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 9780455501024, 0455501025

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Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Uniform Evidence Law

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Uniform Evidence Law

STEPHEN ODGERS SC

THIRTEENTH EDITION

LAWBOOK CO.

2018

Published in Sydney by Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Limited ABN 64 058 914 668 19 Harris Street, Pyrmont, NSW National Library of Australia A catalogue record for this book is available from the National Library of Australia ISBN 9780455501024 (paperback) © 2018 Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Limited

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This publication is copyright. Other than for the purposes of and subject to the conditions under the Copyright Act, no part of it may in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording or otherwise) be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted without prior written permission. Enquiries should be addressed to the publishers. Australian Capital Territory: Copyright of ACT legislative material: © Australian Capital Territory. Copyright is owned by the Australian Capital Territory. All rights reserved. Commonwealth: Copyright of Cth legislative material: All Commonwealth legislative material is reproduced by permission but does not purport to be the official or authorised version. It is subject to Commonwealth of Australia copyright. For reproduction or publication beyond that permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), permission should be sought in writing from the current Commonwealth Government agency with the relevant policy responsibility. New South Wales: Copyright of NSW legislative material: Copyright continues to reside in the State of NSW. Northern Territory: Copyright of NT legislative material: © Northern Territory Government of Australia. Tasmania: Copyright of Tasmanian legislative material: Copyright is owned by the State of Tasmania. Victoria: All Acts and Statutory Rules © The State of Victoria, the Government Printer (2018). DISCLAIMER: This product or service contains an unofficial version of the Acts and Statutory Rules of the State of Victoria. The State of Victoria accepts no responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or currency of any legislation contained in this product or provided through this service. This edition is up to date as of 1 May 2018. Editorial and Production Team: Angela Bandiera, Paul Godwin, Patrick Harper, Vanessa Schlenert Product Editor: Wyn Diong Content Editor: Rebecca Rayner Product Developer: Paul Gye Publisher: Nigel Royfee Printed by Ligare Pty Ltd, Riverwood, NSW This book has been printed on paper certified by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC). PEFC is committed to sustainable forest management through third party forest certification of responsibly managed forests. For more info see www.pefc.org.

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To Saras

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TABLE OF CONTENTS User’s Guide ........................................................................................................................ ix Table of Cases ................................................................................................................... xiv Table of Statutes ................................................................................................................. cv Format of the Commentary .......................................................................................... cxxxii Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 1

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EVIDENCE ACT Table of Provisions ............................................................................................................ 34 Chapter 1 – Preliminary ................................................................................................... 43 Chapter 2 – Adducing Evidence ...................................................................................... 79 Chapter 3 – Admissibility of Evidence .......................................................................... 309 Chapter 4 – Proof ......................................................................................................... 1313 Chapter 5 – Miscellaneous ........................................................................................... 1552 Chapter 6 – Transitional matters for Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act 2011 (NT only) ............................................................................................... 1606 Chapter 7 – Transitional matters for Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Amendment Act 2013 (NT only) ........................................................................... 1611 Chapter 8 – Transitional matters for Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Amendment (Journalist Privilege) Act 2018 (NT only) ....................................... 1612 Schedule .......................................................................................................................... 1613 Dictionary ....................................................................................................................... 1627 APPENDICES Appendix A – Evidence Regulations 1995 (Cth) ........................................................ 1689 Appendix B – Evidence Regulations 2015 (NSW) ..................................................... 1698 Appendix C – Evidence Regulations 2009 (Vic) ........................................................ 1706 Appendix D – Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958 (Vic) ......................... 1715 Appendix E – Rights of a Person Recognised by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ................................................................................ 1804 Appendix F – Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW) (Annotated Extracts) ............... 1811 Appendix G – Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic) (Extracts) .................................... 1877 Appendix H – Table of Notices (Commonwealth) ...................................................... 1917 Appendix I – Table of Notices (NSW) ........................................................................ 1922 Appendix J – Table of Notices (Victoria) .................................................................... 1927 Appendix K – Table of Notices (ACT) ....................................................................... 1932 Appendix L – Table of Notices (NT) ........................................................................... 1936 Appendix M – Evidence Act 2001 (Tas) – Related Information ................................ 1941 Index ............................................................................................................................... 1952

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USER’S GUIDE SCOPE OF THIS WORK Uniform Evidence Law 13th Edition is the leading Australian guide to uniform evidence legislation, widely used by practitioners and students alike. Over a quarter of the evidence legislation’s provisions are subjected to significant judicial interpretation each year, making it essential to have a current copy of the annotated Act at hand, to stay abreast of developments. LEGISLATION Uniform Evidence Law 13th Edition contains the following legislation: • Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) • Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) • Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) • Evidence Act 2011 (ACT) • Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act (NT)

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• Evidence Regulations 1995 (Cth) • Evidence Regulation 2015 (NSW) • Evidence Regulations 2009 (Vic) • Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958 (Vic) • Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW) [Extracts] • Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic) [Extracts] CURRENCY The Acts and regulations have been updated to include all available amendments to 1 May 2018. LEGISLATIVE AMENDMENTS IN THIS EDITION Uniform Evidence Law 13th Edition takes account of the amendments listed below. Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) Amending Acts • Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Legislation Amendment Act 2017 – Act 67 of 2017 • Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act 2017 – Act 129 of 2017

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User’s Guide

Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) Amending Acts • Jury Directions and Other Acts Amendment Act 2017 – Act 37 of 2017 • Justice Legislation Amendment (Court Security, Juries and Other Matters) Act 2017 – Act 38 of 2017 Evidence Act 2011 (ACT) Amending Acts • Family Violence Act 2016 – Act 42 of 2016 • Justice and Community Safety Legislation Amendment Act 2017 (No 2) – Act 14 of 2017 • Courts and Other Justice Legislation Amendment Act 2018 – Act 9 of 2018 Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act (NT) Amending Acts • Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Amendment (Journalist Privilege) Act 2018 – Act 7 of 2018 Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958 (Vic)

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Amending Acts • Justice Legislation (Evidence and Other Acts) Amendment Act 2016 – Act 38 of 2016 • Crimes Amendment (Sexual Offences) Act 2016 – Act 47 of 2016 • Jury Directions and Other Acts Amendment Act 2017 – Act 37 of 2017 Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW) Amending Acts • Justice Portfolio Legislation (Miscellaneous Amendments) Act 2016 – Act 54 of 2016 • Statute Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act (No 2) 2016 – Act 55 of 2016 • Justice Legislation Amendment (Committals and Guilty Pleas) Act 2017 – Act 55 of 2017 Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic) Amending Acts • Crimes Legislation Amendment Act 2016 – Act 28 of 2016 • Crimes Amendment (Sexual Offences) Act 2016 – Act 47 of 2016 • Crimes Legislation Further Amendment Act 2017 – Act 6 of 2017 • Family Violence Protection Amendment Act 2017 – Act 19 of 2017 • Jury Directions and Other Acts Amendment Act 2017 – Act 37 of 2017 x

Uniform Evidence Law

User’s Guide

• Justice Legislation Amendment (Victims) Act 2018 – Act 5 of 2018 HISTORY NOTES The history notes have been entered into an abbreviated form using the number and year of the amending Act or regulation and a descriptor (eg. “insrt”) to show the effect of the amending Act or regulation. The abbreviations used in the historical notes are as follows: • insrt – inserted • am – amended • subst – substituted • rep – repealed • exp – expired • reinsrt – reinserted • renum – renumbered • reloc – relocated Example: History note under subsection 20(2) of the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth): [Subs (2) am Act 4 of 2016, s 3 and Sch 4 item 384]

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This note indicates that subsection 20(2) was amended by Act 4 of 2016, Sch 4 item 384. S 3 is a reference to the enacting provision. Details of the short title of the amending Act or regulation, assent/gazettal/ registration and commencement dates are located in the Table of Amending Legislation following the Table of Provisions. FUTURE COMMENCEMENTS Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) Future Commencements Amending legisla- Number Date of gazettal/ tion assent/registration Justice Legislation 4 of 2018 21 Mar 2018 Amendment Act 2018

Date of commencement Sch 1.8 commences 2 Jul 2018.

Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) Future Commencements Amending legisla- Number Date of gazettal/ tion assent/registration Oaths and Affırma- 6 of 2018 27 Feb 2018 tions Act 2018

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Date of commencement S 65 commences on a date to be proclaimed, or 1 Mar 2019. xi

User’s Guide

Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act (NT) Future Commencements Amending legisla- Number Date of gazettal/ tion assent/registration Independent Com- 3 of 2018 21 Feb 2018 missioner Against Corruption (Consequential and Related Amendments) Act 2018

Date of commencement Amendment made by the Schedule commences on commencement of s 17 of the Independent Commissioner Against Corruption Act (commencement for that Act is to be notified).

Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958 (Vic) Future Commencements

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Amending legisla- Number Date of gazettal/ tion assent/registration Oaths and Affırma- 6 of 2018 27 Feb 2018 tions Act 2018

Date of commencement Ss 53-58, 60-62 and Sch 2 item 51 commence on a date to be proclaimed, or 1 Mar 2019.

Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic) Future Commencements Amending legisla- Number Date of gazettal/ tion assent/registration Oaths and Affırma- 6 of 2018 27 Feb 2018 tions Act 2018

Date of commencement Sch 2 item 38.1 commences on a date to be proclaimed, or 1 Mar 2019.

PROPOSED AMENDMENTS Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) • Civil Law and Justice Legislation Amendment Bill 2017 – debate Senate 5 Feb 2018. Senate Legal and Constitutional Affairs Legislation Committee report tabled 10 May 2017. Sch 5 item 1 commences day after date of assent. Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958 (Vic) • Statute Law Revision Bill 2017 – passed Legislative Assembly 2 May 2017; 2nd reading speech Legislative Council 9 May 2017. Report of the Scrutiny of Acts and Regulations Committee tabled 22 Feb 2017. Sch 2 item 37 commences 1 Sep 2017. xii

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User’s Guide

ENQUIRIES Considerable care has been taken in this compilation, but the interpretation and consolidation of the legislation is complex. The Publisher invites feedback on this edition. Correspondence may be addressed to: Thomson Reuters Customer Service Reply Paid 3502 PO Box 3502 Rozelle NSW 2039 Phone from Australia: 1300 304 195, from Overseas: + 61 2 8587 7980

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Email: [email protected]

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TABLE OF CASES [References are to paragraph numbers]

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A A-One Metal Services Pty Limited v AARA. Pty Ltd [2018] NSWSC 100 ........ EA.144.60 A3 v Australian Crime Commission [2006] FCA 894 ........................................ EA.130.60 AC v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 21 .............................................................. EA.101.190 ACCC v 4WD Systems Pty Ltd (2003) 200 ALR 491; 59 IPR 435; [2003] FCA 850 ............................................................................................................. EA.97.60 ACCC v Air New Zealand Ltd (No 1) (2012) 207 FCR 448; [2012] FCA 1355 .................................................................................................................. EA.69.120 ACCC v Air New Zealand Ltd (No 5) (2012) 301 ALR 352; [2012] FCA 1479 .................................................................................................................. EA.69.120 ACCC v Air New Zealand Ltd (No 13) [2013] FCA 577 ................................ EA.108A.60 ACCC v Australian Safeway Stores Pty Ltd (1998) 81 FCR 526; 153 ALR 393 ........................... EA.117.120, EA.118.360, EA.118.390, EA.119.120, EA.122.270 ACCC v Australian Safeway Stores Pty Ltd [1999] FCA 1269 ........................ EA.135.150 ACCC v CC (NSW) Pty Ltd [1998] ATPR 41-650 .............................................. EA.64.150 ACCC v CFMEU [2008] FCA 678 ...................................................................... EA.45.150 ACCC v Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd (2009) 174 FCR 547; 254 ALR 198; [2009] FCAFC 32 .................................................................... EA.117.120, EA.122.330 ACCC v Cement Australia Pty Ltd [2011] FCA 562 .......................................... EA.69.120 ACCC v Cement Australia Pty Ltd (No 3) (2010) 275 ALR 235; [2010] FCA 1131 ..................................................................................... EA.69.210, EA.76.120 ACCC v Emerald Ocean Pty Ltd [2002] FCA 740 ............................................. EA.79.330 ACCC v George Weston Foods Ltd (2003) 129 FCR 298; 198 ALR 592; [2003] FCA 601 ............................................................................................. EA.122.330 ACCC v Homeopathy Plus! Australia Pty LTd (2014) 146 ALD 278; [2014] FCA 1412 ............................................................................................. EA.79.180 ACCC v Jutsen (No 3) (2011) 206 FCR 264; 285 ALR 110; [2011] FCA 1352 .................................................................................................................. EA.144.60 ACCC v Leahy Petroleum Pty Ltd (2004) 141 FCR 183; [2004] FCA 1678 .................................................................................................................. EA.87.120 ACCC v Leahy Petroleum Pty Ltd (2007) 160 FCR 321; [2007] ATPR 42-162; [2007] FCA 794 ................................................................................. EA.87.180 ACCC v Lux Pty Ltd [2003] FCA 89 .................................................................... EA.80.90 ACCC v Lux Pty Ltd [2003] FCA 949 ................................................................ EA.136.90 ACCC v Mayo International Pty Ltd (1998) 85 FCR 327 .................................... EA.87.90 ACCC v Prysmian Cavi E Sistemi Energia SRL (No 4) (2012) 298 ALR 251; [2012] ATPR 42-423; [2012] FCA 1323 .................................................. EA.75.60 ACCC v World Netsafe Pty Ltd (No 2) (2002) 119 FCR 307; [2002] FCA 517 ...................................................................................................................... EA.87.90 ACCC v Air New Zealand Ltd (No 1) (2012) 207 FCR 448; 301 ALR 326; [2012] FCA 1355 ........ EA.57.120, EA.58.60, EA.69.120, EA.69.150, EA.69.210 ACCC v Allphones Retail Pty Ltd (No 4) (2011) 280 ALR 97; [2011] FCA 338 ........................................................................................................... EA.57.120 ACN 062 895 774 Pty Ltd v Tyndall [2007] NSWCA 64 ................................... EA.56.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xiv

Uniform Evidence Law

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Table of Cases

AE v The Queen [2008] NSWCCA 52 ...................... EA.97.120, EA.98.120, EA.101.120, EA.101.195, EA.101.240 AJE v Western Australia (2012) 225 A Crim R 242; [2012] WASCA 185 ..... EA.141.120 AJW v New South Wales [2003] NSWSC 803 ............................................ EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 AK v Western Australia (2008) 232 CLR 438; 182 A Crim R 262; 82 ALJR 534; [2008] HCA 8 ................................................................................. EA.76.90 AL v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 34 ................... EA.165A.230, EA.46.60, EA.141.150, EA.165.240, EA.165.480 AMP Services Ltd v Manning [2006] FCA 256 .................................................. EA.55.180 ARS v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 266 .......................................................... EA.138.570 ASC v AS Nominees Ltd (1995) 62 FCR 504 .................................................. EA.Intro.120 ASC v Marlborough Gold Mines Ltd (1993) 177 CLR 485 ........................... EA.Intro.300 ASIC v ActiveSuper Pty Ltd (in liq) (2015) 105 ACSR 116; [2015] FCA 342 .................................................................................................................... EA.57.120 ASIC v Citigroup Global Markets Australia Pty Ltd (No 2) (2007) 157 FCR 310; [2007] FCA 121 ..................................................... EA.126K.210, EA.26.240 ASIC v Flugge [2016] VSC 779 .......................................................................... EA.55.180 ASIC v Hellicar (2012) 247 CLR 345; 86 ALJR 522; [2012] HCA 17 ........... EA.55.180, EA.140.60, EA.140.120 ASIC v P Dawson Nominees Pty Ltd (2008) 169 FCR 227; 247 ALR 646; [2008] FCAFC 123 ............................................ EA.130.150, EA.130.330, EA.130.420 ASIC v P Dawson Nominees Pty Ltd [2009] FCAFC 183 ............................... EA.130.150 ASIC v Park Trent Properties Group Pty Ltd [2015] NSWSC 342 ................. EA.122.150 ASIC v Rich (2004) 213 ALR 338; 51 ACSR 363; [2004] NSWSC 1062 ....... EA.55.120, EA.Intro.340 ASIC v Rich [2004] NSWSC 1017 .................................................................... EA.118.330 ASIC v Rich [2004] NSWSC 923 ...................................................................... EA.122.180 ASIC v Rich [2004] NSWSC 934 ...................................................................... EA.122.210 ASIC v Rich (2005) 190 FLR 242; [2005] NSWSC 149 .................................... EA.79.330 ASIC v Rich (2005) 191 FLR 385; 216 ALR 320; [2005] NSWSC 417 .......... EA.48.210, EA.57.120, EA.58.60, EA.60.60, EA.69.120, EA.69.600, EA.76.120 ASIC v Rich (2005) 218 ALR 764; [2005] NSWCA 152 ............... EA.79.240, EA.79.300 ASIC v Rich [2005] NSWSC 1015 ...................................................................... EA.39.120 ASIC v Rich [2006] 201 FLR 207; [2006] NSWSC 643 .......... EA.126K.210, EA.26.240, EA.43.240, EA.44.120 ASIC v Rich (2009) 236 FLR 1; [2009] NSWSC 1229 .................................... EA.140.120 ASIC v Vines (2003) 48 ACSR 291; [2003] NSWSC 1095 ............. EA.76.90, EA.79.120, EA.79.150, EA.79.300, EA.80.90 ASIC v Vines [2003] NSWSC 1237 ..................................................................... EA.97.120 ATH Transport v JAS (International) Australia Pty Ltd [2002] NSWSC 956 .................................................................................................................... EA.125.90 AW v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 1 ............................................ EA.97.480, EA.101.450 AWA Ltd v Daniels (1992) 7 ACSR 463 ........................................................... EA.131.120 AWB Ltd v Cole (2006) 152 FCR 382; 232 ALR 743; [2006] FCA 571 ......... EA.118.150 AWB Ltd v Cole (No 5) [2006] FCA 1234 ........................................................ EA.118.390 Abbosh v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 265 ................................ EA.137.120, EA.137.210 Abdallah v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 34 ...................................................... EA.79.330 Abdel-Hady v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 196 .............................................. EA.165.480 Abdul-Kader v The Queen (2007) 178 A Crim R 281; [2007] NSWCCA 329 .................................................................................................................. EA.108.150 Abigroup Ltd v Akins (1997) 42 NSWLR 623 ................................................ EA.Intro.120 Aboriginal Sacred Sites Protection Authority v Maurice (1986) 10 FCR 104 ............................................................................................ EA.130.180, EA.130.300 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Actone Holdings Pty Ltd v Gridtek Pty Ltd [2012] NSWSC 991 .................... EA.122.330 Adam v The Queen (2001) 207 CLR 96; 123 A Crim R 280; 75 ALJR 1537; [2001] HCA 57 ...... EA.Intro.180, EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.55.60, EA.55.240, EA.60.60, EA.66.180, EA.81.270, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.120, EA.101A.180, EA.192A.60 Adamson v Ede [2009] NSWCA 379 .................................................................. EA.56.120 Addenbrooke Pty Limited v Duncan (No 2) [2017] FCAFC 76 ......................... EA.55.180 Addenbrooke Pty Ltd v Duncan (No 5) [2014] FCA 625 ................................... EA.69.240 Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd v Spalvins (1998) 81 FCR 360; 152 ALR 418 ..... EA.118.90, EA.122.270 Adlam v Noack [1999] FCA 1606 .......................................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60, EA.131.390 Adler v Australian Securities & Investments Commission (2003) 179 FLR 1; 46 ACSR 504; [2003] NSWCA 131 .................. EA.55.180, EA.79.120, EA.79.150, EA.79.240, EA.80.90, EA.128.690 Age Co Ltd, The v Liu (2013) 82 NSWLR 268; 272 FLR 426; [2013] NSWCA 26 ...................................................................................... EA.81.60, EA.87.90 Ah-See v Heilpern (2000) 115 A Crim R 1; [2000] NSWSC 627 ....................... EA.81.60 Ahern v Aon Risk Services Australia Ltd [2014] NSWSC 1697 ..................... EA.192A.60 Ahern v Aon Risk Services Australia Ltd [2015] NSWSC 19 ............................ EA.97.240 Ahern v The Queen (1988) 165 CLR 87 ..................... EA.57.210, EA.59.180, EA.87.120, EA.87.180 Ahmad v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 177 ...................................................... EA.131.360 Ahmed v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 260 ...................................................... EA.165.480 Ahmed v The Queen [2012] VSCA 200 .............................................................. EA.55.180 Ainsworth v Burden [2005] NSWCA 174 ........................................ EA.91.60, EA.135.150 Airtourer Co-op Ltd v Millicer Aircraft Industries Pty Ltd [2004] FCA 948 ............................................................................................ EA.131.120, EA.131.270 Akcan v Cross [2013] NSWSC 403 ..................................................................... EA.124.60 Akins v Abigroup Ltd (1998) 43 NSWLR 539 .............................. EA.118.90, EA.122.330 Al-Hashimi v The Queen (2004) 181 FLR 383; 145 A Crim R 186; [2004] WASCA 61 ................................................................................. EA.114.240, EA.116.90 Albrighton v Royal Prince Alfred Hospital [1980] 2 NSWLR 542 .................... EA.69.270 Alchin v Commissioner for Railways (1935) 35 SR (NSW) 498 ...................... EA.39.210, EA.39.240, EA.43.180, EA.48.120 Alderman v Zurich Australian Insurance Ltd [2011] NSWSC 754 ................. EA.131A.90 Alderton v Department of Police & Emergency Management [2008] TASSC 69 ........................................................................................................ EA.144.60 Alexander v The Queen (1981) 145 CLR 395; 55 ALJR 355; [1981] HCA 17 ............................................................................ EA.66.60, EA.114.240, EA.115.150 Alfred v Lanscar (2007) 162 FCR 169; [2007] FCA 833 ............... EA.28.120, EA.37.240 Alister v The Queen (1984) 154 CLR 404; 50 ALR 41 ............. EA.130.120, EA.130.210, EA.130.270, EA.130.390 Allam v Aristocrat Technologies Australia Pty Ltd (2012) 95 IPR 242; [2012] FCAFC 34 ...................................................... EA.95.60, EA.97.60, EA.136.270 Allam v Aristocrat Technologies Australia Pty Ltd (No 2) [2012] FCAFC 75 ........................................................................................................................ EA.94.90 Allen v Robbie [2015] NSWCA 247 .................................................................... EA.79.180 Allen v The Queen (2013) 39 VR 629; 235 A Crim R 40; [2013] VSCA 263 .............................................................................................. EA.165.90, EA.165.240 Allianz Australia Ltd v Sim (2012) 10 DDCR 325; [2012] NSWCA 68 .......... EA.79.240, EA.80.90 Allied Pastoral Holdings Pty Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (Cth) [1983] 1 NSWLR 1 ............................................................. EA.46.60, EA.46.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xvi

Uniform Evidence Law

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Table of Cases

Allstate Life Insurance Co v ANZ Banking Group Ltd (No 3) (1996) 64 FCR 55 ............................................................................................................... EA.75.90 Allstate Life Insurance Co v ANZ Banking Group Ltd (No 5) (1996) 64 FCR 73 ............................................................................................. EA.76.90, EA.77.60 Allstate Life Insurance Co v ANZ Banking Group Ltd (No 6) (1996) 64 FCR 79; 137 ALR 138 .................................................................. EA.79.120, EA.80.90 Alomalu v The Queen (2012) 228 A Crim R 157; [2012] NSWCCA 255 ...... EA.141.150 Alphapharm Pty Ltd v H Lundbeck A/S (2008) 76 IPR 618; [2008] FCA 559 .................................................................................................................... EA.79.270 Alzawy v Coptic Orthodox Church Diocese of Sydney, St Mary and St Merkorious Church [2016] NSWSC 1122 ............................................. EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Amaba Pty Ltd v Booth (2010) 9 DDCR 488; [2010] NSWCA 344 ................. EA.79.120 Amaca Pty Ltd v CSR Ltd [2015] VSC 582 ...................................... EA.32.180, EA.63.60 Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd v Marsden [1999] NSWCA 97 ...... EA.122.300 Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd v Marsden [2002] NSWCA 419 ..... EA.26.240, EA.48.60, EA.79.120, EA.189.120 Amann Aviation Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1988) 19 FCR 223 .......................... EA.10.60 Amcor Ltd v Barnes [2011] VSC 341 ............................................ EA.125.90, EA.125.180 Ames v Ames (2009) 42 Fam LR 95; [2009] FamCA 825 ............................... EA.138.120 Amp General Insurance Ltd v Prasad [1999] NSWSC 349 ....... EA.128.330, EA.128.780 Ampolex Ltd v Perpetual Trustee Co (Canberra) Ltd (1996) 40 NSWLR 12 .............................................................................................. EA.122.210, EA.122.270 Ampolex Ltd v Perpetual Trustee Co (Canberra) Ltd (1996) 70 ALJR 603 .... EA.122.270 Ananda Marga Pracaraka Samgha Ltd v Tomar (No 4) [2012] FCA 385 ....... EA.79.300, EA.79.330 Anandan v The Queen [2011] VSCA 413 ........................................................... EA.55.270 Andelman v The Queen (2013) 38 VR 659; 227 A Crim R 81; [2013] VSCA 25 ............................................................ EA.101A.120, EA.100.60, EA.165.480 Anderson, Re; Ex parte Electronic Rentals Pty Ltd [1970] 3 NSWR 355 ...... EA.129.180 Andi-Co Australia Pty Ltd v Meyers [2004] FCA 1358 ................................... EA.131.270 Aneve Pty Ltd v Bank of Western Australia Ltd [2005] NSWCA 441 .... EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.52.30 Ann Street Mezzanine Pty Ltd v KPMG [2011] FCA 453 ................................ EA.131.510 Antoniadis v TCN Channel Nine Pty Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Defamation List, Levine J, 10 March 1997) .................................................. EA.182.40 Aon Risk Services Australia Ltd v Australian National University [2010] ACTCA 28 .................................................................................................... EA.192A.60 Aouad v The Queen (2011) 207 A Crim R 411; [2011] NSWCCA 61 ............. EA.55.180, EA.59.180, EA.114.90, EA.115.180, EA.165.210 Apollo Shower Screens Pty Ltd v Building & Construction Industry Long Service Payments Corp (1985) 1 NSWLR 561 ........................................... EA.140.120 Apotex Pty Ltd v Les Laboratoires Servier (No 5) (2011) 199 FCR 62; 284 ALR 568; [2011] FCA 1282 ............................................ EA.131.270, EA.131.390 Apple v Wily [2002] NSWSC 855 .................................................. EA.117.90, EA.119.120 Application concerning Section 80 of the Supreme Court Act and Sections 119 and 128 of the Evidence Act [2004] NSWSC 614 .......... EA.128.180, EA.128.780 Aqua-Marine Marketing Pty Ltd v Pacific Reef Fisheries (Aust) Pty Ltd (No 4) (2011) 194 FCR 479; [2011] FCA 578 ........................... EA.48.210, EA.69.120 Archer v Richard Crookes Constructions Pty Ltd (1997) 15 NSWCCR 297 .... EA.55.180 Aristocrat Technologies Australia Pty Ltd v Global Gaming Supplies Pty Ltd (2013) 87 ALJR 668; 297 ALR 406; [2013] HCA 21 .......... EA.95.60, EA.97.240 Armstrong v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 323 .................................................. EA.97.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Armstrong Strategic Management and Marketing Pty Ltd v Expense Reduction Analysts Group Pty Ltd (2012) 295 ALR 348; [2012] NSWCA 430 ................................................................................................. EA.131A.90 Arnotts Ltd v Trade Practices Commission (1990) 24 FCR 313 ........................ EA.79.240 Arrow Pharmaceuticals Ltd v Merck & Co Inc (2004) 210 ALR 593; [2004] FCA 1131 ........................................................................................... EA.122.210 Artistic Builders Pty Ltd v Nash [2009] NSWSC 102 ...................................... EA.122.150 Asciak v Australian Secured & Managed Mortgages Pty Ltd (2008) 66 ACSR 298; [2008] FCA 753 ............................. EA.121.150, EA.131.450, EA.131.540 Asden Developments Pty Ltd (in liq) v Dinoris (No 2) [2015] FCA 1025 ........ EA.69.120 Ashby v Commonwealth (No 2) (2012) 203 FCR 440; 290 ALR 148; [2012] FCA 766 ................... EA.126K.90, EA.126K.180, EA.126K.330, EA.131A.60, EA.131A.90 Ashby v Commonwealth (No 3) (2012) 206 FCR 444; [2012] FCA 788 ............. EA.75.90 Ashby v Slipper (2014) 219 FCR 322; 312 ALR 551; [2014] FCAFC 15 ....... EA.46.150, EA.118.600, EA.140.60, EA.140.120 Ashfield Municipal Council v RTA [2004] NSWSC 917 ................................... EA.122.180 Ashley v The Queen (2016) 258 A Crim R 101; [2016] NTCCA 2 ................... EA.66.150 Asim v Penrose [2010] NSWCA 366 ............................................. EA.140.60, EA.165.480 Aslett v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 49 ................... EA.43.180, EA.103.90, EA.165.210 Aslett v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 188 .......................................................... EA.116.90 Astram Financial Services Pty Ltd v Bank of Queensland Ltd [2010] FCA 1010 .................................................................................................................... EA.97.60 Atai v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 210 ............................................................ EA.165.90 Athens v Randwick City Council (2005) 64 NSWLR 58; [2005] NSWCA 317 ........................................................................................................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Atkinson, In the Marriage of (1997) 136 FLR 347 .................... EA.128.330, EA.128.360, EA.128.510, EA.128.540 Atlas Financial International Ltd v Nortbale Pty Ltd [2011] NSWSC 815 .... EA.131.480 Atra v Farmers & Graziers Co-op Co Ltd (1986) 5 NSWLR 281 ................... EA.48.210, EA.69.120, EA.69.240 Attorney-General (Cth) v Foster (1999) 84 FCR 582; 161 ALR 232; [1999] FCA 81 ................................................................................................. EA.143.60 Attorney-General (Cth) v Kevin (2003) 172 FLR 300; [2003] FamCA 94 ........ EA.185.20 Attorney-General (NT) v Kearney (1985) 158 CLR 500; [1985] HCA 60 ..... EA.119.120, EA.125.90, EA.125.120 Attorney-General (NT) v Maurice (1986) 161 CLR 475; 61 ALJR 92; [1986] HCA 80 .......................................................................... EA.122.390, EA.126.60 Attorney-General’ (Tas) v Wright [2013] TASCCA 14 ....................................... EA.138.90 Attorney-General (WA) v Cockram (1990) 2 WAR 477 ................................... EA.128.540 Attorney General v Kaddour [2001] NSWCCA 456 ........................................ EA.130.150 Attorney General v Yau Hang Chan [2011] NSWSC 1315 .................................. EA.91.60 Attorney General (NSW) v Borland [2007] NSWCA 201 ................................ EA.128.540 Attorney General (NSW) v Lipton (2012) 224 A Crim R 177; [2012] NSWCCA 156 ................................ EA.130.60, EA.130.150, EA.130.270, EA.130.390 Attorney General (NSW) v Markisic [2014] NSWSC 1596 ............ EA.144.60, EA.157.60 Attorney General (NSW) v Martin [2015] NSWSC 1372 ..................................... EA.91.60 Attorney General (NSW) v Stuart (1994) 34 NSWLR 667; 75 A Crim R 8 .... EA.130.150 Attorney General (NSW) v Winters (2007) 176 A Crim R 249; [2007] NSWSC 1071 .................................................................................................. EA.26.300 Attwood v The Queen (1960) 102 CLR 353 ........................................................ EA.110.60 Audsley v The Queen (2014) 44 VR 506; 247 A Crim R 14; [2014] VSCA 321 ......................................................................................... EA.108C.150, EA.192.100 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xviii

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Table of Cases

Aurousseau v Commonwealth [1998] FCA 1724 ................................................ EA.79.120 Austereo Pty Ltd v DMG Radio (Aust) Pty Ltd (2004) 209 ALR 93; 61 IPR 257; [2004] FCA 968 .............................................................................. EA.66A.90 Austic v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 110 ............................................... EA.141.120 Australian Automotive Repairers Assn (Political Action Committee) Inc v NRMA Insurance Ltd (No 4) [2004] FCA 369 ............................................ EA.106.270 Australian Automotive Repairers Assn (Political Action Committee) Inc (in liq) v Insurance (Aust) Ltd [2006] ATPR 42–111; [2006] FCAFC 33 ........ EA.106.90, EA.106.150, EA.106.270 Australian Broadcasting Corp v McBride (2001) 53 NSWLR 430; [2001] NSWCA 322 ...................................................................................................... EA.55.90 Australian Building & Construction Commissioner v Abbott (No 2) [2011] FCA 308 ........................................................................................................... EA.45.120 Australian Cement Holdings Pty Ltd v Adelaide Brighton Ltd [2001] NSWSC 645 ................................................................................. EA.79.120, EA.79.150 Australian Communications & Media Authority v Clarity1 Pty Ltd [2008] FCA 1449 ......................................................................................................... EA.160.90 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Advanced Medical Institute Pty Ltd (No 2) [2005] FCA 1357 ..................................................... EA.69.240 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Allphones Retail Pty Ltd (No 3) [2009] FCA 1075 ................................................. EA.192A.60, EA.131.270 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Alvaton Holdings Pty Ltd [2010] FCA 760 ........................................................................................ EA.191.20 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Australian Medical Assn Western Australia Branch Inc [2001] ATPR 41–844 ............................ EA.191.20 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Australian Safeway Stores Pty Ltd (No 3) [2002] FCA 1294 ...................................................... EA.131.510 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Bridgestone Corp [2010] FCA 584 ............................................................................................... EA.191.20 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v CC (NSW) Pty Ltd [1998] ATPR 41–650 ..................................................................... EA.64.120, EA.67.60 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v CC (NSW) Pty Ltd (No 8) (1999) 92 FCR 375; 165 ALR 468 ................................. EA.97.450, EA.135.90 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Cement Australia Pty Ltd (No 3) [2010] FCA 1131 .......................................................................... EA.136.60 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Pratt (No 3) [2009] FCA 407 ....................................................................... EA.81.60, EA.88.60, EA.191.40 Australian Competition & Consumer Commission v Skins Compression Garments Pty Ltd [2009] FCA 710 ................................................................ EA.191.20 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union (No 2) [2017] FCA 1191 ....................... EA.98.60 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v EDirect Pty Ltd (In liq) [2012] FCA 976 ........................................................................................ EA.191.20 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v MSY Technology Pty Ltd (No 2) [2011] FCA 382 ............................................................................ EA.191.20 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v P & N Pty Ltd [2014] FCA 6 ................................................................................................... EA.191.20 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v Yazaki Corporation (No 2) (2015) 332 ALR 396; [2015] FCA 1304 .............................................. EA.78.60 Australian Crime Commission v Stoddart (2011) 244 CLR 554; 214 A Crim R 538; [2011] HCA 47 ............................................................................ EA.18.60 Australian Federal Police, Commissioner of v Propend Finance Pty Ltd (1997) 188 CLR 501; 91 A Crim R 451; [1997] HCA 3 ...... EA.118.220, EA.125.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Australian Gift and Homewares Assn Ltd v Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Trust (Ruling No 1) [2014] VSC 481 ........................................... EA.75.120 Australian Medic-Care Co Ltd v Hamilton Pharmaceutical Pty Ltd (No 4) (2008) 170 FCR 9; 249 ALR 381; [2008] FCA 1038 ................................... EA.69.240 Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd v Parnell Transport Industries Pty Ltd (1998) 88 FCR 537; 159 ALR 477; [1998] FCA 1580 ................ EA.26.60, EA.56.60, EA.69.390, EA.169.60 Australian Rugby Union Ltd v Hospitality Group Pty Ltd (1999) 165 ALR 253; [1999] FCA 1061 ...................................................................................... EA.80.90 Australian Securities & Investments Commission v Citigroup Global Markets Australia Pty Ltd (ACN 113 114832) (No 2) (2007) 157 FCR 310; [2007] FCA 121 ...................................................................................... EA.192.60 Australian Securities & Investments Commission v Macdonald (No 5) [2008] NSWSC 1169 ..................................................................................... EA.138.120 Australian Securities & Investments Commission v Rich (2004) 51 ACSR 363; [2004] NSWSC 1062 ............................................................................ EA.189.120 Australian Securities & Investments Commission v Rich (2005) 218 ALR 764; [2005] NSWCA 152 ........................................................ EA.135.210, EA.135.300 Australian Securities & Investments Commission v Rich [2006] 201 FLR 207; [2006] NSWSC 643 ................................................................................ EA.192.60 Australian Securities & Investments Commission v Sigalla (No 2) [2010] NSWSC 792 ....................................................... EA.138.510, EA.138.630, EA.138.660 Australian Securities & Investments Commission v Whitebox Trading Pty Ltd [2017] FCA 324 .......................................... EA.192A.60, EA.118.270, EA.122.360 Australian Securities and Investments Commission v Geary (Ruling No 3) [2015] VSC 656 .............................................................................................. EA.64.330 Averkin v Insurance Australia Ltd [2016] NSWCA 122 ................. EA.69.240, EA.69.540 Ayad v Australian Postal Commission (unreported, NSW CA, 4 October 1990) .............................................................................................................. EA.136.240 Aylett v Attorney-General (Tas) (2003) 11 Tas R 315; [2003] TASSC 19 ........... EA.75.90 Aytugrul v The Queen (2012) 247 CLR 170; 215 A Crim R 501; [2012] HCA 15 .... EA.103.60, EA.135.210, EA.137.90, EA.137.120, EA.137.150, EA.144.90 Azizi v The Queen (2012) 224 A Crim R 325; [2012] VSCA 205 .................... EA.59.180, EA.65.150 Azzi v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 249 ........... EA.101A.120, EA.108A.60, EA.108B.60 Azzi v Volvo Car Australia Pty Ltd [2007] NSWSC 375; (2007) 71 NSWLR 140 ........................................................................................................ EA.8.90 Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 ..................................................................... EA.20.180, EA.20.210, EA.55.180

B B v Protective Commissioner [2000] NSWSC 882 ........................................... EA.131.510 B v The Queen (1992) 175 CLR 599 ......................... EA.56.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.180 B & M Activities Pty Ltd v Perpetual Trustees Victoria Ltd [1998] NSWSC 324 .................................................................................................... EA.97.450 BA v The Queen [2012] VSCA 285 ................................................................. EA.Intro.120 BBH v The Queen (2012) 245 CLR 499; 215 A Crim R 395; [2012] HCA 9 ............................................................. EA.55.60, EA.55.210, EA.101.60, EA.101.210 BC v The Queen (2015) 257 A Crim R 340; [2015] NSWCCA 327 .............. EA.101.190, EA.101.195 BCI Finances Pty Ltd (in liq) v Binetter (No 4) [2016] FCA 1351 ................... EA.69.240 BD v The Queen [2017] NTCCA 2 .................................................. EA.97.120, EA.97.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xx

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Table of Cases

BHP Billiton Iron Ore Pty Ltd v National Competition Council (2007) 162 FCR 234; 247 ALR 104; [2007] FCAFC 157 .......................................... EA.79.60 BHP Steel (AIS) Pty Ltd v CFMEU [2000] FCA 1613 ......................................... EA.87.90 BI (Contracting) Pty Ltd v University of Adelaide (2008) 6 DDCR 382; [2008] NSWCA 210 ........................................................................................ EA.79.150 BJS v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 239 ........................................................... EA.101.240 BJS v The Queen (2013) 231 A Crim R 537; [2013] NSWCCA 123 ................ EA.41.300 BP v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 303 ......................................... EA.97.120, EA.101.240 BPA Industries Ltd v Black (1987) 11 NSWLR 609 ......................................... EA.128.360 BRS v The Queen (1997) 191 CLR 275; 95 A Crim R 400 ........ EA.Intro.340, EA.56.60, EA.101.90, EA.101.240, EA.101.300, EA.101.360, EA.110.90, EA.165.480 BSJ v The Queen (2012) 35 VR 475; [2012] VSCA 93 ................................... EA.101.240 BT Australasia Pty Ltd v NSW (No 7) (1998) 153 ALR 722 ........................... EA.122.270 BT Australasia Pty Ltd v NSW (No 8) (1998) 154 ALR 202 ..... EA.122.210, EA.122.270 BTR Engineering (Aust) Ltd v Patterson (1990) 20 NSWLR 724 .................. EA.128.120, EA.128.360 BZAAG v Minister for Immigration and Citizenship [2011] FCA 217 .............. EA.23.120 Bailey v Department of Land and Water Conservation (2009) 74 NSWLR 333; [2009] NSWCA 100 .............. EA.117.90, EA.118.540, EA.118.570, EA.122.120, EA.122.180, EA.133.60 Bailey v Director-General, Department of Natural Resources NSW [2015] NSWCA 318 .................................................................................................... EA.55.180 Bailey v Director-General Department of Natural Resources [2013] NSWSC 515 .................................................................................................. EA.192A.60 Bailiff v The Queen [2011] ACTCA 7 ................................................................... EA.52.30 Baker v Campbell (1983) 153 CLR 52 .................... EA.117.120, EA.118.60, EA.118.360, EA.118.420 Bakerland Pty Ltd v Coleridge [2002] NSWCA 30 .......................................... EA.135.150 Bakopoulos v General Motors Holden Pty Ltd [1973] VR 190 ....................... EA.106.150 Bale v Mills (2011) 81 NSWLR 498; 282 ALR 336; [2011] NSWCA 226 ..... EA.46.150, EA.140.60, EA.140.120 Ballard v Brookfield Multiplex Ltd (No 2) [2010] NSWSC 1461 .................... EA.106.120 Bangaru v The Queen (2012) 269 FLR 367; [2012] NSWCCA 204 ................. EA.97.480 Banjima People v Western Australia (2011) 200 FCR 138; [2011] FCA 1454 ................................................................................................................ EA.189.120 Bank of Valletta PLC v National Crime Authority (1999) 90 FCR 565; 165 ALR 60; (1999) 90 FCR 565 .................................................................... EA.76.90 Banksia Mortgages Ltd v Croker [2010] NSWSC 535 ............... EA.118.330, EA.122.180 Banksia Mortgages Ltd v Croker [2010] NSWSC 883 ................... EA.168.60, EA.169.90 Bannon v The Queen (1995) 185 CLR 1; 83 A Crim R 370; [1995] HCA 27 ........................................................................................................................ EA.62.60 Barak v WTH Pty Ltd [2002] NSWSC 649 ..................................... EA.26.300, EA.79.330 Barca v The Queen (1975) 133 CLR 82 .......................................... EA.81.60, EA.141.120 Barclays Bank v Eustice [1994] 4 All ER 511 .................................................... EA.125.90 Bare v Small [2011] VSC 639 ........................................................................... EA.125.120 Barescape Pty Ltd v Bacchus Holdings Pty Ltd (No 5) [2011] NSWSC 1307 .................................................................................................................. EA.57.120 Barker v Gifford (2005) 192 FLR 347; 2005] ACTSC 55 .................................. EA.144.60 Barlow v Law Society (ACT) [2012] ACTSC 16 ................................................ EA.144.60 Barnes v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2007) 67 ATR 284; 242 ALR 601; [2007] FCAFC 88 ........................................................................ EA.118.540 Barnes v The Queen (2010) 79 ACSR 164; [2010] NSWCCA 136 ................ EA.165.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Barrett Property Group Pty Ltd v Dennis Family Homes Pty Ltd (No 2) (2011) 193 FCR 479; [2011] FCA 276 ................................... EA.131.270, EA.131.480 Barrett Property Group Pty Ltd v Metricon Homes Pty Ltd (2007) 74 IPR 52; [2007] FCA 1509 .................................................................................... EA.135.150 Bartlett v The Queen [2017] ACTCA 60 ............................................................. EA.97.450 Barton v The Queen (1980) 147 CLR 75 .............................................................. EA.11.90 Bataillard v The King (1907) 4 CLR 1282 ......................................................... EA.20.150 Bates v Nelson (1973) 6 SASR 149 ................................................. EA.48.210, EA.69.120 Bates t/as Riot Wetsuits v Omareef Pty Ltd [1998] FCA 1472 ......................... EA.128.780 Batey v Potts (2004) 61 NSWLR 274; [2004] NSWSC 606 ................................ EA.92.60 Bauer v The Queen [2015] VSCA 55 .............................................. EA.97.120, EA.98.120 Bauer v The Queen (No 2) [2017] VSCA 176 ................................ EA.66.180, EA.97.120 Bauhaus Pyrmont Pty Ltd (in liq), Re [2006] NSWSC 543 ............................. EA.122.360 Baulch v Lyndoch Warrnambool Inc (2010) 27 VR 1; [2010] VSCA 30 .......... EA.46.150 Bax Global (Aust) Pty Ltd v Evans (1999) 47 NSWLR 538 ..... EA.128.330, EA.128.540, EA.128.600, EA.128.780 Bayeh v Deputy Commissioner of Taxation (1999) 100 FCR 138; [1999] FCA 1194 ......................................................................................................... EA.160.60 Bayley v The Queen (2016) 260 A Crim R 1; [2016] VSCA 160 ...................... EA.137.90 Beattie v Ball [1999] 3 VR 1; [1999] VSCA 227 ................................................. EA.46.60 Beattie v Osman (No 3) [2009] NSWSC 824 ....................................................... EA.50.30 Beckett v The Queen (2014) 315 ALR 295; [2014] NSWCCA 305 ................... EA.81.60, EA.138.120 Bective Station Pty Ltd v AWB (Aust) Ltd [2006] FCA 1596 ........ EA.97.120, EA.97.300, EA.98.300 Bedford v Bedford (unreported, NSW SC, Windeyer J, 20 October 1998) ........ EA.138.60 Bedi v The Queen (1994) 61 SASR 269 ...................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Bell v The Queen (1985) 7 FCR 555 ................................................................. EA.103.120 Bell Group Ltd (in liq) v Westpac Banking Corp (1998) 86 FCR 215 ............ EA.122.330 Bellchambers v The Queen [2008] NSWCCA 235 ........................................... EA.165.480 Bellemore v Tasmania (2006) 170 A Crim R 1; 207 FLR 20; [2006] TASSC 111 ................................................................................................. EA.101A.120 Bellpac Pty Ltd (in liq), Re [2013] FCAFC 48 ................................................... EA.55.180 Benbrika v The Queen (2010) 29 VR 593; 204 A Crim R 457; [2010] VSCA 281 ...................................................................................................... EA.165.480 Bendigo & Adelaide Bank Ltd v Abdelkodous [2011] NSWSC 32 .................. EA.122.210 Bennett v Chief Executive Offıcer of Australian Customs Service (2004) 140 FCR 101; 57 ATR 52; [2004] FCAFC 237 ....................... EA.122.60, EA.122.150 Benson v The Queen [2014] VSCA 51 .............................................................. EA.101.150 Beqiri v The Queen [2017] VSCA 112 .............................................................. EA.141.210 Beslic v MLC Ltd [2015] NSWSC 908 ............................................................ EA.192A.60 BestCare Foods Ltd v Origin Energy LPG Ltd [2010] NSWSC 1304 .............. EA.69.240 Bibby Financial Services Australia Pty Ltd v Sharma [2014] NSWCA 37 ....... EA.140.60 Bin Sulaeman v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 283 ............................................ EA.90.360 Bingul v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 239 ................................... EA.97.480, EA.101.450 Binns v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 280 ............................. EA.165B.180, EA.165B.210 Biovision 2020 Pty Ltd v CGU Insurance Ltd [2010] VSC 589 .................... EA.131A.90, EA.131.270 Birks v Western Australia (2007) 33 WAR 291; [2007] WASCA 29 ................... EA.53.60 Birrell v Australian National Airlines Commission (1984) 1 FCR 526 ......... EA.126D.30, EA.125.90, EA.128.210, NSW.CPA.301.30 Biseja Pty Ltd v NSI Group Pty Ltd [2006] NSWSC 1497 .............................. EA.122.210 Bishop v The Queen (2013) 39 VR 642; [2013] VSCA 273 ........... EA.110.60, EA.110.90 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxii

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Table of Cases

Blackrock Asset Management Australia Services Ltd v Waked (No 2) [2011] FCA 479 ............................................................................................. EA.118.540 Blatch v Archer (1774) 1 Cowp 63; 98 ER 969 ............................ EA.55.180, EA.140.120 Blewitt v The Queen (1988) 62 ALJR 503 ............................................................ EA.38.60 Bloom v Mini Minors Pty Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, McLelland J, 26 August 1996) ................................................................................................. EA.131.420 Bloss Holdings Pty Ltd v Brackley Industries Pty Ltd [2005] NSWSC 756 .... EA.131.480 Bobolas v Waverley Council (No 4) [2015] NSWCA 337 .................................... EA.58.60 Bochkov v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 166 ..................................................... EA.59.180 Bodnar v Townsend (2003) 12 Tas R 232; [2003] TASSC 148 ....................... EA.138.120 Bodney v Bennell (2008) 167 FCR 84; 249 ALR 300; [2008] FCAFC 63 ........ EA.76.90, EA.79.240, EA.79.270 Boensch v Pascoe [2007] FCA 532 ................................................................... EA.122.210 Bolitho v Cohen (2005) 33 Fam LR 471; [2005] FamCA 458 .......................... EA.144.60 Bolton v Federal Commissioner of Taxation [2017] FCA 1462 ......................... EA.160.60 Bolus v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 182 ........................................................ EA.165.480 Bond v Australian Broadcasting Tribunal (No 2) (1988) 19 FCR 494; 84 ALR 646 .......................................................................................................... EA.26.120 Boney v The Queen (2008) 187 A Crim R 167; [2008] NSWCCA 165 ......... EA.101.150, EA.101.360 Boonudnoon v The Queen (2002) 135 A Crim R 271; [2002] WASCA 313 ..... EA.141.90 Booth v Bosworth (2001) 114 FCR 39; 117 LGERA 168; [2001] FCA 1453 .......................................................................................... EA.140.60, EA.Intro.120 Boral Resources (Vic) Pty Ltd v Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union (No 2) [2015] VSC 459 .......................................................... EA.66A.60 Bostik Australia Pty Ltd v Liddiard [2009] ATPR 82-020; [2009] NSWCA 167 .................................................................................................... EA.80.90, EA.87.90 Boston Clothing Co Pty Ltd v Margaronis (1992) 27 NSWLR 580 .................. EA.46.150 Botany Bay City Council v Minister for Planning and Infrastructure (No 2) ) [2014] NSWLEC 101 ................................................................................ EA.50.30 Boyer v The Queen [2015] VSCA 242 ...................... EA.66.180, EA.165.90, EA.165.330, EA.165.450 Bradford v Bradford (1996) 19 Fam LR 488 ...................................................... EA.133.60 Brandi v Mingot (1976) 12 ALR 551 .................................................................. EA.55.180 Braslin v Tasmania [2011] TASCCA 14 ..................... EA.46.120, EA.116.90, EA.116.150 Bray v F Hoffman-La Roche Ltd (2002) 118 FCR 1; 190 ALR 1 ....................... EA.75.60 Bray v F Hoffman-La Roche Ltd (2003) 130 FCR 317; [2003] FCAFC 153 ...................................................................................................................... EA.75.60 Bray v The Queen (2014) 246 A Crim R 47; [2014] VSCA 276 ..................... EA.137.120 Breavington v Godleman (1988) 169 CLR 41 .................................................... EA.185.20 Brebner v Perry [1961] SASR 177 .............................................. EA.128.120, EA.128.360 Brendas v Genter [2018] NSWCA 8 ................................................................... EA.81.120 Brett v Beales (1830) 10 B & C 508; 109 ER 539 ............................................... EA.74.60 Briginshaw v Briginshaw (1938) 60 CLR 336; [1938] HCA 34 ........................ EA.140.60 BrisConnections Finance Pty Ltd v Arup Pty Ltd [2017] FCA 1268 ................. EA.79.210 Briscoe v Briscoe [1966] 1 All ER 465; [1966] 2 WLR 205; [1968] P 501 ..... EA.26.120 British American Tobacco Australia Services Ltd v Eubanks (2004) 60 NSWLR 483; [2004] NSWCA 158 ................... EA.118.240, EA.122.240, EA.122.420 British American Tobacco Australia Services Ltd v Laurie (2011) 242 CLR 283; 85 ALJR 348; [2011] HCA 2 ...................................................... EA.125.180 Britt v Britt [2017] FamCAFC 27 .................................... EA.55.60, EA.76.90, EA.97.240 Broke Hills Estate Pty Ltd v Oakvale Wines Pty Ltd (2005) 23 ACLC 1266; [2005] NSWSC 638 .............................................................................. EA.75.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Brookfield Multiplex Ltd v International Litigation Funding Partners Pte Ltd (No 2) (2009) 180 FCR 1; [2009] FCA 449 ........................................... EA.117.90 Brooks v The Queen (2012) 36 VR 84; [2012] VSCA 197 .............. EA.55.330, EA.81.60 Brown v Commissioner of Taxation (2002) 119 FCR 269; [2002] FCA 318 .... EA.189.120 Brown v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2001) 47 ATR 178; 187 ALR 714; [2001] FCA 596 ............................................................... EA.131.150, EA.131.480 Brown v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2002) 119 FCR 269; 49 ATR 301; [2002] FCA 318 .................................................................................... EA.131.270 Brown v New South Wales Trustee and Guardian (2012) 10 ASTLR 164; [2012] NSWCA 431 ........................................................................................ EA.140.60 Brown v The King (1913) 17 CLR 570 ............................................................... EA.141.90 Brown v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 69 ...... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.135.150, EA.165.180, EA.165.210, EA.165.270 Browne v Dunn (1893) 6 R 67 ................. EA.46.60, EA.46.120, EA.46.150, EA.135.150, EA.136.60 Bruinsma v Menczer (1995) 40 NSWLR 716 ................................................... EA.131.510 Bryant v The Queen (2011) 205 A Crim R 531; [2011] NSWCCA 26 ............ EA.100.60, EA.101.150, EA.139.60 Buchwald v The Queen (2011) 38 VR 199; [2011] VSCA 445 ........ EA.46.60, EA.46.120 Bugg v Day (1949) 79 CLR 442 .......................................................................... EA.79.240 Building Insurers’ Guarantee Corp v A & MI Hanson Pty Ltd [2006] NSWSC 381 ................................................................................................... EA.118.360 Bulejcik v The Queen (1996) 185 CLR 375 ............ EA.114.330, EA.116.90, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Bulk Materials (Coal Handling) Services Pty Ltd v Coal and Allied Operations Pty Ltd (1988) 13 NSWLR 689 ................................................ EA.122.360 Bull v The Queen (2000) 201 CLR 443; [2000] HCA 24 .................................. EA.59.180 Bulstrode v Trimble [1970] VR 840 ................................................... EA.46.60, EA.46.150 Bunning v Cross (1978) 141 CLR 54; [1978] HCA 22 ............... EA.138.60, EA.138.210, EA.138.420, EA.138.570, EA.138.690 Burg Design Pty Ltd v Wolki (1999) 162 ALR 639; [1999] FCA 388 ............. EA.131.390 Burke v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 40 VR 161; 237 A Crim R 130; [2013] VSCA 351 .................................... EA.20.180, EA.165.270, EA.165.540 Burns v The Queen (1975) 132 CLR 258; [1975] HCA 21 ............................. EA.165.480 Burnside Sub-Branch RSSILA Inc v Burnside Memorial Bowling Club Inc (1990) 58 SASR 324 ................................................................... EA.48.210, EA.69.120 Burr v Ware Rural District Council [1939] 2 All ER 688 ................................... EA.87.90 Burrell v The Queen (2007) 190 A Crim R 148; [2007] NSWCCA 65 ............ EA.38.270, EA.135.270, EA.137.60, EA.141.120 Burrell v The Queen (2009) 196 A Crim R 199; [2009] NSWCCA 163 .......... EA.38.270, EA.141.120 Butcher v Lachlan Elder Realty; Harkins v Butcher (2002) 55 NSWLR 558; [2002] NSWCA 237 ........................................ EA.Intro.120, EA.9.90, EA.81.180 Butcher v Lachlan Elder Realty Pty Ltd (2004) 218 CLR 592; 212 ALR 357; [2004] HCA 60 .................................................................................... EA.Intro.120 Butera v Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) (1987) 164 CLR 180; 30 A Crim R 417 ............................................. EA.29.180, EA.31.60, EA.48.180, EA.79.150 Butler v The Queen (2011) 216 A Crim R 215; [2011] VSCA 417 .................. EA.20.180, EA.55.330 Buzzle Operations Pty Ltd v Apple Computer Australia Pty Ltd (2009) 74 NSWLR 469; [2009] NSWSC 225 ......................................... EA.117.120, EA.119.120 Byrd v The Queen [2018] VSCA 42 .................................................................... EA.137.90 Byrne v Javelin Asset Management Pty Ltd [2016] VSCA 214 ......................... EA.69.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxiv

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Table of Cases

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C C, In the Marriage of (1995) 20 Fam LR 24 ........................................................ EA.27.60 CA v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 324 ...................................... EA.101.150, EA.137.210 CDD15 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection [2017] FCAFC 65 ...................................................................................................................... EA.97.120 CEG v The Queen [2012] VSCA 55 .................................................................... EA.97.120 CGL v Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) (2010) 24 VR 486; [2010] VSCA 26 .................................................................. EA.55.420, EA.97.120, EA.98.120 CJ Redman Constructions Pty Ltd v Tarnap Pty Ltd [2006] NSWSC 173 ..... EA.131.270 CMG v The Queen [2011] VSCA 416 ............................................................ EA.165A.210 CMG v The Queen (2013) 234 A Crim R 455; [2013] VSCA 243 .................... EA.46.150 CSR Ltd v Amaca Pty Ltd [2016] VSCA 320 ..................................................... EA.63.100 CV v Director of Public Prosecutions [2014] VSCA 58 ................. EA.98.120, EA.98.150 CW v The Queen [2010] VSCA 288 ....... EA.98.60, EA.98.120, EA.101.180, EA.101.190 Cabal v United Mexican States (2001) 108 FCR 311; [2001] FCA 427 ............ EA.4.150, EA.4.180 Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd v Darrell Lea Chocolate Shops Pty Ltd (2006) 228 ALR 719; [2006] FCA 363 .......................................................... EA.80.150 Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd v Darrell Lea Chocolate Shops Pty Ltd (2007) 159 FCR 397; [2007] FCAFC 70 ............... EA.79.240, EA.79.300, EA.80.150, EA.135.210 Cadbury Schweppes Pty Ltd v Darrell Lea Chocolate Shops Pty Ltd (No 7) [2008] FCA 323 .......................................................................................... EA.126.60 Cadwallader v Bajco Pty Ltd (2001) 189 ALR 370; [2001] NSWSC 1193 ...... EA.79.180 Cadwallader v Bajco Pty Ltd [2002] NSWCA 328 ............................................ EA.55.180 Cain v Glass (No 2) (1985) 3 NSWLR 230 ...................................................... EA.130.150 Calderwood v The Queen (2007) 172 A Crim R 208; [2007] NSWCCA 180 .................................................................................................................... EA.137.60 Calleija v The Queen (2012) 223 A Crim R 391; [2012] NSWCCA 37 ......... EA.128.600 Cambridge v Anastasopoulos [2012] NSWCA 405 ............................................ EA.79.240 Camm v Linke Nominees Pty Ltd (No 3) [2012] FCA 1133 ............................. EA.138.120 Campaign Master (UK) Ltd v Forty Two International Pty Ltd (No 3) (2009) 181 FCR 152; [2009] FCA 1306 ........................................................ EA.64.150 Campbell v Hitchcock [2003] NSWIRComm 148 ........ EA.57.120, EA.58.60, EA.59.150, EA.147.60 Campbell v The Queen (2014) 312 ALR 129; [2014] NSWCCA 175 .............. EA.79.120, EA.80.150, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 Campton v Centennial Newstan Pty Ltd (No 1) [2014] NSWSC 304 ............... EA.79.330 Can v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 176 .......................................................... EA.137.210 Canberra Residential Developments Pty Ltd v Brendas (2010) 188 FCR 140; 273 ALR 601; [2010] FCAFC 125 ..................................... EA.26.150, EA.41.150 Cannar v Eubanks [2003] NSWSC 802 ................ EA.118.240, EA.122.180, EA.122.240, EA.122.420 Cantarella Bros Pty Ltd v Andreasen [2005] NSWSC 579 ............. EA.55.510, EA.97.60, EA.100.60 Capital Securities XV Pty Ltd v Calleja [2018] NSWCA 26 ........... EA.48.60, EA.48.150, EA.48.180, EA.58.60, EA.69.170, EA.69.180, EA.69.540, EA.135.150, EA.135.300, EA.183.80 Carbotech-Australia Pty Ltd v Yates [2008] NSWSC 1151 ............................... EA.125.90 Cargill Australia Ltd v Viterra Malt Pty Ltd [2018] VSC 99 ..... EA.122.120, EA.122.150 Carlton v The Queen (2010) 199 A Crim R 591; [2010] NSWCCA 81 .......... EA.138.690 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Carnell v Mann (1998) 89 FCR 247 ..................... EA.117.120, EA.118.220, EA.118.360, EA.122.300 Carney v Newton [2006] TASSC 4 ...................................................................... EA.140.60 Carr v The Queen (1988) 165 CLR 314 ........................................................... EA.165.420 Carr v The Queen [2005] NSWCCA 439 ........................................................... EA.116.90 Carroll v Western Australia [2004] WASCA 254 ........................................... EA.165B.240 Carter v The Queen (1995) 183 CLR 121; [1995] HCA 33 ........... EA.118.60, EA.123.60 Carter Holt Harvey Wood Products Australia Pty Ltd v Auspine [2008] VSCA 59 .................................................................................. EA.118.360, EA.118.390 Case Stated by Director of Public Prosecutions (No 1 of 1993) (1993) 66 A Crim R 259 ................................................................................................ EA.165.450 Casey v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 77 ............................................................. EA.38.60 Casley-Smith v Evans & Sons Pty Ltd (No 1) (1988) 49 SASR 314 ................ EA.79.120, EA.80.150 Caterpillar Inc v John Deere Ltd (No 2) (2000) 181 ALR 108 ................ EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.Dict.Pt.2.60, EA.63.60, EA.64.120, EA.64.150 Cawthray v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 105 ................................................. EA.165.480 Ceedive Pty Ltd v May [2004] NSWSC 33 ......................................... EA.73.60, EA.73.90 Century Yuasa Batteries Pty Ltd v Martin [2002] FCA 722 .............................. EA.97.120 Ceva Logistics (Aust) Pty Ltd v Redbro Investments Pty Ltd (2010) 24 VR 486; [2010] VSCA 26 ....................................................................................... EA.60.60 Chaina v Presbyterian Church (NSW) Property Trust (No 1) [2012] NSWSC 1476 ................................................................................................ EA.192A.60 Chaina v Presbyterian Church (NSW) Property Trust (No 9) [2013] NSWSC 212 .................................................................................................. EA.122.150 Chand v Azurra Pty Ltd (in liq) [2011] NSWCA 227 ........................................ EA.55.180 Chand v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 53 ......................................................... EA.101.150 Chapman v Luminis Pty Ltd (No 2) (2000) 100 FCR 229; [2000] FCA 1010 ....................................................... EA.8.60, EA.130.60, EA.130.180, EA.130.300 Chapman v Luminis Pty Ltd (No 3) (2000) 104 FCR 368 ................................... EA.36.30 Chapmans Ltd v Davey [1998] NSWSC 148 ........................................................ EA.75.90 Charara v Grewal [2013] NSWSC 1015 ............................................................ EA.169.60 Charltons CJC Pty Ltd v Fitzgerald [2013] NSWSC 350 .................................. EA.55.180 Cheers v El Davo Pty Ltd (in liq) [2000] FCA 144 .......................... EA.26.150, EA.42.60 Chel v Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd [2017] NSWSC 56 .......................... EA.91.60 Chen v City Convenience Leasing Pty Ltd [2005] NSWCA 297 ...................... EA.122.90, EA.122.150 Chen v New South Wales (No 2) [2016] NSWCA 292 ....................................... EA.140.60 Chen v Zhang [2009] NSWCA 202 ..................................................................... EA.140.60 Cherry v Steele-Park [2017] NSWCA 295 .......................................................... EA.55.510 Chevalley v Industrial Court of New South Wales (2011) 82 NSWLR 634; 217 A Crim R 240; [2011] NSWCA 357 ....................................................... EA.178.30 Chidiac v The Queen (No 2) [2016] NSWCCA 120 ............... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60, EA.65.180 Chief Executive Offıcer of Customs v Labrador Liquor Wholesale Pty Ltd (2003) 77 ALJR 1629; 201 ALR 1; [2003] HCA 49 ............................ EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Chisari v The Queen (No 2) [2006] NSWCCA 325 ............................................. EA.33.30 Choi v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 150 ..................... EA.41.300, EA.55.340, EA.56.60, EA.164.180 Chong v CC Containers Pty Ltd [2015] VSCA 137 ..... EA.46.90, EA.46.150, EA.55.180, EA.81.60, EA.128.690, EA.140.60 Chotiputhsilpa v Waterhouse (2005) 44 MVR 456; [2005] NSWCA 295 ........... EA.53.60 Christian v The Queen (2012) 223 A Crim R 370; [2012] NSWCCA 34 ........ EA.60.150, EA.118.600, EA.165.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxvi

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Table of Cases

Christian v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 98 .................................................... EA.101.150 Christophers v The Queen (2000) 23 WAR 106; 116 A Crim R 280; [2000] WASCA 308 ................................................................... EA.137.60, EA.165.450 Church of Scientology v Woodward (1982) 154 CLR 25 ................................. EA.130.210 Cioban v The Queen (2003) 139 A Crim R 265; [2003] NSWCCA 304 ........ EA.165.270 Citibank Ltd v Liu [2003] NSWSC 69 ........................... EA.62.60, EA.64.150, EA.64.180 Citrus Queensland Pty Ltd v Sunstate Orchards Pty Ltd (No 7) [2008] FCA 1364 ......................................................................................................... EA.79.300 City Elevator Services Pty Ltd v Burrows [2004] NSWCA 26 ...................... EA.Intro.350 Clark v Ryan (1960) 103 CLR 486 ........... EA.76.90, EA.79.120, EA.79.150, EA.79.180, EA.80.90, EA.80.150 Clark v The Queen (2008) 185 A Crim R 1; [2008] NSWCCA 122 ................ EA.29.150, EA.37.240 Clark Equipment Credit of Australia Ltd v Como Factors Pty Ltd (1988) 14 NSWLR 552 ............................................................................................... EA.26.120 Clarke v Great Southern Finance Pty Ltd [2012] VSC 260 .............................. EA.124.60 Clarke v The Queen [2009] HCATrans 336 ........................................................ EA.141.90 Clarke v The Queen [2013] VSCA 206 .......................................................... EA.165A.120 Clarke v The Queen [2017] VSCA 115 ........................................... EA.65.180, EA.137.90 Clay v The Queen (2014) 43 VR 405; [2014] VSCA 269 ................ EA.55.60, EA.66.180 Clayton Utz v Dale [2015] VSCA 186 .............................................................. EA.128.120 Clegg v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 49 .......................................................... EA.101.190 Clegg v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 125 .......................................................... EA.110.90 Cleland v The Queen (1982) 151 CLR 1 .............................................................. EA.90.60 Clifford v The Queen (2004) 12 Tas R 415; [2004] TASSC 16 ......................... EA.116.90 Coal & Allied Operations Pty Ltd v Australian Industrial Relations Commission (2000) 203 CLR 194; 74 ALJR 1348; [2000] HCA 47 ........... EA.97.480, EA.101.450 Col v The Queen (2013) 237 A Crim R 67; [2013] NSWCCA 302 ................. EA.103.90, EA.106.90 Col v The Queen [2014] HCATrans 236 ............................................................. EA.106.90 Coles Supermarkets Australia Pty Ltd v Tormey [2009] NSWCA 135 .............. EA.55.180 Collaroy Services Beach Club Ltd v Haywood [2007] NSWCA 21 ................... EA.76.90, EA.135.300, EA.136.300 Collins v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 162 ...................................................... EA.165.510 Collins Thomson v Clayton [2002] NSWSC 366 .......................... EA.79.300, EA.131.270 Colne Valley Water Co v Watford & St Albans Gas Co [1948] 1 KB 500 .... EA.126D.30, EA.125.90, EA.128.210, NSW.CPA.301.30 Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society Ltd v Donnelly (1998) 82 FCR 418 ...................................................................................................................... EA.38.60 Colquhoun v The Queen (No 1) [2013] NSWCCA 190 ................................... EA.101.150 Combined Insurance Co of America (t/as Combined Insurance Co of Australia) v Trifunovski (No 4) [2011] FCA 271 ............................................. EA.97.90 Commercial Union Assurance Co of Australasia Ltd v Ferrcom Pty Ltd (1991) 22 NSWLR 389 ................................................................................... EA.55.180 Commonwealth v Fernando (2012) 200 FCR 1; 287 ALR 267; [2012] FCAFC 18 ........................................................................................................ EA.140.60 Commonwealth v McLean (1996) 41 NSWLR 389 ...................... EA.46.150, EA.135.150, EA.136.60 Commonwealth v Northern Land Council (1993) 176 CLR 604; 67 ALJR 405 ............................. EA.130.60, EA.130.180, EA.130.210, EA.130.270, EA.130.390 Commonwealth v Riley (1984) 5 FCR 8 .......................................... EA.26.270, EA.55.540 Commonwealth v Temwood Holdings Pty Ltd [2002] WASC 107 ................... EA.122.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Commonwealth v Vance (2005) 158 ACTR 47; [2005] ACTCA 35 .................. EA.117.60, EA.118.240, EA.118.330 Commonwealth Bank of Australia v McConnell (unreported, NSW SC, Rolfe J, 10 July 1997) ................................................................................... EA.122.390 Commonwealth Development Bank of Australia Pty Ltd v Cassegrain [2002] NSWSC 980 ..................................................................... EA.26.300, EA.79.330 Communications, Electrical, Electronic, Energy, Information, Postal, Plumbing & Allied Services Union of Australia v Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (2007) 162 FCR 466; 242 ALR 643; [2007] FCAFC 132 ............................................................. EA.55.180, EA.140.60 Compass Airlines Pty Ltd, Re (1992) 35 FCR 447 ............................................. EA.125.90 Comptroller-General of Customs v Kingswood Distillery Pty Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Sully J, 11 February 1997) ............................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Connect TV Pty Ltd v All Rounder Pty Ltd (No 5) [2016] FCA 338 ................ EA.66A.60 Connex Group Australia Pty Ltd v Butt [2004] NSWSC 379 ............ EA.76.90, EA.78.60 Constantinou v The Queen [2015] VSCA 177 ...................................................... EA.66.60 Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union v Australian Building and Construction Commissioner (2018) 351 ALR 168; [2018] FCAFC 4 ...................................................................................................................... EA.128.120 Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union v De Martin & Gasparini Pty Limited [2017] FCA 856 ....................................................... EA.118.540 Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union v Director of the Fair Work Building Industry Inspectorate [2017] FCA 1166 ................................ EA.191.60 Controlled Consultants Pty Ltd v Commissioner for Corporate Affairs (1985) 156 CLR 385; 59 ALJR 254 ............................................................. EA.128.330 Conway v Rimmer [1968] AC 910 ....................................................................... EA.130.60 Conway v The Queen (2000) 98 FCR 204; 172 ALR 185; [2000] FCA 461 .................. EA.55.150, EA.65.60, EA.65.120, EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.65.210, EA.101.150, EA.165.360, EA.165.450 Conway v The Queen (2002) 209 CLR 203; 76 ALJR 358; [2002] HCA 2 .... EA.164.90, EA.165.210 Cook v The Queen [2016] VSCA 174 ................................................................... EA.55.60 Cooke v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2002) 51 ATR 223; [2002] FCA 1315 ......................................................................................................... EA.79.210 Cooper v Hobbs [2013] NSWCA 70 ........................ EA.55.180, EA.118.600, EA.122.150 Cooper v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 258 .................................... EA.79.240, EA.97.120 Cooper v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 190 ............................................. EA.141.150 Cooper Brookes (Wollongong) Pty Ltd v Commissioner of Taxation (Cth) (1981) 147 CLR 297 ..................................................................................... EA.106.270 Copley v The Queen [2000] FCA 994 ............................................................... EA.110.120 Copmanhurst Shire Council v Watt (2005) 140 LGERA 333; [2005] NSWCA 245 .................................................................................................... EA.106.90 Cordelia Holdings Pty Ltd v Newkey Investment Pty Ltd [2002] FCA 1018 .... EA.57.120, EA.58.60 Coretell Pty Ltd v Australian Mud Company Pty Ltd [2017] FCAFC 54 ......... EA.191.20 Cornwell v The Queen (2007) 231 CLR 260; 169 A Crim R 89; 81 ALJR 840; [2007] HCA 12 ........................ EA.48.270, EA.128.90, EA.128.120, EA.128.600, EA.128.660, EA.128.720, EA.Intro.270 Cornwell v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 59 ............................... EA.138.150, EA.141.120 Coshott v Burke [2013] FCA 513 ........................... EA.131.150, EA.131.270, EA.131.510 Coshott v Prentice (2014) 221 FCR 450; 311 ALR 428; [2014] FCAFC 88 .................................................................................................................... EA.140.120 Coshott v Prentice [2016] FCA 702 .................................................................... EA.167.30 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxviii

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Table of Cases

Cotic v The Queen (2000) 118 A Crim R 393; [2000] WASCA 414 ............... EA.165.480 Cotter v The Queen [2011] VSCA 240 ................................................................ EA.141.90 Council of the New South Wales Bar Assn v Franklin [2014] NSWCA 329 .... EA.64.150, EA.64.180, EA.64.240, EA.68.90 Council of the New South Wales Bar Association v Power (2008) 71 NSWLR 451; [2008] NSWCA 135 ................................................................ EA.55.180 Cox v New South Wales (2007) 71 NSWLR 225; [2007] NSWSC 471 .............. EA.13.90 Cox v The Queen [2015] VSCA 28 ..................................................................... EA.98.120 Crampton v The Queen (2000) 206 CLR 161; 117 A Crim R 222; [2000] HCA 60 ............................................................ EA.165B.270, EA.165.450, EA.190.120 Crawley v Vero Insurance Ltd (No 7) [2014] NSWSC 80 ................................... EA.91.60 Creditors Trust Deed Established in the Administration of Bevillesta Pty Ltd, Re [2011] NSWSC 1419 ....................................................................... EA.122.360 Creighton v Barnes (No 2) (unreported, NSW SC, Cohen J, 18 September 1995) ................................................................................................................ EA.69.240 Crescent Farm (Sidcup) Sports Ltd v Sterling Offıces Ltd [1972] Ch 553 ........ EA.125.90 Crime Commission (NSW) v Cassar (2012) 224 A Crim R 448; [2012] NSWSC 1170 ................................................................................. EA.57.120, EA.75.90 Crime Commission (NSW) v Vu [2009] NSWCA 349 ........................................ EA.75.120 Crofts v The Queen (1996) 186 CLR 427; 88 A Crim R 232; [1996] HCA 22 ......... EA.101.150, EA.164.90, EA.165.450, EA.165.480, EA.165.540, EA.165.570 Crown Glass & Aluminium Pty Ltd v Ibrahim [2005] NSWCA 195 ................ EA.144.60, EA.144.120 Cruz v The Queen [2017] ACTCA 48 ........................................... EA.137.90, EA.137.120 Cubillo v Commonwealth (2000) 103 FCR 1; 174 ALR 97; [2000] FCA 1084 .................................................................................................................. EA.140.60 Cumberland v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 377 .......................... EA.116.90, EA.165.210 Cureton v Blackshaw Services Pty Ltd [2002] NSWCA 187 ........................... EA.128.540 Custom Coaches (Sales) Pty Ltd v Frankish [2002] NSWSC 781 ...................... EA.83.60 Cutts v Head [1984] 2 WLR 349 ...................................................................... EA.131.420 Cvetkovic v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 329 ............... EA.65.60, EA.65.300, EA.73.60, EA.157.30, EA.157.60 Czako v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 202 ......................................................... EA.79.120

D D v NSPCC [1978] AC 171 ............................................................................... EA.130.180 DAO v The Queen (2011) 81 NSWLR 568; 278 ALR 765; [2011] NSWCCA 63 ...................................... EA.97.120, EA.97.480, EA.98.450, EA.101.450 DAO v The Queen [2011] HCATrans 298 ..................................... EA.97.480, EA.101.450 D’Arrigo v Carter, in the matter of Gartner Wines Pty Ltd and the Corporations Act 2001 [2003] FCA 5 ............................................................ EA.186.20 DEF and the Protected Estates Act 1983, Re [2005] NSWSC 534 ................... EA.185.20 DF v The Queen [2011] ACTCA 11 .................................................................... EA.141.90 DJF v The Queen (2011) 205 A Crim R 412; [2011] NSWCCA 6 .................. EA.20.270, EA.55.180, EA.165.480 DJS v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 200 ..................................... EA.101.360, EA.141.120 DJV v The Queen (2008) 200 A Crim R 206; [2008] NSWCCA 272 ............ EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 DJW v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 164 ................................... EA.101.190, EA.101.240 DJZ Constructions Pty Ltd v Paul Pritchard t/as Pritchard Law Group [2010] NSWSC 1024 ........................................................................................ EA.87.90 DKA v Western Australia [2017] WASCA 44 ..................................................... EA.97.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

DLJ v The Queen [2011] VSCA 389 ................................................................. EA.101.360 DPP v Finnegan [2011] TASCCA 3 .............................................. EA.192.40, EA.192.100 DR v The Queen [2011] VSCA 440 .................................................................... EA.97.120 DRE v The Queen (2006) 164 A Crim R 400; [2006] NSWCCA 280 ............ EA.165.330 DSE (Holdings) Pty Ltd v Intertan Inc (2003) 127 FCR 499; [2003] FCA 384 ..................................................... EA.117.90, EA.118.330, EA.122.60, EA.122.150 DSJ v The Queen (2012) 84 NSWLR 758; 215 A Crim R 349; [2012] NSWCCA 9 .......................................... EA.97.150, EA.98.120, EA.98.150, EA.137.90 DTS v The Queen (2008) 192 A Crim R 204; [2008] NSWCCA 329 ............. EA.165.480 DV v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 276 ................................................................ EA.66.60 DW v The Queen (2014) 239 A Crim R 192; [2014] NSWCCA 28 ............... EA.138.450, EA.138.570 Dahlenburg v Dahlenburg (1996) 7 BPR 14,885 ................................................. EA.51.60 Damberg v Damberg (2001) 52 NSWLR 492; [2001] NSWCA 87 ................. EA.140.120 Daniel v Western Australia (2000) 178 ALR 542; [2000] FCA 858 ................... EA.76.90, EA.79.240 Daniel v Western Australia (2001) 186 ALR 369; [2001] FCA 223 ................... EA.82.30, EA.87.90, EA.136.180 Daniels v Western Australia (2000) 173 ALR 51; [2000] FCA 413 .................... EA.64.90 Daniels v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 372 ....................................................... EA.79.150 Daniels v The Queen [2016] VSCA 291 ............................................................. EA.137.60 Daniels v Western Australia (2012) 226 A Crim R 61; [2012] WASCA 213 .................................................................................................................... EA.97.120 Darlaston v Parker (2010) 189 FCR 1; 196 IR 307; [2010] FCA 771 ............... EA.67.60 Darwiche v The Queen (2011) 209 A Crim R 424; [2011] NSWCCA 62 ......... EA.55.180 Dasreef Pty Ltd v Hawchar (2011) 243 CLR 588; 85 ALJR 694; [2011] HCA 21 ....................... EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.270, EA.55.270, EA.56.120, EA.76.90, EA.79.180, EA.79.240 Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc 509 US 579 (1993) ................... EA.79.120, EA.79.180, EA.79.300 Daunt v Daunt [2015] VSCA 58 ........................................................................... EA.91.60 Davidson v The Queen (2009) 75 NSWLR 150; 195 A Crim R 406; [2009] NSWCCA 150 ................................................................................... EA.141.120 Davies v Director of Public Prosecutions [1954] AC 378 ............................... EA.165.360 Davies v Nyland (1974) 10 SASR 76 .................................................................... EA.81.60 Davies v The King (1937) 57 CLR 170 ................. EA.114.240, EA.114.300, EA.115.360, EA.116.90 Davies v The Queen [2014] VSCA 284 .............................................................. EA.20.180 Davis v Council of the City of Wagga Wagga [2004] NSWCA 34 .................... EA.46.150 Davis v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 258 ........................................................ EA.141.120 Davis v The Queen [2016] VSCA 272 .............................................................. EA.165.570 Davis v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 257 .......................................................... EA.97.240 Daw v Toyworld (NSW) Pty Ltd (2001) 21 NSWCCR 389; [2001] NSWCA 25 ........................................................................................................ EA.60.60 Dawson v The Queen [1990] 2 WAR 458 ......................................................... EA.114.240 Day v Couch [2000] NSWSC 230 ......................................................................... EA.73.90 Day v Perisher Blue Pty Ltd (2005) 62 NSWLR 731; [2005] NSWCA 110 .................................................................................................................. EA.103.120 Daya v CX Reinsurance Company Ltd [2012] NSWSC 1621 .......................... EA.131.120 Daya v CX Reinsurance Company Ltd [2012] NSWSC 1622 ............................ EA.79.150 De Bortoli Wines Pty Ltd v HIH Insurance Ltd (in liq) (2011) 200 FCR 253; 281 ALR 454; [2011] FCA 645 ........................ EA.4.150, EA.69.240, EA.75.120 De Rose v South Australia (No 4) [2001] FCA 1616 ...................... EA.64.150, EA.64.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxx

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Table of Cases

De Silva v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 236 A Crim R 214; [2013] VSCA 339 ....................................................................... EA.108C.90, EA.79.90 De Vries v The Queen [2013] VSCA 210 ........................................................... EA.46.150 Dean-Willcocks v Commonwealth Bank of Australia Ltd (2003) 45 ACSR 564; [2003] NSWSC 466 .............................................................. EA.79.300, EA.80.90 Debresay v The Queen [2017] VSCA 263 ........................................................ EA.165.270 Decision restricted [2016] NSWCCA 202 ......................................................... EA.141.120 Decision restricted [2016] NSWCCA 92 ......................................... EA.66.180, EA.137.90 Decision restricted [2016] NSWCCA 98 ............................................................. EA.97.120 Decker v State Coroner (NSW) (1999) 46 NSWLR 415; [1999] NSWSC 369 ...................................................................................................... EA.4.180, EA.8.90 Dennis v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 120 ...................................................... EA.141.120 Deokinanan v The Queen [1969] 1 AC 20 .......................................................... EA.85.120 Dept of Community Services v D (2006) 66 NSWLR 582; [2006] NSWSC 827 ....................................................................................... EA.126B.150, EA.126B.210 Derbas v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 118 ....................................................... EA.165.90 Derbas v The Queen (2012) 221 A Crim R 13; [2012] NSWCCA 14 ........ EA.131A.120, EA.130.150 Derwish v The Queen [2016] VSCA 72 .................... EA.98.120, EA.98.420, EA.101.185, EA.101.190, EA.101.195, EA.101.330 Desane Properties Pty Ltd v New South Wales [2018] NSWSC 173 .......... EA.131A.180, EA.118.220, EA.130.180, EA.130.210, EA.130.300 Destanovic v The Queen [2015] VSCA 113 ...................................................... EA.102.120 Dhanhoa v The Queen (2003) 139 A Crim R 41; 77 ALJR 1433; [2003] HCA 40 ............................................. EA.81.60, EA.116.90, EA.165.480, EA.Intro.350 Diaz v The Queen [2004] NSWCCA 251 .......................................................... EA.165.450 Dibbs v The Queen (2012) 225 A Crim R 195; [2012] VSCA 224 .................. EA.97.480, EA.98.450 Dickman v The Queen [2015] VSCA 311 .............. EA.114.180, EA.114.240, EA.137.210 Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292; [1992] HCA 57 .............................. EA.11.90 Dimkovski v Ken’s Painting & Decorating Services Pty Ltd [2002] NSWSC 50 ..................................................................................................... EA.119.120 Director, Offıce of the Fair Work Building Industry Inspectorate v Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union (2013) 231 IR 278; [2013] FCAFC 8 ...................................................... EA.46.60, EA.55.180, EA.140.120 Director Public Prosecutions v Curran (No 2) [2011] VSC 280 ......................... EA.32.90 Director of Public Prosecution (Vic) v Massey [2017] VSCA 38 .................... EA.137.150 Director of Public Prosecutions v Azizi (No 2) [2012] VSC 600 ........................ EA.67.90 Director of Public Prosecutions v BB (2010) 29 VR 110; 204 A Crim R 85; [2010] VSCA 211 .................... EA.Intro.270, EA.59.180, EA.65.270, EA.135.150, EA.137.60 Director of Public Prosecutions v Carr (2002) 127 A Crim R 151; [2002] NSWSC 194 ................................. EA.138.120, EA.138.150, EA.138.540, EA.138.570 Director of Public Prosecutions v Coe [2003] NSWSC 363 ............................ EA.138.150 Director of Public Prosecutions v Curran (No 1) [2011] VSC 279 ................... EA.65.150 Director of Public Prosecutions v Donald [1999] NSWSC 949 ...................... EA.114.180 Director of Public Prosecutions v Finnegan [2011] TASCCA 3 .... EA.38.150, EA.137.60 Director of Public Prosecutions v Gibson (2012) 61 MVR 261; [2012] VSC 297 .............................................................................................................. EA.8.90 Director of Public Prosecutions v Kaba (2014) 44 VR 526; 247 A Crim R 300; [2014] VSC 52 ...................................................................................... EA.138.150 Director of Public Prosecutions v Kane (1997) 140 FLR 468 ..... EA.122.210, EA.123.90 Director of Public Prosecutions v Langford [2012] NSWSC 310 ................... EA.138.540 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Director of Public Prosecutions v Leonard (2001) 53 NSWLR 227; [2001] NSWSC 797 ..................................................................... EA.81.60, EA.138.570 Director of Public Prosecutions v MD (2010) 29 VR 434; [2010] VSCA 233 ............................................................................................ EA.138.540, EA.138.720 Director of Public Prosecutions v Marijancevic; Director of Public Prosecutions v Preece; Director of Public Prosecutions v Preece (2011) 33 VR 440; 219 A Crim R 344; [2011] VSCA 355 .... EA.138.60, EA.138.210, EA.138.240, EA.138.540, EA.138.570, EA.138.720 Director of Public Prosecutions v McRae [2010] VSC 114 ........... EA.38.300, EA.55.180 Director of Public Prosecutions v Nair (2009) 170 ACTR 15; 236 FLR 239; [2009] ACTCA 17 ................................................................. EA.38.60, EA.38.150 Director of Public Prosecutions v Nicholls (2001) 123 A Crim R 66; [2001] NSWSC 523 ................................................. EA.59.180, EA.66.60, EA.138.570 Director of Public Prosecutions v Nicholls (2010) 204 A Crim R 306; [2010] VSC 397 ...................................................................................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Director of Public Prosecutions v Smiles (1993) 30 NSWLR 248 ...................... EA.18.60 Director of Public Prosecutions v The Queen [2007] EWHC 1842 ................... EA.13.90, EA.13.240 Director of Public Prosecutions (ACT) v Hiep (1998) 86 FCR 33 ...................... EA.75.90 Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) v Fattal [2013] VSCA 276 .................. EA.141.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) v Galloway (2014) 245 A Crim R 427; [2014] VSCA 272 ................................................................ EA.123.60, EA.123.90 Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) v Kane (1997) 140 FLR 468 ............. EA.Intro.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) v Larson [2017] VSCA 292 ................ EA.138.570 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v AM (2006) 161 A Crim R 219; [2006] NSWSC 348 ................................................................. EA.138.120, EA.138.150 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Alderman (1998) 45 NSWLR 526; 104 A Crim R 116 ................................................................................... EA.90.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v CAD [2003] NSWSC 196 ............. EA.138.120, EA.138.420 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Earl Burns (2010) 207 A Crim R 362; [2010] NSWCA 265 ............................................................................ EA.27.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Elskaf [2012] NSWSC 21 .................. EA.26.60 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Gramelis [2010] NSWSC 787 ....... EA.144.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v JG (2010) 220 A Crim R 19; [2010] NSWCCA 222 .................... EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.137.150, EA.137.210 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Pinn [2015] NSWSC 1684 ................. EA.58.60 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Tong (2004) 151 A Crim R 296; [2004] NSWSC 689 ........................................................................................ EA.79.240 Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Zhang (2007) 48 MVR 78; [2007] NSWSC 308 ........................................................................................ EA.189.40 Director of Public Prosecutions (Tas) v Cook (2006) 166 A Crim R 234; [2006] TASSC 75 .......................................................................... EA.81.60, EA.85.300 Director of Public Prosecutions (Tas) v Lynch (2006) 166 A Crim R 327; [2006] TASSC 89 .......................................................................................... EA.114.240 Director of Public Prosecutions (UK) v Boardman [1975] AC 421 ................ EA.101.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (UK) v Kilbourne [1973] AC 729 ................. EA.165.330 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Alexander [2016] VSCA 92 ................ EA.98.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v BB (2010) 29 VR 110; [2010] VSCA 211 ...................................................................................................... EA.165.270 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Bass [2016] VSCA 110 ....................... EA.114.90 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Byrne (No 2) [2016] VSC 345 ......... EA.115.150, EA.118.220 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxxii

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Table of Cases

Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Garrett (2016) 257 A Crim R 509; [2016] VSCA 31 ............................................................................ EA.38.60, EA.38.150 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Martin [2016] VSCA 219 ................. EA.101.150 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Massey [2017] VSCA 38 .................... EA.55.330 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Newman [2015] VSCA 25 ................... EA.55.60, EA.110.60 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Pace [2015] VSCA 18 ........................ EA.55.270 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Wearn [2018] VSCA 39 ................... EA.114.240, EA.135.150, EA.137.90, EA.137.120 Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) v Wise [2016] VSCA 173 ...................... EA.79.300, EA.137.60, EA.137.150 Divall v Mifsud [2005] NSWCA 447 ........................................... EA.122.210, EA.165.450 Dixon v Whisprun Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 344 ............................. EA.55.270, EA.79.240 Doble v The Queen [2015] VSCA 265 ........................................ EA.165.240, EA.165.450 Dodds v The Queen (2009) 194 A Crim R 408; [2009] NSWCCA 78 ............... EA.33.30, EA.79.120 Doggett v The Queen (2001) 208 CLR 343; 182 ALR 1; [2001] HCA 46 .... EA.165B.240, EA.165.330, EA.165.450 Doklu v The Queen (2010) 208 A Crim R 333; [2010] NSWCCA 309 ............ EA.85.210 Domican v The Queen (1992) 173 CLR 555; [1992] HCA 13 .... EA.114.240, EA.116.90, EA.165.210, EA.165.300, EA.165.480 Domican v The Queen (No 3) (1990) 46 A Crim R 428 .................................. EA.104.180 Donaghey v Donaghey (2011) 45 Fam LR 183; [2011] FamCA 13 .................. EA.144.60 Donaghy v Wentworth Area Health Service [2003] NSWSC 533 ...................... EA.28.120 Donai v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 173 ............ EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.Intro.350 Donohoe v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 176 .................................................. EA.101.185 Donohue v Tasmania [2016] TASCCA 17 ............. EA.101.150, EA.101.190, EA.101.240 Doolan v Renkon Pty Ltd (2011) 21 Tas R 156; [2011] TASFC 4 .................... EA.55.180 Doppstadt Australia Pty Ltd v Lovick & Son Developments Pty Ltd [2014] NSWCA 158 .................................................................................................... EA.55.180 Dorajay Pty Ltd v Aristocrat Leisure Ltd (2008) 67 ACSR 1311; [2008] FCA 1311 ......................................................................................................... EA.160.90 Doran Constructions Pty Ltd, Re (2002) 168 FLR 116; 194 ALR 101; [2002] NSWSC 215 ........ EA.4.150, EA.118.90, EA.122.210, EA.122.480, EA.124.60 Douglas v The Queen [2005] NSWCCA 419 .................................................... EA.165.480 Douglass v The Queen (2012) 86 ALJR 1086; 290 ALR 699; [2012] HCA 34 .................................................................................................................... EA.141.150 Dovuro Pty Ltd v Wilkins (2003) 215 CLR 317; [2003] HCA 51 ..................... EA.81.210 Dowling v Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd (2009) 182 IR 28; [2009] FCA 339 ............................................................................................................. EA.27.60 Downes v Maxwell Richard Rhys & Co Pty Ltd (in liq) (2014) 313 ALR 383; [2014] VSCA 193 ................................................................................... EA.55.180 Doyle v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 4 ...... EA.11.60, EA.38.60, EA.46.60, EA.101.360, EA.103.120, EA.108.150, EA.141.120 Drabsch v Switzerland General Insurance Co Ltd [1999] NSWSC 765 ........... EA.39.120 Drabsch v Switzerland General Insurance Co Ltd [1999] NSWSC 975 ......... EA.122.300 Drambo Pty Ltd v Westpac Banking Corp Ltd (1996) 33 ATR 255 ................ EA.135.210 Drash v The Queen [2012] VSCA 33 .................................................................. EA.46.150 Driscoll v The Queen (1977) 137 CLR 517 ................................ EA.137.150, EA.165.450 Dubbo City Council v Barrett [2003] NSWCA 267 ......................................... EA.122.330 Duke v The Queen (1989) 63 ALJR 139 ............................................................... EA.90.60 Duke of Buccleuch v Metropolitan Board of Works (1871) LR 5 HL 418 ...... EA.129.180 Dumoo v Gardner (1998) 143 FLR 245 .............................................................. EA.90.260 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Duncan v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 84 ........................................................ EA.69.180 Dunks v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 134 ....................................................... EA.108.150 Dunn v The Queen [2017] VSCA 371 ............................................................... EA.101.150 Dunstan v Orr (2008) 217 FCR 559; 171 IR 135; [2008] FCA 31 ................ EA.121.150, EA.122.210 Dupas v The Queen (2010) 241 CLR 237; 203 A Crim R 186; [2010] HCA 20 .............................................................................................................. EA.11.90 Dupas v The Queen (2012) 40 VR 182; 218 A Crim R 507; [2012] VSCA 328 .................. EA.Intro.270, EA.Intro.300, EA.101A.90, EA.101A.120, EA.108C.60, EA.108C.90, EA.108C.120, EA.79.120, EA.80.150, EA.135.270, EA.137.90, EA.165.210, EA.165.390, EA.190.120 Dupont v Chief Commissioner of Police (2015) 295 FLR 283; [2015] FamCAFC 64 ...................................................... EA.131A.60, EA.130.60, EA.130.120 Dutton v O’Shane [2002] NSWSC 1086 ............................................................... EA.4.180 Dwyer v Calco Timbers Pty Ltd (2008) 234 CLR 124; [2008] HCA 13 ........ EA.101.450, EA.137.210 Dyball v The Harden Shire Council [2004] NSWSC 486 ................................ EA.118.390 Dyers v The Queen (2002) 210 CLR 285; 76 ALJR 1552; [2002] HCA 45 .... EA.20.300, EA.20.420, EA.55.180 Dyldam Developments Pty Ltd v Jones [2008] NSWCA 56 ....... EA.135.150, EA.135.210 D’Apice v Gutkovich – Estate of Abraham (No 1) [2010] NSWSC 1336 ......... EA.121.90

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E E v Australian Red Cross Society (1991) 31 FCR 299 ....................................... EA.80.150 EI Dupont de Nemours & Co v Imperial Chemical Industries PLC (2002) 54 IPR 304; [2002] AIPC 91-788; [2002] FCA 230 ................ EA.Intro.120, EA.55.90 ER v Khan [2015] NSWCCA 230 .......................... NSW.CPA.299B.30, NSW.CPA.296.30 ES v The Queen (No 1) [2010] NSWCCA 197 ........................... EA.101.150, EA.137.120 ES v The Queen (No 2) [2010] NSWCCA 198 ........................... EA.101.150, EA.101.360 Eagles v Orth [1976] Qd R 313 .......................................................................... EA.79.120 Earl of Dunraven v Llewellyn (1850) 15 QB 791; 117 ER 657 .......................... EA.74.60 Eastman v The Queen (1997) 76 FCR 9; 158 ALR 107 ................ EA.46.150, EA.48.180, EA.79.150, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.112.60, EA.116.90, EA.130.60, EA.136.60, EA.165.300, EA.192.40 Easwaralingam v Director of Public Prosecutions (2010) 208 A Crim R 122; [2010] VSCA 353 ..................................................................................... EA.67.60 Ebatarinja v Deland (1998) 194 CLR 444 ............................................................ EA.30.60 Eden Productions Pty Ltd v Southern Star Group Ltd [2002] NSWSC 1166 ................................................................................................................ EA.122.210 Edmunds-Jones Pty Ltd v Australian Women’s Hockey Assn Inc [1999] NSWSC 285 ................................................................................. EA.69.240, EA.190.80 Edwards v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 193; 68 ALJR 40; 68 A Crim R 349 ....................................................... EA.55.330, EA.81.60, EA.165.270, EA.165.480 Edwards v Transport Accident Commission [2013] VSC 557 .......................... EA.131.480 Edwards v Vic Land Rehabilitation [2012] VSC 188 ................... EA.117.120, EA.122.60, EA.122.360 Eire Contractors Pty Ltd v O’Brien [2012] NSWCA 400 .............................. EA.Intro.340 El-Azzi v Nationwide News Pty Ltd [2004] NSWSC 1056 ................................. EA.103.60 El-Haddad v The Queen (2015) 88 NSWLR 93; 293 FLR 284; [2015] NSWCCA 10 .................... EA.95.60, EA.97.120, EA.98.120, EA.98.180, EA.101.150, EA.101.190, EA.101.360 El-Hilli v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 289 ..................................................... EA.101.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxxiv

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Table of Cases

El-Zayet v The Queen (2014) 88 NSWLR 556; [2014] NSWCCA 298 ........ EA.131A.90, EA.122.120, EA.122.180 Elias v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 365 ....................................... EA.97.240, EA.97.450 Ellis v The Queen (2010) 30 VR 428; [2010] VSCA 302 ................................ EA.165.480 Elmaghraby v The Queen [2016] VSCA 326 ................................ EA.165.90, EA.165.240 Elomar v The Queen (2014) 300 FLR 323; [2014] NSWCCA 303 .................. EA.55.330, EA.87.120, EA.97.60, EA.101.150, EA.137.60 Em v The Queen (2007) 232 CLR 67; 81 ALJR 1896; [2007] HCA 46 ............ EA.90.60, EA.90.90, EA.90.150, EA.90.180, EA.90.330, EA.90.360, EA.138.60, EA.138.720, EA.165.270 Employment Advocate v Williamson (2001) 111 FCR 20; 185 ALR 590; 50 AILR 4–498; [2001] FCA 1164 .................... EA.138.60, EA.138.510, EA.138.690, EA.140.60 Enoch and Zaretzky, Bock & Co Arbitration, Re [1910] 1 KB 327 .................. EA.26.120 Ensham Resources Pty Ltd v Aioi Insurance Co Ltd (2012) 209 FCR 1; [2012] FCAFC 191 .......................................................................................... EA.133.60 Environment Protection Authority v Caltex Refining Co Pty Ltd (1993) 178 CLR 477 ............................................................................. EA.128.300, EA.187.20 Environment Protection Authority v Queanbeyan City Council (No 2) [2011] NSWLEC 159 ................................................................................... EA.131A.90 Environment Protection Authority v Ramsey Food Processing Pty Ltd [2009] NSWLEC 152 ...................................................................................... EA.191.60 Environment Protection Authority v Unomedical Pty Ltd (No 2) [2009] NSWLEC 111 .................................................................................................... EA.53.60 Epeabaka v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural Affairs (1997) 47 ALD 555; 150 ALR 397 ........................ EA.Dict.Pt.1.30, EA.4.150, EA.5.30, EA.8.60 Eric Preston Pty Ltd v Euroz Securities Ltd (2009) 175 FCR 508; [2009] FCA 240 ......................................................................................................... EA.118.220 Eric Preston Pty Ltd v Euroz Securities Ltd (2011) 274 ALR 705; [2011] FCAFC 11 ........................................................................................................ EA.55.270 Erohin v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 102 .............................. EA.165B.270, EA.101.360 Esso Australia Resources Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (1999) 201 CLR 49; [1999] HCA 67 ......... EA.118.90, EA.118.360, EA.118.390, EA.118.570 Evans v The Queen (2006) 164 A Crim R 489; [2006] NSWCCA 277 ........... EA.37.120, EA.165.450 Evans v The Queen (2007) 235 CLR 521; 179 A Crim R 232; 82 ALJR 250; [2007] HCA 59 ......... EA.165B.210, EA.52.30, EA.53.60, EA.53.90, EA.53.120, EA.55.60, EA.55.210, EA.55.300, EA.56.210, EA.114.240, EA.137.120, EA.165.180 Ewen v The Queen (2015) 250 A Crim R 544; [2015] NSWCCA 117 ............ EA.141.90, EA.165.480, EA.165.540 Ewin v Vergara (No 2) (2012) 209 FCR 288; [2012] FCA 1518 ..................... EA.128.450 Executor Trustee & Agency Co of SA v Insurance Offıce of Australia [1949] SASR 337 .............................................................................................. EA.87.90 Expense Reduction Analysts Group Pty Ltd v Armstrong Strategic Management and Marketing Pty Ltd (2013) 250 CLR 303; 88 ALJR 76; [2013] HCA 46 .................................................................. EA.122.120, EA.122.180

F FB v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 217 ..................... EA.27.120, EA.97.120, EA.101.240 FDP v The Queen (2008) 74 NSWLR 645; 192 A Crim R 87; [2008] NSWCCA 317 ............................. EA.Intro.350, EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 FGC v Western Australia (2008) 183 A Crim R 313; [2008] WASCA 47 ...... EA.165.450 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

FGT Custodians Pty Ltd v Fagenblat [2003] VSCA 33 ..................................... EA.79.300 FH v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 231 ........................................ EA.55.180, EA.101.360 FMJ v The Queen [2011] VSCA 308 ........................... EA.85.300, EA.90.360, EA.137.60 FV v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 237 .............................................................. EA.191.20 Fabre v Arenales (1992) 27 NSWLR 437 ........................................................... EA.55.180 Facton Ltd v Seo (2011) 91 IPR 135; [2011] FCA 344 ..................................... EA.79.150 Fadel v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 134 ........................................................ EA.114.240 Fair Work Ombudsman v Valuair Ltd (2014) 314 ALR 499; [2014] FCA 404 .................................................................................................................... EA.81.240 Fairall v Hobbs [2017] NSWCA 82 .................................................................... EA.79.120 Falcon v Famous Players Film Co Ltd [1926] 2 KB 474 .................................. EA.81.180 Falzon v The Queen [2017] VSCA 74 .................................................................. EA.55.90 Farkas v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 141 .......................................................... EA.4.270 Farquharson v The Queen (2012) 36 VR 538; [2012] VSCA 296 .................... EA.55.330 Farrell v The Queen (1998) 194 CLR 286; 155 ALR 652; [1998] HCA 50 .... EA.79.300, EA.80.150, EA.106.240, EA.165.480 Farrow Mortgage Services Pty Ltd (in liq) v Webb (1996) 39 NSWLR 601 .................................................................................................................. EA.122.360 Farrugia v Jindi Woraback Children’s Centre Inc [2011] VSC 250 ................ EA.79.300, EA.80.90 Faucett v St George Bank Ltd [2003] NSWCA 43 ............................................... EA.80.90 Feltafield Pty Ltd v Heidelberg Graphic Equipment (1995) 56 FCR 481 ......... EA.69.120 Fenwick v Wambo Coal Pty Ltd (No 2) [2011] NSWSC 353 .... EA.118.150, EA.122.210, EA.122.270 Ferguson v The Queen [2015] VSCA 279 ................... EA.55.60, EA.101.360, EA.137.60 Fermiscan Ltd v James [2009] NSWSC 462 .................................................... EA.131.450 Fernando v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural & Indigenous Affairs [2003] FCA 975 ............................................................. EA.130.60, EA.130.300 Ferrall v Blyton (2000) 27 Fam LR 178; [2000] FLC 93-054; [2000] FamCA 1442 ...................................................... EA.128.120, EA.128.150, EA.128.780 Festa v The Queen (2001) 208 CLR 593; 76 ALJR 291; [2001] HCA 72 ..... EA.101.150, EA.101.210, EA.114.240, EA.114.330, EA.115.300, EA.116.90, EA.116.120, EA.137.120, EA.137.150, EA.165.300, EA.165.450 Fexuto Pty Ltd v Bosnjak Holdings Pty Ltd [1998] NSWSC 293 ....................... EA.27.60 Field v Commissioner for Railways (NSW) (1957) 99 CLR 285; [1957] HCA 92 ............................................................... EA.131.120, EA.131.210, EA.131.270 Filippou v The Queen (2015) 89 ALJR 776; [2015] HCA 29 .......................... EA.165.150 Finance Sector Union of Australia v Commonwealth Bank of Australia Ltd [2000] FCA 1389 ...................................................................................... EA.193.60 Finchill Pty Ltd v Abdel-Messih (unreported, NSW SC, Levine J, 13 July 1998) .................................................................................................................. EA.26.60 Fingleton v The Queen (2005) 227 CLR 166; 153 A Crim R 503; [2005] HCA 34 .......................................................................................................... EA.190.120 Finlay v The Queen [2009] HCATrans 17 ......................................................... EA.165.300 First Capital Partners Pty Ltd v Sylvatech Ltd (2004) 186 FLR 266; [2004] NSWSC 846 ...................................................................................... EA.131.150 Fitness Australia Ltd v Copyright Tribunal (2010) 89 IPR 442; [2010] FCAFC 148 ........................................................................................................ EA.76.90 Fitz-Gibbon v Wily (1998) 87 FCR 104 ...................................................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Fleet v District Court of NSW [1999] NSWCA 363 ........................................... EA.46.150 Fleming v The Queen (1998) 197 CLR 250; 103 A Crim R 121; [1998] HCA 68 .......................................................................................................... EA.165.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxxvi

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Table of Cases

Fleming v The Queen (2009) 197 A Crim R 282; [2009] NSWCCA 233 ........ EA.138.60, EA.138.120, EA.138.720 Fletcher v The Queen [2006] HCATrans 127 ..................................................... EA.97.480 Fletcher v The Queen (2015) 45 VR 634; 252 A Crim R 11; [2015] VSCA 146 ............ EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.18.150, EA.108A.60, EA.103.120, EA.137.90 Flora v The Queen (2013) 233 A Crim R 320; [2013] VSCA 192 ................... EA.55.330 Flower & Hart v White Industries (Qld) Pty Ltd (1999) 87 FCR 134; [1999] FCA 773 ............................................................................. EA.46.60, EA.46.150 Flowers v The Queen (2005) 153 A Crim R 110; [2005] NTCCA 5 ................. EA.81.240 Foley v Tectran Corp Pty Ltd [1984] 3 NSWLR 156 ...................................... EA.130.210 Fonterra Brands (Australia) Pty Ltd v Viropoulos (No 2) [2015] FCA 974 ..... EA.79.180 Food and Beverage Australia Ltd v Andrews [2017] VSCA 258 ......................... EA.46.60 Forbes Engineering (Asia) Pte Ltd v Forbes (No 4) [2009] FCA 675 .............. EA.69.210 Foreign Media Pty Ltd v Konstantinidis [2003] NSWCA 161 ........ EA.48.180, EA.55.90, EA.191.20 Forge v Australian Securities & Investments Commission (2004) 213 ALR 574; 52 ACSR 1; [2004] NSWCA 448 ............................................................ EA.80.90 Formosa House Pty Ltd v Ming Chien Chang (2010) 246 FLR 136; [2010] VSC 474 .............................................................................................. EA.160.60 Forsyth v Sinclair (No 2) [2010] VSCA 195 .................................................... EA.131.510 Foster v The Queen (1993) 67 ALJR 550 ............................................................. EA.90.60 Fowkes v Parker [1999] NSWCA 442 ................................................................ EA.55.480 Freeman v Health Insurance Commission (1997) 78 FCR 91 ........................... EA.55.180 Frengos v The Queen [2012] VSCA 18 ........................................... EA.41.300, EA.55.180 Friend v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 41 ............. EA.106.120, EA.108.120, EA.108.180 Fulham Partners LLC v National Australia Bank Ltd (2013) 17 BPR 32709; [2013] NSWCA 296 ...................................................... EA.135.150, EA.136.90 Fuller-Lyons v New South Wales (2015) 89 ALJR 824; [2015] HCA 31 .......... EA.140.60 Fuller-Lyons v New South Wales (No 1) [2013] NSWSC 411 ............................. EA.55.90

