekly and monthly publications has always recommended them to the common reader' (English Common Reader, 1957). Nor should one overlook the growing sense of professionalism and professional identity which required up-to-date knowledge of what others in the field were doing. Engineering, for instance, was one of the most rapidly developing professions, a product of Britain's rapid industrialization, from almost the beginning of the century. 'The body of engineers composing the engineering profession in Britain rose from about 1,000 in 1850 to around 14,000 in 1914. By 1914, moreover, there were seventeen major national institutions reflecting increasing specialization, with separate organizations for mining engineers, marine engineers, hydrologic engineers, electrical engineers, and so on' ('Engineering,' in Sally Mitchell, ed, Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia, 1988). And, one might add, each speciality required one or more professional journals to keep its subscribers abreast of fast-breaking new developments. One might very well ask, 'What periodicals would the embryo professional have needed to follow to keep up with rapid advancements in his field?' It was partly due to this growing professionalism that Victorian

8 / Introduction society provided an important link between earlier, less sophisticated, less urbanized times and the modern technological era. Periodical literature helps to illustrate and document this change. For all of the above reasons, and for the sheer joy of the pursuit of knowledge, investigation of periodicals provides the scholar with a valuable source of study. One such researcher, Ruth Gordon, writing in 'Newspaper Hunting in the East Midlands,' Newsletter, British Library Newspaper Library, no 10 (June 1989), relates in a wonderfully descriptive passage her elation at reading the advertisements in a provincial newspaper for 1874 (she doesn't say which one): 'Local newspapers had done it again, the past had leaped off the page and grabbed me by the throat. This is their power - history is alive in them, we meet the past on its own terms.' No one could describe more graphically the power of the nineteenth-century periodical press.

PART ONE

Victorian Periodicals and the Professions

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Law R I C H A R D A. C O S G R O V E

In the last two decades the study of Victorian legal history and jurisprudence has increased dramatically. In a common-law jurisdiction such as England, scholarly research looks specifically at case law, especially in the appellate courts, for the sources of doctrinal change. The analysis of jurisprudence rests primarily upon the classic texts written by eminent jurists such as Jeremy Bentham, John Austin, and Sir Henry Maine. This emphasis has hidden to some extent the prominent role that legal periodicals played in the development of important areas of Victorian law. For those who worked within the Victorian legal system, whether as barrister, solicitor, or clerk, legal periodicals became a staple of professional life. These journals reflected the virtues of practicality and pragmatism that the profession prized. Into this world of vocational magazines came the greatest innovation of the Victorian legal press, the academic law journal. A.V. Dicey, Vinerian professor of English Law at Oxford from 1882 to 1909, wrote in 1880: 'Jurisprudence is a word which stinks in the nostrils of a practising barrister' ('The Study of Jurisprudence,' Law Magazine and Review 5 [Aug 1880]). This famous dictum illustrated the considerable intellectual gap that existed between those who wanted a science of law within universities and practitioners who cared little for legal theory. The abyss that separates the academic lawyer from the practitioner in England today had its origins in the Victorian period. Some Victorian legal journals made a successful transition to the demands of the twentieth century; others could not meet the needs of a changing readership and eventually ceased publication. The abundance of legal periodicals indicated that the legal

12 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions profession recognized their utility. The examination of legal periodicals permits entry into a Victorian world where few have gone; they represent an aspect of Victorian history too long neglected.

Resources For those wishing to begin research in the legal journals, the obvious place to start is BUCOP. Better still are WD I, II, and III. More helpful, especially as a reference for those periodicals that existed briefly, is Leonard Augustus Jones, Index to Legal Periodical Literature (Boston 1888). Jones attempted to cover all legal periodicals in English published before 1 January 1887. He listed 158 law journals and reviews published in all parts of the world. For the location of legal periodicals it is advisable to consult the Survey of Legal Periodicals Held in British Libraries (3rd ed, 1968), published by the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies at the University of London. Background information on the entire period may be found in W.M. Maxwell, Law Publishing Then and Now: 1799-1974 (1975). For the scholar who has identified a particular periodical or series of journals, an excellent location to undertake this work is the Law Library of the Bodleian system at Oxford. The advantages of this law library are threefold. It has open stacks that offer easy access to the periodicals and encourages browsing in numbers that are not the particular focus of research. The Bodleian contains an admirable collection of these journals, so one may accomplish a significant amount of research without the additional expense of travel to different repositories. Finally, the new on-line computer system at the Bodleian makes access to bibliographical information easy. Scholars who have used the Bodleian will not miss those heavy catalogue volumes that existed previously, although they must still be consulted until all entries make it into the computer. For those with an interest in Victorian periodicals that did not survive, research will involve much time in the basement where the older materials now are housed. Those allergic to the dust of decades will have to ration their endeavours carefully. The first general classification of legal periodicals is the largest: journals of a practical bent. The tasks of these magazines included advice to unpaid administrators, who formed an important element of the legal system; dissemination of case reports from the various courts to lawyers for their immediate attention; comment on proposed legislation as well as explanation of new statutes; discussion of legal

Law/13 tactics and strategies for courtroom litigation; evaluation of proposed changes in the legal system, especially the impact on the legal profession itself; and an ethos for the gentlemanly practice that would preserve the customs and traditions of the bar. Some journals attempted all this and more, adding news and information (sometimes gossip) about various aspects of the judiciary. In the end, however, journals tried to address every specific need of the profession, and thus the proliferation of journals in the Victorian period marked an important step in the standardization of legal culture. For example, several magazines were specially aimed at solicitors. The Legal Practitioner, and Solicitors' Journal lasted from 1846 to 1851. Its failure paved the way for the Solicitors' Journal and Reporter (1857-1900*), which has endured as the primary voice of that branch of the legal profession. It fought for recognition of the solicitor's social prestige and appropriate compensation. The journal stressed the need for constant self-improvement, not only in technical skills but in character as well. The rivalry between barrister and solicitor for professional standing and the esteem of the general public may be traced by careful reading of the Solicitors' Journal. In a similar fashion, the Weekly Law Magazine (1842) was designed especially for law clerks. It was replaced by the Telegram: Containing the Questions and Answers in Common Law, Conveyancing, and Equity of the Articled Clerks' Examination (1858-79), which also preached ideals of self-improvement and professional conduct. More to the point, however, the Telegram contained sample questions and answers to prepare aspiring clerks for examination. The ethic of professionalism neatly balanced the necessity to provide as much vocational advice as possible. Law clerks had to battle hard to acquire a foothold in the legal hierarchy, and the Telegram reflected the unease that often permeated the careers of articled clerks. Its demise indicated its success, for clerks by the 1880s no longer needed as much assistance and encouragement as earlier in the century. Another subset of the functional law magazines contained those aimed at the propertied classes, who composed a significant section of the administration of local justice. The Justice of the Peace and County, Borough, Poor Law Union and Parish Law Recorder (18371900+) was (and still is) a weekly report of cases, in which justices of the peace might find explained the rules and technical points of law that would enable them to resolve practical problems. When confronted with difficult cases, justices could write to the journal for clarification on points of law about which they were unsure. This

14 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions correspondence reflected the changing facets of conventional social and political attitudes. The Law Times and Journal of Property (1843-1900*) was 'a journal devoted to the numerous intelligent, wealthy, and influential classes engaged in the making and the administration of the law throughout this great empire.' It reported all cases from the courts of common law and a selection from the equity and ecclesiastical courts. The Magistrate (1848-53) attempted to make available to magistrates in a compact form those few statutes that constituted the great bulk of their legal work. These three journals offer the student excellent examples of local administration at work. Other periodicals specialized in legal issues that affected only one area of law. The Law Gazette (1822—47) was first in this field by dividing its pages according to the professional interests of the readership. Development of specific practices within the law made increasing specialization possible. The Law and Commercial Daily Remembrancer (1830, 1832, 1844-52, 1854-8, 1860-8, 1870-4) struggled throughout much of the Victorian period to provide information as rapidly as possible for those lawyers who dealt with business or real estate affairs. The importance of imperial considerations and dependence upon seaborne commerce dictated the utility of Mitchell's Maritime Register (1856-83). This was supplemented by Maritime Notes and Queries (1873-1901), which had developed into a separate journal from a section of the older Shipping and Mercantile Gazette. Maritime Notes and Queries examined topics that ranged from apprenticeship and ballast to wages and wreckage. There even existed, briefly, a Gazette of Bankruptcy (1862-3), whose appearance constituted an antidote to the myth of unbroken mid-Victorian prosperity. Finally, the Transactions of the Institute of Patent Agents, founded in 1882, demonstrated the growing importance of protection for technological innovation. Each of these journals exemplified the growing importance of litigation in business affairs, and the need to retain effective legal counsel as commerce became more complex. In the next category came journals of an ostensible legal bent, but whose true purpose emphasized political argument. These periodicals had ill-concealed agendas that turned legal issues into political advocacy. The central purpose of these magazines was resistance to public pressure for reform of the legal profession. From Lord Brougham's speech on behalf of law reform in 1828 until passage of the Judicature Act in 1873, many schemes received public discussion; most legal publications opposed change, codification, or anything else that

Law/15 smacked of a radical departure from established procedures. At best, editorials endorsed evolutionary reform in conformity with the long history of common law and equity. The first of these journals was the Monthly Law Magazine and Political Review (1838-41), whose perspective was both conservative and Conservative. Its demise was followed by the short-lived Law Intelligencer (1843). Ultimately, the Law Amendment Journal (1855-8) focused exclusively on the merits of proposals for legal change in the belief that lawyers should guide constructive efforts to remedy acknowledged abuses lest they become the obstinate victims of reform imposed from outside the legal profession. Most lawyers accepted that the system needed remediation in minor respects; debate usually hinged on the area of law in question and the extent of the reform necessary. Perhaps the one requirement that all lawyers shared was rapid access to the decisions of the appellate courts. Several journals attempted to capitalize on this market. The Legal Guide (1838-42) entered this field first, alas with scant success. Next came the even less successful Legal Record (1844). The County Courts Chronicle (1847-84) emphasized fast reporting of cases as well as points of practice and procedure, leading articles, and correspondence. The Law Digest (1846-72) became its foremost competitor. The real winner in this area proved to be the Weekly Law Journal: A Weekly Publication of Notes of Cases and Legal News, which began in 1866, eventually swept away all competition, and, as the Law Journal (1917) and later the New Law Journal (1965), survives to the present. The magazine gained its ascendancy in part because it carried commentaries on the cases noted; it also provided responsible editorials on issues of interest. The most crowded field among Victorian legal periodicals contained those journals that aimed to qualify the reader for admittance to the profession, whether as clerk, solicitor, or barrister. First among these was the Law Students' Magazine (1844-54). Its demise was anticipated by the Law Chronicles (1853-8). The fate of this latter journal illustrated the vagaries of legal publishing. It reappeared in 1859 as the Law Chronicle and Law Students' Magazine (1859-60), and then had another reincarnation as the Law Students'Examination Chronicle (1861-8). Indeed, four other journals tried to exploit this market in the 1860s: the Law Examination Reporter (1866), the Legal Inquirer (1869-72), the Legal Examiner (1862-8), which added Quarterly to its title in 1869, and the more prosperous Law Examination Journal and Law Students' Magazine (1869—85). Printing examin-

16 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions ation questions and then providing the correct answers proved an attractive formula. In the 1870s the Bar Examination Journal tried to help those who aspired to become barristers. In 1895 the Bar Examination Guide brought a more scientific approach to the task of preparing its readers for the bar exams. The Articled Clerks'Journal and Examiner (1879-81) made a brief venture to develop a separate constituency. Only two magazines lasted for a long time in this vocational market. The first, the Law Students' Journal (1879-1900*), eventually became a casualty of war. The winner among all these journals devoted to the vocational needs of students was Gibson's Law Notes: a Monthly Magazine for Law Students and Others (18821900+), which continued thereafter simply as Law Notes. The various rewards of the legal profession made entry a glittering prize, accounting for the proliferation of this genre of law periodical. In other parts of Great Britain, legal journals also flourished, although not to the extent they did in England. In Scotland particularly, because it possessed a legal system based on principles at variance with the common law, the need for separate periodicals was great. The Law Chronicle (Edinburgh 1829) was the first Scottish legal journal, appearing after the Jurist (1827) and the Law Magazine (1828) in England. The Scottish Law Magazine (Edinburgh 1858-67) followed in English footsteps by offering to the reader notes on cases, commentary, editorials, and news of appointments. The Scottish journals, such as the Journal of Jurisprudence and Scottish Law Magazine (Edinburgh 1857), were not afraid to discuss theoretical questions. The Scottish Law Review (Glasgow 1885) and the Juridical Review (Edinburgh 1889), from their inception, presented a scholarly viewpoint on legal questions. A more detailed survey of Scottish law journals may be found in C.A. Malcolm, 'Scottish Legal Periodicals: Past and Present,' in the Scottish Law Review (1929). Ireland was represented by the Irish Jurist (Dublin 1849-66) and then the Irish Law Times (Dublin 1867), which followed the design of its English counterpart. In a miscellaneous category, two other law journals should be mentioned. The Quarterly Review of Jurisprudence (1887-8) featured a rancorous editorial tone and a fanatical devotion to the pre-1873 system of procedure. Its significance lay in the articulation of a siege mentality that afflicted some of the more conservative members of the bar. Pump Court (1883-91) set itself a more noble purpose: it tried to function as a modern alumni magazine for those who had studied at the four Inns of Court. It aimed to establish, if possible, a bond

Law/17 among bar members and to form a relationship of international comity among the English bar and similar organizations in other jurisdictions derived from the common law. Although the intentions were admirable, the magazine did not last long enough to succeed. Of great interest to scholars are those journals that might be termed 'professional' in objective. These periodicals addressed practical questions and yet sought to provide a sense of intellectual inquiry to the study of the common law. They tried in every way to make the law a respectable, 'professional' career in the Victorian context. The first journal within this category was the aforementioned Jurist (1827), which aimed to publish anything pertinent to an attorney. The premier periodical from the outset was the Law Magazine or Quarterly Review (1828-44). From 1844 to 1856 it appeared in a new series but under the same name. So successful did the Law Magazine become that it soon attracted competitors of similar design. The Legal Observer, or Journal of Jurisprudence (1830-56) appeared weekly and thus delivered important information to readers more rapidly than the quarterly Law Magazine. The next entrant was the Law Review, and Quarterly Journal of British and Foreign Jurisprudence (184456). It differed from the other journals by featuring long review articles on topics thought to interest the profession. The rivalry among the three periodicals for a limited pool of subscribers continued for some years. In 1856 the fate of the general legal journal in Victorian England was settled for the next three decades. The Legal Observer folded and the other two magazines merged into the new Law Magazine and Law Review (1856-72), which became the most prestigious law periodical of its era. In 1872 the journal changed names again by dropping the second Law from the title, went from a quarterly to a monthly, and began a new series that lasted until 1875. It then went to a fourth series (until 1898), and then a fifth series (1900+). By the 1880s, however, its domination of legal periodicals had ended. Its fall from the central position within legal periodicals heralded a major shift toward a more academic approach within this area. Several journals had challenged the Law Magazine and Review in its heyday. The infrequent Papers Read before the Juridical Society appeared in four volumes between 1855 and 1874. Its most famous publication was the paper in 1855 by Sir Henry Maine that presented the first comprehensive critique of John Austin's jurisprudence. Most of the papers, however, lacked a critical tone and had little scholarly value. The Law (1874-5) attempted to capitalize on interest in the

18 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions consequences of the Judicature Act of 1873 but did not last long. The Jurist (1887) failed to make any appreciable impact, despite its targeting of younger members of the legal profession. During the 1870s, dissatisfaction with existing legal literature, both treatises and periodicals, had become a staple complaint among a new generation of lawyers with an academic outlook. The legal academics at Oxford (Sir William Anson, James Bryce, A.V. Dicey, Sir Thomas Erskine Holland, Sir William Markby, and Sir Frederick Pollock) increasingly vented their frustration at the state of legal periodicals and the profession's lack of interest in theoretical questions. In 1880 Dicey wrote to the American jurist Oliver Wendell Holmes about the deplorable condition of English journals (Holmes papers, 19 January, Harvard Law School Library). The lack of intellectual vitality prompted foundation of the Law Quarterly Review in 1885, by all criteria the most important legal periodical covered in this survey. As Pollock, its first and longtime editor (1885-1900+), wrote in retrospect: 'We agreed upon the adventure of a new periodical aiming at the promotion of legal science without neglect of practice, devoted chiefly to the Common Law but not disregarding comparative study' (Law Quarterly Review 51 [Jan 1935]). To prevent too exclusive an academic outlook, editorial offices opened in London rather than Oxford. The appeal of the LQR resulted from its shrewd commentaries on recent decisions, even questioning and criticizing the judiciary when necessary; practitioners soon relied on these summaries of cases as a short cut to staying abreast of appellate rulings. From the outset, the LQR established strict scholarly standards and soon succeeded in attracting articles from legal scholars in all fields. These practices combined with the growing academic nature of legal education to achieve a reputation for scholarship that is still unsurpassed. Not only did the Law Quarterly Review become the standard against which all other legal journals were measured, but it also spawned the type of legal review that today dominates legal scholarship and education wherever the common law prevails. In Great Britain this has included the Cambridge Law Journal (Cambridge 1921), Journal of the Society of Public Teachers of Law (1924), and the Modern Law Review (1937) (see Cyril Glasser, 'Radicals and Refugees: The Foundations of the Modern Law Review and English Legal Scholarship/ Modern Law Review 50 [Oct 19871). Other journals in profusion have followed the example set by the LQR. In the United States, the Harvard Law Review (Cambridge, Mass 1887),

Law/19 while its foundation was not directly attributable to the LQR, nonetheless imitated the English journal in many respects. Every American law school with any pretensions to scholarly activity eventually made a law review an integral part of its educational endeavours. Consequently, the LQR has exerted an influence beyond the wildest dreams of its founders. Important as the Law Quarterly Review became with respect to legal education, it proved even more crucial to the creation of an academic culture for law and jurisprudence in the last two decades of the nineteenth century. Prior to the 1880s, the most significant jurists had worked outside an academic environment and considered the educated public the prime target of their endeavours. The LQR provided a haven for rigorous scholarship as well as creating an avenue for prestigious publication. The journal became both a source and result of the new academic law. The LQR's articles aimed primarily at the new class of legal academics, ensuring its success by producing its own audience. As an arbiter of scholarly fashion and a bestower of academic status, the LQR quickly became the most important periodical for English law. In conjunction with other changes at Oxford and Cambridge, the Law Quarterly Review contributed to the transformation of the mission of the ancient universities from the older vision as developers of character into the modern research ideal as providers of new knowledge. The triumph of this faith in the virtues of scholarly investigation took decades to accomplish; it was clear, as far as academic law was concerned, that the LQR both influenced and was influenced by an emerging academic culture. Until the outbreak of the First World War, it reigned supreme as the model of academic law. The new culture of academic law was professional in its goals, defining its role apart from the mundane world of everyday practice. But legal academics lusted for practical influence as well. This success the journal did not achieve. Although the LQR did attract subscribers from within the legal profession, it rarely guided the judiciary as it had originally hoped it might. Academic law made few real inroads into the culture of the practitioner; it did succeed in validating its own legitimacy as a separate culture with its own standards and values. The ability of academic lawyers to examine principles, to contemplate philosophical issues, and to criticize the legal system became their self-defined role, one ill suited for the ordinary practitioner. The debut of the Law Quarterly Review marked a significant shift

20 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions not only in legal periodicals but in the wider sphere of intellectual history as well. The quest to make a science of law, to prove that fundamental rational principles lay beneath the centuries of chaotic precedents, justified academic law as a discipline. Jurisprudence became increasingly defined as speculative legal theory, a task suitable only for academics. That the results of this form of legal analysis were read only by other academic lawyers made little difference. The older tradition of jurisprudence as broad social inquiry addressed to the general public, as exemplified by such diverse intellectuals as Adam Smith, Sir William Blackstone, and Jeremy Bentham, declined to the point of extinction.

Bibliography In the 1980s a number of books treated the issues raised by this survey of legal periodicals. These works ranged from biography to the transition of academic subjects into professional disciplines. Raymond Cocks has written on Foundations of the Modern Bar (1983) and Sir Henry Maine (Cambridge 1988). On professionalism and the transformation of the university context, see A.J. Engel, From Clergyman to Don (Oxford 1983) and Harold Perkin, The Rise of Professional Society (1989). On Victorian jurisprudence as illustrated by the life and work of John Austin, Bentham's great disciple, consult W.L. Morison, John Austin (Stanford 1982), Wilfrid E. Rumble, The Thought of John Austin (1985), and Lotte and Joseph Hamburger, Troubled Lives (Toronto, 1985). On other aspects of Victorian legal culture, see Richard A. Cosgrove, The Rule of Law (Chapel Hill 1980) and Our Lady the Common Law (New York 1987). There are interesting points about the Victorian period in the essays by A.W.B. Simpson in his Legal Theory and Legal History (1987). This book list is certainly not exhaustive, excluding as it does scholarly articles, yet it is a fair sample of recent research on themes in Victorian legal history for which the legal journals are also significant. After a long period of doldrums in which the study of legal history languished, scholarly activity in the 1980s served notice that this condition no longer exists. What rewards do legal periodicals offer to a potential student? In the first place, the study of law journals shows the incremental nature of law reform and the diverse opinions that affected its outcome. Research in law magazines demonstrates how tortuous the path of legal change proved, and how quixotic is the imposition of neat classifications on this process. Next, the legal

Law/21 journals illustrate the dissatisfaction with aspects of the legal profession that made possible the construction of an academic law culture. The emergence of academic law in late Victorian England may be traced in the history of legal periodicals that led to the foundation of the Law Quarterly Review. Finally, the rise and fall of reputations were reflected in the pages of the law journals. The intellectual influence of a particular individual rose and fell over decades, as was the case with John Austin, and the assessment of this process works well with the law magazines as a resource. Other scholars will no doubt find many other useful applications for these materials; the Victorian law journals remain a major source of historical riches.

Medicine M. JEANNE PETERSON

Medical practitioners in nineteenth-century Britain communicated in a variety of ways. The most rudimentary form of medical communication was the face-to-face discourse of doctors, nurses, and patients in the hospital, the surgery, and the home. Medical teachers and their students spoke face-to-face, too, in private apprenticeship and on the wards of the teaching hospitals. The nineteenth century saw the explosive growth of lecturing and demonstrations as forms of medical teaching, and some lectures saw their way into print to serve as textbooks of medicine or surgery. The tradition of medical treatises in book form continued throughout the period, but it was joined and increasingly overtaken by the medical periodical as the preferred form of communication among professional men and women. Physicians, surgeons, and general practitioners used the periodical press to report their research findings and their political and social opinions on any number of subjects. Naturally enough, the medical press carried doctors' discussions of the nature of diseases, their prevention, and their treatment. But doctors also had - and published - opinions on many other aspects of human experience, from food and drink to matters of social policy and public life, from sewers to suitable female dress, from the psychological value of religion to the physiology of work. Perhaps their opinions were increasingly valued because of the decreasing religiosity of the era, perhaps because of the increasingly successful efforts of doctors to claim authority over many aspects of human life and experience (Peterson 1978, 281-7). For much of the twentieth century, the history of this communication between doctors and doctors, doctors and nurses, doctors and

Medicine/23 students, and doctors and patients has centred on the doctors' side of the picture. The history of medicine has been, to a great extent, the specialty of medical practitioners who had an amateur's interest in the history of their profession. Triumphant tales of Victorian medicine's conquest over pain (anaesthesia), filth (antisepsis), and ignorance held the centre of the stage, and the story of progress was the central narrative plot (Wright and Treacher, 3-5). Victorian medical periodicals attracted the interest of historians of medical science and of doctors with an antiquarian bent. Medical texts and the accompanying illustrations were almost never objects of interest to scholars of literature, art history, or social or cultural history. Literary and historical scholarship has, however, come a long way since the 1960s, when the narrow definitions of scholarly subjects of inquiry and the canonical sources began to broaden. Recent decades have seen a significant growth of interest in Victorian medical thought, institutions, and action, from strikingly different perspectives. The professionalization of medicine, the evolution of medical ideas, the social construction of medical knowledge, the relationship between medical science and issues of gender in Victorian Britain these are among the many topics that students of Victorian history and medicine have been exploring (Peterson 1978; Wright and Treacher; Moscucci; Jordanova). Victorian literary scholars, too, have begun to explore medical texts for a variety of purposes. In The Other Victorians (1966), Steven Marcus led the way with his examination of Dr William Acton's writings on prostitution in the larger context of a search for a theory of pornography. More recently, scholars have begun to read medical texts as literary and social documents. The works of Elaine Showalter and Mary Poovey offer examples of the fruitful uses of such materials. And there are signs that folklorists are seeing possible research materials in the medical literature (Connor). It is the purpose of this essay to offer readers an overview of the medical periodical literature and its contents, to suggest some readings that may help scholars to place the medical literature in context, to introduce the limited secondary literature about Victorian medical periodicals, and to outline some of the basic guides to research.

Overview Medical periodicals are a diverse collection of materials, perhaps never more so than in the Victorian age. They can be categorized on

24 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions the basis of their subject matter and presumed audience, or they can be viewed in terms of their origins and the source of their creation. Both of these categories will be discussed here. The earliest and commonest form of medical periodical was also the most general, carrying case records, research findings in general medicine, surgery, and midwifery together with professional news, all of which could appeal to the widest possible audience - the general practitioners, and perhaps even educated lay persons. The nineteenth century saw an increasing differentiation in the world of medical publishing. Medical language grew more arcane and less accessible to the laity, medical specialities began to appear in the middle decades of the century, and there was an accompanying evolution from the generic, medico-surgical omnibus magazine of the early years to the highly specialized medical publications created in the mid- and late-Victorian age. Thus journals devoted to diseases of the eyes, larynx, reproductive organs, and mind took their place beside the Lancet (1823-1900+), the Medico-Chirurgical Review (1824-47), and the Medical Times and Gazette* on the shelves of medical libraries and doctors' surgeries. Journals devoted to the sciences auxiliary to medicine - botany, anatomy, physiology, chemistry, and others - also appeared in increasing numbers in the nineteenth century. (See Brock, below, for further information.) A second category of medical periodicals contains those for the professions and occupations closely related to medical practice proper, including dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy. Licensed dentistry was a branch of surgery and survived under the umbrella of the Royal College of Surgeons (Cope, ch 12). Nursing came of age as a middleclass occupation in the Victorian years. The history of nursing is only now recovering from the thrall of Florence Nightingale's influence and much remains to be done on nursing and nursing journalism. Pharmacy separated itself from the apothecaries' trade, and in the process the pharmacists created their own journals and societies. One can see, as well, medical practitioners' attempts to carve out special areas of practice and expertise. Some of these attempts

* Founded in 1827 as the London Medical Gazette, merged with the Medical Times (founded 1839) in 1852 to become the Medical Times and Gazette. It ceased publishing in 1885 (Lefanu, 19). All references to Lefanu are to the 1984 (Loudon) edition. Because Lefanu's list is chronological, searchers can find the references in earlier editions by date or by using the title index.

Medicine / 25 involved stumbling steps, and some would-be specialties died before they could be born. Such, perhaps, was the motive behind the Magnetic Review (1874-8), which described itself as 'A record of the curative electric science and journal of health' (Lefanu, 29). The Water Cure Journal and Hygienic Magazine (1847-59) (Lefanu, 17) was one of a number of periodicals devoted to this style of medical treatment, one that has since taken its place among the medical fads of the past. The journal Narcotism (1876-80) (Lefanu, 62) obviously dealt with a health problem, but it never led to the establishment of a recognized medical specialty. The Anti-Tobacco Journal (1858-64) and the Abstainer and Temperance Physician (1864) (Lefanu, 22 and 24) offer particular prescriptions for health in their very titles, suggesting their attempt to create an ecological niche in the medico-journalistic market-place. The Journal of Cutaneous Medicine (1867-71) (Lefanu, 25) anticipated the dermatology journals that appeared later, but the terminological shift suggests that there were debates among the aspiring specialists that might be worth exploring. A similar history may hide behind the short-lived Reports on Diseases of the Chest (1876-8) (Lefanu, 30). Some of these ventures led, with a successful combination of medicine and politics, to recognized specialties, such as ophthalmology, obstetrics, gynaecology, and dermatology. Other attempts eventually led nowhere: their subjects did not enter the medical curriculum or the structure of the profession. While some scholarship has been carried out on the specialities that survived, little has been done to explore those failed attempts at medical innovation, the social and professional dynamics of their life and demise. (For two exceptions see Peterson 1978, ch 6, for the nineteenth century, and Bynum and Porter 1987, for the period 1750-1850.) The 'failed specialties' merge into the fourth category of medical periodicals, which may in fact be a hybrid collection of categories. Outside the world of licensed medical practice, sometimes working just within its borders, were the sorts of medicine that have been labelled 'fringe' medicine or 'popular' medicine. Mesmerism, phrenology, herbalism, and homeopathy were the major movements on the borderlands of medical practice. Often these were the sorts of medicine that could be practised by the unlicensed, or even by family members at home, and thus the medical magazines for lay readers are also included in this group. Some Victorian periodicals represent attempts to marry medicine and Christianity, as in the case of Ebenezer Palmer's Christian Physician and Anthropological Magazine

26 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions (1835-9) (Lefanu, 13). Others expressed their notion of the relationships among fringe and established spheres of inquiry. Thus the Spiritual Messenger carried the subtitle A Magazine devoted to Spirit ualism, Mesmerism, and other Branches of Psychological Science (1858-9) (Lefanu, 61). These have had very little scholarly attention to date, and, given the limited access scholars have to marginal medical practices and to the discourse of the bedside and the examining room, they deserve close scrutiny. They must be used with care, however, for the medical profession in these years was working to monitor and limit patients' access to medical knowledge by prosecuting doctors for advertising their services and for seeming to address their works too directly to lay readers (Peterson 1978, 256). Thus the journals of home medicine, especially those produced by licensed doctors, have a potentially dubious status in the nether land between professional journalism and lay medical ignorance. But the boundaries are uncertain. An alternative way of understanding the diversity of medical journalism in the nineteenth century is to think about medical periodicals in terms of their origins. Individual medical men, committed to the advancement of their science or engaging in professional self-advancement, founded or purchased journals and edited them for many years. The classic example of this sort of process is that of Thomas Wakley, founder and editor of the Lancet (Sprigge). In the interests of medical science or out of career motives, some medical men tried to establish themselves as specialists in some particular organs or body systems (Peterson 1978, ch 6). In pursuit of medical practice and recognition they sometimes created medical journals to carry word of their special subject to a wider professional public. Richard Middlemore tried to establish the Journal of Ophthalmology in Birmingham in 1837, but it is not clear that even one issue appeared (Lefanu, 14). In 1864, J.Z. Lawrence founded the Ophthalmic Review for precisely that purpose (Peterson 1978, 267). Midwifery, as the practice of unlicensed women, did not generate the paraphernalia of professionalism (Donnison, ch 1). Only when it was taken over by the licensed medical practitioners (and eventually renamed 'obstetrics') did it begin to be the subject of periodical publications. The British Record of Obstetric Medicine and Surgery appeared in Manchester in 1848-9 (Lefanu, 17) but disappeared after only a brief life. Later obstetric journals had more success. Similarly, the free-standing Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology survived for a dozen years, from 1848 to 1860, before changing its name, suspend-

Medicine / 27 ing publication, reappearing, and eventually dying in 1883 (Lefanu, 17). Organizational sponsorship of a periodical was perhaps a more common and often a more successful way of launching and maintaining a medical journal. The Proceedings of the Westminster Medical Society (1848-9), the Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society Occasional Papers (1854-61), and the Transactions of the Bristol MedicoChirurgical Society (1874-8) are examples of some of the short-lived periodical publications of local societies (Lefanu, 17, 20, 29). The Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal (f 1840), which became the Association Medical Journal in 1853 when it became the voice of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association, finally was renamed the British Medical Journal in 1857 (Lefanu, 15, 20, 22; Bartrip, 13-33). Although published in London during most of its history, both the organization and the periodical were devoted to uniting provincial medical practitioners against the overwhelming power of London's leadership and control. The magazine's first editors were based in London and Worcester (Bartrip, 17, 24-5), and the BMJ is a prime example of the successful periodical of medical politics and medical science. The Transactions of the Medical Society of London (1810-75) (a continuation of the Society's Memoirs, 1787-1805) and the MedicoChirurgical Transactions (1809-1900*; Royal from 1835) were longrunning publications of their respective London medical organizations (Lefanu, 9). Tellingly, the most powerful official organizations of medical licensure - the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons and the Society of Apothecaries — were the slowest to create journals. They were accused of secrecy and exclusiveness by those outside their privileged ranks, and their tardiness in creating organs of communication with their members suggests some truth to the charges. Neither of the Royal Colleges in London established a permanent periodical until after the Second World War. (The Royal College of Physicians published its Transactions intermittently between 1772 and 1820, but then ceased periodical publication until 1966.) Medical specialists, who sometimes engendered specialist journals, more commonly brought specialist societies into being, and these in turn created organs of communication among their members. The Transactions of the Pathological Society of London (1846-1900*) was one of the earliest and most successful journals devoted to a special branch of medical science. (Lefanu, 17. When the Pathological Society merged with the Royal Society of Medicine in 1907, the Transactions

28 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions were absorbed into the Proceedings of the RSM. Pathology is an ambiguous case because it may be treated as a branch of physiology [per the OED] or a specialty within medicine.) The Journal of Mental Science (1858-1900*, now the British Journal of Psychiatry) had organizational sponsorship of one sort or another, including, from 1868, the Medico-Psychological Association (Lefanu, 22). The Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom began publishing its Transactions in 1880, and the periodical thrived. It seems likely that organizational support gave these periodicals a better than average chance at survival because they had a built-in clientele of subscribers and readers. General and specialist medical societies are only the most obvious of institutional sources of medical periodical publishing. Some medical organizations had less the flavour of a learned society and more the tone of a trade union or pressure group. Medical Officers of Health, asylum doctors, and Poor Law Medical Officers thought they had common interests and faced special problems in their institutionalized practice of medicine. These commonalities led them to form organizations and journals for the advancement of their professional knowledge and interests. The Asylum Journal of Mental Science (1853-8) was the voice of the Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane (Lefanu, 20, 22). As the focus of the members moved from the institutional setting of their work to the nature of the diseases they were treating - and perhaps also out of concern for their prestige - these medical men changed their style of discourse to reflect the shift to 'mental science/ and they dropped the Asylum term from their journal's title. A similar shift can be seen as the Medical Officers of Health moved from publishing Annual Reports (1863-73, 1873-9) to Transactions (1879-87), to the journal Public Health (1888-1900*) (Lefanu, 26, 29, 32, 38). These journals carried both professional news and medical articles appropriate to their readers' special tasks and circumstances of work. Hospital sponsorship of a medical periodical happened early and often, perhaps because the hospitals were centres of medical study as well as the workplace of the staff physicians and surgeons (Peterson 1978,64ff, 157-75). One of the earliest successful ophthalmic journals was produced by the London Ophthalmic Hospital, the Ophthalmic Hospital Reports (1857-79) (Lefanu, 21). Less focused in terms of thematic interest were the journals founded at the London hospital medical schools. We know very little about these magazines. Presumably created by the teachers and students in the hospitals, these jour-

Medicine / 29 nals sometimes carried articles of singular scientific importance, and some survive to the present day. Guy's Hospital Reports (1836— 1900*) led the way, followed by the Dublin Hospital Gazette (18456), and St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports (1865-1900*) (Lefanu, 14, 16, 25). St. Thomas's Hospital Reports made a brief showing in 1836, after which it disappeared until 1870 when it was permanently established (Lefanu, 14). The last decade of the century saw a flurry of new hospital magazines. The Magazine of the London (Royal Free Hospital) School of Medicine for Women (1895-1900*), the Middlesex Hospital Journal (1897-1900*) and the Charing Cross Hospital Gazette (1899-1900*) are among the late-comers in this genre of hospital magazines (Lefanu, 43, 45, 46). The diversity of medical journals is paralleled by their numbers. The medical periodical industry began slowly enough: the earliest British medical periodical appeared in 1640, and a total of thirtythree titles appeared between 1640 and 1799 (Lefanu, 58, 5-7, 58-9). Only a handful of these survived past 1800, and none survived past 1850. The nineteenth century saw an exponential growth in the number of new medical periodicals appearing in each decade. Between 1800 and 1899, 220 periodicals devoted to general medicine and surgery were founded (table 1). Another 38 journals devoted to the natural sciences that were auxiliary to medicine (anatomy, physiology, botany, chemistry, for example) appeared in the same period (Brock, below). A total of 99 journals devoted to specialist medical and surgical interests also appeared. (See table 2 for details.) In the categories of 'fringe medicine' and 'popular medicine,' 101 magazines appeared between 1800 and 1899. In sum, by the end of the nineteenth century, 458 periodicals with some sort of claim to being 'medical' had made at least brief appearances in Britain. Some survived for only one or two issues; others enjoyed continuous publication from their founding to the end of the Victorian age. The sheer numbers are nearly overwhelming. And little detailed attention can be given here to any single periodical of the era.

Contents of Victorian Medical Periodicals A further word about the contents of Victorian periodicals is appropriate. Some of these journals devoted themselves exclusively to matters of medical science, as was the aim of the Dublin Journal of Medical and Chemical Science (1832-5) (Rowlette, 1-2). The level of medical science reported in Victorian medical journals might be

TABLE 1 The foundation of general and specialist periodicals in the United Kingdom in the nineteenth century'

Subject General medicine and surgery Auxiliary medical sciences Specialist journals" Miscellaneous:* Total

18001809

18101819

18201829

7

14

22

Date of foundation 184018301849 1839 35

2 1

8

18501859

18601869

18701879

18801889

18

16

18

19

24

47

10

8

4

5

3

6

18901899

1

1

2

6

9

10

23

15

31

1

2

2

19

18

10

14

15

21

16

27

39

53

51

42

61

57

105

' Source: Peterson 1978, 298 and Lefanu, 59-64 See table 2 for details * Alcoholism, hygiene, water cure, spas, phrenology, vegetarian, mesmerist, 'deaf and dumb', homeopathy, magnetism, temperance, and other 'fringe' and popular journals

TABLE 2 The foundation of specialist medical periodicals in the United Kingdom in the nineteenth century Subject Cowpox VD and dermatology Dermatology Fever Ophthalmology Dentistry Public health, hygiene, epidemiology Obstetrics, gynaecology Psychology, neurology Military and tropical medicine Chest, tuberculosis Mixed special subjects Laryngology, nose and throat Orthopaedic Radiology Anaesthetics Pediatrics Otology Total

18001809

18101819

18201829

18301839

18401849

18501859

18601869

18701879

18801889

18901899

1

1

1 1

2

1

2 2

2 5

5 1

5 3 2

1

1

1 1

2

1 3

2 1

2 1 1

2 1 2

4 1 1

1

1

Source: Peterson 1978, 270-1 and Lefanu 59-64

0

2

6

9

10

13 2 5 1

23

4 1

1 1

2 1 1 1 1 1

14

31

32 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions complex and sophisticated: the classic papers of medical history first appeared in the Victorian medical press. David Livingstone's 'Arsenic as a remedy for the tsetse fly' appeared first in the British Medical Journal in 1858 (Bartrip, 122). William Gull's classic description of anorexia nervosa first appeared in the Transactions of the Clinical Society of London (Brumberg, 118, 311n47). Bright's disease of the liver and osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of the bone) were first described at professional meetings and the reports afterward published in the journals of the day. In most instances, however, the articles have no claim to medical greatness but are simple case reports of individual patients' illnesses, from presentation and diagnosis, through treatment, to (all too often) the results of the postmortem examination. Typically, periodicals sought to combine purely scientific matters with news of interest to the profession on matters of medical education, licensure, parliamentary relations, professional politics, and even criticism of the medical leadership (Rowlette, 2). Social issues with a medical bearing, from factory conditions to urban environmental problems, also found their way into the medical press. Again, the Lancet and the BMJ are exemplars of this style. Most medical journals carried advertising, some entirely textual, some with illustrations. The advertisements covered the whole range of medical life and practice: doctors offered medical practices and partnerships for sale, publishers advertised medical books, and manufacturers publicized their drugs, Pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment (hospital beds, trusses, crutches, and the like). Publicity for drinks and foods came from manufacturers who thought their products had, or could be made to seem to have, some health benefits. These offer an opportunity for the scholar to examine the commercial side of medical life and, in some contexts, issues of diet, health, and the body, in the discourse of manufacturers, advertisers, and the lay public, as well as relations between the medical profession and the public. The illustrated advertisements, together with the medical illustrations that accompanied journal articles, also offer grist for the mill of the student of medical illustration and Victorian culture. (Some libraries, to save shelf space, have cut the advertising pages out of the Lancet, the BMJ, and other Victorian periodicals before binding.) The longer-lived British journals in the category of general medical and surgical publications included the British and Foreign MedicoChirurgical Review. Founded in 1791 as Medical Facts and Obser-

Medicine / 33 vations, it changed its name three times before ceasing publication in 1847 (Lefanu, 7-9,13). The Edinburgh Medical and SurgicalJournal (1805-55) (afterward the Edinburgh Medical Journal), the Dublin Medical Press (1839-65) (Lefanu, 14; Rowlette, 1), and the Glasgow Medical Journal (1828-1900+) (Lefanu, 12) suggest some of the appeal of regionally generated periodicals. London was, of course, the publishing capital, and the base for the Lancet (1823-1900+), the London Medical Gazette (1827-51), which became the Medical Times and Gazette (1852-85) (Lefanu, 11,19), and many lesser publications. The British Medical Journal was also increasingly London-centred, despite its claims to a provincial orientation. Among these, the most readily accessible to scholars now are the Lancet and the BMJ. The earliest specialist magazine was the work of Thomas Beddoes of Bristol, entitled Reports principally concerning the effects of the nitrous acid in the venereal disease (1797-1801) (Lefanu, 7). A mixed bag of special subjects was the theme of the Journal of Morbid Anatomy, Ophthalmic Medicine and Pharmaceutical Analysis (1828) (Lefanu, 11), the short life of which suggests that thematic focus was desirable. The major specialist publications include, in addition to those on pathology, ophthalmology, and mental science already named, the Transactions of the Epidemiological Society of London (1855-1900+), the Transactions of the Obstetrical Society of London (1859-1900*), the Transactions of the British Orthopaedic Society (1894-1900*), and the Transactions of the Dermatological Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1894-1900*), all of which appeared in the latter half of the century (Lefanu, 20, 22, 42). (Many of these specialist journals were merged into the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1907.) The dentists began identifying themselves independently of the rest of the medical community early. The Forceps. A journal of dental surgery (1844-5) was an early and short-lived attempt, followed in 1856 by the Transactions of the Odontological Society of Great Britain (1856-1900+) (Lefanu, 16, 21). The British Journal of Dental Science appeared a year later and was published regularly into the next century (Lefanu, 21). Nursing journals appeared after Victorians replaced Sarah Gamp with the modern professional nurse and when the population of such nurses was large enough to support a nursing periodical. Nursing Notes appeared in 1887 and the Nursing Record in 1888. Both survived into the twentieth century (Lefanu, 37). Three other nursing magazines appeared before the turn of the century. The Hospital Nursing Mirror (1888-1900*) and the Nurses' Journal

34 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions (1891- 1900+) had reasonably long lives, while the Nurses' Diary and Quarterly Review published only a single volume in 1896-7 (Lefanu, 40, 63). The journals of the pharmaceutical profession are numerous. The Chemist, or Reporter of chemical discoveries and improvements appeared monthly from 1840 to 1847 and was revived in 1849 with a new and longer subtitle: A monthly journal... of chemistry applied to arts ... and medicine, and record of pharmacy, which title it used until 1853. In 1854 it became simply the Chemist, a monthly journal and survived under that title until 1858 (Lefanu, 15, 18, 20). The Chemist and Druggist had a long and healthy life, beginning in 1859 and surviving into the twentieth century (Lefanu, 23). Most important institutionally was the Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, the official journal of the Pharmaceutical Society and the foundation for much of its history as written by S.W.F. Holloway. It began in 1842 and survived well into the twentieth century (Lefanu, 15; Holloway). Mesmerism, phrenology, vegetarianism, and homeopathy are major examples of branches of inquiry that are labelled 'fringe' medicine. Their relationship to the established profession was vexed, sometimes alienated, sometimes conflicted. Nevertheless, these movements provided Victorian practitioners and lay people alike with systematic information in their journals, and their titles and styles mirror the established medical world. Typical in this respect are the Transactions of the Phrenological Society (1820-3) and the Homeopathic Times: Review of British and Foreign Medical Literature and Science, a weekly magazine published first in London and then in Manchester from 1849 to 1854 (Lefanu, 10, 18). The British Journal of Homeopathy (1843-84) carried news of the British Homeopathic Society and the London Homeopathic Hospital. These two institutions were joint sponsors of the Annals and Transactions of both institutions published from 1860 to 1891, when the periodical was renamed the Journal of the British Homeopathic Society (1893-1900+) (Lefanu, 16, 23, 41). The Vegetarian Messenger began appearing in 1849 and survived into the twentieth century (Lefanu, 18). Even further out of the established patterns of science and practice were journals like the Zoist: A journal of cerebral physiology and mesmerism and their application to human welfare, which appeared in London in 1843 as a quarterly and survived until 1856 (Lefanu, 16). The journals of mesmerism, phrenology, homeopathy, and vegetarianism were all like the medical establishment - seeking to explain human health

Medicine / 35 and human illness, at the individual and collective level. Fringe medical magazines were remarkably numerous, given their place outside the medical mainstream. But perhaps the journals were, for that reason, a necessary means of communication. Among the periodicals of popular medicine we find magazines addressed to the lay person. Unlike the periodicals presumably addressed by doctors to doctors, these are publications by the medical practitioner (sometimes by non-medical writers) offering health advice for public consumption, perhaps as guides to domestic medical care. An early example is the journal Hygeia or essays moral and medical on the causes affecting the personal state of our middling and affluent classes (1801-3), another venture of Thomas Beddoes of Bristol (Lefanu, 8). James Scott had even less success with his Journal of Public Health; or, Family Guide to Medicine, which did not survive the year 1823 (Lefanu, 10). The Doctor; a medical penny magazine (1832-7) suggests an appeal to people of modest means (Lefanu, 12). Although some of these magazines suffered a 'high infant mortality' (Lefanu, 1) and hence are hard to locate, they offer the possibilities for exploring doctor-lay communications and popular thinking about health and sickness in the Victorian age. Secondary Works: The Medical Professions An important issue in dealing with the medical literature is understanding the professions that produced it. During the Victorian age, the medical profession proper went from a fragmented, weak, disorganized, conflicted collectivity of occupations and professions with a mixture of styles (and social levels) of education, licensing, and practice to a highly structured and increasingly powerful profession. The deep divisions that characterized the profession for much of the century shaped the relationships of medical men to their work and their colleagues. A man's (or rarely a woman's) place in the medical hierarchy was an important feature of his or her professional identity and shaped, often profoundly, the science and the politics of what appeared in any medical article. Whether a doctor was a consultant, a general practitioner, or one of the new breed of specialists could have a significant bearing on the sort of work he published and the place it appeared. (See I. Loudon 1987; Peterson 1978, 172.) Scholars intending to study Victorian medical periodicals need to be aware of the medical and social stratification that was represented by the alphabet soup of licences and degrees accompanying any

36 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions doctor's writings. There were nineteen different universities and licensing bodies in the United Kingdom authorized to issue medical qualifications. Not all MDs were equal, medically or socially. While an Edinburgh University doctor's degree might have more medical training behind it, Oxford and Cambridge medical degrees had pre-eminent social cachet. London University was a late arrival to the medical degree-granting business, but its affiliation with the major teaching hospitals of London gave it professional pre-eminence by the end of the nineteenth century (Peterson 1978, 66-8). It was possible to practise medicine without a university degree, typically by gaining a licence from a royal college or a society of apothecaries. And while all these medical qualifications were, by definition, licences to practise, not all licences were equally prestigious professionally or socially. Those who had won election to the Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians of London (FRCP London) or had earned the Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (FRCSE) could claim the highest status in the medical world of Victorian Britain (see Peterson 1978, 50-1, 54, 198, 212; Dupree and Crowther, for Scottish practitioners). As a consequence of these facts of educational and licensing life in medicine and of the social hierarchy of the larger Victorian context, not all medical voices had the same degree of credibility, esteem, or professional authority. It was contested ground for much of the century. The Thomas Wakleys of the world spurned the claims of the men of the Royal Colleges in favour of more 'democratic' voices, while the elites of the profession were happy to see their 'inferiors' excluded from the buildings that housed the Royal Colleges. One could also buy a medical degree (Peterson 1978, 29ff). Moreover, many practised without any pretence of certification. The world of fringe medicine and quackery has had brief treatment by Peterson (1978, ch 6) and in the volume edited by Bynum and Porter (1987). In short, when studying the Victorian medical periodical press it is useful to try to establish the professional and social position of the medical writers. Useful literature on the related medical professions includes, on midwifery, Jean Donnison's 1977 study. On nursing, Brian AbelSmith's history (1960) and the more focused recent treatment by Judith Moore (1988) are valuable. Some specialties have had scholarly attention: on cardiology, see the edited work of Bynum et al (1985); on dermatology and syphilis, see Crissey and Parish (1981); on gynaecology see Ricci (1945) and Moscucci (1990); on pathology see Maulitz; and on forensic medicine see Crawford (1991). The most recent his-

Medicine / 37 tory of pharmacy is S.W.F. Holloway, The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 1841-1991: A Political and Social History (1991). A sesquicentennial history of the society, it covers the modern history of the major pharmaceutical body in the kingdom. Holloway's book is an example of one use to which organizational periodicals can be put. For a much earlier history of the profession of pharmacy, see J. Bell and T. Redwood, Historical Sketch of the Progress of Pharmacy in Great Britain (1880); another approach to this subject is suggested by Stanley Chapman, Jess Boot of Boots the Chemists: A Study in Business History (1974) (both cited in Holloway). Secondary Works: The World of Victorian Medical Publishing Given the importance of medicine in the modern world, surprisingly little has been written about the history of medical periodicals. The number of scholars who have ventured into this field to write histories of this ocean of British periodicals is very small indeed. Two books exist, one old, the other new, that devote themselves to telling the stories of medical journals. The old one is Robert J. Rowlette's centenary study (1939) of the Medical Press and Circular, which began life as the Dublin Medical Press in 1839. The new one is P.W.J. Bartrip's history of the British Medical Journal, which he calls Mirror of Medicine (1990). Bartrip examines the publishing history of the BMJ (including matters of cost, circulation, and the like) (Bartrip, 16-17, 184-5). He devotes chapters to the BMJ's opinions on medical matters such as vaccination, anaesthesia, and professional reform, and social issues such as baby farming and bicycles (Bartrip, 105-11, 124-9, 37-41, 98-105, 148-51). Bartrip's book is also useful for providing some comparisons between the BMJ and the other journals that appeared in Britain during the Victorian years (Bartrip, 43^4, 120-5). As this article went to press, a collection of essays on Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge appeared (Bynum et al 1992), and readers will find useful materials in this volume. And Eli Chernin (1992) has provided an introduction to the history of British and American journals of tropical medicine. Editing a medical journal called for special skills, perhaps even extraordinary abilities in medicine, belles-lettres, and management, and editors' memoirs and biographies offer a window on the Victorian publishing scene. Some journals came into being because their founder-editors saw the periodical as a tool for political, professional,

38 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions or social change. Some survived because of the abilities of their founders and proprietors. John Forbes both owned and edited the British and Foreign Medical Review during the period 1836 to 1847, and he brought it to new prominence in London medical circles (Bartrip, 9). J.F. Clarke's Autobiographical Recollections of the Medi Profession, published in 1874, is rich in details about medical publishing, offering particular insights on the staff of, and the author's dealings with, the Lancet, where he was employed. S. Squire Sprigge, editor of the Lancet in the early twentieth century, had an insider's perspective on London medical journalism. He used the occasion of his biography of the Lancet's founder to record his observations of the medical periodical publishing scene in the Victorian age. Little was known about the editors of the British Medical Journal before Bartrip's study of the BMJ brought into scholarly view the editors who shaped that journal over its 150-year history. Bartrip has introduced readers to some fascinating medical journalists, among them Ernest Hart, editor 1867-9 and 1870-98 (Bartrip, 63-92). But neither Forbes nor Sprigge nor Hart has received much scholarly attention, and all the other Victorian medical editors remain shadowy figures. Thomas Wakley, founder and first editor of the Lancet, stands as the sole exception. Wakley was a crusader for medical reform, and he fought to improve the standing and power of ordinary practitioners. These commitments gave energy, and sometimes venom, to his work as editor, writer, coroner, and medical entrepreneur (Bostetter, Sprigge; see also dissertation by Sherrington). Sprigge's classic study of Thomas Wakley provides rich information on the man and the journal that Wakley edited from 1823 to 1861. Wakley's sons followed their father as editors of the Lancet until 1908, when Sprigge took over the editorship - the first one outside the Wakley family to serve (Bartrip, 11). Mary Bostetter, in a 1985 article, examines Thomas Wakley's role as a Victorian journalist. Scholars seeking further clues might look at anniversary issues of the journals they are studying. Journal editors used anniversaries to celebrate the success of a journal and often looked back on the history of the magazine from that vantage point. (The one hundredth anniversary of the Lancet in 1923 was the occasion of both a historical article and a special supplement.) The mechanisms and technicalities of medical publication have had little scholarly attention. While Bartrip treats some of the business side of the BMJ, he does little to illuminate the processes of generat-

Medicine / 39 ing, selecting, recruiting, and editing the materials that appeared in the journal. The issues of peer review in medical publications are treated by John Burnham in his very useful articles (Burnham 1990; Burnham 1992). Finally, a few words need to be said about illustrations in the medical periodical literature. Visual representations appear in two guises in the medical press: the illustrations accompanying medical articles (showing everything from cells to whole human bodies) and the illustrations accompanying the advertising that many medical journals carried as sources of revenue. The medical press followed the rest of the publishing world in moving from no illustrations at all to woodcuts, lithography, and photography in the course of the nineteenth century. Little studied up to now, this arena is a field wide open to research. Daniel Fox and Christopher Lawrence's recent book on medical photography suggests the possibilities that lie ahead. Students of visual representation in medical periodicals may find Sander Oilman's books on medical and psychiatric photography (1976, 1988) useful. Gender is the specific focus of Ludmilla Jordanova's examination of medical and scientific images, Sexual Visions (1989). One might also wish to consult the more general studies by Thornton and Reeves, and Diane Kirkpatrick's article, 'Science, Art, and the Human Image.' Much more is possible, given the rich heritage of illustration the medical press offers.

Guides and Indexes Samuel Rogal lists 230 medical periodicals in his 'Checklist of Medical Periodicals.' He makes no claims to completeness, and his methods of selection are not entirely clear. The 'Checklist' is useful, however, as a first introduction to medical periodicals, because it lists them by categories, such as 'Nursing' and 'Homeopathy,' rather than in simple chronological order. WD I, WD II, and WD III also offer subject guides to medical literature. They categorize medical journals as to speciality, institutional origins, and the like. They do not serve as guides to specific articles or authors. They do, however, provide information not easily available elsewhere: the names of editors, proprietors, publishers, printers, price, and circulation of medical periodicals. The Waterloo includes annual reports of medical institutions, which other bibliographies leave out. Readers should not forget the excellent information on periodical publishing history and editors provided in the Catalogue of the

40 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions British Library, which has many Victorian medical periodicals in its collection. Chronological order is the characteristic of the most important bibliography of medical periodicals in modern Britain - W.R. Lefanu's British Periodicals of Medicine (1936-7; repr 1938; rev ed 1984). Published first as a two-part article and then issued as a book, Lefanu's work lists all the medical and related periodicals published in Britain and 'British lands' - from New Brunswick to New Zealand between 1684 and 1889 (part I) and 1900 and 1938 (part II) (Lefanu, 1). Lefanu's list excludes veterinary medicine and the annual reports of medical institutions, because, he said, 'they contain no truly medical material but only the ephemeral or statistical information of their institutions' (Lefanu, 2). Lefanu does include anthropology journals in his medical list. Also included in his bibliography are locations of periodicals and sources of information about them. In 1984 the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine in Oxford reprinted Lefanu's work together with information on additional periodical materials uncovered by Jean Loudon. This new edition extends Lefanu's list back to 1640 and adds seventy-three additional items, sixty of which appeared in the nineteenth century and hence are relevant to the interests of this essay. In all, Lefanu and Loudon offer what must be a nearly complete list of the almost four hundred nineteenth-century titles that researchers will find in this field. Lefanu provides basic publication data for general medicine and surgery, medical sciences, fringe medicine, medical specialties, and organizational journals, as well as auxiliary sciences and lay medical magazines. The list is presented in chronological order, by date of first appearance, and subsequent variations in title and publishing history are also included. If one is studying a topic rather than a periodical per se, one can get at some journals' contents through their annual self-index. But there is no need for that sort of laborious effort when there exists the Surgeon-General's Index-Catalogue of the Library. Early in the history of the American republic, the office of the Surgeon-General was created, and with it a medical library that began gathering medical materials from around the world. Late in the nineteenth century the massive comprehensive subject index of the library's holdings began to appear. The Surgeon-General's Library holdings of British books and periodicals are indexed, by subject, for the whole nineteenth century in the several series issued from 1880 to 1932. No research guide offers scholars so much assistance in locating relevant

Medicine / 41 materials across such a wide range of medical literature as does this unlikely source. It is a gold mine of research assistance for medical history, for the social history of medicine, and for the growing study of ideas about the human body in past societies. Biographical sources for studying the authors of medical writings include the standard biographical dictionaries, the London and Provincial Medical Directory published annually by Churchill's since the 1850s, together with medical biographical collections discussed by Peterson (1978, 361, 363; and 1979). The five-volume biographical section of the Wellcome Institute's Subject Catalogue of the History of Medicine and Related Sciences includes many references to nineteenth-century medical men drawn from contemporary and later medical literature, including obituaries. It is regularly updated at the Wellcome Institute Library in London, and ways are being explored of making this material available on-line. These biographical materials allow students of the periodical literature to read the texts in the framework of the lives and careers of the doctors who wrote them.

Conclusion The student of Victorian medical periodicals can take an 'internalist' approach, studying an individual periodical and examining its contents, its publishing and business history, its editors and editorial policies, its ideology, and its impact on its readership. Alternatively, one can take an 'external' approach, seeking clues to the way one or several medical periodicals reveal doctors', nurses', and unorthodox practitioners' visions of the world they shared with lay people. The Victorian medical press (like the professions it served) was in the process of formation, growth, and change. The specialized and arcane language, the narrow boundaries of appropriate medical interest, the exclusion of lay readership - all these were only partly established during the Victorian period. As a result, medical periodicals addressed many issues beyond the boundaries of modern medical discourse. Case reports included such matters as the occupation and social class of patients; medical journals carried reports of professional conflict and open (sometimes vitriolic) criticism of the medical leadership; and reports on social problems (like the perils of coalmining, the criminal mind, and child-rearing) appear side by side with reports of the climate (a potential source of health problems) and the treatment of breast cancer.

42 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions The study of medical periodical publishing in the Victorian age is a nearly untouched field. Much of interest and value waits to be discovered. Bibliography Abel-Smith, Brian. A History of the Nursing Profession in Great Britain. New York 1960 Anon. 'A Centennial Year.' Lancet 204 (1923), 31-2 Anon. 'Centenary Supplement.' Lancet 205 (1923), 685-764 Bartrip, P.W.J. Mirror of Medicine: A History of the BMJ, 1840-1990. Oxford 1990 Bostetter, Mary. The Journalism of Thomas Wakley,' in Joel H. Wiener, ed, Innovators and Preachers: The Role of the Editor in Victorian England. Contributions to the Study of Mass Media and Communications, no 5 Westport, Conn 1985 Brumberg, Joan Jacobs. Fasting Girls: The Emergence of Anorexia Nervosa as a Modern Disease. Cambridge, Mass 1988 Burnham, John C. 'The Evolution of Editorial Peer Review.' Journal of the American Medical Association 263:10 (1990), 1323-9 - 'How Journal Editors Came to Develop and Critique Peer Review Procedures.' In R.E. Sojka and H.F. Mayland, eds, Research Ethic Manuscript Review, and Journal Quality. Madison, Wis 1992 Bynum, W.F., C. Lawrence, and V. Nutton, eds. The Emergence of Modern Cardiology. 1985 Bynum, W.F., and Roy Porter, eds. Medical Fringe and Medical Orthodoxy, 1750-1850. 1987 Bynum, W.F., Stephen Lock, and Roy Porter, eds. Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge: Historical Essays. Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine. 1992 Chernin, Eli. 'The Early British and American Journals of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene: An Informal Survey.' Medical History 36:1 (1992), 70-86 Clarke, J. F. Autobiographical Recollections of the Medical Profession. 1874 Connor, Jennifer J. 'Folklore in Anglo-American Medical Journals, 1845-1897.' Canadian Folklore/Folklore Canadien 7:1-2 (1985), 35-53 Cope, Zachary. The Royal College of Surgeons of England. A History. 1959 Crawford, Catherine. 'A Scientific Profession: Medical Reform and

Medicine / 43 Forensic Medicine in British Periodicals of the Early Nineteenth Century.' 203-30 in Roger French and Andrew Wear, eds, British Medicine in an Age of Reform. Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine. 1991 Crissey, John T., and Lawrence C. Parish. The Dermatology and Syphilology of the Nineteenth Century. New York 1981 Donnison, Jean. Midwives and Medical Men: A History of Inter-professional Rivalries and Women's Rights. New York 1977 Dupree, Marguerite W., and M. Anne Crowther. 'A Profile of the Medical Profession in Scotland in the Early Twentieth Century: The Medical Directory as a Historical Source/ Bulletin of the History of Medicine 65:2 (1991), 209-33 Fox, Daniel M., and Christopher Lawrence. Photographing Medicine: Images and Power in Britain and America since 1840. New York 1988 Oilman, Sander. Disease and Representation: Images of Illness from Madness to AIDS. Ithaca 1988 - The Face of Madness: Hugh W. Diamond and the Origin of Psychiatric Photography. New York 1976 Holloway, S.W.F. The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain 1841-1991: A Political and Social History. 1991 Jordanova, L.J. Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries. New York 1989 Kirkpatrick, Diane. 'Science, Art, and the Human Image' Michigan Quarterly Review 24 (1985), 222-49 Lefanu, W.R. British Periodicals of Medicine: A Chronological List 1640-1899. Rev ed Jean Loudon. Oxford 1984. Originally published as 'British Periodicals of Medicine, a Chronological List, Part I 1684-1899,' Bulletin of the Institute of the History of Medicine 5 (1937), 735-61, 827-55. Part II, 1900-1938,' ibid, 6 (1938), 614-88. Both parts then appeared as British Periodicals of Medicine: A Chronological List. Baltimore 1938 Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (U.S.). Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office, United States Army. Vols 1-16; 2nd ser, vols 1-21; 3rd ser, vols 1-10. Washington, DC 18801932 Loudon, Irvine. Medical Care and the General Practitioner, 17501850. Oxford 1987 Marcus, Steven. The Other Victorians: A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England. New York 1966

44 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions Maulitz, Russell. Morbid Appearances: The Anatomy of Pathology in the Early Nineteenth Century. Cambridge 1987 Moore, Judith. A Zeal for Responsibility: The Struggle for Professional Nursing in Victorian England, 1868-1883. Athens, Ga 1988 Moscucci, Ornella. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge 1990 Peterson, M. Jeanne. The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London. Berkeley and London 1978 - 'Specialist Journals and Professional Rivalries in Victorian Medicine' Victorian Periodicals Review 12:1 (1979), 25-32 Poovey, Mary. Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England. Chicago 1988 Ricci, James V. One Hundred Years of Gynecology, 1800-1900: A Comprehensive Review of the Specialty during Its Greatest Century, with Summaries and Case Reports. Philadelphia 1945 Rogal, Samuel J. 'A Checklist of Medical Journals Published in England during the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries.' British Studies Monitor 9:3 (1980), 3-25 Rowlette, Robert J. The Medical Press and Circular, 1839-1939: A Hundred Years in the Life of a Medical Journal. 1939 Sherrington, Edwina Chadwick. 'Thomas Wakley and Reform: 183262.' D PHIL thesis, Oxford University 1973 Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830-1980. New York 1985 Sprigge, S. Squire. The Life and Times of Thomas Wakley, Founder and First Editor of the 'Lancet'... 1899 Thornton, John Leonard, and Carole Reeves. Medical Book Illustration: A Short History. Cambridge and New York 1983 WD I, II, ill Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine and Related Sciences. Subject Catalogue of the History of Medicine and Related Sciences. 18 vols. Munich 1980 Wright, Peter, and Andrew Treacher, eds. The Problem of Medical Knowledge: Examining the Social Construction of Medicine. Edinburgh 1982

Architecture RUTH R I C H A R D S O N AND ROBERT THORNE

Introduction

Like the specialist press in other spheres, the rise of architectural journalism is closely related to the development of the profession it served. In terms of simple chronology, the two dovetailed very neatly. The first major architectural periodicals appeared within a decade of the foundation of the Institute of British Architects in 1834, and its deliberations formed a significant part of their early content. As Institute membership and influence developed, along with a yet wider growth in the number of people calling themselves architects, so periodicals appealing to this broad profession multiplied in growth and size. By the 1870s, a news-hungry architect could - if he or she so wished - subscribe to at least six weekly or monthly journals on the subject. With hindsight the connection seems obvious, but at the outset neither the profession nor its specialist press was as confident about its role as may appear to be the case. Both were feeling their way, and needed each other to help define their purpose and authority. At first glance, the early Victorian period appears to have been a time when the range of architectural practice was dramatically enlarged, both by the general demand for new buildings and by the call for specialist expertise in the design of new building types such as asylums, banks, and railway stations. In that context, increased professionalization can be interpreted as a natural progression, signifying a general feeling of confidence and self-discipline among architects. Yet equally it was a time when architects felt under threat, most of all from building contractors, whose role in

46 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions the building process was expanding at architects' expense. Such shifting alignments made it difficult for architectural journalists to know whom they were addressing, and what their editorial angle should be. Some failed because they misjudged the way events were going. In the late eighteenth century there had existed publications which appeared to be architectural journals, but in fact were part-works, often issued as single volumes on completion. In addition, journals which covered many other fields addressed architectural subject matter; the Gentleman's Magazine did so, as did pioneering weeklies such as the Repository of Arts (1809-29), Penny Magazine (1832-45), and the Mechanics'Magazine (1823-73). The Companion to the [British] Almanac, issued from 1828 onwards by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, had an architectural section which became increasingly extensive over time. The Illustrated London News (1842-1900+) also featured a great many buildings among its engravings, as did Punch (1841-1900+) in its cartoons. The first architectural periodical, properly speaking, was the Architectural Magazine, published for five years 1834—9 by the landscape designer and writer J.C. Loudon. The Civil Engineer and Architects' Journal was started three years later, and showed greater staying power - it survived for thirty years - but being a monthly periodical it left scope for a weekly publication, providing news faster and on a broader front. These early ventures were eclipsed by the eventual success of the Builder, which began regular weekly publication in 1843. It had an uncertain start under its first two editors, Joseph Hansom and Alfred Bartholomew, both of whom saw it as a vehicle for promoting cooperation between the building trades, beyond what Hansom had called the clutches of 'the leviathan power of capital.' The journal failed to gain the kind of readership which would have fulfilled that ideal. Their successor, George Godwin, altered the journal's complexion by aligning it more directly with the interests of the developing architectural profession. He himself was an architect, and kept up his practice throughout his editorial tenure of almost forty years, 1844-83. Godwin helped define a role for architects as problemsolvers and social reformers, and to equip them, he filled the pages of the Builder with subjects well beyond the normal boundaries of architectural design and construction. His editorial policy gained the journal a reputation and a readership far outside the architectural

Architecture / 47 world. By 1872, it was regarded as 'one of the finest properties in the categories of the weekly press' (King; see p 51, below). The Builder's success spawned a number of competitors, which sought to repeat Godwin's successful formula. Among these imitators, the most notable was the Building News, founded in 1854. It, too, had a curious start, in that at first it was designed to cater for freehold land company investors as much as for the building professions. Other journals succeeded by cultivating specific areas of interest, such as engineering, technical information, or architectural aesthetics. By the 1870s, the market was capable of sustaining journals of provincial interest. The Builder was also enormously influential in a further respect architectural illustration. From the outset, it promoted itself as an illustrated magazine, and before long, Godwin was ensuring that his engravings were not only drawn by top architectural artists but engraved by fine wood engravers, well printed with a blank reverse, so that letterpress would not show through to damage the image. Many of the Builder's competitors tried to imitate this aspect of its appeal, and later in the century, the Architect became a close rival in illustrative quality.

Bibliography for the History of Architectural Journalism Works on specific journals are listed below in the bibliographical section under the appropriate journal. Assistance and further information on journals mentioned, and many others, may also be found in the following: Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals. Columbia University, USA, 2nd rev ed 1979 Avery Obituary Index to Architects. Columbia University, USA, 2nd ed, 1980 Kamen, Ruth. British and Irish Architectural History: A Bibliography and Guide to Sources of Information. 1981. Section 4 provides an excellent summary of the major architectural periodicals and available indexes. Roberts, Helene. 'British Art Periodicals of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.' VPN no 9 (July 1970), 2-180. A useful summary of the fine-art aspects of architectural journalism. Adams, Maurice B. 'Architectural Journalism.' Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects 14 (1907), 313-26

48 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions Jenkins, Frank. 'Nineteenth-Century Architectural Periodicals.' 153— 60 in John Summerson, ed, Concerning Architecture. 1968 ARCHITECTURAL PERIODICAL ILLUSTRATION

Crawford, Alan. 'In Praise of Collotype: Architectural Illustration at the Turn of the Century.' Architectural History 25 (1982), 56-64 Fox, Celina. 'The Development of Social Reportage in English Periodical Illustration during the 1840s and early 1850s,' Past and Present 74 (1977), 90-111 GENERAL WORKS OF VALUE TO THE STUDY OF THIS FIELD

Many of the usual sources of information on Victorian periodicals such as BUCOP, ULS, and particularly WD I, II, and III - are of great value in this specific field. See also: Madden, Lionel, and Diana Dixon. The Nineteenth Century Periodical Press in Britain. New York and London 1976 LOCATIONS Principal UK repositories for architectural journals: British Architecture Library, Royal Institute of British Architects, London Architectural Association, London British Library and other copyright libraries Manchester Public Library, and other public libraries in major cities For engineering journals: Institution of Civil Engineers, London In the USA: The Avery Library, Columbia University Library, Chicago Art Institute

In Canada: The Canadian Centre for Architecture, Montreal For locations of the most important journals, see appropriate journal heading below.

Architecture / 49 Select Annotated List Journals are listed in chronological order by date of inception. The Architectural Magazine (1834-9). Monthly. Subtitled Journal of Improvement in Architecture, Building, and Furnishing and in the Various Arts and Trades Connected Therewith. Very broad architectural coverage, modelled on the Gentleman's Magazine, the Monthly Magazine, and on Loudon's own Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture. Significantly, both Hansom and Godwin were contributors. Reported professional meetings and criticized new buildings. Edited by J.C. Loudon. Illustrated. Aimed at the general reader, and the professional architect in particular. Bibliography/ Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, NPD, ULS, WD. Journal reprinted in 1973 Simo, Melanie. Loudon and the Landscape: From Country Seat to Metropolis, 1783-1843. New Haven 1988 [Royall Institute of British Architects' Publications Transactions: irregular 1835-92, 1st and 2nd series Proceedings: fortnightly 1878-93, 1st and 2nd series Merged and recast as Journal of the RIBA: 1894-1900+ Kalendar: 1886-1900+ Professional literature. The Transactions were irregular at first, and included annual reports and communications from members. The Proceedings contained notices and reports of meetings. The Journal combined reporting functions, articles, texts of lectures, and so on. The Kalendar gave notice of future events. Well illustrated. Price: Journal - 6d in 1891. Readership: Institute membership. Distribution by subscription. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD. Carter, E. 'The RIBA Journal' 141-56 in J.A. Gotch, ed, The Growth and Work of the RIBA. 1934 Mace, Angela. 235-45 in The Royal Institute of British Architects: A Guide to Its Archive and History. 1986 Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal (1837-6^/9). Monthly. Absorbed The Architect and Building Operative in 1850. No pretensions to esoteric areas of archaeology or art. Informative on building and building techniques. Anglo-American in flavour. Edited by Henry Laxton and others. Published from London [and New York?]. Well

50 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions illustrated. Price 2s in 1869. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, NPD, ULS, WD The Surveyor, Engineer and Architect (1840-3). Monthly. Entitled the Architect, Engineer and Surveyor 1843. Subtitled A journal of engineering and the practical sciences, and of architecture and the fine arts. Similar to the Civil Engineer and Architects'Journal, but leaning toward surveying and civil engineering. Edited by Robert Mudie, who died in 1843. Illustrated. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, NPD, ULS, WD The Builder (184^3-1900+). Weekly. Entitled Building after 1966. Subtitled An Illustrated weekly magazine for the Drawing room, the Studio, the Office, the Workshop and the Cottage in 1843. Three years later this was altered to An illustrated weekly magazine for the Architect, Engineer, Operative and Artist and subsequently expanded in the 1860s to include the Constructor, Art-Lover and Sanitary Reformer. The journal was justly proud of its size - between 48 and 56 pages a week in 1878. The variety of printing methods used to reproduce illustrations was boasted of in an advertisement of 1885: 'wood engraving (for which only an engraver of the highest class is employed), photo-lithography, various processes for reproducing coloured drawings from original work, and (in special cases) chromo lithography' (NPD 1885). A campaigning, reforming paper, newsy, well informed and of wide appeal. Professional coverage is good, especially concerning the management of architectural competitions, new building types, safety, building materials, building methods, and professional meetings. Architecture is seen as one art among others, so wide coverage is provided of sister arts such as sculpture, stage, and decorative arts. The journal is printed on good paper. The Builder provided a blueprint for several other journals aiming at the architectural market. It was edited by Joseph Hansom 1842-3; Alfred Bartholomew 1843^1; George Godwin 1844-83; H.H. Statham 1883-1900*, and published from York Street, then Catherine Street, Strand. It had good quality illustrations, in the early years with letterpress on reverse, but later on separate sheets bound in, a practice followed by several other architectural journals for the rest of the century. Price: 3d (unstamped), 4d (stamped) in 1843. Still 4d in 1885, or 19s per annum, including postage. Readership: 'A most valuable periodical ... Its low price brings it within reach of the operatives; while the manner of its contents commends it to the more intellectual

Architecture / 51 of all classes' (NPD 1846); 'now to be found on the table of the most illustrious Gentleman in the kingdom, in all Government offices, and in the studio of the clergyman, as well as the more humble dwelling of the Operative' (NPD 1857). The 'illustrious Gentleman' referred to was Prince Albert, who is said to have found his interest in model housing as a result of reading the Builder (see King). 'The journal to which the leading architects and architectural amateurs [and students] of the day naturally address themselves' (NPD 1885). Distribution by subscription and retail sale. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD Articles in the Builder itself: (1943), 1-4, 41-3, 46-50; (1958), 572-4 Brooks, Michael. 'The Builder in the 1840s: The Making of a Magazine, the Shaping of a Profession.' VPR 14:3 (Fall 1981), 87-92 Cox, H.A. These Stones. 1937 [hagiography of owning dynasty] King, Anthony. 'Architectural Journalism and the Profession: The Early Years of George Godwin.' Architectural History, 19 (1972) 32-53 Olsen, Donald J. 'The Changing Image of London in the Builder.' VPN 19 (March 1973), 4-9 Richardson, Ruth. 'George Godwin, Indefatigable Journalist and Instigator of a Fine Victorian Visual Resource.' Visual Resources 6 (1989), 121-40 - 'Notorious Abominations: Architecture and the Public Health in the Builder, 1843-83.' In B. Bynum, R. Porter, and S. Lock, eds, Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge. 1992 Richardson, Ruth, and Robert Thorne. 'The Builder' Illustrations 1843-83: Catalogue and Indexes. 1993 - 'George Godwin.' Building 29:1 (1988), 36-41 - 'George Godwin, ou la Revue d'Architecture comme Croisade Sociale.' Revue de I'Art 89 (1990), 72-6 Statham, Michael. 'H. Heathcote Statham (1839-1924).' Victorian Society Annual (1988), 5-21 Thorne, Robert. 'Building Bridges: George Godwin and Architectural Journalism.' 97-109 in Gordon Marsden, ed, Victorian Values: Personalities and Perspectives in Nineteenth Century Society. 1990 The Architect and Building Operative (1847-68). Weekly. Faltered in 1850, becoming the Architect and Building Gazette for a few months; then absorbed by the Civil Engineer and Architects' Journal (see above, 1837). Illustrated. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, NPD, ULS, WD.

52 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions Building News (1854-1900+). Weekly. Originally (1854-6) Freehold Land Times and Building News, early volumes rare. Continued as Building News and Architectural Review, 1860-2; Building News and Engineering Journal, 1863-1900*. Absorbed by the Architect and Building News, 1926. Early subtitle: A weekly illustrated record of the Progress of Architecture, Metropolitan Improvements, Sanitary Reform, &c. The NPD of 1857 noted: 'it is the object of its conductors to secure for it a high character for the independence of its opinions, and the aesthetic tone of its criticism on art.' 'Original articles on the treatment of styles, the application of decoration and material, ecclesiastical architecture, sanitary progress, competitions, professional interests & prospects form leading features.' An advertisement of 1866 stated the journal was 'devoted to Architecture, Civil Engineering, the Arts of Design, & Building' (NPD 1866). Building News was a mid-Victorian competitor to the Builder, and clearly modelled on it. It was well indexed, newsy, and printed on poor-quality paper, particularly in the later years. It championed the younger generation of architects in the 1860s and 1870s more vigorously than did the Builder. In the 1890s, the journal was said by the NPD to be 'well got up' and to record 'with care and ability, the progress of architecture, sculpture, metropolitan and provincial improvements, engineering, sanitary reform, &c' (NPD 1898). An advertisement in the same volume offered 'Original and Practical Essays on Fine Art, and on the Principle and Practice of Construction; Descriptions (accompanied with illustrations, details &c.) of new English and Continental Bridges, Notices of New Buildings in all parts of the Kingdom, Reports of Architectural and Scientific Societies, Notes on Church Decorations, Statues, Memorials, and Stained Glass; Sanitary, Gas, Water, and other Intelligence; Improved Dwellings for the Working Classes (with plans); Lists of tenders received ... and a variety of interesting & miscellaneous matter.' It was published from St Clements, Fleet St, then Strand, with good illustrations, many separately bound, but a significant proportion with letterpress on reverse. In 1898, its illustrative output was advertised as 'Eight pages of lithographic illustrations, 2-4 pages of engravings.' The standard of the latter was praised by the Newspaper Press Directory in 1898. Price: 2d in 1866, 4d in 1873, 1885, 1898. Readership in 1857 was aimed at 'Professional gentlemen,' and, according to advertisements in 1866 and 1898, 'Architects, Builders, Contractors & their Employes' (NPD 1866 and 1898). Distribution was by subscription and retail sale.

Architecture / 53 Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD. Edwards, J.P. A Few Footprints, 1905 [autobiographical memoir] The Engineer (1856-1900*). Weekly. An advertisement dating from 1898 indicated the journal's contents at that date: 'a purely scientific journal, devoted to the interests, and intended to contribute to the information, of those engaged in the manufacture or application of the metals. All new discoveries and inventions in mechanics and science are described and illustrated where necessary'; 'lists of patents, details of specifications, reviews of scientific works, and able papers on all branches of science ... Attention is also paid to agricultural science, especially the application of steam and machinery to the purposes of the farm' (NPD 1898). Edited by Zerah Colburn before 1866 (see Engineering). Published from Norfolk St, Strand. Illustrated. Price 6d in 1875, 1889. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD. The Builders' Weekly Reporter (1856-1900+). Weekly. Absorbed Building and Engineering Times in 1886, and renamed the Builders' Reporter and Engineering Times. Subtitled A weekly journal devoted to the Architect, Sculptor, Engineer, Gas Apparatus manufacturer, and Decorative Artist. Contracts, competitions and tenders; Patents list; reviews; new inventions etc. Said in 1898 to contain 'a large mass of information important to the various trades concerned, such as special articles on building operations &c; estimates, tenders, contracts, &c.' (NPD, 1898). Published from Fleet St, Ludgate Circus, then Strand. Price 2d in 1866, 1885, 1898. Readership downmarket. Distribution by subscription and retail sale. Said to comprise '22 large pages' in 1866. Circulation said to be 8,000 in 1881 (Deacon's, 1881). Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, NPD, ULS, WD. Engineering (1866-1900*). Weekly. This journal was said in 1866 to have been 'recently established by the former editor of "The Engineer" ... devoted wholly to the various branches of civil, mechanical & marine engineering, and to subjects of general interest to the engineering profession' (1866). In 1886 it was referred to as a leading technical journal' with international coverage in 'civil, mechanical and military engineering, as well as ... applied science, especially in reference to the telegraph, telephone, electric lighting' (NPD 1886). Edited by Zerah Colburn in 1866; W. Maw and J. Dredge in 1886. Published from Bedford St, Strand. Illustrated, including 'detailed

54 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions working drawings.' 'Many of the articles are illustrated from working drawings of executed works' (NPD 1866). Price 4d in 1866, 6d in 1873, 1886. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD. 'The late Mr Martin.' Engineering (1933), 578-80 'Seventy-five Years.' Engineering (1941), 11-13 The Architect (1869-1900*). Weekly. Entitled The Architect and Contract Reporter, 1893-1900*. Subtitled An illustrated weekly journal of Art, Civil Engineering and Building. The journal was said in an 1885 advertisement to contain 'the fullest and most complete list of contracts open and tenders delivered of any paper in the world' (NPD 1885). The NPD of 1898 described it thus: 'fully established as the recognised representative of architects, civil engineers and builders. The best writers obtainable contribute articles on their special subjects, and the works of all the leading architects of Great Britain are illustrated in it from week to week.' The Architect was modelled on the Builder, but intended to appeal to a more select audience. In using a different typeface from the Builder and more white area per page, it was designed to make the Builder look old-fashioned. Printed on good-quality paper. Indexes very inadequate. Edited by T. Roger Smith and others. Published from 175 Strand. Good-quality illustration, on blank-reverse sheets, separately bound. Many Sprague 'Ink Photos' and photolithos. Price 4d in 1875, 1886, 1898. Readership: The journal was said in an advertisement of 1885 to have a 'large circulation among Architects, Contractors, Builders, Surveyors, Engineers, and others' (NPD 1885). Distribution by subscription and retail sale. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD. The British Architect (1874-1900*). Weekly, then monthly. Absorbed by the Builder in 1919. Subtitled A national record of the aesthetic and constructive arts, and business journal of the building commun ity. It said at the outset that it would give more prominence to 'facts, data and principles in connection with actual practice than to theories, opinions and criticisms upon general topics.' The British Architect was said by the NPD in 1898 to be a 'high class illustrated journal. It represents the profession generally ... aids all movements for popularising and disseminating a knowledge of art. The operations of civil engineers and surveyors are studiously reported.' It was a

Architecture / 55 practical journal, with a strong provincial bias. Published from Manchester, then 400 Strand, then 33 King St, Covent Garden. Illustrated. Price 4d in 1881-6. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD. Illustrated Carpenter and Builder (1877-1900*). Weekly. Known as Carpenter and Builder. Down to earth, very informative on the practicalities of building construction. Printed on poor quality paper. Edited by John Black. Published from 313 Strand. Illustrated. Price Id in 1886, 1894. Readership: Building and kindred trades. Distribution: Retail sale. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, NPD, ULS, WD. Academy Architecture and Annual Architectural Review (1889-1900+). Annual, later biannual. Continued as an occasional supplement to Architectural Review. The magazine was primarily made up from illustrations of drawings exhibited at the Royal Academy. No technical material. Published from London and Leipzig by A. Koch. Well illustrated. Price 3s per annum in 1894. Readership: Art-architects. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Micro, NPD, ULS, WD. The Builder's Journal and Architectural Record (1895-1900*). Weekly. Practical journal. Illustrated. Readership: Building trades. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, NPD, ULS, WD. The Architectural Review (1896-1900*). Monthly. Originally subtitled For the Artist and Craftsman. Initially a magazine issue of the Builder's Journal. High-quality art and crafts journal at the outset, becoming less arty and more self-consciously architectural and critical in focus with the passage of time. Concentrated on architects in the grand manner and the best works by arts and crafts architects. Long serious feature articles. Little attention to news or practical information. Printed on high-quality paper. Edited by Henry Wilson 18961900*). Copious illustration, of high quality, on separate sheets, bound in. Readership architectural, but widely read beyond the profession. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, Jenkins, Mitchell's, ULS, WD. Pevsner, Nikolaus. 'Goodhart-Rendel's Roll-Call.' Architectural Review 138 (Oct 1965), 259-64 Architecture (1894-1900*). Entitled Society of Architects Journal (1893-1900*). Published by the Society of Architects, founded in 1884

56 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions partly in order to campaign for restriction of entry to the profession by examination. Published from London. Bibliography/Locations: BUCOP, NPD, ULS, WD.

