Tuttle Pocket Japanese Dictionary: Japanese-English English-Japanese Completely Revised and Updated Second Edition 9781462910922

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Tuttle Pocket Japanese Dictionary: Japanese-English English-Japanese Completely Revised and Updated Second Edition

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Pocket Japanese Dictionary Japanese-English English-Japanese

Samuel E. Martin Revised and Updated by Sayaka Khan & Fred Perry

T UT T L E Publishing Tokyo Rutland, Vermont Singapore

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Published by Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. www.tuttlepublishing.com © 2011 by Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd This revised edition © 2011 by Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher. ISBN: 978-1-4629-1092-2 (ebook)

Distributed by: North America, Latin America, and Europe Tuttle Publishing 364 Innovation Drive, North Clarendon, VT 05759-9436 USA. Tel: 1 (802) 773-8930; Fax: 1 (802) 773-6993 [email protected] www.tuttlepublishing.com Asia Pacific Berkeley Books Pte. Ltd. 61 Tai Seng Avenue #02-12 Singapore 534167 Tel: (65) 6280-1330; Fax: (65) 6280-6290 [email protected] www.periplus.com 15 14 13 12 11

Japan Tuttle Publishing Yaekari Bldg., 3rd Floor, 5-4-12 Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0032 Tel: (81) 3 5437-0171 Fax: (81) 3 5437-0755 sales@ tuttle.co.jp www.tuttle.co.jp

6 5 4 3 2 1


Printed in Hong Kong TUTTLE PUBLISHING® is a registered trademark of Tuttle Publishing, a division of Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd.

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CONTENTS Japanese–English ..................................................... 1 English–Japanese ................................................. 333

Samuel E. Martin is the author of numerous books and papers on Japanese and Korean, including the definitive A Reference Grammar of Japanese and A Reference Grammar of Korean. Sayaka Khan has a BSC (Biology, 2000) from Waseda University. She has worked as a translator and interpreter for companies in various industries, such as patent offices, science think tank, pharmaceutical firm, film production, game company, etc. She has established a translation corporation with her husband, Afaque Khan. Fred Perry has a BA (History, 1956) from Yale University as well as an MBA from St Sophia University, Tokyo (1984). He arrived in Japan in 1956, and continues to live there today. He has worked as a market researcher and consultant. Traveling throughout Japan as part of his job has provided the opportunity to learn about the local dialects spoken in different parts of the country.

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The Tuttle Story: “Books to Span the East and West” Most people are surprised to learn that the world’s largest publisher of books on Asia had its beginnings in the tiny American state of Vermont. The company’s founder, Charles E. Tuttle, belonged to a New England family steeped in publishing. And his first love was naturally books—especially old and rare editions. Immediately after WW II, serving in Tokyo under General Douglas MacArthur, Tuttle was tasked with reviving the Japanese publishing industry, and founded the Charles E. Tuttle Publishing Company, which thrives today as one of the world’s leading independent publishers. Though a westerner, Charles was hugely instrumental in bringing knowledge of Japan and Asia to a world hungry for information about the East. By the time of his death in 1993, Tuttle had published over 6,000 books on Asian culture, history and art—a legacy honored by the Japanese emperor with the “Order of the Sacred Treasure,” the highest tribute Japan can bestow upon a non-Japanese. With a backlist of 1,500 titles, Tuttle Publishing is more active today than at any time in its past—inspired by Charles’ core mission to publish fine books to span the East and West and provide a greater understanding of each.

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A ā 1. adv ࠵࠵ like that, that way 2. interj ࠵࠵ oh; yes 3. interj ࠵ ࠵ hello (on encountering someone) á interj ࠵ࡖ oh! abakimásu, abaku v ᬸࡀࡱࡌ, ᬸࡂ

discloses abara-ya n ࠵ࡣࡼᒁ hovel abaremásu, abareru v ᬸࡿࡱࡌ, ᬸࡿࡾ rages, storms, rampages abare-mono n ᬸࡿ⩽ ruffian,

āchi(-gata) n ࢓࣭ࢲ ᙟ arch (= yumi-gata ᘢᙟ ācherii n ࢓࣭ࢲ࣭࢘ࣛ archery achí-kochi adv ࠵ࡔࡆࡔ here and there (= achíra-kóchira ࠵ࡔࡼ ࡆࡔࡼ) achira pron ࠵ࡔࡼ 1. that one (of

two) over there, the other one (over there) 2. over there, yonder 3. he/him, she/her, they/them achira-gawa n ࠵ࡔࡼഁ that (his/ roughneck, wild person abékku n ࢓࣊ࢴࢠ young unmar- her/their) side, other side ada adj ࠵ࡓ meaningless ried couple abekobe n ࠵࡬ࡆ࡬ upside down ada n ௏ [BOOKISH] disservice, abimásu, abiru v ᾆࡦࡱࡌ, ᾆࡦࡾ foe: ~ o uchimásu ௏ࢅゞࡔࡱࡌ bathes oneself in; douses, showers avenges, revenges abisemásu, abiseru v ᾆࡦࡎࡱࡌ, adana n ࠵ࡓྞ nickname ᾆࡦࡎࡾ pours on, showers adaputā n ࢓ࢱࣈࢰ࣭ (electrical) abuku n ࠵ࡩࡂ bubble; abuku-zéni adapter adéyaka adj Ⰷࡷ࠾ gorgeous, n ࠵ࡩࡂ㖱 easy money abunaí adj ༱࡝࠷ dangerous (= fascinatingly elegant kiken (na) ༱㝜 ࡝ ), Watch out! adobáisu n ࢓ࢺࣁ࢕ࢪ advice abunakkashii adj ༱࡝ࡖ࠾ࡊ࠷ is adokenai adj ࠵࡜ࡄ࡝࠷ innocent, insecure, unsteady childlike; adokenai kao n ࠵࡜ࡄ abunōmaru adj ࢓ࣇࢿ࣭࣏ࣜ ࡝࠷㢞 an innocent face adoresu n ࢓ࢺࣝࢪ address: abnormal abura n ἔ oil, grease mëru-~ ࣒࣭ࣜ࢓ࢺࣝࢪ e-mail abura n ⬙ fat (= shibø ⬙⫣) address aburá(á)ge n ἔᥥࡅ deep-fried adoribu n ࢓ࢺࣛࣇ ad-lib bean curd aegimásu, aégu v ႉࡁࡱࡌ, ႉࡃ aburakkói adj ἔࡖࡆ࠷ oily, greasy gasps, pants (for breath) aburakkói adj ⬙ࡖࡆ࠷ fatty aemásu, aéru v ࿰࠻ࡱࡌ, ࿰࠻ࡾ aburimásu, abúru v ⅕ࡽࡱࡌ, ⅕ࡾ dresses (vegetables, etc.) aenai adj ᩊ࠻࡝࠷ tragic, sad: grills 3

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aénaku mo ᩊ࠻࡝ࡂࡵ tragically

fries; raises enough ago n ࠵ࡇ࣬㢙 jaw, chin; ago-hige áete v ᩊ࠻࡙ áete … (shimásu) n ࠵ࡇࡥࡅ beard, goatee, (chin-) ᩊ࠻࡙… ࡊࡱࡌ dares (to do) whiskers afuremásu, afuréru v ‼ࡿࡱࡌ, ‼ࡿ agura n ࠵ࡃࡼ sitting cross-legged ࡾ overflows áhen n ࢓ࣉࣤ࣬㜷∞ opium Afurika n ࢓ࣆࣛ࢜ Africa; Afurika- ahiru n ࢓ࣃࣜ duck (tame) jin n ࢓ࣆࣛ࢜ெ an African aho, ahō n ࠵࡮ ࠹ ࣬㜷࿄ fool afutā-sābisu n ࢓ࣆࢰ࣭ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ ái n យ love (= aijø យ᝗) service (maintenance and repair), ái n ⸓ Japanese indigo plant; ái zome n ⸓᯹ࡴ Japanese indigo dye servicing agakimásu, agaku v ㊂ᥑࡀࡱࡌ, ㊂ aibikí n ㏺ᘤ secret rendezvous ᥑࡂ struggles aibō n ┞Ფ partner agaméru v ᓤࡴࡾ worships, adores, áibu n យ᧑ caress respects: kami o ~ ♼ࢅᓤࡴࡱࡌ aichaku n យ╌ affection aida n, prep, adv 㛣 interval, worships [adores] God agarí n, adj ୕࠿ࡽ finishing, space, between; while aidagara n 㛣ᯮ relationship (resulting) finish agarimásu, agaru v ୕࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, ୕ (between people) ࠿ࡾ 1. goes up, rises 2. feels aidéa n ࢓࢕ࢸ࢓ idea aidoku n យㄖ reading with pleasure self-conscious, nervous; gets áidoru n ࢓࢕ࢺࣜ idol stage fright agari-guchi, agari-kuchi n ୕ࡽཾ the aigo n យ㆜ [BOOKISH] protection ai-hanshimásu, ai-hansuru v ┞ཬࡊ entrance …-ágari (no) adj …୕࠿ࡽ ࡡ ࡱࡌ, ┞ཬࡌࡾ conflicts aiirenai adj ┞ᐖࡿ࡝࠷ exclusive, fresh from …, right after …: yami ~ no hitó ⑋ࡲ୕࠿ࡽࡡெ a incompatible, irreconcilable ai-jin n យெ mistress person just out of sickbed age-ashi n ᥥࡅ㊂ fault finding aijō n យ᝗ affection, love (= ai យ ageku n ᣪྀ negative outcome; aikawarazu adv ┞ንࢂࡼࡍ as ageku no hate ᣪྀࡡᯕ࡙ in the end usual/ever/always: ~ génki desu agemásu, agerú v 1. ࠵ࡅࡱࡌ, ࠵ࡅ ┞ንࢂࡼࡍඔẴ࡚ࡌ stays well ࡾ gives 2. ...-te agerú ...࡙࠵ࡅ (as always) ࡾ does someone’s favor aikí-dō n ྙẴ㐠 aikido, an art of agemásu, agerú v ୕ࡅࡱࡌ, ୕ࡅࡾ weaponless defense áiko n ࠵࠷ࡆ o-aikó ࠽࠵࠷ࡆ raises up agemásu, agerú v ᥥࡅࡱࡌ, ᥥࡅࡾ tie (in sports, games), stalemate 4

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aikō-ka n យይᐓ lover (devotee

aishō n យ⛘ nickname of …) aishō n ┞ᛮ compatibility, conaikoku-shin n យᅗᚨ patriotism geniality: ~ ga/no íi ┞ᛮ࠿ࡡ࠷ aikotoba n ྙ࠷ゕⴝ password, ࠷ congenial, compatible aisó, aisō n ࠵࠷ࡐ ࠹ ࣬យ᝷ shibboleth [INFORMAL talk] aikyō n យ▱>យᩏ@ charm, attrac- 1. aisó (aisø) ga/no íi ࠵࠷ࡐ ࠹ >យ᝷@࠿ࡡ࠷࠷ is amiable, tiveness: ~ ga arimásu យ▱>យ ᩏ@࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is nice, attractive, sociable, agreeable 2. o-aiso, o-aisø ࠽យ᝷ (restaurant) bill, charming aima n ྙ㛣 spare time check; incense aimai (na) adj ᭍ᫍ ࡝ vague aisu… prefix ࢓࢕ࢪ iced…; aimasu, áu v ఌ࠷ࡱࡌ, ఌ࠹: … aisu-kōhii n ࢓࢕ࢪࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭ iced ni ~ …࡞ఌ࠷ࡱࡌ meets; sees coffee; aisu-kuríimu n ࢓࢕ࢪࢠࣛ ࣭࣑ ice cream; aisu-tii n ࢓࢕ࢪ (a person) aimasu, áu v ྙ࠷ࡱࡌ, ྙ࠹: … ࢷ࢔࣭ iced tea ni ~ …࡞ྙ࠷ࡱࡌ matches aite n ┞ᡥ o-aite ࠽┞ᡥ the with: kuchi ni ~ ཾ࡞ྙ࠷ࡱࡌ other fellow; companion, partner; suits one’s taste; (…ni) ma ni ~ adversary, opponent …࡞ 㛣࡞ྙ࠷ࡱࡌ is in time aitō n ဖᝒ condolence: mourning: fukai ~ ῕࠷ဖᝒ deep mourning (for …) …-aimasu, -au/-áu …ྙ࠷ࡱࡌ, ྙ࠹ aitsu pron ࠵࠷ࡗ that guy, that [VERB INFINITIVE +] (to) each other creep; aitsú-ra pron ࠵࠷ࡗࡼ ainiku adv ࠵࠷࡞ࡂ unfortunately those damn ones ainiku (na) adj ࠵࠷࡞ࡂ ࡝ regret- aitsúide adv ┞ḗ࠷࡚ one after



ainoko n ࠵࠷ࡡᏄ person of mixed aitii (IT) n IT ࢓࢕ࢷ࢔࣭ informa-


tion technology (computer)

ainorí n ┞஋ࡽ ride together ainote n ࠵࠷ࡡᡥ short interlude airashii adj យࡼࡊ࠷ lovely, sweet airon n ࢓࢕ࣞࣤ iron(ing) Airurándo n ࢓࢕ࣜࣚࣤࢺ Ireland áisatsu n ᣭᣔ [HONORIFIC] go-~ ࡇᣭᣔ greeting: (…) ni ~ shimásu … ࡞ᣭᣔࡊࡱࡌ greets ai-shimásu, ai-súru v យࡊࡱࡌ, យࡌ ࡾ = ai-su យࡌ loves

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āiu adj ࠵࠵࠷࠹ ... that kind/sort of ... (= anna ࠵ࢆ࡝, åyü ࠵࠵ ࡹ࠹) aiuchí n ┞ᡬࡔ hitting/killing each other at the same time: ~ ni narimásu ┞ᡬࡔ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ hits/kills

each other at the same time aiúeo n ࠵࠷࠹࠻࠽ the Japanese

syllabary áizu n ྙᅒ signal, sign


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aizúchi n ┞ᵌ give responses: ~ o uchimásu ┞ᵌࢅᡬࡔࡱࡌ gives


ࡱ ࡝࡞ frank(ly), plain(ly),

open(ly) [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] responses to make the conversa- akari n ᪺࠾ࡽ light, lamp akarui adj ᪺ࡾ࠷ bright, light, tion go smoothly ají n ࿝ taste; flavor, seasoning: clear, gay, cheerful ~ ga shimásu ࿝࠿ࡊࡱࡌ it tastes akarumi n ᪺ࡾࡲ a light place; the (has flavor); ~ ga usuidesu ࿝࠿ (open/bright) light: ~ ni demásu ⷟࠷࡚ࡌ is bland: ~ o oboemásu ᪺ࡾࡲ࡞ฝࡱࡌ surfaces, is ࿝ࢅつ࠻ࡱࡌ acquires a taste for brought to light áji n ࢓ࢩ࣬㪓 horse mackerel, akéba v 㛜ࡄࡣ (if it comes open) ākēdo n ࢓࣭ࢢ࣭ࢺ arcade, roofed saurel Ájia n ࢓ࢩ࢓ Asia; Ajiá-jin n ࢓ࢩ passageway, shopping arcade ࢓ெ an Asian akegata n, adv ᪺ࡄ᪁ daybreak, ajike-nái adj ࿝Ẵ࡝࠷ insipid, dawn akemáshite o-medetō (gozaimásu flavorless, flat ajiwaimásu, ajiwáu v ࿝ࢂ࠷ࡱࡌ, [HONORIFIC]) interj ᪺ࡄࡱࡊ࡙࠽ ࿝ࢂ࠹ tastes it ࡴ࡚࡛࠹ ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ Happy áka n ㉝ red (color); aka-bō n ㉝ᖐ New Year! redcap, porter; áka-chan n ㉝ࡔࡶࢆ akemásu, akeru v 㛜ࡄࡱࡌ, 㛜ࡄࡾ ࣬࠵࠾ࡔࡶࢆ baby; aká-gai n opens it ㉝ㇽ ark shell, blood(y) clam; akemásu, akeru v ✭ࡄࡱࡌ, ✭ࡄࡾ akai adj ㉝࠷ red; aka-jí n ㉝Ꮚ leaves empty, vacates akemásu, akeru v ᪺ࡄࡱࡌ, ᪺ࡄࡾ red letters, deficit figures: ~ ni narimásu ㉝Ꮚ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ goes/ it opens up, (the day/year) begins gets in the red; aka-mi n ㉝㌗ lean áki n ⚽ autumn, fall; aki-same n ⚽㞭 autumn rain (meat/fish); unfatty (red) tuna; aka-shíngo n ㉝ಘྒ red light akí- prefix ✭ࡀ empty, vacant; akibako n ✭ࡀ⟵ empty box; aki-beya (signal) aká n ࠵࠾࣬ᇃ dirt, grime n ✭ࡀ㒂ᒁ empty room; aki-kan akádemii n ࢓࢜ࢸ࣐࣭ academy n ✭ࡀ⧹ empty can; aki-shitsu n akademíkku n ࢓࢜ࢸ࣐ࢴࢠ academic ✭ࡀᐄ empty room/office; aki-ya aka-gane n ࠵࠾࠿ࡠ࣬㖙 copper n ✭ࡀᐓ vacant/empty house; áka-no-tanin n ㉝ࡡ௙ெ complete aki-su n ࠵ࡀᕛ≲࠷࣬✭ࡀᕛ stranger [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] sneak thief akaramemásu, akarameru v ㉝ࡼࡴࡱ akimásu, akíru v 㣤ࡀࡱࡌ, 㣤ࡀࡾ ࡌ, ㉝ࡼࡴࡾ blushes wearies (gets tired) of; gets akarasama (na/ni) adj, adv ࠵࠾ࡼࡈ enough of 6

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akimásu, aku v 㛜ࡀࡱࡌ, 㛜ࡂ

opens, comes open; it comes unbuttoned/unzipped/unlocked akimásu, aku v ✭ࡀࡱࡌ, ✭ࡂ gets empty/vacant akinaimásu, akinau v ၛ࠷ࡱࡌ, ၛ࠹ blushes akíndo n ၛெ merchant akíraka adj ᪺ࡼ࠾ clear (evident): ~ ni shimásu ᪺ࡼ࠾࡞ࡊࡱࡌ

makes it public, reveals, explains akirame n ㅁࡴ resignation, acceptance: ~ ga warui ㅁࡴ࠿ᝇ࠷ not

knowing when to give up akiramemásu, akiraméru v ㅁࡴࡱ ࡌ, ㅁࡴࡾ: … o ~…ࢅㅁࡴࡱࡌ

gives up (on), resigns oneself to akiremásu, akireru v ࿄ࡿࡱࡌ, ࿄ࡿ ࡾ gets amazed; gets disgusted akkan n ᅸᕬ overwhelming akke-nái adj ࠵ࡖࡄ࡝࠷ not long enough: akkenaku makeru ࠵ࡖ ࡄ࡝ࡂㇿࡄࡾ is beaten too easily akke ni toraremásu (torareru) v ࿄Ẵ ࡞ཱིࡼࡿࡱࡌ ཱིࡼࡿࡾ is


ᝇビ criticism (unfavorable); áku-i n ᝇណ ill will, malice; akujōken n ᝇ᮪௲ bad/unfavorable/ adverse condition; aku-júnkan n ᝇᚘ⎌ vicious circle; áku-ma n ᝇ㨩 devil, evil spirit, Satan; ákumu n ᝇከ nightmare: ~ ni chigai arimasen ᝇከ࡞㐢࠷࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ must be a nightmare; aku-nin n ᝇ ெ an evil person; aku-ratsu (na) adj ᝇ㎝ ࡝ unscrupulous, foul, nasty, mean; aku-sei n ᝇᨳ [BOOKISH] bad government; aku-sen n ᝇ㖱 [BOOKISH] ill-gotten gains; aku-shumí n ᝇ㉻࿝ bad/poor taste; aku-toku n ᝇᚠ (a) vice: ~-gyøsha ᝇᚠᴏ⩽ dishonest business person; aku-zei n ᝇ⛧ [BOOKISH] unreasonable tax akú n ࢓ࢠ࣬⅂Ị scum, lye: ~ o torimásu ⅂Ịࢅཱིࡽࡱࡌ re-

moves the scum akuaríumu n ࢓ࢠ࢓࣑ࣛࢗ aquarium akurobátto n ࢓ࢠࣞࣁࢴࢹ acrobat,

acrobatics akúryoku n ᥩງ grip (of hand) ákuseku adv ࠵ࡂࡎࡂ laboriously,

akkerakán (to) adv ࠵ࡖࡄࡼ࠾ࢆ (working) hard, drudging (away) ࡛ looks unconcerned ákusento n ࢓ࢠࢬࣤࢹ accent akogaremásu, akogaréru v ៷ࡿࡱࡌ, ákuseru n ࢓ࢠࢬࣜ gas pedal, ៷ࡿࡾ adores, admires; longs accelerator ákusesari(i) n ࢓ࢠࢬࢦࣛ ࣭ for, yearns for akogi (ná) adj ࠵ࡆࡁ ࡝ cruel accessory and heartless ákushon n ࢓ࢠࢨࣘࣤ action; áku n ᝇ an evil; aku-fū n ᝇ㢴 bad akushon-eiga n ࢓ࢠࢨࣘࣤ᫆⏤ custom, bad practice, a vice; aku- an action film heki n ᝇ⒯ [BOOKISH] bad habit; ákushu n ᥩᡥ handshake aku-hō n ᝇἪ bad law; aku-hyō n ákuta n Ⱘ dirt, rubbish

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amá n ᑷ nun áma n ᾇዥ woman sea diver, a


amí n ⥑ net; amí-do n ⥑ᡖ screen

door amimásu, ámu v ⥽ࡲࡱࡌ, ⥽ࡳ pearl diver ama-… prefix 㞭 rain; amá-do n 㞭 knits, braids ᡖ rain shutters; ama-gasa n 㞭ഘ amí-mono n ⥽ࡲ∸ knitting, knitted umbrella (= kasa ഘ) goods amá(chuá) n ࢓࣏ ࢲࣖ࢓ amateur ā´mōndo n ࢓࣭࣓ࣤࢺ almond amaemásu, amaéru v ⏉࠻ࡱࡌ, ⏉࠻ án n ᱄ 1. proposal, suggestion, ࡾ presumes on someone’s good- idea 2. plan án n ࠵ࢆ࣬㣾 bean jam/paste; will, acts like a baby amanógawa n ࠵ࡱࡡ࠿ࢂ࣬ኮࡡᕖ án-ko n ࠵ࢆࡆ࣬㣾Ꮔ bean jam/ the Milky Way paste amai adj ⏉࠷ sweet; lenient, aná n ✨ hole; slot; ana-go n ࢓ࢻ ࢥ conger eel; ana-guma n ࢓ࢻࢡ permissive amaku mimásu (míru) v ⏉ࡂࡲࡱࡌ ࣏࣬✨↻ badger anáta pron ࠵࡝ࡒ you; anatá-tachi, ࡲࡾ kids oneself about …, anatá-gáta pron ࠵࡝ࡒ㐡, ࠵࡝ࡒ underestimates amari n ఴࡽ remainder, surplus, ᪁ you (all); anáta(-tachi) no pron ࠵࡝ࡒ 㐡 ࡡ your(s) leftover amari adv ࠵ࡱࡽ [ NEGATIVE verb] anaúnsā n ࢓ࢻࢗࣤࢦ࣭ announcer andārain n ࢓ࣤࢱ࣭ࣚ࢕ࣤ underline not very, not much, not many andāshátsu n ࢓ࣤࢱ࣭ࢨࣔࢵ (= anmari ࠵ࢆࡱࡽ) amarimásu, amáru v ఴࡽࡱࡌ, ఴࡾ undershirt is left over, remains, is in excess, andon n ⾔⅁ traditional papercovered night-light is too much/many amarí(ni) adv ࠵ࡱࡽ ࡞ too, too anadorimásu, anadoru v ౱ࡽࡱࡌ, ౱ࡾ not think much of: imamuch, very amayakashimásu, amayakásu v ⏉ࡷ made … o anadotte imáshita ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, ⏉ࡷ࠾ࡌ pampers, ࠷ࡱࡱ࡚͐ࢅ౱ࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡊࡒ babies hadn’t used to think much of … amé n ࢓࣒࣬㣡 candy ándo n Ꮽሕ relief áme n 㞭 rain: ~ ga furimásu 㞭 áne n ጗ older sister (= (o-)në´࠿㜾ࡽࡱࡌ it rains san ࠽ ጗ࡈࢆ) amē´ba n ࢓࣒࣭ࣁ amoeba ángai adv ᱄አ 1. unexpectedly Amerika n ࢓࣒ࣛ࢜ America, (much) 2. contrary to expectaU.S.(A.); Ameriká-jin n ࢓࣒ࣛ࢜ெ tions; ángai (na) adj ᱄አ ࡝ an American unexpected 8

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angō n ᬧྒ secret code anguru n ࢓ࣤࢡࣜ angle (= kakudo ぽᗐ), viewpoint áni n ඕ elder brother (= (o-)nii´san ࠽ ඕࡈࢆ) anime, animēshon n ࢓ࢼ࣒,࢓ࢼ࣒ ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ animation, animaed


ano né interj ࠵ࡡࡠ (mostly

children or female) well, listen, you know anpáia n ࢓ࣤࣂ࢕࢓ umpire anpán n ࢓ࣤࣂࣤ sweet roll with bean jam inside anpéa n ࢓ࣤ࣋࢓ ampere anpo n Ꮽಕ security cartoon anji n ᬧ♟ a hint; jiko-anji n ⮤ᕤ anpu n ࢓ࣤࣈ amplifier anpuru n ࢓ࣤࣈࣜ ampule ᬧ♟ autosuggestion ánkā n ࢓࣭ࣤ࢜ anchor anraku n Ꮽᴞ comfort; anraku (na) ankēto n ࢓ࣤࢢ࣭ࢹ questionnaire adj Ꮽᴞ ࡝ comfortable, easy; ankí n ᬧエ memorizing: ~ shite anraku shi n ᏭᴞṒ mercy killing, ᬧエࡊ࡙ by/from memory euthanasia ankōru n ࢓ࣤࢤ࣭ࣜ encore ansei n Ꮽ㟴 rest: ~ ni shimásu Ꮽ anma n ᣠ᦮ masseur/masseuse 㟴࡞ࡊࡱࡌ keeps/lies quiet an-man n ࢓࣏ࣤࣤ steamed bun anshín n Ꮽᚨ peace of mind; stuffed with bean jam relief; security; confidence, trust anmari adv ࠵ࢆࡱࡽ too much, anshitsu n ᬧᐄ darkroom overly; [+ NEGATIVE] not (very) anshō n ᬧ၌ recitation from much memory anna… adj ࠵ࢆ࡝… that kind antei n Ꮽᏽ stability of…: ~ ni ࠵ࢆ࡝࡞ to that extent antena n ࢓ࣤࢷࢻ antenna, aerial annái n ᱄හ [HONORIFIC] go-~ ánzan n Ꮽ⏐ safe delivery, easy ࡇ᱄හ guidance, information; delivery; anzan kigan n Ꮽ⏐♫㢢 annai-jó n ᱄හᡜ information wishing someone a safe delivery anzán n ᬧ⟤ mental calculation booth/desk; annái-nin n ᱄හெ guide (person), usher annái-shó anzen (na) adj Ꮽධ ࡝ safe n ᱄හ᭡ guide(book) (harm-proof); anzén-pin n Ꮽධࣅ anó adj ࠵ࡡ that (over there; ࣤ safety pin anzimásu, anjiru (anzuru) v ᱄ࡋࡱࡌ, known to you and me); anó-hito pron ࠵ࡡெ he/him, she/her; anó- ᱄ࡋࡾ ᱄ࡍࡾ worries, concerns ko pron ࠵ࡡᏄ she/her, he/him; anzu n ࢓ࣤࢫ࣬ᮝ apricot ano-yo n ࠵ࡡୠ the next world, áo n 㟯 blue, green (color); aói another world adj 㟯࠷ blue, green, pale; ao-mi ano, anō interj ࠵ࡡ, ࠵ࡡ࠹ (with n 㟯࿝ blueness; ao-nísai n 㟯஦ ᡧ immature [IN NEGATIVE SENSE]; nervous diffidence) well, uh … 9

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aogimásu, aógu

ao-shíngō n 㟯ಘྒ green light (signal); ao-suji n 㟯➵ vein: ~ o tateru 㟯➵ࢅ❟࡙ࡾ bursts a blood vessel; ao-yagi n 㟯ᰏ bud-

araemásu, araeru v ὑ࠻ࡱࡌ, ὑ࠻ ࡾ can wash araí adj Ⲡ࠷ rough, coarse; ara-ryōji n Ⲡ⒢἖ take drastic

ding willow aogimásu, aógu v ᡢࡁࡱࡌ, ᡢࡃ

measures (steps) araí adj ⢊࠷ rough, not smooth,

fans; fans oneself


aogimásu, aógu v ௭ࡁࡱࡌ, ௭ࡃ araimásu, arau v ὑ࠷ࡱࡌ, ὑ࠹ looks up at/to; respects (= miageru washes ず୕ࡅࡾ) arakajime adv ࠵ࡼ࠾ࡋࡴ in aomuké n ௭ྡྷࡄ facing upward advance (= maemotte ๑ࡵࡖ࡙) aorimásu, aóru v ↵ࡽࡱࡌ, ↵ࡾ arare n 1. ࠵ࡼࡿ࣬㟘 hail: ~ ga furimásu ࠵ࡼࡿ>㟘@࠿㜾ࡽࡱࡌ fans; stirs up, incites ao-zamemásu, aozameru v 㟯ࡉࡴ it hails (= hyø´ ࡥࡺ࠹>㞷@) ࡱࡌ, 㟯ࡉࡴࡾ pales, is pale 2. ࠵ࡼࡿrice-cracker cubes apā´to n ࢓ࣂ࣭ࢹ apartment (house) (tidbits) appaku n ᅸ㏍ pressure; oppression, árashi n ᔋ storm arashimásu, arásu v Ⲡࡼࡊࡱࡌ, Ⲡ suppression appáre adj, interj ࠵ࡖࡤࡿ ࡼࡌ devastates, damages, ruins Bravo!: ~ na taido ࠵ࡖࡤࡿ࡝ឺ arasoí n ண࠷ controversy, contenᗐ admirable attitude tion, struggle; argument, dispute, áppu n ࢓ࢴࣈ raising, up; appu-dē´to quarrel; strife, disturbance n ࢓ࢴࣈࢸ࣭ࢹ update; appu-gurē´do arasoimásu, arasóu v ண࠷ࡱࡌ, ண࠹ n ࢓ࢴࣈࢡ࣭ࣝࢺ upgrade; appu- struggles/contends for; argues, rō´do n ࢓ࢴࣈ࣭ࣞࢺ upload quarrels apurō´chi n ࢓ࣈ࣭ࣞࢲ approach aratamarimásu, aratamáru v ᨭࡱࡽࡱ ára interj ࠵ࡼ (female) oh!! (shows ࡌ, ᨭࡱࡾ to be changed, to be surprise, amazement): árámå replaced by something new ࠵ࡼࡱ࠵ (female) Oh, dear! aratamemásu, arataméru v ᨭࡴࡱࡌ, ará n ࠵ࡼ࣬⢊ fault; ará sagashi ᨭࡴࡾ changes, alters, corrects aratámete adv ᨭࡴ࡙ newly, anew; n ࠵ࡼᤒࡊ nitpicking; ara-suji n ࠵ࡼࡌࡋ summary, outline, again synopsis arawaremásu, arawaréru v ⌟ࡿࡱࡌ, Arabia, Árabu n ࢓ࣚࣄ࢓, ࢓ࣚࣇ ⌟ࡿࡾ appears, shows up, comes Arabia; Arabia-go n ࢓ࣚࣄ࢓ㄊ out Arabic; Arabia-jin, Arabú-jin n ࢓ࣚ arawashimásu, arawásu v ⌟ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ ࣄ࢓ெ, ࢓ࣚࣇெ an Arab ⌟ࡌ shows, reveals

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arawashimásu, arawásu v ⾪ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ ⾪ࡌ expresses (= hyøgen shimásu ⾪⌟ࡊࡱࡌ) arawashimásu, arawásu v ⴥࡊࡱࡌ, ⴥࡌ publishes, writes arayúru adj ࠵ࡼࡹࡾ all, every (= subete no ࡌ࡬࡙ࡡ) aré pron ࠵ࡿ that one (over there; known to you and me); aré-ra pron ࠵ࡿࡼ those, they/them aré interj ࠵ࡿ Dear! (surprise) aremásu, areru v Ⲡࡿࡱࡌ, Ⲡࡿࡾ


arimásu, aru v ࠵ࡽࡱࡌ, ࠵ࡾ there

is, we’ve got; it is (located) ari-sama n ࠵ࡽࡈࡱ condition,

state; scene, sight ari-sō´(na) adj ࠵ࡽࡐ࠹ ࡝ likely; ~´mo nái ࠵ࡽࡐ࠹ࡵ࡝࠷ unlikely aritē´ni-iu (to) v ࠵ࡽ࡙࠷࡞ゕ࠹ ࡛ frankly speaking [INFORMAL] áritoarayúru adj ࠵ࡽ࡛࠵ࡼࡹࡾ

every single, all kinds/sorts of arittake n ࠵ࡽࡖࡒࡄ utmost

[INFORMAL] goes to ruin, falls to waste, gets arō´ v ࠵ࢀ࠹ [LITERARY] = áru dilapidated; gets rough/wild; rages darø´ ࠵ࡾࡓࢀ࠹ = áru deshø aremoyō (no) adj Ⲡࡿᶅᵕ ࡡ ࠵ࡾ࡚ࡊࡺ࠹ (probably is) áru … adj ࠵ࡾ certain …, some stormy, inclement arérugii n ࢓࣭ࣝࣜ࢟ allergy: …; áru-hi ࠵ࡾ᪝ n one/certain day kafun-~ ⰴ⢂࢓࣭ࣝࣜ࢟ hay arubáito n ࢓ࣜࣁ࢕ࢹ side job, fever (= kafunshø ⰴ⢂⑍) sideline, part-time job arí n ࢓ࣛ࣬⽝ ant arufabétto n ࢓ࣜࣆ࢒࣊ࢴࢹ ariári (to) adv ࠵ࡽ࠵ࡽ ࡛ vividly alphabet ariawase n ࠵ࡽ࠵ࢂࡎ on hand árugamama n ࠵ࡾ࠿ࡱࡱ as is, for aribai n ࢓ࣛࣁ࢕ alibi what it is: ~ (ni) uketorimásu ࠵ arifúreta adj ࠵ࡽࡨࡿࡒ very ࡾ࠿ࡱࡱ ࡞ ུࡄཱིࡽࡱࡌ takes common, commonplace things as they are arigachi adj ࠵ࡽ࠿ࡔ common, arúi-wa conj ᡀ࠷ࡢ or else; maybe, typical [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] possibly arigatai adj ࠵ࡽ࠿ࡒ࠷ appreciated, arukimásu, arúku v Ṅࡀࡱࡌ, Ṅࡂ welcome; grateful: ~ meiwaku walks ࠵ࡽ࠿ࡒ㏖ᝠ unwanted favor, arukōru n ࢓ࣜࢤ࣭ࣜ alcohol aruminíum n ࢓࣐ࣜࢼ࣑ࢗ aluminum misplaced favor arígatō (gozaimásu [HONORIFIC]) ࠵ࡽ ása n, adv ᭽ morning; ása-ban (ni) ࠿࡛࠹ ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ Thank you n, adv ᭽ᬄ ࡞ morning and (very much) night/evening; asa-yake n ᭽↕ࡄ árika n ᅹࡽฌ whereabouts a red glow in the morning sky; arikitari adj ࠵ࡽࡀࡒࡽ common- asa-góhan n ᭽ࡇ㣜 breakfast; ásaplace, so typical [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] hi n ᭽᪝ morning sun, rising sun 11

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asái adj ὰ࠷ shallow; asá-haka (na) adj ὰࡢ࠾ ࡝ shallow; asa-se n ὰ℡ shallows Asakusa n ὰⲙ Asakusa asátsuki n ࢓ࢦࢵ࢞࣬ὰⴼ scallion,


ashirai n ࠵ࡊࡼ࠷ treatment, hos-

pitality, service, arrangement ashiraimásu, ashiráu v ࠵ࡊࡼ࠷ࡱ ࡌ, ࠵ࡊࡼ࠹ handles, manages,

deals with; receives (a guest) ashísutanto n ࢓ࢨࢪࢰࣤࢹ assistgreen onion; chives asátte n, adv ࠵ࡈࡖ࡙᪺࣬ᚃ᪝ ant (= joshu ຐᡥ) ashita n, adv ࠵ࡊࡒ᪺࣬᪝ tomorthe day after tomorrow áse n ổ sweat: ~ ga demásu ổ࠿ row ฝࡱࡌ, ~ o kakimásu ổࢅ࠾ࡀ asobi 㐗ࡦ n fun, amusement; a ࡱࡌ sweats; hiya-~ ෫ࡷổ cold game, play; a visit; asobi hanbun (de) adv 㐗ࡦ༖ฦ ࡚ half-serisweat Asean n ࢓ࢬ࢓ࣤ ASEAN ously asemásu, aséru v 〛ࡎࡱࡌ, 〛ࡎࡾ asobimásu, asobu v 㐗ࡦࡱࡌ, 㐗ࡩ fades has fun, plays; visits aserimásu, aséru v ↌ࡽࡱࡌ, ↌ࡾ asoko, asuko pron ࠵ࡐࡆ, ࠵ࡌࡆ feels rushed/pressed (that place) over there; that place áshi n ࢓ࢨ࣬ⴲ reed (known to you and me) ashí n ㊂ foot, ⬦ leg; ashi-áto n assári adj, adv ࠵ࡖࡈࡽ simple/ ㊂㊟ footprint; ashi-de mátoi n ㊂ simply, plain(ly); easy/easily; ᡥࡱ࡛࠷ a drag (on): shusse no frank(ly), without apparent dif~ ฝୠࡡ㊂ᡥࡱ࡛࠷ a drag on ficulty assén n ࠵ࡖࡎࢆ࣬ᩯ᪍ 1. mediaone’s career; ashí-kubi n ㊂㤫 ankle; ashi-móto n ㊂ࡵ࡛࣬㊂ඔ tion; good offices, help (= sewá step, gait: ~ ni ki o tsukéte ㊂ඔ ୠヨ): 2. recommendation (= suisen ᥆ⷸ) ࡞Ẵࢅ௛ࡄ࡙ Watch your step! ashi-dome saremásu (sareru) v ㊂Ḿ asshō n ᅸົ an overwhelming win ࡴࡈࡿࡱࡌ ࡈࡿࡾ is strained, asshuku n ᅸ⦨ compression asu n, adv ࠵ࡌ᪺࣬᪝ tomorrow is stuck ashi-ga-demásu (deru) v ㊂࠿ฝࡱࡌ (= ashita ࠵ࡊࡒ᪺࣬᪝) ฝࡾ runs over the budget asufáruto n ࢓ࢪࣆ࢒ࣜࢹ asphalt ashí-o-araimásu (arau) v ㊂ࢅὑ࠷ࡱ asupara(gásu) n ࢓ࢪࣂࣚ ࢝ࢪ ࡌ ὑ࠹ washes one’s hands of asparagus asupirin n ࢓ࢪࣅࣛࣤ aspirin cuts one’s ties with ashí-o-nobashimásu (nobasu) v ㊂ࢅ asurechikku-kúrabu n ࢓ࢪࣝࢲࢴࢠ ఘࡣࡊࡱࡌ ఘࡣࡌ goes a little ࢠࣚࣇ athletic club āsu-sen n ࢓࣭ࢪ⥲ ground wire farther 12

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asutarísuku n ࢓ࢪࢰࣛࢪࢠ

atari ᙔࡒࡽ 1. n a hit 2. adj good asterisk (such as “㸟”) (= hoshi- luck, lucky; atari-yaku n ᙔࡒࡽᙲ jírushi ᫅༰) is a hit in the role; atari-kuji n ᙔࡒ asutorinzen n ࢓ࢪࢹࣛࣤࢭࣤ ࡽࡂࡋ winning number átari n ㎮ࡽ neighborhood: kono astringent ataemásu, ataeru v ୙࠻ࡱࡌ, ୙࠻ࡾ ~ de/wa ࡆࡡ㎮ࡽ࡚ࡢ around

gives, provides, grants


átafuta n ࠵ࡒࡨࡒ fluster; frenzied atarichirashimásu, atarichirasu v ᙔࡒ ࡽᩋࡼࡊࡱࡌ, ᙔࡒࡽᩋࡼࡌ hurry ataisuru v, adj ೋࡌࡾ deserves, takes out one’s spite on everybody ataridokoro-ga-warui adj ᙔࡒࡽᡜ࠿ deserved átakamo adv ࠵ࡒ࠾ࡵ as if ᝇ࠷ hitting in a vital spot atákku n ࢓ࢰࢴࢠ attack, atarimae (no) adj ᙔࡒࡽ๑ ࡡ

strenuous effort

natural, reasonable, proper; suit-

atama n 㢄 head; atama-dékkachi (no) able, sensible adj 㢄࡚ࡖ࠾ࡔ ࡡ [INFORMAL] atarimásu, ataru v ᙔࡒࡽࡱࡌ, ᙔࡒ ࡾ hits, faces; applies; is correct [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] top-heavy, atashi pron ࠵ࡒࡊ (mostly children too many chiefs, not enough or female) I/me (= wata(ku)shi Indians, an armchair theorist; atama-kín n 㢄㔘 down payment, ࢂࡒ ࡂ ࡊ࣬⚶) atasshu-kē´su n ࢓ࢰࢴࢨࣖࢢ࣭ࢪ up-front money; deposit atama-ni-kimásu (kuru) v 㢄࡞ࡀࡱࡌ attache case, briefcase ࡂࡾ gets mad at, be angry with atatakái adj ᬦ࠾࠷ warm (air atama-o-kakaemásu (kakaeru) v 㢄ࢅ temperature) ᢢ࠻ࡱࡌ ᢢ࠻ࡾ tears one’s atatakái adj Ὼ࠾࠷ warm (liquid,

hair (out), holds one’s head in heart, etc.) atatamarimásu, atatamáru v ᬦࡱࡽ one’s hands atama-o-tsukaimásu (tsukau) v 㢄ࢅ ࡱࡌ, ᬦࡱࡾ warms up ౐࠷ࡱࡌ ౐࠹ uses one’s head/ atatamarimásu, atatamáru v Ὼࡱࡽ ࡱࡌ, Ὼࡱࡾ warms up mind atarashíi adj ᩺ࡊ࠷ new; fresh atatamemásu, atataméru v Ὼࡴࡱࡌ, ataráshiku adv ᩺ࡊࡂ newly, anew, Ὼࡴࡾ warms it up, heats freshly atchi pron [INFORMAL] ࠵ࡖࡔ, atarazu-sawarazu adj, adv ᙔࡒࡼࡍ [FORMAL] achira ࠵ࡔࡼ (the other ࡈࢂࡼࡍ innocuous: ~ no henji one, over there) ᙔࡒࡼࡍࡈࢂࡼࡍࡡ㏁஥ give a ate ᙔ࡙ 1. n reliance, trust 2. n harmless answer anticipation, expectation (= kitai 13

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…-ate (nó)

᭿ᙽ) 3. goal, object (= mokuteki ┘Ⓩ) 4. n clue, trace (= tegákari ᡥ᤻࠾ࡽ) …-ate (nó) suffix, adj …᏾࡙ ࡡ addressed to …; ate-na n ᏾ ࡙ ྞ address ate-hamarimásu, ate-hamáru v ᙔ࡙ࡢ ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ᙔ࡙ࡢࡱࡾ fits, conforms ate-hamemásu, ate-haméru v ᙔ࡙ࡢ ࡴࡱࡌ, ᙔ࡙ࡢࡴࡾ applies, conforms, adapts, fits it (to): … ni ate-hámete …࡞ᙔ࡙ࡢࡴ࡙ in

áto n ㊟ mark, track, trace; scar; footprint; ató-tsugi n ࠵࡛ࡗࡁ࣬ ㊟⤽ࡁ successor ā´to n ࢓࣭ࢹ art atorakushon n ࢓ࢹࣚࢠࢨࣘࣤ

attraction, side entertainment atorie n ࢓ࢹ࢙ࣛ studio, workshop,

atelier atsuatsu (no) adj ࢓ࢵ࢓ࢵ ࡡ

lovey-dovey atsuatsu (no) adj ⇍ࠍ ࡡ piping

hot conformity/accordance with … atsubottai adj ཉ࡯ࡖࡒ࠷ thick atekosuri n ᙔ࡙ࡆࡌࡽ a snide atsui adj ཉ࠷ thick; atsu-zoko n ཉᗇ heavy-bottom (things), ~ remark atemásu, ateru v ᙔ࡙ࡱࡌ, ᙔ࡙ࡾ nabe ཉᗇ࡝࡬ heavy-bottomed guesses; hits; sets aside, desigsaucepan atsúi adj ᬤ࠷ hot (air temperature) nates; touches; addresses ā´tisuto n ࢓࣭ࢷ࢔ࢪࢹ࢓࣭ࢲࢪ atsúi adj ⇍࠷ hot ࢹ artist (= geijutsu-ka ⰹ⾙ᐓ) atsukamashíi adj ཉ࠾ࡱࡊ࠷ áto (de/ni) prep, adv ᚃ ࡚࡞ impudent atsukaimásu, atsukau v ᡽࠷ࡱࡌ, after(wards), later (= nochi ni ᚃ࡞): áto no … ᚃࡡ…the ᡽࠹ deals with remaining …; ato-máwashi n ᚃᅂ atsumarimásu, atsumáru v 㞗ࡱࡽ ࡊ leaving something until later: ~ ࡱࡌ, 㞗ࡱࡾ meets, assembles; ni shimásu ᚃᅂࡊ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ post- it accumulates atsumemásu, atsuméru v 㞗ࡴࡱࡌ, pones, leaves something until 㞗ࡴࡾ collects, gathers, acculater; ató-aji n ᚃ࿝ aftertaste: ~ ga warui ᚃ࿝࠿ᝇ࠷ leaves a mulates bad aftertaste; ato-kátazuke n ᚃ∞ atsúryoku n ᅸງ pressure ௛ࡄ cleanup; áto-no-matsurí n ᚃ atsusa n ཉࡈ thickness ࡡ⚅ ࡽ The damage is done; átsusa n ᬤࡈ heat, warmth (air temperature) ato-módori n ᚃᡘࡽ retreat, back tracking; ato-saki n ᚃ඙ conse- átsusa n ⇍ࡈ heat, warmth (= netsu ⇍) quence; ato-shímatsu n ᚃጙᮆ settling, putting in order, cleaning attakái adj ᬦ࠾࠷ warm (= atatakái ᬦ࠾࠷) up after 14

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azen-to-shimásu (-suru)

attakái adj Ὼ࠾࠷ warm (= atata- ㄏࡾ errs, makes a mistake kái Ὼ࠾࠷) ayamarimásu, ayamáru v ㅨࡽࡱࡌ, at(a)tamemásu, at(a)taméru v Ὼࡴ ㅨࡾ apologizes ࡱࡌ, Ὼࡴࡾ warms it up, heats ayashii adj ᛱࡊ࠷ questionable, atto-hō´mu (na) adj ࢓ࢴࢹ࣭࣑࣌ suspicious, shady; uncertain; ࡝ homelike, homely unreliable; weird atto-mā´ku n ࢓ࢴࢹ࣏࣭ࢠ a mark ayashimásu, ayasu v ࠵ࡷࡊࡱࡌ, ࠵ࡷࡌ lulls: akanbø o ayashite (such as “@”) attō-shimásu (suru) v ᅸ಻ࡊࡱࡌ nekashitsukemáshita ㉝ࢆᆎࢅ࠵ ࡌࡾ overwhelms ࡷࡊ࡙ᐱ࠾ࡊࡗࡄࡱࡊࡒ lulled a attō-teki na adj ᅸ಻Ⓩ࡝ overwhelm- baby to sleep ayatóri n ࠵ࡷ࡛ࡽ cat’s cradle ing áuto n ࢓ࢗࢹ out (baseball); auto- ayatsurimásu, ayatsúru v ᧧ࡽࡱࡌ, putto ࢓ࢗࢹࣈࢴࢹ output; auto᧧ࡾ manipulates rain ࢓ࢗࢹࣚ࢕ࣤ outline ayauku adv ༱࠹ࡂ (something awa n ἳ bubble; foam undesirable) about to happen or áwa n ࢓࣠࣬⢎ millet likely to happen. áwabi n ࢓࣠ࣄ࣬㩒 abalone āyū adj ࠵࠵ࡹ࠹ ... that kind/sort áware (na) adj ဖࡿ ࡝ pity, pitiful of ... (= åiu ࠵࠵࠷࠹, anna ࠵ࢆ࡝) awase n ⿓࣬࠵ࢂࡎ lined garment áyu n ࢓ࣗ࣬㩏 (= ái ࢓࢕࣬㩏 awasemásu, awaséru v ྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, sweetfish, river trout ྙࢂࡎࡾ puts together, combines, aza n ③ bruise azakeri n ࠵ࡉࡄࡽ࣬ზࡽ mockery joins awatadashii adj ុࡒࡓࡊ࠷ hurried, azakerimásu, azakeru v ࠵ࡉࡄࡽ࣬ ზࡽࡱࡌ, ࠵ࡉࡄࡾ࣬ზࡾ mocks, flustered, confused awatemásu, awateru v ុ࡙ࡱࡌ, ុ scorns ࡙ࡾ gets flustered/confused azárashi n ࢓ࢧࣚࢨ࣬ᾇ㇦ seal awate-mono n ុ࡙⩽ a person (animal) azawarai n ࠵ࡉ>ზ@➏࠷ mockery, easily flustered; a scatterbrain sneer, scornful laugh (= awatenbø ࠵ࢂ࡙ࢆᆎ ayabumimásu, ayabumu v ༱ࡩࡲࡱ azawaraimásu, azawarau v ࠵ࡉ>ზ@ ࡌ, ༱ࡩࡳ doubts ➏࠷ࡱࡌ, ࠵ࡉ>ზ@➏࠹ mocks, sneers ayafuya (na) adj ࠵ࡷࡨࡷ ࡝ azáyaka (na) adj 㩥ࡷ࠾ ࡝ bright, indecisive ayamari n ㄏࡽ error, mistake vivid ayamari n ㅨࡽ apology azen-to-shimásu (-suru) v ࠵↓࡛ࡊ ayamarimásu, ayamáru v ㄏࡽࡱࡌ, ࡱࡌ is dumbfounded

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azukarimásu, azukáru

azukarimásu, azukáru v 㡰࠾ࡽࡱࡌ, 㡰ࡄࡾ gives in trust, entrusts, 㡰࠾ࡾ takes in trust, keeps, holds checks, deposits azukemásu, azukéru v 㡰ࡄࡱࡌ, azukí n ࢓ࢫ࢞࣬ᑚ㇃ red beans

B …-ba conj …ࡣ [EMPHATIC] (if) indeed: … nára(ba) …࡝ࡼ ࡣ if; … dáttara(ba) …ࡓࡖࡒࡼ ࡣ ; …-káttara(ba) …࠾ࡖࡒࡼ ࡣ if/when it is (or was); … -tára(ba) …ࡒࡼ ࡣ if/when it

booth, kiosk, stand (selling things)

Báiburu n ࣁ࢕ࣇࣜ Bible (= seisho ⪯᭡) báidoku n ᱭẐ [BOOKISH] syphilis baikin n ࡣ࠷Ⳟ germ báikingu n ࣁ࢕࢞ࣤࢡ smorgasbord báiku n ࣁ࢕ࢠ motorbike does (or did) ba n ሔ 1. place (for something) baindā n ࣁ࢕ࣤࢱ࣭ binder (= basho ሔᡜ) 2. occasion, time baiorin n ࣁ࢕࢛ࣛࣤ violin 3. scene baio-tekunórojii n ࣁ࢕࢛ࢷࢠࢿࣞ bā´ n ࣁ࣭ bar (for drinking) ࢩ࣭ biotechnology baai, bawai n ሔྙ situation, case, baipasu n ࣁ࢕ࣂࢪ bypass bairíngaru n ࣁ࢕ࣛࣤ࢝ࣜ bilingual circumstance, occasion: … no baai/bawai … ࡡሔྙ if baishō´-kin n ㈲ർ㔘 indemnity, baba-shatsu n ࡣࡣࢨࣔࢵ long reparation baiyā n ࣁ࢕࣭ࣕ buyer (professional) sleeved thermal undershirt for bají n ࣁࢴࢩ badge female bābékyū n ࣁ࣭࣭࣊࢞ࣖ barbecue báka n ࡣ࠾࣬ࣁ࢜࣬㤷㮭 fool, bachí n ⨡ retribution, punishment idiot; báka na adj ࡣ࠾࡝ foolish, (= batsu ⨡) stupid; baka-bakashíi, baka-rashíi adj ba-chígai (na/no) adj ሔ㐢࠷ ࡝ࡡ ࡣ࠾ࡣ࠾ࡊ࠷ absurd, foolish; 1. out of place 2. not from the baka-bánashi n ࡣ࠾ヨ nonsense; right/best place idle talk; hot air, bull (= mudabánashi ↋㥇ヨ); báka-me adj ࡣ bā´gen n ࣁ࣭ࢣࣤ bargain sale bái n ಶ double; bai-ritsu n ಶ⋙ ࠾ࡴ damn (fool) idiot magnification, magnifying power …bákari, …bákkari, … bákkashi suffix …-bai suffix …ಶ …times, …-fold …ࡣ࠾ࡽ, …ࡣࡖ࠾ࡽ, …ࡣࡖ࠾ bai-… prefix ኉ selling; bái-bai ࡊ only, just (= dake ࡓࡄ): bákan ኉㈑ buying and selling; bai-shun ri de/ja naku …mo ...ࡣ࠾ࡽ࡚ n ኉᫋ prostitution; bai-ten n ኉ᗉ ࡋࡶ࡝ࡂ…ࡵ not only …, but also

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bakazu-o-fumimásu (fumu) v ሔᩐࢅ ㊻ࡲࡱࡌ ㊻ࡳ gets a lot of

ࡡ [numeral] -th; …-ban-sen suffix … ␊⥲ track number …

practical experience

(train station)

bakégaku n ໩Ꮥ࣬໩ࡄᏕ chemistry (= kágaku ໩Ꮥ bake-móno n ໩ࡄ∸ monster, ghost baken n 㤷ไ betting ticket baketsu n ࣁࢢࢵ bucket bakkin n ⨡㔘 fine, penalty bákku n ࣁࢴࢠ back; bakku-áppu n ࣁࢴࢠ࢓ࢴࣈ backup, support; bakku-mírā n ࣁࢴࢠ࣐࣭ࣚ

bānā n ࣁ࣭ࢻ࣭ burner bánana n ࣁࢻࢻ banana ban-cha n ␊Ⲍ coarse green tea bando n ࣁࣤࢺ 1. strap, band (watch, etc.); belt 2. band (music) bane (-jíkake) n ࡣࡠ ௘᤻ࡄ

spring (device)

ban-gasa n ␊ഘ oilpaper umbrella bangumi n ␊⤄ program (TV, etc.) Bánkoku n ࣁࣤࢤࢠ Bangkok rearview mirror bákku, baggu n ࣁࢴࢠ, ࣁࢴࢡ bag bánkoku n ୒ᅗ 1. international bakuchi n ༡ᡬ gambling 2. all the world; bánkoku-hakubútsukan, banpaku n ୒ᅗ༡∸㤃, ୒༡ bakudai (na) adj ࡣࡂࡓ࠷ ࡝

immense, vast, huge, enormous

international exposition

bakudan n ⇷ᙆ bomb bákufu n ᖞᗋ (the time of) the

bánira n ࣁࢼࣚ vanilla bannō n ୒⬗ versatility, ability to


do anything

bakugeki n ⇷ᦹ bombing bakuhatsu n ⇷Ⓠ explosion, bursting bakuteria n ࣁࢠࢷࣛ࢓ bacteria bakuzen (to) adv ₅↓ ࡛ vaguely,

bansō n ఔ዇ musical accompaniment bansōko, bansōkō n ⤆๭⭧

adhesive plaster/tape

banzái interj ୒ṋ hurray! bara n ࣁࣚ࣬ⷬⷢ rose (flower) obscurely bámen n ሔ㟻 scene (= shiin ࢨ࣭ࣤ) bára (de) adv ࡣࡼ ࡚ loose, ban n ᬄ [BOOKISH] evening, night; separately kon-~ ௑ᬄ tonight; mai-~ Ẏᬄ barabara (ní) adv ࡣࡼࡣࡼ ࡞ every night; ban-góhan, ban-meshi scattered, in pieces baransu n ࣁࣚࣤࢪ balance: ~ o n ᬄࡇ㣜,ᬄ㣜 evening meal (dinner/supper) (= yüshoku ኟ㣏) torimásu ࣁࣚࣤࢪࢅ࡛ࡽࡱࡌ bán n ␊ guard, watch; ban-ken n redress the balance ␊≗ watchdog barashimásu, barásu v ࡣࡼࡊࡱࡌ, …-ban suffix ␊ number; ban-chi ࡣࡼࡌ 1. exposes (a secret) n ␊ᆀ address (house number); 2. takes it apart, disassembles ban-gō´ n ␊ྒ number (assigned); 3. kills, shoots (to death) …-banmé (no) suffix, adj …␊┘ bárē n ࣁ࢙ࣝ ballet

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barē(bō´ru) n ࣁ࣭ࣝ ࣭࣍ࣜ

baton n ࣁࢹࣤ baton baton tatchi n ࣁࢹࣤࢰࢴࢲ passing

volleyball baremásu, baréru v [INFORMAL] ࡣࡿࡱࡌ, ࡣࡿࡾ surfaces, is

disclosed, is discovered barentáindē n ࣁࣝࣤࢰ࢕ࣤࢸ࣭

Valentine’s Day bareriina n ࣁ࣭ࣝࣛࢻ ballerina barikan n ࣁࣛ࢜ࣤ clippers (barber’s) bariki n 㤷ງ horsepower baromē´tā n ࣁ࣒࣭ࣞࢰ࣭ barometer barukónii n ࣁࣜࢤࢼ࣭ balcony basho n ሔᡜ place bassári adv ࡣࡖࡈࡽ fast and

furious, without hesitation basshi n ᢜṉ pulling out a tooth/

teeth basshimásu, bassuru v ⨡ࡊࡱࡌ, ⨡ࡌࡾ punishes básu n ࣁࢪ bus; basu-téi n ࣁࢪೳ bus stop; basu-rū´mu n bathroom (= furo 㢴࿁); basu-tsuki ࣁࢪ௛ࡀ

with bath basue n ሔᮆ suburb (outskirts) basukétto n ࣁࢪࢢࢴࢹ basket basukétto bō´ru n ࣁࢪࢢࢴࢹ࣭࣍ ࣜ basketball, basketball game básuto n ࣁࢪࢹ bust bátā n ࣁࢰ࣭ butter batafurai n ࣁࢰࣆࣚ࢕ butterfly

(swimming) batán (to) adv ࡣࡒࢆ ࡛ with a

bang, with a thud bāten(dā) n ࣁ࣭ࢷࣤ ࢱ࣭ bartender batomínton n ࣁࢹ࣐ࣤࢹࣤ badminton

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the torch, having someone take over bátsu n ࡣࡗ cross (= X “wrong”) bátsu n ⨡ retribution, punishment batta n ࣁࢴࢰ grasshopper báttā n ࣁࢴࢰ࣭ batter (baseball) battári adv ࡣࡖࡒࡽ unexpectedly battén n ࡣࡖ࡙ࢆ X (“wrong”), a black mark batterii n ࣁࢴࢷ࣭ࣛ battery battingu n ࣁࢴࢷ࢔ࣤࢡ batting (baseball) bátto n ࣁࢴࢹ bat (baseball) baundo n ࣁࢗࣤࢺ bound bawai, baai n ሔྙ situation, case, circumstance, occasion bázā n ࣁࢧ࣭ bazaar bebiishíttā n ࣊ࣄ࣭࣬ࢨࢴࢰ࣭ baby sitter béddo, bétto n ࣊ࢴࢺ,࣊ࢴࢹ bed (Western) beddo-táun n ࣊ࢴࢹ࣬ࢰࢗࣤ bedroom community, suburb Bei n ⡷ America(n): nich-~ ᪝⡷ Japan and America; ø-~ Ḛ⡷ Europe and America; Béi-koku n ⡷ᅗ America (= Amerika ࢓࣒ ࣛ࢜ ; Bei-koku-jin n ⡷ᅗெ American (= Amerika-jin ࢓࣒ࣛ ࢜ெ beiju n ⡷ᑋ (auspicious, happy

event) eighty-eighth birthday beikingu-páudā n ࣊࢕࢞ࣤࢡ࣬ࣂ ࢗࢱ࣭ baking powder … béki suffix …࡬ࡀ: …-suru ~


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desu ࡌࡾ࡬ࡀ࡚ࡌ should do,

béru n ࣊ࣜ bell, doorbell ought to do [BOOKISH] Berurín n ࣊ࣜࣛࣤ Berlin bekkan n ื㤃 annex (building) beruto n ࣊ࣜࢹ belt; anzen-béruto n bekkyo n ืᑽ separate living Ꮽධ࣊ࣜࢹ safety belt bē´kon n ࣭࣊ࢤࣤ bacon bessō´ n ืⲦ villa, vacation house bén n ᘒ valve bēsu n ࣭࣊ࢪ 1. base, basis bén n ౼ 1. convenience (= béngi 2. base (baseball) 3. = bësu gitå ౼᏿) 2. feces; bén-jo n ౼ᡜ ࣭࣊ࢪ࢟ࢰ࣭ bass guitar toilet; bén-ki n ౼ჹ bedpan; bén-pi bēsu áppu n ࣭࣊ࢪ࢓ࢴࣈ upping/ n ౼⛆ constipation raising the base pay; a pay raise …-bén suffix …㐚 = …-hén, ...-pén bēsubōru n ࣭࣊ࢪ࣭࣍ࣜ baseball 㐚 (counts times or occasions) bésuto n ࣊ࢪࢹ best; besuto-tén n bénchi n ࣊ࣤࢲ bench ࣊ࢪࢹࢷࣤ best ten; besuto-serā´ béngi n ౼᏿ convenience, accom- n ࣊ࢪࢹࢬ࣭ࣚ best seller modation: ~ o hakarimásu ౼᏿ beteran n ࣊ࢷࣚࣤ veteran, expert betsu (na/no) adj ื ࡝ࡡ sepaࢅᅒࡽࡱࡌ does someone a favor rate, special, particular; …wa ~ bengóshi n ᘒ㆜ኃ lawyer to shite … ࡢื࡛ࡊ࡙ apart/ béni n ⣒ rouge aside from …, except for …; benkai n ᘒゆ [BOOKISH] betsu-betsu (na/no) adj ืࠍ ࡝ࡡ justification (= iiwake ゕ࠷ズ) separate, individual; betsu-ryō´kin n benkyō n ຫᙁ study, (mental) ืᩩ㔘 extra (charge), separate bill betsu (ni) adv ื ࡞ 1. [+ NEGATIVE] work; cutting a price bénri (na) adj ౼ฺ ࡝ handy, not particularly 2. … tó wa ~ ni (shite) ࡛ࡢื࡞ ࡊ࡙ quite convenient benri-ya n ౼ฺᒁ handyman (or apart/separately from … bia-hō´ru n ࣄ࢓࣭࣌ࣜ beer hall his shop) benron n ᘒㄵ [BOOKISH] debate, bifuteki n ࣄࣆࢷ࢞ biifu sutëki ࣄ࣭ࣆࢪࢷ࣭࢞ beefsteak speech, rhetoric; benron-taikai n ᘒㄵኬఌ speech contest bíichi n ࣄ࣭ࢲ beach benshō n ᘒർ compensation bíiru n ࣄ࣭ࣜ beer bentō n ᘒᙔ box lunch bíjin n ⨶ெ beautiful woman, a berabō (ni) adv ࡬ࡼ࡯࠹ ࡞ aston- beauty ishingly, considerably: ~ ni takai bíjinesu n ࣄࢩࢾࢪ business; ࡬ࡼ࡯࠹࡞㧏࠷ extremely exbíjinesu-hoteru n ࣄࢩࢾࢪ࣌ࢷࣜ pensive economy hotel; bíjinesu-man n ࣄ beranda n ࣊ࣚࣤࢱ veranda ࢩࢾࢪ࣏ࣤ businessperson

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bijón n ࣄࢩࣘࣤ vision: ~ o hakkiri sasemásu ࣄࢩࣘࣤࢅࡢࡖࡀ ࡽࡈࡎࡱࡌ clarifies one’s vision bíjutsu n ⨶⾙ art; bijútsú-kan ⨶⾙㤃


bisukétto n ࣄࢪࢢࢴࢹ crackers bitámin n ࣄࢰ࣐ࣤ vitamin(s); bitámin-zai n ࣄࢰ࣐ࣤ๠ vitamin

pills bitoku n ⨶ᚠ virtue n art museum (art gallery) bikkúri-shimásu (-suru) v ࡦࡖࡂࡽ bíwa n ࣄ࣠࣬ᯄᮼ loquat (fruit) ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ gets startled, gets biya-hō´ru n ࣄ࣭ࣕ࣌ࣜ beer hall a surprise (= odorokimásu 㦣ࡀ biyō´in n ⨶ᐖ㝌 beauty parlor ࡱࡌ) bíza n ࣄࢧ visa (= sashø ᰕチ) bimyō (na) adj ᚜ዼ ࡝ delicate, bō n Ფ pole (rod); stick, club; tetsu-bō n 㕪Ფ (iron) bar subtle, fine, nice bín n ⎴ bottle; jar bóchi n ቉ᆀ cemetery, graveyard …´-bin suffix ౼ flight (number) … bōchō shimásu (suru) v ⭶⬵ࡊࡱࡌ bínbō (na) adj ㈃இ ࡝ poor (needy) ࡌࡾ swells, expands biní(i)ru n ࣄࢼ ࣭ ࣜ vinyl, bōchū´zai n 㜭⹰๠ insecticide; polyvinyl; plastic; bini(i)rú-bukuro mothballs bōdai (na) adj ⭶ኬ ࡝ enormous, n ࣄࢼ ࣭ ࣜ⾼ plastic bag binkan (na) adj ᨼវ ࡝ sensitive gigantic, massive binsen n ౼⟚ (letter-)writing bōdō n ᬸິ riot bōei n 㜭⾠ defense (= bøgyo 㜭ᚒ) paper, stationery bínta n ࡦࢆࡒ slapping (a person’s Bōei-shō n 㜭⾠┤ Ministry of face) Defense (DA) birá n ࡦࡼ leaflet, handbill, bōeki n ㈘᪾ commerce, trade; bōeki-shōsha/gaisha n ㈘᪾ၛ♣ఌ pamphlet bíri (no) adj ࡦࡽ ࡡ the last, the ♣ trader, trading company bōenkyō n ᭻㐪㙶 telescope tail end, the rear birōdo n ࣄ࣭ࣞࢺ velvet bōfū n ᬸ㢴 storm, gale, hurricane bíru n ࣄࣜ building bōfú-zai n 㜭⭁๠ antiseptic Bíruma n ࣄ࣏ࣜ Burma (Myanmar) (substance), preservative bisai (na) adj ᚜⣵ ࡝ minute, bōhan-béru n 㜭≚࣊ࣜ burglar detailed, fine alarm bishonure n ࡦࡊࡺ⃷ࡿ bōhatéi n 㜭ἴላ breakwater bōi-furéndo n ࣭࣍࢕ࣆࣝࣤࢺ soddenness, sopping wet bisshíri adv ࡦࡖࡊࡽ cramped boyfriend (= káre(-shi) ᙴ Ắ ) bisshóri adv ࡦࡖࡊࡺࡽ completely boikótto n ࣍࢕ࢤࢴࢹ boycott boin n ᢲ༰ thumbprint soaked: ase ~ ổࡦࡖࡊࡺࡽ is boin n ẍ㡚 vowel all sweaty 20

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boin n ࣍࢕ࣤ (slang) big bust bóirā n ࣍࢕࣭ࣚ boiler bōisukáuto n ࣭࣍࢕ࢪ࢜ࢗࢹ boy


bon’yári-shimásu (suru) v ࡯ࢆࡷࡽ ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ is absent-minded,


bonyū n ẍ஘ breast milk bōkaru n ࣭࣍࢜ࣜ vocalist bora n ࣍ࣚ gray mullet bokashimásu, bokásu v ࡯࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, borántia n ࣍ࣚࣤࢷ࢔࢓ volunteer ࡯࠾ࡌ: hanashí o ~ ヨࢅ࡯࠾ࡊ boraremásu, boraréru v ࡯ࡼࡿࡱࡌ, ࡱࡌ beats around the bush, is ࡯ࡼࡿࡾ [INFORMAL] gets over-


noncommittal bōken n ා㝜 adventure bóki n ⡑エ bookkeeping bō-kire, bōkkíre n Ფࡀࡿ, Ფࡖࡀࡿ pole (rod); stick, club (= bø Ფ) bokkusu n ࣍ࢴࢠࢪ; denwa-bókkusu n 㞹ヨ࣍ࢴࢠࢪ phone booth bókoku n ẍᅗ mother country,

charged (ripped off) bōrei n ஷ㟃 Japanese ghost

(commonly lacks legs and feet) borimásu, bóru v ࡯ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡯ࡾ overcharges bōringu n ࣭࣍ࣛࣤࢡ bowling bóro n ࡯ࢀ rag bōru n ࣭࣍ࣜ ball bōru-gami n ࣭࣍ࣜ⣤ cardboard homeland bóku pron ൃ (male) I/me; bóku-ra, bōru-pen n ࣭࣍ࣜ࣋ࣤ ballpoint pen bóku-táchi pron ൃࡼ, ൃࡒࡔ we/us boruto n ࣍ࣜࢹ bolt (of nut and bokuchiku n ∶⏾ stockbreeding bolt); volt bokujō n ∶ሔ ranch bō´ryoku n ᬸງ violence (brute bókushi n ∶ᖅ (Christian) force); bōryoku-dan n ᬸງᅆ mob, minister, pastor; Reverend gangbanger bókushingu n ࣍ࢠࢨࣤࢡ boxing boryūmu n ࣭࣑࣍ࣛࣖ volume bon n ⓽ o-bon ࠽⓽ tray bō-san n ᆎࡈࢆ obø-sán ࠽ᆎࡈࢆ Bón n ⓽ O-bón ࠽⓽ Bon Festi- Buddhist monk (= bø´zu ᆎ୹ bósei n ẍᛮ maternity val (Buddhist All Saints Day) …-bon suffix …ᮇ book, volume, bōseki n ⣫⦴ [BOOKISH] spinning bōshi n ᖐᏄ hat text …´-bon (…´-hon, …´-pon) suffix …ᮇ boshikátei n ẍᏄᐓᗖ family with(counts long objects) out a father: ~ de sodachimásu bō´nasu n ࣭࣍ࢻࢪ (wage) bonus ẍᏄᐓᗖ࡚⫩ࡔࡱࡌ grows up bonchí n ⓽ᆀ (geographical) basin without a father. bōnén-kai n ᚸᖳఌ year-end party boshū n ຽ㞗 recruitment bonnétto n ࣍ࣤࢾࢴࢹ (car-)hood, bōsōzoku n ᬸ㉦᪐ motorcycle gang bōsui (no) adj 㜭Ề ࡡ waterproof bonnet bonsai n ⓽᰺ dwarf trees (in pots) bótan n ࣍ࢰࣤ button 21

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bótchan n ᆎࡔࡶࢆ (little) boy, (your) son (= bø´ya ᆎࡷ) bō´to n ࣭࣍ࢹ boat bōtō n ා㢄 opening, at [in] the


buai n Ṅྙ commission; buai-sei Ṅྙโ commission system bu-áisō (na) adj ↋យ᝷ ࡝ curt,

unsociable, blunt, brusque buatsuí adj ฦཉ࠷ thick beginning bōtoku n ා࡛ࡂ sacrilege, viobuchimásu, butsu v ࡩࡔࡱࡌ, ࡩࡗ lence: kami e no ~ ♼࡫ࡡා࡛ࡂ hits bu-chō´hō n ୘ㄢἪ a gaffe, a blasphemy bótsubotsu adv ࡯ࡗ࡯ࡗ 1. adv blunder; bu-chō´hō (na) adj ୘ㄢἪ ࡝ awkward, clumsy, impolite (= sórosoro ࡐࢀࡐࢀ) little by little, gradually; (leave) before long Budda n ௕㜸 Buddha 2. n (with) dots, spots, bumps budō n ࣇࢺࢗ࣬ⴭ⳿ grapes bōtto-shimásu (-suru) v ࣭࣍ࡖ࡛ࡊ búdō n Ṃ㐠 martial arts ࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ stupefies: bøtto shita budō-shu n ࣇࢺࢗ㒿 wine atama ࣭࣍ࡖ࡛ࡊࡒ㢄 vacant bu-énryo (na) adj ୘㐪៎ ࡝ mind frank, unreserved, pushy, rude bottō-shimásu (-suru) v Ἀ㢄ࡊࡱࡌ búffe n ࣄࣖࢴࣆ࢘ buffet devotes oneself: shigoto ni ~ ௘ būingu n ࣇ࣭࢕ࣤࢡ booing ஥࡞Ἀ㢄ࡊࡱࡌ buries oneself in buji (ni) adv ↋஥ ࡞ safely one’s work (without incident) boyakimásu, boyáku v ࡯ࡷࡀࡱࡌ, bujoku n ౱㎧ insult(ing) ࡯ࡷࡂ grumbles, complains bújutsu n Ṃ⾙ martial arts bōzen adj ⲁ↓ stunned: ~ to shita búki n Ṃჹ weapon, arms kao ⲁ↓࡛ࡊࡒ㢞 dazed-looking bu-kimi (na) adj ୘Ẵ࿝ ࡝ ghasty, bōzu n ᆎ୹ Buddhist monk or priest; eerie: ~ na shizukesa ୘Ẵ࿝࡝㟴 bōzu-atama n ᆎ୹㢄 shaven head ࡄࡈ eerie silence bú n 㒂 1. (suffix …´-bu …㒂) bu-kíryō (na) adj ୘ჹ㔖 ࡝ part, division, section; bú-bun n homely, ugly 㒂ฦ part, portion; bu-chō n 㒂㛏 bu-kíyō (na) adj ୘ჹ⏕ ࡝ clumsy department/division/section head, bukká n ∸౮ commodity prices bukkirábō (na) adj ࡩࡖࡀࡼ࡯࠹ manager, chief (in the office); bu-hín n 㒂ဗ parts 2. (perfor ࡝ blunt, brusque, curt mance) yóru-no-bú እࡡ㒂 eve- bukku n ࣇࢴࢠ book; bukku-fea n ࣇࢴࢠࣆ࢘࢓ book fair ning performance …´-bu suffix 1. …ฦ (1-9) percent Búkkyō n ௕ᩅ Buddhism 2. …㒂 copies (of a book); ichí- bū´mu n ࣇ࣭࣑ boom (fad) bu ୌ㒂 one copy bún n ᩝ sentence, text; bun-bō-gu 22

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n ᩝᡛර, bunpø´-gu ᩝᡛර stationery supplies; bún-gaku n ᩝᏕ literature; bún-go n ᩝㄊ literary language/word; bún-ka n ᩝ໩ culture, civilization; bun-ko (-bon) n ᩝᗔ ᮇ pocketbook; bun-mei n ᩝ᪺ civilization; bun-pō n ᩝἪ grammar; bún-shō n ᩝ❮ (written) sentence bún-… prefix ฦ part, portion, share; state, status; bun-ben n ฦ ፎ childbirth delivery; bun-dóki n ฦᗐჹ protractor; bun-jō n ฦ㆙ sale in lots, lotting out: ~manshon ฦ㆙࣏ࣤࢨࣘࣤ condominium; bun-kai n ฦゆ breakup (material); bun-katsu n ฦ๪ dividing, splitting; bun-pu n ฦᕱ distribution; bun-retsu n ฦ⿛ breakup (countries, human relationship); bun-ruí n ฦ㢦 classification; bun-sekí n ฦᯊ analysis; bun-tan n ฦᢰ (taking) partial charge; allotment, share: ~ shimásu ฦᢰࡊࡱࡌ takes partial charge of, shares in; pays/does one’s share …-bun suffix …ฦ numeral -th; yon-bun no ichí 4ฦࡡ one-fourth búppō n ௕Ἢ the teachings of Buddhism búrabura adv ࡩࡼࡩࡼ idly dangling, idling, hang around: ashi o

window shade burá(jā) n ࣇࣚ ࢩ࣭ࣔ bra(ssiere) Burajiru n ࣇࣚࢩࣜ Brazil burakku-bókkusu n ࣇࣚࢴࢠ࣍ࢴࢠ ࢪ black box burakku-kō´hii n ࣇࣚࢴࢠࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭ black coffee burakku-rísuto n ࣇࣚࢴࢠࣛࢪࢹ black list burakku-yū´moa n ࣇࣚࢴࢠ࣭࣓ࣗ࢓ black humor buránch n ࣇࣚࣤࢲ brunch burandē n ࣇࣚࣤࢸ࣭ brandy burando n ࣇࣚࣤࢺ brand buránketto n ࣇࣚࣤࢢࢴࢹ blanket buránko n ࣇࣚࣤࢤ a swing (in a park, etc.) burári (to) v ࡩࡼࡽ ࡛ drop by burasagarimásu, burasagaru v ࡩࡼ ୖ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡩࡼୖ࠿ࡾ hangs (down) burasagemásu, burasageru v ࡩࡼୖ ࡅࡱࡌ, ࡩࡼୖࡅࡾ hangs (down), suspends búrashi n ࣇࣚࢨ brush; ha-burashi n ṉࣇࣚࢨ toothbrush buratsukimásu, buratsuku v ࡩࡼࡗ ࡀࡱࡌ, ࡩࡼࡗࡂ hangs around, wonders, strolls around buraun-kán n ࣇࣚࢗࣤ⟮ TV tube buráusu n ࣇࣚࢗࢪ blouse burauza n ࣇࣚࢗࢧ browser (computer) ~ sasemásu ㊂ࢅࡩࡼࡩࡼࡈࡎࡱ buréi n ↋♡ discourtesy; buréi na ࡌ swings one’s leg (back and adj ↋♡࡝ impolite, rude burēkā n ࣇ࣭࣭ࣝ࢜ circuit forth) buraindo n ࣇࣚ࢕ࣤࢺ sunblind, breaker (box) 23

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burē´ki n ࣇ࣭ࣝ࢞ (car) brake búshu n 㒂㤫 radical (Chinese burézā n ࣇࣝࢧ࣭ blazer: seifuku character): ~-kensaku 㒂㤫᳠⣬ no ~ โ᭱ࡡࣇࣝࢧ࣭ blazer index by radical …-búsoku n …୘㊂ shortage ne-~ uniform buríifu n ࣇ࣭ࣛࣆ brief(s) ᐱ୘㊂ not enough sleep buriifu-kē´su n ࣇ࣭ࣛࣆࢢ࣭ࢪ busshitsu n ∸㈹ matter, substance; busshitsu-teki (na) adj ∸㈹Ⓩ ࡝ briefcase buríjji n ࣇࣛࢴࢩ bridge (card game) material buriki n ࣇࣛ࢞ tin busshoku n ∸Ⰵ looking around for burō´chi n ࣇ࣭ࣞࢲ brooch bussō´(na) adj ∸㥹 ࡝ troubled, burōdobando n ࣇ࣭ࣞࢺࣁࣤࢺ unsafe, dangerous búsu n ࡩࡌ ugly female broadband (computer) burogu n ࣇࣞࢡblog, weblog butá n ࣇࢰ࣬㇔ pig; buta-niku n burōkā n ࣇ࣭࣭ࣞ࢜ agent, broker ㇔⫏ pork burókkori(i) n ࣇࣞࢴࢤࣛ ࣭ bútai n ⯑ྋ stage bútai n 㒂㝪 detachment of troops, broccoli buronzu n ࣇࣞࣤࢫ bronze unit, outfit burū adj ࣇ࣭ࣜ feeling blue butchō-zura n ௕㡤㟻 a sullen face burudóggu n ࣇࣜࢺࢴࢡ bulldog bútikku n ࣇࢷ࢔ࢴࢠ boutique burudō´zā n ࣇࣜࢺ࣭ࢧ࣭ bullButsu n ௕ Buddha (= budda ௕ 㜸); butsu-dan n ௕ቨ household dozer (machine) burujoa n ࣇࣜࢩࣘ࢓ bourgeois altar (Buddhist); Butsu-zō n ௕ാ burūsu n ࣇ࣭ࣜࢪ blues (music) Buddha (statue) bu-sáhō n ↋>୘@షἪ a social būtsu n ࣇ࣭ࢵ boot gaffe, a faux pas; bu-sáhō na adj bútsubutsu iimásu (iu) v ࡩࡗࡩࡗゕ ↋>୘@షἪ࡝ rude, blunt ࠷ࡱࡌ ゕ࠹ complains bu-sata n ↋ἃụ neglecting to (muttering, grumbling) write/visit go-busata ࡇ↋ἃụ butsukarimásu, butsukaru v ࡩࡗ࠾ búshi n Ṃኃ Japanese warrior, ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡩࡗ࠾ࡾ collides with,


runs into

bushí-dō n Ṃኃ㐠 Bushido, the way butsukemásu, butsukeru v ࡩࡗࡄ ࡱࡌ, ࡩࡗࡄࡾ hits of the samurai búsho n 㒂⨣ department (in the bútsuri, butsurígaku n ∸⌦,∸⌦Ꮥ office) physics; butsurigákú-sha n ∸⌦Ꮥ bushō (na) adj ↋>୘@⢥ ࡝ lazy; ⩽ physicist buttai n ∸మ thing, matter, object, slovenly; bushō-mono n ↋⢥⩽

sluggard, sloven person

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buttobashimásu, buttobasu v [INFORMAL] ぶっ飛ばします, ぶっ 飛ばす beats up, burns up buttōshi (de) adv [INFORMAL] ぶっ 通し(で)without a break: ~ de hatarakimásu ぶっ通しで働き ます works without a break buttsuke-honban (de) adv ぶっつけ 本番(で) without rehearsal buttsuzuke (de) adv [INFORMAL] ぶっ続け(で) without a break,

byō´… prefix 病... sickness, patients; byō-in n 病院 hospital; clinic, health service: kyükyü-~ 救急病院 emergency hospital; byō-ki (no) adj 病気(の) sick, ill; sickness, illness: ~-gachi (na) 病気がち(な) sickly, unhealthy; byō-nin n 病人 an invalid, a patient; byō-reki n 病歴 medical

history byō´ n 鋲 a tack; a thumbtack (= continuously gabyø 画鋲) búzā n ブザー buzzer byōbu n 屏風 screen (folding) byákudan n ビャクダン・白壇 byōdō (na) adj 平等(な) equal sandalwood byōsha n 描写 depiction, descripbyō´ n 秒 a second (of time); byō´- tion: ~ ga umai 描写が上手い is good at describing yomi n 秒読み countdown

C cha n 茶(o-chá お茶) tea, green tea; cha-dái n 茶代 (o-chadái お茶代) ① tea charges (in café, etc.) ② tip (money); cha-gará n 茶殻 tea leaves; cha-iro (no) adj 茶色(の) brown; cha-no-má n 茶の間(o-cha-no-má お茶の間)

cha-wán-mushi n 茶碗むし

steamed egg hotchpotch in a teacup (made from broth and egg) …cha suffix …ちゃ = …-téwa … ては (doing/being, if one does/ be) (Japanese style) living room: cháchi (na) adj [INFORMAL] ちゃち o-cha-no-má de onajimi お茶 (な) petty, flimsy, cheap の間でお馴染み familiar to TV chā´han n チャーハン・炒飯 viewers; cha-nomi-tómodachi n (Chinese) fried rice 茶飲み友達 coffee-drinking cháimu n チャイム chime companion, crony; cha-sají n chairudo-shíito n チャイルドシート child seat 茶匙 teaspoon; cha-wán n 茶碗 (o-cháwan お茶碗) ① rice bowl chājí n チャージ charge ② tea cup (for tea ceremony); chákku n チャック zipper 25

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chakashimásu, chakasu


chakashimásu, chakasu v [INFORMAL] attached to children’s or girls’ ࡔࡶ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, ࡔࡶ࠾ࡌ mimes, names. [INFORMAL]) chanbará n ࡔࡶࢆࡣࡼ sword batmakes fun of, ridicules … cháku suffix …╌ arriving at tle (historical period drama) chánchara okashíi adj ࡔࡶࢆࡔࡶࡼ (TIME/PLACE) chakkarishite-(i)másu ((i)ru) v [INFOR- ࠽࠾ࡊ࠷ [INFORMAL] laughable, MAL] ࡔࡶࡖ࠾ࡽࡊ࡙ ࠷ ࡱࡌ absurd, fiddle-dee-dee ࠷ ࡾ is nimble, adroit, chánnerú n ࢲࣔࣤࢾࣜ channel (TV) chánpion n ࢲࣔࣤࣅ࢛ࣤ champion shrewd and calculating chakkō n ╌ᕝ starting chánpon n ࡔࡶࢆࡰࢆ alternating, chakuchaku (to) adv ╌ࠍ ࡛ skipping back and forth, mixing


one’s drinks/foods

chakuchí n ╌ᆀ landing on chánsu n ࢲࣔࣤࢪ chance chakufukú n ╌᭱ [BOOKISH] embez- chantó adv ࡔࡶࢆ࡛ safe(ly) (with-

zlement, misappropriation chakugán n ╌╉ [BOOKISH] attention; chakugán-ten ╌╉Ⅴ view-

point chakujítsu (na) adj ╌ᐁ ࡝

steady, constant chakunan n ᎚⏠ [BOOKISH] heir,

eldest son

out incident), firmly, securely; chantó shita adj ࡔࡶࢆ࡛ࡊࡒ

proper, secure chárachara shita adj ࡔࡶࡼࡔࡶࡼ ࡊࡒ [INFORMAL] showy [IN NEGATIVE SENSE]

charanporán (na) adj [INFORMAL] ࡔࡶࡼࢆࡰࡼࢆ ࡝ irrespon-

chakurikú n ╌㝛 (from sky or wide

sible, sloppy, halfway, unreliwater area) landing, touching able [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] charénji n ࢲࣔࣝࣤࢩ challenge ground chakushi n ᎚Ꮔ [BOOKISH] heir charinkó n ࢲࣔࣛࣤࢤ [INFORMAL] chakushoku n ╌Ⰵ coloring, stain, bicycle cháritii n ࢲࣔࣛࢷ࢔࣭ charity color chákushu v ╌ᡥ [BOOKISH] begin, charumerá n ࢲ࣒ࣔࣜࣚ noodle start vendor’s flute chakusō n ╌᝷ [BOOKISH] concep- chāshū n ࢲ࣭ࣔࢨ࣭ࣖ (Chinese) tion, idea, inspiration roast pork; chāshū-men n ࢲ࣭ࣔ chakusúi n ╌Ề landing on water, ࢨ࣭ࣖ㯕 Chinese noodles with splashing down sliced roast pork chā´mingu n ࢲ࣭࣐ࣔࣤࢡ charm- chātā n ࢲ࣭ࣔࢰ࣭ charter; chātābin n ࢲ࣭ࣔࢰ࣭౼ chartered ing, attractive …(-) chan suffix …ࡔࡶࢆ (mostly flight, charter service 26

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chatto n ࢲࣔࢴࢹ chatting, chat

chíbi n ࡔࡦ [INFORMAL] midget; (Internet) chibi-kko n ࡔࡦࡖᏄ (tiny) tot chékku n ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠ 1. v check 2. n chibirimásu, chibiru v ࡔࡦࡽࡱࡌ, check (bank) (= kogitte ᑚวᡥ) ࡔࡦࡾ [INFORMAL] wets one’s 3. n check (pattern) pants, wets oneself chekku-áuto n ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠ࢓ࢗࢹ chíbu n ᜕㒂 1. private parts, check-out pubic area 2. source of embarchekkú-in n ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠ࢕ࣤ check-in rassment chē´n n ࢲ࣭࢘ࣤ chain, snow chain chíbusa n ஘ᡛ (woman’s) breasts chéro n ࢲ࢘ࣞ cello chichi (oya) n ∏ の father chi n ⾉ blood: ~ ga demásu ⾉࠿ chichi n ஘ 1. mother’s milk ฝࡱࡌ bleeds; chi-bashítta adj ⾉ 2. breasts and nipples; chi(chi)bánare n ஘㞫ࡿ is weaned ㉦ࡖࡒ bloodshot; chi-daraké adj ⾉ࡓࡼࡄ bloody; chi-namagusái chidorí-ashi n ༐㫵㊂ swaying gait, adj ⾉⏍⮧࠷ bloody; chi-no-ke ga a reeling movement nái adj ⾉ࡡẴ࠿࡝࠷ pale chié n ▩ᜠ wisdom; chié-okure (no) chi n ᆀ ground, earth, land: ~ ni n, adj ▩ᜠ㐔ࡿ ࡡ mentally ashi o tsukemásu ᆀ࡞㊂ࢅࡗࡄ retarded ࡱࡌ grounds oneself; chi-chū´ n chién n 㐔ᘇ [BOOKISH] delay ᆀ୯ underground; chi-hei-sén n chífusu n ࢲࣆࢪ typhus (fever), ᆀᖲ⥲ horizon (on land); chi-hō´, typhoid (fever) chí-iki n ᆀ᪁ area, region, province, chigaí 㐢࠷ n difference, discrepdistrict; chí-ka n ᆀୖ underground: ancy ~shitsu ᆀୖᐄ basement: ~tetsu chigaimásu, chigau v 㐢࠷ࡱࡌ, 㐢 ᆀୖ㕪 subway; chi-kakú n ᆀṾ ࠹ is different; is wrong; is not (geology) the earth’s crust; chí-ku like that chigirimásu, chigiru v ༐วࡽࡱࡌ, n ᆀ༇ section, sector (area); chi-shitsú n ᆀ㈹ the geology (of ༐วࡾ tears into pieces a place); chi-sō n ᆀᒒ (geology) chigúhagú (na) adj ࡔࡃࡢࡃ ࡝ , stratum; chi-tai n ᆀᖈ zone: ill-assorted, mismatched, is all anzen-~ Ꮽධᆀᖈ safety zone; mixed up: ~ na kaiwa ࡔࡃࡢࡃ chí-zu n ᆀᅒ map ࡝ఌヨ talking at cross-purposes chián n ἖Ꮽ law and order, security, chihō (-shō´) n ⑭࿄ ⑍ dementia chíi n ᆀన rank, position, status public order chiaríidā n ࢲ࢓࣭ࣛࢱ࣭ cheerchíifu n ࢲ࣭ࣆ chief chíimu n ࢲ࣭࣑ team; chiimuwāku n leader Chibetto n ࢲ࣊ࢴࢹ Tibet ࢲ࣭࣑࣭࣠ࢠ teamwork

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chiisái, chíisa na


chiisái, chíisa na adj ᑚࡈ࠷, ᑚࡈ࡝ approach, brings close; associ-

little, small

ates (keeps company) with; can approach it chika-zukimásu, chika-zúku v ㎾௛ࡀ ࡱࡌ, ㎾௛ࡂ (= chika-yorimásu, chika-yoru ㎾ᐞࡽࡱࡌ, ㎾ᐞࡾ) chíketto n ࢲࢢࢴࢹ ticket chikén n ▩ず knowledge, learning, information chíkin n ࢲ࢞ࣤ chicken chikokú n 㐔็ lateness chíkubi n ஘㤫 nipple, teat chíkuchiku-shimásu (suru) v ࡔࡂࡔ ࡂࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ pricks, prickles, tickles chikuón-ki n ⏾㡚ᶭ phonograph chikúrimásu, chikuru v ࢲࢠࡽࡱࡌ, recently chikaí n ㄃࠷ vow, pledge, oath ࢲࢠࡾ tells, snitches on chikái adj ㎾࠷ near, close by: ~ chikusekí n ⵫✒ accumulation, uchí ni ㎾࠷࠹ࡔ࡞ in the near store chikushō, chikishō ⏾⏍, ࡔࡀࡊࡺ࠹ future chikaimásu, chikáu v ㄃࠷ࡱࡌ, ㄃࠹ 1. interj Damn! (curse) 2. n swears, vows, pledges beast(s) chíkaku adj, adv ㎾ࡂ 1. close chikuwá n ࢲࢠ࣠ broiled fish cake 2. near-by 3. shortly chikyū´ n ᆀ⌣ the Earth; chikyū´-gi chikakú n ▩つ perception n ᆀ⌣ൢ globe chiká-michi n ㎾㐠 short cut chímachima adv ࡔࡱࡔࡱ small chikán n ⑭₆ (sexual) molester, and neatly arranged: ~ to kurashimásu ࡔࡱࡔࡱ࡛ᬵࡼࡊࡱࡌ groper chikará n ງ power, strength; abil- lives frugally ity; effort (= o-chi-kara ࠽ງ); chimatá n ᕩ public: ~ no uwasa influence dewa… ᕩࡡ࠹ࢂࡈ࡚ࡢ͐ chika-yorimásu, chika-yoru ㎾ᐞࡽࡱ People say that… ࡌ, ㎾ᐞࡾ approaches, draws/ chiméikizu n ⮬࿤ഭ vital wound, comes near fatal injury chika-zukemásu, chika-zukéru v ㎾௛ chiméiteki (na) adj ⮬࿤Ⓩ ࡝ ࡄࡱࡌ, ㎾௛ࡄࡾ lets one fatal, capital, mortal, deadly 28 chíitā n ࢲ࣭ࢰ࣭ cheetah chiizu n ࢲ࣭ࢫ cheese chíji n ▩஥ governor chijimárimásu, chijimaru v ⦨ࡱࡽ ࡱࡌ, ⦨ࡱࡾ shrinks, shortens chijimemásu, chijimeru v ⦨ࡴࡱࡌ, ⦨ࡴࡾ shortens (it) chijimimásu, chijimu v ⦨ࡲࡱࡌ, ⦨ࡳ (it) shrinks chijín n ▩ெ [BOOKISH] acquaintance chijiremásu, chijireru v ⦨ࡿࡱࡌ, ⦨ࡿࡾ becomes curly chijoku n ᜕㎧ disgrace, shame chiká goro n, adv ㎾㡥 lately,

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chimitsú adj ⦋ᐠ close, minute, elaborate: ~ na keikaku ⦋ᐠ࡝ ゛⏤ careful planning chinatsu n 㙘ᅸ suppression chinbotsu n ỷἈ sinking chínchin n ࡔࢆࡔࢆ o-chínchin ࠽ࡔࢆࡔࢆ penis [baby, infor-

mal talk]


ࢲࣚකࡽࡱࡌ කࡾ glimmers chírachira suru mono n ࢲࣚࢲࣚࡌ ࡾࡵࡡ fluff stuff chirári-to-mimásu (miru) v ࡔࡼࡽ࡛ ずࡱࡌ ずࡾ glances chira(ka)shimásu, chira(ka)su v ᩋࡼ ࠾ ࡊࡱࡌ, ᩋࡼ ࠾ ࡌ scatters,


chinden n ỷẂ deposition, preci- chirashí n ࢲࣚࢨ leaflet pitation: ~ shimásu ỷẂࡊࡱࡌ is chirashí-zushi n ࡔࡼࡊᑋྒྷ>㩟@

deposited, settles down chíngin n ㈜㔘 wage chinjutsú n 㝖㏑ statement, parol chinka n ỷୖ sinkage, subsidence chínmi n ⌃࿝ delicacy chinmokú n ỷ㯪 silence: ~ shimásu ỷ㯪ࡊࡱࡌ stops talking chínō n ▩⬗ intelligence; chinōshisū n ▩⬗ᣞᩐ intelligence


sushi rice covered with fish tidbits chiratsuki n ࡔࡼࡗࡀ flicker: gamen no ~ ⏤㟻ࡡࡔࡼࡗࡀ

screen that flickers chirí n ሶ dust (on ground, floor, etc.); chirí-tóri n ࡔࡽ>ሶ@ཱིࡽ

dustpan chíri n ᆀ⌦ the geography, the lay of the land; chirí-gaku n ᆀ⌦Ꮥ

chinomígo n ஘㣟ࡲᏄ an infant, nursling: ~ (o) kakaete ஘㣟ࡲᏄ ࢅ ᢢ࠻࡙ with a baby/babies chinpánjii n ࢲࣤࣂࣤࢩ࣭ chimpan-

(the study/science of) geography; chiri-jō (no) adj ᆀ⌦୕ ࡡ geographical chiri-gamí, chiri-kami, chiri-shi n ࡔࡽ ⣤ tissues (Kleenex) (= tisshu zee chínpira n ࡔࢆࡧࡼ࣬ࢲࣤࣅࣚ a (pëpå) ࢷ࢔ࢴࢨࣖ ࣭࣋ࣂ࣭ ) punk; hoodlum; juvenile delin- chirimásu, chiru v ᩋࡽࡱࡌ, ᩋࡾ disperses, scatters, falls about quent chinretsu n 㝖า exhibition, display chiryō n ἖⒢ treatment (medical) chinseizai n 㙘㟴๠ sedative, chísei n ▩ᛮ intellect, mind, tranquilizer intelligence, mentality chinshaku n ㈜ೇ letting and hiring, chiséi n ἖ୠ reign rental chishiteki (na) adj ⮬ṒⓏ ࡝ deathchíntai n ㈜㈒ lease, rental, rented dealing chisetsú n ⛮ᣃ childish apartment chíppu n ࢲࢴࣈ tip (money) chíshiki n ▩ㆉ knowledge; chishikíchírachira hikarimásu (hikaru) v ࢲࣚ jin n ▩ㆉெ intellectual(s) 29

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Chishimá n ༐ᓞ, ~-réttø ༐ᓞาᓞ …chōdái interj ࡔࡺ࠹ࡓ࠷ the Kurile Islands [INFORMAL] 1. Please 2. Give me… chishíryō n ⮬Ṓ㔖 overdose chōdo adv ࡔࡺ࠹࡜ exactly, just chísso n ࢲࢴࢮ࣬✽⣪ nitrogen chōgō n ㄢྙ preparation chissokú n ✽᜝ suffocation chō´hō (na) adj 㔔᐀ ࡝ useful, chisui n ἖Ề flood control convenient, valued; ~ garimásu chitchái adj ࡔࡖࡔࡶ࠷ [INFORMAL] 㔔᐀࠿ࡽࡱࡌ values, cherishes,


makes full use of

chiteki (na) adj ▩Ⓩ ࡝ intelligent, intellectual (= chiseiteki (na) ▩ ᛮⓏ ࡝ ) chitsu n ⭴ vagina chítsujo n ⛓ᗆ order, discipline,


chō´ji n ୍Ꮔ cloves chō´jo n 㛏ዥ eldest daughter chojō´ n 㡤୕ top, summit, peak chō´ka n ㉰㐛 [BOOKISH] excess chōkán n 㛏ᏻ chief (head) chō´ki n 㛏᭿ long period, long

chittó-mo adv ࡔࡖ࡛ࡵ [ NEGATIVE range verb] [INFORMAL] not a bit, not in chokín n ㈋㔘 deposit, savings; the least: ~ ki ni narimasen ࡔࡖ࡛ chokin-bako n ㈋㔘⟵ saving box ࡵẴ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡎࢆ not care a bit chokkán n ├វ intuition chō n ⭘ intestines chokkí n ࢲࣘࢴ࢞ vest chō´ n ࢲࣘࢗ࣬⼎butterfly; chō- chōkoku n ᙦ็ carving, engraving músubi n ⼎⤎ࡦ bow (of a ribchoko(rē´to) n ࢲࣘࢤ ࣭ࣝࢹ bon); chō-nékutai n ⼎ࢾࢠࢰ࢕ chocolate chō´ku n ࢲ࣭ࣘࢠ chalk bow tie (…-)chō´ suffix … ୍ block (or chokuryū´ n ├Ὦ DC, direct current chokusén n ├⥲ straight line block area) of a city: (…-) chø-mé (…) ୍┘ (…-th) block chokusetsu adj, adv ├᥃ direct(ly) chō-kyóri n 㛏㊝㞫 long distance (of city) (…-) chō´ suffix … 㛏 head, chief, chō´mi n ㄢ࿝ seasoning (food); chōmí-ryō n ㄢ࿝ᩩ spice leader (…-) chō´ suffix … ඗ trillion chō´nán n 㛏⏠ eldest son chóbo n ࡔࡺ࡯ a dot chónbo n ࡔࡺࢆ࡯࣬ࢲࣘࣤ࣍ a chōbó n ᖋ⡑ (account) book booboo, a goof, a blunder chōchín n ላ⅁ lantern chōryū n ₳Ὦ current, tide; trend chō´chō n ⏣㛏 town mayor chō´sa n ㄢᰕ examination, chōdai-shimásu (suru) v ࡔࡺ࠹ࡓ࠷ inquiry, investigation, research, >㡤ᡕ@ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ I (humbly) survey chosáku-ken n ⴥషᶊ copyright receive/accept

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chōséi n ㄢᩒ adjustment chōsén n ᣦᡋ challenge; chōsénsha n ᣦᡋ⩽ challenger Chō´sén n ᭽㩥 → Kita Chōsén, Kankoku chōsetsú n ㄢ⟿ → chōséi chósha n ⴥ⩽ writer, author chōshí n ㄢᏄ tune; condition; trend; ~ ga demásu ㄢᏄ࠿ฝࡱࡌ gets into the swing of things: ~ ga ii/warui ㄢᏄ࠿࠷࠷ᝇ࠷ is

high school); chū-gáku-sei n ୯Ꮥ ⏍ junior high school student; chū-gatá (no) n ୯ᆵ ࡡ mediumsize (model); chū-gén n ୯ඔ midsummer gift; chū-jíen n ୯⪝ⅎ middle ear infection; chū-jún n ୯᪢ the middle of (month); chūkán n ୯㛣 middle: ~-shiken ୯㛣 ム㥺 intermediate exam, ~-kanrishoku ୯㛣⟮⌦⫃ mid-level executive, middle management; chū-nen n ୯ᖳ middle age, ~ (no) in good/bad condition chósho n ⴥ᭡ one’s book ୯ᖳ ࡡ middle-aged (person); chō´sho n 㛏ᡜ strong point, adchū´-sa n ୯ఫ lieutenant colonel, vantage, merit (navy) commander; chū´-sei n ୯ chōshokú n ᭽㣏 morning meal, ୠ medieval times, the Middle breakfast (= asa-gohan ᭽ࡇ㣜) Ages; chū-shōkígyō n ୯ᑚ௺ᴏ chōshu n ⫀ཱི listening in; chōshu- medium-sized and small comsha n ⫀ཱི⩽ (radio) listener panies; Chū´-tō n ୯᮶ the Middle chōshū n ⫀⾏ audience East; chū-toró n ୯࡛ࢀ࣬୯ࢹࣞ chōshū n ᚡ཭ [BOOKISH] collection medium-fat (pink) tuna …-chū suffix ୯ 1. ... chü (ni) ...୯ (of taxes, etc.), levying chosúi-chi n ㈋Ềờ reservoir (࡞) during, while, within (time) chō´ten n 㡤Ⅴ climax, peak, high- 2. ... chü (no) ...୯(ࡡ) in course point …of, under (doing); kōji-chū n chō-tsúgai n ⼎ࡗ࠿࠷ hinge ᕝ஥୯ under construction chótto adv ࡔࡺࡖ࡛ just a little; chū´bu n ࢲ࣭ࣖࣇ tube chū´cho n ࡔࡸ࠹ࡔࡺ࣬㌃㌁ just a minute; somewhat chottóshitá adj … ࡔࡺࡖ࡛ࡊࡒ… [BOOKISH] hesitation 1. slight, trivial 2. quite a …, a chū´doku n ୯Ẑ addiction, decent/respectable …: ~ toraburu poisoning; shoku-chū´doku 㣏୯Ẑ ࡔࡺࡖ࡛ࡊࡒࢹࣚࣇࣜ queer food poisoning chōwá n ㄢ࿰ harmony, agreement Chū´goku n ୯ᅗ China; Chūgokú-jin chū n Ἰ annotation, note n ୯ᅗெ a Chinese; Chūgoku-go n chū adj ୯ middle; medium; chū´- ୯ᅗㄊ Chinese (language) bu n ୯㒂 middle (part); chū-gákkō Chūgoku-chíhō n ୯ᅗᆀ᪁ the Chun ୯Ꮥᰧ middle school (junior goku area of Japan 31

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chū´i n Ἰណ attention; note, notice, reminder: ~ shimásu Ἰណࡊࡱࡌ ① pays attention ② is careful of ③ advises, warns; chūi-bukái adj Ἰណ῕࠷ careful chūingámu n ࢲ࣭ࣖ࢕࣑ࣤ࢝

chewing gum

sha-kinshi n 㥌㌬⚏Ḿ No Parking chūshá n Ἰᑏ injection: yobø-~ ஢㜭Ἰᑏ preventive injection, immunization; chūshá-ki n Ἰᑏჹ

syringe (for injections) chūshí n ୯Ḿ suspension (abeyance) chūshín n ୯ᚨ center, heart, middle; chūshín no adj ୯ᚨࡡ central; chūshín-chi n ୯ᚨᆀ

chūjitsu (na) adj ᚽᐁ ࡝ faithful chū´ka n, adj ୯⳱ Chinese…, Chinese food; chū´ka-gai n ୯⳱⾜ central area chūshō n ୯ഭ slander Chinatown; chū´ka-ryō´ri(-ten) n ୯⳱ᩩ⌦ ᗉ Chinese cooking chūshokú n ᫠㣏 lunch (= hirugóhan ᫠ࡇ㣜, ranchi ࣚࣤࢲ) (restaurant) chūkái n ௯௒ mediation; chūkáichūshō-teki (na) adj ᢫㇗Ⓩ ࡝ gyōsha n ௯௒ᴏ⩽ broker, abstract chūsū (shinkei) n ୯ᯙ ♼⤊ nerve intermediary agent chūko (no) adj ୯ཿ ࡡ secondcenter hand; chūkó-sha n ୯ཿ㌬ used car chūsúi-ki n ἸỀჹ douche, syringe chūkokú n ᚽ࿈ advice (for water) chūmoku n Ἰ┘ attention, notice chūto (de) adv ୯㏭ ࡚ on the chūmon n Ἰᩝ an order (of goods) way, halfway chūō´ n ୯ኳ the center; chūō no chūyō n ୯ᗜ [BOOKISH] moderaadj ୯ኳࡡ central; Chūō-sen n tion: ~ o emásu ୯ᗜࢅᚋࡱࡌ ୯ኳ⥲ the (JR) Chuo Line exercises moderation chūritsú n ୯❟ neutral(ity) chūzái n, 㥌ᅹ residence, preschūséi n ᚽㄌ loyalty, fidelity, ence; chūzái-in n 㥌ᅹဤ resident allegiance officer; chūzái-táishi n 㥌ᅹኬ౐ chūséi adj ୯ᛮ neutral ambassador chūsén n ᢫㐽 lottery, drawing chūzetsu n ୯⤧ abortion: ~-shuchūshá n 㥌㌬ parking; chūsha-jō n jutsu o ukemásu ୯⤧ᡥ⾙ࢅུࡄ 㥌㌬ሔ parking lot/garage; chūࡱࡌ undergoes an abortion

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D … da suffix …ࡓ → … -ta ࡒ shikashi ࡊ࠾ࡊ) … dá v …ࡓ = … désu …࡚ࡌ is; dageki n ᡬᦹ blow, shock daha n ᡬ◒ defeat it is daben n 㥇ᘒ idle talk: ~ o røshi- dái- prefix ➠ [+ number] number másu 㥇ᘒࢅࢀ࠹ࡊࡱࡌ talks …; (= …-banmé…␊┘) [numeral] rubbish, talks nonsense: ~ka 㥇ᘒ -th; (separate word except when ᐓ long-winded speaker attached to a single-unit numeral); daberimásu, dabéru v ࡓ࡬ࡽࡱࡌ, dái-go adj ➠஫ number five; (= ࡓ࡬ࡾ shoots the breeze/bull, go-banmé ஫␊┘) fifth; dái-ichi chews the fat (idly talks) adj ➠ୌ number one; (= ichibanmé ୌ␊┘) first: dái-ichi no dabingu n ࢱࣄࣤࢡ dubbing daboku-shō n ᡬ᧖ഭ bruise ➠ୌࡡ (the) first; dái-ichi ni ➠ୌ dabudabu (no) adj ࡓࡩࡓࡩ ࡡ ࡞ first (of all); Dái-ni-ji Sekaitaisen ➠஦ḗୠ⏲ኬᡋ World baggy, loose, full, voluminous: ~ no fuku ࡓࡩࡓࡩࡡ᭱ volumi- War II; dái-san adj ➠୔ number nous dress three; (= sanbanmé ୔␊┘) daburimásu, dabúru v ࢱࣇࡽࡱࡌ, third: ~-sha ➠୔⩽ third party ࢱࣇࡾ gets doubled, overlaps, dái n 㢗 1. title (= daimei 㢗ྞ) repeats, is repeated (by mistake) 2. topic, theme (= daimokú 㢗┘) dáburu n ࢱࣇࣜ 1. = ~-rü´mu ࢱࣇ dai ௥ 1. n (o-dai ࠽௥) charge ࣭࣑ࣜࣜ a double (room) 2. (fee), bill: o-~ wa itadakimasen ࠽௥ࡢ࠷ࡒࡓࡀࡱࡎࢆ Complidouble(-size) drink 3. doublebreasted suit 4. ~-su ࢱࣇࣜࢪ ments of the house.: takushii-~ ࢰࢠࢨ࣭௥ taxi fare 2. [numeral] (tennis) doubles; daburu-béddo n ࢱࣇࣜ࣊ࢴࢺ double bed -dai …age, generation: nijü´-~ dachin n 㥇㈜ reward, tip 20௥ twenties; ni-dai(me) 2௥┘ dada n 㥇ࠍ fretful: dadakko 㥇ࠍ The Second, junior (family) ࡖᏄ fretful/unreasonable/spoiled … dai suffix …ࡓ࠷ [INFORMAL] (= … désu ka …࡚ࡌ࠾ [FORMAL]): child dadappiroi adj ࡓࡓࡖᗀ࠷ rambling, dáre/nán dai ㄙరࡓ࠷ who/what

too spacious daeki n ၖᾦ [BOOKISH] saliva daen n ᳻ළ ellipse, oval dága conj ࡓ࠿ [BOOKISH] but (=

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is it? dai n ྋ stand, (low) table …´-dai suffix …ྋ (counts mount-

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daibā n ࢱ࢕ࣁ࣭ diver daiben n ኬ౼ defecation, bowel

movement, feces daiben n ௥ᘒ speaking for another daibingu n ࢱ࢕ࣄࣤࢡ dive daibu adv ኬฦ quite, very, much dai-búbun n ኬ㒂ฦ most, the


ni shite kudasái ࠽ మࢅ ࠽ ኬ ஥࡞ࡊ࡙ୖࡈ࠷ take good care of yourself; daijí (na) adj ኬ஥ ࡝

important, precious dáijin n ኬ⮟ minister (cabinet) dai-jō´bu adj ኬ୓ኰ OK, all right;

safe (and sound); no need to worry, no problem: ~ desu ኬ୓ ኰ࡚ࡌ It’s all right. dáikichi n ኬྚ very good luck, excellent luck daikin n ௥㔘 the price/charge, the bill: ~ hikikae (de) ௥㔘ᘤᥦ࠻ ࡚ (= daibiki (de) ௥ᘤࡀ ࡚ ) C.O.D., collect (on delivery) daikō n ௥⾔ acting as agent; daikō´-sha n ௥⾔⩽ agent daikō n ௥ㅦ substitute class/ teacher daikoku-bashira n ኬ㯦ᰍ pillar, breadwinner daikon n ኬ᰷ giant white radish; daikon-óroshi n ኬ᰷࠽ࢀࡊ grated radish dáiku n ኬᕝ carpenter daikyū n ௥ఆ compensation day, substitute holiday daiméishi n ௥ྞペ pronoun daimoku n 㢗┘ topic (= dái 㢗 daimyō´ n ኬྞ feudal lord dainamaito n ࢱ࢕ࢻ࣏࢕ࢹ dynamite dainashi n ྋ↋ࡊ ruin, spoil dainingu-kitchin (DK) n ࢱ࢕ࢼࣤ ࢡ࢞ࢴࢲࣤ (DK) a combined ~ o torimásu ኬ஥ࢅ࡛ࡽࡱࡌ dining room-kitchen, an eat-in plays it safe: (o-)karada o (o-)~ kitchen 34

majority daibutsu n ኬ௕ giant statue of Buddha daidái n ࢱ࢕ࢱ࢕࣬ᶫ bitter orange; daidái-iro n ᶫⰅ (color) orange dáidai adj, adv ௥ࠍ generation after generation, for generations daidokoro n ྋᡜ kitchen daietto n ࢱ࢕࢙ࢴࢹ diet daifuku (mochi) n ኬ⚗ ࡵࡔ soft rice cake stuffed with sweet bean jam daigaku n ኬᏕ college, university; daigakú-in n ኬᏕ㝌 graduate school: ~ín-sei ኬᏕ㝌⏍ graduate student daigiin n ௥㆗ဤ deputy daigishi n ௥㆗ኃ Diet member daigomi n 㓤㓦࿝ relish, whole point daihitsu n ௥➱ ghost-writing daihon n ྋᮇ script (= kyakuhon ⬦ᮇ) daihyō n ௥⾪ representative; daihyō-sha n ௥⾪⩽ a representative (person) daiji n ኬ஥ a matter of importance;

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dainingu-rūmu n ࢱ࢕ࢼࣤࢡ࣭࣑ࣜ

sum 2. higher by …: hyakuéndaka Ⓤළ㧏 100 yen up dining room daí (no) … adj ኬ ࡡ …, dai-… dákara (sa) conj ࡓ࠾ࡼ ࡈ and ኬ… big, great; dai-kirai (na) adj so; therefore; that’s why ኬ᎒࠷ ࡝ loathing, aversion; … daké suffix …ࡓࡄ only, just: dái-suki (na) adj ኬይࡀ ࡝ … (-ta) ~ de … ࡒ ࡓࡄ࡚ just favorite, greatly liked; dai-tasū n from (having done it) ኬኣᩐ large number; majority dakemásu, dakeru v ᢢࡄࡱࡌ, ᢢࡄ dairi n ௥⌦ commission, agent, ࡾ can hug, can hold in the arms agency; dairi-bo n ௥⌦ẍ surro- dakimásu, daku v ᢢࡀࡱࡌ, ᢢࡂ gate mother; dairí-nin n ௥⌦ெ holds in the arms agent; dairí-ten n ௥⌦ᗉ agency dakyō n ጂ༝ compromise daishi n ྋ⣤ mount, board (art) damarimásu, damáru v 㯪ࡽࡱࡌ, 㯪 dai-shō n ኬᑚ size ࡾ is/becomes silent; shuts up dai-shō n ௥ർ price, compensation, damashimásu, damásu v 㥼ࡊࡱࡌ, 㥼ࡌ deceives, cheats reparation dái-sū n ௥ᩐ algebra, literal damé (na) adj 㥇┘ ࡝ no good, arithmetic no use, won’t; bad, broken, maldaitai adv ኬమ in general, on the functioning; don’t!; ~ ni shimásu 㥇┘࡞ࡊࡱࡌ ruins it, spoils it whole, approximately, almost daitán (na) adj ኬ⫱ ࡝ bold dámu n ࢱ࣑ dam daitōryō n ኬ⤣㡷 president (of a dán n ṹ 1. step(s); grade, order 2. (page) column; scene, act nation) dáiya n 1. ࢱ࢕ࣕ schedule (train) 3. (…dán … ṹ) case, event; 2. (= daiyamóndo) ࢱ࢕ࣕ ࣓ࣤ dan-chō no omoi n ᩷⭘ࡡᛦ࠷ ࢺ diamond heartbreaking grief; dan-dán adv daiyaku n ௥ᙲ substitute, alternate ṹࠍ gradually; dan-kai n ṹ㝭 daiyaru n ࢱ࢕ࣕࣜ dial grade, rank, stage (of a process); daiyō n ௥⏕ substitution dan-raku n ṹⴘ paragraph; dan-tei daiza n ྋᗑ pedestal, seat n ᩷ᏽ decision, conclusion daizai n 㢗ᮞ material, subject dan n ᅆ group, party, team; danmatter: kankyø-hogo o ~ ni shita chi n ᅆᆀ housing development; eiga ⎌ሾಕ㆜ࢅ㢗ᮞ࡞ࡊࡒ᫆⏤ dan-chō n ᅆ㛏 leader, head; dango film on ecology n ᅆᏄ dumpling; dan-tai n ᅆమ dáizu n ኬ㇃࣬ࢱ࢕ࢫ soy beans organization, group dajare n 㥇὏ⴘ pun, equivoque dan n ቨ platform …´-daka …㧏 1. quantity, volume; dan n conversation, talk; dan-shō 35

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n ㄧ➏ chatting; dan-wa n ㄧヨ [BOOKISH] conversation: ~-shitsu ㄧヨᐄ common room dan-… prefix ⏠ male; dán-jo n ⏠ዥ male and female: ~-kyøgaku ⏠ዥභᏕ coeducation; dan-kon n ⏠᰷ penis; dan-sei n ⏠ᛮ male; dán-shi n ⏠Ꮔ boy: ~-gakusei/ seito ⏠ᏄᏕ⏍⏍ᚈ schoolboy; dan-shō n ⏠ፕ male prostitute; dan-shoku n ⏠Ⰵ male homosexual love danatsu n ᙆᅸ suppression danbō n ᬦᡛ heating (of room, house); danbō-sō´chi n ᬦᡛ⿞⨠ heating device, radiator dangan n ᙆ୷ [BOOKISH] bullet dani n ࢱࢼ mite, tick danna n ᪞㑛 1. my husband

~ dé mo ㄙ࡚ࡵ anybody (at all), everybody; dáre ka pron ㄙ࠾ somebody, someone; dáre mo adv ㄙࡵ (not) anybody; [ NEGATIVE verb] nobody …darō´ suffix …ࡓࢀ࠹ probably, probably (it) is; I think; don’t you think? (= …deshø´ …࡚ࡊࡺ࠹ dasai adj ࡓࡈ࠷ tasteless, insipid, bland dasei n ᝴ᛮ inertia, (force of) habit dasha n ᡬ⩽ a batter/hitter dashí n ࡓࡊ soup stock, broth: ~ no moto ࡓࡊࡡ⣪ instant bouillon dashimásu, dásu v ฝࡊࡱࡌ, ฝࡌ puts out; serves (food/drink); produces; pays, spends; mails; begins dashimono v ฝࡊ∸ play, attrac2. ~-san/-sama ᪞㑛ࡈࢆᵕ tion, show (your/someone else’s) husband dashin n ᡬタ (medical examina3. master (of a shop, etc.) tion by) percussion, tapping; danpingu n ࢱࣤࣅࣤࢡ dumping sounding a person out danryoku n ᙆງ elastic force dashinuke (ni) adv ฝࡊᢜࡄ ࡞ danshoku n ᬦⰅ warm color(s) abruptly dansu n ࢱࣤࢪ dance dashinukimásu, dashinuku v ฝࡊᢜ dan’yaku n ᙆⷾ ammunition, ࡀࡱࡌ, ฝࡊᢜࡂ outwits, gets powder and ball the better of daradara (to) adj ࡓࡼࡓࡼ ࡛ dasoku n ⺤㊂ icing on the cake lengthy: ~ (to) sugoshimásu ࡓࡼ dassen n ⬲⥲ derailment ࡓࡼ ࡛ 㐛ࡇࡊࡱࡌ slobs about dasshí-men n ⬲⬙⥝ absorbent daraku n ሃⴘ corruption cotton darari-to adv ࡓࡼࡽ࡛ loosely, dasshí-nyū n ⬲⬙஘ skim milk dasshū´-zai n ⬲⮧๠ deodorant lollingly darashinai adj ࡓࡼࡊ࡝࠷ slovenly, (personal) (= deodoranto ࢸ࢛ࢺ ࣚࣤࢹ) loose dáre pron ㄙ who: ~ no ㄙࡡ whose; dassō n ⬲㉦ escape, desertion 36

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dekimásu, dekíru

dā´su n ࢱ࣭ࢪ dozen: ichi-~ 1ࢱ ࣭ࢪ one dozen datai n ሃ⫶ abortion datō n ᡬ಻ overthrow, defeat datō adj ጂᙔ appropriate, reason-

its being; with (its being) [COPULA GERUND] …de arimásu v …࡚࠵ࡽࡱࡌ = … désu …࡚ࡌ is; it is …de gozaimashō´ v …࡚ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡊ ࡺ࠹ = … deshø´ …࡚ࡊࡺ࠹ able datsuraku n ⬲ⴘ omission, dropout probably is; I think it is (, sir/ datsuryoku n ⬲ງ faintness, lassi- ma’am) …de gozaimásu v …࡚ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ tude …dátta v …ࡓࡖࡒ was; it was [DEFERENTIAL] = …desu …࡚ࡌ is; (= …déshita … ࡚ࡊࡒ it is (sir/ma’am) dattai n ⬲㏝ withdrawal …de imásu v …࡚࠷ࡱࡌ stays/ …dáttara conj …ࡓࡖࡒࡼ if/when keeps (goes on) being …de orimásu v …࡚࠽ࡽࡱࡌ it is (or was) …dáttari (shimásu/desu) suffix …ࡓ [DEFERENTIAL/HUMBLE] (I/we) ࡖࡒࡽ ࡊࡱࡌ࡚ࡌ being rep- stay/keep (go on) being deaikeisaito n ฝఌ࠷⣌ࢦ࢕ࢹ dating resentatively/sometimes/alternately …: dáttari…ja nákattari service website, meet-a-mate site, …ࡓࡖࡒࡽ…ࡋࡶ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡽ online dating website (Internet) (is) off and on, sometimes is and de-aimásu, de-áu v ฝఌ࠷ࡱࡌ, ฝ ఌ࠹: … ni de-aimásu …࡞ฝఌ sometimes isn’t dátte conj ࡓࡖ࡙ but; however, ࠷ࡱࡌ encounters, meets, happens even so, though (= démo ࡚ࡵ to see/meet, runs/bumps into …dátte suffix …ࡓࡖ࡙ even being déguchi n ฝཾ exit, outlet …; … or something (= …démo deiríguchi n ฝථࡽཾ gate(way), … ࡚ࡵ doorway de n ฝ 1. a person’s origins dekakemásu, dekakeru v ฝ᤻ࡄࡱࡌ, (family, birthplace, school); (… ฝ᤻ࡄࡾ starts off/out, goes out, no ~ …ࡡฝ) born in/of …, a departs graduate of … 2. (out)flow: mizu dekiai n ⁊យ blind love no ~ ga íi Ềࡡฝ࠿࠷࠷ᝇ࠷ has dekiai (no) adj ฝᮮྙ࠷ ࡡ readygood/bad water pressure 3. emer- made gence, appearance dekígoto n ฝᮮ஥ happening, …de particle …࡚ → …-te …࡙ accident …dé suffix …࡚ (happening) at, in, dekimásu, dekíru v ฝᮮࡱࡌ, ฝᮮࡾ on; with, by (means of), through can (do), is possible, produced, …dé conj …࡚ is/was and; being, done, finished, through, ready 37

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dekí-mónó, o-déki

dekí-mónó, o-déki n ࡚ࡀࡵࡡ, ࠽࡚ denchō n 㞹ᰍ telephone/light ࡀ swelling, sore, boil, pimple pole dekíru-dake adv ࡚ࡀࡾࡓࡄ as dendō n ఎ㐠 conduction; dendōsha n ఎ㐠⩽ a missionary much as possible dek(k)ai adj ࡚ ࡖ ࠾࠷ [INFORMAL] déndō n 㞹ິ electric operation, big (= økii ኬࡀ࠷) electric-powered; déndō-isu n dékki n ࢸࢴ࢞ deck 㞹ິ᳌Ꮔ electric-powered dekoboko (no) adj ࡚ࡆ࡯ࡆ ࡡ wheelchair 1. bump(y), rough (road, etc.) dengon n ఎゕ message (= messëji 2. uneven(ness), imbalance ࣒ࢴࢬ࣭ࢩ déma n ࢸ࣏ false rumor denki n ఎエ biography demae n ฝ๑ catering, food dénki n 㞹Ẵ electricity, power; delivered to order, restaurant lights; denki-sutándo n 㞹Ẵࢪࢰ ࣤࢺ desk/floor lamp; denki-yō´hin delivery (service/person) demásu, déru v ฝࡱࡌ, ฝࡾ goes/ n 㞹Ẵ⏕ဗ electrical appliances; comes out, emerges, appears; is denki-kónro n 㞹Ẵࢤࣤࣞ hot plate; denki-sōjíki n 㞹Ẵᤪ㝎ᶭ served; leaves, starts démo conj ࡚ࡵ but, however, vacuum cleaner; denki-ya (san) n 㞹Ẵᒁ ࡈࢆ electrician even so, though démo n ࢸ࣓ demonstration denmāku n ࢸ࣏࣭ࣤࢠ Denmark … démo suffix …࡚ࡵ even/also dénpa n 㞹ἴ electric wave,

(being) …, even if it be; …or something: gaka ~ sakka ~ ari-




denpō n 㞹ሒ telegram, telegraph masen. ⏤ᐓ࡚ࡵషᐓ࡚ࡵ࠵ࡽࡱ denpun n ࡚ࢆࡪࢆ starch (for ࡎࢆ is neither a painter nor a cooking); denpún-shitsu (no) n (adj) ࡚ࢆࡪࢆ㈹ ࡡ starch(y) writer demokurashii n ࢸ࣓ࢠࣚࢨ࣭ denpyō n ఎ⚂ check (restaurant de-mukaemásu, de-mukaéru v ฝ㎼࠻ denrai n ఎᮮ [BOOKISH] introducࡱࡌ, ฝ㎼࠻ࡾ meets, greets, tion, import: senzo ~ (no) ඙♵ఎ ᮮ ࡡ descendant, patrimonial welcomes denbu n ⮄㒂 [BOOKISH] buttock, denrei n ఎ௦ [BOOKISH] orderly,

hips (medical) denbun n ఎ⪲ hearsay denbun n 㞹ᩝ telegram, tele-

herald dénryoku n 㞹ງ electric power; denryoku-gáisha n 㞹ງఌ♣ power

graphic message dénchi n 㞹ờ battery

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densen n 㞹⥲ electric wire, power … déshita v …࡚ࡊࡒ 1. was; it line was 2. …-masén ~ …ࡱࡎࢆ࡚ densen n ఎ᯹ contagion; densen-byō ࡊࡒ didn’t n ఎ᯹⑋ contagious/infectious/ … deshō v …࡚ࡊࡺ࠹ probably,

disease, epidemic

probably (it) is; I think; don’t

densetsu n ఎㄕ tradition (legend): you think? ~ no otoko ఎㄕࡡ⏠ legendary … desu, dá v …࡚ࡌ, ࡓ is, has


been (and still is), will be; it is

dénsha n 㞹㌬ (electric) train,

dē´ta n ࢸ࣭ࢰ data detarame n ࡚ࡒࡼࡴ nonsense; streetcar dénshi (no) adj 㞹Ꮔ ࡡ electron(ic); detarame na adj ࡚ࡒࡼࡴ࡝ irredenshi-manē n㞹Ꮔ࣏ࢾ࣭ elecsponsible, unreliable detchiagemásu, detchiagéru v ࡚ࡖࡔ tronic money, cyberbuck ࠵ࡅࡱࡌ, ࡚ࡖࡔ࠵ࡅࡾ fake (Internet); denshi-shoseki n 㞹Ꮔ ᭡⡘ digital book, e-book, elec- dē´to n ࢸ࣭ࢹ date (time; engage-

tronic book (Internet)


dentatsu n ఎ㐡 conveyance,

dé wa conj ࡚ࡢ well then; in that transmission case; and so; and now (= ja ࡋࡶ) dentō n 㞹⅁ lamp, light, flashlight … dé wa suffix ࡚ࡢ (with) its dentō n ఎ⤣ tradition; dentō-teki (na) being, it is and; if it be: ~ arimasén (~ nái) …࡚ࡢ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ adj ఎ⤣Ⓩ ࡝ traditional denwa n 㞹ヨ telephone (call): ~ ࡚ࡢ࡝࠷ = ja arimasén (ja ni demásu 㞹ヨ࡞ฝࡱࡌ answers nái) ࡋࡶ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ ࡋࡶ࡝࠷ the phone; ~ o kakemásu/ it is not shimásu 㞹ヨࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌࡊࡱࡌ dezáin n ࢸࢧ࢕ࣤ design makes a phone call; denwa-bángō dezáinā n ࢸࢧ࢕ࢻ࣭ designer dezā´to n ࢸࢧ࣭ࢹ dessert n 㞹ヨ␊ྒ telephone number; denwa-kōkánshu n 㞹ヨஹᥦᡥ dii-kē´ n ࢸ࢔࣭ࢢ࣭ (= DK) → dainingu-kítchin ࢱ࢕ࢼࣤࢡ࢞ࢴࢲࣤ telephone operator; denwa-sen n 㞹ヨ⥲ phone line, telephone disukáunto n ࢸ࢔ࢪ࢜ࢗࣤࢹ



deodoranto n ࢸ࢛ࢺࣚࣤࢹ deo-

do n ᗐ degree; moderation; ~ o dorant sugoshimásu/koshimásu ᗐࢅ㐛 depāto n ࢸࣂ࣭ࢹ department store ࡇࡊࡱࡌ㉲ࡊࡱࡌ goes too far, déppa n ฝࡖṉ protruding tooth, goes to excess do-… prefix ࡜… exactly, really; bucktooth deshí n ᘭᏄ apprentice, disciple do-mannaka n ࡜┷ࢆ୯ dead

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center; do-konjō n ࡜᰷ᛮ a lot of the school in the same year (= guts dø-kyü´-sei ྜྷ⣥⏍), employees …-dó suffix …ᗐ 1. times (occawho joined the company in the sions) 2. degrees same year; dō-koku-jin n ྜྷᅗெ dō´ adj ࡜࠹ how, why; (in) what fellow countryman/countrymen; (way); Dō´-shimáshita ka. ࡜࠹ࡊࡱ dō-kyū´-sei n ྜྷ⣥⏍ classmate; ࡊࡒ࠾. What happened? What dō-ryō n ྜྷേ colleague; dō-sei did you do?; Dō´-itashimashite. ࡜࠹ (no) adj ྜྷᛮ ࡡ person of the ࠷ࡒࡊࡱࡊ࡙. You’re welcome. same sex; dō-sei (no) adj ྜྷጞ ࡡ dō´ n 㖙 copper (= aka-gane ࠵࠾ having the same name; dō-shitsú ࠿ࡠ࣬㖙); dō´-ka n 㖙㈄ coin n ྜྷᐄ same room: ~-sha ྜྷᐄ⩽ (brass or copper); dō-sei (no) adj roommate; dō-zai (no) adj ྜྷ⨝ 㖙⿿ ࡡ made of copper ࡡ being equally guilty: døzaisha ྜྷ⨝⩽ fellow sinners dō´ n ⬏ torso (= døtai ⬏మ) dō´-… prefix ྜྷ… the same …; dóa n ࢺ࢓ door; doa-nobu n ࢺ࢓ dō-gaku n ྜྷ㢘 a like amount, the ࢿࣇ door knob same amount (of money); dō-gyō doai n ᗐྙ࠷ degree, level, rate n ྜྷᴏ same trade: ~-sha ྜྷᴏ⩽ do-bin n ᅰ⎴ teapot dobu n ࡜ࡩ࣬‹ gutter professional brother/brethren; dō-hō n ྜྷ⬂ brother(s)/sister(s) dōbutsu n ິ∸ animal; dōbutsú-en with same mother, fellow n ິ∸ᅧ zoo countryman/countrymen; dō-itsu dóchira pron ࡜ࡔࡼ which one (no) adj ྜྷୌ ࡡ same; dō´-ji n (of the two) = dotchi ࡜ࡖࡔ; ྜྷ᫤ ① ~ (no) ྜྷ᫤ ࡡ simul[DEFERENTIAL] where (= dóko ࡜ taneous ② … to ~ ni …࡛ྜྷ᫤࡞ ࡆ , who (= dáre ㄙ ; dóchira dé at the same time as …; while …, mo adv ࡜ࡔࡼ࡚ࡵ either one of on the other hand ③ at a (single) the two; [ NEGATIVE verb] neither time, at one time; dō-jidai (ni) adv one of the two; dóchira ka adj, adv ྜྷ᫤௥ ࡞ (in) the same age/era; ࡜ࡔࡼ࠾ one of the two; dochira dō´-jidai (no) adj ྜྷ᫤௥ ࡡ conmo adv ࡜ࡔࡼࡵ ① [ NEGATIVE temporaneous, same generation; verb] neither one ② both; dóchira dō-jō n ྜྷ᝗ sympathy, comsama n ࡜ࡔࡼᵕ [DEFERENTIAL] passion; dō-ka n ྜྷ໩ elaboration, who (are you) assimilation; dō-kan n ྜྷវ same dō dé mo adv ࡜࠹࡚ࡵ anyhow sentiment, empathy; dō´-ki n ྜྷ (at all) ᭿ the same period; dō´-kí (-sei) n dōfū shimásu (suru) v ྜྷᑌࡊࡱࡌ ྜྷ᭿ ⏍ classmates who joined ࡌࡾ encloses (in envelope) 40

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dogeza n ᅰୖᗑ kneeling on the … dō´ka suffix …࡜࠹࠾ … ka ~ ground: ~ shite ayamarimásu ᅰ …࠾࡜࠹࠾ (whether …) or not, ୖᗑࡊ࡙ㅨࡽࡱࡌ falls on one’s ~ shite imasu ࡜࠹࠾ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ

knees to ask for pardon

something wrong with, crazy, mad dōkan n ᑙ⟮ pipe, duct dóki n ᅰჹ earthenware dōki n ິᶭ motivation, motive dōki n ິᝐ beat, pulse: ~ ga shimásu ິᝐ࠿ࡊࡱࡌ palpitates dókidoki shimásu (suru) v ࡜ࡀ࡜ࡀ ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ one’s heart throbs (beats, flutters) dokimásu, doku v ㏝ࡀࡱࡌ, ㏝ࡂ gets out of the way dókku n ࢺࢴࢠ dock ment dóitsu pron ࡜࠷ࡗ which damn one dóko pron ࡜ࡆ where, what part/ Dóitsu n ࢺ࢕ࢵ Germany; Doitsu-go place; dóko-dé-mo adv ࡜ࡆ࡚ࡵ n ࢺ࢕ࢵㄊ German language; anywhere (at all); dóko-doko pron Doitsú-jin n ࢺ࢕ࢵெ a German ࡜ࡆ࡜ࡆ somewhere or other, dō´iu … adj ࡜࠹࠷࠹… what kind/ such-and-such a place (= dókosoko ࡜ࡆࡐࡆ ; dóko ka n, adv sort of… doji n ࡜ࡋ goof (= hema ࡫ࡱ) ࡜ࡆ࠾ somewhere; dóko made adv ࡜ࡆࡱ࡚ where to; how far; doko boob dō-jimásu, dō-jíru v ິࡋࡱࡌ, ິࡋ mo adv ࡜ࡆࡵ [ NEGATIVE verb/ ࡾ gets agitated, upset adj] nowhere; dóko-soko pron ࡜ dō-jinai = (…-témo) dø-jimasén ࡆࡐࡆ somewhere or other (= …࡙ࡵ ິࡋࡱࡎࢆ (is unfazed dóko-doko ࡜ࡆ࡜ࡆ) dōkoku n ៅာ [BOOKISH] crying (by)) dojō n ࢺࢩࣘࢗ loach, mudfish out with grief dojō n ᅰቫ [BOOKISH] soil borne: …-dókoroka adv …࡜ࡆࢀ࠾ = yutaka na ~ ㇇࠾࡝ᅰቫ rich soil sore-~ ࡐࡿ࡜ࡆࢀ࠾ rather, on the contrary dō´jō n 㐠ሔ martial arts hall dō´ka interj ࡜࠹࠾ please: ~ dokú n Ẑ = dokú-butsu Ẑ∸ onegai desukara ࡜࠹࠾࠽㢢࠷࡚ poison; doku-késhí n Ẑᾐࡊ antidote ࡌ࠾ࡼ for God’s [Christ’s, dokudan n ≺᩷ dogma; dokudan-jō Heaven’s, Pete’s] sake n ≺ቨሔ [BOOKISH] monopoly 41 dōgi n 㐠⩇ moral principle dogitsui adj ࡜ࡁࡗ࠷ [INFORMAL] gaudy; dogitsui hyōgen n ࡜ࡁࡗ࠷ ⾪⌟ shocking expression dōgú n 㐠ර tool; dōgú-bako n 㐠ර ⟵ tool box dohyō n ᅰಣ sumo-wrestling ring: ~ ni agarimásu ᅰಣ࡞୕࠿ࡽࡱ ࡌ steps onto the sumo ring dōi n ྜྷណ agreement, approval dōin n ິဤ mobilization, recruit-

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dokudoku nagaremásu (nagareru)

dokudoku nagaremásu (nagareru) v ࡜ plurals): watakushi-~ ࢂࡒࡂࡊ> ࡂ࡜ࡂὮࡿࡱࡌ Ὦࡿࡾ gurgles ⚶@࡜ࡵ we/us dokudokushii adj Ẑࠍࡊ࠷ gaudy, domein-mei (nēmu) n ࢺ࣒࢕ࣤྞ ࢾ ࣭࣑ domain-name (Internet) virulent dokugaku n ≺Ꮥ self-study dō´mo ࡜࠹ࡵ 1. interj thank you dokuhaku n ≺Ⓣ monologue 2. interj excuse me 3. adj somedokuritsu n ≺❟ independence; how, vaguely ~ shite imásu ≺❟ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ dōmō (na) adj ⋉⊓ ࡝ fierce,

standing on one’s own two feet, being independent; ~shita … ≺❟ ࡊࡒ … independent dokuryoku (de) adj ≺ງ ࡚ by oneself dokusái-sha n ≺⿚⩽ dictator, absolute ruler dókusha n ㄖ⩽ reader (person) dokushin n ≺㌗ single, unmarried, bachelor; dokushin-sha n ≺㌗⩽ single dokusho n ㄖ᭡ reading books dokusō n ≺㉦ leaving all the other runners far behind dokusō n ≺዇ solo performance dokusō-sei n ≺๭ᛮ originality: ~

savage domorimásu, domoru v ࡜ࡵࡽࡱࡌ, ࡜ࡵࡾ stammers, stutters dón ࡜ࢆ࣬ࢺࣤ boom, bam (sound) …-don n …୺ → donburi ࡜ࢆࡩ ࡽ>୺@ donarimásu, donáru v ᛛ㫾ࡽࡱࡌ, ᛛ㫾ࡾ shouts, yells dónata pron ࡜࡝ࡒ [DEFERENTIAL] who (= dáre ㄙ) donburi n ࡜ࢆࡩࡽ࣬୺ large rice

bowl donburi-mono, don-mono n ୺ࡵࡡ a

bowl of rice with some kind of topping dóndon adv ࡜ࢆ࡜ࢆ one right ni kakeru/toboshii ≺๭ᛮ࡞Ḗࡄ after another, in large numbers do-nichi n ᅰ᪝ Saturday and ࡾஇࡊ࠷ unoriginal dokutoku (no/na) adj ≺≁ ࡡ࡝ Sunday characteristic, peculiar, unique dō´ni ka adv ࡜࠹࡞࠾ somehow dō´kutsu n ὕ❅ cave Donmai interj ࢺ࣏ࣤ࢕ Don’t dokuzetsu n Ẑ⯁ a barbed/spiteful worry., Never mind. dónna adj … ࡜ࢆ࡝… what kind tongue; dokuzetsu-ka n Ẑ⯁ᐓ person with a poisonous/sharp of…: ~ ni ࡜ࢆ࡝࡞ to what extent, how much tongue dokyumentarii dorama n ࢺ࣒࢞ࣖࣤ dóno … adj ࡜ࡡ… which … (of ࢰ࣭ࣛ࣬ࢺ࣏ࣚ infotainment more than two) dono-gurai/kurai adv ࡜ࡡన how (documentary film) …´-dómo …භ (makes humble many/much/far/long 42

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dónsu n ࡜ࢆࡌ࣬⥵Ꮔ damask donyori (to shita) adj ࡜ࢆࡻࡽ ࡛ࡊ ࡒ dull, gray, somber: ~ to shita me ࡜ࢆࡻࡽ࡛ࡊࡒ┘ dull eyes dorafuto n ࢺࣚࣆࢹ draft doraggu n ࢺࣚࢴࢡ drug doraggu sutoa n ࢺࣚࢴࢡࢪࢹ࢓


dō´ro n 㐠㊨ road; dōro-hyō´shiki 㐠 ㊨ᵾㆉ road sign dorobō n ἶᲤ thief, robber, bur-

glar dóru n ࢺࣜ dollar; dóru-bako n ࢺࣜ⟵ cash cow, gold mine,

moneymaker dóryoku n ຑງ effort drugstore doraibā n ࢺࣚ࢕ࣁ࣭ driver dō´sa n ິష (body) movements, doraibu n ࢺࣚ࢕ࣇ drive; doraibugestures surū n ࢺࣚ࢕ࣇࢪ࣭ࣜ drivedosamawari n ࡜ࡈࡱࢂࡽ road through (restaurant) show: ~ o shimásu ࡜ࡈᅂࡽࢅࡊ dorai-kuríiníngu n ࢺࣚ࢕ࢠ࣭ࣛࢼࣤ ࡱࡌ goes on the road, goes on ࢡ dry cleaning a tour dorái (na) adj ࢺࣚ࢕ ࡝ dry; mod- dō´san n ິ⏐ [BOOKISH] movable ern, sophisticated, unsentimental property doraiyā n ࢺࣚ࢕࣭ࣕ dryer, drier dōsei n ྜྷᲿ living together (for dōrákú n 㐠ᴞ 1. dissipation unmarried couple) 2. (o-dørakú ࠽㐠ᴞ pastime, dosha n ᅰ▹ earth and sand; dosha-buri n ᅰ▹㜾ࡽ torrential hobby dóre pron ࡜ࡿ which one (of downpour dōshi n ິペ verb more than two): ~ ka ࡜ࡿ࠾ some/any one of them; ~ dé mo …dō´shi suffix …ྜྷኃ: otoko-~ no ࡜ࡿ࡚ࡵ whichever/any of them; yakusoku ⏠ྜྷኃࡡ⣑ᮨ promise ~ mo ࡜ࡿࡵ (not) any of them; between man and man ~-gurai/kurai ࡜ࡿన how many/ dō´shi n ྜྷᚷ fellow …, comrade dōshin n ❲ᚨ juvenile mind much/far/long dorei n ዦ㞌 slave dō´-shite adv ࡜࠹ࡊ࡙ why; how: dóresu n ࢺࣝࢪ dress, frock ~ mo ࡜࠹ࡊ࡙ࡵ one way or dōrí n 㐠⌦ reason (what is sensible) another, some how or other …-dōrí …㏳ࡽ avenue; just as dosō n ᅰⴷ burial under the earth (according with): jikan-~ (ni) ᫤ dōsō´-kai n ྜྷ✾ఌ alumni associa㛣㏳ࡽ ࡞ on time … tion; class reunion dóriru n ࢺࣛࣜ drill (tool; practice) dossari adv ࡜ࡖࡈࡽ all of a heap: doró n ἶ mud; muck (filth, dirt); ~ aru shigoto ࡜ࡖࡈࡽ࠵ࡾ௘஥ doro-dárake/mamire (no) adj ἶࡓࡼ a pile of work ࡄࡱࡲࡿ ࡡ muddy dotabata adv ࡜ࡒࡣࡒ noisily: 43

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dotanba (de)

~-kigeki ࡜ࡒࡣࡒႌ๸ slapstick

࡜ࡷࡌ chews out dōyō (no) adj ྜྷᵕ ࡡ the same dōyō n ິ᥺ [BOOKISH] agitation,

comedy dotanba (de) adv ᅰቨሔ ࡚ (at)

the last moment


dótchi pron ࡜ࡖࡔ = dóchira ࡜ࡔࡼ which one (of the two) dote n ᅰᡥ dike dōtei n ❲ㇾ virgin (male) dōtoku n 㐠ᚠ morals, morality; dōtoku-teki (na) adj 㐠ᚠⓏ ࡝

Doyō´(bi) n ᅰ᭑ ᪝ Saturday doyomeki n ࡜ࡻࡴࡀ clamor,

hubbub doyomekimásu, doyomaku v ࡜ࡻࡴ ࡀࡱࡌ, ࡜ࡻࡴࡂ rings, (a crowd

of people) makes a ruckus

moral dótto adv ࡜ࡖ࡛ suddenly, with a rush: ~-waraimásu ࡜ࡖ࡛➏࠷ࡱ ࡌ everybody laughs dōwa n ❲ヨ fairy tale doyagai n ࡜ࡷ⾜ skid row doyashimásu, doyasu v ࡜ࡷࡊࡱࡌ,

dō´yū (“iu”) … adj ࡜࠹ࡹ࠹ ࠷࠹ … what kind/sort of… (= dónna … ࡜ࢆ࡝ …) dō´zo interj ࡜࠹ࡑ 1. please 2. here it is dy… → j… dz… → z…

E é n ⤦ picture, painting, drawing; e-hágaki n ⤦ⴝ᭡ picture postcard e n ᯮ handle e (-sá) n ࠻ ࡈ ࣬㣭 bait e interj ࠻ࡖ eh?, what? ē interj ࠻࠻ yes … e particle …࡫ to (a place); [replaces … ni …࡞ before … no … …ࡡ…] to (a person) ea-kon n ࢙࢓ࢤࣤ air condition-

ࣁࢪ air terminal bus eba-míruku n ࢙ࣁ࣐ࣜࢠ evapo-

rated milk ebi n ࢙ࣄ࣬ᾇ⩹ shrimp: kurumá-~ ㌬࢙ࣄ prawn; isé-~ ௿ເ ࢙ࣄ lobster; shibá-~ Ⱒ࢙ࣄ tiny

shrimp ē-bii-shíi n ࢙࣭ࣄ࣭ࢨ࣭࣬ABC

alphabet (ABC) echikétto n ࢙ࢲࢢࢴࢹ etiquette eda n ᯖ branch ing/conditioner eamēru n ࢙࢓࣒࣭ࣜ airmail efutiipii (FTP) n FTP・࢙ࣆࢷ࢔࣭ earain n ࢙࢓ࣚ࢕ࣤ airline ࣅ࣭File Transfer Protocol, earobíkusu n ࢙࢓ࣞࣄࢠࢪ aerobics FTP (computer) eatāminaru n ࢙࢓ࢰ࣭࣐ࢻࣜ air egakimásu, egáku v ᥝࡀࡱࡌ, ᥝࡂ terminal: ~-basu ࢙࢓ࢰ࣭࣐ࢻࣜ draws (a picture) 44

