United States government administrative publicity

350 58 4MB

English Pages 100

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

United States government administrative publicity

Citation preview

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATIVE PUBLICITY

A T h esis P r e se n te d to t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f H i s t o r y The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t ia l F u lfillm e n t o f t h e R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e M a s te r o f A r t s

by R o b e r t J a c q u o t L ee J u n e 19^2

UMI Number: EP59504

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation PyblisMng

UMI EP59504 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

/J *4X gCV-1?

TA/j thesis, written by ....................M B E H T . . J A C M Q T . M ? ...............................

under the direction of A.?:.® Faculty Committee, a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been presented to and accepted by the Council on Graduate Study and Research in partial fulfill­ m e n t of the r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r the d e g r e e of

MASTER OF ARTS

D ean

Secretary D a te

June*.„194g.

F aculty C om m ittee

/

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I

II

III

PAGE

BACKGROUND OF P U B L IC IT Y .......................................................................

1

G overnm ent by p u b l i c i t y ...................................................................

1

D e fin itio n s

. .........................................................

3

MEDIA OF P U B L I C I T Y .................................................................................

if

The p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e ........................................................................

if

The new s r e l e a s e ..............................................

10

The n e w s p a p e r .............................................................................................

11

The r a d i o .......................................................................................................

13

The m o t io n p i c t u r e .............................................................................

16

The p e r i o d i c a l .......................................................................................

19

The d i r e c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e

.........................................................

21

The p i c t u r e ..................................................................................................

22

The b o o k .......................................................................................................

23

The o t h e r m e d i a ........................................• ............................................

23

CONTENTS OF P U B L IC IT Y ............................................................................

27

.

P u b lic ity

in

t h e n e w s p a p e r ......................................................

27

P u b lic ity

in

t h e p e r i o d i c a l ......................................................

34

P u b lic ity

in

t h e m o t io n p i c t u r e ...........................................

35

P u b lic ity

on

th e r a d io

.................................

37

t h e o t h e r m e d i a .................................................

37

P u b lic it y in P u b lic ity IV

o f p u b lic ity

o b je c tiv e s

........................................................................

41

CONTROL OF P U B L I C I T Y ...........................................................................

43

The C o n t r o l o f r a d i o ........................................................

.

.

.

43

CHAPTER

PAGE The R a d io C o m m issio n ...................................................................

44

The C o m m u n ica tio n s C o m m i s s i o n .........................................

46

The P r e s i d e n t

47

T . „ .

The F e d e r a l T r a d e C o m m issio n ..............................................

48

The C o n g r e s s .......................................................................................

49

The e f f e c t o f c o n t r o l ..............................................................

51

C o n t r o l o f n e w s p a p e r ........................................................................

54

The b i r t h o f a c o d e ...................................................................

54

The l i f e

o f a c o d e ........................................................................

56

The d e a t h o f a c o d e ...................................................................

58

p o s t o f f i c e ...............................

59

EXTENT OF P U B L IC IT Y ................................................................................

61

The n e w s p a p e r , and t h e V

I ....................................

S ta tu te s r e g u la tin g p u b lic ity P u b lic it y a g e n c ie s

..............................................

61

.............................................................................

62

O f f i c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n s

. . . .

62

N a t i o n a l E m ergency C o u n c i l ...................................................

63

In fo rm a tio n S e r v ic e

63

...................................................................

O f f i c e o f G overnm ent R e p o r t s

..............................................

66

..................................................................................

66

N u m b e r ........................ ■.............................................................................

66

D u t i e s .......................................................................................................

68

E x p e r i e n c e ............................................................................................

69

O th e r p u b l i c i t y a g e n t s

..............................................................

71

P u b l i c i t y c o s t .......................................................................................

74

P u b lic it y a gen ts

CHAPTER

PAGE

B r o o k i n g s R e p o r t ........................................................................

74

Franked p u b l i c i t y

j6

.................................................................

B u re a u o f B u d g e t* s r e p o r t

..................................................

78

..............................................................

81

.............................................................................

85

O p in io n s o f p u b l i c i t y BIBLIOGRAPHY

PREFACE T h is s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r y o f U n i t e d S t a t e s a d m i n i s ­ t r a t i v e p u b l i c i t y d u rin g th e p e r io d , p r im a r ily w ith th e a c t i v i t i e s p u b lic ist

1 9 3 1 -1 9 4 -0 ,

is

concerned

o f th e p r o f e s s i o n a l governm ent

in th e e x e c u t iv e branch o f th e f e d e r a l governm ent

a t W a s h in g t o n .

The s t o r y o f h i s a t t e m p t s t o m ould p u b l i c

o p i n i o n form s t h e b a s i s o f t h i s p a p e r . v e lo p m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c i t y

it

To u n d e r s t a n d t h e d e

i s h e l p f u l t o h a v e some

d e t a i l e d k n o w le d g e o f a t l e a s t s e v e r a l p h a s e s o f t h e W ash ing to n p u b l i c i t y program .

F a c to r s in c lu d e d in t h i s su rv ey are

t h e b a c k g r o u n d , m e d ia , c o n t e n t s , lic ity

c o n t r o l and e x t e n t o f p u b ­

i s s u e d from g o v e r n m e n t e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e s d u r i n g t h e

p e r io d under d i s c u s s i o n . A number o f t e x t s d e a l w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f p u b l i c i t y and propaganda t e c h n iq u e s . th e s p e c i f i c

s u b j e c t o f U n ite d S t a t e s governm ent p u b l i c i t y .

N o t a b l e among s u c h s t u d i e s p u b lic ity . n ess

But o n l y a few b o o k s c o n s i d e r

H is s c h o l a r s h i p

i s Jam es L. McCamy’ s G overnm ent i s a sh in in g l i g h t

in th e d ark ­

fo r th e s tu d e n t o f governm ent p u b lic r e l a t i o n s .

v a l u a b l e a s h i s w ork i s ,

it

is la r g e ly

B u t,

fo r th e p o l i t i c a l

s c i e n t i s t and t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c i s t . For th e c o m p le te s t o r y , o th e r s o u r c e s th an b o o k s.

C on tem p o ra ry m a g a z in e and n e w s ­

p a p e r a r t i c l e s m ust i n e v i t a b l y m a te r ia ls n e c e ssa r y

t h e h i s t o r i a n m ust l o o k t o

form a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e

to c o n s t r u c t a stu d y su ch as t h i s .

D u r in g t h e m i d - 1 9 3 0 ' s t h e n a t i o n ’ s p r e s s p r e s e n t e d a s i z e a b l e am ount o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s p a p e r . M ost o f t h e p e r i o d i c a l w r i t e r s

on t h e s u b j e c t w e r e h i g h l y

c r i t i c a l o f governm ent p u b l i c i t y . be e q u a lly c r i t i c a l

in h is

T h u s,

t h e h i s t o r i a n m ust

e v a lu a tio n o f th e so u r c e s ,

to in s u r e -

a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f a c t s r a t h e r th a n o p i n io n s . Two c h a p t e r s

in t h is

d i r e c t i o n o f t h e l a t e Dr. th u sia stic

t h e s i s w ere w r i t t e n under th e

E r ik M cK in ley E r i k s s o n .

a p p ro v a l o f th e t h e s i s

se n ta tio n is g r e a tfu lly

H is e n ­

t o p i c and t h e p l a n o f p r e ­

r e c a lle d .

The o t h e r c h a p t e r s w e r e w r i t t e n u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f Dr. A r t h u r R. K o o k e r.

H is t h o r o u g h s c h o l a r s h i p and p a i n s ­

t a k i n g c r i t i c i s m was o f s i g n a l v a l u e . D r.

The s u g g e s t i o n s

of

Owen C o c h r a n Coy and D r. Hoy M a lco lm w e r e e s p e c i a l l y

w e lc o m e d . E. • J . L .

Los A n g e l e s , J u n e, 1942

CHAPTER I

BACKGROUND OF PUBLICITY A l t h o u g h p o l i t i c a l p r o p a g a n d a ‘i s p e r h a p s a s o l d a s man, o r g a n i z e d p r o p a g a n d a and p u b l i c i t y

in i t s

m odern form made i t s

a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t w i t h t h e f i r s t W orld War.

A l t h o u g h p u b l i c i t y e f f o r t s by g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s

c lin e d s lig h t ly

in th e y e a rs

im m e d ia te ly f o l lo w in g

de­

t h e War,

th e

a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s w e r e a g a i n s o o n a w a re o f t h e pow er o f p u b lic ity ,

and from 1 9 3 1 t o 1 9 4 0 ,

th e f e d e r a l governm ent r e l i e d

more and more upon p r o p a g a n d a t o a i d i t poses.

T od ay,

it s pur­

th e word, ^ p rop agand a, n - - p u b l i c i t y - - i s

q u en tly used in n ew spap ers, in d ic a tin g

in a c h ie v in g

in m a g a zin es,

fre­

in c o n v e r sa tio n ,

t h a t o t h e r s a l s o a r e aw are o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e p r o ­

paganda p la y s

i n t h e a v e r a g e m an's d a i l y l i f e .

G overnm ent p u b l i c i t y h a s b e e n c a l l e d i n t o e x i s t e n c e

in

a l l o f t h e c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d by d e v e lo p m e n t i n e c o n o m ic and m i l i t a r y in d u str ie s

tec h n iq u e:

by t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n

f o r i n d i v i d u a l c r a f t s m a n s h i p and o f t h e c o n s c r i p t

c i t i z e n army f o r t h e v o l u n t e e r p r o f e s s i o n a l f o r c e . p o litic s

are v i t a l l y

C o n tem p ora ry

d e p e n d e n t on t h e o p i n i o n o f l a r g e , m a s s e s

o f p o l i t ic a l ly - c o n s c i o u s p e o p le .

The p r o b le m i s

on e w h ic h no

m odern g o v e r n m e n t i g n o r e s . Modern h u m a n i t y ’ s pow er o f i m a g i n a t i o n i s w e a k e n e d and r e s t r a i n e d by t h e c o n s t a n t l y

in c r e a sin g

flo o d o f im p r essio n s

2 o f every k in d . cu rren ts,

The d a i l y s t r u g g l e f o r l i f e ,

th e i n t e ll e c t u a l

th e n o is y m a n ife s ta tio n s o f t r a f f i c

and com m erce,

a r e ham m ering w i t h e v e r i n c r e a s i n g s p e e d on t h e human n e r v o u s system ,

l e a v i n g s c a n t t i m e f o r r e f l e c t i v e c o n t e m p l a t i o n and

s o lit a r y c o n c e n tr a tio n .

G overnm ent h a s b e e n r e q u i r e d t o f i n d

new and s t r i k i n g means f o r a t t r a c t i n g

th e a t t e n t io n o f th e

c i t i z e n and i n s p i r i n g h im t o e n t e r o r r e f r a i n from e n t e r i n g upon a d e s i g n a t e d c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f c o m m e r c ia l p r o p a g a n d a a r e o f t e n o b v io u s , th e t e c h n iq u e s o f governm ent propaganda a r e s e ld o m o b v i o u s .

The k e y b o a r d o f g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c o p i n i o n

m ust be p l a y e d w i t h more i m a g i n a t i o n a n d l e s s

sc ie n tific

f o u n d a t i o n t h a n t h e k e y b o a r d o f c o m m e r c ia l p r o p a g a n d a . In a d e m o cr a tic c o u n tr y , p u b lic and s o m e t i m e s ss p e c t a c u l a r l y ,

o p in io n o p e r a te s d i r e c t l y

th ro u g h th e in s tr u m e n ts o f r e p r e ­

s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t , and i n d i r e c t l y a n d p e r h a p s more e f f e c ­ tiv e ly ,

by p r e s s u r e e x e r c i s e d i n nu m erous w a y s , upon a g e n c i e s

o f th e govern m en t. Abraham L i n c o l n 1s s t a t e m e n t ,

"Whoever c a n c h a n g e p u b l i c

o p i n i o n c a n c h a n g e t h e g o v e r n m e n t p r a c t i c a l l y t h a t much, " 1 i s a s t r u e t o d a y a s t h e d ay i t was u t t e r e d .

1 Q u in c y W r ig h t , P u b l i c O p in io n and W orld P o l i t i c s , ( C h ic a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 3 )> p . 1 2 .

/

3 In a broad s e n s e ,

a lm o st a l l governm ent a c t i v i t i e s

m ig h t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s p u b l i c i t y .

The u n i f o r m e d p o stm a n i s

A p o li­

a w a lk in g a d v e r tis e m e n t f o r th e U n ite d S t a t e s m a i ls .

t i c i a n c u t s a r i b b o n t o mark t h e o p e n i n g o f a new b r i d g e , and a t t e n t i o n i s

c a lld d to th e p u b lic-w o rk s a g e n c ie s .

I n a more n a r r o w s e n s e , h o w e v e r , p u b l i c i t y , co n sid e r e d ,

as here

c o n s i s t s o f p u b l i c r e l e a s e s by s p e c i a l i s t s ,

d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e s e u n p l a n n e d , l e s s

as

in fo r m a l p u b lic

r e la tio n s a c t iv it ie s . W ith few e x c e p t i o n s , w r i t e r s on g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c r e la tio n s

e i t h e r a t t a c k o r d e f e n d t h e i s s u i n g o f p u b l i c i t y by

a g o v e r n in g body. m ix e d w i t h f a c t s ,

T h is o f t e n c a u s e s p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s t o b e and s o m e t im e s r e s u l t s

o f th e tru e p u b lic it y p ic t u r e .

i n some d i s t o r t i o n

When o p i n i o n s and f a c t s a r e s e ­

p a ra ted , how ever, a c le a r e r p ic tu r e d e v e lo p s.

T h u s,

in th e

i n t e r e s t o f c l a r i t y a n a t t e m p t t o make t h a t s e p a r a t i o n h a s b e e n made i n t h i s p a p e r .

When o p i n i o n s a n d t h e o r i e s a r e n o t e d ,

t h e y a r e s o d e s i g n a t e d , and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e

in th e d e v e lo p ­

m ent o f f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u b l i c i t y When t h e a u t h o r g i v e s h i s th e so u rc e o f th e f a c t s , th a t,

o p in io n he a l s o g iv e s up on w h ic h h i s

d e c id e w h eth er he i s

in d ic a te d .

th e f a c t s ,

o p in io n i s

on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f a c t s p r e s e n t e d ,

is

or

b a sed , so

t h e r e a d e r may

o f t h e same o p i n i o n o r a d i f f e r e n t o n e .

CHAPTER I I

MEDIA OF PUBLICITY The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b r a n c h o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n ­ m ent u s e d a l m o s t e v e r y m e d ia o f p u b l i c i t y d u r i n g t h e 1 9 3 1 - 1 9 4 0 p e r io d .

The n e w s p a p e r , t h e r a d i o ,

th ea ter,

th e m a g a zin e,

th e l e t t e r s ,

as conveyors o f p u b lic it y

th e m o tio n p i c t u r e ,

th e

p a m p h le ts, p o s t e r s s e r v e d

from W a s h in g t o n t o t h e A m e rica n

p u b lic . 1 As t h e n a t i o n f s f a v o r i t e n ew s s o u r c e , ^ t h e n e w s p a p e r was t h e m o st p o p u l a r medium f o r g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c i t y Among t h e c h i e f c h a n n e l s

o ffic ia ls ?

fo r d is tr ib u t io n o f p u b lic ity

to th e

n e w s p a p e r w e r e t h e p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e and t h e n ew s r e l e a s e . W h ite H ouse p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e s w e r e h e l d a t i r r e g u l a r in te r v a ls

fro m 1 9 3 1 t o 1 9 3 3 .

m o st o f t h e r e p o r t e r s *

P r e s i d e n t H o o v er u s u a l l y i g n o r e d

oral in q u ir ie s.

E a ch r e p o r t e r a t t e n d i n g

t h e c o n f e r e n c e , who w i s h e d t o a s k t h e P r e s i d e n t some q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n in g a f f a i r s

o f t h e d a y , was r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e h i s q u e s ­

t i o n i n a d v a n c e and p r e s e n t i t tary.

to th e P r e s id e n t ’s p r e ss s e c r e ­

The W h ite H o u se s t a f f p r e p a r e d a w r i t t e n a n s w e r t o t h e

1 Jam es F. McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , I t s P r a c t i c e in F ed era l A d m in istr a tio n ( C h ic a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o P r e s f , 1 9 3 9 ) , PP. 5 8 - 5 9 . H e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y . 2 Anonym ous, "R adio B r o a d c a s t i n g , " F o r t u n e , V o l . 1 7 , (May, 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 5 5 - 5 7 . 2 M a lco lm M. W i l e y , " C o m m u n ica tion A g e n c i e s and t h e V olum e o f P r o p a g a n d a ," The A n n a ls o f t h e A m e r ic a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l an d S o c i a l S c i e n c e , c£XXXIX7~TMay, 1 9 3 5 ) , ~P~.~'l95■ Wo. 5 ,

q u e s t i o n a n d on P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e d a y , t h e P r e s i d e n t t o o k up th e s e w r itte n q u e s tio n s

i n t h e o r d e r i n w h ic h t h e y h a d b e e n

s u b m it t e d , and r e a d th e w r i t t e n a n s w e r s .!

S o m e tim e s t h e

P r e s i d e n t r e a d a p r e p a r e d s t a t e m e n t t o new sm en w h ic h p r e s e n t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r w h ic h t h e r e p o r t e r s h a d n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k e d . A f t e r t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e H o o v er a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , m ost c o r r e s p o n d e n ts no lo n g e r q u iz z e d t h e P r e s i d e n t . n o t a tte n d sc h e d u le d p r e ss c o n f e r e n c e s . ^

Many d i d

D u r in g t h e e a r l y p a r t

o f 1 9 3 1 m o st o f t h e p r e s s m e e t i n g s w e r e c a n c e l e d s h o r t l y b e f o r e th e a p p o in te d t im e .5

Some j o u r n a l i s t s v i s i t e d P r e s i d e n t H oov er

a lo n e in th e l a t e a fte r n o o n s .

At t h e s e in fo r m a l, p r iv a t e i n ­

te r v ie w s th e y -u su a lly o b t a in e d background m a t e r i a l f o r f u t u r e sto r ie s,

r a t h e r t h a n s p o t n e w s .^

B e f o r e P r e s i d e n t H o o v er h a d b e e n i n o f f i c e m ore th a n a few m o n t h s ,

one h u n d r e d W a s h in g t o n c o r r e s p o n d e n t s s i g n e d a

p e t i t i o n a d d r e s s e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l P r e s s C lu b a s k i n g t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a p p o in t a co m m ittee t o i n v e s t i g a t e

" m isr ep re -

s e n t a t i o n and s u p p r e s s i o n o f i m p o r t a n t new s"^ from a d m i n i s t r a ­ tio n sou rces. 1 G e o r g e M i c h a e l , H andout (New Y ork: G .P .P u t n a m 's S o n s 1 9 3 5 ) , P. 2 2 . ^ H a r o l d Braym an, " H o o v e r i z i n g t h e P r e s s , 11 O u t lo o k and I n d e p e n d e n t , V o l . 1 5 6 , No. 4 , ( S e p te m b e r 2 4 , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 1 2 3 . 3 G e o r g e H. M an n in g, " S t r a i n e d A i r P r e v a d e s P r e s s C i r c l e a t W h ite H o u s e ," E d i t o r and P u b l i s h e r , V o l . 6 4 , No. 9 , ( J u l y 1 8 , 1 9 3 1 ) , P. 1 0 . ^ Y o rk T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 1 7 , 1 9 3 1 , S e c . V I , p . 6 . 5 E d i t o r i a l , "The W eek," The New R e p u b l i c , V o l . L X V III, N o. 8 7 8 , ( S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 3 1 )> P* ! 6 4 .

6 The p e t i t i o n

s ta te d in p art th a t

Mr. H o o v er h a s s o f r e q u e n t l y r e f u s e d t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s p u t ( t o h im ) by n e w sp a p e r m e n , and h a s c a n c e l e d s o many o f h i s s e m i - w e e k l y m e e t i n g s w i t h t h e p r e s s , t h a t m o st o f t h e W a s h in g to n c o r r e s p o n d e n t s h a v e i n d e s p a i r a l m o s t a b a n d o n e d t h e W h ite H ouse a s a s o u r c e o f n e w s . l The p e t i t i o n

fu r th e r charged a d m in is t r a t iv e boards

w ere p u rsu in g " c e n s o r s h ip t a c t i c s ." 2

The p e t i t i o n a s s e r t e d

t h e F e d e r a l Farm B oard h a s r e p e a t e d l y r e f u s e d t o g i v e o u t im p o r ta n t new s; . . . th e U n ite d S t a t e s S h i p p i n g B oard . . . h a s p u r s u e d s i m i l a r t a c t i c s . 3 I n a f i v e m onths 1 p e r i o d i n 193 2 , P r e s i d e n t H o over a t t e n d e d e i g h t p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e s and c a n c e l e d t h e r e m a in d e r o f th e sc h e d u le d tw ic e -w e e k ly i n t e r v i e w s .4 13,

1 9 3 2 , T heodore J o s l i n ,

m e n ts t o t h e p r e s s ,

a secreta ry ,

A f t e r S e p te m b e r

i s s u e d form al s t a t e ­

and n o m ass i n t e r v i e w s w e r e g r a n t e d d u r i n g

th e b a la n ce o f th e P r e s i d e n t s

te r m .5

F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r March 4 ,

1933, p ress con feren ces

w i t h P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t w e r e s c h e d u l e d and h e l d a l m o s t e v e r y W ednesday m o rn in g and F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n . ^ 1 I b i d . , pp.