Other Journals Many fields related to architecture - such as decoration, furniture, mining, engineering, and sanitation - spawned their own journals during the nineteenth century. Some of the more important or interesting of these are listed here in chronological order of inception. For railway journals, see the section by John Palmer and H.W. Parr in this volume. 1800s The Builder's Price Book (1805-6) Taylor's Builder's Price Book (1808-54)

1810s Annals of the Fine Arts (1816-20). Quarterly. Edited by James Elmes 1830s The Mining Journal (1835-1900*)- Weekly. Entitled Mining Journal, Railway and Commercial Gazette after 1844. Intended readership, according to an advertisement in 1846: 'Capitalists & Adventurers.' 1898 advertisement says: 'The best and most widely circulated mining paper' (NPD). Price 5d; 6d in 1898 Institution of Civil Engineers, Transactions (1836-42). Subsequently included in the Minutes of Proceedings, 1837-1900* Watson, Garth. The Civils: The Story of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 1988 Engineer and Surveyor's Magazine (1839) 1840s The Builder's Price Book (1840-55) The Ecclesiologist (1841-68) Monthly/bi-monthly Archaeological Journal (1845-1900*) Journal of the British Archaeological Association (1846-1900*) Architectural Notices (1846-9)

Architecture / 57 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Journal and Proceedings (18471900+) The Journal of Gas Lighting, Water Supply and Sanitary Improvement (1849-1900+) Weekly. Cheapside, then Fleet St. Price 6d. Entitled Gas Journal after 1917 Iron Trade Exchange (1847-87). Weekly. Cannon St. Price 6d. Readership - 'iron steel and allied trades.' Later entitled Iron and Steel Trades Journal and Mining Engineer 1850s The Architectural Quarterly Review (1851). Quarterly Building Chronicle (1854-7). Monthly. Edinburgh The Builder and Contractors' Price Book (1856-1900+). Entitled Lockwood's Builder and Contractors' Price Book after 1875 The Builders' Weekly Reporter (1856-1900*). Weekly. Entitled Builders' Reporter and Engineering Times after 1886 The Universal Decorator (1858-63). Weekly. Edited by R.B. Thompson, J. W. Ross. Illustrated by W. Gibbs Ironmonger and Metal Trades Advertiser (1859-1900+). Monthly. Price 6d in 1898. Said in that year to be the oldest journal in the hardware and metal trades ... full of trade news, the market prices and descriptions of new inventions (NPD 1898) 1860s The Church Builder (1862-1900+) Quarterly The Illustrated Builder's Journal (1865-6) Builders' [Illustrated] Journal (1866) Weekly. Price 2d The Architectural Association Sketchbook (1867-1900*) 1870s Engineer and Iron Trades Advertiser (1869-1900*). Weekly. Glasgow. Price 2d The Engineering and Building Times (1871-80). Weekly. Fleet St. Price 2d The Sacristy (1871-81). Quarterly The Metropolitan (1872-1900+). Weekly. Fleet St. Price 2d. Contained news of building, public works and sanitary science in urban and metropolitan districts. Entitled Local Government Journal after 1892

58 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions Transactions of the Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society (18721900*) Furniture Gazette (1872-93). Weekly. Price 3d in 1875 Architectural Sketches (1872-7) Timber Trades Journal and Saw Mill Advertiser (1873-1900+). Weekly. Price 4d in 1874, 1898. Also published a French edition. Said to serve 'Foreign, Colonial and English Timber Merchants/ concerned with the shipping and sale of timber, including hardwood. (NPD 1874, 1898). Subscription Sanitary Record (1874-1900*). Monthly. Entitled Municipal Engineer and Sanitary Record after 1916. Price Is Building World (1877-93). Monthly. Strand. Price 6d Contract Journal (1879-1900*). Price 6d in 1879, 1895 1880s The Stonemason (1882-1900+). Monthly. Bristol. Entitled Stone Trades Journal after 1900 The Sanitary Engineer (1880-1900*). Entitled Sanitary Engineering 1881-9 Decorators' Gazette and Plumber and Gasfttters'Review (1884-1900*) The Electrical Engineer (1882-1900+). Fleet St. Price 3d Engineering Review (1883-5) Engineers' Gazette (1883-1900*). Monthly. Sunderland and London. Price 6d. Covered shipbuilding and marine engineering Engineering Index (1884-1900*) Issued as the journal of the Association of Engineering Societies Builders' Blue Book (1885-7) Institute of Builders, Proceedings (1887-1900*) Architectural Association Notes (1887-1900*). Entitled Architectural Association Journal after 1905 Architect and Contractors' Compendium (1887-95). Entitled Architect's Compendium, 1895-1900* Engineering Record (1887-1900*). Entitled Engineering and Building Record after 1890 1890s Building Industries (1890-1900*) The Engineering Review (1891-7). Price 7s per annum. Merged with Iron and Coal Trades Review London (1893-8). Weekly. Entitled Municipal Journal and London after 1899

Architecture / 59 The Surveyor and Municipal Engineer (1893-1900*). Entitled Surveyor Local Authority Technology; Surveyor Public Authority Technology in later twentieth century The Studio (1893-1900*). US edition: International Studio Building World (1895-1900*). Weekly. Cassell and Co, Belle Sauvage Yard. Price Id in 1895 Institution of Public Health Engineers, Proceedings (1897-1900*) The Builder's Merchant (1897-1900*) Engineering Times (1898-1900*). Monthly. Edited by Ben H. Morgan. Illustrated. Price 6d

Principal European and American Architectural Journals EUROPE Allgemeine beuzeitung (1836-1900*). Germany Revue Generale de I'Architecture et des Travaux Publiques (1840-90). Edited by Cesar Daly. France Lemoine, Bertrand. 'Les Revues de I'Architecture et de Construction en France au XIXe Siecle.' Revue de I'Art 89 (1990) 65-71 IRELAND The Dublin Builder (1859-1900*). Dublin. Entitled The Irish Builder and Engineering Record after 1867 UNITED STATES Architectural Record (1891-1900*). Avery Index American Architect and Building News (1876-1900*). Avery Index Architectural Forum (1892-?). Avery Index Inland Architect and Builder (1883-1900*) The Western Architect. Chicago Avery Index Van Zanten, David, and Mary Woods. 'La Presse Architecturale aux Etats-Unis, 1870-1910' Revue de I'Art, 89 (1990) 19-28

Scope for Further Research The growing interest in Victorian architecture over the last twentyfive years has meant that an increasing number of historians, architects and conservationists have been making use of Victorian architectural periodicals. They have often been mainly interested in

60 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions searching through the runs of each periodical for information of particular buildings or individuals, without much regard for how information was originally collected or transmitted. The prevailing tendency has been uncritical, and has tended to bestow on reports and articles a mantle of objectivity which they never originally possessed. Periodical illustrations have often been used out of their context and without consideration of why they were originally published, and what precisely they were meant to represent. So far, the only English architectural periodical to be appreciated in its own right, rather than simply as a quarry for specific information, is the Builder. One of the main reasons for this attention has been that George Godwin, its editor throughout the mid-Victorian period, was a public figure of considerable influence, and is known as the father of architectural journalism. Though his personal papers have not survived, it has been possible to construct a picture of his life and opinions through his editorials and through his contributions to other publications and the organizations he supported. The achievements of Godwin's predecessor, Joseph Hansom, and his successor, H.H. Statham, have also been chronicled in much the same way. Far less is known, however, about the editors of other architectural periodicals, their biographies, their editorial policies, or their business acumen. High on the agenda for future research should be the investigation of periodicals established to imitate and rival the Builder. The crusading tone Godwin adopted for the Builder has made it possible to trace its influence on architectural developments, such as the adoption of pavilion plan in hospital design and the inception of conservation in architecture. Comparable studies of the influence exerted by other periodicals are much needed, especially in the areas of professionalization and technological innovation. Architectural illustration, along with its relationship to the technological developments in printing, also deserves more attention than it has so far received. Circulation figures are extremely hard to come by, and would certainly merit further research, probably best done from oblique angles. An article in Deacon's Newspaper Handbook in 1891 discussed the incomprehensible secrecy with which proprietors protected this information, so even contemporaries found the subject a difficult one to research. There is enormous scope for further research on the subject of Victorian architectural journalism. As Helene Roberts observed in

Architecture / 61 1970, 'the sheer mass of these architectural journals is staggering and indicates the amount of source material available for the study of British architecture.' In'addition, archives which still perhaps survive need to be located and examined, contributors identified, and business and editorial histories researched. Acknowledgments We should like to express our thanks for bibliographical and other assistance to Mike Chrimes at the Institution of Civil Engineers, London; the staff at the British Architecture Library, Royal Institute of British Architects, London; and to staff at the British Library, Bloomsbury and the British Library Newspaper Collection at Colindale, London.

Military ALBERT TUCKER

Introduction Though the British army was relatively small in the nineteenth century, and British society could hardly have been called militaristic, the reading public for military journals was consistently an attractive one after the end of the Napoleonic War. For the most part, this public was made up of active and retired officers from both the army and navy, the two together coming under the title of United Services for the purpose of journal titles. The number of publishers and journals was never large, but those involved could assume a steady market, minimal competition, and subjects of interest that extended from the narrowly military and naval, to the nostalgic and adventurous, to the broader national and imperial. Authors and their readers considered themselves associates in a tight group of professionals engaged in the pursuit both of pleasurable reading and of protecting or advancing military subjects in the public interest. The term 'professional' must be used here with some caution, particularly for the first half of the nineteenth century. Officers then prided themselves more on social connection, status, and experience than on thorough professional standards of training and education. In the military journals, therefore, assumptions could be made about a literate, specialized reading public that was also integrated into all of the social norms of the middle and the upper classes, whether of county or of urban society. The first issue of the United Service Journal in January 1829 contained this statement by its editor, Major T.H. Shadwell Clerke, a veteran of the Peninsular War:

Military/63 We would beg leave to impress upon our Professional Readers, that our design includes functions of far more importance ... than the mere provision of amusement for the passing hour ... [But] we feel that an exclusive adherence to purely professional topics would prove insufficient for the general intelligence which pervades the Services, perhaps in a higher degree than in most other classes. British officers are so constantly in relation with society at large; are so interwoven with it by ties of blood, mutual sympathies and common interests ... that a corresponding expansion of limits ... appears expedient to meet the demand for more diffused information. (1-2)

This perception of officers, whether retired or active, as a distinct professional group that was not set socially apart meant that the subjects of periodical essays to a high degree reflected certain patterns of literary taste as well as interest in strictly military or naval pursuits. In the first third of the century, serious military subjects tended to be more than balanced by memoirs, semi-fictional tales, and anecdotes in which the authors sought, in their style and choice of subject, to imitate writers of silver-fork fiction. As the century passed, military subjects became more prominent and eventually composed almost the whole of a monthly or quarterly issue. Bibliographies Two comprehensive bibliographies have been compiled in the past decade. Anthony Bruce's Bibliography of the British Army 1660-1914 (1981) includes many of the journals for the nineteenth century, but it is little more than a listing of titles and is by no means complete. More satisfying to consult is F.H. Lake's 'Regimental Journals and Other Serial Publications of the British Army, 1660-1981.' Lake's work is an annotated bibliography in four volumes, but it is an unpublished thesis submitted for a fellowship of the Library Association, London, in 1985. R.H. Bailey gave it a favourable review in the Journal of Newspaper and Periodical History 4 (1988), 41-2, and he listed five locations (all of them in Britain) where Lake's bibliography can be consulted. They are the British Library (Library Association Library), Imperial War Museum, Institute of Historical Research, National Army Museum, and Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. The Period before the Crimean War In terms of military history, the forty years from the end of the Napo-

64 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions Iconic War to the Crimean War did not witness any major military engagement. No great battle or leading soldier caught the public imagination, though the Duke of Wellington maintained an iconic stature until his death in 1852, and the East India Company continued to acquire territory and control in the subcontinent. Yet the market for military periodicals developed in this period, for reasons that seem related at least as much to the history of publishing as to the history of armies. During the later stages of the Napoleonic War, in 1812, a publisher named Patrick Martin of Orchard Street in London began publication of a monthly which he named the Military Panorama or Officers' Companion. It contained, besides biographical essays and reviews, enough official information to require permission from the crown, and in 1814 its title was changed to the Royal Military Panorama. Each issue ran to about one hundred pages, bound in two volumes per year, ending with four volumes in 1814. Its young editor was John Fhilippart, who subsequently spent a decade or more in the War Office and re-emerged in the 1830s to become one of the most significant military editors of the nineteenth century. Similar in tone and purpose were two other periodicals - the Military Chronicle, published in seven volumes between 1811 and 1814, with a new series in another seven volumes from 1814 to 1816; and the Military Register in fourteen volumes from 1814 to 1822. All three were begun in wartime and represented the need to convey factual, generally official information about appointments, postings, and military events that would not usually receive attention in the civilian press. In addition to dispatches, regulations, and circulars, there might be items such as 'the frequency of soldiers' marriages' or 'an account of a recruiting depot to be formed at Sierra Leone and Goree for the enlistment of men of colour, for the completion and augmentation of the West India regiments' (Military Panorama, Oct 1812). During the decade that followed the end of the war, as new literary periodicals reflected a growing reading public, brief experiments were made with military journals under familiar titles such as the Royal Military Calendar and the British Military Library, both of which disappeared without consequence in a changing market. A third journal, however, under the title of the Naval and Military Magazine, begun in 1827, was purchased two years later by Henry Colburn, who changed its name to the United Service Journal. It was published monthly for him by Richard Bentley, with whom Colburn formed a

Military/65 partnership that same year (1829), and Colburn arranged for its printing by William Clowes of Duke Street, Lambeth. Sometime in 1835, after ending his association with Bentley and selling many of his other publishing interests, Colburn transferred the printing to Harrison and Company of St Martin's Lane. In January 1842, he changed the name to the United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal, which is generally abbreviated to Colburn's United Service Magazine. Under that title it continued to be published as a monthly until well beyond Colburn's death in 1855. Less obvious was his ownership of the Naval and Military Gazette, a weekly newspAaper which he founded in 1833, and which survived until 1886 when it was merged into the Broad Arrow, another military weekly which had been founded in 1868. Henry Colburn, therefore, owned and directed two of the most important military periodicals in Britain for twenty-six years (182955), and he managed them as private business interests, without official or formal ties to the services. The point is worth emphasizing, because Colburn was a prominent publisher of fashionable novels, memoirs, and travel books. Since 1814 he had owned or held partnerships in such literary periodicals as the New Monthly Magazine, the Literary Gazette, the Athenaeum, and the Court Journal. Taken together, these journals represented one aspect of Colburn's enterprising talents. In addition to projecting independent reviews and essays, they enabled him to promote - sometimes to 'puff - such major publishing ventures as Evelyn's Diary and the Diary of Pepys, together with the early novels of Disraeli and Bulwer Lytton's Pelham.1 Henry Curwen, who is still one of our convincing sources on Colburn, said of him in 1873, 'Throughout the whole of his business life, Colburn had a very keen perception as to what the public required, and of the market value of the productions offered him ...'2 Any private papers of Colburn were destroyed in the blitz of the 1940s, so one can only speculate on his purpose and his market for the United Service Journal and the Naval and Military Gazette. John Sutherland's article, 'Henry Colburn, Publisher,' Publishing History 19 (1986), 59-84, leads to a plausible interpretation. Sutherland implicitly accepts the rumour or suggestion that Colburn may have been an illegitimate son of the Duke of York, the former commanderin-chief, citing as possible grounds Colburn's starting out with capital, his 'extravagant adulation of royalty and nobility,' and his obsession with mysterious authors 'whose true high-born identity must be kept secret.' An even stronger piece of evidence, however,

66 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions might be Colburn's purchase of, and loyalty to, the United Service Journal, and later the Naval and Military Gazette, using both not simply to puff his published books but genuinely to appeal to the interests and tastes of military and naval officers. Colburn's interest in promoting his books probably influenced Shadwell Clerke as editor of the United Service Journal during the 1830s, but the serious professional intent of the publisher appeared both in what Clerke referred to as a liberal-conservative' approach, and in Colburn's appointment of Sir John Philippart as editor of the Naval and Military Gazette in 1833. By this time, the character of the military press was beginning to reflect the wider subject of reform, an issue selected by Hew Strachan as central to his study The Reform of the British Army 1830-54 (Manchester 1984). The book gives an excellent account of military periodicals for this period, in part because they were coming to play a vital role in the growing debate over the need for fundamental improvements in military organization. As editor of the Naval and Military Gazette, Colburn appointed Sir John Philippart because of his experience as a former civil servant at the War Office who had recently been dismissed by the Whig government, and who had also been editor of the Military Panorama between 1812 and 1814. Though subsequently dubbed 'an old Tory' by the military historian William Napier, Philippart steadily developed a constructively critical attitude toward the domination by the Duke of Wellington over the Horse Guards, and the resistance of the duke to such changes as the selection and training of officers, the organization of regiments into larger units of command, or the education of soldiers. In effect, Philippart turned the Naval and Military Gazette into an instrument of reform, and did so with such approval from his publisher that Colburn in 1842 made him the editor also of his monthly journal, the United Service Magazine. From the 1830s to the 1850s, Colburn held a virtual monopoly with this monthly military journal, but he may well have begun his weekly newspaper in 1833 to meet the competition of the United Service Gazette, a weekly begun in February of that year with a name obviously similar to that of Colburn's monthly journal. The United Service Gazette was published and edited by Alaric Watts, a minor essayist and literary critic who became the subject of a biography by his son in 1884.3 Watts claimed that his intent was to include more writing about the navy, particularly about the Royal Marines, and to criticize the scale of family patronage in the services; but his sympathies were fundamentally Tory, supportive of the status quo, and his litigious temperament led to financial difficulties. He lost the

Military/67 United Service Gazette in 1843 when the paper was auctioned to Andrew Spottiswoode, who appointed J.H. Stocqueler as editor in 1846. Stocqueler had spent the years from 1826 to 1841 as a journalist in India. On his return to Britain he became a writer on military affairs, producing books about the British army that are still a source for historians. As editor of the United Service Gazette he entered first as competitor with Phillipart and then in agreement, on a policy of promoting military reform well before the Crimean War.4 Competition between these two weeklies - the United Service Gazette and the Naval and Military Gazette - seems to have been minimal after 1846, as Phillipart and Stocqueler both argued for military reforms and welcomed correspondence from officers sympathetic with this editorial policy. Printing and circulation probably came to 1,300 copies per week for each weekly, according to the arithmetic worked out by Strachan on the basis of returns of newspaper stamp duties in the Parliamentary Papers. The actual number of readers, however, must have been much larger, since many of these subscriptions were sent to regimental officers' messes and the United Service Institution, where each copy might be read by thirty to fifty readers. These particular weeklies, therefore, together with the monthly, the United Service Magazine, may have been relatively profitable for their publishers, as well as influential among officers in the years leading up to the Crimean War. During the 1840s and 1850s, the market attracted the launching of other publications, though none had the continuity or the weight of the journals edited by Philippart and Stocqueler. The British Army Despatch was a weekly begun in 1848 with the aim of maintaining a polemical defence of the Horse Guards. Edited and published by A.W. Sleigh, it passed to a barrister, A.B. Richards, in 1851, but two years later Sleigh took control again and developed a more serious criticism of the central administration of the army, after the death of the Duke of Wellington. The Military Magazine was a monthly published for less than a year (1846-7); and the British Soldier, which became the Royal Military Magazine shortly after its beginning in 1852, lasted for a mere six months. More technical and less polemical than any of these was the Military Review, edited by Captain N.S. Shrapnel, but it too was of brief duration from 1852 to 1853. After the Crimean War The war stimulated the periodical press to focus on mistakes as well

68 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions as achievements. Military journals did not significantly increase in number, but the organization of their publishing, the writers, and their subjects all reflected a growing awareness among a middle-class reading public that serious faults had been revealed about the army in the Crimea. Debate would now develop in print about Britain's military and naval responsibility as a great power. That debate was wide-ranging in the civilian press; in the military journals it took the form of more concentrated professional military writing, which was manifested particularly in the Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. Published by W. Mitchell and Son of 39 Charing Cross - 'near the Admiralty and Horse Guards' - this new journal was sponsored and edited in close association with the formal hierarchy of mid-Victorian society. In 1831 there had been formed a Naval and Military Library and Museum, which changed its name in 1839 to the United Service Institution. During the early 1850s attempts were made to expand its services to include publication of a journal, but financial means were inadequate until 1857, when the secretary of state for war, Lord Panmure, authorized a grant of £400. He may well have been influenced by the new patrons of the institution, which included the Queen and the Prince Consort, the Duke of Cambridge (just recently appointed commander-in-chief), and the King of the Belgians, with some nineteen other men of title such as the Dukes of Norfolk, Northumberland, and Richmond, each of whom held high military or naval rank. The journal was launched in 1858, and in 1860, with the grant of a royal charter, became the Journal of the Royal United Service Institution (JRUSP). It was published without interruption for the balance of the nineteenth century, reflecting in its pages effective communication of lectures, debates, and papers for the information not only of retired officers but more particularly of officers on active regimental and naval duty in Britain and the Empire. In order to reach them, the annual subscription rate was introduced at ten shillings. The opening lecture by the chairman of the institution, Colonel James Lindsay, in May 1857, pointed to expanding aspirations: All other professions have establishments for imparting professional knowledge ... In the learned and scientific societies of the country, naval and military science has been hitherto unrepresented and unrecognized; it is the promise of this Institution to fill that vacancy and become to the services what the museum in Jermyn Street is to geology, and that of Kew to Botany. (JRUSI1 [1858], 4)

Military/69 The JRUSI did in fact become a vehicle for the growing number of officers interested in the means to read and frequently to write as professionals. Training and study would take on a premium which they had not held in an earlier period. The editor of the United Service Journal, Shadwell Clerke, could write in 1840 that, 'unlike the Church, the bar, the medical profession, or even the navy ... no examination tests the merits of a candidate for military command' (United Service Journal 1 [1840], 5). Because of the rise of industrial capitalism and transformation of the European order, because of the American Civil War and the impact of technology on weaponry and transportation, Britain's aristocratic respect for the gentleman amateur as regimental officer would gradually have to yield to a more demanding and more pervasive military education. The JRUSI reflected this change. Articles appeared in the 1860 which had begun as lectures on the American Civil War, in the 1870s there were articles on the Franco-Prussian War, and throughout the last third of the century almost every colonial war was discussed in terms that gradually filtered through the regimental libraries, the clubs, and the new Staff College of the 1860s and 1870s, to nourish the growing taste for professional study of warfare.6 At a time, also, when intelligence services were rudimentary, the JRUSI served as an instrument to print translated essays from foreign military journals - from the Revue Militaire dues Armees Etrangeres, Jahrbucher fur die Deutsche Armee und Marine, Militar Wochenblatt Beiheft, and the Italian Nuova Antalogia. Interest in these translations reflected Britain's movement away from spendid isolation toward the end of the century, and possible lessons from the Boer War and the RussoJapanese War between 1900 and 1910. On the way to these larger military and naval engagements, articles in the JRUSI often reflected the diversity of smaller c lenges which grew from the exigencies of imperial governance. In addition to maintaining small detachments in outposts of empire, the War Office and the Admiralty organized recurring expeditions for the small wars on African and Asian terrain. At the same time, the needs of empire had to be reconciled with short-service enlistment after 1870, and with the continuing regimental organization of the army. From the founding of the JRUSI in the late 1850s to the expanding imperial responsibilities of the 1890s, there were studies on a variety of relevant topics - on the arms of Arab and African tribes in the valley of the White Nile (1860), on the camping and moving of troops in tropical regions (1874), on British strategy in central Asia (1874), and in 1893 on Sir Donald Stuart's return march from Afghanistan

70 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions to India. Interspersed with discussions of strategy there might be more specific if not exotic subjects, such as the training of pigeons to carry messages in war (1886, 1892, 1900) photography and the phonograph and their application to military purposes (1861, 1869, 1892-3), the horse and nailless shoes (1889) and, for the navy, 'the preservation of biscuit and other farinaceous articles of diet from weevil, maggots, and other insects' (1875). A degree of specialization, in other words, accompanied and nourished the developing professional spirit behind military writing.6 This same tendency was to be seen in the founding and continuity of other journals. The Artillery and Engineers since the eighteenth century had developed a position as the two branches of the army which esteemed intellect over attributes derived from birth and connection. Of necessity, both branches valued education more than the qualities of the amateur that were so respected among officers of the line (infantry and cavalry). As early as the 1770s, the Artillery had sought to found a military society 'to reduce the influence of mediocrity,' but not until the 1830s did papers begin to circulate for promoting scientific study. This correspondence led to formation of the Royal Artillery Institution in 1837, with its own building at Woolwich to house books, instruments, and a lecture room.7 In 1858 publication began of the Minutes of Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution, which became in 1873 the Journal of the Royal Artillery. It was published through a grant from the Board of Ordnance in order to encourage the reading of essays, many of which had begun as lectures in the institution. The Royal Artillery Journal was consciously launched and edited to complement the education of officers beyond the first stage of their cadet training at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Similar motivations existed for the Corps of Royal Engineers, which began private printing of the Royal Engineer Journal in August of 1870. Based at Brompton Barracks, Chatham, it was a monthly of fifteen to twenty-five pages, sold at sixpence, 'for circulation among the officers of the Corps of Royal Engineers only.' The first issue declared that the journal was to be both a directory and a newspaper. It did indeed develop a balance that combined gazetted detail on officers with news about sports and theatre. Amateur plays were reviewed which had been written, produced, and performed by officers, many of whom were fascinated by the experience of their service in India. The sport preferred by Engineers seems to have been football, for which the journal shared collegial support by reporting

Military/71 the victories of the team of cadets from the School of Military Engineering over such public schools as Charterhouse and Westminster. Each monthly issue also contained articles of serious import, such as Prussia's remarkable development of railways for military transport, its use of the telegraph in war, and the astonishing success of its breech-loading rifle in the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars. In addition to this journal, the Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers began publication in 1874. Though these papers were highly specialized, it was hoped that many of them would be of interest to others such as archaeologists and historians, and discussion of some of these papers was selected for printing in the Royal Engineer Journal The Engineers, the Artillery, the Infantry, the Guards, and the Cavalry were all components of the regular army. Their role was complemented by the reserve forces - by the historic Militia and Yeomanry, and more particularly by the Volunteer force that came into being in 1859. The following year saw the birth of the Army and Navy Gazette, subtitled the Journal of the Reserve and Auxiliary Forces. A weekly priced at sixpence and bound into annual volumes, its fifteen to twenty-five pages of three columns each ranged over a wide variety of subjects. The editor, from the first issue in January 1860, was William Howard Russell, whose fame as war correspondent for The Times in the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny led the proprietors of Punch to gamble that under Russell's direction the Army and Navy Gazette would find a middle-class readership with a growing patriotic interest in issues of national security. The market turned out to be disappointing for Bradbury and Evans, the publishers of Punch, and they sold their ownership to Russell between 1862 and 1864. He in turn brought in R.J. Wood as a partner in 1871, leaving Russell as editor and co-owner.8 From 1860 to about 1903 when he was in his early eighties, though he does not seem to have derived substantial profits from his ownership, Russell directed an editorial policy that mixed miscellaneous information on army and navy appointments, ships at naval stations, and obituaries of high ranking officers with articles of interpretation and opinion. In 1882, writing from Egypt, where he witnessed Wolseley's victory at Tel-el-Kebir, Russell regretted Britain's growing involvement in empire because of its unfortunate consequences for native people. In 1885 he deplored the absence of Artillery and Engineer officers, with their superior education, in the commands of any of Britain's fourteen military districts or its sixty-nine brigade depots.

72 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions In the 1880s, too, the Gazette pointed to the link even then between cholera and poor sanitation at Aldershot, where more than ten thousand men were billeted. In 1899, on the war in South Africa, one article reviewed at length German reports that were critical of Britain's senior officers for their lack of foresight and planning. The Army and Navy Gazette, in other words, assumed a broad intelligence among its reading public that comprehended more than the limited interest of civilians in three weeks of reserve training each year. Nevertheless, at another level, because thousands of men served each year in the Volunteers, often spending three weeks at summer camps, there developed an interest in and a market for rudimentary periodicals of no more than a few sheets printed within the camp. They depended on the voluntary efforts of a few individuals who collected anecdotes, gossip, and humour for the entertainment of temporary troops. A large number of these magazines probably came briefly into being, but only a few have survived. They are the subject of two short articles by R.H. Bailey, both entitled 'Victorian Army Volunteer Periodicals,' in the Journal of Newspaper and Periodical History 4 (1988) and 6 (1990). 'Periodicals of this type,' says Bailey, 'were probably more widely produced than is generally realized.' Their value is limited, however, by comparison with the Volunteer Service Gazette, which began publication in 1859 under War-Office sanction, and which has been used by recent historians of the Volunteers as the 'the semi-official mouthpiece of the Force.'9 One purpose of the War Office in encouraging organization of the Volunteers was to draw the urban middle classes into a patriotic commitment which they did not feel for the regular army or the militia. This same patriotic feeling expanded into pride of empire during the 1880s, when a literature suffused with tales of imperial adventure found support among a growing middle-class reading public. Publishers such as W.H. Allen experimented in this market with the Army and Navy Magazine; it survived for fifteen volumes from 1881 to 1888, when the publisher merged it into the Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine. It was not easy, however, to find a formula that would sustain a bridge between military and civilian readers. The Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine contained a journalistic mix of short essays interspersed with black-and-white illustrations, but it lasted only for 1889-90. Sometime in 1890 it was folded into the United Service Magazine, no longer referred to as Colburn's, which in turn was edited and briefly published by General John Frederick Maurice. The son of Frederick Denison Maurice,

Military/73 General Maurice had developed his career as a protege and friend of Sir Garnet Wolseley, who judged correctly that Maurice was better suited to military writing and intelligence work than to high command in the field. But Maurice lacked the financial resources to sustain publication of the United Service Magazine. He continued to write, however, becoming involved during the 1890s in the debate between the army and navy over which service should have priority.10 The Navy League, formed in 1895, began publication of the Navy League Journal in July of that year as an instrument of support and propaganda - 'to urge upon Government and the Electorate the paramount importance of an adequate Navy as the best guarantee of peace.' This single-minded purpose was attacked as too political by the Broad Arrow and the Naval and Military Record, which prided themselves on their orientation to readers strictly within the services. But the Navy League went on to enlarge its journal, introducing more illustrations and expanding on subjects that were relevant not only for defence but for exploration and popular scientific knowledge. In 1908 the name was changed from Navy League Journal to simply Navy. Well before 1908, however, military and naval magazines were influenced by the remarkable advances being made in the reproduction of the black-and-white photograph. The Navy and Army Illustrated, launched in 1895, rapidly became the best illustrated of these military magazines, its abundance of photographs attributed to F.G. O.S. Gregory, 'Military Opticians,' 51 Strand. Each issue of some twenty pages focused on a subject or theme which might be thinly illustrated by drawings if it was a narrative history of the Life Guards, or profusely illustrated with photographs and captions if it was the recent Aldershot Manoeuvres (1896), an illustrated account of 'Our Citizen Army' (1897), or ships of the line and their battle stations. The glossy paper and pages of photos marked a technological advance, but equally impressive for the social as well as the military historian is the vivid demonstration of officers and men and the posed details of their lives, the fixed image of hierarchy in the services, and the patriotism invoked by the captions, which were themselves becoming a literate form governed by the intent to convey a message in simple and confined prose. The prolix narratives of fifty years before could now be replaced by the visual detail projected by the camera of the inquiring photographer.

Conclusion Through most of the nineteenth century, periodicals for military and

74 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions naval officers ranged over a variety of interests. Their change from the early to the later decades tells us much about the evolution of the military profession. Until the last two decades, little attempt was made to reach men in the ranks or a civilian population beyond the lower middle class. Military periodicals were influenced in their content and form by the consequences for British society of the Crimean War, by subsequent European events, and by involvement in India and the empire during the last third of the century. But they reflected also the judgment made many years ago by Richard Altick that removal of the newspaper stamp duty in the 1850s, while it did not increase the number of working-class readers, did expand reading habits both in London and the provinces, which led to 'a striking increase in periodical publishing generally.'11 In this conducive environment, older military periodicals continued and new ones were founded, appealing to a growing public interest in the link between military and imperial questions. At the core of this diffusion there existed an articulate group of writers that tended to renew itself in each generation. Most were officers or former officers whose writing became more specialized with developing appreciation of professional knowledge. The influence of the Staff College, together with respect for the training of naval officers, for the education of the Royal Engineers and the Artillery, gradually enlarged the context in which military periodicals were produced and read. A didactic quality entered into much of this writing, which spilled over into other, non-military periodicals. Blackwood's virtually had a 'military staff in the 1860s and 1870s, headed by Colonel Edward Hamley of the Staff College; while the Nineteenth Century frequently printed articles by officers such as Sir John Miller Adye, reaching a larger public than he could through the JRUSI.12 By the end of the century, however, this professional focus on the officer as author and reader is but one part of the story. As the franchise expanded and education spread greater capacities for elementary literacy, new opportunities opened for the illustrated weekly. The Navy League Journal in its first issue of 1895, placing persuasion of 'Government and the Electorate' on its masthead, then stated more specifically: There is the working man to be converted. His clubs echo with socialistic denunciations ... of an imperial policy. He is only half convinced of the value of our Empire, and but a lukewarm supporter of naval budgets ... It is the duty of the better educated amongst us to go down into the market place and refute the sophistries of the blind leaders of the blind.

Military/75 Through such intents as these, the illustrated military and naval weekly maintained a purpose closely associated with the imperialist bias of the new mass circulation papers such as Harmsworth's Daily Mail. One effect was to reinforce the gradual reconciliation of the British public to the more visible presence of military and naval organizations. Another, less obvious, outcome was the positive encouragement of collegial feeling within distinct military groups, going beyond the regiment of the regular army to the auxiliary forces - the Volunteers, the Militia, the Yeomanry, the Naval Reserve, and eventually the Territorials of the Haldane Reforms. Discipline, loyalty, command, and organization were essential in holding these entities together, but the weekly magazine enhanced the consciousness of patriotic purpose by means of easy information and illustration. At the same time, its effect was to buttress the more specific professional function of the monthly periodical in sustaining for the officer class the continuity of progressive study in problems of national and imperial defence. Select Annotated List Most of the periodicals referred to in this essay are listed with location in two main catalogues, ULS and BUCOP. The most comprehensive collections are in the British Library, which holds complete runs of the military weeklies at Colindale. Many of these military weeklies are briefly described in Mitchell's. In North America the collections are uneven; only a few libraries hold complete sets of any one periodical. The Library of Congress, the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, and the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, all have uneven runs of nineteenth-century British military periodicals. Canada has a few substantial collections because of its colonial status through the nineteenth century. Indeed, one of the most remarkable collections in North America is housed in the library of the Royal Canadian Military Institute in Toronto, but scholars have restricted access and the library has no facilities for inter-library loan or for copying. More responsive to these services in Canada is the Departmental Reference Library, Department of National Defence, Ottawa. The National Army Museum in London, England, the Imperial War Museum, the Naval Museum at Greenwich, the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, and the Royal Military College in Kingston, Canada, all have select collections in small libraries that are accessible and responsive to requests for information or services.

76 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions Admiralty and Horse Guards Gazette. Illustrated. Published for fifteen years Nov 1884-Jan 1901. Location: Colindale. Not included in BUCOP Army and Navy Calendar. Published for twelve years 1881-93. Little more than a listing of information. Location: British Library, Reference Division Army and Navy Gazette. Weekly, first issued Jan 1860-1900*. Though subtitled the Journal of the Militia and Volunteer Forces, the catalogue at Colindale says it became 'an organ of imperial defence.' Later merged into the Army, Navy and Air Force Gazette. Locations: Colindale. Comprehensive set at the Naval Academy, Annapolis Army and Navy Magazine. Weekly. Published for seven years, 1880-8, by W.H. Allen and Co. Incorporated into the briefly published Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine, 1889-90 and then into the United Service Magazine, 1890. Locations: Colindale. Complete at the Naval Academy, Annapolis; at Yale, at Harvard, and at the Royal Canadian Military Institute, Toronto Army and Navy Register, and Woolwich Garrison Gazette. Monthl Published 1840-55 in 5 vols. Location: Colindale Brassey's Naval Annual. May also be referred to as Naval Annual. First published at Portsmouth in 1886, edited by Thomas, Earl Brassey, in order to bring together information found in various publications, including foreign ones. Locations: British Library; Library of the Department of National Defence, Ottawa. The Library of Congress has all but the first volume. British Army Despatch. A minor weekly expressing the views of a group of ex-army officers for the six years before the Crimean War, 1848-54. Location: Colindale British Soldier. A monthly that ran for 6 issues in 1852. Edited by Lt Col Hort. Ended under a name change as the Royal Military Magazine. Location: British Library Broad Arrow. Weekly. First published 1868. Became probably the most successful of the military weeklies during the last third of the century. Pub by W.L. Perks of St Martin's Lane. Merged with the Naval and Military Gazette in Feb 1886, and later with the Army

Military/77 and Navy Gazette. Locations: Colindale. Incomplete in Library of Congress and at the Naval Academy, Annapolis Hart's Annual Army List. Begun in 1840 by Lt Hart of the 49th Regiment. Its cost initially was kept to 12s in order that all officers might have access to what the United Service Journal said was an 'astonishing mass and variety of information.' Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine. Monthly, published by W.H. Allen and Co. to succeed its Army and Navy Magazine, but lasted for only 5 vols from 1889 to 1890. Location: Colindale Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. Monthly. Published continuously, 1857-1900*. See Robin Higham, Consolidated Author and Subject Index (Ann Arbor 1964). In addition to the microfilm edition of the Journal, there are complete collections in print at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, and at the Royal Canadian Military Institute in Toronto Military Chronicle (1811-6). Locations: British Library; Royal Canadian Military Institute, Toronto Military Magazine. Issued in only 4 nos for 1846-7. Location: British Library Military Panorama (Royal) (1812-14). Locations: British Library, Royal Canadian Military Institute Military Register (1814-22). Locations: British Library, Royal Canadian Military Institute Military Review (1852-3). Edited by Capt N.S. Shrapnel. Location: British Library Naval and Military Gazette. Weekly. First published Feb 1833. Edited until 1868 by Philippart. Merged with the Broad Arrow, 1886. Location: Colindale Naval and Military Magazine. The first significant military monthly, begun 1827, edited by Phillipart, and bought by Henry Colburn, 1829, who renamed it the United Service Journal. Locations: British Library; Naval Academy, Annapolis; Newberry Library, Chicago; Yale University Naval and Military Record and Royal Dockyards Gazette. Weekly. Published in Plymouth by E. Hawkings, beginning April 1886,

78 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions priced at Id. Offered news, information, and advertisements for all those serving in the dockyard area of Plymouth. Locations: Colindale. Almost complete for years 1886-94 in New York Public Library, and less complete in Library of Congress Naval Chronicle. Monthly. Begun 1799 and ended in 1818. A miscellany of general and biographical information on the Royal Navy. Bound in 40 vols. Locations: Complete in British Library and Guildhall Library. In North America the Reference Library of the City of Toronto, Canada, has a complete set, and the Buffalo Public Library holds vols 1-23. Naval Science. A quarterly for promoting naval architecture and marine engineering. Existed briefly, in 4 vols, from 1872-5. Locations: Complete at the Naval Academy, Annapolis; John Crerar Library, Chicago; Library of Congress; Yale University Navy League Journal. Monthly. July 1895-1900*, priced at 2d. It was the official organ of the Navy League, which appointed a naval historian as editor. The name was later changed to Navy, but the journal continued to be published by the Navy League, Westminster. Locations: British Library. For the years 1895-1900* there is a complete set in the City of Toronto Reference Library. Navy and Army Illustrated. Published fortnightly, beginning Dec 1895, at a price of 6d by Hudson and Kearns and by George Newnes Ltd. Locations: Complete in the British Library for 1895-1900*. Also in the Boston and New York Public Libraries. Royal Artillery. Minutes of Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution. Woolwich 1858-98. The first vol included proceedings from 1848 to 1857. It was followed by Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution. Woolwich, 1899-1900*. These essays and lectures were sometimes included in the Journal of the Royal Artillery, which began publication in 1873. Locations: Complete in the British Library, the Library of Congress, and in the John Crerar Library, Chicago Royal Engineer Journal. Monthly, beginning 1870. Privately printed by the Corps at Chatham, priced at 6d. Annual vols bound every three years Royal Engineers' Professional Papers. Published in annual vols after 1874

Military/79 United Service Gazette. Weekly. Began Feb 1833, published and edited by Alaric Watts. Bought by Andrew Spottiswoode, 1841. Location: Colindale United Service Institution, Cavalry Journal. Published 1858-1900*. Location: Complete at King's College, University of London United Service Journal. Monthly. Owned and published under this title by Henry Colburn 1829-42. For location, see United Service Magazine below. United Service Magazine. Monthly. From 1842 to 1890 it was generally referred to as Colburn's United Service Magazine; 18901900* as the United Service Magazine. Later it was incorporated into the new Army Quarterly. Locations: British Library. There are complete runs in the Boston and New York Public Libraries, the Naval Academy at Annapolis, the Enoch Pratt Library in Baltimore, and the Royal Canadian Military Institute in Toronto. Volunteer Service Gazette. Weekly. Oct 1859-1900*, priced at 3d. Officers of the Volunteer Rifle Corps were invited to correspond with the editor on details of their units, while the editor considered formation of the Volunteers 'one of the most healthful and hopeful developments of our national life.' Locations: Complete at Colindale, where the catalogue refers to it as the official organ of the Territorial Force, the National Rifle Association, and the Civilian Rifle Club movement. Woolwich. Jones' Woolwich Journal and Army and Navy Gazette, 1844-53, and Jackson's Woolwich Journal and Army and Navy Gazette, 1853-1900*. Monthly, published commercially for the general military readers in the garrison towns of Woolwich and Chatham. Location: Incomplete at Colindale

Notes 1 See M.W. Rosa, The Silver-Fork School (New York Columbia U.P. 1936), ch 10. 2 Henry Curwen, A History of Booksellers London: Chatto and Windus (1873). Repr with introduction and notes by Leslie Shepard (Detroit 1968), 292. 3 A.A. Watts, Alaric Watts, a Narrative (2 vols, 1884; repr New York 1977), ch 16.

80 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions 4 See J.H. Stocqueler, A Familiar History of the British Army (1871), ch 34. Here, Stocqueler paid eloquent tribute to the editorial career of Sir John Philippart. Since his founding and editing of the Military Panorama in 1812, 'periodicals devoted to the Army and Navy ... have become a sort of Institution' (219). 5 On the Staff College, see Brian Bond, The Victorian Army and the Staff College 1815-1914 (1972). 6 The JRUSI published decennial indexes from 1858 to 1905. These wer used and expanded by Robin Higham and K.C. Wing, eds, The Consolidated Author and Subject Index to the Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, 1857-1963 (Ann Arbor 1964). 7 Some historical papers on the founding of the Royal Artillery Institution were published in vol 1 of its Minutes of Proceedings (1858). 8 Russell's work as editor and owner of the Army and Navy Gazette was combined with fulfilling numerous assignments for the London Times. His range of contacts, from Thackeray to Wolseley to the Prince of Wales, and his membership in the Garrick Club, all gave to him excellent sources of information. See Alan Hankinson, Man of Wars (1982), 147-9, 228. 9 Hugh Cunningham, The Volunteer Force (1974), 3; and Patricia Morton, 'Another Victorian Paradox: Anti-Militarism in a Jingoistic Society,' Historical Reflections 8 (1981), 169-89. 10 There is a brief account by his son in F. Maurice, ed, Sir Frederick Maurice (1913), 75-6. 11 Richard Altick, The English Common Reader: A Social History of the Mass Reading Public (Chicago 1957), 344, 355-7. 12 Mrs Oliphant, Annals of a Publishing House: William Blackwood and His Sons, (1898; repr New York 1974), III, 266-303. Adye was only one officer; J.F. Maurice was another; and the Nineteenth Century was only one of the non-military periodicals in which officers published. Their writing can be traced in volume 5 of WI.

Science WILLIAM H. BROCK

Few people know the cost, time, toil, trouble, and determination necessary to "establish a magazine. This cost, toil and trouble have been borne by me, and that too through a period of my life when of all others I was least able to sustain it ... Special scientific periodicals cannot be increased in circulation like ordinary periodicals by advertisements. There are but so many geologists, and advertisements do not increase their number. S.J. Mackie, Geologist 5 (1862), Preface

When Thomas Hardy's astronomer Swithin St Cleeve makes his discovery of variable stars in Two on a Tower (1882), he sends copies of his report to the Greenwich Observatory (i.e. to the Astronomer Royal), the Royal Society, and, rather out of character for a Victorian gentleman of science, to a daily newspaper. In the event, St Cleeve finds himself forestalled by an American astronomer who has already described the phenomenon, again rather implausibly, in a pamphlet. Although St Cleeve's account would presumably have appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, Hardy, like all Victorian novelists, seems to have been unaware of the fact that already by the 1830s almost all initial scientific communication took place through specialist periodicals rather than books. Newspapers were beyond the pale. Even if H.G. Wells is spare in mentioning science periodicals to give contextual validity to his scientific romances - a reference to the Journal of Anatomy (1867-1900*) in The Plattner Story (1896) and to Nature (1869-1900+) in The First Men in the Moon (1901) - this does not mean that the literary, social, and cultural historian can ignore the scientific press. In his dazzling Darwin and the General Reader (1958; repr 1990), the pioneer of periodicals research, Alvar Ellegard,

82 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions showed, through the investigation of over one hundred newspapers and periodicals, how contemporaries received Darwin's theory. As both he and Elizabeth Fee in her doctoral thesis ('Science and the "Woman Question" 1860-1920. A Study of English Scientific Periodicals/ Princeton University, 1978) established, science journals provide 'a collective view of science.'

Popular Science Specialized, technical papers in science journals are, of course, grist to the mill of the professional historian of science; but for the general historian, science journals provide an entree into the woman question, education, public health, changing views of nature or animals, technology, progress, collectivism, international communications, and many other issues. Editorials frequently express views on these matters and other issues of the day, while correspondence provides a dynamic portrait of the concerns and attitudes of scientific readers. The tone of these periodicals provides insights into the development of disciplines and the professional distancing of the scientific community from other intellectual groups. Finally, there are many opportunities for further research into the history of individual periodicals, their editors, printers, the economics of publishing, distribution, and interrelationships. Fee herself exploited the contents of the heavyweight periodicals, the Anthropological Review, the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Mind, Man, the Journal of Mental Science, the Lancet, and the British Medical Journal, as well as a number of more general, popular journals such as Knowledge (1881-1900*) and Science Gossip (1865-1900*)- The latter journals have also featured in three British doctoral studies concerned with the popularization of science in Victorian Britain: D.A. Hinton, 'Popular Science in Britain 1830-1870' (University of Bath 1980); Julie Ann Lancashire, 'An Historical Study of the Popularisation of Science in General Science Periodicals in Britain, c. 1890-C.1939' (University of Kent, Canterbury 1988), and Peter Broks, 'Science and the Popular Press 1890-1914' (University of Lancaster 1988). Both Lancashire and Broks use Gramsci's concept of hegemony to underpin their arguments. Broks's study of science from below - that is, viewing science as integral to popular culture rather than regarding it as always diffused downwards in diluted form by professional scientists - is particularly innovatory and includes detailed analyses of the ways in which themes such as the

Science / 83 environment, progress, nature, and race were treated in magazines such as Good Words (1860-1900+) and Pearson's Weekly (1890-1900+). The latter is the subject of Broks's essay, 'Science, the Press and Empire: Pearson's publications, 1890-1914' in John M. Mackenzie, ed, Imperialism and the Natural World (1990). A complementary analysis of what she describes as low science' journals, such as Mechanics Magazine (1824-73), formed the subject of Susan Sheets-Pyenson's University of Pennsylvania dissertation, 'Low Scientific Culture in London and Paris 1820-1875' (1976). This will be discussed below. A similar approach, using radical and anti-establishment journals, formed the subject of W.H. Brock, 'British Science Periodicals and Culture 1820-1950,' VPR 31 (1988), 47-55. The value of such an approach, albeit in concentrating on the radical medical press and its establishment rivals, has been brilliantly demonstrated by Adrian Desmond, The Politics of Evolution. Morphology, Medicine and Reform in Radical London (1989). Other scholars have treated the theme of popularization by examining particular journals, as have the following doctoral dissertations: Thomas Hyde Cooke 'Science, Philosophy and Culture in the Early Edinburgh Review 1802-1929' (University of Pittsburgh 1976); Don De Vere Walker, 'The Popular Science Monthly, 1872-1878: A Study in the Dissemination of Scientific Ideas in America' (University of Minnesota 1956); and William Edward Leverette Jr, 'Science and Values: A Study of Edward L. Youmans' Popular Science Monthly (Vanderbilt University 1963). Louisa M. Newman has also compiled an anthology of articles from the Popular Science Monthly, with commentary, entitled Men's Ideas/Women's Realities! Popular Science 1870-1915 (1985). Although it only covers the beginning of the century, David M. Bickerton, Marc-Auguste and Charles Pictet, the Bibliotheque Britannique (1796-1815) and the Dissemination of British Literature of Science on the Continent (Geneva 1986) offers a most suggestive model for mid- and late-Victorian studies of the ways English journals were gutted for scientific information by overseas editors.

Special Problems The study of scientific periodicals presents some special problems. Unlike most humanities journals, back runs are either in storage or have been disposed of to make shelf room for their relentless annual growth. The would-be user will often find that a scholarly library's

84 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions runs of science periodicals are incomplete because the institution did not begin science teaching and research until long after its foundation. Issues may also be missing, and almost invariably the original covers, and therefore prices and advertisements, have been destroyed in binding. The researcher must therefore use libraries which specialize in the history of science and pay close attention to Union Catalogues. Several important nineteenth-century journals are available on microfiche produced as the second series of Landmarks of Science by Microprint Publications.

Commercial versus Society Publications W.H. Brock has estimated, in The Development of Commercial Science Journals in Victorian Britain' in A. J. Meadows, ed, Development of Science Publishing in Europe (1980), that over 60 per cent of the science periodicals launched during the nineteenth century were commercial ventures rather than the transactions and reports of the proceedings of scientific societies. Possibly because they have been more concerned with the origins of scientific periodicals in the seventeenth century, historians of science have implied that science journals - with the honourable exceptions of Philosophical Magazine and Nature - have been society-sponsored. Thus, they have overlooked the overwhelming significance of commercial journals during the Victorian period. These served a number of important functions. They speeded up publication at times when the proceedings of learned societies appeared intermittently, or only once or twice a year; they provided intelligence of science in foreign journals for those who had no access to large libraries or whose gift for languages was weak; they aired controversies and allowed the issues involved to be resolved promptly; they accepted for publication the minor, and sometimes trivial, research or 'anti-establishment' science with which learned societies could not, or would not, be bothered, thereby continuing to cater for the popular 'amateur' market for science when it was undergoing the rigour of specialization; on the other hand, they often accepted for publication original findings or theoretical speculations that were considered unorthodox by the councils and referees of scientific societies. In all these respects commercial science journals kept the scientific societies on their toes, broke the monopolies of their publications, made them less authoritarian and cliquish than they would have liked to be.

Science / 85 Brock's essay examines the proliferation of these commercial journals following the lifting of the restraints posed by stamp duties, advertisement tax, postage rates, and the legal copyright on lectures. The essay draws particular attention to the English Mechanic (18651900+), the Laboratory (1867), and the stable of important journals printed, published, and edited by Richard Taylor and William Francis. The latter form the focus for a fuller treatment in W.H. Brock and A.J. Meadows, The Lamp of Learning: Taylor and Francis and the Development of Science Publishing (1984). A.J. Meadows' aforementioned Development of Science Publishing, composed in honour of the centenary of the Dutch publishers Elsevier, also contains original research by A.J. Meadows, 'Access to the Results of Scientific Research: Developments in Victorian Britain'; Jean G. Shaw, 'Patterns of Journal Publishing in Scientific Natural History from 1800 to 1939'; and May F. Katzen, "The Changing Appearance of Research Journals in Science and Technology. An Analysis and a Case Study.' Katzen's case is The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society which she uses to demonstrate how science journals slowly reached a consensus concerning their printed format and style of referencing. These and other matters, including the development of refereeing, are dealt with more generally by A. J. Meadows, Communication in Science (1974). Meadows has also discussed the evolution of graphics (diagrams, graphs, photographs) in scientific articles (Publishing Research Quarterly 1 [1991], 23-32. From his brief remarks it is clear this is a topic that would repay detailed research. The Growth of Scientific Periodicals Prior to the first recognizable scientific periodical, the Parisian Journal de Savans (1665-1792), scientific and medical ideas were largely circulated through pamphlets and theses (H.B. Bayon, 'William Harvey, Physician and Biologist: His Precursors, Opponents and Successors,' Annals of Science 3 [1938], 59-118). In the eighteenth century, under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, the scientific research paper emerged as a literary genre. As Frederic L. Holmes has argued in 'Arguments and Narrative in Scientific Writing' in Peter Dear, ed, The Paper Laboratory: Textual Strategies, Literary Genres and Disciplinary Traditions in the History of Science (1990), the key to the research paper was its presentation 'of the author's most recent contribution to a limited set of problems' rather

86 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions than 'a didactic treatment of a broad subject matter.' For Derek de Solla Price in his Little Science, Big Science (1963) and Science since Babylon (1975), 'the invention of the scientific journal and the device of the learned paper' was at once 'the most distinctive and fundamental innovation of the Scientific Revolution.' The number of journals then grew rapidly and exponentially so that there were about one hundred by 1800, one thousand by the middle of the nineteenth century, and ten thousand by 1900. Even in 1830, therefore, no science practitioner could hope to read all of the scientific press, even if that had been desirable and complete access possible. Annual reports of the progress of science, such as that given single-handedly by the chemist Jons Berzelius to the Swedish Academy of Sciences (Arsberdttelse om Framstegen i Physik och Kemie, 30 vols, 1822-49) and translated into German (Jahresbericht tiber die Fortschritte der physischen Wissenschaften, 29 vols, 1822-51), therefore became significant ways of controlling this scientific stream and of 'keeping up with the literature.' There were, however, awkward delays between the appearance of the Swedish originals and the more readable German version. Abstraction Equally significant for science was the abstract journal, or the appearance of abstracts of foreign literature in the proceedings of scientific societies. This is the subject of an important study by Bruce M. Manzer, The Abstract Journal 1792-1920: Origin, Development and Diffusion (1977). Since, as with the London Chemical Society in the 1880s, abstracts of what were considered innovatory papers are often virtual translations, these journals, or sections of journals, can be of tremendous help in periodicals research. Manzer shows that although abstracting began long before the Victorian period and was not, of course, confined to science, it grew rapidly after 1800 in response 'to the subject specialists' needs for current information amid the rising tide of periodical publication and the inability of the library as an institution to deal with their information needs.' Thus the pharmacists devised their Pharmaceutisches Centralblatt (1830-55, later Chemisches Zentralblatt, 1855-1900*), the zoologists a Zoological Record (1864-1900+), the physicists Physics Abstracts (1895-7; later Science Abstracts, 1897-1900*), and the chemists Chemical Abstracts (1900*)- Although these publications were sometimes begun by individual sponsors, or even governments (like the Bulletin des sciences

Science / 87 mathematiques, 1870-1900*), they rapidly became the responsibility of learned societies. Price notes the irony that the number of abstract journals themselves grew exponentially, one being founded for roughly every three hundred conventional science periodicals. That abstracts did not solve the problem for scientists remote from libraries is clear from correspondence in Nature, in which readers urged learned societies (and, by implication, commercial publishing houses) to sell offprints. 'Abstracts ... he may see/ one reader complained; Taut these only serve to remind him that if he would get the original memoir for himself, he must purchase with it matter which is useless to him' (Nature 10 [1874], 244; see also Nature 1 [1869-70], 507 and 8 [1873], 506).

Indexes to Articles Manzer provides lists, chronologies, analysis, and statistical breakdowns of abstracting services, as well as a briefer account of another important Victorian bibliographical control which remains useful to the historian, the index to publications. The most important of these was, and is, that suggested by Joseph Henry in a paper given to the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1855 and brought to fruition by the Royal Society between 1867 and 1925. The Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers, which is to be found in all large science libraries, has been reprinted (1965). Besides revealing the 'complete' or virtually complete periodical writings of a Victorian scientist, the catalogue usually lists the appearance of reprints and translations in different journals, thus facilitating the task of finding a given text, as well as providing a rough measure of a paper's perceived contemporary significance. Entries range from singularities to the prolific, with Thomson (Lord Kelvin), having 660 entries, and the mathematician Arthur Cayley 856. The Royal Society's quarto catalogue appeared in four sequences: volumes 1-6 (covering 1800-63) appeared between 1867 and 1872; volumes 7-8 (covering 1864-73) appeared between 1864 and 1873 and began to include obituary notices; volumes 9-11 (covering 1874— 83) were published between 1891 and 1896 and included in the ninth volume (1891) a cumulative list of all the periodicals scanned in the work's preparation; volume 12 (1902) covered the whole period 1800 to 1883 for some 350 previously unindexed periodicals; the final series of volumes 13 to 19, covering the literature published between 1884 and 1900, was published by the Cambridge University Press,

88 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions using a smaller typeface, between 1914 and 1925. The thirteenth volume (1914) carries a huge list of abbreviations of journal titles which adequately conveys an awesome sense of this enormous undertaking. From these bibliographical details it will be obvious that, when tracing an author's works, information must be sought in more than one volume. Unfortunately, the advent of the First World War led to the abandonment of plans to issue a subject index, 1800 to 1900. Those lists that were published on pure mathematics, mechanics, electricity, and magnetism are probably of limited use to the historian.

Periodicals Directories Earlier, the Royal Society issued a Catalogue of the Scientific Books in the Library of the Royal Society, Transactions, Journals, Observatories and Reports, Surveys, Museums (1881). This volume is particularly useful today, since, like the British Library's Catalogue of Printed Books' entries for periodicals, the listings are arranged alphabetically by place of publication. In this way the historian can gain insight into the extent of provincial, as opposed to metropolitan, publishing activity. As a further outgrowth of this Catalogue, the Royal Society also issued an International Catalogue of Scientific Literature: List of Journals (1903), which usefully summarizes the international state of science periodicals at the end of the nineteenth century. This may be compared with the first edition of the World List of Scientific Periodicals (1925). Note, however, that the World List did not include Victorian journals that had ceased publication by 1925. Informative on editors and places of publication, and sometimes printers, is Henry Carrington Bolton, A Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals, 1665-1885 (2nd ed 1885; repr 1965). A few American science journals omitted by Bolton were later listed by William J. Fox in the Bulletin of Bibliography 5 (1908), 82-5. Bolton worked on a large scale, but did not always supersede S.H. Scudder, Catalogue of Scientific Serials, 1633-1876 (1879; repr 1965), who included institutional periodicals. When periodical citations were still given unsystematically in the literature and when science journals could expand to occupy half a dozen volumes a year, much confusion was caused to librarians asked to supply a reference. Both Scudder and Bolton produced synchronous tables that log volume numbers

Science / 89 against year of publication of different periodicals. Today's periodicals researcher will still find this information useful. Other, more specialized, librarians' lists include the Catalogue of the Science Library in the South Kensington Museum (1891). This important collection of books and journals evolved from the exhibition of science books arranged by the Society of Arts in 1854, supplemented by those added by the government's Department of Science and Art. Today the Science Museum Library at South Kensington houses one of the finest collections of Victorian science periodicals in the world. The original Catalogue lists fifty pages of periodicals arranged under cities and towns of publication. Editor's names are included in many instances. The similar Catalogue of the Library of the Chemical Society (1886) interestingly separates institutional and commercial periodicals. For the biological sciences the List of Serial Publications in the British Museum (Natural History) Library (1969) is particularly valuable, though it should be noted that, as the library is private, scholars have to obtain special permission to use it. Of twentieth-century directories, the most important are the location aids BUCOP and ULS. Between them these locate some 140,000 current and discontinued titles in 440 British and 600 North American libraries. Such union lists are particularly helpful in tracing and understanding the often bewildering changes of title and ownership undergone by science periodicals. They can also be a financial boon to the impecunious scholar, since they will often suggest the value of visiting a local collection in a smaller city than London, Washington, or New York. Maureen J. Fowler's Guides to Scientific Periodicals (1966) contains a complete list of such national and regional guides. Although her guide was dedicated to the contemporary scientist, it is an entry point for work on non-British, non-American science periodicals. For example, from Fowler we learn that C. Daphne Saul, ed, South African Periodical Publications 1880-1875 (1949) describes 210 discontinued Victorian science periodicals. The indexing of individual Victorian science periodicals was usually good. Unfortunately, only rarely were they cumulatively indexed, and the historian must particularly lament the absence of indexes to Nature and the Philosophical Magazine. Two Journals that were cumulatively indexed were the Chemical News (1912) and the Proceedings of the Royal Society (1913). Charles Mollan's Nostri Plena Laboris (1987) is an author/subject index to all the scientific journals issued by the Royal Dublin Society between 1800 and 1985.

90 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions The availability of indexes is one of the few useful pieces of information ignored in the otherwise exemplary study by Robert Mortimer Gascoigne, A Historical Catalogue of Scientific Periodicals 1665-1900 (1985), which complements his Historical Catalogue of Scientists and Scientific Books from the Earliest Times to the Close of the Nineteenth Century (1984). As a professional historian of science, rather than a librarian, Gascoigne based his selection of periodicals upon what he describes as 'the degree to which [they] were used as a means of publication by the scientists of the time.' For the nineteenth century this degree was derived by counting the references to individual periodicals in the Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers, using a 10 per cent sample. A processed figure, roughly speaking the average number of references to a journal per annum, was then used to define the relative ranking of a journal. A journal with nine or less was a category 1 periodical, and one with over one thousand citations per annum was category 20. Although Gascoigne uses his historical judgment so as not to exclude important, though rarely cited, journals, or such journals as Scientific American (1845-1900*), which the Royal Society's cataloguers ignored, his list generally omits periodicals that were cited fewer than five times a year. According to such computation, the most important scientific periodicals in, for example, 1864, corresponding to between 100 and 599 citations, were Comptes Rendus (1835-1900+), Philosophical Magazine (1798-1900+), American Journal of Science (1818-1900*), the Reports of the British Association (1832-19004), and the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy (1848-1900*). The ranking is less bizarre when done by subject, where Gascoigne finds (again for 1864) that the most important journal for astronomy was Astronomische Nachrichten (18231900*), for physics Annalen der Physik (1790-1900*), for chemistry Journal fur praktische Chemie (1834-1900*), and for geology Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society (1845-1900+). The predominance of German commercial journals is striking and a reminder that research on Victorian science periodicals cannot be confined to the English-language press. It is also interesting to compare Gascoigne's findings with those of John Martin and Alan Gilchrist in An Evaluation of British Scientific Journals (1968), where use of the cont porary Science Citation Index showed that a century later, in 1964, nine of the top dozen British science journals had been founded before the twentieth century. They were, in rank order, Nature (1869-1900*), Lancet (1823-1900*), Journal of the Chemical Society (1841-1900*), British Medical Journal (1840-1900*), Journal of .

Science / 91 Physiology (1878-1900*), Proceedings of the Chemical Society (1885-1900+), Proceedings of the Royal Society (1837-1900+), Chemistry and Industry (1881-1900*), and Philosophical Magazine (1798-1900+). (It should be noted that the history of the British Medical (Journal has now appeared: P.W.J. Bartrip, Mirror of Medicine: A History of the British Medical Journal, 1990.) Gascoigne's important study includes first-rate essays on the development of science periodicals in general and in particular. There is also a helpful short bibliography. Although it does not cover the nineteenth century, David A. Kronick's A History of Scientific and Technical Periodicals: The Origins and Development of the Scientific and Technological Press 1665-1790 (1962; 2nd ed 1976) offers a stimulating overview of the bibliographic, sociological, and historical approaches that can be taken to the history of science periodicals, as well as their economics and mechanics of production. Another useful overview is provided by John L. Thornton and R.I.J. Tully, Scientific Books, Libraries and Collectors: A Study of Bibliography and the Book Trade in Relation to Science (1954; 2nd ed 1962). In addition to carrying a concise essay on the science periodical, with references to the secondary literature, Thornton and Tully provide information on Victorian science publishers in Britain, France, Germany, and the United States which is otherwise difficult to locate. The following sections supplement and update studies cited by Thornton and Tully and Gascoigne, which remain the best introductions to the subject. Bernard Houghton's Scientific Periodicals, Their Historical Development, Characteristics and Control (1975) has two brief historical chapters of no significant value. National Studies The monograph on German chemical journals by Horst Harff, Die Entwicklung der deutschen chemischen Fachzeitschrift (Berlin 1941), has been supplemented by the sociological study The Formation of the German Chemical Community, 1720-1795 (1982) by Karl Hufbauer. The latter pays particular attention to Lorentz Crell (1745-1816), the founding editor of the Chemisches Journal (1778-1804). As the monthly Chemische Annalen, which it became in 1784, Crell's journal formed a model not only for other chemical periodicals but for science discipline journals generally. For a complete guide to the publishing history of German science periodicals, see Joachim Kirchner, ed, Die Zeitschriften des deutschen Sprachgebietes von den Anfdngen bis 1830

92 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions (Stuttgart 1969). This lists scientific, medical, and technical journals, with editors' names when known. Two further volumes edited by Krichner and Hans Jessen cover the periods 1831-70 (1977) and 1871-1900 (1977). A general American study is Mathew D. Whalen and Mary F. Toben, 'Periodicals and the Popularization of Science in America, 1860-1910,' Journal of American Culture 3 (1980), 195-203. Australian periodicals are the subject of pioneering essays by Gabriela M.M. Stephenson, 'Australian Scientific Journalism in the Nineteenth Century: Then and Now,' Riverina Library Review (Wagga Wagga, NSW) 5:4 (1988); and Ed Newland, 'Forgotten Early Australian Journals of Science and Their Editors,' Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society 72 (1986), 59-68. Both contain information on the Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Dieman's Land (1849-59) issued by the Philosophical Society that flourished in Hobart during the cruel days of transportation when Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania) was a penal colony. Ireland had its own scientific schools in the nineteenth century and possessed a productive scientific press. This was the subject of T.P.C. Kirpatrick, 'The Periodical Publications of Science in Ireland,' Bibliographical Society of Ireland 2 (1921), 33-58. This can be supplemented by Mollan's previously mentioned index, Nostri Plena Laboris, and by WDll.

Natural History Susan Sheets-Pyenson's University of Pennsylvania dissertation, 'Low Scientific Culture in London and Paris 1820-1875' (1976), is an original study of the Victorian popular science presented in low' journals which, like Science Gossip (1865-1900*), sought 'to establish their own canons of scientific investigation, criticism and explanation.' The main elements of the thesis are also available in her article 'Popular Science Periodicals in Paris and London: Low Scientific Culture 1820-75,' Annals of Science 42 (1985), 549-72. Science Gossip is also the focus of Mary P. English's richly documented and fascinating life of its founder-editor, the mycologist Mordecai Cubitt Cooke (Mordecai Cubitt Cooke, 1987). English has also examined the activities of Cooke's partner, Robert Hardwicke, in 'Robert Hardwicke 1822-75. Publisher of Biological and Medical Books,' Annals of Natural History 13 (1986), 25-37. Susan Sheets-Pyenson has exploited the papers of the editors of the Annals and Magazine of Natural History (1838-1900*) in 'A Measure of Success: The Publication of Natural

Science / 93 History Journals in Early Victorian Britain,' Publishing History 9 (1981), 21-36 and 'From the North to Red Lion Court: The Creation and Early Years of the Annals of Natural History,' Archives of Natural History 10 (1981), 221-49. The former article reveals a great deal concerning the economics of publishing. The papers of William Jardine, one of the Annals' editors, are housed at the Royal Scottish Museum in Edinburgh and will repay further study, as Brock and Meadows' Lamp of Learning has shown. The debt that Charles Darwin owed to natural history periodicals is the subject of SheetsPyenson's 'Darwin's Data: His Reading of Natural History Journals, 1837-1842,' Journal of the History of Biology 14 (1981), 231-48. Sheets-Pyenson has also exploited the correspondence of Henry Woodward (1832-1900*), the editor of the Geological Magazine (18641900*), successor to the popular Geologist (1858-64), in her 'Geological Connection in the Nineteenth Century: The Ellen S. Woodward Collection of McGill University/ Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Historical Series 10 (1982), 179-226. An extensive account of microscopy journals in Britain, Germany and America is the subject of W.H. Brock, 'Patronage and Publishing: Journals of Microscopy 1839-1989,' in Journal of Microscopy 155 (1989), 249-66. This includes a list of over fifty Victorian periodicals from Britain, America, and the Continent devoted to the instrument which formed a link between the amateur naturalist and the professional biologist and physician. Brock discusses Alfred Allen's enterprising Postal Microscopical Society, which caused Allen to launch a Journal of Microscopy in 1882. In 1890 Allen amalgamated this with the ailing Journal of the Wesley Naturalists' Society (1887-90), which is the subject of a good article by Stuart Andrews in History Today 21 (1971), 810-17. Finally, the popular mid-Victorian Naturalist (1851-1900*), edited by the anti-Darwinist B.R. Morris, has been the subject of two articles by E.G. Brayford 'The Predecessors of The Naturalist, a Critical Survey,' Naturalist (Sept 1940), 228-32; and 'Some Notes on the History of The Naturalist,' Naturalist (Aug 1940), 203-4. The Victorian park and garden, which figures so frequently in Victorian novels, owed much to the gardening couple Jane and John Claudius Loudon. J.C. Loudon (1783-1843) was a prolific writer for, and editor of, gardening and botanical journals, including the important Gardener's Magazine (1826-44). His journalism is considered by Ray Desmond in 'Loudon and Nineteenth-Century Horticultural Journalism' in Elizabeth MacDougall, ed, John Claudius Loudon

94 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions (1981). Desmond, who also contributes a valuable 'British NineteenthCentury Gardening Periodicals: A Chronological List' to this volume, has published a commercial history of Curtis' Botanical Magazine (1787-1900+) under the title A Celebration of Flowers: Two Hundred Years of 'Curtis's Botanical Magazine' (1987). Editors and Particular Journals In the absence of regular academic positions, several important British scientists, notably Brewster, Lockyer, and Crookes, earned their livings through scientific journalism. The journalistic activities of Sir David Brewster (1781-1868), a Scots physicist who made important contributions to optics and who edited his own Edinburgh Journal of Science, is the subject of an essay by W.H. Brock in A. Morrison-Low and J.R.R. Christie, eds, David Brewster: Martyr of Science (1984). This volume also contains a comprehensive bibliography of Brewster's writings by Alison Morrison-Low, which demonstrates how Brewster spread his original research and his prolific reviewing through the network of the Victorian quarterlies as well as the specialized scientific press. Besides the major study by Brock and Meadows (in Lamp of Learning) of Richard Taylor and William Francis, the editors of Philosophical Magazine, Annals of Natural History, and many other science periodicals, the founding editor of Nature (1869) is the subject of a major biography, Science and Controversy: A Biography of Sir Norman Lockyer (1972) by A.J. Meadows. The Centenary of Nature also produced informative essays by R.M. MacLeod and G. Werskey on its predecessors and Lockyer's various editorial campaigns to professionalize science (Nature 224 [1969], 423-61). These accounts have been supplemented by David A. Roos, 'The Aims and Intentions of Nature' in J. Paradis and Thomas Postlewait, eds, Victorian Science and Victorian Values: Literary Perspectives (1981). Roos challenges MacLeod's assumption, and that of R.M. Young, 'Natural Theology, Victorian Periodicals and the Fragmentation of the Common Context' in his Darwin's Metaphor (1985), that Nature's publication marked 'the larger cultural fragmentation' between the arts and sciences. Instead Roos presents a case that, like Discovery (1920-66), Nature was originally intended 'to mediate between increasingly diverse and sometimes antagonistic segments of late Victorian society.' In the 1960s, MacLeod used a marked file in Nature's London offices to identify the authors of its 'first leaders.' His findings were issued in

Science / 95 typescript as 'Chronological Listing of Nature's First Leaders' (University of Sussex 1971). Copies exist at the universities of Sussex and Sydney, as well as in private hands. Nature's weekly American counterpart Science (1883-1900+) is the subject of Sally G. Kohlstedt's article 'Science: The Struggle for Survival 1880-94,' Science 209 (1980), 33-42. This examines the journal during the difficult period prior to its becoming the official organ of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900, and reveals the role of the inventor Thomas A. Edison in its foundation. The same centenary issue of Science contains Michael M. Sokal's 'Science and James McKeen Cattell, 1894 to 1945' (pp 43-52), which concerns its transformation into America's leading scientific journal. For an earlier period of American history, Simon Baatz has shown in 'Squinting at Silliman: Scientific Periodicals in the Early American Republic,' Isis 82 (1991), 223-44, how Benjamin Silliman used the American Journal of Science to forge a national community of American scientists from the distinctive local communities of savants in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. The many journalistic activities of the chemist Sir William Crookes (1832-1919) deserve study. As the founding editor of the Chemical News (1859-1900+) and the Quarterly Journal of Science (1864-85), in which he publicized his own investigations into spiritualistic phenomena, Crookes possessed a sound commercial sense as well as being an important and talented contributor to late-Victorian chemistry and physics. The bare bones of his extremely successful editorial activities can be gleaned from E.E. Fournier d'Albe, The Life of Sir William Crookes (1923), but there is more to be learned from detailed archival work on Crookes's correspondence and a thorough analysis of the periodicals he edited. See also William H. Brock's The Chemical News, 1859-1932,' Bulletin of the History of Chemistry 12 (1992), 30-4. This kind of analysis has been done for the papers and correspondence of the German physical chemist Wilhelm Ostwald, the founding editor of the Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie (18771900+). In his Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie. Hundert Jahre Wechselwirkung zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Kommunikationsmedium und Gesellschaft (Herzberg 1990), Thomas Hapke examines Ostwald's sometimes tense relationship with his Leipzig publisher, Wilhelm Engelmann, and provides detailed information on the journal's size, cost, and contents. The founder-editor of the American Astronomical Journal (184960), Benjamin Gould, has been the subject of an essay by D.B. Herr-

96 / Victorian Periodicals and the Professions mann, who explores the periodical's German antecedants in Journal of the History of Astronomy 2 (1971), 98-108.

Trade Press One of the great uncharted areas of Victorian periodicals research concerns science and technology in the trade and business press. The exemplary study by David P. Forsyth, The Business Press in America 1750-1865 (1964), is a model for an equivalent study of British journals, like the Chemist and Druggist (1859-1900*). Forsyth's book includes accounts of the Useful Cabinet (1808), the Journal of the Franklin Institute (1826-1900+), the New York Mechanic (1840), the Scientific American (1845-19004), and a host of mining, mineralogical, gas-lighting, and druggists' journals. Not the least important aspect of Forsyth's study is the attention he pays to publishers' costs, advertising, circulations, production, and distribution.

Conclusion In 1824, William Stevenson presented a strong case for a reciprocal influence between periodicals and the intellectual progress of the nation: 'Periodical publications are a surer index of the state of progress of the mind, than works of a higher character' (Blackwood's Magazine 16 [1824], 518-28). Although Stevenson was referring to the stream of general and special-interest journals that were gushing from the steam presses, his remark has particular resonance for the scientific press. The Victorian age saw the sciences establish a vigorous tradition of research and a hegemonic position within the state, its industries, and its educational system. During its period of professionalization throughout the century, science came to replace theology and philosophy as the supreme example of human intellectual endeavour and, in the process, fragmented what had once been a world view shared by educated people into dozens of specialized subjects. All this was reflected in, and argued through, the Victorian scientific press. Like so many other areas of Victorian periodicals research, this particular golden stream lacks adequate charts and maps; but as a fundamental measure of the pulse of Victorian intellectual life, research on nineteenth-century science periodicals offers challenges, excitement, and excellent opportunities for interdisciplinarity.

PART TWO

Victorian Periodicals and the Arts

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Music LEANNE LANGLEY

The musical press of nineteenth-century Britain is rich and multifarious. Over the period 1800-1900, some two hundred music journals were brought out in England, Scotland, and Wales, and included every imaginable type from music society annuals to music hall weeklies; some had music as a supplementary feature. During the same period, most daily and weekly newspapers carried a regular column on music, while general magazines and quarterly literary reviews published at a more leisurely pace much of the best musical literature available, in the form of essays and book reviews. A further category is the periodical consisting wholly of printed music, designed for domestic singers and players rather than for readers. Publications from all these groups might be relevant to a single research path; each group is described more fully below. Until recently, this vast field of material remained largely untouched by scholars. Not only were reference tools few or unreliable, but to professional music historians almost any nineteenthcentury subject seemed less 'legitimate' than, say, a Renaissance or Baroque one. An even more powerful deterrent has been the weak music-creative tradition associated particularly with nineteenthcentury Britain: the study of great composers used to be the standard backbone of an academic training in music, and there simply are not many English specimens, at least no internationally recognized ones, between Purcell and Elgar.1 Since the late 1970s, however, the methodology of musicology has been widening and changing. Important inroads have been made by scholars interested in all kinds of nineteenth-century music, in music as cultural history, and in historical performance. Such scholars have

100 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts turned increasingly to the musical press for fact and opinion. If the English were not major producers, they were still the most broadly sophisticated musical consumers in Europe; they liked making and listening to music, and they loved reading and writing about it. Indeed, historians now ignore the nineteenth-century musical press at their peril. If one is making a performing edition of Haydn's Creation, for example, the Harmonicon's report of the 1831 Derby Festival might serve as primary evidence, since it was written by someone with direct knowledge of Haydn's intentions for the work. In similar fashion, a host of musical activities, people, and facts can be documented using press sources, such as the establishment and repertory of chamber music concerts in London, the identity of a now-forgotten acquaintance or song mentioned in a Dickens letter, the appearances of celebrated musical visitors to England (Hummel, Spohr, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Verdi, Berlioz, Wagner, Liszt, Gounod, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky), even the development of music trade unions or the sale of domestic pianos. More tantalizing to many is the review of a premiere, hinting at the ambience of an important musical event or confidently pronouncing on a new work in vivid or trenchant language. Reviews are not only fairly easy to locate, they also offer apt quotations and lend authority to modern discussion. But though scholarly interest in this material is clearly growing, the scope has mostly been limited to isolated searches of the kinds just mentioned. Systematic work on the sources themselves, including bibliographic description, production methods, content, audience, and critical evaluation, has hardly started. Perhaps this is natural, given the bulk of the material and the perception that it is peripheral to real music. Few musicologists or musicographers, Anglophiles included, want to spend hours on end reading a Victorian music journal through; much of the information may be unreliable, and as literature or criticism it could well be third-rate. For this reason, the attributions work so intriguing to other Victorianists seems not only impossibly difficult but irrelevant, and the publisher's history dry in the extreme. Yet thanks to some dedicated work on music journals, such assumptions are being successfully challenged. New reference tools have finally begun to make basic groundwork practical, and, not least important, communication with scholars in more mature areas of periodicals research is rapidly improving. At this preliminary stage, observations on the body of musical press material in nineteenthcentury Britain may be summarized in three general areas: (1) its

Music/101 early and strong dependence on literary publishing traditions, such as trade support from the bookselling industry; (2) the gradual development of music journalism as a profession in its own right; and (3) the journals' reflection of the vitality of Victorian musical life across the century. Music Journals By the early Victorian period, an English journal consisting exclusively of literature about music, or nearly so, was no longer the rarity it had once been. This was due both to the increased availability of affordable sheet music (instrumental pieces as well as songi) and to a genuine rise in demand for music information. Broadly, there were two levels of general-interest music journals up to about 1870: one for the public, or amateur practitioners wanting instruction, guidance, and encouragement, such as the Musical Times and Singing Class Circular (1844-1900+), and another for the profession - teachers, scholars, and tradespeople - who wanted history, comment, and lots of news, such as the Musical World (1836-91). In the 1850s and 1860s, as music making became ever more closely allied with educational, religious, and social goals, the separate interests of public and profession became less distinct, and a certain monochrome utilitarianism set in, concerned with practical music for the front parlour, the organ or choir loft, and the community chorus. Regular concert- and opera-going remained largely inaccessible except to the few. After about 1870 any simple two-part division for generalinterest journals breaks down; more amateurs developed wider and more discriminating interests, and British music professionals - a heterogeneous group anyway - were in turn stimulated by them, as well as by new teaching opportunities, better scholarship, and greater openness to German influence. Some of the best musical minds in the country wrote for Augener's Monthly Musical Record (1871-1900*), for example, bridging education and performance and bringing a refreshingly positive view of European developments, while dozens of special-interest groups, amateur, professional, or both, began to trumpet their own journals. Titles came out serving every creed from Gregorianists, Nonconformists, Wagnerians, and lutenists, to piano dealers, string players, bellringers, brass band enthusiasts, and music hall artists. If one plots the journal start-ups by decade, a lull in the 1850s, 1860s, and 1870s is followed by an explosion in the 1880s and 1890s.

102 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts Discussion of representative music journals in many of these categories may be found in the annotated list at the end of this chapter, and in Leanne Langley, 'The Musical Press in Nineteenth-Century England/ Notes 46 (1990), 583-92, a publication of the Music Library Association. For historical background, aspects of production, authorship, and readership generally, the same author's dissertation, 'The English Musical Journal in the Early Nineteenth Century' (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 1983), is a fundamental source; coverage stops at 1845 but treats the subject in the context of English periodic writing on music in both musical and non-musical journals from the seventeenth century. The treatment of historical English titles in International Music Journals (New York 1990), a handbook edited by Linda M. Fidler and Richard S. James, is superficial at best, more often misleading or inaccurate. Very few studies of individual music titles have appeared. The Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review and the Harmonicon are treated at length in separate chapters in the Langley dissertation just mentioned; the Harmonicon's business history is covered in Langley, 'The Life and Death of The Harmonicon: An Analysis,' Research Chronicle of the Royal Musical Association 22 (1989), 137-63. The Musical Times, apart from anniversary articles in its own pages (1894) and in the centenary survey by Percy A. Scholes, The Mirror of Music, 1844-1944: A Century of Musical Life in Britain As Reflected in the Pages of the 'Musical Times' (2 vols, 1947), is discussed briefly by Nicholas Temperley, 'MT and Music Journalism, 1844,' Musical Times 110 (1969), 583-6. The importance of the London and Provincial Music Trades Review and Musical Opinion and Music Trade Review (both begun in 1877) is demonstrated admirably by James Coover in 'Victorian Periodicals for the Music Trade,' Notes 46 (1990), 609-21.