G G v H (1994) 181 CLR 387 ............................................................................... EA.140.120 GAR v The Queen (No 3) [2010] NSWCCA 165 .......................... EA.165.90, EA.165.240 GB by his tutor FB v Western Sydney Area Health Service [2010] NSWSC 181 ................................................................................................ EA.126B.420 GBF v The Queen [2010] VSCA 135 ....................... EA.97.120, EA.101.180, EA.136.300 GD v The Queen [2018] NSWCCA 18 ............................................................. EA.165.540 GHI, Re [2005] NSWSC 466 ............................................................................. EA.135.180 GO v Western Australia [2016] WASCA 132 ...................................... EA.27.60, EA.41.90 GPI Leisure Corp Ltd v Herdsman Investments Pty Ltd (No 3) (1990) 20 NSWLR 15 ...................................................................................................... EA.26.150 GPI Leisure Corporation Ltd (In Liq) v Yuill (1997) 42 NSWLR 225 ........... EA.131.270 GW v The Queen [2015] ACTCA 15 ........................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Gabriel v The Queen (1997) 76 FCR 279 ....................................... EA.110.90, EA.112.60 Galafassi v Kelly (2014) 87 NSWLR 119; 17 BPR 33013; [2014] NSWCA 190 ................................... EA.131.60, EA.131.270, EA.131.480, EA.131.540 Galea v Bagtrans Pty Ltd [2010] NSWCA 350 .................................................. EA.55.180 Galea v Farrugia [2013] NSWCA 164 ........................................... EA.97.120, EA.97.450 Galea v Galea (1990) 19 NSWLR 263 ............................................................... EA.27.120 Gall v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 69 ............................................................ EA.165.480 Gallant v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 339 ....................................................... EA.110.60 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Galvin v The Queen (2006) 161 A Crim R 449; [2006] NSWCCA 66 .......... EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.135.150, EA.136.210, EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.164.180 Gardiner v The Queen (2006) 162 A Crim R 233; [2006] NSWCCA 190 ...... EA.97.180, EA.116.90, EA.130.150 Gardner v Duve (1978) 19 ALR 695 ................................................................... EA.81.240 Garning & Director-General, Department of Communities (Child Safety Services) [2012] FamCAFC 35 ....................................... EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.21.210 Gate Gourmet Australia Pty Limited (in liq) v Gate Gourmet Holding AG [2004] NSWSC 768 .......................................................................................... EA.50.30 Gately v The Queen (2007) 232 CLR 208; 82 ALJR 149; [2007] HCA 55 .... EA.165.480 Gattellaro v Westpac Banking Corp (2004) 78 ALJR 394; 204 ALR 258; [2004] HCA 6 ....................................................... EA.144.60, EA.144.90, EA.Intro.120 Gedeon v The Queen (2013) 237 A Crim R 326; [2013] NSWCCA 257 ....... EA.128.510, EA.128.540, EA.138.210, EA.138.540, EA.138.570 Geitonia Pty Ltd v Inner West Council [2016] NSWCCA 186 .......................... EA.55.180 Gentry v The Queen [2016] VSCA 54 ........................................... EA.55.340, EA.164.180 Georgeski v Owners Corp SP49833 [2004] NSWSC 945 .............. EA.11.90, EA.125.120 Geyer v Redeland Pty Ltd [2013] NSWCA 338 ............................................... EA.140.120 Ghazal v GIO (1992) 29 NSWLR 336 ................................................................ EA.46.150 Ghebrat v The Queen (2011) 214 A Crim R 140; [2011] VSCA 299 ................. EA.60.60 Giallombardo v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 25 ............................................. EA.165.480 Gilham v The Queen (2012) 224 A Crim R 22; [2012] NSWCCA 131 ............. EA.38.60, EA.55.60, EA.55.90, EA.56.90, EA.79.180, EA.137.60, EA.137.150 Gillett v Murphy [2001] NSWCA 199 ................................................................... EA.54.60 Gillett v Nelson [2014] NSWSC 115 ................................................................... EA.121.90 Gillies v Downer EDI Ltd [2010] NSWSC 1323 ........................ EA.122.180, EA.122.330 Gilmour v Environment Protection Authority (2002) 55 NSWLR 593; [2002] NSWCCA 399 ........................ EA.18.120, EA.18.180, EA.135.150, EA.137.60 Giourtalis v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 216 ................................................... EA.46.150 Gipp v The Queen (1998) 194 CLR 106; 72 ALJR 1012; 155 ALR 15 ......... EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 Gladio Pty Ltd v Buckworth [2015] NSWSC 922 ........................ EA.131.60, EA.131.120, EA.131.270 Glass v DeMarco [1999] FCA 482 .............................................. EA.131.480, EA.131.540 Glass v Tasmania [2013] TASCCA 8 .......................................... EA.101.360, EA.165.480 Global Medical Imaging Management Ltd (In Liq), Re [2001] NSWSC 476 .................................................................................................................. EA.119.120 Global Medical Imaging Management Ltd (in liq) v Australian Mezzanine Investments Pty Ltd [2003] NSWSC 430 ..................................................... EA.122.210 Godfrey v New South Wales (No 1) [2003] NSWSC 160 ................ EA.76.90, EA.79.120, EA.79.150 Goldberg v Ng (1995) 185 CLR 83; [1995] HCA 39 ......................................... EA.122.60 Goldsmith v Sandilands (2002) 76 ALJR 1024; 190 ALR 370; [2002] HCA 31 ....................................................................................................... EA.101A.120 Goldsworthy v Radio 2UE Sydney Pty Ltd [1999] NSWSC 290 ....................... EA.48.180 Gondarra v Minister for Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs [2012] FCA 185 ............................................................. EA.192A.60 Gonzales v Claridades (2003) 58 NSWLR 188; [2003] NSWSC 508 ................ EA.92.90 Gonzales v The Queen (2007) 178 A Crim R 232; [2007] NSWCCA 321 ...... EA.41.300, EA.Intro.350 Goodrich Aerospace Pty Ltd v Arsic (2006) 66 NSWLR 186; [2006] NSWCA 187 .................................................................................................. EA.165.450 Goodridge v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 37 .................................................... EA.79.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xxxviii

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Table of Cases

Gordian Runoff Ltd v Price [2004] NSWSC 600 ............................................. EA.122.240 Gordon v Ross [2006] NSWCA 157 ................................................ EA.69.120, EA.69.150 Gorman v Cook [2002] NSWSC 1149 ......................................... EA.118.360, EA.119.120 Grace v Grace [2010] NSWSC 1514 ................................................................ EA.122.210 Graham v The Queen (1998) 195 CLR 606; 102 A Crim R 438; [1998] HCA 1 ..... EA.Intro.180, EA.66.180, EA.81.60, EA.89.150, EA.101.450, EA.108.150, EA.108.210, EA.137.210, EA.192.100 Granada Tavern v Smith (2008) 173 IR 328; [2008] FCA 646 ......................... EA.140.60 Grant v Downs (1976) 135 CLR 674; 51 ALJR 198; [1976] HCA 63 ........... EA.118.360, EA.118.390, EA.118.540 Grant v The Queen (1975) 11 ALR 503 ........................................................... EA.141.120 Grbic v Pitkethly (1992) 38 FCR 95; 65 A Crim R 12 .............. EA.114.300, EA.115.360, EA.116.90 Great Atlantic Insurance Co v Home Insurance Co [1981] 1 WLR 529; [1981] 2 All ER 485 ...................................................................................... EA.122.180 Great Southern Managers Australia Ltd (in liq) v Clarke (2012) 36 VR 308; [2012] VSCA 207 ................................................................................... EA.124.60 Greek Case, The (1969) 12 Yearbook of the European Convention on Human Rights 186 ............................................................................................. EA.84.60 Green v AMP Life Ltd [2005] NSWSC 95 .................................. EA.118.150, EA.121.150 Green v The Queen (1971) 126 CLR 28 ............................................................. EA.141.90 Green v The Queen (1999) 73 ALJR 575; [1999] HCA 13 ................................. EA.81.60 Greenough v Eccles (1859) 2 CB (NS) 786 .......................................................... EA.38.60 Greensill v The Queen (2012) 37 VR 257; 226 A Crim R 416; [2012] VSCA 306 ............................. EA.165B.150, EA.165B.210, EA.165B.300, EA.165.480 Greenwood v Harvey [1965] NSWR 1489 .......................................................... EA.137.60 Grey v The Queen (2001) 75 ALJR 1708; [2001] HCA 65 ............................. EA.165.450 Griffın v Pantzer (2004) 137 FCR 209; 207 ALR 169; [2004] FCAFC 113 ....... EA.4.150 Griffıth v Australian Broadcasting Corp [2003] NSWSC 483 ......... EA.48.180, EA.51.60, EA.55.90 Grosvenor v The Queen [2014] NTCCA 5 ............................................................ EA.81.60 Groundstroem v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 237 ............... EA.165B.210, EA.165B.300 Gruber v Blake (2003) 39 MVR 465; [2003] NSWCA 256 .............................. EA.46.150 Grubisic v Western Australia (2011) 41 WAR 524; 210 A Crim R 457; [2011] WASCA 147 ....................................................................................... EA.165.450 Grundy v Lewis (unreported, FCA, Cooper J, 14 September 1998) ............... EA.122.330, EA.122.390 Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance of New Zealand Ltd v Stuart [1985] 1 NZLR 596 ................................................................................................... EA.118.390 Gudjala People # 2 v Native Title Registrar [2008] FCAFC 157 ...................... EA.79.240 Guide Dog Owners’ & Friends’ Assn Inc v Guide Dog Assn (NSW & ACT) (1998) 154 ALR 527 ............................................................. EA.76.90, EA.78.60 Guinness Peat Properties Ltd v Fitzroy Robinson Partnership [1987] 1 WLR 1027 ................................................................................ EA.118.360, EA.118.390 Gul v The Queen [2017] VSCA 153 .................................................................. EA.165.570 Gumana v Northern Territory (2005) 141 FCR 457; 218 ALR 292; [2005] FCA 50 ........................................................... EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.74.60, EA.79.300 Gusdote Pty Ltd v Ashley (2011) 193 FCR 227; 277 ALR 579; [2011] FCA 250 ........................................................................................................... EA.160.60 Guthrie v Spence (2009) 78 NSWLR 225; [2009] NSWCA 369 ........................ EA.60.60, EA.136.180 Guy v Crown Melbourne Ltd [2017] FCA 1104 ................................................. EA.79.330 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

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H H v Schering Chemicals Ltd [1983] 1 All ER 849 ......................... EA.48.210, EA.69.120 HG v The Queen (1999) 197 CLR 414; 73 ALJR 281; [1999] HCA 2 ............ EA.55.270, EA.79.120, EA.79.180, EA.79.240 HIH Insurance Ltd (in liq), Re [2015] NSWSC 790 .......................... EA.91.60, EA.92.70 HML v The Queen (2008) 235 CLR 334; 82 ALJR 723; 245 ALR 204; [2008] HCA 16 ......... EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.210, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 HMP Industries Pty Ltd v Graham (unreported, NSW SC, Young J, 17 July 1996) ........................................................... EA.128.120, EA.128.330, EA.128.540 HP Mercantile Pty Ltd v Clements [2014] NSWSC 213 .............. EA.168.60, EA.169.120 HP Mercantile Pty Ltd v Clements [2014] NSWSC 290 ............... EA.69.150, EA.69.180, EA.169.90, EA.169.120 Habib v Nationwide News Pty Ltd (2010) 76 NSWLR 299; [2010] NSWCA 34 ................................................................... EA.84.60, EA.84.90, EA.84.120 Habib v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 261 ......................................................... EA.110.60 Hadchiti v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 63 ....................................................... EA.141.90 Haddara v The Queen (2014) 43 VR 53; 241 A Crim R 93; [2014] VSCA 100 ................................... EA.11.90, EA.81.60, EA.90.300, EA.137.240, EA.Intro.120 Hadgkiss v Construction, Forestry, Mining & Energy Union (2006) 152 FCR 560; [2006] FCA 941 ............................................................................... EA.38.60 Hadid v Australis Media Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Sperling J, 5 November 1996) ....................................... EA.26.150, EA.32.60, EA.32.90, EA.39.120 Hadid v Australis Media Ltd [No 2] (unreported, NSW SC, Sperling J, 28 October 1996) ................................................................................................ EA.108.150 Hague v Commissioner of Corrective Services (2008) 216 FLR 271; [2008] NSWSC 253 ........................................................................................... EA.11.60 Haidari v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 126 ................................................... EA.Intro.350 Hakim v Waterways Authority (NSW) (2006) 149 LGERA 415; [2006] NSWCCA 376 ................................................................................................. EA.55.180 Hall v Nominal Defendant (1966) 117 CLR 423 .................................................. EA.75.90 Halverson v Dobler [2006] NSWSC 1307 .......................................................... EA.26.300 Hamberger (Employment Advocate) v Williamson and CFMEU (2000) 102 IR 297; [2000] FCA 1644 ............................................................................. EA.138.390 Hamilton v New South Wales [2016] NSWSC 1213 ................... EA.117.120, EA.122.360 Hamilton v Oades (1989) 166 CLR 486 ...................... EA.11.60, EA.128.90, EA.128.600 Hamilton-Smith v George [2006] FCA 1551 ................................... EA.26.270, EA.55.540 Hammond v Hammond [2010] NSWSC 331 ....................................................... EA.55.180 Hammoud Brothers Pty Ltd v Insurance Australia Ltd [2004] NSWCA 366 .................................................................................................................... EA.140.60 Hamod v New South Wales (No 10) [2008] NSWSC 611 .................................. EA.136.60 Hamod v Suncorp Metway Insurance Ltd [2006] NSWCA 243 ........................ EA.79.120 Hancock v East Coast Timber Products Pty Ltd (2011) 80 NSWLR 43; [2011] NSWCA 11 .......................................................................................... EA.79.240 Hancock v Rinehart [2013] NSWSC 1978 ........................................................ EA.122.150 Hancock v Rinehart [2016] NSWSC 12 .............................................................. EA.133.60 Hanna v The Queen [2014] VSCA 187 ............................................................. EA.101.360 Hannaford v Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NSW) [2013] NSWSC 1708 ................................................... EA.118.330, EA.122.330 Hannes v Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) (No 2) (2006) 165 A Crim R 151; 205 FLR 217; [2006] NSWCCA 373 ..... EA.8.60, EA.37.90, EA.37.180, EA.39.180, EA.55.180, EA.79.60, EA.79.180, EA.79.240, EA.137.120, EA.141.90, EA.141.120, EA.Intro.270 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xl

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Table of Cases

Hansen Beverage Co v Bickfords (Aust) Pty Ltd [2008] FCA 406 .................... EA.69.120 Haoui v The Queen (2008) 188 A Crim R 331; [2008] NSWCCA 209 ........... EA.79.300, EA.135.210, EA.137.60, EA.137.120 Harbours Corporation (Qld) v Vessey Chemicals Pty Ltd (1986) 12 FCR 60 .............................................................................................. EA.130.210, EA.130.300 Harcourts WA Pty Ltd v Roy Weston Nominees Pty Ltd (No 6) [2016] FCA 1492 ....................................................................................................... EA.131.510 Harden Shire Council v Curtis [2009] NSWCA 179 .................. EA.118.220, EA.119.180 Hargraves v The Queen (2011) 245 CLR 257; 218 A Crim R 123; [2011] HCA 44 ............................................................... EA.104.120, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Harriman v The Queen (1989) 167 CLR 590; 43 A Crim R 221; [1989] HCA 50 .................... EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.101.185, EA.101.195, EA.136.60 Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (2002) 121 FCR 82; [2002] FCA 934 ................................................................ EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.21.210, EA.26.150 Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (No 2) (2003) 130 FCR 424; [2003] FCA 893 ....... EA.55.60, EA.79.60, EA.79.240, EA.79.270, EA.136.180, EA.Intro.350 Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (No 7) (2003) 130 FCR 424; [2003] FCA 893 ........................................................................................................... EA.55.270 Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia (No 4) (2003) 197 ALR 131; [2003] FCA 17 .................................................. EA.67.90 Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia (No 7) [2003] FCA 893 ................................................................................. EA.136.180 Harrington-Smith on behalf of the Wongatha People v Western Australia (No 8) [2004] FCA 338 ............................................................... EA.67.90, EA.135.150 Harris v Bellemore [2009] NSWSC 1497 ........................................................ EA.108C.90 Harris v The Queen (2005) 158 A Crim R 454; [2005] NSWCCA 432 ........... EA.65.150 Harris v The Queen [2006] HCATrans 247 ........................................................ EA.65.150 Harris v The Queen (2015) 44 VR 652; [2015] VSCA 112 ............ EA.98.60, EA.98.120, EA.101.190 Harris/D-E Pty Ltd v McClelland’s Coffee & Tea Pty Ltd (1999) 149 FLR 204; [1999] NSWSC 36 .................................................................................. EA.194.20 Hart v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2003) 131 FCR 203; 53 ATR 371; [2003] FCAFC 105 ................................................................................... EA.46.60 Hart v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (No 2) [2016] FCA 897 .................. EA.79.180 Hartmann v Commissioner of Police (1997) 91 A Crim R 141 ........................ EA.128.90, EA.128.600 Hastie Group Ltd (in liq) v Moore [2016] NSWCA 305 ........... EA.118.540, EA.122.150, EA.122.300 Hatchet v U S 293 F 1012 (1923) ....................................................................... EA.79.120 Hatziandoniou v Ruddy [2015] NSWCA 234 ...................................................... EA.79.180 Hawker v The Queen [2012] VSCA 219 ............................................................. EA.38.150 Hawksford v Hawksford [2008] NSWSC 31 ....................................................... EA.117.90 Hazledine v Arthur J Gallagher & Co Ltd (No 3) [2017] FCA 1271 ................... EA.8.60 Healey v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 235 ................................................... EA.165B.270 Hearne v Street (2008) 82 ALJR 1259; 248 ALR 609; [2008] HCA 36 .... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Heaton v Luczka [1998] NSWCA 104 .................................................................. EA.46.60 Heaton v Luczka (unreported, NSW CA, Cole, Beazley, Stein JJA, 3 March 1998) .................................................................................................... EA.46.150 Henderson v Queensland (2014) 89 ALJR 162; [2014] HCA 52 ...................... EA.140.60 Hennessy v Broken Hill Pty Co Ltd (1926) 38 CLR 342 ................................. EA.129.180 Henschke & Co v Rosemount Estates Pty Ltd [1999] AIPC 91–530; [1999] FCA 1561 ......................................................................... EA.79.120, EA.79.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Hevi Lift (PNG) Ltd v Etherington (2005) 2 DDCR 271; [2005] NSWCA 42 .................................................................................................. EA.79.240, EA.144.60 Heyward v Bishop [2015] ACTCA 58 ............................................................... EA.138.150 Hickey v The Queen (2002) 136 A Crim R 150; [2002] WASCA 321 ............ EA.101.240 Higgins v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 56 ....................................... EA.84.60, EA.90.270 Higgins v The Queen [2016] VSCA 47 ............................................................. EA.101.150 Hill v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 136 ........................................................... EA.165.480 Hinton by his Tutor Leslie Melba Hinton v Valiotis (unreported, NSW SC, Sperling J, 7 March 1997) .............................................................................. EA.32.180 Ho v Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) (1998) 102 A Crim R 37 ............ EA.138.120 Ho v Powell (2001) 51 NSWLR 572; [2001] NSWCA 168 ............................ EA.140.120 Hoch v The Queen (1988) 165 CLR 292; 35 A Crim R 47; [1988] HCA 50 ........ EA.98.120, EA.101.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.101.210, EA.101.240, EA.101.300, EA.110.90 Hodgson v Amcor Ltd [2011] VSC 272 ................................................................ EA.76.90 Hodgson v Amcor Ltd (2012) 264 FLR 1; [2012] VSC 94 ............ EA.57.210, EA.87.180 Hoefler v Tomlinson (1995) 60 FCR 452 ............................................................ EA.131.60 Holloway v Commonwealth (2016) 50 VR 417; [2016] VSC 317 .................. EA.130.360, EA.130.390 Honeysett v The Queen (2014) 253 CLR 122; 237 A Crim R 589; [2014] HCA 29 ................................................... EA.76.90, EA.79.120, EA.79.150, EA.79.180 Hong Kong Bank of Australia Ltd v Murphy (1992) 28 NSWLR 512 ............ EA.131.300 Hoogwerf v The Queen (1992) 63 A Crim R 302 ............................................... EA.80.150 Hothnyang v The Queen [2014] VSCA 64 ........................................................ EA.101.150 Housden v Boral Australian Gypsum Ltd [2015] VSCA 162 ............................. EA.46.150 House v The King (1936) 55 CLR 499; [1936] HCA 40 ............... EA.65.240, EA.90.360, EA.97.480, EA.98.450, EA.101.450, EA.130.420, EA.135.300, EA.136.300, EA.137.210, EA.138.720 Howell v Macquarie University [2008] NSWCA 26 .......................................... EA.55.180 Howship Holdings Pty Ltd v Leslie (No 2) (1996) 41 NSWLR 542 ................. EA.160.60 Hoy Mobile Pty Ltd v Allphones Retail Pty Ltd (2008) 167 FCR 314; [2008] FCA 369 .......... EA.Dict.Pt.1.150, EA.59.120, EA.81.60, EA.81.120, EA.87.90 Hua Wang Bank Berhad v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (No 15) (2013) 217 FCR 26; [2013] FCA 1124 ..... EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1Div.1.60, EA.52.30, EA.128.330 Hudson v The Queen [2017] VSCA 122 ................ EA.165.240, EA.165.450, EA.165.570 Hudspeth v Scholastic Cleaning and Consultancy Services Pty Ltd (Ruling No 8) [2014] VSC 567 .................................................................................... EA.79.330 Huges v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 238 A Crim R 345; [2013] VSCA 338 ........................................................................ EA.110.90, EA.112.60 Hughes v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 330 ............... EA.41.300, EA.97.60, EA.101.240, EA.101.450 Hughes v The Queen (2017) 92 ALJR 52; [2017] HCA 20 .............. EA.55.90, EA.97.60, EA.97.120, EA.97.150, EA.97.180, EA.97.480, EA.101.190, EA.101.195, EA.101.360 Hughes v The Queen [2017] HCA 40 .................................................................. EA.97.120 Hughes Aircraft Systems International v Airservices Australia (No 3) (1997) 76 FCR 151 ....................................................................................... EA.135.180 Hughes Aircraft Systems International v Airservices Australia (No 3) (1997) 80 FCR 276 .......................................................................... EA.76.90, EA.77.60 Hull v Thompson [2001] NSWCA 359 ................................................................ EA.46.150 Humphreys v Humphreys [2016] VSC 637 .............. EA.131.60, EA.131.150, EA.131.540 Humphries v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 319 ............................................... EA.141.120 Hunt v The Queen [2017] VSCA 196 .................................................................. EA.98.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xlii

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Huon Aquaculture Group Ltd v Secretary, Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment [2017] FCA 1615 ....................... EA.136.60 Huy Vinh Quach v The Queen (2011) 35 VR 71; [2011] VSCA 390 ................ EA.55.180

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I IBM Global Services Australia Ltd, Re (2005) 144 IR 389; [2005] FCAFC 66 ........................................................................................................................ EA.52.30 ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd v WorkCover Authority (NSW) (2004) 60 NSWLR 18; [2004] NSWCA 55 .................................................................... EA.144.60 IMM v The Queen (2016) 257 CLR 300; 90 ALJR 529; [2016] HCA 14 .... EA.Intro.270, EA.55.60, EA.56.60, EA.66.60, EA.66.180, EA.79.300, EA.97.120, EA.97.480, EA.98.120, EA.101.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.185, EA.101.240, EA.102.100, EA.114.240, EA.137.90 ING Bank (Australia) Ltd v O’Shea [2010] NSW ConvR 56–259; [2010] NSWCA 71 ........................................................................................................ EA.54.60 IOOF Holdings Ltd v Maurice Blackburn Pty Ltd [2016] VSC 311 .............. EA.118.330, EA.118.360, EA.118.390, EA.118.480, EA.118.540, EA.118.570 ISJ v The Queen (2012) 38 VR 23; 226 A Crim R 484; [2012] VSCA 321 ..... EA.66.180 Ibrahim v Pham [2004] NSWSC 650 .................................................................. EA.97.120 Ibrahim v Pham [2007] NSWCA 215 .............................................. EA.97.120, EA.97.480 Idameneo (No 123) Pty Ltd v Robalino [2009] NSWSC 969 ............................ EA.79.300 Idoport Pty Ltd v National Australia Bank Ltd [1999] NSWSC 828 ................ EA.79.180 Idoport Pty Ltd v National Australia Bank Ltd (2000) 50 NSWLR 640; [2000] NSWSC 1077 ............................................. EA.79.480, EA.80.90, EA.Intro.120 Idoport Pty Ltd v National Australia Bank Ltd [2001] NSWSC 123 ............... EA.79.150, EA.79.180, EA.79.240 Idoport Pty Ltd v National Australia Bank Ltd [2001] NSWSC 222 ............... EA.75.120, EA.118.360, EA.125.90, EA.125.120, EA.135.150 Idoport Pty Ltd, Re [2012] NSWSC 524 ............................................................... EA.60.60 Idoport Pty Ltd (In Liq) (Recs Apptd), Re [2012] NSWSC 58 ........................ EA.122.150 Idylic Solutions Pty Ltd, Re [2012] NSWSC 568 ................................................. EA.50.30 Ilioski v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 164 .............. EA.114.180, EA.116.90, EA.165.480 Immigration & Multicultural Affairs, Minister for v Baker (1997) 73 FCR 187; 153 ALR 463 ............................................................................................. EA.48.60 Immigration & Multicultural Affairs, Minister for v Eshetu (1999) 197 CLR 611; [1999] HCA 21 ............................................................................... EA.97.480 Immigration & Multicultural Affairs, Minister for v Singh (2000) 98 FCR 77; 171 ALR 53; [2000] FCA 377 ................................................................. EA.160.60 Imnetu v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 203 .................................. EA.110.60, EA.141.120 Industrial Equity Ltd v Deputy Commissioner of Taxation (1990) 171 CLR 207; 65 ALJR 1 .................................................................................... EA.165.480 Ingot Capital Investments Pty Ltd v Macquarie Equity Capital Markets Ltd [2004] NSWSC 1084 .............................................................................. EA.122.180 Ingot Capital Investments Pty Ltd v Macquarie Equity Capital Markets Ltd [2004] NSWSC 40 ............................................................ EA.119.120, EA.122.330 Ingot Capital Investments Pty Ltd v Macquarie Equity Capital Markets Ltd [No 4] [2006] NSWSC 90 .................................... EA.87.60, EA.87.90, EA.135.90 Insurance Australia Ltd v Checchia (2011) 80 NSWLR 1; [2011] NSWCA 101 ............................................................................ EA.135.210, EA.135.300 Insurance Australia Ltd (t/as NRMA Insurance) v Asaner [2016] NSWSC 614 .................................................................................................................... EA.81.210 Insurance Commissioner v Joyce (1948) 77 CLR 39 ......................................... EA.55.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Interchase Corp Ltd, Re (1996) 68 FCR 481 ........................................................ EA.4.150 Interlego AG v Croner Trading Pty Ltd (1991) 102 ALR 379 ........................... EA.79.120 International FinanceTrust Co Ltd v NSW Crime Commission [2008] NSWCA 291 ...................................................................................................... EA.9.180 Inverness Medical Switzerland GmbH v MDS Diagnostics Pty Ltd (2010) 85 IPR 525; [2010] FCA 108 ......................................................................... EA.69.240 Investa Properties Pty Ltd v Nankervis (No 6) [2014] FCA 804 ..... EA.26.150, EA.29.90 Irani v The Queen (2008) 188 A Crim R 125; [2008] NSWCCA 217 .............. EA.79.150 Isherwood v Tasmania (2010) 20 Tas R 375; [2010] TASCCA 11 ..................... EA.29.90, EA.32.90, EA.165.480 Iskandar v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 256 ................................................... EA.141.150 Italiano v Western Australia [2012] WASCA 260 .............................................. EA.46.120 Ith v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 70 ........................................ EA.101A.120, EA.110.60 Ivanoff v The Queen [2015] VSCA 116 ............................................................. EA.101.150

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J J v D (2006) 36 Fam LR 206; [2006] FamCA 729 .................... EA.128.150, EA.128.780 JA Westaway & Son Pty Ltd v Registrar General (1996) 7 BPR 14773 ........... EA.38.150 JB v The Queen (2012) 83 NSWLR 153; [2012] NSWCCA 12 ........................ EA.90.270 JC, Re [2010] ACTSC 134 ................................................................................... EA.37.270 JCS v Tasmania [2014] TASCCA 6 ................................................................... EA.165.450 JCS v The Queen (2006) 164 A Crim R 1; [2006] NSWCCA 221 ................... EA.43.180, EA.141.120 JD v Director-General of Department of Youth & Community Services [1998] NSWSC 353 ........................................................................................ EA.26.150 JD v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 274 ............................................................ EA.108.150 JDK v The Queen (2009) 194 A Crim R 333; [2009] NSWCCA 76 ............... EA.101.360 JJB v The Queen (2006) 161 A Crim R 187; [2006] NSWCCA 126 .......... EA.165B.210, EA.165B.270, EA.165.450 JLS v The Queen (2010) 28 VR 328; 204 A Crim R 179; [2010] VSCA 209 .............................................................................................. EA.97.120, EA.101.190 JP Morgan Australia Ltd v Consolidated Minerals Pty Ltd [2011] NSWCA 3 ........................................................................................................ EA.55.180 JRD Ghalloub Pty Ltd v Eltobbagi [2013] NSWSC 56 ................................ EA.128A.120 JWM v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 248 ............................................... NSW.CPA.300.30 Jacara Pty Ltd v Auto-Bake Pty Ltd [1999] FCA 417 .................... EA.55.390, EA.97.450 Jacara Pty Ltd v Perpetual Trustees WA Ltd (2000) 106 FCR 51; [2000] FCA 1886 ............................ EA.97.60, EA.97.120, EA.97.240, EA.97.480, EA.103.60 Jackson v Lithgow City Council [2008] NSWCA 312 ........................................ EA.140.60 Jackson v Macek (2015) 296 FLR 219; [2015] FamCAFC 114 ........................ EA.144.60 Jackson v TCN Channel 9 Pty Ltd [2002] NSWSC 1229 .................................. EA.87.150 Jackson v The Queen [2005] NSWCCA 411 ................................................... EA.Intro.350 Jadwan Pty Ltd v Rae & Partners (A Firm) (No 3) [2017] FCA 1045 ............ EA.69.120, EA.77.60 Jaffarie v Director General of Security (2014) 226 FCR 505; [2014] FCAFC 102 ........................................................ EA.130.210, EA.130.360, EA.130.390 Jago v District Court (NSW) (1989) 168 CLR 23 ................................................ EA.11.90 Jamal v The Queen (2012) 223 A Crim R 585; [2012] NSWCCA 198 ............ EA.53.120 James v Launceston City Council (2004) 13 Tas R 89; [2004] TASSC 69 ........ EA.77.60, EA.136.60 James Hardie Industries NV v Australian Securities & Investments Commission [2009] NSWCA 18 ............................ EA.46.60, EA.135.120, EA.135.300 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xliv

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Table of Cases

Jango v Northern Territory (No 2) [2004] FCA 1004 ........................................ EA.79.240 Jango v Northern Territory (No 4) [2004] FCA 1539 ..................... EA.60.120, EA.80.90, EA.136.180 Jardein Pty Ltd v Stathakis [2007] FCAFC 148 ................................................... EA.46.60 Jarrett v The Queen (2014) 86 NSWLR 623; [2014] NSWCCA 140 .......... EA.165B.180, EA.165B.210, EA.165B.240, EA.165.540 Jarvis v Pike (2013) 50 Fam LR 593; [2013] FamCAFC 196 ........................ EA.128.120, EA.128.360 Jenkins v Repatriation Commission (1996) 41 ALD 540; 137 ALR 729 .......... EA.144.60 Jenkins v The Queen (2004) 79 ALJR 252; [2004] HCA 57 ..... EA.165.240, EA.165.360, EA.165.480 Jess & Jess [2015] FamCA 822 ........................................................................... EA.124.60 Jiang v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 277 ................................... EA.101.150, EA.101.360 John Fairfax & Sons Ltd v Cojuangco (1988) 165 CLR 346 .......................... EA.130.120 John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd v Abernethy [1999] NSWSC 826 ............. EA.125.120, EA.125.210 Johnson v Page [2007] FLC 93-344; [2007] FamCA 1235 ............................... EA.140.60 Johnson v Western Australia (2008) 186 A Crim R 531; [2008] WASCA 164 .................................................................................................................. EA.141.150 Johnston v Brightstars Holding Company Pty Ltd [2014] NSWCA 150 ............ EA.46.60, EA.81.210 Johnston v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 133 ..................................................... EA.20.180 Johnston v Western Australia [2012] WASCA 148 ............................................. EA.46.150 Johnstone v New South Wales (2010) 202 A Crim R 422; [2010] NSWCA 70 ................................................................................................ EA.56.60, EA.Intro.340 Johnstone v The Queen (2011) 31 VR 320; [2011] VSCA 60 ......................... EA.165.480 Jones v Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (2010) 189 FCR 390; [2010] FCAFC 136 ........................................................................ EA.55.180 Jones v Dunkel (1959) 101 CLR 298; 32 ALJR 395; 76 WN (NSW) 278; [1959] ALR 367 ..................................................... EA.46.60, EA.55.180, EA.Intro.120 Jones v Sutherland Shire Council [1979] 2 NSWLR 206 .................................. EA.81.180 Jones v The Queen (1989) 41 A Crim R 1 ........................................................ EA.114.330 Jones v The Queen (1997) 71 ALJR 538; [1997] HCA 12 ......... EA.165.450, EA.165.540 Jones v The Queen [2005] NSWCCA 443 ............................................................ EA.89.90 Jones v The Queen (2014) 246 A Crim R 425; [2014] NSWCCA 280 ........... EA.101.240 Jones v Toben (2002) 71 ALD 629; [2002] FCA 1150 ....................................... EA.144.60 Jones Lang LaSalle (NSW) Pty Ltd v Taouk [2012] NSWCA 342 ................... EA.55.600, EA.56.120, EA.56.210, EA.58.60 Jung v Son [1998] NSWSC 698 ............................................................................ EA.84.60 Jurj v The Queen [2016] VSCA 57 ................................................................ EA.165B.270

K K v The Queen (1997) 22 Fam LR 592 .............................................................. EA.140.60 K v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 157 ..................................... EA.46.120, EA.46.150 K-Generation Pty Ltd v Liquor Licensing Court (2009) 237 CLR 501; 192 A Crim R 501; [2009] HCA 4 ...................................................................... EA.130.300 KC v Shiley Inc (unreported, FCA, Tamberlin J, 11 July 1997) ..................... EA.121.150, EA.131.450, EA.131.480, EA.131.510 KC v The Queen (2011) 32 VR 61; 207 A Crim R 241; [2011] VSCA 82 ....... EA.46.120 KH v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 294 ............................................ EA.38.60, EA.38.150 KJM v The Queen (No 2) [2011] VSCA 268 ................................ EA.97.480, EA.101.450 KJR v The Queen (2007) 173 A Crim R 226; [2007] NSWCCA 165 ............. EA.101.360 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

KJS v The Queen (2014) 86 NSWLR 603; [2014] NSWCCA 27 .................... EA.101.150 KMB v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 212 ................................................. EA.141.120 KNP v The Queen (2006) 67 NSWLR 227; [2006] NSWCCA 213 ............... EA.108.120, EA.165.210 KRM v The Queen (2001) 206 CLR 221; 118 A Crim R 262; [2001] HCA 11 ................................................. EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.165.480, EA.Intro.340 KS v Veitch (No 2) (2012) 84 NSWLR 172; 229 A Crim R 46; [2012] NSWCCA 266 ........... NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.90, NSW.CPA.299D.150, NSW.CPA.299D.210, NSW.CPA.299D.300, NSW.CPA.299D.330, NSW.CPA.296.30, NSW.CPA.298.30 KSC v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 179 .......................................................... EA.101.150 KTR v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 271 ................................. EA.101A.120, EA.101.150 Ka Chung Fung v The Queen (2007) 174 A Crim R 169; [2007] NSWCCA 250 ................................................................................................. EA.110.60 Kaifoto v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 186 ............................... EA.101.150, EA.165.480 Kalbasi v Western Australia (2013) 235 A Crim R 541; [2013] WASCA 241 .................................................................................................................. EA.165.480 Kamasaee v Commonwealth (No 2) [2016] VSC 404 ...................................... EA.118.220 Kamasaee v Commonwealth (No 3) [2016] VSC 438 ...................................... EA.130.390 Kamasaee v Commonwealth (No 4) [2016] VSC 492 ................. EA.130.180, EA.130.390 Kamleh v The Queen (2005) 79 ALJR 541; [2005] HCA 2 ............................... EA.59.180 Kanaan v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 109 .............. EA.38.60, EA.116.90, EA.165.210, EA.165.360, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Kang v Kwan [2001] NSWSC 697 .................................................................... EA.119.180 Kang v Kwan [2001] NSWSC 698 ...... EA.118.240, EA.118.360, EA.122.90, EA.125.90, EA.125.120, EA.125.180, EA.125.210 Kang v Kwan (2002) 11 BPR 20623; [2002] NSWSC 1187 .............................. EA.69.240 Kang-Kem v Paine [2003] NSWSC 916 ...................................... EA.128.480, EA.128.540 Kanthal Australia Pty Ltd v Ministry for Industry Technology & Commerce (1987) 14 FCR 90 ....................................................................... EA.130.300 Kantor v Vosahlo [2004] VSCA 235 ................................................................... EA.140.60 Kapanadze v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 69 ................................................. EA.101.150 Kaperonis v Government Insurance Offıce (NSW) (unreported, NSW SC, Badgery-Parker J, 2 February 1996) ................................................................. EA.67.90 Karam v The Queen [2015] VSCA 50 ........................ EA.62.60, EA.137.60, EA.137.210, EA.Intro.120 Karmas v New South Wales Land & Housing Corp [1999] NSWSC 157 ....... EA.129.180 Karpany v The Queen (1986) 161 CLR 315 ..................................................... EA.165.480 Kaye v Woods (No 2) [2016] ACTSC 87 ....................................... EA.125.90, EA.125.180 Keane v Caravan City Cowra Pty Ltd [2006] NSWSC 942 .............................. EA.69.240 Keller v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 204 ................. EA.79.120, EA.79.240, EA.79.300, EA.79.480, EA.80.90, EA.165.450 Kelly v The Queen (2002) 129 A Crim R 363; [2002] WASCA 134 .............. EA.114.240, EA.116.90 Kelly v The Queen (2004) 218 CLR 216; 78 ALJR 538; [2004] HCA 12 ....... EA.84.150, EA.85.150, EA.139.60, EA.165.420, EA.Intro.180 Kelly v Western Australia [2017] WASCA 221 ................................................. EA.138.120 Kennedy v Wallace (2004) 142 FCR 185; [2004] FCAFC 337 ..... EA.46.60, EA.118.360, EA.118.540, EA.118.570 Kennedy v Wallace (2004) 208 ALR 424; [2004] FCA 332 ................................. EA.75.90 Kent v Wotton & Byrne Pty Ltd (2006) 15 Tas R 264; [2006] TASSC 8 .......... EA.144.60 Khamis v The Queen (2010) 203 A Crim R 121; [2010] NSWCCA 179 ........... EA.46.60, EA.46.120, EA.46.150, EA.46.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xlvi

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Table of Cases

Kheir v The Queen (2014) 43 VR 308; 244 A Crim R 231; [2014] VSCA 200 ............................................................................ EA.78.60, EA.79.150, EA.137.120 Kilby v The Queen (1973) 129 CLR 460; 47 ALJR 369; [1973] HCA 30 ..... EA.165.450, EA.165.540, EA.165.570 Kimberly-Clark Worldwide Inc v Goulimis (2008) 253 ALR 76; [2008] FCA 1415 ......................................................................... EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.21.210 King v Collins [2007] NSWCA 122 .................................................................... EA.55.180 King v The Queen (1986) 15 FCR 427 ................................................................. EA.89.90 King v The Queen (1986) 161 CLR 423 ........................................................... EA.101.150 Kingham v Sutton (No 3) [2001] FCA 1117 .......................................................... EA.48.60 Kirby v Centro Properties Ltd (No 3) [2012] FCA 221 ..................................... EA.136.60 Kirby v Centro Properties Ltd (No 4) [2012] FCA 323 ..................................... EA.136.60 Kirch Communications Pty Ltd v Gee Engineering Pty Ltd [2002] NSWSC 485 .................................................................................................... EA.79.300 Kirk v Industrial Court of New South Wales (2010) 239 CLR 531; 190 IR 437; [2010] HCA 1 .......................................................................... EA.17.60, EA.42.60 Kirk v Industrial Relations Commission of NSW [2009] HCATrans 93 ............... EA.17.60 Kirk Pty Ltd v Ampol Petroleum Ltd [1998] NSWSC 1 ....................................... EA.87.90 Klein v Bryant [1998] ACTSC 89 ........................................................................ EA.138.60 Klewer v Walton [2003] NSWCA 308 ............................. EA.38.60, EA.43.90, EA.136.60 Knight v Maclean [2002] NSWCA 314 ............................................. EA.46.60, EA.46.150 Knight v The Queen (1992) 66 ALJR 860 ........................................................ EA.141.120 Knowles v The Queen [2015] VSCA 141 ................. EA.37.270, EA.138.120, EA.165.450 Kong v Kang [2014] VSC 28 ................................. EA.131.150, EA.131.270, EA.131.390 Konia v Morley [1976] 1 NZLR 455 ................................................................. EA.118.390 Konigsberg, Re [1989] 3 All ER 289 ................................................................ EA.122.360 Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV v Remington Products Australia Pty Ltd (2000) 100 FCR 90; [2000] FCA 876 ................................................... EA.135.210 Korean Air Lines v Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (No 3) (2008) 247 ALR 781; [2008] FCA 701 ........ EA.131.150, EA.131.270, EA.131.480 Korgbara v The Queen (2007) 71 NSWLR 187; 170 A Crim R 568; [2007] NSWCCA 84 .................................................................. EA.137.60, EA.165.450 Kosciusko Thredbo Pty Ltd v New South Wales [2002] NSWSC 329 ............ EA.131.390, EA.131.480 Kosian v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 40 VR 335; 237 A Crim R 156; [2013] VSCA 357 ............................................................................... EA.79.480 Kotvas v The Queen [2010] VSCA 309 ............................................................ EA.141.120 Koushappis v Western Australia (2007) 168 A Crim R 51; [2007] WASCA 26 .................................................................................................................... EA.141.150 Kozul v The Queen (1981) 147 CLR 221 ............................................................ EA.53.180 Kraus v Menzie [2012] FCAFC 144 ...................................................................... EA.46.60 Ku-ring-gai Council v West [2017] NSWCA 54 ....................... EA.131A.180, EA.130.60, EA.130.240, EA.130.420, EA.Intro.270 Kuhl v Zurich Financial Services Australia Ltd (2011) 243 CLR 361; [2011] HCA 11 ....................................... EA.46.60, EA.55.180, EA.81.60, EA.140.120 Kuligowski v Metrobus (2004) 220 CLR 363; [2004] HCA 34 ......................... EA.140.60 Kumho Tire Co v Carmichael 526 US 137 (1999) ............................................. EA.79.120 Kutschera v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 150 ....... EA.165.90, EA.165.240, EA.165.360 Kwan v Kang [2003] NSWCA 336 ............................ EA.56.120, EA.56.210, EA.125.180 Kyluk Pty Ltd v Chief Executive, Offıce of Environment and Heritage (2013) 298 ALR 532; [2013] NSWCCA 114 ......... EA.79.240, EA.79.300, EA.79.330 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

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L L v Tasmania (2006) 15 Tas R 381; [2006] TASSC 59 ................. EA.97.480, EA.98.450, EA.101.450 LAB v The Queen (2006) 162 A Crim R 517; [2006] NSWCCA 202 ............. EA.165.210 L’Estrange v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 89; (2011) 214 A Crim R 9 ......... EA.41.300, EA.101.150 LGM v CAM (2006) 200 FLR 360; [2006] FamCA 435 .................................... EA.20.180 LGM v CAM [2008] FamCA 185 ........................................................................ EA.26.150 LGM v CAM (2011) 46 Fam LR 118; [2011] FamCAFC 195 ........................ EA.128.420, EA.128.780, EA.132.60, EA.138.120, EA.138.150, EA.138.600 LJW v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 114 .......................................................... EA.101.150 LMD v The Queen [2012] VSCA 164 ................................................................. EA.66.180 LMI Australasia Pty Ltd v Baulderstone Hornibrook Pty Ltd (2001) 53 NSWLR 31; [2001] NSWSC 688 ......... EA.21.210, EA.26.270, EA.29.90, EA.29.120, EA.29.150, EA.55.540 LS v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) (2011) 81 NSWLR 551; [2011] NSWSC 1016 ......................................................................................... EA.19.30 La Trobe Capital & Mortgage Corp Ltd v Hay Property Consultants Pty Ltd (2011) 190 FCR 299; 273 ALR 774; [2011] FCAFC 4 ..... EA.76.90, EA.135.150, EA.135.180, EA.135.300 Lactalis Jindi Pty Ltd v Jindi Cheese Pty Ltd [2013] VSC 475 ...................... EA.122.270 Ladd v The Queen (2009) 27 NTLR 1; [2009] NTCCA 6 ................................. EA.141.90 Lakatoi v Walker [1999] NSWSC 1088 ............................................................... EA.26.150 Lakatoi v Walker [1999] NSWSC 156 ............................................................... EA.122.300 Lambert Leasing Inc v QBE Insurance Australia Ltd [2012] NSWSC 953 .... EA.192A.60 Lamers v Lamers [2017] VSC 760 .................................................................... EA.122.150 Lancaster v The Queen (2014) 44 VR 820; 247 A Crim R 165; [2014] VSCA 333 ....... EA.69.90, EA.69.120, EA.69.180, EA.69.210, EA.76.120, EA.79.120 Landini v New South Wales [2007] NSWSC 259 ............................................... EA.87.120 Lane v Jurd (No 2) (1995) 40 NSWLR 708 ......................................................... EA.11.60 Lane v The Queen (1996) 66 FCR 144 ....................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Lane v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 317; [2013] NSWCCA 317 ..................... EA.38.60, EA.38.210 Lane v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 46 ............................................................. EA.141.90 Lane Cove Council v Geebung Polo Club Pty Ltd (No 2) (2002) 167 FLR 175; 41 ACSR 15; [2002] NSWSC 118 ......................................................... EA.160.60 Langbein v The Queen (2008) 181 A Crim R 378; [2008] NSWCCA 38 ........ EA.66.180, EA.108.150, EA.165.480 Langford v Tasmania [2018] TASCCA 1 .................... EA.55.270, EA.79.240, EA.79.300, EA.136.60, EA.136.180, EA.137.150 Lardil Peoples v State of Queensland [2000] FCA 1548 ................. EA.60.60, EA.79.270, EA.135.150, EA.136.180 Larrakia People, The v Northern Territory [2003] FCA 1175 ........................... EA.136.60 Latorre v The Queen (2012) 226 A Crim R 319; [2012] VSCA 280 ............... EA.43.210, EA.137.60, EA.165.450 Lau v The Queen (1991) 6 WAR 30; 58 A Crim R 390 ..................................... EA.13.210 Lawcover Pty Ltd v Commissioner of Police (NSW) (unreported, NSW SC, Hodgson J, 28 November 1997) .................. EA.125.210, EA.131.60, EA.131.570 Lazaris v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 163 ................................................... EA.Intro.350 Lazenby v Zammit [1987] Tas R 54 ................................................................... EA.119.120 Le v McElwee [2008] ACTSC 55 ........................................................................ EA.143.60 Leahy v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (1980) 11 ATR 145 ..................... EA.119.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xlviii

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Table of Cases

Lederberger v Mediterranean Olives Financial Pty Ltd (2012) 38 VR 509; [2012] VSCA 262 ............................................................................................ EA.46.150 Lee v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural & Indigenous Affairs [2002] FCAFC 305 ............................................................................................ EA.58.60 Lee v NSW Crime Commission (2013) 251 CLR 196; 87 ALJR 1082; [2013] HCA 39 .............................................................................................. EA.128.540 Lee v The Queen (1998) 195 CLR 594; [1998] HCA 60 ................ EA.59.90, EA.59.120, EA.60.60, EA.60.90, EA.81.60, EA.Intro.180 Lee v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 259 ........................ EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.38.330 Lee v The Queen (2013) 232 A Crim R 337; [2013] NSWCCA 68 ................ EA.165.480 Lee v The Queen (2014) 253 CLR 455; 237 A Crim R 436; 88 ALJR 656; [2014] HCA 20 .............................................................................................. EA.128.540 Lee, Re (2009) 212 A Crim R 442; [2009] ACTSC 98 .............. EA.138.150, EA.138.540 Lefroy v The Queen (2004) 150 A Crim R 82; [2004] WASCA 266 ............... EA.165.480 Leghaei v Director-General of Security (2007) 97 ALD 516; 241 ALR 741; [2007] FCAFC 37 ................................................................................. EA.130.210 Leighton Contractors Pty Ltd v Kilpatrick Green Pty Ltd [1992] 2 VR 505 ................................................................................................................ EA.Intro.300 Leonard v The Queen (2006) 67 NSWLR 545; 164 A Crim R 374; [2006] NSWCCA 267 ............................................................................................... EA.101.150 Lester v The Queen [2011] HCATrans 126 ........................................................... EA.89.90 Lets Go Adventures Pty Ltd v Barrett [2017] NSWCA 243 ........... EA.41.150, EA.41.300 Leung v The Queen (2003) 144 A Crim R 441; [2003] NSWCCA 51 ........... EA.108.120, EA.108.150, EA.108.180 Leveraged Equities Ltd v Goodridge (2011) 191 FCR 71; 274 ALR 655; [2011] FCAFC 3 .............................................................................................. EA.160.60 Lewincamp v ACP Magazines Ltd [2008] ACTSC 69 ........................................ EA.69.240 Lewis v Lamb [2011] NSWSC 873 .................................................................... EA.131.330 Lewis v Nortex Pty Ltd (in liq) [2002] NSWSC 1083 ...................... EA.69.60, EA.69.240 Lewis v Nortex Pty Ltd (in liq) [2002] NSWSC 1245 ...................................... EA.131.330 Lewis v Nortex Pty Ltd (in liq) [2002] NSWSC 337 .... EA.48.90, EA.48.270, EA.48.360 Lewis v The Queen [2018] VSCA 40 .................................................................. EA.65.150 Lewis Securities Ltd (in liq) v Carter [2017] NSWSC 412 .............................. EA.128.420 Lexcray Pty Ltd v Northern Territory (2015) 292 FLR 447; [2015] NTSC 11 ............................. EA.131.150, EA.131.390, EA.131.480, EA.131.510, EA.131.540 Leybourne v Permanent Custodians Ltd [2010] NSWCA 78 ........................... EA.135.150 Li v The Queen (2003) 139 A Crim R 281; [2003] NSWCCA 290 .................. EA.79.150, EA.79.300, EA.114.240, EA.114.330, EA.165.450 Liberato v The Queen (1985) 159 CLR 507 ..................................................... EA.141.150 Liberty Funding Pty Ltd v Phoenix Capital Ltd (2005) 218 ALR 283; [2005] FCAFC 3 ............................................................................................ EA.122.330 Libke v The Queen (2007) 230 CLR 559; 81 ALJR 1309; [2007] HCA 30 ...... EA.41.300 Liesfield v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd [2014] VSC 348 .......................................... EA.118.390 Lillicrap v Nalder & Son [1993] 1 All ER 724; [1993] 1 WLR 94 ................ EA.122.150 Lin v Tasmania [2012] TASCCA 9 ........ EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30, EA.69.180, EA.167.30, EA.167.60, EA.169.60, EA.169.90 Lin v Tasmania (2015) 252 A Crim R 64; [2015] TASCCA 13 ...................... EA.141.120, EA.169.60 Lin v The Queen [2018] VSCA 100 .................................................................. EA.101.150 Lindsay-Owen v Lake [2000] NSWSC 1046 .................. EA.28.120, EA.32.330, EA.34.60 Linfox Transport (Aust) Pty Ltd v Arthur Yates & Co Ltd (2003) 21 ACLC 592; [2003] NSWSC 281 ................................................................................ EA.69.600 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Lithgow City Council v Jackson (2011) 244 CLR 352; 85 ALJR 1130; [2011] HCA 36 ..... EA.55.60, EA.56.60, EA.56.90, EA.62.60, EA.69.170, EA.69.180, EA.69.210, EA.69.540, EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.78.60, EA.Intro.120 Liu v Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd (2012) 84 NSWLR 547; [2012] NSWSC 1352 ............................... EA.131.120, EA.131.150, EA.131.360, EA.131.540 Liu v Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd (2012) 91 ACSR 158; [2012] NSWSC 900 .................................................... EA.131A.180, EA.131.360, EA.131.540 Liu v The Age Co [2010] NSWSC 1176 .............................................. EA.75.60, EA.75.90 Llewellyn v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 66 ............... EA.46.60, EA.46.120, EA.46.150, EA.165.480 Lo Presti v The Queen (1994) 68 ALJR 477 ...................................................... EA.27.150 Lockwood v Police (2010) 107 SASR 237; [2010] SASC 120 .......................... EA.27.120 Longhurst v Hunt (2004) 42 MVR 267; [2004] NSWCA 91 ........................... EA.135.150 Longman v The Queen (1989) 168 CLR 79; [1989] HCA 60 ...................... EA.165B.270, EA.164.90, EA.165.330, EA.165.360, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Lopes v Taylor (1970) 44 ALJR 412 ................................................................... EA.81.240 Lord Buddha Pty Ltd v Harpur (2013) 41 VR 159; [2013] VSCA 101 ............ EA.46.150 Louizos v The Queen (2009) 194 A Crim R 223; [2009] NSWCCA 71 ............ EA.55.180 Love v Roads Corp (2014) 200 LGERA 76; [2014] VSCA 30 ............................ EA.76.90 Lowe v Lang [2000] NSWSC 309 ......................................................................... EA.34.60 Lowe v The Queen [2015] VSCA 327 ............................................. EA.20.180, EA.20.420 Lucire v Health Care Complaints Commission [2011] NSWCA 99 .................. EA.55.180 Luna v The Queen [2016] VSCA 10 .............................................. EA.65.270, EA.137.120 Lustre Hosiery Ltd v York (1935) 54 CLR 134; [1935] HCA 71 ....................... EA.81.120 Luxton v Vines (1952) 85 CLR 352 ..................................................................... EA.140.60 Lym International Pty Ltd v Marcolongo (2011) 15 BPR 29465; [2011] NSWCA 303 ...................... EA.55.180, EA.55.510, EA.56.60, EA.83.60, EA.Intro.350 Lyndon v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 112 ..................................................... EA.101.360 Lysle v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 20 ............................................................. EA.46.150

M M v Ryan (1997) 143 DLR (4th) 1 ..................................................... NSW.CPA.299D.150 MA v The Queen (2011) 31 VR 203; [2011] VSCA 13 .................................... EA.114.240 MA v The Queen (2013) 40 VR 564; 226 A Crim R 575; [2013] VSCA 20 .... EA.55.150, EA.79.120, EA.79.450, EA.103.60, EA.137.60 MAH v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 226 ................. EA.38.120, EA.38.150, EA.141.120 MAJW v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 255 ...................................................... EA.104.120 MGICA (1992) Ltd v Kenny & Good Pty Ltd (No 2) (1996) 61 FCR 236 ..... EA.122.390 MIH v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 199 ............................................................ EA.90.360 MK v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 274 ......................................... EA.13.210, EA.13.300 ML Ubase Holdings Co Ltd v Trigem Computer Inc (2007) 69 NSWLR 577; [2007] NSWSC 859 ................................................................................ EA.126.60 MM v The Queen (2012) 232 A Crim R 303; [2012] ACTCA 44 ................... EA.101.150 MM Constructions (Aust) Pty Ltd v Port Stephens Council (No 3) [2010] NSWSC 243 .................................................................................................. EA.189.120 MR v The Queen [2011] VSCA 39 ...................................................................... EA.97.120 MSPR Pty Ltd v Advanced Braking Technology Ltd [2013] NSWCA 416 ........ EA.55.180 MWJ v The Queen (2005) 80 ALJR 329; [2005] HCA 74 .............. EA.46.60, EA.46.120, EA.46.150 Mabo v Queensland (1890) 25 QBD 494 .......................................................... EA.130.150 Mabo v Queensland [1992] 1 Qd R 78 ................................................................. EA.74.60 Mac v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 24 ............................................................ EA.101.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] l

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Table of Cases

MacLennan v Hastings Transport Pty Ltd [1969] VR 376 ................................ EA.87.180 MacPherson v The Queen (1981) 147 CLR 512 .................................................. EA.84.90 Macedonian Orthodox Community Church St Petka Inc v His Eminence Petar (2006) 66 NSWLR 112; [2006] NSWCA 160 ................................... EA.122.210 Mackenzie v The Queen (1996) 190 CLR 348 .............................. EA.114.240, EA.116.90 Macquarie Bank Ltd v Arup Pty Ltd [2016] FCAFC 117 ................................ EA.122.150 Macquarie Bank Ltd v Fociri Pty Ltd (1992) 27 NSWLR 203 ...................... EA.Intro.300 Macquarie Bank Ltd v McCann & Associates Pty Ltd (unreported, FCA, Moore J, 2 December 1998) ......................................................................... EA.122.330 Macquarie International Health Clinic Pty Ltd v Sydney Local Health District (No 10) [2016] NSWSC 1587 ............................................................. EA.55.60 Madafferi v The Age Company Ltd [2015] VSC 687 ........... EA.126K.210, EA.126K.220, EA.126K.270, EA.126K.330, EA.126K.360, EA.126K.390 Maddison v Goldrick [1976] 1 NSWLR 651 ........................................................ EA.36.30 Maddock v Maddock [2005] FamCA 868 .............................................................. EA.67.90 Magill v The Queen (2013) 42 VR 616; 235 A Crim R 53; [2013] VSCA 259 .................................................................................................................. EA.165.480 Mahlo v Westpac Banking Corp (unreported, NSW SC, Santow J, 21 November 1996) ................................................................................................ EA.55.60 Mahmood v Western Australia (2008) 232 CLR 397; 180 A Crim R 142; [2008] HCA 1 ......................................................... EA.55.180, EA.81.240, EA.165.480 Maiden Civil Pty Ltd, Re [2012] NSWSC 1618 ................................................. EA.57.120 Makarov v The Queen (No 3) [2008] NSWCCA 293 ......................................... EA.137.60 Makita (Australia) Pty Ltd v Sprowles (2001) 52 NSWLR 705; [2001] NSWCA 305 ................. EA.Intro.330, EA.55.270, EA.79.180, EA.79.240, EA.79.300, EA.80.90 Mallala District Council v Livestock Markets Ltd (2006) 94 SASR 258; [2006] SASC 80 .............................................................................................. EA.133.60 Maluka v Maluka (2011) 45 Fam LR 129; [2011] FamCAFC 72 ................... EA.144.120 Mamo v Surace (2014) 86 NSWLR 275; [2014] NSWCA 58 ........................... EA.55.180 Mancorp Pty Ltd v Baulderstone Pty Ltd (1991) 57 SASR 87 ........................ EA.122.390 Manly Council v Byrne [2004] NSWCA 123 ...................................................... EA.55.180 Mann v Carnell (1999) 201 CLR 1; 168 ALR 86; [1999] HCA 66 ................. EA.122.60, EA.122.120, EA.122.300 Mannella v The Queen [2010] VSCA 357 ........................................................ EA.141.120 Manton v Commonwealth (1981) 34 ALR 342 ............................... EA.48.210, EA.69.120 Markby v The Queen (1978) 140 CLR 108; 52 ALJR 626 .............................. EA.101.190 Markoff v Lautogo (unreported, NSW SC, Santow J, 5 March 1997) ................. EA.67.90 Marks v GIO Australia Holdings Ltd (1996) 63 FCR 304 ................................. EA.55.510 Marks v GIO Australia Holdings Ltd (No 2) (1996) 66 FCR 128 ................... EA.131.510 Maronis Holdings Ltd v Nippon Credit Australia Ltd (2001) 38 ACSR 404; [2001] NSWSC 448 ................................................................................ EA.79.120 Marra Developments Ltd (No 2), Re [1979] 2 NSWLR 193 ............................. EA.69.120 Marsden v Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd [1999] NSWSC 1155 .... EA.126B.150, EA.122.390 Marsden v Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd [1999] NSWSC 259 .... EA.125.210 Marsden v Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd [1999] NSWSC 284 .... EA.130.330 Marsden v Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd [2000] NSWSC 55 .......... EA.73.60 Marsden v Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd [2000] NSWSC 670 .... EA.106.150 Marsh v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 154 ........................................................... EA.98.60 Martelli, Re (1995) 83 A Crim R 550 ............................................................... EA.138.150 Martin v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 238 A Crim R 449; [2013] VSCA 377 ..................... EA.165A.120, EA.165A.150, EA.37.270, EA.138.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Martin v Police Service Board [1983] 2 VR 357 ........................ EA.126D.30, EA.125.90, EA.128.210, NSW.CPA.301.30 Martin v Tasmania (2008) 190 A Crim R 77; [2008] TASSC 66 ...................... EA.97.240 Martin v The Queen (2010) 28 VR 579; [2010] VSCA 153 .............................. EA.141.90 Martin v The Queen [2015] ACTCA 38 ................... EA.97.300, EA.98.300, EA.101.270, EA.137.60, EA.138.150 Martinez v Western Australia (2007) 172 A Crim R 389; [2007] WASCA 143 .................................................................................................................... EA.55.330 Masoud v Masoud [2016] FamCAFC 24 ............................................................ EA.55.180 Masri v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 243 ........................................................ EA.101.150 Masterton Homes Pty Ltd v Palm Assets Pty Ltd [2009] NSWCA 234 .............. EA.46.60 Mather v Morgan [1971] Tas SR 192 .............................................. EA.34.150, EA.34.180 Mathis v The Queen [2014] VSCA 118 ............................................................... EA.110.60 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd [2013] VSC 33 ......................................... EA.122.180 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd (No 7) [2013] VSC 553 ........ EA.119.180, EA.126.60 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd (No 10) [2014] VSC 44 ........................... EA.122.180 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd (No 17) [2013] VSC 146 ........................... EA.45.120 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd (No 34) [2014] VSC 40 ............................... EA.54.60 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd (No 35) [2014] VSC 59 ........... EA.57.120, EA.58.60, EA.69.540, EA.69.570, EA.135.150 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd (No 36) [2014] VSC 82 ............................... EA.41.90 Matthews v SPI Electricity Pty Ltd (No 38) [2014] VSC 102 ........................... EA.79.240 Mazzitelli v The Queen (2002) 135 A Crim R 132; [2002] NSWCCA 436 .... EA.141.120 McCarthy v Camil Holdings Pty Ltd [2016] VSCA 235 ........... EA.131.150, EA.131.270, EA.131.450 McCartney v The Queen (2012) 38 VR 1; 226 A Crim R 274 [2012] VSCA 268 ........................................................... EA.114.240, EA.137.210, EA.190.120 McDermott v The King (1948) 76 CLR 501 ......................................................... EA.90.60 McDonald v Girkaid Pty Ltd [2004] Aust Torts Reports 81-768; [2004] NSWCA 297 .................................................................................................. EA.140.120 McDonald v Livestock Transport (Sydney) Pty Ltd [2003] NSWCA 166 .......... EA.46.150 McDonald v The Queen [2014] VSCA 80 ..................................... EA.101.150, EA.137.60 McFadden v Snow (1951) 69 WN (NSW) 8 ..................................................... EA.131.480 McGavin v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 171 .................................................. EA.165.360 McGregor v McGregor (2012) 47 Fam LR 498; [2012] FamCAFC 69 ............. EA.79.60, EA.144.60, EA.144.120 McIntosh v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 184 .................................................. EA.101.240 McKey v The Queen (2012) 219 A Crim R 227; [2012] NSWCCA 1 ............. EA.165.480 McKinney v The Queen (1991) 171 CLR 468; [1991] HCA 6 ........................ EA.165.420 McLean v Commonwealth (unreported, NSW SC, Sperling J, 27 June 1996) ................................................................................................................ EA.108.90 McMahon v John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd (No 5) [2012] NSWSC 218 .................................................................................................................... EA.103.90 McNeil v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2003) 54 ATR 1; 202 ALR 35; [2003] FCA 958 .......................................................................................... EA.55.90 McNeill v The Queen (2008) 168 FCR 198; [2008] FCAFC 80 .... EA.8.90, EA.Intro.120 McPhillamy v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 130 ................................................ EA.97.120 Mead v Mead (2007) 81 ALJR 1185; 235 ALR 197; [2007] HCA 25 ............ EA.118.450 Meade v The Queen [2015] VSCA 171 ....................... EA.79.120, EA.79.150, EA.79.180 Medtel Pty Ltd v Courtney (2003) 130 FCR 182; 198 ALR 630; [2003] FCAFC 151 .................................................................................................... EA.140.120 Mees v Roads Corp (2003) 128 FCR 418; [2003] FCA 306 ................................ EA.10.60 Meko v The Queen (2004) 146 A Crim R 131; [2004] WASCA 159 .................. EA.81.60 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lii

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Table of Cases

Melbourne v The Queen (1999) 198 CLR 1; 164 ALR 465; [1999] HCA 32 ......................................................... EA.43.210, EA.101.210, EA.106.90, EA.110.60 Melrose Cranes and Rigging Pty Ltd v Manitowoc Crane Group Australia Pty Ltd [2012] NSWSC 904 ........................................................................... EA.118.60 Meltend Pty Ltd v Restoration Clinics of Australia Pty Ltd (1997) 75 FCR 511; 145 ALR 391 ......................................................................................... EA.122.210 Melville Homes Pty Ltd v Prime Ceramics Services Pty Ltd [1991] 2 VR 211 ................................................................................................................ EA.Intro.300 Members of the Yorta Yorta Aboriginal Community v Victoria (2002) 214 CLR 422; 77 ALJR 356; [2002] HCA 58 ............................................ EA.Dict.Pt.1.180 Mercantile Mutual Insurance (NSW Workers Compensation) Ltd v Murray [2004] NSWCA 151 .................................................................. EA.122.360, EA.124.60 Meredith v Innes (1930) 31 SR (NSW) 104 .................................... EA.39.210, EA.39.240 Merrey v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 62 .................................................. EA.46.150 Messiter v Hutchinson (1987) 10 NSWLR 525 ................................................ EA.131.420 Meteyard v Love (2005) 65 NSWLR 36; 224 ALR 588; 56 ACSR 487; [2005] NSWCA 444 ................. EA.4.150, EA.8.60, EA.9.90, EA.117.90, EA.118.210, EA.Intro.120 Micar Group Pty Ltd v Insul-Trade LLC (2010) 244 FLR 403; [2010] NSWSC 1391 ................................................................... EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.21.210 Microsoft Corp v CX Computer Pty Ltd (2002) 116 FCR 372; 187 ALR 362; [2002] FCA 3 .......................................................................................... EA.187.20 Mid-City Skin Cancer & Laser Centre Pty Ltd v Zahedi-Anarak [2006] NSWSC 615 ...................................................................................................... EA.62.90 Middleton v The Queen (1998) 19 WAR 179 ..................................................... EA.81.240 Middleton v The Queen (2000) 114 A Crim R 141; [2000] WASCA 200 ......... EA.41.300 Middleton v The Queen (2000) 114 A Crim R 258; [2000] WASCA 213 ........ EA.79.480, EA.165.450 Miladinovic v The Queen (1993) 47 FCR 190; 71 A Crim R 478 ................... EA.114.330 Milano Investments Pty Ltd v Group Developers Pty Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Young J, 13 May 1997) ................................................................. EA.26.120 Milirrpum v Nabalco Pty Ltd (1971) 17 FLR 141 ............................ EA.74.60, EA.79.240 Miller v Ruscio [2003] NSWSC 372 ................................................................. EA.138.150 Miller v The Queen [2011] VSCA 143 .................................................................. EA.66.60 Miller v The Queen (2015) 252 A Crim R 486; [2015] NSWCCA 206 ........... EA.55.270, EA.57.120, EA.114.330, EA.137.60 Mills v Wojcech [2011] NSWSC 86 .................................................................. EA.122.240 Minassian v Minassian [2010] NSWSC 708 ............... EA.48.270, EA.51.60, EA.140.120 Mindshare Communications Ltd v Orleans Investment Pty Ltd [2007] NSWSC 976 ............................................................................................ EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Mineralogy Pty Ltd v Sino Iron Pty Ltd [2017] FCAFC 55 ............................. EA.135.300 Mineralogy Pty Ltd v Sino Iron Pty Ltd (No 6) [2015] FCA 825 ........................ EA.56.60 Minnesota Mining & Manufacturing Co v Tyco Electronics Pty Ltd (2002) 56 IPR 248; [2002] FCAFC 315 ...................................................................... EA.80.90 Minniti v The Queen (2006) 159 A Crim R 394; [2006] NSWCCA 30 .......... EA.141.120 Mitchell v The Queen [2016] VSCA 197 ............................................................ EA.46.150 Mitsubishi Electric Australia Pty Ltd v WorkCover Authority (Vic) (2002) 4 VR 332; [2002] VSCA 59 .................................................... EA.118.390, EA.119.120 Mkari v Meza [2005] NSWCA 136 ....................................................................... EA.46.60 Mokbel v Attorney-General (Cth) (2007) 162 FCR 278; 244 ALR 517; [2007] FCA 1536 ............................................................................................. EA.143.60 Mokbel v The Queen (2013) 40 VR 625; 230 A Crim R 523; [2013] VSCA 118 ........................................................................................................ EA.176.30 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Mol v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 76 ............................................................. EA.101.190 Monte v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) [2015] NSWSC 318 ............ EA.138.150 Montgomery v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 73 ......................... EA.103.120, EA.103.150 Moore v Moore [2014] FLC 93-595; [2014] FamCAFC 113 ............................. EA.55.180 Moore v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 185 ......................................................... EA.141.90 Moran v Amoret Installations Pty Ltd [2000] NSWCA 106 ................................ EA.60.60 Moran v Moran (No 3) (2000) Aust Torts Reports 81-556; [2000] NSWSC 151 ............................................................................. EA.131.150, EA.131.480 Moran v Moran (No 9) (2000) Aust Torts Reports 81–558; [2000] NSWSC 219 .................................................................................................. EA.122.390 Morey v Transurban City Link Ltd [1997] ATPR 43,923 ..................................... EA.36.30 Morgan v The Queen (2011) 215 A Crim R 33; [2011] NSWCCA 257 ........... EA.79.180, EA.79.300 Morgan v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 25 ........................................................ EA.79.150 Morley v Australian Securities & Investments Commission (2010) 247 FLR 140; 5 BFRA 364; [2010] NSWCA 331 ...... EA.55.180, EA.140.60, EA.140.120 Moroccanoil Israel Ltd v Aldi Foods Pty Ltd [2017] FCA 823 ......................... EA.97.180 Morony v Reschke [2014] NSWSC 359 ........................................................... EA.131A.90 Morris, Re; Ex parte Donnelly (1997) 77 FCR 303 ......................................... EA.135.210 Mortada v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 36 ..................................................... EA.101.360 Mortgage Results Pty Ltd v Millsave Holdings Pty Ltd [2017] VSC 704 ......... EA.133.60 Moti v The Queen (2011) 245 CLR 456; 218 A Crim R 204; [2011] HCA 50 ........................................................................................................................ EA.11.90 Mouroufas v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 58 .................................................... EA.116.90 Mulcahy v The Queen [2012] ACTCA 3 ............................................................. EA.136.60 Muldoon v The Queen (2008) 192 A Crim R 105; [2008] NSWCCA 315 ....... EA.79.240, EA.137.150 Mule v The Queen [2002] WASCA 101 ............................................................ EA.165.480 Mule v The Queen (2005) 79 ALJR 1573; [2005] HCA 49 ........ EA.81.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.480 Mulkearns v Chandos Developments Pty Ltd (No 4) (2005) 12 BPR 22993; [2005] NSWSC 511 .......................................................................... EA.131.480 Mulvihill v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 259 ............................... EA.55.330, EA.141.120 Mundey v Askin [1982] 2 NSWLR 369 ............................................... EA.10.60, EA.81.60 Mundine v Brown (No 3) [2010] NSWSC 515 .................................. EA.69.90, EA.69.120 Munro v The Queen [2014] ACTCA 11 .................... EA.65.150, EA.65.210, EA.135.150, EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.141.120, EA.165.240 Murdesk Investments Pty Ltd v Secretary to Department of Business and Innovation [2011] VSC 436 .................................................... EA.130.210, EA.130.300 Murdoch v Taylor [1965] AC 574 ...................................................................... EA.104.240 Murdoch v The Queen (2007) 167 A Crim R 329; [2007] NTCCA 1 ............. EA.114.240 Murdoch v The Queen (2013) 40 VR 451; [2013] VSCA 272 ........................ EA.101.150, EA.101.240, EA.101.360 Murex Diagnostics Australia Pty Ltd v Chiron Corp (1995) 62 FCR 424 ......... EA.77.60, EA.136.60 Murphy v The Queen (1989) 167 CLR 94 ..................................... EA.80.150, EA.106.240 Murray v The Queen (2002) 211 CLR 193; 131 A Crim R 215; [2002] HCA 26 .......................................................................................................... EA.141.150 Murrell v The Queen [2014] VSCA 334 ........................................................... EA.137.120

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N NA & J Investments Pty Ltd v Minister Administering the Water Management Act 2000 (No 4) [2012] NSWLEC 120 ................................. EA.192A.60 NAM v The Queen [2010] VSCA 95 ................................................................... EA.98.120 NAR v PPC1 (2013) 224 A Crim R 535; [2013] NSWCCA 25 ......... NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.90, NSW.CPA.299D.330, NSW.CPA.300.30 NJB v The Queen [2010] NTCCA 5 ............................................................... EA.165A.210 NM Rural Enterprises Pty Ltd v Rimanui Farms Ltd [2010] NSWSC 1036 .... EA.167.30 NM Rural Enterprises Pty Ltd v Rimanui Farms Ltd [2010] NSWSC 921 ..... EA.79.210, EA.79.330 NM Rural Enterprises Pty Ltd v Rimanui Farms Ltd [2011] NSWSC 106 ......... EA.53.60 NM Rural Enterprises Pty Ltd v Rimanui Farms Ltd [2011] NSWSC 203 ....... EA.38.240 NMFM Property Pty Ltd v Citibank Ltd (No 7) (1999) 161 ALR 576 .............. EA.79.180 NMFM Property Pty Ltd v Citibank Ltd (No 8) (1999) 161 ALR 581 ............. EA.26.150, EA.26.180 NOM v Director of Public Prosecutions (2012) 38 VR 618; [2012] VSCA 198 .................................................................................................................... EA.140.60 NRMA v John Fairfax [2002] NSWSC 563 ............................. EA.126A.30, EA.126B.360 NRMA Ltd v John Kerin Morgan t/as Allen Allen & Hemsley (unreported, NSW SC, Hunter J, 23 August 1996) ....................................... EA.122.270, EA.126.60 NRMA Ltd v Morgan (unreported, NSW SC, Giles CJ Comm D, 1 September 1998) .............................................................................................. EA.79.240 NRMA Ltd v Morgan (No 2) [1999] NSWSC 694 ............................................ EA.122.270 NSI Group Pty Ltd v Mokas [2006] NSWSC 1077 .......................................... EA.131.450 NSW Bar Assn v Somosi (2001) 48 ATR 562; [2001] NSWCA 285 ............... EA.135.150 NSW Crime Commission v Vu [2009] NSWCA 349 ............................................. EA.75.60 NT Power Generation Pty Ltd v Power & Water Authority [1999] FCA 1549 .................................................................................................................. EA.69.120 Nader v Sutherland Shire Council [2008] NSWCA 265 .................................. EA.131.480 Nagle v Lavender [2002] NSWSC 611 ............................................................... EA.140.60 Nankivell v Insurance Commission of Western Australia [2017] WASCA 143 ...................................................................................................................... EA.46.60 Nash v Glennies Creek Coal Management Pty Ltd (No 6) [2014] NSWIRComm 36 ............................................... EA.122.150, EA.122.270, EA.130.240 Nasrallah v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 188 ................................................... EA.79.150 National Australia Bank v Caporale [2012] NSWSC 509 .............................. EA.108C.90 National Australia Bank Ltd v C & O Voukidis Pty Ltd (No 2) [2015] NSWSC 258 .................................................................................................. EA.122.150 National Australia Bank Ltd v Rusu (1999) 47 NSWLR 309; [1999] NSWSC 539 ............................................. EA.48.60, EA.57.120, EA.58.60, EA.142.60 National Australia Bank Ltd v Rusu (unreported, NSW SC, 6 April 1998) .... EA.128.330 National Auto Glass Supplies (Australia) Pty Ltd v Nielsen & Moller Autoglass (NSW) Pty Ltd (No 5) [2007] FCA 569 ........................................ EA.41.240 National Crime Authority v S (1991) 29 FCR 203; 54 A Crim R 307 ............ EA.118.220 National Employers Mutual General Insurance Assn Ltd v Manufacturers Mutual Insurance Ltd (1988) 17 NSWLR 223 .............................................. EA.157.60 National Justice Compania Naviera SA v Prudential Assurance Co Ltd (The Ikarian Reefer) (No 1) [1993] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 68 .................................. EA.79.330 National Mutual Life Assn of Australasia v Grosvenor Hill (Qld) (2001) 183 ALR 700; [2001] FCA 237 ........................................................................ EA.91.60 National Telecoms Group Ltd v John Fairfax Publications Pty Ltd (No 1) [2011] NSWSC 455 ........................................................................................... EA.80.90 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Neal v The Queen [2005] TASSC 70 ................................................. EA.55.60, EA.55.330 Neat Holdings Pty Ltd v Karajan Holdings Pty Ltd (1992) 67 ALJR 170; 110 ALR 449; [1992] HCA 66 ....................................................................... EA.140.60 Neill-Fraser v Tasmania [2012] TASCCA 2 ..................................................... EA.141.120 Nestle Australia Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (Cth) (1986) 11 FCR 453 ......................................................................................................... EA.130.210 Neubecker v The Queen (2012) 220 A Crim R 585; [2012] VSCA 58 .......... EA.101.360, EA.141.120 New Cap Reinsurance Corp Ltd (in liq) v Renaissance Reinsurance Ltd [2007] NSWSC 258 ........................................... EA.119.120, EA.119.180, EA.122.180 New South Wales v Betfair Pty Ltd (2009) 180 FCR 543; [2009] FCAFC 160 ...................................................................... EA.118.330, EA.118.480, EA.122.120 New South Wales v Bitsikas [2010] NSWSC 773 ............................................... EA.79.330 New South Wales v Fuller-Lyons [2015] Aust Torts Reports 82-189; [2014] NSWCA 424 ........................................................................................ EA.140.60 New South Wales v Hathaway [2010] NSWCA 184 ........................................... EA.140.60 New South Wales v Hunt (2014) 86 NSWLR 226; [2014] NSWCA 47 ............. EA.46.60, EA.140.120 New South Wales v Jackson [2007] NSWCA 279 ...................... EA.117.120, EA.119.120, EA.133.60 New South Wales v Kuru [2007] Aust Torts Reports 81-893; [2007] NSWCA 141 ...................................................................................................... EA.34.60 New South Wales v Mannall [2005] NSWCA 367 .......................... EA.69.210, EA.69.240 New South Wales v Public Transport Ticketing Corp [2011] NSWCA 60 .... EA.131A.120, EA.7.30, EA.130.60, EA.130.180, EA.130.210, EA.130.240 New South Wales v Ryan [1998] FCA 1057 ...................................................... EA.130.210 New South Wales Commissioner of Police v Nationwide News Pty Ltd (2007) 70 NSWLR 643; [2007] NSWCA 366; ............................................ EA.130.420 New South Wales Police Force v Winter (2011) 10 DDCR 69; [2011] NSWCA 330 ...................................................................................................... EA.46.60 Newcastle Wallsend Coal Co Pty Ltd v Court of Coal Mines Regulation (1997) 42 NSWLR 351 .................................... EA.118.210, EA.122.210, EA.Intro.120 Nezovic v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural & Indigenous Affairs (No 2) (2003) 203 ALR 33 ............................................................................. EA.155.30 Nguyen v Cosmopolitan Homes [2008] NSWCA 246 ........................................ EA.140.60 Nguyen v Nguyen & Vu Publishing Pty Ltd [2004] NSWSC 1166 .................... EA.79.240 Nguyen v The Queen (2007) 173 A Crim R 557; [2007] NSWCCA 249 ......... EA.79.120, EA.79.480, EA.165.450 Nguyen v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 4 ..................... EA.20.180, EA.55.270, EA.78.60, EA.79.150, EA.Intro.120 Niaros v The Queen [2013] VSCA 249 ............................................................. EA.108.240 Nichia Corporation v Arrow Electronics Australia Pty Ltd (No 3) (2016) 240 FCR 13; [2016] FCA 466 .......................................................................... EA.63.60 Nicholls v Michael Wilson & Partners Ltd [2012] NSWCA 383 ..................... EA.79.180, EA.79.240 Nicholls v The Queen (2005) 219 CLR 196; 79 ALJR 468; [2005] HCA 1 ...EA.101A.120, EA.59.180, EA.106.90, EA.106.120, EA.106.150, EA.138.300, EA.165.420 Nicopoulos v Commissioner for Corrective Services (2004) 148 A Crim R 74; [2004] NSWSC 562 .................................................................................. EA.130.90 Nikolaidis v Legal Services Commissioner [2007] NSWCA 130 ....................... EA.69.240 Nikolaidis v The Queen (2008) 191 A Crim R 556; [2008] NSWCCA 323 .... EA.108.150 Nine Films & Television Pty Ltd v Ninox Television Ltd (2005) 65 IPR 442; [2005] FCA 356 .................................................................................... EA.122.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lvi

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Table of Cases

Ninyette v Western Australia [2012] WASCA 184 .............................................. EA.97.120 Nisan v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 265 .......................................................... EA.79.240 Niven v The Queen (1968) 118 CLR 513 ........................................ EA.43.210, EA.106.90 Nobrega v Trustees of the Roman Catholic Church (Sydney) (No 2) [1999] NSWCA 133 .................................................................................................. EA.131.510 Nodnara Pty Ltd v Deputy Commissioner of Taxation (1997) 140 FLR 336; 38 ATR 527 ........................................................ EA.55.60, EA.57.90, EA.131.270 Nokia Corp v Truong (2005) 66 IPR 511; [2005] FCA 1141 ............................ EA.79.150 Nominal Defendant v Clements (1960) 104 CLR 476 ...................................... EA.108.150 Nominal Defendant v Ismail (2014) 69 MVR 343; [2014] NSWCA 432 .......... EA.79.120 Nominal Defendant v Saleh (2011) 57 MVR 412; [2011] NSWCA 16 ............ EA.46.150, EA.55.270, EA.79.240 Norbis v Norbis (1986) 161 CLR 513; [1986] HCA 17 .............. EA.97.480, EA.101.450, EA.138.720 Norrie v NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages (2013) 84 NSWLR 697; [2013] NSWCA 145 ......................................... EA.144.60, EA.Intro.120 Norris v The Queen (2007) 176 A Crim R 42; [2007] NSWCCA 235 ............ EA.165.480 North Sydney Leagues’ Club Ltd v Synergy Protection Agency Pty Ltd (2012) 83 NSWLR 710; [2012] NSWCA 168 ............................................... EA.146.60 Northern Inland Council for the Environment Inc v Minister for the Environment (2013) 218 FCR 491; [2013] FCA 1419 .................................. EA.136.60 Northern Territory v GPAO (1999) 196 CLR 553; 161 ALR 318; [1999] HCA 8 .............................................................................................................. EA.118.90 Norton v Long [1968] VR 221 ........................................................................... EA.106.270 Norton v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 115 ................................................ EA.20.180 Notaras v Hugh [2003] NSWSC 167 .................................................................. EA.79.240 Nuclear Utility Technology & Environmental Corp Inc v ABC [2010] NSWSC 711 ........................................................... EA.55.90, EA.135.180, EA.135.210 Nye v New South Wales (2002) 134 A Crim R 245; [2002] NSWSC 1268 ...... EA.69.240 Nye v New South Wales (2003) 58 NSWLR 152; [2003] NSWSC 610 .............. EA.46.60

O O’Brien v Gillespie (1997) 41 NSWLR 549 ............................... EA.79.150, EA.Intro.120 O’Donnel v Dakin [1966] Tas SR 87 ............................................... EA.48.210, EA.69.120 O’Keefe v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 121 ......... EA.97.120, EA.101.185, EA.101.195, EA.101.450 O’Leary v The King (1946) 73 CLR 566; [1946] ALR 535 ...... EA.Intro.120, EA.55.360, EA.101.150 O’Meara v Dominican Fathers (2003) 153 ACTR 1; [2003] ACTCA 24 ........ EA.55.180, EA.57.120 OPEL Networks Pty Ltd (in liq), Re (2010) 77 NSWLR 128; [2010] NSWSC 142 ...................................................................................................... EA.10.60 O’Reilly v Commissioners of State Bank of Victoria (1982) 153 CLR 1; 44 ALR 27 ..................................................................................................... EA.118.420 Obacelo Pty Ltd v Taveraft Pty Ltd (1986) 10 FCR 518 ................................... EA.26.120 Obeid v Ipp [2015] NSWSC 1755 ..................................................................... EA.130.300 Obeid v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 221 ........................................................... EA.76.90 Ocean Marine Mutual Insurance Assn (Europe) OV v Jetopay Pty Ltd (2000) 120 FCR 146; [2000] FCA 1463 ................. EA.79.240, EA.79.390, EA.183.80 Odisho v The Queen [2018] NSWCCA 19 .......................................................... EA.38.210 Offıcial Trustee v Pastro [1999] FCA 1631 ........................................................... EA.46.60 Okwume v Commonwealth [2016] FCA 1252 ....................................................... EA.97.90 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Oldfield v The Queen (2006) 163 A Crim R 242; [2006] NSWCCA 219 ........ EA.46.150, EA.165.480 Oliver v Lake Side Resort Development Pty Ltd [2005] NSWSC 501 ............ EA.131.390 Oliveri v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 38 .................................. EA.165.240, EA.165.360 Ollis v Melissari [2005] NSWSC 1016 ............................................................. EA.128.120 Omot v The Queen [2016] VSCA 24 ................................................................... EA.110.90 1165 Stud Road Pty Ltd v Power [2015] VSC 476 ............................................ EA.69.510 Oneflare Pty Ltd v Chernih [2017] NSWCA 195 ................................................. EA.46.60 Optimisation Australia Pty Ltd, Re [2016] NSWSC 1581 ................................ EA.118.220 Optus Networks Pty Ltd v Gilsan (International) Ltd [2006] NSWCA 171 ...... EA.176.30 Optus Networks Pty Ltd v Telstra Corp Ltd (No 2) [2009] FCA 422 .............. EA.122.150 Orchard v Spooner (1992) 28 NSWLR 114 .......................................................... EA.33.30 Ordukaya v Hicks [2000] NSWCA 180 ............................................................. EA.135.150 Osadebay v The Queen [2014] NTCCA 6 ......................................................... EA.165.210 Osborne Metal Industries v Bullock (No 1) [2011] NSWSC 636 ...................... EA.64.300 Osland v Secretary to the Department of Justice (2008) 82 ALJR 1288; 249 ALR 1; [2008] HCA 37 ......................................................................... EA.122.120 Osland v The Queen (1998) 197 CLR 316; 159 ALR 170 .......... EA.79.120, EA.165.270, EA.165.480 Osman v The Queen [2008] NSWCCA 157 ........................................................ EA.55.180 Owens v Lofthouse (2007) 5 ABC(NS) 465; [2007] FCA 1968 ......................... EA.55.510 Owens v Repatriation Commission (1995) 59 FCR 559 ..................................... EA.144.60 Oztech Pty Ltd v Public Trustee of Queensland (No 13) [2016] FCA 1153 ..... EA.79.120

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P P v Tasmania (2009) 19 Tas R 266; [2009] TASSC 81 ..................................... EA.137.60 PA v The Queen [2012] VSCA 294 ..................................................................... EA.137.60 PCR v The Queen (2013) 235 A Crim R 302; [2013] VSCA 224 ..................... EA.97.120 PGM v The Queen (2006) 164 A Crim R 426; [2006] NSWCCA 310 ............ EA.110.90, EA.137.60 PNJ v Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) (2010) 27 VR 146; [2010] VSCA 88 ................................................................ EA.97.480, EA.98.120, EA.101.450 PPC v Williams (2013) 238 A Crim R 25; [2013] NSWCCA 286 ..... NSW.CPA.299D.90, NSW.CPA.299D.150 PQ v Australian Red Cross [1992] 1 VR 19 ....................................................... EA.79.240 PT v The Queen [2011] VSCA 43 .................................................................. EA.165B.210 Pace v The Queen (2014) 247 A Crim R 1; [2014] VSCA 317 ...................... EA.114.240, EA.115.120 Pacer v Westpac Banking Corp (unreported, NSW SC, Santow J, 15 April 1996) .................................................................................................................. EA.91.60 Packard v The Queen [2018] VSCA 45 .............................................................. EA.97.120 Page v McKensey [2004] NSWCA 437 ............................................................... EA.140.60 Page v The Queen [2015] VSCA 357 .............................................. EA.97.120, EA.98.120 Paino v Paino [2005] NSWSC 1313 ................................................................... EA.79.210 Paino v Paino (2008) 40 Fam LR 96; [2008] NSWCA 276 .............................. EA.79.210 Palmer v Dolman [2005] NSWCA 361 ............................................................... EA.140.60 Palmer v The Queen (1998) 193 CLR 1; 151 ALR 16 ............. EA.101A.120, EA.41.300, EA.55.60, EA.103.120, EA.106.150 Pan Pharmaceuticals Ltd (in liq) v Selim [2008] FCA 416 ............................... EA.79.300 Papakosmas v The Queen (1999) 196 CLR 297; 73 ALJR 1274 .................... EA.66A.60, EA.101A.180, EA.55.60, EA.55.90, EA.55.120, EA.55.240, EA.59.180, EA.101.150, EA.135.150, EA.136.60, EA.136.150, EA.137.120, EA.165.90, EA.Intro.270 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lviii

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Table of Cases

Papazoglou v The Queen [2014] VSCA 194 ...................................................... EA.106.60 Paric v John Holland (Constructions) Pty Ltd (1985) 59 ALJR 844; 62 ALR 85; [1985] HCA 58 ............................................................. EA.55.270, EA.79.240 Parker v Comptroller-General of Customs (2007) 232 FLR 362; 243 ALR 574; [2007] NSWCA 348 .............. EA.138.60, EA.138.120, EA.138.240, EA.138.570, EA.138.630, EA.138.660 Parker v Comptroller-General of Customs (2009) 83 ALJR 494; [2009] HCA 7 ................................................................... EA.138.90, EA.138.120, EA.138.240 Parkin v O’Sullivan (2009) 260 ALR 503; [2009] FCA 1096 ........................ EA.130.210, EA.130.390 Parkinson v Alexander [2017] ACTSC 201 ..................................... EA.97.120, EA.100.60 Parkinson v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 133 ................................................... EA.55.360 Parkview Qld Pty Ltd v Commonwealth Bank of Australia [2012] NSWSC 1599 ................................................................................................................ EA.122.150 Parsons v The Queen [2016] VSCA 17 ...... EA.46.60, EA.46.150, EA.110.60, EA.110.90 Partington v The Queen (2009) 197 A Crim R 380; [2009] NSWCCA 232 ...... EA.76.90, EA.78.60 Pasqualotto v Pasqualotto [2013] Aust Torts Reports 82-125; [2013] VSCA 21 .......................................................................................................... EA.46.150 Pate v The Queen [2015] VSCA 110 .......................................... EA.165B.270, EA.66.180 Patel v The Queen [2012] HCA 29; (2012) 247 CLR 531; 86 ALJR 954 ........ EA.137.60 Patents, Commissioner of v Sherman (2008) 172 FCR 394; [2008] FCAFC 182 ...................................................................... EA.8.60, EA.8.90, EA.79.270 Paterson v The Queen [2004] WASCA 63 .......................................................... EA.46.150 Pathways Employment Services v West (2004) 186 FLR 330; [2004] NSWSC 903 ................................. EA.122.240, EA.128.150, EA.128.600, EA.128.780 Paton v The Queen [2011] VSCA 72 ................................................................ EA.101.360 Patrick v Capital Finance Corp (Aust) Pty Ltd [2004] FCA 1249; (2004) 211 ALR 272 ................................................................................................. EA.122.360 Patrick v The Queen (2014) 42 VR 651; 241 A Crim R 153; [2014] VSCA 89 ........................................................................ EA.55.60, EA.76.90, EA.78.60 Patterson v The Queen [2001] NSWCCA 316 ............................ EA.135.150, EA.165.270 Pattison v Tasmania [2017] TASCCA 13 ........................................ EA.97.120, EA.98.180 Paul’s Retail Pty Ltd v Sporte Leisure Pty Ltd (2012) 202 FCR 286; [2012] FCAFC 51 ............................................................................................ EA.55.180 Pavicic v Webb [2010] ACTSC 37 .................................................................... EA.135.150 Pavitt v The Queen (2007) 169 A Crim R 452; [2007] NSWCCA 88 ............... EA.90.60, EA.90.270, EA.108.150 Payce Properties v BBC Hardware [1999] NSWSC 968 ................................... EA.55.510 Payless Superbarn (NSW) Ltd v O’Gara (1990) 19 NSWLR 551 ..................... EA.46.150 Payne v Parker [1976] 1 NSWLR 191 ............................................................... EA.55.180 Payne v Rowe (2012) 16 BPR 30869; [2012] NSWSC 685 ............................ EA.131.480 Payne v The Queen [2015] VSCA 291 .............................................................. EA.165.480 Peabody Resources Ltd v Macquarie Generation (unreported, NSW SC, Einstein J, 23 November 1998) ...................................................................... EA.55.510 Peacock v The King (1911) 13 CLR 619 .......................................................... EA.141.120 Peacock v The Queen (2008) 190 A Crim R 454; [2008] NSWCCA 264 ..... EA.101A.90, EA.101A.120, EA.106.120 Pearson v The Queen [2016] VSCA ................................................................... EA.98.120 Peck v WA [2005] WASCA 20 ............................................................................. EA.116.90 Pedler v Richardson (unreported, NSW SC, Young J, 16 October 1997) ......... EA.140.60 Penfold v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 101 ....................................................... EA.116.90 Penney v The Queen (1998) 72 ALJR 1316; [1998] HCA 51 .......................... EA.141.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Pennington v WA [2013] WASCA 98 ................................................................ EA.165.480 Penrith Rugby League Club Ltd v Brown [2004] NSWSC 1182 ....................... EA.130.60 Penza v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 21 .................................... EA.55.330, EA.Intro.350 Pepsi Seven-Up Bottlers Perth Pty Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (Cth) (1995) 62 FCR 289; 31 ATR 445; 132 ALR 632 ............. EA.Intro.120 Perazzoli v BankSA [2017] FCAFC 204 .................... EA.117.90, EA.118.390, EA.133.60 Perish v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 89 ........................................................... EA.106.90 Permanent Trustee Co Ltd v Gillett (2004) 145 A Crim R 220; [2004] NSWSC 278 ...................................................................................................... EA.91.60 Perpetual Nominees Pty Ltd v Masri Apartments Pty Ltd (2004) 183 FLR 142; 49 ACSR 714; 22 ACLC 971; [2004] NSWSC 500 ............................. EA.160.60 Perpetual Trustee Co Ltd v George; Estate of Conacher (No 2) (unreported, NSW SC, Einstein J, 28 November 1997) .................................. EA.77.60 Perpetual Trustees (WA) Ltd v Equuscorp Pty Ltd [1999] FCA 925 ................. EA.122.90 Perry v Powercor [2011] VSC 308 .................................................................... EA.118.390 Perry v The Queen (1982) 150 CLR 580; 57 ALJR 110; 44 ALR 449; [1982] HCA 75 ....................................................... EA.98.60, EA.101.180, EA.101.190 Peterson v The Queen (1979) 41 FLR 205 ......................................................... EA.20.150 Peterson v The Queen [2014] VSCA 111 ................. EA.114.180, EA.114.240, EA.137.60 Petrolink Pty Ltd, Re [2014] FCA 1024 ............................................................ EA.131.600 Petty v The Queen (1991) 173 CLR 95; 55 A Crim R 322; [1991] HCA 34 ........................................................................................................................ EA.89.90 Pfennig v The Queen (1995) 182 CLR 461; 69 ALJR 147; [1995] HCA 7 ..... EA.101.60, EA.101.180, EA.101.195, EA.101.210, EA.101.450, EA.137.60 Pfizer Ireland Pharmaceuticals v Samsung Bioepis AU Pty Ltd (2017) 351 ALR 103; [2017] FCAFC 193 .................................... EA.9.180, EA.59.180, EA.76.90 Phillips v The Queen (1985) 159 CLR 45 ..................................... EA.104.180, EA.112.60 Phillips v The Queen (2005) 225 CLR 303; 80 ALJR 537; [2006] HCA 4 ..... EA.55.420, EA.98.120, EA.101.185, EA.101.210 Picker v The Queen [2002] NSWCCA 78 ....................................... EA.41.300, EA.46.150 Pigot’s Case (1614) 11 Co Rep 26b; 77 ER 1177 ................................................ EA.51.60 Pihiga Pty Ltd v Roche (2011) 278 ALR 209; [2011] FCA 240 ..................... EA.131.450, EA.131.540 Pinot Nominees Pty Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2009) 181 FCR 392; [2009] FCA 1508 ......................................................................... EA.131.510 Pioneer Concrete (Vic) Pty Ltd v Catchklin Pty Ltd (unreported, FCA, Finn J, 6 May 1998) ...................................................................................... EA.118.210 Pitkin v The Queen (1995) 80 A Crim R 302; 130 ALR 35 ....... EA.115.300, EA.116.120 Pittard v Western Australia [2013] WASCA 126 .............................................. EA.165.480 Pitts v Adney [1961] NSWR 535 ....................................................................... EA.131.480 Platcher v Joseph [2004] FCAFC 68 .................................................................. EA.37.240 Pledge v Roads & Traffıc Authority; Ryan v Pledge (2004) 78 ALJR 572; [2004] HCA 13 .................................................................................................. EA.54.60 Plomp v The Queen (1963) 110 CLR 234 ......................................................... EA.141.120 Police v Dunstall [2015] HCA 26 ...................................................................... EA.137.240 Police v Jervis (1998) 101 A Crim R 1 ............................................................... EA.90.300 Police v Kyriacou (2009) 103 SASR 243; 193 A Crim R 490; [2009] SASC 66 .......................................................................................................... EA.55.180 Police, Commissioner of v Fandakis [2001] NSWSC 586 ............................... EA.130.390 Police (NSW), Commissioner of v Guo [2016] FCAFC 62 .............. EA.4.150, EA.130.90 Police Service Board v Morris (1985) 156 CLR 397 ................. EA.126D.30, EA.125.90, EA.128.210, NSW.CPA.301.30 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lx

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Table of Cases

Pollard v The Queen (1992) 176 CLR 177; 64 A Crim R 393; [1992] HCA 69 ........................................................................................ EA.90.60, EA.138.540 Pollard v The Queen (2011) 31 VR 416; [2011] VSCA 95 ............................. EA.137.120 Pollard v Wilson [2010] NSWCA 68 ................................................................... EA.79.120 Polley v Johnson [2013] NSWSC 543 .............................................................. EA.130.390 Pollitt v The Queen (1992) 174 CLR 558 ................... EA.59.180, EA.59.210, EA.65.210, EA.165.210, EA.165.390 Pomeroy v Rural Hotels Pty Ltd (1973) 5 SASR 191 ...................... EA.87.90, EA.87.180 Poniris v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 100 .................................................... EA.Intro.350 Port Kembla Coal Terminal Ltd v Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union [2016] FCAFC 99 ................................................................. EA.140.120 Potts v Miller (1940) 64 CLR 282; [1940] HCA 43 .......................................... EA.56.120 Potts v The Queen (2012) 227 A Crim R 217; [2012] NSWCCA 229 .......... EA.Intro.350 Power v The Queen (2014) 43 VR 261; 242 A Crim R 553; [2014] VSCA 146 .................................... EA.38.210, EA.83.60, EA.101A.120, EA.60.90, EA.60.150 Powercor Australia Ltd v Perry (2011) 33 VR 548; [2011] VSCA 239 ........... EA.55.180, EA.118.360, EA.118.540 Prasad v Minister for Immigration, Local Government & Ethnic Affairs (1991) 23 ALD 183; 101 ALR 109 ................................................................ EA.69.270 Pratt Holdings Pty Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2004) 136 FCR 357; 207 ALR 217; [2004] FCAFC 122 .... EA.118.60, EA.118.360, EA.118.390 Precision Plastics Pty Ltd v Demir [1975] HCA 27; 132 CLR 362 .................. EA.46.150 Prentice v Cummins (No 5) (2002) 124 FCR 67; [2002] FCA 1503 ................ EA.144.90, EA.144.120 Prentice v Cummins (No 6) (2003) 203 ALR 449; [2003] FCA 1002 .............. EA.26.150, EA.40.60, EA.55.180 Presbyterian Church of Victoria Trusts Corp v Anstee [2014] VSC 426 ......... EA.122.150 Price v The Queen [1981] Tas R 306 .................................................................. EA.79.150 Priest v New South Wales [2006] NSWSC 1281 .............................................. EA.118.330 Prior v Wood [2017] FCA 193 ........................................................... EA.71.60, EA.75.120 Prodduturi v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection (2015) 144 ALD 243; [2015] FCAFC 5 .......................................................................... EA.140.120 Protective Commissioner v B (unreported, NSW SC, Hodgson J, 23 June 1997) ............................................................................................. EA.28.120, EA.59.240 Prothonotary of the Supreme Court (NSW) v Livanes [2012] NSWCA 325 ...... EA.91.60, EA.92.60 Prothonotary of the Supreme Court (NSW), The v Sukkar [2007] NSWCA 341 .................................................................................................... EA.91.60, EA.92.60 Prothonotary of the Supreme Court (NSW) v Gregory [2017] NSWCA 101 ...... EA.91.60 Proud v The Queen (No 2) [2016] NSWCCA 44 ............................................. EA.165.360 Public Transport Ticketing Corp v Integrated Transit Solutions [2010] NSWSC 607 .................................................................................................. EA.130.240 Puchalski v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 220 ..... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.65.270, EA.67.60, EA.141.120 Punch v Council of the NSW Bar Assn (2007) 69 NSWLR 485; [2007] NSWCA 93 .......................................................................................................... EA.8.90 Punna-Ophasi v The Queen [2012] ACTCA 46 ................................................ EA.141.150 Purcell v Cruising Yacht Club of Australia [2001] NSWSC 926 ....................... EA.48.180 Pyneboard Pty Ltd v Trade Practices Commission (1983) 152 CLR 328 ..... EA.126D.30, EA.125.90, EA.128.210, NSW.CPA.301.30 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Q QBE Insurance (Aust) Ltd v CGU Workers Compensation (NSW) Ltd (2012) 83 NSWLR 589; [2012] NSWSC 377 ....................................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Qantas Airways Ltd v Gama (2008) 167 FCR 537; 247 ALR 273; [2008] FCAFC 69 .................................................................................. EA.140.60, EA.140.120 Qoro v The Queen [2008] NSWCCA 220 ....................................... EA.56.60, EA.114.240 Qualtieri v The Queen (2006) 171 A Crim R 463; [2006] NSWCCA 95 ........ EA.97.450, EA.101.150, EA.101.360 Quarrell v The Queen [2011] VSCA 125 ............................................................ EA.98.120 Queen’s Case (1820) Br & B 284; 129 ER 976 ................................................... EA.44.60 Quick v Stoland Pty Ltd (1998) 87 FCR 371; [1998] FCA 1200 .... EA.55.270, EA.60.60, EA.76.90, EA.79.180, EA.79.240, EA.136.60 Quinlan v The Queen (2006) 164 A Crim R 106; [2006] NSWCCA 284 .......... EA.81.60, EA.137.120 Quintano v BW Rose Pty Ltd (2008) 186 A Crim R 448; [2008] NSWSC 1012 ........................................................................................ EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.67.90

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v A2 (No 4) (2015) 253 A Crim R 574; [2015] NSWSC 1306 ...................... EA.18.120 v A2 (No 14) [2015] NSWSC 1544 ................................................................... EA.42.60 v A2 (No 21) [2016] NSWSC 24 .................................................... EA.37.270, EA.42.60 v AB [2001] NSWCCA 496 .......................................................... EA.97.180, EA.98.180 v AB [2011] ACTSC 204 .................................................................................. EA.65.150 v AGJ (unreported, NSW CCA, 30 October 1997) ................... EA.164.90, EA.165.210 v AGJ (unreported, NSW CCA, Hunt, Hulme, Graham, 31 October 1997) .............................................................................................................. EA.165.480 v AJS (2005) 12 VR 563; 159 A Crim R 327; [2005] VSCA 288 ................. EA.39.120 v AN (2000) 117 A Crim R 176; [2000] NSWCCA 372 ............ EA.97.180, EA.98.180, EA.101.150 v ATM [2000] NSWCCA 475 ......................................................................... EA.101.360 v Abdallah [1999] NSWCCA 380 .................................................................... EA.60.150 v Abdallah [2001] NSWCCA 506 .................................................................... EA.46.150 v Abdul-Razzak [2006] NSWCCA 195 ............................................................ EA.137.60 v Abdullah [1999] NSWCCA 188 .................................................................. EA.130.150 v Abebe & Mulugeta (unreported, WA CCA, 26 April 1994) ....................... EA.106.150 v Adam (1999) 106 A Crim R 510; [1999] NSWCCA 189 ......... EA.55.360, EA.81.60, EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.141.120, EA.Intro.120 v Adam (1999) 47 NSWLR 267; [1999] NSWCCA 197 ............... EA.38.60, EA.60.60, EA.66.180 v Adams [2004] NSWCCA 279 ............................. EA.114.240, EA.116.90, EA.116.120 v Adler (2000) 52 NSWLR 451; 116 A Crim R 38; [2000] NSWCCA 357 ....................................................................... EA.79.180, EA.114.330, EA.Intro.120 v Afu, R v Caleo (No 11) [2018] NSWSC 190 .............................................. EA.114.240 v Ahmadi [1999] NSWCCA 161 ...................................................................... EA.139.30 v Ahmed [2001] NSWCCA 450 ..................................................................... EA.165.480 v Al-Harazi (No 6) [2017] ACTSC 63 ............................................................. EA.37.270 v Albu (1995) 65 SASR 439; 84 A Crim R 11 .............................................. EA.138.150 v Alchin (2006) 200 FLR 204; [2006] ACTSC 53 .................................. EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 v Aldridge (1990) 20 NSWLR 737 ................................................................ EA.103.120 v Ali [2000] NSWCCA 177 ............................................................................ EA.108.120 v Ali (2001) 122 A Crim R 498; [2001] NSWCCA 218 ................................. EA.116.90 [All references are to paragraph numbers]