L a ter,

in te r v ie w s

164-165.

2 Ib id . 5 Ib id . 4 E d i t o r i a l , "The W eek," The New R e p u b l i c , V o l . No. 8 7 8 , (S e p te m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) , . P. 1 6 3 . -

L X V III,

5 Raymond P. B r a n d t , "The P r e s i d e n t s P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e , " S u r v e y G r a p h i c , X X V III, ( J u l y , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 4 5 7 . 8 A. S . D . , " P r e s i d e n t E m ploys A i r , P r e s s t o E d u c a te N a t i o n , " The L i t e r a r y D i g e s t , V o l . 1 1 7 , No. 4 , (J a n u a r y 2 7 , 193*1), p. 9.

7 w e r e g e n e r a l l y s c h e d u l e d f o r T u esd a y a f t e r n o o n s and F r i d a y m ornings.-*o r a lly .

Newsmen w e r e p e r m it t e d , t o q u i z t h e P r e s i d e n t

At h i s

f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h r e p o r t e r s March 8 ,

1933,

P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t a n n o u n c e d t h a t t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n t s w o u ld he f r e e

to a sk d ir e c t o r a l q u e s t io n s .2

The P r e s i d e n t u s u a l l y

r e p lie d o r a lly

to th e q u e s t i o n s , e i t h e r a n sw e rin g th e q u e s -

tio n ,

if

sp ea k in g

d ir e c tly

it

o f f th e r e c o r d ," a v o id in g a d i r e c t answ er,

or i n d i r e c t l y

r e fu sin g

to answ er.

or

When i t was

a p p aren t he d id n o t w ish to answ er, a f r i e n d ly r e p o r te r u s u a lly q u ic k ly ask ed a n o th er q u e s tio n .3 w r itte n ,

and d i s t r i b u t e d

t h e r e p l y was

to c o r r e sp o n d e n ts.

D u r in g t h e i n t e r v i e w , w ere lo c k e d ,

At t i m e s ,

t h e d o o r s t o t h e c o n f e r e n c e room

a n d n o one was a l l o w e d t o l e a v e .

was c l o s e d when any one o f t h e r e p o r t e r s s a i d ,

The c o n f e r e n c e "Thank y o u ,

Mr. P r e s i d e n t . "4 P r e s i d e n t H oov er e s t a b l i s h e d

th ree c a te g o r ie s

o f n ew s:

t h a t w h ic h c o u l d be q u o t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h h i s p e r m i s s i o n ;

back­

g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n " t o im p r o v e t h e c o n t e n t o f d i s p a t c h e s , " str ic tly

and

c o n f i d e n t i a l in fo r m a tio n , n o t to be u se d .5

1 M eyer B e r g e r , "The P r e s i d e n t a t W ar," The A m e rica n M a g a z i n e , V o l . CXXXIII, No. 2 , ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 2 ) , p . 9 6 . 2 Leo C. R o s t e n , " P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t a n d . t h e W a s h in g to n C o r r e s p o n d e n t , " P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . I , No. 1 , ( Ja n u ary , 1 9 3 7 ), p. 3 8 . 3 New Y ork T i m e s , J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 3 5 , S e c .

II,

p.

2.

4 B r a n d t , ” The P r e s i d e n t ’ s P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e , " S u r v e y G r a p h i c , X X X V I I I ,, ( J u l y , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 4 4 9 .

P r e s id e n t R o o s e v e lt r e ta in e d th e c a te g o r ie s e s t a b l i s h e d by P r e s i d e n t H o o v e r .^ r e v ise d

th e ir d e fin itio n s

But i n 1937 th e P r e s id e n t

t o p r e v e n t w h a t h e te r m e d any

m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g by i n t e r v i e w e r s . 2

F our c a t e g o r i e s

w ere e s t a b l i s h e d under th e r e v i s e d p la n : a ttr ib u te d

o f new s

o f new s

r em a rk s t o be

to th e P r e s id e n t w ith o u t d i r e c t q u o ta tio n ;

P r e s i d e n t i a l r e m a r k s w h ic h may b e q u o t e d when a u t h o r i z e d ; i n f o r m a t i o n t o be a t t r i b u t e d n e i t h e r t h e W h ite H o u se; p u b lish e d .3

to th e P r e s id e n t , n o r to

c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m ust n o t be

Some c o r r e s p o n d e n t s p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e p r o v i ­

s io n fo r c o n f i d e n t i a l in fo r m a tio n ,

d e c la r in g

t h a t wo f f - t h e -

r e c o r d * ’ c o n v e r s a t i o n s w e r e p u b l i s h e d i n a few d a y s i n Wash­ i n g t o n g o s s i p c o lu m n s or wnew s l e t t e r s . * 1^ A f t e r March 4 ,

1933* c a b i n e t o f f i c e r s ,

o th er o f f i c i a l s

and M rs. R o o s e v e l t h e l d r e g u l a r p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e s .

As t h e

i n t e r n a t i o n a l p i c t u r e became more c o m p le x i n t h e l a t e 1 9 3 0 *s th e o f f i c e s q u a rters

o f t h e s t a t e d e p a r t m e n t s e r v e d a s p e r m a n en t h e a d ­

f o r e i g h t o r n i n e r e p o r t e r s who w e r e t h e r e t o w a tc h

1 G e o r g e H. M an n in g, wiJew D e a l * F o r P r e s s B e g i n s a t Once a s N a t i o n F a c e s Bank C r i s i s , w E d i t o r and P u b l i s h e r , V o l. 6 5 , No. 43* (March 1 1 , 1 9 3 3 ) * p . 4 . . 2 New Y ork T i m e s , J u l y 2 8 , 1 9 3 7 . p .

11.

3 Gordon. C a r r o l l , " P ro p a g a n d a from t h e W h ite House,"'' The A m e r ic a n M e r c u r y , V o l . X L I I , No. 1 6 7 , (N o v em b er, 1 9 3 7 ) * p . 3 5 2 . ^ G e o r g e H. M a n n in g , ^ R e c o v e r y on Way C a p i t a l C orps F e e l s E d i t o r and P u b l i s h e r , V o l . 6 7 * No. 33* (D ecem b er 29* 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 7

9 ev ery s ta te m e n t or r e p o r t th a t came from th e departm ent o f f i c e s . Frequent p r e ss a t noon. p ress

c o n f e r e n c e s w e r e h e l d by S e c r e t a r y H u l l , u s u a l l y

A W a s h in g to n n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e r h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e

in te r v ie w

in d e ta il:

A s t r e a m o f newsmen p o u r s i n t o t h e s e c r e t a r y ! s w a i t i n g room and s t a n d s a r o u n d a l o n g mahogany t a b l e a w a i t i n g H u l l f s e n t r a n c e w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e deco ru m . The W h ite h a i r e d s t a t e s m a n g r e e t s t h e g a t h e r i n g w i t h a c o u r t e o u s f,Good M o r n in g , g e n t l e m e n . Have y o u g o t any q u e s t i o n s ? Then t h e f l o o r i s o p e n . The g o i n g g e t s t h i c k and f a s t a t t i m e s . H u ll, c l a s p i n g and u n c l a s p i n g h i s l o n g h a n d s , h a s t o p a r r y q u e s t io n s w it h c a u t i o n , b u t seld o m l o s e s h i s s o u th e r n com posure. S o m e tim e s h e w i l l b r e a k t h e te n s io n w ith a q u ie t jo k e. P r iv a t e H u ll o f t e n t h r o w s a s i d e h i s p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e r e s e r v e and c u t s r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e maze o f d i p l o m a t i c p h r a s e o l o g y , p u l l i n g no punches . . . . A f t e r a c h o r u s e d nThank y o u , Mr. S e c r e t a r y , n h a s te r m in a te d th e in te r v ie w th e r e i s a ru sh fo r th e pressroom ph ones. Many s t a t e d e p a r t m e n t r e p o r t e r s a r e o l d t i m e r s w i t h a l l t h e p r e s t i g e and d i g n i t y i n th e w o rld under norm al c ir c u m s ta n c e s but th e y run w i t h t h e b e s t o f them t o g e t a f l a s h on t h e w i r e s . ^ Some c n n f e r e n e e s w i t h o t h e r o f f i c i a l s a t t e n d e d by c o r r e s p o n d e n t s .

a l s o w ere o f t e n w e l l

M o st r e p o r t e r s a g r e e d t h a t a w e l l -

c o n d u c t e d p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e h ad many a d v a n t a g e s o v e r som e o t h e r m e th o d s o f p r e s e n t i n g n e w s . 2

London new sm en, s t a t i o n e d i n

W a s h i n g t o n , p r e s e n t e d t h e v ie w h e l d by many c o r r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t J,a n e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n from t h e e x e c u t i v e h e a d o f a g r e a t n a tio n is

lifte d

by t h e v e r y f a c t o f h i s

e m in e n c e t o t h e l e v e l

1 Los A n g e l e s D a i l y N e w s, D ecem ber 3 , 2 MeCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p .

1941, p.

116.

24.

10 o f a p o lic y .

A m o n o sy lla b le s w e lls

t o a c h a p t e r o f m e a n in g .

A n o d o f t h e h e a d may h a v e t h e f o r c e o f a v e r d i c t .*11 Many S e n a t o r s a l s o

in d ic a t e d as t h e ir b e l i e f th a t th e

p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e w;ag a n i m p o r t a n t s o u n d i n g b o a r d , e s p e c i a l l y fo r the c h i e f e x e c u t iv e .

And more t h a n one p a r t y l e a d e r s a i d

th a t he read in

t h e n e w s p a p e r s more a b o u t t h e e x e c u t i v e ! s p l a n s

th a n h e le a r n e d

a t t h e W h ite H o u s e . 2

U se d more th a n t h e p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e a s a c h a n n e l o f p u b ­ lic ity

t o t h e n e w s p a p e r was t h e new s r e l e a s e . ^

News r e l e a s e s

w ere c l a s s i f i e d

i n a number o f w a y s , c h i e f l y a c c o r d i n g t o

n a tu re o f t h e ir

a p p e a l and a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t im e w h ic h may

e l a p s e b e t w e e n r e l e a s e an d p u b l i c a t i o n w i t h o u t i n j u r i n g e ffe c tiv e n e ss

of

tio n a l r e g io n a l,

th e s t o r y .

th e

th e

In th e f i r s t group w ere th e n a ­

and l o c a l s t o r i e s .

Inth e secon d group

w ere

t h e s o - c a l l e d s p o t n ew s i t e m s and new s s t o r i e s w h o se i n t e r e s t was n o t c o n n e c t e d d i r e c t l y w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r d a t e . $ N a tio n a l new s,

th at i s ,

sto r ie s

o f i n t e r e s t to a n a t io n a l

body o f r e a d e r s , w a s u s u a l l y r e l e a s e d t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s d e ­ p a r t m e n t s i n W a s h in g t o n . 1 B ra n d t, G r a p h i c , X X V III,

Such r e l e a s e s w e r e e i t h e r d i s t r i b u t e d

*JThe P r e s i d e n t s P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e , nS u r v e y (J u ly , 1 9 3 9 ), p. 457.

2 Nev Y ork T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 2 0 ,

1938, S e c .V I I I , p.

26.

2 F. R. C o w e l l , ^G overnm ent D e p a r t m e n t s and t h e P r e s s i n t h e U . S . A , , 11 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , IX , ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 2 1 5 . 4 E. S . W e n g e r t, The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s o f S e l e c t e d F e d e r a l A g e n c i e s , (M a d iso n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1 9 3 6 ) , p 7 5 7 .

11 d ir e c tly

t o t h e W a s h in g t o n c o r r e s p o n d e n t s o f n e w s p a p e r s and o f

w ir e s e r v ic e a g e n c ie s , n e w s p a p e r s.1

o r s e n t by m a i l t o a s e l e c t e d l i s t

of

N ot a l l r e l e a s e s , h o w e v e r , w e r e s e n t t o n e w s -

g a th e r in g a g e n c ie s .

E s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d new s s t o r i e s w e r e

s e n t from t i m e t o t im e t o Sunday S c h o o l s ,

l o c a l Young Menf s

C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n u n i t s , and s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 2 By 1 9 3 6 f o r t y - f o u r f e d e r a l o f f i c e s r e l e a s e d s p o t n ew s d isp a tc h e s

to th e p r e s s .

T w e n ty -e ig h t is s u e d f e a t u r e s t o r i e s .

I n t h r e e m on th s o f 1 9 3 7 g o v e r n m e n t p r e s s r e l e a s e d 4 ,7 9 4 new spaper a r t i c l e s . m onth s o f i t s

e x is te n c e ,

o ffic e s

i n W a s h in g t o n

D u r in g t h e f i r s t

few

th e N a tio n a l R ecovery A d m in istr a tio n

i s s u e d e l e v e n th o u sa n d p r e s s r e l e a s e s .

The D e p a r tm e n t o f

A g r i c u l t u r e i s s u e d t h r e e t h o u s a n d d i s p a t c h e s , and t h e P u b l i c Works A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e n t 1 , 1 0 0 s t o r i e s C lip s h e e t s ,

a se r ie s

to th e p r e s s in 1934.

o f s h o r t it e m s , w ere s e n t to n ew spap ers

b y many d e p a r t m e n t s . ^ T y p i c a l o f t h e a t t i t u d e o f many A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a g e n c i e s to w a r d t h e n e w s p a p e r s was t h a t o f t h e Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s ­ t r a t i o n a s r e v e a l e d I n a bulJefcin p r e p a r e d by t h a t a g e n c y f o r

1 I b id ., pp. 5 7 -5 8 . 2 IB id ., ,

p . 26.

3 A l b e r t W. A tw o o d , j,The G r e a t P ro p a g a n d a M a c h i n e , The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , V o l . 2 0 7 , No. 5 0 , ( J u n e 1 5 , 1 9 3 5 ) , P . 2 3 . ^ W e n g e r t, The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A g e n c ie s, p. 64.

o f S e le c te d F ederal

12 th e u se o f i t s

In fo rm a tio n D ir e c to r s

The b u l l e t i n s t a t e s ,

th rou gh ou t th e c o u n tr y .

in p art:

The A m e r ic a n p u b l i c g a i n s m o st o f i t s i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e f o r m u l a t e s m o st o f i t s o p i n i o n s from d a i l y and w e e k l y n e w s p a p e r s . N ew s, p a r t i c u l a r l y l o c a l i z e d n e w s , a b o u t p o l i c i e s and p r o j e c t s o f t h e WPA w i l l a l w a y s h a v e r e a d y a c c e s s t o n e w s p a p e r c o lu m n s , s i m p l y b e c a u s e i t i s new s. T h e r e f o r e t h e n e w s p a p e r s a r e t h e s t a n d a r d medium f o r r e p o r t i n g t o t h e p u b l i c on w h at WPA i s d o i n g . A t l e a s t one c a p a b l e , e x p e r i e n c e d n e w sp a p er m a n , p r e f e r r a b l y one who h a s h a d e x t e n s i v e m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i ­ e n c e and p r e f e r r a b l y one who h a s w o r k e d i n t h e S t a t e WPA h e a d q u a r t e r s c i t y and knows t h e p e r s o n n e l o f t h e n e w s p a p e r s a n d p r e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s , s h o u l d be i n e v e r y S t a t e In fo rm a tio n S e r v ic e . I f i t i s n o t a d v is a b le fo r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e a s o n s or b e c a u s e o f h i s l a c k o f th e r i g h t tem p er a m en t f o r l e a d e r s h i p , t o make h im t h e h e a d o f th e I n fo r m a tio n S e r iv c e , he sh o u ld h ave su ch rank and s a l a r y a s w i l l e n a b l e h im t o m e e t t h e e d i t o r s and r e p o r t e r s on e q u a l t e r m s . 1 The w e i g h t o f e d i t o r i a l and t h e b u l k o f t h e d o m e s t i c new s s t o r i e s

o r i g i n a t e d i n New Y ork and i n W a s h in g to n d u r i n g

th e 1931-1940 p e r i o d .2 In 1935 a V i r g i n i a p u b lis h e r d e c la r e d a t a m eetin g o f t h e A m e r ic a n N e w s p a p e r s P u b l i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t t h e r e was wn o p a p e r b i g e n o u g h , a f t e r a d v e r tis in g ,

i t h a d d i s c a r d e d a l l i t s new s and

t o c a r r y t h e h a n d o u t s from W a s h in g t o n d a i l y . **3

I n t h e same y e a r t h e A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e ^ s c i s s o r s sq u a d o f t h e New D e a l ( h a v e ) a m a s s e d a p i l e

of

6 0 0 ,0 0 0 p r e s s c l i p p i n g s .^ J4 1 M ercury, 2 ^ ^

G ordon C a r r o l l , #*How t h e WPA Buys V o t e s , n The A m e r ic a n V o l . X L I I , No. 1 6 6 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 2 1 1 . k QS A n g e l e s T i m e s , O c to b e r 3 , 1 9 4 1 , P a r t I , p . 2 . New Y o r k T i m e s , A p r i l 2 4 , 1 9 3 5 , S e c . 1 , p . 4 . New Y o rk T im e s , March 2 9 , 1 9 3 5 , S e c . 1 , p . 9 .

13 The r a d i o m ic r o p h o n e was a n o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t i n t h e governm ent p u b l i c i t y program . m ent e x e c u t i v e s , sk etch es,

le c tu r e s

B r o a d c a s t s o f t a l k s by g o v e r n ­

on t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t s ,

d r a m a t ic

c e r e m o n i a l o b s e r v a n c e s and m u s i c a l p r ogra m s w e r e

p r e s e n t e d u n d e r g o v e r n m e n t s u p e r v i s i o n and s p o n s o r s h i p . 1 From 1 9 3 1 t o 1 933 P r e s i d e n t H o o v er was on t h e a i r s e v e r a l tim es in h i s

o f f i c i a l c a p a c ity .

u s e o f t h e m ic r o p h o n e .

H is c a b i n e t o f f i c e r s a l s o made

The D e p a r tm e n t o f Commerce s p o n s o r e d

a w e ek ly r a d io b r o a d c a s t , u s u a l l y d ep artm en t.

f e a t u r i n g an o f f i c i a l

o f the

The D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e a r r a n g e d and p r e ­

se n te d a six -d a y -a -w e e k fe a tu r e c a lle d

t h e ^ N a t i o n a l Farm and

Home H o u r , 5,1 i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e N a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Company.

fJFarm F la s h e s'^ was a s y n d i c a t e d r a d i o p ro g ra m d i s ­

t r i b u t e d d a i l y from W a s h in g t o n by t h e D e p a r tm e n t t o e x t e n s i o n e d ito r s

in t h ir t y - s e v e n s t a t e s .

t h e m a t e r i a l was s e n t d i r e c t l y e d i t o r s do n o t c o o p e r a t e . ^

In th e r em a in in g e le v e n s t a t e s to r a d io s t a t i o n s ,

^because th e

The N a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Company

e s t i m a t e d t h a t i t g a v e t im e w o r t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y $ 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 fo r th e b r o a d c a s tin g o ffic ia ls

o f 4 3 0 h o u r s o f s p e e c h e s by g o v e r n m e n t

i n 1 9 3 1 .3

1 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p p . 9 ^ - 9 9 2 W e n g e r t , The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A g e n c ie s, p . 64.

o f S e le c te d F ederal

? S t a n l e y H ig h , *JN o t - S o - F r e e A i r , w The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , V o l . 1 2 7 , No. 3 3 , . ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 3 9 T T P - 9-

14 In th e se c o n d y e a r o f th e R o o s e v e lt A d m in is t r a tio n , P r e s i d e n t sp ok e o v er th e a i r

tw e n ty -th r e e tim e s.

gave tw en ty -tw o b r o a d c a s ts .^

th e

I n 1937, h e

From 1933 t o 1937 h e g a v e 125

r a d io t a l k s ,2 In th e f i r s t

t w e n t y - o n e m onth s o f h e r h u s b a n d ! s A d m in i s ­

t r a t i o n , M rs. R o o s e v e l t was on t h e a i r c lu siv e

fo r ty -fiv e

o f h e r s p o n s o r e d c o m m e r c ia l b r o a d d a s t s .

tim e s,

ex­

P o stm a ster-

G e n e r a l F a r l e y made t w e n t y - o n e r a d i o a p p e a r a n c e s i n one y e a r , 1 9 5 4 , and b r o a d c a s t t w e n t y - n i n e t a l k s

in an o th er y e a r ,

1 9 3 7 .-^

S e c r e t a r y W a l l a c e a l s o g a v e t w e n t y - n i n e r a d i o s p e e c h e s i n 1 9 3 7 .^ B e g in n in g i n 1 9 3 4 , c a b i n e t m em bers.

s c o r e s o f r a d i o t a l k s w e r e g i v e n by o t h e r I n one y e a r ,

Company a i r e d 203 s p e e c h e s

1937,

th e N a tio n a l B ro a d c a stin g

fo r oth er F ed era l o f f i c i a l s . 5

T h e r e w as n o c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t r a d i o o r g a n i z a t i o n b e ­ fore 1936.