Writing on Music in the General Press Occasional writing on music in newspapers, monthly magazines, and literary reviews reflects a tradition much older than that of the generic music journal, one firmly established in England by the 1760s. Throughout the nineteenth century, as one would expect, a given title's interval of publication and 'market profile' still had a lot to do with how, or even whether, music was covered. Generally the most considered and sustained coverage of musical events, and often of publications, appeared first in the news and fine arts weeklies such

Music/103 as the Examiner, Atlas, Athenaeum, and Spectator, and later the Saturday Review and the Academy; at slightly lower rank in musical sophistication were papers such as Bell's Weekly Messenger, the Literary Gazette, and the Illustrated London News. Some of the bestknown and most articulate musical writers of the age contributed regularly and for long periods to these papers, including Leigh Hunt, Edward Holmes, H.F. Chorley, Edward Taylor, George Hogarth, J.W. Davison, and Francis Hueffer. By contrast, daily papers did not regularly employ specialist reporters on music until about the mid-1840s, though the subject was ably covered in some dailies from an earlier time, either by a knowledgeable honorary contributor, such as William Ayrton on the Morning Chronicle, or by an employee mainly responsible for another topic, such as T.M. Alsager, a financial writer at The Times. Such posts were enviable ones, not only for the imagined glamour of the work but for the respectability associated with a daily and the presumed influence deriving from its circulation. Davison (succeeded by Hueffer) at The Times, Hogarth at the Daily News, Joseph Bennett at the Daily Telegraph, and J.A. Fuller Maitland at the Manchester Guardian and The Times were among the big names in this group. Since the principal object was up-to-the-minute performance reviewing, much of this writing has an immediacy and confidence but also a superficiality about it: it does not always deserve to be regarded as true music criticism.2 General magazines and reviews published much less routinely on music, but typically on a huge variety of topics by a wider range of contributors. Articles could be colourful, entertaining, edifying, scholarly, eccentric, or polemical. In the first half of the century, Blackwood's, Baldwin's London Magazine, the New Monthly Magazine, Eraser's, and Bentley's Miscellany gave good attention to musical people and affairs, while the Foreign Quarterly Review (with bookreview essays by Holmes), Westminster Review (especially under T.P. Thompson and W.E. Hickson), and Dublin Review considered serious issues, such as Beethoven's style, reforms in music education, and church music, in more depth. Later in the century, the Rambler, Cornhill Magazine, Temple Bar, Contemporary Review, and Nineteenth Century, as well as the Edinburgh Review, the British Quarterly Review, and Scottish Review, included a significant amount of writing on music. Most striking of all are Macmillan's Magazine, especially between May 1868 and April 1883 when George Grove was editor, and the Fortnightly Review, with contributions from Edmund

104 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts Gurney, James Sully, John Moore Capes, John Hullah, Francis Hueffer, and C.V. Stanford, among others. Modern reference material on music writing in the general press is predictably more plentiful than that on music journals themselves. In an impressive two-part list published in VPR 13 (1980), 31-55 and 19 (1986), 99-105, Christopher Kent identifies over four hundred periodical critics of drama, music, and art for the period 1830-1914; of these, 118 were music critics, working mostly for the London and provincial newspaper press. Though extremely valuable as a compilation, Kent's list derives from variable secondary sources and must be used with care. For individual music essays in the major literary reviews and magazines, with attribution evidence, the WI is indispensable. Writing on music in some of the weeklies and lesser magazines is covered in the Langley dissertation. Stephen Banfield's essay 'Aesthetics and Criticism/ in Temperley, ed, Music in Britain: The Romantic Age, provides a useful summary of the conceptual issues facing serious music analysts in the period, as well as a brief survey of the more prominent members of the musical press; he praises especially Hunt, Thomas Love Peacock, and George Bernard Shaw. The need to understand press conventions, notably anonymity and multiple reporting, before interpreting journalistic material is asserted in Leanne Langley, 'Italian Opera and the English Press,' Periodica Musica 6 (1988), 3-10. Among brief studies of individual music journalists, E.D. Mackerness' essays on Thomas Love Peacock (The Wind and the Rain 4 [1948], 177-87), Hunt (Monthly Musical Record 86 [1956], 212-22), Chorley (Monthly Musical Record 87 [1957] 134-40, 181-8), and Holmes (Music and Letters 45 [1964], 213-27) offer thoughtful introductions to their subjects, as do John Ravell, 'John Ella, 1802-1888,' Music and Letters 34 (1953), 93-105, and David B. Levy, "Thomas Massa Alsager, Esq.: A Beethoven Advocate in London/ 19th Century Music 9 (1986), 119-27. Chorley has been further served in a series of informative articles by Robert Bledsoe: 'Dickens and Chorley/ Dickensian 75 (1979), 155-66; 'Henry Fothergill Chorley and the Reception of Verdi's Early Operas in England/ VS 28 (1985), 631-45 (repr in Temperley, ed, The Lost Chord, 1989); 'The Athenaeum and the Reception of French Grand Opera in London in the 1830s/ VPR 23 (1990), 3-8; and 'Dickens and Opera/ Dickens Studies Annual 18 (1990), 93-118. The Langley dissertation mentioned above, 'The English Musical Journal/ presents new information on the careers and views of several important journalists, notably R.M. Bacon and

Music/105 William Ayrton. William J. Gatens, 'Fundamentals of Musical Criticism in the Writings of Edmund Gurney and his Contemporaries,' Music and Letters 63 (1982), 17-30, explores the dichotomy between musical form and content espoused by the most important music aestheticians of the second half of the century. G.B. Shaw's musical writing, 1876-1950, has been collected, with a good introduction and useful indexes, in Dan H. Laurence, Shaw's Music: The Complete Musical Criticism (3 vols, 1981), while Hunt's early opera criticism has been discussed in some detail by Theodore Fenner, Leigh Hunt and Opera Criticism: The 'Examiner' Years, 1808-1821 (Lawrence, Kansas 1972). Richard D. Altick's The Cowden Clarkes (1948) relates a variety of information about the musical and journalistic milieu of Charles and Mary (nee Novello) Cowden Clarke. Far less reliable are Percy M. Young, George Grove, 1820-1900: A Biography (1980), and, at a nadir of accuracy and method, Charles Reid, The Music Monster: A Biography of James William Davison: Music Critic of the Times of London, 1846-78, with Excerpts from His Critical Writings (1984).

Periodicals of Printed Music Whether viewed as a commercial product, a bibliographic entity, or an index to musical taste and social practice, the periodical consisting solely of printed music differs fundamentally from that containing articles, reports, and critiques of music and musical life. It may well be treated separately in bibliographies and in libraries, and for literary or social historians may present problems of interpretation. But its uses are worth exploring for anyone interested in tracing the dissemination of a particular kind of music, even a particular piece, among ordinary people who could sing or play.3 The music in such collections - there were some ten or twelve important titles in the period 1789-1830, including the Musical Bijou (1829-51) and Musical Gem (1829-35), and a further forty or fifty to 1901, including several Welsh titles and the Musical Salvationist (1886-1900+), and Organist's Magazine of Voluntaries (1891-1900*) - is often traceable in no other source: much music that appeared in this form, especially that of lesser quality, was never reissued. At the same time, these series frequently included music of better quality or higher face value, such as (edited) arias or overtures from Mozart or Rossini operas, or well-known ballads and hymns; in these cases, the periodical can be a valuable source of information about republication

106 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts and arrangement history, contributing to our knowledge of the popularization of individual musical works. For the earlier period, an unrivalled bibliographic tool is Imogen Fellinger, Periodica Musicalia (1798-1830) (Regensburg 1986), which fully indexes the contents of over 950 European music serials, including editors, places of publication, publishers and printers, composers, poets and lyricists, work titles, and text incipits. For practical reasons Fellinger has had to exclude journals with music supplements, however substantial, limiting her scope to those consisting totally of printed music. Yet the contents of music supplements to letterpress journals should not be ignored. Many of the most important music journals, and some literary magazines too, used printed music to attract and build an audience, suggesting, along with other evidence, that large numbers of amateurs made their music at home, alone or in groups, in preference to passive listening at concerts. For the printed music contents of La belle assemblee (1806-9), the Harmonicon (1823-33), the New Musical Magazine (1809), and Walker's Hibernian Magazine (Dublin 1801-11), see the Hand-list of Music Published in Some British and Foreign Periodicals between 1787 and 1848 Now in the British Museum (1962), published by the British Museum.4 Lists and Indexes Although there is no single, thoroughly reliable list of British music journals, several important compilations have been made. Foremost among them is Imogen Fellinger, Verzeichnis der Musikzeitschriften des 19. Jahrhunderts (Regensburg 1968), which lists by year of founding - with place of publication, publisher, simple bibliographic description (including title changes), and selected international locations - some 2,300 music journals from forty-four countries, 1798-1918. Despite some lapses in non-German coverage, this list is a monumental achievement and a standard reference; six supplements published in Fontes Artis Musicae (1970-4, 1976), a publication of the International Association of Music Libraries, list additional, mostly European, locations. The same author's list for Great Britain under Periodicals/ in Stanley Sadie, ed, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980; 6th ed of George Grove's dictionary, or Grove 6), again presented chronologically, contains some 190 titles for the period 1800-1900, including weeklies (some classed by the British Library as newspapers and housed at Colin-

Music/107 dale) and annuals; the bibliographic information here is slight. A more thorough finding-list for the United Kingdom and Eire, based on reporting by some four hundred libraries, is The British Union Catalogue of Music Periodicals (BUCOMP), compiled by Anthony Hodges and edited by Raymond McGill (1985). For details of the holdings of North American collections, researchers must still consult the ULS; the more recent ULVS covers nearly five hundred libraries in the United States and Canada, but for all its strengths it includes too few music titles (except the Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review and Musical Times) to be of much help. Occasional gaps and errors in the Fellinger lists and in BUCOMP can be explained by two main factors: (1) the idiosyncrasies of the library catalogues on which they are based - at the British Library, for example, one has to check under Periodical Publications' (then place) both in the General Catalogue of Printed Books (in the main reading room) and in the Catalogue of Printed Music (music reading area), since a journal's placing will depend on its proportion of letterpress to printed music (or indeed on its classification as a newspaper); and (2) an overreliance on title spotting from published catalogues, indexes, and music-related bibliographies, to the exclusion of examining journal copies. A journal with 'Covent Garden,' 'Bagpipe/ or 'Opera Glass' in its title does not necessarily cover music, whereas the Parthenon: A Magazine of Art and Literature (1822-6), as it turns out, contains a surprising amount of information on opera and opera composers because of its lithographic production and its founders' interests. Specialized theatre and art periodical lists, as well as WD I, II, and III, may be useful supplements to the music-specific lists mentioned above, but here too inspection of each journal's content is essential. The Irish and Scottish Waterloo directories, for instance, both of whose subject indexes cast their 'Music' nets wide, would appear to swell Fellinger's numbers of provincial music titles considerably; in fact most of the titles listed contain only a marginal treatment of music, being literary journals with some printed music, newspapers with an occasional music column, or journals of societies and theatre periodicals with a slight music interest. Retrospective periodical indexes have been high on the list of music-bibliographical desiderata for decades. Finally an ambitious project for nineteenth-century music periodicals, Repertoire International de la Presse Musicale (RIPM), was launched in 1981 under the auspices of the International Musicological Society and the Inter-

108 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts national Association of Music Libraries. Directed from College Park, Maryland, and Parma, Italy, and published by UMI of Ann Arbor, Michigan, the series aims to include some ten important English music journals. So far, multivolume indexes for the Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review (1818-28[30J), the Harmonicon (1823-33), the Musical Examiner (1842—4), and the first series of the Musical Standard (1862-71) have appeared. Each comprises a brief introduction and a user's guide, calendar volumes (with a tabular list of contents in order as they appeared), and index volumes (a computer-generated keyword-author index). Given the bulk and variety of material processed, and the inherent problems of any computer-generated index, RIPM succeeds admirably on the basic score of speeding up access to the literature. Where the series falls down is in quality of editorial input: for the English titles issued to date, the historical introductions are inadequate and uncritical, no original scholarly work on author attribution is included or even referred to, pseudonyms, initials, and real names are sometimes naively confused, and editorial annotations are often misleading. No particular expertise beyond keying data from a microform copy quickly - seems to have been used. RIPM's general editor, H. Robert Cohen, and his associate, Marcello Conati, survey the project in 'Le Repertoire International de la Presse Musicale,' Acta Musicologica 59 (1987), 308-24. For an assessment of some early volumes in the series, see the review by M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet in Journal of the American Musicological Society 43 (1990), 498-504. Future English titles to be indexed include the Musical Times (to 1900 or to 1918), the Musical World, the Musical Journal (1840), and the Monthly Musical Record and Musical Opinion (closing dates not yet determined). For individuals and libraries lacking access to the periodicals themselves, UMI also offers full-text microform editions. Information Sources from the Period When used critically, period sources (dictionaries, memoirs and monographs, essays, primary materials) can be highly rewarding. A basic starting point is George Grove's A Dictionary of Music and Musicians (4 vols, 1878-90; Grove T), to which specialist, mostly British, writers contributed signed (initialled) articles embodying assessment of their subjects rather than just undigested facts. The dictionary contains entries on people, publishers, and topics - a particularly valuable piece is J.A. Fuller Maitland's discussion of Eng-

Music/109 land under 'Musical Periodicals' - and it set the standard for much later music lexicography. A quirky bias abides in many places, however, and the level of inclusiveness is not all one could wish for, especially in the first half of the alphabet; researchers should always check the appendix in volume IV, where several early omissions were rectified. Subsequent editions of the dictionary are also worth referring to: the second (5 vols, 1904-10; Grove 2), edited by Fuller Maitland as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, was considerably expanded. James D. Brown, Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, with a Bibliography of English Writings on Music (Paisley and London 1886; repr 1970) is helpful for some of the lesser-known English and Scottish music journalists, and should be used in conjunction with James D. Brown and Stephen S. Stratton, British Musical Biography: A Dictionary of Musical Artists, Authors and Composers Born in Britain and Its Colonies (Birmingham 1897, repr 1971), its more familiar successor. Brown, a public librarian, and Stratton, music critic of the Birmingham Daily Post, compiled their 1897 dictionary from information submitted directly by the subjects and gleaned from the contemporary musical press itself. The results are mixed: among musical professions the critics and writers, especially provincial ones, are noticeably well represented and include a number of figures not traceable elsewhere; but some of the information is too brief or general to be useful, or occasionally appears unreliable when checked against other sources. A second type of printed source is the biography or journalist's memoir of musical life. Bearing in mind the overstatement, promotional tone, faded memory, or defensive stance that can occur in such works, modern readers should still find something of interest in the following books: Henry C. Banister, George Alexander Macfarren: His Life, Works, and Influence (1891); Joseph Bennett, Forty Years of Music, 1865-1905 (1908); Henry F. Chorley, Thirty Years' Musical Recollections (2 vols, 1862); Charles and Mary Cowden Clarke, Recollections of Writers (1878; repr 1969); [John Edmund Cox], Musical Recollections of the Last Half-Century (2 vols, 1872); Frederick J. Crowest, Phases of Musical England (1881); Henry Davison, ed, Music during the Victorian Era: From Mendelssohn to Wagner, Being the Memoirs ofJ.W. Davison (1912); Alice Mangold Diehl, Musical Memories (1897); H. Sutherland Edwards, Personal Recollections (1900); Henry G. Hewlett, ed, Henry Fothergill Chorley: Autobiography, Memoir, and Letters (2 vols, 1873), Faustina H. Hodges, Edward

110 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts Hodges (New York and London 1896); Francis Hueffer, Half a Century of Music in England, 1837-1887 (1889); Hermann Klein, Thirty Years of Musical Life in London, 1870-1900 (1903); J.A. Fuller Maitland, English Music in the Nineteenth Century (1902, repr 1976) and A Door-Keeper of Music (1929); and William Spark, Henry Smart: His Life and Works (1881) and Musical Memories (1909). Music publishers' histories from the period are comparatively few, but include these items: [Joseph Bennett], A Short History of Cheap Music as exemplified in the Records of Novello, Ewer and Co. (1887); J.S. Curwen: Memorials of John Curwen (1882); D'Almaine and Co, A Day at a Music Publisher's (c 1848, repr in Journal of the Printing Historical Society 14 [1979], 59-81); and [J. Alfred Novello], Some Account of the Methods of Musick Printing (1847). More directly revealing about the condition of criticism - whether performance reviewing or music aesthetics - are periodical essays by practising critics, such as [Egerton Webbe], 'English Musical Literature: Mr. Hogarth's New Work,' Monthly Chronicle 2 (1838), 97-9, 239-52; John Stainer, 'The Principles of Musical Criticism,' Proceedings of the Musical Association 1 (1881), 35-52; and C.V. Stanford, 'Some Aspects of Musical Criticism in England,' Fortnightly Review 61 (1894), 826-31. Primary sources comprise chiefly journalists' papers and letters, and publishers' archives. In the first category are such rich collections as the personal and business correspondence of the founder and conductor of the Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review, Richard Mackenzie Bacon (deposited at Cambridge University Library in 1920); the family and personal papers of the editor of the Harmonicon, William Ayrton (held in two sets at the British Library); and the personal and editorial correspondence of F.G. Edwards, contributor to the Musical Times from 1891 and its editor 1897-1909 (acquired by the British Library in 1928 and 1933). Individual letters too (such as those of Edward Holmes and Egerton Webbe in the Leigh Hunt papers at the British Library), along with the personal diaries of musician-writers (Mary Novello's is in the Brotherton Collection, University of Leeds; John Ella's is held in a private collection in London) and the minute books of music societies (those of the Philharmonic Society and of the early Musical Association are held in the British Library), can be of great value in documenting journalistic episodes. For a brief survey, see Leanne Langley, 'The Use of Private Papers, Correspondence and Archives of the Publishing Trade in British Music Periodicals Research,' Periodica Musica 1 (1983), 12-13.

Music/ 111 Music publishers' archives are notoriously elusive. The most important collection now available to scholars - the Novello Business Archive, presented to the British Library in 1989 by Filmtrax (who took over Novello in 1988) and consultable on application to the music librarian - is in fact disappointing for periodicals research. Of the 277 volumes in the present collection, themselves of enormous interest for music publishing and for commercial history generally, only one or two contain passing references to the firm's journals. Running accounts for the Musical Times (mostly a letterpress publication) apparently were kept separately and have not survived. Michael Kurd describes the manuscript music archive of the firm, also deposited at the British Library, in 'The Novello Archives,' Musical Times 127 (1986), 687-8, while Victoria Cooper-Deathridge discusses the company's music publishing strategy in 'The Novello Stockbook of 1858-1869: A Chronicle of Publishing Activity,' Notes 44 (1987), 240-51. The latter essay is now of special interest, since the relevant stockbook, examined in the mid-1980s, seems to have disappeared from the Business Archive. Archives of literary publishers and printers involved with music journals, even where their role was auxiliary, have so far been more illuminating. The firm of Longman, who acted as commission publisher for the Harmonicon during part of its eleven-year run, kept a detailed account of distribution activity and expense undertaken on behalf of the proprietors, 1830-7: this material has survived in the Longman Archives (part I) at the University of Reading. The printer William Clowes, who effectively owned and operated the Harmonicon, maintained records of his and others' activity on the project, 182230: the relevant account book, the oldest one still surviving of Clowes's business, is kept by the firm in Beccles, Suffolk. Both sets of records are discussed in detail in Leanne Langley, 'The Life and Death of The Harmonicon: An Analysis,' Research Chronicle of the Royal Musical Association 22 (1989), 137-63. Another example concerns the Meister, edited by William Ashton Ellis and published by George Redway, then Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co for the Wagner Society, 1888-95. These accounts, held at the D.M.S. Watson Library, University College, London, give a brief picture of the journal's history as well as of other Wagner prose works issued by the firm. Finally, mention should be made of the archives of the Royal Literary Fund, 1790-1918, now readily available on microfilm. A number of important musical writers applied to the RLF for financial assistance, and their letters and filled-in forms offer a fascinating

112 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts glimpse into real-life personal circumstances as well as helping to document their contributions to the press. Among those in music, there are case files for J. Augustine Wade, Edward Holmes, Henry Sutherland Edwards, Morris Barnett, Charles Lamb Kenney, H.J. Gauntlett, Edward F. Rimbault, C.L. Gruneisen, and John Hullah.

Related Modern Studies Because the lines between Victorian music, literature, and publishing are difficult to draw, and all three embrace aspects of social history, it is often fruitful to consult modern works that appear to be only tangentially related to music periodicals. Dictionaries and monographs can help turn up such sources. In twenty volumes, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Grove 6, 1980) remains the classic music dictionary in English, with international biographical, terminological, and subject coverage. As well as the article on 'Periodicals' mentioned above, it has substantial essays on 'Criticism/ 'England,' 'London/ 'Operetta/ 'Oratorio/ 'Printing and publishing/ and 'Tonic sol-fa/ for example, and entries on hundreds of people and publishers, most with appended lists of works anchor bibliographies. For further detail on printers and publishers, the Grove/Norton Handbook of Music Printing and Publishing, edited by D.W. Krummel and Stanley Sadie (1990), is specially informative; the bibliographies for each firm include modern in-house histories. Information on lesser firms may need to be sought in Charles Humphries and William C. Smith, Music Publishing in the British Isles from the Beginning until the Middle of the Nineteenth Century: A Dictionary of Engravers, Printers, Publishers and Music Sellers, with a Historical Introduction (1954; rev ed Oxford 1970). John A. Parkinson has extended the coverage of Humphries and Smith in his own Victorian Music Publishers: An Annotated List (Warren, Michigan 1990), which, though handy, is not authoritative. A useful source for biographical detail on some earlier journalists is Jamie C. Kassler's catalogue The Science of Music in Britain, 1714-1830 (2 vols, New York and London 1979). For Victorian music itself, its composers and repertory, the standard one-volume survey is Nicholas Temperley, ed, Music in Britain: The Romantic Age, 1800-1914 (1981). This book has an excellent bibliography. James Coover, in several perceptive studies of the Victorian music trade, has focused on the connections between popular music publishing, auction sales, piracy, and copyright law, using the press for much

Music/113 documentation. The interest and authority of this work is consistently high, beginning with Music Publishing, Copyright, and Piracy in Victorian England: A Twenty-Five Year Chronicle, 1881-1906, from the Pages of the 'Musical Opinion and Music Trade Review'and Other English Music Journals of the Period (1985). Among Coover's other studies are 'The Dispersal of Engraved Music Plates and Copyrights in British Auctions, 1831-1931,' in Carol J. Bradley and James Coover, eds, Richard S. Hill: Tributes from Friends (Detroit 1987); Music at Auction: Puttick and Simpson (of London), 1794-1971 (Warren, Michigan 1988); and 'Puttick's Auctions: Windows on the Retail Music Trade/ Journal of the Royal Musical Association 114 (1989), 56-68. Coover is currently engaged on a study of the bookseller William Reeves, who specialized in politics, theosophy, and economics, besides issuing the Musical Standard (1862-1933) for most of its life. For other specific aspects of Victorian musical life, a number of important monographs may be singled out; most of these have solid bibliographies and many rely on or discuss press material: Alec Hyatt King, Some British Collectors of Music c. 1600-1960 (Cambridge 1963); Bernarr Rainbow, The Choral Revival in the Anglican Church, 1839-1872 (1970) and The Land without Music: Musical Education in England, 1800-1860, and Its Continental Antecedents (1967); Nicholas Temperley, The Music of the English Parish Church (2 vols, Cambridge 1979); William J. Gatens, Victorian Cathedral Music in Theory and Practice (Cambridge 1986); Frank Howes, The English Musical Renaissance (1966); Ronald Pearsall, Victorian Popular Music (Detroit 1973) and Edwardian Popular Music (Newton Abbot 1975); David Russell, Popular Music in England, 1840-1914: A Social History (Manchester 1987); Eric Mackerness, A Social History of English Music (1964); William Weber, Music and the Middle Class: The Social Structure of Concert Life in London, Paris, and Vienna between 1830 and 1848 (1975); and Cyril Ehrlich, The Piano: A History (1976), The Music Profession in Britain since the Eighteenth Century: A Social History (Oxford 1985), and Harmonious Alliance: A History of the Performing Right Society (Oxford 1989). Current bibliographies may be summarized briefly. The basic scholarly bibliography in music, RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (1967-), is about seven years behind schedule, but may nevertheless be helpful in locating out-of-the-way sources. The series is quarterly with international coverage; it is published in English and includes an annual author-subject index. For dissertations, the best tool is Cecil Adkins and Alis Dickinson, eds, Doctoral Dissertations in Musi-

114 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts cology, second series, first cumulative edition (1990), published by the American Musicological Society. In 1989, VPR began a more systematic coverage of current musical literature in its annual checklist of scholarship: books and articles more or less directly relevant to music periodicals research should increasingly be caught there. Desiderata The scope for fresh ideas and new research in this field is wide, especially for scholars with imagination and perseverance. There is a need not only to question received notions about the Victorians and their music but also to apply the same textual skills that are taken for granted in other branches of music-historical research. A dispassionate and critical history of an important English music publisher or printer in the period would be very welcome, as would a penetrating history of any of the major journals, or a critical biography of any of the more interesting editor-journalists. Further connections between general publishers and music and between instrument makers and the press also need investigation. We need to devise a methodology for content analysis of musical journals. How did the breadth and configuration of departments affect a journal's success? How important was a music section or column to a given newspaper or magazine of high repute? Is there a fundamental distinction between what might be called private or academic writing on music and public press material in the subject? Was it just a matter of audience and style (related perhaps to commercial considerations) or did class and intellectual differences really pertain? How? To what extent did the rage for journalizing about music really contribute to the public's musical literacy, as opposed to its purchases of goods? What is the real evidence that music critics were 'influential' on anyone? How did they affect what music was performed, how it fared, and what people thought about it? What were the economic, professional, social, or nationalistic motivations behind identifiable groups of pressmen in music, or individual writers? Did the flourishing profession of journalism offer too cosy a niche for a musically inclined man in England, perhaps unable to pursue a more productive musical career? What was the real nature of the German influence in nineteenthcentury English musical life? From Cramer, Ries, and Moscheles to Dannreuther, Hueffer, and the Augeners, Germans landed and made

Music/ 115 their own way. Were they a hindrance to native development or a help? Should the championship of Bach (by Wesley, then Sterndale Bennett) or of Schubert (Grove) or of Wagner (Ellis) instead have been reserved for English composers? What role did the musical press play in fostering or combating musical xenophobia? These and other similar questions may occupy us for some time. Meanwhile, a simple plea for thoroughness and accuracy, and for precision of terminology, might be put forward here to help scholars in a variety of fields communicate effectively about musical press material. Just as we have all learned to be careful with 'readership' and 'middle class/ we ought now to be careful with 'musician' (an active practitioner), 'criticism' (reportage, reviewing, or discussion of aesthetics?), and 'influence' (not to be mistaken for 'celebrity'). Finally, a healthy scepticism would benefit all of us working with music periodicals - scepticism about the sources, and the value of quick information retrieval from periodical sources. The potential gains from a more solid reading, comparing, and analysis of the musical press, in all its forms, are too good to miss. Select Annotated List The following titles are listed in chronological order, mirroring the format of Fellinger's lists and permitting an overview of the historical development of the Victorian music journal. Library locations at the end of each entry are selective, and relate mostly to complete runs of hard copies in the United Kingdom and United States; 'inc' signifies a fairly or nearly complete set. For further detail see the finding-lists described in 'Lists and Indexes' above. The Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review ([Autumn] 1818-28 [Spring 1830]), though published in London by Robert Baldwin, was conceived and largely written and printed in Norwich by Richard Mackenzie Bacon (1775-1844), a local newspaperman and musical amateur who took the high literary approach and quarterly format of the Edinburgh Review as his model. Each number is divided into two sections: the first, a miscellany of substantial essays on music theory, the history of performers and performing organizations, vocal style in Italian and English music, social relations between amateurs and professionals, and philosophies of music education and patronage; and the second containing reviews of printed music, books on music, and occasionally performance. A few essays are signed or

116 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts initialled by genuine correspondents, many are translated extracts from French and Italian books on music and drama, and still more take the form of pseudonymous serial letters 'To the Editor.' A large proportion of these can be shown to be the work of Bacon himself, urging his Handelian tastes, the need for serious, 'all-sung' English opera, the benefits of the provincial festival movement, and the place of music in society. The journal is important for being the first English periodical devoted entirely to writing about music, as well as for its long life (four times longer than any previous English music periodical) and its candid, broad-minded views. Locations: University of Birmingham, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, Royal Academy of Music (London), British Library, Leeds Public, Manchester Public, Oxford Music Faculty, University of St Andrews, University of California (Berkeley), University of North Texas (Denton), University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, New York Public, Carnegie Library (Pittsburgh), Tulane University, Library of Congress The Harmonicon (Jan 1823-Sept 1833) was a London monthly issued by William Pinnock, followed (in 1824) by Samuel Leigh, then (1831) Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green. Although its components were not novel - articles on music biography, history, aesthetics, and institutions, reviews of new musical publications, operas and concerts, English and foreign musical news, reader correspondence, and a separate department of printed music - the breadth and proportion of these parts, together with their consistently high quality, gave the journal its standing among early nineteenth-century European music magazines. It was founded by the general printer William Clowes, whose (commercial) purpose was to improve the efficiency of music printing, using music type rather than engraved plates, and thereby to reduce the cost of classical music in large edition sizes. His editor William Ayrton (1777-1858) selected or commissioned the music and wrote or recycled much of the textual material himself; Mozart was his paradigm and he was particularly trenchant as a critic of new music and of Italian opera. There were also a number of outside contributors, some signing with initials or pseudonyms. The journal is especially noteworthy for its international scope and lack of chauvinism, its knowing tone on London musical affairs, its extraordinarily fine production (including portraits, and music examples within text), and its long life: it was sustained by Clowes and a consortium of London music sellers well beyond the point of its commercial

Music/117 viability. The Harmonicon was directly succeeded by a more populist, less expensive monthly with a much higher proportion of printed music, the Musical Library (1834-7). Also printed by Clowes and edited by Ayrton, this version of the journal was published by Charles Knight; writing on music was relegated to its 'Monthly Supplement' (1834-6). Locations: Cambridge University, Trinity College (Dublin), University of Durham, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh Public, Mitchell Library (Glasgow), British Library, Manchester Public, University of Nottingham, Oxford Bodleian, University of St Andrews, University of Sheffield, Boston Public, Buffalo Public, Newberry Library (Chicago), New York Public, University of Pennsylvania, Library of Congress The Musical World: A Weekly Record of Musical Science, Literature, and Intelligence (18 March 1836-24 Jan 1891) was the first house journal of J. Alfred Novello. It was also the first English publication of music literature to be issued at the regular interval of a week, reflecting the faster pace of life and growth of musical institutions in the Victorian period. Focusing on musical news and topical criticism, it eventually served the musical profession rather than the general public. This was not its original purpose, however, and for some nine years the journal's direction remained unstable, with five changes of publisher, three changes in format, two separate but simultaneous numbering systems, and five successive editors, from Charles Cowden Clarke (1836-7) and the team of Edward Holmes and Egerton Webbe (1838-9), to Henry Smart (1839-41), George Macfarren (1841-3), father of the composer G.A. Macfarren and J.W. Davison (1843-85), signing 'Q.', then 'J.W.D.'). Its early years were nevertheless its most distinguished, with signed articles by a variety of well-known writers (Samuel Wesley, Henry Gauntlett, Edward Hodges, W.J. Thorns, Joseph Warren, E.F. Rimbault), as well as poetry and prose by Leigh Hunt and, from 1842, signed musical reviews. Apart from its unusual advocacy of J.S. Bach, late Beethoven, and both Catholic and Anglican church music, the journal vividly depicts unfolding developments in the 1840s - the 'British Musician' and musical antiquarian movements, the singing classes of Hullah and Mainzer, the growth of musical libraries, lectures and concert series, the impact of Chopin and Mendelssohn, the debate over Mozart. From the 1860s, under Davison, it became at once narrower and more effusive, taking on a private tone of silliness and satire that eventually undermined its authority as a critical organ. Locations: University of Birmingham

118 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts (inc), British Library (inc), University of London (inc), Royal College of Music (London), Boston Public (inc), Harvard University (inc), New York Public (inc), Yale University (inc) The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular (1 June 1844-1900"1"; known as the Musical Times [hereafter MT] first in 1904 but not definitively until 1957) is the oldest English music periodical still in existence. It originated in 1841 as Joseph Mainzer's National Singing Circular (from 1842 Mainzer's Musical Times and Singing Circular), whose purpose was to publicize Mainzer's success in teaching massed singing classes throughout England and Scotland. The main features - an intelligence column, a piece of printed choral music, and a rockbottom price - were carried over into MT by Alfred Novello, who shrewdly recognized the monthly's potential for promoting all his products to an ever-expanding audience of amateur chorus singers. Gradually the journal came to publish original writing relevant to this focus (notably on Purcell, the English cathedral and glee composers, and the Mozart and Haydn masses, contributed by Edward Holmes). Later in the century, coverage was expanded to include instrumental music, opera, and modern German composers, as these interests came into the practical experience of loyal, often provincial, subscribers; foreign musical news entered MT's columns in 1877. But the journal's main themes, well into the twentieth century, remained oratorio and church (including organ) music, especially by English and continental composers on Novello's list (Goss, Hopkins, Monk, Mendelssohn, Gounod, Dvorak). Important editors after Alfred Novello (1844-53; c 1856-63) were Mary Cowden Clarke [nee Novello] (1853-c 1856), H.C. Lunn (1863-87), W.A. Barrett (1887-91), E.F. Jacques (1892-7) and F.G. Edwards (1897-1909), while frequent contributors in the later period included W.H. Cummings, Carl Engel, Ebenezer Prout, and Joseph Bennett. Locations: University of Wales (Aberystwyth), University of Birmingham, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh Public, British Library (inc), Westminster Central Music Library (London), Goldsmiths' College (London), University of Liverpool, Liverpool Public, Boston Public, Newberry Library (Chicago), Chicago Public, Harvard University, Howard University (Washington, DC) The Record of the Musical Union (11 March 1845-19 Dec 1880), later Annual Record or simply Report of the Musical Union, was issued by Cramer, Beale and Co. Comprising fortnightly concert program guides, March to July, with supplementary material bound up at the

Music/119 end of each annual volume, it was designed especially for members of the Musical Union, a chamber music society formed in 1845 by the professional violinist and music journalist John Ella (1802-88). Thiis exclusive group of a few hundred wealthy amateurs patronized eight concerts a season, given 'in-the-round' by eminent artists. The Record of the Musical Union was in effect an instructive paper prepared by Ella in advance of each concert, with descriptive program notes (among the first of their kind) to aid listening. Using music examples, he pointed out the melodic themes and salient formal features of quartets by Haydn, Mozart, or Beethoven, and occasionally the chamber works of Spohr, Weber, Onslow, Mendelssohn, and others. An emphasis on chamber music was new in London concert life in the 1840s and 1850s, and Ella's cultivation of upper-class patronage and foreign performers was initially resented by other sections of the London musical press. The results were unimpeachable, however, and both the Musical Union and its Record flourished for over a quarter of a century. Locations: Cambridge University (inc), Edinburgh Public (inc), British Library (inc), Royal College of Music (London), New York Public (inc), Library of Congress The Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter, and Magazine of Vocal Music for the People (1853-1900*: from 1889 the Musical Herald and Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter; from 1891 the Musical Herald) was for most of its life a monthly published by John Curwen and Sons. The Reverend John Curwen (1816-80), a Congregational minister, began promulgating his method of tonic sol-fa notation in 1842 as an aid to teaching singing in the Sunday schools. By the early 1850s its effectiveness it was a 'movable doh' system conveying pitch and key relationships more readily than Hullah's 'fixed doh' method - had spawned a nationwide movement with thousands of members, all relying on publications printed in the special notation. The Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter provided continuing lessons, exercises, and musical pieces in the notation (from Handel and Mendelssohn to Lowell Mason and William Bradbury), and also served as a newsletter about Curwen's lectures and the achievements of tonic sol-fa groups across the country. Music editions were available at four levels of difficulty (including one for schools), and the letterpress, sold only to subscribers, appeared twice a month. Curwen edited the journal until his death; his son John Spencer Curwen (1847-1916) took over in 1881. By the last decade of the century the magazine, called the Musical Herald, though still modest in its aims, was clearly established as an organ

120 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts of news and practical help for amateur singers, with signed articles on educational and technical topics and stories on local organists, conductors, and choir-masters (many with photographs). Locations: Cambridge University, Mitchell Library (Glasgow; inc), British Library (inc), Manchester Public (inc), Newberry Library (Chicago, inc), University of Western Ontario (inc) The Musical Standard (in four main series, 2 Aug 1862-1900+), fluctuating between fortnightly, weekly, and monthly, was founded by the amateur A. W. Hammond as an independent general magazine for church musicians, organists, and advanced music lovers. It served no music publisher's interests and claimed to be free of 'party spirit' generally. Accordingly, a certain blandness colours the first series, with its chit-chat, biography, correspondence, and miscellaneous reprints and reviews, though there is also good coverage of the provinces (where in fact higher practical standards did prevail in church music). The dominant discussion of choral and organ matters is articulate: advocacy of a Musical College resulted in 1864 in the founding of the (Royal) College of Organists. With T.L. Southgate's editorship (1871-3) and the transfer of the journal to the booksellers Reeves and Turner in 1872, the scope was widened to include more foreign news. John Crowdy (1873-6), followed by John Broadhouse (intermittently from 1876), edited the paper, gradually introducing topics of a more diverse and sophisticated kind, including theory, opera, and orchestral music. The last two series (1894-1912; 191333) were illustrated with portraits of well-known British and foreign musicians. Around the turn of the century, when Edward A. Baughan was editor, the journal reverted mostly to reportage, living up fully to its subtitle 'A Newspaper for Musicians, Professional and Amateur.' But only a few years later, under J.H.G. Baughan, it published more original, signed essays, notably by Ernest Newman and Richard Capell, and coverage of opera and orchestral music once again came to the fore. Apart from its value as a documentary source - the obituaries, for example, are rich and full, and include figures of local musical prominence such as Dr Henry Watson of Manchester - the Standard is important for having developed the audience for music books, issued in turn by the journal's publisher William Reeves. Locations: Birmingham Public, Cambridge University (inc), Mitchell Library (Glasgow; inc), British Library, University of London (inc), Manchester Public (inc), Boston Public (inc), Eastman School of Music (Rochester; inc), Harvard University (inc)

Music/121 The Choir and Musical Record (18 July 1863-28 Dec 1878), brought out chiefly by Metzler and Co, was started and edited for most of its life by the organist and antiquarian Edward Francis Rimbault (181676), one of the first English musicologists. Having for more than twenty years collected, edited, and written on early music, especially that of the English church, he made it plain in the journal's opening address that the revelation of his 'rare specimens' was its chief object. (He also took care to distance it from its nearest rival, the Musical Times, claiming a more deeply historical and thoughtful approach.) Four pages of printed choral music - Tye, Tallis, Gibbons, Weelkes, Morley, Blow, and the like - appeared in each number, while the textual matter consisted of extracts from historical treatises, biographies of early composers, details of organs and organ builders, and brief essays or book reviews on music-historical topics (Guido, plainchant, the piferari of Rome, old carols, etc). E.J. Hopkins (organist of the Temple Church), G.A. Macfarren, and several clerics were among the original contributors. By the mid-1860s, Rimbault had lengthened the journal's interval of publication (from weekly to monthly) and broadened its content, admitting material from music educators and country clergymen, and reprinting lighter or more modern works serially (Mendelssohn's letters). After his death, the emphasis on church, choir, and organ remained, but the journal became more like a chatty news weekly, excerpting other papers and printing light parlour music. In 1879 it was renamed the Saturday Musical Review, and in 1879-80, the Choir. Locations: Birmingham Public, University of Birmingham, Cambridge University (inc), University of Glasgow (inc), British Library, Manchester Public (inc), Boston Public, New York Public (inc), Library of Congress (inc) The Orchestra (3 Oct 1863-Dec 1887), subtitled A Weekly Journal of Music and the Drama (then from Aug 1874 A Monthly Review: Musical, Dramatic and Literary), began life as the house weekly of the music publishers Cramer, Beale and Wood, with emphasis on news and on theatrical works issued by the firm: orchestral or symphonic music per se is hardly mentioned. A strong plea for the creation of a state-supported National English Opera permeates the first few issues. Theatrical and operatic news from all over the British Isles is given prominence; poetry (light verse, much of it by Edward Fitzball) is a regular department; and 'Continental Music and the Drama' as well as a series of editorial feuilletons feature for a while. Early contributors seem to have included H.J. Gauntlett (on German com-

122 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts posers) and Henry Chorley (Gounod's operas). In the 1870s the paper began coverage of the Crystal Palace and Monday Popular Concerts and a few literary works (Thomas Hood's Poems, Balfe's Reminiscences, The Era Almanac); it also included topics in education and church music, and published a valuable necrology. But the whole, while conveying a sense of great activity, fails to add up to much: few subjects are treated in depth, the reviews are mostly trivial, and only rarely is there a fresh, original article. With the new series in 1874 and a change to the publishers Swift and Co, pieces by H.C. Lunn began to appear and more historical topics came into view; W.A. Barrett and John Broadhouse contributed in the 1880s. From at least spring 1886, when William Reeves took over publication, the journal experienced difficulty, frequently changing format, title, and price and variously incorporating earlier Reeves papers such as Orchestra and Choir and Musical Education. Locations: British Library, Liverpool Public (inc), Oxford Bodleian, Boston Public (inc), Eastman School of Music (Rochester; inc), Library of Congress (inc) The Monthly Musical Record (1871-1900+; hereafter MMR), which endured as the house journal of the music publishers Augener and Co., stands as one of the most distinguished English periodicals of writing on music of its time. Original articles on historical and analytical topics were the rule rather than the exception, and solid reviews of European-wide music (some of it published outside England) were a regular feature. Schubert's masses and Schumann's symphonies, as well as Clara Schumann's Brahms performances and Billow's Wagner, received fair treatment. Yet the emphasis on new or unfamiliar German music did not exclude all else: English musical activities, including the progress of local performing groups and educational issues, found a place too. The English theorist Ebenezer Prout was the first editor, assisted then followed by C.A. Barry, W.A Barrett, and J.S. Shedlock. Important contributors included the pianist Ernst Pauer, the writer and analyst Edward Dannreuther, and the pianist and conductor W.G. Cusins. The journal's publisher, George Augener, who had begun as an importer and later lithographer of European classical music, started printing his own publications in 1878; by 1880 a four-page piano piece was included in each MMR number to attract teachers and pupils. Serial essays on keyboard teaching methods added to the journal's didactic character, while music analyses with examples (on everything from Bach organ works to the Ring), letters and reviews from correspondents in

Music/123 Leipzig and Copenhagen, and regular reports of concerts and opera in London gave it a breadth of appeal second only to that of the Musical Times. Locations: University of Birmingham (complete to 1910), Bradford Public (complete to 1910), Cambridge University (inc), National Library of Ireland, National Library of Scotland, British Library, University of London, University of Leeds (inc), Liverpool Public (inc), Manchester Public (inc), Oxford Music Faculty, Boston Public, Newberry Library (Chicago), Harvard University, New York Public, Library of Congress (inc) Proceedings of the Musical Association (1874-1900*) represents, typically, the annual of the scholarly society. On the initiative of John Stainer, the engineer William Pole, the pianist C.K. Salaman, and the scientist William Spottiswoode, a group of leading musicians founded the Musical Association in London in 1874 'for the investigation and discussion of subjects connected with the art and science of music.' From the first session, papers read to the association, together with a record of the following discussion (taken down by shorthand writers), were published in its Proceedings. Because a number of scientists, especially those interested in acoustics, were members in the early years, the papers of the 1870s and 1880s tend to cover acoustical and theoretical topics (some accompanied by experiments and exhibits), while those from the 1890s on give more attention to history. Among frequent contributors in the years before 1900 were Thomas Lea Southgate and W.H. Cummings (who became president in 1880); the most commonly addressed topics include performance problems, harmony, exotic musics, and, among composers, Wagner and Bach. The association's membership was only about 160 until 1901, when it rose to about 220. A Classified List of Contents (1966) for the first ninety volumes has been compiled by Alan Smith. Locations: Widely available Musical Opinion and Music Trade Review (8 Oct 1877-1900"1") is an important example of the music trade journal. Its early origins, editor, and publisher remain unknown, though one J.F. Reid seems to have been the business manager. News and advertisements appealing to music publishers and piano and harmonium manufacturers filled its first issues, and were gradually joined by short articles on keyboard actions, frames, and stringing, pitch and notation, foreign innovations in instrument design (especially from Germany and the USA), copyright law and performing rights, new musical patents, and the trade balance in imports and exports. Also listed

124 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts were meetings, bills of sale, appointments, business expansions, and new music; by the 1880s a few essays on other topics (bells, wind instruments), as well as reviews of provincial festivals and letters, began to take up more space. The journal served a real need at a time when this branch of British industry was booming: a month after it appeared, a rival title - the London and Provincial Music Trades Review - was begun by T. Percy M. Betts, and the two continued well into the second half of the twentieth century. The Musical Opinion admitted broader subject coverage early on; by the 1890s there were articles and letters on choral, historical, and educational topics (by J.F. Rowbotham, W.S. Rockstro, R.H. Legge, A.J. Hipkins, and others), in addition to the still lively treatment of trade matters. Music and book reviews were a secondary feature, often taken from other London and provincial journals. Locations: Birmingham Public (inc), Somerset County Library (Bridgwater), Cambridge University (inc), Mitchell Library (Glasgow; inc), British Library (inc), Manchester Public, Oxford Bodleian (inc), Newberry Library (Chicago; inc), McGill University (Montreal; inc), New York Public (inc), Carnegie Library (Pittsburgh; inc), Library of Congress (inc) The Meister: The Quarterly Journal of the London Branch of the Wagner Society (1888-95) was first published by George Redway, then (1890) by Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co, on behalf of London Wagnerians. The original Wagner Society was founded in Munich in 1883 immediately after the composer's death to raise money for continued performances at Bayreuth. The London branch, formed in 1884, followed its parent by organizing concerts, 'conversaziones,' and lectures, promoting the 'Meister's' cause in a generally unreceptive English environment; the journal was conceived and edited by William Ashton Ellis (1853-1919), MD, the indefatigable early translator of Wagner's prose works into English. Containing original analyses of the operas, essays (some based on papers read to the society), translations of Wagner's writings (including letters), previews of the Bayreuth Festival, book reviews, occasional poetry, and brief reports of English performances - all focused on Wagner or his colleagues (including Liszt and Schopenhauer) - the Meister is a particularly fine example of a late nineteenth-century specialist English music periodical. It is more lavishly produced than most, more prosaic and bookish. Of a normal quarterly print run of only about five hundred copies, three hundred went to society members as part of their annual subscription, while the rest were sold to the public at Is

Music/125 each. Besides Ellis himself, contributors included E.F. Jacques (subeditor 1888-9), J.S. Shedlock, Charles Dowdeswell, William C. Ward, and J. Francis Shepard. Edward Dannreuther succeeded the Earl of Dysart as president of the society in 1894, about a year before the journal, slightly tired by its championship, was brought to a close. Locations: Cambridge University, Trinity College (Dublin), National Library of Scotland, British Library, Royal College of Music (London), University of London, University of Leeds, Liverpool Public, Manchester Public, Oxford Bodleian, Boston Public, Harvard University, New York Public, Library of Congress The Strad: A Monthly Journal for Professionals and Amateurs of all Stringed Instruments played with the Bow (May 1890-1900"1) was initially brought out by William Reeves. It seems to have struck the right balance between trade, academic, and amateur interests, and to have succeeded not only because of the huge growth in orchestral activity in Britain in the last decade of the nineteenth century but also because it appealed to a united group - practitioners. Independent of all music publishers, dealers, and concert agents, the Strad aimed from the beginning to have a mix of news, correspondence, trade advertisements, and feature articles (with photographs and portraits), and to show a truly international scope: indeed, the first editor, Eugene Polonaski, had little interest in tracking English musical progress. The first leader is a memoir of Joachim (who had recently been given an honorary doctorate at Cambridge), while later biographical subjects include Sarasate, Bottesini, and Carl Fuchs. Violin making, tuning, and repair are often discussed, as are the history of the instrument and old treatises dealing with performance; regular columns are devoted to readers' questions and answers, and to news about violinists at home and abroad. Among early contributors were R.H. Legge, John Broadhouse, and J.T. Carrodus. Locations: National Library of Scotland, British Library (inc), Royal College of Music (London; inc), Manchester Public, Oxford Bodleian (inc), Boston Public, Newberry Library (Chicago), Harvard University, University of Minnesota (inc), New York Public, Eastman School of Music (Rochester), Library of Congress Notes 1 For a stimulating assessment of the reasons, see Stephen Banfield, 'The Artist and Society,' in Nicholas Temperley, ed, Music in Britain:

126 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts The Romantic Age, 1800-1914 (1981). Temperley himself explores the scholarly prejudice against serious English music in 'The Lost Chord/ VS 30 (1986), 7-23 (repr as 'The State of Research on Victorian Music/ in Temperley, ed, The Lost Chord: Essays on Victorian Music, Bloomington, Ind 1989). 2 Music columns in the London dailies tend to be seasonal, reporting a first round of concerts, and some opera, in winter, just after the New Year and running up to Easter; the bigger opera stars then appeared and a second run of concerts, including benefits, took place until the end of summer, often as late as mid-September. Autumn was reserved for the great provincial festivals. 3 The type evolved originally from sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Italian vocal anthologies; issued in series, these were intended for use at home by moderately capable executants and were priced reasonably to encourage a subsequent purchase. In Britain the idea caught on with a vengeance in the eighteenth century, reaching a peak about 1830 with the craze for gift-book annuals (itself linked to the advent of colour lithography). Logically enough, the sponsors were mostly music publishers trying to capture a popular market and, in many cases, promote a specific repertory. 4 D.W. Krummel explores just how difficult it is to define what a periodical of music (as opposed to about music) is, and what its contents may reflect or suggest, in 'Searching and Sorting on the Slippery Slope: Periodical Publication of Victorian Music/ Notes 46 (1990), 593-608. (The journal says 1988, but in fact it did not appear until 1990.) Raising more questions than it answers, particularly of a theoretical nature, and ranging mostly outside Victoriana, Krummel's essay is accompanied by a useful short-title list of British periodicals of music, 1699-1914. The list relies, however, on title retrieval from catalogues rather than on an inspection of copies, and includes several journals with more letterpress than music.

Illustration PATRICIA A N D E R S O N

In an 1840 article entitled Popular Literature of the Day,' the British and Foreign Review offered its readers 'a collection of statistical notes' on various magazines and journals then in circulation: Seventy-eight weekly periodicals are enumerated... twenty-eight of these are devoted to miscellaneous matter; seven to more political subjects; fifteen to the publication of novels, romances and tales; sixteen to biography of celebrated individuals; four to scientific intelligence; three to drama; two to medicine; two are collections of songs, and one registers the progress of the Temperance cause. More than two-thirds of these have the attraction of illustrations, (italics mine)

As this anonymous author's observation indicates, at the beginning of the Victorian era, illustration enhanced many and various kinds of contemporary periodicals but was still novel enough to merit comment. By the end of the nineteenth century, pictorial magazines, journals, and reviews had become a commonplace, and the diversity of their coverage was accordingly much greater than it had been some sixty years earlier. The Victorian periodicals which in some way made use of illustration fall into three broad groupings. The first takes in magazines or journals directed toward some particular academic, professional, or occupational interest. Among such publications were journals of art, architecture, and antiquities; legal, medical, and scientific journals; and many other highly specialized, often short-lived and obscure professional and occupational periodicals, such as the Illustrated Inventor (31 Oct 1857-10 April 1858), the Illustrated Carpenter and

128 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts Builder (1877), the Picture Framing Trades Journal (Aug-Nov 1896), and the Illustrated Annual of Microscopy (1898-1900). The second large group consists of periodicals which did not necessarily require specialized knowledge, but which nonetheless catered to some specific taste or interest, or alternatively aimed to capture a particular sector of the reading public. Illustrated theatrical reviews, sporting magazines, police gazettes, temperance periodicals, labour and radical journals, juvenile and women's magazines together made up this category. Representatives of the third group were comparatively wide-ranging in their content; thus they appealed to a potentially diverse and, in many cases, very large market. Among the types of periodicals in this group are high-circulation pictorial miscellanies, news weeklies, and magazines of fiction and general literature. It was principally through such publications, rather than more specialized periodicals, that the majority of people from both the middle and the working classes learned about medical and scientific discoveries, current events, the contemporary arts and literature, and, indeed, many other aspects of Victorian life. For this reason, the general- rather than the special-interest illustrated periodical will be the focus of this discussion and of the annotated list of titles appended to it. A Brief History Victorian periodical illustration had its origins in the late eighteenth century with the revival of the art of wood engraving by Thomas Bewick and his school. Unlike the woodcut, which was done on the plank side of the wood, the engraving was produced on the end of a block. This not only made the block more durable (and thus able to withstand thousands of impressions) but also allowed the engraver to create the crisp line and fine detail that were more compatible with the clarity of type than woodcut lines had generally been. Early nineteenth-century advances in printing technology further contributed to the growth of pictorial publishing in Britain. The introduction of mechanized paper-making (1803) and the steam-powered press (1814) increased the speed and reduced the cost of reproducing imagery. Four-cylinder stereotype printing (1827) was yet another significant development: stereotypes - that is, metal plates - could be rapidly cast from original reliefs using papier-mache, clay, or plaster; multiple cylinders increased the rate at which impressions could be printed in a given time period. Thus by 1840, when the British and

Illustration/129 Foreign Review published its statistics on current periodicals, illustrated books and magazines had generally become profitable for the publisher and affordable for the consumer. One of the earliest periodicals to enter the field of pictorial publishing was the Mirror of Literature, Amusement and Instruction (182349). Offering the attraction of several engraved illustrations, the first number sold in the range of 150,000 copies. But for all the Mirror's initial success and subsequently lower but steady circulation, contemporary consensus identified a later publication as the real pace-setter in both the production and marketing of the popular illustrated miscellany. This was the Penny Magazine (1832-45), edited and published by Charles Knight. Its high-quality reproductions of wellknown works of art and engravings of many other subjects had widespread appeal, and during its first three years of publication, the magazine had the unprecedented regular circulation of 200,000. It was not long before other publishers came to appreciate the commercial potential of the low-priced mass-circulation illustrated periodical. The Penny Magazine was soon eclipsed by a new generation of inexpensive pictorial miscellanies, all of which emulated their prototype's format, while enhancing their own saleability with the addition of fiction and its illustration. The London Journal (1845-1900*) was among the earliest of this group and was soon followed by Cassell's Magazine (1853-1900*), Lloyd's Weekly Miscellany (1850-2), and the London Reader (1863-19004), to name just a few. Another important and innovative publication was the ILN (begun 1842). Offering the public a vivid weekly 'panorama' of all manner of current events, both domestic and foreign, this was the most ambitious venture into pictorial journalism yet undertaken. It employed a number of distinguished artists, some of whom - J.A. Crowe, for example — sketched events on the site where they were happening; others, such as John Gilbert, produced their illustrations from written reports in the daily papers. The ILN was not alone in availing itself of the best artistic talent of the day. Its contemporary, Punch, which had commenced in 1841, also employed many outstanding artists. Charles Keene, John Leech, and John Tenniel were among those whose illustrations complemented the magazine's self-described 'destitute wit/ 'orphan jokes,' and 'perishing puns.' In Punch, the ILN, and the vast majority of illustrated periodicals produced between 1840 and 1880, wood engraving was the primary means of illustration. (John Leech's etchings for Bentley's Miscellany in the 1840s and Vanity Fair's coloured lithographs were among the

130 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts few notable exceptions.) In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, as techniques for creating halftone prints became more sophisticated, photographic illustration increasingly figured in periodicals. By the 1890s photographs as well as engravings were part of the regular pictorial content of a range of magazines and reviews: among others, Pearson's Magazine (1896-1900*), the Review of Reviews (1890-1900*), and the Strand Magazine (1891-1900*). It was not just the technology of pictorial reproduction that grew in sophistication during the Victorian period. There were parallel advancements in marketing and distribution methods, and the illustrated periodical reached an ever more diverse public. In its opening number (14 May 1842) the ILN predicted that Illustrative art' would quickly 'advance ... into all departments of the social system.' Indeed, from the 1830s, when the Penny Magazine had first made art reproduction and other imagery affordable to those of limited means, there appeared an increasing number of inexpensive pictorial miscellanies aimed at a new working-class market: the London Journal and other similar penny publications, the Weekly Guest (1858-64) at a halfpenny per issue, and so on. Such magazines probably also attracted a following from the lower strata of the middle class. But for those at its more prosperous and educated levels, the ILN offered the imagery of current events, while an array of miscellanies and literary magazines - the Cornhill Magazine (1860-1900*), the English Illustrated Magazine (1883-1900*), Good Words (1860-1900*), the Illustrated Review (1870-4), Once a Week (1859-80), and many more - catered to the demand for contemporary literature, reviews, criticism, general information, and quality illustration. And, for those who combined more rarefied taste with a substantial income, there were such artistically and expensively produced publications as the Yellow Book (1894-7). Thus, by the end of the nineteenth century, much as the ILN had foreseen some fifty years earlier, the illustrated periodical had become an integral part of people's cultural experience at every level of Victorian society.

Sources To approach the study of periodicals by way of their illustration is to venture into largely uncharted terrain. There is, for example, no bibliography or other single compilation specifically treating the range of general-interest illustrated periodicals which proliferated from the mid-nineteenth century on. Such periodicals, of course,

Illustration/131 figure in comprehensive listings like the WD I, II, and III, but the identification of pictorial entries is not as straightforward a matter as it might at first seem. The WD does not generally note the inclusion of illustration, and the key words 'illustrated' and 'pictorial' are not part of a majority of titles. Determining which Victorian periodicals used illustration and choosing a sampling of significant titles must thus involve several sources. Of these, one of the most helpful is BLM HI. A number of the essays in this volume refer to and offer brief commentary on the illustration in such periodicals as Bentley's Miscellany, the Cornhill Magazine, Once a Week, and St. Paul's Magazine. Other titles can be gleaned from various general surveys of popular literature: among others, R.D. Altick's The English Common Reader (1957), which is also the source for the circulation figures given here; Louis James's Fiction for the Working Man, 1830-50 (1963); and James's Print and the People (1976). In addition, J.R. Tye's The Periodicals of the Nineties (1974) indicates whether or not each of the periodicals it lists contains illustration. In many cases, it can be a disappointing process to seek detailed information about the frequency of illustration in particular periodicals, the motivation behind its use, and the content of individual illustrations. This is widely true of even comparatively well studied periodicals. Standard histories - like Reginald Pound's Mirror of the Century: The 'Strand Magazine' (1966) or R.G.G. Price's A History of 'Punch' (1957) - generally have little, if anything, to say about their subject's pictorial content. Similarly, many related kinds of studies (for example, A. A. Adrian's 1966 Mark Lemon, First Editor of'Punch') have a focus other than illustration. There are exceptions, however. In particular, the ILN, Punch, and Vanity Fair (1868-1900+) have inspired a number of surveys, compilations, checklists, and guides which variously treat their subject's illustrations: Stanley Appelbaum and Richard Kelly, eds, Great Drawings and Illustrations from 'Punch' (1981); William Davis, ed, 'Punch' and the Monarchy, (1977); Leonard de Vries, ed, Panorama, 18421865: The World of the Early Victorians as Seen through the Eyes of the 'Illustrated London News' (1967); Christopher Hibbert's The 'Illustrated London News,' Social History of Victorian Britain (1975); C.E. Jones's 'Vanity Fair Portraits, 1868-81: A Select Checklist/ Bulletin of Bibliography (1962); J.J. Savory's The 'Vanity Fair' Gallery: A Collector's Guide to the Caricatures (1979) and The 'Vanity Fair' Lithographs: An Illustrated Checklist (1978), to name some represen-

132 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts tative titles. Additional works on these three periodicals are listed under their respective headings in The Nineteenth-Century Periodical Press in Britain: A Bibliography of Modern Studies, 1901-1971, by Diana Dixon and Lionel Madden (1976). A number of other periodicals are treated in short studies, some of which include commentary on illustration. For instance, Scott Bennett's 'The Editorial Character and Readership of the Penny Magazine: An Analysis,' VPR 17 (1984), 126-41, contains discussion, tables, and reproductions of the magazine's illustration; and Stephen Elwell's 'Editors and Social Change: A Case Study of Once a Week/ in Joel H. Wiener, ed, Innovators and Preachers: The Role of the Editor in Victorian England (1985), comments on the use of illustration in relation to shifts in editorial policy. General surveys of Victorian illustration are also sources of information on periodicals. Simon Houfe's The Dictionary of British Book Illustrators and Caricaturists (1978; rev ed 1981) incorporates a dictionary of illustrators, a basic bibliography, and three chapters on periodicals, each of which includes sections devoted to such significant titles as the Cornhill Magazine, Good Words, the ILN, Once a Week, and Punch. The Victorian Woodblock Illustrators, by Eric de Mare (1980), has a chapter on pictorial magazines; and Percy Muir's Victorian Illustrated Books (1971) also notes some of the more outstanding examples of periodical illustration. A number of other works - such as Rodney Engen's Dictionary of Victorian Engravers, Print Publishers and Their Works (1979), Albert Garrett's A History of British Wood Engraving (1978), and Kenneth Lindley's The Woodblock Engravers (1970) - are also informative on the more prominent illustrators and engravers of periodicals; and still others - such as Philip Meggs's A History of Graphic Design (New York 1983) and Geoffrey Wakeman's Victorian Book Illustration: The Technical Revolution (1973) - are helpful on the technical side of engraving and its reproduction. Histories of publishing houses can often provide additional background information on the employment of artists, on the rationale for producing pictorial magazines, and on methods used for their marketing: for example, The House ofCassell, by Simon Nowell-Smith (1958), has substantial passages on Cassell's Magazine and the Quiver. A number of nineteenth-century publishers' memoirs and early surveys are also valuable sources on diverse aspects of Victorian periodical illustration. Notable titles in this group include Thomas Bewick and His Pupils, by Austin Dobson (1884); The Pictorial Press, by Mason Jackson (1885); Charles Knight's Passages of a Working Life (3 vols,

Illustration/133 1864), which has a lengthy discussion of the Penny Magazine; Forrest Reid's Illustrators of the Sixties (1928); and Glances Back through Seventy Years (2 vols, 1893), the reminiscences of publisher Henry Vizetelly, who recalled the early days of the ILN and described his own rival endeavour, the Pictorial Times (1843-8). During the last twenty years or so, the literature on illustration and illustrated periodicals has markedly increased. Even so, there are still not many scholarly studies which combine sophisticated analysis of the content of periodical illustration with a rigorous attention to the purposes that the imagery served and to the particular social, cultural, and political context in which it was created. Among the handful of examples are Allan Ellenius' 'Reproducing Art as a Paradigm of Communication: The Case of the Nineteenth Century Illustrated Magazines,' Figura ns 21 (1984), 69-92; Celina Fox's 'The Development of Social Reportage in English Periodical Illustration during the 1840s and Early 1850s,' Past and Present 74 (1977) 90111; Fox's 'Political Caricature and the Freedom of the Press in Early Nineteenth-Century England,' in G. Boyce, J. Curran, and P. Wingate, eds, Newspaper History (1978), 227-46; and again by Fox, with Michael Wolff, 'Pictures from Magazines,' in H.J. Dyos and Michael Wolff, eds, The Victorian City (2 vols, 1973), 559-82. Comparable book-length studies are more uncommon still; with perhaps a few other such examples, their number includes Patricia Anderson's The Printed Image and the Transformation of Popular Culture, 17901860 (1991), which demonstrates the centrality of pictorial magazines in the formation of a modern mass culture; and Fox's Graphic Journalism in England during the 1830s and 40s (1974; repr 1988), a study of the illustration of news, humour, and social and political satire in a period when the popular press was one of the main arenas for the confrontation between radicalism and its opposition. It is from the perspective of these kinds of studies that the illustrated periodical reveals itself as a crucial, continuing site of social and cultural change. From such a standpoint it is also apparent that a good deal of productive work remains to be done. A Representative Sampling As preceding discussion has pointed out, by the end of the nineteenth century, the general-interest illustrated periodical had become a fixture in all spheres of Victorian life. Individual titles are thus so numerous that to cite them all would be a major undertaking. The list below, then, is by no means comprehensive. It does not

134 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts cover periodicals published outside London; nor does it include any whose publication life was shorter than two years. It also excludes annuals, illustrated advertisers, and, as mentioned initially, the many fashion and domestic magazines aimed at women (it does, however, note Bow Bells and occasional other examples which similarly began as general-interest publications, but which ultimately catered to a mainly female market). The selection further omits comic magazines but includes an important title or two, such as Punch, to represent humour, satire, and their illustration. Finally, with the exception of some typical imitators of the ILN, pictorial newspapers do not figure in this list. Within its scope are a range of general-interest miscellanies, some of which attained unprecedentedly high circulation figures; a sampling of literary and fiction magazines of varying quality, character, and readership; some examples of illustrated reviews; and a few periodicals - Fraser's Magazine, for instance - which were not markedly or consistently pictorial, but which help to demonstrate the pervasiveness of illustration in Victorian serial publications. Among this selection are periodicals variously notable for the stature of the artists they employed and the attendant high quality of their pictorial content, for particular innovativeness in their use of illustration, or for their mass appeal and hence value as social and cultural documents. Several titles are distinguished by achievement in more than one of these areas. Generally speaking, the list which follows is an initial attempt to focus scholarly attention on the illustrated Victorian periodical - or at least on some of its representatives. For, collectively, these and other such examples are a central and still much neglected source of information, not only on the arts and professions but, indeed, on virtually all facets of Victorian culture and society.

Select Annotated List The British Library, London, has complete or nearly complete runs of all periodicals listed here. Where a periodical has undergone multiple name changes, the title cited in this list is the one most commonly known; in a majority of cases this is also the title longest in use. Ainsworth's Magazine (1842-54). A literary miscellany edited by W.H. Ainsworth. It featured serial fiction, short stories, light essays, and

Illustration/ 135 a ladies' page. Illustrations were by George Cruikshank, staff artist from 1842 to 1846; by his successor, Hablot K. Browne ('Phiz'); and by various less notable contributing artists. The latter often did not sign their work or identified themselves only by initials: for example, W.A.D., who was probably the draughtsman William A. Delamotte. Argosy (1865-1900*). A literary monthly, each number containing an instalment of a novel and an accompanying full-page wood-engraving. Among its more noteworthy engravers was Joseph Swain. Illustrators Arthur Houghton, Edward Hughes, and the better-known Walter Crane also contributed. Belgravia (1866-99). A miscellany initially edited by Mary Braddon. It combined illustration with travel essays, fiction, and items on fashion, politics, literature, and art. By 1883 illustrations had declined both in number and quality. Bentley's Miscellany (1837-68). Edited successively by Dickens, Ainsworth, and its publisher, Richard Bentley. It offered fiction, humour, essays, and the work of such eminent illustrators as comic artist and caricaturist Alfred Crowquill; John Leech, contributor of more than 140 etchings; and Cruikshank, who illustrated Oliver Twist, the first instalment of which appeared in the second number, Feb 1837. Bow Bells (1862-97). 'A [penny] weekly magazine of general literature and art, for family reading,' published by John Dicks. Prominent illustrators such as draughtsman T.H. Wilson and engraver Edward Evans designed and produced high-quality wood-engravings for the magazine's fiction. Among other kinds of offerings were illustrated fashion news and needlework patterns and the occasional colour insert or fold-out: for example, Evans' engraving of draughtsman Louis Huard's 'The Children in the Wood,' which accompanied the issue for 3 Aug 1864. Cassell's Magazine (1853-1900*)- Appearing initially as Cassell's Illustrated Family Paper, edited by John Cassell himself, this was among the first of the penny weekly miscellanies to achieve and maintain a mass circulation: 285,000 by 1858. It included serialized novels, various non-fiction essays and short items, and a generous quantity of wood-engravings by T.H. Wilson and others, from designs by such draughtsmen as Kenny Meadows and John Gilbert. Gilbert designed the first headpiece, in use Dec. 1853-Nov 1857.

136 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts Cornhill Magazine (1860-1900*). A monthly collection of serial fiction short stories, poetry, essays, and wood-engravings by Joseph Swain and the prominent and influential engraving firm Dalziel Brothers. Among those who contributed the original drawings for such engravings were Richard 'Dicky' Doyle, the illustrator of fairy stories and of Ruskin's King of the Golden River (1851); the well-known artist and novelist George du Maurier; and William Small, the prolific and stylistically influential illustrator who contributed to dozens of periodicals from the 1860s into the early twentieth century. Representing other branches of the visual arts in the magazine were reproductions from work by Frederick Leighton and John Everett Millais. Century Guild Hobby Horse (1884-94). An artifact of the late nineteenth-century arts and crafts movement, this finely printed magazine set out to demonstrate that the decorative arts deserved the status of the so-called high arts such as oil painting and sculpture. Visually rich, it included not only woodcuts and engravings, but also etchings and lithographs designed by Selwyn Image, C.H. Shannon, and Simeon Solomon. English Illustrated Magazine (1883-1900*). A general-knowledge miscellany treating, among other subjects, music, the visual arts, literature, and such professions as architecture, law, and archaeology. Each issue included a list of those who contributed to its pictorial content. Among such contributors were Walter Crane and engravers Charles V. Brownlow and Octave Lacour. This was among the earliest magazines to use photoreproduction. Family Novelette (1878-92). A magazine of fiction, each issue containing several chapters of a serialized novel, one wood-engraving, some illustrated advertising pages, and the occasional photograph of an author on the cover. Fraser's Magazine (1830-82). Combined serious intellectual fiction and non-fiction with satire and occasional illustration: for example, small wood-engravings and Daniel Maclise's lithographic caricatures of the 1830s. Good Words (1860-1900*)- A sixpenny monthly mixing overt religious content with entertainment in the form of serial fiction and short essays on general subjects. In the early 1860s, wood-engraved illustrations reproduced the work of Burne-Jones, Holman Hunt, Millais, and Whistler. Circulation figures hovered between 80,000 and 130,000 per issue in the 1870s.

Illustration/137 Graphic (1869-1900*). An illustrated weekly, one of the many competitors of the ILN. Its numerous engravings reproduced the designs of Randolph Caldecott and William Small, as well as the work of draughtsman and cartoonist A.C. Corbould in the 1880s, and that of A.B. Houghton and Frank Craig, special correspondents respectively to the Franco-Prussian and Boer Wars. Harmsworth Magazine (1898-1900*). A threepenny monthly and one of the high-circulation magazines of the latter years of the nineteenth century - it had sales for the first number of 850,000 copies. Profuse and appealing illustration, both engraved and photographic, enhanced a range of light, entertaining written fare. Contributing illustrators included the Graphics Frank Craig. Idler (1892-1900+). Edited by Jerome K. Jerome and Robert Barr, this was a monthly magazine of light reading and humour, with accompanying illustrations in the same vein. Its illustrators included painter George Hutchinson, who illustrated the serial version of Stevenson's Treasure Island (1892), and Bernard Partridge, who would later become the principal cartoonist for Punch. Illustrated Family Novelist (1878-1900*). Published as a penny weekly and in monthly parts. Each weekly number contained a story and single lavish full-page wood-engraving; many of these were signed 'D.T.W.,' who was probably D.T. White, a draughtsman and contributing illustrator to Once a Week and other contemporary periodicals. Illustrated London Magazine (1853-70). A monthly 'companion' principally oriented to a female market. Its contributing artists included 'Phiz,' John Gilbert, and A.S. Henning, the first cartoonist for Punch. Illustrated London News (1842-1900*). Illustrated with wood-engravings and eventually photographs, Herbert Ingram's pioneering venture into illustrated journalism covered virtually all aspects of everyday life and high society, as well as great events at home and abroad. Among its list of distinguished illustrators and engravers were Henry Anelay, 'Phiz,' Caldecott, Walter Crane, Cruikshank, Gustave Dore, John Gilbert, William Harvey, Charles Keene, W.J. Linton, Stephen Sly, and T.H. Wilson - to name only some. Although it inspired many imitators, its circulation rose nonetheless from 41,000 in its second year to 123,000 in 1854-5. Illustrated Review (1870-4). A threepenny journal of literature, science, and art, published fortnightly by Houlston and Sons. Woodengravings of authors' portraits, fictional and historical subjects,

138 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts landmarks, and architectural monuments accompanied book reviews and articles. The 1870 Christmas number included several illustrations by Dore. Illustrated Tid Bits (1884-1900*). A miscellany of light fare - theatrical gossip, fashion news, and the like - published by W. Lucas. Combining engravings and photographs, it demonstrated the growing popularity and usage of the latter: by 1898 it was called Photo Bits. Illustrated Times (1855-72). Published by one-time engraver Henry Vizetelly, this successful imitation of the ILN sold 200,000 copies of its first issue. Among its number of prominent contributing artists were 'Phiz,' Cruikshank, Dore, Keene, and Kenny Meadows. Literature (1897-1900+). A journal of literary criticism edited by H.D. Traill; it provided photographic portraits of the authors treated. Lloyd's Weekly Miscellany and Penny Sunday Times (1850-52). One of popular publisher Edward Lloyd's entries into the new mass market for illustration. It combined engravings with mildly instructive non-fiction and the highly spiced fiction that Lloyd typically offered. Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper (1842-1900+). As its first title - Lloyd's Illustrated London Newspaper — signals, this was another imitator of the ILN, although likely aimed at a working-class market rather than at its prototype's fundamentally middle-class readership. Its circulation in 1855 was 96,000. London Journal (1845-1900*). The inspiration of its proprietor George Stiff, a former engraver for the ILN, this was another of the pioneering ventures into the mass circulation of illustration. Priced at a penny per weekly number, it offered light instruction, fiction, and wood-engravings. Its circulation by 1855 was 450,000. 'Phiz' was an occasional contributing artist, as were Louis Huard and T.H. Wilson. London Reader (1863-1900*). An imitator of the London Journal, although devoting more space to fiction. Wilson was among the contributors of designs for the engravings. Ludgate Monthly (1891-1900*). Edited by Phil May, illustrator for Punch and the Graphic. It included contributions by George Hutchinson and draughtsman and caricaturist S.H. Sime. Mirror of Literature, Amusement and Instruction (1823—49). A twopenny weekly published by John Limbird, this was probably the first

Illustration/139 low-priced, pictorial miscellany to reach a substantial market. Its inaugural number had sales of 150,000 copies; some subsequent issues achieved 80,000. New Review (1889-97). Initially edited by Archibald Grove, this was a collection of writings on poetics, science, and art, with contributions by Thomas Hardy, Henry James, Olive Schreiner, and others. Painter and illustrator William Nicholson provided a series of portraits of, among others, Bernhardt, Kipling, and Whistler. Once a Week (1859-80). An 'Illustrated Miscellany of Literature, Art, Science and Popular Information/ edited by Samuel Lucas, and characterized by large showy engravings - some illustrating fiction, others depicting notable personalities of the day. Joseph Swain did many of the engravings from designs contributed by many distinguished artists: Keene, Leech, Millais, Tenniel, Whistler, and numerous others. Pall Mall Magazine (1893-1900+). A monthly literary and artistic journal with photographs and illustrations by such artists as S.H. Sime, illustrator and engraver A.J. Goodman, and cartoonist and Punch artist Leonard Raven-Hill. Pearson's Magazine (1896-1900*). C. Arthur Pearson's monthly compilation of fiction and general-interest articles on art, travel, religion, sport, and so on. It included photographs and also illustrations by G. Montbard and Stanley Wood, both of whom had also contributed to the Graphic, Windsor Magazine, and several other contemporary periodicals. Penny Magazine (1832-45). Edited and published by Charles Knight, this was perhaps the single most important pioneering venture into the field of illustrated periodical publication. Offering essays and accompanying engravings treating a range of general subjects - history, art, travel, and so on - it achieved the unprecedented circulation of 200,000 in its early years. Although its serious offerings could not ultimately compete with the lighter fare of subsequent illustrated miscellanies, it fundamentally influenced the engraving style, overall format, and marketing methods of the competitors that eclipsed it. Among its important artists were such heirs to the Bewick tradition as William Harvey and John Jackson; it also gave a start to several others who would move on to other publications: for example, Stephen Sly, who would engrave the first title heading for the ILN,

140 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts and J.A. Crowe, who would become its special artist in the Crimea, 1855-6. Pictorial Times (1843-8). Vizetelly's first attempt to erode the market of the ILN. Its literary team included Douglas Jerrold, Mark Lemon, and Thackeray. John Gilbert contributed some illustrations and the more obscure Charles Martin produced full-length portraits of such notables as Ainsworth, Dickens, and Disraeli. Pictorial World (1874-92). Yet another venture into the field of illustrated news. Caldecott was among the contributing illustrators. F*unch (1841-1900+). The famous 'refuge for destitute wit' and 'asylum for thousands of orphan jokes and ... perishing puns.' Its first editors were Jerrold, Lemon, and Henry Mayhew. Engraved illustrations appropriate to editorial policy were designed by du Maurier, Keene, Leech, May, Tenniel, and many other eminent artists of the day. Quiver (1861-1900+). A weekly compilation of general fiction and nonfiction with strong religious and moralistic overtones, initially edited by John Cassell. At first sober and unillustrated, it was by 1865 enlivened with illustrations by Dore and others. Review of Reviews (1890-1900*). W.T. Stead's accumulation of summarized periodical literature, book lists, and so forth, illustrated with simple wood-engravings and photographic portraits of celebrities. Reynolds's Miscellany (1846-69). Published by John Dicks and edited by the best-selling novelist George W.M. Reynolds. Like Cassell's Magazine and the London Journal, this was an early and important entry into the field of mass-market pictorial publishing - its circulation by 1855 was 200,000. It combined the usual mix of light nonfiction topics with serialized versions of Reynolds' sensational fiction and appropriately gripping illustration by Henry Anelay and others. St. Paul's Magazine (1867-74). A collection of serialized novels, poetry, criticism, and reviews. The first editor was Anthony Trollope, whose Phineas Finn ran in instalments in early numbers and included illustrations by Millais. Saturday Magazine (1832-44). Published by John Parker for the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, this was the Church of England's answer to the Penny Magazine. It combined general information and religious instruction with portraits of churchmen, biblical

Illustration / 141 illustration, scenes from the Holy Land, and pictures of churches and cathedrals. Sharpe's London Magazine (1845-70). A self-proclaimed 'journal of entertainment and instruction for general reading, with elegant wood-engravings.' Some, such as those by Edward Dalziel, lived up to their description; others fell short and are of only fair quality. Illustrations also included what look to be steel engravings of antiquities and historical subjects. After 1858 editorial policy changed and the magazine aimed to capture a mainly female readership. Strand Magazine (1891-1900+). A general-interest monthly edited by George Newnes. It addressed its fiction, articles, and illustration to a predominantly middle-class market; by 1898 it had sales of 200,000400,000 copies per number. It reproduced photographs as well as illustrations. Among those providing the latter were Gordon Browne, the son of Phiz'; political cartoonist F. Carruthers Gould; and Sidney Paget, who was best known for his Sherlock Holmes illustrations. Sunday at Home (1854-1900+). Published by the Religious Tract Society, this was one of many similar Sunday magazines offering appropriate Sabbath reading: articles about foreign missions, religious poetry, Bible tales, and uplifting fiction. Accompanying illustrations included many high quality wood-engravings, some on tinted paper, and a few colour lithographs. Tinsley's Magazine (1887-92). Edited initially by Edmund Yates, the professed aim of this generously illustrated monthly was 'essentially amusement.' This it provided in the form of fiction and light reading in such areas as sport, fashion, and current events. Edward Evans did many of the engravings. Universal Review (1888-90). A magazine of literature and the visual arts, edited by Harry Quilter. It had a marked Pre-Raphaelite emphasis, with Burne-Jones, Millais, Rossetti, and illustrator Frederick Sandys among its contributing artists. Vanity Fair (1868-1900+). 'A weekly show of political, social and literary wares,' edited by Thomas Gibson Bowles. It contained humorous commentary, social and political columns, book and theatrical reviews, serial fiction, and sporting news. It is perhaps best known for its coloured caricatures (chromo-lithographs) of celebrities by Carlo Pellegrini, who signed himself 'Ape,' and by Sir Leslie Ward,

142 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts 'Spy.' Pellegrini influenced Max Beerbohm, who would later become one of the magazine's contributing caricaturists. Welcome Guest (1858-64). 'An illustrated weekly journal of recreative literature,' priced at a mere halfpenny per issue. Edited by author, journalist, and illustrator George Sala, it combined serial fiction, short non-fiction items, and wood-engravings. Its circulation in 1858 was 120,000. Windsor Magazine (1895-1900*). 'An illustrated monthly for men and women,' with a strong visual element. It combined photographs and engravings with fiction and general-interest articles on art, fashion, sport, and so forth. Among its artists were Phil May and Stanley Wood. By 1898 its sales ranged between 200,000 and 400,000 copies per number. Yellow Book (1894-7). Intended to reach a wider audience than the avant-garde, at 5s per issue this was a highly priced, high-quality, high-culture quarterly for the carriage trade. It included fiction, poetry, criticism, and illustrations by Frederick Leighton and its art editor, Aubrey Beardsley.

Authorship and the Book Trade ROBERT A. COLBY

'To the thousands of young persons whom I address, the Literary Life offers attractions which are almost irresistible. The old bugbear - the prejudice formerly so well founded - of poverty has vanished.' So Sir Walter Besant greeted literary beginners in the preface to his vademecum The Pen and the Book (1898). By now it could be taken for granted that devotion to writing held out hopes for a living, as against just a way of life, but, as Besant implies, this was a recent development. After a series of ephemeral ventures, authorship finally came of age as a recognized profession ('It is now well known that a respectable man of letters may command an income and a position quite equal to those of the average lawyer or doctor/ Besant continues) with the founding by Besant of the Incorporated Society of Authors in 1883. This proved to be the most enduring (it is still in existence) of such associations as well as the first successful one. Hence Besant is frequently credited with being the father of the profession of authorship in England, though it would probably be more accurate to call him its midwife. 'It was only felt vaguely, as it had been for fifty years, that the position of literary men was most unsatisfactory. The air was full of discontent and murmurs/ he recalled in his Autobiography. The times were ripe, and Besant, who had experienced his share of irritations with publishers, was ready, as well as willing and able. This bibliographical essay will centre on books and periodicals that document the emergence and evolution of authorship as a profession in England and America, with incidental attention to publishing and the book trade as they impinge on this history. Although 'writer' is broader in scope than 'author' (which implies the literature of imagination), the two terms will be employed here interchangeably.

144 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts Authorship, like librarianship, has a short professional history, but a long tradition, and one largely of the writer as underdog, to judge by testimony. In his Autobiography Besant wrote that the discontent of authors extended back to the previous century. According to William Jerdan, founder of the Literary Gazette, 'The wants and complaints of authors are not of modern birth: they are coeval with the annals of literary labour.' Indeed the title of James G. Hepburn's study of literary agency (another offspring of the late nineteenth century), The Author's Empty Purse, is taken from Chaucer. George Haven Putnam's famous article 'Author's Complaints and Publisher's Profits' (Forum, Sept 1891) goes back even further, quoting from Horace and Martial. Jerdan's litany is found in his Illustrations of the Plan of a National Association for the Encouragement and Protection of Authors and Men of Talent and Genius (1839), an organization promoted by Jerdan, one of several ill-fated forerunners of the Incorporated Society of Authors. The year 1843 saw the inauguration of the better-known but also short-lived British Society of Authors, concerned principally with forestalling piracy. It is remembered mainly because its second meeting was presided over by Dickens, one of the most vociferous victims of American marauders. Dickens soon relinquished his office, believing that authors should join forces with publishers, not unite against them. Lacking effective leadership, the society itself withered on the vine, and expired in 1848. This aborted enterprise is the subject of Besant's article 'The First Society of British Authors' (Contemporary Review, July 1889). Having studied the records of his principal forerunner in preparation for the article, he wrote that its Prospectus was, 'without doubt, the feeblest and the most futile that was ever put together by any body of oppressed and indignant mortals,' failing in particular to grapple with the fundamental principle of literary property. As a contrast he pointed to the Paris-based Societe des Gens de Lettres, which had been founded the year Victoria came to the throne (10 Dec 1837) by Louis Desnoyers, editor of Charivari, commending it for its recognition of the need 'to secure for the procedures of literature their own property for themselves, not for those who sell it.' Clearly the Societe served as Besant's model, and it is not surprising that one of the first publications of the Society of Authors was a history of its French progenitor (1889), honouring it on its fiftieth anniversary. A few eyewitnesses to the fray from various vantage points help us

Authorship and the Book Trade / 145 to recover the atmosphere of 'discontent and murmurs' Besant speaks of. The editor (and part-time literary agent) William Jerdan recapitulates the early struggles of writers for recognition in his rather garrulous Autobiography (1852-3), particularly in the last two of its four volumes, as well as in the pamphlet already mentioned. Jerdan can be supplemented by John Petheram's polemic Reasons for Establishing an Authors'Publication Society (1843). Once authors began to organize successfully, the conflict with Publishers' Row was joined. The gilt-embossed goosequill and rotary press that adorn the cover of Authors and Publishers (1883) by George Haven Putnam, the American publisher generally credited with instituting the royalty system, represents an attempt at a modus vivendi. A pointed chapter entitled 'Editors and the Periodical Press' indicates that by now journalism was overtaking book writing as a source of livelihood for writers. In the seventh edition (1897), Putnam added a chapter on literary agents. The privately issued Hardships of Publishing (1893) reprints letters by the British publisher William Heinemann, mainly from the Athenaeum, answering attacks from the Society of Authors, with responses by Besant and others. To uphold their interests in the face of already established organizations of writers, printers, booksellers, and librarians, Heinemann proposed a society of publishers. This organization materialized three years later, and aroused Besant anew rather than placating him. Besant's own posthumously published Autobiography (1902), along with being the most authoritative source for the organization of the society and the conditions that led up to it, is a handy retrospect of this yeasty century from the viewpoint of one of its most successful author-entrepreneurs. A few twentieth-century scholarly works deal with aspects of the writers' profession, trade, or game, as it is variously referred to. Foremost is James Hepburn's aforementioned The Author's Empty Purse (1968), chapter 2 of which ('The Historical Background: The Long Quarrel between Author and Publisher') offers the most succinct easily available summary of the aims and accomplishments of authors' societies. The bibliographical appendix is an invaluable path to further research. Of peripheral interest is J.W. Saunders' The Profession of English Letters (1964), which traces the transformation of authorship from genteel amateurism to commercialism. A connecting thread for Saunders is the perennial conflict between literary ideals and the demands of the market ('what the public needs versus what the public wants'), aggravated by the expansion of publishing in the nineteenth century.