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Ali [2015] NSWCCA 72 ........................................................ EA.101.190, EA.137.150 Ali [2015] QCA 191 ...................................................................................... EA.66.300 Allen [1989] VR 736 ..................................................................................... EA.46.150 Allen (unreported, NSW CCA, 1 December 1996) ...................................... EA.137.60 Ambrosi (2004) 144 A Crim R 67; [2004] NSWCCA 23 ......................... EA.165.360, EA.165.480, EA.192.80 v Ambrosoli (2002) 55 NSWLR 603; [2002] NSWCCA 386 .... EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.65.270 v Anderson [2000] 1 VR 1; (2001) 111 A Crim R 19; [2000] VSCA 16 ..... EA.79.480, EA.141.150 v Anderson (2001) 127 A Crim R 116; [2001] NSWCCA 488 .................... EA.141.150 v Anderson [2002] NSWCCA 141 ..................................................................... EA.89.90 v Anderson (unreported, Vic FC, 2 April 1992) ............................................ EA.165.330 v Andrews [1987] 1 AC 281 ............................................................................. EA.65.150 v Andrews [2003] NSWCCA 7 ....................................................................... EA.101.150 v Andrews (2010) 107 SASR 471; [2010] SASCFC 5 .................................. EA.130.390 v Anunga (1976) 11 ALR 412 .................................................... EA.90.260, EA.139.150 v Apostilides (1984) 154 CLR 563; 15 A Crim R 88 .................. EA.26.120, EA.55.180 v Appleby (1996) 88 A Crim R 456 ............................................................... EA.165.480 v Arnott [2009] VSCA 299; 214 A Crim R 500 ............................ EA.46.60, EA.46.120 v Arthurell (unreported, NSW SC, Hunt CJ ................................................. EA.108A.60 v Arvidson (2008) 185 A Crim R 428; [2008] NSWCCA 135 ...................... EA.137.60, EA.137.150, EA.137.210 v Asfour (1992) 60 A Crim R 409 ................................................................. EA.165.420 v Ashcroft [1965] 1 Qd R 81 .......................................................... EA.80.90, EA.80.150 v Ashley (2014) 253 A Crim R 285; [2014] NTSC 15 ................................... EA.65.150 v Ashley (2014) 286 FLR 226; [2014] NTSC 26 ......... EA.56.60, EA.66.60, EA.66.150 v Ashton (2003) 143 A Crim R 354; [2003] TASSC 140 ............................... EA.38.150 v Asquith (1994) 72 A Crim R 250 ................................................................ EA.104.120 v Associated Northern Collieries (1910) 11 CLR 738 ............ EA.126D.30, EA.125.90, EA.128.210, NSW.CPA.301.30 v Associated Northern Collieries (1912) 14 CLR 387; [1911] HCA 73 ........ EA.57.210 v Atallah [2001] 3 VR 437; (2001) 125 A Crim R 463; [2001] VSCA 194 .................................................................................................................... EA.87.210 v Atroushi [2001] NSWCCA 406 ................................................................... EA.101.150 v Attalah [2004] NSWCCA 318 ..................................................................... EA.165.360 v Attallah [2005] NSWCCA 277 ..... EA.106.120, EA.108.90, EA.108.180, EA.137.120 v Ayoub [2004] NSWCCA 209 ....................................................... EA.46.60, EA.141.90 v Azzopardi (unreported, NSW CCA, Spigelman CJ, Sully, Hidden JJ, 1 October 1998) .................................................................................................. EA.110.60 v B (1993) 66 A Crim R 192 ....................................................................... EA.165A.150 v B O (No 2) (2012) 15 DCLR (NSW) 317; [2012] NSWDC 195 ................ EA.18.150 v BAZ [2005] QCA 420 ............................................................ EA.165.450, EA.165.480 v BBR [2010] 1 Qd R 546; 195 A Crim R 330; [2009] QCA 178 ................. EA.13.210 v BCQ (2013) 240 A Crim R 153; [2013] QCA 388 .................................... EA.165.480 v BD (1997) 94 A Crim R 131 ............... EA.55.240, EA.60.60, EA.66.60, EA.108.150, EA.135.90, EA.135.150, EA.136.150, EA.137.60, EA.137.120 v BDX (2008) 24 VR 288; 194 A Crim R 57; [2009] VSCA 28 ................ EA.103.120, EA.106.150, EA.141.150 v BFG (2013) 115 SASR 499; 229 A Crim R 510; [2013] SASCFC 24 ..... EA.165.480 v BL [2015] NTSC 85 ...................................................................................... EA.85.210 v BWT (2002) 54 NSWLR 241; [2002] NSWCCA 60 ................................. EA.165.450 v Baartman [2000] NSWCCA 298 ........................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.480

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R v Bacash [2001] 3 VR 428; (2001) 124 A Crim R 535; [2001] VSCA 193 .................................................................................................................... EA.87.210 R v Baden-Clay [2015] QCA 265 ........................................................................ EA.55.330 R v Baden-Clay (2016) 90 ALJR 1013; [2016] HCA 35 ................ EA.20.180, EA.55.330 R v Bailey (1993) 97 Cr App R 365 .................................................................... EA.90.270 R v Bajic (2005) 12 VR 155; 154 A Crim R 196; [2005] VSCA 158 ............... EA.41.300 R v Baker [1999] NSWCCA 277 ......................................................................... EA.41.300 R v Baker [2001] NSWCCA 151 ................................................. EA.165.240, EA.165.360 R v Baladjam (No 19) [2008] NSWSC 1441 .................................. EA.57.210, EA.87.180 R v Baldwin [2004] NSWCCA 21 ..................................................................... EA.101.360 R v Balogun [2004] NSWCCA 72 ....................................................................... EA.116.90 R v Baltensberger (2004) 90 SASR 129; 151 A Crim R 265; [2004] SASC 392 ................................................................................. EA.165.450, EA.165.480 R v Banic [2004] NSWCCA 322 ......................................................................... EA.46.150 R v Barakat (No 3) [2016] NSWSC 1256 ........................................................... EA.18.120 R v Barbaro (2000) 112 A Crim R 551; [2000] NSWCCA 192 ...... EA.59.180, EA.66.60 R v Barbaro (unreported, NSW CCA, 20 July 1998) ....................................... EA.128.600 R v Barker (1988) 34 A Crim R 141 ..................................................................... EA.76.90 R v Barker [2010] EWCA 4 ............................................................................ EA.165A.210 R v Barrett (2007) 16 VR 240; 171 A Crim R 315; [2007] VSCA 95 ............... EA.89.90, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 R v Barron [1975] VR 496 .................................................................................. EA.20.150 R v Bartle (2003) 181 FLR 1; [2003] NSWCCA 329 ................. EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.110.90 R v Bartlett (unreported, Vic CCA, 14 September 1994) ................................. EA.165.420 R v Barton [2004] NSWCCA 229 ..................................................................... EA.101.185 R v Basanovic (No 4) [2015] NSWSC 1100 ............................................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 R v Baskerville [1916] 2 KB 658 ...................................................................... EA.165.360 R v Beattie (1996) 40 NSWLR 155 ............................................. EA.165.240, EA.165.420 R v Beck [1990] 1 Qd R 30 ................................................................................. EA.81.240 R v Belford (2011) 208 A Crim R 256; [2011] QCA 43 ................. EA.90.270, EA.90.360 R v Bell [2002] NSWCCA 2 .................................................................................. EA.98.60 R v Bell; Ex parte Lees (1980) 146 CLR 141; [1980] HCA 26 ...................... EA.121.120 R v Benecke (1999) 106 A Crim R 282; [1999] NSWCCA 163 ..................... EA.137.150, EA.165.450 R v Bennett (2004) 88 SASR 6; 144 A Crim R 215; [2004] SASC 52 ............. EA.116.90 R v Berry (2007) 17 VR 153; 176 A Crim R 195; [2007] VSCA 202 ............ EA.137.150 R v Beserick (1993) 30 NSWLR 510 ................................................................ EA.141.150 R v Best [1998] 4 VR 603; (1998) 102 A Crim R 56 ....................................... EA.141.120 R v Betancur-Galvis (2003) 142 A Crim R 527; [2003] NSWCCA 333 ......... EA.141.120 R v Bevan [2002] NSWCCA 224 ........................................................................ EA.44.120 R v Bikic [2001] NSWCCA 537 ........................................................................ EA.128.360 R v Birks (1990) 19 NSWLR 677 ...................................................... EA.46.90, EA.46.150 R v Bisht (2013) 234 A Crim R 309; [2013] QCA 238 ...................................... EA.66.300 R v Blackburn [2005] 2 Cr App R 30 ................................................................. EA.85.210 R v Blick (2000) 111 A Crim R 326; [2000] NSWCCA 61 ......... EA.114.240, EA.116.90, EA.137.60, EA.137.210 R v Bolte [2010] SASC 112 ................................................................................. EA.55.180 R v Bonython (1984) 38 SASR 45 ....................................................................... EA.79.120 R v Booty (unreported, NSW CCA, Grove, Abadee, Simpson JJ, 19 December 1994) ......................................................................... EA.41.300, EA.104.120 R v Bormann (2010) 244 FLR 105; [2010] ACTSC 145 ................................. EA.138.120 R v Boskovitz [1999] NSWCCA 437 ................................................................. EA.101.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxiv

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v Bourchas (2002) 113 A Crim R 413; [2002] NSWCCA 373;at [14] ............ EA.4.270 v Bowhay (No 3) [1998] NSWSC 660 ............................................................. EA.137.60 v Boyes (1861) 1 B & S 311; 121 ER 730 .................................................... EA.128.360 v Bozatsis (1997) 97 A Crim R 296 ............................................................... EA.138.420 v Bradshaw (1978) 18 SASR 83 ........................................................................ EA.90.60 v Braham [1976] VR 547 ............................................................................... EA.117.120 v Braun (unreported, NSW SC, Hidden J, 24 October 1997) ........................ EA.85.210 v Brdarovski (2006) 166 A Crim R 366; [2006] VSCA 231 ........................ EA.165.450 v Bretherton [2013] NSWSC 1247 .................................................................. EA.137.60 v Bridgeman (1980) 24 SASR 278 ................................................................ EA.137.150 v Briske [2007] SASC 314 ............................................................................. EA.141.150 v Brooks (1998) 44 NSWLR 121; 102 A Crim R 367 .................................... EA.13.210 v Brooks [2017] NSWSC 188 ..................................... EA.55.90, EA.55.330, EA.184.20 v Brooks (No 3) [2017] NSWSC 261 ........................................... EA.66.120, EA.66.150 v Brown [2011] QCA 16 ................................................................................. EA.101.210 v Browne (1987) 30 A Crim R 278 ................................................................ EA.114.240 v Brownlow (2003) 86 SASR 114; 142 A Crim R 201; [2003] SASC 262 .................................................................................................................... EA.112.60 v Brownlowe (1987) 7 NSWLR 461 .............................................................. EA.114.330 v Bruno (unreported, NSW CCA, Gleeson CJ, Powell JA, Studdert J, 7 July 1997) ........................................................................................................ EA.116.90 v Buchanan (2004) 152 A Crim R 302; [2004] NSWSC 816 ..................... EA.114.180, EA.114.240 v Buckland [1977] 2 NSWLR 452 ................................................................... EA.20.300 v Buckley (2004) 149 A Crim R 122; [2004] VSCA 185 ............................... EA.41.300 v Bueti (1997) 70 SASR 370 .......................................................................... EA.114.330 v Burns (1999) 107 A Crim R 330 .................................................................. EA.46.150 v Burns (2001) 123 A Crim R 226; [2001] SASC 263 ................................. EA.165.480 v Burns (2003) 137 A Crim R 557; [2003] NSWCCA 30 ............................ EA.103.120 v Burrell [2001] NSWSC 120 .......................................................................... EA.137.90 v Burt (2003) 140 A Crim R 555; [2003] NSWCCA 248 ............................ EA.141.150 v Burton (2013) 237 A Crim R 238; [2013] NSWCCA 335 .......... EA.55.60, EA.55.90, EA.90.270, EA.137.90 v C (1993) 60 SASR 467 ................................................................................. EA.79.120 v C, CA [2015] SASCFC 143 ........................................................................ EA.101.360 v CBK [2014] QCA 35 ..................................................................................... EA.141.90 v CHS (2006) 159 A Crim R 560; [2006] VSCA 19 .................................... EA.101.360 v Cakovski (2004) 149 A Crim R 21; [2004] NSWCCA 280 .... EA.97.240, EA.97.450, EA.135.270 v Calides (1983) 34 SASR 355 ...................................................................... EA.141.150 v Callaghan [2001] 4 VR 79; (2001) 124 A Crim R 126; [2001] VSCA 209 .................................................................................................................. EA.114.330 v Camilleri (2001) 127 A Crim R 290; [2001] NSWCCA 527 .................... EA.165.450 v Camilleri (2007) 169 A Crim R 197; [2007] NSWCCA 36 ..................... EA.138.450, EA.138.510, EA.138.540, EA.138.570 v Campbell [2004] NSWCCA 314 ................................................................... EA.55.150 v Campbell (2007) 175 A Crim R 79; [2007] VSCA 189 ....... EA.115.300, EA.165.450 v Campbell (unreported, Vic CCA, 14 November 1994) .............................. EA.165.480 v Capaldo [2015] SASCFC 56 ......................................................................... EA.27.120 v Carbone [2016] NSWSC 1591 ............................................................. EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 v Carpenter (2000) 117 A Crim R 272; [2011] ACTSC 71; 212 A Crim R 1 ......................................................................... EA.114.150, EA.114.240, EA.116.90 v Carroll (1985) 19 A Crim R 410 .................................................................. EA.79.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers]

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R v Carroll (2002) 213 CLR 635; 136 A Crim R 167; [2002] HCA 55 .......... EA.97.390, EA.101.420 R v Carusi (1997) 92 A Crim R 52 .............................................. EA.114.240, EA.115.150 R v Cassar [1999] NSWSC 436 .......................................................................... EA.79.150 R v Cassar, Sleiman and Kalache (Judgment No 12) [1999] NSWSC 352 .... EA.108.120, EA.108.150 R v Cassar (Judgment No 28) [1999] NSWSC 651 ............................................. EA.32.90 R v Cassar and Sleiman (Judgment No 17) [1999] NSWSC 436 ...................... EA.48.180 R v Cassebohm (2011) 109 SASR 465; 209 A Crim R 496; [2011] SASCFC 29 ................................................................................................. EA.165B.210 R v Cavkic (2005) 12 VR 136; [2005] VSCA 182 ............................................. EA.141.90 R v Cavkic, Athanasi and Clarke (No 2) [2009] VSCA 43 .............................. EA.141.120 R v Cavkic (No 2) (2009) 28 VR 341; [2009] VSCA 43 ................ EA.55.330, EA.141.90 R v Ceniccola [2010] NSWSC 1554 ................................................................... EA.110.60 R v Centraco [2005] NSWCCA 11 .................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Central Criminal Court; Ex parte Francis & Francis [1989] AC 346 ....... EA.125.90 R v Cerullo [2003] NSWCCA 201 .................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Chai (1992) 27 NSWLR 153; 60 A Crim R 305 ....................................... EA.165.360 R v Chai [2002] NSWCCA 512 ....................................................................... EA.Intro.350 R v Challita (1988) 37 A Crim R 175 ................................................................. EA.20.150 R v Chami [2004] NSWCCA 36 ........................................................................ EA.137.120 R v Chan (2002) 131 A Crim R 66; [2002] NSWCCA 217 ...... EA.101.150, EA.165.330, EA.165.450 R v Chanthovixay [2004] NSWCCA 285 ..................... EA.55.60, EA.55.330, EA.137.120 R v Chapman [2002] NSWCCA 105 ................................................................... EA.110.60 R v Chase [2018] NSWCCA 71 ........................................................................ EA.101.190 R v Chen (2002) 130 A Crim R 300; [2002] NSWCCA 174 ....................... EA.101A.120, EA.141.150, EA.165.210 R v Cheng [2015] SASCFC 189 .......................................................................... EA.66.300 R v Chin (1985) 157 CLR 671 ......................................................... EA.43.210, EA.106.90 R v Ciantar (2006) 16 VR 26; 167 A Crim R 504; [2006] VSCA 263 ............ EA.55.330, EA.81.60, EA.165.480 R v Cittadini (2008) 189 A Crim R 492; [2008] NSWCCA 256 ..................... EA.101.150 R v Clark (2001) 123 A Crim R 506; [2001] NSWCCA 494 .... EA.101.150, EA.101.270, EA.135.150, EA.135.210, EA.165.90, EA.165.360 R v Clark [2005] VSCA 294 ................................................................................ EA.190.40 R v Clarke (1995) 78 A Crim R 226 ................................................................. EA.141.120 R v Clarke (1997) 97 A Crim R 414 ..... EA.90.60, EA.90.210, EA.114.240, EA.115.300, EA.116.90 R v Clarke (2005) 159 A Crim R 281; [2005] QCA 483 ................................... EA.141.90 R v Clarke (unreported, NSW CCA, 8 March 1996) .......................................... EA.20.150 R v Cliff [2018] NSWSC 78 ................................................................................. EA.137.60 R v Clough (1992) 28 NSWLR 396; 64 A Crim R 451 ................................... EA.165.390 R v Clout (1995) 41 NSWLR 312 ............................................... EA.165.300, EA.165.450 R v Clune (1999) 72 SASR 420 ....................................................... EA.20.180, EA.39.120 R v Clune (No 1) [1975] VR 723 ........................................................................ EA.39.240 R v Coates (unreported, WA CCA, 1 March 1994) ............................................ EA.116.90 R v Coe [2002] NSWCCA 385 ................ EA.41.300, EA.89.90, EA.114.240, EA.116.90, EA.165.270 R v Colby [1999] NSWCCA 261 ....... EA.101.90, EA.101.120, EA.101.240, EA.101.300, EA.101.360 R v Colley [2003] NSWCCA 323 ........................................................................ EA.79.150 R v Collins [2001] NSWCCA 386 ..................................................................... EA.165.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxvi

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v Collisson (2003) 139 A Crim R 389; [2003] NSWCCA 212 .................... EA.128.540 v Colville (2003) 137 A Crim R 543; [2003] NSWCCA 23 ........................... EA.20.180 v Congressi (1974) 9 SASR 257 .................................................................... EA.104.240 v Conley (1982) 30 SASR 226 ....................................................................... EA.115.150 v Connors [2000] NSWCCA 470 ............................................. EA.165.210, EA.165.480 v Cook [2004] NSWCCA 52 ............. EA.81.60, EA.137.120, EA.137.210, EA.165.480 v Cook (unreported, NSW CCA, 24 August 1998) .................... EA.116.90, EA.116.120 v Coombe (unreported, NSW CCA, Hunt CJ ............................ EA.138.60, EA.138.240 v Cooney [2013] NSWCCA 312 ........................................................................ EA.90.60 v Copeland (1997) 194 LSJS 1 ...................................................................... EA.165.480 v Corak (1982) 30 SASR 404 ........................................................................ EA.104.240 v Cordell [2009] VSCA 128 ........................................................................... EA.141.150 v Corish (2006) 96 SASR 207; 170 A Crim R 162; [2006] SASC 369 ........ EA.55.180 v Corke (1989) 41 A Crim R 292 .................................................................. EA.114.330 v Cornelissen [2004] NSWCCA 449 ...................... EA.83.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.360 v Cornell [2015] NSWCCA 258 ................................ EA.192A.40, EA.95.60, EA.98.90 v Cornwell (2003) 57 NSWLR 82; 141 A Crim R 164; [2003] NSWSC 97 .................................................................................................................... EA.138.120 v Cosford and McDonnell-Smith [2007] SASC 147 ..................................... EA.141.120 v Coss [2015] QCA 33 ..................................................................................... EA.66.300 v Coswello [2009] VSCA 300 .......................................................................... EA.46.120 v Coulstock (1998) 99 A Crim R 143 ............................................................ EA.138.240 v Covill (2000) 114 A Crim R 111; [2000] NSWCCA 231 .......................... EA.165.240 v Cox & Railton (1884) 14 QBD 153 .............................................................. EA.125.90 v Crampton (1991) 92 Cr App R 372 .............................................................. EA.85.210 v Creamer (1989) 43 A Crim R 92 ................................................................ EA.136.240 v Creed [2000] NSWCCA 280 ....................................................................... EA.165.540 v Crisologo (1998) 99 A Crim R 178 .......................................... EA.66.60, EA.135.270 v Cuenco (2007) 16 VR 118; [2007] VSCA 41 ................................................ EA.89.90 v Cummins (2004) 10 VR 15; 147 A Crim R 585; [2004] VSCA 164 ........ EA.101.150 v Cunningham (1992) 61 A Crim R 412 ......................................................... EA.26.150 v D (1997) 45 NSWLR 744; 98 A Crim R 151 .............................................. EA.20.180 v D [2008] 2 ACTLR 225; [2008] ACTSC 82 .............................................. EA.114.180 v DBG (2002) 133 A Crim R 227; [2002] NSWCCA 328 .... EA.108.150, EA.136.150, EA.165.210, EA.165.480 v DCC (2004) 11 VR 129; 151 A Crim R 4; [2004] VSCA 230 ................. EA.101.360 v DG (2010) 28 VR 127; [2010] VSCA 173 ................................................... EA.137.60 v DM [2006] QCA 79 ....................................................................................... EA.66.300 v D’Orta-Ekenaike [1998] 2 VR 140; (1998) 99 A Crim R 454 ..................... EA.81.60, EA.165.480 v DRF [2015] NSWCCA 181 ......................................................... EA.90.90, EA.90.270 v DRG (2004) 150 A Crim R 496; [2004] SASC 394 .......... EA.165B.270, EA.101.360 v Da Silva [1990] 1 WLR 31; [1990] 1 All ER 29 ......................................... EA.32.360 v Dalley (2002) 132 A Crim R 169; [2002] NSWCCA 284 ........................ EA.138.150, EA.138.510, EA.138.570 v Damic [1982] 2 NSWLR 750 ....................................................................... EA.27.120 v Daniel (2010) 207 A Crim R 449; [2010] SASCFC 62 ............................ EA.141.150 v Dann [2000] NSWCCA 185 .......... EA.55.570, EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.135.210, EA.137.60, EA.137.120 v Darmody (2010) 25 VR 209; 213 A Crim R 79; [2010] VSCA 41 .... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.Intro.300 v Darrington (1979) 1 A Crim R 124 ................................................................ EA.80.90 [All references are to paragraph numbers]

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R v Darwiche (2006) 166 A Crim R 28; [2006] NSWSC 924 ...... EA.59.180, EA.114.90, EA.114.240, EA.115.150, EA.115.180, EA.116.90 R v Davari [2016] QCA 222 .............................................................................. EA.165.480 R v Davies (2005) 11 VR 314; 153 A Crim R 217; [2005] VSCA 90 ............ EA.114.150 R v Davis [1999] NSWCCA 15 ..................................................... EA.20.180, EA.165.480 R v Davis [2007] VSCA 276 ................................................................................ EA.41.300 R v Dawson-Ryan (2009) 104 SASR 571; [2009] SASC 259 .......................... EA.101.240 R v De-Cressac (1985) 1 NSWLR 381 ............................................................. EA.114.240 R v Dean (No 2) (unreported, NSW SC, Dunford J, 12 March 1997) ............. EA.32.180, EA.65.150, EA.65.180 R v Debono (2012) 225 A Crim R 585; [2012] VSC 476 ................................ EA.130.360 R v Debs (2008) 191 A Crim R 231; [2008] VSCA 240 .................................. EA.101.150 R v Delaney (1989) 88 Cr App R 338 ................................................................. EA.85.210 R v Demiroz [2003] NSWCCA 146 ..................................................................... EA.116.90 R v Deng [2001] NSWCCA 153 ........................................................................ EA.139.150 R v Dennis [1999] NSWCCA 23 ..................................................... EA.41.300, EA.46.150 R v Dennis Bauer (a pseudonym) (No 2) [2017] HCATrans 269 ....................... EA.97.120 R v Derbas (1993) 66 A Crim R 327 ................................................................ EA.165.420 R v Diamond (unreported, NSW CCA, 19 June 1998) ..................................... EA.104.180 R v Dickman (2017) 91 ALJR 686; [2017] HCA 24 .................... EA.114.240, EA.137.60, EA.137.90, EA.137.120, EA.137.150 R v Diez-Orozco [2003] NSWSC 1050 ........................................ EA.165.240, EA.165.360 R v Dimian (1995) 83 A Crim R 358 .................................................................. EA.189.40 R v Dixon (1992) 28 NSWLR 215 ...................................................................... EA.85.120 R v Dixon [2001] NSWCCA 39 ................................................... EA.101.360, EA.108.210 R v Dlugosz [2013] EWCA Crim 2; [2013] 1 Cr App R 32 .............................. EA.79.120 R v Dodd (2002) 135 A Crim R 32; [2002] NSWCCA 418 ............................. EA.116.120 R v Doherty (2003) 6 VR 393; [2003] VSCA 158 ........................................... EA.141.120 R v Doney (2001) 126 A Crim R 271; [2001] NSWCCA 463 ......................... EA.165.480 R v Donnelly (1997) 96 A Crim R 432 ....................... EA.85.150, EA.85.210, EA.90.240, EA.189.140 R v Dookheea (2017) 91 ALJR 960; [2017] HCA 36 ........................................ EA.141.90 R v Doolan [2014] QCA 246 ............................................................................. EA.165.480 R v Drollett [2005] NSWCCA 356 ................................. EA.55.270, EA.76.90, EA.79.150 R v Duckworth [2016] QCA 30 ........................................................................... EA.55.330 R v Dudko (2002) 132 A Crim R 371; [2002] NSWCCA 336 ........................... EA.69.240 R v Duncan [2004] NSWCCA 431 ................................................ EA.84.150, EA.114.180 R v Dungay (2001) 126 A Crim R 216; [2001] NSWCCA 443 ........................... EA.90.60 R v Dupas (2010) 211 A Crim R 81; [2011] VSC 180 .................. EA.79.120, EA.80.150, EA.135.270 R v Dupas (No 3) [2009] VSCA 202 ............................................. EA.116.90, EA.165.390 R v Duryea (2008) 103 SASR 70; 192 A Crim R 286; [2008] SASC 363 ..... EA.101.150 R v Dwyer [1999] NSWCCA 47 ........................................................................ EA.141.150 R v Dyers (unreported, NSW CCA, Grove, Newman, Hidden JJ, 24 October 1997) .................................................................................................... EA.66.60 R v E (1995) 89 A Crim R 325 .......................................................................... EA.141.150 R v EG [2002] ACTSC 85 ................................................................................... EA.13.300 R v ERJ (2010) 200 A Crim R 270; [2010] VSCA 61 ..................................... EA.165.540 R v Eade (2000) 118 A Crim R 449; [2000] NSWCCA 369 ........................... EA.138.240 R v Eade (2002) 131 A Crim R 390; [2002] NSWCCA 257 ............................. EA.37.150 R v Eades [1972] Crim LR 99 ........................................................................... EA.106.240 R v Edelsten (1990) 21 NSWLR 542; 51 A Crim R 397 ................................... EA.90.300 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxviii

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R v Edwards (unreported, Vic CCA, Charles, Callaway JJA, Vincent AJA, 20 December 1995) ....................................................................................... EA.141.120 R v El-Azzi [2004] NSWCCA 455 ....... EA.101.360, EA.103.60, EA.104.90, EA.104.180, EA.112.60, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 R v El-Hayek (2004) 144 A Crim R 90; [2004] NSWCCA 25 ....................... EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.165.480 R v El-Kheir [2004] NSWCCA 461 ........ EA.110.90, EA.112.60, EA.165.480, EA.192.40 R v El Masri [2010] NSWSC 1277 ..................................................................... EA.65.240 R v El Mostafa (2007) 6 DCLR(NSW) 305; [2007] NSWDC 326 .................. EA.115.150 R v Eldridge [2002] NSWCCA 205 ............................................... EA.114.240, EA.116.90 R v Ellem [1994] 2 Qd R 549; (1994) 75 A Crim R 370 ................................. EA.104.120 R v Ellis [1910] 2 KB 747 ............................................................................... EA.Intro.350 R v Ellis (1998) 100 A Crim R 49 ....................................................................... EA.20.180 R v Ellis (2003) 58 NSWLR 700; 144 A Crim R 1; [2003] NSWCCA 319 .... EA.98.120, EA.101.60, EA.101.180, EA.101.240, EA.101.450, EA.104.180, EA.112.60 R v Ellis (2010) 107 SASR 94; 199 A Crim R 249; [2010] SASC 118 .......... EA.101.240 R v Em [2003] NSWCCA 374 ................. EA.90.90, EA.90.210, EA.137.60, EA.137.150, EA.138.120, EA.138.270 R v Esho; R v Sako [2001] NSWCCA 415 .................... EA.38.150, EA.81.60, EA.192.80 R v Esposito (1998) 45 NSWLR 442; 105 A Crim R 27 .............. EA.27.120, EA.38.150, EA.66.210, EA.81.60, EA.85.210, EA.85.240, EA.85.270, EA.85.300, EA.135.210 R v Evan (2006) 175 A Crim R 1; [2006] QCA 527 .......................................... EA.116.90 R v Everitt [1921] VLR 245 ................................................................................. EA.110.90 R v Eyles [2002] NSWCCA 510 .......................................................................... EA.97.120 R v F (2002) 129 A Crim R 126; [2002] NSWCCA 125 ........... EA.101.120, EA.101.240 R v FAE [2014] QCA 69 .................................................................................... EA.165.480 R v FD (2006) 160 A Crim R 392; [2006] NSWCCA 31 .................................... EA.53.90 R v FE [2013] NSWSC 1692 ............... EA.90.150, EA.90.210, EA.138.120, EA.138.540, EA.139.120 R v Fahad (2004) 146 A Crim R 169; [2004] VSCA 28 .................................. EA.116.120 R v Fairbairn [2011] ACTSC 78; 212 A Crim R 32 ....................... EA.59.180, EA.66.60, EA.Intro.120 R v Falzon [2018] HCATrans 68 ........................................................................... EA.55.90 R v Falzon (No 2) [1993] 1 Qd R 618 .............................................................. EA.165.360 R v Familic (1994) 75 A Crim R 229 ...................... EA.89.150, EA.101.210, EA.141.120 R v Farler (1837) 8 C & P 106 ......................................................................... EA.165.360 R v Farr (2001) 118 A Crim R 399; [2001] NSWSC 3 ................................... EA.138.270 R v Favata [2006] VSCA 44 .............................................................................. EA.165.450 R v Feiloakitau (unreported, Qld CA, 14 December 1993) .............................. EA.114.240 R v Ferguson (2009) 24 VR 531; [2009] VSCA 198 ...................... EA.46.120, EA.46.150 R v Fernando [1999] NSWCCA 66 ......... EA.78.60, EA.90.60, EA.165.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.450 R v Fetherston [2006] VSCA 278 ...................................................................... EA.101.360 R v Filitis [2004] NSWCCA 68 ......................................................................... EA.114.240 R v Finlay (2007) 178 A Crim R 373; [2007] QCA 400 .................................. EA.165.300 R v Finn (2014) 119 SASR 207; [2014] SASCFC 46 ................................... EA.165B.210 R v Fish (2002) 131 A Crim R 172; [2002] NSWCCA 196 ............................ EA.164.150 R v Fisher [2001] NSWCCA 380 ............................. EA.114.120, EA.114.240, EA.116.90 R v Flavel [2001] NSWCCA 227 ...................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Fleming [2017] SASCFC 135 ..................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Fletcher (2005) 156 A Crim R 308; [2005] NSWCCA 338 ....................... EA.97.120, EA.97.480, EA.98.450, EA.101.60, EA.101.195, EA.101.450 R v Fletcher [2015] NSWSC 1630 ...................................................................... EA.18.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Flood [1999] NSWCCA 198 ................................................. EA.165.240, EA.165.330 Folbigg [2003] NSWCCA 17 ...................................................................... EA.101.210 Folbigg (2005) 152 A Crim R 35; [2005] NSWCCA 23 ........................... EA.101.360 Foley [2000] 1 Qd R 290; (2000) 105 A Crim R 1 ..................................... EA.46.150 Folli [2001] NSWCCA 531 ...................................................................... EA.165B.270 Ford [1998] NSWSC 96 .............................................................................. EA.114.180 Ford [2006] QCA 142 ................................................................................. EA.165.480 Ford (2009) 201 A Crim R 451; [2009] NSWCCA 306 ......... EA.55.390, EA.55.600, EA.97.120, EA.97.480, EA.101.190, EA.101.195, EA.101.450, EA.137.210 v Fordham (1997) 98 A Crim R 359 .................. EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.101.360 v Fowler (1985) 39 SASR 440 ........................................................................ EA.79.240 v Fowler [2000] NSWCCA 142 ................................ EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.165.480 v Fowler (2003) 151 A Crim R 166; [2003] NSWCCA 321 ....................... EA.141.120, EA.165.90, EA.165.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.450, EA.165.480, EA.192.100 v Fowler (unreported, NSW SC, 15 May 1997) ........................ EA.103.60, EA.103.120 v Frangulis [2006] NSWCCA 363 ................................................................... EA.90.270 v Franicevic [2010] QCA 36 ............................................................................ EA.116.90 v Fraser [1998] NSWSC 286 ......................................................................... EA.101.360 v Frazer [2002] NSWCCA 59 .......................................................................... EA.184.20 v Frugtniet [1999] 2 VR 293; (1999) 107 A Crim R 161; [1999] VSCA 58 .................................................................................................. EA.85.150, EA.139.90 v Fuge (2001) 123 A Crim R 310; [2001] NSWCCA 208 ........................... EA.165.480 v Fuller [2001] NSWCCA 390 ...................................................................... EA.165.480 v Fulling [1987] QB 426 ................................................................ EA.84.60, EA.85.210 v Fung (2002) 136 A Crim R 95; [2002] NSWCCA 479 ............................. EA.101.150 v G [1997] 2 VR 609 ...................................................................................... EA.101.360 v G [2005] NSWCCA 291 .................................................................................. EA.81.60 v GA (unreported, NSW CCA, Gleeson CJ, James J, Sperling J, 17 July 1997) ................................................................................................................ EA.85.210 v GAC (2007) 178 A Crim R 408; [2007] NSWCCA 315 ..... EA.101.190, EA.101.450, EA.137.60 v GAC (unreported, NSW CCA, Gleeson CJ, McInerney, Sully JJ, 1 April 1997) ......................................... EA.38.150, EA.135.90, EA.137.60, EA.192.100 v GAJ [2011] QCA 141 .................................................................................... EA.20.180 v GAO [2012] QCA 54 ................................................................................... EA.165.480 v GAR [2003] NSWCCA 224 ............................. EA.135.180, EA.137.150, EA.165.480 v GED (2003) 141 A Crim R 135; [2003] NSWCCA 296 ............................. EA.46.150 v GH (2000) 105 FCR 419; [2000] FCA 1618 ................................ EA.81.60, EA.84.60 v GJH (2001) 122 A Crim R 361; [2001] NSWCCA 128 ............................ EA.165.480 v GK (2001) 53 NSWLR 317; 125 A Crim R 315; [2001] NSWCCA 413 ..................................................... EA.79.240, EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.137.150 v GM [2016] NSWCCA 78 ..................................... EA.97.120, EA.98.120, EA.101.240 v GTN (2003) 6 VR 150; [2003] VSCA 38 ................................................... EA.165.480 v GVV (2008) 20 VR 395; 184 A Crim R 242; [2008] VSCA 170 .......... EA.165B.270, EA.101.360, EA.165.480 v GW (2016) 90 ALJR 407; [2016] HCA 6 ............ EA.13.180, EA.13.270, EA.13.330, EA.165.180 v Gale (2012) 217 A Crim R 487; [2012] NSWCCA 174 ............ EA.98.90, EA.98.120 v Galea (2004) 148 A Crim R 220; [2004] NSWCCA 227 ........ EA.103.60, EA.141.90 v Gallagher [1998] 2 VR 671; (1997) 96 A Crim R 300 ................................. EA.89.90 v Gallagher [2013] NSWSC 1102 ................................................................... EA.90.240 v Gallagher [2015] NSWCCA 228 ..................... EA.138.570, EA.138.630, EA.138.660 v Galli (2001) 127 A Crim R 493; [2001] NSWCCA 504 ........................... EA.137.150 v v v v v v v v

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Gao [2003] NSWCCA 390 .............................................................................. EA.81.60 Gardner (2001) 123 A Crim R 439; [2001] NSWCCA 381 ........................ EA.20.270 Garlin (1991) 56 A Crim R 195 ............................................ EA.114.300, EA.115.360 Garth (1994) 73 A Crim R 215 .................................................................... EA.90.240 Gassy (No 3) [2005] SASC 496 .................................................................. EA.141.120 Gazzignato (2004) 143 A Crim R 584; [2004] TASSC 6 ............................ EA.85.210 Gee (2000) 113 A Crim R 376; [2000] NSWCCA 198 ............ EA.59.180, EA.66.60, EA.101.360, EA.114.60, EA.114.90, EA.115.60 v Gemmill (2004) 8 VR 242; [2004] VSCA 72 ............................................... EA.79.480 v George (1981) 4 A Crim R 12 ...................................................................... EA.20.150 v Georgiev (2001) 119 A Crim R 363; [2001] VSCA 18 ............................. EA.101.150 v Georgiou (2005) 153 A Crim R 288; [2005] NSWCCA 189 ...................... EA.59.180 v Georgiou [2005] NSWCCA 237 .................................................. EA.48.60, EA.48.180 v Gibbs (2004) 154 ACTR 1; 146 A Crim R 503; [2004] ACTSC 63 ........ EA.101.180 v Gibson (1999) 110 A Crim R 180; [1999] NSWCCA 370 ....... EA.59.90, EA.59.180, EA.114.240 v Gibson [2002] NSWCCA 401 ................................................. EA.114.210, EA.137.60 v Gilbert (unreported, NSW CCA, Grove, Levine, Dowd JJ, 10 December 1998) ......................................................................... EA.41.300, EA.101.360 v Gillard (1999) 105 A Crim R 479; [1999] NSWCCA 21 ............................ EA.66.180 v Gilmore [1977] 2 NSWLR 935 ..................................................................... EA.79.120 v Giovannone (2002) 140 A Crim R 1; [2002] NSWCCA 323 ..................... EA.48.180, EA.101.150, EA.101.360 v Giri (2001) 121 A Crim R 568; [2001] NSWCCA 197 ......... EA.20.180, EA.165.450 v Gittany (No 3) (2013) 238 A Crim R 149; [2013] NSWSC 1670 ............ EA.122.180 v Glasby (2000) 115 A Crim R 465; [2000] NSWCCA 83 ............. EA.8.60, EA.18.60, EA.59.180, EA.165.480 v Glencourse (1995) 78 A Crim R 256 .......................................................... EA.165.480 v Glennon (No 2) (2001) 7 VR 631 ............................................................... EA.101.360 v Glennon (No 3) [2005] VSCA 262 ............................................................. EA.101.360 v Glossop [2001] NSWCCA 165 ................................................................... EA.137.120 v Glover [2002] NSWCCA 376 ..................................................................... EA.165.450 v Goldenburg (1988) 88 Cr App R 285 ........................................................... EA.85.210 v Gonzalez-Betes [2001] NSWCCA 226 ................................. EA.101A.120, EA.108.60 v Goodall [1982] VR 33 ................................................................................. EA.114.240 v Goss [2007] VSCA 116 ............................................................................... EA.165.480 v Gould [2009] VSCA 130 ............................................................................. EA.165.480 v Gover (2000) 118 A Crim R 8; [2000] NSWCCA 303 ............... EA.8.90, EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.65.210 v Graham (unreported, NSW CCA, Newman, Levine, Barr JJ, 2 September 1997) .............................................................................................. EA.89.150 v Grant (2001) 127 A Crim R 312; [2001] NSWCCA 486 ............................ EA.90.300 v Grattan [2005] NSWCCA 306 .................................................. EA.66.60, EA.101.150 v Gray (2004) 150 A Crim R 496; [2004] SASC 394 .................................. EA.165.480 v Greciun-King [1981] 2 NSWLR 469 ............................................................ EA.20.150 v Green (unreported, NSW CCA, 17 December 1993) ................................. EA.165.420 v Greenham [1999] NSWCCA 8 .......................... EA.97.450, EA.101.150, EA.101.360 v Grogan (No 2) [2013] NSWSC 1192 ......................................................... EA.137.120 v H (1996) 85 A Crim R 481 ........................................................................... EA.84.150 v H (1997) 42 NSWLR 702; 98 A Crim R 71 .... EA.97.450, EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.101.360 v H (1997) 92 A Crim R 168 ........................................................... EA.60.60, EA.66.60 v H [1999] NSWCCA 255 .............................................................................. EA.136.150 v v v v v v v

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HAB [2006] QCA 80 ..................................................................................... EA.66.300 HBO [2017] QCA 18 ................................................................................ EA.165B.270 HJS [2000] NSWCCA 205 .......................................................................... EA.108.210 HMB [2000] NSWCCA 554 ........................................................................ EA.114.240 Hackett [2006] VSCA 138 ........................................................................... EA.116.120 Haddad (2000) 116 A Crim R 12; [2000] NSWCCA 351 ......................... EA.138.150 Hagarty (2004) 145 A Crim R 138; [2004] NSWCCA 89 ....................... EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 v Haidley [1984] VR 229 ............................................................................... EA.114.240 v Hall (1988) 36 A Crim R 368 ....................................................................... EA.79.480 v Hall [2001] NSWSC 827 ............................................................. EA.48.180, EA.88.60 v Hamilton (1993) 68 A Crim R 298 ............................................................... EA.110.60 v Hamilton (unreported, NSW CCA, 26 March 1996) ................................. EA.141.120 v Hannes (2000) 158 FLR 359; [2000] NSWCCA 503 ............ EA.66A.60, EA.59.210, EA.81.240 v Hanrahan [1967] 2 NSWR 717 .................................................................. EA.103.120 v Harbulot [2003] NSWCCA 141 ........................ EA.165.90, EA.165.240, EA.165.270 v Hare [2007] SASC 427 ............................................................................... EA.165.480 v Harker [2004] NSWCCA 427 ..... EA.100.60, EA.101.185, EA.101.190, EA.101.195, EA.101.450, EA.192.40 v Hart (2002) 131 A Crim R 609; [2002] NSWCCA 313 .............................. EA.110.60 v Hartley (unreported, SA CCA, Prior, Ollson, Perry, 6 September 1994) .............................................................................................................. EA.165.450 v Hartwick [2005] VSCA 264 ........................................................................ EA.165.480 v Harvey [1988] Crim LR 241 ......................................................................... EA.85.210 v Harvey (unreported, NSW CCA, Beazley JA, Smart, James JJ, 11 December 1996) ................................................................................................ EA.78.60 v Hasan [2005] 2 Cr App R 22 .......................................................................... EA.81.60 v Haughbro (1997) 135 ACTR 15 ...................... EA.138.150, EA.138.420, EA.138.690 v Hawes (1994) 35 NSWLR 294 ..................................................................... EA.44.120 v Hawi (No 2) (2011) 216 A Crim R 64; [2011] NSWSC 1648 ................. EA.130.150, EA.130.390 v Heaney (2009) 22 VR 164; 194 A Crim R 562; [2009] VSCA 74; ............ EA.46.150 v Heaton [1993] Crim LR 593 ........................................................................... EA.84.60 v Hein (2013) 117 SASR 444; [2013] SASCFC 97 .......................................... EA.90.60 v Heinze (2005) 153 A Crim R 380; [2005] VSCA 124 ................................. EA.55.180 v Hellwig [2007] 1 Qd R 17; 161 A Crim R 489; [2006] QCA 179 ............. EA.66.300 v Helmhout (2000) 112 A Crim R 10; [2000] NSWSC 208 ........................... EA.90.240 v Helmhout [2000] NSWSC 185 ...................................................................... EA.85.210 v Helmhout (2001) 125 A Crim R 257; [2001] NSWCCA 372 ....................... EA.90.60, EA.138.270, EA.138.420, EA.138.450, EA.138.480, EA.138.540, EA.138.570, EA.138.690 v Henderson [2010] EWCA Crim 1269 ........................................................... EA.79.480 v Hennessy [2001] NSWCCA 36 ......... EA.114.60, EA.114.90, EA.115.60, EA.165.450 v Hentschel [1988] VR 362 ............................................................................ EA.114.330 v Heron (The Times, 22 November 1993) ......................................................... EA.84.60 v Hettiarachchi [2009] VSCA 270 ................................................................... EA.110.90 v Heuston (1995) 81 A Crim R 387 ................................................................. EA.116.90 v Heuston (2003) 140 A Crim R 422; [2003] NSWCCA 172 ................... EA.165B.270 v Heyes (2006) 12 VR 401; 160 A Crim R 435; [2006] VSCA 86 ................ EA.81.60, EA.165.480 v Hickey (1995) 89 A Crim R 554 ................................................................. EA.165.330 v Hilder (1997) 97 A Crim R 70 ...................................................................... EA.60.150 v v v v v v v

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Table of Cases

R v Hill [2014] QCA 107 ..................................................................................... EA.55.330 R v Hines (No 2) (2014) 242 A Crim R 316; [2014] NSWSC 990 .................... EA.26.60, EA.26.150 R v Hirst (2013) 116 SASR 300; [2013] SASCFC 54 ..................................... EA.165.480 R v Ho (2002) 130 A Crim R 545; [2002] NSWCCA 147 .............................. EA.165.480 R v Hodge [2002] NSWCCA 10 .......................................................... EA.81.60, EA.89.90 R v Hogan [2001] NSWCCA 292 ...................................................... EA.38.60, EA.38.150 R v Holland [2002] NSWCCA 469 ................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Hore [2005] NSWCCA 3 ....................................................... EA.128.540, EA.128.690 R v Horsfall (1989) 44 A Crim R 345 ........................................... EA.137.60, EA.165.450 R v Horton (1998) 104 A Crim R 306 ................................................. EA.56.60, EA.81.60 R v Houssein [2003] NSWCCA 74 ................................................ EA.37.150, EA.104.180 R v Howard (2005) 152 A Crim R 7; [2005] NSWCCA 25 .............. EA.56.60, EA.78.60, EA.79.120 R v Hudson [2016] QCA 80 ............................................................................... EA.165.270 R v Humble (2009) 193 A Crim R 324; [2009] SASC 51 ................................ EA.165.480 R v Hunt [2003] NSWCCA 301 ........................................................................ EA.165.480 R v Hunt (2014) 286 FLR 59; [2014] NTSC 19 ......................... EA.138.120, EA.138.540 R v Hunter [2014] QCA 59 ................................................................................ EA.165.480 R v Hutton (1932) 32 SR (NSW) 282 ................................................................... EA.31.60 R v IK (2004) 89 SASR 406; 147 A Crim R 237; [2004] SASC 280 ............ EA.101.360, EA.141.120 R v Ibrahim [2001] NSWCCA 72 ........................................................................ EA.137.60 R v Ibrahim [2007] NSWSC 1140 ....................................................................... EA.55.180 R v Inamata (2003) 137 A Crim R 510; [2003] NSWCCA 19 ..... EA.114.240, EA.116.90 R v Inston (2009) 103 SASR 265; [2009] SASC 89 ........................................ EA.101.240 R v J [2000] NSWCCA 246 ........................................................... EA.101.150, EA.110.90 R v J (2005) 154 A Crim R 139; [2005] VSCA 153 ..................................... EA.165B.270 R v J-LJ [2000] 2 SCR 600 .......................................... EA.79.120, EA.79.300, EA.110.60 R v J [No 2] [1998] 3 VR 602 .......................................................................... EA.165.480 R v JBV [2002] NSWCCA 212 .......................................................................... EA.165.450 R v JCG (2001) 127 A Crim R 493; [2001] NSWCCA 504 ............................ EA.165.480 R v JF (2009) 237 FLR 142; [2009] ACTSC 104 ................................................ EA.84.60 R v JGW [1999] NSWCCA 116 ....................................................... EA.184.20, EA.191.20 R v JJN [2003] NSWCCA 402 ............................... EA.165.270, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 R v JK [2005] QCA 307 ..................................................................................... EA.165.480 R v JL [2007] QCA 131 ..................................................................................... EA.165.480 R v JRW [2014] NTSC 52 .................................................................................... EA.97.120 R v JS (2007) 175 A Crim R 108; [2007] NSWCCA 272 .............................. EA.Intro.300 R v JSM (2013) 117 SASR 535; 235 A Crim R 73; [2013] SASCFC 96 ...... EA.103.120, EA.108.60 R v JTB [2003] NSWCCA 295 ........................................................ EA.13.210, EA.13.300 R v Jack (1894) 15 LR (NSW) 196 ..................................................................... EA.45.150 R v Jackson (1987) 8 NSWLR 116 ....................................................................... EA.10.60 R v Jacobs (2004) 151 A Crim R 452; [2004] NSWCCA 462 ....................... EA.165.210, EA.165.240, EA.165.360 R v Jacobson (Ruling No 5) [2014] VSC 554 ................................... EA.56.60, EA.135.90 R v Jakimov [2007] VSCA 9 .............................................................................. EA.165.480 R v Jamal (2000) 116 A Crim R 45; [2000] FCA 1195 .............. EA.114.180, EA.114.240 R v James (unreported, NSW CCA, 30 July 1998) ..................... EA.118.120, EA.118.600 R v Jamieson (1992) 60 A Crim R 68 ............................................. EA.79.120, EA.137.60 R v Jang [1999] NSWSC 1040 .................................... EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.65.210 R v Jarrett [2012] NSWCCA 81 .......................................................................... EA.90.240 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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R R R R R R R R R R R R R

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R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

Jeffrey (1991) 60 A Crim R 384 .................................................................... EA.79.240 Jenkyns (1993) 71 A Crim R 1 ................................................ EA.137.60, EA.165.450 Jennings [2010] NSWCCA 193 ................................................. EA.46.60, EA.101.190 Jensen (2009) 23 VR 591; [2009] VSCA 266 ............................................. EA.55.180 Jiminez (2000) 119 A Crim R 299; [2000] NSWCCA 390 ...................... EA.138.120, EA.165.450 v Johnson [2013] QCA 91 .............................................................................. EA.141.150 v Johnston (1998) 45 NSWLR 362 ................. EA.165B.270, EA.165.450, EA.165.480, EA.165.540 v Johnston [2004] NSWCCA 58 ......................... EA.165.210, EA.165.240, EA.165.360 v Joiner (2002) 133 A Crim R 90; [2002] NSWCCA 354 ........................... EA.101.210 v Jones [1978] 2 All ER 718 ........................................................ EA.48.210, EA.69.120 v Jovanovic (1997) 42 NSWLR 520 .............................................................. EA.165.480 v Jung [2006] NSWSC 658 .............................................................................. EA.79.180 v Juric (2002) 4 VR 411; 129 A Crim R 408; [2002] VSCA 77 .................. EA.79.240, EA.90.270, EA.137.150 v K (1997) 96 A Crim R 443 .................................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.540 v K (2003) 59 NSWLR 431; 144 A Crim R 468; [2003] NSWCCA 406 ....... EA.9.120, EA.137.60 v KDY (2008) 185 A Crim R 270; [2008] VSCA 104 .................................. EA.141.150 v KH [2002] ACTSC 108 ............................................................................... EA.110.120 v Kalajdic (2005) 157 A Crim R 300; [2005] VSCA 160 ............................ EA.165.480 v Kalazjich (1989) 39 A Crim R 415 ............................................................. EA.101.150 v Kaldor (2004) 150 A Crim R 271; [2004] NSWCCA 425 ........................ EA.141.120 v Karger (2002) 83 SASR 135; [2002] SASC 294 ......................................... EA.79.480 v Kassoua [1999] NSWCCA 13 ..................................................................... EA.101.150 v Kaukura (unreported, NSW SC, Badgery-Parker J, 13 August 1997) ........ EA.32.180 v Kazzi (2003) 140 A Crim R 545; [2003] NSWCCA 241 ................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.65.150 v Keir (2002) 127 A Crim R 198; [2002] NSWCCA 30 .............................. EA.165.480 v Kelsall (No 3) (2015) 249 A Crim R 148; [2015] NSWSC 253 ............ EA.126B.300 v Kemble (1990) 91 Cr App R 178 .................................................................. EA.23.120 v Kennedy [1998] NSWSC 671 ................................................ EA.165.450, EA.165.480 v Kesisyan [2003] NSWCCA 259 .............................................. EA.60.150, EA.165.480 v Khan (unreported, NSW SC, Hidden J, 22 November 1995) ...................... EA.18.120 v Khazaal [2006] NSWSC 1061 .................................................................... EA.130.390 v Kingswell [1998] NSWSC 412 .............................. EA.38.240, EA.38.270, EA.116.90 v Kirby [2000] NSWCCA 330 .............. EA.53.90, EA.114.90, EA.115.60, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 v Klamo (2008) 18 VR 644; 184 A Crim R 262; [2008] VSCA 75 ............... EA.79.480 v Klobucar [2013] ACTSC 118 .......................................................................... EA.78.60 v Kneebone (1999) 47 NSWLR 450; [1999] NSWCCA 279 ........ EA.38.60, EA.38.150 v Knight (2001) 120 A Crim R 381; [2001] NSWCCA 114 ............................. EA.81.60 v Knight [2005] NSWCCA 241 .......................... EA.137.120, EA.165.240, EA.165.450 v Knight [2010] QCA 372 .............................................................................. EA.165.450 v Koeleman [2000] 2 VR 20; [2000] VSCA 141 .......................................... EA.141.120 v Kolalich (unreported, NSW CCA, Gleeson CJ, Newman, Hidden JJ, 17 June 1996) ................................................................................................ EA.138.150 v Kostaras (2002) 133 A Crim R 399; [2002] SASC 326 ............................ EA.101.360 v Kostic (2004) 151 A Crim R 10; [2004] SASC 406 .................................. EA.114.240 v Kotzmann [1999] 2 VR 123; (1999) 105 A Crim R 243; [1999] VSCA 27 .............................................................. EA.79.480, EA.141.120, EA.165.450 v v v v v

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Uniform Evidence Law

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Table of Cases

R v Kovacs (2000) 111 A Crim R 374; [2000] NSWCCA 74 ..... EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.137.60 R v Kragujevic (unreported, SA CCA, Prior, Olsson, Duggan JJ, 17 April 1996) ................................................................................................................ EA.20.180 R v Kranz (1991) 53 A Crim R 331 .................................................................. EA.165.420 R v Krezic [2017] QCA 122 ................................................................................. EA.90.270 R v Kuruvinakunnel [2012] QCA 330 ............................................................... EA.141.120 R v Kuzmanovic [2005] NSWSC 771 .................................................................. EA.65.150 R v L, GA [2015] SASCFC 166 ........................................................................... EA.27.120 R v LB (2011) 246 FLR 466; [2011] NTCCA 4 ................................................. EA.55.180 R v LDV (No 2) [2013] NSWDC 215 ................................................ EA.90.60, EA.90.270 R v LL (unreported, NSW SC, Smart J, 1 April 1996) ......................................... EA.84.60 R v LR [2006] 1 Qd R 435; (2006) 156 A Crim R 354; [2005] QCA 368 ..... EA.165.480 R v LRG (2006) 16 VR 89; 175 A Crim R 404; [2006] VSCA 288 ................ EA.141.120 R v LTP [2004] NSWCCA 109 .................................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.540 R v Ladocki [2004] NSWCCA 336 .............................................. EA.138.150, EA.138.450 R v Lam (2002) 135 A Crim R 302; [2002] NSWCCA 377 ........... EA.79.120, EA.79.150 R v Lamb [2002] NSWSC 323 .......................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Lane (2011) 221 A Crim R 309; [2011] NSWCCA 157 ................................ EA.81.60 R v Lars (1994) 73 A Crim R 91 ..................................................... EA.26.150, EA.189.40 R v Lau (unreported, NSW CCA, Priestley JA, Abadee, David Kirby JJ, 2 December 1998) ............................................................................................ EA.165.480 R v Lavery (No 2) (1979) 20 SASR 430 ............................................................. EA.39.120 R v Lawrence [1984] 3 NSWLR 674 .................................................................. EA.110.60 R v Lawrence (unreported, NSW CCA, 19 April 1979) ..................................... EA.46.150 R v Laws (2000) 116 A Crim R 70; [2000] NSWSC 885 .................................... EA.9.120 R v Lawson [2000] NSWCCA 214 ........................................................................ EA.60.60 R v Le [2000] NSWCCA 49 ............................................................... EA.55.60, EA.66.180 R v Le [2001] NSWSC 174 .................................................................................... EA.38.60 R v Le (2002) 130 A Crim R 256; [2002] NSWCCA 193 ......... EA.114.240, EA.135.150, EA.165.270 R v Le (2002) 54 NSWLR 474; 130 A Crim R 44; [2002] NSWCCA 186 ....... EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.38.210, EA.Intro.350 R v Leak [1969] SASR 172 .................................................................................. EA.41.300 R v Leask [1999] NSWCCA 33 ......................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Lebler [2003] NSWCCA 362 ...................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Lee (1950) 82 CLR 133 .................................................................................. EA.90.60 R v Lee (2000) 50 NSWLR 289; [2000] NSWCCA 444 ........................ NSW.CPA.296.30 R v Lee [2001] ACTSC 133 ................................................................................. EA.79.120 R v Lee (unreported, NSW CCA, Cole JA, Dowd, Sperling JJ, 5 May 1997) ................................................. EA.38.330, EA.115.300, EA.165.450, EA.189.40 R v Lemura [1998] NSWSC 699 ................................................. EA.165.450, EA.165.540 R v Leroy [2000] NSWCCA 302 .................................................. EA.114.180, EA.114.240 R v Lester [2010] QCA 152 ................................................................................... EA.89.90 R v Leung (1999) 47 NSWLR 405; [1999] NSWCCA 287 ............... EA.76.90, EA.78.60, EA.79.150 R v Leung [2012] NSWSC 1451 ................................................. EA.126B.300, EA.90.270 R v Lewis (1987) 29 A Crim R 267; 88 FLR 104 ........................... EA.79.120, EA.79.240 R v Lewis [1998] NSWSC 408 .......................................................................... EA.165.450 R v Lewis [2003] NSWCCA 180 .... EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.190.120, EA.Intro.350 R v Lewis (unreported, NSW CCA, 8 September 1998) ................................... EA.165.450 R v Lewis (unreported, NSW SC, Dowd J, 25 October 1996) ............................. EA.4.270 R v Li [1993] 2 VR 80 ........................................................................................... EA.90.60 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

R v Li (2003) 140 A Crim R 288; [2003] NSWCCA 386 ......................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.165.210, EA.165.450 R v Li [2003] NSWCCA 407 ............................................................................. EA.101.360 R v Liddy (2002) 81 SASR 22; [2002] SASC 19 ............................................. EA.165.480 R v Lieske (2006) 166 A Crim R 213; [2006] ACTSC 97 ............. EA.85.180, EA.85.240, EA.90.270, EA.138.450 R v Linehan [1921] VLR 582 ............................................................................ EA.164.150 R v Liristis (2004) 146 A Crim R 547; [2004] NSWCCA 287 ...... EA.46.120, EA.46.150 R v Lisoff [1999] NSWCCA 364 ........................................................................ EA.137.150 R v Lister [1981] 1 NSWLR 110 ......................................................................... EA.26.210 R v Livingstone (2004) 150 A Crim R 117; [2004] NSWCCA 407 ................. EA.165.210 R v Livingstone [2018] QCA 3 ............................................................................ EA.137.60 R v Lo Presti [1992] 1 VR 696 ............................................................................ EA.27.150 R v Loader (2004) 89 SASR 204; 147 A Crim R 312; [2004] SASC 234 ......... EA.55.90, EA.165.480 R v Lock (1997) 91 A Crim R 356 ...... EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.101.270 R v Lockyer (1996) 89 A Crim R 457 ............................................................... EA.101.150 R v Lodhi (2006) 163 A Crim R 475; [2006] NSWSC 586 ............................. EA.130.390 R v Lodhi (2006) 163 A Crim R 526; [2006] NSWSC 648 ............ EA.59.180, EA.81.90, EA.142.60 R v Lodhi (2006) 199 FLR 328; [2006] NSWSC 638 ...................................... EA.128.540 R v Lonie [1999] NSWCCA 319 ............................ EA.165.210, EA.165.360, EA.165.450 R v Lowe [1997] 2 VR 465 .................................................................................. EA.90.270 R v Lowe (1997) 98 A Crim R 300 ........................ EA.165.300, EA.165.420, EA.165.450 R v Lozano (unreported, NSW CCA, Hunt CJ ........... EA.38.150, EA.38.330, EA.60.150, EA.165.240, EA.165.450, EA.192.100 R v Lu [2007] NSWSC 1259 ............................................................................. EA.131.360 R v Lucas [1992] 2 VR 109; (1991) 55 A Crim R 361 ...................................... EA.79.120 R v Lumsden [2003] NSWCCA 83 ........................ EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.103.120, EA.114.180, EA.137.120 R v Ly (unreported, NSW CCA, 25 May 1994) ................................................ EA.165.420 R v Lyberopolous [2002] NSWCCA 280 ............................................................... EA.89.90 R v Lynch [1999] NSWCCA 32 ............................................................................. EA.55.60 R v M (unreported, NSW CCA, 19 August 1996) ......................................... EA.165A.150 R v M, RB (2007) 172 A Crim R 73; [2007] SASC 207 .................................. EA.141.120 R v MC [2009] VSCA 122 ................................................................................. EA.165.480 R v MCC [2014] QCA 253 ................................................................................ EA.165.480 R v MCJ [2017] QCA 11 ................................................................................... EA.165.480 R v MDB [2005] NSWCCA 354 ............................ EA.165B.270, EA.108.150, EA.192.80 R v MG (2006) 175 A Crim R 342; [2006] VSCA 264 ............... EA.165B.240, EA.46.60 R v MK (2012) 223 A Crim R 572; [2012] NSWCCA 110 ............................. EA.137.150 R v ML [2009] VSCA 106 ............................................................ EA.101.360, EA.141.120 R v MM (2000) 112 A Crim R 519; [2000] NSWCCA 78 ......... EA.101.360, EA.141.120 R v MM [2004] NSWCCA 364 ................................ EA.55.390, EA.138.120, EA.138.510 R v MM [2014] NSWCCA 144 .............................. EA.101.150, EA.101.190, EA.137.150 R v MMJ (2006) 166 A Crim R 501; [2006] VSCA 226 ................ EA.89.90, EA.165.480 R v MMK [2005] NSWCCA 273 ......................................................................... EA.116.90 R v MR [2013] NSWCCA 236 ...................... EA.98.60, EA.98.90, EA.98.120, EA.98.150 R v MRK [2005] NSWCCA 271 .......................................................................... EA.141.90 R v MSK (2004) 61 NSWLR 204; 148 A Crim R 453; [2004] NSWCCA 308 .................................................................................................................... EA.27.180 R v MacDonald (1996) 84 A Crim R 508 ......................................................... EA.165.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxxvi

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Table of Cases

R v MacPherson [2006] 1 Cr App R 30 ................................................................ EA.13.60 R v Macarthur [2005] NSWCCA 65 ................................................................. EA.128.690 R v Macraild (unreported, NSW CCA, Sully, Dunford, Simpson JJ, 18 December 1997) ..................................... EA.59.180, EA.60.60, EA.87.120, EA.135.90 R v Macris (2004) 147 A Crim R 99; [2004] NSWCCA 261 ........ EA.20.180, EA.89.150 R v Madigan [2005] NSWCCA 170 ...... EA.55.270, EA.79.150, EA.114.330, EA.136.60, EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.165.450, EA.Intro.120 R v Magoulias [2003] NSWCCA 143 ................................................................. EA.144.60 R v Maher [2005] ACTSC 41 .............................................................................. EA.55.240 R v Maklouf [1999] NSWCCA 94 ................................................ EA.115.300, EA.115.330 R v Mallah (2005) 154 A Crim R 150; [2005] NSWSC 358 ............................. EA.90.270 R v Malouf (unreported, NSW CCA, Meagher JA, Studdert, Sully JJ, 1 November 1996) ...................................................................... EA.165.210, EA.165.360 R v Mankotia [1998] NSWSC 295 ........... EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.65.210, EA.65.330 R v Manning (2014) 239 A Crim R 348; [2014] QCA 49 .................................. EA.55.330 R v Manning [2017] QCA 23 ............................................................................... EA.55.180 R v Mansfield [1978] 1 All ER 134 ................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Mansour (unreported, NSW SC, Levine J, 19 November 1996) ................. EA.38.270 R v Mansour (unreported, NSW SC, Levine J, 26 November 1996) ................. EA.20.150 R v Manunta (1989) 54 SASR 17 ........................................................................ EA.46.150 R v Markuleski (2001) 125 A Crim R 186; 52 NSWLR 82; [2001] NSWCCA 290 ............................................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Marriott (unreported, WA CCA, Pidgeon, Rowland, Owen JJ, 15 November 1995) ............................................................................................ EA.138.150 R v Marsh [2000] NSWCCA 370 ........................... EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.108.150 R v Marsh [2005] NSWCCA 331 ................. EA.55.270, EA.76.90, EA.78.60, EA.79.150 R v Marshall (2000) 113 A Crim R 190; [2000] NSWCCA 210 ........................ EA.56.60, EA.114.240, EA.116.90 R v Martin [2006] VSCA 299 ............................................................................ EA.165.480 R v Martin (2007) 99 SASR 213 [2007] SASC 336 .......................................... EA.141.90 R v Martin (No 6) [2017] NSWSC 1344 ........................................... EA.53.60, EA.53.180 R v Mason [2000] NSWCCA 82 .......................................................................... EA.144.60 R v Massey [2009] ACTCA 12 .......................................................................... EA.114.150 R v Matonwal & Amood [2016] NSWCCA 174 .......... EA.97.120, EA.98.120, EA.98.150 R v Matthews [2004] NSWCCA 259 ................................................................. EA.101.360 R v Matthews (unreported, NSW CCA, 28 May 1996) .................... EA.89.90, EA.89.150 R v May (No 2) [2008] NSWSC 595 .................................................................. EA.87.120 R v Mayberry [2000] NSWCCA 531 ........................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.480 R v Mayhew [2010] ACTSC 41 ......................................................................... EA.128.540 R v McBride [2008] QCA 412 ........................................................................... EA.141.150 R v McCarthy (1993) 71 A Crim R 395 ............................................................ EA.114.150 R v McCormack (No 3) [2003] NSWSC 645 .............. EA.46.60, EA.46.150, EA.135.150 R v McDonald [2001] NSWCCA 363 ............................................................... EA.114.240 R v McDonald [2011] SASCFC 57 ................................................................... EA.141.120 R v McDowell [1997] 1 VR 473 .......................................................................... EA.46.150 R v McEndoo (1981) 5 A Crim R 52 .................................................................. EA.80.150 R v McGibbony [1956] VLR 424 ........................................................................ EA.20.150 R v McGoldrick [1998] NSWSC 121 .................................................................. EA.97.450 R v McGovern (1991) 92 Cr App R 228 ............................................................. EA.85.210 R v McKellar [2000] NSWCCA 523 ................................................................. EA.115.150 R v McKenzie (unreported, NSW CCA, Wood CJ ............................................ EA.165.480 R v McKeough [2003] NSWCCA 385 ................................................................. EA.138.60 R v McLachlan [1999] 2 VR 553; [1999] VSCA 127 ........................................ EA.46.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

R v McLaughlan (2008) 185 A Crim R 97; 218 FLR 158; [2008] ACTSC 49 ...................................................................................................................... EA.85.210 R v McMahon (unreported, NSW CCA, 26 June 1996) ..................................... EA.189.40 R v McNamara (2002) 131 A Crim R 140; [2002] NSWCCA 248 ................ EA.101.150, EA.137.120, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 R v McNamara (unreported, NSW CCA, 15 December 1995) .......................... EA.46.150 R v McNiven [2011] VSC 397 ............................................................................. EA.85.210 R v McSmith [2002] NSWCCA 68 .................................................................... EA.101.150 R v Meakin (No 1) [2016] NSWSC 1006 .......................... EA.55.60, EA.66.60, EA.78.60 R v Mearns [2005] NSWCCA 396 ......................... EA.101.360, EA.108.150, EA.165.480 R v Medcalfe [2002] ACTSC 83 .......................................................................... EA.90.240 R v Mendham (1993) 71 A Crim R 382 ............................................................ EA.165.270 R v Mendoza (2007) 173 A Crim R 157; [2007] VSCA 120 ............................. EA.116.90 R v Menzies [1982] 1 NZLR 40 .......................................................................... EA.79.150 R v Merlino [2004] NSWCCA 104 ............................ EA.89.90, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 R v Merritt [1999] NSWCCA 29 .................................. EA.55.60, EA.137.60, EA.141.120 R v Milat (unreported, NSW SC, Hunt CJ, 9 April 1996) ............................... EA.101A.90 R v Milat (unreported, NSW SC, 22 April 1996) ............................................... EA.38.240 R v Milat (unreported, NSW SC, 23 April 1996) ............................ EA.20.150, EA.38.270 R v Miletic [1997] 1 VR 593 ............................................................................. EA.165.480 R v Miller (1980) 25 SASR 170 ........................................................................ EA.115.150 R v Miller [2004] 1 Qd R 548; [2003] QCA 404 ................................................. EA.20.90 R v Milton [2004] NSWCCA 195 ............................ EA.97.120, EA.101.450, EA.165.210 R v Mir [1989] Crim LR 894 ............................................................................. EA.104.240 R v Mirza [2004] 2 WLR 201; [2004] 1 All ER 925 ........................................... EA.9.120 R v Mitchell [2008] 2 Qd R 142; (2008) 174 A Crim R 52; [2007] QCA 267 .................................................................................................................. EA.165.480 R v Mitchell (unreported, NSW CCA, 5 April 1995) ....................................... EA.165.480 R v Moffatt (2000) 112 A Crim R 201; [2000] NSWCCA 174 .......................... EA.85.210 R v Mohammadi (2011) 112 SASR 17; [2011] SASCFC 154 ............................ EA.27.120 R v Mora (unreported, Vic CCA, Phillips CJ, Southwell, Smith AJJA, 30 May 1996) ........................................................................................................ EA.20.180 R v Moran [1999] NSWCCA 92 ........................................................................ EA.114.360 R v Morgan [2009] VSCA 225 .......................................................................... EA.116.120 R v Morrow (2009) 26 VR 526; 213 A Crim R 530; [2009] VSCA 291 .......... EA.46.150 R v Moss (1990) 91 Cr App R 371 ...................................................................... EA.85.210 R v Mrish (unreported, NSW SC, Hidden J, 15 August 1996) ............................ EA.73.90 R v Mrish (unreported, NSW SC, Hidden J, 4 October 1996) ........................... EA.65.330 R v Muca (unreported, SA CCA, Millhouse, Olsson, Williams JJ, 26 September 1996) ............................................................................................ EA.165.450 R v Muller [1996] 1 Qd R 74 ......................................................................... EA.165A.150 R v Muller (2013) 7 ACTLR 296; 273 FLR 215; [2013] ACTCA 15 .............. EA.13.180, EA.13.210 R v Munce [2001] NSWSC 1072 ......................................................................... EA.85.210 R v Munday (No 1) [2016] VSC 26 .................................................................... EA.85.210 R v Murch (2014) 119 SASR 427; [2014] SASCFC 61 ................................... EA.135.270 R v Murphy (1985) 4 NSWLR 42 ....................................................................... EA.110.60 R v Murphy [2000] NSWCCA 297 .................................................................... EA.165.330 R v Murray (1987) 11 NSWLR 12 .................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Murray [2016] QCA 342 ............................................................................. EA.165.480 R v NCT (2009) 26 VR 247; [2009] VSCA 240 ................................................. EA.79.480 R v NJF (unreported, NSW CCA, 5 June 1997) ............................................... EA.108.150 R v NKS [2004] NSWCCA 144 ......................................................................... EA.101.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxxviii

Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Cases

R R R R R R R R R R R

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R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

NZ (2005) 63 NSWLR 628; [2005] NSWCCA 278 ............. EA.136.240, EA.165.480 Naa (2009) 76 NSWLR 271; [2009] NSWSC 851 .................. EA.85.150, EA.139.60 Nabalarua (unreported, NSW CCA, 19 December 1997) .... EA.138.240, EA.138.420 Namie [2011] QCA 304 ................................................................................. EA.116.90 Nassif [2004] NSWCCA 433 ............................. EA.101.60, EA.101.195, EA.137.180 Naudi [1999] NSWCCA 259 ......................................................................... EA.89.150 Navarolli [2010] Qd R 27; (2009) 194 A Crim R 96; [2009] QCA 49 ...... EA.55.180 Ncanana 1948 (4) SA 399 ........................................................................... EA.165.360 Neda (unreported, NSW CCA, 9 December 1994) ........................................ EA.46.90 Neilan [1992] 1 VR 57; (1991) 52 A Crim R 303 ......................................... EA.53.60 Nelson (2004) 41 MVR 10; [2004] NSWCCA 231 .................. EA.90.90, EA.90.240, EA.114.240, EA.137.60 v Nemeth [2002] NSWCCA 281 .................................................................... EA.165.270 v Newland (1997) 98 A Crim R 455 ................................................................ EA.20.300 v Ngatikaura (2006) 161 A Crim R 329; [2006] NSWCCA 161 ................. EA.101.150 v Ngo (2001) 122 A Crim R 467; [2001] NSWSC 595 .................................. EA.102.90 v Ngo (2003) 57 NSWLR 55; [2003] NSWCCA 82 .............. EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.114.240, EA.116.90, EA.137.60, EA.137.150, EA.165.210 v Nguyen (2000) 118 A Crim R 479; [2001] VSCA 1 .................................. EA.165.480 v Nguyen [2000] NSWCCA 285 ................................................. EA.114.240, EA.116.90 v Nguyen [2002] NSWCCA 342 ....... EA.20.180, EA.114.240, EA.137.60, EA.165.270 v Nguyen [2003] NSWSC 1068 ................................................ EA.114.240, EA.115.300 v Nguyen [2004] NSWCCA 16 ...................................................................... EA.165.450 v Nguyen [2009] SASC 91 ............................................................................... EA.55.180 v Nguyen [2013] QCA 133 ............................................................................. EA.165.480 v Nguyen (2015) 248 A Crim R 398; [2015] SASCFC 7 ....... EA.138.540, EA.138.570 v Niass [2005] NSWCCA 120 ........................................................................ EA.141.150 v Nikau (unreported, NSW SC, 14 October 1997) .......................................... EA.85.210 v Nona (2015) 254 A Crim R 301; [2015] ACTSC 175 ....... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.75.90 v Noonan [2002] NSWCCA 150 .................................................. EA.20.270, EA.20.300 v O’Brien [2003] NSWCCA 121 ................................................................... EA.165.210 v O’Connor [2003] NSWCCA 335 ............................................ EA.65.300, EA.135.270 v O’Donoghue (1988) 34 A Crim R 397 ....................................................... EA.115.150 v O’Donohue [2001] NSWCCA 458 ................................................................ EA.55.180 v O’Driscoll (2003) 57 NSWLR 416; 141 A Crim R 368; [2003] NSWCCA 166 .............................................................................. EA.43.210, EA.106.90 v OGD (No 2) (2000) 50 NSWLR 433; [2000] NSWCCA 404 .................. EA.101.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.240, EA.110.90 v O’Keefe [2000] 1 Qd R 564 ........................................................................ EA.101.210 v OM [2011] NSWCCA 109 ......................................................................... EA.192A.40 v O’Meally [1952] VLR 499 ............................................................................ EA.65.120 v O’Meally (No 2) [1953] VLR 30 ................................................................ EA.101.150 v ON [2009] QCA 62 ...................................................................................... EA.165.480 v OP [2011] QCA 323 .................................................................................... EA.165.450 v O’Sullivan (1975) 13 SASR 68 ..................................................................... EA.184.20 v Olasiuk (1973) 6 SASR 255 .......................................................................... EA.27.120 v Omar (1991) 58 A Crim R 139 ................................................................... EA.114.330 v Ong (2001) 80 SASR 537; [2001] SASC 437 ........................................... EA.165.480 v Ong (2007) 176 A Crim R 366; [2007] VSCA 206 ............... EA.116.90, EA.116.150, EA.165.450 v Orchard [2013] NSWCCA 342 ..................................................................... EA.46.120 v Ortega-Farfan (2011) 215 A Crim R 251; [2011] QCA 364 ...................... EA.55.330, EA.137.60, EA.137.150 v v v v v v v v v v v

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Orton [1922] VLR 469 .................................................................................. EA.45.150 Osman [1998] NSWSC 13 ............................................................................ EA.97.450 Ostojic (1978) 18 SASR 188 ........................................................................ EA.90.240 Owen (1991) 56 SASR 397 ......................................................................... EA.141.120 P (2001) 53 NSWLR 664; [2001] NSWCA 473 ....................... EA.9.180, EA.79.240, EA.118.220, EA.121.150 v PAH (unreported, NSW CCA, 18 December 1998) .............. EA.141.150, EA.165.480 v PJ [2006] ACTSC 37 .................................................................................. EA.138.120 v PKS (unreported, NSW CCA, 1 October 1998) ........................................... EA.110.90 v PLV (2001) 51 NSWLR 736; [2001] NSWCCA 282 .......... EA.106.240, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 v PMT (2003) 8 VR 50; [2003] VSCA 200 .................................................. EA.165.480 v PWD (2010) 205 A Crim R 75; [2010] NSWCCA 209 ......... EA.97.120, EA.101.190 v Paek [1999] NSWCCA 184 ................................................... EA.165.210, EA.165.480 v Panetta (1997) 26 MVR 332 ......................................................... EA.55.60, EA.78.60 v Pantoja (1996) 88 A Crim R 554 ................................................................. EA.79.480 v Pantoja [1998] NSWSC 565 ....................................................... EA.38.60, EA.38.150 v Pantoja (unreported, NSW CCA, Wood CJ, 30 October 1996) .................. EA.38.270 v Pantoja (No 1) (unreported, NSW SC, 30 October 1996) ........................... EA.38.270 v Papakosmas (unreported, NSW CCA, 10 December 1997) .......................... EA.66.60 v Papamitrou (2004) 7 VR 375; [2004] VSCA 12 ......................................... EA.98.120 v Paris (1992) 97 Cr App R 99 ......................................................................... EA.84.60 v Parker (1989) 19 NSWLR 177 ..................................................................... EA.90.240 v Parkes (2003) 147 A Crim R 450; [2003] NSWCCA 12 ............ EA.29.90, EA.38.60, EA.38.270, EA.66.60 v Parry [2017] SASCFC 66 ..................................................... EA.165B.210, EA.97.480 v Parsons [2015] SASCFC 183 ................................................ EA.104.120, EA.165.450 v Pathare [1981] 1 NSWLR 124 ..................................................................... EA.27.150 v Patsalis [No 3] [1999] NSWSC 718 ....................................... EA.139.30, EA.139.180 v Patsalis and Spathis [No 4] [1999] NSWSC 715 ...................................... EA.101.150 v Pearce (2001) 48 ATR 390; [2001] NSWCCA 447 ................. EA.50.30, EA.139.120 v Pearsall (1990) 49 A Crim R 439 ........................................... EA.90.300, EA.114.240 v Penny (1997) 91 A Crim R 288 .................................................................. EA.114.240 v Perera [1986] 1 Qd R 211 .......................................................................... EA.165.480 v Perrier (No 1) [1991] 1 VR 697 ................................................................... EA.110.90 v Perry (1990) 49 A Crim R 243 ..................................................................... EA.79.240 v Perry (No 4) (1982) 28 SASR 119 ................................................................. EA.76.90 v Peters (1996) 88 A Crim R 585 .................................................................. EA.138.150 v Petroulias (No 22) (2007) 213 FLR 293; 176 A Crim R 309; [2007] NSWSC 692 ..................................................................................................... EA.117.90 v Pfennig (No 1) (1992) 57 SASR 507 ............................................................ EA.90.270 v Pfitzner (unreported, SA CCA, Doyle CJ, Matheson, Millhouse JJ, 20 February 1996) .............................................................................................. EA.165.330 v Phair [1986] 1 Qd R 136 .............................................................................. EA.39.120 v Pham [2004] NSWCCA 190 ......................................................................... EA.137.60 v Phan (2001) 53 NSWLR 480; 123 A Crim R 30; [2001] NSWCCA 29 .................................................................................................... EA.90.90, EA.90.210 v Phan [2003] NSWCCA 205 ........................................................................ EA.138.570 v Phillips [2015] SASCFC 67 ........................................................................ EA.165.480 v Phung [2001] NSWSC 115 ......................................................................... EA.138.270 v Phung (2013) 117 SASR 432; 234 A Crim R 520; [2013] SASCFC 91 .............................................................................................. EA.138.540, EA.138.570 v Pimentel (1999) 110 A Crim R 30; [1999] NSWCCA 401 ....................... EA.138.150 v v v v v

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Table of Cases

R v Pirrottina (1996) 88 A Crim R 220 .............................................................. EA.189.40 R v Pirrottina (unreported, NSW SC, 20 March 1997) ...................................... EA.29.180 R v Pitts (No 1) (2012) 229 A Crim R 387; [2012] NSWSC 1652 .................... EA.90.60, EA.90.210 R v Player (2000) 217 ALR 578; [2000] NSWCCA 123 ................................. EA.101.150 R v Plevac (1995) 84 A Crim R 570 ............................................... EA.81.240, EA.90.210 R v Plevac [1999] NSWCCA 351 ...................................................................... EA.141.120 R v Polkinghorne (1999) 108 A Crim R 189; [1999] NSWSC 704 ................. EA.66A.60, EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.65.210 R v Pollitt (1990) 51 A Crim R 227 .................................................................. EA.165.330 R v Popovic (unreported, NSW CCA, 25 March 1996) ..................................... EA.184.20 R v Porter (2003) 85 SASR 581; 138 A Crim R 581; [2003] SASC 233 ......... EA.20.180 R v Powell [2006] 1 Cr App R 31 ....................................................................... EA.13.240 R v Power (1996) 87 A Crim R 407 .................................................................... EA.55.330 R v Praturlon (unreported, NSW CCA, No 330 of 1984, 29 November 1985) ................................................................................................................ EA.41.300 R v Preston (2013) 116 SASR 522; [2013] SASCFC 69 ................................. EA.114.240 R v Preston (unreported, NSW CCA, Handley JA, Smart, Preston JJ, 9 April 1997) ...................................................................................................... EA.59.180 R v Pretorius [2007] QCA 432 ............................................................................ EA.116.90 R v Priest (2011) 209 A Crim R 254; [2011] ACTSC 18 ................................ EA.138.120 R v Qaumi (No 61) [2016] NSWSC 1192 ........................................................... EA.110.90 R v Quach (2002) 137 A Crim R 345; [2002] NSWCCA 519 ..... EA.90.210, EA.101.150 R v Quesada (2001) 122 A Crim R 218; [2001] NSWCCA 216 ....................... EA.79.120 R v Quinn (No 1) [2016] NSWSC 1101 .............................................................. EA.18.120 R v Quist [2017] SASCFC 37 ............................................................................ EA.165.480 R v RAG [2006] NSWCCA 343 ....................................................... EA.13.210, EA.13.300 R v RJC (unreported, NSW CCA, 1 October 1998) ........................................... EA.60.150 R v RJC (unreported, NSW CCA, 18 August 1998) ........................................... EA.110.60 R v RN [2005] NSWCCA 413 ........................................................ EA.97.390, EA.101.195 R v RNS [1999] NSWCCA 122 ........................................................................... EA.66.180 R v RPS (unreported, NSW CCA, No 60583 of 1996, 13 August 1997) ......... EA.26.150, EA.60.60, EA.102.100, EA.103.60, EA.108.150 R v RTB [2002] NSWCCA 104 .................................... EA.55.270, EA.55.570, EA.192.80 R v Radford (1993) 66 A Crim R 210 ................................................................. EA.116.90 R v Rae [2009] 2 Qd R 463; [2008] QCA 385 ................................................. EA.141.120 R v Rahme [2001] NSWCCA 414 ................................ EA.81.60, EA.83.60, EA.Intro.340 R v Rajakaruna (2004) 8 VR 340; 146 A Crim R 238; [2004] VSCA 114 ..... EA.101.150 R v Rajakaruna (No 2) (2006) 168 A Crim R 1; [2006] VSCA 277 ................ EA.46.150, EA.141.120 R v Rapolti [2016] NSWCCA 264 ......................... EA.138.150, EA.138.660, EA.138.720 R v Ray (2003) 57 NSWLR 616; [2003] NSWCCA 227 ................................. EA.165.480 R v Razzak [2004] NSWCCA 62 .............................. EA.114.240, EA.116.90, EA.116.120 R v Reardon (2002) 186 FLR 1; [2002] NSWCCA 203 .............. EA.38.270, EA.165.240, EA.165.450, EA.192.80 R v Reed (David) [2009] EWCA Crim 2698 ...................................................... EA.79.120 R v Reeves (1992) 29 NSWLR 109 ................................ EA.89.90, EA.89.150, EA.141.90 R v Reid [1999] NSWCCA 258 ....................................................................... EA.Intro.350 R v Reid [2018] QCA 63 .............................................. EA.55.330, EA.81.60, EA.165.480 R v Renzella [1997] 2 VR 88; (1996) 88 A Crim R 65 .............. EA.165.270, EA.165.480 R v Reynolds [2013] QCA 338 .......................................................................... EA.141.120 R v Reynolds [2015] QCA 111 ........................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Rhodes (1999) 104 A Crim R 572 .............................................................. EA.165.450 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

R v Rich (1998) 102 A Crim R 165 ............................................... EA.41.300, EA.101.150 R v Richards (2001) 123 A Crim R 14; [2001] NSWCCA 160 ..... EA.11.60, EA.137.120, EA.138.150 R v Richards (2002) 128 A Crim R 204; [2002] NSWCCA 38 ......................... EA.20.180 R v Richards (unreported, NSW CCA, Grove, James, Simpson JJ, 3 April 1998) .............................................................................................................. EA.165.480 R v Richardson [1969] 1 QB 299; [1968] 2 All ER 761 .................................. EA.103.120 R v Ridsdale [2009] QCA 188 ........................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Rinaldi (1993) 30 NSWLR 605 ...................................................................... EA.9.120 R v Riscuta [2003] NSWCCA 6 ........ EA.55.180, EA.114.330, EA.116.150, EA.Intro.120 R v Rivkin (2004) 59 NSWLR 284; 184 FLR 365; [2004] NSWCCA 7 ....... EA.101A.90, EA.101A.120, EA.102.90, EA.106.240 R v Roberts (2011) 111 SASR 100; [2011] SASCFC 117 .................................... EA.89.90 R v Robertson (1997) 91 A Crim R 388 ............................................................ EA.101.240 R v Robinson [1977] Qd R 3877 ......................................................................... EA.46.150 R v Robinson [1996] 2 Qd R 49; (1995) 80 A Crim R 358 .......................... EA.165A.150 R v Robinson [1999] NSWCCA 172 ................................................................... EA.110.60 R v Rockford (2015) 122 SASR 391; [2015] SASCFC 51 ............................... EA.138.540 R v Roddom [2001] NSWCCA 168 ........................................... EA.165B.270, EA.165.210 R v Rodley [1913] 3 KB 468 ............................................................................... EA.136.60 R v Rodriguez [1998] 2 VR 167 ........................................................................ EA.141.150 R v Rogerson (No 1) [2015] NSWSC 592 .......................................................... EA.18.120 R v Rogerson (No 24) [2016] NSWSC 105 ........................................................ EA.32.150 R v Rogerson (No 31) [2016] NSWSC 195 ...................................................... EA.117.120 R v Roissetter [1984] 1 Qd R 477 ..................................................................... EA.165.450 R v Romeo (1982) 30 SASR 243 ......................................................................... EA.46.150 R v Rondo (2001) 126 A Crim R 562; [2001] NSWCCA 540 ........................... EA.69.240 R v Ronen [2004] NSWCCA 67 .......................................................................... EA.187.20 R v Rooke (unreported, NSW CCA, Newman, Levine, Barr JJ, 2 September 1997) ............................... EA.85.210, EA.138.60, EA.138.240, EA.189.140 R v Rose (2002) 55 NSWLR 701; [2002] NSWCCA 455 ............. EA.59.120, EA.59.180, EA.101.150, EA.114.90, EA.116.180, EA.165.90, EA.165.240, EA.165.300, EA.165.450, EA.165.510 R v Rose [No 10] [2001] NSWSC 1060 ...................................... EA.165.300, EA.165.450 R v Rostom (2007) 98 SASR 528; [2007] SASC 210 .......................................... EA.30.60 R v Roughley (1995) 5 Tas R 8; 78 A Crim R 160 ....................... EA.137.60, EA.165.450 R v Rudd (2009) 23 VR 444; [2009] VSCA 213 ..... EA.81.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.480 R v Runjanjic (1991) 56 SASR 114; 53 A Crim R 362 .................. EA.79.120, EA.80.150 R v Rustum [2005] VSCA 142 ......................................................... EA.81.60, EA.165.480 R v Rutherford [2004] QCA 481 ........................................................................ EA.165.450 R v Ryan (2013) 33 NTLR 123; 234 A Crim R 299; [2013] NTSC 54 ............ EA.65.150 R v Ryan [2013] NSWCCA 316 .......................................................................... EA.90.270 R v Ryan (No 2) [2012] NSWSC 1034 ............................................................. EA.138.120 R v Ryan (No 7) (2012) 218 A Crim R 384; [2012] NSWSC 1160 .................. EA.103.90 R v Rymer (2005) 156 A Crim R 84; [2005] NSWCCA 310 ..... EA.101A.180, EA.66.60, EA.81.270 R v S [2003] NSWCCA 122 ............................................. EA.37.60, EA.44.90, EA.44.120 R v S (unreported, NSW CCA, 18 December 1997) .................... EA.164.90, EA.165.210, EA.165.480 R v SBB (2007) 175 A Crim R 449; [2007] QCA 173 ..................................... EA.165.480 R v SBL [2009] QCA 130 .................................................................................. EA.165.480 R v SCG (2014) 241 A Crim R 508; [2014] QCA 118 ..................................... EA.165.480 R v SCS [2017] QCA 78 .................................................................................... EA.165.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxxxii

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SG [2017] NSWCCA 202 ................................................................................ EA.55.60 SH (2011) 6 ACTLR 1; [2011] ACTSC 198 ........... EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.38.300 SJF [2002] NSWCCA 294 .......................................................................... EA.165.210 SJRC [2007] NSWCCA 142 .................................................... EA.137.60, EA.137.210 SK [2011] NSWCCA 292 ........................................................ EA.97.120, EA.101.190 SWC (2007) 175 A Crim R 71; [2007] VSCA 201 .................. EA.41.300, EA.46.150 SY [2004] NSWCCA 297 ................................... EA.27.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.360 Sabbah [2004] NSWCCA 28 ........................................................................ EA.20.180 Sadler (2008) 20 VR 69; 189 A Crim R 310; [2008] VSCA 198 ............. EA.141.120 Salahattin [1983] 1 VR 521 ............................................................................ EA.89.90 Salama [1999] NSWCCA 105 ........................... EA.165.90, EA.165.240, EA.165.450 Salami [2013] NSWCCA 96 ......................................................................... EA.55.360 Salem (1997) 96 A Crim R 421 ........................ EA.138.60, EA.138.150, EA.138.240, EA.138.420, EA.138.690 Salih (2005) 160 A Crim R 310; [2005] VSCA 282 .................................. EA.165.450 Salindera (unreported, NSW CCA, 25 October 1996) ................................. EA.85.210 Saltan [2002] NSWCCA 423 ...................................................................... EA.165.360 Sarbandi (2012) 229 A Crim R 39; [2012] ACTSC 180 ..................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Sarlija (2009) 3 ACTLR 259; [2009] ACTSC 127 .............. EA.114.150, EA.115.150 Schaeffer (2005) 13 VR 337; 159 A Crim R 101; [2005] VSCA 306 ..... EA.138.300, EA.165.480 Schell [2013] QCA 113 ............................................................................... EA.165.480 Schiavini (1999) 108 A Crim R 161; [1999] NSWCCA 165 ...................... EA.86.120 Schneidas (No 2) (1981) 4 A Crim R 101 .................................................... EA.46.150 Schuurs [1999] QSC 176 ............................................................................... EA.90.300 Schweizer [2007] VSCA 157 ....................................................................... EA.165.480 Sciberras [2001] NSWCCA 514 ................................................................. EA.165.480 Scott (2002) 112 A Crim R 543; [2000] NSWCCA 187 ............................. EA.20.300 Scott [2004] NSWCCA 254 ....................................................... EA.41.300, EA.46.150 Sekrst [2016] SASCFC 127 ......................................................................... EA.165.480 Seller [2015] NSWCCA 76 ................................ EA.117.90, EA.118.600, EA.122.150 Selsby [2004] NSWCCA 381 ................................................... EA.108.120, EA.192.80 Serratore (1999) 48 NSWLR 101; [1999] NSWCCA 377 .... EA.65.150, EA.141.120 Serratore [2001] NSWCCA 123 ................................................................. EA.101.150 Shamouil (2006) 66 NSWLR 226; [2006] NSWCCA 112 ...... EA.97.120, EA.98.120, EA.137.90 Sharma [2009] ACTSC 154 .......................................................................... EA.66.210 Sharp [1988] 1 WLR 7; [188] 1 All ER 65 .............................. EA.65.240, EA.81.240 Sharp (2003) 143 A Crim R 344; [2003] NSWSC 1117 ........ EA.90.150, EA.117.120 Shea (1978) 18 SASR 591 ............................................................................ EA.44.150 Shephard [1993] AC 380 ............................................................................... EA.79.150 Sibraa [2012] NSWCCA 19 ........................................................................ EA.138.570 Siebel (1992) 57 SASR 558; 59 A Crim R 105 ........................................... EA.20.150 Sievers (2004) 151 A Crim R 426; [2004] NSWCCA 463 ......... EA.55.90, EA.81.60, EA.165.480 Simmons (No 2) (2015) 249 A Crim R 82; [2015] NSWSC 143 .................. EA.90.60 Simmons (No 3) [2015] NSWSC 189 .................... EA.90.150, EA.90.270, EA.142.60 Simmons (No 6) [2015] NSWSC 418 ......................................................... EA.128.540 Simpson [2008] QCA 77 .............................................................................. EA.165.360 Sing (2002) 54 NSWLR 31; [2002] NSWCCA 20 ................ EA.79.300, EA.135.150, EA.137.120 Singh (1977) 15 SASR 591 ........................................................................... EA.32.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers]

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Table of Cases

R v Singh-Bal (1997) 92 A Crim R 397 ........................ EA.60.60, EA.88.60, EA.135.180, EA.137.150 R v Sio (2013) 234 A Crim R 508; [2013] NSWSC 1412 ................................. EA.65.240 R v Siulai [2004] NSWCCA 152 ............................ EA.108A.60, EA.108A.90, EA.137.60 R v Skaf (2004) 60 NSWLR 86; [2004] NSWCCA 37 .................... EA.53.180, EA.89.90, EA.114.240 R v Skaf [2004] NSWCCA 74 .................................... EA.55.270, EA.110.90, EA.115.300 R v Slack (2003) 139 A Crim R 314; [2003] NSWCCA 93 .......... EA.55.150, EA.103.60, EA.190.120, EA.Intro.350 R v Slattery [2002] NSWCCA 367 .................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Sleiman [2003] NSWCCA 231 .............................................. EA.108.120, EA.108.150 R v Sluczanowski (2008) 256 LSJS 277; [2008] SASC 185 ............................ EA.165.480 R v Small (1994) 33 NSWLR 575 ............................................... EA.165.240, EA.165.420 R v Smart [2010] VSCA 33 ............................................................ EA.46.150, EA.165.480 R v Smit [2004] NSWCCA 409 ......................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Smith [1981] 1 NSWLR 193 ..................................................... EA.184.20, EA.191.20 R v Smith (1987) 7 NSWLR 444; 23 A Crim R 266 ........................................ EA.114.330 R v Smith (1992) 58 SASR 491 ........................................................................... EA.90.240 R v Smith (1996) 86 A Crim R 308 ................................................................... EA.130.150 R v Smith (1999) 47 NSWLR 419; [1999] NSWCCA 317 .............. EA.76.90, EA.114.60, EA.114.90, EA.115.60 R v Smith (2000) 116 A Crim R 1; [2000] NSWCCA 388 ............ EA.79.300, EA.80.150, EA.135.210, EA.135.270 R v Smith [2000] NSWCCA 468 .................................................. EA.114.240, EA.165.480 R v Soma (2003) 212 CLR 299; 196 ALR 421; [2003] HCA 13 ...... EA.9.90, EA.43.210, EA.106.90, EA.Intro.120 R v Sood [2007] NSWCCA 214 ..................................................... EA.137.90, EA.137.120 R v Sood (No 3) [2006] NSWSC 762 ............................................................... EA.108A.60 R v Soto-Sanchez (2002) 129 A Crim R 279; [2002] NSWCCA 160 ................ EA.110.60 R v Souleyman (1996) 40 NSWLR 712 ............................................. EA.38.60, EA.38.150 R v Souleyman (unreported, NSW SC, Levine J, 5 September 1996) ............. EA.106.240 R v Souleyman (unreported, NSW SC, Smart J, 13 May 1996) ....................... EA.165.390 R v Southammavong [2003] NSWCCA 312 ........................................................ EA.141.90 R v Southon (2003) 85 SASR 436; 139 A Crim R 250; [2003] SASC 205 .... EA.115.300 R v Spathis [2001] NSWCCA 476 ....................................................... EA.38.60, EA.81.60 R v Spedding (unreported, NSW CCA, Gleeson, Sully, Abadee, 11 December 1997) ............................................................................................ EA.165.210 R v Spencer [1987] AC 128 ............................................................................... EA.165.360 R v Spero (2006) 13 VR 225; 161 A Crim R 13; [2006] VSCA 58 .................. EA.116.90 R v Spiteri (2004) 61 NSWLR 369; [2004] NSWCCA 321 ............................. EA.106.270 R v Stackelroth (unreported, NSW CCA, Gleeson CJ, Powell JA, Smart J, 9 April 1997) ................................................................................................. EA.165.480 R v Stalder [1981] 2 NSWLR 9 ........................................................................... EA.110.90 R v Stanley [2004] NSWCCA 278 ................................................. EA.114.240, EA.116.90 R v Stanton (unreported, NSW CCA, 24 July 1998) .................. EA.165.240, EA.165.270 R v Starrett (2002) 82 SASR 115; [2002] SASC 175 ........................................ EA.13.210 R v Statham (unreported, Qld CA, 28 April 1994) ............................................. EA.46.150 R v Stavrinos (2003) 140 A Crim R 594; [2003] NSWCCA 339 ........................ EA.89.90 R v Steeden (unreported, NSW CCA, 19 August 1994 ..................................... EA.165.480 R v Stevens [2001] NSWCCA 330 ...................................................................... EA.192.80 R v Stewart (2001) 52 NSWLR 301; 124 A Crim R 371; [2001] NSWCCA 260 ............ EA.55.150, EA.165.90, EA.165.180, EA.165.210, EA.165.240, EA.165.360, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxxxiv

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Table of Cases

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Strawhorn (2008) 19 VR 101; 185 A Crim R 326; [2008] VSCA 101 .... EA.165.480 Stubbs (2009) 3 ACTLR 144; 228 FLR 221; [2009] ACTSC 63 .............. EA.138.120 Suckling [1999] NSWCCA 36 ................................................... EA.90.60, EA.101.150 Sukkar [2005] NSWCCA 54 ....................................................................... EA.101.150 Sullivan [2002] NSWCCA 505 ................................................ EA.55.360, EA.101.150 Sullivan [2003] NSWCCA 100 .......................... EA.55.150, EA.165.210, EA.165.360 Sultana (1994) 74 A Crim R 27 .................................................................. EA.165.420 Sumner [1935] VLR 197 ............................................................................. EA.164.150 Sumner [2001] SASC 261 ........................................................................... EA.165.360 Sumpton [2014] NSWSC 1432 ............. EA.84.60, EA.84.150, EA.90.60, EA.138.390 Suteski (2002) 128 A Crim R 275; [2002] NSWSC 218 .................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.65.120 v Suteski (2002) 56 NSWLR 182; 137 A Crim R 371; [2002] NSWCCA 509 ...................................................... EA.65.240, EA.135.150, EA.165.210 v Swaffıeld (1998) 192 CLR 159; 72 ALJR 339; [1998] HCA 1 .................... EA.11.90, EA.90.60, EA.90.180, EA.90.270, EA.137.60, EA.138.300 v Syed [2008] NSWCCA 37 ........................................................................... EA.138.690 v Szabo [2000] NSWCCA 226 ......................................................................... EA.110.60 v Szach [1980] 2 A Crim R 270; (1980) 23 SASR 504 .................................. EA.39.120 v T (1997) 92 A Crim R 390 .............................................................................. EA.81.60 v T [2010] EWCA Crim 2439 .......................................................................... EA.79.120 v T, WA (2014) 118 SASR 382; 238 A Crim R 205; [2014] SASCFC 3 ....... EA.27.120 v TA (2003) 57 NSWLR 444; 139 A Crim R 30; [2003] NSWCCA 191 ..... EA.41.150, EA.78.60 v TA [2017] NTSC 46 ..................................................................................... EA.138.540 v TAB [2002] NSWCCA 274 .............................. EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 v TJF (2001) 120 A Crim R 209; [2001] NSWCCA 127 ...... EA.165.210, EA.165.270, EA.165.450 v TR (2004) 180 FLR 424; [2004] ACTSC 10 ............................................. EA.192A.60 v Tahere [1999] NSWCCA 170 .................................................. EA.114.90, EA.114.180 v Tai (2016) 93 NSWLR 404; [2016] NSWCCA 207 .................................. EA.135.150 v Tamotsu (1999) 109 A Crim R 193; [1999] NSWCCA 400 .... EA.98.60, EA.101.120 v Tang [2003] NSWCCA 357 ........................................................................... EA.55.180 v Tang (2006) 65 NSWLR 681; 161 A Crim R 377; [2006] NSWCCA 167 ................................................................................................ EA.79.120, EA.79.180 v Tangye (1997) 92 A Crim R 545 ........................................... EA.165.270, EA.165.480 v Taouk (2005) 154 A Crim R 69; [2005] NSWCCA 155 .......... EA.90.90, EA.138.300 v Taousanis [2001] NSWSC 74 .................................................. EA.59.180, EA.114.240 v Taranto [1999] NSWCCA 396 ........................... EA.137.120, EA.165.90, EA.165.240 v Tartaglia (2011) 110 SASR 378; [2011] SASCFC 88 ............................... EA.141.120 v Taufahema (2007) 228 CLR 232; 168 A Crim R 95; [2007] HCA 11 ...... EA.190.120 v Taufua [1999] NSWCCA 205 ....................................................................... EA.20.300 v Taufua (unreported, NSWCCA, No 60079 of 1996, 11 November 1996) ....................................................................... EA.114.90, EA.114.180, EA.115.60 v Taylor [1999] ACTSC 47 ..................................... EA.85.210, EA.90.260, EA.139.150 v Taylor [2003] NSWCCA 194 ........... EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.135.210, EA.135.270 v Taylor (2008) 2 ACTLR 216; [2008] ACTSC 52 ...................................... EA.114.180 v Taylor (unreported, NSW CCA, 28 March 1995) ........................................ EA.189.40 v Taylor (No 2) (2008) 184 A Crim R 77; [2008] VSCA 57 ..................... EA.165B.270 v Telfer (2004) 142 A Crim R 132; [2004] NSWCCA 27 .............................. EA.110.60 v Teys (2001) 161 FLR 44; 119 A Crim R 398; [2001] ACTSC 29 ............. EA.98.180, EA.101.190 v Theophanous (2003) 141 A Crim R 2; [2003] VSCA 78 .............................. EA.10.60 v v v v v v v v v v v

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Table of Cases

R v Theos (1996) 89 A Crim R 486 ............................................. EA.165.300, EA.165.450 R v Thomas [2015] SASCFC 55 ........................................................................ EA.165.480 R v Thomason (1999) 139 ACTR 21; [1999] ACTSC 112 .......... EA.114.90, EA.114.180, EA.114.240 R v Thompson (2000) 130 A Crim R 24; [2002] NSWCCA 149 ....................... EA.27.120 R v Thompson (2008) 21 VR 135; 187 A Crim R 89; [2008] VSCA 144 ......... EA.46.150 R v Thornton (1980) 3 A Crim R 80 ................................................................... EA.20.150 R v Tillman [1999] NSWCCA 164 .................................................................... EA.165.450 R v Tillott (1995) 38 NSWLR 1 ..................................................... EA.137.60, EA.165.450 R v Tirado (1974) 59 Cr App R 80 .................................................. EA.48.210, EA.69.120 R v To (2002) 131 A Crim R 264; [2002] NSWCCA 247 .......... EA.114.210, EA.114.240 R v Tofilau (2006) 160 A Crim R 549; [2006] VSCA 40 ................................. EA.165.270 R v Toki (No 3) (2000) 116 A Crim R 536; [2000] NSWSC 999 ..................... EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.101.150, EA.101.190, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 R v Tolmie [2004] NSWCCA 396 ...................................................................... EA.165.480 R v Tonkin [1975] Qd R 1 ...................................................................................... EA.80.90 R v Too (unreported, NSW SC, Badgery-Parker J, 26 July 1996) ..... EA.11.60, EA.26.60, EA.26.120 R v Tran [1997] QCA 170 .................................................................................... EA.116.90 R v Tran (2006) 96 SASR 8; 164 A Crim R 541; [2006] SASC 276 ................ EA.20.210 R v Tran (2011) 109 SASR 595; [2011] SASCFC 51 ...................................... EA.141.150 R v Trimboli (1979) 21 SASR 577 ...................................................................... EA.110.60 R v Trochym [2007] 1 SCR 239 ....................................................... EA.79.120, EA.79.300 R v Truong (1996) 86 A Crim R 188 ......... EA.84.60, EA.85.150, EA.85.180, EA.139.90 R v Tugaga (1994) 74 A Crim R 190 ................................................................ EA.114.240 R v Turnbull [1958] Tas SR 80 .............................................................................. EA.10.60 R v Ugochukwu (2003) 138 A Crim R 544; [2003] NSWCCA 104 .................... EA.81.60 R v Uhrig (unreported, NSW CCA, Hunt CJ .................................................... EA.165.480 R v Ul-Haque (2007) 177 A Crim R 348; [2007] NSWSC 1251 ........................ EA.84.60 R v Umanski [1961] VR 242 .............................................................................. EA.104.120 R v Ung (2000) 112 A Crim R 344; 173 ALR 287; [2000] NSWCCA 195 ..... EA.59.180, EA.Intro.120 R v V (1998) 100 A Crim R 488 ........................ EA.101A.120, EA.165.180, EA.165.450, EA.165.480, EA.165.540 R v VAS (2006) 170 A Crim R 452; [2006] VSCA 159 ................................... EA.101.360 R v Vaitaiki (unreported, NSW CCA, 6 October 1993) ...................................... EA.55.180 R v Van Beelen (1972) 6 SASR 534 ................................................ EA.32.150, EA.44.150 R v Van Dyk [2000] NSWCCA 67 ................................................... EA.78.60, EA.101.360 R v Vaughan (1997) 98 A Crim R 239 ................................................................ EA.20.180 R v Vaughan (No 2) (2009) 105 SASR 532; [2009] SASC 395 ........................ EA.55.600 R v Veitch [1999] NSWCCA 185 ....................................................................... EA.101.360 R v Velevski (No 2) (1997) 93 A Crim R 420 ..................................................... EA.38.150 R v Villalon [2014] NSWSC 725 ....................................................... EA.55.330, EA.97.60 R v Villar [2004] NSWCCA 302 ......................................................................... EA.20.150 R v Vincent (2002) 133 A Crim R 206; [2002] NSWCCA 369 ....... EA.62.60, EA.142.60, EA.165.240 R v Von Rijssen (1995) 77 A Crim R 566 ........................................................... EA.46.150 R v Vu [2005] NSWCCA 266 ....................................................... EA.165.240, EA.165.450 R v Vu Ngoc Pham [2004] NSWCCA 190 ........................................................ EA.102.120 R v W [1999] NSWCCA 112 .......................................................... EA.41.300, EA.165.480 R v W [1999] NSWCCA 116 .............................................................. EA.81.60, EA.81.240 R v W, PK [2016] SASCFC 5 ......................................................................... EA.165B.210 R v WAA [2008] QCA 87 ................................................................................... EA.165.480 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxxxvi

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R R R R

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R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R

WAC [2008] QCA 151 ................................................................................. EA.165.480 WB (2009) 23 VR 319; 197 A Crim R 18; [2009] VSCA 173 ................. EA.165.450 WO [2006] QCA 21 ..................................................................................... EA.101.360 WRC (2002) 130 A Crim R 89; [2002] NSWCCA 210 ...... EA.101.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.210, EA.101.240, EA.101.360 v WRW [2001] NSWCCA 466 ....................................................................... EA.165.480 v WSP [2005] NSWCCA 427 ...................................................................... EA.165B.210 v Walbank (1995) 79 A Crim R 180 ................................................................ EA.189.40 v Walker [1998] Crim LR 211 .......................................................................... EA.85.210 v Walker [2000] NSWCCA 130 .................................. EA.85.210, EA.90.90, EA.90.270 v Walters [2002] NSWCCA 291 ............................................... EA.101.150, EA.101.360 v Wanganeen (2006) 95 SASR 226; [2006] SASC 254 .................................. EA.141.90 v Warren (1994) 72 A Crim R 74 ............................................................... EA.165A.150 v Waters (2002) 129 A Crim R 115; [2002] ACTSC 13 ............. EA.85.210, EA.85.300 v Watkins (2005) 153 A Crim R 434; [2005] NSWCCA 164 ........................ EA.97.120, EA.101.190 v Watt [2000] NSWCCA 37 ............................................................................. EA.87.120 v Weaven (No 1) [2011] VSC 442 ................................................................. EA.138.390 v Weetra (2010) 108 SASR 232; [2010] SASCFC 52 .................................. EA.165.480 v Weiss (2004) 8 VR 388; 145 A Crim R 478; [2004] VSCA 73 ................ EA.165.480 v Welsh (1996) 90 A Crim R 364 ................................................... EA.59.180, EA.60.60 v Werry [2009] VSCA 94 ............................................................................... EA.141.120 v Whalen (2003) 56 NSWLR 454; [2003] NSWCCA 59 ............................. EA.165.300 v Wheeler [2004] SASC 397 .................................................... EA.165.450, EA.165.480 v Wheeler (unreported, NSW CCA, 16 November 1989) ............................... EA.110.90 v White [1969] VR 203 ..................................................................................... EA.110.90 v White (2003) 140 A Crim R 63; [2003] NSWCCA 64 .............. EA.38.60, EA.38.150 v White (2008) 102 SASR 35; [2008] SASC 265 ........................................... EA.116.90 v Whitmore (1999) 109 A Crim R 51; [1999] NSWCCA 247 ....................... EA.66.180, EA.108.150 v Whyte [2006] NSWCCA 75 ..................................... EA.77.60, EA.78.60, EA.136.150 v Wilkie [2008] NSWSC 885 ............................................................................ EA.123.60 v Williams (1999) 104 A Crim R 260; [1999] NSWCCA 9 ........................ EA.141.150, EA.165.480, EA.165.540 v Willoughby [2000] NSWSC 751 ................................................................... EA.100.60 v Wills (1985) 39 SASR 35; 16 A Crim R 247 ............................................... EA.13.210 v Wilson (2005) 62 NSWLR 346; [2005] NSWCCA 20 .......... EA.20.180, EA.165.240, EA.165.270 v Wilson (unreported, NSW CCA, Hunt CJ ...................................................... EA.43.90 v Winters [2010] SASC 100 ........................................................ EA.114.240, EA.116.90 v Wolter [2015] ACTSC 269 ............................................................................ EA.97.450 v Wood (1996) 87 A Crim R 346 ..................................................................... EA.20.180 v Woods (2008) 102 SASR 422; [2008] SASC 335 ................ EA.141.120, EA.141.150 v Workman (2004) 60 NSWLR 471; [2004] NSWCCA 213 ........................ EA.138.120 v Wright (2004) 149 A Crim R 298; [2004] ACTSC 83 ................................... EA.19.30 v Wu (unreported, NSW CCA, Grove, Levine, Barr JJ, 12 November 1998) .................................................................................................................. EA.84.60 v XY (2010) 79 NSWLR 629; [2010] NSWCCA 181 ..................................... EA.66.180 v XY (2013) 84 NSWLR 363; 231 A Crim R 474; [2013] NSWCCA 121 ........................................................................ EA.Intro.300, EA.90.270, EA.137.90 v Xie (No 12) [2014] NSWSC 1980 .................................................................. EA.26.60 v Y (2007) 178 A Crim R 481; [2007] TASSC 112 ...................................... EA.101.120 v YL (2004) 187 FLR 84; [2004] ACTSC 115 .................................................. EA.19.30 v v v v

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Table of Cases

R v Yammine (2002) 132 A Crim R 44; [2002] NSWCCA 289 .... EA.20.150, EA.55.150, EA.165.330 R v Yates [2002] NSWCCA 520 ............................. EA.137.120, EA.137.150, EA.165.210 R v Ye Zhang [2000] NSWSC 1099 ................................................... EA.84.60, EA.85.210 R v Yi [1998] NSWSC 39 .................................................................................... EA.38.150 R v Yilditz (1983) 11 A Crim R 115 .................................................................... EA.79.150 R v Young [1999] NSWCCA 166; (1999) 46 NSWLR 681 ................ NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.90, NSW.CPA.299D.150 R v Yuille [1948] VLR 41 .................................................................................... EA.136.60 R v Zaiter [2004] NSWCCA 35 ......................................................................... EA.141.120 R v Zammit (1999) 107 A Crim R 489; [1999] NSWCCA 65 ..... EA.137.60, EA.165.450 R v Zampogna (2003) 85 SASR 56; 138 A Crim R 368; [2003] SASC 75 ........ EA.81.60 R v Zhang (2005) 227 ALR 311; 196 FLR 152; 158 A Crim R 504; [2005] NSWCCA 437 .......................... EA.98.120, EA.98.180, EA.98.450, EA.101.60 R v Zhen (1995) 83 A Crim R 572 .................................................. EA.81.60, EA.165.480 R v Zorad (1990) 19 NSWLR 91 ........................................................................ EA.46.150 R v Zurita [2002] NSWCCA 22 ....................................................... EA.110.60, EA.110.90 R L Ralston, In the Estate of (unreported, NSW SC, Hodgson J, 12 September 1996) .............................................................................................. EA.140.60 RA v The Queen (2007) 175 A Crim R 221; [2007] NSWCCA 251 ................. EA.13.270 RBK v The Queen [2004] WASCA 216 .......................................................... EA.165B.240 RELC v The Queen (2006) 167 A Crim R 484; [2006] NSWCCA 383 ......... EA.165.240, EA.165.450 RG v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 173 ............................................................ EA.101.150 RGM v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 89 ............................... EA.101A.120, EA.165A.210 RH v The Queen (2014) 241 A Crim R 1; [2014] NSWCCA 71 ...................... EA.97.120, EA.101.190, EA.101.240, EA.101.360 RHB v The Queen [2011] VSCA 295 ............................................ EA.97.120, EA.101.240 RHG Mortgage Corporation Ltd v Ianni [2016] NSWCA 270 ........................ EA.140.120 RHG Mortgage Ltd v Ianni [2015] NSWCA 56 ................................................. EA.55.180 RJ v The Queen (2010) 208 A Crim R 174; [2010] NSWCCA 263 ................. EA.13.180, EA.13.210, EA.13.300, EA.21.60, EA.110.60 RMD v Western Australia [2017] WASCA 70 .................................................... EA.97.480 RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3 ........... EA.20.180, EA.20.300, EA.26.210, EA.55.180 RR v The Queen [2011] VSCA 442 ..................................................................... EA.46.150 RRG Nominees Pty Ltd v Visible Temporary Fencing Australia Pty Ltd (No 3) [2018] FCA 404 ................................................................................. EA.138.690 RRS v The Queen (2013) 231 A Crim R 168; [2013] NSWCCA 94 .............. EA.165.450, EA.165.480 RWB v The Queen (2010) 202 A Crim R 209; [2010] NSWCCA 147 .............. EA.46.150 RWC v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 332 ......................................................... EA.101.150 RWC v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 58 ........................................................... EA.165.480 Raad v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 268 ......................................................... EA.165.210 Radi v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 265 .......................................................... EA.101.150 Raimondi v The Queen [2013] VSCA 194 .......................................................... EA.60.150 Rajski v Tectran Corp Pty Ltd [2003] NSWSC 476 ......................... EA.8.90, EA.131.330 Ramey v The Queen (1994) 68 ALJR 917 ........................................................ EA.165.450 Ramirez v The Trustee of the Property of Zoltan Sandor, A Bankrupt (unreported, NSW SC, Young J, 22 April 1997) .......................... EA.29.150, EA.36.30 Ramjutton v The Queen (2015) 255 A Crim R 576; [2015] VSCA 309 .......... EA.131.360 Ramsay v Watson (1961) 108 CLR 642 .............................................................. EA.79.240 Rana v The Queen [2014] VSCA 198 ................................................................... EA.81.60 [All references are to paragraph numbers] lxxxviii

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Table of Cases

Randall v The Queen (2004) 146 A Crim R 197; [2004] TASSC 42 ................ EA.38.150 Randwick City Council v Minister for the Environment (1998) 54 ALD 682 .................................................................................................................... EA.79.180 Rank Film Ltd v Video Information Centre [1982] AC 380 ....... EA.128.180, EA.128.360 Rataplan Pty Ltd v Commissioner of Taxation [2004] FCA 674 ....................... EA.190.80 Ratten v The Queen [1972] AC 378 ................................................. EA.59.180, EA.65.150 Rawack v Spicer [2002] NSWSC 849 ................................................................. EA.140.60 Reading v ABC [2003] NSWSC 716 ............................ EA.48.180, EA.55.90, EA.135.180 Reberger v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 132 ..................................................... EA.46.150 Reed v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 314 ................................... EA.103.120, EA.165.540 Rees v Lumen Christi Primary School [2010] VSC 514 ................... EA.79.300, EA.80.90 Rees v The Queen (2010) 200 A Crim R 83; [2010] NSWCCA 84 ................ EA.141.120 Rees v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 66 ............................................................ EA.101.360 Reeves v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 41 VR 275; 236 A Crim R 448; [2013] VSCA 311 .......................................................... EA.97.120, EA.101.240 Reeves v The Queen (2013) 227 A Crim R 444; [2013] NSWCCA 34 ....... EA.165B.120, EA.165.150, EA.165.480 Reeves v The Queen (2013) 41 VR 275; 236 A Crim R 448; [2013] VSCA 311 ........................................................................................................ EA.41.300 Reference of a Question of Law (No 1 of 1999) (1999) 106 A Crim R 408 ..EA.165A.150 Registrar, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Corporations v Ponto (2012) 208 FCR 346; [2012] FCA 1500 ........................................................ EA.48.180 Registrar of Aboriginal Corps v Murnkurni Women’s Aboriginal Corporation (1995) 58 FCR 125; 137 ALR 404 ........................................... EA.75.120 Reid v Commercial Club (Albury) Ltd [2014] NSWCA 98 ................................ EA.55.180 Reid v Howard (1995) 184 CLR 1 .................................................................... EA.128.540 Reid v Kerr (1974) 9 SASR 367 ........................................................ EA.46.60, EA.46.150 Reid v The Queen [2014] VSCA 295 ................................................................ EA.114.240 Rend v The Queen (2006) 160 A Crim R 178; [2006] NSWCCA 41 ................ EA.46.120 Renegade Rigging Pty Ltd v Hanlon Nominees Pty Ltd [2010] VSC 385 ......... EA.160.60 Repatriation Commission v Goulding (2008) 173 FCR 546; [2008] FCA 1858 .................................................................................................................. EA.163.30 Republic of Ireland v United Kingdom [1978] 2 EHRR 25 ................................. EA.84.60 Restricted Judgment [2017] NSWCCA 252 ...................................................... EA.101.360 Restricted Judgment [2017] NSWCCA 283 .......................................................... EA.90.60 Restricted Judgment [2017] NSWCCA 288 ............ EA.138.60, EA.138.150, EA.138.210, EA.138.420, EA.138.450, EA.138.570, EA.138.660, EA.138.720 Restricted Judgment [2017] NSWCCA 93 .......................................................... EA.18.180 Restricted Judgment [2018] WASCA 14 ............................................................. EA.79.330 Retravision (NSW) Ltd v Copeland (unreported, NSW SC, Young J, 8 October 1996) ............................................................................. EA.117.90, EA.118.270 Reza v Summerhill Orchards Ltd (2013) 37 VR 204; [2013] VSCA 17 ............ EA.46.150 Rhesa Shipping Co SA v Edmunds [1985] 2 All ER 712 ................................... EA.140.60 Rhodes v O’Neill [2017] TASFC 1 ...................................................................... EA.55.180 Rich v Attorney General (NSW) [2013] NSWCA 419 ................ EA.128.540, EA.128.780 Rich v Australian Securities & Investments Commission (2005) 54 ACSR 365; [2005] NSWCA 233 ................................................................................ EA.79.240 Rich v Harrington (2007) 245 ALR 106; [2007] FCA 1987 ...... EA.118.330, EA.122.480 Richards v Macquarie Bank Ltd (No 2) [2012] FCA 1403 ................................ EA.97.120 Richards v Macquarie Bank Ltd (No 3) (2013) 301 ALR 653; [2012] FCA 1523 .............................................................................................................. EA.Intro.340 Richardson v The Queen (1974) 131 CLR 116 ................................................... EA.55.180 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Rickard Constructions Pty Ltd v Rickard Hails Moretti Pty Ltd [2004] NSWSC 984 ............................................................. EA.69.180, EA.69.240, EA.69.540 Rickard Constructions Pty Ltd v Rickard Hails Moretti Pty Ltd [2006] NSWSC 234 ....................................................... EA.117.120, EA.119.120, EA.122.360 Ridgeway v The Queen (1995) 184 CLR 19; [1995] HCA 66 ....... EA.11.90, EA.138.120, EA.138.150, EA.138.210, EA.138.690 Riley v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 238 ..................................... EA.90.240, EA.137.210 RinRim Pty Ltd v Deutsche Bank Australia Ltd [2013] NSWSC 1654 ........... EA.122.270 Ringrow Pty Ltd v BP Australia Ltd (2003) 130 FCR 569; [2003] FCA 933 ................................................................................................ EA.69.150, EA.69.210 Rio Tinto Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2006) 64 ATR 63; 235 ALR 127; [2006] FCA 1200 .................................................................. EA.122.480 Rio Tinto Zinc Corp v Westinghouse Electric Corp [1978] AC 547 ................ EA.128.360 Risk v Northern Territory [2006] FCA 404 .................... EA.76.90, EA.79.120, EA.79.240 Ritz Hotel Ltd v Charles of the Ritz Ltd (1988) 15 NSWLR 158 ...................... EA.79.120 Ritz Hotel Ltd v Charles of the Ritz Ltd (No 22) (1988) 14 NSWLR 132 ...... EA.117.120 Ritz Hotel Ltd v Charles of the Ritz Ltd (Nos 13, 18, 19) (1988) 14 NSWLR 116 .................................................................................................... EA.69.120 Roach v Page (No 11) [2003] NSWSC 907 ................ EA.77.60, EA.79.270, EA.135.150, EA.136.60, EA.136.180 Roach v Page (No 15) [2003] NSWSC 939 .................. EA.69.60, EA.69.120, EA.136.60 Roach v Page (No 17) [2003] NSWSC 973 ...................................................... EA.118.390 Roach v Page (No 26) [2003] NSWSC 1045 ...................................................... EA.190.80 Roach v Page (No 27) [2003] NSWSC 1046 ............... EA.66A.60, EA.69.60, EA.69.120 Roach v Page (No 37) [2004] NSWSC 1048 ...................................................... EA.46.150 Roach v The Queen (2011) 242 CLR 610; 210 A Crim R 300; 85 ALJR 558; [2011] HCA 12 ...................... EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.210, EA.101.360, EA.141.120 Roads & Traffıc Authority of New South Wales v Tetley [2004] NSWSC 925 .................................................................................................................... EA.183.80 Roads and Traffıc Authority (NSW) v Barrie Toepfer Earthmoving and Land Management Pty Ltd (No 2) [2012] NSWSC 916 ............. EA.79.180, EA.80.90, EA.80.150 Robbins v The Queen [2017] VSCA 288 ............................... EA.165B.180, EA.165B.210 Roberts v Burns Philp Trustee & Co Ltd (1985) 5 NSWLR 72 ........................ EA.65.240 Robinson v Goodman [2013] FCA 893 .............................................. EA.55.90, EA.97.450 Robinson v The Queen (1999) 197 CLR 162; 73 ALJR 1314; [1999] HCA 42 .................................................................................................................... EA.165.480 Robinson v The Queen (2006) 162 A Crim R 88; [2006] NSWCCA 192 ...... EA.165.210, EA.165.390 Robinson v The Queen (No 2) (1991) 180 CLR 531; 55 A Crim R 318; [1991] HCA 38 ............................. EA.104.120, EA.141.150, EA.165.450, EA.165.480 Robinson v Woolworths Ltd (2005) 158 A Crim R 546; [2005] NSWCCA 426 .................................................................................................................. EA.138.120 Rocco v The Queen [2003] HCA Trans 497 (2 December 2003) ...................... EA.55.180 Rodden v The Queen (2008) 182 A Crim R 227; [2008] NSWCCA 53 .......... EA.101.360 Rodgers v Rodgers (1964) 114 CLR 608 .......................................................... EA.131.270 Rolfe v Katunga Lucerne Mill Pty Ltd [2005] NSWCA 252 .............................. EA.41.300 Rolfe v The Queen (2007) 173 A Crim R 168; [2007] NSWCCA 155 ............ EA.101.150 Rolleston v Insurance Australia Ltd [2017] NSWCA 168 .................................. EA.79.180 Romer v HJ & J Wilson Carriers Pty Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Sperling J, 9 August 1996) ......................................................................... EA.157.30, EA.190.80 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xc

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Table of Cases

Ross v Internet Wines Pty Ltd (2004) 60 NSWLR 436; [2004] NSWCA 195 .................................................................................................................. EA.128.780 Rosseau Pty Ltd (in liq) v Jay-O-Bees Pty Ltd (in liq) (2004) 50 ACSR 565; [2004] NSWSC 818 .............................................................. EA.4.150, EA.69.240 Rossi v The Queen [2012] VSCA 228 ......................................................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Roth v The Queen [2014] VSCA 242 .................................................................. EA.32.150 Rowley v O’Chee (2000) 1 Qd R 207 ................................................................... EA.10.60 Royal v El Ali (No 4) [2017] FCA 299 ........................................ EA.131.450, EA.131.540 Rozenes v Beljajev [1995] 1 VR 533; 126 ALR 481 .......................................... EA.90.300 Rural Export & Trading (WA) Pty Ltd v Hahnheuser (2007) 243 ALR 356; [2007] FCA 1535 .................................................................................... EA.87.120 Rush & Tompkins Ltd v Greater London Council [1989] AC 1280 ................ EA.131.270, EA.131.300 Russell v Jackson (1851) 9 Hare 387 ................................................................ EA.121.150 Russell v The Queen [2013] VSCA 155 ................................................................ EA.60.60 Russell v Western Australia (2011) 214 A Crim R 326; [2011] WASCA 246 ................................................................................................................ EA.Intro.340 Ryan v Hansen (2000) 49 NSWLR 184; [2000] NSWSC 354 ............................. EA.4.150 Ryan v Victoria [2015] VSCA 353 .... EA.130.60, EA.130.180, EA.130.240, EA.130.300, EA.130.390, EA.130.420 Ryan v Watkins (2005) 44 MVR 495; [2005] NSWCA 426 ..................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.30, EA.129.90, EA.129.120 Ryland v QBE Insurance (Aust) Ltd [2013] NSWCA 120 ................................. EA.27.120

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S S1983 of 2003 v Minister for Immigration & Citizenship [2007] FCA 854 ...... EA.144.60 SAMM Property Holdings Pty Ltd v Shaye Properties Pty Ltd [2017] NSWCA 132 ............................................................... EA.46.60, EA.46.150, EA.55.180 SBEG v Secretary, Department of Immigration and Citizenship (2012) 291 ALR 281; [2012] FCA 277 ........................................................................... EA.130.210 SG v New South Wales Crime Commission [2016] NSWSC 1615 .................... EA.125.90 SGH v Western Australia [2016] WASCA 161 ................................ EA.46.150, EA.55.330 SH v The Queen (2012) 83 NSWLR 258; 222 A Crim R 43; [2012] NSWCCA 79 ................................................................................................... EA.13.210 SJF v The Queen [2011] VSCA 281 .................................................................. EA.141.120 SKA v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 205 ............... EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.165.480 SLJ v The Queen (2013) 39 VR 514; 233 A Crim R 341; [2013] VSCA 193 .................................................................................................................... EA.37.270 SLS v The Queen (2014) 42 VR 64; 243 A Crim R 318; [2014] VSCA 31 ...... EA.79.180 SM v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 171 ............................................................ EA.165.480 SPAR Licensing Pty Ltd v MIS QLD Pty Ltd (No 2) (2012) 298 ALR 69; [2012] FCA 1116 ............................................................................................... EA.59.90 SQMB v MIMIA (2004) 205 ALR 392; [2004] FCA 241 ................................... EA.122.60 SS Pharmaceutical Co Ltd v Qantas Airways Ltd [1991] 1 Lloyds Rep 288 .................................................................................................................... EA.55.180 STX Pan Ocean Co Ltd v Bowen Basin Coal Group Pty Ltd (2010) 188 FCR 528; [2010] FCA 1002 ........................ EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.21.150, EA.21.210 SVI Systems Pty Ltd v Best & Less Pty Ltd [2000] FCA 1507 ........................ EA.122.270 SW v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 103 ............................................................ EA.165.480 SWC v The Queen [2011] VSCA 264 ................................................................ EA.141.120 SWV Pty Ltd v Spiroc Pty Ltd (2006) 201 FLR 238; [2006] NSWSC 668 ..... EA.131.450 SY v The Queen [2018] NSWCCA 6 ................................................................... EA.46.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

SZGMB v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural & Indigenous Affairs [2006] FCA 437 ............................................................................................... EA.163.30 Saffron v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (1992) 109 ALR 695 ................. EA.128.360 Sagacious Legal Pty Ltd v Wesfarmers General Insurance Ltd (2011) 16 ANZ Insurance Cases 61-885; [2011] FCAFC 53 ......................................... EA.55.180 Sagacious Legal Pty Ltd v Westfarmers General Insurance Ltd (No 4) (2010) 268 ALR 108; 55 MVR 391; [2010] FCA 482 .................. EA.8.60, EA.46.150 Salmond v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 141 ................................................... EA.165.480 Salter Rex & Co v Ghosh [1971] 2 QB 597 ......................................................... EA.75.90 Salvati v Donato [2010] FamCAFC 263 ........................................................... EA.144.120 Samadi v The Queen (2008) 192 A Crim R 251; [2008] NSWCCA 330 ........ EA.101.150 Sanchez v The Queen (2009) 196 A Crim R 472; [2009] NSWCCA 171 ........... EA.89.90 Sanderson v Rabuntja (2014) 33 NTLR 205; [2014] NTSC 13 ........................ EA.18.120 Sankey v Whitlam (1978) 142 CLR 1; [1978] HCA 43 .............. EA.126B.270, EA.10.60, EA.130.60, EA.130.120, EA.130.210, EA.130.300, EA.130.330, EA.130.390 Santo v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 269 ............................................................ EA.55.60 Saoud v The Queen (2014) 87 NSWLR 481; [2014] NSWCCA 136 ................. EA.55.90, EA.97.120, EA.97.480, EA.98.120, EA.101.190, EA.101.450 Saunders v The Queen (2004) 149 A Crim R 174; [2004] TASSC 95 ............. EA.20.180, EA.66.210 Scalise v Bezzina [2003] NSWCA 362 .............................................. EA.46.60, EA.46.150 Schanker v The Queen [2018] VSCA 94 .................. EA.59.180, EA.136.60, EA.Intro.120 Schellenberg v Tunnel Holdings Pty Ltd (2000) 200 CLR 121; 74 ALJR 743; [2000] HCA 18 ........................................................................................ EA.55.180 Schipp v Cameron (No 2) (1997) 38 ATR 1 ....................................................... EA.39.120 Schofield, Re; Ex parte Rangott v P & B Baron Pty Ltd (1997) 72 FCR 280 ........................................................................................................................ EA.8.60 Schulman v Abbott Tout Lawyers [2010] FCA 308 ........................................... EA.122.150 Scope Data Systems Pty Ltd v Goman (2007) 70 NSWLR 176; 210 FLR 161; [2007] NSWSC 278 ................................................................................ EA.160.60 Scott MacRae Investments Pty Ltd v Baylily Pty Ltd [2011] NSWCA 82 ........... EA.75.90 Seafood Imports Pty Ltd v ANL Singapore Pte Ltd (No 1) [2009] FCA 435 ........................................................................................................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Secretary, Department of Health & Ageing v Prime Nature Prize Pty Ltd (in liq) [2010] FCA 597 .................................................................................. EA.191.20 Selby v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 40 ........................................................... EA.114.240 Sellers Fabrics Pty Ltd v Hapag-Lloyd AG [1998] NSWSC 644 ...................... EA.69.240 Sellers Pty Ltd v Hapag-Lloyd AG (unreported, NSW SC, Admiralty Div, Giles CJ Comm D, 11 September 1997) ...................................................... EA.118.390 Seltsam Pty Ltd v McGuiness (2000) 49 NSWLR 262; [2000] NSWCA 29 ...EA.Intro.350 Semaan v The Queen (2013) 39 VR 503; 230 A Crim R 568; [2013] VSCA 134 ................................................................ EA.55.360, EA.55.390, EA.97.120 Semaan v The Queen; DPP v Semaan [2017] VSCA 261 ................................. EA.66.210 Sendy v Commonwealth [2002] NSWSC 1109 ............................ EA.118.180, EA.118.220 Seven Network Ltd v News Ltd (2005) 144 FCR 379; [2005] FCAFC 125 .... EA.117.120, EA.128.150 Seven Network Ltd v News Ltd [2005] FCA 864 ........................ EA.117.120, EA.122.210 Seven Network Ltd v News Ltd (2006) 151 FCR 450; [2006] FCA 343 ........ EA.131.120, EA.131.210, EA.131.240, EA.131.270 Seven Network Ltd v News Ltd (No 14) [2006] FCA 500 .................................. EA.79.240 Seven Network Ltd v News Ltd (No 15) [2006] FCA 515 .................................. EA.79.240 Seven Network Ltd v News Ltd (No 8) [2005] FCA 1348 .................................. EA.136.60 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xcii

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Table of Cases

789TEN Pty Ltd v Westpac Banking Corp Ltd (2005) 215 ALR 131; [2005] NSWSC 123 ....................................................................................... EA.119.120 Sever v The Queen (2007) 179 A Crim R 110; [2007] NSWCCA 339 ............. EA.20.180 Severino v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 80 ............... EA.85.210, EA.89.150, EA.139.60, EA.139.120, EA.Intro.350 Sevic v Roarty (1998) 44 NSWLR 287 ............................................................. EA.122.330 Sexton v Homer (2013) 65 MVR 460; [2013] NSWCA 414 ...... EA.117.120, EA.118.360 Seymour v Attorney-General (Cth) (1984) 1 FCR 416 ......................................... EA.90.60 Seymour v Australian Broadcasting Commission (1977) 19 NSWLR 219 ........ EA.46.150 Seymour v Price [1998] FCA 1224 .................................................................... EA.130.390 Seymour v The Queen (2006) 162 A Crim R 576; [2006] NSWCCA 206 ...... EA.137.120 Sharjade Pty Ltd v RAAF Landings [2008] NSWSC 151 ................................ EA.122.480 Sharp v Rangott (2008) 167 FCR 225; 246 ALR 84; [2008] FCAFC 45 ......... EA.26.120 Shaw v The Queen (1952) 85 CLR 365 ........................................... EA.43.210, EA.106.90 Shea v EnergyAustralia Services Pty Ltd (No 5) (2013) 303 ALR 230; [2013] FCA 937 ............................................................................................. EA.122.180 Sheehan v The Queen (2006) 163 A Crim R 397; [2006] NSWCCA 233 .... EA.165B.270 Sheen v The Queen (2011) 215 A Crim R 208; [2011] NSWCCA 259 ........... EA.165.480 Sheldon v Sun Alliance Ltd (1988) 50 SASR 236 .............................................. EA.87.120 Shepherd v The Queen (1990) 170 CLR 573 .................................................... EA.141.120 Short v The Queen [2000] NSWCCA 462 ........................................................ EA.141.150 Shoshana Pty Ltd v 10th Cantanae Pty Ltd (1987) 18 FCR 285 ....................... EA.79.120 Sibanda v The Queen (2011) 33 VR 67; 213 A Crim R 303; [2011] VSCA 285 ................................................................................................ EA.89.90, EA.165.480 Silver Fox Co Pty Ltd v Lenards Pty Ltd (No 3) (2004) 214 ALR 621; [2004] FCA 1570 ....................................................................... EA.131.60, EA.131.510 Silvia v Federal Commissioner of Taxation [2001] NSWSC 562 ........................ EA.56.60 Sim v Powell (unreported, NSW SC, Young J, 10 September 1997) ................. EA.79.150 Simply Irresistible Pty Ltd v Couper [2010] VSC 505 ..................................... EA.131.480 Sims v Thomas (2007) 17 Tas R 114; 179 A Crim R 412; [2007] TASSC 106 .................................................................................................................. EA.138.720 Sindoni v The Queen (2011) 211 A Crim R 187; [2011] VSCA 195 ................. EA.116.90 Singapore Airlines v Sydney Airports Corp Ltd [2004] NSWSC 380 ............. EA.118.390, EA.122.180, EA.122.240, EA.122.270, EA.122.510, EA.133.60 Singh v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) (2006) 164 A Crim R 284; [2006] NSWCCA 333 .......................................... EA.164.90, EA.165.180, EA.165.480 Singh v Newridge Property Group Pty Ltd [2010] NSWSC 411 ......................... EA.67.60 Singh v Singh [2007] NSWSC 1357 .................................................................... EA.59.240 Singh v The Queen (2011) 33 VR 1; [2011] VSCA 263 ................. EA.66.120, EA.66.180 Singtel Optus Pty Ltd v Weston (2011) 81 NSWLR 526; [2011] NSWSC 1083 ............................................................................................................... EA.131A.90 Sio v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 42 ................................................................ EA.65.240 Sio v The Queen (2016) 90 ALJR 963; [2016] HCA 32 .................. EA.65.60, EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.65.240 Skinner v The Queen [2015] VSCA 26 ............................................................... EA.41.300 Skipworth v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 37 ..................................................... EA.66.180 Slea Pty Ltd v Connective Services Pty Ltd [2017] VSC 232 ..... EA.131.60, EA.131.120, EA.131.150, EA.131.270, EA.131.480 Slea Pty Ltd v Connective Services Pty Ltd [2017] VSC 361 .......................... EA.117.120 Smale v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 328 ....................................................... EA.137.210 Smart v Tasmania [2013] TASCCA 15 ............................................ EA.55.330, EA.137.90 Smith v Aircraft Maintenance Services Australia (AMSA) Pty Ltd [2018] FCA 264 ..................................................................................... EA.135.90, EA.135.150 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Gould (No 1) [2012] VSC 210 ............................................................. EA.131.150 The Queen (1970) 121 CLR 572 ............................................................ EA.29.180 The Queen (1990) 64 ALJR 588 ....................................... EA.80.150, EA.106.240 The Queen (2001) 206 CLR 650; 75 ALJR 1398; [2001] HCA 50 ...... EA.55.60, EA.55.90, EA.55.270, EA.56.90, EA.76.90, EA.78.60, EA.114.240, EA.115.300, EA.116.90 Smith v The Queen [2012] VSCA 187 ........................... EA.46.90, EA.46.120, EA.46.150 Smith v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 182 ...................................... EA.55.330, EA.137.90 Smith v Western Australia (2014) 250 CLR 473; 88 ALJR 384; [2014] HCA 3 ................................................................................................................ EA.9.120 Smits v Roach [2006] HCA 36 ........................................................................... EA.190.120 Sokolowskyj v The Queen (2014) 239 A Crim R 528; [2014] NSWCCA 55 .... EA.97.120, EA.101.190, EA.101.195, EA.137.60 Song v Ying (2010) 79 NSWLR 442; [2010] NSWCA 237 ............................. EA.128.120 Sophie, Re [2008] NSWCA 250 ........................................................................... EA.140.60 Sorby v Commonwealth (1983) 152 CLR 281; 57 ALJR 248; [1983] HCA 10 ............................... EA.128.90, EA.128.150, EA.128.180, EA.128.360, EA.128.600 Soteriou v Director of Public Prosecutions [2013] VSCA 328 ...... EA.85.210, EA.85.300 Soulemezis v Dudley (Holdings) Pty Ltd (1987) 10 NSWLR 247 ..................... EA.56.210 South Shropshire District Council v Amos [1987] 1 All ER 340 ..................... EA.131.270 South Sydney Junior Rugby Leagues Club Ltd v Gioia [2000] NSWCA 249 ...................................................................................................................... EA.78.60 South Western Sydney Area Health Service v Edmonds (2007) 4 DDCR 421; [2007] NSWCA 16 ................................................................................ EA.136.300 Southern Cross Airlines Holdings Ltd (in liq) v Arthur Andersen & Co (1998) 84 FCR 472 .................................................................. EA.122.270, EA.122.360 Southern Cross Airports v Chief Commissioner of State Revenue (2011) 83 ATR 612; [2011] NSWSC 349 ............................................ EA.69.120, EA.192A.60 Southland Coal Pty Ltd, Re (2005) 189 FLR 297; [2005] NSWSC 259 ......... EA.118.480 Southland Coal Pty Ltd (receivers & managers appointed) (in liq), Re (2006) 203 FLR 1; [2006] NSWSC 899 ........... EA.118.150, EA.118.360, EA.118.570 Sovereign v Bevillesta [2000] NSWSC 521 ............. EA.122.90, EA.122.210, EA.122.240 Sparnon v Apand Pty Ltd (1996) 68 FCR 322; 138 ALR 735 ........................ EA.118.360, EA.118.390 Spence v Demasi (1988) 48 SASR 536 ........................................... EA.65.240, EA.81.240 Spence v The Queen [2016] VSCA 113 ................... EA.128.600, EA.128.690, EA.132.90 Spencer v Bamber [2012] NSWCA 274 .............................................................. EA.46.150 Spencer v Commonwealth (2012) 206 FCR 309; [2012] FCAFC 169 ........... EA.130.210, EA.130.240, EA.130.390, EA.133.60 Spencer v Commonwealth [2014] FCA 1288 ...................................................... EA.56.120 Spencer v The Queen (2003) 137 A Crim R 444; [2003] NTCCA 1 ............... EA.165.480 Sportsbet Pty Ltd v New South Wales (No 3) (2009) 262 ALR 27; [2009] FCA 1283 ........................................................................................................... EA.10.60 Stack v Western Australia (2004) 29 WAR 526; 151 A Crim R 112; [2004] WASCA 300 ..................................................................... EA.42.60, EA.165.450 Stafford v The Queen (1993) 67 ALJR 510 ....................................................... EA.165.450 Stambolziovski v Nestorovic [2015] NSWCA 332 .............................................. EA.55.180 Standage v Tasmania [2017] TASCCA 23 ..................................... EA.137.90, EA.137.210 Standard Chartered Bank of Australia Ltd v Dean [1999] NSWSC 1042 ...... EA.128.690 Stanoevski v The Queen (2001) 202 CLR 115; [2001] HCA 4 ..... EA.192.40, EA.192.80, EA.192.100

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Smith Smith Smith Smith

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Table of Cases

Stanoevski v The Queen (2001) 202 CLR 115; 118 A Crim R 247; [2001] HCA 4 ............ EA.108C.150, EA.16.90, EA.29.60, EA.32.90, EA.32.180, EA.37.150, EA.38.150, EA.39.150, EA.46.180, EA.67.90, EA.104.90, EA.106.120, EA.108.180, EA.110.60, EA.112.60 Stark v The Queen (2013) 230 A Crim R 455; [2013] VSCA 34 ...................... EA.66.300 State Bank of New South Wales v Lo [2000] NSWSC 1191 .............................. EA.59.240 State Central Authority v Blyth [2010] FamCA 90 ........................................... EA.121.120 State Rail Authority (NSW) v Brown (2006) 66 NSWLR 540; [2006] NSWCA 220 ................................................................................ EA.46.60, EA.103.120 State Rail Authority (NSW) v Smith (1998) 45 NSWLR 382 ........................... EA.131.120 Steel v Beks (2010) 245 FLR 212; [2010] NSWSC 1405 .................................. EA.160.60 Steffen v Ruban [1966] 2 NSWLR 622 ............................................................... EA.79.240 Stern v National Australia Bank Ltd (2000) 171 ALR 192; [2000] FCA 294 ...................................................................................................................... EA.46.60 Steve v The Queen (2008) 189 A Crim R 68; [2008] NSWCCA 231 ............ EA.Intro.350 Stevens v McCallum [2006] ACTCA 13 .............................................................. EA.66.210 Stevens v The Queen (2005) 80 ALJR 91; 156 A Crim R 487; [2005] HCA 65 .......................................................................................................... EA.141.120 Stewart v Ronalds (2009) 76 NSWLR 99; 232 FLR 331; [2009] NSWCA 277 ...................................................................................................................... EA.10.60 Stirland v Director of Public Prosecutions [1944] AC 327 ............................ EA.Intro.350 Stockland (Constructors) Pty Ltd v Darryl I Coombs Pty Ltd [2004] NSWSC 323 ................................................................................. EA.79.300, EA.79.420 Stojcevski v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 27 ..................................................... EA.165.90 Strachan v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 322 ............................... EA.55.330, EA.101.150 Straker v The Queen (1977) 138 CLR 649; 51 ALJR 690 ................................... EA.81.60 Strauss v Police (SA) (2013) 224 A Crim R 389; [2013] SASC 3 ................. EA.114.240, EA.114.300 Strikers Management Pty Ltd; Australian Securities Commission v Peter Dimitri (unreported, FCA, Burchett J, 18 November 1997) ....................... EA.121.120 Strinic v Singh (2009) 74 NSWLR 419; [2009] NSWCA 15 ............................. EA.144.60 Strong v Woolworths Ltd (2012) 246 CLR 182; 86 ALJR 267; [2012] HCA 5 .............................................................................................................. EA.140.60 Stuart v The Queen (1959) 101 CLR 1 ............................................................... EA.20.150 Stubley v WA [2011] HCA 7 ................................................................................ EA.184.20 Stubley v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 36 ............................ EA.141.120, EA.184.20 Stubley v Western Australia (2011) 242 CLR 374; 207 A Crim R 202; [2011] HCA 7 ....................................... EA.55.90, EA.55.390, EA.97.120, EA.101.185 Su v Chang [1999] FamCA 1203 ....................................................................... EA.190.120 Subramaniam v Public Prosecutor [1956] 1 WLR 965 ...................................... EA.59.180 Sugden v Sugden (2007) 70 NSWLR 301; [2007] NSWCA 312 .................... EA.117.120, EA.118.240, EA.126.60 Sullivan v Gordon (1999) 47 NSWLR 319; [1999] NSWCA 338 ..................... EA.144.60 Sumner v The Queen (2010) 29 VR 398; 205 A Crim R 325; [2010] VSCA 221 ...................................................................................................... EA.165.480 Sutton v The Queen (1984) 152 CLR 528 ................................... EA.101.180, EA.101.185 Sutton v The Queen [2015] VSCA 251 ............................................................... EA.37.270 Svajcer v The Queen (2010) 200 A Crim R 587; [2010] VSCA 116 ............... EA.165.540 Svajcer v Woolworths Ltd [2015] VSC 543 ........................................................ EA.135.90 Swan v The Queen (2013) 234 A Crim R 372; [2013] VSCA 226 ...................... EA.55.60 Swann v Spiropolos [2006] NSWSC 461 .............................................................. EA.53.60 Sych v Hunter (1974) 8 SASR 118 ...................................................................... EA.79.240 Sydney, City of v Streetscape Projects (Aust) Pty Ltd [2011] NSWSC 942 ........ EA.44.60 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Sydney, City of v Streetscape Projects (Aust) Pty Ltd [2011] NSWSC 990 ...... EA.136.90 Sydney Airports Corp Ltd v Singapore Airlines Ltd [2005] NSWCA 47 ........ EA.118.330, EA.118.360, EA.118.390 Sydney Attractions Group Pty Ltd v Schulman [2012] NSWSC 951 .............. EA.192A.60 Sydney Attractions Group Pty Ltd v Schulman [2013] NSWSC 858 ................. EA.69.210 Sydney South West Area Health Service v Stamoulis [2009] NSWCA 153 ....... EA.79.300 Sydneywide Distributors Pty Ltd v Red Bull Australia Pty Ltd (2002) 55 IPR 354; [2002] FCAFC 157 ...................................................... EA.55.270, EA.79.240

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T T v The Queen (1999) 73 ALJR 460 ................................................................... EA.18.180 T, Re [1980] 1 NSWLR 392 .................................................................................. EA.94.90 TB v New South Wales [2014] NSWSC 1145 ....................................................... EA.60.60 TCN Channel Nine Pty Ltd v Anning (2002) 54 NSWLR 333; [2002] NSWCA 82 ...................................................................................................... EA.79.240 THD v The Queen (2010) 200 A Crim R 106; [2010] VSCA 115 ................... EA.115.300 TJ v Western Australia (No 3) [2015] FCA 1359 .......................... EA.79.270, EA.136.180 TKWJ v The Queen (2002) 212 CLR 124; 133 A Crim R 574; [2002] HCA 46 ..................... EA.192A.40, EA.192A.60, EA.101.150, EA.110.90, EA.137.60, EA.Intro.180 TO v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 12 ................................... EA.165B.150, EA.165B.210 TP v The Queen [2012] VSCA 166 ..................................................................... EA.46.150 TS v Constable Courtney James [2014] NSWSC 984 .......................................... EA.4.180 TWL v The Queen (2012) 222 A Crim R 445; [2012] NSWCCA 57 .............. EA.101.150 Tabcorp Holdings Ltd v Victoria [2013] VSC 302 ...... EA.117.90, EA.124.60, EA.133.60 Taber v The Queen (2007) 170 A Crim R 427; [2007] NSWCCA 116 ............. EA.65.270 Talacko v Talacko [2014] VSC 328 .............................. EA.91.60, EA.125.90, EA.125.180 Talbot v NRMA Ltd [2000] NSWSC 602 .......................................................... EA.121.150 Taleb v Director of Public Prosecutions (Vic) [2014] VSC 285 ........................ EA.55.510 Tambree v Travel Compensation Fund [2004] NSWCA 24 ............................... EA.98.360 Tampion v Anderson (1973) 48 ALJR 11 .............................................................. EA.75.90 Tan v The Queen (2008) 192 A Crim R 310; [2008] NSWCCA 332 ........ EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Tanner v The Queen [2001] WASCA 60 ..................................... EA.101.150, EA.101.360 Tanti v Rothe (unreported, NSW SC, McLelland CJ in Eq, 28 November 1996) ................................................................................................................ EA.79.300 Tarrant v Statewide Secured Investments Pty Ltd (2012) 126 ALD 290; [2012] FCA 582 ................................................................................................. EA.27.60 Tasmania v B (No 2) [2012] TASSC 39 ................................................................ EA.60.90 Tasmania v Bott [2015] TASSC 13 .................................................................... EA.138.120 Tasmania v Crane (2004) 148 A Crim R 346; [2004] TASSC 80 ................... EA.138.150 Tasmania v Dolega [2016] TASSC 65 ................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.62.60, EA.65.150 Tasmania v Farmer (2004) 148 A Crim R 99; [2004] TASSC 104 ................. EA.101.240 Tasmania v Mayne [2009] TASSC 82 ....................... EA.38.150, EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.137.150 Tasmania v S [2004] TASSC 84 ........................................................................ EA.101.240 Tasmania v Seabourne [2010] TASSC 35 ......................................................... EA.138.540 Tasmania v Stojakovic (2008) 18 Tas R 96; [2008] TASSC 48 ....................... EA.139.150 Tasmania v Sudani [2011] TASSC 50 ................................................................. EA.85.210 Tasmania v Tu Ai Lin (2011) 225 A Crim R 1; [2011] TASSC 54 .................... EA.69.120 Tate v Tate (2002) 169 FLR 190; [2002] FamCA 356 ............................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Taub v R [2017] NSWCCA 198 ........................................................................... EA.79.240 Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Ahern (No 2) [1988] 2 Qd R 158 ........... EA.75.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xcvi

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Table of Cases

Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Clear Blue Developments Pty Ltd (2010) 190 FCR 1; [2010] FCA 1223 ............................................................ EA.160.60 Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Currockbilly (2002) 172 FLR 99; [2002] NSWSC 1061 ........................................................................................ EA.4.150 Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Law Institute of Victoria (2010) 27 VR 51; 78 ATR 809; [2010] VSCA 73 .................................. EA.130.210, EA.130.390 Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Meredith (2007) 245 ALR 150; [2007] ATC 5353; [2007] NSWCA 354 ..................................... EA.160.60, EA.163.30 Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Meredith (2007) 69 ATR 876; [2007] NSWCA 354 .................................................................................................... EA.160.60 Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Trimcoll Pty Ltd [2005] NSWSC 1324 ............ EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30, EA.167.30, EA.167.60, EA.169.60, EA.169.90, EA.169.150 Taxation, Deputy Commissioner of v Trio Site Services Pty Ltd [2007] FCA 776 ........................................................................................................... EA.160.60 Taxation, Federal Commissioner of v Josway Hospitality Pty Ltd [2018] FCA 466 ........................................................................................................... EA.160.60 Taxation, Federal Commissioner of v Pratt Holdings Pty Ltd (2005) 60 ATR 266; 225 ALR 266; [2005] FCA 1247 ................................................. EA.118.390 Taxation, Federal Commissioner of v Rio Tinto Ltd (2006) 151 FCR 341; 229 ALR 304; [2006] FCAFC 86 ......................... EA.122.60, EA.122.90, EA.122.150 Taxation, Federal Commissioner of v SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd (2011) 193 FCR 149; [2011] FCAFC 74 ....................................................................... EA.Intro.350 Taxation (Cth), Federal Commissioner of v Industrial Equity Ltd (2000) 98 FCR 573; 171 ALR 1; [2000] FCA 420 ..................................................... EA.48.60 Taxation (Cth), Federal Commissioner of v Spotless Services Ltd (1996) 186 CLR 404 ................................................................................................. EA.118.390 Taylor v Burgess [2002] NSWSC 676; (2002) 29 Fam LR 167 ...................... EA.138.120 Taylor v The Queen (1978) 45 FLR 343; 22 ALR 599 ...................................... EA.79.480 Taylor v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 2 ......................................... EA.81.60, EA.138.120 Tedeschi v Singh [1948] 1 Ch 319 ....................................................................... EA.26.150 Tedesco v The Queen [2003] SASC 79; (2003) 85 SASR 66 .......................... EA.101.360 Telstra Corp v Australis Media Holdings (1997) 41 NSWLR 147 ................. EA.118.210, EA.118.270, EA.118.300 Telstra Corp v Australis Media Holdings (No 2) (1997) 41 NSWLR 346 ..... EA.122.240, EA.122.300, EA.Intro.120 Telstra Corp Ltd v BT Australasia Pty Ltd (1998) 85 FCR 152 ........................ EA.122.90 Telstra Corp Ltd v Minister for Communications, Information Technology & the Arts (No 2) [2007] FCA 1445 ............................................................ EA.118.330 Temple v Powell (No 1) (2007) 164 IR 409; [2007] FCA 987 ....... EA.28.120, EA.37.240 Teoh v Greenway (2015) 297 FLR 398; [2015] ACTSC 133 ........................... EA.131.540 Terranora Group Management Pty Ltd v Terranora Lakes Country Club Ltd (in liq) (unreported, NSW SC, Santow J, 1 December 1997) ................ EA.75.150 Thackray v Gunns Plantations Ltd (2011) 85 ACSR 144; [2011] VSC 380 ....... EA.50.30 Thatcher v Charles (1961) 104 CLR 57 ................................................................ EA.81.60 The Australian Federal Police, Commissioner of v Courtenay Investments Ltd [2016] WASCA 194 .................................................................................. EA.55.180 The Environment, Heritage & the Arts, Minister for v PGP Developments Pty Ltd [2010] FCA 58 ................................................................................... EA.191.20 Theodoropoulos v The Queen [2015] VSCA 364 ................................................ EA.81.240 Thi Dung Ta v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 32 ............... EA.20.90, EA.37.90, EA.76.90 Thomas v New South Wales (2008) 74 NSWLR 34; [2008] NSWCA 316 ....... EA.69.240 Thomas v SMP (International) Pty Ltd [2010] NSWSC 822 ............................. EA.28.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Thomas v SMP International Pty Ltd (No 3) [2010] NSWSC 900 .................... EA.26.150 Thomas v The Queen (1960) 102 CLR 584 ........................................................ EA.141.90 Thomas v Van Den Yssel (1976) 14 SASR 205 .................................................. EA.46.150 Thompson v The Queen (1968) 117 CLR 313; 42 ALJR 16 ............................ EA.101.150 Thorne v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 10 ........................................................ EA.165.480 3WJ Pty Ltd v Kanj [2008] NSWCA 321 ........................................ EA.38.150, EA.192.80 Thu v The Queen [2017] VSCA 28 ..................................................................... EA.97.120 Tieu v The Queen (2016) 92 NSWLR 94; 258 A Crim R 546; [2016] NSWCCA 111 ............ EA.102.60, EA.102.100, EA.103.60, EA.103.120, EA.104.180, EA.Intro.350 Tillmanns Butcheries Pty Ltd v AMIEU (1979) 42 FLR 331 ........................... EA.101.195 Tim Barr Pty Ltd v Narui Gold Coast Pty Ltd [2008] NSWSC 1070 ............ EA.118.150, EA.122.60, EA.122.240 Tim Barr Pty Ltd v Narui Gold Coast Pty Ltd [2008] NSWSC 1263 ................. EA.80.90 Tim Barr Pty Ltd v Narui Gold Coast Pty Ltd [2008] NSWSC 637 .................. EA.75.90, EA.189.60 Tim Barr Pty Ltd v Narui Gold Coast Pty Ltd [2008] NSWSC 654 ................. EA.136.90 Tim Barr Pty Ltd v Narui Gold Coast Pty Ltd [2008] NSWSC 657 ................... EA.87.90 Tim Barr Pty Ltd v Narui Gold Coast Pty Ltd (2009) 258 ALR 598; [2009] NSWSC 769 ..................... EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, EA.63.60, EA.81.240, EA.135.150 Timbery v The Queen (2007) 180 A Crim R 232; [2007] NSWCCA 355 ...... EA.165.210, EA.165.480 Times Properties Pty Ltd v Challenge Bank Ltd [1996] ATPR 41–455 ............ EA.117.90, EA.118.270 Timms v Commonwealth Bank [2003] NSWSC 576 .... EA.69.120, EA.69.240, EA.69.600 Tirango Nominees Pty Ltd v Dairy Vale Foods Ltd (No 2) (1998) 83 FCR 397 .............................................................................................. EA.122.270, EA.126.60 Toalepai v The Queen [2009] NSWCCA 270 ................................................... EA.101.360 Tofilau v The Queen (2007) 231 CLR 396; 174 A Crim R 183; [2007] HCA 39 .......................................................................................................... EA.138.390 Toll Pty Ltd v Harradine [2016] NSWCA 374 ................................................... EA.55.180 Tomark Pty Ltd v Bellevue Crescent Pty Ltd [1999] NSWCA 347 .................... EA.79.180 Tomasevic v Travaglini (2007) 17 VR 100; [2007] VSC 337 ............................ EA.46.150 Ton v The Queen (2002) 132 A Crim R 340; [2002] NSWCCA 337 ............. EA.165.390, EA.165.450 Tongahai v The Queen (2014) 241 A Crim R 217; [2014] NSWCCA 81 ......... EA.53.150 Tony Azzi (Automobiles) Pty Ltd v Volvo Car Australia Pty Ltd [2007] NSWSC 375; (2007) 71 NSWLR 140 ......................................................... EA.131.510 Toohey v Metropolitan Police Commissioner [1965] AC 595 ...................... EA.101A.120, EA.108C.60, EA.106.240 Tootle v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 103 ......................................................... EA.27.150 Towercom Pty Ltd v Fahour [2011] VSC 455 ............................. EA.122.180, EA.122.270 Towney v Minister for Land & Water Conservation (NSW) (1997) 76 FCR 401 ............................................................................................ EA.126.60, EA.Intro.270 Towney v The Queen [2018] NSWCCA 65 ......................................................... EA.141.90 Townsend v Townsend [2001] NSWCA 136 ........................................................ EA.97.120 Tozer Kemsley & Millbourn (A/asia) Pty Ltd v Collier’s Interstate Transport Service Ltd (1956) 94 CLR 384; [1956] HCA 6 .......................... EA.55.180 Trade Practices Commission v Abbco Ice Works (1994) 52 FCR 96 ............. EA.128.300, EA.187.20 Trade Practices Commission v Arnotts Ltd (1989) 88 ALR 69 ...................... EA.128.360, EA.131.270 [All references are to paragraph numbers] xcviii

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Table of Cases

Trade Practices Commission v TNT Management Pty Ltd (1984) 56 ALR 647 .................................................................................................................. EA.122.390 Traderight (NSW) Pty Ltd v Bank of Queensland Ltd [2013] NSWSC 211 .... EA.122.180 Traderight (NSW) Pty Ltd v Bank of Queensland Ltd (No 16) [2013] NSWSC 418 ................................................................................................... EA.118.540 Traffıc Calming Australia Pty Ltd v CTS Creative Traffıc Solutions Pty Ltd [2015] VSC 741 .............................................................................................. EA.69.540 Tran v Magistrates’ Court (Vic) [1998] 4 VR 294 ............................................. EA.55.180 Tran v The Queen [2016] VSCA 79 ...................................................................... EA.78.60 TransGrid v Members of Lloyds Syndicate 3210 [2011] NSWSC 301 .......... EA.131A.90, EA.131A.180, EA.117.90 Transport Publishing Co Pty Ltd v Literature Board of Review (1956) 99 CLR 111 ......................................................................................... EA.79.150, EA.80.90 Traxys Europe SA v Balaji Coke Industry Pty Ltd [2011] FCA 1132 ................. EA.58.60, EA.150.90 Trendlen Pty Ltd v Mobil Oil Australia Pty Ltd [2005] NSWSC 741 ............. EA.125.120 Trimcoll Pty Ltd v Deputy Commissioner of Taxation [2007] NSWCA 307 ...................... EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30, EA.167.30, EA.167.60, EA.167.90, EA.169.90 Trkulja v Markovic [2015] VSCA 298 ................................................................ EA.55.180 Trudgett v The Queen (2008) 70 NSWLR 696; 182 A Crim R 253; [2008] NSWCCA 62 ............................................................ EA.114.60, EA.114.90, EA.116.90 Trusted Cloud Pty Limited v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33 .............. EA.192A.60 Trylow v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2004) 55 ATR 408; [2004] FCA 446 ........................................................................................................... EA.97.240 Trzesinski v Daire (1986) 44 SASR 43 .............................................. EA.17.90, EA.18.180 Tsang v Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) (2011) 219 A Crim R 304; [2011] VSCA 336 ................................................... EA.30.120, EA.87.120, EA.165.450 Tsang v The Queen [2012] HCATrans 198 .......................................................... EA.30.120 Tsang Chi Ming v Uvanna Pty Ltd (t/as North West Immigration Services) (1996) 140 ALR 273 .................................................. EA.48.180, EA.59.180, EA.67.90 Tuite v The Queen [2015] VSCA 148 .............................................. EA.79.120, EA.79.300 Tukuafu v The Queen [2014] VSCA 345 ........................................................... EA.165.210 Tully v The Queen (2006) 230 CLR 234; 167 A Crim R 192; 81 ALJR 391; [2006] HCA 56 ............... EA.165B.210, EA.165B.240, EA.101.150, EA.165.480 Tuncok v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural & Indigenous Affairs [2003] FCA 1069 ...................................................................... EA.155A.30, EA.155.30 Tunja v The Queen [2013] VSCA 174 ......................................... EA.165.270, EA.165.480 Turco v HP Mercantile Pty Ltd (No 2) [2009] NSWCA 209 ........................... EA.128.540 Turnbull v Gorgievski [1999] NSWSC 871 ......................................... EA.67.60, EA.67.90 Turnell v The Queen [2006] NSWCCA 399 ........................................................ EA.46.150 260 Oxford Street Pty Ltd v Premetis [2006] NSWCA 96 ................................. EA.55.510 Twynam Pastoral Co Pty Ltd v AWB (Aust) Ltd [2008] FCA 1922 ................... EA.97.120 Tyneside Property Management Pty Ltd v Hammersmith Management Pty Ltd [2011] NSWSC 395 .................................................................................. EA.79.330

U U v NSW Secretary of Family and Community Services [2017] NSWCA 221 ...................................................................................................................... EA.46.60 Ultrasonic Slimming Pty Ltd v Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd [2013] NSWSC 547 .................................................................................................. EA.131A.90 Ulutui v The Queen (2014) 41 VR 676; 241 A Crim R 574; [2014] VSCA 110 ............................................................................................ EA.101.360, EA.190.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Unilever Australia Ltd v Revlon Australia Pty Ltd (No 6) [2014] FCA 1409 ................................................................................................................ EA.135.150 United Dairy Power Pty Ltd v Murray Goulburn Co-operative Co Ltd [2011] FCA 762 ................................................................................................. EA.75.60 United Group Resources Pty Ltd v Calabro (No 5) (2011) 198 FCR 514; [2011] FCA 1408 ............................................................................................. EA.55.180 United Rural Enterprises Pty Ltd v Lopmand Pty Ltd [2003] NSWSC 870 ..... EA.79.330 Unsworth v Tristar Steering & Suspension Australia Ltd [2007] FCA 1081 .... EA.122.210 Unsworth v Tristar Steering & Suspension Australia Ltd [2007] FCA 1082 .... EA.133.60 Uren v John Fairfax & Sons Ltd [1979] 2 NSWLR 287 ..................................... EA.10.60

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V Van Der Lee v New South Wales [2002] NSWCA 286 .................... EA.11.90, EA.125.90, EA.125.120, EA.131.570, EA.131.600 Van Doore by his Tutor the Protective Commissioner v Mendez (unreported, NSW SC, Dunford J, 30 June 1997) ....................................... EA.131.510 Van Lan Ha v The Queen (2014) 44 VR 319; 247 A Crim R 462; [2014] VSCA 335 .......................................................................................................... EA.53.60 Van der Meer v The Queen (1988) 62 ALJR 656; 35 A Crim R 232 ................. EA.90.60, EA.115.150 Van der Vegt v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 279 ................................................ EA.89.90 Varawa v Howard Smith & Co Ltd (1910) 10 CLR 382 .................................... EA.125.90 Vasil v National Australia Bank Ltd (1999) 46 NSWLR 207 ..... EA.128.540, EA.128.780 Vata-Meyer v Commonwealth [2015] FCAFC 139 ............................................. EA.140.60 Velevski v The Queen (2002) 76 ALJR 402; [2002] HCA 4 .......... EA.79.120, EA.79.180, EA.79.480, EA.141.120 Velkoski v The Queen (2014) 242 A Crim R 222; [2014] VSCA 121 .............. EA.66.300, EA.97.60, EA.97.180, EA.98.120, EA.101.180, EA.101.360, EA.Intro.350 Velkoski v The Queen (2014) 45 VR 680 ............................................................ EA.97.120 Vella v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 148 ............................................................. EA.76.90 Vergara v Ewin (2014) 223 FCR 151; [2014] FCAFC 100 ............................... EA.140.60 Verge v Devere Holdings Pty Ltd (2009) 258 ALR 464; [2009] FCA 832 ...... EA.131.480 Verryt v Schoupp (2015) 70 MVR 484; [2015] NSWCA 128 ............................ EA.79.180 Versace v Monte [2001] FCA 1572 ........................ EA.128.360, EA.128.540, EA.128.690 Versi v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 206 ................................... EA.101.360, EA.141.120 Vetrovec v The Queen [1982] 67 CCC (2d) 1 ................................................... EA.165.210 Vic Hotel Pty Ltd v DC Payments Australasia Pty Ltd (2015) 321 ALR 191; [2015] VSCA 101 ................................................................................. EA.122.150 Vickers v The Queen (2006) 160 A Crim R 195; [2006] NSWCCA 60 ............. EA.62.60, EA.137.210 Victoria v Brazel (2008) 19 VR 553; 181 A Crim R 562; [2008] VSCA 37 .... EA.130.210, EA.130.330, EA.130.360, EA.130.420 Victoria v Tabcorp Holdings Ltd [2013] VSCA 180 ........................................... EA.133.60 Victorian Workcover Authority v Elsdon (2013) 42 VR 434; [2013] VSCA 235 ...................................................................................................................... EA.55.90 Vines v Australian Securities & Investments Commission (2007) 62 ACSR 1; 25 ACLC 448; [2007] NSWCA 75 .......................................... EA.46.60, EA.140.60 Violi v Berrivale Orchards Ltd (2000) 99 FCR 580; 173 ALR 818; [2000] FCA 797 ............................................................................................................... EA.8.60 Visscher v Maritime Union of Australia (No 4) [2013] NSWSC 1572 .............. EA.39.240 Vitali v Stachnik [2001] NSWSC 303 ........................ EA.69.180, EA.69.240, EA.135.150 Vitek v Estate Homes Pty Ltd [2013] NSWSC 1805 .......................................... EA.81.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] c

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Vo v The Queen (2013) 33 NTLR 65; 229 A Crim R 95; [2013] NTCCA 4 ........................................................................................................................ EA.112.60 Vocisano v Vocisano (1974) 130 CLR 267 ............................................................ EA.38.90 Volunteer Fire Brigades Vic Inc v Country Fire Authority (No 3) [2016] VSC 621 ................................................................................... EA.131.150, EA.131.270

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W W v The Queen (2001) 115 FCR 41; 124 A Crim R 545; 189 ALR 633; [2001] FCA 1648 ........................ EA.101.120, EA.101.180, EA.101.240, EA.Intro.120 W v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 110 ........................................................... EA.165B.120 W, Re (2004) 32 Fam LR 249; [2004] FamCA 768 ............................................ EA.140.60 W K v The Queen [2011] VSCA 345 .................................................................. EA.90.270 WAC v The Queen [2010] HCATrans 167 ......................................................... EA.165.480 WAQ v Di Pino [2012] QCA 283 ....................................................... EA.46.60, EA.46.150 WC v The Queen [2012] NSWCCA 231 ............................................................. EA.55.570 WC v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 52 ........................................................... EA.Intro.350 WFS v The Queen (2011) 33 VR 406; 223 A Crim R 327; [2011] VSCA 347 ............................................................................................ EA.101.150, EA.101.360 WO v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) [2009] NSWCCA 275 ............ EA.192A.40 Wade v Director of Public Prosecutions (2014) 41 VR 434; 239 A Crim R 29; [2014] VSCA 13 .................................................... EA.48.90, EA.48.270, EA.52.30 Wade v Mid North Coast Area Health Service [2004] NSWIRComm 254 ...... EA.85.210, EA.87.90 Wade v The Queen (2006) 164 A Crim R 583; [2006] NSWCCA 295 ........ EA.165B.270, EA.165.210 Wah v The Queen (2014) 239 A Crim R 41; [2014] VSCA 7 ............................ EA.110.90 Wahi v The Queen [2015] VSCA 132 .................................................................. EA.110.60 Wakeley v The Queen (1990) 64 ALJR 321 ........................................................ EA.26.150 Waldor Development v Riverquay Developments [2005] NSWSC 8 ................ EA.135.150 Walford v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) (2012) 82 NSWLR 215; 217 A Crim R 555; [2012] NSWCA 290 ................................. EA.114.90, EA.114.180 Walford v The Queen [2016] NSWCCA 288 .................................................... EA.165.210 Walker v Walker (1937) 57 CLR 630; [1937] HCA 44 ................. EA.35.60, EA.Intro.150 Wallis v Tasmania [2007] TASSC 4 ............................................... EA.98.120, EA.141.120 Walton v Gardiner (1993) 177 CLR 378 ............................................................... EA.11.90 Walton v Gardiner (1993) 177 CLR 380 ............................................................... EA.11.90 Walton v The Queen (1989) 166 CLR 283; [1989] HCA 9 ........... EA.59.180, EA.59.210, EA.65.210 Warburton v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) [2017] NSWSC 69 ....... EA.122.360 Ward v The Queen [2017] VSCA 37 ............................ EA.41.120, EA.42.130, EA.46.130 Warman International Ltd v Envirotech Australia Pty Ltd (1986) 11 FCR 478 .................................................................................................................. EA.128.360 Warner v Women’s Hospital [1954] VLR 410 .................................................. EA.119.120 Warren v Coombes (1979) 142 CLR 531; 53 ALJR 293; [1979] HCA 9 ......... EA.65.240, EA.97.480, EA.101.450 Washer v Western Australia (2007) 234 CLR 492; 177 A Crim R 386; 82 ALJR 33; [2007] HCA 48 ............................................................. EA.55.60, EA.55.450 Waterford v Commonwealth (1987) 163 CLR 54 .......................... EA.118.90, EA.119.120 Waterwell Shipping Inc v HIH Casualty & GIO Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Giles CJ Comm D, 8 September 1997) .................................................. EA.69.240 Watharow v Western Australia [2013] WASCA 112 ......................................... EA.165.480 Wati v Minister for Immigration & Ethnic Affairs (1996) 71 FCR 103 ............. EA.140.60 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Table of Cases

Watson v McLearnon [2000] NSWSC 19 .......................................................... EA.125.180 Waugh v British Railways Board [1980] AC 716 .............................................. EA.118.390 Waugh Asset Management v Merrill Lynch [2010] NSWSC 197 .................... EA.131A.90 Wayne Lawrence Pty Ltd v Hunt [1999] NSWSC 1044 .............. EA.118.600, EA.122.150 Weal v Bottom (1966) 40 ALJR 436 .................................................. EA.76.90, EA.79.150 Webb v The Queen (1994) 181 CLR 41 ...................................... EA.165.360, EA.165.480 Weissensteiner v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 217; 68 A Crim R 251; [1993] HCA 65 ............................................................................ EA.20.180, EA.20.420 Welsh v Carnival PLC (t/as Carnival Australia) (No 1) [2016] NSWSC 1270 .................................................................................................................. EA.39.120 Welsh v Carnival PLC (t/as Carnival Australia) (No 3) [2016] NSWSC 1282 .................................................................................................................... EA.78.60 Wentworth v Rogers (No 10) (1987) 8 NSWLR 398 ...................... EA.39.210, EA.39.240 Wentworth v Wentworth (unreported, NSW SC, Santow J, 8 April 1997) .......... EA.75.90, EA.79.240 Wentworth District Capital Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (2010) 80 ATR 50; [2010] FCA 862 .............................................................. EA.144.60 Werden v The Queen [2015] VSCA 72 .............................................. EA.23.90, EA.27.120 West v Mead (2003) 13 BPR 24431; [2003] NSWSC 161 ................................... EA.46.60 Westbus Pty Ltd (Administrators Appointed) v Ishak [2006] NSWCA 198 ....... EA.140.60 Western Australia v Wood [2008] WASCA 81 .................................................... EA.184.20 Weston v Publishing & Broadcasting Ltd [2010] NSWSC 1288 ..................... EA.122.180 Westpac Banking Corp v 789TEN Pty Ltd (2005) 55 ACSR 519; [2005] NSWCA 321 ......................................................... EA.117.90, EA.118.390, EA.119.120 Wheldon v Dinh [2010] FamCA 740 ................................................................... EA.144.60 White v Johnston (2015) 87 NSWLR 779; [2015] NSWCA 18 ........ EA.95.60, EA.97.60, EA.97.120, EA.97.270 White v Taylor (No 2) [1969] 1 Ch 150 ................................................................ EA.74.60 White Constructions (ACT) Pty Ltd (in liq) v White [2005] NSWCA 173 ....... EA.55.180, EA.136.60 White Industries (Qld) Pty Ltd v Flower & Hart (a firm) (1998) 156 ALR 169; [1998] FCA 806 ..................................................................... EA.46.60, EA.55.180 Whitehorn v The Queen (1983) 152 CLR 657 ................................ EA.27.120, EA.41.300 Wilcox v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 42 .......................................................... EA.98.120 Williams v Spautz (1992) 174 CLR 509 ................................................................ EA.11.90 Williams v The Queen (2000) 119 A Crim R 490; [2000] FCA 1868 .............. EA.65.150, EA.65.180, EA.137.60, EA.137.120, EA.137.150, EA.165.360 Williams Advanced Materials, Inc v Target Technology Company LLC [2004] FCA 1405 ............................................................................................. EA.190.80 Williamson v United States 114 S Ct 2431 (1994) ............................................. EA.65.240 Willis v The Queen (2001) 25 WAR 217; [2001] WASCA 296 ......................... EA.81.240 Willis v The Queen [2016] VSCA 176 .............................................................. EA.138.240 Wilson v Mitchell (No 2) [2014] VSC 332 .......................................................... EA.64.150 Wilson v Tasmania [2017] TASCCA 11 .............................................................. EA.46.150 Wilson v The Queen (1970) 123 CLR 334 ........................................................ EA.101.150 Wilson v The Queen (2011) 33 VR 340; [2011] VSCA 328 ............................ EA.141.120 Wily v Fitz-Gibbon [1998] FCA 121 ...................................................................... EA.84.60 Wily v Terra Cresta Business Solutions Pty Ltd [2006] NSWSC 949 ................ EA.75.60, EA.75.120 Wimbridge v Western Australia [2009] WASCA 196 .......................................... EA.116.90 Wing Cheong Li v The Queen (2010) 199 A Crim R 419; [2010] NSWCCA 40 ................................................................................ EA.59.180, EA.110.90 [All references are to paragraph numbers] cii

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Wingecarribee Shire Council v Lehman Brothers Australia Ltd (in Liq) (No 6) [2011] FCA 350 ................................................................................. EA.131.270 Winmar v Western Australia (2007) 35 WAR 159; 177 A Crim R 418; [2007] WASCA 244 ................................................................... EA.115.300, EA.116.90 Witham v Holloway (1995) 183 CLR 525 ............................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60, EA.194.20 Wojcic v Incorporated Nominal Defendant [1969] VR 323 ............................... EA.39.240 Wong v Kelly (1999) 43 ATR 436; 154 FLR 200; [1999] NSWCA 439 .... EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Wood v The Queen [2001] NSWCCA 228 ........................................................ EA.165.360 Wood v The Queen (2012) 84 NSWLR 581; [2012] NSWCCA 21 .................. EA.20.150, EA.79.330, EA.114.240 Woods v Multi-Sport Holdings Pty Ltd (2002) 208 CLR 460; 76 ALJR 483; [2002] HCA 9 .......................................................................................... EA.144.90 Woods v Smith [1976] WAR 13 ......................................................................... EA.128.540 WorkCover v Lindores Contractors Pty Ltd [2003] NSWIRComm 422 .......... EA.128.540 WorkCover Authority (NSW) v Tsougranis (2002) 117 IR 203; [2002] NSWIRComm 282 ........................................... EA.128.450, EA.128.540, EA.Intro.120 WorkCover Authority of NSW v Police Service of NSW (2000) 50 NSWLR 333 .................................................................................................................... EA.187.20 WorkCover Authority of NSW, General Manager v Law Society (NSW) (2006) 65 NSWLR 502; [2006] NSWCA 84 ......................... EA.118.330, EA.118.360 Workers Compensation (Dust Diseases) Board (NSW) v Smith [2010] NSWCA 19 .............................................................................. EA.135.150, EA.135.180 Wotton v Queensland (No 4) [2015] FCA 1075 ....................... EA.108C.60, EA.108C.120 Wren v Emmett Contractors Pty Ltd (1969) 43 ALJR 213 .............................. EA.101A.90 Wright v Optus Administration Pty Ltd (No 5) [2013] NSWSC 1717 ................. EA.87.90 Wu v Li [2015] FCAFC 109 ................................................................................... EA.81.60

X X v Sydney Children’s Hospitals Specialty Network (No 5) [2011] NSWSC 1351 .................................................................................................. EA.79.330 X v X (1999) 26 Fam LR 51; [1999] FamCA 2254 ............................................ EA.144.60 X7 v Australian Crime Commission (2013) 248 CLR 92; 232 A Crim R 410; [2013] HCA 29 .................................................................. EA.90.120, EA.128.540 Xypolitos v The Queen (2014) 44 VR 423; 247 A Crim R 486; [2014] VSCA 339 .............................................................. EA.89.90, EA.165.270, EA.165.480

Y Yamirr v Northern Territory (No 2) (1998) 82 FCR 533 .................... EA.73.90, EA.74.60 Yara Pilbara Fertilisers Pty Ltd v Oswal [2016] VSC 440 .................................. EA.76.90 Yates, Re; Ex parte Walsh and Johnson (1925) 37 CLR 36 ...................... EA.Dict.Pt.1.30 Yates Property Corp v Boland (1998) 85 FCR 84 ................................................ EA.80.90 Ying Mui Pty Ltd v Frank Kiang Ngan Hoh (Ruling No 2) [2016] VSC 531 .................................................................................................................... EA.64.300 Yisrael v District Court (NSW) (1996) 87 A Crim R 63 ....................................... EA.89.90 Youkhana v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 85 .................................. EA.65.150, EA.65.180 Young v Coupe [2004] NSWSC 546 .................................................................... EA.69.210 Young v Hughes Trueman Pty Ltd (No 4) [2017] FCA 456 ................ EA.91.60, EA.92.60 Young v Quin (1985) 4 FCR 483 ....................................................................... EA.130.390 Young v The Queen [2016] VSCA 149 .............................................................. EA.141.120 [All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Z

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ZL v The Queen (2010) 208 A Crim R 325; [2010] VSCA 345 ................ EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Zaknic Pty Ltd v Svelte Corp Pty Ltd (1995) 61 FCR 171 ................................ EA.97.450 Zanatta v McCleary [1976] 1 NSWLR 230 ...................................................... EA.129.180 Zandipour v The Queen [2017] VSCA 179 ....................................................... EA.165.570 Zemanek v Commonwealth Bank of Australia (unreported, FCA, Hill J, 2 October 1997) .................................................................................................. EA.125.90 Zentai v Minister for Home Affairs (No 2) [2010] FCA 252 ............................ EA.122.120 Zhang, Re [2017] VSCA 171 ............................................................................... EA.174.60 Zhen Chi Chen v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 224 ................... EA.165.210, EA.165.360 Zhu v The Queen (2013) 232 A Crim R 51; [2013] NSWCCA 163 .................. EA.110.60 Zhu v The Queen (2013) 38 VR 77; [2013] VSCA 102 ................... EA.55.330, EA.81.60 Zoneff v The Queen (2000) 200 CLR 234; 112 A Crim R 114; [2000] HCA 28 ........................................................................................ EA.81.60, EA.165.480

[All references are to paragraph numbers] civ

Uniform Evidence Law

TABLE OF STATUTES Note: Entries in the Table of Statutes for the Evidence Act 1995 are located under the heading “Commonwealth”, with the exception of those provisions that exist only in: * the NSW Evidence Act 1995, located under the heading “New South Wales” * the Victorian Evidence Act 2008, located under the heading “Victoria” * the ACT Evidence Act 2011, located under the heading “Australian Capital Territory” * the NT Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act, located under the heading “Northern Territory”

Commonwealth Acts Interpretation Act 1901 s 15AB: EA.Intro.240 s 29(1): EA.160.60

Australian Federal Police Legislation Amendment Act 2000 s 25: EA.33.30, EA.86.90, EA.115.90, EA.171.60, EA.180.30 s 115(2): EA.115.150

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Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986 Sch 2: EA.138.600

Australian Postal Corporation Act 1989: EA.160.60

Bail Act 1977: EA.4.210 s 8(1): EA.4.210 s 8(2): EA.4.210 Pt 3.10: EA.4.210

ss 23C to 23E: EA.84.150 s 23F: EA.84.150 s 23G(3): EA.84.150 ss 23H to 23K: EA.84.150 s 23M: EA.84.150 s 23N: EA.84.150 s 23O: EA.84.150 s 23Q: EA.84.150 s 23V: EA.84.150, EA.86.120 s 23V(5): EA.86.120 Pt 1C: EA.139.30 Pt 1AD: EA.41.330 Pt IC: EA.84.150 Criminal Code Act 1995: TAS.20 Customs Act 1901: EA.Dict.Pt.1.60

Electronic Transactions Act 1999: EA.Dict.Pt.1.90

Evidence Act 1905: EA.69.210

Bankruptcy Act 1966 s 81: EA.4.150 s 81(17): EA.4.150

Corporations Act 2001: EA.8.60 s 109X: EA.160.60 s 596B: EA.4.150 s 1305: EA.69.600 Pt 5.9, Div 1: EA.4.150

Crimes Act 1900 s 80(b): EA.80.150

Crimes Act 1914: EA.84.150, EA.114.150, EA.114.240 s 3ZM: EA.114.120, EA.114.240 s 3ZM(3): EA.114.150 s 3ZM(4): EA.114.150 s 3ZN: EA.114.120, EA.114.240 s 3ZO: EA.115.240, EA.115.300 s 3ZP: EA.114.120, EA.114.240, EA.115.240, EA.115.300 s 4G: EA.20.90

s s s s s s

6: EA.156.60 7B(1)(b): EA.69.120 7E: EA.69.270 10A: EA.159.30 11: EA.157.30 12: EA.186.20 Evidence Act 1995: EA.2.30, EA.4.150, EA.4.270, EA.6.30, EA.8.60, EA.13.210, EA.26.150, EA.29.120, EA.38.60, EA.43.180, EA.55.60, EA.55.180, EA.59.240, EA.69.480, EA.70.150, EA.71.150, EA.79.120, EA.79.150, EA.79.240, EA.80.60, EA.84.60, EA.84.150, EA.90.60, EA.90.240, EA.98.120, EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.110.90, EA.114.240, EA.118.90, EA.126B.240, EA.128.60, EA.128.150, EA.130.120, EA.136.210, EA.144.90, EA.147.150, EA.149.60, EA.152.60, EA.155A.30, EA.156.150, EA.163.30, EA.164.180, EA.165.480, EA.165.570, EA.165A.120, EA.165B.150,

[All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

cv

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont EA.170.60, EA.182.20, EA.183.40, EA.184.20, EA.185.20, EA.186.20, EA.191.40, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.60, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.2.30, EA.Dict.Pt.1.30, EA.Dict.Pt.1.60, EA.Intro.30, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.270, TAS.10, TAS.20 s 3: EA.131A.120 s 3(2): EA.3A.30 s 3(3): EA.38.90, EA.128.180 s 4: EA.4.150, EA.4.270, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.55.120, EA.118.90, EA.142.60, EA.157.60 s 4(1): EA.4.150, EA.8.60 s 4(1)(d): EA.4.270 s 4(2): EA.4.270 s 4(3): EA.4.270 s 4(4): EA.4.270 s 4(6): EA.4.150 s 5: EA.4.150, EA.8.60, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.69.480, EA.70.60, EA.70.150, EA.71.150, EA.147.150, EA.149.60, EA.152.60, EA.156.150, EA.160.120, EA.161.150, EA.162.90, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.60, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.2.30, EA.183.40, TAS.20 s 5(1): EA.5.30, EA.8.60 s 6: TAS.20 s 6(1): EA.98.450 s 7: EA.131A.120 s 8: EA.Intro.120, EA.4.300, EA.8.90, EA.27.180, EA.39.240, EA.43.210, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.51.60, EA.69.600, EA.84.150, EA.85.330, EA.86.60, EA.86.120, EA.190.100 s 8(1): EA.8.60, EA.15.60, EA.41.330 s 8(3): EA.8.60 s 8A: TAS.20 s 9: EA.Intro.270, EA.43.210, EA.81.180 s 9(1): EA.4.240, EA.8.60, EA.9.180 s 9(2): EA.8.60, EA.129.180 s 9(2)(a): EA.8.60 s 9(2)(b): EA.4.210, EA.8.60 s 9(2)(c): EA.8.60 s 9(3): EA.8.60, EA.9.60 s 11: EA.11.90, EA.18.180, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30, EA.26.60, EA.26.120, EA.26.150, EA.26.240, EA.27.60, EA.27.150, EA.29.150, EA.36.30, EA.37.60, EA.41.300, EA.46.150, EA.130.90, EA.136.240 s 11(1): EA.11.90, EA.26.150 s 11(2): EA.Intro.120, EA.11.90, EA.90.300, EA.125.120, EA.131.600, EA.137.240

s 12: EA.Intro.120, EA.8.60, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1Div.1.30, EA.13.180, EA.13.210, EA.18.60, EA.126K.20, EA.190.60 s 12(b): EA.12.60 s 13: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1Div.1.30, EA.12.60, EA.13.210, EA.14.60, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.2.30, EA.21.60, EA.21.120, EA.24.60, EA.31.60, EA.61.30, EA.165.480, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 s 13(1): EA.Intro.180, EA.13.60, EA.13.210 s 13(2): EA.13.60, EA.13.90, EA.13.120, EA.21.60 s 13(2)(b): EA.13.210 s 13(3): EA.13.210 s 13(4): EA.13.210 s 13(5): EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.13.180, EA.13.210, EA.13.270 s 13(5)(a): EA.13.210 s 13(5)(b): EA.13.210 s 13(5)(c): EA.13.210 s 13(6): EA.13.180, EA.13.210, EA.13.270 s 13(7): EA.13.270 s 13(8): EA.13.300 s 14: EA.13.60 s 15: EA.165.480 s 16(2): EA.16.90 s 17(2): EA.17.60 s 17(3): EA.17.60, EA.17.90, EA.55.180 s 17(4): EA.17.60 s 18: EA.Intro.180, EA.18.60, EA.19.30, EA.189.80, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 s 18(2)(b): EA.18.90 s 18(4): EA.18.90 s 18(5): EA.18.180 s 18(6): EA.18.180 s 18(6)(a): EA.18.120 s 18(6)(b): EA.18.120 s 18(7): EA.18.120, EA.18.180 s 19: EA.12.60, EA.18.60, EA.19.30 s 19(c): EA.19.30 s 20: EA.Intro.180, EA.17.120, EA.20.90, EA.20.150, EA.55.180, EA.190.60 s 20(2): EA.20.120, EA.20.180, EA.20.300, EA.20.360 s 20(3): EA.18.210, EA.20.300, EA.20.360 s 20(4): EA.20.240, EA.20.300 s 20(5): EA.20.120, EA.20.240 s 21: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.13.210, EA.21.210, EA.190.60 s 21(1): EA.21.210 s 21(4): EA.21.150 s 22(1A): EA.22.60 s 22(2): EA.22.60, EA.22.90 s 23: EA.21.60 s 23(2): EA.21.60 s 24(1): EA.21.90

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cvi

Uniform Evidence Law

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 24(2): EA.21.90 s 25: EA.190.60, TAS.20 s 26: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30, EA.26.60, EA.26.120, EA.27.150, EA.29.90, EA.29.150, EA.32.60, EA.41.90, EA.42.120, EA.43.240, EA.44.120, EA.126K.210, EA.190.60, EA.192.60 s 26(a): EA.26.150, EA.37.60, EA.41.300 s 26(c): EA.26.150 s 28: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30 s 29: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30, EA.29.150 s 29(1): EA.27.60 s 29(2): EA.Intro.180, EA.29.90, EA.55.210 s 29(2)(b): EA.29.90 s 29(3): EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.29.60 s 29(4): EA.29.180, EA.48.60, EA.48.180 s 30: EA.13.60, EA.13.150 s 31: EA.13.60, EA.13.150, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30 s 32: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30, EA.32.90, EA.32.210, EA.32.330, EA.32.360, EA.34.60, EA.44.150, EA.122.390, EA.184.20 s 32(1): EA.32.90 s 32(2): EA.32.90, EA.32.150 s 32(2)(b): EA.32.90 s 32(3): EA.32.90, EA.63.100 s 33: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30, EA.33.30, EA.33.60, CTH.TN.10 s 33(1): EA.33.30 s 33(2): EA.33.30 s 34: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30, EA.32.330, EA.32.360, EA.44.150 s 34(2): EA.32.300 s 35: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30 s 35(1): EA.32.270, EA.34.120 s 35(2): EA.32.270, EA.34.120 s 36: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30, EA.36.30, EA.126K.30, EA.190.60 s 36(1): EA.36.30 s 36(2): EA.36.30 s 36(3): EA.36.30 s 37: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.32.60, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.4.30, EA.37.60, EA.37.90, EA.37.150, EA.37.210, EA.37.270, EA.38.270, EA.190.60 s 37(1): EA.39.180 s 37(1)(c): EA.37.90 s 37(3): EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.28.120, EA.29.150 s 38: EA.Intro.150, EA.Intro.330, EA.32.60, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.4.30, EA.37.60, EA.38.60, EA.38.90, EA.38.150, EA.38.270, EA.38.330, EA.39.180, EA.43.180, EA.46.60, EA.55.180,

s s s s s s s s s s s

s s s s s

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

s s s s s s s s s s s s

EA.55.240, EA.165.450, EA.192.100, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, CTH.TN.10 38(1): EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.38.270, EA.39.90, EA.39.300 38(1)(a): EA.38.60 38(1)(b): EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 38(1)(c): EA.38.150, EA.43.90 38(2): EA.39.90 38(3): EA.38.210, EA.101A.120, EA.102.90 38(4): EA.38.270, EA.39.300 38(5): EA.38.270, EA.39.300 38(6): EA.38.150, EA.38.240 38(7): EA.38.90 39: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.4.30, EA.38.270, EA.39.90, EA.39.180, EA.39.300, EA.45.150, EA.106.300, EA.108.90, EA.108.210, EA.190.60 39(1)(a): EA.38.150 39(a): EA.39.60 39(b): EA.39.120, EA.39.150 40: EA.26.150, EA.27.60, EA.190.60 41: EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.210, EA.26.150, EA.41.150, EA.41.300, EA.42.130, EA.195.20 41(1): EA.Intro.210, EA.41.60 41(1)(b): EA.26.150, EA.41.150 41(1)(d): EA.41.210 41(2): EA.Intro.210, EA.41.60, EA.41.120, EA.41.150 41(2)(a): EA.41.240 41(2)(b): EA.41.240, EA.41.270 41(6): EA.41.270, EA.41.360 42: EA.Intro.150, EA.29.90, EA.38.180, EA.41.120 42(1): EA.42.60 42(2): EA.42.60, EA.42.130 42(2)(a) to (c): EA.42.60 42(2)(d): EA.42.60 42(3): EA.42.60 43: EA.43.90, EA.43.180, EA.44.150, EA.45.60, EA.45.150, EA.103.120, EA.104.120, EA.106.210 43(1): EA.38.120, EA.44.90 43(2): EA.43.180, EA.106.90 43(2)(a): EA.43.180 43(3): EA.43.210 44: EA.45.60, EA.45.150 44(2): EA.44.90 44(2)(a): EA.44.90 44(3): EA.43.60, EA.43.240, EA.44.120, EA.44.150 44(3)(d): EA.44.120, EA.45.150 45: EA.43.150, EA.44.180, EA.103.120, EA.104.120, EA.106.210 45(2): EA.43.120 45(3): EA.26.150, EA.39.240, EA.45.120

[All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

cvii

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 45(3)(c): EA.45.120, EA.45.150 s 45(4): EA.45.120 s 45(5): EA.43.150, EA.44.180 s 46: EA.140.120, EA.165.480, EA.190.60 s 46(2): EA.46.90 s 47: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.190.60 s 47(1): EA.48.90, EA.50.30 s 47(2): EA.48.90, EA.48.150, EA.48.240, EA.48.300 s 48: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.48.90, EA.48.270, EA.48.330, EA.50.30, EA.52.30, EA.69.300 s 48(1): EA.48.60, EA.48.90, EA.48.180, EA.48.360 s 48(1)(a): EA.48.120 s 48(1)(b): EA.48.360 s 48(1)(c): EA.48.180, EA.48.360, EA.51.60 s 48(1)(d): EA.48.360 s 48(1)(e): EA.48.210, EA.48.360, EA.69.120 s 48(1)(f): EA.48.240 s 48(2): EA.48.60 s 48(2)(d): EA.48.180 s 48(3): EA.48.120 s 48(4): EA.48.60, EA.48.270, EA.48.300 s 48(4)(a): EA.48.90, EA.48.360 s 48(4)(b): EA.48.270, EA.48.360 s 49: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.48.390, EA.69.300, CTH.TN.10 s 50: EA.Intro.180, EA.50.30, EA.69.300 s 50(1): EA.50.30, CTH.TN.10 s 50(2): CTH.TN.10 s 50(3): EA.50.30 s 51: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.60, EA.48.60, EA.51.60, EA.190.60 s 52: EA.55.300, EA.190.60 s 53: EA.54.60 s 53(2): EA.53.120 s 53(3): EA.53.60 s 54: EA.Intro.150, EA.190.60 s 55: EA.Intro.90, EA.Intro.120, EA.43.180, EA.48.360, EA.51.60, EA.52.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.1.30, EA.55.60, EA.55.90, EA.55.240, EA.56.60, EA.57.210, EA.66A.60, EA.69.330, EA.71.60, EA.78.60, EA.79.60, EA.80.90, EA.89.150, EA.97.120, EA.98.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.185, EA.101A.60, EA.114.60, EA.131.510, EA.136.150, EA.137.90, EA.184.20, EA.190.60 s 55(1): EA.55.120, EA.55.150, EA.137.90 s 55(2): EA.38.210, EA.55.120, EA.55.150, EA.101A.120, EA.102.100 s 55(2)(a): EA.38.210, EA.43.90, EA.55.150, EA.101A.120 s 55(2)(b): EA.81.90, EA.142.60

s 56: EA.Intro.120, EA.26.270, EA.43.90, EA.46.150, EA.51.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.1.30, EA.55.60, EA.55.540, EA.56.60, EA.58.60, EA.62.60, EA.69.330, EA.79.240, EA.80.90, EA.81.60, EA.101A.60, EA.108B.60, EA.136.150 s 56(1): EA.Intro.120, EA.8.60, EA.11.90, EA.80.60, EA.84.60, EA.89.90, EA.90.300, EA.137.240 s 56(2): EA.52.30, EA.55.60, EA.55.90, EA.55.210, EA.55.570, EA.66.300, EA.78.60, EA.189.120 s 57: EA.Intro.330, EA.43.180, EA.48.360, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.1.30, EA.55.60, EA.55.570, EA.56.60, EA.110.120, EA.136.270, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30 s 57(1): EA.57.210, EA.58.60, EA.69.330, EA.142.60 s 57(1)(a): EA.57.120 s 57(1)(b): EA.57.120, EA.57.180 s 57(2): EA.57.210, EA.87.120, EA.87.180 s 58: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.1.30, EA.69.540, EA.71.60, EA.190.60 s 58(1): EA.57.120 s 59: EA.Intro.180, EA.32.180, EA.38.150, EA.48.180, EA.48.360, EA.55.540, EA.56.90, EA.59.90, EA.59.210, EA.59.240, EA.60.60, EA.61.90, EA.63.90, EA.64.90, EA.64.330, EA.65.90, EA.65.150, EA.66.90, EA.66A.60, EA.69.210, EA.69.330, EA.76.90, EA.79.240, EA.79.270, EA.81.60, EA.81.90, EA.81.240, EA.95.60, EA.97.60, EA.98.60, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.150, EA.101A.180, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.115.90, EA.136.60, EA.165.270, EA.165.450, EA.190.60, EA.191.40 s 59(1): EA.59.210 s 59(2): EA.64.330, EA.65.150, EA.69.210 s 59(2A): EA.59.210 s 60: EA.Intro.180, EA.38.60, EA.38.150, EA.43.180, EA.56.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.1.30, EA.59.180, EA.60.60, EA.60.90, EA.60.150, EA.62.60, EA.64.330, EA.65.330, EA.77.60, EA.79.270, EA.81.240, EA.82.30, EA.91.60, EA.95.60, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.150, EA.106.210, EA.108.120, EA.108.150, EA.108.210, EA.136.60, EA.136.150, EA.136.180, EA.165.270 s 60(1): EA.60.90 s 60(2): EA.60.60, EA.62.60 s 60(3): EA.60.60, EA.60.90 s 61: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cviii

Uniform Evidence Law

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 61(2): EA.61.90 s 61(3): EA.61.60 s 62: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.64.330, EA.66A.60 s 62(1): EA.62.90, EA.63.60, EA.63.90, EA.64.90, EA.64.120, EA.65.90, EA.65.300, EA.66.90 s 62(3): EA.62.90 s 63: EA.13.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.90, EA.63.90, EA.63.240, EA.64.90, EA.66.90, EA.135.150 s 63(2): EA.64.330, EA.67.90, CTH.TN.10 s 63(2)(b): EA.63.60, EA.63.120, EA.64.330 s 63(3): EA.64.330 s 64: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.64.90, EA.64.360, EA.65.90, EA.66.90, EA.135.150 s 64(1): EA.64.300 s 64(2): EA.13.90, EA.64.270, EA.64.330, EA.67.60, EA.67.90, EA.68.90, CTH.TN.10 s 64(2)(b): EA.64.120, EA.64.210, EA.64.330 s 64(3): EA.Intro.180, EA.32.240, EA.64.330, EA.65.60, EA.81.270 s 64(4): EA.64.300, EA.64.330 s 65: EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.65.90, EA.65.360, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 s 65(2): EA.62.60, EA.65.120, EA.65.150, EA.65.210, EA.65.240, EA.65.330, EA.67.90, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30, CTH.TN.10 s 65(2)(b): EA.Intro.120, EA.65.150, EA.81.240 s 65(2)(c): EA.Intro.120, EA.65.150 s 65(2)(d): EA.Intro.180, EA.65.150, EA.65.240 s 65(3): EA.62.60, EA.65.270, EA.67.90, EA.165.270, CTH.TN.10 s 65(7): EA.65.240 s 65(8): EA.62.60, EA.65.60, EA.65.330, EA.67.90, CTH.TN.10 s 65(8)(a): EA.65.330 s 65(8)(b): EA.65.300, EA.65.330 s 65(9): EA.65.330 s 66: EA.Intro.180, EA.32.150, EA.59.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.66.60, EA.66.90, EA.66.180, EA.66.300, EA.102.90, EA.108.60, EA.108.150, EA.108.210, EA.136.150, EA.137.120 s 66(2): EA.Intro.180, EA.32.240, EA.66.180, EA.66.210, EA.81.270, EA.83.60 s 66(2)(b): EA.Intro.120 s 66(2A): EA.Intro.180, EA.66.180 s 66(2A)(a): EA.66.180

s 66(3): EA.66.60, EA.66.210 s 66(4): EA.66.60, EA.66.240 s 66A: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.180, EA.61.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.62.60, EA.62.90, EA.67.60, EA.72.60 s 67: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.63.150, EA.64.240, EA.65.120, EA.65.240, EA.65.270, EA.65.300, EA.67.60, EA.100.60, CTH.TN.10 s 67(1): EA.167.30, CTH.TN.10 s 67(2): CTH.TN.10 s 67(3): CTH.TN.10 s 67(4): EA.67.90, CTH.TN.10 s 67(5): EA.67.90, CTH.TN.10 s 68: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.64.270, CTH.TN.10 s 68(4): EA.68.60 s 69: EA.48.210, EA.48.360, EA.58.60, EA.69.60, EA.69.210, EA.69.330, EA.69.390, EA.69.480, EA.69.510, EA.69.570, EA.142.60, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30, EA.169.60, EA.169.90 s 69(1): EA.69.60, EA.69.210 s 69(1)(a)(i): EA.69.120 s 69(2): EA.69.60, EA.69.180, EA.69.540 s 69(2)(a): EA.69.180, EA.69.210 s 69(2)(b): EA.69.210 s 69(3): EA.69.240, EA.69.540 s 69(3)(a): EA.69.240 s 69(3)(b): EA.69.240 s 69(5): EA.69.180, EA.69.210 s 70: EA.70.210 s 70(1): EA.70.150, EA.70.180, EA.71.150 s 70(2): EA.70.60, EA.70.180 s 71: EA.Intro.180, EA.71.150, EA.71.180, EA.161.120, EA.162.60 s 72: EA.Intro.180, EA.59.180, EA.62.60, EA.62.90, EA.66A.60, EA.72.60 s 73: EA.74.90 s 73(1): EA.73.60 s 73(2): EA.73.150 s 73(2)(a): EA.73.120 s 73(2)(b): EA.73.120 s 73(3): EA.73.120 s 74(1): EA.74.90 s 75: EA.75.90, EA.75.120, EA.189.60 s 76: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.180, EA.48.180, EA.55.540, EA.56.60, EA.56.90, EA.75.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.3.30, EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.77.60, EA.78.60, EA.79.90, EA.79.300, EA.85.210, EA.97.60, EA.98.60, EA.101A.60, EA.108C.90, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.114.60, EA.136.60 s 77: EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.77.60, EA.80.60, EA.101A.150, EA.136.60

[All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

cix

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 78: EA.48.180, EA.50.30, EA.55.540, EA.66A.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.3.30, EA.76.90, EA.76.150, EA.77.60, EA.78.60, EA.80.60, EA.80.150, EA.86.60, EA.108C.60 s 78A: EA.Intro.180 s 79: EA.13.300, EA.48.180, EA.55.270, EA.60.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.3.30, EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.78.60, EA.79.60, EA.79.120, EA.79.150, EA.79.180, EA.79.240, EA.79.330, EA.79.420, EA.80.60, EA.80.90, EA.80.150, EA.101.195, EA.106.240, EA.108C.60, EA.108C.90, EA.108C.180, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.183.80 s 79(1): EA.79.90, EA.79.120 s 79(2): EA.Intro.180, EA.79.90, EA.79.480 s 80: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.3.30, EA.79.120, EA.79.480, EA.80.60, EA.80.90 s 80(a): EA.80.90 s 80(b): EA.79.180, EA.80.150 s 81: EA.60.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.90, EA.62.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30, EA.82.30, EA.83.60, EA.85.210, EA.89.90, EA.101A.180, EA.184.20, EA.191.40 s 81(1): EA.60.90, EA.81.240, EA.81.270, EA.83.60 s 81(2): EA.81.240, EA.81.270 s 81(2)(b): EA.81.240 s 82: EA.60.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.90, EA.62.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30, EA.81.60 s 83: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30, EA.81.60, EA.81.180 s 83(1): EA.83.60 s 83(2): EA.83.60 s 83(3): EA.83.60 s 83(4)(a): EA.84.120 s 83(4)(b): EA.84.120 s 84: EA.Intro.330, EA.56.90, EA.81.60, EA.81.90, EA.83.60, EA.84.60, EA.84.150, EA.90.60, EA.101A.60 s 84(1): EA.84.60, EA.84.90, EA.84.120 s 84(1)(a): EA.84.60 s 84(2): EA.84.90, EA.84.120 s 85: EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.330, EA.56.90, EA.81.60, EA.81.90, EA.83.60, EA.84.60, EA.84.150, EA.85.60, EA.85.150, EA.85.210, EA.90.60, EA.90.90, EA.90.150, EA.90.240, EA.101A.60 s 85(1): EA.85.60, EA.85.150, EA.85.210, EA.89.90, EA.90.60 s 85(1)(a): EA.Intro.180, EA.85.120,

EA.85.150, EA.85.210, EA.85.270, EA.85.300, EA.89.90, EA.139.60, EA.165.420 s 85(1)(b): EA.85.120, EA.85.150, EA.85.210, EA.85.270, EA.85.300 s 85(2): EA.85.60, EA.85.210, EA.85.270, EA.85.300, EA.165.270, EA.189.140 s 85(3): EA.85.60, EA.85.210 s 85(3)(a): EA.85.210 s 86: EA.81.90, EA.86.120, EA.101A.60 s 86(4): EA.86.60 s 87: EA.57.210, EA.60.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30, EA.81.180, EA.83.60, EA.87.60, EA.87.120, EA.142.60 s 87(1): EA.87.150, EA.87.210 s 87(1)(a): EA.87.90 s 87(1)(b): EA.87.90 s 87(1)(c): EA.87.120, EA.87.180 s 87(2): EA.87.90, EA.87.180 s 88: EA.81.60, EA.81.90, EA.85.210, EA.90.90, EA.142.60 s 89: EA.Intro.180, EA.55.570, EA.56.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30, EA.81.60, EA.114.150, EA.128.690 s 89(1): EA.89.150 s 89(1)(a): EA.89.90 s 89(2): EA.89.150 s 89(3): EA.89.150 s 89A: EA.89.60, EA.89A.60 s 89A(1): EA.89A.60 s 89A(2)(a): EA.89A.60 s 89A(2)(b): EA.89A.60 s 89A(2)(c): EA.89A.60 s 89A(2)(d): EA.89A.60 s 89A(5)(a): EA.89A.60 s 89A(5)(b): EA.89A.60 s 90: EA.Intro.120, EA.81.60, EA.83.60, EA.84.60, EA.84.150, EA.90.60, EA.90.90, EA.114.240, EA.137.240, EA.138.270, EA.138.300, EA.138.390, EA.139.30 s 91: EA.56.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.5.30, EA.91.60, EA.92.90, EA.101A.60, EA.125.180, EA.135.150, EA.178.30 s 91(1): EA.91.60 ss 91 to 93: EA.157.60 s 92: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.5.30, EA.91.60, EA.178.30 s 92(1): EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.5.30, EA.92.60 s 92(2): EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.5.30, EA.92.60, EA.92.150, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30 s 92(2)(a): EA.92.70 s 93: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.5.30, EA.91.60, EA.178.30 s 93(c): EA.Intro.120 s 94: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.6.30, EA.94.60, EA.97.330, EA.98.330 s 94(1): EA.98.60, EA.101.120

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cx

Uniform Evidence Law

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 94(2): EA.4.210, EA.4.270 s 94(3): EA.101.150 s 95: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.6.30, EA.94.60, EA.97.270, EA.98.270, EA.101.150, EA.101.360, EA.110.90 s 95(1): EA.97.60 s 95(2): EA.101.60 s 97: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.340, EA.56.90, EA.92.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.6.30, EA.94.60, EA.97.60, EA.97.180, EA.97.300, EA.97.450, EA.97.480, EA.98.120, EA.98.180, EA.98.300, EA.98.360, EA.98.450, EA.101.60, EA.101.90, EA.101.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.101.185, EA.101.240, EA.101.270, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.210, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.112.60, EA.137.120, CTH.TN.10 s 97(1): EA.97.60, EA.101.90, EA.101.150, EA.110.90 s 97(1)(a): EA.97.120, EA.97.180, EA.97.300 s 97(1)(b): EA.97.120, EA.97.300, EA.97.480, EA.98.120, EA.101.240, EA.137.90 s 97(2): EA.97.120, EA.97.180, EA.97.300 s 97(2)(b): EA.97.240 s 98: EA.Intro.180, EA.56.90, EA.92.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.6.30, EA.97.120, EA.97.450, EA.97.480, EA.98.60, EA.101.60, EA.101.120, EA.101.150, EA.101.185, EA.101.240, EA.101.270, EA.101A.60, EA.110.90, CTH.TN.10 s 98(1): EA.98.60, EA.98.90, EA.101.120 s 98(1)(a): EA.98.180, EA.98.300 s 98(1)(b): EA.97.150, EA.98.150, EA.98.300, EA.137.90 s 98(2): EA.98.300 s 98(3): EA.98.180, EA.98.300 s 99: EA.97.180, EA.98.180, EA.100.60, CTH.TN.10 s 100: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.6.30, EA.97.180, EA.98.180, CTH.TN.10 s 101: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.330, EA.Intro.340, EA.79.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.6.30, EA.97.120, EA.97.390, EA.97.450, EA.97.480, EA.98.120, EA.98.450, EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.190, EA.101.240, EA.101.450, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.112.60, EA.137.180, EA.137.210, EA.138.720 s 101(2): EA.97.120, EA.101.60, EA.101.180, EA.101.190,

s s s s

s s s s

s

s s s s

s s s s s s s s s s

EA.101.195, EA.101.240, EA.101.450, EA.110.90 101(3): EA.101.270, EA.101.330, EA.110.90 101(4): EA.101.270, EA.101.330 101(b)(ii): EA.112.60 101A: EA.Intro.180, EA.66.60, EA.94.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.101A.60, EA.102.60, EA.103.120, EA.104.60, EA.104.150, EA.104.210, EA.106.60, EA.106.90, EA.108.60, EA.108A.60, EA.108B.60, EA.108C.60, EA.112.60 101A(a): EA.101A.60, EA.101A.120 101A(b): EA.101A.60, EA.101A.120, EA.112.60 101A(b)(ii): EA.101A.210, EA.104.60 102: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.180, EA.38.210, EA.39.150, EA.66.60, EA.66.300, EA.101.120, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.120, EA.103.60, EA.104.60, EA.106.60, EA.108.150, EA.108.210, EA.108A.60, EA.108C.60, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.112.60, EA.136.150, EA.192.100 103: EA.Intro.150, EA.Intro.180, EA.43.180, EA.79.180, EA.101.195, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.102.90, EA.102.100, EA.103.60, EA.104.60, EA.104.120, EA.104.150, EA.104.180, EA.104.240, EA.106.90, EA.108A.60, EA.108B.60, EA.108C.120, EA.112.60, EA.128.540 103(1): EA.102.100, EA.103.60, EA.103.120 103(2): EA.103.120 103(2)(a): EA.106.270 104: EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.101A.90, EA.104.120, EA.104.180, EA.106.90, EA.108B.60, EA.112.60 104(2): EA.101A.90, EA.104.180, EA.104.240, EA.112.60 104(3): EA.101A.90, EA.104.60, EA.104.120, EA.104.150 104(3)(a): EA.104.120 104(3)(b): EA.106.240 104(4): EA.104.60, EA.104.90, EA.104.150, EA.104.240 104(4)(b): EA.104.180 104(5): EA.104.150, EA.104.180 104(6): EA.104.60, EA.104.90, EA.104.210 105: EA.105.60 106: EA.Intro.150, EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.101A.120,