Each d e p a r t m e n t w o rk ed i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n t h e p r e ­

p a r a t i o n o f s c r i p t s and i n s e m i r i n g f r e e tim e on t h e n e t w o r k s . H o w ev er,

e v e r y F e d e r a l d e p a r tm e n t h a d a 3,r a d i o c o n t a c t man”

who w o u ld s u p p l y s c r i p t s and s p e a k e r s u p o n r e q u e s t by

V o l.

1 H ig h , ”N o t - s o - F r e e A i r , ” The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , 1 2 7 , No. 3 3 , ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 3 9 7 , P* 9 .

2 C e d r i c L a r s o n , ‘"How Much P u b l i c i t y i s T h e r e ? ” P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2 , N o . 4 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 6 3 8 . 3 Ib id . ? 4 H ig h , 5 Ib id .

‘" N o t - s o - F r e e A i r , ” p . 9*

■ b r o a d c a stin g s t a t i o n s . ! By 1 9 3 7 a t l e a s t r a d io s p e e c h e s .

tw en ty -sev en fe d e r a l a g e n c ie s prepared

Ten p r e p a r e d t h e s c r i p t f o r s t u d i o d r a m a s.

T w e lv e p r e p a r e d s c r i p t f o r s t u d i o sc r ip t

f o r n ew s b r o a d c a s t s .

d r a m a s.

in te r v ie w s.

E lev e n p rep ared

Two made d i s k t r a n s c r i p t i o n s

of

Ten r e g u l a r b r o a d c a s t s p r e p a r e d by g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s

w e r e b e i n g p r e s e n t e d on c o a s t - t o - c o a s t n e t w o r k s i n t h a t y e a r . ^ The D e p a r tm e n t o f I n t e r i o r b u ild in g a t W a s h in g t o n was e q u i p p e d w i t h a r a d i o s t u d i o by 1 9 3 4 , w h en ce S e c r e t a r y I c k e s and o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s

c o u ld b r o a d c a st.

The D e p a r tm e n t

p r e s e n t e d 2 , 2 5 0 l o c a l s t a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n 1 9 3 7 a^d 5 , 0 0 0

in

1 9 3 8 .3 In 1936 betw een 3 7 5 c a stin g

425 l o c a l s t a t i o n s w ere b r o a d ­

t r a n s c r i b e d p rogra m s o f t h e F e d e r a l H o u s in g A u t h o r i t y . 4

By 1 9 3 7 f i v e h u n d r e d s t a t i o n s w e r e u s i n g 1936,

th e program s.

In

t h e Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u p p l i e d w e e k l y sh ow s

t o 209 s t a t i o n s .

And i n 1 9 3 7 , more th a n t h r e e h u n d r e d b r o a d ­

c a s t i n g p l a n t s u s e d th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ^ w eek ly r a d io r e c o r d in g s 1 New Y o rk T i m e s , D ecem ber 8 , 1 9 3 5 , S e c . X, p .

11.

2 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p . 9 4 . 3 Anonymous ^ I n f o r m a t i o n Men0 T im e , V o l . X X X III, ( J a n u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 3 9 ) , P* 34. ^ S t a n l e y H ig h , S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t ,

No. 2 ,

0You C a n ! t B e a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t, 0The V o l . 2 0 8 , No. 4 8 , (May 3 0 , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 3 6 .

5 A nonym ous, 0More C o s t l y Than B a t t l e s h i p s , 0 N a t i o n 1s B u s i n e s s , V o l . 2 8 , No. 9 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 3 1 - 3 2 .

16 T h re e t h o u s a n d s e p a r a t e m a n u s c r i p t r a d i o p r o g r a m s w e re p r e p a r e d by t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ’ s o f f i c e t io n in 19^6.

o f In form a ­

R a d io was u s e d w e e k l y by a t l e a s t f i v e h u n d r e d

farm b u r e a u c o u n t y a g e n t s . A f t e r 1 9 3 6 , t h e N a t i o n a l E m ergency C o u n c i l t o o k c o n t r o l o f th e r a d io a c t i v i t i e s n o t a lr e a d y r e g u la r ly

o f f o r t y - s e v e n b u r e a u s and d e p a r t m e n t s

on t h e a i r .

t h a n one h u n d r e d s t a t i o n s

W i t h i n s e v e r a l y e a r s , more

in t h ir t y - s ix

a i r sh ow s p r o d u c e d by t h e C o u n c i l .

s t a t e s w ere b r o a d c a s t in g

The p rogra m s w e r e p l a n n e d

i n W a s h in g t o n , b u t a d a p t e d t o t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s c o u n tr y .^

The h e a d o f t h e c o u n c i l s a i d

o f th e

in 1939 t h a t th e c o u n ­

c i l ’ s w ork was a s t a r t to w a r d t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l

th e g o v e r n ­

m en t’s r a d io a c t i v i t i e s . 3 M ovie m aking was a n o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t v e n t u r e .

A fte r th e

i n i t i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 by C o n g r e s s t o t h e D e p a r t ­ m ent o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o u s e i n e x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e w ork o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c i t y man b e h i n d t h e c a m e ra s i n c r e a s e d i n sc o p e and e x t e n t .

U n t i l 193 3 t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f

A g r i c u l t u r e e x p e r i m e n t e d i n m aking m o v ie s p r i m a r i l y f o r d i s t r i ­ b u t i o n t o fa rm g r o u p s .

A fte r 1933, how ever,

t h e D e p a r tm e n t

1 L a w ren ce S u l l i v a n , -"Government by M im e o g r a p h ," The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , V o l . 1.61, (M arch, 1 9 3 9 ) , PP* 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 * V o l.

2 H ig h , " N o t - S o - F r e e A i r , " The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , 1 2 7 , No. 3 3 , ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 3 9 T , p . 73* 3 Ib id .

17 produced film s

fo r a w id e r a u d ie n c e .

made 29 6 f i l m s .

I n 1 9 3 6 t h e D e p a r tm e n t

Many o f them sh ow ed t o c i t y g r o u p s a s w e l l

a s t o members o f t h e farm p o p u l a t i o n .

I n one y e a r ,

ten m illio n

p e r s o n s v i e w e d t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s m o t io n p i c t u r e s . An e a r l y r u l i n g r e q u i r e d t h a t a l l

th e D e p a r tm e n t's f i l m

m aking b e s u p e r v i s e d by t h e O f f i c e o f M o tio n P i c t u r e s . th e r u le s , th e c o s t , e d itin g

t h e O f f i c e made t h e p i c t u r e s ,

p a id fo r a p a r t o f

c o o p era ted w ith th e te c h n ic a l branches concerned in

th e f i l m s ,

p ic tu r e .

Under

and r e t a i n e d

in i t s

file s

th e c o m p lete d

I n t e r e s t e d a g e n c i e s , n h o w ev er, w ere a llo w e d to p u r ­

chase p r in t s

from t h e O f f i c e .

A p p r o v a l o f t h e O f f i c e was a l s o

r e q u i r e d b e f o r e m o t i o n p i c t u r e e q u ip m e n t c o u l d b e p u r c h a s e d by th e D epartm en t.

2

o And by 1 9 3 8 P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t w as c o n s i d e r ­

i n g t h e c r e a t i o n o f a c o r p o r a t i o n t o *uc o D r d i n a t e w th e work-^ o f v a r io u s o th e r governm ent d ep artm en ts th en engaged in th e p r o d u c t i o n o f d o c u m e n ta r y f i l m s . A l t h o u g h t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e p i o n e e r e d i n film p r o d u ctio n , 1 9 3 1 &nd 19^-0*

o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s a l s o made m o v ie s b e t w e e n By 1 9 3 7 3 t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r h a d

1 E d i t o r i a l , fl,The Week,*J The New R e p u b l i c , V o l . N o. 8 7 8 , ( S e p te m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) , PP. l 63~-"l6 6 .

L X V III,

2 W e n g e r t, The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s o f S e l e c t e d F e d e r a l A g e n c ie s, p . 8 3 . ^ ^ eW Y ork T i m e s , J u n e 1 9 , 1 9 3 8 ,

Sec.

II,

p.

7.

18

produced f i f t y - f i v e

m o t i o n p i c t u r e s and was m aking f i v e

hundred sh ip m en ts o f f ilm s each w e e k .l

The R e s e t t l e m e n t Ad­

m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1 9 3 6 p r o d u c e d **The Plow t h a t B r o k e t h e P l a i n s , ” w h ic h e x h i b i t e d b e f o r e e i g h t e e n m i l l i o n p e r s o n s . 2

The Works

P r o g r e s s A d m in is t r a t io n p r o d u c tio n s c h e d u le f o r 1936 c a l l e d th ir ty p ic tu r e s ,

a t an a v e r a g e c o s t o f $ 6 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 .

for

At l e a s t

one o f t h e s e p i c t u r e s was p r o d u c e d by t h e T e c h n i c o l o r p r o c e s s . ^ The F e d e r a l H o u s in g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1 9 3 7 p r o d u c e d a s e r i e s o f t e n s i x - m i n u t e m o t i o n p i c t u r e s , w h ic h e x h i b i t e d b e f o r e n i n e t y - s e v e n m i l l i o n p e r s o n s . 1* I n O c t o b e r 1 9 3 6 , 533 g o v e r n m e n t f i l m s w e r e a v a i l a b l e fo r fr e e e x h ib it io n c iv ic

a sso c ia tio n s.

in s c h o o ls ,

churches,

c lu b s ,

l o d g e s and

A t t h a t tim e th e N a t io n a l A r c h iv e s c a t a ­

l o g u e d more t h a n f i f t e e n m i l l i o n

f e e t o f f i l m c o n t r o l l e d by

s e v e n ty -s ix Federal a g e n c ie s .5 The f o l l o w i n g y e a r s , a d d i t i o n a l f i l m s w e re a v a i l a b l e . Many o f them w e r e c l a s s i f i e d

as b ein g o f a n o n - t e c h n ic a l,

p o p u la r n a tu r e .^ 1 E d i t o r i a l , ” The W e ek ,” The New R e p u b l i c , V o l . L X V III, N o. 8 7 8 , ( S e p t e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 3 1 ) , p p . lS J ^ lB F I 2 H ig h , ”You C a n ’ t B e a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t ,” The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , V o l . 2 0 8 , No. 4 8 , (May 3 0 , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 361 .3 S u l l i v a n ^G overnm ent by M im e o g r a p h ,” The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , V o l . l 6 l , . (M arch , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 3 0 8 . ^ H ig h ”You C a n ’ t B e a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t ,” p . 3 6 . 5 S u lliv a n ,

^G overnm ent by M im e o g r a p h ,” p . 3 0 8 .

6 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p p . 8 6 - 8 7 .

19 U se o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e c ity

came a f t e r i n i t i a l

m o v ie m a k in g .

th ea ter as a v e h ic le

fo r p u b li­

e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n by t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n

I n 1935* P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t s e t a s i d e a p o r t i o n

o f a $ 4 .,8 8 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 fu n d t h a t h a d b e e n p l a c e d a t h i s d i s p o s a l by t h e E m ergency R e l i e f A p p r o p r i a t i o n A c t o f t h a t y e a r . p o r tio n vas a llo c a te d

to th e t h e a t e r ,

T h is

and s t a g e p l a y s w e r e

produced in v a r io u s c i t i e s . ^ By 193 9 & t o t a l o f s e v e n t y - s e v e n p e r i o d i c a l s w e r e p u b ­ l i s h e d by s e v e n t e e n g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . 2

W ith two e x c e p t i o n s

t h e m a g a zin es w ere p u b lis h e d f o r governm ent em p lo y ees and s t a t e o ffic ia ls ,

and n o t in t e n d e d f o r th e g e n e r a l p u b l i c .^

S p e c ia l a r t i c l e s by t h i r t y - o n e p u b l i c i t y

f o r th e p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s w ere p r e p a r e d o ffic e s.* *

A c c o r d i n g t o McCamy, o f t h e

864 p e r io d ic a l a r tic le s p u b lish e d in r e l a t i o n

t o t h e w ork and

s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s w h ic h w e r e lis te d

i n e l e v e n m onths o f R e a d e r ! s Guide j_n 1 9 3 6 and 1 9 3 7 ,

6 0 4 m ig h t h a v e b e e n w r i t t e n by o u t s i d e w r i t e r s w i t h t h e h e l p o f a g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c i t y a g e n c y , and 260 w e r e w r i t t e n w i t h i n th e a g e n c y .5 1 G a r e t G a r r e t t , ^ F e d e r a l T h e a t e r f o r t h e M a s s e s . w The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , V o l . 2 0 8 , Wo. 5 1 , ( J u n e 2 0 , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 8 . 2 Anonymous ,jMore C o s t l y Than B a t t l e s h i p s N a t i o n 1s B u s i n e s s , V o l . 2 8 , Wo. 9 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 8 6 . 5 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p .

* Ib ld » 5 I b i d . , p 118

79.

20

Some a g e n c i e s th e ir o f f ic e s ,

in v ite d in te r e s te d w r ite r s

a nd *Jg e t t h e f a c t s

to v i s i t

fo r t he ms e l v e s .

A

^ c o n t i n u a l o p e n h o u s e 1^ was c o n d u c t e d by t h e F ood and Drug A d m in istr a tio n .

p l a c e . **3

Newsmen w e r e l i t e r a l l y

wg i v e n

th e run o f th e

No demand was made on them t o a n n o u n c e t h e i r co m in g

in advance. Some o f t h e a r t i c l e s p r e p a r e d d i r e c t l y by t h e a g e n c y c a r r i e d t h e name o f a n a g e n c y o f f i c i a l a s t h e a u t h o r , b u t d i d n o t i n d ic a t e h i s p o s i t i o n w ith th e a g e n c y .

The p u b l i s h e r s

of

The J o u r n a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n h i r e d W a lt e r E. M ey e r, a T e n n e s s e e V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y ,e m p lo y e e ; t o w r i t e an a r t i c l e

on T e n n e s s e e V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y

fo r t h e i r m a g a zin e.

An e d i t o r i a l n o t e a t t a c h e d t o t h e p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e t h a t wh e r e i s

th e s t o r y

[o f T e n n e sse e V a l l e y A u th o r ity ]

by a k e e n s t u d e n t and o b s e r v e r ,

a fter

V a lle y g a th e rin g m a te r ia l fo r t h is The n o t e d i d n o t s t a t e

sta ted to ld

s p e n d i n g w eek s i n t h e

s p e c i a l J o u r n a l f e a t u r e .* *

t h e a u t h o r w as h i r e d by T e n n e s s e e V a l l e y

A u th o r ity .^ A v a ila b le about th ree

to f e d e r a l in fo r m a tio n o f f i c e s

th o u sa n d o r g a n iz e d m a ilin g l i s t s ,

W e n g e r t, The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A g e n c ie s, p. 1 09. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. ^ Ibid., p . 246.

in 1938 w ere

w ith a t o t a l o f

o f S e le c te d F ederal

21

2 ,2 8 0 ,9 0 0 n a m e s .1

In a d d it io n ,

th e A g r i c u l t u r a l A d justm ent

A d m in is tr a tio n S o i l E r o sio n S e r v ic e m a in ta in ed d i r e c t c o n t a c t through c o r r esp o n d en ce w ith about 3 * 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 fa r m e r s. 2 t r i b u t i o n o f th e m a ilin g l i s t s b a sis,

D is­

was e i t h e r on a g e o g r a p h i c a l

or th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d iv id e d th e p u b lic a t io n s a c c o r d ­

i n g to. t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t e r e s t . 3 B e l i e f in th e v a lu e o f l e t t e r - w r i t i n g

a s a means o f

g a i n i n g p u b l i c g o o d w i l l and o b t a i n i n g p u b l i c i t y was e x ­ p r e s s e d by s e v e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . A d m in istr a tio n d e c la r e d th a t

The Works P r o g r e s s

c a re fu l a tte n tio n

is g iv e n

t o t h e m a i l n o r m a l l y h a n d l e d by e a c h S t a t e A d m i n i s t r a t o r and D i s t r i c t . D i r e c t o r , much i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e (WPA) Program c a n be g i v e n o u t and s u c h g o o d w i l l be c r e a t e d f o r it.**^ By 1 9 3 7 t w e n t y - f o u r a g e n c i e s p r e p a r e d r e f i n e d v e r ­ sio n s

o f d ir e c t le t t e r s

i n t h e form o f i l l u s t r a t e d p a m p h le t s

w h ic h c o n t a i n e d much i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t h a d b e e n p r e v i o u s l y 1 S e n a t e R e p o r t s , 75 C o n g ., 1 S e s s . , R ep . 1 3 . R eport t o t h e S e l e c t C o m m itte e t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e E x e c u t i v e A g e n c i e s o f t h e G overnm ent on t h e G overnm ent A c t i v i t i e s on L i b r a r y . I n f o r m a t i o n and S t a t i s t i c a l S e r v i c e s , p r e p a r e d by t h e Brook(4 in g s I n s t i t u t i o n . W a s h in g t o n : G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1933. 2 S u l l i v a n , ^G overnm ent by Mimeograph,** The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , V o l . 1 6 1 , (M arch , 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 3 0 6 - 3 1 6 . 3 W engert, A g e n c ie s, p . 58.

The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s

o f S e le c te d F ederal

^ C a r r o l l , wHow t h e WPA Buys V o t e s , ** The A m e r ic a n M er­ c u r y , V o l . X L I I , Wo. 1 6 6 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 7 ) * PP. 213 •; .

22

in c lu d e d in in d iv id u a l l e t t e r s . p a m p h le ts w it h o u t i l l u s t r a t i o n s

F ou rteen a g e n c ie s prepared d u r i n g t h e same year.-*-

L ib r a r ia n s r e p o r te d d i f f i c u l t y p a m p h l e t s r e c e i v e d from W a s h in g t o n .

in c la s s if y in g

th e

R ep o r ted one l i b r a r i a n .

In a d d it io n to th e o b s c u r ity o f th e a u th o r, t h e r e i s t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n a f f o r d e d by t h e f r e q u e n t change o f is s u in g a g en cy . One p r o f e s s o r ’ s l i s t f o r r e se r v e m a te r ia l c a lle d for s e v e r a l p u b lic a tio n s i s s u e d by the R e s e t t l e m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Some o f them h a d b e e n i s s u e d by t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t A d m in i s ­ t r a t i o n , an i n d e p e n d e n t b o d y , o t h e r s by t h e R e ­ s e t t le m e n t A d m in is tr a tio n a s a d i v i s i o n o f th e D e­ p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and y e t o t h e r s by t h e Farm S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e new name a s s i g n e d t o t h e R e s e t t l e m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n e i g h t m onths a f t e r i t was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e . 2 The l i b r a r i a n c o n c l u d e d t h e r e was n o s i m p l e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e p r o b le m o f c a r i n g

fo r c o lle c t io n s

o f governm ent d ocum ents.

By 1 9 3 9 s i x t e e n g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s s u p p l i e d maps and d ia g r a m s f o r o u t s i d e w r i t e r s , to i l l u s t r a t e

a r tic le s

an d t w e n t y - f o u r g a v e p h o t o g r a p h s

by o u t s i d e w r i t e r s . 3

M ost o f t h e p i c t u r e s

o f f e r e d by g o v e r n m e n t b u r e a u s w e r e

p h o to g r a p h s o f eq u ip m en t, p r o j e c t s ,

and p e r s o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n

w i t h some e v e n t t h a t makes n e w s , a s t h e e d i t o r s

ju d g e n e w s .

1 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p . 99* 2 M ahala S a v i l l e , ^G overnm ent P u b l i c a t i o n s , - - What S h a l l We do w i t h Them?*3 The L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , V o l . 6 5 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 19 4 0 ), p. 681. 3 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p .

73.

23 Commenting on p i c t u r e s

issu e d

W e s tb r o o k P e g l e r s a i d h e n o t i c e d

from t h e W h ite H o u s e ,

t h a t v e r y few ^baloney**

p i c t u r e s h a d b e e n co m in g from t h e W h ite H ouse d u r i n g t h e R o o s e v e l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t h a t m o st o f t h e p h o t o s w e r e l e g i t i m a t e n ew s m a t e r i a l . 1 A f t e r 1933

i n c r e a s i n g number o f b o o k s w ere

p u b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e names o f v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . Some o f t h e b o o k s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y i s s u e d t o in f o r m c e r t a i n gro u p s a b o u t th e work, p r o b le m s, p o l i c i e s p a r tic u la r

fe d e r a l a g e n c ie s.

and p r o c e d u r e s o f

O th e r b o o k s w e r e g e n e r a l i n

ch a ra cter. P r e s i d e n t H o o v er w r o t e n o b o o k s o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e w hen h e was i n o f f i c e .

Two b o o k s c a r r y i n g P r e s i d e n t R o o s e ­

v e l t ’ s name a s a u t h o r w e r e p r i v a t e l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1933 1934.