146 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts The economics of authorship is the focus of two books by James J. Barnes - Free Trade in Books (1964) and Authors, Publishers, and Politicians (1974). The first is a detailed study of The Bookselling Question, a mid-nineteenth-century conflict over attempts by publishers to remove price restrictions on books, in which authors tended to side with publishers against booksellers. The later book deals with the ever irksome transatlantic piracy, and the uphill struggle for an Anglo-American Copyright Agreement, in which several authors participated, notably Bulwer-Lytton and G.P.R. James. A lucid and gracefully written account of this complicated history is Simon No well-Smith's International Copyright Law and the Publisher in the Reign of Queen Victoria (1968), based on his Lyell Lectures in Bibliography delivered at Oxford University. David Saunders' Authorship and Copyright (1992) considers the refinement of copyright law against an extensive historical and conceptual background. Here the English and American emphasis on 'the protected commodity' is set against the continental stress on 'the integrity of an authorial personality.' A bibliography, international in scope, and an 'index of cases' are appended. The most extensive study of what was popularly known in its early years as 'Besant's Society' is Victor Bonham-Carter's two-volume Authors by Profession (1978, 1984). Bonham-Carter sketches early efforts at organizing writers, but concentrates on the history of the Society of Authors, based on its archives, from its foundation through 1981, taking in the impact of films and television. The first volume, which carries the record to the Copyright Act of 1911, appends a bibliography covering authorship, publishing history, and relevant biographies of writers. Among works of related interest, John Gross's The Rise and Fall of the Man of Letters (1969) is a readable set of profiles of cultivated literary journalists of the early- and late-Victorian eras, who can be regarded as professionals in that they wrote full time, although they were not organized as such. (True to his title, Gross recognizes no women of letters, such as Margaret Oliphant, Charlotte Yonge, and Eliza Lynn Linton.) Nigel Cross's The Common Writer (1985), drawn from the records of the Royal Literary Fund (founded in 1790, incorporated by Royal Charter in 1818), is an urbane and engaging account of the fortunes - mainly misfortunes - of the less successful contemporaries of Scott, Dickens, Thackeray, and George Eliot, giving us some sense of the insecurity of the average writer in the days before the royalty system took hold and firm copyright laws were in

Authorship and the Book Trade / 147 place. The first chapter of Peter Keating's The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel, 1875-1914 (1989) succinctly reviews the state of the literary marketplace at the time when the Society of Authors established itself.

Periodicals: Forerunners Periodicals remain a largely untapped primary source for tracing the struggles of writers for social and economic status. The organization of the book trade was signalized by the weekly Publishers' Circular, a co-operative venture begun in 1837 with the Victorian Age, and still going. In 1858 Whitaker's Bookseller, a Handbook of British and Foreign Literature, was introduced, its monthly issues intended by its publisher to do for publishing what Bradshaw did for railroads. In its present incarnation, still under the aegis of Whitaker, it is known as the Bookseller: The Organ of the Book Trade. It was not until the latter two decades of the nineteenth century, coterminous with the founding of the Incorporated Society of Authors, that journals aimed specifically at professional writers proliferated, but a few literary periodicals that began earlier are noteworthy for their attention to the concerns of the 'Corporation of the Goosequill' (as Thackeray dubbed his confreres). The pioneer in this area undoubtedly was the weekly Literary Gazette; or, Journal of Belles Lettres, Politics and Fashion, inaugurated on Saturday, 25 January 1817 by William Jerdan, who remained its editor until 1851. In his 'Preliminary Address,' Jerdan boasted that heretofore no journal had appeared exclusively devoted to 'the progressive state of Literature and the subjects to which it bears an immediate relation,' which included 'the Commerce of Books.' For the historian of authorship, the most useful regular features of the Literary Gazette are 'Proceedings of Public and Literary Societies,' 'Literary Intelligence,' and the annual 'Chronological Literary Register.' The Literary Gazette was a leading early champion of an American copyright law, which was not enacted until 1891. Jerdan saw to it also that the proceedings of the Royal Literary Fund got due attention, and welcomed the initial meeting of the British Society of Authors (which he referred to as the Association for the Protection of Literature). The Athenaeum, launched on 2 January 1828 as a 'Literary and Critical Journal' - expanded in 1830 to a 'Weekly Review of English and Foreign Literature, Fine Arts, and Works of Embellishment' - is

148 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts now sought out by literary historians for its extensive reviews of current publications (particularly fiction). However, its first editor, John Silk Buckingham, promised his readers that his journal would have 'the indisputable privilege of possessing the earliest literary intelligence/ and he kept his word. The report on the 'Literary Union Club' chaired by Thomas Campbell (30 March 1830) was forwardlooking in affirming that writers and artists fully as much as mechanics and seamen should band together in a guild, not merely a social club. Particularly valuable features of the Athenaeum are its 'Weekly Report of Books Subscribed by the Trade' and its occasional accounts of 'The State of the Literary Market in England.' Among mid-century literary periodicals, the Academy (1869-1900+), subtitled A Monthly Record of Literature, Learning, Science, and Art, is invaluable for its subject-classified reviews. There are rewards also for the more sociological-minded in its news notes under 'Intelligence' and 'Lectures,' which include meetings of authors and Fleet Street gossip. As for general periodicals covered by the WI, Longman's Magazine, which began publication in November 1882, merits mention here because of Andrew Lang's column 'At the Sign of the Ship' (the logo of the Longman firm), which set sail with the January 1886 number. Given a free hand to comment on any topic that aroused his interest, Lang spoke out from time to time on such rife issues as American piracy ('That arrangement has always been, on our side, as Aristotle says about robbery, "an involuntary exchange'"); the economics of novel writing (French novelists fare better than English, he thought); charges of log rolling' among reviewers (exaggerated, in his opinion); Sampson Low's pamphlet on Copyright, National and International, issued in 1887; the American Copyright Law introduced in Congress in 1890. His intermittent snipes at the Author, the journal of the Society of Authors, and particularly at its editor Walter Besant, with whom he carried on a friendly feud, make for pungent reading. Professional Journals: England America was slightly ahead of England in the introduction of journals specifically addressed to issues of interest to active writers, but discussion of these is postponed in favour of British periodicals which proved more influential. The Author, launched by Besant in 1890, is unique in its genre as the spokesman for the Incorporated Society of Authors, as well as for

Authorship and the Book Trade / 149 its comprehensive coverage of the economics and legal aspects of authorship and to an extent of publishing. Moreover, 'conducted' by Besant (as he put it on the masthead, in obvious imitation of his revered Dickens), and partially financed by him, from its beginnings to his death in 1901, it can be regarded as his lengthened shadow during the last decade of the Victorian era. (He undoubtedly wrote more for it than bears his signature.) Much of the early content of the Author hammers away at Besant's preoccupation with literary property. To peruse subsequent issues under his stewardship is to relive a crucial period in the evolution of 'New Grub Street' into the modern literary marketplace, which saw the passage of international copyright legislation, the establishment of the royalty system, the rise of the literary agent, and extension of the concept of authorship, among other developments. For one year (Dec 1894-Dec 1895), Brander Matthews kept members of the Society of Authors abreast of American concerns in his prickly, pointed 'New York Letter.' Concurrently, the Author during the Besant years reflects his efforts to elevate the prestige of authorship, which he quite readily reconciled with his pragmatic aims, contradictory as the two goals may appear. Still in existence, the Author has proved the most enduring journal in its field. More belletristic in orientation was the Bookman, which made its debut in October 1891, the brain-child of Sir William Robertson Nicoll, a Scottish Free Church Minister and literary journalist already known to the public under the pseudonym 'Claudius Clear.' Whereas Besant in 1895 claimed a readership of just under 2,000 for the Author (1,300 members, plus about 600 outside subscribers), Nicoll boasted that the first issue of 10,000 copies of the Bookman was exhausted so quickly that two more editions had to be printed, and were quickly disposed of. In subtitling his publication A Monthly Journal for Bookreaders, Bookbuyers, and Booksellers, Nicoll obviously intended to reach beyond the brotherhood of the pen, but the contents during its first years presage its abiding concern for the welfare of the author (for example, 'Advice to a Young Journalist. By an Old Hand'; 'The Net System'; 'State Recognition of Authors' - a symposium in which Max Muller, John Tyndall, Thomas Hardy, and William Lecky participated). In its opening issue was inaugurated 'The Young Author's Page,' notes on manuscripts submitted for advice, a feature continued until the turn of the century. Nicoll's journal is useful for following controversies over copyright, if one does not want to wade through the more technical accounts in the Author.

150 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts It was also hospitable to literary agents, about whom the Author was ambivalent. In the quarrel between the Society of Authors and the Association of Publishers that flared up at the end of the decade, the Bookman sided with the publishers, but Besant came in for praise in its pages after his death. It survived until 1935 when it merged with the London Mercury. Other journals that emerged in the 1890s originated in the burgeoning book trade. The Book World, issued by the firm of Smith, Ainslie from 1 August 1890 to 1 August 1899 (the last issue, at any rate, recorded in BUCOP), was intended 'to record the forthcoming books by authors whose repute is world-wide.' It sometimes addressed writers directly, as in 'Rejected Manuscripts' (1 Oct 1890), urging a stiff upper lip in the face of this common fate. There is also occasional advice to readers, and reporting on literary conferences. More substantial was Bookselling. A Journal for Publishers and Booksellers, launched in January 1895 by J.S. Morriss, 'Ye Aldus Press' and 'conducted' by P. Cockeram. The debut of this journal just about coinciding with the reorganization of the Booksellers of Great Britain and Ireland (reported in its second issue), it was clearly aimed at revitalizing this sector of the trade by making retailers more 'up' on the contents of books. However, by mid-year its subtitle added 'Writers and Readers.' Its reaching out to Besant's constituency is obvious in the editor's claim that its "Notes and News' were fresher than those reported in the Author. Furthermore, the Society of Authors and its organ ('this sapient periodical') were accused of misrepresenting both publishers and booksellers. Cockeram even questioned Besant's qualifications for a knighthood. This skirmishing did not last long, however, for Bookselling ceased publication in 1897. Another short-lived rival was the monthly Authors' Circular, which proclaimed itself in its initial issue of 10 January 1898 as 'The Official Organ of the English School of Journalism.' There was no pretension, however, in its apt self-description as 'a trade journal for literary workers,' borne out by an article 'The Art of Arriving' in its second issue which asserts that expert advertising can sell a new book as well as a new brand of soap. Accordingly, much of its contents resemble a mart - offers of story or article ideas for sale to publishers, advice on 'Trends in Fiction,' situations vacant or sought in publishing houses, addresses of literary agents. Although the issue for April 1898 announces a forthcoming article on 'Recipes for Popularity/ the Authors' Circular does not seem to have survived beyond this number. Literature, a weekly introduced on 23 October 1897, published by

Authorship and the Book Trade/ 151 the Times and edited by the scholar-journalist Henry D. Traill through 1899 (he died early in 1900), answered, according to its first leader, 'Author and Critic,' the need for an 'intermediary' between the burgeoning ranks of writers and the reading public. For guidance in extracting the nuggets from the stockpiles, a leading writer of the day was invited to contribute an 'Among My Books' column to each issue. At the end of each year a summing up entitled 'The Literary Year' appeared. A regular feature was the 'American Letter,' with Henry James and William Dean Howells among the correspondents. In 1899 the 'Authors and Publishers' department was introduced, announcing books in press, and disseminating news of authors. This last year of the century began also with a series of reviews by various anonymous publishers of Besant's The Pen and the Book commending it as a guide to literary aspirants, but denouncing it as prejudiced and misleading as a picture of Publishers' Row. There ensued a twomonth siege of rebuttals by Besant and others. This altercation might be said to have ended in a draw, to be revived in succeeding generations. Early in 1902, Literature merged with the Academy, a joint venture which lasted until 1916, but its true reincarnation is the Times Literary Supplement, launched on 17 January 1902, and still very much with us. The American Scene The formal organization of the writing profession gained impetus in the 1880s in America, as in England, but its growth was more gradual, following an evolution in the course of three decades from a genteel conclave to a quasi-union. The first stage was the formation of an Authors' Club by a group of New York men of letters at the house of the editor Richard Watson Gilder on 1 October 1882. Matthew Arnold was named its first honorary member while on a lecture tour in America in 1883, an early extension of hands across the sea which set a precedent. An offshoot was the American Copyright League, founded in 1883 at the home of Brander Matthews, a charter member of the Authors' Club. With James Russell Lowell as its first president and Robert Underwood Johnson of the Century Magazine an especially dynamic secretary, the League campaigned vigorously and successfully (with help from the Society of Authors in England) for the passage of the first U.S. Copyright Law of 1891, culmination of a struggle going back to 1837. The Authors' Club itself remained pretty much a convivial mutual

152 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts admiration society, settling eventually in quarters in Carnegie Hall (then the Music Hall Building), courtesy of one of its affluent members. Meanwhile, in 1892 the American Authors' Guild was established; it was incorporated in 1895 and was patterned after the Society of Authors and the Societe des Gens de Lettres, according to its letterhead. In 1899 this organization changed its name to the Society of American Authors, in conformity with its prototypes, though unlike them it did not provide a manuscript reading service. Thomas Wentworth Higginson was its first president, followed by James Grant Wilson. William Dean Howells was among its charter members, and its rolls also included Andrew Carnegie, Theodore Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. The Authors' Guild and the American Copyright League considered uniting, but went their separate ways owing to disagreement over copyright policy. Competing with the Authors' Guild were two regional societies, the short-lived Western Association of Writers (founded in Indianapolis in 1886) and the American Fraternity of Writers (spawned in Cincinnati in 1895), self-styled 'a Protective Association and Mutual Aid Society,' and proudly displaying its initials A.F. of W. - presumably in emulation of the A.F. of L. The Guild formed a committee to investigate a possible merger of the East with the Midwest, but the twain never met. Eventually the Authors' League, founded in 1911 and incorporated the following year, superseded all of these organizations, subsuming their various functions. The League remains the parent body of the Authors' Guild and The Dramatists' Guild to this day. Possibly because it was more diversified and complex, the sociology of authorship in the United States has had relatively sparse treatment. The aforementioned playwrighl/literary historian/professor Brander Matthews as chairman of the publicity subcommittee of the American Copyright League was a vociferous spokesman for improved protection of American writers, as indicated in his pamphlets Cheap Books and Good Books (1888) and American Authors and British Pirates (1889), both published by the League. A brief account of the organizing of the Authors' Club can be found in his autobiography, These Many Years (1917). The Book in America, a composite historical survey edited by Helmut Lehmann-Haupt, Lawrence C. Wroth, and Rollo Silver (2nd ed 1952), touches here and there on the impact of the economics of the book trade and of improved copyright legislation on the careers of some American writers. John Tebbel's panoramic four-volume A

Authorship and the Book Trade / 153 History of Book Publishing in the United States (1972-81) glances at the organizing of authors for protective purposes, especially in the second volume, which also records the emergence of literary agents and attitudes toward them. The Profession of Authorship in America, 1800-1870 (1968), a collection of lectures and papers by William Charvat, America's foremost exponent of the 'triadic relation of author-publisher-reader in literary history,' to quote from the Foreword by Howard Mumford Jones, is especially acute on the influence of transportation and marketing conditions on the emergence of professional authorship, as well as on the hand that publishers had over what authors wrote. Charvat is updated to an extent by James West Ill's American Authors and the Literary Marketplace since 1900 (1988), which concludes with a bibliography of related books and articles, mainly covering twentieth-century developments, but including a few historical items. Professional Journals: America The expansion of publishing in the later decades of the nineteenth century is reflected in the proliferation of periodicals originating in the book trade that served as intermediaries between writers and readers: for example Book News Monthly (1882) issued by Wanamaker in Philadelphia; Book Chat (1886), a publication of the New York firm of Brentano Brothers; Book Lover (1888), from the book shop of William Evarts Benjamin of New York City. Outstanding among these was Literary News, A Monthly Journal of Current Literature (1880), an outgrowth of the Literary Bulletin introduced in 1869 by the firm of Frederick Leypoldt (forerunner of R.R. Bowker, who continued to put out Publishers' Weekly, started by Leypoldt in 1872 as America's equivalent to England's Publishers' Circular). Until its demise in 1904, Literary News gave attention to copyright issues, publicized the earnings of authors, and dispensed tips to cub writers. During this decade several prestigious journals also emerged that were primarily literary, but reported on conditions of authorship. The Dial, a monthly review emanating from the firm of McClurg and Company in Chicago, announced itself in its debut issue of May 1880 as 'an intelligent guide and agreeable companion to the book-lover and book-buyer.' In its reviews the Dial gave due attention to books on authorship, such as G.P. Putnam's series on 'The Literary Life.'

154 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts The issue of March 1891 hailed the passage of the U.S Copyright Law. Extensive coverage was given to the Congress of Authors, which was organized by its editor, Francis Browne, in connection with the Columbian Exposition, and was attended by Besant, who helped organize the event from his side, as well as arranging for fellow members of the Society of Authors who could not come over to contribute papers (16 July 1893). The Dial ceased publication with the issue of July 1929. The wider-ranging though shorter-lived New York-based Critic began publication on January 1881 and lasted through 1906. The index for its first year reflects its interest in the literary marketplace: 'American Book Exchange,' 'Book World,' 'Increase of American Books,' 'International Copyright,' 'Publishing Business,' 'Unsound Literary Reputations' (on the encouragement of 'third-rate scribblers' by the magazines). In various articles and editorials, the Critic acutely exposed British naivety about and misrepresentation of American authors and publishers. Besant was welcomed on its pages; of special interest is his exchange with Jeanette L. Gilder, editor of the Critic, over the review of his The Pen and the Book (Feb, June 1899). The Forum was the longest lived of these cultural reviews (March 1886-Jan 1950). Its most famous editor was Walter Hines Page, but it is associated in its early stage with its originator, the amazingly versatile Isaac Leopold Rice - musician, linguist, railroad lawyer, inventor, and founder of the School of Political Science at Columbia University. The Forum was fundamentally devoted to dialogue and debate over social issues, but it deserves inclusion in the present company for welcoming authors of the day on its pages to discuss their literary convictions and to pass on the secrets of their success. Besant made two noteworthy contributions: a report on 'The Work of the British Society of Authors' (March 1892), and 'Literature as a Career' (Aug 1892). In the same issue as Besant's first article appeared Charles Burr Todd's 'The Case of the American Author,' arguing for an American society on the order of the British Society of Authors, which came into being that year. As in England, the emergence of authorship as a profession in America gave rise to journals addressed to its needs, but these were more geographically diversified than their English counterparts and furthermore tended to hew closer to the writing desk. The American brotherhood of the pen actually had at hand a journal entitled the Author a year before their British confreres, but this

Authorship and the Book Trade /155 was a by-product of the Writer: A Monthly Magazine for Literary Workers, which, bowing in Boston on April 1887, can lay claim to being the first English-language professional journal devoted exclusively to authorship. Its practical preoccupation was guaranteed from the outset by the background of its founder, William H. Hills, editor of a local weekly newspaper (Somerville), manager of a literary syndicate known as the Writers' Literary Bureau, and director of the Writers' School of Journalism and Literary Training (operated by mail). Not surprisingly, 'How-to' pieces tend to dominate the Writer ('How I Write My Sermons,' 'The Art of Interviewing,' 'Advice for Newspaper Correspondents,' 'How to Get into Print*). Advice is offered not only on grammar and diction but also on the fine points of use of the typewriter and manuscript preparation. It should be added that this journal also addressed itself to larger issues, such as a stronger organization (before the formation of the Authors' Guild) and the strengthening of the Copyright Act of 1891, the inadequacies of which it was quick to point out. The Author (Boston) was started on 15 January 1889 as an 'eclectic' mid-month supplement to the Writer, allowing for reprinting of longer articles on literary topics from other sources and for literary news. A feature of each issue was 'Personal Gossip about Writers' (designated in the index to each issue by a 'g'). At the beginning of its second volume, in the course of congratulating itself upon its success, the Author put forward as one of its chief aims 'to help and encourage young writers and to aid them in securing the attention of the world, with such fame as their merits may deserve' (15 Jan 1890). The ensuing articles in fact alternate between inspiration by successful practitioners, from Henry James to Ella Wheeler Wilcox, and sobering sales statistics intended presumably to reconcile young writers to settle for future fame rather than present fortune. The Author itself ceased publication with the 15 January 1892 issue - a retrenchment move apparently by Hills - but the Writer continued until 1925, Margaret Gordon succeeding Hills as editor in 1902. A recurrent feature under Hills was 'Newspaper English, Edited,' exposing the stylistic gaucheries of the Fourth Estate. At the end of the decade, the Writer gave a fresh airing to Besant's 'The Art of Fiction' and Henry James's more famous rejoinder. The year 1895 was a banner one not only for the organization of the profession of authorship in America but for the expansion of its periodical press as well. Two monthlies that began life in that year, the Authors' Journal (New York City) and the Editor (Franklin, Ohio),

156 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts merged in 1896, maintaining joint offices in the two locations, along with an additional outlet in London. The subtitle A Literary Trade Paper appended to the Authors' Journal characterizes the marketbased outlook of its congener the Editor as well. From the outset the Authors'Journal, under the editorship of Frank Lee Farnell, featured interviews with magazine editors on their policies and requirements. During its independent existence it also carried out an extended campaign against the 'Literary Sharks' (so-called 'manuscript revision agencies') then preying on unwary neophytes. The issues of September and October 1895 are noteworthy for a survey of 'Authors' Societies and Their Work' in Europe, England, and America by the aforementioned Charles Burr Todd, who helped found the Society of American Authors and was then serving on its Board of Managers. The pragmatism of the Editor: A Journal of Information for Literary Workers is apparent from its initial issue of April 1895. Founded by James Knapp Reeve, the first president of the American Fraternity of Writers (founded two months later), this journal was an extension of his Editor Publishing Company, which offered liberal arrangements with authors for the publication of books/ and its subsidiary Literary Bureau, set up to read and advise on the publishability of manuscripts. Reeve conducted a regular series, 'A Friend to Authors,' on current magazines of wide circulation and called attention to the growing number of 'Literary Syndicates' (Feb 1896), and among books frequently advertised was his Five Hundred Places to Sell Manuscripts. Reeve spread out the geographical sway of the Editor with 'New York Literary Notes/ 'New England Notes/ and 'Pacific Notes.' His distinct slant, as implied by the title of the journal, was breaking down the barriers of misunderstanding between authors and editors (for example, such articles as 'Manuscripts from an Editor's Viewpoint'; 'The Rejected Ms'; 'Things that Exasperate Editors'). The Editor is a handy source of information on the American Fraternity of Writers (its secretary, Seymour S. Tibbals, was a frequent correspondent); the January 1897 issue reports on efforts which apparently came to nothing to unite with the Western Association of Writers and the American Authors' Guild. It lingered on through March 1941. The monthly American, Authors' Guild Bulletin, launched on December 1895, was the nearest equivalent to the British Author. Following upon the incorporation of the Guild, the Bulletin was intended at the outset mainly to serve in lieu of distribution of the monthly minutes to the membership outside of New York City. Its emulation of the British Society of Authors is betrayed in its unacknowledged reprint-

Authorship and the Book Trade/ 157 ing in an early number of Besant's recurrent 'Warnings to Authors' from the Author (a lapse for which it apologized in a subsequent number), and it frequently quoted Besant's sayings as well as reporting on his society's doings. At the end of 1901 the title was changed to the American Author - reflecting the change of name of the organization to the Society of American Authors. ('Imitation is always the sincerest form of flattery/ commented the Author itself in the issue of 1 Feb 1902.) The American Author never achieved the snap and sparkle of its progenitor, but under the editorship of Mary L.D. Ferris, minor poet and wife of one of the counsels of the Society, business matters were leavened with light verse, chit chat, and profiles of writers then in vogue, enhancing its usefulness to the literary historian. The obituary of Walter Besant (July 1901) hailed him as 'the Apostle of Copyright.' Unfortunately, it published its own obituary less than three years later (March 1904), joining, according to its lament, 'the long phalanx of publications which have failed for lack of financial backing.' The year 1895 saw also the birth of the longer-enduring American incarnation of the Bookman in New York by the publisher Frank Dodd, who secured the rights to the title from W. Robertson Nicoll while he was in business in England. 'The American Edition will retain all the popular features of the English Bookman,' readers were assured in an advertisement (Oct 1895), 'but it will be freshly edited and contain additional material of immediate importance to readers in the United States.' Chiefly under the editorship of Harry Thurston Peck, a classicist from Columbia University who nevertheless promoted realism in fiction, the later Bookman was really transatlantic with its regular 'London Letter' by Nicoll along with contributions by such eminences as the literary agent A. P. Watt and the publisher William Heinemann interspersed among articles by American men of letters. Brander Matthews thought it more substantial and less preoccupied with literary 'infusoria' than its forerunner. Credited with coining the term 'best-seller,' the New York-originated Bookma played an influential part in the American literary marketplace until 1933 when it was absorbed by the American Review. Aids to Research, Library Collections The ULS is the most comprehensive guide to library locations of periodicals in the United States and Canada, as is BUCOP for Great Britain. More up to date in location information, though including

158 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts fewer of the specialized journals discussed in this essay, is the ULVS based on the limited list in volume III of the NCBEL. It omits, however, the Newberry Library in Chicago, outstanding for its nineteenth-century periodical holdings in general, and owner in particular of the fullest set of the Author, the Bookman (London as well as New York), the Dial, and the Critic outside of the New York Public Library and the Library of Congress. The latter is the prime repository of American periodicals, as is the British Library at Colindale for the United Kingdom. BLM II contains introductory surveys of the Athenaeum and the Literary Gazette; the Academy, the Author, the Bookman, the Bookseller, Literature, and Longman's Magazine appear in BLM ill. Brief information on some of the American periodicals can be found in volume IV of Frank Luther Mott's History of American Magazines (1957). Searching the contents of these journals is a haphazard business, owing to the limited coverage and broad subject headings of Poole's, the only periodicals reference aid available for the nineteenth century. Poole indexes (more or less) the Author (Boston), the Bookman (New York), Book News, the Critic, the Dial, the Forum, and the Writer, among American periodicals; the Academy, the Athenaeum, and Longman's Magazine, among British counterparts. The Nineteenth-Century Reader's Guide has the advantage of modern indexing but unfortunately is confined to the last decade of the century and adds but one periodical to Poole's coverage - the London Bookman. Otherwise one depends upon the serendipity of page turning, abetted by the indexes of the journals themselves, which tend to be intermittent and perfunctory. One is therefore grateful for the occasional reminiscent article like William Robertson Nicoll's 'Ten Years of the English Bookman,' which appeared in the New York Bookman of November 1901. Author! Author! (1984), edited by Richard Findlater, culls excerpts from this durable organ of the Society of Authors in celebration of the centennial of its foundation. For an account of its first decade under Besant, see Robert A. Colby, 'Harnessing Pegasus: Walter Besant, the Author, and the Profession of Authorship,' VPR (Fall 1990), 111-20. Publishers' archives, capably surveyed by Joanne Shattock in Guide II, should not of course be ignored by those tracing the fortunes of authors. More specifically, the records of the Society of Authors, systematically organized, are now available in the British Library. (Among stray items is a manuscript history of the society by G. Herbert Thring, who succeeded Besant as editor of the Author.)

Authorship and the Book Trade / 159 Besant's letters, few of them published, dashed off in the crabbed handwriting of a busy, restless man of causes, reward patience for what they reveal of the complaints of authors and Besant's problems in organizing the Society. These letters are scattered, with noteworthy caches in the British Library (mainly on his vexations with publishers); the Fales Library, New York University (mainly to William Morris Colles, director of the Authors' Syndicate, a literary agency attached for a time to the Society of Authors); the Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin (also to Colles); Columbia University's Rare Books and Manuscripts Division (mainly to Brander Matthews on their mutual interests), and the Berg Collection, New York Public Library (contracts and royalty statements, besides correspondence with A.P. Watt, his literary agent and executor). Letters from his clients to Watt, England's first full-time professional literary agent, have been published selectively (1896,1909). Letters to James B. Pinker, Watt's best-known successor, are included in the correspondence of Arnold Bennett, edited by James G. Hepburn (1966). Virtually untouched are the archives of the Authors' Syndicate, divided among the Beinecke Library, Yale University, which has skimmed off the cream (for example, Meredith, Hardy, Conrad, James, and Gissing), Columbia University, and the Humanities Research Center at Austin, which hold the residue - the numerous also-rans whom Colles dealt with. (The HRC part is briefly surveyed by Robert A. Colby, in 'What Fools Authors Be! The Authors' Syndicate, 1890-1920,' Library Chronicle of the University of Texas ns no 35 [1986], 61-87). Columbia University is the main repository for American literary agents, notably Paul Reynolds, New York's first, but these files move us into the twentieth century, beyond the purview of this essay. (See Kenneth A. Lohf, 'Publishers and Agents: The Columbia Connection,' Dictionary of Literary Biography: Yearbook 1987, pp 36-46.) In The Pen and the Book, Besant estimated the number engaged in literary work by the end of the nineteenth century at some twenty thousand. The geometric growth of the product of the pen in the course of Victoria's reign, together with the recognition of authorship as a livelihood, is concretely registered by the first Literary Yearbook (LY) introduced by the firm of George Allen in 1897, almost simultaneously with the first issue of the weekly Literature. This handy compendium, issued annually until 1924 (continued for a few years

160 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts beyond by What Editors and Publishers Wanf) offers a quick conspectus of the literary marketplace that was taking shape in the ways familiar to us. From it we learn the trends in publishing; the writers, successful and aspiring; the agents, syndicates, and press agencies who swelled the earnings of the fortunate few; the booksellers, literary clubs, and libraries who disseminated them. Although 'a literary annual, not a literary manual/ as one of the editors, Joseph Jacobs, hastened to point out, the LY did not ignore the more mundane matters pertaining to 'the Profession/ regularly calling attention to new outlets for writers' wares, summarizing copyright laws, even providing tables for calculating royalties. The LY for 1902 bears on its frontispiece a memorial portrait of Sir Walter Besant. Born the year before Victoria came to the throne, and dying on 9 June 1901, just about six months after her death, his career truly encompassed the Victorian Age. Due tribute was paid by the LY to this champion, who to the end of his life remained the author's 'fighting man/ and who with both feet on the ground 'attacked his problem with singular fervour, which developed into fanaticism.' While praising Besant's dedication, the editor, Herbert Morrah, censured him for subordinating the 'higher claims of literature' to its commercial aspects. 'Besant has made a good foundation/ Murrah conceded, "but much remains to be done to really unify the profession of authorship.' Morrah envisaged an organization fusing the functions of the Society of Authors with the roles of the Royal Society of Authors and the Royal Literary Fund, groups that continue to go their separate ways to our day. Besant himself contended that authorship was not a profession, but a congeries of professions unified only by the 'material interests' of writers. Apart from the Society of Authors, which remains his lasting monument, his main achievement was probably establishing for all time the principle that the author has control over his or her product, as a partner, or shareholder, with the publisher, not a hireling. Despite his emphasis on literature as a commodity, Besant did proclaim in The Pen and the Book: 'There is no other call which is so imperative when it comes, and so difficult to be disobeyed.' He added: 'At the same time, one must not mistake an ardent yearning after the gifts for the Divine Call/ but if few are chosen, that has not discouraged more and more from thinking they are called. Among the anomalies of the profession of authorship that he pointed out were that, unlike other professions, it lacked educational qualifications, standards, or fixed fees - and that anybody was free to take it up. Like

Authorship and the Book Trade / 161 many others caught in the onslaught, Besant complained that too many books were being published, a lament first voiced by King Solomon. Conclusion Periodical journalism helps us to reconstruct the struggle of the writing fraternity for status and independence. The Author, the sole survivor among the periodicals surveyed on the previous pages, is, in common with journals that have emerged in the twentieth century, more specifically market-directed, and, quite possibly because Besant made his point, more conciliatory toward Publishers' Row than it was during his era.

Theatre JANE W. STEDMAN

Although many Victorians regarded the stage with suspicion, more British periodical publications were devoted partly or wholly to the theatre (interpreting that word in its largest sense) during that time than any other. Their development was stimulated not only by the usual factors responsible for the nineteenth-century proliferation of all kinds of periodicals (lower printing costs, higher literacy, etc) but also by the physical multiplication of theatres and, hence, of audiences and readers. The eighteenth century, limited as it was in London to two patent houses with a third in summer, scarcely provided enough material to fill a number of concurrent papers, although many appeared and disappeared. With the spread of minor theatres, however, and the ending of Covent Garden and Drury Lane's monopoly in 1843, and with the growing self-awareness of the Victorian stage, theatrical journals had no lack of subject matter. The second half of the century was consequently rife with stage weeklies, their numbers increasing as the century progressed. For example, the thirty which Carl J. Stratman listed between 1720 and 1800 in the 1962 edition of his Bibliography of British Dramatic Periodicals 1720-1960 (New York 1962) had grown to thirty-eight between 1843 and 1850 and to fortynine between 1880 and 1890 - and these were by no means all. Here was God's - or the Devil's - plenty, depending on a Victorian's attitude toward 'those harlotry players.' These publications were, however, not necessarily long-lived, for, as the Theatrical Journal: A Weekly Record of the Drama, Exhibitions, and Amusements, with Original Articles said (18 January 1871), of the forty-six titles brought out since it began in 1839, most 'have been doomed to the

Theatre /163 Tomb of the Capulates [sic].' Among those so doomed were such titles as the Theatrical Harpe and the Theatrical Telescope. Nor was the Journal's list complete. A stage periodical might last for as few as ten weekly numbers, as did the Curtain in May-July 1878, or for eight months, as did the Dramatic and Musical Circular: An Epitome of Dramatic and Music Hall Requirements, issued weekly by Brandon and Stevenson. Beginning in March 1879 as an advertising circular for actors, wig-makers, singers, etc, by August it included portraits, biographies, reviews, and two gossip columns, one headed 'Screeches from Our Convivial Cockatoo.' During its last three weeks of life, the Circular became the London Mirror and printed provincial reviews by not very literate correspondents. Minor theatrical periodicals frequently had this tendency to retitle and coalesce, as even a glance at Lowe, Arnott, and Robinson's English Theatrical Literature 1559-1900 will show. For instance, James Mortimer's the London Sketch-Book: An Illustrated Newspaper and Magazine began as a sixpenny monthly on 1 January 1874, and became very briefly a weekly London Programme and Sketch-Book, incorporating another Mortimer enterprise, the Figaro-Programme. Finally, in July 1875, these were all absorbed into the twopenny Saturday Programme, which continued to advertise the Figaro series of celebrity drawings and to publish a weekly photograph of a stage or political figure or a representative of the arts, such as Dore or Carlyle. In the process from monthly to weekly, the Saturday Programme had shrunk from thirty to sixteen pages, added a woman's column, and greatly increased its coverage of music and drama, including financial news of theatres. Political as well as theatrical biography, editorials, and articles such as an expose of recycled butter ('"Improved" Butter,' 11 December 1875) kept the Saturday Programme from being simply the paper of amusements its title suggests. More exclusively theatrical were the Stage-Manager: A Journal of Dramatic Literature and Criticism, which lasted for five months in 1849, and Tallis's Dramatic Magazine and General Theatrical Review in 1850-1.* The first, more pretentious, less professional, began on 17 February with a half-page engraving of Samuel Phelps and George Bennett in King John, accompanied by a review which said more about Shakespeare than about the performance. Subsequent numbers included further engravings of stage action, portraits, and serious, even sententious essays on 'Poetry as a Dramatic Element' or 'The

164 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts "Hamlet" of Ducis Compared with That of Shakspere [sic].' Contemporary playwrights were admonished, stage managers decried, and the absence of great acting lamented in spite of Charles Kean, William Macready, and Samuel Phelps. Fortunately, the Stage-Manager often turned its gaze from the First Folio to become livelier, exposing provincial singers who recycled their 'complimentary' bouquets and reproving Queen Victoria for letting stage dwarfs kiss her hand - unqueenlike! It reported the history and burning of the Olympic Theatre and the Edwin Forrest-Macready rivalry with its ensuing Astor Place riot touched off by Macready's performance of Macbeth in New York on 10 May 1849. Like many theatrical periodicals, the Stage-Manager devoted space to amateur performances, interest in which increased until, in the 1880s, coverage extended to several pages of the monthly Theatre, Also, like many theatrical periodicals, the Stage-Manager printed a good deal of'original' bad verse and fiction, often representing editor's or staffs literary ambitions. Some verses, 'Free Thoughts on Hanging' (12 May 1849), appeared because the editor disapproved of execution, although he did not 'meddle in politics.' These were all eked out by quotations from other publications, usually from memoirs or lives.' A new series of the Stage-Manager ran from 4 October 1849 to 3 January 1850, after which it became the Literary Review and StageManager for twelve issues and then died. Tallis's Dramatic Magazine was less literary. Instead, it printed biographies of John Kemble, Phelps, Macready, et al, notices of current productions, and comments on the necessary education of an actor, for instance, and on the censorship of plays, that perennial source of articles, editorials, correspondence, and squibs in every theatre paper and in the comic ones as well. The Theatrical Times, which ran more or less weekly from 1846 to 1851, also published 'Thespian biography,' as well as portraits of contemporary actors. According to its subtitle, it included 'original Dramatic Essays, Provincial, Continental, American, Metropolitan Theatricals' and was 'a complete record of public amusements.' Another Theatrical Times lasted from October 1883 to June 1884 and was essentially a journal for amateur (and some professional) news. Wholly addressed to amateur actors and authors, the weekly Prompter merely lasted through four numbers in January 1880, while the fortnightly Dramatic Times, describing itself as the only organ devoted to amateur theatricals, survived for thirteen numbers from February to September 1895. The monthly Dramatic World, having

Theatre / 165 begun in November 1895, went on, with illustrations, until August 1902, after which, as Society and the Dramatic World, it continued till 1916. Among these, the annual hardcover volumes of William Archer's Theatrical 'World' (1893-7) stand out for their style and professionalism. With introductions written by significant dramatists (George Bernard Shaw did one in 1894) and synopses of the year's playbills from the second volume on, Archer's series is, however, not really a theatrical periodical in the strict sense, being an annual reprinting of his reviews written for the World. It is, however, very useful for the student. Archer also wrote for the weekly Dramatic Review (1885-94), to which Shaw contributed. This periodical included book reviews. Sporadic periodicals usually cost a penny and were read presumably by the profession, certainly by amateurs, and probably by some playgoers. Their circulation was not large, but the best of them supplemented and furthered the criticism, news, and gossip furnished by weeklies such as the Athenaeum and by the daily and Sunday newspapers. The latter, in turn, greatly increased their coverage of the stage, following the lead of the Daily Telegraph or the Pall Mall Gazette (depending on whose supporters one chooses to believe). Comic periodicals, from the first, were themselves so theatrical in tone, content, and cartoons that they provided the laughing verso for the theatrical papers' serious recto. The Victorian editors of Punch, for instance, were all popular dramatists, including Tom Taylor, author of Our American Cousin, and F.C. Burnand, indefatigable burlesque writer, sometime actor and manager, and husband (consecutively) to two actresses. The first editor of Fun, H.J. Byron, dramatist, manager, and later actor, had among his contributors Tom Robertson, W.S. Gilbert, and Henry S. Leigh, the librettist. In a lesser, but equally active vein, the a Beckett family of journalist-playwrights were connected not only with Punch, but with the Tomahawk and the Glowworm as well. Many reviewers of drama were also dramatists, as were John Oxenford of The Times and E.L. Blanchard and his successor, Clement Scott, both of the Daily Telegraph and a variety of other papers. Oxenford, for instance, adapted, among many other works, the first English version of the German play which would eventually permute into Hello, Dolly! Since dramatist-critics might review for several publications at the same time, they were able, like Pooh-Bah, to reinforce their own viewpoints. On 30 June 1849, the Stage-Manager censured playwright-reviewers who saw no merit in another's work or who feared

166 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts to condemn lest another playwright-reviewer retaliate. These motives were frequently ascribed to critics, who were said to praise actors for fear of disobliging friends. (The writer called them 'truckling, venal, tergiversating.') Nearly forty years later, an anonymous 'Young Author' wrote to the editor of the Era: 'There is a good deal of human nature in man, even when he takes the form of a critic author, and nature's first law is self-preservation.' The Era, in turn, pointed out (16 April 1887) that Clement Scott's published feelings toward itself have always been influenced by our estimates of his latest productions. At the time when we were the readiest to acknowledge the merits of Diplomacy we were numbered amongst his dearest friends. When we pointed out the defects of The Little Duke, which had a run of only a few nights at the Philharmonic ... we at once became his bitterest enemy.

Self-preservation was assisted by the custom until late in the century of unsigned reviews and corporate bylines, such as 'Captious Critic' or 'Pan at the Play.' Identities could shift behind these masks. In the late 1860s, for example, Fun's theatre column might in any given issue contain reviews by Robertson, Leigh, and Gilbert, with no indication that more than one writer was involved. Although other journalists and stage people knew who the significant critics were, the public at large usually did not, and even the profession could not be sure in composite notices. A demonstration of the critics' singularity in seeming multiplicity is amply given in Christopher Kent's two excellent articles in VPR: 'Periodical Critics of Drama, Music, and Art, 1830-1914: A Preliminary List,' 13 (1980), 31-54, and 'More Critics of Drama, Music and Art,' 19 (1986), 99-105. These are augmented by Tracy C. Davis' 'Theatre Critics in Late Victorian and Edwardian Periodicals: A Supplementary List,' 17 (1984), 158-64. Few critics emulated W.S. Gilbert when, reviewing his own early plays, he praised the cast and disparaged the author. After Gilbert became the rising dramatist of the 1870s, he gave up weekly criticism, but others would not, or could not, relinquish the critic's power or, for that matter, the critic's pay, slight as it was. Allegedly The Times paid John Oxenford no more than a hundred pounds a year at most2 - hence the general need to double and triple in brass, so to speak. Oxenford, a man of wide knowledge, translator of Goethe as well as German farces, began with The Times around 1850 and at first wrote his opinions unreservedly until an actor's protesting letter

Theatre/167 reached the editor, J.T. Delane. Delane agreed with his reviewer's judgment, but told him to moderate his discourse; most readers, he said, did not care about dramatic criticism, nor was The Times a place in which to argue about performances. Henceforth Oxenford wrote on the 'pleasant all round' principle,3 which became second nature to him. Nor was he the only mid-Victorian critic whose reviews merely told the plot of a new play with little real evaluation of its performance. This superficiality imposed on, or accepted by, reviewers was further encouraged by the long, although continuing to shorten, Victorian playbills and by printing deadlines. E.L. Blanchard, for example, rarely stayed through a whole evening. 'Wonderful to say, I stop out the entire performance,' his diary records on 29 April 1874.4 Another significant aspect of Victorian theatrical journalism, one which accounts for its often noisy ambiguity, is the fact that the men who wrote and reviewed plays were increasingly gentlemen working in what was not quite a gentleman's profession. The reviewer of books dealt with literature; the reviewer of plays dealt with ephemera. Un homme du theatre was not a man of letters. The constant suggestion that they followed trivial pursuits was galling to university and professional men (a surprising number of critics had also been barristers). In an unceasing struggle for the social and literary recognition of the stage, the necessity therefore arose of simultaneously defending the virtue and validity of the theatre and policing it so that it would behave with propriety, dignity, and morality. This was the editorial policy of the Era, the most important theatrical weekly of its day. Having begun in 1838 as the general organ of the Licensed Victuallers Association, the Era achieved its century and a year besides. By the late 1860s it had become first and foremost a theatre paper. It added reports from the provinces, America, Europe, Africa, and India. It had a town and a country edition, which are sometimes mixed in the, usually partial, runs remaining. In imitation of The Times, the front page of the Era was given to advertisements inserted by performers, managers, and agents. There were a letter-box, schedules of touring companies and the scores of the competing cricket matches they played, an annual list of important dramatic events, reports on lectures, music halls,5 thought-reading demonstrations, and Royal visits. The Era enumerated contributions to theatrical charities and wedding presents to theatrical brides and grooms. It published theatrical obituaries even unto that of the most minor clown, and described

168 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts theatrical funerals. It invariably reported in distressing detail such theatre fires as the appalling burning of the Vienna Ring theatre in 1881, which led to articles on theatre construction and safety measures. As in all stage periodicals, but best in the Era, there was a page or more of gossip and small news. This paper had no need of supplementary verse or fiction, but on occasion it printed excerpts from new books such as George Grossmith's A Society Clown and William Archer's English Dramatists of To-Day. Beginning in 1868 the Era also published an Almanac, called an Annual after 1914. Finally, since Victorian theatre people were given to litigation, the Era carried reports of lawsuits, even printing testimony of cases which involved a principle, such as the critic's right of personal attack, or a prominent personality, such as Dion Boucicault. These reports also spilled over into editorials, not the least of the Era's features. Running a long column or more, an editorial might discuss some aesthetic question, for example, 'The Horrible on the Stage' (11 Aug 1888): degrading even in King Learl Or it might carry on the Era's paradoxical self-appointed task of chastising those within the profession who it thought behaved badly, while insisting that there was nothing in the theatre to chastise. The Era's method of punishing attack or disagreement was essentially that of Lord Byron: 'This is true criticism, and you may kiss - / Exactly as you please, or not - the rod / But if you don't I'll lay it on by G-D.' Thus, when Mrs Kendal, in her paper at the 1884 Congress of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Sciences, referred feelingly to 'the so-called theatrical papers ... where insolent and generally untrue gossip takes the place of honest criticism,' the Era retorted in an abusive, repressive display of male chauvinism. The Theatre agreed (2 Feb 1885): 'she offended the critics of the press, men who have the stage as much at heart at Mrs. Kendal; men who have worked as hard, and harder, than she has ever done to uphold the dignity and honour of her profession.' Almost alone, Under the Clock sided with the beleaguered actress, although David Bogue was publishing both it and the Theatre. He also published Mrs Kendal's speech in book form, as well as Dramatic Notes annually from 1879 to 1885.6 Audiences, too, felt the Era's corrective rod, for it saw the elevation of taste as one of the editor's and critic's duties - although they did not intend to raise it quite as far as, say, Ibsen's Ghosts. At the same time, it reprimanded immoderate hissing, rowdyism in the gallery,

Theatre / 169 and the popularity of Lillie Langtry, who had embarked on a stage career, and whom the theatrical press in general found fair game. 'Every dog has his day, and so apparently have women like Mrs Langtry,' said Under the Clock (30 Jan 1884), quoting an unnamed source. This 'Weekly Journal for Playgoers' (1884-5) had as its motto 'Without fear or favour/ but was essentially a gossip/news-cum-photographs paper with some theatrical biographies. Interestingly enough, Clement Scott took Mrs Langtry's part in the Theatre, and, indeed, she had a respectable career as an actress. It would be wrong, however, to give only the impression that the Era's policies were merely cranky and therefore easy to dismiss. Cranky many of its editorials indeed were, but it helped to form, and was representative of, the way in which many actors and actresses viewed their world and defined their ambitions. A much younger and still running imitation of the Era, the Stage began as a monthly, the Stage Directory, in February 1880 and changed to a weekly with the shorter name in March 1881. (At least five periodicals had been named the Stage since 1814.) Clement Scott praised the new periodical as 'a well-conducted and accurate paper, steadily and surely making its way in the public favour, and of great interest to the dramatic profession' (Theatre, 1 Aug 1882). Its motto, 'All the Men and Women merely Players,' suggests that the Stage could be as censorious as its senior was. The 'Chit-Chat' column, for example, was punningly signed 'Grimalkin' - who knew on occasion how to scratch. Milder and much more old-fashioned was the Theatrical Journal, only a year younger than the Era. Unlike that paper, the Stage, and the shorter-lived Under the Clock, it emphasized amateur dramatic clubs and performances. Its strong Shakespearian bias is obvious in the pictorial heading of each number: a rather glum bust of the Bard, surmounted by cherubs holding an effulgent crown, and flanked by Desdemona kneeling to Othello and Titania decorously embracing Bottom. Quotations from Shakespeare were used as filler from time to time. The Theatrical Journal was not limited to amateurs, however, although its reviews of professional productions were often reprinted from other sources. It also contained occasional reports from the provinces and paragraphs on actors' illnesses and acrobats' accidents, as well as such series as 'Early Dramatists' and 'Popular Actresses.' A column of funny anecdotes, called 'Facetiae,' was not theatrical, nor were articles on the English novelists, beginning with Richardson. The issue for 21 July 1869 gave advice on where to swim.

170 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts William Bestow, the Theatrical Journal's long-time proprietor, editor, and chief contributor, under the nom de plume of 'Beta,' also published his own dramatic blank verse, presumably for the use of amateurs. In later years, Benjamin William Watkins assisted him and wrote Bestow's life, serialized in 1862-3.7 The Theatrical Journal, too, sought to raise the level of the stage, particularly of amateur acting and of decency in music halls and playhouses. In 1869, for instance, it, like others, printed the Lord Chamberlain's ukase on length of costumes, and it reprinted the Echo's belief that Queen Victoria's withdrawal from public life had contributed to 'this downward movement of the stage.' While campaigning against 'filth and double-entendre, semi-nudity, and the like' (14 July 1869), Bestow also protested against government prosecution of Charles Bradlaugh's National Reformer, although he totally disagreed with Bradlaugh, because he believed such prosecutions damaged the cause of liberty and religion (10 Feb 1869). Bestow's increasing ill-health and Watkins' early death in 1871 were probably responsible for the ending of their journal in 1873. A lighter weekly ran from 1869 to 1907 under one or another of an aggregation of names, beginning as the London Entr'acte: The Illustrated Theatrical and Musical Critic and Advertiser, published every Saturday, and finally settling down in 1875 as the Entr'acte and Limelight, known simply as the Entr'acte, now appearing on Friday afternoons. At its height, the Entr'acte suggested a comic periodical, both in its liking for puns and in having Alfred Bryan as illustrator. A skilled but not broad caricaturist, Bryan also drew theatre sketches for Judy and others. His full-page cartoons of stage figures (and an occasional Royal), each caught in a moment of topical animation, were the most significant feature of the Entr'acte and its annuals. They continue to be reproduced in twentieth-century theatrical biographies and histories. Too flippant, perhaps, to be as high-handed as the Era, the Entr'acte nevertheless had a political and art column, 'Gadfly's Musings,' and could 'worry' and gnaw over popular victims such as the American Mary Anderson, whose publicity engaged her to every eligible man in London. Generally speaking, this paper assumed a condescending tone when it referred to Americans. For that matter, it assumed a characteristically condescending tone toward a good deal of its subject matter - a tone very like Judy's and that of other comic weeklies. It is, however, a useful, if not always reliable source of financial, music-hall, and general gossip, especially in the 1880s. The

Theatre/171 Entr'acte also reported court cases and lawsuits, but not at such length as did the Era. Two other long-running periodicals remain to be considered. The first is the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News: A High-Class Weekly Journal of Sports, Art, Literature, Music, and the Drama; Containing Numerous Engravings, by Well-known Artists of Sporting and Dramatic Subjects, more tersely known as the Sporting and Dramatic. Music and drama are naturally symbiotic, of course, and Victorian periodicals specializing in each hospitably included some portion of the other. There was, however, a sometime falling together of sport and stage as in an occasional Entr'acte column covering horse and boat racing. The Pictorial Sporting and Theatrical Guide and the Sporting Times ('the Pink 'Un') appealed to certain kinds of male playgoers, but the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News promised from the first to select only the purest and noblest subjects. At sixpence an issue, it obviously intended to be a quality publication. While it ranged from billiards to rowing, its heart was clearly the Turfs, and among its illustrations were portraits of favourite horses, owners, and jockeys. Other, full-page engravings might reproduce Landseer's animal paintings or rather grisly scenes of killing bears, stags, otters, etc. On the more attractive side, Miss Wallis' 'Cleopatra' furnished the first cover picture (28 February 1874), and inside, another full page depicted the set and final tableau for Gilbert's new play, Ought We to Visit Her? The first issue also contained a military and naval gazette, and cartoons of Hengler's Circus and the Moore and Burgess Minstrels. On the serious side, the Sporting and Dramatic discussed stage conditions and problems such as the Lord Chamberlain's refusal to license certain French plays. Reviews lengthened as issues went by until the Savoy Operas and other significant or popular productions might command a page each. The ubiquitous Alfred Bryan also drew for the Sporting and Dramatic in its palmy days under A.E.T. Watson. When Watson became editor in 1879 at the small sum of four hundred pounds a year, he already was, as he would continue to be, the music and drama critic for the Standard. But he chose to write on racing, as 'Rapier,' for his new journal and employed Henry Hersee and Ernest Bendall, the Observer's critics, to review plays for him as well.8 Watson began an annual Christmas number, Holly Leaves, for which in 1880 Gilbert wrote his satiric 'Actors, Authors, and Audiences.' To the historian of everyday things, the early advertising columns

172 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts of the Sporting and Dramatic present a Carrollian list of oysters, auctions, corsets, and Durfey's Pills to Purge Melancholy, an unexpected book offer in the 1870s. Disengaged actors advertised themselves, and suppliers of ladies for amateur pantomimes advertised their supplies. The last periodical to be noticed at length is the Theatre referred to earlier, which began in 1877 under F. Hawkins as 'A Weekly Critical Review.' Hawkins liked expostulations and replies, and ran weeks of the much-publicized dispute between the actress Henrietta Hodson and W.S. Gilbert, during which each wrote a pamphlet addressed to the dramatic profession. Nor was this the only argument featured in the Theatre. In 1878, Hawkins raised his weekly to a monthly, which in 1880 became 'A Monthly Review of the Drama, Music, and the Fine Arts,' edited by Clement Scott. 'Fine Arts' were scarcely more than a make-weight, although 'Our Musical Box/ William Beatty-Kingston's column, dealt with Wagner as well as Carl Rosa. By the mid-1880s, Clement Scott was the most powerful dramatic critic of his day, having probably written for more newspapers and theatre journals than any other reviewer, except, perhaps, E.L. Blanchard. Scott was the original 'Almaviva' of the London Figaro in the 1860s; critic rampant of the Daily Telegraph from 1872 to 1899; occasional substitute for Henry Labouchere in Truth during the early 1880s; writer for the ILN, and correspondent for the New York Herald in the 1890s - and so on. Scott was also known to the public at large through his lectures, signed essays, fiction, and verse, sometimes in collections edited by himself, to say nothing of the publicity which newspapers gave his lawsuits and disputations. While Scott was editor of the Theatre, he continued as the Telegraph critic, dictator of all he surveyed on first nights, making or breaking a play by the enthusiasm (some said gush) of his picturesque utterances or by his equally furious prejudices. Once in the forefront of those who supported Tom Robertson's innovations in the 1860s, always a fanatic admirer of Henry Irving (the King Charles's head in all Scott's writing),9 the critic became unshakably antagonistic to Ibsen, whose plays he found 'nasty, dirty, impure, clever if you like, but foul to the last degree.'10 Scott disliked the New Dramatists, any of the old ones who crossed him, and any discussion of controversial ideas on stage. Against these he used a vivid pen, a condescending rancour, distortions of fact, and dubious charges of plagiarism. From being an eager young reformer, he had become a kind of

Theatre/173 ancient mariner terrible, clutching at readers to keep them from the wrong sort of entertainment for their moral good - as he saw it. Another young radical, George Bernard Shaw, also used his position as critic to attempt to destroy a stage he disapproved of and which happened to be the stage Scott intended to save. Shaw's cool wit outlasted Scott's adjectival denunciations, but, paradoxically enough, until very recently, Shaw's propaganda did more to distort the twentieth century's views of the Victorian stage than Scott's did to injure permanently the dramatic avant-garde. As editor of the Theatre, however, Scott was at his best, which is not to say that he completely gave up sniping and self-justification. He hoped his magazine might be 'for the first time a running history of the British stage and a permanent record of its enterprise' (1 July 1880). Among his contributors were well-known critics such as Button Cook and William Archer, while reviews of current productions appeared in 'Our Play-Box,' written by Scott himself and others. Long articles dealt with such topics as the vernacular drama in India, Tennyson's Becket, the stage sailor and his debt to Dibdin et al, Wagner as a stage manager, and a French translation of Hamlet. A lengthy discussion of amusements available to 'the people' advocated opening museums, galleries, and parks on Sunday. Letters by, and anecdotes about, the theatrical great of the past were used as filler. There were the usual biographies of contemporaries and some autobiography; 'Our Omnibus-Box/ a column of odds and ends, arguments, references to books, etc, attempted something more serious than the usual gossip columns of other journals. Short articles might deal with pulpit and stage or the question of whether A.W. Pinero's play The Squire had been plagiarized from Carr and Hardy's dramatization of Hardy's novel Far from the Madding Crowd. Frequent round-tables in which critics and dramatists took part (and sometimes actors, too) debated practical subjects, among them the abolition of the pit, the point at which an adaptation becomes an original play, and the causes of first-night demonstrations. Scott always gave space to European and American theatre at home and abroad, and he tirelessly publicized Irving. Although the Theatre used black-and-white illustrations by good artists, among them Bernard Partridge and Alfred Thompson, its real pictorial feature was the weekly photograph - the Woodbury-types which surpassed earlier efforts in other periodicals and which are still occasionally met with, detached from their original numbers. At first fiction and verse were very prominent in Scott's editorship

174 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts and continued to be used, perhaps as the sign of a literary' publication, but also, in the case of the verse, as possible recitation for the use of amateurs. So one may find lyrics by Rnero, long narrative poems by George R. Sims, blank verse by Martin Tupper, effusions by Marie Corelli (who also contributed an article comparing the artistry of Sarasate and Joachim), and frequent sentimental poems by Scott himself. His 'Oh, Promise Me/ later set to music by Reginald deKoven in Robin Hood and sung at every wedding, first appeared as 'A Promise of May!' in the Theatre (April 1883). After Scott left in 1889, the monthly lasted for another eight years under a succession of lesser editors. Bibliographies and Source Materials It is impossible in a single article to give more than a suggestion of minor theatrical periodicals available to Victorians. Whoever works in the British Library has had the experience of a slip returned with the fatal 'It is regretted that this work was destroyed by bombing in the war ... ' Furthermore, theatre papers all too often met the fate of wrapping chips or lighting fires. The Theatre survived in large numbers for reasons easily surmised, but, strangely enough, there is scarcely a complete run of the Era, except on microfilm. Consequently, the difficulty of finding periodicals has kept many scholars from investigating them in any substantial way. There have been a few doctoral dissertations, such as James Stottlar's "The Theatre Magazine under Clement Scott' (University of Chicago 1966); and articles such as Daniel Barrett's 'T.W. Robertson: The Dramatist as Critic, VPR 14 (1981), 144-9. Quotations, generally at second hand, from the Theatrical Journal, etc, appear in such works as Donald Mullin's Victorian Actors and Actresses in Review (1983), and Kurt Ganzl's The British Musical Theatre (2 vols, 1986) makes heavy use of the Stage and the Era. These last two books, however, are not informative about the periodicals themselves. The student should, therefore, begin with three bibliographies: Carl J. Stratman's Britain's Theatrical Periodicals 1720-1967 (enl ed, New York 1972); Lowe, Arnott, and Robinson's English Theatrical Literature 1559-1900 (1970); and L.W. Conolly and J.P. Wearing's English Drama and Theatre: A Guide to Information Sources (Detroit 1978). In this last, the editors describe anchor evaluate many periodicals briefly but illuminatingly. With the advent of widespread microfilm-

Theatre/175 ing, more periodicals have become available (for a price!) since Arthur W. Lysiak's 'Victorian Periodicals and Newspapers in Microform/ VPN no 16 (1972) 29-46, which is, however, a good beginning. The British Library has microfilmed a number of its stage periodicals, as has Harvester, discussed by Daniel Barrett in 'Recent Collections of Nineteenth Century Theatre Materials on Microform,' Nineteenth Century Theatre 17 (Summer and Winter 1989), 66-81. The paucity of investigation hitherto leaves a wide choice of subject to the scholar. Many periodicals need to be described in detail; there is much biographical research to be done on editors, staff, and contributors, especially in the early Victorian period. Analytic questions about content remain to be dealt with. The entire field of magazines for amateur actors and societies is practically untouched, and there is still bibliographic work to be done, especially for the shorter-lived publications and for those whose editor or publisher changed frequently. One might say that the world of theatrical periodicals lies all before the student where to choose. Notes 1 It was continued as Tallis's Drawing Room Table Book (1851), which in turn became Tallis's Shakespeare Gallery in 1852-3. 2 William Mackay, Bohemian Days in Fleet Street by a Journalist (1913). Mackay put Oxenford's salary at five pounds a week. For other critics' wages, see Kent, 'Periodical Critics/ p 32. Although pay and prestige increased with the passage of time, George Moore's picture in the Pall Mall Gazette (10 September 1891) of the reviewer drawing 'so comfortable a living' has the accuracy of polemic. 3 Edmund Yates, Fifty Years of London Life (New York 1885), 204. 4 Clement Scott and Cecil Howard, eds, The Life and Reminiscences of E.L. Blanchard (1891), II, 442. 5 Theatre periodicals dealing with the music halls are listed in Laurence Senelick, David F. Chesire, and Ulrich Schneider, British Music-Hall 1840-1923 (1981). 6 Dramatic Notes: An Illustrated Handbook of the London Theatre contained reviews and cast lists in a series of annual volumes, the 1884 volume of which did not appear. The seventh issue, 1885, was the first not published by Bogue, and there were several publishers thereafter. 7 For an argument between Watkins and Bestow over the merits of the actor Charles Kean, son of Bestow's favourite Edmund Kean, see M.

176 / Victorian Periodicals and the Arts Glen Wilson, 'Charles Kean and the Victorian Press,' VPN 8 (1975), 94-105. 8 A.E.T. Watson, A Sporting and Dramatic Career (1918), 143-4. 9 See Scott's From "The Bells' to 'King Arthur/ A critical record of the First-Night productions at the Lyceum Theatre from 1871-1895 (1896). 10 Raymond Blathwayt, Does the Theatre Make for Good? An Interview with Mr. Clement Scott (1898). This pamphlet was reprinted from 'Great Thoughts' and included replies from actors, clergymen, etc. Scott made the same kind of comment elsewhere and earlier.

PART THREE

Victorian Occupations and Commerce

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Transport JOHN E.G. PALMER AND HAROLD W. PAAR

Origins of the Victorian Railway The recorded history of the railway in England begins in 1603-4 with a line of wooden rails near Nottingham. For the next two centuries, railways were exclusively short lines, mostly well under ten miles in length, for transporting minerals to rivers or canals, using animal power or gravity. Iron rails were laid on top of "the wooden rails from the 1760s, soon followed by track laid with iron rails only. The steam locomotive appeared in 1803-4, and after twenty years of experiment the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, demonstrating the effectiveness of steam power in the haulage of minerals on malleable iron rails. In 1830 the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (thirty miles long) established the railway as a reliable means for the fast transport of both goods and passengers over long distances. For almost the whole of the Victorian period, the railway was the main form of transport, both national and local. It was a major factor in great economic and social changes which are still being evaluated by historians. While the practical details of design, services, and rates were still being settled by experience, the whole country was affected by a phenomenon known as the Railway Mania, 1845-6. In this period, railway promotion mushroomed at an unprecedented rate, some 580 acts of Parliament being passed authorizing approximately 8,600 miles of railway, as compared to a total authorized mileage of approximately 3,100 miles at the end of 1844, which represented twenty-two years of promotion. For every line authorized there was

180 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce at least one which was not, and of those that were approved, by no means all were actually constructed. The Early Railway Press The early railways, being largely in private ownership and use, generated no widespread interest to justify a specialized press, information and comment being accommodated in the general newspapers and scientific journals. With the entry of the railways into public life as passenger carriers and channels for public investment, a small but influential railway press developed. The first journal in England (there had been railway journals published in Germany) was the Railway Magazine (1835); the Railway Times followed in 1837. The Railway Magazine was founded by Lieutenant George Walter (Royal Marines) to publicize certain railways, including the London and Greenwich Railway, but became known colloquially as 'Herapath' after John Herapath, an engineer who became editor in February 1836 and soon controlled it. His name was incorporated in the several titles adopted from 1841 to 1903. The magazine became very critical of the Eastern Counties Railway, for Herapath had failed to secure an anticipated job with that company and had sold his shares in it. (For an account of Herapath see Charles E. Lee, 'John Herapath and the Birth of Railway Journals,' in the Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society 15 (1969), 1-7. The Mania period, with its hundreds of prospectuses mostly promising spectacular dividends, affected every class of society except the poor. The speculative element became paramount in investment, requiring up-to-date information on new schemes and share prices, which called forth numerous periodicals devoted wholly or partly to railway affairs. Most of the titles proved to be ephemeral. Periodicals as a Source for Railway History There are two cases in which periodicals must be used. The first is where official records (company minute books, registers, and documents) are not available. In such cases the value of contemporary newspapers and other periodicals can hardly be overestimated. An example of such research is K.R. Clew's The Somersetshire Coal Canal and Railways (Newton Abbot 1970). The second case is that of biographical research where few or no private papers have survived; official records rarely give much insight into the motives behind

Transport/181 decisions or the character of an individual, but contemporary press reports are not so reticent, although allowance must be made for bias. For an example of what can be achieved, see A.J. Peacock, George Hudson, 1800-1871, the Railway King (2 vols; York 1988-9). Generally, even if company records do exist (as in the majority of cases), contemporary periodicals can give other views of the company's activities, often critical views which reflect the feelings not of the management and officers but of the shareholders, the users, and others. They also give more details, with the accent on cost and culpability, of day-to-day matters such as new lines, inadequate stations, and accidents, often dealt with in a cursory fashion in company records. This material is especially important for the pre1840 period before Board of Trade reports on such matters are available. Reference may be made to Peter Kay, A Guide to Railway Research (1990), for further details of these and many other sources. For the years before a railway press existed, and indeed in many cases afterwards, the historian should also be aware of, and be prepared to use, non-specialized publications and those devoted to other subjects. There are many of them, including the general newspapers both national and local, any of which may contain articles or references of great value, for example concerning the early development of the steam locomotive. An example of the use of such sources is R. Young, Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive (1923). The Times (1785-1900*) contains a great number of company reports and accounts of shareholders' meetings, as well as other railway news, and there is a comprehensive index. The Mining Journal (1835-19004) has some sketchy railway information before 1845, when it became the advocate of Pinkus' atmospheric railway system and thereafter recorded railway news, especially concerning atmospheric and other peculiar systems, until 1851, after which the railway content became insignificant. Provincial general newspapers are important sources, not only for the early period before a railway press appeared but also for the whole period during which the railway was the main means of transport for passengers, goods, and minerals. These newspapers began in some cases well before 1800, and such titles as Aris's Birmingham Gazette, Berrow's Worcester Journal, Felix Farley's Bristol Journal, the Gloucester Journal, and the Hereford Journal have been extremely useful to both canal and railway historians. Some provincial and local newspapers have been indexed in whole or part, with varying degrees of competence, and information concerning this work, and its

182 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce availability, may be obtained from the CNL. It is hoped that an index will be published in due course. Periodicals which have been successfully used in the search for information on railway history include the following, but there are many others. Some have contemporary cumulative indexes. Annual Register (1759-1900+) Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (1817-1900+) Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal (1837-68) Edinburgh Philosophical Journal (1819-85) Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1900*) Monthly Magazine (1796-1843) Nicholson's Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts (1797-1813) Notes and Queries (1849-1900*) Quarterly Papers on Engineering (by Weale, 1844-9) Quarterly Review (1810-1900+) Repertory of Arts and Manufactures (1794-1805) The earlier British and Continental periodicals may be searched at least in part by using the Tolhausen Index, a manuscript index to technical and scientific papers published in forty English, French, and German periodicals between 1666 and 1865; this is kept in the Science Museum Library, London, and includes sections dealing with railways and locomotives - about 1,100 references (for a review, see the Journal of the Railway and Canal Historical Society 14:3 [1968], 52-3). A work similar to Tolhausen is Schubarth's Repertorium der Technischen Literatur, in German, in several volumes covering the period 1823-1908, the first published in Berlin in 1856; all are available in the Science Museum Library.

The Use of Periodicals The usual caution applies, that important or controversial data should, where possible, be checked against other sources and that, where this cannot be done, the probable accuracy should be assessed by reference to that exhibited by the same source in respect of other matters which can be checked. It is important to know the subject range of a periodical, and if possible any affiliations of its proprietors and editor, before embarking on a lengthy search of a particular title. Bias and range usually appear during a short initial examination. The range of con-

Transport/183 tents may be indicated by the title, but not always; Mail Train for example was devoted to the protection of passengers' interests. Bibliographies and Lists of Railway Periodicals Titles of serials wholly or mainly devoted to railways (except timetables and publications of companies, trade unions, and staff associations) are listed alphabetically, with indexes and a chart, in John E.G. Palmer, 'Railway Periodicals of the Nineteenth Century Published in the British Isles: A Bibliographical Guide' (unpublished University of London thesis, Diploma in Librarianship 1959). Details of each title are very full, but editorial history is limited to what was easily ascertainable from the publications themselves and a few obvious sources. A copy of the thesis is lodged in the Science Museum Library, London. Many of the railway trade-union periodicals are included in Warwick. A separate list of London railway newspapers at the end of 1845, during the 'Railway Mania/ with notes on the interests they represent, is included in Mitchell's. There is no bibliography of timetables. Almost all railway newspapers are listed in CNL, though, since it contains no subject listing or annotation, it is not always obvious which titles are relevant. The heading 'Periodical Publications' in the Catalogue of Printed Books of the British Library can also be used, but with similar reservations. The location of most titles is obtainable from BUCOP. George Ottley's Bibliography of British Railway History (1966; repr with corrections 1983, and Supplement 1988) is a classified listing of books and pamphlets, with many annotations. It does not list serial titles, except for three key items in the earlier volume (p 468, giving details for the Railway Year Book, Bradshaw's Railway Manual, and Bradshaw's Railway Guide), or individual articles, with the important exception of separate offprints. The biographical section is an important quarry for secondary sources on railwaymen connected with periodicals, and it has a very comprehensive index. L. Madden and D. Dixon's The Nineteenth-Century Periodical Press in Britain (1976), should also be consulted. Ottley's Bibliography is continued (with a gap of some years which will be closed) by the Railway and Canal Historical Society's 'Bibliography of the History of Inland Waterways, Railways and Roads in the British Isles,' published in the Society's Journal, vol 28 (Nov 1986), and annually thereafter.

184 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce General Histories There is no published systematic study of any section of the railway press, or any individual paper. The Jubilee of the Railway News (a supplement to the January 1914 issue of the Railway News) contains the only attempt of any periodical to chronicle its past, but this is very perfunctory and subsidiary to quite different purposes. Research depends largely on scanning in detail the pages of a journal itself, but, more important, of its contemporary rivals and archival sources, and supplementing this with an enormous range of tertiary sources such as the mainly anecdotal memoirs of journalists (not primarily railway journalists) listed in Madden and Dixon and other bibliographies.

Timetables The literature is almost entirely limited to studies of George Bradshaw, of which the most useful are E.H. Dring, 'Early Railway TimeTables,' Library 4th series, 2:3 (1921), Charles E. Lee, The Centenary of Bradshaw (1940), and E.S. Lomax, 'Bradshaw-The Timetable Man,' Antiquarian Book Monthly Review 2 (1975), 2-10, 13-16. Biography F. Boase's Modern English Biography (6 vols, 1892-1921) is par ularly informative about railway managers and engineers, but is unpredictable on railway journalism. John Marshall's Biographical Dictionary of Railway Engineers (1978) seldom mentions journalistic activities, and being compiled almost exclusively from obituary notices, has many errors, especially as to dates. Reference should also be made to S.P. Bell, A Biographical Index of British Engineers in the Nineteenth Century (New York 1975).

Archival Sources None of the periodicals in this chapter has left a surviving office archive, with the single exception of the Railway Express, from which some of the documents were saved by the late Charles E. Lee (later to be editor of the Railway Magazine) in 1938. As an office junior, was given the job of destroying them 'within ten days,' instead of which he took away as many of the papers connected with Samuel

Transport/185 Smiles (see under Railway News) as he could fit into his home (unfortunately not including the marked file of the paper itself); many years later he gave them to the Chartered Institute of Transport. The records of the Department of Inland Revenue now in the Public Record Office at Kew are particularly important for the railway press. Class IR69, Newspaper Ledgers 1831-70, the daily ledgers of paper stamped for each title (with separate records of penny and halfpenny stamps), enable quite accurate calculations of fluctuations of circulation to be made for the crucial period 1837-55, and it is sometimes possible to determine with reasonable certainty the number printed of an individual issue; the annual and quarterly published returns, by contrast, are full of printing errors. The annual advertisement duty accounts of the Audit Office are useful for the light they throw on the financial well-being of each paper, since they include notes of arrears of payment at the end of each year and of amounts written off following insolvencies. Collections of Railway Material in the British Isles The best guide to British collections is G. Ottley, Railway History: A Guide to Sixty-One Collections in Libraries, Library Association, Subject Guides, no 1 (1973); users should note that time has modified many details such as telephone numbers and hours of opening, but the references to holdings are still valid. The main changes are as follows. The British Transport records are now held at the Public Record Office, Kew; some items from the former Railway and Canal Historical Society library are on loan to Birmingham Reference Library; the address of the Railway Club is now Room 208, 25 Marylebone Road, London NWl 5JS; the Leicester City Libraries are now incorporated in the Leicestershire County Library; the former private collection of Charles Clinker now forms an important railway special collection in the library of Brunei University, Uxbridge, west London. Most railway research is inevitably centred on London, since a high proportion of the primary material (even for Scotland and Ireland) is uniquely held there. Most railway newspapers are held only at Colindale: see CNL. Monthly and quarterly magazines are often held only at the British Library. Some early and mid-century publications are in the Goldsmiths' Collection of the University of London Library. The main documentary repository is the Public Record Office at Kew in the London Borough of Richmond. Its RAIL collection

186 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce (formerly held by British Railways as the British Transport Historical Records) contains most of the surviving records of British railway and canal companies, together with many of the major periodicals, timetables, and guides. Select Annotated List Note on Documentation: Except where otherwise stated, each paper was published in London once a week, and normally a complete file is located at the British Library Newspaper Library at Colindale. For other locations see: BUCOP; Cambridge University Library; Churchill College, Cambridge; London School of Economics; London Borough of Greenwich Library; Public Record Office, Kew; Trades Union Congress; University of London Library (Goldsmiths' Collection). The following symbols at the conclusion of each entry indicate the nature of the contents of the periodical: A/articles; N/news; F/financial; L/law; M/meetings; P/Parliamentary; T/technical; Fo/sigmficant foreign content; I/illustrations; O/officers' names; Pr/prospectuses; R/reviews; Tab/tables. NEWSPAPERS AND J O U R N A L S F O U N D E D IN THE FORMATIVE Y E A R S , 1823-45

Mechanics' Magazine (1823-72), then Iron (1873-93), merged with Industries. A valuable source, particularly for early locomotive history; drawings Railway Magazine (1835-6), then Railway Magazine and Annals of Science (1836—9), then Railway Magazine and Commercial Journal (1839-40), then Herapath's Railway Magazine (1841-2), then Herapath's Railway and CommercialJournal (1843-93), then Herapath's Railway Journal (1894-19004). Merged with Railway Times. The firs two were illustrated monthly journals; the remainder were weekly, the increased frequency of publication being originally a response to growing competition from the Railway Times. John Herapath (1790-1868), a mathematician and engineer, was a contributor; he became editor in Feb 1836 and later proprietor. He was succeeded by his son, Edwin John, who had more business acumen but lacked his father's engineering knowledge and journalistic talent. N, F, M, P, T, Fo, I, R, Tab

Transport/187 Railway Times (1837-1900+), merged with Railway Gazette. The first editor was Joseph Clinton Robertson (one of the founders of the Mechanics'Magazine); he was soon succeeded by John Robertson, MA, who left to found the Railway Record after a quarrel with the proprietors, who were mainly London and Birmingham Railway directors. It was the most respected railway newspaper of the early period, although it lacked the solid engineering basis of 'Herapath.' It was the most pungent critic of George Hudson, who was dubbed 'The Railway King' but whose rapidly acquired fame and influence as a promoter of new lines and amalgamation evaporated when financial malpractices were investigated in 1849. By 1847 it was described as an advocate of Great Western Railway and Eastern Counties Railways interests. N, L, P, T, Tab Railway Record (1844-19004), merged with Railway News. Mitchell's in 1856 had a high opinion of its accuracy in domestic and foreign matters, but its quality deteriorated in later years. N, F, L, M, A, Fo, I, Tab Railway Chronicle (1844-9). Originally represented Liverpool interests, but was acquired by Hudson. It opposed the powers of the Board of Trade. Very valuable, 'much original writing of the best kind' (Mitchell's, 1846). N, T, I, Tab Railway Bell (1844-6). It started with a series of timetables but was enlarged to a railway, and later a general, newspaper. 'Notwithstanding its popularity ... had the vast sums which have been expended on presents [engravings, etc as a bonus to subscribers] been employed in securing literary talent, this journal would have acquired a much higher fame, and a more solid success' (Mitchell's, 1846). One of the presents was Biggs's map of London, presented under the title 'The Railway Bell Map of London, 1845' (copy in British Library map room). Railway Register (1844-7). Monthly. It was edited by Henry Hyde Clarke (1815-95), a prolific author and journalist. He contributed to the Railway Magazine and its successors, 1835-94. He surveyed the Glasgow and South Western Railway and a West Cumberland railway in 1836, and set up the London and County Bank in that year. He later became a telegraph engineer and developed railways in India and the East. He had many other active and diverse interests. The magazine advocated freedom from all government controls. A supplement, the Railway Portfolio (1846-7), monthly, contained

188 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce prospectuses and maps, and was the first periodical devoted solely to the past history of railways. All copies imperfect except vols I and II at Bodleian Library. N, F, L, M, P, A, Fo, I, Tab Irish Railway Gazette (Dublin 1844-50). The first, and only important, Irish railway newspaper, it also circulated widely in Scotland and the north of England. British Library copy for 1845 is lost. N, M, R, Tab Scottish Railway Gazette (Edinburgh 1845-62). 'A channel for notices, addressed to capitalists ... perfect impartiality' (Mitchell's 1846). N, Tab Railway Herald (1845-7). Hyde Clarke was editor and proprietor. It was the most authoritative financial paper of its time, with a notable Paris column by F.E. Whitelock, editor of the Journal des Chemins de Fer. The Post Office Railway Directory, 1847, said it advocated Great Western, Bristol and Exeter and Midland Railway interests. Vols II and III, Guildhall Library. N, F, A, Fo, Tab Bradshaw's Railway Gazette (London and Manchester 1845-6) then (with new proprietors) the Railway Gazette (1846-72), then Joint Stock Companies Journal, Railway Gazette and Mining Chronicle (1872-82). For railway managers; considered by contemporaries to be an authority on railway law. N, F, L, M, P, Tab, Pr North British Railway and Shipping Journal (Glasgow 1845-50?). From Oct 1846 it became in part a general newspaper. N, A, Tab, including Scottish traffic EPHEMERAL NEWSPAPERS OF THE RAILWAY MANIA PERIOD, 1845-6

The list given here is intended to be comprehensive; the papers were published weekly except as indicated. Even though they themselves were short-lived and individually had but modest circulations, they played a significant role in fomenting the 'Mania,' much more than the established railway press described in the previous section, which took a more cautious view. The papers were set up by men with no professional knowledge of railways, mostly general journalists or from other professions and commerce, who were using the rising passion for railway investment to publish for what they expected to be a quick profit, to be derived more from printing the prospectuses of new companies than from subscriptions.