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egao n ➏㢞 smiling face eikyū (ni) adv Ễ஁ ࡞ eternally, egetsunái adj ࠻ࡅࡗ࡝࠷ [INFORMAL] permanently, forever gross, nasty [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] eisei n ⾠⏍ hygiene, health, saniei-… prefix ⱝ 1. English 2. tation; eisei-teki (na) adj ⾠⏍Ⓩ great; ei-bun n ⱝᩝ English text; ࡝ sanitary eiei-jiten n ⱝⱝ㎙඼ Englisheisei n ⾠᫅ satellite; eisei chūkei n English dictionary; Ei-go n ⱝㄊ ⾠᫅୯⤽ satellite transmission English (language); ei-kaiwa n ⱝ éito, ē´to n ࢙࢕ࢹ࢙࣭ࢹ eight; ఌヨ English conversation; ei-ki 8-oared racing boat eiyō n ᰜ㣬 nutrition, nourishment n ⱝẴ vigor, energy; Ei-koku n ⱝᅗ Great Britain, the United eizō n ᫆ാ picture, image Kingdom (U.K.) = Igirisu ࢕࢟ eizoku n Ễ⤾ lasting for a long ࣛࢪ England; ei-wa n, adj ⱝ࿰ time, permanence English-Japanese: ~-jíten ⱝ࿰ éizu n ࢙࢕ࢫ AIDS ㎙඼ English-Japanese dictionary; éki n 㥈 railroad station; eki-ben ei-yaku n ⱝズ English translation; 㥈ᘒ box lunches sold at railroad ei-yū n ⱝ㞕 hero, heroine stations; eki-chō n 㥈㛏 stationeieiō interj ࢙࢕࢙࢕࠽࠹ Hip, hip, master ekisu n ࢙࢞ࢪ extract hurrah! eien (no) adj Ễ㐪 ࡡ eternal, ekitai n ᾦమ liquid ekkusu-sen n ࢙ࢴࢠࢪ>X@⥲ permanent; eien ni adv Ễ㐪࡞ eternally, permanently X-ray (= rentogen ࣝࣤࢹࢣࣤ) eíga n ᫆⏤ movie, film; eigá-kan n ékubo n ࠻ࡂ࡯ dimple ᫆⏤㤃 movie theater; eiga-sutā n emásu, éru v ᚋࡱࡌ, ᚋࡾ [BOOKISH] ᫆⏤ࢪࢰ࣭ movie star gets; can do eiga n ᰜ⳱ prosperity én n ළ circle (= maru ୷): ~ taku eigō n Ễຒ [BOOKISH] eon: mirai-~ ළ༜ round table; en-kei n ළᙟ ᮅᮮỄຒ for eternity circle; en-shū n ළ࿔ circumfereigyō n ႜᴏ (running a) business; ence: ~-ritsu ළ࿔⋙ circle ratio, eigyō-jíkan n ႜᴏ᫤㛣 business pi én n ළ, …´-en …ළ yen (¥): énhours, operating hours daka (/-yasu) ළ㧏 Ꮽ high (/ eikan n ᰜ෗ crown, laurel low) value of the yen eiki n 㗞Ẵ spirit eikō n ᰜක glory, honor enchaku n ᘇ╌ delayed arrival eikyō n ᙫ㡢 influence; ~ o ukemásu enbō n 㐪᭻ distant view ᙫ㡢ࢅུࡄࡱࡌ receives an enchō n ᘇ㛏 extension; enchō-kō´do ᘇ㛏ࢤ࣭ࢺ extension cord influence

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endan n ⦍ㄧ marriage proposal endan n ⁿቨ lecture platform éndō, éndō-mame n ࢙ࣤࢺࢗ, ࢙ࣤ ࢺࢗ㇃ peas enen (to) adv ᘇࠍ ࡛ endlessly: ~ to hanashimásu ᘇࠍ࡛ヨࡊࡱ ࡌ goes on and on about enérúgii n ࢙ࢾ࣭ࣜ࢟ energy enérugísshu (na) adj ࢙ࢾࣜ࢟ࢴࢨ ࣖ ࡝ energetic engan n Ἒᓃ the coast engawa n ⦍ഁ (wooden) veranda,

Japanese songs (ballad) enkai n ᐑఌ party, banquet: ~ o hirakimásu ᐑఌࢅ㛜ࡀࡱࡌ holds

a party enkaku n Ἒ㠁 [BOOKISH] history enkaku n 㐪㝰 [BOOKISH] remoteness; enkaku-sōsa n 㐪㝰᧧ష

remote handling enkei n 㐪ᬊ [BOOKISH] distant

landscape enki n ᘇ᭿ postponement enkinkan n 㐪㎾វ perspective enkyori n 㐪㊝㞫 long distance; enkyori-ren’ai n 㐪㊝㞫ᜂយ long-

porch (in traditional Japanese house) engei n ᅧⰹ gardening distance love affair engeki n ⁿ๸ drama, play; engekí- enma-daiō n ࢙࣏ࣤ ኬ⋜ the (great) jin n ⁿ๸ெ theater people King of Hell/the Buddhist Hades, engi n ⦍㉫ 1. omen, luck 2. (his- Yama torical) origin; ~ ga/no yoi ⦍㉫ enmaku n ↦ᖞ smoke screen ࠿ࡡⰃ࠷ is of good omen enman (na) adj ළ‫ ࡝ ‮‬satisfactory éngi n ⁿᢇ performance; acting; enmei n ᘇ࿤ life extension; enmeichiryō n ᘇ࿤἖⒢ life-sustaining engí-sha n ⁿᢇ⩽ performer engo n ᥴ㆜ support treatment engun n ᥴ㌯ rescue forces, sup- enmoku n ⁿ┘ program enmusubi n ⦍⤎ࡦ matchmaking: port arms, reinforcement engumi n ⦍⤄ࡲ marriage, match ~ no kami ⦍⤎ࡦࡡ♼ the god énjin n ࢙ࣤࢩࣤ engine (of auto- of marriage énnichi n ⦍᪝ a temple fair (festival) mobile) enjínia n ࢙ࣤࢩࢼ࢓ engineer, ennō n ᘇ⣙ [BOOKISH] delayed specialist payment enjimasu, enjiru v ⁿࡋࡱࡌ, ⁿࡋࡾ enokí-dake/take n ࢙ࢿ࢞ࢱࢢ࣬ᴦⲎ plays, acts, performs straw mushrooms énjo n ᥴຐ support (aid), backing enpitsu n 㕼➱ pencil; enpitsu-kezuri enjói n ࢙ࣤࢩࣘ࢕ enjoyment n 㕼➱๎ࡽ pencil sharpener enjuku n ළ⇅ [BOOKISH] fully enro n 㐪㊨ from a long distance: ~ harubaru 㐪㊨ࡢࡾࡣࡾ all the maturing enka n ⁿḯ sad and melancholic way 46

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enryo n 㐪៎ (go-enryo ࡇ㐪៎

erā n ࢙࣭ࣚ error; erā-messēji n ࢙ ࣭࣒ࣚࢴࢬ࣭ࢩ error message [HONORIFIC]) reticence, social reserve, shyness; Go-~ náku. ࡇ erabimásu, erábu v 㐽ࡦࡱࡌ, 㐽ࡩ 㐪៎࡝ࡂ. Don’t be shy/reticent.; chooses, selects, elects ~ shite okimásu 㐪៎ࡊ࡙࠽ࡀࡱ erái adj ೥࠷ 1. great, grand, ࡌ takes a rain check, declines superior (person) 2. terrible, for now awful (= hidoi ࡥ࡜࠷࣬㓖࠷) enshi n 㐪ち farsightedness erebē´tā n ࢙࣭ࣝ࣊ࢰ࣭ elevator ereganto (na) adj ࢙ࣝ࢝ࣤࢹ ࡝ (presbyopia) enshutsu n ⁿฝ production, elegant (= yüga (na) ඁ㞖 ࡝ ) erí n ࠻ࡽ࣬〺 collar (of closing/ staging (play, movie) énso n ሲ⣪ chlorine clothes): ~ o tadashimásu 〺ࢅḿ ensō n ⁿ዇ performance (musical ࡊࡱࡌ straightens oneself éro-hon n ࢙ࣞᮇ [INFORMAL] instrument); ensō´-kai n ⁿ዇ఌ


pornography book

ensoku n 㐪㊂ picnic, outing entai n ᘇ⁣ arrear (overdues); entai-ryōkin n ᘇ⁣ᩩ㔘 deferred

ese-… adj ࠻ࡎ… pseudo-… essē n ࢙ࢴࢬ࣭ essay esu-efu n SF science fiction esukarē´tā n ࢙ࢪ࣭࢜ࣝࢰ࣭

premium entātei(n)mento n ࢙ࣤࢰ࣭ࢷ࢕ ࣤ ࣒ࣤࢹ entertainment enten n ⅎኮ [BOOKISH] scorching sun/weather: ~-ka de ⅎኮୖ࡚

under a blazing sun entotsu n ↦✲ chimney, smoke-

stack enzetsu n ⁿㄕ speech (public) épuron n ࢙ࣈࣞࣤ apron

escalator etai-no-shirenai adj ᚋమࡡ▩ࡿ࡝࠷

strange, as deep as a well étchi (na) adj ࢙ࢴࢲ ࡝ dirtyminded: ~ na hanashí ࢙ࢴࢲ࡝ ヨ a dirty (an off-color) story éte-shite adv ᚋ࡙ࡊ࡙ usually ē-to interj ࠻࣭࡛࠻࠻࡛ well

now, uh, let me see

F fáiawōru n ࣆ࢒࢕࢓࢚࣭ࢗࣜ

firewall (Internet security) fáibā n ࣆ࢒࢕ࣁ࣭ fiber fáibu n ࣆ࢒࢕ࣇ five fáindā n ࣆ࢒࢕ࣤࢱ࣭ finder

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fáiringu n ࣆ࢒࢕ࣛࣤࢡ filing fáiru n ࣆ࢒࢕ࣜ file fáito n ࣆ࢒࢕ࢹ fight fákkusu n ࣆ࢒ࢴࢠࢪ fax, facsimile (= fakushimiri ࣆ࢒ࢠࢨ࣐ࣛ)


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fán n ࣆ࢒ࣤ fan (enthusiast); yakyü-~ 㔕⌣ࣆ࢒ࣤ baseball fan; fan-kurabu n ࣆ࢒ࣤࢠࣚࣇ fan

ᛄ ࡝ unpleasant, displeasing, displeased (= fu-yúkai (na) ୘ញ ᛄ ࡝ ; fu-kéiki n ୘ᬊẴ depresclub sion, recession, hard times; fukísóku (na) adj ୘ぜ์ ࡝ irregfánkushon n ࣆ࢒ࣤࢠࢨࣘࣤ function ular; fu-kō´ n ୘ᖶ misfortune; fukō´hei (na) adj ୘පᖲ ࡝ unfair; fánshii n ࣆ࢒ࣤࢨ࣭ fancy fántajii n ࣆ࢒ࣤࢰࢩ࣭ fantasy fu-kyō n ୘Ἓ business slump, fáshisuto n ࣆ࢒ࢨࢪࢹ fascist depression; fú-jiyū (na) adj ୘⮤⏜ fásshon n ࣆ࢒ࢴࢨࣘࣤ fashion ࡝ inconvenient, restricted; fásunā n ࣆ࢒ࢪࢻ࣭ fastener, needy; weak: okane ni ~ shinai ࠽㔘࡞୘⮤⏜ࡊ࡝࠷ has no shortzipper fāsuto-fūdo n ࣆ࢒࣭ࢪࢹࣆ࣭ࢺ age of money; fu-man(zoku) n ୘‫‮‬ ㊂ discontent; fu-mei (no) adj ୘ fast food fāsuto-nēmu n ࣆ࢒࣭ࢪࢹࢾ࣭࣑ ᪺ ࡡ unknown, obscure: yukue ~ (no) ⾔᪁୘᪺ ࡡ disappearfirst name fáuru n ࣆ࢒ࢗࣜ foul ance, missing; fú-ri (na) adj ୘ฺ feisu bukku n ࣆ࢘࢕ࢪࣇࢴࢠ ࡝ unfavorable, adverse; fu-rin n ୘೒ adultery; fu-ryō (no) adj ୘Ⰳ Facebook (Internet) fiibā n ࣆ࢔࣭ࣁ࣭ fever ࡡ bad, no good, inferior; fusenmei (na) adj ୘㩥᪺ ࡝ obFirípin n ࣆ࢔ࣛࣅࣤ Philippines fírumu, fuirumu n ࣆ࢔࣑ࣜ, ࣆ࢕ࣜ scure, unclear; fu-shin n ୘ᐼ ࣑ film doubt, suspicion; fu-shi (no) adj fírutā n ࣆ࢔ࣜࢰ࣭ filter ୘Ṓ ࡡ immortal(ity); fu-shízen fisshingu n ࣆ࢔ࢴࢨࣤࢡ phishing (na) adj ୘⮤↓ ࡝ unnatural; fu-shō´ji n ୘⚀஥ scandal: ~ o ok(fraud) oshimásu ୘⚀஥ࢅ㉫ࡆࡊࡱࡌ fō n ࣆ࢚࣭, fóa ࣆ࢚࢓ four fō´ku n ࣆ࢚࣭ࢠ fork disgraces; fu-soku n ୘㊂ shortage, fu n ࣆ࣬㯉 pieces of dried wheat insufficiency, deficiency, scarcity, gluten lack; fu-tegiwa n ୘ᡥ㝷 blunder, fu- prefix ୘ un-, non-; fu-an (na) mismanagement; fu-tei (no) adj ୘ adj ୘Ꮽ ࡝ uneasy, anxious; fú- ᏽ ࡡ unfixed, uncertain, indefinite, undecided: ~-ki (no) ୘ᏽ ben (na) adj ୘౼ ࡝ inconvenient, unhandy; fu-dō´toku n ୘㐠ᚠ ᭿ ࡡ irregular; fu-tei (na) adj ୘ ㇾ ࡝ unchaste, unfaithful (to immorality; fugō´kaku n ୘ྙ᰹ failure; fu-kánō (na) adj ୘ྊ⬗ her husband); fu-teki (na) adj ୘ᩓ ࡝ impossible; fú-kai (na) adj ୘ ࡝ bold, lawless: daitan-futeki 48

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(na) ኬ⫱୘ᩓ ࡝ fearless; futekinin (na) adj ୘㐲௴ ࡝ unfit: futekinin-sha ୘㐲௴⩽ misfit; futekisetsu (na) adj ୘㐲ว ࡝ irrelevance, inappropriate; fu-tekitō (na) adj ୘㐲ᙔ ࡝ inadequate, unsuitable; fu-tettei (na) adj ୘ᚥᗇ ࡝ not thorough, imperfect, halfway; fu-tokui (na/no) adj ୘ᚋ ណ ࡝ࡡ poor/weak at; fu-tokutei (no) adj ୘≁ᏽ ࡡ indefinite; fu-tō (na) adj ୘ᙔ ࡝ unfair, unjustified: ; fu-tōshiki n ୘➴ᘟ inequality; fu-tōitsu n ୘⤣ୌ lacking of unity, disunity; fu-tōkō n ୘Ⓡᰧ

ily, always; fúdan (no) adj ᬉṹ ࡡ usual, everyday, ordinary; fudán-gí n ᬉṹ╌ everyday clothes fude n ➱ writing/painting brush; fude-bako n ➱⟵ pencil box/case fudō (no) adj ୘ິ ࡡ [BOOKISH] steadfast: ~ no chii ni imásu ୘ິࡡᆀన࡞࠷ࡱࡌ is in an impregnable position fudō´san n ୘ິ⏐ real estate fuemásu, fuéru v ቌ࠻ࡱࡌ, ቌ࠻ࡾ multiplies; grows in quantity/ number, gets bigger, swells, increases, expands fū´fu n ኰ፦ husband and wife, nonattendance at school, truancy; Mr. and Mrs., (married) couple: fu-tsuriai n ୘㔦ྙ࠷ imbalance; füfu-tomo(domo) ኰ፦භ ࠍ fu-un (na) adj ୘㐘 ࡝ unfortuboth husband and wife nate; fu-yō (no) adj ୘こ ࡡ un- fúgú n ࣆࢡ࣬ἑ㇔ blowfish, necessary, unneeded; fu-yō (no) puffer fú-gú n (discriminatory term) ୘ adj ୘⏕ ࡡ useless, disused; fu-yúkai (na) adj ୘ញᛄ ࡝ unර cripple pleasant, displeasing, displeased; fui (ni) adv ୘ណ ࡞ suddenly fu-zai n ୘ᅹ absence: ~-tøhyø ୘ fuji n ࣆࢩ࣬⸠ wisteria ᅹᢖ⚂ absentee vote fujin n ፦ெ lady, woman (go-fujin fú n, suffix ᗋ, …´-fu … ᗋ an ࡇ፦ெ [HONORIFIC]) urban prefecture: Kyøto-fu ா㒌 fujin n ኰெ wife: -fujin ̽ኰெ ᗋKyoto Prefecture Mrs. … fū´ n ᑌ sealing: … no ~ o Fuji (-san) n ᐣኃ ᒜ Mount Fuji, shimásu …ࡡᑌࢅࡊࡱࡌ seals Fujiyama fujo n ፦ዥ [BOOKISH] lady, woman a letter fúbo n ∏ẍ father and mother, (= fujin ፦ெ): fujo-bøkø ፦ዥᬸ one’s parents (= ryøshin ୦の) ⾔ sexual assault fúbuki n ྻ㞯 snowstorm fujo n ᡿ຐ aid, support: fujo-kin fuchí n ⦍ edge, rim, frame ᡿ຐ㔘 benefits fuda n ᮈ label, tag, card, check fuká n ࣆ࢜ big shark (used in fúdan adv ᬉṹ usually, ordinarwestern Japan) (→ same ࢦ࣒࣬㩢) 49

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fukái adj 深い deep: fukáku 深く

deeply fukása n 深さ depth fukashimásu, fukásu v 蒸かします, 蒸かす steams (food) fukashimásu, fukásu v 吹かします, 吹かす smokes: énjin o ~ エンジ ンを吹かします, 吹かす races the engine fukashimásu, fukásu v 更かします, 更かす sits up late: yó o ~ 夜を 更かします, 更かす stays up late fuké v ふけ dandruff fū´kei n 風景 scenery, landscape; fūkei-ga n 風景画 landscape painting(s)/picture(s) fukemásu, fukéru v 更けます, 更け る gets late: yo ga ~ 夜が更けま す, 更ける (the night) grows late fukemásu, fukéru v 老けます, 老ける gets old, ages fuketsu (na) adj 不潔(な) unclean, dirty, filthy fuki n フキ・蕗 bog rhubarb fukimásu, fuku v 拭きます, 拭く wipes fukimásu, fúku v 葺きます, 葺く thatches (a roof), tiles roof: … no yáne o ~ …の屋根を葺きます covers with a roof, roofs: kawara de ~ 瓦で葺きます tiles a roof:

fukín n 付近 vicinity fukkakemásu, fukkakéru v ふっかけ ます, ふっかける overcharges fukú n 服 clothes, suit, dress

uniform fuku n 福 happiness; fuku-biki n 福 引 lottery; raffle; fuku no kami n 福の神 god of wealth fuku- prefix 副– vice-, assistant-; fuku-kaichō n 副会長 vice chairman/ chairperson; fuku-shachō n 副社長

vice-president (of a company); fukú-sayō n 副作用 side-effect,

after-effect fuku- n 複 double; fuku-sei n 複製

replica, reproduction, reprint; fuku-sha n 複写 reproduction, copy; fuku-sū n 複数 plural fukugō-go n 複合語 compound

(word) fukumemásu, fukuméru v 含めます, 含める includes, adds fukumimásu, fukúmu v 含みます, 含 む holds in the mouth; contains;

implies; bears/keeps in mind fukuramashimásu, fukuramásu v 膨ら まします, 膨らます bulges,


fukurami v 膨らみ bulge fukuramimásu, fukuramu v 膨らみま す, 膨らむ swells up, bulges káya/kusá/wára de ~ 茅/草/藁で fukuremásu, fukureru v 膨れます, 膨 葺きます thatches れる swells up; pouts, sulks fukimásu, fúku v 吹きます, 吹く fukuró n 袋 bag, sack blows fukúrō n フクロウ・梟 owl fukín n 布きん napkin, towel, fukushi n 副詞 adverb cloth, washcloth, dishcloth fukúshi n 福祉 welfare; fukushi-shí-

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setsu n ⚗♬᪃シ welfare facility fukushū n ᚗ⩞ review (study) fukushū n ᚗㆮ revenge, vengeance fukushū shimásu (suru) v ᚗ⩞ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ reviews (study) fukushū shimásu (suru) v ᚗㆮࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ takes revenge, revenges fukusō n ᭱⿞ dress, attirement,


effort; ~ ga kikimasen ㊻ࢆᘿࡽ ࠿ࡀࡀࡱࡎࢆ can’t hold on funbetsu n ฦื discretion, sense: ~ ga tsukimásu ฦื࠿ࡗࡀࡱࡌ

cuts a tooth fundoshi n ࡨࢆ࡜ࡊ࣬〇 loincloth, breechcloth: hito no ~ de sumø o torimásu ெࡡࡨࢆ࡜ࡊ࡚┞᧖

ࢅཱིࡽࡱࡌ rides on someone’s clothes, costume fukuzatsu (na) adj 々㞟 ࡝ compli- back cated: ~ na shinkyø 々㞟࡝ᚨሾ fúne n ⯢>⯒@ boat, ship mixed feelings: ~ na tachiba 々 fungai n ៵់ [BOOKISH] indigna㞟࡝❟ሔ complicated situation tion, resentment fukyū n ᬉཀྵ diffusion, populari- fun’íki n 㞲ᅑẴ atmosphere (of a zation: pasokon no ~ (ga susunde) place), mood, aura, air: ~-zukuri ࣂࢮࢤࣤࡡᬉཀྵ ࠿㐅ࢆ࡚ (with) 㞲ᅑẴషࡽ creating atmosphere the increase of computer users funka n ᄂℾ eruption: ~-kø ᄂℾ fumemásu, fumeru v ㊻ࡴࡱࡌ, ㊻ࡴ ཾ crater funmatsu n ⢂ᮆ powder: ~ ni ࡾ can tread fū´mí n 㢴࿝ flavor: ~ o tamochishimásu ⢂ᮆ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ makes másu 㢴࿝ࢅಕࡔࡱࡌ keeps/ into powder, pulverizes preserves a flavor; ~ no aru ryøri funpatsu n ዢⓆ putting a lot of 㢴࿝ࡡ࠵ࡾᩩ⌦ savory dish effort, spoiling oneself fumi-komimásu, fumi-kómu v ㊻ࡲ㎰ funshitsu n ⣦኶ loss: ~-todoke o ࡲࡱࡌ, ㊻ࡲ㎰ࡳ 1. steps into/ dashimásu ⣦኶ᒀࡄࢅฝࡊࡱࡌ on 2. trespasses (on); raids reports a missing item fumimásu, fumu v ㊻ࡲࡱࡌ, ㊻ࡳ funsō n ᡻⿞ disguise: ~ shimásu ᡻⿞ࡊࡱࡌ is costumed, makes up steps on, treads fumotó n 㮼 foot (of a mountain) funsō n ⣦ண conflict, dispute; fún n ⢽ feces, dung funsō-chiiki n ⣦ணᆀᇡ disputed …´-fun suffix …ฦ minute(s) area, conflict-affected region funá-… prefix ⯢ ship, vessel; funsui n ᄂỀ fountain funá-bin n ⯢౼ sea mail; funá-nori funtō n ዢ㜒 struggle n ⯢஋ࡽ sailor, crew (member); funuke n ⭂ᢜࡄ coward: ~-mono funá-yoi n ⯢㓁࠷ seasick(ness) ⭂ᢜࡄ⩽ cowardly man funbari n ㊻ࢆᘿࡽ effort: mø hito furafura adv ࡨࡼࡨࡼ staggers, ~ ࡵ࠹ࡥ࡛㊻ࢆᘿࡽ one last reels: ~-kan ࡨࡼࡨࡼវ wooziness 51

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furai-pan n ࣆࣚ࢕ࣂࣤ frying pan furi-kake n ࡨࡽ࠾ࡄ flavor sprinfuramenko n ࣆ࣒ࣚࣤࢤ flamenco: kles (to top rice) ~ dansu ࣆ࣒ࣚࣤࢤࢱࣤࢪ fla- furi-kakemásu, furi-kakéru v ᣲࡽ᤻ ࡄࡱࡌ, ᣲࡽ᤻ࡄࡾ sprinkles it menco dance Furansu n ࣆࣚࣤࢪ France; furimásu, furu v ᣲࡽࡱࡌ, ᣲࡾ Furansu-go n ࣆࣚࣤࢪㄊ French 1. waves, shakes, swings 2. wags (language); Furansú-jin n ࣆࣚࣤ it 3. gives someone the ax ࢪெ a French furimásu, fúru v 㜾ࡽࡱࡌ, 㜾ࡾ furari (to) adv ࡨࡼࡽ ࡛ aimlessly: falls, it precipitates (rains, snows) ~ tachiyorimásu ࡨࡼࡽ࡛❟ࡔᐞ furi-mukimásu, furi-múku v ᣲࡽྡྷࡀ ࡽࡱࡌ drops in ࡱࡌ, ᣲࡽྡྷࡂ looks back furasuko n ࣆࣚࢪࢤ flask fūrin n 㢴㕝 wind-chimes furatsukimásu v ࡨࡼࡗࡀࡱࡌ stag- furisodé n ᣲࡽ⾿ long-sleeved

gers, sways furemásu, fureru v よࡿࡱࡌ, よࡿࡾ touches (= sawarimásu よࡽࡱࡌ) 1. contacts with; touches upon 2. mentions, refers to furemásu, fureru v ᣲࡿࡱࡌ, ᣲࡿࡾ

can wave it, can shake it fureraremásu, furerareru v よࡿࡼࡿ ࡱࡌ, よࡿࡼࡿࡾ can touch furí v ᣲࡽ manner, pretense, air furí v 㜾ࡽ the rain/snow, the down-

pour furi-gana n ࡨࡽ࠿࡝࣬ࣆࣛ࢝ࢻ

kimono furo n 㢴࿁ o-fúro ࠽㢴࿁ bath: ~ ni hairimásu 㢴࿁࡞ථࡽࡱࡌ takes a bath; furo-bá n 㢴࿁ሔ

bathroom furonto n ࣆࣞࣤࢹ front desk; furonto-garasu n ࣆࣞࣤࢹ࢝ࣚࢪ

automobile windshield furō´-sha n ᾃᾁ⩽ vagabond,

vagrant, tramp, homeless person furuemásu, furueru v 㟀࠻ࡱࡌ, 㟀 ࠻ࡾ it shakes furui n ࡨࡾ࠷ sieve, sifter furúi adj ཿ࠷ old (not new), stale

readings marked (for Chinese (not fresh); secondhand, used characters) furi-kae n ᣲ(ࡽ ᭨ ࠻ transfer furumai n ᣲࡾ⯑࠷ behavior (of funds); furikae-yókin n ᣲ᭨㡰 (deportment): furumaimásu ᣲ 㔘 transfer deposit; furikae-kyūjitsu ࡾ⯑࠷ࡱࡌ behaves furui(okoshi)masu, furui(okosu), furu-u n ᣲ᭨ఆ᪝ compensating/ substitute holiday v ዢ࠷ ㉫ࡆࡊ ࡱࡌ, ዢ࠷ ㉫ࡆ furi-kaemásu, furi-kaeru v ᣲ ࡽ ᭨ ࡌ , ዢ࠹ summons: yüki o fu࠻ࡱࡌ, ᣲ ࡽ ᭨࠻ࡾ transfers it ruiokoshite/furutte… …ຩẴࢅ furi-kaerimásu, furi-kaéru v ᣲࡽ㏁ࡽ ዢ࠷㉫ࡆࡊ࡙ዢࡖ࡙ …with ࡱࡌ, ᣲࡽ㏁ࡾ looks back gathering up of one’s courage 52

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furū´to n ࣆ࣭ࣜࢹ flute furūtsu n ࣆ࣭ࣜࢵ fruit: ~-kakuteru ࣆ࣭ࣜࢵ࢜ࢠࢷࣜ fruit cocktail fū´ryū (na) adj 㢴Ὦ ࡝ elegant fusá n ᡛ bunch (cluster) fusagarimásu, fusagaru v ራ࠿ࡽࡱ ࡌ, ራ࠿ࡾ gets blocked (off),


fushō n ㇿഭ injury fusso n ࣆࢴ⣪ fluorine fusumá n 〴 opaque sliding panel/

door futa n ⵱ lid, cover; flap (of envel-

ope, etc.) futa-… adj ஦… two: futá-ban ஦ ᬄ two nights: futá-kumi ஦⤄

clogged/stopped up, gets occutwo pairs (of) pied, booked up, engaged fusagimásu, fusagu v ራࡁࡱࡌ, ራ futago n ཫᏄ twins futamatá (no) adj ஦ཧ>ཨ@ ࡡ ࡃ stops up, closes, blocks fusái n ኰጏ Mr. and Mrs.; husforked, bifurcate(d): futamatasokétto ஦ཧ>ཨ@ࢮࢢࢴࢹ twoband and wife (= füfu ኰ፦) fusawashíi adj ┞ᚺࡊ࠷ suitable, way socked, double plug worthy; becoming: fusawáshiku futarí n ஦ெ࣬ࡨࡒࡽ o-futari ࠽ ┞ᚺࡊࡂ suitably ஦ெ two persons fusegimásu, fuségu v 㜭ࡁࡱࡌ, 㜭 futa-sén n ஦༐࣬2,000, two ࡃ prevents; defends, protects thousand (= ni-sén ஦༐࣬2,000) fusemásu, fuséru v ఄࡎࡱࡌ, ఄࡎ futatsú n ஦ࡗ࣬2ࡗ࣬ࡨࡒࡗ two ࡾ covers (up), conceals; lays it (pieces, small objects) (= ní-ko face down: mi o fuséru ㌗ࢅఄࡎ ஦಴); two years old (= ní-sai ஦ ࡱࡌ gets down, crouches (so as ṋ>ᡧ@) futatsú-mi(t)tsu n ஦ࡗ୔ࡗ two or not to be seen): fuse-ji ఄࡎᏊ turned letter(s), unprintable word(s) three fūsen n 㢴⯢ balloon: kami-~ ⣤㢴 futebuteshii adj ࡨ࡙ࡩ࡙ࡊ࠷ ⯢ paper balloon; fūsen-gámu n 㢴 impudent, audacious ⯢࣑࢝ bubble gum futekusareta adj ࡨ࡙ࡂࡈࡿࡒ fushí n ⟿ joint; gnarl, knot, knob; pouty: futekusaremásu ࡨ࡙ࡂࡈ ࡿࡱࡌ has the sulks, gets sulky tune, air; point (in a statement); fushi-me n ⟿┘ turning point futene n ࡨ࡙ᐱ going to bed in a fushigi (na) adj ୘ᛦ㆗ ࡝ weird, huff, staying in bed sulking strange, mysterious; wonderful; futo adv ࡨ࡛ unexpectedly; by suspicious, odd, funny, uncanny chance, suddenly: ~ ki ga tsukifushin n ᬉㄫ building (construc- másu ࡨ࡛Ẵ࠿ࡗࡀࡱࡌ comes tion), repairs to a sudden realization fu-shínsetsu (na) adj ୘のว ࡝ futō n ᇢ㢄 pier, wharf, quay fūtō n ᑌ➼ envelope: henshin-yø ~ unkind 53

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futodoki (na)

返信用封筒 return-mail envelope futodoki (na) adj 不届き(な) outrageous: ~ na okonai 不届きな行 い outrageous conduct futō-fukutsu (na/no) adj 不撓不屈 (な/の) indomitable, stubborn, unyielding: ~ no seishin 不撓不 屈の精神 indomitable spirit futói adj 太い fat, plump, thick

(and round) futoji n 太字 boldface futokoro n 懐 bosom, finance: ~ ga atatakai 懐が暖かい has a heavy purse: ~ ga fukai 懐が深い is

magnanimous, has deep insight, has depth futomomo n 太腿 thigh futon n 布団(o-futón お布団) padded quilt, futon: ~ o hoshimásu 布団を干します airs out futons futorimásu, futóru v 太ります, 太る gets fat: futótte imásu 太ってい ます is fat futsū adj, adv 普通 ordinar(il)y, usual(ly), regular(ly), typical(ly), normal(ly): ~-dénsha 普通電車 local (= non-express) train futsū n 不通 disconnect futsubun n 仏文 French sentence, French literature futsufutsu (to) adv ふつふつ(と) gradually; yüki ga ~ waku 勇気が

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ふつふつと沸く gets courage gradually futsuka n 二日・2日・ふつか 1. 2nd day (of month) 2. two days: ~-kan 二日間 for two days futsū-yókin n 普通預金 (ordinary) savings account futten n 沸点 boiling point futtō n 沸騰 boiling futto bōru n フットボール American football futto wāku n フットワーク footwork: ~ ga karui フットワーク が軽い light on one’s feet fuyashimásu, fuyásu v 増やします, 増やす increases it/them fuyō n 扶養 support, keeping; fuyō-kazoku n 扶養家族 dependent family/relatives; fuyō-teate n 扶養 手当 family allowance fuyú n 冬 winter: ~ 冬ご; fuyu-yásumi n 冬休み winter break/vacation fuzakemásu, fuzakeru v ふざけます, ふざける fool around, kid around fuzei n 風情 taste, appearance, look: ~ no aru keshiki/nagame 風情のある景色/眺め scenic view fuzoku n 付属・附属 attachment, belonging, accessory; fuzokú-hin n 付属品 attachments, accessories fuzoroi n 不揃い irregularity


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G ga n ࢝࣬⻅ moth ga n ᠻ oneself, ego, atman: ~ o tøshimásu (tøsu) ᠻࢅ㏳ࡊࡱࡌ has one’s own way: ~ o orimásu ᠻࢅᢙࡽࡱࡌ gives yield …ga …࠿ particle: marks subject

(who does, what is), but marks also object of: ... ga arimásu … ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ (has what): ... ga irimásu …࠿こࡽࡱࡌ (needs/ wants what): ... ga wakarimásu …࠿ฦ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ (understands what): ... ga dekimásu …࠿ฝᮮ ࡱࡌ (can do what) … ga conj …࠿ but (= shikashi ࡊ࠾ࡊ) …´-ga suffix …⏤ painting, picture gabugabu adv ࢝ࣇ࢝ࣇ gulping down

…´-gai …አ outside (of): senmon-~ (no) ᑍ㛓አ ࡡ unprofessional; gái-bu n አ㒂 the outside, the exterior; gai-jin n አெ = gaikokú-jin አᅗெ foreigner; gai-ken n አず appearance; gai-kō n አஹ diplomacy, diplomatic relations: ~ kan አஹᏻ diplomat(ic) officer; gai-koku n አᅗ foreign countries: ~-go አᅗㄊ foreign language(s); ~-jin አᅗ ெ foreigner; gai-sen n አ⥲ out-

side line/extension (phone); gai-shoku n አ㣏 eating out; gai-tō n አዎ coat, overcoat; gai-sha n አ㌬ foreign car; gai-yō n አὊ high sea …-gai suffix …ㇽ (name of) shell: hotate-gai ࣌ࢰࢷ࢝࢕࣬ᕲ❟ㇽ

gabyō n ⏤㗡 thumbtack gachō n ࢝ࢲࣘࢗ࣬㬶㫵 goose gādeningu n ࣭࢝ࢸࢼࣤࢡ

scallop gáido n ࢝࢕ࢺ guide gáidoku n ᐐẐ [BOOKISH] evil, gardening harm, bad influence on society gādoman n ࣭࢝ࢺ࣏ࣤ guard gaikan n ᴣび survey, bird’s-eye gādorēru n ࣭࢝ࢺ࣭ࣝࣜ guardrail view gādoru n ࣭࢝ࢺࣜ girdle gaikotsu n 㦹㦭 skeleton gāgā adv ࣭࣭࢝࢝ quack, croak: gaikyō n ᴣἛ [BOOKISH] overall ~ iu oto ࣭࣭࢝࢝࠷࠹㡚 rasping condition Gaimú-shō n አຸ┤ Ministry of sound Foreign Affairs of Japan MOFA) gágaku n 㞖ᴞ [BOOKISH] music traditional to the imperial court gáinen n ᴣᛍ concept gái n ᐐ damage, harm, injury gairo n ⾜㊨ broad street(s) in the gai-… prefix አ… external, town gáisan n ᴣ⟤ approximate calcuforeign: gai(kokú)-jin አᅗெ; 55

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lation: ~-chi ᴣ⟤ೋ estimated gakuchō n Ꮥ㛏 president of a figure school (college/university) …-gáisha n …ఌ♣ = kaisha ఌ♣ gakudan n ᴞᅆ band (of musicians) gakudō n Ꮥ❲ school child(ren): company gaisha n ラ⩽ = hi-gaisha ⿍ᐐ⩽ ~-hoiku Ꮥ❲ಕ⫩ after-school victim care for children gaitame n አⅥ = gaikoku-kawase gakuen n Ꮥᅧ academy አᅗⅥ᭨ foreign currency gakufu n ᴞㆍ musical score gakugei n Ꮥⰹ liberal arts operations gaitō n ⾜㢄 the street, the waygakugyo n Ꮥᴏ schoolwork, side academic work gaiyō n ᴣこ outline, summary gakuha n ᏕὬ school of thought gaka n ⏤ᐓ painter, artist gakuhi n Ꮥ㈕ academic fees …-gákari …౿ attendant (in charge) gákui n Ꮥన academic degree gake n ᓭ cliff gakúmon n Ꮥၡ knowledge, gakí n 㣱㨛 [BOOKISH] hungry/ learning, education begging ghost; ࢝࢞࣬࠿ࡀ࣬㣱㨛 gakunen n Ꮥᖳ school year gakureki n ᏕṌ educational backbrat: ~-daishø ࠿ࡀኬᑑ bully, little turk ground gakka n Ꮥ⛁ subject (school): gakuryoku n Ꮥງ academic ability ~-shiken Ꮥ⛁ム㥺 examinations gakusei n Ꮥ⏍ student: ~-fuku Ꮥ ⏍᭱ school uniform: ~-shø Ꮥ⏍ in academic subjects gakkai n Ꮥఌ scholarly society, チ student identification card gakusha n Ꮥ⩽ scholar association gakkári shimásu (suru) v ࠿ࡖ࠾ࡽࡊ gákushi n Ꮥኃ bachelor’s degree: ~-rónbun Ꮥኃㄵᩝ senior essay ࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ is disappointed, gakushū n Ꮥ⩞ study, learning discouraged gakki n Ꮥ᭿ term (of school); gakushū´-sha n Ꮥ⩞⩽ the student semester of a subject (in general): Eigo-~ gakki n ᴞჹ musical instrument ⱝㄊᏕ⩞⩽ the student of English gakkō n Ꮥᰧ school gamaguchi n ࠿ࡱཾ purse, wallet, gakkyū n Ꮥ⣥ class/grade in school pocketbook (= saifu ㈀ᕱ) gaku n Ꮥ learning, study, science: gáman n ᠻះ patience, persever…´-gaku …Ꮥ …-ology ance; ~ dekimasén (dekinai) ᠻ gáku n 㢘 amount, sum ះ࡚ࡀࡱࡎࢆ ࡚ࡀ࡝࠷ cannot gakubu n Ꮥ㒂 department stand it; ~-zuyói ᠻះᙁ࠷ is gaku-buchi n 㢘⦍ frame (of picture) patient, persevering hard(er) 56

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gamen n ⏤㟻 screen (of TV,

gas(oline)/service station computer, etc.) gassō n ྙ዇ concert: ~ shimásu gámu n ࣑࢝ (chewing) gum ྙ዇ࡊࡱࡌ plays in a concert gán n ࠿ࢆ࣬⒬ cancer, carcinoma gásu n ࢝ࢪ (natural) gas; gasúgáisha n ࢝ࢪఌ♣ gas company; gāna n ࣭࢝ࢻ Ghana ganbarimásu, ganbáru n, interj 㡱ᘿ gasú-kónro n ࢝ࢪࡆࢆࢀ (gas) ࡽࡱࡌ, 㡱ᘿࡾ stands firm, bears hot plate; gasú-rénji n ࢝ࢪࣝࣤࢩ up, hangs in there; tries hard gas range gani-mata (no) adj ࠿࡞⫝̸ ࡡ …-gata …ᆵ type, model; size …gáta …᪁ [HONORIFIC PLURAL] bowlegged ganjitsu, gantan n ඔ᪝, ඔ᪞ New esteemed (persons) Year’s day, first day of the year gā´tā n ࣭࢝ࢰ࣭ garter gánko (na) adj 㡱ᅖ ࡝ stubborn gátagata shimásu (suru) v ࠿ࡒ࠿ࡒ gánnen n ඔᖳ the first year of an ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ clatters, rattles gatchi n ྙ⮬ accordance: ~ era; Year One gánrai adv ඔᮮ originally, prima- shimásu ྙ⮬ࡊࡱࡌ matches gatchiri-shita adj ࠿ࡖࡔࡽࡊࡒ rily gánsho n 㢢᭡ application well-built gantan n ඔ᪞ = ganjitsu ඔ᪝ …-gatsu …᭮ (name of) month of (New Year’s day, first day of the the year gatten n ྙⅤ consent, assent, year) gan’yaku n ୷ⷾ pill (= jøzai 㗼๠) understanding gappei n ྙె merger, combina- -gawa n ഁ side, mukø-gawa ྡྷࡆ ࠹ഁ the other side tion, union gáragara ࠿ࡼ࠿ࡼ࣬࢝ࣚ࢝ࣚ 1. n gāze n ࣭࢝ࢭ gauze rattle 2. adj rattling: ~ narimásu gazō n ⏤ാ image ࠿ࡼ࠿ࡼ㫾ࡽࡱࡌ it rattles gé n ୖ = ge-kan ୖᕬ last volume garakuta n ࠿ࡼࡂࡒ junk (of a set of 2 or 3) garasu n ࢝ࣚࢪ glass (substance) gedoku-zai n ゆẐ๠ antidote garasú-bin n ࢝ࣚࢪ⎴ glass jar/ gehín (na) adj ୖဗ ࡝ vulgar: ~ na kotoba ୖဗ࡝ゕⴝ vulgar bottle gárē´ji n ࣭࢝ࣝࢩ garage language gári n ࢝ࣛ pickled ginger slices géi n ⰹ arts, accomplishments; gāru-furéndo n ࣭࢝ࣜࣆࣝࣤࢺ tricks, stunts géi n ࢣ࢕ gay: ~-bå ࢣ࢕ࣁ࣭ girlfriend (= kánojo ᙴዥ) gasorin n ࢝ࢮࣛࣤ gasoline: gay bar ~-sutándo ࢝ࢮࣛࣤࢪࢰࣤࢺ geigō n ㎼ྙ assent: ~ shimásu 57

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㎼ྙࡊࡱࡌ panders to one’s realistic; gen-jō n ⌟≟ the feelings/opinions/wishes present conditions/state, status geijutsu n ⰹ⾙ art(s); geijutsu-ka n quo; gen-jū´sho n ⌟పᡜ current ⰹ⾙ᐓ artist address; gen-kín n ⌟㔘 ready geinō n ⰹ⬗ performance arts, money; gen-kōhan (no) adj ⌟⾔≚ public entertainments; geinō´-jin n ࡡ red-handed: ~ de tsukamarimásu ⌟⾔≚࡚ᤍࡱࡽࡱࡌ is ⰹ⬗ெ entertainer(s) geisha n ⰹ⩽ geisha caught red handed; gén-zai n, gejun n ୖ᪢ late part/end of a adv ⌟ᅹ the present (time); at month (last 1/3 of the month) present, now geka n አ⛁ surgery (as a medical géndo n 㝀ᗐ limit: saidai/saikø-~ specialty); geká-i n አ⛁༈ surgeon ᭩ኬ᭩㧏㝀ᗐ the maximum/ ge-kan n ୖᕬ last volume (of a highest (degree) géngo n ゕㄊ language: ~-gaku ゕ set of 2 or 3) géki n ๸ play, drama ㄊᏕ linguistics gékido n ⃥ᛛ furious anger gengō n ඔྒ era name geki-ga n ๸⏤ graphic novel gen’in n ཋᅄ cause, origin, root: gekijō n ๸ሔ theater ~ to kekka ཋᅄ࡛⤎ᯕ cause gekiron n ⃥ㄵ violent controversy and effect gekkei n ᭮⤊ menstruation (= genjū (na) adj ཚ㔔 ࡝ strict: ~ seiri ⏍⌦): ~ ga hajimarimásu keibi ཚ㔔࡝㆑ങ very strict guard ᭮⤊࠿ጙࡱࡽࡱࡌ one’s period génkan n ⋖㛭 entrance (hall), porch génki n ඔẴ o-génki ࠽ඔẴ begins gekkyū n ᭮⤝ monthly salary energy, vigor, pep: ~ (na) ඔẴ geko n ୖᡖ non-drinker ࡝ healthy, well, cheerful, gekokujō n ୖග୕ forcible disvigorous: O-genki desu ka. ࠽ඔ placement of a superior by one’s Ẵ࡚ࡌ࠾. How are you? genko n ᣑᅖ, genkotsu ᣑ㦭 fist inferior gē´mu n ࢣ࣭࣑ game genkō n ゕ⾔ sayings and doings gén n ᘳ string; gen-gakki n ᘳᴞჹ genkō n ཋ✇ manuscript: ~ o shiagemásu ཋ✇ࢅ௘୕ࡅࡱࡌ string instrument(s) gén(-) … prefix ⌟ … present finishes one’s article (time), current; gen-ba n ⌟ሔ genkoku n ཋ࿈ suitor, accuser site; gén-dai n ⌟௥ the present: genkyū shimásu (suru) v ゕཀྵࡊࡱࡌ ~ (no) ⌟௥ ࡡ modern, up-to ࡌࡾ [BOOKISH] refers to …, date; gen-jitsu n ⌟ᐁ actuality, mentions … (= (… ni) furemásu … ࡞ よࡿࡱࡌ reality; ~-teki (na) ⌟ᐁⓏ ࡝ 58

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génmai n ⋖⡷ unpolished rice; gesui n ୖỀ sewage; (kitchen) genmai-cha n ⋖⡷Ⲍ Genmaicha, drain; gesui-dō n ୖỀ㐠 sewage

brown rice tea


genmitsu (na) adj ཚᐠ ࡝ strict genryō´ n ཋᩩ (raw) materials,

getá n ୖ㥇 wooden clogs (shoes) …-getsu suffix …᭮ month getsumatsu n ᭮ᮆ the end of a

basic ingredient gensaku n ཋష the original (writing) gensan (no) adj ཋ⏐ ࡡ (plants and animals) native to: ~-chi ཋ ⏐ᆀ place of origin génshi n ཋᏄ atom; genshi-bákudan n ཋᏄ⇷ᙆ atomic bomb génshi (no) adj ཋጙ ࡡ primitive genshō n ⌟㇗ phenomenon genshō n ΅ᑛ decrease gensoku n ཋ์ a basic principle, a rule: ~ to shite ཋ์࡛ࡊ࡙ as a

month getsumen n ᭮㟻 surface of the


Getsuyō´(bi) n ᭮᭑ ᪝ Monday gettō n ࢣࢴࢹ࣭ ghetto(s) gezai n ୖ๠ laxative gi-… prefix അ… pseudo- …; gi-shō n അチ false testimony; gizen n അၻ hypocrisy gi-… prefix ⩇ = giri (no) ⩇⌦ࡡ ...-in-law; gí-bo n ⩇ẍ = girí no haha ⩇⌦ࡡẍ mother-in-law; (general) rule gentei n 㝀ᏽ limitation gí-fu n ⩇∏ = girí no chichi ⩇⌦ genzō shimásu (suru) v ⌟ാࡊࡱࡌ ࡡ∏ father-in-law; gi-kei n ⩇ඕ ࡌࡾ develops (film) = girí no ani ⩇⌦ࡡඕ elder geppu n ᭮㈷ monthly installbrother-in-law; gi-mai n ⩇ግ = ments/payments: ~-barai ᭮㈷ᡮ girí no imøto ⩇⌦ࡡግ young ࠷ monthly payments sister-in-law; gi-tei n ⩇ᘭ = girí géppu n ࡅࡖࡪ belch, burp no otøto ⩇⌦ࡡᘭ young brothergeragera waraimásu (warau) v ࡅࡼࡅ in-law ࡼ>ࢣࣚࢣࣚ@ ➏࠷ࡱࡌ ➏࠹ gífuto n ࢟ࣆࢹ gift gíin n ㆗ဤ member of parliament: laughs with great guffaws geretsu adj ୖ຋ rude, abusive, Kokkai-~ ᅗఌ㆗ဤ member of a


national legislature

geri n ୖ② diarrhea giji-dō n ㆗஥ᇸ: kokkai ~ ᅗఌ㆗ geshi n ኚ⮫ summer solstice ஥ᇸ Diet building geshuku n ୖᐙ lodgings, room gíjutsu n ᢇ⾙ technique; gijutu-sha (and board); geshuku-ya n ୖᐙᒁ n ᢇ⾙⩽ technician, engineer gíkai n ㆗ఌ parliament, assembly, rooming/boarding house gés-súi-kin n ᭮Ề㔘 Mondaycongress; (the Japanese) Diet Wednesday-Friday (= kokkai ᅗఌ)

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gikochinái adj ࡁࡆࡔ࡝࠷ awkward, makes a sacrifice/scapegoat of clumsy …; ~ ni narimásu ≓∽࡞࡝ࡽࡱ gimon n ␪ၡ question, doubt; ࡌ falls a victim, is sacrificed; gimón-fu n ␪ၡ➚ question mark giséi-sha n ≓∽⩽ victim gímu n ⩇ຸ duty, obligation; gimu- gíshi n ᢇᖅ engineer kyō´iku n ⩇ຸᩅ⫩ compulsory gíshiki n ൢᘟ ceremony, ritual gítā n ࢟ࢰ࣭ guitar education gín n 㖗 silver; gin-iro (no) adj 㖗Ⰵ gítcho (no) adj (discriminatory ࡡ silver (color); gín-ka n 㖗㈄ term) ࡁࡖࡔࡺ ࡡ left-handed silver coin (person) (= hidari-kiki (no) ᕞฺ Gínga n 㖗ἑ the Milky Way ࡀ ࡡ ) ginjō n ྨ㔂 produce from the use giwaku n ␪ᝠ doubt, suspicion of selected ingredient(s): ~-shu gizō n അ㏸ forgery ྨ㔂㒿 quality sake brewed from gó n ◳ the board game Go (= ígo ᅑ◳): go-ban ◳┑ a Go board the finest rice ginkō n 㖗⾔ bank; ginkō´-in n 㖗⾔ gó n ஫࣬5 five; go-ban n ஫␊ ဤ bank clerk number five; go-banmé (no) adj ginmi n ྨ࿝ investigation ஫␊┘ ࡡ fifth; go-dai n ஫ྋ ginnán n ࢟ࣤࢻࣤ࣬㖗ᮝ gingko five machines/vehicles; go-dó n ஫ᗐ five times (= go-kai ஫ᅂ); nuts ginshō n ྨ၌ intonation gó-do n ஫ᗐ five degrees; gó-hiki ginyūshijin n ྨ㐗モெ minstrel n ஫༆ five (fishes/bugs, small girei n ൢ♡ courtesy animals); go-hon n ஫ᮇ five girí n ⩇⌦ o-gíri ࠽⩇⌦ obliga- (pencils/bottles, long things); gotion, sense of obligation, honor: kái n ஫ᅂ five times; go-kai n ஫ girí no … ⩇⌦ࡡ… …-in-law: 㝭 five floors/stories; fifth floor; girí no ane ⩇⌦ࡡ጗ elder sister- gó-ko n ஫಴ five (pieces, small in-law objects); go-mai n ஫ᯓ five sheets Gírish(i)a n ࢟ࣛࢨࣔ࣬࢟ࣛࢨ࢓ (flat things); go-nen n ஫ᖳ the Greece; Girish(i)a-go ࢟ࣛࢨࣔ࣬࢟ year 5: ~-kan ஫ᖳ㛣 (for) five ࣛࢨ࢓ㄊ Greek (language); years; go-nín n ஫ெ five people; Girish(i)a-jin ࢟ࣛࢨࣔெ࣬࢟ࣛࢨ࢓ gó-satsu n ஫෇ five copies (books, ெ Greek (people) magazines); go-tō n ஫㢄 five gíron n ㆗ㄵ discussion (horses/oxen, large animals); giryo n ᢇ㔖 skills, abilities gó-wa n ஫⩒ five (birds, rabbits) gisei n ≓∽ a sacrifice: … o ~ ni go-… prefix ࡇ࣬ᚒ… honorific shimásu …ࢅ≓∽࡞ࡊࡱࡌ (personalizing) prefix (cf. o- ࠽

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࣬ᚒ); go-chisō n ࡇࡔࡐ࠹࣬ࡇ㤽 ࡱࡌ Thank you for your polite ㉦ treat (of food); gochisø-sama reply. → téinei ୍ᐺ; go-tsugō n ࡇ (deshita). ࡇࡔࡐ࠹ࡈࡱ ࡚ࡊࡒ . 㒌ྙ convenience [HONORIFIC]: Thank you for the treat (the reply itsu ga ~ yoroshiidesuka ࠷ࡗ࠿ is o-sómatsu-sama (deshita). ࠽⢊ ࡇ㒌ྙࡻࢀࡊ࠷࡚ࡌ࠾ When is ᮆࡈࡱ ࡚ࡊࡒ .); go-fujō n ࡇ୘ it convenient for you? → tsugō Ὧ࣬ᚒ୘Ὧ [HONORIFIC] toilet, 㒌ྙ; go-yō´ n ࡇ⏕ (your/somerest room, lavatory (= tóire ࢹ࢕ one else’s) business [HONORIFIC] ࣝ ; go-jibun n ࡇ⮤ฦ you, your- → yō´ ⏕; gó-zen n ࡇ⭻ low meal self [HONORIFIC]; go-kazoku n ࡇᐓ table, dining tray; meal [HONOR᪐ (your/someone else’s) family IFIC]; go-zónji v ࡇᏋ▩ ~ désu ka? [HONORIFIC] → kázoku ᐓ᪐; go-kigen ࡇᏋ▩࡚ࡌ࠾" Do you know? n ࡇᶭ᎒ mood, feeling: ~ ikága [HONORIFIC] (= shitte(i)másuka? desu ka ࡇᶭ᎒࠷࠾࠿࡚ࡌ࠾. How ▩ࡖ࡙ ࠷ ࡱࡌ࠾"); zónji(age) are you (feeling)?: ~ yø´ ࡇࡀࡅࢆ masén Ꮛ▩ ࠵ࡅ ࡱࡎࢆ don’t ࡻ࠹. Good-bye./Hello. [HONOR- know [HONORIFIC] (= shirimasén IFIC] → kigen ᶭ᎒; go-mottomo ▩ࡽࡱࡎࢆ) interj ࡇࡵࡖ࡛ࡵ You’re abso- go-… prefix ࡇ࣬ㄏ… wrong; lutely right.; go-ón n ࡇ᜘ (your/ go-hō n ㄏሒ false report; go-shín someone else’s) kindness, my n ㄏタ wrong diagnosis; go-kai n obligation to you [HONORIFIC] → ㄏゆ misunderstanding ón ᜘; go-riyaku n ࡇฺ─ divine go-… prefix ㄊ language; help/grace; go-ryō´shin n ࡇ୦の word(s); go-chō n ㄊㄢ tone of (your/someone else’s) parents talk, intonation; gó-gaku n ㄊᏕ (foreign) language learning; gó-i [HONORIFIC] → ryō´shin ୦の; goshínsetsu n ࡇのว (your/someone n ㄊᙙ vocabulary (item) else’s) kindness [HONORIFIC] : ~ -go suffix ᚃ after, later, since: ni dømo arigatø (gozaimásu) ࡇ sono-go ࡐࡡᚃ after that, since のว࡞࡜࠹ࡵ࠵ࡽ࠿࡛࠹ ࡇࡉ࠷ then ࡱࡌ Thank you very much for …-go suffix …ㄊ (name of) lanyour kindness. → shínsetsu のว; guage; word(s): Nihon-go ᪝ᮇ go-shújin n ࡇ୹ெ (your/someone ㄊ the Japanese (language) else’s) husband [HONORIFIC] → -gō suffix ྒ: (magazine issues) shújin ୹ெ; go-téinei (na) adj ࡇ୍ …-gatsugø …᭮ྒ; (train ᐺ ࡝ polite; careful [HONORIFIC]: numbers) …-gø´sha ྒ㌬; (room ~ na henshin arigatø gozaimásu numbers) …-gøshitsu …ྒᐄ ࡇ୍ᐺ࡝㏁ಘ࠵ࡽ࠿࡛࠹ࡇࡉ࠷ go-busata n ࡇ↋ἃụ failure to

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gochagocha (shita)

keep in touch: ~ shite orimásu ࡇ ㇞⳱⤚∁࡞♻࠷ࡱࡌ celebrates ↋ἃụࡊ࡙࠽ࡽࡱࡌ I have been with pomp and splendor neglectful (in keeping in touch gōkaku n ྙ᰹ passing (an exam) gōkan n ᙁጩ rape with you). gochagocha (shita) adj ࡇࡔࡶࡇࡔ gōkei n ྙ゛ total (sum) ࡶ ࡊࡒ messy, jumble goke (-san) n ᚃᐓ ࡈࢆ widow gochamaze adj ࡇࡔࡶΊࡏ jumble gokiburi n ࢥ࢞ࣇࣛ cockroach góchō n ం㛏 (army) corporal góku adv ᴗ very, exceedingly gōdō n ྙྜྷ combination, union, gōkyū n ྒἵ crying bitterly, fusion; congruence gofuku n ࿇᭱ yard/dry goods;

(traditional Japanese clothing) kimono: ~-ya ࿇᭱ᒁ dry goods store; kimono shop Gó-gatsu n ஫᭮࣬5 ᭮ May gógo n ༔ᚃ afternoon, p.m. góhan n ࡇ㣜 (cooked) rice; meal, dinner (= shokuji 㣏஥); food go-hyakú n ஫Ⓤ࣬500 five hundred gō´i n ྙណ agreement gōin (na) adj ᙁᘤ ࡝ forcible, highhanded: ~ ni ᙁᘤ࡞ forcibly, highhandedly go-ishi n ◳▴ a Go stone (piece) go-jū´ n ஫༎࣬fifty 50 go-jū´on n ஫༎㡚 the Japanese kana syllabary gō´ka (na) adj ㇞⳱ ࡝ luxurious, deluxe: ~ na shokuji ㇞⳱࡝㣏஥ delicious cuisine gōkai (na) adj ㇞ᛄ ࡝ dynamic:

crying out goma n ࢥ࣏࣬⬄㯖 sesame (seeds): ~ o surimásu ࢥ࣏ࢅࡌ ࡽࡱࡌ grinds sesame; flatters; goma-súri n ࡇࡱࡌࡽ flattery gomakashimásu, gomakásu v ࡇࡱ࠾ ࡊࡱࡌ, ࡇࡱ࠾ࡌ deceives, cheats, misrepresents; tsurisen o ~ 㔦ࡽ 㖱ࢅࡇࡱ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ shortchanges go-mán n ஫୒࣬50,000 fifty

thousand gōman (na) adj ഩះ ࡝ haughty,

arrogant gomen interj ࡇࡴࢆ: ~ nasái. ࡇࡴ ࢆ࡝ࡈ࠷. Excuse me. (= sumimásen ࡌࡲࡱࡎࢆ); ~ kudasái. ࡇࡴࢆୖࡈ࠷. ① Hello, anybody home? ② Excuse me for inter-

rupting. gomí n ࢥ࣐ trash, rubbish, gar-

bage, house refuse, (house) dust; gomí-bako n ࢥ࣐⟵ trash box, garbage can, dustbin; gomi-búkuro ~ na nomippuri ㇞ᛄ࡝㣟ࡲࡖࡪ n ࢥ࣐⾼ garbage bag ࡽ dynamic way of drinking gomoku-nárabe n ஫┘୩࡬ gobang (alcohol) (a simplified version of the gō´ka-kenran adj ㇞⳱⤚∁ absoboard game Go) lutely gorgeous: ~ ni iwaimásu gómu n ࢥ࣑ rubber: wa-~ ㍧ࢥ࣑ 62

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rubber band; gomú-naga(gutsu) n ࢥ ࣑㛏 㠈 rubber boots gondora n ࢥࣤࢺࣚ gondola(s) gonge n ᶊ໩ incarnation, embodiment gongodōdan (na) adj ゕㄊ㐠᩷ ࡝ egregious gongu n ࢥࣤࢡ gong: ~ o nara-


górufu n ࢥࣜࣆ golf; gorufu-jō n ࢥ ࣜࣆሔ golf course gōryū n ྙὮ merger, confluence: “Gøryü chü´i” “ྙὮἸណ” Lanes

Merge (Ahead), Merge (Lanes); gōryū-ten n ྙὮⅤ confluence gó-sai n ஫ṋ five years old (= itsutsu ஫ࡗ) shimasu ࢥࣤࢡࢅ㫾ࡼࡊࡱࡌ gōsain n ࢥ࣭ࢦ࢕ࣤ go sign, sounds a gong green light goraku n ፑᴞ entertainment, re- go-sén n ஫༐࣬5,000 five thousand … -gō´sha suffix …ྒ㌬ train car creation, amusement; gorakushisetsu n ፑᴞ᪃シ amusement number … go-shín n ㆜㌗ self-defense: ~-jutyu facility goran v ࡇぬ: ~ ni narimásu ࡇ ㆜㌗⾙ art of self-defense ぬ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ [HONORIFIC] (you) gósho n ᚒᡜ imperial palace (in see; ~ kudasai ࡇぬୖࡈ࠷ Please Kyoto) gotaku n ࡇࡒࡂ cant: ~ o narabelook/see. → mimasu ずࡱࡌ gōri n ྙ⌦ accordance with reason: másu ࡇࡒࡂࢅ୩࡬ࡱࡌ talks a ~-teki (na) ྙ⌦Ⓩ ࡝ rational, load of garbage reasonable, sensible; gōrí-ka n ྙ gotamaze n ࡇࡒࡱࡏ jumble ⌦໩ rationalization (making it gōtō n ᙁ┈ robber; robbery … gótoku (ni) suffix, adv …ࡇ࡛ࡂ reasonable); streamlining gorin n ஫㍧ Olympics ࡞ [LITERARY] = … yø´ (ni) … gorira n ࢥࣛࣚ gorilla ࡻ࠹ ࡞ like … góro (ni) suffix, adv …ࡇࢀ>㡥@ … góto (ni) suffix, adv …ࡇ࡛ ࡞ ࡞ (at) about (a time) every …, each …: koto áru ~ (ni) goro-ne n ࡇࢀᐱ lying dozing, ࡆ࡛࠵ࡾࡇ࡛ ࡞ every chance sacking out one gets gorotsuki n ࡇࢀࡗࡀ cheap gō´u n ㇞㞭 heavy rain, (torrential) hoodlum(s) downpour: shüchü-~ 㞗୯㇞㞭 gō´ru n ࢥ࣭ࣜ goal (sports): ~ local downpour, local heavy rain kiipå ࢥ࣭࣭ࣜ࢞ࣂ࣭ goalkeeper gozá n ࡇࡉ (thin floor mat) straw gōruden-uíiku/wíiku n ࢥ࣭ࣜࢸࣤࢗ mat ࢕࣭ࢠࢗ࢔࣭ࢠ Golden Week gozaimásu v ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ [DEFERENTIAL] = arimásu ࠵ࡽࡱࡌ there holidays (29 April – 5 May) górufā n ࢥࣜࣆ࢒࣭ golfer is, we’ve got; it is (located) 63

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gózen n ༔๑ morning, a.m gu n ර ingredients, fillings gu n ម stupidity: ~ no kotchø ម ࡡ㦭㡤 ultimate silliness guai n රྙ condition, shape, feelings (of health): ~ ga warúi රྙ࠿ᝇ࠷ is out of order, is not

(an amount; the same extent as); at least gúramu suffix n ࢡ࣑ࣚ gram(s) gúrasu n ࢡࣚࢪ glass (container) gura(u)ndo n ࢡࣚ ࢗ ࣤࢺ playground gurē´ (no) adj ࢡ࣭ࣝ ࡡ gray working properly, is not feeling gurēpufurū´tsu n ࢡ࣭ࣝࣈࣆ࣭ࣜࢵ grapefruit good/right, is upset guchi n ម⑭ complaint, gripe guríin (no) adj ࢡ࣭ࣛࣤ ࡡ …-guchi suffix …ཾ: mado-~ win- green: ~-sha ࢡ࣭ࣛࣤ㌬ the dow, wicket: deiri-~ ฝථࡽཾ Green Car (first-class seats) gúrōbu n ࢡ࣭ࣞࣇ (baseball, doorway, gateway gugen (ka) n ර⌟ ໩ realization boxing) glove (= gúrabu ࢡࣚࣇ gū´gū adv ࢡ࣭ࢡ࣭ snoring (away), guruguru (to) adv ࡃࡾࡃࡾ ࡛ Zzz round and round gūhatsu teki (na/ni) adj, adv ഃⓆⓏ gurukōsu n ࢡࣜࢤ࣭ࢪ glucose ࡝࡞ accidental(ly) gurume n ࢡ࣒ࣜ gourmet guigui (to) adv ࢡ࢕ࢡ࢕ ࡛ gurū´pu n ࢡ࣭ࣜࣈ group strongly: ~ to nomimásu/guino- gusaku n ម➿ stupid/idiotic plan mi shimásu ࢡ࢕ࢡ࢕࡛㣟ࡲࡱ gusari-to sashimásu (sasu) v ࢡࢦࣛ ࡌࢡ࢕㣟ࡲࡊࡱࡌ gulps down ࡛ๆࡊࡱࡌ ๆࡌ stabs gussúri adv ࡃࡖࡌࡽ (sleeping) a drink gui(t)to adv ࢡ࢕ ࢴ ࡛ with a jerk soundly gún n ㌯ army, troops; gun-jin n ㌯ gutai-rei n රమౚ specific example ெ soldier, military person; gun- gutai-teki (na) adj රమⓏ ࡝ kan n ㌯⯼ warship; gun-puku n ㌯ concrete, substantial, tangible, ᭱ military uniform; gún-sō n ㌯ material ᭢ sergeant gūtara (mono) n ࡃ࠹ࡒࡼ ⩽ gún n 㑾 county lazybones, drone gū-no-ne mo demasen (denai) v ࡃ࠹ gút(-to) adv ࢡࢴ ࡛ with a jerk/ ࡡ㡚ࡵฝࡱࡎࢆ ฝ࡝࠷ is ungulp, suddenly able to argue against gūwa n ᐩヨ allegory, fable gunshū n ⩄⾏ crowd gūzen (no) adj ഃ↓ ࡡ accidental, gúrabu n ࢡࣚࣇ → gúrōbu ࢡ࣭ࣞࣇ fortuitous: ~ ni ഃ↓࡞ by chance, gurafu n ࢡࣚࣆ graph accidentally … gúrai suffix …న࣬ࡃࡼ࠷ about gūzō n ഃാ idol 64

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gúzu n ࡃࡍ dullard gúzuguzu iimásu (iu/yū) v ࡃࡍࡃࡍ ゕ࠷ࡱࡌ ゕ࠹ complains,

gyōko n ฆᅖ coagulation gyomin n ⁲Ằ fisherperson gyōmu n ᴏຸ business, work: ~-jikan ᴏຸ᫤㛣 business hours grumbles gúzuguzu shimásu (suru) v ࡃࡍࡃࡍ gyoro-me n ࡁࡺࢀ┘ goggling ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ delays, dawdles eyes gyaku (no/ni) adj, adv ㏣ ࡡ࡞ gyorori to niramimasu (niramu) v ࡁࡺ ࢀࡽ࡛╦ࡲࡱࡌ>࡞ࡼࡲࡱࡌ@ ╦ opposite, contrary, backwards gyakutai shimásu (suru) v ⹚ᙽࡊࡱ ࡳ>࡞ࡼࡳ@ goggles, glares gyorui n 㨮㢦 fishes ࡌ ࡌࡾ mistreats gyáppu n ࢟ࣔࢴࣈ gap gyōsei n ⾔ᨳ administration (of gyo- prefix ᚒ → go- ࡇ࣬ᚒ government) gyō´ n ⾔ line (of words); line gyōseki n ᴏ⦴ achievements: ~ o agemásu ᴏ⦴ࢅ୕ࡅࡱࡌ of the kana chart: sá-~ ࡈ⾔ the sa-shi-su-se-so ࡈࡊࡌࡎࡐ : improves performance gyøkan ⾔㛣 line space gyosha n ᚒ⩽ coachman gyō´ n ᴏ line of work (= shokúgyø gyotto shimasu (suru) v ࡁࡺࡖ࡛ࡊ ⫃ᴏ) ࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ is startled gyōchū n ࢟ࣘࢗࢲࣖࢗ࣬ࡁࡺ࠹⹰ gyōza n ࢟ࣘࢗࢧ࣬㣧Ꮔ crescent-


shaped dumpling stuffed with

gyófu n ⁲ኰ fisherman ground pork, etc. gyōgi n ⾔ൢ behavior, manners gyūgyū adj ࡁࡸ࠹ࡁࡸ࠹ョࡴ gyógyō n ⁲ᴏ fishing (business) jam-packed: ~zume no densha gyōgyōshii adj ௭ࠍࡊ࠷ pompous ࡁࡸ࠹ࡁࡸ࠹ョࡴࡡ㞹㌬ jamgyō´jí n ⾔஥ ceremony, event packed train gyōkai n ᴏ⏲ industry, world: gyūniku n ∭⫏ beef ~-yøgo ᴏ⏲⏕ㄊ industry jargon gyūnyū n ∭஘ (cow’s) milk gyōketsu n ฆ⤎ condensation

H ha n ⴝ leaf (= happa ⴝࡖࡤ): ochi-ba ⴘࡔⴝ fallen leave(s) há n ṉ tooth; ha-búrashi n ṉࣇࣚ ࢨ tooth brush; há-guki n ṉⱴ gum (teethridge); há-isha n ṉ༈⩽

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dentist; ha-ita n ṉ⑚ toothache (= shitsü ṉ⑚) há n ร edge (of knife), blade (of razor) ha interj ࡢ [DEFERENTIAL] yes 65

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hā interj ࡢ࠵ 1. aha 2. phew haba n ᖕ width habakari-nágara … interj ࡢࡣ࠾ࡽ࡝ ࠿ࡼ …I beg your pardon, but … habamemásu, habaméru v 㜴ࡴࡱࡌ, 㜴ࡴࡾ can prevent/thwart habamimásu, habámu v 㜴ࡲࡱࡌ, 㜴ࡳ prevents, thwarts habatsu n Ὤ㛰 faction, clique hā´bu n ࣀ࣭ࣇ herb(s) habukimásu, habúku v ┤ࡀࡱࡌ, ┤ࡂ cuts out, reduces, saves,

naked: ~ no ø-sama ⿼ࡡ⋜ᵕ naked king hadashi n ⿼㊂ barefoot hadé (na) adj Ὤᡥ ࡝ gaudy, showy, flashy, bright, loud (color) hādowéa n ࣀ࣭ࢺࢗ࢘࢓ (computer) hardware: ~ to sofutowea ࣀ࣭ࢺࢗ࢘࢓࡛ࢮࣆࢹࢗ࢘࢓

hardware and software hae n ࣀ࢙࣬⼒ (house)fly haemásu, haéru v ⏍࠻ࡱࡌ, ⏍࠻ࡾ

eliminates, omits

(tooth, hair, mold, …) grows

hachi n ࣀࢲ࣬⻇ bee (= mitsúbachi ⻜⻇); hachi-mitsu n ࣀࢲ࣐ ࢵ࣬⻇⻜ honey hachí n 㖂 bowl, basin, pot, rice bucket/tub; hachí-mono n 㖂∸

hagaki n ࡢ࠿ࡀ࣬ⴝ᭡ postcard hagane n ࣀ࢝ࢾ࣬㗨 steel hagashimásu, hagasu v ๡࠿ࡊࡱࡌ, ๡࠿ࡌ peels off, tears off háge n ⚴ bald spot, baldness hagemashimásu, hagemásu v ທࡱࡊ potted plant hachí n ඳ࣬8 eight; hachí-dó n ࡱࡌ ທࡱࡌ encourages ඳᗐ eight times (= hachi-kái, hagemásu, hagéru v ๡ࡅࡱࡌ, ๡ࡅ hak-kái ඳᅂ, hap-pen ඳ⥽); ࡾ it peels off hachí-do n ඳᗐ eight degrees; hagemásu, hagéru v ⚴>ࡢࡅ@ࡱࡌ, hachi-hon, háp-pon n ඳᮇ eight ⚴ࡅࡾ࣬ࡢࡅࡾ gets/goes bald hagemimásu, hagému v ທࡲࡱࡌ, (pencils/bottles, long objects); hachi-ko, hák-ko n ඳ಴ eight pieces ທࡳ works hard (small objects) (= yáttsu ඳࡗ); hageshíi adj ⃥ࡊ࠷ violent, hachí-mai n ඳᯓ eight sheets (flat severe, fierce, acute hagimásu, hágu v ๡ࡁࡱࡌ, ๡ࡃ things); hachí-wa, háp-pa n ඳ⩒

eight (birds, rabbits)

peels it off

Hachí-gatsu n ඳ᭮ August hachi-mán n ඳ୒࣬80,000 eighty

hagó-íta n ⩒Ꮔᯀ battledore ha-gúruma n ṉ㌬ cog (wheel), gear thousand háha, haha-oya n ẍ, ẍの mother hachūrui n ࣀ⹰㢦࣬∈⹰㢦 reptile (= okå´-san ࠽ẍࡈࢆ) háda n ⫑ skin: ~-iro ⫑Ⰵ flesh hahen n ◒∞ broken piece(s): garasu no ~ ࢝ࣚࢪࡡ◒∞ brocolor hadaka (no) adj ⿼࣬ࡢࡓ࠾ ࡡ ken pieces of glass

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hai n ⅂ ashes; hai-zara n ⅂⓸ ash haikara (na) adj ࣀ࢕࢜ࣚ ࡝ fash-


ionable, high-class

hai n ⫭ lungs; hai-byō n ⫭⑋ tuberculosis, TB (= kekkaku ⤎ᰶ); hai-en n ⫭ⅎ pneumonia; hai-gan n ⫭࠿ࢆ lung cancer hái interj 1. ࡢ࠷ yes (= ë ࠻࠻ (mostly female)) 2. here you are! …´-hai suffix …᮴ cupful(s),

haikei n ⫴ᬊ background, BG háikei n ᣇၤ [BOOKISH] Dear Sir/

Madam (in a letter)

haiken n ᣇず: ~ shimásu ᣇずࡊ ࡱࡌ [HUMBLE] I/We (will) look at/see (= mimasu ずࡱࡌ) haiki n ᤴẴ exhaust; haiki-gásu n ᤴẴ࢝ࢪ exhaust (fumes); haikíbowlful(s) sen n ᤴẴᡢ exhaust fan haiboku n ᩃ໪ defeat, loss haibōru n ࣀ࢕࣭࣍ࣜ highball haiki n ᗣᲘ disposal, abolition, haibun n 㒼ฦ distribution rejection: ~ shimásu ᗣᲘࡊࡱࡌ haichi n 㒼⨠ layout, allocation, scraps, ~-butsu ᗣᲘ∸, waste(s) háikíngu n ࣀ࢕࢞ࣤࢡ hike, hiking location, placement, setup haifu n 㒼ᕱ distribution, circulation háiku n ಢྀ haiku (short (17-sylhaigo n ⫴ᚃ rear, backside lable) poem) haigō n 㒼ྙ composition; ~-zai haikyo n ᗣቐ ruin 㒼ྙ๠ compounding agent haikyū n 㒼⤝ rationing haigūsha n 㒼ഃ⩽ spouse haimásu, háu v ㏲࠷ࡱࡌ, ㏲࠹ crawls haigyō n ᗣᴏ closure of an hairemásu, hairéru v ථࡿࡱࡌ, ථࡿ ࡾ can enter operation, end of a business haihiiru n ࣀ࢕ࣃ࣭ࣜ high-heeled hairimásu, háiru v ථࡽࡱࡌ, ථࡾ shoes enters; háitte imásu ථࡖ࡙࠷ࡱ hai-iro (no) adj ⅂Ⰵ ࡡ gray: ~ no ࡌ is inside sora ⅂Ⰵࡡ✭ gray sky hairyo n 㒼៎ consideration: go-~ haijin n ಢெ haiku poet (itadaki) arigatø-gozaimasu ࡇ㒼 haijin n ᗣெ cripple, wreck ៎ ࠷ࡒࡓࡀ ࠵ࡽ࠿࡛࠹ࡇࡉ࠷ háijo n ᤴ㝎 removal, elimination, ࡱࡌ Thank you all for your help


and support.

haikan n 㒼⟮ piping haishaku-shimásu (suru) v ᣇೇࡊࡱ haikan n ᗣษ publication discon- ࡌ ࡌࡾ [HUMBLE] (I) borrow tinuation (= karimasu ೇࡽࡱࡌ) haikan n ᣇび admission: ~ shihaishi n ᗣḾ abolition másu ᣇびࡊࡱࡌ [HUMBLE] has haishinkōi n ⫴ಘ⾔Ⅵ treachery the honor of seeing; haikan-ryō n haisui n ᤴỀ drainage; haisui-ponpu ᣇびᩩ admission fee n ᤴỀ࣎ࣤࣈ drainage pump

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haita n ᤴ௙ exclusion; haita-teki (na) adj ᤴ௙Ⓩ ࡝ exclusive haitatsu n 㒼㐡 delivery haitōkin n 㒼ᙔ㔘 dividends, annuity: ~ o uketorimásu 㒼ᙔ㔘ࢅ ུࡄཱིࡽࡱࡌ gets an annuity háiyā n ࣀ࢕࣭ࣕ limousine for hire haiyū n ಢඁ actor (= yaku-sha ᙲ⩽), actress (= joyü ዥඁ) haji(-kko) n ❻ࡖࡆ edge, end hají n ᜕ shame: embarrassment: ~ o kakimásu ᜕ࢅ࠾ࡀࡱࡌ

haka-bá n ቉ሔ graveyard, cemetery hakadorimásu, hakaréru v ࡢ࠾࡜ࡽ ࡱࡌ, ࡢ࠾࡜ࡾ makes good progress: shigoto ga ~ ௘஥࠿ࡢ࠾࡜ ࡽࡱࡌ gets ahead with one’s work hakai n ◒ቪ destruction, demoli-

tion hakaku (no) adj ◒᰹ ࡡ unprecedented: ~ no nedan ◒᰹ࡡೋṹ

rock-bottom price, bargain price hakama n ⿑ traditional Japanese

skirtlike trousers for male hakanái adj ൷࠷ fleeting, transitory disgraces/embarrasses oneself hajikemásu, hajikéru v ࡢࡋࡄࡱࡌ, hakaraimásu, hakarau v ゛ࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ, ࡢࡋࡄࡾ it pops, snaps ゛ࡼ࠹ arranges hajikí n ࡢࡋࡀ marbles hakaremásu, hakaréru v ῼࡿࡱࡌ, hajikimásu, hajíku v ࡢࡋࡀࡱࡌ, ࡢ ῼࡿࡾ can measure ࡋࡂ snaps it, repels it hakaremásu, hakaréru v 㔖ࡿࡱࡌ, hajimari v ጙࡱࡽ beginning, start 㔖ࡿࡾ can weigh hajimarimásu, hajimaru v ጙࡱࡽࡱࡌ, hakarí n ⛏ (weighting/weight) ጙࡱࡾ it begins (starts) scales hajimásu, hajiru v ᜕ࡱࡌ, ᜕ࡋࡾ hakarigóto n ㅓ plot, trick, scheme feels shame, feels embarrassed hakarimásu, hakáru v ῼࡽࡱࡌ, hajime n ิࡴ the beginning; in ῼࡾ measures the beginning: ~ no ิࡴࡡ the hakarimásu, hakáru v 㔖ࡽࡱࡌ, 㔖ࡾ weighs first …; ~ wa ิࡴࡢ at first Hajimemáshite. interj ิࡴࡱࡊ࡙ hakarimásu, hakáru v ᅒࡽ>ㅓࡽ@ࡱ ࡌ, ᅒ>ㅓ@ࡾ plans, designs; plots How do you do? (on being hákase n ༡ኃ doctor (Ph.D.) (= introduced) hajimemásu, hajimeru v ጙࡴࡱࡌ, hakushi ༡ኃ): ~-rónbun ༡ኃㄵ ጙࡴࡾ begins (starts) it ᩝ doctoral dissertation hajimeraremásu, hajimerareru v ጙࡴ haké n ใẗ brush ࡼࡿࡱࡌ, ጙࡴࡼࡿࡾ can begin it haké n ᤅࡄ drainage, draining ~ hajímete adv ࡢࡋࡴ࡙࣬ิࡴ࡙ ga íi désu ᤅࡄ࠿࠷࠷࡚ࡌ it for the first time drains/sells well haká n ቉ grave (tomb): ~-mairi ቉ haké-kuchi/-guchi n ᤅࡄཾ outlet ཤࡽ visiting someone’s grave; (for water/emotion/goods) 68

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hakemásu, hakeru v ᒓࡄࡱࡌ, ᒓࡄ hakkí n Ⓠᥱ exertion ࡾ can wear (footwear, pants, hakkíri adv ࡢࡖࡀࡽ plainly, skirt, socks) clearly, distinctly, exactly: ~ (to) hakemásu, hakéru v ᤅࡄࡱࡌ, ᤅࡄ shimásu ࡢࡖࡀࡽ ࡛ ࡊࡱࡌ ࡾ it drains off; it sells (well) becomes clear hakemásu, hakéru v ྡࡄࡱࡌ, ྡࡄ hák-ko, hachi-kó n ඳ಴ eight piecࡾ can vomit/spill out es (small objects) (= yáttsu ඳࡗ) hakemásu, hakéru v ᤪࡄࡱࡌ, ᤪࡄ hakkō n Ⓠ⾔ publication: ࡾ can sweep hakkøsha Ⓠ⾔⩽ publisher haken n Ὤ㐭 dispatch: jinzai-~hakkō n Ⓠක light emission gaisha ெᮞὬ㐭ఌ♣ temporary- hakkō n Ⓠ㓕 ferment hakkutsu n Ⓠᤸ exhumation: ~ employment agency háki n ざẴ ambition (energetic shimásu Ⓠᤸࡊࡱࡌ digs up, spirit): ~ ga arimásu ざẴ࠿࠵ࡽ excavates ࡱࡌ is full of spirit hakkyō n Ⓠ≤ derangement: ~ hakihaki (to) adj ࡢࡀࡢࡀ ࡛ shimásu Ⓠ≤ࡊࡱࡌ becomes lively, briskly: ~ to henji o shiinsane másu ࡢࡀࡢࡀ࡛㏁஥ࢅࡊࡱࡌ hako n ⟵ box, case, chest, con-

answers clearly and crisply


haki-ké n ྡࡀẴ nausea: ~ ga hakobimásu, hakobu v 㐘ࡦࡱࡌ, 㐘 shimásu ྡࡀẴ࠿ࡊࡱࡌ, ~ o ࡩ carries, conveys moyøshimásu ྡࡀẴࢅതࡊࡱࡌ haku-… prefix Ⓣ white; hakuchō n ࣀࢠࢲࣘࢗ࣬Ⓣ㫵 swan; feels nauseated/queasy hakimásu, haku v ᒓࡀࡱࡌ, ᒓࡂ háku-i n Ⓣ⾨ white coat: ~ no wears (on feet or legs), puts/slips tenshi Ⓣ⾨ࡡኮ౐ nurse, angel

(not to literally mean, “angel in white”); haku-jin n Ⓣெ Caucasian; hakú-mai n Ⓣ⡷ polished rice; haku-shi n Ⓣ⣤ blank sheet sweeps of paper: ~ ni modoshimásu Ⓣ hakimono n ᒓ∸ footwear ⣤࡞ᡘࡊࡱࡌ withdraws, takes hakka n ࣀࢴ࢜ peppermint back; haku-sho n Ⓣ᭡ white paper hakkā n ࣀࢴ࣭࢜ hacker, hack …-haku suffix …ἡ, …-paku …ἡ (computer) hak-kái, hachi-kái n ඳᅂ eight times (counts nights of lodging) hakken n Ⓠず discovery hakuai n ༡យ humanitarianism: hakketsu-byō n Ⓣ⾉⑋ leukemia ~-shugi ༡យ୹⩇ philanthropy 69 on (shoes, socks, pants)

hakimásu, háku v ྡࡀࡱࡌ, ྡࡂ 1. vomits 2. spits out hakimásu, háku v ᤪࡀࡱࡌ, ᤪࡂ

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hakubútsu-kan n ༡∸㤃 museum hame(ra)remásu, hame(ra)reru v ࡢࡴ hakuchūmu n Ⓣ᫠ከ daydreaming: ࡼ ࡿࡱࡌ, ࡢࡴ ࡼ ࡿࡾ can ~ o mimásu Ⓣ᫠ከࢅずࡱࡌ is wear (on fingers, hands) hametsu n ◒⁓ ruin spaced out hakugai n ㏍ᐐ persecution: ~ o hamidashimásu, hamidasu v ࡢࡲฝ ukemásu ㏍ᐐࢅུࡄࡱࡌ suffers ࡊࡱࡌ, ࡢࡲฝࡌ protrudes, runs

from persecution

off the edge, sticks out, goes over há-mono n ร∸ cutlery, knives hámu n ࣀ࣑ ham: ~-éggu ࣀ࣑࢙ ࢴࢡ ham and eggs; ~-sándo ࣀ poor reason hákujō n Ⓣ≟ confession ࣑ࢦࣤࢺ ham sandwich hakujō (na) adj ⷟᝗ ࡝ [BOOKISH] hán n ༖ half (= hanbún ༖ฦ): han-… ༖ … half a …; …-hán unfeeling, heartless, cruel: ~ hito ⷟᝗࡝ெ heartless person … ༖ and a half hakurai (no) adj ⯟ᮮ ࡡ imported; hán n ึ a “chop” = a seal (to hakurai-hin n ⯟ᮮဗ imported goods stamp name) (= hankó ึࡆ) hakurán-kai n ༡ぬఌ exhibition, hana n 㰧 nose; trunk (of eleexposition phant); hana-ji n 㰧⾉ nosebleed: hakuryoku n ㏍ງ punch, power: hana-mizú n 㰧Ề snivel, nasal ~ ga arimásu ㏍ງ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is mucus: ~ ga demásu 㰧Ề࠿ฝࡱ ࡌ has a runny nose powerful hakusái n ࣀࢠࢦ࢕࣬Ⓣ⳧ hana n ࡢ࡝ nasal mucus, snivel Chinese cabbage (= hana-mizú 㰧Ề): ~ o kamimásu ࡢ࡝ࢅ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ blows hakushi n ༡ኃ doctor (Ph.D.) (= hakase ༡ኃ): ~-katei ༡ኃㄚ one’s nose ⛤ doctoral course haná n ⰴ flower; flower arrangehákushu n ᢷᡥ clapping ment; hana-mí n ⰴず cherry hamá n ὶ beach: ~-be ὶ㎮ beach, blossom viewing: ~ o shimásu ⰴずࢅࡊࡱࡌ goes to see the seashore hamachi n ࣀ࣏ࢲ࣬㨮 young cherry blossom; haná-tába n ⰴᮨ yellowtail bouquet; hana-wa n ⰴ㍧ wreath (of flower); haná-ya n ⰴᒁ flohamáguri n ࣀ࣏ࢡࣛ࣬⺶ clam hamé n ࡢࡴ plight, fix (one gets into) rist, flower shop hamemásu, hameru v ࡢࡴࡱࡌ, ࡢ hána n ࡢ࡝࣬❻ beginning, outࡴࡾ wears (on fingers, hands set; edge hána-bi n ⰴℾ fireworks: ~-taikai (ring, gloves, etc.)) 70 hakujaku (na) adj ⷟ᘽ ࡝ weak, tenuous: ishi-~ ណᚷ⷟ᘽ weak will: ~ na konkyo ⷟ᘽ࡝᰷ᣈ

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ⰴℾኬఌ big exhibition of fire-

colorful, showy, gorgeous, gloriworks ous, bright haná-fuda n ⰴᮈ (the game of) haná-yome n ⰴᎋ bride hanbā´gā n ࣀࣤࣁ࣭࣭࢝ a hamflower cards hanágata n ⰴᙟ a star (in a theatri- burger cal production): ~-senshu ⰴᙟ㐽 hanbai n ㈅኉ sale; hanbái-ki n ㈅኉ ᡥ star player ᶭ vending machine; hanbái-daka hanahada adv ࡢ࡝ࡢࡓ extremely n ㈅኉㧏 sales volume; hanbai-in haná-michi n ⰴ㐠 the runway to n ㈅኉ဤ salesperson; hanbai-nin n ㈅኉ெ seller, dealer; hanbái-ten n the stage (in Kabuki) hana-múko n ⰴ፯ bridegroom ㈅኉ᗉ sales outlet; hanbai-sokushin hanao n 㰧⥬ thong (on geta) n ㈅኉ಀ㐅 sales promotion (= hanaremásu, hanaréru v 㞫ࡿࡱࡌ, hansoku ㈅ಀ); hanbai-kakaku n ㈅ 㞫ࡿࡾ separates, becomes dis኉౮᰹ selling price hanbei (no) adj ཬ⡷ ࡡ antitant, leaves hanasemásu, hanaséru v ヨࡎࡱࡌ, American ヨࡎࡾ can speak hanbún n ༖ฦ half hanashí n ヨ talk, story, tale, hándán n ึ᩷ judgment speech, conversation; something handō n ཬິ reaction, repercusto talk about: ~ o shimásu ヨࢅࡊ sion; handō-teki (na) adj ཬິⓏ ࡱࡌ talks, speaks ࡝ reactionary; handō-shugisha n hanashi-ái n ヨࡊྙ࠷ conference, ཬິ୹⩇⩽ reactionary handobággu, handobákku n ࣀࣤࢺ discussion, negotiation hanashi-aimásu, hanashi-áu v ヨࡊྙ ࣁࢴࢡ, ࣀࣤࢺࣁࢴࢠ handbag, ࠷ࡱࡌ, ヨࡊྙ࠹ talk together, pocketbook handoru n ࣀࣤࢺࣜ steering wheel; discuss, confer, negotiate hanashi-ka n ᄆᐓ (a comic) handle storyteller (= rakugo-ka ⴘㄊᐓ) hane n ⩒ feather hanashimásu, hanásu v ヨࡊࡱࡌ, ヨ hane n ⩒᰷ wing; shuttlecock ࡌ speaks, talks hanei n ཬ᫆ reflection hanashimásu, hanásu v ᨲࡊࡱࡌ, hanei n ⦶ᰜ prosperity ᨲࡌ release, lets loose, lets go, hanemásu, hanéru v ㊬ࡠࡱࡌ, ㊬ࡠ sets free ࡾ jumps, splashes hanashimásu, hanásu v 㞫ࡊࡱࡌ, hanga n ∟⏤ woodblock print 㞫ࡌ separates (something) from, hángā n ࣀ࣭ࣤ࢝ hanger parts with; detaches, disconnects hangaku n ༖㢘 half price hanáyaka (na) adj ⳱ࡷ࠾ ࡝ hangyaku n ཬ㏣ rebellion; han71

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gyákú-sha n ཬ㏣⩽ rebel hanhan n ༖ࠍ half-and-half hán’i n ⠂ᅑ scope, range, limits: (… no) ~-gai/-nai …ࡡ ⠂ᅑ አහ beyond/within the limits

(of …) hanigo n ཬណㄊ antonym hanikamimásu, hanikámu v ࡢ࡞࠾ࡲ ࡱࡌ, ࡢ࡞࠾ࡳ acts shy, is bashful: hanikami-ya ࡢ࡞࠾ࡲᒁ shy hánji n ึ஥ judge hánjō n ⦶┊ prosperity: shøbai-~ ၛ኉⦶┊ flourishing business,

hankyōran n ༖≤஗ frantic, partial insanity: ~ ni narimásu ༖≤஗࡞ ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ becomes frantic hankyū n ༖ఆ half day off: ~ o torimásu ༖ఆࢅཱིࡽࡱࡌ takes a

half day off hankyū n ༖⌣ hemisphere hánmā n ࣀ࣏࣭ࣤ hammer hanmei n ึ᪺ coming-out hanmen n ཬ㟻 on the other hand: ~-kyøshi ཬ㟻ᩅᖅ person who

serves as an example of how not to be hanmen (no) adj ༖㟻 ࡡ halfboom of business hánkachi n ࣀࣤ࢜ࢲ handkerchief faced hankagai n ⦶⳱⾜ downtown han-nichí n ༖᪝ half a day, a halfarea, shopping and amusement day hannichi (no) adj ཬ᪝ ࡡ antidistricts hankan n ཬវ antipathy: ~ o kai- Japanese másu ཬវࢅ㈑࠷ࡱࡌ provokes hánnin n ≚ெ a criminal, culprit hannō n ཬᚺ reaction, response one’s antipathy hankei n ༖ᙼ radius hanpa n ༖❻ half: ~-mono ༖❻ hanketsu n ึỬ judgment: ~ o ∸ oddments → chūto ~ (na) ୯㏭ kudashimásu ึỬࢅୖࡊࡱࡌ

༖❻ ࡝

hanpatsu n ཬⓆ 1. repelling 2. adjudges, gives sentence hankó n ࡢࢆࡆ࣬ึᏄ a “chop” repulsion 3. resistance (= hankø (signature seal, name stamp) (= ཬᢘ) han ึ, in ༰, inkan ༰㚯) hanpén n ࣀࣤ࣋ࣤ࣬ࡢࢆ࡭ࢆ hankō n ཬᢘ opposition, resistance: boiled fish cake … ni ~ shimásu …࡞ཬᢘࡊࡱࡌ hanran n ཬ஗ revolt: ~ o okosu ཬ opposes, resists (= hanpatsu ཬⓆ) ஗ࢅ㉫ࡆࡌ revolts, rebels hankō n ≚⾔ crime, perpetration: hanran n ệ⃻ overflowing ~-genba ≚⾔⌟ሔ scene of a hanrei n ฉౚ explanatory notes crime: ~-seimei ≚⾔ኇ᪺ crimi- (on how to use a reference work) hanryo n ఔ౵ companion: shøgai nal declaration hankyō n ཬ㡢 echo: ~-on ཬ㡢㡚 no ~ ⏍ᾥࡡఔ౵ spouse (literally, acoustic echo “lifetime companion”) 72

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hánsa (na) adj ↱⍚ ࡝ trouble-

some, complicated


hanzai n ≚⨝ crime: ~ o okashimásu ≚⨝ࢅ≚ࡊࡱࡌ commits

hansei n ཬ┤ reflection, thinking- a crime hanzatsu (na) adj ↱㞟 ࡝ troubleover hansen (no) adj ཬᡋ ࡡ antiwar: some, complicated ~-katsudø ཬᡋὩິ antiwar hanzubon n ༖ࢫ࣍ࣤ short-pants haori n ⩒⧂ traditional Japanese activity hansha n ཬᑏ reflection coat hánshi n ༖⣤ rice paper (stationery) hap- n ඳ࣬8 eight; hap-pén n ඳ㐚 han-shimásu (-súru) v ཬࡊࡱࡌ ࡌ eight times (= hachí-kai ඳᅂ, ࡾ is contrary (to), goes against, hachí-do ඳᗐ); háp-pa, hachí-wa n ඳ⩒ eight (birds, rabbits); hap-pikí opposes: … ni hánshite …࡞ཬ ࡊ࡙ contrary to, against, in n ඳ༆ eight (fishes/bugs, small contrast with animals); háp-pon, hachi-hon n ඳᮇ hanshō (no) n ༖↕ ࡡ partial loss eight (pencils/bottles, long objects); by fire (= han’yake (no) ༖↕ࡄ háp-pun n ඳฦ eight minutes ࡡ ) happa n ⴝࡖࡤ leaf (= ha ⴝ) hanshū n ༖࿔ semicircle happi n Ἢ⿍ happi coat hansoku n ཬ์ (sports) foul play hap-pyakú n ඳⓊ࣬800 eight hansoku n ㈅ಀ sales promotion: hundred ~-tsüru ㈅ಀࢵ࣭ࣜ sales promo- happyō n Ⓠ⾪ announcement, tion tool (= hanbai-sokushin ㈅ publication; (research) paper ኉ಀ㐅) hā´pu n ࣀ࣭ࣈ harp (Western) hantai n ཬᑊ opposite, contrary, hará n ⭙ 1. belly, stomach: ~ reverse (= gyaku ㏣): ~-gawa ཬ ga herimásu ⭙࠿΅ࡽࡱࡌ gets ᑊഁ opposite side; ~-go ཬᑊㄊ hungry; ~ ga itamimásu ⭙࠿⑚ࡲ antonym; ~ ni ཬᑊ࡞ vice versa ࡱࡌ one’s stomach aches 2. hantén n ༖⧫ happi coat (= happi mind, heart: ~ ga tachimásu ⭙࠿ ࡢࡖࡧ࣬Ἢ⿍) ❟ࡔࡱࡌ, ~ o tatemásu ⭙ࢅ❟࡙ hantō n ༖ᓞ, …-hántø …༖ᓞ ࡱࡌ gets angry; ~ ga futói ⭙࠿ ኯ࠷ is big-hearted; ~ ga kurói peninsula: Izu-hántø ௿㇃༖ᓞ ⭙࠿㯦࠷ black-hearted; … no Izu Peninsula han-toshí n ༖ᖳ half a year hará o yomimásu …ࡡ⭙ࢅㄖࡲ han-tsukí n ༖᭮ half a month ࡱࡌ reads the mind of … han’yake (no) adj ༖↕ࡄ ࡡ 1. hára, hárappa n ཋ, ཋࡖࡤ field medium-rare (meat), half-done haradatashíi adj ⭙❟ࡒࡊ࠷ aggra2. partial loss by fire vating, vexatious

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haraemásu, haraéru


haraemásu, haraéru v ᡮ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᡮ࠻ harimásu, haru v ᘿࡽࡱࡌ, ᘿࡾ ࡾ 1. can pay 2. can brush aside, spreads/stretches it háru n ᫋ spring (season); harucan shake out yásumi n ᫋ఆࡲ spring break/ harahara adv ࡢࡼࡢࡼ heart goes pit-a-pat: ~ shimásu ࡢࡼࡢࡼࡊ vacation ࡱࡌ gets anxious, is scared; ~ harubaru adv ࡢࡾࡣࡾ all the way sasemásu ࡢࡼࡢࡼࡈࡎࡱࡌ háruka (ni) adv 㐮࠾ ࡞ far (off); scares long ago; by far; háruka na adj 㐮 haraimásu, haráu v ᡮ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᡮ࠹ ࠾ ࡝ distant, far 1. pays 2. brushes aside, shakes haru-maki n ᫋ᕬ Chinese egg rolls,

out harai-modoshi n ᡮ࠷ᡘࡊ a refund harai-modoshimásu, harai-modósu v ᡮ࠷ᡘࡊࡱࡌ, ᡮ࠷ᡘࡌ refunds hará-maki n ⭙ᕬࡀ stomach band haremásu, hareru v ⭐ࡿࡱࡌ, ⭐ࡿ ࡾ swells up haremásu, hareru v ㈖ࡿࡱࡌ, ㈖ࡿ ࡾ can paste haremásu, hareru v ᘿࡿࡱࡌ; ᘿࡿ ࡾ can spread/stretch it haremásu, haréru v ᬍࡿࡱࡌ, ᬍࡿ ࡾ (weather) clears up: hárete imásu ᬍࡿ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is clear/

spring rolls hasamarimásu, hasamáru v ᣫࡱࡽࡱ ࡌ, ᣫࡱࡾ gets caught (in)

between, becomes sandwiched (in) between hasamemásu, hasaméru v ᣫࡴࡱࡌ, ᣫࡴࡾ can insert (put between) hasamí n ࡢࡈࡲ࣬㗉 scissors, clippers hasamí n ࡢࡈࡲ࣬⼮ pincer(s), claw (of crab) hasamimásu, hasámu v ᣫࡲࡱࡌ, ᣫࡳ inserts, puts between: háshi de ~ ⟺࡚ᣫࡲࡱࡌ picks it up fair/sunny with chopsticks hare-mono n ⭐ࡿ∸ swelling, boil hasan n ◒⏐ bankruptcy hashi n ❻ edge, end; hashi-kko n (on skin) haretsu n ◒⿛ bursting: ~ ❻ࡖࡆ edge, end shimásu ◒⿛ࡊࡱࡌ bursts hashí n ᶣ bridge hári n 㔢 needle, pin; needlework; háshi n ⟺ chopsticks: ~ o tsukaimásu ⟺ࢅ౐࠷ࡱࡌ uses chophand (of clock); a staple (of sticks; hashí-óki n ⟺⨠ࡀ chopstapler); hari-gane n 㔢㔘 wire; stick rest hari-shígoto n 㔢௘஥ needlework hashigo n ᲋Ꮔ ladder, stairs: (of all types) hári n 㘸 acupuncture ~-zake ࡢࡊࡇ㒿 bar hopping; harimásu, haru v ㈖ࡽࡱࡌ, ㈖ࡾ ~-dan ᲋Ꮔṹ wooden stairs hashika n ࡢࡊ࠾ measles sticks on, pastes 74

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hashira n ᰍ pillar, post: ikka no ~ ୌᐓࡡᰍ pillar of the family hashiremásu, hashiréru v ㉦ࡿࡱࡌ, ㉦ࡿࡾ can run hashirimásu, hashíru v ㉦ࡽࡱࡌ, ㉦ࡾ runs hashitanai adj ࡢࡊࡒ࡝࠷ in bad taste, shameful: ~-kuchi ࡢࡊࡒ ࡝࠷ཾ vulgar language hason n ◒᥾ damage hassan n Ⓠᩋ emanation, transpiration: sutoresu ~ ࢪࢹࣝࢪⓆᩋ


hátachi n ஦༎ṋ 20 years old hatake n ⏷ field (dry): ~ o tagayashimásu ⏷ࢅ⪌ࡊࡱࡌ cultivates

one’s patch hatakimásu, hatáku v ࡢࡒࡀࡱࡌ, ࡢࡒࡂ slaps, beats; dusts (= tatakimásu ྄ࡀࡱࡌ) hatan n ◒⥚ bankruptcy, failure,

collapse hatarakemásu, hatarakeru v ഼ࡄࡱࡌ, ഼ࡄࡾ can work hataraki n ഼ࡀ work(ing), activity,

stress release

operation, function; achievement; ability hatarakimásu, hataraku v ഼ࡀࡱࡌ, (books, magazines) hassei n Ⓠ⏍ outbreak, occurrence, ഼ࡂ works, labors; commits (a origin, birth, growth crime) has-sén n ඳ༐࣬8,000 eight thousand hataraki-mono n ഼ࡀ⩽ hard hassha n Ⓠ㌬ departure worker hasshin n Ⓠ㐅 (vehicle etc.) hatasemásu, hataséru v ᯕࡒࡎࡱࡌ, ᯕࡒࡎࡾ can accomplish starts: kuruma o ~ sasemásu ㌬ ࢅⓆ㐅ࡈࡎࡱࡌ moves the car hatashimásu, hatásu v ᯕࡒࡊࡱࡌ, hasshin n Ⓠಘ transmission: ᯕࡒࡌ accomplishes: yakusoku ~ shimásu Ⓠಘࡊࡱࡌ sends, o ~ ⣑ᮨࢅᯕࡒࡊࡱࡌ fulfills a transmits promise hasshin n Ⓠ⑀ (skin) rash háto n ࣀࢹ࣬㫸 pigeon, dove hasu n ࣀࢪ࣬ⶀ lotus: ~ no hana hato-ba n ἴḾሔ pier, wharf, quay ࣀࢪࡡⰴ lotus bloom (= futø ᇢ㢄) hasu (no) n ᩫ ࡡ oblique, slant- hatsu (no) adj ิ ࡡ first ing: ~ ni ᩫ࡞࣬ࡢࡌ࡞ obliquely hatsuan n Ⓠ᱄ design idea hatsubai n Ⓠ኉ sale, release; (= naname (ni) ᩫ ࡞ ) hata n ❻ 1. the side: (… no) ~ de hatsubai-bi n Ⓠ኉᪝ sale date, release date …ࡡ ❻࡚ off to the side (of) 2. the outside; ~ kara ❻࠾ࡼ hatsudén-ki n Ⓠ㞹ᶭ generator from the outside, to an outsider hatsudō´-ki n Ⓠິᶭ motor hatá n ᪕ flag hatsuiku n Ⓠ⫩ growth: ~ ga yoi/ii hatá n ᶭ loom Ⓠ⫩࠿Ⰳ࠷࠷࠷ is well grown 75 hás-satsu n ඳ෇ eight copies

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hatsuka n ஦༎᪝ 20 days; 20th of hayashí n ᄮࡊ o-hayashi ࠽ᄮࡊ the month: ~-mé ஦༎᪝┘ the Japanese instrument accompani-

20th day hatsukoi n ิᜂ first love hatsumei n Ⓠ᪺ invention hatsuon n Ⓠ㡚 pronunciation hattatsu n Ⓠ㐡 development hatte imásu (iru) v ᘿࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ ࠷ࡾ is tense, taut hátte imásu (iru) v ㏲ࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ ࠷ࡾ is crawling hatten n Ⓠᒈ development, expansion, growth; hatten-tojō´koku n Ⓠ ᒈ㏭୕ᅗ developing nation hát-tō n ඳ㢄 eight (horses/oxen,

ment hayashimásu, hayásu v ⏍ࡷࡊࡱࡌ, ⏍ࡷࡌ grows it (hair, teeth); lets

it grow (sprout) hayashimásu, hayásu v ᄮࡊࡱࡌ, ᄮࡌ (musically) accompanies ᄮࡌ (musically) accompanies háze n ࣀࢭ࣬ἃ㨮 goby (fish) hazenoki n ࣀࢭࢿ᷸࢞࣬ࡡᮄ࣬ 㯜᷸ sumac, Japanese wax tree

(plant) … hazu désu v …ࡢࡍ࡚ࡌ presum-

ably; ought to, should … hazu ga/wa arimasén (nái) v … ࡢ large animals) hatto (shite) adv ࡢࡖ࡛ ࡊ࡙ ࡍ࠿ࡢ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ ࡝࠷ there with a sudden start (of surprise) is no reason to expect/think that … Háwai n ࣀ࣠࢕ Hawaii hazukashíi adj ᜕ࡍ࠾ࡊ࠷ ashamed; hayái adj ㏷࠷ fast, quick embarrassed, shy; shameful, dishayái adj ᪡࠷ early, soon graceful háyaku adv ㏷ࡂ(so as to be) fast hazumi ᙆࡲ n impetus, momenháyaku adv ᪡ࡂ(so as to be) tum; impulse; chance early, soon: ~-tomo ᪡ࡂ࡛ࡵ at hazumimásu, hazumu v ᙆࡲࡱࡌ, ᙆࡳ bounces (back) the earliest hayamé ni adv ᪡ࡴ࡞ early (in hazuremásu, hazureru v አࡿࡱࡌ, አࡿࡾ gets disconnected, comes good time) hayarimásu, hayáru v Ὦ⾔ࡽࡱࡌ, off; misses, fails Ὦ⾔ࡾ gets popular, comes hazushimásu, hazusu v አࡊࡱࡌ, አࡌ disconnects, takes off, into fashion, spreads; (disease) spreads rapidly, is fast-spreading undoes, unfastens; misses: séki o hayari (no) adj Ὦ⾔ࡽ ࡡ fashion- ~ ᖆࢅአࡊࡱࡌ leaves one’s seat able, popular hé n ᑼ flatulence, fart: ~ o hirimásu/ shimásu ᑼࢅࡥࡽࡱࡌࡊࡱࡌ háyasa n ㏷ࡈ speed hayashi ráisu n ࣀࣕࢨࣚ࢕ࢪ beef flatulates, farts hē interj ࡫࠻ oh, really, wow hash over rice hayashí n ᯐ grove hébi n ࣉࣄ࣬⺤ snake 76

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hekomimásu, hekomu

hechima n ࣉࢲ࣏࣬⣊⎡ sponge

average life span (lifetime); gourd, luffa (loofah) ~-ten ᖲᆍⅤ average score hedatarimásu, hedatáru v 㝰ࡒࡽࡱࡌ, heiki (na) adj ᖲẴ ࡝ calm, 㝰ࡒࡾ is distant, is estranged composed, cool, unperturbed, hedatemásu, hedatéru v 㝰࡙ࡱࡌ, unfazed: ~ de ᖲẴ࡚ calmly 㝰࡙ࡾ estranges them, separates heikō n ᖲ⾔ parallel, parallelism: ~-sen o tadorimásu ᖲ⾔⥲ࢅࡒ them, gets them apart heddoráito n ࣉࢴࢺࣚ࢕ࢹ head࡜ࡽࡱࡌ fails to reach an agreelight(s) ment, remains as far apart as ever hédo n ཬྡ vomit heikō-shimásu (suru) v 㛚ཾࡊࡱࡌ hei n ሚ wall, fence ࡌࡾ is annoyed, is overhei n ඹ soldier (= heishi ඹኃ); whelmed, gets stuck hei-eki n ඹᙲ military service: ~ heimen n ᖲ㟻 flat surface: ~-zu ni tsukimásu ඹᙲ࡞ࡗࡀࡱࡌ ᖲ㟻ᅒ two-dimensional diagram serves in the army; hei-ki n ඹჹ heimin n ᖲẰ common person: ~-kaikyü ᖲẰ㝭⣥ common weapon, arms; hei-ryoku n ඹງ military force; héi-sha n ඹ⯃ people heisa n 㛚㙈 closing: køjø-~ ᕝሔ barracks; hei-shi n ඹኃ soldier 㛚㙈 factory closure (= hei ඹ); hei-tai n ඹ㝪 soldier heiten n 㛚ᗉ closing a store (boy), rank heibon (na) adj ᖲฉ ࡝ common- heiwa n ᖲ࿰ peace; ~ ni narimásu ᖲ࿰࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ becomes peace; place, conventional, ordinary heichi n ᖲᆀ flat land; (= heiya ~ na kuni ᖲ࿰࡝ᅗ peaceful ᖲ㔕) plain nation; haiwa na adj ᖲ࿰࡝ heijitsu n ᖲ᪝ weekday peaceful heijō (ni) adv ᖲᖏ ࡞ usually, heiya n ᖲ㔕 plain (flat land) heizen (to) adv ᖲ↓ ࡛ without ordinarily, generally heijō-shin n one’s senses/mind: ~ o embarrassment: ~ to shiteimásu tamochimásu ᖲᖏᚨࢅಕࡔࡱࡌ ᖲ↓࡛ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ remains unkeeps one’s cool/calm ruffled heika n 㝆ୖ majesty, Your hekichi n ൠᆀ remote area (= henpi na tochi ㎮ࡧ࡝ᅰᆀ) Majesty. heikai n 㛚ఌ closing a meeting: hekieki-shimásu (suru) v ㎚᪾ࡊࡱࡌ ~-shiki 㛚ఌᘟ closing ceremony ࡌࡾ is disgusted heikin n ᖲᆍ average, on the hekiga n ባ⏤ wall painting hekomimásu, hekomu v ࡫ࡆࡲࡱࡌ, average: ~ nenrei ᖲᆍᖳ௦ ࡫ࡆࡳ gets hollow, depressed, average age; ~ jumyø ᖲᆍᑋ࿤ 77

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dents: ~ imásu ࡫ࡆࢆ࡚࠷ࡱࡌ hekichi ൠᆀ) is dented, depressed henryū´-ki n ንὮჹ converter héma n ࡫ࡱ [INFORMAL] bungle, (AC-DC) mess, goof: ~ (o) shimásu ࡫ࡱ hensei n ⥽ᠺ organization henshin n ㏁ಘ reply, return mail ࢅ ࡊࡱࡌ goofs up hemásu, héru v ⤊ࡱࡌ, ⤊ࡾ passes henshin n ን㌗ transformation henshū n ⥽㞗 editing; henshū-chō (by), elapses … hen suffix …㎮ vicinity, nearby, n ⥽㞗㛏 editor in chief; henshūneighborhood (= chikaku ㎾ࡂ) sha n ⥽㞗⩽ editor …-hén suffix …㐚 (counts times) hensoku-rébā n ን㏷ࣝࣁ࣭ gear(= do ᗐ, kai ᅂ) shift hen’átsu-ki n ንᅸჹ voltage con- hentō n ㏁➽ [BOOKISH] = henjí ㏁஥ verter, transformer henjí n ㏁஥ answer, reply, reherashimásu, herasu v ΅ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, sponse: ~ (o) shimásu ㏁஥ ࢅ ΅ࡼࡌ decreases it, cuts it down, ࡊࡱࡌ answers, replies, responds shortens, lessens, curtails hénka n ን໩ change: … ni ~ heri n ΅ࡽ a decrease shimásu …࡞ን໩ࡊࡱࡌ it herí n ⦍ border, edge, rim herikoputā n ࣉࣛࢤࣈࢰ࣭ changes into … henkaku n ን㠁 innovative helicopter herikudarimásu, herikudaru v ࡫ࡽࡂ changes henkan n ንᥦ conversion: ~-ki ን ࡓࡽࡱࡌ, ࡫ࡽࡂࡓࡾ is modᥦჹ converter; ~-kíi ንᥦ࣭࢞ est, abases oneself: herikudatta the kana-to-kanji conversion key taido ࡫ࡽࡂࡓࡖࡒឺᗐ modest attitude (on a Japanese computer) henkan n ㏁㑇 return: Hoppø herikutsu n ᑼ⌦ᑿ sophistry, ryødo ~ ໪᪁㡷ᅰ㏁㑇 return of quiddity (using clever arguments Russian-held northern territories to support something that is not henken n ೩ず prejudice true): ~ o iimásu ᑼ⌦ᑿࢅゕ࠷ࡱ henkin n ㏁㔘 refund ([note] tax ࡌ quibbles herimásu, heru v ΅ࡽࡱࡌ, ΅ࡾ refund = kanpu 㑇௛) hén (na) adj ን ࡝ strange, odd, decreases, dwindles, goes down peculiar, funny, queer heripōto n ࡫࣭ࣛ࣎ࢹ heliport henpi (na) adj ㎮ࡧ ࡝ odd, off heroin n ࣉࣞ࢕ࣤ heroin the beaten path: ~ na tochi ㎮ࡧ herumetto n ࣉ࣒ࣜࢴࢹ helmet ࡝ᅰᆀ odd parts, places that herunia n ࣉࣜࢼ࢓ hernia hérupā n ࣉࣜࣂ࣭ helper were off the beaten track (= 78

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hérupesu n ࣉࣜ࣋ࢪ herpes hérupu n ࣉࣜࣈ help: ~-kinø ࣉࣜ ࣈᶭ⬗ (computer) help function heso n ࡫ࡐ navel, bellybutton hesokuri n ࡫ࡐࡂࡽ࣬ࣉࢮࢠࣛ

sunniness; hi-gása n ᪝ഘ parasol (umbrella); hi-gure n ᪝ᬵࡿ sunset (time); the dark; hi-kage n ᪝㝔 shadow (from sunlight); hi-nata n ᪝࡝ࡒ sunshine: ~-bókko ᪝࡝ࡒ ࡯ࡖࡆ sunbathing, basking (in pin money tucked away, pin the sun); hi-no-de n ᪝ࡡฝ sunrise; money hidden away: ~ ga arimásu ࣉࢮࢠࣛ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ has hi-no-iri n ᪝ࡡථࡽ sunset; hi-yake some pin money tucked away n ᪝↕ࡄ sunburn; hi-yoke n ᪝ࡻ hetá (na) adj ୖᡥ ࡝ ; unskillful, ࡄ sunshade, blind, awning; hi-yori inept, clumsy, poor, bad, inexpert: n ᪝࿰ weather (conditions); hi-yorimi n ᪝࿰ず waiting policy: ~ o suru to ࡫ࡒࢅࡌࡾ࡛ if you are unlucky, if you are not care- ~-seisaku ᪝࿰ずᨳ➿ wait-andful: ~ no yokozuki ୖᡥࡡᶋይࡀ see policy hí n ℾ fire; hí-bachi n ℾ㖂 hibachi, dabster, likes to but not very charcoal brazier: ~ ni atarimásu good at hetakuso (na) adj ୖᡥࡂࡐ ࡝ → ℾ㖂࡞ᙔࡒࡽࡱࡌ warm oneself hetá (na) ୖᡥ ࡝ at a hibachi/charcoal brazier; híhetarikomimásu, hetarikomu v ࡫ࡒࡽ bana n ℾⰴ spark; hí-bashi n ℾ⟺ ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ, ࡫ࡒࡽ㎰ࡳ collapses, tongs (for fire) sinks down: jimen ni ~ ᆀ㟻࡞࡫ …´-hi suffix …㈕ expense ࡒࡽ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ slumps on the ground hibí n ࡥࡦ crack (fine): ~ ga dekihetoheto adj ࡫࡛࡫࡛ is dead, is másu ࡥࡦ࠿࡚ࡀࡱࡌ crazes beaten: ~ ni tsukaremásu ࡫࡛࡫ hibikí 㡢ࡀ n echo ࡛࡞␺ࡿࡱࡌ is fagged out, is hibikimásu, hibíku v 㡢ࡀࡱࡌ, 㡢ࡂ dead tired echoes, resounds heyá n 㒂ᒁ room Hibiya n ᪝Ẓㆺ Hibiya: Hibiyahi n ᪝ day; hí-bi n ᪝ࠍ every day: Kø´en ᪝Ẓㆺපᅧ Hibiya Park ~ no seikatsu ᪝ࠍࡡ⏍Ὡ daily hibō n ㄞㅣ [BOOKISH] slander; life; hí-goto (ni) adv ᪝Ẏ ࡞ day hibō-chūshō ㄞㅣ୯ഭ mental abuse by day; hi-nichi n ᪝࡞ࡔ (fixed) hichíriki n ࡥࡔࡽࡀ an oboe-like day; number of days; hi-zuke n ᪝ reed instrument (in gagaku) ௛ date (of month) hidari n ᕞ left: ~-dónari ᕞ㝼ࡽ hi n ᪝ (ohi-sama ࠽᪝ᵕ) sun (= next (door) on the left; ~-kiki/giki (no) ᕞฺࡀ ࡡ left-handed taiyø ኯ㝟): ~ no hikari ᪝ࡡක sunshine (= níkkø ᪝ක); hi-atarí (person); ~-máwari (ni) ᕞᅂࡽ ࡞ counterclockwise n ᪝ᙔࡒࡽ exposure to the sun, 79

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hidari-gawa n ᕞഁ left side hidói adj ࡥ࡜࠷ severe, terrible,

elbows: ~-kake isu ⫕᤻ࡄ᳌Ꮔ armchair hijō n 㟸ᖏ emergency: ~-burë´ki unreasonable, vicious, bitter, awful: ~-kao ࡥ࡜࠷㢞 face like 㟸ᖏࣇ࣭ࣝ࢞ emergency brake; ~-guchi 㟸ᖏཾ emergency exit; a dropped pie hídoku adv ࡥ࡜ࡂ hard, cruelly, ~ no ba(w)ai 㟸ᖏࡡሔྙ in (the) terribly: ~ obiemásu ࡥ࡜ࡂ⬛ event of emergency; hijō na adj >ᛴ࠻@ࡱࡌ has one’s heart in 㟸ᖏ ࡝ unusual, extreme; hijō ni one’s mouth adv 㟸ᖏ ࡞ extremely hiemásu, hiéru v ෫࠻ࡱࡌ, ෫࠻ࡾ hikaemásu, hikaeru v ᥅࠻ࡱࡌ, ᥅ ࠻ࡾ refrains, withholds gets cold hífu n ⓮⭭ skin hikaemé (na) adj ᥅࠻┘ ࡝ higái n ⿍ᐐ damage, injury, casu- modest alty: ~-chi ⿍ᐐᆀ stricken area; hikaku n Ẓ㍉ comparison; hikakuteki (ni) adv Ẓ㍉Ⓩ ࡞ relatively, ~-sha ⿍ᐐ⩽ victim (= gaisha ラ⩽) comparatively higashí n ᮶ east: ~-guchi ᮶ཾ the hikan n ᝊび pessimism; hikan-teki east exit/entrance; ~-yori (no kaze) (na) adj ᝊびⓏ ࡝ pessimistic ᮶ᐞࡽ ࡡ㢴 easterly (wind); hikaremásu, hikareru v ᘤ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, ~-káigan ᮶ᾇᓃ east coast ᘤ࠾ࡿࡾ gets pulled (out), gets hige n ࡥࡅ࣬㧠 beard; mustache drawn/dragged/tugged/subtracted hikaremásu, hikareru v ㎒࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, (= kuchí-hige ཾࡥࡅ); ~ o sorimásu ࡥࡅࢅ้ࡽࡱࡌ shaves ㎒࠾ࡿࡾ gets run over: torákku hige n ࡥࡅ࣬ࣃࢣ whiskers ni ~ ࢹࣚࢴࢠ࡞㎒࠾ࡿࡱࡌ gets hígeki n ᝊ๸ tragedy run over by a truck híhan n ᢀึ judgment, criticism; hikaremásu, hikareru v ᣺࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, hihán-sha n ᢀึ⩽ critic, judge; ᣺࠾ࡿࡾ gets sawed híhan-teki (na) adj ᢀึⓏ ࡝ hikaremásu, hikareru v ᙆ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, ᙆ࠾ࡿࡾ gets played critical hihyō n ᢀビ criticism, review; hikaremásu, hikareru v ࡥ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, hihyō-ka n ᢀビᐓ critic, reviewer ࡥ࠾ࡿࡾ gets ground híiki n ࡥ࠷ࡀ illegitimate favor, hikaremásu, hikareru v ᝽࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, patronage: ~ shimásu ࡥ࠷ࡀࡊ ᝽࠾ࡿࡾ get attracted (to) ࡱࡌ shows preference/partiality hikaremásu, hikareru v කࡿࡱࡌ, híitā n ࣃ࣭ࢰ࣭ heater කࡿࡾ can glow/shine hijí n ⫕ elbow: ~ o harimásu ⫕ hikari-kēburu n කࢢ࣭ࣇࣜ optical ࢅᘿࡽࡱࡌ bends out one’s cable (Internet) 80

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hikarimásu, hikáru v කࡽࡱࡌ, කࡾ

it shines, glows

hiki-wakemásu, hiki-wakeru

㏁ࡊࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀ㏁ࡌ turns back,


hikemásu, hikeru v ᘤࡄࡱࡌ, ᘤࡄࡾ hikimásu, hiku v ᘤࡀࡱࡌ, ᘤࡂ

can pull

pulls (out); draws; drags, tugs; catches; attracts; deducts; looks up a word (in dictionary) hikimásu, hiku v ㎒ࡀࡱࡌ, ㎒ࡂ runs over (a person) hikimásu, hiku v ᣺ࡀࡱࡌ, ᣺ࡂ animals, fish, insects (bugs)) hiki-age n ᘤࡀ୕ࡅ refloating; saws hikimásu, hiku v ᙆࡀࡱࡌ, ᙆࡂ rise/hike (in price, wage, fee) hiki-age n ᘤࡀᥥࡅ evacuation, plays (a stringed instrument) hikimásu, hiku v ᣺ࡀࡱࡌ, ᣺ࡂ repatriation; salvage hiki-agemásu, hiki-agéru v ᘤࡀ୕ࡅ grinds (into powder) ࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀ୕ࡅࡾ pulls up; hikimásu, hiku v ㏝ࡀࡱࡌ, ㏝ࡂ refloats; raises (price, wage, fee) retires hiki-agemásu, hiki-agéru v ᘤࡀᥥ hikinige n ࡥࡀ>㎒ࡀ@㏠ࡅ hit and ࡅࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀᥥࡅࡾ withdraws, run leaves; evacuates, gets repatriated hiki-torimásu, hiki-tóru ᘤࡀཱིࡽࡱࡌ, hikiagé-sha n ᘤ ࡀ ᥥࡅ⩽ evacu- ᘤࡀཱིࡾ 1. leaves, withdraws, ee, repatriate retires 2. takes over, looks after, hikidashi n ᘤࡀฝࡊ drawer receives 3. íki o ~ ᜝ࢅᘤࡀཱིࡽ hikidashimásu, hikidasu v ᘤࡀฝࡊ ࡱࡌ takes/draws one’s last ࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀฝࡌ pulls/draws out; breath, dies hiki-tsugimásu, hiki-tsúgu v ᘤࡀ⤽ withdraws hiki-fune n ᘤࡀ ᭝ࡀ ⯢>⯒@ ࡁࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀ⤽ࡃ takes over, tugboat succeeds (in a projection) hikigane n ᘤࡀ㔘 trigger hiki-ukemásu, hiki-ukéru v ᘤࡀུ hiki-haraimásu, hiki-haráu v ᘤࡀᡮ࠷ ࡄࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀུࡄࡾ undertakes, ࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀᡮ࠹ checks out (of takes charge of, takes responhotel) sibility for; guarantees: tegata o hikiimásu, hikiíru v ⋙࠷ࡱࡌ, ⋙࠷ ~ ᡥᙟࢅᘤࡀུࡄࡱࡌ accepts a ࡾ leads, commands bill (of payment) hiki-kaemásu, hiki-káéru v ᘤࡀᥦ࠻ hiki-wakemásu, hiki-wakeru ᘤࡀฦࡄ ࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀᥦ࠻ࡾ exchanges, ࡱࡌ, ᘤࡀฦࡄࡾ v draws apart; converts plays to a draw: hikiwake n ᘤ hiki-kaeshimásu, hiki-káésu v ᘤࡀ ࡀฦࡄ tie, draw 81 hiketsu n ⛆グ [BOOKISH] secret, formula: seikø é no ~ ᠺຉ࡫ࡡ⛆ グ key to success …-hiki (-ppiki) …༆ (counts small

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hiki-zan n ᘤࡀ⟤ subtraction hiki-zurimásu, hiki-zuru v ᘤࡀࡍࡽࡱ ࡌ, ᘤࡀࡍࡾ drags hik-kakimásu, hik-káku v ᘤࡖᥑࡀࡱ ࡌ, ᘤࡖᥑࡂ scratches it hikki n ➱エ writing down; hikki-tai n ➱エమ running hand, script; hikki-yōgu n ➱エ⏕ර writing

híme n ጭ (ohíme-sama ࠽ ጭᵕ

princess himei n ᝊ㫾 a scream: ~ o agemásu ᝊ㫾ࢅ୕ࡅࡱࡌ screams

out himitsu (no) adj ⛆ᐠ ࡡ secret,

mystery himo n ࡥࡵ string, cord, tape,


strap, ribbon

hikkoshi ᘤࡖ㉲ࡊ n moving (house); hikkoshi-ya n ᘤࡖ㉲ࡊᒁ (house) mover; hikkoshi-torákku n ᘤࡖ㉲ࡊࢹࣚࢴࢠ mover’s van hikkoshimásu, hikkósu v ᘤࡖ㉲ࡊࡱ ࡌ, ᘤࡖ㉲ࡌ moves (house) hikkuri-kaerimásu, hikkuri-káeru v ᘤ ࡖࡂࡽ㏁ࡽࡱࡌ, ᘤࡖࡂࡽ㏁ࡾ it

hin n ဗ elegance, refinement, dignity: ~ ga arimásu ဗ࠿࠵ࡽ ࡱࡌ has class hinagata n ࡥ࡝ᙟ form; pattern;

shape hina-mátsuri n ࡥ࡝⚅ ࡽ the Dolls

Festival (3 March)

hínan n 㟸㞬 blame, reproach hínan n 㑂㞬 taking refuge; hinántips (over); it upsets sha n 㑂㞬⩽ refugee hikkuri-kaeshimásu, hikkuri-káesu v ᘤࡖࡂࡽ㏁ࡊࡱࡌ, ᘤࡖࡂࡽ㏁ࡌ hina-níngyō n ࡥ࡝ெᙟ (festival)

upsets (overturns) it


hikō n 㣍⾔ flying (a plane); hikō-jō n 㣍⾔ሔ airport (= kükø ✭῿); hikō´-ki n 㣍⾔ᶭ airplane: ~ ni norimásu 㣍⾔ᶭ࡞஋ࡽࡱࡌ gets on a plane; hikō-yoi n 㣍⾔㓁࠷

hinerimásu, hinéru v ᤤࡽࡱࡌ, ᤤࡾ

twists; turns hiniku n ⓮⫏ sarcasm: ~ o iimásu ⓮⫏ࢅゕ࠷ࡱࡌ makes sarcastic remarks; hiniku na adj ⓮⫏ ࡝


sarcastic, cynical

hi-kō´shiki (no) adj 㟸පᘟ ࡡ unofficial, informal: ~ kaigi 㟸ප ᘟࡡఌ㆗ informal conference hikúi adj ఩࠷ low, short hikyō´ (na) adj ༚ᛴ ࡝ cowardly hima n ᬜ time; leisure, spare time; leave; dismissal (of servant): ~-tsubushi ᬜࡗࡩࡊ killing time; hima na adj ᬜ ࡝ at leisure, unoccu-

hinin n 㑂ዲ contraception; hinín-gu n 㑂ዲර contraceptive (device); hinín-yaku n 㑂ዲⷾ contraceptive

drug/pill hinkon n ㈃ᅏ poverty; hinkon na adj ㈃ᅏ ࡝ needy hinmín-kutsu/-gai n ㈃Ằ❅⾜ slum hinoki butai n ᷋⯑ྋ stage of

pied, not busy; slow (business)

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a major (first-class, leading) theater


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hinshi n ဗペ part of speech hinshi n ℔Ṓ moribundity, near


hirataku adv ᖲࡒࡂ flat: ~ iu to/ ieba ᖲࡒࡂゕ࠹࡛ゕ࠻ࡣ put



hinshitsu n ဗ㈹ quality: ~ o hoshø- hire n ࣃࣝ࣬㪽 fin shimásu ဗ㈹ࢅಕチࡊࡱࡌ hire n ࣃࣝ fillet (of pork, etc.) hirefushimásu, hirefusu v ࡥࡿఄࡊ guarantees the quality hinshuku-o-kaimásu (kau) v ࡥࢆࡊࡸ ࡱࡌ, ࡥࡿఄࡌ grovels, falls on ࡂࢅ㈑࠷ࡱࡌ ㈑࠹ invites one’s face hirei n Ẓౚ proportion frowns of disgust, is frowned hirimásu, híru v ࡥࡽࡱࡌ, ࡥࡾ upon hínto n ࣃࣤࢹ hint, reminder discharges (excretes) from the hipparimásu, hippáru v ᘤࡖᘿࡽࡱ body: hé o ~ ᑼࢅࡥࡽࡱࡌ ࡌ, ᘤࡖᘿࡾ pulls, drags, tugs flatulates, farts híró-bá n ᗀሔ a square, a place, (at), takes, brings hira-ayamari n ᖲㅨࡽ humble (public) an open space apology: ~ ni ayamarimásu ᖲㅨ hiroemásu, hiroeru v ᣘ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᣘ࠻ ࡽ࡞ㅨࡽࡱࡌ makes a humble ࡾ can pick it up hirogarimásu, hirogaru v ᗀ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, apology hirágáná n ࡥࡼ࠿࡝࣬ᖲ௫ྞ ᗀ࠿ࡾ it spreads, widens hiragana (the roundish Japanese hirogemásu, hirogeru v ᗀࡅࡱࡌ, ᗀ ࡅࡾ spreads/widens it letters) hiraki 㛜ࡀ n open and dried fish: hirói adj ᗀ࠷ wide, broad; big sanma no ~ ࢦ࣏ࣤࡡ㛜ࡀ open (room, etc.) hiroimásu, hirou v ᣘ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᣘ࠹ and dried saury hirakí-do n 㛜ࡀᡖ hinged door picks it up hirakimásu, hiráku v 㛜ࡀࡱࡌ, 㛜ࡂ hiroku adv ᗀࡂ wide, widely hiromarimásu, hiromáru v ᗀࡱࡽࡱࡌ, opens up; has/holds (a party) hirame n ࣃ࣒ࣚ࣬ᖲ┘ flounder ᗀࡱࡾ it spreads, gets diffused hiramekimásu, hirameku v ࡥࡼࡴ hiromemásu, hiroméru v ᗀࡴࡱࡌ, ࡀࡱࡌ, ࡥࡼࡴࡂ comes to one ᗀࡴࡾ spreads/diffuses it hírosa n ᗀࡈ width in a flash hiraoyogi n ᖲὃࡁ breast-stroke Hiroshima n ᗀᓞ Hiroshima hira (shain) n ᖲ ♣ဤ rank-and- hírō n ᢠ㟚 presentation; hirō´-en file employee n ᢠ㟚ᐑ reception, wedding hiratai adj ᖲࡒ࠷ flat (= tiara na banquet (engagement, wedding, ᖲࡼ࡝): ~-hana ᖲࡒ࠷㰧 flat etc.); hirō´-kai n ᢠ㟚ఌ reception


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(engagement, wedding, etc.) 83

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hirú n ᫠ daytime, noon: ~ kara ᫠࠾ࡼ after noon; ~ no bú ᫠ࡡ 㒂 matinee; hiru-góhan n ᫠ࡇ㣜 noon meal, lunch (= hirumeshi ᫠㣜); hiru-má n ᫠㛣 daytime; hiru-ne n ᫠ᐱ nap; hiru-súgí n ᫠ 㐛ࡁ afternoon híru n ࣃࣜ࣬⺼ leech hisashi-buri (ni) adv ஁ࡊࡩࡽ ࡞

after a long time (of absence) hishaku n ᯮᮠ scoop, ladle hishó n ⛆᭡ secretary (private) hi´ssha n ➱⩽ the writer/author (= chosha ⴥ⩽ hisúi n ࣃࢪ࢕࣬⩤⩣ jade hitai n 㢘 forehead, brow hitashi-mono n ᾈࡊ∸ (o-hitáshi ࠽ ᾈࡊ boiled vegetables (usually


breath: ~ de ୌ᜝࡚ with a gulp: ~ iremásu/tsukimásu ୌ᜝ථࡿ ࡱࡌࡗࡀࡱࡌ catches one’s breath; hitó-kátamari n ࡥ࡛ᅖࡱࡽ ࣬ୌም one lump/loaf; hitó-kire n ୌวࡿ (one) piece (a cut); hitókoto n ୌゕ a word: ~ de iuto ୌ ゕ࡚ゕ࠹࡛ put simply; hitó-kuchi n ୌཾ one mouthful; one bite; one drink, sip: ~ ni iuto ୌཾ࡞ ゕ࠹࡛ in a word; hitó-kumi n ୌ ⤄ a set (collection); hitó-maki n ୌᕬࡀ one (roll, bolt of cloth); hitó-mori n ୌ┊ࡽ scoop (one scoopful); hitó-nemuri n ୌ┸ࡽ a nap; hitó-oyogi n ࡥ࡛ὃࡁ a swim; hitó-ri n ୌெ one person; (~ de ࡥ࡛ࡽ࡚࣬≺ࡽ࡚) alone; ~-mónó ≺ࡽ⩽ single (unmarried) person; hitó-saji n ୌ໬ one spoonful; hito-shibai n ୌⰢᑽ playing a trick, acting; hito-shigoto n ୌ௘஥ bout of work; hito-suji n ୌ➵ shaft; ~-nawa dewa ikimasen ୌ➵⦎࡚ ࡢ࠷ࡀࡱࡎࢆ is not an easy job; hitó-tsu n ࡥ࡛ࡗ࣬ୌࡗ one (= ík-ko ୌ಴ : one year old (= ís-sai ୌṋ); one and the same; hitó-yama n ୌᒜ one heap/bunch hitómazu (wa) adv ࡥ࡛ࡱࡍ ࡢ

greens) served cold with seasoning hitchaku n ᚪ╌ must-reach: nigatsu muika ~ 2᭮6᪝ᚪ╌ due NLT (not later than) February 6 hitei n ྫྷᏽ denial hito n ெ, … hitó …ெ person, man, fellow, people; someone, somebody; hitó-bito n ெࠍ people (in general); hito-gara n ெᯮ character, personality; hito-góroshi n ெṽࡊ murder; hitó-tachi n ெ㐡 people for a while; for the time being hito-… prefix ୌ… one, a; hitohitori-de ni adv ࡥ࡛ࡽ࡚࡞ spontaneously, automatically, ánshin n ࡥ࡛Ꮽᚨ a relief (from worry) → anshín Ꮽᚨ; hitó-ban n by/of itself ୌᬄ one night; hito-gomi n ࡥ࡛ hitori-goto n ≺ࡽゕ talking to ࡇࡲ࣬ெ㎰ࡲ crowd; hitó-hako n oneself: ~ o iimásu ≺ࡽゕࢅゕ࠷ ୌ⟵ one boxful; hitó-iki n ୌ᜝ a ࡱࡌ says to oneself 84

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(… ) hodo

hitosashiyubi n ெᕣࡊᣞ forefinger, hizume n ㋗ hoof index finger hó n ᕲ sail hitoshíi adj ➴ࡊ࠷ equal, identical, hō interj ࡮࠽㸴 oh? hō n Ἢ law (= høritsu Ἢᚂ); rule; similar hitsugi n ᳄ coffin method hitsuji n ࣃࢵࢩ࣬⨲ sheep hō n ࡮࠽࣬㢃 cheek (= hoho ࡮ hitsujuhin n ᚪ㞺ဗ necessity: ࡮࣬㢃, hoppéta ࡮ࡖ࡭ࡒ) seikatsu-~ ⏍Ὡᚪ㞺ဗ daily … hō´ n …᪁ alternative, the one necessities, commodities (of two) that …: ~ ga íi desu … hitsuyō n ᚪこ necessity, need: ᪁࠿࠷࠷࡚ࡌ … is better … suru ~ ga arimásu ࡌࡾᚪ hōbi n 「⨶ (go-hø´bi ࡇ「⨶ こ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ needs to…: … ga [HONORIFIC]) prize, reward ~ desu ࠿ᚪこ࡚ࡌ needs…; hóbo adj ࡮࡯ nearly; roughly hitsuyō na ᚪこ࡝ adj necessary, hō´bō n, adv ᪁ࠍ everywhere, all

essential hitteki n ༆ᩓ comparison híttó n ࣃࢴࢹ a hit (baseball); híttó-kyoku n ࣃࢴࢹ᭜ hit song híya n ෫ࡷ cold water hiya-múgi n ෫ࡷ㯇࣬ࡥࡷࡳࡁ

chilled wheat-flour noodles (cf. sø´men ࡐ࠹ࡴࢆ) hiyashimásu, hiyásu v ෫ࡷࡊࡱࡌ, ෫ࡷࡌ cools it off, refrigerates, chills: atama o ~ 㢄ࢅ෫ࡷࡊࡱ ࡌ cools one’s head hiya-yákko n ෫ࡷࡷࡖࡆ cooled

bean curd híyō n ㈕⏕ cost, expense: ~ ga kakarimásu ㈕⏕࠿࠾࠾ࡽࡱࡌ


over, every which way hōchi n ᨲ⨠ neglect: ~-jitensha ᨲ⨠⮤㌷㌬ illegally-parked

bicycle hóchikisu n ࣌ࢲ࢞ࢪ stapler hochō n Ṅㄢ pace: ~ o awasemásu Ṅㄢࢅྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ keeps step hōchō n ໜ୍ knife (big); butcher

knife; cleaver hochōki n ⿭⫀ჹ hearing aids: ~ o tsukemásu ⿭⫀ჹࢅࡗࡄࡱࡌ

wears a hearing aid hōdan n ◑ᙆ bombshell …-hōdai suffix ᨲ㢗 can…as much as: tabe-~ 㣏࡬ᨲ㢗 all-you-caneat: nomi-~ 㣟ࡲᨲ㢗 all-youcan-drink: shitai-~ ࡊࡒ࠷ᨲ㢗

hiyowa adj ࡥᘽ weak: ~ na kodoes whatever one feel like doing domo ࡥᘽ࡝Ꮔ౩ frail child hiza n ⭰ knee, lap hōden n ᨲ㞹 electric(al) discharge hizamazukimásu, hizamazuku v ࡥࡉ (… ) hodo suffix … ⛤࣬࡮࡜ ࡱࡍࡀࡱࡌ, ࡥࡉࡱࡍࡂ falls on extent; limits; moderation; ap-

one’s knees, kneels down

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proximate time; about (as much 85

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as), (not) so much as; the more hogei n ᤍ㪊 whaling … the more hōgén n ᪁ゕ dialect hodō n Ṅ㐠 walk(way), pavement, hógo n ಕ㆜ protection; hogo-sha n ಕ㆜⩽ guardian sidewalk: ~-kyø Ṅ㐠ᶣ hoguremásu, hoguréru v ゆࡿࡱࡌ, crossover bridge hōdō n ሒ㐠 news report ゆࡿࡾ it loosens hodokemásu, hodokéru v ゆࡄࡱࡌ, hoho n ࡮࡮࣬㢃 cheek (= hø ࡮࠽ ゆࡄࡾ comes loose, comes un࣬㢃, hoppéta ࡮ࡖ࡭ࡒ) hōhō n ᪁Ἢ method, process done hodokimásu, hodóku v ゆࡀࡱࡌ, hohoemashii adj ᚜➏ࡱࡊ࠷ heartゆࡂ undoes, unties warming, pleasant hodokóshi v ᪃ࡊ charity: ~ o uke- hohoemí n ᚜➏ࡲ smile másu ᪃ࡊࢅུࡄࡱࡌ accepts hohoemimásu, hohoému v ᚜➏ࡲࡱ ࡌ, ᚜➏ࡳ smiles charity hoemásu, hoéru v ྩ࠻ࡱࡌ, ྩ࠻ࡾ hoikú-en n ಕ⫩ᅧ nursery school, (dog) barks pre-kindergarten hoeraremásu, hoeraréru v ྩ࠻ࡼ hōji n Ἢ஥ mass (Buddhist), Budࡿࡱࡌ, ྩ࠻ࡼࡿࡾ can bark; dhist memorial service: ~ o okonaimásu Ἢ஥ࢅ⾔࠷ࡱࡌ holds is barked hō´fu (na) adj ㇇ᐣ ࡝ rich: ~ na a Buddhist service (for the dead) keiken ㇇ᐣ࡝⤊㥺 abundant hōjin n Ἢெ corporation; hōjin-zei experience n Ἢெ⛧ corporation tax hō´gai (na) adj Ἢአ ࡝ exorbitant, hójo n ⿭ຐ help, assistance; hojoinordinate, excessive, unreason- kin n ⿭ຐ㔘 grant: ~-seido ⿭ຐ able, steep: ~ na kingaku/nedan 㔘โᗐ bounty system Ἢአ࡝㔘㢘ೋṹ unreasonable hoka n ࡮࠾࣬አ࣬௙ other, in price addition to, other than (= ta ௙): hōgaku n ᪁ぽ direction, one’s ~ no ௙ࡡ other, another hoken n ಕ㝜 insurance: … ni ~ o bearings hōgaku n 㑝ᴞ Japanese music kakemásu …࡞ಕ㝜ࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ hō´gaku (-bu) n ἪᏕ 㒂 (science/ insures; kenkō-hoken n ೸ᗛಕ㝜 study of) law; School of Law health insurance hōgan n ໜྱ inclusion, compre- hoken n ಕ೸ healthcare, preserhension vation of health: sekai-~-kikø hōgan n ◑୷ cannonball ୠ⏲ಕ೸ᶭ㛭 World Health hógaraka (na) adj ᭹ࡼ࠾ ࡝ Organization hōken n ᑌᘋ feudal(ism): ~-jídai bright, sunny; cheerful 86

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ᑌᘋ᫤௥ feudal period hoketsu n ⿭Ḗ substitute, alternate: ~-sha-meibo ⿭Ḗ⩽ྞ⡑

no… ໪ࡡ…); Hoku-Bei n ໪⡷ = Kita-Ámerika ໪࢓࣒ࣛ࢜ North America; hóku-bu n ໪㒂 the north, waiting list the northern part; hóku-i n ໪⦃ hō´ki n ᨲᲘ abandonment north latitude; Hoku-ō n ໪Ḛ hō´ki n ⟠ broom: ~ de hakimásu Northern Europe; hoku-sei n ໪け ⟠࡚ᤪࡀࡱࡌ sweeps with a northwest; hoku-tō n ໪᮶ northbroom; hōkí-boshi n ⟠᫅ comet east; hoku-yō n ໪Ὂ northern sea Hokkáidō n ໪ᾇ㐠 Hokkaido hokuro n 㯦Ꮔ mole (on skin) hókkē n ࣌ࢴࢢ࣭ hockey hokosoemimásu, hokusoemu v ࡮ࡂ hókku n ࣌ࢴࢠ hook (snap): ~ de ࡐ➏ࡲࡱࡌ, ࡮ࡂࡐ➏ࡳ tomemásu ࣌ࢴࢠ࡚࡛ࡴࡱࡌ chuckles, snickers to oneself hokyō n ⿭ᙁ reinforcement, hooks up Hokkyoku n ໪ᴗ North Pole, corroboration Arctic; Hokkyoku-guma n ࣌ࢴ࢞ࣘ hokyū n ⿭⤝ supply hōkyū n ಥ⤝ pay, wages, salary ࢠࢡ࣏࣬໪ᴗࢡ࣏ polar bear, white bear (= shiro-kuma Ⓣ↻); homé n 「ࡴ praise: ~ ni azukariHokkyoku-sei n ໪ᴗ᫅ North Star masu ࠽「ࡴ࡞࠵ࡍ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ is hōkō n ᪁ྡྷ direction praised [HONORIFIC] hōkoku n ሒ࿈ report; hōkoku-sho n home-kótoba n 「ࡴゕⴝ compliሒ࿈᭡ report, statement ment, word of praise hokora n ♾ small shrine homemásu, homéru v 「ࡴࡱࡌ, 「 hokorashii adj ヺࡼࡊ࠷ is proud ࡴࡾ praises, admires hokoremásu, hokoréru v ヺࡿࡱࡌ, hōmén n ᪁㟻, …-hø´men …᪁㟻 ヺࡿࡾ can brag direction, quarter, district hokori n ᇐ dust (in the air): ~ o hómo (no) adj ࣓࣌ ࡡ homoharaimásu ᇐࢅᡮ࠷ࡱࡌ brushes sexual, gay hōmon n ゴၡ visit, call on dust off hokorí ヺࡽ n pride, boast homosapiensu n ࣓࣌ࢦࣅ࢙ࣤࢪ hokorimásu, hokóru v ヺࡽࡱࡌ, ヺ Homo sapiens ࡾ brags about/of hō´mu n ࣭࣑࣌ 1. platform (at hokōsha n Ṅ⾔⩽ pedestrian: station) 2. home ~-tengoku Ṅ⾔⩽ኮᅗ areas of hōmu-dórama n ࣭࣑࣌ࢺ࣏ࣚ soap

streets temporarily closed to vehicular traffic, pedestrian mall hoku-… prefix ໪… north (= kita