[All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

cxi

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont EA.102.90, EA.103.90, EA.106.60, EA.106.90, EA.106.240, EA.108.60 s 106(1): EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.106.90, EA.106.150, EA.106.240, EA.106.270 s 106(1)(a): EA.106.60, EA.106.120 s 106(1)(a)(i): EA.106.90 s 106(1)(a)(ii): EA.106.90 s 106(1)(b): EA.Intro.180, EA.106.60 s 106(2): EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.103.90, EA.106.60, EA.106.120, EA.106.270 s 106(2)(a): EA.106.90 s 106(2)(c): EA.106.90 s 106(2)(e): EA.103.90, EA.106.90 s 106(a) to (d): EA.106.270 s 108: EA.37.150, EA.38.210, EA.39.150, EA.39.210, EA.81.270, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.101A.150, EA.102.90, EA.108.150, EA.136.150 s 108(1): EA.106.300, EA.108C.90 s 108(3): EA.102.90, EA.108.90, EA.108.150, EA.108.180, EA.165.480, EA.192.100 s 108(3)(a): EA.108.120, EA.108.180 s 108(3)(b): EA.65.150, EA.108.60, EA.108.120, EA.108.180, EA.108.210 s 108A: EA.Intro.180, EA.55.150, EA.63.210, EA.64.420, EA.65.420, EA.67.60, EA.69.420, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.101A.90, EA.101A.180, EA.102.60, EA.108.120, EA.108.150, EA.108A.60, EA.108A.90, EA.108B.60, EA.108C.180 s 108A(1): EA.108A.60 s 108A(1)(a): EA.108B.60 s 108A(2): EA.108A.60 s 108B: EA.Intro.180, EA.55.150, EA.63.210, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.101A.180, EA.102.60, EA.108A.60, EA.108A.90, EA.108B.60, EA.108C.180 s 108B(3): EA.108B.60 s 108B(3)(c): EA.108B.60 s 108B(4): EA.108B.60 s 108B(6): EA.108B.60 s 108C: EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30, EA.102.90, EA.106.240, EA.108.60, EA.137.60 s 108C(1): EA.108C.60, EA.108C.90 s 108C(1)(b)(ii): EA.103.60, EA.108C.120 s 108C(2): EA.108C.90 s 108C(2)(a): EA.108C.90 s 108C(2)(b): EA.108C.90 s 110: EA.97.330, EA.101.270, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.7.30,

s s s s

s s

s s s s s s s s s s s s s

s s s s s s s s s s s s s

s

EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.8.30, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.110.120, EA.112.60 110(2): EA.110.90, EA.110.120, EA.112.60 110(3): EA.110.90, EA.110.120, EA.112.60 111: EA.97.330, EA.101.270, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.8.30 112: EA.104.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.8.30, EA.110.90, EA.112.60, EA.190.60, EA.192.40, EA.192.100 113: EA.Ch3.Pt.3.9.30, EA.116.90, EA.190.60, TAS.10, TAS.20 114: EA.Intro.120, EA.56.90, EA.Ch3.Pt.3.9.30, EA.114.60, EA.114.90, EA.114.180, EA.114.240, EA.114.330, EA.115.60, EA.115.90, EA.115.300, EA.116.90, TAS.20 114(2): EA.114.150, EA.114.180, EA.115.240 114(2)(a): EA.114.180 114(2)(b): EA.114.180 114(2)(c): EA.114.60 114(3): EA.114.60, EA.114.180 114(3)(c): EA.114.180 114(3)(c)(i): EA.114.150 114(3)(d): EA.114.180 114(3) to (6): EA.115.210 114(4): EA.114.60, EA.114.180 114(5): EA.114.60, EA.114.150 114(6): EA.114.60, EA.114.180 115: EA.Intro.120, EA.56.90, EA.Ch3.Pt.3.9.30, EA.114.90, EA.114.180, EA.114.330, EA.115.60, EA.115.90, EA.115.300, EA.116.90, TAS.10, TAS.20 115(2): EA.115.60 115(3): EA.114.240, EA.115.60 115(3)(b): EA.115.240 115(4): EA.115.60 115(5): EA.114.240, EA.115.60 115(5)(a): EA.114.150 115(7): EA.116.180 115(7)(a): EA.115.330 115(7)(b): EA.115.330 115(8): EA.115.60 115(10)(a): EA.114.90, EA.115.90 115(10)(b): EA.115.60 116: EA.Intro.350, EA.37.120, EA.Ch3.Pt.3.9.30, EA.114.60, EA.114.90, EA.114.120, EA.114.270, EA.115.330, EA.116.90, EA.116.120, EA.116.180, EA.165.210, EA.165.300, EA.190.60 117: EA.117.90, EA.118.210, EA.118.240, EA.118.270, EA.119.180, EA.120.90, EA.121.90, EA.122.240, EA.122.300, EA.123.120, EA.124.60, EA.125.90, EA.190.60

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cxii

Uniform Evidence Law

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 117(1): EA.117.90, EA.122.90, EA.122.210 s 117(1)(b): EA.122.90, EA.122.210 s 118: EA.Intro.150, EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1.30, EA.117.90, EA.118.90, EA.118.210, EA.118.220, EA.118.480, EA.118.540, EA.119.60, EA.119.180, EA.120.60, EA.122.120, EA.122.360, EA.123.120, EA.124.60 s 118(a): EA.118.210, EA.118.270, EA.118.300 s 118(b): EA.118.210, EA.118.270, EA.118.300 s 118(c): EA.118.60, EA.118.210, EA.118.480 ss 118 to 119: EA.122.60, EA.122.90, EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.125.90, EA.125.120 ss 118 to 120: EA.121.60, EA.122.60, EA.122.90, EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.123.60, EA.123.90, EA.125.60, EA.125.90, EA.125.120 s 119: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1.30, EA.117.90, EA.118.60, EA.118.210, EA.118.220, EA.118.420, EA.118.480, EA.119.180, EA.120.60, EA.122.120, EA.122.210, EA.122.330, EA.122.360, EA.124.60 s 119(a): EA.117.120 s 119(b): EA.119.180 s 120: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1.30, EA.120.60, EA.122.60, EA.122.90, EA.122.120, EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.125.90, EA.125.120 s 121: EA.121.180, EA.121.210, EA.125.150, EA.131.60 s 121(3): EA.118.420 ss 121 to 126: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1.30, EA.118.510 s 122: EA.Intro.180, EA.117.90, EA.118.210, EA.118.240, EA.122.60, EA.122.90, EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.122.270, EA.122.330, EA.122.360, EA.122.450, EA.126.60, EA.128.450, EA.131.60, EA.131.390 s 122(1): EA.122.60, EA.122.90, EA.122.180, EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.122.330, EA.126C.30 s 122(2): EA.122.60, EA.122.90, EA.122.120, EA.122.180, EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.122.270, EA.122.300, EA.122.330, EA.122.360, EA.131.390 s 122 (2): EA.122.240

s 122(3): EA.122.180, EA.122.210, EA.122.300 s 122(3)(a): EA.122.210, EA.122.240 s 122(3)(b): EA.122.240 s 122(4): EA.122.210, EA.122.240 s 122(5): EA.122.210, EA.122.360 s 122(5)(a)(i): EA.122.180, EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.122.360 s 122(5)(a)(ii): EA.122.210, EA.122.240 s 122(5)(a)(iv): EA.122.210, EA.122.240 s 122(5)(a)(iii): EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.122.330 s 122(5)(b): EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.122.360 s 122(5)(c): EA.122.210, EA.122.240, EA.122.360 s 122(6): EA.32.210, EA.33.60, EA.34.90 s 123: EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.330, EA.118.90, EA.122.480, EA.123.90, EA.123.150, EA.123.180, EA.126B.90, EA.126B.240, EA.130.90, EA.131.60, EA.131.90, EA.131A.60, EA.131A.90, EA.131A.150 s 124: EA.122.360, EA.124.90, EA.124.120, EA.131.60 s 124(1): EA.124.60 s 125: EA.118.360, EA.121.150, EA.125.90, EA.125.180, EA.131.60, EA.131.570, EA.131.600 s 125(1): EA.125.90 s 125(1)(a): EA.125.90, EA.126D.30, NSW.CPA.301.30 s 125(1)(b): EA.125.90, EA.125.120 s 125(2): EA.91.60, EA.125.180, EA.142.60 s 125(3): EA.125.120 s 126: EA.121.180, EA.122.450, EA.123.150, EA.124.90, EA.125.150, EA.126.60, EA.126D.60, EA.131.60, EA.131.390, NSW.CPA.301.60 s 126(1): EA.126K.30 s 126(4)(e): EA.126B.120 s 126A(1): EA.126B.120 s 126B: EA.126B.240, EA.126B.270, EA.126B.390, EA.126C.30, EA.126D.30 s 126B(1): EA.126B.90, EA.126B.360 s 126B(3): EA.126B.60, EA.126B.90, EA.126B.420 s 126B(4): EA.126B.150 s 126B(4)(f): EA.126B.120 s 126B(5): EA.126B.420 s 126C: EA.126B.270 s 126D: EA.126D.60 s 126D(2): EA.126D.90 s 126F(3): EA.126B.60 s 126G: EA.126K.90, TAS.20 s 126H: EA.131A.60, EA.131A.90, TAS.20

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cxiii

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 126H(1): EA.126K.390, EA.131A.90 s 126H(2)(b): EA.126K.330 s 126H(3)(c): EA.126B.60 s 126J: EA.126K.60 s 126J(1): EA.126J.30 s 126J(2): EA.126J.30 s 126K: EA.126K.30, EA.126K.90, EA.131A.90 s 126K(1): EA.126K.30, EA.126K.210, EA.126K.420, EA.131A.90 s 126K(2): EA.126K.210, EA.126K.390, EA.126K.420, EA.131A.90 s 126K(2)(a): EA.126K.210, EA.126K.390 s 126K(2)(b): EA.126K.210, EA.126K.390 s 126K(3): EA.126K.210 s 127: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30 s 128: EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.330, EA.4.150, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.118.90, EA.126B.90, EA.128.120, EA.128.180, EA.128.330, EA.128.360, EA.128.420, EA.128.450, EA.128.510, EA.128.570, EA.128.600, EA.128.660, EA.128.690, EA.128.720, EA.128A.90, EA.128A.180, EA.130.90, EA.131.90, EA.131.180, EA.131A.60, EA.131A.90, EA.131A.150, EA.187.20 s 128(1): EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.128.90, EA.128.120, EA.128.150, EA.128.420, EA.128.660, EA.128.690, EA.128.750 s 128(1)(a): EA.128.360 s 128(1)(b): EA.128.360 s 128(2): EA.128.90, EA.128.180, EA.128.360, EA.128.540, EA.128.660, EA.128.750, EA.128A.270 s 128(3): EA.128.90, EA.128.390, EA.128.660, EA.128.750 s 128(4): EA.128.90, EA.128.180, EA.128.390, EA.128.660, EA.128.750 s 128(4)(b: EA.128A.120 s 128(4)(a): EA.128.480 s 128(4)(b): EA.128.360, EA.128.480, EA.128.540, EA.128A.120 s 128(5): EA.128.660 s 128(6): EA.128.120, EA.128.360, EA.128.390, EA.128.660 s 128(6)(a): EA.128A.270 s 128(7): EA.Intro.270, EA.128.90, EA.128.540, EA.128.600, EA.128.660 s 128(8): EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.270, EA.128.660 s 128(9): EA.128.600

s 128(10): EA.128.690 s 128A: EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.210, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.128A.150, EA.128A.240, EA.131A.150, EA.187.20 s 128A(1): EA.128A.60, EA.128A.90 s 128A(2)(d): EA.128A.120, EA.128A.270 s 128A(2)(e): EA.128A.270 s 128A(6): EA.128A.270 s 128A(7): EA.128A.120, EA.128A.270 s 128A(8): EA.128A.60, EA.128A.120, EA.128A.210, EA.128A.240 s 128A(9): EA.128A.180, EA.128A.270 s 128A(10): EA.128A.120, EA.128A.240 s 129: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.129.90, EA.129.180, EA.157.60 s 129(1): EA.129.90 s 129(3): EA.157.60 s 129(5): EA.129.90, EA.129.180 s 129(5)(a): EA.129.60 s 129(5)(c): EA.129.180 s 130: EA.Intro.270, EA.7.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.130.120, EA.130.150, EA.130.240, EA.130.390, EA.131A.90, EA.131A.120, EA.131A.180 s 130(1): EA.130.60, EA.130.90, EA.130.150, EA.130.180, EA.130.210, EA.130.360, EA.130.390, EA.131A.120 s 130(2): EA.130.390, EA.131A.120 s 130(3): EA.130.390 s 130(4): EA.130.120, EA.130.150, EA.130.180 s 130(5): EA.128.540, EA.130.60, EA.130.210 s 130(5)(a): EA.130.240 s 131: EA.11.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.131.60, EA.131.150, EA.131.330, EA.131.360, EA.131.570 s 131(1): EA.131.60, EA.131.120, EA.131.150, EA.131.270, EA.131.300, EA.131.330, EA.131.480, EA.131.510, EA.131.540, EA.131.570 s 131(1)(a): EA.131.240, EA.131.300 s 131(1)(b): EA.131.120, EA.131.240 s 131(2): EA.131.390 s 131(2)(a): EA.131.240 s 131(2)(b): EA.131.390 s 131(2)(c): EA.131.60, EA.131.390 s 131(2)(d): EA.131.420 s 131(2)(e): EA.131.60 s 131(2)(f): EA.131.450 s 131(2)(g): EA.131.60, EA.131.480 s 131(2)(h): EA.131.420, EA.131.510 s 131(2)(i): EA.121.150, EA.131.540

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cxiv

Uniform Evidence Law

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 131(2)(j): EA.125.90, EA.131.540, EA.131.570 s 131(2)(k): EA.125.120 s 131(5)(b): EA.131.270, EA.131.360 s 131(5)(c): EA.131.180 s 131(5)(d): EA.131.390 s 131A: EA.7.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.118.90, EA.122.330, EA.123.90, EA.126B.90, EA.126K.20, EA.126K.30, EA.126K.150, EA.126K.420, EA.128.150, EA.130.90, EA.130.360, EA.131.90, EA.131A.60, EA.131A.90, EA.131B.30 s 131A(1): EA.131A.60, EA.131B.30 s 131A(1)(a): EA.131A.60 s 131A(2): EA.131A.60, EA.131A.90 s 131H: EA.131A.60, EA.131B.30 s 131H(1): EA.131A.60 s 132: EA.118.120, EA.118.570, EA.126B.420, EA.128.120, EA.128.420, EA.128.780, EA.130.390, EA.131.630 s 132(2)(k): EA.11.90 s 133: EA.118.570, EA.121.240, EA.122.510, EA.123.210, EA.124.150, EA.125.210, EA.126B.420, EA.126D.120, EA.130.390, EA.131.630, EA.131A.90 s 134: EA.56.90, EA.126B.90, EA.129.150, EA.130.90, EA.131.90, EA.190.60 s 135: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.270, EA.13.240, EA.18.120, EA.29.90, EA.29.120, EA.29.180, EA.37.60, EA.38.150, EA.48.180, EA.53.90, EA.55.60, EA.55.120, EA.55.210, EA.55.240, EA.55.300, EA.55.330, EA.56.60, EA.57.120, EA.57.150, EA.59.240, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.120, EA.64.150, EA.64.300, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.60, EA.69.600, EA.75.60, EA.79.60, EA.79.180, EA.79.240, EA.79.300, EA.79.330, EA.80.90, EA.80.150, EA.81.240, EA.87.60, EA.97.270, EA.97.450, EA.98.270, EA.101.150, EA.101.195, EA.102.100, EA.104.60, EA.108B.60, EA.108C.60, EA.108C.90, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.111.60, EA.112.60, EA.114.240, EA.126B.60, EA.131.570, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.11.30, EA.135.90, EA.135.120, EA.135.150, EA.135.210, EA.135.270, EA.136.60, EA.136.90, EA.136.120, EA.136.300, EA.137.60, EA.137.90,

EA.137.120, EA.137.150, EA.184.20, EA.189.120, EA.190.60, EA.192.40 s 135(a): EA.135.150, EA.135.270, EA.137.120 s 135(b): EA.135.270 s 135(c): EA.135.270 ss 135 to 137: EA.104.180, EA.108.90 ss 135 to 138: EA.69.570 s 136: EA.Intro.270, EA.29.90, EA.46.150, EA.48.180, EA.56.60, EA.60.60, EA.60.120, EA.60.150, EA.64.330, EA.66.60, EA.76.120, EA.77.60, EA.79.270, EA.81.240, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.120, EA.101A.150, EA.102.90, EA.106.210, EA.108.120, EA.108.150, EA.108.210, EA.108C.90, EA.110.60, EA.110.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.11.30, EA.135.90, EA.135.150, EA.136.60, EA.136.150, EA.136.180, EA.136.270, EA.136.300, EA.137.150, EA.165.480, EA.189.120 s 137: EA.Intro.270, EA.Intro.300, EA.Intro.330, EA.Intro.350, EA.13.240, EA.17.60, EA.18.120, EA.29.180, EA.38.150, EA.48.180, EA.53.90, EA.55.240, EA.55.330, EA.56.60, EA.57.150, EA.60.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.120, EA.64.300, EA.65.270, EA.66.300, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.60, EA.78.60, EA.79.60, EA.79.300, EA.79.330, EA.80.90, EA.80.150, EA.81.240, EA.97.120, EA.97.270, EA.97.450, EA.98.120, EA.98.270, EA.101.60, EA.101.150, EA.101.180, EA.101.190, EA.101.195, EA.101.450, EA.102.100, EA.103.60, EA.104.60, EA.108B.60, EA.108C.60, EA.108C.90, EA.110.90, EA.111.60, EA.112.60, EA.114.180, EA.114.240, EA.115.300, EA.126B.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.11.30, EA.135.90, EA.135.150, EA.135.270, EA.135.300, EA.136.60, EA.136.300, EA.137.60, EA.137.90, EA.137.120, EA.137.210, EA.137.240, EA.138.450, EA.138.720, EA.144.90, EA.184.20, EA.192.40, TAS.10 s 138: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.330, EA.8.60, EA.56.60, EA.79.150, EA.83.60, EA.84.60, EA.84.150, EA.90.60, EA.90.90, EA.90.150, EA.90.210, EA.90.260, EA.90.300, EA.114.240,

[All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

cxv

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont EA.115.300, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.11.30, EA.135.150, EA.137.120, EA.137.240, EA.138.150, EA.138.270, EA.138.300, EA.138.420, EA.138.540, EA.138.570, EA.138.690, EA.138.720, EA.139.30, TAS.10 s 138(1): EA.114.240, EA.138.60, EA.138.120, EA.138.270, EA.138.330, EA.138.420, EA.138.540, EA.138.690, EA.138.720 s 138(1)(a): EA.138.120 s 138(1)(b): EA.138.150 s 138(2): EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.11.30, EA.138.120 s 138(2)(a): EA.138.360 s 138(2)(b): EA.138.390 s 138(3): EA.114.240, EA.138.60, EA.138.210, EA.138.270, EA.138.420, EA.138.690, EA.138.720 s 138(3)(d): EA.138.690 s 138(3)(e): EA.138.120, EA.138.540, EA.138.570 s 138(5)(a): EA.138.120 s 139: EA.90.150, EA.138.120, EA.190.60 s 139(1): EA.139.60 s 139(1)(a): EA.139.120, EA.139.180 s 139(1)(b): EA.139.60 s 139(2): EA.139.60 s 139(2)(a): EA.139.60 s 139(3): EA.139.150 s 139(5): EA.139.120 s 139(5)(a): EA.139.120, EA.139.180 s 139(5)(b): EA.139.180 s 139(5)(c): EA.139.180 s 139(6): EA.139.120 s 140: EA.Intro.330, EA.51.60, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.1.30, EA.140.60, EA.190.60 s 140(1): EA.140.60, EA.140.120 s 140(2): EA.140.60, EA.140.120 s 140(2)(a): EA.140.60, EA.140.120 s 141: EA.8.60, EA.137.120, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.1.30, EA.141.90 s 141(1): EA.135.270 s 142: EA.48.90, EA.48.270, EA.48.360, EA.66.180, EA.79.60, EA.81.90, EA.87.150, EA.89A.60, EA.125.180, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.1.30, EA.165.330, EA.165A.150 s 142(1): EA.13.270, EA.48.210, EA.48.240, EA.48.270, EA.48.300, EA.59.210, EA.61.60, EA.69.540, EA.84.120, EA.85.300, EA.90.330, EA.118.540, EA.121.210, EA.122.480, EA.123.180, EA.124.120, EA.126B.390,

EA.126D.90, EA.126K.390, EA.128.750, EA.130.360, NSW.CPA.301.90 s 142(2): EA.142.60 s 143: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.2.30 s 143(1): EA.143.60 s 143(2): EA.143.60 s 144: EA.Intro.120, EA.79.60, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.2.30, EA.144.60, EA.146.60, EA.157.60 s 144(1): EA.144.120 s 144(4): EA.144.90, EA.144.120 s 145: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.2.30 s 146: EA.57.150, EA.69.360, EA.146.60 s 146(2): EA.142.60 ss 146 to 152: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.30 s 147: EA.57.150, EA.69.360, EA.146.60, EA.147.150, EA.183.80 s 149: EA.149.60 s 150: EA.8.60 s 150(1): EA.150.60 s 150(3): EA.178.60 s 150(4): EA.178.60 s 151: TAS.20 s 152: EA.152.60 ss 153 to 159: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.30 s 155A: TAS.20 s 156: EA.156.150 s 157: EA.52.30, EA.157.60 s 160: EA.160.60, EA.160.120, EA.163.30 ss 160 to 163: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.30 s 161: EA.Intro.180, EA.71.120, EA.161.150 s 162: EA.71.120, EA.162.90 s 163: EA.160.60, TAS.20 s 164: EA.136.210, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.4.30, EA.165.180, EA.165.210 s 164(3): EA.165.210 s 165: EA.17.60, EA.37.120, EA.38.150, EA.38.330, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.150, EA.108.210, EA.114.120, EA.114.270, EA.114.360, EA.115.330, EA.116.90, EA.116.120, EA.116.180, EA.136.150, EA.164.90, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30, EA.165.90, EA.165.210, EA.165.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.420, EA.165.450, EA.165.480, EA.165B.210 s 165(1): EA.165.90, EA.165.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.300, EA.165.450, EA.165A.150 s 165(1)(a): EA.60.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.150, EA.165.240 s 165(1)(b): EA.116.150

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cxvi

Uniform Evidence Law

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 165(1)(c): EA.165.450 s 165(1)(d): EA.55.240, EA.165.360 s 165(1)(f): EA.165.270 s 165(2): EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.150, EA.165.90, EA.165.180, EA.165.210, EA.165.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.300, EA.165.330, EA.165.360, EA.165.420, EA.165.480, EA.165A.180 s 165(2)(a): EA.165.210 s 165(2)(b): EA.165.210, EA.165.270, EA.165.360 s 165(2)(c): EA.165.210 s 165(2)(f): EA.165.420 s 165(3): EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.150, EA.165.90, EA.165.270, EA.165.360, EA.165B.240 s 165(4): EA.165.210 s 165(5): EA.165.180, EA.165.210, EA.165.480 s 165(6): EA.165.330 s 165A: EA.Intro.180, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30, EA.165.330, EA.165.480, TAS.10 s 165A(1): EA.165A.150 s 165A(2): EA.165.330, EA.165B.210 s 165A(3): EA.165.330 s 165B: EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.210, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30, EA.165.480 s 165B(2): EA.Intro.210, EA.165B.60, EA.165B.240, EA.165B.270, EA.165B.300 s 165B(3): EA.165B.180, EA.165B.240 s 165B(4): EA.165B.270 s 165B(5): EA.165B.150, EA.165B.270, EA.165B.300 s 165B(6)(a): EA.165B.180 s 165B(6)(b): EA.165B.210 s 165B(7): EA.165B.210 s 166: EA.92.150, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30, EA.167.30, EA.169.60, EA.169.90, EA.183.60, CTH.TN.10 s 166(c): EA.69.390 s 166(f): EA.63.180, EA.64.390, EA.69.390 ss 166 to 169: EA.56.60, EA.57.120, EA.57.150, EA.58.90, EA.69.390, EA.146.90 s 167: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.60, EA.63.180, EA.64.390, EA.65.390, EA.66.270, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.120, EA.92.150, EA.167.30, EA.167.60, EA.169.60 s 167(a): EA.167.60 s 167(c): EA.167.90 s 168: EA.167.30, CTH.TN.10 s 168(5): EA.69.390, EA.169.60

s 169: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30, EA.168.60, EA.169.60, EA.183.60 s 169(1): EA.169.60, EA.169.120, CTH.TN.10 s 169(1)(a): EA.169.60 s 169(1)(b): EA.169.60 s 169(1)(c): EA.56.60, EA.169.60 s 169(2): EA.169.60, CTH.TN.10 s 169(3): EA.56.60, EA.169.60 s 169(4): EA.63.180, EA.169.90 s 169(4)(b): EA.169.150 s 169(5)(a) to (h): EA.169.120 s 170: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30, CTH.TN.10 s 171: EA.48.330, EA.63.240, EA.64.360, EA.65.360, EA.69.510, EA.70.210, EA.71.180, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.60, EA.182.60 s 172: EA.48.330, EA.63.240, EA.64.360, EA.65.360, EA.69.510, EA.70.210, EA.71.180, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.60, EA.182.60, CTH.TN.10 s 173: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30 s 173(1): EA.48.330, EA.63.240, EA.64.360, EA.65.360, EA.69.510, EA.70.210, EA.71.180, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.60, EA.182.60, CTH.TN.10 s 173(2): EA.48.330, EA.63.240, EA.64.360, EA.65.360, EA.69.510, EA.70.210, EA.71.180, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.60, EA.182.60, CTH.TN.10 s 174: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30, EA.176.30 s 175: EA.176.30 s 175(1)(b): EA.174.60 s 176: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30 s 177: EA.79.360, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30, CTH.TN.10 s 177(2): EA.79.360, EA.177.30 s 177(5): EA.79.360, EA.177.30, CTH.TN.10 s 177(6): EA.79.360, EA.177.30 s 177(7): EA.79.360 s 178: EA.91.90, EA.92.120, EA.157.60, EA.178.30 ss 178 to 180: EA.106.180, EA.106.270 s 179: EA.91.90, EA.92.120, EA.178.30 s 181: EA.48.420, EA.67.60, EA.73.180, EA.97.210, EA.98.210, EA.99.90, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.30, EA.168.30, EA.177.60, EA.190.60 s 182: EA.170.60, EA.190.60, TAS.20 s 182(1): EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.69.480, EA.70.150, EA.71.150, EA.147.150, EA.149.60, EA.152.60, EA.156.150, EA.160.120, EA.161.150, EA.162.90, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.60, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.2.30, EA.183.40 s 182(2): EA.69.480, EA.70.150, EA.71.150

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Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 182(3): EA.70.150 s 182(4)(a): EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.70.150 s 182(4)(b): EA.70.150 s 182(5): EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.69.480, EA.70.150, EA.71.150 s 183: EA.48.210, EA.48.240, EA.48.270, EA.48.300, EA.58.60, EA.69.150, EA.69.330, EA.69.540, EA.71.120, EA.79.390, EA.160.60, EA.183.40 s 184: EA.Intro.180, EA.55.90, EA.191.20 s 184(2): EA.184.20 s 185: EA.4.150, EA.185.20, TAS.20 s 186: EA.4.150, EA.48.330, EA.48.420, EA.97.210, EA.98.210, EA.99.90, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.60, EA.170.120, EA.172.60, EA.177.60, EA.179.60, EA.180.30, EA.181.60, EA.186.20, TAS.20 s 187: EA.4.150, EA.128.300, EA.131.180 s 188: EA.45.120 s 189: EA.13.300, EA.18.180, EA.55.120, EA.75.90, EA.89A.60, EA.101.300, EA.103.150, EA.108.180, EA.118.570, EA.121.240, EA.122.510, EA.123.210, EA.124.150, EA.125.210, EA.126B.420, EA.126D.120, EA.128A.270, EA.130.390, EA.131.630, EA.142.60 s 189(2): EA.84.90, EA.85.270, EA.189.80 s 189(3): EA.84.90, EA.85.210, EA.85.270, EA.189.140 s 189(4): EA.13.300, EA.189.80 s 189(5): EA.13.300, EA.189.80, EA.189.120 s 189(6): EA.84.90, EA.85.270, EA.189.100 s 189(7): EA.55.120, EA.142.60, EA.189.60 s 189(8): EA.55.120, EA.84.90, EA.85.270 s 190: EA.Intro.350, EA.13.300, EA.17.60, EA.26.60, EA.29.150, EA.48.180, EA.56.60, EA.57.150, EA.64.270, EA.65.330, EA.68.90, EA.97.180, EA.98.180, EA.110.120, EA.122.210, EA.144.90, EA.157.30 s 190(1): EA.56.60 s 190(2): EA.190.60 s 190(3): EA.56.60, EA.190.80 s 190(4): EA.190.80 s 191: EA.55.90, EA.81.60, EA.184.20, EA.191.20, EA.191.40 s 191(2): EA.191.20 s 191(2)(a): EA.191.20 s 191(3): EA.191.20 s 192: EA.Intro.330, EA.Intro.350, EA.16.90, EA.26.240, EA.28.90, EA.29.60, EA.32.90, EA.32.180, EA.37.150, EA.38.150, EA.38.240, EA.38.270, EA.38.300, EA.39.150, EA.46.180, EA.64.150, EA.64.330,

EA.67.90, EA.100.60, EA.104.90, EA.106.60, EA.106.120, EA.108.180, EA.108C.150, EA.110.120, EA.112.60, EA.126K.210, EA.168.60, EA.184.20, EA.191.20, EA.192.60 s 192(1): EA.39.150, EA.67.90, EA.126K.210, EA.192.80 s 192(2): EA.16.90, EA.29.60, EA.32.90, EA.32.180, EA.37.150, EA.38.150, EA.46.180, EA.67.90, EA.104.90, EA.106.120, EA.108.180, EA.108C.150, EA.126K.210, EA.168.60, EA.192.40, EA.192.80, EA.192.100 s 192(2)(a): EA.108.150, EA.192.100 s 192(2)(b): EA.38.150, EA.112.60, EA.192.100 s 192(2)(c): EA.108.150, EA.192.100 s 192A: EA.Intro.180, EA.38.300, EA.110.120, EA.192A.60 s 193: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.90, EA.57.150, EA.58.90, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.90, EA.146.90, EA.183.60 s 193(1): EA.193.60 s 197: EA.190.60 s 377: EA.66.300 s 377(6): EA.66.300 reg 5: EA.67.60 r 36.2: EA.157.60 r 36.11: EA.157.60 r 36.15: EA.157.60 Ch 2: EA.43.180, EA.56.60, EA.126K.20 Ch 3: EA.Intro.90, EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.350, EA.8.60, EA.39.240, EA.43.60, EA.43.180, EA.45.120, EA.45.150, EA.48.60, EA.48.120, EA.48.270, EA.48.360, EA.50.30, EA.53.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.1.30, EA.55.60, EA.55.90, EA.55.120, EA.56.60, EA.56.150, EA.125.210, EA.126D.120, EA.126K.20, EA.128.450, EA.142.60, EA.157.30, EA.189.60, EA.190.60 Ch 3, Pt, 3.11: EA.55.60 Ch 12: EA.126K.20 Pt 1.2: EA.8.60, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30 Pt 2.1: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1Div.1.60, EA.12.60, EA.21.210, EA.28.120, EA.52.30, EA.55.210 Pt 2.1, Div 1: EA.8.60, EA.13.300 Pt 2.1, Div 3: EA.29.150 Pt 2.1, Div 5: EA.38.180 Pt 2.2: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.51.60, EA.69.330, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30 Pt 2.3: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30 Pt 3.1: EA.43.180, EA.48.120

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Uniform Evidence Law

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Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont Pt 3.2: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.150, EA.43.180, EA.56.60, EA.59.90, EA.83.60, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.150, EA.108B.60, EA.112.60, EA.114.90, EA.135.150, EA.165.270, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30, EA.191.40 Pt 3.2, Div 2: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.62.60, EA.65.270, EA.66A.60, EA.67.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.60 Pt 3.2, Div 3: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.60, EA.82.30 Pt 3.3: EA.Intro.120, EA.50.30, EA.101A.60, EA.106.240 Pt 3.4: EA.48.120, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.30, EA.60.90, EA.81.60, EA.101A.60, EA.138.330, EA.191.40 Pt 3.5: EA.97.360, EA.98.390, EA.101.390, EA.101A.60, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30 Pt 3.6: EA.Intro.150, EA.4.210, EA.4.270, EA.92.90, EA.95.60, EA.101.120, EA.101.390, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.120, EA.101A.210, EA.104.60, EA.104.150, EA.104.210, EA.108B.60, EA.112.60 Pt 3.7: EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.330, EA.38.60, EA.39.150, EA.43.180, EA.46.150, EA.55.150, EA.66.210, EA.81.270, EA.94.60, EA.101.120, EA.101A.60, EA.101A.120, EA.101A.150, EA.102.100, EA.108C.60, EA.112.60, EA.195.20, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Pt 3.7, Div 2: EA.102.60, EA.108B.60 Pt 3.7, Div 3: EA.55.150, EA.108C.180 Pt 3.7, Div 4: EA.102.60 Pt 3.8: EA.101A.210, EA.102.90, EA.104.60, EA.104.150, EA.104.210, EA.108.60, EA.108B.60, EA.112.60 Pt 3.9: EA.Intro.120, EA.37.120, EA.114.240, EA.138.270, EA.165.300 Pt 3.10: EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.180, EA.Intro.210, EA.Intro.270, EA.Intro.330, EA.36.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.117.60, EA.117.90, EA.118.90, EA.122.420, EA.123.90, EA.126B.90, EA.128.150, EA.130.90, EA.131.90, EA.131A.60, EA.131A.90, EA.131A.150, EA.131A.180 Pt 3.10, Div 1: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.117.90 Pt 3.10, Div 1A: EA.Intro.210, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30,

EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30, EA.131A.60, EA.131B.30 Pt 3.10, Div 1B: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.30, EA.126B.60 Pt 3.11: EA.Intro.120, EA.37.120, EA.38.60, EA.44.120, EA.46.150, EA.48.60, EA.48.180, EA.48.270, EA.51.60, EA.53.60, EA.55.540, EA.55.570, EA.60.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.120, EA.64.300, EA.65.150, EA.65.330, EA.66.60, EA.69.600, EA.79.90, EA.79.240, EA.81.270, EA.87.60, EA.92.90, EA.106.60, EA.106.120, EA.106.240, EA.108.180, EA.110.90, EA.114.60, EA.114.240, EA.114.360, EA.115.60, EA.131.120, EA.189.120, EA.192.100 Pt 4.3: EA.57.120, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.60 Pt 4.3, Div 3: EA.71.120 Pt 4.6, Div 1: EA.63.180, EA.64.390, EA.65.390, EA.66.270, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.3.120, EA.69.390, EA.92.150, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.6.Div.1.30, EA.169.60 Pt 4.6, Div 2: EA.48.330, EA.63.240, EA.64.360, EA.65.360, EA.69.510, EA.70.210, EA.71.180, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.3.60, EA.182.60 Pt 4.6, Div 3: EA.106.270, EA.176.30 Sch Dict: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30, EA.117.60 Sch 1: EA.21.150, EA.22.60, EA.22.90, EA.Dict.Pt.1.30 Sch 1, Pt 2, cl 4(1)(b): EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Dictionary Dictionary: EA.18.60, EA.26.90, EA.33.30, EA.98.120, EA.115.150, EA.137.60, EA.137.90 Sch Sch: EA.21.150 135 135: EA.69.570 ch 2: EA.32.60 pt 3.2: EA.106.90 pt 3.7: EA.106.90 101A 101A: EA.Intro.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 1: EA.146.60, EA.147.90, EA.148.30, EA.155A.30, EA.156.90, EA.158.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2: EA.18.60, EA.66.120, EA.118.360 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 1: EA.69.90, EA.70.90, EA.147.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 2: EA.28.60, EA.37.60, EA.39.90 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 3: EA.125.90, EA.126D.30, EA.128.210 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4: EA.63.90, EA.64.90, EA.65.90, EA.66.90, EA.83.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4(1)(b): EA.61.30

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Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4(1)(f): EA.13.90, EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4(1)(g): EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4(2): EA.63.90, EA.64.90, EA.65.90, EA.66.90 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 5: EA.48.270 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 6: EA.44.150, EA.63.60, EA.64.120, EA.65.300, EA.81.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 7: EA.26.90, EA.27.90, EA.38.90 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 8: EA.32.60, EA.48.90, EA.69.90, EA.71.90, EA.131.240, EA.146.60, EA.147.90, EA.148.30, EA.155A.30, EA.156.90, EA.158.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 8(a): EA.126.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 9: EA.138.90 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 9(2): EA.128.180 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 10(1): EA.18.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 10(2): EA.18.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11: EA.18.60 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11(2): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11(3): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11(3)(a): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11(3)(c): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11(3)(d): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11(3)(e): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 11(3)(g): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120 Evidence Amendment Act 2008: EA.117.90, EA.122.60, EA.165A.90, EA.165A.150, EA.165B.90, EA.165B.150, EA.165B.270, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.180

Evidence Amendment (Journalists’ Privilege) Act 2007: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30, EA.Intro.60,

Form 2: EA.179.60 Form 3: EA.180.30 Sch Sch: EA.128A.150 Excise Act 1901: EA.Dict.Pt.1.60 Extradition Act 1988: EA.4.150

Family Court Rules 2004 Pt 15.5: EA.26.300, EA.79.330

Family Law Act 1975 s 79: EA.138.720 s 101: EA.41.330

Federal Court Rules 2011 s 79: EA.79.90 reg 1.32: EA.11.60 r 7.23: EA.9.180 O 10, r 1(2)(j): EA.79.60 O 33, r 11: EA.128.150 O 33, r 19: EA.98.180 O 34: EA.26.120 Pt 23: EA.79.330 Form 146: ACT.TN.10, NT.TN.10 Form 147: ACT.TN.10, NT.TN.10

Federal Court of Australia Act 1976: EA.4.150, EA.131.330 s 131: EA.131.330

Federal Rules of Evidence s 65(2)(c): EA.65.210

Financial Transaction Reports Act 1988 s 31(1): EA.8.60, EA.141.90

Foreign Evidence Act 1974 s 7: EA.Dict.Pt.2.30

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986 s 46PO: EA.140.120

Judiciary Act 1903: EA.8.60 s s s s

68: EA.8.60 79: EA.8.60, EA.131A.60, EA.141.90 80: EA.8.60 80A: EA.8.60 Jury Directions Act 2015: EA.165B.210

Legal Profession Uniform Conduct (Barristers) Rules 2015 r 61: EA.41.300

Migration Act 1958: EA.Dict.Pt.1.30 s 420(1): EA.4.150, EA.5.30, EA.8.60

National Security Information (Criminal Proceedings) Act 2004: EA.130.450 s 31(7): EA.130.450 s 31(8): EA.130.450

Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987

EA.131A.60 Sch 1: EA.131A.60

Evidence Amendment (Journalists’ Privilege) Act 2011: EA.131A.60, EA.131B.30, EA.Intro.60 Evidence Regulations 1995: EA.128A.150 reg 6: EA.99.60, CTH.TN.10 reg 6(2): EA.97.180 reg 6(3): EA.98.180

s 14(1): EA.15.60 s 16: EA.10.60

State and Territorial Laws and Records Recognition Act 1901 s s s s

8: EA.158.30 9: EA.158.30 17: EA.157.30 18: EA.185.20

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cxx

Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Statutes

New South Wales

Taxation Administration Act 1953 Pt III: EA.17.60, EA.18.60, EA.109.30 Trade Practices Act 1974: EA.191.20

Australian Capital Territory Court Procedures Rules 2006 Pt 2.12: EA.26.300, EA.79.330

Evidence Act 1971 s s s s s s s

s 21: EA.94.90 Pt 3.6: EA.94.90

Bail Act 2013 s 31: EA.4.210

Children (Care and Protection) Act 1987: EA.19.30

Children (Criminal Proceedings) Act 1987: NSW.CPA.295.60

52: EA.36.30 57: EA.128.90 66(3): EA.19.30 67: EA.184.20 85: EA.195.20 88: EA.188.20 94(3): EA.179.30

s 13: EA.84.150 s 148(4)(a): NSW.CPA.296.30

Civil Procedure Act 2005

Evidence Act 2011:

Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Adoption of Children Act 1965

EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30, EA.Intro.60 s 64(2): ACT.TN.10 s 33: ACT.TN.10 s 38: ACT.TN.10 s 49: ACT.TN.10 s 50(1): ACT.TN.10 s 50(2): ACT.TN.10 s 63(2): ACT.TN.10 s 64(2): ACT.TN.10 s 65(2): ACT.TN.10 s 65(3): ACT.TN.10 s 65(8): ACT.TN.10 s 67: ACT.TN.10 s 67(1): ACT.TN.10 s 67(2): ACT.TN.10 s 67(3): ACT.TN.10 s 67(4): ACT.TN.10 s 67(5): ACT.TN.10 s 68: ACT.TN.10 s 97: ACT.TN.10 s 98: ACT.TN.10 s 99: ACT.TN.10 s 100: ACT.TN.10 s 166: ACT.TN.10 s 168: ACT.TN.10 s 169(1): ACT.TN.10 s 169(2): ACT.TN.10 s 170: ACT.TN.10 s 172: ACT.TN.10 s 173(1): ACT.TN.10 s 173(2): ACT.TN.10 s 177: ACT.TN.10 s 177(5): ACT.TN.10 Sch Dict: EA.98.300, EA.101.270

Evidence Regulation 2012 reg 5: ACT.TN.10 reg 6: ACT.TN.10 reg 10: ACT.TN.10

Proceeds of Crime Act 1991: EA.75.90

s s s s s

30: EA.131.330 70(1)(a): EA.75.180, EA.190.80 87: EA.128.150, EA.128.780 87(1): EA.128.150, EA.128.780 128: EA.128.780 Coroners Act 1980: EA.128.540 s 33: EA.8.90

Coroners Act 2009 s 61(4): EA.128.540

Crime Commission Act 2012 s 80: EA.125.90

Crimes Act 1900: EA.8.90, EA.19.30, EA.184.20, EA.Intro.350, NSW.CPA.295.30 s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

23A(2): EA.80.120 61B: NSW.CPA.295.30 61C: NSW.CPA.295.30 61D: NSW.CPA.295.30 61E: NSW.CPA.295.30 61I: NSW.CPA.295.30 61J: NSW.CPA.295.30 61K: NSW.CPA.295.30 61L: NSW.CPA.295.30 61M: NSW.CPA.295.30 61N: NSW.CPA.295.30 61O: NSW.CPA.295.30 61JA: NSW.CPA.295.30 63: NSW.CPA.295.30 65: NSW.CPA.295.30 65A: NSW.CPA.295.30 66: NSW.CPA.295.30 66A: NSW.CPA.295.30 66B: NSW.CPA.295.30 66C: NSW.CPA.295.30 66D: NSW.CPA.295.30 66F: NSW.CPA.295.30 66EA: NSW.CPA.295.30 66EB: NSW.CPA.295.30 67: NSW.CPA.295.30 68: NSW.CPA.295.30 71: NSW.CPA.295.30 72: NSW.CPA.295.30 72A: NSW.CPA.295.30 73: NSW.CPA.295.30 74: NSW.CPA.295.30

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Table of Statutes Crimes Act 1900 — cont s 76: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 76A: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78A: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78B: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78H: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78I: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78K: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78L: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78M: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78N: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78O: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 78Q: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 79: EA.80.150, NSW.CPA.295.30 s 80: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 80A: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 80D: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 80E: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 81: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 81A: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 81B: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 86: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 87: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 89: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 90: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 90a: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 91: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 91A: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 91B: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 91D: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 91E: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 91F: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 91G: NSW.CPA.295.30 s 404: EA.184.20 s 407(3)(b): EA.19.30 s 407AA: EA.19.30 s 409: EA.8.90 s 418: EA.33.30

Criminal Appeal Act 1912 s 6: EA.101.150

Criminal Procedure Act 1986: EA.20.90, EA.37.270, EA.66.300, EA.76.180, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30, EA.Intro.210, NSW.CPA.296.30, NSW.CPA.299D.60 s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

3: NSW.CPA.295.30, NSW.CPA.295.60 41: EA.41.90 41(1)(a): EA.41.90 41(1)(b): EA.41.90 41(5): EA.41.90 105: EA.97.450 131: EA.20.90 132: EA.20.90 133(3): EA.165.150, EA.165B.120 135: EA.103.120 165A: EA.165.540 194M: TAS.10 275A: EA.41.90 279: EA.19.30 279(4): EA.19.30

s 281: EA.Intro.350, EA.81.60, EA.84.150, EA.85.150, EA.86.120, EA.139.60, TAS.10 s 289: EA.8.90 s 289I: EA.66.300, EA.76.180 s 293: EA.97.450, EA.103.120 s 294: EA.165.540 s 294(2)(c): EA.165.540 s 294A: EA.27.180, EA.41.330 s 294AA: EA.165.540, EA.165A.230 s 294AA(2): EA.165.540 s 294AA(3): EA.165.540 s 295: NSW.CPA.297.30, NSW.CPA.299.30, NSW.CPA.299A.30, NSW.CPA.299D.30, TAS.10 s 295(1): NSW.CPA.299D.180 s 296: NSW.CPA.297.30, NSW.CPA.299D.30 s 296(2): NSW.CPA.296.30 s 298: NSW.CPA.299B.30, NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.330, NSW.CPA.300.30, NSW.CPA.301.30 s 299A: NSW.CPA.298.30, NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.330 s 299B: NSW.CPA.298.30, NSW.CPA.299B.30, NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.330 s 299C: NSW.CPA.298.30 s 299C(5): NSW.CPA.299C.30 s 299D: NSW.CPA.298.30 s 299D(1): NSW.CPA.298.30, NSW.CPA.299D.270 s 299D(1)(c): NSW.CPA.299D.240 s 299D(2): NSW.CPA.299D.150, NSW.CPA.299D.180, NSW.CPA.299D.240 s 299D(3): NSW.CPA.299D.180, NSW.CPA.299D.330 s 299D(4): NSW.CPA.299D.330 s 299D(5): NSW.CPA.299D.300 s 301: NSW.CPA.301.60 s 301(2): NSW.CPA.301.90 s 302: NSW.CPA.299D.180, NSW.CPA.299D.240, NSW.CPA.299D.330 s 305: NSW.CPA.298.30 s 306: TAS.10 ss 306A to 306G: EA.12.60 s 306B(4): EA.66.300 s 306V(1): EA.66.300, EA.76.180 s 306X: EA.66.300 Ch 6, Pt 5, Div 1: NSW.CPA.299D.60 Pt 4: EA.65.450 Pt 5: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30 Pt 5, Div 2: NSW.CPA.300.30 Pt 7: EA.Intro.210, NSW.CPA.296.30

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Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Statutes Criminal Procedure Act 1986 — cont Sch 2, cl 25: NSW.CPA.296.30

Criminal Procedure Amendment (Justices and Local Courts) Act 2001: NSW.CPA.299D.60

Criminal Procedure Amendment (Sexual Assault Communications Privilege) Act 2002: NSW.CPA.296.30 District Court Rules 1973 Pt 53: EA.128.150 Pt 53, r 10C: CTH.TN.10, NSW.TN.10, ACT.TN.10, NT.TN.10

Electronic Transactions Act 2000: EA.161.60, EA.Intro.180 s 5: EA.161.60

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Evidence Act 1898: EA.69.210, EA.118.90 s 8: EA.106.90 s 9: EA.106.90 s 10: EA.127.30 s 14CE(5): EA.69.120 s 14CH: EA.69.270 s 15A: EA.181.30 s 23: EA.178.30 s 43: EA.106.90 s 54: EA.106.90 s 69: EA.69.210 s 69(5): EA.69.210 Ch 2: EA.106.90 Pt 3.3: EA.69.210 Evidence Act 1995: EA.2.30, EA.4.180, EA.8.90, EA.9.90, EA.18.60, EA.24A.30, EA.89.60, EA.106.90, EA.116.180, EA.117.60, EA.128.600, EA.160.60, EA.165.570, EA.165A.90, EA.165A.120, EA.165B.150, EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.4.30, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30, EA.Dict.Pt.1.60, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.210, EA.Intro.350, NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.90, NSW.CPA.299D.120, TAS.20 s 3: EA.Intro.240 s 4: EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.30 s 8: EA.8.90 s 9: EA.Intro.120, EA.9.90, EA.18.60, EA.39.240 s 9(1): EA.9.90, EA.55.510 s 9(2)(a): EA.75.180 s 9(2)(c): EA.4.240, EA.9.180 s 18: EA.Intro.150 s 19: EA.Intro.150, EA.19.30 s 20: EA.Intro.150 s 23(2): EA.23.60 s 33: EA.8.90, NSW.TN.10 s 34(1): EA.Intro.350 s 37: EA.39.270 s 37(1)(a): EA.39.270

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

38: NSW.TN.10 38(1): EA.38.210 38(3): EA.38.210 48(1): EA.48.60 48(1)(b): EA.48.60, EA.48.180 48(1)(d): EA.48.60, EA.48.180 49: NSW.TN.10 50(1): NSW.TN.10 50(2): NSW.TN.10 53(1): EA.53.120 53(2)(a): EA.53.120 53(3): EA.53.120, EA.53.150 53(5): EA.53.180 55: EA.55.270, EA.59.180, EA.78.60, EA.81.120 56: EA.78.60 56(1): EA.76.120 57: EA.55.270, EA.59.180 59: EA.Intro.120, EA.9.90, EA.56.90, EA.65.240, EA.66.150, EA.69.540, EA.81.60 60: EA.56.90, EA.65.240 63(2): NSW.TN.10 64(2): NSW.TN.10 65: EA.8.90 65(2): EA.65.240, NSW.TN.10 65(2)(b): EA.65.180 65(2)(d): EA.65.240 65(2)(d)(i): EA.65.240 65(3): NSW.TN.10 65(8): NSW.TN.10 66(2)(b): EA.66.120 67(1): NSW.TN.10 67(2): NSW.TN.10 67(3): NSW.TN.10 67(4): EA.67.60, NSW.TN.10 67(5): NSW.TN.10 68: NSW.TN.10 69: EA.48.180, EA.56.90, EA.69.540, EA.76.120, EA.183.80 69(2): EA.69.170, EA.69.540, EA.76.120 69(2)(a): EA.69.180 69(2)(b): EA.69.180 69(5): EA.62.60, EA.69.180 76: EA.56.90, EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.78.60 77: EA.56.90, EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.76.180, EA.78.60 78: EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.76.180, EA.78.60 78(a): EA.62.60, EA.69.180, EA.78.60 78(b): EA.78.60 79: EA.Intro.120, EA.55.270, EA.76.90, EA.76.120, EA.76.180, EA.78.60 80: EA.Intro.120 84: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30 85: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30 86: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30 88: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30

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cxxiii

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Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont s 89A: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30, EA.81.60 s 89A(1): EA.89A.60 s 90: EA.Intro.150, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.4.30, EA.90.60 s 91: EA.91.60 s 97: NSW.TN.10 s 98: EA.98.120, NSW.TN.10 s 98(1)(b): EA.98.120 s 98(2): EA.98.120 s 99: NSW.TN.10 s 100: NSW.TN.10 s 101: EA.Intro.150 s 102: EA.38.210, EA.164.180 s 108: EA.164.180 s 110: EA.Intro.150 ss 113 to 115: EA.Intro.150 s 114: EA.115.180 s 114(2)(c): EA.115.180 s 114(3): EA.115.180 s 114(5): EA.115.180 s 115: EA.115.150 s 115(3): EA.115.150 s 115(5): EA.115.150 s 115(5)(a): EA.115.180 s 115(6): EA.115.210 s 117: EA.118.120, EA.119.150 s 118: EA.Intro.350, EA.118.90, EA.119.150, EA.133.60 s 119: EA.Intro.350, EA.119.150, EA.133.60 s 122: EA.117.120 s 123: EA.Intro.150, EA.Intro.210 s 126A: EA.90.270 s 126B: EA.18.60, EA.90.270, EA.130.120 s 126B(3): EA.126B.60, NSW.CPA.299D.180 s 126G: TAS.10 s 126H: NSW.CPA.299D.60 s 126I: TAS.10 s 126K: EA.126B.360 s 128: EA.Intro.150, EA.Intro.210, EA.Intro.350, EA.8.90, EA.128.720, EA.128.780, EA.128A.90, EA.132.60, EA.138.120, EA.138.150, EA.138.600 s 128(1): EA.128.780 s 128(2): EA.128.780 s 128(3): EA.128.780 s 128(4): EA.128.780 s 128(4)(b): EA.128.780 s 128(5): EA.128.780 s 128(7): EA.128.60, EA.128.600 s 128(8): EA.128.720 s 128A: EA.128.150, EA.128.780 s 130: EA.131A.180 s 131: EA.8.90 s 131A: EA.Intro.210 s 132: EA.138.120, EA.138.150, EA.138.600 s 133: EA.128.780, EA.133.60

s s s s s

134: 135: 136: 137: 138:

EA.118.90 EA.Intro.150, EA.53.90, EA.135.150 EA.Intro.150, EA.60.60, EA.65.240 EA.135.150, EA.137.90, EA.138.450 EA.Intro.150, EA.8.90, EA.90.60, EA.115.150, EA.128.780, EA.132.60, EA.138.390, EA.138.420 s 138(1): EA.138.240, EA.138.420 s 138(1)(a): EA.138.150, EA.138.210 s 138(1)(b): EA.138.150, EA.138.210 s 138(2)(b): EA.138.390 s 138(3): EA.138.60, EA.138.420 s 141: EA.194.20 s 142: EA.194.20 s 144: EA.144.60 s 146: EA.Intro.150 ss 146 to 163: EA.9.150 s 147: EA.Intro.150 s 150: EA.143.60 s 150(1): EA.150.90 s 150(3): EA.150.90 s 153(1): EA.143.60 s 153(2): EA.143.60 s 160: EA.160.60 s 164: EA.Intro.150 s 165: EA.Intro.150, EA.165.360 s 165(1)(d): EA.164.180 s 165(2): EA.Intro.350, EA.165.360 s 165(2)(c): EA.165.360 s 165(6): EA.165A.90 s 165(7): EA.Intro.210 s 165A: EA.165A.90 s 165A(1): EA.165A.120 s 165B: EA.165A.90 s 165B(7): EA.165B.60 s 166: NSW.TN.10 s 168: NSW.TN.10 s 169(1): NSW.TN.10 s 169(2): NSW.TN.10 s 170: NSW.TN.10 s 172: NSW.TN.10 s 173(1): NSW.TN.10 s 173(2): NSW.TN.10 s 177: NSW.TN.10 s 177(5): NSW.TN.10 s 183: EA.69.180 s 189: EA.128.780 s 189(1): EA.128.720 s 189(6): EA.128.720 s 192: EA.53.120 s 192(1): EA.53.120 s 194(1)(b): EA.194.20 Pt 3.2: EA.76.120, EA.133.60 Pt 3.3: EA.76.120 Pt 3.4: EA.9.90 Pt 3.10: EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.210 Pt 3.10, Div 1A: EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.150, EA.126B.60, EA.127.30, NSW.CPA.299D.60

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Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 1995 — cont Pt 3.10, Div 1B: EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.150, NSW.CPA.299D.60, NSW.CPA.299D.90 Pt 3.11: EA.55.480, EA.66.120, EA.76.120 Pt 4.6: EA.135.150 Pt 4.6, Div 1: EA.Intro.150 Sch 1, Pt 2, cl 4(1)(c): EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Sch 1, Pt 2, cl 4(1)(f): EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 1: EA.48.210 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4(1)(e): EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4(1)(f): EA.Dict.Pt.2.30 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 4(2): EA.66.120 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 8: EA.48.90, EA.118.90 Dictionary, Pt Dictionary, 2, cl 9: EA.4.60

Evidence Amendment Act 2007: EA.122.330, EA.165B.90, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.180

Evidence Amendment (Confidential Communications) Act 1997: EA.126B.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.210, NSW.CPA.299D.60 Evidence (Audio and Audio Visual Links) Act 1998: EA.Dict.Pt.2.30

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s 5B: EA.28.150

Evidence (Consequential and Other Provisions) Act 1995: EA.8.90 Evidence Legislation Act Amendment Act 2001: EA.22.60, EA.23.60, EA.24A.30, EA.165A.90

Evidence Regulation 2005 cl 4: NSW.TN.10 cl 5(2): NSW.TN.10 cl 5(3): NSW.TN.10

Evidence Regulation 2010 regs 5-6: EA.99.60 reg 5(2): EA.97.180 reg 6(2): EA.98.180

Evidence on Commission Act 1995: EA.Dict.Pt.2.30

Interpretation Act 1987: EA.89A.30 s 21: EA.89A.30, EA.131A.120 s 21(1): EA.59.150

Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Act 2002 s 113(2): EA.84.150 ss 114 to 115: EA.84.150 s 122: EA.84.150 s 123 to 124: EA.84.150 s 128: EA.84.150 s 129: EA.84.150 s 130: EA.84.150 s 131: EA.84.150

Pt 9: EA.84.150, EA.90.260

Law Enforcement (Powers and Responsibilities) Regulation 2005: EA.84.150 cl 33: EA.84.150

Legal Profession Act 2004: EA.119.120 Legal Profession Uniform Law: EA.117.60 Listening Devices Act 1984 s 13: EA.8.60 Pt 4: EA.8.90

Oaths Act 1900 Pt 5: EA.186.20

Occupational Health and Safety Act 1983: EA.17.60

Supreme Court Act 1970: EA.75.180 s 75: EA.75.180 s 131: EA.131.330 Pt 7B: EA.8.90, EA.131.330 Supreme Court Rules 1970: EA.4.150 r 3K: EA.79.330 r 13: EA.4.150 Pt 38, r 9(1): EA.59.240 Pt 75: EA.128.150 Pt 75, r 3J: EA.26.300, EA.79.330 Surveillance Devices Act 2007: EA.138.660

Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005: EA.67.60, EA.79.330, EA.128.150 r 21.3(2)(d): EA.118.570 r 31.4: EA.37.240 r 31.5: CTH.TN.10, NSW.TN.10, ACT.TN.10, NT.TN.10 r 31.17: EA.26.300 r 31.23: EA.26.300 Pt 25: EA.Intro.180, EA.128.150, EA.128A.90 Pt 31, Div 2: EA.79.330 Pt 31, Div 2, Subdiv 5: EA.26.120 Sch 7: EA.26.300, EA.79.330

Northern Territory Evidence (Business Records) Interim Arrangements Act 1984 s 5(1)(b): EA.69.120 s 8: EA.69.270

Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act 2011: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30, EA.Intro.60 s 33: NT.TN.10 s 38: NT.TN.10 s 49: NT.TN.10 s 50(1): NT.TN.10 s 50(2): NT.TN.10 s 63(2): NT.TN.10 s 64(2): NT.TN.10 s 65(2): NT.TN.10 s 65(3): NT.TN.10

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cxxv

Table of Statutes Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act 2011 — cont s 65(8): NT.TN.10 s 67: NT.TN.10 s 67(1): NT.TN.10 s 67(2): NT.TN.10 s 67(3): NT.TN.10 s 67(4): NT.TN.10 s 67(5): NT.TN.10 s 68: NT.TN.10 s 97: NT.TN.10 s 98: NT.TN.10 s 98(1)(b): EA.101.150 s 99: NT.TN.10 s 100: NT.TN.10 s 166: NT.TN.10 s 168: NT.TN.10 s 169(1): NT.TN.10 s 169(2): NT.TN.10 s 170: NT.TN.10 s 172: NT.TN.10 s 173(1): NT.TN.10 s 173(2): NT.TN.10 s 177: NT.TN.10 s 177(5): NT.TN.10

Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Regulations 2012

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reg 4: NT.TN.10 reg 6(1): NT.TN.10 reg 6(2): NT.TN.10

Queensland Criminal Code 1899 s 125: EA.164.150

Evidence Act 1977 s 75: EA.71.60

South Australia Aboriginal Heritage Act 1988: EA.78A.60 s 55: EA.78A.60 s 76: EA.78A.60 s 79: EA.78A.60

Evidence Act 1929 s 9(4): EA.13.330 s 53: EA.71.60

Tasmania Criminal Code 1924 s 96: EA.164.150

Criminal Law (Detention and Interrogation) Act 1995 s 8: EA.85.150, EA.139.60, EA.165.420

Evidence Act 1910 ss 7 to 13: TAS.10

s 25: TAS.10 s 26: TAS.10 s 40C(1)(b): EA.69.120 s 40F: EA.69.270 s 41: EA.71.60 ss 60 to 60B: TAS.10 s 62: TAS.10 s 85(10)(c): TAS.10 s 85A: TAS.10 s 92: TAS.10 s 96: TAS.10 s 102A: TAS.10 s 103AB: TAS.10 s 133: TAS.10 s 134: TAS.10 s 135: TAS.10

Evidence Act 1995 s 134: EA.65.270

Evidence Act 2001: TAS.10, TAS.20 s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

1: TAS.20 2: TAS.20 2A: TAS.20 3: TAS.20 3A: TAS.20 3B: TAS.20 3C: TAS.20 3D: TAS.20 4: TAS.20 7: TAS.20 8: TAS.20 9: TAS.20 10: TAS.20 11: TAS.20 12: TAS.20 13: TAS.20 14: TAS.20 15: TAS.20 16: TAS.20 17: TAS.20 18: TAS.20 19: TAS.20 20: TAS.20 21: TAS.10, TAS.20 22: TAS.10, TAS.20 23: TAS.20 24: TAS.20 26: TAS.20 27: TAS.20 28: TAS.20 29: TAS.20 30: TAS.20 30A: TAS.20 31: TAS.20 32: TAS.20 33: TAS.20 34: TAS.20 35: TAS.20 36: TAS.20 37: TAS.20

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cxxvi

Uniform Evidence Law

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Table of Statutes Evidence Act 2001 — cont s 38: TAS.20 s 39: TAS.20 s 40: TAS.20 s 41: TAS.20 s 42: TAS.20 s 43: TAS.20 s 44: TAS.20 s 45: TAS.20 s 46: TAS.20 s 47: TAS.20 s 48: TAS.20 s 49: TAS.20 s 50: TAS.20 s 51: TAS.20 s 52: TAS.20 s 53: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 54: TAS.20 s 55: EA.55.270, TAS.20 s 56: TAS.20 s 57: TAS.20 s 58: TAS.20 s 59: TAS.20 s 60: TAS.20 s 61: TAS.20 s 62: TAS.20 s 63: TAS.20 s 64: TAS.20 s 65: TAS.20 s 66: TAS.20 s 66A: TAS.20 s 67: TAS.20 s 68: TAS.20 s 69: TAS.20 s 70: TAS.20 s 71: TAS.20 s 72: TAS.20 s 73: TAS.20 s 74: TAS.20 s 75: TAS.20 s 76: TAS.20 s 77: TAS.20 s 78: TAS.20 s 78A: TAS.20 s 79: TAS.20 s 80: TAS.20 s 81: TAS.20 s 82: TAS.20 s 83: TAS.20 s 84: TAS.20 s 85: TAS.20 s 85A: TAS.20 s 86: TAS.20 s 87: TAS.20 s 88: TAS.20 s 89: TAS.20 s 90: TAS.20 s 91: TAS.20 s 92: TAS.20 s 93: TAS.20

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s

94: TAS.20 95: TAS.20 96: TAS.20 97: TAS.20 98: TAS.20 99: TAS.20 100: TAS.20 101: TAS.20 101A: TAS.20 102: TAS.20 103: TAS.20 104: TAS.20 104(4): TAS.10 104(4)(a): TAS.10 104(4)(b): TAS.10 104(4)(c): TAS.10 106: TAS.20 108: TAS.20 108A: TAS.20 108B: TAS.20 108C: TAS.20 109: TAS.20 110: TAS.20 111: TAS.20 112: TAS.20 116: TAS.20 117: TAS.20 118: TAS.20 119: TAS.20 120: TAS.20 121: TAS.20 122: TAS.20 123: TAS.20 124: TAS.20 125: TAS.20 126: TAS.20 126A: TAS.20 126B: TAS.20 126C: TAS.20 126D: TAS.20 126E: TAS.20 126F: TAS.20 127: TAS.20 127A: TAS.10, TAS.20 127B: TAS.10, TAS.20 128: TAS.20 128A: TAS.20 129: TAS.20 130: TAS.20 131: TAS.20 131A: TAS.20 132: TAS.20 133: TAS.20 134: TAS.20 135: EA.79.300, TAS.20 136: TAS.20 137: EA.79.300, TAS.20 138: TAS.20 139: TAS.20

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cxxvii

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Table of Statutes Evidence Act 2001 — cont s 140: TAS.20 s 141: TAS.20 s 142: TAS.20 s 142A: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 143: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 144: TAS.20 s 145: TAS.20 s 146: TAS.20 s 147: TAS.20 s 148: TAS.20 s 149: TAS.20 s 150: TAS.20 s 152: TAS.20 s 153: TAS.20 s 154: TAS.20 s 155: TAS.20 s 156: TAS.20 s 157: TAS.20 s 158: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 159: TAS.20 s 160: TAS.20 s 161: TAS.20 s 162: TAS.20 s 164: TAS.20 s 164(4): TAS.10 s 165: TAS.20 s 165(1)(f): TAS.10 s 165(3): TAS.10 s 165A: TAS.20 s 165B: TAS.20 s 166: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 167: TAS.20 s 168: TAS.20 s 169: TAS.20 s 170: TAS.20 s 171: TAS.20 s 172: TAS.20 s 173: TAS.20 s 174: TAS.20 s 175: TAS.20 s 176: TAS.20 s 177: TAS.20 s 177A: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 177B: TAS.20 s 177C: TAS.20 s 177D: TAS.20 s 177E: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 178: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 179: TAS.20 s 180: TAS.20 s 181: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 181A: TAS.20 s 183: TAS.20 s 184: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 187: TAS.20 s 188: TAS.20 s 189: TAS.20 s 190: TAS.20 s 191: TAS.20

s 192: TAS.20 s 192A: TAS.20 s 193: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194A: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194B: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194C: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194D: TAS.20 s 194E: TAS.20 s 194F: TAS.20 s 194G: TAS.20 s 194H: TAS.20 s 194I: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194J: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194K: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194L: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 194M: TAS.20 s 195: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 196: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 196A: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 196B: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 196C: TAS.10, TAS.20 s 197: TAS.20 s 198: TAS.20 s 199: TAS.20 s 200: TAS.20 Pt 3.10: EA.79.240 Sch 1: TAS.20 Sch 2: TAS.20 Justices Act 1959: TAS.10, TAS.20

Relationships Act 2003 s 4(1): EA.Dict.Pt.2.120

Tasmanian Police Service Act 2003: EA.138.90

Victoria Civil Procedure Act 2010: EA.79.330 s 65H(1): EA.79.450 s 65K(1): EA.79.450 s 79: EA.79.330 Pt 4.6: EA.79.450 Crimes Act 1958: EA.135.60, EA.135.240, EA.Intro.120 s 2B: EA.20.90 s 9AH: EA.79.450 s 9AH(1): EA.79.450 s 9AH(2): EA.79.450 s 9AH(3): EA.79.450 s 37A: EA.103.120 s 61: EA.Intro.120 s 135(d): EA.135.60 s 391: EA.20.90 s 398A: EA.Intro.120, EA.98.120 s 404: EA.Intro.120 s 415: EA.194.40 s 464: EA.85.150, EA.139.90 s 464A: EA.84.150

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cxxviii

Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Statutes Crimes Act 1958 — cont s 464C: EA.84.150 s 464D: EA.84.150 s 464E: EA.84.150 s 464F: EA.84.150 s 464H(1): EA.86.120 s 464H(2): EA.86.120 Pt 1, Div 1, Subdiv 30A: EA.84.150 Pt IC: EA.101.480, EA.135.240 Criminal Procedure Act 2009: EA.37.270, EA.41.330, EA.Intro.120 s 338: EA.66.300 ss 339 to 352: EA.97.450 s 354: EA.27.180 s 356: EA.27.180 s 367: EA.37.270 s 377: EA.66.300, EA.108.210 s 377(2): EA.66.300 s 377(3): EA.66.300 s 377(4): EA.66.300 s 377(5): EA.66.300 s 377(6): EA.66.300 s 377(7): EA.66.300 s 388: EA.108C.210 Pt 8.2: EA.Intro.120, EA.12.60 Pt 8.2, Div 2: EA.41.330, EA.97.450

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Criminal Procedure Amendment (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Act 2009: EA.Intro.120 Evidence Act 1958: EA.66.300, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.120 s 112: EA.186.20 s 123C: EA.186.20 s 124: EA.186.20 s 125: EA.186.20 s 126: EA.186.20 s 126A: EA.186.20 s 150: EA.194.40 Pt 2: EA.Intro.210 Pt 2, Div 2: EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30 Evidence Act 2008: EA.2.30, EA.4.240, EA.20.60, EA.20.420, EA.22.60, EA.23.60, EA.24A.30, EA.35.60, EA.66.300, EA.79.450, EA.85.210, EA.114.240, EA.128.150, EA.128.600, EA.165B.150, EA.165B.210, EA.165B.270, EA.165B.300, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1B.30, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.4.30, EA.Dict.Pt.1.180, EA.Intro.30, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.120, EA.Intro.210 s 3A: EA.3A.30 s 4: EA.4.120, EA.4.300 s 4(1): EA.4.120 s 4(5): EA.4.120 s 9(1): EA.Intro.120 s 11: EA.Intro.120 s 17: EA.Intro.210 s 26: EA.Intro.120

s 33: VIC.TN.10 s 37: EA.37.270 s 38: VIC.TN.10 s 41: EA.41.270 s 41(1): EA.41.100 s 41(2): EA.Intro.210, EA.41.100 s 41(3): EA.Intro.210, EA.41.60, EA.41.100 s 41(3)(d): EA.41.210 s 41(4): EA.Intro.210, EA.41.60, EA.41.100 s 41(4)(c)(i): EA.41.240 s 41(4)(c)(ii): EA.41.240 s 41(8): EA.41.270, EA.41.360 s 49: VIC.TN.10 s 50(1): VIC.TN.10 s 50(2): VIC.TN.10 s 55: EA.Intro.120 s 56(1): EA.Intro.120 s 64(2): VIC.TN.10 s 67(1): VIC.TN.10 s 67(2): VIC.TN.10 s 67(3): VIC.TN.10 s 67(4): VIC.TN.10 s 68: VIC.TN.10 s 79: EA.79.450 s 79(1): EA.79.450 s 97: VIC.TN.10 s 98: VIC.TN.10 s 99: VIC.TN.10 s 100: VIC.TN.10 s 101: EA.98.120 s 108C: EA.79.90, EA.79.450, EA.192.100 ss 113-115: EA.Intro.210 s 115(7): EA.116.180 s 116: EA.116.180 s 116(1): EA.116.180 s 116(2): EA.116.180 s 127A: EA.Intro.210 s 128: EA.Intro.120 s 128A: EA.131A.150 s 131(1)(a): EA.131.450 s 131(2)(f): EA.131.450 s 131A: EA.Intro.180 s 137: EA.37.270 s 138: EA.37.270 s 150: EA.Intro.120 s 164(3): EA.164.60, EA.164.120 s 164(4): EA.Intro.210 s 164(4): EA.164.120, EA.165.570 s 164(4) to (6): EA.164.60 s 164(5): EA.164.120 s 164(6): EA.164.120 s 165: EA.164.120, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30, EA.165.570 s 165(1)(a) to (f): EA.165.570 s 165(1)(b): EA.165.570 s 165(1)(f): EA.Intro.180 s 165(3): EA.116.180, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 165(4): EA.165.570

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cxxix

Table of Statutes Evidence Act 2008 — cont s 165(5): EA.165.570 s 165A: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30 s 165A(1): EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 165B: EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30, EA.165.540 s 165B(2): EA.165B.330 s 165B(3): EA.20.420, EA.165.570, EA.165B.330 s 165B(4): EA.165B.330 s 166: VIC.TN.10 s 168: VIC.TN.10 s 169(1): VIC.TN.10 s 169(2): VIC.TN.10 s 170: VIC.TN.10 s 173(1): VIC.TN.10 s 173(2): VIC.TN.10 s 177: VIC.TN.10 s 177(5): VIC.TN.10 s 194: EA.194.40 Ch 1: EA.Intro.210 Ch 3: EA.Intro.120 Pt 2.1: EA.Intro.120 Pt 4.5: EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.210 Sch Dict: EA.117.60 Sch 2, Pt 1: VIC.TN.10 Dictionary Dictionary: EA.128.600

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Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958: EA.Intro.120 s 19C: EA.Intro.120 s 19D: EA.Intro.120 s 32C: EA.Intro.120 s 42E: EA.28.150 s 74: EA.Intro.120 s 89B(1): EA.Intro.120 s 89B(2)(e): EA.Intro.120 s 135: EA.Intro.120 Pt IIAA: EA.Intro.120 Pt II: EA.Intro.120 Pt IV: EA.Intro.120 Pt IIA: EA.Intro.120 Pt III: EA.Intro.120

Evidence Regulation 2009 reg 6(2): EA.97.180 reg 7(1): EA.97.180

Evidence Regulations 2009 reg reg reg reg

5: VIC.TN.10 7: EA.99.60, VIC.TN.10 7(2): EA.98.180 9: EA.128.570

Interpretation of Legislation Act 1984 s 35: EA.Intro.240 s 158: EA.117.60

Jury Directions Act 2013: EA.165.480 Jury Directions Act 2015: EA.55.180, EA.116.60, EA.116.180, EA.141.120, EA.141.210, EA.164.60, EA.164.120, EA.165.60, EA.165.120, EA.165.240, EA.165.270, EA.165.480, EA.165.570, EA.165A.60, EA.165A.120, EA.165A.210,

EA.165A.240, EA.165B.60, EA.165B.150, EA.165B.180, EA.165B.210, EA.165B.270, EA.165B.300, EA.165B.330, EA.Ch.4.Pt.4.5.30, EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.210 s 5(4): EA.20.420, EA.116.180, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240, EA.165B.330 s 6: EA.20.420, EA.116.180, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240, EA.165B.330 s 7: EA.20.420, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 7(2): EA.20.420, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 10(2): EA.101.480 s 12: EA.20.420, EA.116.180, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240, EA.165B.330 ss 12 to 17: EA.101.360, EA.101.480, EA.165.480 s 14: EA.101.480, EA.116.180, EA.165.240, EA.165.570 s 14(1): EA.20.420, EA.116.180, EA.165.240, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240, EA.165B.330 s 14(2): EA.20.420, EA.116.180, EA.165.240, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240, EA.165B.330 ss 14 to 16: EA.165.570 s 15: EA.20.420, EA.116.180, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240, EA.165B.330 s 16: EA.20.420, EA.101.480, EA.116.180, EA.165.570, EA.165A.240, EA.165B.330 s 18: EA.55.330, EA.165.570 ss 18 to 24: EA.165.270, EA.165.480 s 19: EA.165.570 s 20(1)(b): EA.55.330, EA.165.570 s 21: EA.165.570 s 22: EA.165.570 s 23: EA.165.480, EA.165.570 s 23(2): EA.165.570 s 24: EA.165.570 ss 25 to 30: EA.101.360, EA.101.480 s 26: EA.101.480 s 27(2): EA.101.480 s 27(3): EA.101.480 s 28: EA.101.480 s 29: EA.101.480 s 30: EA.101.480 s 31: EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 32: EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 32(1): EA.165A.240 s 32(2): EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 32(2)(b): EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 33: EA.165.570, EA.165A.240 s 34: EA.165.570 s 35: EA.116.180 s 36(1): EA.116.180 s 36(2): EA.116.180 s 36(3): EA.116.180 s 37: EA.116.180

[All references are to paragraph numbers] cxxx

Uniform Evidence Law

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Table of Statutes Jury Directions Act 2015 — cont s 38: EA.165B.330 s 39: EA.165B.330 s 39(1): EA.165B.330 s 39(2): EA.165B.330 s 39(3)(a): EA.165B.330 s 39(3)(b): EA.165B.330 s 40: EA.165B.330 s 42: EA.20.420 s 43: EA.20.420 s 43(2): EA.20.420 s 43(3): EA.20.420 s 44: EA.20.420 s 48: EA.165.570 s 50: EA.165.570 s 51: EA.165.570 s 51(1): EA.165.570 s 51(1)(c): EA.165.570 s 51(2): EA.165.570 s 52: EA.165.570 s 52(4): EA.165.570 s 52(5): EA.165.570 s 53: EA.165.570 s 54: EA.165.570 s 55: EA.55.360, EA.165.540 s 61: EA.141.210 s 62: EA.141.210 s 63(1): EA.141.210 s 63(2): EA.141.210 s 64: EA.141.210 s 87: EA.165.270

Legal Profession Uniform Law: EA.117.60 Magistrates’ Court Act 1989 s 61: EA.194.40

Magistrates’ Court Civil Procedure Rules 1999 O 19: EA.79.330

Statute Law Amendment (Evidence Consequential Provisions) Act 2009: EA.Intro.60, EA.Intro.120 Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2005 O 44: EA.79.330

Norfolk Island Criminal Law Act 1960 s 410: EA.8.90

Evidence Act 2004 s 8: EA.8.90 s 138: EA.8.90 Ch 3: EA.Intro.120, EA.8.90

New Zealand Evidence Act 2006 s 68(5): EA.126J.30

United States Federal Rules of Evidence: EA.48.60, EA.65.210, EA.73.60 r r r r r r r r

703: EA.79.240 803(19): EA.73.60 803(20): EA.73.60 804(b)(4): EA.73.60 807: EA.65.210 1001: EA.48.150 1003: EA.48.150 1006: EA.50.30

United Kingdom Civil Evidence Act 1968: EA.67.60, EA.100.60, EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.2.Div.2.30 Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984: EA.81.60, EA.84.60 s 76: EA.84.60 s 76(2): EA.84.60, EA.85.210 s 76(2)(b): EA.85.210

Rules of the Supreme Court O 38, rr 21 to 33: EA.67.60, EA.100.60

Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 s 53: EA.13.60, EA.13.90

Treaties and Conventions Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide:

Western Australia

RP.1.10

European Convention on Human Rights Criminal Code 1913

Art 3: EA.84.60

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: EA.138.600 International Labour Organisation Convention of 1948: RP.1.10

s 52: EA.164.150

Evidence Act 1906 s 79F: EA.69.270 s 82: EA.71.60

[All references are to paragraph numbers] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

cxxxi

FORMAT OF THE COMMENTARY This commentary on the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW), the Evidence Act 2008 (Vic), the Evidence Act 2011 (ACT) and the Evidence (National Legislation) Act 2011 (NT) is designed to provide assistance in the understanding and application of the uniform evidence law. An introduction details the history of the legislation and provides an overview of its structure and operation. The remainder of the commentary follows the order of the legislation. Summaries are provided of the provisions contained in Chapters and Divisions of the Act. However, the bulk of the commentary relates to individual sections.

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First, the particular legislative provision (with statutory notes) is extracted – identified by shading of the text. For the most part, provisions in the Acts are identical. However, there are differences, particularly in Chapter 1 (Preliminary), and where this occurs the provisions are separately extracted. Where the differences relate just to a subsection, only the different subsections are extracted separately. It should be noted that all the Acts except the Victorian Act use the term “defendant” to refer to an accused person in criminal proceedings, while the Victorian Act uses the term “accused”. The provisions are not separately extracted where this is the only difference between them. Secondly, reference is made to those parts of the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC) reports that relate to the provision (if applicable). References include the 1985 Interim Report (ALRC 26), the 1987 Final Report (ALRC 38) and the 2005 joint Report on Uniform Evidence Law prepared with the NSWLRC and the VLRC (ALRC 102). Thirdly, commentary on the provisions attempts to explain their content, relate them to other parts of the Act, discuss relevant authorities and, where applicable, relate the provisions to aspects of the existing common law which continue to have legal significance. Any differences between the Acts are highlighted and discussed. Reference is made to other legislation that may bear on the operation of the provisions in the Act. Appendices to the commentary contain the Evidence Regulations 1995 (Cth), the Evidence Regulation 2010 (NSW) and the Evidence Regulations 2009 (Vic). Additional Appendices include a table of notices required by the legislation, and extracts from related legislation. Finally a table indicates the extent to which the Tasmanian Evidence Act 2001 corresponds to the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) and the other uniform evidence law. That Act may be found in the looseleaf and online version of this book.

cxxxii

Uniform Evidence Law

INTRODUCTION

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[EA.Intro.30]

The law of evidence

When the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) received the Royal Assent on 23 February 1995, having passed through both Houses of the Federal Parliament some weeks before, an important milestone in the development of the Australian legal system was reached. In July 1979 the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC) had been given the task of reforming the rules of evidence applicable in federal courts. More than 15 years later, the Commonwealth Act was enacted, to a very significant extent based on the ALRC proposals. It is a substantial piece of legislation – 197 sections, 100 printed pages in length. As the Federal Minister for Justice stated in March 1995, the “Evidence Act 1995 is one of the most important reforms in the administration of justice in Australia”. Its importance is not limited to the federal sphere. Within months of the passing of the Commonwealth Act, virtually identical legislation was enacted in New South Wales. In 2001 Tasmania enacted uniform evidence legislation, as did Norfolk Island in 2004. In 2008, Victoria enacted the Evidence Act 2008 (which came into force on 1 January 2010). In 2011, the ACT enacted its own Act, rather than simply apply the Commonwealth Act, and the Northern Territory adopted the uniform evidence law. It is likely that, in time, most other jurisdictions in Australia will follow the path to a uniform evidence law. The rules of evidence applied in Australian courts serve a number of functions – they regulate what material a court may consider in determining factual issues; how that material is to be presented in the court; and how the court actually goes about the task of deciding the factual issues on the basis of the evidence. They are a central part of the system of procedural justice. Procedural rules are critical to the resolution of disputes and the enforcement of substantive law in the courts. If the procedures are inefficient, access to justice is impaired. If the procedures are unjust, the outcome of the process is likely to be unjust. At the symbolic centre of the system of procedural justice is the trial. While what happens before and after the trial is important, the trial is the central and most public part of the justice system. It is the showcase where the community can observe the law in action and assess whether justice is being done. To a very great extent, trial procedure is determined by the law of evidence. In any trial system, there must be some rules regulating how evidence is produced in the court and how the court is to perform its task of deciding the issues before it. However, this is particularly true in an adversarial system. Australia has inherited the procedural paradigm of the adversarial trial. The parties to the proceeding, not the court, determine the issues which they will fight. The parties, not the court, obtain and produce (“lead”, “tender”, “present”

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[EA.Intro.60]

Introduction

1

or “adduce” ) the evidence in support of their case. The role of the trial judge (or magistrate) is to supervise proceedings, act as umpire, determine questions of law and apply the law to the facts as found by him or her on the evidence (or, if there is a jury, direct them in their task of determining the factual issues). While the adversarial model is modified in the criminal justice context by altering the balance to accord the accused certain procedural safeguards, even there adversarial elements predominate. Rules of evidence provide the legal framework by which the judge determines how evidence may be adduced, whether it will be taken into account (whether it is “admissible”); and how the tribunal of fact, judge or jury, is to decide the factual issues on the evidence (“use” of evidence, and “proof”). Until the enactment of the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), and its New South Wales counterpart enacted in June 1995, the rules of evidence were largely part of the “common law”, the product of long historical development by the courts themselves, with only limited statutory modification. As a result, they reflected a variety of principles and values. They lacked coherence and structure. They were complex, technical and difficult to find. Substantial reform was long overdue. However, the courts were not prepared to engage in this process, believing that it was best left to the legislature. For many years, no legislature was prepared to take on such a mammoth task. However, the 1979 reference to the Australian Law Reform Commission created the possibility of comprehensive rationalisation and reform of the law of evidence. This legislation is the product of that endeavour.

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[EA.Intro.60]

Historical background

On 18 July 1979 the then Federal Attorney-General, Mr Peter Durack, referred to the ALRC the topic of a “review [of the] laws of evidence applicable in proceedings in Federal Courts and the Courts of the Territories with a view to producing a wholly comprehensive law of evidence based on concepts appropriate to modern conditions and anticipated requirements”. Mr Tim Smith, now Justice Smith of the Victorian Supreme Court, was appointed Commissioner in charge. The ALRC engaged in lengthy consultation and prepared two discussion papers and 16 research papers on aspects of evidence law (some of them written by the author of this commentary). An Interim Report (hereafter referred to in this work as ALRC 26) was produced in 1985 and a Final Report (hereafter referred to in this work as ALRC 38) in 1987. The Final Report included a draft Evidence Bill. In June 1988 the New South Wales Law Reform Commission recommended that, with minor qualifications, the ALRC’s proposals should be adopted in proceedings before New South Wales courts. For several years there was no explicit governmental response. In 1991, however, the New South Wales Government introduced into Parliament its own Evidence 1. In ALRC 38 at para 58, the ALRC commented on the terminology which it had used in the introduction to ALRC 38. It said that it had made use in the draft Bill of a number of commonly used terms and observed: “The bill is drafted on the basis that a witness in the witness box is ‘giving’ evidence. The party who is questioning the witness (whether in examination-in-chief or in cross-examination) is ‘adducing’ the evidence that the witness is giving. It is the court’s function to admit or refuse to admit the evidence so adduced.”

2

Uniform Evidence Law

Introduction

[EA.Intro.60]

Bill, which implemented the majority of the ALRC recommendations. In the same year, the Commonwealth Government produced its own Bill. For various reasons, neither Bill was voted on. However, at the end of 1991, the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General gave in-principle support to substantially uniform evidence laws, based on the New South Wales and Commonwealth Bills. Consultation between New South Wales and the Commonwealth resulted in the production of essentially uniform legislation, represented by the Evidence Bill and the exposure draft Evidence Bill.

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On 10 February 1994 the Commonwealth Bill was referred to the Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs. The Committee tabled a generally favourable Interim Report on 7 June 1994. The Bill was passed by the House of Representatives on 19 October 1994. After the Senate Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs tabled a favourable Final Report on 8 December 1994, the Bill was considered by the Senate and finally passed, with some amendments, on 2 February 1995. The House of Representatives agreed to the amendments on 7 February 1995. The New South Wales Parliament enacted its own almost identical version of the Act soon after. It received the Royal Assent on 19 June 1995. In 2001 Tasmania enacted uniform evidence legislation, as did Norfolk Island in 2004. After the enactment of the Commonwealth and New South Wales Acts, a number of amendments were made to both, largely of a technical nature and largely uniform to both Acts. However, in 1997, the New South Wales Parliament enacted the Evidence Amendment (Confidential Communications) Act 1997, which incorporated into Pt 3.10 of the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) two new Divisions, Divs 1A and 1B. Similarly, in 2002, the New South Wales Parliament introduced amendments to the jury warning provisions, in relation to the evidence of children. No comparable provisions had been introduced into the Commonwealth Act and thus the uniformity earlier achieved has been diminished. In 2007 the Commonwealth did introduce, in the Evidence Amendment (Journalists’ Privilege) Act 2007 (Cth), a Div 1A into Pt 3.10 of the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth). However, as the title to that amending Act indicated, the new Div 1A, while expressed in almost identical language to the NSW Division, applied only to confidential communications made to journalists. In that respect, the Division was much narrower in application than the NSW Act. The Evidence Amendment (Journalists’ Privilege) Act 2011 significantly modified the Division but retained its limited application to confidential communications made to journalists. On 12 July 2004 the then Federal Attorney-General referred to the ALRC the topic of “the operation of the Evidence Act 1995”. Subsequently, the NSW Attorney-General gave a similar reference to the NSW Law Reform Commission (NSWLRC) and the Victorian Attorney-General gave a reference to the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC), which included the topic of advising the Attorney-General “on the action required to facilitate the introduction of the Uniform Evidence Act into Victoria”. The three Commissions conducted a lengthy joint inquiry into the uniform evidence legislation, culminating in a joint report published in December 2005 entitled “Uniform Evidence Law” (hereafter referred to in this work as ALRC 102). The Report proposed substantial amendments to the Act and included draft amendments in an appendix. It noted © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

3

[EA.Intro.90]

Introduction

that, at the time of publication of the Report, the governments of Victoria, Western Australia and the Northern Territory had indicated their intention to enact the uniform Evidence Act.

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The resulting Model Uniform Evidence Bill was approved by the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General in July 2007. In December 2007, the NSW Parliament enacted the Evidence Amendment Act 2007 (NSW). In very large part, the amendments reflected those proposed in ALRC 102. However, s 2 provided that the Act was only to commence on a day or days to be appointed by proclamation. In December 2008, the Commonwealth Parliament enacted the Evidence Amendment Act 2008 (Cth), which is substantially identical to the NSW amending legislation. Both amending Acts came into force at the beginning of 2009. These changes to the Act are summarised at [EA.Intro.180]. They brought the Commonwealth and NSW Acts close to uniformity, with the primary areas of difference relating to the scope of professional confidential relationship privilege in Div 1A of Pt 3.10 and the application of the privilege provisions in preliminary and ancillary proceedings (see [EA.Intro.210]). On 15 September 2008 the Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) was enacted. It was almost identical to the Commonwealth and NSW Acts, notwithstanding some important differences (see [EA.Intro.210]). To give the Victorian Parliament time to repeal relevant parts of the Evidence Act 1958 (Vic) and to make other relevant amendments and transitional arrangements across the Victorian statute book (see, in particular, the Statute Law Amendment (Evidence Consequential Provisions) Act 2009), it did not come into force until 1 January 2010. However, there have been significant amendments, reducing the level of uniformity. In particular, in 2015 the Jury Directions Act 2015 (Vic) was enacted, which deals comprehensively with warnings to juries in criminal proceedings. The warnings provisions in Pt 4.5 of the Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) were amended so that they only apply in civil proceedings. In 2011, the ACT enacted the Evidence Act 2011 and it came into force on 1 March 2012, after the Commonwealth Evidence Act 1995 was amended to delete its general application to ACT courts. The Northern Territory also enacted its own Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act 2011 (NT) and it came into force on 1 January 2013.

[EA.Intro.90] Outline of the Act The Act is divided into five Chapters, which are themselves divided into Parts and Divisions: Chapter 1 – Preliminary Part 1.1 Formal Matters Part 1.2 Application of this Act Chapter 2 – Adducing Evidence Part 2.1 Witnesses (containing divisions relating to competence and compellability, oaths and affirmations, examination-inchief, cross-examination and re-examination) Part 2.2 Documents Part 2.3 Other Evidence 4

Uniform Evidence Law

Introduction

[EA.Intro.90]

Chapter 3 – Admissibility of Evidence (containing Parts relating to the relevance rule, various exclusionary rules and discretions to exclude evidence) Chapter 4 – Proof Part 4.1 Standard of Proof Part 4.2 Judicial Notice Part 4.3 Facilitation of Proof Part 4.4 Corroboration Part 4.5 Warnings and Information Part 4.6 Ancillary Provisions Chapter 5 – Miscellaneous (including provisions on proof by affidavit, waiver of the rules of evidence and procedure for determining admissibility) This order is consistent with the intentions of the ALRC that the provisions should follow the order in which evidentiary issues ordinarily arise in a typical trial, from the moment that the first witness gets in the witness box to the determination of factual questions on the admissible evidence by the tribunal of fact (judge or jury) at the end of the trial.

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The bulk of the Act (Ch 3) is taken up with the rules relating to the admissibility of evidence. The ALRC explained the structure of this Chapter (ALRC 26, vol 1, para 510): In this part of the legislation, the rules that control the admissibility of items of evidence are set out. It is intended to be an exhaustive statement of the law. It follows what is, on the better view, the existing structure of the law. The rules will apply at each stage of a witness’ evidence — including cross-examination. The legislation commences with the basic rule on which the operation of this part of the Bill rests — all relevant evidence is admissible except as otherwise provided in the Bill. All irrelevant evidence is not admissible. There then follow provisions dealing with different types of evidence. In each case, there is a primary rule which operates to exclude evidence of that type and in each case exceptions to that exclusionary rule are set out. The categories of evidence dealt with are documents, hearsay evidence, opinion evidence, admissions, judgments and convictions, character and conduct, identification evidence, privileged communications, evidence included in the public interest — the disclosure of which may endanger State interests, evidence of statements made in settlement negotiations, and evidence of reasons for decision of judge or jury. Finally the legislation contains several discretions [including a “relevance discretion”] to exclude evidence.

To assist in applying the rules of admissibility, the Act includes a flow chart immediately preceding s 55. The ALRC explained (ALRC 26, vol 1, para 510) how the rules should be applied in practice: As at present, the rules of admissibility are expressed in terms that relate to evidence and not the questions put to adduce the evidence. Objections relying on the rules of admissibility will be determined, as at present, in the light of the evidence that would be elicited by the question. It is assumed that in the absence of any provisions to the contrary the present approach to the application of the rules of admissibility will continue – ie, it will be for the parties to invoke the rules by objecting to the admission of evidence. As under existing law, the admissibility of a piece of evidence should be © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Introduction

determined by first asking whether it is relevant. If the answer to that question is in the negative it should be excluded. If the answer is in the affirmative, the party against whom it is led would then have to direct the court’s attention to one of the exclusionary rules set out in the legislation. The evidence, for example, may involve opinion and hearsay. It will be excluded unless it comes within one of the exceptions in each of the divisions dealing with such evidence. In cases where the relevance of evidence is tenuous, the courts will be able to exercise the discretion described above as the “relevance” discretion.

[EA.Intro.120]

An Evidence Code?

The Act is not a code of the law of evidence. A number of topics sometimes associated with the law of evidence are not dealt with. The ALRC stated (ALRC 26, vol 1, para 46) in ALRC 26 that: [T]he approach taken to the problem of definition has been to exclude: • Those topics which should be classified as part of the substantive law or which are so linked with the substantive law that they can only properly be considered in that context. These include legal and evidential burden of proof, parol evidence rule, res judicata, issue estoppel, presumptions. • Those topics of adjectival law which should be classified as procedural rather than evidentiary. The result of this distinction is the exclusion of rules such as those relating to the gathering of evidence (including evidence on commission), the perpetuation of testimony, who begins, notice of alibi evidence, no-case submissions and the standard of proof applicable.

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• Topics such as ordering witnesses out-of-court, bans on the publication of evidence, duties of the prosecution in calling of evidence, the powers of judges and parties to call witnesses and the suggestion that there should be changes in the operation of forensic scientific services.

As a result, the Act does not deal with the allocation of the burden of proof in respect of facts in issue, which the ALRC regarded as a matter of substantive law: see ALRC 26, vol 1, para 33. It took the same approach to the “evidential burden” (para 35), conclusive and persuasive presumptions (para 36), the doctrines of res judicata and issue estoppel, the parol evidence rule and the admissibility of extrinsic evidence to assist in the interpretation of wills, deeds and other instruments (para 32). With the exception of provisions dealing with the drawing of inferences from documents and things in order to determine admissibility and a provision forbidding the drawing of an adverse inference from exercise of the right to silence, the Act does not deal with inferences (whether from evidence, or from the absence of evidence).2 Further, the Act is not a “code” in the technical sense since it does not, in general,3 affect the operation of other legislation (see s 8). Accordingly, to give the position in Victoria as an example, evidentiary provisions in the Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958 (formerly titled the Evidence Act 1958) continue to operate. That Act, as substantially amended by the Statute Law Amendment (Evidence Consequential Provisions) Act 2009, contains the 2. Accordingly, the common law principle in Jones v Dunkel (1959) 101 CLR 298; 32 ALJR 395; 76 WN (NSW) 278; [1959] ALR 367 continues to apply: see ASC v AS Nominees Ltd (1995) 62 FCR 504 at 516; Booth v Bosworth (2001) 114 FCR 39; 117 LGERA 168; [2001] FCA 1453 at [41]. 3. The qualification is in respect of the Commonwealth Act and inconsistent State and Territory legislation (see [EA.8.60]).

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Uniform Evidence Law

Introduction

[EA.Intro.120]

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operative Parts and Divisions dealing with such topics as “[t]he means of obtaining evidence”, “Witness Identity Protection”, “Use of Audio Visual and Audio Links”, “Proof of Documents, Proof of Facts by Documents and Document Unavailability”, and “Oaths Affirmations Affidavits Declarations”. While some of these provisions seem to have little or no work to do given the terms of the Evidence Act 2008 and may have been retained out of an excess of caution,4 to a very large extent the provisions of this Act complement the provisions of the Evidence Act 2008, not affecting the operation of the provisions of the latter Act. For example, the provisions in Part IIA, dealing with audio visual and audio links, complement the broad discretionary powers of a court regarding the adducing of evidence from a witness (see ss 11 and 26). Section 19C deals with “incriminating answers” before Royal Commissions but does not modify the operation of s 128 in this Act, since the latter provision only applies to a “Victorian court”, as defined (which does not include a Royal Commission). The same is true in respect of s 19D, which abrogates legal professional privilege before a Royal Commission. Part IV, dealing with “Oaths Affirmations Affidavits Declarations”, complements Division 2 in Part 2.1 of the Evidence Act 2008. Section 135, dealing with the admissibility of certified court transcripts, provides a useful complement of the broad provisions relating to documents and official records in the Evidence Act 2008. However, it should be noted that Division 2A of Part II of the Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1958, creating a privilege in respect of a sexual offence confidential communication, has the effect that otherwise admissible (under the Evidence Act 2008) evidence relating to such communications may not be adduced and, if adduced, is not admissible (s 32C). Similarly, Part IIAA prevents a protected witness’s identity or address from being adduced. Further, Division 9 of Part III confers a broad discretion on a court “to make any ruling or order that the court considers necessary to ensure fairness to all parties to the proceeding” (s 89B(1)) where a party to a civil proceeding has rendered “unavailable” (as defined) a particular document by, for example, destroying it. That discretion, which does not exist in the Evidence Act 2008, extends to making an order that “certain evidence not be adduced” (s 89B(2)(c)) or that “the evidential burden of proof be reversed in relation to a fact in issue” (s 89B(2)(e)). As regards criminal proceedings, the Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic) contains a significant number of evidentiary provisions (particularly in Part 8.2 Witnesses, introduced by the Criminal Procedure Amendment (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Act 2009 (Vic)) which continue to operate, notwithstanding the Evidence Act 2008. Further, while most of the evidentiary provisions in the Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) have been repealed (including s 398A dealing with the admissibility of “propensity evidence”), some have been retained.5 As regards the operation of common law (ie non-statutory) rules of evidence in the context of the Act , s 9(1) in the NSW, Victorian, Tasmanian, ACT and Northern Territory Acts provides: 4. For example, s 74, dealing with evidence of the contents of a will or codicil, appears superfluous, given that such evidence would plainly be admissible under the Evidence Act 2008. The provisions dealing with judicial notice of seals and signatures etc in Division 6 of Part III appear to add little or nothing to s 150 in the Evidence Act 2008. 5. See s 61 Jury warnings, s 404 Proof of marriage on trial for bigamy. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(1) This Act does not affect the operation of a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to evidence in a proceeding to which this Act applies, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment.

For example, it may be assumed that the provisions of the Act do not override “the underlying principle of the accusatorial and adversarial system that it is for the prosecution to put its case both fully and fairly before the jury, before the accused is called on to announce the course that will be followed at trial”.6 Nevertheless, to a significant extent, the Act “covers the field” in a number of areas. Most significantly, it appears that Ch 3 of the Act constitutes a code for the rules relating to the admissibility of evidence, in the sense that common law rules relating to the admissibility of evidence are abrogated. This conclusion flows primarily from the terms of s 56(1), described as the “pivotal provision” by NSW Supreme Court justice McLelland CJ in Eq,7 which provides:

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Except as otherwise provided by this Act, evidence that is relevant in a proceeding is admissible in the proceeding.

If evidence is “relevant” in accordance with the very general definition in s 55, and not excluded by any provision in the Act, the effect of s 56(1) is that it “is admissible in the proceeding”. Any common law rule of admissibility which would render such evidence inadmissible would be inconsistent with the Act. Consequently, the effect of s 8 in the Commonwealth Act, and s 9 in the other UEL Acts, would be that such a common law rule would have no legal effect: see also below at [EA.8.60] and [EA.9.90]. Similarly, any evidence rendered inadmissible by the Act could not be saved by a common law rule to the contrary.8 While common law principles of admissibility may assist in determination of questions of relevance and discretionary exclusion, they are no longer binding legal rules. This analysis was adopted by the Full Court of the Federal Court in McNeill v The Queen (2008) 168 FCR 198; [2008] FCAFC 80, on appeal from the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island. Discussing Ch 3 of the Norfolk Island Evidence Act 2004, Black CJ, Lander and Besanko JJ stated at [60]–[62]: After the passing of the Norfolk Island Evidence Act the common law rules have no part to play in determining what evidence may be admitted at a trial. The pivotal section in the Norfolk Island Evidence Act is s 56 ... A court must first determine whether the evidence sought to be tendered is relevant. “Relevant evidence” is defined in s 55 of the Norfolk Island Evidence Act. If relevant, evidence is admissible except as otherwise provided by the Norfolk Island Evidence Act. It is to the Norfolk Island Evidence Act which a court must look to determine whether relevant evidence is admissible in a proceeding. Section 56 not only abrogates the common law rules of evidence, it provides that all relevant evidence will be admissible except as provided in 6. R v Soma (2003) 212 CLR 299; 196 ALR 421; [2003] HCA 13 at [27]; see [EA.43.210] and [EA.106.60]. 7. See Telstra Corp v Australis Media Holdings (No 2) (1997) 41 NSWLR 346 at 349B. 8. For example, s 102 provides that “credibility evidence” (defined in s 101A) about a witness is not admissible. That provision, which the Act describes as “the credibility rule”, is succeeded by three sections in Pt 3.7 containing detailed exceptions to the rule. The Victorian Court of Appeal held in BA v The Queen [2012] VSCA 285 that “Part 3.7 of the Act covers the field by establishing a general rule subject to a number of limited exceptions”, so that any common law rule permitting evidence as to the general reputation for veracity of a witness was ousted (Buchanan AJA at [21]–[25]).

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Introduction

[EA.Intro.120]

Chapter 3. It is clear that the Norfolk Island Evidence Act is intended to cover the field in relation to the admissibility of relevant evidence.

This conclusion reflects the weight of authority,9 notwithstanding the expression of contrary views in the past.10 The position should now be regarded as settled. As stated in ALRC 102 at para 2.9, “[s]tated simply, Chapter 3 of the uniform Evidence Acts governs admissibility issues”, although, of course, rules of admissibility in other legislation continue to apply. However, it is true that dissenting voices continue to be heard. In Dasreef Pty Ltd v Hawchar (2011) 243 CLR 588; [2011] HCA 21, Heydon J held that the common law “basis rule” (or “proof of assumption rule”), which requires “that the ‘facts’ and ‘assumptions’ [on which an opinion is based] … be proved before the [opinion] evidence was admissible” continues to survive under the Evidence Act (and particularly s 79). Heydon J stated at [110]: The respondent asked: “Does s 79 provide for the common law proof of assumption rule?” That was not the correct question. The correct question was: “Does s 79 abolish that rule?” The Act is far from being a complete code. It often deals with complex and

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9. See, for example, Telstra Corp v Australis Media Holdings (No 2) (1997) 41 NSWLR 346 at 349–350; Idoport Pty Ltd v National Australia Bank Ltd (2000) 50 NSWLR 640; [2000] NSWSC 1077 at [28]; EI Dupont de Nemours & Co v Imperial Chemical Industries PLC (2002) 54 IPR 304; [2002] AIPC 91-788; [2002] FCA 230 at [46]. 10. Newcastle Wallsend Coal Co Pty Ltd v Court of Coal Mines Regulation (1997) 42 NSWLR 351 at 392F per Smart J; Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) v Kane (1997) 140 FLR 468; Abigroup Ltd v Akins (1997) 42 NSWLR 623 at 638–639 per Bainton J; WorkCover Authority (NSW) v Tsougranis (2002) 117 IR 203; [2002] NSWIRComm 282, Haylen J at [35]–[40] ; Meteyard v Love (2005) 65 NSWLR 36; 224 ALR 588; 56 ACSR 487; [2005] NSWCA 444, Basten JA at [106]–[123]; Pepsi Seven-Up Bottlers Perth Pty Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (Cth) (1995) 62 FCR 289; 31 ATR 445; 132 ALR 632 at 643–644 (ALR); O’Brien v Gillespie (1997) 41 NSWLR 549 at 557; R v Ung (2000) 112 A Crim R 344; 173 ALR 287; [2000] NSWCCA 195 at [53]; Butcher v Lachlan Elder Realty Pty Ltd (2004) 218 CLR 592; 212 ALR 357; [2004] HCA 60; Butcher v Lachlan Elder Realty Pty Ltd (2002) 55 NSWLR 558; [2002] NSWCA 237, Handley JA at [15]. In this regard, note should be made of the decision of the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal in R v Adam (1999) 106 A Crim R 510; [1999] NSWCCA 189. The court held (at [25]) that the “res gestae” principle stated by the High Court in O’Leary v The King (1946) 73 CLR 566; [1946] ALR 535 had not been abolished by the Act. However, in reaching this conclusion, the court applied the test of McLelland CJ in Eq in Telstra Corp v Australis Media Holdings (No 2) (1997) 41 NSWLR 346. The court considered that evidence of events which form “an integral part of a connected series of events”, including an event in issue, will satisfy the test of relevance in s 55 and will not be excluded by other provisions in the Act (particularly s 97). The significance of the common law principle was to demonstrate how the evidence could be relevant in a non-tendency way (and thus avoid exclusion under s 97 or s 101). Accordingly, the court’s decision is not inconsistent with the view that Ch 3 is, in practical terms, a Code. In ALRC 102, it was noted at para 2.9 that “[r]eference to the common law can facilitate an understanding of underlying concepts and helps to identify the changes brought about by Chapter 3”. Other authorities indicate that, to the extent that the ““res gestae”” doctrine extends beyond elucidation of relevance, it does not survive: W v The Queen (2001) 115 FCR 41; 124 A Crim R 545; 189 ALR 633; [2001] FCA 1648 at [43], [97]; R v Fairbairn [2011] ACTSC 78; 212 A Crim R 32 at [100]. In Karam v The Queen [2015] VSCA 50, the Victorian Court of Appeal stated at [69] that “this doctrine has no application under the Evidence Act” and observed that “it has been replaced by the statutory [hearsay] exception under s 66(2)(b)” of the Act. In Schanker v The Queen [2018] VSCA 94, the Victorian Court of Appeal followed this authority at [48], observing at [49] that “the doctrine of res gestae is embodied, to varying degrees, in a number of the provisions” in Pt 3.2, particularly s 65(2)(b) and (c), s 66(2)(b) and s 66A. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Introduction

important subjects, like expert evidence, in very general words. Sometimes the Act changes the previous law. Sometimes it repeats it. At many points it assumes the continuance of the common law.

Heydon J gave the example11 of “the common law exception to the hearsay rule permitting experts to rely on the writings of others in the relevant area of expertise as a basis for their opinion” and observed that, while s 79 says nothing about that rule, nothing in s 79 has abolished it. However, this analysis is unpersuasive. The reason that experts are permitted to rely on “the writings of others” is that such material is relevant to the opinion expressed (and thus indirectly relevant to a fact in issue) and the hearsay rule in s 59 does not render the writings inadmissible (because the evidence of the writings is adduced for a reason other than “to prove the existence of a fact that it can reasonably be supposed that the [writer] intended to assert by the representation”: see [EA.59.180]). As regards the proposition that the proof of assumption rule at common law continues to apply under the Act, Heydon J was in dissent and this view should be considered as having been rejected by the other members of the High Court. French CJ, Gummow, Hayne, Crennan, Kiefel and Bell JJ referred to “the basis rule” at [41] as “a rule by which opinion evidence is to be excluded unless the factual bases upon which the opinion is proffered are established by other evidence” and then stated:

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Whether that rule formed part of the common law of evidence need not be examined. It may be accepted that the Law Reform Commission’s interim report on evidence denied the existence of such a common law rule and expressed the intention to refrain from including a basis rule in the legislation the Commission proposed and which was later enacted as the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) and the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW).