Transport/189 Railway Express (June 1845-May 1846). Its subtitle proclaimed 'information connected with railways, steam navigation, canals, banking, mining, etc. ... commented upon with fairness and independence.' N, M, P, Tab Stock Exchange Express (June 1845-Feb 1846). Soon included general news. N, F, Tab Iron Times (July 1845-May 1846). Daily. This was in a class of its own: a unique railway daily, intended 'to take away the railway business from The Times,' but enjoying a circulation numbered only in hundreds. Its owner, Thomas Lyttleton Holt, made his profit by blackmailing the directors of the more dubious railway projects; those who gave free shares to Holt were puffed in the editorial columns, those who refused were defamed. Holt prophesied a golden age to come from railway investment, and was the victim of his own propaganda when the crash came, being left penniless with large holdings in completely worthless undertakings, but continuing to issue the sheet illegally for several weeks on unstamped paper and unable to meet the arrears of advertisement duty owed. N, P, L, A, T, R, Tab Railway Director and Mining Gazette (Aug 1845-March 1846). Daily until Dec 1845. Represented the established railways; attempted to expose fraudulent schemes; well written. N, F, P, Tab Railway Telegraph (Aug 1845-Apr 1846). Absorbed the Railway King in Jan 1846. N, F, Tab Railway World (Sept 1845-Jan 1847). Advocated direct lines. Much personal knowledge of railway directors; fearless in revealing abuse. Parliamentary proceedings closely watched. Noted for considering Scottish railways. N, F, P Railway Engine (Sept-Nov 1845). Incorporated with British and Foreign Railway Journal, 1845. N, P Irish Railway Telegraph (Dublin, Oct 1845-Feb 1846). N, L, M, P, Tab Shareholder (Oct-Dec 1845). Twice weekly. No 1 proclaimed, The World is but a joint stock company, and we are all shareholders.' N, Tab Railway Courier (Oct 1845-March 1846). Advocated control of railways by a single authority. N, F, Tab

190 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce Railway King (Oct-Dec 1845). Incorporated Jan 1846 with the Railway Telegraph N, F, Fo, Tab Railway Mail (Oct 1845^Jan 1846). N, F, Tab Lloyd's Liverpool Railway Times (Liverpool, Oct-Nov 1845). N, F London Railway Newspaper (Oct-Nov 1845). N, F, P Railway Critic (Oct 1845-Feb 1846). 'Many exposures have been made boldly ... It has advocated no scheme, but has been the impartial examiner of all. Justice has been done to every railway [of] stable character' (Mitchell's, 1847). N, L, Tab Railway Standard (Oct 1845-May 1846). 'A journal of [less than] average merit' (Mitchell's). It favoured the broad gauge and Liverpool and Manchester Railway interests, and established lines generally. N, F, P, Tab British and Foreign Railway Review (Oct-Nov 1845). Semi-monthly. Chiefly for investors; notes of newly projected schemes. L, P, I, Pr, Tab, Maps Steam Times and Railway Globe (Oct-Nov 1845). Thrice weekly. N, F, M, P, Tab Railway Argus (Oct-Nov 1845). No 1 proclaimed that fraud would be 'freely and fearlessly denounced,' but, nevertheless, it encouraged speculation. N, M, Pr, Tab Railway Chart and (Commercial) Advertiser (Oct-Dec 1845). A very uncritical paper. Subscribers were enticed by a free railway map that was apparently never issued. N, Pr. Railway Examiner (Oct 1845-Jan 1846). It set out to publish original, correct, and independent articles, to investigate the new schemes coming to Parliament, to treat of practical engineering and laws relating to railways, and to engage in world-wide correspondence. It ran for eleven issues of twenty-four pages, with an average circulation per issue of one thousand (as calculated from the annual stamp duty returns) before it ceased. N, P, A, Tab British and Foreign Railway Journal (Nov 1845). It incorporated the Railway Engine (q.v.) and Wetenhall's share guide. The leading articles encouraged a spirit of wild speculation. A, N, F, I, Tab NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS FOUNDED 1847-55 Patent Journal (1846-51). It set out to provide accounts of all patents

Transport/191 granted and is important for railway engineering history; for example, it published an illustrated description of the original 'Crampton' locomotive. Rather more than half the patents of these years were connected with railways. Contained diagrams, many folding while the format was small up to Oct 1848; thereafterit appeared as a newspaper. N, I Cook's Excursionist (Leicester 1851-64). No copies known. Probably then Cook's Excursionist and International Tourist Advisor (London 1864-5), then under various titles, 1900* NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS FOUNDED 1856-1900

Engineer (1856-1900*). A very important source for railway engineering history, and containing illustrations not available elsewhere. A cumulative index is available for the period 1856-1959. Engineering (1866-1900*). Remarks as for Engineer; the topics were sometimes duplicated, but not the treatment or illustrations. Annual index only Railway News (1864-1900*), merged with the Railway Gazette. Founded by Samuel Smiles (1812-1904), author of Lives of the Engineers, etc, and its proprietor Edward McDermott. Smiles edited it for a short time. N, F, Tab Railway Engineer (1880-1900*) Monthly. Merged with the Railway Gazette. N, A, I, R, Tab After 1880 there were a large number of new journals, most of which lasted only two or three years. Mail Train (1884-7). Weekly, then fortnightly. Intended to protect the interests of passengers and to secure improved services, especially on the Great Eastern Railway. The editor, W.R. Bogle, was secretary to both the Railway Travellers' League and the U.K. Commercial Travellers' Association. N, L, A Railway and Shipping Contractor (1885-1900*). Monthly, then weekly. N Railway Gazette (1872-84?), then Railway Supplies'Journal (1884?98?). N, I Railway Herald (1887-1900*). Independent, but published in its early months by the London agent for the Railroad Gazette of New York,

192 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce the subscribers to which received free copies as an advertisement. It included prize competitions on railway subjects, and (from 1888) purchasers were assured against railway accidents. Its publishers also issued Railway Herald Locomotive Album (1897-8), the Railway Herald Magazine (1895-8, monthly), a popular magazine written by anonymous railwaymen, and the Railway Herald Station Album (c 1900). N, T, A, Tab Railway Press (1888-98). Began as another edition of Railway Herald, then became a monthly news journal. From 1891, a directory of principal railways and their officials was included. N, R, A, L, T, Tab, I Transport (1892-1900*). Founded as a journal of railway transport. N, M, A

Moore's Monthly Magazine (1896), then Locomotive Magazine (18971900+). The most authoritative journal for both the history of the railway locomotive and its contemporary development. I Railway Magazine (1897-1900+). Monthly. It was virtually the only popular railway journal until competitors appeared in mid-twentieth century. A comprehensive index covering the period 1897-1900+) is held at the Public Records Office, Kew, and a copy is available at the Science Museum Library. I, A TRAMWAY JOURNALS

Railway and Tramway Express (1884-6). Organ of the Tramways Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, which later issued its Quarterly Journal (18877-96). N, L, M, Tab Tramway and Railway World (1892-1900+). Monthly. From July 1892 to Aug 1899 it appeared as the Railway World. Published patent news. A, T, I, Tab Electric Railway Review and Tramway Journal (1896-1900"1"). Monthly. The proprietors were members of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. N, Fo, I Light Railway and Tramway Journal (1899-1900*). Monthly. N, A, T, I TRADE U N I O N AND STAFF M A G A Z I N E S

The Train; A First-Class Magazine (1856-58). Monthly. A literary magazine

Transport/193 The Train (1865?-??). Said to have been the organ of the Engine Drivers' and Firemen's United Society. No copies known Railway Employes' [sic] Journal (1857-?). Monthly. Nos 1-4 (JanApril 1857) in John Palmer's collection Great Northern Railway Journal (Aug 1859-Sept 1860), from no. 7 (15 Sept 1859) renamed Great Northern Journal and General Railway Gazette. Vols 1 and 2 in John Palmer's collection Great Western Magazine (July 1862-4). Mainly literary. Vol. 1 (186^3) University of Leicester Library Railway Fly Sheet (1870-6). Monthly, then Railway Sheet and Official Gazette (1877-81), then Railway Official Gazette (1882-1900+). Organ of the Railway Benevolent Institution. Contains notices, reports and meetings of various societies and clubs. For officials and clerks Railway Signal (1882-1900*). Articles on missions and missionary work. Vol 4 (1896) in John Palmer's collection Locomotive Engineers' and Firemen's Monthly Journal (1888-1900*). The organ of the Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen. A great deal of historical material in the earlier years Railway Express (1890-?). Organ of the General Railway Workers' Union Great Western Railway Magazine (1888-1900+). Monthly. University of Leicester Library. T, I, A ANTI-RAILWAY JOURNALS

Journal of Elemental Locomotion (1832). Monthly. Nos 1-6, ed A. Gordon Railway Reformer (1883-4). Monthly. Comment on alleged abuses by companies against passengers, for example, high fares. Thomas Bolas, a professed crank, was sole author and proprietor, printer, and publisher. He was demonstrator in chemistry at the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, and later a successful journalist of photography. Railway Reform Leaflet (1893-5?). Broadsheets of scurrilous attacks on railway management, intended for free distribution. Another product of Thomas Bolas, from his 'Chemical, Electrical and Technological Laboratories' at Chiswick, London

194 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce T I M E T A B L E S , G U I D E S FOR PASSENGERS, TIMETABLE APPENDIXES, AND RULE BOOKS

George Bradshaw's publications. The long and complicated bibliography of Bradshaw's timetables (1839-1900+) is well documented in the sources cited above at Timetables.' ABC or Alphabetical Railway Guide (1853-1900+). Monthly. Timetables, based on towns, etc, rather than on routes Cook's Continental Time Tables (1873-1900+) Dickens's Dictionary of Continental Railways (1880-1). Monthly, then Dickens's Continental ABC Railway Guide (1881). Compiled by Charles Dickens, Jr (1837-96), a prolific compiler of guidebooks, son of the novelist. General information on continental railways; alphabetical guidebook with timetables and fares. Maps 'COMPANY' PUBLICATIONS

Company public timetables; company working timetables, giving the times of all trains, including goods and mineral workings, and other information; and company appendixes to working timetables, giving extensive and detailed regulations for the working of traffic, with lists of locomotive, traffic, and signalling facilities - these three source classes are described, their uses to historians discussed, and locations indicated, by Kay, Guide to Railway Research (1990). COMPANY RULE BOOKS

These were - and are - the railwaymen's 'bibles/ rules for the different circumstances encountered in working, to ensure safety. The principal collection is in the Public Records Office, class nos RAIL 1134-RAIL 1136. SHARE PRICES LISTS

Daily Railway Share List (18447-66). Table of share prices and dealing volume. A broadsheet published by James Box Wetenhall, a stockbroker who made a business of publishing share lists. London Weekly Railway Share List (1847-9). An official Stock Exchange broadsheet. Subscribers received gratuitously Quarterly

Transport/195 Railway Intelligence (1847-9), which contained a review of progress and quarterly tables of share prices, detail of capital, calls, income, mileage, etc. N, M, Fo, Tab London Weekly Railway Share List (1849-66), then London Weekly Stock and Share List, ns (1867-82). A broadsheet, superseding that of the same name, with similar contents. Edited and published by Wetenhall ANNUALS AND OTHER REFERENCE BOOKS AND DIRECTORIES

Railway Directory (1845-8). Names of directors and officers of companies. Prepared by Henry Tuck. An anonymous edition exists for 1845 in the Bodleian Library - possibly prepared before Tuck took charge of production, suppressed, and subsequently printed and circulated privately. Some errors in the 1847 edition (published in Dec 1846) are noted in the Railway Chronicle for 2 Jan 1847, p 6. Railway Almanac (1846-48). A diary of railway and bank meetings, a directory, railway stock data, parliamentary returns, acts, law, list of railways existing and projected Baily's Universal Railway Guide (1846). Vol I of a semi-annual. Reports and accounts of railways, a directory of chief officials Bradshaw's Railway Almanack (1848-9), then Bradshaw's General Railway Directory (1850-2), then Bradshaw's Shareholders' Guide (1853-62), then Bradshaw's Railway Manual (1863-1900*). Lists of directors and officers of all railways in the U.K. Information on amalgamation, leases of lines, finance. From 1878 included the principal canal and rolling stock companies, and foreign and colonial lines. The best-known annual reference book on railway companies Universal Directory of Railway Officials (1894-1900*). List of institutions, followed by railways arranged by countries. Names and occasionally addresses of the highest officials; miles owned, gauge, and statistics for rolling stock. (The specimen for 1894 contains information for only a few railways, all foreign.) Manual of Tramway Companies in the United Kingdom (1877-9?), then Duncan's Manual of British and Foreign Tramway Companies (18807-93), then Duncan's Manual of Tramways, Omnibuses and Electric Railways (1894-1900*). Accounts, traffic tables, maps. W.W. Duncan was a stockbroker and tramway share dealer who was chair-

196 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce man of the Falcon Engine and Car Works, 1884-9, and a director of the West Metropolitan Tramways Co, 1886-90. The manual was acquired in 1894 by T.J. Whiting, its printer; he added a few bus companies and electric railways, but the accuracy declined. Mathieson's Traffic Tables (1878-1900+). Monthly. British and imperial Mathiesons' American Traffic Tables (1889?-1900+). A monthly booklet also in half-yearly edition, chiefly of tables (traffic, stock, etc) OTHER MODES OF INLAND TRANSPORT: CANALS, ROADS, AND COASTAL SHIPPING

Canals Major canal construction ceased in 1835. Some canals were soon subject to railway competition, but for some years the two forms of transport coexisted in considerable prosperity. This situation came to an end at the time of the Railway Mania, when, in years 1845-7, 948 miles of canal came under railway control, about one-fifth of all the navigable waterways in Britain. Thereafter, the canals gradually lost their potential for long-distance traffic and reverted to the more local trading for which they had been built. They had been constructed in times when little special provision of news was needed as to their financial status and there was little technical development involved. Periodicals themselves had not been widely established for specialized interests, and it appears that no periodical was specially devoted to canals; the Paddington Canal Boatman's Magazine, published from April 1829 to December 1832, had philanthropic and religious purposes. The years 1892-3 witnessed the rise and fall of the Canal Journal. There are three bibliographies in M. Baldwin and A. Burton, eds, Canals - A New Look; Studies in Honour of Charles Hadfield (Chichester 1984): a bibliography of Charles Hadfield's published work to October 1983, a bibliography of European cruising, 1833-1900*, and a bibliography of British canals, 1623-1950. Also see the important reference to pre-1800 general newspapers at page 181 above. Roads Road transport had been developed by turnpiking and other methods to a useful degree of effectiveness in the period 1750-1820, but it was subject to the speed limits imposed by the horse. The growth of the canal system took much freight traffic from the roads where the two

Transport/197 modes served the same places, but elsewhere traders still had to rely upon the roads. For passenger traffic, the roads remained by far the favoured means, although some passenger boats were operated. As soon as the railway had demonstrated its superior speed and regularity, and long lines of public railway were opened, the stage-coach services began to be withdrawn or cut back to act as feeders to the nearest railhead. This role continued to be filled by various kinds of horse-hauled vehicles for many years into the twentieth century. Thus road transport, like the canals, appears to have generated little or no specialized periodical literature. On the one hand, it was a familiar feature of great antiquity, and on the other, it was operated at a parochial level during most of the Victorian period, although in 1820-40 there was a spirited series of attempts to introduce steam traction onto the roads, supported by the Mechanics' Magazine and the London daily press. In the last years of the century, several periodicals appeared, but they were mostly devoted to electric street tramways, the first of which was opened in 1885 at Blackpool; they were in essence more of the new century than the old in most cases, and the roads were merely providers of the routes rather than objects of interest in themselves. Reference may be made to Dorothy Ballen, Bibliography of Road-Making and Roads in the United Kingdom (1914). A modern study of a specialized aspect of the subject is W. Albert, The "Turnpike Road System in England, 1663-1840 (1972). Coastal Shipping This was another transport form of venerable antiquity and one which, unlike all its inland rivals, required no prepared way of any kind. It did, however, require harbour works, frequently very costly ones, except in those cases where cargoes could be dumped on the foreshore at low tide. To and from the harbours, the passage of goods and passengers was dependent upon roads or inland navigation, and as the railway concept became established, several of the early lines were constructed specifically to take materials to the sea, or to estuarial waters; for example, the Scorrier (c 1810, to Portreath harbour), the Whitby and Pickering (1836, to Whitby) and the Kilmarnock and Troon (1812, to Troon harbour). The coastwise transport of minerals continued into modern times where speed of delivery was of little importance and the distance involved continued to make the mode economical, such as coal from the north-east to London. Coastal shipping is one subject in D.H. Aldcroft and M. Freeman, eds, Transport in the Industrial Revolution (Manchester 1983). Reference may also be made to J. Armstrong and P.S. Bagwell,

198 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce 'Coastal Shipping's Relationship to Railways and Canals/ Journa the Railway and Canal Historical Society 29, pt 5, no 139 (July 1988), 214-21, which contains a bibliography. Also see R.G. Albion, Nava and Maritime History: An Annotated Bibliography (4th ed; Newton Abbot 1973), which excludes periodical articles and foreign language, but includes PHD dissertations; National Maritime Museum Catalogues of Library (HM Stationery Office, 7 vols. in progress since 1968); P. Mathias and A. Pearsall, Shipping: A Survey of Historical Records (Newton Abbot 1971), a source-book for locating the records of individual companies; D.N. Allum, Maritime Transport, A Guide to Libraries and Sources in Great Britain (1974). An annual bibliography of transport history in British periodicals was published in the Journal of Transport History for the years 1950-78. The Railway and Canal Historical Society bibliography, noted above under 'Bibliographies,' includes inland waterways, railways, and roads.

The Financial and Trade Press DAVID J. MOSS AND CHRIS HOSGOOD

In the last thirty years there has been a remarkable expansion of interest in business history. From a subdiscipline within economic history it has grown to become a subject worthy of separate study. Within the general preoccupation, the Victorian period has been a major focal point for historians and economists as they have sought to explain the early stages of industrialization, the origins of modern capitalism, and the economic underpinnings of the class system. The classical school of political economy, the background to the adoption of free trade, and the ideology implicit in the development of a factory system have enjoyed particular and intensive scrutiny. Despite recent debate over the decline of the British industrial spirit,1 it remains the case that spectacular business advancement was a recurring theme in the popular culture of the late Victorian petty bourgeoisie. This dream was undoubtedly fuelled by an irrefutable fact of life: the vast majority of participants in business lived ordinary and decidedly unspectacular lives. H.G. Wells, with an impeccable lower-middle-class background, perfectly understood both the fantasy of sudden and unexpected success, as illustrated in a novel such as Tono-Bungay (1909), and the humdrum reality of business life, as captured in The History of Mr Polly (1910). The fundamental paradox - the fantastic, tempered by an acceptance of the real - lies at the heart of the business mentalite of late Victorian Britain. The absence of glamour also undoubtedly explains the unfortunate truth that the business world remains one of the least understood components of society.2 The Smilesian tradition has guaranteed a fascination with the 'captains of industry' and the 'merchant princes,'3 social historians have rescued the 'poor stockinger,' yet despite the

200 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce urging of a few, comparatively little is known about the flotsam and jetsam of shopkeepers, merchants, and wholesalers sandwiched between their more heroic compatriots. For the historian attempting to winnow out the shape, structure, and ideology of the Victorian business community, the trade press must stand out as a source of fundamental significance; the multitude of journals represents a treasure-house of material covering every facet of life in a world that was seldom discussed openly because so much of it was commonplace. To the casual observer, the trade press may appear to cover a tremendous amount of mundane, unimportant material; this impression is misleading, because this very feature makes the trade press a vital source if we are to reconstruct accurately this lost world of inherently parochial activity. Although trade journals provide countless avenues of investigation, they enable the examination of three particular areas of nineteenth-century business life: the nature of the various businesses and trades themselves, the experience of those who participated in them, and the institutional and associational world which emerged to influence much of the rhetoric and language of the business community. Surprisingly, with the exception of a narrow elite of publications, the Economist being a prime example, the financial press as a resource has been largely ignored. Multi-purpose journals, such as the Edinburgh Review, which acted as a forum for well-known writers on a variety of fashionable issues including the economic, have been deemed sufficient representatives of the medium. The majority of financial and trade sheets have been overlooked, as have the 'City' or business sections of newspapers. This is unfortunate, as these writings published economic information, informed opinion, and uninformed gossip, and were widely read. They were, and continue to be, cornerstones of the business community. When they are disregarded, an important piece of the business world is removed, and analysis is, in consequence, incomplete. It is through the press, in all its forms, that the language of the marketplace becomes structured and translated into the common forms of a common culture. Or, as Parsons puts it, this aspect of the press might act 'as a crucial mediator between the price system and the political system, and [it] enabled politicians, businessmen and men of ideas to set the parameters of ruling opinion.'4 For example, the scholarly debate about 'gentlemanly capitalists' and/or 'myth-makers,' part of the effort to understand the power and character of businessmen, may be influenced by paying attention to what they actually thought and read.5

The Financial and Trade Press / 201 Stedman Jones's appeal for the study of the language of radicalism as an interpretative tool is, then, as applicable to the subjects of capitalism and 'men of enterprise.'6 Recently some attention has been drawn to the possibilities of these approaches, but much remains to be done.7 The neglect of such a source by specialist writers is remarkable. A similar omission by those who paint with a broader social brush is perhaps more excusable. Considering the number of nineteenth-century publications, scholars must make choices. It is, however, surprising that all who purport to examine the links between the press and society have chosen to be so consistently dismissive. G.A. Cranfield's book in the 'Themes in British History' series, which claims to adopt 'an unusually wide interpretation of the Press/ typically omits the whole genre.8 Yet, the writers of these newspapers and journals commented on political (domestic and foreign) and social affairs of the day with as much enthusiasm and expertise as any other group. Knowledge of the world outside the counting house or shop was considered to be essential in the successful pursuit of wealth. Very little was deemed beyond these journals' compass, from political reform to hat styles, and the reading of events by their preferred spokesmen offers a perspective on middle-class attitudes which can be found nowhere else. In terms of behaviour, the journals are equally pertinent, as they abound in literary allusions and amusements, part of their editors' attempts to hold their readership, thereby providing insight into the Victorian character. In sum, an appreciation of these sources is long overdue: they can offer a welcome corrective to the polarity between working-class and intellectual elites that is so pervasive in recent interpretations of Victorian society. The diversity of the trade press serving the nineteenth-century community is illustrated by the myriad of journals which were offered for subscription. All of the principal trades were served by a number of offerings; the Grocer (1862-1900*), the Grocers' Gazette (1881-1900+), and the Grocers' Journal (1875-1900*); the Draper 1872-92) (formerly the Warehouseman and Drapers' Trade Journal), the Outfitter (1872-3) and the Drapers' Record (1887-1900*); the Butcher and the Meat Trades Journal (1888); the Baker and Confectioner (1892-1900*) and the Practical Confectioner (1887-1900*) represent only a sample of available trade journals. Even the more specialized trades were well served; indeed, by the end of the nineteenth century every trade and craft was supported by its own 'organ.' These journals were true trade papers; most claimed to serve

202 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce the interests of a trade, where applicable, from manufacture, through the wholesaler and on to the retailer, rather than the more particular concerns of some of the constituent members. It will be seen, however, that some in the trade, most particularly small retailers, started their own 'organs,' which would more rigorously represent their interests. Newspapers and the major periodicals in this group are well documented for general information by the standard bibliographic sources discussed elsewhere in this volume. David Linton and Ray Boston, The Newspaper Press in Britain: An Annotated Bibliography (1987), containing some three thousand entries, is a more specialized work that is particularly valuable. But for the lesser-known, short-run papers, one must supplement these sources by searching archive catalogues, including that of the Institute of Bankers in London and County Record Offices. All too often, descriptions of contents are inadequate and sometimes misleading. Titles change frequently, and confusion among items is not uncommon. Similarly, the years listed cannot be trusted. In the indexes of major newspapers, Palmer's Index to 'The Times' Newspaper, for example, most financial articles, letters, and advertisements are either given cursory treatment or ignored completely. Periodicals are better served by bibliographies. In getting started one can do no better than to consult Guide I and II. L. Madden and D. Dixon, The Nineteenth Century Periodical Press in Britain: A Bibliography of Modern Studies, 1901-1971 (1976) is of obvious value, as it lists bibliographies of regional centres as well as secondary work on the subject. The foregoing problems are not, however, insurmountable; they merely require diligence. The real difficulty for the researcher lies in the identification of the authors. The standard biographical reference works are inadequate for all but a small minority of writers/publishers in this field. Many were men of small means who appear in, and disappear from, the public eye with disconcerting suddenness. Often, they are not named or use pseudonyms, and it is only by tracking from one sheet to another that some clues to their origin and pedigree can be obtained. The extent of the problem may be appreciated when even contemporaries confused two relatively well known authors of newspaper articles, pamphlets, and letters. Both Matthias and Thomas Attwood wrote on the currency question, but, while there are similarities in their theories, they wrote from entirely different perspectives. Thomas used Birmingham as a model; Matthias developed the London point of view.9 In terms of studying what may be

The Financial and Trade Press / 203 termed 'commercial' society, the distinction is clearly vital. Of course, the usual sources, supplemented by the various specialized works, should be consulted, but too much should not be expected. The DNB, Modern English Biography, Dictionary of Businessmen, Joyce Bellamy and John Saville, eds, Dictionary of Labour Biography (7 vols, 1972-84), and Joseph O. Baylen and Norbert J. Grossman, eds, Biographical Dictionary of Modern British Radicals (3 vols, 1979-88) yield the occasional surprise.

General Histories Few of the standard histories of the press provide much information on the financial and trade press, although some information is subsumed into discussions on other topics. Particularly useful books include J. Black, The English Press in the Eighteenth Century (1987); M. Harris and A. Lee, eds, The Press and English Society from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries (1986); J. Shattock and M. Wolff, eds, The Victorian Periodical Press: Samplings and Soundings (Leicester and Toronto 1982); and Lucy Brown, Victorian News and Newspapers (Oxford 1985).

The Origins of the Financial Press The commercial and financial press originated in the publication of commodity prices current in Antwerp and Venice in the mid-sixteenth century. Other trading centres, London, Amsterdam, and Hamburg, followed that lead, and by the end of the seventeenth century business newsletters were well established in England.10 Improvements in the efficiency of printing ensured that information about products, commodities, and services could be disseminated more widely and with greater frequency than ever before. This was mostly in the form of information sheets that provided shipping news, foreign exchange prices, and some stock reports, as well as advertisements. By the early eighteenth century the new business press had become an integral part of commercial life, and its involvement in quickening the pace of economic activity was undeniable.11 The daily papers joined generally during the speculative period centred on the South Sea Bubble year of 1720. Stock sales were heavily promoted and the hopes of a quick profit encouraged a rapid expansion of coverage. The Daily Post, for example, provided twenty-three pages out of thirty-two to business and speculative advertising on 9 June 1720. Influential

204 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce writers, like Daniel Defoe in a promotion of the Royal African Company, lent their names to the enterprise.12 The provincial press followed suit, and, as John Brewer has noted, the coverage of foreign affairs even in small towns grew out of a desire of local traders to be informed.13 Interest rates, the availability of credit, and the degree to which trading patterns might be changed by political considerations were of vital importance. By 1800 newspapers had become central in the identification of consumer demand, the formulation of opinion, and the expansion of business. Parsons writes that 'it was no coincidence that, in both London and New York, the newspaper industry grew up in such close proximity to the financial districts' (The Power of the Financial Press, 18). The publishers of newspapers were, of course, closely linked with the book trade. Advertisements and comment in the papers made the initial contact for the writers with the general public. This was quickly recognized by political economists, most of whom were also journalists. The ideas of Adam Smith won their initial acceptance through their publication in newspaper columns. Letters to the editor, in both the provincial and the national press, were another popular platform for would-be economists. Examples abound, but the most notable for the early nineteenth century is perhaps David Ricardo's letters to the editor of the Morning Chronicle in 1809. It is not until later, however, that the periodical becomes of major significance.

Nineteenth-Century Periodicals GENERAL

Articles on economic questions may be found in specialist and nonspecialist periodicals. Many of these have been microfilmed and are readily accessible. The most famous and familiar source for readers of nineteenth-century literature is the literary journal. There is scarcely an issue of a review that did not at least touch upon political economy in the first half of the century. These formed opinion among the influential classes and popularized the rhetoric and terminology of what were essentially abstract theories. The doctrines of classical economics or 'Scottish' political economy were most widely debated in the Edinburgh Review (1802-32), but the Westminster Review, the Quarterly Review, and Blackwood's Magazine offer many similar examples. Often the ideas discussed were extrapolations that discounted the qualifications peppering the economists' own pamphlets.

The Financial and Trade Press / 205 Disagreement among the authors was similarly dismissed in the interests of clarity. Frank Fetter's article, 'The Rise and Decline of Ricardian Economics/ History of Political Economy 1 (1969), 67-84, and, of course, the WI is indispensable. Other valuable guides includ B. Fontana, Rethinking the Politics of Commercial Society: The Edinburgh Review, 1802-32 (Cambridge 1985), S.G. Checkland, 'The Propagation of Ricardian Economics on England/ Economica 16 (1949), 40-52, and S.B. Finer, 'The Transmission of Benthamite Ideas, 1820-50,' in G. Sutherland, ed, Studies in the Growth of Nineteenth Century Government (1972). Studies of individual economists - for example, D.P. O'Brien, J.R. McCulloch: A Study in Classical Economics (1970) - usually list contributions to the journals and newspapers. A valuable examination of these is to be found in B. Gordon, 'Criticism of Ricardian Views on Value and Distribution in the British Periodicals, 1820-1850,' History of Political Economy 1 (1969) 370-87. The second half of the century is equally well provided with articles on influential writers, as many journals published contemporary interpretations of economic lore. The range of approaches is considerable, from the more literary in the British Quarterly to the scholarly in the Quarterly Journal of Economics (1886-1900+) and the Economic Journal (1890-1900+). The incestuous style in the general reviews had not changed. R. Griffen, 'Bagehot as an Economist/ Fortnightly Review old series 33 (1880), 549-67, sensibly observes that his subject 'had always some typical City man in mind' when writing and that the mutual reinforcement of prejudice was inevitable. Two useful books which make this point and provide some guidance are T.W. Hutchison, A Review of Economic Doctrines, 1870-1929 (Oxford 1986) and A. Radish, The Oxford Economists in the Late Nineteenth Century (Oxford 1982). FINANCIAL JOURNALS

While the general-purpose journals enjoyed a wide circulation, there was a second category of periodical which was equally important. These were the specialized publications that catered to a specific business audience. Often they relied on a subscription list for their survival, and not all were available for general sale. Some of these have been microfilmed, but most have to be consulted in the British Newspaper Library at Colindale, London, or in short-run holdings at County Record Offices. Their market was carefully defined, and, as their readership was select, their influence far outweighed their

206 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce circulation. Some financial journals published on a weekly basis, others monthly. Few lasted very long, sometimes only a few weeks, and the competition for readers was fierce. Among this group only the Economist, edited originally by James Wilson and published to advance the ideas of free trade and political reform, has received much attention. A history of the enterprise has been published, 'The Economist,' 1843-1943: A Centenary Volume (1943), and several articles in scholarly journals have picked out items of interest. Scott Gordon, 'The London Economist and the High Tide of Laissez Faire,' Journal of Political Economy 63 (1955), 461-88, is a case in point. The magazine spun off the Railway Monitor, which lasted only a few months; a stock market crisis forced Wilson to incorporate it into the Economist itself. A second venture, the Investors' Manual (18641900+), was more successful. The Economist also put out regular supplements such as the Monthly Trade Supplement (1845) and the Commercial History Supplement (1864). The Circular to Bankers (1826-53), edited by Henry Burgess, a one-time journalist, is an example of a periodical within this genre which has been neglected. The Circular, available on microfilm from the British Library, went through several name changes, in part as a reflection of a changing target for its readership, and became an important interpreter of ideas on banking. The weakness of the current state of knowledge about the financial press is underlined by a mistake made by the otherwise reliable Parsons. He identifies the journal's sponsor as the Bank of England. Most of the costs were, in fact, paid by one hundred private banks. One article, D.J. Moss, 'Circular to Bankers: The Role of the Proto-typical Trade Journal in the Evolution of Middle Class Professional Consciousness/ VPR 25:3 (Fall 1992), 129-36, touches on the Circular's contribution to the formulation of economic opinion, but a thorough analysis remains to be done. The Banker's Magazine and Journal of the Money Market (1844-19004), published by Richard Groombridge, was less contentious than the Circular and sought to provide useful information, everything from the philosophy of banking to bankruptcy law, for its readers. It soon developed a loyal clientele; it put out seven to eight hundred pages a year by 1849 and reached sixteen hundred pages in 1890. By the latter date it also regularly sponsored a series of lectures on banking. In its ability to channel opinion and prejudice among bankers and money men, it far outweighed the Economist. Another equally valuable publication is the Statist (1868-1900*), 'A weekly journal for economists and businessmen.' It was similar to the Economist in that it attempted to serve two purposes, information

The Financial and Trade Press / 207 and opinion. Unlike its primary rival, it tried to avoid 'party politics,' but its highly charged editorials often made that impossible. Founded by Sir Robert Giffen, a journalist and ex-civil servant in the Board of Trade, and Thomas Lloyd, an author of several books on monetary policy and theory, its emphasis was 'statistical.' This 'scientific' tone, in keeping with the public's decreasing interest in the abstract views of economists (see Radish, Oxford Economists, 127), was offset by long articles criticizing government policy, recommending decreased regulation of business, and offering advice on specific stocks. These practical matters were the primary concern of businessmen in a period generally recognized as one of depression. The Money Bag: Literature, Politics and Finance (1858) is a gem among the short-lived variety of periodical. Published once a month in Liverpool, Manchester, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dublin, Oxford, and Cambridge (at least according to its editor, Donald F. Ockley), it attacked the 'insane financial system.' At the same time, it sought to entertain, with pieces as diverse as 'Advice for Starving Orphans' and 'The Flower, the Feather and the Leaves Sonnet.' None of the articles is signed in any way and, for the moment, one must assume they were written by the owner/publisher or his friends. John Nicholson, itinerant journalist and sometime tea dealer and later buyer for grocers, made persistent entries into the journal market. His primary goal was probably to promote his own business. Most were simple sheets, but one, Nicholson's Weekly Register of Useful Knowledge, Commercial, Temperance and Monetary Barometer (1843), deserves to be included in this category. Unlike his other efforts, which were directed to shopkeepers, this sought to entertain the middle and working classes in the mass. His articles touched on a wide variety of subjects, from factory labour to the gold standard to the evils of alcohol. He claimed that the Register was the largest commercial publication in London, at 32,000 copies. But the stamp returns suggest that the figures are probably more indicative of his hopes than reality. However, taken with the number of trade periodicals that were available at the time, the collective circulation and influence of such new sheets was considerable. As a point of comparison, it should be noted that in the same year the Edinburgh Review sold only 7,000 copies and the Quarterly Review, 8,500 (Cranfield, Press and Society, 167). TRADE JOURNALS Journals such as the Warehouseman and Drapers' Trade Journal

208 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce were founded with a mandate to watch over the interests of the trade and collect 'information essential to the proper carrying on of business transactions' (15 April 1872). As the editor observed in the opening number, published in 1872, trade journals now 'occupy a very definite and influential position in our periodical literature.' The inaugural number of the Grocers' Journal, published in 1875, concluded in a similar fashion; thus it was forcefully suggested that by providing the grocery trade with an affordable journal the trade might be rid of its 'smouldering ignorance' (3 Dec 1875). Over a decade earlier, the Grocer had advertised an even more ambitious mission: to link all those connected with the trade, from the colonial trader to the village chandler. In order to meet the needs of such a vast array of individuals, these trade papers squeezed an eclectic sampling of information between the covers. Consequently, the persistent researcher is provided with a series of comprehensive reference works detailing the workings and, perhaps more important, the changes occurring within the specialist trades. Products, skills, forthcoming and current legislation, problems, frustrations, successes, complaints, protestations, and lamentations, all feature prominently. Again, much of the information may appear to the casual observer to be obscure and inconsequential. Advertisements, references to long-forgotten businesses, letters from obscure traders - to the social and business historian such seemingly unimportant references actually provide the material for a comprehensive reconstruction of trades that, in some cases, have long since disappeared or, more commonly, have been transformed in recent decades. The pages of journals such as the Grocer and the Grocers'Journal are full of fascinating accounts of the various arts of coffee-roasting and tea-blending, window-dressing, advertising, stock suggestions, accounting and bookkeeping hints, dealing with shop assistants, and a multitude of other trade matters. Journals serving other trades followed suit, describing the needs and experience of their constituency. This concern to promote and perpetuate trade skills accompanied the decline of apprenticeship in the retail sector, and it reflected the concern of many that shopkeeping specifically, and the distributive trades generally, were being swamped by unskilled, often part-time traders who were able to take advantage of proprietary articles. 'Legitimate' traders initially eschewed manufactured and pre-packaged goods, both because such goods were not considered to provide a fair 'living profit' and because they tarnished the traders'

The Financial and Trade Press / 209 reputation as 'skilled.' By educating new traders and young assistants, and by supporting various attempts by the trades to establish technical institutes, journals played their part in maintaining the standing of the trade. Therefore, aside from enabling a reconstruction of particular trades, the journals also provide a running commentary on those competitors who would steal the trade of the 'legitimate' shopkeepers. Early enemies, such as the civil service stores and the co-operative societies, were later joined by chain stores (such as Lipton's) and department stores, as well as the ubiquitous small general shopkeepers, as the opposition. In all of these cases, the trade journals were in the forefront of the attack against the enemies within and without the trade. Clearly it was in their interest to promote conflict and concern, as it undoubtedly inflated their role, boosted subscriptions, and promoted a type of siege mentality among shopkeepers. Indeed, it is largely because of the trade papers that retailers began to fear the 'passing of the grocer,' or any other trade for that matter, when in reality the state of the independent retail trader was little different at the end of the nineteenth century from what it had been in the middle. As will be seen later, by promoting associational activity to protect the trade, journals insinuated themselves even more directly into a position as the defenders of independent business.14 Despite the self-seeking nature of trade papers' editorial commentary, it must be stressed that behind the strident rhetoric lay a great deal of truth. The retail and wholesale trades, as well as the wider business world, were undergoing a profound transformation in the latter decades of the nineteenth century; much of this change, and the fears it engendered, can be identified in the various trade journals. For example, the journals provide the investigator with a detailed account of how proprietary articles threatened the livelihood of the master grocer. In the advertisements one can see the arrival of these goods, in the editorials and letters to the editor one can find traders' consternation at their impact and attempts to organize and agitate in order to save themselves from becoming 'penny-in-the-slotmachine' vendors: 'nearly every new packet that comes up for distribution renders the skill of the grocer less necessary' (Grocers'Journal, 15 July 1905). Grocery journals were not alone; the butchery press railed against the growing import of tinned meat (Butcher, 21 Sept 1888). Secondly, by providing information on the businessman and (much less frequently) woman, as distinct from the trade to which they

210/Victorian Occupations and Commerce belonged, the trade journals provide a salutary reminder that individual experiences lay at the heart of both Victorian urban life and the business community. Understandably, historians have attempted to divide society into manageable typologies in order better to understand its dynamics. In the process, however, the personalities of society's component members have often been lost under these broad, frequently impersonal, social blocks. Perhaps the most interesting source of individual experience is the bankruptcy reportage that occupied such a prominent position in trade journals. The various failures in a trade were not recounted simply to provide moral entertainment for the readership; it can be established that the evidence was closely examined by subscribers to keep track of customers or acquaintances. Thomas Budgett and Sons, wholesale grocers in London, relied on the Grocer to keep track of delinquent customers. By 1900 the company's London clerks were simply pasting cuttings of the bankruptcy procedures against the appropriate entries in the ledgers.15 Aside from the important information on the nature of business relations in the nineteenth century, bankruptcy records remind us that, for every W.H. Lever or Thomas Lipton, there were literally thousands of general and specialist traders and merchants, small and large, whose investments, often representing life savings, were lost when their businesses failed. These personal reverses provide the persistent researcher with revealing and often detailed accounts of the reality of Victorian business life. Some, such as Edwin Jacques, a Leicester chandler, were well-known local figures, prominent in municipal affairs, and proprietors of long-established businesses (Grocery Journal, 8 Aug 1903). Their fall was often greeted by disbelief, as others in the trade were no doubt forced to contemplate their own creditworthiness. More typically, however, individuals who failed occupied a humbler position in the business hierarchy; their fall was usually accompanied by all too familiar stories of undercapitalization, lack of training, anchor personal shortcomings too numerous to detail. Some of the cases listed in trade journals would be humorous if they did not represent personal and familial tragedy. J.H. Plant, a tea merchant, informed the court that his business collapsed when he was attacked by 'tea rot,' which necessitated the removal of his toenails. Fearful of catching his disease, customers abandoned him and his trade collapsed (Grocer, 31 Oct 1896). R. Rawlings, a grocer who admitted that neither he nor his wife knew much about business, also conceded that his habit of attending race meetings, and making the occasional bet,

The Financial and Trade Press / 211 had contributed to their losses (Grocer, 28 Jan 1893). The majority of the bankruptcy examinations ultimately reveal that business life for many was a struggle which all too often ended in a gradual decline into failure. A general shopkeeper, C.F. Rowell, was in business for fifteen years before his capital, taken to subsidize diminishing profits, finally disappeared in 1894 and he was forced to close his shop (Grocer, 24 Feb 1894). These bankruptcy records are important because they act as a partial corrective to some of the more blatant boosterism that was such a staple of a trade journal's reportage. Similar enthusiasm can be identified in one of the regular components of the trade journal, the obituary of a trade notable. Hagiographic though they may be in appropriately restrained fashion - such obituaries, if considered carefully, act as a valuable and often unique tool in reconstructing the position of individuals in both their trade and their community. Another example of trade boosterism and self-promotion is the biographical sketch; these short vignettes, often a portrait accompanied by a page or two of text, became an increasingly important component of trade journals. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Grocer was advertising 'the grocer of the week.' The journals played their part in promoting trade institutions by rewarding officers of the various trade associations with national exposure. Not surprisingly, the recipients of such attention were all confirmed as pillars of the business community. However, these biographies are less rewarding than the more realistic bankruptcy reports, in part because they are formulaic - promoting and reinforcing such noble values as perseverance, honesty, industry and self-denial - any or all of which inevitably were characteristic of the individual under consideration.16 Yet this reinforcement of the ideal businessman in itself provided an important psychological message to troubled traders. On the one hand, editorial commentary was frequently pessimistic about trade prospects; on the other hand, this imposed a greater lustre on those who had survived the trials of the 'new' competitive age. Troubles there might be, but the message of the trade journals to 'legitimate' traders was that they still had a role to play in the business world. In 1903, the Grocers' Journal was unequivocal: 'the passing of the grocer, of which we heard a deal last year, is yet but a chimera, and will remain an idle phantom so long as the leaders of thought in the trade are true to themselves and their course' (3 Jan 1903). Finally, trade journals chronicle perhaps the most important institutional development within the late nineteenth-century business

212 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce world: the rise of associational activity. Trade associations multiplied rapidly in all sectors of the business community in this period; journal proprietors were quick to realize that by promoting these associations they could boost their subscriptions. Established journals affiliated themselves with the new and eminently respectable organizations; consequently both the Grocers'Journal and the Grocer were early and ardent supporters of the Federation of Grocers' Associations and their local affiliates. The Drapers' Record promoted the Drapers' Chamber of Trade, while the Tobacco Trade Review supported the United Kingdom Tobacconists Alliance. Some journals catered specifically to the needs of a particular association within a trade; the National Association Review operated as the organ of the National Association of Master Bakers and Confectioners. All of these journals, and many others, carried both comprehensive accounts of the activities of the many local associations in their respective trades and, in even more detail, the deliberations of the executive and the subcommittee meetings of national organizations. It would not be an exaggeration to suggest that diligent research could recover documentation of virtually every meeting of an association representing the established principal traders and merchants. This wealth of material provides investigators with the resources to reconstruct associational life in precise detail. Indeed, the trick is both to avoid entanglement in the minutiae of daily activity and, notwithstanding the importance of associational activity, to ensure that the role of associations is not over-emphasized. The problem with trade journals' treatment of associational activity is not so much one of accuracy as it is one of emphasis. As journal proprietors gradually accepted trade associations as an integral part of business life and a source of news and information, so associational activity and interests began to predominate. In other words, the national agenda of trade debate was increasingly determined by the relatively few leaders of a particular trade. It is tempting to accept both the apparent unity of thought and purposefulness of action in trades because of the sheer weight of journal verbiage indicating that they existed. The hundreds of pages devoted to the deliberations of the committee struck by the Federation of Grocers' Associations to assess the problems attendant on the rise of proprietary articles would suggest that every grocer in the kingdom thought of nothing else for at least a decade.17 Is this appearance of trade homogeneity created by the journals illusory? Certainly individual journals papered over differences of opinion in their respective trades - but it

The Financial and Trade Press / 213 is important not to overlook the obvious. One of the most telling points, reflecting the primacy of journals within the business community, is that when trade unity was shattered and associational divisions emerged within trades in the late nineteenth century, the catalyst of this fragmentation was often the trade press. For example, when the Traders' Defence Associations launched their assault on the co-operative movement in 1902, and when small shopkeepers began to organize Protection Associations in 1908, only their 'organs' provided any semblance of national unity (the Trader and Consumer and the Shopkeeper respectively). It can be argued that, by 1900, journals were not only reporting but also directing the terms of many debates in the business community. Fortunately, and conveniently, trade journals also provide a corrective to the proceedings of national bodies. The comprehensive reports from local associations enable the investigator to get behind the rhetoric and determine the concerns of individuals and their associations. An examination of these accounts confirms the overriding parochialism of business life in Victorian England. To the twentieth-century reader many of the concerns expressed in associational meetings seem undeniably petty. Yet it is only when we consider the economic marginality of many of the participants that we understand that debates over early closing, Sunday shopping, the positioning of street lamps, the activities of hawkers, the noise and smell of the local market, and the condition of the roads, to name a few issues, could be of vital significance. In particular, these local accounts reinforce the notion that the reality of business life for the majority revolved around gaining a living profit.' Significantly, grocers, greengrocers, bakers, tobacconists, off-licence holders, butchers, and confectioners, again to name a few, all invested considerable effort attempting to fix prices, in order to eliminate some competition, and ensure themselves a livelihood. NEWSPAPERS AND TRADE SHEETS

Dates, changes of the title and owner, and longevity of trade sheets are uncertain, and complete runs non-existent. Hence, conclusions should be cautiously drawn. London and provincial newspapers began to pay more attention to financial and business matters in the late eighteenth century. Initially, this took the form of advertisements, lists of prices, shipping movements, and so on. But during the Napoleonic wars, interest in

214 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce economic issues in the letter pages, the public appetite for information, and the competition of the periodicals encouraged the appearance of reports on activities in the City. Parsons notes in The Power of the Financial Press that these first appeared in the Sunday papers, the Observer and the Englishman (23). In 1818, an evening paper, the Courier, followed suit, and when its editor, W.I. Clement, moved to the Morning Chronicle in 1821, he made this feature a daily item. The Times, the Morning Herald, and the others gradually adopted the practice, but it was not until the financial boom/bust cycle of 1824—5 that these became regular features.18 Thomas Alsager, financial editor of The Times, from 1817, introduced a column, 'Money, Market and City Intelligence,' that was a model of unbiased reporting. Francis Williams, 'The Times' on the Economy (1984) looks at some aspects of the paper's views. Advertisements, company reports, advice on the stock market, law decisions, and the effect of the parliamentary legislation became common items in all national and local newspapers. Information and summary sheets had been a feature of most markets for several hundred years but have been the least noted by historians. In the Victorian period, the increasing wealth and sophistication of the middle classes enlarged the readership. Many publications were simply lists of prices and appeared only irregularly: for example, Financial and Commercial Record (1834-6), the Colonist and Commercial Weekly Advertiser (1824-5), the British Hong Kong Tea Company's Monthly Circular to Grocers and Tea Dealers (1840), Prince's Price Current (1832-80), Universal Corn Report (18251900*), London Price Current (1822-8), Financial Record (1845-9), and Mincing Line Price Current (1842-51). Some were more ambitious. The London Mercantile Journal (later the New Mercantile Journal) began publishing on 4 January 1831 and managed to last, albeit with a number of name and price changes, to 1870. Published on Tuesdays by Charles Smith, it sought to give comprehensive coverage to all subjects of importance to commercial men. In this effort it predates other more famous newspapers like the Financial Times by over fifty years, although they, of course, were dailies. The ubiquitous Nicholson was less successful but did produce several that offered comment as well as statistics. Nicholson's Gazette and Grocer's Register of Useful Knowledge (1831-2), and Nicholson's Weekly Register of Useful Knowledge (1843), later the London Commercial Record (1844-1900*), covered a wide range of issues, from political reform to the gold standard, in a highly idiosyncratic way. The

The Financial and Trade Press / 215 Broker's Circular: Tea and Colonial Prices Current (1844-?), published by George Cummings, filled eight pages per Wednesday during the tea sales and four pages at other times. In terms of coverage, however, it belied its title by offering comment on topical subjects and by cribbing stories from other papers. The Shareholder (bi-weekly, Oct-Dec 1845) had some strong religious convictions and offered a gadfly approach to the ownership of shares. About 1860 the numbers of this sort of publication multiplied. The repeal of the stamp duty in 1855 had led to 'penny journalism' and a decrease in the amount of space in regular newspapers for commercial information. Coupled with technological advances, the telegraph for example, which increased both the speed of transmission and the volume of information available, the niche that could be occupied by the financial press widened. Some of the new breed appeared first in the provincial cities. Liverpool's Financial Reformer (1858-1900+), sold for threepence and had the motto 'Wise Economy and Just Taxation.' It had been created by a private body in the city, the Council of the Financial Reform Association. Another, travelling through several name changes, was the Liverpool Journal of Commerce, Daily Shipping, and Mercantile Advertiser (1861-1900*). It employed 'a notable mercantile lawyer' to write a column. Other cities boasted similar publications. In London, the Money Market Review: A Weekly Record of Trade and Finance (1860-1900+) was determined to be the best in the field. Seeking to prove that assertion, it ferociously attacked all competitors, including the 'politically motivated' Economist. The editor believed that conspiracies abounded and hinted at hidden deals between publishers and promoters to enhance certain companies. The Review's accusations were not without merit, because some papers did act more in the manner of race-track touts than impartial analysts. One documented instance of this practice, publicized by the Review, concerned the journal Financial Critic and Share Exchange. Frederick Mason, its publisher and editor, sent copies to companies offering himself as a stockbroker, with a between-the-lines promise of a puff for its shares in the Exchange. The Money Market Review, of course, pretended to be above such shenanigans. The Bullionist (1866-99), edited by Richard Evans, son of D. Morier Evans, the well-known writer on economic subjects, spent much of its space in its first few years on the ethics of the marketplace. It was taken over in 1887 by Richard's son, Arthur Evans, city editor of Vanity Fair. The number of such papers is too large to list in these pages, and some were very short-lived; note should be taken of the

216 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce Insurance Record (from 1863), the Investors' Guardian (1863-19004), the Financier (1870), the Manufacturers' Circular (1871), and to the modern eye the well-designed Capital and Investment (1873-1900*). In the 1880s the market widened again as the opportunities for investment, following the belated public acceptance of the limited liability/]oint stock form of company organization, became greater. The arrival of daily financial newspapers expanded the service hitherto provided by the weeklies. In addition to the change in frequency of publication, there was also a shift in the manner in which the news was reported, at least in comparison to the city columns of other dailies. This emphasis on 'an interesting presentation' was designed to increase circulation, which was intended to exceed advertisements as the main source of revenue. Harry Marks is usually credited with bringing this American "bounce' to Britain with his creation of the Financial News (from 1884) (Parsons, The Power of the Financial Press, 36-8). The Financial Times (1888-1900*), which began as the London Financial Guide, followed. New weeklies also appeared, one of the best being the Financial World: A Journal of Commerce, Finance and Kindred Subjects (1886-1900*). It cost only a penny and was written in a lively fashion. Its contention that it is the 'making of money not the having [which] is the fun' summed up its reporting of business and company activity. There were others, including the Financial Chronicle (1883-1900*), the Capitalist (1885-1900*), the Shipping World (1883-1900*), and the Financier (1890-1900"). Conclusion The financial and trade press is a valuable source that enables the historian to reconstruct and assess many aspects of the business world. The main drawback in pursuing research in this field remains one of information. The extensive research, both bibliographical and biographical, that has been done for the radical publications is missing for the financial press. Those listed above are only a fraction of the number published. Many titles were discovered by reading advertisements in the better-known journals, and the sample examined here clearly underrepresents the provincial press. In terms of time periods, the Napoleonic wars to 1860 is particularly ill served by modern bibliographies. Newspapers have received some attention, but, with few exceptions, even regular contributors to financial columns in the national dailies remain anonymous. The first task of any

The Financial and Trade Press / 217 historian entering this field is, then, to make a truly comprehensive and annotated list of publications. The second is the identification of the participants. Clearly, much work needs to be done, but it should prove fruitful. To persist and read these journals provides a great reward; through them we come as close as is possible to recapturing the spirit of nineteenth-century business life.

Notes 1 Martin J. Wiener, English Culture and the Decline of the Industrial Spirit, 1850-1980 (Harmondsworth 1985). 2 See Geoffrey Crossick, 'The Emergence of the Lower Middle Class in Britain: A Discussion,' in Crossick, ed, The Lower Middle Class in Britain (1977). 3 See, for example, Thornton Hall, Roads to Riches: The Romance of Money-Making (1909). 4 W. Parsons, The Power of the Financial Press (1989), 3. 5 For some words on the subject, see M.J. Daunton, 'Gentlemanly Capitalism and British Industry, 1820-1914,' Past and Present 122, (1989), 119-58; W.D. Rubenstein, 'The Victorian Middle Classes: Wealth, Occupations and Geography,' Economic History Review 30 (1977), 602-23; L. Davidoff and C. Hall, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780-1850 (1987); F. Crouzet, The First Industrialists: The Problems of Origins (Cambridge 1985). 6 G. Stedman Jones, Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History (Cambridge 1983), 21-2. 7 K. Heinzelman, The Economics of the Imagination (Amherst 1980) is an example of what can be done. Two recent articles point in the right direction but concentrate on the Minutes of Evidence given before parliamentary inquiries and neglect newspaper and periodical contributions: J. Smail, 'New Language for Labour and Capital: The Transformation of Discourse in the Early Years of the Revolution/ Social History 12 (1987) 49-71; and A Randall, 'New Languages or Old? Labour, Capital and Discourse in the Industrial Revolution,' Social History 15 (1990) 195-216. 8 G.A. Cranfield, The Press and Society: From Caxton to Northcliffe (1978). 9 See D.J. Moss, Thomas Attwood: The Biography of a Radical (Montreal 1990). 10 J.J. McCusker, 'The Business Press in England before 1775,' Library 8 (1986), 46. 11 W. Minchinton, 'Patterns of Demand, 1750-1914,' in C.M. Cipolla, ed, The Industrial Revolution (1973), 94-5. 12 C. Kindleberger, Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises (1978), 88-9.

218 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce 13 J. Brewer, 'Commercialisation and Politics/ in N. McKendrick et al, eds, The Birth of Consumer Society: The Commercialisation of Eighteenth Century England (1983), 217. 14 The most extreme example is probably the Small Trader and Shopkeeper: Hands Off the Little Man, published in 1915. 15 Thomas Budgett and Sons, Creditworthiness Ledgers, vols I-V. 16 Such virtues were the subject of numerous manuals, including Robert Kemp Philip, The Shopkeeper's Guide: Designed to Give Stability to the Interests of the Shopkeeper (1853) or anon, How to do Business: A Pocket Manual of Practical Affairs and Guide to Success (Glasgow 1883). 17 This committee was struck in 1900 in an attempt to secure a minimum profit of at least 12.5 per cent on each article sold (Grocers'Journal, 10 Feb 1900). 18 E.V. Morgan and W.A. Thomas, The Stock Exchange: Its History and Functions (1962), 165.

Advertising TERENCE NEVETT

Introduction: The Value of Advertising to the Researcher and Educator The value of advertisements as source material was for too long overlooked by scholars, and even today seems to be undervalued. In many areas of historical study, however, advertising has the ability to shed fresh light or to provide the researcher with a new perspective on a familiar problem. For the social historian, advertising offers reflections of society in a bygone age. As James P. Wood comments in The Story of Advertising (1958), 'In advertising can be seen the actuality of what people have been like in their day to day living through the centuries and what we are like now. There can be found few more accurate representations of a time and the people in it than the advertising amid which and, willy-nilly, by which they live' (v). Indeed, it has been argued by Richard Pollay in 'The Importance, and the Problems, of Writing the History of Advertising,' Journal of Advertising History 1 (1977), 3-5, that advertising holds the key to an understanding of the evolution of urban society. The kinds of products bought by various sections of the population, their tastes and consumption patterns, and the life-styles to which these products contributed - all become evident from the advertisement pages. Advertisements also enable the historian to trace patThe author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of David Linton and Gordon Phillips, both formerly archivists at the History of Advertising Trust, in writing this chapter.

220 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce terns of change. For example, as Virginia Berridge has shown in 'Content Analysis and Historical Research in Newspapers,' in Michael Harris and Alan Lee, eds, The Press in English Society from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries (1986), the advertising in Reynolds's Newspaper documents the improvement in working-class living standards in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The economic and business historian can find much that is relevant to Britain's industrial expansion in the nineteenth century. Machinery and equipment, supplies and services, transportation, investment opportunities, technical education, and recruitment are just some of the areas of activity recorded and illustrated in the advertising columns of newspapers with a predominantly business readership, and in the many trade and technical journals which were launched during the Victorian period. The evolving structure of British business is also apparent from announcements on behalf of joint-stock companies, the growing number of manufacturers who were advertising - especially those producing branded consumer products - and the shift in retail advertising away from the shopkeeper who helped prepare goods for sale, to the large-scale retailer who sold what had already been processed and prepared by the manufacturer. Implicit in all this is the role played by advertising in the development of competition, which has been explored by T.A.B. Corley in 'Competition and the Growth of Advertising in the U.S. and Britain, 1800-1914,' Business and Economic History second series 17 (1988), 155-67. The legal historian, too, can find material of interest among the advertisements. During the Victorian period there were important developments in the common law as leading cases involving advertisements were decided in areas as diverse as contract, libel, fraud, copyright, and lotteries. At the same time, Parliament was moved to legislate on matters related to betting, loans, and obscenity, prompted to act by advertising abuses. These developments can be fully understood only by reference to the original advertisements themselves. Advertising also figures prominently in the history of mass communications. The way in which advertisements were designed, written, and deployed shows how creative techniques were evolving in response to contemporary thinking about the effect of advertising on consumer behaviour, and its role in what today is called marketing. These points are discussed by Terence Nevett in 'The Early Development of Marketing Thought: Some Contributions from British Advertising,' Stanley Shapiro and A.H. Walle, eds, Marketing: Toward

Advertising/ 221 Broader Dimensions, Proceedings of the American Marketing Association Winter Educators Meeting (1988). Advertising is relevant in many other fields of research. Anything that was advertised in the Victorian period has left aspects of its history encapsulated in the pages of contemporary periodicals. The British diet, leisure activities, reading habits, medical and dental practices, politics, and education are just a few of the subject areas whose histories can be illuminated by reference to the kinds of claims made by advertisers at the time. Above all, however, advertising enables the scholar to follow the precept of the German historian Leopold von Ranke that the historian should 'feel himself ('einfuehlen') into a subject. The British temperament and the changing spirit of the age come vividly to life, for example, in advertisements seeking charitable donations to help widows of soldiers who died in the Crimean War, and, at the other extreme, in the blatant jingoism that characterized so much consumer advertising during the South African War. Advertisements do not present an idealized picture of life of the time, but life as it actually was, its seamy and seedy aspects exposed to full view along with the more mundane examples of businessmen trying to sell their products and services. This being said, a caveat is necessary. It is important for the researcher to be sure that any judgments based on advertising derive from a balanced sample of advertisements. This obvious point needs to be made because some selections of nineteenth-century advertising, such as Dick Sutphen's The Mad Old Ads, concentrate on what seems striking or absurd to the present-day reader rather than what is representative of the corpus of contemporary advertising. The researcher should also be aware that publications differed greatly in what categories of advertising and what kinds of claims they were prepared to accept. While many journals had no qualms about running thinly disguised advertisements for abortifacients and 'cures' for sexually transmitted diseases, a newspaper such as The Times was fastidious in the extreme about the advertising it allowed to appear in its columns, as is evident from correspondence in the manager's letter-books in The Times's archives. In addition to its value to the researcher, advertising constitutes a valuable resource for the educator. Rather than just reading about concepts and developments in textbooks, students see them brought to life in a form to which they are able to relate. Their own exposure to present-day advertising gives them a point of reference from which

222 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce they can gain a better understanding of the past. Concepts such as social values and the quality of life take on new meaning when they can be inferred from advertisements, and national trends assume greater immediacy when their impact on a local community can be seen from advertising in a local newspaper of the period. The ways that advertising can be integrated into the teaching of economic and business history in particular are discussed by Ian Keil in 'The Contribution of the Study of Advertisements to First Year Undergraduate Teaching,' Journal of Advertising History, 1 (1977), 6-9.

The Growth of Advertising 1837-1901 The reign of Victoria saw an enormous increase in the volume of advertising in Britain. Four years before her accession, the advertisement duty had been reduced from a flat rate of three shillings and sixpence per advertisement to one shilling and sixpence. In 1836 the stamp duty on newspapers was cut from fourpence to a penny, and the duty on paper from threepence per pound (weight) to three half pence. As may be seen from the Inland Revenue returns, this was followed by a considerable increase in newspaper advertising, which supports contemporary assertions that advertisers were responding to the high rate of duty by using other media on which it was not levied. After the abolition of the advertisement duty in 1853 and the stamp duty in 1855, the increase in volume was clearly enormous, though it can only be estimated in general terms since official figures were no longer kept. The Inland Revenue returns published in the House of Commons Accounts and Papers show the amount of duty collected and, from 1827, the number of advertisements upon which it was levied. Based on these returns, Nevett has estimated, in Advertising in Britain: A History (1982), that national expenditure on newspaper advertising increased from £160,960 in 1800 to £356,790 in 1837 and about £500,000 by mid-century. After the abolition of the taxes, there are clear indications of a surge in advertising activity. The removal of the stamp duty was followed by larger issues with more space allotted to advertisements. It also signalled the start of a dramatic expansion of newspaper and magazine publishing, as is clear from the number of new titles which appeared in the years following repeal (forty-seven new daily newspapers, for example, were established in the space of ten years) and in the enormous increases in individual circulations. In 1837 only The Times had a circulation greater than 10,000 copies

Advertising/223 per day. By 1864 the combined daily circulations of British daily newspapers was estimated at 687,000 and that of weeklies at 6,170,000, while the end of Victoria's reign saw both Lloyd's Weekly News and the Daily Mail claiming circulations of 1,000,000. There was a similar growth in magazine publishing. One of the effects of the stamp duty on newspapers had been to stimulate the growth of what today would be termed trade and professional journals. The upsurge in consumer magazine publishing, however, came in the second half of the century. The popular family journals Titbits and Answers were selling 900,000 copies per week in the 1880s and 1890s, while the number of women's magazine titles grew from four in 1846 to fifty by 1900. Taken overall, therefore, periodicals of the later Victorian period were providing the advertiser with a means of bringing nationally distributed products to the attention of the increasingly affluent British consumer in a faster and more effective manner than had previously been possible. The appearance of advertisements also underwent considerable changes. At the start of the period they were confined strictly within the column rules. The stamp duty, which was levied on each printed sheet of a newspaper, effectively limited an issue to four pages, a single sheet folded once. Although the duty on supplements that contained only advertising was halved in 1825, this was of benefit only to The Times, since it was the only paper that could attract sufficient advertisements to fill an extra sheet. The result was an increasing pressure of advertising on a fixed area of space, which led to such measures as reducing the size of type and increasing the number of columns per page. It also caused many newspapers to stop accepting advertisements with illustrations. The Manchester Guardian, which was founded in 1821, carried illustrations for the first ten years or so of its life, after which they disappeared from its pages until 1866. In instances where illustrations continued to appear, which was usually only in low-circulation country newspapers, they tended to be very small and mainly emblematic in character. Generally they were used to denote not a particular advertiser but a category of product or service such as shipping, railways, or horse racing. As such they were an aid to the reader, since advertisements were usually not grouped under classified headings. A notable exception was insurance companies, which made use of their own insignia. The creative breakthrough did not come until the last decade of the century, and was carried through by advertisers in the face of deter-

224 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce mined opposition from publishers. First came the use of headlines set in display type, breaking across the column rules that had constrained advertisers for more than a century. This was followed soon afterwards by what the editor of the Yorkshire Post referred to as 'that once intolerable monstrosity, the picture block.' Bibliography There is no published bibliography dealing exclusively with periodical advertising of the Victorian era. The History of Advertising Trust does have a select bibliography of British advertising history in its entirety, which was prepared by David Linton, formerly the Trust's archivist. Anyone interested should contact Michael Cudlipp, director of the Trust, at the address given in the following section. Archives The John Johnson Collection at the Bodleian Library, Oxford, is probably the finest collection of printed ephemera anywhere in the world, and contains many examples of advertisements culled from Victorian periodicals. The collection comprises millions of items filed under some seven hundred subject headings, a typewritten list of which is available from the Collection. While the researcher's attention will be attracted by specific headings such as 'Advertisers' and 'Advertisement Blanks,' examples of advertisements from Victorian periodicals are to be found collected under many subjects. Researchers are allowed direct access to the files. There are, however, two practical problems to be faced. First, few of the subject files have a detailed index; and second, the source and date of the advertisement are often not given. Nevertheless, this is a unique collection, and although much of the material contained in it is not taken from periodicals, it nevertheless provides valuable information on the context within which periodical advertising took place. The History of Advertising Trust, an educational charity, has little to offer the scholar whose interest is in periodical advertisements, since its object has been to collect business records rather than the advertisements themselves. Few of these appear to have survived, though the Trust does have some account ledgers and letter-books dating from the nineteenth century. At the time of writing, the Trust is recovering from a severe financial crisis. Its holdings are once again accessible to researchers, though arrangements to visit need to

Advertising / 225 be made in advance. It has moved out of London and is now located at Unit 6, The Raveningham Centre, Raveningham, Norwich, Norfolk NR14 6NU.

Two important commercial services should also be mentioned. The Robert Opie Collection at the Museum of Advertising and Packaging, Gloucester, has in excess of one million items including posters, show cards, leaflets, enamelled plaques, and particularly packaging, as well as advertisements. Opie himself also operates a picture library service in London. Half Brick Images, 154 Waller Road, London SE14, holds files on some fifty thousand original advertisements covering the period 1880-1980. It serves mainly large corporate clients such as Heinz, Mobil, and Gillette, supplying mostly examples of their own advertising which they have either lost or retained in poor-quality form. Half Brick keeps all its items in specimen bags, and supplies originals rather than transparencies.

Anthologies of Advertisements These offer a useful way to 'get a feel' for advertising of the period, though the reader should bear in mind the caveat stated earlier. The problem for those interested in periodical advertising is that the advertisements carried by periodicals tended to be visually uninteresting for most of the Victorian period. Collections of this kind, therefore, concentrate on the more sensational typeset advertisements, on later examples which carry illustrations, on advertising in other media such as posters, and on ephemera which have more visual interest. Nevertheless, several works are deserving of interest. The most comprehensive collection of advertising in Victorian periodicals is Leonard de Vries's Victorian Advertisements (1968), which draws upon more than fifty different publications. Although it includes only illustrated advertising and is biased toward the unusual, it has the great advantage of providing information on the source of every item included. The brevity of James Laver's accompanying text must be a source of regret. Diana and Geoffrey Hindley's Advertising in Victorian England 1837-1901 (1972), which will be discussed further in the following section, is also worth consulting. So too are Bryan Holme's Advertising: Reflections of a Century (1982), though it is concerned mainly with the post-Victorian period, and Bernard Darwin's The Dickens Advertiser (1930). The latter work takes the form of a witty commentary on the many examples collected by its author from the outer pages of Dickens' novels, in their original published form as

226 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce part-works. Advertisements are considered under broad categories such as 'Literature/ 'Smoking/ and 'Dress/ and are accompanied by many illustrated examples. Darwin constantly surprises the reader with his many insights into contemporary life and his encyclopaedic knowledge of Dickens. After reading this engaging work, no one could doubt the value of advertising as a source for the study of social history. In a different vein, Peter Hadley, ed, A History of Bovril Advertising (1970) shows the evolution of the appeals and creative approaches used to promote this popular consumer product, though only the early examples are relevant to the Victorian period.

Histories of Advertising These tend to be written with the general reader in mind, though some of them contain material which is of interest to the specialist researcher. The earliest work of this type was Henry Sampson's History of Advertising (1875). Sampson, by profession a sporting journalist, asserts that 'By the commencement of the present century, [advertising] matters were pretty well as we find them now.' For the scholar of the Victorian period, therefore, the only value of this rambling and long-winded collection of trivia is the occasional anecdote on the contemporary scene. Frank Presbrey's The History and Development of Advertising (1929) was really the trail-blazing work in this area and is still worth reading, though the attitudes and prejudices of the author (born in 1855) tend to be rather pronounced. It focuses very much on advertising in vacuo, rather than trying to relate it to contemporary economic or social developments. The author deals with such matters as printing technology, typography, and illustrations, though his judgments on some issues have been superseded by subsequent advances in historical knowledge. Chapter 13 contains an interesting comparison of English and American approaches to advertising at the end of the nineteenth century. James Playsted Wood's The Story of Advertising (1958) deals mainly with the United States, though it does have several chapters relating to British advertising in the nineteenth century. These are written on a very general level with few references, though they might be of some use as a basic introduction. Blanche B. Elliott's A History of English Advertising (1962) is another work of little value to the researcher. Its approach is anti-

Advertising/227 quarian rather than historical, and the author's touch is unsure when she ventures into the realms of the advertising business. The chapters on the nineteenth century quote at length from Daniel Stuart and from articles in the London Magazine and Quarterly Review, amid discusions on such topics as bleeding by barbers. The most useful chapter is that dealing with the growth of Britain's trade press in the second half of the century. Though there is some attempt to set this in historical context, more attention is paid to the editorial content of the journals than to the advertising they carried. E.S. Turner's The Shocking History of Advertising was originally published in 1952 and issued in a revised version in 1965. Far from being the kind of book that its title implies, it is an entertainingly written introduction to the history of advertising from the seventeenth century onwards, and is presented with an essentially balanced perspective. The main focus of the book is on England, though there are chapters outlining parallel developments in the United States. Since it is written for the general reader, there are few footnotes and no references, which makes it of limited value to the researcher. In a note to the revised addition, Turner acknowledges his indebtedness to the articles on advertising which appeared in the Edinburgh Review (1834) and the Quarterly Review (1855). The chapters on the nineteenth century are worth reading not least for Turner's witty and erudite prose. Diana and Geoffrey Hindley's Advertising in Victorian England 1837-1901 (1972) is really a coffee-table book, whose interest lies more in its illustrations than its text. The authors offer a sketch of the period concentrating on the unusual rather than trying to present a balanced overview. Their chapter on advertising media begins, for example, with the use of professional lecturers. They state that most of their material comes from short articles in contemporary publications, but they do not include references. W. Hamish Eraser's The Coming of the Mass Market 1850-1914 (1981) is not actually a work of advertising history, but is included in this section because the chapter dealing with advertising provides an excellent overview of promotional activity in the second half of the century. The book is also particularly valuable for the insights it offers into the social and economic environment in which the development of advertising took place. The major part of Nevett's Advertising in Britain: A History (1982) concentrates on the nineteenth century, when the author believes that modern advertising took shape. It differs from other histories in

228 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce that it makes greater use of original sources, including government, press, and advertising agency records. It also pays far greater attention to the environment in which advertising took place, dealing not only with economic and business influences, but also the mounting opposition to advertising among the upper and upper-middle classes, and the legal constraints which were imposed as a result. Thomas Richards' The Commodity Culture of Victorian England (1990) is a work of interpretation rather than history, and approaches advertising from a Marxist perspective. According to Richards, 'the advertising industry organized a proliferation of commodity narratives into a stable semiotic canopy for capitalist society, bestowing on this integrated universe an ontological status independent of human activity/ He also believes that advertising 'sucked consumers, especially women, into the vortex of the master-slave dialectic.' Even if readers accept this view, unsupported generalizations and factual inaccuracies oblige them to approach the book with caution. It must also be said that the author's oppressively florid style tends to become rather tedious.

Advertising Agency Publications The press directories published by various firms of advertising agents often contain articles on contemporary advertising issues such as contract and the law of libel. The kind of information they carry about newspapers also indicates the factors taken into account by advertisers when selecting the most suitable media for their campaigns. The political stance of a journal, for instance, appears to have been an important influence on selection. The accompanying text is generally of most interest in Mitchell's and in Sell's. Other publications of this type include NPD: Deacon's, Newton and Company's Newspaper Gazetteer and Guide to Advertisers (1886), Lewis and Lowe's Advertiser's Guide to the Newspaper Press of the United Kingdom (1844), and NPD: May's. These are all available at the British Library Newspaper Library, Colindale, except for Lewis and Lowe, which is held by the John Johnson Collection. A detailed description of these publications, together with a list of minor directories, is to be found in Linton's 'Mitchells, Mays and Sells: Newspaper Directories of the Victorian Era,' Journal of Newspaper and Periodical History 3:2 (Spring 1987), 20-8. Other advertising agencies published what were in effect house

Advertising/229 journals, which discussed the kinds of problems arising in relations between agencies, their clients, and media, and provided clients and potential clients with tips on how to advertise successfully. Thomas Smith's Successful Advertising was published annually from 1879, though the earliest known surviving copy dates from 1885. Thomas Browne's The Advertiser's ABC was first published in 1886 and was to continue until the 1930s. Surviving copies of the Advertiser's Guardian edited by Louis Collins and published by Thomas Dixon date from 1885 and 1887-8, Dixon editing issues dated 1900 and 1902. Moody's Printing Works, Birmingham, also had an interest in advertising and issued An Advertiser's Guide to Publicity (1887); only one copy is known to have survived, so it is not known if this was intended as a serial publication. Contemporary Works on Advertising Books by contemporary advertisers are useful in gaining an idea of their perceptions of the subject. In Advertising: How? When? Where? (1863), William Smith gives a number of examples of successful campaigns, and is particularly interesting in his description of how advertisers of the period tried to assess the effectiveness of their advertising. Much of this work, however, concerns media other than periodicals. It must also be added that the author's perspective is that of a theatre manager, which may well not be representative of advertisers generally. 'An Addict of Thirty-Five Years' Experience' is the pseudonym of Donald Nicoll, a successful clothing retailer. His Publicity - An essay with Ancient and Modern Instances (1875) is disappointing for the extent to which the author allows himself to digress into unrelated fields. It is interesting to note, however, that a copy of his work belonged to Thomas Barratt, the pioneer advertiser and chairman of Pears' Soap. Further light is shed on aspects of the advertising business by 'An Advertiser' in A Guide to Advertisers (1851), and by William Stead Jr in The Art of Advertising: Its Theory and Practice Fully Described (1899). The latter work is of interest for the author's comments on the use of the Royal family in advertising; rather than condemning the widespread unauthorized exploitation that was being practised, he marvels at the amount of free publicity that was being obtained. For a contemporary overview of the advertising scene, the reader

230 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce is referred to the articles on advertising in J.R. McCulloch's Dictionary of Commerce (1834,1852), and to the chapter on 'Advertisements' in volume V of Charles Knight's London (1843). Contemporary Journals Articles on various aspects of advertising appeared throughout the period, though they are often not relevant to the researcher whose interest lies in the field of periodicals. For example, there was considerable discussion of the effects of the stamp and advertising duties during the period that they were enforced, and of such topics as the structure of the press, journalistic standards, and advertising in other media such as posters. Comments on contemporary periodical advertising are to be found in 'The Advertising System,' Edinburgh Review 77 (Feb 1843), 1-13, and 'Advertisements,' Quarterly Review 97 (June 1855), 335-50, both of which are drawn upon heavily by writers of advertising histories including Henry Sampson. Other frequently quoted sources are the two articles by Daniel Stuart in Gentleman's Magazine, 'Anecdotes of Coleridge and of London Newspapers' (July 1838) and 'Anecdotes of Mr. Coleridge the Poet' (Aug 1838). Stuart discusses the importance of advertising to newspapers, and the way publishers used advertising to attract circulation. Although he recounts events earlier in the century, it seems probable that conditions were similar at the time he was writing. As expenditure on advertising increased, it began to impinge to an ever greater extent upon people's lives. Critics responded, but in the Victorian period tended to concentrate on specific abuses. These might be particular categories of advertisement, or intrusive or disfiguring media, notably posters and billboards. An exception is to be found in the attack launched on what were seen as the undesirable effects of advertising generally in 'The Grand Force,' Fraser's Magazine 79 (March 1869), 380-3. It was perhaps inevitable that confidence tricksters, swindlers, and cheats of every description should see the advertisement columns of periodicals as a convenient vehicle for extracting money from unwitting victims. These and other abuses are catalogued in the Circular which was issued monthly by the Provincial Newspaper Society from 1873. (The Society dropped 'Provincial' from its title in August 1889.) The publication was sent on a confidential basis to the Society's members. The only known run of the Circular is held by St Bride's

Advertising / 231 Printing Library in London, but is incomplete as a result of bomb damage to the Newspaper Society's offices during the Second World War. Other Contemporary Sources Advertising was not a theme that attracted Victorian novelists, though Trollope exposes the shady promotional practices of retailers in The Struggles of Brown, Jones, and Robinson (1861), and the character of advertising agent Luckworth Crewe appears in Gissing's In the Year of Jubilee (1894). Dickens wrote a satirical attack on the promotional practices of the patent medicine trade in 'The Methuselah Pill' (Household Words, 8 Oct 1850). H.G. Wells's Tono-Bungay, which developed this theme, did not appear until 1909. Although advertising agents and businessmen clearly took the business of advertising very seriously, the general public seems to have found it a source of considerable amusement. Gilbert took aim at it in the first of the Savoy Operas, The Sorcerer, and subsequently in The Mikado, The Gondoliers, and Ruddigore. Music-hall songs also poke fun at current advertising, though with the exception of Herbert Tucker's Advertisements (1890), they tend to concentrate more on posters than on periodical advertising. It is perhaps here, rather than in the pages of elite journals, that the researcher can best gain a feel for the impact of advertising upon the mass of Victorian society. Company History This represents an unrewarding route, since company histories typically pay relatively little attention to advertising and rarely refer specifically to periodicals. The researcher interested in the promotional activities of particular companies is referred to Francis Goodall's Bibliography of British Business History (1987). Histories dealing with advertising agencies and publishers are of far greater relevance. Stanley Pigott's OBM 125 Years (1975) has interesting material on the early years of what was at that time called the Mather and Crowther advertising agency. The dilemma that existed for publishers in terms of needing advertising revenue but wanting to keep a tight rein on advertisers is apparent from The History of 'The Times' (vol II1939, vol III 1947), and from D. Ayerst's 'Guardian' - Biography of a Newspaper (1971).

232 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce Biography and Autobiography Works of this type help to demonstrate the considerable impact of a few important individuals on the course of advertising history. The article on Thomas Holloway in the DNB shows how advertising helped him amass a considerable fortune from the sale of patented medicines. Nevett's 'Thomas Barratt and the Development of British Advertising/ International Journal of Advertising 7:3 (1988) 267-76, discusses Barratt's innovative approach to the advertising of Pears' soap. (See also the same author's entry on Barratt in the Dictionary of Business Biography.) Another major advertiser of the Victorian period was John Morgan Richards, an American who settled in London. His autobiography, With John Bull and Jonathan (1905), contains interesting material on advertising practices of the period, and compares British practices with those of the United States. Richards was in the forefront of the movement to force British publishers to grant advertisers greater creative freedom. The important role of the advertising agent in the last decade of the nineteenth century may be seen from the entry on Samuel Herbert Benson in the Dictionary of Business Biography. An advertising agent's own view of developments of the last quarter of the century is presented by Thomas Smith in Twenty-One Years in Fleet Street (1899). When Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe) burst upon the scene at the end of the Victorian period, he had a considerable impact on relations between publishers and advertisers. While on the one hand he bowed to pressure from advertisers by introducing audited circulation figures, he also exercised rigid censorship on both the copy and design elements of advertisements appearing in his Daily Mail. His meteoric career is traced in Reginald Pound and Geoffrey Harmsworth's Northcliffe (1959), Paul Ferris's rather less reverent The House of Northcliffe (1971), and Richard Bourne's The Lords of Fleet Street: The Harmsworth Dynasty (1990).

Legal Texts Advertising during the Victorian period was a developing art. As new skills were developed and new techniques became available, advertisers were testing the limits of public tolerance. Inevitably, therefore, some advertisements were bound to end up in court. These cases cast light on attitudes toward the rights and duties of advertisers gen-

Advertising/233 erally, and do much to explain the character of the advertising to be found in the columns of Victorian periodicals. For example, Clark v Freeman (1848) and Dockrell v Dougall (1899), in both of which the plaintiff was unsuccessful, concern patent medicine advertisers making unauthorized use of medical practitioners' names to promote their products, while Carlill v The Carbolic Smoke Ball Company (1892) shows how advertisers offered 'rewards' to the public with no intention of honouring them. A great deal of information on cases of the period is to be found in Thomas Artemus Jones's The Law of Advertisements (1906). Richard Lawson's Advertising Law (1978) provides a detailed discussion of the legal issues involved, while John Braun presents amusing accounts of several leading cases in Advertisements in Court (1965).

Articles and Proceedings As mentioned earlier, little attention has been paid by academic researchers to advertising appearing specifically in Victorian periodicals. The business rationale behind an advertiser's selection of particular media is dealt with by Nevett in 'Media Planning Criteria in Nineteenth Century Britain,' in Stanley C. Hollander and Terence Nevett, eds, Marketing in the Long Run, Proceedings of the Second International Workshop in Historical Research in Marketing, Michigan State University (1985), which can be read in conjunction with A.P. Wadsworth's 'Newspaper Circulations 1800-1954,' Proceedings of the Manchester Statistical Society (9 March 1954). A useful survey of retail advertising in country newspapers is provided by Beverly Tudor, 'Retail Trade Advertising in the Leicester Journal and Leicester Chronicle 1855-71,' Journal of Advertising History 9:2 (1986), 41-56. Any assessment of magazine and part-work advertising is made especially difficult by the fact that much of it was carried in outer pages which the reader tore off and discarded. This problem is discussed by Edward S. Lauterbach, 'Victorian Advertising and Magazine Stripping,' VS 10 (June 1967), 431-4.

'Puffing' In conclusion, the researcher should be aware that it is not always possible to determine precisely what constitutes an advertisement. Throughout the Victorian period there are instances to be found in

234 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce many periodicals of what appears to be editorial matter, but which alludes to a particular company or product in suspiciously laudatory terms. Careful examination might reveal the letters 'Adv't' set in small italic type and obviously positioned so as to be inconspicuous. Such items are, in fact, advertisements published under the guise of editorial matter. They were offered by many publishers as an alternative to the more normal type of advertisement, and were charged at higher rates. In other instances, powerful advertisers might insist that publishers insert 'editorial' paragraphs (which they often wrote themselves) as a quid pro quo for an advertising order. The value of the editorial imprimatur was understood well before Victoria's accession, the tactics of publicity seekers having been excoriated by Macaulay in *Mr. Robert Montgomery's Poems and the Modern Practice of Puffing,' Edinburgh Review 51 (April 1830) 193210. An amusing satirical account of the situation at the start of the period is found in 'A Paper on Puffing,' Ainsworth's Magazine 2 (1842), 42-7, while a newspaper editor's perspective at the turn of the century is given by H.J. Palmer in 'The March of the Advertiser,' Nineteenth Century 41 (Jan 1897) 135-41. A discussion of the extent to which such activities affected the freedom of the press is provided by Nevett in 'Advertising and Editorial Integrity in the Nineteenth Century,' in Michael Harris and Alan Lee, eds, The Press in English Society from the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries (1986).

Conclusion Study of the history of advertising is important, then, from many different aspects. It supplies research material for economic, business, and legal historians. It charts changes in public taste and in the types of products offered for sale, and suggests shifting consumer patterns. It also documents improvement in general living standards. It provides material for a history of communication and cuts across many other fields of research, such as diet, use of leisure, patent medicines, and dental practices. From this study the investigator gains not an idealized picture of life, but an actual and practical sense of the pulse of everyday existence in Victorian times.

Agriculture BERNARD A. COOK

By 1800 the dominance of agriculture in the British economy had been challenged by manufacture and trade. Agriculture, nevertheless, still produced approximately a third of the British national income and, as late as 1851, 1,788,000 men and 229,000 women, 21.5 per cent of the work force, were employed in agriculture. Agriculture was still an indispensable component both of the economy and national life. Before the middle of the nineteenth century, transportation deficiencies and cost made domestic production the main source of Britain's food. Ninety per cent of Britain's food was still produced in the United Kingdom in the 1830s. The structure of agriculture during the Victorian era was rooted in developments which pre-dated the Industrial Revolution. Parliamentary Enclosure had promoted the concentration of land in large holdings and led to the demise of the semi-independent smallholders. By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, 4,000 people owned over half the land in England and Wales. If Scotland and Ireland are included, concentration of land in the hands of a few was even more pronounced: 1,200 individuals owned a fourth of all the land in the United Kingdom. This land was, in turn, rented in fairly large units to tenant farmers. Nineteenth-century Britain was unique in Europe in its lack, except in peripheral areas, of a peasantry. The average size of a farm rented by a farmer in nineteenth-century Britain was 110 acres. These tenants, whose status required a certain amount of capital, were commercial agriculturalists, who hired labourers and produced for Britain's growing urban market. The minor proprietors, described by Emily Bronte in Wuthering Heights (1847), were, apart from Wales, limited to the dairying parts of Lancashire, Cheshire, and North Yorkshire, and the sheep grazing parts of Cumbria.