A fiv e -v o lu m e s e t o f P r e sid e n t R o o s e v e lt ’s p u b lic

p a p e r s and a d d r e s s e s was p r i v a t e ^ - p r i n t e d i n 1 9 3 3 .

M rs.

R o o s e v e l t ’ s name was on s e v e n b o o k s a s a u t h o r by 1 9 3 8 .

W h ile

S e c r e t a r y W a l l a c e was w i t h t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,

six

b o o k s w e r e i s s u e d u n d e r h i s nam e. 2 B u t , more i m p o r t a n t th a n b o o k s a s a m eth od o f p u b l i ­ c i t y was t h e p r o j e c t v i s i t a t i o n ,

a c co r d in g to a b u l l e t i n

1 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p .

73*

2 L a r s o n , ^How Much P u b l i c i t y i s T h ere?^ P u b l i c O p in io n Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 2 , Ho. 4 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 6 4 2 .

24 issu e d

i n 1 9 3 7 "by t h e Works P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

tin sta ted ,

The b u l l e ­

in p art:

N o t h in g i n t h e w h o le f i e l d o f i n f o r m a t i o n - - n e w s p a p e r , s t o r i e s , p h o t o g r a p h s , e x h i b i t s , m o v in g p i c t u r e s - i s as c o n v i n c i n g , or w i l l b e rem em b ered a s l o n g , a s a c t u a l l y s e e in g th e p r o j e c t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e one o f t h e m ost im p o r ta n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f th e I n fo r m a tio n S e r v i c e t o e n c o u r a g e p e r s o n a l i n s p e c t i o n , by t h e c i t i ­ z e n s h ip , o f p r o j e c t s w h eth er in o p e r a t io n or c o m p le te d . One e f f e c t i v e m ethod o f b r i n g i n g t h i s a b o u t i s t o h a v e a d e d i c a t i o n c e r e m o n y when an i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t i s b e g u n , and a c o m p l e t i o n c er em o n y when i t i s f i n i s h e d . T h is h a s t h e a d d e d a d v a n t a g e o f e n a b l i n g t h o s e who a t t e n d t o v i s u a l i z e t h e 1b e f o r e and a f t e r 1 v i e w p o i n t o f t h e com m unity b e n e f i t s a r i s i n g from t h e em p loym en t o f l a r g e numbeis o f d e s t i t u t e p e o p l e , a nd from t h e c a r r y i n g out o f th e p r o j e c t . H ig h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d a t t e n d a l l s u c h c e r e m o n i e s and t a k e p a r t i n th em . A lso , one o f t h e w o r k e r s , a s t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , s h o u l d be on t h e p r o g r a m . . . . E m p lo y e e s on p r o j e c t s h a v e a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o g r e s s and s u c c e s s o f WPA o p e r a t i o n s . They s h o u l d be in fo rm ed n o t o n ly a b o u t t h e i r p r o j e c t bu t abou t o th e r p r o j e c t s i n t h e i r com m unity and s t a t e . T h is may be a c c o m p l i s h e d by b u l l e t i n s t o w o r k e r s , v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n s -by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s , p r o j e c t s u p e r v i s o r s and f o r e m e n , and o t h e r s u i t a b l e means . . . The aim o f a l l t h i s s h o u ld be to g i v e th e w ork ers a f u l l e r u n d e r sta n d in g o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s w h ic h u n d e r l i e t h e Works P rogram . . . . E v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o im p r e s s on t h e w o r k e r s and on a l l o t h e r c i t i z e n s , t h e f a c t t h a t u n d e r t h e Works P rogram t h e p r im a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f a l l p r o j e c t s r e s t s w ith th e s p o n s o r --th a t t h e WPA i s i n g e n e r a l o n l y a m ech a n ism f o r s u p p l y i n g t o a com m u nity t h e p u b l i c w ork w h ic h was s e l e c t e d by i t s own r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l s . 1 T ou rs o f w ork p r o j e c t s and s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n f i e l d d a y s w e r e h e l d by t h e S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e .

I n an e f f o r t

G ordon C a r r o l l , wHow t h e WPA B uys V o t e s , w The A m e r ic a n M e r c u r y , V o l . X L I I , No. 1 6 6 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 20Fl

25 to reduce d e la y s

on t h e t r i p s ,

many t o u r s w e r e f o l l o w e d by

a g a r a g e - s e r v i c e c a r o p e r a t e d by m e c h a n i c s a b l e t o r e p a i r a u t o m o b i l e s o c c u p i e d by g u e s t s

o f th e C o n se r v a tio n S e r v ic e . 1

A l l d e p a r t m e n t s made u s e o f e x h i b i t s

to t e l l

th e

p u b l i c a b o u t t h e w ork o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t and t o e x p l a i n t h e r e a so n s fo r c e r t a i n program s. The p o s t e r was u s e d t o mark p u b l i c p r o j e c t s ,

and f o r

d ir e c t a d v e r tis in g pu rp oses. L e e t u r e - d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , t o u r s and s t u d y g r o u p s w e r e p u s e d among some f e d e r a l o f f i c e s . The S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e o f t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e p r e s e n t e d s p e e c h e s and t a l k s

t o g r o u p s o f fa r m e r s d u r i n g 195 3

S e r v i c e was f i r s t fir st

o r g a n iz e d .3

1 934 when t h e

T a lk s w e r e o f f e r e d a f t e r

few y e a r s o f t h e S e r v i c e d

th e

o r g a n iz a t io n but th e y w ere

u s u a l l y g i v e n onf:y when r e q u e s t e d . 4 G overnm ent s p e a k e r s a t t e m p t e d t o p r e s e n t t h e i r s p e e c h e s u n d e r t h e m o st f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s p o s s i b l e . by t h e S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e d

E f f o r t was made

s p e a k e r s t o a p p e a r e a r l y on

t h e p r o g r a m , |}n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e f o r e any o t h e r s p e a k e r , b u t b e f o r e th e hour grow s to o l a t e . ^ 5

one s t a f f member r e f u s e d t o

1 W e n g e r t , The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A g e n c ie s, p . 74. 2

3 Ib id . > p.

75.

4 I b id . , p.

74

5 Ib id .

o f S e le c te d Federal

26

s p e a k t o a farm g r o u p a f t e r hours.

th e m ee tin g had l a s t e d

He s a i d t h a t h e a p p r e c i a t e d t h e l a t e n e s s

fo r s e v e r a l

o f th e h ou r,

and r e f u s e d t o b u r d e n h i s a u d i e n c e f u r t h e r . C o n f e r e n c e and g r o u p m e e t i n g s w e r e u s e d by som e a d ­ m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t a s a means o f c r e a tin g p u b lic it y .

The W h ite H ouse C o n f e r e n c e o f 1 9 3 0 c o n ­

s i d e r e d c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o b le m s g e n e r a l l y .

A g a in ,

in 1933, &

c o n f e r e n c e on c h i l d h e a l t h b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f m ed ic in e , p e d i a t r i c s , home e c o n o m i c s ,

d e n tistr y ,

e d u c a tio n ,

p u b lic h e a lt h , n u r s in g ,

r e l i e f and c h i l d w e l f a r e .

p r e s e n t w ere r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s

A lso

o f n a t i o n a l women’ s o r g a n i z a t i o n s

and o t h e r l a y g r o u p s and i n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s

in c h ild h e a lth

and n u t r i t i o n . 2 The B u r e a u o f t h e P u b l i c D e b t and s e v e r a l o t h e r a g e n ­ c ie s,

bought p a id a d v e r t is in g

Many a d v e r t i s i n g by p u b l i s h e r s . v e r tisin g

i n n e w s p a p e r s and m a g a z i n e s . 3

l a y - o u t s and a d v e r t i s i n g s p a c e w e r e d o n a t e d Some u r g i n g

t h a t governm ent r e c o g n iz e a d ­

a s a com m od ity and u s e i t

as su ch , ad vocated th a t

g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s buy p a i d a d v e r t i s i n g z in e s .

i n n e w s p a p e r s and m ag a­

But m o st g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s p r e f e r r e d t o g a i n p u b l i c i t y

by more i n d i r e c t m e t h o d s .

1

2 I b id . , p.

28.

3 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y ,

p.

163.

CHAPTER I I

CONTENTS OF PUBLICITY The c o n t e n t s

o f th e p u b l i c i t y

i s s u e d by t h e f e d e r a l

g o v e r n m e n t s a d m in is t r a t iv e d ep artm en ts c o n s t a n t ly changed i n d e t a i l d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d from 1 9 3 1 t o 1 9 4 0 .

But c e r t a i n

b r o a d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made a s t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b ­ l i c -r e la tio n s

t r e n d i n W a s h in g to n d u r i n g t h i s

tim e.

McCamy r e p o r t e d h e a n a l y z e d 1 , 2 8 1 i t e m s i n t h e New Y ork T im es i n a s e v e n - w e e k s *

p e r i o d i n 1 9 3 7 , and fo u n d m o st

o f th e a g e n c ie s u sin g th e p r e s s

f o r a n n o u n c in g p r o g r e s s made

in th e p erfo rm a n ce o f t h e i r w ork, M ost s t o r i e s

c o n ta in e d one,

or s ta t e m e n t s o f p o l i c y . 1

o r so m e ,

or a l l

o f th e f o llo w in g

e le m e n ts: f a c t s from r e c o r d s and r e s e a r c h , p u b l i s h e d f o r t h e a i d o f r e a d e r s who m ig h t f i n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l ; new s o f a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l ; new s i n w h ic h t h e e m p h a s is i s p l a c e d u p o n t h e w orks and t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e a g e n c y ; n ew s o f h e a r in g s b e fo r e th e agency in q u e s tio n s o f r e g u la t io n ; r e p o r tin g th e e f f o r t s o f o f f i c i a l s to in flu e n c e e it h e r p u b l i c or p r i v a t e p o l i c y w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o any l e g i s ­ l a t i o n a lr e a d y in tr o d u c e d in C on gress; r e c o r d s o f a p p l i ­ c a t i o n s , a g r e e m e n t s , a n s w e r s and c o m p l a i n t s f i l e d b e f o r e th e agen cy; r e p o r t in g th e e f f o r t s o f a d m in is t r a t iv e o f f i c i a l s to in f lu e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n a lr e a d y in tr o d u ce d ; f e a t u r e s t o r i e s i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e w o rk o f t h e a g e n c y and a p p a r e n t l y r e l e a s e d f o r t h e i r v a l u e a s i n f o r m a t i o n and o n ly fo r an i n d i r e c t v a lu e a s p u b l i c i t y f o r th e ag en cy ; new s o f d e c i s i o n s o r r u l i n g s ; r e c o r d s o f c o n t r a c t s l e t and b i d s r e q u e s t e d ; and r e p o r t i n g s t a t e m e n t s or c o u n t e r a c c u s a t io n in d e fe n s e o f th e a g e n c y .2 1 McCamy, G overn m en t P u b l i c i t y , p . 6 7 . 2 ib id .

28

T h u s, s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s u s e d t h e p r e s s

f o r a n n o u n c in g

p r o g r e s s made i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i r w ork o r t o s t a t e th e ir p o lic y .

The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y a n n o u n c e d t h a t

g o v e r n m e n t w o u ld n o t a t t e m p t t o c h a n g e t h e bond m a r k e t , b u t w o u ld use i t s

fu n d s o n ly t o k eep an o r d e r ly m a rk et.

The S e c u r i t i e s

and E x c h a n g e C o m m iss io n a n n o u n c e d t h a t i t w o u ld p l a c e r e s t r i c ­ t i o n s u p on t h e a c t i v i t i e s

o f ^ s p e c i a l i s t s w a s a means o f r e ­

d u c i n g t h e s p e c u l a t i v e a s p e c t s o f c o m b in in g t h e f u n c t i o n s b r o k e r and d e a l e r on s t o c k e x c h a n g e s . in d ic a t e d th e a t t i t u d e sit-d o w n s t r i k e s

The S e c r e t a r y o f Labor

o f h e r d e p a r t m e n t to w a r d t h e p r e v a l e n t

o f e a r l y 19^7

th a t sh e d id n o t th in k t h i s an y new p r o b l e m .

of

a n n o u n c in g a t a p r e s s c o n f e r e n c e

typ e o f s t r i k e

tec h n iq u e p r e se n te d

The D e p a r tm e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r r e p o r t e d p r o g r e s s

by a n n o u n c in g t h a t v i s i t o r s

t o n a t i o n a l p a r k s h a d i n c r e a s e d by

205 p e r c e n t and t h a t t h e a r e a o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s h a d i n c r e a s e d 52.7 per cen t in seven y e a r s .^ E xa m p les o f t h e u s e o f t h e p r e s s fa cts

fo r p r e se n ta tio n o f

from r e c o r d s a n d r e s e a r c h w e r e fo u n d i n n ew s r e l e a s e s

from t h e F e d e r a l R e s e r v e B o a r d ,

t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f Commerce,

t h e S e c u r i t i e s and E x c h a n g e C o m m is s io n , and t h e T r e a s u r y D e ­ p artm en t.

The F e d e r a l R e s e r v e B oa rd r e p o r t e d t h e c o n d i t i o n o f

member b a n k s , money r a t e s , and su m m a r ie s o f b u s i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s . The D e p a r tm e n t o f Commerce g a v e f a c t s

1 Ib id .

o f fo r e ig n trad e,

th e

e x te n t o f g o ld im p o r ts, sto res,

fa cts

c r e d it c o lle c tio n s

o f d o m e stic

t r a d e s u c h a s t h e am ount o f c o t t o n

s e e d c r u s h e d or t h e o u t p u t o f c h e m i c a l s , p o p u la tio n ,

fig u r e s

on a i r

f a c t s and t r e n d s i n

t r a v e l and t r a n s p o r t ,

o f s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h in th e v a r io u s o f th e D ep artm en t.

f o r d ep artm en t

and r e s u l t s

f i e l d s c o v e r e d by b u r e a u s

M ost o f t h e f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e a s e d

by t h e S e c u r i t i e s and E x c h a n g e C o m m is s io n was i n r e p o r t s on t r a d i n g on e x c h a n g e s , a n a l y s e s

o f v a r io u s s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta

t a k e n from i n f o r m a t i o n f i l e d w i t h t h e C o m m iss io n and t r a n s a c ­ tio n s

of o ffic e r s,

se c u r itie s

d ir e c to r s,

and p r i n c i p a l s t o c k h o ld e r s

o f t h e i r c o m p a n ie s or h o l d i n g c o m p a n i e s .

in th e

The T r e a ­

s u r y D e p a r tm e n t i s s u e d s t a t e m e n t s o f t a x r e c e i p t s and c o m p a r i ­ son s w ith p a s t r e c e i p t s n a tio n a l d eb t, n a r c o tic

to in d ic a t e

tren d s,

and s u c h n ew s from i t s

se iz u r e s

sta tem en ts o f th e

b u r e a u s a s t h e amount o f

or' l i q u o r i m p o r t s . ^

News o f p e r s o n n e l c o n s i s t e d o f i t e m s d e a l i n g w i t h r e ­ s i g n a t i o n s and a p p o i n t m e n t s , is

sa id o f p o lic y ,

c e r e m o n ia l a p p e a r a n c e s w h e n .^ b ih in g

a n n o u n c e m e n ts o f t r a v e l s ,

and r e f e r e n c e s

to

personal l i f e . 2 News o f t h e a g e n c y * s w ork i n c l u d e d a n n o u n c e m e n ts o f d i s ­ c o v e r ie s a test

o f i n v e n t i o n s by a g e n c i e s ,

su ch a s th e announcem ent o f

f o r a i r p l a n e ca m era l e n s e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e B u re a u o f

1 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p . 6 8 . 2 I b id .,

68-69.

30 S t a n d a r d s o r t h e i n v e n t i o n o f a smoke p r e c i p i t a t o r B u re a u o f M in e s ; p la n s

or a s t o r y d i s c u s s i n g

o f th e a g en cy ,

i n th e

t h e e x p e r i e n c e and

such a s appeared a f t e r

t i o n o f t h e B u r e a u o f A i r Commerce i n 1 9 3 7 ;

th e r e o r g a n iz a ­ or new s c o n ­

c e r n i n g e q u ip m e n t a n d i t s use.-*- ' News o f h e a r i n g s was c o n f i n e d t o t h o s e r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s w h ic h s i t

as q u a s i-ju d ic ia l co u rts.

The S e a u r i t i e s

and E x c h a n g e C o m m issio n h a d many s u c h i t e m s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f a n a ly s is. 2 E ffo rts

of o ffic ia ls

item s a s a p p e a ls

to in f lu e n c e p o l i c y

in c lu d e d such

to i n t e r e s t groups to adopt c e r t a in p o l i c i e s

o r s p e c i a l r e p o r t s w h ic h c a r r i e d r e c o m m e n d a tio n s

fo r a broad

c a te g o r y o f l e g i s l a t i o n w ith o u t p r o p o sin g a s p e c i f i c

b ill.

An a s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce t o l d t h e A m e r ic a n P a p e r and P u lp A s s o c i a t i o n

t h a t b u s i n e s s m e n o f i n t e g r i t y and v i s i o n

sh o u ld su p p o rt c o n s t r u c t iv e l e g i s l a t i o n

fo r th e n a t io n a l good

r a t h e r th a n f o r th e b e n e f i t o f i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . la te r

th e S e c r e ta r y

o f Commerce recom m ended t o

A d v iso r y C o u n c il t h a t b u s in e s s to c o n sid e r

A few w e e k s th e B u sin e ss

j o i n w i t h l a b o r and a g r i c u l t u r e

t h e p r o b le m s o f w a g e s , h o u r s , c h i l d l a b o r ,

p r o d u c tio n c o n t r o l.

and

The c h a ir m a n o f t h e S e c u r i t i e s and E x ­

c h a n g e C o m m is s io n , who was s o o n t o becom e d e a n o f t h e H a rv a r d Law S c h o o l ,

to ld

t h e E a s t e r n Law S t u d e n t s 1 C o n f e r e n c e t h a t

**■ J f r id . » PP* 6 8 - 6 9 . 2

> P* 6 9 •

31 l a w y e r s o f t h e f u t u r e w o u ld h a v e t o h e c o n s c i o u s n o t o f t h e i r r o l e a s c r a f t s m e n s o much a s o f t h e i r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n a s m e­ d ia to r s

o f human a f f a i r s , we a g e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e new c l a i m s ,

a n x io u s

to w e ig h t h e i r m e r it i n th e l i g h t

o f the c r o s s - c l a i m s ,

and f e a r f u l n o t o f c h a n g e h u t o f t h e w an t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g . ,J1 The N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s C o m m itte e o f f e r e d a s i x - y e a r p ro g ra m o f c o o r d i n a t e d p u b l i c w o r k s , w i t h r e c o m m e n d a tio n s f o r l e g i s ­ la t iv e p o lic y

to c a r r y out th e program . 2

News o f a p p l i c a t i o n s , p la in ts

file d

a g r e e m e n t s , a n s w e r s , and com ­

b e f o r e th e a g en cy in c lu d e d such item s a s th e

ws t i p u l a t i o n * j o r a g r e e m e n t s t o mend t h e i r ways o f c o m p e t i t i o n file d a lso

by b u s i n e s s

f i r m s w i t h t h e F e d e r a l T rade C o m m is s io n .

i n c l u d e d new s o f r e g i s t r a t i o n s

o f sto ck issu e s

It

f i l e d w ith

t h e S e c u r i t i e s and E x ch a n g e C o m m issio n and a p p l i c a t i o n s by r a ilr o a d s

for sa n c tio n s

from t h e I n t e r s t a t e Commerce C o m m is s io n .^

The c h i e f e x a m p le o f e f f o r t s

o f a d m in is tr a tiv e o f f i c i a l s

t o i n f l u e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f th e P r e s i d e n t s

b ill

t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e Supreme C o u r t .

C a b i n e t o f f i c e r s made s p e e c h e s w h ic h w e r e r e p o r t e d w i t h l a r g e h e a d in g s

on t h e f r o n t p a g e o f t h e T i m e s .

in flu e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n

a ls o appeared.

1 Ib id . 2 i b i d . , pp. 6 9 - 7 0 . 3 I b i d . , p.

70.

O th er a t t e m p t s

For e x a m p le,

th e

to

C o m m is s io n e r o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s was q u o t e d a s b e i n g a g a i n s t a p rop osed r e p e a l o f th e In d ia n R e o r g a n iz a tio n A ct o f 1934. The n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t e d d e f e n s e o f t h e A c t w h ic h h e h a d w r i t t e n f o r a s o c i a l - w o r k p u b l i c a t i o n and f o r h i s d i c a l ,*1I n d i a n s a t Work/ 1

own p e r i o ­

The C hairm an o f t h e F e d e r a l R e s e r v e

B o a rd a p p e a r e d b e f o r e t h e H ouse B a n k in g and C u r r e n c y C o m m ittee to su p p ort a b i l l

e x te n d in g u n t i l 1939 th e a u t h o r it y

o f th e

R e s e r v e b a n k s t o i s s u e n o t e s s e c u r e d by U n i t e d S t a t e s tio n s.