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opera hōmuresu n ࣭࣑࣌ࣝࢪ homeless hōmushikku n ࣭࣑࣌ࢨࢴࢠ homesick: ~ ni narimásu/kakarimásu


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࣭࣑࣌ࢨࢴࢠ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ࠾࠾ࡽ (counts long objects) ࡱࡌ gets homesick hónbun n ᮇฦ one’s duty Hōmu-shō n Ἢຸ┤ Ministry of honé n 㦭 bone: ~ o orimásu 㦭ࢅ ᢙࡽࡱࡌ takes (great) pains, Justice hōmu-sutei n ࣭࣑࣌ࢪࢷ࢕ home goes to much trouble; hone-gúmi stay n 㦭⤄ࡲ framework; hone-órí hón n ᮇ book; hón-bako n ᮇ⟵ n 㦭ᢙࡽ(o-honeori ࠽㦭ᢙࡽ bookcase; hón-dana n ᮇᲬ book- [HONORIFIC] effort hongoshi-o-iremásu (ireru) v ᮇ⭔ࢅථ shelf; hón-ya n ᮇᒁ bookshop hon-… prefix ᮇ… main; chief; ࡿࡱࡌ ථࡿࡾ gets down to this; the; the present; real; hon-ba seriously honki (no/de) adj, adv ᮇẴ ࡡ࡚ n ᮇሔ original place, area of production, real thing: ~ no nihon serious(ly), (in) earnest: … o ~ ryøri ᮇሔࡡ᪝ᮇᩩ⌦ authentic ni shimásu …ࢅᮇẴ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ Japanese food; hon-ban n ᮇ␊ takes it seriously real part, real thing; hón-bu n ᮇ Hónkón n ࣌ࣤࢤࣤ࣬㤮῿ Hong 㒂 central office, headquarters (= Kong hón-sha ᮇ♣); hon-dai n ᮇ㢗 honmei n ᮇ࿤ the favorite honmō n ᮇ᭻ (one’s) heart’s main issue; hon-dō n ᮇ㐠 the main route; hon-mono n ᮇ∸ the desire, one’s long-cherished real thing: ~ no aji ᮇ∸ࡡ࿝ desire: ~ o togemásu ᮇ᭻ࢅ㐑ࡅ authentic flavor: ~ no daiyamondo ࡱࡌ realizes one’s heart’s desire ᮇ∸ࡡࢱ࢕࣓ࣕࣤࢺ real diahonno … adj ࡮ࢆࡡ …just a (litmond; hon-ne n ᮇ㡚 true (inner) tle), only a, a mere/slight … ~ sukoshi/chotto ࡮ࢆࡡᑛࡊࡔࡺ feeling, real intention (= honshin ᮇᚨ); hon-nin n ᮇெ (the ࡖ࡛ … just a little; just a minute person) himself/herself/myself, honō´ n ⅎ flame principal; hón-rai n ᮇᮮ originally, honomekashí n ்ࡴ࠾ࡊ a hint honomekashimásu, honomekásu v ் from the start; hon-ron n ᮇㄵ ࡴ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, ்ࡴ࠾ࡌ hints main discussion, main issue: ~ ni hairimásu ᮇㄵ࡞ථࡽࡱࡌ get Honóruru n ࣌ࢿࣜࣜ Honolulu down to business; hón-seki n ᮇ hon-ryō n ᮇ㡷 one’s element/ ⡘ permanent residence; hon-shin sphere: ~ o hakki shimásu ᮇ㡷 ࢅⓆᥱࡊࡱࡌ show oneself at n ᮇᚨ true (inner) feeling, real intention; hon-ten n ᮇᗉ head one’s best Hónshū n ᮇᕗ Honshü office, main store …´-hon (...´-pon, ...´-bon) suffix …ᮇ hontō (no), honto (no) adj ᮇᙔ ࡡ ,

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hoshimásu, hósu

࡮ࢆ࡛ ࡡ true, real, genuine: ~ no koto ᮇᙔࡡ஥ truth; ~ ni ᮇᙔ࡞ really, truly, indeed,

horimásu, hóru v ᤸࡽࡱࡌ, ᤸࡾ

digs, carves; excavates horimásu, hóru v ᙦࡽࡱࡌ, ᙦࡾ



hon’yaku n ⩳ズ translation; hon’yáku´-sha(ka) ⩳ズ⩽ ᐓ

horí-mónó n ᙦ∸ a carving, tattoo hōritsu n Ἢᚂ law (legal system); hōritsu-ka n Ἢᚂᐓ jurist translator hoppéta n ࡮ࡖ࡭ࡒ cheek (= hø, hōrō n ᨲᾁ wandering hoho ࡮࠽࣬࡮࡮࣬㢃) horobimásu, horobíru v ⁓ࡦࡱࡌ, ⁓ hoppō n ໪᪁ the north ࡦࡾ perishes hóra n ࣌ࣚ࣬Ἢ⼲ 1. trumpet-shell horoboshimásu, horobósu v ⁓࡯ࡊ (= horá-gai Ἢ⼲ㇽ 2. exaggera- ࡱࡌ, ⁓࡯ࡌ destroys tion, bragging, bull (= uso Ⴭ): hōrókú n ↆⅱ earthenware pan ~ o fukimásu ࡮ࡼࢅྻࡀࡱࡌ hórun n ࣌ࣜࣤ horn (music) hōsaku n ᪁➿ measures, policy brags, talks big hóra interj ࡮ࡼ! Look!, Here!, hōsaku n ㇇ష abundant/rich

There!, You see!


horā n ࣭࣌ࣚ horror; horā-eiga n ࣭࣌ࣚ᫆⏤ horror movie/film hora-ana n ὕ✨ cave horá-gai n Ἢ⼲ㇽ trumpet-shell hōrei n Ἢ௦ law, act horemásu, horeru v ᝦࡿࡱࡌ, ᝦࡿ ࡾ falls in love, loses one’s heart to : … ni hore(komi)másu …࡞ ᝦࡿ ㎰ࡲ ࡱࡌ falls in love

hōseki n ᐀▴ jewel, gem; hōsekishō n ᐀▴ၛ jeweler, gem dealer hosemásu, hoséru v ᖱࡎࡱࡌ, ᖱࡎ ࡾ can dry it hōshanō n ᨲᑏ⬗ radioactivity hōshasen n ᨲᑏ⥲ (nuclear)

bargain, a real find, lucky find:

desires, wants, would like, wishes


hoshi n ᫅ star; hoshi-jírushi n ᫅༰ star (symbol), asterisk (*); hoshiuranai n ᫅༥࠷ astrology (with) horemásu, horéru ᤸࡿࡱࡌ, ᤸࡿࡾ hōshi n ዅ௘ service; hōshi-katsudō can dig n ዅ௘Ὡິ voluntary service, hōrénsō n ࣌ࢗࣝࣤࢮࢗ࣬࡮࠹ࡿ voluntary activity ࢆⲙ spinach hōshi n ⬂Ꮔ spore(s) horí n ᤸ ditch, moat; hori-wari n hoshigarimásu, hoshigáru v ḟࡊ࠿ࡽ ࡱࡌ, ḟࡊ࠿ࡾ wants it ᤸ ࡽ ๪ࡽ canal horidashi-mono n ᤸࡽฝࡊ∸ a hoshíi v ḟࡊ࠷ is desired/desirable; ~ o sagashimásu ᤸࡽฝࡊ∸ࢅ᥀ hoshimásu, hósu v ᖱࡊࡱࡌ, ᖱࡌ ࡊࡱࡌ searches for bargains dries it; airs it

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hōshin n ᪁㔢 policy, course (of

hosonagái adj ⣵㛏࠷ long and action), aim (direction) slender/narrow hōshin n ␹⑀ (medical) herpes hossa n Ⓠష attack, seizure: hōshin n ᨲᚨ absent-mindedness: shinzø-~ ᚨ⮒Ⓠష heart attack ~ jøtai ᨲᚨ≟ឺ is lost in abstrac- hō´su n ࣭࣌ࢪ hose hósutesu n ࣌ࢪࢷࢪ hostess tion hóshi (ta) adj ᖱࡊ ࡒ dried; hoshi- hósuto n ࣌ࢪࢹ host mono n ᖱ ࡊ ∸ drying washed hōtai n ໜᖈ bandage hotaru n ࣌ࢰࣜ࣬⺧ lightning clothes, dried clothes hoshō n ಕチ guarantee, warranty: bug, firefly: ~-no-hikari ① ࣌ࢰ ~´-sho ಕチ᭡ letter of guarantee ࣜࡡක gleam of fireflies ②ࠔ࡮ hoshō n ⿭ർ compensating; ࡒࡾࡡකࠕ“Auld Lang Syne” hoshō´-kin ⿭ർ㔘 compensation hotaté-gai n ࣌ࢰࢷ࢝࢕࣬ᕲ❟ㇽ (money), indemnity scallop(s) hōshoku n 㣤㣏 full feeding: ~ no hōtei n Ἢᘈ law court jidai 㣤㣏ࡡ᫤௥ age of plenty hōteishiki n ᪁⛤ᘟ equation hōshoku n ᐀㣥 jewelry: ~-hin ᐀ hōten n Ἢ඼ code law 㣥ဗ jewelry items hóteru n ࣌ࢷࣜ hotel: ichiryü-~ hóshu n ಕᏬ maintenance, ୌὮ࣌ࢷࣜ first-class hotel hōtō n ᨲⷑ [BOOKISH] debauchery upkeep; hoshu-ha n ಕᏬὬ hotobashiru v ࡮࡛ࡣࡊࡾ gushes: conservative wing; hoshu-teki (na) adj ಕᏬⓏ ࡝ conserva~-kanjø ࡮࡛ࡣࡊࡾវ᝗ outpourtive: ~ kangae ಕᏬⓏ࡝⩻࠻ ing of emotion Hotoke(-sámá) n ௕ ᵕ Buddha conservative thinking/view hóshu n ᤍᡥ catcher (= budda ௕㜸) hōshū n ሒ㓐 reward hotóndo adv ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜ almost (all), hōshutsu n ᨲฝ emission nearly; almost all the time; [ NEhōsō n ᨲ㏞ broadcasting GATIVE verb] hardly (ever), hōsō n ໜ⿞ packing, wrapping; seldom hōsō´-butsu n ໜ⿞∸ package, hottan n Ⓠ❻ beginning, onset packet; hōsō´-shi n ໜ⿞⣤ package, hotte/hōtte oku v ࡮ࡖ࡙ᨲࡖ࡙࠽ ࡂ leaves alone, lets alone wrapper hosói adj ⣵࠷ slender; narrow; hotto doggu n ࣌ࢴࢹࢺࢴࢡ hot thin dog hōsoku n Ἢ์ rule(s), law(s) hotto kēki n ࣌ࢴࢹࢢ࣭࢞ pancake hosomichi n ⣵㐠 lane, path, nar- hótto (na) adj ࣌ࢴࢹ ࡝ hot: ~ wadai ࣌ࢴࢹ࡝ヨ㢗 hot topic row road 90

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hotto purēto n ࣌ࢴࢹࣈ࣭ࣝࢹ

hot plate hotto rain n ࣌ࢴࢹࣚ࢕ࣤ hotline hóttó-shimásu (-suru) v ࡮ࡖ࡛ࡊࡱ ࡌ ࡌࡾ breathes a sigh of relief hōwa n 㣤࿰ saturation, impregnation; hōwa-jōtai n 㣤࿰≟ឺ

hyōban n ビึ reputation, fame: ~ no ビึࡡ famous, popular: ~ ga warui ビึ࠿ᝇ࠷ have a bad

reputation hyōdai n ⾪㢗࣬ᵾ㢗 title (of book,

article, e-mail…)

hyō´ga n ểἑ glacier: ~-ki ểἑ ᭿ ice age: shüshoku ~-ki ᑯ⫃ saturated state hoyō n ಕ㣬 rest, recuperation: me ểἑ᭿ hard times for collegeno ~ ┘ࡡಕ㣬 feast for the eyes graduate job seekers hu… ࡨ…࣬ࣆ… → fu… hyōgén n ⾪⌟ expression (words) hyakka-jíten n Ⓤ⛁஥඼ encyclohyōgo n ᵾㄊ slogan; motto Hyō´go n ඹᗔ Hyogo pedia hyakká-ten n Ⓤ㈄ᗉ department hyōgu-ya n ⾪රᒁ paper-hanger/store (= depåto ࢸࣂ࣭ࢹ) repairer, picture-framer hyákkanichi n Ⓤ࠾᪝ a memorial hyōhen n ㇦ን sudden change service 100 days after the death hyōhyō to adv ࡥࡺ࠹ࡥࡺ࠹࡛ hyakú n Ⓤ࣬100 hundred; hyakúaloof from the world: ~ shite do n Ⓤᗐ ① a hundred times imásu ࡥࡺ࠹ࡥࡺ࠹࡛ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱ (= hyak-kái Ⓤᅂ) ② a hundred ࡌ is free as the wind hyōjō´ n ⾪᝗ expression (on face): degrees; hyakú-doru n Ⓤࢺࣜ a hundred dollars: ~-satsu Ⓤࢺࣜ ~´ o yawaragemásu ⾪᝗ࢅ࿰ࡼ ᮈ a hundred-dollar bill; hyaku en- ࡅࡱࡌ softens one’s expression dama n Ⓤළ⋚ hundred yen coin; hyōjun n ᵾ‵ standard; hyōjun-go hyaku-mán n Ⓤ୒࣬1,000,000 one n ᵾ‵ㄊ standard Japanese million; hyakú-nen n Ⓤᖳ 100 (language) years; a century (= ~-kan Ⓤᖳ hyō´ka n ビ౮ grade, opinion, 㛣); hyakushō n Ⓤጞ farmer appraisal: hito no ~ o kinishimasen ெࡡビ౮ࢅẴ࡞ࡊࡱࡎࢆ hyappatsu-hyakuchū n ⓊⓆⓊ୯

hitting the mark ten times out of ten

does not worry about what others think of

hyō n ⾪ table, schedule, list hyō´ n ࣃࣘࢗ࣬㇦ leopard hyō´ n ࡥࡺ࠹࣬㞷 hail (= arare ࠵ࡼࡿ࣬㟘) hyō n ⚂ vote: ~ o tøjiru ⚂ࢅᢖࡋ ࡾ votes, casts a vote

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hyōkín (na) adj ࡥࡺ࠹ࡀࢆ ࡝

funny, comical hyokkori adv ࡥࡺࡖࡆࡽ accidentally, by chance: ~ arawaremásu ࡥࡺࡖࡆࡽ⌟ࡿࡱࡌ appears



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hyokohyoko adv ࡥࡺࡆࡥࡺࡆ

hyōshō n ⾪ᙪ official commendation: ~-jø ⾪ᙪ≟ certificate of commendation: ~-shiki ⾪ᙪᘟ


hyōmén n ⾪㟻 surface: ~-chøryoku ⾪㟻ᘿງ surface tension awarding ceremony hyōri n ⾪⿤ two faces: ~-ittai ⾪ hyōtán n ⎥⟰ gourd: ~ kara koma ⿤ୌమ two sides of the same ⎥⟰࠾ࡼ㥎 produces an uncoin: ~-no-aru… ⾪⿤ࡡ࠵ࡾ expected dividend hyōten n ビⅤ evaluation score, two-faced hyōron n ビㄵ criticism, comment grade hyōten n ểⅤ freezing point (ary); hyōron-ka n ビㄵᐓ critic, hyótto-shite adv ࡥࡺࡖ࡛ࡊ࡙ by commentator, reviewer hyōryū n ⁳Ὦ drift any chance, maybe, possibly, hyōshi´ n ⾪⣤ cover (book, maga- could be hyō´zan n ểᒜ iceberg: ~ no ikkazine, etc.) ku ểᒜࡡୌぽ tip of the iceberg hyōshiki n ᵾㆉ sign, mark(er): køtsü-~ ஹ㏳ᵾㆉ traffic sign; hyū´zu n ࣃ࣭ࣖࢫ fuse døro-~ 㐠㊨ᵾㆉ road sign

I i n ⫮ = i-búkuro ⫮⾼ stomach; i-búkuro n ⫮⾼ [BOOKISH] stomach; i-chō n ⫮⭘ [BOOKISH] stomach and intestines; i-gan n ⫮⒬ (medical) stomach cancer; i-káiyō n ⫮₵⑾ (medical) (gastric)

ian n ័Ꮽ consolation, comfort;

recreation ibarimásu, ibáru v ጸᘿࡽࡱࡌ, ጸᘿ ࡾ is/acts arrogant, haughty;


ibikí n ࠷ࡦࡀ snoring ibo n ␏ẍ different mother: ulcer i-… prefix ༈… medicine, medi~-kyødai ␏ẍඕᘭ half brother(s): ~-shimai ␏ẍ጗ግ half sister(s) cal, doctoring; í-gaku n ༈Ꮥ medicine, medical science/stud- ibuningu-doresu n ࢕ࣇࢼࣤࢡࢺࣝ ࢪ evening dress ies: igaku-sei ༈Ꮥ⏍ medical ibushimásu, ibusu v ࠷ࡩࡊࡱࡌ, ࠷ student; i-sha n ༈⩽ doctor, ࡩࡌ smokes, fumigates, fumes physician …-i suffix …༈ doctor, (= senibutsu n ␏∸ exogenous material, món-i ᑍ㛓༈) medical specialist foreign body ibutsu n 㐿∸ relics, artifact …-i suffix … న rank, grade

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icha v [INFORMAL] ࠷ࡔࡶ = ité wa ࠷࡙ࡢ ichí n ୌ࣬1 one: ~ ka bachi ka ୌ࠾ඳ࠾ all or nothing; ichí-ban (no) adj ୌ␊ ࡡ number one; first; ichí-banme (no) adj ୌ␊┘ ࡡ first; ichí-bu n ୌ㒂 a part, portion; a copy (of a book); ichí-byō n ୌ⛂ a second (1/60 minute); ichí-dai n ୌྋ one (machine, vehicle); ichidanraku n ୌṹⴘ one stage; ichi-dó n ୌᗐ one time (= ik-kái ୌᅂ, íp-pen ୌ㐚); ichí-do n ୌᗐ one degree; ichi-en n ୌළ one yen; ichí-go n ୌㄊ one word; ichí-ji n ୌ᫤ ① one o’clock ② ~ (no) ୌ᫤ ࡡ at one-time, once, temporary; ichi-jitsú n ୌ᪝ one day; someday (= aru hi ࠵ࡾ᪝, ichi-nichí ୌ᪝); ichí-mai n ୌᯓ a sheet; one sheet (flat things); ichímei n ୌྞ [BOOKISH] one person (= hitóri ୌெ); ichí-nen n ୌᖳ the year 1; one year (= ~-kan ୌᖳ㛣): ~-sei ୌᖳ⏍ first-year student, freshman; ichi-nichí n ୌ᪝ one day; ichí-wa n ୌ⩒ one (bird, rabbit); ichí-wari n ୌ๪ ten percent íchi n న⨠ position, location,

idai (na)

ichidō n ୌྜྷ all (who are con-

cerned/present) Ichi-gatsú n ୌ᭮࣬1 ᭮ January (= Shøgatsú ḿ᭮) ichigo n ࠷ࡔࡇ࣬࢕ࢲࢥ࣬Ᵽ

strawberry ichigo-ichie n ୌ᭿ୌఌ one in a

lifetime ichii n ࠷ࡔ࠷࣬࢕ࢲ࢕ yew ichi-ichi adv ࠷ࡔ࠷ࡔ one by one,

one after another, each time ichí-in n ୌဤ a member ichí-in n ୌᅄ a cause ichíjiku n ࢕ࢲࢩࢠ࣬↋ⰴᯕ fig: ~-no-ki ࠷ࡔࡋࡂࡡᮄ fig tree ichijirushíi adj ⴥࡊ࠷ [BOOKISH]

conspicuous, prominent, remarkable, striking ichiji-teki (na) adj ୌ᫤Ⓩ ࡝ temporary ichi-mán n ୌ୒࣬10,000 ten thousand ichi-mi n ୌ࿝ accomplice: tøzokudan no ~ ┈㈣ᅆࡡୌ࿝

member(s) of a robber band ichiō adv ୌᚺ࣬࠷ࡔ࠽࠹ as far

as it goes, to some extent, just in case, tentatively ichi-rei n ୌౚ an example ichiryū (no) adj ୌὮ ࡡ first-rate, situation íchi(bá) n ᕰ ሔ market, market- topflight, elite: ~ kashu ୌὮࡡḯ ᡥ superb singer place ichi-ban n ୌ␊ most: ~ íi/warui ୌ ichō n ࢕ࢲࣘࢗ࣬㖗ᮝ gingko ␊࠷࠷ᝇ࠷ best/worst (tree) ichibu-shijū n ୌ㒂ጙ⤂ all the idai (na) adj ೥ኬ ࡝ great: ~ details: ~ o katarimásu ୌ㒂ጙ⤂ hito/jinbutsu ೥ኬ࡝ெ ∸ great ࢅㄊࡽࡱࡌ tells the whole story person 93

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iden n 㐿ఎ heredity; iden-shi n 㐿ఎᏄ gene ideorogii n ࢕ࢸ࢛࣭ࣞ࢟ ideology í(do) n ஬ ᡖ a well ído n ⦃ᗐ latitude ie interj ࠷࠻ (= iie ࠷࠷࠻ no ié n ᐓ a house, a home ie-dé n ᐓฝ running away from home; iede-nin n ᐓฝெ a runaway iemásu, ieru v ゕ࠻ࡱࡌ, ゕ࠻ࡾ can

ing: ~ ga ii ᑽᚨᆀ࠿࠷࠷ feels comfortable while staying iguana n ࢕ࢡ࢓ࢻ iguana igyō n ೥ᴏ great achievement: ~ o nashitogemásu ೥ᴏࢅᠺࡊ㐑 ࡅࡱࡌ accomplishes a great


ihan n 㐢ཬ violation, offense: køtsü-~ ஹ㏳㐢ཬ traffic violation íi adj ࠷࠷ good; OK, right, corsay/tell rect (= yoi Ⰳ࠷): [NEGATIVE] iemásu, iéru v ⒭࠻ࡱࡌ, ⒭࠻ࡾ heals yóku arimasén Ⰳࡂ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ; Ierō-pēji n ࢕࢙࣭࣭ࣞ࣋ࢩ Yellow [PAST] yókatta desu Ⰳ࠾ࡖࡒ࡚ࡌ; íi-hito n ࠷࠷ெ ① a good person Pages Iesu (Kirisuto) n ࢕࢙ࢪ ࢞ࣛࢪࢹ ② sweetheart, lover ii-arawashimásu, ii-arawásu v ゕ࠷⾪ Jesus Christ íga n ⾨㣱 clothes moth ࢂ ࡊࡱࡌ, ゕ࠷⾪ ࢂ ࡌ ígai (na) adj ណአ ࡝ unexpected; expresses, puts into words ígai ni adv ណአ ࡞ unexpectedly iie interj ࠷࠷࠻ no (…) ígai suffix … ௧አ outside ii-kaemasu, ii-kaéru v ゕ࠷ᥦ࠻ࡱࡌ, ゕ࠷ᥦ࠻ࡾ rephrases, puts/says (of …), except (for) … igen n ጸཚ dignity: ~ o tamochi- it another way másu ጸཚࢅಕࡔࡱࡌ keep one’s ii-kagen adj 1. ࠷࠷ຊ΅ rather, dignity pretty, moderate 2. ~ na ࠷࠷ຊ ígi n ណ⩇ [BOOKISH] significance, ΅ ࡝ random, perfunctory, sense, meaning: ~ no aru shigoto halfhearted, haphazard ណ⩇ࡡ࠵ࡾ௘஥ meaningful work ii-kata n ゕ࠷᪁ way of saying/ ígi n ␏㆗ [BOOKISH] objection telling/putting it, expression Igirisu n ࢕࢟ࣛࢪ England (= iimásu, iu/yū v ゕ࠷ࡱࡌ, ゕ࠹ ࡹ࠹ Eikoku ⱝᅗ ): ~-jin ࢕࢟ࣛࢪெ says, tells; expresses íin n ጟဤ committee member(s); an English person ígo n ᅑ◳ the board game Go iín-kai n ጟဤఌ committee (= gó ◳) ii-tai v ゕ࠷ࡒ࠷ wants to say: ~ ( … ) ígo suffix … ௧ᚃ afterward, kotó ゕ࠷ࡒ࠷ࡆ࡛>஥@ what from … on (= ( … ) ikø … one wants to say; ~ hø´dai ゕ࠷ ௧㜾) ࡒ࠷ᨲ㢗 says whatever one igokochi n ᑽᚨᆀ feeling of stay- wants/feels

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ii-tsukemásu, ii-tsukéru v ゕ࠷௛ࡄࡱ ࠿࡚ࡌ࠾" How’s it going? ࡌ, ゕ࠷௛ࡄࡾ commands, orders; ikagawashíi adj ࠷࠾࠿ࢂࡊ ࠷ suspicious, questionable, tells on, tattles on ii-wake n ゕ࠷ズ explanation, shady: ~ uwasa ࠷࠾࠿ࢂࡊ࠷ფ excuse: ~ o shinaidekudasai. ゕ suspicious rumors ࠷ズࢅࡊ࡝࠷࡚ୖࡈ࠷ Please ika-hodo adj ࠷࠾࡮࡜ how many? don’t give an excuse. (= íkura ࠷ࡂ>ᖼ@ࡼ ; how ...? ijí n ណᆀ temper, disposition: (= dono-gurai (-kurai) ࡜ࡡన) ~-waru ណᆀᝇ ill-tempered, ikan n 㐿᠅ regret ikaremásu, ikareru v ⾔࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, ⾔ mean(-spirited) íji n ⥌ᣚ maintenance, upkeep, ࠾ࡿࡾ 1. can go 2. [PASSIVE]


have them go (to one’s distress);

ijí-hi n ⥌ᣚ㈕ upkeep (expense) [HONORIFIC] goes (= irasshaimásu ijime ࠷ࡋࡴ n teasing, torment ࠷ࡼࡖࡊࡶ࠷ࡱࡌ) ijimek-ko n ࠷ࡋࡴࡖᏄ bully ikari n 㘄 anchor ijimemásu, ijimeru v ࠷ࡋࡴࡱࡌ, ࠷ ikarí n ᛛࡽ anger: ~ o shizumemásu ᛛࡽࢅ㟴ࡴࡱࡌ calms the ࡋࡴࡾ teases, torments ijō n ␏≟␏ᖏ something anger ikasemásu, ikaseru v ⾔࠾ࡎࡱࡌ, unusual/wrong (the matter), ⾔࠾ࡎࡾ sends (a person); lets abnormality: ~-kishø ␏ᖏẴ㇗

abnormal climate

(a person) go

( … ) íjō n, suffix … ௧୕ above, ikashimásu, ikásu v ⏍࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, ⏍࠾ࡌ 1. lets/makes it live, over, upwards of; the above;

brings life to, enlivens; keeps it alive; revives 2. makes the most of, makes good use of iké n ờ pond ikébana n ⏍ࡄⰴ>Ὡⰴ@ flower arrangement ikemasén, ikenai v ࠷ࡄࡱࡎࢆ, ࠷ࡄ ࡝࠷ 1. it won’t do; you mustn’t; don’t 2. (that’s) too ikemásu, ikéru v ⏍>Ὡ@ࡄࡱࡌ, ⏍ >Ὡ@ࡄࡾ arranges (flowers) íken n ណず opinion, idea: go-~ ࡇណず (your/someone else’s) chøshi wa ~ desuka? ㄢᏄࡢ࠷࠾ opinion [HONORIFIC] 95

that’s it! (end of message/speech) = thank you (for your attention) ijū n ⛛ప emigration, immigration; ijū-sha n ⛛ప⩽ emigrant, immigrant (= imin ⛛Ằ) ika n ࢕࢜ cuttlefish, squid ( … ) íka n, suffix … ௧ୖ below (…), less than …: ~ no tøri desu ௧ୖࡡ㏳ࡽ࡚ࡌ as (described) below, as follows ikada n ➹ raft ikága adv ࠷࠾࠿ how (about it)? [DEFERENTIAL] (= dø´ ࡜࠹):

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íken n 㐢៿ constitutional viola-

ik-kái (no) n, adj ୌᅂ ࡡ one time, once (= ichi-dó ୌᗐ) iki (na) adj ⢃ ࡝ smart, stylish ikkansei n ୌ㈇ᛮ consistency: íki n ᜝ breath: ~ o shimásu ᜝ࢅ hanashi ni ~ ga arimásu ヨ࡞ୌ ࡊࡱࡌ breathes; iki-gire n ᜝วࡿ ㈇ᛮ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ has consistency shortness of breath: hashitta ato in one’s talk ni ~ ga shimásu ㉦ࡖࡒᚃ࡞᜝ ík-ken n ୌ㌲ one house/building วࡿ࠿ࡊࡱࡌ gets out of breath (counter for buildings) after running; iki-gurushii adj ᜝ⱖ ík-ken n ୌ௲ one case/matter ík-ki ni adv ୌẴ࡞ with a gulp, ࡊ࠷ stuffy …-iki (no) suffix …⾔ࡀ ࡡ bound with a dash, with a burst ík-ko n ୌ಴ one (piece, small for … ikidōrí n ៵ࡽ indignation, resent- object) (= hitótsu ࡥ࡛ࡗ࣬ୌࡗ) ik-ko n ୌᡖ a house, a household ment ikidōrimásu, ikidō´ru v ៵ࡽࡱࡌ, ik-kō n ୌ⩻ consideration ៵ࡾ gets indignant, resents ik-kō (ni)… adv ୌྡྷ ࡞  [+ ikigai n ⏍ࡀ⏝ᩣ something to NEGATIVE] not at all, never: ~ ni live for: ~ o kanjimásu ⏍ࡀ⏝ᩣ kamaimasen ୌྡྷ࡞ᵋ࠷ࡱࡎࢆ I ࢅវࡋࡱࡌ feels one’s life is don’t mind at all. ik-kyoku n ୌ᭜ a piece of music, worth living, feels alive ikimásu, iku v ⾔ࡀࡱࡌ, ⾔ࡂ goes a song, a tune ikimásu, ikíru v ⏍ࡀࡱࡌ, ⏍ࡀࡾ ik-kyoku n ୌᑻ a game ((i)go (the lives board game Go) and/or shøgi ikímono n ⏍ࡀ∸ living thing(s), (Japanese chess)) ik-kyū n ୌ⣥ first class animal(s), creature(s) ikiói n ເ࠷ energy: ~ yóku ເ࠷ࡻ ikō n ណྡྷ one’s mind, inclination, ࡂ energetically intention; one’s views ikisatsu n ࠷ࡀࡈࡗ details, circum- ( … ) íkō suffix … ௧㜾 afterward, stances, complexities; complica- from … on (= ( … ) ígo … ௧ᚃ) ikoi n ៹࠷ rest and relaxation: ~ tions iki-yasúi adj ⾔ࡀࡷࡌ࠷ accessible, no ba(sho) ៹࠷ࡡሔ ᡜ recrea-


easy to get to

tion area

iki-zumarimásu, iki-zumáru v ⾔ࡀョࡱ ikoku n ␏ᅗ foreign countries; ࡽࡱࡌ, ⾔ࡀョࡱࡾ gets bogged ikoku-jōcho (no) adj ␏ᅗ᝗⥬ ࡡ



ik-kai n ୌ㝭 one floor/story; first ikon n 㐿᜗ grudge ikotsu n 㐿㦭 remains (of person) floor, ground floor

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íku-… prefix ࠷ࡂ࣬ᖼ … = nán… ర… how many … ikudōon (ni) adv ␏ཾྜྷ㡚 ࡞

ima-da ni adv ᮅࡓ࡞ still (= mada ࡱࡓ) imásu, iru v ࠷ࡱࡌ, ࠷ࡾ is, stays imásu, íru v ᑏࡱࡌ, ᑏࡾ shoots unanimously ikuji n ⫩ඡ child care: ~-kyüka imē´ji n ࢕࣒࣭ࢩ (psychological/ ⫩ඡఆᬜ child-care leave social) image (= gazø ⏤ാ) ikuji-nashi n ណẴᆀ࡝ࡊ coward, iimēru n E࣒࣭ࣜ e-mail (= mëru chicken: ikuji (no/ga) nai ណẴᆀ ࣒࣭ࣜ) ࡡ࠿ ࡝࠷ is a coward, cowími n ណ࿝ meaning: … to iu ~ desu …࡛࠷࠹ណ࿝࡚ࡌ, … o ~ ardly ikura n ࢕ࢠࣚ salmon roe (caviar) shimásu …ࢅណ࿝ࡊࡱࡌ it íkura n ࠷ࡂࡼ how much: ~ ka ࠷ means … ࡂࡼ࠾ some, a little; ~ mo ࠷ࡂ imin n ⛛Ằ immigrant(s)/emigrant(s) ࡼࡵ ever so much, [+ NEGATIVE] imó n ࢕࣓࣬Ⱆ yam; potato not very much; ~ de mo ࠷ࡂࡼ imó n ࠷ࡵ dork, country ࡚ࡵ a lot, as much as you like bumpkin (= inaka-mono ⏛⯃⩽) ikusa n ᡋ war (= sensø ᡋண) imōtó n ግ younger sister: ~-san ikusei n ⫩ᠺ training, nuture, ግࡈࢆ (your) younger sister inabíkari n ⛼ක lightning cultivation íkutsu n ࠷ࡂࡗ how many; how inada n ࢕ࢻࢱ baby yellowtail (…) ínai suffix … ௧හ within old;~-ka ࠷ࡂࡗ࠾ several, a number of; ~ mo ࠷ࡂࡗࡵ ever inaka n ⏛⯃ country(side); one’s so many, [+ NEGATIVE] not very home area (hometown): ~ no ⏛ ⯃ࡡ rural; ~-mono ⏛⯃⩽ many; ~ de mo ࠷ࡂࡗ࡚ࡵ as many as you like country bumpkin (= imó ࠷ࡵ) ímá n ᑽ㛣 living room (Western- inarí-zushi n ࠷࡝ࡽ㩟>ᑋྒྷ@ sushi


in a bag of aburage (fried beancurd) = o-inari san ࠽⛼Ⲭࡈࢆ inázuma n ࢕ࢻࢫ࣏࣬⛼ጏ lightning inbō n 㝔ㅓ dark plot(s), intrigue(s) (…-)ínchi suffix … ࢕ࣤࢲ until now, up to the present (time); inch(es) íma-ni adv ௑࡞ before long, soon, ínchiki (na) adj ࠷ࢆࡔࡀ ࡝ fake, by and by, presently: ~-ni mo fraud(ulent): ~ shøbai ࠷ࢆࡔࡀ ௑࡞ࡵ at any moment; ima-sara ࡝ၛ኉ fraud business ínchō n 㝌㛏 hospital head/director adv ௑ࡈࡼ at this point 97

íma n ௑ now, this time: ~ wa ௑ ࡢ at present; ~ no tokoró wa ௑ࡡ ࡛ࡆࢀࡢ for the time being, so far; ~ goro wa ௑ࡇࢀࡢ about this time; ima-máde adv ௑ࡱ࡚

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Indian n ࢕ࣤࢸ࢔࢓ࣤ (American) inryō-sui n 㣟ᩩỀ drinking water Indian, native American (= inyø-sui 㣟⏕Ề) Indo n ࢕ࣤࢺ India; Indó-jin n ࢕ࣤ insatsu n ༰ใ printing: ~-butsu ࢺெ Indian (from India) ༰ใ∸ printed matter Indonéshia n ࢕ࣤࢺࢾࢨ࢓ Indo- inshi n ༰⣤ revenue stamp nesia; Indoneshia-go n ࢕ࣤࢺࢾࢨ inshō n ༰㇗ impression; inshō-teki ࢓ㄊ Indonesian (language); (na) adj ༰㇗Ⓩ ࡝ impressive Indoneshiá-jin n ࢕ࣤࢺࢾࢨ࢓ெ an inshoku n 㣟㣏 drinking and eating; inshoku-ten n 㣟㣏ᗉ restaurant(s) Indonesian íne n ⛼ rice plant (= resutoran ࣝࢪࢹࣚࣤ) inemúri-shimásu (suru) v ᑽ┸ࡽࡊࡱ inshu n 㣟㒿 drinking: ~-unten 㣟 ࡌ ࡌࡾ dozes off 㒿㐘㌷ driving after drinking infomēshon n ࢕ࣤࣆ࢚࣒࣭ࢨࣘࣤ insutanto n ࢕ࣤࢪࢰࣤࢹ instant: ~ køhii ࢕ࣤࢪࢰࣤࢹࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭ information infure n ࢕ࣤࣆࣝ inflation instant coffee infuruénza n ࢕ࣤࣆ࢙ࣜࣤࢧ flu, insutorakutā n ࢕ࣤࢪࢹࣚࢠࢰ࣭



íngen, ingénmame n ࢕ࣤࢣࣤ࣬࠷ ࢆࡅࢆ, ࢕ࣤࢣ࣏࣒ࣤ࣬࠷ࢆࡅࢆ ㇃ kidney beans, French beans ín(kan) n ༰ 㚯 seal, stamp (= hán ึ, hankó ึᏄ) inkei n 㝔ⱴ penis inki (na) adj 㝔Ẵ ࡝ gloomy,

insutōru n ࢕ࣤࢪࢹ࣭ࣜ installation

(on computer) intabyū n ࢕ࣤࢰࣄ࣭ࣖ interview: ~-kiji ࢕ࣤࢰࣄ࣭ࣖエ஥

interview article intāchenji n ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ࢲ࢘ࣤࢩ

highway interchange(s)

intāhon n ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭࣌ࣤ intercom ínku, ínki n ࢕ࣤࢠ, ࢕ࣤ࢞ ink intai n ᘤ㏝ retirement ínku-jetto n ࢕ࣤࢠࢩ࢘ࢴࢹ ink intān n ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ࣤ intern jet: ~ purintå ࢕ࣤࢠࢩ࢘ࢴࢹࣈ intānashonaru n ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ࢻࢨࣘࢻ ࣛࣤࢰ࣭ inkjet printer ࣜ international ínochi n ࿤ one’s life (= séimei ⏍࿤) intānetto n ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ࢾࢴࢹ inorí n ♫ࡽprayer Internet; intānetto-kafe n ࢕ࣤࢰ inorimásu, inóru v ♫ࡽࡱࡌ, ♫ࡾ ࣭ࢾࢴࢹ࢜ࣆ࢘ Internet cafe; prays; wishes for, hopes for intānetto-tsūhan n ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ࢾࢴࢹ inpo n ࢕ࣤ࣎ sexual impotence ㏳㈅ online shopping, Internet inreki n 㝔ᬲ lunar calendar shopping inryoku n ᘤງ attractive force, intān-shippu n ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ࣤࢨࢴࣈ



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interi n ࢕ࣤࢷࣛ intellectual;

highbrow interia n ࢕ࣤࢷࣛ࢓ interior


i ró (yo)

irai n ౪㢏 request; dependence,

reliance; trust, commission (…) írai suffix, conj … ௧ᮮ (ever)


inú n ࢕ࢽ࣬≗ dog iraremásu, irareru v ࠷ࡼࡿࡱࡌ, い in’yō n ᘤ⏕ quoting, quotation ࡼࡿࡾ can stay/be inyō-sui n 㣟⏕Ề drinking water irasshaimásu, irassháru v ࠷ࡼࡖࡊ ࡶ࠷ࡱࡌ, ࠷ࡼࡖࡊࡶࡾ (= inryø-sui 㣟ᩩỀ) inzei n ༰⛧ royalties (from one’s [HONORIFIC] 1. comes (= kimásu ᮮࡱࡌ) 2. goes (= ikimásu ⾔ࡀ book(s)) ippai n ࠷ࡖࡤ࠷ fully, full of; many, ࡱࡌ) 3. stays, is (= imásu ࠷ࡱࡌ) much, lots (= takusan ࡒࡂࡈࢆ) 4. interj = irasshaimáse ࠷ࡼࡖࡊ ~ (no) ࠷ࡖࡤ࠷ ࡡ full, filled ࡶ࠷ࡱࡎ (Welcome!) -ippai suffix ࠷ࡖࡤ࠷ whole, irásuto n ࢕ࣚࢪࢹ illustration entire: konshu-~ ௑㐄࠷ࡖࡤ࠷ iremásu, ireru v ථࡿࡱࡌ, ථࡿࡾ

all this week, whole week íp-pai n ୌ᮴ a cupful, a glassful;

a drink ip-paku n ୌἡ one night’s lodg-

ing/stay ippan (no) adj ୌ⯙ ࡡ general, overall; ippan-teki (na/ni) adj, adv ୌ⯙Ⓩ ࡝࡞ general, in general ip-pén n ୌ㐚 one time (= ichi-dó ୌᗐ, ik-kái ୌᅂ) ip-pikí n ୌ༆ one (fish/bug, small


puts in, lets in, admits; includes: denwa o ~ 㞹ヨࢅථࡿࡱࡌ puts in a call; ire-ba n ථࡿṉ false teeth; ire-mono n ථࡿ∸ container; ire-zumi n ථࡿቕ࣬ๆ㟯 tattoo (= tatü ࢰࢹ࢖࣭) iremásu, iréru v ⅏ࡿࡱࡌ, ⅏ࡿࡾ

can roast iremásu, iréru v ᑏࡿࡱࡌ, ᑏࡿࡾ

can shoot (arrow) iriguchi, irikuchi n ථཾ entrance irimásu, iru v こࡽࡱࡌ, こࡾ is

ippin-ryō´ri n ୌဗᩩ⌦ à la carte

necessary; needs, wants irimásu, íru v ⅏ࡽࡱࡌ, ⅏ࡾ roasts dishes ippō´ n ୌ᪁ 1. one side 2. mø ~ iri-támago n ⅏ࡽ༵ scrambled eggs (de wa) ࡵ࠹ୌ᪁ ࡚ࡢ the other iri-yō (na) adj ථࡽ⏕ ࡝ needed side, on the other hand; but, mean- (= nyüyø (na) ථ⏕ ࡝ ) while; ippō-tsū´kō n ୌ᪁㏳⾔ one- iró n Ⰵ color; sex; iro-ai n Ⰵྙ࠷ way (traffic, argument) tone (coloring); iró-gami n Ⰵ⣤ íp-pon n ୌᮇ one (pencil/bottle, colored paper i ró (yo) v ࠷ࢀ ࡻ [IMPERATIVE] long thing), a point íp-pun n ୌฦ one minute (stay!) 99

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iroiro (no/na)

iroiro (no/na) adj ࠷ࢀ࠷ࢀ ࡡ࡝ íssái adj, adv ୌว all, everything,


without exception

ironna … adj ࠷ࢀࢆ࡝… various iroppói adj Ⰵࡖࡰ࠷ erotic isé-ebi n ௿ເ࢙ࣄ>ᾇ⩹@ lobster isei n ␏ᛮ (person of) the opposite sex: ~ no yüjin ␏ᛮࡡཪெ

ís-sai n ୌṋ one year old (= hitótsu ୌࡗ) issakú- prefix ୌᫎ: ~-ban/-ya ୌᫎᬄእ night before last (= ototoí no ban/yoru ୌᫎ᪝ࡡ ᬄእ); ~-jitsu ୌᫎ᪝ day before friend(s) of the opposite sex isei (ga/no) ii adj ጸເ ࠿ࡡ ࠷࠷ yesterday (= ototói ୌᫎ᪝) is-satsú n ୌ෇ one book (magaspirited, buckish iseki n 㐿㊟ remains zine) iseki n ⛛⡘ transfer ís-sei n ୌୠ 1. first generation: isharyō n ័ㅨᩩ compensation/ nikkei-~ ᪝⣌ୌୠ first-generation damages for mental suffering: ~ Japanese immigrants 2. … the o motomemásu ័ㅨᩩࢅịࡴࡱࡌ First: Erizabesu-~ ࢙ࣛࢧ࣊ࢪୌ ୠ Elizabeth I 3. one generation: asks for compensation ishí n ▴ stone, rock ~ ichidai (no) ୌୠୌ௥ ࡡ once íshi n ណᚷ will, intention in a lifetime íshiki n ណㆉ consciousness: ~ o is-sei (ni) adv ୌ᩟ ࡞ all together ushinaimásu ណㆉࢅ኶࠷ࡱࡌ is-seki-nichō n ୌ▴஦㫵 loses consciousness, passes out is-sén n ୌ༐࣬1,000 one thousand íshindenshin (de) adv ௧ᚨఎᚨ ࡚ (= sén ༐) issetsú n ୌ⟿ passage (of text) (by) telepathy ísho n 㐿᭡ will isshō n ୌ⏍ one’s whole life íshō n ⾨⿞ costume ís-shō n ୌ༓ 1.8 liters: ~´-bin ୌ íshoku n ⛛᳔ transplantation: ༓⎴ a 1.8-liter bottle (of saké) shinzø-~ ᚨ⮒⛛᳔ cardiac isshō-kénmei (ni) adv ୌ⏍ᠩ࿤ ࡞


desperately; very hard

ishokujū n ⾨㣏ప food, clothing

issho (ni) adv ୌ⥬ ࡞ together ís-shu n ୌ⛸ a kind, a sort and shelter isogashíi adj ᚹࡊ࠷ busy: shigoto isshun n ୌ█ a moment: ~ no ga ~ ௘஥࠿ᚹࡊ࠷ is busy at work dekigoto ୌ█ࡡฝᮮ஥ moment isogí n ᛬ࡁ haste; ~ no adj ᛬ࡁ event/happening ࡡ hasty, hurried, urgent isso adv ࠷ࡖࡐ rather, preferably isogimásu, isógu v ᛬ࡁࡱࡌ, ᛬ࡃ issō adv ୌᒒ all the more…,

hurries, rushes isōrō n ᑽು freeloader

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isu n ࠷ࡌ࣬࢕ࢪ࣬᳌Ꮔ chair Isuraeru n ࢕ࢪ࢙ࣚࣜ Israel; Isuraeru-jin n ࢕ࢪ࢙ࣚࣜெ Israeli Isuramu-kyō n ࢕ࢪ࣑ࣚᩅ Islam (= kaikyø ᅂᩅ); Isuramu-kyōto n ࢕ࢪ࣑ࣚᩅᚈ Muslim, Moslem íta n ᯀ board, plank; ita-choko n ᯀࢲࣘࢤ chocolate bar itachi n ࢕ࢰࢲ weasel: itachi-~ ࢕ ࢰࢲࡇࡖࡆ vicious circle itadaki n 㡤 peak, summit (= chøjø´ 㡤୕) itadakimásu, itadaku v ࠷ࡒࡓࡀࡱࡌ, ࠷ࡒࡓࡂ (I/we humbly) receive,

ítsu kara

࢕ࢰࣛ࢓ㄊ Italian (language); Itariá-jin n ࢕ࢰࣛ࢓ெ an Italian itashimásu, itásu v ⮬ࡊࡱࡌ, ⮬ࡌ

[HUMBLE/DEFERENTIAL] do(es) (= shimásu ࡊࡱࡌ) itatte adv ⮫ࡖ࡙ extremely itazura n ࠷ࡒࡍࡼ mischief, prank: ~-denwa ࠷ࡒࡍࡼ㞹ヨ prank call; itazurá-kko n ࠷ࡒࡍࡼ ࡖᏄ naughty child itazura ni adv ࠷ࡒࡍࡼ࡞ in vain, for nothing: ~ toki o sugoshimásu ࠷ࡒࡍࡼ࡞᫤ࢅ㐛ࡇࡊࡱࡌ

spends one’s time in idleness itchi n ୌ⮬ agreement, consensus eat, drink itade n ⑚ᡥ damage: ~ o ukemásu ite n ᑏᡥ archer ⑚ᡥࢅུࡄࡱࡌ gets damage(s) íto n ⣊ thread, yarn, string: takoitái adj ⑚࠷ painful, hurting, sore ~ ญ⣊ kite string; itó-maki n ⣊ᕬ itamae n ᯀ๑ chef (of Japanese ࡀ spool; reel íto n ណᅒ intention, plan, purpose; food) itamemásu, itaméru v ⑚ࡴࡱࡌ, ⑚ ito-teki ni adv ណᅒⓏ࡞ on purpose ࡴࡾ hurts, injures itóko n ࠷࡛ࡆ࣬ᚉඕᘭ࣬ᚉ጗ግ itamemásu, itaméru v ഭࡴࡱࡌ, ഭ cousin: (o-)~-san ࠽ ࠷࡛ࡆࡈ ࡴࡾ damages, spoils it ࢆ (your/someone else’s) cousin itamemásu, itaméru v ⅏ࡴࡱࡌ, ⅏ itomá n ᬜ 1. leave-taking, farewell 2. free time (= hima ᬜ); leave ࡴࡾ (pan-)fries, sautés: itamemono ⅏ࡴ∸ stir-fry of absence itamimásu, itámu v ⑚ࡲࡱࡌ, ⑚ࡳ itoshíi adj យࡊ࠷ dear (beloved) ítsu n, adv ࠷ࡗ when it aches itamimásu, itámu v ഭࡲࡱࡌ, ഭࡳ ítsu dé mo adv ࠷ࡗ࡚ࡵ any time it spoils, rots (at all) itamiwake n ⑚ࡲ>ഭࡲ@ฦࡄ draw itsu-goro n ࠷ࡗ㡥 about when caused by injuries in Sumo match itsuká n ஫᪝ five days; fifth day itarimásu, itáru v ⮫ࡽࡱࡌ, ⮫ࡾ (of month) arrives (at), reaches (to), goes/ ítsu-ka adv ࠷ࡗ࠾ sometime ítsu kara adv ࠷ࡗ࠾ࡼ since comes (to) Itaria n ࢕ࢰࣛ࢓ Italy; Itaria-go n when, how long 101

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itsukushimi n ិࡊࡲ tender love (= jiai ិយ): itsukushi mimásu ិࡊࡲࡱࡌ loves tenderly ítsu made adv ࠷ࡗࡱ࡚ until when,

ít-tō n ୌ㢄 one (horse/ox, large


it-tsui n ୌᑊ a pair iwá n ᒷ rock, crag íwa ba conj ࠷ࢂࡣ so to speak how long ítsu made mo adv ࠷ࡗࡱ࡚ࡵ for- iwái n ♻࠷ celebration → iwaimásu ♻࠷ࡱࡌ ever ítsu made ni adv ࠷ࡗࡱ࡚࡞ by iwaimásu, iwáu v ♻࠷ࡱࡌ, ♻࠹



ítsu-mo adv ࠷ࡗࡵ always, usually: ~ no ࠷ࡗࡵࡡ usual ítsu-no-ma-ni (ka) adv ࠷ࡗࡡ㛣@࡞ ࠾ before one knows it itsútsu n ஫ࡗ five pieces (small objects) (= gó-ko ஫಴); five years old (= gó-sai ஫ṋ) itsuwári n അࡽ falsehood, lie (= uso Ⴭ) ittai … adv ୌమ … on earth, … ever … !: ~ døshitan desuka? ୌ మ࡜࠹ࡊࡒࢆ࡚ࡌ࠾" What on

earth happened

iwashi n ࢕࣠ࢨ࣬㪿 sardine iwáyúru adj ࠷ࢂࡹࡾ so-called,

what is known as iya interj ࠷ࡷ (usually male) no,

nope iyá (na) adj ᎒ ࡝ unpleasant;

disagreeable; disgusting, nasty iya-garimásu, iya-gáru v ᎒࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, ᎒࠿ࡾ dislikes, hates íyaringu n ࢕ࣕࣛࣤࢡ earring iyashii adj ༚ࡊ࠷ lowly, vulgar iyó-iyo adv ࠷ࡻ࠷ࡻ 1. at last, finally 2. more and more 3.

ittai-ka n ୌమ໩ unification surely ittei (no) adj ୌᏽ ࡡ fixed, settled, iza adv ࠷ࡉ when it comes to definite (actually do so): ~ to iu toki ࠷ࡉ Itte(i)rasshái interj ࠷ࡖ࡙ ࠷ ࡼࡖ ࡛࠷࠹᫤ in a pinch, in the worst ࡊࡶ࠷, Itte(i)rassháimáse case [HONORIFIC] ࠷ࡖ࡙ ࠷ ࡼࡊࡶ࠷ (…) ízen suffix … ௧๑ before, ࡱࡎ Good-bye! (said to those up until …, ago izumi n ἠ fountain, spring departing home) Itte kimásu, Itte mairimásu interj ⾔ izure adv ࠷ࡍࡿ some other time; ࡖ࡙ࡀࡱࡌཤࡽࡱࡌ Good-bye! someday: ~ mata chikaiuchini (said to those staying home) oaishimashø ࠷ࡍࡿࡱࡒ㎾࠷࠹ it-tō´(no) n, adj ୌ➴ ࡡ first, first ࡔ࡞࠽ఌ࠷ࡊࡱࡊࡺ࠹ Let’s meet class: ~seki/-sha ୌ➴ᖆ㌬ first- up again sometime soon.

class seat/car

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J ja interj, adv [INFORMAL] ࡋࡶ, jå´ ࡋࡶ࠵ well, well then; in that case; (well) now (= déwa ࡚ࡢ) …ja suffix [INFORMAL] …ࡋࡶ = … dé wa …࡚ࡢ ja n ⺤ snake jaaku (na) adj [BOOKISH] 㑟ᝇ ࡝


ࡊࡱࡌ gets in the way, becomes

a bother Jamaika n ࢩ࣏ࣔ࢕࢜ Jamaica jámu n ࢩ࣑ࣔ jam (to eat) …ja nákereba suffix, v [INFORMAL] …ࡋࡶ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ unless it be: ~ narimasén …ࡋࡶ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡽ ࡱࡎࢆ must (has to) be …ja náku(te) suffix, v [INFORMAL] …ࡋࡶ࡝ࡂ ࡙ (it) is not and/

jabu n ࢩࣔࣇ jab jagā n ࢩ࣭ࣔ࢝ jaguar jagaimo n ࡋࡶ࠿࠷ࡵ࣬ࢩࣔ࢝࢕࣓ but; without being …ja nákute mo suffix, v [INFORMAL] (Irish) potato jaguchi n ⺤ཾ faucet, tap …ࡋࡶ࡝ࡂ࡙ࡵ even if it not be: jajauma n ࡋࡶࡋࡶ㤷 shrew ~ íi desu …ࡋࡶ࡝ࡂ࡙ࡵ࠷࠷࡚ jāji n ࢩ࣭ࣔࢩ jersey ࡌ it need not be jákétto n ࢩࣔࢢࢴࢹ jacket …ja nákute wa suffix, v [INFORMAL] jakén (na/ni) adj, adv 㑟㝜 ࡝࡞ ࡋࡶ࡝ࡂ࡙ࡢ, …ja nákya …ࡋࡶ ࡝ࡀࡶ not being, without being; blunt(ly) jakkan (no) adj ⱕᖱ ࡡ some unless it be: ja nákya ikemasén (amount of), several …ࡋࡶ࡝ࡂ࡙ࡢ ࡋࡶ࡝ࡀࡶ ࠷ jakku n ࢩࣔࢴࢠ jack ࡄࡱࡎࢆ it must (has to) be jakō n ࢩࣔࢤࢗ࣬㯂㤮 civet, musk: jānarisuto n ࢩ࣭ࣔࢻࣛࢪࢹ ~-jika ࢩࣔࢤࢗࢩ࢜ musk deer: journalist ~-neko ࢩࣔࢤࢗࢾࢤ musk cat jānaru n ࢩ࣭ࣔࢻࣜ journal jakuhai (mono) n [BOOKISH] ⱕ㍦ ⩽ janbo n ࢩࣔࣤ࣍ jumbo: ~ jettoyoung and inexperienced person ki ࢩࣔࣤ࣍ࢩ࢘ࢴࢹᶭ jumbo jakunen-sha n [BOOKISH] ⱕᖳ⩽ the jet aircraft young, a youth (= wakamono ⱕ⩽) jánguru n ࢩࣔࣤࢡࣜ jungle: ~-jímu jakusha n ᘽ⩽ the weak (person) ࢩࣔࣤࢡࣜࢩ࣑ jungle gym jakuten n ᘽⅤ weak point janku-fūdo n ࢩࣔࣤࢠࣆ࣭ࢺ junk jama n 㑟㨩 disturbance, hindrance, food obstacle: ~ (na) 㑟㨩 ࡝ intrusive, jánpā n ࢩࣔࣤࣂ࣭ windbreaker bothersome; ~ ni narimásu 㑟㨩 (jacket) ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ, ~ o shimásu 㑟㨩ࢅ jánpu n ࢩࣔࣤࣈ jump

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janru n ࢩࣔࣤࣜ genre jibikí n Ꮚᘤࡀ dictionary (= jísho jarajara adj ࢩࣔࣚࢩࣔࣚ jangling ㎙᭡) jíbun n ᫤ฦ time sound jara-shimásu, jara-su v ࡋࡶࡼࡊࡱࡌ, jidai n ᫤௥ age, period, era, time, ࡋࡶࡼࡌ plays with: (ko)neko o …-jídai …᫤௥ period: Edo-~ Ờ ~ Ꮔ ⊟ࢅࡋࡶࡼࡊࡱࡌ plays ᡖ᫤௥ the Edo period jídō n ඡ❲ child (elementary with a kitten/cat jari n ▹ฺ gravel, pebbles school student) (= seito ⏍ᚈ) Jawa n ࢩࣔ࣠ Java jidō n ⮤ິ automatic; jidō-doa n jazu n ࢩࣔࢫ jazz ⮤ິࢺ࢓ auto(matic) door; jidōhanbaiki n ⮤ິ㈅኉ᶭ vending Jei āru, Jē āru n ࢩ࢘࢕࢓࣭ࣜ, ࢩ ࣭࢘࢓࣭ࣜ, JR (Japan Railway) machine; jidō´-sha n ⮤ິ㌬ jettó-ki n ࢩ࢘ࢴࢹᶭ jet (plane) automobile (= kuruma ㌬ ji n ⑕ hemorrhoids Jiei-tai n ⮤⾠㝪 the Self-Defense jí n Ꮚ = moji ᩝᏊ a letter Forces (symbol): kanji ₆Ꮚ a Chinese jigoku´ n ᆀ⊱ hell jígyō n ஥ᴏ enterprise, business, character jí n ᆀ land, ground; texture; undertaking jíi n ⮤័ masturbation (= onanii fabric ji-… prefix ⮤… self; one’s own; ࢛ࢻࢼ࣭ ji-bun n ⮤ฦ oneself; myself; jii-pan n ࢩ࣭ࣂࣤ blue jeans alone; ~ de ⮤ฦ࡚ by oneself, in jíjitsu n ஥ᐁ fact, truth person; ~ no ⮤ฦࡡ (one’s) own; jijō n ஥᝗ circumstances; condigo-~ ࡇ⮤ฦ yourself; jí-ga n ⮤ᠻ tions: ~ o nomikomimásu ஥᝗ࢅ ego; jí-ko n ⮤ᕤ (one)self; ji-sei n 㣟ࡲ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ understands the ⮤โ self-control; ji-shin n ⮤ಘ situation self-confidence/-assurance: ~ o jikan n ᫤㛣 time; hour(s): ~ ga mótte … (shimásu ) ⮤ಘࢅᣚࡖ kakarimásu ᫤㛣࠿࠾࠾ࡽࡱࡌ it ࡙… ࡊࡱࡌ (does it) with takes time; ~-dø´ri (no/ni) ᫤㛣 ㏳ࡽ ࡡ࡞ on time confidence; ji-taku n ⮤Ꮹ one’s …-jikan suffix …᫤㛣 time; hour(s): home/residence …-ji suffix …᫤ o’clock: roku-~ eigyø-~ ႜᴏ᫤㛣 business hours; 6᫤ six o’clock kinmu-~ ໂຸ᫤㛣 working hours …-ji suffix …ᑈ temple (name): jikan-hyō n ᫤㛣⾪ timetable, Kinkaku-ji 㔘㛮ᑈ schedule jiai n [BOOKISH] ិយ tender love jíka ni adv ├࡞ directly; personally jíken n ஥௲ happening, incident, (= itsukushimi ិࡊࡲ)

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jisan shimásu (suru)

event, affair, case: ~ o kaiketsu- jindō n ெ㐠 1. humanity 2. walkshimásu ஥௲ࢅゆỬࡊࡱࡌ way, pedestrian path jingū´ n ♼ᐋ (large) Shinto shrine solves a case/cases jíki n ᫤᭿ time; season: ~-shøsø jinin n ெဤ personnel ᫤᭿ᑠ᪡ prematurity jínja n ♼♣ Shinto shrine jíki n ᫤ᶭ opportune time, oppor- jínji n ெ஥ personnel/human tunity, chance: ~ o machimásu affairs; jinji-ka n ெ஥ㄚ personnel ᫤ᶭࢅᙽࡔࡱࡌ waits for a (section) jínjō adj ᑖᖏ [BOOKISH] usual, chance jíki n ☚ჹ porcelain → tō´ki 㝙ჹ normal (= futsü ᬉ㏳ : ~-denai jíki (no) n ☚Ẵ ࡡ magnetic ᑖᖏ࡚࡝࠷ unusual, abnormal jiki (ni) adv ├ ࡞ soon; immejinken n ெᶊ human rights jinkō n ெཾ population diately jikka n ᐁᐓ one’s parent’s home jinkō (no) adj ெᕝ ࡡ artificial jikken n ᐁ㥺 experiment: kagaku jinríkí-sha n ெງ㌬ ricksha (no) ~ ໩Ꮥ ࡡ ᐁ㥺 chemical jínrui n ெ㢦 human beings, the experiment human race jikkō n ᐁ⾔ performance; practice; jinsei n ெ⏍ (one’s) life realization, running: puroguramu jinshu n ெ⛸ race (peoples): ~ o ~ shimásu ࣈࣞࢡ࣑ࣚࢅᐁ⾔ࡊ sabetsu ெ⛸ᕣื racial discrimiࡱࡌ runs a program nation: ~ no rutsubo ெ⛸ࡡࡾࡗ jíko n ஥ᨶ accident ࡯ melting pot jíkoku n ᫤็ time (specified) ji-nushi n ᆀ୹ landowner jikoku-hyō n ᫤็⾪ time schedule, jinzō n ⭀⮒ kidneys timetable: densha no ~ 㞹㌬ࡡ᫤ jinzō (no) adj ெ㏸ ࡡ artificial, ็⾪ railway timetable imitation, false (man-made) jikú n ㍀ axis, axle: chi-jiku ᆀ㍀ jíppā n ࢩࢴࣂ࣭ zipper jira-shimásu, jira-su v ࡋࡼࡊࡱࡌ, earth axis; jiten-jiku ⮤㌷㍀ ࡋࡼࡌ irritates someone, (planet’s) rotational axis jiman n ⮤ះ pride, boast tantalizes, teases jímen n ᆀ㟻 ground (surface) jírojiro mimásu (míru) v ࡋࢀࡋࢀず jimí (na) adj ᆀ࿝ ࡝ plain, sober ࡱࡌ ずࡾ stares at jímu n ஥ຸ business, office work; jísa n ᫤ᕣ difference in time: ~-boke jimu-sho n ஥ຸᡜ office ᫤ᕣ࡯ࡄ jet lag; ~-shukkin ᫤ᕣ jímu n ࢩ࣑ gym(nasium) ฝໂ staggered work hours …´-jín suffix …ெ person jisan shimásu (suru) v ᣚཤࡊࡱࡌ jínbutsu n ெ∸ personage ࡌࡾ brings along, takes along 105

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jisatsu n ⮤ṽ suicide: ~-ganbø ⮤ ṽ㢢᭻ desire of suicide jisei n ᫤ເ (the trend of) the times jisei n ᫤ୠ the times jísetsu n ᫤⟿ season; (appropri-

cle: jitensha-ya ⮤㌷㌬ᒁ bicycle shop/dealer jitsú n ᐁ truth: ~ ni ᐁ࡞ truly, really, indeed; ~ no ᐁࡡ true, real; jitsu-butsu n ᐁ∸ the real ate) time, occasion, opportunity thing; the actual person; jitsu-ryoku jíshaku n ☚▴ magnet n ᐁງ (real) strength, ability, jishin n ᆀ㟀 earthquake proficiency; force, power; jitsu-yō jishin n ☚㔢 magnetic needle: n ᐁ⏕ practical use/application, høi-~ ᪁న☚㔢 compass utility -jishin n ⮤㌗ oneself; myself (= jitsugyō n ᐁᴏ business, enterprise: jibun-~ ⮤ฦ⮤㌗): kare-~ ᙴ⮤ ~-ka ᐁᴏᐓ businessperson, ㌗ himself businessman jísho n ㎙᭡ dictionary jitto adv ࡋࡖ࡛ intently, steadily, jishoku n ㎙⫃ resignation (from a fixedly (staring); quietly, position) patiently jisoku n ᫤㏷ (per hour) speed jiyū´ n ⮤⏜ freedom, liberty: ~ jissai n, adv ᐁ㝷 actual conditions, (na) ⮤⏜ ࡝ free; fluent, at reality; in practice; in fact, really ease; ~ ni ⮤⏜࡞ freely; fluently; ji-súberi n ᆀ⁝ࡽ landslide ~-gyø ⮤⏜ᴏ freelancing, jítai n ஥ឺ situation, state of affairs freelance work; ~-seki ⮤⏜ᖆ jítai n, adv ⮤మ 1. the thing itself unreserved seat 2. originally jizen n ិၻ charity jítai n ㎙㏝ non-acceptance, refusal jō´ n 㗼 1. (= jø-mae 㗼๑) lock jitchi n ᐁᆀ actuality, (putting to) 2. (= jøzai 㗼๠ pill practice: ~ (no) keiken o tsumi- jō adj, n ୕ 1. (= jøtø (na) ୕➴ másu ᐁᆀ ࡡ ⤊㥺ࢅ✒ࡲࡱࡌ ࡝ ) deluxe 2. (= ~-kan ୕ᕬ) gets on-the-job experience(s) first volume (of a set of 2 or 3) jiten n ㎙඼ dictionary (= jísho ㎙ …´-jō suffix …␒ (counts room ᭡): kokugo-~ ᅗㄊ㎙඼ Japanese sizes by tatami mat): hachí-~ (ma) ඳ␒ 㛣 eight tatami mats (room) dictionary: eiwa-~ ⱝ࿰㎙඼, einichi-~ ⱝ᪝㎙඼ English…´-jō suffix …ᇖ castle (name): Japanese dictionary Osaka-jø ኬ㜨ᇖ the Osaka-jø jiten n ஥඼ dictionary, subject castle jōbu (na) adj ୓ኰ ࡝ sturdy, firm, book: hyakka-~ Ⓤ⛁஥඼ encyclopedia healthy; safe (= daijøbu ኬ୓ኰ) jitén-sha, jidén-sha n ⮤㌷㌬ bicy- jochō n ຐ㛏 promotion, furtherance 106

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jochū n ዥ୯ maid-servant jōdán n ීㄧ joke: ~ hanbun (ni) ීㄧ༖ฦ ࡞ half in jest jōei n ୕᫆ showing (movie) jōen n ୕ⁿ performance jo-gákusei, joshi gákusei n ዥᏕ⏍, ዥᏄᏕ⏍ female student jōge n ୕ୖ top and bottom, high

and row, up and down jōgi n ᏽぜ ruler (to measure with) jogingu n ࢩࣘ࢟ࣤࢡ jog(ging) jō´go n ⁻ᩧ funnel jōhín (na) adj ୕ဗ ࡝ elegant,

refined jōhō n ᝗ሒ information jō-kan n ୕ᕬ first volume (of a


~ ᐂᐄ஋ຸဤ (airplane) flight

attendant jōnetsu-teki (na) adj ᝗⇍Ⓩ ࡝

passionate joō´ n ዥ⋜ queen jōriku n ୕㝛 disembarking, land-

ing jorō´ n ዥ㑳 whore, prostitute jōryū (no) adj ୕Ὦ ࡡ classy,

upper; upstream jōryū´-sui n ⵠ⏻Ề distilled water josei n ዥᛮ woman, female: ~-go ዥᛮㄊ women’s language (terms) (= onna kotoba ዥゕⴝ) joseki n 㝎⡘ removal from register,

expulsion (from a school/uniset of 2 or 3) versity) jōkén n ᮪௲ condition, term, joseikin n ຐᠺ㔘 grant josetsu n 㝎㞯 removing the snow stipulation, provision jō´ki n ⵠẴ steam, vapor jōsha n ஋㌬ getting into a car, jokki n ࢩࣘࢴ࢞ jug, (beer) mug getting on a train/bus, boarding; jōkyaku n ஋ᐂ passenger jōshá-ken n ஋㌬ไ passenger ticket jōkyō n ≟Ἓ࣬᝗Ἓ situation, joshi n ຐペ particle (auxiliary word) jóshi n ዥᏄ girl, woman: ~-dáisei circumstances, state of affairs jo-kyō´ju n ຐᩅ᤭ assistant proዥᏄኬ⏍ woman college student; ~-kø´sei ዥᏄ㧏⏍ female (senior) fessor jōkyū n ୕⣥ high class, upper high school student jōshiki n ᖏㆉ common sense class: ~ køsu ୕⣥ࢤ࣭ࢪ adjoshō n ᗆ❮ introduction section vanced course jō-mae n 㗼๑ lock (= kagi 㘵) (book) jomei n [BOOKISH] 㝎ྞ excision, joshu n ຐᡥ helper, assistant josō n ຐ㉦ running up excommunication jomei n ຐ࿤ sparing the life/lives josō n 㝎ⲙ weeding (= kyümei ᨾ࿤): ~-katsudø ຐ࿤ josō n ዥ⿞ drag: ~ shimásu ዥ⿞ Ὡິ rescue work ࡊࡱࡌ is in drag jōmén n ୕㟻 top (top side) josō n ᗆ዇ (music) introduction jōmuin n ஋ຸဤ crew: kyakushitsu jōsúi-chi n ὯỀờ reservoir 107

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jotai n 㝎㝪 discharge jōtai n ≟ឺ condition, situation,

out the (entire)…: ichi-nen-~ ୌ ᖳ୯ throughout the year: sekai-~ ୠ⏲୯ all over the world state, circumstances jōtō (no) adj ୕➴ ࡡ the best, jūatsu n 㔔ᅸ pressure jūbako n 㔔⟵ nested boxes; picnic first-rate, deluxe joya n 㝎እ New Year’s Eve: ~ no boxes: ~ no sumi o tsutsukimásu kane 㝎እࡡ㚕 the bells on New 㔔⟵ࡡ㝦ࢅࡗࡗࡀࡱࡌ split Year’s Eve

hairs, nitpicks

jōyaku n ᮪⣑ treaty, agreement jūbún (na) adj ༎ฦ>ඖฦ@ ࡝ jōyō n ᖏ⏕ common use: ~-kanji enough, sufficient ᖏ⏕₆Ꮚ Chinese characters in jūdai (na) adj 㔔ኬ ࡝ serious common use (heavy, grave); important: ~-ji jōyō´-sha n ஋⏕㌬ passenger car 㔔ኬ஥ a matter of importance jōyō´-sha n ᖏ⏕⩽ addict jū´dō n ᯺㐠 judo, jujitsu (an art joyū n ዥඁ actress of weaponless defense) jōzai n 㗼๠ pill, tablet Jū-gatsú n ༎᭮࣬ 10᭮ October jōzō-sho n 㔂㏸ᡜ brewery jūgeki n 㖘ᦹ gunfight jōzú (na) adj ୕ᡥ ࡝ skilled, jūgun n ᚉ㌯ serving in an army júgyō n ᤭ᴏ class instruction, clever, good at jū´ n 㖘 gun: ~-sei 㖘ኇ gunshot(s) classroom teaching; ~ o okonaijū´ n ༎࣬10 ten; jū-bai n ༎ಶ ten másu ᤭ᴏࢅ⾔࠷ࡱࡌ teaches times, tenfold; jū-banmé (no) adj (class): ~ o ukemásu ᤭ᴏࢅུࡄ ༎␊┘ ࡡ tenth; jū´-do n ༎ᗐ ࡱࡌ attends a class jūgyō n ᚉᴏ employment; jūgyō´-in ten times (= júk-kai ༎ᅂ); ten degrees; jū-en-dama n ༎ළ⋚ ten- n ᚉᴏဤ employee yen coin; jū´-ji n ༎᫤࣬᫤ ten jūi n ⊿༈ veterinarian o’clock; jū-má n ༎୒࣬100,000 a Jū-ichi-gatsu n ༎ୌ᭮࣬11᭮ hundred thousand; jū-nána n ༎୏ November ࣬17 seventeen; jū-óku n ༎൦࣬ jū´ji n ༎Ꮚ a cross (symbol); jūji-ka ൦ a thousand million; (U.S.) a n ༎Ꮚᯣ a cross (wooden); jūjí-ro billion; jū-shi n ༎ᄿ࣬14 fourn ༎Ꮚ㊨ crossroad(s) teen (= jü-yon ༎ᄿ); jū-yok-ka n jū´ji n ᚉ஥ engaging in (an activity) ༎ᄿ᪝ 14 days; 14th day (of month); jū-yon n ༎ᄿ࣬14 four- jūkinzoku n 㔔㔘ᒌ heavy metal teen (= jü-shi ༎ᄿ); ~-nin n ༎ jūketsu n ඖ⾉ congestion: me ga ᄿெ 14 people ~ shimásu ┘࠿ඖ⾉ࡊࡱࡌ gets …-jū suffix …ࡋࡸ࠹࣬୯ through- red eyes

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juk-kai n ༎㝭 ten floors/stories;

tenth floor júk-kai n ༎ᅂ ten times (= jü´-do ༎ᗐ júk-ko n ༎಴ ten (pieces, small


junkan n ᚘ⎌ circulation; cycle jun-kyō´ju n ‵ᩅ᤭ associate


júnsa n ᕙᰕ policeman, patrolman (= omawari-san ࠽ᕙࡽࡈࢆ) junshō n ‵ᑑ brigadier-general objects) júku n ሺ a cram/tutoring school; junsui (na) adj ⣟⢃ ࡝ pure: ~ na juku-kō(shi) n ሺㅦ ᖅ tutor(s) in kokoro ⣟⢃࡝ᚨ pure heart jūō n ⦢ᶋ vertical and horizontal; a tutoring school jukudoku n ⇅ㄖ reading thoroughly jūō-mujin (ni) adv ⦢ᶋ↋ᑸ ࡞ jukugo n ⇅ㄊ idiomatic expression freely jukukō, jukkō n ⇅⩻ serious júp-pa n ༎⩒ ten (birds) júp-pon n ༎ᮇ ten (pencils/bottles, thought (= jukuryo ⇅៎) jukunen n ⇅ᖳ mature age long things) jukuryo n ⇅៎ serious thought júp-pun n ༎ฦ 10 minutes jukushimásu, jukúsú v ⇅ࡊࡱࡌ, ⇅ jū´rai (wa) adv ᚉᮮ ࡢ traditionally, ࡌ ripens, gets ripe up to now, hitherto, previously jukusui n ⇅╟ sound sleep jūryō´ n 㔔㔖 weight: ~-age 㔔㔖 jukutatsu n ⇅㐡 mastery ᣪࡅ weight-lifting Júkyō n ൰ᩅ Confucianism juryō´-shō n ུ㡷チ receipt jukyū n 㞺⤝ supply and demand jū´sho n పᡜ residence, address jūmin n పẰ resident: ~ hyø పẰ jushō n ུ㈱ winning an award; ⚂ residence certificate jushō´-sha n ུ㈱⩽ winner, jun n 㡨 order: jun(ban) ni 㡨 ␊ awardee ࡞ in order jus-sai n ༎ṋ ten years old (= tø jún (na) adj ⣟ ࡝ pure ࡛࠽࣬༎) junban n 㡨␊ (place in) order, turn jus-satsu n ༎෇ ten copies (books, júnbi n ‵ങ preparation(s), armagazines) jū´su n ࢩ࣭ࣖࢪ juice: orenji ~ ࢛ rangements junchō (na) adj 㡨ㄢ ࡝ smooth(- ࣝࣤࢩࢩ࣭ࣖࢪ orange juice jūtai n Ῠ⁣ congestion: ~-jø´kyø ly going) Jū-ni-gatsú n ༎஦᭮࣬12᭮ DeῨ⁣≟Ἓ congested (traffic): ~ cember shite imásu Ῠ⁣ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is jun-jimásu, jun-jiru v [BOOKISH] ‵ࡋ congested (backed up) ࡱࡌ, ‵ࡋࡾ applies correspond- jūtaku n పᏩ residence, house ingly (to); is made to accord (with) jū´tan n ࡋࡸ࠹ࡒࢆ࣬⤟Ạ rug, júnjo n 㡨ᗆ order, sequence carpet (= kå´pétto ࣭࢜࣋ࢴࢹ)

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jut-tō n ༎㢄 ten (horses/oxen,

jūyō (na) adj 㔔こ ࡝ important large animals) juzú n ᩐ⌌ beads: ~ tsunagi ni juwá-ki n ུヨჹ (telephone) narimásu ᩐ⌌ࡗ࡝>⦽@ࡁ࡞࡝ࡽ ࡱࡌ is chained together receiver júyo n ᤭୙ awarding, conferring

K ka n ࢜࣬⹽ mosquito: ~-tori covering letter (= søfu-jø ㏞௛≟) senkø ⹽ཱིࡽ⥲㤮 mosquito coil; kabaimásu, kabau v ᗂ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᗂ࠹ ka-ya n ⹽ᖋ࣬࠾ࡷ mosquito protects, defends net: ka-ya no soto ⹽ᖋࡡአ out kaban n ࠾ࡣࢆ࣬࢜ࣁࣤ࣬㠔 brief-

of scheme

case, bag

ka n ྊ pass: (grade) yü, ryø, ~, fuka ඁࠉⰃࠉྊࠉ୘ྊ

kabayaki n ⵞ↕ࡀ broiled eel kabe n ባ wall: ~-gami ባ⣤ wall-

Excellent, Good, Poor, Failing


ká n ㄚ, …´-ka …ㄚ section, division; lesson: Jinji-~ ெ஥ㄚ Human Resources Division: dai ik-~ ➠ㄚ Lesson 1 ká n ⛁ 1. family (biological taxonomy) 2. department: (university) Eibun-~ ⱝᩝ⛁ Department

kabi n ࢜ࣄ mold, mildew kabin n ⰴ⎴࣬࠾ࡦࢆ flower vase kabocha n ࢜࣍ࢲࣔ pumpkin kabu n ᰬ stock (in a company): kabushiki-shijø ᰬᘟᕰሔ stock


kā´bu n ࣭࢜ࣇ curve (road) of English Language & Litera- kabuki n ḯ⯑ః a traditional style ture; (hospital), Nai-~ හ⛁ inter- of Japanese theater: ~-za ḯ⯑ః ᗑ the Kabuki theater (building) nal medicine ka-… prefix ௫… temporary kabu(ra) n ࢜ࣇ ࣚ ࣬ⷒ a turnip kaburimásu, kabúru v ⿍ࡽࡱࡌ, (tentative) … ka conj …࠾ or; (the question) ⿍ࡾ wears on head; puts on kabushiki-gáisha n ᰬᘟఌ♣ jointwhether …-ka suffix …໩ …-ization: ~ stock corporation shimásu …໩ࡊࡱࡌ …-izes káchi n ౮ೋ value: ~ ga arimásu kaba n ࢜ࣁ࣬ἑ㤷 hippopotamus ౮ೋ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is worth kabā n ࢜ࣁ࣭ cover, covering: kachí n ົࡔ victory, win bukku-~ ࣇࢴࢠ࢜ࣁ࣭ book kachimásu, kátsu v ົࡔࡱࡌ, ົࡗ cover: kabå-~ ࢜ࣁ࣭ࣝࢰ࣭ wins

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ka-chō n ㄚ㛏 section manager kadai n [BOOKISH] ㄚ㢗 1. problem, difficult matter (= mondai ၡ㢗) 2. assignment, homework, task 3. subject, theme kádan n ⰴቨ flower bed kádan n ୖṹ [BOOKISH] lower

stand kádan n [BOOKISH] ᯕ᩷ [BOOKISH] decisiveness: ~ na køi ᯕ᩷࡝⾔ Ⅵ decisive action kādigan n ࣭࢜ࢸ࢔࢝ࣤ cardigan kádo n ぽ (outside) corner, street

corner kádo n [BOOKISH] 㐛ᗐ excessiveness: ~ no undø 㐛ᗐࡡ㐘ິ

extreme exercise kadō n [BOOKISH] ✄ິ [BOOKISH]

operating kadō n ⳱㐠 flower arrangement: ~-kyøshitsu ⳱㐠ᩅᐄ flower

arrangement class(es) kādo n ࣭࢜ࢺ card: messëji-~ ࣒ ࢴࢬ࣭ࢩ࣭࢜ࢺ message card kaede n ࢙࢜ࢸ࣬᳹ maple kaemásu, kaeru v ን࠻ࡱࡌ, ን࠻ࡾ

changes it kaemásu, kaeru v ᥦ࠻>᭨࠻@ࡱࡌ, ᥦ࠻ࡾ>᭨࠻ࡾ@ exchanges,

replaces kaerí n ᖉࡽ (the) return kaerimásu, káeru v ᖉࡽࡱࡌ, ᖉࡾ


returns it káette adv ༴ࡖ࡙ contrary to expectations kafún n ⰴ⢂ pollen: ~-shø ⰴ⢂⑍ hay fever káfusu n ࢜ࣆࢪ cuff: ~-botan ࢜ࣆ ࢪ࣍ࢰࣤ cuff links kagai n ㄚአ extracurricular: ~-katsudø ㄚአὩິ extracurricular activity kágaku n ⛁Ꮥ = sáiensu ࢦ࢕࢙ࣤ ࢪ science: ~-teki (na) ⛁ᏕⓏ ࡝ scientific; kagáku-sha n ⛁Ꮥ ⩽ scientist kágaku n ໩Ꮥ = bake-gaku ໩ࡄᏕ ࣬໩Ꮥ chemistry: ~-séihin ໩Ꮥ ⿿ဗ chemicals, ~-yakuhin ໩Ꮥ ⷾဗ pharmaceuticals; kagáku-sha n ໩Ꮥ⩽ chemist kagamí n 㙶 mirror: te-~ ᡥ㙶 hand mirror kagamimásu, kagamu v ᑿࡲࡱࡌ, ᑿࡳ bends over kagayakimásu, kagayáku v ㍜ࡀࡱࡌ, ㍜ࡂ shines, gleams, glitters káge n ᙫ shadow: hito-~ ெᙫ shadow of a person, human figure: ~-bø´shi ᙫἪᖅ shadow (of a person) káge n 㝔 shade: ko-~ ᮄ㝔 shade of trees kágeki n ḯ๸ opera kageki (na) adj 㐛⃥ ࡝ excessive, extreme, radical kagen n ຊ΅ 1. (state of) one’s health (= guai රྙ): o-~ (wa)

goes home, goes back, returns, leaves kaeru n ࢙࢜ࣜ࣬⺮ frog: hikigaeru ࣃ࢙࢞࢝ࣜ toad kaeshimásu, káesu v ㏁ࡊࡱࡌ, ㏁ࡌ ikaga desuka? ࠽ຊ΅ ࡢ ࠷࠾ 111

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࠿࡚ࡌ࠾" (to sick person) How are you feeling?, How is your (health) condition? 2. allowance for (= tekagen ᡥຊ΅) 3. degree, extent (= teido ⛤ᗐ): yu-~ …ຊ ΅ hot water temperature: oyu-~

kágura n ♼ᴞ Shinto music and

dances kái n ࢜࢕࣬ㇽ shellfish … kai? interj …࠾࠷? [INFORMAL] = desu ka? ࡚ࡌ࠾㸴 [FORMAL]

(yes-or-no question)

wa ikaga desuka? ࠽…ຊ΅ࡢ࠷ …-kai suffix …㝭 (counts floors/ ࠾࠿࡚ࡌ࠾" How is the water stories) temperature? (for the bath water, …-kái suffix …ᅂ (counts times/

the water to wash customer’s hair in a beauty salon, etc.) 4. adjustment, moderation (= chøsei ㄢᩒ) (→ ii-kagen ࠷࠷ຊ΅) …-ká-getsu suffix …࠾᭮࣬ࣧ᭮࣬ ࢜᭮࣬⟘᭮ (counts months): ik-~ (kan)㸦࠾᭮ 㛣 (for) one month kagí n 㖃 hook: ~-tsume 㖃ࡗࡴ claw: ~-kakko ࠾ࡁᣋᘴ Japanese quotation marks (ࠔࠕ) kagí n ࢜࢟࣬㘵 key: (… no) ~ ga

occasions) …-kai suffix …ఌ society, asso-

ciation, club; social gathering, party, meeting: (o-)tanjø´bi-~ ࠽ ㄄⏍᪝ఌ birthday party: nomi-~ 㣟ࡲఌ drinking party: en-~ ᐑఌ party, banquet …-kai suffix …ᾇ (name of) sea: Nihon-~ ᪝ᮇᾇ Japan Sea kaibatsu n ᾇᢜ above sea level kaibō n [BOOKISH] ゆ๕ autopsy: kakarimásu ͐ࡡ 㘵࠿࠾࠾ࡽࡱ ~-gaku ゆ๕Ꮥ anatomy ࡌ it locks, (… no) ~ o kakemásu kaibutsu n ᛱ∸ monster ͐ࡡ 㘵ࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ locks it; kaichō n ఌ㛏 chairperson kagi-ana n 㘵✨ keyhole kaichū (no) adj ᠔୯ ࡡ pocketkagimásu, kagu v ࠾Ⴁࡁࡱࡌ, Ⴁࡃ (able): ~-déntø ᠔୯㞹⅁ flashsmells it light kágiri n 㝀ࡽ limit kaichū (de/no) adv, adj ᾇ୯ ࡚ࡡ kagirimásu, kagíru v 㝀ࡽࡱࡌ, 㝀ࡾ in the sea, under the sea limits (delimits) it: … ni ~ …࡞ kaichū n ᅂ⹰ (intestinal) worms 㝀ࡽࡱࡌ there is nothing like (so kaidan n 㝭ṹ stairs, stairway kaidan n ఌㄧ [BOOKISH] (official) good as, better than) … kago n ࠾ࡇ࣬⡪ basket, (bird) meeting: shunø-~ 㤫⬳ఌㄧ cage: tori-~ 㫵࠾ࡇ birdcage summit kágu n ᐓර furniture: ~-tsuki (no) kaidan n ᛱㄧ ghost story, scary apåto ᐓර௛ࡀ ࡡ ࢓ࣂ࣭ࢹ story furnished apartment(s); kagú-ya n kaidame n ㈑࠷ࡓࡴ hoarding: ~ ᐓරᒁ furniture store shimásu ㈑࠷ࡓࡴࡊࡱࡌ hoards 112

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kaidō n ఌᇸ an auditorium kaidō n ⾜㐠 main road/avenue kaien n 㛜ⁿ starting a performance: ~-chü 㛜ⁿ୯ during the performance; ~-jíkan 㛜ⁿ᫤㛣


kaíi adj ࠾࠷࠷ [INFORMAL] = kayúi ࠾ࡹ࠷࣬⑓࠷ (itchy) kai-in n ఌဤ member: ~-sei (no) ఌဤโ ࡡ membership system,

members-only kaijō n 㛜ሔ [BOOKISH] opening (of curtain time kaifuku n ᅂᚗ recovery, recupera- place/event); ~-jíkan 㛜ሔ᫤㛣 tion opening time; ~´-shiki 㛜ሔᘟ káiga n ⤦⏤ painting, picture opening ceremony káigai n ᾇአ overseas, abroad: kaijō n ఌሔ hall ~-ryokø ᾇአ᪉⾔ overseas travel kaijō (de/no) adv, adj ᾇ୕ ࡚ࡡ kaigan n ᾇᓃ seashore, coast, on the sea (surface) kaijū n ᛱ⊿ monster: ~-eiga ᛱ⊿ beach: ~-sen ᾇᓃ⥲ shoreline, ᫆⏤ monster film coastline kai-gara n ㇽṾ shell (of shellfish) kaika n 㛜ⰴ flowering káigi n ఌ㆗ meeting, conference kaika n 㝭ୖ downstairs [FORMAL] (= míitingu ࣐࣭ࢷ࢔ࣤ kaikaku n ᨭ㠁 [BOOKISH] reformaࢡ): ~-chü ఌ㆗୯ in conference, tion, reinvention kaikan n ఌ㤃 public hall, building in a meeting; ~-shitsu ఌ㆗ᐄ kaikan n 㛜㤃 [BOOKISH] opening conference room káigun n ᾇ㌯ navy: ~-kichi ᾇ㌯ (a hall) ᇱᆀ navy base kaikan n ᛄវ [BOOKISH] pleasure, kaigyō n 㛜ᴏ [BOOKISH] opening a pleasant feeling: ~ o ajiwaimásu/ business: ~ shimásu 㛜ᴏࡊࡱࡌ oboemásu ᛄវࢅ࿝ࢂ࠷ࡱࡌつ ࠻ࡱࡌ feels pleasure opens a business kaihatsu n 㛜Ⓠ [BOOKISH] develop- kaikei n ఌ゛ 1. o-~ ࠽ఌ゛ ment; kenkyū-kaihatsu n ◂✪㛜Ⓠ accounts; bill, check (= o-kanjø research and development, R&D ࠽ືᏽ 2. accountant (= ~-gákaiheitai n ᾇඹ㝪 marines, Marine kari ఌ゛౿, ~-shi ఌ゛ኃ kaiken n ఌず [BOOKISH] interview: Corps kaihi n ఌ㈕ membership fee, dues: kisha-~ エ⩽ఌず press confernen-~ ᖳఌ㈕ annual membership ence fee kaiketsu n ゆỬ [BOOKISH] solution, kaihō n ゆᨲ [BOOKISH] liberation settlement kaihō n 㛜ᨲ [BOOKISH] open: kaiki n ᅂᖉ [BOOKISH] revolution, ~ shimásu 㛜ᨲࡊࡱࡌ opens, recurrence, retouring: kita-~-sen leaves open (windows, doors, etc.) ໪ᅂᖉ⥲ the Tropic of Cancer: 113

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minami-~-sen ༞ᅂᖉ⥲ the

punching/collecting: ~-guchi ᨭ ᮈཾ (ticket) wicket Tropic of Capricorn kaíko n ゆ㞘 [BOOKISH] dismissal kaisei n ᨭḿ [BOOKISH] revision kaisei n ᛄᬍ clear and fine weather (from employment), discharge káiko n ⺃ silkworm kaiseki (ryōri) n ᠔▴ ᩩ⌦ an askaikyaku n 㛜⬦ legs spread sortment of elegant ceremonial(exercise) type Japanese foods, Japanese kaikyo n ᛄᣪ remarkable/wonder- foods in season ful achievement: ~ o nashitoge- kaisetsu n ゆㄕ explanation, másu ᛄᣪࢅᠺࡊ㐑ࡅࡱࡌ has comment; nyü´su ~ ࢼ࣭ࣖࢪゆ ㄕ news commentary; kaisétsu-sha great accomplishments kaikyō n ᾇᓒ strait(s) n ゆㄕ⩽ commentator kaikyō n ᅂᩅ Islam (= Isuramu- kaisha n ఌ♣ company, business kyø ࢕ࢪ࣑ࣚᩅ) concern; “the office” (= kígyø kaikyū n 㝭⣥ class, rank: chüryü-~ ௺ᴏ): ~-in ఌ♣ဤ company ୯Ὦ㝭⣥ the middle class employee (= sha-in ♣ဤ, sarakaimásu, kau v ㈑࠷ࡱࡌ, ㈑࠹ buys rii-man ࢦ࣭࣏ࣚࣛࣤ kaimásu, káu v 㣣࠷ࡱࡌ, 㣣࠹raises, káishaku n ゆ㔐 [BOOKISH] interkeeps (pets, farm animals, etc.) pretation, explanation, exposition kaimen n ᾇ⥝ sponge kaisho n ᴘ᭡ block-style letter kai-mono n ㈑࠷∸ shopping (of Japanese): ~-tai ᴘ᭡మ kaioki n ㈑࠷⨠ࡀ 1. things printed style/square of writing bought in for the future, hoarded Chinese characters kaisō n ᾇ⸬࣬ᾇⲙ seaweed things 2. hoarding kaiō-sei n ᾇ⋜᫅ Neptune kaisō n ᅂ㏞ 1. forwarding (mail kairaku n ᛄᴞ pleasure matter, letter, etc.) 2. deadhead kairi n [BOOKISH] ゆ㞫 disaggrega- (an empty car, etc.): ~-sha ᅂ㏞ ㌬ a car out of service, an offtion, dissociation kairi n ᾇ㔓 nautical mile duty taxi; ~-ressha ᅂ㏞า㌬ kairyō n [BOOKISH] ᨭⰃ improve- deadhead train kaisō n ᅂ᝷: recollection; kaisō ment, modification kairyū n ᾇὮ ocean current shiin n ᅂ᝷ࢨ࣭ࣤ retrospective scene kaisai n 㛜ത [BOOKISH] holding, kaisū n ᅂᩐ the number of times; opening (an event) kaisan shimásu (suru) v ゆᩋࡊࡱࡌ kaisū´-ken n ᅂᩐไ ticket book ࡌࡾ breaks up, disperses (for commuting), coupon ticket kaisatsu n ᨭᮈ ticket examining/ kaisui n ᾇỀ seawater; kaisui-yoku 114

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n ᾇỀᾆ sea bathing: ~-yoku o under one’s arm: atama o ~ 㢄ࢅ ᢢ࠻ࡱࡌ tears one’s hair out 2. shimásu ᾇỀᾆࢅࡊࡱࡌ has a bath in the sea keeps, retains, has; employs: kai-te n ㈑࠷ᡥ buyer takusan no shain o kakaete kaitei n ᨭゖ revision (of documents, imásu ࡒࡂࡈࢆࡡ♣ဤࢅᢢ࠻࡙ ࠷ࡱࡌ has a lot of employees books, etc.): ~-ban ᨭゖ∟ 3. has family to support/take care revised version kaitei n ᾇᗇ bottom of the sea of (sick person(s), child(ren), kaiteki (na) adj ᛄ㐲 ࡝ comfort- etc.): byønin o ka-kaete imásu ⑋ெࢅᢢ࠻࡙࠷ࡱࡌ has a sick able, peasant kaiten n ᅂ㌷ revolution, rotation person in one’s family 4. has kaiten n 㛜ᗉ opening a shop (for a problem/problems: shakkin o kakaete imásu ೇ㔘ࢅᢢ࠻࡙࠷ the first time or for the day) kaitō n ゆ➽ answer ࡱࡌ has debts kaitō n ᅂ➽ reply kakaku n ౮᰹ price: ~-kyøsø ౮᰹ kai-torimásu, kai-tóru v ㈑࠷ཱིࡽࡱࡌ, ❿ண price competition ㈑࠷ཱིࡾ buys up kakan (ni) adv ᯕᩊ ࡞ boldly, kaiun n 㛜㐘 fortune, good-luck decisively: ~ ni tatakaimásu ᯕ kaiwa n ఌヨ conversation ᩊ࡞ᡋ࠷ࡱࡌ fights with valor kaizen n ᨭၻ improvement kákari n ౿ = ~-in ౿ဤ attendant kaizoku n ᾇ㈣ pirate: ~-ban ᾇ㈣ (in charge) ∟ pirated edition kakarimásu, kakáru v ᤻࠾ࡽࡱࡌ, káji n ℾ஥ a fire (accidental): ᤻࠾ࡾ 1. it hangs 2. it takes, Káji da! ℾ஥ࡓ Fire! requires 3. it weighs 4. it begins, káji n ⯞ helm: ~ o torimásu ⯞ࢅ (engine) starts ࡛ࡽࡱࡌ takes the helm, steers kakarimásu, kakáru v ᯣ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ, káji n ᐓ஥ housework: ~-tetsudai ᯣ࠾ࡾ is built ᐓ஥ᡥఎ࠷ housework helper kakashi n ࢜࢜ࢨ࣬᱄ᒜᏄ scarecrow kájiki n ࢜ࢩ࢞ swordfish kakato n ㋎ heel: ~ no takai kutsu kajirimásu, kajíru v ࠾ࡋࡽࡱࡌ, ࠾ ㋎ࡡ㧏࠷㠈 high-heeled shoes ࡋࡾ gnaws, nibbles kake n Ḗࡄ lacking, a lack, wane: kajō n 㐛๨ glut, surplus, excess: tsuki no michi-~ ᭮ࡡ‫ࡔ‮‬Ḗࡄ wax and wane of the moon ~ (no) 㐛๨ ࡡ superfluous, kaké n ᤻ࡄ credit: ~ de kaimásu surplus: ~-hannø 㐛๨ཬᚺ ᤻ࡄ࡚㈑࠷ࡱࡌ buys on credit overreaction, overresponse kakaemásu, kakaéru v ᢢ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᢢ kake-búton n ᤻ࡄᕱᅆ overquilt, ࠻ࡾ 1. holds in one’s arms/ top quilt 115

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kakegoe n ᤻ࡄኇ shout of encouragement: ~ o kakemásu ᤻ࡄኇ ࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ shouts encouragement kaké (goto) n ㈻ࡄ ஥ gambling;

káki n ࢜࢞࣬∳⽻ oyster káki n ୖエ the following: ~ no tøri ୖエࡡ㏳ࡽ as follows, as


káki n ⰴჹ flower vase kakehiki n 㥉ࡄᘤࡀ tactics, barkáki n ኚ᭿ summer (period/term): gaining: ~ ga umai 㥉ࡄᘤࡀ࠿୕ ~-kyükå ኚᏒఆᬜ summer ᡥ࠷ is good at bargaining holiday: ~-orinpikku ኚᏒ࢛ࣛࣤ kakei n ᐓ゛ household budget: ࣅࢴࢠ Olympic Summer Games ~-bo ᐓ゛⡑ housekeeping book kaki n ℾẴ [BOOKISH] fire, flame: kakei n ᐓ⣌ one’s family line: ~-zu Kaki-genkin ℾẴཚ⚏ No Fire, ᐓ⣌ᅒ a family tree (= keizu Flammables ⣌ᅒ) kakiage n ࠾ࡀᥥࡅ a tangle of tidkakéji n ᤻ࡄᏊ = kaké-jiku ᤻ࡄ㍀, bits fried as tenpura, fritters kaki-atsumemásu, kaki-atsuméru v ࠾ scroll (hanging) kakemásu, kakéru v ᤻ࡄࡱࡌ, ᤻ࡄ ࡀ㞗ࡴࡱࡌ, ࠾ࡀ㞗ࡴࡾ rakes ࡾ hangs it; multiplies; begins it: (them up) … ni denwa o ~ …࡞㞹ヨࢅ᤻ࡄ kaki-iremásu, kaki-iréru v ᭡ࡀථࡿ ࡱࡌ telephones; énjin o ~ ࢙ࣤ ࡱࡌ, ᭡ࡀථࡿࡾ fills in ࢩࣤࢅ᤻ࡄࡱࡌ starts (engine) (information) kakemásu, kakéru v Ḗࡄࡱࡌ, ࠾ࡄ kaki-kaemásu, kaki-kaéru v ᭡ࡀᥦ࠻ ࡾ࣬Ḗࡄࡾ lacks it, needs ࡱࡌ, ᭡ࡀᥦ࠻ࡾ rewrites kakemásu, kakéru v ㈻ࡄࡱࡌ, ㈻ࡄ kaki-kata n ᭡ࡀ᪁ way of writing; ࡾ bets spelling kakemásu, kakéru v 㥉ࡄࡱࡌ, ࣬㥉 kakimásu, káku v Ḗࡀࡱࡌ, Ḗࡂ it ࡄࡾ runs, gallops (human, animal) lacks, it is lacking/wanting kaké-mono n ᤻ࡄ∸ scroll (hang- kakimásu, káku v ᭡ࡀࡱࡌ, ᭡ࡂ ing) (= kaké-jiku ᤻ࡄ㍀ writes kakera n ࢜ࢢࣚ࣬Ḗ∞ fragment kakimásu, káku v ᥝࡀࡱࡌ, ᥝࡂ kákete v … ni ~ …࡞࠾ࡄ࡙ (expaints, draws: e o ~ ⤦ࢅᥝࡀࡱ ࡌ draws a picture (= egakimásu tending) through, with respect ᥝࡀࡱࡌ) to, as regards kake-uri v ᤻ࡄ኉ࡽ credit sales kakimásu, káku v ᥑࡀࡱࡌ, ᥑࡂ (= uri-kake ኉ࡽ᤻ࡄ scratches: senaka o ~ ⫴୯ࢅᥑࡀ kaké-ya n ㈻ࡄᒁ bookie ࡱࡌ scratches one’s back kaké-zan n ᤻ࡄ⟤ multiplication kaki-mawashimásu, kaki-mawasu v kaki n ࢜࢞࣬ᰘ (fruits) persimmon ࠾ࡀᅂࡊࡱࡌ, ࠾ࡀᅂࡌ stirs

a bet

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kaki-naoshimásu, kaki-naósu v ᭡ࡀ├ ࡊࡱࡌ, ᭡ࡀ├ࡌ rewrites kakíne n ࠾ࡀ᰷࣬ᇄ᰷ fence kakitome (yūbin) n ᭡⏻ 㒉౼

registered mail kakitori n ᭡ࡀཱིࡽ dictation kakki n ὩẴ liveliness, activity kakko n ᣋᘴ parenthesis, square

bracket, brace


article(s) (= koramu ࢤ࣑ࣚ) kakomimásu, kakomu v ᅑࡲࡱࡌ, ᅑࡳ surrounds (= tori-kakomimásu ཱིࡽᅑࡲࡱࡌ) kakon n ⚕᰷ the source of trouble, the root of evil: ~ o tachimásu ⚕ ᰷ࢅ᩷ࡔࡱࡌ removes the root of an evil káku n ぽ corner: san-kaku(kei)/ san-kakkei ୔ぽ ᙟ triangle;

kakkō n 1. ᰹ይ shape, form, shikakú(kei)/shikakkei ᄿぽ ᙟ appearance: ~ ga íi ᰹ይ࠿࠷࠷ = ~ ii ࠾ࡖࡆ࠷࠷ shapely, cool, square stylish 2. ~ (na/no) ᰹ይ ࡝ࡡ káku (do) n ぽ ᗐ angle: chok-~ ├ぽ right angle; ei~ 㗞ぽ acute suitable, moderate, reasonable



kákkō n ࢜ࢴࢤࢗ cuckoo káku n ᰶ core, heart, stone: chü-~ káko n 㐛ཡ the past; kako-kei n 㐛 ୯ᰶ (central) core; kaku-heiki n ཡᙟ the past tense; kako-kanryō ᰶඹჹ nuclear weapon; káku (no) n 㐛ཡᏰ஡ the past perfect: ~ n ᰶ ࡡ nucleus, nuclear kanryø-kei 㐛ཡᏰ஡ᙟ the past káku(-) prefix ྘… each, every; kakú-eki n ྘㥈 every station: perfect tense kakō n ຊᕝ [BOOKISH] processing ~-téisha/ressha ྘㥈ೳ㌬า㌬

(industrially treating)

local train (which stops at every station); kaku-ron n ྘ㄵ each detail: ~ ni hairimásu ྘ㄵ࡞ථ ࡽࡱࡌ gets down into specifics; …káku suffix つ sense (five senses): shi-~ ちつ sense of sight: chø-~ ⫀つ sense of hearing: mi-~ ࿝つ sense of taste: shü-~ Ⴁつ sense of smell: shok-~ よつ sense of touch harsh working conditions kakū (no) adj ᯣ✭ ࡡ imaginary: …-kákoku suffix …࠾ᅗ࣬ࣧᅗ࣬࢜ ~ no sekai ᯣ✭ࡡୠ⏲ imaginary ᅗ(counts countries) world: ~ no jinbutsu ᯣ✭ࡡெ∸ kakomi n ᅑࡲ an enclosure, a box: fictional character ~-kiji ᅑࡲエ஥ column, boxed kakudai n ᣉኬ enlargement 117 kakō n ୖ㜾 [BOOKISH] descent kakō n ἑཾ estuary kakō n ℾཾ crater (= kurëtå ࢠࣝ ࣭ࢰ࣭) kakō´-gan n ⰴᓮᒷ granite kakoku n [BOOKISH] 㐛㓖 too severe, harsh: ~ na kankyø 㐛㓖 ࡝⎌ሾ harsh environment: ~ na rødø-jøken 㐛㓖࡝ຘ഼᮪௲

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kakudan (ni/no)

kakudan (ni/no) adv, adj ᰹ṹ ࡞ ࡡ remarkably, remarkable kakugen n ᰹ゕ maxim, wise

saying kákugo n つ᜽ resolution, resignation, premeditation: ~ shimásu つ᜽ࡊࡱࡌ, ~ o kimemásu つ᜽ ࢅỬࡴࡱࡌ is resolved (to do), is

prepared for, is resigned to kakuheki n 㝰ባ [BOOKISH] division

wall, partition kakuho n ☔ಕ [BOOKISH] securement, saving: seki no ~ ᖆࡡ☔ಕ

grabbing a seat

kakuritsu n ☔❟ establishment kakuritsu n ☔⋙ probability kakusei n つ㓨 [BOOKISH] awakening, emergence; kakusei-zai n つ 㓨๠ stimulant drug kakuséi-ki n ᣉኇჹ loudspeaker kakushimásu, kakúsú v 㝻ࡊࡱࡌ, 㝻ࡌ hides (something) kakushin n ᰶᚨ core, heart (= káku ᰶ): ~ ni furemásu ᰶᚨ࡞ よࡿࡱࡌ touches the core of… kakutei n ☔ᏽ determination, ~, settlement; kakutei-shinkoku ☔ᏽ⏞ ࿈ final income tax return kákuteru n ࢜ࢠࢷࣜ cocktail: ~-påtii ࢜ࢠࢷࣜࣂ࣭ࢷ࢔ cocktail

kakujitsu n ☔ᐁ certainly; ~ (na) ☔ᐁ ࡝ certain, reliable, authentic (= tashika na ☔࠾࡝) party kakumaimasu, kakumau v [BOOKISH] kakutō n ᰹㜒 fight; kakutō-gi n ᰹ ༌࠷ࡱࡌ, ༌࠹ harbors, shelters: 㜒ᢇ martial art hannin o ~ ≚ெࢅ༌࠷ࡱࡌ kakutō n ☔➽ [BOOKISH] definite

harbors a criminal kakumaku n ぽ⭯ cornea kakumaku n 㝰⭯ diaphragm kakumei n 㠁࿤ [BOOKISH] revolu-

tion (political, etc.) kakunin n ☔ヾ confirmation kakuran n ࠾ࡂ஗ [BOOKISH]


answer kakutoku n [BOOKISH] ⋋ᚋ

[BOOKISH] acquisition, gain kakuyasu n ᰹Ꮽ bargain, discount: ~-køküken ᰹Ꮽ⯗✭ไ discount-

ed airline ticket kakuzai n ぽᮞ block of wood kakuzuke n [BOOKISH] ᰹௛ࡄ

kakurega n 㝻ࡿᐓ asylum, shelter, rating, grading kakyū (no) adj ୖ⣥ ࡡ low-class: refuge kakuremásu, kakuréru v 㝻ࡿࡱࡌ, kakyüsei ୖ⣥⏍ underclassman 㝻ࡿࡾ hides: kakurenbo, kamá n ࠾ࡱ࣬❌ oven, kiln kakurenbø ࠾ࡂࡿࢆ࡯, 㝻ࡿࢆ kamá n ࠾ࡱ࣬㔡 (Japanese style) ᆎ hide-and-seek kettle, iron pot, cauldron, boiler: kakuri n 㝰㞫 [BOOKISH] isolation; onaji ~ no meshi o taberu ྜྷࡋ㔡 kakuri-byō´tō´ 㝰㞫⑋Ჯ isolation ࡡ㣜ࢅ㣏࡬ࡾ eats from the same ward bowl → kamameshi 㔡㣜

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káma n 㙂 sickle kamaboko n ࠾ࡱ࡯ࡆ࣏࣬࢜࣍ࢤ

steamed fish cake kamachí n ᱃ frame, rail kamado n ࠾ࡱ࡜ (Japanese tradi-


altar (Shinto); kámi-sama n ♼ᵕ God, gods, Dear Lord kamimásu, kamu v ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ, ࠾ࡳ blows (one’s nose) kamimásu, kámu v ჱࡲࡱࡌ, ჱࡳ chews, bites: (füsen) gamu o ~ 㢴⯢ ࣑࢝ࢅჱࡲࡱࡌ chews (bubble) gum: shita o kamisø na kotoba ⯁ࢅ࠾ࡲࡐ࠹࡝ゕⴝ a jawbreaker kaminárí n ࠾ࡲ࡝ࡽ࣐࣬࢜ࢻࣛ࣬㞶 thunder, thunderstorm: ~ ga narimásu 㞶࠿㫾ࡽࡱࡌ it thunders kamí (no ke) n 㧝 ࡡẗ hair (on head): ~ (no ke) o araimásu 㧝 ࡡẗ ࢅὑ࠷ࡱࡌ shampoos kami-san n ࠾ࡲࡈࢆ [INFORMAL] my wife kamisórí n ้ภ razor: ~ no ha ้ ภࡡร razor blade kami-tsukimásu, kami-tsuku v ჱࡲࡗ ࡀࡱࡌ, ჱࡲࡗࡂ bites kámo n ࣓࢜࣬㬖 wild duck kámo n ࠾ࡵ࣓࣬࢜ dupe, sucker kamoku n ⛁┘ subject, course (in school): hisshü-~ ᚪಞ⛁┘ required course/subject kamome n ࣓࣒࢜࣬㬉 seagull … kámo (shiremasén/shirenai) suffix, v …࠾ࡵ ࡊࡿࡱࡎࢆࡊࡿ࡝࠷ = maybe …, perhaps … kán n ⧹ can → kan-zúmé (no …) ⧹ ョ ࡡ… ; kan-biiru ⧹ࣄ࣭ࣜ canned beer: kan-kírí ⧹วࡽ can opener kán n ⇣ heating rice wine: ~ o

tional) kitchen range, stove; oven; furnace kamaimasén, kamawánai v ᵋ࠷ࡱࡎ ࢆ, ᵋࢂ࡝࠷ it makes no difference; never mind; not to bother, it’s o.k. kamakiri n ࣏࢜࢞ࣛ praying mantis kamameshi n 㔡㣜 (cooked) rice (with chicken, crab, or shrimp) served in a clay pot kamasú v ࣏࢜ࢪ barracuda, saurypike kamé n ⎴ jar (with large mouth) káme n ࣒࢜࣬ஞ tortoise, turtle kamei n ௫ྞ an assumed name; a temporary/tentative name kamei n ຊ┍ affiliation kamei n ᐓྞ family name kamen n ௫㟻 mask kámera n ࣒࢜ࣚ camera: dejitaru-~ ࢸࢩࢰ࣒ࣜ࢜ࣚ digital camera: bideo-~ ࣄࢸ࢛࣒࢜ࣚ video camera kamí n ⣤ paper; kami-básami n ⣤ ࡣࡈࡲ file folder; file; paperclip; kami-búkuro n ⣤⾼ paper bag; kamihikōki n ⣤㣍⾔ᶭ paper airplane; kami-kúzu n ⣤ࡂࡍ wastepaper kámi n ♼ 1. God, gods (= kámisama ♼ᵕ 2. divinity (= shinsei tsukemásu/shimásu ⇣ࢅࡗࡄࡱ ♼ᛮ); kami-dana n ♼Წ household ࡌࡊࡱࡌ warms the saké 119

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kán n ⟮ tube, pipe, duct: suidø-~ Ề㐠⟮ water pipe: kek-~ ⾉⟮

ྑ࠷ࡱࡌ a desire is realized (fulfilled): yume ga ~ ከ࠿ྑ࠷ࡱ ࡌ a dream comes true blood vessel kán n ᕬ volume (books, tapes): kanamono n 㔘∸ hardware: ~-ya (dai) ik-~ ➠ ୌᕬ vol. 1 㔘∸ᒁ hardware store …´-kan suffix …㛣 for the interval kanarazu adv ᚪࡍ for sure; necesof; between sity; inevitably …´-kan suffix …វ feeling, sense: kánari adv ࠾࡝ࡽ fairly, rather dai-rok-~ ➠ඵវ sixth sense: kanaria n ࢜ࢻࣛ࢓ canary shok-~ よវ tactile (sensation): kanashii adj ᝊࡊ࠷ sad shok-~ 㣏វ food texture kanashimi n ᝊࡊࡲ sadness kana n ࠾࡝ kana (Japanese syl- kanashimimásu, kanashimu v ᝊࡊࡲ labic writing) → furi-gana ࡨࡽ࠿ ࡱࡌ, ᝊࡊࡳ to be sad kanazuchi n ࠾࡝ࡘࡔ࣬࢜ࢻࢶࢲ ࡝࣬ࣆࣛ࢝ࢻ …ka na/ne interj …࠾࡝࠾ࡠ ࣬㔘ᵌ 1. hammer 2. a person I wonder/whether (= deshø ka who cannot swim ࡚ࡊࡺ࠹࠾) kanban n ┫ᯀ 1. signboard, sign Kánada n ࢜ࢻࢱ Canada; Kanadá-jin 2. (diner, pub) closing time; kanban-musume n ┫ᯀፃ beautiful n ࢜ࢻࢱெ a Canadian kánai n ᐓහ 1. my wife 2. one’s lady who attracts consumers/ family: ~-anzen ᐓහᏭධ wellcustomers; kanban-yakusha n ┫ᯀ ᙲ⩽ star actor being/safety of one’s family: ~-køgyø ᐓහᕝᴏ cottage industry kanbasu n ࢜ࣤࣁࢪ canvas kanaimásu, kanáu v 㐲࠷ࡱࡌ, 㐲࠹ kanbatsu n ࠾ࢆࡣࡗ࣬ᖱࡣࡗ accords/agrees (with): døri ni ~ drought (= hideri ࡥ࡚ࡽ࣬᪝↯ࡽ) 㐠⌦࡞࠾࡝࠷ࡱࡌ it stands to kanben (na) n, adj ⠾౼ ࡝ conreason; mokuteki ni ~ ┘Ⓩ࡞࠾ venience, convenient, simple ࡝࠷ࡱࡌ it serves the purpose and easy kanaimásu, kanáu v ᩓ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᩓ࠹ kanben shitekudasai interj ືᘒࡊ࡙ ୖࡈ࠷ Please give me a break is a match (for), matches, is kanbi n Ᏸങ full equipment equal (to): aité ni kanaimasén ┞ᡥ࡞ᩓ࠷ࡱࡎࢆ is no match kanbi (na) adj ⏉⨶ ࡝ sweet, for the opponent luscious, dulcet: ~ kajitsu ⏉⨶ kanaimásu, kanáu v ྑ࠷ࡱࡌ, ྑ࠹ ࡝ᯕᐁ sweet fruit: ~ merodii ⏉ ⨶࡝࣒ࣞࢸ࢔࣭ dulcet melody (= dekimásu ࡚ࡀࡱࡌ) is accomplished, attained, realized, kanbu n ᝀ㒂 [BOOKISH] diseased part, affected area achieved: nozomi ga ~ ᭻ࡲ࠿ 120

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kanbu n ᖷ㒂 [BOOKISH] executive temple, etc.): joya no ~ 㝎እࡡ㚕 kanbun n ₆ᩝ Chinese classics the bells on New Year’s Eve kanbutsu n ஜ∸ dry food … ka ne interj …࠾ࡠ (mostly kanbō n វා [BOOKISH] common male. INFORMAL) = … ka ne/na cold: ryükøsei-~ Ὦ⾔ᛮវා …࠾ࡠ࠾࡝ (I wonder/whether) influenza (= infuruénza ࢕ࣤࣆ kane-bako n 㔘⟵ 1. cashbox, ࢙ࣜࣤࢧ) money box (= zeni-bako 㖱⟵) kanbō n ᏻᡛ [BOOKISH] Secre2. patron, gold mine, money-


maker, cash cow

kanbō n ┐ᡛ [BOOKISH] ward, jail kanemásu, kanéru v ඾ࡠࡱࡌ, ඾ࡠ ࡾ combines, unites; dually/concell kanbojia n ࢜ࣤ࣍ࢩ࢓ Cambodia; currently serves as Kanbojia-go n ࢜ࣤ࣍ࢩ࢓ㄊ Cam- kanemóchí (no) adj 㔘ᣚࡔ ࡡ rich bodian (language); Kanbojia-jin n (wealthy) ࢜ࣤ࣍ࢩ࢓ெ a Cambodian kan’en n ⫚ⅎ hepatitis kanboku n ₜ>Ⅎ@ᮄ bush kānēshon n ࣭࢜ࢾ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ carnakanbotsu n 㝏Ἀ [BOOKISH] subsid- tion(s): haha-no-hi ni okuru ~ ẍ ࡡ᪝࡞㉏ࡾ࣭࢜ࢾ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ carnaence, cave-in, sinking kanbyō n ┫⑋ nursing tions gifted for Mother’s Day kanchi n វ▩ appreciation, sense kanetsu n ຊ⇍ heat, heating; kanchi n Ᏸ἖ [BOOKISH] complete kanetsu-ki n ຊ⇍ჹ heater kangáe ⩻࠻ n thought, idea, cure kanchō n ύ⭘ enema opinion kánchō n ⯼㛏 captain (of warship) kangaemásu, kangáeru v ⩻࠻ࡱࡌ, kánchō n ᏻᖿ government office ⩻࠻ࡾ thinks, considers kanchō n ᖱ₳ ebb, low tide kangei n Ḵ㎼ welcome (= kantai kandai (na) adj ᐰኬ ࡝ generous, Ḵᙽ); kangei-kai n Ḵ㎼ఌ lenient: ~ na hito ᐰኬ࡝ெ broad- reception (welcome party) minded person: ~ na kokoro ᐰ kangeki n វ⃥ (strong) emotion ኬ࡝ᚨ generous heart, big heart (feeling) (= kandø វິ kandán-kei n ᐨᬦ゛ (room) ther- kango n ₆ㄊ Chinese word/

mometer kandō n វິ (strong) emotion,

(deep) feeling kane n 㔘 1. money 2. metal (= kinzoku 㔘ᒌ) kane n 㚕 large bell (of church,

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vocabulary (in Japanese) kángo n ┫㆜ nursing (a patient); kangó-shi n ┫㆜ᖅ a nurse kani n ࢜ࢼ࣬⽛ crab kānibaru n ࣭࢜ࢼࣁࣜ carnival kanja n ᝀ⩽ (medical) patient


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kanji n ₆Ꮚ a Chinese character

kankyō n ⎌ሾ environment: (symbol), kanji ~-osen ⎌ሾỗ᯹ environmental kanji n វࡋ feeling (= kankaku pollution; ~-hogo ⎌ሾಕ㆜ វつ): konna-~ (de/no) ࡆࢆ࡝វ environmental protection ࡋ ࡚ࡡ like this: sonna/anna- Kankyō-shō n ⎌ሾ┤ Ministry of ~ (de/no) ࡐࢆ࡝࠵ࢆ࡝វࡋ ࡚ the Environment (MOE) ࡡ like that kanmatsu n ᕬᮆ end of a book kan-jimásu, kan-jiru v វࡋࡱࡌ, វ kanmi n ⏉࿝ sweetness: ~-ryø ⏉ ࡋࡾ feels ࿝ᩩ sweetening kanjō n វ᝗ emotion kanna n ࠾ࢆ࡝࣬࢜ࣤࢻ plane kanjō n ⎌≟ [BOOKISH] loop (tool) kannai (de/ni) adv ⟮හ ࡚࡞ (shape): ~ (no) ⎌≟ ࡡ ringshaped, circular; ~-sen ⎌≟⥲ within the jurisdiction kannai (de/ni) adv 㤃හ ࡚࡞ loop/belt line kanjō´ n ືᏽ bill, check, account; inside the building: ~-tsuå 㤃හ kanjō-gákari ືᏽ౿ cashier ࢵ࢓࣭ guided tour of the kankaku n វつ sense, sensibility, building kannen n びᛍ 1. idea (Platonism) feeling, sensation kankaku n 㛣㝰 space, interval (of 2. concept, conception 3. giving time, space) up 4. meditation (Buddhism) kankei n 㛭౿ connection, relation- kannin n ሎᚰ [BOOKISH] patience: ship, interest, concern, relevance: ~ shitekudasai ሎᚰࡊ࡙ୖࡈ࠷ … no ~-sha … ࡡ㛭౿⩽ the peo- Please forgive me.: ~-bukuro no o ga kireru ሎᚰ⾼ࡡ⥬࠿วࡿࡾ ple/ authorities concerned with runs out of patience …, the … people kánki n ᥦẴ ventilation: ~-sen ᥦ kanningu n ࢜ࣤࢼࣤࢡ (during Ẵᡢ ventilator examination, test, etc.) cheating; kankō n びක sightseeing, tour: kanningu-pēpā n ࢜ࣤࢼࣤࢡ࣭࣋ࣂ ~-básu びකࣁࢪ sightseeing bus; ࣭ crib note ~-réssha びකา㌬ sightseeing kannō n Ᏸ⣙ [BOOKISH] full paytrain; kankō´-kyaku n びකᐂ ment kannō n វᚺ [BOOKISH] response, tourist, sightseer participation Kánkoku n 㡉ᅗ South Korea; Kankoku-go n 㡉ᅗㄊ Korean kannō teki (na) adj ᏻ⬗Ⓩ ࡝ (language); Kankokú-jin n 㡉ᅗெ sensual, erotic kannúki n ࠾ࢆ࡟ࡀ bolt (of door) a Korean kankyaku n びᐂ audience, spectator kánnushi n ♼୹ priest (Shinto) 122

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káno-jo pron ᙴዥ she/her; girl-

friend, mistress kanō (na) adj ྊ⬗ ࡝ possible: ~-sei ྊ⬗ᛮ possibility kanpa n ࢜ࣤࣂ fund-raising


sha n ⟮⌦⩽ administrator kanroku n ㈇⚐ presence (= igen ጸཚ): ~ ga arimásu ㈇⚐࠿࠵ࡽ ࡱࡌ has a presence kansai-chihō n 㛭けᆀ᪁ the Kansai


area of Japan (Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Nara, Shiga, Hyogo, Wakayama prefecture etc.) kansatsu n びᐳ [BOOKISH] observation, watching; kansatsú-sha n びᐳ⩽ observer kansatsu n ┐ᐳ [BOOKISH] inspecperfection, perfect tion; kansatsú-kan n ┐ᐳᏻ inkanpi n ᏻ㈕ government expense, spector kansatsu n 㚯ᮈ [BOOKISH] license government expenditure kanpō n ᏻሒ gazette (tag): inú no ~ ≗ࡡ㚯ᮈ a dog(kanpō (yaku) n ₆᪁ ⷾ Chinese license) tag kansei n Ᏸᠺ completion, permedicine kanpu n 㑇௛ refund: ~-kin 㑇௛㔘 fection kansetsu n 㛭⟿ joint (of two tax refund kanpū n ᐨ㢴 cold wind bones): (shu)shi-~ ᡥ ᣞ㛭⟿ kanpū n Ᏸᑌ shut-out: ~-jiai Ᏸᑌ knuckle: ~-en 㛭⟿ⅎ arthritis ムྙ shutout game kansetsu (no) adj 㛣᥃ ࡡ indirect; kanpuku n វ᭱ admiration (= kan- kansetsu(-teki) ni adj 㛣᥃ Ⓩ ࡞ shin វᚨ, kantan វႿ) indirectly kanpyō´ n ࢜ࣤࣅࣘࢗ dried gourd kánsha n វㅨ thanks, gratitude; kansha-sai n វㅨ⚅ Thanksgiving strips, dried ground shavings kanrán-seki n びぬᖆ grandstand kan-shimásu (-súru) v 㛭ࡊࡱࡌ re(seats) lates (to), concerns, is connected kanren n 㛭㏻ relevance (= kankei (with): … ni kánshite …࡞㛭ࡊ࡙ 㛭౿ : (… ni) ~ shimásu …࡞ concerning, as regards, with 㛭㏻ࡊࡱࡌ is relevant (to), is respect to … connected (with) kanshin n 㛭ᚨ concern, interest kánri n ⟮⌦ control (= kontorøru (= kyømi ⮾࿝): ~ ga arimásu 㛭 ࢤࣤࢹ࣭ࣞࣜ); kanri-nin n ⟮⌦ெ ᚨ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is interested in kanshin n វᚨ admiration custodian, janitor, manager, landlord (rental manager); kanri- kanshō n ᖱῦ interference, 123 kanpai n ஜ᮴ a toast, “bottoms up”: Kanpai! ஜ᮴ Cheers! kanpai n Ᏸᩃ complete defeat kanpán n ⏝ᯀ deck (of ship) kanpan n ஜࣂࣤ hardtack kanpeki (na) n, adj Ᏸ⎅ ࡝

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meddling: ~ shinai de kudasai overseer, manager, director; eigaᖱῦࡊ࡝࠷࡚ୖࡈ࠷ Please stay kantoku n ᫆⏤┐╡ film director kantō´shi n 㛣ᢖペ interjection away from me., Please stay kanzei n 㛭⛧ customs duty (tariff) out of it. kanshō n 㚯㈱ [BOOKISH] apprekanzen n Ᏸධ perfection, comciation (art, work, music) pleteness: ~ ni Ᏸධ࡞ completely kanshō n び㈱ [BOOKISH] admira- kanzō n ⫚⮒ liver tion, enjoyment: ~-shokubutsu kan-zúmé (no …) adj ⧹ョ ࡡ… び㈱᳔∸ ornamental plant 1. canned (food), can, tin 2. confine kansoku n びῼ observation; oneself: hoteru ni ~ ni natte kiji opinion (= íken ណず): hoshi no ~ o kakimásu ࣌ࢷࣜ࡞⧹ョ࡞࡝ ᫅ࡡびῼ observation of the stars ࡖ࡙エ஥ࢅ᭡ࡀࡱࡌ confines kansō n វ᝷ impression: dokusho oneself to a hotel room to write ~-bun ㄖ᭡វ᝷ᩝ book report articles kao n 㢞 face; looks, a look: … (at school) kansō n ஜ⇩ dryness; kansō-ki n (no) ~ o shite imásu … ࡡ 㢞ࢅ ஜ⇩ᶭ dryer (washing machine) ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ has/wears an expreskansōgei-kai n Ḵ㏞㎼ఌ welcome sion of …; kao-iro n 㢞Ⰵ comand farewell party plexion kantai n Ḵᙽ [BOOKISH] welcome kaomoji n 㢞ᩝᏊ Emoticon kaori n 㤮 ࡽ fragrance, incense (= kangei Ḵ㎼) kantan n វႿ [BOOKISH] admiration (= kø´ 㤮): køsui no ~ 㤮Ềࡡ㤮 (= kanshin វᚨ, kanpuku វ᭱) ࡽ fragrance of perfume kantan (na) adj ⠾༟ ࡝ easy, kā´pétto n ࣭࢜࣋ࢴࢹ carpet kappa n ࠾ࡖࡤ࣬࢜ࢴࣂ࣬ἑ❲ simple, brief kantei n 㚯ᏽ [BOOKISH] judgment water imp kantei n ᏻ㑨 [BOOKISH] official kapparaimásu, kapparáu v ࠾ࡖࡤࡼ ࠷ࡱࡌ, ࠾ࡖࡤࡼ࠹ [INFORMAL] residence: shushø-~ 㤫┞ᏻ㑨 official residence of the prime swipes, steals, shoplifts kappatsu (na) adj ὩⓆ ࡝ active, minister kantō-chihō n 㛭᮶ᆀ᪁ the Kantø lively kappō n ๪ⅸ [BOOKISH] Japanese area of Japan (Tokyø, Chiba, restaurant, Japanese cuisine: ~-gi Saitama, Kanagawa, Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Yamanashi ๪ⅸ╌ Japanese-style apron prefecture) → shutó-ken 㤫㒌ᅥ káppu n ࢜ࢴࣈ a cup (with kantoku n ┐╡ supervision; handle): magu-~ ࣏ࢡ࢜ࢴࣈ supervisor, superintendent, mug 124

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káppuru n ࢜ࢴࣈࣜ a couple (of

kare-shi ᙴẮ) lovers) karē n ࣭࢜ࣝ curry: ~-ráisu ࢜ࣝ kápuseru n ࢜ࣈࢬࣜ capsule: ࣭ࣚ࢕ࢪ rice with curry ~-hoteru ࢜ࣈࢬࣜ࣌ࢷࣜ capsule kárei n ࢜ࣝ࢕ flatfish, turbot karemásu, kareru v ᯜࡿࡱࡌ, ᯜࡿ hotel kara n Ṿ shell, crust: monuke no ࡾ withers: karete imásu ᯜࡿ࡙ ~ ࡵ࡟ࡄࡡ࠾ࡼ>Ṿ@ completely ࠷ࡱࡌ is withered empty (= karappo (no) ✭ࡖࡰ karemásu, kareru v ศࡿࡱࡌ, ศࡿ ࡡ ) ࡾ can mow/cut kara (no) adj ࠾ࡼ>✭@ ࡡ empty: karéndā n ࢜ࣝࣤࢱ࣭ calendar karappo (no) ࠾ࡼ>✭@ࡖࡰ ࡡ káre-shi n ᙴẮ boyfriend (lover) completely empty (= káre ᙴ) … kará prep, conj …࠾ࡼ 1. kari (no) adj ௫ ࡡ temporary, from…, since… (time, space): tentative: ~-zumai ௫పࡱ࠷ … kara, … máde …࠾ࡼ…ࡱ࡚ temporary residence kári ≹ࡽ n hunting: ~ o shimásu from … to … 2. because… kárā n ࣭࢜ࣚ collar (= eri 〺) ≹ࡽࢅࡊࡱࡌ hunts kárā n ࣭࢜ࣚ color (= iro Ⰵ) kari ೇࡽ n borrowing: ~ ga arimásu ೇࡽ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ I owe you.; karada n మ࣬㌗మ body; one’s health: ~ ni ki o tsukete kudasai karí-chin n ೇࡽ㈜ rent (charge); ㌗ మ࡞Ẵࢅࡗࡄ࡙ୖࡈ࠷ kari-te n ೇࡽᡥ the borrower/

Please take care of yourself.

renter, the lessee, the tenant

karái adj ㎖࠷ 1. spicy, hot, pep- karimásu, karu v ศࡽࡱࡌ, ศࡾ pery, pungent 2. salty mows, cuts karakaimásu, karakáu v ࠾ࡼ࠾࠷ࡱ karimásu, kariru v ೇࡽࡱࡌ, ೇࡽࡾ ࡌ, ࠾ࡼ࠾࠹ teases, pokes fun at borrows/rents it (from …) kara-kása n ၄ഘ (oil-paper) karō n 㐛ຘ overfatigue: ~-shi 㐛 ຘṒ death from overwork umbrella karaoke n ࢛࢜ࣚࢢ karaoke kāru n ࣭࢜ࣜ curl karashi n ࢜ࣚࢨ࣬ⰨᏄ mustard karui adj ㍅࠷ light (of weight) kárasu n ࢜ࣚࢪ࣬Ⅺ crow karuishi n ㍅▴ pumice karate n ࢜ࣚࢷ࣬✭ᡥ karate Karukatta n ࢜ࣜ࢜ࢴࢰ Calcutta (weaponless self-defense): ~-gí (Kolkata) ✭ᡥ╌ karate outfit/suit kása n ഘ࣬࠾ࡈ umbrella: ~-date káre pron ᙴ he/him; káre-ra pron ഘ❟࡙ umbrella stand ᙴࡼ they/them kása n ➗ bamboo hat; (mushkáre n ᙴ boyfriend (lover) (= room) cap

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kasá n ᔗ bulk kashikomarimáshita ࠾ࡊࡆࡱࡽࡱࡊ kasabarimásu, kasabaru v ࠾ࡈࡣࡽ ࡒ. I understand and will comply ࡱࡌ, ࠾ࡈࡣࡾ is bulky, takes up (with your request). [HONORIFIC] kashí-ma n ㈒㛣 rooms for rent; much space kasai n ℾⅇ fire (accidental) (= rented/rental room(s) káji ℾ஥ : ~-kéihø ℾⅇ㆑ሒ fire kashimásu, kasu v ㈒ࡊࡱࡌ, ㈒ࡌ alarm, ~-høchíki ℾⅇሒ▩ჹ fire lends; rents (it out to) kashirá n 㢄 head; chief, leader alarm (device), fire bell kasanarimásu, kasanaru v 㔔࡝ࡽࡱ … káshira interj …࠾ࡊࡼ (mostly ࡌ, 㔔࡝ࡾ they pile up female) I wonder/whether kasanemásu, kasaneru v 㔔ࡠࡱࡌ, kashi-te n ㈒ࡊᡥ the lender/ 㔔ࡠࡾ piles them up, puts one lessor, the landlord kashitsu n 㐛኶ mistakes, errors, on top of another kase n ࠾ࡎ shackles: te-~ ᡥ࠾ࡎ faults: ~-sekinin 㐛኶㈈௴ neglihandcuffs: ~ o hazushimásu ࠾ࡎ gence liability kashi-ya n ㈒ᐓ house for rent; ࢅአࡊࡱࡌ unshackles kasegimásu, kaségu v ✄ࡁࡱࡌ, ✄ rented/rental house ࡃ earns, works for (money) …-kásho suffix …࠾ᡜ࣬⟘ᡜ࣬ kasei n ℾ᫅ Mars; kaséi-jin n ℾ᫅ ಴ᡜ (counter for places, ெ a Martian installations, institutions) kaséi-fu n ᐓᨳ፦ housekeeper, kashoku-shō n 㐛㣏⑍ bulimia

hired maid


kaseki n ໩▴ fossil(s) kashu n ḯᡥ singer: ~-kashu Ὦ⾔ kasen n ୖ⥲ underline: ~ o ḯᡥ pop singer hikimásu ୖ⥲ࢅᘤࡀࡱࡌ draws kasō n ௫⿞ disguise: ~-påtii ௫⿞ ࣂ࣭ࢷ࢔ costume party: ~-ishø an underline kasen n ໩⦼ [BOOKISH] synthetic ௫⿞⾨⿞ costume kasō n ℾⴷ cremation fiber kasetto (tēpu) n ࢜ࢬࢴࢹ ࢷ࣭ࣈ kasō n ௫᝷ [BOOKISH] virtual, cassette (tape) imaginary: ~-kükan ௫᝷✭㛣 káshi n ḯペ lyrics virtual space káshi n ⳣᏄ cakes, sweets, pastry; kasō n ୖᒒ [BOOKISH] lower layer: ~-kaikyü ୖᒒ㝭⣥ lower kashí-ya n ⳣᏄᒁ candy store,

confectioner kashikiri-básu n ㈒ࡊวࡽࣁࢪ

chartered bus kashikói adj ㈴࠷ wise

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class society kasoku n ຊ㏷ acceleration; kasokupédaru ຊ㏷࣋ࢱࣜ gas pedal kāsoru n ࣭࢜ࢮࣜ cursor (on the


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katamarimásu, katamaru

computer screen, etc.) kangae-~ ⩻࠻᪁ one’s way of kásu n ࠾ࡌ>⁞@ 1. sediment, thinking, one’s point of view … katá n …᪁ (o-kata ࠽᪁) (hondregs, grounds: køhii-~ ࢤ࣭ ࣃ࣭࠾ࡌ coffee grounds 2. waste, ored) person: anata-gata ࠵࡝ࡒ scum, trash, rags, scrap, junk (= ᪁ you people kúzu ࡂࡍ>ᒆ@): moe-~ ⇖࠻࠾ kata-… prefix ∞ one (of a ࡌ cinders: ningen/seken no ~ ெ pair) (= katáhø ∞᪁ : ~-ashi ∞ 㛣ୠ㛣ࡡ࠾ࡌ the scum of the ㊂ one leg/foot: ~-gawa ∞ഁ one earth 3. particles: tabe-~ 㣏࡬࠾ side; katá-hō n ∞᪁, katáppø ∞ ࡌ food particles ࡖࡰ࠹, katáppo ∞ࡖࡰ one of kásu n ࠾ࡌ>⢾࣬⢉@ lees a pair; the other one (of a pair); kásuka (na/ni) adj, adv ࠾ࡌ࠾ ࡝ kata-koto n ∞ゕ imperfect ࡞ ࣬᚜࠾ ࡝࡞ faint(ly), language, limited language; katamichi n ∞㐠 one-way: ~ kíppu ∞ dim(ly), slight(ly) kasumemásu, kasumeru v ᤾ࡴࡱࡌ, 㐠ว➚ one way ticket ᤾ࡴࡾ skims, grazes katachi n ᙟ form, shape kasume-torimásu, kasume-toru v ᤾ࡴ katadoru adj ࠾ࡒ࡜>㇗࣬ᶅ@ࡾ ཱིࡽࡱࡌ, ᤾ࡴཱིࡾ skims off; imitated, copied, modeled, robs (it of …), cheats (one out of symbolized (= shøchø ㇗ᚡ) …) (= kasumemásu ᤾ࡴࡱࡌ … katá-gata suffix …᪁ࠍ (honored) kasumi n ࠾ࡌࡲ࣬㟐 haze, mist persons (= … katá-tachi …᪁㐡) kasumimásu, kasumu v 㟐ࡲࡱࡌ, katagi (na) adj ᇻẴ ࡝ respect㟐ࡳ gets dim, hazy, misty able, steady, honest kasurimásu, kasuru v ࠾ࡌࡽࡱࡌ, katai adj ᅖ࠷ hard; tight; strong; ࠾ࡌࡾ grazes firm; strong; strict kasutera n ࢜ࢪࢷࣚ Japanese katai adj ◫࠷ hard, stiff; stilted sponge cake, Castella upright kata n ᆵ 1. form, shape, size, katai adj ᇻ࠷ hard; solid; sound; mold, pattern: ~ ni hamemásu ᆵ reliable; serious; formal ࡞ࡢࡴࡱࡌ stereotypes: ø-gata katákána n ࢜ࢰ࢜ࢻ࣬∞࠾࡝࣬ ኬᆵ large-size 2. type, model: ∞௫ྞ katakana (the squarish ketsueki-~ ⾉ᾦᆵ blood type Japanese letters) káta n ⫢ shoulder(s); kata-gaki n katamari n ᅖࡱࡽ࣬ም a lump, a ⫢᭡ࡀ (business/position) title clot, a mass; a loaf (of bread) …-kata suffix …᪁ manner of katamarimásu, katamaru v ᅖࡱࡽࡱ ࡌ, ᅖࡱࡾ it hardens, congeals, doing, way: yari-~ ࡷࡽ᪁ method, process (= høhø ᪁Ἢ): clots, (mud) cakes 127

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katamemásu, katameru

katamemásu, katameru v ᅖࡴࡱࡌ, ᅖࡴࡾ hardens it, congeals it;


inku-~ ࢕ࣤࢠ࣭࢜ࢹࣛࢴࢩ ink

cartridge Katoríkku n ࢜ࢹࣛࢴࢠ Catholic strengthens it katamuki n ലࡀ slant; inclination, kátsu n ࢜ࢵ a Japanese “cutlet” tendency (fried in deep fat): ton-~ ㇔࢜ katamukimásu, katamúku v ലࡀࡱࡌ, ࢵ࣬ࢹࣤ࢜ࢵ pork cutlet; katsudon n ࢜ࢵ୺ a bowl of rice with ലࡂ leans (to one side), slants kataná n ภ sword sliced pork cutlet on top katáppo n ∞ࡖࡰ one of a pair; katsudō n Ὡິ action, activity, the other one (of a pair) movement katarimásu v ㄊࡽࡱࡌ, kataru ㄊ katsugimásu, katsúgu v ᢰࡁࡱࡌ ࡾ relates, tells ᢰࡃ carries on shoulders … katá-tachi n …᪁㐡 (honored) katsuji n ὩᏊ movable type: ~ ni shimásu ὩᏊ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ prints, persons katáwa n ∞㍧ (discriminatory is in print katsuo n ࢜ࢵ࢛࣬㫆 bonito: term) cripple kata-yorimásu, kata-yóru v ∞ᐞࡽ>೩ ~-bushi ࢜ࢵ࢛>㫆@⟿ a dried ࡽ@ࡱࡌ, ∞ᐞࡾ>೩ࡾ@ leans (to bonito fish katsura n ࠾ࡗࡼ࣬࢜ࢵࣚ a wig one side); is partial (to) kata-zukemásu, kata-zukéru v ∞௛ࡄ kátsute adv ࠾ࡗ࡙ at one time, ࡱࡌ, ∞௛ࡄࡾ puts in order, formerly straightens up, tidies, cleans up katsuyaku n Ὡ㌅ activity kata-zukimásu, kata-zúku v ∞௛ࡀࡱ …-kátta v …࠾ࡖࡒ㸯[ADJECTIVE] ࡌ, ∞௛ࡂ it gets tidy (put in order) -kátta (desu) …࠾ࡖࡒ ࡚ࡌ katei n ௫ᏽ hypothesis, supposition was … katei n ㄚ⛤ process (course, stage) …-káttara v …࠾ࡖࡒࡼ: [ADJECTIVE] katei n ᐓᗖ home, household; káttara …࠾ࡖࡒࡼ if/when it is katei-yō´gu/yō´hin n ᐓᗖ⏕ර⏕ဗ …-káttari v …࠾ࡖࡒࡽ: [ADJECTIVE] káttari …࠾ࡖࡒࡽ being reprehome appliances katemásu, katéru v ົ࡙ࡱࡌ, ົ࡙ࡾ sentatively/sometimes/altercan win nately: …-ku nákattari …ࡂ࡝࠾ kā´ten n ࣭࢜ࢷࣤ curtain, drapes: ࡖࡒࡽ (is…) off and on, some~-róddo ࣭࢜ࢷࣤࣞࢴࢺ curtain times is … and sometimes isn’t katte n ົᡥ kitchen; katte-dō´gu n rod; ~-rëru ࣭࢜ࢷ࣭ࣤࣝࣜ curtain rail: shawå-~ ࢨ࣭ࣔ࣠࢜ ົᡥ㐠ර kitchen utensils; kátteguchi n ົᡥཾ kitchen door, ࣭ࢷࣤ shower curtain kātorijji n ࣭࢜ࢹࣛࢴࢩ cartridge: back door 128

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kazoemásu, kazoéru

katte adj, adv ~ (na/ni) ົᡥ ࡝ ࡞ selfish(ly), as one wishes kaunserā n ࢜ࢗࣤࢬ࣭ࣚ

௥ࢂࡾ: (… ni) ~ …࡞ ௥ࢂࡽࡱ ࡌ it takes the place (of …) kawaru-gáwaru adv ௥ࢂࡾ௥ࢂࡾ࣬ ࠾ࢂࡾ࠿ࢂࡾ alternately kawase n Ⅵ᭨ a money order: ~-rëto Ⅵ᭨࣭ࣝࢹ currency


kauntā n ࢜ࢗࣤࢰ࣭ counter kawá n ᕖ river kawá n ἑ big river exchange rates kawá n ⓮࣬㠁 skin; leather; (tree) kayaku n ℾⷾ gunpowder Kayō´(bi) n ℾ᭑ ᪝ Tuesday bark; crust kawai-garimásu, kawai-gáru v ࠾ࢂ࠷ kayoi ㏳࠷ adj ~ (no) ㏳࠷ ࡡ ࠿ࡽ>ྊយ࠿ࡽ@ࡱࡌ, ࠾ࢂ࠷࠿ commuting, live-out (help): ~ no ࡾ࣬ྊយ࠿ࡾ treats with affeco-tetsudai(-san) ㏳࠷ࡡ࠽ᡥఎ࠷ ࡈࢆ a day helper tion, loves (children, pets, etc.) kawaíi adj ࠾ࢂ࠷࠷࣬ྊយ࠷ cute, kayoimásu, kayou v ㏳࠷ࡱࡌ, ㏳࠹ lovable, darling (= kawairashíi commutes, goes back and forth, ࠾ࢂ࠷ࡼࡊ࠷࣬ྊយࡼࡊ࠷) goes (regularly) kawai-sō´ (na) adj ࠾ࢂ࠷ࡐ࠹ ࡝ kayu n ⢓࣬࠾ࡹ rice gruel, por-

pitiful, poor


kawakashimásu, kawakásu v ஜ࠾ࡊ ࡱࡌ, ஜ࠾ࡌ dries it (out) kawakimásu, kawáku v ஜࡀࡱࡌ, ஜࡂ gets dry kawakimásu, kawáku v ῤࡀࡱࡌ, ῤ ࡂ: nodo ga ~ ࡡ࡜࠿ῤࡀࡱࡌ

kayúi adj ⑓࠷ itchy kázan n ℾᒜ volcano: ~-bai ℾᒜ ⅂ volcanic ash kazari 㣥ࡽ n = ~-mono 㣥ࡽ∸

ornament, decoration

kazarimásu, kazaru v 㣥ࡽࡱࡌ, 㣥 ࡾ decorates gets thirsty kawara n ⎨ tile: ~-buki (no) ⎨ࡩ kazari-mono n 㣥ࡽ∸ ornament, ࡀ ࡡ tile-roofed decoration kawari n ንࢂࡽchange (in health) kaze n 㢴 wind kawari n ௥ࢂࡽ substitute: … no kaze n ࠾ࡏ࣬࢜ࢭ࣬㢴㑟 a cold: ~ ni … ࡡ௥ࢂࡽ࡞ instead of ~ o hikimásu ࠾ࡏࢅࡥࡀࡱࡌ kawari n ࠾ࢂࡽ a second helping catches (a) cold (usually of rice): ~-jiyü (desu) ࠽ kaze-gúsuri n ࠾ࡏⷾ࣬㢴㑟ⷾ ࠾ࢂࡽ⮤⏜ ࡚ࡌ has free refills medicine for colds kawarimásu, kawaru v ንࢂࡽࡱࡌ, kazoe-kirenai adj ᩐ࠻วࡿ࡝࠷ ንࢂࡾ: (… ni) ~ …࡞ ንࢂࡽࡱ countless, innumerable ࡌ it changes (into…) kazoemásu, kazoéru v ᩐ࠻ࡱࡌ, kawarimásu, kawaru v ௥ࢂࡽࡱࡌ, ᩐ࠻ࡾ counts