It appears clear that the plurality accepted that s 79 (and the rest of Chapter 3) does not incorporate “the basis rule” and that, as a result, issues of this type are left, as intended by the ALRC, to the discretions in Pt 3.11. Putting that conclusion in different words, the failure to incorporate the common law basis rule in s 79 meant that it had been effectively abrogated by the Act. That is, that common law rule which would render such evidence inadmissible would be inconsistent with the Act and abrogated by s 56(1). Another dissenting voice may be noted. In Nguyen v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 4, Basten JA held that the “general law” relating to voice identification evidence applied to render it admissible in a trial. The other members of the Court did not directly address this issue but proceeded on the assumption that the Act was applicable.12 The reasoning of Basten JA appears to have been that the Act treats “identification evidence as falling outside the exclusionary opinion rule” in s 76 and the general law rules relating to voice identification evidence continue to apply because the exclusionary rules in the Act dealing with 11. It should also be noted that Heydon J at [111] referred to s 80, which expressly abolishes two common law rules, as support for the proposition that, unless expressly abolished, the common law rules of evidence continue to apply. The difficulty with this argument is that the ALRC made it clear in the Interim Report on Evidence at para 743 that the reason for s 80 was “to abolish [the rules], so as to make clear the stance of the draft legislation on the area and to preclude so far as possible re-emergence of the rule via the relevance discretions”. Thus, s 80 is not inconsistent with the proposition that Chapter 3 was intended to codify the rules of admissibility. 12. See RA Hulme J at [83]; Schmidt J at [102].

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Uniform Evidence Law

Introduction

[EA.Intro.120]

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identification evidence (s 114 and s 115) do not apply to voice identification evidence. This reasoning may be criticised on at least two bases. First, it is a fundamental error to assume that the different Parts in Ch 3 are mutually exclusive so that if evidence falls within the definition of “identification evidence” for the purposes of Pt 3.9, it cannot be “opinion evidence” for the purposes of Pt 3.3. As the High Court held in Lithgow City Council v Jackson (2011) 244 CLR 352; 85 ALJR 1130; [2011] HCA 36 at [19], the opinion rule in s 76 applies to hearsay evidence (evidence to which Pt 3.2 applies) of opinion. Equally, it would apply to “identification evidence” that falls within the scope of s 76. Second, the fact that s 114 and s 115 do not apply to voice identification evidence does not mean that the common law has application. Rather, the relevance test in s 55 applies and there is the possibility of discretionary exclusion under Pt 3.1113 as Basten JA acknowledged in a different part of his judgment.14 In those circumstances, a common law rule of “admissibility” would be inconsistent with the Act and abrogated by s 56(1). However, there is an interesting question whether s 56(1) distinguishes between inadmissibility rules and “powers to exclude” evidence. Putting the matter more precisely, do the words “is admissible” in s 56(1) mean “is to be admitted” or only “is admissible notwithstanding any common law inadmissibility rule to the contrary but may still be excluded pursuant to a common law power to exclude”? In Haddara v The Queen (2014) 43 VR 53; 241 A Crim R 93; [2014] VSCA 100, Redlich and Weinberg JJA (Priest JA dissenting) held that the common law discretion to exclude any evidence, whether confessional or real, on the ground that to receive it would be unfair to a criminal defendant (in the sense that the trial would be unfair) is not caught by the operation of s 56(1) and, accordingly, continues to apply in UEL jurisdictions. While the common law certainly distinguishes between admissibility rules and exclusionary discretions, it has to be said that it is very difficult to support such an approach in the context of Chapter 3. After all, that Chapter, with its heading “Admissibility of Evidence”, includes within it several provisions which enact not an “(in)admissibility rule” but a “discretion” to exclude evidence (for example, s 90, s 135, s 138). The diagram in the “Introductory Note” at the beginning of the Chapter includes at the bottom a reference to “discretion to exclude” and, if the answer to whether the discretion should be exercised is “no”, the evidence “is admissible”.15 While it is entirely understandable that Redlich and Weinberg JJA were keen to hold that the power of a court to exclude evidence where to receive it would be unfair to a criminal defendant had not been abrogated by the UEL, the fact is that there was a much simpler route to that conclusion than the one adopted. Section 11(2) provides that “the powers of a court with respect to abuse of process in a proceeding are not affected” by this Act (see [EA.11.90]). There can be no doubt 13. See R v Adler (2000) 52 NSWLR 451; 116 A Crim R 38; [2000] NSWCCA 357 (NSWCCA); R v Riscuta [2003] NSWCCA 6 at [34]; R v Madigan [2005] NSWCCA 170 at [92]. 14. Nguyen v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 4 at [17]–[18]. 15. Curiously, Redlich and Weinberg JJA at [64] referred to the “Introductory Note” to support their argument, but they made no reference to the diagram. Another interesting consideration that bears on this issue is a significant difference between s 56(1) and the provision proposed by the ALRC: cl 51, Appendix A, ALRC Report No 38, Evidence (AGPS 1987). The latter provision stated that “[e]vidence that is relevant in a proceeding is, except as otherwise provided by this Act, admissible, and shall be admitted …”. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.Intro.150]

Introduction

that those powers would extend to exclusion of evidence on the basis that to receive it would be unfair to a criminal defendant (in the sense that the trial would be unfair). Nevertheless, this decision creates a limitation on the operation of s 56(1) in respect of common law discretions to exclude evidence, although the practical significance of that limitation may be doubted given that it is difficult to point to any common law discretions to exclude evidence other than the one applied in Haddara and those actually enacted in the UEL.16 A similar analysis to that adopted in respect of s 56 has led to the conclusion that s 12 indicates a clear legislative intention that the provisions of the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) abrogate “the operation of a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to” the competence and compellability of witnesses.17 Similarly, in Gattellaro v Westpac Banking Corp (2004) 78 ALJR 394; 204 ALR 258; [2004] HCA 6 Gleeson CJ, McHugh, Hayne and Heydon JJ observed at [17] that“there would appear to be no room for the operation of the common law doctrine of judicial notice, strictly so called, since the enactment” of s 144.18

[EA.Intro.150]

Differences from the common law

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The Act, as originally enacted, was not a restatement in statutory form of common law and existing statutory rules of evidence. Significant reforms were introduced. Some examples of changes to the then existing common law rules may be noted: • a witness attempting to refresh his or her memory in court does not necessarily have to use a document made when the events were “fresh in the memory”: s 32; • the rule in Walker v Walker (1937) 57 CLR 630; [1937] HCA 44 (requiring the tender of documents the subject of a “call”) was abolished: s 35; • cross-examination of a party’s own witness is permissible if the witness gives “unfavourable” evidence (without the requirement of a finding that the witness is “hostile”): s 38; • a trial judge may disallow leading questions in cross-examination in appropriate circumstances: s 42; • the “original document” rule for proving the contents of documents was abolished, replaced by a more flexible system: Pt 2.2; • a “view” is to be treated as evidence: s 54; • the hearsay rule was substantially modified in both civil and criminal proceedings: Pt 3.2; • the “ultimate issue” and “common knowledge” rules in respect of opinion evidence were abolished: s 80; 16. In Haddara, Redlich and Weinberg JJA referred at [49] to the situation “where evidence may controvert an acquittal”, but the common law principles in that context are presumably an aspect of the powers of a court with respect to preventing an abuse of process (or perhaps part of the law “relating to res judicata or issue estoppel”: see s 93(c)). 17. See R v Glasby (2000) 115 A Crim R 465; [2000] NSWCCA 83 at [39]–[54]. 18. See also Norrie v NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages (2013) 84 NSWLR 697; [2013] NSWCA 145 at [102], [223].

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Uniform Evidence Law

Introduction

[EA.Intro.150]

• “tendency and coincidence” evidence (perhaps better known as “propensity” and “similar fact” evidence) is inadmissible unless prior notice is given and the evidence has “significant probative value”: Pt 3.6; • cross-examination regarding a matter relevant only to the credibility of a witness was only permissible if it had “substantial probative value”: s 103; • the “finality rule” for cross-examination on collateral matters was significantly qualified: s 106 (although the common law itself moved further in this regard in recent years); • the sole purpose test for legal professional privilege (“client legal privilege”) was replaced by a dominant purpose test: ss 118, 119 (which reform has since been adopted by the common law); • a “professional confidential relationship privilege” was created in NSW: Div 1A of Pt 3.10 of the New South Wales Act only; • a witness may be forced “in the interests of justice” to answer questions notwithstanding the privilege against self-incrimination; if so required, the witness is given a certificate providing both use and indirect use immunity: s 128;

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• a court may refuse to admit any evidence if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger that the evidence might be unfairly prejudicial to a party; misleading or confusing; or cause or result in undue waste of time (referred to by the ALRC as the “relevance discretion”): s 135; • a court may limit the use to be made of evidence if there is a danger that a particular use of the evidence might be unfairly prejudicial to a party or be misleading or confusing: s 136; • “improperly or illegally obtained evidence” is “not to be admitted” unless the party seeking its admission persuades the court that the balance of “desirability” supports admission: s 138; • the admission of computer produced evidence is facilitated: ss 146, 147; • various procedural safeguards were introduced (including a “request” system): Div 1 of Pt 4.6. There were also important changes specific to criminal proceedings. Some examples are: • the trial judge might permit the spouse, child or parent of the defendant to choose not to testify: s 18, subject to s 19; • the trial judge might comment on a failure of the defendant to give evidence (but the comment “must not suggest that the defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant was, or believed that he or she was, guilty of the offence concerned”): s 20; • the “voluntariness” rule of admissibility for confessions was abolished, replaced by provisions which focus on extreme misconduct: s 84; reliability: s 85; fairness: s 90; and “improperly or illegally obtained evidence”: s 138; © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.Intro.180]

Introduction

• “tendency and coincidence” evidence (perhaps better known as “propensity” and “similar fact” evidence) is admissible against a criminal defendant if “the probative value of the evidence substantially outweighs any prejudicial effect it may have on the defendant” (rather than application of the “Pfennig test”): s 101; • where a defendant adduces evidence of good character in a “particular respect”, the prosecution may only rebut with evidence of bad character in that respect: s 110; • legal professional privilege (“client legal privilege”) in respect of particular evidence is lost where the evidence is adduced by a defendant in criminal proceedings: s 123; • a “sexual assault communications privilege” was created in NSW: Div 1B of Pt 3.10 of the New South Wales Act only; • identification evidence is not admissible unless an identification parade was held (with various exceptions, including where it was reasonable not to have held such a parade): ss 113 – 115; • “corroboration” requirements are abolished, replaced by a warning procedure for “evidence of a kind that may be unreliable”: ss 164 and 165.

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[EA.Intro.180]

Amendments implementing ALRC 102

As noted above, in 2007 the NSW Parliament enacted the Evidence Amendment Act 2007 and in 2008 the Commonwealth Parliament enacted the Evidence Amendment Act 2008. In very large part, the amendments reflected those proposed in ALRC 102. In addition, the more recent UEL Acts incorporate the same changes to the original uniform legislation. The most important of the changes made to the Commonwealth and NSW Acts (and which form part of the other UEL Acts) may be summarised as follows: • Competence to give evidence (s 13(1)). A witness is no longer required to be “capable of giving a rational reply to a question about a fact”; it is sufficient that the witness has “the capacity to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the fact”. • Competence to give unsworn evidence (s 13(5)). A court is no longer required to be satisfied that the witness “understands the difference between the truth and a lie”. All that is necessary is that the requirements of s 13(1) in relation to general competence are satisfied and “the court has told the person” a number of specific things (including “that it is important to tell the truth”). • De facto partner (ss 18, 20). The term “de facto spouse” in s 18 (“Compellability of spouses and other in criminal proceedings”) and s 20 (“Comment on failure to give evidence”) is replaced by the term “de facto partner”, which is defined in the Dictionary to the Act. • Evidence in narrative form (s 29(2)). A court may on its own motion (without any application of the party that called the witness) direct that a witness give evidence wholly or partly in narrative form. • Improper questions (s 41). In the Commonwealth, NSW, Tasmania and the ACT, the provision has been made mandatory and the categories of improper questions have been expanded. The provision in Victoria and 14

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the Northern Territory adopts a generally discretionary approach but creates special protections for “vulnerable witnesses”. • Proof of voluminous or complex documents (s 50). The requirement that an application to adduce evidence of the contents of documents in the form of a summary must be made prior to hearing has been deleted. • Definition of hearsay evidence (s 59). Prior to the amendments to s 59, evidence of a previous representation made by a person was only classified as hearsay if the person making the representation intended to assert a fact that was implied in the representation. Now the question is whether “it can reasonably be supposed that” the person intended to assert that fact. • Evidence admitted for a non-hearsay use (s 60). In response to the decision of the High Court in Lee v The Queen (1998) 195 CLR 594; [1998] HCA 60, s 60 has been amended to make it clear that the hearsay rule does not apply to such evidence, regardless of whether it is first-hand or more remote hearsay (with the sole exception in criminal proceedings of evidence of an admission).

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• First-hand hearsay in civil proceedings where the person who made the representation “has been or is to be called to give evidence” (s 64(3)). The hearsay rule does not apply to such evidence, with the deletion of the requirement that the occurrence of the asserted fact “was fresh in the memory of the person who made the representation”. • First-hand hearsay in criminal proceedings where the person who made the representation is not available to give evidence (s 65). For statements “against interest” (s 65(2)(d)) there is now an additional requirement that the previous representation had to be “made in circumstances that make it likely that the representation is reliable”. • First-hand hearsay in criminal proceedings where the person who made the representation has been or will be called as a witness (s 66). In response to the decision of the High Court in Graham v The Queen (1998) 195 CLR 606; 102 A Crim R 438; [1998] HCA 1, s 66(2A) has been introduced to make clear that the quality of “freshness” (in respect of the test “fresh in the memory” in s 66(2)) will not be confined to the time which elapses between the occurrence of the relevant event and the making of a representation about the event. • Contemporaneous representations about health, etc (s 66A). The hearsay exception for evidence of a previous representation that was a contemporaneous representation about the person’s health, feelings, sensations, intention, knowledge or state of mind, that was formerly applicable to both first-hand and more remote hearsay (s 72, prior to the amendments), is now only applicable to first-hand hearsay. • Hearsay exception for “electronic communications” (s 71). This provision was amended to replace the words “a document recording a message that has been transmitted by electronic mail or by a fax, telegram, lettergram or telex” with the words “an electronic communication”, as defined in s 5 of the Electronic Transactions Act 2000. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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• Hearsay exception for Aboriginal “traditional laws and customs” (s 72). A discrete hearsay exception is created for this evidence, as defined in the Dictionary to the Act. • Opinion exception for Aboriginal “traditional laws and customs” (s 78A). A discrete exception is created to the opinion rule in s 76 for this evidence, as defined in the Dictionary to the Act. • Opinion evidence of child development and child behaviour (s 79(2)). This provision “clarifies” that such evidence will not be excluded by the opinion rule in s 76. • Reliability of admissions by defendants in criminal proceedings (s 85). In response to the decision of the High Court in Kelly v The Queen (2004) 218 CLR 216; 78 ALJR 538; [2004] HCA 12, which interpreted the term “official questioning” narrowly, this provision now applies where an admission was “made … to, or in the presence of, an investigating official who at that time was performing functions in connection with the investigation of the commission, or possible commission, of an offence” (s 85(1)(a)). • Evidence of silence (s 89). A reference to silence “in the course of official questioning” has been replaced by a reference to silence in response to “an investigating official who at that time was performing functions in connection with the investigation of the commission, or possible commission, of an offence”. • The tendency rule (s 97). The provision has been amended to make it clear that the onus is on the party seeking to have the evidence ruled admissible to persuade the court that “reasonable notice” has been given and that the evidence “will” have “significant probative value”. • The coincidence rule (s 98). The provision has been amended to make it clear that evidence of events that the court concludes were not similar or the circumstances in which they occurred were not similar is still caught by the provision and must comply with its requirements in order to be admissible. In addition, it is made clear that the onus is on the party seeking to have the evidence ruled admissible to persuade the court that “reasonable notice” has been given and that the evidence “will” have “significant probative value”. • Credibility evidence (s 101A). In response to the decision of the High Court in Adam v The Queen (2001) 207 CLR 96; 123 A Crim R 280; 75 ALJR 1537; [2001] HCA 57, which interpreted the “credibility rule” in s 102 in a very literal manner, s 101A is introduced. It defines “credibility evidence” to include evidence that is relevant because it affects the assessment of the credibility of a witness or person and is also relevant for some other purpose for which it is not admissible. • Credibility evidence adduced in cross-examination of a witness (s 103). The test in s 103 of “substantial probative value” is replaced by a test of “could substantially affect the assessment of the credibility of the witness”. • Cross-examination of an accused as to credit (s 104). This provision has been amended to avoid confusing overlap with the character evidence provisions. 16

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• Rebutting a denial in cross-examination as to credibility (s 106). This provision now applies not only to a “denial” but also where the witness “did not admit or agree to” the substance of the evidence. Further, such rebuttal may be permitted “if the court gives leave” under s 106(1)(b). There is no longer a requirement for the rebuttal evidence to fit into one of the listed categories in s 106 (those categories are now simply circumstances in which leave is not required – s 106(2)). • Credibility evidence in respect of a person who is not a witness but who made an out-of-court representation that has been admitted into evidence (s 108A). This provision permits such evidence if “the evidence could substantially affect the assessment of the person’s credibility”. Section 108B imposes further restrictions on admission of such evidence where the person who made the representation is a defendant in criminal proceedings (who does not testify). • Expert credibility evidence (s 108C). This provision creates an exception to the credibility rule for expert evidence concerning the credibility of a witness. Section 108C is intended to “clarify that evidence can be led under the section in relation to the development and behaviour of children generally and the development and behaviour of victims of child sexual assault”.

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• Legal advice privilege (s 118). The provision has been amended to ensure that privilege attaches to any confidential document prepared for the dominant purpose of legal advice being provided – not just a document prepared by the client or the lawyer. • Loss of client legal privilege: consent and related matters (s 122). The provision has been amended to adopt the common law test of whether the client or party has “acted in a way that is inconsistent with” the maintenance of the privilege. The prior statutory tests of “the client or party knowingly and voluntarily disclosed the substance of the evidence” and “the substance of the evidence has been disclosed with the express or implied consent of the client or party” have become circumstances in which the broader test “is taken to” be satisfied. • Privilege in respect of self-incrimination (s 128). The NSW provision has been amended to ensure that the protection of a certificate extends not only to a proceeding in a NSW court (which includes a person or body that is required to apply the laws of evidence) but also to any proceeding before any person or body “authorised by a law of this State, or by consent of parties, to hear, receive and examine evidence”. A new provision also makes it clear that the protection is maintained even if the granting of the certificate was in error: s 128(8). • Privilege in respect of self-incrimination – application to disclosure orders (s 128A). This new provision creates a mechanism whereby privilege against self-incrimination claims may be determined in respect of information ordered by a court in a civil proceeding to be disclosed in connection with a freezing or search order (or, in NSW, other order under Pt 25 of the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005). © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Introduction

• Privilege in preliminary court proceedings (s 131A). This provision extends the application of the privileges in Pt 3.10 (other than the provisions of ss 123 and 128) to pre-trial stages of civil and criminal proceedings. • Electronic communications (s 161). The provision creating presumptions regarding “telexes” has now been amended to refer to an “electronic communication”, defined in the Dictionary to the Act to have the same meaning as it has in the Electronic Transactions Act 2000. • Jury warning in respect of oral evidence of questioning by an investigating official of a defendant (s 165(1)(f)). In response to the decision of the High Court in Kelly v The Queen (2004) 218 CLR 216; 78 ALJR 538; [2004] HCA 12, which interpreted the term “official questioning” narrowly, this provision now applies to “questioning by an investigating official”.

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• Jury warning in respect of children’s evidence (s 165A). The terms of ss 165A and 165A have been combined into one provision. One substantive change is that the new provision has been drafted to expressly prohibit the giving of a warning about unreliability “solely on account of the age of the child”. • Jury warning in respect of delay in prosecution (s 165B). This provision (which has some differences between the jurisdictions) imposes significant limitations on a jury warning in respect of forensic disadvantages that may have arisen from delay in prosecution. The warning can only be given where the court “is satisfied that the defendant has suffered a significant forensic disadvantage because of the consequences of delay”. “Significant forensic disadvantage” is not to be regarded as being established “by the mere existence of a delay”. Where a jury warning is to be given, the judge “must not in any way suggest to the jury that it would be dangerous or unsafe to convict the defendant solely because of the delay or the forensic disadvantage suffered because of the consequences of the delay”. • Formal admissions and consents (s 184). The requirement that the defendant in a criminal proceeding have been “advised … by his or her lawyer” to make a particular admission regarding a matter of fact, or to give any consent, is no longer essential. It will be sufficient if “the court is satisfied that the defendant understands the consequences of making the admission or giving the consent”. • Advance rulings and findings (s 192A). In response to the decision of the High Court in TKWJ v The Queen (2002) 212 CLR 124; 133 A Crim R 574; [2002] HCA 46, this new provision permits a court to give advance rulings and findings in relation to evidence (ie before the evidence is adduced in the proceeding).

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Differences between the Acts

The Evidence Acts in the Commonwealth, NSW, Victoria, the ACT and the Northern Territory are almost identical, justifying the title of this work – Uniform Evidence Law. However, there are some important differences: 18

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• Improper questions (s 41). The Commonwealth/NSW/ACT general provision in s 41(1) is mandatory (“must disallow a question put to a witness in cross-examination, or inform the witness that it need not be answered”), in contrast with the comparable Victorian/Northern Territory provision (“may disallow …”). However, the Victorian/Northern Territory provision creates a special category of improper questioning of a “vulnerable witness” (defined in s 41(4)) where the court “must” act “unless the court is satisfied that … it is necessary for the question to be put” (s 41(2)). The Commonwealth/NSW/ACT provision deals only with an improper “question” while the Victorian/Northern Territory provision also deals with “improper questioning” (defined in s 41(3) to mean “a sequence of questions”). The Commonwealth/NSW/ACT provision defines an improper question in terms of the court’s “opinion” that it falls into a specified category (and requires the court to take into account the matters specified in s 41(2) in forming that opinion), while the Victorian/Northern Territory provision defines “an improper question or improper questioning” simply in terms of those categories. • Professional confidential relationship privilege (Div 1A of Pt 3.10). The NSW Act permits a court to “direct that evidence not be adduced in a proceeding if the court finds that adducing it would disclose a protected confidence” or related information. “Protected confidence” is defined to mean a communication made by a person in confidence to another person who was acting in a professional capacity and under an express or implied obligation not to disclose the confidence (for example, doctor/patient; nurse/patient; psychologist/client; therapist/client; counsellor/client; social worker/client; accountant/client; private investigator/client; journalist/source). The court is required to balance the nature and extent of the harm that would or might be caused to a protected confider if the evidence is adduced against the desirability of the evidence being given. The Victorian/ACT/Northern Territory Acts contain no such “privilege”, while the Commonwealth Act defines “protected confidence” in a way that limits the scope of the privilege to communications to journalists (and requires the court to “take into account, and give the greatest weight to, any risk of prejudice to national security”). • Sexual assault communications privilege. This Division was first incorporated in the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) by the Evidence Amendment (Confidential Communications) Act 1997 (NSW). No comparable Division is included in the other UEL Acts. In 1999, the Division was substantially amended by removing the substantive provisions and incorporating them in Pt 7 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW). Similar substantive provisions to those in the NSW Criminal Procedure Act 1986 are found in Div 2 of Pt II of the Evidence Act 1958 (Vic). • Privilege in respect of self-incrimination – application to disclosure orders (s 128A). This provision creates a mechanism whereby privilege against self-incrimination claims may be determined in respect of information ordered by a court in a civil proceeding to be disclosed in connection with a freezing or search order. The NSW provision extends © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Introduction

the application of the provision to any “other order under Pt 25 of the Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005”. Privilege in preliminary court proceedings (s 131A). This provision in the NSW/Victorian/ACT/Northern Territory Acts extends the application of the privileges in Pt 3.10 (other than the provisions of s 123 and s 128) to pre-trial stages of civil and criminal proceedings (“a process or order of a court that requires the disclosure of information or a document”). In Victoria, and possibly NSW/ACT/Northern Territory, it extends to search warrants. The Commonwealth provision is much more limited, only extending the application of the “privilege” in relation to confidential communications made to journalists (Div 1A of Pt 3.10) to pre-trial stages of civil and criminal proceedings (but not to investigatory and other non-curial processes such as search warrants or notices to produce issued by investigatory agencies). Jury warnings generally (Pt 4.5). In 2015, the Jury Directions Act 2015 (Vic) was enacted, which deals comprehensively with warnings to juries in criminal proceedings. The warning provisions in Pt 4.5 of the Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) were amended so that they only apply in civil proceedings. Jury warnings in respect of delay in prosecution (s 165B). In s 165B(2) of the Commonwealth/ACT/Northern Territory Acts, application for the giving of a warning to the jury must be made by “the defendant”, while under the comparable NSW provision it may be made by “a party” (which would include the prosecutor). The NSW/Northern Territory provision, unlike the other UEL Acts (except for Victoria), expressly provides that a “significant forensic disadvantage” includes “the fact that any potential witnesses have died or are not able to be located” and “the fact that any potential evidence has been lost or is otherwise unavailable” (s 165(7)). Definition of person who is “not available to give evidence about a fact”. The NSW, Victorian and Northern Territory Acts provide in cl 4(1) of Part 2 of the Dictionary that, as well as the other circumstances specified in the Commonwealth/ACT Acts, a person is not available to give evidence about a fact if “the person is mentally or physically unable to give the evidence and it is not reasonably practicable to overcome that inability”.

There are also less important differences that should be noted. In the Victorian Act, the defendant in criminal proceedings is referred to as “the accused”.19 There are also necessary differences arising from occasional reference to particular courts and provisions. In particular, there are differences in the terms of the Preliminary provisions in Chapter 1 of the Act. Finally, the Tasmanian Act has a large number of significant differences from the other UEL Acts. There are significant omissions (for example, the Tasmanian Act 19. Curiously, this particular move away from uniformity was not carried through comprehensively. The definition of “admission” in the Dictionary refers to “a defendant in criminal proceedings”. There has also been a failure to ensure that all the statutory Notes in the Act reflect this change in terminology. For example, the Note to s 17 states that “Associated defendant is defined in the Dictionary” when, in fact, the term “associated accused” is defined in the Dictionary to the Act.

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does not include ss 113–115) and there are a number of provisions that are unique to Tasmania (for example, s 127A). Some provisions are similar to other comparable UEL provisions but incorporate significant changes (for example, s 164(4)).

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Policy framework

Given the wide application of the Act and the fact that it constitutes a major reform of the law of evidence, interpretation of individual provisions should occur in the context of the policy framework on which it is built: see s 3 in the NSW Act, s 15AB of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 (Cth) and s 35 of the Interpretation of Legislation Act 1984 (Vic). The Act substantially follows the ALRC proposals and those proposals were based on the policy framework summarised by the ALRC in its ALRC 38 Report. That policy framework has not been changed or qualified by ALRC 102 or the amendments following on that Report. A clear distinction was drawn by the ALRC between civil and criminal trials (ALRC 38, para 34):

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• Fact-finding. Although a civil trial is not a “search for truth” it is nonetheless of critical importance that the courts make a genuine attempt to find the facts. If this is not done, the system will be seen to be at best arbitrary and at worst biased and will lose the confidence and respect of the community. Any limitation on the attempt to find the facts requires justification. • Procedural fairness. The parties must be given, and feel they have had, a fair hearing. This will depend in part on the extent to which they have been able to present their case – “litigant prevented from supporting his case … is bound to feel dissatisfied”. It will also depend upon the extent to which they have been able to challenge and meet the case presented against them. Again, limits require justification. This need has been recognised by the law in its development of the concept of natural justice. It requires that a person is entitled to be given a proper hearing before a determination is made affecting his or her rights. The fairness of the proceeding will also depend on the conduct of the judicial officer – the more arbitrary or subjective it appears to be, the less acceptable to all concerned. It is also important that there be the appearance and, if possible, the reality of control by law rather than judicial whim. Detailed rules of evidence lend to the trial the appearance of proceedings controlled by the law, not by the individual trial judge’s discretion, and reduce the scope for subjective decisions. • Expedition and cost. The parties and the community will judge the civil trial system in part by considering its efficiency. Any rules or proposals must be evaluated in the light of their effect on the time and cost of the trial. • Quality of rules. To the extent that the system operates under rules, the more anomalous, technical, rigid, and obscure the rules seem, the more the system’s acceptability is lessened. The parties in a case can meet the situation by agreeing to ignore or waive the more unsatisfactory rules, as widely happens in the conduct of trials at present, particularly civil trials. This, however, only results in the rules lying in wait for the unwary and the party who does not have legal representation. Any rules or proposals that are complicated, difficult to understand or apply, produce anomalies, lack flexibility where this is needed or are very technical, require justification.

In respect of the criminal trial, the ALRC expressed the view that, like the civil trial, it involves an attempt to establish the facts, and its credibility depends substantially on that attempt being a genuine one. It considered that its credibility © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Introduction

also depended on procedural fairness, efficiency and the quality of particular rules. Nevertheless, the ALRC asserted that the nature and purpose of the criminal trial differ significantly from those of civil trials – the accusatorial model requires that the prosecution prove guilt without the accused being obliged to assist and is designed to accord the accused certain procedural advantages over the prosecution. These advantages flow ultimately from the public interest in minimising the risk of convicting an innocent person.20 The ALRC made the following points (ALRC 38, para 35): • Accusatorial system. A criminal trial is not directed to resolving a dispute between parties. Although the Crown makes allegations and these are disputed by the accused, the trial is accusatorial and the accused is presumed innocent until proved guilty and is under no obligation to assist. • Minimising the risk of wrongful convictions. The criminal trial traditionally has been seen to reflect the view that it is in the interest of the community that the risk of conviction of the innocent be minimised even if this may result in the acquittal from time to time of the guilty.

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• Definition of central question. The central question in a criminal trial is whether the Crown has proved the guilt of the accused beyond reasonable doubt. The purpose of the criminal trial is not “to find out if the accused is guilty”. The primary and specific object of the system is to be able to say with confidence: that if there is a verdict of guilty there can be no doubt that the accused did what was charged with the requisite mens rea. • Recognition of rights of the individual. The convictions of “guilty” persons are not to be pursued and obtained at virtually any cost. The conviction of the guilty is important … but … accused persons are entitled to the benefits of certain rights and protections as a matter of recognition of their personal dignity and integrity, and also, on a far broader scale, as a measure of the overall fairness of the society to the individuals within it. • Assisting adversary contest. It is also important to arm an accused person with some protections to give credibility, if not substance, to the idea of the adversary system as a genuine contest.

Notwithstanding the argument sometimes advanced that the rules of evidence developed largely to keep from juries evidence which may be misused or misestimated by them, the ALRC was generally unwilling to draw any significant distinction between jury trials and trials with a judge sitting alone. It concluded that, on the available evidence, it should not be assumed that there is necessarily such a difference between the abilities of judicial officers and jurors that different rules of evidence should be applied to them.

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The significance of pre-existing law

In Dupas v The Queen (2012) 40 VR 182; 218 A Crim R 507; [2012] VSCA 328 the Victorian Court of Appeal considered the operation of s 137 of the Act and observed at [164]: 20. The ALRC considered (ALRC 38, para 35) that this public interest derived from a variety of factors, including the seriousness of the matters involved, the fallibility of any system dependent on human perception and memory, and the imbalance of resources that generally exists in favour of the prosecution.

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It is presumed that a statute is not intended (in the absence of express words) to alter common law doctrines. A strict reading and careful scrutiny of the language of the Act is therefore necessary, in order to determine whether it was the will of the legislature to remove or encroach upon those doctrines.

However, care must be taken with this passage. The authorities relied upon to support it were largely concerned with legislative infringement of “fundamental” or “basic” common law rights and freedoms and it would be too broad to suggest that “common law doctrine” extends to any aspect of the common law rules of evidence. Given that the Act constitutes a major reform of the law of evidence, not a mere restatement in statutory form of common law and earlier statutory rules of evidence, care must be taken in interpreting its provisions in the context of pre-existing law. In Towney v Minister for Land & Water Conservation (NSW) (1997) 76 FCR 401 Sackville J in the Federal Court observed: The task of [a] Court is to apply the statutory language used by Parliament, and not to substitute a different test merely because it reflects the pre-existing law.

As Gleeson CJ and Hayne J have pointed out in Papakosmas v The Queen (1999) 196 CLR 297; 73 ALJR 1274 at [10] (see also [38]–[40] and [66]), a High Court decision on evidence of “complaint” in sexual offence prosecutions:

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It is the language of the statute which now determines the manner in which evidence of the kind presently in question is to be treated.

In relation to that particular language, the High Court rejected an argument that its meaning and effect should be determined in the light of, and in conformity with, the pre-existing common law. Similarly, in Dasreef Pty Ltd v Hawchar (2011) 243 CLR 588; [2011] HCA 21, French CJ, Gummow, Hayne, Crennan, Kiefel and Bell JJ (Heydon J dissenting) disregarded common law authority on the existence of a “basis rule” relating to the admissibility of opinion evidence, observing at [37] that “one basic proposition” should be “at the forefront of consideration”: The admissibility of opinion evidence is to be determined by application of the requirements of the Evidence Act rather than by any attempt to parse and analyse particular statements in decided cases divorced from the context in which those statements were made.

More recently, and subsequent to the judgment of the Victorian Court of Appeal in Dupas, the High Court emphasised again that “the statute’s language is the primary source, not the pre-existing common law” (French CJ, Kiefel, Bell and Keane JJ in IMM v The Queen (2016) 90 ALJR 529; [2016] HCA 14 at [35]). Indeed, the holding of the Victorian Court of Appeal in Dupas (that judicial assessment of “probative value” for the purposes of s 137 permitted an assessment of the “reliability” of evidence) was held to derive from a view of the common law but not to have any foundation “in textual considerations of the Evidence Act” (at [54]). Of course, in particular contexts the position before enactment of the Act may provide assistance in interpreting the Act. A good example of this is the majority judgment of the High Court in Cornwell v The Queen (2007) 231 CLR 260; 169 A Crim R 89; 81 ALJR 840; [2007] HCA 12. In interpreting s 128(8) of the Act (as it existed prior to the amendments following on ALRC 102), Gleeson CJ, Gummow, Heydon and Crennan JJ emphasised that the interpretation advanced © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Introduction

by the accused would involve a radical change to “the long established and widespread statutory regime” that existed prior to the Act. They stated (at [72]): [T]he Commission was normally careful to indicate when it thought that its proposals would change the law significantly and, when it did so, it habitually strove to give very full justifications for making changes of that kind. The likelihood of this practice being followed would have been extremely high in relation to any intention to change the long established and widespread statutory regime to be found in the equivalents to s 1(e) of the 1898 Act, which itself had a long and controversial background of which the Commission is likely to have been aware. If the accused’s construction of s 128(8) were sound, its substitution for any provision equivalent to s 1(e) would have changed the law significantly. The absence of any justificatory material of this kind in the ALRC Reports – or in the Report of the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 1988, or in the Second Reading Speeches – tells powerfully against the accused’s construction.

Similarly, in interpreting s 128(7), the majority judgment gave considerable significance to the “traditional” position. Chief Justice Gleeson, Gummow, Heydon and Crennan JJ stated at [88]: [E]vidence which traditionally the parties have been at liberty to tender [in a retrial] is evidence of admissions made at the first trial. To construe a statutory provision as negating that traditional possibility would require the identification of clear words to that effect. There are no clear words to that effect in s 128(7).

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Given that there was “nothing in ALRC 26, ALRC 38 or NSWLRC 56 which would support” a conclusion that it was intended to overturn the traditional position, it was concluded that it had not been. Equally, other provisions in Ch 3 are drafted in a way that makes it clear that pre-existing law will assist in informing the content and operation of the provision.21 Nevertheless, as McHugh J pointed out in Papakosmas (at [88]): The Act has made substantial changes to the law of evidence. Notwithstanding s 9, reference to pre-existing common law concepts will often be unhelpful.

As Barr and Hall JJ observed in Hannes v Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) (No 2) (2006) 165 A Crim R 151; 205 FLR 217; [2006] NSWCCA 373 at [289]: The Evidence Act reveals a tendency to relax restrictive rules, no doubt based on the proposition that juries (and judges) are better able to assess the weight which should be given to evidence, than was assumed in the past to be the case.

Further, the discretions to exclude evidence in Pt 3.10 must not be used to subvert the intention of the legislature.22 McHugh J explained: Sections 135, 136 and 137 contain powers which are to be applied on a case by case basis because of considerations peculiar to the evidence in the particular case. It may be proper for appellate courts to develop guidelines for exercising the powers conferred by these sections so that certain classes of evidence are usually excluded or limited. But those sections confer no authority to emasculate provisions in the Act to make them conform with common law notions of relevance or admissibility.23 21. A good example is s 130: see Ku-ring-gai Council v West [2017] NSWCA 54, Basten JA at [85]. 22. See Papakosmas v The Queen (1999) 196 CLR 297; 73 ALJR 1274 at [10], [38]–[40], [66], [96]–[97]) 23. Papakosmas at [97]. See also Director of Public Prosecutions v BB (2010) 29 VR 110; 204 A Crim R 85; [2010] VSCA 211 at [21].

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The significance of authority in other jurisdictions

Authority on the construction of identical (or very similar) provisions in other jurisdictions should be regarded as very persuasive and, unless plainly wrong, should be followed.24 However, clearly enough, this approach would not be applicable where there are conflicting approaches between intermediate appellate authorities in different jurisdictions (see, for example, the commentary on s 137). Further, particular care should be taken in respect of authorities which interpreted provisions in other jurisdictions that were subsequently amended following on ALRC 102 and accordingly were not, at the relevant time, uniform with the comparable provision under consideration.

[EA.Intro.330]

Current issues arising under uniform evidence law

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Notwithstanding the significant amendments made following ALRC 102, many important issues arising under the uniform evidence law remain. A few may be mentioned: • Evidence “in narrative form”. The practicality of a witness being permitted to give evidence in narrative form remains questionable, except where the witness is an expert witness (see [EA.29.90]). • Refreshing memory of a witness. The availability in UEL jurisdictions of the common law procedure whereby a witness is permitted to stop testifying and attempt to refresh his or her memory from a previous statement (that was not made when the events recounted were “fresh in his or her memory”), before continuing to testify without the benefit of the statement, is unresolved (see [EA.32.360]). • Unfavourable witnesses. Questions remain regarding the appropriateness of permitting the Crown to call a witness expected to give unfavourable evidence (which the Crown regards as unreliable) in order to have admitted a favourable previous representation by that witness (see [EA.38.30]–[EA.38.270]). The way in which s 38, the (amended) credibility provisions in Pt 3.7, the leave requirement in s 192 and the “discretion” in s 137 should interact is yet to be finally resolved. • Circumstantial evidence and the requirement of relevance. The question arises whether circumstantial evidence should be regarded as “not relevant”, and thus inadmissible, if the tribunal of fact could not rationally regard the inference sought to be drawn to a fact in issue as more probable than other available inferences (see [EA.55.330]). 24. ASC v Marlborough Gold Mines Ltd (1993) 177 CLR 485 at 492. See also Macquarie Bank Ltd v Fociri Pty Ltd (1992) 27 NSWLR 203 at 217; R v JS (2007) 175 A Crim R 108; [2007] NSWCCA 272 at [87]; Melville Homes Pty Ltd v Prime Ceramics Services Pty Ltd [1991] 2 VR 211 at 213; Leighton Contractors Pty Ltd v Kilpatrick Green Pty Ltd [1992] 2 VR 505 at 510; Dupas v The Queen (2012) 40 VR 182; 218 A Crim R 507; [2012] VSCA 328 at [222]–[228]; R v XY (2103) 84 NSWLR 363; 231 A Crim R 474; [2013] NSWCCA 121 at [23]–[40]. In R v Darmody (2010) 25 VR 209; 213 A Crim R 79; [2010] VSCA 41 the proper approach was articulated slightly differently at [26] as a trial judge being bound to follow the decision of an intermediate appellate court in another jurisdiction where “there is no reason to doubt the reasoning there applied”. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.Intro.330]

Introduction

• Authentication and the requirement of relevance. The application of the provisional relevance provision (s 57) to the question of authentication of documents and things remains controversial (see [EA.57.120]). • Failure of Crown to call a particular witness. There is authority, which may be doubted, that a Jones v Dunkel direction should never be given against the Crown (see [EA.55.180]). • Hearsay exceptions. The scope of the “shortly after the asserted fact occurred” (see [EA.65.150]) and the fresh in the memory (see [EA.66.180]) first-hand hearsay exception in criminal proceedings remains uncertain. • Lay opinion evidence. The practical application of the requirement that the evidence “is necessary to obtain an adequate account or understanding of the witness’s perception of the matter or event” continues to cause difficulty (see [EA.78.60]). • Expert opinion evidence. A number of important issues arise. Is expert opinion only admissible where the opinion (or, at least, the field of knowledge from where it comes) is shown to be reliable (see [EA.79.120]–[EA.79.180])? If there is such a requirement, what precisely has to be established for scientific evidence to be regarded as reliable? To what extent is the summary of the law provided by Heydon JA, as he then was, in Makita (Aust) Pty Ltd v Sprowles (2001) 52 NSWLR 705; [2001] NSWCA 305 good law in UEL jurisdictions (see [EA.79.240])?

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• Admissions. Is there an obligation on the party seeking exclusion of an admission under s 84 to establish that there was “violent” or similar conduct (or the threat of such conduct) (see [EA.84.120])? Is the test in s 85 which requires determining whether it is “unlikely that the truth of the admission was adversely affected” subjective or objective (see [EA.85.210])? How does that test apply to conduct relied upon to infer “consciousness of guilt”? How does the UEL respond to law enforcement trickery used to obtain admissions (see [EA.90.60] – [EA.90.150])? • Wholly exculpatory previous representations by a criminal defendant. Are such statements generally admissible when adduced by the defence (see [EA.81.270])? • Tendency and coincidence evidence. What are the precise parameters of the test of admissibility in s 101 (see [EA.101.180])? • Identification evidence. When may it be concluded that a suspect has “refused to take part in an identification parade” so that picture identification may be utilised (see [EA.115.180])? • Client legal privilege. What are the precise parameters of the “dominant purpose” test (see [EA.118.390])? What precisely does it mean to act “in a way that is inconsistent with the client or party objecting to the adducing” of evidence (see [EA.122.120])? • Professional confidential relationship privilege. As noted at [EA.Intro.210], the NSW Act extends the “privilege” (better understood as a “judicial discretion”) to a confidential communication made to a 26

Uniform Evidence Law

Introduction

[EA.Intro.340]

person “acting in a professional capacity” while the Victorian Act contains no such “privilege” and the Commonwealth Act limits it to communications to journalists (see [EA.Ch.3.Pt.3.10.Div.1A.30]–[EA.126E.30]). Given the policy considerations supporting the NSW provision, should it be adopted uniformly? • Privilege in respect of self-incrimination. When may it be said that a witness “objects” to giving evidence (see [EA.128.120])? • Privilege in preliminary court proceedings. This provision in the NSW Act and the Victorian Act extends the application of the privileges in Pt 3.10 (other than the provisions of s 123 and s 128) to pre-trial stages of civil and criminal proceedings (“a process or order of a court that requires the disclosure of information or a document”). The Commonwealth provision is much more limited (see [EA.131A.30]–[EA.131A.150]). Should it be amended to reflect the approach adopted in NSW and Victoria? In respect of the NSW provision, it is uncertain whether the privileges in Pt 3.10 apply in respect of the execution of search warrants or to the issue of “inspection” of documents produced to a court (see [EA.131A.90]).

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• Discretion to exclude improperly or unlawfully obtained evidence. Conceptual difficulties arise where the evidence in question (sought to be excluded under s 138) is of an offence which is said to have been “caused” by the impugned conduct (see [EA.138.150]). • Standard of proof in civil proceedings. Does the common law Briginshaw test apply under s 140 (see [EA.140.60])? In particular, how is the gravity of the matters alleged to be taken into account? Is “actual persuasion” of the occurrence or existence of the fact(s) in issue required under this provision? • Standard of proof in criminal proceedings. When is an intermediate circumstantial fact “indispensable” to proof of guilt (see [EA.141.120])? • Unreliable evidence. What are “good reasons” for not giving a jury warning (see [EA.165.240])? • Failure to object. The significance of an absence of objection to the admission of (arguably) “inadmissible” evidence is, particularly in criminal proceedings, uncertain (see [EA.Intro.350]; [EA.190.60]). • Appellate review. The precise nature of appellate review of determinations made under the UEL is, in general, a matter of some controversy (see [EA.55.600], [EA.97.480], [EA.98.450], [EA.101.450], [EA.130.420], [EA.135.300], [EA.137.210], [EA.138.720]).

[EA.Intro.340]

Joint trials

A recurring issue, in respect of the UEL, is the application of the rules in joint trials, where there are multiple parties. When a joint criminal trial is held, involving multiple defendants, in legal theory there is not one trial but several. In a joint trial involving two defendants (D1 and D2), for example, evidence admitted in the trial against D1 may not be admissible for or against D2, and in that situation must be disregarded in the trial of D2 (and if that is impossible, the © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.Intro.340]

Introduction 25

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trials should be separated). For example, where evidence is admitted of an admission by D1 it will not necessarily be an “admission” in the trial of D2, since an “admission” is defined to be a previous representation “made by a person who is or becomes a party to a proceeding”. Since D1 is not a party in the trial of D2, the evidence of a previous representation by D1 is not an admission in the trial of D2 unless s 87 operates to permit it being treated as an admission by D2. Conversely, testimony by D1 will, if relevant to the trial of D2, be admissible in the trial of D2 (on the assumption that no provision of the Act otherwise provides). To give another example, evidence that D2, charged with murder, has a history of engaging in violent conduct may not be admissible against D2 (on the basis that it is “tendency evidence” rendered inadmissible by ss 97 or 101) but the same evidence may be relevant and admissible in support of a defence of duress advanced by D1, charged with assisting D2 – in a joint trial, the evidence must be disregarded in the trial of D2 (and if that is impossible, the trials should be separated).26 When a criminal trial is held of multiple charges against one defendant, again, in legal theory, there is not one trial but several. Evidence admissible in respect of the trial of one charge may not be admissible in the trial of another. Whether or not it will be depends on the application of the provisions of this Act. In a jury trial, where evidence is admissible in respect of one charge but not another, careful directions to this effect would be necessary.27 It might have been thought that these principles would apply equally to civil proceedings. However, there is NSW authority to the contrary. Austin J in ASIC v Rich (2004) 213 ALR 338; 51 ACSR 363; [2004] NSWSC 1062 stated at [24] “that where evidence is admitted in a proceeding in which there are several defendants, the evidence is admissible in the proceeding against all defendants, subject only to any restricting order that may be made under s 136”. Austin J stated the position rather differently, and arguably more accurately at [22], when he observed that the evidence is “available to be used for any purpose, unless one of the exclusionary rules of the Act … applies, or the court makes use of its statutory discretions to exclude admissible evidence or limit its use”. This latter passage was noted with apparent approval by Beazley JA (Young JA agreeing) in the NSW Court of Appeal: Johnstone v New South Wales (2010) 202 A Crim R 422; [2010] NSWCA 70 at [102]. However, more recently, in Eire Contractors Pty Ltd v O’Brien [2012] NSWCA 400, an appeal from proceedings involving allegations of negligence brought by a plaintiff against two defendant companies, Barrett JA (McColl JA and Preston CJ of LEC agreeing) noted the analysis of Austin J in Rich and stated at [109]: The present case was one of a “single proceeding” with the plaintiff suing both [defendants]. Evidence admissible and admitted “in” that proceeding was therefore available for use generally in the proceeding subject to any order under s 136 limiting the use to which it could be put.

It has to be said that, given the analysis in respect of criminal proceedings, this proposition should be regarded as highly doubtful, at least in respect of 25. R v Rahme [2001] NSWCCA 414. 26. See, under the common law, Russell v Western Australia (2011) 214 A Crim R 326; [2011] WASCA 246. 27. BRS v The Queen (1997) 191 CLR 275; 95 A Crim R 400; KRM v The Queen (2001) 206 CLR 221; 118 A Crim R 262; [2001] HCA 11.

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[EA.Intro.350]

non-testimonial evidence. Of course, as a practical matter, the various rules of admissibility may apply in the same way with respect to the two defendants (as appears to have been the position in Eire Contractors Pty Ltd v O’Brien [2012] NSWCA 400). However, the example of the differential application of the admissions exception to the hearsay rule clearly demonstrates that they may not and this important point of principle should not be forgotten. This point was acknowledged by Reeves J of the Federal Court in Richards v Macquarie Bank Ltd (No 3) (2013) 301 ALR 653; [2012] FCA 1523 (decided prior to Eire Contractors Pty Ltd v O’Brien [2012] NSWCA 400) when his Honour noted at [40] that Austin J had not referred to the provisions in this Act applying to evidence of admissions and concluded (at [83]) that it was clear that an admission made by one defendant to civil proceedings would not necessarily be admissible against another party to the proceedings.

[EA.Intro.350]

Absence of objection

Another recurring issue in relation to the UEL, particularly in respect of the application of the admissibility rules in Ch 3, is whether the provisions apply in the absence of objection being taken by a party to the proceeding. On the face of it, they do. There is no explicit precondition to the operation of these provisions that evidence is not admissible “if objection is taken by a party”. However, Spigelman CJ stated:

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In the ordinary course, the words “not admissible” in the Evidence Act, including in the opinion rule found in s 70 to which s 79 is an exception, means “not admissible over objection”, in accordance with the practice of the courts of which the Parliament was aware when it passed the Evidence Act.28

The other members of the Court of Appeal did not address this issue.29 Spigelman CJ had earlier expressed the same view in respect of a provision of the Crimes Act 1900 (which was cognate with, and commenced operation at the same time as, the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW)) which rendered certain evidence “not admissible”, with Greg James J agreeing.30 That approach in respect of what is now s 281 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986 has repeatedly been followed.31 A similar view has been expressed in respect of the Evidence Act provisions by Santow JA in obiter dicta in City Elevator Services Pty Ltd v Burrows [2004] NSWCA 26 at [17]–[21]. Indeed, in Lazaris v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 163, Bellew J (Hoeben CJ at CL and Adamson J agreeing) stated at [97]: “the words ‘not admissible’ in s 59(1) [of the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW)] mean ‘not admissible over objection’: Gonzales v The Queen (2007) 178 A Crim R 232; [2007] NSWCCA 321 at [22] per Giles JA, Howie and Fullerton JJ agreeing””. There was simply no acknowledgment of the fact that the discussion in Gonzales v The Queen (2007) 178 A Crim R 232; [2007] NSWCCA 321 related not to the 28. Seltsam Pty Ltd v McGuiness (2000) 49 NSWLR 262; [2000] NSWCA 29 at [149] per Spigelman CJ. 29. Davies AJA did not refer to the issue; Stein JA stated (at [258]) only that “I do not think that intermediate Courts of Appeal should encourage these kinds of submissions in the circumstance just disclosed. In any event, [the evidence] was … admissible”. 30. R v Reid [1999] NSWCCA 258 per Spigelman CJ (at [5]), Greg James J (at [11]). 31. See Gonzales v The Queen (2007) 178 A Crim R 232; [2007] NSWCCA 321 at [26]. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.Intro.350]

Introduction

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Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) but rather s 281 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986.32 Nevertheless, in WC v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 52, Meagher JA (Simpson and Wilson JJ agreeing) concluded at [20] that “that construction of those words is now well accepted”.33 That construction appears to have been followed by the Full Court of the Federal Court.34 This analysis is highly questionable, at least in relation to the UEL. It may be observed that this construction adds words that were not put there by the legislature. It also appears inconsistent with other provisions in the Act which explicitly require a party to “request” a court to make an evidentiary determination (for example, ss 34(1), 165(2)) and provisions which require an “objection” to be made (for example, ss 37(1)(c), 118, 119, 128). Further, it fails to take into account the existence of s 190, which deals in a comprehensive manner with the issue of “waiver of rules of evidence”. That provision permits a court to “dispense with the application” of various provisions in the Act, including many of the provisions in Ch 3, so long as a number of conditions are satisfied. It is inconsistent with the clear intention behind that provision to hold that the provisions in the Act, which enact that certain categories of evidence are “not admissible”, have no application in the absence of objection by a party.35 It is a different question whether, in a case where objection was not taken at trial, an appeal court will permit a party to advance a ground of appeal contending that certain evidence was not admissible and thus was wrongly admitted (see [EA.190.120]). Where an appeal does proceed, evidence may be regarded as inadmissible notwithstanding the absence of objection. The NSW Court of Criminal Appeal (Mason P, Sperling and Bergin JJ) observed in R v Chai [2002] NSWCCA 512 at [41] that it “has long been held that failure by a trial judge to allow inadmissible evidence may give rise to a miscarriage of justice notwithstanding the absence of objection: R v Ellis [1910] 2 KB 747; Stirland v Director of Public Prosecutions [1944] AC 327”. This proposition implicitly recognises that evidence may be regarded as inadmissible notwithstanding the absence of objection and an appeal may succeed notwithstanding that absence. The court observed that “the same principle applies in relation to a failure to limit the use of evidence”. The point was made explicit in R v Le (2002) 54 NSWLR 474; 130 A Crim R 44; [2002] NSWCCA 186 where Heydon JA (as he then was) stated at [47] in respect of ss 137 and 192: [T]he terms of ss 137 and 192 are mandatory. They must be complied with whether or not a party who might gain from their invocation actually invokes them. It is notable

32. It should also be noted that the citation for Gonzalez was erroneous: it is Gonzales v The Queen (2007) 178 A Crim R 232; [2007] NSWCCA 321. 33. See also Haidari v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 126 at [42]; Severino v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 80 at [62]. 34. Federal Commissioner of Taxation v SNF (Australia) Pty Ltd (2011) 193 FCR 149; [2011] FCAFC 74 at [26]. 35. Reference was made to s 190 by Meagher JA in WC v The Queen [2015] NSWCCA 52 at [23]–[25] but in the context of an argument that the trial judge did not comply with that provision, rather than an argument that the very existence of s 190 showed a clear legislative intention that questions of waiver of the rules of admissibility in Ch 3 should be dealt with under that provision.

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[EA.Intro.350]

that Pt 3.11 (in which s 137 appears) and Chapter 5 (in which s 192 appears) are not listed as among the provisions which the court may, with the parties’ consent, dispense with: s 190.

Interestingly, in Jackson v The Queen [2005] NSWCCA 411, Spigelman CJ appears to have accepted the correctness of the approach taken in R v Chai [2002] NSWCCA 512 given that he held that an absence of objection at trial did not necessarily render the evidence in question admissible although it did, in the particular circumstances, justify a refusal to grant leave to appeal to challenge the admission of the evidence. Rule 4 of the Criminal Appeal Rules (NSW), for example, expressly requires leave of the appeal court to advance a ground of appeal where objection was not taken at trial. It may be concluded that there was no “miscarriage of justice” if defence counsel saw no reason to make objection (or objection on a particular basis later advanced on appeal).36

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The Victorian Court of Appeal in Velkoski v The Queen (2014) 242 A Crim R 222; [2014] VSCA 121, after referring to NSW authority and the criticism above (which was said at [199] to appear “to have some force”), observed at [200] that, while the decisions of another intermediate appellate court on the identical provision in uniform legislation ““must be given great weight … in the absence of full and considered argument by this court, we would be reluctant to construe the term ‘is not admissible’ in s 97 (and other provisions of the UEL to the same effect) as meaning that the evidence was admissible in the absence of objection””. The court declined to express a concluded view on the issue. There is no doubt that, at least in criminal proceedings, a trial court may be obligated to act even in the absence of objection. In R v Slack (2003) 139 A Crim R 314; [2003] NSWCCA 93 at [37], Sheller JA (Wood CJ at CL and Smart AJ agreeing) held that a trial judge should have intervened to disallow crossexamination which went beyond the bounds of legitimate cross-examination as to the credibility of a witness, notwithstanding the absence of rejection. At the least, an inquiry of counsel may be required. In R v Lewis [2003] NSWCCA 180 at [68], Buddin J (with whom Santow JA agreed) observed: [W]here evidence which is clearly prejudicial to the accused is being led, there comes a point in time at which he or she must make due enquiry in order to ascertain the basis upon which the material is said to be admissible. A trial judge is not absolved from responsibility in that regard by simply relying upon the way in which the parties are conducting the matter.

It is true that in FDP v The Queen (2008) 74 NSWLR 645; 192 A Crim R 87; [2008] NSWCCA 317, McClellan CJ at CL and Grove J and Howie J came very close to endorsing the view that s 137 should be interpreted as if the words “if objection is taken” qualified the word “must”.37 However, the prevailing view is 36. See Velkoski v The Queen (2014) 242 A Crim R 222; [2014] VSCA 121 at [201]–[221]. 37. Reference was made to Reid and Gonzales, discussed above, although not to s 190 or the other authorities discussed above. Reference was also made to the judgment of the High Court in Dhanhoa v The Queen (2003) 139 A Crim R 41; 77 ALJR 1433; [2003] HCA 40, discussed at [EA.116.90], where it was held that the judicial obligation to give a warning about identification evidence in s 116 only arises where the reliability of the identification evidence is “disputed”. However, there is a difference between an identification not being disputed and no request being made for a warning. The High Court did not hold that a warning under s 116 need not be given unless requested. It is true that Gleeson CJ and Hayne J referred at [20] to the fact that “the © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.Intro.360]

Introduction

that, at least where the danger of unfair prejudice is manifest, an obligation to exclude the evidence under s 137 may arise in accordance with the trial judge’s overriding obligation to ensure a fair trial according to law.38 As the Victorian Court of Appeal stated in Velkoski v The Queen (2014) 242 A Crim R 222; [2014] VSCA 121 at [221]: When irrelevant or inadmissible evidence emerges during the examination of a witness, a trial judge may have to intervene, unless it becomes plain that the course is one agreed to by the parties, and that it will not create the risk of an unfair trial. There will be other circumstances in which the trial judge, in the interests of ensuring a fair trial, will be obliged to question the admissibility of evidence although no objection is taken.

However, in civil proceedings the accepted view is that it is not the role of the court to raise questions of admissibility, including any which turn on relevance.39 Where evidence is admitted which the court regards as not relevant under s 55, the court will give the evidence no weight.40 On the other hand, where evidence is admissible for one use but not admissible for another use, absence of objection will usually be understood to apply to the first use, so that the court should not use the evidence in the second impermissible way.41

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[EA.Intro.360]

Overview

Opinions differ on the merits of the uniform evidence law. It certainly has had its share of critics. On a theoretical level, it can be argued that the law in statutory form tends to become more rigid and inflexible, lacking the dynamics of the common law. Courts may have difficulty in developing rules of evidence in response to new types of evidence. The legislation will require more case law to clarify the uncertainties it creates. Amendment is often a difficult process. Injustice may be caused. On a more specific level, particular provisions attract criticism, whether for the principles on which they are based or for the difficulties of interpretation and application they create. Yet, for many, this legislation was welcome. It made the rules of evidence easier to find. It may well have made them easier to understand, and to inter-relate. It Evidence Act applies in an adversarial context” and that defence counsel may have tactical reasons for not objecting to evidence, but this discussion was in the context of demonstrating that a warning about evidence should not be given if it was not disputed. Dhanhoa is certainly not authority for a proposition that the apparently mandatory provisions of the uniform evidence legislation should be read as if the words “if objection is taken” qualify them. 38. Poniris v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 100 at [49]. See also Steve v The Queen (2008) 189 A Crim R 68; [2008] NSWCCA 231, Beazley JA (Hislop and Price JJ agreeing) at [60]; Donai v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 173 at [60]–[66]; Potts v The Queen (2012) 227 A Crim R 217; [2012] NSWCCA 229 at [66]; Penza v The Queen [2013] NSWCCA 21; Velkoski v The Queen (2014) 242 A Crim R 222; [2014] VSCA 121 at [204]–[207]; Tieu v The Queen (2016) 92 NSWLR 94; 258 A Crim R 546; [2016] NSWCCA 111 at [42], [131]–[132], [149]. 39. See Lindgren J in Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (No 2) (2003) 130 FCR 424; [2003] FCA 893 at [13]. 40. Lindgren J in Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (No 2) (2003) 130 FCR 424; [2003] FCA 893 at [13]. In Lym International Pty Ltd v Marcolongo (2011) 15 BPR 29465; [2011] NSWCA 303, Campbell JA observed at [103] that, even where no objection has been taken, “it can at least be said that it would be improper for a judge to use, in assessment of the probability of the existence of a fact in issue, evidence that in truth does not rationally affect that probability”. 41. Compare Lym International Pty Ltd v Marcolongo (2011) 15 BPR 29465; [2011] NSWCA 303, Campbell JA at [103].

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[EA.Intro.360]

certainly simplified many of the rules. It facilitated the admission of evidence derived from modern information storing media and copying technologies. It introduced greater flexibility in several areas of evidence law. It hopefully provided a rational and principled system of trial procedure, one aimed at procedural justice. The substantial amendments following on ALRC 102 show that the Act can be improved over time. To the extent that other jurisdictions follow the lead of New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria, the ACT and the Northern Territory in enacting parallel legislation, citizens across this country will experience a substantially uniform system of trial procedure.

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Of course, this legislation does not solve all the problems with evidence. Deciding whether evidence is “relevant” to a proceeding, for example, remains a task for which the law can only provide limited assistance. Some “rules” can only be expressed in the most general language, articulating a principle rather than a precise test. While this provides flexibility, the price is uncertainty of result. In many areas, the Act accords considerable “discretion” to trial judges, both expressly and implicitly. However, it attempts to articulate the applicable principles and provide guidance in the exercise of such discretion. Ultimately, it relies on the good sense of judges and magistrates to apply the Act in a way consistent with the policy framework around which the Act is constructed.

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EVIDENCE ACT • Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) [No 2 of 1995] This legislation has been amended up to and including Ozone Protection and Synthetic Greenhouse Gas Management Legislation Amendment Act 2017, Act 67 of 2017, date of assent 23 of June 2017, date of commencement 1 Jan 2018. • Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) [No 25 of 1995] This legislation has been amended up to and including Legal Profession Uniform Law Application Legislation Amendment Act 2015, Act 7 of 2015, date of assent 9 Jun 2015, date of commencement 1 Jul 2015. • Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) [No 47 of 2008] This legislation has been amended up to and including Jury Directions and Other Acts Amendment Act, Act 37 of 2017, date of assent 29 Aug 2017, date of commencement 1 Oct 2017. • Evidence Act 2011 (ACT) [No 12 of 2011] This legislation has been amended up to and including Courts and Other Justice Legislation Amendment Act 2018, Act 9 of 2018, date of notification 29 Mar 2018, date of commencement 26 Apr 2018. Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

• Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act (NT) This legislation has been amended up to and including Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Amendment (Journalist Privilege) Act 2018, Act 7 of 2018, date of assent 19 April 2018, date of commencement 20 April 2018.

Table of Provisions Editor’s note * indicates that the provision appears only in the Commonwealth Act. † indicates that the provision appears only in the NSW Act. ‡ indicates that the provision appears only in the Victorian Act. ◊ indicates that the provision appears only in the ACT Act. ♠ indicates that the provision appears only in the NT Act.

CHAPTER 1 - PRELIMINARY / PRELIMINARY MATTERS♠ Introductory note

Part 1.1 - Formal matters 1 2

34

Short title*♠ / Name of Act†◊ / Purpose‡............................................................45 Commencement [Repealed]◊ / Commencement*† ‡♠....................................... 46

Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Provisions 2A 3 3A 3B

Object of Act♠..................................................................................................... 47 Definitions / Dictionary◊....................................................................................... 47 Notes‡ / Numbering◊...........................................................................................49 Notes◊..................................................................................................................49

Part 1.2 - Application of this Act / Application of Act♠ 4 5 6 7 8 8A 9 10 10A 11

Courts and proceedings to which Act applies..................................................... 50 Extended application of certain provisions..........................................................60 Territories............................................................................................................. 62 Act binds Crown.................................................................................................. 62 Operation of other Acts etc* / Operation of other Acts†◊ / Operation of Acts‡♠............................................................................................ 63 Application of the Criminal Code*♠ / Offences against Act–application of Criminal Code etc◊.......................................................................................... 68 Effect of Act on other laws* / Application of common law and equity.................69 Parliamentary privilege preserved....................................................................... 73 Application of section 127A♠.............................................................................. 75 General powers of a court...................................................................................75

CHAPTER 2 - ADDUCING EVIDENCE / GIVING AND PRESENTING EVIDENCE◊ Introductory note*†♠ / Note‡◊

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Part 2.1 - Witnesses Division 1 / Division 2.1.1◊ - Competence and compellability of witnesses 12 Competence and compellability...........................................................................83 13 Competence: lack of capacity............................................................................. 84 14 Compellability: reduced capacity......................................................................... 98 15 Compellability: Sovereign and others................................................................100 16 Competence and compellability: judges and jurors.......................................... 102 17 Competence and compellability: defendants in criminal proceedings / Competence and compellability–accused in criminal proceedings‡◊♠............ 104 18 Compellability of spouses and others in criminal proceedings generally / Compellability of domestic partners and others in criminal proceedings generally◊...........................................................................................................107 19 Compellability of spouses and others in certain criminal proceedings [Repealed]* / Compellability of spouses and others in certain criminal proceedings†‡♠ / Compellability of domestic partners and others in certain criminal proceedings◊...................................................... 116 20 Comment on failure to give evidence................................................................ 118 Division 2*†‡♠ / Division 2.1.2◊ - Oaths♠ / Oaths and affirmations*†‡◊ 21 Sworn evidence of witnesses to be on oath or affirmation / Sworn evidence to be on oath or affirmation† / Evidence of witnesses to be on oath♠..............................................................135 22 Interpreters to act on oath or affirmation / Interpreters to act on oath♠...........138 23 Choice of oath or affirmation............................................................................. 140 24 Requirements for oaths..................................................................................... 142 24A Alternative oath†‡◊............................................................................................ 143 25 Rights to make unsworn statements unaffected [Repealed]* / Rights to make unsworn statements unaffected............................................... 144 Division 3 / Division 2.1.3◊ - General rules about giving evidence 26 Court’s control over questioning of witnesses*†◊ / Court’s control over questioning of witness‡♠..................................................145 27 Parties may question witnesses........................................................................ 152 © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Evidence Act 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Order of examination in chief, cross-examination and re-examination.............156 Manner and form of questioning witnesses and their responses..................... 158 Interpreters / Interpreter♠.................................................................................. 164 Witnesses who cannot hear adequately or speak adequately* / Deaf and mute witnesses.................................................................................. 166 Attempts to revive memory in court.................................................................. 168 Evidence given by police officers...................................................................... 176 Attempts to revive memory out of court............................................................ 179 Effect of calling for production of documents.................................................... 182 Person may be examined without subpoena or other process........................ 183

Division 4 / Division 2.1.4◊ - Examination in chief and re-examination / Examination-in-chief and re-examination◊ 37 Leading questions..............................................................................................186 38 Unfavourable witnesses.....................................................................................194 39 Limits on re-examination....................................................................................211 Division 5 / Division 2.1.5◊ - Cross-examination 40 Witness called in error.......................................................................................216 41 Improper questions............................................................................................ 217 42 Leading questions..............................................................................................233 43 Prior inconsistent statements of witnesses....................................................... 237 44 Previous representations of other persons / Previous representations of other people◊........................................................243 45 Production of documents...................................................................................248 46 Leave to recall witnesses.................................................................................. 252

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Part 2.2 - Documents 47 48 49 50 51

Definitions / Definitions–pt 2.2◊......................................................................... 270 Proof of contents of documents........................................................................ 272 Documents in foreign countries.........................................................................291 Proof of voluminous or complex documents..................................................... 293 Original document rule abolished......................................................................297

Part 2.3 - Other evidence 52 53 54

Adducing of other evidence not affected / Presenting of other evidence not affected◊.......................................................299 Views................................................................................................................. 301 Views to be evidence........................................................................................ 307

CHAPTER 3 - ADMISSIBILITY OF EVIDENCE Introductory note / Note◊

Part 3.1 - Relevance 55 56 57 58

Relevant evidence............................................................................................. 313 Relevant evidence to be admissible..................................................................355 Provisional relevance.........................................................................................360 Inferences as to relevance................................................................................ 366

Part 3.2 - Hearsay Division 1 / Division 3.2.1◊ - The hearsay rule 59 The hearsay rule–exclusion of hearsay evidence♠ / The hearsay rule–exclusion of hearsay evidence............................................. 373 60 Exception: evidence relevant for a non-hearsay purpose.................................386 61 Exceptions to the hearsay rule dependent on competency*†◊ / Exceptions to the hearsay rule dependant on competency‡♠......................... 393

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Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Provisions Division 2 / Division 3.2.2◊ - “First-hand” hearsay / First-hand hearsay*◊ 62 Restriction to “first-hand” hearsay / Restriction to first-hand hearsay◊.............398 63 Exception: civil proceedings if maker not available.......................................... 404 64 Exception: civil proceedings if maker available.................................................407 65 Exception: criminal proceedings if maker not available.................................... 415 66 Exception: criminal proceedings if maker available.......................................... 441 66A Exception: contemporaneous statements about a person’s health etc............ 457 67 Notice to be given..............................................................................................460 68 Objections to tender of hearsay evidence in civil proceedings if maker available...............................................................................................466 Division 3 / Division 3.2.3◊ - Other exceptions to the hearsay rule 69 Exception: business records..............................................................................471 70 Exception: contents of tags, labels and writing.................................................494 71 Exception: electronic communications.............................................................. 497 72 Exception: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander traditional laws and customs..............................................................................................................501 73 Exception: reputation as to relationships and age............................................ 503 74 Exception: reputation of public or general rights...............................................506 75 Exception: interlocutory proceedings.................................................................508

Part 3.3 - Opinion 76 77 78 78A

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79 80

The opinion rule / The opinion rule♠.................................................................515 Exception: evidence relevant otherwise than as opinion evidence.................. 527 Exception: lay opinions......................................................................................529 Exception: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander traditional laws and customs...................................................................................................... 543 Exception: opinions based on specialised knowledge...................................... 545 Ultimate issue and common knowledge rules abolished.................................. 588

Part 3.4 - Admissions 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 89A 90

Hearsay and opinion rules: exception for admissions and related representations.................................................................................................. 596 Exclusion of evidence of admissions that is not first-hand............................... 611 Exclusion of evidence of admissions as against third parties.......................... 613 Exclusion of admissions influenced by violence and certain other conduct..... 616 Criminal proceedings: reliability of admissions by defendants / Criminal proceedings–reliability of admissions by accused‡............................ 624 Exclusion of records of oral questioning........................................................... 638 Admissions made with authority........................................................................641 Proof of admissions........................................................................................... 649 Evidence of silence / Evidence of silence generally†....................................... 650 Evidence of silence in criminal proceedings for serious indictable offences†........................................................................................................... 655 Discretion to exclude admissions...................................................................... 660

Part 3.5 - Evidence of judgments and convictions 91 92 93

Exclusion of evidence of judgments and convictions........................................676 Exceptions......................................................................................................... 680 Savings.............................................................................................................. 684

Part 3.6 - Tendency and coincidence 94 95 96 97 98

Application / Application-Pt 3.6◊........................................................................ 688 Use of evidence for other purposes.................................................................. 691 Failure to act......................................................................................................693 The tendency rule / The tendency rule♠...........................................................694 The coincidence rule / The coincidence rule♠.................................................. 722

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Evidence Act 99 100 101

Requirements for notices...................................................................................745 Court may dispense with notice requirements.................................................. 746 Further restrictions on tendency evidence and coincidence evidence adduced by prosecution.................................................................................... 750

Part 3.7 - Credibility Division 1 / Division 3.7.1◊ - Credibility evidence 101A Credibility evidence............................................................................................809 Division 2 / Division 3.7.2◊ - Credibility of witnesses 102 The credibility rule............................................................................................. 821 103 Exception: cross-examination as to credibility.................................................. 825 104 Further protections: cross-examination of accused* / Further protections: cross-examination as to credibility.................................... 834 105 Further protections: defendants making unsworn statements [Repealed]* / Further protections: defendants making unsworn statements†♠ / Further protections: accused making unsworn statements‡....................................................................................................... 843 106 Exception: rebutting denials by other evidence................................................ 844 107 Exception: application of certain provisions to makers of representations [Repealed]*† / Exception–application of certain provisions to makers of representations‡♠............................................................................ 856 108 Exception: re-establishing credibility................................................................. 856

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Division 3 / Division 3.7.3◊ - Credibility of persons who are not witnesses 108A Admissibility of evidence of credibility of person who has made a previous representation..................................................................................... 866 108B Further protections: previous representations of an accused who is not a witness......................................................................................................870 Division 4 / Division 3.7.4◊ - Persons with specialised knowledge / People with specialised knowledge◊ 108C Exception: evidence of persons with specialised knowledge........................... 876

Part 3.8 - Character 109 110 111 112

Application / Application–pt 3.8◊........................................................................884 Evidence about character of accused persons*†♠ / Evidence about character of an accused‡ / Evidence about character of accused people◊..... 885 Evidence about character of co-accused.......................................................... 899 Leave required to cross-examine about character of accused or co-accused.................................................................................................... 901

Part 3.9 - Identification evidence 113 114 115 116

Application of Part / Application–pt 3.9◊............................................................906 Exclusion of visual identification evidence........................................................ 907 Exclusion of evidence of identification by pictures............................................933 Directions to jury................................................................................................948

Part 3.10 - Privileges Division 1 / Division 3.10.1◊ - Client legal privilege 117 Definitions / Definitions–div 3.10.1◊.................................................................. 962 118 Legal advice.......................................................................................................974 119 Litigation.............................................................................................................994 120 Unrepresented parties..................................................................................... 1000 121 Loss of client legal privilege: generally........................................................... 1002 122 Loss of client legal privilege: consent and related matters............................. 1007 123 Loss of client legal privilege: defendants / Loss of client legal privilege–accused‡...........................................................1037

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Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Provisions 124 125 126

Loss of client legal privilege: joint clients........................................................ 1041 Loss of client legal privilege: misconduct........................................................1044 Loss of client legal privilege: related communications and documents.......... 1053

Division 1A† / Division 3.10.1A◊ - Professional confidential relationship privilege†◊ 126A Definitions† / Definitions–div 3.10.1A◊............................................................ 1058 126B Exclusion of evidence of protected confidences†◊......................................... 1060 126C Loss of professional confidential relationship privilege: consent†◊.................1070 126D Loss of professional confidential relationship privilege: misconduct†◊........... 1071 126E Ancillary orders†◊............................................................................................ 1073 126F Application of Division† / Application–div 3.10.1A◊.........................................1073 Division 1B - Sexual assault communications privilege† 126G Definitions†...................................................................................................... 1075 126H Exclusion of evidence of protected sexual assault communications†............ 1075 126I Application of Division†................................................................................... 1076 Division 1C*†‡ / Division 3.10.1C◊ - Journalist privilege 126J Definitions*†‡ / Definitions–div 3.10.1C◊........................................................ 1076 Journalist privilege relating to identity of informant*†‡ / 126K Journalist privilege relating to informant’s identity◊.........................................1079 126L Application of Division† / Application–div 3.10.1C◊........................................ 1091

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Division 2 / Division 3.10.2◊ - Other privileges 127 Religious confessions...................................................................................... 1092 127A Journalist privilege♠........................................................................................ 1095 128 Privilege in respect of self-incrimination in other proceedings........................1096 128A Privilege in respect of self-incrimination–exception for certain orders etc...... 1132 Division 3 / Division 3.10.3◊ - Evidence excluded in the public interest 129 Exclusion of evidence of reasons for judicial etc. decisions........................... 1144 130 Exclusion of evidence of matters of state........................................................1150 131 Exclusion of evidence of settlement negotiations............................................1169 Division 4 / Division 3.10.4◊ - General 131A Extended application of Division 1C* / Application of Part to preliminary proceedings of courts†‡ / Application of div 3.10.4 to preliminary proceedings of courts◊ / Application of Division to preliminary proceedings of courts♠....................................................................................1196 131B Extended application of Division 1C etc. to all proceedings for Commonwealth offences*................................................................................ 1206 132 Court to inform of rights to make applications and objections........................1207 133 Court may inspect etc. documents..................................................................1208 134 Inadmissibility of evidence that must not be adduced or given / Inadmissibility of evidence that must not be presented or given◊.................. 1211

Part 3.11 - Discretionary and mandatory exclusions 135 136 137 138 139

General discretion to exclude evidence.......................................................... 1213 General discretion to limit use of evidence..................................................... 1227 Exclusion of prejudicial evidence in criminal proceedings.............................. 1237 Discretion to exclude improperly or illegally obtained evidence* / Exclusion of improperly or illegally obtained evidence................................... 1267 Cautioning of persons / Cautioning of people◊............................................... 1303

CHAPTER 4 - PROOF Introductory note / Note◊

Part 4.1 - Standard of proof 140

Civil proceedings: standard of proof................................................................1315

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Evidence Act 141 142

Criminal proceedings: standard of proof......................................................... 1325 Admissibility of evidence: standard of proof....................................................1339

Part 4.2 - Judicial notice 143 144 145

Matters of law.................................................................................................. 1341 Matters of common knowledge....................................................................... 1345 Certain Crown certificates............................................................................... 1352

Part 4.3 - Facilitation of proof

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Division 1 / Division 4.3.1◊ - General 146 Evidence produced by processes, machines and other devices.................... 1354 147 Documents produced by processes, machines and other devices in the course of business................................................................................ 1358 148 Evidence of certain acts of justices, lawyers and notaries public* / Evidence of certain acts of justices, Australian lawyers and notaries public..................................................................................................1362 149 Attestation of documents................................................................................. 1364 150 Seals and signatures....................................................................................... 1365 151 Seals of bodies established under State law.................................................. 1371 152 Documents produced from proper custody..................................................... 1372 Division 2 / Division 4.3.2◊ - Matters of official record 153 Gazettes and other official documents............................................................ 1373 154 Documents published by authority of Parliaments etc.................................... 1378 155 Evidence of official records..............................................................................1379 155A Evidence of Commonwealth documents......................................................... 1383 156 Public documents............................................................................................ 1384 157 Public documents relating to court processes................................................ 1388 158 Evidence of certain public documents.............................................................1391 159 Official statistics............................................................................................... 1394 Division 3 / Division 4.3.3◊ - Matters relating to post and communications 160 Postal articles.................................................................................................. 1396 161 Electronic communications.............................................................................. 1401 162 Lettergrams and telegrams..............................................................................1405 163 Proof of letters having been sent by Commonwealth agencies..................... 1407

Part 4.4 - Corroboration 164

Corroboration requirements abolished............................................................ 1409

Part 4.5 - Warnings and information 165 165A 165B

Unreliable evidence......................................................................................... 1414 Warnings in relation to children’s evidence.....................................................1472 Delay in prosecution........................................................................................ 1481

Part 4.6 - Ancillary provisions Division 1 / Division 4.6.1◊ - Requests to produce documents or call witnesses 166 Definition of request / Meaning of request–div 4.6.1◊ / Definition of request♠...................................................................................... 1501 167 Requests may be made about certain matters............................................... 1504 168 Time limits for making certain requests...........................................................1507 169 Failure or refusal to comply with requests / Failure to comply with requests◊..................................................................... 1511 Division 2 / Division 4.6.2◊ - Proof of certain matters by affidavits or written statements 170 Evidence relating to certain matters................................................................1521 171 Persons who may give such evidence / People who may give evidence mentioned in s 170◊.....................................1523

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Uniform Evidence Law

Table of Provisions 172 173

Evidence based on knowledge, belief or information..................................... 1528 Notification of other parties..............................................................................1529

Division 3 / Division 4.6.3◊ - Foreign law 174 Evidence of foreign law................................................................................... 1530 175 Evidence of law reports of foreign countries................................................... 1533 176 Questions of foreign law to be decided by judge............................................1534 Division 4 / Division 4.6.4◊ - Procedures for proving other matters 177 Certificates of expert evidence........................................................................ 1535 178 Convictions, acquittals and other judicial proceedings................................... 1539 179 Proof of identity of convicted persons–affidavits by members of State or Territory police forces / Proof of identity of convicted people–affidavits by members of State or Territory police forces◊.................................................. 1544 180 Proof of identity of convicted persons–affidavits by AFP employees or special members of the Australian Federal Police* / Proof of identity of convicted persons–affidavits by members of Australian Federal Police†‡♠ / Proof of identity of convicted people–affidavits by members of Australian Federal Police◊...............................................................................1547 181 Proof of service of statutory notifications, notices, orders and directions.......1549

CHAPTER 5 - MISCELLANEOUS / MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS♠ 182

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183 184 185

186 187 188 189 190 191 192 192A 193 194 195 196 197 198

Application of certain sections in relation to Commonwealth records, postal articles sent by Commonwealth agencies and certain Commonwealth documents* / Application of certain sections in relation to Commonwealth records..............................................................1552 Inferences........................................................................................................ 1555 Accused may admit matters and give consents............................................. 1558 Faith and credit to be given to documents properly authenticated*◊ / Full faith and credit to be given to documents properly authenticated †‡♠........................................................................................... 1561 Swearing of affidavits before justices of the peace, notaries public and lawyers*†◊ / Swearing of affidavits‡♠............................................................. 1562 Abolition of the privilege against self-incrimination for bodies corporate* / No privilege against self-incrimination for bodies corporate........................... 1564 Impounding documents................................................................................... 1566 The voir dire / The voir dire*◊.......................................................................... 1567 Waiver of rules of evidence............................................................................. 1575 Agreements as to facts....................................................................................1581 Leave, permission or direction may be given on terms / Leave, permission or direction may be given on conditions◊......................... 1585 Advance rulings and findings.......................................................................... 1591 Additional powers............................................................................................ 1595 Witnesses failing to attend proceedings [Repealed]* / Witnesses failing to attend proceedings†‡◊♠................................................. 1598 Prohibited question not to be published..........................................................1601 Proceedings for offences [Repealed]*♠ / Proceedings for offences†‡◊......... 1603 Regulations / Regulation-making power◊........................................................ 1604 Savings, transitional and other provisions†.....................................................1605

CHAPTER 6 TRANSITIONAL MATTERS FOR EVIDENCE (NATIONAL UNIFORM LEGISLATION) ACT 2011♠ (NT ONLY) 198 199 200

Definitions♠..................................................................................................... 1606 Application of this Act on commencement day♠.............................................1606 Application of section 128A♠.......................................................................... 1606

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Evidence Act 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213

Application of Part 3.10 to disclosure requirements♠.....................................1606 Identifications already carried out♠................................................................. 1607 Documents and evidence produced before commencement day by processes, machines and other devices♠...................................................... 1607 Documents attested and verified before commencement day♠..................... 1607 Matters of official record published before commencement day♠..................1607 Agreed facts♠.................................................................................................. 1608 Application of Act to improperly or illegally obtained evidence♠.................... 1608 Notification provisions♠................................................................................... 1608 Notice of intention to adduce hearsay evidence♠.......................................... 1609 Notice of intention to adduce evidence as to tendency or coincidence♠.......1609 Time limits for making requests♠.................................................................... 1609 Requests under section 173♠......................................................................... 1610 Transitional regulations [Expired]♠..................................................................1610

CHAPTER 7 TRANSITIONAL MATTERS FOR EVIDENCE (NATIONAL UNIFORM LEGISLATION) AMENDMENT ACT 2013♠ (NT ONLY) 214 215

Definitions♠......................................................................................................1611 Ongoing proceedings♠.................................................................................... 1611

CHAPTER 8 TRANSITIONAL MATTERS FOR EVIDENCE (NATIONAL UNIFORM LEGISLATION) AMENDMENT (JOURNALIST PRIVILEGE) ACT 2018♠ (NT ONLY) -

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216 217 218

Definitions♠..................................................................................................... 1612 Application of section 127A♠.......................................................................... 1612 Application of section 160♠.............................................................................1612

SCHEDULE*♠ / SCHEDULE 1†‡◊ - OATHS AND AFFIRMATIONS / OATHS AND AFFIRMATION♠ SCHEDULE 2 - SAVINGS, TRANSITIONAL AND OTHER PROVISIONS† / TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS‡ DICTIONARY Part 1 - Definitions Part 2 - Other expressions

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Uniform Evidence Law

CHAPTER 1 – PRELIMINARY CHAPTER 1 – PRELIMINARY MATTERS (NT ONLY) Cth Act: Introductory Note

Outline of this Act This Act sets out the federal rules of evidence. Generally speaking, the Act applies to proceedings in federal courts (see section 4), but some provisions extend beyond such proceedings (see Note 2 to subsection 4(1)). Chapter 2 is about how evidence is adduced in proceedings. Chapter 3 is about admissibility of evidence in proceedings. Chapter 4 is about proof of matters in proceedings. Chapter 5 deals with miscellaneous matters. The Dictionary at the end of this Act defines terms and expressions used in this Act.

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Related legislation This Act is in most respects uniform with the following State and Territory Acts: (a) the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW); (b) the Evidence Act 2001 (Tas); (c) the Evidence Act 2008 (Vic); (d) the Evidence Act 2011 (ACT); (e) the Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act 2011 (NT).While these Acts are in most respects identical to this Act, there are differences. The explanatory memorandum to the Civil Law and Justice Legislation Amendment Bill 2014 includes a table setting out the differences as at 8 July 2014. An updated version of the table is maintained by the Attorney-General’s Department on its website (http://www.ag.gov.au). [Ch 1 note am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 items 4 and 21; Act 100 of 2005, s 3 and Sch 1 item 14]

NSW Act: Introductory note:

Outline of this Act This Act sets out the State rules of evidence. Generally speaking, the Act applies to proceedings in State courts and before other persons or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence (see section 4). Chapter 2 is about how evidence is adduced in proceedings. Chapter 3 is about admissibility of evidence in proceedings. Chapter 4 is about proof of matters in proceedings. Chapter 5 deals with miscellaneous matters. The Dictionary at the end of this Act defines terms and expressions used in this Act.

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Chapter 1 - Preliminary

Related legislation This Act is in most respects uniform with the Evidence Act 1995 of the Commonwealth. The 2 Acts are drafted in identical terms except so far as differences are identified by appropriate annotations to the texts, and except so far as minor drafting variations are required because one Act is a New South Wales Act and one Act is a Commonwealth Act. If one Act contains a provision that is not included in the other Act, the numbering of the other Act has a gap in the numbering in order to maintain consistent numbering for the other provisions. In relation to the taking of evidence outside New South Wales for the purposes of proceedings in the State and in relation to the taking of evidence in the State for the purposes of proceedings outside New South Wales see the Evidence on Commission Act 1995.

Vic Act: Introductory Note

Outline of this Act This Act sets out the State rules of evidence. Generally speaking, the Act applies to proceedings in State courts and before other persons or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence (see section 4). Chapter 2 is about how evidence is adduced in proceedings. Chapter 3 is about admissibility of evidence in proceedings. Chapter 4 is about proof of matters in proceedings.

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Chapter 5 deals with miscellaneous matters. The Dictionary at the end of this Act defines terms and expressions used in this Act. Related legislation This Act is in most respects uniform with the Evidence Act 1995 of the Commonwealth (the Commonwealth Act) and the Evidence Act 1995 of New South Wales (the New South Wales Act). The Acts are drafted in identical terms except so far as differences are identified by appropriate annotations to the texts, and except so far as minor drafting variations are required to accord with the drafting style of each jurisdiction. If one Act contains a provision that is not included in another Act, there is a gap in the numbering of the other Act in order to maintain consistent numbering for the other provisions. The Evidence Act 2001 of Tasmania also largely mirrors this legislation, but there are some departures.

ACT Act: Note 1 Introductory noteThis Act sets out the Territory rules of evidence. Generally speaking, the Act applies to proceedings in ACT courts and before other people or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence (see s 4).

Note 2 Related legislationThis Act

is in most respects uniform with the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) (the Commonwealth Act) and the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) (the NSW Act). The Acts are drafted in identical terms except so far as differences are identified by appropriate annotations to the texts, and except so far as minor drafting variations are required to accord with the drafting style of each jurisdiction.

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Uniform Evidence Law

s1

Part 1.1 - Formal matters

NT Act: Introductory Note

Outline of this Act This Act sets out the rules of evidence for the Territory. Generally speaking, the Act applies to proceedings in Territory courts and before other persons or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence (see section 4). Chapter 2 is about how evidence is adduced in proceedings. Chapter 3 is about admissibility of evidence in proceedings. Chapter 4 is about proof of matters in proceedings. Chapter 5 deals with miscellaneous matters. The Dictionary at the end of this Act defines terms and expressions used in this Act. Related legislation This Act is in most respects uniform with the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) and the Evidence Act 2008 (Vic). These Acts are drafted in identical terms except so far as differences are identified by appropriate annotations to the texts, and except so far as minor drafting variations are required to accord with the drafting style of each jurisdiction. If one Act contains a provision that is not included in another Act, there is a gap in the numbering of the other Act in order to maintain consistent numbering for the other provisions.

Part 1.1 – Formal matters Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Cth Act: 1

Short title This Act may be cited as the Evidence Act 1995.

NSW Act: 1

Name of Act This Act is the Evidence Act 1995.

Vic Act: 1

Purpose The purpose of this Act is to make fresh provision for the law of evidence that is uniform with Commonwealth and New South Wales law. ACT Act: 1

Name of Act This Act is the Evidence Act 2011.

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Chapter 1 - Preliminary

s1

NT Act: 1

Short title This Act may be cited as the Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Act.

Cth Act: 2

Commencement

(1) This Part and the Dictionary at the end of this Act commence on the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent. (2) Subject to subsection (3), the remaining provisions of this Act commence on a day or days to be fixed by Proclamation. (3) If a provision referred to in subsection (2) does not commence under that subsection before 18 April 1995, it commences on that day. NSW Act: 2

Commencement

(1) This Part and the Dictionary at the end of this Act commence on the date of assent. (2) The remaining provisions of this Act commence on a day or days to be appointed by proclamation. Vic Act: Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

2

Commencement

(1) This Part and the Dictionary at the end of this Act come into operation on the day after the day on which this Act receives the Royal Assent. (2) Subject to subsection (3), the remaining provisions of this Act come into operation on a day or days to be proclaimed. (3) If a provision of this Act does not come into operation before 1 January 2010, it comes into operation on that day. ACT Act: 2

Commencement [Repealed]

[S 2 om Act 14 of 2001, s 89(4)]

NT Act: 2

Commencement

(1) This Part and the Dictionary at the end of this Act commence on the day on which the Administrator’s assent to this Act is declared. (2) The remaining provisions of this Act commence on the day fixed by the Administrator by Gazette notice.

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Uniform Evidence Law

s3

Part 1.1 - Formal matters

[EA.2.30]

[EA.2.30] General comments The provisions of the Commonwealth Act and the NSW Act commenced in 1995. The provisions of the Victorian Act commenced on 1 January 2010.

NT Act: 2A Object of Act The object of this Act is to make fresh provision for the law of evidence that is uniform with the following laws of the Commonwealth, New South Wales and Victoria: (a) the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) (the Commonwealth Act); (b) the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW) (the NSW Act); (c) the Evidence Act 2008 (Vic) (the Victorian Act). Cth Act: 3

Definitions

(1) Expressions used in this Act (or in a particular provision of this Act) that are defined in the Dictionary at the end of this Act have the meanings given to them in the Dictionary. Note: Some expressions used in this Act are defined in the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, and have the meanings given to them in that Act.

(1A) The Dictionary at the end of this Act is part of this Act. Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

[Subs (1A) insrt Act 46 of 2011, s 3 and Sch 2 item 566]

(2) Notes included in this Act are explanatory notes and do not form part of this Act. (3) Definitions in this Act of expressions used in this Act apply to its construction except insofar as the context or subject matter otherwise indicates or requires. [Subs (3) am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 item 22] [S 3 am Act 113 of 2015; Act 46 of 2011]

NSW Act: 3

Definitions

(1) Expressions used in this Act (or in a particular provision of this Act) that are defined in the Dictionary at the end of this Act have the meanings given to them in the Dictionary. (2) Notes included in this Act are explanatory notes and do not form part of this Act. (3) Without limiting the effect of, and subject to, section 34 of the Interpretation Act 1987, material that may be used in the interpretation of a provision of this Act includes any relevant report of a Law Reform Commission laid before either House of the Parliament of the Commonwealth before the provision was enacted. Notes: © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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s3

Chapter 1 - Preliminary

1 Some expressions used in this Act are defined in the Interpretation Act 1987, and have the meanings given to them in that Act. 2 The Commonwealth Act includes a different subsection (3). This is to the same effect as section 6 of the Interpretation Act 1987. Subsection (3) of the NSW Act is covered by section 15AB of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 of the Commonwealth.

Vic Act: 3

Definitions

(1) Expressions used in this Act (or in a particular provision of this Act) that are defined in the Dictionary at the end of this Act have the meanings given to them in the Dictionary. (2) The Dictionary at the end of this Act forms part of this Act. Notes: 1 Some expressions used in this Act are defined in the Interpretation of Legislation Act 1984 and have the meanings given to them in that Act. 2 Subsection (2) differs from the Commonwealth Act and New South Wales Act. 3 The Commonwealth Act and New South Wales Act include an additional subsection regarding definitions which are unnecessary in Victoria due to the Interpretation of Legislation Act 1984.

ACT Act: 3

Dictionary The dictionary at the end of this Act is part of this Act.

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Note 1: The dictionary at the end of this Act defines certain terms used in this Act, and includes references (signpost definitions) to other terms defined elsewhere. For example, the signpost definition “Commonwealth record—see the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth), dictionary.” means that the term “Commonwealth record” is defined in that dictionary and the definition applies to this Act. Note 2: A definition in the dictionary (including a signpost definition) applies to the entire Act unless the definition, or another provision of the Act, provides otherwise or the contrary intention otherwise appears (see Legislation Act, s 155 and s 156(1)). Note 3: This section differs from the Commonwealth Act and NSW Act.

NT Act: 3

Definitions

(1) Expressions used in this Act (or in a particular provision of this Act) that are defined in the Dictionary at the end of this Act have the meanings given to them in the Dictionary. (2) Notes included in this Act are explanatory notes and do not form part of this Act. Notes for section 3: 1 Some expressions used in this Act are defined in the Interpretation Act and have the meanings given to them in that Act. 2 The Commonwealth Act and NSW Act include an additional subsection (3) regarding definitions which is unnecessary in the Territory because of section 18 of the Interpretation Act.

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Uniform Evidence Law

s 3B

Part 1.2 - Application of this Act

[EA.3A.30]

Vic Act: 3A Notes Notes do not form part of this Act. Note: This section does not appear in the Commonwealth Act or New South Wales Act.

ACT Act: 3A

Numbering

(1) To maintain consistent section numbering between this Act and the Commonwealth Act— (a) if the Commonwealth Act contains a section that is not included in this Act—the section number and heading appearing in the Commonwealth Act are included in this Act despite the omission of the body of the section; and (b) if this Act contains a section that is not included in the Commonwealth Act—the section is numbered so as to maintain consistency in numbering between sections common to both Acts. (2) A section number and heading mentioned in subsection (1)(a) form part of this Act.

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(3) If a provision of this Act (other than a section) is numbered differently from the equivalent provision of the Commonwealth Act, the provision of this Act may be referred to using the number of the equivalent provision of the Commonwealth Act. Note 1: A note appears under each heading mentioned in s (1)(a) describing the omitted section of the Commonwealth Act. Note 2: A note appears under each section mentioned in s (1)(b) highlighting the non-appearance of an equivalent section in the Commonwealth Act. Note 3: The Commonwealth Act and NSW Act do not include this section.

[EA.3A.30] General comments The Note to this Victorian section is strictly correct in stating that s 3A does not appear in the Commonwealth Act or the NSW Act. However the substance of the section does appear in s 3(2) of both the Commonwealth Act and the NSW Act.

ACT Act: 3B Notes A note included in this Act is explanatory and is not part of this Act. Note 1: See the Legislation Act, s 127(1), (4) and (5) for the legal status of notes. Note 2: The Commonwealth Act and NSW Act do not include this section.

Part 1.2 – Application of this Act Part 1.2 – Application of Act (NT only)

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s4

Chapter 1 - Preliminary

Cth Act: 4

Courts and proceedings to which Act applies

(1) This Act applies to all proceedings in a federal court, including proceedings that: (a) relate to bail; or (b) are interlocutory proceedings or proceedings of a similar kind; or (c) are heard in chambers; or (d) subject to subsection (2), relate to sentencing. Note 2: Federal court is defined in the Dictionary. The definition includes persons or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence. Note 3: Some provisions of this Act extend beyond proceedings in federal courts. These provisions deal with: • extension of specified provisions to cover proceedings in all Australian courts (section 5); • faith and credit to be given to documents properly authenticated (section 185); • swearing of affidavits for use in Australian courts exercising federal jurisdiction or similar jurisdiction (section 186); • abolition of the privilege against self-incrimination for bodies corporate (section 187). Note 4: See section 79 of the Judiciary Act 1903 for the application of this Act to proceedings in a State court exercising federal jurisdiction.

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[Subs (1) am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 items 5–7 and 23; Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 items 1 and 2]

(2) If such a proceeding relates to sentencing: (a) this Act applies only if the court directs that the law of evidence applies in the proceeding; and (b) if the court specifies in the direction that the law of evidence applies only in relation to specified matters—the direction has effect accordingly. (3) The court must make a direction if: (a) a party to the proceeding applies for such a direction in relation to the proof of a fact; and (b) in the court’s opinion, the proceeding involves proof of that fact, and that fact is or will be significant in determining a sentence to be imposed in the proceeding. (4) The court must make a direction if the court considers it appropriate to make such a direction in the interests of justice. (5) Subject to subsection (5A), the provisions of this Act (other than sections 185, 186 and 187) do not apply to: (a) an appeal from a court of a State, including an appeal from a court of a State exercising federal jurisdiction; or (b) an appeal from a court of the Australian Capital Territory, the Northern Territory or an external Territory; or (c) [Repealed] (d) [Repealed] 50

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(e)

a review of a decision or order of a magistrate and any appeal from such a review; except so far as the provisions apply to proceedings in all Australian courts. [Subs (5) am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 items 8–10; Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 2 item 1; Act 140 of 1995, s 3 and Sch 2 item 1]

(5A) Despite subsection (5), this Act applies to an appeal to the Family Court of Australia from a court of summary jurisdiction of a State or Territory exercising jurisdiction under the Family Law Act 1975. [Subs (5A) am Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 2 item 1; insrt Act 140 of 1995, s 3 and Sch 2 item 2]

(6) [Repealed] [Subs (6) rep Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 items 11 and 24; am Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 2 item 1; Act 140 of 1995, s 3 and Sch 2 item 3] [S 4 am Act 113 of 2015; Act 135 of 2008; Act 140 of 1995]

NSW Act: 4

Courts and proceedings to which Act applies

(1) This Act applies to all proceedings in a NSW court, including proceedings that: (a) relate to bail, subject to Division 4 of Part 3 of the Bail Act 2013, or (b) are interlocutory proceedings or proceedings of a similar kind, or (c) are heard in chambers, or (d) subject to subsection (2), relate to sentencing.

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[Subs (1) am Act 5 of 2014, Sch 2.18[1]; Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[1]]

(2) If such a proceeding relates to sentencing: (a) this Act applies only if the court directs that the law of evidence applies in the proceeding, and (b) if the court specifies in the direction that the law of evidence applies only in relation to specified matters—the direction has effect accordingly. (3) The court must make a direction if: (a) a party to the proceeding applies for such a direction in relation to the proof of a fact, and (b) in the court’s opinion, the proceeding involves proof of that fact, and that fact is or will be significant in determining a sentence to be imposed in the proceeding. (4) The court must make a direction if the court considers it appropriate to make such a direction in the interests of justice. Notes: 1 Section 4 of the Commonwealth Act differs from this section. It applies that Act to proceedings in a federal court or an ACT court. Some provisions of the Commonwealth Act extend beyond proceedings in federal courts and ACT courts (see sections 5, 185, 186 and 187 of the Commonwealth Act). 2 NSW court is defined in the Dictionary. The definition includes persons or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence. 3 The Commonwealth Act includes 2 additional subsections that exclude the application of that Act to appeals from a court of a State (including appeals from a court of a State exercising federal jurisdiction) and certain other courts. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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4 See section 79 of the Judiciary Act 1903 of the Commonwealth for the application of this Act to proceedings in a State court exercising federal jurisdiction. [Subs (4) am Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[2]] [S 4 am Act 5 of 2014; Act 46 of 2007]

Vic Act: 4

Courts and proceedings to which Act applies

(1) This Act applies to all proceedings in a Victorian court, including proceedings that— (a) relate to bail; or (b) are interlocutory proceedings or proceedings of a similar kind; or (c) are heard in chambers; or (d) subject to subsection (2), relate to sentencing.

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(2) If such a proceeding relates to sentencing— (a) this Act applies only if the court directs that the law of evidence applies in the proceeding; and (b) if the court specifies in the direction that the law of evidence applies only in relation to specified matters—the direction has effect accordingly. (3) The court must make a direction if— (a) a party to the proceeding applies for such a direction in relation to the proof of a fact; and (b) in the court’s opinion, the proceeding involves proof of that fact, and that fact is or will be significant in determining a sentence to be imposed in the proceeding. (4) The court must make a direction if the court considers it appropriate to make such a direction in the interests of justice. (5) In this section, a proceeding that relates to sentencing includes a proceeding for an order under Part 4 of the Sentencing Act 1991. Notes: 1 Section 4 of the Commonwealth Act differs from this section. It applies that Act to proceedings in a federal court or an Australian Capital Territory court. Some provisions of the Commonwealth Act extend beyond proceedings in federal courts and Australian Capital Territory courts (see sections 5, 185, 186 and 187 of the Commonwealth Act). 2 Victorian court is defined in the Dictionary. The definition includes persons or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence. 3 The Commonwealth Act includes 2 additional subsections that exclude the application of that Act to appeals from a court of a State (including appeals from a court of a State exercising federal jurisdiction) and certain other courts. 4 Provisions in other Victorian Acts which relieve courts from the obligation to apply the rules of evidence in certain proceedings are preserved by section 8 of this Act. These include— • section 215 of the Children, Youth and Families Act 2005; • sections 8(6) and 13A of the Crimes (Family Violence) Act 1987; • section 38 of the Crimes (Mental Impairment and Unfitness to be Tried) Act 1997; • section 127 of the Electoral Act 2002.

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[S 4 am Act 67 of 2013, s 649 and Sch 9 item 17]

ACT Act: 4

Courts and proceedings to which Act applies

(1) This Act applies to all proceedings in an ACT court, including proceedings that— (a) relate to bail; or (b) are interlocutory proceedings or proceedings of a similar kind; or (c) are heard in chambers; or (d) subject to subsection (2), relate to sentencing. (2) If a proceeding relates to sentencing— (a) this Act applies only if the court directs that the law of evidence applies in the proceeding; and (b) if the court states in the direction that the law of evidence applies only in relation to stated matters—the direction has effect accordingly.

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(3) The court must make a direction under this section if— (a) a party to the proceeding applies for the direction in relation to the proof of a fact; and (b) in the court’s opinion, the proceeding involves proof of the fact, and the fact is or will be significant in deciding a sentence to be imposed in the proceeding. (4) The court must make a direction under this section if the court considers it appropriate in the interests of justice. Note: This section differs from the Commonwealth Act, s 4.

NT Act: 4

Courts and proceedings to which Act applies

(1) This Act applies to all proceedings in a Territory court, including proceedings that: (a) relate to bail; or (b) are interlocutory proceedings or proceedings of a similar kind; or (c) are heard in chambers; or (d) subject to subsection (2), relate to sentencing. (2) If such a proceeding relates to sentencing: (a) this Act applies only if the court directs that the law of evidence applies in the proceeding; and (b) if the court specifies in the direction that the law of evidence applies only in relation to specified matters — the direction has effect accordingly. (3) The court must make a direction if: (a) a party to the proceeding applies for such a direction in relation to the proof of a fact; and © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(b) in the court’s opinion, the proceeding involves proof of that fact, and that fact is or will be significant in determining a sentence to be imposed in the proceeding. (4) The court must make a direction if the court considers it appropriate to make such a direction in the interests of justice. (5) In this section, a proceeding that relates to sentencing includes a proceeding for an order under Part 5 of the Sentencing Act or Part 5, Division 9 of the Traffıc Act.

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Notes for section 4: 1 Section 4 of the Commonwealth Act differs from this section. It applies that Act to proceedings in a federal court or an Australian Capital Territory court. Some provisions of the Commonwealth Act extend beyond proceedings in federal courts and Australian Capital Territory courts (see sections 5, 185, 186 and 187 of the Commonwealth Act). 2 Territory court is defined in the Dictionary. The definition includes persons or bodies required to apply the laws of evidence. 3 The Commonwealth Act includes 2 additional subsections that exclude the application of that Act to appeals from a court of a State or Territory (including appeals from a court exercising federal jurisdiction) and certain other courts. 4 Provisions in other Territory Acts which relieve courts from the obligation to apply the rules of evidence in certain proceedings are preserved by section 8 of this Act. These include, for example: • section 39 of the Coroners Act; • section 93(2) of the Care and Protection of Children Act; • section 257(2) of the Electoral Act; • section 49(2) of the Ombudsman Act; • section 25(2) of the Public Interest Disclosure Act. 5 Subsection (5) is not included in the Commonwealth Act or NSW Act.

[EA.4.30] ALRC references ALRC 102, paras 2.73–2.81; ALRC 38, s 11, para 57.

[EA.4.60] Definitions [Cth Act only] The term “federal court” is defined in the Dictionary: “federal court” means: (a) the High Court; or (b) any other court created by the Parliament (other than the Supreme Court of a Territory); and includes a person or body (other than a court or magistrate of a State or Territory) that, in performing a function or exercising a power under a law of the Commonwealth, is required to apply the laws of evidence.

“ACT court” is defined in the Dictionary: “ACT court” means the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory or any other court of the Australian Capital Territory, and includes a person or body that, in performing a function or exercising a power under a law of the Australian Capital Territory, is required to apply the laws of evidence.

“Australian court” is defined in the Dictionary: 54

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[EA.4.150]

“Australian court” means: (a) the High Court; or (b) a court exercising federal jurisdiction; or (c) a court of a State or Territory; or (d) a judge, justice or arbitrator under an Australian law; or (e) a person or body authorised by an Australian law, or by consent of parties, to hear, receive and examine evidence; or (f) a person or body that, in exercising a function under an Australian law, is required to apply the laws of evidence.

“Australian law” is defined in the Dictionary: “Australian law” means a law of the Commonwealth, a State or a Territory.

Clause 9 of Pt 2 of the Dictionary provides: 9 References to laws (1) A reference in this Act to a law of the Commonwealth, a State, a Territory or a foreign country is a reference to a law (whether written or unwritten) of or in force in that place. (2) A reference in this Act to an Australian law is a reference to an Australian law (whether written or unwritten) of or in force in Australia.

[EA.4.90] Definitions [NSW Act only] The term “NSW court” is defined in the Dictionary to mean: Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

(a) the Supreme Court, or (b) any other court created by Parliament, and includes any person or body (other than a court) that, in exercising a function under the law of the State, is required to apply the laws of evidence.

[EA.4.120] Definitions [Vic Act only] Section 4 of the Victorian Act differs from the NSW and Commonwealth Acts in subsections (1) and (5) and the Notes. The term “Victorian court” is defined in the Dictionary to mean: (a) the Supreme Court, or (b) any other court created by Parliament— and includes any person or body (other than a court) that, in exercising a function under the law of the State, is required to apply the laws of evidence.