O th e r o f f i c i a l s

o b lig a ­

appeared b e fo r e o th er c o n g r e s s io n a l

c o m m ittee s to a d v o c a te or opp ose b i l l s

a ffe c tin g

th e ir

a g e n c ie s. ^ F e a t u r e s t o r i e s r e l e a s e d by a g e n c i e s p r e s e n t e d m a i n l y sh o rt rep orts

o f t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t may b r i g h t e n t h e

r o u t i n e o f w ork and c a u s e p a s s i n g comment among t e c h n i c i a n s . From t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e came t h e n o t e t h a t a l l p u p p ie s o f a c r o s s - b r e e d i n g e x p e rim en t a t th e B e l t s v i l l e , M a r y la n d ,

fa r m , b o r n i n 1 9 3 6 w e r e g i v e n nam es b e g i n n i n g w i t h

wAil and a l l b o r n i n 1 9 3 7 w o u ld c a r r y nam es b e g i n n i n g w i t h fiBli The D e p a r tm e n t o f Commerce c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a r k e t f o r m outh h a r p s and r e p o r t e d ,

in se p a r a te ite m s,

t h a t Germany s i n c e

t h e a d v e n t o f t h e N a z i s was n o t i m p o r t i n g any Jews* h a r p s , t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was i m p o r t i n g f e w e r b u t c o s t l i e r h a r m o n ic a s.

1 Ib id .

33 The B u r e a u o f F i s h e r i e s

i n t h e same d e p a r t m e n t was

t h e s o u r c e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t i t was s e e k i n g a team o f w a l k ­ in g f i s h ,

o r c l i m b i n g p e r c h , w h ic h w a lk from one p on d t o a n ­

o t h e r on t h e i r h a r d f r o n t f i n s .

An A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s d i s p a t c h

r e v e a l e d t h a t th e B ureau o f S tan d ard s had no sta n d a r d f o o t n or p ou n d b u t o n l y t h e s t a n d a r d m e t e r a n d k i l o g r a m . o f th e I n t e r i o r announced t h a t i t

The D e p a r tm e n t

d e c l i n e d to h e lp a young

woman who t h o u g h t t h e D e p a r tm e n t m a i n t a i n e d a m a t r i m o n i a l bureau. 1 News o f d e c i s i o n s an d r u l i n g s was r e l e a s e d m a i n l y by th e q u a s i - j u d i c i a l r e g u la to r y b o d ie s . 2 News o f c o n t r a c t s a n d b i d s c o n s i d e r e d p r i n c i p a l l y

th e

p u r c h a s e s u n d e r t h e P u b l i c C o n t r a c t s A c t , r e p o r t e d by t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r , and p u r c h a s e s made by t h e War and Navy d ep artm en ts Some s t o r i e s r e l e a s e d by f e d e r a l o f f i c e s w e r e p e r h a p s p r o v o k e d by some a t t a c k on t h e a g e n c y , b u t t h i s r e a s o n was n o t a lw a y s e v id e n t in th e r e l e a s e .

In th e p e r io d under su rv e y

t h e F e d e r a l Power C o m m issio n made t h e o n l y c o n s i d e r a b l e u s e o f t h e d e f e n s i v e r e l e a s e when t h e c h a ir m a n e n g a g e d i n a

1 Ib id . 2

, 7 0 -7 1 .

3 I b i d ., p. 71.

34 c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h t h e C hairm an o f t h e New Y ork P u b l i c

S e r v ic e

C o m m issio n o v e r a n a l l e g e d s t a t e m e n t by t h e f e d e r a l c h a ir m a n t h a t t h e New Y o r k C i t y pow er r a t e s w e r e h i g h i n r e l a t i o n

to

o th e r c o m m u n itie s,^ A r t i c l e s p r e p a r e d f o r p e r i o d i c a l s by G overnm ent a g e n c i e s w e r e i n t h r e e m a jo r c l a s s e s :

a r t i c l e s p r e s e n t i n g new s

and d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i c y

or p e r s o n n e l o f t h e a g e n c y ;

d e sc r ib in g

th e r o l e ,

or d i s c u s s i n g

an d e q u ip m e n t o f t h e a g e n c y ;

te c h n iq u e s,

and a r t i c l e s

a r tic le s

a c h iev e m en t,

on t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r

w i t h w h ic h t h e a g e n c y was c o n c e r n e d a n d r e f l e c t i n g p o l i c y and w o rk t h r o u g h t h e t r e a t m e n t o f i t s

th e a g en cy * s

su b ject. 2

The D e p a r tm e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e was r e p r e s e n t e d by an equal a tte n tio n

to i t s

p o l i c y and t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r w i t h

w h ic h i t was c o n c e r n e d , w i t h s l i g h t e r r e f e r e n c e The D e p a r tm e n t o f Commerce p r e p a r e d a r t i c l e s p o l i c i e s r e g a r d in g a ir p la n e r e g u la t io n .

t o i t s w ork .

e x p la in in g

its

E m p h a sis on t h e

w ork o f a g e n c i e s was g i v e n m a i n l y t o t h o s e a g e n c i e s w h ic h p e r fo rm e d v i s i b l e

fea ts,

in c o n tr a s t to th e l e s s

s p e c t a c u l a r work

o f s u c h a g e n c i e s a s r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s and f i s c a l b o d i e s . ^ More s p e c i a l i z e d w as t h e c o n t e n t o f a r t i c l e s p r i n t e d in p e r i o d i c a l s o f governm ent a g e n c ie s .

1 I b i d . . PP. 7 1 - 7 2 . 2 2 Ib id .

* P* 7^«

I n some g o v e r n m e n t

35 m a g a z i n e s t h e a r t i c l e s w e r e w r i t t e n i n a more p o p u l a r s t y l e th an o t h e r s .

Two e x t r e m e s o f s t y l e w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d hy t h e

F e d e r a l R e s e r v e B u l l e t i n , w h ic h r e c o r d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e F e d e r a l R e se r v e Board had g a t h e r e d ,

and I n d i a n s a t Work, p u b ­

l i s h e d m o n t h ly by t h e O f f i c e o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s

to p r e s e n t

e s s a y s by I n d i a n s and t o d e s c r i b e t h e a g e n c y f s w o r k , p r o b l e m s , p o lic ie s,

and s u b j e c t m a tte r a s w e l l a s th e o p in io n s o f th e

C o m m is s io n e r . **• T itle s

o f film s

i s s u e d by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s

o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 3 1 t o 1 9 4 0 came i n t h r e e m a jo r c a t e g o r i e s

o f co n ten t:

a c h iev e m en ts o f th e agen cy;

film s d e p ic tin g film s e x p la in in g

t h e a g e n c y and s e c u r i n g p u b l i c

as a r e s u lt

t h e p ro gram o f

s u p p o r t o f an d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n

t h e progra m ; and f i l m s p u b l i c i z i n g th e p u b lic

t h e w ork and

th e f a c i l i t i e s

o ffered

o f th e a g e n c y fs w ork. 2

The w ork and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e a g e n c y w e r e shown i n su ch film s a s:

" A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p l o r a t i o n i n C e y l o n , Su m atra

a n d J a v a , 11 f o r t h e B u r e a u o f P l a n t I n d u s t r y ; Ranch i n C a l i f o r n i a , "

"From Ranch t o

fo r th e E x te n s io n S e r v ic e ,

C o n s e r v a t i o n C o r p s a t W o r k - -A r iz o n a " and s i m i l a r

"The C i v i l i a n film s

C o l o r a d o , Wymming, O regon and W a s h i n g t o n , a n d U ta h and S ou th ern Id a h o ,

f o r t h e E m ergen cy C o n s e r v a t i o n w o r k .3

■*" I b id - * * P* 79* 2 I b id ., 3 Ib id .

p. 8 6 .

fo r

36 F ilm s s o l i c i t i n g by s u c h t i t l e s

a i d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n "Were r e p r e s e n t e d

a s ^ R e g u l a t e d D e e r H u n t i n g , 11 f o r t h e B u r e a u o f

B i o lo g i c a l Survey; B u r e a u o f M in e s ;

” The M aking o f a S a f e M in e r ,*1 f o r t h e

^ T odays F r o n t i e r s , ” f o r t h e S o c i a l S e c u r i t y

B o a r d .1 F il m s p u b l i c i z i n g

fa c ilitie s

p r o v i d e d by t h e a g e n c y

i n c l u d e d ^ F e d e r a l H o u s in g News F l a s h e s , ” f o r t h e F e d e r a l H o u s in g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ;

” S e e in g Y o sem ite N a t io n a l P a r k ,” fo r

th e N a t io n a l Park S e r v ic e .^ G overnm ent f i l m s w e r e u s u a l l y typ e.

o f th e ” docum en tary”

They w e r e d e s i g n e d t o a p p e a l t o w i d e a u d i e n c e s f o r

t h e i r " " d u a lity o f d r a m a t i z i n g com m on place s u b j e c t s and f o r p r e se n tin g lu c id ly film s

t h e s o c i a l p r o b le m s o f t h e d a y . ”^

M ost

i s s u e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t h a d n o i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s t o r y ,

n o m u c h - p u b l i c i z e d s t a r and few o f t h e t r a p p i n g s o f t h e H o lly w o o d s t o r y

f i l m . 2*

, , -D o c u m e n ta r y ( f i l m ) r e l i e s e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e i s n o t h in g so i n t e r e s t i n g to o u r s e l v e s as o u r se lv e s. I t d e p e n d s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l ^ i n t e r e s t i n t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h im . I t b a s e s i t s a p p e a l on t h e c o m m u n it y ! s u n d e n i a b l e z e s t f o r g e t t i n g a b o u t t h e w o r l d and m ore d i f f i c u l t , on t h e drama o f e v e n t s t h a t l i e a t o n e * s own d o o r s t e p . I f t h e r e a r e human b e i n g s t h e y a r e s e c o n d a r y t o t h e rvnain th e m e . T h e ir p r i v a t e p a s s i o n s and p e t u l a n c e s

1

Ib id .

2 Ib id . ? I b id . , p. 9 6 . 4 I b i d ., p. 94.

37 are o f l i t t l e in t e r e s t . F o r t h e m o st p a r t t h e y p e r f o r m t h e i r n a t u r a l b e h a v io r a s in norm al l i f e . The d r a m a t i ­ z a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n l i e n o t i n t h e i r hands h u t i n t h e m eth o d o f t h e d i r e c t o r . They a r e t y p e s s e l e c t e d from t h e many, p o r t r a y i n g t h e m ind and c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s or t h a t s o c i a l g r o u p . I f th ere are sp e c ta c u la r sc e n e s , th p y a g a i n a r e o n l y p r e s e n t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t y p i c a l and b e c a u s e t h e y d e v e l o p n a t u r a l l y from t h e s u b j e c t . 1 The s u b j e c t c o n t e n t o f r a d i o p r o g r a m s p r o d u c e d by a g e n c ie s

o f th e f e d e r a l governm ent in c lu d e d d i s c u s s i o n o f

p r o b le m s a n d p o l i c i e s o f th e agen cy;

o f th e agen cy;

p r e se n ta tio n o f f a c t s

t i o n o f t h e a g e n c y f s p rogram ;

d e sc r ip tio n s

o f w ork

from r e s e a r c h ;

ex p la n a ­

b r o a d c a sts o f e n ter ta in m en t;

program s d e s ig n e d t o i n f l u e n c e l e g i s l a t i o n h o n o r in g or f e a t u r in g p e r s o n n e l;

or p o l i c y ;

sh o w s

b r o a d c a s ts o f c e r em o n ia l

o b se r v a n c e s.2 Some p ro g ra m s p r e s e n t e d i n 1 9 3 7 i n c l u d e d ^ L e t Freedom R in g ,* ' a s e r i e s

b a s e d upon t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s ;

Y o u r s , ** d r a m a t i c s k e t c h e s a b o u t e x h i b i t s In stitu tio n ;

*"The W orld I s

in th e S m ith so n ia n

and '"Have You H e a r d ?*1 on c u r i o s i t i e s

o f sc ie n c e .

G overnm ent e x h i b i t s a t f a i r s and e x p o s i t i o n s p r o v i d e d f l e x i b l e m e d ia o f p u b l i c i t y ,

a llo w in g

fo r a v a r ie ty

o f co n ten t.

A t t h e C e n t u r y o f P r o g r e s s a t C h ic a g o i n 1933 more th a n f i f ­ teen m illio n v i s i t o r s su ch as m in tin g c o i n s ,

saw c u r i o s , w a t c h e d s a m p le p r o c e s s e s e x a m in e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f g o v e r n m e n t s

j o b by e x a m i n in g n a v a l g u n s o r l i g h t h o u s e la m p s , saw d io r a m a s o f n a t i o n a l p a r k s a n d farm c o n d i t i o n s , 1 I b id ., p . 91. 2 Ib id .

o b s e r v e d a n im a t e d m aps,

38 l e a r n e d some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

o f th e ir

i n i s l a n d p o s s e s s i o n s , w ere f i n g e r p r i n t e d pu rp oses,

fe llo w -c itiz e n s

fo r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n

s t u d i e d m o d e ls o f a n a i r - b e a c o n and c o a s t - l i g h t

s y s t e m or o f B o u l d e r Dam and pow er p l a n t . 1 The S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t ' s e x h i b i t sh o w e d a w o r l d map w i t h fla sh in g la r

lig h ts

o ffic e s.

t o show t h e l o c a t i o n o f d i p l o m a t i c and c o n s u ­

I t a l s o d i s p l a y e d s a m p le s o f d i p l o m a t i c c o r r e s ­

p o n d e n c e and c e r e m o n i a l l e t t e r s ,

d o c u m e n ts s h o w in g t h e s t e p s

i n a m en d in g t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n and i n m akin g a l a w , g’i f t s t i o n a l l y g i v e n by t h e P r e s i d e n t t o o f f i c e r s sh ip s

t h a t r e s c u e A m e r ic a n c i t i z e n s

tr e a tie s,

tr a d i­

and men of f o r e i g n

on t h e h i g h s e a s ,

sa m p le

and a m o d e l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d ­

in g in Par i s .2 S im ila r p o sitio n s,

f e d e r a l e x h i b i t s w ere a r r a n g e d f o r o th e r e x ­

and f o r l o b b i e s a n d show w in d ow s o f b u i l d i n g s h o u s ­

in g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s . ^ As a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e l o b b y d i s p l a y ,

some a g e n c i e s

s c h e d u le d co n d u cte d to u r s th rou gh th e a g en cy o f f i c e s .

The

F e d e r a l Bureau o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n

i n t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f J u s t i c e

con d u cted r e g u la r to u r s s t a r t e d

from t h e r e c e p t i o n room o f t h e

D ir e c to r 's w ith r e l i c s

su ite .

The room c o n t a i n e d a d i s p l a y c a s e f i l l e d

o f l a t e b a n d i t s and a r a c k o f n e w s p a p e r c a r t o o n s

1

2 Ib id . , 100- 101. 3 I b id ., 101.

39 p r a isin g

th eB u rea u .

From t h i s

con d u cted th e v i s i t o r

room ,

t h e B u r e a u 1s g u i d e

i n t o a n o t h e r e x h i b i t room , a n d t h e n

i n t o some o f t h e o f f i c e s w h e r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n

file s,

la b o r a ­

t o r y d e t e c t i o n a n d t h e gym nasiu m t r a i n i n g w e r e e x p l a i n e d . ! C o n t e n t o f much p u b l i c i t y o f in d iv id u a ls tio n S e r v ic e ,

i s g o v e r n e d by t h e r e q u e s t s

to th e govern m en t. sin c e

its

The U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f o r m a ­

i n c e p t i o n i n 1 9 3 ^ , a n s w e r e d num bers o f

q u e s t i o n s d a i l y a s k e d by c i t i z e n s

th rou gh ou t th e c o u n tr y .

1936 th e S e r v ic e e s t a b l i s h e d a branch o f f i c e

In

i n New Y o r k C i t y

t o a i d i t s W a s h in g t o n o f f i c e . 2 The S e r v i c e a n s w e r e d a l m o s t e v e r y q u e s t i o n s u b m i t t e d to i t ,

a c c o r d in g

to i t s

d ir e c to r .

B u t,

it

r e fu s e d to g iv e

a n s w e r s t o q u e r i e s b a s e d on v a r i o u s n e w s p a p e r an d r a d i o p r i z e co n tests*

and a t t e m p t e d t o a v o i d g i v i n g

s t u d e n t s **such com­

p l e t e rea d y m a d e a n s w e r s t o t h e i r q u e s t i o n s s t u d y on t h e i r p a r t i s

th a t no fu r th e r

i n v o l v e d . w3

Many o f t h e i n q u i r i e s w e r e f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on o l d - a g e p e n sio n s, ca te ,

th e proced u re r e q u ir e d to o b ta in a b ir t h c e r t i f i - '

t h e a d d r e s s o f v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t e m p lo y e e s *

b e s t m eth o d s t o p r o c u r e j o b s or t r a i n i n g

and t h e

in in d u s tr ie s .^

1

2 P a u l W. K e a r n e y , " S h e Knows A l l t h e A n s w e r s , ” T h is Week M a g a z in e (L o s A n g e l e s T im e s )* J a n u a r y 2* 19^2* p . 9 . 3 Ib id . ^ Ib id .

B u t t h e S e r v i c e r e p o r t e d t h a t i t "was a s k e d q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g m anym other t o p i c s .

F o r e x a m p le ,

in a s in g le

d ay t h e d e p a r t m e n t was a s k e d t o g i v e c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n on r a i s i n g w as f i r s t

caraw ay s e e d s ; so ld

t o name t h e p l a c e w h e r e m a y o n n a is e

in th e U n ite d S t a t e s ;

t o g i v e t h e maximum h e i g h t

for a boat s a i l in g

on t h e Ohio a n d M i s s i s s i p p i B i v e r s ;

l i n e a fiv e -m in u te

t a l k on t h e B i l l

to o u t ­

o f R ig h ts. 2

S o m e tim e s t h e c o n t e n t o f p u b l i c i t y was n o t p l a n n e d i n a d v a n c e b u t w as d e v e l o p e d a s a r e s u l t

o f o u ts id e c ir c u m sta n c e s

In J u ly 1 7 , 1 9 3 2 , A rth u r B r is b a n e i n h i s to ld a sto r y cau se,

o f a m o th e r who k i l l e d h e r s e l f and h e r baby b e ­

t h r o u g h l a c k o f a d v i c e on c h i l d c a r e ,

w eak and s i c k l y .

t h e c h i l d r e m a in e d

B r isb a n e th en c o n t r a s t e d th e s e r v i c e s

g o v e r n m e n t makes a v a i l a b l e w ith th e la c k o f s e r v i c e s le tte r

s y n d i c a t e d c olu m n

o f c o r r e c tio n

t o farm b o y s i n t h e r a i s i n g fo r m oth ers.

th e o f p ig s

I n acknowledgement o f a

from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C h i l d r e n * s B u r e a u ,

B r i s b a n e t h e n p r e s e n t e d a more a c c u r a t e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e se r v ic e s a v a ila b le

from t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e m a t t e r

o f th e ca re o f c h ild r e n .

A nd, i n 1 9 3 ^ , when " G u id in g t h e

A d o l e s c e n t " was p u b l i s h e d by t h e B u r e a u ,

it

su g g e s te d to B ir s -

b a n e t h a t h e m ig h t w i s h t o m e n t i o n t h i s new p u b l i c a t i o n . d id ,

and w i t h i n t h e n e x t w eek t h e B u r e a u r e c e i v e d

req u ests

te n th o u sa n d

fo r th e b u l l e t i n . 2

1 Ib id 2 W e n g e r t , The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A g e n c ie s , pp. 7-8.

He

o f S e le c te d F ederal

41 One p u b l i c i s t h a s o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e c o n t e n t s

o f th e

b u l k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u b l i c i t y w e r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o m o te t h e i n t e r e s t o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o u t s i d e t h e g o v e r n m e n t by a p p e a lin g to t h e .s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f th a t group, t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and a l i g n i n g

o r by a p p e a l i n g

sy m p a th e tic

o p in io n ;

p r o m o te t h e i n t e r e s t o f a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p i n s i d e by a p p e a l i n g a p p e a lin g

to s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f a l l i e s

or t o

th e governm ent

on t h e o u t s i d e ,

or

t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and a r o u s i n g n a t i o n a l p r i d e ;

o r t o p r o m o te a s p e c i a l c a u s e f o r t h e p u b l i c b e n e f i t by a p p e a lin g lis t

to th o se in t e r e s t e d

in th e s p e c i a l ca u se;

s u p p o r t f o r g e n e r a l p u b l i c p o l i c y by i n f o r m i n g t h e p u b l i c

o f ev en ts,

and by g e n e r a l p r e s s p u b l i c i t y . 1

McCamy h a s i n d i c a t e d s i x tio n s

or t o e n ­

ex p erts

o b je c tiv e s

o f th e p u b lic r e l a ­

i n th e f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c ie s d u rin g th e

p e r io d fo llo w in g 1931*2 The o b j e c t i v e s w e r e : fo r th e c l i e n t s

t o d i s t r i b u t e p u b l i c i t y among or

o f th e agency;

o f the la r g e p u b lic ;

t o c a t c h and h o l d t h e a t t e n t i o n

to in flu e n c e le g is la t io n ;

to r e p ly

to

a t t a c k s u p on t h e a g e n c y ;

to a v o id p u b l i c i t y ;

and t o r e p o r t ,

w ith o u t p a r t i c u la r a im s,

t h e r o u t i n e n ew s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t .^

1 E. P e n d l e t o n H e r r i n g , 11O f f i c i a l P u b l i c i t y U nder t h e New D e a l , * ’ The A n n a ls o f t h e A m e r ic a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 1 7 9 , ( May^ 1935*7, P* 1 7 0 . 2 McCamy, G overn m en t P u b l i c i t y , p . 3 Ib id .