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kázoku n ᐓ᪐ family: ~-omoi no (hito) ᐓ᪐ᛦ࠷ࡡ ெ family-

keiba-jō n ❿㤷ሔ racetrack keibetsu n ㍅ⶔ contempt, de-

minded (person)


kázu n ᩐ number kazu no ko n ࢜ࢫࢿࢤ࣬ᩐࡡᏄ

kéibi n ㆑ങ [BOOKISH] security; keibi-in n ㆑ങဤ security guard keiei n ⤊ႜ management,

herring roe ke n ẗ hair; wool; feathers …-ke suffix …ᐓ (name of certain) clan, family: Suzuki-~ 㕝ᮄᐓ Suzuki family kē´buru n ࢢ࣭ࣇࣜ cable: ~-kå ࢢ ࣭ࣇ࣭ࣜ࢜ cable car: ~-terebi ࢢ ࣭ࣇࣜࢷࣝࣄ cable TV kecháppu n ࢢࢲࣔࢴࣈ ketchup kéchi (na) adj ࡄࡔ ࡝ stingy,


operation keiéi-sha n ⤊ႜ⩽ manager,

operator, proprietor keigo n ᩏㄊ honorific (word): ~ o tsukaimásu ᩏㄊࢅ౐࠷ࡱࡌ uses

honorific words keihin n ᬊဗ [BOOKISH] giveaway keihō n ㆑ሒ alarm, alert, warning keiji n ⦽㎙ [BOOKISH] copula,

(grammar term) link

kéchinbō, kéchinbo n ࡄࡔࢆᆎ, ࡄ ࡔࢆ࡯ stingy person, skinflint,

kéiji n ฬ஥ (police) detective keiji n ᥎♟ bulletin; keiji-ban n ᥎♟ᯀ bulletin board miser kedamono n ࡄࡓࡵࡡ࣬ࢢࢱ࣓ࢿ࣬ kéijō n ᙟ≟ geometry keika n ⤊㐛 course (of time), ⊿ animal; beast (= kemono) kédo conj ࡄ࡜ [INFORMAL] progress, development though, but (= [FORMAL] kéredo keikai n ㆑ᠼ [BOOKISH] vigilance, (-mo) ࡄࡿ࡜ ࡵ however, watch, guard; warning, caution keikaku n ゛⏤ plan, scheme, though, but) kegá n ࡄ࠿࣬ࢢ࢝࣬ᛱᠻ injury, program, project (= puran ࣈࣚ mishap: ~ o shimásu ᛱᠻࢅࡊࡱ ࣤ): (… no) ~ o tatemásu …ࡡ ࡌ gets hurt; ~ o sasemásu ᛱᠻ ゛⏤ࢅ❟࡙ࡱࡌ = (…o) ~ shimásu ࢅࡈࡎࡱࡌ injures (someone) …ࢅ ゛⏤ࡊࡱࡌ plans ke-gawa n ẗ⓮ fur keikan n ㆑ᏻ [BOOKISH] policeman, kéi n ฬ (criminal) sentence (police) officer (= keisatsu-kan …-kei suffix …⣌ 1. type, model: ㆑ᐳᏻ): ~-tai ㆑ᏻ㝪 a contindø-~-shoku ྜྷ⣌Ⰵ similar color gent of policemen 2. of …ancestry: ~-zu ⣌ᅒ gene- keiken n ⤊㥺 experience; shokumualogy, a family tree (= kakei-zu keiken n ⫃ຸ⤊㥺 job experience ᐓ⣌ᅒ) keiki n ᬊẴ business conditions, keiba n ❿㤷 horse racing/race; prosperity, boom: ~-taisaku

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ᬊẴᑊ➿ economy-boosting



keishoku n ㍅㣏 snack, light foods keisotsu (na) adj ㍅⋙ ࡝ hasty,

kéiki n ዉᶭ [BOOKISH] opportunity rash kéiki n ฬ᭿ prison term keitai n ᙟឺ pattern, shape kei(ryō)ki n ゛ 㔖 ჹ meter (dekeitai 1. adj ᦘᖈ portable 2. n ᦘ ᖈ cell-phone, mobile (tele)phone vice) kéiko n ✅ཿ exercise, practice, (= keitai-denwa ᦘᖈ㞹ヨ) keitai-denwa n ᦘᖈ㞹ヨ cell-phone, drill keikō n ലྡྷ [BOOKISH] tendency, mobile (tele)phone keiteki n ㆑➔ horn (of car) (= trend keikō n ⤊ཾ [BOOKISH] oral: kuráku-shon ࢠࣚࢠࢨࣘࣤ) ~-hinínyaku ⤊ཾ㑂ዲⷾ oral keito n ẗ⣊ wool; yarn: ~-dama ẗ⣊⋚ ball of wool/yarn contraceptive (= piru ࣅࣜ) keikoku n ㆑࿈ [BOOKISH] warning: keiyaku n ዉ⣑ contract, agree~-hyøji ㆑࿈⾪♟ alarm display ment; keiyaku-sho n ዉ⣑᭡ keikō-tō n ⺧ක⅁ fluorescent light (written) contract keimú-sho n ฬຸᡜ jail, prison keiyō´shi n ᙟᐖペ adjective keireki n ⤊Ṍ [BOOKISH] career … kéiyu (de/no) adv, adj …⤊⏜ ࡚ࡡ by (way of) …, via …: (history) keirin n ❿㍧ [BOOKISH] bicycle ~-bin ⤊⏜౼ indirect flight kéizai n ⤊ῥ economics, finance; race: ~-jø ❿㍧ሔ bicycle racekeizái-gaku n ⤊ῥᏕ (science of) track keirō n ᩏ⩹ [BOOKISH] respect for economics; keizai-teki (na) adj ⤊ ῥⓏ ࡝ economical the aged; Keirō-no-hí n ᩏ⩹ࡡ᪝ Keizai-Sangyō-shō n ⤊ῥ⏐ᴏ┤ Respect-for-the-Aged Day

Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) kē´ki n ࢢ࣭࢞ cake scheme, trick, strategy keiryō-kappu n ゛㔖࢜ࢴࣈ measur- kekka n ⤎ᯕ result, effect; as a ing cup result (consequence): gen’in to ~ keisan n ゛⟤ calculation, comཋᅄ࡛⤎ᯕ cause and effect kekkaku n ⤎ᰶ tuberculosis putation keisán-ki n ゛⟤ᶭ calculator kekkan n Ḗ㝏 [BOOKISH] defect, keisatsu n ㆑ᐳ police: ~-shó ㆑ᐳ deficiency ⨣ police station; ~-kan ㆑ᐳᏻ kekkan n ⾉⟮ blood vessel kekkō n Ḗ⯗ [BOOKISH] cancelled policeman, (police) officer keishiki n ᙟᘟ form, formality flight; “flight cancelled” 131 (Third Monday of September)

keiryaku n ゛␆ [BOOKISH] plot,

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kékkō (na)

kékkō (na) adj ⤎ᵋ ࡝ 1. splendid, kéndō n ๟㐠 the art of fencing excellent 2. fairly well; enough: (with bamboo swords) Kékkø desu ⤎ᵋ࡚ࡌ. No, thank ken’etsu n ᳠㛸 censor(ship) kengaku n ずᏕ study by observayou. kekkon n ⤎፡ marriage (= konin tion, field study/trip/work ፡ጵ): ( … to) ~ shimásu …࡛ kénji n ᳠஥ (public) prosecutor ⤎፡ࡊࡱࡌ marries; kekkón-shiki n kenjū n ᣑ㖘 pistol ⤎፡ᘟ wedding kenka n ࡄࢆ࠾࣬႒ბ quarrel, kekkyokú n, adv ⤎ᑻ after all, in argument kenkō n ೸ᗛ health: ~-shókuhin the long run kemono n ࡄࡵࡡ࣬ࢢ࣓ࢿ࣬⊿ ೸ᗛ㣏ဗ health food(s); ~-hoken ೸ᗛಕ㝜 health insurance; kenkō = kedamono ࡄࡓࡵࡡ࣬ࢢࢱ࣓ ࢿ࣬⊿ (animal; beast) (na) adj ೸ᗛ ࡝ healthy kemúi, kemutai adj ↦࠷, ↦ࡒ࠷ kenkyo (na) adj ㅤ⹣ ࡝ humble



kemuri n ↦ smoke kemushi n ࢢ࣑ࢨ࣬ẗ⹰ cater-

kenkyū n ◂✪ research, study; kenkyū-jo n ◂✪ᡜ research


institute, laboratory

kén n ┬ a Japanese prefecture (like a state), …´-ken …┬: Chiba´ -ken ༐ⴝ┬ Chiba prefecture kén n ๟ (double-edged) sword …´-ken suffix …㌲ (counts houses,

small buildings and shops)

kenmei (na) adj ㈴᪺ ࡝ wise kénpō n ៿Ἢ constitution: Kenpøkinénbi ៿Ἢエᛍ᪝ Constitution

(Memorial) Day (3 May) kénri n ᶊฺ right (privilege); kenrí-kin n ᶊฺ㔘 “key money”

…´-ken suffix …ไ ticket: nyüjø-~ (to obtain rental lease) ථሔไ admission ticket kenryoku n ᶊງ power, authority kenbái-ki n ไ኉ᶭ ticket vending kénsa n ᳠ᰕ inspection, exami-

machine kenbi-kyō n 㢟᚜㙶 microscope kenbutsu n ず∸ sightseeing; kenbutsu-nin n ず∸ெ bystander kénchi n ずᆀ viewpoint kenchiku n ᘋ⠇ [BOOKISH]

construction; architecture; kenchiku-ka n ᘋ⠇ᐓ architect kénchō n ┬ᖿ the prefectural

government (office)

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nation, check-up, test kensatsu n ᳠ᮈ [BOOKISH] ticket

examining (on board) kensetsu n ᘋシ construction

(work) (building) kenshō n ᳠チ vertification kentō n ᣑ㜒 boxing (martial art) kentō´ n ずᙔ aim; direction; estimate, guess: ~ ga tsukimásu ずᙔ࠿ࡗࡀࡱࡌ gets a rough 132

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idea (of it): ~ o tsukemásu ずᙔ kesshin n Ửᚨ determination, ࢅࡗࡄࡱࡌ makes a guess, takes resolve: (... shiyø to) ~ shimásu ࡊࡻ࠹࡛ Ửᚨࡊࡱࡌ aim kentō n ᳠ゞ examination, inspec- resolves (to do) kesshite adv Ửࡊ࡙ [+ NEGATIVE] tion …-kéntō suffix …ずᙔ roughly, never kesshō n Ửົ finals, title match: about, approximately ken’yaku n ೛⣑ economy, thrift, jun-~ ‵Ửົ semifinals kē´su n ࢢ࣭ࢪ case (a particular economizing: ~ (na) ೛⣑ ࡝ thrifty, frugal instance): ~-bai-~ ࢢ࣭ࢪࣁ࢕ࢢ kénzan n ๟ᒜ a frog (pinholder) ࣭ࢪ case by case; case (container) keta n ࡄࡒ࣬ࢢࢰ࣬᰾ 1. (cross) for flowers ke-orimono n ẗ⧂∸ woolen goods beam, girder 2. abacus rod, kéredo (-mo) conj ࡄࡿ࡜ ࡵ (numerical) column ketsu n 1. ࡄࡗ࣬ᑶ buttock 2. ࡄ however, though, but kerimásu, kéru v ㋶ࡽࡱࡌ, ㋶ࡾ ࡗ the tail end, the last (bottom) kicks (= shiri ࡊࡽ࣬ᑶ) késa n, adv ௑᭽ this morning ketsuatsu n ⾉ᅸ blood pressure; keshi ᾐࡊ adj tsuyakeshi (no) ࡗ ketsuatsu-kei n ⾉ᅸ゛ bloodࡷᾐࡊ matted; keshi-gomu n ᾐࡊ pressure gauge; sphygmoࢥ࣑ (rubber) eraser manometer keshi-in n ᾐ༰ cancellation mark/ ketsúeki n ⾉ᾦ blood ketsumatsu n ⤎ᮆ outcome stamp késhiki n ᬊⰅ scenery, view ketsuron n ⤎ㄵ conclusion: ~ to keshimásu, kesu v ᾐࡊࡱࡌ, ᾐࡌ shite ⤎ㄵ࡛ࡊ࡙ in conclusion extinguishes, puts out; turns off; kettei n Ửᏽ determination, decision expunges, erases, deletes keshō n ໩⢕ o-keshø ࠽໩⢕ kettén n ḖⅤ flaw, defect, shortcosmetics, make-up; keshō-hin n coming ໩⢕ဗ cosmetics; keshō´-shitsu kewashíi adj 㝜ࡊ࠷ steep, n ໩⢕ᐄ restroom, bathroom, precipitous; severe kezurimásu, kezuru v ๎ࡽࡱࡌ, ๎ toilet, lounge ࡾ sharpens, shaves kessaku n ഒష masterpiece kessan n Ử⟤ settling accounts ki n Ẵ spirit; feeling; mind, heart; kesseki n Ḗᖆ absence (from ki (ga) adv Ẵ ࠿ : ~ mijikái Ẵ school, work); kessékí-sha n Ḗᖆ ࠿▯࠷ is impatient: ~ omoi Ẵ࠿ ⩽ absentee 㔔࠷ is depressed; ~ tsukimásu 133

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気が付きます comes to one’s senses; ki ni adj 気に: ~ irimásu 気に入ります appeals to one, is pleasing; ( … ga) ~ narimásu (…が)気になります worries (one); ... suru ~ ni narimásu ...する気にになります gets in the mood (to do); ki o adv 気を: ~ tsukemásu 気を付けます (is)


kído n 木戸 entrance gate, wicket kídoairaku n [BOOKISH] 喜怒哀楽

emotions, delight, anger, sorrow and pleasure kidorimásu, kidoru v 気取ります, 気取る・気どる puts on airs: kidotte imásu 気取っています, kidotta … 気取った… affected, stuck-up careful kiemásu, kieru v 消えます, 消える is extinguished, goes out; fades, ki n 木 tree; wood vanishes kibarashi n 気晴らし diversion, refresh kigae n 着替え a change of clothing kiben n 詭弁 sophistry kigaemásu, kigáéru v 着替えます, kibishíi adj 厳しい strict, severe 着替える changes (clothes) kibō n 希望 hope; kibō´-sha n 希望 [newer form of ki-kaemásu 着替 者 candidate, applicant えます] kíbun n 気分 feeling, mood kigaru (na) adj 気軽(な) casual, kicháimásu v [INFORMAL] 来ちゃい lighthearted ます = kite-shimaimásu 来てし kígeki n 喜劇 comedy kigen n 機嫌 (state of) health, まいます (comes) mood: ~ ga íi 機嫌がいい kíchi n 基地 military base cheerful; ~ ga warúi 機嫌が悪い kíchi n 機知 wit ki-chigái (no) adj 気違い(の) mad, unhappy, moody → go-kigen ご insane 機嫌 [HONORIFIC] kichín-to adv きちんと punctually; kígen n 期限 term, period; deadprecisely; neat(ly) line kíchō n 記帳 [BOOKISH] registration kígen n 起源 origin (at hotel, etc.) kigō n 記号 sign, mark, symbol kichō´ n 機長 captain (of an airkígu n 器具 implement, fixture, plane) apparatus kichō (na) adj 貴重(な) valuable; kígyō n 企業 company, business concern; “the office” (= kaisha kichō-hin n 貴重品 valuables kichō´men (na) adj 几帳面(な) 会社) meticulous, precise, particular kihon n 基本 basis, foundation kidate-no/ga-yoi adj 気立ての/が良 kíi n キー key: (computer) い good-natured kiibødo キーボード keyboard 134

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kiiro (no) adj 㯜Ⰵ ࡡ = kiiroi 㯜Ⰵ࠷ yellow kí-ito n ⏍⣊ raw silk kiji n ࢞ࢩ࣬㞙 pheasant kíji n エ஥ article, news item, piece, write-up: shinbun-~ ᩺⪲ エ஥ newspaper article kíji n ⏍ᆀ cloth material, fabric kíjitsu n [BOOKISH ᭿᪝ appointed


༱㝜 ࡝ dangerous (= abunaí ༱࡝࠷) kiken n Იᶊ abstention kíkí n ༱ᶭ crisis, critical moment,

emergency kiki-ashi n ฺࡀ㊂ stronger leg kikimásu, kiku v ⪲ࡀࡱࡌ, ⪲ࡂ

listens, hears; obeys; asks kikimásu, kiku v ຝࡀࡱࡌ, ຝࡂ

day; deadline

takes effect, is effective, works kiki-me n ຝࡀ┘ effect (effectivestandard ness) (= køyø ຝ⏕, kønø ຝ⬗): kíkai n ᶭఌ chance, opportunity, ~ ga arimásu ຝࡀ┘࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ occasion is effective kíkai n ᶭ᲌ machine, machinery, kiki-te n ⪲ࡀᡥ hearer, listener kiki-ude n ฺࡀ⭆ stronger hand: instrument: ~-teki (na) ᶭ᲌Ⓩ ࡝ mechanical migi-kiki ྎฺࡀ right-hander(s): kikai n ჹ᲌ instrument hidari-kiki ᕞฺࡀ left-hander(s) kikai (na) adj ዃᛱ ࡝ mysterious, kikkake n ࡀࡖ࠾ࡄ opportunity, strange occasion kikaku n ௺⏤ plan(ning), project: kikkari adj ࡀࡖ࠾ࡽ exactly, just ~-bu ௺⏤㒂 planning department kikō n Ẵು climate kikaku n ぜ᰹ norm, standard: kikō n [BOOKISH] ᶭᵋ system, or~-ka ぜ᰹໩ standardization ganization, structure: kokusai-~ kikán n ᭿㛣 term, period ᅗ㝷ᶭᵋ international organizakikán (no) adj Ꮢษ ࡡ quarterly: tion kikán-shi Ꮢษヽ a quarterly kikō n [BOOKISH] ⣎⾔ travel kikán n [BOOKISH] ᶭ㛭 engine; kikō n [BOOKISH] ᐞ✇ contribution: ~-kiji ᐞ✇エ஥ contributed instrument; agency, activity, article organization; kinyü-~ 㔘⼝ᶭ㛭 kikō n [BOOKISH] ዃ⾔ one’s financial institution kikasemásu, kikaseru v ⪲࠾ࡎࡱࡌ, eccentricity ⪲࠾ࡎࡾ lets someone hear, kikoemásu, kikoeru v ⪲ࡆ࠻ࡱࡌ, ⪲ࡆ࠻ࡾ can hear; is heard tells someone (a story); reads (someone a book); reasons with kikoku n ᖉᅗ returning to one’s country (Japan); kikoku-shíjo n ᖉ (a child) kiken n ༱㝜 danger, peril: ~ (na) ᅗᏄዥ returnees 135 kijun n [BOOKISH] ᇱ‵ basis,

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kikú n ࢞ࢠ࣬ⳝ chrysanthemum good, is comfortable; ~ ga warúi ki-kúrage n ᮄࡂࡼࡅ࣬࢞ࢠࣚࢣ࣬ Ẵᣚࡔ࠿ᝇ࠷ is uncomfortable, ᮄ⪝ tree-ears (an edible fungus) is feeling bad/unwell kikyū n Ẵ⌣ balloon: netsu-~ ⇍ ki-mono n ╌∸ clothes; a (JapanẴ⌣ hot-air balloon ese) kimono kimae ga íi adj Ẵ๑࠿࠷࠷ ki-músume n ⏍ፃ virgin (female),


green girl

kimagure adj Ẵࡱࡃࡿ fickle, easy ki-muzukashíi n Ẵ㞬ࡊ࠷ fussy,

to change one’s mood

difficult (person)

kimari n Ửࡱࡽ rule; settlement,

kímyō (na) adj ዃዼ ࡝ strange,

arrangement; order; regulation kimarimásu, kimaru v Ửࡱࡽࡱࡌ, Ửࡱࡾ is settled, is arranged kimásu, kiru v ╌ࡱࡌ, ╌ࡾ wears kimásu, kúru v ᮮࡱࡌ, ᮮࡾ comes kimé n ࡀࡴ>ᮄ┘࣬⫑⌦@ 1. grain, texture 2. smooth (human skin) 3. care: ~-komakai ࡀࡴ⣵࠾࠷, ~-komayaka (na) ࡀࡴ⣵ࡷ࠾ ࡝ meticulous, attentiveness

(attentive), tender

peculiar kín n 㔘 gold: ~-ka 㔘㈄ gold coin -kin suffix 㔘 money: shikin ㈠㔘 fund, capital: shikí-~ ᩔ㔘

security deposit (for rental) kínai adv ᶭහ on a plane: ~-shoku ᶭහ㣏 airplane meal kínako n ࡀ࡝⢂>㯜࡝⢂@ soybean

meal/flour kinben (na) adj ໂຫ ࡝ indus-

trious, hardworking, diligent

kimemásu, kimeru v Ửࡴࡱࡌ, Ửࡴ kinchō n ⥥ᘿ strain, tension: ~ ࡾ settles, arranges, decides shite imásu ⥥ᘿࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is kimi n ྦ࣬ࡀࡲ you [familiar] tense kimi n 㯜㌗ yolk (of egg) kinen n エᛍ commemoration; kimí n Ẵ࿝ feeling, sensation: ~ kinen-hin n エᛍဗ souvenir ga warúi Ẵ࿝࠿ᝇ࠷ nervous, kin’en n ⚏↦ smoking prohibited, apprehensive, weird (feeling) no smoking: ~-sha ⚏↦㌬ no(n)kimídori (iro) n 㯜⥫ Ⰵ yellowish smoking car kinénbi n エᛍ᪝ anniversary green (color) Kimigayo n ྦ࠿௥ national kingaku n 㔘㢘 amount (of money) kingan (no) adj ㎾╉ ࡡ nearanthem of Japan sighted, shortsighted, myopic kimó n ࡀࡵ>⫚࣬⫱@ 1. liver 2. guts, courage, pluck: ~-dameshi kíngyo n 㔘㨮 goldfish ⫚ムࡊ test of courage kiníine n ࢞ࢼ࣭ࢾ quinine kimochi n Ẵᣚࡔ feeling, sensa- kin-iro (no) adj 㔘Ⰵ ࡡ gold (color), tion: ~ ga íi Ẵᣚࡔ࠿࠷࠷ it feels golden

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kin-jimásu, kin-jiru v ⚏ࡋࡱࡌ, ⚏ࡋ ࡾ forbids, prohibits kínjo n ㎾ᡜ neighborhood, vicinity kinkán n ࢞ࣤ࢜ࣤ࣬㔘᯷ kumquat kinki-chihō n ㎾␝ᆀ᪁ the Kinki

kinshi n ㎾ち = kingan ㎾╉ (near-


kintámá n 㔘⋚ testicle(s) [INFORMAL] kínu n ⤩ silk Kin’yō´(bi) n 㔘᭑ ᪝ Friday kinyū n エථ entry, filling in of forms area of Japan (Osaka, Hyøgo, Kyøto, Shiga, Nara prefectures) kin’yū n 㔘⼝ finance: ~-shíjø 㔘⼝ kínko n 㔘ᗔ safe (strongbox), ᕰሔ the money market kínzoku n 㔘ᒌ metal (small) cash box kinkyū n [BOOKISH] ⥥᛬ urgency, kioku n エ᠀ memory: kiokúryoku emergency; ~ na ⥥᛬࡝ urgent, エ᠀ງ memory (capacity), reten-

critical kinmákie n [BOOKISH] 㔘ⵏ⤦ gold


tiveness kippári (to) adv ࡀࡖࡤࡽ ࡛

definitely, firmly, flatly

kínmu n ໂຸ duty, service, work; kippu n ว➚ ticket: ~-úriba ว➚ kinmú-saki n ໂຸ඙ place of work/ ኉ࡽሔ ticket office kirai (na) adj ᎒࠷ ࡝ disliked employment kínniku n ➵⫏ muscle: ~-tsü ➵⫏ kiraku (na) adj Ẵᴞ ࡝ carefree, ⑚ muscular pain, myalgia comfortable; easygoing kinō´ n, adv ࡀࡡ࠹࣬ᫎ᪝ yesterday kirashimásu, kirásu v วࡼࡊࡱࡌ, kínō n ᶭ⬗ function วࡼࡌ exhausts the supply of, ki-no-dókú na adj ẴࡡẐ࡝ pitiful, runs out of: … o kiráshite imásu pitiable …ࢅวࡼࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is out of …; kínoko n ࢞ࢿࢤ࣬Ⲏ mushroom shibiré o ~ ࡊࡦࡿࢅวࡼࡊࡱࡌ kí-no-mi n ᮄࡡᐁ nuts, tree produce loses patience kiré v ࡀࡿ࣬วࡿ a piece, a cut (nuts, fruits, berries) kinō´ no ban n ࡀࡡ࠹>ᫎ᪝@ࡡᬄ (of cloth) kírei (na) adj ࡀࡿ࠷>⥙㮿@ ࡝ last night kinpatsu (no) adj 㔘㧝 ࡡ blond pretty; clean; neat, tidy; nice kinpira n ࢞ࣤࣅࣚ࣬ࡀࢆࡧࡼ࣬㔘 (-looking), attractive ᖲ fried burdock root and carrot kiremásu, kiréru v วࡿࡱࡌ, วࡿࡾ 1. can cut; cuts (well) 2. runs out strips served cold Kinrō-kánsha no hí n ໂຘវㅨࡡ᪝ 3. breaks (off) kire-mé n วࡿ┘ a gap, a break, a Labor Thanksgiving Day (23

November) kínryoku n ➵ງ muscle (power) kinshi n ⚏Ḿ prohibition, ban

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pause kirénai v วࡿ࡝࠷ dull(-edged),

blunt 137

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kiri n 霧 fog, mist: ~ ga fukái (koi) 霧が深い(濃い) is foggy kíri n 錐 a hole-punch, an awl kirí n きり end; limit; ~ ga nai き りがない endless, no limit (no

boundary) kiri-kabu n 切り株 (tree) stump kirimásu, kíru v 切ります, 切る

kishō n 気象 weather: ~-dai 気象 台 weather observatory kishúkúsha n 寄宿舎 dormitory;

boarding house kisó n 基礎 base, foundation kisoimásu, kisóu v 競います, 競う

competes, vies

kisóku n 規則 rule, regulation cuts; cuts off, disconnects; hangs kissa-ten n 喫茶店 a tearoom, a

up (phone)

coffee house, a café

kirinuki n 切り抜き clipping (from kísu n キス kiss newspaper, etc.) kísu n キス・鱚 sillago (fish) kirisame n 霧雨 drizzle kita n 北 north: ~-guchi 北口 the Kirisuto n キリスト Christ; Kirisuto- north exit/entrance; Kita-Ámerika n 北アメリカ North America; Kitakyō n キリスト教 Christianity kiritsu n 規律 discipline Chōsén n 北朝鮮 North Korea; kíro n キロ 1. kilogram 2. kilom- kita-yori adj 北寄り northerly: ~ eter 3. kilowatt 4. kiloliter no kaze 北寄りの風 northerly wind kiroku n 記録 (historic) record; shin-~ 新記録 a new record (an kitaemásu, kitaéru v 鍛えます, 鍛え event) る forges, tempers; drills, discikíryō n 器量 personal appearance, plines looks; ability kitai n 期待 expectation kisaku (na) adj 気さく(な) not put kitai n 気体 vapor, a gas on airs kitaku n 帰宅 returning home kisen n 汽船 steamship kitanái adj 汚い dirty; untidy, messy kisen n [BOOKISH] 貴賎 rank kite v 着て: kite-ikimásu/kimásu kisétsu n 季節 season: ~-fü 季節風 着ていきます/きます wears it seasonal wind there/here → kimásu 着ます kishá n 汽車 (non-electric/steam) kitei n [BOOKISH] 規定 regulation, train rule, stipulation: ~ no … 規定の kishá n 記者 = shinbun-~ 新聞記者 … regular, stipulated, compulsory newspaper reporter, journalist kiteki n 汽笛 whistle (steam) kishí n 岸 shore, bank kiten n 機転 wit: ~ no kiku 機転の kishi-men n きしめん long thin 利く quick-witted udon kitsuen n 喫煙 smoking; kitsuén-sha n 喫煙者 smoker; kitsuén-shitsu(/kishitsu n 気質 temperament

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seki) n ႖↦ᐄ ᖆ smoking

fault, defect room (area/zone/seat) kizu-ato n ഭ㊟ scar kitsúi adj ࡀࡗ࠷ 1. tight: sukeki-zúkai n Ẵ㐭࠷ anxiety, concern, jüru ga ~ (desu) ࢪࢢࢩ࣭ࣖࣜ࠿ worry, care (= hairyo 㒼៎, kokoro-kubari ᚨ㒼ࡽ) ࡀࡗ࠷ ࡚ࡌ (one’s) schedule is tight; uesuto ga ~ (desu) ࢙ࢗ ki-zukaimásu, ki-zukáu v Ẵ㐭࠷ࡱࡌ, ࢪࢹ࠿ࡀࡗ࠷ ࡚ࡌ is tight in Ẵ㐭࠹ is anxious/worried about, the waist 2. severe, hard, strict: is concerned over ~ seikaku ࡀࡗ࠷ᛮ᰹ strict ki-zukimásu, ki-zúku v Ẵ௛ࡀࡱࡌ, Ẵ௛ࡂ notices character kitsune n ࢞ࢵࢾ࣬≬ fox ki-zukimásu, ki-zúku v ⠇ࡀࡱࡌ, ⠇ kitte n วᡥ (postage) stamp: ࡂ builds it ~-chø วᡥᖋ stamp album kizu-tsukemásu, kizu-tsukéru v ഭࡗ kítto adv ࡀࡖ࡛ surely, doubtless, ࡄࡱࡌ, ഭࡗࡄࡾ wounds, no doubt, undoubtedly injures, damages kiwá n 㝷 brink, edge kizu-tsukimásu, kizu-tsúku v ഭࡗࡀ kiwadói adj 㝷࡜࠷ delicate, danࡱࡌ, ഭࡗࡂ gets wounded, gerous, ticklish injured, damaged kiwamarimásu, kiwamáru v ᴗࡱࡽࡱ ko n Ꮔ child (= (person) kodomo ࡌ, ᴗࡱࡾ comes to an end; gets Ꮔ౩) ko n ௗ child (animals in particucarried to extremes kiwamemásu, kiwaméru v ᴗࡴࡱࡌ, lar): ko-néko ௗ⊟ kitten, ko-inu ᴗࡴࡾ carries to extremes ௗ≗ puppy, ko-buta ௗ㇔ piglet kiwamemásu, kiwaméru v ✪ࡴࡱࡌ, kó, koná n ⢂ flour ✪ࡴࡾ investigates thoroughly ko-… prefix ᑚ… little…, small…: kiwámete adv ᴗࡴ࡙ extremely ~-bako ᑚ⟵ small box kiyase adj ╌ࡷࡎ looking thinner …´-ko suffix …಴ (counts small in clothes objects) kíyō (na) adj ჹ⏕ ࡝ skillful, …´-ko suffix …‘ Lake… kō adv ࡆ࠹ (kø´ ࡆ࠹ + [PARTICLE], nimble, clever kizamimásu, kizamu v ็ࡲࡱࡌ, ็ kø´désu ࡆ࠹࡚ࡌ) this way, so, ࡳ chops fine; carves, engraves; like this notches, nicks kō´ n 㤮 incense: ~ o takimásu 㤮 kizashi n ඗ࡊ sign(s), symptom(s), ࢅↇࡀࡱࡌ burns incense (in a hint(s), indication(s), omen(s) temple, before the memorial kizu n ࡀࡍ࣬ഭ࣬␽࣬⍏ wound; tablet of the deceased, etc.) kō-… prefix 㧏… high…: scratch, crack, flaw, blemish; 139

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~-kétsúatsu 㧏⾉ᅸ high blood

kōbutsu n ይ∸ favorite (food/drink) pressure kōcha n ⣒Ⲍ (black/red) tea …´-kō suffix …῿ port (of …): kō´chi n ࢤ࣭ࢲ coach (sports) Købé-~ ♼ᡖ῿ the port of Kobe kochira pron ࡆࡔࡼ 1. this one …´-kō suffix …ᰧ school, branch (of two) 2. here, this way 3. I/ (school); [BOOKISH] counter for me, we/us kochira-gawa n ࡆࡔࡼഁ this/my/ schools kōbá, kōjō n ᕝሔ factory, plant our side kobamimásu, kobámu v ᢼࡲࡱࡌ, ᢼ kochō n [BOOKISH] ヺᘿ exaggeraࡳ refuses, rejects; opposes, tion kōchō n ᰧ㛏 principal/head of a resists kóban n ᑚึ Japanese old coins school (elementary school, made of gold (Edo period) junior/senior high school) kōban n ஹ␊ police box kōchō (na) adj [BOOKISH] ይㄢ ࡝ kobanashi n ᑚヨ anecdote satisfactory, favorable, in a good kobaruto n ࢤࣁࣜࢹ cobalt: ~-iro condition: ~ na dedashi/suberidashi/sutåto ይㄢ࡝ฝࡓࡊ⁝ࡽ ࢤࣁࣜࢹⰅ, ~-burü ࢤࣁࣜࢹࣇ ࣭ࣜ cobalt blue ฝࡊࢪࢰ࣭ࢹ flying start, good Kōbe n ♼ᡖ Kobe; Købé-Eki ♼ᡖ start 㥈 Kobe Station kódai n ཿ௥ ancient times: ~ no kobito n ᑚெ dwarf ཿ௥ࡡ ancient: ~-iseki ཿ௥㐿㊟ koboremásu, koboréru v ࡆ࡯ࡿࡱࡌ, ancient monument(s) ࡆ࡯ࡿࡾ it spills ko-dakara n Ꮔ᐀ child(ren): ~ ni koboshimásu, kobósu v ࡆ࡯ࡊࡱࡌ, megumaremásu Ꮔ᐀࡞ᜠࡱࡿࡱ ࡆ࡯ࡌ spills it: guchi o ~ ម⑭ࢅ ࡌ is blessed with child(ren), has ࡆ࡯ࡊࡱࡌ grumbles, complains a baby/babies kobú n ࡆࡩ࣬⒏ swelling, lump, kodama n ࡆࡓࡱ echo hump: rakuda no ~ ࣚࢠࢱࡡࡆࡩ kōdan n පᅆ public corporation kōdan n ㅦቨ lecture platform hump(s) on a camel kó-bun n Ꮔฦ henchman, subordi- kodō n 㰐ິ heartbeat, pulse: shinzø no ~ ᚨ⮒ࡡ㰐ິ beat of nate, follower kobune n ᑚ⯒ small boat the heart kobura n ࢤࣇࣚ cobra kō´do n ࢤ࣭ࢺ 1. (electricity) cord kobushi n ࡆࡩࡊ࣬ᣑ fist (= nigiri-~ 2. code ᥩࡽᣑ) kō´do n 㧏ᗐ high degree, altitude ko-buta n Ꮔ㇔࣬ௗ㇔ piglet(s), kōdō n ප㐠 highway kōdō n ⾔ິ action, behavior little pig(s) 140

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kōdō n ㅦᇸ public (lecture) hall, kōgaku-shin n ྡྷᏕᚨ desire to auditorium learn: ~ ni moeteimásu ྡྷᏕᚨ࡞ kodoku n Ꮣ≺ loneliness ⇖࠻࡙࠷ࡱࡌ has a strong desire kodomo n Ꮔ౩ child (= ko Ꮔ): to learn ~-tachi Ꮔ౩ࡒࡔ>㐡@ children; kogan n [BOOKISH] ‘ᓃ lakeshore ~-no-hí ࡆ࡜ࡵࡡ᪝ Children’s kōgan n ╲୷ testicle(s) [FORMAL] Day (5 May); ~ no koro Ꮔ౩ࡡ kōgan n ⣒㢞 peaches and cream, 㡥 one’s early years rosy, fresh face (of young man) kóe n ኇ voice; cry: ~ o dáshite ኇ kōgan n [BOOKISH] ཉ㢞 impuࢅฝࡊ࡙ aloud, out loud dence: ~-muchi (no) ཉ㢞↋᜕ koeda n ᑚᯖ twig ࡡ impudent and shameless koemásu, koeru v ㉰>㉲@࠻ࡱࡌ, ㉰ kōgan-zai n ᢘ࠿ࢆ๠ anticancer >㉲@࠻ࡾ crosses (a height, an drug kogashimásu, kogásu v ↌࠿ࡊࡱࡌ, obstacle) → koshimásu, kosu ㉰ >㉲@ࡊࡱࡌ, ㉰>㉲@ࡌ ↌࠿ࡌ scorches it koemásu, koéru v ⫟࠻ࡱࡌ, ⫟࠻ࡾ kogata (no) adj ᑚᆵ ࡡ smallgets fat (= futorimásu ኯࡽࡱࡌ) size (model) kōen n පᅧ public park kōgeki n ᨯᦹ attack kōen n [BOOKISH] ㅦⁿ lecture, kogemásu, kogéru v ↌ࡅࡱࡌ, ↌ࡅ ࡾ gets scorched/burned speech, talk kōen n [BOOKISH] ᚃᥴ support, kō´gi n ㅦ⩇ lecture kō´gí n ᢘ㆗ protest backing koeru… adj ㉰࠻ࡾ o ~ ... ࢅ ㉰ kogimásu, kógu v ₀ࡁࡱࡌ, ₀ࡃ ࠻ࡾ over…, more than… rows (a boat) kogítte n ᑚวᡥ (bank) check (people, country, money, kōgo n ཾㄊ spoken language, temperature, etc.); (sen)-nin o ~ hito ༐ ெࢅ㉰࠻ࡾெ over/ colloquial (word): ~-teki (na) ཾ more than (one thousand) people ㄊⓏ ࡝ colloquial kōfuku n ᖶ⚗ happiness: ~ (na) ᖶ kogoe n ᑚኇ low voice, whisper ⚗ ࡝ happy Kōgō´(-sama) n ⓒྟ ᵕ the kōfuku n 㜾ఄ surrender Empress kōfun n ⮾ዢ excitement: ~ shite kogoto n ᑚゕ scolding, complaint imásu ⮾ዢࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is excited kō´gyō n ᕝᴏ industry kōgai n පᐐ (environmental) kohada n ࢤࣀࢱ shad kōhai n ᚃ㍦ one’s junior pollution kōgai n 㑱አ suburbs, suburbia (colleague, fellow student) kōgaku n ᕝᏕ engineering kohaku n ࢤࣀࢠ࣬⌰⋺ 1. = kon-iro

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ࢤࣀࢠ࣬⌰⋺ Ⰵ amber (color) 2. taffeta elastic webbing 3. ~(san) ࢤࣀࢠ࣬⌰⋺ 㓗 succinic acid kohan n [BOOKISH] ‘⏹ lakeside kōhei (na) adj පᖲ ࡝ fair, impartial kōhíi n ࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭ coffee: ~-jáwan/káppu ࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭Ⲍ◿࢜ࢴࣈ coffee cup; ~-ten/-ya ࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭ᗉ ᒁ coffee shop/house (= kissaten ႖Ⲍᗉ) ko-hítsúji n ᑚ⨲࣬Ꮔ⨲ lamb, small


koitsu n ࡆ࠷ࡗ this damn one: ~-ra ࡆ࠷ࡗࡼ these damn ones kóji n Ꮣඡ orphan: ~-in Ꮣඡ㝌

orphanage kō´ji n ᕝ஥ construction work kojikí n ࡆࡋࡀ࣬஑㣏 beggar kójin n ಴ெ an individual; kojin-teki (na) n ಴ெⓏ ࡝ individual, personal: ~-teki (na) iken ಴ெⓏ ࡝ ណず personal opinion kojiremásu, kojiréru v ࡆࡋࡿࡱࡌ, ࡆࡋࡿࡾ gets complicated, twisted,

kōhyō n [BOOKISH] ይビ favorable

entangled; (illness) worsens kōjitsu n ཾᐁ excuse, pretext criticism kóí n ㄫ࠷࣬஑࠷ request (= tanomí kojō (de/no) adv, adj ‘୕ ࡚ࡡ 㢏ࡲ) on the lake (surface) kói n ࢤ࢕࣬㩶 carp (fish) kojō n ཿᇖ old castle kói n ᜂ love (affair), romance kōjō´ n ᕝሔ factory, plant kói (no) adj ᨶណ ࡡ deliberate; ~ kōjyutsu n ཾ㏑ dictation ni ᨶណ࡞ deliberately kōjyutsu (no) adj ᚃ㏑ ࡡ afterkói n ⃨࠷ deep (color), strong mentioned (coffee, tea, taste), well saturated kokan n [BOOKISH] ⫝̸㛣 between kō´i n [BOOKISH] ይណ࣬ཉណ the legs: ~-setsu ⫝̸㛭⟿ hip joint kō´ka n ຝᯕ effect: hiyø-~ ㈕⏕ຝ goodwill, favor: ~ o misemásu ይណࢅずࡎࡱࡌ does a favor ᯕ cost effect kō´i n ⾔Ⅵ act, deed; behavior kō´ka n ◫㈄ coin koibito n ᜂெ sweetheart, lover, kō´ka n 㧏౮ high price: ~ (na) … 㧏౮ ࡝  expensive … (= boyfriend/girlfriend kóin n ࢤ࢕ࣤ coin: ~-rókkå ࢤ࢕ takai 㧏࠷㸞 ࣤࣞࢴ࣭࢜ coin locker kō´kai n ⯗ᾇ voyage kōin n ᕝဤ factory worker kō´kai n ᚃ᜴ regret koi-nóbori n ࢤ࢕>㩶@ࡡ࡯ࡽ carp kōkai (no) adj ප㛜 ࡡ open to streamers (for Children’s Day the public, open, public: eiga no (5 May)) ~ ᫆⏤ࡡප㛜 movie release ko-inu n ᑚ≗࣬Ꮔ≗࣬ௗ≗ puppy/ kokáin n ࢤ࢜࢕ࣤ cocaine kōkan n ஹᥦ exchange; meishi-~ puppies, small dog(s) koiru n ࢤ࢕ࣜ coil ྞๆஹᥦ exchanging business 142

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cards; ~-ryügakusei n ஹᥦ⏻Ꮥ ⏍ exchange student kōkan-shinkei n ஹវ♼⤊ sympathetic nerve kōkán-shu n ஹᥦᡥ operator kōkatsu (na) adj ≶⊮ ࡝ sly koké n ⱇ moss koké n こけ foolishness, a fool:

kókóná(t)tsu n ࢤࢤࢻ ࢴ ࢵ coconut (= koko-yashi no mi ࢤ ࢤࣕࢨࡡᐁ) kokonoka n ஐ᪝ nine days; the 9th

day (of month)

kokónotsu n ஐࡗ nine; nine years old (= kyüsai ஐṋ) kokóro n ᚨ mind, heart, spirit, ~ ni saremásu ࡆࡄ࡞ࡈࡿࡱࡌ feeling: ~ kara (no) ᚨ࠾ࡼࡡ gets trashed heart-felt, sincere; kokoro-atari n kō-kéiki n ይᬊẴ prosperity, good ᚨᙔࡒࡽ idea; kokoro-bosói adj ᚨ ⣵࠷ lonely; kokoro-kubari n ᚨ㒼 business conditions kō-ki n [BOOKISH] ይᶭ (favorable) ࡽ concern, care (= hairyo 㒼៎, ki-zúkai Ẵ㐭࠷) opportunity, chance, occasion kō-ki n [BOOKISH] 㤮Ẵ aroma kokoromi n ムࡲ trial, attempt, test kō-ki n ᚃ᭿ the latter period kokoromimásu, kokoromíru v ムࡲࡱ kō-ki n ᚃエ afterword, postscript ࡌ, ムࡲࡾ tries, attempts, tests (= ato-gaki ᚃ᭡ࡀ): henshü-~ ⥽ kokoro-mochi n ᚨᣚࡔ feelings, 㞗ᚃエ editor’s postscript spirit, mood kō-kí (shin) n ይዃ ᚨ curiosity, kokorozashi n ᚷ 1. mind; inteninquisitiveness tion; purpose 2. ambition, hope kō-kíatsu n 㧏Ẵᅸ high (barometric) 3. goodwill, kindness; gift kokorozashimásu, kokorozásu v ᚷࡊ pressure kókka n ᅗᐓ nation ࡱࡌ, ᚷࡌ sets one’s mind kokkai n ᅗఌ assembly, parliament, kokoro-zuke n ᚨ௛ࡄ tip, gratuity congress, Diet (= gikai ㆗ఌ) (= chippu ࢲࢴࣈ) kokkei (na) adj ࡆࡖࡄ࠷>⁝✅@ kokoro-zuyói adj ᚨᙁ࠷ encourag ࡝ amusing, funny ing, heartening: ~ sonzai ᚨᙁ࠷ kokki n ᅗ᪕ national flag Ꮛᅹ dependable person kokkō n ᅗஹ diplomatic relations kōkō´-sei n 㧏ᰧ⏍ (senior) highkókku (-san) n ࢤࢴࢠ ࡈࢆ cook, school student: joshi/danshi ~ ዥᏄ⏠Ꮔ㧏⏍ high-school chef kokkyō n ᅗሾ border (of country) girl/boy koko pron ࡆࡆ here, this place …´-koku suffix …ᅗ 1. (name of kō-kō n 㧏ᰧ senior high school certain) country: Bei-koku ⡷ᅗ kókóa n ࢤࢤ࢓ cocoa America (= Amerika ࢓࣒ࣛ࢜ kōkoku n ᗀ࿈ advertisement America, U.S.(A.), Chü´-goku

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୯ᅗ China, Nihón-koku ᪝ᮇᅗ kokuseki n ᅗ⡘ nationality Japan (= Nihón, Nippón ᪝ᮇ) kōkū-shókan n ⯗✭᭡⠾ aerogram 2. koku-… ᅗ… national, state kōkyo n ⓒᑽ palace (in Tokyo); kokuban n 㯦ᯀ blackboard: the Imperial Palace ~-keshi 㯦ᯀᾐࡊ, ~-fuki 㯦ᯀᣌ kókyō n ᨶ㒋 hometown, birthࡀ eraser place (= furusato ࡨࡾࡈ࡛) kōkū-bin n ⯗✭౼ = køkü-yü´bin kōkyō (no) adj පභ ࡡ public: ⯗✭㒉౼ airmail ~-ba පභࡡሔ public area kokubō n ᅗ㜭 national defense kōkyō-ryō´kin n පභᩩ㔘 utility kokudō n ᅗ㐠 highway bills/charges Kokudo-Kōtsū-shō n ᅗᅰஹ㏳┤ kokyū n ࿣ྺ respiration, breathing Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, kōkyū (na) adj 㧏⣥ ࡝ high-class/ grade, high-ranking; fancy: ~-hin Transport and Tourism (MLIT) kōkū-gáisha n ⯗✭ఌ♣ airline 㧏⣥ဗ fancy goods kóma n ࡆࡱ࣬ࢤ࣏࣬≺ᴞ a toy company kokujin n 㯦ெ black people, Afro- top: ~-máwashi ≺ᴞᅂࡊ topAmerican spinning kokumin n ᅗẰ a people, a nation; komakái adj ⣵࠾࠷ 1. fine, small 2. detailed, exact 3. thrifty national(s), citizen(s) kokúmotsu n ✈∸ grain (cereal) 4. small (change): komakakú kokúnai (no) adj ᅗහ ࡡ internal, shimásu ⣵࠾ࡂࡊࡱࡌ cashes it domestic, inland into smaller bills/coins kokuritsu (-) adj ᅗ❟ national, koma-mono n ᑚ㛣∸ notions, habgovernment-established: erdashery, dime-store goods ~-toshokan ᅗ❟ᅒ᭡㤃 national komarasemásu, komaraséru v ᅏࡼ ࡎࡱࡌ, ᅏࡼࡎࡾ bothers, library: ~-daigaku ᅗ❟ኬᏕ national university embarrasses kokúrui n ✈㢦 cereal(s), grain komarimásu, komáru v ᅏࡽࡱࡌ, ᅏ kokusai n ᅗ㝷: ~-dénwa ᅗ㝷㞹ヨ ࡾ gets perplexed, embarrassed, international phone call troubled; is at a loss; is in need: Kokusai-réngō n ᅗ㝷㏻ྙ United komáru tokoró ᅏࡾ࡛ࡆࢀ Nations trouble (difficulty) kokusan (no) adj ᅗ⏐ ࡡ komāsharu n ࢤ࣏࣭ࢨࣔࣜ comdomestic(ally) made, made in mercial (message) (= shiiému ࢨ ࣭࢙࣑): terebi-~ ࢷࣝࣄࢤ࣏࣭ Japan: ~-hin ᅗ⏐ဗ domestic product: ~-sha ᅗ⏐㌬ domestic ࢨࣔࣜ TV commercial komayaka (na) adj ࡆࡱ>⣵⃨࣬@ࡷ car 144

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࠾ ࡝ meticulous, attentive, tender: ~ na aijø ⣵ࡷ࠾࡝យ᝗ tender love: (kime-)~ na shidø ࡀࡴ ⣵ࡷ࠾࡝ᣞᑙ detailed

⿍ࡾ sustains, suffers, incurs

(unfair treatment, tribulation): dai-songai o ~ ኬ᥾ᐐࢅ⿍ࡽࡱࡌ

suffers a serious loss

instruction komé n ࢤ࣒࣬⡷ rice (hulled, uncooked); komé-ya n ⡷ᒁ rice dealer/store komemásu, koméru v ㎰ࡴࡱࡌ, ㎰ ࡴࡾ includes komichi n ᑚ㐠 path, lane komi-itta v ㎰ࡲථࡖࡒ complicated, intricate (situation, subject) komimásu, kómu v ㎰ࡲ>Ίࡲ@ࡱࡌ, ㎰ࡳ࣬Ίࡳ gets crowded; kóndeimásu Ίࢆ࡚࠷ࡱࡌ is crowded kōmin n පẰ citizen, civilian kōmoku n 㡧┘ item: (nyüryoku)

kón n ⣻ = ~-iro ⣻Ⰵ (dark blue) koná n ⢂ powder; flour; kona-gona n ⢂ࠍ in very small pieces; konagúsuri n ⢂ⷾ powdered medicine kō´nai n ᵋහ campus konaidá adv ࡆ࡝࠷ࡓ, kono-aidá ࡆࡡ㛣 the other day, a while

ago, lately konashimásu, konasu v ࡆ࡝ࡊࡱࡌ, ࡆ࡝ࡌ 1. powders; digests 2. (ful)fills, manages (to do it): chümon o ~ Ἰᩝࢅࡆ࡝ࡊࡱࡌ

fills an order

kónban n ௑ᬄ tonight: Konban hissu-~ ථງ ᚪ㡪㡧┘ wa ࡆࢆࡣࢆࡢ Good evening. konbini(-ensu sutoā) n ࢤࣤࣄࢼ ࢙ mandatory field(s) kómon n [BOOKISH] 㢫ၡ consultant, ࣤࢪࢪࢹ࢓࣭ convenience store konbō n [BOOKISH] ᲠᲤ club, adviser kōmon n ᰧ㛓 school gate billy-club, bludgeon kōmon n ⫘㛓 anus kónbu n ࢤࣤࣇ࣬᪳ᕱ kelp (a kind komórí n ᏄᏬ, ᏄᏬࡽ babysitter: of seaweed) ~-uta ᏄᏬḯ>်@ lullaby, cradle konchū n ᪳⹰ insect kondate n [BOOKISH] ⊡❟ menu song kō´mori n ࢤ࣓ࢗࣛ bat (flying kóndo n, adv ௑ᗐ this time; next mammal); kōmori-gása n ࡆ࠹ࡵࡽ kondō´mu n ࢤࣤࢺ࣭࣑ condom >ࢤ࣓ࢗࣛ@ഘ umbrella (black, kóne n ࢤࢾ connection, “pull”: (hito ni) ~ o tsukemásu ெ࡞ cloth umbrella often used by ࢤࢾࢅ௛ࡄࡱࡌ establishes a males in Japan) komúgi n ᑚ㯇 wheat: ~-ko ᑚ㯇⢂ connection (with a person) ko-néko n ᑚ⊟࣬Ꮔ⊟࣬ௗ⊟ wheat flour kōmú-in n පຸဤ government kitten(s), small cat(s) konekutā n ࢤࢾࢠࢰ࣭ connector worker/employee, official kōmurimásu, kōmúru v ⿍ࡽࡱࡌ, kongan n [BOOKISH] ᠋㢢 entreaty

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kongari yakimásu (yaku)


kongari yakimásu (yaku) v ࡆࢆ࠿ࡽ ↕ࡀࡱࡌ ↕ࡂ bakes/toasts/

kónkyo n ᰷ᣈ [BOOKISH] basis,

roasts/grills/sunburns until a beautiful brown kongetsu n ௑᭮ this month kongō´-seki n [BOOKISH] 㔘๙▴ diamond kongo (wa) adv ௑ᚃ ࡢ from now on, in the future koni (na/ni) adj, adv ᠋ណ ࡝࡞ friendly, close, intimate: … to ~

~-chi ᰷ᣈᆀ base, home ground konkyū n ᅏ❋ [BOOKISH] poverty: ~ shite imásu ᅏ❋ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ

grounds, authority, evidence:

is in poverty, is in financial difficulties konna … adj ࡆࢆ࡝… such as, this kind of: ~ ni ࡆࢆ࡝࡞ to this extent, this much kónnan n ᅏ㞬 difficulty, trouble, ni shiteimásu ࡛᠋ណ࡞ࡊ࡙࠷ hardship; kónnan (na) adj ᅏ㞬 ࡱࡌ is very intimate with … ࡝ difficult konin n ፡ጵ marriage (= kekkon Konnichi wa interj ࡆࢆ࡞ࡔࡢ ⤎፡): ~-todoke ፡ጵᒀ marriage Good afternoon; Hello! konnyákú n ࢤࣤࢼࣔࢠ devil’snotification kōnin (no) adj පヾ ࡡ authorized, tongue root made into gelatin certified: ~-kaikéishi පヾఌ゛ kono… adj ࡆࡡ… this …, ኃ certified public accountant these…; kono-aidá adv ࡆࡡ㛣 (CPA), chartered accountant the other day, a while ago, lately kon (iro) n ⣻ Ⰵ dark blue (= konaidá ࡆ࡝࠷ࡓ); kono-goro konkai n, adv ௑ᅂ this time adv ࡆࡡ㡥 recently (= chiká konkan n ᰷ᖷ [BOOKISH] basis, goro ㎾㡥, saikin ᭩㎾); kono-máe (no)… adj ࡆࡡ๑ ࡡ  the foundation konki n ᰷Ẵ [BOOKISH] patience: last…; kono-tsúgí n ࡆࡡḗ next ~ ga iru shigoto ᰷Ẵ࠿࠷ࡾ௘஥ time (= jikai ḗᅂ) kōnō n ຝ⬗ effect (effectiveness) work which requires patience konki n ፡᭿ [BOOKISH] marriage- (= køyø ຝ⏕, kiki-me ຝࡀ┘) able age: ~ o nogasu ፡᭿ࢅ㏠ࡌ kónomi n ይࡲ liking, taste: ~ no … ይࡲࡡ… that one likes, that is past marriageable age konkurabe n ᰷Ẓ࡬ waiting game, is to one’s taste/liking, favorite endurance contest …: ~ no taipu ይࡲࡡࢰ࢕ࣈ konkuríito n ࢤࣤࢠ࣭ࣛࢹ concrete one’s type konomimásu, konómu v ይࡲࡱࡌ, (cement) konkū´ru n ࢤࣤࢠ࣭ࣜ prize ይࡳ likes, is fond of, prefers kónpasu n ࢤࣤࣂࢪ compass (for contest, prize competition (= konpe ࢤࣤ࣋) drafting) 146

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korimásu, kóru

konpe n ࢤࣤ࣋ prize competition, kónzatsu n Ί㞟 jam, congestion: prize contest ~ shitei másu Ί㞟ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is konpon n ᰷ᮇ [BOOKISH] foundacrowded kópii n ࢤࣅ࣭ copy (photocopy) tion, basis: ~-teki (na) ᰷ᮇⓏ koppamijin-ni-narimásu (náru) v ᮄࡖ ࡝ fundamental, basic konpyū´ta n ࢤࣤࣅ࣭ࣖࢰ computer ❻᚜ሶ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ ࡝ࡾ is konran n Ί஗ [BOOKISH] mess smashed to pieces koppu n ࢤࢴࣈ a glass, a cup (disorder), confusion, jumble kónro n ࢤࣤࣞ stove (portable kōra n ࢤࢗࣚ࣬⏝⨮ shell (of


tortoise, etc.)

konsárutanto n ࢤࣤࢦࣜࢰࣤࢹ kō´ra n ࢤ࣭ࣚ cola consultant: keiei-~ ⤊ႜࢤࣤࢦࣜ koraemásu, koráéru v ሎ࠻ࡱࡌ, ሎ ࢰࣤࢹ management consultant ࠻ࡾ 1. stands, bears 2. controls, konseki n ⑖㊟ [BOOKISH] trace, restrains, represses kōran n ࢤ࣭ࣚࣤ the Koran, the mark, vestige (= áto ㊟): ~ o nokoshimásu ⑖㊟ࢅṟࡊࡱࡌ Quran koramu n ࢤ࣑ࣚ column, boxed leaves a mark kónsénto n ࢤࣤࢬࣤࢹ 1. (light) article(s) (= kakomi-kiji ᅑࡲエ஥) kōrasemásu, kōraseru v ෼ࡼࡎࡱࡌ, plug, (electricity) outlet: ~ ni tsunagimásu ࢤࣤࢬࣤࢹ࡞ࡗ࡝ ෼ࡼࡎࡾ freezes it kō´rasu n ࢤ࣭ࣚࢪ chorus, choir ࡁࡱࡌ plugs in 2. consent: infømudo-~ ࢕ࣤࣆ࢚࣭࣑ࢺ࣬ࢤ kore pron ࡆࡿ this one: ~ kara ࣤࢬࣤࢹ informed consent ࡆࡿ࠾ࡼ from now on; ~ kara konshū n ௑㐄 this week to iu/yü … ࡆࡿ࡛࠷࠹ࡹ࠹… kōn-sutāchi n ࢤ࣭ࣤࢪࢰ࣭ࢲ specific, particular koréra (no) adj ࡆࡿࡼ ࡡ these cornstarch kontákuto n ࢤࣤࢰࢠࢹ = ~-rénzu (things, matters, etc.) ࢤࣤࢰࢠࢹࣝࣤࢫ contact lenses kórera n ࢤࣝࣚ cholera kónténa n ࢤࣤࢷࢻ container (for korí ฆࡽ n stiffness, hardening: káta-(no)-~ ⫢ ࡡ ࡆࡽ a stiff transporting goods) kóntesuto n ࢤࣤࢷࢪࢹ contest shoulder kón’ya n ௑እ tonight kōri n ể ice : kaki-gøri ࠾ࡀể kon’yaku n ፡⣑ engagement (to be shaved ice (eaten with syrup) kōri/kóri n ⾔ᮜ wicker trunk married): ~-yubiwa ፡⣑ᣞ㍧ korimásu, kóru v ฆࡽࡱࡌ, ฆࡾ engagement ring kon’yoku n Ίᾆ (hot springs) 1. gets engrossed/absorbed (in) 2. (shoulder) gets stiff mixed bathing

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korimásu, koriru


korimásu, koriru v ᠤࡽࡱࡌ, ᠤࡽࡾ koryōrí-ya n ᑚᩩ⌦ᒁ small

learns a lesson from one’s failure kōrimásu, kōru v ෼ࡽࡱࡌ, ෼ࡾ it freezes kōritsu (no) adj ප❟ ࡡ public, municipal, prefectural kōritsu n ຝ⋙ efficiency: ~-teki na ຝ⋙Ⓩ࡝ efficient: gyømu no ~ka ᴏຸࡡຝ⋙໩ streamlining …koro suffix 㡥 (at that) time, (at) about (a time), occasion (= … góro (ni) …㡥 ࡞ (at) about (a time)): ano-~ (wa) ࠵ࡡ㡥 ࡢ (at) that time, then, (in) those days (= tø´ji (wa) ᙔ᫤ ࡢ koroai n 㡥ྙ࠷ suitable time:

traditional Japanese restaurant kōryū n ஹὮ 1. AC (alternating current) 2. ~ shimásu ஹὮࡊࡱࡌ

exchanges, interchanges kósa n ⃨ࡈ strength (of satura-

tion), deepness (of color)

kosaemásu, kosaeru v ࡆࡈ࠻ࡱࡌ, ࡆࡈ࠻ࡾ = koshiraemásu ࡆࡊࡼ ࠻ࡱࡌ makes, concocts kōsai n ஹ㝷 social relations, company, association: ~-hi ஹ㝷 ㈕ an expense account ko-saji n ᑚࡈࡋ teaspoon kōsaku shimásu (suru) v ᕝషࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ 1. builds 2. handcrafts kosame n ᑚ㞭 light rain, drizzle (sorosoro) ~ desu ࡐࢀࡐࢀ kōsan n 㜾ཤ surrender 㡥ྙ࠷࡚ࡌ It’s (about) time to… kōsa-ten n ஹᕣⅤ an intersection korobimásu, korobu v ㌷ࡦࡱࡌ, ㌷ (of streets), a crossing kosei n ಴ᛮ individuality, charࡩ falls down, tumbles korogarimásu, korogaru v ㌷࠿ࡽࡱ acter, personality: ~-teki ಴ᛮ ࡌ, ㌷࠿ࡾ it rolls, tumbles Ⓩ unique (= yuniiku ࣗࢼ࣭ࢠ): korogashimásu, korogasu v ㌷࠿ࡊ ~-yutaka ಴ᛮ㇇࠾ has a very ࡱࡌ, ㌷࠿ࡌ rolls it distinctive personality koroshimásu, korosu v ṽࡊࡱࡌ, kōsei n ᵋᠺ constitution, ṽࡌ kills construction, composition Korukata n ࢤࣜ࢜ࢰ Kolkata kōsei n ᭞ḿ reclamation,

(Calcutta) kóruku n ࢤࣜࢠ= ~-sen ࢤࣜࢠᰞ cork; korukú-nuki n ࢤࣜࢠᢜࡀ

reformation kōsei n ᭞⏍ revival, reformation;

regeneration, rehabilitation: hikøshønen no ~ 㟸⾔ᑛᖳࡡ᭞ corkscrew kō´ryo n ⩻៎ consideration, reflec- ⏍ rehabilitation of juvenile tion, thought; ~ o ni iremásu ⩻៎ delinquents ࡞ථࡿࡱࡌ takes into considera- kōsei n පḿ impartiality; kōsei na පḿ ࡝ adj impartial, fair tion/account kō´ryō´ n 㤮ᩩ spice kōsei n ᰧḿ proofreading; kōsei148

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sha, kōsei-gakari n ᰧḿ⩽, ᰧḿ౿

proofreader kōsei-bússhitsu n ᢘ⏍∸㈠ antibi-

otic(s) Kōsei-Rōdō-shō n ཉ⏍ຘ഼┤

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare koseki n ᡖ⡘ family register: ~-tøhon ᡖ⡘ㅖᮇ full copy of one’s family register: ~-shøhon ᡖ⡘෕ᮇ abstract of one’s family register kōsen n ක⥲ ray, beam (of light), light kōsha n ᚃ⩽ the latter kōsha n ᰧ⯃ school-house koshi n ⭔ loin, hip, lower part of back; koshi-káké n ⭔᤻ࡄ seat, chair, bench (= isu ࠷ࡌ࣬᳌Ꮔ); koshi -no-kubire n ⭔ࡡࡂࡦࡿ waist (= uesuto ࢙ࢗࢪࢹ) kō´shi n ㅦᖅ instructor(s), lecturer(s) Kōshi n ᏇᏄ Confucius koshi-kakemásu, koshi-kakéru v ⭔᤻ ࡄࡱࡌ, ⭔᤻ࡄࡾ sits down koshimásu, kosu v ㉲ࡊࡱࡌ࣬㉲ࡌ goes/runs over, goes across, moves house (= hikkoshimásu

kossori (to)

kōshin n ᭞᩺ renewal, update kōshin shimásu (suru) v ⾔㐅ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ marches kōshin shimásu (suru) v ᭞᩺ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ renews, updates (a contract,

website, etc.) koshiraemásu, koshiraeru v ᣓ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᣓ࠻ࡾ makes, concocts kosho n ཿ᭡ 1. old book(s), antique book(s) 2. secondhand book(s) (= furu-hon ཿᮇ) koshō n ᨶ㝸 1. breakdown, something is wrong 2. hindrance koshō´ n ࢤࢨࣘࢗ࣬⬄᳙ pepper koshō n ࿣⛘ appellation, name kōshō n ஹῦ negotiations kōshoku (na) adj ይⰅ ࡝ erotic; lecherous: ~-kan ይⰅ₆ lecher kōshū n ප⾏ the public, the masses: ~-dénwa ප⾏㞹ヨ public telephone; kōshū no adj ප⾏ࡡ public kōshū(kai) n ㅦ⩞ ఌ lecture class,

course (not regular classes in school) … kóso (masani) adv …ࡆࡐ ࡱࡈ ࡞ precisely, exactly, just; certainly, really → mása-ni ࡱࡈ࡞࣬ ḿ࡞: kare-~ ᙴࡆࡐ he is truly ᘤࡖ㉲ࡊࡱࡌ kōsō (no) adj 㧏ᒒ ࡡ high-rise: koshimásu, kosu v ㉰ࡊࡱࡌ, ㉰ࡌ ~-bíru 㧏ᒒࣄࣜ high-rise buildgoes/runs over (= chø´ka shimásu ing, skyscraper ㉰㐛ࡊࡱࡌ, ø´bå shimásu ࢛࣭ kōsoku n 㧏㏷ [BOOKISH] high ࣁ࣭ࡊࡱࡌ); exceeds: do o ~ ᗐ speed: ~-dø´ro 㧏㏷㐠㊨ expressࢅ㉰ࡊࡱࡌ goes too far way, freeway koshimásu, kosu v ⁷ࡊࡱࡌ, ⁷ࡌ kossetsu n 㦭ᢙ bone fracture kossori (to) adv ࡆࡖࡐࡽ ࡛ filters/strains it kōshin n ⾔㐅 march(ing) secretly, sneakily, on the sly 149

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kōsu n ࢤ࣭ࢪ course; (traffic,

swim) lane; a set series of chef’s choices, a set meal kosuchūmu n ࢤࢪࢲ࣭࣑ࣖ costume (= kasø ௫⿞) kōsui n 㤮Ề perfume: ~ no kaori 㤮Ềࡡ㤮ࡽ fragrance of perfume kosupure n ࢤࢪࣈࣝ cosplay kosurimásu, kosúru v ᧷ࡽࡱࡌ, ᧷ ࡾ rubs, scrapes kotáé n ➽ ࠻ an answer, reply, response (= henjí ㏁஥, hentø ㏁➽) kotáé n ᚺ࠻ a response, an answer (= henjí ㏁஥, hentø ㏁➽, øtø 応 答) (= → tegótae ᡥᚺ࠻) kotaemásu, kotáéru v ➽࠻ࡱࡌ, ➽ ࠻ࡾ answers kotaemásu, kotáéru v ᚺ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᚺ࠻ࡾ responds, lives up to, meets: kitai ni ~ ᭿ᙽ࡞ᚺ࠻ࡱࡌ lives up to one’s expectations: yøbø ni ~ こ᭻࡞ᚺ࠻ࡱࡌ meets one’s request kotai n ᅖమ a solid kōtai n ஹ᭨ alternation Kōtáishi n ⓒኯᏄ, ~-sama ⓒኯᏄ ࡈࡱ the Crown Prince; Kōtáishi-hi n ⓒኯᏄደ the Crown Princess kōtaku n කἉ luster, gloss, sheen: ~ ga arimásu කἉ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ

lustrous, glossy, shiny kotatsu n ࡆࡒࡗ o-kóta ࠽ࡆࡒ

traditional quilt-covered heating arrangement (foot warmer) kotchí pron ࡆࡖࡔ → kochira ࡆ ࡔࡼ

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kotei n ᅖᏽ fixation kōtei n ᰧᗖ school grounds kōtei n ⫧ᏽ affirmation kōtei n ⓒᖀ emperor: Røma-~ ࣞ ࣭࣏ⓒᖀ Roman emperor kōtei n ᕝ⛤ [BOOKISH] process, progress: seisaku-~ ⿿షᕝ⛤ process for forming: sagyø-~ ష ᴏᕝ⛤ working process kotēji n ࢤࢷ࣭ࢩ cottage koten n ཿ඼ classic work (literature, art, etc.) (= kurashikku ࢠ ࣚࢨࢴࢠ): ~-ongaku ཿ඼㡚ᴞ

classical music koten n ಴ᒈ private exhibition kotesaki de gomakashimásu (gomakasu) v ᑚᡥ඙࡚ࡇࡱ࠾ࡊࡱ ࡌ ࡇࡱ࠾ࡌ uses cheap tricks kote-shirabe (ni) adv ᑚᡥㄢ࡬ ࡞

(for) a trial, (for) practice kōtetsu n 㗨㕪 [BOOKISH] steel (= suchiiru ࢪࢲ࣭ࣜ) kotó n ࡆ࡛࣬஥ thing, matter;

fact; words, sentence; case, circumstance, happening; experience: … suru ~ ga arimásu … ࡌࡾࡆ࡛࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ does/do it sometimes, has something to do; … suru ~ wa arimasén …ࡌࡾࡆ ࡛ࡢ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ never does it; … shita ~ ga arimásu …ࡊࡒࡆ࡛࠿ ࠵ࡽࡱࡌ has done it before; … (suru/shinai) ~ wa arimasén … ࡌࡾࡊ࡝࠷ ࡆ࡛ࡢ࠵ࡽࡱࡎ ࢆ it isn’t that one (does/doesn’t, will/won’t do it); … (suru) ~ ni shimásu … ࡌࡾ ࡆ࡛࡞ࡊࡱࡌ


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decides to (do it) kóto n ⌾ Japanese harp; koto-ji n ⌾ᰍ [BOOKISH] the bridges on a Japanese harp kóto n ཿ㒌 [BOOKISH] ancient capital kō´to n ࢤ࣭ࢹ 1. coat 2. (sports) court: tenisu-~ ࢷࢼࢪࢤ࣭ࢹ tennis court kotō n Ꮣᓞ [BOOKISH] solitary island kotobá n ゕⴝ 1. word, words; sentence (spoken); remark 2. speech 3. language (= gengo ゕ ㄊ); o-kotoba o kaesu yø desu ga… ࠽ゕⴝࢅ㏁ࡌࡻ࠹࡚ࡌ࠿  I hate to (don’t mean to)

contradict you, but…

… to ie ba ~ ࡛ゕ࠻ࡣ஥㊂ࡽ ࡱࡌ suffice to say that … kotowárí n ᩷ࡽ refusal; notice, warning; permission: ~ mo náku ᩷ࡽࡵ࡝ࡂ without notice/per-

mission/leave kotowarimásu, kotowáru v ᩷ࡽࡱࡌ, ᩷ࡾ 1. refuses, declines, begs off 2. makes excuses 3. gives notice 4. dismisses, lays off kotowaza n ࡆ࡛ࢂࡉ࣬ㅏ pro-

verb(s) kotozuké, kotozute n ゕ௛ࡄ, ゕࡘ ࡙ a message (for someone) (= méssëji ࣒ࢴࢬ࣭ࢩ) kotsú n ࡆࡗ>ࢤࢵ@ knack, trick,


kōtō-gákkō n 㧏➴Ꮥᰧ = køkø 㧏ᰧ kōtsū n ஹ㏳ traffic, transportation; high school: ~ no séito 㧏➴Ꮥᰧ communication(s): ~-hyø´shiki ࡡ⏍ᚈ (= køkø´-sei 㧏ᰧ⏍) high- ஹ㏳ᵾㆉ traffic signs; ~-shíngø ஹ㏳ಘྒ traffic signal(s) school student kotogara n ஥ᯮ [BOOKISH] affair, kotsuban n 㦭┑ pelvis kotsubu n ᑚ⢇ small grain matter (= kotó ࡆ࡛࣬஥) kotonarimásu, kotonáru v ␏࡝ࡽࡱ kō-tsugō n ይ㒌ྙ (convenience) ࡌ, ␏࡝ࡾ is different, differs expediency kóto-ni adv ࡆ࡛࡞࣬Ṟ࡞ 1. espe- kōtsūjūtai n traffic jam ஹ㏳Ῠ⁣ cially (= tóku-ni ≁࡞) 2. [+ NE- kotsúzui n 㦭㧂 bone marrow GATIVE] less likely 3. moreover, kottō´-hin n 㦭⴯ဗ curios, antiques kotton n ࢤࢴࢹࣤ cotton what is more kōtō (no) adj ཾ㢄 ࡡ oral, kōun n ᖶ㐘 good fortune ko-uri n ᑚ኉ࡽ retail; kouri-gyō n verbal: køtø-shímon ཾ㢄ムၡ ᑚ኉ᴏ retail business; kouri-ten n oral examination ko-tori n ᑚ㫵 small bird ᑚ኉ᗉ retail store, retailer kotosara adv ࡆ࡛ࡈࡼ particularly kowagari n ᛟ>ᜅ@࠿ࡽ a coward kotoshi n ௑ᖳ this year (= okubyø-monó ⮉⑋⩽): kototarimásu, kototariru v ஥㊂ࡽࡱ kowagarimásu ᛟ>ᜅ@࠿ࡽࡱࡌ ࡌ, ஥㊂ࡽࡾ suffices, is enough: fears, takes flight, is afraid

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kowái adj ࡆࢂ࠷࣬ᛟ>ᜅ@࠷ is

kōyu n 㖌ἔ mineral oil afraid; frightful; terrific koyū (no) adj ᅖ᭯ ࡡ characteristic kowairo n ኇⰅ 1. tone of voice 2. kōyū n ஹཪ companion, friend(s) impersonation: ~ o tsukaimásu kōyū n ஹ㐗 social relations, comኇⰅࢅ౐࠷ࡱࡌ impersonates pany, association (= køsai ஹ㝷) kowane n ኇ㡚 tone of voice (= kō yū (iu) … adj ࡆ࠹ࡹ࠹ ࠷࠹ … kowairo ኇⰅ) this kind/sort of …, such … kowaremásu, kowaréru v ቪࡿࡱࡌ, kōza n ཾᗑ an account: ginkø-~ ~ ቪࡿࡾ it breaks/smashes 㖗⾔ཾᗑ bank account kowaremono n ࡆࢂࡿ∸ fragile kō´zan n 㖌ᒜ a mine (article): kowaremono-chü´i ࡆ kō´zan n 㧏ᒜ high mountain ࢂࡿ∸Ἰណ Handle With Care ko-zara n ᑚ⓸ saucer koware-yasúi adj ቪࡿࡷࡌ࠷ frag- kōzen (no/to) adj, adv ප↓ ࡡ࡛ ile, easily broken, breakable open(ly), public(ly) kowashimásu, kowásu v ቪࡊࡱࡌ, ko-zeni n ᑚ㖱 small change, coins ቪࡌ breaks/smashes it, destroys: kozō´ n ᑚ൒ 1. young monk kuruma o ~ ㌬ࢅቪࡊࡱࡌ wrecks 2. = ~-san ᑚ൒ࡈࢆ kid a car; karada o ~ మࢅࡆࢂࡊࡱࡌ kōzō n ᵋ㏸ structure, makeup, ruins one’s health organization koya n ᑚᒁ hut, shed, cabin kōzu n ᵋᅒ (picture) composition kōya n Ⲡ㔕 [BOOKISH] wild land, kózuchi n ᑚᵌ a small hammer kozue n ᲀ treetop wilderness kōyaku n ප⣑ (public) pledge; kō- kōzui n ὝỀ flood: ~ ga okorimásu yaku-sū n ප⣑ᩐ common factor ὝỀ࠿㉫ࡆࡽࡱࡌ floods koyama n ᑚᒜ hill kózukai n ᑚ౐࠷ janitor, custodian; koyō n 㞘⏕ [BOOKISH] employment attendant; servant (hiring): ~-keiyakusho 㞘⏕ዉ⣑ kózukai n ᑚ㐭࠷ pin money, ᭡ employment agreement pocket money kōyō n ⣒ⴝ red leaves kozútsumi n ᑚໜ package, parcel kōyō n ຝ⏕ effect (effectiveness) kú n ஐ nine (= kyü ஐ) (= kiki-me ຝࡀ┘, kønø ຝ⬗): kú n ྀ phrase ~ ga arimásu ຝ⏕࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is kú n ༇, …´-ku …༇ 1. a ward effective (in a city) (→ ku-yákusho ༇ᙲᡜ): kōyō (no) adj ප⏕ ࡡ official: Tøkyø nijüsan-~ ᮶ா23 ༇ ~-go ප⏕ㄊ official language twenty-three wards of Tokyo koyomí n ᬲ calendar 2. zone (= kúiki ༇ᇡ ; ku-yákusho kōyu n 㤮ἔ balm n ༇ᙲᡜ ward office 152

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…-ku suffix …ࡂ: [ADJECTIVE] ... kū´ v 㣏࠹ (VULGAR FORM of eats,

kudámono n ᯕ∸ fruit: ~-ya ᯕ∸ ᒁ fruit store/shop kudari n ୖࡽ descent; outbound

bites used mainly by males) =

(from Tokyo), the down train

being, so as to be, …-ly

kuimásu 㣏࠷ࡱࡌ (eats, bites) kudarimásu, kudaru v ୖࡽࡱࡌ, ୖ (POLITE FORM tabemásu 㣏࡬ࡱࡌ ࡾ comes/goes down, descends; kubarimásu, kubáru v 㒼ࡽࡱࡌ, 㒼ࡾ falls, drops distributes, allots; deals (cards) kudasái v ୖࡈ࠷ give; (shite ~ ࡊ kúbetsu n ༇ื difference, differ- ࡙ୖࡈ࠷) please (do) [IMPERATIVE of kudasáru ୖࡈࡾ = kudaentiation; discrimination kubi n 㤫 neck: ~ ni shimásu 㤫࡞ saimásu ୖࡈ࠷ࡱࡌ] ࡊࡱࡌ fires, lays off; ~-kázari kudasaimásu, kudasáru v ୖࡈ࠷ࡱ 㤫㣥ࡽ necklace; kubi-wa n 㤫㍧ ࡌ,ୖࡈࡾ gives (he/she to you,

(dog) collar kubire n ࡂࡦࡿ neck (of a bottle),

constricted place, waist kubomi n ࡂ࡯ࡲ࣬❉ࡲ hollow,

dent, depression kuchi n ཾ 1. mouth: ~ (kará) no ཾ ࠾ࡼ ࡡ oral 2. words, speech: ~ o hasamu ཾࢅࡢࡈࡳ interrupt 3. entrance; hole, opening, slot 4. cork, stopper 5. job opening; kuchi-beni n ཾ⣒ lipstick; ~ o fukimásu ཾ➔ࢅྻ ࡀࡱࡌ whistles; kuchi-génka n ཾ ࡅࢆ࠾>႒ბ@ argument; kuchikomi n ཾࢤ࣐ word of mouth kuchibiru n ွ lip kuchimásu, kuchiru v ᮑࡔࡱࡌ, ᮑ ࡔࡾ rots, decays kúda n ⟮ pipe, rube kudakemásu, kudakéru v ◃ࡄࡱࡌ, ◃ࡄࡾ 1. it breaks, smashes, crumbles 2. can break it kudakimásu, kudáku v ◃ࡀࡱࡌ, ◃ ࡂ breaks it, smashes it, crumbles it

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you to me); does as a favor (he/ she for you, you for me), kindly (does) kudashi n ୖࡊ: ~-gúsuri ୖࡊⷾ a purgative, a laxative kudói adj ࡂ࡜࠷ 1. long-winded, dull 2. thick, greasy kufū n ᕝኰ device, scheme, idea, invention, artifice, ingenuity: ~ (o kora-)shimásu ᕝኰ ࢅฆࡼ ࡊࡱࡌ schemes, contrives kūfuku (no) adj ✭⭙ ࡡ hungry Kú-gatsu n ஐ᭮࣬9᭮ September kugi n 㔝 nail, peg kugiri n ༇วࡽ punctuation; kugirimásu ༇วࡽࡱࡌ divides kūgun n ✭㌯ air force: ~-kíchi ✭ ㌯ᇱᆀ air base kugurimásu, kuguru v ₧ࡽࡱࡌ, ₧ ࡾ passes under kūhaku n ✭Ⓣ a blank (space) kúi n ᮲ post, stake, pile kuichigai n 㣏࠷㐢࠷ discrepancy kúiki n ༇ᇡ zone


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kuimásu, kū´

kuimásu, kū´ v 㣏࠷ࡱࡌ, 㣏࠹ eats combines, puts together, teams (inelegant) (= tabemásu 㣏࡬ them up ࡱࡌ) kumimásu, kumu v Ủࡲࡱࡌ, Ủࡳ kúi-shínbō (na) adj 㣏࠷ࡊࢆᆎ ࡝ scoops, draws, ladles; considers,

glutton(ous); greedy


kujaku n ࢠࢩࣔࢠ࣬Ꮗ㞓 peacock kumimásu, kúmu v ⤄ࡲࡱࡌ, ⤄ࡳ kúji n ࡂࡋ࣬ࢠࢩ a lot (in a lotbraids; assembles, sets up, puts tery) (= takara-~ ᐀ࡂࡋ) together; folds (arms), clasps kujikemásu, kujikéru v ᣰࡄࡱࡌ, ᣰ (hands), crosses (legs); teams up ࡄࡾ 1. ashí ga ~ ㊂࠿ᣰࡄࡱࡌ (with) gets a sprained ankle 2. ki ga ~ kumi-tate n ⤄ࡲ❟࡙ structure, Ẵ࠿ᣰࡄࡱࡌ gets disheartened, setup, makeup, organization, discouraged 3. (a plan) gets framework kumi-tatemásu, kumi-tateru v ⤄ࡲ❟ frustrated kujikimásu, kujíku v ᣰࡀࡱࡌ, ᣰࡂ ࡙ࡱࡌ, ⤄ࡲ❟࡙ࡾ sets up, or1. sprains: ashí o ~ ㊂ࢅᣰࡀࡱࡌ ganizes; assembles, puts together sprains an ankle 2. ki o ~ Ẵࢅᣰ kúmo n 㞴 cloud: ~-gakure 㞴㝻ࡿ ࡀࡱࡌ disheartens, discourages disappearing, dropping out of 3. frustrates (a plan) sight kujira n ࢠࢩࣚ࣬㪊 whale kúmo n ࢠ࣓࣬⻙⺰ spider kujō n ⱖ᝗ complaint: ~ o iu/yü kúmo no su n ࢠ࣓>⻙⺰@ࡡᕛ ⱖ᝗ࢅゕ࠹ complains spiderweb, cobweb (= kúmo no kūkan n ✭㛣 space íto ࢠ࣓>⻙⺰@ࡡ⣊ spider threads kukí n ⱴ stalk, stem kumori ᭆࡽ n cloudy weather kū´ki n ✭Ẵ air kumorimásu, kumóru v ᭆࡽࡱࡌ, ᭆ kūkō n ✭῿ airport ࡾ gets cloudy: kumótte imásu kúmá n ࢠ࣏࣬↻ bear (animal) ᭆࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is cloudy kumade n ↻ᡥ rake … kun suffix …ྦ (mostly attached kumí n ⤄ a set, suit, pack; a class, to one’s junior’s or boys’ names INFORMAL)

band, company kumiai n ⤄ྙ association, guild, union: rødø-~ ຘ഼⤄ྙ (labor)

union kumi-awase ⤄ࡲྙࢂࡎ n assort-

ment, mixture kumi-awasemásu, kumi-awaseru v ⤄ ࡲྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, ⤄ࡲྙࢂࡎࡾ

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kuni n ᅗ 1. country, nation: ~ no ᅗࡡ national, state, government 2. native place, home area kúnren n ィ⦆ training, drill kurá n 㠙 saddle kurá n ಲ࣬ⶮ warehouse, store-

room (storehouse), cellar, godown 154

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kū´rā n ࢠ࣭࣭ࣚ air conditioner kuríimu n ࢠ࣭࣑ࣛ cream kurabemásu, kuraberu v Ẓ࡬ࡱࡌ࣬ kuríiníngu n ࢠ࣭ࣛࢼࣤࢡ cleaning: ㍉࡬ࡱࡌ, Ẓ࡬ࡾ࣬㍉࡬ࡾ com- ~-ya ࢠ࣭ࣛࢼࣤࢡᒁ (dry)

pares, contrasts kúrabu n ࢠࣚࣇ club (group; card suit); (golf) club: ~ katsudø ࢠࣚࣇὩິ club activities kurage n ࢠࣚࢣ jellyfish kurai n న grade, rank kurai adj ᬧ࠷ dark, gloomy; dim

(light) … kúrai suffix …ࡂࡼ࠷࣬న = … gúrai …ࡃࡼ࠷࣬న (about; (an

amount); at least) kurákkā n ࢠࣚࢴ࣭࢜ crackers kurashikku n ࢠࣚࢨࢴࢠ classic (= koten ཿ඼) kurashimásu, kurasu v ᬵࡼࡊࡱࡌ, ᬵࡼࡌ lives, gets by; makes a


cleaner(s); laundry kuri-kaeshimásu, kiri-kaesu v ⧖ࡽ㏁ ࡊࡱࡌ, ⧖ࡽ㏁ࡌ repeats kuríppu n ࢠࣛࢴࣈ clip Kurísúmasu n ࢠࣛࢪ࣏ࢪ Christ-

mas kúro (no) adj 㯦 ࡡ black; kurobíiru n 㯦ࣄ࣭ࣜ black beer; kuró-i adj 㯦࠷ black (= kúro (no) 㯦 ࡡ ) kúrō n ⱖຘ difficulties, hardships kurō´ku n ࢠ࣭ࣞࢠ cloakroom,

check room kúrō´to n ⋖ெ expert, professional kuruimásu, kuru'u´ v ≤࠷ࡱࡌ, ≤࠹

gets warped; gets out of order: ki ga ~ Ẵ࠿≤࠷ࡱࡌ goes mad


kúrasu n ࢠࣚࢪ class (group) kuruma n ㌬ car; taxi; vehicle, kurátchi n ࢠࣚࢴࢲ clutch (of car): (hand) cart (= jidø´-sha ⮤ິ㌬ ~-pédaru ࢠࣚࢴࢲ࣋ࢱࣜ clutch kurumá-ebi n ㌬࢙ࣄ>ᾇ⩹@ prawn,


jumbo shrimp

kure v ᬵࡿ the dark; the end of the kurumi n ࢠ࣐ࣜ࣬⬄᱀ walnut; year: ~ no ᬵࡿࡡ year-end nut kurejitto-kā´do n ࢠࣝࢩࢴࢹ࣭࢜ࢺ kurushíi adj ⱖࡊ࠷ painful; hard;

credit card kuremásu, kureru v ࡂࡿࡱࡌ, ࡂࡿ ࡾ gives (to me/us; he to you): shite ~ ࡊ࡙ࡂࡿࡱࡌ does as a

heavy kurushimemásu, kurushiméru v ⱖࡊ ࡴࡱࡌ, ⱖࡊࡴࡾ afflicts, pains,

distresses, embarrasses kurushimí n ⱖࡊࡲ affliction, favor (for me/us; he for you) kuremásu, kureru v ᬵࡿࡱࡌ, ᬵࡿ agony, suffering, distress ࡾ: hi ga ~ ᪝࠿ᬵࡿࡱࡌ it gets kurushimimásu, kurushímu v ⱖࡊࡲ ࡱࡌ, ⱖࡊࡳ suffers; gets dark kurē´n n ࢠ࣭ࣝࣤ crane (machine) afflicted/distressed/embarrassed kurí n ᰡ chestnut kusá n ⲙ grass 155

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kusái adj ⮧࠷ smelly, stinking;

kutsurogimásu, kutsurógu v ࡂࡗࢀ ࡁࡱࡌ, ࡂࡗࢀࡃ relaxes, gets fishy, questionable kusari n 㙈 chain comfortable kusarimásu, kusáru v ⭁ࡽࡱࡌ, ⭁ kúttsukimású, kuttsúku v ࡂࡖࡗࡀࡱ ࡾ goes bad, rots, decays, spoils, ࡌ,ࡂࡖࡗࡂ sticks to sours: kusátte imásu ⭁ࡖ࡙࠷ࡱ kuwa n ࡂࢂ࣬㘭 hoe ࡌ is spoiled/rotten kúwa n ࢠ࣠࣬᱋ mulberry kusé n ⒯࣬ࡂࡎ a (bad) habit, kuwadate ௺࡙ n plan, attempt, a quirk undertaking kūsha n ✭㌬ vacant car, “(taxi) kuwadatemásu, kuwadatéru v ௺࡙ࡱ ࡌ, ௺࡙ࡾ plans, attempts, available” kushámi n ࡂࡊࡶࡲ a sneeze undertakes kushí n ࡂࡊ࣬ᷰ a comb kuwaemásu, kuwaeru v ຊ࠻ࡱࡌ, ຊ kushí n ୴ a skewer, a spit ࠻ࡾ adds (on); imposes kūsho n ✭ᡜ a blank (space) kuwasemásu, kuwaséru v 㣏ࢂࡎࡱ kusó n ࡂࡐ࣬ࢠࢮ࣬⢽ dung, ࡌ, 㣏ࢂࡎࡾ feeds (POLITE FORM tabesasemasu 㣏࡬ࡈࡎࡱࡌ) excrement, feces kūsō n ✭᝷ fantasy kuwashíi adj リࡊ࠷ detailed, kusugurimásu, kusuguru v ࡂࡌࡃࡽ exact: (… ni ~ …࡞リࡊ࠷) is ࡱࡌ, ࡂࡌࡃࡾ tickles knowledgeable (about …), is kusuguttai adj ࡂࡌࡃࡖࡒ࠷ ticklish well versed (in …); ~ kotó リࡊ kusuri n ⷾ medicine, drug: ~-ya ࠷஥ details; kuwáshiku リࡊࡂ (san) ⷾᒁ ࡈࢆ drugstore; in detail kuyamimásu, kuyamu v ᜴ࡷࡲࡱࡌ, druggist kutakuta, kuttakuta adj ࡂࡒࡂࡒ, ᜴ࡷࡳ regrets ࡂࡖࡒࡂࡒ dead tired, utterly kuyashíi adj ᜴ࡊ࠷ humiliating, exhausted mortifying, vexatious …-kutatte … suffix, conj ࡂࡒࡖ࡙ kuzu (mono) n ࡂࡍ>ࢠࢫ@ ∸ even being … (= …-kute mo … waste, scum, mud, trash, rags, ࡂ࡙ࡵ) scrap, junk (= kásu ࠾ࡌ࣬⁞); …-kute suffix, conj …ࡂ࡙ is and kuzú-kago n ࡂࡍ࠾ࡇ wastebasket; kuzú-mono n ࡂࡍ∸ waste, trash (also/so) kutsú n 㠈࣬ࢠࢵ shoes; kutsú-himo kúzu n ࢠࢫ࣬⴩ arrowroot; kuzuko n ⴩⢂ powdered arrowroot n 㠈ࡥࡵ shoelace; kutsú-shita n 㠈ୖ࣬ࡂࡗୖ socks, stockings; kuzuremásu, kuzuréru v ᓻࡿࡱࡌ, kutsú-ya n 㠈ᒁ shoe shop/store; ᓻࡿࡾ it crumbles, breaks kutsu-zoko n 㠈ᗇ shoe sole (down); (weather) deteriorates 156

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kuzushimásu, kuzúsu v ᓻࡊࡱࡌ, (= kaikyø ᅂᩅ); Buk-~ ௕ᩅ ᓻࡌ 1. cashes, changes, breaks Buddhism (into small money) 2. breaks it kyōbai n ❿኉ [BOOKISH] auction down, demolishes 3. writes (= økushon ࢛࣭ࢠࢨࣘࣤ) kyōchō n ᙁㄢ emphasis (a character) in cursive style kyábarē n ࢞ࣔࣁ࣭ࣝ cabaret, kyodai (na) adj ᕠኬ ࡝ huge kyō´dai (-shimai) n ඕᘭ ጗ግ night club kyábetsu n ࢞ࣔ࣊ࢵ cabbage brothers and/or sisters; brother; kyaburétā n ࢞ࣔࣇࣝࢰ࣭ carburetor sister kyaku n ᐂ visitor, guest, company; kyōdan n ᩅቨ [BOOKISH] platform, customer (= o-~-sámá ࠽ᐂᵕ pulpit: ~ ni tachimásu ᩅቨ࡞❟ ࡔࡱࡌ 1. teaches at school 2. [HONORIFIC]); kyaku-ma n ᐂ㛣 [BOOKISH] guest room; kyaku-sha stands on a platform kyōdan n นᙆ [BOOKISH] bullet (of n ᐂ㌬ [BOOKISH] (railroad) passenger car, coach assassin, etc.): ~ ni taoremásu kyánbasu n ࢞ࣔࣤࣁࢪ canvas นᙆ࡞಻ࡿࡱࡌ is shot to death kyándii, kyándē n ࢞ࣔࣤࢸ࢔, ࢞ࣔ (by an assassin, etc.) ࣤࢸ࣭ candy (= ame ࢓࣒࣬㣡) kyōdan n ᩅᅆ [BOOKISH] religious kyánpasu n ࢞ࣔࣤࣂࢪ campus organization kyánpu n ࢞ࣔࣤࣈ camp(ing) kyōdō n භྜྷ union, cooperation, kyánseru n ࢞ࣔࣤࢬࣜ cancellation joint (activity): ~-seikatsu භྜྷ kyáppu n ࢞ࣔࢴࣈ cap (of a pen) ⏍Ὡ living together, living with kyáputen n ࢞ࣔࣈࢷࣤ captain others kyarameru n ࣒࢞ࣔࣚࣜ caramel kyōdō n ༝ྜྷ cooperation: ~-kukyátsu n ࡀࡶࡗ࣬ᙴዦ [INFORMAL] miai ༝ྜྷ⤄ྙ cooperative that damn one; ~-ra ࡀࡶࡗ>ᙴ association (→ seikatsu-~kumiai, seikyø ⏍Ὡ༝ྜྷ⤄ྙ, ዦ@ࡼ those damn ones (= aitsu ࠵࠷ࡗ; aitsu-ra ࠵࠷ࡗࡼ) ⏍༝) kyā interj ࡀࡶ࣭࣭࣬࢞ࣔ: kyå(t)- kyō´fu n ᜅᛟ [BOOKISH] fear, terror to sakebimásu ࡀࡶ࣭ ࡖ >࢞ࣔ kyōgeki n ா๸ classic Chinese ࣭ ࢴ @࡛྆ࡦࡱࡌ screams pantomime/opera kyō´ n ௑᪝࣬ࡀࡺ࠹ today kyōgén n ≤ゕ traditional Noh farce kyō´ (no miyako) n ா ࡡ㒌 Kyoto kyō´gi n ༝㆗ conference, (= Kyø´to ா㒌) discussion …-kyō n …ᩅ (name of) religion: kyō´gi n ❿ᢇ (athletic) game, Kirisuto-~ ࢞ࣛࢪࢹᩅ Christian- match, contest, (game) event; ity; Isuramu-~ ࢕ࢪ࣑ࣚᩅ Islam kyōgi-jō n ❿ᢇሔ stadium

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kyōhan(sha) n භ≚ ⩽ accomplice kyóhi n ᢼྫྷ refusal, rejection, veto (= kyozetsu ᢼ⤧) kyōiku n ᩅ⫩ education: ~ o ukemásu ᩅ⫩ࢅུࡄࡱࡌ gets an

education kyōin n ᩅဤ [BOOKISH] teacher kyojin n ᕠெ giant (person) kyōju n ᩅ᤭ professor: daigaku-~ ኬᏕᩅ᤭ university professor kyojū n ᑽప [BOOKISH] residency: ~-sha ᑽప⩽ a resident: ~-chi ᑽ పᆀ residence (location), address (= jüsho పᡜ) kyóka n スྊ permit, permission: ~-sho スྊチ permit (card) kyōkai n ᩅఌ church kyōkai n ༝ఌ society, association kyōkai n ሾ⏲ border (of district,

etc.) kyōká-sho n ᩅ⛁᭡ text(book) kyōki n นჹ [BOOKISH] lethal

weapon kyōki n ≤Ẵ [BOOKISH] insanity,

madness, lunacy

kyokuba n ᭜㤷 horseback stunts: ~-dan ᭜㤷ᅆ circus (= så´kasu ࢦ࣭࢜ࢪ kyokugei n ᭜ⰹ acrobat, acrobatics (= akurobátto ࢓ࢠࣞࣁࢴࢹ): ~-shi ᭜ⰹᖅ an acrobat, a stunt

performer kyokugen n ᴗ㝀 [BOOKISH] limit: ~-jøtai ᴗ㝀≟ឺ extreme

situation, ultimate state kyōkun n ᩅィ lesson, teaching,

moral kyokután (na) adj ᴗ❻ ࡝ extreme Kyokutō n ᴗ᮶ Far East kyōkyū n ౩⤝ supply(ing), provision: juyø to ~ 㞺こ࡛౩⤝ supply and demand (= jukyü 㞺⤝) kyō´mí n ⮾࿝ interest (pleasure): ~-bukái ⮾࿝῕࠷ interesting kyónen n ཡᖳ last year kyóri n ㊝㞫 distance kyōryoku n ༝ງ cooperation kyōryoku (na) adj ᙁງ ࡝ strong,


kyōki n 㦣ႌ [BOOKISH] amazement Kyōsan-shúgi n භ⏐୹⩇ Commu-

and gladness


kyokō n ⹣ᵋ [BOOKISH] fabrication, kyō´shi n ᩅᖅ teacher, instructor, fiction: ~ no sekai ⹣ᵋࡡୠ⏲ tutor: katei-~ ᐓᗖᩅᖅ home tutor kyōshitsu n ᩅᐄ classroom imaginary world kyōkō n ᙁ⾔ forcing: ~-toppa ᙁ kyōshoku n ᩅ⫃ teaching ⾔✲◒ bulldozing one’s way profession: ~ ni tsukimásu ᩅ⫃ through: ~-saiketsu ᙁ⾔᤿Ử ࡞ᑯࡀࡱࡌ becomes a teacher kyōshuku shimásu (suru) v ᜅ⦨ࡊࡱ railroading kyóku n ᑻ, …´-kyoku …ᑻ office, ࡌ ࡌࡾ [HONORIFIC] 1. feels bureau, station: terebi-~ ࢷࣝࣄ grateful/obliged/ashamed: wazawaza okoshi itadakimashite ~ ᑻ TV station

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desu ࢂࡉࢂࡉ࠽㉲ࡊ࠷ࡒࡓࡀࡱ ࡊ࡙ᜅ⦨࡚ࡌ Thank you very

n ᛬⑋ sudden illness; kyū-kō n ᛬⾔ express (train, etc.); kyū-shi much for taking the trouble to n ᛬Ṓ sudden death; kyū-yō n ᛬ ⏕ urgent business come. 2. feels sorry/ashamed: taihen ~ desuga… ኬንᜅ⦨࡚ࡌ kyū´ n ⣥ class, grade ࠿… I am very sorry, but… kyū´ n ஐ࣬9 nine (= kú ஐ࣬9); kyōsō n ❿ண competition, rivalry, kyū-banmé n ஐ␊┘ ninth; kyū´-dai contest, race; kyōsō-áite n ❿ண┞ n ஐྋ nine (machines, vehicles); ᡥ competitor kyū´-do n ஐᗐ nine degrees; nine kyōson, kyōzon n භᏋ [BOOKISH] times (= kyü´-kái ஐᅂ); kyū´-hén coexistence: minzoku ~ Ằ᪐භ n ஐ㐚 nine times; kyū´-hon n ஐ Ꮛ ethnic coexistence ᮇ nine (pencils/bottles, long kyōten n ⤊඼ 1. sutra (Buddhist things); kyū-kai n ஐ㝭 nine floors/ scripture) (= o-kyø ࠽⤊) 2. re- stories, ninth floor; kyū´-ko n ஐ಴ ligious text, sacred scripture nine pieces (small objects) (= Kyō´to n ா㒌 Kyoto; Kyøtó-Eki kokonotsu ஐࡗ); kyū´-kái n ஐᅂ ா㒌㥈 Kyoto Station nine times (= kyü´-do ஐᗐ); kyōtsū (no) adj භ㏳ ࡡ common, kyū´-mai n ஐᯓ nine sheets (flat general things); kyū´-satsu n ஐ෇ nine kyōyo n ౩୙ grant, allowance copies (books, magazines); kyū´-tō kyōyō (no) adj භ⏕ ࡡ for n ஐ㢄 nine (horses/oxen, large common use, for public use animals); kyū´-wa n ஐ⩒ nine kyōyō n ᩅ㣬 culture, education, (birds, rabbits) refinement: ~ no nai ᩅ㣬ࡡ࡝࠷ kyū´(-) prefix ᪟… … old kyūden n ᐋẂ palace uneducated, uncultivated kyōyō n ᙁこ [BOOKISH] forcing kyū´dō n ᘢ㐠 (the traditional art kyōzai n ᩅᮞ teaching materials of) archery (= kyü´jutsu ᘢ⾙) kyozetsu n ᢼ⤧ [BOOKISH] refusal, kyū´-hyaku n ஐⓊ࣬ nine rejection, veto (= kyóhi ᢼྫྷ) hundred kyū n ⅅ࣬ࡀࡸ࠹ o-kyø ࠽ⅅ kyū´ji n ⤝௘ waiter/waitress, moxibustion steward, attendant, factotum kyū n ᛬ crisis, emergency, danger: kyūjin n ịெ job offer(s) ~ (na) ᛬ ࡝ sudden; urgent; kyūjitsu n ఆ᪝ day off, holiday kyū´jo n ᨾຐ rescue, relief: ~-tai precipitous, steep: ~ na (o-) shirase/renraku ᛬࡝ ࠽ ▩ࡼࡎ ᨾຐ㝪 rescue party/team ㏻⤙ short notice; ~ ni ᛬࡞ sud- kyūjō n ⌣ሔ ball park, (baseball) denly (= totsuzen ✲↓); kyū-byō stadium (= yakyü-jø 㔕⌣ሔ 159

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kyū´-jū n 九十・90 ninety kyūka n 休暇 vacation, furlough kyūkei n 休憩 rest, recess, break; kyūkéi-shitsu n 休憩室 lounge

止記号 breath mark kyūsho n 急所 jugular (vein) kyūshoku (katsudō) n 求職(活動)

(room), break room kyūkon n 求婚 marriage proposal kyū´kutsu (na) adj 窮屈(な) constrained, uncomfortable kyūkyū (no) adj 救急(の) for emergencies; kyūkyū´-bako n 救急箱 first-aid kit; kyūkyū-chiryō shitsu 救 急治療室 emergency room, ER; kyūkyū´-sha n 救急車 ambulance kyū-mán n 九万・90,000 ninety thousand kyū´ri n キュウリ・胡瓜 cucumber kyū´ryō n 給料 salary, pay (= sárarii サラリー, kyü´yo 給与); kyūryō´-bi 給料日 payday kyūseishu n 救世主 Savior kyū-sén n 九千・9,000 nine thousand kyūshi n 休止 pause; kyūshi-kigō 休

kyūshoku n 休職 leave of absence

job hunting, seeking employment from work kyūshoku n 給食 school lunch Kyū´shū-chihō n 九州地方 the

Kyushu area of Japan (Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, Øita prefectures) kyūsu n きゅうす・急須 teapot kyūtei n 宮廷 (imperial/royal) court Kyū-yaku seisho n 旧約聖書 the Old Testament kyū´yo n 給与 allowance, grant, compensation, salary (= sárarii サラリー, kyü´ryø 給料): ~-meisai (sho) 給与明細書 pay slip kyūyō n 休養 rest

M ma n 間 1. room; space (available) 2. time, interval; (= hima 暇) leisure: ma ni aimásu 間に合います → ma-ni-aimásu 間に合います ma... prefix 真... mid…, right…, very…; ma-fuyu n 真冬 midwinter; ma-hiru n 真昼 midday; ma-kká (na) adj 真っ赤(な) crimson, deep red: ~ ni narimásu 真っ赤になり ます turns red, flushes deeply; ma-kkúro (na) adj 真っ黒(な) jet

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black: ~ ni narimásu 真っ黒にな ります turns to a deep black; manatsu n 真夏 midsummer; ma-yónaka n 真夜中 midnight; ma-ssáka-sama (ni) adj 真っ逆さま(に) head over heels; ma-ssúgu (na) adj 真っ 直ぐ(な) straight mā´ まあ interj 1. oh well; I should say; perhaps, I guess 2. dear me! (mostly female); good heavens/grief! 160

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ma-bátaki n █ࡀ wink(ing),

blink(ing) mabayui adj ┾࠷ [BOOKISH]


…máde suffix, conj …ࡱ࡚ (all the

way) to, till, until … máde ni suffix, conj …ࡱ࡚࡞

dazzling, glaring

by, no later than, before (it gets to be time) … máde ni wa suffix, conj …ࡱ࡚ ࡞ࡢ by … at the latest mádo n ✾ window; mado-gárasu n ✾࢝ࣚࢪ windowpane; madó-guchi n ✾ཾ window (opening), wicket maekagami n ๑ᑿࡲ leaning forward: ~ ni narimásu ๑ᑿࡲ࡞࡝ ࡽࡱࡌ leans forward mae-mótte adv ๑ࡵࡖ࡙ (in) admakes an appointment vance (beforehand) machibuse n ᙽࡔఄࡎ ambush mae-muki (no) adj ๑ྡྷࡀ ࡡ machidōshíi adj ᙽࡔ㐪ࡊ࠷ long 1. far-sighted (forward-looking) awaited; waiting for a long time 2. positive, constructive, affirmmachigáe n 㛣㐢࠻ = machigái 㛣 ative: ~ (na) shikø ๑ྡྷࡀ ࡝ ᛦ 㐢࠷ (mistake, error) → machi⩻ positive thinking gaemásu 㛣㐢࠻ࡱࡌ máe (ni) adv ๑ ࡞ front; in front machigaemásu, machigáéru v 㛣㐢࠻ of; before, ago: suru ~ ni ࡌࡾ ࡱࡌ, 㛣㐢࠻ࡾ mistakes ๑࡞ before doing machigái n 㛣㐢࠷ mistake, error maeoki n ๑⨠ࡀ introduction maeuri n ๑኉ࡽ advanced sale: (= misu ࣐ࢪ, erå ࢙࣭ࣚ) machigaimásu, machigáu v 㛣㐢࠷ࡱ ~-ken ๑኉ࡽไ advanced-sale ࡌ, 㛣㐢࠹ is mistaken, is wrong, ticket mafurā n ࣏ࣆ࣭ࣚ muffler, scarf is in error machigátta adj 㛣㐢ࡖࡒ wrong mafia n ࣏ࣆ࢔࢓ Mafia mafin n ࣏ࣆ࢔ࣤ muffin (mistaken) machimásu, mátsu v ᙽࡔࡱࡌ, ᙽࡗ magao n ┷㢞 serious/earnest/ waits for, expects, anticipates sober/conscientious/honest look (on one’s face) (= majime na kao máchínē n ࣏ࢲࢾ࣭ matinee máda adv ࡱࡓ 1. (not) yet [+ NEGA- ┷㟻┘࡝㢞, shinken na kao ┷ TIVE verb] 2. still (to be) ๟࡝㢞) madara n ᩤ spots, speckles: ~ no magari ᭜࠿ࡽ n a curve, a bend: ᩤࡡ spotted heso-~ ࡫ࡐ᭜࠿ࡽ perverted 161 māburu n ࣏࣭ࣇࣜ marble mabushíi adj ┾ࡊ࠷ dazzling, glaring (= mabayui ┾࠷) mábuta n ࡱࡩࡒ࣬▓ eyelid macchi n ࣏ࢴࢲ match machí n ⏣࣬⾜ town, city: ~ no ⏣ࡡ local (→ chō´chō ⏣㛏) māchi n ࣏࣭ࢲ march machi-awasemásu, machi-awaseru v ᙽࡔྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, ᙽࡔྙࢂࡎࡾ

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person; ~-kado ᭜࠿ࡽぽ street corner magari n 㛣ೇࡽ renting a room; magari-nin n 㛣ೇࡽெ tenant (of apartment, room) magarimásu, magaru v ᭜࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, ᭜࠿ࡾ 1. turns, goes around 2. it bends, curves māgarin n ࣏࣭࢝ࣛࣤ margarine magemásu, mageru v ᭜ࡅࡱࡌ, ᭜ࡅࡾ bends it, curves it magiremásu, magiréru v ⣦ࡿࡱࡌ, ⣦ࡿࡾ: (… ni ~ …࡞⣦ࡿࡾ) gets distracted (by …); gets confused (with …), gets mixed up (with) … mágiwa (ni/de) suffix, adv …㛣㝷 ࡞࡚ just before …, right on the brink of (when) … magó n Ꮨ grandchild: o-~-san ࠽ Ꮨࡈࢆ (your/someone else’s) grandchild magó n 㤷Ꮔ a packhorse driver magokoro n ┷ᚨ sincerity: ~ o ko-


maimásu ⯑ࢅ⯑࠷ࡱࡌ dances mai-… prefix Ẏ… each, every; mai-asa n, adv Ẏ᭽ every morning; mai-ban n, adv Ẏᬄ every night; mai-do n, adv Ẏᗐ every time; mai-getsu, mai-tsuki n, adv Ẏ᭮ every month; mai-kai n, adv Ẏᅂ every time, each time; mai-nen, mai-toshi n, adv Ẏᖳ every year; mái-nichi n, adv Ẏ᪝ every day; all the time: ~ no Ẏ᪝ࡡ daily; ~ no yø´ni Ẏ᪝ࡡࡻ࠹࡞ almost everyday; mai-shū n, adv Ẏ㐄 every week: ~ no Ẏ㐄ࡡ weekly; mai-toshi → mai-nen; mai-tsuki → mai-getsu; mai-yo n, adv Ẏእ every night (= mai-ban Ẏᬄ) …´-mai suffix …ᯓ (counts flat things) máigo n ㏖Ꮔ a lost child mai-hōmu n ࣏࢕࣭࣑࣌ owned

house, one’s house and home; mai-hōmu-shugi(-sha) n ࣏࢕࣭࣑࣌ ୹⩇ ⩽ family-centred person mete hanashimásu ┷ᚨࢅ㎰ࡴ࡙ (= kazoku-omoi no hito ᐓ᪐ᛦ ヨࡊࡱࡌ talks sincerely ࠷ࡡெ) magure (atari) n ࡱࡃࡿ ᙔࡒࡽ mainasu n ࣏࢕ࢻࢪ less (minus); fluke, (dumb/good) luck, accident, a minus, a disadvantage mairimáshita v ཤࡽࡱࡊࡒ, [INFORfortuity (= güzen ഃ↓): ~ de kachimásu ࡱࡃࡿ࡚ົࡔࡱࡌ MAL] máitta ཤࡖࡒ You’ve got wins by a fluke me!; gives up, goes down maguro n ࣏ࢡࣞ࣬㩡 tuna mairimásu, máiru v ཤࡽࡱࡌ, ཤࡾ magusa n ࡱࡃࡈ>⛎࣬㤷ⲙ@ hay 1. [HUMBLE] I come/go 2. [HUMBLE] visits, calls on 3. is defeated, loses máhi n ࣏ࣃ࣬㯖⑯ paralysis mahō´ n 㨩Ἢ magic; mahō´-bin n (= køsan 㜾ཤ) 4. is floored, 㨩Ἢ⎴>ࡦࢆ࣬ࣄࣤ@ vacuum/ stumped maisō n ᇔⴷ burial thermos bottle mai n ⯑ (Japanese) dance: ~ o mājan n ࣏࣭ࢩࣔࣤ࣬㯖㞓 mah162

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man(-) …

jong: ~-ya ࣏࣭ࢩࣔࣤ>㯖㞓@ᒁ makú n ᖞ (stage) curtain; (play) mahjong parlor act majime (na) adj ┷㟻┘ ࡝ serious, maku ai n ᖞ㛣 intermission earnest, sober, conscientious, (between acts) makunóuchi n ᖞࡡහ a riceball honest mājin n ࣏࣭ࢩࣤ margin lunch(box) majinai n ࡱࡋ࡝࠷࣬࿖࠷ 1. charm mákura n ࡱࡂࡼ࣏࣬ࢠࣚ࣬ᯎ 2. curse 3. spell, magic, incanta- pillow tion; majinai-shi n ࡱࡋ࡝࠷>࿖࠷@ mama n ࣏࣏ 1. (baby talk) momᖅ witch doctor my, mom (= kå-chan ẍࡔࡶࢆ) majirimásu, majíru v Ίࡋࡽࡱࡌ, 2. hostess (in a bar, etc.) Ίࡋࡾ it mixes (with) mama-… prefix ࡱࡱ>⤽@ step; majiwarimásu, majiwáru v ஹࢂࡽࡱ mama-chichi n ࡱࡱ>⤽@∏ stepࡌ, ஹࢂࡾ associates with father; mama-haha n ࡱࡱ>⤽@ẍ majo n 㨩ዥ witch stepmother; mama-ko n ࡱࡱ>⤽@ makasemásu, makaséru v ௴ࡎࡱࡌ, Ꮔ stepchild ௴ࡎࡾ entrusts with mā-mā adj, adv ࡱ࠵ࡱ࠵ (just) makashimásu, makasu v ㇿ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, so-so, not bad ㇿ࠾ࡌ defeats … mamá (de/no) suffix, adv, adj … make ㇿࡄ n defeat, loss ࡱࡱ ࡚ࡡ intact, untouched/ makemásu, makeru v ㇿࡄࡱࡌ, ㇿ undisturbed: sono ~ de ࡐࡡࡱࡱ ࡄࡾ loses, is defeated; comes ࡚ just as it is/was mamé n ࣏࣒࣬㇃ bean(s) down on the price; is inferior mākétto n ࣏࣭ࢢࢴࢹ market mamé n ࡱࡴ blister maki n ⷼ firewood mame (na) adj ࡱࡴ ࡝ diligent/ maki n 1. ᕬࡀ a roll; a volume dedicated (person) 2. (…-maki …ᕬࡀ) a bolt (of cloth) mame (ni) adv ࡱࡴ ࡞ often, makimásu, maku v ᕬࡀࡱࡌ, ᕬࡂ frequently: heya o ~ ni søji shirolls up; winds; wraps; maki-tábako másu 㒂ᒁࢅࡱࡴ࡞ᤪ㝎ࡊࡱࡌ n ᕬࡀࢰࣁࢤ cigarette(s) cleans the room often makimásu, máku v ⵏࡀࡱࡌ, ⵏࡂ ma-mó-naku adv 㛣ࡵ࡝ࡂ soon, sows (seed); maki-e n ⵏ ࡀ ⤦ before long, shortly raised lacquer mamorimásu, mamóru v Ꮼࡽࡱࡌ, makoto (no) adj ㄌ>┷@ࡱࡆ࡛ ࡡ Ꮼࡾ defends, protects, guards mán n ୒ ten thousand 10,000 sincere; faithful; true; genuine man(-) … prefix ‫ …‮‬fully …; man(= honto (no), hontø (no) ᮇᙔ chō n ‫ ₳‮‬high tide; man-getsu n ࡡ ): ~ ni ㄌ>┷@࡞ sincerely 163

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manabimásu, manabu

‫‮‬᭮ full moon; man’-in n ‫‮‬ဤ full (of people); man-jō-icchi n ‫‮‬ ሔୌ⮬ unanimous (agreement); man-men n ‫‮‬㟻 the whole face: tokui ~ desu ᚋណ‫‮‬㟻࡚ࡌ is

>₌⏤@႖Ⲍ manga cafe manhōru n ࣏࣭ࣤ࣌ࣜ manhole ma-ni-aimásu, ma-ni-áu v 㛣࡞ྙ࠷ ࡱࡌ, 㛣࡞ྙ࠹: … ni ma-niaimásu …࡞㛣࡞ྙ࠷ࡱࡌ is in proud as a peacock, is in triumph; time (for …); ma-ni-aimasén 㛣 man-pai adj ‫‮‬᮴ is filled: yoyaku ࡞ྙ࠷ࡱࡎࢆ arrives too late (for ga ~-pai desu ஢⣑࠿‫‮‬᮴࡚ࡌ is …), misses (the train/bus/plane) fully booked; man-puku n, v ‫ ⭙‮‬ma-ni-awase v 㛣࡞ྙࢂࡎ makefull stomach; man-rui n ‫‮‬ማ (base- shift ball) with the bases loaded: ~ hø- ma-ni-awasemásu, ma-ni-awaséru v 㛣 muran ‫‮‬ማ࣭࣑࣌ࣚࣤ a grand ࡞ྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, 㛣࡞ྙࢂࡎࡾ: … slam; man-tan n ‫ ࣤࢰ‮‬full tank; de ma-ni-awasemásu …࡚㛣࡞ man-ten n ‫‮‬Ⅴ perfect score; man- ྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ makes do (with …) ten n ‫‮‬ኮ the whole sky mán’ichi n ୒ୌ = mán ga ichi ୒ manabimásu, manabu v Ꮥࡦࡱࡌ, ࠿ୌ if by any chance Ꮥࡩ learns, studies manjū´ n 㤕㢄 a steamed bun manaitá n ࡱ࡝ᯀ chopping board stuffed with ground pork manmosu n ࣏࣓ࣤࢪ mammoth: (for cooking) manazashi n ╉ᕣࡊ a look in ~ no kiba ࣏࣓ࣤࢪࡡ∫ mamone’s eyes: yasashii ~ ඁࡊ࠷╉ moth tusks ᕣࡊ gentle look in one’s eyes: mannén-hitsu n ୒ᖳ➱ fountain pen utagai no ~ ␪࠷ࡡ╉ᕣࡊ a manneri(zumu) n ࣏ࣤࢾࣛ ࢫ࣑

suspicious look in one’s eyes


manbiki n ୒ᘤࡀ shoplifting, shop- manpokei n ୒Ṅ゛ pedometer mánshon n ࣏ࣤࢨࣘࣤ a luxury lifter manbyō n ୒⑋ all kinds of disease apartment (house) mane n ┷జ imitation, mimicry mánto n ࣏ࣤࢹ cloak mánē´jā n ࣏ࢾ࣭ࢩ࣭ࣔ manager mantora n ࣏ࣤࢹࣚ mantra: ~ o manekimásu, manéku v ᣅࡀࡱࡌ, ᣅ tonaemásu ࣏ࣤࢹࣚࢅ၌࠻ࡱࡌ ࡂ invites chants mantra manekin n ࣏ࢾ࢞ࣤ mannequin mantsūman adv ࣏ࣤࢵ࣭࣏ࣤ onemanekineko n ᣅࡀ⊟ beckoning cat to-one, one-on-one: ~ ressun o manemásu, maneru v ┷జࡱࡌ, ┷ ukemásu ࣏ࣤࢵ࣭࣏ࣤࣝࢴࢪ జࡾ imitates ࣤࢅུࡄࡱࡌ has one-to-one manga n ࣏ࣤ࢝࣬₌⏤ cartoon, lesson(s) comics, manga: ~-kissa ࣏ࣤ࢝ manugare[manukare]másu, manugareru

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(manukaréru) v ࡱ࡟࠿ࡿ>ࡱ࡟࠾ ࡿ@ࡱࡌ࣬ඞࡿࡱࡌ, ࡱ࡟࠿ࡿࡾ >ࡱ࡟࠾ࡿࡾ@࣬ඞࡿࡾ escapes

࡝ as if: maru de kodomo no yø (na) ࡱࡾ࡚Ꮔ౩ࡡࡻ࠹ ࡝

just like a child

marui adj ୷࠷ round shi o manugaremásu Ṓࢅඞࡿࡱ maru ku adv ୷ࡂ roundly: me o ~ ࡌ escapes death ku shimásu ┘ࢅ୷ࡂࡊࡱࡌ (with) manzái n ₌ᡧ cross-talk comedy: wide eyes; se o ~ ku shimásu ⫴ ~ konbi ₌ᡧࢤࣤࣄ a comic duo ࢅ୷ࡂࡊࡱࡌ hunches up mánzoku (na) adj ‫‮‬㊂ ࡝ satismaruta n ୷ኯ log másaka ࡱࡈ࠾ 1. adv ~ …dewa factory: ( … de) ~ shimásu … ࡚ ‫‮‬㊂ࡊࡱࡌ is satisfied/ nai (desu) yo ne? ࡱࡈ࠾࡚ࡢ ࡝࠷ ࡚ࡌ ࡻࡠ" Don’t tell me contented (with …) marason n ࣏ࣚࢮࣤ jog(ging); that… 2. interj no kidding!;

from, is exempt from, avoids:



maré (na) adj ⛝ ࡝ rare, infrequent: ~ ni ⛝࡞ rarely Marēshia n ࣏࣭ࣝࢨ࢓ Malaysia; Marēshia-jin n ࣏࣭ࣝࢨ࢓ெ a Malaysian; Marēshia-go n ࣏࣭ࣝࢨ࢓ ㄊ Bahasa Malaysia (language) mari n ࡱࡽ࣏࣬ࣛ࣬㠥 ball,

mása-ni adv ࡱࡈ࡞ exactly, just;

(Japanese) temari ball marine n ࣏ࣛࢾ marinade marifana n ࣏ࣛࣆ࢒ࢻ marijuana maru n ୷࣬ࡱࡾ circle, ring; zero maru(-) … prefix ୷࣬ࡱࡾ … fully, whole…; maru-anki n ୷ᬧ エ rote learning; maru-utsushi n ୷ ෕ࡊ copying entirely; maru-yaki n ୷↕ࡀ whole roast; maru-yake n ୷↕ࡄ total loss (by fire) maru de adj ࡱࡾ࡚ 1. completely [+ NEGATIVE]: Nihon to ~ chigau/

mashi ቌࡊ n an increase; a sur-

kotonaru bunka ᪝ᮇ࡛ࡱࡾ࡚ 㐢࠹␏࡝ࡾᩝ໩ quite different culture from Japanese 2. maru de …no yø (na) ࡱࡾ࡚ࡡࡻ࠹

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certainly, really masarimásu, masáru v ົࡽࡱࡌ, ົ ࡾ surpasses, is superior masatsu n ࡱࡈࡗ࣬᦮᧷ friction: karada o ~ మࢅ᦮᧷ࡊࡱࡌ rubs

(oneself) down charge mashimásu, masu v ቌࡊࡱࡌ, ቌࡌ

increases, raises, swells mashumaro n ࣏ࢨ࣏ࣖࣞ marsh-

mallow massā´ji n ࣏ࢴࢦ࣭ࢩ massage: ~-shi ࣏ࢴࢦ࣭ࢩᖅ masseur massatsu n ᢧṽ [BOOKISH] elimina-

tion, murder, killing masshurūmu n ࣏ࢴࢨ࣭࣑ࣖࣜ

mushroom masú n ࣏ࢪ࣬㫗 trout masu-komi n ࣏ࢪࢤ࣐ mass

communication (media) masukotto n ࣏ࢪࢤࢴࢹ mascot


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másuku n ࣏ࢪࢠ mask (= kamen ௫㟻) masú-masu adv ─ࠍ more and

more, increasingly masutādo n ࣏ࢪࢰ࣭ࢺ mustard (= karashi ࢜ࣚࢨ࣬ⰨᏄ) masuto n ࣏ࢪࢹ mast matá conj, prep ࡱࡒ࣬ཧ again; moreover: ~ dø´zo ࡱࡒ࡜࠹ࡑ

mátsu n ࣏ࢵ࣬ᮿ pine tree (= ~-no-kí ᮿࡡᮄ) matsuba-zúe n ᮿⴝᮣ crutch(es) mátsuge n ࡱࡗࡅ࣬╨ ẗ eye-

lash(es) matsuri n ⚅ࡽfestival matsutake n ࣏ࢵࢰࢢ࣬ᮿⲎ a kind

of mushroom (thumb-shaped)

matsu-yani n ᮿ⬙ pine resin mattaku adv ධࡂ quite, completely, Please (come, etc.) again. matá n ⫝̸ crotch, groin exactly (= zenzen ධ↓): ~ no ධ máta conj ࡱࡒ࣬ཧ and also/ ࡂࡡ perfect mátto n ࣏ࢴࢹ mat another/more (= … mo ~ … ࡵࡱࡒ) mawari n ࿔ࡽ: (… no) ~ (ni/no) matagarimásu, matagáru v ㊤࠿ࡽ …ࡡ ࿔ࡽ ࡞ࡡ around … mawari… prefix ᅂࡽ revolving ࡱࡌ, ㊤࠿ࡾ: … ni ~ …࡞㊤࠿ ࡽࡱࡌ straddles, sits astride, …, rotating…; mawari-butai n ᅂ mounts, rides; stretches/extends ࡽ⯑ྋ revolving stage; mawarikaidan n ᅂࡽ㝭ṹ spiral stairway; over, spans matagimásu, matágu v ㊤ࡁࡱࡌ, ㊤ mawarí-michi n ᅂࡽ㐠 detour mawari-kudoi adj ᅂࡽࡂ࡜࠷ ࡃ strides over matátakí n █ࡀ blink(ing) → roundabout matátakímásu █ࡀࡱࡌ blinks mawarimásu, mawaru v ࿔ࡽࡱࡌ, mátá-wa conj ࡱࡒࡢ࣬ཧࡢ or, or ࿔ࡾ goes around else, on the other hand; also; and/or mawarimásu, mawaru v ᅂࡽࡱࡌ, matcha n ᢧⲌ powdered green tea ᅂࡾ turns, revolves, circulates,

(for tea ceremony) mátchi n ࣏ࢴࢲ match(es) (for fire); matchí-bako n ࣏ࢴࢲ⟵

rotates mawashi n ᅂࡊ sumo wrestler’s

belt (loincloth)

mawashimásu, mawasu v ᅂࡊࡱࡌ matchbox mato n Ⓩ target, aim ᅂࡌ turns it around, passes it matomarimásu, matomaru v ࡱ࡛ࡱࡽ around, circulates it ࡱࡌ, ࡱ࡛ࡱࡾ is settled, mawata n ┷⥝ floss silk mayaku n 㯖ⷾ narcotic(s), dope arranged, finished matomemásu, matomeru v ࡱ࡛ࡴࡱ (= kusuri ࢠࢪࣛ࣬ⷾ, yaku ࣕࢠ ࡌ, ࡱ࡛ࡴࡾ settles, arranges, ࣬ⷾ, yakubutsu ⷾ∸) mayoimásu, mayóu v ㏖࠷ࡱࡌ, finishes

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㏖࠹ gets lost; gets perplexed mayonēzu n ࣏ࣙࢾ࣭ࢫ mayon-


megumimásu, megumu

medama-yaki n ┘⋚↕ࡀ fried egg(s) medarisuto n ࣒ࢱࣛࢪࢹ medalist medaru n ࣒ࢱࣜ medal medátta … v ┘❟ࡖࡒ… outstanding, conspicuous → medachimásu ┘❟ࡔࡱࡌ medátte adv ┘❟ࡖ࡙ outstandingly, conspicuously: medátte imásu ┘❟ࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is

máyu n ┩ eyebrow(s) máyu n ࣏ࣗ࣬⧓ cocoon mazarimásu, mazáru v Ίࡉࡽࡱࡌ, Ίࡉࡾ it mixes mazemásu, mazéru v Ίࡏࡱࡌ, Ί ࡏࡾ mixes it mázu adv ࡱࡍ first of all, before outstanding, conspicuous → anything else (= saisho (ni) ᭩ิ medachimásu ┘❟ࡔࡱࡌ ࡞ , hajime (ni) ิࡴ ࡞ ) medetái adj ࡴ࡚ࡒ࠷ 1. happy mázu adv ࡱࡍ perhaps, nearly (events), matter for congratulamazúi adj ୘࿝࠷ untasty, badtion 2. = o-medetái ࠽ࡴ࡚ࡒ࠷

tasting mazúi adj 1. ࡱࡍ࠷ poor, awkward 2. inadvisable 3. ugly mazushíi adj ㈃ࡊ࠷ poor (needy) mé n ┘ eye: taihen na ~ ni aimásu ኬን࡝┘࡞࠵࠷ࡱࡌ (has/

simple-minded, optimistic; idiot médo n 㔢Ꮗ the eye of a needle médo n ┘ฌ aim (= méate ┘ᙔ࡙) mēdo n ࣒࣭ࢺ maid megabaito n ࣒࢝ࣁ࢕ࢹ megabyte

(MB) megakemásu, megakéru v ┘᤻ࡄࡱ undergoes) a hard experience mé n ⰾ bud ࡌ, ┘᤻ࡄࡾ aims at: … o …-me interj …ࡴ࣬ዦ [deprecates megákete …ࢅ┘࠿ࡄ࡙ (aiming) people] damn (fool) …: baka-~ at, (going) toward ࡣ࠾ࡴ࣬㤷㮭ࡴ damn (fool) idiot mégane n ࣒࢝ࢾ࣬╉㙶 (eye) …-mé suffix …┘ [NUMERAL] -th: glasses: ~ o kakemásu ࣒࢝ࢾ>╉ itsutsu-~ ஫ࡗ┘ fifth 㙶@ࢅ᤻ࡄࡱࡌ puts on (wears) méate n ┘ᙔ࡙ a guide (for the glasses megumaremásu, megumareru v ᜠࡱ eye); aim mechamecha adj ࡴࡔࡶࡴࡔࡶ࣬ ࡿࡱࡌ, ᜠࡱࡿࡾ gets blessed: ┘Ⲍ┘Ⲍ in pieces, all confused, … ni megumárete imásu …࡞ᜠ in disorder: ~ ni shimásu ࡴࡔࡶ ࡱࡿ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is blessed with … ࡴࡔࡶ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ ruins, upsets, megumi n ᜠࡲ blessing, mercy, messes up charity medachimásu, medátsu v ┘❟ࡔࡱ megumimásu, megumu v ᜠࡲࡱࡌ, ࡌ, ┘❟ࡗ stands out, becomes ᜠࡳ blesses with, gives mercifully conspicuous (in charity) 167

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megurimásu, meguru


megurimásu, meguru v ᕙࡽࡱࡌ, ᕙࡾ centers on, surrounds, con-

some; (… ni) (go-)~ o kakemásu …࡞ ࡇ ㏖ᝠࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ cerns causes (one) trouble me-gúsuri n ┘ⷾ࣬╉ⷾ eye lotion, meiwaku-mēru n ㏖ᝠ࣒࣭ࣜ e-mail eye drops spam, junk mail méi n ጬ = meikko ጬࡖᏄ niece méiyo n ྞ・ prestige, honor, …´-mei suffix …ྞ (counts people) glory [BOOKISH] (= …-nin …ெ): ichí-~ mē´kā n ࣒࣭࣭࢜ maker, manuୌྞ one person facturer meibo n ྞ⡑ list (catalog) of me-kákushi n ┘㝻ࡊ a blindfold mekata n ┘᪁ weight names, directory, register, roll méibutsu n ྞ∸ a local specialty, me-kyábetsu n ⰾ࢞ࣔ࣊ࢵ Brussels a special attraction, a famous sprouts mēkyáppu n ࣒࣭࢞ࣔࢴࣈ makeup product méigo-san n ጬᚒࡈࢆ (your) niece mémo n ࣒࣓ memo(-randum), meihaku (na) adj ᪺Ⓣ ࡝ clear, note; memo-chō n ࣒࣓ᖋ note pad, obvious, explicit tablet mei-jimásu, mei-jiru v ࿤ࡋࡱࡌ, ࿤ memorii n ࣒࣓࣭ࣛ (computer) ࡋࡾ commands; appoints, nomemory (= yøryø ᐖ㔖): ~ ga tarinai ࣒࣓࣭ࣛ࠿㊂ࡽ࡝࠷ runs minates, orders meijín n ྞெ expert out of memory meimon (no) adj ྞ㛓 ࡡ distin- men n 㟻 1. mask 2. face, front guished: ~-(gak-)kø ྞ㛓 Ꮥ ᰧ 3. surface (= hyømén ⾪㟻) mén n ⥝ cotton; mén-bō n ⥝Ფ distinguished school meirei n ࿤௦ order, command cotton swab meiro n ㏖㊨ labyrinth, maze mén n ࡴࢆ࣬㯕 noodles mé-isha n ┘࣬╉༈⩽ eye doctor, ménbā n ࣒ࣤࣁ࣭ member mendō n 㟻಻ trouble, bother, oculist meishi n ྞๆ business card, nuisance; mendō na 㟻಻࡝ bothercalling card, name card; meishí-ire some mendori n ࣒ࣤࢺࣛ hen n ྞๆථࡿ business card case meishi n ྞペ noun menjō´ n ඞ≟ license; diploma meisho n ྞᡜ famous place: menkai n 㟻ఌ interview, meeting kankø-~ びකྞᡜ famous sight- (= intabyü ࢕ࣤࢰࣄ࣭ࣖ) ménkyo(-sho) n ඞス チ 1. driver’s seeing spot méiwaku n ㏖ᝠ trouble, bother, license 2. license, permit ménseki n 㟻✒ area nuisance: ~ na ㏖ᝠ࡝ trouble168

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mentenansu n ࣒ࣤࢷࢻࣤࢪ main-

tenance ményū n ࣒ࢼ࣭ࣖ menu menzei (no) adj ඞ⛧ ࡡ tax-free/exempt: ~-hin ඞ⛧ဗ tax-free

goods mērā n ࣒࣭࣭ࣚ mailer (computer) merii gō rando n ࣒࣭ࣛࢥ࣭ࣚࣤࢺ

merry-go-round merodii n ࣒ࣞࢸ࢔࣭ melody méron n ࣒ࣞࣤ melon mēru n ࣒࣭ࣜ e-mail: ~ bokkusu ࣒࣭ࣜ࣍ࢴࢠࢪ e-mail box meshí n 㣜 cooked rice; a meal meshiagarimásu, meshiagaru v ྇ࡊ ୕࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, ྇ࡊ୕࠿ࡾ [HONORIFIC]

eats; drinks

meshí-bitsu n ࡴࡊࡦࡗ࣬㣜ᷤ rice

bucket/tub meshimásu, mésu v ྇ࡊࡱࡌ, ྇ࡌ

[in FORMAL SPEECH can replace such verbs as kimásu ╌ࡱࡌ (wears), tabemásu 㣏࡬ࡱࡌ (eats), nomimasu 㣟ࡲࡱࡌ (drinks), (kaze o) hikimásu 㢴㑟ࢅ ࡥࡀ ࡱࡌ (catches cold), etc., that


eye): ~ ga/no warui ┘௛ࡀ࠿ࡡ ᝇ࠷ has evil eyes métta (na) adj ⁓ኣ ࡝ reckless, rash métta (ni) adv ⁓ኣ ࡞ [ NEGATIVE verb] seldom: ~ ni nakimasen ⁓ ኣ࡞ἵࡀࡱࡎࢆ rarely cries meue (no) n ┘୕ ࡡ superior (in status/rank/age) meushi n 㞜∭ cow me-yaní n ┘ࡷ࡞ matter (gum, mucus) from the eye meyásu n ┘Ꮽ 1. a standard 2. guide; aim mezamashi (dokei) n ┘つࡱࡊ ᫤゛ alarm clock mezamemásu, mezaméru v ┘つࡴ ࡱࡌ, ┘つࡴࡾ awake mezashimásu, mezásu v ┘ᣞࡊࡱࡌ, ┘ᣞࡌ heads for (a destination) mezurashíi adj ⌃ࡊ࠷ rare, uncommon, novel, curious, unusual, unexpected (but welcome) mezuráshiku adv ⌃ࡊࡂ unusually mi n ᐁ 1. fruit 2. nut: ~ ga tawawani/takusan natteiru ki ᐁ

࠿ࡒࢂࢂ࡞ࡒࡂࡈࢆ࡝ࡖ࡙࠷ࡾ involve the body] meshitá (no) adj ┘ୖ ࡡ inferior ᮄ trees laden with fruit mi… prefix ᮅ un…; mi-chi (no) (in status/rank/age) meshi-tsúkai n ྇ࡊ౐࠷ servant adj ᮅ▩ ࡡ unknown; mi-hakken méssēji n ࣒ࢴࢬ࣭ࢩ message (no) adj ᮅⓆず ࡡ undiscovered; mesú n 㞜࣒࣬ࢪ female animal mi-hattatsu (no)/mi-kaihatsu (no) adj mesu n ࣒ࢪ surgeon’s knife ᮅⓆ㐡 ࡡ ᮅ㛜Ⓠ ࡡ unmētā n ࣒࣭ࢰ࣭ meter (device) developed; mi-kaiketsu (no) adj ᮅ mētoru n ࣒࣭ࢹࣜ meter(s) (of ゆỬ ࡡ unsolved; mi-kai (no) adj ᮅ㛜 ࡡ uncultivated, wild; length) mé-tsuki n ┘௛ࡀ a look (in one’s mi-kakunin (no) adj ᮅ☔ヾ ࡡ 169

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unidentified, unconfirmed; mi-kon (no) adj ᮅ፡ ࡡ unmarried: ~ no haha ᮅ፡ࡡẍ unmarried mother; mi-shō (no) adj ᮅリ ࡡ [BOOKISH] unknown: sakusha-~ ష⩽ᮅリ unknown author; mi-zō (no) adj ᮅ᭧᭯ ࡡ [BOOKISH] unprecedented, unheard-of mi n ㌗ body; mi ni amarimásu (amaru) v ㌗࡞ఴࡽࡱࡌ ఴࡾ : ~ køei desu ㌗࡞ఴࡾකᰜ࡚ࡌ It is an undeserved honor; mi ni shimimásu (shimiru) v ㌗࡞᯹ࡲࡱࡌ ᯹ࡲࡾ , mi ni shimimashita (shimita) ㌗ ࡞᯹ࡲࡱࡊࡒ ᯹ࡲࡒ ① It went to my heart. ② pierces one’s body: samusa ga ~ ᐨࡈ࠿ ㌗࡞᯹ࡲࡱࡌ The cold pierced me.; mi ni tsukemásu (tsukeru) v ㌗࡞ ࡗࡄࡱࡌ ࡗࡄࡾ ① wears, puts on ② learns, acquires; mi ni tsumasaremásu (tsumasareru) v ㌗࡞ࡗࡱ ࡈࡿࡱࡌ ࡗࡱࡈࡿࡾ hits close


ࡹࡓࡠࡱࡌ); mi o tatemásu (tateru) v ㌗ࢅ❟࡙ࡱࡌ ❟࡙ࡾ estab-

lishes oneself (as…), makes a career; mi o yudanemásu (yudaneru) v ㌗ࢅࡹࡓࡠࡱࡌ ࡹࡓࡠࡾ surrenders oneself (= mi o makasemásu (makaseru) ㌗ࢅ௴ ࡎࡱࡌ ௴ࡎࡾ ) mibō´-jin n ᮅஷெ widow míbun n ㌗ฦ social standing: ~-shømei-sho ㌗ฦチ᪺᭡ ID card

(driver’s license, insurance card, student ID card, alien registration card, etc.) míburi n ㌗ᣲࡽ gesture, movement (= jesuchå ࢩ࢘ࢪࢲ࣭ࣔ) michi n 㐠 1. way, path: ikiru ~ ⏍ ࡀࡾ㐠 the way to live: kami no ~ ♼ࡡ㐠 path of God 2. street, road; michi-bata n 㐠❻ wayside, roadside; michi-jun n 㐠㡨 the way, the route (on the road); michi-zure n 㐠㏻ࡿ travelling companion, fellow traveler michibikimásu, michibíku v ᑙࡀࡱࡌ, ᑙࡂ leads, guides michimásu, michíru v ‫ࡌࡱࡔ‮‬, ‫‮‬ ࡔࡾ gets complete, full midaré n ஗ࡿ disorder, messiness:

to home, feels deeply, sympathizes deeply; mi no okiba ga arimasen (nai) v ㌗ࡡ⨠ࡀሔ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡎ ࢆ ࡝࠷ There is no place to be/ go.; mi o hikimásu (hiku) v ㌗ࢅᘤࡀ ࡱࡌ ᘤࡂ ① retires ② recedes, kami no ~ o naoshimásu 㧝ࡡ stands down, backs off; mi o iremásu (ireru) v ㌗ࢅථࡿࡱࡌ ථࡿ ஗ࡿࢅ├ࡊࡱࡌ fixes one’s ࡾ puts oneself; mi o ko(na) ni shite messy hair hatarakimásu (hataraku) v ㌗ࢅ⢂࡞ midaremásu, midaréru v ஗ࡿࡱࡌ, ࡊ഼࡙ࡀࡱࡌ ഼ࡂ works hard, ஗ࡿࡾ gets disturbed, dissweats one’s guts out; mi o makaordered semásu (makaseru) v ㌗ࢅ௴ࡎࡱࡌ midashi n ずฝࡊ 1. heading, cap ௴ࡎࡾ surrenders oneself ㌗ࢅ tion, headline 2. a dictionary 170

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entry; a headword 3. contents, miitobōru n ࣐࣭ࢹ࣭࣍ࣜ meatball index, title mijikái adj ▯࠷ short (not long); midashimásu, midásu v ஗ࡊࡱࡌ, brief ஗ࡌ throws into disorder, upsets, mijíkáku adv ▯ࡂ briefly, short mijitaku n ㌗ᨥᗐ dressing oneself disturbs mídori (no) adj ⥫ ࡡ green: ~-iro mikagé-ishi n ᚒᙫ▴ granite ⥫Ⰵ green color mikake n ず࠾ࡄ appearance mié n ずᰜ show, display; mikake n ず᤻ࡄ outward appear(dramatic) pose: ~-ppari ずᰜ ance: ~ wa ず᤻ࡄࡢ outwardly, ࡖࡤࡽ a show-off: ~ o harimásu seemingly ずᰜࢅᘿࡽࡱࡌ shows off, puts mikaku n ࿝つ sense of taste míkan n ࣐࢜ࣤ࣬⻜᯷ tangerine, on air miemásu, miéru v ず࠻ࡱࡌ, ず࠻ࡾ mandarin (orange) 1. is visible, can be seen 2. ap- mikata n ࿝᪁ friend), accomplice, pears; shows up, comes 3. seems supporter, side: …no ~ ni tsukimigakimásu, migaku v ☳ࡀࡱࡌ, ☳ másu ࡡ࿝᪁࡞ࡗࡀࡱࡌ takes ࡂ polishes, shines sides with… migara n ㌗ᯮ ~ no køsoku ㌗ᯮ mi-kátá n ず᪁ a viewpoint: …no ~ o kaemásu ࡡず᪁ࢅን࠻ࡱ ࡡᣂᮨ custody migi n ྎ right (not left); migi-ashi n ࡌ changes one’s viewpoint: ~ ྎ㊂ right leg/foot; migi-dónari n ni yotte (wa) ず᪁࡞ࡻࡖ࡙ ࡢ ྎ㝼ࡽ next on the right; migi-kiki in a way (no) adj ྎฺࡀ ࡡ right-handed; mikazuki n ୔᪝᭮ crescent (moon) migi-máwari (ni) adv ྎᅂࡽ ࡞ míki n ᖷ trunk (of tree) clockwise; migi-te n ྎᡥ right hand míki n ♼㒿 saké offered to the gods mígoto (na) adj ず஥ ࡝ splendid, míkisā n ࣐࢞ࢦ࣭ blender mikka n ୔᪝ three days; 3rd day admirable, beautiful migurushíi adj ずⱖࡊ࠷ unseemly, (of month) mikomi n ず㎰ࡲ 1. promise, hope unsightly mí-hako n ୔⟵ three boxfuls 2. outlook, expectation 3. view, mihon n ずᮇ 1. a sample 2. model, opinion mikoshi n ず㉲ࡊ forethought example mii-hā´ n ࣐࣭ࣀ࣭ lowbrow person mikoshi n ࠽ࡲࡆࡊ࣬ᚒ㍷ portable míira n ࣐࢕ࣚ mummy shrine (for festival parades) mii´tingu n ࣐࣭ࢷ࢔ࣤࢡ meeting, mikuji n ࡲࡂࡋ࣬♼⡠ written fortune conference [FORMAL] (= [BOOKISH] mimai n ず⯑࠷ a visit (of solicikáigi ఌ㆗) tude): ~-kyaku ず⯑࠷ᐂ visitor 171

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… míman

… míman suffix …ᮅ‫ ‮‬less than,

below (a quantity, an age) mimásu, míru v ずࡱࡌ, ずࡾ sees, looks, watches; tries doing mimí n ⪝ ear: ~ ga tøi ⪝࠿㐪࠷ is hard of hearing mimi-kázari n ⪝㣥ࡽ earring mimiuchi n ⪝ᡬࡔ whisper(ing) mimoto n ㌗ඔ one’s identity: ~ fumei no shitai ㌗ඔ୘᪺ࡡṒమ

unidentified body

zénbu ධ㒂) : ~ de ࡲ ࢆ ࡝࡚࣬ ⓑ࡚ altogether minori n ᐁࡽ crop, harvest minorimásu, minóru v ᐁࡽࡱࡌ, ᐁ ࡾ bears fruit; ripens minoshirokin n ㌗௥㔘 ransom mi-no-take n ㌗ࡡ୓ 1. one’s height 2. one’s condition: ~ ni atta seikatsu o shimásu ㌗ࡡ୓࡞ ࠵ࡖࡒ⏍Ὡࢅࡊࡱࡌ lives within

one’s income

minami n ༞ south: ~-guchi ༞ཾ mi-no-ue n ㌗ࡡ୕ one’s station in the south exit/entrance; ~-yori life: ~-banashi ㌗ࡡ୕ヨ one’s (no kaze) ༞ᐞࡽ ࡡ㢴 southerly life story: ~-sødan ran ㌗ࡡ୕┞ ㄧḅ personal-advice column (wind) Minami-Ámerika n ༞࢓࣒ࣛ࢜ South minshū n Ằ⾏ the masses, the



mi-naraimásu, mi-narau v ず⩞࠷ࡱࡌ, minshúku n Ằᐙ bed and breakず⩞࠹ follows (learns from) the fast (B&B), family inn, hostelry, minshu-shúgi n Ằ୹୹⩇ democexample of miná-san, mina-sama n ⓑࡈࢆ, ⓑᵕ racy you all, everybody; (you) ladies minto n ࣐ࣤࢹ mint min’yō n Ằㅬ folk song, ballad and gentlemen minato n ῿ port mínzoku n Ằ᪐ (human) race mine n ᓙ peak, summit mioboe n ずつ࠻ recognition mineraru-wōtā n ࣐ࢾ࢚࣭ࣚࣜࢗࢰ mi-okurimásu, mi-okuru v ず㏞ࡽࡱ ࣭ mineral water ࡌ, ず㏞ࡾ sees (them) off mingei(-hin) n Ằⰹ ဗ folkcraft miomo n ㌗㔔 pregnant female mí ni-… prefix, v ず࡞: mí ni mírai n ᮅᮮ future iku ず࡞⾔ࡂ [goes] to see mirin n ࣐ࣛࣤ࣬࿝㓜 sweet rice minikúi adj 㓮࠷ ugly wine (for cooking) mini-sukāto n ࣐ࢼࢪ࣭࢜ࢹ mini- mirú-gai n ࣐ࣜ࢝࢕࣬ࡲࡾㇽ surf


clam, geoduck

minkan (no) adj Ằ㛣 ࡡ civil(ian), míruku n ࣐ࣜࢠ milk (= gyünyü ∭஘): ~-së´ki ࣐ࣜࢠࢬ࣭࢞ milkprivate (non-government) mi(n)ná n ࡲ ࢆ ࡝࣬ⓑ everybody, shake all; everything, all, completely (= miryoku n 㨡ງ charm (attraction);