236 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce The labourers, who actually tilled the land, were reduced by enclosure to a complete dependence upon wages. At the same time, the production of grain rendered year-round employees superfluous to the hiring farmers. These employers replaced yearly contracts with weekly, daily, and even hourly contracts. When it rained, workers often went without work and without pay. The conditions of the agricultural workers and their dependants, as a result, declined between 1750 and 1850. They subsisted principally on bread and potatoes. The produce of cottage gardens and the employment provided for the whole family at harvest time were indispensable elements of their livelihood. During the slack period of winter, they were often at the mercy of the Poor Law. Threshing, however, did offer an additional source of income, and the rage of the workers at the introduction of mechanical threshers is an indication of their desperation. After 1815, prices, driven by domestic demand, which generally exceeded British production, were higher than they had been before 1795. Farmers, however, regretted the disappearance of the abnormally high prices caused by the wars with France. Encouraged by those exceptional prices, farmers had overextended themselves by borrowing to expand their operations and by renting marginal land at inflationary rates. In response to the threat of competition from imports, the landed interests used their control of Parliament to enact the protectionist Corn Laws of 1815-46, which kept food prices, and, as a result, rents high. The productivity of British agriculture after 1830 increased markedly through the systematic utilization of the best of traditional techniques and a broader use of nitrogen-fixing crops in rotation to regenerate the soil. Innovations were promoted by the Royal Agricultural Society, founded in 1838, and the experimental station established at Rothamsted in 1843. Underdraining, which was increasingly utilized from the 1820s, was made more feasible after 1843 when clay drainage pipes were introduced. Commercial fertilizers, too, were used with greater frequency with the importation of guano from Peru in the 1840s and the introduction of super-phosphates in 1842. Though the threshing machine had been invented at the end of the eighteenth century, there was little mechanization of British agriculture before the middle of the nineteenth century. Then, the decrease in the relative economic strength and political power of the agriculturalists, and technological improvements which cheapened the cost of agricultural imports, stimulated change. Mechanization was used to cut costs, first to offset rising rents and then, increasingly, to

Agriculture / 237 counter foreign imports. In 1870, 80 per cent of the British grain harvest was threshed by machines. At the end of the nineteenth century, the bulk of British grain was harvested by self-binding reaping machines. The change in the economic and political strength of agriculture was manifested in the 1846 repeal of the Corn Laws. The proportion of gross national income produced by British agriculture had declined from a third to a fifth. Landowners, who were burdened with debts, and tenants, who had assumed excessive rents, found it difficult to invest in improved techniques to counter the new competition. The new law that went into effect in 1849 set the tariff on grain at a shilling a quarter. The coming of more or less free trade was heralded and followed by bad harvests in 1848, 1850, 1852, and 1853. This temporary crisis, however, gave way to a twenty-year-long respite, a 'golden age' of British agriculture known as the era of 'high farming.' During this 'golden age,' a number of external and internal factors intervened to prop up and stabilize British grain prices for a generation. The discovery of gold in California stimulated a general rise in prices. The Crimean War and the American Civil War interrupted imports from Russia and the United States. The income of British workers tended to rise after the middle of the century, thus increasing their demand. Land was also increasingly shifted from grain production to pasturage and the growth of fodder crops. These developments simultaneously increased the supply of meat and eased the pressure on wheat prices. Despite the prosperity of agriculture during this period, there was little improvement in the conditions of agricultural labourers. In the industrial north, however, the higher wages paid to industrial workers had an impact upon the countryside. Farmers there were forced to pay their workers better if they were not to be lost to the towns. Nevertheless, in the 1850s the average weekly wage for an adult male agricultural worker in Britain, though it was augmented by some payments in kind, was only 11 shillings. Women were paid from sixpence to a shilling a day. Children made around a shilling a week. The tidiness of nineteenth-century British farms has been attributed to the labour of underpaid children. The employment of children under eight on farms was outlawed in 1873, but casual employment of children endured until the end on the century. Women, who had been earlier hired in the north of England and in Wales as permanent land workers and who had been recruited for help during the busy seasons, after 1880 generally only performed

238 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce seasonal work. They, however, continued to work at handicrafts, in the garden, and with the animals owned by their own household. George Eliot's Mrs Poyser in Adam Bede (1859) exemplifies the essential role played by women in the rural economy. In 1872, Joseph Arch organized a short-lived union, the National Agricultural Labourers' Union, which brought about an improvement in wages. Though the union rapidly disintegrated, the internal and external migration of agricultural labour, which tended to create a shortage of labour, prevented wages from shrinking to their pre-union level. The twenty-year period of agricultural prosperity gave way to a disastrous agricultural depression in the 1870s. A combination of bad weather and a flood of cheap imports devastated British agriculture. With improvements in transportation, grain grown on the temperate plains of North America and Argentina could be sold more cheaply in Britain than home-grown wheat. British agriculture, despite some shift toward cattle, was severely handicapped because of its concentration upon wheat, and trade-dependent industrial Britain could not and would not resort to protectionism. There was a dramatic contraction of land devoted to grain. From a peak of 9.6 million acres in 1872, tilled acres declined to 6.5 million by 1913. Symptomatic of this change was the decline by 1901 in the number of agricultural labourers to only 600,000. A further shift occurred to the still lucrative production of meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables. The acres devoted to pasturage increased from 17.1 million in 1872 to 21.5 in 1913. The change was dramatic and painful for many, but, by the end of the Victorian era, British agriculture, though altered, was moderately stable and profitable.

Bibliographical Tools The principal bibliographical source on British agriculture in the nineteenth century is F.A. Buttress, Agricultural Periodicals of the British Isles, 1681-1900, and Their Location (1950). Buttress includes approximately four hundred titles, but his listing is far from complete. In his sixteen-page booklet, he includes only periodicals dealing explicitly with agriculture or farming, and thus excludes many related periodicals that contain articles on British agriculture, such as those dealing with botany, economics, forestry, gardening, horticulture, and veterinary science. He also omitted herd, flock, and stud books. Agricultural Periodicals is merely a list of periodicals and

Agriculture / 239 locations without annotation, and, though a research resource, is available on inter-library loan. It can be found at Emory, Duke, Stephen F. Austin, UCLA, Berkeley, and the University of Arizona. A useful supplement, though its coverage is limited to the end of the nineteenth century, is The Experimental Station Record, 1889-1922 (1890-1922). Although this deals primarily with the reports of agricultural stations in the United States, under the category 'Foreign Investigations' are included abstracts from British periodicals. There are subject and author indexes. It is available at the University of Arizona, Auburn, Howard, Trinity University of Texas, and UCLA. The British Year Book of Agriculture and Agricultural Who's Who (1908/9-191^14) (World List of Scientific Periodicals 3591) provides much useful information on agricultural societies, many of which published proceedings and newsletters. This source can be found at the Library of Congress, Smith, Tufts, Cornell, and Michigan. Botanical Periodicals in London Libraries (1954) lists the location of 417 periodicals, many of which contain material of interest to scholars researching Victorian agriculture. G.E. Fussell, 'Early Farming Journals,' Economic History Review 3 (1932), 417-22, surveys earlier periodical literature but does deal with the Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society, published intermittently by the Society from 1799, Arthur Young's Annals of Agriculture, which was published from 1784 until 1808, and the new Farmers'Magazine of Scotland, which ceased publication in 1810. Pertinent to the Victorian era is Nicholas Goddard, 'The Development and Influence of Agricultural Periodicals and Newspapers, 1780-1880,' Agricultural History Review 31 (1983), 16-32. Goddard provides an extended discussion of the periodicals. A general bibliography of British labour periodicals is provided by Jacqueline Brophy, 'Bibliography of British Labor and Radical Journals, 1880-1914,' Labor History 3 (1962), 103-26. In her list are several periodicals that contain material on agricultural labourers or the land question.

A Select Bibliography of Secondary Sources Lord Ernie, English Farming Past and Present (6th ed 1961), first published in 1912, provided the basis for the treatment of British agriculture in general histories for fifty years. It has been superseded by J.D. Chambers and Gordon E. Mingay, The Agricultural Revol-

240 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce ution 1750-1880 (1966). This is the standard work on British agriculture. It favours the rationalization of agriculture and stresses the contribution of agriculture to British economic development. An alternate perspective is provided by Eric J. Hobsbawm in his Industry and Empire (1969). Hobsbawm, in this general history of the British economy from 1750 to 1960, has two chapters which skilfully sum up the changes occurring in British agriculture during this period. Hobsbawm, a Marxist historian, is critical of the impact of capitalist agriculture upon the smallholders and agricultural labour. The modernizing approach of Mingay seems to dominate the general field of agricultural history. A brief reappraisal of key questions in the history of nineteenth-century British agriculture, which follows this approach, is provided by E.L. Jones in his The Development of English Agriculture, 1815-1873 (1968 repr 1982). According to Jones, the conditions of the agricultural labourers improved noticeably from the 1850s. He admits, however, that the improvements consisted of allotment gardens, better cottages on the larger estates, village schools, and cottage hospitals, rather than in spending power. In his opinion, the agricultural labour movement was inspired by rising expectations. A more thorough history of British agricultural practice and policy in the late nineteenth century is Christabel S. Orwin and Edith H. Whetham, The History of British Agriculture 1846-1914 (1964). The application of science to agriculture is thoroughly covered in E. John Russell, A History of Agricultural Science in Great Britain, 16201954 (1966). Specific treatment is given of the Royal Agricultural Society of England and the Rothamsted Experimental Station. A very competent study of the dynamics of the nineteenth-century estate is D. Spring, The English Landed Estate in the Nineteenth Century: Its Administration (Baltimore 1963). Historians have increasingly turned their attention first to the history of agricultural labourers and then to a broader social history of the country folk. A pioneering work is Wilhelm Hasbach, A History of the English Agricultural Labourer (1908; repr 1966). This work, which was intended to trace the development of a rural proletariat, was published first in German in 1894. Hasbach was sympathetic to smallholders and critical of the modernization of British agriculture. Because of this, he is suspect to many recent historians, who are generally proponents of economic rationalization. Another classic, though now dated, study of the plight of the farmworkers is J.L. and

Agriculture / 241 Barbara Hammond, The Village Labourer 1760-1832 (1911; repr 1966). The Hammonds project a very negative view of the process of agricultural rationalization. They describe enclosure as fatal to the small farmer, the cottager, and the squatter. For a critique, see J.V. Beckett's 'The Disappearance of the Cottager and the Squatter from the English Countryside: The Hammonds Revisited,' in the Festschrift for Gordon Mingay, Land, Labour and Agriculture, 1700-1920, edited by B.A. Holderness and Michael Turner (1991). The older view of the dismal lives of the farm workers is supported by George Eliot. The daughter of a Warwickshire land agent and farmer, she was born at South Farm, Arbury in 1819 and lived in the country until 1849. Based on her own experience, she gave a realistic presentation of the life of rural working people in her novel Silas Marner (1861). Specific disturbances and farm worker leaders have received attention from sympathetic historians. Eric Hobsbawm and George Rude, Captain Swing: A Social History of the Great English Agricultural Uprising of 1830 (New York 1968), is the classic study of the agricultural uprising of 1830 by two eminent social historians. Joseph Arch, the organizer of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union, wrote an autobiography, The Story of His Life Told by Himself (1898), and he received sympathetic treatment from Pamela Horn in her Joseph Arch (Kineton 1971). Horn has two other broader studies, both of which are excellent, Labouring Life in the Victorian Countryside (Dublin 1976), and Life and Labour in Rural England, 1760-1850 (1987). Another important book by Horn is her Life and Labour in Rural England, 1760-1850 (1987). In this study of the transformation of British rural society, Horn draws on contemporary literature to illuminate the conditions and perspectives of this period. Her book thus provides a catalog of nineteenth-century British literary works which provide insight on agricultural society. Another redoubtable champion of farmworkers, Joseph Ashby, is described with understandable sympathy by M.K. Ashby, Joseph Ashby of Tysoe 1859-1919, A Study of English Village Life (Cambridge 1961). Raphael Samuel, the editor of Village Life and Labour (1975), assembles a number of solid studies that continue the earlier critical tradition while utilizing the best in contemporary scholarship. Other works in this vein are D.H. Morgan, Harvesters and Harvesting, 1840-1900: A Study of the Rural Proletariat (1982); and K.D.M. Snell, Annals of the Labouring Poor: Social Change and Agrarian England, 1660-1900 (Cambridge 1985).

242 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce Social history is not the uncontested domain of the left. G.E. Mingay, one of the pre-eminent scholars in the field of British agriculture, in Rural Life in Victorian England (1976), surveys the entire gamut of the rural population, the landowners, farmers, farmworkers, land agents, professionals, and tradesmen. The book has an index and an ample bibliography of secondary sources. It is complemented by Mingay's more recent A Social History of the English Countryside (1990). A comprehensive study drawing on the latest research is provided by Alan Armstrong, Farmworkers in England and Wales: A Social and Economic History, 1770-1980 (Ames, Iowa 1988). Armstrong, in contrast to older studies and socialist scholarship, stresses the improvement in the material life of farmworkers during the past two centuries and their community of interests with their employers. B.A. Holderness and Michael Turner, in Land, Labour and Agriculture 1700-1920 (1991), provide a sample of some of the most recent scholarship. They include a chapter by Nicholas Goddard, 'Information and Innovation in Early-Victorian Farming Systems/ which deals with agricultural societies and their journals. Also see Goddard's 'Agricultural Societies' in G.E. Mingay, ed, The Victorian Countryside, vol I (1981).

Select Annotated List of British Agricultural Periodicals J.C. Morton estimated in the 15 November 1873 Agricultural Gazette that the total of subscribers to agricultural journals in the United Kingdom was around 25,000 out of a potential market of 120,000. This number of potential purchasers was broken down into 50,000 tenant farmers in England renting over one hundred acres, 30,000 English landowners, and 10,000 farm bailiffs in England and Wales. The remainder of the potential market came from Scotland and Ireland. According to Nicholas Goddard, these figures mean that the majority of agriculturists in the United Kingdom never encountered an agricultural journal. He asserts, however, that the impact of these journals was significant, since half of the substantial tenants and landowners, the agents of change, did read them. In addition, according to Goddard, a threefold multiplier should be applied to sales figures to arrive at an approximation of the total readership of the agricultural journals. Agricultural and Industrial Magazine 1-2 (1 Oct 1834-1 Dec 1836).

Agriculture / 243 Published by James Cochrane and Co. Fortnightly publication of the Society for the Encouragement of Domestic Industry, and for Promoting Effectual Relief from the General Distress, headed by a committee of twenty-one members of Parliament. It featured essays on agriculture, many of which describe economic distress. Location: University of Minnesota Agricultural Economist and Horticultural Review (1870-1900+). The journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Co-operative Association, founded by E.G. Greening. An illustrated journal of agriculture, horticulture, and farming, it provided instructions on the latest agricultural techniques. It also campaigned against adulterated fertilizers and feed. WL 270 Agricultural Gazette (1844-1900+). An important agricultural newspaper, which disseminated agricultural innovations. At first an addition to the Gardener's Chronicle, the Agricultural Gazette was published separately after 1873. It was founded by Charles Wentworth Dilke and edited by J.C. Morton until 1888. Locations: Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Purdue University, University of Massachusetts (Amherst), Michigan State University, and the British Library Agricultural Magazine and Journal of Scientific Farming (March 1845-Dec 1846). Articles, essays and correspondence on agriculture. Then Agricultural Magazine and Farmers'Journal (Jan 1847-June 1847), then Agricultural Magazine and Plough (July 1847-Dec 1847; Jan 1851-April 1851), then Agricultural Magazine, Plough, and Farmer's Journal (May 1851-Aug 1859). Location: British Library, £7C410 Agricultural Returns: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Great Britain (1866-1900+). WL Agricultural Students' Gazette (1875-8; ns 1-19, 1882-1900+). Quarterly of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. WL 313 Ayrshire Agriculturist (29 Sept 1843-16 Dec 1848). Ayr. Then North British Agriculturist (3 Jan 1849-1900+). One of the most influential agricultural newspapers. Location: British Library. Bell's Weekly Messenger (1796-1896), then Country Sport (18961900+). Bell's Weekly Messenger reproduced reports on agricultural improvement and innovation, and listed market prices of agricultural

244 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce products. Bell's is a very important journal. Although it experienced a decline in readership with the advent of competing journals, it had the widest readership of any British agricultural journal until 1870. According to Nicholas Goddard, its weekly sales in 1850 amounted to 13,530, and, in 1869-70, to 5,230. He translates this level of sales to a weekly readership of between 50,000 and 60,000. During the same periods the weekly sales for the Mark Lane Express was 4,730 and 4,150, and for the Gardener's Chronicle 6,500 and 2,690. Locations: Library of Congress, Northern Illinois University, Duke University, British Library; Royal Agricultural Society, London, has the issues for 1839-47 and 1853-92; UC 2293 Country Gentleman and Land and Water (1880-1900+) WL 6936. Country Gentleman and Land and Water, Field, and Live Stock Journal and Fancier's Gazette were popular illustrated journals, which carried a variety of articles of general interest. They provided much competition to the generally more stodgy and less attractive agricultural journals that concentrated on market, technical, or political questions. These more popular periodicals, however, did provide information of value to farmers, though in less intense and concentrated form. Locations: Brown University, Free Library of Philadelphia, and Buffalo and Erie County Public Library Farmer's Herald (1843-53; ns 1854-1900+). A journal of practical agriculture, horticulture, rural economy, and general intelligence. Published at Chester, then London. Locations: British Library, UC 6670 Farmer's Journal (1839-46). One of the most important agricultural newspapers of the 1840s. It championed protection. Location: British Library Farmer's Journal and Agricultural Magazine (1 Dec 1866-30 Sept 1868). Published by F. Crisp. A semi-monthly newspaper devoted to agricultural subjects. Location: C7C 6671 Farmer's Magazine (15 June 1832-26 March 1834). This was an agricultural miscellany, which defended the Corn Laws but otherwise advocated moderate reform. Anthony Trollope, in Barchester Towers (1857), indicates the emotional intensity of this issue. Trollope's Mr Thorne, a staunch Conservative, was thrown into a state of consternation by what he regarded as Robert Peel's betrayal of the landowning class through the repeal of the Corn Law. The Farmer's

Agriculture / 245 Magazine carried reports on the meetings of agricultural societies and accounts of agricultural markets. Joseph Rogerson, its editor, was joined by George Parker Tuxford in April 1834, and the journal was issued with the same name but new numbering: the Farmer's Magazine (May 1834-April 1881). In 1846 it took over the British Farmer's Magazine, which was founded by H. Fleming in 1825. Locations: University of Arizona, University of Georgia, Georgia Southern University, Illinois State University, Slippery Rock University, and Texas Tech Farmer's Museum (Jan 1844-Dec 1844). A monthly journal of agriculture, horticulture, floriculture, and domestic and rural economy. Location: New York State Library Farming World (1887-97). Edinburgh. Continuation of the Scottish Agricultural Gazette; then incorporated in the Scottish Farmer and Farming World and Household. Location: British Library Field (1853-1900*). WL 8392. Locations: University of Virginia, Library of Congress, University of South Carolina, Central Connecticut State University, and Center for Research Libraries in Chicago. See Country Gentleman and Land and Water. Gardener's Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette (1841-1900*)- The Agricultural Gazette was published separately from 1874 under the editorship of J.C. Morton. The Gardener's Chronicle was established by Charles Wentworth Dilke. WL 8835. Locations: Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Oregon State University, Rollins College, California Academy of Sciences Library, Smithsonian Institute Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, originally entitled Journal of the English Agricultural Society (1840-1900*). Indispensable, and widely used by historians of British agriculture, who recognize it as a prime source of agricultural information. Its articles provide economic analyses and information on new techniques and on scientific innovations. It was sent without charge to the members of the Society, who numbered from 5,000 to 75,000 between 1840 and 1880; on this, and for the history of the Society, see Nicholas Goddard, Harvests of Change: The Royal Agricultural Society of England, 1838-1988 (1989). Robert Smith Surtees dedicated the preface of his 1844 Hillington Hall to the Royal Agricultural Society of England. He explained that the novel was not meant

246 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce to disparage agricultural improvement, but to repress the irresponsible propagators of hare-brained notions. Locations: University of Arizona, Auburn University, Colorado State University, Duke University, University of Massachusetts, Michigan State University, University of Nebraska (Lincoln), and UCLA. For additional locations, see WL 10969. Live Stock Journal and Fancier's Gazette (1875-86). Continuation of Fancier's Gazette (1874-5), UC 6655, then Live Stock Journal (1886-1900+), WL 12324. Locations: British Library, Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, St Louis Public Library. See Country Gentleman and Land and Water. Mark Lane Express and Agricultural Journal and Live Stock Record (1832-1900+), then Farmer's Express; later incorporated into Farm, Field, and Fireside. It provided comprehensive treatment of both local and national grain markets, and hints at futures by its periodic assessments of the conditions of crops. William Shaw, who edited the Mark Lane Express until late 1852, also strove to promote agricultural innovation, and to disseminate it further through the encouragement of the formation of local agricultural societies and clubs. Locations: in the United States, University of Florida, Center for Research Libraries in Chicago, Linda Hall Library (Kansas City, Missouri). The British Library possesses a complete run. WL 12696 North British Agriculturist (1849-1900*). Edinburgh. Then Ayrshire Agriculturist; the title was subsequently changed to Farming News and North British Agriculturist. WL 15227. It contained information on innovations and improvements and economic indications. Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland (WL 21505), published in Edinburgh (1843-1900*); a continuation of Prize Essays and Transactions of the Highland (and Agricultural) Society of Scotland (UC 14639), published from 1799 to 1843. Contained signed articles dealing with all aspects of agriculture. It, too, has been widely utilized. For the early history of this society, which was founded in 1787, see Alexander Ramsey, History of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland (1879). Transactions of the Yorkshire Agricultural Society (1838-1900*). Leeds. Location: Complete holdings at British Library and Royal Agricultural Society of England; WL 21700. For the history of this society see Vance Hall, The Yorkshire Agricultural Society: 1837-1987.

Agriculture / 247 Select List of Periodicals Directed toward or Containing Information on Agricultural Labourers Anarchist (18 March 1894-18 April 1896). Self-described in a subtitle as communist and revolutionary. Published by David Nicoll at Sheffield. It sought support in the provinces for a free and co-operative society of landowning workers. Included in Brophy's list. The issues of 18 March 1894 to 16 December 1894 are located at Nuffield College Library, Oxford. Beehive (1871-6). Contained frequent notices and articles on the agricultural labourers' movement from 1873 to 1875. In 1877 and 1878 it reappeared as Industrial Review. Though the notices on agricultural labourers were less frequent after 1875, they occasionally appeared. Brotherhood. A Weekly Paper Designed to Help Peaceful Evolution of a Juster and Happier Social Order (weekly, 22 April 1887-1900*, then monthly). Edited by J. Bruce Wallace at Limavady, Ireland, then London. Espoused land nationalization. Included in Brophy's list. Locations: British Library; complete run at the Bodleian Library, Oxford Democrat. A Weekly Journal for Men and Women (weekly, 1884-6, then monthly to 1 September 1890); then Labour World (21 Sept 1890-31 May 1891). Emphasized land reform and universal suffrage. Included in Brophy's list. Locations: A complete run at British Library; the issues from 15 Nov 1884 to Dec 1889 are located at the John Burns Library of the Trades Union Congress. English Labourers' Chronicle, The Official Organ of the Agricultural Labourers' Union (weekly, 21 April 1877-8 Sept 1894). Manchester, then Leamington and Coventry. It was an amalgamation of the English Labourer and the Labourers' Chronicle. Specifically directed to agricultural labourers. It contained reports of the Agricultural Labourers' Union and articles by Joseph Arch. Included in Brophy's list. Location: British Library (complete file) Farm Life. See National Agricultural Union Cable (N.A. U. Cable). Farmer and Labourer (16 May 1874-13 March 1875). Sherborne. Location: British Library Labourer's Friend Magazine, for disseminating information on the advantages of allotments of land to the labouring classes (1834-44),

248 / Victorian Occupations and Commerce then Labourer's Friend, Society for Improving the Condition of the Working Classes (1844-84). UC 9883 Labourers' Union Chronicle (28 Aug 1875). Manchester. Then National Agricultural Labourers' Chronicle (11 Sept 1875-14 April 1877); then English Labourers' Chronicle (21 April 1877-8 Sept 1894). Location: British Library Land and Labour. Organ of the Land Nationalization Society (Nov 1889-1900+). Derby. Edited by Joseph Hyder. Its stated purpose was to return the land to the people and the people to the land. Included in Brophy's list. Locations: British Library, and (with some gaps) British Library of Political and Economic Science at the London School of Economics. UC 9920. New York State List, Serials and Newspapers Land Magazine (1897-1900*). Concerned with the conditions of agricultural labour and smallholdings. WL 12002 National Agricultural Union Cable, sometimes the N.A. U. Cable (25 March 1893-8 July 1893), then Cable, sometimes Cable and Agricultural World (15 July 1893-1900*). A weekly newspaper of country interests. Location: British Library Conclusion Historians have devoted considerable attention to agriculture in Victorian Britain, and many excellent studies have been produced in the last thirty years. These works, however, have not exhausted the possibilities for further work, and, in fact, are themselves often suggestive of other areas for research. The richness of rural studies of continental Europe also points to possibilities, for example the areas of mentalite, the dissemination of information and techniques, everyday forms of resistance, and the formation of political agendas. Victorian agricultural periodicals provide an access to these and other topics and a lode which can still be profitably mined.

PART FOUR

Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture

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Temperance OLWENC. NIESSEN

Although alcohol consumption and its abuse were endemic in preVictorian England, no organized crusade was launched against intemperance in the eighteenth century. However, by the early nineteenth century, age-old drinking patterns conflicted with the demands of an increasingly industrialized and urbanized society and with the emergent concept of Victorian respectability. Temperance then became a social and a moral issue. Interestingly, the impetus for the Victorian temperance movement migrated from America to Britain in the early 1800s, and as it did it spawned a multiplicity of societies and journals, a product of the movement's institutional development. The majority of the early temperance reformers were anti-spirits advocates who campaigned, through example and propaganda, for complete abstinence from spirit-drinking and moderation in the use of other alcoholic beverages. Beginning in the early 1830s, the anti-spirits organizations were challenged, and eventually eclipsed, by the more militant, predominantly Nonconformist, teetotal crusade, originating among working men in Preston, Lancashire. By the end of the 1830s, a phalanx of temperance groups had been created to provide alcohol-free communities for the teetotal membership across the country. In 1835, Manchester-based teetotallers established the first drink-free benefit society, the Independent Order of Rechabites; the Sons of the Phoenix was founded in 1844; two other societies were imported from America - the Sons of Temperance benefit society (1846) and the Good Templars fraternal organization (1868). Teetotal life insurance associations were formed and a juvenile organization, the Band of Hope,

252 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture was inaugurated in 1847. Distinct societies were established for a variety of occupational groups including soldiers, sailors, railway workers, postal employees, policemen, and physicians. At first Dissenters dominated the teetotal movement, but by the 1860s this domination began to be challenged by the growth of temperance activities within the churches. In 1862, the Church of England Total Abstinence (later Temperance) Society was established, which divided into teetotal and non-abstinence sections in 1873. During the 1870s, a number of other denominations formed official temperance organizations, and, by the close of the nineteenth century, each major church had a society. This decade also witnessed the creation of an American-inspired national female temperance group, the British Women's Temperance Association (1876). The slow progress made by the teetotal moral suasion movement prompted some anti-drink reformers to found the prohibitionist United Kingdom Alliance (1853), a political teetotal organization dedicated to the legislative suppression of liquor through Local Veto. The Alliance successfully infiltrated the Liberal Party, but, following the failure of two Liberal Local Veto bills and the party's massive electoral defeat in 1895, temperance reformers embraced more moderate policies; some returned to moral suasion, while others sought to curtail rather than prohibit the drink traffic by limiting and reforming the sale of alcohol - a policy upheld by the majority of reformers by the close of the nineteenth century.

General Histories The earliest histories of the Victorian temperance movement were informative but mainly uncritical, partisan accounts written by temperance reformers for their fellow workers, which focused upon biographical material and campaign events while generally ignoring the movement's day-to-day activities, social and political aspirations, and the competition and intrigue carried on between individuals and groups at the national and local level. (Brian Harrison, 'Drink and Sobriety in England 1815-1872: A Critical Bibliography,' International Review of Social History 12 [1967], 204-76, 215-17; hereafter cited as Harrison, 'Drink and Sobriety'). The following studies are the most valuable. Dawson Burns's Temperance History: A Consecutive Narrative of the Rise, Development and Extension of the Temperance Reform (2 vols, 1889-91) includes a comprehensive index (vol II) and is an invaluable source of information on the movement; P.T. Winskill's four-volume

Temperance / 253 work The Temperance Movement and Its Workers (1891- 2) has a strong biographical slant; Henry Carter's The English Temperance Movement: A Study in Objectives (1933) concentrates upon the midVictorian disputes between moral-suasionists and prohibitionists. Unlike its frequently investigated American counterpart, the English temperance movement remained relatively unexplored until the late 1960s, when a renewal of interest in the topic produced a new crop of histories. Brian Harrison's landmark study Drink and the Victorians: The Temperance Question in England 1815-1872 (1971) traces the evolution of the movement through its many stages, examining the various temperance associations and analysing their leadership, their aspirations, their religious, political, and social affiliations, and their function as organized pressure groups. This study, together with Harrison's other works on the topic, is fundamental to an understanding of the Victorian temperance movement. Lilian L. Shiman's Crusade against Drink in Victorian England (New York 1988) concentrates upon the provincial movement in the north of England and emphasizes the social, religious, and cultural implications of temperance rather than its political aspects. The political dimensions of nineteenth-century teetotalism are the focal point of A.E. Dingle's The Campaign for Prohibition in Victorian England (1980), which examines the structure and development of the United Kingdom Alliance, providing a valuable assessment of its internal organization and of the pressure-group tactics it used to capture the Liberal party. Dingle's study should be read in conjunction with chapters 9 to 13 of D.A. Hamer's The Politics of Electoral Pressure (Hassocks, England, 1977), which analyses the electoral campaigns of the UKA from 1859 to 1900. Brian Harrison's essay, 'Drink and Sobriety in England 1815-1872: A Critical Bibliography,' cited above, remains the most comprehensive survey of Victorian temperance literature. An important source for subsequent publications is the Social History of Alcohol Review (1985- ) (formerly the Alcohol and Temperance History Group Newsletter 1980-3); then Alcohol in History: A Multidisciplinary Newsletter 1983-5). This biannual journal contains in each issue an 'Alcohol Bibliography,' which includes a section on publications pertaining to Great Britain and a listing of theses completed and in progress. Shiman's work also includes a useful bibliography.

The Temperance Press In company with other moral reform crusades of the nineteenth century, such as those against the corn laws and slavery, and for

254 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture religious liberty, public education, social purity, and women's suffrage, the temperance movement was sustained by its own specialized press. Temperance organizations published periodicals to a degree unmatched by any other nineteenth-century reform crusade. Today, this press remains a relatively unexplored area within Victorian periodical literature, though in its time it represented a socially powerful force which the politicians ignored at their peril. Temperance periodicals fulfilled a variety of roles within the temperance movement. Serving as a propaganda tool, they disseminated temperance information beyond the confines of temperance meetings to those reluctant to attend such public gatherings and to the potential recruit in rural areas outside the normal lecture circuit. The temperance press functioned as a major inspirational force within the movement, supplying ideas for platform speakers, rallying supporters to action in the cause, and bolstering flagging spirits in times of adversity. Temperance journals also performed an integrating role within the movement by providing a medium for mutual contact and support between temperance advocates at the national, regional, and local levels, and within denominational and specialized groups. This survey does not aim to offer a comprehensive guide to the nineteenth-century English temperance press, but it will attempt to provide an overview of its history, nature, diversity, and scope, identifying and assessing representative periodicals from the various temperance organizations. Currently, there exists no overall history of the temperance press and, thus, Brian Harrison's partial survey of the topic in 'A World of Which We Had No Conception: Liberalism and the English Temperance Press: 1830-1872' VS 13 (1969), 125-58 (hereafter cited as Harrison, 'A World') serves as the standard work in the field. General histories of the press, and of specialized newspapers, have so far virtually ignored temperance works, though Joanne Shattock and Michael Wolffs The Victorian Periodical Press: Samplings and Soundings (Toronto 1982) does contain an essay by Harrison, 'Press and Pressure Group in Modern Britain,' which discusses the temperance periodical's function as a pressure-group organ. Josef L. Altholz's The Religious Press in Britain 1760-1900 (New York 1989) includes a small section devoted to the temperance press.

Periodical Research Several obstacles face the researcher of the temperance press. The difficulty presented by the quantity of material involved is com-

Temperance / 255 pounded by the absence of a comprehensive bibliography on the subject and the failure of bibliographies and finding-lists of the general periodical and newspaper press to isolate and identify temperance works. The problem of identification is aggravated by the ambiguity of some temperance periodical titles. Though many contain the appellation 'temperance,' many do not and, thus, only the initiated would immediately associate the Naval Brigade News with the Naval Temperance Society. There are also numerous periodicals which may be considered 'quasi-temperance' because their support for the movement was combined with their commitment to another cause, an alliance only sometimes made clear in their titles. Thus, the AntiSmoker and Progressive Temperance Reformer identifies its allegiance to temperance, whereas the Vegetarian Messenger does not. Contemporary bibliographical listings of temperance periodicals usually include the titles of this type of journal. Given the difficulties noted above, successful researching of the temperance press requires patience and serendipity.

Bibliographies and Bibliographic Listings There being no single, comprehensive bibliography devoted exclusively to temperance periodicals, Harrison's 'A World' serves as the basic bibliographic tool in the field. This should be supplemented by his 'Drink and Sobriety' and his Dictionary of Temperance Biography (Coventry 1973). The latter contains 387 brief biographies, including 35 on personalities associated with the Victorian temperance press as editors, publishers, or contributors - some in a combination of those capacities. Thus the Dictionary acts as a repository of temperance periodical titles and information on their personnel. The Social History of Alcohol Review's biannual 'Alcohol Bibliography' is a valuable tool for research in the field. Four additional bibliographies dealing with drink and temperance in Britain have appeared in this journal since 1980: David M. Fahey's 'Drink and Temperance in the United Kingdom: Works Appearing in 1940-1980,' no 3 (1981), 4-9; David W. Gutzke's 'Drink in the United Kingdom: A Supplementary List of Works Appearing 1932-1982,' no 6 (1983), 4-6; Gutzke and Fahey's 'Drink and Temperance in Britain,' no 9 (1984), 3-5; and Gutzke's 'Drink and Temperance in Britain,' no. 21-2 (1990), 27-31. These bibliographies include books, articles, and unpublished theses and comprise the small number of publications currently available on the temperance press. Among the many bibliographic works covering the general nine-

256 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture teenth-century newspaper and periodical press, only a handful include temperance titles. Some of the few existing works on the temperance press are found in the following aids: the 'Annual Review of Work in Newspaper History' in the Journal of Newspaper and Periodical History, compiled by Diana Dixon, listing new publications about newspapers from all periods and countries, and appearing since 1986; VPR's annual 'Checklist of Scholarship and Criticism' (1971-86); and Bruce A. White's annual 'Victorian Periodicals: An Annotated Bibliography' in the VPR (1987- ). The periodical-titles indexes in the VPR bibliographies contain two temperance listings, identifying articles having some linkage to the temperance press. Five extant nineteenth-century temperance publications are useful for identifying periodical titles: the Birmingham Temperance Institute, Catalogue of Temperance Literature (1897), a compendium of material incorporating some forty-seven periodicals formerly held by the now defunct foundation, some of which are available at the Birmingham Central Library, Chamberlain Square, Birmingham B3 3HQ; Dawson Burn's Temperance History, vol II (1891), which indexes many temperance journals; the contemporary National Temperance Publication Depot's A Complete Catalogue of Temperance Literature (Birmingham nd), which tabulates forty titles, and includes the frequency of publication; and the valuable annuals Graham's Temperance Guide, Handbook, and Almanack (1866-80) and its successor Graham's Illustrated Temperance Almanack and Yearbook (18911905). The issues of both these journals contain a yearly listing of current journals conveniently separated into annuals, quarterlies, monthlies, and weeklies. These five works are particularly valuable because they provide a source for periodicals whose titles are not immediately recognizable as temperance works and are, thus, difficult to identify in general bibliographies and indexes. All five works are available at the British Library. Among the most useful of available bibliographic aids are the existing periodical collections in the libraries of temperance societies and other institutions. The periodical collection of the Bodleian Library, Oxford OXl 3BG, includes a range of nineteenth-century temperance journals. The British Library Department of Printed Books, Great Russell St, London WClB 3DG and the British Library Newspaper Library, Colindale Ave, London NW9 5HE, together hold an extensive collection of Victorian temperance periodicals, but the library's classification and organization of this material can make the researcher's task a daunting one. The journals published monthly or

Temperance / 257 less frequently are entered in the printed General Catalogue and may be listed under title, or under the name of the organization publishing them, while many are entered in the Periodical Publications' section of the catalogue. The temperance weeklies may be designated as either 'newspapers' or 'periodicals.' According to the British Library's stated policy (How to Find Periodicals in the Catalogues, British Library leaflet, c May 1991), newspapers and weekly periodicals are mostly listed in the newspaper library catalogue and are held at Colindale. For the Temperance weeklies this is largely the case, but some of the weekly periodicals are entered in the general catalogue and, consequently, are subject to the same vagaries of organization as the monthlies. Goldsmith's Library, London University (Senate House), houses the James Turner Temperance Collection, which includes samplings from a variety of Victorian journals, the titles of which can be located in the library's card catalogue. The Library of the Institute of Alcohol Studies (formerly the library of the United Kingdom Alliance), Alliance House, 12 Caxton St, London SwlH OQS, holds virtually complete runs of the UKA's various periodicals and a rich collection of titles from a wide variety of other temperance groups. The library's card catalogue gives straightforward access to the material. The Livesey Library of the National Temperance League - housed at the University of Central Lancashire, Preston PRl 2TQ - contains a selection of periodicals from other societies, in addition to those of the League. An informal checklist, unofficially titled Index to Certain Magazines and Books in Attic and Library, listing the titles and dates of a selection of the publications in the collection, is available in the library but is currently being revised to eliminate inaccuracies. The Manchester Central Library, St Peter's Square, Manchester, M25 PD, holds a selection of temperance journals. In addition to the collections tabulated above, there are numerous temperance archives of the now defunct local societies of various temperance organizations scattered around Britain which are potential sources for Victorian periodicals. Information about these archives is available at the National Register of Archives, Quality House, Quality Court, Chancery Lane, London WC2A 1HP located in the 'Societies' section of its Subject Index under the subheading 'Temperance Societies.' A tabulation of the 147 archives included in this section is available in a recent publication by Geoffrey J. Giles, 'The National Register of Archives, London, as a Source for Temperance History,' Social History of Alcohol Review nos 21-2 (1990), 14-24.

258 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture Finding-Lists and Indexes In the absence of a comprehensive finding-list or index for the temperance press, the researcher must consult a range of publications. Altholz' Religious Press, in the 'Index of Religious Periodicals 1760-1900,' lists thirty-six temperance titles, together with notations on publication dates, sponsoring organization or denomination, frequency, and type. However, the titles are not separated from the other entries in the index. The British Library: General Catalogue of Printed Books to 1975 (1982) and its CNL combined contain one of the most extensive listings of temperance periodicals. BUCOP and Mitchell's are good basic guides to temperance periodicals, the latter being especially useful after 1879 when periodicals are separated under the subheading 'temperance' and included under the section 'Class Papers and Periodicals.' A valuable source for late-Victorian periodicals is Sell's, which includes a 'Complete List of Class Newspapers, Periodicals, Reviews, Annuals, &c.,' and aids in the identification of temperance journals by tabulating their titles in the 'Religious Papers' section, under the subheading 'temperance.' The combined indexes of the two-section TTH contain over 150 easily identifiable temperance titles, along with a number of the ambiguous and quasi variety. Selected entries from the provincial section have recently been updated and rearranged under towns of publication, with an individual chronological listing for each location, by John West in his 'Gazetteer of English and Welsh Newspapers 1690-1981,' Town Records (1983). This work is particularly good for research into local periodicals. The most comprehensive, and thus the most convenient, finding-list for the temperance press is WD, I. The notes accompanying the alphabetically listed entries include the name of the periodical's sponsoring organization, helpful for identifying ambiguous titles, and distinguishing temperance titles from other publications with identical or similar names.

London and Regional Listings Several London and regional catalogues contain temperance periodical titles, but their utility varies greatly. The current volumes of the Bibliography of British Newspapers, gen ed Charles A. Toase (1975), are almost barren of temperance titles. Nevertheless, as this series will eventually cover all British newspapers, it remains a potential source for temperance titles and forthcoming volumes may prove

Temperance / 259 more fruitful. The temperance press fares a little better in Diana Dixon's Local Newspapers and Periodicals of the Nineteenth Century: A Checklist of Holdings in Provincial Libraries, 2 vols (Victorian Studies Handlist, 6), University of Leicestershire, Victorian Studies Centre (1973; rev ed 1976), which lists some twenty titles, along with issue dates, entered according to their location. A few titles appear in Owen W. Keen and Kathleen Hancock, eds, The London Union List of Periodicals: Holdings of the Municipal and County Libraries of Greater London (2nd ed 1958). Another edition (1969), incorporating somewhat different non-metropolitan libraries, is available on microfiche. The recently published London Union List of Periodicals: Central Area (1989), compiled by Martin Stallion, has limited use for the temperance press. Currently, very few titles are available in microform. However, this deficiency may be rectified in the future through the British Library's Newspaper Library project Newsplan, begun in 1983, which aims eventually to microfilm local newspapers held in libraries and other institutions around the country. Meanwhile, an account by the plan's project officer, Rosemary Wells, Newsplan: Report of the Pilot Project in the Southwest (1986), provides information on many previously unrecorded files in local libraries. Also included is a useful listing, 'Appendix 1 - Bibliographies and Holding Lists Available,' for nine counties in the region. In addition to the Bodleian holdings noted above, several other university libraries have deposits of temperance periodicals. The Union Catalogue of Periodical Publications in the Universities of the British Isles (1937) includes entries from the holdings of 113 libraries. A valuable source is the University of London's Union List of Serials (1987), a microfiche listing of the periodical holdings from fifty-eight of the university's libraries. Information accompanying the entries gives dates of publication and of first issue, and a guide to locations is provided. Finally, for more information on the above titles, and for additional finding-lists and indexes, researchers should consult the 'Finding Lists for Victorian Periodicals/ by J. Don Vann and Rosemary T. VanArsdel, in Guide I, and a further listing with the same title, by Rosemary T. VanArsdel, as an appendix in Guide II.

Anti-Spirits Periodicals The journals of the anti-spirits British and Foreign Temperance Society, the British and Foreign Temperance Herald (1832-5) and the British and Foreign Temperance Advocate (1834-5), were primarily

260 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture informational news-sheets for Society supporters largely devoted to monotonous accounts of 'temperance progress' at home and abroad but with the addition of 'propaganda' features, such as medical testimony which refuted the efficacy of alcohol as dietary supplement or medical aid. Its successor, the Temperance Penny Magazine (183648), initially attempted a livelier approach but, thereafter, largely replicated the format of the previous organs. Reflecting the antispirits philosophy, it was geared to reinforcing sobriety through anecdotes, sermons, and articles designed to illustrate the blessings of temperance and the sordid consequences of insobriety. The gradual eclipse of the movement by its teetotal rival was accompanied by a corresponding decline in the organ's fortunes and, with its original issue size more than halved, it ceased publication in December 1848. In the absence of an in-depth study of the anti-spirits movement, its periodicals provide one of the very few sources for examining its history. The best analysis of anti-spirits journals, and of many of the other titles discussed below, is to be found in Harrison's 'A World.' (The periodicals above are available at the British Library, or the British Library Newspaper Library, as are all those subsequently discussed, unless otherwise indicated; but they are not necessarily in complete runs.)

Preston Teetotalism The members of the Preston Temperance Society vigorously promoted their cause through a periodical produced by a member, reformer Joseph Livesey. The early issues of his monthly Moral Reformer (1831-3) featured mainly discussions on reforms and social questions but, by the time Livesey edited the final issue in December 1833, the publication had evolved into the first teetotal periodical. From July 1833 until it ceased publication, each edition contained an eight-page supplement, 'The Temperance Advocate,' devoted to teetotal issues. Though similar in format to its anti-spirits counterparts, the journal's emphasis on redemption of the inebriate through Christian charity was in direct contrast to the attitudes displayed by the former. More important, Livesey's forceful editorship of the Moral Reformer raised it above the banal, and its ability to attract Nonconformists and 'improving' working men marked a new departure for the temperance press. (See Harrison, 'A World,' 135). Following the demise of the Moral Reformer, Livesey continued its former supplement as the Preston Temperance Advocate (1834-7),

Temperance / 261 designated 'as an organ of intelligence for the numerous Societies' (Jan 1834), which moved the temperance press in a bold new direction by emulating contemporary magazines in format and content. His innovations included larger pages, woodcut illustrations - both satirical (Jan 1837) and inspirational (March 1837) - along with short, ingenuous articles on a variety of teetotal issues and news items on temperance activities, including social events. These features were formulated to attract and recruit the inebriate, in contraposition to the anti-spirits press. This publication constitutes 'Livesey's most important contribution to the evolution of the temperance press,' his subsequent periodicals - Livesey's Moral Reformer (1838-9), Livesey's Progressionist (1852-3), and the Staunch Teetotaler (1867-8) - all failing to expand upon the innovations introduced by the Preston Temperance Advocate. (See Harrison, 'A World,' 135-6). For Livesey's personal insights into Preston teetotalism, see his Reminiscences of Early Teetotalism (Preston 1868), and his 'Autobiography' in J. Pearce's Joseph Livesey as Reformer and Teacher (2nd ed 1885).

National Teetotal Organizations The development of teetotalism into a national movement brought about a corresponding expansion of the temperance press. The North of England-oriented British Association for the Promotion of Temperance (established 1835; from 1854 renamed the British Temperance League; hereafter referred to as BAFT) first adopted the Preston Temperance Advocate and Herald (1838) as its organ, later sponsoring its successors: the Temperance Advocate and Herald (1838); the British Temperance Advocate and Journal (1839-41); the National Temperance Advocate and Herald (1842-9) - all unimaginative - and, finally, the British Temperance Advocate (1850-19004). The latter was patterned on Livesey's Advocate but lacked that publication's appeal, its banality and consequent want of commercial success arising from its failure to reproduce Livesey's editorial Vigour and popular touch' (Harrison, 'A World,' 136). Among the various moderate teetotal groups which amalgamated in 1842 to form the London-based National Temperance Society (called from 1856 the National Temperance League), several had already sponsored organs: the New British and Foreign Society for the Suppression of Intemperance produced its London Temperance Intelligencer (1836-7; then the British and Foreign Temperance

262 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture Intelligencer, 1838-9; then the Journal of the New British and Foreign Temperance Society 1839-43), all short-lived, dull papers. Notwithstanding its title, the London Teetotal Magazine and Literary Miscellany (1840) was essentially a journal of information and propaganda, despite the inclusion of such literary' items as a biographical article on Benjamin Franklin and a teetotal 'Bridal Song' (March 1840), and only one volume was published. This attempt to attract a more refined readership than that which supported the more working-class BAFT was repeated by the National Temperance Society, with its National Temperance Chronicle (1843-56), 'specially adapted to interest those of the upper and middle classes' (July 1843). Despite its stated aim, the Chronicle's contents mainly replicated those of the BAPT's Advocate and it suffered the same fate. A new series was launched in 1851, under the editorship of the society's secretary, Thomas Spencer, who widened its scope to include items such as accounts of Royal engagements, the current 'Philosophy of Education,' and book reviews (July 1851). However, the resulting growth in popularity of the journal dissipated following Spencer's death in 1853 and it ceased publication in 1856. Its successor, the Weekly Record of the Temperance Movement (1856-69; then the Temperance Record, 1870-1900+), at first a private-enterprise publication of temperance publisher William Tweedie, served as the journal of the newly expanded Society - now renamed the National Temperance League - until it took over the publication as the League's official organ in 1864. The League continued the innovations introduced into the journal by Tweedie and utilized its pages to champion a number of causes, particularly temperance education in the schools. Given the absence of an adequate single work on either of the two groups, their periodicals provide an invaluable source of information, as do the published biographies and autobiographies of the organizations' personalities, and for this purpose Harrison's Temperance Biography is an indispensable tool. Also useful are P.T. Winskill's Temperance Standard Bearers of the Nineteenth Century (1897), his Temperance Movement, and Dawson Burns's Temperance History, though the assessments of the subjects often lack personal aspects such as social philosophy and political preference, and they offer conflicting evidence on some personalities. For the identification of teetotal leaders, see Dawson Burns, Pen Pictures of Some Temperance Notables (1895) and Jabez Inwards, Memorials of Temperance Workers (1879). A listing of some eighty-six biographical works on teetotal advocates appears in Harrison's 'Drink and Sobriety.'

Temperance / 263 The Prohibitionist Press The formation, in 1853, of the prohibitionist United Kingdom Alliance further expanded the temperance press. In 1854, it inaugurated its four-page weekly organ, the Alliance (1854-5). Unlike the journals of the national teetotal organizations, which primarily served their membership, the Alliance sought a more general readership. Priced at one penny, it was within the reach of 'respectable' working men as well as the lower middle class, two groups for whom prohibition had a strong appeal. Although the Alliance displayed features common to many temperance journals, it also included advertisements, book reviews, itemized weekly accounts of the various misfortunes precipitated by drink, and the occasional novelty such as a prohibition essay competition offering substantial cash prizes (8 July 1854); but despite these diversions, the paper lacked popular appeal. The growth of penny weeklies following the repeal of the newspaper stamp and paper duties, in 1855 and 1861 respectively, prompted changes in size, content, and title of the organ in order to meet the new competition and the resulting Alliance Weekly News (1855-61; then Alliance News 1862-1900*) aspired to national newspaper status. However, the paper remained essentially a prohibitionist publication bought mainly by supporters for temperance, not general, news (see Harrison, 'A World/ 138). The organ was, however, an unqualified success as a propaganda tool in Alliance organization and temperance politics. Functioning as a communication and information channel between Manchester-based Alliance executives and members around the nation, the Alliance News became the mainstay of the organization. With its pages larded with instructions for political lobbyist and electoral tactics, the organ 'played an important part in the campaign for prohibition' (Dingle, Campaign for Prohibition, 212). In an effort to recapture for prohibition the influential social elite driven from the temperance movement by working-class teetotalism in the early 1830s, the Alliance launched a quarterly journal, Meliora (1858-69), aimed at 'minds of a finer cast' (Feb 1858, 535), particularly the philanthropists associated with the Social Science Congress, toward whom many of the journal's articles were directed. Meliora covered a range of topics including reformatory schools, morality in business, social influence of the clergy, and the 'philosophy of wages' (vol 1,1858). However, uninspired editorship denied Meliora commercial success, and it ceased publication in 1870 (Harrison, 'A World,' 156).

264 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture Harrison's Drink and the Victorians and Dingle's Campaign for Prohibition include short appraisals of the Alliance's press, as does the former's 'A World'; Harrison's 'Press and Pressure Group' includes references to the Alliance's press, while the endnotes to chapters 9 to 13 of Hamer's The Politics of Electoral Pressure illustrate the key role played by the Alliance News in the fight for legislative prohibition.

The Denominational Press Although the teetotal campaign had been dominated by Nonconformist individuals since its inception in the 1830s, almost all Dissenting churches, as well as their denominational counterparts, were reluctant to support the movement. After mid-century however, concern over the prevalence of drunkenness in industrial, urban society and the desire to rescue the poor from the evils of insobriety prompted Anglican evangelicals to turn to temperance as a solution. The outcome was the formation of the Church of England Total Abstinence (later, Temperance) Society (CETAS) in 1862, to be followed by the establishment of similar societies by other denominational groups, and subsequently, a denominational press. The links between religion and temperance are examined by Harrison, in Drink and the Victorians, and by Shiman, in Crusade against Drink, with somewhat different interpretations of the connection. For an in-depth assessment of Anglican participation in the movement, consult three works by Gerald Wayne Olsen: 'Anglican Temperance Movements in England, 1859-73: An Example of Practical Ecumenism,' Study Sessions (Canadian Catholic Historical Association) 40 (1973), 41-51; 'From Parish to Palace: Working-Class Influences on Anglican Temperance Movements, 1835-1914,' Journal of Ecclesiastical History 40 (1989), 239-52; and his unpublished PH D dissertation, 'Pub and Parish - The Beginnings of Temperance Reform in the Church of England, 1835-75' (University of Western Ontario 1972). The indifference of the general press to its formation prompted the Church of England Total Abstinence Society to launch its official organ, the monthly Church of England Temperance Magazine (1862-72), primarily designed to convert Anglican clergy to abstinence. (See Olsen, 'The Church of England Temperance Magazine' VPN 11 [1978], 38-49). The reorganization of the CETAS into the Church of England Temperance Society, with both teetotal and moderationist sections, also led to the creation of a revamped organ

Temperance / 265 - the Church of England Temperance Chronicle (1873-88; then the Temperance Chronicle, 1888-1900*), issued weekly after 1878. Aimed at affluent members of society, the Magazine was an 'elegant, highminded little journal' which rarely featured doctrinal debate, while its successor, the Chronicle, though remaining literary rather than popular/ eventually joined the Alliance News, the Temperance Advocate, and the Weekly Record of the Temperance Movement as a major periodical of the late-Victorian period. (See Harrison, 'A World,' 140-1.) Despite the opposition of their parent bodies to temperance, many other Christian groups supported the movement and published periodicals. Wesleyan Methodists in Cornwall formed temperance societies in the 1830s and published the Cornwall Teetotal Journal (1839-42; then the Cornwall Temperance Journal, 1843; then the Devon Temperance Journal, 1844-50). In 1868 the monthly Methodist Temperance Magazine (1868-1900*) commenced publication, aimed at all Methodist teetotallers, its contents all firmly oriented toward the 'cause' but with a lighter touch than that displayed by the early teetotal press (Jan 1868). The Free Methodist Temperance League chose to publish its own organ, the monthly Brooklet (1885-94). The Methodists' participation in the temperance campaign is fully discussed in E.G. Urwin's Methodism and Sobriety (1943), and a listing of their periodicals, including locations, appears in A Checklist of British Methodist Periodicals (Bognor Regis, West Sussex 1981) compiled by E. Alan Rose. The other major Nonconformist churches, the Baptists and Congregationalists, established official societies in 1874 -the Congregational Total Abstinence Society and the Baptist Total Abstinence Association (BTAA) - and both made contributions to the temperance press; the Congregational Abstainer appeared in 1889 but ceased publication in 1891; the BTAA issued the monthly Bond of Union (1884; quarterly from 1905), concentrating upon reports of the Association's and kindred societies' meetings and featuring only temperance-related articles. The quasi-temperance periodical, the Baptist Reporter (1836-57; 1864—5; with various subtitles and series) is reported in Rosemary Taylor's 'English Baptist Periodicals, 1790-1865,' Baptist Quarterly 27 (1977), 50-82. The periodical offered its readership church news, practical advice on such matters as Sunday Schools, and cautionary anecdotes. The close association between Protestantism and temperance discouraged many Roman Catholics from participating in the temper-

266 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture ance movement until the formation of a Catholic national society, the League of the Cross, by Cardinal Manning in 1872. The society's monthly journal, the League of the Cross Magazine (1884-6; then Catholic Temperance Magazine, 1887), was instituted to promote the principles of teetotalism, to supply material for League speakers, to instruct and entertain Catholic children, and to provide good, cheap reading material for the laity (Jan 1884). Reflecting Manning's concern over the social problems created by insobriety, it also championed a variety of Catholic social work such as guilds, thrift clubs, libraries and savings banks. The magazine attributed its discontinuance in 1887 to the assumption by the Catholic Press of the Magazine's promotion of social issues, the increasing availability of inexpensive Catholic literature, and financial difficulties (Dec 1887).

Specialized Temperance Societies Temperance friendly societies were among the earliest of these special groups to form. The Independent Order of Rechabites, a teetotal friendly society which provided opportunities for social interaction as well as sickness and burial benefits, was founded in 1835 and soon journals began to be published under its banner. The first appears to have been the Isle of Man Guardian and Rechabite Journal (1836-8; available at Alliance House), followed by Joseph Starkie's Temperance Weekly Journal and Rechabite Intelligencer (1839-43; available at Alliance House) and the monthly Rechabite Magazine and Temperance Recorder (1840-50). Following consolidation of the movement, the then largest society, the Salford Unity, established the Rechabite Magazine and Journal of Progress (1864-9; then the Rechabite and Temperance Magazine 1870-1900*), as the official organ of the Order. Although the chief function of these periodicals was to inform the membership about the society and its activities, they also provided temperance articles and 'cautionary tales' highlighting the pitfalls of drink. The Jubilee Record of the Independent Order of Rechabites. Salford Unity (Exeter 1885) provides a contemporary account of the society; a brief overview of the organization, and of other benefit and fraternal societies, is given by Shiman in Crusade against Drink. The American-inspired Sons of Temperance teetotal benefit society produced an official organ, The Sons of Temperance (1881), and its fellow migrant from the United States, the Independent Order of Good Templars (IOGT) - a fraternal total abstinence society - was a prolific publisher of journals at the local and national level. The

Temperance / 267 Good Templars' official organ, the Templar (1871-7; then the Templar and Templar Journal, 1877-88; then the Templar Journal and Treasury, 1879-80) published for three years before being replaced by the Good Templars' Watchword (1874-1900+), after which the former continued publication employing its columns to dispute with its successor. David M. Fahey's recent work The Collected Writings of JessieForsyth 1847-1937(Lewiston, NY 1988) provides much-needed insights into the IOGT. Specialized temperance societies and periodicals were also inaugurated for a variety of occupational groups. The Mariners' Church was promoting temperance in the navy as early as the 1830s, when it began publishing a series of magazines - beginning with the Mariners' Church Sailors' Magazine and Naval Chronicle (1833-6) and culminating in the Mariners'Church Gospel Temperance Soldiers' and Sailors' Magazine (1860-2), the latter a mix of temperance and religious articles, with some army and navy news and general items. By the end of the century, naval temperance activity was being conducted by the IOGT, which briefly produced a periodical, the Army and Navy Templar (1899), the Church of England Temperance Society, and the Royal Naval Temperance Society. The latter organization published an organ, the Naval Brigade News (1886; then Ashore and Afloat, 1887-1900*), which was distributed among the British Navy and its reservists, the merchant service, American naval units, fishermen and coastguards. Background on the navy movement is provided by its protagonist Agnes E. Weston in Temperance Work in the Royal Navy,' World's Temperance Congress: Journal of the Proceedings (1900). The National Temperance League sponsored temperance homes and recreational institutions for soldiers from the 1870s, but organized work in the service itself flourished only after the formation of the Army Temperance Association in 1893; its organ, On the March (1896-1900*) followed in 1896. Details of the organization are given by Colonel Fergussun in 'Temperance in the Army,' World's Temperance Congress: Journal of the Proceedings (1900), and a modern appraisal of the movement is provided in an unpublished MA thesis by S.G. Wood, 'Movements for Temperance in the Army, 1835-1895' (University of London 1984). Efforts to influence the medical profession were made in the early years of the movement by teetotal advocate Mingaye Syder through his periodicals - the weekly London Temperance Advocate and Medical Advisor (1838; location unknown), which lasted just nine days, and the Temperance Lancet (1841-2), whose contents included reports

268 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture on alcohol-related deaths, anti-drink lectures, scientific temperance articles, and poetry. The National Temperance League sponsored the quarterly Medical Journal (1869-92; then Medical Pioneer, 1892-7; then the monthly Medical Temperance Review, 1898—1900+), and its successors, as organs for the British Medical Temperance Association, founded in 1876. These journals examined the physiological and medical aspects of temperance in articles, conference papers, and reports, and featured items on social and dietary aspects of temperance, plus some Association news. Various health-related societies also supported temperance and promoted it in their periodicals. Among these journals were the Anti-Smoker and Progressive Temperance Reformer (1842-3; available at London University) and the New Age, Concordium Gazette and Temperance Advocate, A Journal of Human Physiology, Education and Association (1843-4; available at the Bodleian). A listing of medical temperance and health society journals is included in W.R. Lefanu's British Periodicals of Medicine 1640-1899 (1937; rev ed Jean Loudon, 1984). Among other occupational groups served by temperance societies were railway workers, with their Church of England-sponsored United Kingdom Railway Temperance Union and its monthly organ, On the Line (1897-1900*), and their Railway Mission, with its own publication, Railway Signal (1882-1900+), a slightly more expensive monthly illustrated periodical of evangelistic and temperance work.

Juvenile Temperance Societies Most Victorian anti-drink organizations had youth sections and many utilized journals to inculcate in children temperance ideals, plus the virtues of charity, thrift, and self-discipline. The largest and most successful of these groups, the non-denominational Band of Hope formed in 1847 to serve working-class children - published regional and local temperance periodicals and newspapers. The official organ of the London-based United Kingdom Band of Hope Union, the oversized, illustrated Band of Hope Review (1851-1900+), was the movement's principal journal. The Review's moralistic tales, anecdotes, poems, and songs promoted temperance values and the 'characterbuilding' qualities of self-control, providence, and diligence, but, though the organ's first priority was abstinence, the Band of Hope's close connection with Sunday School work and its espousal of additional causes - including anti-slavery, peace, and the Ragged Schools movement - were reflected in its pages. A complete run of the First

Temperance / 269 Series of the Review (1851-60) is available in the holdings of the United Kingdom Band of Hope, 25 (F) Copperfield St, London SEl OEN. The Lancashire and Cheshire Band of Hope Union published its own organ, Onward (1865-1900*; available at London University), for its North of England readership, which largely replicated the features of the Review. Lilian L. Shiman includes some observations on Band of Hope literature in her article 'The Band of Hope Movement: Respectable Recreation for Working-Class Children,' VS 17 (Sept 1973), 49-74. Most other temperance organizations, emulating the Band of Hope, formed juvenile sections, and issued journals. The Church of England Temperance Society organized its own bands and its London diocesan juvenile branches had their London Crusader (1897-1900*); Good Templars' youth sections were served by several magazines, including the Teetotal Star, Good Templars and Sunday School Magazine (1869-70) and the Young Templar (1873-6; then the Juvenile Templar, 1877-1900*). The illustrated Young Templar offered the stories, songs, poetry, and music found in other Band journals, but with the temperance message somewhat muted. Young Rechabites could enjoy the Juvenile Rechabites Magazine (1844) and, later in the century, the Juvenile Rechabite (1890-1900*); and for their youthful associations, the Sons of Temperance published the Cadet's Own (1894-1900*). The majority of studies of nineteenth-century children's periodicals virtually ignore juvenile temperance magazines, but brief references to them appear in Sheila Egoff s Children's Periodicals of the Nineteenth Century (1951). Regional and Local Periodicals Although the journals issued by the national temperance organizations occasionally reported on the activities of regional and local societies, many of these groups produced journals of their own, as a means of publicizing and promoting their own associations, as well as the temperance cause. Many were born during periods when enthusiasm for the cause was high, only to die as the movement stagnated and interest and support waned. A notable exception to this rule was the Temperance Monthly Visitor (1858-1900*). Introduced in 1858 by the Norwich Temperance Mission, it was still to be found at the close of the century, promoting Sunday closing and an end to the employment of barmaids and the sale of alcohol to children (Jan

270 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture 1897). At the other end of the time-scale was Liverpool's Teetotal Times and General Advertiser, which was published for less than three months (15 Dec 1838-23 Feb 1839). Among the legion of local temperance periodicals that came and went, many bore identical titles, a trait which further complicates the researcher's task. In addition to focusing on local temperance issues, regional journals were designed to operate as unifying agents for the organization. The Devon and Cornwall Temperance League issued its organ, the Devon and Cornwall Temperance Journal (1868-73; then the Devon and Cornwall Templar, 1874), primarily to improve communication between the societies of the two counties and bring them 'into a closer bond of union' (Jan 1868). These goals were echoed by the quarterly Middlesex Temperance Chronicle (1883-5; then the Temperance Programme, 1885), which reported on work carried out by the Good Templars, Band of Hope, and other societies in the county (Nov 1883). One of the most successful of the regional publications was the Western Temperance League's enduring Bristol Temperance Herald (1836-59; then Western Temperance Herald (1859-1900*), which focused on temperance activities in the Western counties but advertised itself as 'circulating generally throughout the kingdom, and the British colonies' (Mitchell's 4th ed 1856, p 31). Local periodicals began to make their appearance shortly after the establishment of the temperance movement in the 1830s. The Manchester and Salford Temperance Society's weekly Star of Temperance (1835-6; available at Alliance House) began publication on 2 January 1835, but was discontinued eighteen months later. The 'comparative silence of the Press' on the drink evil prompted the York Temperance Society to launch its small Temperance Visitor (1846-8; available at Alliance House), to publicize the 'moral, economic, and social' evils associated with the drink trade (Jan 1846). The Hull League of the Band of Hope issued its own Band of Hope Advocate (1875-1900+; available at Alliance House) to reach parents and children hitherto unresponsive to the cause, offering reports of League activities to the former and tales and articles to the latter; it aimed at drawing both individuals and Sunday Schools into the movement. The significance of local temperance societies and the value of their periodicals to historical study are ably discussed by Brian Harrison in his two-part article 'Temperance Societies,' Local Historian 8: 5 and 6 (1968-9), 135-8; 180-6, while the following works provide examples of this type of study: Brian Harrison and Barry Trinder, 'Drink and Society in an Early Victorian Town: Banbury, 1830-60,'

Temperance / 271 English Historical Review supplement 4 (1969), 1-55; Caroline Reid, 'Temperance, Teetotalism and Local Culture: The Early Temperance Movement in Sheffield,' Northern History 13 (1977), 248-64; Lilian L. Shlman, 'The Birstal Temperance Society,' Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 46 (1974), 128-39 and 'Temperance and Class in Bradford: 1830-1860,' Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 58 (1986), 173-8; and Rex C. Russell, The Waterdrinkers in Lindsey (Barton on Humber 1987). The Women's Temperance Press Women were engaged in temperance reform, in England, from the movement's inception in the early 1830s. Responding to temperance reformers' revelations of wife and child abuse perpetrated by drunken men upon their families, female temperance workers during the early decades of the movement laboured to convert men to total abstinence as a means of alleviating the sufferings of their victimized sisters; the rise of female intemperance after mid-century provided additional impetus for women's involvement in the cause; and underpinning all female temperance reform activity was the call to 'Christian duty.' Until the final quarter of the nineteenth century, women functioned primarily as auxiliaries in the male-dominated organizations or as individual workers in the field. Although some small women's temperance groups are known to have existed, intermittently, prior to the 1870s, a national female organization - one truly independent of male domination and dedicated to the protection of women from the direct and indirect effects of insobriety - only became a reality with the founding of the American-inspired British Women's Temperance Association (BWTA) in 1876. The ideals and function of the mid-Victorian female temperance reformer are set forth in Clara Lucas Balfour's Women and the Temperance Reformation (1849). David Wright and Cathy Chorniawy's 'Women and Drink in Edwardian England,' Historical Papers (1985), 117-31 (Canada 1985), though primarily concerned with the early twentieth century, provides insights into female intemperance in the Victorian period. Women's early efforts for temperance are discussed in Women's Work in the Temperance Reformation, papers prepared for a Ladies' Conference, 26 May 1868 (1868); in Mrs Hind Smith's 'Pioneering Work of Temperance Women,' World's Temperance Congress: Journal of the Proceedings (1900); and in Lilian L. Shiman's 'Changes Are Dangerous: Women and Temperance in Victorian England,' in Gail Malgreen, ed, Religion

272 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture in the Lives of English Women 1760-1930 (1986). There is as yet no in-depth study of the BWTA, but the World's Temperance Congress: Journal of the Proceedings (1900) contains a brief overview of the organization, Mrs Henry J. Osborn's 'The National British Women's Temperance Association/ and a short appraisal of its offshoot, 'Women's Total Abstinence Union,' by Mrs W.S. Caine. The National British Women's Total Abstinence Union's 'official' history, A Century of Service, 1876-1976 (1976), a slim paperback published to mark its centenary, chronicles the BWTA's early decades. Olwen C. Niessen's Temperance and the Women's Movement in Late Victorian and Edwardian Britain' (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Historical Association, Montreal, 1985), which comprises a history of the BWTA, is currently being expanded into a full-length study. An assessment of the BWTA's role in the World Women's Christian Temperance Union appears in Ian Tyrell's recent study, Woman's World, Woman's Empire: The Women's Christian Temperance Union in Historical Perspective, 1880-1930 (1991). The expansion of the BWTA after 1876 created the need for an organ to serve as a communication link between the officers of the Londonbased national organization and its members around the country, but the Association's plan to issue a small monthly journal, in 1880, had to be shelved owing to the organization's financial deficit. Beginning in 1882, a monthly four-page newsletter was issued as a stop-gap measure and, shortly thereafter, a monthly paper, the British Women's Temperance Journal (1883-92; then Wings 1892-1900+) was launched in co-operation with the male proprietors and editors of the Crusade (1873-84), a temperance periodical originally associated with the Good Templar order, a section of the paper being set aside for BWTA's official communications, plus temperance articles and items for the benefit of its membership. Dedicated to bringing 'death to the drink traffic,' the first number was issued 1 January 1883; it was adopted as the organization's organ in May and a little over a year later became an independent publication - albeit under the same male owners and editors - the Crusade then being discontinued (BWTA Annual Report, 1880; 1882; 1883: British Women's Temperance Journal, Dec 1883; June 1887; Feb 1892). From its modest beginning as a segment offering monthly reports of meetings, officers' and speakers' engagements, and branch activities, along with temperance stories, and informational snippets (Jan 1883), the Journal gradually evolved to reflect the Association's develpping program, which expanded in response to the changing

Temperance / 273 demands of the organization. In addition to its informational role, designed to foster closer ties between BWTA headquarters and its membership, early issues of the Journal promoted the Association's moral suasion program: columns dispensed advice on how to advance total abstinence, subvert the liquor traffic, and strengthen the intemperate against the drink evil, while stories, 'true-life' anecdotes, and poems emphasized the joys of sobriety and the miseries of drunkenness. Although legislative suppression of the trade represented a minor field of BWTA work, members' agitation at annual brewster sessions was publicized (Jan, Oct 1884). The expansion of the BWTA's political activity, from 1885, was actively cultivated by the Journal. The organ's pages were utilized to publicize and support the organization's new pressure-group tactics, devised to identify supporters of legislative suppression and secure their election to Parliament, county councils, boards of guardians, and school boards, and to encourage women to become candidates for the two latter offices - positions providing opportunities to advance the 'cause' (July, Aug 1886; June, Oct 1887; Feb, May, July 1888). The Journal also advocated the adoption by the BWTA of the American Women's Christian Temperance Union's progressive tactics and organizational methods (May, Sept 1887), a process supported by only a small minority within the ranks of the former group until the election of Lady Henry Somerset to the BWTA presidency in 1890; after this the organization increasingly embraced WCTU policies, producing a schism in the movement and a diversification of the women's temperance press. The Journal now began promoting Lady Henry's 'advanced' methods (July, Nov 1890; May, Oct 1891), which, from 1892, were increasingly based upon WCTU president Frances Willard's 'Do-Everything' policy; this comprised, in addition to temperance, women's suffrage, social purity, opium control, and politics, a move which precipitated opposition from the majority in the BWTA national executive and a battle for control of the organization. The Association's newly independent press provided an arena for debate during the dispute. After a decade under masculine direction, a year of BWTA special-committee deliberations, and weeks of negotiation with an editor eager to maintain some influence over the periodical, the Journal finally passed under the sole control of the Association on 1 Sept 1892 (Feb, May, Sept 1892). Bearing a new title, Wings, a restyled cover, and a revised format, the first edition of the revamped journal was issued in October. Though the early issues of the journal

274 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture refrained from outright denunciation of Lady Henry, its overall tone and content now reflected the editor's position within the BWTA's reactionary wing: articles emphasized the value of conventional female temperance endeavours; cameo biographies of 'British Women at Home' featured mainly Association conservatives espousing traditional values and methods; support was urged for anti-licensing and Sunday closing agitation, and electoral lobbying; and the balance of the organ's contents consisted of temperance tales and poems, Bible readings, and meeting and branch reports (Oct, Nov, Dec 1892; June, April 1893). Feigned neutrality disappeared along with the old year; the January and February 1893 editorials openly attacked Lady Henry and her policies, and, thereafter, the open warfare raging within the BWTA executive was transposed onto the pages of Wings: the competing policies of the rival factions were published, along with correspondence from both supporters and opponents of the minority's progressive agenda and editorial imputations of undemocratic manoeuvrings by Lady Henry to facilitate acceptance of her program in defiance of the will of the majority (March, April, May, June 1893). Meanwhile, Lady Henry had launched her own periodical designed to publicize her ideas and counterbalance the negative criticisms published by her opponents, in which she utilized expertise garnered while sharing Willard's editing duties on the WCTU organ, the Union Signal. The new publication, the eight-page weekly Woman's Herald (1891-3), had developed indirectly out of the Women's Penny Paper (1888-90). Lady Henry's association with the Herald seems to have begun in summer 1892, when she commenced assisting the female editor in an unspecified capacity, thereafter moving to take overall control in February 1893. Prior to Lady Henry's involvement, the periodical mainly focused upon female suffrage and women's rights - serving as the official organ of the Women's Liberal Federation for a period - but under her aegis was gradually transformed into a mouthpiece for temperance issues (British Woman's Temperance Journal, Sept 1892; Woman's Herald, 18 Feb 1893. See also Rosemary T. VanArsdel, 'Mrs. Florence Fenwick-Miller and the Woman's Signal, 1895-1899,' VPR 15 [1982], 107-18.) Under the coeditorship of Lady Henry and Edwin Stout, the first 'independent' edition of the Herald appeared on 23 February as the official organ of the national World Women's Christian Temperance Union (WWCTU) and the issue included Frances Willard's 'New Ideal of Womanhood,' an instalment of a satirical 'feminist' serial story, and reports on the activities of the

Temperance / 275 Women's Liberal Federation and the Central National Society for Women's Suffrage. The temperance components consisted of a brief history of the BWTA, notes on WWCTU international activities, and an outline of Lady Henry's progressive policy. The triumph of the progressive wing at the BWTA's annual meeting and the subsequent withdrawal of the conservatives from the Association to form their own society, the Women's Total Abstinence Union, affected the movement's press. The Union retained Wings as their official organ, which, like its sponsor, was now devoted to the promotion of 'purely Temperance work on the lines of the old constitution' (Wings, June, July, Oct 1893). The progressives instituted a monthly paper, The Journal (June 1893-Dec 1893), to serve as 'official organ pro tern' of the now 'National' BWTA, pending the establishment of a replacement for Wings (The Journal, June 1893). This publication, now a critical link with Association branches it sought to retain, was almost entirely given over to NBWTA policy and organizational matters, relieved by some temperance and general reform items. Meanwhile, Lady Henry continued to produce the Women's Herald until both it and The Journal were incorporated into her new weekly paper, the Woman's Signal (1894-9), which commenced publication on 4 January 1894 (Woman's Herald, 21 and 28 Dec 1893) and was subsequently adopted as the NBWTA official organ. Edited by Lady Henry and, until October, Annie E. Holdsworth, the Signal announced itself as 'A weekly record and review of Woman's Work in Philosophy and Reform/ committed to the promotion of temperance, women's political, social, and moral advancement, and the development of their literary tastes (Woman's Herald, 21 and 28 Dec 1893; Woman's Signal, 4 Jan 1894). The Signal offered articles on political and social issues, a series of interviews with parliamentary supporters of the cause, biographical pieces on female temperance notables and 'successful literary women,' serialized stories, and topical papers on events in women's sphere. Other features included columns of political news, literary notices, and correspondence. Beginning with the September number, the organ issued a monthly supplement, the Woman's Signal Budget (July 1894-Aug 1895), to serve the needs of members unable to afford the subscription costs of a weekly paper. The Budget, which provided selections from the weekly Signal, articles on women's temperance work, 'inspirational' stories, poems, and an abundance of temperance items and NBWTA news, found favour among the organization's rank and file but not commercial success. In September 1895, having incurred a personal

276 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture debt of £2,500 on the journals, Lady Henry was obliged to relinquish the Signal to the professional journalist Florence Fenwick-Miller, who agreed to include Association news in the third issue of each month, the Budget to be discontinued. This arrangement proved unsatisfactory to both parties: Fenwick-Miller found the NBWTA's continuing involvement a hindrance to the Signal (see Rosemary T. VanArsdel, 'Florence Fenwick-Miller, Feminism and the Woman's Signal, 1895-1899,' unpublished paper, University of Puget Sound); the Association's executive and membership chafed against the constrictions imposed by the deal (NBWTA national executive subcommittee, Minutes, 2, 15 Jan; 15 July; 2, 16 Sept 1896). The desire for an official organ devoted to NBWTA interests and under Association control prompted the executive to establish a monthly paper, the White Ribbon Signal (Nov 1896-1900+), the first five issues appearing as supplements to the Woman's Signal until the Association's newly acquired publishing company assumed control with the April 1897 number, now edited by Lady Henry and a female sub-editor, and titled simply the White Ribbon. In the new organ, the NBWTA had the outlet it had sought to wholeheartedly promote the organization and its policies. The White Ribbon offered its subscribers an enhanced version of the Budget, designed to appeal to the entire membership: features included articles on temperance 'progress,' aspects of the 'DoEverything' policy, and women's temperance work; reports of NBWTA national meetings, department work, and branch activities were interspersed with those of kindred societies, women's suffrage, and other female reform associations, while stories and poems provided a lighter touch (Nov 1897; Jan, March, May, June 1898). The White Ribbon accorded the Association the independence it had enjoyed, so briefly, before the organizational split of 1893. The most comprehensive finding-list for the women's temperance press is David Doughan and Denise Sanchez, Feminist Periodicals 1855-1984: An Annotated Critical Bibliography of British, Irish, Welsh, Commonwealth and International Titles (Brighton 1987). In addition to their British Library location, the Woman's Signal, the Woman's Signal Budget, and the Journal are also available in microform in The Social and Political Status of Women in Britain: Radical and Reforming Periodicals for and by Women, Harvester Press Microform Publications (Brighton 1983). Temperance periodicals, being primarily, though unwittingly, designed to serve the converted, reflect the inbred character of the movement itself; nevertheless, they provide valuable data on the

Temperance / 277 temperance world and Victorian society. These journals reveal the interrelationships which existed between temperance and politics, religion, labour, philanthropy, and contemporary reforming movements. They display the nature of anti-drink propaganda and the movement's pressure-group tactics, demonstrate the affinity between the United Kingdom Alliance and the Liberal Party, and supply a wealth of biographical information on personalities from a crosssection of society. Thus, the temperance press is a valuable source for students in a variety of fields in addition to temperance.

Comic Periodicals J. DON VANN

A Victorian comic periodical typically contains jokes, comic verse, riddles, parodies, caricatures, puns, cartoons, and satire. The majority of comic periodicals were published weekly and sold for a penny, although a few were monthly and prices ranged up to sixpence and occasionally a shilling. The nineteenth century saw the launching of some comic periodicals in the first decade with the appearance of the Satirist (1808—14). Founded by George Manners to advance the views of ultraconservative Tories, the editor later described it as a paper 'devoted to the purposes of exposing and castigating every species of literary and moral turpitude ... [and, thus] materially promote the interests of society' (Vindiciae Satiricae, 5). H.R. Fox Bourne in English Newspapers: Chapters in the History of Journalism (1887) sees the roots of the English comic periodical in Charles Lamb's insertion of jokes in his 'Fashionable Intelligence' in the Morning Post and Thomas Moore's rhymed squibs in the Morning Chronicle. Bourne begins his discussion of the rise of comic journalism with Gilbert a Beckett's Figaro in London (1831-8). During the next months, publishers, seeing the public's taste for comic periodicals, quickly began other comic papers, all of them short-lived. These included Douglas Jerrold's Punch in London; Punchinello, illustrated by George Cruikshank; the Devil in London, illustrated by Robert Seymour; the Schoolmaster at Home; Dibdin's Penny Trumpet - all published briefly in 1832 - and the Whig Dresser (1833). James Grant in The Newspaper Press: Its Origin, Progress, and Present Position, 3 vols (1871) gives a colourful account of two early papers, the Age (1825-43) and the Satirist (1831-49), both of which he disdains for their personal attacks on people. He characterizes the

Comic Periodicals / 279 Age as a Tory paper ready to libel anyone with Liberal leanings and the Satirist as a Whig publication eagerly defaming Tories 'so that between the two journals, each of which lived on the calumniation of political opponents, no one was safe' (III: 11). An editorial statement in the first issue of the Satirist set the tone for the virulence which was to mark its history: Every minor feeling is sacrificed to the one great and important interest - the restoration of our long-abused rights. That there should be some, however, indisposed to yield to the popular demand, is no matter of surprise; but it is a matter of perfect astonishment that the few creeping reptiles, whose poison has so long operated to keep in check even the expression of the virtuous indignation of millions, should, now they are deprived of their venom toothless and powerless, dare attempt to impede the progress of retributive justice. But base and corrupt, degraded and infirm of purpose, as they now must feel, what are they in comparison with the indignant and oppressed multitude? As a family of toads are to the blades of grass through which they crawl.

The result of the vicious attacks in the pages of the Age and Satirist was frequent lawsuits with heavy damages awarded, but increased circulation and advertising revenues. Intent on thrashing the editor, victims of attacks in the columns of the two papers came to the publishing offices frequently enough that both publishers hired as bogus editors big, brawny men who were, 'as a rule, natives of the Emerald Isle,' to face the injured parties in battle. Grant concludes that the 'extinction of these journals was a positive blessing to the better classes of society' (ill: 21). Looking back at the period of his founding in 1874 of Pasquin, a penny comic magazine, James Hannay (1827-73) wrote, 'At this period the British public was rabid for comic literature. To do the B.P. justice, it is always willing to be amused and liberal to its buffoons. But in those days it bought funny journals and little books with voracity; and funny journals and little books were showered on it accordingly ... And, once for all, the thing was thoroughly done. Every popular verse in the English language was parodied. Every familiar phrase was twisted into all varieties of meaning possible. It was only with difficulty that some fellows were kept off the Book of Job' (quoted by George J. Worth in James Hannay [Lawrence, Kansas 1964], 27-8). Jane Stedman, in her chapter on theatrical periodicals, says of comic periodicals that they 'were themselves so theatrical in

280 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture tone, content, and cartoons that they provided the laughing verso for the theatrical papers' serious recto.' In general the Victorian periodical press had a very high-minded view of its function, as eloquently stated in Mitchell's: The press is the corrector of abuses; the regressor of grievances; the modern chivalry that defends the poor and helpless and restrains the oppressor's hand in cases where the law is either too weak or too lax to be operative, or where those who suffer have no means of appealing to the tribunals of their country for protection. It is, too, the scourge of vice; where no law could be effective, where the statute of law does not extend, where the common law fails, — the law of the press strikes the offender with a salutary terror, causes him to shrink from the exposure that awaits him, and not infrequently arrests him in the career of oppression or of guilt. (29)

Comic periodicals carried out these functions by evoking laughter. In its summary of Punch, Mitchell's says that the magazine 'essays to promote Social Reforms by moral Satire and pungent Ridicule.' One can find variations of these statements of social purpose in the prospectus of almost any comic periodical. For example, the Puppet Show (1848-9), edited by James Hannay, described the paper as 'a pungent penny pictorial periodical [which] polishes popular politicians politely.' The editorial statement in the first issue of Mr. Merryman (1864) places itself among the 'merry,' who, it says, 'are haters of shams, whether presented to them in the rusty black of a beggingletter imposter, or under the coronet of a Whig or Tory nobleman.' The Great Gun (1844-5) began its career with the statement that the 'gun' would be loaded with the 'solid beauty of wisdom and philosophy' and then would be fired for the world's good. 'And it should never carry destruction except into the regions of insolence, quackery, and wrong.' Peter Spy (1863) promised to take on all classes in its effort 'To shoot Folly as it flies, and drag out Roguery from its secure retreat.' The British Lion (1860) stated that it was inspired by the lions in Trafalgar Square and was to be the 'protector, patrol, and symbol' of all traditional British values. Politics was an important element in most comic periodicals throughout the century, with any particular publication becoming identified with one party or the other. A unique exception was Black and White (1871), subtitled 'An Organ Playing Two Tunes.' The paper impartially lampooned both sides, for it had two editors, one conservative, one liberal, each responsible for half of every issue, the con-

Comic Periodicals / 281 trasting content being separated by a double-page cartoon. The writers for each faction referred to 'our colleagues on the other side of the cartoon.'

General Histories Sources of information on these publications are limited. The first study of comic periodicals appeared even before the period ended. In 1895 M.H. Spielmann published 'The Rivals of "Punch": A Glance at the Illustrated Comic Press of Half a Century' in the National Review. Spielmann begins his history with the Fly (1837-41) and gives some commentary on seventy forerunners and rivals of Punch. Although Spielmann makes little effort to conceal his biases - in particular his contempt for those writers who, in his judgment, acted unfairly in their competition with Punch - this article is a valuable source providing information on some journals not available elsewhere. Another important source is F.C. Burnand's 'Mr. Punch: Some Precursors and Competitors' in the Pall Mall Magazine (1903). Both Spielmann and Burnand drew on first-hand knowledge. One can pick up some information about a few comic periodicals from contemporary reference works such as the annual volumes of Mitchell's, and James Grant's The Newspaper Press. Grant gives some information on some early comic periodicals, notably the Age and the Satirist, but his focus is on more respectable newspapers such as the Morning Chronicle, the Sun, and the most respectable of all, The Times. The most useful and complete modern study is Donald J. Gray's 'A List of Comic Periodicals in Great Britain, 1800-1900, with a Prefatory Essay,' VPN no 15 (1972), 2-39. Gray discusses the problem one faces in determining whether some publications should be placed in humour or general literature categories.