21.

k2

One o f t h e c h i e f a im s o f t h e R u r a l E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was **to c a t a l y z e a l a t e n t demand f o r e l e c t r i ­ c ity

and t o c r e a t e t h e a c t i v e demand w h ic h w o u ld l e a d t o t h e

u s e o f R. E. A.

and t h e farm i mp r o v e me n t .

le m was o n e o f pow er l o a d - b u i l d i n g

The p u b l i c i t y p r o b ­

th ro u g h s t r e s s i n g

th e

n u m erous w ays i n w h ic h p o w er c o u l d be u s e d on t h e fa r m . Some a g e n c i e s , h o w e v e r ,

t h a t w e r e w i d e l y a c c e p t e d and

a p p r o v e d by t r a d i t i o n and a c c r e t i o n o f p u b l i c i t y n o l o n g e r sou ght o r ig in a l a t t e n t io n .

T h u s,

t h e Army and t h e Wavy,

fo u n d

t h a t t h e y ^ m e r e ly h a d t o r i d e t h e c u r r e n t o f a p p r o v a l a l r e a d y p r e p a r e d i n t h e l a r g e p u b l i c . 112 I n t h e s e n s e t h a t a l l p u b l i c i t y h a s an i n d i r e c t i n ­ f l u e n c e u p on l e g i s l a t i v e lic ity

d e c is io n s,

a l l a d m in is tr a tiv e pub­

o f f i c e s had th e o b j e c t i v e o f a f f e c t i n g Some a g e n c i e s

o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n d u c te d d i r e c t ca m p a ig n s.

A lth o u g h th e u s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u b l i c i t y u p on a n a g e n c y was on e o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s r e la tio n s

ex p erts,

le g is la tio n .3

m ost p u b l i c i s t s

to r e p ly

to a tta c k s

o f governm ent p u b l i c -

r e f r a i n e d from s u c h t a c t i c s

i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t r e p l i e s w o u ld g i v e 11j u s t s o much m ore p u b ­ lic ity

to th e im p e llin g a t t a c k . F u rth er,

th e p u b l i c i t y

t h e a v o i d a n c e o f p u b l i c i t y as' an o b j e c t i v e o f

e x p e r t to o k th e c o u r s e o f p a s s i v e l y k e e p in g q u i e t ,

or w i t h h o l d i n g o f n ew s t h a t m e d ia h a d l o c a t e d b u t c o u l d n o t p u b l i s h w i t h o u t c o n f i r m a t i o n by t h e s o u r c e . ^ 1 .> P • • 2 I b id . , p . 24. 3 I b l d - . P- 2 5 ^ P. 3 1 .

CHAPTER IV

CONTROL OF PUBLICITY The e x t e n t o f c o n t r o l a p r o p a g a n d i s t h a s o v e r a c o n v e y ­ a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s t o some e x t e n t t h e s u c c e s s h e a tta in s

in p la c in g h is p u b lic it y

effo rts

i n t h a t medium.

Com­

p l e t e c o n t r o l g u a r a n te e s u n lim it e d u s e o f th e ch a n n el o f i n ­ fo rm a tio n .

L a ck o f c o n t r o l means t h a t o t h e r p e r s o n s

th an h im ­

s e l f w i l l d e c i d e w h e t h e r h i s m a t e r i a l I s u s e d by t h a t medium. And, p a r t i a l c o n t r o l means t h a t a u t h o r i t y a s t o t h e u s e o f t h e means o f i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l b e d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c i s t and o th er p e r so n s. When t h e medium i s

o f th e g o v e r n m e n ts

own p r o d u c t i o n ,

th e governm ent in fo r m a tio n e x p e r t w i l l p r o b a b ly have u n d iv id e d co n tro l o f i t .

T h u s,

t h e g o v e r n m e n t p u b l i c i s t w i l l h a v e com­

p l e t e c o n t r o l o f th a t g o v e r n m e n ts m a g a zin es, p a m p h le ts, l e t t e r s e x h i b i t s and m o t i o n p i c t u r e s . When t h e c o n v e y a n c e o f p u b l i c i t y

i s p r o d u c e d by o t h e r s ,

th e govern m ent a g e n t h as no c o n t r o l o v er i t . diu m , a l t h o u g h p r o d u c e d by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e ,

But when t h e m e­ i s under p a r t i a l

c o n t r o l o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t , b o t h t h e p r o d u c e r an d t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i l l have c o n tr o l o f i t . By l a w ,

th e a d m in is t r a t iv e branch o f th e f e d e r a l g o v e r n ­

m ent h a s p a r t i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g i n d u s t r y i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s .

44 The F e d e r a l R a d io C o m m issio n se e m e d t o

fo llo w a g e n e r a l

wh a n d s - o f f * ’ p o l i c y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1 9 3 0 * 3 i n i t s w ith p r iv a t e b r o a d c a s te r s .

r e la tio n sh ip

I t s p o l i c y was a p p a r e n t l y a im e d

a t a m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e s t a t u s quo r a t h e r t h a n t h e f o m e n t i n g of a se r ie s

o f m in o r r e v o l u t i o n s .

In one r e p o r t ,

is s u e d in 1932,

a t t h e i d e a t h a t i t w as d e s i r o u s

t h e C o m m iss io n s c o f f e d

o f c h a n g in g c u r r e n t r a d io

s t a t i o n c o n t r o l and i n s t i t u t i n g g o v e r n m e n t o w n e r s h ip o f b r o a d ­ c a stin g p la n ts.

T h eir r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d d e f i n i t e l y

th a t th ey

b e l ie v e d b r o a d c a st c o n d it io n s w ere s a t i s f a c t o r y a t th a t t i m e . l A few m onth s l a t e r

t h e C o m m iss io n s t a t e d i n e f f e c t t h a t

i t was n o t o p e r a t i n g a l e g a l b u r e a u f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f r a d i o sta tio n

ow ners;

T h eir s t a t e m e n t ,

^ h a i id s 1o f p o l i c y ,

ten d in g

to u n d e r lin e t h e ir

d e c l a r e d i n p a r t t h a t Ht h e F e d e r a l R a d io

C o m m iss io n i s n o t g i v i n g l e g a l a d v i c e t o b r o a d c a s t i n g s t a t i o n s in c o n n e c tio n w ith t h e ir r ig h t s

in b r o a d c a stin g sp ee ch es o f

p o l i t i c a l c a n d id a te s. S c a n t a t t e n t i o n was p a i d by t h e C o m m iss io n members t o th e m a tter o f b r o a d c a st a d v e r t is in g .

S o m e tim e s t h e y c o b j e c t e d

t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p r o g r a m s and c e r t a i n t y p e s o f a d v e r t i s i n g .

1 A nonym ous. wC o u z e n f s S p e c i a l R a d io R e q u e s t B r i n g s i n t h e Red I n k B l u e s , ” B u s i n e s s W eek, N o. 1 4 6 , ( J u n e 2 2 , 1 9 3 2 ) , p. 14. ^ New Y o r k T i m e s , S e p te m b e r 1 3 ,

1932. p.

17.

45 U s u a l l y s u c h p r o g r a m s o r a d v e r t i s i n g w e r e r em o v ed by t h e s t a t i o n a f t e r a n o b j e c t i o n h a d b e e n r e g i s t e r e d by t h e C o m m is s io n . A few s m a l l s t a t i o n s w e r e d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r t h e g e n e r a l v ie w

lic e n se s.

B u t,

o f t h e C o m m iss io n m e m b e r sh ip , a s e x p r e s s e d

by t h e i r w o r d s p u b l i c l y and p r i v a t e l y ,

and by t h e i r o f f i c i a l

a c t s , was t h a t t h e y d id n o t h a v e c e n s o r s h i p p o w e r s o v e r r a d i o p r o g r a m s p r e s e n t e d by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . 1 P r i v a t e b r o a d c a s t e r s w ere q u ic k p u b l i c l y any i m p l i c a t i o n s a ir

to p r o t e s t

th a t c e r t a i n p ro p o sed b r o a d c a sts w ere r e f u s e d

t im e b e c a u s e o f t h e i r

fe a r o f in c u r r in g

th e d is p le a s u r e

o f th e c o m m issio n . D e c l a r e d C o lu m b ia B r o a d c a s t i n g 1s W i l l i s m S .

P a le y :

[the] i n f e r e n c e t h a t C o lu m b ia i s o b l i g a t e d n o t t o b r o a d c a s t an y c r i t i c i s m o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; . i s w h o l l y w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n n e v e r h a s a t t e m p t e d t o a ssu m e o r e x e r c i s e s u c h p r e r o g a t i v e . 2 A l t h o u g h t h e e a r l y F e d e r a l R a d io C o m m iss io n e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f a s s a t i s f i e d w ith e x i s t i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y r e m in d e d b r o a d c a s t e r s

b r o a d c a stin g c o n d it io n s ,

it

t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n b e h in d

t h e p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d m ic r o p h o n e m ig h t n o t a l w a y s be s e c u r e . C o m m is s io n e r H a r o l d A. L a fo u n d i n 19^2 w a r n e d r a d i o - s t a t i o n 1 Jam es M. H e r r i n g , r#The R a d io R e g u l a t i o n C h a l l e n g e , 4* P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s F o r t n i g h t l y , V o l . XVI, No. 6 (S e p te m b e r 1 2 , 193577 P . 5 0 5 . 2 T e le g r a m s e n t by W i l l i a m S . P a l e y , P r e s i d e n t , C o lu m b ia B r o a d c a s t i n g S y s t e m , t o F r e d e r i c k J . S c h l i n k , P r e s i d e n t , Con­ su m e r s R e s e a r c h , I n c . , and c i t e d i n New Y o r k T im e s , J a n u a r y 11, 1954, p. 22.

^-6 ow n er s t h a t r a d i o l i s t e n e r s w e r e c o m p l a i n i n g o f a d v e r t i s i n g on t h e a i r . its

He i n d i c a t e d t h a t wa n i r a t e p u b l i c

r e p r e se n ta tiv e s

in C ongress

fo r d r a s tic

is

b e sie g in g

a c tio n .A n d ,

i n 1 9 3 3 , a member o f t h e F e d e r a l R a d io C o m m iss io n i n a f o r m a l statem en t to ld b ro a d ca sters sta tio n s

t h a t any r e m a r k s made o v e r t h e i r

d e r o g a t o r y t o or i n c r i t i c i s m

o f th e A d m in is tr a tio n ^

p r o gram s and p o l i c i e s w o u ld s u b j e c t t h e o f f e n d i n g s t a t i o n

to

a p o s s ib le r ev o c a tio n o f l i c e n s e . 2 The R a d io A c t o f 1 9 2 7 , w h ic h h a d e s t a b l i s h e d

th e

F e d e r a l R a d io C o m m is s io n , w as r e v i s e d by C o n g r e s s i n 1 9 3 ^ . The new a c t g r e a t l y

e x t e n d e d p o w e r s o f t h e C o m m iss io n and t h e

a d m i n is t r a t i v e branch o f th e go v ern m en t. Under t h e a c t , th e

t h e P r e s i d e n t was r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e

f r e q u e n c i e s t o be r e s e r v e d f o r t h e u s e o f t h e Army, t h e

Navy and o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s w h ic h ^’r e q u i r e r a d i o c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . w3

P r i v a t e r a d i o was t o a c q u i r e t h e w a v e ­

le n g t h s rem a in in g a f t e r

t h e o t h e r a l l o c a t i o n s h a d b e e n m ade.

T h er e w as n o p r o v i s i o n i n t h e a c t , p rev en ted th e P r e s id e n t

express

or i m p l i e d ,

th at

from e x t e n d i n g t h e r e s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s

1 New Y ork T i m e s , November 2 0 ,

1932, p. 6.

2 E l i s h a H a n s e n , ^ O f f i c i a l P r o p a g a n d a and t h e New D e a l , n The A n n a ls o f t h e A m e r ic a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 1 7 9 , ( May, 1 9 3 5 ) , P * 1 1 7 . V o l.

H ig h , ^ N o t - S o - F r e e A i r , ,1The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , 1 2 7 , No. 3 3 , ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 9 .

to c o v er th e e n t i r e r a d io d i a l . A lso ,

if

th e P r e s id e n t b e lie v e d

o r t h r e a t o f war o r a s t a t e o th e r n a t io n a l em ergency, lity

t h e r e e x i s t e d a wv a r

o f p u b l i c p e r i l or d i s a s t e r

or

or in ord er to p r e s e r v e th e n e u t r a ­

o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s / 1 h e c o u l d , ’’’ f o r s u c h t i m e a s h e

may s e e

fit/*

e lim in a te a l l p r iv a te r a d io s t a t i o n s ,

d ism a n tle

t h e b r o a d c a s t i n g p l a n t s and d i s p o s e o f t h e i r e q u i p m e n t . an a l t e r n a t i v e h e c o u l d t r a n s f e r t h e o p era tio n ,

As

o f th e b ro a d ­

c a s t i n g b u s i n e s s ” to any dep artm en t o f t h e govern m ent under s u c h r e g u l a t i o n s a s h e may p r e s c r i b e , t o t h e o w n e r s . 1’1 w as s u f f i c i e n t

u p on j u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n

T h u s, by 193^* & p r e s i d e n t i a l p r o c l a m a t i o n

to a b o lis h p r iv a t e b r o a d c a s tin g .

P a s s a g e o f t h e new r a d i o la w b r o u g h t c h a r g e s t h a t g o v e r n m e n t w as p r e p a r i n g t o c e n s o r or e l i m i n a t e p r i v a t e r a d i o b r o a d c a stin g . a lle g a tio n s

q u oted P r e s id e n t R o o s e v e lt a s s a y in g th a t ” to

p erm it r a d io w o u ld be t o

P o s tm a s te r -G e n e r a l F a r le y i n d e n y in g su ch

t o becom e a medium f o r s e l f i s h .

.

. abuse

. . .

propaganda .

a g r e a t agen t o f p u b lic

.

se r v ic e .

The C hairm an o f t h e C o m m iss io n l a t e r d e c l a r e d / ’ . n ot a s in g le su g g e s tio n o f p o l i t i c a l

.

.

.

f a v o r t i s m h a s come t o

me from a n y one i n t h e W h ite H ouse o r t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n n o r

1

Ib id .

2 Mew Y o rk T i m e s , O c to b e r 1 5 , 1 9 3 ^ , P* 9*

48 from any p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The n e w l y - f o r m e d F e d e r a l C o m m u n ic a tio n s C o m m iss io n r e ­ ite r a te d

th e p r e v io u s d e c la r a t io n s

o f t h e o l d R a d io C o m m iss io n

t h a t i t h a d wn o p o w er o f c e n s o r s h i p *12 o v e r r a d i o p r o g r a m s . B u t C h airm an M cliin ch d e c l a r e d t h a t **the r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e o p e r a tio n under a l i c e n s e can be j u s t i f i e d

o n ly so lo n g a s

p u b l i c c o n v e n i e n c e an d n e c e s s i t y a r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h p r o g r a m s b r o a d c a st to lis te n e r s .* * ^

B efore 1934, a t l e a s t ,

w o u ld r e v i e w t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s f i n d i n g s a sta tio n s a tis fie d

th e p r o v is io n s

c o n v e n ie n c e and n e c e s s i t y . ^ governm ent p u b l i c i t y ,

o f f a c t a s to w h eth er

in regard to th e p u b lic

I n t h e v ie w

th e p u b lic

no c o u r t

o f on e s t u d e n t o f

i n t e r e s t clause o f t h e r a d i o

law was #,a u s e f u l l e v e r *1 t o g o v e r n m e n t b u r e a u s i n t h e i r a ttem p ts a ir

to g e t fr e e a ir

t im e i n t h a t wa d e n i a l o f t i m e on t h e

t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m s / f o r e x a m p l e , w o u ld

o f th e

be a ^ d e n ia l

a g r ic u ltu r a l p o p u la t io n .5 B u t t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e F e d e r a l C o m m u n ic a tio n s

C o m m iss io n w e r e n o t t h e o n l y members o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e dep artm en t w it h c o n t r o l o v er th e r a d io in d u s tr y a f t e r 1 9 3 4 .

1 New Y o r k T i m e s , Novem ber 2 0 , V o l.

1938,

Sec.

IX , p .

12.

2 H ig h , ‘" N o t - S o - F r e e Air,** The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , 1 2 7 , No. 3 3 , ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 3 9 7 , P . 7 4 . 3 Ib id .

4 W e n g e r t , The P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s A g e n c ie s, p . 258. 5 Ib id . , p. 9 4 .

o f S e le c te d F ederal

49 B e g in n in g i n J u ly o f t h a t y e a r ,

t h e F e d e r a l T rad e C o m m is s io n

was t h e j u d g e o f w h a t was wf a l s e and m i s l e a d i n g ^ a d v e r t i s i n g on t h e a i r .

S a i d t h e C o m m issio n :

■Whenever s t a t e m e n t s o c c u r i n c o m m e r c i a l a n n o u n c e m e n ts w h ic h a p p e a r t o h e f a l s e a n d m i s l e a d i n g , o r o t h e r w i s e c o n s t i t u t e a n u n f a i r m eth o d o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n co m m erce, n o t i c e s w i l l be s e n t b o t h t o t h e a d v e r t i s e r and t h e r a d io s t a t i o n b r o a d c a s tin g th e a d v e r t i s i n g , w ith th e v ie w o f e f f e c t i n g a s t i p u l a t i o n u n d e r w h ic h t h e a d ­ v e r t i s e r and t h e b r o a d c a s t e r a g r e e t o c e a s e and d e s i s t from t h e p r a c t i c e s c o m p l a in e d o f . l The C o m m iss io n s a i d a tio n

it

from t h e r a d i o

a n t i c i p a t e d "a f i n e

sp ir it

o f coopera-

i n d u s t r y a s a l r e a d y m a n i f e s t e d by some

b fc ith d l e a d i n g e x e c u t i v e s . Some members o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s e x p r e s s e d th e m se lv e s a s d i s s a t i s f i e d w ith th e e x i s t i n g r a d io sy ste m . Some w a n t e d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n

o f th e p r iv a t e b r o a d c a s te r s .

Some w a n t e d a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n

o f th e c o m m issio n .

an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f th e e n t i r e r a d io

in d u str y ,

O t h e r s w a n te d in a l l

its

a sp ects. I n 1 9 3 3 , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e F u lm er i n t r o d u c e d a b i l l

to

*Ji n v e s t i g a t e r a d i o . w3

167,

1 A nonym ous, wR a d io C e n s o r s h i p , n P r i n t e r ’ s I n k , V o l . (May 2 4 , 1 9 3 4 ) , . p . 1 7 . 2 Ib id .

3 P e a r l B a l d r i d g e , The A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n ment i n t h e F i e l d o f R a d io B r o a d c a s t i n g {"Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r ­ s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a T i f o r n i a " 1 9 3 9 ) , P* 8 6 .

50 I n 1 9 3 5 , a p p o i n t m e n t o f a s p e c i a l H ou se C o m m itte e t o i n v e s t i g a t e c h a r g e s t h a t th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i t s w ere s e e k in g

a g e n c ie s

t o ” c u r b t h e fr e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s and r a d i o

b r o a d c a s t i n g ” -*- was r e q u e s t e d

i n a r e s o l u t i o n o f f e r e d by R e p ­

r e s e n t a t iv e D ie s. In 1 9 3 7 , R e p r e s e n t a t iv e W ig g le sw o r th s a i d

t h a t h e was

d i s s a t i s f i e d w ith th e e x i s t i n g r a d io s e t - u p . 2 The same y e a r , c a llin g

S e n a t o r W h ite i n t r o d u c e d a r e s o l u t i o n

fo r S en ate in v e s t ig a t io n

in to

th e ” e n t ir e r a d io

in d u s­

try ^ 3 The n e x t y e a r , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o n n ery o f f e r e d a R e s o ­ lu tio n c a llin g

fo r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n

t i o n s C o m m is s io n .

o f t h e F e d e r a l Com m unica­

A number o f s p e e c h e s c o n c e r n i n g r a d i o b r o a d ­

c a s t i n g w e r e made t h a t y e a r i n C o n g r e s s . ^

In June, R e p r esen ta ­

t i v e s W i g g l e s w o r t h and C o n n ery r e p e a t e d t h e i r a t t a c k s . s e n t a t i v e S t e f a n a l s o a sk e d fo r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

R epre­

A p p e a r in g

b e f o r e t h e H ou se C o m m itte e on R u l e s , G e o r g e P a y n e , a member o f t h e F e d e r a l C o m m u n ic a tio n s C o m m is s io n , c r i t i c i z e d

th e r a d io

i n d u s t r y .5

^

Y ork T im es, June 1 5 , 1 9 3 5 , p . 4 .