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miryoku-teki (na) adj 魅力的(な)

looks (like); [NOUN] ~ desu みた charming いです, [NOUN] datta ~ desu だ mísa n ミサ (Catholic) mass ったみたいです; verb-(r)u/-tai misairu n ミサイル missile ~ desu –う(る)/たみたいです, misakai-nai/naku adj, adv 見境ない/ [ADJECTIVE]-i/ -katta ~ desu い/ なく indiscriminate(ly) かったみたいです misaki n 岬 cape, headland mitake n 身丈 1. total length of garment 2. one’s height 3. one’s misao n 操 chastity situation mise n 店 store, shop mise-kake (no) adj 見せかけ(の) mitama n 御霊 [HONORIFIC] departsham, make-believe, pretend(ed) ed soul misemásu, miséru v 見せます, 見せ mitame n 見た目 physical appearance る shows mise-mónó n 見せ物 show, exhibi- mitashimásu, mitásu v 満たします, tion, exhibit 満たす fills up, satisfies mishō (no) adj 実生(の) seedling mitate n 見立て diagnosis, selection: isha no ~ 医者の見立て míso n 味噌 (fermented) 1. bean paste (→ miso-shíru 味噌汁) 2. doctor’s opinion: fuku no ~ 服の child who is considered to be 見立て choosing clothes (for someimmature (while playing, etc.) one) misogi n 禊 purification mitei n 未定 to be determined misoji n みそじ・三十路 thirty mitomemásu, mitomeru v 認めます, years old 認める recognizes, acknowledges, admits misoka n 晦日 last day of month misoppa n 味噌っ歯 decayed tooth mitorimásu, mitoru v 看取ります, 看 misora n 身空 oneself, one’s sta取る 1. cares for the sick, nurses tion in life: wakai ~ de… 若い身 2. attends to someone on his/her deathbed 空で... …at such a young age miso-shíru n 味噌汁 soup seasoned mitorizu n 見取り図 blueprint, with miso, miso soup sketch missetsu (na) adj 密接(な) thick, mitōshi n 見通し prospect, outlook dense; close, intimate mikoshi 見越し forethought misu n 御簾 bamboo blind mítsú n 三つ = mittsú 三つ (three) mísu n ミス miss, mistake mítsu n ミツ・蜜 honey; mitsú-bachi n ミツバチ・蜜蜂 (honey-)bee … mítai desu …みたいです (= … no yø´desu (/da, na, de, ni) …の mitsugo n 三つ子 1. triplets 2. three year-old (child) 様です(/だ, な, で ,に) seems/ 173

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mitsukarimásu, mitsukaru

mitsukarimásu, mitsukaru v ずࡗ࠾ࡽ ࡝ enchanting ࡱࡌ, ずࡗ࠾ࡾ is found, discov- miya n ᐋ 1. o-miya ࠽ᐋ Shinto ered; it turns up shrine 2. prince, princess mitsukemásu, mitsukeru v ずࡗࡄࡱ miyage n 土産 souvenir miyako n 㒌 capital city ࡌ, ずࡗࡄࡾ finds, discovers mi-tsumemásu, mi-tsumeru v ずࡗࡴ miyori n ㌗ᐞࡽ relatives: ~ no nai ࡱࡌ, ずࡗࡴࡾ gazes at, stares at kodomo ㌗ᐞࡽࡡ࡝࠷Ꮔ౩ child mi-tsumori n ず✒ࡵࡽ an estimate who has no relatives (to rely mi-tsumorimásu, mi-tsumóru v ず✒ on): no nai otoshiyori/kørei-sha tachi ㌗ᐞࡽࡡ࡝࠷࠽ᖳᐞࡽ㧏 ࡵࡽࡱࡌ, ず✒ࡵࡾ estimates, 㱃⩽ࡒࡔ old people who have rates mítsu (na) adj ᐠ ࡝ dense, thick no (supportive) relatives mitsurin n ᐠᯐ jungle mizo n ‹ drain, ditch, gutter mitsuyu n ᐠ㍲ smuggling mizoochi n 㫸ᑹ pit of the stomach mittsú n ୔ࡗ three; three years mizore n 㟋 sleet old (= san-sai ୔ṋ): mittsu-mé mizu n Ề(not hot) water: tsumetai ୔ࡗ┘ third ~ ෫ࡒ࠷Ề cold water: nurui ~ mittsū n ᐠ㏳ adultery, intrigue ࡟ࡾ࠷Ề lukewarm water; mizubúsoku n Ề୘㊂ water shortage; miuchi n ㌗හ family, close relamizu-gi n Ề╌ swim suit, bathing tives and close friends miugoki n, v ㌗ິࡀ [(usually) suit; mizu-taki n Ề⅍ࡀ chicken, +NEGATIVE] 1. moving oneself: bean curd, etc., dipped into hot man’indensha de ~ (ga) toremasen broth till ready to eat; mizu-wari ‫‮‬ဤ㞹㌬࡚㌗ິࡀ ࠿ ࡛ࡿࡱࡎࢆ n Ề๪ࡽ (highball of) whisky is stuck on a packed train 2. acts and water freely: shigoto ga isogashikute ~ mizū´mi n ‘ lake (ga) toremasen ௘஥࠿ᚹࡊࡂ࡙ mo n ႕ mourning: ~ ni fukushi㌗ິࡀ ࠿ ࡛ࡿࡱࡎࢆ is tied up másu ႕࡞᭱ࡊࡱࡌ mourns (the

with busy work


mi-ukemásu, mi-ukéru v ずུࡄࡱࡌ, … mo suffix, prep …ࡵ too, also, ずུࡄࡾ observes, happens to even; (not)… either/even; indeed; see; appears (to be) number mo ࡵ [+ NEGATIVE] not mi-wakemásu, mi-wakéru v ずฦࡄࡱ even (so much as), [+ AFFIRMATIVE] ࡌ, ずฦࡄࡾ discriminates, distin- as many/much as, all of … mo … mo conj …ࡵ…ࡵ both guishes miwaku n 㨡ᝠ [BOOKISH] enchant- …and …; [+ NEGATIVE] neither ment; miwaku teki (na) adj 㨡ᝠⓏ … nor …

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mōkarimásu, mōkáru

mō´ adv ࡵ࠹ already; now: ~ súgu ࡵ࠹ࡌࡃ right away mō adj ࡵ࠹ more; (not) … any more: ~ hitóri ࡵ࠹ୌெ another (one more) person; ~ hitótsu ࡵ࠹ ୌࡗ another, one more, the other one; ~ ichi-dó/ík-kái ࡵ࠹ୌᗐ ୌᅂ one more time, again; ~ sukóshi ࡵ࠹ᑛࡊ (a bit) more mochi n 㣨 rice cake mochi-agemásu, mochi-agéru v ᣚࡔ ୕ࡅࡱࡌ, ᣚࡔ୕ࡅࡾ lifts mochi-awase n ᣚࡔྙࢂࡎ what is

modorimásu, modóru v ᡘࡽࡱࡌ, ᡘ ࡾ goes back, returns, reverts modoshimásu, modósu v ᡘࡊࡱࡌ, ᡘࡌ 1. vomits 2. sends back,

returns moegara n ⇖࠻Ṿ cinder(s) moemásu, moeru v ⇖࠻ࡱࡌ, ⇖࠻ ࡾ (fire) burns mō´fu n ẗᕱ blanket mōfuku n ႕᭱ mourning dress mogi n ᶅ᧻ imitation; mogi-shiken n ᶅ᧻ム㥺 trial test, mock

examination mogura n ࣓ࢡࣚ࣬ᅰ❫ a mole

on hand (in stock) mochi-awasemásu, mochi-awaséru v ᣚࡔྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, ᣚࡔྙࢂࡎࡾ

(rodent) mogurí n ₧ࡽ diving; a diver mogurimásu, mogúru v ₧ࡽࡱࡌ, ₧ ࡾ dives (under); gets into (bed);

has on hand (in stock) mochiba n ᣚࡔሔ one’s post of


goes under(ground)

mochi-gome n ࡵࡔ⡷ glutinous rice mochiimásu, mochiíru v ⏕࠷ࡱࡌ, ⏕࠷ࡾ uses mochimásu, mótsu v ᣚࡔࡱࡌ, ᣚࡗ

mohan n ᶅ⠂ model, pattern, example (= mihon ずᮇ, tehon ᡥᮇ: ~ o shimeshimásu ᶅ⠂ࢅ ♟ࡊࡱࡌ gives an example; mohan-sei n ᶅ⠂⏍ model student; has, holds, carries; it lasts mochí-mono n ᣚࡔ∸ 1. belongings mohan-kaitō n ᶅ⠂ゆ➽ model 2. what to bring: “~: hikki yøgu” answers ࠔᣚࡔ∸ ➱エ⏕රࠕ“what to mohaya adv ࡵࡢࡷ [ NEGATIVE

bring: writing instrument”

verb] no longer

mochí-nushi n ᣚࡔ୹ owner móji n ᩝᏊ letter, character, mochíron adv ࡵࡔࢀࢆ of course, writing: ø-~ ኬᩝᏊ capital letter, certainly upper-case letter: ko-~ ᑚᩝᏊ mōchō n ┛⭘ appendix; mōchō´(-en) lower-case letter; moji-dōri adv ᩝ n ┛⭘ ⅎ appendicitis Ꮚ࡜࠽ࡽ literally mōchū n ႕୯ mourning period mōjín n ┛ெ blind person modemu n ࣓ࢸ࣑ modem mōkarimásu, mōkáru v ආ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ, moderu n ࣓ࢸࣜ model ආ࠾ࡾ is profitable, it makes mōdō-ken n ┛ᑙ≗ seeing-eye dog money

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mokei n ᶅᆵ model, mold (= moderu ࣓ࢸࣜ); mokei-hikōki n ᶅ ᆵ㣍⾔ᶭ model airplane; mokeijidōsha n ᶅᆵ⮤ິ㌬ model car mōkemásu, mōkéru v ආࡄࡱࡌ, ආ ࡄࡾ makes money, profits mōkemásu, mōkéru v シࡄࡱࡌ, シ ࡄࡾ prepares, sets up Mō´ko n ⵒཿ Mongolia (= mongoru ࣓ࣤࢥࣜ): Møko-jin ⵒཿெ a


mokutō n 㯪⚇ silent prayer: giseisha ni ippun-kan/sanpun-kan no ~ o sasagemásu ≓∽⩽࡞ฦ 㛣3ฦ㛣ࡡ㯪⚇ࢅᤕࡅࡱࡌ offers

a one-minute/three-minutes silent prayer for the victims Mokuyō´(bi) n ᮄ᭑ ᪝ Thursday mokuyoku n ỻᾆ bathing, washing oneself (to clean) mokuzai n ᮄᮞ wood mokuzen (no) adj ┘๑ ࡡ immeMongolian mokugeki n ┘ᦹ witness; mokugeki- diate: ~ no rieki ┘๑ࡡฺ─ sha n ┘ᦹ⩽ a witness, an eyeimmediate advantage mome-goto n ᥛࡴ஥ discord, tiff, witness mokuhan (-ga) n ᮄ∟ ⏤ woodtrouble: o okoshimásu ᥛࡴ஥ࢅ ㉫ࡆࡊࡱࡌ causes troubles block print mokuhyō n ┘ᵾ target, goal: ~ o/wa momemásu, momeru v ᥛࡴࡱࡌ, ᥛ takaku mote! ┘ᵾࢅࡢ㧏ࡂᣚ ࡴࡾ 1. is in discord/trouble: ki ga ~ Ẵ࠿ᥛࡴࡱࡌ feels uneasy/ ࡙ Shoot for the moon! mokuji n ┘ḗ (table of) contents troubled 2. can massage (rub mokuroku n ┘㘋 catalog, list, table, with both hands) momen n ᮄ⥝ cotton inventory Mokusei n ᮄ᫅ Jupiter momi n ࡵࡲ࣬⡼ unhulled rice mokusō n 㯪᝷ meditation mómi n ࣓࣐ fir mokután n ᮄ⅛ charcoal mómiji n ࣓࣐ࢩ࣬⣒ⴝ 1. maple mokuteki n ┘Ⓩ aim, objective, 2. autumn leaves purpose, end, goal (= nerai ≲࠷, momimásu, momu v ᥛࡲࡱࡌ, ᥛࡳ mato Ⓩ, mokuhyø ┘ᵾ): ~ no massages, rubs with both hands tame ni (wa) shudan o erabima- momo n ࣓࣓࣬᱀ peach sen ┘Ⓩࡡࡒࡴ࡞ ࡢ ᡥṹࢅ㐽 mómo n ⫝̸ thigh ࡦࡱࡎࢆ uses any trick to momohiki n ⫝̸ᘤࡀ longjohns; achieve one’s ends; mokutekí-chi drawers (= zubón-shita ࢫ࣍ࣤୖ) n ┘Ⓩᆀ destination, goal: ~ ni momo-iro (no) adj ᱀Ⰵ ࡡ pink, (tadori-)tsukimásu ┘Ⓩᆀ࡞㎲ࡽ rosy: ~ hada ᱀Ⰵࡡ⫑ pink skin ╌ࡀࡱࡌ arrives at one’s … món … interj ࡵࢆ (mostly fedestination; mokuteki-go n ┘Ⓩㄊ male; informal, baby talk) (grammar) object because (= … monó… ࡵࡡ): 176

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mō´ra shimásu (suru)

(baby talk or female) datte sø da món desu …ࡊࡒࡵࡡࡵࢆ࡚ࡌ ~ (monó) ࡓࡖ࡙ࡐ࠹ࡓࡵࢆ ࡵࡡ used to do món n ⣘ family crest monó n ⩽ person, fellow [BOOKISH] món n 㛓 gate; món-ban/mon-ei n 㛓 (= hito ெ) ␊㛓⾠ gatekeeper, watchman, monogátari n ∸ㄊ tale, legend monógoto n ∸஥ things, everything guard, porter; mon-gen n 㛓㝀 monohoshisō (na/ni) adj, adv ∸ḟ curfew Monbu-Kagaku-daijin n ᩝ㒂⛁Ꮥኬ⮟ ࡊࡐ࠹ ࡝࡞ wistful(ly) Minister of Education, Culture, monomane n ࡵࡡࡱࡠ࣬∸┷జ Sports, Science and Technology mimic(ry), impersonation Monbú-Kagaku-shō n ᩝ㒂⛁Ꮥ┤ mono-óboe n ∸つ࠻ memory: ~ ga Ministry of Education, Culture, ii ∸つ࠻࠿࠷࠷ is quick to learn Sports, Science and Technology (= nomikomi ga hayai ࡡࡲ㎰ࡲ ࠿᪡࠷): ~ ga warui ∸つ࠻࠿ᝇ (MEXT) mondai n ၡ㢗 1. question, topic, ࠷ is slow to learn mono-óki n ∸⨠ࡀ shed (storesubject, exercise: ~ ni naránai ၡ㢗࡞࡝ࡼ࡝࠷ unimportant house) 2. problem, issue, trouble (= monorē´ru n ࣓ࢿ࣭ࣝࣜ monorail toraburu ࢹࣚࣇࣜ) monorōgu n ࣓ࢿ࣭ࣞࢡ soliloquy, mongái-kan n 㛓አ₆ outsider, monologue (= dokuhaku ≺Ⓣ) nonspecialist, layman: keizai (ni monosashi n ∸ᕣࡊ ruler (foot kanshite) wa ~ desu ⤊ῥ ࡞㛭ࡊ rule); measure; criterion ࡙ ࡢ㛓አ₆࡚ࡌ is a layman in mono-sugói adj ∸෴࠷ terrible, economics awesome Mongoru n ࣓ࣤࢥࣜ Mongolia mono-súgóku adv ∸෴ࡂ terribly, (= møko ⵒཿ); Mongoru-jin n ࣓ࣤ extremely ࢥࣜெ a Mongolian; Mongoru-go n monózukí (na) adj ∸ይࡀ ࡝ ࣓ࣤࢥࣜㄊ Mongolian (language) curious, inquisitive mónku n ᩝྀ 1. phrase: utai-~ ㅳ monshō n ⣘❮ family crest ࠷ᩝྀ a motto, catchphrase, moppara adv ᑍࡼ principally, slogan: odoshi-~ ⬛ࡊᩝྀ chiefly threatening words 2. complaint: móppu n ࣓ࢴࣈ mop ~ no tsukeyø ga arimasen ᩝྀࡡ moraimásu, morau v ࡵࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ, ࡵ ࡗࡄࡻ࠹࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ is perfect ࡼ࠹ receives, gets; has someone monó n ∸ thing, object, article, do it mō´ra shimásu (suru) v ⥑⨮ࡊࡱࡌ something, stuff …mono suffix ࡵࡡ … shita ~/ ࡌࡾ includes, comprises, 177

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morashimásu, morásu

covers (all): ~ shita … ⥑⨮ࡊ ࡒ… exhaustive, complete morashimásu, morásu v ⁻ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, ⁻ࡼࡌ lets leak; reveals moremásu, moréru v ⁻ࡿࡱࡌ, ⁻ࡿ ࡾ leaks out; is omitted; it leaks mori n ᲻ woods, forest morimásu, moru v ┊ࡽࡱࡌ, ┊ࡾ

moshi-ka-shitara adv ࡵࡊ࠾ࡊࡒࡼ, moshi-ka-suru to ࡵࡊ࠾ࡌࡾ࡛

perhaps mōshi-komi n ⏞ࡊ㎰ࡲ application;

reservation, subscription; proposal, offer mōshi-komimásu, mōshi-kómu v ⏞ࡊ ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ, ⏞ࡊ㎰ࡳ applies; heaps/piles it up reserves, subscribes; proposes, morimásu, móru v ⁻ࡽࡱࡌ, ⁻ࡾ offers mōshikomí-sha n ⏞ࡊ㎰ࡲ⩽࣬⏞ it leaks morói adj ࡵࢀ࠷࣬⬜࠷ brittle, ㎰⩽ applicant mōshimásu, mō´su v ⏞ࡊࡱࡌ, ⏞ࡌ frail morote n ࡵࢀ࡙࣬ㅎᡥ both [HUMBLE] 1. I say (= møshi-agehands: ~ o agete sansei shimásu másu ⏞ࡊ୕ࡅࡱࡌ) 2. I humbly ㅎᡥࢅᣪࡅ࡙㈮ᠺࡊࡱࡌ totally do (= itashimásu ⮬ࡊࡱࡌ) móshi-moshi! interj ࡵࡊࡵࡊ! agrees morotomo n ࡵࢀ࡛ࡵ together hello! hey! say there! (on the [BOOKISH]: shinaba ~ Ṓ࡝ࡣࡵࢀ phone) ࡛ࡵ go to the grave together mō´shitate n ⏞ࡊ❟࡙ statement, mō´ru n ࣓࣭ࣜ braid testimony, allegation moruhine n ࣓ࣜࣃࢾ morphine mō´shi-wake n ⏞ࡊズ excuse: móshi (… shitára) conj ࡵࡊ …ࡊ [FORMAL] ~ arimasén/gozaimasén ⏞ࡊズ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡎࢆ ࡒࡼ if, perchance mō´shi-agemásu, mō´shi-agéru v ⏞ࡊ I am very sorry. ୕ࡅࡱࡌ, ⏞ࡊ୕ࡅࡾ [HUMBLE] mō´shon n ࣓࣭ࢨࣘࣤ motion; I say sexual overture, pass: … ni ~ o mōshi-de n ⏞ࡊฝ proposal, offer; kakemásu …࡞࣓࣭ࢨࣘࣤࢅ࠾ ࡄࡱࡌ makes a pass at, makes report, application, claim mōshi-demásu, mōshi-déru v ⏞ࡊฝ eyes at ࡱࡌ, ⏞ࡊฝࡾ proposes, offers; Mosukuwa n ࣓ࢪࢠ࣠ Moscow mō´tā n ࣓࣭ࢰ࣭ motor; mōtā-bōto reports, applies for, claims n ࣓࣭ࢰ࣭࣭࣍ࢹ motorboat mōshi-ire n ⏞ࡊථࡿ (public) motaremásu, motaréru v ࡵࡒࡿࡱࡌ, proposal, offering mōshi-iremásu, mōshi-iréru v ⏞ࡊථ ࡵࡒࡿࡾ: ( … ni) ~ …࡞ ࡵࡒ ࡿࡱࡌ, ⏞ࡊථࡿࡾ (publicly) ࡿࡱࡌ leans (against …) motasemásu, motaséru v ᣚࡒࡎࡱࡌ, proposes, offers 178

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ᣚࡒࡎࡾ lets one have, provides

complicated: shitá ga ~ ⯁࠿ࡵࡗ ࡿࡱࡌ lisps (one with), gives motemásu, motéru v ᣚ࡙ࡱࡌ, ᣚ࡙ mottai-nái adj ࡵࡖࡒ࠷࡝࠷ ࡾ 1. is popular, well-liked 1. undeserving 2. wasteful 2. can hold motte ikimásu (iku) v ᣚࡖ࡙⾔ࡀࡱ motenashi n ࡵ࡙࡝ࡊ hospitality ࡌ ⾔ࡂ takes, carries; brings mōteru n ࣓࣭ࢷࣜ motel (to you, there) motó n ඔ࣬ᮇ origin, source; mótte imásu (iru) v ᣚࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ ࠷ࡾ has, holds, owns, possesses cause (of an effect) motó n ୖ (at the) foot (of), under motte itte v ᣚࡖ࡙⾔ࡖ࡙ taking …-moto suffix …ඔ the source of it: ~ kudasái ᣚࡖ࡙⾔ࡖ࡙ୖࡈ ࠷ please take it with you an activity: shuppan-~ ฝ∟ඔ the publisher(s); hanbai-~ ㈅኉ motte kimásu (kúru) v ᣚࡖ࡙ᮮࡱࡌ ඔ sales agency ᮮࡾ brings (to me, here) móto (no) adj ඔ ࡡ former, motte-kói (no) adj ࡵࡖ࡙ࡆ࠷ ࡡ earlier, original: móto kara ඔ࠾ most desirable, ideal; just the ࡼ from the beginning, always, thing/ticket mótto adv ࡵࡖ࡛ more, still more; all along motomemásu, motoméru v ịࡴࡱࡌ, longer, further: ~ íi ࡵࡖ࡛࠷࠷ ịࡴࡾ 1. wants, looks for better; ~ warúi ࡵࡖ࡛ᝇ࠷ worse; 2. asks for, demands 3. buys, gets ~ takusán ࡵࡖ࡛ࡒࡂࡈࢆ lots motomoto adv ඔࠍ from the start, more; ~ saki (ni) ࡵࡖ࡛඙ ࡞ originally; by nature, naturally: further …-témo ~ désu … ࡙ࡵඔࠍ࡚ࡌ móttomo adv, conj ࡵࡖ࡛ࡵ 1. is no worse off even if …, it will indeed, of course 2. but, however, to be sure do no harm to … móto wa adv ඔࡢ originally; móttómo adv ᭩ࡵ most; exceedingly móya n ࡵࡷ࣬㟥 mist, haze earlier, before mótó-yori adv ࡵ࡛ࡻࡽ from the moyashi n ࣓ࣕࢨ bean sprouts moyō n ᶅᵕ pattern, design beginning; by nature motozukimásu, motozúku v ᇱࡘࡀ moyōshimásu, moyō´su v തࡊࡱࡌ, ࡱࡌ, ᇱࡘࡂ is based on; conതࡌ holds/gives (an event); feels forms to mozaiku n ࣓ࢧ࢕ࢠ mosaic motsuré n ࡵࡗࡿ tangle, entangle- mozō n ᶅ㏸ imitation; mozō-hin n ᶅ㏸ဗ imitation products ment; complications motsuremásu, motsureru v ࡵࡗࡿ mu... prefix ↋ un-, without…, ࡱࡌ, ࡵࡗࡿࡾ gets entangled/ …less; mu-bō (na) adj ↋ㅓ ࡝ 179

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reckless; mu-chákuriku (no) adj múchi n 㠬 a whip ↋╌㝛 ࡡ non-stop (flight); mú- muchū n ከ୯ trance, ecstasy: … cha (na) adj ↋Ⲍ ࡝ unreasonable; ni ~ ni narimásu …࡞ከ୯࡞࡝ reckless; disorderly; mú-chi n ↋ ࡽࡱࡌ gets entranced with ▩ ignorance; mu-dan (de) adj ↋ (engrossed in) … ᩷ ࡚ without notice, without muda-bánashi n ↋㥇ヨ idle talk, permission; mu-ími (na) adj ↋ណ hot air, bull ࿝ ࡝ meaningless; mu-íshiki (no/na) muda (na) adj ↋㥇 ࡝ futile, no adj ↋ណㆉ ࡡ࡝ unconscious, good, wasteful; useless: mudaashi ↋㥇㊂ fool’s errand involuntary; mu-jō´ken (no) adj ↋ ᮪௲ ࡡ unconditional: ~ no ai muda-zúkai n ↋㥇౐࠷ extrava↋᮪௲ࡡយ unconditional love; gance, waste mu-jō (na) adj ↋᝗ ࡝ heartless, múgi n 㯇 wheat, barley unfeeling; mu-kánkaku (na) adj ↋ mugi-wara n 㯇ࢂࡼ straw វつ ࡝ numb; mu-kánkei (no/na) mugói adj ࡳࡇ࠷ cruel, brutal muika n ඵ᪝ six days; the 6th day adj ↋㛭౿ ࡡ࡝ : … to mukánkei …࡛↋㛭౿ ࡡ࡝ (of month): ~-mé ඵ᪝┘ the 6th unrelated (unconnected, irrelevant) day to …; mu-kidō (no) adj ↋㌮㐠 ࡡ mujun n □┢ inconsistency, reckless, trackless; mu-kigen (no/ni) contradiction adj, adv ↋᭿㝀 ࡡ࡞ indefi- mukade n ࣑࢜ࢸ࣬Ⓤ㊂ centipede nite(ly); mu-kimei (no) adj ↋エྞ mukae ㎼࠻ n a welcome ࡡ unsigned, unregistered; mu-kō mukaemásu, mukaeru v ㎼࠻ࡱࡌ, (no/na) adj ↋ຝ ࡡ࡝ invalid ㎼࠻ࡾ meets; welcomes; invites mukai-kaze n ྡྷ࠾࠷㢴 headwind (not valid), null; mu-sékinin (na) mukaimásu, mukau v ྡྷ࠾࠷ࡱࡌ, adj ↋㈈௴ ࡝ irresponsible; mu-shoku (no) adj ↋Ⰵ ࡡ colorྡྷ࠾࠹: … ni ~ …࡞ྡྷ࠾࠷ࡱࡌ less(ness); mu-teki n ↋ᩓ invinopposes; heads for múkamuka shimásu v ࡳ࠾ࡳ࠾>࣑ cibility, too strong to have as ࣑࢜࢜@ࡊࡱࡌ is queasy, feels rival: tenka-~ ኮୖ↋ᩓ having no rival in the world; mu-tón-chaku/- nauseated jaku (na) adj ↋㡳╌↋⮤つ ࡝ mukashi n ᪿ long (time) ago; careless; mú-yō (no) adj ↋⏕ ࡡ ancient days; mukashi no adj ᪿࡡ unnecessary; useless; having no ancient, old(-en); mukashi-bánashi business; mú-zai (no) adj ↋⨝ ࡡ n ᪿヨ legend; folk tale; mukashi kará no adj ᪿ࠾ࡼࡡ old (from innocent, not guilty; muzō´sa (na) adj ↋㏸ష ࡝ effortless, easy way back) 180

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múshi shimásu (suru)

mukemásu, mukeru v ྡྷࡄࡱࡌ, ྡྷ ࡄࡾ turns (one’s face/eyes/

together murásaki n 1. murásaki (no) ⣰ ࡡ attention to), directs/points it (at) purple 2. ⣰ soy sauce …-muke (no) suffix, adj …ྡྷࡄ ࡡ muré n ⩄ࡿ group, throng, flock (bound/intended) for …: kazoku-~ múri 1. n ↋⌦ strain, (undue) (no) ᐓ᪐ྡྷࡄ ࡡ for family force: ~ (o) shimásu ↋⌦ ࢅ ࡊ mukimásu, muku v ྡྷࡀࡱࡌ, ྡྷࡂ ࡱࡌ overdoes, overworks, forces faces oneself 2. ~ na ↋⌦࡝ unreasonmukimásu, muku v ๡ࡀࡱࡌ,๡ࡂ able, forced; violent; overdoing; (… no kawá o ~ … ࡡ⓮ࢅ๡ࡀࡱ (over-)demanding; muri mo arimasen (nai) v ↋⌦ࡵ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ ࡝࠷ ࡌ) skins, pares, peels …-muki (no) suffix, adj …ྡྷࡀ ࡡ no wonder; múri wa nái adj ↋⌦ ࡢ࡝࠷ it is no wonder that…; facing; (suitable) for … múko n ፯ son-in-law; bridegroom muriyari adv ↋⌦▦⌦ forcibly mukō prep, adv ྡྷࡆ࠹ 1. beyond; muryō (no) adj ↋ᩩ ࡡ free of across the way, over there: ~ no charge: ~-chü´shajø ↋ᩩ㥌㌬ሔ ྡྷࡆ࠹ࡡ opposite, facing 2. → free parking mukō-gawa n ྡྷࡆ࠹ഁ the other musen n ↋⥲ radio; wireless; musen-ran n ↋⥲ LAN wireless side/party, the opposite side; mukō´-mizu (na) adj ྡྷࡆ࠹ずࡍ LAN, Wi-Fi (computer) mushi n ࣑ࢨ࣬⹰ insect, bug; moth; ࡝ reckless, rash mukuimásu, mukuíru v ሒ࠷ࡱࡌ, worm: ~ no iki ⹰ࡡ᜝ breathing ሒ࠷ࡾ [BOOKISH] repays; comfaintly, being at death’s door; mushi-megane n ⹰╉㙶 magnifying pensates mumei (no) adj ↋ྞ ࡡ nameless, glass; mushi-yoke n ⹰ࡻࡄ insect anonymous; obscure repellent; mothballs munashii adj ✭ࡊ࠷࣬⹣ࡊ࠷ mushi n ↋ち neglect, ignorance mushi-atsúi adj ⵠࡊᬤ࠷ muggy, empty; futile, in vain muné n ⬒ 1. chest, breast 2. heart, close, sultry, humid mushi-ba n ⹰ṉ decayed tooth mind muné n ᪠ gist, intent, effect mushimásu, músu v ⵠࡊࡱࡌ, ⵠࡌ muné n Ჯ ridge (of roof) steams it; is sultry, humid murá n ᮟ village: ~-bito, ~ no hito mushí-mono n ⵠࡊ∸ steamed foods ᮟெ, ᮟࡡெ village people: ~ múshiro adv ࡳࡊࢀ rather; preferhachibu ᮟඳฦ ostracism ably muragarimásu, muragáru v ⩄࠿ࡽࡱ múshi shimásu (suru) v ↋ちࡊࡱࡌ ࡌ, ⩄࠿ࡾ they flock/throng ࡌࡾ ignores, neglects, disregards 181

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musō n ከ᝷ dream, imagination; itchy, crawly, creepy musō-ka n ከ᝷ᐓ dreamer myakú n ⬞: myakuhaku ⬞ᢷ musubi n ࡳࡌࡦ riceball pulse: ~ o hakarimásu ⬞ࢅ゛ࡽ musubimásu, musubu v ⤎ࡦࡱࡌ, ࡱࡌ checks one’s pulse (rate) ⤎ࡩ ties, ties up: nékutai o ~ ࢾ myō… prefix ᪺ tomorrow…; ࢠࢰ࢕ࢅ⤎ࡦࡱࡌ wears a tie myō´-ban n, adv ᪺ᬄ [BOOKISH] musuko n ᜝Ꮔ son: ~-san ᜝Ꮔࡈ tomorrow night; myō-chō n, adv ࢆ (your/someone else’s) son ᪺᭽ [BOOKISH] tomorrow musume n ፃ daughter; girl: ~-san morning; myō-gó-nichi n, adv ᪺ᚃ ፃࡈࢆ (your/someone else’s) ᪝ [BOOKISH] day after tomorrow daughter, lady (= asatte ࠵ࡈࡖ࡙᪺࣬ᚃ᪝); musū´ (no) adj ↋ᩐ ࡡ countless, myō´-nichi n, adv ᪺᪝ tomorrow innumerable (= ashita, asu ᪺᪝) mutsu n ࣑ࢵ big eye fish myōga n ࣐ࣘࢗ࢝࣬ⱶⲬ Japanese mutsukashii, muzukashii adj 㞬ࡊ࠷ ginger (buds) myō´ji, miyoji n ྞᏊ࣬ⱉᏊ family hard, difficult muttsú n ඵࡗ࣬6ࡗ six (= rok-ko 6 name [as written] (= sei ጞ) ಴); six years old (= roku-sai ඵṋ) myō´(na) adj ዼ ࡝ strange, queer, múyami (ni) adv ↋㜄 ࡞ recklessly; wondrous indiscriminately; immoderately myūjikaru n ࣐࣭ࣖࢩ࢜ࣜ musical múzumuzu suru adj ࡳࡍࡳࡍࡌࡾ (show)

N n´ (“un”) n ࢆ ࠹ࢆ uh-huh, yeah ྞࡡ࠵ࡾ famous; na no tōtta adj [INFORMAL] (= hai ࡢ࠷ [FORMAL]) ྞࡡ㏳ࡖࡒ well-known; na o nq´ (“ūn”) n ࢆ࣭ ࠹࣭ࢆ hmm, nokoshimásu (nokosu) v ྞࢅṟࡊࡱ ࡌ, ṟࡌ earns one’s place; na wa well, let’s see …´n … suffix …ࢆ… = …´no … tai o arawasu ྞࡢమࢅ⾪ࡌ please …ࡡ…: …´n desu (da) …ࢆ࡚ࡌ show your name ná n ⳧ greens, vegetables ࡓ it’s that … na n ྞ name (= namae ྞ๑); … na! interj …࡝! Don’t … ! na bakari (no) adj ྞࡣ࠾ࡽ ࡡ … ná/nā´ interj …࡝࡝࠵ (usunominal; na-dakái adj ྞ㧏࠷ ally male) = … né/në´ …ࡠࡠ࠻ famous; na-fuda n ྞᮈ name (female) isn’t it, don’t you think/ plate/tag; dog tag; na no aru adj agree

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nábe n 㘘 1. pan, pot 2. food

cooked and served in a pan nadamemásu, nadaméru v ᐅࡴࡱࡌ, ᐅࡴࡾ soothes, pacifies nadare n 㞯ᓻ avalanche; snowslide nademásu, nadéru v ᧑࡚ࡱࡌ, ᧑࡚ ࡾ strokes, smooths, pats, pets … nádo suffix …࡝࡜࣬➴ and so

forth/on, and what-not, and the like


nagaremásu, nagaréru v Ὦࡿࡱࡌ, Ὦࡿࡾ flows nágasa n 㛏ࡈ length Nagásaki n 㛏ᓧ Nagasaki; ~-shi 㛏ᓧᕰ Nagasaki City nagashí n Ὦࡊ kitchen sink nagashimásu, nagásu v Ὦࡊࡱࡌ, Ὦࡌ lets it flow, washes away naga(t)tarashii n 㛏 ࡖ ࡒࡼࡊ࠷

náe n ⱉ seedling: ~-doko ⱉᗃ

[IN NEGATIVE SENSE] lengthy, tedious: ~ enzetsu 㛏ࡒࡼࡊ࠷ⁿㄕ lengthy speech naga-ya n 㛏ᒁ tenement house droops, withers naemásu, naéru v ࡝࠻ࡱࡌ, ࡝࠻ࡾ nage-ire v ᢖࡅථࡿ a flower can twist it (into a rope) arrangement (in a tall vase) nafutarin n ࢻࣆࢰࣛࣤ mothballs nagekimásu, nagéku v Ⴟࡀࡱࡌ, Ⴟ naga-… prefix 㛏 long; nagaࡂ grieves, weeps, moans, laments chōba n 㛏୍ሔ [BOOKISH] time- nagemásu, nagéru v ᢖࡅࡱࡌ, ᢖࡅ ࡾ throws consuming: ~-chøba no shigoto 㛏୍ሔࡡ௘஥ time-consuming nage-nawa n ᢖࡅ⦎ lasso nagisa n ࡝ࡁࡈ࣬῭ water’s edge, work; naga-gutsu n 㛏㠈 boots; naga-iki n 㛏⏍ࡀ longevity, long beach, shore life; naga-sode n 㛏⾿ long sleeves, nagori n ྞṟ traces, remains, long-sleeved garment; naga-yu n remnant 㛏… a long bath nagurimásu, nagúru v Ṹࡽࡱࡌ, Ṹ nagái adj 㛏࠷ long ࡾ knocks, beats, strikes nagaku adv 㛏ࡂ long nagusame n ័ࡴ comfort, consonagamé n ╈ࡴ view, scenery lation nagamemásu, nagaméru v ╈ࡴࡱࡌ, nagusamemásu, nagusaméru v ័ࡴ ╈ࡴࡾ gazes/stares at, views ࡱࡌ, ័ࡴࡾ comforts, consoles … (-)nágara suffix, adv …࡝࠿ࡼ nagusami n ័ࡲ amusement, while (during/although) entertainment nagaré n Ὦࡿ a stream, a flow; nái v ࡝࠷ = arimasén ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ nagare-sagyō n Ὦࡿషᴏ assembly (there is no …, lacks, has no …) nai-… prefix හ within, in(-side), line; nagare-zu n Ὦࡿᅒ flow chart inner, internal; nái-bu (no) adj හ nagaré-boshi n Ὦࡿ᫅ shooting star 㒂 ࡡ internal; naibu-kokuhatsu n 183 seedbed

naemásu, naéru v ⴆ࠻ࡱࡌ, ⴆ࠻ࡾ

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හ㒂࿈Ⓠ exposing from within, mately: senen-~ ༐ළහአ approxwhistle-blowing; nái-chi n හᆀ imately 1,000 yen inside the country; nai-en (no) adj Naijeria n ࢻ࢕ࢩ࢘ࣛ࢓ Nigeria; හ⦍ ࡡ common-law: ~ no Naijeria-jin n ࢻ࢕ࢩ࢘ࣛ࢓ெ a otto/tsuma හ⦍ࡡኰጏ comNigerian mon-law husband/wife; nai-fuku naiji n හ♟ unofficial announcen හ᭱ taking medicine orally; ment (in office) nai-jō n හ᝗ internal affairs; nai-ju náikaku n හ㛮 a government n හ㞺 domestic demand; nai-ka cabinet: ~-søridaijin හ㛮⥪⌦ኬ n හ⛁ internal medicine; nai-mitsu ⮟ prime minister (no) adj හᐠ ࡡ confidential, naimásu, náu v ࡝࠷ࡱࡌ, ࡝࠹ secret, private [FORMAL]: ~ (no) twists (into a rope) jøhø හᐠ ࡡ ᝗ሒ confidential náiron n ࢻ࢕ࣞࣤ nylon information; nai-ran n හ஗ civil … náishi … conj …࡝࠷ࡊ… strife; nai-riku n හ㝛 inland; nai[BOOKISH] 1. and/or (= mátáwa shin n හᚨ ① (one’s) thoughts in ࡱࡒࡢ࣬ཧࡢ 2. from … to … mind: ~ kowai හᚨᛟ࠷ is scared = …kara…máde …࠾ࡼ…ࡱ࡚ deep down ② inner center (not naishó (no) adj හ⥬࣬හチ ࡡ outer center); nai-shin n හタ ① confidential, secret, private internal examination (gynecol[INFORMAL]: ~ no hanashí හ⥬> හチ@ࡡヨ, ~-bánashi හ⥬>හチ@ ogy) ② medical examination by a doctor at home; nai-shukketsu ヨ a private talk náitā n ࢻ࢕ࢰ࣭ night game (of n හฝ⾉ internal bleeding; nai-tei n හം [BOOKISH] secret baseball) investigation; nai-teki (na) adj හ naitei n හᏽ unofficial decision, Ⓩ ࡝ internal; nai-zō n හ⮒ informal appointment, unofficial internal organs job offer …´-nai suffix …හ within, in(side) naiyō n හᐖ contents (→ kanai ᐓහ, kokúnai (no) ᅗහ náka n, prep ୯ inside; … no ~ de/ ni …ࡡ୯࡚࡞ in …; naka-darumi ࡡ , kō´nai ᵋහ) …-náide suffix, adv …࡝࠷࡚ not n ୯ࡓࡾࡲ slump; naká-mi n ୯ [do] but instead, without [do]ing ㌗࣬୯࿝ contents; naka-niwa n → shináide ࡊ࡝࠷࡚ ୯ᗖ courtyard; naka-yubi n ୯ᣞ náifu n ࢻ࢕ࣆ knife middle finger náigai n හአ 1. inside and out náka n ௯ relations, terms (between 2. home and abroad people); (… to) ~ ga íi …࡛ ௯ …-náigai suffix …හአ approxi࠿࠷࠷ is on good terms (with 184

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…); ~ tagai ௯㐢࠷ discord; naka- n ἵࡀኇ cry, sob (of person); dachí n ௯❟ࡔ go-between, inter- naki-goto n ἵࡀゕ complaining mediary; naká-gai n ௯㈑ broker; nakimásu, naku v 㫾ࡀࡱࡌ, 㫾ࡂ naka-má n ௯㛣 friend, pal, com- makes an animal sound; naki-goe panion n 㫾ࡀኇ chirp, song, chirping nakabá n ༖ࡣ middle: kokorozashi- (of animals, birds, insects, etc) ~ de ᚷ༖ࡣ࡚ without fulfilling nakō´do n ௯ெ go-between (matcone’s ambition hmaker) nakanaka adv ࡝࠾࡝࠾ extremely, náku v ࡝ࡂ so that there isn’t any very (long, hard, bad, etc.), (we don’t have any); there not more than one might expect being; without nákattara v ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡼ if/when …-naku (narimásu) suffix, v …࡝ࡂ there isn’t/we don’t; unless there ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ (gets) so that one doesn’t do (= …-nai yø´ni (nariis (we have) …-nákattara suffix, v …࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡼ másu)…࡝࠷ࡻ࠹࡞ ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ ) if/when one doesn’t; unless one naku-narimásu, naku-naru v ஷࡂ࡝ ࡽࡱࡌ, ஷࡂ࡝ࡾ dies; gets lost does nákattari v ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࡽ sometimes/ naku-narimásu, naku-naru v ࡝ࡂ࡝ࡽ alternately there isn’t (we don’t ࡱࡌ, ࡝ࡂ࡝ࡾ vanishes (from existence) have) …-nákattari (shimásu) suffix, v …࡝ nakushimásu, nakusu v ࡝ࡂࡊࡱࡌ, ࠾ࡖࡒࡽ ࡊࡱࡌ sometimes/ ࡝ࡂࡌ loses …-nákute mo suffix, v …࡝ࡂ࡙ࡵ alternately does not do nakemásu, nakeru v ἵࡄࡱࡌ, ἵࡄ even not doing, even if one does ࡾ can cry not do; shinákute mo íi ࡊ࡝ࡂ࡙ náki … prefix, adj ࡝ࡀ… [LITERARY] ࡵ࠷࠷ need not do …-nákute wa suffix, v …࡝ࡂ࡙ࡢ = nái … ࡝࠷… (lacking, nonexistent) not doing, if one does not do; náki … prefix, adj ஷࡀ… [LITERARY] shinákute wa ikemasén ࡊ࡝ࡂ࡙ = nái … ࡝࠷… (deceased): íma ࡢ࠷ࡄࡱࡎࢆ must (ought to) do wa ~ … ௑ࡢஷࡀ… the late náma adj, n ⏍ 1. ~ (no/de) ⏍ ࡡ࡚ raw, uncooked, fresh …: ~ sofu ஷࡀ♵∏ one’s dead grandfather; naki-gara n ஷ㦹 2. (= ~-bíiru ⏍ࣄ࣭ࣜ) draft [BOOKISH] corpse beer; nama-chūkei n ⏍୯⤽ live nakimásu, naku v ἵࡀࡱࡌ, ἵࡂ coverage; nama-gomi n ⏍ࡇࡲ weeps; cries; naki-dokoro n ἵࡀ࡜ garbage (kitchen waste); namagusái adj ⏍⮧࠷ fishy(-smelling); ࡆࢀ>ᡜ@ Achilles’ heel; naki-goe 185

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nama-henji n ⏍㏁஥ half-hearted nán n ర (before d, t, n) = náni ర reply; nama-hōsō n ⏍ᨲ㏞ live what nán-… prefix ర… how many program, live broadcast; namayake (no) adj ⏍↕ࡄ ࡡ rare …: nán [COUNTER ka] (no…) ర (little cooked), underdone [COUNTER ࠾] ࡡ… a number namae n ྞ๑ name (= shimei Ắྞ, (of …); nán-ba ర⩒ how many seimei ጞྞ) (birds, rabbits); nan-bai రಶ how namaiki (na) adj ⏍ណẴ ࡝ many times (doubled); nán-bai ర ᮴ how many cupfuls; nán-ban ర␊ impertinent namakemásu, namakéru v ᛨࡄࡱࡌ, what number; nán-bén ర㐚 how ᛨࡄࡾ idles, is lazy many times; nán-biki ర༆ how namake-mono n ᛨࡄ⩽ lazy many (fishes/bugs, small animals); nán-bon రᮇ how many (pencils/ (person) namari n ࢻ࣏ࣛ࣬㕼 lead (metal) bottles, long objects); nán-byaku namarí n ࡝ࡱࡽ࣬ォࡽ dialect, రⓊ how many hundreds; nándai రྋ how many (machines, accent (= høgen ᪁ゕ) namarimásu, namaru v 㕄ࡽࡱࡌ, vehicles); nán-do రᗐ how many 㕄ࡾ 1. becomes rusty, gets dull: times; nan-gai/-kai n ర㝭㝭 how høchø ga ~ ໜ୍࠿㕄ࡽࡱࡌ a many floors/stories; what (number) kitchen knife gets dull 2. befloor; nán-gatsu ర᭮ what month; nán-gen ర㌲ how many (buildings, comes weak (one’s body part) namazu n ࢻ࣏ࢫ࣬㪏 catfish shops, houses…); nán-ji ర᫤ what namemásu, naméru v ࡝ࡴࡱࡌ, ࡝ time; nan-kágetsu ర࠾᭮ how many ࡴࡾ licks, tastes months; nán-kai రᅂ how many naméraka (na) adj ࡝ࡴࡼ࠾ ࡝ times; nan-kai/-gai ర㝭 what floor; nán-ko ర಴ how many (piece(s); smooth namí n ἴ wave; nami-norí n ἴ஋ࡽ small object(s)); nán-mai రᯓ surfing how many (flat thing(s)); nán-mán námida n ᾞ tear (in eye): ~-me ᾞ ర୒ how many tens of thousands; ┘ teary eyes: ~-moroi ᾞࡵࢀ࠷ nán-nen రᖳ what year; how easily moved to tears many years; nán-nichi ర᪝ what namiki n ୩ᮄ row of trees: ~-michi day (of the month); how many ୩ᮄ㐠 tree-lined road, tree-lined days; nán-nin రெ how many street people; nán-paku రἡ how many nami (no) adj ୩ ࡡ ordinary, nights; nán-pun రฦ how many common, average, regular minutes; nán-sai రṋ how (many nán n ࢻࣤ bread years) old; nán-satsu ర෇ how 186

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many copies (books, magazines); nán-tō ర㢄 how many (large animals); nan-yō´bi ర᭑᪝ what day (of the week); nán-zoku/-soku ర㊂ how many pairs (of footwear such as shoes, socks, etc.) nan-… prefix ༞…south (= minami no… ༞ࡡ…); Nan-bei n ༞⡷ = Minami-Ámerika ༞࢓࣒ࣛ࢜


naná-nen n ୏ᖳ the year 7; nanánin n ୏ெ → naná-mei; naná-satsu n ୏෇ seven copies (books, magazines); naná-hyaku n ୏Ⓤ࣬700 seven hundred; naná-jū n ୏༎࣬ 70 seventy; nana-mán n ୏୒࣬ 70,000 seventy thousand; nanasén n ୏༐࣬7,000 seven thousand; naná-tsu n ୏ࡗ࣬7 ࡗ seven, seven years old (= nanasai ୏ṋ); nanatsu-mé ୏ࡗ┘

South America; nán-boku n ༞໪ north and south; nán-bu n ༞㒂 the south, the southern part; nan- seventh kyoku n ༞ᴗ South Pole; nan-sei nanáme (no/ni) adj, adv ᩫࡴ ࡡ ࡞ aslant, oblique(ly), diagonal(ly) n ༞け southwest; nan-tō n ༞᮶ nánbā n ࢻࣤࣁ࣭ (car) license southeast nan-… prefix 㞬…difficult, tough; plate nan-gi n 㞬ൢ difficulty, suffernán-da-i interj రࡓ࠷ what is it (= nán desu ka ర࡚ࡌ࠾ ing, trouble [BOOKISH]; nan-ido n 㞬᪾ᗐ difficulty level; nán-ji n nán-de-mo adv ర࡚ࡵ whatever it 㞬஥ difficulty; nan-kan n 㞬㛭 may be, anything (at all), everydifficulty, obstacle, challenge; thing nan-min n 㞬Ằ refugee; nan-zan n … nán desu (da, de) suffix, v …࡝ࢆ 㞬⏐ difficult delivery ࡚ࡌ ࡓ, ࡚ it’s that it is … nan-… prefix ㌶…soft, weak, mild; náni n ర what: ~ (ga/o) …-témo ర nan-jaku adj ㌶ᘽ [BOOKISH] weak, ࠿ࢅ …࡙ࡵ whatever soft, flaccid [IN NEGATIVE SENSE]: náni-… prefix ర…what …, which ~ na karada ㌶ᘽ࡝మ weak body; …; nani-go రㄊ what language; nan-kin n ㌶⚏ [BOOKISH] house nani-iro రⰅ what color; naní-jin రெ what nationality arrest; nan-sui n ㌶Ề soft water nanibun adv రฦ anyway, anyhow (not hard water) nána n ୏࣬7 seven; naná-do n ୏ nanige-nái adj రẴ࡝࠷ casual ᗐ ① seven degrees ② seven náni ka n ర࠾ something, anything times; naná-hén n ୏㐚 seven nani mo adv రࡵ [ NEGATIVE] times; nana-kai n ୏㝭 seven nothing, (not) anything floors/stories, seventh floor; naná- náninani n రࠍ something or othkái n ୏ᅂ seven times; naná-mei er, so-and-so, what’s-it(s-name) n ୏ྞ [BOOKISH] seven people; náni-shiro adv రࡊࢀ after all 187

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náni yori

náni yori adv రࡻࡽ than what: ~ mo రࡻࡽࡵ more than anything nánji pron Ớ [BOOKISH] thou … nánka suffix …࡝ࢆ࠾ and so


nán to shitémo adv ర࡛ࡊ࡙ࡵ

inevitably; at any cost

náo adv ᑠ still more; moreover: ~ íí ᑠ࠷࠷ still better forth/on, and what-not; the likes naorimásu, naóru v ├ࡽࡱࡌ, ├ࡾ

of nankō n ㌶⭧ [BOOKISH] ointment nankō n 㞬⯗ 1. rough sailing 2. rough passage nan-nára conj ర࡝ࡼ if you prefer,

is righted, fixed, repaired, improves naorimásu, naóru v ἖ࡽࡱࡌ, ἖ࡾ

is cured, gets well, recovers, improves nao-sara adv ᑠ᭞ all the more, still more naoshí v ├ࡊ mending, repair(ing), correcting, correction naoshimásu, naósu v ├ࡊࡱࡌ, ├ ࡌ 1. makes it right, corrects, repairs, mends, fixes, alters, improves it 2. [INFINITIVE +] does it over (and better), re-does it naoshimásu, naósu v ἖ࡊࡱࡌ, ἖ࡌ cures it náppa n ⳧ࡖⴝ greens, vegetables; rape (plant) nápukin n ࢻࣈ࢞ࣤ 1. napkin 2. sanitary pad … nára conj …࡝ࡼ, … ~ ba …࡝ ࡼࡣ if it be, provided it is [NEG-

if you like, if you don’t mind; if you don’t want to nan ni mo adv ర࡞ࡵ [EMPHATIC] → nani mo రࡵ nán ni mo adv ర࡞ࡵ (= nán no … ní mo రࡡ …࡞ࡵ [+ NEGATIVE] not to/for/at anything nán no adj రࡡ what (kind of); of what nanoka n ୏᪝ seven days; the 7th day (of month) … ná no ni conj …࡝ࡡ࡞ in spite of its being …, despite that it is … nanpa n 㞬◒ shipwreck nán-rá ka no … adj రࡼ࠾ࡡ… some nán-ra (no) … adj రࡼ ࡡ … [+ NEGATIVE] not any, not in any way ATIVE … ja nákereba/nákerya nán to … conj ర࡛ … with what, … ࡋࡶ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ࡝ࡄࡽࡶ]; what and … ; (saying/thinking/ [VERB]-ru/-ta nára ࡾࡒ࡝ࡼ, [ADJECTIVE]-i/katta nára ࠷࠾ࡖ meaning) what nán to itté mo adv ర࡛ゕࡖ࡙ࡵ ࡒ࡝ࡼ if (it be a matter of) … narabemásu, naraberu v ୩࡬ࡱࡌ, eventually, come what may nán to ka shite adv ర࡛࠾ࡊ࡙ by ୩࡬ࡾ arranges, lines them up narabi v ୩ࡦ row (line) some means (or other), somenarabimásu, narabu v ୩ࡦࡱࡌ, ୩ how or other nan to mo adv ర࡛ࡵ [+ NEGATIVE] ࡩ they line up, arrange themnothing (at all), not … at all selves 188

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naraigoto n ⩞࠷஥ culture lesson(s) ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ gets so it is …, gets to naraimásu, naráu v ⩞࠷ࡱࡌ, ⩞࠹ be …, turns into … … suru kotó ni ~ …ࡌࡾ஥࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ it gets learns naraimásu, naráu v ⩞࠷ࡱࡌ, ⩞࠹ arranged/decided to (do) … narimásu, naru v 㫾ࡽࡱࡌ, 㫾ࡾ it learns naraku n ዄⴘ hell: ~ no soko e sounds, rings tsukiotosaremáshita ዄⴘࡡᗇ࡫ narimono iri (de) adv 㫾ࡽ∸ථࡽ ✲ࡀⴘ࡛ࡈࡿࡱࡊࡒ was thrown ࡚ with a fanfare nariyuki v ᠺࡽ⾔ࡀ process, develinto the abyss of despair narashimásu, narasu v 㫾ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, opment, course; result: ~ o mimásu ᠺࡽ⾔ࡀࢅずࡱࡌ watches 㫾ࡼࡌ sounds, rings it narashimásu, narásu v ᆍࡊࡱࡌ, how things develop (turn out) ᆍࡌ smooths, averages naru-beku … adv ࡝ࡾ࡬ࡂ… as … narashimásu, narásu v 㤾ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, as possible 㤾ࡼࡌ domesticates, tames naru-hodo interj ࡝ࡾ࡮࡜ I see; narazumono n ࡝ࡼࡍ⩽ rogue, quite so; you are so right; how

vagabond naremásu, naréru v ៈࡿࡱࡌ, ៈࡿ ࡾ (… ni ~ …࡞ៈࡿࡱࡌ) gets

used to

true nasaimásu, nasáru v ࡝ࡈ࠷ࡱࡌ, ࡝ ࡈࡾ (someone honored) does násake n ᝗ࡄ affection, feeling,

naremásu, naréru v 㤾ࡿࡱࡌ, 㤾 ࡿࡾ (= … ni ~ …࡞㤾ࡿࡱࡌ)

tenderness, compassion, sympathy nasake-nái adj ᝗ࡄ࡝࠷ wretched, grows familiar with narenareshii adj 㤾ࡿ㤾ࡿࡊ࠷ too miserable; shameful nashí n ࢻࢨ࣬ᲅ pear friendly, overly familiar narēshon n ࢻ࣭ࣝࢨࣘࣤ narration náshi v ࡝ࡊ [LITERARY] = nái ࡝࠷ naresome n 㤾ࡿิࡴ the thing (= arimasén ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ) (there which brought man and woman is no …, lacks, has no …) (lovers) together, trigger of love nashimásu, násu v ᠺࡊࡱࡌ, ᠺࡌ narí n ࡝ࡽ࣬ᙟ form; personal achieves, forms, does … náshi ni suffix, prep, adv …࡝ appearance narikin n ᠺ㔘 nouveau riche ࡊ࡞ = … ga náku(te) …࠿࡝ࡂ ࡙ without, lacking, not having narimásu, náru v ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡝ࡾ násu n ࢻࢪ>ⱫᏄ࣬Ⱬ@, násubi becomes, gets to be; is done; ࡝ࡌࡦ eggplant amounts to, is; [HONORIFIC] o-nari ni ~ ࠽࡝ࡽ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ, … nata n ࡝ࡒ࣬㕮 hatches ni ([ADJECTIVE]-ku) ~ …࡞ ...ࡂ natsú n ኚ summer 189

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natsukashíi adj ᠔࠾ࡊ࠷ dear

…´n desu (da) suffix, v …ࢆ࡚ࡌ (dearly remembered), good old, ࡓ it’s that …: … né/nē´ interj nostalgic …ࡠࡠ࠺ (mostly female) isn’t natsume n ࢻࢵ࣒࣬Ჩ date (fruit) it, don’t you think/agree natsu-míkan n ኚ࣐࢜ࣤ࣬ኚ⻜᯷ ne n 㡚 (= otó 㡚) sound: suzu no ~ 㕝ࡡ㡚 bell jingles; ne o agemásu Japanese grapefruit (pomelo) natsu-yásumi n ኚఆࡲ summer v 㡚ࢅ୕ࡅࡱࡌ gives up ne n ೋ (= nedan ೋṹ) price: ~ vacation/holiday nattō´ n ࢻࢴࢹࢗ࣬⣙㇃ fermented ga takái ೋ࠿㧏࠷ is expensive; ne-age n ೋ୕ࡅ price rise; raissoy beans nattoku n ⣙ᚋ understanding, ing the cost; ne-biki n ೋᘤࡀ discompliance, assent; (… o) ~ shicount (of price); ne-dan n ೋṹ másu …ࢅ ⣙ᚋࡊࡱࡌ gets price ne n ᰷ 1. root (= nekko ᰷ࡖࡆ); persuaded/convinced (of …), ~ mo ha mo nai uwasa ᰷ࡵⴝ assents/ consents to, complies with; ( … o) ~ sasemásu …ࢅ ࡵ࡝࠷࠹ࢂࡈ groundless rumor ⣙ᚋࡈࡎࡱࡌ persuades/con2. cause (= kongen ᰷″) 3. one’s vinces one (of …) nature: ~ wa yasashii-hito desu náttsu n ࢻࢴࢵ nuts ᰷ࡢඁࡊ࠷ெ࡚ࡌ is basically a nawá n ⦎ rope, cord gentle person, is a kind person nawabari n ⦎ᘿࡽ one’s territory: deep down; ne-hori ha-hori adv ᰷ ~-arasoi ⦎ᘿࡽண࠷ territorial fight ᤸࡽⴝᤸࡽ about every detail: ~ naya n ⣙ᒁ barn, shed kikaremásu/shitsumon saremásu nayamí n ᝆࡲ suffering, distress, ᰷ᤸࡽⴝᤸࡽ⪲>゜@࠾ࡿࡱࡌ㈹ ၡࡈࡿࡱࡌ is questioned about torment nayamimásu, nayámu v ᝆࡲࡱࡌ, ᝆ every detail ࡳ suffers ne n ᐱ (= nemuri ┸ࡽ) sleep(ing); nayonayo (shita) adj ࡝ࡻ࡝ࡻ ࡊ ne-búsoku n ᐱ୘㊂ having not ࡒ wishy-washy, weedy [IN enough sleep; ne-isu n ᐱ᳌Ꮔ NEGATIVE SENSE] couch, lounge (chair); ne-maki n náze adv ࡝ࡏ࣬రᨶ why: ~ ka to ᐱᕬࡀ pajamas iu to …࡝ࡏ࠾࡛ゕ࠹࡛ … the nébaneba shimásu (suru) v ࡠࡣࡠࡣ reason is that … ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ is sticky nazo n ㅞ riddle, mystery; nazonebarí n ⢋ࡽ stickiness: ~-zuyoi nazo n ࡝ࡑ࡝ࡑ riddle (game) ⢋ࡽᙁ࠷ persevering: nebarínazukemásu, nazukéru v ྞ௛ࡄࡱࡌ, másu ⢋ࡽࡱࡌ hangs on ྞ௛ࡄࡾ names, dubs nechigaemásu, nechigaeru v ᐱ㐢࠻ 190

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ࡱࡌ, ᐱ㐢࠻ࡾ gets a crick in

year; nen-kan (no) adj ᖳ㛣 ࡡ for one’s neck (while sleeping) a year; annual: ~-køsuiryø ᖳ㛣 nechiketto n ࢾࢲࢢࢴࢹ netiquette 㜾Ề㔖 annual rainfall: ~-shotoku (comes from network + etiquette) ᖳ㛣ᡜᚋ annual income; nen-kan nechizun n ࢾࢲࢫࣤ netizen n ᖳ㚯 yearbook, almanac; nen-kan (comes from network + citizen) (no) adj ᖳษ ࡡ annual (publinegái v 㢢࠷ a request cation); nen-matsu n ᖳᮆ the end negaimásu, negáu v 㢢࠷ࡱࡌ, 㢢࠹ of the year: ~-nenshi kyüka ᖳᮆ ᖳጙఆᬜ year-end and New asks for, requests, begs négi n ࢾ࢟࣬ⴼ onion (green) Year’s day holidays; nen-pō n ᖳ neiro n 㡚Ⰵ (sound) tone ಥ annual salary; nen-ri n ᖳฺ néji n ࡠࡋ࣬ࢾࢩ screw; neji-máannual interest; nen-shi n ᖳጙ washi n ࡠࡋᅂࡊ screw-driver New Year’s day nejirimásu, nejíru v ࡠࡋࡽࡱࡌ, ࡠ nén n 1. ᛍ sense, feeling; desire; ࡋࡾ twists caution, care, attention; ~ no tamé nekashimásu, nekasu v ᐱ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, (ni) ᛍࡡࡒࡴ ࡞ to make sure, ᐱ࠾ࡌ puts to bed/sleep; lays it just in case, to be on the safe side; (… ni) ~ o iremásu …࡞ ᛍࢅ on its side nekki n ⇍Ẵ 1. hot air 2. air of ථࡿࡱࡌ pays attention (to …), excitement, fever 3. fever is careful (of/about …), ~ o oshimásu ᛍࢅᢪࡊࡱࡌ double-checks nékkuresu n ࢾࢴࢠࣝࢪ necklace nekkyō n ⇍≤ enthusiasm nén-… prefix ᖳ 2. age; nenchō(-sha) n ᖳ㛏 ⩽ one’s senior; néko n ࢾࢤ࣬⊟ cat nékutai n ࢾࢠࢰ࢕ necktie: ~ o nen-pai(-sha) n ᖳ㒼>ᖳ㍦@ ⩽ musubimásu ࢾࢠࢰ࢕ࢅ⤎ࡦࡱ the elderly, middle-aged person; nen-shō (-sha) n ᖳᑛ ⩽ young ࡌ puts on (wears) a necktie nemásu, neru v ᐱࡱࡌ, ᐱࡾ goes person, one’s junior nen-… prefix ⢋ sticky; nento bed, lies down, sleeps ne-motó n ᰷ඔ (the part) near the chaku-tē´pu n ⢋╌ࢷ࣭ࣈ adhesive root, the base (of a tree) tape; nén-do n ⢋ᅰ clay nemui adj ┸࠷ sleepy nengá n ᖳ㈙ New Year’s greetnemuri n ┸ࡽ sleep(ing) ings: ~ ni ikimasu ᖳ㈙࡞⾔ࡀࡱ nemurimásu, nemuru v ┸ࡽࡱࡌ, ┸ ࡌ makes a New Year’s call/visit; ࡾ sleeps nengá-hágaki n ᖳ㈙ⴝ᭡ a New nén n ᖳ year Year greeting postcard nén-… prefix ᖳ yearly, annual; nengan n ᛍ㢢 desire: ~ ga kanainén-do n ᖳᗐ year period, fiscal másu ᛍ㢢࠿ྑ࠷ࡱࡌ (one’s) 191

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netamashíi adj ጅࡱࡊ࠷ envious;

dream/wish has come true nengáppi n ᖳ᭮᪝ date (year/month/ day) (→ seinen-gáppi ⏍ᖳ᭮᪝) nenki n ᖳᏒ one’s term of service: ~ no haitta ᖳᏒࡡථࡖࡒ sea-

soned, experienced nenkin n ᖳ㔘 pension: køsei-~ ཉ⏍ᖳ㔘 employee pension; kojin-~ hoken ಴ெᖳ㔘ಕ㝜

enviable netamimásu, netámu v ጅࡲࡱࡌ, ጅ ࡳ envies netsú n 1. ⇍ fever 2. o-nétsu ࠽ ⇍ heat; netsu-ben n ⇍ᘒ passionate speech; netsu-bō n ⇍᭻ ambi-

tion (hope)

nettai (-chi´hō´) n ⇍ᖈ ᆀ᪁ troindividual annuity insurance pic(s): ~-kikø ⇍ᖈẴು tropical nenryō´ n ⇖ᩩ fuel: ~-tanku ⇖ᩩ climate; ~-shokubutsu ⇍ᖈ᳔∸ ࢰࣤࢠ fuel tank tropical plant nenshō n ⇖↕ combustion netto n ࢾࢴࢹ 1. net 2. network nenza n ᤤᣰ sprain 3. the Net (= intånetto ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ neon n ࢾ࢛ࣤ 1. neon 2. neon sign ࢾࢴࢹ); netto-bukku n ࢾࢴࢹࣇࢴ Nepāru n ࢾࣂ࣭ࣜ Nepal; Nepāruࢠ netbook (computer); netto-ginkō go n ࢾࣂ࣭ࣜㄊ Nepalese (lan- n ࢾࢴࢹ㖗⾔ online bank; nettokafe n ࢾࢴࢹ࢜ࣆ࢘Internet café; guage); Nepāru-jin n ࢾࣂ࣭ࣜெ netto-ōkushon n ࢾࢴࢹ࢛࣭࣬ࢠࢨ a Nepalese neppū n ⇍㢴 hot wind ࣘࣤ online auction; netto-sāfin n nerai n ≲࠷ an aim, object; idea, ࢾࢴࢹࢦ࣭ࣆ࢔ࣤ net surfing; intention, what one is driving at netto-tsūhan n ࢾࢴࢹ㏳㈅ online neraimásu, nerau v ≲࠷ࡱࡌ, ≲࠹ shopping, Internet shopping(= intånetto tsühan ࢕ࣤࢰ࣭ࢾࢴ aims at, watches for, seeks neri-hamígaki v ⦆ࡽṉ☳ࡀ toothࢹ㏳㈅) paste (= hamigaki-ko ṉ☳ࡀ⢂) nettō n ⇍… boiling water: ~ de nerí-kó n ⦆ࡽ⢂ dough yakedo o shimásu ⇍…࡚ℾഭࢅ nerimásu, néru v ⦆ࡽࡱࡌ, ⦆ࡾ ࡊࡱࡌ is scalded with boiling

kneads; drills, trains


nē´-san n ጗ࡈࢆ o-né´-san ࠽጗ࡈ ࢆ older sister; Miss!; Waitress! nes-shimásu, nes-suru v ⇍ࡊࡱࡌ, ⇍ࡌࡾ 1. gets hot, gets excited 2. heats it, warms it nésshín (na) adj ⇍ᚨ ࡝ enthusiastic; nésshín ni adv ⇍ᚨ࡞ enthu-


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netto-wāku n ࢾࢴࢹ࣭࣠ࢠ network; netto(wāku)-shimin n ࢾࢴࢹ ࣭࣠ࢠ ᕰẰ netizen (= nechizun ࢾࢲ ࢫࣤ) neuchi n ೋᡬࡔ value, worth nezumi n ࢾࢫ࣐࣬㰙 mouse, rat nezumi-iro (no) adj ࢾࢫ࣐Ⰵ ࡡ

gray 192

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nezumí-tori n ࢾࢫ࣐ᤍࡽ>ཱིࡽ@

Nichi-… prefix ᪝…, …-~ …᪝ mousetrap Japan(ese), ~-Ei ᪝ⱝ Japanesení n Ⲭ 1. load 2. burden (= nímotsu English, Ei-~ ⱝ᪝ EnglishⲬ∸; ni-zúkuri n Ⲭ㏸ࡽ packing Japanese ní n ஦࣬ 2 two; ni bai n ஦ಶ …-nichi suffix …᪝ day (counts/ twice (double); ni-banmé (no) adj names days) ஦␊┘ ࡡ second; ní dai n ஦ྋ nichi-botsu n ᪝Ἀ sunset (time of two (machines, vehicles); ni dó n sunset) ஦ᗐ two times, twice; ni do n ஦ Nichiyō´(-bi) n ᪝᭑ ᪝ Sunday Nichiyō-hin(-ten) n ᪝⏕ဗ ᗉ ᗐ two degrees (temperature); ni fun n ஦ฦ two minutes; ní hai grocery (store); houseware n ஦᮴ two cupfuls; ni hén n ஦㐚 (store) two times (= ni dó ஦ᗐ, ni kái ஦ niemásu, nieru v ↳࠻ࡱࡌ, ↳࠻ࡾ it ᅂ); ní hon n ஦ᮇ two (pencils/ boils, it cooks bottles, long objects); ni kai n ஦ nigái adj ⱖ࠷ bitter, wry: ~ køhii ⱖ࠷ࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭ bitter coffee; ~ kei㝭 second floor; upstairs; ni kái ken ⱖ࠷⤊㥺 bitter experience; n ஦ᅂ two times; ní ken n ஦㌲ ~-warai ⱖ➏࠷ bitter smile, wry two buildings; ní ko n ஦಴ two pieces (small objects); ní mai n ஦ smile ᯓ two sheets (flat things); ní-mei nigaoe n జ㢞⤦ portrait n ஦ྞ [BOOKISH] = futarí ஦ெ࣬ nigashimásu, nigásu v ㏠࠿ࡊࡱࡌ, ࡨࡒࡽ two people; ní-nen n ஦ᖳ ㏠࠿ࡌ turns loose; lets one get the year 2; ní-sai n ஦ṋ two years away, lets it slip away old (= futatsu ࡨࡒࡗ); ní satsu n nigate adj ⱖᡥ (thing, person, etc.,) ஦෇ two copies (books, magawhich is not one’s cup of tea: ~ na supøtsu ⱖᡥ࡝ࢪ࣭࣎ࢵ sport zines); ní-wa n ஦⩒ two (birds,


which one is not good at

… ni (´) particle …࡞ 1. to/for (a person) 2. at/in (a place), at (a time) 3. (= … é …࡫ to (a place) 4. as, so as to be, (turns/

Ni-gatsú n ஦᭮࣬2᭮ February nigemásu, nigéru v ㏠ࡅࡱࡌ, ㏠ࡅ ࡾ runs away, escapes, flees nigirimásu, nigiru v ᥩࡽࡱࡌ, ᥩࡾ

makes) into being, being

grasps, grips, clutches

ni-aimásu, ni-áu v జྙ࠷ࡱࡌ, జྙ ࠹: … ni ni-aimásu…࡞జྙ࠷ࡱ ࡌ is becoming (to), suits nia misu n ࢼ࢓࣐ࢪ near miss nibúi adj 㕄࠷ dull, blunt

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nigiri-meshi n ᥩࡽ㣜 riceball (= o-nígiri ࠽࡞ࡁࡽ) nigirí-zushi n ࡞ࡁࡽ>ᥩࡽ@ᑋྒྷ

sushi hand-packed into small balls (as traditional in Tokyo) 193

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nigíyaka (na)

nigíyaka (na) adj ࡞ࡁࡷ࠾࣬㈨ࡷ࠾ ⫏᰿ cinnamon ࡝ merry, bustling, lively, nikki n ᪝エ (private) diary flourishing, busy (place, atmos- níkkō n ᪝ක sunshine; Níkkø ᪝ක phere, person, etc.): ~ na tøri ㈨ Nikko (place); nikkō-yoku n ᪝ක ࡷ࠾࡝㏳ࡽ busy street ᾆ sun bathing nigorimásu, nigóru v ⃦ࡽࡱࡌ, ⃦ࡾ nikkyū n ᪝⤝ daily wage nikochin n ࢼࢤࢲࣤ nicotine gets muddy Nihón n ᪝ᮇ Japan (= Nippón ᪝ nikomi n ↳㎰ࡲ stew (food): ᮇ, Nihón-koku ᪝ᮇᅗ); Nihon-fū ~-udon ↳㎰ࡲ࠹࡜ࢆ stew with n ᪝ᮇ㢴 Japanese style; Nihon-ga Udon (Japanese wheat noodle) n ᪝ᮇ⏤ Japanese-style painting; níkoniko adj ࡞ࡆ࡞ࡆ smiling: ~ Nihon-ginkō n ᪝ᮇ㖗⾔ Bank of shi(tei)másu ࡞ࡆ࡞ࡆࡊ ࡙࠷ Japan; Nihon-go n ᪝ᮇㄊ Japanese ࡱࡌ smiles (language/word); Nihon-jín n ᪝ᮇ nikú n ⫏ meat; niku-dángo n ⫏ᅆ ெ a Japanese; Nihon-ryōri n ᪝ᮇ Ꮔ Chinese meat-balls; nikú-ya n ᩩ⌦ Japanese cuisine; Nihon-sei n ⫏ᒁ butcher (shop) ᪝ᮇ⿿ made in Japan nikú n 1. ⫏ o-níku ࠽⫏ meat 2. ni-hyakú n ஦Ⓤ 200 two hundred flesh (= nikutai ⫏మ); niku-sei n níi-san n ඕࡈࢆ o-níi-san ࠽ඕࡈ ⫏ኇ natural voice (without a ࢆ older brother microphone, etc.); niku-shoku niji n ⹷ rainbow (dōbutsu) n ⫏㣏 ິ∸ carnivore; ni-jū n ஦㔔 double, duplicate; nijū- niku-tai n ⫏మ body; niku-yoku n nábe n ஦㔔㘘 double boiler; nijū- ⫏ḟ sexual desire ago n ஦㔔࠵ࡇ>㢙@ double chin nikúi adj ៦࠷ hateful ní-jū n ஦༎࣬20 twenty: ~-yokka …nikúi suffix ࡞ࡂ࠷࣬㞬࠷ ஦༎ᄿ᪝ 24 days, 24th day (of (...shi-~ ...ࡊ࡞ࡂ࠷) hard, difmonth); ~-banmé ஦༎␊┘ 20th ficult (to do) nijús-sai n ஦༎ṋ 20 years old nikumimásu, nikúmu v ៦ࡲࡱࡌ, ៦ ࡳ hates, detests (= hátachi ஦༎ṋ࣬ࡢࡒࡔ nikawa n ࡞࠾ࢂ࣬⭲ glue nikushin n ⫏の blood relative ni-kayoimásu, ni-kayóu v జ㏳࠷ࡱࡌ, níkuzure n Ⲭᓻࡿ cargo shifting జ㏳࠹ … ni/to ~ …࡞࡛జ㏳࠷ nikuzure n ↳ᓻࡿ breaking up ࡱࡌ closely resembles while boiling/cooking (fishes, potatoes, etc.) Nikei (no) adj ᪝⣌ ࡡ (of) Japanimásu, niru v జࡱࡌ, జࡾ renese ancestry níkibi n ࡞ࡀࡦ pimple sembles níkki n ࡞ࡖࡀ, níkkei ࡞ࡖࡄ࠷࣬ nimásu, niru v ↳ࡱࡌ, ↳ࡾ boils,

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…-ninmae suffix …ெ๑ (counts

… -ní mo suffix …࡞ࡵ also (even) portions) ninmei n ௴࿤ appointment at/in, to, as ni-mono n ↳∸ boiled foods ninmu n ௴ຸ duty, assignment, nímotsu n Ⲭ∸ 1. baggage 2. load task, mission: ~ o hatashimásu …(´) -nin suffix …ெ person, ௴ຸࢅᯕࡒࡊࡱࡌ accomplishes people; yo-~ ᄿெ four people one’s errand ninaimásu, nináu v ᢰ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᢰ࠹ ninniku n ࢼࣤࢼࢠ࣬ኬⵓ garlic ninpu n ዲ፦ pregnant woman carries on shoulders ninchi n ヾ▩ [BOOKISH] 1. recog- ninpu n ெኰ [BOOKISH] laborer nition, acknowledgment 2. affil- ninshiki n ヾㆉ [BOOKISH] awareiation: ~ sareteinai kodomo ヾ▩ ness, recognition ࡈࡿ࡙࠷࡝࠷Ꮔ౩ child who is ninshin n ዲፈ pregnancy: ~ shite imásu ዲፈࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is not affiliated by his/her parent pregnant; ninshin-chū´zetsu n ዲፈ (usually father) ningen n ெ㛣 human being (= ୯⤧ abortion hito ெ) ninshō n ヾチ certification ningyo n ெ㨮 mermaid ninsō n ெ┞ looks, facial features ningyō n ெᙟ doll; ningyō-shíbai n nintai n ᚰ⪇ endurance; nintai-ryoku ெᙟⰢᑽ puppet show; ningyōᚰ⪇ງ ability to be patient tsukai n ெᙟ౐࠷ puppeteer nínzū n ெᩐ number of people; nini n ௴ណ [BOOKISH] option population (= jinkø ெཾ) nínja n ᚰ⩽ a master of stealth, niō dachi n ொ⋜❟ࡔ standing firm


with one’s feet set apart (like two Deva Kings stone statue) niói adj ⮧࠷࣬໚࠷ a smell; ( … no) ~ ga shimásu …ࡡ ⮧࠷>໚ ࠷@࠿ࡊࡱࡌ it smells (of …) nioimásu, nióu v ⮧࠷ࡱࡌ࣬໚࠷ ࡱࡌ, thy nínjutsu n ᚰ⾙ the art of stealth ⮧࠹࣬໚࠹ it smells, is fragrant ninka n ヾྊ [BOOKISH] permission Nippón n ᪝ᮇ = Nihón(-koku) ᪝ ᮇ ᅗ Japan ninki n ெẴ popularity: ~ ga arimásu ெẴ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is popular nirá n ࢼࣚ a leek; a green onion ninki n ௴᭿ (one’s) term, term of niramimásu, nirámu v ╦ࡲࡱࡌ, ╦ ࡳ glares, stares office: ~ o tsutomemásu ௴᭿ࢅ ຸࡴࡱࡌ serves one’s term níre n ࢼࣝ࣬ᴄ yew (tree) 195 ninjin n ࢼࣤࢩࣤ࣬ெཤ carrot nínjō n ெ᝗ human nature, human feelings, warmheartedness: ~-ka ெ᝗ᐓ sympathetic person: giri to ~ ⩇⌦࡛ெ᝗ duty and sympa-

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ní-san (no)


ní-san (no) adj ஦, ୔ ࡡ two or

niwa n ᗖ garden three … … níwa suffix, prep, conj …࡞ࡢ ní-sei n ஦ୠ second generation to; at/in; as níwaka (no/ni) adj, adv ࡞ࢂ࠾ ࡡ (Japanese emigrant); … the ࡞ sudden(ly), unexpected(ly) Second nisemásu, niseru v జࡎࡱࡌ, జࡎ niwatori n ࢼ࣠ࢹࣛ࣬㭔 chicken ࡾ imitates, copies; counterfeits n´n interj ࢆࢆ 1. “un-un” ࠹ࢆ ࠹ࢆ huh-uh, uh-uh 2. “u-un” (money), forges (a document, a ࠹࠹ࢆ nope signature) nise (no) adj ࡞ࡎ࣬അ ࡡ false, nó n 㔕 field (dry) phony, fake, imitation; nise-mono no-… prefix 㔕 wild; nó-bana n 㔕ⰴ wildflower; no-usagi n 㔕ࢗ n അ∸࣬࡞ࡎࡵࡡ a fake, an ࢦ࢟࣬㔕ඟ wild rabbit imitation; a forgery; nise-satsu n അᮈ࣬㉒ᮈ࣬࡞ࡎᮈ counterfeit …´no suffix …ࡡ 1. the one/time/ bill (currency) place that; (= hitó ெ, monó ∸, nishi n け west: ~-guchi けཾ the tokí ᫤, tokoró ᡜ) 2. the (specific) west exit/entrance; nishi-káigan n act/fact of … (cf. kotó ஥) 3. けᾇᓃ west coast which/that is … (→ désu ࡚ࡌ, dá níshiki n 㘂 brocade ࡓ, na ࡝) nishime n ↳ࡊࡴ boiled fish and nō n ⬳ brain: dai-~ ኬ⬳ cerevegetables brum: shø~ ᑚ⬳ cerebellum; níshin n ࢼࢨࣤ࣬㪠 herring nō-míso n ⬳ࡲࡐ࣬⬳࿝ძ brain nishoku-tsuki (no) adj ஦㣏௛ࡀ ࡡ [INFORMAL] nō´ n ⬗ 1. ability (= nøryoku ⬗ with two meals incuded nisshi n ᪝ヽ diary, journal (of ງ, sainø ᡧ⬗) 2. o-nø ࠽⬗ Noh business, nursing, etc.); kango-~ (Japanese classical theater) (→ ┫㆜᪝ヽ nurse’s daily record nō-men ⬗㟻) nissū´ n ᪝ᩐ the number of days nō-… prefix ㎨ farming, agrinísu n ࢼࢪ = wánisu ࣠ࢼࢪ culture; nō´-chi n ㎨ᆀ farm varnish land; nō´-gyō n ㎨ᴏ agriculture, … ní te particle …࡞࡙ [LITERARY] farming; nō-jō´ n ㎨ሔ farm; nō-min n ㎨Ằ farmers = … de …࡚ (at; …) ni-tō (no) adj ஦➴ ࡡ second nobashimásu, nobásu v ఘࡣࡊࡱࡌ, ఘࡣࡌ extends (lengthens, class; nitø´-shø ஦➴㈱ the second prize stretches, deters) it nittei n ᪝⛤ schedule, program, nobashimásu, nobásu v ᘇࡣࡊࡱࡌ, ᘇࡣࡌ prolongs itinerary 196

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nobemásu, nobéru v ㏑࡬ࡱࡌ, ㏑࡬ nōkō (na) adj ⃨ཉ ࡝ thick, rich, ࡾ tells, relates dense, passionate: ~ na miruku nobimásu, nobíru v ఘࡦࡱࡌ, ఘࡦ ⃨ཉ࡝࣐ࣜࢠ rich milk: ~ na ࡾ it extends, reaches; it spreads kisu ⃨ཉ࡝࢞ࢪ passionate kiss nobori n ୕ࡽ inbound (to Tokyo), nokorí n ṟࡽ the rest, the remain-

the up train

der, what is left, the leftover;

noborimásu, noboru v Ⓡࡽࡱࡌ, Ⓡ nokori-bi n ṟࡽℾ embers; ࡾ climbs nokori-monó n ṟࡽ∸ leftovers, noborimásu, noboru v ୕ࡽࡱࡌ, ୕ remains, leavings nokorimásu, nokóru v ṟࡽࡱࡌ, ṟ ࡾ goes up noborimásu, noboru v ᪴ࡽࡱࡌ, ᪴ ࡾ remains, is left behind/over ࡾ rises: hi ga ~ ᪝࠿᪴ࡽࡱࡌ nokoshimásu, nokósu v ṟࡊࡱࡌ, ṟࡌ leaves behind/over the sun rises nóbu n ࢿࣇ knob: doa-~ ࢺ࢓ࢿࣇ nō-men n ⬗㟻 mask (Noh drama) nomí n ࢿ࣐࣬⺋ flea door knob nochi n ࡡࡔ࣬ᚃ: ~-hodo ࡡࡔ࡮ nómi n ࢿ࣐࣬㛋 chisel ࡜࣬ᚃ⛤ later (= áto (de) ࠵࡛࣬ …nómi suffix, adj …ࡡࡲ (= … ᚃ ࡚ ) daké …ࡓࡄ only nódo n ࡡ࡜࣬ၿ throat: ~ ga kawa- nomi-komimásu, nomi-komu v 㣟ࡲ㎰ kimáshita ࡡ࡜࠿ῤࡀࡱࡊࡒ is ࡲࡱࡌ, 㣟ࡲ㎰ࡳ swallows



nō´do n ⃨ᗐ density, thick (liquid), nomimásu, nómu v 㣟ࡲࡱࡌ, 㣟ࡳ concentration; kø-~ (no) køhii 㧏 drinks; smokes; takes (medicine); nomi-kai n 㣟ࡲఌ drinking party; ⃨ᗐ ࡡ ࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭>⋾⌼@ strong nomí-mizu n 㣟ࡲỀ drinking water; coffee nódoka (na) adj ࡡ࡜࠾ ࡝ nomí-mono n 㣟ࡲ∸ beverage, tranquil, peaceful, quiet, calm refreshments; nomí-ya n 㣟ࡲᒁ nó-hara n 㔕ཋ field tavern, neighborhood bar nó-juku n 㔕ᐙ rough sleeping nonbē, nonbei n 㣟ඹ⾠࣬࿌ඹ nokemásu, nokeru v ㏝ࡄࡱࡌ, ㏝ࡄ ⾠, ࡡࢆ࡬࠷ a heavy drinker ࡾ removes; omits [INFORMAL] noki n ㌲ eaves nonbiri adj ࡡࢆࡦࡽ easy, leisurely: nokimásu, noku v ㏝ࡀࡱࡌ, ㏝ࡂ ~ ya ࡡࢆࡦࡽᒁ happy-go-lucky gets out of the way person: ie de ~ shimásu ᐓ࡚ࡡࢆ nókku shimásu (suru) v ࢿࢴࢠࡊࡱࡌ ࡦࡽࡊࡱࡌ relaxes at home ࡌࡾ knocks (on door) non-fikushon n ࢿࣤࣆ࢔ࢠࢨࣘࣤ nokogírí v ࡡࡆࡁࡽ࣬㗤 a saw (tool) nonfiction

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nónki (na)

nónki (na) adj ࡡࢆẴ>࿌Ẵ@ ࡝

easygoing, happy-go-lucky, carefree nonoshirimásu, nonoshíru v ⨤ࡽࡱ ࡌ, ⨤ࡾ reviles, abuses, swears at, curses non-sumōkā n ࢿࣤࢪ࣓࣭࣭࢜ non-smoker nosutarujia n ࢿࢪࢰࣜࢩ࢓ nostalgia noren n ࡡࡿࢆ࣬ᬦᗦ shop curtain; credit: ~ o oroshimásu ᬦ⡐ࢅୖ ࢀࡊࡱࡌ closes down one’s store; ~ o wakemásu ᬦ⡐ࢅฦࡄࡱࡌ


curses, utters a curse noronoro adv ࡡࢀࡡࢀ slowly, sluggishly: ~ unten ࡡࢀࡡࢀ㐘 ㌷ driving slowly noruma n ࢿ࣏ࣜ norm, quota: ~ o tasseishimásu ࢿ࣏ࣜࢅ㐡ᠺࡊࡱ ࡌ achieves one’s quota nō´ryoku n ⬗ງ ability (= nø ⬗, sainø ᡧ⬗) nosemásu, noseru v ஋ࡎࡱࡌ, ஋ࡎ ࡾ loads, puts aboard, ships nosemásu, noseru v ㍍ࡎࡱࡌ, ㍍ࡎ ࡾ publishes (in book, magazine,

lets the employee use the same etc.), posts (an article, etc.) shop name to open his/her own nōshuku n ⃨⦨ [BOOKISH] concentration (of liquid or air) shop norí n ࢿࣛ࣬ᾇⱇ seaweed noten (de/no) adv, adj 㔕ኮ ࡚ࡡ (green); norí-maki n ࡡࡽ>ᾇⱇ@ᕬ outdoors: ~-búro 㔕ኮ㢴࿁ outࡀ sushi rice in a seaweed roll door bath norí n ࡡࡽ࣬⢮ paste; starch nōtenki (na) adj ⬗ኮẴ ࡝ happynori-kaemásu, nori-káéru v ஋ࡽᥦ࠻ go-lucky, easy, optimistic (person) ࡱࡌ, ஋ࡽᥦ࠻ࡾ changes (vehicles) nō´to n ࢿ࣭ࢹ notebook norimásu, noru v ஋ࡽࡱࡌ, ஋ࡾ nottóri n ஋ࡖཱིࡽ hijack nottoríhan n ஋ࡖཱིࡽ≚ hijacker; nottorigets aboard, rides; is carried; jíken n ஋ࡖཱིࡽ஥௲ a hijacking; nori-ba n ஋ࡽሔ boarding area/ place; platform (at station); taxi (illegal) takeover, seizure station; bus stop; nori-kae n ஋ࡽ nottorimásu, nottóru v ஋ࡖཱིࡽࡱࡌ, ᥦ࠻ change, transfer (of vehicle); ஋ࡖཱིࡾ hijacks; (illegally) nori-mono n ஋ ࡽ ∸ vehicle takes over, seizes Nōrin-Suisan-shō n ㎨ᯐỀ⏐┤ noyama n 㔕ᒜ fields and mountains Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry nōzei n ⣙⛧ payment of taxes nozokimásu, nozoku v ぢࡀࡱࡌ, ぢ and Fisheries of Japan (MAFF) ࡂ peeks/peeps at; nozokí-ana n ࡡ nōritsu n ⬗⋙ efficiency norói n ࿖࠷ a curse ࡑࡀ>ぢࡀ@✨ peephole; nozoki-ya norói n ࡡࢀ࠷ slow, dull, sluggish n ࡡࡑࡀ>ぢࡀ@ᒁ peeping Tom nozokimásu, nozoku v 㝎ࡀࡱࡌ, 㝎 [INFORMAL] noroimásu, noróu v ࿖࠷ࡱࡌ, ࿖࠹ ࡂ eliminates, removes; omits 198

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nozomashíi adj ᭻ࡱࡊ࠷ desirable, numá n ἗ pond: ~-chi ἗ᆀ swamp,



nozomi n ᭻ࡲ a desire; a hope, an nuno n ᕱ cloth: ~-ji ᕱᆀ fabric nurashimásu, nurasu v ⃷ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, expectation nozomimásu, nozomu v ᭻ࡲࡱࡌ, ⃷ࡼࡌ wets, dampens ᭻ࡳ desires, looks to, hopes for nure-ginu v ⃷ࡿ⾨ false accusation nozomimásu, nozomu v ⮣ࡲࡱࡌ, nuremásu, nureru v ⃷ࡿࡱࡌ, ⃷ࡿ ⮣ࡳ [BOOKISH] looks out on ࡾ gets wet, damp; nurete imásu nū´do n ࢽ࣭ࢺ a nude ⃷ࡿ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is wet nugemásu, nugéru v ⬲ࡅࡱࡌ, ⬲ࡅ nuri ሧࡽ n lacquer, varnish, ࡾ 1. it slips/comes off 2. can painting nuri-kaemásu, nuri-káéru v ሧࡽ᭨࠻ take it off nugimásu, núgu v ⬲ࡁࡱࡌ, ⬲ࡃ ࡱࡌ, ሧࡽ᭨࠻ࡾ repaints nurimásu, nuru v ሧࡽࡱࡌ, ሧࡾ takes off (clothes, shoes) nuguimásu, nuguu´ v ᣌ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᣌ࠹ lacquers, paints, varnishes, stains; wipes it away (butter) spreads; nuri-gúsuri n ሧࡽ nuigurumi n ⦥࠷ໜࡲ stuffed toy ⷾ ointment [INFORMAL] nuimásu, nuu´ v ⦥࠷ࡱࡌ, ⦥࠹ nurúi adj ࡟ࡾ࠷࣬Ὼ࠷ lukewarm, sews; núí-bari n ⦥࠷㔢 sewing tepid nushi n ୹ master, owner (= aruji needle; nui-mé n ⦥࠷┘ seam nukashimásu, nukasu v ᢜ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, ୹) ᢜ࠾ࡌ skips, leaves out nusumí n ┈ࡲ theft nukemásu, nukeru v ᢜࡄࡱࡌ, ᢜࡄ nusumimásu, nusúmu v ┈ࡲࡱࡌ, ࡾ comes off; escapes; is omitted; ┈ࡳ steals, swipes, robs, rips off nuke-ana n ᢜࡄ✨ ① passage … nya/nyā´ … suffix ࡞ࡶ࡞ࡶ࠵ which allows one to go through [INFORMAL] = … ní wa … ࡞ࡢ ② escape route ③ loophole nyō n ᑺ [BOOKISH] urine, urinating …-nuki (de/no) suffix, adj, adv …ᢜ (= shíkko ࡊࡖࡆ, o-shíkko ࠽ࡊ ࡀ ࡚ࡡ without (omitting) ࡖࡆ) nukimásu, nuku v ᢜࡀࡱࡌ, ᢜࡂ nyō´bō, nyō´bo n ዥᡛ my wife nyū… prefix ථ entering; nyū-en uncorks; removes; omits; surpasses; selects; nuki-ashi (sashiashi) n ථᅧ entering a kindergarten/ nursery; nyū-gaku n ථᏕ admission (de) adv ᢜࡀ㊂ ᕣࡊ㊂ ࡚ stealthily, on tiptoe; nuki-uchi n to a school, entering a school; ᢜࡀᡬࡔ (test, inspection, etc.,) nyü(gaku)-shi(ken) ථ Ꮥ ム 㥺 without notice: ~-kensa ᢜࡀᡬ entrance exam; ~-shiki ථᏕᘟ ࡔ᳠ᰕ surprise inspection school entrance ceremony; nyū-in

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n ථ㝌 entering a hospital, hospital admission; nyū-jō n ථሔ admission (to a place): ~-ken ථ ሔไ admission ticket, platform (non-passenger) ticket; ~-ryø ථ ሔᩩ admission fee; nyū-ka n ථ Ⲭ arrival (of goods)(in shop, market, etc.); nyū-kai n ථఌ admission to an association; nyū-koku n ථᅗ entering a country; immigration: ~ kanri-kyoku ථᅗ⟮⌦ ᑻ Immigration Bureau of Japan; nyū-kyo n ථᑽ moving into an apartment; ~-sha ථᑽ⩽ tenant, resident (of an apartment); nyū-seki n ථ⡘ registering one’s marriage; nyū-sen n ථ㐽 winning a prize; nyū-sha n ථ♣ entering (joining) a company: ~-shikén ථ♣ム㥺 employment selection exam; nyūyoku n ථᾆ bath, taking a bath nyūbai n ථᱭ the rainy season (in Japan) (= tsuyu ᱭ㞭) nyū-eki n ஘ᾦ 1. latex 2. milky lotion, milky liquid (cosmetic) nyū-gan n ஘࠿ࢆ࣬஘⒬ breast

cancer nyū-gyū n ஘∭ dairy cattle nyū-inryō n ஘㣟ᩩ milk beverage nyū-ji n ஘ඡ infant Nyūjiirándo n ࢼ࣭ࣖࢩ࣭ࣚࣤࢺ New Zealand; ~-jin ࢼ࣭ࣖࢩ࣭ ࣚࣤࢺெ a New Zealander nyūnen (na/ni) adj, adv ථᛍ ࡝࡞ careful(ly): ~ ni shirabemásu ථ ᛍ࡞ㄢ࡬ࡱࡌ searches carefully nyū-seihin n ஘⿿ဗ foods made

from milk (butter, cheese, etc.) nyūshō n ථ㈱ winning a prize: ~-sha ථ㈱⩽ a prizewinner nyū´su n ࢼ࣭ࣖࢪ news: ~-bangumi ࢼ࣭ࣖࢪ␊⤄ news program: ~-kyasutå ࢼ࣭ࣖࢪ࢞ ࣔࢪࢰ࣭ newscaster nyū´toraru n ࢼ࣭ࣖࢹࣚࣜ neutral (gear): (gia o) ~ ni iremásu ࢟ ࢓ࢅ ࢼ࣭ࣖࢹࣚࣜ࡞ථࡿࡱࡌ

shifts the gear into neutral Nyūyō´ku n ࢼ࣭࣭ࣖࣙࢠ New

York nyūyō (na) adj ථ⏕ ࡝ necessary,


O យ᝷) ② o-aiso ࠽࠵࠷ࡐ (restaurant) bill, check; o-bā´-san n ࠽ࡣ࠵ࡈࢆ࣬࠽♵ẍࡈࢆ grand(personalizing): “your” or “that mother (family) (= bå-san ࡣ࠵ࡈ ࢆ, obå-chan ࠽ࡣ࠵ࡔࡶࢆ, só-bo important thing”; o-aiso n ࠽࠵ ࠷ࡐ࣬࠽យ᝷, o-aisø ࠽យ᝷ ♵ẍ); o-bā´-san n ࠽ࡣ࠵ࡈࢆ࣬࠽ ① compliment, flattery (= aiso ፚࡈࢆ (not relative) old lady/ 200

ó n ᑹ = shippó ࡊࡖࡰ࣬ᑶᑹ tail ó n ⥬ = hanao 㰧⥬ thong, strap o- prefix ࠽࣬ᚒ [HONORIFIC]

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woman (= bå-san ࡣ࠵ࡈࢆ, obå[FORMAL] (= kå´san ẍࡈࢆ࣬࠾ chan ࠽ࡣ࠵ࡔࡶࢆ); o-bon n ࠽ ࠵ࡈࢆ; o-káshi n ࠽ⳣᏄ confec⓽ tray (= bon ⓽, torei ࢹࣝ࢕); tions, sweets, pastry, candy, O-bón n ࠽⓽ the Bon Festival cakes, cookies, biscuits (= kashi (Buddhist All Saints Day) (= Bon ⳣᏄ); o-kawari n ࠽ንࢂࡽ change ⓽); o-bō-san n ࠽ᆎࡈࢆ Buddhist (in health): ~ arimasénka. ࠽ን ࢂࡽ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ࠾ࠊIs everything monk (= bø-san ᆎࡈࢆ); o-cha n ࠽Ⲍ Japanese green tea; the tea all right? (greeting) (= kawari ን ࢂࡽ ; o-ko-san n ࠽Ꮔࡈࢆ (your/ ceremony (= cha Ⲍ); o-hachi n ࠽㖂 rice bucket/tub (= hachi someone else’s) child (= ko Ꮔ ; 㖂); o-hana n ࠽ⰴ ① flower (= o-kyaku(-san/-sámá) n ࠽ᐂ ࡈࢆᵕ hana ⰴ) ② flower arrangement; visitor; customer, patron (= kyaku o-hana n ࠽㰧 nose (= hana 㰧); ᐂ); o-kyō n ࠽⤊ sutra (Buddhist o-hima n ࠽ᬜ (your) spare time, scripture) (= kyø ⤊ ; o-matsuri n ࠽⚅ࡽ festival (= matsuri ⚅ࡽ ; free time (= hima ᬜ); o-kane n ࠽㔘 money (= kane 㔘); o-kéiko o-múko-san n ࠽፯ࡈࢆ (your/some(goto) n ࠽✅ཿ ࡇ࡛ practice one else’s) son-in-law; bridegroom (artistic) (= kéiko ✅ཿ); o-ikura (= muko ፯ ; o-negai n ࠽㢢࠷ (désu ka) ࠽࠷ࡂࡼ ࡚ࡌ࠾ How favor (requested), request (= much is this? (= ikura (désu ka) negai 㢢࠷); o-nē´-san n ࠽጗ࡈࢆ ࠷ࡂࡼ ࡚ࡌ࠾ ); o-ikutsu (désu older sister (= në´-san ጗ࡈࢆ, ane ka) ࠽࠷ࡂࡗ ࡚ࡌ࠾ How old ጗, aneki ጗㈏); o-níi-san n ࠽ඕࡈ (are you)? (= ikutsu (désu ka) ࠷ ࢆ older brother (= níi-san ඕࡈ ࡂࡗ ࡚ࡌ࠾ ); o-iwai n ࠽♻࠷ ࢆ, ani ඕ, aniki ඕ㈏); o-rei n ࠽ celebration (= iwai ♻࠷); o-jama ♡ an acknowledgment, a thankn ࠽㑟㨩 (= jama 㑟㨩 ; O-jama you, a present (of appreciation) shimáshita ࠽㑟㨩ࡊࡱࡊࡒ. (= rei ♡); o-sake n ࠽㒿 saké Excuse me for having interrupted/ (Japanese rice wine); liquor (= sake 㒿); o-saki ni adv ࠽඙࡞ bothered you; o-jíi-san n ࠽ࡋ࠷ ࡈࢆ࣬♵∏ࡈࢆ grandfather Excuse me for going first; ~ ni shitsúrei shimásu ࠽඙࡞኶♡ࡊ (family) (=jii-san ࡋ࠷ࡈࢆ࣬♵ ∏ࡈࢆ, ojii-chan ࠽ࡋ࠷ࡔࡶࢆ); ࡱࡌ Excuse me for being the o-jíi-san n ࠽ࡋ࠷ࡈࢆ࣬࠽−ࡈࢆ first to leave; o-séwa n ࠽ୠヨ (not relative) old (gentle-)man care, assistance, help (= sewá ୠ (=jii-san ࡋ࠷ࡈࢆ࣬−ࡈࢆ, ojii- ヨ) (→ o-sewa-sama ࠽ୠヨᵕ); chan ࠽ࡋ࠷ࡔࡶࢆ); o-kā´-san n o-shirase n ࠽▩ࡼࡎ report, notice, ࠽ẍࡈࢆ࣬࠽࠾࠵ࡈࢆ mother information (= shirase ▩ࡼࡎ); 201

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O-shōgatsu n ࠽ḿ᭮ New Year; January (= Shøgatsu ḿ᭮); o-sōshiki n ࠽ⴷᘟ funeral (= søshiki ⴷᘟ); o-sumō-san n ࠽┞᧖ࡈࢆ sumo wrestler (= sumø ┞᧖, rikishi ງኃ); o-súshi n ࠽ᑋྒྷ࣬ ࠽㩟 = súshi ࡌࡊ࣬ᑋྒྷ࣬㩟 sushi; o-témae n ࠽Ⅴ๑ tea ceremony procedures (= temae Ⅴ ๑); o-ténki n ࠽ኮẴ ① weather (= ténki ኮẴ) ② fair weather; o-tera n ࠽ᑈ Buddhist temple (= tera ᑈ); o-tō´-san n ࠽∏ࡈࢆ࣬࠽ ࡛࠹ࡈࢆ father (= tø´san ∏ࡈࢆ ࡛࣬࠹ࡈࢆ, oyaji の∏); o-toshi n ࠽ᖳ࣬࠽ṋ࣬(your/someone else’s) age (= toshi ᖳ࣬ṋ); o-tsuri n ࠽ࡗࡽ࣬࠽㔦ࡽ change (money returned) (= tsuri ࡗࡽ࣬㔦ࡽ); o-yakusho n ࠽ᙲᡜ government office (= yakusho ᙲᡜ); o-yasumi n ࠽ఆࡲ rest; holiday; recess; time off (= yasumí ఆࡲ[INFORMAL], kyüka ఆᬜ [FORMAL] ; o-yome-san n ࠽ᎋࡈࢆ (your/someone else’s) bride (= yome ᎋ); o-zōni n ࠽㞟 ↳ rice cakes boiled with vege-


① king ② champion: sekai ~ ୠ ⏲⋜⩽ world champion ③ ruler; ō-ji (-sama) n ⋜Ꮔ ᵕ prince; ō-jo (-sama) n ⋜ዥ ᵕ princess; ō-kan n ⋜෗ ① crown ② (bin no ~ ⎴ ࡡ⋜෗) bottle cap; ō-koku n ⋜ ᅗ kingdom; ō-sama n ⋜ᵕ king; ō-shitsu n ⋜ᐄ royal family ō-… prefix ኬ… big, great; ō-áme n ኬ㞭 heavy rain; ō-buroshiki n ኬ㢴࿁ᩔ very large square wrapping cloth; ō-dáiko n ኬኯ㰐 large drum; ō-dō´ri ኬ㏳ࡽ main street, avenue; ō-fúbuki n ኬྻ㞯 blizzard; ō-gata n ኬᆵ large-size (model); ō-gesa (na) adj ࠽࠽ࡅࡈ >ኬ⾻⿰@ ࡝ exaggerated; ō-hiroma n ኬᗀ㛣 great hall; ō-kaze n ኬ㢴 strong wind; ō´-mízú n ኬỀ flood (= køzui ὝỀ); ō-moji n ኬ ᩝᏊ capital letter; ō-mono n ኬ∸ a big shot; ō-ótoko n ኬ⏠ a giant of a man, big man; ō-sáwagi n ኬ 㥹ࡁ fuss, disturbance; ō-sōji n ኬ ᤪ㝎 great cleaning; ō-uridashi n ኬ኉ฝࡊ big sale; ō-yasu-uri n ኬ Ꮽ኉ࡽ special bargain sale; ō-yukí n ኬ㞯 heavy snow; ō-zúmō n ኬ ┞᧖ a grand sumo tournament;

tables (eaten as New Year’s soup) (= zøni 㞟↳) … o …ࢅ particle: marks direct an exciting match object (gets what, loves whom) oashisu n ࢛࢓ࢨࢪ oasis or path traversed (goes through/ o-azuke interj ࠽㡰ࡄ Wait! (training one’s dog) along where, using what path) ō´ n ⋜, ø-sama ⋜ᵕ king; ō-chō n ō´bā n ࢛࣭ࣁ࣭ overcoat, (top) coat ⋜᭽ royal dynasty; ō-hi n ⋜ደ o-báke n ࠽໩ࡄ࣬࠽ࡣࡄ ghost, queen; ō-i keishō n ⋜న⤽ᢆ suc- monster cession to the throne; ō-ja n ⋜⩽ ōbako n ࢛࢛ࣁࢤ (plant) plantain 202

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ōbā(-kōto) n ࢛࣭ࣁ࣭ ࢤ࣭ࢹ

overcoat ō´bā (na) adj ࢛࣭ࣁ࣭ ࡝

exaggerated, over(ly), too much oba(-san) n ࠽ࡣ>ཱẍ@ ࡈࢆ aunt

o-daiji ni

virgin (female) oboremásu, oboreru v ⁊ࡿࡱࡌ, ⁊ ࡿࡾ drowns ō´bo shimásu (suru) v ᚺຽࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ applies obuimásu, obú v ㇿࡩ࠷ࡱࡌ, ㇿࡩ ࠹ carries on one’s back (= seoimásu, shoimásu ⫴ㇿ࠷ࡱࡌ) ōbun n ࢛࣭ࣇࣤ oven oburāto n ࢛ࣇ࣭ࣚࢹ wafer paper obutsu n ỗ∸ dirt ōchaku (na) adj ᶋ╌ ࡝ lazy: ~ na taido ᶋ╌࡝ឺᗐ lazy attitude ochi n ⴘࡔ 1. omission, lack: te-~ ᡥⴘࡔ oversight 2. punch line 3. the end, the result ochimásu, ochíru v ⴘࡔࡱࡌ, ⴘࡔࡾ

(younger sister of father or mother) (= oba-chan ࠽ࡣ>ཱẍ@ ࡔࡶࢆ) oba(-san) n ࠽ࡣ>ఐẍ@ ࡈࢆ aunt (older sister of father or mother) (= oba-chan ࠽ࡣ>ఐẍ@ࡔࡶࢆ) oba(-san) n ࠽ࡣ>ᑚẍ@ࡈࢆ (not relative) lady, woman (middleaged) (= oba-chan ࠽ࡣࡔࡶࢆ) Ōbei n Ḛ⡷ Europe and America obekka n ࠽࡬ࡖ࠾ flattery óbi n ᖈ girdle, sash, belt, (Japanese) obi falls, drops; is omitted; fails; is ōbii n ࢛࣭ࣄ࣭࣬OB 1. (abbrevia- inferior; óchi-ba n ⴘࡔⴝ fallen tion for the word “old boy”) leaves male graduate, alumnus 2. (ab- ochi-tsuite ⴘࡔ╌࠷࡙ 1. adv breviation for the word “out of calmly 2. v calm down!: ~ kudasai ⴘࡔ╌࠷࡙ୖࡈ࠷ Please bounds”) OB (golf) obi-jō (no) adj ᖈ≟ ࡡ belt(-like), calm down. ochi-tsuki n ⴘࡔ╌ࡀ: ~ ga aru a narrow strip (of) obitadashii adj ࠽ࡦࡒࡓࡊ࠷ (nai) ⴘࡔ╌ࡀ࠿࠵ࡾ ࡝࠷ is a great number of, immense, calm; is restless ochi-tsukimásu, ochi-tsuku v ⴘࡔ╌ tremendous ōbō (na) adj ᶋᬸ ࡝ high-handed, ࡀࡱࡌ, ⴘࡔ╌ࡂ calms down, tyrannical keeps cool, settles down, relaxes obóé n つ࠻ memory; conscious- o-chóko n ࠽ࡔࡺࡆ saké cup o-chūgen n ࠽୯ඔ midyear ness; oboe-gaki n つ ࠻ ᭡ ࡀ memo(-randum), note present, summer gift oboemásu, oboéru v つ࠻ࡱࡌ, つ o-daiji ni interj ࠽ኬ஥࡞: (døzo) ~ ࠻ࡾ remembers, keeps in mind; ni (shitekudasai)! ࡜࠹ࡑ ࠽ኬ ஥࡞ ࡊ࡙ୖࡈ࠷ ! (Please) take learns oboko (-músume) n ࠽࡯ࡆ ፃ care of yourself! 203

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ōdāmeido n ࢛࣭ࢱ࣭࣒࢕ࢺ madeto-order: ~ (no) ࢛࣭ࢱ࣭࣒࢕ࢺ ࡡ custom-made ōdan n 㯜␿ (medical) jaundice ōdan n ᶋ᩷ crossing, going across, intersecting: ~-hodø ᶋ᩷ Ṅ㐠 pedestrian crossing odatemásu, odateru v ࠽ࡓ࡙ࡱࡌ, ࠽ࡓ࡙ࡾ coaxes odáyaka (na) adj ✔ࡷ࠾ ࡝ quiet,


oetsu n Ⴎဓ sobbing ofisu n ࢛ࣆ࢔ࢪ office ōfuku n ᙸᚗ round trip; ōfuku-kíppu n ᙸᚗว➚ round-trip ticket: ofukuro n ࠽ࡨࡂࢀ࣬࠽⾼ (familiar, usually male) (= okå´-san ࠽ẍࡈࢆ࣬࠽࠾࠵ࡈࢆ) 1. my mother 2. ofukuro-san ࠽⾼ࡈࢆ

(your/someone else’s) mother ofureko (no) adj ࢛ࣆࣝࢤ ࡡ off calm, peaceful, gentle; moderate the record odéko n ࠽࡚ࡆ forehead (= hitai ofu-shiizun n ࢛ࣆࢨ࣭ࢫࣤ off 㢘) season (= kansanki 㛡ᩋ᭿) o-dén n ࠽࡚ࢆ assorted boiled ogakuzu n ࠽࠿ᒆ sawdust ogamimásu, ogámu v ᣇࡲࡱࡌ, ᣇࡳ foods (Japanese hot pot) ōdio n ࢛࣭ࢸ࢔࢛ audio: ~-mania worships, looks at with respect ࢛࣭ࢸ࢔࢛࣏ࢼ࢓ audiophile, ōganikku (no) adj ࢛࣭࢝ࢼࢴࢠ ࡡ organic (= yüki ᭯ᶭ) audio nut ōdishon n ࢛࣭ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤ audition ogawa n ᑚᕖ brook, stream odokashimásu, odokasu v ⬛࠾ࡊࡱ ógi n ࢛࢟࣬Ⲯ a reed ōgí n ᡢ a folding fan ࡌ, ⬛࠾ࡌ threatens odori n ㊸ࡽ dance, dancing oginái n ⿭࠷ supplement odorimásu, odoru v ㊸ࡽࡱࡌ, ㊸ࡾ oginaimásu, ogináu v ⿭࠷ࡱࡌ, ⿭࠹ dances completes; complements, makes odorokashimásu, odorokásu v 㦣࠾ good, makes up for ࡊࡱࡌ, 㦣࠾ࡌ surprises, scares, ōgon n 㯜㔘 gold (= kin 㔘) ogorimásu, ogoru v 㦟ࡽࡱࡌ, 㦟ࡾ astonishes odorokimásu, odoróku v 㦣ࡀࡱࡌ, is extravagant 㦣ࡂ is surprised, astonished ogorimásu, ogoru v ዘࡽࡱࡌ, ዘࡾ odoshimásu, odosu v ⬛ࡊࡱࡌ, ⬛ treats (pays the bill) ࡌ threatens ohako n ࠽ࡢࡆ࣬༎ඳ␊ one’s oemásu, oeru v ⤂࠻ࡱࡌ, ⤂࠻ࡾ hobby; one’s “thing”, specialty, ends it, finishes, completes (favorite) trick ōen n ᚺᥴ help, assistance; O-hayō (gozaimásu) interj ࠽ࡢࡻ࠹ ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ Good morning! cheering for; support; ōen-dan n ᚺᥴᅆ cheering party ōhei n ᶋᯮ arrogance (= gøman ōeru n ࢛࣭࢙ࣜ office lady ഩះ࣬ࡇ࠹ࡱࢆ): ~ na taido ᶋ 204

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ō-jimásu, ō-jiru

ᯮ࡝ឺᗐ insolence on one’s back o-hína sama n ࠽ࡥ࡝>㞦@ᵕ (Dolls oimásu, oiru v ⩹࠷ࡱࡌ, ⩹࠷ࡾ

Festival) dolls

grows old

o-hi-sama n ࠽᪝ᵕ sun (baby talk) ōimásu, oou´, ōu´ v さ࠷ࡱࡌ, さ࠹ o-hitáshi n ࠽ᾈࡊ boiled greens covers, shields ōin n ᢪ㡡 [BOOKISH] rhyme (= in (usually spinach, served cold 㡡) with seasoning) o-hitsu n ࠽ᷤ࣬࠽ࡥࡗ rice tub/ ōin n ᢪ༰ [BOOKISH] putting one’s



o-híya n ࠽෫ࡷ cold water Ohōtsuku-kai n ࢛࣭࣌ࢵࢠᾇ Sea

ōi ni adv ࠽࠽࠷࡞࣬ኬ࠷࡞ very, greatly (= hijø ni 㟸ᖏ࡞, totemo ࡛࡙ࡵ) of Okhotsk oi n ⏒ nephew; oi-go-san n ⏒ᚒࡈ óiru n ࢛࢕ࣜ oil (for car engine) ࢆ (your/someone else’s) nephew; oishii adj ࠽࠷ࡊ࠷࣬⨶࿝ࡊ࠷ oi-kko n ⏒ࡖᏄ nephew (= oi ⏒) tasty, nice, delicious, yummy (= ói interj ࠽࠷ hey! (mostly male, umai ࠹ࡱ>᪠࣬⨶࿝@࠷) oishisō adj ࠽࠷ࡊࡐ࠹ looks very informal) ō´i adj ኣ࠷ many, numerous; lots; tasty/nice/delicious/yummy (= ō´ku adv ኣࡂ a lot of, many umasø ࠹ࡱ>᪠࣬⨶࿝@ࡐ࠹) oide interj ࠽࠷࡚ Come! (training oisoreto adj ࠽࠷ࡐࡿ࡛ [(usually)

one’s dog, etc.) oide (ni narimásu) v ࠽࠷࡚ ࡞࡝ࡽ ࡱࡌ = irasshaimásu ࠷ࡼࡖࡊ ࡶ࠷ࡱࡌ [HONORIFIC] 1. comes 2. goes 3. is, stays oi-kakemásu, oi-kakéru v ㏛࠷᤻ࡄࡱ ࡌ, ㏛࠷᤻ࡄࡾ chases oi-koshimásu, oi-kósu v ㏛࠷㉲ࡊ ࡱࡌ, ㏛࠷㉲ࡌ (overtakes and)

passes oimásu, ou v ㏛࠷ࡱࡌ, ㏛࠹ chases, pursues; oi-kaze n ㏛࠷㢴 tail wind; oi-koshi n ㏛࠷㉲ࡊ Passing: ~ kinshi ㏛࠷㉲ࡊ⚏Ḿ No Passing: ~ shasen ㏛࠷㉲ࡊ㌬⥲ passing

+ NEGATIVE verb] easily, quickly oitachi n ⏍࠷❟ࡔ (one’s) personal

history o-itoma n ࠽ᬜ leave-taking, farewell: ~ (ita-)shimásu ࠽ᬜ ⮬ ࡊ ࡱࡌ I will take my leave. oi-tsukimásu, oi-tsukú v ㏛࠷௛ ࡀࡱࡌ, ㏛࠷௛ࡂ (… ni …࡞)

catches up (with), overtakes o-jigi n ࠽㎙ൢ a polite bow: ~ o shimásu ࠽㎙ൢࢅࡊࡱࡌ bows ōjii n ࢛࣭ࢩ࣭ (abbreviation for

the word “old girl”) female graduate, alumna ō-jimásu, ō-jiru v ᚺࡋࡱࡌ, ᚺࡋ ࡾ responds (to), accedes (to), line oimásu, ou v ㇿ࠷ࡱࡌ, ㇿ࠹ carries complies (with) 205

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ōji (-sama)

ōji (-sama) n ⓒᏄ ᵕ emperor’s

son oji (-san) n ࠽ࡋ>ཱ∏@ ࡈࢆ

uncle (younger brother of father or mother) (= oji-chan ࠽ࡋ>ཱ ∏@ࡔࡶࢆ) oji (-san) n ࠽ࡋ>ఐ∏@ ࡈࢆ uncle (older brother of father or mother) (= oji-chan ࠽ࡋ>ఐ∏@ ࡔࡶࢆ) oji (-san) n ࠽ࡋ>ᑚ∏@ࡈࢆ (not relative) (gentle) man, (middleaged) man (= oji-chan ࠽ࡋࡔࡶ ࢆ) ojoku n ỗ㎧ disgrace, shame, scandal ōjo (-sama) n ⓒዥ ᵕ emperor’s daughter ojō-san n ࠽Ꮃࡈࢆ a young lady; (your/someone else’s) daughter; Miss o-jū´ n ࠽㔔 = jübako 㔔⟵ (nested boxes; picnic boxes) oka n ୢ hill oka n 㝛 dry land okabu n ࠽ᰬ = ohako ࠽ࡢࡆ࣬༎ ඳ␊ (specialty, habit) O-kaeri nasái! interj ࠽ᖉࡽ࡝ࡈ࠷! Welcome back! okage n ࠽࠾ࡅ࣬࠽ⶩ࣬࠽㝔; … no ~ de …ࡡ࠽࠾ࡅ>࠽ⶩ࣬࠽㝔@ ࡚ thanks to …


O-kamai náku interj ࠽ᵋ࠷࡝ࡂ.

Don’t go to any trouble. okámi n ᚒ୕࣬࠽୕ the authori-

ties, the government okámi n ࠽࠾ࡲ࣬ዥᑑ = ~-san ࠽ ࠾ࡲ>ዥᑑ@ࡈࢆ landlady; mar-

ried woman, (your/someone else’s) wife (= oku-san/sama ዚ ࡈࢆᵕ) ō´kami n ࢛࢛࣐࢜࣬⊃ wolf o-kara n ࢛࢜ࣚ bean-curd lees ōkare sukunakare adv ኣ࠾ࡿᑛ࡝ ࠾ࡿ more or less okaruto n ࢛࢜ࣜࢹ occult: ~-eiga ࢛࢜ࣜࢹ᫆⏤ occult film(s) okashíi adj ࠽࠾ࡊ࠷, ~ na (…) ࠽ ࠾ࡊ࡝ … 1. amusing, funny 2. strange, peculiar, queer okashimásu, okásu v ≚ࡊࡱࡌ, ≚ࡌ commits, perpetrates; violates okashimásu, okásu v ౴ࡊࡱࡌ, ౴ ࡌ encroaches upon, invades okashimásu, okásu v ාࡊࡱࡌ, ා ࡌ braves; attacks ōkata adv ࠽࠽࠾ࡒ࣬ኬ᪁ 1. for the most part 2. probably o-káwari n ࠽௥ࢂࡽ a second helping (usually of rice) o-kazari n ࠽㣥ࡽ (→ kazari 㣥ࡽ) 1. decorations and/or offerings to the gods and Buddha 2. New Year’s decorations 3. mere figurehead okage-sama (de) ࠽࠾ࡅࡈࡱ ࡚ thanks to your solicitude; thank okazu n ࠽࠾ࡍ main/side dish (to go with the rice) you (I’m very well or it’s going óke n ᱡ tub, wooden bucket: fuvery nicely) ro-~ 㢴࿁ᱡ bathtub: kan-~ ᳄ᱡ ōkakumaku n ᶋ㝰⭯ diaphragm 206

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coffin [INFORMAL] (= hitsugi ᳄) ōkē n ࢛࣭ࢢ࣭ okay, ok ōkesutora n ࢛࣭ࢢࢪࢹࣚ orchestra oki n ἀ offshore, offing; oki-ba n ⨠ࡀሔ a place (to put something); oki-miyage n ⨠ࡀᅰ⏐ keepsake, parting present/gift; oki-mono n ⨠ࡀ∸ ornament; bric-a-brac; oki-tegami n ⨠ࡀᡥ⣤ letter/note left behind ō-kíi adj ኬࡀ࠷ big, large; loud (= ø´ki na ኬࡀ࡝); ō´-kiku adv ኬ ࡀࡂ greatly, much, loudly; so as to be big/loud: ~ nái (arimasén) ኬࡀࡂ࡝࠷ ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ small, modest; ō-ki (na) adj ኬࡀ ࡝ big, great okimásu, oku v ⨠ࡀࡱࡌ, ⨠ࡂ puts (aside), places, sets, lays; shite ~ ࡊ࡙⨠ࡀࡱࡌ does for later, does for now (for the time being) okimásu, okíru v ㉫ࡀࡱࡌ, ㉫ࡀࡾ gets up; arises okina n ⩕ old man, o-ki-ni-iri n ࠽Ẵ࡞ථࡽ favorite: kono pëji o ~ ni tsuikashimásu ࡆࡡ࣭࣋ࢩࢅ࠽Ẵ࡞ථࡽ࡞㏛ຊ ࡊࡱࡌ bookmarks this page (as

okkū (na) adj ൦ຒ ࡝ trouble-

some, bothersome ōkō (suru) adj ᶋ⾔ ࡌࡾ rampant okonai ⾔࠷ n act(ion), deed, conduct: higoro no ~ ᪝ࡇࢀࡡ⾔ ࠷ daily behavior okonaimásu, okonau v ⾔࠷ࡱࡌ, ⾔࠹ acts, does, carries out,

performs okonomi-yaki n ࠽ይࡲ↕ࡀ sea-

soned pancake okorí v ㉫ࡆࡽ origin, source, beginning: koto no ~ (wa)… ஥ ࡡ㉫ࡆࡽ ࡢ  it happened

because…, it started like this… okorí n ࠽ࡆࡽ ague, the shakes okorimásu, okóru v ㉫ࡆࡽࡱࡌ, ㉫ ࡆࡾ happens, occurs, arises;

springs from okorimásu, okóru v ⮾ࡽࡱࡌ, ⮾ࡾ

starts; prospers; rises okorimásu, okóru v ᛛࡽࡱࡌ, ᛛࡾ

gets mad/angry okoshimásu, okósu v ㉫ࡆࡊࡱࡌ, ㉫ࡆࡌ raises; establishes; gets a

person up, rouses

okoshimásu, okósu v ⮾ࡊࡱࡌ, ⮾ ࡌ gives rise to, brings about okotarimásu, okotaru v ᛨࡽࡱࡌ, ᛨ a favorite) (web browser) ōkisa n ኬࡀࡈ size (= saizu ࢦ࢕ࢫ) ࡾ neglects, shirks; is lazy about okite n ᤽ law, rule, regulation: óku n ൦ a hundred million: ~-man ~ o mamorimásu (yaburimásu) chøja ൦୒㛏⩽ a billionaire observes (breaks) a rule ᤽ࢅᏬ óku n ዚ the back or inside part; ࡽࡱࡌ ◒ࡽࡱࡌ óku-ba n ዚṉ back tooth okiwasuréru v ⨠ࡀᚸࡿࡾ forgets oku-… prefix ᒁ house, roof; okkochimásu, okkochíru v ⴘࡖࡆࡔ oku-gai (no/de) adj, adv ᒁአ ࡡ ࡱࡌ, ⴘࡖࡆࡔࡾ falls ࡚ outdoor(s), outside; oku-jō (no/

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de) adj, adv ᒁ୕ ࡡ࡚ on the

roof(top), rooftop floor ō´ku ኣࡂ 1. n a lot, for the most part 2. adv mostly okubi n ࠽ࡂࡦ belch okubyō´ n ⮉⑋ cowardice: ~ (na) ⮉⑋ ࡝ cowardly, timid; ~-monó ⮉⑋⩽ a coward (= kowagari ᛟ>ᜅ@࠿ࡽ okure n ᚃࡿ a lag: ~ o torimásu ᚃࡿࢅཱིࡽࡱࡌ falls behind,

gets defeated okuremásu, okureru v 㐔ࡿࡱࡌ, 㐔 ࡿࡾ is late, gets delayed; lags,

falls behind; runs late okurimásu, okuru v ㏞ࡽࡱࡌ, ㏞ࡾ

o-mamori n ࠽Ꮼࡽ amulet, charm,

good-luck piece O-matase (ita)shimáshita interj ࠽ᙽ ࡒࡎ ⮬ ࡊࡱࡊࡒ. Sorry to have

made you wait. omáwari (-san) n ࠽ᕙࡽ ࡈࢆ ࣬࠽ ࡱࢂࡽ ࡈࢆ policeman, (police)

officer o-me n ࠽┘eyes: ~ ni kakarimásu ࠽┘࡞࠾࠾ࡽࡱࡌ I meet/see you; ~ ni kakemásu ࠽┘࡞࠾ ࡄࡱࡌ I show it to you ō-medama o kuimásu (kū) v ኬ┘⋚ ࢅ㣏࠷ࡱࡌ 㣏࠹ gets severely

scolded, gets it in the neck omedeta n ࠽ࡴ࡚ࡒ blessed event

sends; sees a person off; spends (pregnancy, childbirth, marriage, (time) etc.) okurimásu, okuru v ㉏ࡽࡱࡌ, ㉏ࡾ o-medetō (gozaimásu) interj ࠽ࡴ࡚ presents, awards; okuri-mono n ㉏ ࡛࠹ ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ congratulations: akemáshite ~ ᪺ࡄࡱࡊ࡙࠽ࡴ࡚ ࡽ∸ gift, present óku-san/-sama n ዚࡈࢆ/ᵕ (your/ ࡛࠹ ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ Happy New someone else’s) wife; lady, Year! omei n ỗྞ disgrace Madam okusoku n ᠀ῼ guess ōme ni mimásu (miru) v ኬ┘࡞ずࡱ ō-kyū n ᚺ᛬ emergency; ōkyū-shochi ࡌ ずࡾ overlooks (= minogan ᚺ᛬ฌ⨠ first aid; ōkyū-sochi n shimásu ず㏠ࡊࡱࡌ): (døka) øme ᚺ᛬᥈⨠ emergency measure ni mitekudasai ࡜࠹࠾ ኬ┘࡞ず okuyami n ࠽᜴ࡷࡲ condolences ࡙ୖࡈ࠷ Please give me a break. O-machidō-sama déshita interj ࠽ᙽ o-meshi ni narimásu (náru) v ࠽྇ࡊ ࡔ࡜࠹ࡈࡱ࡚ࡊࡒ. Thank you ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ ࡝ࡾ [HONORIFIC] 1. wears 2. buys 3. invites for waiting. (at restaurant, etc.) omae pron ࠽๑ (mostly male. 4. kaze o ~ 㢴㑟ࢅ࠽྇ࡊ࡞࡝ࡽ ࡱࡌ catches a cold familiar or rude) you omake n ࠽ࡱࡄ extra, bonus, o-mi- prefix ࠽ࡲ (for a few words) premium: ~ ni ࠽ࡱࡄ࡞ to boot, = o- ࠽࣬ᚒ [HONORIFIC]; o-mi-ki n ᚒ♼㒿 saké offered to the gods in addition 208

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(= miki ♼㒿); o-míkoshi n ࠽♼㍷ 2. atmosphere, air 3. circumportable shrine (= mikoshi ♼㍷) stance, contents 4. condition ō-mísoka n ኬᬁ᪝ last day of omoya n ẍᒁ main building/house omoi-yari n ࠽ࡵ࠷ࡷࡽ considerayear; New Year’s eve o-miya n ࠽ᐋ shrine (Shinto shrine) tion (being kind), solicitude o-miyage n ࠽ࡲࡷࡅ࣬࠽ᅰ⏐, ómo (na) adj ୹(࡝) principal, o-míya ࠽ࡲࡷ (baby talk) gift, main: ómo ni ୹࡞ mainly present (as souvenir) (= miyage omo-ni n 㔔Ⲭ burden (on one’s ࡲࡷࡅ) mind) omo-… prefix 㟻 face; omo-naga omosa n 㔔ࡈ weight (na/no) adj 㟻㛏 ࡝ࡡ long-faced; omoshi n 㔔ࡊ a weight (object) …(na) omo-mochi suffix, n  ࡝ omoshirói adj ࠽ࡵࡊࢀ࠷࣬㟻Ⓣ࠷ 㟻ᣚࡔ a look on one’s face: fuan interesting, pleasant, amusing, na ~ ୘Ꮽ࡝㟻ᣚࡔ a worried funny look on one’s face: kinchø no ~ omoté n ⾪ front (side), surface, ⥥ᘿࡡ㟻ᣚࡔ a nervous look on outer side/surface; omote-dōri n ⾪ ㏳ࡽ main street; omote-muki (no/ one’s face; omo-yatsure n 㟻ࡷࡗ ࡿ drawn and haggard face (due wa) adj, adv ⾪ྡྷࡀ ࡡࡢ to worry and/or illness) ostensible (ostensibly), on the omócha n ࠽ࡵࡔࡶ࢛࣓࣬ࢲࣔ࣬ surface, official(ly) omowánu … adj ᛦࢂ࡟…; ⋭ර toy omoemásu, omoéru v ᛦ࠻ࡱࡌ, unexpected, unanticipated ᛦ࠻ࡾ 1. can think 2. = omowa- omowaremásu, omowaréru v ᛦࢂࡿ remásu ᛦࢂࡿࡱࡌ (is thought) ࡱࡌ, ᛦࢂࡿࡾ is thought; omoi adj 㔔࠷ heavy; grave, seems, appears omowasemásu, omowaséru v ᛦࢂࡎ serious; important omói n ᛦ࠷ thought, idea; ࡱࡌ, ᛦࢂࡎࡾ reminds one of, feeling, mind, heart; desire, will makes one think of omoi-dashimásu, omoi-dásu v ᛦ࠷ฝ ōmu n ࢛࣑ࢗ࣬㮡㬹 parrot ࡊࡱࡌ, ᛦ࠷ฝࡌ remembers, ō-mugi n ࢛࢛࣑࢟࣬ኬ㯇 barley recalls; omoide n ᛦ࠷ฝ memory omunibasu n ࢛࣑ࢼࣁࢪ omnibus omu-ráisu n ࢛࣑ࣚ࢕ࢪ omelet (a recollection) wrapped around rice omoigakénai v ᛦ࠷࠿ࡄ࡝࠷ omuretsu n ࢛࣑ࣝࢵ omelet unexpected, surprising omoimásu, omóu v ᛦ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᛦ࠹ omútsu n ࠽ࡳࡗ diapers on n 㡚 sound; pronunciation; thinks, feels omomuki n ㉻ 1. taste, flavor on-kyō n 㡚㡢 sound: ~-køka 㡚㡢 209

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ຝᯕ sound effect; on-pa n 㡚ἴ (…): ~ yø´ (na) ྜྷࡋࡻ࠹ ࡝ sound wave; on-ritsu n 㡚ᚂ alike, similar o-naka n ࠽⭙ stomach: ~ ga rhythm; on-ryō n 㡚㔖 sound volume: ~ o agete (sagete) kuda- sukimáshita ࠽࡝࠾࠿ࡌࡀࡱࡊࡒ sai 㡚㔖ࢅ୕ࡅ࡙ ୖࡅ࡙ ୖࡈ࠷ is hungry Please turn up (down) the volume; onanii n ࢛ࢻࢼ࣭ masturbation on-setsu n 㡚⟿ syllable; on-yomi n (= jíi ⮤័ 㡚ㄖࡲ Chinese reading of kanji/ onara n ࠽࡝ࡼ flatulence, fart ónbu shimásu (suru) v ࠽ࢆࡩࡊࡱ Chinese character in Japanese on- prefix ᚒ (for a few words) ࡌ ࡌࡾ carries baby on back; = o- ࠽࣬ᚒ [HONORIFIC]: on-sha rides on back ᚒ♣ (letter) (your) good self, onchū n ᚒ୯ [HONORIFIC] Messrs.

your esteemed institution/organization; on-zøshi ᚒ᭢ྒྷᚒ᭢Ꮔ scion; ... on-chü ... ᚒ୯ (letter) Dear ...; on-rei møshiagemasu ᚒ♡⏞ࡊ୕ࡅࡱࡌ Thank you ... for ... ón n ᜘ go-ón ࡇ᜘ obligation; kindness:; go-ón wa isshø wasuremasen ࡇ᜘ࡢୌ⏍ᚸࡿࡱࡎࢆ I will never forget your kindness.; on-gaeshi n ᜘㏁ࡊ returning the favour, repaying the favour; onjin n ᜘ெ benefactor: inochi no ~ ࿤ࡡ᜘ெ person to whom one owes his/her life; ón ni kimásu, ón ni kiru v ᜘࡞╌ࡱࡌ, ᜘࡞╌ࡾ I appreciate it. I am deeply grateful.; ón ni kisemásu, ón ni kiseru v ᜘࡞╌ࡎࡱࡌ, ᜘࡞╌ࡎࡾ emphasizes the favor one has done:

(on envelope) óndo n Ὼᗐ temperature; ~-kei Ὼ ᗐ゛ thermometer ondori n ࢛ࣤࢺࣛ࣬㞕㭔 rooster ōnetsu-byō n 㯜⇍⑋ (medical)

yellow fever

óngaku n 㡚ᴞ music; ongak(u)-ka n 㡚ᴞᐓ musician; ongák(u)-kai n 㡚 ᴞఌ concert oní n 㨛 1. demon, devil, ogre 2. cruel, cold, and/or heartless person 3. fiend, person who devotes all his/her energy: shigoto no ~ ௘஥ࡡ㨛 a workaholic; oníbaba n 㨛ፚ hag; oní-gokko n 㨛ࡇ ࡖࡆ tag (child game) onkei n ᜘ᜠ favor onná n ዥ, ~ no hitó/katá ዥࡡெ ᪁ woman, female; ~ no kyø´dai ዥࡡࡀࡺ࠹ࡓ࠷ sister(s) (= on-kisegamashii ᜘╌ࡎ࠿ࡱࡊ࠷ shímai ጗ግ); onna-gata n ዥᙟ, oyáma ࠽ࡷࡱ࣬ዥᙟ female condescending, patronizing; onshi n ᜘ᖅ former teacher impersonator (in Kabuki); onnamono n ዥ∸ women’s wear; ōnā n ࢛࣭ࢻ࣭ owner onaji (…) adj ྜྷࡋ … the same onná-no-ko n ዥࡡᏄ girl (=

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joshi ዥᏄ); onna-shújin n ዥ୹ெ Countries, OPEC hostess; onna-yu n ዥ… women’s ópera n ࢛࣋ࣚ opera óppai n ࠽ࡖࡤ࠷ (= (o-)chichí (section of the) bath óno n ᩴ ax, hatchet ࠽ ஘ (baby talk, slang) breast; onóono adj ྘ࠍ࣬࠽ࡡ࠽ࡡ each, milk (= chíbusa, nyübø ஘ᡛ) respectively, severally: ~ no ྘ ō´pun n ࢛࣭ࣈࣤ open; ō´pun na ࠍࡡ respective adj ࢛࣭ࣈࣤ࡝ open, candid onore n ࠽ࡡࡿ self [BOOKISH] ōra n ࢛࣭ࣚ aura: ~ ga arimásu onozukara adv ⮤ࡍ࠾ࡼ automati- ࢛࣭ࣚ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ has radiance ōrai n ᙸᮮ traffic; communication; cally, spontaneously onparēdo n ࢛ࣤࣂ࣭ࣝࢺ on pathoroughfare ō´rai n ࢛࣭ࣚ࢕ “all right, OK”, rade, succession onrain n ࢛ࣤࣚ࢕ࣤonline; onrain (all clear, go ahead) ōkushon n ࢛ࣤࣚ࢕࢛࣭ࣤ࣬ࢠ ōraka (na) adj ࠽࠽ࡼ࠾ ࡝ generࢨࣘࣤ online auction; onrain ous, big-hearted, easygoing: gēmu n ࢛ࣤࣚ࢕ࣤࢣ࣭࣑ online ~ na seikaku ࠽࠽ࡼ࠾࡝ᛮ᰹ game (Internet); onrain tsūhan saito generous personality n ࢛ࣤࣚ࢕ࣤ㏳㈅ࢦ࢕ࢹ online Oranda n ࢛ࣚࣤࢱ Holland; (= Oranda no ࢛ࣚࣤࢱࡡ) Dutch shopping site onryō n ᛯ㟃 vengeful ghost/spirit ore pron ࠽ࡿ࣬ದ (male, unonsen n Ὼἠ hot spring; spa: refined) I/me ~-ryokan Ὼἠ᪉㤃 Japanese inn oremásu, oréru v ᢙࡿࡱࡌ, ᢙࡿࡾ 1. it breaks; it folds 2. can and hot-spring onshin n 㡚ಘ contact, news: ~ break/fold/bend it futsü desu 㡚ಘ୘㏳࡚ࡌ is out orénji n ࢛ࣝࣤࢩ orange; orenjijü´sú n ࢛ࣝࣤࢩࢩ࣭ࣖࢪ orange of contact, lost touch with onshitsu n Ὼᐄ greenhouse juice/drink onsui n ῺỀ warm water oresen-gurafu n ᢙࡿ⥲ࢡࣚࣆ line onwa n Ὼ࿰ 1. mild, moderate graph (climate) 2. gentle, quiet, calm ori n ࠽ࡽ࣬⃞ dregs, sediment orí n ᷞ cage; jail and peaceful person on za rokku n ࢛ࣤࢧࣞࢴࢠ on the orí n ᢙ time, occasion rocks (whiskey, etc.) orientēshon n ࢛࢙ࣛࣤࢷ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ onzōshi n ᚒ᭢ྒྷ son of a noble/ orientation orígami n ࠽ࡽ࠿ࡲ࣬ᢙࡽ⣤ distinguished family opekku n ࢛࣋ࢴࢠ Organization paper-folding (art) oríibu n ࢛࣭ࣛࣇ olive; oriibu-yu/of Petroleum Exporting

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orimásu, óru

oiru ࢛࣭ࣛࣇἔ࢛࢕ࣜ olive oil orimásu, óru v ᑽࡽࡱࡌ, ᑽࡾ


oroshi-uri n ༷ࡊ኉ࡽ (selling)

wholesale ōrudo misu n ࢛࣭ࣜࢺ࣐ࢪ old [DEFERENTIAL/HUMBLE] is, stays (= imásu ᑽࡱࡌ, iru ᑽࡾ) maid, spinster orimásu, óru v ᢙࡽࡱࡌ, ᢙࡾ orugōru n ࢛ࣜࢥ࣭ࣜ music box breaks (folds, bends) it; ori-mé n ōru maitii adj ࢛࣭࣏ࣜ࢕ࢷ࢔ ᢙࡽ┘ fold, crease, pleat almighty 1. the ace of spades orimásu, óru v ⧂ࡽࡱࡌ, ⧂ࡾ (card game) 2. all-around (= weaves it; ori-mono n ⧂∸ cloth, zennø ධ⬗) ōru-naito adj ࢛࣭ࣜࢻ࢕ࢹ alltextile, fabric orimásu, oríru v ୖࡽࡱࡌ, ୖࡽࡾ night (= shüya ⤂እ): ~ køgyø ࢛ ࣭ࣜࢻ࢕ࢹ⮾⾔ all-night show goes down orimásu, oríru v 㜾ࡽࡱࡌ, 㜾ࡽࡾ ōryō n ᶋ㡷 embezzlement osaemásu, osáéru v ᢪࡈ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᢪ gets down, gets off (a ship/ ࡈ࠻ࡾ represses; covers; holds plane), gets out (of a car) ori-tatamimásu, ori-tatamu v ᢙࡽ␒ osaemásu, osáéru v ᢒ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᢒ࠻ ࡲࡱࡌ, ᢙࡽ␒ࡳ folds up ࡾ controls, restrains óroka adj ម࠾ [BOOKISH] foolish Ōsaka n ኬ㜨 Osaka; Ōsaká-Eki n ኬ㜨㥈 Osaka Station; Ōsaká-jin n (= baka na 㤷㮭࡝) ōrora n ࢛࣭ࣞࣚ aurora ኬ㜨ெ an Osakan oroshí v ࠽ࢀࡊ 1. a grater (= osamarimásu, osamáru v ཭ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ~-gane ࠽ࢀࡊ㔘) 2. (something) ཭ࡱࡾ gets reaped (collected, grated: daikon-~ ኬ᰷࠽ࢀ@ brought in) osamarimásu, osamáru v ⣙ࡱࡽࡱ grated radish oroshimásu, orósu v ୖࢀࡊࡱࡌ, ୖ ࡌ, ⣙ࡱࡾ is paid osamarimásu, osamáru v ἖ࡱࡽࡱ ࢀࡌ takes down, lowers; unloads; invests; yokin o ~ 㡰㔘 ࡌ, ἖ࡱࡾ settles (down/in) ࢅୖࢀࡊࡱࡌ withdraws o-samemásu, osaméru v ཭ࡴ>⣙ࡴ@ ࡱࡌ, ཭ࡴ>⣙ࡴ@ࡾ reaps, (deposited money) oroshimásu, orósu v 㜾ࢀࡊࡱࡌ, 㜾 harvests, collects; gets; finishes ࢀࡌ lets one off (a ship/plane), o-samemásu, osaméru v ⣙ࡴࡱࡌ, ⣙ࡴࡾ pays (tax, premium, etc.) drops off (from a car), lets out (of a car) o-samemásu, osaméru v ἖ࡴࡱࡌ, oroshimásu, orósu v ሃࢀࡊࡱࡌ, ሃ ἖ࡴࡾ governs; pacifies ࢀࡌ aborts, has an abortion o-san n ࠽⏐ childbirth (= shussan óroshí (no/de) adj, adv ༷ ࡡ࡚ ฝ⏐) osanái adj ᖺ࠷ infant(ile), very wholesale 212

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young; childish, green (inexperienced) o-san shimásu (suru) v ࠽⏐ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ gives birth to (= shussan shimásu (suru) ฝ⏐ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ ) osarai n ࠽ࡈࡼ࠷ review [INFORMAL] (= fukushü ᚗ⩞) o-séchi n ࠽ࡎࡔ࣬࠽⟿ a season; a festival; osechi-ryō´ri n ࠽ࡎࡔᩩ⌦ festival cookery (for New Year’s) o-seibo n ࠽ṋᬵ year-end present, winter gift o-seji n ࠽ୠ㎙࣬࠽ࡎࡋ compliment, flattery: o-~ o iimásu ࠽ୠ ㎙ࢅゕ࠷ࡱࡌ pays compliments, flatters o-sékkai n ࠽⟿௒ meddling: o-~ o


oshiego n ᩅ࠻Ꮔ a student (of a

teacher’s) oshiemásu, oshieru v ᩅ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᩅ࠻ ࡾ teaches, shows, tells, informs oshíi adj ᝨࡊ࠷ 1. regrettable 2. precious ōshii adj 㞕ࠍࡊ࠷ manly, manful,

brave, strong (not feminine or sissy) oshi-ire n ᢪࡊථࡿ (traditional Japanese) closet, cupboard o-shimai n ࠽ࡊࡱ࠷ the end (baby talk) (= owari ⤂ࢂࡽ) oshimásu, osu v ᢪࡊࡱࡌ, ᢪࡌ pushes, presses (on) oshíme n ࠽ࡊࡴ diapers ōshin n ᙸタ house call yakimásu ࠽⟿௒ࢅ↕ࡀࡱࡌ o-shinko n ࠽ࡊࢆࡆ࣬࠽᩺㤮 radmeddles; ~ (na) ࠽⟿௒ ࡝ ish (etc.) pickles oshiroi n ࠽ࡊࢀ࠷࣬Ⓣ⢂ face meddlesome osen n ỗ᯹ [BOOKISH] contamina- powder oshitsukémásu, oshitsukéru v ᢪࡊ௛ tion, pollution ōsen n ᚺᡋ fighting back ࡄࡱࡌ, ᢪࡊ௛ࡄࡾ pushes, o-sewa-sama ࠽ୠヨᵕ (thank you presses; intrudes oshiuri n ᢪࡊ኉ࡽ 1. high-pressure for) your help/attention osháberi n ࠽ࡊࡶ࡬ࡽ chatter-box, selling: shinsetsu no ~ のวࡡᢪ ࡊ኉ࡽ unwelcome kindness 2. a gossip osháburi n ࠽ࡊࡶࡩࡽ teething high-pressure salesman oshí-zushi n ᢪࡊ㩟 sushi rice and ring, pacifier osháre n ࠽ࡊࡶࡿ࣬࠽὏ⴘ marinated fish pressed in squardandy: ~ na hito ࠽ࡊࡶࡿ࡝ெ ish molds (Osaka style) ōshoku jinshu n 㯜Ⰵெ⛸ Asians, fancy dresser Mongoloid oshi n ࠽ࡊ࣬၇ a (deaf-)mute o-shíbori n ࠽ࡊ࡯ࡽ damp hand- oshō (-san) n ࿰ᑠ ࡈࢆ Buddhist towel priest oshie n ᩅ࠻ instruction, teachŌ´shū n Ḛᕗ Europe (= Yøróppa ࣭ࣙࣞࢴࣂ ) ing(s) 213

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osoi adj 㐔࠷ late; slow osóimásu, osou v ぇ࠷ࡱࡌ, ぇ࠹

Austrian o-suwari interj ࠽ᗑࡽ Sit! (train-

attacks, assaults; strikes, hits

ing one’s dog)

osokare hayakare adv 㐔࠾ࡿ᪡࠾ࡿ otafukukaze n ࠽ࡒࡨࡂ㢴㑟 mumps o-tagai (no) adj ࠽ப࠷ ࡡ mutual, sooner or later osoku adv 㐔ࡂ late; slow: osóku- reciprocal: ~ (ni) ࠽ப࠷ ࡞ tomo 㐔ࡂ࡛ࡵ at the latest mutually, reciprocally o-sómatsu-sama interj ࠽⢊ᮆࡈࡱ otamajakushi n ࢛ࢰ࣏ࢩࣔࢠࢨ