[EA.4.150] General comments [Cth Act only] In practical terms, the Commonwealth Act applies to proceedings in the High Court, Federal Court and Family Court and other federal courts. Pursuant to a proclamation made on 9 February 2012, in accordance with s 4(6), it ceased to apply on 1 March 2012 to proceedings in an ACT court, except so far as the provisions of the Act apply to proceedings in all Australian courts (the ACT Evidence Act 2011 came into force on 1 March 2012). Subject to s 8 (see [EA.4.300]), the Commonwealth Act also applies to Commonwealth tribunals © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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2

which are required to apply the law of evidence. It has been held that the Refugee Review Tribunal is not a body that is required to apply the laws of evidence, because s 420(1) of the Migration Act 1958 provides that the Tribunal is “not bound by … rules of evidence”. In so concluding, Finkelstein J observed (at 408–409): In arriving at this conclusion I have ignored the difference in language between s 420(1) which provides that the Tribunal is not bound by the rules of evidence and the definitions which refer to a body that is required to apply the laws of evidence. I do not regard this difference in expression as material. Each expression is apt to refer to the same subject namely matters that are or are not admissible in a proceeding and the method by which those matters are placed before a decision-maker … Further, I do not regard the fact that the Tribunal is obliged to observe certain rules that are sometimes called rules of evidence as affecting my conclusion. The rules that I have in mind are the various privileges that may be relied upon to exclude evidence being led before the Tribunal. The privileges are legal professional privilege, the privilege against self incrimination and what was once referred to as Crown privilege but is now known as public interest immunity. While each of these privileges is commonly regarded as part of the rules of evidence, they have application to a proceeding before the Tribunal not because they are rules of evidence but because they are fundamental principles of the common law that are capable of being exercised not only in curial proceedings but in administrative and investigative proceedings as well.

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Similarly, the Administrative Appeals Tribunal is not bound by the rules of evidence and this Act does not apply to it (and common law doctrines such as public interest immunity do3). In Cabal v United Mexican States (2001) 108 FCR 311; [2001] FCA 427, the Full Court of the Federal Court held (at [189]) that proceedings for review in the Federal Court of extradition proceedings under the Extradition Act 1988 (Cth) were subject to the provisions of the Evidence Act 1995, notwithstanding the fact that the Act did not apply to the initial proceedings brought before a magistrate (since the magistrate was not exercising judicial power but acting as a persona designata in judicial proceedings). The word “proceeding” is not defined in the Act. It has been held that an examination conducted by a court under s 596B of the Corporations Act 2001 (and other similar provisions in Div 1, Pt 5.9) is such a “proceeding” even though it is “not like usual court proceedings and is in the nature of a facilitated investigation by one party”.4 The winding up of an insolvent company by a liquidator appointed by the court is a process which is ultimately subject to the

1. Thus, it does not apply to those tribunals, such as the AAT, which are not required to apply the rules of evidence. 2. See Epeabaka v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural Affairs (1997) 47 ALD 555; 150 ALR 397. 3. See Commissioner of Police (NSW) v Guo [2016] FCAFC 62. 4. Re Interchase Corp Ltd (1996) 68 FCR 481 at 487 per Kiefel J; see also Re Doran Constructions Pty Ltd (2002) 168 FLR 116; 194 ALR 101; [2002] NSWSC 215 at [103] per Campbell J (liquidator’s examination is a “proceeding”); Deputy Commissioner of Taxation v Currockbilly (2002) 172 FLR 99; [2002] NSWSC 1061 at 108; [48].

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[EA.4.150]

5

control of the court and is a proceeding in the court. However, a narrower view has been taken by the Full Court of the Federal Court in Griffın v Pantzer (2004) 137 FCR 209; 207 ALR 169; [2004] FCAFC 113 when it held that an examination under s 81 of the Bankruptcy Act 1966 (Cth) was not a “proceeding” for the purposes of the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth). Allsop J (with whom Ryan J and Heerey J agreed) stated at 259-260; [198]–[207]:

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The word “proceedings” is capable of wide and flexible application. In the Evidence Act, however, the proceedings contemplated are those conducted by a court, or by a person or by a body who or which is required to apply the laws of evidence. … [Paragraph 57 in] the Final Report of the Australian Law Reform Commission Report on Evidence (No 38) … makes clear that it is proceedings “whenever evidence is to be adduced”. It is not easy to see how an examination under s 81 is such a proceeding. It is not between parties. It is not the resolution or agitation of a lis at which evidence is adduced under the rules of evidence. It does not have parties or witnesses properly so-called. It is an interrogation – a fact-finding exercise of the kind discussed by Lord Hanworth MR in In Re Paget; Ex parte Offıcial Receiver [1927] 2 Ch 85. The notes or transcript of the “evidence given at the examination” (see s 81(17)) can be used as evidence, but the “evidence” is only the answers on oath to an interrogation by the trustee or creditor. … The examination may be a proceeding for the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976. It does not follow that it is a proceeding in which it is intended that evidence be adduced from witnesses. … In my view, s 128 of the Evidence Act, along with the other provisions of the Evidence Act, does and do not apply to an examination under s 81.

Allsop J expressly disagreed with the view of Kiefel J in Re Interchase Corp Ltd (1996) 68 FCR 481, noted above, that an examination under s 596B of the Corporations Law was a proceeding for the purpose of the Evidence Act 1995. In Meteyard v Love (2005) 65 NSWLR 36; 224 ALR 588; 56 ACSR 487; [2005] NSWCA 444 Basten JA noted the differing approaches but concluded at 56 (NSWLR); [76] that it was not necessary to resolve them given the operation of the NSW Supreme Court Rules 1970.6 It has also been held that the Act does not apply to cost assessments by costs assessors where they do not act as officers of the court and have no power to take sworn evidence.7 In ALRC 102, after citing the judgment of Allsop J in Griffın v Pantzer, it was stated at para 2.77: Hence, the present state of the law seems to be that “proceedings” in s 4(1) of the uniform Evidence Acts encompasses any step in a suit or action where there is an issue between parties in dispute and the suit or action involves evidence “adduced under the rules of evidence”.

However, it was proposed that the words “in relation” which appeared in various sub-sections of this provision prior to the amendments following on ALRC 102 5. Rosseau Pty Ltd (in liq) v Jay-O-Bees Pty Ltd (in liq) (2004) 50 ACSR 565; [2004] NSWSC 818; De Bortoli Wines Pty Ltd v HIH Insurance Ltd (in liq) (2011) 200 FCR 253; 281 ALR 454; [2011] FCA 645 at [29]. 6. Rule 13 “applies where a question is put to a person in the course of examination before … any examiner, referee, arbitrator or other person authorised to receive evidence”. However, in De Bortoli Wines Pty Ltd v HIH Insurance Ltd (in liq) (2011) 200 FCR 253; 281 ALR 454; [2011] FCA 645 Stone J held at [29]–[38] that while the narrower approach might be appropriate in the context of the application of the privilege against self-incrimination, it should not be applied in the context of the admissibility of business records. 7. Ryan v Hansen (2000) 49 NSWLR 184; [2000] NSWSC 354. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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should be deleted on the basis that they are an example of “verbosity in prepositions” (para 2.81). It was observed at para 2.80 that “the evidentiary rules prescribed in the uniform Evidence Acts have been held incapable of application otherwise than in the course of a hearing of a proceeding in a court”, with the consequence that “there is no ‘proceeding’ outside of the courts identified in s 4 to which the ‘proceedings’ can ‘relate’.” This explanation for the deletion of the words is echoed in the Explanatory Memoranda. As indicated in Note 3 to s 4(1), some provisions of the Act apply to all Australian courts. These provisions are: • s 5, considered below, which extends the operation of a number of provisions to all proceedings in an Australian court (as defined); • s 185, which requires “full faith and credit” to be given to “all public acts, records and judicial proceedings of a State or Territory that are proved or authenticated in accordance with this Act”; • s 186, which deals with the swearing of affidavits for use in Australian courts exercising federal jurisdiction or similar jurisdiction;

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• s 187, which abolishes the privilege against self-incrimination for bodies corporate in all proceedings “under a law of the Commonwealth or the Australian Capital Territory or in a proceeding in a federal court or an ACT court”.

[EA.4.180] General comments [NSW and Victorian Acts only] The NSW Act applies to proceedings in the NSW Supreme Court, any other court created by the NSW Parliament (including such a court exercising federal jurisdiction) and any person or body that “in exercising a function under the law of the State, is required to apply the laws of evidence”: see [EA.4.90]. The Victorian Act applies in substantially the same way: see [EA.4.120]. Of course, this is subject to a provision in another Act providing otherwise (see [EA.4.300]). In regard to the meaning of the term “proceeding”, see the discussion in [EA.4.150] above. As to the meaning of the term “court created by the NSW Parliament”, it has been held that the NSW Coroners Court, while it was a court and ultimately had a purely statutory jurisdiction by 1980, is not a “court created by Parliament”: I consider that the phrase “created by Parliament” means “created by Parliament as such” so that it is rather a formal definition than a descriptive one. If this be correct, it is clear from the legislation to which I have referred that the coroner’s court is not created by Parliament in the sense of the definition. Even if the conclusion stated above be incorrect, I do not consider that the termination of the prior jurisdiction of the coroner’s court by the 1980 Act and its replacement involves the creation of a new court. Whilst the substitutionary process is undoubtedly very significant, its demonstration does not conclude the matter. On balance, I am of the view that the characteristic jurisdiction of the coroner’s court was essentially continued although those functions which earlier depended upon the common law (and it may have been that most of them did) were adopted by the statute and given Parliamentary authority. 58

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However, I think that the court as an institution of public justice continued and its legislative history did not lead to the creation of a court by Parliament.8

Even where the Act does not apply to initial proceedings, it may apply to subsequent proceedings by way of review or appeal.9

[EA.4.210] Bail proceedings Under s 9(2)(b) of the Commonwealth Act it is provided that “this Act does not affect a law of a State or Territory so far as the law relates to … bail”. Section 94(2) provides that Pt 3.6 (Tendency and Coincidence) of the Act does not apply so far as a proceeding relates to bail. Section 31 of the Bail Act 2013 (NSW) provides that, in general, a “bail authority ... is not bound by the principles or rules of law regarding the admission of evidence”. In Victoria, s 8(1) of the Bail Act 1977 provides that the court “may make such inquiries on oath or otherwise of and concerning the accused as the court considers desirable” (subject to limitations on questioning the accused), and permits the informant or prosecutor to, “in addition to any other relevant evidence, submit evidence, whether by affidavit or otherwise”. However, s 8(2) expressly maintains the application of Part 3.10 (Privileges) of this Act.

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[EA.4.240]

Interlocutory proceedings

While the Commonwealth, NSW and Victorian Acts apply to “interlocutory proceedings” and proceedings “of a similar kind”, it should be noted that s 9(1) of the Commonwealth Act provides that the Act “does not affect any Australian law so far as the law relates to a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding”. Similarly, s 9(2)(c) of the NSW Act and the Victorian Act provides that the Act: does not affect the operation of [a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to evidence in a proceeding to which this Act applies] so far as it relates to … (c) a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding.

See, generally, [EA.9.180]. The term “interlocutory proceedings” is discussed at [EA.75.60].

[EA.4.270]

Sentencing proceedings

Apart from those provisions of the Commonwealth Act which apply to proceedings in all Australian courts, the Commonwealth, NSW and Victorian Acts only apply in sentencing proceedings to the extent that the sentencing court directs: s 4(1)(d), (2). Section 4(3) and (4) provide for the circumstances in which such a direction should be made. Considerable discretion is conferred on the sentencing court. It has been held that, where sentencing proceedings follow a trial, the provisions of the Act should apply.10 Section 94(2) provides that Pt 3.6 (Tendency and Coincidence) of the Act does not apply so far as a proceeding 8. Decker v State Coroner (NSW) (1999) 46 NSWLR 415; [1999] NSWSC 369 at [16]–[17] per Adams J. In contrast, the Children’s Court is a court created by Parliament: TS v Constable Courtney James [2014] NSWSC 984 at [20]. 9. Cabal v United Mexican States (2001) 108 FCR 311; [2001] FCA 427 at [189]; Dutton v O’Shane [2002] NSWSC 1086 at [104]–[106] per James J. 10. R v Lewis (unreported, NSW SC, Dowd J, 25 October 1996). © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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relates to sentencing. If a direction is not made under s 4, the common law relating to evidence continues to apply (except to the extent that it has been affected by other statutory provisions).11

[EA.4.300] Other proceedings where the Act does not apply Section 8 provides that this Act does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act. It follows that the rules of evidence established by this Act will not apply to a proceeding where a provision in another Act provides otherwise. Note 4 to s 4 of the Victorian Act gives specific examples of provisions in other Victorian Acts which relieve courts from the obligation to apply the rules of evidence in certain proceedings.

Cth Act: 5

Extended application of certain provisions

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The provisions of this Act referred to in the Table apply to all proceedings in an Australian court, including proceedings that: (a) relate to bail; or (b) are interlocutory proceedings or proceedings of a similar kind; or (c) are heard in chambers; or (d) relate to sentencing. TABLE Provisions of this Act Subsection 70(2) Section Section Section Section

143 150 153 154

Section Section Section Section Section Section

155 155A 157 158 159 163

Section 182

Subject matter Evidence of tags and labels in Customs prosecutions and Excise prosecutions Matters of law Seals and signatures Gazettes and other official documents Documents published by authority of Parliaments etc. Official records Commonwealth documents Public documents relating to court processes Evidence of certain public documents Official statistics Proof of letters having been sent by Commonwealth agencies Commonwealth records, postal articles sent by Commonwealth agencies and certain Commonwealth documents

11. R v Bourchas (2002) 113 A Crim R 413; [2002] NSWCCA 373; Farkas v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 141 at [14].

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Note: Australian court is defined in the Dictionary to cover all courts in Australia. The definition extends to persons and bodies that take evidence or that are required to apply the laws of evidence. [S 5 am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 items 25 and 26; Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 2 item 2; Act 125 of 1999, s 3 and Sch 6 items 1 and 2]

NSW Act: 5

Extended application of certain provisions

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision that extends the application of specified provisions of the Commonwealth Act to proceedings in all Australian courts.

Vic Act: 5

Extended application of certain provisions

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision that extends the application of specified provisions of that Act to proceedings in all Australian courts.

ACT Act: 5

Extended application of certain provisions

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision extending the application of stated provisions of the Commonwealth Act to proceedings in all Australian courts.

NT Act: 5

Extended application of certain provisions

Note for section 5: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision that extends the application of specified provisions of that Act to proceedings in all Australian courts.

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[EA.5.30] Definitions [Cth Act only] The term “Australian court” is defined in the Dictionary: “Australian court” means: (a) the High Court; or (b) a court exercising federal jurisdiction; or (c) a court of a State or Territory; or (d) a judge, justice or arbitrator under an Australian law; or (e) a person or body authorised by an Australian law, or by consent of parties, to hear, receive and examine evidence; or (f) a person or body that, in exercising a function under an Australian law, is required to apply the laws of evidence.

It has been held12 that the Refugee Review Tribunal is not a body that is required to apply the laws of evidence, because s 420(1) of the Migration Act 1958 provides that the Tribunal is “not bound by … rules of evidence” (see [EA.4.150]). On the other hand: the Tribunal is a body that is authorised by an Australian law, the Migration Act, to hear, receive and examine evidence: see the discussion of the powers and functions of the Tribunal earlier in these reasons. It follows that the Tribunal is an Australian court in accordance with para (e) of the definition of that court.13 12. Epeabaka v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural Affairs (1997) 47 ALD 555; 150 ALR 397 at 408 per Finkelstein J. 13. Epeabaka at 409. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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However, it was also held that the proceedings of the Tribunal were not governed by the tabled provisions in s 5(1) (see [EA.8.60]).

Cth Act: 6

Territories This Act extends to each external Territory.

[S 6 am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 item 27]

NSW Act: 6

Territories

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision extending that Act to each external Territory.

Vic Act: 6

Territories

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision extending that Act to each external Territory.

ACT Act: 6

Territories

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision extending that Act to each external territory.

NT Act:

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6

Territories

Note for section 6: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision extending that Act to each external Territory.

[EA.6.30] General comments It follows that those provisions of the Commonwealth Act that extend to all Australian courts apply to courts in each external Territory.

Cth Act: 7

Act binds Crown This Act binds the Crown in all its capacities.

[S 7 am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 item 28]

NSW Act: 7

Act binds Crown This Act binds the Crown in right of New South Wales and also, so far as the legislative power of Parliament permits, in all its other capacities.

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Vic Act: 7

Act binds Crown This Act binds the Crown in right of Victoria and, in so far as the legislative power of Parliament permits, the Crown in all its other capacities. ACT Act: 7

Act binds Crown

Note: The Commonwealth Act and NSW Act include a provision binding the Crown. The provision is unnecessary in the ACT (see Legislation Act, s 121).

NT Act: 7

Act binds Crown

This Act binds the Crown in right of the Territory and, to the extent the legislative power of the Legislative Assembly permits, the Crown in all its other capacities.

[EA.7.30] General comments

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In New South Wales v Public Transport Ticketing Corp [2011] NSWCA 60 the NSW Court of Appeal held that, taking into account this provision in the NSW Act, the State of New South Wales is a “person” for the purposes of ss 130 and 131A of the Act (Allsop P, Hodgson JA and Sackville AJA agreeing, at [39]).

Cth Act: 8

Operation of other Acts etc.

(1) This Act does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act, other than sections 68, 79, 80 and 80A of the Judiciary Act 1903. (2) This Act does not affect the operation of regulations that: (a) are made under an Act other than this Act; and (b) are in force on the commencement of this section. However, this subsection ceases to apply to a regulation once it is amended after that commencement. (3) This Act has effect subject to the Corporations Act 2001 and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001. [Subs (3) am Act 55 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 3 item 174; Act 156 of 1999, s 3 and Sch 12 item 24]

(4) [Repealed] [Subs (4) rep Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 item 12]

(5) [Repealed] [Subs (5) rep Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 item 12]

(6) [Repealed] [Subs (6) rep Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 items 12 and 29] [S 8 am Act 113 of 2015; Act 55 of 2001; Act 156 of 1999] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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NSW Act: 8

Operation of other Acts This Act does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act.

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes additional subsections relating to the operation of the Corporations Act 2001 of the Commonwealth, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 of the Commonwealth and certain laws in force in the ACT. It also provides for the regulations to have continued effect (until amended) after the commencement of the Commonwealth section. [S 8 am Act 34 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 4.17[1]]

Vic Act: 8

Operation of Acts This Act does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act.

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes additional subsections relating to the operation of the Corporations Act 2001 of the Commonwealth, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 of the Commonwealth and certain laws in force in the Australian Capital Territory. It also provides for the regulations to have continued effect (until amended) after the commencement of the Commonwealth section.

ACT Act: 8

Operation of other Acts This Act does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act.

Examples:

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1 Bail Act 1992, s 19(2) 2 Evidence (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1991, ch 5 Note 1: This section differs from the Commonwealth Act, s 8. Differences include additional subsections relating to the operation of the Corporations Act and the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 (Cth). Note 2: An example is part of the Act, is not exhaustive and may extend, but does not limit, the meaning of the provision in which it appears (see Legislation Act, s 126 and s 132). [S 8 am Act 40 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 1[1.13]; Act 48 of 2011, s 3 and Sch 1[1.25] and [1.26]]

NT Act: 8

Operation of Acts This Act does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act.

Note for section 8: The Commonwealth Act includes additional subsections relating to the operation of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 (Cth) and certain laws in force in the Australian Capital Territory. It also provides for the regulations to have continued effect (until amended) after the commencement of the Commonwealth section.

[EA.8.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 14.

[EA.8.60] General comments [Cth Act only] It is suggested that the Commonwealth provision creates a hierarchy among Commonwealth laws: 64

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[EA.8.60]

1. The provisions of other Commonwealth laws (except ss 68, 79, 80 and 80A of the Judiciary Act 1903) and of regulations which were in force on the commencement of this Act (and until they are amended) prevail over this Act. 2. This Act prevails over ss 68, 79, 80 and 80A of the Judiciary Act 1903, but they continue to operate subject to any inconsistency with this Act.

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In respect of the first point, the meaning of the proposition that the Evidence Act“does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act” (other than parts of the Judiciary Act 1903) was considered by Finkelstein J in the Federal Court in Epeabaka v Minister for Immigration & Multicultural Affairs (1997) 47 ALD 555; 150 ALR 397 at 409 in relation to the possible application of s 150 of the Evidence Act 1995 to the Refugee Review Tribunal by reason of s 5 of the Act, on the assumption that the Tribunal fell within the definition of an “Australian court” (see [EA.5.30]). He observed: Section 8(1) is one of a number of provisions in Pt 1.2 which are concerned with the application of the Evidence Act. The subsection provides that the Evidence Act does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act. The question thus raised is whether s 8(1) prevents the tabled provisions in s 5(1) having application to proceedings before the Tribunal. The scope of operation of s 8(1) is not clear. There will be no difficulty in applying the sub-section in the case where a provision of the Evidence Act is directly inconsistent with the provision of some other enactment. In that event the provision of that other enactment will prevail. But what if there is no direct inconsistency. Some indication of how s 8(1) is to operate in that circumstance may be gathered from s 9(1). … When s 8(1) and s 9(1) are considered together the legislative intention that is disclosed is that where a court, whether it is an Australian court or a federal court, is not required to observe the rules of evidence the Evidence Act will not operate so as to impose that obligation. Here again reference should be made to s 420(1) of the Migration Act which provides that the Tribunal is not bound by the rules of evidence. If a proceeding before the Tribunal was governed by s 150 the Tribunal would be required to receive a particular document as part of the evidence in a proceeding before it when it would not be required to do so if s 420(1) was the sole provision that applied. Thus there is, in a general sense, an inconsistency between the two provisions. It follows, in my opinion, that s 8(1) renders s 5(1) inapplicable to proceedings before the Tribunal.

This analysis was accepted as correct by the Full Court of the Federal Court in Commissioner of Patents v Sherman (2008) 172 FCR 394; [2008] FCAFC 182 at [16]. It follows that the Evidence Act“does not affect the operation of the provisions of any other Act” (other than parts of the Judiciary Act 1903) where there is any direct or implied inconsistency.14 For further discussion of this issue, see commentary on the NSW provision, below. In respect of the second point, it may be noted that s 79 of the Judiciary Act 1903 provides: The laws of each State or Territory, including the laws relating to procedure, evidence, and the competency of witnesses, shall, except as otherwise provided by the Constitution or the laws of the Commonwealth, be binding on all Courts exercising federal jurisdiction in that State or Territory in all cases to which they are applicable. 14. See also Re Schofield; Ex parte Rangott v P & B Baron Pty Ltd (1997) 72 FCR 280 at 285–286 per Finn J. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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The issue is the extent to which this Act “otherwise provides”. As Basten JA stated in Meteyard v Love (2005) 65 NSWLR 36; 224 ALR 588; 56 ACSR 487; [2005] NSWCA 444 at 55 (NSWLR); [71]: … the Evidence Act 1995 (Cth) may “otherwise provide” in relation to the State Evidence Act. That Act does not, however, apply except in relation to “proceedings in a federal court or an ACT court”: s 4(1). It is not a Commonwealth law which otherwise provides for present purposes.

In Hannes v Director of Public Prosecutions (Cth) (No 2) (2006) 165 A Crim R 151; 205 FLR 217; [2006] NSWCCA 373, Barr and Hall JJ observed at [722] that the requirement in s 31(1) of the Financial Transaction Reports Act 1988 (Cth) that “it would be reasonable to conclude” that a person acted for a specified purpose was an example of legislation that “otherwise provides” to s 141 of the Evidence Act (which provides that a prosecution case must be proved beyond reasonable doubt) so that, in that respect, s 141 was not picked up by s 79 of the Judiciary Act 1903 for the purposes of a federal prosecution in a NSW court. For proceedings in a federal court, in respect of the rules of admissibility it appears clear that this Act effectively covers the field to the exclusion of State and Territory law (including common law) since s 56(1) provides:

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Except as otherwise provided by this Act, evidence that is relevant in a proceeding is admissible in the proceeding.

See the Introduction at [EA.Intro.120]. Thus, federal courts will only apply the rules of admissibility in this Act. For this reason, Branson J held in Violi v Berrivale Orchards Ltd (2000) 99 FCR 580; 173 ALR 818; [2000] FCA 797 at [45] that the intent behind s 138 (in Chapter 3 of the Act) was inconsistent with the continued operation of s 13 of the Listening Devices Act 1984 (NSW) in the Federal Court.15 Similarly, the rules relating to the competence and compellability of witnesses (Div 1 of Pt 2.1) cover the field16 since s 12 provides: Except as otherwise provided by this Act: (a) every person is competent to give evidence; and (b) a person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is compellable to give that evidence.

See Hazledine v Arthur J Gallagher & Co Ltd (No 3) [2017] FCA 1271 at [10]. In respect of other areas of evidence law, State and Territory law will not be applied by federal courts where that law is inconsistent with the Act. Other State and Territory courts will apply those parts of this Act which apply to all Australian courts. These general observations must be qualified by those specific provisions in the Evidence Act and regulations which provide that some State and Territory laws continue to operate despite any inconsistency with this Act: • s 8(3) – Corporations Act 2001 and ASIC Law; • s 9(1) – a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding; 15. See also Sagacious Legal Pty Ltd v Westfarmers General Insurance Ltd (No 4) (2010) 268 ALR 108; 55 MVR 391; [2010] FCA 482 at [151]. 16. See R v Glasby (2000) 115 A Crim R 465; [2000] NSWCCA 83 at [50]; Chapman v Luminis Pty Ltd (No 2) (2000) 100 FCR 229; [2000] FCA 1010 at [84] per von Doussa J.

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[EA.8.90]

• s 9(2) – laws relating to admissibility of evidence of jury deliberations (s 9(2)(a)); bail (s 9(2)(b)); and any requirement for admission of evidence in support of an alibi (s 9(2)(c)); • s 9(3) – laws providing for the operation of a legal or evidential presumption (except so far as this Act is, expressly or by necessary intendment, inconsistent with the presumption); the admissibility of a document to depend on whether stamp duty has been paid; a requirement that notice must be given before evidence may be adduced; the evidentiary effect to be given to a document issued under that State or Territory law; or proof of title to property.

[EA.8.90] General comments [NSW and Victorian Acts only]

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The prevailing view in NSW is that s 8 ensures that this Act does not affect the operation of any other NSW Act, so that in the event that a provision of this Act is inconsistent with the provision of some other enactment, the other enactment will prevail. The same approach has been taken in Victoria.17 Thus, the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal rejected an argument that s 409 of the Crimes Act 1900 (which is now found re-enacted in s 289 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW)) was impliedly repealed by the provisions of the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW), particularly s 65.18 It has been held that the effect of s 8 is that s 128 of the Act does not apply to coroner’s courts in NSW because s 33 of the Coroners Act 1980 was “in substance inconsistent with the procedure for giving certificates set out in s 128 of the Act”.19 Similarly, it has been held that s 131 (dealing with settlement negotiations) does not apply to “the special process of settlement negotiation provided by a mediation ordered by the [Supreme] Court under the provisions of Pt 7B of the Supreme Court Act [NSW]”.20 In Punch v Council of the NSW Bar Assn (2007) 69 NSWLR 485; [2007] NSWCA 93 the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal held that s 138 (dealing with improperly or unlawfully obtained evidence) did not apply to evidence of “a private conversation [that] has inadvertently or unexpectedly come to the knowledge of a person as a result, direct or indirect, of the use of a listening device pursuant to a warrant granted under Pt 4 of the Listening Devices Act 1984 (NSW)”. There is some apparently contrary authority in the Federal Court. In McNeill v The Queen (2008) 168 FCR 198; [2008] FCAFC 80, the Full Court of the Federal Court (Black CJ, Lander and Besanko JJ) heard an appeal from the Supreme 17. See Director of Public Prosecutions v Gibson (2012) 61 MVR 261; [2012] VSC 297 at [24]–[31]. 18. R v Gover (2000) 118 A Crim R 8; [2000] NSWCCA 303 at [19]–[22] per Studdert J. 19. Decker v State Coroner (NSW) (1999) 46 NSWLR 415; [1999] NSWSC 369 at [22] per Adams J. Section 33 provided as follows: “A coroner holding an inquest or inquiry shall not be bound to observe the rules of procedure and evidence applicable to proceedings before a court of law, but no witness shall be compelled to answer any question which criminates the witness, or tends to criminate the witness, of any felony, misdemeanour or offence.” However, the Coroners Act was later amended to adopt the procedure in s 128. 20. Rajski v Tectran Corp Pty Ltd [2003] NSWSC 476; see also Azzi v Volvo Car Australia Pty Ltd [2007] NSWSC 375; (2007) 71 NSWLR 140. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Court of Norfolk Island. Section 8 of the Evidence Act 2004(NI) is in identical terms to s 8 in the NSW Act. The Full Court concluded that s 410 of the Criminal Law Act 1960 (NI) was inconsistent with the terms of Ch 3 of the Evidence Act 2004 (NI), particularly s 138, and held at [76] that s 410 was impliedly repealed. It has to be said that the analysis of the Full Court is unpersuasive. There was no reference to contrary NSW authority. While some reference was certainly made to s 8 at [53]–[58], the Full Court appears to have relied on general statements of principle regarding inconsistent enactments, without giving effect to the terms of this provision.21 However, in a judgment later in 2008, Commissioner of Patents v Sherman (2008) 172 FCR 394; [2008] FCAFC 182, the Full Court of the Federal Court, without reference to McNeill, accepted at [16] in obiter dicta that the effect of s 8 is that where a provision of this Act is expressly and directly inconsistent with the provision of some other enactment, the provision of the other enactment will prevail.

Cth Act: 8A Application of the Criminal Code Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code applies to all offences against this Act. Note: Chapter 2 of the Criminal Code sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility. [S 8A am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 items 30 and 31; insrt Act 24 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 25 item 1]

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ACT Act: 8A Offences against Act—application of Criminal Code etc Other legislation applies in relation to offences against this Act. Note 1 Criminal Code: The Criminal Code, ch 2 applies to all offences against this Act (see Code, pt 2.1). The chapter sets out the general principles of criminal responsibility (including burdens of proof and general defences), and defines terms used for offences to which the Code applies (eg conduct, intention, recklessness and strict liability). Note 2 Penalty units: The Legislation Act, s 133 deals with the meaning of offence penalties that are expressed in penalty units. Note 3: This section differs from the Commonwealth Act, s 8A.

NT Act: 8A Application of Criminal Code An offence against this Act is an offence to which Part IIAA of the Criminal Code applies. Notes for section 8A: 1 Part IIAA of the Criminal Code states the general principles of criminal responsibility, establishes general defences, and deals with burden of proof. It also defines, or elaborates on, certain concepts commonly used in the creation of offences. 2 Section 8A is not included in the NSW Act and Victorian Act.

21. It may be noted that s 410 was based on an identical provision in the NSW Crimes Act 1900. There is no doubt that the NSW provision is repealed but not because of any inconsistency with the Evidence Act 1995 (NSW). The provision was expressly repealed in 1995 by the Evidence (Consequential and Other Provisions) Act 1995 (NSW).

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Cth Act: 9

Effect of Act on other laws

(1) For the avoidance of doubt, this Act does not affect an Australian law so far as the law relates to a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding.

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(2) For the avoidance of doubt, this Act does not affect a law of a State or Territory so far as the law relates to: (a) admission or use of evidence of reasons for a decision of a member of a jury, or of the deliberations of a member of a jury in relation to such a decision, in a proceeding by way of appeal from a judgment, decree, order or sentence of the relevant court; or (b) bail; or (c) any requirement for admission of evidence in support of an alibi. (3) For the avoidance of doubt, this Act does not affect a law of a State or Territory so far as the law provides for: (a) the operation of a legal or evidential presumption (except so far as this Act is, expressly or by necessary intendment, inconsistent with the presumption); or (b) the admissibility of a document to depend on whether stamp duty has been paid; or (c) a requirement that notice must be given before evidence may be adduced; or (d) evidentiary effect to be given to a certificate or other document issued under that or any other law of the State or Territory; or (e) proof of title to property (other than by a means provided for by this Act that is applicable to proof of title to property). [Subs (3) am Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 item 32] [S 9 am Act 113 of 2015]

NSW Act: 9

Application of common law and equity

(1) This Act does not affect the operation of a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to evidence in a proceeding to which this Act applies, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) Without limiting subsection (1), this Act does not affect the operation of such a principle or rule so far as it relates to any of the following: (a) admission or use of evidence of reasons for a decision of a member of a jury, or of the deliberations of a member of a jury in relation to such a decision, in a proceeding by way of appeal from a judgment, decree, order or sentence of a court, (b) the operation of a legal or evidential presumption that is not inconsistent with this Act, (c) a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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s9

Note: This section differs from section 9 of the Commonwealth Act. That section preserves the written and unwritten laws of States and Territories in relation to various matters.

Vic Act: 9

Application of common law and equity

(1) This Act does not affect the operation of a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to evidence in a proceeding to which this Act applies, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) Without limiting subsection (1), this Act does not affect the operation of such a principle or rule so far as it relates to any of the following— (a) admission or use of evidence of reasons for a decision of a member of a jury, or of the deliberations of a member of a jury in relation to such a decision, in a proceeding by way of appeal from a judgment, decree, order or sentence of a court; (b) the operation of a legal or evidential presumption that is not inconsistent with this Act; (c) a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding. Note: This section differs from section 9 of the Commonwealth Act. That section preserves the written and unwritten laws of States and Territories in relation to various matters.

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9

Application of common law and equity

(1) This Act does not affect the operation of a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to evidence in a proceeding to which this Act applies, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) Without limiting subsection (1), this Act does not affect the operation of a principle or rule mentioned in subsection (1) so far as it relates to any of the following: (a) admission or use of evidence of reasons for a decision of a member of a jury, or of the deliberations of a member of a jury in relation to the decision, in a proceeding by way of appeal from a judgment, decree, order or sentence of a court; (b) the operation of a legal or evidential presumption that is not inconsistent with this Act; (c) a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding. Note: This section differs from the Commonwealth Act, s 9. That section preserves the written and unwritten laws of States and Territories in relation to certain matters.

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[EA.9.90]

NT Act: 9

Application of common law and equity

(1) This Act does not affect the operation of a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to evidence in a proceeding to which this Act applies, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) Without limiting subsection (1), this Act does not affect the operation of such a principle or rule so far as it relates to any of the following: (a) admission or use of evidence of reasons for a decision of a member of a jury, or of the deliberations of a member of a jury in relation to such a decision, in a proceeding by way of appeal from a judgment, decree, order or sentence of a court; (b) the operation of a legal or evidential presumption that is not inconsistent with this Act; (c) a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence or procedure in an interlocutory proceeding. Note for section 9: This section differs from section 9 of the Commonwealth Act. That section preserves the written and unwritten laws of States and Territories in relation to various matters.

[EA.9.30] ALRC references

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ALRC 38, s 15.

[EA.9.60] General comments The Commonwealth, NSW and Victorian provisions make it clear that the Act does not affect existing law relating to a number of matters (including admission of jury deliberations on appeal, presumptions which are not inconsistent with the Act and a court’s power to dispense with the rules of evidence and procedure in interlocutory proceedings). The Commonwealth provision extends this to other matters in s 9(3).

[EA.9.90] Application of common law and equity [NSW, Victoria, ACT, NT, Tas] The effect of s 9(1) is to retain the common law of evidence, “except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment”. It is suggested that the Act does provide otherwise in respect of the areas of competence and compellability of witnesses and admissibility of evidence (see [EA.8.60]). In those areas, the Act is intended to cover the field (to operate as a “code”) and any common law rules are abrogated (see [EA.Intro.120]). In other areas of evidence law, only common law rules of evidence which are inconsistent with provisions of the Act are not retained. Thus, for example, it may be assumed that the provisions of the Act do not over-ride “the underlying principle of the accusatorial and adversarial system that it is for the prosecution to put its case

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s9

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both fully and fairly before the jury, before the accused is called on to announce the course that will be followed at trial”.22 In Butcher v Lachlan Elder Realty; Harkins v Butcher (2002) 55 NSWLR 558; [2002] NSWCA 237 at [15], Handley JA (Beazley and Hodgson JJA agreeing) considered that this provision preserved the common law rule relating to an admission by a predecessor in title. As Handley JA observed, the Evidence Act 1995 makes no explicit provision for the reception of such admissions. However, his conclusion appears to be wrong. Part 3.4 of the Act deals with the admissibility of admissions and it is clear that it was intended to cover the field. The fact that there is no provision for admissions by a predecessor in title indicates that it was intended to abolish that hearsay exception. The absence of such an exception in Pt 3.4 has the effect that the evidence is rendered inadmissible by s 59 unless, of course, some other hearsay exception applies. This was certainly the intention of the ALRC (see [EA.81.180]). As regards the content of the principles or rules of common law or equity, Basten JA has observed:

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On one view, s 9 may be understood to refer to the “common law or equity” as understood at the time of its enactment. However, it does not seek to prevent developments in such general law principles, which developments will not be limited to a prospective operation. Nor should the section be understood as purporting to freeze the general law in relation to evidence as at the date of its commencement of operation. Rather, common law principles may continue to develop, subject to the qualification that a development which is inconsistent with the express terms of the Evidence Act, or its necessary intendment, will not have effect “in a proceeding to which [the Evidence Act] applies”.23

[EA.9.120] Deliberations of a jury (s 9(2)(a)) It is a well established common law rule that the deliberations of a jury must remain secret so that a court may only receive evidence of matters which are regarded as “extrinsic” to the jury’s deliberations.24 However, the High Court has held that there are qualifications to this exclusionary rule.25

[EA.9.150] Presumptions Legal and evidential presumptions created by other statutes, or arising under the common law, continue in force except to the extent that they are inconsistent with the Act. An example of a common law presumption is the presumption of death where a person has been missing for at least seven years. This Act itself contains a number of presumptions relating to such matters as official records, attestation of documents and various forms of communication (see ss 146 – 163). 22. R v Soma (2003) 212 CLR 299; 196 ALR 421; [2003] HCA 13 at [27]; see [EA.43.210] and [EA.106.60]. 23. Meteyard v Love (2005) 65 NSWLR 36; 224 ALR 588; 56 ACSR 487; [2005] NSWCA 444 at [118]. 24. R v Rinaldi (1993) 30 NSWLR 605 at 613; R v Laws (2000) 116 A Crim R 70; [2000] NSWSC 885 at 75; R v K (2003) 59 NSWLR 431; 144 A Crim R 468; [2003] NSWCCA 406; see also R v Mirza [2004] 2 WLR 201; [2004] 1 All ER 925. 25. Smith v Western Australia (2014) 250 CLR 473; 88 ALJR 384; [2014] HCA 3.

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[EA.9.180]

[EA.9.180]

Interlocutory proceedings

The term “interlocutory proceedings” is discussed at [EA.75.60]. This provision does not create an independent statutory basis for dispensing with the operation of the rules of evidence. Rather, it recognises, so as not to affect, any rule of common law or in equity in relation to evidence in a proceeding insofar as it relates to a court’s power to dispense with the operation of a rule of evidence in an interlocutory proceeding.26 The view has been expressed that s 9(2)(c) in the NSW and Victorian Acts (which replicates s 9(1) in the Commonwealth Act): does no more than permit in interlocutory proceedings the admission of evidence which the Evidence Act says is not admissible: it does not overcome provisions of the Evidence Act which actually prohibit the tendering of certain evidence, as is the case with evidence affected by client legal privilege.27

However, no explanation was given for this distinction and it is not apparent from the words of the provision.

Cth Act: 10

Parliamentary privilege preserved

(1) This Act does not affect the law relating to the privileges of any Australian Parliament or any House of any Australian Parliament.

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(2) In particular, subsection 15(2) does not affect, and is in addition to, the law relating to such privileges. NSW Act: 10

Parliamentary privilege preserved

(1) This Act does not affect the law relating to the privileges of any Australian Parliament or any House of any Australian Parliament. (2) In particular, section 15(2) does not affect, and is in addition to, the law relating to such privileges. Vic Act: 10

Parliamentary privilege preserved

(1) This Act does not affect the law relating to the privileges of any Australian Parliament or any House of any Australian Parliament. (2) In particular, section 15(2) does not affect, and is in addition to, the law relating to such privileges.

26. International FinanceTrust Co Ltd v NSW Crime Commission [2008] NSWCA 291, Allsop P at [13] (Beazley JA agreeing at [56]). In Pfizer Ireland Pharmaceuticals v Samsung Bioepis AU Pty Ltd (2017) 351 ALR 103; [2017] FCAFC 193, the Full Court of the Federal Court held that r 7.23 of the Federal Court Rules 2011 (Cth) did not render this Act inapplicable (Allsop CJ at [79], Perram J at [156]–[157]). 27. Hodgson JA in R v P (2001) 53 NSWLR 664; [2001] NSWCA 473 at [40]. Hodgson JA added that “in any event, there is no principle or rule of common law or equity that gives a court power in an interlocutory proceeding to dispense with the rules protecting legal professional privilege”. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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ACT Act: 10 Parliamentary privilege preserved (1) This Act does not affect the law relating to the privileges of any Australian Parliament or any house of any Australian Parliament. (2) In particular, section 15(2) (Compellability—Sovereign and others) does not affect, and is in addition to, the law relating to those privileges. NT Act: 10

Parliamentary privilege preserved

(1) This Act does not affect the law relating to the privileges of any Australian Parliament or any House of any Australian Parliament. (2) In particular, section 15(2) does not affect, and is in addition to, the law relating to such privileges.

[EA.10.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 16.

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[EA.10.60] General comments Under parliamentary privilege, members of Parliament cannot, without the permission of Parliament, be compelled to testify regarding what happened in the Parliament.28 Further, the courts cannot inquire into the truth of what has been said in Parliament or into the motives of what was said.29 However, Hansard may be tendered to prove what was said in the course of a debate.30 It has been held that one consequence of parliamentary privilege is that Hansard reports of statements made to Parliament can only be tendered for the purpose of establishing that those words were said to Parliament and may not be used to prove the truth of anything stated in them for the purpose of determining the issues before a court.31

28. See Sankey v Whitlam (1978) 142 CLR 1; [1978] HCA 43 at 36-37 per Gibbs CJ. 29. R v Turnbull [1958] Tas SR 80; Uren v John Fairfax & Sons Ltd [1979] 2 NSWLR 287; Mundey v Askin [1982] 2 NSWLR 369; Amann Aviation Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1988) 19 FCR 223; Stewart v Ronalds (2009) 76 NSWLR 99; 232 FLR 331; [2009] NSWCA 277. See also Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987 (Cth), s 16: Rowley v O’Chee (2000) 1 Qd R 207; R v Theophanous (2003) 141 A Crim R 2; [2003] VSCA 78; Sportsbet Pty Ltd v New South Wales (No 3) (2009) 262 ALR 27; [2009] FCA 1283; Re OPEL Networks Pty Ltd (in liq) (2010) 77 NSWLR 128; [2010] NSWSC 142. 30. See Mundey v Askin [1982] 2 NSWLR 369; R v Jackson (1987) 8 NSWLR 116. 31. Mees v Roads Corp (2003) 128 FCR 418; [2003] FCA 306 at [86] per Gray J.

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s 11

Part 1.2 - Application of this Act

NT Act: 10A Application of section 127A Despite any provision to the contrary in this Act or in any other Act, section 127A applies to all proceedings before the court or a judicial entity, irrespective of whether the judicial entity is required to apply the rules or laws of evidence. [S 10A insrt Act 7 of 2018, s 4]

Cth Act: 11

General powers of a court

(1) The power of a court to control the conduct of a proceeding is not affected by this Act, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) In particular, the powers of a court with respect to abuse of process in a proceeding are not affected. NSW Act: 11

General powers of a court

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(1) The power of a court to control the conduct of a proceeding is not affected by this Act, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) In particular, the powers of a court with respect to abuse of process in a proceeding are not affected. Vic Act: 11

General powers of a court

(1) The power of a court to control the conduct of a proceeding is not affected by this Act, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) In particular, the powers of a court with respect to abuse of process in a proceeding are not affected. ACT Act: 11

General powers of a court

(1) The power of a court to control the conduct of a proceeding is not affected by this Act, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) In particular, the powers of a court in relation to abuse of process in a proceeding are not affected.

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s 11

NT Act: 11

General powers of a court

(1) The power of a court to control the conduct of a proceeding is not affected by this Act, except so far as this Act provides otherwise expressly or by necessary intendment. (2) In particular, the powers of a court with respect to abuse of process in a proceeding are not affected.

[EA.11.30]

ALRC References

ALRC 38, s 17.

[EA.11.60]

Powers of a court

The general powers of a court may be inherent or derived from legislation. The Federal Court, for example, has the incidental power to supervise its own proceedings32 and r 1.32 of the Federal Court Rules provides that the “Court may make any order that the Court considers appropriate in the interests of justice”. However, this does not provide any basis for applying evidentiary rules which are inconsistent with other provisions of the Act.33

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[EA.11.90]

Abuse of process

As the majority of the High Court stated in Walton v Gardiner (1993) 177 CLR 378, the inherent jurisdiction of a superior court to stay its proceedings on grounds of abuse of process “extends to all those categories of cases in which the processes and procedures of the court, which exist to administer justice with fairness and impartiality, may be converted into instruments of injustice or unfairness”.34 The jurisdiction has been considered in several High Court decisions.35 In the NSW Court of Appeal case of Van Der Lee v New South Wales [2002] NSWCA 286, it was held that the powers of a court with respect to abuse of 32. See Hamilton v Oades (1989) 166 CLR 486 at 498-499, 501-502). 33. See Lane v Jurd (No 2) (1995) 40 NSWLR 708 at 709; R v Too (unreported, NSW SC, Badgery-Parker J, 26 July 1996); R v Richards (2001) 123 A Crim R 14; [2001] NSWCCA 160 at [40] per Grove J; Hague v Commissioner of Corrective Services (2008) 216 FLR 271; [2008] NSWSC 253 at [20] per Fullerton J. There is no inconsistency between a power to recall a witness and the terms of s 46 (which permits recall in a particular situation): Doyle v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 4 (Bathurst CJ stated at [311]: “It does not seem to me that the conferral of a power to recall witnesses in particular circumstances necessarily implies that there is no power in other circumstances to do so. If the power of the court were to be limited in that fashion, it would be expected that it would be clearly stated”). 34. (1993) 177 CLR 380 at 392-393 per Mason CJ, Deane and Dawson JJ. Various examples of abuse of process were given at 393. 35. Barton v The Queen (1980) 147 CLR 75; Jago v District Court (NSW) (1989) 168 CLR 23; Williams v Spautz (1992) 174 CLR 509; Walton v Gardiner (1993) 177 CLR 378; Ridgeway v The Queen (1995) 184 CLR 19; [1995] HCA 66; Dupas v The Queen (2010) 241 CLR 237; 203 A Crim R 186; [2010] HCA 20; Moti v The Queen (2011) 245 CLR 456; 218 A Crim R 204; [2011] HCA 50.

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[EA.11.90]

process include its powers to receive evidence and may over-ride privilege. Hodgson JA (with whom Mason P and Santow JA agreed) held (at [62]):

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I think s 11(2) does have the effect that, when evidence is tendered that could be evidence of an abuse of process, albeit evidence of without prejudice settlement negotiations, the court may receive that evidence on the voir dire; and then, if that evidence does either by itself or in combination with other evidence establish an abuse of process, the court may rule the evidence admissible and make appropriate orders to deal with that abuse of process. In my opinion, the powers of a court with respect to abuse of process include its powers to receive evidence, and in my opinion the authorities relied on by the claimants show that, at common law, communications evidencing abuse of process will not be protected by without prejudice privilege. I do not think that s 131 provides otherwise, either expressly or by necessary intendment, particularly if s 132(2)(k) does not apply in cases of abuse of process.

It may be noted that, in ALRC 102, it was stated at para 2.86 that “[t]he last sentence of the above quotation supports the view that the test used in s 11(1) is to be read by implication into s 11(2)”. It appears to have been accepted that s 11(2) does not provide an absolute rule but, rather, the test used in s 11(1) should be read by implication into s 11(2). See also [EA.125.120] and [EA.131.600]. An attempt was made in Georgeski v Owners Corp SP49833 [2004] NSWSC 945 to extend these principles, beyond applications to stay or dismiss proceedings as an abuse of process, to proof of improper or collateral purpose as something to be taken into account as a discretionary matter in an eventual adjudication on the merits. Barrett J rejected the application of this provision in such circumstances, holding at [7] that “control by the court of ‘the conduct of a proceeding’ … is not apt to describe the process of allowing a proceeding to continue to its natural conclusion in an uninterrupted way”. In ALRC 102, consideration was given to the possible extension of s 11(2) to a general obligation to ensure a fair trial. However, it was stated at para 2.89: [T]he Commissions remain of the view that the obligation to ensure a fair trial is adequately enshrined in the common law and that the inclusion of such an obligation in the uniform Evidence Acts would be redundant and potentially counterproductive. Hence, the Commissions do not consider that an amendment to s 11(2) to ensure a fair trial is necessary.

Nevertheless, a question remains as to the effect of s 11(2). In Haddara v The Queen (2014) 241 A Crim R 93; [2014] VSCA 100, Redlich and Weinberg JJA (Priest JA dissenting) held that the common law discretion to exclude any evidence, whether confessional or real, on the ground that to receive it would be unfair to a criminal defendant (in the sense that the trial would be unfair) continues to apply in UEL jurisdictions, on the basis that it is not caught by the operation of s 56(1). That interpretation of s 56(1) may be doubted (see general discussion at [EA.Intro.120]) but it is likely that the “powers of a court with respect to abuse of process in a proceeding” referred to in this provision would extend to exclusion of evidence on the basis that “it would be unfair to a defendant to use the evidence”. Thus, the High Court has repeatedly held that the inherent jurisdiction of courts extends to a power to stay proceedings in order “to prevent an abuse of process or the prosecution of a criminal proceeding ... which © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.11.90]

s 11

Chapter 1 - Preliminary 36

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will result in a trial which is unfair”. Further, the High Court has emphasised the “discretion” to exclude evidence to ensure “the fairness of the trial”.37 Even if s 11(2) does not provide an absolute rule, and the test used in s 11(1) should be read by implication into s 11(2)), it should be concluded that this Act does not affect either “expressly or by necessary intendment” a court’s power to avoid an unfair trial for a criminal defendant.

36. Barton v The Queen (1980) 147 CLR 75 at 95–6. See also Jago v District Court (NSW) (1989) 168 CLR 23; Williams v Spautz (1992) 174 CLR 509; Dietrich v The Queen (1992) 177 CLR 292; [1992] HCA 57 at [7]. 37. R v Swaffıeld (1998) 192 CLR 159; 72 ALJR 339; [1998] HCA 1 at 192.

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CHAPTER 2 – ADDUCING EVIDENCE CHAPTER 2 – GIVING AND PRESENTING EVIDENCE (ACT ONLY) Cth Act:

INTRODUCTORY NOTE Outline of this Chapter This Chapter is about ways in which evidence is adduced. Part 2.1 is about adducing evidence from witnesses. Part 2.2 is about adducing documentary evidence. Part 2.3 is about adducing other forms of evidence.

NSW Act: Introductory note:

Outline of this Chapter This Chapter is about ways in which evidence is adduced. Part 2.1 is about adducing evidence from witnesses. Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

Part 2.2 is about adducing documentary evidence. Part 2.3 is about adducing other forms of evidence.

Vic Act: Note:

Outline of this Chapter This Chapter is about ways in which evidence is adduced. Part 2.1 is about adducing evidence from witnesses. Part 2.2 is about adducing documentary evidence. Part 2.3 is about adducing other forms of evidence.

ACT Act: Note: This chapter • Pt 2.1 is • Pt 2.2 is • Pt 2.3 is

is about ways in which evidence is given and presented. about evidence from witnesses. about documentary evidence. about other forms of evidence.

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[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30]

Chapter 2 - Adducing Evidence

NT Act: Introductory note Outline of this Chapter This Chapter is about ways in which evidence is adduced. Part 2.1 is about adducing evidence from witnesses. Part 2.2 is about adducing documentary evidence. Part 2.3 is about adducing other forms of evidence.

Part 2.1 – Witnesses [EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30]

General comments

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This Part is headed “Witnesses” and the Introductory Note to Ch 2 states that this Part “is about adducing evidence from witnesses”. The term “witness” is not defined in the Dictionary to the Act, other than to make clear that it can include a party to the proceedings (see cl 7 of Pt 2 of the Dictionary). Nevertheless, it is apparent that evidence from a “witness” is to be contrasted with “documentary evidence” (dealt with in Pt 2.2) and “other forms of evidence” (dealt with by Pt 2.3). Traditionally, evidence is adduced from a witness orally in court. Such evidence is commonly referred to as “testimony”. However, in civil proceedings it is very common for at least some of the evidence from a “witness” to be received in written form, either in an affidavit or another form of written statement. The question arises whether such affidavit evidence (or other written statement) is subject to the provisions in Pt 2.1. In Aneve Pty Ltd v Bank of Western Australia Ltd [2005] NSWCA 441, the NSW Court of Appeal upheld a decision to reject affidavit evidence and require the declarant to give evidence orally. Hodgson JA (Santow and Bryson JJA agreeing) stated at [70]–[71]: The use of affidavits for the purpose of evidence is not dealt with by the Evidence Act 1995. It is permissible because of various qualifications to the operation of the Act, particularly s 52, which is in the following terms: 52 Adducing of other evidence not affected This Act (other than this Part) does not affect the operation of any Australian law or rule of practice so far as it permits evidence to be adduced in a way other than by witnesses giving evidence or documents being tendered in evidence. The Evidence Act, like the common law, requires oral evidence in chief generally to be given in response to non-leading questions; and the desirability of this is particularly strong in the case of conversations where considerations of the type referred to in Watson v Foxman apply. It was open to the primary judge to require evidence of the vital conversations to be given orally, in response to non-leading questions, and to reject the account of those conversations given in the affidavits.

Notwithstanding the reference to UEL provisions with respect to non-leading questions (see s 37 in Pt 2.1), it appears to have been held that affidavit evidence is to be regarded as falling within the scope of Pt 2.3, rather than Pt 2.1 or Pt 2.2, with the consequence that the rules in respect of the adducing of such evidence are to be found not in the UEL but the common law, court rules and other applicable “Australian law or rule of practice”. The proposition that affidavit 80

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[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30]

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evidence may not fall within the scope of Pt 2.2 (documentary evidence) may be accepted because, technically, evidence by affidavit is given by being “read”.1 The document is not (at least usually) “tendered in evidence”.2 However, more problematic is the proposition that affidavit evidence does not fall within the scope of Pt 2.1. After all, the evidence is from a “witness” and it is adduced in court. Neither the heading of Pt 2.1 nor the Introductory Note to Ch 2 refer to “oral evidence from witnesses” or limit the application of the Part to “oral testimony”. It may be accepted that difficulties could arise in applying some of the provisions in Pt 2.1 to affidavit evidence or other evidence from a witness to be received in written form. The competence requirement for unsworn evidence that the court tell the witness certain things (s 13(5)) may present difficulties. There will be no “questioning” which the court can control (s 26). It is not necessarily the same as evidence given “in narrative form” (s 29(3)). However, these difficulties are not insuperable. The provisions of Pt 2.1 are not expressed in a way which clearly excludes affidavit or similar evidence from the application of the Part. Further, there are some Divisions of Pt 2.1 which were likely to have been intended to apply to affidavit or similar evidence. An example is Div 1, dealing with the “competence and compellability of witnesses”. The Division has made significant changes from the common law with respect to the determination of competence and it is implausible that those changes would have no application to a particular witness simply because the evidence of the witness is adduced in affidavit form rather than in oral testimony. It is equally implausible that the rules in Pt 2.1 only kick in when the witness is subject to cross-examination in the courtroom. Reference should also be made to s 37(3), which expressly refers to the possibility of a court “exercising power under rules of court to allow a written statement or report to be tendered or treated as evidence in chief of its maker”, thereby expressly incorporating written statements within the operational scope of Pt 2.1. Further, it should be noted that express provision is made for the competency provision in s 13 to apply to out-of-court hearsay representations (s 61). It was the clear intention that the competency provision in s 13 would apply generally in respect of any evidence of what a person said – whether as a “witness” or where evidence of what the person said is to be admitted into evidence. Finally, it should be noted that it is well established that s 128, which “applies if a witness objects to giving particular evidence” (s 128(1)), has application where affidavit evidence is sought to be read in court (see [EA.128.330]). Nevertheless, in Hua Wang Bank Berhad v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (No 15) (2013) 217 FCR 26; [2013] FCA 1124, Perram J stated at [5]–[7]: To begin with the Evidence Act does not directly seek to regulate the giving of affidavit evidence. It contemplates three kinds of evidence. The first is the testimonial evidence given by witnesses in court. This is regulated by Part 2.1. Although Part 2.1 does not, in terms, say that it only applies to evidence given by witnesses in court, that is nevertheless a necessary implication from its terms. The part deals with a number of 1. See Hua Wang Bank Berhad v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (No 15) (2013) 217 FCR 26; [2013] FCA 1124 at [10]. 2. However, see Hua Wang Bank Berhad v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (No 15) (2013) 217 FCR 26; [2013] FCA 1124 at [14]. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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topics which make no sense outside of a curial context (see, eg, those dealing with the compellability of witnesses (ss 12, 14–19)); or which are unworkable unless they take place in a courtroom, such as the provisions dealing with the competence of witnesses (see, eg, s 13(5) which requires the court to tell the witness certain matters); or which are meaningless outside a courtroom such as provisions authorising the court to make orders (s 26); or which simply assume that the evidence is given in a courtroom such as Division 3 (“General rules about giving evidence”), Division 4 (“Examination in chief and re-examination”) and Division 5 (“Cross-examination”). …The second kind of evidence is the admission of documents which is dealt with in Part 2.2 of the Evidence Act. Part 2.3 deals with the third category of evidence which, loosely speaking, is everything else. It is headed “Other Evidence”. Apart from regulating views (in ss 53, 54) Part 2.3 has no substantive content leaving the whole field to pre-existing law or practice. …

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It is suggested that some of these propositions are over-stated. Questions of compellability will simply not arise where a witness has agreed to provide an affidavit or other written statement to a party. A question of competence to give unsworn evidence will only arise where the person is not competent to give sworn evidence (s 13(5)), so the affidavit should not be received on that basis alone. Orders can be made by the court at the time when the attempt is made to adduce the affidavit evidence in court. Divisions 3–5 can be adapted to affidavit evidence.3 Further, Perram J acknowledged that there is conflicting authority. A number of judgments have held that an affidavit must comply with the requirements of s 21 (which requires that, in general, a witness must either take an oath or make an affirmation).4 In Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (2002) 121 FCR 82; [2002] FCA 934 at [26], Lindgren J held that s 21(1) (which is located in Pt 2.1) applies even if the evidence of a witness is adduced in the form of a written statement – the statement must be sworn or affirmed. Perram J stated at [15] that he “respectfully disagree[d]” with this analysis, observing that “it is more likely, I think, that the requirements for how statements or affidavits are to be prepared is governed by s 52 of the Evidence Act and, therefore, derivatively by the [Court] Rules”. Yet, it is likely that it was the intention behind s 21 that, whenever evidence from a witness is to be given in a proceeding, whether orally or in some other form, the witness should generally be required to have either taken an oath or made an affirmation.

3. See, for example, Gumana v Northern Territory of Australia [2005] FCA 50 at [180]. 4. Kimberly-Clark Worldwide Inc v Goulimis [2008] FCA 1415; 253 ALR 76 at [3]; STX Pan Ocean Co Ltd v Bowen Basin Coal Group Pty Ltd (2010) 188 FCR 528; [2010] FCA 1002; Micar Group Pty Ltd v Insul-Trade LLC [2010] NSWSC 1391 at [19]–[27] (although another statutory provision was held to permit receipt of the affidavit). See also Garning & Director-General, Department of Communities (Child Safety Services) [2012] FamCAFC 35 at [65]–[66].

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s 12

Part 2.1 - Witnesses

[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1Div.1.60]

DIVISION 1 – COMPETENCE AND COMPELLABILITY OF WITNESSES DIVISION 2.1.1 – COMPETENCE AND COMPELLABILITY OF WITNESSES (ACT ONLY)

[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1Div.1.30] Summary of this Division This Division deals with the adducing of evidence from witnesses. Section 12 creates a presumption that all persons are competent to testify and may be compelled to do so. However, s 13 provides that certain persons lack the capacity to give sworn evidence although they may give unsworn evidence in certain circumstances. A witness may not be compellable to testify in certain circumstances. Special rules apply to Heads of State, parliamentarians, judges and jurors and, in criminal proceedings, defendants, their spouses, partners, parents and children.

[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1Div.1.60] Affidavits and written statements

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In Hua Wang Bank Berhad v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (No 15) (2013) 217 FCR 26; [2013] FCA 1124, Perram J stated at [5] that Pt 2.1, including Div 1, only applies to evidence given by witnesses in court. For discussion of this issue generally, see [EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30].

Cth Act: 12

Competence and compellability Except as otherwise provided by this Act: (a) every person is competent to give evidence; and (b) a person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is compellable to give that evidence.

NSW Act: 12

Competence and compellability Except as otherwise provided by this Act: (a) every person is competent to give evidence, and (b) a person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is compellable to give that evidence.

Vic Act: 12

Competence and compellability Except as otherwise provided by this Act— (a) every person is competent to give evidence; and (b) a person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is compellable to give that evidence.

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s 12

ACT Act: 12 Competence and compellability Except as otherwise provided by this Act— (a) every person is competent to give evidence; and (b) a person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is compellable to give that evidence. NT Act: 12

Competence and compellability Except as otherwise provided by this Act: (a) every person is competent to give evidence; and (b) a person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is compellable to give that evidence.

[EA.12.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 18, para 64; ALRC 26, vol 1, para 525.

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[EA.12.60] General comments The effect of this provision is that, as a primary position in all proceedings, all witnesses are both competent to give evidence and compellable to give evidence. The succeeding provisions (ss 13 to 19) provide exceptions to that general proposition. The words “competent to give evidence about a fact” appear in s 12(b) because such a formulation allows a court to decide, in accordance with Pt 2.1, that a witness is competent to give evidence about some facts but not others. Exceptions to compellability are not found only in the UEL. Other statutory provisions may render a person non-compellable. For example, in NSW5, a complainant in sexual offence proceedings is not compellable to give evidence at a retrial where a recording of his or her evidence from earlier proceedings is available.6

Cth Act: 13

Competence: lack of capacity

(1) A person is not competent to give evidence about a fact if, for any reason (including a mental, intellectual or physical disability): (a) the person does not have the capacity to understand a question about the fact; or (b) the person does not have the capacity to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the fact; and that incapacity cannot be overcome.

5. Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW), ss 306A–306G. 6. See also Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic), Pt 8.2.

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s 13

Part 2.1 - Witnesses

Note: See sections 30 and 31 for examples of assistance that may be provided to enable witnesses to overcome disabilities.

(2) A person who, because of subsection (1), is not competent to give evidence about a fact may be competent to give evidence about other facts. (3) A person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is not competent to give sworn evidence about the fact if the person does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence. (4) A person who is not competent to give sworn evidence about a fact may, subject to subsection (5), be competent to give unsworn evidence about the fact. (5) A person who, because of subsection (3), is not competent to give sworn evidence is competent to give unsworn evidence if the court has told the person: (a) that it is important to tell the truth; and (b) that he or she may be asked questions that he or she does not know, or cannot remember, the answer to, and that he or she should tell the court if this occurs; and (c) that he or she may be asked questions that suggest certain statements are true or untrue and that he or she should agree with the statements that he or she believes are true and should feel no pressure to agree with statements that he or she believes are untrue.

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(6) It is presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that a person is not incompetent because of this section. (7) Evidence that has been given by a witness does not become inadmissible merely because, before the witness finishes giving evidence, he or she dies or ceases to be competent to give evidence. (8) For the purpose of determining a question arising under this section, the court may inform itself as it thinks fit, including by obtaining information from a person who has relevant specialised knowledge based on the person’s training, study or experience. [S 13 subst Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 item 3]

NSW Act: 13

Competence: lack of capacity

(1) A person is not competent to give evidence about a fact if, for any reason (including a mental, intellectual or physical disability): (a) the person does not have the capacity to understand a question about the fact, or (b) the person does not have the capacity to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the fact, and that incapacity cannot be overcome. Note: See sections 30 and 31 for examples of assistance that may be provided to enable witnesses to overcome disabilities.

(2) A person who, because of subsection (1), is not competent to give evidence about a fact may be competent to give evidence about other facts. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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s 13

(3) A person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is not competent to give sworn evidence about the fact if the person does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence. (4) A person who is not competent to give sworn evidence about a fact may, subject to subsection (5), be competent to give unsworn evidence about the fact. (5) A person who, because of subsection (3), is not competent to give sworn evidence is competent to give unsworn evidence if the court has told the person: (a) that it is important to tell the truth, and (b) that he or she may be asked questions that he or she does not know, or cannot remember, the answer to, and that he or she should tell the court if this occurs, and (c) that he or she may be asked questions that suggest certain statements are true or untrue and that he or she should agree with the statements that he or she believes are true and should feel no pressure to agree with statements that he or she believes are untrue. (6) It is presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that a person is not incompetent because of this section.

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(7) Evidence that has been given by a witness does not become inadmissible merely because, before the witness finishes giving evidence, he or she dies or ceases to be competent to give evidence. (8) For the purpose of determining a question arising under this section, the court may inform itself as it thinks fit, including by obtaining information from a person who has relevant specialised knowledge based on the person’s training, study or experience. [S 13 subst Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[3]]

Vic Act: 13

Competence—lack of capacity

(1) A person is not competent to give evidence about a fact if, for any reason (including a mental, intellectual or physical disability)— (a) the person does not have the capacity to understand a question about the fact; or (b) the person does not have the capacity to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the fact— and that incapacity cannot be overcome. Note: See sections 30 and 31 for examples of assistance that may be provided to enable witnesses to overcome disabilities.

(2) A person who, because of subsection (1), is not competent to give evidence about a fact may be competent to give evidence about other facts. (3) A person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is not competent to give sworn evidence about the fact if the person does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence. 86

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(4) A person who is not competent to give sworn evidence about a fact may, subject to subsection (5), be competent to give unsworn evidence about the fact. (5) A person who, because of subsection (3), is not competent to give sworn evidence is competent to give unsworn evidence if the court has told the person— (a) that it is important to tell the truth; and (b) that he or she may be asked questions that he or she does not know, or cannot remember, the answer to, and that he or she should tell the court if this occurs; and (c) that he or she may be asked questions that suggest certain statements are true or untrue and that he or she should agree with the statements that he or she believes are true and should feel no pressure to agree with statements that he or she believes are untrue. (6) It is presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that a person is not incompetent because of this section. (7) Evidence that has been given by a witness does not become inadmissible merely because, before the witness finishes giving evidence, he or she dies or ceases to be competent to give evidence.

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(8) For the purpose of determining a question arising under this section, the court may inform itself as it thinks fit, including by obtaining information from a person who has relevant specialised knowledge based on the person’s training, study or experience. ACT Act: 13

Competence—lack of capacity

(1) A person is not competent to give evidence about a fact if, for any reason (including a mental, intellectual or physical disability)— (a) the person does not have the capacity to understand a question about the fact; or (b) the person does not have the capacity to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the fact; and that incapacity cannot be overcome. Note: See s 30 and s 31 for examples of assistance that may be provided to enable witnesses to overcome disabilities.

(2) A person who, because of subsection (1), is not competent to give evidence about a fact may be competent to give evidence about other facts. (3) A person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is not competent to give sworn evidence about the fact if the person does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, the person is under an obligation to give truthful evidence. (4) A person who is not competent to give sworn evidence about a fact may, subject to subsection (5), be competent to give unsworn evidence about the fact. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(5) A person who, because of subsection (3), is not competent to give sworn evidence is competent to give unsworn evidence if the court has told the person that— (a) it is important to tell the truth; and (b) the person may be asked questions that the person does not know, or cannot remember, the answer to, and that the person should tell the court if this happens; and (c) the person may be asked questions that suggest certain statements are true or untrue and that the person should agree with the statements that the person believes are true and should feel no pressure to agree with statements that the person believes are untrue. (6) It is presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that a person is not incompetent because of this section. (7) Evidence that has been given by a witness does not become inadmissible only because, before the witness finishes giving evidence, the witness dies or ceases to be competent to give evidence.

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(8) For the purpose of deciding a question arising under this section, the court may inform itself as it thinks fit, including by obtaining information from a person who has relevant specialised knowledge based on the person’s training, study or experience. NT Act: 13 Competence — lack of capacity (1) A person is not competent to give evidence about a fact if, for any reason (including a mental, intellectual or physical disability): (a) the person does not have the capacity to understand a question about the fact; or (b) the person does not have the capacity to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the fact; and that incapacity cannot be overcome. Note for subsection (1): See sections 30 and 31 for examples of assistance that may be provided to enable witnesses to overcome disabilities.

(2) A person who, because of subsection (1), is not competent to give evidence about a fact may be competent to give evidence about other facts. (3) A person who is competent to give evidence about a fact is not competent to give evidence on oath about the fact if the person does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence. (4) A person who is not competent to give evidence on oath about a fact may, subject to subsection (5), be competent to give evidence about the fact otherwise than on oath. (5) A person who, because of subsection (3), is not competent to give evidence on oath is competent to give evidence otherwise than on oath if the court has told the person: 88

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(a) (b)

that it is important to tell the truth; and that he or she may be asked questions that he or she does not know, or cannot remember, the answer to, and that he or she should tell the court if this occurs; and (c) that he or she may be asked questions that suggest certain statements are true or untrue and that he or she should agree with the statements that he or she believes are true and should feel no pressure to agree with statements that he or she believes are untrue.

(6) It is presumed, unless the contrary is proved, that a person is not incompetent because of this section. (7) Evidence that has been given by a witness does not become inadmissible merely because, before the witness finishes giving evidence, he or she dies or ceases to be competent to give evidence. (8) For the purpose of determining a question arising under this section, the court may inform itself as it thinks fit, including by obtaining information from a person who has relevant specialised knowledge based on the person’s training, study or experience.

[EA.13.30] ALRC references

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ALRC 102, paras 4.3–4.89; ALRC 38, s 19, paras 64–65; ALRC 26, vol 1, paras 236–245, 521–524.

[EA.13.60] “does not have the capacity to understand a question” (s 13(1)(a)) If a witness is incapable of understanding any questions (and that incapacity cannot be overcome in some way), he or she will not be permitted to testify at all. If a witness is incapable of understanding a question about a fact (and that incapacity cannot be overcome in some way), he or she will not be permitted to testify regarding that fact, but may be permitted to testify as to other facts (s 13(2)). The concept of “the capacity to understand a question” imports an ability to comprehend questions put to the witness.7 It requires only basic comprehension skills.8 A witness may be better able to understand a simple question than one involving complex concepts. Some incapacities may be overcome. As the Note to s 13(1) states, ss 30 and 31 provide examples of assistance that may be provided to enable witnesses to overcome disabilities. Thus, where the incapacity derives from lack of English, it may be easily overcome by use of an interpreter pursuant to s 30.9 Where the incapacity derives from a hearing disability, it may be overcome in an appropriate way pursuant to s 31. The same test of “capacity to understand a question” is adopted in s 53 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 (UK) (see [EA.13.90] below) and 7. See the discussion in ALRC 26, vol 1, paras 239, 242. 8. See ALRC 102 at para 4.49. 9. Where it cannot easily be overcome, s 14 may apply. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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authorities in respect of that provision will bear on this provision, notwithstanding some differences in the way that the test is expressed. For example, in R v MacPherson [2006] 1 Cr App R 30, the Court of Appeal observed at [27] that “a young child like the witness in this case, who can speak and understand basic English with strangers would be competent” and rejected submissions that a prospective witness must “be able to understand the difference between truth and falsehood” and understand the “status” of a witness.

[EA.13.90] “does not have the capacity to give an answer that can be understood” (s 13(1)(b)) If a witness is incapable of giving an answer that can be understood to any questions, he or she will not be permitted to testify at all. If a witness is incapable of giving an answer that can be understood to a question about a fact, he or she will not be permitted to testify regarding that fact, but may be permitted to testify as to other facts (s 13(2)). For example, a young child may be able to give an answer that can be understood to simple factual questions but not questions which require the drawing of inferences.

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Prior to amendments to this provision following on ALRC 102, the applicable test was expressed in terms of capacity “to give a rational reply” to a question about a fact. That capacity implied an ability to be appropriately informative, relevant and perspicuous in response to questions.10 The new test requires less. An answer can be “understood” even if it provides little information and appears to have no rational connection to the question. The Explanatory Memoranda of both the Commonwealth amending Act and the Victorian 2008 Act state: The purpose of the revised test of general competence is to enhance participation of witnesses and to ensure that relevant information is before the court.

The current formulation derives from s 53 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 (United Kingdom).11 That section provides that in a criminal proceeding “all persons are (whatever their age) competent to give evidence” unless it appears to the court that the person is “not a person who is able to (a) understand questions put to him as a witness, and (b) to give answers to them which can be understood”. In ALRC 102, reference was made to authority on the English provision (at paras 4.53–4.56, paragraph numbers and footnotes deleted): [I]t has been applied in two separate reported cases, both concerning the sexual assault of elderly women suffering from dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. In those cases the test in s 53 was applied in the context of the trial judge’s consideration of the competence of the complainant as a witness when dealing with the issue of the admissibility of video-taped evidence under ss 23 and 26 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988 (UK) where the witness was otherwise unfit to attend trial to give evidence. In the more recent of the two cases, Sed v The Queen, the Court of Appeal formed the view, as did the trial judge, that the complainant was a competent witness. In particular, the video of her showed: That she did have some appreciation of why she was being questioned … Whilst she did not always answer the question put to her and sometimes rambled off into other occurrences and places involving other people, her reference to such sexual assault by a man was a strong theme in her discourse with the officers. Sometimes 10. See the discussion in ALRC 26, vol 1, paras 239, 242. 11. See ALRC 102 at para 4.52.

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her answers were hard to understand or bore little relation to the question asked, but at the end of the interview, the abiding picture was of a woman whose account and responses to questions were somewhat patchy, but who was nevertheless complaining repeatedly of a particular recent sexual assault by a man …

The Court of Appeal went on to observe it is for the judge to determine the question of competence: bearing always in mind that, if, on critical matters, the witness can be seen and heard to be intelligible, it is for the jury and no-one else to determine reliability and general cogency.

The Court of Appeal also noted that, “[t]he new s 53 test of ‘competence’ is … concerned at its highest with the degree of mutual comprehension of those questioning and of the person being questioned.” It is apparent that an answer can be “understood” even if it does not “answer the question” asked, appears to “ramble off”, and provides little relevant information. It is enough that it is “intelligible”. In ALRC 102, it was concluded at para 4.57:

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The Commissions favour a test of general competence substantially based on the English provision, which focuses on the ability of the witness to comprehend and communicate. Such a test is flexible, clear and unambiguous. It increases the possibility that a witness’ evidence is heard, requiring mainly that they understand and answer simple questions and communicate what happened.

In Cox v New South Wales (2007) 71 NSWLR 225; [2007] NSWSC 471, Simpson J applied the former test, expressed in terms of capacity “to give a rational reply” to a question about a fact, to hold that a plaintiff who responded to questions about relevant events with the answer that he had no memory of those events was not capable of giving a rational reply to questions about those events (and thus was taken “not to be available to give evidence about a fact” because he was “not competent to give the evidence about the fact”). Justice Simpson stated at [16]: The “rational replies” that the plaintiff was able to give were not replies to questions about facts relevant to his claim, but were about facts relevant to his recollection. Once he replied that he had no recollection of the events, it had to be concluded that he was not capable of giving a rational reply to questions about those facts. That he was capable to giving rational replies to questions about his recollection is beside the point; the argument focused upon the wrong fact.

This analysis is doubtful. It is a rational reply to the question “what happened” to say “I don’t remember”. Such an answer to any other questions about the events would also be a rational reply. The reply may provide no information about the events but it is an informative response. Furthermore, the witness may be able to give evidence relevant to the events even if he or she has no recollection of them – to treat the witness as “not competent to give evidence about the fact” simply because he or she has no recollection of it would be inappropriate.12 However, whatever the correctness or otherwise of the ruling by Simpson J in relation to the old test, it plainly has no bearing on the current formulation. The answer “I don’t 12. While the ruling made by Simpson J was perhaps understandable in the context of determining whether the plaintiff was not available to give evidence about the events (for the purpose of applying the hearsay exception in s 63), alternative approaches might have been to hold that the plaintiff was not available under cl 4(1)(f) in Pt 2 of the Dictionary or, alternatively, relevantly available but subject to a liberal interpretation of s 64(2). © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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remember” to the question “what happened” clearly demonstrates a capacity to give an answer that can be understood. In the English case of Director of Public Prosecutions v The Queen [2007] EWHC 1842 (Admin), Lord Justice Hughes considered a case where a severely handicapped witness was declared incompetent because she had no recollection of events and stated at [21]–[22]: This was not a case, on the Justices’ findings, of incompetence. The girl may have had her learning difficulties. Her evidence may have needed treating with some care in consequence, but the problem at trial was not capacity to understand or to give intelligible answers, it was loss of memory. Recollection is quite different from competence. Of course, absence of recollection may, in some cases, co-exist with absence of competence, but they do not necessarily run together. Persons who have no recollection for an event may be perfectly competent. A simple example is the witness who is knocked out in the course of whatever happened which founds the charges, and has absolutely no recollection of what occurred, but is otherwise fully functioning. This girl … could understand the questions and she could give intelligible answers. The problem was that her perfectly intelligible answer was, “I cannot remember”. She was not incompetent.

[EA.13.120]

“… about a fact …” (s 13(1))

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In ALRC 102, it was noted at para 4.70 that the test of general competence provides that if a witness lacks capacity to understand a question or to give an answer which can be understood to a question “about a fact” (and therefore is not competent to give evidence about that fact), nonetheless, subject to comprehending and communicating appropriately to a question about another fact, he or she will be competent to give evidence about that fact. The following passage from another ALRC report was referred to at para 4.72: This is particularly important for children who may have differing language skills, abilities to make inferences, conclusions or estimates or capacities to understand concepts such as time and special perspective. This approach to competency allows a young child to respond under oath to simple questions but not to questions beyond the child’s capacity that cannot be reframed in simpler terms.

Section 13(2) expressly recognises that a person who is not competent to give evidence about a fact may be competent to give evidence about other facts. The Explanatory Memorandum of the Commonwealth amending Act states: New subsection 13(2) provides that even if the general test of competence is not satisfied in relation to one fact, the witness may be competent to give evidence about other facts. For example, a young child may be able to reply to simple factual questions but not to questions which require inferences to be drawn.13

[EA.13.150]

“(including a mental, intellectual or physical disability)” (s 13(1))

In ALRC 102, it was stated at para 4.75: [C]ompetence provisions are typically viewed as relevant when assessing the capacity of children to give evidence, and the capacity of persons with an intellectual disability or cognitive impairment to give evidence. The specific reference to “physical disability” is made to ensure that the potential applicability of the competence requirements to witnesses with this kind of disability is not overlooked. 13. Para 13. Similar observations are made in the Explanatory Memorandum to the NSW amending Act and the Victorian Act.

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The Note to this provision draws attention to ss 30 and 31, which refer to assistance that may be provided to enable witnesses to overcome disabilities.

[EA.13.180]

“does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence” (s 13(3))

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This provision is based on the original ALRC proposals in ALRC 38. It replaces the old common law test of competence based on understanding of “the nature and consequences of the oath”. The new test focuses on capacity to understand the duty to tell the truth. The ALRC stated that “the test concerns the witness’ ability to understand his obligation to speak ‘the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth’”.14 In RJ v The Queen (2010) 208 A Crim R 174; [2010] NSWCCA 263, Campbell JA noted at [20] that the test “is that the person does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence” and then observed that “[m]any a lying witness, and many an unreliable witness, has the capacity to understand that he or she is under that sort of an obligation (and thus is competent to give sworn evidence), even though he or she in fact does not give truthful evidence”. “Sworn evidence”, in this context, includes evidence given by way of affirmation.15 The ALRC explained how the application of this test would operate in practice (at para 522): The practice would differ from the present in that it would not be necessary to explore the religious belief and knowledge of the witness. Otherwise it would be similar in that the judge or magistrate, for example, would question a young child about his schooling (if appropriate), his interests and test his ability to understand different types of questions, test whether he understands why he is giving evidence, what is expected of him and what will happen if he does not give accurate answers.

The High Court stated in R v GW (2016) 90 ALJR 407; [2016] HCA 6: “[O]bligation” in s 13(3) is to be understood in its ordinary, grammatical meaning as the condition of being morally or legally bound – in this case, to give truthful evidence. A child may agree that he or she understands that he or she is to tell the truth without having any understanding of what it is to give evidence in a court proceeding, much less of the concept of being morally or legally bound to give truthful evidence.

In consequence, a child’s affirmative answer to the question “do you understand that today in giving evidence you have to only tell us the truth? You have to tell us things that really happened, you understand that?” is not to be understood as necessarily conveying that the child “had the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, she was under such an obligation” (at [26]). Many matters may be relevant, including the age of the child (at [31]), the answers given to such questions and whether the child has some understanding of swearing an oath on the Bible or making an affirmation (at [27]). The court must be satisfied that the witness “does not have” the relevant capacity. It is not sufficient to overcome the presumptions in ss 12 and 13(6) that the court is not satisfied that the witness does have that capacity: R v GW (2016) 90 ALJR 14. See ALRC 26, vol 1, para 521. 15. See R v Muller (2013) 7 ACTLR 296; 273 FLR 215; [2013] ACTCA 15, Dowsett J at [39]. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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407; [2016] HCA 6 at [14], [28]. Only if satisfied on the balance of probabilities that the witness does not have the relevant capacity will the witness not be competent to give sworn evidence about the fact. However, lack of competence to give sworn evidence will not prevent a witness from giving unsworn evidence if the requirements of s 13(5) are satisfied.

[EA.13.210]

Competence to give unsworn evidence (s 13(5))

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The provision is designed to allow young children and others (for example, adults who have an intellectual disability) to testify even though they do not comprehend the concept of an “obligation to give truthful evidence”. Unsworn evidence (that is, evidence given without an oath or affirmation) is still evidence and is treated no differently from other evidence by the Act.16 Prior to amendments to this provision following on ALRC 102, the court was required to be satisfied that the person “understands the difference between the truth and a lie”.17 That is no longer required. All that is necessary is that the requirements of s 13(1) are satisfied and “the court has told the person” the various matters specified in s 13(5)(a), (b) and (c). If those requirements are satisfied, there is no discretionary power to refuse to allow the person to give unsworn evidence notwithstanding the use of the word “may” in s 13(4).18 The provision “requires only that the directions be given, and not that they be understood or even acknowledged”.19 Thus, while it is obviously desirable that the witness understand the directions and “it may be appropriate to ask questions in order to determine whether any further explanation is necessary”, it is clear that “testing of the potential witness’s understanding of the judge’s directions is not part of the process prescribed by s 13(5). No particular level of understanding is required as a condition of admissibility, always assuming that ss 13(1) and 13(3) have been satisfied”.20 Thus, it was held by the ACT Court of Appeal that, when a child responded “I don’t know” to the question “what do you understand by me telling you that it is important to tell the truth? What does that mean to you?”, that answer was “irrelevant” to the question of his competence to give unsworn evidence.21 It has been held that the identical provision to s 13(5)(a) as it now stands (s 13(2)(b) prior to the amendments following on ALRC 102) does not mandate some form of judicial instruction.22 It is enough that the court conveys the information that it is important to tell the truth and it is not necessary that “the authority of the court is brought to bear on the witness by means of an 16. Compare R v Wills (1985) 39 SASR 35; 16 A Crim R 247. 17. See R v RAG [2006] NSWCCA 343. 18. SH v The Queen (2012) 83 NSWLR 258; 222 A Crim R 43; [2012] NSWCCA 79 at [6]–[8]; R v Muller (2013) 7 ACTLR 296; 273 FLR 215; [2013] ACTCA 15 at [40]. 19. R v Muller (2013) 7 ACTLR 296; 273 FLR 215; [2013] ACTCA 15 at [41]. 20. R v Muller (2013) 7 ACTLR 296; 273 FLR 215; [2013] ACTCA 15, Dowsett J at [44]. See also Penfold J at [2]–[3]. 21. R v Muller (2013) 7 ACTLR 296; 273 FLR 215; [2013] ACTCA 15, Dowsett J (Penfold J and Nield AJ agreeing) at [46]. 22. R v Brooks (1998) 44 NSWLR 121; 102 A Crim R 367 (NSWCCA) per Grove J (at 126), Priestley JA agreeing (at 122), Sperling J dissenting (at 127).

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23

instruction”. The same reasoning would apply to the matters specified in s 13(2)(b). In ALRC 102, it was noted at para 4.45 that: it has been suggested that the following is a simple, convenient form of words: “Tell us all you can remember of what happened. Do not make anything up or leave anything out. This is very important”.

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Failure to tell the person of the matters referred to in s 13(5) will mean that the statutory precondition to the reception of the evidence has not been satisfied and the evidence is not properly before the court.24 The appropriate conclusion is that the witness is not competent to give unsworn evidence because, it having been concluded that the witness did not have sufficient capacity to understand the obligation to tell the truth, the witness was not given the directions required by s 13(5).25 An interesting issue arises if a court permits a witness to give unsworn evidence pursuant to s 13(5) without first having ruled that the witness is incompetent to give sworn evidence by reason of s 13(3). The NSW Court of Criminal Appeal held in relation to the provision prior to the amendments following on ALRC 102 that, in this situation, the (unsworn) evidence of the witness was not admissible.26 The effect of s 12 is that all persons (including children) are presumed competent to give sworn evidence: see also s 13(6). Before permitting a person to give unsworn evidence under s 13(5) the court must first be satisfied that the person is not competent to give sworn evidence, that is, that the person “does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence”: s 13(3). Failure to be so satisfied will mean that one of the requirements for the giving of unsworn evidence has not been met. This position has been confirmed in respect of the Act as it stands following the amendments. In RJ v The Queen (2010) 208 A Crim R 174; [2010] NSWCCA 263, Campbell JA (Latham J and Price J agreeing) followed the earlier line of authority and also emphasised at [40] that s 21 permits only one exception to the requirement that a witness in a proceeding must either take an oath or make an affirmation before giving evidence: That exception is if the person “gives unsworn evidence under section 13”. It is possible to give unsworn evidence “under section 13” only if two separate conditions are satisfied. The first is that the presumption of competency to give sworn evidence that arises from section 13(6) has been displaced, through a decision being made that the test for being not competent to give sworn evidence, set out in section 13(3) has been met. In other words, it is possible to give unsworn evidence “under section 13” 23. See R v Brooks (1998) 44 NSWLR 121; 102 A Crim R 367 per Grove J (at 126F–G), rejecting the view of Sperling J (at 127C–D). 24. SH v The Queen (2012) 83 NSWLR 258; 222 A Crim R 43; [2012] NSWCCA 79 at [33]–[35]; MK v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 274 at [72]–[74]. See also R v Brooks (1998) 44 NSWLR 121; 102 A Crim R 367; R v Starrett (2002) 82 SASR 115; [2002] SASC 175; Lau v The Queen (1991) 6 WAR 30; 58 A Crim R 390; R v BBR [2010] 1 Qd R 546; 195 A Crim R 330; [2009] QCA 178 at [19]–[42]. 25. SH v The Queen (2012) 83 NSWLR 258; 222 A Crim R 43; [2012] NSWCCA 79 at [35]. 26. R v Brooks (1998) 44 NSWLR 121; 102 A Crim R 367. In fact, this term was used only by Priestley JA. Grove J held that “the articulations” of the witness were “unavailable as an evidential resource” (at 125E, 126D) while Sperling J considered that the Evidence Act required evidence to be sworn unless the procedural requirements for giving unsworn evidence were met. See also R v JTB [2003] NSWCCA 295. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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only if there is material that the judge has considered, on the basis of which the judge has decided that the witness does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence, he or she is under an obligation to give truthful evidence. The second condition for giving unsworn evidence “under section 13” is that the judge has informed the witness of the matters in paras (a) (b) and (c) of section 13(5).

Since the trial judge in that case had not addressed the first of these conditions at all, the unsworn evidence contravened s 21 and was not legitimately before the jury (at [42])..

[EA.13.240]

“before the witness finishes giving evidence, he or she dies or ceases to be competent to give evidence” (s 13(7))

While the evidence that has been given by the witness does not become inadmissible “merely” because these circumstances arise, discretionary exclusion (under s 135 or 137) may be appropriate, particularly if an opposing party has had no substantial opportunity to cross-examine the witness.27

[EA.13.270]

Burden and standard of proof

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Given s 13(6), the burden of proof will be on the party asserting that a witness is not competent.28 In accordance with s 142(1), that party will have to prove this “on the balance of probabilities”. The presumption applies to both competence to give evidence and competence to give sworn evidence. In either case, the presumption will be displaced where the court is satisfied on the balance of probabilities of the contrary: R v GW (2016) 90 ALJR 407; [2016] HCA 6 at [14].

[EA.13.300]

Procedure

Section 13(8) allows the court to “inform itself as it thinks fit”. This permits the court to mould the procedure to determine questions of competence as it considers most appropriate, taking into account the fact that the provisions will be primarily applicable to young children. It could permit the questioning of a young child by a person with expertise in the area or who has trust of the child. The court may permit the parties to question the child, although it is doubtful whether counsel for a criminal defendant should question a child in a competency inquiry.29 An appropriate procedure is suggested at 6.3.2 of the Equality Before the Law Bench Book (Judicial Commission of NSW). There should be some testing of the understanding of the obligation to give truthful evidence by the use of simple and concrete terminology.30 27. Compare English authorities: R v Powell [2006] 1 Cr App R 31 at [33]–[34]; Director of Public Prosecutions v The Queen [2007] EWHC 1842 (Admin) at [15], [22]. 28. See RA v The Queen (2007) 175 A Crim R 221; [2007] NSWCCA 251, decided in respect of the identical provision (s 13(5)) prior to the amendments following on ALRC 102. McClellan CJ at CL stated at [11] that “[n]either the defence nor the prosecution carries an onus” but, since s 13(5) requires that it be “proved” that the witness is incompetent, it must logically follow that there is a “burden of proof” on the party submitting that a witness is incompetent. However, the terms of s 13(7) will impact on how this burden is met (see [EA.13.300]). 29. R v RAG [2006] NSWCCA 343 per Latham J (with whom McClellan CJ at CL and Johnson J agreed) at [46]). 30. MK v The Queen [2014] NSWCCA 274 at [69].

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This provision has been utilised to permit consideration of evidence given in other proceedings by the person.31 A judge might be able to satisfy himself or herself of the matters necessary to decide whether a presumption of competency under s 13 has been displaced by listening to a recording of a police interview with the child.32 In a jury trial, s 189 provides that the jury is not to be present during a “voir dire” to determine competence unless the court so orders: s 189(4). Various matters must be taken into account by the court in deciding whether to make such an order: s 189(5). It should be noted that the waiver provision (s 190) does not apply to this Division in the Act (Div 1 of Pt 2.1).33 This provision was amended following on ALRC 102 to expressly permit a court to obtain “information from a person who has relevant specialised knowledge based on the person’s training, study or experience”. It was stated at para 4.62: The Commissions considered that a court might benefit from the availability of expert reports in relation to other witnesses whose competence may be in doubt. For instance, the insights of an appropriately qualified expert skilled in determining intellectual functioning may assist the court to assess issues of competence concerning witnesses with an intellectual disability or cognitive impairment. In the absence of such evidence, the assessment would be made through judicial questioning and impressions ascertained in the artificial environs of the courtroom.

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Similarly, the Explanatory Memorandum of the Commonwealth amending Act states (para 19): This provision is not intended to allow an expert to supplant the court’s role in determining a witness’s competence. Rather it is intended to emphasise that the court may have recourse to expert assistance (for example, to identify any alternative communication methods or support needs which could facilitate the giving of evidence by a person with a disability).

There must be “specialised knowledge” that is “relevant” and “based on the person’s training, study or experience”. These requirements correspond to the requirements of s 79 in respect of opinion evidence. However, in contrast with that provision, the court may obtain “information” as distinct from “opinion” and there is no explicit linkage between that information and the expert’s specialised knowledge (although the courts may well imply a requirement for such a linkage). There is no requirement that the information be obtained directly (that is, by the expert testifying in court).

[EA.13.330]

Jury directions

This provision does not mandate any directions to a jury where a witness who is not competent to give sworn evidence is permitted to give unsworn evidence. In that regard, it may be contrasted with, for example, s 9(4) of the South Australian Evidence Act 1929 which specifically requires that, if unsworn evidence is given in a criminal trial, the judge “must explain to the jury the reason the evidence is unsworn; … and may, and if a party so requests must, warn the jury of the need for caution in determining whether to accept the evidence and the weight to be 31. R v EG [2002] ACTSC 85 at [10] per Crispin J. 32. RJ v The Queen (2010) 208 A Crim R 174; [2010] NSWCCA 263 at [23]. 33. Compare R v JTB [2003] NSWCCA 295 at [9] and [24]–[36]. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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given to it”. The High Court held in R v GW (2016) 90 ALJR 407; [2016] HCA 6 that, at least where unsworn evidence is given by a child, there is no requirement either under this Act or the common law for a direction to the jury: The Evidence Act does not treat unsworn evidence as of a kind that may be unreliable. Had a direction been requested under s 165(2), there was no requirement to warn the jury that [the child’s] evidence may be unreliable because it was unsworn. Nor was there a requirement under the common law to warn the jury of the need for caution in accepting [the child’s] evidence and in assessing the weight to be given to it because it was unsworn. Nor was there a requirement under common law, falling short of a warning of that kind, to direct the jury to take into account the differences between sworn and unsworn evidence in assessing the reliability of [the child’s] evidence.

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The argument that the jury should have been informed of the difference between sworn and unsworn evidence and of the reason that evidence is given unsworn as matters material to the assessment of the unsworn evidence was rejected on the basis that “[a]s a matter of practical reality, neither the fact that [the child] did not take an oath or make an affirmation before giving her evidence, nor that she was not subject to the sanctions that may apply to the failure to adhere to the oath or affirmation, was material to the assessment of whether [her] evidence was truthful and reliable such that the jury could accept and act upon it” (at [54]). The High Court did not need to decide whether “different considerations would apply where a witness other than a young child is capable of giving evidence about a fact but incapable of giving sworn evidence because the witness does not have the capacity to understand that, in giving evidence about the fact, he or she would be under an obligation to give truthful evidence”, acknowledging that, “[d]epending on the circumstances, it might prove necessary or desirable to give some further form of direction” in such a case (at [57]).

Cth Act: 14

Compellability: reduced capacity A person is not compellable to give evidence on a particular matter if the court is satisfied that: (a) substantial cost or delay would be incurred in ensuring that the person would have the capacity to understand a question about the matter or to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the matter; and [Para (a) am Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 item 4]

(b) adequate evidence on that matter has been given, or will be able to be given, from one or more other persons or sources. [S 14 am Act 135 of 2008]

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NSW Act: 14 Compellability: reduced capacity A person is not compellable to give evidence on a particular matter if the court is satisfied that: (a) substantial cost or delay would be incurred in ensuring that the person would have the capacity to understand a question about the matter or to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the matter, and [Para (a) am Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[4]]

(b) adequate evidence on that matter has been given, or will be able to be given, from one or more other persons or sources. [S 14 am Act 46 of 2007]

Vic Act: 14

Compellability—reduced capacity

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A person is not compellable to give evidence on a particular matter if the court is satisfied that— (a) substantial cost or delay would be incurred in ensuring that the person would have the capacity to understand a question about the matter or to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the matter; and (b) adequate evidence on that matter has been given, or will be able to be given, from one or more other persons or sources. ACT Act: 14

Compellability—reduced capacity A person is not compellable to give evidence on a particular matter if the court is satisfied that— (a) substantial cost or delay would be incurred in ensuring that the person would have the capacity to understand a question about the matter or to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the matter; and (b) adequate evidence on the matter has been given, or will be able to be given, from 1 or more other people or sources. NT Act: 14

Compellability — reduced capacity

A person is not compellable to give evidence on a particular matter if the court is satisfied that: (a) substantial cost or delay would be incurred in ensuring that the person would have the capacity to understand a question about the matter or to give an answer that can be understood to a question about the matter; and (b) adequate evidence on that matter has been given, or will be able to be given, from one or more other persons or sources.

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ALRC References

ALRC 102, paras 4.3–4.89.

[EA.14.60] General comments This provision was not proposed by the ALRC in ALRC 38. However, in ALRC 102 it was proposed that it be retained, with amendments to bring it into line with s 13. It empowers the court to allow a witness to choose not to give evidence “on a particular matter” where undue cost or delay would be involved in overcoming some incapacity of understanding. In appropriate circumstances, the witness may not be required to give evidence at all. However, where the witness’s evidence is necessary, because no other evidence on the matter is available (or, what evidence there is, is not “adequate”), all efforts to overcome the incapacity must be taken. Determination of “adequacy” will involve a difficult assessment of evidence already admitted as well as information provided by the parties as to whether other evidence is intended to be adduced.

Cth Act:

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15

Compellability: Sovereign and others (1) None of the following is compellable to give evidence: (a) the Sovereign; (b) the Governor-General; (c) the Governor of a State; (d) the Administrator of a Territory; (e) a foreign sovereign or the Head of State of a foreign country.

(2) A member of a House of an Australian Parliament is not compellable to give evidence if the member would, if compelled to give evidence, be prevented from attending: (a) a sitting of that House or a joint sitting of that Parliament; or (b) a meeting of a committee of that House or that Parliament, being a committee of which he or she is a member. NSW Act: 15

Compellability: Sovereign and others (1) None of the following is compellable to give evidence: (a) the Sovereign, (b) the Governor-General, (c) the Governor of a State, (d) the Administrator of a Territory, (e) a foreign sovereign or the Head of State of a foreign country.

(2) A member of a House of an Australian Parliament is not compellable to give evidence if the member would, if compelled to give evidence, be prevented from attending: (a) a sitting of that House, or a joint sitting of that Parliament, or 100

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(b) a meeting of a committee of that House or that Parliament, being a committee of which he or she is a member. Vic Act: 15

Compellability—Sovereign and others (1) None of the following is compellable to give evidence— (a) the Sovereign; (b) the Governor-General; (c) the Governor of a State; (d) the Administrator of a Territory; (e) a foreign sovereign or the Head of State of a foreign country.

(2) A member of a House of an Australian Parliament is not compellable to give evidence if the member would, if compelled to give evidence, be prevented from attending— (a) a sitting of that House, or a joint sitting of that Parliament; or (b) a meeting of a committee of that House or that Parliament, being a committee of which he or she is a member. ACT Act:

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15

Compellability—Sovereign and others (1) None of the following is compellable to give evidence: (a) the Sovereign; (b) the Governor-General; (c) the Governor of a State; (d) the Administrator of a Territory; (e) a foreign sovereign or the Head of State of a foreign country.

(2) A member of a house of an Australian Parliament is not compellable to give evidence if the member would, if compelled to give evidence, be prevented from attending— (a) a sitting of the house or a joint sitting of the Parliament; or (b) if the member is a member of a committee of the house or the Parliament—a meeting of the committee. NT Act: 15

Compellability — Sovereign and others (1) None of the following is compellable to give evidence: (a) the Sovereign; (b) the Governor-General; (c) the Governor of a State; (d) the Administrator of a Territory; (e) a foreign sovereign or the Head of State of a foreign country.

(2) A member of a House of an Australian Parliament is not compellable to give evidence if the member would, if compelled to give evidence, be prevented from attending: © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(a) (b)

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a sitting of that House, or a joint sitting of that Parliament; or a meeting of a committee of that House or that Parliament, being a committee of which he or she is a member.

[EA.15.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 20, para 67; ALRC 26, vol 1, para 526.

[EA.15.60] General comments [Cth Act only] Because s 8(1) makes other (Commonwealth) Acts prevail over this Act, the compellability of Commonwealth parliamentarians is governed by the Parliamentary Privileges Act 1987 (Cth), s 14(1).

Cth Act: 16

Competence and compellability: judges and jurors

(1) A person who is a judge or juror in a proceeding is not competent to give evidence in that proceeding. However, a juror is competent to give evidence in the proceeding about matters affecting conduct of the proceeding.

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(2) A person who is or was a judge in an Australian or overseas proceeding is not compellable to give evidence about that proceeding unless the court gives leave. NSW Act: 16

Competence and compellability: judges and jurors

(1) A person who is a judge or juror in a proceeding is not competent to give evidence in that proceeding. However, a juror is competent to give evidence in the proceeding about matters affecting conduct of the proceeding. (2) A person who is or was a judge in an Australian or overseas proceeding is not compellable to give evidence about that proceeding unless the court gives leave. Vic Act: 16

Competence and compellability—judges and jurors

(1) A person who is a judge or juror in a proceeding is not competent to give evidence in that proceeding. However, a juror is competent to give evidence in the proceeding about matters affecting the conduct of the proceeding. (2) A person who is or was a judge in an Australian or overseas proceeding is not compellable to give evidence about that proceeding unless the court gives leave.

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ACT Act: 16 Competence and compellability—judges and jurors (1) A person who is a judge or juror in a proceeding is not competent to give evidence in the proceeding. (2) However, a juror is competent to give evidence in the proceeding about matters affecting conduct of the proceeding. (3) A person who is or was a judge in an Australian or overseas proceeding is not compellable to give evidence about the proceeding unless the court gives leave. NT Act: 16

Competence and compellability — judges and jurors

(1) A person who is a judge or juror in a proceeding is not competent to give evidence in that proceeding. However, a juror is competent to give evidence in the proceeding about matters affecting the conduct of the proceeding. (2) A person who is or was a judge in an Australian or overseas proceeding is not compellable to give evidence about that proceeding unless the court gives leave.

[EA.16.30] ALRC references Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

ALRC 38, s 21, para 68; ALRC 26, vol 1, paras 247–248, 527.

[EA.16.60] General comments The ALRC explained this provision (at ALRC 26, vol 1, para 527): The proposal introduces a new exception relating to judges and jurors – that they be not competent to give evidence in a trial in which they are acting as judge or juror. ... As to the competence of judges or jurors to give evidence about a past trial in which they acted, it is thought that the general rule should apply and that they should be competent – as at present. There is a risk, however, of judges and jurors being involved unnecessarily in proceedings …. The proposal, therefore, adopts the practical expedient of requiring an application for leave to be made to the judge who is presiding at the trial in which it is sought to call the judicial officer to give the evidence.

The ALRC proposal was modified by permitting a juror to “give evidence in the proceeding about matters affecting conduct of the proceeding”. Thus, if an issue arises in the proceeding as to, for example, the application of the law relating to juries, a juror may give evidence on the issue.

[EA.16.90] “unless the court gives leave” Section 16(2) provides that a person “who is or was a judge in an Australian or overseas proceeding” is not compellable to give evidence about that proceeding “unless the court gives leave”. Section 192 deals with the grant of leave generally and permits the court to give leave “on such terms as the court thinks fit”. Whenever a court is considering giving leave, permission or a direction under the © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Act, “in all cases the court must take into account the matters prescribed by s 192(2)”, as well as “matters which may be relevant in a particular case”.34

Cth Act: 17 Competence and compellability: defendants in criminal proceedings (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A defendant is not competent to give evidence as a witness for the prosecution. (3) An associated defendant is not compellable to give evidence for or against a defendant in a criminal proceeding, unless the associated defendant is being tried separately from the defendant. (4) If a witness is an associated defendant who is being tried jointly with the defendant in the proceeding, the court is to satisfy itself (if there is a jury, in the jury’s absence) that the witness is aware of the effect of subsection (3). Note: Associated defendant is defined in the Dictionary.

NSW Act: 17 Competence and compellability: defendants in criminal proceedings Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

(1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A defendant is not competent to give evidence as a witness for the prosecution. (3) An associated defendant is not compellable to give evidence for or against a defendant in a criminal proceeding, unless the associated defendant is being tried separately from the defendant. (4) If a witness is an associated defendant who is being tried jointly with the defendant in the proceeding, the court is to satisfy itself (if there is a jury, in the jury’s absence) that the witness is aware of the effect of subsection (3). Note: Associated defendant is defined in the Dictionary.

Vic Act: 17 Competence and compellability—accused in criminal proceedings (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) An accused is not competent to give evidence as a witness for the prosecution. [Subs (2) am Act 68 of 2009, s 97 and Sch item 55.2]

34. See Stanoevski v The Queen (2001) 202 CLR 115; 118 A Crim R 247; [2001] HCA 4 at [41] per Gaudron, Kirby and Callinan JJ.

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(3) An associated accused is not compellable to give evidence for or against an accused in a criminal proceeding, unless the associated accused is being tried separately from the accused. [Subs (3) am Act 68 of 2009, s 97 and Sch item 55.3]

(4) If a witness is an associated accused who is being tried jointly with the accused in the proceeding, the court is to satisfy itself (if there is a jury, in the jury’s absence) that the witness is aware of the effect of subsection (3). [Subs (4) am Act 68 of 2009, s 97 and Sch item 55.4] Note: Associated accused is defined in the Dictionary. [S 17 am Act 68 of 2009, s 97 and Sch item 55.1]

ACT Act: 17 Competence and compellability—defendants in criminal proceedings (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A defendant is not competent to give evidence as a witness for the prosecution.

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(3) An associated defendant is not compellable to give evidence for or against a defendant in a criminal proceeding unless the associated defendant is being tried separately from the defendant. (4) If a witness is an associated defendant who is being tried jointly with the defendant in the proceeding, the court must satisfy itself (if there is a jury, in the jury’s absence) that the witness is aware of the effect of subsection (3). Note: Associated defendant —see the dictionary.

NT Act: 17 Competence and compellability — defendants in criminal proceedings (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A defendant is not competent to give evidence as a witness for the prosecution. (3) An associated defendant is not compellable to give evidence for or against a defendant in a criminal proceeding, unless the associated defendant is being tried separately from the defendant. (4) If a witness is an associated defendant who is being tried jointly with the defendant in the proceeding, the court is to satisfy itself (if there is a jury, in the jury’s absence) that the witness is aware of the effect of subsection (3). Note for subsections (3) and (4): associated defendant is defined in the Dictionary.

[EA.17.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 22, paras 74–76; ALRC 26, vol 1, para 528.

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General comments

This section only applies in a “criminal proceeding”. That term is defined in the Dictionary: “criminal proceeding” means a prosecution for an offence and includes: (a) a proceeding for the committal of a person for trial or sentence for an offence; and (b) a proceeding relating to bail;

Under s 17(3), the “associated defendant” may choose to give evidence for the prosecution (subject to a warning under s 165 and possible discretionary exclusion under s 137), having been advised by the court (in accordance with s 17(4)) of the right to refuse. “Associated defendant” is defined in the Dictionary: “associated defendant”, in relation to a defendant in a criminal proceeding, means a person against whom a prosecution has been instituted, but not yet completed or terminated, for: (a) an offence that arose in relation to the same events as those in relation to which the offence for which the defendant is being prosecuted arose; or (b) an offence that relates to or is connected with the offence for which the defendant is being prosecuted.