2 B a lb r id g e , A c t i v i t i e s

o f F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t, p p . 8 7 - 8 8 .

3 *JThe W h ite R e s o l u t i o n , " C o n g r e s s i o n a l D i g e s t , V o l . (D ecem ber, 1 9 3 8 ) , p p . 3 0 9 - 3 1 0 . . ^ F ra n k R. M cN in ch , ”R a d io T oday and Tom orrow ," V i t a l S p e e c h e s , V o l . V, No. 4 , (D ecem b er 1 , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 1 1 5 5 B a lb r id g e ,A c t i v i t i e s

o f F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t, p . 9 0 .

17,

51 A l t h o u g h t h e H a d io A c t s o f 1 9 2 7 a n d 1 9 3 4 p r o h i b i t e d c e n s o r s h i p o f p r o g r a m s by t h e R a d io o r C o m m u n ic a tio n s Com­ m issio n s,

a fo r m e r men. b e r o f t h e C o m m iss io n d e c l a r e d i n 1 9 3 5

t h a t r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s "were c e n s o r e d . p o in te d out th a t l ic e n s e s g r a n tin g

The f o r m e r C o m m is s io n e r

th e p r i v il e g e

o f broad­

c a s t i n g w e r e i s s u e d f o r a maximum o f s i x m o n t h s .

At t h e en d

o f e a ch p e r i o d , h e i n d i c a t e d , b r o a d c a s t e r s w ere r e q u ir e d to o b ta in a ren ew al o f t h e ir l ic e n s e c o n tin u e in e x is t e n c e .

if

t h e i r s t a t i o n 1s w e r e t o

S a id th e form er r a d io head:

F a i l u r e t o ren ew means r u i n , f o r w i t h o u t l i c e n s e th e p h y s ic a l p ro p erty i s p r a c t i c a l l y w o r th le s s . L ic e n s e s a r e p e r i o d i c a l l y c i t e d t o a p p ea r b e f o r e th e C o m m iss io n t o show c a u s e why t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e n e w a l s h o u l d n o t be r e j e c t e d , and i n many i n s t a n c e s th ey a re s p e c i f i c a l l y n o t i f i e d in th e c i t a t i o n th a t t h e C o m m iss io n h a s r e c e i v e d c o m p l a i n t s a s t o t h e i r p rogram s.1 The p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t o f t h e r a d i o l a w s ,

t h e n , was t h a t

a l t h o u g h a b r o a d c a s t e r c o u l d be f i n e d o n l y f o r p r o v e d v i o l a ­ t i o n o f a la w o r o f a r e g u l a t i o n o f t h e C o m m is s io n , h e c o u l d be p u t o u t o f b u s i n e s s , and h i s p r o p e r t y v i r t u a l l y w ith o u t h a v in g been c o n v ic t e d o f v i o l a t i n g tio n .

c o n fisc a te d

a n y law o r r e g u l a ­

A c c o r d i n g t o t h e fo r m e r C o m m is s io n e r :

e v er y b r o a d c a s te r in th e co u n try l i v e s in a b j e c t f e a r o f w h a t t h e C o m m iss io n may d o . L e t h im s t u d y t h e r e g u l a t i o n s e v e r s o d i l i g e n t l y ; how on e a r t h c a n h e know w h e t h e r t h e C o m m iss io n i s g o i n g t o l i k e h i s p r o ^ ram s? ^ 1 H enry A. B e l l o w s , ” l s R a d io C e n s o r e d ? ” z i n e , V o l . 1 7 1 , (N ovem ber 1 9 3 5 ) , PP* 7 0 0 - 7 0 1 . •. 2 i b i d - > 702.

H a r p e r * s Maga­

52 I n 1 9 5 8 , a t l e a s t one l i s t e n e r c o m p la in e d to th e F e d e r a l C o m m u n ic a tio n s C o m m iss io n t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d i n a r a d i o p l a y w as i n on e s p o t 31d a n g e r o u s l y s t r o n g . T h e sio n ,

in p r e p a r in g

f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,

Commis­

fo u n d t h a t t h e p l a y

w as a p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ^ F e d e r a l T h eater P r o j e c t .

The c a s e was d r o p p e d .

And a few m onths l a t e r

t h e C o m m iss io n c a l l e d s t a t i o n

WTCN i n M i n n e a p o l i s f o r a h e a r i n g .

T h i s was t h e r e s u l t

c o m p la in t r e c e i v e d a g a i n s t th e s t a t i o n a l l e g i n g g u a g e o f E u gen e 0 *N e i l l f s p l a y , 3,n o t f i t

f o r t h e h o m e .*32

of a

th a t th e l a n ­

IJB ey o n d t h e H o r i z o n / 3 was

The p l a y h a d b e e n b r o a d c a s t by t h e

N a t i o n a l B r o a d c a s t i n g Company and c a r r i e d by some o f i t s member s t a t i o n s ,

i n c l u d i n g WTCN.

A c c o r d i n g t o o n e w r i t e r on e e f f e c t o f t h e c o n t r o l e x e r t e d by t h e G overn m en t o v e r r a d i o was t o k e e p t h e b r o a d ­ ca sters

*■A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - c o n s c i o u s .

S in c e 1935 govern m ent

o f f i c i a l s h a v e r e p o r t e d no d i f f i c u l t y In th a t y e a r , tin s,

issu e d

in o b ta in in g a i r

tim e.

one o f t h e Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u l l e ­ to i t s

p ress a g en ts,

sta ted

t h a t 11i t

is not

d iffic u lt

fo r an A d m in istr a to r or h i s r e p r e s e n t a t iv e

ta in

free

t i m e from r a d i o s t a t i o n s

V o l.

1 H i g h , wN o t - S o - F r e e A i r / 3 The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , 1 2 7 , N o. 3 3 , ( F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 3 9 7 , P . 7 4 . 2 Ib id . 3 Ib id .

in h is S ta te

to ob­

fo r ta lk s

53 a b o u t t h e Works p r o g r a m s ,

f o r n ew s b r o a d c a s t s , r a d i o s k i t s ,

q u e s tio n -a n d -a n s w e r in t e r v ie w s ,

and o t h e r p r o g r a m s .

The b u l l e t i n a d d e d t h a t i n s p e e c h e s o v e r t h e r a d i o ,Ji t

i s p e r m i s 3a b l e , w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g

any o f t h e c a n o n s o f

good t a s t e ,

t o e d i t o r i a l i z e —- e x p r e s s o p i n i o n s — much m ore t h a n

is p o ssib le

in a r t i c l e s

f o r n e w s p a p e r s an d o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s . ^

D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e m eth o d o f g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l o f r a d i o was e x p r e s s e d by P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t i n 1 9 3 9 a le tte r

In

t o S e n a t o r W h e e le r , C hairm an o f t h e S e n a t e C o m m ittee

on I n t e r s t a t e Com merce,

th e P r e s id e n t w rote:

A l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n made a s a r e s u l t o f e f f o r t s t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e w ork o f t h e FCC u n d e r e x i s t i n g l a w , I am t h o r o u g h l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t l e g a l fram ew ork a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a c h in e r y o f t h e C o m m is s io n . I h a v e come t o t h e d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t new l e g i s l a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y to e f f e c t u a t e a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e C o m m iss io n . . . . New l e g i s l a t i o n i s a l s o n e e d e d t o l a y down c l e a r C o n g r e ss io n a l p o l i c i e s . . . s o c l e a r t h a t t h e new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body w i l l h a v e n o d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e m .3 By t h e e n d o f 1 9 3 9 i t

se e m e d t o some t h a t c o n t r o l o f

b r o a d c a s t i n g by t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e ­ partm en t h a d , m itte r ,

sin c e

ste a d ily

th e e r e c t io n o f th e f i r s t r a d io

tra n s­

in c re a se d .

1 C a r r o l l , *’How t h e WPA Buys V o t e s , n The A m e r ic a n M ercu ry V o l . X L I I , No. 1 6 6 , ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 7 ) , . P . 2 0 9 .

2 rbia. 3 B a ld r id g e , A c t i v i t i e s

o f F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t, p p . 9 2 - 9 ^ .

54 O th e r p u b l i c i t y m e d ia f e l t

th e cu rb o f govern m en t.

By 1955 some o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t i n g U n i t e d S t a t e s n e w s ­ paper p u b lis h e r s

o ffic ia lly

d e n c y was t o i n c r e a s e th e p r e s s .

d e c la r e d t h a t th e p r e v a le n t t e n ­

t h e amount o f g o v e r n m e n t c o n t r o l o v e r

The F reed om o f t h e P r e s s c o m m i t t e e o f t h e A m e r ic a n

N e w sp a p e r P u b l i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y n o t e d ww i t h r e g r e t a d i s p o s i t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e ­ p a rtm en ts to f a t h e r v a r io u s m easures i n f r in g in g

t h e fr e e d o m

o f t h e p r e s s . ,Jl U nder t h e n e w s p a p e r c o d e p r o p o s e d i n 1933 hy t h e N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l R e c o v e r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , many p h a s e s o f n e w s p a p e r p u b l i c a t i o n w e r e p l a c e d u n d e r d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t governm ent s u p e r v is io n . no p r o v i s i o n p r o v id in g

B ecau se th e p rop osed code c o n ta in e d for a fr e e p r e s s ,

some j o u r n a l i s t s

an d n e w sp a p e r m e n s a i d t h e y saw t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e en d o f freed om o f th e p r e s s

in th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,

and t h e s t a r t i n g

o f a n a t i o n a l n e t w o r k o f c e n s o r s h i p d i r e c t e d fro m W a s h in g t o n . Some s a i d

t h e y b e l i e v e d t h i s c o n t r o l o f t h e m e th o d s o f p u b ­

l i c a t i o n w o u ld l e a d t o c o n t r o l o f t h e c o n t e n t o f p u b l i c a t i o n . T y p i c a l o f t h e v i e w s o f t h i s g r o u p w e r e t h o s e o f t h e D ean o f C o lu m b ia S c h o o l o f J o u r n a l i s m , who a d v o c a t e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n ­ ment p l a c e i t s e l f on r e c o r d i n t h e n e w s p a p e r c o d e a s ^ s t i l l r e c o g n iz in g

th e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r ig h t

1 New Y o r k T i m e s , A p r i l 2 7 ,

o f t h e fr e e d o m o f t h e

1 9 3 3 9 P* 15*

p r e s s . 1i D e c la r in g t h a t th e governm ent n eed ed a f r e e p r e s s , D ean A ckerm an s a i d t h a t n a t i o n a l u n i t y b a s e d u p on p u b l i c o p i n i o n was more r e l i a b l e and l a s t i n g b a s e d u p on p u b l i c lic

e m o tio n .

th a n n a t io n a l

a c tio n

He f u r t h e r a s s e r t e d a s o u n d p u b ­

o p i n i o n c o u l d be b u i l t o n l y when t h e p r e s s was f r e e . P r o p o n e n t s o f t h e n e w s p a p e r c o d e p r o p o s e d by t h e

N a tio n a l I n d u s t r ia l R ecovery A d m in istr a tio n s a id

t h a t no

s p e c i f i c g u a r a n t e e o f fr e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s w as r e q u i r e d i n t h e l a w , b e c a u s e n e w s p a p e r l i b e r t y was a l r e a d y g u a r a n t e e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n . 2

S p ea k in g f o r s u p p o r t e r s

o f th e C ode, P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e lt s a id :

w0 f c o u r s e n o b o d y

w a i v e s any c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s by a s s e n t i n g

to a co d e.

The

fr e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s c a l u s e h a s n o more p l a c e h e r e t h a n w o u ld th e r e c i t a t i o n m e n t s . ,J3

o f t h e w h o le C o n s t i t u t i o n or o f t h e Ten Command

A nd, G e n e r a l J o h n s o n ,

o p in io n s a i d , th e p r e ss

is

don*t b e lie v e

in e c h o in g th e c h i e f e x e c u t iv e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e fr e e d o m o f

i n v o l v e d i n t h i s a t a l l . w^

1 A nonym ous, ^Dean A ckerm an o f C o lu m b ia S c h o o l o f J o u r n a l i s m A s k s U . S .G u a r a n t y on F r e e P r e s s , w C o m m e r c ia l and F i n a n c i a l C h r o n i c l e , V o l . 1 3 7 , No. 3 5 5 6 , ( A u g u s t 1 9 , 1 9 3 3 7 7 p. 1348. ^ A nonym ous, fJR e v i s e d Code S u b m i t t e d by N ew sp ap er P u b ­ l i s h e r s A p p r o v e d by G e n e r a l J o h n so n ^ C o m m e rc ia l and F i n a n c i a l C h r o n i c l e , V o l . 1 3 7 , N o. 3 5 5 6 , ( A u g u s t 1 9 , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . " 1 3 4 7 . ^ New Y o rk T i m e s , Novem ber 2 ,

1933, p.

20.

^ A nonym ous, ^ R e v i s e d Code S u b m i t t e d by N ew sp a p er P u b ­ l i s h e r s A p p r o v e d by G e n e r a l J o h n s o n , n p . 13^7*

56 When t h e h e a d o f t h e N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l R e c o v e r y -A d m in istr a tio n v a s a sk e d w h eth er a l i c e n s e d new spap er o p e r a t ­ i n g u n d e r t h e p r o p o s e d c o d e w o u ld h a v e i t s it

lic e n s e revoked i f

sh o u ld e x p r e s s an o p in io n u n fa v o r a b le to th e A d m in is tr a tio n

or o p p o sin g i t ,

G en era l Johnson s a id :

^ C e r t a i n l y n o t . wl

In th e new spaper code a d o p ted A ugust 1 5 ,

1 9 3 3 > n o men­

t i o n was made o f a r e s e r v a t i o n by t h e p u b l i s h e r s o f t h e i r c o n s titu tio n a l r ig h t

to a fr e e p r e s s .

An a d d i t i o n was made

t o t h e c o d e t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y , h o w e v e r , w h ic h p r o v i d e d f o r a free p r e ss.

The s e c t i o n r e a d :

In s u b m it t in g or s u b s c r ib in g to t h i s c o d e , th e p u b l i s h e r s do n o t t h e r e b y a g r e e t o a c c e p t o r co m p ly w i t h any o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a n t h o s e h e r e i n c o n ­ t a i n e d , o r w a i v e any r i g h t t o o b j e c t t o t h e i m p o s i ­ t i o n o f a n y f u r t h e r o r d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s , or w a i v e a n y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s or i n t e r f e r e w i t h th e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g u a r a n te e o f th e freed om o f th e p r e s s .2 In s p i t e jo u r n a lists

o f th e i n c lu s i o n o f t h i s

se c tio n ,

some

and n e w s p a p e r p u b l i s h e r s c o n t i n u e d t o d e c l a r e

t h a t t h e c o d e c o u l d b e u s e d a s a c o n v e n i e n t l e v e r by means o f w h ic h t h e g o v e r n m e n t c o u l d c o n t r o l n e w s p a p e r c o n t e n t . T a k in g n o t e o f t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s , G e n e r a l J o h n s o n i n a s p e e c h d e l i v e r e d s e v e r a l m on th s a f t e r

t h e c o d e was a d o p t e d d e c l a r e d

t h a t th e f e d e r a l governm ent had no i n t e n t i o n o f a tte m p tin g

1 Ib id . 2 Ib id .

to

57 c e n so r th e n e w sp a p er s. 1

He s a i d

t h a t some n e w s p a p e r s h a d

i n d u l g e d i n ww i t c h - d o c t o r d a n c i n g *1 and h a d

in c ite d

th e

j i t t e r s w i t h h e a d l i n e s .** S a id G en eral John son ,

in p art:

I n my o f f i c i a l o p i n i o n , t h e r e i s n o a u t h o r i t y i n t h e NRA t o l i c e n s e a n e w s p a p e r . I th in k th a t th e l i c e n s i n g s e c t i o n s o f t h e s t a t u t e m ust h e r e a d w i t h th e f r e e - p r e s s c la u s e s o f th e C o n s t it u t io n . I th in k t h a t , t o g e t h e r , th ey c le a r l y p r e c lu d e th e id e a o f an y i n t e n t o f C o n g r e s s t o c r e a t e a n y r i g h t i n t h e NBA t o l i c e n s e t h e p r e s s . 2 , When t h e c o d e w a s c o n d i t i o n a l l y a p p r o v e d by P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e lt

in e a r ly 1934,

th e C h ie f E x e c u tiv e c h a r a c t e r iz e d

t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e p r e s s p r o v i s i o n a s " p u r e s u r p l u s a g e , "5 w h ic h h a d n o m e a n in g .

He s a i d t h a t i t w as ‘" p e r m i t t e d t o

s t a n d b e c a u s e i t w o h ld h a v e n o s u c h l e g a l e f f e c t s bar i t s

a s w o u ld

in c lu sio n . A few w e e k s a f t e r

th is

s t a t e m e n t by t h e P r e s i d e n t ,

S e n a t o r S c h a l l d e c l a r e d t h a t P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t w as a t t e m p t ­ in g

t o " c e n s o r t h e p r e s s . "5

The c o d e ,

c o n ta in in g

t h e fr e e d o m

1 A nonym ous, "NRA G i v e s n o A u t h o r i t y t o L i c e n s e P r e s s , G e n e r a l J o h n s o n D e c l a r e s ," C o m m e r c ia l and F i n a n c i a l C h r o n i c l e , V o l . 1 3 7 , (N ovem ber 1 1 , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 3 ^ 2 4 . 2 Ib id . 2 Anonymous " P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t G i v e s C o n d i t i o n a l A p p r o ­ v a l , 1’ C o m m e r c ia l and F i n a n c i a l C h r o n i c l e , V o l . 1 3 8 , N o . 3 5 8 5 , (M arch 1 0 , 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 1 6 7 2 . 4 Ib id . 5 A nonym ous, ' " S c h a ll A c c u s e s P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t o f A t t e m p t i n g t o C e n s o r t h e P r e s s , 1’ C o m m ercia l a n d F i n a n c i a l C h r o n i c l e , V o l . 1 3 8 , No. 3 5 8 5 , (M arch 1 0 ,“ 1 9 3 4 7 , ' p . “ l6 '7 2 .

58 o f t h e p r e s s p r o v i s i o n w e n t i n t o e f f e c t March 1 2 , The c o d e was made i n o p e r a t i v e

1954.

t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r when

t h e Supreme C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l R e c o v e r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w as u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . S e v e r a l m o n th s b e f o r e t h e c o d e ’ s d e a t h , R o b e r t R. McCormick d e c l a r e d t h a t p r o p o s e d l e g i s l a t i o n u n d e r t h e R e ­ em p lo y m en t P rog ra m w o u ld h a v e g i v e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t f u l l p ow er to su p p ress a fr e e p r e s s .

M cCorm ick, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e A m e r ic a n

N e w sp a p e r P u b l i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n ,

sa id

t h a t t h e l i c e n s i n g p o w er

o f t h e p r o p o s e d law e n a b l e d t h e g o v e r n m e n t t o s u p p r e s s a n e w s ­ paper fo r ^ e x p r e s s io n o f u n d e sir e d e d i t o r i a l o p i n i o n . U n d e r h is

in t e r p r e t a t io n o f th e proposed b i l l ,

t h e P r e s i d e n t was g i v e n

u n l i m i t e d pow er o v e r t h e c o s t o f n e w s p a p e r p r o d u c t i o n , t h e c o s t o f i t s m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t and o f i t s raw p r o d u c t s , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a d v e r t i s i n g i t m ig h t p u b l i s h , a s to th e h a n d lin g o f i t s new s, as to th e t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n w h ic h i t m ig h t be d i s t r i b u t e d , a s t o t h e number o f p a g e s i t m ig h t p r i n t , a s t o t h e number o f e d i t i o n s a day i t m ig h t i s s u e and a s t o how many d a y s a w e ek i t m ig h t p u b l i s h . 2 H o w e v e r , h e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a f t e r p r o t e s t s by n e w s ­ p a p e r p u b l i s h e r s and o t h e r g r o u p s a s t i p u l a t i o n was a d d e d *Jg u a r a n t e e i n g

freed om o f th e p r e s s . ^

A fter 1955,

some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e

o ffic ia ls

d e c la r e d

t h e y w e r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h some o f t h e e x i s t i n g a s p e c t s

^ New Y o r k T i m e s , May 2 9 ,

1955, p.

^ New Y o r k T i m e s , A p r i l 2 6 , 5 ib id .

1.

1 9 5 5 , P* 7-

o f th e

59 new spaper p u b lis h in g

in d u str y .

P r e s id e n t R o o s e v e lt s a id th a t

h e p l a c e d a b o u t e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f a l l A m e r ic a n n e w s ­ p ap ers in th e c a te g o r y o f nt o r i e s . sta ted

th a t he d is lik e d

At a n o th e r tim e h e

in t e r p r e t a tiv e w r itin g

e v e n t s by s p e c i a l w r i t e r s and c o l u m n i s t s in d ic a te d th a t he b e lie v e d

of p o litic a l

i n W a s h in g t o n .