Please excuse the poor fare


(reply to gochisø-sama ࡇࡔࡐ࠹ o-taku n ࠽Ꮹ [INFORMAL] your ࡈࡱ) house; you; o-taku no pron ࠽Ꮹ osóraku adv ࠽ࡐࡼࡂ࣬ᜅࡼࡂ ࡡ your, yours ó-te interj ࠽ᡥ Give me your probably, maybe, possibly osoré n ᜅࡿ fear paw! Shake hands! (training osóreirimásu v ᜅࡿථࡽࡱࡌ 1. one’s dog) o-teage n ࠽ᡥ୕ࡅ giving up excuse me 2. thank you osoremásu, osoréru v ᜅࡿࡱࡌ, ᜅ o-teárai n ࠽ᡥὑ࠷ washroom, ࡿࡾ fears toilet, restroom osoroshíi adj ᜅࢀࡊ࠷ fearful, o-témae n ࠽ᡥ๑ prowess, skill, dreadful, awful, terrible, horrible ability osoróshiku adv ᜅࢀࡊࡂ terribly osowarimásu, osowaru v ᩅࢂࡽࡱࡌ, ᩅࢂࡾ is taught, studies, learns osshaimásu, ossháru v ࠽ࡖࡊࡶ࠷ ࡱࡌ, ࠽ࡖࡊࡶࡾ (someone

honored) says; is called osú n 㞕࢛࣬ࢪ male animal; … no ~ …ࡡ㞕 a he-… (→ o-ushi 㞕∭) osui n ỗỀ sewage osui-dame n ỗỀ‸ࡴ cesspool ōsuji n ኬ➵ outline Ōsutorária n ࢛࣭ࢪࢹࣚࣛ࢓ Australia; Ōsutorariá-jin n ࢛࣭ࢪ ࢹࣚࣛ࢓ெ an Australian Ōsutoria n ࢛࣭ࢪࢹࣛ࢓ Austria; Ōsutoriá-jin n ࢛࣭ࢪࢹࣛ࢓ெ an

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o-tenba n ࠽㌷ፚ tomboy o-ténto-sama n ࠽࡙ࢆ࡛ࡈࡱ࣬࠽ ኮ㐠ࡈࡱ the sun (= táiyø ኯ㝟) otétsudai (-san) n ࠽ᡥఎ࠷ ࡈࢆ

maid(-servant), (household) helper otó n 㡚 sound, noise: ~ ga shimásu 㡚࠿ࡊࡱࡌ it makes a noise, there is a noise ōtō n ᚺ➽ reply, response, answer; shitsugi-ōtō n ㈹␪ᚺ➽ questions and answers ōtóbai n ࢛࣭ࢹࣁ࢕ motorcycle otokó n ⏠ = ~ no hitó/katá ⏠ࡡ ெ᪁ man, male, boy; ~ no kyø´dai ⏠ࡡඕᘭ brother(s); otoko-gokoro n ⏠ᚨ man’s heart; 214

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otoko-mono n ⏠∸ menswear; otokó-no-ko n ⏠ࡡᏄ boy (= danshi ⏠Ꮔ); otoko-yámome n ⏠ࡷࡵࡴ widower; otoko-yu n ⏠… men’s

(section of the) bath ōtokuchū´ru n ࢛࣭ࢹࢠࢲ࣭ࣖࣜ

haute couture, high fashion


otótoshi n ࠽࡛࡛ࡊ࣬ୌᫎᖳ year

before last ōtotsu n ࠽࠹࡛ࡗ࣬ผป unevenness, bump (= dekoboko ࡚ࡆ࡯ ࡆ㹺ปผ) O-tsukare-sama (déshita) interj ࠽␺ ࡿᵕ ࡚ࡊࡒ . You did good

o-tokui (-san) n ࠽ᚋណ ࡈࢆ good

work (today, at the end of a customer(s), regular customer(s) project, etc.); You must be otome n ஍ዥ 1. (young) girl, lady weary (tired, exhausted). (→ 2. maiden, virgin: urawakaki ~ Go-kúrø-sama (deshita). ࡇⱖຘ ᵕ ࡚ࡊࡒ .) [BOOKISH] ࠹ࡼⱕࡀ஍ዥ young otsu (na) adj ࠽ࡗ>஍@ ࡝ chic, maiden o-tómo shimásu (suru) v ࠽ఔࡊࡱࡌ stylish ࡌࡾ (I will) accompany (you) otto n ኰ (my) husband otona n ኬெ࣬࠽࡛࡝ adult ototta adj ຋ࡖࡒ is inferior, otonashíi adj ࠽࡛࡝ࡊ࠷ gentle, worse, weak, poor (= otoru ຋ࡾ) o-ushi n 㞕∭ bull, ox well-behaved otonáshiku adv ࠽࡛࡝ࡊࡂ gently o-úsu n ࠽⷟ light green tea (teaotori n ࠽࡛ࡽ࣬ᅎ decoy; lure ceremony) (= usu-cha ⷟Ⲍ) otoroemásu, otoróéru v ⾮࠻ࡱࡌ, ⾮ o-wakare n ࠽ืࡿ parting, farewell ࠻ࡾ declines, fades, grows weak (= wakaré ืࡿ otóru adj ຋ࡾ is inferior, worse, owaremásu, owareru v ㏛ࢂࡿࡱࡌ, ㏛ࢂࡿࡾ gets chased weak, poor (= ototta ຋ࡖࡒ otoshi-dama n ࠽ᖳ⋚ money given owari n ⤂ࢂࡽ the end: ~ no … ⤂ࢂࡽࡡ… the last, final; ~ no as a New Year’s gift otoshimásu, otósu v ⴘ࡛ࡊࡱࡌ, ⴘ nai ⤂ࢂࡽࡡ࡝࠷ endless ࡛ࡌ drops; omits owarimásu, owaru v ⤂ࢂࡽࡱࡌ, ⤂ otoshimono n ⴘ࡛ࡊ∸ lost, dropped ࢂࡾ it ends; ends it oyá n の parent; oya-baka n のࡣ࠾ things otoshi-támago n ⴘ࡛ࡊ༵ poached >㤷㮭@ doting parent(s); oya-fukō eggs n の୘ᖶ unfilial behavior, otōtó n ᘭ younger brother: otøto- unfilial child; oya-go-san n のᚒ san ᘭࡈࢆ (your/someone else’s) ࡈࢆ (your/someone else’s) younger brother parent (= goryøshin ࡇ୦の); ototói n ࠽࡛࡛࠷࣬ୌᫎ᪝ day oya-ji n の∏ (familiar, usually before yesterday male) (= (o-)tø´-san ࠽∏ࡈࢆ࣬ 215

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࠽࡛࠹ࡈࢆ) my father: oyaji-san の∏ࡈࢆ (your/someone else’s) father; óya-ko n のᏄ parent and child; oya-kōkō n のᏏ⾔ filial

ōyō n ᚺ⏕ application, putting

to use ōyō (na) adj 㮒ᥥ ࡝ easygoing: ~ na taido 㮒ᥥ࡝ឺᗐ generous

piety (honoring one’s parents);


oya-moto n のඔ (one’s) parent’s home; oya-shirazu n の▩ࡼࡍ

óyobi prep ࠽ࡻࡦ and (also) (= to ࡛) oyobimásu, oyobu v ࠽ࡻࡦࡱࡌ, ࠽ wisdom tooth Oya interj ࠽ࡷ Gee whiz! I say! ࡻࡩ reaches, extends to, equals How (a)bout that!; Oya må! ࠽ࡷ oyogí n ὃࡁ swimming ࡱ࠵ good heavens; óyaoya interj oyogimásu, oyógu v ὃࡁࡱࡌ, ὃࡃ ࠽ࡷ࠽ࡷ Dear dear!, Oh dear. swims óyá-bun n のฦ boss, ringleader, oyoso (no) adj ࠽ࡻࡐ ࡡ about,



ōyake (no/ni) adj, adv ප ࡡ࡞

ōzáppa (na) adj ࠽࠽ࡉࡖࡤ ࡝

public(ly), open(ly), official(ly)


óyáma n ࠽ࡷࡱ࣬ዥᙟ female impersonator (of Kabuki) (= onnagata ዥᙟ) ō´ya (-san) n ኬᐓ ࡈࢆ landlord O-yasumi nasái interj ࠽ࡷࡌࡲ࡝ ࡈ࠷. Good night. o-yátsu n ࠽ࡷࡗ snacks, sweets (for mid-afternoon) (→ sánji no oyatsu ୔᫤ࡡ࠽ࡷࡗ) oya-yubi n のᣞ thumb

ōzéi n ኬເ large crowd, throng: ~ de ኬເ࡚ in large numbers (= takusan (no) ࡒࡂࡈࢆ ࡡ ); ōzéi no adj ኬເࡡ many ō´-zeki n ኬ㛭 champion sumo

wrestler o-zon n ࢛ࢯࣤ ozone ō-zume n ኬョࡴ ending: ~ o mukaemásu ኬョࡴࢅ㎼࠻ࡱࡌ is/

will be in the final stage/phase

P pachinko n ࣂࢲࣤࢤ pinball (machine): ~-ya ࣂࢲࣤࢤᒁ

páipu n ࣂ࢕ࣈ pipe; cigarette holder pairótto n ࣂ࢕ࣞࢴࢹ pilot pachinko parlor pajama n ࣂࢩ࣏ࣔ pajamas pái n ࣂ࢕ pie (= nemaki ᐱᕬࡀ) pái n ࣂ࢕࣬ࡤ࠷࣬∡ a mahjong pākingu n ࣂ࣭࢞ࣤࢡ parking tile (= chüsha-jø 㥌㌬ሔ) paináppuru n ࣂ࢕ࢻࢴࣈࣜ pineapple pakkēji n ࣂࢴࢢ࣭ࢩ package

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…-paku suffix …泊: ip-paku 一泊 paso-kon n パソコン personal

one night’s lodging/stay →


…-haku …泊 pāma n パーマ permanent wave pán n パン bread: shoku-~ 食パ ン loaf of bread, sandwich loaf: ~-këki パンケーキ pancake; pankó n パン粉 ① bread crumbs ② bread flour; pan-kúzu n パンくず (bread) crumbs; pán-ya n パン屋 ① bakeshop, bakery ② baker pánda n パンダ panda pánfu (rétto) n パンフ(レット)

pamphlet, brochure

pásu n パス pass(ing); ~ shimásu パスします passes (an exam) (= gøkaku shimásu 合格します) pasupō´to n パスポート passport patā´n n パターン pattern pā´tii n パーティー party: hømu-~ ホームパーティ house party patokā n パトカー patrol car,

police car pātonā n パートナー partner patoron n パトロン patron pāto(taimu) n パート(タイム) part-

pánikku n パニック panic; panikuru time work v パニくる [INFORMAL] gets pázuru n パズル puzzle: jigusø-~ panicky ジグソーパズル jigsaw puzzle panku n パンク puncture, blowout: pedaru n ペダル pedal: jidensha/ taiya ga ~ shimásu タイヤがパン jitensha no ~ 自転車のペダル bicycle pedal クします gets a flat tire pánku n パンク punk: ~ rokku pēji n ページ・頁 page パンクロック punk rock, punk Pékin n ペキン・北京 Beijing music pén n ペン pen pansuto n パンスト panty hose …-pén suffix …遍 = …-hén …遍 pántaron n パンタロン (women’s) (counts times) slacks, pantaloons pénchi n ペンチ pliers, pincers pántii n パンティー underwear for péndanto n ペンダント pendant ladies (panties) penki n ペンキ paint; (… ni) ~ o pántsu n パンツ underwear nurimásu (…に)ペンキを塗り (underpants); slacks, pants ます paints; penki-ya n ペンキ屋 painter (housepainter) papa n パパ (baby talk) daddy, dad (= (o-)tø-chan (お)父ちゃん) pénshon n ペンション pension parashūto n パラシュート parachute (small hotel, lodge, inn, etc.) Pári n パリ Paris perapera adj, adv ぺらぺら・ペラ paripari (no) adj ぱりぱり(の) crisp; ペラ fluent(ly) (= ryüchø 流暢) first-rate péten n ペテン fraud (= sagi 詐欺, pāsénto n パーセント percent ikasama いかさま): ~-shi ペテン

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ン師 swindler (= sagi-shi 詐欺師, ikasama-shi いかさま師) pétto n ペット pet piano n ピアノ piano: gurando-~ グランドピアノ grand piano píiman n ピーマン green bell pepper: aka-~ 赤ピーマン red

bell pepper

póndo n ポンド pound (weight or

money) pónpu n ポンプ pump pónsu, ponzú n ポン酢 juice of

bitter orange poppukōn n ポップコーン popcorn poppusu n ポップス pops, popular


piínát(t)su n ピーナ(ッ)ツ

pori(-) n, prefix ポリ poly(ethylene); plastic; pori-búkuro n ポリ袋

peanut(s) pikápika (no) adj ピカピカ(の)

(plastic) bag

póruno n ポルノ pornography; ~-éiga ポルノ映画 a porno film pósuto n ポスト mail box pō´tā n ポーター porter ~ ni ochiirimásu ピンチに陥りま potā´ju n ポタージュ potage, thick Western soup す gets in a pinch pínku adj ピンク pink: ~-iro ピン pótéto n ポテト potato ク色 pink color (= momo-iro 桃色) pótto n ポット pot pinsétto n ピンセット tweezers púragu n プラグ (electric) outlet, plug pin (to) adv ぴん(と) (stretched) taut: ~ to kimásu ぴんと来ます púran n プラン plan: ~ o tatemásu hits home with one, comes home プランを立てます makes a plan to one, appeals to one puranetariúmu n プラネタリウム planetarium pinto n ピント focus (= shøten 焦点); pin-boke n ピンぼけ outpurásuchíkku n プラスチック

flashing, glittering píkuníkku n ピクニック picnic pín n ピン pin (for hair) pínchi n ピンチ pinch (= kiki 危機):



piramíddo n ピラミッド pyramid puratto-hōmu n プラットホーム pisutoru n ピストル revolver, pistol (station) platform pittári adv ぴったり exactly, purehabu-jūtaku n プレハブ住宅

perfectly, closely; just right píza n ピザ pizza póchi, pótsu n ぽち, ぽつ a dot pokétto n ポケット pocket pomā´do n ポマード pomade, hair

oil ponbiki n ぽん引き a pimp

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prefabricated house purei-gáido n プレイガイド a “Play

Guide” theater ticket agency purézento n プレゼント present, gift púrín n プリン a small custard;

crème brülée puríntā n プリンター printer


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purinto n ࣈࣛࣤࢹ printing,

purogúramu n ࣈࣞࢡ࣑ࣚ program puro-resu n ࣈࣞࣝࢪ professional

printout, printed matter (= insatsú ༰ใ); purinto auto n ࣈࣛ ࣤࢹ࢓ࢗࢹ printing, printout (= insatsú-butsu ༰ใ∸) púro n ࣈࣞ pro(-fessional) purogurámā n ࣈࣞࢡ࣏࣭ࣚ

wrestling pū´ru n ࣈ࣭ࣜ 1. swimming pool 2. motor pool, parking lot pusshúhon n ࣈࢴࢨࣖ࣌ࣤ touch-

tone telephone


R …´-ra suffix …ࡼ and others (= nado ࡝࡜㹺➴); all of rabel n ࣚ࣊ࣜ label rábo n ࣚ࣍ lab (= laboratory) rágubii n ࣚࢡࣄ࣭ rugby rai-… prefix ᮮ 1. next 2. coming; rái-getsu n, adv ᮮ᭮ next month; rai-nen n, adv ᮮᖳ next year; raise n ᮮୠ afterlife, next life; raishū n, adv ᮮ㐄 next week; raikyaku n ᮮᐂ guest, caller, visitor,


(in a test)

raibaru n ࣚ࢕ࣁࣜ rival raifurú-jū n ࣚ࢕ࣆࣜ㖘 rifle ráimu n ࣚ࢕࣑ lime (fruit) raion n ࣚ࢕࢛ࣤ lion ráisensu n ࣚ࢕ࢬࣤࢪ license,

rakuen n ᴞᅧ paradise: chijø no ~ ᆀ୕ࡡᴞᅧ earthly paradise rakugo n ⴘㄊ (traditional

Japanese) comic storytelling: ~-ka ⴘㄊᐓ a comic storyteller rā´men n ࣭࣒ࣚࣤ Chinese noodles

permit ráisu n ࣚ࢕ࢪ rice (served on plate) raitā n ࣚ࢕ࢰ࣭ 1. lighter (cigarette) 2. writer (professional) ráiu n 㞶㞭 [BOOKISH] thunder-

storm rajiē´tā n ࣚࢩ࢙࣭ࢰ࣭ radiator


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rájio n ࣚࢩ࢛ radio: ~-bangumi ࣚࢩ࢛␊⤄ radio program rakétto n ࣚࢢࢴࢹ racket rakkan n ᴞび optimism; rakkan-teki (na) adj ᴞびⓏ ࡝ optimistic rakú adj ᴞ 1. comfort (= anraku Ꮽᴞ); rakú (na) adj ᴞ ࡝ comfortable; 2. easy (= kantan ⠾༟, yasashii ࡷࡈࡊ࠷>᪾ࡊ࠷@) rakuda n ࣚࢠࢱ camel rakudai n ⴘ➠ [BOOKISH] failure

(in broth) ramune n ࣑ࣚࢾ lemon soda rán n ࣚࣤ࣬⹊ orchid rán n ḅ column, field: nyüryoku -~ ථງḅ entry field rán n ஗ disturbance; war ranbō n ஗ᬸ violence, outrage;


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ranbō (na) adj ஗ᬸ ࡝ violent, zero o’clock, twelve o’clock wild, rough, disorderly réi n ౚ: zen~ ๑ౚ precedent; ránchi n ࣚࣤࢲ 1. lunch 2. launch ichi-~ ୌౚ example; ~ no … ౚ ࡡ… the… in question, the said (boat); ranchi-sā´bisu n ࣚࣤࢲࢦ ࣭ࣄࢪ special lunch, a luncheon … ; the usual/customary …; reigai n ౚአ exception (to the rule) special randóseru n ࣚࣤࢺࢬࣜ knapsack reibō n ෫ᡛ air conditioning for elementary school children reinkō´to n ࣝ࢕ࣤࢤ࣭ࢹ raincoat ranma n ࡼࢆࡱ࣬ḅ㛣 transom reisei (na) adj ෫㟴 ࡝ calm, window cool, composed ranningu n ࣚࣤࢼࣤࢡ running reishō n ෫➏ sneer, scoff ránpu n ࣚࣤࣈ 1. lamp 2. ramp reitō n ෫෼ freezing: ~-ko ෫෼ᗔ rappa n ࣚࢴࣂ trumpet, bugle freezer; reitō-shokuhin n ෫෼㣏ဗ … rashíi suffix, adj …ࡼࡊ࠷ frozen food (seems) like, apparent, seems to be reizō´ko n ෫ⶮᗔ refrigerator, rashinban n ⨮㔢┑ compass (for icebox réjā n ࣝࢩ࣭ࣔ leisure, recreation: directions) rasshu-áwā n ࣚࢴࢨࣖ࢓࣭࣠ rush ~-shisetsu ࣝࢩ࣭ࣔ᪃シ leisure hour facilities ratai (no) adj ⿼మ ࡡ nude (= réji n ࣝࢩ cashier; checkout counter nüdo (no) ࢽ࣭ࢺ ࡡ ): ~-ga ⿼ rekishi n Ṍྍ history: ~-teki (na) మ⏤ a nude (picture) ṌྍⓏ ࡝ historical; rekishi-ka n Raten-go n ࣚࢷࣤㄊ Latin (lanṌྍᐓ historian rékkā n ࣝࢴ࣭࢜, ~´-sha ࣝࢴ࣭࢜ guage) réa n ࣝ࢓ rare (beef) ㌬ wrecker (tow truck) rébā n ࣝࣁ࣭ 1. liver (to eat) rekō´do n ࣝࢤ࣭ࢺ a record (pho2. lever nograph) régyurā n ࣭ࣝ࢟ࣖࣚ regular rekuriē´shon n ࣝࢠ࢙࣭ࣛࢨࣘࣤ rei n ♡ 1. thanks, gift 2. remurecreation neration, reward, fee (= sharei rémon n ࣓ࣝࣤ lemon; ~tii ࣓ࣝࣤ ㅨ♡); rei-kin n ♡㔘 “thank-you ࢷ࢔࣭ tea with a slice of lemon ren’ai n ᜂយ love: ~-kánkei ᜂយ money” (to obtain rental) réi n ♡ 1. greeting 2. bow (= o-jigi 㛭౿ a love affair; ~-kékkon ᜂ ࠽㎙ൢ); rei-gí n ♡ൢ courtesy, យ⤎፡ a love marriage etiquette; ~-tadashíi ♡ൢḿࡊ࠷ rénchi n ࣝࣤࢲ wrench renchū, renjū n ㏻୯ gang, crowd, polite; rei-hai n ♡ᣇ worship réi n 㞵࣬ zero; réi-ji n 㞵᫤࣬᫤ clique 220

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rénga n ࣝࣤ࢝࣬↚⎨ brick rengō n ㏻ྙ union, alliance, Allied; ~´-koku ㏻ྙᅗ the Allies rénji n ࣝࣤࢩ cooking stove, kitchen range; denshi-~ 㞹Ꮔࣝ ࣤࢩ microwave oven renmei n ㏻┍ union, federation rennyū n ⦆஘ condensed milk renraku n ㏻⤙ connection, liaison; relevance; renraku-saki n ㏻⤙඙

address of contact renshū n ⦆⩞ training, practice,


résutoran n ࣝࢪࢹࣚࣤ restaurant: famirii-~ ࣆ࢒࣐࣭ࣛࣝࢪࢹࣚࣤ

family restaurant rétasu n ࣝࢰࢪ lettuce rétsu n า row, line; queue retteru n ࣝࢴࢷࣜ label rettō n าᓞ, …-réttø …าᓞ

archipelago, chain of islands rí n ฺ advantage, profit, interest ríbon n ࣛ࣍ࣤ ribbon: ~-musubi ࣛ࣍ࣤ⤎ࡦ ribbon-tie ríeki n ฺ─ benefit, advantage,


rentákā´ n ࣝࣤࢰ࣭࢜ rental car rentogen n ࣝࣤࢹࢣࣤ, ~-sen ࣝ ࣤࢹࢣࣤ⥲ X-ray renzoku n ㏻⤾ continuity; series: ~ terebi dorama ㏻⤾ࢷࣝࣄࢺࣚ ࣏ serial TV drama rénzu n ࣝࣤࢫ lens; kontakuto-~ ࢤࣤࢰࢠࢹࣝࣤࢫ contact lens repō´to n ࣭ࣝ࣎ࢹ report rē´sā n ࣭ࣝࢦ࣭ racing driver resépushon n ࣝࢬࣈࢨࣘࣤ a

rihabiri n ࣛࣀࣄࣛ rehabilitation: ~-chiryø ࣛࣀࣄࣛ἖⒢ rehabili-

tation treatment

rihā´saru n ࣛࣀ࣭ࢦࣜ rehearsal rihatsu n ⌦㧝 haircut(ting); rihátsúten n ⌦㧝ᗉ barbershop riídā n ࣭ࣛࢱ࣭ leader ríka n ⌦⛁ science ríkai n ⌦ゆ [BOOKISH] understanding, comprehension; rikái-ryoku n ⌦ゆງ comprehension (ability) rikon n 㞫፡ divorce reception reshiíto n ࣝࢨ࣭ࢹ receipt rikō (na) adj ฺཾ ࡝ clever, ressha n า㌬ a train; ~-jíko า㌬ sharp, smart, intelligent: ~ ni ஥ᨶ train accident/wreck adv ฺཾ࡞ cleverly réssun n ࣝࢴࢪࣤ lesson: piano riku (chi) n 㝛 ᆀ land, dry land (no) ~ ࣅ࢓ࢿ ࡡ ࣝࢴࢪࣤ piano rikúgun n 㝛㌯ army rikutsu n ⌦ᑿ reason, argument: lesson rē´su n ࣭ࣝࢪ 1. lace: ~ no kåten he-~ ࡫⌦ᑿ quibble [IN NEGATIVE ࣭ࣝࢪࡡ࣭࢜ࢷࣤ lace curtain SENSE] 2. race: ~-jø ࣭ࣝࢪሔ racetracks rimokon n ࣓ࣛࢤࣤ remote conresukyū-tai n ࣝࢪ࣭࢞ࣖ㝪 rescue trol: terebi no ~ ࢷࣝࣄࡡ࣓ࣛࢤ ࣤ TV remote control team (= kyüjo-tai ᨾຐ㝪) résuringu n ࣝࢪࣛࣤࢡ wrestling rín n ࢪࢫ࣬㕝 a bell, a doorbell

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(= beru ࣊ࣜ); suzu-mushi n ࢪࢫ ࣑ࢨ࣬㕝⹰ bell cricket ringo n ࣛࣤࢥ apple rinji (no) adj ⮣᫤ ࡡ [BOOKISH]

riyō n ฺ⏕ use, utilization riyū n ⌦⏜ reason, cause, grounds; … to iu ~ de … ࡛࠷࠹ ⌦⏜࡚ for the reason that … extraordinary, special; temporary: rizaya n ฺࡉࡷ margin ~-nyüsu ⮣᫤ࢼ࣭ࣖࢪ irregular/ rízumu n ࣛࢫ࣑ rhythm special news: ~ no shigoto ⮣᫤ ro n ⅌ furnace ࡡ௘஥ temporary work … ro (yo) interj …ࢀ ࡻ [eastern rínki-ōhen (ni) adv ⮣ᶭᚺን ࡞ Japan] = … yo …ࡻ (IMPERATIVE depending on the time and of …i- …࠷ and … e- …࠻ verb

situation, on a case-by-case basis: stems) ~ ni taiøshimásu ⮣ᶭᚺን࡞ᑊᚺ rō-… prefix ⩹… old (not young); ࡊࡱࡌ responds flexibly rō-jin n ⩹ெ old person; rō-nen n rinneru n ࣛࣤࢾࣜ linen ⩹ᖳ old age rínri n ೒⌦ ethics: kigyø-~ ௺ᴏ೒ rō´ n ࢀ࠹࣬⻵ wax; beeswax róba n ࣞࣁ donkey ⌦ corporate ethics rippa (na) adj ❟Ὤ ࡝ splendid, róbii n ࣞࣄ࣭ lobby róddo n ࣞࢴࢺ rod (curtain, etc.) admirable, excellent, great rireki n ᒓṌ a history, a record, rōdō n ຘ഼ labor; ~´-sha ຘ഼⩽ ~-sho ᒓṌ᭡ one’s personal his- worker, laborer rōdo-shō´ n ࣭ࣞࢺࢨ࣭ࣘ roadtory, career summary ririku n 㞫㝛 take-off (plane) show attraction, first-run movie ríron n ⌦ㄵ theory rōgoku n ∴⊱ jail ríshi n ฺᏄ interest (on money) rōhi n ᾁ㈕ [BOOKISH] extravagance risō n ⌦᝷ an ideal: ~-teki (na) ⌦ róji n ㊨ᆀ alley rōka n ᗧୖ passage(way), corridor ᝷Ⓩ ࡝ ideal risoku n ฺ᜝ interest (on money) rō´karu (na) adj ࣭ࣞ࢜ࣜ ࡝ local rokétto n ࣞࢢࢴࢹ rocket (= rishi ฺᏄ) rísu n ࣛࢪ squirrel rok-k… prefix ඵ࣬6 six; rok-kái rísuto n ࣛࢪࢹ list n ඵᅂ six times; rók-kai n ඵ㝭 rítsu n ⋙ 1. rate, proportion; sixth floor, six stories; rók-ko n ඵ಴ six pieces (small objects) average 2. a cut, a percentage rittai n ❟మ solid; 3-D: ~-kyø ❟ rókkā n ࣞࢴ࣭࢜ locker మ㙶 stereoscope: ~-chüshajø ❟ rókku n ࣞࢴࢠ rock, rock’n’roll మ㥌㌬ሔ multi-story parking (music) rokú- n ඵ࣬6 six; roku-banme (no) garage rittoru n ࣛࢴࢹࣜ liter(s) adj ඵ␊┘ ࡡ sixth; rokú-dai n 222

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ඵྋ six (machines, vehicles); rokú-dó n ඵᗐ six times (= rok-kái ඵᅂ); rokú-mai n ඵᯓ six sheets (flat things); rokú-mei n ඵྞ six people (= rokú-nin ඵெ); rokúsatsú n ඵ෇ six copies (books,

magazines) rokuga n 㘋⏤ recording (video) Roku-gatsú n ඵ᭮࣬6᭮ June rokuon n 㘋㡚 recording (sound) rokuro n ࢀࡂࢀ potter’s wheel Rō´ma n ࣭࣏ࣞ Rome rōmá-ji n ࣭࣏ࣞᏊ romanization,

rúsu (no)

rō´rā n ࣭࣭ࣞࣚ roller; ~ sukë´to ࣭࣭ࣞࣚࢪࢢ࣭ࢹ roller-skates/

skating rōru-pan n ࣭ࣞࣜࣂࣤ roll: batårø´ru ࣁࢰ࣭࣭ࣞࣜ (butter) roll rosen n ㊨⥲ (bus, train) route Roshia n ࣞࢨ࢓ Russia; Roshiago ࣞࢨ࢓ㄊ Russian (language); Roshiá-jin ࣞࢨ࢓ெ a Russian rōsókú n ࢀ࠹ࡐࡂ candle rō´suto n ࣭ࣞࢪࢹ roast; ~ bíifu/ chíkin ࣭ࣞࢪࢹࣄ࣭ࣆ/ࢲ࢞ࣤ

roast beef/chicken rō´tarii n ࣭ࣞࢰ࣭ࣛ traffic circle, Latin letters rómansu n ࣏ࣞࣤࢪ romance, rotary love affair: ~-shøsetsu ࣏ࣞࣤࢪ rō´to n ࢀ࠹࡛࣬⁻ᩧ funnel ᑚㄕ romance novel …´-rui suffix …㢦 kinds, (different) rón n ㄵ argument, discussion; species of …; dō-rui n ྜྷ㢦 same treatise; theory; ron-bun n ㄵᩝ kind; shin-rui n の㢦 kindred, relatreatise; essay; gakui ~ Ꮥనㄵᩝ tive; shu-rui n ⛸㢦 kind, variety; jin-rui n ெ㢦 humankind; honyū-rui dissertation, thesis Róndon n ࣞࣤࢺࣤ London n ဳ஘㢦 mammal (class) rōnin n ᾁெ 1. an unemployed rui-… prefix 㢦 similar …; rui-ji samurai 2. a student between n 㢦జ resemblance, similarity; schools 3. a man without a job analogy; rui-(gi)go n 㢦 ⩇ ㄊ ron-jimásu, ron-jiru v ㄵࡋࡱࡌ, ㄵࡋ synonym ࡾ discusses, argues, debates ruiseki n ⣴✒ [BOOKISH] accumurónri n ㄵ⌦ logic; ~-teki (na) ㄵ lation: ~-kosuto ⣴✒ࢤࢪࢹ accu⌦Ⓩ ࡝ logical mulated costs; ~-chi ⣴✒ೋ ronsō n ㄵண controversy, dispute, accumulation value; ~-ritsu ⣴✒ ⋙ cumulative percentage argument, debate, discussion rop-p… prefix ඵ…࣬6... six; rop- rūmu-sā´bisu n ࣭࣑ࣜࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ room service (at hotel, etc.) pai n ඵ᮴ six cupfuls; rop-pén n ඵ㐚 six times (= rok-kái ඵᅂ, rū´ru n ࣭ࣜࣜ rule rokú-dó ඵᗐ ; róp-pon n ඵᮇ six rúsu (no) adj ⏻Ꮼ ࡡ absent, (long objects) away from home; rusu-ban n ⏻Ꮼ rō´pu n ࣭ࣞࣈ rope ␊ caretaking/caretaker; some223

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ryaku (-go)


one to take care of the house in haikan-~ ᣇびᩩ admission fee one’s absence; rusu-ban-denwa n (for temple, etc.): isha-~ ័ㅨᩩ ⏻Ꮼ␊㞹ヨ answering machine consolation money, palimony ryaku (-go) n ␆ ㄊ abbreviation ryōgae n ୦᭨ money exchange/ ryakushimásu, ryakúsú v ␆ࡊࡱࡌ, changing ␆ࡌ abbreviates, shortens; omits ryō´ji n 㡷஥ consul; ryōjí-kan n 㡷 ryo… prefix ᪉… travel…; ryo-kaku ஥㤃 consulate n ᪉ᐂ = ryokyaku ᪉ᐂ (traveler, ryōkai shimásu (suru) v ஡ゆࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ consents, understands passenger); ryo-kan n ᪉㤃 inn (traditional); ryo-ken n ᪉ไ pass- [FORMAL] ryō´kin n ᩩ㔘 fee, charge, fare, port (= pasupøto ࣂࢪ࣭࣎ࢹ); ryo-kō n ᪉⾔ travel, trip; ryo-kōrate; ryō´kin-jo n ᩩ㔘ᡜ tollgate gaisha n ᪉⾔ఌ♣ travel agency; ryōkō n Ⰳይ good [BOOKISH]: ryo-kyaku n ᪉ᐂ traveler, paskenkø-~ ೸ᗛⰃይ good health senger (mentioned on resume/applicaryō´ n ⊗ hunting (as sport); ryō´tion, etc.): seiseki-~ ᠺ⦴Ⰳይ shi n ⊗ᖅ hunter good record/achievement (at ryō´ n ⁲ fishing (as sport); ryō´-shi school, in office, etc.): gyøseki-~ ᴏ⦴Ⰳይ good business n ⁲ᖅ fisherman ryō´ n ᐿ dormitory, boarding performance house: gakusei-~ Ꮥ⏍ᐿ student ryoku-cha n ⥫Ⲍ green tea ryō´ri n ᩩ⌦ cooking; ryōrí-nin n dormitory: dokushin-~ ≺㌗ᐿ ᩩ⌦ெ cook; ryōrí-ya n ᩩ⌦ᒁ a dormitory for singles ryō´ n 㝘 mound, mausoleum restaurant ryō´ n 㡷 territory; ryō´-chi n 㡷ᆀ ryōshiki n Ⰳㆉ good sense, territory: sen-~ ༥㡷ᆀ occupied common sense territory; ryō´-do n 㡷ᅰ territory, ryō´shin n Ⰳᚨ conscience; ~-teki (na) ⰃᚨⓏ ࡝ conscientious: ~ domain ryō´ n 㔖 quantity, volume no kashaku Ⰳᚨࡡ࿟㈈ remorse ryō-… prefix ୦ … both; ryō-gawa of conscience n ୦ഁ both sides; ryō-hō´ n, adv ryū´ n ❫࣬㱗 dragon ୦᪁ both; ryō-mén n ୦㟻 both ryūchi n ⏻⨠ custody: ~-jø ⏻⨠ሔ sides/directions: ~-kopii ୦㟻ࢤ detention house ࣅ࣭ two-sided copy; ryō´-shin n ryū´chō (na) adj Ὦᬰ ࡝ fluent ୦の (both) parents [FORMAL] (= [INFORMAL] perapera …´-ryō suffix …ᩩ fee, charge: ࡭ࡼ࡭ࡼ࣬࣋ࣚ࣋ࣚ) nyüjø-~ ථሔᩩ admission fee: ryūgaku n ⏻Ꮥ studying abroad; 224

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ryūgaku-sei n ⏻Ꮥ⏍ foreign

(Okinawa, etc.): Ryükyü-rettø student(s) ⌨⌣าᓞ, Ryøkyü-shotø ⌨⌣ㅎ ryúkku, ryukkusákku n ࣛࣖࢴࢠ, ࣛ ᓞ Ryukyu Islands ࣖࢴࢠࢦࢴࢠ knapsack ryūtsū n Ὦ㏳ circulation, distriburyūkō n Ὦ⾔ popularity, vogue, tion: ~-sentå Ὦ㏳ࢬࣤࢰ࣭ fashion, trend; ryūkō (no) adj Ὦ⾔ distribution center: ~-kosuto ࡡ fashionable Ὦ㏳ࢤࢪࢹ distribution cost Ryūkyū´ n ⌨⌣ the Ryukyu ryū´zan n Ὦ⏐ miscarriage

S sa n ᕣ difference, discrepancy sā´bisu-eria n ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ࢙ࣛ࢓ 1. ser(= sai ᕣ␏࣬ᕣ㐢, chigai 㐢࠷) vice area (tennis court, etc.) 2. …-sa suffix…ࡈ …ness (abstract coverage 3. highway service area noun formed from an adjective) saborimásu, sabóru v ࢦ࣍ࡽࡱࡌ, ࢦ sā´ interj ࡈ࠵ well; come on; let ࣍ࡾ loafs, skives (on the job); cuts

me see

class, plays hookey

saba n ࢦࣁ࣬㩾 mackerel sābā n ࢦ࣭ࣁ࣭ (computer) server sabaku n ▹₅ desert sábetsu n ᕣื discrimination; jinshu-sabetsu n ெ⛸ᕣื racial discrimination; sabetsu-yōgo n ᕣ ื⏕ㄊ discriminatory words sabí n ࡈࡦ࣬ࢦࣄ࣬㗭 rust sabimásu, sabíru v 㗭ࡦࡱࡌ, 㗭ࡦࡾ

sabotāju n ࢦ࣍ࢰ࣭ࢩࣖ sabotage saboten n ࢦ࣍ࢷࣤ cactus sābu n ࢦ࣭ࣇ serve (games) sāchi raito n ࢦ࣭ࢲࣚ࢕ࢹ


sadamarimásu, sadamáru v ᏽࡱࡽࡱ ࡌ, ᏽࡱࡾ is settled, fixed sadamemásu, sadaméru v ᏽࡴࡱࡌ, ᏽࡴࡾ settles it, fixes it sadisuto n ࢦࢸ࢔ࢪࢹ sadist it rusts sabínai adj 㗭ࡦ࡝࠷ rustproof sadizumu n ࢦࢸ࢔ࢫ࣑ sadism sabishíi adj ᐜࡊ࠷࣬ᾷࡊ࠷ lonely sádo n ࢦࢺ 1. sadist 2. sadism sā´bisu n ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ 1. service: ~-ryø sádō n Ⲍ㐠 tea ceremony ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪᩩ service charge, cover sádō n షິ [BOOKISH] operation charge: ~-seishin ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ⢥♼ (of machine) spirit of good service 2. free (as sāfā n ࢦ࣭ࣆ࢒࣭ surfer, surfrider part of the service): ~-zangyø ࢦ safaia n ࢦࣆ࢒࢕࢓ sapphire ࣭ࣄࢪṟᴏ unpaid overtime 3. sāfin n ࢦ࣭ࣆ࢔ࣤ surfing, service (games) (= såbu ࢦ࣭ࣇ) surfriding

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sagaku n ᕣ㢘 the difference (in

Ⰳጏ㈴ẍ a good wife and wise price), the balance mother; sai-shi n ጏᏄ wife and sagan n ▹ᒷ sandstone child(ren) sagan n ᕞᓃ left bank sái n ᕣ␏࣬ᕣ㐢 [BOOKISH] differsagarimásu, sagáru v ୖ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, ence (= chigai 㐢࠷, sa ᕣ) ୖ࠿ࡾ it hangs down; goes down sái n ᡧ talent, ability: ta-~ na ኣ sagashimásu, sagasu v ᥀ࡊࡱࡌ, ᡧ࡝ multi-talented ᥀ࡌ looks/hunts for something/ …´-sai suffix…ṋ࣬ᡧ years someone one wants: shoku-sagashi of age: nijús-~ ஦༎ṋ>ᡧ@ = ⫃᥀ࡊ looking/hunting for a job: hátachi ஦༎ṋ࣬ࡢࡒࡔ twenty shakuya-sagashi ೇᐓ᥀ࡊ look- years old, 20 ing/hunting for a house for rent (…-)sái n … 㝷 time, occasion: sagashimásu, sagasu v ᤒࡊࡱࡌ, ᤒ kono-~ ࡆࡡ㝷 on this occasion: ࡌ searches for a missing person/ kinkyü no ~ ⥥᛬ࡡ㝷 in case of thing: maigo-sagashi ㏖Ꮔᤒࡊ emergency; sái-shite conj 㝷ࡊ࡙: … ni ~ …࡞㝷ࡊ࡙ on the occasearching for one’s lost child sagemásu, sagéru v ࡈࡅࡱࡌ࣬ୖ sion of, at the time of, when, in ࡅࡱࡌ, ࡈࡅࡾ࣬ୖࡅࡾ hangs case of sai- … prefix ්… re- (doing); saiit, lowers it, brings it down, gen n ්⌟ reappearance; sai-hakkō clears from the table sagemásu, sagéru v ᥞࡅࡱࡌ, ᥞࡅ n ්Ⓠ⾔ reissue; sai-kai n ්㛜 ࡾ carries (dangling from hand) resuming, restarting; sai-kai n ් sagí n ࢦ࢟࣬㮓 heron ఌ meeting again; sai-kákunin n sági n ノḥ࣬ࢦ࢟ fraud ්☔ヾ reconfirmation; sai-kentō sagurimásu, saguru v ᥀ࡽࡱࡌ, ᥀ n ්᳠ゞ review; sai-kō n ්⩻ ࡾ gropes reconsideration; sai-kon n ්፡ ságyō n షᴏ 1. work (commonly remarriage; sai-nyū´koku n ්ථᅗ physical labor): josetsu-~ 㝎㞯ష reentry (into the country); sai-sei ᴏ removing the snow: nø-~ ㎨ష n ්⏍ reproduction, playback: ᴏ agricultural work: ~-in షᴏဤ ~-botan ්⏍࣍ࢰࣤ play button: laborer 2. operations: ~-jikan ష ~-shi ්⏍⣤ recycled paper; saishikén n ්ム㥺 makeup exam (= ᴏ᫤㛣 working hours sáhō n షἪ manners, etiquette tsuishi (-ken) ㏛ム 㥺 ) sai n ⳧ side dish (to go with sai- … prefix ᭩… the most; sai-ai (no) ᭩យ ࡡ one’s beloved: ~ the rice) (= okazu ࠽࠾ࡍ, fukushoku(-butsu) ๧㣏 ∸)) no tsuma ᭩យࡡጏ one’s dear sái n ጏ (my) wife: ryøsai kenbo wife; sai-aku (no) ᭩ᝇ ࡡ the 226

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worst: ~ no jitai ᭩ᝇࡡ஥ឺ worst- ึᏻ judge; saiban-shó n ⿚ึᡜ case scenario; sái-chū n ᭩୯ midst court (= chü… ୯); sai-dai (no) adj sabun n ᕣฦ difference ᭩ኬ ࡡ the largest, the most, sáidā n ࢦ࢕ࢱ࣭ (fizzy lemon) the greatest: saidai-køyakusü ᭩ soda: ~-sui ࢦ࢕ࢱ࣭Ề soda water ኬප⣑ᩐ the greatest common saidan n ⚅ቨ altar divisor (GCD); sai-dai-gén (no) adj saidan n ⿚᩷ 1. judgment: ~ o ᭩ኬ㝀 ࡡ maximal, maximum, kudashimásu ⿚᩷ࢅୖࡊࡱࡌ utmost; sái-go (no) adj ᭩ᚃ ࡡ passes judgment 2. cutting last, final: ~ no bansan ᭩ᚃࡡᬄ (paper, cloth, etc.) saido-burē´ki n ࢦ࢕ࢺࣇ࣭ࣝ࢞ 㣮 Last Supper: ~-tsüchø ᭩ᚃ ㏳∥ ultimatum (= ~-tsükoku ᭩ handbrake ᚃ㏳࿈); sai-jō (no) adj ᭩୕ ࡡ sáiensu n ࢦ࢕࢙ࣤࢪ science best, highest, topmost: ~-kai ᭩ (= kagaku ⛁Ꮥ) ୕㝭 the top floor; sai-kai n ᭩ୖ saifu n ㈀ᕱ purse, wallet న last place (position, rank, etc.); saigai n ⅇᐐ disaster: shizen-~ ⮤ sai-ryō (no) adj ᭩Ⰳ ࡡ the best: ↓ⅇᐐ natural disaster ~ no saku ᭩Ⰳࡡ➿ the best sai-getsu n ṋ᭮ years, time policy; sai-shin (no) adj ᭩᩺ ࡡ saigishin n ⊔␪ᚨ suspicion: ~ newest, up-to-date; sai-sho adv ᭩ ga tsuyoi ⊔␪ᚨ࠿ᙁ࠷ is very ิ the very beginning, the outset suspicious (= hajime ิࡴ): ~ no ᭩ิࡡ… saihō n ⿚⦥ sewing: ~-døgu ⿚⦥ 㐠ර sewing set the first …; sai-shō (no) adj ᭩ᑚ ࡡ smallest: ~-gén (-do) ᭩ᑚ saiken n ബไ bond (debenture) 㝀 ᗐ the minimum (degree); saikin n ⣵Ⳟ germ: ~-gaku ⣵ⳞᏕ sai-shō (no) adj ᭩ᑛ ࡡ least, bacteriology saikin adv ᭩㎾ recently, lately minimal, minimum; sai-shū (no) saikóro n ࡈ࠷ࡆࢀ࣬ࢦ࢕ࢤࣞ adj ᭩⤂ ࡡ final, the very end (last): ~-ban ᭩⤂∟ final dice, a die (= sai ࡈ࠷࣬㔎࣬㉇): sai(kóro) o furimásu ࢦ࢕ ࢤࣞ version: ~ densha ᭩⤂㞹㌬ the ࢅᣲࡽࡱࡌ throws a dice last train (= shüden ⤂㞹); sai-tei (no) adj ᭩఩ ࡡ lowest, worst, saikú n ⣵ᕝ work(manship), bottom(most); minimum; sai-zen handiwork, ware(s) n ᭩ၻ the best; one’s best/utmost saikuringu n ࢦ࢕ࢠࣛࣤࢡ cycling (= besuto ࣊ࢪࢹ) (by bicycle) saibai n ᰺ᇰ cultivation saikuru n ࢦ࢕ࢠࣜ cycle (= shüki sáiban n ⿚ึ trial; saibán-kan n ⿚ ࿔᭿) 227

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saikutsu n ᤿ᤸ mining, digging saimu n ബຸ [BOOKISH] debt sáin n ࢦ࢕ࣤ 1. signature (= shomei ⨣ྞ) 2. autograph 3. sign (= aizu ྙᅒ, angø ᬧྒ, kigø エྒ) sainán n ⅇ㞬 calamity, disaster: ~-yoke ⅇ㞬㝎ࡄ charm against evil; ~ ni aimásu ⅇ㞬࡞㐴࠷ࡱࡌ

തಀ≟ a reminder saiten n ⚅඼ 1. festival 2. extra-

vaganza saiten n ᤿Ⅴ rating, grading,


saiwai n ᖶ࠷ 1. n happiness (= køfuku ᖶ⚗, shiawase ᖶࡎ࣬ࡊ ࠵ࢂࡎ): fukø-chü no ~ ୘ᖶ୯ࡡ ᖶ࠷ is lucky it wasn’t worse 2. adv fortunately has a disaster sáinō n ᡧ⬗ talent, ability saiyō n ᤿⏕ employment, adoption sainyū n ṋථ annual revenue (of sáizu n ࢦ࢕ࢫ size (= økisa ኬࡀࡈ) government, local public organ- sájí n ࡈࡋ࣬ࢦࢩ࣬໬ spoon (= supün ࢪࣈ࣭ࣤ); sájí-kagen n ࡈ ization, etc.) sáiren n ࢦ࢕ࣝࣤ siren (sound); ࡋ>໬@ຊ΅ ① prescription sairen-sā n ࢦ࢕ࣝࣤࢦ࣭ silencer ② allowance ③ consideration; saji o nagemásu (nageru) v ໬ࢅᢖࡅ (gun) saisan n ᤿⟤ profit: ~ ga toremásu ࡱࡌ ᢖࡅࡾ gives up (not to ᤿⟤࠿ཱིࡿࡱࡌ pays, is profitable literally mean, “throw a spoon”) saisan adv [BOOKISH] ්୔ many saká n ᆊ hill, slope saka-… prefix 㒿 drinking; times, repeatedly saisén n ࡈ࠷㖱࣬㉇㖱 money saka-bá n 㒿ሔ bar/pub (for drinkoffering (at a shrine); ~-bako ࡈ ing) (= izakaya ᑽ㒿ᒁ, bå ࣁ࣭, pabu ࣂࣇ); saka-ya n 㒿ᒁ liquor ࠷㖱⟵࣬㉇㖱⟵ offering box saishin (no) adj ⣵ᚨ ࡡ careful: shop; saka-mori n 㒿┊ ࡽ drink~ chüi o hara(tte) kudasai ⣵ᚨ ing party (= enkai ᐑఌ) ࡡἸណࢅᡮ ࡖ࡙ ୖࡈ࠷ please sakaemásu, sakáéru v ᰜ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᰜ ࠻ࡾ thrives, flourishes, prospers pay close attention saishokú-shugi-sha n ⳧㣏୹⩇⩽ sakái n ሾ boundary, border vegetarian (= bejitarian ࣊ࢩࢰࣛ sakan (na) adj ┊ࢆ ࡝ lively, ࢓ࣤ) flourishing, prosperous; saishū n ᤿㞗 collection, picking splendid, vigorous and gathering (as specimen, data, sakana n 㨮 fish; sakaná-tsuri n 㨮㔦 etc.): konchü-~ ᪳⹰᤿㞗 insect ࡽ fishing (as sport); sakana-ya n 㨮ᒁ fish dealer/market collecting saisoku n തಀ reminding someone, sakana n ⫪ 1. appetizers to go urging (= tokusoku ╡ಀ): ~-jø with drinks (= o-)tsumami ࠽ࡗ

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ࡱࡲ) 2. interesting story to add

to the fun with drinks sakanoborimásu, sakanobóru v 㐫ࡽ ࡱࡌ࣬⁃ࡽࡱࡌ, 㐫ࡾ࣬⁃ࡾ: … ni ~ …࡞㐫ࡽ>⁃ࡽ@ࡱࡌ

goes against (the stream), goes upstream; goes back (in time) to; sore o … ni ~ ࡐࡿࢅ…࡞㐫ࡽ >⁃ࡽ@ࡱࡌ traces it back to … sakaraimásu, sakaráu v ㏣ࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ, ㏣ࡼ࠹: … ni ~ …࡞㏣ࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ defies, opposes, contradicts, acts contrary to sakari n ┊ࡽ prime: ~ no tsuita neko ┊ࡽࡡࡗ࠷ࡒ⊟ cat on heat; sakari-ba n ┊ࡽሔ downtown area (= hanka-gai ⦶⳱⾜) sakasa(ma) (no/ni) adj, adv ㏣ࡈ ࡱ ࡡ/࡞ upside down sā´kasu n ࢦ࣭࢜ࢪ circus sakazukí n ᮴ saké cup (= choko ࡔࡺࡆ o-choko ࠽ࡔࡺࡆ ): füfu no ~ o kawashimásu ኰ፦ ࡡ᮴ࢅஹࢂࡊࡱࡌ exchanges

nuptial cups

ࡱࡌ, 㑂ࡄࡼࡿࡾ 1. is avoided 2. can avoid saki n, adv ඙ 1. front; future; ahead; first (ahead of others); kono ~ ࡆ ࡡ඙ ahead of here 2. point, tip 3. address, destination; saki-gake n ඙㥉ࡄ pioneer, forerunner, lead; saki-iki, sakiyuki n ඙⾔ࡀ prospect, future, outlook: sakiyuki wa akarui desu ඙⾔ࡀࡢ᪺ࡾ࠷࡚ࡌ has a bright future; saki-hodo ඙ ⛤ [BOOKISH] a little while ago (= sakki ࡈࡖࡀ) sakimásu, saku v ဋࡀࡱࡌ, ဋࡂ

blooms, blossoms sakimásu, sáku v ⿛ࡀࡱࡌ, ⿛ࡂ

splits it; tears it sakin n ▹㔘 gold dust sákka n షᐓ writer (novelist, etc.): joryü-~ ዥὮషᐓ a woman writer sákkā n ࢦࢴ࣭࢜ soccer: ~-senshu ࢦࢴ࣭࢜㐽ᡥ soccer player

(professional) sakkaku n 㘊つ illusion: me no ~ ┘ࡡ㘊つ optical illusion sákki adv ࡈࡖࡀ a little while ago

sake n 㒿 o-sake ࠽㒿 1. saké (Japanese rice wine) 2. alcoholic [INFORMAL] sakkin n ṽⳞ sterilization: ~-køka drinks sáke n ࢦࢢ࣬㩤 salmon ṽⳞຝᯕ antiseptic effect sakebimásu, sakébu v ྆ࡦࡱࡌ, ྆ sákku n ࢦࢴࢠ 1. sack, case 2. → ࡩ cries out, shouts kondō´mu ࢤࣤࢺ࣭࣑ sakemásu, sakéru v 㑂ࡄࡱࡌ, 㑂ࡄ sakkusu n ࢦࢴࢠࢪ saxophone ࡾ avoids (= sakusoføn ࢦࢠࢮࣆ࢚࣭ࣤ) sakemásu, sakéru v ⿛ࡄࡱࡌ, ⿛ࡄ sakkyoku n ష᭜ music composition; ࡾ 1. it splits, it tears 2. can sakkyoku-ka n ష᭜ᐓ musical

split/tear it


sakeraremásu, sakeraréru v 㑂ࡄࡼࡿ sakoku n 㙈ᅗ national isolation

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sakotsu n 㙈㦭 collarbone saku n ᰑ fence saku-…, saki-… prefix ᫎ last; sakú-ban n, adv ᫎᬄ [BOOKISH] last night (= kinø no yoru/ban ᫎ ᪝ࡡእᬄ); saku-jitsu n, adv ᫎ᪝ [BOOKISH] yesterday (= kinø ᫎ᪝); saku-nen n, adv ᫎᖳ [BOOKISH] last year (= kyonen ཡᖳ); sakiototói n, adv ࡈࡀ࠽࡛࡛࠷࣬ୌᫎ ࠍ᪝ [BOOKISH] three days ago (= mikka mae ୔᪝๑) sakubun n షᩝ writing a compo-


ku ᨯ␆); saku-shi n ➿ኃ plotter sakusen n షᡋ tactics sakusha n ష⩽ author (= chosha ⴥ⩽) sakushi n షペ writing the lyrics: ~-ka షペᐓ songwriter sakushu n ᦚཱི [BOOKISH] exploitation: ~ saremásu ᦚཱིࡈࡿࡱࡌ

be exploited sakusofōn n ࢦࢠࢮࣆ࢚࣭ࣤ saxophone (= sakkusu ࢦࢴࢠࢪ) sakusō(shita) adj 㘊⥀ ࡊࡒ

complicated and intricated: sakusø-shita jøhø 㘊⥀ࡊࡒ᝗ሒ sition (a theme) sakuga n ష⏤ 1. drawing a picture entangled information 2. taking a photograph sakyū n ▹ୢ sand dune: Tottorisakyü 㫵ཱི▹ୢ Tottori sand dune sakugen n ๎΅ cut, reduction: kosuto-~ ࢤࢪࢹ๎΅ cost … (-)sama suffix …ᵕ࣬ࡈࡱ reduction; jin’in-~ ெဤ๎΅ [HONORIFIC] = … (-)san …ࡈࢆ head-count reduction Mr., Ms., Mrs., Miss sakuhin n షဗ a work (of litera- samatagemásu, samatagéru v ጄࡅࡱ ture or art): geijutsu-~ ⰹ⾙షဗ ࡌ, ጄࡅࡾ obstructs, hinders a work of art: bungaku-~ ᩝᏕష samayoimásu, samayóu v ᙰᚖ࠷ࡱ ဗ a literary work ࡌ, ᙰᚖ࠹ wanders about sakuin n ⣬ᘤ index samáza ma (na/no) adj ᵕࠍ ࡝ࡡ sakui-teki adj షⅥⓏ intentional diverse, all kinds of sakumotsu n ష∸ 1. crops 2. a same n ࢦ࣒࣬㩢 shark piece of work (= sakubutsu ష∸, samemásu, saméru v つࡴࡱࡌ, つࡴ sakuhin షဗ) ࡾ wakes up, comes to one’s senses sakura n ᱔࣬ࢦࢠࣚ cherry tree: samemásu, saméru v ෫ࡴࡱࡌ, ෫ࡴ ~ no haná ᱔ࡡⰴ cherry blossoms: ࡾ gets cold, cools off ~-mochi ᱔㣨 rice cake with bean samemásu, saméru v 〛ࡴࡱࡌ, 〛ࡴ paste wrapped in a cherry leaf ࡾ it fades, loses color (Japanese cakes/sweets) samitto n ࢦ࣐ࢴࢹ summit sakuranbo n ࢦࢠࣚࣤ࣍࣬᱔ࢆᆎ࣬ (conference) ᱔᱀ cherry sá-mo nákereba conj ࡈࡵ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ saku(ryaku) n ➿ ␆ plot (= kørya- [BOOKISH] otherwise (= sa-mo 230

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…´-san, -´zan

nakuba ࡈࡵ࡝ࡂࡣ) samúi adj ᐨ࠷ cold (air tempera-

the year 3; san nén-kan ୔ᖳ㛣 three years; san nén-sei ୔ᖳ⏍ ture), chilly third-year student, junior; san-nín samuke n ᐨẴ chill, rigor (= okan n ୔ெ three people (= sen mei ᝇᐨ): ~ ga shimásu ᐨẴ࠿ࡊࡱ ୔ྞ); san-pai n ୔ᣇ [HUMBLE] ࡌ feels a chill bowing three times, bowing sevsamurai n ࢦ࣑ࣚ࢕࣬౜ samurai eral times; san-paku n ୔ἡ three (Japanese warrior) (= bushi Ṃኃ) night’s lodging: san-paku-yokka san n 㓗 1. acid 2. sour taste: ~-mi ୔ἡᄿ᪝ four days three nights 㓗࿝ sour taste, sour flavor (= (tour, etc.); sán-pun n ୔ฦ three suppai aji 㓗ࡖࡤ࠷࿝) minutes; sán-sai n ୔ṋ three years san(…) n, prefix ୔࣬3  three old (= mittsu ୔ࡗ); sán-satsu n ୔෇ three (books, magazines, (, tri-…); sán-ba n ୔⩒ three (birds, rabbits); san-bai adj ୔ಶ etc.); sán-sei n ୔ୠ third generatriple; sán-bai n ୔᮴ three glass- tion (of emigrant Japanese); … fuls; san-banmé n ୔␊┘ third; the Third; san-shi-… n ୔, ᄿ = sán-bén n ୔㐚 three times; sán-biki san-yo(n)-… three or four; sánshoku n ୔㣏 three meals; sán-tō n n ୔༆ three (fishes/bugs, small ୔㢄 three (horses/oxen, large animals); sán-bon n ୔ᮇ three (pencils/bottles, long objects); sán- animals); san-tō n ୔➴ third class; dó n ୔ᗐ ① three times (= san- san-yo(m/n)- n ୔, ᄿ = san-shi-… kai ୔ᅂ) ② three degrees; san-gai three or four: san yon-bai ୔, ᄿ n ୔㝭 three floors/stories; third ಶ three or four times as much: floor; san-gánichi n ୔࠿᪝ the first san yon-do ୔, ᄿᗐ 3–4 times: three days of the New Year; sán- san yon-man ୔, ᄿ୒ thirty or gen n ୔㌲ three buildings/hous- forty thousand: sanyo-nín ୔, ᄿ ெ 3–4 people: sanyo-ninmae ୔, es; sán-ji n ୔᫤ three o’clock; sán-kái n ୔ᅂ three times (= san- ᄿெ๑ 3–4 servings; sán-zoku/-soku do ୔ᗐ); san kai-mé ୔ᅂ┘ the n ୔㊂ three pairs (of footwear) third time; san-kyaku n ୔⬦ tripod sán n 㓗 acid; san-sei n 㓗ᛮ acid(stand): ninin-~ ஦ெ୔⬦ ① ity: ~sei-u 㓗ᛮ㞭 acid rain three-legged race (on field day, … (-) san …ࡈࢆ Mr., Ms., Mrs., etc.) ② cooperating with single- Miss (= … (-) sama …ᵕ࣬ࡈࡱ ness of purpose; sán-mai n ୔ᯓ …´-san, -´zan …ᒜ (name of three sheets (flat things); sán-mei certain) mountain: Fuji-san ᐣኃ ᒜ Mt. Fuji: Eberesuto (-san) ࢙ n ୔ྞ [BOOKISH] three people ࣊ࣝࢪࢹ ᒜ Mt. Everest (= sannín ୔ெ); san-nen n ୔ᖳ 231

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san-… prefix ᒜ mountain; sanmyaku n ᒜ⬞ mountain range: Arupusu-~ ࢓ࣜࣈࢪᒜ⬞ Alps (range); san-chō n ᒜ㡤 mountain top sanba n ࢦࣤࣁ samba sanba n ⏐ፚ midwife sanbashi n ᱖ᶣ pier sanbi n ㈮⨶ admiration, worship: ~-ka ㈮⨶ḯ hymn (= sei-ka ⪯ḯ, san-ka ㈮ḯ) sanbun n ᩋᩝ prose: ~-shi ᩋᩝモ

sangi-in n ཤ㆗㝌 House of Councilors (= san-in ཤ㝌): ~-senkyo ཤ㆗㝌㐽ᣪ House of

Councilors’ election sángo n ࢦࣤࢥ࣬⌀⍒ coral; sango-shō n ࢦࣤࢥ>⌀⍒@♃ coral


sangurasu n ࢦࣤࢡࣚࢪ sunglasses sangyō n ⏐ᴏ industry: såbisu-~ ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ⏐ᴏ service industry sánji n ㈮㎙ [BOOKISH] praise, comprose poem pliment (= home-kotoba 「ࡴ>・ sanbutsu n ⏐∸ product, produce; ࡴ@ゕⴝ): ~ o okurimásu ㈮㎙ࢅ ㏞ࡽࡱࡌ compliments fruit, outcome sánchi n ⏐ᆀ home (of a product/ sanka n ㈮ḯ [BOOKISH] hymn (= sanbi-ka ㈮⨶ḯ, sei-ka ⪯ḯ) crop) sandan-jū n ᩋᙆ㖘 shotgun sanka n ഘୖ [BOOKISH] under the sandaru n ࢦࣤࢱࣜ sandal umbrella: ~-kigyø ഘୖ௺ᴏ afsan-dii kē´ n 3DK three rooms and filiated enterprise: ~ ni hairimásu ഘୖ࡞ථࡽࡱࡌ comes under the “DK” (dining kitchen = eat-in


kitchen) …-sándo suffix …ࢦࣤࢺ sandwich (→ sandoítchi ࢦࣤࢺ࢕ࢴࢲ): tsuna-~ ࢵࢻࢦࣤࢺ tuna-fish sandwich: tamago-~ ࢰ࣏ࢥ>༵@ ࢦࣤࢺ egg sandwich sandō n ཤ㐠 approach to a shrine; omote-~ ⾪ཤ㐠 main road to a

shrine sandō n ㈮ྜྷ approval, support sandoítchi n ࢦࣤࢺ࢕ࢴࢲ sand-

sanka n ཤຊ participation; sankásha n ཤຊ⩽ participant sánkan n ཤび [HUMBLE] one’s visiting: jugyø-~-bi ᤭ᴏཤび᪝

open school day sánkaku n ୔ぽ triangle: ~-kankei ୔ぽ㛭౿ a love triangle sankē n 3K (apartment of three

rooms plus kitchen)

sanke-zukimásu, sanke-zuku v ⏐Ẵࡘ ࡀࡱࡌ, ⏐Ẵࡘࡂ goes into labor sandopē´pā n ࢦࣤࢺ࣭࣬࣋ࣂ࣭ sankō n ཤ⩻ reference (= sanshø ཤ↯): ~-(to-)sho ཤ⩻ ᅒ ᭡ sandpaper Sanfuranshísuko n ࢦࣤࣆࣚࣤࢨࢪ reference book: gakushü-sankøsho ࢤ San Francisco Ꮥ⩞ཤ⩻᭡ study-aid book Sán-gatsu n ୔᭮࣬3᭮ March sanmon n ᒜ㛓 temple gate


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sanpatsu n ᩋ㧝࣬ࡈࢆࡤࡗ haircut; sanpatsu-ya n ᩋ㧝ᒁ barber(shop) sanpo n ᩋṄ a walk, a stroll sanpuru n ࢦࣤࣈࣜ sample sanretsu n ཤา presence sanrín-sha n ୔㍧㌬ tricycle sansei n ㈮ᠺ approval, support (= sandø ㈮ྜྷ) sansei n ཤᨳ participation in government: ~-ken ཤᨳᶊ political

tray; sara-arai-ki n ⓸ὑ࠷ᶭ dishwasher sarabureddo n ࢦࣚࣇࣝࢴࢺ 1. thoroughbred 2. blue blood sárada n ࢦࣚࢱ salad sarái-… prefix ්ᮮ … after next; sarái-getsu adv ්ᮮ᭮ [BOOKISH] month after next (= nikagetsu-go ஦ࣦ᭮ᚃ); sarai-nen adv ්ᮮᖳ [BOOKISH] year after suffrage next (= ni nen-go ஦ᖳᚃ) sanshō n ࢦࣤࢨࣘࢗ࣬ᒜ᳙ sára-ni adv ᭞࡞ anew; (some) Japanese pepper (mild) more; further sanshō n ཤ↯ reference (= sankø sárarii n ࢦ࣭ࣚࣛ salary (= kyü´yo ཤ⩻) ⤝୙); sararii-man n ࢦ࣭࣏ࣚࣛࣤ sánso n 㓗⣪ oxygen: ~-masuku salaried man, company employee 㓗⣪࣏ࢪࢠ oxygen mask sarashimásu, sarasu v ᫱ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ sansū n ⟤ᩐ (elementary school) ᭒ࡊࡱࡌ, ᫱ࡌ࣬᭒ࡌ 1. exposes: arithmetic, calculation (= keisan füu ni ~ 㢴㞭࡞ࡈࡼࡊ>᫱ࡊ࣬᭒ ゛⟤), mathematics (= sügaku ࡊ@ࡱࡌ exposes it to wind and ᩐᏕ) rain 2. bleaches: nuno o ~ ᕱࢅ santora n ࢦࣤࢹࣚ sound track ࡈࡼࡊ>᫱ࡊ@ࡱࡌ bleaches saó n ࡈ࠽࣬➆࣬᳃ pole, rod cloth 3. dries under the sun: hi sapō´tā n ࢦ࣭࣎ࢰ࣭ jockstrap, ni ~ ᪝࡞ࡈࡼࡊ>᫱ࡊ@ࡱࡌ dries (athletic) supporter it in the sun 4. reveals: haji o ~ sappári adv ࡈࡖࡤࡽ [ NEGATIVE ~ ᜕ࢅࡈࡼࡊ>᫱ࡊ࣬᭒ࡊ@ࡱࡌ verb] not at all: ~ wakarimasen brings disgrace on oneself ࡈࡖࡤࡽฦ࠾ࡽࡱࡎࢆ I have no saremásu, sareru v ࡈࡿࡱࡌ, ࡈࡿ ࡾ 1. has it done to one (unwantidea. sappári-shita adj ࡈࡖࡤࡽࡊࡒ edly) 2. is done; hakai ~ ◒ቪࡈ clean, fresh; frank: ~-shita aji ࡈ ࡿࡱࡌ is destroyed 3. [HONORࡖࡤࡽࡊࡒ࿝ plain taste, lightly IFIC] = nasaimásu ࡝ࡈ࠷ࡱࡌ seasoned (food) sarimásu, sáru v ཡࡽࡱࡌ, ཡࡾ sappūkei na adj ṽ㢴ᬊ࡝ (looks) leaves, goes away; removes it bare, bleak: ~ niwa ṽ㢴ᬊ࡝ᗖ a sāroin n ࢦ࣭ࣞ࢕ࣤ sirloin: ~-sutëki ࢦ࣭ࣞ࢕ࣤ࣬ࢪࢷ࣭࢞ bleak garden sara n ⓸ plate, dish; saucer; ashsirloin steak 233

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sáru v ཡࡾ 1. → sarimásu ཡࡽࡱ book, newspaper, magazine, etc.) ࡌ 2. [+ DATE] last …, most sashi-komi n ᕣ ࡊ ㎰ࡲ plug

recent, (past day) of this month

outlet (electricity outlet) (=

sáru n ࢦࣜ࣬⊯ monkey sarumata n ࢦ࣏ࣜࢰ࣬⊯⫝̸ loin-

sashikomi-guchi ᕣ ࡊ ㎰ࡲཾ) sashi-komimásu, sashi-komu v ᕣ ࡊ ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ, ᕣࡊ㎰ࡳ inserts cloth sasa n ࢦࢦ࣬➪ bamboo grass: ~ sashimásu, sásu v ᣞࡊࡱࡌ, ᣞࡌ no ha ➪ࡡⴝ bamboo leaf points to, indicates sasáé n ᨥ࠻ a support, a prop sashimásu, sásu v ᕣࡊࡱࡌ, ᕣࡌ sasaemásu, sasaeru v ᨥ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᨥ holds (umbrella) sashimásu, sásu v ๆࡊࡱࡌ, ๆࡌ ࠻ࡾ supports, props (up) sásai (na) adj ற⣵ ࡝ petty, tristabs, stings fling, trivial, not a big deal at all sashimí n ๆ㌗࣬ࡈࡊࡲ sliced raw fish (= torunitarinai ཱིࡾ࡞㊂ࡽ࡝ ࠷): ~ na-mondai ற⣵࡝ၡ㢗 sashitsukae n ᕣࡊᨥ࠻࣬ࡈࡊࡗ࠾ minor problem: ~ na-chigai ற⣵ ࠻ 1. hindrance, impediment 2. ࡝㐢࠷ slight difference previous appointment/engagement sasáyaka (na) adj ࡈࡈࡷ࠾ ࡝ sáshizu n ᣞᅒ directions, instrucsmall (-scale), petty: ~ na påtii tions, a command ࡈࡈࡷ࠾࡝ࣂ࣭ࢷ࢔ little party: sashō n ᰕチ [BOOKISH] visa (= bíza ~ na okurimono ࡈࡈࡷ࠾࡝㉏ࡽ ࣄࢧ): nyükoku-~ ථᅗᰕチ an ∸ modest gift entry visa sasayakí n ᄬࡀ a whisper, murmur: sashō n ノ⛘ [BOOKISH] false state~-goe ᄬࡀኇ whispery voice ment; nenrei-~ ᖳ㱃ノ⛘ false sasayakimásu, sasayáku v ᄬࡀࡱࡌ, statement of one’s age; mibun-~ ᄬࡂ whispers ㌗ฦノ⛘ false statement of one’s sashi-agemásu, sashi-ageru v ᕣࡊ୕ status ࡅࡱࡌ, ᕣࡊ୕ࡅࡾ [HUMBLE/ sasoi n ㄇ࠷ invitation; temptation DEFERENTIAL] presents, give (I give sasoimásu, sasou v ㄇ࠷ࡱࡌ, ㄇ࠹

you, you give them); holds up

invites; tempts

sashidegamashii adj ᕣࡊฝ࠿ࡱࡊ sásshi, sásshu n ࢦࢴࢨ, ࢦࢴࢨࣖ ࠷ officious sash (window sash) sashidéguchi n ᕣࡊฝཾ uncalled- sásshi n ෇Ꮔ brochure; shō-sasshi for remark; … no hanashí ni ~ o n ᑚ෇Ꮔ pamphlet, brochure shimásu …ࡡヨ࡞ᕣࡊฝཾࢅࡊ sas-shi n ᐳࡊconjecture, guess; ࡱࡌ interrupts perception, understanding; sashi-e n ᣼⤦ illustration (of sympathy: ~ ga tsukimásu ᐳࡊ

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࠿ࡗࡀࡱࡌ perceives, guesses satori n ᜽ࡽ enlightenment (correctly); o-~ no tøri ࠽ᐳࡊࡡ satorimásu, satóru v ᜽ࡽࡱࡌ, ᜽ࡾ ㏳ࡽ as you have surmised realizes (comprehends) sas-shinásu, sas-suru v ᐳࡊࡱࡌ, satsu n ᮈ folding money, currency ᐳࡌࡾ perceives, understands; bill/note; satsu-iré n ᮈථࡿ billconjectures, guesses; sympathizes fold, wallet (= saifu ㈀ᕱ); satsutaba n ᮈᮨ a roll/wad of (cursassokú adv ᪡㏷ at once, right away, promptly, immediately: ~ rency) bills (no) ᪡㏷ ࡡ immediate, prompt …-satsú suffix …෇ copy (counts sasuga adv ࡈࡌ࠿: ~ (ni) ࡈࡌ࠿ books, magazines) ࡞ as we might expect, indeed …-satsu suffix …ᮈ (currency) sasupendā n ࢦࢪ࣋ࣤࢱ࣭ susbill; hyakudorú-~ ní-mai Ⓤࢺࣜ pender 1. galluses (= zubon-tsuri ᮈ஦ᯓ two $100 bills ࢫ࣍ࣤࡗࡽ) 2. garter satsuei n ᧔ᙫ shooting a film, sasupensu n ࢦࢪ࣋ࣤࢪ suspense: filming, taking a photograph: ~-eiga ࢦࢪ࣋ࣤࢪ᫆⏤ suspense ~-jo ᧔ᙫᡜ studio (= sutajio ࢪ ࢰࢩ࢛) film sátá n ἃụ [BOOKISH] message; satsujin n ṽெ murder: ~-jiken ṽ ெ஥௲ murder case command; affair satchū-zai n ṽ⹰๠ insecticide Satsumá-age n ࡈࡗࡱ>ⷻ᦮@ᥥࡅ sá-te interj ࡈ࡙ well now/then, deep-fried fish cake Satsuma-imo n ࡈࡗࡱ>ⷻ᦮@Ⱆ࣬ and now/then, as to the matter ࢦࢵ࣏࢕࣓ sweet potato at hand satei n ᰕᏽ assessment (to decide Saujiarabia n ࢦࢗࢩ࢓ࣚࣄ࢓ the rank, salary, etc.): ~-gaku ᰕ Saudi Arabia; Saujiarabia-jin n ࢦࢗ ᏽ㢘 assessed value ࢩ࢓ࣚࣄ࢓ெ a Saudi Arabian sáten n ࢦࢷࣤ satin sauna n ࢦࢗࢻ steam bath (in sports saten n Ⲍᗉ café (= kissaten ႖ center, health spa, etc.) Ⲍᗉ) saundo n ࢦࢗࣤࢺ sound (= oto sato n 㔓 1. village 2. hometown 㡚, onkyø 㡚㡢); saundo-efekuto n ࢦࢗࣤࢺ࢙࣬ࣆ࢘ࢠࢹ sound (= furusato ࡨࡾࡈ࡛࣬ᨶ㒋, kokyø ᨶ㒋): o-sato ࠽㔓 one’s effect; saundo-sukēpu n ࢦࢗࣤࢺ origin, upbringing; sato-oya n 㔓 ࢪࢢ࣭ࣈ soundscape; saundotorakku n ࢦࢗࣤࢺ࣬ࢹࣚࢴࢠ の foster parent; sato-gaeri n 㔓 ᖉࡽ goes home (to see one’s sound track (= santora ࢦࣤࢹࣚ) sawagashíi adj 㥹࠿ࡊ࠷ boisterous, parent(s)) satō´ n ▹⢶࣬ࢦࢹࢗ sugar noisy: ~-påtii 㥹࠿ࡊ࠷ࣂ࣭ࢷ࢔

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noisy party: ~-basho 㥹࠿ࡊ࠷ሔ comparing heights with someᡜ noisy place one; se-naka n ⫴୯ back of body; sáwagi n 㥹ࡁ 1. clamor, noise se-nobi n ⫴ఘࡦ ① standing on (boisterous) 2. unrest, disturtiptoe ② trying to do more than bance, tumult, strife; riot (= sødø one is able to do; se-suji n ⫴➵ 㥹ິ) the muscles along the spine; sawagimásu, sawágu v 㥹ࡁࡱࡌ, 㥹 se-take n ⫴୓ height, stature: ~ ࡃ makes lots of noise, clamors o hakarimásu ⫴୓ࢅῼࡽࡱࡌ sawara n ࢦ࣠ࣚ࣬㪝 mackerel measures one’s height sawarimásu, sawaru v よࡽࡱࡌ, segare n ಯ 1. [HUMBLE] my son よࡾ touches 2. [IN rather NEGATIVE SENSE] sawáyaka (na) adj ࡈࢂࡷ࠾ ࡝ ࣬ child/young person ∕ࡷ࠾ ࡝ refreshing, bracing; sehyō n ୠビ one’s reputation (= ~ no hyøka ୠ㛣ࡡビ౮) fluent sáya n ࢦࣕ࣬Ⳋ sheath, pod: séi (-) n ᛮ nature; sex; gender; seibetsu n ᛮื gender; sei-byō n ᛮ ~-endø ࢦ࢙ࣕࣤࢺࢗ࣬ࡈࡷ࠻ ࢆ࡜࠹ podded pea: ~-ingen ࢦ ⑋ venereal disease; sei-kō n ᛮஹ ࣕ࢕ࣤࢣࣤ࣬ࡈࡷ࠷ࢆࡅࢆ [BOOKISH] (sexual) intercourse (= sékkusu ࢬࢴࢠࢪ); sei-teki (na) adj French bean sayonára, sayōnára interj ࡈࡻ࡝ࡼ, ᛮⓏ ࡝ sexual ࡈࡻ࠹࡝ࡼ good-bye (= [INFOR- séi n ጞ family name, last name; MAL] baibai ࣁ࢕ࣁ࢕) séi-mei n ጞྞ (one’s) full name sáyori n ࢦࣙࣛ halfbeak (fish) (= shi-mei Ắྞ) sáyū n ᕞྎ right and left: zengo-~ sei-… prefix ⪯ sacred, holy; ๑ᚃᕞྎ left to right, back and sei-chi n ⪯ᆀ holy place; sei-bo n ⪯ẍ the Holy Mother; sei-dō n forth sázae n ࢦࢧ࢙࣬ᰜ⼲ wreath ⪯ᇸ sacred building (temple, shell, turban shell, turbo church, mosque, etc.): dai-~ ኬ sé n ⫴ 1. height, stature (= sei ࡎ ⪯ᇸ cathedral; sei-iki n ⪯ᇡ ࠷࣬⫴, se-take ⫴୓, shinchø ㌗ sanctuary; séi-ka n ⪯ḯ hymn; 㛏): ~ ga takái/hikúi ⫴࠿㧏࠷ Séi-sho n ⪯᭡ Bible (= Baiburu ఩࠷ is tall/short 2. back (of ࣁ࢕ࣇࣜ, Shin-yaku seisho ᩺⣑ body) (= senaka ⫴୯); se-biro n ⪯᭡, Kyü-yaku seisho ᪟⣑⪯᭡) ⫴ᗀ (man’s) business suit, séi-… prefix け west, western; lounge suit; se-bone n ⫴㦭 back- séi-bu n け㒂 the west, the westbone, spine; séi n ࡎ࠷࣬⫴ ern part; sei-hō n け᪁ (the) west height, stature: ~-kurabe ⫴Ẓ࡬ (general direction/area); sei-nan

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n 西南 southwest; sei-reki n 西暦 生 grad(-uate) student the Western (Christian) calendar: …´-sei suffix …製 made in …, ~ …´-nen 西暦 …年 the year … made of …: nihon-~ 日本製 A.D.; Séi-yō n 西洋 the West, made in Japan (= meido in japan Europe and Americas (= øbeiメイド・イン・ジャパン): beishokoku 欧米諸国): ~-fü (no) 西 koku-~ 米国製 made in U.S.A.: 洋風(の) Western-style gaikoku-~ 外国製 foreign-made sei-… prefix 声... voice, vocal; …´-sei suffix …星 (name of certain, sei-gaku n 声楽 vocal music; sei-iki kinds of) star: waku-~ 惑星 n 声域 range of voice; sei-tai n planet: kø-~ 恒星 fixed star 声帯 vocal cords; sei-yū n 声優 séibun n 成分 ingredient, compovoice actor nent: arukøru-~ アルコール成分 alcohol component sei(-) n, prefix 生(...) life (= seimei 生命, ínochi 命); sei-katsu séibutsu n 生物 a living thing, a n 生活 life, (daily) living, liveli- creature (= ikimono 生き物); hood; nichijo-~ 日常生活 daily seibutsú-gaku n 生物学 biology; life; ~-hi 生活費 living costs; sei- seibutsu-gáku-sha n 生物学者 kei n 生計 livelihood, the way of biologist (earning) one’s living: ... to shite seibutsu n 静物 [BOOKISH] still object: ~-ga 静物画 still-life ~ o tate(tei)másu …として生計 painting を立て(てい)ます earns one’s living as ...; séi-mei n 生命 life (= seichō n 成長 growth: kodomo(ínochi 命, sei 生): ~-rinri 生命倫 tachi) no ~ 子供(たち)の成長 child(-ren)’s growth: kødo-keizai-~ 理 bioethics; séi-shi n 生死 life and death 高度経済成長 high economic growth … séi suffix…せい [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] cause, effect, influence, seidō n 青銅 bronze fault: … no ~ de …のせいで seieki n 精液 semen because of …, due to …: ... ~ ka séifu n 政府 government …せいか perhaps because of … seifuku n 制服 uniform (of school, office, etc.) …´-sei suffix …生 student: shøgaseigén n 制限 limit, restriction; ku-~ 小学生 elementary school student: chügaku-~ 中学生 junior seigen-jikan n 制限時間 time limit high school student: køkø´-~ seihin n 製品 product, manufactured goods 高校生 high school student: daigaku-~ 大学生 college/univer- seii n 誠意 sincerity (= magokoro sity student: daigaku-in-~ 大学院 真心): ~ o komete hanashimásu 237

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誠意を込めて話します talks

n 生理学 physiology sincerely séiri n 整理 adjustment, arrangement; seiri-seiton n 整理整頓 seiji n 政治 politics: ~-ka 政治家 politician: kokusai-~ 国際政治 keeping everything in order international politics seiritsu n 成立 formation, finalization, conclusion: køshø-~ 交渉 seijin n 成人 adult : ~ no hí 成人 の日 Coming-of-Age Day 成立 completion of the deal (honoring 20-year-olds) on 2nd Seiron n セイロン Ceylon (= SuriMonday of January ránka スリランカ Sri Lanka) seijitsu (na) adj 誠実(な) sincere seiryō n 清涼 [BOOKISH] refreshing: seijuku n 成熟 ripening, maturing ~ (inryø-)sui 清涼(飲料)水 reséika n 成果 [BOOKISH] good result, freshing drink outcome (= yoi kekka 良い結果) séiryoku n 勢力 power, energy; influence (= iryoku 威力) séika n 正価 net price seikaku n 性格 character (personal seisaku n 政策 (political) policy traits) seisaku n 制作・製作 manufacture, production seikaku (na) adj 正確(な) exact, accurate, correct seisan n 生産 production, manufacture seikaku (na) adj 精確(な) minute, correct and precise seisan n 清算 clearance, liquidaseiketsu (na) adj 清潔(な) 1. clean tion 2. pure seiseki n 成績 results, marks, séiki n 世紀 century: rai-~ 来世紀 grades, record: ~-hyø 成績表 next century report card seikō n 成功 success seishi n 静止 stillness: ~-ga(zø) 静 seikyū n 請求 claim, demand, 止画(像) still image (photo, etc.) request; seikyū-sho n 請求書 bill seishiki (no/na) adj 正式(の/な) seimitsu (na) adj 精密(な) precise, formal, official detailed, minute, thorough, séishin n 精神 soul, mind, spirit, accurate psyche: ~ (no) 精神(の) mental seimon n 正門 the front (main) gate seishitsu n 性質 character (of things), quality, disposition, nature seinen n 青年 young person, youth, adolescent; seinén-ki n 青 seisho n 聖書 Bible 年期 (one’s) youth; adolescence seishoku n 生殖 reproduction, seinen-gáppi n 生年月日 date of birth procreation; seishoku-ki n 生殖期 séiri n 生理 physiology: ~-teki na reproductive period 生理的な physiological; seiri-gaku seishún n 青春 adolescence 238

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seisō n ΰᤪ cleaning (= søji ᤪ㝎); seisō-in n ΰᤪဤ cleaner (person) séito n ⏍ᚈ pupil, student seitō n ᨳඨ political party seitō n ḿᙔ [BOOKISH] propriety, validity, reasonableness: ~ na riyü ḿᙔ࡝⌦⏜ good/fair reason seitō n ḿ⤣ legitimacy, orthodoxy seiyu n ⿿ἔ oil manufacturing; seiyu-gaisha n ⿿ἔఌ♣ oil manu-

facturing company seiza n ᫅ᗑ constellation seiza n 㟴ᗑ sitting quietly,



appearances, cares what people (may) think sekí n ࡎࡀ࣬ဌ cough: ~-dome shiroppu ࡎࡀḾࡴࢨࣞࢴࣈ

cough syrup séki n ⡘ 1. (one’s) family register (= koseki ᡖ⡘) 2. membership: sakkå-bu ni ~ o okimásu ࢦࢴ࢜ ࣭㒂࡞⡘ࢅ⨠ࡀࡱࡌ is a

member of the football club séki n ᖆ seat, (assigned) place; sekí-ryō n ᖆᩩ cover charge seki-… prefix ㉝ red; seki-han n ㉝㣜 rice boiled with red beans

séizei adv ࡎ࠷ࡏ࠷ at most, at best (commonly for celebration dinseizō n ⿿㏸ production, manufac- ner); Seki-jū´ji n ㉝༎Ꮚ Red Cross …-seki suffix …㞐 (counts ships/ ture: ~-moto ⿿㏸ඔ maker


vessels; commonly replaced by …-sø …⯲) Seki-dō n ㉝㐠 equator sekigaisen n ㉝አ⥲ infrared rays sekinin n ㈈௴ responsibility, obliarchitectural drafting gation; ~-sha ㈈௴⩽ responsible seizui n ⢥㧂 [BOOKISH] essence person seji n ୠ㎙ o-seji ࠽ୠ㎙ compli- sékiri n ㉝② dysentery sekitán n ▴⅛ coal ment, flattery sékái n ୠ⏲ world; ~-jü ୠ⏲୯ sekitatemásu, sekitateru v ᛬ࡀ❟࡙ࡱ throughout the world, worldwide; ࡌ ᛬ࡀ❟࡙ࡾ urges ~-teki (na) ୠ⏲Ⓩ ࡝ worldsekitórí n 㛭ཱི (ranking) sumo wide, international wrestler séken n ୠ㛣 the public, people, sekiyu n ▴ἔ petroleum, oil, the world, society (= shakai ♣ఌ, kerosene: ~-sutø´bu ▴ἔࢪࢹ࣭ yo-no-naka ୠࡡ୯); seken-bánashi ࣇ kerosene heater sékkai n ▴⅂ lime (mineral) n ୠ㛣ヨ chat(-ting); seken-tei n ୠ㛣మ appearances, reputation, sekkakú adv ࡎࡖ࠾ࡂ [+ NEGATIVE decency: ~ o kinishimásu ୠ㛣 verb] with much effort/devotion మࢅẴ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ cares about (but); on purpose, taking the 239 seizon n ⏍Ꮛ existence, surviving; seizon-ritsu n ⏍Ꮛ⋙ survival rate seizu n ⿿ᅒ drafting a (technical) drawing: kenchiku-~ ᘋ⠇⿿ᅒ

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trouble: ~ desu ga … ࡎࡖ࠾ࡂ࡚ sémete adv ࡎࡴ࡙ at least; at most ࡌ࠿ … It is kind of you (to ask), semi n ࢬ࣐࣬⻴ cicada, locust seminā n ࢬ࣐ࢻ࣭ seminar, but … sekkei n シ゛ designing, planning workshop (of machine, etc.); shekkei-sha n sén n ༐ 1,000 (= is-sén ୌ༐࣬ シ゛⩽ designer (of machine, 1,000) thousand; sén-ba n ༐⩒ etc.); shekkei-zu n シ゛ᅒ draft, 1,000 (birds, rabbits); sen-bai n ༐ಶ a thousand-fold, 1,000 blueprint sekken n ▴ࡄࢆ࣬▴㮧 soap times as much; sén-bai n ༐᮴ sekkin n ᥃㎾ approach(ing): 1,000 cupfuls; sén-biki n ༐༆ ~-sen ᥃㎾ᡋ close game, close 1,000 (fishes/bugs, small anicontest: … ni ~ o hakarimásu … mals); sén-bon n ༐ᮇ 1,000 (pen࡞᥃㎾ࢅᅒࡽࡱࡌ seeks access cils/bottles, long objects); sen-en to …; … ni ~ shimásu …࡞᥃㎾ n ༐ළ a thousand yen; sén-zoku n ࡊࡱࡌ approaches, draws near ༐㊂ 1,000 pairs of footwear sekkō n ▴ࡆ࠹࣬▴⭧ plaster sén n ⥲ 1. line (= shasen ᩫ⥲): sekkú n ⟿ྀ; Tángo no ~ ❻༔ࡡ kyoku-~ ᭜⥲ curved line: ⟿ྀ Boys Festival (5 May) choku-~ ├⥲ straight line sékkusu n ࢬࢴࢠࢪ sex 2. outline 3. electron beam (→ sekkyō´ n ㄕᩅ sermon āsu-sen ࢓࣭ࢪ⥲) 4. (name of sekkyoku-teki (na) adj ✒ᴗⓏ ࡝ electric train line): (jë åru) Yama no te-sen (JR)ᒜᡥ⥲ JR positive, energetic, vigorous semái adj ≻࠷ 1. narrow, tight, Yamanote Line sén n ᰞ plug, cork, stopper small (space): ~-heya ≻࠷㒂 ᒁ small room; ~-michi ≻࠷㐠 sen-… prefix ⯢ ship; sénchō n ⯢㛏 captain (of ship); sen’in n ⯢ narrow street, path 2. narrow, ဤ ship’s crew (member), sailor limited: shiya ga ~ ち㔕࠿≻࠷ has a narrow outlook 3. narrow, (…´-) sen suffix (…) ⯢ (name of little, small (mind) (= kyøryø ≻ certain) ship 㔖): ryøken ga ~ ஡ず࠿≻࠷ is sen-…/…-sen prefix, suffix ᡋ ᡋ war; sen-go adv [BOOKISH] narrow-minded sememásu, seméru v ᨯࡴࡱࡌ, ᨯ ᡋᚃ postwar, after/since the ࡴࡾ attacks, assaults war; sén-ji adv [BOOKISH] ᡋ᫤ sememásu, seméru v ㈈ࡴࡱࡌ, ㈈ wartime; sen-sō n ᡋண war; sen-tō ࡴࡾ censures, reproaches, n [BOOKISH] ᡋ㜒 battle; sen-zen (no) adj [BOOKISH] ᡋ๑ ࡡ criticizes semento n ࢬ࣒ࣤࢹ cement prewar, before the war; shū-sen n

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[BOOKISH] ⤂ᡋ the end of a war katori-~ ⹽ཱིࡽ⥲㤮 mosquito sen-… prefix ඙ last, previous, coil: ~-hanabi ⥲㤮ⰴℾ Japanese before, former; sen-datté adv ඙❟ sparkler ࡖ࡙ a few days ago, recently; senkō n ᑍᨯ major (study) sén-getsu n, adv ඙᭮ last month; sénkyo n 㐽ᣪ election: ~-ken 㐽 sen-jin n ඙ெ ① ancestor ② fore- ᣪᶊ right to vote: ~-undø 㐽ᣪ 㐘ິ election campaign runner; sen-jitsu n, adv ඙᪝ the senkyō´ n ᐃᩅ mission work; other day; sen-ku-sha n ඙㥉⩽ pioneer, a forerunner; sen-nyū-kan senkyō´shi n ᐃᩅᖅ missionary senmen n ὑ㟻 washing one’s face; n ඙ථび preconceived idea, prejudice; sen-rei n ඙ౚ precedent, senmen-jó n ὑ㟻ᡜ lavatory (to prior example; sen-sén-getsu n wash up at/in), bathroom [BOOKISH] ඙ࠍ᭮ month before senmon n ᑍ㛓 specialty, major last, two months ago; sen’-yaku (line/field/study): ~-(yø)go ᑍ㛓 ⏕ ㄊ technical term, jargon; n ඙⣑ previous appointment/ ~-ka ᑍ㛓ᐓ specialist; ~-i ᑍ㛓 engagement; sén-zo n ඙♵ ༈ (medical) specialist ancestor sen-… prefix ඙ lead, head, senpai n ඙㍦ one’s senior (colfront, top; sen-tan n ඙❻ ① tip, league, fellow student) senpō n ඙᪁ the other side (party) (pointed) end ② forefront: ~-gijutsu ඙❻ᢇ⾙ high-techsenpū´ n ᪍㢴 [BOOKISH] whirlwind nology; sen-tō n ඙㢄 lead, head, senpū´-ki n ᡢ㢴ᶭ electric fan front, top: ~ ni tachimásu ඙㢄࡞ senritsu n ᪍ᚂ melody senritsu n ᡋឳ [BOOKISH] shudder ❟ࡔࡱࡌ takes the lead, takes the initiative of horror, shiver of horror sénbei n ࡎࢆ࡬࠷࣬↞㣨 rice sénro n ⥲㊨ railroad track/line senryō n ༥㡷 military occupation crackers (…-) sénchi … ࢬࣤࢲ, ~më´toru sensai (na) adj ⦼⣵ ࡝ delicate, ࢬࣤࢲ࣒࣭ࢹࣜ centimeter sensitive senchiméntaru (na) adj ࢬࣤࢲ࣒ࣤ sensaku n ユ⣬ prying, inquiry; ࢰࣜ ࡝ sentimental sensaku-zuki (na) adj ユ⣬ይࡀ ࡝ senden n ᐃఎ propaganda, pubnosy licity: ~-køkoku ᐃఎᗀ࿈ promo senséi n ඙⏍ teacher; doctor; sén’i n ⦼⥌ fiber maestro, master (artisan/artist) sén’i n 㐼⛛ [BOOKISH] 1. transition (= kyøshi ᩅᖅ) 2. succession sensei n ᐃ㄃ [BOOKISH] oath sénkō n ⥲㤮 incense, joss stick: sensē´shon n ࢬࣤࢬ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ a 241

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sensation (excitement): ~ o makio- ~tëpu ࢬࣞ ࣀࣤ ࣬ࢷ࣭ࣈ celkoshimásu ࢬࣤࢬ࣭ࢨࣘࣤࢅᕬ lophane tape, scotch tape ࡀ㉫ࡆࡊࡱࡌ makes a splash, séron n ୠㄵ public opinion sérori n ࢬࣞࣛ celery causes/creates a sensation sénshu n 㐽ᡥ athlete; player: sē´ru n ࢬ࣭ࣜ sale: bågen-~ ࣁ࣭ orinpikku-~ ࢛ࣛࣤࣅࢴࢠ㐽ᡥ ࢣࣤ࣬ࢬ࣭ࣜ bargain sale an Olympic athlete: ~-ken 㐽ᡥ sessen n ᥃⥲ tangent line ᶊ championship, title sessen n ᥃ᡋ close game, close sensu n ᡢᏄ (Japanese) fan contest sésse-to adv ࡎࡖࡎ࡛ diligently, (folding) sénsu n ࢬࣤࢪ sense: ~ ga ii ࢬࣤ hard (laboriously); frequently, ࢪ࠿࠷࠷ has good taste: ~ ga often warui ࢬࣤࢪ࠿ᝇ࠷ has poor ses-shimásu v ᥃ࡊࡱࡌ, ses-suru taste: yümoa no ~ ࣭࣓ࣗ࢓ࡡࢬ ᥃ࡌࡾ; (… ni) ~ …࡞ ᥃ࡊࡱࡌ ࣤࢪ sense of humor 1. comes in contact (with), borders sensui n ₧Ề submerging, diving; (on), is adjacent/contiguous (to) sensui-kan n ₧Ề⯼ submarine 2. encounters, meets, receives, sentaku n ὑ⃾ laundry, washing treats, handles sesshoku n ᥃よ contact, touch (= ~-mono ὑ⃾∸࣬ὑࡒࡂࡵ ࡡ); sentákú-ki n ὑ⃾ᶭ washer; sesshoku n ⟿㣏 abstemious diet sentaku-mono-ire n ὑ⃾∸ථࡿ sesshō n ᢙ⾢ negotiation sē´tā n ࢬ࣭ࢰ࣭ sweater clothesbag (for laundry) sentaku n 㐽ᢝ selection, choice setai n ୠᖈ a household séntensu n ࢬࣤࢷࣤࢪ sentence setchaku-zai n ᥃╌๠ glue, adhesive setogiwa n ℡ᡖ㝷 the last moment: (linguistic) (= bun ᩝ) (…-) sénto suffix … ࢬࣤࢹ cent(s) … no ~ ni arimásu ࡡ℡ᡖ㝷 séntō n 㖱… public bath ࡞࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is on the verge of … seoimásu, seou v ⫴ㇿ࠷ࡱࡌ, ⫴ㇿ setomono n ℡ᡖ∸ porcelain, ࠹ carries on the back china(ware) seppuku n ว⭙ harakiri (self-dis- Seto-náikai n ℡ᡖහᾇ the Inland Sea sétsu n ⟿ occasion (time or event) embowelment) seppun n ᥃ྼ [BOOKISH] kiss sétsu n ㄕ theory serí n ❿ࡽ auction sétsubi n シങ equipment, faciliserí n ࡎࡽ࣬ⰺ Japanese parsley ties, accommodations serifu n ࡎࡽࡨ࣬ྋペ one’s lines setsubi-go/-ji n ᥃ᑹㄊ/㎙ suffix setsudan n ว᩷ [BOOKISH] cutting, (in a play), dialogue sérohan n ࢬࣞࣀࣤ cellophane: cutoff 242

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shagamimásu, shagamu

setsudo n ⟿ᗐ moderation: ~ no settō n ✴┈ theft: settø-~ ✴┈≚ aru ⟿ᗐࡡ࠵ࡾ moderate: ~ o a thief mamorimásu ⟿ᗐࢅᏬࡽࡱࡌ is settō-go/-ji n ᥃㢄ㄊ㎙ prefix settoku v ㄕᚋ persuasion moderate sétsuei n シႜ construction, setting sewá n ୠヨ 1. care, trouble, up: tento (no) ~ ࢷࣤࢹ ࡡ シႜ assistance, help; (…no) ~ ni narimásu …ࡡ ୠヨ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ setting up the tent setsugen n ⟿΅ reduction: keihi-~ becomes obliged (to one for help) ⤊㈕⟿΅ reducing the cost; → o-sewa-sama ࠽ୠヨࡈࡱ 2. denryoku-~ 㞹ງ⟿΅ energy meddling, minding other people’s

conservation setsugō n ᥃ྙ connection, con-

jugation, joining setsujitsu (na/ni) adj, adv วᐁ ࡝ ࡞ urgent, serious, keenly, earnestly: ~ na mondai วᐁ࡝ ၡ㢗 serious problem; ~ na yøkyü วᐁ࡝こị a crying need,

pressing need setsumei n ㄕ᪺ explanation, description; setsumei-shó n ㄕ᪺᭡

business sewashíi adj ᚹࡊ࠷ = ~-nái ᚹࡊ࡝ ࠷ busy, hectic sezu v ࡎࡍ not doing (= sezu ni ࡎࡍ࡞, shináide ࡊ࡝࠷࡚) sha-…/…-sha prefix, suffix ♣ ♣ company; sha-chō n ♣㛏 president of a company; shá-in n ♣ဤ employee (of a company) sha-… prefix ㌬ vehicle; sha-dō n ㌬㐠 road(way), drive(way), street; sha-rin n ㌬㍧ wheel …-sha suffix ㌬ (name of certain)

written explanation, instructions, manual sétsuna n ๅ㑛 [BOOKISH] moment, vehicle …´-sha …⩽ person instant (= shunkan █㛣) setsuritsu n シ❟ establishment, shaberimásu, shabéru v ႁࡽࡱࡌ, ႁ ࡾ [INFORMAL]speak/talk: o-shafoundation: højin-~ Ἢெシ❟ beri himásu ࠽ႁࡽࡊࡱࡌ incorporation; ~-tøki シ❟Ⓡエ organizing registration chatters setsuzókú n ᥃⤾ connection: sháberu n ࢨࣔ࣊ࣜ shovel densha no ~ 㞹㌬ࡡ᥃⤾ train shabon n ࢨࣔ࣍ࣤ soap; shabonconnections; setsuzókú-shi n ᥃⤾ dama n ࢨࣔ࣍ࣤ⋚ soap bubble ペ a conjunction shabu-shabu n ࡊࡶࡩࡊࡶࡩ beef séttai n ᥃ᙽ business entertainment slices dipped in hot broth till séttei n シᏽ setup, setting ready to eat sétto n ࢬࢴࢹ 1. set (hair, etc.) shadan n 㐵᩷ interruption 2. a set meal shagamimásu, shagamu v ࡊࡶ࠿ࡲ 243

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ࡱࡌ, ࡊࡶ࠿ࡳ squats, crouches formalism: ~ ni yarimásu ᮠᏄᏽ ぜ࡞ࡷࡽࡱࡌ goes by the book on heels shagare-goe n Ⴀࡿኇ hoarse voice shamisen n ୔࿝⥲ a three-stringed shageki n ᑏᦹ shooting (firing a banjo Shánhái n ࢨࣔࣤࣀ࢕࣬୕ᾇ rifle, shotgun, etc) shajitsu n ෕ᐁ [BOOKISH] drawing/ Shanghai writing realistically: ~-teki (na) shanpán, shanpén n ࢨࣔࣤࣂࣤ, ࢨ ෕ᐁⓏ ࡝ realistic ࣔࣤ࣋ࣤ champagne Sháka n ࢨࣔ࢜࣬㔐㏉ Buddha shánpū n ࢨࣔࣤࣈ࣭ shampoo share n ࡊࡶࡿ࣬὏ⴘ pun (Sakyamuni) shákai n ♣ఌ society: ~ no ♣ఌࡡ sharei (kin) n ㅨ♡ 㔘 remunerasocial; shakai-kágaku n ♣ఌ⛁Ꮥ tion, reward, fee shasei n ෕⏍ sketching, sketch social science(s); shakai no mado shashin n ෕┷ photo, picture: n ♣ఌࡡ✾ one’s fly; shakai no shukuzu n ♣ఌࡡ⦨ᅒ society in ~-chø ෕┷ᖋ photo album: ~-ka miniature; shakai-shúgi n ♣ఌ୹⩇ ෕┷ᐓ photographer shátsu n ࢨࣔࢵ undershirt socialism sháke n ࢨࣔࢢ࣬㩤 salmon sháttā n ࢨࣔࢴࢰ࣭ shutter shakkín n ೇ㔘 debt (camera, etc.): ~ o kirimásu ࢨ shákkuri n ࡊࡶࡖࡂࡽ hiccup ࣔࢴࢰ࣭ࢅวࡽࡱࡌ releases sháko n ࢨࣔࢤ squilla, mantis the shutter sháwā n ࢨ࣭ࣔ࣠ shower (bath) shrimp shakō n ♣ஹ social intercourse, shi n モ poetry, poem, verse; shijin socializing n モெ poet shakuhachi n ᑵඳ vertical bamboo … shi suffix …ࡊ and, and so, what flute with (the fact that) … shakunetsu adj ⅆ⇍ 1. burning: ~ shí n Ṓ death; shi-in n Ṓᅄ cause no taiyø ⅆ⇍ࡡኯ㝟 scorching of death; shi-nin n Ṓெ dead sun 2. passionate: ~ no koi ⅆ⇍ person ࡡᜂ passionate love shí n ᄿ four (= yón ᄿ); shi-go-… shaku ni sawarimásu (sawaru) v Ⓕ࡞ prefix, adj ᄿ,஫… four or five 㝸ࡽࡱࡌ 㝸ࡾ takes offense, …; shi-jū n ᄿ㔔 quadruplex: gets irritated/provoked; … ga shi-jü-sø ᄿ㔔዇ quartet (musical shaku ni ~ …࠿Ⓕ࡞㝸ࡽࡱࡌ is instruments, two violins, viola, offensive, irritating, provoking cello, etc.): gengaku-~-kyoku/dan shákushi n ᮠᏄ ladle (large ᘳᴞᄿ㔔዇᭜ᅆ string quartet wooden); shákushi-jōgi n ᮠᏄᏽぜ shí n ᕰ city (= tóshi 㒌ᕰ); shi-chō´ 244

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n ᕰ㛏 mayor; shí-min n ᕰẰ citizen, civilian (= kømin පẰ); shí-nai n ᕰහ within the city; shíritsu (no) adj ᕰ❟ ࡡ municipal; shi-yákusho n ᕰᙲᡜ city office, city hall shiage n ௘୕ࡅ the finish(ing touch) shiagemásu v ௘୕ࡅࡱࡌ, shiagéru ௘୕ࡅࡾ finishes up shiai n ムྙ match, contest, meet, tournament shiasátte n, adv ࡊ࠵ࡈࡖ࡙᪺࣬ࠍ ᚃ᪝ three days from now shiawase n ᖶࡎ࣬ࡊ࠵ࢂࡎ happiness; shiawase (na) adj ᖶࡎ ࡝ happy shiba n Ⱒ turf, lawn; shiba-fu n Ⱒ ⏍ lawn, grass; shiba-karí-ki n Ⱒศ ࡽᶭ lawn mower Shíba n Ⱒ Shiba; Shiba-Kø´en Ⱒ පᅧ Shiba Park shibai n Ⱒᑽ 1. a play (drama) 2. acting, pretense, fake: ~ o uchimásu Ⱒᑽࢅᡬࡔࡱࡌ puts on an act shibáraku adv ࡊࡣࡼࡂ (for) a while: ~ shite ࡊࡣࡼࡂࡊ࡙ after a while shibarimásu, shibáru v ⦙ࡽࡱࡌ, ⦙ ࡾ ties up shíba shíba adv ࡊࡣࡊࡣ often, repeatedly Shiberia n ࢨ࣊ࣛ࢓ Siberia shibin n ࡊࡦࢆ bedpan (urinal) shibiré n ࡊࡦࡿ࣬⑯ࡿ numbness:


ࡱࡌ loses patience shibiremásu, shibiréru v ⑯ࡿࡱࡌ, ⑯ࡿࡾ gets numb, (a leg, etc.)

goes to sleep shibō n ⬙⫣ fat (lard, blubber) shibō n ᚷ᭻ a desire, a wish: haiyü-~ ಢඁᚷ᭻ a would-be actor: daiichi-~ no daigaku ➠ୌ ᚷ᭻ࡡኬᏕ one’s first choice

college/university shiborimásu, shibóru v ⤘ࡽࡱࡌ, ⤘ ࡾ wrings (out), squeezes, strains

(through cloth) shibu n ᨥ㒂 branch office shibúi adj Ῠ࠷ 1. taste, astringent (tea), bitter (wine) rough 2. (face) wry, sour: ~ kao o shimásu Ῠ࠷ 㢞ࢅࡊࡱࡌ makes a wry face 3.

appearance cool (sedate, sober, elegant, tasteful); shibui iroi n Ῠ࠷ Ⰵ elegant color Shibuya n Ῠㆺ Shibuya; ShibuyáEki Ῠㆺ㥈 Shibuya Station shichí n ୏࣬7 seven (= nána ୏࣬ 7); Shichi-go-san n ୏஫୔ the “seven-five-three” day when children of those ages visit shrines (15 November) shichí n ㈹ a pawn (something pawned); shichí-ya n ㈹ᒁ pawnbroker, pawnshop Shichi-gatsú n ୏᭮࣬7᭮ July shichi-jū n ୏༎࣬70 seventy (= naná-jü ୏༎࣬70) shichimen-chō n ࢨࢲ࣒ࣤࢲࣘࢗ࣬ ୏㟻㫵 turkey ~ o kirashimásu ࡊࡦࡿࢅวࡼࡊ shichū´ n ࢨࢲ࣭ࣖ stew 245

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shidai n ḗ➠࣬ࡊࡓ࠷ 1. circum- rency (bill) (= (o-)satsu ࠽ ᮈ) stances 2. suffix ([NOUN, VERB] -i shihō´ (-happō) n ᄿ᪁ ඳ᪁ all ࠷) ~ desu ḗ➠࡚ࡌ it depends sides/directions on …; ([VERB] -i ࠷) -shidai ḗ➠ shihon (kin) n ㈠ᮇ 㔘 capital, as soon as … funds: ~-ka ㈠ᮇᐓ capitalist shidashi-ya n ௘ฝࡊᒁ caterer, shiiému n ࢨ࣭࢙࣑࣬CM TV

catering shop


shidō n ᣞᑙ guidance, direction,

shiin n Ꮔ㡚 consonant shíin n ࢨ࣭ࣤ scene leadership, counsel(ing), shíitake n ࢨ࢕ࢰࢢ᳕࣬Ⲏ, shiicoaching; shidō-sha n ᣞᑙ⩽ guide, director, leader, coach take mushrooms: hoshi-~ ᖱࡊ᳕ shifuku n ⚶᭱ plain clothes; civil- Ⲏ dried shiitake mushrooms shíite adv ᙁ࠷࡙ forcibly: shíite ian clothes shígā n ࢨ࣭࢝ cigar sasemásu ᙁ࠷࡙ࡈࡎࡱࡌ forces shi-gachi (na) suffix, adj ࡊ࠿ࡔ one to do shíito n ࢨ࣭ࢹ 1. sheets; biniiru ࡝ apt to do, tends to shígarétto n ࢨ࢝ࣝࢴࢹ cigarette(s) ~ ࣄࢼ࣭ࣜ࣬ࢨ࣭ࢹ vinyl sheet Shi-gatsú n ᄿ᭮࣬4᭮ April 2. seat; ~-béruto ࢨ࣭ࢹ࣬࣊ࣜ shigeki n ๆ⃥ stimulation ࢹ seatbelt shigerimásu, shigéru v Ⱪࡽࡱࡌ, Ⱪ shíitsu n ࢨ࣭ࢵ sheet (for bed) ࡾ it grows thick(ly)/luxuriant(ly) shíizun n ࢨ࣭ࢫࣤ 1. the season shígoku adv ⮫ᴗ extremely (= kisetsu Ꮢ⟿) 2. high season; shigoto n ௘஥ job, work, task, yakyü (no) ~ 㔕⌣ ࡡ ࢨ࣭ࢫࣤ

undertaking, business; operation: baseball season shíji n ᨥᣚ [BOOKISH] support, goes to work maintenance shigure n ᫤㞭 an on-and-off driz- shíji n ᣞ♟ [BOOKISH] indication, zle (in early winter) instruction, directions shihái, shíhai n ᨥ㒼 management, shíji n ⚶஥ [BOOKISH] 1. personal control; shihái-nin n ᨥ㒼ெ man- matter 2. privacy shijō n ᕰሔ market ager; shihái-sha n ᨥ㒼⩽ ruler shihanki n ᄿ༖᭿ quarter (year): shi-jū n ᄿ༎࣬40 forty (= yón-jü dai ni-~ ➠஦ᄿ༖᭿ the second ᄿ༎࣬40) (business) quarter (of a company) shíjū adv ጙ⤂ all the time shiharai n ᨥᡮ࠷, payment, disshika n ࢨ࢜࣬㮭 deer shiká n ṉ⛁ dentistry; shiká-i n ṉ bursement shíhei n ⣤ᖨ paper money, cur⛁༈ dentist (= há-isha ṉ༈⩽) 246 ~ ni ikimásu ௘஥࡞⾔ࡀࡱࡌ

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…shika conj …ࡊ࠾ [+ NEGATIVE]

(nothing) but, except for; (=

…daké …ࡓࡄ [+ POSITIVE])

only, just shikake n ௘᤻ࡄ device (gadget) shikaku n ㈠᰹ qualification(s), competency; zairyü ~ ᅹ⏻㈠᰹

status of residence

shimarimásu, shimáru

shikín n ㈠㔘 fund, capital shikiri n ௘วࡽ partition shikiri ni adv ࡊࡀࡽ࡞ incessantly;

intently, hard shikkári adv ࡊࡖ࠾ࡽ firmly,

resolutely shikke, shikki n ‭Ẵ dampness,


shikki n ‭Ẵ → shikke ‭Ẵ shikki n ⁵ჹ lacquer(ware) shíkko n ࡊࡖࡆ (slang/baby talk) and yet shikarimásu, shikaru v ྌࡽࡱࡌ, ྌ urine, urinating (= nyø ᑺ) ࡾ scolds shikō n Ⴐይ࣬ࡊይ liking, fancy, shikáshi conj ࡊ࠾ࡊ [BOOKISH] taste; …ni ~ ga arimásu …࡞Ⴐ ይ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ has a taste/liking but, however (= demo ࡚ࡵ, keredo(mo) ࡄࡿ࡜ ࡵ ) for…; shikō-hin n Ⴐይဗ࣬ࡊይဗ shi-kata n ௘᪁ way (of doing), articles of taste, amenities of life Shikóku n ᄿᅗ Shikoku manner, method, means: ~ ga arimasén ௘᪁࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ shikyō-hin n ム౩ဗ tester, free shikakúi adj ᄿぽ࠷ square shiká-mo adv ࡊ࠾ࡵ moreover;

there’s nothing I/we can do about sample (for customers) (→ sanpuru ࢦࣤࣈࣜ) it, can’t be helped shikén n ム㥺 [BOOKISH] examina- shikyū adv ⮫᛬ urgently: ~ (no) tion, test, trial, experiment; shiken- ⮫᛬ ࡡ urgent jó n ム㥺ᡜ (testing) laboratory; shima n ᓞ island shiken-jō n ム㥺ሔ exam room/ shima n ⦜ stripes: ~-moyø ⦜ᶅᵕ place stripe pattern shikí n ᘟ ceremony shimai n ⤂࠷࣬௘⯑ ࠷ the end: shiki n ᣞᥱ 1. command 2. con~ (no) ࡊࡱ࠷ ࡡ the final/last ducting (orchestra); shikí-sha n ᣞ shimaimásu, shimau v ࡊࡱ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᥱ⩽ conductor (orchestra) ࡊࡱ࠹ puts away, finishes; shite shikibetsu n ㆉื discrimination shimau ࡊ࡙ࡊࡱ࠹ finishes shikí-kin n ᩔ㔘 security deposit doing, ends up by doing (after all), (for rental) does anyway, does it all shikimásu, shiku v ᩔࡀࡱࡌ, ᩔࡂ shimarimásu, shimáru v 㛚ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, spreads (a quilt, etc.); shiki-búton n 㛚ࡱࡾ it shuts, closes, locks ᩔᕱᅆ bottom quilt; shiki-fu n ᩔ shimarimásu, shimáru v ⥶ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ᕱ (bed)sheet (= shíitsu ࢨ࣭ࢵ) ⥶ࡱࡾ gets steady, braces oneself 247

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shimarimásu, shimáru


shimarimásu, shimáru v ⥶ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ⥶ࡱࡾ gets thrifty, frugal shimásu, suru v ࡊࡱࡌ, ࡌࡾ does (it); it happens; wears; … ni ([ADJECTIVE] -ku) shimásu …࡞... ࡂ ࡊࡱ ࡌ makes it so that (it is), makes it into; decides on (= … ni kimemásu …࡞Ửࡴࡱࡌ); … (shiyō) to shimásu … ࡊࡻ࠹ ࡛ࡊࡱࡌ goes (tries, is about) to do; … (suru) koto ni shimásu … ࡌࡾ ஥࡞ࡊࡱࡌ decides to (do); … to shite(´ mo) … ࡛ࡊ࡙ ࡵ (even) as a … shímatsu n ጙᮆ managing, dealing

belt, etc.) 2. tightens up on: neji o ~ ࢾࢩࢅ⥶ࡴࡱࡌ tightens up a screw 3. economizes on 4. ki o hiki-~ Ẵࢅᘤࡀ⥶ࡴࡱࡌ braces oneself shimeppói adj ‭ࡖࡰ࠷ damp; humid shimerasemásu, shimerasu v ‭ࡼࡎ ࡱࡌ, ‭ࡼࡌ moistens/dampens it, wets it shimerimásu, shimeru v ‭ࡽࡱࡌ, ‭ࡾ gets damp shimeshimásu, shimésu v ♟ࡊࡱࡌ, ♟ࡌ shows, indicates shimi n ᯹ࡲ࣬ࡊࡲ stain, blot, with; outcome, upshot, climax shimátta interj ࡊࡱࡖࡒ! Damn!, blotch, spot shimijími (to) adv ࡊࡲࡋࡲ ࡛ Good heavens shimauma n ࢨ࣏࣏ࢗ zebra deeply (feels), fully (appreciates) shime-gane n ⥶ࡴ㔘 buckle shimimásu, shimiru v ᯹ࡲࡱࡌ, ᯹ shimei n ౐࿤ mission: ~-kan ౐࿤ ࡲࡾ penetrates, soaks shimimásu, shimiru v Ựࡲࡱࡌ, វ sense of mission shi-mei n Ắྞ (one’s) full name Ựࡲࡾ smarts, is stimulated (= sei-mei ጞྞ) (body), is deeply moved (heart): shimei n ᣞྞ designation; shimeihonemi ni ~ 㦭㌗࡞Ựࡲࡱࡌ tsū´wa n ᣞྞ㏳ヨ person-totouches one to the quick: hito no person call; shimei-tehai n ᣞྞᡥ nasake ga mi ni ~ ெࡡ᝗ࡄ࠿㌗ 㒼 listing a person (criminal) on ࡞Ựࡲࡱࡌ deeply appreciates the wanted list people’s thoughtfulness shimekiri n ⥶ࡴวࡽ࣬ࠎว 1. shimó n 㟎࣬ࡊࡵ frost: ~ ga oriclosing 2. “Closed”, deadline: ~ másu 㟎࠿㜾ࡽࡱࡌ frosts kígen/kíjitsu ⥶ࡴวࡽ᭿㝀᭿᪝ shí mo suffix ࡊࡵ [+ NEGATIVE deadline, due date verb] ~ shimasén ࡊࡵࡊࡱࡎࢆ shimemásu, shiméru v 㛚ࡴࡱࡌ, 㛚 nor do, not do either/even ࡴࡾ shuts (closes, locks) it shimon n ᣞ⣘ fingerprint shimemásu, shiméru v ⥶ࡴࡱࡌ, ⥶ shimon n ㅆၡ [BOOKISH] inquiry ࡴࡾ 1. ties, fastens, tightens it shimon n ムၡ [BOOKISH] question(necktie, belt, kimono sash, seat- ing, interviewing, examination; 248

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køtø-~ ཾ㢄ムၡ oral examination shín n ⰲ core, pith, heart: ringo no ~ࣛࣤࢥ>ᯐ᷅@ࡡⰲ apple core shín-… prefix ᚨ heart, spirit; shín-chū n ᚨ୯ in one’s heart; shin-pai n ᚨ㒼 worry, uneasiness, concern, anxiety, fear: ~ (na) ᚨ 㒼 ࡝ uneasy; shín-ri n ᚨ⌦ psychology, mentality; shin-rí-gaku n ᚨ⌦Ꮥ (science/study of) psychology; ~-sha ᚨ⌦Ꮥ⩽ psychologist; shín-soko n ᚨᗇ (at) the bottom of one’s heart; shin-zō n ᚨ⮒ heart (organ) shín-… prefix ᩺… … new; shingeki n ᩺๸ modern drama; shínnen n ᩺ᖳ new year: Shín-nen akemashite omedetø (gozaimásu) ᩺ᖳ᪺ࡄࡱࡊ࡙࠽ࡴ࡚࡛࠹ ࡇ ࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ ! Happy New Year!; shin-sen (na) adj ᩺㩥 ࡝ fresh; Shin-yaku Seisho n ᩺⣑⪯᭡ the


࠷࡚࠷ࡱࡌ keeps on not doing it; ~ okimásu ࡊ࡝࠷࡚࠽ࡀࡱࡌ

neglects to do it, leaves it undone; ~ mimásu ࡊ࡝࠷࡚ࡲࡱࡌ tries not doing it; ~ sumimásu ࡊ࡝࠷ ࡚ῥࡲࡱࡌ needs not do it, doesn’t have to do it shinákute mo v ࡊ࡝ࡂ࡙ࡵ even not doing it; ~ íi desu ࡊ࡝ࡂ࡙ࡵ ࠷࠷࡚ࡌ gets by without doing it, doesn’t have to do it shi-naoshimásu, shi-naósu v ࡊ├ࡊ ࡱࡌ, ࡊ├ࡌ redoes it, fixes/ improves it Shínbashi n ᩺ᶣ Shinbashi shínbō n ㎖ᢢ [BOOKISH] endurance, patience, forbearance shinbun n ᩺⪲ newspaper; ~-úriba ᩺⪲኉ࡽሔ newsstand; shinbundai n ᩺⪲௥ newspaper bill; shinbún-sha n ᩺⪲♣ newspaper company shinchō n ㌗㛏 height, stature (= New Testament shin-… prefix ♼… god, deity; shin- sé ⫴, séi ࡎ࠷࣬⫴, setake ⫴୓): den n ♼Ẃ the sanctuary of a ~ o hakarimásu ㌗㛏ࢅῼࡽࡱࡌ shrine; shín-dō n ♼❲ child measures one’s height shinchū n ┷㘯 brass prodigy; shín-pu n ♼∏ priest shindai n ᐱྋ bed, berth, bunk; (Christian), Father, Reverend; Shín-tō, Shín-dō n ♼㐠 Shinto(ism); ~-ken ᐱྋไ berth ticket shin-wa n ♼ヨ myth, mythology shindō n ᣲິ vibration: hageshii shina n ဗ 1. articles, goods (= ~ ⃥ࡊ࠷ᣲິ thumping vibration shinamono ဗ∸) 2. quality; Shinetsu-chihō n ಘ㉲ᆀ᪁ the shina-mono n ဗ∸ goods, articles Shinetsu area of Japan (Niigata, Nagano prefectures) (= shina ဗ) shi-nagara ࡊ࡝࠿ࡼ while doing shingō n ಘྒ signal: ~-ki ಘྒᶭ shináide v ࡊ࡝࠷࡚ not doing it, traffic light: ~-mushi ಘྒ↋ち instead of doing it: ~ imásu ࡊ࡝ running a red light: ao-~ 㟯ಘྒ 249

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green light: aka-~ ㉝ಘྒ red light shíngu n ᐱර bedding shínguru n ࢨࣤࢡࣜ 1. single (room) 2. single, unmarried (= dokushin ≺㌗), bachelor shinimásu, shinu v Ṓ࡞ࡱࡌ, Ṓ࡟ dies (= nakunarimásu ஷࡂ࡝ࡽ ࡱࡌ, o-nakunari ni narimásu [HONORIFIC] ࠽ஷࡂ࡝ࡽ࡞࡝ࡽ ࡱࡌ(for human)) shínjá n ಘ⩽ a believer; Kirisutokyø (no) ~ ࢞ࣛࢪࢹᩅ ࡡ ಘ⩽

a Christian

shínpo n 㐅Ṅ progress shínpuru (na) adj ࢨࣤࣈࣜ ࡝

simple shinrai n ಘ㢏 trust, confidence, reliance; shinrai-sei n ಘ㢏ᛮ reliability: ~ ga takái ಘ㢏ᛮ࠿㧏࠷

highly reliable shínri n ┷⌦ truth, veritas: fuhen no ~ ୘ንࡡ┷⌦ eternal truth,

everlasting truth shinrui n の㢦 a relative (= shinseki のᡁ, shinzoku の᪐) shinryaku n ౴␆ invasion, aggres-


shin-jimásu, shin-jíru v ಘࡋࡱࡌ, ಘ ࡋࡾ believes in, trusts shínjitsu n ┷ᐁ truth (= hontø no koto ᮇᙔࡡࡆ࡛, makoto ㄌ࣬┷) shinju n ┷⌌ pearl; Shinjú-wan ┷⌌‬ Pearl Harbor shinjū n ᚨ୯ double suicide,

shinsatsu n タᐳ medical exami-

nation shinsei n ⏞ㄫ application (for a permit); shinsei-nin n ⏞ㄫெ an applicant; shinsei-shó n ⏞ㄫ᭡

application form (for a permit)

shinseki n のᡁ a relative shínsetsu n のว kindness, goodlovers’ suicide Shinjuku n ᩺ᐙ Shinjuku; Shinjukú- will, favor; shínsetsu na adj のว Eki ᩺ᐙ㥈 Shinjuku Station ࡝ kind, cordial shinkánsen n ᩺ᖷ⥲ bullet train shínshi n ⣸ኃ gentleman shinshitsu n ᐱᐄ bedroom (line), Shinkansen shínkei n ♼⤊ nerve: ~ ni sawashíntai (no) adj ㌗మ ࡡ physical; rimásu ♼⤊࡞㝸ࡽࡱࡌ gets on ~-kénsa ㌗మ᳠ᰕ physical one’s nerves; shinkéi-shitsu (na) adj exam; ~-shøgáisha ㌗మ㝸ᐐ⩽ ♼⤊㈹ ࡝ nervous handicapped person shinkoku (na) adj ῕็ ࡝ serious, shín’ya n, adv ῕እ late at night shin’yō n ಘ⏕ trust, confidence; grave credit shinobimásu, shinóbu v ᚰࡦࡱࡌ, ᚰࡩ bears, puts up with shinzoku n の᪐ relatives shínpi n ♼⛆ mystery; shinpi-teki shió n ₳ tide (na) ♼⛆Ⓩ ࡝ mysterious, shió n ሲ salt; shio-karái adj ሲ㎖࠷ esoteric, miraculous salty (= shoppai ࡊࡺࡖࡤ࠷)

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…-shi-sō (na)

shion n Ꮔ㡚 consonant shiori n ࡊ࠽ࡽ bookmark (a thin

learns; shitte imásu ▩ࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ knows shiri-tai v ▩ࡽࡒ࠷ curious about, marker made of paper, card, want(ing) to know etc.) shippai n ኶ᩃ failure, blunder, shíritsu (no) adj ⚶❟ ࡡ (= watakushí-ritsu ⚶❟) privately defeat shippó n ࡊࡖࡰ࣬ᑶᑹ tail established entity/organization shira-… prefix Ⓣ white; shira-gá shirizokimásu, shirizóku v ㏝ࡀࡱࡌ, ㏝ࡂ retreats, withdraws, retires n Ⓣ㧝 gray hair; shira-su n ࢨࣚ shiro n ᇖ castle ࢪ࣬ⓉᏄ baby sardines shirabemásu, shirabéru v ㄢ࡬ࡱࡌ, shíro n Ⓣ white: ~-kuma Ⓣ↻࣬ ㄢ࡬ࡾ investigates, examines, ࢨࣞࢠ࣏ white bear, polar bear; shíró-mi n Ⓣ㌗ white (of an egg), checks shirafu (no) adj ࡊࡼࡨ ࡡ (unalbumen; white meat; shiró-i adj Ⓣ࠷ white drunk) sober shirami n ࢨ࣐ࣚ louse, lice shíróppu n ࢨࣞࢴࣈ syrup shiraremásu, shirareru v ▩ࡼࡿࡱࡌ, shírō´to n ⣪ெ an amateur, a novice ▩ࡼࡿࡾ gets (widely) known; shíru n Ị juice, gravy; broth, soup shirushi n ༰࣬᚜ indication, token, becomes famous shirase n ▩ࡼࡎ (= o-shirase ࠽▩ sign, symptom; effect(iveness) ࡼࡎ) report, notice, information shíryo n ᛦ៎ [BOOKISH] considerashirasemásu, shiraseru v ▩ࡼࡎࡱࡌ, tion, thought(-fulness) ▩ࡼࡎࡾ announces (informs of), shíryō n ㈠ᩩ materials; data shíryoku n ちງ vision, eyesight, lets one know, notifies shiréi n ྒྷ௦ command (in army, visual acuity shisei n ጶເ posture; attitude etc.); shiréi-bu n ྒྷ௦㒂 headshisetsu (no) adj ⚶シ ࡡ private quarters shiréi n ᣞ௦ command; shiréi-kan n shísetsu n ᪃シ facility, instituᣞ௦ᏻ commander tion, establishment, installation shiremásu, shireru v ▩ࡿࡱࡌ, ▩ࡿ shíshi n ࢨࢨ࣬⊲Ꮔ lion (= raion ࡾ gets known; is identified; ࣚ࢕࢛ࣤ) shishū n ๆ⦾ embroidery becomes clear/evident shirí n ᑶ butt(ock), hip, bottom, shishún-ki n ᛦ᫋᭿ adolescence shisō n ᛦ᝷ thought, concept seat shiriai n ▩ࡽྙ࠷ acquaintance shíson n ᏄᏘ descendants; shirimásu, shiru v ▩ࡽࡱࡌ, ▩ࡾ posterity acquaints oneself with, finds out, …-shi-sō (na) suffix, adj ࡊࡐ࠹ ࡝ 251

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shísso (na)


likely/about to do it: ~ mo nái ࡊ shitátte v ࡊࡒࡖ࡙ = shitémo ࡊ࡙ ࡐ࠹ࡵ࡝࠷ unlikely to do it ࡵ even doing, even if it does shísso (na) adj ㈹⣪ ࡝ simple, shite v ࡊ࡙ doing; does and; ~-kara ࡊ࡙࠾ࡼ (next) after doing; ~moíi plain, frugal, rustic shi-sugimásu, shi-sugíru v ࡊ㐛ࡁࡱ ࡊ࡙ࡵ࠷࠷ may do it, it is OK ࡌ, ࡊ㐛ࡁࡾ over(does) to do it; ~ wa ikemasén/ikenai/ shita(-…) n, prefix ୖ  below, damé ࡊ࡙ࡢ࠷ࡄࡱࡎࢆ࠷ࡄ࡝ ࠷ࡓࡴ mustn’t do it, don’t do it! under, bottom, lower; (= toshishita ᖳୖ) younger, youngest; shitei n ᣞᏽ designation, appointshita-baki n ୖᒓࡀ (outdoor) ment; shitéi-seki n ᣞᏽᖆ reserved shoes; shita-gi n ୖ╌ underwear; seat(s) shita-machi n ୖ⏣ downtown shiteki shimásu (suru) v ᣞᦤࡊࡱࡌ shitá n ⯁ tongue ࡌࡾ indicates, points out shitagaimásu, shitagau v ᚉ࠷ࡱ shiten n ᨥᗉ branch shop ࡌ, ᚉ࠹: …ni ~ …࡞ᚉ࠷ࡱࡌ shitetsu n ⚶㕪 private railroad conforms to …, accords with … shitsu n ㈹ quality, nature shi-tagarimásu, shi-tagáru v ࡊࡒ࠿ࡽ …´-shitsu suffix …ᐄ (name of ࡱࡌ, ࡊࡒ࠿ࡾ wants (is eager) certain) room shitsū n ṉ⑚ toothache (= ha-ita to do shitagatte adv, conj ᚉࡖ࡙ accord- ṉ⑚) ingly, therefore; … ni ~ …࡞ᚉ shitsubō n ኶᭻ disappointment ࡖ࡙ according to …, in conform- shitsúdo n ‭ᗐ humidity shitsugyō n ኶ᴏ unemployment; ity with/to … shi-tagátte v ࡊࡒ࠿ࡖ࡙ → shi-taga- ~-sha ኶ᴏ⩽ unemployed person rimásu ࡊࡒ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ[INFINITIVE] shitsuke n ࡊࡗࡄ࣬㌣ training shi-tai v ࡊࡒ࠷ wants to do it (of children, …), discipline, shitaku n ᨥᗐ preparation, arrange- upbringing shi-tsuke n ௘௛ࡄ basting, tacking ment shitára v ࡊࡒࡼ if/when one does (with thread); ~-íto ௘௛ࡄ⣊ it basting/tacking thread shitári (… shimásu ) v ࡊࡒࡽ …ࡊ shitsukemásu, shitsukéru v ࡊࡗࡄ ࡱࡌ does/is such things as; some- >㌣ࡄ@ࡱࡌ, ࡊࡗࡄ>㌣ࡄ@ࡾ times does/is; does/is intermittrains (children, …), disciplines, tently (off and on) brings up shitashíi adj のࡊ࠷ intimate, shi-tsukemásu, shi-tsukéru v ௘௛ࡄ ࡱࡌ, ௘௛ࡄࡾ bastes, tacks familiar shitate-ya n ௘❟ᒁ tailor (with thread) 252

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shitsumon n ㈹ၡ question shitsúrei n ኶♡ discourtesy; Shitsúrei desu ga ... ኶♡࡚ࡌ࠿... Excuse me for asking, but ...; shitsúrei (na) adj ኶♡ ࡝ impolite shitsuren n ኶ᜂ disappointment

shizumemásu, shizumeru v ỷࡴࡱࡌ, ỷࡴࡾ sinks it shizumimásu, shizumu v ỷࡲࡱࡌ, ỷࡳ it sinks sho- prep ㅎ [makes definite plurals of certain nouns]; ~-ji ㅎ ஥ all matters; everything; ~-tø in love shitsuteki (na) adj ㈹Ⓩ ࡝ qualita- ㅎᓞ (a group of) islands; an

tive shitto n ᎐ጅ jealousy: ~ bukai hito ᎐ጅ῕࠷ெ jealous person shiwa n ࡊࢂ࣬ࢨ࣠࣬⓶ wrinkle, crease: ~ ga dekimásu ࡊࢂ࠿࡚ ࡀࡱࡌ it wrinkles (= ~ ni narimásu ࡊࢂ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ) shiwaza n ௘ᴏ act, deed shi-yasúi v ࡊࡷࡌ࠷ 1. easy to do 2. likely to do it, tends to do it shi-yō n ௘ᵕ method, means, way (= shi-kata ௘᪁); (for products, etc.) specifications: ~ ga nái ࡊࡻ ࠹࠿࡝࠷ hopeless, beyond

archipelago shō´ n ᛮ nature, disposition,

quality shō´ n ㈱ prize, reward; shō´-batsu n ㈱⨡ rewards and punishments; shō-hin n ㈱ဗ prize (object); shōkin n ㈱㔘 prize money; reward; shō´-yo n ㈱୙ bonus; ~-kin ㈱୙ 㔘 bonus money shō-… prefix ၛ sales, business; shō´-bai n ၛ኉ trade, business; shō´-gyō n ၛᴏ commerce, trade, business; shō´-hin n ၛဗ goods,

merchandise, (sales) product; shō´-nin n ၛெ merchant, trader remedy shiyō n ౐⏕ use, employment; …´-shō suffix …ၛ dealer (seller shiyō-chū ౐⏕୯ in use, occupied of …): gyø-~ ⾔ၛ peddling …´-shō suffix …┤ 1. (name of (toilet, etc.); shiyō-nin n ౐⏕ெ servant; shiyō´-sha n ౐⏕⩽ user certain) Ministry 2. (name of shiyō n ⚶⏕ private use/business: certain) province (China) ~ no ⚶⏕ࡡ private shōátsú-ki n ᪴ᅸᶭ booster (of shizen n ⮤↓ nature: ~ (no) ⮤↓ current) ࡡ natural; ~ (na) ⮤↓ ࡝ sho´-batsu n ฌ⨡ punishments shōbén n ᑚ౼ urine, urinating natural, spontaneous shízuka (na) adj 㟴࠾ ࡝ quiet, still (very informal. mostly male) shizumemásu, shizuméru v 㟴ࡴࡱࡌ shōbō n ᾐ㜭 fire fighting; ~´-sha ࣬㙘ࡴࡱࡌ, 㟴ࡴࡾ࣬㙘ࡴࡾ ᾐ㜭㌬ fire engine; ~´-shi ᾐ㜭ኃ soothes, quiets, calms, pacifies, fire fighter shō´bu n ົㇿ match, contest suppresses 253

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shóbun n ฌฦ [BOOKISH]

disposition, abolition sho´chi n ฌ⨠ [BOOKISH] dealing with shōchi n ᢆ▩ agreement, understanding; Shøchi shimáshita ᢆ▩ ࡊࡱࡊࡒ [HUMBLE] I understand (and consent). (on business e-mail, etc.) Yes, sir/ma’am. shochō n ᡜ㛏 institute director shōchō n ㇗ᚡ symbol shōchū´ n ↕㒽 distilled liquor made from yams or rice shō´dai n ᣅᙽ = shø´tai ᣅᙽ invitation shōdaku n ᢆㅑ [BOOKISH] consent, acceptance shodō n ᭡㐠 calligraphy (= shüji ⩞Ꮚ) shōdokú-yaku/-zai n ᾐẐⷾ/๠ disinfectant shō-fuda n ḿᮈ price tag shōga n ࢨࣘࢗ࢝࣬⏍ጢ ginger shōgai n 㝸ᐐ impediment, obstacle, hindrance; ~-sha 㝸ᐐ ⩽ handicapped person shō´gai n ⏍ᾥ life(long), for all of one’s life (time) shōgakkō n ᑚᏕᰧ primary (elementary) school → gakkō n

shōgi n ᑑᲞ (Japanese) chess shō´go n ḿ༔ noon (exactly) shōhi n ᾐ㈕ consumption; ~-sha ᾐ㈕⩽ consumer; shōhi-zei n ᾐ ㈕⛧ consumption tax shohō n ฌ᪁ prescription, prescribing; shohō-sen n ฌ᪁⟚

prescription (slip) shō´i n ᑛᑔ 2nd lieutenant; ensign shoimásu, shou v [INFORMAL] ࡊࡺ ࠷>⫴ㇿ࠷@ࡱࡌ, ࡊࡺ࠹࣬⫴ㇿ ࠹ [INFORMAL] carries on the back,

shoulders it shōji n 㝸Ꮔ translucent sliding

panel/door shōjíkí (na) adj ḿ├ ࡝ honest: ~ ni ḿ├࡞ honestly shō-jimásu, shō-jiru v ⏍ࡋࡱࡌ, ⏍ ࡋࡾ 1. produces, comes about, occurs 2. arises, happens shōjin-ryō´ri n ⢥㐅ᩩ⌦ vegetarian

cuisine shójo n ฌዥ virgin (female) shō´jo n ᑛዥ young girl (= onna no ko ዥࡡᏄ) shōjū n ᑚ㖘 rifle shōka n ᾐ໩ digestion; shōka-fúryō n ᾐ໩୘Ⰳ indigestion shōkai n ⣺௒ introduction (of a


Ꮥᰧ shōgáku-sei n ᑚᏕ⏍ primary

shōká-ki n ᾐℾჹ fire extinguisher shōka-sen n ᾐℾᰞ fireplug, hydrant school student shōken n チไ security (stock, bond) shō ga nai adj [INFORMAL] ࡊࡺ࠹ shóki n ᭡エ secretary ࠿࡝࠷ = shi-yø ga nái ࡊࡺ࠹࠿ shoki n ิ᭿ [BOOKISH] beginning; ࡝࠷ hopeless, beyond remedy shoki-settei n ิ᭿シᏽ default Shōgatsú n ḿ᭮ January; New Year (setting)

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shōki (no) adj ḿẴ ࡡ sober,

࡞ before a meal (= shokuji no sane; in one’s right mind máe ni 㣏஥ࡡ๑࡞) shōkin n ḿ㔘 hard cash shokúbutsu n ᳔∸ (botanical) plant; shōkin n ർ㔘 → baishō-kin ㈲ർ㔘 ~-en ᳔∸ᅧ botanical garden shokumín-chi n ᳔Ằᆀ colony (indemnity, reparation) shokken n 㣏ไ meal ticket shōkyoku-teki (na) adj ᾐᴗⓏ ࡝ shokki n 㣏ჹ tableware (dish, negative; conservative plate, chopsticks, etc.); ~-dana shōkyū n ᪴⤝ rise in pay 㣏ჹᲬ dish rack; ~-tódana 㣏ჹ shōkyū n ᪴⣥ promotion shomei n ⨣ྞ signature ᡖᲬ cupboard shokkō n ⫃ᕝ factory worker; shōmei n チ᪺ proof, verification, workman (= køin ᕝဤ) attestation, certification; shōmeishó n チ᪺᭡ certificate; note of shókku n ࢨࣘࢴࢠ shock shōko n チᣈ proof, evidence, authentication shōmei n ↯᪺ lighting, illuminawitness shō´kō n ᑑᰧ military officer tion: ~-kígu ↯᪺ჹර lighting shoku n ⫃ office, occupation; fixtures shokú-gyō n ⫃ᴏ occupation, shōmén n ḿ㟻 the face (front side) vocation, job, profession; shoku- shomotsu n ᭡∸ [BOOKISH] book reki n ⫃Ṍ professional experience (= hón ᮇ) shoku n (…´-shoku …㣏) food; shōmyō´ n ኇ᪺ chanting of (counts meals); shoku-dō n 㣏ᇸ Buddhist scriptures dining room; restaurant; shoku-dō´- shōnen n ᑛᖳ boy, lad, youngster sha n 㣏ᇸ㌬ dining car, diner; (= otoko no ko ⏠ࡡᏄ) shoku-go (ni) adv 㣏ᚃ ࡞ after a shō´ni n ᑚඡ infant, child; shōni-ka meal (= shokuji no áto de 㣏஥ࡡ n ᑚඡ⛁ pediatrics; pediatrician ᚃ࡚); shoku-hin n 㣏ဗ foodstuffs, shōnin n チெ a witness groceries; shoku-ji n 㣏஥ a meal; shoppái adj [INFORMAL] ࡊࡺࡖࡤ ࠷ [INFORMAL] salty eating, having a meal; shoku (-ji) tsuki (no) n 㣏 ஥ ௛ࡀ ࡡ with shóppingu n ࢨࣘࢴࣅࣤࢡ shopmeals (included); shokú-motsu n ping (= kaimono ㈑࠷∸) 㣏∸ food(s); shoku-ryō-hin n 㣏ᩩ shō´rai n, adv ᑑᮮ future (= ဗ foodstuffs, groceries; shoku-taku yukusue ⾔ࡂᮆ, mirai ᮅᮮ) n 㣏༜ dinner table; shoku-yoku n shōrei n ዜທ encouragement, 㣏ḟ appetite; shoku-zen n 㣏⭻ promotion shóri n ฌ⌦ managing, disposing (low) individual meal table; shoku-zen (ni) adv [BOOKISH] 㣏๑ of, transacting, dealing with;

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shori-jō n ฌ⌦ሔ [sewage]

Period (1926–1989) treatment plant shoyū (no) adj ᡜ᭯ ࡡ possessed, shō´ri n ົฺ victory; shōrí-sha n ົ owned, belonging; one’s own; ฺ⩽ winner, victor shoyū-butsu/-hin n ᡜ᭯∸/ဗ shorui n ᭡㢦 form, document, belongings, possessions; shoyū´sha n ᡜ᭯⩽ (legal) owner paper(s), writing shōryaku n ┤␆ abbreviation, shōyu n ࡊࡺ࠹ࡹ࣬㓲ἔ soya omission (= ryaku ␆) sauce shōsa n ᑛఫ major; lieutenant shozai n ᡜᅹ whereabouts shōzō n ⫔ാ portrait; shōzō-ga n commander shosai n ᭡ᩢ a study, library (room) ⫔ാ⏤ portrait (drawing and/or shōsai n リ⣵ [BOOKISH] details painting) shóseki n ᭡⡘ books, publications shu n ᮊ vermilion; shu-niku n ᮊ ⫏ red ink pad (= hón ᮇ) shōsetsu n ᑚㄕ fiction, a novel shū´, …´-shū n, suffix ᕗ, …ᕗ shō´shō adv ᑛࠍ a little (name of certain) state (U.S., [DEFERENTIAL] (= chótto ࡔࡺࡖ࡛) Australia); province (Canada); shō´shō n ᑛᑑ major general; rear county (Britain) shū´, …´-shū n, suffix 㐄, …㐄 (= admiral shōshū n ྇㞗࣬ᣅ㞗 conscription, shükan 㐄㛣 week; shū-matsu (military) draft n 㐄ᮆ weekend; shū-kan n 㐄 shōsoku n ᾐ᜝ news, word (from/ 㛣 week shūbun n ⚽ฦ autumnal equinox: of …) (= nyüsu ࢼ࣭ࣖࢪ) shotái n ᡜᖈ࣬ୠᖈ a household; ~-no-hí ⚽ฦࡡ᪝ Autumnal housekeeping Equinox Day shō´tai n ᣅᙽ invitation; shōtái-jō n shuchō n ୹ᘿ assertion, claim ᣅᙽ≟ invitation (card) shūchū n 㞗୯ concentration shótchū adv [INFORMAL] ࡊࡺࡖࡔ shúdan n ᡥṹ ways, means, ࡸ࠹ all the time measures (= høhø ᪁Ἢ): saigo no shoten n ᭡ᗉ bookshop ~ ᭩ᚃࡡᡥṹ last resort shō´ten n ↌Ⅴ focus, focal point shūdan n 㞗ᅆ group, collective shō´to n ࢨ࣭ࣘࢹ a short body: ~-seikatsu 㞗ᅆ⏍Ὡ group (circuit); short story; shortstop living, communal living: bo-~ ẍ shotoku n ᡜᚋ income; ~-zei ᡜᚋ 㞗ᅆ a population ⛧ income tax shūden n ⤂㞹 the last train (= ~ shōtotsu n ⾢✲ collision densha ᭩⤂㞹㌬) Shōwa-jidai n ᫓࿰᫤௥ Showa shūdō´-in n ಞ㐠㝌 convent 256

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shúfu n ୹፦ housewife shukan n ୹び subjectivity: ~-teki shúfu n 㤫ᗋ → shutó 㤫㒌 (na) ୹びⓏ ࡝ subjective shūgeki n ぇᦹ attack, charge, raid, shūkan n ⩞ៈ custom, practice, attack habit (= kuse ⒯) shúgi n ୹⩇ principle, doctrine, shū´ki n ⚽᭿ autumn (period/term) shū´ki n ࿔᭿ cycle (length) -ism shūgi-in n ⾏㆗㝌 House of Repre- shū´ki n ⮧Ẵ bad smell, stink (= akushü ᝇ⮧); shūki-dome n ⮧Ẵ sentatives shúgo n ୹ㄊ subject (of a sentence) Ḿࡴ deodorant (household, etc.) shūgō n 㞗ྙ assembly, gathering shukkin n ฝໂ office attendance shugyō n ಞ⾔࣬ಞᴏ (getting shuku-choku n ᐙ├ night duty one’s) training, ascetic practices, shukudai n ᐙ㢗 1. homework (at school): natsu-yásumi no ~ ኚఆ meditation shūgyō n ᑯᴏ starting one’s ࡲࡡᐙ㢗 summer homework 2. work(-day); shūgyō´-jíkan n ᑯᴏ᫤ unsolved problem shukuga n ♻㈙ congratulation: 㛣 working hours shū´ha n ᏺὬ sect ~-kai ♻㈙ఌ a celebration shūhen adj ࿔㎮ circumference, shukujitsu n ♻᪝ national holiday shū-kuríimu n ࢨ࣭ࣖࢠ࣭࣑ࣛ a environs, surroundings (= shüi ࿔ᅑ): tóshi no ~ 㒌ᕰࡡ࿔㎮ out- cream puff, an éclair skirts (of city); ~ no … ࿔㎮ࡡ… shuku-saijitsu n ♻⚅᪝ → shukujitsu ♻᪝ the surrounding … shū´i n ࿔ᅑ circumference; shukuten n ♻඼ celebration cersurroundings (= shühen ࿔㎮) emony shuin n ᡥῐ [BOOKISH] masturbation shū´kyō n ᏺᩅ religion shūji n ⩞Ꮚ calligraphy shūmai n ࢨ࣭࣏ࣖ࢕ pork meat-