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The prosecution can ensure that an “associated defendant” is compellable by trying him or her separately from the defendant (and completing that prosecution).35 The question arises whether, in joint proceedings, a defendant may be also regarded as an “associated defendant” for the purposes of s 17(3). When a joint trial is held, involving multiple parties, in legal theory there is not one trial but several. In a joint trial involving two defendants (D1 and D2), for example, evidence admitted in the trial against D1 may not be admissible for or against D2, and must be disregarded in the trial of D2. The question in this context is whether D1 may be regarded as an “associated defendant” of D2, and vice versa. In Kirk v Industrial Court of New South Wales (2010) 239 CLR 531; 190 IR 437; [2010] HCA 1 the High Court rejected this possibility. In that case, summary proceedings under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1983 (NSW) were brought in the NSW Industrial Court against Kirk Group Holdings Pty Ltd (“the Kirk company”) and against Mr Kirk, a director of that company. The charges were heard together. In the course of those proceedings, the prosecution had called Mr Kirk as a witness. The High Court was informed “that Mr Kirk’s giving evidence for the prosecution was a course agreed upon by both sides” (French CJ, Gummow, Hayne, Crennan, Kiefel and Bell JJ at [50]). Indeed, it appears from the oral argument in the High Court that Mr Kirk wanted to be called as a witness by the prosecution so that he could be “cross-examined” by his own legal representatives (Kirk v Industrial Relations Commission of NSW [2009] HCATrans 93 at [238]). Plainly the effect of s 17(2) was that Mr Kirk was not a competent witness for the prosecution in the proceedings against him (and 35. This does not require that the associated defendant be sentenced before being available as a witness for the prosecution, although such a practice is clearly desirable to reduce the danger that the associated defendant perceive some benefit to be obtained from giving evidence supporting the prosecution case.

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his consent could not alter that absence of competence: s 190). Technically speaking, he could be regarded as an “associated defendant” in respect of the prosecution against the Kirk company, but this would present a clear procedural problem. It could be said that any evidence he gave when called by the prosecution would not be admissible against him, but his own trial would still be proceeding – he would be a witness for the prosecution in the joint trial of both defendants even if his evidence was not admissible against him. French CJ, Gummow, Hayne, Crennan, Kiefel and Bell JJ held at [52] (Heydon J agreeing at [116]) that “[i]t is enough to say that where, as was the case here, Mr Kirk and the Kirk company were tried jointly, a distinction of the kind asserted by the second respondent cannot be drawn”. It follows that a defendant in a joint trial with another defendant or defendants is not competent as a witness for the prosecution in that joint trial. Putting the matter differently, the term “associated defendant” should not be understood to extend to a joint trial where the witness is a defendant in the proceedings.

[EA.17.90]

Procedure

The court must satisfy itself (if there is a jury, in the jury’s absence) that an associated defendant is aware of the effect of subsection (3). There is authority suggesting that the court must explain the provision to the witness, rather than rely on counsel.37

[EA.17.120]

Inferences from failure to give evidence

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Section 20 deals with “comment” on failure to give evidence.

Cth Act: 18 Compellability of spouses and others in criminal proceedings generally (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A person who, when required to give evidence, is the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant may object to being required: (a) to give evidence; or (b) to give evidence of a communication between the person and the defendant; as a witness for the prosecution. [Subs (2) am Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 item 5]

(3) The objection is to be made before the person gives the evidence or as soon as practicable after the person becomes aware of the right so to object, whichever is the later. (4) If it appears to the court that a person may have a right to make an objection under this section, the court is to satisfy itself that the person is aware of the effect of this section as it may apply to the person. 36. Heydon J provided at [117] an explanation for why a defendant should not be permitted to waive the operation of this provision. 37. See Trzesinski v Daire (1986) 44 SASR 43 at 45. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(5) If there is a jury, the court is to hear and determine any objection under this section in the absence of the jury. (6) A person who makes an objection under this section to giving evidence or giving evidence of a communication must not be required to give the evidence if the court finds that: (a) there is a likelihood that harm would or might be caused (whether directly or indirectly) to the person, or to the relationship between the person and the defendant, if the person gives the evidence; and (b) the nature and extent of that harm outweighs the desirability of having the evidence given.

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(7) Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account by the court for the purposes of subsection (6), it must take into account the following: (a) the nature and gravity of the offence for which the defendant is being prosecuted; (b) the substance and importance of any evidence that the person might give and the weight that is likely to be attached to it; (c) whether any other evidence concerning the matters to which the evidence of the person would relate is reasonably available to the prosecutor; (d) the nature of the relationship between the defendant and the person; (e) whether, in giving the evidence, the person would have to disclose matter that was received by the person in confidence from the defendant. (8) If an objection under this section has been determined, the prosecutor may not comment on: (a) the objection; or (b) the decision of the court in relation to the objection; or (c) the failure of the person to give evidence. [S 18 am Act 135 of 2008]

NSW Act: 18 Compellability of spouses and others in criminal proceedings generally (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A person who, when required to give evidence, is the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant may object to being required: (a) to give evidence, or (b) to give evidence of a communication between the person and the defendant, as a witness for the prosecution. [Subs (2) am Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[5]]

(3) The objection is to be made before the person gives the evidence or as soon as practicable after the person becomes aware of the right so to object, whichever is the later. 108

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(4) If it appears to the court that a person may have a right to make an objection under this section, the court is to satisfy itself that the person is aware of the effect of this section as it may apply to the person. (5) If there is a jury, the court is to hear and determine any objection under this section in the absence of the jury.

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(6) A person who makes an objection under this section to giving evidence or giving evidence of a communication must not be required to give the evidence if the court finds that: (a) there is a likelihood that harm would or might be caused (whether directly or indirectly) to the person, or to the relationship between the person and the defendant, if the person gives the evidence, and (b) the nature and extent of that harm outweighs the desirability of having the evidence given. (7) Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account by the court for the purposes of subsection (6), it must take into account the following: (a) the nature and gravity of the offence for which the defendant is being prosecuted, (b) the substance and importance of any evidence that the person might give and the weight that is likely to be attached to it, (c) whether any other evidence concerning the matters to which the evidence of the person would relate is reasonably available to the prosecutor, (d) the nature of the relationship between the defendant and the person, (e) whether, in giving the evidence, the person would have to disclose matter that was received by the person in confidence from the defendant. (8) If an objection under this section has been determined, the prosecutor may not comment on: (a) the objection, or (b) the decision of the court in relation to the objection, or (c) the failure of the person to give evidence. [S 18 am Act 46 of 2007]

Vic Act: 18 Compellability of spouses and others in criminal proceedings generally (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A person who, when required to give evidence, is the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of an accused may object to being required— (a) to give evidence; or (b) to give evidence of a communication between the person and the accused— as a witness for the prosecution. [Subs (2) am Act 68 of 2009, s 97 and Sch item 55.5] © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(3) The objection is to be made before the person gives the evidence or as soon as practicable after the person becomes aware of the right so to object, whichever is the later. (4) If it appears to the court that a person may have a right to make an objection under this section, the court is to satisfy itself that the person is aware of the effect of this section as it may apply to the person. (5) If there is a jury, the court is to hear and determine any objection under this section in the absence of the jury. (6) A person who makes an objection under this section to giving evidence or giving evidence of a communication must not be required to give the evidence if the court finds that— (a) there is a likelihood that harm would or might be caused (whether directly or indirectly) to the person, or to the relationship between the person and the accused, if the person gives the evidence; and (b) the nature and extent of that harm outweighs the desirability of having the evidence given.

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[Subs (6) am Act 68 of 2009, s 97 and Sch item 55.6]

(7) Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account by the court for the purposes of subsection (6), it must take into account the following— (a) the nature and gravity of the offence for which the accused is being prosecuted; (b) the substance and importance of any evidence that the person might give and the weight that is likely to be attached to it; (c) whether any other evidence concerning the matters to which the evidence of the person would relate is reasonably available to the prosecutor; (d) the nature of the relationship between the accused and the person; (e) whether, in giving the evidence, the person would have to disclose matter that was received by the person in confidence from the accused. [Subs (7) am Act 68 of 2009, s 97 and Sch item 55.7]

(8) If an objection under this section has been determined, the prosecutor may not comment on— (a) the objection; or (b) the decision of the court in relation to the objection; or (c) the failure of the person to give evidence. [S 18 am Act 68 of 2009]

ACT Act: 18 Compellability of domestic partners and others in criminal proceedings generally (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A person who, when required to give evidence, is the domestic partner, parent or child of a defendant may object to being required— 110

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(a) (b)

to give evidence; or to give evidence of a communication between the person and the defendant; as a witness for the prosecution. (3) The objection must be made before the person gives the evidence or as soon as practicable after the person becomes aware of the right to object, whichever is the later. (4) If it appears to the court that a person may have a right to make an objection under this section, the court must satisfy itself that the person is aware of the effect of this section as it may apply to the person. (5) If there is a jury, the court must hear and decide any objection under this section in the jury’s absence.

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(6) A person who makes an objection under this section to giving evidence or giving evidence of a communication must not be required to give the evidence if the court finds that— (a) there is a likelihood that harm would or might be caused (whether directly or indirectly) to the person, or to the relationship between the person and the defendant, if the person gives the evidence; and (b) the nature and extent of that harm outweighs the desirability of having the evidence given. (7) Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account by the court for subsection (6), it must take into account the following: (a) the nature and gravity of the offence for which the defendant is being prosecuted; (b) the substance and importance of any evidence that the person might give and the weight that is likely to be attached to it; (c) whether any other evidence about the matters to which the evidence of the person would relate is reasonably available to the prosecutor; (d) the nature of the relationship between the defendant and the person; (e) whether, in giving the evidence, the person would have to disclose matter that was received by the person in confidence from the defendant. (8) If an objection under this section has been decided, the prosecutor may not comment on— (a) the objection; or (b) the decision of the court in relation to the objection; or (c) the failure of the person to give evidence.

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s 18

NT Act: 18 Compellability of spouses and others in criminal proceedings generally (1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding. (2) A person who, when required to give evidence, is the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant may object to being required: (a) to give evidence; or (b) to give evidence of a communication between the person and the defendant; as a witness for the prosecution. (3) The objection is to be made before the person gives the evidence or as soon as practicable after the person becomes aware of the right so to object, whichever is the later. (4) If it appears to the court that a person may have a right to make an objection under this section, the court is to satisfy itself that the person is aware of the effect of this section as it may apply to the person.

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(5) If there is a jury, the court is to hear and determine any objection under this section in the absence of the jury. (6) A person who makes an objection under this section to giving evidence or giving evidence of a communication must not be required to give the evidence if the court finds that: (a) there is a likelihood that harm would or might be caused (whether directly or indirectly) to the person, or to the relationship between the person and the defendant, if the person gives the evidence; and (b) the nature and extent of that harm outweighs the desirability of having the evidence given. (7) Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account by the court for the purposes of subsection (6), it must take into account the following: (a) the nature and gravity of the offence for which the defendant is being prosecuted; (b) the substance and importance of any evidence that the person might give and the weight that is likely to be attached to it; (c) whether any other evidence concerning the matters to which the evidence of the person would relate is reasonably available to the prosecutor; (d) the nature of the relationship between the defendant and the person; (e) whether, in giving the evidence, the person would have to disclose matter that was received by the person in confidence from the defendant. (8) If an objection under this section has been determined, the prosecutor may not comment on: (a) the objection; or (b) the decision of the court in relation to the objection; or 112

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(c)

[EA.18.60]

the failure of the person to give evidence.

[EA.18.30]

ALRC references

ALRC 102, paras 4.90–4.117; ALRC 38, s 24, paras 79–83; ALRC 26, vol 1, paras 256–257, 529–539.

[EA.18.60] Application On the basis that s 12 indicates a clear legislative intention that the provisions of the NSW Act abrogate “the operation of a principle or rule of common law or equity in relation to” the competence and compellability of witnesses (s 9), it has been held that “there is no room to read down their clear meaning by the application of” the common law principles relating to spousal compellability.38 The same conclusion should be drawn in respect of the Commonwealth and Victorian Acts. This provision only applies in a “criminal proceeding”. This term is defined in the Dictionary: “criminal proceeding” means a prosecution for an offence and includes: (a) a proceeding for the committal of a person for trial or sentence for an offence; and (b) a proceeding relating to bail;

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In addition, it applies only to “a person who, when required to give evidence39 is the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child” of the defendant The term “spouse” is not defined in the Act. However, the term “de facto partner” is defined in cl 11 of Pt 2 of the Dictionary: see commentary at [EA.Dict.Pt.2.90]. “Parent” is defined in the Dictionary: “parent” includes the meaning given in subclause 10(2) of Part 2 of this Dictionary.

That subclause provides: (2) A reference in this Act to a parent of a person includes a reference to: (a) an adoptive parent of the person; or (b) if the person is an ex-nuptial child – the person’s natural father; or (c) the person with whom a child is living as if the child were a member of the person’s family.

“Child” is defined in the Dictionary: “child” means a child of any age and includes the meaning given in subclause 10(1) of Part 2 of this Dictionary.

That subclause provides: (1) A reference in this Act to a child of a person includes a reference to: 38. R v Glasby (2000) 115 A Crim R 465; [2000] NSWCCA 83 at [39]–[54]. Similarly, it was held that there was no room for any marital communication privilege (which, in any event, no longer exists under the common law: Australian Crime Commission v Stoddart (2011) 244 CLR 554; 214 A Crim R 538; [2011] HCA 47). However, s 126B may have some application. 39. Compare Director of Public Prosecutions v Smiles (1993) 30 NSWLR 248. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(a) an adopted child and an ex-nuptial child of the person; or (b) a child living with the person as if the child were a member of the person’s family.

Commentary on the meaning of the term “child” may be found in the Dictionary at [EA.Dict.Pt.2.90]. Finally, s 19 (in those jurisdictions where it applies) limits the application of s 18, so that a member of the family of a defendant in criminal proceedings may be compelled by the prosecution to give evidence against the defendant in certain types of proceedings relating to alleged assaults on children and other forms of “domestic violence”.

[EA.18.90] Nature of objection (s 18(2)) Subject to s 18(2)(b), the objection to giving evidence cannot be partial. That is, the witness must object to giving any evidence. As long as the person is aware of the right to object (and he or she should be informed of the right under s 18(4)), the person will not be permitted to give some evidence and then choose to decline to answer further questions (subject to s 18(2)(b)). If the person did not become aware of the right to object until after starting to give evidence, and then is permitted to decline to give any further evidence, the evidence which has been given up to that point continues to be admissible.

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[EA.18.120]

The balancing test (s 18(6))

Given that it will rarely be difficult to demonstrate that it is likely that harm “might” be caused to the relationship between the person and the defendant if the person gives evidence for the prosecution against the defendant (thus satisfying the requirements of s 18(6)(a))40, the critical issue will be the balancing test under s 18(6)(b).41 The ALRC stated (ALRC 26, vol 1, para 529): A right to seek exemption is generally supported on two policy grounds: (a) the undesirability that the procedures for enforcing the criminal law should be allowed to disrupt marital and family relationships to a greater extent than the interests of the community really require; (b) the undesirability that the community should make unduly harsh demands on its members by compelling them where the general interest does not require it to give evidence that will bring punishment upon those they love, betray their confidences, or entail economic or social hardships.

Relevant considerations which must be taken into account are listed in s 18(7).42 The court may take into account that the defendant (and the person objecting) will presumably understand that, if the person objecting is required to give evidence, that will be pursuant to court order.43 Ultimately, however, the issue is 40. See R v Rogerson (No 1) [2015] NSWSC 592 at [78]–[80]; R v Barakat (No 3) [2016] NSWSC 1256 at [26]. Of course, the relevant “harm” that “would or might be caused (whether directly or indirectly)” may also be “to the person” objecting to giving evidence: R v Barakat (No 3) [2016] NSWSC 1256 at [27]–[30]. 41. See Sanderson v Rabuntja (2014) 33 NTLR 205; [2014] NTSC 13 at [15]–[16]. 42. See Sanderson v Rabuntja (2014) 33 NTLR 205; [2014] NTSC 13 at [17]–[22]]; R v Quinn (No 1) [2016] NSWSC 1101 at [13]–[16]. 43. See R v Fletcher [2015] NSWSC 1630 at [23].

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[EA.18.180]

44

left to judicial discretion. In that context, it would be appropriate for the court to give consideration to the “discretions” in ss 135 and 137.45

[EA.18.150]

“required to give the evidence” (s 18(6))

Section 18(6) states that “[a] person who makes an objection under this section to giving evidence or giving evidence of a communication must not be required to give the evidence if …”. Plainly enough, “giving evidence” would include the person testifying orally in the proceeding. It has been held that this may extend to the playing of a videotape of earlier testimony given by the person.46 It would not extend to a party adducing a written statement made by the person.47

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[EA.18.180]

Procedure

The court must satisfy itself (if there is a jury, in the jury’s absence) that a person who may have a right to make an objection under this section is “aware of the effect” of the section as it may relate to that person.48 The person needs to be aware not only of his or her right to object but also that the court will decide whether or not the person will be required to give evidence, that decision will be based upon the court’s findings as to the matters under s 18(6) and taking into account at least the matters referred to in s 18(7).49 Only the person who is sought to be compelled to give evidence may object.50 As regards the determination of issues raised by this section, it does not contain a provision allowing the court to “inform itself as it thinks fit”. Such a provision was proposed by the ALRC51 and it may have been left out by oversight. Nevertheless, given s 11, its absence should not prevent the court from moulding its procedure to determine the relevant questions as it considers most appropriate.52 In any event, s 189 provides a procedure for determining “preliminary facts”, including facts on which the compellability of a witness is dependent. However, in accordance with s 18(5), if there is a jury, it must be sent out of the court while the court hears and determines any objection under this provision. 44. See, for example, R v Khan (unreported, NSW SC, Hidden J, 22 November 1995); R v A2 (No 4) (2015) 253 A Crim R 574; [2015] NSWSC 1306 at [142]–[172]. 45. Compare Gilmour v Environment Protection Authority (2002) 55 NSWLR 593; [2002] NSWCCA 399. 46. See R v B O (No 2) (2012) 15 DCLR (NSW) 317; [2012] NSWDC 195, discussed in Fletcher v The Queen (2015) 45 VR 634; [2015] VSCA 146 at [56]–[58]. 47. Fletcher v The Queen (2015) 45 VR 634; [2015] VSCA 146 at [59]–[61]. 48. Compare T v The Queen (1999) 73 ALJR 460. 49. See Restricted Judgment [2017] NSWCCA 93, Macfarlan JA at [26]–[27] (Schmidt J agreeing, Wilson J dissenting). It was observed by Macfarlan JA at [28] that, where the prospective witness was legally represented, it would “usually be sufficient to confirm that the person is aware of the relevant matters” but where the person is not legally represented, “an explanation of the matters to which I have referred will need to be given”. 50. Gilmour v Environment Protection Authority (2002) 55 NSWLR 593; [2002] NSWCCA 399 at [48]. 51. ALRC 26, vol 1, para 53.8. 52. See Trzesinski v Daire (1986) 44 SASR 43 at 45–46 for discussion of a possible procedure. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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[EA.18.210]

[EA.18.210]

s 19

Chapter 2 - Adducing Evidence

Comment by the prosecutor (s 18(8))

The ALRC proposed that, while the trial judge would be permitted to comment on the fact that a member of the defendant’s family has objected to giving evidence, the prosecution should not be permitted to say anything directly or indirectly about the matter.53

Cth Act: 19 Compellability of spouses and others in certain criminal proceedings [Repealed] [S 19 rep Act 113 of 2015, s 3 and Sch 5 item 13; am Act 135 of 2008]

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NSW Act: 19 Compellability of spouses and others in certain criminal proceedings Section 18 does not apply: (a) in proceedings for an offence against or referred to in the following provisions of the Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998: (i) section 222 (Endangering children in employment), (ii) section 223 (Certain employers of children to be authorised), (iii) section 227 (Child and young person abuse), (iv) section 228 (Neglect of children and young persons), or (b) if the person could be compelled to give evidence in proceedings under section 279 (Compellability of spouses to give evidence in certain proceedings) of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986. Note: This section differs from section 19 of the Commonwealth Act. [S 19 subst Act 80 of 2013, Sch 8; am Act 121 of 2001, s 4 and Sch 2.103[1]; Act 94 of 1999, s 6 and Sch 4.21[1]; Act 158 of 1998, s 5 and Sch 2.14]

Vic Act: 19 Compellability of spouses and others in certain criminal proceedings Note: Section 19 of the Commonwealth Act and New South Wales Act excludes the application of the section in proceedings for certain offences.

ACT Act: 19 Compellability of domestic partners and others in certain criminal proceedings Section 18 does not apply in a proceeding for an offence against or mentioned in the following provisions: (a) an offence against the Crimes Act 1900, parts 2 to 5, that is an offence against a person under 16 years old; (b) an offence against the following provisions of the Children and Young People Act 2008: 53. ALRC 26, vol 1, para 559. See also s 20(3).

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[EA.19.30]

(i) section 423 (Offence—contravene care and protection order); (ii) section 789 (Offence—contravene employment prohibition notice); (iii) section 791 (Offence—contravene employment conditions notice); (iv) section 803 (Offence—employment of child or young person under 15 years old in high risk employment); (v) section 804 (Offence—contravene condition of permit); (c) an offence if the conduct making up the offence is family violence under the Family Violence Act 2016. [Para (c) subst Act 42 of 2016, s 204 and Sch 3[3.60]] Note: This section differs from the Commonwealth Act and NSW Act, s 19. [S 19 am Act 42 of 2016]

NT Act: 19 Compellability of spouses and others in certain criminal proceedings Section 18 does not apply in a proceeding for any of the following offences: (a) [Repealed] [Para (a) rep Act 4 of 2013, s 4(1)]

(b) an offence against a law of the Territory where the alleged victim is a person under the age of 16 years; [Para (b) am Act 4 of 2013, s 4(2)] Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

(c)

an offence that is a DVO contravention offence as defined in the Domestic and Family Violence Act; (d) an offence against section 43BI, or a provision in Part VIII, of the Criminal Code in relation to an offence mentioned in paragraph (b). [Para (d) am Act 4 of 2013, s 4(3)] Note for section 19: This section differs from section 19 of the Commonwealth Act, NSW Act and Victorian Act. [S 19 am Act 4 of 2013]

[EA.19.30] General comments This provision (which is not found in the Victorian Act) limits the application of s 18, so that a member of the family of a defendant in criminal proceedings may be compelled by the prosecution to give evidence against the defendant in certain types of proceedings relating to alleged assaults on children and other forms of “domestic violence”. The offences listed in s 19 of the Commonwealth Act are the same offences (in substance) for which a spouse of a defendant in a criminal proceeding was a compellable witness under s 66(3) of the Evidence Act 1971 (ACT).54 The NSW provision was amended in 2013 (coming into force on 29 October 2013), as a result of the judgment in LS v Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) 54. The application of s 19(c) of the Commonwealth Act, as it was formulated prior to the amendments following on ALRC 102, was considered in R v Wright (2004) 149 A Crim R 298; © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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(2011) 81 NSWLR 551; [2011] NSWSC 1016. Johnson J observed at [71] that the provision should be amended “so that it provides clearly and simply, and by reference to current legislation, the areas of exception which are to apply to the availability of s 18 of the Act”. The provisions listed in s 19 of the NSW Act re-enacted s 407(3)(b) and s 407AA of the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), since repealed. As regards s 279 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW) (extracted in Related Legislation), which applies to “child assault” and “domestic violence” offences, it provides that the “spouse of an accused person” is compellable unless excused by the court on the basis of conditions contained in s 279(4).

Cth Act: 20

Comment on failure to give evidence

(1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence. (2) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure of the defendant to give evidence. However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, the comment must not suggest that the defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant had, or believed that he or she had, committed the offence concerned.

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[Subs (2) am Act 4 of 2016, s 3 and Sch 4 item 384]

(3) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure to give evidence by a person who, at the time of the failure, was: (a) the defendant’s spouse or de facto partner; or (b) a parent or child of the defendant. [Subs (3) am Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 item 6; Act 34 of 1997, s 3 and Sch 6 item 1]

(4) However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, a comment of a kind referred to in subsection (3) must not suggest that the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child failed to give evidence because: (a) the defendant had committed the offence concerned; or (b) the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child believed that the defendant had committed the offence concerned. [Subs (4) am Act 4 of 2016, s 3 and Sch 4 item 385; Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 items 7 and 8; Act 34 of 1997, s 3 and Sch 6 item 2]

(5) If: (a) 2 or more persons are being tried together for an indictable offence; and

[2004] ACTSC 83 and R v YL (2004) 187 FLR 84; [2004] ACTSC 115. The provisions listed in the ACT provision involve specified offences in the Crimes Act 1900 against a person under 16 years old, specified offences in the Children (Care and Protection) Act 1987 and domestic violence offences.

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(b) comment is made by any of those persons on the failure of any of those persons or of the spouse or de facto partner, or a parent or child, of any of those persons to give evidence; the judge may, in addition to commenting on the failure to give evidence, comment on any comment of a kind referred to in paragraph (b). [Subs (5) am Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 item 8] [S 20 am Act 4 of 2016; Act 135 of 2008; Act 34 of 1997]

NSW Act: 20

Comment on failure to give evidence

(1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence. (2) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure of the defendant to give evidence. However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, the comment must not suggest that the defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant was, or believed that he or she was, guilty of the offence concerned. (3) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure to give evidence by a person who, at the time of the failure, was: (a) the defendant’s spouse or de facto partner, or (b) a parent or child of the defendant.

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[Subs (3) am Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[6]]

(4) However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, a comment of a kind referred to in subsection (3) must not suggest that the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child failed to give evidence because: (a) the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned, or (b) the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child believed that the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned. [Subs (4) am Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[7]]

(5) If: (a) 2 or more persons are being tried together for an indictable offence, and (b) comment is made by any of those persons on the failure of any of those persons or of the spouse or de facto partner, or a parent or child, of any of those persons to give evidence, the judge may, in addition to commenting on the failure to give evidence, comment on any comment of a kind referred to in paragraph (b). [Subs (5) am Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[7]] [S 20 am Act 46 of 2007]

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s 20

Vic Act: 20 Comment on failure to give evidence Note: Section 20 of the Commonwealth Act and New South Wales Act requires the judge to give certain directions to the jury relating to the failure to give evidence or call witnesses in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence. Division 6 of Part 4 of the Jury Directions Act 2015 contains provisions relating to the failure to give evidence or call a witness that apply in criminal trials. [S 20 am Act 14 of 2015, s 70; Act 68 of 2009]

ACT Act: 20

Comment on failure to give evidence

(1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence. (2) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure of a defendant to give evidence. (3) However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, the comment must not suggest that the defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant was, or believed that the defendant was, guilty of the offence.

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(4) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure to give evidence by a person who, at the time of the failure, was— (a) the defendant’s domestic partner; or (b) a parent or child of the defendant. (5) However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, a comment mentioned in subsection (4) must not suggest that the domestic partner, parent or child failed to give evidence because— (a) the defendant was guilty of the offence; or (b) the domestic partner, parent or child believed that the defendant was guilty of the offence. (6) If— (a) 2 or more people are being tried together for an indictable offence; and (b) comment is made by any of them on the failure of any of them or of the domestic partner, or a parent or child, of any of them to give evidence; the judge may, in addition to commenting on the failure to give evidence, comment on any comment mentioned in paragraph (b). NT Act: 20

Comment on failure to give evidence

(1) This section applies only in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence. (2) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure of the defendant to give evidence. However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, the comment must not suggest that the 120

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[EA.20.90]

defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant was, or believed that he or she was, guilty of the offence concerned. (3) The judge or any party (other than the prosecutor) may comment on a failure to give evidence by a person who, at the time of the failure, was: (a) the defendant’s spouse or de facto partner; or (b) a parent or child of the defendant. (4) However, unless the comment is made by another defendant in the proceeding, a comment of a kind referred to in subsection (3) must not suggest that the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child failed to give evidence because: (a) the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned; or (b) the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child believed that the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned. (5) If: (a) 2 or more persons are being tried together for an indictable offence; and (b) comment is made by any of those persons on the failure of any of those persons or of the spouse or de facto partner, or a parent or child, of any of those persons to give evidence; the judge may, in addition to commenting on the failure to give evidence, comment on any comment of a kind referred to in paragraph (b).

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[EA.20.30] ALRC references ALRC 102, paras 4.90–4.117; ALRC 38, s 23, s 28.

[EA.20.60] Differences between provisions The Victorian provision was repealed in 2015 and, as the Note in the Victorian Act states, Div 6 of Pt 4 of the Jury Directions Act 2015 contains provisions relating to the failure to give evidence or call a witness that apply in criminal trials (see [EA.20.420]).

[EA.20.90] Application This provision only applies in “a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence”. “Criminal proceeding” is defined in the Dictionary. While the word “offence” is defined in the Dictionary to mean “an offence against or arising under an Australian law”, the term “indictable offence” is not defined in this Act. However, s 4G of the Crimes Act 1914 (Cth) provides: Offences against a law of the Commonwealth punishable by imprisonment for a period exceeding 12 months are indictable offences unless the contrary intention appears.

The Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW) defines an “indictable offence” as any offence which is not required to be dealt with summarily (with most offences punishable by less than two years imprisonment required to be dealt with summarily). Section 131 of that Act provides that “criminal proceedings in the Supreme Court or the District Court are to be tried by a jury, except as otherwise provided by this Part”, while s 132 permits trial by judge alone if the defendant and prosecution consent. In Victoria, s 2B of the Crimes Act 1958 deems offences © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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s 20

under that Act to be “indictable offences”, unless the contrary intention appears. Section 391 makes it clear that trials of such offences are to be heard by a judge and jury. Notwithstanding the technicalities in the Commonwealth and NSW legislation, it appears to be the clear intention behind s 20 that it applies to criminal proceedings with a judge and jury. On the other hand, there is no doubt that the common law principles that underlie this provision and continue to operate (see discussion below) have application to a trial by judge alone. As regards sentencing proceedings, in Thi Dung Ta v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 32 James J (Hall and Price JJ agreeing) found it unnecessary to determine whether authorities relating to “comment” on the failure of a defendant to testify have any application to such proceedings (at [120]). Clearly enough, for a sentencing judge to take into account the failure of a defendant/offender to testify does not, strictly speaking, involve a “comment” on that failure. On the other hand, the principles that underlie this area of the law may still have application in sentencing proceedings, notwithstanding the differences between a criminal trial before a jury and a sentence hearing before a judge.55

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[EA.20.120]

“comment on the failure of the defendant to give evidence” (s 20(2))

The Act distinguishes comment by the judge, the prosecutor and a co-defendant on the failure of the defendant (in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence) to give evidence: • the prosecutor is generally prohibited from commenting (see [EA.20.150]); • the judge may comment but “must not suggest that the defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant was, or believed that he or she was, guilty of the offence concerned” (see [EA.20.180]); • “another defendant in the proceeding” may comment (see [EA.20.210]). Under s 20(5), if another person “being tried together” with a defendant “for an indictable offence” comments on the failure of the defendant to give evidence, the judge may comment on that comment (but is still bound by the prohibition in s 20(2)).

[EA.20.150]

Comment by prosecutor on the failure of the defendant to give evidence (s 20(2))

The prosecutor may not “comment” on a failure of the defendant to give evidence. This word is not defined. In R v Villar [2004] NSWCCA 302 at [119], the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal adopted the approach of non–UEL authority, whereby “comment” on the failure of a defendant to give evidence is any statement which directly or indirectly suggests that the defendant could have 55. However, James J noted at [118] that in the Queensland case of R v Miller [2004] 1 Qd R 548; [2003] QCA 404 Holmes J, who delivered the leading judgment with which the other members of the Queensland Court of Appeal agreed, after pointing to various differences between a criminal trial before a jury and a sentence hearing before a judge, said at [27]: “Because of these distinctions, I do not think that the constraints on comment and approach imposed by the Weissensteiner line of authority have any application to fact finding on sentence.”

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given evidence and did not do so. A reference to the first fact will almost always imply the second,57 but a reference to the second alone does not necessarily imply the first.58 In most circumstances, a reference to the failure of the defendant to call any witness is not such a “comment”.59 Similarly, it is not a “comment” to state that the only version of the facts before the court is that proved by the prosecution witnesses and, if counsel for the defence has engaged in speculation as to alternative scenarios, that there is no evidence to support such alternative scenarios.60 It is not clear whether the prohibition on “comment” extends to a prosecutor’s opening address informing the jury of the options open to a defendant.61 As regards final addresses, in R v Milat (unreported, NSW SC, 23 April 1996), Hunt CJ at CL stated:

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It has been the usual practice for Crown prosecutors to refer in their final addresses to the nature of the direction which was given within the limitations imposed by [earlier legislation]. Provided that Crown Prosecutors do not imply that they are adopting the comment inherent in the directions which may now be given, I see no reason why they should not continue to do so – although a high degree of caution is required.

However, it may be observed that it is difficult to see how a prosecutor can avoid implying that he or she is “adopting the comment inherent in the directions” from the judge. In Wood v The Queen (2012) 84 NSWLR 581; [2012] NSWCCA 21, the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal held at [618] that a prosecutor’s final address breached the provision where a series of questions were asked and it was said that “the answers all point to the guilt of the accused” – because that indirectly alluded to the failure of the accused to provide any answers (which was compounded by an invitation to pay attention to whether defence counsel provided any answers).

56. Bataillard v The King (1907) 4 CLR 1282 per Isaacs J (at 1291), Higgins J (at 1292); Peterson v The Queen (1979) 41 FLR 205 at 211. See also R v McGibbony [1956] VLR 424 (FC); R v Challita (1988) 37 A Crim R 175 (NSW CCA); R v Greciun-King [1981] 2 NSWLR 469 (CCA). 57. See Stuart v The Queen (1959) 101 CLR 1. 58. R v Barron [1975] VR 496 at 502; R v Greciun-King [1981] 2 NSWLR 469 (CCA), Street CJ at 471; R v George (1981) 4 A Crim R 12 at 15 per Street CJ (NSW CCA). However, it is suggested that this authority will have to be reconsidered now that the defendant no longer has the right to make an unsworn statement. In those circumstances, a reference to the failure of the defence to call any evidence would appear to be a comment: cf R v Clarke (unreported, NSW CCA, 8 March 1996). In R v Mansour (unreported, NSW SC, Levine J, 26 November 1996) it was held that a Crown reference to the prosecution witnesses being “uncontradicted by other evidence at trial” would point to, or at least carry, a clear implication with respect to the failure of the defendant to give evidence and therefore constitute a prohibited comment under s 20. 59. R v Thornton (1980) 3 A Crim R 80 (VicCCA) per Murray J (at 84), King J (at 86). 60. R v Yammine (2002) 132 A Crim R 44; [2002] NSWCCA 289 at [57]–[58]; R v Siebel (1992) 57 SASR 558; 59 A Crim R 105 at 109 (SA CCA) per King CJ. 61. See Peterson v The Queen (1979) 41 FLR 205 at 211 (Full Federal Court). © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Comment by the judge on the failure of the defendant to give evidence (s 20(2))

As noted in [EA.20.150], “comment” on the failure of a defendant to give evidence is any statement that directly or indirectly suggests that the defendant could have given evidence and did not do so. It would not be “comment” for a trial judge to point out that prosecution circumstantial evidence had not been contradicted by defence evidence.62 There is no doubt that a judge may, and usually should, make a comment on the failure of the defendant to give evidence which is designed to assist the defence by warning the jury against adopting an impermissible chain of reasoning. In Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 the majority of the High Court stated at [51] that:

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… if an accused does not give evidence at trial it will almost always be desirable for the judge to warn the jury that the accused’s silence in court is not evidence against the accused, does not constitute an admission by the accused, may not be used to fill gaps in the evidence tendered by the prosecution, and may not be used as a make weight in assessing whether the prosecution has proved its case beyond reasonable doubt.

Such directions, or at least directions which reflect the purpose behind the form of words adopted, will usually be essential to ensure a fair trial,63 even if not requested by defence counsel.64 It may also be appropriate to direct the jury that they “cannot speculate on what the [defendant] could or would have said”.65 Directions pointing out that the defendant was not bound to give evidence and, that there may have been many reasons why he or she did not do so (and the jury should not speculate about those reasons) may also be appropriate.66 62. Compare R v Porter (2003) 85 SASR 581; 138 A Crim R 581; [2003] SASC 233 (SACCA). 63. See R v Macris (2004) 147 A Crim R 99; [2004] NSWCCA 261; see also RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3 at [15] and [43] per Gaudron ACJ, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ. Such a direction is desirable unless there is some feature of the case that renders it unnecessary or inappropriate: Burke v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 40 VR 161; 237 A Crim R 130; [2013] VSCA 351 at [69]–[73]. However, the High Court “cannot be taken to have ruled that in every case it is compulsory let alone desirable” for directions to be given to the jury regarding the failure of a defendant to give evidence: R v Richards (2002) 128 A Crim R 204; [2002] NSWCCA 38 at [29] per Levine J; R v Nguyen [2002] NSWCCA 342 at [48]–[52]; Saunders v The Queen (2004) 149 A Crim R 174; [2004] TASSC 95 (Tas CCA) at [29], [77]. Equally, no particular form of words need be used: R v Colville (2003) 137 A Crim R 543; [2003] NSWCCA 23 at [63]–[66]. In R v Wilson (2005) 62 NSWLR 346; [2005] NSWCCA 20 the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal strongly criticised Macris. Hunt AJA (Grove J and James J agreeing) observed at [34]–[35] that it will not be “desirable” to give particular aspects of the Azzopardi formulation if the direction that is given covers the same ground as that formulation and adequately fulfils the purpose behind that formulation. See also Nguyen v The Queen [2017] NSWCCA 4, Basten JA at [71]–[79]. 64. Johnston v The Queen [2007] NSWCCA 133; Sever v The Queen (2007) 179 A Crim R 110; [2007] NSWCCA 339; R v GAJ [2011] QCA 141; Burke v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 40 VR 161; 237 A Crim R 130; [2013] VSCA 351 at [73]. 65. R v Vaughan (1997) 98 A Crim R 239 at 243 per Dunford J. 66. While such a direction is appropriate, it will usually not be essential: R v Macris (2004) 147 A Crim R 99; [2004] NSWCCA 261 at [24]–[28]; R v Nguyen [2002] NSWCCA 342 at [51]–[52]; R v Davis [1999] NSWCCA 15; R v Sabbah [2004] NSWCCA 28 at [88], [150]. In R v Wilson (2005) 62 NSWLR 346; [2005] NSWCCA 20, Hunt AJA observed at [14] that such a “direction

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The scope of permissible adverse comment by a judge under this provision (and fundamental accusatorial principles) has been considered by the High Court in RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3 and in Azzopardi v The Queen. In respect of the prohibition on any comment which “suggest[s] that the defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant was, or believed that he or she was, guilty of the offence concerned”, the majority of the High Court stated in RPS:

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Section 20(2) should be given no narrow construction inviting the drawing of fine distinctions. In particular, the prohibition contained in the second sentence (forbidding the judge making a comment that suggests the accused failed to give evidence because he or she was, or believed that he or she was, guilty) must be given full operation. In that respect this prohibition should not be treated differently from the prohibition (still operative in some Australian jurisdictions) against a judge making any comment on the failure of the accused to give evidence. To adopt and adapt what was said by Isaacs J in Bataillard v The King, if comment is made about the accused not having given evidence it must not make any “reference, direct or indirect, and either by express words or the most subtle allusion” suggesting that the accused did not give evidence because he or she was, or believed that he or she was, guilty. It has been said that the line between what is permissible and what is not, under provisions which prohibit any comment on a failure to give evidence, may be a fine one. Whether or not that is so, s 20(2) requires a line to be drawn and it should be drawn in a way that gives the prohibition against suggesting particular reasons for not giving evidence its full operation.67

The majority of the High Court held that a judicial comment to the jury that they were “entitled to conclude, from the accused’s election not to deny or contradict [certain prosecution] evidence that his evidence would not have assisted him in this trial” was in breach of the prohibition, since “any belief which the appellant held, that his evidence would not have assisted him in his trial, could proceed only from a belief that he was guilty; that is, it could proceed only from a belief that he could not deny or contradict at least some of what had been said against him”.68 Callinan J went further, holding that any adverse comment would inevitably breach the statutory prohibition.69 Quite apart from the statutory prohibition, the majority of the High Court held that substantial limitations were imposed by fundamental accusatorial principles applicable to a criminal trial. The majority stated (at [22]–[27]): is … only necessary where” a suggestion has been made “that a failure by the accused to contradict or explain incriminating evidence, in circumstances where it would be reasonable to expect him to do so, may make it easier for the jury to accept, or to draw inferences from, the evidence on which the Crown relies”. 67. RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3, Gaudron ACJ, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ at [20]. See also McHugh J at [47], where he noted that “for the purpose of the section there is no difference between the judge saying ‘It is plain that …’, ‘You may think that …’ and ‘You are entitled to conclude that …’.” 68. RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3, Gaudron ACJ, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ at [19]. The majority stated (at [30]) that, if R v D (1997) 45 NSWLR 744; 98 A Crim R 151 is “to be taken as establishing, as a general proposition, that it is proper in cases similar to the present to give directions of the kind given here, it should be overruled”. 69. Callinan J at [108]–[109]. Thus, Callinan J considered that a comment that the jury would be entitled, in certain circumstances, to more readily accept uncontradicted prosecution evidence would be impermissible under s 20(2). This view does not appear to be shared by the majority of the High Court. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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What is presently significant is that a criminal trial is an accusatorial process in which the prosecution bears the onus of proving the guilt of the accused beyond reasonable doubt. In a trial of that kind, what significance can be attached to the fact that the accused does not give evidence? … In a civil trial there will very often be a reasonable expectation that a party would give or call relevant evidence. … By contrast, however, it will seldom, if ever, be reasonable to conclude that an accused in a criminal trial would be expected to give evidence. The most that can be said in criminal matters is that there are some cases in which evidence (or an explanation) contradicting an apparently damning inference to be drawn from proven facts could come only from the accused. In the absence of such evidence or explanation, the jury may more readily draw the conclusion which the prosecution seeks.

In Azzopardi v The Queen, the majority of the High Court added (at [34]): It is, therefore, clear beyond doubt that the fact that an accused does not give evidence at trial is not of itself evidence against the accused. It is not an admission of guilt by conduct; it cannot fill in any gaps in the prosecution case; it cannot be used as a make-weight in considering whether the prosecution has proved the accusation beyond reasonable doubt.

However, in an earlier decision of the High Court, Weissensteiner v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 217; 68 A Crim R 251; [1993] HCA 65, members of the court had stated (at 227–229 per Mason CJ, Deane and Dawson JJ):

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[I]n a criminal trial, hypotheses consistent with innocence may cease to be rational or reasonable in the absence of evidence to support them when that evidence, if it exists at all, must be within the knowledge of the accused.

The words “in the absence of evidence to support them” should be noted. Thus, the principle in Weissensteiner may only arise where there is no evidence to support an innocent hypothesis.70 Further, in RPS, the majority emphasised the last words of the sentence, limiting the decision in Weissensteiner to its unusual factual circumstances. In that case, the prosecution case was that the defendant’s guilt was to be inferred from circumstances, particularly the unexplained disappearance of those whom it was alleged he had murdered, and his possession of the boat and equipment which they owned and from which they had disappeared while on a voyage with the accused. Only he knew what had really happened. In those circumstances, unless there were legitimate reasons for the failure to give evidence,71 uncontradicted evidence is easier or safer to accept 70. See Davies v The Queen [2014] VSCA 284 at [117]. 71. For example, the prosecution case may be so deficient that the defence was relying on the burden of proof cast on the prosecution (see Mason CJ, Deane and Dawson JJ in Weissensteiner v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 217; 68 A Crim R 251; [1993] HCA 65 at 228 (CLR)). It may also be observed that concerns about the ability of the defendant to handle cross-examination and reliance on evidence of an account given by the defendant before the trial may also be argued to be legitimate reasons. Indeed, it is arguable that since a judge cannot know what advice the defendant received regarding the strength of the prosecution case and/or his or her ability to cope with cross-examination, the failure of the defendant to give evidence is never “clearly capable of assisting [the jury] in the evaluation of the evidence before them” (Weissensteiner at 228). Compare R v Mora (unreported, Vic CCA, Phillips CJ, Southwell, Smith AJJA, 30 May 1996) (particularly the judgment of Smith J) with R v Wood (1996) 87 A Crim R 346 and R v Kragujevic (unreported, SA CCA, Prior, Olsson, Duggan JJ, 17 April 1996). On the other hand, it has been held that it would only be in a “rare case” that an explanation given by a defendant before trial would make it inappropriate to comment on the failure to give evidence at trial: R v Ellis (1998) 100 A Crim R 49 (SA CCA). Similarly, the NSW Court of Criminal Appeal has

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72

than contradicted evidence. The trial judge in that case had made no error by directing the jury that they could more safely draw the inferences that the prosecution alleged should be drawn. In Azzopardi, the majority of the High Court reconciled RPS and Weissensteiner in the following way: There may be cases involving circumstances such that the reasoning in Weissensteiner will justify some comment. However, that will be so only if there is a basis for concluding that, if there are additional facts which would explain or contradict the inference which the prosecution seeks to have the jury draw, and they are facts which (if they exist) would be peculiarly within the knowledge of the accused, that a comment on the accused’s failure to provide evidence of those facts may be made. The facts which it is suggested could have been, but were not, revealed by evidence from the accused must be additional to those already given in evidence by the witnesses who were called. The fact that the accused could have contradicted evidence already given will not suffice.73

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If an adverse comment is not permissible, it would be wrong to qualify the comment (discussed above) given to assist the defence by warning the jury against adopting an impermissible chain of reasoning. Thus, for example, in Norton v Western Australia [2010] WASCA 115 the Western Australian Court of Appeal disapproved a trial judge saying the following after giving a favourable direction: “On the other hand, it does nothing to explain, rebut or contradict the evidence presented by the prosecution”. Even if the case is one of those “rare and exceptional” ones74 where the reasoning in Weissensteiner v The Queen would justify some comment, considerable caution must be exercised by the judge. A judgment must be made as to whether, in all of the circumstances, it could fairly be said that a failure to give evidence bears on the probative value of the other evidence which has been given and which the jury is required to consider.75 As was pointed out in Weissensteiner (at 228 per Mason CJ, Deane and Dawson JJ): rejected a submission that the fact that the defendant participated in a police interview, which is before the jury, “necessarily militates against giving a Weissensteiner direction”: R v Davis [1999] NSWCCA 15 at [49] per Wood CJ at CL. 72. Weissensteiner v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 217; 68 A Crim R 251; [1993] HCA 65 per Mason CJ, Deane and Dawson JJ (at 227–229 (CLR)); Brennan and Toohey JJ (at 235–236). There is a distinction between drawing an inference of guilt merely from silence and drawing an inference otherwise available more safely simply because the defendant has not supported any hypothesis which is consistent with innocence from facts which the court perceives to be within his or her knowledge. 73. Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 at [64] per Gaudron, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ. Gleeson CJ and McHugh J dissented. See also R v Giri (2001) 121 A Crim R 568; [2001] NSWCCA 197; LGM v CAM (2006) 200 FLR 360; [2006] FamCA 435; Butler v The Queen (2011) 216 A Crim R 215; [2011] VSCA 417 at [140]–[155] (but see Maxwell P at [33]–[37]). 74. See Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 at [68]. See also Burke v Director of Public Prosecutions (2013) 40 VR 161; 237 A Crim R 130; [2013] VSCA 351 at [47]; Lowe v The Queen [2015] VSCA 327 at [211]–[221]. However, note the High Court’s willingness to draw a “Weissensteiner inference” itself: R v Baden-Clay (2016) 90 ALJR 1013; [2016] HCA 35 at [50]–[51] (ALJR). 75. Weissensteiner v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 217; 68 A Crim R 251; [1993] HCA 65 at 228 (CLR) per Mason CJ, Deane and Dawson JJ. See also R v Clune (1999) 72 SASR 420. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Even if there are facts peculiarly within the accused’s knowledge the deficiencies in the prosecution case may be sufficient to account for the accused remaining silent and relying upon the burden of proof cast upon the prosecution. Much depends upon the circumstances of the particular case and a jury should not be invited to take into account the failure of the accused to give evidence unless that failure is clearly capable of assisting them in the evaluation of the evidence before them.

This is particularly the case where more than one count is charged. As the majority stated in RPS, in such a situation the course which the defendant takes “may very well be affected greatly by whether the denial or contradiction of each charge can be maintained with the same degree of force”.76 As a practical matter, it will often be prudent for a trial judge, before giving directions, to raise with counsel, in the absence of the jury, the question of what direction should be given.77 Further, and more generally, the majority of the High Court in RPS observed that, while it may be open to the judge to comment (adversely to the defence) on this “factual issue” in the particular circumstances of the case: [o]ften, perhaps much more often than not, the safer course for a trial judge will be to make no comment on the facts beyond reminding the jury, in the course of identifying the issues before them, of the arguments of counsel.78

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However, it may be observed that it will be somewhat difficult to apply that principle in the context of the failure of the defendant to testify, given that the prosecution is expressly barred from commenting by this provision. If an adverse comment is to be made on the failure of the defendant to give evidence, it should be expressed in terms of a failure to provide an explanation and not the failure to give evidence as such.79 It should be made plain that it is a comment which the jury are free to disregard.80 It should be placed in its proper 76. RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3 at [34] per Gaudron ACJ, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ. In this case, the majority accepted that only the appellant knew what he meant by saying (if he did) that “everything else [the complainant] said is true” (an alleged partial admission). However, they then stated (at [39]): “Even if the evidence of the alleged partial admission were said to require the jury to infer that the appellant meant by his statement, this was not a case in which it was reasonable to expect some denial, explanation or answer by the accused about the alleged partial admission. It is essential to recall that the appellant was charged with eight counts and that there were, therefore, in effect eight different cases which he had to meet. The alleged admission was, at its highest, an admission to some only of the charges alleged against him. That being so, there was no basis for saying that the appellant should reasonably be expected to answer the part of the prosecution case which related to those counts by giving evidence. Once in the witness box the appellant would have been exposed to examination about all of the counts charged and the course which he took must be understood in that light. In particular, he was entitled to say in respect of any one of the charges that the proof by the prosecution was insufficient and, if that were so, no conclusion could safely be reached for his not giving evidence beyond the conclusion that he was content to rest on the need for the prosecution to prove, beyond reasonable doubt, each of the allegations it made.” 77. R v D (1997) 45 NSWLR 744; 98 A Crim R 151 at 753 (NSWLR) per Gleeson CJ. It should be noted, however, that in significant respects, this decision was overruled by the judgment of the High Court in RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3. 78. RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3, Gaudron ACJ, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ at [42]. This view was confirmed in Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 at [52]. 79. See Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 at [65]–[66]. 80. See Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 at [67].

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context by identifying the facts that are said to call for an explanation.81 The judge should remind the jury that the defendant is not bound to give evidence, that there may have been many reasons why he or she did not do so (and the jury should not speculate about those reasons), and that the onus remains on the prosecution to prove guilt beyond reasonable doubt.82 Adequate directions should also be given to the jury that the fact that the accused does not give evidence is not an admission, does not fill gaps in the prosecution’s proofs and is not to be used as a make-weight.83

[EA.20.210]

Comment by another defendant on the failure of the defendant to give evidence (s 20(2))

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Another defendant may comment on the failure of the defendant to give evidence. There is no express prohibition on any comment which “suggest[s] that the defendant failed to give evidence because the defendant was, or believed that he or she was, guilty of the offence concerned”. It is not clearly resolved whether the substantial limitations imposed by fundamental accusatorial principles on judicial comment also apply in some way to comment by a co-defendant. Observations by the majority of the High Court in Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 strongly suggest that they do not (at [54] per Gaudron, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ): If only one of two accused persons gives evidence at their joint trial, it is inevitable that the accused who has given evidence will want to urge the jury to contrast that with the course taken by the other accused. It is well-nigh inevitable that in urging that the evidence given by the accused demonstrates innocence, the suggestion will be made, explicitly or implicitly, that the co-accused stayed silent because, unlike the accused who did give evidence, he or she was guilty.

However, in R v Tran (2006) 96 SASR 8; 164 A Crim R 541; [2006] SASC 276 the South Australian Court of Criminal Appeal held (in a non-UEL jurisdiction) that another defendant (or his or her legal representative) should not be permitted to make a submission that would, if said by the judge, be a prohibited comment under common law principles: Duggan J at [43], Sulan and David JJ agreeing. If such a submission is made, it should be corrected by the trial judge (at [44]).

[EA.20.240]

“comment on a failure to give evidence by” a spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant (s 20(3), (4))

The terms “de facto partner”, “parent” and “child” are defined in the dictionary: see also [EA.18.60]. The Act distinguishes comment by the judge, the prosecutor and a co-defendant on the failure to give evidence by a spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant (in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence): 81. See Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 at [67]. at [67]. 82. Weissensteiner v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 217; 68 A Crim R 251; [1993] HCA 65 at 235 (CLR) per Brennan and Toohey JJ. See also RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3 at [15] and [43] per Gaudron ACJ, Gummow, Kirby and Hayne JJ. 83. See Azzopardi v The Queen (2001) 205 CLR 50; 119 A Crim R 8; [2001] HCA 25 at [67]. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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• the prosecutor is generally prohibited from commenting (see [EA.20.270]); • the judge may comment but “must not suggest that the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child failed to give evidence because the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned or the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child believed that the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned” (see [EA.20.300]); • “another defendant in the proceeding” may comment (see [EA.20.330]). Under s 20(5), if another person “being tried together” with a defendant “for an indictable offence” comments on the failure of the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of the defendant to give evidence, the judge may comment on that comment (but is still bound by the prohibition in s 20(4)).

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[EA.20.270]

Comment by prosecutor on the failure of a spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant to give evidence (s 20(3), (4))

The prosecutor may not “comment” on a failure of a spouse, de facto partner (see [EA.Dict.Pt.2.120]), parent or child of a defendant to give evidence. The word “comment” is not defined. It has been given a meaning similar to that given in respect of comment on the failure of the defendant to give evidence (see [EA.20.150]) – any statement which directly or indirectly suggests that such a person could have given evidence and did not do so.84 However, it would not be a prohibited comment if what was said only related to the failure of the prosecution to call the person as a witness. It must suggest, directly or indirectly, that the defence could have called the person as a witness.85

[EA.20.300]

Comment by the judge on the failure of a spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant to give evidence (s 20(3), (4))

Under s 20(3) the judge may “comment” on the failure of a spouse, de facto partner (see [EA.Dict.Pt.2.120]), parent or child of a defendant to give evidence, although, under s 20(4), such a comment “must not suggest that the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of the defendant failed to give evidence because” the defendant was guilty or that person believed the defendant was guilty. There is no doubt that a judge may make a comment on the failure of the defence to call any person as a witness for the defence by warning the jury against adopting an impermissible chain of reasoning. In Dyers v The Queen (2002) 210 CLR 285; 76 ALJR 1552; [2002] HCA 45, Gaudron and Hayne JJ observed at [15]: 84. DJF v The Queen (2011) 205 A Crim R 412; [2011] NSWCCA 6, Giles JA at [3] (RA Hulme J agreeing). See also R v Gardner (2001) 123 A Crim R 439; [2001] NSWCCA 381; R v Noonan [2002] NSWCCA 150. 85. See DJF v The Queen (2011) 205 A Crim R 412; [2011] NSWCCA 6, Giles JA at [3]–[4] (RA Hulme J agreeing).

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[W]here there is evidence that there may be persons who could have, but have not, given relevant evidence, it is almost always desirable to tell the jury that they may not speculate about what those witnesses might have said but must decide the case only on the evidence that has been led.

Such a direction should be given when “it is possible that the jury might think that evidence could have been, but was not, given or called by the accused” (at [5]). Presumably, directions pointing out that the person was not bound to give evidence, that there may have been many reasons why he or she did not do so (and the jury should not speculate about those reasons), that it is for the prosecution to prove its case beyond reasonable doubt, and that the jury should draw no inference from the person not having given evidence, would also be appropriate and may be essential to ensure a fair trial. As to the scope of permissible adverse comment, it is now clear that the common law principles applicable in respect of the failure of the defence in a criminal trial to call any particular person to give evidence (not just a spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of the defendant) significantly constrain permissible judicial comment: see [EA.55.180].

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In those cases where an adverse inference is open, the principles applicable in civil proceedings to the failure of a party to call particular evidence, where such evidence would reasonably have been expected (see [EA.55.180]), would apply. However, great caution in the making of judicial comment would be required, for similar reasons as the need for caution when adverse comment may be made about the failure of the defendant to give evidence (see [EA.20.180]). Further, as Street CJ explained in R v Buckland [1977] 2 NSWLR 452 at 459: In criminal proceedings … the making of a comment or the indication of the available inference will be attended by a marked degree of caution, inasmuch as in many cases the absence of a witness either for the Crown or the accused might well be explicable upon grounds not readily capable of proof.86

It follows that, if any adverse comment is to be made on the failure of the one or other of these persons to give evidence, it may be that considerable, and complex, guidance to the jury will be required.87 The prohibition in s 20(4) that a comment “must not suggest that the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of the defendant failed to give evidence because” the defendant was guilty or that person believed the defendant was guilty, would require careful consideration, bearing in mind the view of the majority of the High Court in RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3 at [19] that a judicial comment to the jury that they were “entitled to conclude, from the accused’s election not to deny or contradict [certain prosecution] evidence that his evidence would not have assisted him in this trial” was in breach of the comparable prohibition in s 20(2) (since “any belief which the appellant held, that his evidence would not have assisted him in his trial, could proceed only from a 86. This caution has been emphasised in subsequent decisions: R v Newland (1997) 98 A Crim R 455; R v Taufua [1999] NSWCCA 205; R v Scott (2002) 112 A Crim R 543; [2000] NSWCCA 187. 87. See also R v Newland (1997) 98 A Crim R 455 at 461–462 per Gleeson CJ; R v Taufua [1999] NSWCCA 205 at [44]–[51] per Carruthers AJ; R v Scott (2002) 112 A Crim R 543; [2000] NSWCCA 187; R v Noonan [2002] NSWCCA 150. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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belief that he was guilty; that is, it could proceed only from a belief that he could not deny or contradict at least some of what had been said against him”).

[EA.20.330]

Comment by another defendant on the failure of a spouse, de facto partner, parent or child of a defendant to give evidence (s 20(3), (4))

Another defendant may comment on a failure of a spouse, de facto partner (see [EA.Dict.Pt.2.120]), parent or child of a defendant to give evidence. There is no express prohibition on any comment which “suggest[s] that the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child failed to give evidence because the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned or the spouse, de facto partner, parent or child believed that the defendant was guilty of the offence concerned”. Presumably, the content of permissible comment will be influenced by authority relating to the comparable situation of comment on the failure of the defendant to give evidence (see [EA.20.210]).

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[EA.20.360]

Judicial comment on comment by persons “tried together for an indictable offence” (s 20(5))

This provision permits a judge to comment on any comment made88 by persons who are co-defendants to the same indictable offence as a defendant. It follows that the provision does not apply if the co-defendant is being tried for a different offence (or offences), no matter how related. Where a judge is permitted to comment in accordance with this provision, it may be anticipated that the comment should be designed to ameliorate the impact of any adverse comment made by the co-defendant(s).

[EA.20.390]

Comment generally on the failure of the defence to adduce evidence

This provision deals with comment on the failure to give evidence by a defendant or the spouse, de-facto partner, parent or child of a defendant (in a criminal proceeding for an indictable offence). As regards comment on the failure of the defence to adduce other evidence, common law principles apply: see [EA.55.180].

[EA.20.420]

Other provisions: Victoria

As the Note in the Victorian Act states, Div 6 of Pt 4 of the Jury Directions Act 2015 contains provisions relating to the failure to give evidence or call a witness that apply in criminal trials. The position may be summarized as follows: (1) failure of accused to give evidence or call a particular witness (i) Section 42 provides that “the trial judge, the prosecution and defence counsel (or, if the accused is unrepresented, the accused) must not say, or suggest in any way, to the jury that” the jury may: (a) conclude that the accused is guilty from that fact; or 88. Under s 20(2) in relation to a defendant, or under s 20(3) in relation to a spouse, parent or child of a defendant.

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[EA.20.420]

(b) use the failure of the accused to provide an explanation of facts, which must be within the knowledge of the accused, to more safely draw an adverse inference based on those facts which, if drawn, would prove the guilt of the accused; or (c) draw an inference that the accused did not give evidence or call a witness (as the case requires) because that would not have assisted his or her case. This prohibition applies generally and there is no provision in the Act qualifying it. Accordingly, it has the effect of overturning the common law principle that “rare and exceptional” circumstances may arise where the reasoning in Weissensteiner v The Queen (1993) 178 CLR 217; 68 A Crim R 251; [1993] HCA 65 would justify some adverse comment (see Note 1 to s 44)89. If a party breaches the prohibition in this provision, the trial judge must “correct” the “statement or suggestion” (s 7). However, s 7(2) provides that the trial judge need not correct the statement or suggestion “if there are good reasons for not doing so” and gives the example of where “counsel has already corrected a prohibited statement or suggestion at the invitation of the trial judge”. (ii) Section 41 provides that defence counsel may request under s 12 that the trial judge give the jury a direction which “must explain” a number of matters specified in s 41(2): (a) the prosecution’s obligation to prove that the accused is guilty; and

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(b) that the accused is not required to give evidence or call a witness (as the case requires); and (c) that the jury should not guess or speculate about what might have been contained in the evidence; and (d) that the fact that the accused did not give evidence or call a witness (as the case requires)— (i) is not evidence against the accused; and (ii) is not an admission by the accused; and (iii) must not be used to fill gaps in the evidence adduced by the prosecution; and (iv) does not strengthen the prosecution case. Section 14(1) requires the trial judge to give the “requested direction unless there are good reasons for not doing so” (the same formulation as found in s 165B(3): see [EA.165B.240]). Section 14(2) specifies matters the trial judge must have regard to in determining whether there are such “good reasons”. It would also be material to consider the prohibition in s 42. In giving a direction to the jury, the trial judge need not use any particular form of words: s 6 (see also s 5(4)). However, the direction must not breach the prohibition in s 42 (see above). If there has been no request for a direction, s 15 provides that, “[s]ubject to section 16, the trial judge must not give the jury a direction”. Section 16 mandates a direction “if the trial judge considers that there are substantial and compelling reasons for giving the direction” (and certain procedural requirements are 89. See Lowe v The Queen [2015] VSCA 327 at [210]. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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satisfied). Any rule of common law under which a trial judge is required to direct the jury regarding the failure of accused to give evidence or call a particular witness is abolished: s 44. (2) failure of prosecution to call or question a particular witness

Section 43 provides that defence counsel may request under s 12 that the trial judge direct the jury on the fact that the prosecution failed to call or question a particular witness. Section 14(1) requires the trial judge to give the “requested direction unless there are good reasons for not doing so” (the same formulation as found in s 165B(3): see [EA.165B.240]). Section 14(2) specifies matters the trial judge must have regard to in determining whether there are such “good reasons”. However, s 43(2) provides that the trial judge may give that direction only if the trial judge is satisfied that the prosecution– (a) was reasonably expected to call or question the witness; and

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(b) has not satisfactorily explained why it did not call or question the witness.

As regards the term of the direction, the Act is not specific, subject to s 43(3) which provides that, in giving the direction, “the trial judge may inform the jury that it may conclude that the witness would not have assisted the prosecution’s case”. In giving a direction to the jury, the trial judge need not use any particular form of words: s 6 (see also s 5(4)). Presumably, the jury should also be directed that it cannot be inferred that the evidence not adduced “would have been unfavourable to the prosecution case” (see [EA.55.180]). Particular care will be needed in the giving of directions where the defence has the onus of proof in respect of a fact in issue. If there has been no request for a direction, s 15 provides that, “[s]ubject to section 16, the trial judge must not give the jury a direction”. Section 16 mandates a direction “if the trial judge considers that there are substantial and compelling reasons for giving the direction” (and certain procedural requirements are satisfied). Any rule of common law under which a trial judge is required to direct the jury regarding the failure of the prosecution to call or question a particular witness is abolished: s 44. Accordingly, the common law principles established in Dyers v The Queen (2002) 210 CLR 285; 76 ALJR 1552; [2002] HCA 45 (see [EA.55.180]) no longer apply.

DIVISION 2 – OATHS AND AFFIRMATIONS DIVISION 2.1.2 – OATHS AND AFFIRMATIONS (ACT ONLY) DIVISION 2 – OATHS (NT ONLY)

[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.2.30] Summary of this Division This Division deals with the general requirement that the evidence of witnesses and interpreters be sworn, either by taking an oath or making an affirmation. Section 13 in Div 1 deals with unsworn evidence from persons lacking competence to give sworn evidence. The traditional right of a defendant in criminal proceedings to make an unsworn statement immune from crossexamination has been abolished in all Australian jurisdictions.

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Cth Act: 21 Sworn evidence of witnesses to be on oath or affirmation (1) A witness in a proceeding must either take an oath, or make an affirmation, before giving evidence. (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who gives unsworn evidence under section 13. [Subs (2) am Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 1 item 9]

(3) A person who is called merely to produce a document or thing to the court need not take an oath or make an affirmation before doing so. (4) The witness is to take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in the Schedule or in a similar form. (5) Such an affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. [S 21 am Act 135 of 2008]

NSW Act: 21

Sworn evidence to be on oath or affirmation

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(1) A witness in a proceeding must either take an oath, or make an affirmation, before giving evidence. (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who gives unsworn evidence under section 13. [Subs (2) am Act 46 of 2007, s 3 and Sch 1[8]]

(3) A person who is called merely to produce a document or thing to the court need not take an oath or make an affirmation before doing so. (4) The witness is to take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in Schedule 1 or in a similar form. (5) Such an affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. [S 21 am Act 46 of 2007]

Vic Act: 21

Sworn evidence of witnesses to be on oath or affirmation

(1) A witness in a proceeding must either take an oath, or make an affirmation, before giving evidence. (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who gives unsworn evidence under section 13. (3) A person who is called merely to produce a document or thing to the court need not take an oath or make an affirmation before doing so. (4) The witness is to take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in Schedule 1 or in a similar form. (5) Such an affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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ACT Act: 21 Sworn evidence of witnesses to be on oath or affirmation (1) A witness in a proceeding must take an oath or make an affirmation before giving evidence. (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who gives unsworn evidence under section 13 (Competence—lack of capacity). (3) A person who is called only to produce a document or thing to the court need not take an oath or make an affirmation before doing so. (4) The witness must take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in schedule 1 or in a similar form. (5) An affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. NT Act: 21

Evidence of witnesses to be on oath (1) A witness in a proceeding must take an oath before giving evidence.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a person who gives evidence otherwise than on oath under section 13.

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(3) A person who is called merely to produce a document or thing to the court need not take an oath. Note for section 21: This section departs from the corresponding provision in other jurisdictions because of the provisions in the Oaths, Affıdavits and Declarations Act.

[EA.21.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 26, s 29, paras 85–86; ALRC 26, vol 1, paras 571–574, 593.

[EA.21.60] General comments In general, a witness may choose to give evidence either on oath or on affirmation (see s 23). The court is to inform the witness of this choice (s 23(2)). However, unsworn evidence may be given under s 13(2) (see [EA.13.210]) and a person called merely to produce a document or thing need not take an oath or make an affirmation. In RJ v The Queen (2010) 208 A Crim R 174; [2010] NSWCCA 263, Campbell JA (Latham J and Price J agreeing) observed at [40] that s 21 permits only one exception to the requirement that a witness in a proceeding must either take an oath or make an affirmation before giving evidence – if the person “gives unsworn evidence under section 13”. It is possible to give unsworn evidence “under section 13” only if two separate conditions are satisfied and, if they are not satisfied, any unsworn evidence given by the witness will contravene this provision and, accordingly, will not legitimately be admitted (at [42]; see further discussion at [EA.13.210]).

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s 21

[EA.21.90]

Part 2.1 - Witnesses

[EA.21.210]

Taking an oath

There is no need to swear the oath on a religious text (see s 24(1)) nor is there any requirement of religious belief or understanding of “the nature and consequences of the oath” (see s 24(2)).

[EA.21.120]

Unsworn evidence (s 21(2))

A person who is not competent to give sworn evidence may give unsworn evidence if certain preconditions imposed in s 13 are satisfied (see [EA.13.210]).

[EA.21.150]

“in accordance with the appropriate form in [the Schedule/Schedule 1] or in a similar form” (s 21(4))

The Sch 1 (in the Commonwealth Act) and Sch 1 (in the NSW and Victorian Acts) include the following oath and affirmation: Oaths by witnesses I swear (or the person taking the oath may promise) by Almighty God (or the person may name a god recognised by his or her religion) that the evidence I shall give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. Affirmations by witnesses I solemnly and sincerely declare and affirm that the evidence I shall give will be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.

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Section 21(4) makes it clear that failure to strictly comply with the wording of the Schedule will not render the swearing invalid. In STX Pan Ocean Co Ltd v Bowen Basin Coal Group Pty Ltd (2010) 188 FCR 528; [2010] FCA 1002, Rares J considered whether an affidavit sworn in South Korea in accordance with the law of that country was one which satisfied the requirements of this provision. Applying common law authority, Rares J held at [13] that attestation before a notary public following the procedure required under South Korean law amounted to having made an affirmation “in a similar form” to that required in the Schedule because the attestation was performed “in circumstances that recognised the gravity and importance of the truth being told”.

[EA.21.180]

“called merely to produce a document or thing to the court” (s 21(3))

A person subpoenaed to produce a document or thing need not take an oath or make an affirmation before producing the document or thing, but will have to if he or she is to give evidence about the adequacy of steps taken to comply with the subpoena.

[EA.21.210]

Affidavits and written statements

There is authority that an affidavit must comply with the requirements of s 21.90 In Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (2002) 121 FCR 82; [2002] FCA 934 at [26], Lindgren J held that s 21(1) applies even if the evidence of the witness is 90. Kimberly-Clark Worldwide Inc v Goulimis (2008) 253 ALR 76; [2008] FCA 1415 at [3]; STX Pan Ocean Co Ltd v Bowen Basin Coal Group Pty Ltd (2010) 188 FCR 528; [2010] FCA 1002; © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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adduced in the form of a written statement – the statement must be sworn or affirmed. Presumably, if the witness gives sworn evidence that what is said in the written statement is true, presumably this would not be required.91 However, there is also authority that Pt 2.1 only applies to evidence given by witnesses in court. For discussion of this issue generally, see [EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.1.30].

Cth Act: 22

Interpreters to act on oath or affirmation

(1) A person must either take an oath, or make an affirmation, before acting as an interpreter in a proceeding. (2) The person is to take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in the Schedule or in a similar form. (3) Such an affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. NSW Act: 22

Interpreters to act on oath or affirmation

(1) A person must either take an oath, or make an affirmation, before acting as an interpreter in a proceeding.

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(1A) An oath taken, or an affirmation made, by a person before acting as an interpreter on a day is taken for the purposes of subsection (1) to be an oath taken or affirmation made by that person for the purposes of any subsequent proceedings in that court on that day in which the person acts as an interpreter. [Subs (1A) insrt Act 109 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 1[1]]

(2) The person is to take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in Schedule 1 or in a similar form. (3) Such an affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. Note: The Commonwealth Act does not include subsection (1A). [S 22 am Act 109 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 1[2]]

Vic Act: 22

Interpreters to act on oath or affirmation

(1) A person must either take an oath, or make an affirmation, before acting as an interpreter in a proceeding. (1A) An oath taken, or an affirmation made, by a person before acting as an interpreter on a day is taken for the purposes of subsection (1) to be an oath taken or affirmation made by that person for the purposes of any subsequent proceedings in that court on that day in which the person acts as an interpreter. Micar Group Pty Ltd v Insul-Trade LLC (2010) 244 FLR 403; [2010] NSWSC 1391 at [19]–[27] (although another statutory provision was held to permit receipt of the affidavit). See also Garning & Director-General, Department of Communities (Child Safety Services) [2012] FamCAFC 35 at [65]–[66]. 91. Compare LMI Australasia Pty Ltd v Baulderstone Hornibrook Pty Ltd (2001) 53 NSWLR 31; [2001] NSWSC 688 at [6] per Barrett J.

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[EA.22.60]

(2) The person is to take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in Schedule 1 or in a similar form. (3) Such an affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. Note: The Commonwealth Act does not include subsection (1A).

ACT Act: 22

Interpreters to act on oath or affirmation

(1) A person must take an oath or make an affirmation before acting as an interpreter in a proceeding. (2) An oath taken, or an affirmation made, by a person before acting as an interpreter on a day is taken for subsection (1) to be an oath taken or affirmation made by the person for the purposes of any subsequent proceeding in the court on the day the person acts as an interpreter. (3) The person must take the oath, or make the affirmation, in accordance with the appropriate form in schedule 1 or in a similar form. (4) An affirmation has the same effect for all purposes as an oath. Note: The Commonwealth Act does not include s (2).

NT Act: 22

Interpreters to act on oath

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(1) A person must take an oath before acting as an interpreter in a proceeding. (1A) An oath taken by a person before acting as an interpreter on a day is taken for the purposes of subsection (1) to be an oath taken by that person for the purposes of any subsequent proceedings in that court on that day in which the person acts as an interpreter. Notes for section 22: 1 The Commonwealth Act does not include subsection (1A). 2 This section departs from the corresponding provision in other jurisdictions because of the provisions in the Oaths, Affıdavits and Declarations Act.

[EA.22.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 26; ALRC 26, vol 1, para 613.

[EA.22.60] Differences between provisions The Commonwealth provision does not include s 22(1A), which was introduced into the NSW provision by the Evidence Legislation Act Amendment Act 2001 (NSW) and included in the Victorian Evidence Act 2008. Subsection (2) in the Commonwealth Act refers to “the Schedule” while the NSW and Victorian Acts refer to “Schedule 1”. However, the content of the Schedules is identical.

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[EA.22.90]

[EA.22.90]

s 23

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“in accordance with the appropriate form in [the Schedule/Schedule 1] or in a similar form” (s 22(2))

The Schedule/Schedule 1 includes an oath and an affirmation for interpreters. Section 22(2) ensures that failure to strictly comply with the wording of the Schedule will not render the swearing invalid.

Cth Act: 23

Choice of oath or affirmation

(1) A person who is to be a witness or act as an interpreter in a proceeding may choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation. (2) The court is to inform the person that he or she has this choice. (3) The court may direct a person who is to be a witness to make an affirmation if: (a) the person refuses to choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation; or (b) it is not reasonably practicable for the person to take an appropriate oath. NSW Act: Copyright © 2018. Thomson Reuters (Professional) Australia Pty Limited. All rights reserved.

23

Choice of oath or affirmation

(1) A person who is to be a witness or act as an interpreter in a proceeding may choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation. (2) The court is to inform the person that he or she has this choice, unless the court is satisfied that the person has already been informed or knows that he or she has the choice. [Subs (2) am Act 109 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 1[3]]

(3) The court may direct a person who is to be a witness to make an affirmation if: (a) the person refuses to choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation, or (b) it is not reasonably practicable for the person to take an appropriate oath. Note: Subsection (2) differs from section 23 of the Commonwealth Act. [S 23 am Act 109 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 1[4]]

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[EA.23.60]

Vic Act: 23 Choice of oath or affirmation (1) A person who is to be a witness or act as an interpreter in a proceeding may choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation. (2) The court is to inform the person that he or she has this choice, unless the court is satisfied that the person has already been informed or knows that he or she has the choice. (3) The court may direct a person who is to be a witness to make an affirmation if— (a) the person refuses to choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation; or (b) it is not reasonably practicable for the person to take an appropriate oath. Note: Subsection (2) differs from section 23 of the Commonwealth Act.

ACT Act: 23

Choice of oath or affirmation

(1) A person who is to be a witness or act as an interpreter in a proceeding may choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation.

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(2) The court must tell the person that the person has this choice, unless the court is satisfied that the person has already been told or knows about having the choice. (3) The court may direct a person who is to be a witness to make an affirmation if— (a) the person refuses to choose whether to take an oath or make an affirmation; or (b) it is not reasonably practicable for the person to take an appropriate oath. Note: Subsection (2) differs from the Commonwealth Act, s 23.

NT Act: 23

Choice of oath or affirmation

Note for section 23: This section is not needed because of the provisions in the Oaths, Affıdavits and Declarations Act.

[EA.23.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, paras 85–86; ALRC 26, vol 1, paras 265, 566, 569.

[EA.23.60] Differences between provisions The Commonwealth provision does not include the words after “choice” in s 23(2) of the NSW/Victorian provisions, which were introduced into the NSW provision by the Evidence Legislation Act Amendment Act 2001 (NSW) and included in the Victorian Evidence Act 2008. The ACT provision is substantially to the same effect as the NSW/Victorian provision. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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General comments

It must not be suggested that evidence by way of affirmation is inferior to evidence on oath.92 Moreover, different religious beliefs concerning the making of oaths must be respected.93 However, that would not preclude crossexamination of a witness who professes religious beliefs regarding why, given his beliefs, he had not given evidence on oath.94

[EA.23.120]

“not reasonably practicable for the person to take an appropriate oath”

The tenets of a particular religious faith may make it not reasonably practicable to take an appropriate oath.95

Cth Act: 24

Requirements for oaths (1) It is not necessary that a religious text be used in taking an oath.

(2) An oath is effective for the purposes of this Division even if the person who took it: (a) did not have a religious belief or did not have a religious belief of a particular kind; or (b) did not understand the nature and consequences of the oath.

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NSW Act: 24

Requirements for oaths (1) It is not necessary that a religious text be used in taking an oath.

(2) An oath is effective for the purposes of this Division even if the person who took it: (a) did not have a religious belief or did not have a religious belief of a particular kind, or (b) did not understand the nature and consequences of the oath. Vic Act: 24

Requirements for oaths (1) It is not necessary that a religious text be used in taking an oath.

(2) An oath is effective for the purposes of this Division even if the person who took it— (a) did not have a religious belief or did not have a religious belief of a particular kind; or 92. Werden v The Queen [2015] VSCA 72 at [37]. 93. Werden v The Queen [2015] VSCA 72 at [37]. 94. Werden v The Queen [2015] VSCA 72, Osborn JA (Ashley JA agreeing) at [37]. See also Priest JA at [126]–[129]. 95. R v Kemble (1990) 91 Cr App R 178 at 179–180; BZAAG v Minister for Immigration and Citizenship [2011] FCA 217 at [16]–[24].

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s 24A

Part 2.1 - Witnesses

[EA.24.60]

(b) did not understand the nature and consequences of the oath. ACT Act: 24

Requirements for oaths (1) It is not necessary that a religious text be used in taking an oath. (2) An oath is effective for this division even if the person who took it— (a) did not have a religious belief or did not have a religious belief of a particular kind; or (b) did not understand the nature and consequences of the oath.

NT Act: 24

Requirements for oaths

Note for section 24: This section is not needed because of the provisions in the Oaths, Affıdavits and Declarations Act.

[EA.24.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 26, paras 85–86; ALRC 26, vol 1, para 575.

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[EA.24.60] General comments This provision has the effect that evidence is still to be regarded as “sworn” even if common law requirements for taking an “oath” are not satisfied. It also has the effect that s 13 deals exclusively with issues of witness competence (unaffected by common law principles relating to the understanding of the nature and consequences of taking an oath).

NSW Act: 24A Alternative oath (1) A person may take an oath even if the person’s religious or spiritual beliefs do not include a belief in the existence of a god. (2) Despite anything to the contrary in this Act, the form of oath taken by a person: (a) need not include a reference to a god, and (b) may instead refer to the basis of the person’s beliefs in accordance with a form prescribed by the regulations. Note: The Commonwealth Act does not include an equivalent provision to section 24A. [S 24A insrt Act 109 of 2001, s 3 and Sch 1[5]]

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Vic Act: 24A Alternative oath (1) A person may take an oath even if the person’s religious or spiritual beliefs do not include a belief in the existence of a god. (2) Despite anything to the contrary in this Act, the form of oath taken by a person— (a) need not include a reference to a god; and (b) may instead refer to the basis of the person’s beliefs in accordance with a form prescribed by the regulations. Note: The Commonwealth Act does not include an equivalent provision to section 24A.

ACT Act: 24A Alternative oath (1) A person may take an oath even if the person’s religious or spiritual beliefs do not include a belief in the existence of a god. (2) Despite anything to the contrary in this Act, the form of oath taken by a person— (a) need not include a reference to a god; and (b) may instead refer to the basis of the person’s beliefs in accordance with a form prescribed by regulation.

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Note: The Commonwealth Act does not include an equivalent provision to s 24A.

[EA.24A.30] General comments Only the NSW and Victorian Acts contain this provision. It was not recommended by the Australian Law Reform Commission. The provision was introduced into the NSW Act by the Evidence Legislation Act Amendment Act 2001 (NSW) and included in the Victorian Evidence Act 2008.

Cth Act: 25

Rights to make unsworn statements unaffected [Repealed]

[S 25 rep Act 135 of 2008, s 3 and Sch 2 item 6]

NSW Act: 25

Rights to make unsworn statements unaffected

Note: The Commonwealth Act includes a provision preserving any right of a defendant under the law of a State or Territory to make an unsworn statement. The right to make an unsworn statement remains in Norfolk Island.

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s 26

Part 2.1 - Witnesses

[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30]

Vic Act: 25 Rights to make unsworn statements unaffected Note: The Commonwealth Act previously included a provision that preserved any right that an accused in a criminal proceeding had under a law of a State or Territory to make an unsworn statement.

NT Act: 25

Rights to make unsworn statements unaffected

Note for section 25: The Commonwealth Act formerly included a provision that preserves any right that a defendant in a criminal proceeding has under a law of a State or Territory to make an unsworn statement. That provision has now been repealed.

[EA.25.30] General comments The traditional right of a defendant in criminal proceedings to make an unsworn statement immune from cross-examination has been abolished in all Australian jurisdictions.

DIVISION 3 – GENERAL RULES ABOUT GIVING EVIDENCE DIVISION 2.1.3 – GENERAL RULES ABOUT GIVING EVIDENCE (ACT ONLY)

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[EA.Ch.2.Pt.2.2.Div.3.30] Summary of this Division This Division deals with procedural rules relating to the adducing of evidence from witnesses in a proceeding. Section 11 in Pt 1.2 of the Act recognises that the general power of a court to control the conduct of proceedings continues, subject to the operation of the Act. However, s 26 specifically gives a court power in relation to a number of aspects of the questioning of witnesses. Section 28 deals with the order of examination in chief, cross-examination and re-examination. Sections 29 – 31 deal with various ways of giving evidence (including in narrative form and through an interpreter). Procedures for a witness attempting to revive memory in court are contained in s 32 (and special rules for police officers in s 33). Some regulation of attempts to revive memory outside court is found in s 34. Calling for documents, and their inspection, is dealt with in ss 35 – 36.

Cth Act: 26

Court’s control over questioning of witnesses The court may make such orders as it considers just in relation to: (a) the way in which witnesses are to be questioned; and (b) the production and use of documents and things in connection with the questioning of witnesses; and (c) the order in which parties may question a witness; and (d) the presence and behaviour of any person in connection with the questioning of witnesses.

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s 26

NSW Act: 26 Court’s control over questioning of witnesses The court may make such orders as it considers just in relation to: (a) the way in which witnesses are to be questioned, and (b) the production and use of documents and things in connection with the questioning of witnesses, and (c) the order in which parties may question a witness, and (d) the presence and behaviour of any person in connection with the questioning of witnesses. Vic Act: 26

Court’s control over questioning of witness The court may make such orders as it considers just in relation to— (a) the way in which witnesses are to be questioned; and (b) the production and use of documents and things in connection with the questioning of witnesses; and (c) the order in which parties may question a witness; and (d) the presence and behaviour of any person in connection with the questioning of witnesses.

ACT Act:

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26

Court’s control over questioning of witnesses The court may make the orders it considers just in relation to— (a) the way in which witnesses are to be questioned; and (b) the production and use of documents and things in connection with the questioning of witnesses; and (c) the order in which parties may question a witness; and (d) the presence and behaviour of any person in connection with the questioning of witnesses.

NT Act: 26

Court’s control over questioning of witness The court may make such orders as it considers just in relation to: (a) the way in which witnesses are to be questioned; and (b) the production and use of documents and things in connection with the questioning of witnesses; and (c) the order in which parties may question a witness; and (d) the presence and behaviour of any person in connection with the questioning of witnesses.

[EA.26.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 30, paras 107–108.

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[EA.26.60]

[EA.26.90]

General comments

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The ALRC did not propose a general statement of this nature as to the power of a court to control proceedings, the presentation of evidence or the questioning of witnesses. This was deemed unnecessary given the recognition in s 11 of the general power of a court to control the conduct of proceedings, subject to the operation of the Act. Section 26 is presumably premised on the assumption that some general statement of those powers is desirable. Curiously, the section is not prefaced with an express statement that the powers accorded under the section are subject to the rest of the Act (including the more specific provisions dealing with particular aspects of the questioning of witnesses). However, it is arguable that the section should be interpreted in that way96 and it has been held that “it must be construed having regard, inter alia, to the limited waiver power in s 190”.97 It has also been held that neither this provision nor s 11 create a general power to control the manner of giving evidence in the sense of a power which is not subject to the principles of natural justice98 nor do they circumscribe the right of a party to adduce admissible evidence.99 Other legislation affects the way in which evidence is given by witnesses. For example, legislation in NSW and Victoria permits the evidence of children in certain types of proceedings to be given by way of closed-circuit television facilities or by means of any other similar technology and permits the evidence-in-chief of child witnesses to be given in criminal proceedings substantially by way of the playing of a videotape of an interview between the witness and a police officer. Some of those provisions are discussed below (see [EA.27.180], [EA 28.150], [EA 41.330]). There is no doubt that, if for some reason such a provision does not strictly apply, the procedure may be adopted pursuant to the general power conferred by this provision.100

[EA.26.90] “witness” The term “witness” is defined in the Dictionary to include the meaning given in cl 7 in Pt 2 of the Dictionary: (1) A reference in this Act to a witness includes a reference to a party giving evidence. (2) A reference in this Act to a witness who has been called by a party to give evidence includes a reference to the party giving evidence. (3) A reference in this section to a party includes a defendant in a criminal proceeding. 96. A general principle of statutory construction is that, where there is conflict between general and specific provisions, the specific provisions prevail (generalia specialibus non derogant). The contrary view is that the other provisions are a prima facie guide to the exercise of the general power. 97. Australian Petroleum Pty Ltd v Parnell Transport Industries Pty Ltd (1998) 88 FCR 537; 159 ALR 477; [1998] FCA 1580 at 543 per Mansfield J. 98. See R v Too (unreported, NSW SC, Badgery-Parker J, 26 July 1996). 99. Finchill Pty Ltd v Abdel-Messih (unreported, NSW SC, Levine J, 13 July 1998); Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Elskaf [2012] NSWSC 21 at [42]–[44]. 100. See, for example, R v Hines (No 2) (2014) 242 A Crim R 316; [2014] NSWSC 990; R v Xie (No 12) [2014] NSWSC 1980. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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Calling a witness by the court

It has been held that the “wide powers” given by this provision to a court include a power to call witnesses.101 This is a very broad interpretation of the provision, which seems to be concerned with what is to happen to witnesses after they have been called. In Sharp v Rangott (2008) 167 FCR 225; 246 ALR 84; [2008] FCAFC 45, Besanko J at [48] rejected such authority, observing that “the powers conferred by s 26 extend only to those persons who have been called to give evidence by a party or by the judge in the exercise of a power at general law or under another statute” (the other members of the Court did not disagree with this analysis). Nevertheless, it appears clear that the court may call a witness, in appropriate circumstances, given the court’s general power to control the proceedings: s 11. Existing common law constraints on courts would presumably continue to apply (see also [EA.27.120]). Under the traditional common law approach, as a general rule the parties alone call evidence.102 It is rare for courts to intervene in the decision of parties as to the order in which witnesses are called.103 In criminal proceedings, the trial judge may only call a witness in “most exceptional circumstances”.104 A similar approach has been adopted in civil proceedings.105 Thus, in Sharp v Rangott (2008) 167 FCR 225; 246 ALR 84; [2008] FCAFC 45, Besanko J stated at [52]:

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It was correctly accepted by the parties that at common law the exercise of the power is reserved only for the most exceptional cases and that it would be regarded as highly unusual for a judge to call a witness in a proceeding.

Justice Besanko discussed at length what circumstances might be regarded as “most exceptional” (at [53]–[70]). However, it should be noted that Gray and North JJ stated at [3]: [W]e do not necessarily accept that the common law power is constrained by the principle that Besanko J derives from the earlier authorities. In an age in which the focus of common law courts on ascertaining the truth is increasing, and the gap between the approaches of the common law courts and the “inquisitorial” courts of the Roman law/Napoleonic systems is perceived to be much narrower than previously supposed, we prefer not to express a view that would anchor the exercise of the discretionary power in the particular view of the adversarial system identified by his Honour.

101. Milano Investments Pty Ltd v Group Developers Pty Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Young J, 13 May 1997). Compare this decision with the approach taken in R v Too (unreported, NSW SC, Badgery-Parker J, 26 July 1996). 102. See Clark Equipment Credit of Australia Ltd v Como Factors Pty Ltd (1988) 14 NSWLR 552 at 567–568 per Powell J. 103. See Briscoe v Briscoe [1966] 1 All ER 465; [1966] 2 WLR 205; [1968] P 501; Bond v Australian Broadcasting Tribunal (No 2) (1988) 19 FCR 494; 84 ALR 646 at 514 (FCR) per Wilcox J. 104. R v Apostilides (1984) 154 CLR 563; 15 A Crim R 88 at 575 (CLR). 105. Re Enoch and Zaretzky, Bock & Co Arbitration [1910] 1 KB 327; Obacelo Pty Ltd v Taveraft Pty Ltd(1986) 10 FCR 518 at 536–540; Clark Equipment Credit of Australia Ltd v Como Factors Pty Ltd (1988) 14 NSWLR 552 at 567–568 per Powell J.

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Various court rules would impact on the common law principles. For example, a number of court rules permit the appointment of experts on the court’s own motion.106

[EA.26.150]

“the way in which witnesses are to be questioned”

As O’Ryan J stated in LGM v CAM [2008] FamCA 185 at [199]: [I]t is the trial judge’s duty to ensure all parties have a fair trial. Most relevantly, the trial judge must so exercise his [or her] discretion in and about the examination and cross examination of witnesses so that a fair trial is assured.

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The common law may offer some guidance. In general, a witness called by a party can be cross-examined by another party on any matter relevant to an issue in the proceedings.107 An example of a situation where the power conferred in this provision might be utilised is in a civil case where a number of parties have the same interest.108 The court may order that one party cross-examine on behalf of all or allow the others to cross-examine only upon matters not already canvassed.109 There is a rule of practice, designed to prevent oppression of witnesses, preventing two counsel from cross-examining the one witness, although the common law rule is subject to reasonable exceptions.110 Where a party calls another party as a witness, the court may determine the order in which questioning of the party/witness may occur (see s 26(c)) and whether the questioning should be treated as examination-in-chief or cross-examination.111 In Harrington-Smith v Western Australia (2002) 121 FCR 82; [2002] FCA 934 at [27], Lindgren J held that, in an appropriate case, a court might permit witnesses to stand or sit as a group while testifying, and might permit those members of a group who are to testify all to be sworn at the outset and counsel for the party who calls them to question them, switching from one to another, rather than questioning one witness to conclusion before questioning the next one. However, he could not “conceive of circumstances in which the Court would require the 106. Federal Court Rules, O 34; NSW Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005, Pt 31, Div 2, Subdiv 5. 107. Prentice v Cummins (No 6) (2003) 203 ALR 449; [2003] FCA 1002 at [25]–[28] per Sackville J. 108. Hadid v Australis Media Ltd (unreported, NSW SC, Sperling J, 5 November 1996). However, Sperling J considered that the power in this regard derived from s 11. See also NMFM Property Pty Ltd v Citibank Ltd [No 8] (1999) 161 ALR 581 at [16] per Lindgren J; Lakatoi v Walker [1999] NSWSC 1088; Cheers v El Davo Pty Ltd (in liq) [2000] FCA 144 at [15]–[16] per Weinberg J; Investa Properties Pty Ltd v Nankervis (No 6) [2014] FCA 804 at [28]–[33]. 109. GPI Leisure Corp Ltd v Herdsman Investments Pty Ltd (No 3) (1990) 20 NSWLR 15. 110. Canberra Residential Developments Pty Ltd v Brendas (2010) 188 FCR 140; 273 ALR 601; [2010] FCAFC 125 at [44]–[45]. The Full Court of the Federal Court held that a trial judge had erred in refusing leave to a junior counsel continuing cross-examination of a witness after the senior counsel had ceased to act, where junior counsel “undertook not to ask questions on any topic that his leader had dealt with” (at [41]). The Court held that such an undertaking “was sufficient to ensure that [the witness] was not burdened by unfair cross-examination” (at [46]). There was no need to establish “special circumstances” to justify a departure from the general rule (at [47]). The Court pointed out at [49] that s 41(1)(b) may be utilised to implement this common law principle. Reference was also made to s 40 (see [EA.41.150]). 111. NMFM Property Pty Ltd v Citibank Ltd [No 8] (1999) 161 ALR 581 at [15] per Lindgren J (referring to Tedeschi v Singh [1948] 1 Ch 319). © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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cross-examiner to do likewise: the cross-examiner should be allowed to question each witness to conclusion in the usual way”. Similarly, it has been held, as under the common law, that a court should not place arbitrary time limits on cross-examination,112 although it would be permissible to impose a time limit on further cross-examination after it had proceeded for some time with little effect.113 In LGM v CAM [2008] FamCA 185, O’Ryan J summarised the applicable principles in respect of not permitting cross-examination of a witness at [207]–[208]: Cross-examination is the testing of a witness as to the facts in issue or credit. There is no right of cross-examination and it is permitted by a Judge in the exercise of his or her discretion to ensure that parties have a fair trial. A witness that is called to give evidence may be cross-examined. In general, the party or the legal representative of the party may cross-examine a witness not called by that party. It is not necessary that the witness has given evidence against the party seeking to cross-examine. It is permissible to ask leading questions in cross-examination but there is no absolute right...

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The Court has a wide discretion to decide whether or not permission will be granted to cross-examine witnesses. There is no right to cross-examine witnesses in the course of a hearing, but rather the right of all parties to a fair trial.

The provision has been given a broad application. Thus, for example, in R v Hines (No 2) [2014] NSWSC 990 it was utilised to permit a witness to give evidence by the playing in court of a pre-recorded interview, before being questioned through a closed circuit television facility. While it might be doubted whether s 26(a) could go so far, that question has no practical significance given the general powers of a court to control its proceedings, specifically preserved by s 11(1). In respect of intervention in the questioning of a witness, the existing common law position is that, in the absence of objection by counsel for any other party, the trial judge should only intervene if there is good reason.114 The power to do so should be exercised with circumspection and should rarely be exercised merely because it appears to the judge that the question calls for an answer which is

112. JD v Director-General of Department of Youth & Community Services [1998] NSWSC 353. Black AJ emphasised the following passage from the High Court judgment in Wakeley v The Queen (1990) 64 ALJR 321 at 325: “The limits of cross-examination are not susceptible of precise definition, for a connection between a fact elicited by cross-examination and a fact in issue may appear, if at all, only after other pieces of evidence are forthcoming. … Although it is important in the interests of the administration of justice that cross-examination be contained within reasonable limits, a judge should allow counsel some leeway in cross-examination in order that counsel may perform the duty, where counsel’s instructions warrant it, of testing the evidence given by an opposing witness.” 113. For an example of a judge imposing a time limit on further cross-examination after having allowed it to proceed for some time, where the judge was “satisfied that there will be no unfairness … in limiting [further] cross-examination”, see Thomas v SMP International Pty Ltd (No 3) [2010] NSWSC 900. 114. R v Lars (1994) 73 A Crim R 91; R v Cunningham (1992) 61 A Crim R 412 (VicCCA). The principles elucidated in Lars have been adopted under the Evidence Act 1995: see R v RPS (unreported, NSW CCA, No 60583 of 1996, 13 August 1997), p 31 per Hunt CJ at CL. A trial judge may intervene to ensure that the trial is contained within reasonable limits.

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irrelevant or otherwise inadmissible. The Act assumes the continued existence of the adversary system: see ALRC 26, vol 1, para 64. Thus, except where a vulnerable witness is being questioned116, the circumstances in which a question may be rejected without objection are very limited.117 Similarly, adversarial principles would ordinarily preclude the court from requiring a party to adduce particular evidence or ask a particular question although a judge may, in appropriate circumstances, admit evidence which has not been tendered by a party (see, eg, s 45(3)) or ask a question of a witness (see [EA.27.120]). Court Rules have imposed special procedures relating to expert reports and evidence. These Rules will have significant impact on the way in which the expert witness gives evidence (see [EA.26.300]).

[EA.26.180]

“the order in which parties may question a witness”

The court has a broad discretion in this regard. It may take into account efficiency considerations as well as fairness to the parties.118

[EA.26.210]

“the presence … of any person in connection with the questioning of witnesses”

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The practice under the existing common law is for the court to order that all proposed witnesses, other than parties and expert witnesses, are to remain outside the court until called to give evidence. Parties, while allowed to remain in court, will almost invariably testify before other witnesses are called.119

[EA.26.240]

“the court may make such orders …”

It has been argued that the making of an “order” under this provision requires consideration of the terms of s 192, which deals generally with a court giving “any leave, permission or direction” under this Act.120 The Court of Appeal (Beazley JA, Giles JA and Santow JA) did not need to determine this issue because it held that the orders made in that case were made under the general powers of the court preserved in s 11 (to which s 192 does not apply). However, 115. Nevertheless, in practice, the judge may properly interrupt counsel and, in the absence of both the witness and the jury, inquire as to the relevance of the particular question or line of questioning. 116. The general reluctance to intervene in questioning does not apply where a vulnerable witness is involved. For discussion of questioning of children and other vulnerable witnesses, see [EA.41.120], [EA.42.130], [EA.46.130]. 117. For example, where a question is offensive or unfair (s 41), or a previous ruling is being flouted. 118. See NMFM Property Pty Ltd v Citibank Ltd [No 8] (1999) 161 ALR 581 at [19]–[22] per Lindgren J. 119. R v Lister [1981] 1 NSWLR 110. In RPS v The Queen (2000) 199 CLR 620; 74 ALJR 449; [2000] HCA 3 at [8]–[9] and [84], the High Court endorsed the view that a defendant in criminal proceedings does not have to be called first in the defence case but, if called after other witnesses have testified, “comment may be made that he has tailored his own evidence to fit in with theirs”. 120. Amalgamated Television Services Pty Ltd v Marsden [2002] NSWCA 419 at [1342]. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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subsequently in ASIC v Rich [2006] 201 FLR 207; [2006] NSWSC 643, Austin J held at [9] that this provision is subject to s 192. This approach was followed by Jacobsen J in the Federal Court.121

[EA.26.270]

Evidence of a conversation

There is a rule of practice under the common law that evidence of conversations should, if possible, be given by a witness in direct speech.122 However, if the witness is unable to recall the actual words used, he or she may give evidence of the substance or effect of what was said.123 Pursuant to s 56, evidence from a witness of a conversation in indirect speech or as to the substance or effect of what was said will be admissible “except as otherwise provided by this Act” (see [EA.55.540]).

[EA.26.300]

Court Rules relating to expert evidence

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The Federal Court,124 the Family Court,125 the ACT Supreme Court126 and the NSW Supreme Court127 have imposed procedures relating to expert reports and evidence. These Rules will have a significant impact on the way in which the expert witness gives evidence. For example, para 37 of the General Case Management Practice Note for the Common Law Division of the NSW Supreme Court provides that “[a]ll expert evidence will be given concurrently unless there is a single expert appointed or the Court grants leave for expert evidence to be given in an alternate manner”. The experts are sworn together and a directed discussion of issues in dispute takes place, chaired by the judge.128 The experts are encouraged to ask and answer questions of each other.

Cth Act: 27

Parties may question witnesses A party may question any witness, except as provided by this Act.

121. ASIC v Citigroup Global Markets Australia Pty Ltd (No 2) (2007) 157 FCR 310; [2007] FCA 121 at [7]–[8]. 122. Commonwealth v Riley (1984) 5 FCR 8 at 34; LMI Australasia Pty Ltd v Baulderstone Hornibrook Pty Ltd (2001) 53 NSWLR 31; [2001] NSWSC 688 at [8]–[9]; Hamilton-Smith v George [2006] FCA 1551 per Besanko J at [83]. 123. Hamilton-Smith v George [2006] FCA 1551 per Besanko J at [83]. 124. Guidelines for Expert Witnesses in Proceedings in the Federal Court of Australia (see “Practice and Procedure in the Federal Court of Australia”, Vol 2, [69,750]). 125. Family Court Rules 2004 (Cth), Pt 15.5. 126. Court Procedures Rules 2006 (ACT), Pt 2.12. 127. Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 2005 (NSW), rr 31.17 and 31.23; Sch 7; Supreme Court Rules 1970 (NSW), Pt 75 r 3J (applying UCPR Sch 7). See also Barak v WTH Pty Ltd [2002] NSWSC 649; Commonwealth Development Bank of Australia Pty Ltd v Cassegrain [2002] NSWSC 980. 128. See Halverson v Dobler [2006] NSWSC 1307; Attorney General (NSW) v Winters (2007) 176 A Crim R 249; [2007] NSWSC 1071.

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NSW Act: 27 Parties may question witnesses A party may question any witness, except as provided by this Act. Vic Act: 27

Parties may question witnesses A party may question any witness, except as provided by this Act.

ACT Act: 27

Parties may question witnesses Except as provided by this Act, a party may question any witness.

NT Act: 27

Parties may question witnesses A party may question any witness, except as provided by this Act.

[EA.27.30] ALRC references ALRC 38, s 31, para 111(a).

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[EA.27.60] General comments If a witness refuses to submit himself or herself to cross-examination, the result may be that the court orders the evidence of the witness to be excluded or disregarded.129 If a party wishes to cross-examine a witness on matters in dispute in the proceeding and gives reasonable notice of its intention to do so, it is an incident of the court’s duty to provide a fair trial that, in general, that wish be respected130. However, the right to question a witness is subject to a number of matters, including the power of the court under s 11 to control its proceedings.131 It has been held that, in an interlocutory hearing, time may not permit there to be full or any cross-examination.132 Despite the general statement that a party to proceedings may question any witness in those proceedings, the remainder of the Act substantially controls the nature of that questioning, both by evidentiary rules (for example, s 40) and the conferral of discretion on the court (see, in particular, s 29(1)). In addition, other legislation may impose limits on the ability of a party to question a witness (see [EA.27.180]). 129. See, for example, Dowling v Fairfax Media Publications Pty Ltd (2009) 182 IR 28; [2009] FCA 339 at [13]. However, the evidence may not be excluded and the inability to cross-examine may not cause a miscarriage of justice: see GO v Western Australia [2016] WASCA 132 at [68]–[78]. 130. Tarrant v Statewide Secured Investments Pty Ltd (2012) 126 ALD 290; [2012] FCA 582, Katzmann J at [35]. 131. An example of a case where the right to cross-examine was overridden using s 11 (and the discretionary provisions) is Fexuto Pty Ltd v Bosnjak Holdings Pty Ltd [1998] NSWSC 293, where Young J held that he would admit certain affidavit evidence notwithstanding the unavailability of the deponent. However, Young J indicated that “when weighing up that evidence, I will have to discount it on the basis that the witness was not available for cross-examination”. 132. See In the Marriage of C (1995) 20 Fam LR 24 at 32. © 2018 THOMSON REUTERS

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“witness”

The term “witness” is defined in the Dictionary to include the meaning given in cl 7 of Pt 2 of the Dictionary: (1) A reference in this Act to a witness includes a reference to a party giving evidence. (2) A reference in this Act to a witness who has been called by a party to give evidence includes a reference to the party giving evidence. (3) A reference in this section to a party includes a defendant in a criminal proceeding.

[EA.27.120]

Questioning by court

This provision says nothing in regard to the calling or questioning of a witness by the trial judge. As to a court calling a witness, see [EA.26.120]. Under common law principles, as a general rule it is for the parties to question witnesses and the judge asks questions only to remove apparent ambiguities.133 These contraints apply particularly in criminal proceedings with a jury.134 As the Act assumes the continued existence of the adversary system of trial, the common law limitations continue to be applied.135 However, the traditional position has been changing in civil proceedings:

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In civil trials, in the last fifty years in New South Wales, it has become much more common for judges to take an active part in the conduct of cases than was at an earlier time the case. The growth of litigation, the increasing complexity of litigation, and the limited resources of courts and legal aid have made it inevitable that judges must,

133. R v Olasiuk (1973) 6 SASR 255; R v Damic [1982] 2 NSWLR 750 (CCA) at 762–763 per Street CJ; Galea v Galea (1990) 19 NSWLR 263 at 280–282 per Kirby ACJ. 134. See R v SY [2004] NSWCCA 297. The NSW Court of Criminal Appeal referred at [14]–[15] to Whitehorn v The Queen (1983) 152 CLR 657 at 675 and observed that “[i]t is imperative that the trial judge should not act in the role of prosecutor or appear to do so”. The court added that a “judge might quite properly bring to the prosecutor’s attention some matter which appears to have been overlooked but even this must be done with considerable care and, unless it is completely uncontroversial, in the absence of the jury”. In R v Thompson (2000) 130 A Crim R 24; [2002] NSWCCA 149 at [42], Ipp AJA observed: “[I]ntervention for the purpose of clarification does not necessarily require the judge to question the witness. The judge may readily achieve clarification by pointing out, at an appropriate time, usually in the absence of the jury, evidential ambiguities or obscurities to counsel. This is by far the most desirable course.” However, Ipp AJA acknowledged the right of the judge to ask questions for the purpose of clarification and also held (at [43]) that questions which go beyond clarification do not necessarily make the trial unfair. See also R v Mohammadi (2011) 112 SASR 17; [2011] SASCFC 154 at [24]–[39]; R v L, GA [2015] SASCFC 166 at [4]–[7]. 135. R v Esposito (1998) 45 NSWLR 442; 105 A Crim R 27; R v Thompson (2000) 130 A Crim R 24; [2002] NSWCCA 149; Director of Public Prosecutions (NSW) v Earl Burns (2010) 207 A Crim R 362; [2010] NSWCA 265 at [28]–[29]; Werden v The Queen [2015] VSCA 72 at [45]–[52].

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within reasonable limits, intervene wherever it is necessary to ensure that the issues are clarified and that justice is dispensed within reasonable limits of effıciency.136

A similar approach may be taken on criminal proceedings without a jury.137 As long as the questions are asked in a moderate manner, they may be asked “for the purpose of clarifying the evidence and understanding more precisely the issues at trial”.138

[EA.27.150]

Questioning by members of jury

This provision says nothing in regard to the questioning of a witness by a member of the jury. However, the trial judge may permit this given the court’s general power to control the proceedings: ss 11 and 26. Nevertheless, the existing common law position is that such is “undesirable”139 and, where permitted, any questions should be asked through the judge.140 This too can be controlled under ss 11 and 26. The NSW Court of Criminal Appeal has made it clear that the same limitations on questioning by a judge (see [EA.27.120]) apply to questioning by a jury,141 and that a jury should not be encouraged or invited to ask questions.142

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[EA.27.180]

Other provisions

The effect of s 8 is that provisions in other legislation relating to the questioning of witnesses continue to apply. For example, s 294A of the Criminal Procedure Act 1986 (NSW) prevents a self-represented defendant on trial for charges of sexual assault from personally asking questions of the complainant.143 Similarly, s 356 Criminal Procedure Act 2009 (Vic) provides that a “protected witness”, as defined in s 354, “must not be cross-examined by the accused in person”. Specific provisions in both jurisdictions provide for special procedures to be adopted in relation to the questioning of particular vulnerable witnesses (such as child complainants in sexual assault prosecutions).

136. Whealy JA in FB v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 217 at [93]. See also Ryland v QBE Insurance (Aust) Ltd [2013] NSWCA 120 at [18]–[22]. 137. FB v The Queen [2011] NSWCCA 217 at [90]–[110]. See also Lockwood v Police (2010) 107 SASR 237; [2010] SASC 120 at [17]; R v T, WA (2014) 118 SASR 382; 238 A Crim R 205; [2014] SASCFC 3 at [37]