He

o n l y ^ s t r a i g h t n ew s w r i t e r s ,

s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o c o v e r W a s h in g t o n p o l i t i c s .

E a r ly in

1958 h e s a i d th a t he d id n o t c o n s id e r th e i n c l u s i o n o f n e w s­ p a p e r s , p e r i o d i c a l s and m a g a zin es a s s e c o n d - c l a s s m a il m a tte r t o be a ^ h e a l t h y s i g n . 3J5

He s a i d

z i n e s s h o u l d a c t t o wend t h e w ere r e c e i v i n g

t h a t n e w s p a p e r s and m aga­

’ s u b s i d y 1 w h ic h h e s a i d

th ey

fro m t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e form o f s e c o n d -

c l a s s m a il r a t e s F o llo w in g

t h a t d id n o t m eet th e c o s t o f th e s e r v i c e . ^ th e P r e s id e n t ’s o b s e r v a tio n s ,

t h e A m e r ic a n

N e w sp a p e r P u b l i s h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n i s s u e d a s t a t e m e n t d e c l a r i n g t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e P o s t O f f i c e D e p a r tm e n t h a d t e s t i ­ f i e d b e f o r e a C o n g r e s s i o n a l C o m m itte e i n 1 9 2 4 t h a t ,fi f n e w s p a p e r was r em o v ed from t h e m a i l s c ia b le s a v in g

every

t h e r e w o u ld b e n o a p p r e ­

to th e governm ent b e ca u se th e p o s t a l e s ta b lis h m e n t

1

New Y o rk Tim es., J a n u a r y 8 , 1 9 3 8 , p . 3 .

2

New Y ork T i m e s , March 2 3 , 1 9 3 8 , p .

^

New Y o rk T im e s , J a n u a r y 8 , 1 9 3 8 , p . 3 .

^ Ib id .

22.

60 ■would h a v e t o b e m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e p u b l i c ' s b e n e f i t w h e t h e r i t h a n d le d n ew sp ap ers or n o t . 1 In 1940 i t

s e e m e d a p p a r e n t t o many t h a t d i r e c t g o v e r n ­

m ent c o n t r o l o f n e w s p a p e r s w a s , n o n -e x iste n t,

for a l l p r a c t ic a l p u rp o ses,

and t h a t govern m ent p u b l i c i t y a p p ea r e d i n n e w s ­

p a p ers o n ly w ith th e v o lu n ta r y c o n s e n t o f th e p u b l i s h e r s . 2 F u rth er,

t h e r e w as n o e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t g o v e r n m e n t h ad

an y m e a s u r e o f d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r any o t h e r p r i v a t e m e d ia , o t h e r th a n r a d i o ,

fo r p u b lic it y p u rp oses.

*** New Y o rk T i m e s , J a n u a r y 9 3 1 9 3 8 , p . 4 2 . 2 McCamy, G overn m en t P u b l i c i t y , p .

236.

CHAPTER V

EXTENT OF PUBLICITY An a t t e m p t was made I n 1 913

to r e s t r i c t

t h e e m p lo y m en t

o f p r e s s a g e n t s by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t when C o n g r e s s ’ p a s s e d a la w p r o v i d i n g t h a t

"no money a p p r o p r i a t e d by an y A c t

s h a l l be u s e d f o r c o m p e n sa tio n o f any p u b l i c i t y s p e c ific a lly

a p p r o p r i a t e d f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . *"1

A law p a s s e d by C o n g r e s s p r in tin g , c u tiv e

in 1919 p r o v id e d t h a t '" a ll

b i n d i n g , and b l a n k - b o o k w ork f o r C o n g r e s s ,

O ffic e ,

th e J u d ic ia r y ,

Independ en t O f f ic e ,

and E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h a l l O ffic e .

A n o t h e r law p a s s e d by C o n g r e s s e a r l i e r p r o h ib ite d

th e E xe­

and e v e r y E x e c u t i v e D e p a r t m e n t ,

be d o n e a t t h e G overnm ent P r i n t i n g

v ic e s,

exp ert u n le ss

t h e same y e a r

t h e S?u s e o f an y p a r t o f any a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r s e r ­

m essages,

or p u b l i c a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o i n f l u e n c e any

members o f C o n g r e s s

in h is a t t it u d e

to w a r d l e g i s l a t i o n

or a p p r o ­

p r i a t i o n . w3

1 38 U . S . S t a t . 212, ( O c t o b e r 2 2 , G overn m en t P u b l i c i t y , p . 2 1 . 2 k l U .S .S t a t . 68 , (J u ly 11, G overn m en t P u b l i c i t y , p . 2 2 . 3 ^0 U . S . S t a t . 1 2 7 0 , G overn m en t P u b l i c i t y , p . 2 2 .

1913)*

1 9 1 9 ),

(M arch 1 ,

S e e a l s o McCamy

S e e a l s o McCamy

1 9 1 7 ) , S e e a l s o McCamy

62 No money was s p e c i f i c a l l y fo r

th e c o m p e n sa tio n o f p u b l i c i t y

a p p r o p r i a t e d by C o n g r e s s exp erts a fte r

th e p a ssa g e

o f th ese a c ts .b A la w p a s s e d i n 1 9 3 3 , h o w e v e r ,

sta ted

th a t th e A g r i­

c u l t u r e A d j u s t m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d make p u b l i c any i n f o r ­ m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y '"to e f f e c t u a t e tr a tio n . e x is tin g

th e p u r p o s e s ” o f t h e A d m in is­

T h is was t o b e " n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g a n y p r o v i s i o n s l a w .

”2

No e m p l o y e e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w ere l i s t e d

of

as p u b lic ity

p u b lic p a y - r o l ls .

f e d e r a l governm ent

e x p e r ts or p r e s s a g e n ts

on t h e

O f f i c e s , h o w e v e r , h e l d by some men i n t h e

f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s a d m i n is t r a t i v e d ep artm en t had su ch t i t l e s as

’’D i r e c t o r o f I n f o r m a t i o n , ” " C h i e f , D i v i s i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n

an d E d u c a t i o n , ” E d i t o r i n C h i e f , ” " A s s i s t a n t t o t h e D i r e c t o r , ” " S u p e r v iso r o f I n fo r m a tio n R e s e a r c h ,” " A s s is t a n t

to th e C h a ir ­

m a n ,” " D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c a t i o n . ”^ O ffic e s

f o r I n f o r m a t i o n and P u b l i c a t i o n s

f i f t y - o n e d e p a r tm e n ts-fr o m 1931 to 1 9 3 3 .

e x is te d

A f t e r March 4 ,

t h i r t y - o n e more a g e n c i e s w e r e a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r

in 1933,

o ffic e s .^

1 M i l l a r d U i l b u r n R i c e , "The 1P e o p l e *3 * P r o p a g a n d a , ” P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s F o r t n i g h t l y , V o l . XXI, No. 1 0 , (May 1 2 , 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 579. 2 I b id .,

p .

5 I b id . , p.

5 8 O. 7.

^ S t a n l e y H ig h , "You C a n ’ t B e a t t h e G overn m en t ” The S a t u r d a y E v e n i n g P o s t , V o l . 2 0 8 , N o. 4 8 , (May 3 0 , 1 9 3 6 ) , p p . 5 7 , 3 4 , 36, 38.

63 From t h e s e o f f i c e s a m a jo r p o r t i o n o f f o r m a l g o v e r n m e n t p u b ­ lic ity

w as i s s u e d . The N a t i o n a l E m ergency C o u n c i l ,

c r e a t e d i n 1 9 3 3 and

a b o l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 6 , was t h e c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u b lic ity

d u rin g i t s

p u b lic ity m a te r ia ls , s t a t e b u t D e la w a re ,

e x is te n c e .

The c o u n c i l d i d n o t i s s u e

b u t C o u n c i l m em b ers,

situ a te d

in d ic a t e d to th e P r e s id e n t

as to th e e f f e c t i v e n e s s

o f p u b lic ity

in every

th e ir

o p in io n s

e f f o r t s by o t h e r a g e n c i e s

in th e ir d i s t r i c t s .^ O p e ra tin g under th e d i r e c t i o n

o f t h e N a t i o n a l E m erg en cy

C o u n c i l was t h e D i v i s i o n o f P r e s s I n t e l l i g e n c e . o f t h e D i v i s i o n was s t a t e s , o f a ’" d a i l y

file

fed era l

E v e r y d ay t h e D i v i s i o n r e c e i v e d 4 0 0

T h e s e p a p e r s w e r e r e a d and a l l

and e d i t o r i a l s A fter

t o be t h e m a i n t e n a n c e

o f p r e ss m a te r ia l fo r use o f a l l

g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . **2 new spap ers.

o ffic ia lly ,

The f u n c t i o n

t h e n ew s i t e m s

d e a lin g w ith th e governm ent w ere c li p p e d .

f o u r y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n more t h a n t h r e e m i l l i o n c l i p ­

p in g s had been f i l e d

by t h e B u r e a u .^

A l s o o p e r a t e d by t h e N a t i o n a l E m ergency C o u n c i l was th e U n ite d S t a t e s In fo r m a tio n S e r v ic e .

I t s p u r p o s e w as t o

1 McCamy, G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y , p .

7*

2 H ig h *JYou C a n ' t B e a t t h e G ov ern m en t ** The S a t u r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , V o l . 2 0 8 , No. 4 8 , (May 3 0 , 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 3 3TT 3 Ib id .

64 make a v a i l a b l e g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a l l p h a s e s o f g overn m en tal a c t i v i t y ." 1

The I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e r e c e i v e d

a b o u t two h u n d r e d i n q u i r i e s a day from 1 9 3 4 t o 1 9 3 7 . f o r t y p e r c e n t w e r e fro m t h e g o v e r n m e n t ,

Of t h e s e ,

t w e n t y p e r c e n t from

C o n g r e s s , an d f o r t y p e r c e n t from t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . 2 D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith t h i s p u b l i c i t y e x p r e s s e d by s o m e .3

a r r a n g e m e n t was

The h e a d o f a W a s h in g t o n n e w s s e r v i c e

d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e r e was t o o l i t t l e m ent p u b l i c i t y a g e n c i e s .

c o o r d i n a t i o n among g o v e r n ­

" T h ere!s n eed fo r a c o o r d in a to r

a t t a c h e d t o t h e W h ite H o u s e ," h e w r o t e i n 1 9 3 7 , c o n t a c t w i t h a l l G ov ern m en t a g e n c i e s , t r a d i c t i o n s and c o n f u s i o n s ,

ir o n in g

" M a in ta in in g

out th e ir con ­

t h i n k i n g a l w a y s I n te r m s o f h e l p ­

in g th e a v e r a g e r e a d e r ," ^ A p u b lic r e la t io n s

sp e c ia list,

p r iv a te ly

c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e an " i n t e l l i g e n t b u r e a u f o r o u r g o v e r n m e n t i n W a s h i n g t o n . "5

e m p lo y e d ,

in te r p r e ta tiv e

He d e c l a r e d t h e r e

1 lb ld « 2

V o l.

l d ld »

3 W. M. K i p l i n g e r , "What Can You B e l i e v e ? " 2 , No. 5 , (N ovem ber 2 4 , 1 9 3 4 ) , p p . 3 - 4 , 2 2 .

T od ay,

A l s o A nonym ous, "Wanted: A M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n , " The New R e p u b l i c , V o l . 1 0 5 , No. 1 9 , (N ovem ber 1 0 , 1 9 4 1 ) , p . 6 2 0 . N o. 5 ,

^ K ip lin g e r , (N ovem ber 2 4 ,

"What Can You B e l i e v e ? " 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 3 - 4 , 22.

5 Edward L. B e r n a y s , Com pany, 19 2 8 ) , p . 1 1 3 .

*:P r o p a g a n d a

Today, V o l.

(New York:

2,

L iv e r ig h t

65 s h o u l d be a n A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y

o f S t a t e who i s

fa m ilia r w ith

t h e p r o b le m o f d i s p e n s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p r e s s . ' ”! c la r e d fu r th e r

th a t th e U n ite d S t a t e s

He d e ­

sh o u ld c r e a t e a S e c r e ta r y

o f P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s a s a member o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s C a b i n e t . ^ T h is o f f i c i a l s ^ c o r r e c tly

a s s e e n by t h e p u b l i c i s t ,

t o i n t e r p r e t A m e r i c a s a im s and i d e a l s

t h e w o r l d . w3 co u n try

fu n c tio n ,

A lso ,

it

s h o u l d **keep t h e c i t i z e n s

in tou ch w ith go v ern m en ta l a c t i v i t i e s

w o u ld be

th rou gh ou t o f th is

and t h e r e a s o n s

w h ic h p rom p t them .'”^ S i x $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 - a - y e a r *1e x e c u t i v e a s s i s t a n t s *1 w e r e p r o ­ v id e d fo r 1937* a id e s

t h e P r e s i d e n t i n a b i l l p a s s e d by t h e H o u se i n J u l y

The b i l l S

a u t h o r s a i d t h e a s s i s t a n t s w o u ld b e ^ d i r e c t

i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m a n a g e r i a l a g e n c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a ­

t io n d ep artm en ts.

They w e r e t o a s s i s t

o f th ree s e c r e t a r ie s , th e p r e s s ,

r a d io ,

th e e n t i r e n in e

and C o n g r e s s . 6

th e P r e s i d e n t s

sta ff

t o d e a l w i t h ufche p u b l i c 9

By 1 9 4 0 ,

e le v e n s e c r e t a r ie s

w e r e on t h e W h ite H ou se p a y r o l l . 7 1 Edward L. B e r n a y s , r>C r y s t a l l i z i n g P u b l i c O p i n i o n , (Hew York: L i v e r i g h t P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 4 ) , P* 1 1 4 . 2 Ib id . 3 Ib id . 4 Ib id . 5 G ordon C a r r o l l , ^ P r o p a g a n d a from t h e W h ite H o u s e ,*1 The A m e r ic a n M e r c u r y , V o l . . X L I I , N o. 1 6 7 , (N o v e m b e r, 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 3 3 0 . 6 Ib id . 7 Los A n g e l e s T i m e s , A p r i l 2 6 ,

1941, Part I ,

p . 5*

66 P r e s id e n t R o o s e v e lt i n 1937 e n d o r se d t o C o n g ress th e r e c o m m e n d a t io n o f h i s

s p e c i a l C o m m itte e on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e

M anagement f o r a c e n t r a l b u r e a u o f o f f i c i a l

in te llig e n c e :

A d i v i s i o n o f I n f o r m a t io n s h o u ld be e s t a b l i s h e d t o s e r v e a s a c e n t r a l c l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r t h e C o­ r e l a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i ­ c i e s o f th e s e v e r a l d ep artm en ts in th e o p e r a tio n o f t h e i r own i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and t o p e r f o r m r e la te d d u tie s. The U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e m ig h t w e l l be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h i s d i v i s i o n . I t m ig h t a l s o d e v e l o p i n t o a s e r v i c e w h ic h w o u ld s u p e r v i s e and f o s te r r e g io n a l a s s o c ia tio n s o f e x e c u tiv e o f f ic e r s o f t h e G o vern m en t a n d o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f th e f i e l d s e r v i c e s . The D i r e c t o r o f t h e (Budget^ B u r e a u h a s b e e n a u t h o r i z e d by law t o a p p r o v e t h e u s e o f p r i n t ­ i n g a n d b i n d i n g a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h e p e r i o d i c a l s and j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d by G overn m en t a g e n c i e s ; t h e c h i e f o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f I n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d a s s i s t h im i n c a r r y ­ in g out t h i s d u t y .I W ith t h e a b o l i s h m e n t o f t h e N a t i o n a l E m ergency C o u n c i l i n 1 9 3 8 , came a t r a n s f e r o f p u b l i c i t y a c t i v i t i e s t r a l i z e d o f f i c e a s recom m end ed by t h e P r e s i d e n t : crea ted o f f ic e

o f G o vern m en t R e p o r t s .

to a c e n ­ th e n e w ly -

The a n n o u n c e d p u r p o s e

o f t h e O f f i c e w as t o ^ c o r r e l a t e * ’ and ^make c o n v e n i e n t ^ a l l n e w s e m a n a t in g from g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s . te m , h a n d o u t s w e r e g i v e n t o t h e p r e s s One g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l

U nder t h e new s y s ­

t h r o u g h one b u r e a u h e a d . 2

e s t i m a t e d i n 1 9 3 7 t h a t n ew s

c o v e r a g e o f governm ent a c t i v i t i e s had in c r e a s e d fo u r hundred

1 L a w ren ce S u l l i v a n , f,G overnm ent by M im eo g ra p h , n The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , V o l . 1 6 1 , (M a rch , 1 9 3 8 ) , p . 3 0 7 . 2 Los A n g e l e s T i m e s , March 2 7 ,

1941,

Sec.

2, p.

4.

per c e n t in th e p r e v io u s

fou r y e a r s . 1

A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o o f f i c i a l r e c o r d o f t h e number o f p e r s o n s t h a t w ere en g a g ed i n p r o m o tin g f e d e r a l govern m en t a d ­ m in istr a tiv e a c t i v i t i e s

a f t e r . 1 9 3 0 , 2 o n e n ew s c o r r e s p o n d e n t

e s t i m a t e d i n 19 3 3 t h e r e was " a t l e a s t *1 one g o v e r n m e n t p r e s s a g e n t f o r e v e r y r e p o r t e r m a i n t a i n e d i n W a s h in g t o n f o r a d a i l y new spaper I n 1 9 3 5 , a n o t h e r new s w r i t e r e s t i m a t e d m ore th a n two h u h d r e d e x -n e w s p a p e r m e n w e r e t h e n on t h e g o v e r n m e n t p a y r o l l i n W a s h i n g t o n .^ E m ployed by t h e g o v e r n m e n t i n 1 9 3 7 w e r e a t l e a s t h u n d r e d and f i f t y

s p e c i a l i s t s who s p e n t a l l

tim e i s s u i n g r e l e a s e s

two

or p a r t o f t h e i r

fo r th e v a r io u s m e d ia .5

By 1 9 3 9 ,

th ree

hundred p e r s o n s w ere en g a ged i n th e p r o m o tio n o f f e d e r a l a d ­ m in is tr a tio n a c t i v i t i e s .^

1 C. R. W a lk e r , "G overnm ent P u b l i c i t y M a c h in e / 1 S c r i b ­ n e r s ^ V o l . 1 0 5 , N o. 4 , ( A p r i l , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 2 5 . 2 G ordon C a r r o l l , "D r. R o o s e v e l t * s P r o p a g a n d a T r u s t , ” The A m e r ic a n M e r c u r y , V o l . . X L I I , No. 1 6 5 , ( A u g u s t , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 29. S e e a l s o J . F r e d e r i c k E s s a r y , " U n c le Sam’ s B a l l y h o o Men, The A m e r ic a n M e r c u r y , V o l . X X I I I , N o. 9 2 , '( A u g u s t , 1 9 3 1 ) , p .4 1 9 * 2 A nonym ous, "H andout s y s t e m o f P u b l i c i t y D i s a p p e a r i n g , " The L i t e r a r y D i g e s t , V o l . 1 1 6 , N o . l , ( J u l y 1 , 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 1 0 . (May 1 8 ,

^ A n onym ou s, "The New D e a l L o b b y ," B u s i n e s s Week, N o . 2 9 8 , 1 9 3 5 ), P. 14. 5 C a r r o ll,

N o, 5 ,

"D r. R o o s e v e l t ’ s P r o p a g a n d a T r u s t , " p .

6 A n onym ou s, "New D e a l P u b l i c i t y , " (Jan u ary 3 0 , 1 9 3 9 ) , p . 17.

29.

NewsWeek, V o l . X I I I ,

68 A id in g le tte r -w r ite r s,

th e p u b l i c i t y

s p e c i a l i s t s w ere p r o f e s s i o n a l

se r v ic e c le r k s ,

file

c le r k s,

o t h e r c l e r k s who p e r f o r m e d r o u t i n e d u t i e s .

m a il c l e r k s ,

and

One w r i t e r e s t i ­

m a ted ij-5 0 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s w e r e e n g a g e d i n 1 9 4 0 i n t h e f u l l - t i m e or p a r t - t i m e - w r i t i n g

of le tte r s

fo r th e g o v e r n m e n ts a d m in is ­

t r a t iv e a g e n c ie s .^ B e f o r e 1935* e x p e rien ce u su a lly

£*eW a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u b l i c i s t s h a d p r e v i o u s

in p r o m o tio n a l a c t i v i t i e s .

tak en in t o

t h e i r d ep artm en t.

P u b l i c i t y men w e r e n o t

t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f p o l i c y - m a k i n g members o f In th e o p in io n o f one co m m en ta to r,

th is

o f t e n t e n d e d to w a r d s u p p r e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f n e w s , and e n c o u r a g e d a p a s s i v e r a t h e r t h a n an a g g r e s s i v e p u b ­ lic ity .2

M ost a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u b l i c i s t s

a s ^ i n f o r m a t i o n w r i t e r s .