(handwriting) practice

balls steamed in thin pastry

shújin n ୹ெ 1. husband; go-~ shúmi n ㉻࿝ taste, interest, liking, ࡇ୹ெ your husband 2. master, hobby (= hobii ࣌ࣄ࣭) shumoku n ⛸┘ 1. item: eigyø-~ owner, landlord, boss, host shúju (no) adj ⛸ࠍ ࡡ all kinds ႜᴏ⛸┘ item of business 2. of (= samazama (na) ᵕࠍ ࡝ , (competition) event: rikujø iroiro (na) Ⰵࠍ ࡝ , iron na ࠷ kyøgi-~ 㝛୕❿ᢇ⛸┘ events in ࢀࢆ࡝) athletics (track and field) shújutsu n ᡥ⾙ surgical operation, shunbun n ᫋ฦ vernal equinox: ~-no-hí ᫋ฦࡡ᪝ Vernal Equinox surgery shūkaku n ཭✥ harvest, crop Day

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shunkan n █㛣 a moment, an instant: tsugi no ~ ḗࡡ█㛣 next

garbage truck 2. collection (as one’s hobby, for research, etc.) shussei n ฝ⏍ [BOOKISH] birth (= moment shūnyū n ཭ථ earnings, income: umare ⏍ࡱࡿ): ~-chi ฝ⏍ᆀ ~-ínshi ཭ථ༰⣤ tax (revenue) (one’s) birthplace shusseki n ฝᖆ attendance, stamp (= inshi ༰⣤) shuppan n ฝ∟ publishing; shuppresence (= sanka ཤຊ) pán-butsu n ฝ∟∸ publication(s); shusshin n ฝ㌗ alumnus (of …); shuppán-sha n ฝ∟♣ publishing coming (from …): ~-chi ฝ㌗ᆀ company (one’s) hometown shuppatsu n ฝⓆ departure; ~-ten shúsu n ⧛Ꮔ satin ฝⓆⅤ point of departure shutchō n ฝᘿ business trip shuppin n ฝဗ exhibit(ing): ~-sha shūten n ⤂Ⅴ terminus, end of the ฝဗ⩽ exhibitor line, last stop, destination shū´ri n ಞ⌦ repair; shūrí-kō n ಞ shutó n 㤫㒌 capital city; shutó-ken ⌦ᕝ repairman, mechanic n 㤫㒌ᅥ Tokyo metropolitan shūrō n ᑯຘ [BOOKISH] work (for area → kantō-chihō 㛭᮶ᆀ᪁ shūtome n ጜ common spoken company, etc.) shúrui n ⛸㢦 type, sort, kind, term for one’s mother-in-low shuyō (na) adj ୹こ ࡝ leading, variety shū´shi n ಞኃ master’s degree: chief; ~-tóshi ୹こ㒌ᕰ major ~-gø ಞኃྒ master’s degree city shūshí n ⤂Ḿ [BOOKISH] ending shūzen n ಞ⧃ [BOOKISH] repair si… → shi… (= oshimai ࠽ࡊࡱ࠷); shūshí-fu n ⤂Ḿ➚ [BOOKISH] period, full sō´ n ൒ Buddhist priest (= søryo ൒౵, obø-san ࠽ᆎࡈࢆ) stop (punctuation) shū´shin n ಞ㌗ ethics, morals sō´ interj ࡐ࠹ [hearsay]: … (suru, shū´shin n ⤂㌗ all one’s life (= shita; dá, dátta), sø´ (desu, da/ isshø(-gai) ୌ⏍ ᾥ , shøgai ⏍ᾥ, na, de, ni) … ࡌࡾ, ࡊࡒ; ࡓ, ࡓ shüsei ⤂⏍); shū´shin-kei n ⤂㌗ฬ ࡖࡒ , ࡐ࠹ ࡚ࡌ, ࡓ࡝, ࡚, ࡞ life imprisonment; shū´shin-koyō n it is reported (said/written) that, I ⤂㌗㞘⏕ lifetime employment hear that, they say that … shushō n 㤫┞ prime minister …-sō suffix …ࡐ࠹, …-sø´ …ࡐ࠹: shūshoku n ᑯ⫃ getting a job, shisø (désu, dá/na, dé, ní) ࡊࡐ࠹ ࡚ࡌ,ࡓ࡝, ࡚, ࡞ looking (as finding employment shūshū n ཭㞗 1. collecting (trash, though), about to (happen); will etc.): gomi-shü-~ ࢥ࣐཭㞗㌬ at any moment; abuna-~ (désu, ni 258

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miemásu) ༱࡝ࡐ࠹ ࡚ࡌ, ࡞ず sōdan n ┞ㄧ talk, conference ࠻ࡱࡌ looks dangerous, jøbu-~ (personal), consultation, advice: níwa miemasén ୓ኰࡐ࠹࡞ࡢず ~-aite ┞ㄧ┞ᡥ someone to turn ࠻ࡱࡎࢆ doesn’t look sturdy to for advice …-sō suffix …⯲ (counts ships/ sodatemásu, sodatéru v ⫩࡙ࡱࡌ, ⫩࡙ࡾ raises, rears, educates boats; commonly replaced by …-seki …㞐) sodate-no-oyá n ⫩࡙ࡡの a foster sóba n ࡐࡣ࣬ഁ near/close(-by), parent sode n ⾿࣬ࡐ࡚ sleeve (→ naga(be-)side sode 㛏⾿) sóba n ࡐࡣ࣬ࢮࣁ࣬ⶻ㯇 buckwheat noodles; sobá-ya n ࡐࡣ>ⶻ sō´ (desu) v ࡐ࠹ ࡚ࡌ That’s 㯇@ᒁ Japanese noodle shop right, yes; Sō´desu ka. ࡐ࠹࡚ࡌ࠾. sōbetsu n ㏞ื farewell; send-off; 1. Oh? How interesting! 2. Is ~-kai ㏞ืఌ farewell party that right/so?; Sō´desu ne. ࡐ࠹࡚ ࡌࡠ. Well, now; Let me see. (reception) sobiemásu, sobiéru v ࡐࡦ࠻ࡱࡌ sō´dō n 㥹ິ unrest, disturbance, ࡐࡦ࠻ࡾ rises, looms tumult, strife; riot: oie-~ ࠽ᐓ㥹 sóbo n ♵ẍ grandmother [FORMAL] ິ family trouble (= obå´-san ࠽ࡣ࠵ࡈࢆ࣬࠽♵ẍ soemásu, soeru v ῟࠻ࡱࡌ, ῟࠻ࡾ ࡈࢆ, obå-chan ࠽ࡣ࠵ࡔࡶࢆ) adds, throws in extra, attaches soboku na adj ⣪ᮌ࡝ simple, naive sófu n ♵∏ grandfather [FORMAL] soboro n ࡐ࡯ࢀ࣬ࢮ࣍ࣞ parched (= ojii´-san ࠽ࡋ࠷ࡈࢆ࣬࠽♵∏ ࡈࢆ, ojii-chan ࠽ࡋ࠷ࡔࡶࢆ) minced fish; fish meal sō´chi n ⿞⨠ equipment, apparatus sofuto(wéa) n ࢮࣆࢹ ࢗ࢘࢓ sochira pron ࡐࡔࡼ 1. there, that (computer) software way 2. that one (of two) 3. you; sōgan-kyō n ཫ╉㙶 binoculars sochira-gawa n ࡐࡔࡼഁ your side sōgi-ya n ⴷൢᒁ undertaker sō´dā n ࢮ࣭ࢱ࣭ soda water (funeral director) sō da v ࡐ࠹ࡓ = sø´ desu ࡐ࠹࡚ sōgō n ⥪ྙ synthesis; sōgō-teki (na) ࡌ that’s right, yes adj ⥪ྙⓏ ࡝ composite, comsodachí n ⫩ࡔ growing up, one’s prehensive, overall, synthesized early years: ~ ga yoi/warui ࠽⫩ sō´go no adj ┞பࡡ mutual, ࡔ࠿Ⰳ࠷ᝇ࠷well-bred/ill-bred reciprocal; sō´go ni adv ┞ப࡞ sodachimásu, sodátsu v ⫩ࡔࡱࡌ, mutually, reciprocally (= otagai ⫩ࡗ grows up, is raised (reared) ni ࠽ப࠷࡞) sōdai na adj ኅኬ࡝ magnificent, sōi n ┞㐢>┞␏@ discrepancy, grand difference: … ni ~ nai ࡞┞㐢

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soimásu, sou

>┞␏@࡝࠷ must be … [VERBS INFINITIVE +] fails in soimásu, sou v Ἒ࠷ࡱࡌ, Ἒ࠹ runs doing; yari-~ ࡷࡽ᥾࡝࠷ࡱࡌ

along, follows

botches, misses

soitsu pron ࡐ࠷ࡗ that damn one; ~-ra ࡐ࠷ࡗࡼ those damn ones sō´ ja nái to adv [INFORMAL] ࡐ࠹ࡋ ࡶ࡝࠷࡛ = sø de naito ࡐ࠹࡚࡝ ࠷࡛, sø´ ja nákereba ࡐ࠹ࡋࡶ ࡝ࡄࡿࡣ= sø de nakereba ࡐ࠹ ࡚࡝ࡄࡿࡣ otherwise sōji n ᤪ㝎 cleaning, sweeping (= ~ ΰᤪ): nenmatsu no øsøji ᖳᮆ ࡡኬᤪ㝎 year-end cleaning; sōjíki n ᤪ㝎ᶭ a sweeper sōjū n ᧧⦢ handling, operation sōkei n ⥪゛ [BOOKISH] the grand total (= gøkei ྙ゛) sokétto n ࢮࢢࢴࢹ socket, plug sōkin n ㏞㔘 remittance sokki n ㏷エ shorthand sokkō-jó n ῼುᡜ weather


…-sokú suffix …㊂ (counts pairs

of footwear) sókudo n ㏷ᗐ speed (= supiido ࢪ ࣅ࣭ࢺ); “Sókudo otóse” ㏷ᗐⴘ ࡛ࡎ Reduce Speed. sokutatsu n ㏷㐡 special delivery,

express sómatsu na adj ⢊ᮆ࡝ crude, coarse; o-sómatsu-sama ࠽⢊ᮆ ࡈࡱ Please excuse the poor fare (reply to gochisø-sama ࡇ㤽㉦ࡈ ࡱ࣬ࡇࡔࡐ࠹ࡈࡱ) somemásu, someru v ᯹ࡴࡱࡌ, ᯹ ࡴࡾ dyes sō´men n ࡐ࠹ࡴࢆ࣬⣪㯕 thin

white wheat-flour noodles somukimásu, somúku v ⫴ࡀࡱࡌ, ⫴ࡂ; ( … ni) ~ …࡞ ⫴ࡀࡱࡌ

disobeys, goes against, violates;

sokkúri adj ࡐࡖࡂࡽ entirety, rebels, revolts completely: ~ (no) ࡐࡖࡂࡽ ࡡ Sōmu-shō n ⥪ຸ┤ Ministry of

just like sókkusu n ࢮࢴࢠࢪ anklets, socks soko pron ࡐࡆ there, that place soko n ᗇ bottom: umi no ~ ᾇࡡ ᗇ bottom of the ocean (= kaitei ᾇᗇ); kokoro no ~ ᚨࡡᗇ bottom of one’s heart; soko-mame n ᗇࡱࡴ bunion, corn, blister sō´ko n ಲᗔ warehouse sókoku n ♵ᅗ homeland, mother country (= bokoku ẍᅗ) sokonaimásu, sokonáu v ᥾࡝࠷ࡱࡌ, ᥾࡝࠹ harms, injures, hurts;

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Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) són n ᥾ damage, loss; disadvantage: ~-toku kanjø ᥾ᚋືᏽ profit-and-loss arithmetic: son’eki-keisan-sho ᥾─゛⟤᭡

profit and loss statement (P/L) sonáé n ങ࠻ preparations, provi-

sions; defenses sonaemásu, sonáéru v ങ࠻ࡱࡌ, ങ࠻ࡾ prepares, fixes, installs,

furnishes; possesses sōnan n 㐴㞬 disaster, accident,


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shipwreck, train wreck sóra n ✭ sky songai n ᥾ᐐ damage, harm, loss sóra de adv ࡐࡼ࡚ by heart, from sonkei n ᑕᩏ respect, esteem: memory ~-suru-hito ᑕᩏࡌࡾெ someone sorashimásu, sorásu v 㐋ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, 㐋ࡼࡌ 1. dodges, turns aside that one respects sonna … adj [INFORMAL] ࡐࢆ࡝… 2. warps it sore pron ࡐࡿ that one, it; sore dátte such (a) …, that kind of …: ~ ni ࡐࢆ࡝࡞ to that extent, that adv, conj [INFORMAL] ࡐࡿࡓࡖ࡙ much, so (very/much) = sore démo ࡐࡿ࡚ࡵ still, yet, sonnára adv [INFORMAL] ࡐࢆ࡝ࡼ even so; sore de conj ࡐࡿ࡚ and then, in that case ([FORMAL] sore (then/so/also); sore démo conj ࡐࡿ nára ࡐࡿ࡝ࡼ) ࡚ࡵ still, yet, even so; sore hodo sono … adj ࡐࡡ … that; ~ áto ࡐ conj ࡐࡿ࡮࡜ to that extent, so; sore kara conj ࡐࡿ࠾ࡼ and (then); ࡡᚃ, ~-go ࡐࡡᚃ since then; sonó-hoka n ࡐࡡ௙>አ@ and othafter that, since then; sore máde ers; sonó-ta n ࡐࡡ௙ [BOOKISH] conj ࡐࡿࡱ࡚ until then; sore náno and others (= sonó-hoka ࡐࡡ௙ ni conj ࡐࡿ࡝ࡡ࡞ nevertheless, >አ@); sono-tókí n, adv ࡐࡡ᫤ at nonetheless, and yet; sore nára conj that time; sono-uchi adv ࡐࡡ࠹ࡔ ࡐࡿ࡝ࡼ then, in that case; sore ni conj ࡐࡿ࡞ on top of that, soon, before long, sometime in the future; sono-ue´ ni adv ࡐࡡ࠹ moreover, in addition, plus; soré࠻࡞ moreover, also, besides; sono- ra pron ࡐࡿࡼ those, they/them koro (wa) adv ࡐࡡ㡥 ࡢ (at) that sore dé wa conj ࡐࡿ࡚ࡢ, [INFORMAL] sore ja/jå ࡐࡿࡋࡶࡋࡶ࠵ time, then, (in) those days; sore jíshin/jítai n ࡐࡿ⮤㌗⮤మ itself well, well now/then; in that event: … sono-mónó adv …ࡐࡡࡵࡡ (in) ~ shitsúrei shimásu ࡐࡿ࡚ࡢ኶ ♡ࡊࡱࡌ excuse me but I’ll be itself, the very … són-shimásu, són-suru v ᥾ࡊࡱࡌ, on my way; good-bye ᥾ࡌࡾ = són o suru ᥾ࢅࡌࡾ soremásu, soréru v 㐋ࡿࡱࡌ, 㐋ࡿ ࡾ deviates, strays, digresses loses, suffers a loss sonshitsu n ᥾኶ a loss (= son ᥾, sore-tómo conj ࡐࡿ࡛ࡵ or else rosu ࣞࢪ) sore wa sore wa interj ࡐࡿࡢࡐࡿ ࡢ My my! My goodness! sonzai n Ꮛᅹ existence; being/ person (in existence), personage, sorézóre adv ࡐࡿࡑࡿ respectively, severally (= onoono ࠽ࡡ࠽ࡡ figure sō-on n 㥹㡚 noise ࣬྘ࠍ) sóppa n ཬࡖṉ bucktooth sorí n ࡐࡽ࣬ཬࡽ a warp, curve, bend 261

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sorí n ࡐࡽ้࣬ࡽ shaving sóri n ࡐࡽ࣬ࢮࣛ sled sōri-dáijin n ⥪⌦ኬ⮟ prime

soshite conj ࡐࡊ࡙, søshite ࡐ࠹ ࡊ࡙ and then soshō n セガ lawsuit sōshoku n ⿞㣥 ornament, decoration sosogimásu, sosogu v Ἰࡁࡱࡌ, Ἰ ࡃ pours (into) sō´su n ࢮ࣭ࢪ sauce, gravy sotchí pron [INFORMAL] ࡐࡖࡔ = sochira ࡐࡔࡼ (there, that way;

minister sorimásu, sóru v ้ࡽࡱࡌ, ้ࡾ

shaves sorimásu, sóru v ཬࡽࡱࡌ, ཬࡾ

bends (back), warps

sōritsu n ๭❟ establishment soroban n ࡐࢀࡣࢆ࣬⟤┑ abacus, that one (of two); you) sotchoku (na) adj ⋙├ ࡝ frank counting beads soróé ᥖ࠻ n an array sóto n አ outside, outdoors soroemásu, soroéru v ᥖ࠻ࡱࡌ, sōtō (na) adv, adj ┞ᙔ ࡝ 1. quite, ᥖ࠻ࡾ puts in order; collects; rather, fairly 2. suitable, proper soto-bori n አᇷ outer moat completes a set soróí n ᥖ࠷ n a set (of …) soto-gawa n አഁ the outside: ~ (no) sōron n ணㄵ quarrel, dispute አഁ ࡡ external sōron n ⥪ㄵ general remarks, sotsugyō n ༛ᴏ graduation; sotsugyō´-sei n ༛ᴏ⏍ a graduate; outline, introduction sórosoro adv ࡐࢀࡐࢀ (leave) sotsugyō´-shiki n ༛ᴏᘟ commence-

before long, it is about time to

ment, graduation ceremony

sō´(ryo) n ൒ ౵ Buddhist priest sō-ryō´ji n ⥪㡷஥ consul general sō´sa n ᧧ష operation, handling sōsaku n ๭ష creation sōsaku n ᤒ⣬ search, investigation: ~-negai ᤒ⣬㢢 ࠷ an applica-

Sóuru n ࢮࢗࣜ Seoul sō yū (sō iu)… adj [INFORMAL] ࡐ࠹ ࡹ࠹ ࡐ࠹࠷࠹ …that kind/sort of …; such … (= sonna ࡐࢆ࡝) sōzō n ᝷ാ imagination sōzōshíi adj 㥹ࠍࡊ࠷ noisy tion to the police to search for (a su n ᕛ nest missing person); kataku-~ ᐓᏩ sú n 㓉 vinegar; sú-no-mono n 㓉ࡡ ᤒ⣬ house search; ~-tai ᤒ⣬㝪 ∸ vinegared dishes; sú-buta n 㓉 ㇔ sweet and sour pork search party sō´sē´ji n ࢮ࣭ࢬ࣭ࢩ sausage sū´ n ᩐ number (= kázu ᩐ); sū-gaku n ᩐᏕ mathematics (= sansü ⟤ sósen n ♵඙ ancestor (= senzo ඙♵) ᩐ); ~-sha ᩐᏕ⩽ mathematician; sóshiki n ⤄⧂ system, structure, ū-ji n ᩐᏊ numeral, figure (= kazu ᩐ) setup, organization sōshiki n ⴷᘟ funeral sū´-… prefix ᩐ several; sū´-jitsu

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n, adv ᩐ᪝ several days; sū´-nen n, adv ᩐᖳ several years; sū´-nin n ᩐெ several people subarashíi adj ࡌࡣࡼࡊ࠷࣬⣪ᬍ ࡊ࠷ wonderful, splendid;


sugi n ᮙ cryptomeria, Japanese

cedar …-sugi suffix …㐛ࡁ past (the


sugimásu, sugíru v 㐛ࡁࡱࡌ, 㐛ࡁࡾ subaráshiku ࡌࡣࡼࡊࡂ࣬⣪ᬍ passes, exceeds; (shi-)sugimásu ࡼࡊࡂ splendidly ࡊ 㐛ࡁࡱࡌ overdoes: adj ... subekkói adj ࡌ࡬ࡖࡆ࠷ [INFORMAL] sugimásu 㐛ࡁࡱࡌ is overly/

slippery, slick, smooth suberí-dai n ࡌ࡬ࡽྋ࣬⁝ࡽྋ a

excessively/too sugói adj ࡌࡇ࠷࣬෴࠷ 1. swell,

slippery slide

wonderful, marvelous, terrific suberimásu, subéru v ⁝ࡽࡱࡌ, ⁝ࡾ 2. fierce, dreadful, ghastly, weird, slides, slips, skates uncanny sube-sube (no) adj ࡌ࡬ࡌ࡬ ࡡ súgóku adv ࡌࡇࡂ࣬෴ࡂ awfully, [INFORMAL] smooth, slippery terribly súbete n, adv ࡌ࡬࡙ all sugoshimásu, sugósu v 㐛ࡇࡊࡱࡌ, suchuwā´desu n ࢪࢲ࣭ࣖ࣠ࢸࢪ 㐛ࡇࡌ passes (time) súgu (ni) adv ࡌࡃ ࡞ at once, stewardess suchuwā´do n ࢪࢲ࣭ࣖ࣠ࢺ steward right away, immediately; in a sudare n ࡌࡓࡿ࣬⡐ curtain minute; directly, right (there) sugureteimásu, suguréru v ඁࡿ࡙࠷ (bamboo) sude n ⣪ᡥ bare hands ࡱࡌ, ඁࡿ࡙࠷ࡾ excels: (… ni/ súde ni adv ࡌ࡚࡞࣬᪜࡞ already yóri) ~ …࡞ࡻࡽ ඁࡿ࡙࠷ࡱ ࡌ surpasses, is superior (to) is (= mø´ ࡵ࠹) sue n 1. ᮆ end, close 2. ᮆ future excellent; sugúreta … ඁࡿࡒ… (= shørai ᑑᮮ): … no yuku-~ excellent … ࡡ⾔ࡂᮆ one’s future: súgu sóba (ni) adv ࡌࡃࡐࡣ ࡞ yuku-~ wa ⾔ࡂᮆࡢ in the future right near (at hand) suemásu, sueru v ᤛ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᤛ࠻ࡾ suichoku (no) adj ᆱ├ ࡡ vertical; sets it up perpendicular suemásu, sueru v ྺ࠻ࡱࡌ, ྺ࠻ࡾ suidō n Ề㐠 water system, water can sip (suck, smoke) service, running water; plumbing; suemásu, suéru v ࡌ࠻ࡱࡌ, ࡌ࠻ࡾ suidō-kan n Ề㐠⟮ water pipe; suidō´-kyoku n Ề㐠ᑻ the Waterit spoils, goes bad súgata n ጶ form, figure, shape: works Bureau; municipal water hare-~ ᬍࡿጶ one in his/her service (headquarters); suidō-ya (san) n Ề㐠ᒁ ࡈࢆ plumber Sunday best 263

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suiei n Ềὃ swimming; ~-jø Ềὃ ሔ swimming pool; suiéi-gí n Ềὃ ╌ swimsuit (= mizuki Ề╌) súifu n Ềኰ seaman, sailor súihei n Ềඹ navy enlisted person,

suisen n Ềὑ flushing: ~-tóire Ề ὑࢹ࢕ࣝ flush toilet suisen n ᥆ⷸ recommendation; suisen-jō n ᥆ⷸ≟ letter of

sailor, seaman suihei (no) adj Ềᖲ ࡡ horizontal, level: ~-sen Ềᖲ⥲ (sea) horizon suii n Ềన water level suijun n Ề‵ 1. water level 2. standard suika n ࢪ࢕࢜࣬け⎡ watermelon

súiso n Ề⣪ hydrogen suisō n Ềᵬ water tank suisoku n ᥆ῼ conjecture, guess,


surmisal, supposition

Súisu n ࢪ࢕ࢪ Switzerland; Suisújin n ࢪ࢕ࢪெ a Swiss suítchi n ࢪ࢕ࢴࢲ switch; ignition Sui, Kin, Chi, Ka, Moku, Do, Ten, Kai Ề switch: ~ o iremásu ࢪ࢕ࢴࢲࢅ 㔘ᆀℾᮄᅰኮᾇ Ề᫅ࠉ㔘᫅ࠉ ථࡿࡱࡌ turns/switches it on, ᆀ⌣ࠉℾ᫅ࠉᮄ᫅ࠉᅰ᫅ࠉኮ turns on the ignition ⋜᫅ࠉᾇ⋜᫅ Mercury, Venus, suitei n ᥆ᏽ inference, presump-

Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, tion, estimation Uranus, Neptune (eight planets suitō-gákari n ฝ⣙౿ cashier suitorí-gami n ྺ࠷ཱིࡽ⣤ blotter in the solar system) suimásu, sū v ྺ࠷ࡱࡌ, ྺ࠹ sips, Suiyō´(bi) n Ề᭑ ᪝ Wednesday suizókúkan n Ề᪐㤃 aquarium sucks, smokes, breathes in suimasén interj ࡌ࠷ࡱࡎࢆ. súji n ➵ tendon, muscle, fiber, [INFORMAL] 1. Excuse me. Sorry. line: ao-~ o tatete okorimásu 2. Thank you. (= sumimasén ࡌࡲ 㟯➵ࢅ❟࡙࡙ᛛࡽࡱࡌ turns ࡱࡎࢆ) purple with rage suimin n ╟┸ sleep; ~-zai ╟┸๠, …súji suffix ➵ plot: arasuji ~-yaku ╟┸ⷾ sleeping pill(s) ࠵ࡼࡌࡋ summary, outline, sui-mono n ྺ࠷∸ clear soup synopsis sui-sei adj Ềᛮ water-based: sukā´fu n ࢪ࣭࢜ࣆ scarf; (military) ~-inku Ềᛮ࢕ࣤࢠ water based sash sukā´to n ࢪ࣭࢜ࢹ skirt ink: ~-toryø Ềᛮሧᩩ water sukébē (na) adj ຐᖲ ࡝ ࣬ࡌࡄ࡬ based paint sui-sei adj Ề⏍ aquatic: ~-døbutsu ࠻ ࡝ ࣬ࢪࢢ࣊ ࡝ lecherous; Ề⏍ິ∸ aquatic animal lewd Sui-sei n ᙗ᫅ comet: Harë-~ ࣀࣝ sukē´to n ࢪࢢ࣭ࢹ skate(s); ࣭ᙗ᫅ Halley’s comet skating: ~-bødo ࢪࢢ࣭ࢹ࣭࣍ࢺ Sui-sei n Ề᫅ Mercury skate board: ~-gutsu ࢪࢢ࣭ࢹ㠈 264

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(a pair of) skates suki n ࡌࡀ࣬㏩ࡀ crack; opening; opportunity (= suki-ma ࡌࡀ㛣࣬ ㏩ࡀ㛣࣬㝵㛣) sukí (na) adj ይࡀ ࡝ one’s favorite sukídesu, sukida v ይࡀ࡚ࡌ, ይࡀࡓ likes sukíi n ࢪ࣭࢞ ski, skiing suki-ma n ࡌࡀ㛣࣬㏩ࡀ㛣࣬㝵㛣 crack; opening; opportunity sukimásu, suku v ✭ࡀࡱࡌ, ✭ࡂ gets empty/clear sukimásu, suku v 㗗ࡀࡱࡌ, 㗗ࡂ plows sukimásu, suku v ࡌࡀ>᲏ࡀ@ࡱࡌ, ࡌࡂ࣬᲏ࡂ combs sukimásu, súku v ይࡀࡱࡌ, ይࡂ → sukídesu, sukida ይࡀ࡚ࡌ, ይ


sukunái adj ᑛ࡝࠷ few, meager,

scarce, little sukúnáku adv ᑛ࡝ࡂ (so as to be)

few, little sukúnáku-tomo adv ᑛ࡝ࡂ࡛ࡵ at

(the) least sukuranburu-éggu n ࢪࢠࣚࣤࣇࣜ ࢙ࢴࢡ scrambled eggs sukuríin n ࢪࢠ࣭ࣛࣤ (movie)

screen sukuwatto n ࢪࢠ࣠ࢴࢹ squat

(bending and stretching exercises, power lifting, etc.) sukyándaru n ࢪ࢞ࣔࣤࢱࣜ scandal súmái n పࡱ࠷ residence sumánai, sumimasén v, interj ࡌࡱ࡝ ࠷, ࡌࡲࡱࡎࢆ 1. it never ends 2. Thank you 3. Excuse me ࡀࡓ 4. I apologize (for what I did). sukimu-míruku n ࢪ࣑࣐࢞ࣜࢠ sumasemásu, sumaséru v ῥࡱࡎࡱࡌ, ῥࡱࡎࡾ finishes, concludes it skim milk sukiyaki n ࡌࡀ↕ࡀ࣬ࡌࡀࡷࡀ sumashimásu, sumásu v ῥࡱࡊࡱࡌ, ῥࡱࡌ 1. finishes, concludes it thin-sliced beef cooked in an iron pan (with leeks, mushrooms, 2. puts up with (things as they are) bean curd, etc.) sukkári adv ࡌࡖ࠾ࡽ completely, all sumā´to (na) adj ࢪ࣏࣭ࢹ ࡝ sukóshi adv ᑛࡊ a little, a bit: ~ smart, stylish, fashionable (no) ᑛࡊ ࡡ some, a few; some sumātofon n ࢪ࣏࣭ࢹࣆ࢚ࣤ -what; ~ mo ᑛࡊࡵ [+ NEGATIVE] smartphone (multifunctional not in the least; ~-zútsu ᑛࡊࡍࡗ mobile phone) súmi n 㝦 an inside corner bit by bit, a little at a time, gradually sumí n ⅛ charcoal sukuimásu, sukū v ᨾ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᨾ࠹ sumí n ቕ India ink, ink stick; sumí-e n ቕ⤦ Indian ink painting helps, rescues, saves sukuimásu, sukū v ࡌࡂ>᥊࠷@࠷ࡱ sumimasén v ࡌࡲࡱࡎࢆ 1. Excuse ࡌ, ࡌࡂ࠹࣬᥊࠹ scoops me. 2. Sorry. 3. Thank you. 265

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sumimásu, súmu


sumimásu, súmu v 済みます, 済む

guage); Supeín-jín n スペイン人 comes to an end Spaniard, a Spanish person sumimásu, súmu v 住みます, 住む supéru n スペル spell (= tsuzuri lives, takes up residence, resides つづり・綴り) sumire n スミレ・薫 violet supēsu n スペース 1. space (= sumō n 相撲・すもう Japanese kükan 空間) 2. blank (= kühaku wrestling, sumo 空白) sumomo n スモモ・李 plum supíido n スピード speed: kokusai sumō´-tóri n 相撲取り a sumo -~-yübin 国際スピード郵便 wrestler EMS (Express Mail Service) …-sún suffix …寸 inch (Japanese) supíikā n スピーカー (loud)speaker suna n 砂 sand; suna-búkuro n 砂袋 suponji n スポンジ sponge; swab: sandbag ~-këki スポンジケーキ sponge sunákku n スナック 1. a snackshop cake 2. an after-hours bar 3. refresh- suponsā n スポンサー 1. sponsor ment; sunakkú-gashi n スナック菓 2. patron 子 munch, snack supō´tsu n スポーツ sport(s), athletics (= undø 運動) súnao (na) adj 素直(な) docile, gentle, obedient, submissive, suppái adj すっぱい[酸っぱい] meek sour, acid: ~-aji すっぱい[酸っ sunáwachi adv すなわち・即ち ぱい]味 sour flavor, sour taste (= namely, to wit; that is to say; in san-mi 酸味) other words suppon n すっぽん・スッポン snapping turtle suné n すね・臑・脛 shin, leg sunpō n 寸法 measurements supponpon n すっぽんぽん sū´pā(mā´ketto) n スーパー(マーケ (INFORMAL, slang) full monty, complete nudity ット) supermarket supái n スパイ spy; supai-wea n ス sū´pu n スープ soup パイウェア spyware (computer) supū´n n スプーン spoon supaisu n スパイス spice surákkusu n スラックス slacks supamu-mēru n スパムメール (= suremásu, suréru v 擦れます, 擦 meiwaku-mëru 迷惑メール), れる 1. it rubs/grazes 2. can rub/ spam mail, e-mail spam graze (Internet) súri n すり・スリ・掏り pick-pocket supána n スパナ wrench suríbachi n すり鉢 earthenware mortar with wooden pestle supein n スペイン Spain; Supeinsuríi n スリ− three go n スペイン語 Spanish (lan266

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suwaremásu, suwareru

surimásu, súru v ᧷ࡽࡱࡌ, ᧷ࡾ

selling things) 2. (= denki ~ 㞹Ẵ ࢪࢰࣤࢺ) desk/floor lamp rubs surimásu, súru v ᦶࡽ>᧟ࡽ@ࡱࡌ, sute v ᤖ࡙ → sutemásu; sute-ba n ᦶࡾ>᧟ࡾ@ files; grinds ᤖ࡙ሔ dump site (= gomi-~ ࡇࡲ surimásu, súru v ใࡽࡱࡌ, ใࡾ ᤖ࡙ሔ ; sute-mi (de) adv ᤖ࡙㌗ ࡚ in desperation prints surimásu, súru v ࡌࡽࡱࡌ, ࡌࡾ suteki (na) adj ࡌ࡙ࡀ>⣪ᩓ@ ࡝ picks one’s pocket fine, splendid, swell suríppa n ࢪࣛࢴࣂ slippers sutē´ki n ࢪࢷ࣭࢞ (beef) steak: suríppu n ࢪࣛࢴࣈ slip(ping); ~-sando ࢪࢷ࣭࢞ࢦࣤࢺ steak “Surippu-jíko ø´shi” ࢪࣛࢴࣈ஥ sandwich ᨶኣࡊ Slippery (Area) sutékki n ࢪࢷࢴ࢞ walking stick, Suriránka n ࢪࣛࣚࣤ࢜ Sri Lanka cane súríru n ࢪࣛࣜ thrill sutemásu, suteru v ᤖ࡙ࡱࡌ, ᤖ࡙ surō´gan n ࢪ࣭ࣞ࢝ࣤ slogan ࡾ throws away, abandons, dumps surō´ (na) adj ࢪ࣭ࣞ ࡝ slow sutereo n ࢪࢷ࢛ࣝ stereo (sound/ surō´pu n ࢪ࣭ࣞࣈ ramp player) surudói adj 㗞࠷ sharp, acute sutēshon n ࢪࢷ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ railroad surume n ࢪ࣒ࣜ dried cuttlefish station (= eki 㥈) sushi n ࡌࡊ࣬ࢪࢨ࣬ᑋྒྷ࣬ sutó n ࢪࢹ = sutoráiki ࢪࢹࣚ࢕ 㩟 sushi (rice seasoned with ࢞ strike (job action) sweetened vinegar with raw fish) sutō´bu n ࢪࢹ࣭ࣇ stove, heater sushí-ya n ᑋྒྷ>㩟@ᒁ a sushi bar sutōkā n ࢪࢹ࣭࣭࢜ stalker suso n ࡌࡐ࣬  hem sutoráiku n ࢪࢹࣚ࢕ࢠ strike súsu n ࡌࡌ࣬↬ soot (baseball) susumemásu, susumeru v 㐅ࡴࡱࡌ, sutóresu n ࢪࢹࣝࢪ stress, tension: 㐅ࡴࡾ furthers, advances ~-kaishø ࢪࢹࣝࢪゆᾐ stress susumemásu, susumeru v ໅ࡴࡱࡌ, relieving, stress release ໅ࡴࡾ encourages, recommends, sutoretchi n ࢪࢹࣝࢴࢲ stretch advises, counsels; persuades, (exercises) sutoríppu n ࢪࢹࣛࢴࣈ striptease, urges susumimásu, susumu v 㐅ࡲࡱࡌ, strip show, burlesque 㐅ࡳ goes forward, progresses; sutórō n ࢪࢹ࣭ࣞ straw (to drink goes too fast, gets ahead with) sutā n ࢪࢰ࣭ star (actor) sū´tsu n ࢪ࣭ࢵ suit sutajio n ࢪࢰࢩ࢛ studio sūtsukē´su n ࢪ࣭ࢵࢢ࣭ࢪ suitcase sutando n ࢪࢰࣤࢺ 1. stand (for suwaremásu, suwareru v ᗑࡿࡱࡌ, 267

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ᗑࡿࡾ can sit; seats are available suzume n ࢪࢫ࣒࣬㞓 sparrow suwarikomi(-súto) n ᗑࡽ㎰ࡲ ࢪࢹ suzumé-bachi n ࢪࢫ࣒ࣁࢲ࣬ࢪࢫ ࣒⻇ hornet sit-in (strike) suwarimásu, suwaru v ᗑࡽࡱࡌ, ᗑ suzurí n ࡌࡍࡽ࣬◭ inkstone: ࡾ sits (especially Japanese style) ~-bako ࡌࡍࡽ>◭@⟵ inkstone suzu n ࢪࢫ࣬㕝 little bells case súzu n ࢪࢫ࣬㘇 tin suzushíi adj ᾬࡊ࠷ cool suzuki n ࢪࢫ࢞࣬㫲 sea bass sy… → sh…

T tá n ࡒ࣬௙ = hoka ௙, sono-ta, sono-hoka ࡐࡡ௙ other(s); ta-hō´ n ௙᪁ a different direction, another place: ~ de wa ௙᪁࡚ࡢ on the other hand; tá (ni) adv ௙ ࡞

tabemásu, tabéru v 㣏࡬ࡱࡌ, 㣏࡬ ࡾ eats (= shokuji o shimásu 㣏 ஥ࢅࡊࡱࡌ tabé-mónó n 㣏࡬∸ food (= shokumotsu 㣏∸) tabesasemásu, tabesaséru v 㣏࡬ࡈ ࡎࡱࡌ, 㣏࡬ࡈࡎࡾ feeds tábi n ࡒࡦ࣬ࢰࣄ࣬㊂⾼ split-toe

to/for/as others, additionally (= hoka (ni) ௙>አ@ ࡞ ; ta-nin n ௙ெ outsider, stranger; others (people); tá (no) adj ௙ ࡡ = hoka socks (no) ௙>አ@ ࡡ other; tá-sha n ௙ tabí n ᪉ journey (= ryokø ᪉⾔) ♣ other companies; tá-sha n ௙ tabí n ᗐ࣬ࡒࡦ time, occasion; … ~ (ni) …ᗐ>ࡒࡦ@ ࡞ every ⩽ [BOOKISH] others (people) (= ta-nin ௙ெ) time that … tá n ⏛ rice field (= tanbo ⏛ࢆ࡯); tabitabi adv ࡒࡦࡒࡦ࣬ᗐࠍ often ta-nbo n ⏛ࢆ࡯ rice field [INFOR- (= shibashiba ࡊࡣࡊࡣ, nandoMAL]; ta-ué n ⏛᳔࠻ rice planting mo రᗐࡵ) …-ta v …ࡒ = …-máshita …ࡱࡊ tabō (na) adj ኣᚹ ࡝ [BOOKISH] ࡒ did busy (= isogashíi ᚹࡊ࠷ tába n ᮨ bundle, bunch: satsu-~ tábu n ࢰࣇ a tab ᮈᮨ bundle of bills tabū n ࢰࣇ࣭ taboo (= kinki ⚏ᚯ, tabako n ࢰࣁࢤ࣬↦ⲙ tobacco; go-hatto ࡇἪᗐ) cigarettes (= shigaretto ࢨ࢝ࣝࢴ tábun adv ࡒࡩࢆ࣬ኣฦ probably, ࢹ); tabakó-ire n ࢰࣁࢤ>↦ⲙ@ථࡿ likely; perhaps, maybe (~ … deshø´ ࡒࡩࢆ …࡚ࡊࡺ࠹, ~ … cigarette case tā´ban n ࢰ࣭ࣁࣤ turban ká mo shiremasén ࡒࡩࢆ …࠾ 268

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ࡵ▩ࡿࡱࡎࢆ tabun (ni) adv ኣฦ ࡞ [BOOKISH]

táda n ࡒࡓ free, gratis, no fee/ charge (= muryø ↋ᩩ tádachi ni adv ࡒࡓࡔ࡞ [BOOKISH]

a lot, much taburetto n ࢰࣇࣝࢴࢹ 1. tablet 2. Tablet PC taburoido n ࢰࣇࣞ࢕ࢺ tabloid táchi n ࡒࡔ࣬㈹ nature, disposition …´-tachi suffix …㐡࣬ࡒࡔ [ani-

mate plural]; and others: watashi-~ ࢂࡒࡊ㐡>⚶㐡@ we: anata-~ ࠵࡝ࡒ㐡 you (people): kimi-~ ྦࡒࡔ>㐡@ you guys tachi-agarimásu, tachi-agaru v ❟ࡔ୕ ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, ❟ࡔ୕࠿ࡾ rises,

stands up tachi-bá n ❟ሔ viewpoint, stand-

point, situation tachi-domarimásu, tachi-domaru v ❟ ࡔḾࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ❟ࡔḾࡱࡾ comes

to a stand “Tachiiri kinshi” n ❟ࡔථࡽ⚏Ḿ.

No Trespassing. Off Limits. tachimachi adv ࡒࡔࡱࡔ immedi-

ately, instantly tachimásu, tátsu v ❟ࡔࡱࡌ, ❟ࡗ stands (up); tachi-bánashi n ❟ࡔ ヨ (wayside) a stand for talking/ chatting; tachi-mi n ❟ࡔず a stand for watching: ~-seki ❟ࡔずᖆ the

gallery, standing room

immediately tadáima adv ࡒࡓ࠷ࡱ just now; in a minute (= tatta-íma ࡒࡖࡒ௑); Tadaima interj ࡒࡓ࠷ࡱ I’m back!,

I’m home! (said on returning to one’s residence) táda (no) adj ࡒࡓ ࡡ 1. only, just 2. ordinary tádashi conj ఢࡊ provided tadashíi adj ḿࡊ࠷ right; correct; tadáshiku ḿࡊࡂ rightly, correctly tadotadoshii adj ࡒ࡜ࡒ࡜ࡊ࠷ halting, not smooth taema-náku adv ⤧࠻㛣࡝ࡂ continuously, without interruption taemásu, taéru v ሎ࠻ࡱࡌ, ሎ࠻ࡾ bears, puts up with taemásu, taéru v ⤧࠻ࡱࡌ, ⤧࠻ࡾ ceases táezu adv ⤧࠻ࡍ continuously, without interruption (= taemanáku ⤧࠻㛣࡝ࡂ tagá n ࡒ࠿ a barrel hoop tagai (no) adj ப࠷ ࡡ mutual,

reciprocal, for each other tagai (ni) adv ப࠷ ࡞ mutually,

reciprocally, with each other

tachimásu, tátsu v Ⓠࡔࡱࡌ, Ⓠࡗ

tagaku n ኣ㢘 large sum …-tagarimásu, -tagaru suffix, v …ࡒ shuppatsu shimásu ฝⓆࡊࡱࡌ) ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ, …ࡒ࠿ࡾ wants to …, tachimásu, tátsu v ⤊ࡔࡱࡌ, ⤊ࡗ is eager to … tagayashimásu, tagayásu v ⪌ࡊࡱࡌ, elapses tachimásu, tátsu v ᩷ࡔࡱࡌ, ᩷ࡗ ⪌ࡌ plows tāgetto n ࢰ࣭ࢣࢴࢹ object, target [BOOKISH] cuts off

leaves (for a far place) (=

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tagu-bōto n ࢰࢡ࣭࣍ࢹ tug boat tái n ࢰ࢕࣬㪁 sea bream, red

gluttony (= øgui ኬ㣏࠷); tái-sō adj, adv ࡒ࠷ࡐ࠹࣬ኬᒒ [BOOKISH] snapper very: ~ (na) ࡒ࠷ࡐ࠹ ࡝ a great Tái n ࢰ࢕ Thailand; Tai-go n ࢰ࢕ many/much ㄊ Thai (language); Tai-jin n ࢰ࢕ …-tái suffix ᖈ belt; zone: anet~ ல⇍ᖈ subtropical zone: anzen ெ a Thai tái n మ form chi-~ Ꮽධᆀᖈ safety zone: kiken tai-… prep ᑊ…, …´-tai …ᑊ versus, chi-~ ༱㝜ᆀᖈ danger zone towards, against; rokú-~ yón ඵᑊ …-tai suffix v …ࡒ࠷ wants to, is ᄿ, 6ᑊ4 4 to 6 (score) eager to; tabe-tai suffix v 㣏࡬ࡒ࠷ tai-… prefix ㏝ leaving, retire; wants to eat; shi-tai suffix v ࡊࡒ tai-gaku n ㏝Ꮥ ① leaving school: ࠷: shi~ hødai ni shimásu ࡊࡒ࠷ chüto-~-sha ୯㏭㏝Ꮥ⩽ a dropᨲ㢗࡞ࡊࡱࡌ does whatever one out ② expulsion from school (= feels like doing [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] ~-shobun ㏝Ꮥ ฌฦ ); tai-i n taibō (no) adj ᙽ᭻ ࡡ long-awaited ㏝న abdication; tai-in n ㏝㝌 taichō n మㄢ (physical condition) leaving the hospital; tai-shoku n tone (= guai රྙ): ~ ga ii/yoi మ ㏝⫃ retirement: ~-kin ㏝⫃㔘 ㄢ࠿࠷࠷Ⰳ࠷ is in good health retirement allowance: ~-nenkin condition; ~ ga warui మㄢ࠿ᝇ ㏝⫃ᖳ㔘 (retirement) pension ࠷ is in poor health condition tai-… prefix ኬ great, large; tai- taidan n ᑊㄧ [BOOKISH] conversabō, tai-mō n ኬ᭻ ambition, great tion between two people, diawillingness (= taishi ኬᚷ); tai-ryō logue; ~-bangumi ᑊㄧ␊⤄ TV n ኬ㔖 large quantity: ~-seisan talk show ኬ㔖⏍⏐ mass production; tai-sa táido n ឺᗐ attitude, disposition, n ኬఫ (army) colonel; (= daisa behavior: ~ ga økii ឺᗐ࠿ኬࡀ࠷ ኬఫ) (navy) captain; tái-sa n ኬ acts big; kudaketa ~ ࡂࡓࡄࡒឺ ᕣ [BOOKISH] a great difference: ~ ᗐ friendly attitude de kachimásu ኬᕣ࡚ົࡔࡱࡌ taifū´ n ྋ㢴 typhoon wins by a wide margin; tai-sen n taigai adv ኬᴣ࣬ࡒ࠷࠿࠷ 1. in ኬᡋ a great war, a world war: general; for the most part; dai-ichi-ji sekai-~ ➠ୌḗୠ⏲ኬ practically (= taitei ࡒ࠷࡙࠷࣬ ᡋ World War I; tai-shi n ኬᚷ ኬᢤ) 2. probably, like(ly), like ambition (= taibø, taimø ኬ᭻); as not tái-shō n ኬᑑ (general) admiral: taigū n ᙽ㐕 1. treatment, recepo-yama no ~ ࠽ᒜࡡኬᑑ king of tion 2. pay, working conditions 3. official position, post the mountain; tai-shoku n ኬ㣏 270

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taihai-teki (na) adj ㏝ᗣⓏ ࡝

taiji n ⫶ඡ fetus, unborn baby,



Taihéiyō n ኯᖲὊ Pacific Ocean (→ taiyō ኬὊ) Taiheiyō-sensō n ኯᖲὊᡋண Pacific War taihen adv ࡒ࠷࡫ࢆ࣬ኬን 1. very,

taiji n ㏝἖ extermination: oni-~ 㨛㏝἖ demon extermination taijū n మ㔔 body weight: shinchø to ~ ㌗㛏࡛మ㔔 height and exceedingly, terribly, enormously weight: ~-kei మ㔔゛ scales (= hijø ni 㟸ᖏ࡞): Taihen osewa táika n ኬᐓ authority ni narimáshita. ኬን࠽ୠヨ࡞࡝ táika n ᑊ౮ compensation, conࡽࡱࡊࡒ I owe you a lot., Thank sideration you so much for everything you táika n ㏝໩ degeneration have done for me. 2. laboriously, taikai n ኬఌ mass meeting; conseriously, disastrously: sorewa vention, conference; tournament: (hontø ni) ~ desu ne ࡐࡿࡢ ᮇ sekai-senshuken-~ ୠ⏲㐽ᡥᶊኬ ᙔ࡞ ኬን࡚ࡌࡠ It must be ఌ world championships taikái n ኬᾇ ocean, high sea (= (really) hard for you. taihen (na) adj ࡒ࠷࡫ࢆ>ኬን@ ࡝ taiyø ኬὊ) 1. exceeding, enormous: ~ na bijin taikaku n మ᰹ body build, physique desu ኬን࡝⨶ெ࡚ࡌ is very taikei n మ⣌ a system beautiful 2. serious, disastrous, taiken n మ㥺 personal experience taiko n ኯ㰐 (Japanese) drum tough, terrible, difficult: ~ na shigoto desu ኬን࡝௘஥࡚ࡌ is taikō n ᑊᢘ confrontation, tough work opposition; … ni ~ shite …࡞ᑊ taihi n ᑊẒ [BOOKISH] contrast, ᢘࡊ࡙ in opposition to, against,


in rivalry with

táiho n 㐂ᤍ arrest(ing) taihō n ኬ◑ cannon táii n ኬᑔ captain (army); lieutenant (navy) (= dáii ኬᑔ) taii n ኬណ [BOOKISH] outline, summary, drift: ~ o tsukamimásu ኬ ណࢅࡗ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ catches the drift taii n మన body position, posture (= shisei ጶເ) tái(i)ku n మ⫩ physical education, athletics; tai(i)kú-kan n మ⫩㤃


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taikutsu (na) adj ㏝ᑿ ࡝ boring,

dull taiman (na) adj ᛨះ ࡝ negligent,

careless, neglectful táimatsu n ࡒ࠷ࡱࡗ࣬ᮿ᪺ torch taimen n ᑊ㟻 interview taimen n మ㟻 one’s dignity, sense of honor, “face”: ~ o tamochimásu మ㟻ࢅಕࡔࡱࡌ keeps up

appearances taiō n ᑊᚺ 1. correspondence, handling 2. equivalent (= søø ┞


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ᚺ): (… ni) ~ shimásu …࡞ ᑊ ᚺࡊࡱࡌ is equivalent (to) taion n మῺ body temperature; ~-kei మῺ゛ (clinical) thermo-

taisei n ឺເ preparedness: ~ ga totonoimásu ឺເ࠿ᩒ࠷ࡱࡌ is


Taiséiyō n ኬけὊ Atlantic Ocean meter (→ taiyō ኬὊ) taipo n ࢰ࢕࣎ typo, typing error taisen n ᑊᡋ match, competition: táipu n ࢰ࢕ࣈ 1. type, style (= ~-aite ᑊᡋ┞ᡥ one’s opponent kata ᆵ): atarashii ~ ᩺ࡊ࠷ࢰ࢕ taisetsu (na) adj ኬว ࡝ 1. imporࣈ new type (= shin-gata ᩺ᆵ) tant: ~ na shorui ኬว࡝᭡㢦 2. one’s type 3. typewriting, important documents 2. valuable, typewriter precious: ~ na omoide ኬว࡝ᛦ taipuráitā n ࢰ࢕ࣈࣚ࢕ࢰ࣭ type- ࠷ฝ precious memories taisetsu-ni-shimásu (suru) v ኬว࡞ writer tairagemásu, tairageru v ᖲࡼࡅࡱࡌ, ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ cherishes, treats ᖲࡼࡅࡾ [INFORMAL] eats up carefully, gives importance (= taira-gi n ࢰ࢕ࣚ࢟ pin/razor/fan daiji-ni-shimásu ኬ஥࡞ࡊࡱࡌ): kazoku o ~ ᐓ᪐ࢅኬว࡞ࡊࡱࡌ shell (a kind of scallop) taira (na) adj ᖲࡼ ࡝ even, flat, gives importance to family táishaku n ㈒ೇ debit and credit, smooth tairiku n ኬ㝛 continent: ~ (no) ኬ lending and borrowing; táishakutaishō hyō n ㈒ೇᑊ↯⾪ balance 㝛 ࡡ continental tairitsu n ᑊ❟ confrontation, sheet (B/S) táishi n ኬ౐ ambassador; taishí-kan opposition, antagonism táiru n ࢰ࢕ࣜ tile (floor, wall) n ኬ౐㤃 embassy tai-shimásu, tai-súru v ᑊࡊࡱࡌ, (made of plastic, etc.) tairyoku n మງ stamina: ~ ga ari- ᑊࡌࡾ: (… ni) ~ …࡞ ᑊࡊ másu మງ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ has ࡱࡌ confronts, opposes; … ni tái-shite …࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ ① against; stamina taisei n మโ system: seiji-~ ᨳ἖ toward; as against, as compared మโ political system: kyøiku-~ with, in contrast to ② with respect ᩅ⫩మโ education system to, in regard to taisei n మເ posture (= shisei ጶ tái-shita … adj ࡒ࠷ࡊࡒ࣬ኬࡊࡒ… ເ): ~ o kuzushimásu మເࢅᓻ important; serious; immense ࡊࡱࡌ loses one’s balance taishitsu n మ㈹ (physical) contaisei n ⪇ᛮ tolerance: yakubutsu-~ stitution ⷾ∸⪇ᛮ drug resistance taisho n ᑊฌ handling of matters taisei n ኬເ general situation taishō n ᑊ㇗ object, target

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takimásu, taku

taishō n ᑊ↯ contrast: hikaku-~ táiyō n ኯ㝟 1. sun 2. joy to Ẓ㍉ᑊ↯ comparison and someone; taiyō-enerugii n ኯ㝟࢙ ࢾ࣭ࣜ࢟ solar energy; taiyō-kei n contrast (→ táishaku-taishō-hyō ㈒ ೇᑊ↯⾪) ኯ㝟⣌ solar system; táiyō-kōsen taishō n ᑊ⛘ symmetry: sayü-~ ኯ㝟ක⥲; táiyō no hikari ኯ㝟ࡡක ᕞྎᑊ⛘ bilateral symmetry: … sunshine to ~ o nashimásu  ࡛ᑊ⛘ࢅ࡝ taiyō-nensū n ⪇⏕ᖳᩐ lifespan of ࡊࡱࡌ is symmetrical to … a thing, expected lifetime Táishō-jidai n ኬḿ᫤௥ Taisho taiyō-sei n ⪇⏕ᛮ durability taizai n ⁣ᅹ a stay (away from Period (1912–1926) taishū n మ⮧ body odor (BO) home), a sojourn: ~-saki ⁣ᅹ඙ taishū n ኬ⾏ the general public, place of sojourn taka n ࢰ࢜࣬㮒 hawk; taka no the masses: ~ (no) ኬ⾏ ࡡ tsume n ࢰ࢜ࢿࢵ࣒࣬㮒ࡡ∆ red popular, mass taisō n మ᧧ calisthenics, physical pepper táká n 㧏 quantity: ~ ga shireteiexercises taitei adv ࡒ࠷࡙࠷࣬ኬᢤ usually: másu 㧏࠿▩ࡿ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is ~ no … ࡒ࠷࡙࠷ࡡ … the usual limited, not amount to a hill of

…, most …


taitō (no) adj ᑊ➴ ࡡ equal,

takaga adj ࡒ࠾࠿ no(thing) more



táitoru n ࢰ࢕ࢹࣜ 1. title (= hyødai ⾪㢗) 2. title, championship: ~matchi ࢰ࢕ࢹ࣏ࣜࢴࢲ title match 3. caption, subtitle (= jimaku Ꮚᖞ) taiwa n ᑊヨ conversation, dialogue Taiwán n ྋ‬ Taiwan; Taiwanjín ྋ‬ெ a Taiwanese taiya n ࢰ࢕ࣕ a tire: kuruma no ~ ㌬ࡡࢰ࢕ࣕ car tires taiyō n ኬὊ ocean: go-~ ஫ኬὊ

takái adj 㧏࠷ high, tall; costly,

expensive; loud takará n ᐀ a treasure (= takaramono ᐀∸); takará-kuji n ᐀ࡂࡋ lottery; takara-mono n ᐀∸ a


tákasa n 㧏ࡈ height (= kødo 㧏ᗐ) take n ➁ bamboo; take-fū´rin n ➁ 㢴㕝 bamboo wind-chimes take n ࢰࢢ࣬Ⲏ (compounds/diafive oceans (Pacific Ocean, lect) mushroom (= kínoko ࢞ࢿࢤ Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, taki n ⁢ waterfall Arctic Ocean, Antarctic Ocean) takigi n ࡒࡀࡁ࣬ⷼ firewood, fuel taiyō n ኬこ summary (= gaiyø ᴣ takimásu, taku v ↇࡀࡱࡌ, ↇࡂ こ, yøyaku こ⣑, samarii ࢦ࣏ makes a fire; taki-bi n ↇࡀℾ bon࣭ࣛ) fire; taki-tsuke n ↇࡀ௛ࡄ kindling

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takimásu, taku

takimásu, taku v ⅍ࡀࡱࡌ, ⅍ࡂ cooks; burns it; takikomi-góhan n ⅍ࡀ㎰ࡲࡇ㣜 a rice dish with

seasonal ingredients added takishiido n ࢰ࢞ࢨ࣭ࢺ tuxedo takkuru n ࢰࢴࢠࣜ tackle táko n ࢰࢤ octopus; tako-yaki n ࡒࡆ↕ࡀ griddled dumplings


ally, on purpose, with forethought 2. (… to takuránde) …࡛௺ࢆ࡚ in collusion/cahoots with … takusán (no) adj ࡒࡂࡈࢆ>Ἁᒜ@ ࡡ lots (of), much/many, a lot (of) tákushii n ࢰࢠࢨ࣭ taxi: ~ (no) untenshu ࢰࢠࢨ࣭ ࡡ 㐘㌷

ᡥ taxi driver: ~-dai ࢰࢠࢨ࣭௥ with octopus bits inside táko n ญ࣬ࡒࡆ kite; takó-ágé n ญ taxi fare takuwae n ⵫࠻ savings, a reserve, ᥥࡅ kite-flying táko n ࡒࡆ callus, corn a stock (= chochiku ㈋⵫) takokuseki (no) adj ኣᅗ⡘ ࡡ takuwaemásu, takuwaéru v ⵫࠻ࡱࡌ, multinational: ~-kigyø ኣᅗ⡘௺ ⵫࠻ࡾ saves up, hoards ᴏ multinational company takúwan n ࡒࡂࢂࢆ, takuan ࡒࡂ taku n Ꮹ 1. my house 2. (your/ ࠵ࢆ yellow pickles made from someone else’s) house (= o-taku sliced daikon ࠽Ꮹ) 3. [HUMBLE] my husband; tamá n 1. ⋚ 1. ball: keito no ~ ẗ tak-kyū-bin n Ꮹ᛬౼ express ⣊ࡡ⋚ ball of wool: pachinko no ~ ࣂࢲࣤࢤࡡ⋚ pachinko ball delivery service; taku-hai-bin n Ꮹ㒼౼ delivery service 2. round thing: ~ no ase ⋚ࡡổ taku n ༜ table, desk; tak-kyū n ༜ beads of sweat 3. testicle(s) ⌣ table tennis; taku-jō n, adv ༜ 4. precious and/or lovely thing: ~ no yø na akanbø/aka-chan ⋚ ୕ on one’s table/desk takúan, takúwan n ࡒࡂ࠵ࢆ, ࡒࡂࢂ ࡡࡻ࠹࡝㉝ࢆᆎ㉝ࡔࡶࢆ sweetࢆ yellow pickles made from est baby tamá n ⋚࣬⌌ jewel; bead; drop: sliced daikon takumashii adj ࡒࡂࡱࡊ࠷࣬㏶ࡊ ryü no ~ ❫>㱗@ࡡ⋚ dragon ball ࠷ 1. strong, robust (body) tamá n ⌣ 1. globe (= chikyü ᆀ⌣) 2. strong (will) 2. (light) bulb (= denkyü 㞹⌣) takumi n ᕟࡲ skill; takumi na adj tamá n ᙆ bullet (= dangan ᙆ୷): ᕟࡲ ࡝ skillful; takumi ni adv pisutoru no ~ ࣅࢪࢹࣜࡡᙆ pistol bullet ᕟࡲ࡞ skillfully takurami n ௺ࡲ plan, scheme, plot tamágo n ༵࣬⋚Ꮔ࣬ࢰ࣏ࢥ egg: takuramimásu, takurámu v ௺ࡲࡱࡌ, ~ no kara ༵ࡡṾ eggshell ௺ࡳ plans, schemes, plots tama-négi n ࢰ࣏ࢾ࢟࣬⋚ⴼ onion takuránde adv ௺ࢆ࡚ 1. intention- (round bulb) 274

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tama (no/ni) adj, adv ࡒࡱ ࡡ࡞

Terminal 1 North/South Wing occasional(ly), infrequent(ly), ta-minzoku (no) adj ኣẰ᪐ ࡡ now and then, once in a while multiracial: ~-kokka ኣẰ᪐ᅗᐓ tamari n ‸ࡱࡽ࣬ࡒࡱࡽ → tamari- multiracial country ba ࡒࡱࡽሔ tamochimásu, tamótsu v ಕࡔࡱࡌ, tamari-ba n ࡒࡱࡽሔ a gathering ಕࡗ keeps, preserves, maintains tamotó n ࡒࡵ࡛࣬⾺ sleeve; edge, place (hangout, haunt) tamarimásu, tamaru v ‸ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, end ‸ࡱࡾ it accumulates tamushi n ⏛⹰ ringworm; athtamarimásu, tamaru v ㈋ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, lete’s foot ㈋ࡱࡾ it saves (money) …´-tan suffix …ཬ bolt (of cloth) támashii n 㨞 soul tana n Წ shelf, rack; tana-age n tamatama ࡒࡱࡒࡱ occasionally Წ୕ࡅ shelving: mondai o ~ tamá-tsukí n ⋚✲ࡀ billiards; tamá- shimásu ၡ㢗ࢅᲬ୕ࡅࡊࡱࡌ tsukí jiko n ⋚✲ࡀ஥ᨶ pileup shelves the issue; tana kara bota… tanbí (ni) suffix, adv [INFORMAL] mochi n Წ࠾ࡼ࡯ࡒ㣨 windfall; …ࡒࢆࡦ ࡞ , tabí (ni) ᗐ࣬ࡒࡦ tana-oroshi n Წ༷ࡊ stocktaking ࡞ every time that … Tanabata n ୏ኟ࣬ࡒ࡝ࡣࡒ the … tamé suffix …Ⅵ࣬ࡒࡴ 1. for Festival of the Weaver Star (7 the sake (good, benefit) of 2. July) tandoku n ༟≺ alone (= tanshin for the purpose of 3. because ༟㌗): ~-kødø ༟≺⾔ິ inde(of), due to tameiki n ࡒࡴ᜝ sigh pendent action tamemásu, tameru v ‸ࡴࡱࡌ, ‸ࡴ táne n ⛸ 1. seed 2. source, cause ࡾ amasses/accumulates 3. material 4. secret, trick to it tamemásu, tameru v ㈋ࡴࡱࡌ, ㈋ࡴ 5. hanashi no ~ ヨࡡ⛸ subject, ࡾ saves (money) topic tameraimásu, tameráu v ࡒࡴࡼ࠷ tango n ༟ㄊ word(s), vocabulary ࡱࡌ, ࡒࡴࡼ࠹ hesitates tango n ࢰࣤࢥ tango (music); tameshí n ムࡊ trial, test, experiTángo no sekku n ❻༔ࡡ⟿ྀ ment: ~ ni ムࡊ࡞ as a trial/test Boys’ Festival (5 May) tameshimásu, tamésu v ムࡊࡱࡌ, ム tani, tani-ma n ㆺ, ㆺ㛣 valley ࡌ tries, attempts, experiments with tán’i n ༟న unit tāminaru n ࢰ࣭࣐ࢻࣜ terminal: tanitsu-minzoku n ༟ୌẰ᪐ single narita-kükø dai-ichi-~ kita/min- race ami wingu ᠺ⏛✭῿➠1ࢰ࣭࣐ࢻ tanjō´bi n ㄄⏍᪝ birthday: ㄄⏍᪝ ࣜ໪༞ࢗ࢔ࣤࢡ Narita Airport ࣂ࣭ࢷ࢔ birthday party 275

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tanjun (na)

tanjun (na) adj ༟⣟ ࡝ simple;

simplehearted, simpleminded (not complicated): ~-ka ༟⣟໩ simplification: ~-meikai ༟⣟᪺ ᛄ simple and clear tánka n ▯ḯ 31-syllable poem (traditional Japanese poem) tánka n ᢰᯣ stretcher, litter: ~ de hakobaremásu ᢰᯣ࡚㐘ࡣࡿࡱ ࡌ is carried on a stretcher tánka n ༟౮ unit cost, unit price tánka n ၥ࿟ [BOOKISH] caustic

shimásu … ࡌࡾࡡ ࢅᴞࡊࡲ࡞ ࡊࡱࡌ ① takes pleasure in (doing) ② looks foward to …ing tanoshimimásu, tanoshímu v ᴞࡊ ࡲࡱࡌᴞࡊࡳ enjoys, takes

pleasure in tanpakú-shitsu n ⺦Ⓣ㈹࣬ࡒࢆࡤࡂ ㈹ protein tanpen-shōsetsu n ▯⥽ᑚㄕ short

story (novel)

tánpo n ᢰಕ mortgage, pledge (= teitø ᢤᙔ): butteki-~ ∸Ⓩ ᢰಕ collateral on property: words (during a quarrel) tanki n ▯᭿ short period; tankijinteki-~ ெⓏᢰಕ guarantee: dáigaku n ▯᭿ኬᏕ junior college, ~-bukken ᢰಕ∸௲ collateral tánpon n ࢰࣤ࣎ࣤ tampon two-year college tankō n ⅛㖌 coal mine tánpopo n ࢰࣤ࣎࣎࣬ࡒࢆࡰࡰ tanmatsu n ❻ᮆ computer terminal dandelion tanmono n ཬ∸ draperies, dry tansan n ⅛㓗 carbonic acid; tansán-sui n ⅛㓗Ề soda water goods tán naru … adj ༟࡝ࡾ… only, mere tanseki n ⫱▴ gall stone tanshi n ❻Ꮔ a terminal (elec[BOOKISH] = táda no ࡒࡓࡡ tán ni adv ༟࡞: ~ ... dake/nomi ༟ tronics) ࡞ࡓࡄࡡࡲ only, merely (= tanshin n ༟㌗ [BOOKISH] alone táda ࡒࡓ (= tandoku ༟≺); tanshin-funin n tannin n ᢰ௴ (teacher) in charge ༟㌗㉩௴ job transfer away from tanomí n 㢏ࡲ a request: ~ no one’s home tsuna 㢏ࡲࡡ⥐ one’s one and tánsho n ▯ᡜ shortcoming, fault, only hope, lifesaver weak point: ~ to chøsho ▯ᡜ࡛㛏 tanomimásu, tanómu v 㢏ࡲࡱࡌ, ᡜ weak and strong points 㢏ࡳ 1. requests, begs 2. relies tansu n ࡒࢆࡌ࣬ࢰࣤࢪ࣬⟰➙ upon, entrusts with 3. hires, chest of drawers engages (a professional) tantei n ᥀ം detective: ~-shøsetsu tanoshíi adj ᴞࡊ࠷ pleasant, ᥀ംᑚㄕ detective fiction: shiritsu-~ ⚶❟᥀ം private eye enjoyable tanoshími n ᴞࡊࡲ a pleasure, an tantō n ᢰᙔ responsibility, enjoyment; … (surú no) o ~ ni charge; tantō´-sha n ᢰᙔ⩽ person

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tashimásu, tasu

in charge, responsible person taremásu, taréru v ᆱࡿࡱࡌ, ᆱࡿࡾ (→ tannin ᢰ௴) hangs down, dangles; drips tantō-chokunyū (na) adj ༟ภ├ථ tarento n ࢰࣝࣤࢹ a TV personal ࡝ point-blank: ~ ni iu to adv ity, (person of) talent ༟ภ├ථ࡞ゕ࠹࡛ put bluntly …tári (shimásu/desu) …ࡒࡽ ࡊࡱ tánuki n ࢰࢽ࢞࣬≿ 1. raccoonࡌ࡚ࡌ doing representatively/ dog (not badger anaguma ✨↻) sometimes/alternately: tári 2. sly person …-nákáttari …ࡒࡽ…࡝࠾ࡖࡒ tánzén n ୸๑ padded bathrobe ࡽ doing off and on, sometimes taoremásu, taoréru v ಻ࡿࡱࡌ, ಻ࡿ does and sometimes doesn’t ࡾ falls down, tumbles, collapses tarimásu, tariru v ㊂ࡽࡱࡌ, ㊂ࡽࡾ táoru n ࢰ࢛ࣜ towel is enough/sufficient, suffices taoshimásu, taósu v ಻ࡊࡱࡌ, ಻ࡌ taru n ࡒࡾ࣬ᶙ barrel, keg, cask taru v ㊂ࡾ [dialect, literary] → knocks down, overthrows tapesutorii n ࢰ࣋ࢪࢹ࣭ࣛ tapestry tarimásu ㊂ࡽࡱࡌ (is enough/ tappú-dansu n ࢰࢴࣈࢱࣤࢪ tap sufficient, suffices) tāru n ࢰ࣭ࣜ tar: køru-~ ࢤ࣭ࣜ࣬ dance tappúri adv ࡒࡖࡪࡽ fully, more ࢰ࣭ࣜ coal tar: sekiyu-~ ▴ἔࢰ ࣭ࣜ petroleum tar than enough tára n ࢰࣚ࣬㫑 cod (fish) tarumimásu, tarumu v ᘩࡲࡱࡌ, ᘩ …-tára suffix, conj …ࡒࡼ if, when ࡳgets slack (loose), relaxed tarafuku adv ࡒࡼࡨࡂ [INFORMAL] taryō n ኣ㔖 large quantity táshika adv ☔࠾ if I remember (eat, drink) one’s fill tarai n ࡒࡼ࠷ tub, basin; tarairightly, probably; táshika ni mawashi ni saremásu n ࡒࡼ࠷ᅂࡊ adj ☔࠾࡞ for sure, surely, ࡞ࡈࡿࡱࡌ is shifted from one undoubtedly; indeed; táshika na section to another adv ☔࠾࡝ safe, sure, certain tarako n ࢰࣚࢤ࣬㫑Ꮔ cod roe tashikamemásu, tashikaméru v ☔࠾ taráppu n ࢰࣚࢴࣈ gangway ࡴࡱࡌ, ☔࠾ࡴࡾ makes sure, tarashimásu, tarásu v ᆱࡼࡊࡱࡌ, ascertains ᆱࡼࡌ dangles, drops, spills tashimásu, tasu v ㊂ࡊࡱࡌ, ㊂ࡌ tarashimásu, tarásu v ࡒࡼࡊࡱࡌ, 1. adds; ní ni san o ~ ஦࡞୔ࢅ㊂ ࡒࡼࡌ = tarashi-komimásu ࡒࡼ ࡊࡱࡌ adds three to two, adds ࡊ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ, tarashi-komu ࡒࡼ three and two 2. yø o ~ ⏕ࢅ㊂ࡊ ࡊ㎰ࡳ seduces; wheedles ࡱࡌ does one’s business, retaré n ࡒࡿ࣬ࢰࣝ gravy, (cooking) lieves oneself, goes to the bathsauce room 277

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tashō adj 多少 1. (large and/or

tátchi n タッチ touch; ~ no sa de small) number, quantity, amount タッチの差で by the turn of a hair 2. ~ (no) 多少(の) more or less; somewhat; some tate n 縦 length, height, longitutasogare n たそがれ・黄昏 twilight dine; tate-gaki n 縦書き vertical (= yügure 夕暮れ) writing; tate-ito n 縦糸 warp (vertical threads); táte no 縦の tassha (na) adj 達者(な) healthy; skillful, expert, good at adj vertical; táte ni 縦に adv vertas-shimásu, tas-suru v 達します, 達 tically, lengthwise …-tate (no) adj …たて(の) fresh する accomplishes; reaches from … tasū´ n 多数 large number; majority taté-fuda n 立(て)札 signboard tasukarimásu, tasukáru v 助かりま tatekaemásu, tatekaeru 建(て)替え す, 助かる is saved; is relieved ます, 建(て)替える rebuilds: tasukemásu, tasukéru v 助けます, tatekae n 建(て)替え reconstruction, rebuilding 助ける 1. helps 2. saves tatakaimásu, tatakau v 戦います, tatekaemásu, tatekaeru 立(て)替えま 戦う fights; makes war/game: す, 立(て)替える pays for someone; tatekae n 立(て)替え paying teki to ~ 敵と戦います battles an enemy for someone; tatekae-kin n 立(て) tatakaimásu, tatakau v 闘います, 替え金 advance money 闘う struggle, fights (with, tatémae n 建て前 principle, policy against): byøki to ~ 病気と闘い tate-mashi n 建て増し house addition/extension, annex ます fights the disease tatakí n 1. 叩き pounding; bashing; tatemásu, tatéru v 建てます, 建てる mincing; Nihon-~ 日本叩き Japan- erects, builds, raises; sets up, establishes bashing 2. たたき concrete/ cement floor taté-móno n 建物 building tatakimásu, tatáku v 叩きます, 叩く tatoé conj たとえ even if strikes, hits, knocks; pounds tatóe 例え・たとえ n example, (fish/meat to tenderize or mince instance; simile, analogy it), minces; té o ~ 手を叩きま tatóeba adv 例えば・たとえば for example, for instance す claps tatami n 畳 floor mat(ting), matted tatoemásu, tatoéru v 例えます・喩 floor えます, 例える・喩える gives an example, compares (draws a tatamimásu, tatamu v 畳みます, 畳 simile to) む folds up 278

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tatsu n ❫࣬㱗 dragon (= doragon ࢺࣚࢥࣤ) tatsu no otoshigo n ࢰࢵࢿ࢛ࢹࢨ ࢥ࣬❫ࡡⴘ࡛ࡊᏄ sea horse (= umi-uma, kaiba ᾇ㤷) tatta adv ࡒࡖࡒ just, merely, only tatta-íma n, adv ࡒࡖࡒ௑ just now;

ࡿ࠿ᡥ࡞ථࡽࡱࡌ = sore o ~ ni iremásu ࡐࡿࢅᡥ࡞ථࡿࡱࡌ obtains, gets it; te-árai n ᡥὑ࠷ ① hand wash ② o-teárai ࠽ᡥὑ ࠷ washroom, rest room, toilet (toire ࢹ࢕ࣝ); té-ate n ᡥᙔ࡙

in (just) a minute tawā n ࢰ࣭࣠ tower, pagoda (= tø ሥ); Tøkyø-~ ᮶ாࢰ࣭࣠ Tokyo Tower tawará n ࡒࢂࡼ࣬ಣ straw bag; bale tawashi n ࡒࢂࡊ scrub(bing) brush; swab tayasúku adv ࡒࡷࡌࡂ easily táyori 㢏ࡽ n reliance: ~ nai 㢏ࡽ ࡝࠷ undependable, unreliable táyori n ౼ࡽ communication, correspondence, a letter, word (from someone), news; kaze no ~ 㢴ࡡ౼ࡽ a little bird, rumor tayorimásu, tayóru v 㢏ࡽࡱࡌ, 㢏ࡾ relies on, depends on tayō-sei n ኣᵕᛮ diversity: seibutsu-

té-ate n ᡥᙔ allowance; te-búkuro n ᡥ⾼ gloves; te-dori n ᡥཱིࡽ take-home pay; te-gákari n ᡥ᤻ ࠾ࡽ a hold, a place to hold on; a clue; te-gami n ᡥ⣤ letter (= shokan ᭡⠾ [BOOKISH]); te-gata n ᡥᙟ a note, a bill: yakusoku-~ ⣑ᮨᡥᙟ promissory note; tegókoro n ᡥᚨ discretion; te-gótae n ᡥᚺ࠻ response, effect; té-guchi n ᡥཾ way (of doing bad things), trick; té-hái n ᡥ㒼 (setting up) a

treatment; reparation, provision;

search for a criminal, a dragnet; té-hazu n ᡥࡢࡍ࣬ᡥ➳ arrangements; te-hón n ᡥᮇ model, pattern; té-kubi n ᡥ㤫 wrist; té-mane n ᡥࡱࡠ࣬ᡥ┷జ gesture with hand(s); té-mari n ᡥࡱࡽ࣬ᡥẞ ~ no hozen ⏍∸ኣᵕᛮࡡಕධ (decorated small) handball; tenímotsu n ᡥⲬ∸ hand luggage; biodiversity conservatory tazuna n ᡥ⥐ reins: ~ o shimemásu té-nó-hira n ᡥࡡࡥࡼ࣬ᤰ palm ᡥ⥐ࢅ⥶ࡴࡱࡌ tightens the reins (of hand); te-ori (no) adj ᡥ⧂ࡽ tazunemásu, tazunéru v 1. ᑖࡠࡱࡌ, ࡡ handweaving; te-sage n ᡥ ᑖࡠࡾ asks (a question) 2. ᑖࡠ ᥞࡅ࣬ᡥࡈࡅ handbag; te-sei (no) ࡱࡌ, ᑖࡠࡾ looks for adj ᡥ⿿ ࡡ homemade, handcrafted; te-záiku n ᡥ⣵ᕝ handitazunemásu, tazunéru v ゴࡠࡱࡌ, ゴࡠࡾ visits work; te-zawari n ᡥࡉࢂࡽ texté n ᡥ 1. hand, arm 2. trick, move ture, touch, hand feeling; te-zúkuri 3. kind 4. person 5. help: té ni (no) adj ᡥషࡽ ࡡ homemade, ᡥ࡞; sore ga ~ ni hairimásu ࡐ made by hand 279

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…-te suffix …࡙ (does/did) and,

te-iré n ᡥථࡿ repair; upkeep, care and then, and so; doing; [+ teisai n మ⿚ appearance, get-up, AUXILIARY] (→ shite ࡊ࡙ form, format, layout tēburu n ࢷ࣭ࣇࣜ table; ~-kake teisetsu (na) adj ㇾ⟿ ࡝ chaste, ࢷ࣭ࣇ᤻ࣜࡄ tablecloth principled: ~ na tsuma ㇾ⟿࡝ጏ tei-… prefix ᏽ… fixed, appointed, faithful wife téishu n ி୹ 1. host (at Japanese set; tei-ka n ᏽ౮ the set price, fixed price; téiki (no) adj ᏽ᭿ ࡡ tea ceremony) 2. landlord ① fixed, regular, periodic, sched- 3. (my) husband uled ② → tei-kí-ken ᏽ᭿ไ; tei-kí- teitō n ᢤᙔ mortgage, pledge ken n ᏽ᭿ไ pass (commuter (= tanpo ᢰಕ) ticket), season ticket: teiki-yokin téjina n ᡥဗ jugglery, magic ᏽ᭿㡰㔘 time deposit; tei-shoku n (tricks); tejiná-shi n ᡥဗᖅ jugᏽ㣏 a set meal; a complete meal gler, magician tei-… prefix ఩… low; tei-ka n tejun n ᡥ㡨 order, procedure, ఩ୖ fall, drop, decline, descent; program tei-kétsúatsu n ఩⾉ᅸ low blood …-té kara suffix …࡙࠾ࡼ after pressure; tei-kíatsu n ఩Ẵᅸ low (do)ing, after one does/did, does/ (barometric) pressure; tei-soku n did and then (next) ఩㏷ low speed teki n ᩓ 1. enemy, foe 2. oppotei-… prefix ೳ stop; tei-den n nent; kø-~-shu ይᩓᡥ rival ೳ㞹 power failure/outage; tei-ryū …-teki suffix … a drop …-teki (na) suffix, adj Ⓩ ࡝ …ic, n ೳ⏻ stop, stopping; tei-sha n ೳ㌬ stopping (of a vehicle); …ical, …al, …ly: chi~ (na) ▩Ⓩ tei-shi n ೳḾ suspension, inter ࡝ intellectual: shi~ (na) ⚶Ⓩ ruption; ichiji-~ ୌ᫤ೳḾ pause, ࡝ private, personal (= kojin~ (na) ಴ெⓏ ࡝ : shi-~ (na) モⓏ suspension teian n ᥞ᱄ proposal, suggestion ࡝ poetic; -teki ni …Ⓩ࡞ … teibō n ላ㜭 dike, embankment ically, …ally: kanjø-~ narimásu téido n ⛤ᗐ degree, extent, level វ᝗Ⓩ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ gets emotional: teikei n ᥞᦘ [BOOKISH] cooperation, kiseki~ tasukarimashita ዃ㊟Ⓩ ࡞ຐ࠾ࡽࡱࡊࡒ miraculously affiliation survived teikō n ᢤᢘ resistance téikoku n ᖀᅗ empire; teikoku-shúgi tékido n 㐲ᗐ [BOOKISH] moderan ᖀᅗ୹⩇ imperialism tion: ~ na/no 㐲ᗐ࡝ࡡ reasontéinei (na) adj ࡙࠷ࡠ࠷>୍ᐺ@ ࡝ able, moderate: ~ na undø 㐲ᗐ ࡝㐘ິ moderate exercise polite; careful 280

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tékigi adv 㐲᏿ [BOOKISH] suitably, …-te kudasái interj …࡙ୖࡈ࠷ fitly, properly (= tekitø (ni) 㐲ᙔ please (do) ࡞ ): ~ (no) 㐲᏿ࡡ suitable, temá n ᡥ㛣 time and effort (taken

fit, proper

up); one’s trouble

tekikaku (na) adj 㐲᰹ ࡝ qualified, tē´ma n ࢷ࣭࣏ theme, topic (= shudai ୹㢗): ~-songu ࢷ࣭࣏ࢮ eligible: ~-sha 㐲᰹⩽ qualified ࣤࢡ theme song (= shudai-ka person tekikaku (na/ni) adj, adv Ⓩ☔࣬㐲☔ ୹㢗ḯ) ࡝࡞ precise(ly), accurate(ly), temae n 1. ᡥ๑࡙࣬ࡱ࠻ this side exact(ly): ~ na handan Ⓩ☔>㐲 (of …); I/me 2. ᡥ๑ prowess, ☔@࡝ึ᩷ accurate judgement skill, ability teki-nin n 㐲௴ qualified person temae n Ⅴ๑ tea ceremony pro(= tekikaku-sha 㐲᰹⩽) cedures tekisetsu (na) adj 㐲ว ࡝ to the temáwari n ᡥᅂࡽpersonal effects;

point, appropriate


teki-shimásu, teki-su v 㐲ࡊࡱࡌ, 㐲 …-témo suffix …࡙ࡵ even doing/ ࡌ is suitable, qualified being, even if (one does/is); tékísuto n ࢷ࢞ࢪࢹ 1. textbook (= shitémo íi ࡊ࡙ࡵ࠷࠷ it is OK to kyøka-sho ᩅ⛁᭡) 2. original do, one may do ten n Ⅴ point, dot, spot; score text tekitō (na) adj 㐲ᙔ ࡝ 1. suitable, (points); ten-sū´ n Ⅴᩐ score, proper 2. irresponsible, happoints hazard, random, half-hearted: ~ na tén n ኮ 1. sky 2. heaven (= tenhenji 㐲ᙔ࡝㏁஥vague answer goku ኮᅗ); tén-goku n ኮᅗ tekitō (ni) adv 㐲ᙔ ࡞ 1. suitably, paradise, heaven; ten-jō n ኮ஬ properly (= tekigi 㐲᏿) 2. irre- ceiling; tén-ki n ኮẴ ① weather; sponsibly, haphazardly, randomly, ~-yóhø ኮẴ஢ሒ weather forecast ② fair weather; ten-kō n ኮ half-heartedly: ~ ni erabimásu 㐲ᙔ࡞㐽ࡦࡱࡌ chooses ranು weather; ten-mon (no) n ኮᩝ ࡡ astronomical: ten-mondomly: ~ ni kikinagashimásu gaku ኮᩝᏕ astronomy; tén-shi n 㐲ᙔ࡞⪲ࡀὮࡊࡱࡌ pretends ኮ౐ angel to listen tekk(-…) n, prefix 㕪  iron, tén n ࢷࣤ ten; besutó-~ ࣊ࢪࢹࢷ steel; tek-ki n 㕪ჹ, ~-rui 㕪ჹ㢦 ࣤ the best ten hardware (items); tek-kyō n 㕪ᶣ ten-…/…-ten prefix, suffix ኮ ኮ → ten-pura ኮࡪࡼ࣬ኮ㯉 iron bridge teko n ࡙ࡆ࣬᣷࣬᣷Ꮔ lever ⨮; ten-don n ኮ୺ a bowl of rice

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with tenpura shrimp on top; Emperor; Tennō-tanjō´bi n ኮⓒ㄄ ten-pura n ࢷࣤࣈࣚ࣬ኮࡪࡼ࣬ኮ ⏍᪝ the Emperor’s Birthday 㯉⨮ tenpura, food fried in batter, (national holiday in Japan) tenōru n ࢷࢿ࣭ࣜ tenor; tenōruespecially shrimp kashu n ࢷࢿ࣭ࣜḯᡥ a tenor ten-…/…-ten prefix, suffix ᗉ... ...ᗉ shop; ten’-in n ᗉဤ shop (singer) ténpi n ኮℾ oven clerk, salesclerk, salesperson; ten-po n ᗉ⯊ [BOOKISH] store, tenpo n ࢷࣤ࣎ tempo shop (= mise ᗉ o-mise ࠽ᗉ ); tenrán-kai n ᒈぬఌ exhibition ten-shu n ᗉ୹ shopkeeper (= tenji-kai ᒈ♟ఌ) tenbō n ᒈ᭻ 1. looking over, a tensai n ኮᡧ genius view 2. prospecting, prospects; ténsei n ኮᛮ disposition, temtenbō-dai n ᒈ᭻ྋ (sightseeing) perament ténto n ࢷࣤࢹ tent observatory tengu n ࢷࣤࢡ࣬ኮ≰ 1. a long- tepp-… prefix 㕪 iron, steel; tep-pan n 㕪ᯀ iron plate: teppannosed goblin 2. conceited yaki 㕪ᯀ↕ࡀ sliced meat, etc. person ténisu n ࢷࢼࢪ tennis: ~-køto ࢷ grilled at table; tep-pō n 㕪◑ ࢼࢪࢤ࣭ࢹ tennis court: ~-shüzu gun, rifle: mizu-deppø Ề㕪◑ ࢷࢼࢪࢨ࣭ࣖࢫ tennis shoes squirt gun, water pistol tenjí n ᒈ♟ exhibit; tenjí-kai n ᒈ♟ teppén n ࡙ࡖ࡭ࢆ top, highest ఌ exhibition part [INFORMAL] (= chøjø 㡤୕) ten-jimásu, ten-jiru v ㌷ࡋࡱࡌ, ㌷ࡋ tē´pu n ࢷ࣭ࣈ tape; sero(han)-~ ࡾ [BOOKISH] changes, shifts; gets ࢬࣞ ࣀࣤ ࢷ࣭ࣈ scotch tape; ~-rekø´då ࢷ࣭ࣈࣝࢤ࣭ࢱ࣭ transferred; ten-kin n ㌷ໂ job transfer (= tennin ㌷௴); ten-kō n tape recorder ㌷ᰧ school transfer; ten-nin n ㌷ terá n ᑈ Buddhist temple (= jiin ௴ job transfer ᑈ㝌) tennen n ኮ↓ nature (= shizen terashi-awasémásu, terashi-awaséru v ⮤↓); tennen-boke n ኮ↓࣍ࢢ ↯ࡼࡊྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, ↯ࡼࡊྙࢂࡎ ࡾ collates goofy, dopey by nature [IN POSITIVE SENSE]; tennen-gasu n ኮ terashimásu, terásu v ↯ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, ↓࢝ࢪ natural gas; tennen (no) ↯ࡼࡌ illuminates, lights it up, adj ኮ↓ ࡡ natural; tennen-tō n shines on; compares, collates, ኮ↓⑘ smallpox checks; … ni teráshite …࡞↯ࡼ Tennō´ n ኮⓒ the Emperor; Tennø- ࡊ࡙ in the light of…, in view of … héika ኮⓒ㝆ୖ His Majesty the térasu n ࢷࣚࢪ terrace, balcony 282

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térebi n ࢷࣝࣄ television; terebibangumi n ࢷࣝࣄ␊⤄ TV show; terebi-denwa n ࢷࣝࣄ㞹ヨ videophone; terebi-gēmu n ࢷࣝࣄࢣ࣭ ࣑ video game terehonkādo n ࢷ࣭ࣝ࣌ࣤ࢜ࢺ

telephone card

… to

te-tsúzuki n ᡥ⤾ࡀ formalities, procedure (= tejun ᡥ㡨) tettei-teki (na/ni) adj, adv ᚥᗇⓏ ࡝࡞ thorough(ly) ti… → chi… tii-kappu n ࢷ࢔࣭࢜ࢴࣈ Western-

style tea cup

teremásu, teréru v ↯ࡿࡱࡌ, ↯ࡿ tisshu(-pē´pā) n ࢷ࢔ࢴࢨࣖ ࣭࣋ࣂ ࡾ feels embarrassed, awkward, ࣭ tissue(s) to n ᡖ door; to-dana n ᡖᲬ cupflustered terepashii n ࢷࣝࣂࢨ࣭ telepathy board, enclosed shelves terimásu, téru v ↯ࡽࡱࡌ, ↯ࡾ to n 㒌 1. capital (= shu-to 㤫㒌) 2. Tokyo (= Tøkyø-to ᮶ா㒌); it shines teriyaki n ↯ࡽ↕ࡀ (fish, chicken, to-chi-ji n 㒌▩஥ Governor of etc.) broiled with soy sauce and Tokyo; to-ei n 㒌ႜ Toei, metro-

politan (run by Tokyo), metro; ~-sen 㒌ႜ⥲ subway Toei ism, terrorist Line; to-kai n 㒌ఌ city, town; tesū´ n ᡥᩐ [BOOKISH] trouble ~-jin 㒌ఌெ city dweller, (taken up), time and effort (= urbanite; to-min n 㒌Ằ Tokyoite; tema ᡥ㛣): o-~ okakeshite tó-nai n, adv 㒌හ within the sumimasen ࠽ᡥᩐ࠽࠾ࡄࡊ࡙ࡌ metropolis (of Tokyo); tó-shi n ࡲࡱࡎࢆ I’m sorry for bothering 㒌ᕰ city; toshi (no) 㒌ᕰ ࡡ you.; tesū´-ryō n ᡥᩐᩩ handling/ urban … to prep …࡛ with [CONCATEservice charge tésuto n ࢷࢪࢹ test [INFORMAL] (= NATES A NOUN]: ... ~ issho ni shiken ム㥺) ࡛ୌ⥬࡞ ... with (someone) tetsu n 㕪 iron, steel; tetsu-bō n 㕪 … to … conj …࡛ and [CONCATEᲤ ① horizontal bar ② iron bar; NATES A NOUN]: anata ~ watashi tetsu-dō n 㕪㐠 railroad, railway ࠵࡝ࡒ࡛⚶ you and I tetsudái n ᡥఎ࠷ = o-tétsudai ࠽ … to suffix …࡛ (said/thought/ ᡥఎ࠷ assistance, help seemed) that …; “…” (quote-) unquote: kare wa ... ~ itta ᙴ tetsudaimásu, tetsudáu v ᡥఎ࠷ࡱ ࡌ, ᡥఎ࠹ helps ࡢ࡛ゕࡖࡒ he said that ...; … tetsúgaku n ူᏕ philosophy; ~-sha to iu suffix …࡛࠷࠹ which says; ူᏕ⩽ philosopher which is (called), called; which tetsuya n ᚥእ staying up all night is (in effect); to iú no wa … suffix 283 sweeteners

tero (risuto) n ࢷࣞ ࣛࢪࢹ terror-

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࡛࠷࠹ࡡࡢ… What that means tobimásu, tobu v ㊬ࡦࡱࡌ, ㊬ࡩ (What that amounts to) is that … jumps … to suffix …࡛ 1. (su)-ru ~ ࡌ tobimásu, tobu v 㣍ࡦࡱࡌ, 㣍ࡩ ࡾ࡛ when(ever), if; …and there- flies upon, …whereupon: moshika- tobira n ᡤ 1. a door wing, a door suru ~ ࡵࡊ࠾ࡌࡾ࡛ perhaps, of a gate 2. title page possibly 2. (shi)-nai ~ ࡊ ࡝࠷ toboshíi adj இࡊ࠷ scarce, meager, ࡛ unless scanty tō´ n ༎ ten (= jü ༎) tōbun n ⢶ฦ [BOOKISH] sugar tō´ n ⡚ rattan, cane content tō´ n ሥ tower, pagoda (= tawå tōbun n ➴ฦ dividing equally ࢰ࣭࣠); Efferu-tø ࢙ࢴࣆ࢘ࣜሥ tōbun n ᙔฦ for the time being tōchaku n ฽╌ arrival Eiffel Tower tō´-… prefix ᮶ east, eastern; tochi n ᅰᆀ ground, earth, soil; a tō´-bu n ᮶㒂 the east, the eastern piece of land part; tō-hō n ᮶᪁ the east; tō-nan tochū (de/no) adv, adj ㏭୯ ࡚ࡡ n ᮶༞ southeast: ~-ajia ᮶༞࢓ࢩ on the way; ~-gesha ㏭୯ୖ㌬ ࢓ Southeast Asia; tō-zai n ᮶け stopover (train) east and west, the East and the tōdai n ⇘ྋ lighthouse Tō-dai n ᮶ኬ Tokyo University (= West …´-tō suffix …㢄 (counts large Tøkyø-Dáigaku ᮶ாኬᏕ) todoké n ᒀࡄ notification, notice, animals) head [go-tø ஫㢄 unaccented (five heads)] report …-tō suffix …➴ class todokemásu, todokéru v ᒀࡄࡱࡌ, Tō´a n ᮶ல = Higashi-Ájia ᮶࢓ࢩ࢓ ᒀࡄࡾ 1. delivers 2. reports it tobaku n ㈻༡ [BOOKISH] gambling (to), notifies tō´ban n ᙔ␊ person on duty todoke-saki n ᒀࡄ඙ address (for tobashimásu, tobasu v 㣍ࡣࡊࡱࡌ, delivery) 㣍ࡣࡌ lets fly; skips, omits; hurries todokimásu, todóku v ᒀࡀࡱࡌ, ᒀ tobi-dashimásu, tobi-dásu v ㊬ࡦฝࡊ ࡂ reaches; arrives; gets delivered ࡱࡌ࣬㊬ࡦฝࡌ jumps out todomarimásu, todomáru v ࡛࡜ࡱ tobi-dashimásu, tobi-dásu v 㣍ࡦฝࡊ ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡛࡜ࡱࡾ it stops; it ࡱࡌ, 㣍ࡦฝࡌ runs/bursts out; it remains todomemásu, todómeru v ࡛࡜ࡴࡱ sticks out, protrudes; uchi o ~ ᐓࢅ㣍ࡦฝࡊࡱࡌ runs away ࡌ, ࡛࡜ࡴࡾ stops it (from home) (= iede shimásu ᐓ todorokimásu, todoróku v ㎐ࡀࡱࡌ, ฝࡊࡱࡌ) ㎐ࡂ [BOOKISH] roars, rumbles 284

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tokashimásu, tokásu

tōfú n ㇃⭁ bean curd tóire n ࢹ࢕ࣝ toilet, bathroom; togamé n ࡛࠿ࡴ [BOOKISH] rebuke, tóiretto-pē´pā n ࢹ࢕ࣝࢴࢹ࣭࣋ࣂ ࣭ toilet paper censure, blame togamemásu, togaméru v ࡛࠿ࡴࡱ tōitsu n ⤣ୌ unification, standardࡌ, ࡛࠿ࡴࡾ [BOOKISH] blames, ization tōji n ෢⮫ winter solstice rebukes, reproves, finds fault tōji n …἖ hot-spring cure: ~-ba with: ki ga ~ Ẵ࠿࡛࠿ࡴࡱࡌ suffers from a guilty conscience …἖ሔ spa togarasemásu, togaráseru v ࡛࠿ࡼ tō´ji (wa) adv ᙔ᫤ ࡢ (at) that ࡎ>ᑞࡼࡎ@ࡱࡌ, ࡛࠿ࡼࡎࡾ࣬ᑞ time, then, (in) those days (= anokoro (wa) ࠵ࡡ㡥 ࡢ , sonoࡼࡎࡾ sharpens, points togarimásu, togáru v ࡛࠿ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ koro (wa) ࡐࡡ㡥 ࡢ ) ᑞࡽࡱࡌ, ࡛࠿ࡾ࣬ᑞࡾ gets tojimásu, tojíru v 㛚ࡋࡱࡌ, 㛚ࡋࡾ

sharp (pointed)

closes (a book, door wings, …)

togé n ࡛ࡅ࣬ๆ࣬Ც thorn tōgé n ᓑ mountain pass tōgei n 㝙ⰹ ceramic art, ceramics togemásu, togéru v 㐑ࡅࡱࡌ, 㐑ࡅ ࡾ achieves, accomplishes togimásu, tógu v ◂ࡁࡱࡌ, ◂ࡃ

sharpens, grinds, polishes

tōjitsu n ᙔ᪝ the day in question,

that very day, on the day tōjō n ᦒ஋ boarding a plane: ~-chü ᦒ஋୯ (in the midst of) boarding; tōjō´-ken n ᦒ஋ไ boarding pass tōjō n Ⓡሔ entry upon the stage … tóka …࡛࠾ or something

tōhenboku n ၄ንᮄ damned fool (like it) tōhoku-chihō ᮶໪ᆀ᪁ the Tøhoku tōka n ༎᪝ 1. 10th day (of a area of Japan (Aomori, Iwate, month) 2. (for) ten days (= tøkakan ༎᪝㛣) Miyagi, Akita, Yamagata, tokage n ࢹ࢜ࢣ࣬⻡⻨ lizard Fukushima prefectures) tōhon n ㅖᮇ full copy: koseki-~ tokai n 㒌ఌ city: dai-~ ኬ㒌ఌ ᡖ⡘ㅖᮇ full copy of one’s metropolis (= tóshi 都市) tōkai-chihō n ᮶ᾇᆀ᪁ the Tøkai family register tōhyō n ᢖ⚂ ballot, vote area of Japan (Mie, Aichi, Gifu, tói n ࡛࠷࣬ᵵ drain pipe, gutter Shizuoka prefectures) tōi adj 㐪࠷ 1. far-off, distant tokaku (… shimásu) adv ࡛࠾ࡂ (…ࡊࡱࡌ) apt/liable (to do): ~ 2. mimí ga ~ ⪝࠿㐪࠷ is hard no uwasa ࡛࠾ࡂࡡფ unsavory of hearing toiawase n ၡ࠷ྙࢂࡎ inquiry rumors toimásu, tóu v ၡ࠷ࡱࡌ, ၡ࠹ tokashimásu, tokásu v ⁈࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, ⁈࠾ࡌ melts/thaws/dissolves it inquires

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tokashimásu, tokásu

tokashimásu, tokásu v とかし[梳か し]ます, とかす・梳かす combs tokei n 時計 time piece; clock; watch tōkei n 統計 statistics tokemásu, tokéru v 溶けます, 溶け る it melts/thaws/dissolves tokemásu, tokéru v 解けます, 解け る comes undone; gets solved tokí n 時 time tóki n トキ・朱鷺・鴇 crested

ibis (bird)

tokki n 突起 projection, protuber-

ance tokki n 特記 special mention: ~-jikø 特記事項 special comments, special instruction: ~-nai kagiri 特記ない限り unless

specified otherwise tokku (ni) adv とっく(に) long before (= tokku no mukashi (ni) とっくの昔(に)) tokkumiaimásu, tokkumiau v 取っ組 み合います, 取っ組み合う grapple tokkuri n とっくり・徳利 saké

tō´ki n 陶器 pottery, ceramics, china → jíki 磁器 bottle/pitcher, ceramic decanter tō´ki n 登記 registration tō´ki n 冬期 winter (period/term): for serving saké ~-orinpikku 冬季オリンピック tokkyo n 特許 patent Winter Olympics tokkyū n 特急 special express (train); ~´-ken 特急券 specialtō´ki n 投機 speculation: ~ express ticket shimásu 投機します speculates tō´ki n 投棄 dumping, abandontokkyū n 特級 special class; (best)



tokidoki 時々・ときどき sometimes toko n 床(o-toko お床) bed: ~ ni tokimásu, tóku v 解きます, 解く tsukimásu 床に就きます takes to

undoes, unties; solves tokimásu, tóku v 説きます, 説く

explains, persuades, preaches

one’s bed, goes to bed … tokó suffix …とこ [INFORMAL] place (= … tokoró …所) tokonoma n 床の間 alcove in

tokimásu, tóku v とき[梳き]ます, Japanese room とく・梳く comb tóki ni adv …時に at the time that tokoro, … tokoró suffix 所, …所 …, when … 1. place 2. address tokí ni adv ときに・時に by the tokoro, … tokoró ところ, …ところ way, incidentally; sometimes circumstance, time: shita ~ desu tokkakari n 取っ掛かり a hold, a したところです has just done it; place to hold on; a clue (= tega- shite iru ~ desu しているところ です is (in the midst of) doing it; kari 手掛かり) tokkan kōji n 突貫工事 eleventhsuru ~ desu するところです is

hour job

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about to do it 286

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tokoró-de conj ࡛ࡆࢀ࡚ by the

way; well now


toku-nítō n ≁஦➴ special second


tokoro-dókoro n, adv ࡛ࡆࢀ࡜ࡆࢀ tokushoku n ≁Ⰵ special feature,

various places, here and there tokoró-ga conj ࡛ࡆࢀ࠿ but,


characteristic tokushu (na) adj ≁Ṟ ࡝ special,


… tokoró ga suffix, conj …࡛ࡆࢀ tokuten n ᚋⅤ points obtained, ࠿ however score (= sukoa ࢪࢤ࢓) tokoro-gaki n ᡜ᭡ࡀ [BOOKISH] tokuyū (no) adj ≁᭯ ࡡ special, address (written) (= atesaki ᏾඙, particular jü´sho పᡜ) Tōkyō n ᮶ா Tokyo; Tōkyō´-Dáigaku tokoroten n ࡛ࡆࢀ࡙ࢆ seaweed n ᮶ாኬᏕ Tokyo University (= Tø-dai ᮶ኬ); Tōkyō´-Eki n ᮶ா㥈 gelatin strips served cold in a

tangy soy sauce toko-ya n ᗃᒁ barber(shop) toku-… prefix ≁… special (= tokubetsu ≁ื); toku-betsu (no) adj ≁ื ࡡ special, particular, extra: ~ ni ≁ื࡞ especially; toku-chō n ≁ᚡ special feature/

Tokyo Station tō´kyoku n ᙔᑻ the authorities tomari n ἡࡱࡽ staying overnight;

night duty tomarimásu, tomaru v Ḿࡱࡽࡱࡌ࣬ Ḿࡱࡾ it stops tomarimásu, tomaru v ἡࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ἡࡱࡾ stays overnight tōmáwari n 㐪ᅂࡽ detour tōmáwashi n 㐪ᅂࡊ oblique

quality, (a distinguishing) characteristic toku n ᚠ virtue toku n ᚋ profit, advantage, gain statement tōkú adv 㐪ࡂ 1. the distance, far tōmei (na) adj ㏩᪺ ࡝ clear, off 2. so as to be far/distant → transparent tōi 㐪࠷ tomemásu, tomeru v Ḿࡴࡱࡌ, Ḿࡴ tokuhon n ㄖᮇ reader, reading book ࡾ stops it tokúi n ᚋណ 1. pride; forte, strong tomemásu, tomeru v ἡࡴࡱࡌ, ἡࡴ ࡾ puts one up overnight point: ~ (na) ᚋណ ࡝ favorite, tomemásu, tomeru v ⏻ࡴࡱࡌ, ⏻ࡴ proud, exultant 2. o-~ ࠽ᚋណ ࡾ fastens (firmly attaches); tome(regular) customer, patron 3. prosperity bári n ⏻ࡴ㔢 pin tokúi (na/no) adj ≁␏ ࡝ࡡ tōmen adv ᙔ㟻 for now; tōmen (no) adj ᙔ㟻 ࡡ immediate, unique, peculiar tóku (ni) adv ≁ ࡞ in particular, present; ~ no mondai ᙔ㟻ࡡၡ㢗 especially immediate problem 287

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tómi n ᐣ wealth, fortune, riches,


tonde-mo nái adj ࡛ࢆ࡚ࡵ࡝࠷

outrageous, terrible, shocking

tomimásu, tómu v ᐣࡲࡱࡌ, ᐣࡳ is tó-ni-kaku ࡛࡞࠾ࡂ anyway,

rich; abounds


tōmin n ෢┸ hibernation tómo n ཪ [BOOKISH] friend (= yüjin ཪெ); tomodachi n ཪ㐡 friend tómo n ఔ one’s companion, company (= døhan-sha ྜྷఔ⩽) … tó-mo! interj …࡛ࡵ! : ii tó mo ࠷࠷࡛ࡵ Of course! tó-mo-kaku adv ࡛ࡵ࠾ࡂ anyway,

ton-katsu n ㇔࢜ࢵ࣬ࢹࣤ࢜ࢵ

pork cutlet tónma n ࡛ࢆࡱ࣬ࢹ࣏ࣤ࣬㡳㤷

idiot, fool tonma n ࡛ࢆࡱ dullness, fool,

idiot, boob

tonneru n ࢹࣤࢾࣜ tunnel ton-ya n ၡᒁ wholesale store tōnyō-byō n ⢶ᑺ⑋ diabetes anyhow, at any rate tomonaimásu, tomonáu v ఔ࠷ࡱ tōnyū n ㇃஘ soybean milk ࡌ, ఔ࠹; … ni ~ …࡞ఔ࠷ࡱࡌ tōnyū n ᢖථ [BOOKISH] 1. a throw accompanies (into) 2. investment, investing tomo ni adv භ࡞ together (= issho toppatsu n ✲Ⓠ [BOOKISH] outbreak: ni ୌ⥬࡞) ~-jiko ✲Ⓠ஥ᨶ sudden accident; tō-mórokoshi n ࢹ࣓ࢗࣞࢤࢨ corn ~-jiken ✲Ⓠ஥௲ unforeseen (on the cob); ~-ko ࡛࠹ࡵࢀࡆࡊ accident; bombshell toppu n ࢹࢴࣈ top ⢂ cornstarch tomoshimásu, tomósu v ⅁ࡊࡱࡌ, tora n ࢹࣚ࣬⹙ tiger ⅁ࡌ burns (a light) toraberāzu chekku n ࢹ࣭ࣚ࣊ࣚࢫ tonaemásu, tonáéru v ၌࠻ࡱࡌ, ၌ ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠ traveler’s check ࠻ࡾ advocates; shouts; recites; toraburu n ࢹࣚࣇࣜ trouble: ~-mëkå ࢹࣚࣇ࣒࣭࣭ࣜ࢜ troublemaker calls; claims tōnan n ┈㞬 [BOOKISH] (suffering) Tora-doshi n ᐟᖳ year of the Tiger toraemásu, toráéru v ᤍࡼ࠻ࡱࡌ, ᤍ theft tonari n 㝼 next-door, neighbor(ing) ࡼ࠻ࡾ catches, seizes, captures, tonbo n ࢹࣤ࣍࣬⻬⺥ dragonfly arrests tonda adj ࡛ࢆࡓ outrageous, toraiaru n ࢹࣚ࢕࢓ࣜ trial: ~-koyø ࢹࣚ࢕࢓ࣜ㞘⏕ trial employment terrible, shocking tónde v ᐣࢆ࡚: ~ imásu ᐣࢆ࡚࠷ torákku n ࢹࣚࢴࢠ 1. truck 2. ࡱࡌ is rich, abundant → tomimásu track (for running) ᐣࡲࡱࡌ torakutā n ࢹࣚࢠࢰ࣭ tractor tonde-mo arimasén adj ࡛ࢆ࡚ࡵ࠵ toránku n ࢹࣚࣤࢠ (clothes/car) ࡽࡱࡎࢆOh, no. No way. trunk

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toránkusu n ࢹࣚࣤࢠࢪ trunks tori-atsukai n ཱིࡽ᡽࠷ treatment, toranpétto n ࢹࣚࣤ࣋ࢴࢹ trumpet management, transaction toranporin n ࢹࣚࣤ࣎ࣛࣤ tramtori-atsukaimásu, tori-atsukau v ཱིࡽ ᡽࠷ࡱࡌ, ཱིࡽ᡽࠹ handles, poline toránpu n ࢹࣚࣤࣈ playing cards deals with, manages toranshiibā n ࢹࣚࣤࢨ࣭ࣁ࣭ tori-awase n ཱིࡽྙࢂࡎ assortment tori-bun n ཱི ࡽ ฦ share transceiver, walkie-talkie torei n ࢹࣝ࢕ tray tórí-hiki n ཱིࡽᘤࡀཱི࣬ᘤ transactoremásu, toréru v ཱིࡿࡱࡌ, ཱིࡿ tion, deal, business, trade tori-kae n ཱིࡽ᭨࠻ change, ࡾ 1. (button, etc.) comes off 2. can take replacement torēnā n ࢹ࣭ࣝࢻ࣭ sweatshirt tori-kaemásu, tori-kaeru v ཱིࡽ᭨࠻ torendo n ࢹࣝࣤࢺ trend (fashion, ࡱࡌ, ཱིࡽ᭨࠻ࡾ replaces it tori-keshi n ཱིࡽᾐࡊ cancellation, etc.) (= keikø ലྡྷ) torēningu n ࢹ࣭ࣝࢼࣤࢡ training revocation; deletion, erasure (exercise, etc.) workout: ~-uea tori-keshimásu, tori-kesu v ཱིࡽᾐࡊ ࢹ࣭ࣝࢼࣤࢡ࢙ࢗ࢓ training ࡱࡌ, ཱིࡽᾐࡌ cancels, revokes; wear: ~-jimu ࢹ࣭ࣝࢼࣤࢡࢩ࣑ deletes, erases toriko n ࡛ࡽࡆ࣬⹥ 1. captive, training gym torēshingu-pē´pā n ࢹ࣭ࣝࢨࣤࢡ࣋ prisoner (= horyo ᤍ⹥) 2. person ࣭ࣂ࣭ tracing paper who is crazy about something/ tori n ࢹࣛ࣬㫵 bird; tori-kago n ࢹ someone; koi no ~ ᜂࡡ⹥ capࣛ࢜ࢥ࣬㫵⡪ bird cage; tori-i n tive of love 㫵ᑽ the gate to a Shinto shrine tori-kumi n ཱིࡽ⤄ࡲཱི࣬⤄ࡲ tori n ࢹࣛ࣬㭔 chicken; tori-niku n wrestling match/bout/program ࢹࣛࢼࢠ࣬㭔⫏ chicken meat torimásu, tóru v ཱིࡽࡱࡌ, ཱིࡾ tori-… prefix ཱིࡽ … [verb PREFIX]: 1. takes; takes away, removes 2. passes (the salt, sugar, etc.) takes and … tōrí n ㏳ࡽ street, avenue; passage 3. takes (a course) torimásu, tóru v ᧔ࡽࡱࡌ, ᧔ࡾ (= michi 㐠) tō´ri n ࡛࠽ࡽ࣬㏳ࡽ way (of takes (a picture) doing), manner: … no ~ ni …ࡡ tōrimásu, tō´ru v ㏳ࡽࡱࡌ, ㏳ࡾ ࡛࠽ࡽ࡞ like … (= (no) yø ni passes by, passes through ࡡ ࡻ࠹>ᵕ@࡞) tōrimásu, tō´ru v ㏩ࡽࡱࡌ, ㏩ࡾ tori-agemásu, tori-ageru v ཱིࡽ୕ࡅ penetrates ࡱࡌ, ཱིࡽ୕ࡅࡾ takes up; takes tōri-michi n ㏳ࡽ㐠 passage(way) away (= tsüro ㏳㊨)

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torishimari n 1. ཱིࡽ⥶ࡱࡽཱི࣬⥶ ࡽ control, management, supervision 2. ཱི⥶ managing director tori-shimarimásu, tori-shimaru v ཱིࡽ ⥶ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ཱིࡽ⥶ࡱࡾ controls,

manages, supervises, directs toritsugi 1. ཱིࡽḗࡁཱི࣬ḗࡁ answering the door 2. ཱིḗ an


ࢅཱིࡽࡱࡌ gets old; toshi-ake n ᖳ᪺ࡄ new year; toshi-koshi soba n ᖳ㉲ࡊࡐࡣ>ⶻ㯇@ buckwheat

noodles eaten traditionally on New Year’s Eve; toshi-go n ᖳᏄ child born within a year of another; toshi-kakkō n ᖳ᰹ይ one’s age (= toshi-goro ᖳ㡥): ~ ga rokujü

kurai no dansei ᖳ᰹ይ࠿ࡂࡼ usher; an agency ࠷ࡡ⏠ᛮ a man of about 60; toshima n ᖳቌ middle-aged woman; in particular tóro n ࡛ࢀ࣬ࢹࣞ fatty tuna toshi-shita (no) adj ᖳୖ ࡡ younger, torō n ᚈຘ vain effort junior; toshi-ue (no) n ᖳ୕ ࡡ tōrō n ⅁⡪ a stone lantern: ~ naga- older, senior; toshi-yórí n ᖳᐞࡽ shi ⅁⡪Ὦࡊ floating lanterns an old person (= kørei-sha 㧏 㱃⩽) on a river tōroku n Ⓡ㘋 registration tóshi n 都市 city: dai-~ ኬ㒌ᕰ big tō´ron n ゞㄵ [BOOKISH] debate, city, metropolis (= tokai 㒌ఌ) tōshí (no) adj ㏳ࡊ ࡡ direct, discussion, dispute tororo n ࢹ࡛ࣞࣞ࣬ࢀࢀ grated through (to destination): ~ de ikimásu ㏳ࡊ࡚⾔ࡀࡱࡌ goes yam; ~-kónbu ࡛ࢀࢀ᪳ᕱ kelp flakes direct (through to destination); Tóruko n ࢹࣜࢤ Turkey ~-gíppu ㏳ࡊว➚ a through toryō n ሧᩩ coating compositions ticket; ~-bangø ㏳ࡊ␊ྒ serial (paint, Japanese lacquer, number tōshi n ᢖ㈠ investment, investing varnish, etc.) tōsaku n ಻㘊 [BOOKISH] perversion: tōshi n 凍死 freezing to death, seiteki-~ ᛮⓏ಻㘊 paraphilia frost-killing tōsaku n ┈ష plagiarism tō´shi n 㜒ᚷ [BOOKISH] fighting spirit tōsan n ಻⏐ bankruptcy tōshimásu, tō´su v ㏳ࡊࡱࡌ, ㏳ࡌ tōsan n ∏ࡈࢆ (mostly male) dad lets through/in, admits; shows (= oyaji の∏, tø-chan ∏ࡔࡶࢆ) in; pierces tōsei n ⤣โ control (of prices, etc.) tōshimásu, tō´su v ㏩ࡊࡱࡌ, ㏩ࡌ tōsenbo, tōsenbō n ㏳ࡎࢆ࡯࣬㏳ࡎ penetrates ࢆᆎ blocking a person’s way tōshin-dai n ➴㌗ኬ life size toshí n ᖳ 1. year 2. ᖳ࣬ṋ ࠽ tōshin (jisatsu) n ᢖ㌗ ⮤ṽ comᖳ࣬࠽ṋ age: ~ o torimásu ᖳ mitting suicide by throwing 290 toriwake adv ࡛ࡽࢂࡄ especially,

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oneself (into water, off the plat- totonoemásu, totonóéru v ᩒ࠻ࡱࡌ, form, etc.) ᩒ࠻ࡾ regulates, adjusts; prepares tósho n ᅒ᭡ library (book collec- totonoimásu, totonóu v ᩒ࠷ࡱࡌ, tion): ~-gákari ᅒ᭡౿ the librar- ᩒ࠹ is in order; is ready ian (in charge), (book) custodian; totsuzen adv ✲↓ suddenly, abruptly toshó-kan n ᅒ᭡㤃 library (build- (= kyü ni ᛬࡞): ~ no ✲↓ࡡ ing); ~-in ᅒ᭡㤃ဤ librarian; toshó- sudden, abrupt shitsu n ᅒ᭡ᐄ library (book room) totté n ཱིࡖᡥ࣬ᢍᡥ a handle, knob tō´sho (wa) adv ᙔิ ࡢ [BOOKISH] tótte v ࡛ࡖ࡙: …ni ~ (…࡞ ࡛ࡖ ࡙ (with reference) to, for at first, initially, originally (= saisho (wa) ᭩ิ ࡢ , hajime tottemo adj ࡛ࡖ࡙ࡵ terribly, (wa) ิࡴ ࡢ ) extremely, completely (= totemo tōshu n ඨ㤫 party leader ࡛࡙ࡵ) tōshu n ᢖᡥ a pitcher (baseball, tótte okimásu (oku) v ཱིࡖ࡙࠽ࡀࡱ ࡌ ࠽ࡂ puts aside, reserves, etc.) tōshū n ㊻ぇ following predeces- holds tōwaku n ᙔᝠ embarrassment, sor’s way tóso n ࡛ࡐ࣬ᒎ⸵ spiced saké puzzlement (= konwaku ᅏᝠ) tōza n ᙔᗑ, ~-yókin ᙔᗑ㡰㔘 drunk at New Year’s tōsō n 㜒ண fight, labor struggle current deposit, checking account; tōsō n ㏠㉦ [BOOKISH] escape tōza no adj ᙔᗑ ࡡ [BOOKISH] tossa no adj ࡛ࡖࡈࡡ prompt; tos- temporary sa ni adv ࡛ࡖࡈ࡞ in an instant, tózan n Ⓡᒜ mountain-climbing promptly, immediately (= yama-nobori ᒜⓇࡽ); tozán-sha tō´sutā n ࢹ࣭ࢪࢰ࣭ toaster n Ⓡᒜ⩽ mountain-climber tō´suto n ࢹ࣭ࢪࢹ toast tōzen adv ᙔ↓ naturally, surely; ~ … totan ni …㏭❻࡞ (at) the instant/ no ᙔ↓ࡡ) proper, deserved tōzoku n ┈㈣ burglar moment that … tōtei adv ฽ᗇ [+ NEGATIVE VERB] tsū n ㏳ 1. an authority, an expert 2. (counts letter): ít-~ ୌ㏳ one absolutely (not) tō´te mo adv ၡ࠹࡙ࡵ even inletter tsúā n ࢵ࢓࣭ tour 1. group tour quiring totemo adj ࡛࡙ࡵ very [INFORMAL] 2. short trip (= shø-ryokø ᑚ᪉⾔) tsúbá n ࡗࡣ࣬ၖ spit, saliva (= tottemo ࡛ࡖ࡙ࡵ, taihen ኬን) tsúba n ࡗࡣ࣬㘝 sword-guard tō´tō adv ࡛࠹࡛࠹ at last, finally tsubakí n ࡗࡣࡀ࣬ၖ = tsúbá ࡗ ࡣ࣬ၖ (spit) (= tsuini ࡗ࠷࡞) 291

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tsubame n ࢵࣁ࣒࣬⇡ swallow

tsuge n ࡗࡅ࣬ࢵࢣ࣬᯼᳔ boxwood tsuge ࿈ࡅ revelation, divine

(bird) tsubasa n ࡗࡣࡈ࣬⩴ wing tsubo n ࡗ࡯࣬ኌ࣬኎ jar, crock tsubo n ᆟ tsubo (6 sq. ft.) tsubomarimásu, tsubomaru v ࡗ࡯ࡱ ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡗ࡯ࡱࡾ it puckers up;

message tsuge-guchi (ya) n ࿈ࡅཾ ᒁ


tsugemásu, tsugeru v ࿈ࡅࡱࡌ, ࿈ ࡅࡾ tells, informs tsugemásu, tsugeru v Ἰࡅࡱࡌ, Ἰ gets puckered up, is shut; it ࡅࡾ can pour narrows tsubomemásu, tsubomeru v ࡗ࡯ࡴ tsugemásu, tsugeru v ⤽ࡅࡱࡌ, ⤽ ࡱࡌ, ࡗ࡯ࡴࡾ puckers it; shuts ࡅࡾ can inherit tsugemásu, tsugeru v ᥃ࡅࡱࡌ, ᥃ it; narrows it tsubomi n ࡗ࡯ࡲ࣬ⷛ flower bud ࡅࡾ can join it tsúbu n ⢇ grain tsugi n ⤽ࡁ patch; (… ni) ~ o tsuburemásu, tsubureru v ₵ࡿࡱࡌ, atemásu …࡞ ⤽ࡁࢅᙔ࡙ࡱࡌ ₵ࡿࡾ it collapses/smashes patches it tsuburimásu, tsuburu v ࡗࡩࡽࡱࡌ, tsugí n ḗ next, the following; ~ ࡗࡩࡾ: mé o ~ ┘ࢅࡗࡩࡽࡱࡌ no ḗࡡ the next one tsugimásu, tsugu v Ἰࡁࡱࡌ, Ἰࡃ shuts/closes one’s eyes tsubushimásu, tsubusu v ₵ࡊࡱࡌ, pours it ₵ࡌ smashes (crushes, tsugimásu, tsugu v ⤽ࡁࡱࡌ, ⤽ࡃ

squeezes) it

inherits, succeeds to

tsubuyakimásu, tsubuyaku v ࡗࡩࡷ ࡀࡱࡌ, ࡗࡩࡷࡂ murmur; (tsuittå de) ~ ࢵ࢕ࢴࢰ࣭࡚ ࡗ ࡩࡷࡂtweet (Internet) tsuchí n ᅰ earth, ground tsuchí n ᵌ hammer tsūchi n ㏳▩ report, notice,

tsugimásu, tsugu v ᥃ࡁࡱࡌ, ᥃ࡃ

joins it, grafts, glues tsugi-me n ⤽ࡁ┘ joint, seam tsugi-me n ᥃ࡁ┘ joint, seam tsugitashi-kō´do n ⤽ࡁ㊂ࡊࢤ࣭ࢺ

extension cord tsugí-tsugi (ni) adv ḗࠍ ࡞ one


after another

tsūchō n ㏳ᖋ passbook, bankbook: yokin-~ 㡰㔘㏳ᖋ deposit book: chokin-~ ㈋㔘㏳ᖋ savings book tsúe n ᮣ cane, walking stick tsūgaku n ㏳Ꮥ commuting to school; tsūgaku-ro n ㏳Ꮥ㊨

school route

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tsugō n 㒌ྙ circumstances, convenience, opportunity: ~ ga íi/warúi 㒌ྙ࠿࠷࠷ᝇ࠷ (it is) convenient/inconvenient; ~ no yoi 㒌ྙࡡࡻ࠷ expedient: go-~ shugi ࡇ㒌ྙ୹⩇ expediency,

opportunism 292

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tsui n ᑊ a pair: ~ ni narimásu ᑊ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ becomes/makes/

tsukai-hashiri, tsukai-bashiri

tsuittā n ࢵ࢕ࢴࢰ࣭ Twitter

(Internet) tsuji n ㎯ crossroads; road(side), forms a pair tsúi adv ࡗ࠷ 1. unintentionally, street: yotsu-~ ᄿࡗ㎯ crossroad inadvertently 2. just (now): ~ (= jüji-ro ༎Ꮚ㊨) imashígata ࡗ࠷௑ࡊ࠿ࡒ just tsū-ji n ㏳ࡋ 1. bowel movement 2. effect now; ~ saki-hodo ࡗ࠷඙⛤ [BOOKISH] just a little while ago tsū-jimásu, tsū-jiru v ㏳ࡋࡱࡌ, ㏳ࡋ tsúide adv ḗ࠷࡚ next, in succes- ࡾ gets through, communicates; sion, subsequently; … ni ~ …࡞ transmits; is understood; is well ḗ࠷࡚ following …, next after/ versed in; one’s bowels move; (… o) tsü-ji te …ࢅ ㏳ࡋ࡙ to … (in importance) tsuide n ࡗ࠷࡚ opportunity, occa- through (the medium of) sion, convenience: ~ no setsu/sai/ tsūjín n ㏳ெ an expert, an authortoki ni ࡗ࠷࡚ࡡ⟿㝷᫤࡞ at ity; a man of the world tsūjō adv ㏳ᖏ usually, ordinarily your/one’s convenience; ~ ga arimásu ࡗ࠷࡚࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ has (= futsü ᬉ㏳, taitei ࡒ࠷࡙࠷࣬ ኬᢤ) occasion to… … tsuide (ni) suffix …ࡗ࠷࡚ ࡞ on tsūjō (no) adj ㏳ᖏ ࡡ usual, the occasion of/that …, inciden- ordinary tally to …; while …; along the way tsuká n ሪ mound tsuihō n ㏛ᨲ purge, banishment, tsuká n ࡗ࠾࣬ᯮ hilt tsūka n ㏳㈄ currency (money) exile tsúin n ࢵ࢕ࣤ, ~-rü´mu ࢵ࢕ࣤࣜ (= kahei ㈄ᖨ) ࣭࣑ twin(-bed)room; tsuin-béddo tsukáé n ࡗ࠾࠻ obstruction tsukaemásu, tsukáéru v ࡗ࠾࠻ࡱࡌ, n ࢵ࢕ࣤ࣊ࢴࢺ twin beds tsúi ni adv ࡗ࠷࡞ at last, finally ࡗ࠾࠻ࡾ 1. gets clogged up, (= tøtø ࡛࠹࡛࠹) obstructed, busy: nodo ga ~ ၿ࠿ tsuiraku n ቍⴘ (plane) crash ࡗ࠾࠻ࡱࡌ has difficulty in tsui-shi(kén) n ㏛ム 㥺 makeup swallowing 2. feels stuffed up exam (= sai-shi(ken) ්ム 㥺 ) (physically) 3. feels a pressure tsuitachí n ୌ᪝ first day of a month on one’s chest (mentally) tsuitate n ⾢❟ partition tsukai n ౐࠷ 1. message, errand tsúite suffix ࡗ࠷࡙ … ni ~ (no) … 2. messenger ࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ ࡡ about, concerning; tsukai-hashiri, tsukai-bashiri n ౐࠷ … ni ~ (wa) …࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ ࡢ as ㉦ࡽ, tukai-ppashiri ౐࠷ࡖ㉦ࡽ far as … is concerned errand runner 293

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tsukaimásu, tsukau

tsukaimásu, tsukau v ౐࠷ࡱࡌ, ౐࠹ tsuki-demásu, tsuki-déru v ✲ࡀฝࡱ ࡌ, ✲ࡀฝࡾ protrudes, sticks uses; spends; employs; handles tsukamaemásu, tsukamaeru v ᤍࡱ࠻ out ࡱࡌ, ᤍࡱ࠻ࡾ catches, seizes, tsukimásu, tsuku v ✲ࡀࡱࡌ, ✲ࡂ


stabs, thrusts, pokes, pushes

tsukamimásu, tsukámu v ࡗ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ, ࡗ࠾ࡳ seizes, grasps, clutches tsuké n ௛ࡄ bill, account: ~ de kaimásu ௛ࡄ࡚㈑࠷ࡱࡌ buys it

tsukimásu, tsúku v ௛ࡀࡱࡌ, ௛ࡂ 1. comes in contact 2. sticks to;

joins; follows; touches

tsukimásu, tsúku v ╌ࡀࡱࡌ, ╌ࡂ on credit arrives (= tøchaku shimásu, tsukeawase n ௛ࡄྙࢂࡎ garnish, tøchaku suru ฽╌ࡊࡱࡌ, ฽╌ ࡌࡾ) relish tsukemásu, tsukeru v ₍ࡄࡱࡌ, ₍ tsukimásu, tsúku v Ⅴࡀࡱࡌ, Ⅴࡂ ࡄࡾ pickles; soaks burns, is turned (on), is lit tsuke-mono n ₍∸ Japanese pickles tsukimásu, tsukíru v ᑸࡀࡱࡌ, ᑸࡀ tsukí n ᭮ moon; month; tsukí-hi n ࡾ comes to an end, runs out ᭮᪝ time (days and years); tsuki- tsūkin n ㏳ໂ commuting to work; mí n ᭮ず moon viewing; tsukí-yo ~-jíkan ㏳ໂ᫤㛣 commuting n ᭮እ moonlight (night) time …-tsuki (no) …௛ࡀ ࡡ with (… tsūkō n ㏳⾔ passing, passage, attached) transit: ~-dome ㏳⾔Ḿࡴ closed tsuki-ai ௛ࡀྙ࠷ n ࠽௛ࡀྙ࠷ to traffic, No Passage; ~-nin ㏳ ⾔ெ passer-by association, social company, Tsukúba n ࡗࡂࡣ࣬➻ἴ Tsukuba friendship (= køsai ஹ㝷) tsuki-aimásu, tsuki-áu v ௛ࡀྙ࠷ࡱ tsukuda-ni n ࢵࢠࢱࢼ࣬డ↳ conࡌ, ௛ࡀྙ࠹: … to ~ …࡛௛ࡀྙ serves boiled down from fish or ࠷ࡱࡌ associates (with), enjoys seaweed the company of, goes out (with tsukue n ᮐ desk (= desuku ࢸࢪࢠ) tsukurí షࡽ1. n makeup, toilette one’s lover) tsuki-atari ✲ࡀᙔࡒࡽ n the end of 2. n artistically arranged slices

a street/corridor

of raw fish

tsuki-atarimásu, tsuki-atáru v ✲ࡀᙔ tsukúri-banashi n షࡽヨ (stories) ࡒࡽࡱࡌ, ✲ࡀᙔࡒࡾ runs into; fiction tsukurimásu, tsukúru v షࡽࡱࡌ, ~ comes to the end of (a street) tsuki-dashimásu, tsuki-dásu v ✲ࡀฝ షࡾ makes, creates, produces, ࡊࡱࡌ, ✲ࡀฝࡌ makes it promanufactures, prepares (fixes)

trude, sticks it out

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…-tsumori (de)wa/ja...

jikan o ~ ᫤㛣ࢅషࡽࡱࡌ makes tsuma-yōji n ࡗࡱࡻ࠹ࡋ࣬∆᳷ᯖ

(sets aside) time, sets up a time


tsukurimásu, tsukúru v ㏸ࡽࡱࡌ, ㏸ tsuma-zukimásu, tsuma-zuku v ࡗࡱ ࡾ makes, forms, creates, grows, ࡍࡀࡱࡌ, ࡗࡱࡍࡂ stumbles manufactures, builds (big things) tsume n ∆ 1. claw (= kagizume tsukuroimásu, tsukuróu v ⧃࠷ࡱࡌ, 㖃∆) (→ taka-no-tsume 㮒ࡡ∆): ⧃࠹ mends, repairs tora no ~ ࢹࣚ>⹙@ࡡ∆ tiger’s tsukushimásu, tsukúsu v ᑸࡂࡊࡱࡌ, claw 3. hoof; tsume-kíri n ∆วࡽ ᑸࡂࡌ exhausts, runs out of; nail clippers; tsume-yásuri n ∆ࡷ ࡌࡽ nail file, emery board exerts oneself, strives tsúma n ጏ wife 1. my wife (= tsumemásu, tsuméru v ョࡴࡱࡌ, ョ kanai ᐓහ) 2. (your/someone ࡴࡾ 1. stuffs, crams 2. cans else’s) wife (= oku-san ዚࡈࢆ) tsumetai adj ෫ࡒ࠷ cold (to the tsumá n ࡗࡱ࣬〃 skirt (of Kimono) touch) tsumá n ࢵ࣏ sashimi garnishings tsúmi n ⨝ crime, sin, guilt, fault; tsumami ᦤࡲ࣬ࡗࡱࡲ 1. n a knob; ~-bukai ⨝῕࠷ sinful a pinch 2. n = tsumamimono ࡗ tsumi-(i)re n ࡗࡲࡿ ࡗࡲ࠷ࡿ ࡱࡲ∸, o-tsúmami ࠽ࡗࡱࡲ fishballs (for soup) things to nibble on while drink- tsumimásu, tsumu v ✒ࡲࡱࡌ, ✒ࡳ piles it up, accumulates it; ing (= sakana ࡈ࠾࡝࣬⫪) tsumamimásu, tsumamu v ᦤࡲࡱࡌ, deposits; loads ᦤࡳ pinches, picks; summarizes tsumimásu, tsumu v ᦤࡲࡱࡌ, ᦤࡳ tsumaránai adj ࡗࡱࡼ࡝࠷ worth- gathers, plucks, clips, picks tsumitate-kin n ✒❟㔘 reserve fund: less, no good, boring, trivial tsúmari adv ࡗࡱࡽ after all; in = ~-chókin ✒❟㈋㔘 installment short (= kekkyoku (no tokoro) savings ⤎ᑻ ࡡ࡛ࡆࢀ , yøsuruni こࡌ …-tsumori ࡗࡵࡽ intention, ࡾ࡞) plan, (what one has in) mind, tsumarimásu, tsumáru v ョࡱࡽࡱࡌ, purpose, expectation ョࡱࡾ is clogged up, choked; is …-tsumori (de)wa/ja... ࡗࡵࡽ ࡚ stuck; is shortened; is crammed ࡢࡋࡶ [+ NEGATIVE verb] tsumáru tokoro ࡗࡱࡾ࡛ࡆࢀ = didn’t/don’t mean to, had/have no intention of: kau-tsumori wa tsúmari ࡗࡱࡽ (after all) tsumasaki n ࡗࡱ඙࣬∆඙ toe, toe arimasen ㈑࠹ࡗࡵࡽࡢ࠵ࡽࡱࡎ ࢆ I have no intention of buying: tip(s) tsumashíi adj ࡗࡱࡊ࠷࣬೛ࡊ࠷ is sumimasen, ki o warukusaserutsumori wa nakattandesu ࡌࡲ thrifty, frugal

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ࡱࡎࢆࠉẴࢅᝇࡂࡈࡎࡾࡗࡵࡽ tsurai adj ࡗࡼ࠷࣬㎖࠷ painful, ࡢ࡝࠾ࡖࡒࢆ࡚ࡌ Sorry, I didn’t cruel, hard tsuranukimásu, tsuranuku v ㈇ࡀࡱࡌ, mean to offend you. tsumují-kazé n ࡗࡳࡋ㢴࣬᪍㢴 ㈇ࡂ 1. goes through, penetrates whirlwind (= kantsü shimásu ㈇㏳ࡊࡱࡌ, tsuná n ⥐ rope, cord, cable; tsuna kantsü suru ㈇㏳ࡌࡾ): dangan watari n ⥐ῳࡽ walking a tightga karada o tsuranukimashita ᙆ ୷࠿మࢅ㈇ࡀࡱࡊࡒ the bullet rope, balancing act tsúna n ࢵࢻ tuna(fish) (canned); went through the body 2. accomtsuna-sándo n ࢵࢻࢦࣤࢺ tuna-fish plishes: shinnen o ~ ಘᛍࢅ㈇ࡀ ࡱࡌ has the courage of one’s sandwich tsunagari ࡗ࡝࠿ࡽ࣬⦽࠿ࡽ n convictions tsurara n ࢵࣚࣚ࣬ểᰍ icicle connection, relation tsunagarimásu, tsunagaru v ࡗ࡝࠿ tsure ㏻ࡿ n company, companion ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡗ࡝࠿ࡾ is connected, tsurimásu, tsureru v ㏻ࡿࡱࡌ, ㏻ࡿ ࡾ brings along, is accompanied linked tsunagi ࡗ࡝ࡁ n a link, a conby (brings/takes one along) tsurenái adj ࡗࡿ࡝࠷ coldhearted, nection tsunagimásu, tsunagu v ࡗ࡝ࡁࡱࡌ, cruel ࡗ࡝ࡃ connects, links, ties tsuri n ࡗࡽ࣬㔦ࡽ fishing; tsurisen ࡗࡽ㖱 (small) change tsunami n ὘ἴ tsunami tsúne (no) adj ᖏ ࡡ usual, tsuri 㔦ࡽ n fishing: sakana-~ 㨮 㔦ࡽ fishing: ippon-zuri ୌᮇ㔦 ordinary tsunerimásu, tsunéru v ࡗࡠࡽࡱࡌ, ࡽ single hook fishing; tsuri-bari n ࡗࡠࡾ pinches 㔦ࡽ㔢 fishhook; tsuri-dōgu n 㔦ࡽ tsunézune n ࡗࡠࡘࡠ࣬ᖏࠍ all 㐠ර fishing gear; tsuri-zao n 㔦ࡽ the time, usually (= fudan ᬉṹ, ➆ fishing rod itsumo ࠷ࡗࡵ) tsuri n ࡗࡽ࣬ྛࡽ hanging tsunó n ぽ horn (of an animal): (things), hanging tool: kubi-~ sai no ~ ࢦ࢕ࡡぽ rhinoceros horn jisatsu 㤫ྛࡽ⮤ṽ suicide by tsū-píisu n ࢵ࣭ࣅ࣭ࢪ a two-piece hanging: zubon-~ ࢫ࣍ࣤࡗࡽ >ྛࡽ@ suspender, galluses; tsuriwoman’s suit tsurá n 㟻࣬ࡗࡼ (slipshod Japan- bashi n ࡗࡽ>ྛࡽ@ᶣ suspension ese) 1. face (= kao 㢞) 2. surface, bridge; tsuri-gane n ࡗࡽ>ྛࡽ@㚕 appearance: uwat-~ dake de han- big bell (temple, etc.) dan shimásu ୕ࡖ㟻ࡓࡄ࡚ึ᩷ tsuriai n 㔦 ࡽ ྙ࠷࣬ࡗࡽ࠵࠷ ࡊࡱࡌ judges only by appearances balance, equilibrium, symmetry

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tsutsushimimásu, tsutsushimu

tsurimásu, tsuru v ྛࡽࡱࡌ, ྛࡾ

hangs it (by a line), suspends, strings up tsurimásu, tsuru v 㔦ࡽࡱࡌ, 㔦ࡾ fishes tsū´ro n ㏳㊨ 1. passage(way) (= tøri-michi ㏳ࡽ㐠) 2. aisle (= røka ᗧୖ) 3. thoroughfare tsurú n ࢵࣜ࣬ⶕ vine; earpieces of a glass frame tsurú n ࡗࡾ࣬ᘳ string (of bow or violin) tsurú n ࡗࡾ࣬㕯 handle tsúru n ࢵࣜ࣬㭧 crane (bird) tsurugí n ๟࣬ࡗࡾࡁ sword tsūshin n ㏳ಘ 1. correspondence: ~-køza ㏳ಘㅦᗑ correspondence course: ~-hanbai ㏳ಘ㈅኉ mail order 2. report, news: gakkyü~ Ꮥ⣥㏳ಘ class report/news 3. communications: ~-shudan ㏳ಘ ᡥṹ means of communication tsutá n ࢵࢰ࣬ⶤ ivy tsutaé n ఎ࠻ → dengon ఎゕ,

tsuto adv ࡗ࡛ [BOOKISH] quickly tsutomé n ໂࡴ [BOOKISH] work(ing), job (post); tsutome-nin n ໂࡴெ office worker; tsutomesaki n ໂࡴ඙ place of employ-

ment, one’s office tsutomé n ຸࡴ duty, role tsutomemásu, tsutoméru v ໂࡴࡱࡌ, ໂࡴࡾ [BOOKISH] is employed, works; works as; ginkø´-in o ~ 㖗⾔ဤࢅໂࡴ>ຸࡴ@ࡱࡌ works

as a bank clerk tsutomemásu, tsutoméru v ຑࡴࡱࡌ, ຑࡴࡾ [BOOKISH] exerts oneself,

strives, endeavors

tsutsu n ➼ cylinder, pipe (= kuda ⟮, kan ⟮) …´tsútsu suffix …ࡗࡗ [LITERARY] 1. = …-nágara …࡝࠿ࡼ (while doing) 2. … (shi)~ arimásu … ࡊ ࡗࡗ࠵ࡽࡱࡌ is about to … (= …-te imásu …࡙࠷ࡱࡌ) tsutsúji n ࢵࢵࢩ azalea tsutsumí n ໜࡲ package, bundle: messēji ࣒ࢴࢬ࣭ࢩ ~-gami ໜࡲ⣤ package paper (= tsutaemásu, tsutaeru v ఎ࠻ࡱࡌ, høsø-shi ໜ⿞⣤) ఎ࠻ࡾ passes it on to someone tsutsumí n ላ 1. dike, bank, emelse; reports, communicates; bankment 2. reservoir (= chosuichi ㈋Ềờ) transmits; hands down tsutanai adj ࡗࡒ࡝࠷࣬ᣃ࠷ halt- tsutsumimásu, tsutsúmu v ໜࡲࡱࡌ, ing, unskillful, poor (= heta ୖᡥ) ໜࡳ wraps it up tsutawarimásu, tsutawaru v ఎࢂࡽ tsutsushimi n ួࡲ prudence, ࡱࡌ, ఎࢂࡾ is passed on; is discretion tsutsushimimásu, tsutsushimu v ួࡲ reported, communicated; is ࡱࡌ, ួࡳ is discreet, is careful; transmitted; is handed down tsuto n ࡗ࡛࣬ⱎ straw wrapping, refrains from: kotoba o ~ ゕⴝࢅ ួࡲࡱࡌ is careful about how straw-wrapped package

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tsutsushimimásu, tsutsushimu

one speaks and behaves

light (clear) soup

tsutsushimimásu, tsutsushimu v ㅵࡲ tsuzukemásu, tsuzukeru v ⤾ࡄࡱࡌ, ࡱࡌ, ㅵࡳ is humble, is reverent ⤾ࡄࡾ continues it, goes on tsu(t)tsukimásu, tsu(t)tsúku v ࡗ ࡖ (with it) tsuzukete ⤾ࡄ࡙ adv continuously, ࡗࡀࡱࡌ, ࡗ ࡖ ࡗࡂ pecks at


in succession, going on (to the

tsuya n ࢵࣕ࣬Ⰷ gloss, shine, next) luster (= gurosu ࢡࣞࢪ, køtaku tsuzuki n ⤾ࡀ continuation, කἉ); tsuya-keshi n ࢵࣕ>Ⰷ@ᾐࡊ sequel, series tsuzukimásu, tsuzuku v ⤾ࡀࡱࡌ, ⤾ matte tsuya n ㏳እ (funeral)-wake, allࡂ it continues (will continue);

night vigil over a body


tsū´yaku n ㏳ズ interpreter; interpreting: ~-sha ㏳ズ⩽ an inter-

tsuzuku n ⤾ࡂ To Be Continued tsuzumarimásu, tsuzumáru v ࡗࡘࡱ ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡗࡘࡱࡾ [BOOKISH] it

preter tsuyo-bi n ᙁℾ high flame tsūyō shimásu (suru) v ㏳⏕ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ 1. is used commonly 2. is accepted among people, is valid: sekai dewa tsüyø shimasén ୠ⏲࡚ࡢ㏳⏕ࡊࡱࡎࢆ is not

accepted in the world tsuyói adj ᙁ࠷ strong; tsúyosa ᙁࡈ strength tsuyu n ࡗࡹ࣬ᱭ㞭 rainy season

shrinks, gets shortened tsuzumí n 㰐࣬ࡗࡘࡲ drum (hour-

glass-shaped) tsuzure n ⥓ࡿ 1. rags 2. hand-

woven brocade tsuzuri n ⥓ࡽ࣬ࡗࡘࡽ 1. spelling 2. binding, bound (sewn) pages tsuzurimásu, tsuzuru v ⥓ࡽࡱࡌ, ⥓ࡾ 1. spells 2. composes, writes 3. patches; binds; sews

(in Japan)


tsúyu n 㟚 dew tu… → tsu… tsúyu n ࡗࡹ࣬Ị (o-tsúyu ࠽ࡗࡹ) ty… → ch…

U u n ࢗ࣬㬴 cormorant (fishing bird); u-kai n 㬴㣣࠷ cormorant


guruma n ஘ẍ㌬ baby carriage ubaimásu, ubáu v ዞ࠷ࡱࡌ, ዞ࠹

seizes, robs, plunders

uba n ஘ẍ nanny (who cares for uchi n ࠹ࡔ࣬ᐓ 1. ~ ࠽࠹ࡔ>࠽ baby/babies in a household); uba- ᐓ@ house, home; family: ~ no

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náka de/ni ࠹ࡔ>ᐓ@ࡡ୯࡚࡞ indoors 2. … uchí, … uchi (no) ࠹ࡔ ࡡ [INFORMAL] we/us; I/me; our, my: ~ no kazoku ࠹ࡔࡡᐓ ᪐ my family uchi n හ … no ~ (de) … ࡡහ ࡚ inside; among uchi n ࠹ࡔ …-(shi)nai ~ ni … ࡊ ࡝࠷࠹ࡔ࡞ before it happens


uchi-keshi n ᡬࡔᾐࡊ denial;

negation, negative uchi-keshimásu, uchi-kesu v ᡬࡔᾐ ࡊࡱࡌ, ᡬࡔᾐࡌ denies (a rumor,

etc.), takes back a remark uchi-koroshimásu, uchi-korósu v ᦹࡔ ṽࡊࡱࡌ, ᦹࡔṽࡌ shoots to

death uchimásu, útsu v ᡬࡔࡱࡌ, ᡬࡗ

(while it has not yet happened)

hits, strikes, hammers; sends a

uchi-… prefix හ inside, inner; uchi-bori n හᇷ inner moat; uchigawa n හഁ the inside; uchi-ki (na) adj හẴ ࡝ shy [IN POSITIVE SENSE]: ~ na seikaku හẴ࡝ᛮ᰹ shy disposition; uchi-wa n හ㍧ ① the family circle; the inside: ~ no hanashi හ㍧ࡡヨ private matter, family affair ② uchiwa (na) හ㍧ ࡝ moderate, modest, conservative; uchi-wake n හズ

telegram; uchí-mí n ᡬࡔ㌗ bruise uchimásu, útsu v ᦹࡔࡱࡌ, ᦹࡗ fires, shoots (a gun) uchíwa n ࠹ࡔࢂ࣬ᅆᡢ (Japanese)

a flat fan uchōten n ᭯㡤ኮ rapturous delight,

being beside oneself with joy, being in seventh heaven, being overjoyed: ~ ni narimásu ᭯㡤ኮ ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ goes into raptures úchū n Ꮻᏼ universe, (outer) breakdown, particulars, details: space; uchū-fuku n Ꮻᏼ᭱ spaceshishutsu no ~ ᨥฝࡡහズ suit; uchū-hikō-shi n Ꮻᏼ㣍⾔ኃ breakdown of expenditures astronaut uchi-age n ᡬࡔ୕ࡅ 1. launch udé n ⭆ 1. arm 2. special skill; (rocket) 2. close (performance, ude-dókei n ⭆᫤゛ wristwatch; ude-gumi n ⭆⤄ࡲ folding one’s project, etc.) uchi-akemásu, uchi-akeru v ᡬࡔ᪺ࡄ arms; ude-jiman (no) adj ⭆⮤ះ ࡱࡌ, ᡬࡔ᪺ࡄࡾ confesses, ࡡ proud of one’s skill; udekiki (no) adj ⭆ฺࡀ ࡡ skilled, frankly reveals, confides uchi-awase n ᡬࡔྙࢂࡎ࣬ᡬྙࡎ competent, able; ude-maé n ⭆๑ consultation, meeting (in the office, prowess, skill, ability etc. by appointment) (= kaigi ఌ údo n ࢗࢺ࣬≺Ὡ Japanese celery ㆗, miitingu ࣐࣭ࢷ࢔ࣤࢡ) udon n ࠹࡜ࢆ Japanese wheatuchi-awasemásu, uchi-awaséru v ᡬࡔ flour noodles: ~-ya ࠹࡜ࢆᒁ ྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, ᡬࡔྙࢂࡎࡾ holds Japanese noodle shop ue n ୕ 1. …ué …୕ above, a meeting/consultation 299