Histories of Individual Comic Periodicals More has been written about the history of Punch (1841-1900*) than about all the other Victorian comic periodicals combined. M.H. Spielmann's History of 'Punch' (1895) is a rich source of information by one who had observed the magazine's entire history up to the last decade of the century. This was followed by Joseph Hatton's The True Story of 'Punch' (1903). Other works include the anonymous Punch: An Interesting Talk about Himself and His Renowned Contributors

282 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture (1910), RG.G. Price's A History of 'Punch' (1957), and, most recently, Arthur Prager's The Mahogany Tree: An Informed History of 'Punch' (1979). Also, one should see C.L. Graves, 'Punch in the Sixties' in J. Drinkwater, ed, The Eighteen-Sixties (1932), and the section on Punch in Amy Cruse, The Victorians and Their Books (1935). Cruse calls Punch 'a very trustworthy encyclopedia of general information on social matters' (394). Part of the secret of Punch's success must lie in the fact that from the outset it was a magazine designed to do more than amuse its readers. In a manifesto entitled 'The Moral of Punch,' Mark Lemon (1809-70), the editor, laid out three goals of the new enterprise. They were to ridicule political parties when they became nothing more than 'sycophancy of a degraded constituency,' to ensure that prisons were for correction of offenders rather than places of punishment for those who were simply poor and unlucky, and to attack capital punishment. Lemon granted that the pages of the magazine would also contain trifles whose only end was to produce 'the evanescent smile of a harmless satire.' Punch was always ready with spirited highjinks. When the appearance of the first issue of Punch in 1841 coincided with the defeat of the Melborne administration, the Punch staff immediately strung a banner across the front of the offices asking, 'Why is Punch like the late Government? Because it is JUST OUT.' M.H. Spielmann recounts the story of a gentleman on a London omnibus looking through the first issue of Punch and tossing it aside with the statement, 'One of these ephemeral things they bring out; won't last a fortnight' (29). Punch was, of course, the most successful of the comic periodicals, having recently celebrated its 150th anniversary, a truly phenomenal achievement. Unfortunately, it ceased publication in 1992. The comic magazines and papers took great delight in belittling each other. Punch, because it was the most thriving of the subgenre, was always an inviting target. The Man in the Moon (1847-9), for example, posed this riddle in its November 1847 issue: 'Why is a volume of Punch like a pot of bad tea? - Because it is full of slow leaves.' The most repeated attack centred on the charge that the competitor was not funny. A Man in the Moon cartoon of a dejected Mr Punch was labelled 'A CASE OF REAL DISTRESS. - "I haven't made a joke for many weeks!"' The appearance of pamphlets reacting to comic periodicals suggests that the satire sometimes struck home. Among these are the 1845 anonymous Anti-launch, or the Toy-Shop in Fleet Street; a Romance

Comic Periodicals / 283 of the Nineteenth Century, By the Author of 'Anti-Coningsby' and George Combe's Phrenological Manipulation of the Head of 'Punch.' A handful of other comic periodicals have received scrutiny. Studies of Fun (1861-1900*) include Clement Scott, The Foundation of Fun,' in Sketch (1898), the PHD dissertation of Edward S. Lauterbach, 'Fun and Its Contributors: The Literary History of a Victorian Humor Magazine' (University of Illinois 1961), and the account by Jane Stedman in BLM III. Reminiscences, biographies, and autobiographies are often important sources of incidental as well as substantial information about comic periodicals. George and Edward Dalziel's The Brothers Dalziel: A Record of Work 1840-90 (1903) comments on the work of the family of artists for Punch and Hood's Comic Almanack (1835-53), but most important, it supplies an account of their owning and publishing the Liberal comic weekly, Fun, from 1870 to 1893, as well as the Conservative comic weekly, Judy (1867-1907). The book also contains anecdotes about Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday (18841900+). Henry Vizetelly's Glances Back through Seventy Years (1893) details the founding of Puppet Show (1848-9). Arthur a Beckett's The a Becketts of 'Punch' (1903) is full of information about Punch, but also has many details about Glowworm (1865-9), Figaro in London (1831-8), and Tomahawk (1867-70). Three particularly rich sources of information are William Thackeray's 'Half-a-crown's Worth of Cheap Knowledge' in Fraser's Magazine 17 (1838), 279-90, M.H. Spielmann's 'The Rivals of Punch: A Glance at the Illustrated Comic Press of Half a Century' in National Review 25 (1895), 654-66, and F.C. Burnand's 'Mr. Punch: Some Precursors and Competitors' in Pall Mall Magazine 29 (1903) 96-105. George Cruikshank was associated with many periodicals, several of which bear his name - George Cruikshank's Magazine (1854), George Cruikshank's Omnibus (1841-2), George Cruikshank's Scraps (1859), and George Cruikshank's Table-Book (1845). Some information about these titles can be found in Jerrold Blanchard, The Life of George Cruikshank (1894) and Ruari McLean, George Cruikshank: His Life and Work (1948). Among other biographies and reminiscences to be consulted are Arthur a Beckett, Recollections (1907); W.P. Frith, John Leech, His Life and Work (1891); Ralph Straus, Sala: the Portrait of an Eminent Victorian (1942); Leonee Ormond, George du Maurier (1969) - du Maurier was an artist for Punch; M.K. Woodworth, The Literary Career of Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges (1935) - Brydges was editor of the Literary Magnet (1824-8); Arthur A. Adrian, Mark Lemon: First

284 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture Editor of 'Punch' (1966); and Rodney Bngen, Sir John Tenniel: Alice's White Knight (1991). Some particularly useful autobiographies are Edmund Yates: His Recollections and Experiences (1884); The Life and Adventures of George Augusta Sala (1895); Henry Sutherland Edwards, Personal Recollections (1900) - Edwards was coeditor of Pasquin; Mortimer Collins, Thoughts in My Garden (1880) - Collins was on the staff of the Arrow (1864). These lists of biographies and autobiographies are intended by no means to be exhaustive, but rather to give the reader an idea of types of works to seek out in research.

Finding Titles The scholar facing the initial problem of compiling a comprehensive list of Victorian comic periodicals finds little help in the TTH or BUCOP, for the periodicals are not categorized by types in either source. Some titles are obvious: one will readily identify the nature of the Satirist, Comic Bits, or Fun, but would probably miss the Town (1837-42; also a second title 1849-50) and the Literary Magnet (1824-8). Some contemporary sources are helpful. The annual volumes of May's have in the 'dictionary' section a subheading, 'Humorous and Satirical,' where one will find a fairly comprehensive list of comic periodicals for any given year. Ted R. Ellis, III, includes a selected list of 132 titles in 'Victorian Comic Journals/ an appendix to BLM III (1984). Ellis' selection was limited to periodicals with any tendency to literary content. A much more comprehensive listing is Donald J. Gray's, cited above, with nearly three hundred titles. Both Ellis and Gray give dates of first and last issues, title changes, frequency of publication, and editors' and major contributors' names, as well as incidental information, such as political biases and circulation figures. In addition, Gray gives the price of most of the periodicals, the sources of his information, and the locations of runs he examined. A comprehensive study of Victorian comic periodicals is yet to be written. Gray's 'List' makes some useful observations, but the nature of comic periodicals is so diverse that it is difficult to generalize. What is needed is an analysis that establishes a taxonomy of the subgenre. It might be organized by the audience for which the periodicals were written. Some, such as the Owl (1864-9), the Literary Magnet, and London Figaro (1870-98), were aimed at educated readers familiar with current politics, literature, and theatre. In this

Comic Periodicals / 285 category is Fun (1861-1900*) with its political satire, 'Lives of Eminent Statesmen/ that would require a readership with a knowledge of current political events. Fun's satirical 'Court Circular' and 'Fashionable Intelligence' assumed readers familiar with the contents of columns with the same names in serious newspapers. The 'Lecture on the Four Georges' by 'Whackaway' in Quiz (1858) would have been funny only to readers who recognized it as a parody of Thackeray's 'Four Georges.' The first issue of Judy featured a full-page cartoon entitled 'Dr. Russell Rescuing Dr. Peel from His Landlady/ a reference to the contemporary political events with nineteenth-century politicians playing the story of Dr Johnson saving Oliver Goldsmith from being turned out by his landlady. Again, the magazine was counting on an educated readership aware of recent political developments. At the other end of the scale were papers catering to children and boys - Comic-Pictorial Nuggets (1892-1900*), a collection of cartoons and serial stories, and Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday, subtitled 'Being a Selection of Side-Splitting, Sentimental, and Serious, for the Benefit of Old Boys, Young Boys, Odd Boys Generally, and Even Girls' (1884-190CT).

Select Annotated List It is not the intention of this essay to give a comprehensive list of comic periodicals. Gray's 'List/ cited above, will serve the reader well. Rather, the following represents the comic periodicals which seem to have attracted the most attention from contemporaries. The Age (15 May 1825-1 Oct 1843), then Age and Argus (7 Oct 1843-19 April 1845), finally English Gentleman (26 April 1845-12 Sept 1846). Weekly. Price varied, but was usually 7d. The Age was notorious for its scurrilous attacks. Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday (3 May 1884-1900+). Weekly. Penny paper filled with illustrations Almanac of the Month, subtitled 'A Review of Everything and Everybody' (Jan-Dec 1846). Edited by Gilbert a Beckett Arrow (2 Aug-7 Dec 1864). 6d. Picked out for particularly high praise by Spielmann in 'The Rivals of Punch' Banter (2 Sept 1867-6 Jan 1868). Weekly penny paper edited by George Augustus Sala

286 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle. Subtitled 'Combining, with News of the Week, a High Repository of Fashion, Wit and Humour, and Interesting Incidents of High and Low Life' (3 March 1822-29 May 1866). Weekly. Can be classified as comic only during its first decade, during which time it was 7d Black and White, subtitled 'An Organ Playing Two Tunes' (1871). See description above. Butterfly (March 1899-Feb 1900). Monthly. 6d. Illustrations by Max Beerbohm Cleave's London Satirist and Gazette of Variety (14 Octr-9 Dec 1837), then Cleave's Penny Gazette of Variety (16 Dec 1837-20 Jan 1844), finally Cleave's Gazette of Variety (1844). Weekly penny paper Comic Almanack (1835—53). Annual volumes. Edited by George Cruikshank Comic Magazine (1832-4). Monthly. Edited by Gilbert a Beckett Comic News (18 July 1863-14 May 1864). Weekly penny paper Comic Times (11 Aug 1855-5 Jan 1856). Weekly penny paper. Edited by Edmund Yates Devil in London, then Asmodeus, or, The Devil in London, finally, Asmodeus in London (1832). Weekly penny paper. Illustrated by Robert Seymour Diogenes (1 Jan 1853-11 Aug 1855). Weekly. Originally'2d, later 3d Echoes from the Clubs, subtitled 'A Record of Political Topics and Social Amenities' (15 May 1867-30 Dec 1868), then Echoes. Weekly. 3d English Spy, subtitled 'An Original Work, Characteristic, Satirical, and Humorous. Comprising Scenes and Sketches in Every Rank of Society, Being Portraits of the Illustrious, Eminent, Eccentric, and Notorious' (1825-6). Edited by Bernard Blackmantle (the pseudonym of Charles Malloy Westmacott) Figaro in London (10 Dec 1831-31 Dec 1838). Weekly penny paper. This was a particularly influential paper, having established what historians refer to as 'Figaro mania' because there were so many imitators. Fly (28 Oct 1837-26 Dec 1840). Weekly. 2d

Comic Periodicals / 287 Fun (21 Sept 1861-1900+). Weekly penny paper. After Punch, perhaps the second most important comic periodical in the Victorian period. See history in BLM III. Funny Folks, subtitled 'A Weekly Budget of Funny Pictures, Funny Notes, Funny Jokes, Funny Stories' (12 Dec 1874-28 April 1894). Weekly penny paper George Cruikshank's Magazine (Jan-Feb 1854). Monthly George Cruikshank's Omnibus (May 1841-Jan 1842). Monthly George Cruikshank's Table-Book (Jan-Dec 1845). Monthly Glowworm (5 June 1865-13 Feb 1869) Great Gun (16 Nov 1844-28 June 1845). Weekly. 4d Idler, subtitled 'A Magazine of Fiction, Belles Lettres, News, and Comedy' (Jan-June 1856). Monthly. 6d Judy, or, London Serio-Comic Journal (1 May 1867-1900*). This weekly paper played, of course, on the traditional Punch and Judy. The first issue contains an editorial statement referring to 'Our caitiff husband, PUNCH,' who is 'wasting his substance in riotous living to the great discomfort of ourself, his lawful wife.' Life, subtitled 'The Mirror of the Million' (1850). Illustrated by Hablot K. Browne Literary Magnet of the Belles Lettres, Sciences, and the Fine Arts (31 Jan 1824-28 July 1828). Originally weekly, later monthly. 3d. See history in BLM II. London (24 Dec 1853-4 Feb 1854). Edited by George Augustus Sala. Weekly. 4d London Figaro, subtitled 'A Political, Literary, and Satirical Journal.' (17 May 1870-31 Dec 1898). Penny paper, daily for first year, then weekly Man in the Moon (Jan 1847-^June 1849). Monthly Mask, subtitled 'A Humorous and Fantastic Review of the Month.' (Feb-Dec 1868). 6d Mephistopheles (13 Dec 1845-28 March 1846). Weekly. 4d Mr. Merryman (23 March-6 April 1864). Is

288 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture Month, subtitled 'A View of Passing Subjects and Manners, Home and Foreign, Social and General' (July-Dec 1851). Monthly. Is Moonshine (July 1879-1900*). Weekly penny paper Nicholson's Newspaper (1 Jan 1851-13 April 1852). Weekly. 2 l/2d Odd Fellow (5 Jan 1839-10 Dec 1842). Weekly penny paper. Particularly interesting because of its fierce support of the Charter Owl, subtitled 'A Wednesday Journal of Politics and Society.' (20 April 1864-28 July 1869) Weekly. 6d Pasquin, subtitled 'A Satirical, Political, Critical, Theatrical, Whimsical, and Quizzical Chronicle.' (14 Aug-2 Oct 1847). Weekly. 1 l/2d Penny Satirist, subtitled 'A Cheap Substitute for a Weekly Newspaper' (22 April 1837-25 April 1846), then the Penny Satirist and London Pioneer (30 April 1846-13 April 1848), finally Literary Pioneer (20 April-Dec 1848). Weekly. Spielmann is particularly harsh on this paper for its attacks on those in public life. Period, subtitled 'An Illustrated Satirical and Critical Review of What Is Going On" (30 Oct 1869-26 Feb 1870). Weekly. 2d Punch, or the London Charivari (17 July 1841-1900*). Weekly. 3d at beginning Punchinello! or, Sharps, Flats, and Naturals, subtitled 'A Family Gazette of Fun, Fashion, Literature, and the Drama' (21 Jan-23 March 1832). Weekly penny paper Puppet Show (18 March 1848-14 July 1849), Id, then the New Puppet Show (21 July 19-Aug 1849), 1 V2d. Weekly Queen's Messenger, subtitled 'A Weekly Gazette of Politics and Literature' (21 Jan-8 July 1869). 6d. Especially interesting because its attacks on the government brought about suits that resulted in the editor's having to flee the country Satirist, or Monthly Meteor (1808-14). See history in BLMII. Satirist (10 April 1831-15 Dec 1849). Weekly. 7d Scourge, or, Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly (Jan 1811-Dec 1816). See history in BLM II. Toby (1867-8). Weekly penny paper

Comic Periodicals / 289 Tomahawk, subtitled 'A Saturday Journal of Satire.' (11 May 1867-27 Aug 1870). Weekly. 2d Town, subtitled 'A Journal of Original Essays, Characteristic of the Manners, Social, Domestic, and Superficial, of London and the Londoners' (3 June 1837-26 Jan 1842). Weekly. 2d Town Talk (8 May 1858-14 Nov 1859). Weekly. Id. A gossip paper with sections headed 'City Talk,' 'Court Talk,' 'Scientific Talk,' 'Theatrical Talk,' etc. It was the 'Literary Talk' that featured a piece by Edmund Yates on Thackeray and led to the Dickens-Thackeray feud, which began in 1858. Weekly Detroit Free Press (16 June 1881-14 July 1894).

Further Research The histories of most Victorian comic periodicals have yet to be written. The only title receiving full study is F*unch. Some efforts have been made on Fun, Judy, and some of Cruikshank's publications, but, on the whole, the researcher will find a fertile field for investigation waiting to be worked. In examining the comic periodicals, one is struck by the large number of titles with very short runs. Why there were so many unsuccessful attempts at humour magazines and papers would certainly be an interesting topic for investigation. It is probably easy to misjudge the public's fancy, but are there other reasons for such abbreviated lives of so many comic periodicals? Nonsuch. A Farrago of Something, Nothing, Everything and Many Things Besides (1846), a penny weekly, opened its first issue with a frank plea for support: Dear Public, - In the usual style Of those who live but by your smile, We beg, with ev'ry deference due, For favour and support to sue. Our utmost efforts shall be brought To entertain you (as they ought), Provided, for our merchandise You vote us, in return, supplies. The fable goes - chameleons thrive On nothing: 'twon't keep us alive.

The appeal apparently was unheeded, for the paper lasted for only

290 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture four issues. Spielmann argues that the initial and continued success of Punch was that, in addition to appealing to all lovers of wit and satire, the magazine appealed to 'gentlemen of education' and thus found a place in the library and drawing room (31). For too long, students of Victorian culture have tended to see the Victorians as earnest worshippers of propriety, as represented in the 'We-are-not-amused' anecdote. The study of Victorian comic periodicals offers a useful and informative antidote to this view, and provides one more facet of the complex age that led into our own.

Sport TONY MASON

Sport was already an important element in British life before the Victorians. Many landowners enjoyed fishing and shooting on their estates, and both horse racing and hunting developed rapidly in the eighteenth century. Cricket and prize fighting had matured sufficiently by 1750 to have their rules committed to paper and, along with racing, had begun to attract a popular audience. But the later eighteenth century was paradoxically an age of reason and a period of evangelical revival. Both movements found fault with sport. Not only did they consider it a waste of time, but the drink, gambling, swearing, and sex that often accompanied it appeared threatening to social order and antithetical to progress. Urban and industrial growth also competed with sport for time and space. The owners of the new factories with their steam-driven machines demanded longer and more regular working days. Traditional holidays were abolished and the occasions on which sport could take place severely limited. The expanding towns were no longer prepared to play host to football matches that might last all day, distract people from work, interrupt commerce, and damage property. In some districts a combination of enclosure of common land and the actions of employers and local authorities enforced by the new police threatened the future of traditional sport. It used to be thought that the changes often described by the phrase 'industrial revolution' put an end to popular sports and pastimes. There is no doubt that the half-century following 1789 saw a continuing struggle between forces in Britain who saw sport as the soft underbelly of a behaviourial and ideological dragon that had to be slain and the defenders of what were often referred to as the

292 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture manly pursuits of old England. What is also clear is that the forces of change developed but slowly and unevenly. Factories did not replace small workshops and domestic production in many trades. Nor did the new life-styles that accompanied them totally erase old ways. Moreover the growing concentrations of population in towns formed a potential audience for all kinds of exciting entertainments, in which sports such as cricket, pedestrianism, and horse racing found a place. Sport was not invented by the Victorians. But it was certainly brought to new levels of sophistication and achievement by them. In the second half of the nineteenth century, sport began to occupy a place in British society which it has never relinquished. Far from having to struggle for survival, it came to be looked upon as one of those things which determined what it was to be British. Several factors contributed to this development. One was a general relaxation in the attitudes of the commercial and professional middle class toward the idea of leisure and recreation. Rational recreation could be anything that improved the individual and, therefore, the society of which he was a part. In particular the body should be cultivated as well as the mind. Mens sana in corpore sano - a healthy mind in a healthy body - became one of the cliches of the age. For some Victorian intellectuals, the body provided a physical understanding of life as the brain enabled intellectual understanding and the spirit emotional understanding. Second, sport became an essential part of the curriculum of the British public school. It was introduced as part of an attempt to discipline the young gentlemen whose parents increasingly paid good money to have them educated alongside their social peers; or with luck, their social betters. Public school sport was not just physical: it was also bound up with moral self-improvement. Courage, patience, endurance, and fortitude were thought to be taught by it, and something called character developed. The future leaders of British society and empire were taught to love cricket and rugby, soccer and tennis. Indeed, it was largely ex-public schoolboys who worked out nationally accepted rules for many sports and established national bodies to run them. Third, they took their sport into the wider community with evangelical fervour and found there many young clerks and workers willing to be converted. Nor was it simply a matter of playing: it was how the game was played that counted. This was the period when a distinctive and, it was believed by many, peculiar British style of playing sport emerged, summed up by phrases like 'fair play,' 'playing the game/ and 'it's not cricket.' And

Sport/293 this ethical style of play soon became part of the British national character, a myth for interpreting the world. In fact the working-class men who played to win, and played for pay if they could get it, were never entirely captured by the ideal of fair play. Their feet were firmly on the materialist ground and their communities retained strong links with a sporting past in which drama, excitement, and spectacle were at the centre of attraction. After 1870 the sporting industry showed healthy growth, and the long-running battle between sport as business and sport as pleasure was well and truly joined. British sport became a cultural export which few countries - the United States and Japan being exceptions - could resist. In 1901 Queen Victoria died. Huge crowds lined the route of her funeral procession. But by 1901 the biggest crowds which regularly gathered together were at sporting events. Many men and even a small but growing number of women played, watched, and talked about sport, from archery to athletics, bowls to boxing, cricket to croquet, fishing to football and golf to tennis. Sport mattered to people. And enthusiasts increasingly wanted to read about it. Partly this was a matter of discovering who had won and who had lost. Sport, after all, was yet another kind of story of suspense for which there existed an insatiable audience. But it was more than that. People wanted to read about every aspect of the sporting world, about the preparation of the participants, human or equine, and, especially, about the lives and personalities of the heroes and heroines who bestrode it. When in 1896 Alfred Harms worth published the first halfpenny daily paper in Britain - the Daily Mail - it had to have a sizeable and popular section on sport. By 1896, there was also a considerable range of periodicals devoted to the increasingly wider world of sports. Before we turn to the periodicals, however, it is worth noting some of the most important recent books dealing with the Victorian sports world: Dennis Brailsford, Sport, Time and Society: The British at Play (1991); Christopher Brookes, English Cricket: The Game and Its Players through the Ages (1978); Bruce Haley, The Healthy Body and Victorian Culture (Cambridge, Mass 1978); Richard Holt, Sport and the British (Oxford 1989); J.A. Mangan, Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School (Cambridge 1981); and Tony Mason, Association Football and English Society (Brighton 1980). The Sporting Magazine (1792-1870) was probably the first and certainly one of the most important of nineteenth-century sporting

294 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture periodicals. It was launched as a monthly, claiming, as all new journals are wont to do, that it filled an important gap in the market. There was no other journal aimed only at the sportsman, and it is a crucial source for the sporting life of the British country gentleman right up to its closure. The Sporting Magazine also provides intelligence on the more popular sporting world at least until the 1820s, by which time it is beginning to reflect the growing respectable disapproval of bull-baiting and the like. By the middle of the nineteenth century it had formidable competitors. The Field (1853-1900+) had as its full title The Field, the Farm, the Garden, the Country Gentleman's Newspaper. Hunting, shooting, fishing, coursing, the turf - the traditional sports of the landed class - took up most of its pages, although it also devoted space and comment to the team games, notably cricket and football, and in general did not neglect the new sporting world of post-1870 Britain. This being said, its preferences were clear, and there is some evidence of tension between the field-sports staff and the ball-game staff. This was a journal aimed at the country house and the London club. It was so successful a family business that in 1890, with a circulation of only 19,000 - but a much wider readership - it turned profits of £75,000. Another competitor for the market that the Sporting Magazine once had to itself was Baily's Magazine of Sports and Pastimes and Racing Register (1860-1900*). Baily Brothers of Cornhill were well-known publishers who not only had a Turf Guide to their credit but who had also started Who's Who in 1848. Baily's Magazine was a monthly costing one and sixpence, and the first volume concentrated on horse racing, coursing, and cricket. Sporting fiction was also a regular feature, but Baily's did begin to take account of the developing sporting world with its growing commercial and spectacular sector. It is a most interesting source for British sport in the third quarter of the nineteenth century and beyond. Fore's Sporting Notes and Sketches (1884-1900+) was a quarterly magazine which first appeared with a rather fetching blue and yellow cover. At two shillings a copy, it was clearly aimed only at the most affluent lovers of sport. It offered 'carefully written amusing articles' with Finch Mason's illustrations as an additional attraction. It published a good many short stories with sporting themes, but by 1890 was offering wider comment on the contemporary world of sport. But the aim to amuse rather than inform does appear to have been more relentlessly pursued. By 1890 it had changed its subtitle to 'A Quar-

Sport/295 terly Magazine of British, Indian, Colonial and Foreign Sport,' which is suggestive of what it thought of as a descending order of importance. In many respects these three journals reflected a sporting world that was in decline. Or perhaps it is more true to say that the great expansion in sport which had begun in the third quarter of the nineteenth century, and was to continue into the twentieth, was not to be in the exclusive field sports but in the team games of cricket, football, hockey, and rugby, and in the individual games of bowls, golf, and tennis. Angling, too, was to become probably the most popular participant sport, but its largely working-class following did not form an audience for these journals. In general, the British sports world had become a good deal more varied. And it was this variety which characterized the Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes (1895-1900+) when it first appeared in the late summer. At first sight the Badminton Magazine looks, indeed sounds, extremely aristocratic. The name ^badminton' was derived from the ancestral home of the Duke of Beaufort, and His Grace himself had edited, with a little help, the thirty volumes in the Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes, which had begun in 1885 and ended ten years later. Out of that series was born the Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, and the subjects covered in the first volume were aristocratic. It began with a piece on grouse shooting on a moor in North Derbyshire and, doubtless in search of some kind of sociological balance, an article on a poacher. The remaining subjects were fishing (written by the Countess of Malmesbury), golf, horse racing, hunting prints, Alpine climbing, cycling, and cricket not the everyday sports of ordinary folk. In fact, the Badminton Magazine became rapidly modern in the range of its sporting coverage, with athletics, cricket, and football soon taking their place alongside the more elitist hobby of keeping a motor-car. Moreover, the Badminton Magazine was distinguished from the start by its use of photographs, including a coloured plate of the Tottenham Hotspur side which won the FA Cup in 1901. As a source for late-Victorian and Edwardian sport, Badminton is essential reading. Finally, the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News (1874-1900*) does contain interesting comments and illustrations on a range of sports and appeared uninterruptedly from 1874. Sport was also a regular, if not frequent, topic, particularly from the 1880s, in the pages of the great nineteenth-century reviews, Cornhill Magazine, Contemporary Review, Edinburgh Review, Fortnightly Review, Nine-

296 / Victorian Periodicals and Popular Culture teenth Century and so on. The WI has largely provided the key to what are often interesting contemporary commentaries on the changing place of sport in British society. Articles and comments on sport may also be found in a range of other journals such as the Girls' Own Annual, Punch, and Spectator, and in the periodicals of professional associations such as the National Physical Recreation Society, whose journal Recreation first appeared in 1886. Writing about sport in schools was an occasional feature of, for example, the School Board Chronicle, Journal of Education, and F*ublic School Review. The expansion of sport from the 1870s was also reflected in a range of more or less specialist sporting periodicals. Most of these were extremely short-lived, such as the penny weekly, Golfing, whose place on the scene began in June 1895 and finished in February 1897. This is not the place either to list or comment on them in detail. But there were some periodicals devoted to particular sports to which attention should be drawn. Cricket began in 1882 and flourished beyond the new century. It was owned and edited by one of the leading figures in the new world of British sport that was in the making in the decades after 1850. Charles W. Alcock went to Harrow public school and played cricket and football there. He was an important figure in the development of both games, being secretary of the Football Association for twenty-five years until 1895 and secretary of the Surrey County Cricket Club from 1872. He was a gentleman who, nonetheless, made a living out of sport by almost inventing the role of paid administrator and by becoming one of its foremost journalists. Cricket was a twopenny weekly throughout the cricket season and a monthly during the autumn and winter. It provides the most comprehensive account of the development of the game over a crucial thirty-year period containing, inter alia, biographical articles and historical features as well as contemporary descriptions of matches. Pastime (1883-95) might have done for athletics, football, and tennis what Cricket did for the game whose name it bore. Unfortunately, it survived for only twelve years from its first issue. Again it was owned and edited by a prominent sportsman journalist, N.A. Jackson. The fact that he was making his own living out of sport did not prevent him from being an outspoken defender of the amateur athlete, and Pastime is especially useful to anyone interested in the scale and tone of contemporary controversies that seem to us a century later rather stale if not entirely unprofitable. Two other more specialist sporting periodicals began longish lives in the later Victorian years: the Cyclist (1879-1900*), and the Scot-

Sport/297 tish Umpire, begun in 1884, which, though it did not last beyond the end of October 1888 under that title, appeared regularly as Scottish Sport until 1900, when it merged with the Scottish Cyclist. The most useful bibliography of Victorian sporting periodicals used to be the third volume of the NCBEL. It contained a separate section on sport, covering sixteen double-columned pages and listed a relatively small number of sporting periodicals. But that was entirely superseded in 1976 by the WD I, which contains many more entries. As WD is an alphabetical listing and not arranged under theme or topic, it is not the complete boon to researchers that it might have been, but it is the most comprehensive to date and unlikely to be superseded in the immediate future. E.W. Padwick's A Bibliography of Cricket was first published in 1977 by the Library Association. A second edition appeared in 1984, and in 1991, a second volume, edited by Stephen Eley and Peter Griffiths. The Victorian sporting periodical has received virtually no scholarly nor indeed any serious attention. Asa Briggs did look at the view from Badminton in his Essays on the History of Publishing, Longmans 1724-1974 (1974) and Tony Mason contributed an article entitled 'Sporting News' to Michael Harris and Alan Lee, eds, The Press in English Society from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries (1986). Other than that, nothing appeared, apart from brief references in some of the social histories of sport referred to earlier. There are a number of reasons. Paradoxically, one is that there is so much material available. But it perhaps is surprising that no historian has explored in more detail the close relationship that existed between the development of British sport, and sports, and the expansion of published comment and news about i1/them. How far did sporting journalists see it as their job to promote particular sports or to exaggerate the thrills and spills associated with them? Did the existence of a sporting periodical press make the essential case for the place of sports in the modern world? More technical issues probably lack the archives that would enable them to be investigated. Little is known about most of the editors and writers who contributed to the Victorian Sports periodical press. Even less is reliably known about circulations and the nature of the readership. As for the internal workings of such journals, next to nothing is known. There is no shortage of things to do.

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PART FIVE

Two Views of Victorian Society

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Workers' Journals JONATHAN ROSE

Of all categories of Victorian periodicals, working-class journals may be the most difficult to research. Complete runs of many papers have not survived, and we often know precious little about their editors, contributors, and readers. Lucy Brown's Victorian News and Newspapers (1985) is an excellent thematic overview, full of original insights strikingly illustrated; but its coverage of the working-class press is very limited, and there is still no general history of British proletarian journalism. Nevertheless, by dint of hard research and some methodological ingenuity, scholars are slowly filling in the map of this vast and largely unknown territory. Joel H. Wiener published the definitive overview of studies in the radical and labour press in Guide II. For this essay, then, it remains to survey the most recent work in the field, and to chart some promising new directions for future study. Research in this area naturally begins with Warwick. It is an impressive and indispensable bibliography; it is not, however, flawless. Richard Price noted (in VS 21 [1978], 501-2) a number of errors in the guide, the lack of a subject index, and some omissions, such as the failure to include the large collection of trade union reports housed in the Bishopsgate Institute. A second revised edition would be well worth publishing. Any investigation into working-class journalism should be based on a knowledge of the historical uses of literacy. The last word on this subject is David Vincent's Literacy and Popular Culture: England 1750-1914 (1989): the breadth of his research is wonderful, and he does include a section on the press. Because many working-class papers were local papers, the researcher should also consult Sources

302 / Two Views of Victorian Society for English Local History (1981) by W.B. Stephens. It can be helpful in locating all sorts of periodicals, as well as sources on such related topics as social structure, local politics, poor relief and charity, prices and wages, industry, communications, agriculture, education, religion, housing, and public health. While they have much less to say about periodicals as such, two general histories of nineteenth-century Britain offer background that any historian of labour journalism will find useful. In The Civilisation of the Crowd: Popular Culture in England 1750-1900 (1984), J.M. Golby and A.W. Purdue serve up a populist interpretation of mass recreation. F.M.L. Thompson's The Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Victorian Britain 1830-1900 (1988) unfortunately lacks footnotes; but it does synthesize recent research, which is listed in a bibliography. (It is also ideal for classroom use as a background text.) For the state of the art of nineteenth-century periodical research, look to the essays in Investigating Victorian Journalism (1990), edited by Laurel Brake, Aled Jones, and Lionel Madden. In Popular Narrative and Political Discourse in Reynolds's Weekly Newspaper,' Anne Humpherys reveals that even the political and news articles in Reynolds's followed the literary conventions of melodrama. In so doing, she makes a larger methodological point, showing how useful the techniques of literary criticism can be to the historian. Edward Royle, in 'Newspapers and Periodicals in Historical Research,' discusses the difficulty of identifying editors, writers, and their biases - a mystery that is particularly hard to crack in the case of working-class journals. It is harder still to discover anything concrete about the readers of those journals, as Brian Maidment admits in 'Victorian Periodicals and Academic Discourse.' Joel Wiener, in 'Sources for the Study of Newspapers,' agrees that of all the uncertainties facing the periodical researcher, the cloudiest is usually the nature of the audience. Indeed, that question has become the single most compelling issue in this field. How can we measure the influence of a given journal on its readers? Can we even know who those readers were? In that sense, the title of Jon P. Klancher's The Making of English Reading Audiences, 1790-1832 (1987) promises a bit more than Klancher can deliver. He does discuss the audiences that the Penny Magazine, Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, the Bristol Job Nott, the Political Register, and the Black Dwarf were trying to address, but he does not succeed in penetrating the actual audiences. It is often risky to assume that what we call 'working-class' journals really had an

Workers' Journals / 303 exclusively working-class readership, as Tony Mason notes in 'Sporting News, 1860-1914,' in Michael Harris and Alan Lee, eds, The Press in English Society from the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries (1986). While it has always been presumed that cheap papers like Bell's Life in London circulated among working men, Mason has found some evidence that it also reached middle- and upper-class readers. Periodicals historians have focused on the audience primarily with an eye to determining the political attitudes these journals may have transmitted - overtly or covertly, consciously or unintentionally - to their readers. In ' "A Life Story for the People": Edwin J. Brett and the London "Low-Life" Penny Dreadfuls of the 1860s,' VS 33 (1990), 223^i6, John Springhall surmises that the 'penny bloods' were actually more conservative than subversive. In 'The Editorial Character and Readership of the Penny Magazine: An Analysis,' VPR 17 (1984), 127-41, Scott Bennett suggests that this paper communicated no particular ideology: filled as it was with 'useful knowledge/ it seems to have appealed to 'a readership determined not to change the world but to understand it.' That kind of content analysis, however, involves troublesome methodological problems. After all, can we assume that the contents of any periodical reflect the views of its readers? How do we know that the typical Victorian street urchin read his penny dreadful as John Springhall reads it? Brian Maidment raises those thorny questions in 'Magazines of Popular Progress and the Artisans,' VPR 17 (1984), 83-93, in which he tries to discern the working-class response to papers like Howitt's Journal and the People's Journal. 'Did Victorian readers in fact read magazines which described their own lives and interests or rather those which described improved or even idealised versions of themselves?' Maidment asks. 'Were periodicals read merely to confirm opinions, or rather to broaden or even confront the reader's expectations?' (p 86). That periodicals do not necessarily reflect the views of their readers is strikingly demonstrated by Philip S. Foner in British Labor and the American Civil War (1981). Because they relied on the labour press as a source, earlier historians were often misled into concluding that British workers sympathized with the South. Reynolds's Newspaper, the Bee-Hive, and the Workin Man did indeed call on the British government to break Lincoln's blockade and recognize the Confederacy, but Foner nevertheless offers compelling evidence that their readers favoured the Union cause. A concise and insightful discussion of the theoretical problems

304 / Two Views of Victorian Society involved in studying reader response may be found in the introduction to Kirsten Drotner's English Children and Their Magazines, 1751-1945 (1988). Some possible solutions to these problems are suggested by Jonathan Rose in 'Rereading the English Common Reader: A Preface to a History of Audiences,' Journal of the History of Ideas 53 (1992), 47-70. Virginia Berridge's 'Content Analysis and Historical Research on Newspapers,' which appears in The Press in English Society from the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries, cited above, addresses the same issue while focusing more specifically on periodicals read by Victorian working people. When the method of content analysis was first developed, writes Berridge, 'the content analyst assumed that the meanings he ascribed to the content, by placing it in certain categories, also corresponded to the meanings intended by the communicator and understood by the audience, and that the frequency of occurrence of the various categories of content was itself important both to the communicator and the readership.' However, '"effects research" in the 1960s cast serious doubt on whether the media did indeed have any effect at all, let alone such a specifically measurable individual effect on attitude' (pp 202-7). While Berridge affirms that periodical literature must provoke some kind of reader response, she appreciates that we cannot measure that response simply by counting the column-inches devoted to a particular topic. She therefore tries to combine 'content and linguistic analysis, to arrive at some assessment of the deep structures of meaning inherent in a paper's presentation and selection of the news.' Specifically, she gets a fix on readers ofReynolds's Newspaper by examining its advice columns, advertising, lists of contributors to appeal funds, and general editorial contents. See also her PHD thesis, 'Popular Journalism and Working Class Attitudes, 1854-86: A Study of Reynolds's Newspaper, Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper and the Weekly Times' (University of London 1976); and her chapter, 'Popular Sunday Papers and mid-Victorian Society,' in George Boyce, James Curran, and Pauline Wingate, eds, Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day (1978). Berridge makes ingenious use of the letters to the editor in Reynolds's, but the researcher must approach that kind of material with caution. As Joel Wiener notes in 'Sources for the Study of Newspapers/ when a Victorian editor had to fill up his correspondence columns, he did sometimes sit right down and write himself a letter. Peter Bailey may have discovered a more reliable source in 'Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday: Comic Art in the 1880s' (History Workshop no

Workers' Journals / 305 16 [1983], 4-31). Ally Sfaper gave away twenty watches each week, and Bailey used the lists of contest winners to put together a readership profile. Lucy Brown, in the opening chapters of Victorian News and Newspapers, suggests other methods of estimating working-class newspaper readership. Some periodical archives yield up unpublished letters from readers and primitive attempts at audience research: Jonathan Rose makes use of such sources in 'Everyman: An Experiment in Culture for the Masses,' VPR 24 (1993), 79-87. Reconstructing the audience is sometimes made easier by the fact that working-class papers, more often than other types of periodicals, were written by their readers. William Donaldson's Popular Literature in Victorian Scotland: Language, Fiction and the Press (1986) includes an account of the Dundee, Perth, and Forfar People's Journal that will suggest intriguing new lines of investigation to any scholar of popular journalism. The People's Journal built up a huge circulation among Scottish working people by soliciting contributions from its readers, partly by commission and partly via literary competitions. An 1869 Christmas story contest yielded more than a thousand entries - one for every hundred subscribers. It would be fascinating to know about other reader-written papers, and what they reveal about the reading audience. In addition, oral history may have some limited usefulness in reconstructing reading audiences, though only for the tail end of the Victorian period. For a project now housed at the University of Essex, Paul Thompson and Thea Vigne interviewed 444 people born between 1870 and 1908 - a quota sample representative of the British population in terms of social class, sex, and geographical distribution - and the respondents were asked about the newspapers and periodicals they and their parents read. Robert Perks has compiled a general guide to the field, Oral History: An Annotated Bibliography (1990). One under-appreciated source that could tell us a great deal about the readers, editors, and writers of working-class journals is the working-class autobiography. For his 1981 book Bread, Knowledge and Freedom, David Vincent put together a pool of 142 memoirs by early nineteenth-century workers, which he used to cast some light on Chambers'Edinburgh Journal and the Penny Magazine. Together with John Burnett and David Mayall, Vincent has since completed The Autobiography of the Working Class (3 vols, 1984-9), which lists and annotates nearly two thousand such works. Next to Warwick, this bibliography may prove to be the single most valuable reference

306 / Two Views of Victorian Society work for researchers in working-class journalism. The index to the nineteenth-century volume alone lists 175 periodicals. At Brunei University Library in Uxbridge, John Burnett has assembled an archive of several hundred workers' autobiographies - most of them unpublished and unavailable elsewhere - and he has generously made them available to scholars. For many labour journals, we have virtually no sources of information other than the memoirs of their editors, and some of these are remarkably forthcoming. Thomas Frost's Forty Years' Recollections (1880) and Reminiscences of a Country Journalist (1886) reveal how a journalist from a working-class background could scrape a living, with valuable insights into the evolving mass reading public and the changing literary marketplace. Joseph Burgess - who managed the Cotton Factory Times, the Yorkshire Factory Times, and the Workman's Times - explains how he filled the columns of those papers in A Potential Poet? (1927). In Memoirs of a Social Atom (1903; repr 1967), W.E. Adams offers a remarkable self-portrait of a 'respectable' Chartist who contributed to the National Reformer and edited the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. The Life of Thomas Cooper (1872; repr 1971), by the editor of the Midland Counties Illuminator and Cooper's Journal, is a minor classic in this genre. Equally valuable are My Eighty Years (1931) by Robert Blatchford of the Clarion; A Few Footprints (1905) by John Passmore Edwards of the Building News and the Mechanics' Magazine; Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life (1892) by George Jacob Holyoake of the Reasoner; Memories (1895) by William James Linton of the English Republic; and the Autobiography of Joseph Livesey (1881) by the editor of the Temperance Advocate. Very few of the men who produced journalism for the masses have yet been the subjects of biographies. For his book The Common Writer: Life in Nineteenth-Century Grub Street (1985), Nigel Cross drew on The Archives of the Royal Literary Fund: 1790-1918 (World Microfilms 1984) to write a sociological study of working-class writers, as well as authors who inhabited the margins of bohemia and the impoverished middle class. Anyone who objects that the history of proletarian journalists cannot be written for lack of source material should have a look at The Common Writer and at Andrew Whitehead's entertaining article 'Dan Chatterton and his "Atheistic Communistic Scorcher,"' in History Workshop no 25 (1988), 83-99. Miserably poor, vituperative to the point of being almost incoherent, Chatterton wrote, published, and sold Chatterton's Commune on his own, without even a printing press. (He would run off perhaps

Workers' Journals / 307 a hundred copies on yellow tissue paper, rubbing the paper by hand against blocks of type.) If we are able to reconstruct the portrait of such a marginal figure, can we say that any pauper publisher, however obscure, is lost to history? While most other popular journalists remain neglected, historians continue to concentrate their attention lopsidedly on William Cobbett. Raymond Williams explains his contemporary relevance from a Marxist point of view in Cobbett (1983), while Daniel Green is no less sympathetic from a Tory perspective in Great Cobbett: The Noblest Agitator (1983). David A. Wilson offers a comparative study of Paine and Cobbett: The Transatlantic Connection (1988). The most detailed biography is George Spater's William Cobbett: The Poor Man's Friend (1982); but for a critical treatment of both Spater and Cobbett, see Karl W. Schweizer and John W. Osborne, Cobbett in His Times (1990). Coverage of Cobbett's successors is, regrettably, still very spotty. Dudley Miles's Francis Place: The Life of a Remarkable Radical 1771-1854 (1988) discusses Place's role as a supporter of and contributor to early working-men's papers. Barbara J. Blaszak, George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906) and the Development of the British Cooperative Movement (1988) contributes nothing original to our knowledge of Holyoake's life and journalism. In Radicalism and Freethought in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Life of Richard Carlile (1983), Joel Wiener does an impressive job of chronicling the many journals Carlile published. Wiener's William Lovett (1989) describes Lovett's role in the battle for the unstamped press. Martin Wright discusses 'Robert Blatchford, the Clarion Movement and the Crucial Years of British Socialism, 1891-1900' in Prose Studies (1990), 74-99. And Fred Reid shows how Keir Hardie successfully appropriated the personal editorial style of the New Journalism in 'Keir Hardie and the Labour Leader, 1893-1903,' in Jay Winter, ed, The Working Class in Modern British History (1983). That last topic is discussed more broadly in Deian Hopkin's 'The Left-Wing Press and the New Journalism,' in Joel H. Wiener, ed, Papers for the Millions: The New Journalism in Britain, 1850s to 1914 (1988). See also John Goodbody, 'The Star: Its Role in the New Journalism,' VPR 20 (1987), 141-50, as well as Hopkin's helpful survey of 'The Labour Party Press,' in K.D. Brown, ed, The First Labour Party, 1906-1914 (1985). Naturally, many recent studies of radical and labour history include, in context, excellent treatments of the press. Noel W.

308 / Two Views of Victorian Society Thompson's The People's Science: The Popular Political Economy of Exploitation and Crisis, 1816-34 (1984) shows how the working-class papers in the early nineteenth century developed their own version of political economy. The story of the Northern Star is central to Dorothy Thompson's The Chartists: Popular Politics in the Industrial Revolution (1984). And when researching that topic, one should not overlook J.F.C. Harrison and Dorothy Thompson, eds, Bibliography of the Chartist Movement, 1837-1976 (1978): it includes sections on Chartist papers, other journals useful as sources on Chartism, and relevant articles in Victorian periodicals. Hermia Oliver's The International Anarchist Movement in Late Victorian London (1983) is quite strong on anarchist journals published in English and in other languages. And in Radicalism, Cooperation and Socialism: Leicester Working-Class Politics 1860-1906 (1987), Bill Lancaster illustrates the important role played by small local labour papers in organizing Leicester workers. At the same time, one should be careful about lumping together the 'radical and labour press.' Some papers with a proleterian readership had a very different political slant, and not all radicals were working class. See Peter Roger Mountjoy's 'The Working-Class Press and Working-Class Conservatism,' in Newspaper History from the Seventeenth Century to the Present Day, as well as his study of the temperance journalist 'Thomas Bywater Smithies, Editor of the British Workman,' VPR 18 (1985), 46-56. Ever since Martha Vicinus published The Industrial Muse (1974), the labour press has been tapped as an inexhaustable mine of working-class poetry. Peter Scheckner draws heavily on periodical sources for An Anthology of Chartist Poetry (1989); but Brian Maidment supplies a superior editorial apparatus for his collection, The Poorhouse Fugitives: Self-Taught Poets and Poetry in Victorian Britain (1987). The recovery and study of proletarian poetry is only one of many promising opportunities for future research in this area. The Press of Labor Migrants in Europe and North America 1880s to 1930s (1985), edited by Christiane Harzig and Dirk Hoerder, makes it clear that historians of British labour journalism will find it worthwhile to look beyond Britain and the English language. In his chapter 'America before and after Emigration: Scottish Miners' View of the U.S. through the Columns of the Glasgow Sentinel, 1850-1876,' John H.M. Laslett draws on letters to the Sentinel to measure the quality of life enjoyed by Scottish migrants in American coalfields. William J.

Workers' Journals / 309 Fishman, in 'Morris Winchevsky and the Polische Yidl: First Chronicle of the East London Immigrant Ghetto,' describes Britain's (and possibly the world's) first Yiddish socialist paper. For an account of the longer-lived anarchist journal Arbeter Fraint, see Fishman's East End Jewish Radicals 1875-1914 (1975). Reception histories, which trace the critical response to a given author or text, generally draw upon respectable literary reviews rather than labour papers; but the latter sometimes reviewed books as well, and journalism historians should alert literary historians to their usefulness as source material. Paul Thomas Murphy has studied literary criticism in working-class periodicals, and part of his work has been published in VS 32 (1989), 339-64, under the title ' "Imagination Flaps Its Sportive Wings": Views of Fiction in British Working-Class Periodicals, 1816-1858.' In the Edwardian years, there were some notable efforts to publish intellectual magazines aimed at working-class autodidacts, two of which reviewed both mainstream and proletarian fiction. The Highway, the organ of the Workers' Educational Association, dates from 1908, and the firm of J.M. Dent launched Everyman as a kind of penny Athenaeum in 1912. Some interesting work has also been done beyond the bounds of working-class respectability. Though it is not well organized, Logie Barrow's Independent Spirits: Spiritualism and English Plebians 1850-1910 (1986) does provide coverage of those spiritualist papers that reached a working-class audience. We have generally assumed that dissolute gentlemen constituted the audience for Victorian pornography, but in fact a number of cheap bawdy papers aimed at working men did flourish in the 1830s and 1840s: for a brief discussion, see the final chapter of Radical Underworld: Prophets, Revolutionaries and Pornographers in London, 1795-1840 (1988), by Iain McCalman. Only recently have the illustrations in working-class journals become a subject for investigation. Louis James opened up discussion of popular iconography in his introduction to English Popular Literature 1819-1851 (1976), and an equally penetrating analysis may be found in Peter Bailey's 'Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday: Comic Art in the 1880s,' cited above. Patricia Anderson's semiotic study, The Printed Image and the Transformation of Popular Culture, 1790-1860 (1991), focuses on the Penny Magazine, the London Journal, Cassell's Illustrated Family Paper, and Reynolds's Miscellany. In chapter 5, Anderson demonstrates that these journals had a substantial working-class readership; she draws her evidence from correspondence

310 / Two Views of Victorian Society columns, workers' autobiographies, and the archives of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. One important caveat is in order here: historians will find it difficult to work with labour periodicals until their contents have been indexed. That necessary work has scarcely begun, though Sue Thomas has compiled Indexes to Fiction in Tinsley's Magazine (1981), Indexes to Fiction in Cassell's Family Magazine (1987), and Indexes to Fiction in Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature (1989). The task of indexing mainstream Victorian periodicals has proved daunting enough; certainly it will not be easy to scrounge up the financial support or the academic work force needed to index the likes of the Bee-Hive and the Cotton Factory Times. Nevertheless, the value of such a project to literary scholars and social historians alike would be enormous. For that reason alone, Victorian labour journals deserve as much attention as any other branch of periodicals research.

Student Journals ROSEMARY T. VANARSDEL AND JOHN S. NORTH

Universities, by their very natures, provided an ideal atmosphere during the nineteenth century to encourage student journalism. In the first place, there was literacy, which provided not only writers for the articles, but also a captive readership. Given the high spirits of the young, there was also curiosity, not only about the university and its workings, but an awakening to the wider world which the students were preparing to enter. The university was a community of many constituencies which offered ample material for aspiring pens: the faculty; the administrators; the chancellors and boards of trustees; and the students with their societies, organizations, and their own bodies of governance all were fair targets for journalists. Any personal eccentricities among faculty, political struggles within the institutions, or urgent questions of the day served to stimulate journalistic effort. All provided targets for satire, parody, essays, and lampoons. Many students discovered new talents for self-expression during their early university days and turned to journalism for an outlet. Whether it took the form of expository prose in editorial or news stories, descriptive prose in features, or literary expression in verse, drama, or narrative prose, all was excellent material to fill the pages of student magazines. There was a serious side to student journals as well, which often provided excellent essays, thoughtful analysis, and probing questioning. In nineteenth-century student magazines there was often commentary on Latin or Greek poetry, and there were serious attempts by young scholars to produce their own classical verse. Thus a study of nineteenth-century university magazines provides a close-up 'snapshot' or composite view of university life of the last century

312 / Two Views of Victorian Society which might otherwise have passed and been forgotten. The 'Prospectus' of Lapsus Linguae (University of Edinburgh no 4027) asserts that all of the following are fair game for student journals: 'goodhumour, literary gossip, college chit-chat, classical hints, university criticism, poetical nothings, academical reveries, scraps from the writing desk, and fragments from the portfolio.' Note should be made that this was a male-dominated world, because women were not admitted to universities until late in the century. The Girton College Review (1882-1900*) at Cambridge appears to have been the first periodical produced by and for women, followed by Iris: Newsletter of the Owens College Department for Women (Dec 1887-July 1894) at the University of Manchester; the Daisy (1890-9), published by Lady Margaret's College, Oxford; Fritillary (1-37, 1893-1900*), published by the Oxford Women's Colleges; and King's College Magazine (Ladies' Dept) (1896-1900+). There was also a quarterly, Scarlet Runner (c April 1899-c Feb 1900), published at Oxford and edited by two women, Marguerite Templer and Mimosa de Coyley.

Choosing the Universities The material in this chapter proposes to deal with the years 1824—1900, dates adopted by WI for periodicals study. This timeframe rules out many British universities founded in more recent times. But it also surveys the most significant segment of student journalism, since this genre was not particularly old. The bibliography by H.C. Marillier, University Magazines and Their Makers (see section on Oxford in this chapter), lists only twenty titles for Oxford University before 1824, beginning with Mercurius Aulicus, 1643-8; and for Cambridge University only four, beginning with the Student, or the Oxford and Cambridge Miscellany, 1750-1. Just as the nineteenth century was the age of the periodical for the general reader, it was equally so for university magazines. Universities to be included would obviously begin with the two oldest, Oxford and Cambridge, founded in 1167 and 1209 respectively. London would wait until 1826 for a university of its own, when a group of intellectuals, Dissenters, and utilitarians started, in Gower Street, a University of London, a body which would eventually be designated University College and become a part of an enormously complicated university system, the modern University of London. Durham, a college originally founded by Cromwell but demolished

Student Journals / 313 during the Restoration, assumed its modern status in 1832; while Newcastle was founded with the help of northern industrialists in 1871, and the University of Manchester in 1880 (although Manchester developed from Owens College, founded in 1851). Scotland, where the tradition of learning was always strong and deep, is represented by three great medieval universities: St Andrews, 1410; Glasgow, 1451; and Aberdeen, 1494. The University of Edinburgh came later, in 1583. Trinity College, Dublin, founded by Royal Charter in 1592, was for two hundred years the only university in Ireland. The original idea was that this would be the first step in a larger plan for a University of Dublin, but that did not happen. In 1845, Royal Charter established three 'Queen's Colleges,' in Belfast, Cork, and Galway; later, in 1850, they combined to form Queen's University of Ireland; in 1879, they became the Royal University of Ireland. In 1851, the Catholics founded, in Dublin, the Catholic University of Ireland; in 1883 this became University College, Dublin, administered by Jesuits. The University of Aberystwyth opened on a shoe-string in 1872 and was granted a charter in 1889. Colleges appeared in Cardiff in 1883 and in Bangor in 1884. The three merged in 1893 to become the University of Wales, although each retained some autonomy. The work of this chapter will be to seek out periodicals published by undergraduates of these institutions and to try to establish some patterns based on this material. Some categories of student periodicals - for example, those devoted to medicine, law, other professional journals, student handbooks, and class schedules - have been ruled out as being too specialized. Also ruled out are journals published primarily by university faculty. General Conclusions about Student Journals Any attempt at a profile of these journals would have to be the work of another chapter, but one or two generalizations may be noted. Even a cursory glance at the bibliographies in this chapter reveals the ephemeral, transient nature of these productions. Evidently many, if not most, were founded in a burst of enthusiasm ('Let's start a paper!') but seldom with the substance or the financial planning needed to survive. University magazines are about equally divided in tone between the high seriousness of educated youth and the high spirits of youth.

314 / Two Views of Victorian Society The former tended to concentrate on literary or political issues, on politics both university and national, and, reflecting the curriculum, on Latin and Greek literature, particularly poetry and drama; the high-spirited journals poked good fun, commented on racing, rowing, sports contests, and student entertainments such as May Week at Oxford. Cambridge (seventy-nine), Oxford (sixty-eight), and the University of Edinburgh (thirty-four) have the longest lists of publications, perhaps reflecting their size, wealth, and ancient origins. Annotation Because of the ephemeral nature of student journals, complete runs are often hard to come by, and in certain cases no copies have survived, only a title and an assertion by some scholar of what had been. Because these journals were produced for the most part by amateurs, rather than professional journalists, they often were not valued as highly as those produced by skilled professionals in London; thus they were not always as carefully preserved. On the other hand, because they were infused with contemporary university spirit, sometimes they were carefully saved for the honour of the college. This unevenness of preservation often makes it impossible to obtain uniform citation for the bibliography. The reader is reminded that there was no style sheet for periodicals in the nineteenth century, no uniform system for numbering student periodicals (or any other periodicals, for that matter), which accounts for the rather erratic arrangement of many of the citations. The general rule has been to give the information available even if this results in some variation in listing. Certain general reference works are helpful in identifying and locating these periodicals. General Reference Works 1 BUCOP 2 NCBEL 3 Union List of Serials, University of London (1987), microfiche. A listing of periodical holdings from fifty-eight of the university's libraries. Helpful to some degree but often not as accurate as going directly to individual libraries. 4 WD I, II, III 5 ULVS

Student Journals / 315 Individual University Bibliographies Only a few bibliographies of this material have been attempted. 1 Cordeaux, E.H. and D.H. Merry. A Bibliography of Printed Works Relating to the University of Oxford (1968) 2 Marillier, Harry Currie. University Magazines and Their Makers (1902) 3 The Tounis College: An Anthology of Edinburgh Student Journals, 1823-1923, ed J.T.D. Hall (1985) Attention is called to the 'Sources' which appear at the end of each university listing and note existence of any university histories. These can often be helpful in identifying examples of student journalism. Finally, periodicals librarians at each institution have been consulted for specialized information, and in most cases a personal, hands-on visit has been made to inspect the material. The listing for each university is presented alphabetically; in some of the older bibliographies, journals are listed by dates, but this seems a cumbersome and uncertain method. The reader will note a number in parentheses which corresponds to the number of that journal's entry in WD I, II, III, where more detailed annotation is given. If no number is given, obviously, this title did not appear in WD. The entry for each periodical consists of title, dates of publication, frequency, where known (i.e. D = daily; W = weekly; F = fortnightly; M = monthly; Q = quarterly; A = annually), and some annotation, such as noting editors, authors, or illustrators who later in life gained prominence. If no frequency is noted, it is unknown. If the periodical was connected to a college, that is noted. Separate sections for each university labelled 'Sources' include names of librarians who have served as resource persons, and titles of books providing additional material about the individual university listings. (More detailed annotation, including alternate locations, may often be found for each entry in the WD listings.) Suggestions for Further Research The careful reader of this chapter will note that very little analytical work has been done on university periodicals. In-depth study of the three longest lists, Oxford, Cambridge, and the University of Edinburgh, might well uncover trends in student journalism at different times in the century. The origins of journals for women students,

316 / Two Views of Victorian Society and analysis of their contents, could possibly be a productive study. Identifying some of the longest-lasting student periodicals and accounting for their longevity would also be useful. A study might be done of student editors and contributors to determine if they continued in journalism after graduation, thus following the general trend toward university-educated journalists near the century's close. The investigator will find much work to be done in the field. Some might suggest that the work in this chapter is derivative, and to some extent it is, but the merit in its presentation is that nowhere else (with the exception of NCBEL, which is incomplete, and briefly, in BLM III) has this scattered material been drawn together to provide a coherent whole, from which deductions about nineteenth-century student journalism may be made. England Numbers are taken from WD I. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY

1 2 (520) 3 (1030) 4 (2058) 5 6 7 8

(2236) (2700)

9 10 (3818) 11 (4065) 12 (4102) 13 (4122)

Academia (May 1858). Occasional Alma Mater, The; a journal of literature and art (1-65, 1899-1900). F Anti-Snarl, The (1, 1899) Bear, The (1-3, Oct 1858-Feb 1862). Ed G.O. Trevelyan Beldragon, The (1895). May Week production Benedict, The (1-59, 1898-1900+). Corpus Christi College Blue 'un, The (1, 1894) Boomerang (1, 23 Oct 1875). Joint Oxford and Cambridge Miscellany, published at Oxford Brass Halo, The (1-3, 1893-4) Bubble, The (10 June 1898). May week magazine Caian, The (April 1891-1900+). Magazine of Gonville and Caius Colleges. Notable for a series on history of Caius College Cam, The (9 June 1894) Cambridge A.B.C. (1-4; 8, 9, 11, 12 June 1894). D. May week magazine. Ed R. Austen Leigh, H.W.

Student Journals / 317 14 15 (4137) 16 (4141) 17 (4154) 18 (4158) 19 20 (4163) 21 (4164) 22 (4166)

23 (4167) 24 (4169) 25 (4172) 26 27

28 (4177) 29 (4178) 30 (4180) 31 (4245) 32 (4246)

Cornish, Elijah Johnson. Cover Aubrey Bearsley Cambridge Dionysia, The (I, 1858) Cambridge Essays; Contributed by members of the University (1-4, 1855-8) Cambridge Fortnightly, The (1-5, between 24 Jan and 13 March 1888). F. Ed Barry Pain Cambridge Magazine, The (1-15, 1899) Cambridge Meteor, The (nos 1-7, 1882). May week magazine Cambridge Observer, The (3 May 1892-7 March 1893). W. Wanted to be as representative of Cambridge as possible Cambridge quarterly review and academical register, The (1-2, 1824). Q Cambridge quarterly review and magazine of literature, arts, sciences, etc., The (1 July, 1 Oct 1833, Jan 1834.) Q Cambridge Review, The; a journal of university life and thought (1, 15 Oct 1879-1900+). W. Broad general reportage for the university community. For a full account see BLM III. Cambridge Tatler, The (1-10, 6 March-29 May 1877). W Cambridge Terminal Magazine, The (1-3, 1858-9) Cambridge Undergraduate's Journal (14 Oct 1868, ns May 1873, amalgamated with Oxford Undergraduates Journal, 1875). F Cambridge University Gazette; a journal devoted to university matters (1-33, 28 Oct 1868-15 Dec 1869). W. Contrib W.W. Skeat Cambridge University Magazine (March, April 1835). M Cambridge University Magazine (March 1839-Oct 1843). Thrice annually. For a full account see BLM III. Cambridge University Magazine (3 June-7 Dec 1886). W

Cambridge University Reporter (1, 19 Oct 1870-1900+). W Cantab, The (April-May 1873). M Cantab, The (1-3, 1898-9). Special number, 25 Nov 1898; second edition

318 / Two Views of Victorian Society 33 (4633) 34 35 (6069) 36

(7949)

37 38 (9310) 39 40 (10016) 41 42 43 (10733) 44 45 46 47 48

(12512) (13604) (14219) (14819) (14820)

49 (14825) 50 51 52 53

(14826) (14935) (16533) (16886)

54 (17301) 55 56 57 58

(17623) (17624) (17714) (19680)

Chanticleer, The (1-25, 1885-92), then Chanticlere, The (1892-1900*). Jesus College. Christ's College Magazine (began Easter term, 1886) College Rhymes; contributed by members of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge (1-14, 1860-74) Eagle, The; a magazine supported by the members of St. John's College (1, 1858-1900*) Emmanuel College Magazine (1, Easter term, 1889) Fellow (1-11, Oct-Dec 1836). M Freshman, The (1-6, 5 March-9 April 1836). W Gadfly, The (1, 15 Nov 1888). Only one number appeared, suppressed by the Proctors. Girton Review (no 1, 1882-1900*). 3 times a year, at term commencement Gownsman See Snob. Granta, The (1, 18 Jan 1889-1900*). W during term. Contrib A.A. Milne, Owen Seaman. For a full account see BLM III. Individual, The (1-15, 1836-7) K.P., The (1-3. 1893-4) Lantern of the Cam, The (1-4, 1871-2) Light Blue (1-4, 1873-5) Light Blue, The; a Cambridge university magazine (1-5, 1866-71). Twice a term Light Green, The (1-2, 1872). Ed Arthur Clements Hilton. Superior, high-class journal Light Greens (1, 1875) Lion University Magazine (1-3, 1858) May-bee, The (1: 1-4 June 1884). May week Metropolitan Quarterly Magazine (1:1, 2:4, 1826). Q. Ed Frederick Denison Maurice Momus (1, 3 March 1866; 2, April 1868; 3, 15 March 1869). Occasional Moslem in Cambridge, The (1-3, 1870-1) Moslem in Cambridge, The (1-3, 1890) Mushroom, The (1, 1894) Oxford and Cambridge Magazine, The (1-12, 1 Jan-1 Dec 1856). M. Ed and founded William Morris. Contrib D.G. Rossetti, Vernon Lushington, Edward Burne-Jones (founder). The idea was 'to

Student Journals / 319

59 (19681) 60 (19738)

61 (20148) 62 (20418) 63 (20724) 64 (21897) 65 66 67 68 (22933) 69 70 71 (23620) 72 (23890) 73 (23971) 74 (23973) 75 (25669)

advocate moral earnestness and purpose in literature, art, and society.' For a full account see BLM III. Oxford and Cambridge Review, The (1-24, 1845-7). M Oxford and Cambridge undergraduates' journal See Oxford undergraduates' journal. (1-31, Jan 1866-Oct 1875), then Oxford and Cambridge undergraduates' journal (21 Oct-30 Nov 1882), then Oxford Review (7 Dec 1882-14 June 1883), then Oxford and Cambridge undergraduates' journal (18 Oct 1883-4 Dec 1884), then Oxford Review (Jan 1885-1900+). F (1867), W (1879) Pern, The (1-13; 1 ns, 1893-1900+). Issued by Pembroke College Pheon, The (1-5; 1 ns, 1896-1900*). Issued by Sidney Sussex College Pink, The (1, 5 June 1899). For May Week Rag, The (1-6, 28 Jan-12 March 1896). W. Free weekly paper produced by Jesus College Ralph's Bottle (3 or 4 nos, 1840) Realm, The (1855) Rounde Table, Ye (1-6, Feb-June 1878). Oxford and Cambridge magazine. First, fourth, and seventh Sat in every term Saint Peter's World (1-4, 12 June, 16 Oct, 14 Nov 1889; 27 Feb 1890). Issued by Peterhouse College Screed, The (1899) Selwyn College Calendar (Michaelmas term, 1894-1900+). Issued by Selwyn College Sex, The; magazine of the Peterhouse sexcentenary club (1, 1897-1900+) Silver Crescent, The (1-32, 1890-1900+). Issued by Trinity College Snarl, The (1-2, 31 Oct^l4 Nov 1899). Twice monthly Snob, The (1:1-11, 1829), then Gownsman, The (2:1-17, 1829-30) Tatler in Cambridge, The (1-60, 26 April 1871-15 June 1872). NjAv/F

320 / Two Views of Victorian Society 76 (26382) Trident, The (1-$; 1 ns, 1889-91). Issued by Trinity College 77 (26393) Tripos, The (1-2, 19 Dec 1838-9 Feb 1839) 78 (26412) True Blue (1-2, 1883) 79 (27201) Wasp, The (12 June 1891) Locations Cambridge University Library Trinity College Library Sources C.A. Simmonds, assistant under-librarian, Periodicals Department, Cambridge University Library Amanda Seville, librarian, St John's College Diana Chardin, assistant manuscript cataloguer, Trinity College Library G.J. Gray, 'Cambridge University Periodicals,' Cambridge Review, 10 March 1886 H.C. Marillier, University Magazines and Their Makers (1902). A condensed and corrected version of Gray F.A. Rice, The Granta and Its Contributors, 1889-1914 (1924) DURHAM UNIVERSITY

1

(6879)

2 3

Critic, The (1, 23 June 1894). A magazine for the University of Durham (7924) Durham University Journal (1 July 1876-1900*) (26598) Undergrad (18 Feb, 22 June 1886; 30 Nov 1887)

Location Durham University Library, Palace Green Section Sources Sheila Doyle, assistant librarian, University of Durham J.T. Fowler, Durham University (1904) C.E. Whiting, The University of Durham (1932) LONDON U N I V E R S I T Y

1

(246)

Adventurer, The; or London University Magazine (1-2, May, July 1833). Bimonthly

Student Journals / 321 2 (15757) London Student, The (1-5, 1868) 3 (15758) London Student's Gazette, The (1-8, 1872). M 4 London University Chronicle (1, 26 April 1830) 5 (15789) London University College Magazine (1848-9) 6 (15791) London University Magazine, The (1829-30) 7 (15792) London University Magazine, The (vol 1, nos 1-3, 1842) 8 (15793) London University Magazine (1856-9). M 9 (16381) Marauder, The (21 Nov 1829). M 10 (21335) Privateer, The (nos 1-11, 1892-3) Location University of London Library, Senate House Sources Michael Mulcay, assistant librarian, Periodicals Section Birkbeck College 1 2 3 4

(2458)

Birkbeck Magazine, The (nos 1-3, May-July 1852). M (15622) London Mechanics' Register, The (1, 1824; 3 and 4, 1825) (16585) Mechanics' Magazine, The (nos 1-56, 1822/4-52. 1823/4-51 held by Birkbeck College, but out-housed) New Mechanics' Register, The (1-2, 1826-7)

Source Robert Wilson, Birkbeck Library King's College 1 2 3 4 5 6

King's College Gazette (27 June, 22 Nov, 14 Dec 1888). Twice a term (13861) King's College Literary and Scientific Magazine (1 June 1849-June 1850) King's College Magazine (1841-2). M. Generally, a literary magazine (5785) King's College Magazine (Ladies' Dept.) (1896-1900). Term time King's College Review, The (1899-1900). Q Kingsman, The (1889-91). F

322 / Two Views of Victorian Society Location King's College Library, Strand, London Source Patricia J. Methven, college archivist, King's College, London London School of Economics No undergraduate magazine until 1906 Source J.R. Pinfold, reference librian University College 1 2 3

4 5 6

(15791) (21335)

7

(24510)

8

(26765)

9 10 (26768)

London University Chronicle (no 1, 26 Apr; no 2, 3 May; no 3, 10 May 1830). W. Issued on Mondays London University Enquirer (1833). No copy survives. London University Examiner (28 Jan, 11, 18, 25 Feb, 4, 11, 18, 25 March, April missing, 6, 13, 22 May 1833). W. The only surviving copy is a handwritten manuscript in University College Rare Books. For 25 March the lead article is in support of 'The Rights of Women.' London University College Magazine (Feb 1848-July 1849). M London University Magazine (1829). M Privateer, The (2 May 1892-28 June 1893) 3 times per term. A student paper, founded, maintained, and conducted by students. Sphinx, The; an illustrated weekly journal. (1, 12 March 1896-10 Sept 1896). W University College Gazette (1st ser 1886-9; 2nd ser 1895-1900). Bimonthly. Aim: a current record of the college life University College Gazette, The (5 Nov 1899-1900*). M University College Magazine (1, 1856), then London University Magazine (1-3; ns 1-5, 1856-9)

Student Journals / 323 11

ty College Magazine (March, July, 1892). Bimonthly

Location University College Library, London Sources G.M. Furlong, archivist, University College Library, London John A. Hawgood, 'University College and Its Magazines,' Unive College Magazine (June 1927) UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER

1 2 3

(19666/19667) (1966^19667)

Iris. Newsletter of the Owens College Department for Women (Dec 1887-July 1894) Owens College Magazine (1868-93) Owens College Union Magazine (1894-1900+)

Location John Rylands Library, University of Manchester Sources Peter B. Nockles, University Library of Manchester (John Rylands) UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE

No university periodical before the Northerner, beginning Jan 1901. Sources R.S. Firth, Special Collections, The Robinson Library, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne OXFORD U N I V E R S I T Y

1 2 3 (3900) 4 (3921)

Blue, The (nos 1-8, 1893) Boomerang (no 1, 1875). See Cambridge, no 8. Bulldog, The (28 Feb 1896). W Bump, The (21 May 1898). An Eights' week magazine. Ephemeral

324 / Two Views of Victorian Society 5 6 7

(6069)

8 9

(6155)

10 11 (7203) 12 (7204) 13 14 15 (9951) 16 (10799) 17 (11261) 18 19 20 (13171) 21 22 23 24 (16088) 25 (16534) 26 27 (18626) 28 29 (19580) 30 (19680) 31 (19681)

Christ's Church Chronicle (1892) Clown, The (nos 1-4, 1891). Ed Max Beerbohm and C.C. Turner College Rhymes (1-14, 1860-74). Contrib members of Oxford and Cambridge Comet, The (1, 1886) Cornstalker, The (1, 1898). An Eights' Week Magazine. Ephemeral Daisy, The (1890-9). Published by Lady Margaret's College Dark blue (1, 1867) Dark blue (1-4, 1871-3). M Druid, The (1862-3). Published by Jesus College Ephemeral, The (1-6, 1893) Fritillary, The; Magazine of the Oxford women's colleges (1, 1893-1900*). Published by Oxford women's colleges Great Tom: a University Magazine (1-4, 1861). M Harlequin, The (1-8, 1866). Theatre Isis (1, 1839) Isis, The (1, 27 April 1892-1900*). F (1892) W (1899). Commercially owned, 1894 J.C.R. (1-3, Feb 1897-June 1899). Junior Common Room Jokelet, The (1-3, 1886) Keble College Occasional Papers (1879-?) Lincoln College Register (1899) Magdalen College School Magazine (1857-8). M. Then Magdalen College School Journal (1870-9), then The Lilly (1880-99) May-Bee, The (1, 22 May 1900) Mensae Secundae (1876) Non-Collegiate Students' Magazine (1-15, 1896-7) Octopus, The (1-6, 1895). An Eights' Week Magazine. Ed P. Comyns Carr Our Memories (1-20, Dec 1888-April 1893) Oxford and Cambridge Magazine (1-12, 1856). Founded by William Morris. See Cambridge, no 61. Oxford and Cambridge Review (1-5, 1845-7)

Student Journals / 325 32 (19694) Oxford critic and university magazine (1-3, 1857) 33 Oxford Literary Gazettte and classical and foreign journal (nos 1-4, 11 March-20 May 1829) 34 Oxford University Gazette (1870) 35 (19713) Oxford Magazine (1 May 1845) 36 (19714) Oxford Magazine (1, 1883-1900+). W 37 (19730) Oxford Rambler (1-2, 1882) 38 (19734) Oxford Spectator (1-31, 1867-8) 39 (19735) Oxford Tatler, The (1-3, 1886) 40 (19738) Oxford Undergraduates'Journal (1, 31 Jan 1866-Oct 1875), then Oxford and Cambridge Undergraduates'Journal (21 Oct 1875-30 Nov 1882), then Oxford Review (17 Dec-14 June 1883), then Oxford and Cambridge undergraduates' journal (18 Oct 1883-4 Dec 1884), then Oxford Review (Jan 1885-1900") 41 (19750) Oxford University Magazine (1-2, 1834-5) 42 (19751) Oxford University Magazine (1-2, 1869) 43 (19764) Oxonian, The (no 1, 1847) 44 Pantheon (1-2, 1883) 45 (20146) Pelican Record, The (1891-1900+) 46 Pipe, The (1-4, 1900) 47 (21404) Proctor, The (1, 1896). Only one issue 48 (21658) Quad, The (1-4, 1900-1900") 49 (21871) Radcliffe (1-10, 1869) 50 (22038) Rattle, The (1-3, 25 Feb 1886-30 May 1888). Principally devoted to rowing 51 (22683) Rounde Table, Ye (1, 1878) 52 (23118) Scarlet Runner (c Apr 1899-c Feb 1900). Q. Edited by two women 53 Scrapbook, The (1-3, 1866) 54 (23833) Shotover papers or echoes from Oxford, The (1-13, 23 Feb 1874-9 Feb 1875). M 55 Souvenir (1, 1893) 56 (24516) Spirit Lamp, The (6 May 1892-June 1893). W. Ed Lord Alfred Douglas 57 Squeaker, The (1-2, 1893) 58 (25712) Tea-Potte, Ye (1, March 1898) 59 (26599) Undergraduate, The (1-21, 24 Jan-6 Dec 1888). Accused of being 'scurrilous,' and suppressed

326 / Two Views of Victorian Society 60 (26601)

Undergraduate Papers (1-2, 1857). Conducted by A.C. Swinburne, T.H. Greene 61 Vacuum, The (1 May 1900) 62 Varsity Characters (1-4, 1900) 63 Wadham College Gazette (1897) 64 (27033) Waifs and Strays (1-3, 1879-82) 65 (28629) X, The; an unknown quarterly (10 Nov 1898-6 Dec 1900). F 66 (28898) Young Oxford (Oct 1899-1900+). M. Devoted to the Ruskin Hall movement Location The Bodleian Library, Oxford Sources E.H. Cordeaux and D.H. Merry, A Bibliography of Printed Works Relating to the University of Oxford (1968) D. Hudson, Three Hundred Years of University Journalism. (1940 vol. 7, no. 1, 54-64.) Harry Currie Marillier, University Magazines and Their Makers (1902) J.D. Symon, 'The Earlier Oxford Magazines.' Oxford and Cambridge Review no 13 (1911), 39-59 H. Wyndham, 'Some Old Oxford Magazines,' Bookman's Journal 4 (1921), 97-109 Ireland Numbers are taken from WD II. UNIVERSITY OF DUBLIN

1

(692)

2

(698)

College Magazine (Oct 1857-March 1858) Intended to be an outlet for student literary efforts Columban (May 1892-1900*) TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN

1

(2232)

Kottabos (1868-95) Published 3 times a year

Student Journals / 327 2

(3441)

Trinity College Dublin: a College Miscellany (1, 1896) W

Location Trinity College Library, Dublin. Sources V. Kinane, Department of Early Printed Books, Trinity College Library Dublin Irish Book Lover (6: 5 (Dec 1914), 71-3 Trinity College Dublin: An Anthology 1895-1945 (1945) UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN There is no record of any student publications before 1901. Scotland Numbers are taken from WD III. ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY 1

(203)

2

(211)

3 4 5 6

(243) (244) (333) (1343)

Aberdeen Universities' Magazine (Dec 1849-April 1850). M Aberdeen University Magazine (April 1854-July 1854). M Academic (5 Jan 1826-27 April 1826). F Academic (12 Jan 1877-23 Feb 1877). W Alma Mater (28 Nov 1883-1900*). W College Chimes (March 1897)

Location See WD III Sources Iain Beavan, sub-librarian Aberdeen University Library UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH 1

(417)

Anti-Nimmo (6 Dec 1832)

328 / Two Views of Victorian Society 2

(1065)

3 4 5

(1344) (1345) (1349)

6

(1474)

7 8

(1964) (2275)

9

(2278)

10 (2279) 11 (2280) 12 (2281) 13 (2282) 14 (2283) 15 (3841) 16 (4027) 17 (4328) 18 (4718) 19 (4728) 20 21 22 23

(4771) (5419) (5462) (5523)

24 (5543) 25 (6300) 26 (6415)

Cheilead, or university coterie (16 Oct 1826Feb 1827). W College Chum (17 Dec 1824-17 Jan 1825) College Echoes (1-3, 1887) College Magazine (30 Nov 1822). The earliest known specimen of Scottish student journalism Critic or Student's Mirror (20 Dec 1838-March 1839) Eclipse (17 Nov 1868-21 Nov 1868). Irregular Edinburgh University Journal (1 Jan 1823-12 March 1823). W Edinburgh University Magazine (4 Jan 1831-April 1831) Edinburgh University Magazine (March 1839-May 1839). M Edinburgh University Magazine (Jan 1866-March 1866) Edinburgh University Magazine (Jan 1871-April 1871). Ed R.L. Stevenson Edinburgh University Quarterly (Jan-Dec 1881) Edinburgh University Souvenir (1835). A Journal of the Fair (1-5, 30 Nov 1886-4 Dec 1886). D Lapsus linguae; college tatler (7 Jan 1824-2 April 1824). Thrice weekly Mene, Mene, Tekel (1835). No copies survive. New Evergreen, The; Christmas Book of University Hall (1894) New lapsus linguae (6 Dec 1824-8 April 1825; 9 Nov 1825-16 Jan 1826). Irregular; thrice weekly Nimmo, or Alma's Tawse (1833-4) Prodigious (13 Dec 1824-20 Dec 1824). W Q.C. (17 Oct 1899-1 Nov 1899) Real lapsus linguae; college mirror (1-14, 21 Dec 1824-10 Feb 1825). Twice weekly Reflector (1-7, 26 Feb 1828-18 March 1828). Twice weekly Shreds and Patches; college microcosm (1-11, 16 Nov 1825-9 Dec 1825). Thrice weekly Speculum academicum or Edinburgh miscellany (1-6, 1824-12 March 1824). W

Student Journals / 329 27 (6588) 28 (6592) 29 (6845) 30 (6851) 31 (6853) 32 (6855) 33 (6937) 34 (6939)

Student (8 Nov 1887-1900). M/twice M Students' journal and general advertiser (1-2, 1838). F University boreas, The (1-2, 12 Nov 1846-26 Nov 1846). F University John the giant killer (30 Nov 1832-6 Dec 1834) University Journal of literature and science (1 Jan 1834). F University maga (1-12, 8 Jan 1835-23 March 1838). W/F University snowdrop University squib (1-2, 9 Jan 1833-23 Jan 1833). F

Location See WD III. Sources P.B. Freshwater, deputy librarian, Edinburgh University Library The Tounis College: An Anthology of Edinburgh University Student Journals, 1823-1923 (1985) GLASGOW UNIVERSITY 1 (332) 2 (535) 3 (1342) 4 (1348) 5 (1353) 6

(1356)

7 8

(1357) (1361)

9 (1681) 10 (3207)

Alma Mater (1828) Athenaeum (1830). A? College Album (1828-68), then Old College (1869-73), then New college Glasgow university album (1874). Irregular College Liberal The (1-4, 1868-13 Nov 1868) College miscellany, The (1-7, 6 March 1863-17 April 1863) College Squib, The (1-4, 10 Feb 1846-24 March 1846). F College stethoscope and literary index (1828) Collegian, The (1-7, 13 Dec 1826-7 March 1827). W

Dundas Vale monthly, The (Oct 1899-1900*) Glasgow university magazine (Jan 1878-1900;

330 / Two Views of Victorian Society

11 (3209) 12 (4694) 13 (6790) 14 15 16 17

(6850) (6852) (6854) (6923)

18 (6938) 19 (6980)

There appears to be a lapse between 1878 and 1894.) Glasgow University Review, The (March 1884-Dec 1884). Q Nation's Choice (1-3, 19 Oct 1899-27 Oct 1899). W Undergraduate, The (1-4, 18 Jan 1898-8 March 1898). Twice monthly University Independent, The (10 Nov 1871) University Journal, The (1832). F University Liberal, The (9 Nov 1877-13 Nov 1877) University of Glasgow students' union bazaar news (1-4, 18 Dec 1889-21 Dec 1889). Daily, 4 days University souvenir, The (1834) Vox alumni (17 March 1899)

Location See WD III Sources David Weston, Special Collections, Glasgow University Library ST ANDREWS

1 1A 2 3 4

(1346) (1372) (4221) (6447) (6454)

5

(6455)

6

(6457)

7 8

(6458) (6459)

Location See WD III

College Echoes (7 Nov 1889-March 1890). W Comet, The (Feb 1862-April 1864). W Madras College Magazine (Jan 1890-1900). M St. Andrews Magazine (Jan 1831) St. Andrews university magazine, The (1-8, 3 Dec 1825-18 March 1826). F St. Andrews university magazine (Feb 1863-Jan 1864), then Comet, The (1-15, 1865-6) St. Andrews university monthly review, The (Jan 1867) St. Andrews university news sheet (1855) St. Andrews university news sheet (1-18, 1886-29 March 1889)

Student Journals / 331 Sources Robert N. Smart, keeper of muniments, University Library, St Andrews Wales UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES 1 2 3 4

Magazine of the University College of North Wales (1, 1891-1900+), then Omnibus Student (1-6, March-June 1889) University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire Magazine (1, 1888-1900*) University College of Wales Magazine (1, 1878^-19000, then Dragon

Location The National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth -Sources Huw Walters, assistant librarian, Department of Printed Books, National Library of Wales E.L. Ellis, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, 1872-1892. (1972) Iwan Morgan, College by the Sea, a Record and a Review (1928) J. Gwynn Williams, The University College of North Wales: Foundations 1884-1927 (1985)

Contributors

PATRICIA ANDERSON is a postdoctoral fellow affiliated with the Department of History, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC. She is the author of The Printed Image and the Transformation of Popular Culture, 1790-1860 (1991); deputy editor of the Journal of Newspaper and Periodical History; and coeditor of two volumes on nineteenthand twentieth-century British publishing houses (Dictionary of Literary Biography series). She has published articles on popular culture and illustrated periodicals and is currently finishing a book-length study, 'Visible Passion: Sex and Love in Victorian Popular Culture.' WILLIAM H. BROCK, formerly director of the Victorian Studies Centre at the University of Leicester, is currently professor in the History of Science at Leicester. He has held overseas fellowships in Munich, Toronto, Melbourne, and Philadelphia and was editor of Ambix, the journal of the Society for the History of Chemistry, from 1968 until 1980. He has written several books on the history of science, including (with A.J. Meadows) Lamp of Learning (1984), a history of the publishers and printers Taylor and Francis. ROBERT A. COLBY is professor emeritus, Graduate School of Library and Information Studies, Queens College of the City University of New York. His principal publications are Fiction with a Purpose: Major and Minor Nineteenth-Century Novels (1967); Thackeray's Canvass of Humanity: An Author and His Public (1979); and, in collaboration with Vineta Colby, The Equivocal Virtue: Mrs. Oliphant and the Victorian Literary Market Place (1966). Since his retirement,

Contributors/333 he has been investigating the career of Sir Walter Besant, on whom he has published several articles. A member of the Board of Directors of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals since its foundation in 1969, he is now co-ordinating its project to supplement the Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals, 1824-1900 through the Victorian Periodicals Review. BERNARD A. COOK, after studying at the Gregorian University in Rome and the University of Marburg on a Fulbright Fellowship, received his PH D from Saint Louis University in 1970. He is a professor of history at Loyola University in New Orleans, and recently contributed entries on British agriculture and other economic and social topics to Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia, and on British labour leaders to the Biographical Dictionary of Modern British Radicals. He is currently working on political and social issues in Germany and Italy. He has written entries for James Chastain's Encyclopedia of the 1848 Revolutions and recently had papers on revolution in Italy published in the proceedings of the Consortium on Revolutionary Europe and the Western Society for French History. RICHARD A. COSGROVE is professor of history at the University of Arizona. He is the author of The Rule of Law: Albert Venn Dicey, Victorian Jurist (1980) and Our Lady the Common Law: An Anglo-American Community, 1870-1930 (1987). His current research deals with the history of English jurisprudence from Blackstone to the present. CHRIS HOSGOOD is an assistant professor of history at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta. His work includes articles on 'the pigmies of commerce' (small shopkeepers) and the language of business' in Victorian Britain, as well as research on the world of commercial travellers. He is now writing a book reassessing the role of the lower middle class in late-Victorian and Edwardian Britain. LEANNE LANGLEY, who formerly taught music in the London Program of the University of Notre Dame, has recently served as senior consulting editor for Stanley Sadie, ed, The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (Macmillan Press 1992). She has also published numerous scholarly articles in journals dealing with aspects of the nineteenthcentury musical press and is a member of the council and publication board of the Royal Music Association. In other work she has concentrated on late eighteenth-century English music periodicals.

334/Contributors TONY MASON, a reader in social history at the University of Warwick, is author of several books, including Association Football and English Society, 1863-1915 (1980) and -Sport in Britain: A Social History (1989). DAVID J. MOSS, professor of history at the University of Alberta, specializes in the development of banking, monetary theory, and political radicalism, and also the history of Birmingham. He is the author of numerous scholarly articles on these subjects as well as of Thomas Attwood: The Biography of a Radical (1990), and is joint editor of Shadow and Substance in British Foreign Policy, 1895-1939 (1984). His forthcoming book is concerned with the creation of the Bank of England's domestic branch system, 1826-44. TERENCE NEVETT is a professor of marketing at Central Michigan University, and a governor of Britain's History of Advertising Trust. He is the author of Advertising in Britain, A History (1982) and of a number of articles and conference papers on aspects of advertising and marketing history, and is joint editor of Retrospectives in Marketing, an occasional newsletter. Since 1985 he has helped organize the series of international conferences on marketing history sponsored by the Academy of Marketing History. OLWEN C. NIESSEN is part-time assistant professor of history at the University of Waterloo. Her research interests include women and alcohol in nineteenth-century Britain. Currently, she is preparing two studies on the topics: a book on feminism and temperance in Victorian and Edwardian England, and a biography of Lady Henry Somerset. JOHN S. NORTH is associate professor of English at the University of Waterloo. In 1978 he contributed the opening chapter, Why Read Victorian Periodicals?' to J. Don Vann and Rosemary T. VanArsdel, eds, Victorian Periodicals: A Guide to Research, vol I. He is coeditor of the Waterloo Directory of Victorian Periodicals, 1824-1900, phase I (1976), and editor, Waterloo Directory of Irish Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900 (1986), and Waterloo Directory of Scottish Newspapers and Periodicals, 1800-1900 (2 vols, 1989). He has a fiftyvolume directory of English newspapers and periodicals for the same period currently under preparation. He is also interested in children's literature and the Bible.

Contributors / 335 HAROLD W. PAAR served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, after which he was trained as an engineering draftsman. From 1965 to 1991 he served as honorary research officer of the Railway and Canal Historical Society, developing the research index of original material for railway and canal history; he was president of the society in 1982 and 1983. His publications include The Severn and Wye Railway (1963), The Great Western Railway in Dean (1965), An Industrial Tour of the Wye Valley and the Forest of Dean (1980), and, with Adrian Gray, Life and Times of the Great Eastern Railway (1991). JOHN E.G. PALMER (1932-1990), BA Oxon, had a strong Anglican background (the Palmer family owned the Church Times from its founding, 1863). In 1959 he took his diploma in librarianship, University of London, with a thesis on British railway periodical literature. He began his career at the National Central Library in London, later moving to the British Library, where he was an editor of the Eighteenth-Century Short Title Catalogue (1984) and also worked on A Directory of Rare Book Collections (1985). In 1962 he joined the Railway and Canal Historical Society and was also a member of the Railway Club, London, whose Newsletter he edited. At the time of his death he was working on a biography of Joseph Clinton Robertson, first secretary of the Eastern Counties Railway Company. M. JEANNE PETERSON is professor of history at Indiana University, Bloomington. She is the author of The Medical Profession in MidVictorian London (1978), Family, Love, and Work in the Lives of Victorian Gentlewomen (1989), and a number of articles on the social history of Victorian medicine. Her research interests include the history of medicine (including mental illness), the history of women, the history of the family, and the history of religion and philanthropy. She is currently working on the history of the Pagets, a nineteenth-century professional family. RUTH RICHARDSON is the author of Death, Dissection and the Destitute (1987) and of many articles on medical and social history. Her interest in periodical bibliography began when she collaborated with John Noyce on his Directory of British Alternative Periodicals (1979). For the past six years she has worked with Robert Thorne on the Builder index project at the Institute of Historical Research, University of London.

336/Contributors JONATHAN ROSE, associate professor of history at Drew University, is president of the Northeast Victorian Studies Association. His books include The Edwardian Temperament, 1895-1919 (1986) and The Revised Orwell (1992), and he has published articles in the Journal of the History of Ideas, the Journal of British Studies, Albion, the D.H. Lawrence Review, and the Victorian Periodicals Review. With Patricia Anderson, he edited British Literary Publishing Houses, 1820-1965 (1991). Currently he is involved in organizing an international society for the history of authorship, reading, and publishing. JANE W. STEDMAN, professor emerita of English at Roosevelt University, is editor of Gilbert before Sullivan (1967), and author of many articles published in England and America. A member of the advisory boards of Victorian Studies and Nineteenth Century Theatre, she has also contributed theatrical essays to Suffer and Be Still (1972), Classic Theatre (1975), and Shakespeare and the Victorian Stage (1986). ROBERT THORNE is an architectural and engineering historian and has written books on Liverpool Street Station (1978), Covent Garden Market (1980), and King's Cross (1990). For the past six years he has worked with Ruth Richardson on the Builder index project, University of London. ALBERT TUCKER is professor of history at Glendon College of York University, Toronto, Canada. He has published interpretive essays on reform of the Victorian army in the Journal of British Studies and the Historical Journal, as well as bibliographic chapters in Robin Higham, ed, A Guide to the Sources of British Military History (1971) and in Gerald Jordan, ed, British Military History (1988). ROSEMARY T. VANARSDEL, distinguished professor of English, emerita, at the University of Puget Sound, is coeditor, with J. Don Vann, of Victorian Periodicals: A Guide to Research, vols I and II (1978, 1989) and, with Gordon S. Haight, of George Eliot: A Centenary Tribute (1982). A past president of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals (1981-3), she served on the editorial boards of the Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals, 1824-1900 (5 vols, 1966-89) and the Union List of Victorian Serials in North American Libraries (1985); she is the author of numerous articles on Victorian and Edwardian studies in scholarly journals in North America and the United Kingdom.

Contributors/337 J. DON VANN, regent's professor of English at the University of North Texas, secretary of the Research Society for Victorian Periodicals, and associate editor of Studies in the Novel, was the original editor of the annual bibliography in Victorian Periodicals Review. He has published books on Graham Greene, Samuel Beckett, and Henry James, as well as articles on Dickens, Browning, and other Victorian authors. His latest work is Victorian Novels in Serial (1985).

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Index

a Beckett, Arthur, 283 a Beckett, Gilbert, 278, 285, 286 a Beckett family, 165 ABC or Alphabetical Railway Guide, 194 Aberdeen Universities' Magazine, 327 Aberdeen University Magazine, 327 Academia, 316 Academic, 327 Academy, 148, 151, 158 Academy Architecture and Annual Architectural Review, 55 Acton, Dr William, 23 Adam Bede, 238 Adams, Maurice B., 47 Adams, W.E., 306 Admiralty and Horse Guards Gazette, 76 Adventurer, 320 Advertisements, 231 Advertiser's ABC, 229 Advertiser's Guardian, 229 Advertiser's Guide to the Newspaper Press of the United Kingdom, 228 Advertiser's Guide to Publicity, 229 Advertising: How? When? Where?, 229

Adye, John Miller, 74 Age, 278, 279, 281, 285 Age and Argus, 285 Agricultural and Horticultural Cooperative Association, 243 Agricultural and Industrial Magazine, 242 Agricultural Economist and Horticultural Review, 243 Agricultural Gazette, 242, 243, 245 Agricultural Labourers' Union, 247 Agricultural Magazine and Journal of Scientific Farming, 243 Agricultural Magazine and Farmers'Journal, 243 Agricultural Magazine, Plough, and Farmer's Journal, 243 Agricultural Returns: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Great Britain, 243 Agricultural Students' Gazette, 243 Ainsworth, William Harrison, 134, 135, 140 Ainsworth's Magazine, 134, 234 Albert, Prince, 51 Alcock, Charles W., 296 Aldershot Manoeuvres, 73 Allen, Alfred, 93 Allen, George, 159

340/Index Allen, W.H., 72 Allgemeine beuzeitung, 59 Alliance, 263 Alliance News, 263, 264, 265 Alliance Weekly News, 263 Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday, 283, 285, 304, 309 Alma Mater, 316, 327, 329 Almanac of the Month, 285 Alsager, Thomas Massa, 103, 104, 214 American Architect and Building News, 59 American Author, 157 American Authors' Guild, 152 American Authors' Guild Bulletin, 156 American Copyright Law, 147, 148 American Copyright League, 151, 152 American Fraternity of Writers, 152, 156 American Journal of Science, 90, 95 American Review, 157 Anarchist, 247 Anarchist Movement, 308 Anderson, Mary, 170 Anelay, Henry, 137, 140 Anglo-American Copyright Agreement, 146 Annalen der Physik, 90 Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 92 Annals of Agriculture, 239 Annals of the Fine Arts, 56 Annual Register, 182 Anson, Sir William, 18 Answers, 223 Anthropological Review, 82 Anti-Nimmo, 327 Anti-Punch, 282 Anti-Smoker and Progressive Temperance Reformer, 255, 268 Anti-Snarl, 316

Anti-Tobacco Journal, 25 Arbeter Fraint, 309 Arch, Joseph, 238, 241, 247 Archaeological Journal, 56 Archer, William, 165, 168, 173 Architect, 47, 54 Architect and Building Gazette, 51 Architect and Building Operative, 49,51 Architect and Contract Reporter, 54 Architect and Contractors' Compendium, 58 Architect, Engineer and Surveyor, 50 Architect's Compendium, 58 Architectural Association Journal, 58 Architectural Association Notes, 58 Architectural Association Sketchbook, 57 Architectural Forum, 59 Architectural illustration, 47 Architectural Magazine, 46, 49 Architectural Notices, 56 Architectural Quarterly Review, 57 Architectural Record, 59 Architectural Review, 55 Architectural Sketches, 58 Architecture, 55-6 Archives of the Royal Literary Fund: 1790-1918,306 Argosy, 135 Aris's Birmingham Gazette, 181 Army and Navy Calendar, 76 Army and Navy Gazette, 71, 72, 76, 77 Army and Navy Register, and Woolwich Garrison Gazette, 76 Army and Navy Magazine, 72, 76, 77 Army and Navy Templar, 267 Army, Navy and Air Force Gazette, 76 Army Quarterly, 79 Army Temperance Association, 267

Index / 341 Arnold, Matthew, 151 Arrow, 284, 285 Arsberdttelse om Framstegen i Physik och Kemie, 86 Art of Advertising, 229 Articled Clerks' Journal and Examiner, 16 Ashby, Joseph, 241 Ashore and Afloat, 267 Asmodeus in London, 286 Asmodeus, or, The Devil in London, 286 Association Medical Journal, 27 Association of Medical Officers of Asylums and Hospitals for the Insane, 28 Association of Publishers, 150 Astor Place riot, 164 Astronomical Journal, 95 Astronomische Nachrichten, 90 Asylum Journal of Mental Science, 28 Athenaeum, 65, 103, 104, 145, 147, 158, 165, 309, 329 Atlas, 103 Attwood, Matthias, 202 Attwood, Thomas, 202 Augener and Co, 122 Augener, George, 122 Austin, John, 11, 17, 20, 21 Austro-Prussian War, 71 Author, 148, 149, 150, 154, 155, 157, 158, 161 Authors and Publishers, 145 Authors' Circular, 150 Authors' Club, 151, 152 Authors' Guild, 152, 155 Authors'Journal, 155 Authors' League, 152 Authors' Syndicate, 159 Autobiography, working-class, 305 Autobiography of Joseph Livesey, 306 Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, 47

Avery Obituary Index to Architects, 47 Ayrshire Agriculturist, 243, 246 Ayrton, William, 103, 105, 110, 116 Bach, Johann Sebastian, 115, 117, 122, 123 Bacon, Richard Mackenzie, 104, 110, 115 Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes, 295 Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, 295 Bagehot, Walter, 205 Baily's Magazine of Sports and Pastimes and Racing Register, 294 Baily's Universal Railway Guide, 195 Baker and Confectioner, 201 Baldwin, Robert, 115 Balfe, Michael William, 122 Balfour, Clara Lucas, 271 Band of Hope, 251, 268, 270 Band of Hope Advocate, 270 Band of Hope Review, 268 Bankers' Magazine and Journal of the Money Market, 206 Bankruptcy, 210 Banter, 285 Baptist Reporter, 265 Baptist Total Abstinence Association, 265 Bar Examination Guide, 16 Bar Examination Journal, 16 Barchester Towers, 244 Barnett, Morris, 112 Barr, Robert, 137 Barratt, Thomas, 229, 232 Barrett, W.A., 118, 122 Barry, C.A., 122 Bartholomew, Alfred, 46, 50 Baughan, Edward A., 120 Baughan, J.H.G., 120 Bayreuth Festival, 124

342/Index Bear, 316 Beardsley, Aubrey, 142 Beatty-Kingston, William, 172 Beaufort, Duke of, 295 Becket, 173 Beddoes, Thomas, 33, 35 Bee-Hive, 303, 310 Beehive, 247 Beerbohm, Max, 142, 286, 324 Beethoven, Ludwig van, 103, 104, 117, 119 Beldragon, 316 Belgravia, 135 Belle assemblee, La, 106 Bell's Life in London, 303 Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle, 286 Bell's Weekly Messenger, 103, 243 Bendall, Ernest, 171 Benedict, 316 Benjamin, William Evarts, 153 Bennett, Arnold, 159 Bennett, George, 163 Bennett, Joseph, 103, 118 Bennett, Sterndale, 115 Benson, Samuel Herbert, 232 Bentham, Jeremy, 11, 20 Bentley, Richard, 64, 135 Bentley's Miscellany, 103, 129, 131, 135 Berlioz, Hector, 100 Berrow's Worcester Journal, 181 Besant, Walter, 143, 144, 145, 148, 149, 150, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161 Bestow, William, 170 Betts, T. Percy M., 124 Bewick, Thomas, 132, 139 Birkbeck Magazine, 321 Birmingham Daily Post, 109 Birmingham Temperance Institute, Catalogue of Temperance Literature, 256 Black, John, 55 Black and White, 280, 286

Black Dwarf, 302 Blackmantle, Bernard, 286 Blackstone, Sir William, 20 Blackwood's Magazine, 74, 96, 103, 182, 204 Blanchard, E.L., 165, 167, 172 Blanchard, Jerrold, 283 Blatchford, Robert, 306, 307 Blow, John, 121 Blue, 323 Blue 'un, 316 Boer War, 69 Bogle, W.R., 191 Bogue, David, 168 Bolas, Thomas, 193 Bond of Union, 265 Book Chat, 153 Book Lover, 153 Book News, 158 Book News Monthly, 153 Book World, 150 Bookman, 149, 150, 157, 158 Bookseller, 158 Bookseller: The Organ of the Book Trade, 147 Booksellers of Great Britain and Ireland, 150 Bookselling, 150 Boomerang, 316, 323 Botanical Magazine, 94 Bottesini, Giovanni, 125 Boucicault, Dion, 168 Bourne, H.R. Fox, 278 Bow Bells, 134, 135 Bowker, R.R., 153 Bowles, Thomas Gibson, 141 Bradbury, William, 119 Bradbury and Evans, 71 Braddon, Mary Elizabeth, 135 Bradlaugh, Charles, 170 Bradshaw, George, 184, 194 Bradshaw's General Railway Directory, 195 Bradshaw's Railway Almanack, 195

Index/343 Bradshaw's Railway Gazette, 188 Bradshaw's Railway Guide, 183 Bradshaw's Railway Manual, 183, 195 Bradshaw's Shareholders' Guide, 195 Brass Halo, 316 Brassey, Thomas (Earl), 76 Brassey's Naval Annual, 76 Brewster, Sir David, 94 Bristol Job Nott, 302 Bristol Temperance Herald, 270 British and Foreign Medical Review, 38 British and Foreign MedicoChirurgical Review, 32 British and Foreign Railway Journal, 189, 190 British and Foreign Railway Review, 190 British and Foreign Review, 127, 128, 129 British and Foreign Temperance Advocate, 259 British and Foreign Temperance Herald, 259 British and Foreign Temperance Intelligencer, 261, 262 British and Foreign Temperance Society, 259 British and Irish Architectural History, 47 British Architect, 54 British Army Despatch, 67, 76 British Association for the Promotion of Temperance, 261 British Farmer's Magazine, 245 British Homeopathic Society, 34 British Hong Kong Tea Company's Monthly Circular to Grocers and Tea Dealers, 214 British Journal of Dental Science, 33 British Journal of Homeopathy, 34 British Journal of Psychiatry, 28

British Lion, 280 British Medical Journal, 27, 32, 33, 37, 38, 82, 90 British Medical Temperance Association, 268 British Military Library, 64 British Musical Biography, 109 British Quarterly, 205 British Quarterly Review, 103 British Record of Obstetric Medicine and Surgery, 26 British Society of Authors, 144, 147, 154, 156 British Soldier, 67, 76 British Temperance Advocate, 261 British Temperance Advocate and Journal, 261 British Temperance League, 261 British Women's Temperance Association, 252, 271, 272, 273, 275 British Women's Temperance Journal, 272 British Workman, 308 Broad Arrow, 65, 73, 76, 77 Broadhouse, John, 120, 122, 125 Broker's Circular: Tea and Colonial Prices Current, 215 Bronte, Emily, 235 Brooklet, 265 Brooks, Michael, 51 Brotherhood, 247 Brougham, Henry Peter, Baron, 14 Brown, Hablot K. (Phiz), 135, 137, 138, 287 Browne, Francis, 154 Browne, Gordon, 141 Browne, Thomas, 229 Brownlow, Charles V., 136 Bryan, Alfred, 170, 171 Bryce, James, 18 Bubble, 316 Buckingham, John Silk, 148 Builder, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 54, 60 Builder and Contractors' Price Book, 57

344/Index Builders' Blue Book, 58 Builders' [Illustrated] Journal, 57 Builder's Journal, 55 Builder's Journal and Architectural Record, 55 Builder's Merchant, 59 Builder's Price Book, 56 Builders' Reporter and Engineering Times, 53, 57 Builders' Weekly Reporter, 53, 57 Building, 50 Building and Engineering Times,

53

Building Chronicle, 57 Building Industries, 58 Building News, 47, 52, 306 Building News and Architectural Review, 52 Building News and Engineering Journal, 52 Building World, 58, 59 Bulldog, 323 Bulletin des sciences mathematiques, 86 Bullionist, 215 Bulwer-Lytton, Edward, 65, 146 Bump, 323 Burgess, Henry, 206 Burgess, Joseph, 306 Burnand, F.C., 165, 281, 283 Burne-Jones, Edward, 136, 141, 318 Burns, Dawson, 262 Butcher, 201 Butterfly, 286 Byron, H.J., 165 Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 168 Cable, 248 Cable and Agricultural World, 248 Cadet's Own, 269 Caian, 316 Caldecott, Randolph, 137, 140 Cam, 316 Cambridge, Duke of, 68

Cambridge A.B.C., 316 Cambridge Dionysia, 317 Cambridge Essays, 317 Cambridge Fortnightly, 317 Cambridge Law Journal, 18 Cambridge Magazine, 317 Cambridge Meteor, 317 Cambridge Observer, 317 Cambridge quarterly review and academical register, 317 Cambridge quarterly review and magazine of literature, arts, sciences, etc., 317 Cambridge Review, 317 Cambridge Tatler, 317 Cambridge Terminal Magazine, 317 Cambridge Undergraduate's Journal, 317 Cambridge University Gazette, 317 Cambridge University Magazine, 317 Cambridge University Reporter, 317 Campbell, Thomas, 148 Canadian Centre for Architecture, 48 Canal Journal, 196 Cantab, 317 Capell, Richard, 120 Capes, John Moore, 104 Capital and Investment, 216 Capitalist, 216 Carlile, Richard, 307 Carlyle, Thomas, 163 Carnegie, Andrew, 152 Carpenter and Builder, 55 Carr, P. Comyns, 324 Carrodus, J.T., 125 Carter, E., 49 Cassell, John, 135, 140 Cassell's Family Magazine, 310 Cassell's Illustrated Family Paper, 135, 309

Index/345 Cassell's Magazine, 129, 132, 135, 140 Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals, 1665-1885, 88 Catalogue of Scientific Serials, 1633-1876, 88 Catalogue of the Library of the Chemical Society, 89 Catalogue of the Science Library in the South Kensington Museum, 89 Catalogue of the Scientific Books in the Library of the Royal Society, 88 Catholic Press, 266 Catholic Temperance Magazine, 266 Cayley, Arthur, 87 Central National Society for Women's Suffrage, 275 Century Guild Hobby Horse, 136 Century Magazine, 151 Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, 302, 305 Chamber-s's Journal of Popular Literature, 310 Chanticleer, 318 Charing Cross Hospital Gazette, 29 Charivari, 144 Chartered Institute of Transport, 185 Charterhouse School, 71 Chartism, 306, 308 Chatterton, Dan, 306 Chatterton's Commune, 306 Cheilead, 328 Chemical Abstracts, 86 Chemical News, 89, 95 Chemische Annalen, 91 Chemisches Journal, 91 Chemisches Zentralblatt, 86 Chemist, or Reporter of chemical discoveries and improvements, 34 Chemist and Druggist, 34, 96 Chemistry and Industry, 91

Children's magazines, 304 Choir, 121 Choir and Musical Record, 121 Chopin, Frederic, 100, 117 Chorley, Henry F., 103, 104, 109, 122 Christian Physician and Anthropological Magazine, 25 Christ's Church Chronicle, 324 Christ's College Magazine, 318 Church Builder, 57 Church of England Temperance Chronicle, 265 Church of England Temperance Magazine, 264 Church of England Temperance Society, 267, 269 Church of England Total Abstinence (later, Temperance) Society, 252, 264 Circular, 230 Circular to Bankers, 206 Circulation, 61 Civil Engineer and Architects' Journal, 46, 49, 50, 51, 182 Civil War (American), 69, 237, 303 Civilian Rifle Club, 79 Clarion, 306 Clarion Movement, 307 Clarke, Charles Cowden, 105, 109, 117 Clarke, Henry Hyde, 187, 188 Clarke, J.F., 38 Clarke, Mary Cowden, 105, 109, 118 Cleave's Gazette of Variety, 286 Cleave's London Satirist and Gazette of Variety, 286 Cleave's Penny Gazette of Variety, 286 Clement, W.I., 214 Clerke, Major T.H. Shadwell, 62, 66,69 Clowes, William, 65, 111, 116 Clown, 324

346 / Index Cobbett, William, 307 Cochrane, James, 243 Cockeram, P., 150 Colburn, Henry, 64, 65, 66, 77, 79 Colburn, Zerah, 53 Colburn's United Service Magazine, 65, 79 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 230 College Album, 329 College Chimes, 327 College Chum, 328 College Echoes (University of Edinburgh), 328 College Echoes (St Andrews University), 330 College Liberal, 329 College Magazine (University of Dublin), 326 College Magazine (University of Edinburgh), 328 College miscellany, 329 College Rhymes, 318, 324 College Squib, 329 College stethoscope and literary index, 329 Collegian, 329 Colles, William Morris, 159 Collins, Louis, 229 Collins, Mortimer, 284 Colonist and Commercial Weekly Advertiser, 214 Columban, 326 Combe, George, 283 Comet (Oxford University), 324 Comet (St Andrews University), 330 Comic Almanack, 283, 286 Comic Bits, 284 Comic Magazine, 286 Comic News, 286 Comic Times, 286 Comic-Pictorial Nuggets, 285 Commercial History Supplement, 206

Companion to the [British] Almanac, 46 Comptes Rendus, 90 Congregational Abstainer, 265 Congregational Total Abstinence Society, 265 Congress of Authors, 154 Conrad, Joseph, 159 Contemporary Review, 103, 295 Contract Journal, 58 Cook, Button, 173 Cook's Continental Time Tables, 194 Cook's Excursionist, 191 Cook's Excursionist International Tourist Adviser, 191 Cooper, Thomas, 306 Cooper's Journal, 306 Copyright, 124; national and international, 148 Copyright Act of 1911, 146 Copyright Law, 112 Copyright Law of 1891 (U.S.), 151, 154, 155 Corbould, A.C., 137 Corelli, Marie, 174 Corn Laws, 236, 237, 244 Cornhill Magazine, 103, 130, 131, 132, 136, 295 Cornstalker, 324 Cornwall Teetotal Journal, 265 Cornwall Temperance Journal, 265 Cotton Factory Times, 306, 310 Council of the Financial Reform Association, 215 Country Gentleman and Land and Water, 244 Country Sport, 243 County Courts Chronicle, 15 Courier, 214 Court Journal, 65 Cox, H.A., 51 Craig, Frank, 137 Cramer, Beale and Co, 118

Index/347 Cramer, Beale and Wood, 121 Cramer, Johann Baptist, 114, Crane, Walter, 135, 136, 137 Crawford, Alan, 48 Crell, Lorentz, 91 Cricket, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295 Cricket, 296 Crimean War, 67, 71, 74, 76, 237 Crisp, F., 244 Critic (New York), 154, 158 Critic (Durham), 320 Critic or Student's Mirror, 328 Cromwell, Oliver, 312 Crookes, Sir William, 95 Crowdy, John, 120 Crowe, J.A., 129, 140 Crowest, Frederick J., 109 Crowquill, Alfred, 135 Cruikshank, George, 135, 137, 138, 278, 283, 286, 289 Crusade, 272 Crystal Palace, 122 Cummings, George, 215 Cummings, W.H., 118, 123 Curtain, 163 Curwen, Henry, 65 Curwen, John, 110, 119 Curwen, John, and Sons, 119 Cusins, W.G., 122 Cyclist, 296 Daily Mail, 75, 232, 293 Daily Post, 203 Daily Railway Share List, 194 Daily Telegraph, 103, 165, 172 Daisy, 312, 324 Daly, Cesar, 59 Dalziel, Edward, 141, 283 Dalziel, George, 283 Dannreuther, Edward, 114, 122, 125 Dark blue, 324 Darwin, Charles, 93 Davison, Henry, 109

Davison, James William, 103, 105, 109, 117 de Coyley, Mimosa, 312 de Koven, Reginald, 174 Decorators' Gazette and Plumber and Gasfitters' Review, 58 Defoe, Daniel, 204 Delamotte, William A., 135 Delane, J.T., 167 Democrat, 247 Dent, J.M., 309 Derby Festival, 100 Desnoyers, Louis, 144 Devil in London, 278, 286 Devon and Cornwall Temperance Journal, 270 Devon and Cornwall Temperance League, 270 Devon and Cornwall Templar, 270 Devon Temperance Journal, 265 Dial, 153, 158 Diary ofPepys, 65 Dibdin's Penny Trumpet, 278 Dicey, A.V., 11, 18 Dickens, Charles, 100, 104, 135, 140, 144, 146, 149, 225, 231, 289 Dickens, Charles, Jr, 194 Dickens's Continental ABC Railway Guide, 194 Dickens's Dictionary of Continental Railways, 194 Dicks, John, 135, 140 Dictionary of Commerce, 230 Diehl, Alice Mangold, 109 Dilke, Charles Wentworth, 243, 245 Diogenes, 286 Discovery, 94 Disraeli, Benjamin, 65, 140 Dixon, Thomas, 229 Dobson, Austin, 132 Doctor; a medical penny magazine, 35 Dodd, Frank, 157 Dore, Gustave, 137, 138, 140, 163

348 / Index Douglas, Lord Alfred, 325 Dowdeswell, Charles, 125 Doyle, Richard 'Dicky,' 136 Dramatic and Musical Circular, 163 Dramatic Notes, 168 Dramatic Review, 165 Dramatic Times, 164 Dramatic World, 164 Dramatists' Guild, 152 Draper, 201 Drapers' Chamber of Trade, 212 Drapers'Record, 201, 212 Dredge, J., 53 Druid, 324 du Marnier, George, 136, 140, 283 Dublin Builder, 59 Dublin Hospital Gazette, 29 Dublin Journal of Medical and Chemical Science, 29 Dublin Medical Press, 33, 37 Dublin Review, 103 Duncan, W.W., 195 Duncan's Manual of British and Foreign Tramway Companies, 195 Duncan's Manual of Tramways, Omnibuses and Electric Railways, 195 Dundas Vale monthly, 329 Dundee, Perth, and Forfar People's Journal, 305 Durham University Journal, 320 Dvorak, Antonin, 100, 118 Dysart, Earl of, 125 Eagle, 318 Ecclesiologist, 56 Echo, 170 Echoes, 286 Echoes from the Clubs, 286 Eclipse, 328 Economic Journal, 205 Economist, 200, 206, 215 Edinburgh Journal of Science, 94

Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, 33 Edinburgh Medical Journal, 33 Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society Occasional Papers, 27 Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, 182 Edinburgh Review, 103, 115, 200, 204, 207, 227, 230, 234, 295 Edinburgh University Journal, 328 Edinburgh University Magazine, 328 Edinburgh University Quarterly, 328 Edinburgh University Souvenir, 328 Edison, Thomas A., 95 Editor, 155, 156 Edwards, F.G., 110, 118 Edwards, Henry Sutherland, 109, 112, 284 Edwards, John Passmore, 53, 306 Electric Railway Reviews and Tramway Journal, 192 Electrical Engineer, 58 Elgar, Sir Edward, 99 Eliot, George, 146, 238, 241 Ella, John, 104, 110, 119 Ellis, William Ashton, 111, 124, 125 Elmes, James, 56 Emmanuel College Magazine, 318 Enclosure, 235 Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm and Villa Architecture, 49 Engel, Carl, 118 Engelmann, Wilhelm, 95 Engineer, 53, 186, 191 Engineer and Iron Trades Advertiser, 57 Engineer and Surveyor's Magazine, 56 Engineering, 53, 186, 191 Engineering and Building Record, 58

Index/349 Engineering and Building Times, 57 Engineering Index, 58 Engineering Record, 58 Engineering Review, 58 Engineering Times, 59 Engineers' Gazette, 58 English Dramatists of To-Day, 168 English Gentleman, 285 English Illustrated Magazine, 130, 136 English Labourer, 247 English Labourers' Chronicle, 247, 248 English Mechanic, 85 English Republic, 306 English Spy, 286 Englishman, 214 Ephemeral, 324 Era, 166, 167, 170, 174 Evans, Arthur, 215 Evans, D. Morier, 215 Evans, Edward, 135, 141 Evans, Richard, 215 Evelyn's Diary, 65 Everyman, 309 Examiner, 103, 105 Experimental Station Record, 1889-1922, 239 Family Novelette, 136 Fancier's Gazette, 246 Far /rom the Madding Crowd, 173 Farm, Field, and Fireside, 246 Farm Life, 247 Farmer and Labourer, 247 Farmer's Express, 246 Farmer's Herald, 244 Farmer's Journal, 244 Farmer's Journal and Agricultural Magazine, 244 Farmer's Magazine (London), 244, 245 Farmers' Magazine (Scotland), 239 Farmer's Museum, 245

Farming News and North British Agriculturist, 246 Farming World, 245 Farnell, Frank Lee, 156 Federation of Grocers' Associations, 212 Felix Farley's Bristol Journal, 181 Fellow, 318 Ferris, Mary L.D., 157 Field, 244, 245 Field, the Farm, the Garden, the Country Gentleman's Newspaper, 294 Figaro in London, 278, 283, 286 Figaro-Programme, 163 Financial and Commercial Record, 214 Financial Chronicle, 216 Financial Critic and Share Exchange, 215 Financial News, 216 Financial Record, 214 Financial Reformer, 215 Financial Times, 214, 216 Financial World, 216 Financier, 216 Firs£ Men in the Moon, 81 Fitzball, Edward, 121 Fleming, H., 245 Fly, 281, 286 Football Association, 296 Forbes, John, 38 Forceps, 33 Foreign Quarterly Review, 103 Fore's Sporting Notes and Sketches, 294 Forrest, Edwin, 164 Forsyth, Jessie, 267 Fortnightly Review, 103, 205, 295 Forty Years' Recollections, 306 Forum, 144, 154, 158 Fox, Celina, 48 Francis, William, 85, 94 Franco-Prussian War, 69, 71 Franklin, Benjamin, 262

350/Index Eraser's Magazine, 103, 134, 136, 230, 283 Free Methodist Temperance League, 265 Freehold Land Times and Building News, 52 Freshman, 318 Frith, W.P., 283 Fritillary, 312, 324 Frost, Thomas, 306 Fuchs, Carl, 125 Fun, 165, 166, 284, 285, 287, 289 Funny Folks, 287 Furniture Gazette, 58 Gadfly, 318 Gamp, Sarah, 33 Gardener's Chronicle, 243, 244 Gardener's Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, 245 Gardener's Magazine, 93 Gas Journal, 57 Gauntlett, Henry J., 112, 117, 121 Gazette of Bankruptcy, 14 Gentleman's Magazine, 46, 49, 182, 230 Geological Magazine, 93 Geologist, 81, 93 George Cruikshank's Magazine, 283, 287 George Cruikshank's Omnibus, 283, 287 George Cruikshank's Scraps, 283 George Cruikshank's Table-Book, 283, 287 Ghosts, 168 Gibbons, Orlando, 121 Gibbs, W., 57 Gibson's Law Notes, 16 Giffen, Sir Robert, 207 Gilbert, John, 129, 135, 137, 140 Gilbert, William S., 165, 166, 171, 172, 231 Gilder, Jeanette L., 154 Gilder, Richard Watson, 151

Girls' Own Annual, 296 Girton College Review, 312 Girton Review, 318 Gissing, George, 159, 231 Glasgow Medical Journal, 33 Glasgow Sentinel, 308 Glasgow university magazine, 329 Glasgow University Review, 330 Gloucester Journal, 181 Glowworm, 165, 283, 287 Godwin, Charles, 49 Godwin, George, 46, 47, 50, 60 Goldsmith, Oliver, 285 Golfing, 296 Gondoliers, 231 Good Templars, 251, 269, 270, 272 Good Templars and Sunday School Magazine, 269 Good Templars' Watchword, 267 Good Words, 83, 130, 132, 136 Goodman, A.J., 139 Gordon, A., 193 Gordon, Margaret, 155 Goss, Sir John, 118 Gould, Benjamin, 95 Gould, F. Carruthers, 141 Gounod, Charles, 100, 118 Gownsman, 318, 319 Graham's Illustrated Temperance Almanack and Yearbook, 256 Graham's Temperance Guide, Handbook, and Almanack, 256 Grant, James, 278 Granta, 318, 320 Graphic, 137, 138, 139 Great Gun, 280, 287 Great Northern Journal and General Railway Gazette, 193 Great Northern Railway Journal, 193 Great Tom, 324 Great Western Magazine, 193 Great Western Railway Magazine, 193

Index/351 Greene, T.H., 326 Greening, E.G., 243 Gregory, F.G.O.S., 73 Griffen, R., 205 Grocer, 201, 208, 210, 211, 212 Grocer's Gazette, 201 Grocers'Journal, 201, 208, 212 Groombridge, Richard, 206 Grossmith, George, 168 Grove, Archibald, 139 Grove, George, 103 Gruneisen, C.L., 112 Guardian, 231 Guide to Advertisers, 229 Gull, William, 32 Gurney, Edmund, 103^, 105 Guy's Hospital Reports, 29 Haldane Reforms, 75 Hamley, Edward, 74 Hammond, A.W., 120 Harmonicon, 102, 106, 108, 110, 111, 116 Handel, George Frederick, 119 Hannay, James, 279, 280 Hansom, Joseph, 46, 49, 50, 60 Hardie, Keir, 307 Hardships of Publishing, 145 Hardwicke, Robert, 92 Hardy, Thomas, 81, 139, 149, 159, 173 Harlequin, 324 Harmsworth, Alfred, 75, 232, 293 Harmsworth Magazine, 137 Hart, Ernest, 38 Hart's Annual Army List, 77 Harvard Law Review, 18 Harvey, William, 137, 139 Hatton, Joseph, 281 Hawkings, E., 78 Hawkins, F., 172 Haydn, Franz Joseph, 100, 118, 119 Heinemann, William, 145, 157 Hengler's Circus, 171

Henning, A.S., 137 Herapath, Edwin John, 186 Herapath, John, 180, 186 Herapath's Railway and CommercialJournal, 186 Herapath's Railway Journal, 186 Herapath's Railway Magazine, 186 Herbalism, 25 Hereford Journal, 181 Hersee, Henry, 171 Hewlett, Henry G., 109 Hickson, William Edward, 103 Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, 152 Highway, 309 Hillington Hall, 245 Hills, William H., 155 Hilton, Arthur Clements, 318 Hipkins, A.J., 124 History of Advertising Trust, 224 History of Mr Polly, 199 Hodges, Edward, 117 Hodges, Faustina H., 109 Hodson, Henrietta, 172 Hogarth, George, 103, 110 Holdsworth, Annie E., 275 Holland, Sir Thomas Erskine, 18 Holloway, Thomas, 232 Holly Leaves, 171 Holmes, Edward, 103, 104, 110, 112, 117, 118 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 18 Holmes, Sherlock, 141 Holt, Thomas Lyttleton, 190 Holyoake, George Jacob, 306, 307 Homeopathic Times, 34 Homeopathy, 25, 34 Hood, Thomas, 122, 283 Hopkins, E.J., 118, 121 Horse Guards, 66, 67 Horse racing, 292 Hort, Lt Col, 76 Hospital Nursing Mirror, 33 Houghton, A.B., 137

352/Index Houghton, Arthur, 135 Household Words, 231 Howells, William Dean, 151, 152 Howitt's Journal, 303 Huard, Louis, 135, 138 Hudson, George, 181, 187 Hueffer, Francis, 103, 104, 110, 114 Hughes, Edward, 135 Hull League of the Band of Hope, 270 Hullah, John, 104, 112, 117 Hummel, Johann Nepomuk, 100 Hunt, Holman, 136 Hunt, Leigh, 103, 104, 105, 110, 117 Hutchinson, George, 137, 138 Hyder, Joseph, 248 Hygeia or essays moral and medical, 35 Ibsen, Henrik, 168, 172 Idler, 137, 287 Illustrated Annual of Microscopy, 128 Illustrated Builder's Journal, 57 Illustrated Carpenter and Builder, 55, 127 Illustrated Family Novelist, 137 Illustrated Inventor, 127 Illustrated London News, 46, 103, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 137, 138, 139, 140, 172 Illustrated Naval and Military Magazine, 72, 76, 77 Illustrated Review, 130, 137 Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 171, 172, 295 Illustrated Tid Bits, 138 Illustrated Times, 138 Illustration, working-class journals, 309 Illustrations of the Plan of a National Association for the Encouragement and Protection of

Authors and Men of Talent and Genius, 144 Image, Selwyn, 136 In the Year of Jubilee, 231 Incorporated Society of Authors, 143, 144, 147, 148 Independent Order of Good Templars, 266 Independent Order of Rechabites, 251, 266 Indian Mutiny, 71 Individual, 318 Industrial Review, 247 Industries, 186 Ingram, Herbert, 137 Inland Architect and Builder, 59 Institute of Bankers, 202 Institute of British Architects, 45, 49 Institute of Builders, Proceedings, 58 Institution of Civil Engineers, 48 Institution of Civil Engineers, Transactions, 56 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Journal and Proceedings, 57 Institution of Public Health Engineers, Proceedings, 59 Insurance Record, 216 International Catalogue of Scientific Literature: List of Journals, 88 International Studio, 59 Investors' Guardian, 216 Investors' Manual, 206 Inwards, Jabez, 262 Iris: Newsletter of the Owens College Department for Women, 312, 323 Irish Builder and Engineering Record, 59 Irish Jurist, 16 Irish Law Times, 16 Irish Railway Gazette, 188

Index/353 Irish Railway Telegraph, 189 Iron, 186 Iron and Coal Trades Review London, 58 Iron and Steel Trades Journal and Mining Engineer, 57 Iron Times, 189 Iron Trade Exchange, 57 Ironmonger and Metal Trades Advertiser, 57 Irving, Henry, 172, 173 /sis, 324 Isle of Man Guardian and Rechabite Journal, 266 J.C.R., 324 Jackson, John, 139 Jackson, Mason, 132 Jackson, N.A., 296 Jacobs, Joseph, 160 Jacques, E.F., 118, 125 Jacques, Edwin, 210 Jahrbucher fur die Deutsche Armee und Marine, 69 Jahresbericht tiber die Fortschritte der physischen Wissenschaften, 86 James, G.P.R., 146 James, Henry, 139, 151, 155, 159 Jardine, William, 93 Jenkins, Frank, 48 Jerdan, William, 144, 145 Jerome, Jerome K., 137 Jerrold, Douglas, 140, 278 Joachim, Joseph, 125, 174 Johnson, Dr Samuel, 285 Johnson, Robert Underwood, 151 Joint Stock Companies Journal, Railway Gazette and Mining Chronicle, 188 Jokelet, 324 Jones' Woolwich Journal, 79 Journal, 275 Journal de Savans, 85 Journal des Chemins de Fer, 188

Journal fur praktische Chemie, 90 Journal of Anatomy, 81 Journal of Cutaneous Medicine, 25 Journal of Education, 296 Journal of Elemental Locomotion, 193 Journal of Gas Lighting, Water Supply and Sanitary Improvement, 57 Journal of Jurisprudence and Scottish Law Magazine, 16 Journal of Mental Science, 28, 82 Journal of Microscopy, 93 Journal of Morbid Anatomy, Ophthalmic Medicine and Pharmaceutical Analysis, 33 Journal of Ophthalmology, 26 Journal of Physiology, 90, 91 Journal of Psychological Medicine and Mental Pathology, 26 Journal of Public Health, 35 Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 82 Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 56 Journal of the British Homeopathic Society, 34 Journal of the Chemical Society, 90 Journal of the English Agricultural Society, 245 Journal of the Fair, 328 Journal of the Franklin Institute, 96 Journal of the New British and Foreign Temperance Society, 262 Journal of the RIBA, 49 Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 245 Journal of the Royal Artillery, 70, 78 Journal of the Royal United Service Institution, 68, 77 Journal of the Society of Public Teachers of Law, 18

354/Index Journal of the Wesley Naturalists' Society, 93 Jubilee Record of the Independent Order of Rechabites. Salford Unity, 266 Judicature Act of 1873, 14, 18 Judy, 170, 283, 285, 287, 289 Juridical Review, 16 Jurist, 16, 18 Justice of the Peace and County, Borough, Poor Law Union and Parish Law Recorder, 13 Juvenile Rechabite, 269 Juvenile Rechabites Magazine, 269 Juvenile Templar, 269 K.P., 318 Kalendar, 49 Kamen, Ruth, 47 Kean, Charles, 164 Keble College Occasional Papers, 324 Keene, Charles, 129, 137, 138, 139, 140 Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co, 111 Kelvin, Lord, 87 Kemble, John, 164 Kendal, Margaret, 168 Kenney, Charles Lamb, 112 King, Anthony, 47, 51 King's College Gazette, 321 King's College Literary and Scientific Magazine, 321 King's College Magazine, 321 King's College Magazine (Ladies' Dept.), 312, 321 King's College Review, 321 Kings man, 321 Klein, Hermann, 110 Knight, Charles, 117, 129, 132, 139, 230 Knowledge, 82 Koch, A., 55 Kottabos, 326

Laboratory, 85 Labouchere, Henry, 172 Labour Leader, 307 Labour World, 247 Labourers' Chronicle, 247 Labourer's Friend, 248 Labourer's Friend Magazine, 247 Labourers' Union Chronicle, 248 Lacour, Octave, 136 Lancashire and Cheshire Band of Hope Union, 269 Lancet, 24, 26, 32, 33, 38, 82, 90 Land and Labour, 248 Land Magazine, 248 Land Nationalization Society, 248 Landseer, Sir Edwin Henry, 171 Lang, Andrew, 148 Langtry, Lillie, 169 Lantern of the Cam, 318 Lapsus Linguae, 312, 328 Law, 17 Law Amendment Journal, 15 Law and Commercial Daily Remembrancer, 14 Law Chronicle, 16 Law Chronicle and Law Students' Magazine, 15 Law Chronicles, 15 Law Digest, 15 Law Examination Journal and Law Students' Magazine, 15 Law Examination Reporter, 15 Law Gazette, 14 Law Journal, 15 Law Magazine, 16 Law Magazine and Review, 11 Law Magazine or Quarterly Review, 17 Law Quarterly Review, 18, 19, 21 Law Review, and Quarterly Journal of British and Foreign Jurisprudence, 17 Law Students' Examination Chronicle, 15 Law Students'Journal, 16

Index / 355 Law Students' Magazine, 15 Law Times and Journal of Property, 14 Lawrence, J.Z., 26 Laxton, Henry, 49 League of the Cross, 266 League of the Cross Magazine, 266 Lecky, William, 149 Lee, Charles E., 180 Leech, John, 129, 135, 139, 140, 283 Legal Examiner, 15 Legal Guide, 15 Legal Inquirer, 15 Legal Observer, or Journal of Jurisprudence, 17 Legal Practitioner, and Solicitors' Journal, 13 Legal Record, 15 Legge, R.H., 124, 125 Leigh, Henry S., 165, 166 Leigh, Samuel, 116 Leighton, Frederick, 136, 142 Lemoine, Bertrand, 59 Lemon, Mark, 131, 140, 282, 283 Lever, W.H., 210 Leypoldt, Frederick, 153 Licensed Victuallers Association, 167 Life, 287 Life Guards, 74 Life of Thomas Cooper, 306 Light Blue, 318 Light Green, 318 Light Greens, 318 Light Railway and Tramway Journal, 192 Lilly, 324 Limbird, John, 138 Lincoln College Register, 324 Lindsay, Col James, 68 Linton, Eliza Lynn, 146 Linton, William James, 137, 306 Lion University Magazine, 318 Lipton, Thomas, 210

Liszt, Franz, 100 Literary Bulletin, 153 Literary Gazette, 65, 103, 144, 147, 158 Literary Magnet, 283, 284 Literary Magnet of the Belles Leiires, Sciences, and the Fine Arts, 287 Literary News, 153 Literary Pioneer, 288 Literary Review and Stage-Manager, 164 Literary reviews, 309 Literary Yearbook, 159 Literature, 138, 150, 151, 158, 159 Live Stock Journal, 246 Live Stock Journal and Fancier's Gazette, 244, 246 Liverpool Journal of Commerce, Daily Shipping, and Mercantile Advertiser, 215 Livesey, Joseph, 260, 261, 306 Livesey's Moral Reformer, 261 Livesey's Progressionist, 261 Livingstone, David, 32 Lloyd, Edward, 138 Lloyd, Thomas, 207 Lloyd's Illustrated London Newspaper, 138 Lloyd's Liverpool Railway Times, 190 Lloyd's Weekly Miscellany, 129 Lloyd's Weekly Miscellany and Penny Sunday Times, 138 Lloyd's Weekly News, 223 Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper, 138, 304 Local Government Journal, 57 Lockwood's Builder and Contractors' Price Book, 57 Locomotive Engineers' and Firemen's Monthly Journal, 193 Locomotive Magazine, 192 London, 230, 287

356/Index London and Provincial Medical Directory, 41 London and Provincial Music Trades Review, 102, 124 London Commercial Record, 214 London Crusader, 269 London Entr'acte, 170 London Figaro, 172, 284, 287 London Financial Guide, 216 London Homeopathic Hospital, 34 London Journal, 129, 130, 138, 140, 309 London Magazine, 103, 227 London Mechanics' Register, 321 London Medical Gazette, 33 London Mercantile Journal, 214 London Mercury, 150 London Mirror, 163 London Price Current, 214 London Programme and SketchBook, 163 London Railway Newspaper, 190 London Reader, 129, 138 London Sketch-Book, 163 London Student, 321 London Student's Gazette, 321 London Teetotal Magazine and Literary Miscellany, 262 London Temperance Advocate and Medical Advisor, 267 London Temperance Intelligencer, 261 London Union List of Periodicals, 259 London University Chronicle (London University), 321; (University College), 322 London University College Magazine (London University), 321; (University College), 322 London University Enquirer, 322 London University Examiner, 322 London University Magazine (London University), 321; (University College), 322

London Weekly Railway Share List, 194, 195 London Weekly Stock and Share List, 195 Longman Co, 111 Longman's Magazine, 148, 158 Lord Chamberlain, 170, 171 Loudon, John Claudius, 46, 49, 93 Lovett, William, 307 Low, Sampson, 148 Lowell, James Russell, 151 Lucas, Samuel, 139 Lucas, W., 138 Ludgate Monthly, 138 Lunn, H.C., 118, 122 Lushington, Vernon, 318 Macaulay, Thomas Babington, 234 Mace, Angela, 49 Macfarren, George (father), 117 Macfarren, George Alexander, 109, 117, 121 Maclise, Daniel, 136 Macmillan's Magazine, 103 Macready, William, 164 Madras College Magazine, 330 Magazine of the London (Royal Free Hospital) School of Medicine for Women, 29 Magdalen College School Journal, 324 Magdalen College School Magazine, 324 Magistrate, 14 Magnetic Review, 25 Mail Train, 183, 191 Maine, Sir Henry, 11, 17, 20 Mainzer, Joseph, 117, 118 Mainzer's Musical Times and Singing Circular, 118 Maitland, J.A. Fuller, 103, 110 Malmesbury, Countess of, 295 Man in the Moon, 282, 287 Manchester and Salford Temperance Society, 270

Index/357 Manchester Guardian, 103, 223 Manners, George, 278 Manning, Cardinal Henry Edward, 266 Manual of Tramway Companies of the United Kingdom, 195 Manufacturers' Circular, 216 Marauder, 321 Mariners' Church, 267 Mariners' Church Gospel Temperance Soldiers' and Sailors' Magazine, 267 Mariners' Church Sailors' Magazine and Naval Chronicle, 267 Maritime Notes and Queries, 14 Mark Lane Express, 244 Mark Lane Express and Agricultural Journal and Live Stock Record, 246 Markby, Sir William, 18 Marks, Harry, 216 Martin, Charles, 140 Martin, Patrick, 64 Mask, 287 Mason, Finch, 294 Mason, Frederick, 215 Mason, Lowell, 119 Mathiesons' American Traffic Tables, 196 Mathieson's Traffic Tables, 196 Matthews, Brander, 149, 151, 152, 157, 159 Maurice, Frederick Denison, 72, 318 Maurice, John Frederick, 72 Maw, W., 53 May, Phil, 138, 140, 142 May-bee, 318 May-Bee, 324 Mayhew, Henry, 140 McCulloch, J.R., 205, 230 McDermott, Edward, 191 Meadows, Kenny, 135, 138 Meat Trades Journal, 201

Mechanics' Magazine, 46, 83, 186, 187, 197, 306 Medical Facts and Observations,

32-33

Medical Journal, 268 Medical Officers of Health, 28 Medical Press and Circular, 37 Medical Temperance Review, 268 Medical Times and Gazette, 24, 33 Medico-Chirurgical Review, 24 Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, 27 Medico-Psychological Association, 28 Meister, 111 Meister, The Quarterly Journal of the London Branch of the Wagner Society, 124 Meliora, 263 Memorials of Temperance Workers, 262 Mendelssohn, Ludwig Felix, 100, 117, 118, 119, 121 Mene, Mene, Tekel, 328 Mensae Secundae, 324 Mephistopheles, 287 Mercurius Aulicus, 312 Meredith, George, 159 Mesmerism, 25, 34 Methodist Temperance Magazine, 265 Metropolitan, 57 Metropolitan Quarterly Magazine, 318 Metzler and Co, 121 Middlemore, Richard, 26 Middlesex Hospital Journal, 29 Middlesex Temperance Chronicle, 270 Midland Counties Illuminator, 306 Midwifery, 26 Mikado, 231 Militar Wochenblatt Beiheft, 69 Military Chronicle, 64, 77 Military Magazine, 67, 77

358/Index Military Panorama, 64, 66, 77 Military Panorama or Officers' Companion, 64 Military Register, 64, 77 Military Review, 67, 77 Millais, John Everett, 136, 139, 140, 141 Miller, Florence Fenwick, 274, 276 Mining Journal, 56, 181 Mining Journal, Railway and Commercial Gazette, 56 Minutes of Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution, 70, 78 Mirror of Literature, Amusement and Instruction, 129, 138 Mirror of Music, 102 Mitchell, W., and Son, 68 Mitchell's Maritime Register, 14 Modern Law Review, 18 Mollan, Charles, 89 Momus, 318 Money Bag: Literature, Politics and Finance, 207 Money Market Review, 215 Montbard, G., 139 Month, 288 Monthly Law Magazine and Political Review, 15 Monthly Magazine, 49, 182 Monthly Musical Record, 101, 108, 122 Monthly Trade Supplement, 206 Moonshine, 288 Moore, Thomas, 278 Moore and Burgess Minstrels, 171 Moore's Monthly Magazine, 192 Moral Reformer, 260 Morgan, Ben H., 59 Morley, Thomas, 121 Morning Chronicle, 103, 204, 214, 278, 281 Morning Herald, 214 Morning Post, 278 Morrah, Herbert, 160 Morris, B.R., 93

Morris, William, 318, 324 Morriss, J.S., 150 Mortimer, James, 163 Morton, J.C., 242, 243, 245 Moscheles, Ignaz, 114 Moslem in Cambridge, 318 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 105, 116, 117, 118, 119 Mr. Merryman, 280, 287 Mudie, Robert, 50 Miiller, Max, 149 Municipal Engineer and Sanitary Record, 58 Municipal Journal and London, 59 Museum of Advertising and Packaging, Gloucester, 225 Mushroom, 318 Musical Association, 123 Musical Bijou, 105 Musical Education, 122 Musical Examiner, 108 Musical Gem 105 Musical Herald, 119 Musical Herald and Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter, 119 Musical Journal, 108 Musical Library, 117 Musical Opinion, 108, 124 Musical Opinion and Music Trade Review, 102, 123' Musical Salvationist, 105 Musical Standard, 108, 113, 120 Musical Times, 102, 107, 108, 110, 111, 121, 123 Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, 101, 118 Musical Union, 119 Musical World, 101, 108, 117 Napier, William, 66 Narcotism, 25 National Agricultural Labourers' Chronicle, 248 National Agricultural Labourers' Union, 238, 241

Index/359 National Agricultural Union Cable, 248 National Association of Master Bakers and Confectioners, 212 National Association Review, 212 National British Women's Temporance Association, 275, 276 National Physical Recreation Society, 296 National Reformer, 170, 306 National Register of Archives, 257 National Review, 281, 283 National Rifle Association, 79 National Singing Circular, 118 National Temperance Advocate and Herald, 261 National Temperance Chronicle, 262 National Temperance League, 257, 261, 262, 267, 268 National Temperance Society, 261, 262 Nation's Choice, 330 Naturalist, 93 Nature, 81, 84, 87, 89, 90, 94 Naval and Military Gazette, 65, 66, 67,76 Naval and Military Library and Museum, 68 Naval and Military Magazine, 64, 77 Naval and Military Record, 73 Naval and Military Record and Royal Dockyards Gazette, 77-8 Naval Annual, 76 Naval Brigade News, 255, 267 Naval Chronicle, 78 Naval Science, 78 Naval Temperance Society, 255 Navy, 73, 78 Navy and Army Illustrated, 73, 78 Navy League, 73, 78 Navy League Journal, 73, 74, 78 New Age, Concordium Gazette and Temperance Advocate, 268

New British and Foreign Society for the Suppression of Intemperance, 261 New college Glasgow university album, 329 New Dramatists, 172 New Evergreen, 328 New Grub Street, 149 New Journalism, 307 New lapsus linguae, 328 New Law Journal, 15 New Mechanics' Register, 321 New Mercantile Journal, 214 New Monthly Magazine, 65, 103 New Musical Magazine, 106 New Puppet Show, 288 New Review, 139 New York Herald, 172 New York Mechanic, 96 Newcastle Weekly Chronicle, 306 Newman, Ernest, 120 Newnes, George, 141 Newspaper Gazetteer and Guide to Advertisers, 228 Nicholson, John, 207 Nicholson, William, 139 Nicholson's Gazette and Grocers Register of Useful Knowledge, 214 Nicholson's Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts, 182 Nicholson's Newspaper, 288 Nicholson's Weekly Register of Useful Knowledge, 207, 214 Nicoll, David, 247 Nicoll, Sir William Robertson, 149, 157 Nightingale, Florence, 24 Nimmo, or Alma's Tawse, 328 Nineteenth Century, 74, 103, 234, 295, 296 Nineteenth-Century Readers' Guide, 158

360 / Index Non-Collegiate Students' Magazine, 324 Nonsuch, 289 Norfolk, Duke of, 68 North British Agriculturist, 243, 246 North British Railway and Shipping Journal, 188 Northern Star, 308 Northerner, 323 Northumberland, Duke of, 68 Norwich Temperance Mission, 269 Nostri Plena Laboris, 89 Notes and Queries, 182 Novello, Ewer, and Co, 110 Novello, J. Alfred, 117, 118 Novello, Mary, 110 Nuova Antalogia, 69 Nurses' Diary and Quarterly Review, 34 Nurses'Journal, 33 Nursing Notes, 33 Nursing Record, 33 Observer, 171, 214 Obstetrics, 26 Ockley, Donald F., 207 Octopus, 324 Odd Fellow, 288 Old College, 329 Oliphant, Margaret, 146 Oliver Twist, 135 Olsen, Donald J., 51 Olympic Theatre, 164 On the Line, 268 On the March, 267 Once a Week, 130, 131, 132, 137, 139 Onslow, George, 119 Onward, 269 Ophthalmic Hospital Reports, 28 Ophthalmic Review, 26 Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom, 28 Orchestra, 121

Orchestra and Choir, 122 Organist's Magazine of Voluntaries, 105 Ostwald, Wilhelm, 95 Ought We to Visit Her?, 171 Our American Cousin, 165 Our Memories, 324 Outfitter, 201 Owens College Magazine, 323 Owens College Union Magazine, 323 Owl, 284, 288 Oxenford, John, 165, 166 Oxford and Cambridge Magazine, 318, 324 Oxford and Cambridge Review, 319, 324 Oxford and Cambridge Undergraduates'Journal, 319, 325 Oxford critic and university magazine, 325 Oxford economists, 205 Oxford Literary Gazette and classical and foreign journal, 325 Oxford Magazine, 325 Oxford Rambler, 325 Oxford Review, 319, 325 Oxford Spectator, 325 Oxford Tatler, 325 Oxford Undergraduates' Journal, 317, 319, 325 Oxford University Gazette, 325 Oxford University Magazine, 325 Oxonian, 325 Paddington Canal Boatman's Magazine, 196 Page, Walter Hines, 154 Paget, Sidney, 141 Pain, Barry, 317 Paine, Thomas, 307 Pall Mall Gazette, 165 Pall Mall Magazine, 139, 283 Palmer, Ebenezer, 25 Palmer, H.J., 234

Index/361 Panmure, Lord, 68 Pantheon, 325 Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Van Dieman's Land, 92 Papers Read before the Juridical Society, 17 Parker, John, 140 Parthenon: A Magazine of Art and Literature, 107 Partridge, Bernard, 137, 173 Pasquin, 279, 284, 288 Pastime, 296 Patent Journal, 186, 190 Pathological Society, 27 Peacock, Thomas Love, 104 Pearson, C. Arthur, 139 Pearson's Magazine, 130, 139 Pearson's Weekly, 83 Peck, Harry Thurston, 157 Pedestrianism, 292 Peel, Robert, 244 Pelham, 65 Pelican Record, 325 Pellegrini, Carlo, 141 Pern, 319 Pen and the Book, 143, 151 Pen Pictures of Some Temperance Notables, 262 Penny dreadfuls, 303 Penny Magazine, 46, 129, 130, 132, 133, 139, 140, 302, 303, 305, 309 Penny Satirist, 288 Penny Satirist and London Pioneer, 288 People's Journal, 303 Period, 288 Peter Spy, 280 Petheram, John, 145 Pevsner, Nikolaus, 55 Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, 34 Pharmaceutisches Centralblatt, 86 Phelps, Samuel, 163, 164 Pheon, 319

Philippart, Sir John, 64, 66, 67, 77 Philosophical Magazine, 84, 89, 90,

91,94 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 85 Phineas Finn, 140 Photo Bits, 138 Phrenology, 25, 34 Physics Abstracts, 86 Pictorial Sporting and Theatrical Guide, 171 Pictorial Times, 133, 140 Pictorial World, 140 Picture Framing Trades Journal, 128 Pinero, Sir Arthur Wing, 173, 174 Pink, 319 Pinker, James P., 159 Pinnock, William, 116 Pipe, 325 Place, Francis, 307 Plant, J.H., 210 Plattner Story, 81 Pole, William, 123 Polische Yidl, 309 Political Register, 302 Pollock, Sir Frederick, 18 Polonaski, Eugene, 125 Poor Law, 236 Poor Law Medical Officers, 28 Popular Science Monthly, 83 Pornography, 23, 309 Post Office Railway Directory, 188 Practical Confectioner, 201 Preston Temperance Advocate, 260, 261 Preston Temperance Advocate and Herald, 261 Preston Temperance Society, 260 Prince's Price Current, 214 Privateer (London University), 321; (University College), 322 Prize Essays and Transactions of the Highland (and Agricultural) Society of Scotland, 246

362/Index Proceedings of the Chemical Society, 91 Proceedings of the Musical Association, 123 Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution, 78 Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 49 Proceedings of the Royal Society, 81, 89, 91 Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 28, 33 Proceedings of the Westminster Medical Society, 27 Proctor, 325 Prodigious, 328 Professional Papers of the Corps of Royal Engineers, 71 Proletarian poetry, 308 Prompter, 164 Prout, Ebenezer, 118, 122 Provincial Medical and Surgical Association, 27 Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal, 27 Provincial Newspaper Society, 230 Public Health, 28 Public school, 292 Public School Review, 296 Publicity - An essay with Ancient and Modern Instances, 229 Publishers' Circular, 147, 153 Publishers' Row, 150, 161 Publishers' Weekly, 153 Pump Court, 16 Punch, 46, 71, 129, 131, 132, 134, 137, 138, 139, 140, 165, 280, 281, 282, 283, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 296 Punch in London, 278 Punchinello, 278 Punchinello!, 288 Puppet Show, 280, 283, 288 Purcell, Henry, 99, 118 Putnam, G.P., 153

Putnam, George Haven, 144, 145

Q.C., 328 Quad, 325 Quarterly Journal of Economics, 205 Quarterly Journal of Science, 95 Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 90 Quarterly Musical Magazine and Review, 102, 107, 108, 110, 115 Quarterly Papers on Engineering, 182 Quarterly Railway Intelligence, 194-95 Quarterly Review, 182, 204, 207, 227, 230 Quarterly Review of Jurisprudence, 16 Queen's Messenger, 288 Quilter, Harry, 141 Quiver, 132, 140 Quiz, 285 Radcliffe, 325 Rag, 319 Ragged Schools, 268 Railroad Gazette, 191 Railway Almanac, 195 Railway and Canal Historical Society, 183 Railway and Shipping Contractor, 191 Railway and Tramway Express, 192 Railway Argus, 190 Railway Bell, 187 Railway Benevolent Institution, 193 Railway Chart and (Commercial) Advertiser, 190 Railway Chronicle, 187, 195 Railway Courier, 189 Railway Critic, 190 Railway Director, 195

Index/363 Railway Director and Mining Gazette, 189 Railway Engine, 189, 190 Railway Engineer, 191 Railway Examiner, 190 Railway Express, 184, 189, 193 Railway Fly Sheet, 193 Railway Gazette, 187, 188, 191 Railway Herald, 188, 191, 192 Railway Herald Locomotive Album, 192 Railway Herald Magazine, 192 Railway Herald Station Album, 192 Railway King, 190 Railway Magazine, 180, 186, 187, 192 Railway Magazine and Commercial Journal, 186 Railway Magazine and Annals of Science, 186 Railway Mail, 190 Railway Mania, 179 Railway Mission, 268 Railway Monitor, 206 Railway News, 184, 185, 187, 191 Railway Official Gazette, 193 Railway Portfolio, 187 Railway Press, 192 Railway Record, 187 Railway Reform Leaflet, 193 Railway Reformer, 193 Railway Register, 187 Railway Sheet and Official Gazette, 193 Railway Signal, 193, 268 Railway Standard, 190 Railway Supplies' Journal, 191 Railway Telegraph, 189 Railway Times, 180, 186, 187 Railway Travellers' League, 191 Railway World, 189, 192 Railway Year Book, 183 Ralph's Bottle, 319

Rambler, 103 flattfe, 325 Raven-Hill, Leonard, 139 Rawlings, R., 210 .Rea/ lapsus linguae, 328 EeaZm, 319 Reasoner, 306 Reasons for Establishing an Authors' Publication Society, 145 Rechabite and Temperance Magazine, 266 Rechabite Magazine and Journal of Progress, 266 Rechabite Magazine and Temperance Recorder, 266 Record of the Musical Union, 118, 119 Recreation, 296 Reeve, James Knapp, 156 Reeves, William, 113, 120, 122, 125 Reflector, 328 Reid, J.F., 123 Religious Tract Society, 141 Reminiscences of a Country Journalist, 306 Repertory of Arts and Manufactures, 182 Report of the Musical Union, 118 Reports of the British Association, 90 Reports on Diseases of the Chest, 25 Reports principally concerning the effects of the nitrous acid in the venereal disease, 33 Repository of Arts, 46 Review of Reviews, 130, 140 Revue Generale de I'Architecture et des Travaux Publiques, 59 Revue Militaire des Armees Etrangeres, 69 Reynolds, George W.M., 140 Reynolds, Paul, 159 Reynolds's Miscellany, 140, 309

364/Index Reynolds's Newspaper, 220, 302, 303, 304 Ricardian economics, 205 Ricardo, David, 204 Rice, Isaac Leopold, 154 Richards, A.B., 67 Richards, John Morgan, 232 Richmond, Duke of, 68 Ries, Ferdinand, 114 Rimbault, Edward Francis, 112, 117, 121 Robertson, John, 187 Robertson, Joseph Clinton, 187 Robertson, Tom, 165, 166, 172 Rockstro, W.S., 124 Rogerson, Joseph, 245 Roosevelt, Theodore, 152 Rosa, Carl, 172 Ross, J.W., 57 Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 141, 318 Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio, 105 Rounde Table (Cambridge), 319 Rounde Table (Oxford), 325 Rowbotham, J.F., 124 Rowell, C.F., 211 Royal Academy, 55 Royal African Company, 204 Royal Agricultural Society, 236, 240, 245 Royal Artillery, 78 Royal Artillery Institution, 70 Royal College of Physicians, 27, 36 Royal College of Surgeons, 24, 27, 36 Royal College of Organists, 120 Royal Engineer Journal, 70, 71, 78 Royal Engineers, 74 Royal Engineers' Professional Papers, 78 Royal Literary Fund, 111, 146, 147, 160 Royal Marines, 66 Royal Military Academy, 70 Royal Military Calendar, 64 Royal Military Magazine, 67, 76

Royal Military Panorama, 64 Royal Musical Association, 123 Royal Naval Temperance Society, 267 Royal Society Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 87 Royal Society of Authors, 160 Royal Society of Medicine, 27 Ruddigore, 231 Ruskin, John, 136 Russell, William Howard, 71 Russo-Japanese War, 69 Sacristy, 57 St. Andrews Magazine, 330 St. Andrews university magazine, 330 St. Andrews university monthly review, 330 St. Andrews university news sheet, 330 St. Bartholomew's Hospital Reports, 29 St. Paul's Magazine, 131, 140 Saint Peter's World, 319 St. Thomas's Hospital Reports, 29 Sala, George Augustus, 142, 284, 285, 287 Salaman, C.K., 123 Salford Unity, 266' Sandys, Frederick, 141 Sanitary Engineer, 58 Sanitary Engineering, 58 Sanitary Record, 58 Sarasate, Pablo Martin, 125, 174 Satirist, 278, 279, 281, 284, 288 Satirist, or Monthly Meteor, 288 Saturday Magazine, 140 Saturday Musical Review, 121 Saturday Programme, 163 Saturday Review, 103 Savoy Operas, 171 Scarlet Runner, 312, 325 School Board Chronicle, 296 School of Military Engineering, 71

Index/365 Schoolmaster at Home, 278 Schreiner, Olive, 139 Schubert, Franz Peter, 115, 122 Schumann, Clara, 122 Schumann, Robert, 122 Science, 95 Science Abstracts, 86 Science Gossip, 82, 92 Scientific American, 90, 96 Scott, Clement, 165, 166, 169, 172, 173, 174, 283 Scott, James, 35 Scott, Sir Walter, 146 Scottish Agricultural Gazette, 245 Scottish Cyclist, 297 Scottish Farmer and Farming World and Household, 245 Scottish Law Magazine, 16 Scottish Law Review, 16 Scottish Railway Gazette, 188 Scottish Review, 103 Scottish Sport, 297 Scottish Umpire, 296-7 Scourge, or, Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly, 288 Scrapbook, 325 Screed, 319 Selwyn College Calendar, 319 Sex, 319 Seymour, Robert, 278, 286 Shannon, C.H., 136 Shareholder, 189, 215 Sharpe's London Magazine, 141 Shaw, George Bernard, 104, 105, 165, 173 Shaw, William, 246 Shedlock, J.S., 122, 125 Shepard, J. Francis, 125 Shipping and Mercantile Gazette, 14 Shipping World, 216 Shopkeeper, 213 Shotover papers or echoes from Oxford, 325 Shrapnel, N.S., 67, 77

Shreds and Patches, 328 Silas Marner, 241 Silliman, Benjamin, 95 Silver Crescent, 319 Sime, S.H., 138, 139 Simon, Melanie, 49 Sims, George R., 174 Sitzungsberichte, 90 Sixty Years of an Agitator's Life, 306 Skeat, W.W., 317 Sleigh, A.W., 67 Sly, Stephen, 137, 139 Small, William, 136, 137 Smart, Henry, 110, 117 Smiles, Samuel, 184, 185, 191, 199 Smith, Adam, 20, 204 Smith, Charles, 214 Smith, T. Roger, 54 Smith, Thomas, 229 Smith, William, 229 Smithies, Thomas Bywater, 308 Snarl, 319 Snob, 318, 319 Social Science Congress, 263 Socialism, 307 Societe des Gens de Lettres, 144, 152 Society and the Dramatic World, 165 Society Clown, 168 Society for Improving the Condition of the Working Classes, 248 Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 140 Society for the Encouragement of Domestic Industry, and for Promoting Effectual Relief from the General Distress, 243 Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 46, 310 Society of American Authors, 152, 156, 157 Society of Apothecaries, 27 Society of Architects, 56

366/Index Society of Architects Journal, 55-6 Society of Authors, 143—51, 154, 158, 159, 160 Solicitors'Journal and Reporter, 13 Solomon, Simeon, 136 Somerset, Lady Henry, 274, 275, 276 Sons of Temperance, 251, 266, 269 Sons of the Phoenix, 251 Sorcerer, 231 South Sea Bubble, 203 Southgate, Thomas Lea, 120, 123 Souvenir, 325 Spark, William, 110 Spectator, 103, 296 Speculum academicum, 328 Spencer, Thomas, 262 Sphinx, 322 Spielmann, M.H., 281, 282, 283 Spirit Lamp, 325 Spiritual Messenger, 26 Spohr, Ludwig, 100, 119 Sporting and Dramatic, 171 Sporting Magazine, 293, 294 Spottiswoode, Andrew, 67, 79 Spottiswoode, William, 123 Sprigge, S. Squire, 38 Squeaker, 325 Squire, 173 Staff College, 69 Stage, 169, 174 Stage Directory, 169 Stage-Manager, 163, 164, 165 Stainer, John, 123 Stamp duty, 215, 222, 223 Standard, 171 Stanford, C.V., 104 Star, 307 Star of Temperance, 270 Starkie, Joseph, 266 Statham, H.H., 50, 60 Statham, Michael, 51 Statist, 206 Staunch Teetotaler, 261

Stead, W.T., 140 Stead, William, Jr, 229 Steam Times and Railway Globe, 190 Stevenson, Robert Louis, 137, 328 Stevenson, William, 96 Stiff, George, 138 Stock Exchange Express, 189 Stocqueler, J.H., 67 Stone Trades Journal, 58 Stonemason, 58 Stout, Edwin, 274 Strachan, Hew, 66, 67 Strad: A Monthly Journal for Professionals and Amateurs of all Stringed Instruments played with the Bow, 125 Strand Magazine, 130, 131, 141 Straus, Ralph, 283 Struggles of Brown, Jones, and Robinson, 231 Stuart, Daniel, 230 Stuart, Sir Donald, 69 Student, 329 Student, or the Oxford and Cambridge Miscellany, 312 Students'journal and general advertiser, 329 Studio, 59 Successful Advertising, 229 Sully, James, 104 Sun, 281 Sunday at Home, 141 Sunday papers, 304 Surgeon-General's Index-Catalogue of the Library, 40 Surrey County Cricket Club, 296 Surtees, Robert Smith, 245 Surveyor and Municipal Engineer, 59 Surveyor, Engineer and Architect, 50 Surveyor Local Authority Technology, 59 Swain, Joseph, 135, 136, 139

Index/367 Swift and Co, 122 Swinburne, Algernon C., 326 Tallis, Thomas, 121 Tallis's Dramatic Magazine and General Theatrical Review, 163, 164 Taller in Cambridge, 319 Taylor, Edward, 103 Taylor, Richard, 85, 94 Taylor, Tom, 165 Taylor's Builder's Price Book, 56 Tchaikovsky, Peter Rich, 100 Tea-Potte, 325 Teetotal Star, Good Templars and Sunday School Magazine, 269 Teetotal Times and General Advertiser, 270 Telegram, 13 Telegraph, 172 Temperance Advocate, 265, 306 Temperance Advocate and Herald, 261 Temperance Chronicle, 265 Temperance History, 256 Temperance Lancet, 267 Temperance Monthly Visitor, 269 Temperance Movement and Its Workers, 253 Temperance Penny Magazine, 260 Temperance Programme, 270 Temperance Record, 262 Temperance Standard Bearers of the Nineteenth Century, 262 Temperance Visitor, 270 Temperance Weekly Journal and Rechabite Intelligencer, 266 Templar, 267 Templar and Templar Journal, 267 Templar Journal and Treasury, 267 Temple Bar, 103 Templer, Marguerite, 312

Tenniel, Sir John, 129, 139, 140, 284 Tennyson, Alfred Lord, 173 Territorial Force, 79 Thackeray, William Makepeace, 140, 146, 147, 283, 285, 289 Theatre, 164, 168, 172, 173, 174 Theatrical Harpe, 163 Theatrical Journal, 162, 169, 170, 174 Theatrical Telescope, 163 Theatrical Times, 164 Theatrical 'World,' 165 Thompson, Alfred, 173 Thompson, R.B., 57 Thompson, T. Perronet (Col), 103 Thorns, W.J., 117 Thorne, Robert, 51 Thring, G. Herbert, 158 Tibbals, Seymour S., 156 Timber Trades Journal and Saw Mill Advertiser, 58 Times, 71, 103, 105, 151, 165, 166, 167, 181, 190, 214, 221, 222, 223, 231, 281 Times Literary Supplement, 151 Tinsley's Magazine, 141, 310 Titbits, 223 Tobacco Trade Review, 212 Toby, 288 Todd, Charles Burr, 154, 156 Tolhausen Index, 182 Tomahawk, 165, 283, 289 Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter, and Magazine of Vocal Music for the People, 119 Tono-Bungay, 199, 231 Town, 284, 289 Town Talk, 289 Trade lists, 214 Trader and Consumer, 213 Traders' Defence Associations, 213 Traill, Henry D., 138, 151 Train, 193

368 / Index Train; A First-Class Magazine, 192 Tramway and Railway World, 192 Transactions of the Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society, 58 Transactions of the Clinical Society of London, 32 Transactions of the Dermatological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 33 Transactions of the Epidemiological Society of London, 33 Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland, 239, 246 Transactions of the Institute of British Architects, 49 Transactions of the Institute of Patent Agents, 14 Transactions of the Medical Society of London, 27 Transactions of the Obstetrical Society of London, 33 Transactions of the Odontological Society of Great Britain, 33 Transactions of the Pathological Society of London, 27 Transactions of the Phrenological Society, 34 Transactions of the Royal College of Physicians, 27 Transactions of the Yorkshire Agricultural Society, 246 Transport, 192 Transport World, 192 Trident, 320 Trinity College Dublin: a College Miscellany, 327 Tripos, 320 Trollope, Anthony, 140, 231, 244 True Blue, 320 Truth, 172 Tuck, Henry, 195

Tucker, Herbert, 231 Tupper, Martin, 174 Turf Guide, 294 Turner, C.C., 324 Tuxford, George Parker, 245 Tweedie, William, 262 Twenty-One Years in Fleet Street, 232 Two on a Tower, 81 Tyndall, John, 149 U.K. Commercial Travellers' Association, 191 Under the Clock, 168, 169 Undergrad, 320 Undergraduate (Glasgow University), 330 Undergraduate (Oxford University), 325 Undergraduate Papers, 326 Union Signal, 274 United Kingdom Alliance, 252, 253, 263, 277 United Kingdom Band of Hope, 269 United Kingdom Band of Hope Union, 268 United Kingdom Railway Temperance Union, 268 United Kingdom Tobacconists Alliance, 212 United Service Gazette, 66, 67, 79 United Service Institution, 67, 68 United Service Institution, Cavalry Journal, 79 United Service Journal, 62, 64, 65, 66, 69, 77, 79 United Service Magazine, 66, 67, 72, 73, 76, 79 United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal, 65 Universal Corn Report, 214 Universal Decorator, 57 Universal Directory of Railway Officials, 195

Index/369 Universal Review, 141 University boreas, 329 University College Gazette, 322 University College Magazine (1856), 322; (1892), 323 University Independent, 330 University John the giant killer, 329 University Journal, 330 University Journal of literature and science, 329 University Liberal, 330 University maga, 329 University of Glasgow students' union bazaar news, 330 University snowdrop, 329 University souvenir, 330 University squib, 329 Useful Cabinet, 96 Vacuum, 326 Van Zanten, David, 59 Vanity Fair, 129, 131, 141, 215 Varsity Characters, 326 Vegetarian Messenger, 34, 255 Vegetarianism, 34 Verdi, Giuseppe, 100, 104 Victoria, Queen, 170 Vizetelly, Henry, 133, 138, 140, 283 Volunteer Rifle Corps, 79 Volunteer Service Gazette, 72, 79 Vox alumni, 330 Wade, J. Augustine, 112 Wadham College Gazette, 326 Wagner, Richard, 100, 115, 122, 123, 172, 173 Wagner Society, 124 Waifs and Strays, 326 Wakley, Thomas, 26, 36, 38 Walker's Hibernian Magazine, 106 Wallace, J. Bruce, 247 Walter, George, 180 Ward, Sir Leslie, 141

Ward, William C., 125 Warehouseman and Drapers' Trade Journal, 201, 207 Warren, Joseph, 117 Wasp, 320 Water Cure Journal and Hygienic Magazine, 25 Watkins, Benjamin William, 170 Watson, A.E.T., 171 Watson, Garth, 56 Watson, Henry, 120 Watt, Alexander Pollock, 157, 159 Watts, Alaric, 66, 79 Webbe, Egerton, 110, 117 Weber, Baron Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von, 119 Weekly Detroit Free Press, 289 Weekly Guest, 130 Weekly Law Journal, 15 Weekly Law Magazine, 13 Weekly Record of the Temperance Movement, 262, 265 Weekly Times, 304 Weelkes, Thomas, 121 Welcome Guest, 142 Wellington, Duke of, 66, 67 Wells, Herbert George, 81, 199, 231 Wesley, Charles, 115 Wesley, Samuel, 117 Western Architect, 59 Western Association of Writers, 152, 156 Western Temperance Herald, 270 Western Temperance League, 270 Westmacott, Charles Malloy, 286 Westminster Review, 103, 204 Westminster School, 71 Wetenhall, James Box, 194 Whig Dresser, 278 Whistler, James, 136, 139 Whitaker's Bookseller, 147 White, D.T., 137 White Ribbon Signal, 276 Whitelock, F.E., 188

370 / Index Whiting, T.J., 196 Who's Who, 294 Wilcox, Ella Wheeler, 155 Willard, Frances, 273, 274 Wilson, Henry, 55 Wilson, James, 206 Wilson, James Grant, 152 Wilson, T.H., 135, 137, 138 Wilson, Woodrow, 152 Winchevsky, Morris, 309 Windsor Magazine, 139, 142 Wings, 272, 273, 274, 275 Winskill, P.T., 252, 262 With John Bull and Jonathan, 232 Wolseley, Sir Garnet, 71, 73 Woman's Herald, 274, 275 Women's Liberal Federation, 274, 275 Women's Penny Paper, 274 Woman's Signal, 274, 275, 276 Woman's Signal Budget, 275 Women's Total Abstinence Union, 275 Wood, R.J., 71 Wood, Stanley, 121, 139, 142 Woods, Mary, 59 Woodward, Henry, 93 Workers' Educational Association, 309 Working Man, 303

Workman's Times, 306 World List of Scientific Periodicals, 88 World Women's Christian Temperance Union, 274 Writer, 155, 158 Writers' Literary Bureau, 155 Writers' School of Journalism and Literary Training, 155 Wuthering Heights, 235

X, 326 Yates, Edmund, 141, 286, 289 Yellow Book, 130, 142 Yonge, Charlotte, 146 York, Duke of, 65 York Temperance Society, 270 Yorkshire Factory Times, 306 Yorkshire Post, 224 Young, Arthur, 239 Young Oxford, 326 Young Templar, 269 Zeitschrift fur physikalische Chemie, 95 Zoist: A journal of cerebral physiology and mesmerism, 34 Zoological Record, 86