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upper part, surface, top: … no ~ ugokimásu, ugóku v ິࡀࡱࡌ, ິࡂ (de/ni/no) …ࡡ୕ ࡚࡞ࡡ on, one/it moves on top of 2. ué ୕ (= toshi-~ ᖳ uindo-burē´kā n ࢗ࢕ࣤࢺࣇ࣭ࣝ࢜ ୕) older, oldest ࣭ windbreaker ue v 㣒࠻ hunger, starvation uindō shoppingu n ࢗ࢔ࣤࢺࢗࢨࣘ uédingu-… prefix ࢙ࢗࢸ࢔ࣤࢡ ࢴࣅࣤࢡ window shopping wedding; uédingu-doresu n ࢙ࢗࢸ uínku n ࢗ࢕ࣤࢠ wink(ing) ࢔ࣤࢡࢺࣝࢪ wedding dress uirusu n ࢗ࢕ࣜࢪ virus; ~-taisakusofuto ࢗ࢕ࣜࢪᑊ➿ࢮࣆࢹ (= hanayome-ishø ⰴᎋ⾨⿸); uédingu-pātii n ࢙ࢗࢸ࢔ࣤࢡࣂ࣭ antivirus software ࢷ࢔ wedding party; uédingu-ringu uísúkíi n ࢗ࢕ࢪ࣭࢞, wísukii ࢗ࢔ n ࢙ࢗࢸ࢔ࣤࢡࣛࣤࢡ wedding ࢪ࣭࢞ whisky úji n Ắ clan, family; family name ring uehāsu n ࢙ࢗࣀ࣭ࢪ wafer (= sei ጞ) ueki n ᳔ᮄ garden/potted plant; uji (mushi) n ࢗࢩ ࣑ࢨ ࣬⺣ ⹰ ueki-ya n ᳔ᮄᒁ gardener maggot uemásu, ueru v ᳔࠻ࡱࡌ, ᳔࠻ࡾ ukabimásu, ukabu v ᾃ࠾ࡦࡱࡌ, ᾃ ࠾ࡩ floats plants, grows plant uemásu, uéru v 㣒࠻ࡱࡌ, 㣒࠻ࡾ ukagai n చ࠷ visit; inquiry, constarves (hungers) sultation Ueno n ୕㔕 Ueno; Uenó-Eki ୕㔕 ukagaimásu, ukagau v చ࠷ࡱࡌ, 㥈 Ueno Station; Ueno-Kø´en ୕ చ࠹ [HUMBLE] I visit (you); I 㔕පᅧ Ueno Park inquire; I hear uérudan n ࢙ࢗࣜࢱࣤ well-done ukagaimásu, ukagau v ❒࠷ࡱࡌ, ❒࠹ keeps a watchful eye on (beef) uésuto n ࢙ࢗࢪࢹ waist (= koshi (the situation); (kikái/chansu ⭔); ~-pøchi ࢙ࢗࢪࢹ࣭࣎ࢲ o ~ ᶭఌࢲࣔࣤࢪࢅ❒࠷ࡱࡌ) belt bag watches for (an opportunity) uē´tā n ࢙࣭ࢗࢰ࣭ waiter ukai n ㎵ᅂ࣬࠹ᅂ detour uē´toresu n ࢙࣭ࢗࢹࣝࢪ waitress ukárimásu, ukáru v ུ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ, ུ ugai n ࠹࠿࠷ a gargle; ugai (o) ࠾ࡾ passes, succeeds shimásu (suru) v ࠹࠿࠷ ࢅ ࡊࡱࡌ ukatsu n ࠹࠾ࡗ࣬㎵㜇 carelessness, ࡌࡾ gargles inattentiveness, thoughtlessness: ugokashimásu, ugokásu v ິ࠾ࡊࡱ ~ ni mo ࠹࠾ࡗ>㎵㜇@࡞ࡵ careࡌ, ິ࠾ࡌ moves it lessly, inattentively, thoughtlessly ugokí n ິࡀmovement, motion; uke-iremásu, uké-ireru v ུࡄථࡿࡱ ࡌ, ུࡄථࡿࡾ accepts trend 300

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ukemásu, ukéru v ུࡄࡱࡌ, ུࡄࡾ uki-bori n ᾃࡀᙦࡽ relief (sculp-

accepts; receives; takes; gets; ture consisting of shapes carved suffers, incurs on a surface) (= reriifu ࣭ࣝࣛࣆ): ukemi n ུ㌗ 1. passive voice shinjutsu o ~ ni shimásu 真実ࢅ 2. passive (attitude) ᾃࡀᙦࡽ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ call attention uke-mochimásu, uke-mótsu v ུࡄᣚ to the fact that ... ࡔࡱࡌ, ུࡄᣚࡗ takes/accepts/ ukimásu, uku v ᾃࡀࡱࡌ, ᾃࡂ floats ukiwa n ᾃࡀ㍧ inner tube (swimhas charge of uke-oi n ㄫㇿ࣬ㄫࡄㇿ࠷ a ming) ukiyo n ᾃୠ [BOOKISH] this fleetcontract (to undertake work); ukeoi-gyōsha n ㄫ ࡄ ㇿ ࠷ ᴏ⩽ ing world, transient world; ukiyo-e contractor; ukeoi-shigoto n ㄫ ࡄ n ᾃୠ⤦ Japanese woodblock ㇿ ࠷ ௘஥ contract work prints uke-oimásu, uke-óu v ㄫࡄㇿ࠷ࡱࡌ, ukkári adv ࠹ࡖ࠾ࡽ absentmindㄫࡄㇿ࠹ contracts (to undertake edly (= tsui ࡗ࠷) umá n ࣏ࢗ࣬㤷 horse work) ukeoi-nin n ㄫㇿெ contractor uma ga aimásu (au) v ࣏ࢗ>㤷@࠿ྙ uketamawarimásu, uketamawáru v ᢆ ࠷ࡱࡌ ྙ࠹ gets on well, gets ࡽࡱࡌ, ᢆࡾ I (humbly) hear/ along well umái adj ࠹ࡱ࠷࣬᪠࠷࣬⨶࿝࠷ listen/consent uke-torimásu, uke-toru v ུࡄཱིࡽࡱ (commonly male) tasty, delicious ࡌ, ུࡄཱིࡾ accepts, receives, (= oishii ⨶࿝ࡊ࠷) umái adj ࠹ࡱ࠷࣬୕ᡥ࠷ 1. skilltakes; takes it (= understand it) uketsugimásu, uketsugu v ུࡄ⤽ࡁ ful, good (= jøzu ୕ᡥ) 2. sucࡱࡌ, ུࡄ⤽ࡃ succeeds to cessful, profitable uke-tsuke n ུ௛ acceptance; úmaku adv ࠹ࡱࡂ࣬᪠ࡂ࣬⨶࿝ࡂ information desk; receptionist so as to be tasty uke-tsukemásu, uke-tsukéru v ུࡄ௛ úmaku adv ࠹ࡱࡂ࣬୕ᡥࡂ 1. skillࡄࡱࡌ, ུࡄ௛ࡄࡾ accepts, fully 2. successfully ūman ribu n ࣭࣏ࢗࣤࣛࣇ women’s receives uke-uri n ུࡄ኉ࡽ borrowing liberation umare ⏍ࡱࡿ࣬⏐ࡱࡿ n birth someone else’s ideas uké-zara n ུࡄ⓸ saucer (for cup) umaremásu, umareru v ⏍ࡱࡿ>⏐ uki n 㞭Ꮢ࣬㞭᭿ rainy season ࡱࡿ@ࡱࡌ, ⏍ࡱࡿ>⏐ࡱࡿ@ࡾ ukiashi dachimásu (dátsu) v ᾃࡀ㊂❟ is born ࡔࡱࡌ ❟ࡗ is wavering, is ume n ࣒ࢗ࣬ᱭ Japanese apricot ready to run away (“plum”); ume-boshi n ᱭᖱࡊ 301

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pickled plum/apricot; ume-shu n ᱭ㒿 apricot wine umekí n ࠹ࡴࡀ࣬࿢ࡀ a groan umekimásu, uméku v ࠹ࡴࡀࡱࡌ࣬ ࿢ࡀࡱࡌ, ࠹ࡴࡂ࣬࿢ࡂ groans umemásu, umeru v ᇔࡴࡱࡌ, ᇔࡴ ࡾ buries (= uzumemásu ࠹ࡍࡴ ࡱࡌ࣬ᇔࡴࡱࡌ) umí n ࠹ࡲ࣬⮃ pus úmi n ᾇ sea; umibe n ᾇ㎮ (sea-) shore, seaside; umi ni sen-nen yama ni sen-nen ᾇ࡞༐ᖳᒜ࡞༐ᖳ ① knowing every trick in the book ② a sly old fox (= umi-sen yamasen ᾇ༐ᒜ༐); umi no hi n ᾇࡡ᪝


unagashimásu, unagásu v ಀࡊࡱࡌ, ಀࡌ stimulates, urges (on) unagi n ࢗࢻ࢟࣬㫈 eel; una-don n ࠹࡝୺ a bowl of rice topped with broiled eel; unagi nobori n ࠹࡝ࡁⓇࡽ>୕ࡽ@࣬㫈Ⓡࡽ>୕ ࡽ@ rising rapidly and steadily

(prices, etc.) unarí n ၑࡽ࣬࠹࡝ࡽ a roar; a

growl a groan unarimásu, unáru v ၑࡽࡱࡌ, ၑࡾ roars; growls; (= umekimásu ࠹ ࡴࡀࡱࡌ࣬࿢ࡀࡱࡌ) groans unazukimásu v ࠹࡝ࡍࡀࡱࡌ࣬㢌 ࡀࡱࡌ, unazuku ࠹࡝ࡍࡂ࣬㢌 ࡂ nods únchin n 㐘㈜ fare (transportation) undō n 㐘ິ 1. movement: shakai-~ ♣ఌ㐘ິ social movement: senkyo-~ 㐽ᣪ㐘ິ election campaign 2. exercise; sports; athletics; ~-senshu 㐘ິ㐽ᡥ athlete únga n 㐘ἑ canal úni n ࢗࢼ࣬㞴୸ sea urchin (roe) unpan n 㐘ᦑ transport(-ation) (of

Marine day, Ocean Day (3rd Monday of July) umimásu, umu v ⏍ࡲࡱࡌ࣬⏐ࡲࡱ ࡌ, ⏍ࡳ࣬⏐ࡳ gives birth to, bears umimásu, úmu v ⮃ࡲࡱࡌ, ⮃ࡳ festers umō n ⩒ẗ feather úmu n ᭯↋ existence (or nonexistence): ~ o iwasazu ᭯↋ࢅゕ ࢂࡈࡍ forcibly (= muriyari ↋⌦ ࡷࡽ) goods and/or people) ún n 㐘 fate, luck (→ fu-un (na) unsō n 㐘㏞ transport(-ation) (of ୘㐘 ࡝ , kōun ᖶ㐘); ún ga íi adj goods) (= unpan 㐘ᦑ ; unsō-gyōsha 㐘㏞ᴏ⩽ n transportation 㐘࠿࠷࠷ lucky; ún ga warui adj 㐘࠿ᝇ࠷ unlucky; ún-mei n 㐘࿤ company; unsō-ya n 㐘㏞ᒁ exdestiny, fate: ~ no akai-ito 㐘࿤ press/forwarding agent; (house) ࡡ㉝࠷⣊ red string of fate, red mover (= hikkoshi-ya ᘤࡖ㉲ thread of destiny; ún-waruku adv ࡊᒁ 㐘ᝇࡂ unluckily; ún-yoku adv 㐘 unten n 㐘㌷ operation, operating; Ⰳࡂ luckily (= saiwai ᖶ࠷) untén-menkyo (-shō) n 㐘㌷ඞス チ ún interj ࠹ࢆ = n ࢆ [INFORMAL] driver’s license; untén-shu n 㐘㌷ ᡥ driver yeah, yes 302

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unto adv ࠹ࢆ࡛ much, a good

deal, greatly


ura-girí n ⿤วࡽ a double-cross,

betrayal, treachery

unubore ga tsuyói adj ࠹࡟࡯ࡿ࠿ ura-girimásu, ura-gíru v ⿤วࡽࡱࡌ, ᙁ࠷ vain, conceited ⿤วࡾ betrays, double-crosses “un-un” interj ࠹ࢆ࠹ࢆ = n´n uramí n ᜗ࡲ grudge, resentment, ࢆࢆ ill will, enmity; urami o kaimásu unyu n 㐘㍲ transport(ation) (of (kau) v ᜗ࡲࢅ㈑࠷ࡱࡌ ㈑࠹ goods) (= unsø 㐘㏞ incurs someone’s enmity unzári shimásu (suru) v ࠹ࢆࡉࡽࡊ uramimásu, urámu v ᜗ࡲࡱࡌ, ᜗ࡳ ࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ gets bored, gets sick begrudges, resents uranái n ༥࠷ fortune-telling; and tired uo n ࢛ࢗ࣬㨮 fish (= sakana ࢦ࢜ ~-shi ༥࠷ᖅ fortune-teller ࢻ࣬㨮) urayamashíi adj ⩆ࡱࡊ࠷࣬࠹ࡼࡷ uo no me n ࠹࠽ࡡࡴ࣬㨮ࡡ┘ ࡱࡊ࠷ enviable; envious urayamimásu, urayámu v ⩆ࡲࡱࡌ࣬ foot corn uppun n ࠹ࡖࡪࢆ࣬㨒៵ frustra࠹ࡼࡷࡲࡱࡌ, ⩆ࡳ࣬࠹ࡼࡷࡳ

tion, pent-up anger, pent-up dis- envies content: ~ o harashimásu ࠹ࡖࡪ ure-kuchi n ኉ࡿཾ sales outlet uremásu, ureru v ኉ࡿࡱࡌ, ኉ࡿࡾ ࢆࢅᬍࡼࡊࡱࡌ vents one’s 1. it sells, is in demand; thrives; anger urá n ⿤ reverse (side), back; lin- is popular 2. can sell ing; what’s behind it; the alley; ureshíi adj ࠹ࡿࡊ࠷࣬Ꭺࡊ࠷ glad, urá n ⿤ sole (of foot): ashi no ~ delightful, pleasant, wonderful, ㊂ࡡ⿤ sole of foot; ura-dō´ri n ⿤ happy ㏳ࡽ back street, alley; ura-gáeshi úri n ࢗࣛ࣬⎡ fruit of the gourd (no) adj ⿤㏁ࡊ ࡡ inside-out; family; úri futatsu n ࢗࣛ>⎡@஦ࡗ ura-gáeshimásu, ura-gáesu v ⿤㏁ࡊ like two peas in a pod (not to ࡱࡌ, ⿤㏁ࡌ turns over; turns literally mean, “two melons”) (= inside out; ura-guchi n ⿤ཾ back sokkuri ࡐࡖࡂࡽ) door; ura-me ni demásu/deru v ⿤┘ uri v ኉ࡽ sale; uri-ba n ኉ࡽሔ ࡞ฝࡱࡌฝࡾ backfires, turns (shop) counter, stand; shop, store; uri-dashi n ኉ࡽฝࡊ (special) sale; out badly; ura-mon n ⿤㛓 back gate; ura-omote no aru hito n ⿤⾪ࡡ uri-dashimásu ኉ࡽฝࡊࡱࡌ puts ࠵ࡾெ two-faced person on sale/market; launches; uri-kire urá n ὾ bay n, adj ኉ࡽวࡿ sellout; sold out; urabon n ࠹ࡼ>⓺⹊@⓽ the Bon uri-ko n ኉ࡽᏄ sales clerk; shopFestival (= o-bón ࠽⓽) girl; uri-mono n ኉ࡽ∸ sales goods/ 303

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uri-kiremásu, uri-kiréru

item, (something) for sale; uri-nushi n ኉ࡽ୹ seller; uri-te n ኉ࡽᡥ seller (= uri-nushi ኉ࡽ୹) uri-kiremásu, uri-kiréru v ኉ࡽวࡿࡱ ࡌ, ኉ࡽวࡿࡾ sells out, runs out of urimásu, uru v ኉ࡽࡱࡌ, ኉ࡾ sells uroko n ࢗࣞࢤ࣬㫛 scales (on a fish) urotsukimásu, urotsuku v ࠹ࢀࡗࡀ ࡱࡌ, ࠹ࢀࡗࡂ hangs around ū´ru n ࣭ࢗࣜ wool urū´-doshi n ࠹ࡾ࠹>㛠@ᖳ leap year urume (-íwashi) n ࣒ࢗࣜ ࢕࣠ࢨ ࣬₮┘ 㪿 large (and usually dried) sardine urusái adj ࠹ࡾࡈ࠷ annoying, noisy (= sawagashii 㥹࠿ࡊ࠷) urushi n ࢗࣜࢨ࣬⁵ lacquer;


ushiro n ᚃࢀ behind; (in) back úso n ࠹ࡐ࣬Ⴭ lie, false(hood), fib; usó-tsuki n ࠹ࡐࡗࡀ࣬Ⴭࡗ ࡀ liar úsu n ࠹ࡌ࣬⮳ (utensil) mortar usu-cha n ⷟Ⲍ weak powdered tea (= o-úsu ࠽⷟) usui adj ⷟࠷ thin utá n ḯ 1. song 2. (Japanese)

31-syllable poem utá n モ modern poem utagai adj ␪࠷ a doubt: ~ náku ␪࠷࡝ࡂ undoubtedly, doubtless utagaimásu, utagau v ␪࠷ࡱࡌ, ␪࠹ doubts utagawashíi v ␪ࢂࡊ࠷ doubtful utai n ㅬ [BOOKISH] chanting a

Noh libretto utaimásu, utau v ḯ࠷ࡱࡌ, ḯ࠹

~-nuri no utsuwa ⁵ሧࡽࡡჹ sings; recites, chants utaimásu, utau v ࠹ࡒ࠷>ㅳ࠷@ࡱࡌ, lacquerware (= shikki ⁵ჹ) uruwashii adj ࠹ࡾࢂࡊ࠷࣬㮿ࡊ࠷ ࠹ࡒ࠹࣬ㅳ࠹ expressly states; [BOOKISH] 1. beautiful 2. heartextols uten n 㞭ኮ [BOOKISH] rainy warming usa-barashi n ៟ࡈᬍࡼࡊ distracweather: ~-kekkø 㞭ኮỬ⾔ tion (from emotional pain, rain or shine: ~-chüshi 㞭ኮ୯Ḿ

suffering, etc.), diversion, break, Canceled in case of rain. utói adj ࠹࡛࠷࣬␧࠷; … ni ~ something to cheer one up usagi n ࢗࢦ࢟࣬ඟ rabbit, hare …࡞␧࠷>࠹࡛࠷@ out of touch usan kusai adj ࠹ࡈࢆࡂࡈ࠷࣬⬄ with …, not abreast of … ᩋ⮧࠷ fishy, suspicious-looking útouto adv ࠹࡛࠹࡛ drowsing usetsu shimásu (suru) v ྎᢙࡊࡱࡌ (off) (= utsura utsura ࠹ࡗࡼ࠹ ࡌࡾ turns right ࡗࡼ) ushi n ࢗࢨ࣬∭ ox, oxen; cow, utsubuse n ࠹ࡗࡩࡎ࣬ಟࡎ lying cattle on one’s stomach ushinaimásu, ushinau v ኶࠷ࡱࡌ, utsukushíi adj ⨶ࡊ࠷ beautiful ኶࠹ loses utsumukemásu, utsumukeru v ࠹ࡗࡳ 304

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uwa-mawarimásu, uwa-mawaru

ࡄࡱࡌ, ࠹ࡗࡳࡄࡾ; kao o ~ 㢞ࢅ sonality: ~ ga/no økii hito ჹ࠿ ࠹ࡗࡳࡄࡱࡌ turns one’s face ࡡኬࡀ࠷ெ person of high caliber uttae n セ࠻ complaint, lawsuit down utsumukimásu, utsumúku v ࠹ࡗࡳࡀ uttaemásu, uttaéru v セ࠻ࡱࡌ, セ࠻ ࡱࡌ, ࠹ࡗࡳࡂ lowers one’s ࡾ accuses, sues: kujø o ~ ⱖ᝗ࢅ セ࠻ࡱࡌ complains eyes, hangs one’s head utsurí n ᫆ࡽ reflection, picture uttetsuke (no) adj ࠹ࡖ࡙ࡗࡄ ࡡ

quality; (a becoming) match

the most suitable; just right, just the …, just the one/ticket uttóri (to) adv ࠹ࡖ࡛ࡽ ࡛ absorbed, fascinated uttōshíi adj ࠹ࡖ࡛࠹ࡊ࠷ gloomy, dismal, dreary: ~ tenki ࠹ࡖ࡛࠹ ࡊ࠷ኮẴ gloomy weather is reflected; can be seen (through); uwabaki n ୕ᒓࡀ࣬୕ࡣࡀ indoor footwear (slippers, etc.): ~ jisan is becoming utsurimásu, utsúru v ෕ࡽࡱࡌ, ෕ࡾ ୕ᒓࡀᣚཤ Bring your indoor comes out (photograph) shoes. utsuro (na) adj ࠹ࡗࢀ࣬⹣ࢀ ࡝ uwabe n ୕㎮࣬࠹ࢂ࡬ 1. surface hollow, empty, vacant: ~ na (= hyømen ⾪㟻) 2. outer hyøjø´ o mísete ࠹ࡗࢀ>⹣ࢀ@࡝ appearances (= gaikan አび): ~ o ⾪᝗ࢅずࡎ࡙ with a blank look tsukuroimásu ࠹ࢂ࡬ࢅࡗࡂࢀ࠷ utsushimásu, utsúsú v ⛛ࡊࡱࡌ, >⧃࠷@ࡱࡌ puts up a front ⛛ࡌ moves/transfers it uwagaki n ୕᭡ࡀ 1. address utsushimásu, utsúsú v ࠹ࡗࡊࡱࡌ, (written on envelope, etc.) 2. ࠹ࡗࡌ infects, gives another overwriting: ~-hozon ୕᭡ࡀಕᏋ person a disease (illness) overwrite save: ~-mødo ୕᭡ࡀ utsushimásu, utsúsú v ෕ࡊࡱࡌ, ࣓࣭ࢺ overwrite mode ෕ࡌ copies; takes a picture of; uwagi n ୕╌ coat, jacket, blouse uwagoto n ࠹ࢂࡇ࡛࣬࠹ࢂゕ ravprojects a picture utsushimásu, utsúsú v ᫆ࡊࡱࡌ, ᫆ ing, delirium ࡌ reflects, mirrors uwaki adj ᾃẴ 1. ~ (na) ᾃẴ ࡝ fickle 2. ~ (o) shimásu ᾃẴ ࢅ utsutsu o nukashimásu (nukasu) v ࠹ࡗࡗࢅᢜ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ ᢜ࠾ࡌ is ࡊࡱࡌ is unfaithful, has an engrossed, is addicted (extramarital) affair utsuwa n ჹ 1. receptacle, utensil, uwa-mawarimásu, uwa-mawaru v ୕ᅂ container 2. tool 3. ability, per- ࡽࡱࡌ, ୕ᅂࡾ exceeds 305 utsurimásu, utsúru v ⛛ࡽࡱࡌ, ⛛ࡾ 1. one/it moves, shifts 2. changes 3. moves house/residence (= hikkoshimásu ᘤ㉲ࡊࡱࡌ, hikkosu ᘤ㉲ࡌ utsurimásu, utsúru v ᫆ࡽࡱࡌ, ࡾ᫆

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uwasa n ࠹ࢂࡈ࣬ფ rumor, gossip uyamai n ᩏ࠷ reverence, respect uyamaimásu, uyamáu v ᩏ࠷ࡱࡌ, ᩏ࠹ reveres, respects uyamuya n ࠹ࡷࡳࡷ obscurity,

pool; (uzu-maki) rōru-kēki n Ὸᕬ ࡀ ࣭ࣞࣜࢢ࣭࢞ swiss roll; uzushio n Ὸ₳ whirling current uzumarimásu, uzumaru v ࠹ࡍࡱࡽ ࡱࡌ࣬ᇔࡱࡽࡱࡌ, ࠹ࡍࡱࡾ࣬ᇔ ࡱࡾ gets buried vagueness uyamuya ni shimásu (suru) v ࠹ࡷࡳ uzumemásu, uzumeru v ࠹ࡍࡴࡱ ࡷ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ is wishyࡌ࣬ᇔࡴࡱࡌ, ࠹ࡍࡴࡾ࣬ᇔࡴ ࡾ buries washy, obscures the issue uyoku n ྎ⩴ (political party) the uzura n ࢗࢫࣚ࣬㭐 quail: ~ no tamago ࢗࢫࣚ>㭐@ࡡ༵ quail right wing, rightists úzu n Ὸ, uzú-maki Ὸᕬࡀ whirl- egg

W wá n ㍧ circle; wheel; link; ring; loop; wa-gomu n ㍧ࢥ࣑ rubber band; wak-ka n ㍧ࡖ࠾࣬ࢂࡖ࠾

nese English; wá-shi n ࿰⣤ Japanese paper; wa-shitsu n ࿰ᐄ Japanese-style room; wa-shoku n [INFORMAL] circle; wheel; link; ࿰㣏 Japanese food; wa-yaku n ࿰ ring; loop (= wa ㍧) ズ translation into Japanese wa n ࿰ 1. peace (= hei-wa ᖲ࿰, …-wa suffix ⩒ (counts birds, wa-hei ࿰ᖲ) 2. harmony (= chø- rabbits) wa ㄢ࿰, kyø-wa ༝࿰); wa-hei … wa particle …ࡢ as for …, kōshō n ࿰ᖲஹῦ [BOOKISH] peace speaking of …, let’s talk about negotiations; wa-hei jōyaku n ࿰ᖲ (change the subject to) …; …, guess what —; if it be (= …déwa ᮪⣑ [BOOKISH] peace treaty wa-… prefix ࿰ ... Japanese ...; … ࡚ࡢ = … nára …࡝ࡼ) wa-ei n ࿰ⱝ Japanese-English (= … wa interj …ࢂ (mostly female) indeed, you see nichi-ei ᪝ⱝ); waei-jíten ࿰ⱝ㎙ wā interj ࢂ࠵ (female or ඼ Japanese-English dictionary; wa-fū n ࿰㢴 [BOOKISH] Japanese children) Wow!; Gee!; Gosh! style; wa-fuku n ࿰᭱ Japanese wabí n ࢂࡦ࣬౦ࡦ a liking for traditional clothes; kimono; wasimple things; simple tastes wabi n ャࡦ o-wabi ࠽ャࡦ apology gáshi n ࿰ⳣᏄ Japanese cakes/ sweets; wa-sei-eigo n ࿰⿿ⱝㄊ wabimásu, wabiru v ャࡦࡱࡌ, ャࡦ “Made in Japan” English, Japa- ࡾ [BOOKISH] apologize 306

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wabishíi v ࢂࡦࡊ࠷࣬౦ࡊ࠷

miserable; lonely wa-chū n ヨ୯ [BOOKISH] busy (on the phone) (= hanashi-chü ヨࡊ ୯): ~-on ヨ୯㡚 busy tone wa-dachi n ࢂࡓࡔ࣬࣠ࢱࢲ࣬㎃

(wheel) ruts wadai n ヨ㢗 topic of conversation,

subject (of talk) wá-ga … adj ᠻ࠿࣬ࢂ࠿… [BOOKISH] my, our: ~ kuni ᠻ࠿ ᅗ࣬ࢂ࠿ᅗ our (this) country

(commonly Japan) wá-ga-hai pron ᠻ ࠿ ㍦࣬྿ ࠿ ㍦ [BOOKISH] (archaic or obsolete. male) I/me; waga-mámá (na) adj ࢂ ࠿ࡱࡱ࣬ᠻ࠿౰ ࡝ selfish wágon (sha) n ࣠ࢥࣤ ㌬ station

wagon wai-fai n ࣠࢕࣬ࣆ࢒࢕ (= musenran↋⥲LAN Wi-Fi, wireless

LAN (computer) wáin n ࣠࢕ࣤ wine: aka-~ ㉝࣠࢕ ࣤ red wine: shiro-~ Ⓣ࣠࢕ࣤ white wine: ~-gurasu ࣠࢕ࣤࢡ ࣚࢪ wine glass wáipā n ࣠࢕ࣂ࣭ windshield wiper wáiro n ࢂ࠷ࢀ࣬㈝㈛ bribe(ry);

wakemásu, wakéru

driver); waka-mono n ⱕ⩽ young person, youth; waka-te n ⱕᡥ young person wakame n ࣒࣠࢜࣬ⱕᕱ a kind of seaweed wakaré n ืࡿ parting, farewell wakaré n ฦ࠾ࡿ branch(ing), fork(ing), division wakáre n ืࡿ breakup; farewell; leave wakaremásu, wakaréru v ืࡿࡱࡌ, ืࡿࡾ they part, separate wakaremásu, wakaréru v ฦ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ, ฦ࠾ࡿࡾ it branches off, splits wakareme n ฦ࠾ࡿ┘ turning point wakarí n ฦ࠾ࡽ comprehension (= nomikomi ࿌ࡲ㎰ࡲ): ~ ga hayái ฦ࠾ࡽ࠿᪡࠷ quick-witted; (mono)~ ga warúi ࡵࡡ ฦ࠾ࡽ ࠿ᝇ࠷ dull(-witted), stupid Wakarimáshita v ฦ࠾ࡽࡱࡊࡒ. 1. Yes, I see. 2. Yes, I will

(comply with your request). wakarimásu, wakáru v ฦ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ, ฦ࠾ࡾ it is clear (understood);

understands; finds out; has good sense wakashimásu, wakasu v ἓ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, ἓ࠾ࡌ boils it graft waisetsu n ࢂ࠷ࡎࡗ obscenity wáke n ࢂࡄ࣬ズ 1. reason (= riyü wai-shatsu n ⬝࣬⬾@ࡡୖ ① armpit wána n ࢂ࡝࣬࣠ࢻ࣬⨔ trap; lasso: ② under one’s arms ~ ni kakarimásu ࢂ࡝>⨔@࡞࠾࠾ waki aiai n ࿰Ẵ࠵࠷࠵࠷ in happy ࡽࡱࡌ gets trapped/snared wáni n ࣠ࢼ crocodile, alligator harmony wakimásu, waku v ἓࡀࡱࡌ, ἓࡂ it waní-ashi (no) adj ࢂ࡞㊂ ࡡ boils: o-yu ga ~ ࠽…࠿ἓࡀࡱࡌ bowlegged the water boils (→ o-yu o waka- wánisu n ࣠ࢼࢪ varnish shimásu ࠽…ࢅἓ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, o-yu wanpaku n ࢂࢆࡤࡂ࣬⭆Ⓣ rudega wakimáshita ࠽…࠿ἓࡀࡱࡊࡒ) ness: ~-kozø ࢂࢆࡤࡂ>⭆Ⓣ@ᑚ wakimásu, waku v •ࡀࡱࡌ, •ࡂ ൒ brat, mischievous boy it gushes, springs forth: kibø ga wanpaku (na) adj ⭆Ⓣ࣬ࢂࢆࡤ wakimáshita ᕵ᭻࠿•ࡀࡱࡊࡒ I ࡂ ࡝ naughty, mischievous was given hope., I got hope. (commonly used for children) wakú n ᯗ 1. frame, framework (= (= yancha (na) ࡷࢆࡔࡶ ࡝ ) ~-gumi ᯗ⤄) 2. reel, limit, a con- wánryoku n ⭆ງ [BOOKISH] arm fine; waku-gumi n ᯗ⤄ ① frame, strength, physical force, physical framework (= waku ᯗ) ② outline strength wákuchin n ࣠ࢠࢲࣤ vaccine wán-wan interj ࣠ࣤ࣠ࣤ bow-wow! wakusei n ᝠ᫅ planet (bark) waku-waku shimásu (suru) v ࢂࡂࢂ wappu n ๪㈷ allotment, installࡂࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ is thrilled, is ment 308

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wā-puro n ࣭࣠ࣈࣞ word processor (ability): ~ ni aimasén ๪࡞ྙ࠷ ࡱࡎࢆ it doesn’t pay (off); wari-ai wára n ࣠ࣚ࣬⸍ rice straw warabanshi n ࢂࡼ༖⣤ coarse n ๪ྙ rate, percentage: ~ (ni) ๪ ྙ ࡞ comparatively, relatively paper, rough paper warabe n ࢂࡼ࡬࣬❲ [BOOKISH] wariate n ๪ࡽᙔ࡙ quota, allotment waribashi n ๪ࡽ⟺ throwaway child(ren) (= jidø ඡ❲): ~-uta ࢂࡼ࡬ḯ࣬❲ḯ Japanese chopsticks wari-biki n ๪ᘤ discount traditional children’s song warabi n ࣠ࣚࣄ bracken wari-kan n ๪ࡽື splitting the bill; warai ࢂࡼ࠷࣬Ⴖ࠷ n ridicule, (going) Dutch treat warikómimásu, warikómu v ๪ࡽ㎰ sneer, mockery waraimásu, warau v ➏࠷ࡱࡌ, ➏࠹ ࡲࡱࡌ, ๪ࡽ㎰ࡳ cuts in (into),

laughs; laughs at; smiles waraimásu, warau v ࢂࡼ࠷>Ⴖ࠷@ ࡱࡌ, ࢂࡼ࠹࣬Ⴖ࠹ ridicules,

sneers, mocks

breaks in; breezes in wari-mae n ๪ࡽ๑ share, portion warimásu, waru v ๪ࡽࡱࡌ, ๪ࡾ

divides/splits it, breaks it,

wáre pron ᠻ [BOOKISH] 1. oneself dilutes it 2. I/me (= wata(ku)shi ࢂࡒ ࡂ wari (ni) adv ࢂࡽ ࡞ ࣬๪ ࡞ ࡊ࣬⚶); ware ni kaerimásu (kaeru) v relatively, comparatively ᠻ࡞㏁ࡽࡱࡌ ㏁ࡾ comes to warízan n ๪ࡽ⟤ division warú n ᝇ bad, evil (= aku ᝇ); oneself; ware omou, yue ni ware ari ᠻᛦ࠹ࠉࡹ࠻࡞ᠻ࠵ࡽ (famous warú-i adj ᝇ࠷ ① bad, poor; saying) I think, therefore I am.; wrong; vicious ② at fault; Warú-i! ware o wasuremásu (wasureru) v ᠻࢅ interj ᝇ࠷ Sorry.; warú-fuzake n ᚸࡿࡱࡌ ᚸࡿࡾ ① is hooked ᝇࡨࡉࡄ practical joke; warúon, is carried away ② is stunned; gashikoi adj ᝇ㈴࠷ sly, cunning, ware-ware pron ᠻࠍ࣬ࢂࡿࢂࡿ crafty, wily (person) (= zurugashikoi ࡍࡾ㈴࠷, køkatsu (na) [BOOKISH] we; us waremásu, wareru v ๪ࡿࡱࡌ, ๪ࡿ ≶⊮ ࡝ ); warú-gi n ᝇẴ evil ࡾ 1. it cracks, it splits 2. can intent, malice (= akui ᝇណ); divide/break/dilute it; ware-me n warú-jie n ᝇ▩ᜠ cunning, craft; ๪ࡿ┘ crack, crevice, gap; ware- warú-kuchi/-guchi n ᝇཾ (verbal) abuse, slander; waru-mono n ᝇ⩽ mono n ๪ࡿ∸ fragile wari n ๪ 1. (…-wari …๪) tens of bad guy/fellow, villain, scounpercent; percentage; sán-~ ୔๪ drel: ~ atsukai ᝇ⩽᡽࠷ demonize; = sanjup-påsénto 30ࣂ࣭ࢬࣤࢹ warú-yoi n ᝇ㓁࠷ getting sick ࣬30% thirty percent 2. profit from drink

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warutsu n ࣠ࣜࢵ waltz wásabi n ࣠ࢦࣄ࣬ᒜⴿ horseradish washi n ࣠ࢨ࣬㮎 eagle washi pron ࢂࡊ (archaic old male) I/me (= wata(ku)shi ࢂࡒ ࡂ ࡊ࣬⚶) Washínton n ࣠ࢨࣤࢹࣤ Washington wasuremásu, wasureru v ᚸࡿࡱࡌ, ᚸࡿࡾ forgets; wasure-mono n ᚸࡿ∸ ① leaving something behind ② a thing left behind (forgetfully); wasurenái de v ᚸࡿ ࡝࠷࡚ ~ de (… shite) kudasái ᚸࡿ࡝࠷࡚ …ࡊ࡙ ୖࡈ࠷ don’t forget (to do …); wasurep-pói adj ᚸࡿࡖࡰ࠷ forgetful watá n ⥝ cotton; watá-ame n ⥝࢓ ࣒ cotton candy (= wata-gashi ⥝ⳣᏄ); wata-bokori n ⥝࡯ࡆࡽ dustball; watá-gashi n ⥝ⳣᏄ cotton candy; wata-ge n ⥝ẗ fluff, cotton fiber; wata-íré n ⥝ථࡿ

with, gets in touch with; ~ ni fúne ῳࡽ࡞⯒ a timely rescue, a convenient escape/excuse watarimásu, wataru v ῳࡽࡱࡌ, ῳࡾ crosses over watashi pron ⚶࣬ࢂࡒࡊ = [BOOKISH] watakushi ⚶࣬ࢂࡒࡂࡊ I/me watashi-búne n ῳࡊ⯒ ferryboat watashimásu, watasu v ῳࡊࡱࡌ, ῳࡌ hands it over; ferries watáshí-táchi pron ࢂࡒࡊ>⚶@㐡 we, us (= watakushí-tachi ࢂࡒ ࡂࡊ>⚶@㐡) watto n ࣠ࢴࢹ watt waza n ᴏ trick, feat waza n ᢇ skill, technique, art (= gijutsu ᢇ⾙) wáza-to adv ࢂࡉ࡛ deliberately, on purpose, intentionally wazawai n ⅇ࠷ misfortune, mishap, disaster (= sainan ⅇ㞬) wázawaza adv ࢂࡉࢂࡉ expressly, (cotton-) padded garment especially; purposely watá n ⭘ guts, intestines wazuka adj ࢂࡍ࠾ a few, a little watakushi pron ࢂࡒࡂࡊ࣬⚶ (= sukoshi ᑛࡊ) [BOOKISH], watashi ࢂࡒࡊ࣬⚶ wazurai n ↱࠷࣬ࢂࡍࡼ࠷ [HUMBLE] I/me; ~-tachi ࢂࡒࡂࡊ [BOOKISH] trouble, worry >⚶@㐡, watáshí-táchi ࢂࡒࡊ>⚶@ wazurai n ᝀ࠷ [BOOKISH] illness 㐡 we/us; watakushí-ritsu (no) adj ⚶ (= byøki ⑋Ẵ) ❟ ࡡ private(-ly established); ~ wazuraimásu, wazurau v ↱࠷ࡱࡌ, (no) gakkø ⚶❟ ࡡ Ꮥᰧ private ↱࠹ worries about, is troubled by school; watakushí-shōsetsu n ⚶ᑚ wazuraimásu, wazurau v ᝀ࠷ࡱࡌ, ㄕ I-Novel (a novel writing about ᝀ࠹ has trouble with (one’s oneself) (= shi-shøsetsu ⚶ᑚㄕ) eyes), suffers from (an ailment) watari v ῳࡽ crossing, ferry wazurawashíi adj ↱ࢂࡊ࠷ (place): ~ o tsukemásu ῳࡽࢅࡗ troublesome; complicated ࡄࡱࡌ forms an understanding web n ࢗ࢘ࣇWorld Wide Web 310

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yabukimásu, yabúku

Internet; websaito n ウェブサイト ブログ) weblog, blog (Internet) website wísukii n ウィスキー whisky weburogu n ウェブログ(= burogu witto n ウィット wit

Y yá n 矢 arrow; ya-jirushi n 矢印

curry shop arrow sign (such as “→”, “←”, yā´ interj やあ hi! hello! (mostly “↑”, “↓”) male. VERY INFORMAL. Cannot be used to address a superior) ya-…, …-ya prefix, suffix 夜..., ...夜 night (= ban 晩): shü-~ 終 yabái adj やばい 1. (mostly male, 夜 all night; yá-gu n 夜具 [BOOK- very informal) dangerous (will get you into trouble) 2. (mostly ISH] bedclothes; top quilt; yá-kan n 夜間 [BOOKISH] (at) night; ya-kei young people. SLANG) awesome n 夜景 night view; ya-kō-ressha n yaban (na) adj 野蛮(な) barbarous, barbarian, savage: ~-jín 野蛮人 a 夜行列車 night train barbarian, a savage ya-… prefix 野... wild, field; ya-chō n 野鳥 wild bird; ya-ei n yabō n 野望 ambition [IN NEGATIVE 野営 camp, bivouac; yá-gai n 野 SENSE] (= yashin 野心) (= taishi 大志, taibø 大望 [IN NEGATIVE 外 outdoors, in the field: ~-katsudø 野外活動 outdoor activity; SENSE]) ya-jū n 野獣 [BOOKISH] wild beast; yábo (na) adj 野暮(な) [INFORMAL] ya-ken n 野犬 wild dog; ya-sei (no) rustic, inelegant; ~-yø 野暮用 adj 野性(の) wild, not cultivated; small errand to run ya-sen n 野戦 open battle: ~-byøin yabu n ヤブ・薮 bush, thicket; yabu野戦病院 field hospital hebi n やぶ蛇 boomerang (some… ya … conj …や … and … and thing injures the originator), waking a sleeping giant; yabu-isha … (choosing typical items) … ya interj …や [INFORMAL] 1. = n ヤブ[藪]医者 quack doctor …i ya …いや = … i wa …いは yabukemásu, yabukéru v 破けます, 2. = …e ba …えば (if) 破ける 1. it tears, bursts; is frustrated 2. can tear/burst it … -ya suffix …屋 (name of certain) shop, shopkeeper, (= yaburemásu 破れます) dealer; house (→ (o-)sobá-~(お) yabukimásu, yabúku v 破きます, 破 蕎麦屋: råmen-~ ラーメン屋 く tears (bursts) it; frustrates; Ramen shop: karë-~ カレー屋 violates; defeats 311

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yabure-kabure n ࡷࡩࡿ>◒ࡿ@࠾ࡩ ࡿ desperation (= jibøjiki ⮤ᬸ ⮤Ი) yaburemásu, yaburéru v ◒ࡿࡱࡌ, ◒ࡿࡾ 1. it tears, bursts; is frustrated 2. can tear/burst it yaburemásu, yaburéru v ᩃࡿࡱࡌ, ᩃࡿࡾ loses yaburimásu, yabúru v ◒ࡽࡱࡌ, ◒ ࡾ tears (bursts) it; frustrates;

yakemásu, yakeru v ↕ࡄࡱࡌ, ↕ࡄ ࡾ 1. it burns; it is baked 2. can

burn it yakemásu, yakeru v ጅࡄࡱࡌ, ጅࡄ ࡾ is jealous, envies yaki ↕ࡀ n baking, burning,

broiling; tempering; exposure

yaki-… prefix ↕ࡀ… roast: (ishi-)~ imo ▴ ↕ࡀⰖ (stone-)baked yam; yakí-guri n ↕ࡀᰡ roasted violates; defeats chestnuts; yaki-gushi n ↕ࡀ୴ yabusaka de (wa) arimasen (nai) v ࡷ skewer, spit; yaki-meshi n ↕ࡀ㣜 ࡩࡈ࠾࡚ ࡢ ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ ࡝࠷ fried rice; yaki-móchi n ࡷࡀࡵࡔ࣬ ↕ࡀ㣨 jealousy; yakí-mochi n ࡷ is willing to do yá-chin n ᐓ㈜ house rent ࡀࡵࡔ࣬↕ࡀ㣨 toasted rice-cake; yádo, yado-ya n ᐙ, ᐙᒁ inn yaki-mono n ↕ࡀ∸ ① pottery yagate adv ࡷ࠿࡙ before long; in ② broiled food/dishes; yaki-niku n ↕ࡀ⫏࣬↕⫏ grilled slices of time (= mamonaku ࡱࡵ࡝ࡂ) yági n ࣕ࢟࣬ᒜ⨲ goat meat; yaki-soba n ↕ࡀࡐࡣ࣬ࡷࡀ yahári adv ࡷࡢࡽ also; either; ࡐࡣ chow mein; fried Chinese after all; just we/I thought! (= noodle; yaki-tori n ↕ࡀ㫵࣬ࡷࡀ yappari ࡷࡖࡤࡽ) ࡛ࡽ chicken shishkebab (skewers) yaiba n ࡷ࠷ࡣ࣬ร blade; sword …-yaki suffix …↕ (ceramic) yáji n ࡷࡋ࣬㔕ḗ heckling ware from …; Imari-~ ௿୒㔓↕ yajiuma n ࡷࡋ࠹ࡱ࣬㔕ḗ㤷 Imari (ware) rubbernecker: ~-konjø ࡷࡋ࠹ࡱ yakimásu, yaku v ↕ࡀࡱࡌ, ↕ࡂ ᰷ᛮ extreme curiosity burns/broils it, bakes (roasts, yakamashíi adj ࡷ࠾ࡱࡊ࠷ [INFOR- toasts) it MAL], boisterous, clamorous, yakimásu, yaku v ጅࡀࡱࡌ, ጅࡂ is

noisy; annoying; overly strict, demanding [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] yakan n ࡷ࠾ࢆ teakettle yáke n ࡷࡄ࣬⮤Ი desperation(= jibø-jiki ⮤ᬸ⮤Ი): ~ ni ࡷࡄ࡞

jealous, envies yákkai n ཀ௒࣬ࡷࡖ࠾࠷ trouble, bother (= meiwaku ㏖ᝠ: ~ (na) ཀ௒࣬ࡷࡖ࠾࠷ ࡝ trouble-

some, annoying excessively, unbearably, terribly yakko n ࡷࡖࡆ࣬ዦ 1. servant, yakedo n ࡷࡄ࡜࣬ℾഭ burn, scald slave 2. [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] (on the skin) (= nesshø ⇍ഭ) (undesirable) person/one: ~-san 312

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ࡷࡖࡆ>ዦ@ࡈࢆ that guy, he/him icines (= kusuri ⷾ): yakuzai-shi 3. = ~-dø´fu ࡷࡖࡆ>ዦ@㇃⭁ (par- ⷾ๠ᖅ pharmacist boiled) tofu (bean-curd cubes); yaku-dachimásu, yaku-dátsu v ᙲ❟ hiya-~ ෫ࡷዦ cold tofu ࡔࡱࡌ, ᙲ❟ࡗ serves a purpose, yakkyoku n ⷾᑻ pharmacy, drug- is useful yakú-datemásu, yakú-datéru v ᙲ❟࡙ store yaku n ࣕࢠ yak (animal) ࡱࡌ, ᙲ❟࡙ࡾ puts it to use yakú n ズ translation, translated yakú ni tatemásu (tatéru) v ᙲ࡞❟ ࡙ࡱࡌ ❟࡙ࡾ puts it to use (= word (→ honyaku ⩳ズ, tsūyaku ㏳ズ) yakú-datemásu ᙲ❟࡙ࡱࡌ) yáku(…) adj ⣑  approximately, yakushimásu, yakúsú v ズࡊࡱࡌ, about … (= oyoso ࠽ࡻࡐ, daitai ズࡌ translates ኬమ) yakusoku n ⣑ᮨ promise, agreeyaku n ᙲ 1. (cast of) players ment, appointment, engagement, 2. part, role, duty; yaku-mé n ᙲ┘ date, commitment; yakusoku-goto duty, function; yaku-sha n ᙲ⩽ n ⣑ᮨ஥ a promise actor (= haiyü ಢඁ), actress (= yákuza n ࡷࡂࡉ gangster, hoodjoyü ዥඁ); yaku-wari n ᙲ๪ role, lum; yákuza (na) adj ࡷࡂࡉ ࡝ part (= yakume ᙲ┘) no-good, worthless; ~ na kagyø yaku-… ᙲ… service (government, ࡷࡂࡉ࡝✄ᴏ improper work; official), use; o-yaku ni tatezu (ni) coarse sumimasen ࠽ᙲ࡞❟࡙ࡍ ࡞ ࡌ yakyū n 㔕⌣ baseball; yakyū-jō n ࡲࡱࡎࢆ [HUMBLE] I am sorry 㔕⌣ሔ ball park, (baseball)

for not being able to help you.; stadium yaku-nin n ᙲெ public servant, yamá n ᒜ 1. mountain 2. heap, government official (= kømuin pile, bunch: shorui no ~ ᭡㢦ࡡ පຸဤ); yaku-sho n ᙲᡜ govern- ᒜ pile of documents 3. speculament office (→ shi-yakusho ᕰᙲ tion, venture 4. → yamá(-ba) ᒜ ᡜ, ku-yakusho ༇ᙲᡜ) ሔ ; yama-arashi n ࣏ࣕ࢓ࣚࢨ࣬ yaku n ⷾ drug (→ kusuri ⷾ) ᒜⲠ porcupine; yama-arashi n ᒜ …-yaku, yaku-… suffix, prefix  ᔋ mountain storm; yama-aruki n ⷾ, ⷾ medicines, drugs; ᒜṄࡀ trekking (= haikingu ࣀ ࢕࢞ࣤࢡ); yamá(-ba) n ᒜ ሔ yaku-hin ⷾဗ drugs; chemicals; yaku-mi n ⷾ࿝ ① spice, condiment climax; yama-biko n ࡷࡱࡦࡆ࣬ ② drug ingredient; yaku-sō ⷾⲙ ᒜᙢ echo (= kodama ࡆࡓࡱ࣬ ᮄ㟃); yama-buki n ࣏ࣕࣇ࢞࣬ᒜ medicinal herb; yaku-zai n ⷾ๠ [BOOKISH] pharmaceuticals, med- ྻ Japanese rose: ~-iro ᒜྻⰅ 313

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bright yellow; yama-goya n 山小 屋 cabin, mountain lodge; yamaimo n ヤマイモ・山芋 yam; yamaneko n ヤマネコ・山猫 wild cat; yama-nóbori n 山登り mountainclimbing (= tozan 登山); yama no fumoto n 山のふもと[麓] the base of a mountain; yama-otoko n 山男 ① mountaineer ② woodsman ③ monster living in the heart of a mountain; yama-suso n 山裾 the base of a mountain yama-shi n 山師 speculator yamashíi adj やましい ashamed of


random, in a blind way; yamí-sōba n 闇相場 black-market price yamimásu, yamu v 止みます, 止む it stops yamome n やもめ widow yámori n ヤモリ・守宮 gecko yanagi n ヤナギ・柳 willow yancha (na) adj やんちゃ(な) naughty, mischievous (commonly used for boys) (= wanpaku (na) 腕白・わんぱく(な)) yáne n 屋根 roof yaní n やに・脂 resin, gum → meyaní 目やに・目脂

oneself; has guilty feelings yánushi n 家主 landlord, landlady yama-te n 山手, yama-no-te 山手・ (= øya(-san) 大家(さん)) 山の手 uptown; the bluff: Yama- yaochō n 八百長 fixed game yaoya n 八百屋 greengrocer, vegno-te-sen 山の手線 Yamanote Line etable market Yámato n 大和 Japan (an ancient yappári adv やっぱり [INFORMAL] name); yamato-kotoba n 大和言葉 also; either; as I thought (= words of Japanese origin, native yahári やはり) Japanese words (= wago 和語); yarakashimásu, yarakasu v やらか yamato-nadeshiko n ヤマトナデシコ します, やらかす [INFORMAL][IN ・大和撫子 ① dianthus (flower) NEGATIVE SENSE] does it [demeans ② beautiful and modest Japanese the object] (= shimásu します); woman héma o ~ へまをやらかします makes a damn mess of it yamemásu, yameru v 止めます, 止 める stops it; abolishes, abstains yari n やり・槍 spear from, gives up yari-kata n やり方 way, method, process, manner yamemásu, yameru v 辞めます, 辞 める resigns, quits yarimásu, yaru v やります, やる yamí n 闇 1. darkness (= kurayamí does 暗闇) 2. disorder 3. black market yarimásu, yaru v やり[遣り]ます, 4. anything illicit, the dark; yamí- やる・遣る 1. gives 2. sends: ichí(ba) n 闇市(場) black market; tegami o ~ 手紙をやります send a letter 3. íp-pai ~ 一杯やります yamí-kumo (ni) adv 闇雲(に) at 314

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has a drink 4. has sex bargain yari-naoshimásu v やり直します, yasude n ヤスデ millipede (animal) やり直す redoes it, does it over yasúi adj やすい・易い (= shi(again) yasúi しやすい) easy (to do) yari-sokonaimásu, yari-sokonáu v やり yasúi adj やすい (= shi-yasúi しや 損ないます, やり損なう misses, すい) likely/apt to (do), tends to botches yasumemásu, yasuméru v 休めます, yarō´ n 野郎 (very INFORMAL) 休める 1. rest/relax it, let it rest; scoundrel, so-and-so ease it 2. can rest yasai n 野菜 vegetables yasumí n 休み 1. rest (= [BOOKISH] yasashii adj 優しい・やさしい kyükei 休憩) 2. break, pause gentle; kind, generous (= (= teishi 停止, chüdan 中断) 3. recess (= kyükei jikan 休憩時間) shinsetsu 親切) yasashii adj 易しい・やさしい 4. time off, vacation, holiday (= easy, simple kyüka 休暇) yasashiku adv 優しく・やさしく yasumimásu, yasúmu v 休みます, 休 gently; politely む rests, relaxes, takes time off; yase-gaman n やせ[痩せ]我慢 play- stays away (from school); goes to bed, sleeps ing the martyr yasemásu, yaseru v 痩せます, 痩せ yasuraka (na/ni) adj, adv 安らか る gets thin; yasete imásu 痩せて (な/に) peaceful(ly) います is thin yasuri n やすり file, rasp; yasuríyáshi n ヤシ・椰子 (coconut) palm gami n やすり紙 sandpaper (= yáshin n 野心 ambition [IN kami-yásuri 紙やすり) NEGATIVE SENSE] (= yabø 野望; yatai n 屋台 street stall; stand taishi 大志, taibø 大望) yatara adv やたら: ~ na やたらな yashinaimásu, yashinau v 養います, indiscriminate, reckless, random: 養う brings up, rears; fosters; ~ ni やたらに indiscriminately, nourishes randomly, recklessly, blindly, unduly …´-yasu, yasu-… suffix, prefix …安, 安... cheap(er/lower) by yatō n 野党 opposition party …; hyakuén-~ 百円安 down/off yatói 雇い n employment by ¥100; yasúi adj 安い cheap, yatoimásu, yatóu v 雇います, 雇う low(-priced); yasu-mono n 安物 employs, hires cheap stuff; yasu-ne n 安値 low yatsú n 八つ eight (= yattsú 八つ); price; yasu-ukeai n 安請け合い yatsuatari n 八つ当たり・やつあ easy promise; yasu-uri n 安売り たり taking out on 315

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yátsu n ࡷࡗ࣬ዦ [INFORMAL] 1.

(= yonén-kan ᄿᖳ㛣); yon-én-sei guy, fellow, wretch, [IN NEGATIVE ᄿᖳ⏍ ① fourth-year student (at SENSE] (undesirable) person/one elementary school) ② senior (at (= aitsu ࠵࠷ࡗ) 2. (undesirable) university/college); yo-nín n ᄿெ thing/one 3. he/him four people yattekimásu, yattekúru v ࡷࡖ࡙ࡀࡱ … yo interj …ࡻ 1. indeed, mind ࡌ, ࡷࡖ࡙ࡂࡾ comes, comes you, I tell/warn/alert you 2. (reinalong forces IMPERATIVE) yatto adv ࡷࡖ࡛ at last; barely, yō´ n こ gist (= yø´shi こ᪠, yøryø´ こ㡷) with difficulty yattoko n ࡷࡖ࡛ࡆ pincers, pliers yō´ n ⏕ 1. business; errand (= yattsú n ඳࡗ eight; eight years old yøji ⏕஥) 2. use, service 3. going yawarakái adj ㌶ࡼ࠾࠷࣬᯺ࡼ࠾࠷ to the bathroom; yō-ji n ⏕஥ soft, mild business, errand; yō-ken n ⏕௲ yáya adj ࡷࡷ a little, slightly: ~ átte business (something to tell, ࡷࡷ࠵ࡖ࡙ after a little while something to do); yō-mú-in n ⏕ຸ yaya(k)koshíi adj ࡷࡷ ࡖ ࡆࡊ࠷ ဤ custodian, janitor, servant (in complicated; puzzling; tangled; the school, office, etc.); yō-táshí n ⏕㊂ࡊ business, errand troublesome ye… → e… yō-… prefix Ὂ… Western; yō-fuku yó n ୠ the world at large, the n Ὂ᭱ (Western-style) clothes, a public; yó-ron n ୠㄵ public suit, a dress (= fuku ᭱): (yø-) fuku-ya Ὂ ᭱ᒁ tailor, clothing opinion yó n ௥ the age, the times; one’s shop; ~-burashi Ὂ᭱ࣇࣚࢨ clothlifetime brush; ~-dansu Ὂ᭱ࢱࣤࢪ wardyó n እ night (= yóru እ); yo-aké robe; yō-ga n Ὂ⏤ ① foreign n እ᪺ࡄ dawn; yo-fúkáshi n እ᭞ movie ② Western-style painting; ࠾ࡊ staying up late; yo-máwari n yō-gaku n Ὂᴞ Western-style እᅂࡽ night watchman; yo-naká music; yō-gáshi n ὊⳣᏄ western n እ୯ middle of the night; yóru cakes/sweets; yō-hin n Ὂဗ habn እ night erdashery; yō-ma n Ὂ㛣 Westernyo-… prefix ᄿ four; yó-ji n ᄿ᫤ style room; yō-sai n Ὂ⿚ dressfour o’clock; yo-jō´-han n ᄿ␒༖ making; yō-shi n Ὂ⣤ Western four-and-a-half mat area, a small paper; yō-shoku n Ὂ㣏 foreign Japanese room; yo-ban, yón-ban n (Western) food; yō-shu n Ὂ㒿 ᄿ␊ number four; yo-nen n ᄿᖳ liquor (Western) ① fourth year ② four years yō-… prefix 㣬… foster, protec316

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… yōgo

tion; yō-fubo n 㣬∏ẍ adoptive parents; yō´-jo n 㣬ዥ adopted daughter; (… o) ~ ni shimásu …ࢅ 㣬ዥ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ adopts (a girl); yō-shi n 㣬Ꮔ adopted child; yō-iku n 㣬⫩ [BOOKISH] ① bringing up children, education; ~-hi 㣬⫩㈕ expense of bringing up children ② protection (of old people, orphan children, sick people, etc.); ~-in 㣬⫩㝌 asylum; yō-rōin n 㣬⩹㝌 old people’s home (= røjin hømu ⩹ெ࣭࣑࣌) yóbi n ஢ങ preparation: ~ (no) ஢ ങ ࡡ reserve, spare; yobi-kō n ஢ങᰧ prep school, cram school; yobi-sénkyo n ஢ങ㐽ᣪ a primary election yobimásu, yobu v ࿣ࡦࡱࡌ, ࿣ࡩ 1. calls; names; summons 2. invites yobō n ஢㜭 precaution, prevention; yobō-sesshu n ஢㜭᥃⛸ = yobø-chü´sha ஢㜭Ἰᑏ inoculation, vaccination (injection) yōbō n こ᭻ strong desire yōbō n ᐖㇲ facial appearance yobun (no/ni) adj, adv ఴฦ ࡡ࡞ extra, excess yōbun n 㣬ฦ nutrient substance (= eiyøbun ᰜ㣬ฦ) yóchi n ఴᆀ [BOOKISH] room, space, margin, leeway: (mattaku)

nōryoku ஢▩⬗ງ ability to fore-

see the future yōchi (na) adj ᖺ⛮ ࡝ childish: ~ na kangae ᖺ⛮࡝⩻࠻ childish idea; yōchí-en n ᖺ⛮ᅧ

kindergarten yodare n ࡻࡓࡿ drool: ~ ga déru ࡻࡓࡿ࠿ฝࡾ drool comes out yōdai n ᐖឺ࣬ᐖమ࣬ᵕឺ health

condition (commonly of patient) (= yøtai ᐖឺ, byøjø ⑋≟) yō´do n ࣭ࣙࢺ iodine yōeki n ⁈ᾦ liquid solution yōen adj ዺⰇ seductive beauty, fascinatingly elegant, bewitching (= adeyaka ࠵࡚ࡷ࠾࣬Ⰷࡷ࠾) yoga n ࣙ࢝ yoga yō´gan n ⁈ᒷ lava yogen n ஢ゕ prediction; nosutoradamusu no dai-~ ࢿࢪࢹࣚࢱ࣑ ࢪࡡኬ஢ゕ the great prophecies

of Nostradamus yōgí-sha n ᐖ␪⩽ a suspect yogo n ஢ᚃ prognosis: ~-furyø ஢ ᚃ୘Ⰳ poor prognosis: ~-ryøkø ஢ᚃⰃይ good prognosis yōgo n ᧞㆜ [BOOKISH] protection, support; jinken-~ ெᶊ᧞㆜ protection of human rights; døbutsu-~-dantai ິ∸᧞㆜ᅆమ animal

protection association

… yōgo suffix …⏕ㄊ (special) term (technical word, etc.): køutagai no ~ ga arimasen ࡱࡖࡒ yøgo ප⏕ㄊ national language: ࡂ ␪࠷ࡡఴᆀ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ senmon-~ ᑍ㛓⏕ㄊ technical There is no doubt about it (at all). term: sabetsu-~ ᕣื⏕ㄊ discrimyóchi n ஢▩ prediction; yochiinatory words

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yogore n ỗࡿ dirt, smudge, blot,

(seasick, carsick, airsick, etc.); kuruma-~ ㌬㓁࠷ car sickness; yogoremásu, yogoreru v ỗࡿࡱࡌ, norimono-~ ஋ࡽ∸㓁࠷ travel ỗࡿࡾ gets soiled, smudged; sickness yogorete imásu ỗࡿ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ is yō´i n ⏕ណ preparation; caution dirty (= junbi ‵ങ); … no ~ o shimásu yogoshimásu, yogosu v ỗࡊࡱࡌ, …ࡡ⏕ណࢅࡊࡱࡌ prepares for … ỗࡌ soils, dirties, stains yoimásu, yóu v 㓁࠷ࡱࡌ, 㓁࠹ gets yō´gu n ⏕ර tools, implements, drunk; gets seasick, carsick, instruments, kit; ~-bako ⏕ර⟵ airsick yoisho interj ࡻ࠷ࡊࡺ upsytool box yōguruto n ࣭ࣙࢡࣜࢹ yogurt daisy!, alley-oop!, heave-ho! yoha n ఴἴ after-effect (of typhoon, yōji n ᳷ᯖ࣬ࡻ࠹ࡋ toothpick (= tsuma-~ ࡗࡱࡻ࠹ࡋ࣬∆᳷ᯖ) etc.), aftermath yohaku n ఴⓉ margin, blank (space) yō´ji n ᖺඡ [BOOKISH] infant yōhin n ⏕ဗ = …-yø´hin …⏕ဗ yō´ji n ᖺ᫤ [BOOKISH] childhood: ~-taiken ᖺ᫤మ㥺 childhood utensils, appliances, supplies, necessities; nichi-~ ᪝⏕ဗ daily experiences yō´jin n ⏕ᚨ precaution, caution, necessities; jimu-~ ஥ຸ⏕ဗ office supplies care; “hi no yø´jin”ࠔℾࡡ⏕ yohō n ஢ሒ forecast, prediction; ᚨࠕ“Be careful of fire!”; yōjin-bō tenki-~ ኮẴ஢ሒ weather force- n ⏕ᚨᲤ bodyguard; yōjin-bukái cast adj ⏕ᚨ῕࠷ cautious, careful yohodo adv ࡻ࡮࡜࣬ఴ⛤ consid- (= shinchø ួ㔔) erably, a good deal (= yoppodo yoka n ఴᬜ [BOOKISH] spare time ࡻࡖࡰ࡜); ~ no koto ga nai kagiri (= hima (na jikan) ᬜ ࡝᫤㛣 ) ࡻ࡮࡜ࡡࡆ࡛࠿࡝࠷㝀ࡽ unless yōka n ඳ᪝ 1. 8th day (of a something really important month) 2. (for) eight days (= yøka-kan ඳ᪝㛣) comes up yoi n ᐒ [BOOKISH] early part of yokan n ஢វ premonition, the night, just after nightfall foreboding: ~ ga shimásu ஢វ࠿ yói adj Ⰳ࠷࣬ࡻ࠷ (= íi ࠷࠷ ࡊࡱࡌ has a feeling that somegood [NEGATIVE] yóku arimasén thing (bad/unpleasant) is about to come Ⰳࡂ࠵ࡽࡱࡎࢆ; (past) yókatta desu Ⰳ࠾ࡖࡒ࡚ࡌ was good yō´kan n ࣙࢗ࢜ࣤ࣬⨲⩊ sweet yoi n 㓁࠷ 1. intoxication, bars of bean paste and agar-agar drunkenness 2. motion sickness flavored with chestnut, plum, etc. 318 blotch

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yokei (na) adj ఴ゛ ࡝ superflu-


Yokohamá-kø n ᶋὶ῿ the port

ous, unnecessary, uncalled-for: ~ of Yokohama ni ఴ゛࡞ unnecessarily yokoku n ஢࿈ advance notice; yokemásu, yokéru v 㑂ࡄࡱࡌ, 㑂ࡄ eiga no ~-hen ᫆⏤ࡡ஢࿈⥽ ࡾ avoids, keeps away from movie trailer yoken n ஢ず prediction (= yochi yoko ni narimásu (náru) v ᶋ࡞࡝ࡽ ஢▩) ࡱࡌ ࡝ࡾ lies down (= yokoyoki n ஢᭿ expectation, anticipa- tawárimásu ᶋࡒࢂࡽࡱࡌ) yoko ni shimásu (suru) v ᶋ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ tion yōki n ᐖჹ container, receptacle ࡌࡾ lays down (= yokotaemásu ᶋࡒ࠻ࡱࡌ) yōki n 㝟Ẵ 1. weather 2. cheeryokoshimásu, yokósu v ᐞ㉲ࡊࡱࡌ, fulness, brightness, liveliness; yōki (na) adj 㝟Ẵ࡝ cheerful, ᐞ㉲ࡌ sends (here), hands over bright, lively to me yokin n 㡰㔘 deposit (of money); Yō´koso. interj ࡻ࠹ࡆࡐ Welcome!; yokin-kō´za n 㡰㔘ཾᗑ bank Nihon e ~ ᪝ᮇ࡫ࡻ࠹ࡆࡐ Welaccount; yokin-tsū´chō n 㡰㔘㏳ᖋ come to Japan! yokozuna n ᶋ⥐ grand champion bankbook yokka n ᄿ᪝ 1. 4th day (of a month) sumo wrestler 2. (for) four days (= ~-kan ᄿ᪝㛣) yokú n ḟ greed; desire, want (= yokkyū n ḟị greed; desire, want yokubø ḟ᭻); yokubō n ḟ᭻ (= yoku ḟ, yokubø ḟ᭻, negai greed; desire, want (= yoku ḟ) 㢢࠷): sandai-~ ୔ኬḟị three … yoku suffix …ḟ desire: basic desires (food, sex and sleep) shoku-~ 㣏ḟ food appetite, desire for food or drink: sei-~ ᛮ (also known as part of the four Primitive Fountains: Food, Sleep, ḟ sexual desire: suimin-~ ╟┸ and Sex); yokkyū-fuman n ḟị୘‫ ‮‬ḟ desire to sleep (→ sandaiyokkyü ୔ኬḟị) frustration yoko n ᶋ 1. side (= soba ഁ, waki yóku adv Ⰳࡂ࣬ࡻࡂ well, better; ⬝) 2. the width (= haba ᖕ) hayaku ~ narimasuyøni ᪡ࡂⰃ 3. sideways 4. sidewise; yoko-chō ࡂ࡝ࡽࡱࡌࡻ࠹࡞ Hope you feel n ᶋ⏣ sidestreets, alley; yoko-ito better soon. (to a sick person); n ᶋ⣊ woof (horizontal threads) Yóku irasshaimáshita. interj ࡻࡂ࠷ yoko-girimásu, yoko-gíru v ᶋวࡽࡱ ࡼࡖࡊࡶ࠷ࡱࡊࡒ. Welcome! (= ࡌ, ᶋวࡾ crosses, cuts across, Yøkoso (irasshaimashita) ࡻ࠹ ࡆࡐ ࠷ࡼࡖࡊࡶ࠷ࡱࡊࡒ ) intersects, passes Yokohama n ᶋὶ Yokohama; yóku adv ࡻࡂ lots, much, thor319

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oughly; carefully; ~ yonde kuda- 2. how to pronounce the Kanji/ sai ࡻࡂㄖࢆ࡚ୖࡈ࠷ Please Chinese characters yomimásu, yómu v ㄖࡲࡱࡌ, ㄖࡳ read it carefully. yóku adv ࡻࡂ lots, often, fre1. reads 2. reads out, pronounquently ces 3. foresees, guesses yóku (-) … prefix ⩛… the next yōmō n ⨲ẗ wool (day, night, month, year; date); yón n ᄿ࣬4 four; yon-bai n ᄿಶ yoku-ban n ⩛ᬄ [BOOKISH] the fol- four-fold, four times as much; yonlowing/next night; yoku-getsu n ⩛ banmé (no), yo-banmé (no) adj ᄿ␊ ᭮ [BOOKISH] the following/next ┘ ࡡ fourth; yón-ban, yo-ban n ᄿ month; yoku-jitsu n ⩛᪝ [BOOKISH] ␊ number four; yón-dai n ᄿྋ the following/next day; yoku-shū four (machines, vehicles); yón-do n ⩛㐄 [BOOKISH] the following/ n ᄿᗐ four degrees; four times next week; yoku-toshi n ⩛ᖳ [BOOK- (= yón-kái ᄿᅂ, yón-hén ᄿ㐚); ISH] the following/next year yon-do-mé n ᄿᗐ┘ the fourth time; yokubárí n ḟᘿࡽ a greedy person yón-fun, yón-pun n ᄿฦ four minutes; yokubarimásu, yokubáru v ḟᘿࡽࡱ yón-hai n ᄿ᮴ four cupfuls; yónhén n ᄿ㐚 four times; yón-hiki n ࡌ, ḟᘿࡾ is greedy yoku (-) … prefix ᾆ… bath (→ ᄿ༆ four (fishes/bugs, small anyukata ᾆ⾨); yoku-jō n ᾆሔ imals); yón-hon n ᄿᮇ four (pen[BOOKISH] bathhouse; køshü-~ ප cils/bottles, long objects); yon-kágetsu n ᄿ࠾᭮ four months; yon⾏ᾆሔ public bath; yoku-shitsu n kai n ᄿ㝭 four floors/stories; ᾆᐄ bathroom yōkyū n こị requirement, demand, fourth floor; yón-kái n ᄿᅂ four claim, request (= yøsei こㄫ) times; yón-mai n ᄿᯓ four sheets yome n ᎋ 1. daughter-in-law (flat things, papers, dishes, etc.); 2. bride (= o-yome-san ࠽ᎋࡈࢆ) yon-méi n ᄿྞ four people (also 3. yome-san ᎋࡈࢆ [INFORMAL] yo-mei ᄿྞ, yo-nín ᄿெ); yónpun n ᄿฦ four minutes (also yón(my) wife (= óku-san ዚࡈࢆ) fun ᄿฦ); yón-satsu n ᄿ෇ four yomi n ㄖࡲ 1. reading 2. expectation, forecast 3. pronunciation; copies (books, magazines); yón-tō on-~ 㡚ㄖࡲ Chinese pronuncia- n ᄿ㢄 four (horses/oxen, large tion of Kanji/Chinese characanimals); yón-wa n ᄿ⩒ four (birds, ters; kun-~ ィㄖࡲ Japanese rabbits) (also yón-ba ᄿ⩒) pronunciation of Kanji/Chinese … yō´ (na) suffix, adj …ࡻ࠹>ᵕ@ ࡝ seem(ing) to be: yø ni …ࡻ characters yomi-kata n ㄖࡲ᪁ 1. how to read ࠹>ᵕ@࡞ (so as to be) like …; 320

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suru ~ iimásu ࡌࡾࡻ࠹>ᵕ@࡞ゕ yoroi-do n ࡻࢀ࠷ᡖ࣬㙒ᡖ shutter ࠷ࡱࡌ tells one to do it (house) yondokoro-nai adj ࡻࢆ࡜ࡆࢀ࡝࠷ yorokobi ႌࡦ n joy yorokobimásu, yorokóbu v ႌࡦࡱࡌ, inevitable yōniku n ⨲⫏ [BOOKISH] lamb ႌࡩ is glad, happy, delighted;

(meat, includes mutton) yón-jū n ᄿ༎࣬40 forty …-yō (no) adj …⏕ ࡡ for the

rejoices yoro-mekí n ࡻࢀࡴࡀ an (extra-

marital) affair yoro-mekimásu, yoro-méku v ࡻࢀࡴ use of … yopparai n 㓁ࡖᡮ࠷ drunk (person) ࡀࡱࡌ, ࡻࢀࡴࡂ totters, falters, yopparaimásu, yopparau v 㓁ࡖᡮ࠷ staggers; has an (extra-marital) ࡱࡌ, 㓁ࡖᡮ࠹ gets drunk affair yoppodo adv ࡻࡖࡰ࡜ considerably, Yōróppa n ࣭ࣙࣞࢴࣂ Europe (= a good deal (= yohodo ࡻ࡮࡜࣬ Øshü Ḛᕗ) ఴ⛤) yoroshii adj ࡻࢀࡊ࠷࣬᏿ࡊ࠷ yori-… adj ࡻࡽ… [+ADJECTIVE] very well; satisfactory yoroshikáttara adv ࡻࢀࡊ࠾ࡖࡒࡼ more …, …-er [BOOKISH] … yóri conj …ࡻࡽ 1. (more/ if you don’t mind; if you like yoroshiku n ࡻࢀࡊࡂ࣬᏿ࡊࡂ rather/other) than … 2. from, 1. (… ni) ~ (itte kudasái/o-tsutae out of; since yoridori-midori n ࡻࡽ࡜ࡽࡲ࡜ࡽ࣬ kudasái) …࡞ ࡻࢀࡊࡂ ゕࡖ࡙ 㐽ࡽཱིࡽずཱིࡽ choosing which- ୖࡈ࠷/࠽ఎ࠻ୖࡈ࠷ Give my ever one likes regards to … 2. → yoroshii ࡻࢀ yorigónomi n ࡻࡽይࡲ࣬㐽ࡽይࡲ ࡊ࠷࣬᏿ࡊ࠷ 3. Dø´zo yoroshiku. ࡜࠹ࡑࡻࢀࡊࡂ. How do you choosiness yorimásu, yoru v ᐞࡽࡱࡌ, ᐞࡾ do?; Please favor (my request, drops in; approaches, comes near; me, mine). yóroyoro (to) adj, adv ࡻࢀࡻࢀ ࡛ meets yorimásu, yoru v ᣈࡽࡱࡌ, ᣈࡾ tottering, faltering, staggering; relies on; … ni yotte …࡞ࡻࡖ࡙, having an affair … ni yoru to …࡞ࡻࡾ࡛, … ni yoru v … ni ~ to …࡞ࡻࡾ࡛ acyoréba …࡞ࡻࡿࡣ according cording to … to … yōryō n こ㡷 1. gist: ~ o enai kaitø yorimásu, yóru v ᧅࡽࡱࡌ, ᧅࡾ こ㡷ࢅᚋ࡝࠷ᅂ➽ pointless twists, twines (= nejirimasu ᤤࡽ answer, unclear answer 2. knack: ࡱࡌ, nejiru ᤤࡾ) ~ ga ii こ㡷࠿࠷࠷ is efficient yoroi n 㙒 armor (person) 321

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yōsai n こራ fortress (military

ࡐࡡெ outsider, stranger; yosomono n ࡻࡐ⩽࣬ఴᡜ⩽ outsider, facility) yosan n ஢⟤ budget stranger yōsan n 㣬⺃ raising silkworms, yosō n ஢᝷ expectation, presumpsilk farming, sericulture tion; ~ íjø ஢᝷௧୕ above/beyond yose n ᐞᖆ vaudeville (theater) expectations yōseki n ᐖ✒ volume of a container yō´so n こ⣪ element yosemásu, yoseru v ᐞࡎࡱࡌ, ᐞࡎ yosoku n ஢ῼ forecast, prediction, ࡾ 1. lets approach, brings near estimate 2. collects, gathers 3. adds 4. sends yōsu n ᵕᏄ࣬ࡻ࠹ࡌ circumyosen n ஢㐽 preliminary; primary stances; aspect; appearance, look yose-nabe n ᐞࡎ㘘 chowder yōsui n ⏕Ề diversion of water, yose-nami ᐞࡎἴ surf service water, irrigation water; yóshi n ⏜ reason; meaning; ciryōsui-ro n ⏕Ề㊨ irrigation canal yō-súru ni v こࡌࡾ࡞ in summary, cumstance; means Yóshi! interj ࡻࡊ! OK; very well to sum it up, in short; in effect, yō´shi n ⏕⣤ forms, blanks, what it amounts to (boils down papers: genkø-~ ཋ✇⏕⣤ manu- to) is …; after all yotamono n ࡻࡒ⩽࣬୙ኯ⩽ script paper used for writing hoodlum Japanese vertically (commonly one page of 400-characters or yotei n ஢ᏽ expectation, plan 200-characters): ankëto-~ ࢓ࣤ yōtén n こⅤ gist, point ࢢ࣭ࢹ⏕⣤ questionnaire yotō n ୙ඨ ruling party yō´-shi n こ᪠ summary, abstract yotsu-kado n ᄿࡗぽ intersection (gist) (= shu-shi ୹᪠) (of two streets), crossroads yoshimásu, yósu v Ḿࡊࡱࡌ, Ḿࡌ yotto n ࣙࢴࢹ yacht stops doing it (= yamemásu Ḿࡴ yottsú n ᄿࡗ four ࡱࡌ) yowái adj ᘽ࠷ weak; frail; poor yō-shimásu, yō-súru v こࡊࡱࡌ, こ at (math, etc.); sake ni ~ 㒿࡞ᘽ ࡌࡾ needs, requires, takes, ࠷ easily intoxicated; yowa-mi n ᘽࡲ weakness, weak point; yowacosts; summarizes, sums it up mushi n ᘽ⹰ a cream puff, wimp yōshoku n 㣬Ṣ raising, farming, culture: ~-shínju 㣬Ṣ┷⌌ yowasemásu, yowaséru v 㓁ࢂࡎࡱࡌ, 㓁ࢂࡎࡾ gets one drunk, lets cultured pearls yoshū n ஢⩞ preparatory study one get drunk yosó n ࡻࡐ࣬ఴᡜ somewhere yoyaku n ஢⣑ reservation, subelse; alien, strange: ~ no hitó ࡻ scription, booking, appointment 322

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yōyaku adv ࡻ࠹ࡷࡂ finally, at

afternoon or evening; yū-gata n last; barely ኟ᪁ evening; yū-giri n ኟ㟕 yōyaku n こ⣑ a summary evening mist; yū-gure n ኟᬵࡿ yoyū n ఴ⿩ room, leeway, twilight; ~-doki ኟᬵࡿ᫤ evening margin, excess, surplus during the twilight hours; yū-han yú n … hot water, warm water: n ኟ㣜 [INFORMAL] = yü-meshi o-~ o wakashimásu ࠽…ࢅἓ࠾ ኟ㣜 supper, dinner (= yü-shoku ࡊࡱࡌ boils water; yu-ge n …Ẵ ኟ㣏); yū-hi n ኟ᪝࣬ኟ㝟 setting steam; yu-nomi n …㣟ࡲ, ~-jáwan sun; yū-kaze n ኟ㢴 evening …㣟ࡲⲌ◿ Japanese teacup; yu-wá- breeze; yū-meshi n ኟ㣜 (commonly kashi n …ἓ࠾ࡊ teakettle, boiler male. Very informal) → yū-han ኟ 㣜; yū-moya n ኟࡵࡷ࣬ኟ㟥 even(for heating water); yu-zámashi n …෫ࡱࡊ cooled boiled water ing fog; yū-shoku n ኟ㣏 evening yú n … bath: otoko-~ ⏠… men’s meal (supper, dinner) (= yü-han, section of a bathhouse: on’na-~ yü-meshi ኟ㣜) ዥ… women’s section of a bath- yū-… prefix ཪ friend; yū-jin n ཪெ [BOOKISH] friend (= tomo ཪ, house; yú-bune n …⯢ bathtub; yu-zame n …෫ࡴ feeling chilly tomo-dachi ཪࡓࡔ࣬ཪ㐡); yū-jō after taking a bath n ཪ᝗ friendship; yū-kō n ཪይ yū n ࡹ࠹࣬ゕ࠹ [INFORMAL] = iu [BOOKISH] (official) friendship, ゕ࠹, iimásu ゕ࠷ࡱࡌ (says) friendly relationship (among yū n ⤎࠹ = yuu ⤎࠹, yuimásu ⤎ countries, etc.) ࠷ࡱࡌ does up one’s hair yū-be n ࡹ࠹࡬࣬ᫎእ last night yū n ඁ excellent: (grade) yü, (= kinø no ban/yoru ᫎ᪝ࡡᬄእ, ryø, ka, fuka ඁࠉⰃࠉྊࠉ୘ྊ saku-ban/ya ᫎእ/ᬄ) Excellent, Good, Poor, Failing; yūben n 㞕ᘒ eloquence: ~ (na) 㞕 yū´-retsu n ඁ຋ relative merits ᘒ ࡝ eloquent; yūben-ka n 㞕ᘒ (superiority or inferiority); yū-ryō ᐓ eloquent speaker (na) adj ඁⰃ࡝ superior; yū-shō yubí n ᣞ 1. finger (= te no yubí ᡥࡡᣞ) 2. toe (= ashi no yubí n ඁົ (winning) the victory/ championship; ~-sha ඁົ⩽ the ㊂ࡡᣞ); yubi-núkí n ᣞ㈇ࡀ thimwinner, victor; yū-shū (na) adj ඁ ble; yubi-saki n ᣞ඙ fingertip; ⚵࡝ excellent, superior; yū-tō-sei yubi-sashimásu, yubi-sasu v ᣞᕣࡊࡱ ࡌ, ᣞᕣࡌ points (commonly n ඁ➴⏍ model student yū n ኟ evening (= yü-gata ኟ᪁); indicates something with an yū-bé n ኟ࡬ evening; yū-dachi n extended index finger); yubi-wa n ኟ❟ a sudden shower during ᣞ㍧ ring 323

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yūbin n 㒉౼ mail: ~-chókin 㒉౼ ㈋㔘 postal savings; ~-ká wase 㒉౼Ⅵ᭨ (postal) money order; ~-uke 㒉౼ུࡄ mailbox; yūbínbako n 㒉౼⟵ mailbox; yūbinbángō n 㒉౼␊ྒ zip code; ZIP Code; yūbín-butsu n 㒉౼∸ mail; yūbín-kyoku n 㒉౼ᑻ post office; yūbín-posuto n 㒉౼࣎ࢪࢹ Red post box; yūbín-ya (san) n 㒉౼ᒁ ࡈࢆ mail carrier, postman yū´bi (na) adj ඁ⨶ ࡝ elegant,

yū´ga (na) adj ඁ㞖 ࡝ elegant,


yugamemásu, yugameru v ṅࡴࡱࡌ, ṅࡴࡾ distorts, warps yugami n ṅࡲ distortion, warp yūga-tō n ㄇ⻅⅁ light trap yūgi n 㐗ᡑ playgame: ~-shitsu 㐗 ᡑᐄ playroom yūhei n ᖻ㛚 confinement yūhodō n 㐗Ṅ㐠 promenade yuigon n 㐿ゕ 1. leaving a will 2. a will, testament (= ~-jø 㐿ゕ ≟, ~-sho 㐿ゕ᭡) graceful yūbō (na) adj ᭯᭻ ࡝ promising yúiitsu (no) adj ။ୌ ࡡ [BOOKISH] (= zento ~ (na) ๑㏭᭯᭻ ࡝ ): ~ the only (= tada hitotsu no ࡒࡓ (na) senshu ᭯᭻ ࡝ 㐽ᡥ prom- ࡥ࡛ࡗࡡ࣬။ୌࡗࡡ) yuimásu, yū (yuu) v ⤎࠷ࡱࡌ, ⤎࠹ ising player yudan n ἔ᩷ negligence, careless- does up one’s hair yūjū-fudan n ඁ᯺୘᩷ indecisiveness ness, sloppiness yudanemásu, yudanéru v ጟࡠࡱࡌ, yuka n ᗃ floor: ~-ita ᗃᯀ floor ጟࡠࡾ entrusts, commits board Yudayá-jin n ࣗࢱࣕெ Jew; ~-kyø yúkai (na) adj ញᛄ ࡝ merry, ࣗࢱࣕᩅ Judaism happy, gay; funny, droll yudemásu, yudéru v ⲏ࡚ࡱࡌ, ⲏ࡚ yūkai n ㄇᢺ kidnap(ping); yūkaihan n ㄇᢺ≚ kidnapper ࡾ boils (food) yude-támago n ࡹ࡚༵࣬ⲏ࡚༵ yūkaku n 㐗㒄 red-light district yūkan (na) adj ຩᩊ ࡝ brave boiled egg yué n ᨶ࣬ࡹ࠻ [BOOKISH] reason, yūkari n ࣭ࣗ࢜ࣛ eucalyptus grounds; … ~ ni …ᨶ࡞࣬ࡹ࠻࡞ yukata n ᾆ⾨࣬ࡹ࠾ࡒ (light)

for the reason that …, because … bathrobe yūenchi n 㐗ᅧᆀ amusement park yuketsu n ㍲⾉ blood transfusion yū´fuku (na) adj ⿩⚗ ࡝ rich, yukí n 㞯 snow: ~ ga furimásu 㞯 wealthy ࠿㜾ࡽࡱࡌ it snows; yuki-dama n yūfō n ࣭ࣗࣆ࢚࣭࣬UFO 㞯⋚ snowball; yuki-daruma n 㞯 unidentified flying object (= mi- ࡓࡾࡱ snowman; yuki-doke n 㞯 kakunin hikø-buttai ᮅ☔ヾ㣍⾔ ゆࡄ ① melting snow ② thaw ∸మ) (reduction or easing in tension

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yusaburimásu, yusaburu

or hostility); yuki-gassen n 㞯ྙᡋ yunikōdo n ࣗࢼࢤ࣭ࢺ unicode snowball fight; yuki-nádare n 㞯 yunikōn n ࣗࢼࢤ࣭ࣤ unicorn (= ࡝ࡓࡿ snowslide, avalanche (= ikkaku-jü ୌぽ⊿) nadare 㞯ᓻ࣬࡝ࡓࡿ); yuki-onna yūnō (na) adj ᭯⬗ ࡝ capable, n 㞯ዥ snow woman (spirit of efficient yunyū n ㍲ථ import(ing); yunyū-hin snow); yuki-otoko n 㞯⏠ yeti yū´ki n ຩẴ courage n ㍲ථဗ imported goods; yunyū´zei n ㍲ථ⛧ (import) duty yū´ki (no) adj ᭯ᶭ ࡡ organic: ~-yasai ᭯ᶭ㔕⳧ organic yūran n 㐗ぬ excursion vegetables: ~-kagaku ᭯ᶭ໩Ꮥ yūrashia n ࣭ࣗࣚࢨ࢓ Eurasia yure ᥺ࡿ n tremor, shock organic chemistry yukkúri adv ࡹࡖࡂࡽ 1. slowly yū´rei n ᖻ㟃 Japanese ghost 2. at ease; Go-yukkúri. ࡇࡹࡖࡂ (commonly lacks legs and feet) ࡽ. Take it easy. Don’t feel you (= bø-rei ஷ㟃) yuremásu, yureru v ᥺ࡿࡱࡌ, ᥺ࡿ have to rush. yūkō (na) adj ᭯ຝ ࡝ effective, ࡾ it shakes, sways, swings, rocks, valid; yūkō-kigen n ᭯ຝ᭿㝀 rolls expiration date (except food.)(= yuri n ࣗࣛ࣬Ⓤྙ lily shømi-kigen ㈱࿝᭿㝀) yuri-kago n ᥺ࡽ࠾ࡇ࣬᥺ࡽ⡪ crayukue-fumei n ⾔᪁୘᪺ missing dle; yuri-kago kara hakaba made ᥺ࡽ (person, pet, etc.): ~-sha ⾔᪁୘ ࠾ࡇ>᥺ࡽ⡪@࠾ࡼ቉ሔࡱ࡚ (slo᪺⩽ a missing person gan) from the cradle to the grave yumé n ከ dream 1. succession of yū´ri (na) adj ฺ᭯ ࡝ profitable, images during sleep 2. aspiraadvantageous yurúi adj ⥾࠷࣬ࡹࡾ࠷ loose, tion, wish; ~ ga kanaimashita ከ࠿ྑ࠷ࡱࡊࡒ (My) dream slack; lenient; slow yurushí n スࡊ permission came true! yūmei (na) adj ᭯ྞ ࡝ famous, yurushimásu, yurúsu v スࡊࡱࡌ, ス ࡌ allows, lets; pardons, forgives well-known yumí n ᘢ bow (for archery or yūryō n ᭯ᩩ pay (not free), violin); yumi-gata n ᘢᙟ curve, charge, fee: ~-chü´shajø ᭯ᩩ㥌 ㌬ሔ paid parking arch, bow yū´moa n ࣭࣓ࣗ࢓ humor, wit yūryoku (na) adj ᭯ງ ࡝ strong, yunifōmu n ࣗࢼࣆ࢚࣭࣑ uniform powerful, influential yusaburimásu, yusaburu v ᥺ࡈࡩࡽ (of athlete, etc.) yuniiku n ࣗࢼ࣭ࢠ unique (= kosei- ࡱࡌ, ᥺ࡈࡩࡾ shakes (sways, teki ಴ᛮⓏ, dokutoku ≺≁) swings, rocks, shocks) it 325

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yūsen n ඁ඙ priority: ~-jun’i ඁ ᥺ࡌࡾ shakes (sways, swings, ඙㡨న order of priority rocks) it yūsha n ຩ⩽ brave man (→ yūkan yusurimásu, yusuru v ᙁㄫࡽࡱࡌ, ຩᩊ) ᙁㄫࡾ blackmails, extorts yūshi n ⼝㈠ financing (of bank, yútaka (na) adj ㇇࠾ ࡝ abundant, etc.) plentiful; wealthy (= høfu (na) yūshi n ᭯ᚷ volunteer, supporter, ㇇ᐣ ࡝ ) yū-tā´n n ࣭ࣗ[U]ࢰ࣭ࣤ U-turn interested person yūshi-téssen n ᭯ๆ㕪⥲ barbed Yuta-shū n ࣗࢰᕗ Utah yutori adj ࡹ࡛ࡽ leeway, breadth wire yushutsu n ㍲ฝ export(ing); yushu- of mind, space; ~-kyøiku ࡹ࡛ࡽ tsu-hin n ㍲ฝဗ export goods; yu- ᩅ⫩ less strenuous education shutsu-zei n ㍲ฝ⛧ (export) duty (primary education with reduced yūshoku-jinshu n ᭯Ⰵெ⛸ colored hours and/or content of the



yusō n ㍲㏞ transport(ation) yūsō n 㒉㏞ mailing; yūsō´-ryō n 㒉 ㏞ᩩ postage yusuburimásu, yusuburu v ᥺ࡌࡩࡽ ࡱࡌ, ᥺ࡌࡩࡾ shakes (sways,

yūutsu (na) adj ៟࠹ࡗ࣬៟㨒 ࡝

melancholy, gloom

yūwaku n ㄇᝠ temptation; seduction yūzai (no) adj ᭯⨝ ࡡ guilty yúzu n ࣗࢫ࣬᯾Ꮔ citron yūzū n ⼝㏳ 1. financing 2. adaptswings, rocks) it yusugimásu, yusugu v ࡹࡌࡁࡱࡌ, ability, versatility; yūzū no/ga kiku ࡹࡌࡃ rinses (= susugu ࡌࡌࡃ) adv ⼝㏳ࡡ࠿ࡀࡂ adaptable, yūsu-hósuteru n ࣭ࣗࢪ࣌ࢪࢷࣜ versatile yuzurimásu, yuzuru v ㆙ࡽࡱࡌ, youth hostel yusuri n ࡹࡌࡽ࣬ᙁㄫࡽ black㆙ࡾ gives up; gives in; yields;

mail, extortion

cedes; is inferior

yusurimásu, yusuru v ᥺ࡌࡽࡱࡌ,

Z zá n ᗑ 1. theater (→ kabuki-za ḯ⯑ఃᗑ) 2. seat; za-búton n ᗑᕱᅆ Japanese flat square cushion to sit on; za-dan n ᗑㄧ [BOOKISH] chat; ~-kai ᗑㄧఌ

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round-table discussion; za-isu n ᗑ᳌Ꮔ backrest (= legless chair); za-kyō n ᗑ⮾ entertainment (at drinking party, etc.); za-seki n ᗑ ᖆ seat: ~-bángø ᗑᖆ␊ྒ seat


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zangyaku (na)

number; za-shikí n ᗑᩔ ① tatami ⏻ [BOOKISH] residing, residence: room, drawing room ② tatami- ~-shíkaku ᅹ⏻㈠᰹ status of floored seating area in Japanese- residence; zai-seki(-chū) adv ᅹ⡘ ୯ ① in school; in college; at style restaurant; za-zen n ᗑ⚑ meditation (Zen) university (= zai-gaku(-chü) ᅹ za-… prefix 㞟 miscellaneous; Ꮥ ୯ ) ② in association: ~-sha zak-ka n 㞟㈄ miscellaneous ᅹ⡘⩽ registered person; zai-taku goods, sundries: ~-ten 㞟㈄ᗉ n ᅹᏩ [BOOKISH] being at home; ~-kinmu ᅹᏩໂຸ working at variety shop; za-tsuon n 㞟㡚 noise(s), static, miscellaneous home sounds; zas-shi n 㞟ヽ magazine, zai-… prefix ⨝… sin, crime; zái-aku periodical, miscellaneous articles; n ⨝ᝇ sin: ~-kan ⨝ᝇវ feeling/ zatsudan n 㞟ㄧ (miscellaneous) sense of guilt; zai-nin n ⨝ெ chat; zat-ta (na) adj 㞟ኣ ࡝ criminal zaiko n ᅹᗔ inventory; zaiko-hyō n sundry, miscellaneous zái n ᮞ (= zaimoku ᮞᮄ) lumber; ᅹᗔ⾪ inventory list; zaiko-shobun (= zairyø ᮞᩩ) material; zai-moku sēru n ᅹᗔฌฦࢬ࣭ࣜ clearance n ᮞᮄ lumber, wood; zai-ryō´ n sale ᮞᩩ raw material(s), ingredient(s): Zaimu-shō n ㈀ຸ┤ Ministry of süpu no ~ ࢪ࣭ࣈࡡᮞᩩ ingredi- Finance záiru n ࢧ࢕ࣜ a mountain-climbents for the soup zái n ㈀ (= záisan ㈀⏐) wealth; ing rope zai-batsu n ㈀㛰 a big financial zamā´-miro interj ࡉࡱ࠵ずࢀ group; zai-dan n ㈀ᅆ a founda(mostly male, very informal) It tion; zai-gen n ㈀″ financial serves you/them right! zandaka n ṟ㧏 (remaining money) resources; zai-hō n ㈀᐀ riches (money, jewels, etc.), treasures; balance: (ginkø)yokin-~ 㖗⾔ 㡰 zai-kai n ㈀⏲ financial circles; 㔘ṟ㧏 bank balance zai-ryoku n ㈀ງ financial power, zangai n ṟ㦹 1. wreck(age) which economic power; zái-san n ㈀⏐ does not preserve its original shape one’s property, wealth, fortune; 2. thrown corpse which does not zai-sei n ㈀ᨳ finance preserve its original shape zai-… prefix n ᅹ… (resident) in; zángé n ᠪ᜴ confession (of sins) zai-gaku(-chū) adv ᅹᏕ ୯ in zangyaku (na) adj ṟ⹚ ࡝ mercischool; in college; at university: less and cruel/brutal (to animals, ~-shømeisho ᅹᏕチ᪺᭡ certifpeople), atrocious; ~-kø´i ṟ⹚⾔ Ⅵ an atrocity icate of enrollment; zai-ryū n ᅹ 327

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zangyō n ṟᴏ overtime (work) zankoku (na) adj ṟ㓖 ࡝ cruel

ᾐ㈕⛧ consumption tax; shotoku-~ ᡜᚋ⛧ income tax; jümin-~ పẰ⛧ resident tax; to, brutal to, harsh towards zei-kan n ⛧㛭 customs, custom (animals, people): ~ na shiuchi ṟ㓖࡝௘ᡬࡔ cruel treatment house; zei-kin n ⛧㔘 tax (= zei zannén (na) adj ṟᛍ ࡝ regret⛧); zei-mu sho n ⛧ຸ⨣ tax office zeitákú n ࡏ࠷ࡒࡂ࣬㉍Ἁ luxury, table, disappointed; too bad, extravagance: ~ (na) ࡏ࠷ࡒࡂ࣬ a pity; ~-nagara ṟᛍ࡝࠿ࡼ regrettably (= ikan-nagara 㐿᠅࡝ ㉍Ἁ ࡝ luxurious; zeitaku-hin n ࡏ࠷ࡒࡂ>㉍Ἁ@ဗ luxury (goods), ࠿ࡼ [BOOKISH]) zannin (na) adj ṟᚰ ࡝ brutal, luxuries cruel (= zankoku (na) ṟ㓖 ࡝ ): zékken n ࢭࢴࢢࣤ an athlete’s ~ na hito ṟᚰ࡝ெ cruel person number: ~ o tsukemásu ࢭࢴࢢ zara ni adv ࡉࡼ࡞ found everyࣤࢅ௛ࡄࡱࡌ attaches/assigns a

where, very common

number (to an athlete)

zárazara (shita) adj ࡉࡼࡉࡼ ࡊࡒ zekkō (no) adj ⤧ይ(ࡡ) best; ~-chø ⤧ይㄢ best condition rough(-textured) zarigani n ࢧࣛ࢝ࢼ crawfish zémi n ࢭ࣐, zeminå´ru ࢭ࣐ࢻ࣭ zarú n ࡉࡾ࣬ࢧࣜ a bamboo ࣜ seminar zén n ၻ goodness; ~-aku ၻᝇ sieve/colander zāsai n ࢧ࣭ࢦ࢕ Chinese pickles good and evil, right and wrong; zasetsu n ᣰᢙ falling by the way- zén’-i n ၻណ goodwill; zén-sho n ၻฌ [BOOKISH]: ~ shimásu ၻฌ side, frustration, setback, fail; ~-kan ᣰᢙវ feeling of frustraࡊࡱࡌ “I will do my best” (about tion, sense of failure; ~ shimásu the matter) = Don’t expect me to ᣰᢙࡊࡱࡌ gets frustrated, falls do anything. Zén n ⚑ Zen (Buddhism) by the wayside, fails zatsu (na) adj 㞟 ࡝ coarse, crude zen n ⭻ (o-zen ࠽⭻, gó-zen ᚒ⭻) zatto adv ࡉࡖ࡛ roughly; briefly (traditional individual low) meal … ze interj …ࡏ (mostly male. table, dining tray VERY INFORMAL) indeed, I tell you zén-… prefix ධ… all, total, whole, zé-hi adv ࡏࡥ࣬᫕㟸 1. without complete, the whole; zén-bu adv ධ fail, for sure: 2. [BOOKISH] right 㒂 everything, completely: ~ de and wrong, pros and cons; shikei ධ㒂࡚ altogether; zen’-in n ධဤ (seido) no ~ Ṓฬ โᗐ ࡡ᫕㟸 everyone; zén-koku (no) adj ධᅗ pros and cons of the death penalty ࡡ nation-wide; zen-men n ධ㟻 zéi n ⛧ tax (= ~-kin ⛧㔘); shøhi-~ the entire surface; zen-metsu n ධ

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zoku-shimásu, zoku-súru

⁓ annihilation; zen-shin n ධ㌗

zettai ni ⤧ᑊ࡞ totally, absolutely the whole body, body as a whole; zi… → j… zen-tai n ධమ the whole, entirety: … zo interj …ࡑ (mostly male. ~ no ධమࡡ entire, whole; ~ ni VERY INFORMAL) indeed, I tell ධమ࡞ wholly, generally; zén-tai you adv ධమ originally, primarily (= zō n ാ 1. statue (= chø-~ ᙦാ) gánrai ඔᮮ); zen-zen adv ධ↓࣬ 2. image: terebi ei-~ ࢷࣝࣄ᫆ ࡏࢆࡏࢆ ① [+ NEGATIVE verb] (not) ാ images on TV screen: ga-~ ⏤ ാ picture, image 3. portrait (= at all, (not) ever ② [INFORMAL] shø-~ ⫔ാ) completely, utterly, entirely, altogether zō n ࢯࢗ࣬㇗ elephant zén-… prefix ๑…[BOOKISH] zō-… prefix ቌ increase; zō-dai former, earlier (= máe no … ๑ n ቌኬ enlargement, increase; ࡡ…); zen-chō n ๑඗ omen, sign; zō´-ho n ቌ⿭ supplement; zō-ka n zén-go n ๑ᚃ ① before and after; ቌຊ increase, growth; zō-ryō n ahead and behind; back and forth ቌ㔖 increase (quantity); zō-satsu ② sequence, order; …-zén-go suffix n ቌใ reprint (publishing); zōshin n ቌ㐅 promotion, better…๑ᚃ approximately, around, about (= teido ⛤ᗐ); zen-han n ๑ ment, increase ༖ the first half; zen-men n ๑㟻 zōgan n ㇗╉ inlaid work; damathe front side; zen-rei n ๑ౚ scene precedent, prior example; zén-sha zōka n ㏸ⰴ artificial flower n ๑⩽ the former; zen-shin n ๑㐅 zōkei n ㏸マ profound knowledge advance; zen-tei n ๑ᥞ premise; (of academics, arts, technologies, zén-to n ๑㏭ the future, prospects; etc.): ~ ga fukai ㏸マ࠿῕࠷ is zén’-ya n ๑እ the night before well versed zenmai n ࡏࢆࡱ࠷࣬ࢭ࣏ࣤ࢕ 1. a zōkin n ࡑ࠹ࡀࢆ࣬㞟ᕮ rag,

spring, hairspring, clock-spring dustcloth 2. royal fern, osmund zoku n ㈣ robber, bandit, thief zensoku n ࡏࢆࡐࡂ࣬ႉ᜝ asthma …´-zoku suffix …᪐ (name of zeppeki n ⤧ባ precipice certain) tribe/gang/group of …; zérii n ࢭ࣭ࣛ jelly the …s zéro n ࢭࣞ zero zokugo n ಐㄊ slang zetsubō n ⤧᭻ despair zoku (na) adj ಐ ࡝ common, zetsuen shimásu v ⤧⦍ࡊࡱࡌ vulgar; popular zoku-shimásu, zoku-súru v ᒌࡊࡱࡌ, insulates zettai (no) adv ⤧ᑊ ࡡ absolute: ᒌࡌࡾ belongs 329

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zokú zoku


zokú zoku adv ࡑࡂࡑࡂ࣬⤾ࠍ

a good thing too far, takes one right after another, in rapid advantage of a person; zu-an n ᅒ ᱄ sketch, design; zu-hyō n succession zóku zoku shimásu (suru) v ࡑࡂࡑࡂ ᅒ⾪ chart, diagram (= chåto ࢲ࣭ࣔࢹ); zu-kai n ᅒゆ illustraࡊࡱࡌ ࡌࡾ 1. is thrilled with excitement 2. shivers with chill tion, diagram zonbún (ni) adv Ꮛฦ ࡞ as much …-zu suffix …ࡍ, …-zu ni …ࡍ࡞ as one likes = …-nái de …࡝࠷࡚ (not doing, zóngai adv Ꮛአ beyond expecta- instead of doing) zubari adv ࡍࡣࡽ [INFORMAL] tions zōni n 㞟↳࣬ࡑ࠹࡞ rice cakes frankly: ~ iimásu ࡍࡣࡽゕ࠷ࡱ boiled with vegetables (eaten as ࡌ comes directly to the point zubón n ࢫ࣍ࣤ trousers, pants, New Year’s soup) zon-jiagemásu, zon-jiageru v Ꮛࡋ࠵ slacks; zubon-shita n ࢫ࣍ࣤୖ ࡅࡱࡌ, Ꮛࡋ࠵ࡅࡾ [HUMBLE] underpants, shorts; zubon-tsuri n ࢫ࣍ࣤྛࡽ suspenders thinks, feels; knows zon-jimásu, zon-jíru v Ꮛࡋࡱࡌ, Ꮛ zubutoi adv ᅒኯ࠷ thick-skinned, ࡋࡾ [HUMBLE/DEFERENTIAL] impudent: ~ shinkei ᅒኯ࠷♼⤊ thinks, feels; knows nerves of steel zonzái (na) adj ࡑࢆࡉ࠷ ࡝ slov- zúibun adv ࡍ࠷ࡩࢆ࣬㝮ฦ 1. enly, rough, carelessly, sloppy fairly, rather 2. very, quite, zōri n ⲙᒓ straw sandals extremely (= kanari ࠾࡝ࡽ) zórozoro adv ࡑࢀࡑࢀ in streams/ zuihitsu n 㝮➱ essays zúii (no) adj 㝮ណ ࡡ voluntary, crowds, in large numbers zōsen n ㏸⯢ shipbuilding; zōsen-jó optional (= nin’i (no) ௴ណ ࡡ ) n ㏸⯢ᡜ shipyard zúiji adv 㝮᫤ as needed, at zōsho n ⶮ᭡ book collection, anytime as one likes -zuke suffix ௛ࡄ dated library zōsui n 㞟⅍ rice boiled in a soup …-zuki suffix …ይࡀ a lover of …, zo¯-tei n ㉏࿆ [HUMBLE] presentaa great … fan zúkku n ࢫࢴࢠ canvas; duck (fabric) tion: ~ shimásu ㉏࿆ࡊࡱࡌ …-zúkuri suffix …㏸ࡽ made of … presents zotto adv ࡑࡖ࡛ with a shudder/ zūmu n ࢫ࣭࣑ zoom (camera) zúnō n 㢄⬳ [BOOKISH] brains, shiver zu n ᅒ picture, drawing, chart, head, intellect (= atama 㢄) zurashimásu, zurasu v ࡍࡼࡊࡱࡌ, map, diagram, figure: ~ ni norimásu ᅒ࡞஋ࡽࡱࡌ pushes ࡍࡼࡌ shifts 330

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zuré n ࡍࡿ discrepancy, lag, gap zuremásu, zuréru v ࡍࡿࡱࡌ, ࡍࡿ ࡾ slips out of place, gets loose zurō´su n ࢫ࣭ࣞࢪ panties; drawers zúru n ࡍࡾ cheating; zuru-gashikoi adj ࡍࡾ㈴࠷ cunning, wily; zurúi adj ࡍࡾ࠷ sly, cunning, tricky; zuru-yásumi n ࡍࡾఆࡲ skipping

each, apiece, at a time zutsū n 㢄⑚ headache: ~ no táne 㢄⑚ࡡ⛸ one’s biggest headache zutto adv ࡍࡖ࡛ 1. directly 2. by far, much (more): ~ máe ࡍࡖ࡛ ๑ way back (before), a long time ago 3. all the way through, all the time zūzūshíi adj ࡍ࠹ࡍ࠹ࡊ࠷࣬ᅒࠍ (school); truancy zusan (na) adj ࡍࡈࢆ ࡝ sloppy, ࡊ࠷ brazen, shameless, impudent slipshod, careless, slovenly (= atsukamashii ཉ࠾ࡱࡊ࠷) …´zútsu suffix …ࡍࡗ (of/for) zy… → j…

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A a, an → one (but usually omitted

in Japanese) abacus n soroban ࡐࢀࡣࢆ abandon v sutemásu ᤖ࡙ࡱࡌ abase v otoshimásu ⴘ࡛ࡊࡱࡌ abate v 1. (lose steam) osamarimásu ἖ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, yawaragimásu ࿰ࡼࡁࡱࡌ 2. herashimásu ΅ ࡼࡊࡱࡌ 3. (exclude) haijo shimásu ᤴ㝎ࡊࡱࡌ; (resolve) mukø ni shimásu ↋ຝ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ abbreviate v ryakushimásu ␆ࡊࡱࡌ abdicate v 1. shirizokimásu ㏝ࡀࡱ ࡌ, jinin shimásu ㎙௴ࡊࡱࡌ 2. ~ the throne taii shimásu ㏝న ࡊࡱࡌ abdomen n onaka ࠽࡝࠾࣬࠽⭙, fukubu ⭙㒂, hara ⭙ abduct v yükai shimásu ㄇᢺࡊࡱࡌ aberration n dassen ⬲⥲, itsudatsu 㐋⬲, seishin ijø ⢥♼␏ᖏ abet v keshikakemásu ࡄࡊ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ abeyance n ichiji teishi ୌ᫤ೳḾ, horyü ಕ⏻ abhor v (dislike intensely) nikumimásu ៦ࡲࡱࡌ, (not favored) kiraimásu ᎒࠷ࡱࡌ abide v 1. (stay) nokórimásu ṟࡽ ࡱࡌ, todomarimásu ⏻ࡱࡽࡱࡌ 2. (dwell) sumimásu పࡲࡱࡌ 3. (suffer) gaman shimásu ᠻះࡊ ࡱࡌ, ...ni taemásu ... ࡞⪇࠻ࡱࡌ ability n 1. (skill) nøryoku ⬗ງ, udemae ⭆๑, o-)témae ࠽ ᡥ

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๑; (stuff) kíryø ჹ㔖, utsuwa ჹ ࣬࠹ࡗࢂ 2. (function) hataraki ഼ࡀ; (proficiency) jitsuryoku ᐁງ 3. (talent) sái(nø) ᡧ ⬗ abject adj mijime (na) ᝲࡴ ࡝ , hisán (na) ᝊᝲ ࡝ ablaze adj 1. (shiny) kagayaiteiru ㍜࠷࡙࠷ࡾ 2. (burning) moeteiru ⇖࠻࡙࠷ࡾ able → can abnormal adj (abnormality) ijø (na) ␏ᖏ ࡝ aboard v gets ~ norimásu ஋ࡽࡱࡌ abode n ie ᐓ, jükyo పᑽ, jütaku పᏩ abolish v (demolish) haishi shimásu ᗣḾࡊࡱࡌ, yamemásu Ḿࡴࡱࡌ aborigine n aborijini ࢓࣍ࣛࢩࢼ, aborijinii ࢓࣍ࣛࢩࢼ࣭, genjümin ཋపẰ, senjümin ඙పẰ abort v chüshi shimásu ୯Ḿࡊࡱࡌ abortion n datai ሃ⫶, ninshin chü´zetsu ዲፈ୯⤧ abound v tomimásu ᐣࡲࡱࡌ about prep 1. (an amount) yáku ... ⣑..., ... gúrai ...న, ... hodo ...⛤, ...-zéngo... ๑ᚃ, ...-kéntø ...ずᙔ 2. (a time) ... góro (ni) ... 㡥 ࡞ 3. (concerning) ... ni tsúite (no) ... ࡞ࡗ࠷࡙ ࡡ above prep ... (no) úé (ni) ... ࡡ ୕ ࡞ abrade v 1. (to wear down) suri-


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hera shimásu ࡌࡽ΅ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, (to be worn away) mamø sasemásu ☳⪎ࡈࡎࡱࡌ 2. (chafe) iraira sasemasu ࢕ࣚ࢕ࣚࡈࡎࡱࡌ abreast adv yokó ni narande ᶋ࡞ ୩ࢆ࡚; not ~ of ...ni utói ...࡞␧ ࠷࣬࠹࡛࠷ abridge v (shorten) tanshuku shimásu ▯⦨ࡊࡱࡌ, yøyaku shimásu こ⣑ࡊࡱࡌ; (abate) hera shimásu ΅ࡼࡊࡱࡌ abroad adv gaikoku (de) አᅗ ࡚ , káigai (de) ᾇአ ࡚ ; study abroad n ryügaku ⏻Ꮥ abrupt adj totsuzen (no) ✲↓ ࡡ abscond v nigemásu ㏠ࡅࡱࡌ absence n kesseki (no) Ḗᖆ ࡡ , (from home) rúsu (no) ⏻Ꮼ ࡡ absent v kesseki shimásu Ḗᖆ ࡊࡱࡌ absolute adv zettai (no) ⤧ᑊ ࡡ absolutely adv zettai ni ⤧ᑊ࡞, honto (hontø) ni ᮇᙔ࣬࡮ࢆ࡛ ࡮ࢆ࡛࠹ ࡞; ~ cannot tøtei ฽ᗇ + [NAGATIVE] absorbed adj (fascinated) uttóri (to) ࠹ࡖ࡛ࡽ ࡛ ; gets ~ in ... ni korimásu ...࡞ฆࡽࡱࡌ absorption n kyüshü ྺ཭ abstain v 1. (stops) yamemásu ࡷࡴࡱࡌ࣬Ḿࡴࡱࡌ, (refrains from) tsutsushimimasu ួࡲࡱࡌ; ~ from ... o yamemásu ... ࢅࡷࡴ ࡱࡌ, tachimásu ᩷ࡔࡱࡌ 2. (does not vote) kíken shimásu Ი ᶊࡊࡱࡌ abstinence n jisei ⮤โ, sessei ⟿โ,

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kinshu ⚏㒿 abstract adj chüshø-teki (na) ᢫㇗ Ⓩ ࡝ absurd adj baka-rashíi ࡣ࠾ࡼࡊ࠷ abundance n tómi ᐣ abundant adj yútaka (na) ㇇࠾ ࡝ abuse 1. n warú-kuchi/-guchi ᝇཾ 2. → scold, mistreat abusive adj ranbø (na) ஗ᬸ ࡝ , kuchigitanai ཾỗ࠷, warui ᝇ࠷ abysmal adj hidói ࡥ࡜࠷࣬㓖࠷, sokonuke (no) ᗇᢜࡄࡡ, hakarishirenai ゛ࡽ▩ࡿ࡝࠷ abyss n chi no soko ᆀࡡᗇ, shin’en ῕㐪, naraku ዄⴘ, donzoko ࡜ࢆᗇ AC, alternating current n køryü ஹὮ academic adj akádemikku ࢓࢜ࢸ ࣐ࢴࢠ, gakumon Ꮥၡ academy n gakkø´ Ꮥᰧ accede v tsugimásu ⤽ࡁࡱࡌ, døi shimásu ྜྷណࡊࡱࡌ; accede to v ... ni ø-jimásu ...࡞ᚺࡋࡱࡌ accelerate v kasóku shimásu ຊ㏷ ࡊࡱࡌ accent n ákusento ࢓ࢠࢬࣤࢹ accept v 1. ukemásu ུࡄࡱࡌ, uke-torimásu ུࡄཱིࡽࡱࡌ, uketsukemásu ུࡄ௛ࡄࡱࡌ 2. (consents) shødaku shimásu ᢆ ㅑࡊࡱࡌ; ~ a bill (of payment) tegata o hiki-ukemásu ᡥᙟࢅᘤ ࡀུࡄࡱࡌ acceptance n 1. shødaku ᢆㅑ 2. (resignation) akirame ㅁࡴ access; seeks ~ to ... ni sekkin o hakarimásu ...࡞᥃㎾ࢅᅒࡽࡱࡌ


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accessory n (clothing ~; belt, handbag, etc.) akusesarii ࢓ࢠࢬ ࢦ࣭ࣛ accident n 1. jíko ஥ᨶ, dekígoto ฝᮮ஥ 2. (disaster) sønan 㐴㞬 accidentally adv güzen ni ഃ↓࡞, hyótto ࡥࡺࡖ࡛ acclaim 1. n shøsan ⛘㈮ 2. v shøsan shimásu ⛘㈮ࡊࡱࡌ accommodate v shukuhaku sasemásu ᐙἡࡈࡎࡱࡌ, tekiø shimásu 㐲ᚺࡊࡱࡌ accommodation n (place to stay) shukuhaku shisetsu ᐙἡ᪃シ; (facilities) sétsubi シങ accompany v 1. ~ ... to issho ni ikimásu ...࡛ ୌ⥬࡞⾔ࡀࡱࡌ; ...ni tomonaimásu ...࡞ఔ࠷ࡱࡌ 2. is accompanied by (= brings along) ... o tsuremásu ... ࢅ㏻ ࡿࡱࡌ accomplice n kyøhansha භ≚⩽, ichimi ୌ࿝ accomplish v 1. (shite) shimaimásu ࡊ࡙ ࡊࡱ࠷ࡱࡌ; hatashimásu ᯕࡒࡊࡱࡌ; togemásu 㐑ࡅࡱࡌ 2. (attains) ...ni tas-shimásu ...࡞ 㐡ࡊࡱࡌ 㐡ࡌࡾ, 㐡ࡊ࡙ ; ... ga kanaimásu ... ࠿࠾࡝࠷ࡱࡌ accordance n itchi ୌ⮬; in ~ with ... ni ø-jite ...࡞ᚺࡋ࡙... ni shitagátte ...࡞ࡊࡒ࠿ࡖ࡙࣬ᚉࡖ࡙ according (to) adj 1. (relying on) ... ni yoru to ...࡞ࡻࡾ࡛, ... no hanashíde (wa) ...ࡡヨ࡚ ࡢ 2. (in conformity with) ... ni shitagatte ...࡞ᚉࡖ࡙

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accost v kóe o kakemásu ኇࢅ࠾ ࡄࡱࡌ, hanashikakemásu ヨࡊ ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ account n 1. (bill) kanjø´ ືᏽ 2. (credit) tsuké ࡗࡄ 3. (bank ~) køza ཾᗑ, yokin 㡰㔘; on account of ... no séi de ... ࡡࡎ࠷࡚ → because → sake (for the); takes into account kø´ryo ni iremásu ⩻៎࡞ ථࡿࡱࡌ accountant n kaikei(-gákari) ఌ゛ ౿ , kaikéi-shi ఌ゛ኃ accounts n (o-)kaikei ࠽ ఌ゛ accumulate v 1. (it ~s) tsumorimásu ✒ࡵࡽࡱࡌ, tamarimásu ࡒࡱࡽ ࡱࡌ; tsumemásu ࡗࡴࡱࡌ; atsumarimásu 㞗ࡱࡽࡱࡌ 2. (~s it) tsumimásu ✒ࡲࡱࡌ, tamemásu ࡒࡴࡱࡌ; atsumemásu 㞗ࡴࡱࡌ accurate adj seikaku (na) ḿ☔ ࡝ accuse v uttaemásu セ࠻ࡱࡌ; (criticizes) hínan shimásu 㟸㞬 ࡊࡱࡌ accustom v ~ oneself to ... ni naremásu ... ࡞ៈࡿࡱࡌ ache 1. v (it aches) itamimásu ⑚ ࡲࡱࡌ 2. n (an ache) itamí ⑚ࡲ achieve → accomplish achievement n (work) hataraki ഼ࡀ acid 1. n sán 㓗 2. adj suppái 㓗ࡖ ࡤ࠷ acknowledge v mitomemásu ヾ ࡴࡱࡌ acoustic n 1. akø´sutíkku (gakki) ࢓ࢤ࣭ࢪࢷ࢔ࢴࢠ ᴞჹ 2. onkyø 㡚㡢 acquaint v ~ oneself with (... o)


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shirimásu ...ࢅ ▩ࡽࡱࡌ; is acquainted with ... o shitte imásu ... ࢅ▩ࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ acquaintance n shiriai ▩ࡽྙ࠷, chijin ▩ெ acquiesce v fukujü shimásu ᭱ᚉ ࡊࡱࡌ acquire → get acquit v shakuhø´ shimásu 㔐ᨲࡊ ࡱࡌ, kaihø shimásu ゆᨲࡊࡱࡌ, muzai ni shim£su ↋⨝࡞ࡊࡱࡌ acre n ëkå ࢙࣭࣭࢜ acrobat n akurobátto ࢓ࢠࣞࣁࢴࢹ, kyokugei ᭜ⰹ acronym n kashira moji 㢄ᩝᏊ across prep, adv ... (no) mukø(ni) ... ࡡ ྡྷࡆ࠹ ࡞ , múkø ྡྷࡆ࠹; across the way mukø ྡྷࡆ࠹, mukøgawa ྡྷࡆ࠹ഁ; cuts ~ yoko-girimásu ᶋวࡽࡱࡌ act n 1. → do 2. (deed) shiwaza ࡊࢂࡉ࣬௘ᴏ, okonai ⾔࠷, kø´i ⾔Ⅵ 3. (of play) makú ᖞ; dán ṹ 4. høritsu Ἢᚂ acting 1. n (play acting) éngi ⁿᢇ 2. → temporary; ~ as agent daikø ௥⾔ action n 1. katsudø Ὡິ 2. (conduct) okonai ⾔࠷; (behavior) kødø ⾔ິ → activity active adj kappatsu (na) ὩⓆ ࡝ ; is ~ katsuyaku shimásu Ὡ㌅ࡊ ࡱࡌ activity n 1. katsudø Ὡິ, katsuyaku Ὡ㌅ 2. (work) hataraki ഼ࡀ 3. (agency) kikán ᶭ㛭 → exercise → movement

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actor n yakusha ᙲ⩽, haiyü ಢඁ actress n joyü ዥඁ actual adj jissai (no) ᐁ㝷 ࡡ ; ~ conditions genjitsu ⌟ᐁ actually adv jitsú wa ᐁࡢ, jitsu ní ᐁ࡞ acupuncture n hári ࡢࡽ࣬㘸 acute adj 1. (sharp) surudói 㗞࠷ 2. (severe) hageshíi ⃥ࡊ࠷ 3. (sudden) kyüsei (no) ᛬ᛮ ࡡ adamant adj katái ࠾ࡒ࠷࣬◫࠷࣬ ᅖ࠷, gánko (na) 㡱ᅖ ࡝ , dánko (to shita) ᩷ᅖ ࡛ࡊࡒ adapt v tekigø´ sasemásu 㐲ྙࡈ ࡎࡱࡌ adaptability n yüzü ⼝㏳; is adaptable yüzü ga kikimásu ⼝㏳࠿ࡀ ࡀࡱࡌ adapter n adáputå´ ࢓ࢱࣈࢰ࣭ add v kuwaemásu ຊ࠻ࡱࡌ;

(supplements it with) soemásu ῟࠻ࡱࡌ; yosemásu ᐞࡎࡱࡌ addict n jøyø´-sha ᖏ⏕⩽, chüdoku (-sha) ୯Ẑ ⩽ , izón-sha ౪Ꮛ⩽ addition n tsuiká ㏛ຊ, tenká ῟ຊ; in ~ to ...no hoka (ni) ...ࡡ௙ ࡞ , [BOOKISH]... no tá (ni) ...ࡡ௙ ࡞ address n 1. jüsho పᡜ, (...) saki ... ඙, (house number) banchi ␊ᆀ, (written) tokoro-gaki ᡜ᭡ ࡀ, adoresu ࢓ࢺࣝࢪ; contact address n renraku-saki ㏻⤙඙; e-mail address n mëru ádoresu (meru-ado) ࣒࣭ࣜ࢓ࢺࣝࢪ ࣒ࣜ ࢓ࢺ 2. enzetsu ⁿㄕ 3. v torikumimásu ཱིࡽ⤄ࡲࡱࡌ adequate adj ...-no tame (ni) ...ࡡ


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ࡒࡴ ࡞ adhere v kuttsukimásu ࡂࡖࡗࡀࡱ ࡌ; fucháku shimásu ௛╌ࡊࡱࡌ adjacent adj 1. → next 2. is ~ to ...ni ses-shimásu ...࡞᥃ࡊࡱࡌ adjective n keiyø´shi ᙟᐖペ adjoining → next adjust v totonoemásu ᩒ࠻ࡱࡌ chøsei/séiri/kagen shimásu ㄢᩒ ᩒ⌦/ຊ΅ࡊࡱࡌ adjustment n chøsei ㄢᩒ, séiri ᩒ ⌦, kagen ຊ΅, chøsetsu ㄢ⟿ administration n 1. (of government) gyøsei ⾔ᨳ 2. (of business) keiei ⤊ႜ, kánri ⟮⌦ admirable adj mígoto (na) ず஥ ࡝ , rippa (na) ❟Ὤ ࡝ admiral n táishø ኬᑑ admire v kanshin shimásu វᚨ ࡊࡱࡌ, homemásu 「ࡴࡱࡌ, akogaremásu ࠵ࡆ࠿ࡿ>៷ࡿ@ ࡱࡌ admission n (to hospital) nyüin ථ 㝌; (to school) nyügaku ථᏕ; (to a place) nyüjø ථሔ; admission fee n nyüjø´-ryø ථሔᩩ admit v 1. (lets in) iremásu ථࡿࡱ ࡌ, tøshimásu ㏳ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (acknowledges) mitomemásu ヾࡴ ࡱࡌ; (confesses) uchi-akemásu ᡬࡔ᪺ࡄࡱࡌ admonish v chükoku shimásu ᚽ࿈ ࡊࡱࡌ, chüi shimásu Ἰណࡊࡱࡌ, kankoku shimásu ໅࿈ࡊࡱࡌ adolescent n seinen 㟯ᖳ adopt v (a boy) yøshi ni shimásu 㣬Ꮔ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ; (a girl) yø´jo ni

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shimásu 㣬ዥ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ adorable adj kawaíi ࠾ࢂ࠷࠷࣬ྊ យ࠷, kawairashíi ࠾ࢂ࠷ࡼࡊ࠷࣬ ྊយࡼࡊ࠷, airashíi យࡼࡊ࠷ adore v akogaremásu ࠵ࡆ࠿ࡿ >៷ࡿ@ࡱࡌ adult n otona ࠽࡛࡝࣬ኬெ, seijin ᠺெ adultery n kantsü ጩ㏳, furin ୘೒ advance 1. n zenshin ๑㐅 2. n in ~ sono máe ni ࡐࡡ๑࡞; (beforehand) mae motte ๑ࡵࡖ࡙, jizen ni ஥๑࡞ 3. v (goes ahead) susumimásu 㐅ࡲࡱࡌ; (~s it) susumemásu 㐅ࡴࡱࡌ, (lends money) yüzü shimásu ⼝㏳ࡊࡱࡌ advantage n 1. (o-)toku ࠽ ᚋ, (benefit) ríeki ฺ─; takes ~ of ... o riyø shimásu ...ࢅฺ⏕ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (merit) chø´sho 㛏ᡜ advent n shutsugen ฝ⌟, tørai ฽ᮮ, kirisuto no kørin ࢞ࣛࢪࢹ ࡡ㜾⮣ adventure n bøken ා㝜 adverb n fukushi ๧ペ adversary n (o-)aite ࠽ ┞ᡥ adverse adj fúri (na) ୘ฺ ࡝ , gyakkyø (no) ㏣ሾ ࡡ advertisement, ad n køkoku ᗀ࿈ advice n 1. adobáisu ࢓ࢺࣁ࢕ࢪ, chükoku ᚽ࿈ 2. (consultation) sødan ┞ㄧ adviser n (consultant) komon 㢫ၡ, sødan aite ┞ㄧ┞ᡥ advocate v tonaemásu ၌࠻ࡱࡌ aerobics n earobíkusu ࢙࢓ࣞࣄࢠࢪ aesthetic adj bi-teki (na) ⨶Ⓩ࡝


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afar adv tøku (ni) 㐪ࡂ ࡞ , enpø 㐪᪁; from ~ tøku kara 㐪ࡂ࠾ࡼ affable adj áiso/áisø ga íi ࠵࠷ ࡐ࠵࠷ࡐ࠹>យ᝷@࠿࠷࠷, hitozuki no suru ெይࡀࡡࡌࡾ, shitashimiyasui のࡊࡲࡷࡌ࠷ affair n 1. kotó ஥, kotogara ஥ᯮ, jíken ஥௲, shigoto ௘஥ 2. (love ~) (extramarital) uwaki ᾃẴ affect → influence affection n nasake ᝗ࡄ(o-)násake ࠽ ᝗ࡄ, aijø យ᝗ affiliate 1. v kamei shimásu ຊ┍ ࡊࡱࡌ 2. n ko-gaisha Ꮔఌ♣, shiten ᨥᗉ affirmation n køtei ⫧ᏽ affix v setsuji ᥃㎙, tenkábutsu ῟ຊ∸ affliction n kurushimi ⱖࡊࡲ afford v (jübun na) (o-)kane ga arimásu ༎ฦ࡝ ࠽ 㔘࠿࠵ࡽ ࡱࡌ; yoyü ga arimásu ఴ⿩࠿࠵ ࡽࡱࡌ affront 1. v bujoku shimásu ౱㎧ ࡊࡱࡌ 2. n bujoku ౱㎧ Afghanistan n Afuganísutan ࢓ࣆ ࢝ࢼࢪࢰࣤ afloat adj, adv ukan da/de ᾃ࠾ࢆ ࡓ࡚; afloat cargo n okini ἀⲬ afraid; is ~ of ... (...ga) kowái desu ...࠿ ᛟ࠷࡚ࡌ, (...o) kowagarimásu ...ࢅ ᛟ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ Africa n Afurika ࢓ࣆࣛ࢜ after 1. prep ... kará ...࠾ࡼ, ... (no) áto de ... ࡡ ᚃ࡚ 2. adv ... shita ato ni/de ...ࡊࡒᚃ࡞࡚; after a long time adv (of absence)

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hisashi-buri ni ஁ࡊࡩࡽ࡞; after a while adv shibáraku shite ࡊࡣ ࡼࡂࡊ࡙; after all adv kekkyokú ⤎ ᑻ; yappári ࡷࡖࡤࡽ, yappáshi ࡷ ࡖࡤࡊ; tsúmari ࡗࡱࡽ; After you! interj Døzo o-saki ni ࡜࠹ࡑ࠽ ඙࡞ afternoon n, adv hirú kara ᫠࠾ࡼ, gógo ༔ᚃ aftertaste n ató-aji ᚃ࿝; leaves a bad ~ atóaji ga warúi ᚃ࿝࠿ᝇ࠷ after(ward) adv ato ᚃ afterwards adv áto de ᚃ࡚ again adv mø ichi-dó ࡵ࠹ୌᗐ, mø ik-kái ࡵ࠹ୌᅂ; matá ࡱࡒ࣬ ཧ; aratámete ᨭࡴ࡙, kurikaeshimásu (ga) ⧖ࡽ㏁ࡊࡱࡌ ࠿ against prep 1. (in contrast to) ...ni táishite ...࡞ᑊࡊ࡙; (contrary to) ...ni hán-shite ...࡞ཬࡊ࡙ 2. (running into) ... ni butsukatte ...࡞ࡩࡗ࠾ࡖ࡙ 3. (leaning on) ...ni motárete (no) ...࡞ࡵࡒࡿ࡙ ࡡ age 1. n toshí ࡛ࡊ࣬ᖳ࣬ṋ, nenrei ᖳ㱃; your ~ (o-)toshi ࠽ ᖳ, [BOOKISH] nenrei ᖳ㱃 2. n (era) jidai ᫤௥ 3. v (gets old) toshí o torimásu ᖳࢅཱིࡽࡱࡌ, fukemásu ⩹ࡄࡱࡌ agency n 1. dairi ௥⌦, dairí-ten ௥⌦ᗉ 2. (organization) kikán ᶭ㛭 aggression n shinryaku ౴␆ agile adj kibin (na) ᶭᨼ ࡝ , binshø (na) ᨼᤡ ࡝ , subayái ࡌࡣࡷ࠷࣬⣪᪡࠷


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agitation n 1. døyø ິ᥺ 2. køfun ⮾ዢ ago adv ...máe ni ...๑࡞; a little while ~ (tsui) sákki ࡗ࠷ ࡈࡖ ࡀ, (tsui) saki-hodo ࡗ࠷ ඙⛤ agony n kurushimi ⱖࡊࡲ, kutsü ⱖ⑚ agrarian adj nøgyø (no) ㎨ᴏ ࡡ , nømin (no) ㎨Ằ ࡡ agree v 1. (approves) sansei shimásu ㈮ᠺࡊࡱࡌ; (concurs) døi shimásu ྜྷណࡊࡱࡌ 2. (promises) yakusoku shimásu ⣑ ᮨࡊࡱࡌ 3. (accords with) ... ni kanaimásu ...࡞࠾࡝࠷ࡱࡌ, ... to itchi shimásu ...࡛ୌ⮬ࡊࡱࡌ; ~ with (in harmony) ... to chøwa shimásu ...࡛ㄢ࿰ࡊࡱࡌ agreement n 1. (promise) yakusoku ⣑ᮨ; (contract) keiyaku ዉ⣑; (treaty) jøyaku ᮪⣑ 2. (understanding) shøchi ᢆ▩; (consensus) itchi ୌ⮬, døi ྜྷណ, gø´i ྙណ agriculture n nø´gyø ㎨ᴏ ahead adv (o-)saki (ni) ࠽ ඙ ࡞ ; gets ~ susumimásu 㐅ࡲࡱࡌ aid → help AIDS n éizu ࢙࢕ࢫ, AIDS aikido n aikídø ྙẴ㐠 ailing adj byøki de ⑋Ẵ࡚, byøki ryøyøchü (no) ⑋Ẵ⒢㣬୯ ࡡ aim n 1. nerai ≲࠷, méate ┘ᙔ࡙; kentø´ ずᙔ; (target) mato Ⓩ; takes ~ kentø´ o tsukemásu ずᙔ ࢅࡗࡄࡱࡌ 2. (goal) mokuteki ┘Ⓩ; (direction) høshin ᪁㔢 aimless adj mokuteki ga/no nái

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┘Ⓩ࠿ࡡ࡝࠷ air 1. n kü´ki ✭Ẵ 2. n (manner) furí ࡨࡽ; (appearance) fü´ 㢴 3. n (tune) fushí ⟿ 4. v ~s it (dry) hoshimásu ᖱࡊࡱࡌ air base n kügun kíchi ✭㌯ᇱᆀ air conditioner, air conditioning n kü´rå ࢠ࣭࣭ࣚ, eakon ࢙࢓ࢤࣤ, reibø (sø´chi) ෫ᡛ ⿞⨠ aircraft n hikøki 㣍⾔ᶭ; aircraft carrier n køkü bokan ⯗✭ẍ⯼ airline n (company) køkü-gáisha ⯗✭ఌ♣ airplane n hikø´-ki 㣍⾔ᶭ airport n kükø ✭῿, hikøjø 㣍⾔ሔ airsick(ness) n hikø-yoi 㣍⾔㓁࠷ airy adj 1. kaze tøshi no yoi 㢴㏳ ࡊࡡࡻ࠷ 2. keikai (na) ㍅ᛄ ࡝ 3. keihaku (na) ㍅⷟ ࡝ aisle n tsü´ro ㏳㊨ ajar adj 1. sukoshi hiráite ᑛࡊ㛜 ࠷࡙ 2. chøwa shinái (de) ㄢ࿰ ࡊ࡝࠷ ࡚ alarm n keihø (sø´chi) ㆑ሒ ⿞⨠ alarm clock n aråmu ࢓࣭࣑ࣚ, mezamashi(-dókei) ┘つࡊ ᫤゛ alas prep áa ࠵࠵, åá ࠵࣭࠵ album n (photograph) arubamu ࢓ࣜࣁ࣑; (stamp) kitte-chø วᡥᖋ alcoholic n arukøru chüdoku-sha ࢓ࣜࢤ࣭ࣜ୯Ẑ⩽ alert n (alarm) keihø ㆑ሒ, aråto ࢓࣭ࣚࢹ alias n gimei അྞ, betsumei ืྞ, tsüshø ㏳⛘ alibi n aribái ࢓ࣛࣁ࢕


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alien n 1. yosó (no) ࡻࡐ ࡡ 2. (an alien) → foreigner 3. uchüjin Ꮻᏼெ, éirian ࢙࢕ࣛ࢓ࣤ alienate v sogai shimásu ␧አࡊ ࡱࡌ, tøzakemásu 㐪ࡉࡄࡱࡌ, sodéni shimásu ࡐ࡚࡞ࡊࡱࡌ align v seiretsu shimásu ᩒาࡊࡱ ࡌ, narabimásu ୩ࡦࡱࡌ alike adj onaji (yø´na) ྜྷࡋ ࡻ࠹ ࡝ , nitéiru జ࡙࠷ࡾ alimony n bekkyo téate ืᑽᡥᙔ, rikon téate 㞫፡ᡥᙔ alive adj 1. is ~ íkite imásu ⏍ࡀ ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ 2. keeps it ~ ikashimásu ⏍࠾ࡊࡱࡌ all pron 1. minna ࡲࢆ࡝࣬ⓑ, zen’in ධဤ; ~ (concerned/ present) ichidø ୌྜྷ 2. zénbu ධ㒂, súbete ධ࡙࣬ࡌ࡬࡙; (everything) íssái ୌว, arayúru ࠵ࡼࡹࡾ; not at ~ ࡜࠹࠷ࡒࡊࡱ ࡊ࡙ 3. (completely) sukkári ࡌ ࡖ࠾ࡽ; all along adv (from the beginning) móto kara ඔ࠾ࡼ; all kinds of adj samazama (na) ࡈࡱ ࡉࡱ ࡝ ࣬ᵕࠍ ࡝ , iroiro (na/ no) ࠷ࢀ࠷ࢀ࣬Ⰵࠍ ࡝ࡡ , shúshu (no) ⛸ࠍ ࡡ ; all over adv ① (everywhere) høbø ࡮࠹࡯ ࠹࣬᪁ࠍ; ...-jü ...୯ ② (finished) → end; all of a sudden adv totsuzen (ni) ✲↓ ࡞ , fuini ୘ណ࡞, ikinari ࠷ࡀ࡝ࡽ; all the more adv issø ࠷ࡖࡐ࠹࣬ୌᒒ, nao-sara ࡝ ࠽ࡈࡼ࣬ᑠ᭞ allay v shizumemásu 㟴ࡴࡱࡌ, yawáragemásu ࿰ࡼࡅࡱࡌ

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allege v 1. shuchø shimásu ୹ᘿࡊ ࡱࡌ 2. møshitatemásu ⏞ࡊ❟ ࡙ࡱࡌ allergy n arérúgii ࢓࣭ࣝࣜ࢟ alleviate v 1. yawáragemásu ࿰ࡼ ࡅࡱࡌ 2. shizumemásu 㟴ࡴࡱ ࡌ 3. kanwa shimásu ⥾࿰ࡊࡱࡌ alley n róji ㊨ᆀ; (back street) urá ⿤, ura-dø´ri ⿤㏳ࡽ; (side street) yokochø ᶋ⏣>ᶋ୍@ alliance n rengø ㏻ྙ alligator n wáni ࣠ࢼ allocate v wariatemásu ๪ࡽᙔ ࡙ࡱࡌ, haibun shimásu 㒼ฦ ࡊࡱࡌ allot v kubarimásu 㒼ࡽࡱࡌ allotment n wariate ๪ࡽᙔ࡙; (share) buntan ฦᢰ allow v. 1. (permits) yurushimásu スࡊࡱࡌ 2. → give allowance n (o-)téate ࠽ ᡥᙔ; (grant) kyø´yo ౩୙ alloy n gøkin ྙ㔘 all right adj (OK) daijøbu (na) ኬ୓ኰ ࡝ ; (permissible) íi ࠷࠷࣬Ⰳ࠷, yoroshii ࡻࢀࡊ࠷ allude v honomeka shimásu ࡮ࡡ ࡴ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, anji shimásu ᬧ♟ ࡊࡱࡌ allure n miryoku 㨡ງ, miwaku 㨡ᝠ ally n dåmeikoku ྜྷ┍ᅗ almost adv hotóndo ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜࣬Ṝ ࡜; daitai ኬమ; almost all, almost all the time n hotóndo ࡮࡛ࢆ࡜࣬ Ṝ࡜ alms n hodokoshi (mono) ᪃ࡊ ࡵࡡ


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aloft adv, adj küchü ni/de ✭୯ ࡞࡚, takaitokoro ni/de 㧏࠷࡛ ࡆࢀ࡞࡚ alone adv hitóri (de) ୌெ>≺ࡽ@ ࡚࣬ࡥ࡛ࡽ ࡚ ; (leave alone) let ~ hotte/høtte okimásu ᨲࡖ࡙ ࠽ࡀࡱࡌ along 1. prep, adv ...ni sotte ...࡞ Ἒࡖ࡙; (somewhere) ...no doko ka (de) ...ࡡ࡜ࡆ࠾ ࡚ 2. adv brings/takes ~ jisan shimásu ᣚཤ ࡊࡱࡌ; … o tsurete ikimásu … ࢅ㏻ࡿ࡙⾔ࡀࡱࡌ aloof adj takabisha (na) 㧏㣍㌬ ࡝ , otákaku tomatta ࠽㧏ࡂ࡛ࡱࡖࡒ aloud adv kóe o/ni dáshite ኇࢅ ࡞ฝࡊ࡙ alphabet (ABC) n arufabetto ࢓ࣜࣆ ࢒࣊ࢴࢹ, ë bii shíi ࢙࣭ࣄ࣭ࢨ࣭ Alps n arupusu ࢓ࣜࣈࢪ already adv mø´ࡵ࠹, súde-ni ࡌ࡚ ࡞࣬᪜࡞ also conj 1. ...mo ...ࡵ,, mátá ࡱࡒ 2. [INFORMAL] yappári ࡷࡖࡤࡽ, [BOOKISH] yahári ࡷࡢࡽ, altar n saidan ⚅ቨ alter v 1. (clothing) naoshimásu ├ࡊࡱࡌ 2. aratamemásu ᨭࡴ ࡱࡌ, kaemásu ን࠻ࡱࡌ alternate; v ~ (with) køtai shimásu ஹ௥>ஹ᭨@ࡊࡱࡌ alternative adj, n ... (no) hø´ (ga) ... ࡡ ᪁ ࠿ although conj ... no ni ...ࡡ࡞, ... daga ... ࡓ࠿, ... towaie ... ࡛ࡢ࠷࠻ altitude n kø´do 㧏ᗐ altogether adv 1. zénbu de ධ㒂࡚;

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minná de ࡲࢆ࡝࡚࣬ⓑ࡚ 2. (completely) mattakú ࡱࡖࡒࡂ࣬ ධࡂ alumni n sotsugyøsei ༛ᴏ⏍; alumni association n døsø-kai ྜྷ✾ఌ always adv ítsu-mo ࠷ࡗࡵ, (usually) fúdan ࡨࡓࢆ࣬ᬉṹ; as always n aikawarazu ┞ንࢂࡼࡍ am → is a.m. adv (morning) gozen ༔๑ amalgamate v 1. gappei shimásu ྙ ెࡊࡱࡌ, heigø shimásu ెྙࡊ ࡱࡌ 2. yügø shimásu ⼝ྙࡊࡱ ࡌ, mazemásu Ίࡏࡱࡌ amass v tamemásu ࡒࡴ>㈋ࡴ࣬ ‸ࡴ@ࡱࡌ amateur n amachua ࢓࣏ࢲࣖ࢓; (novice) shírø´to ࡊࢀ࠹࡛࣬⣪ெ amazement n odoroki ࠽࡜ࢀࡀ࣬ 㦣ࡀ, kyøtan 㦣Ⴟ ambassador n táishi ኬ౐ ambition n (hope) netsubø ⇍᭻, yashin 㔕ᚨ; (energetic spirit) háki ざẴ ambivalent adj kokoro ga fuántei (na) ᚨ࠿୘Ꮽᏽ ࡝ , ánbibarensu (no) ࢓ࣤࣄࣁࣝࣤࢪ ࡡ , kattø-teki (na) ⴩⸠Ⓩ࡝ ambulance n kyükyü-sha ᨾ᛬㌬ ambush 1. n machibuse ᙽࡔఄࡎ, harikomi ᘿࡽ㎰ࡲ, fuiuchi ୘ណ ᡬࡔ, kishü køgeki ዃぇᨯᦹ 2. v machibuse shimásu ᙽࡔఄࡎ ࡊࡱࡌ, kishü køgeki o kakemásu ዃぇᨯᦹࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ amenable adj jüjun (na) ᚉ㡨 ࡝ , sunao (na) ⣪├ ࡝


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amend v shüsei shimásu ಞḿࡊࡱ ࡌ, kaisei shimásu ᨭḿࡊࡱࡌ amenity n 1. kokochiyosa ᚨᆀࡻ ࡈ, kaiteki-sa/sei ᛄ㐲ࡈᛮ 2. reigi ♡ൢ 3. benri na shisetsu ౼ฺ࡝᪃シ America n Amerika ࢓࣒ࣛ࢜, Beikoku ⡷ᅗ American n Ameriká-jin ࢓࣒ࣛ࢜ெ amiable adj shakø-teki (na) ♣ஹ Ⓩ ࡝ , hitozukiai no yoi ெ௛ࡀ ྙ࠷ࡡࡻ࠷, hitoatari no yoi ெᙔ ࡒࡽࡡࡻ࠷ amiss adv machigatte 㛣㐢ࡖ࡙, futekitø ni ୘㐲ᙔ࡞ ammunition n 1. dan’yaku ᙆⷾ, buki Ṃჹ 2. køgeki shudan ᨯᦹ ᡥṹ, bøei shudan 㜭⾠ᡥṹ amnesia n kioku søshitsu エ᠀႕ ኶, kenbø-shø ೸ᚸ⑍ amnesty n onsha ᜘㉟ among prep ... no náka/uchí (ni) ... ࡡ୯හ ࡞ amoral adj døtoku kannen no nai 㐠ᚠびᛍࡡ࡝࠷ amorous adj 1. iroppoi Ⰵࡖࡰ࠷, namámekashii ࡝ࡱࡴ࠾ࡊ࠷ 2. køshoku (na) ይⰅ ࡝ amount 1. n (sum) gáku 㢘, kingaku 㔘㢘2. n (large and/or small) ~ tashø ኣᑛ 3. v ~ to (how much) (o-)ikura ni narimásu ࠽ ࠷ࡂࡼ ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ ample adj 1. n hiroi ᗀ࠷, kødai na ᗀኬ࡝ 2. futotta ኯࡖࡒ 3. jübun (na) ࡋࡸ࠹ࡩࢆ ࡝ ࣬༎ฦ ࡝ → enough

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amuse v warawasemásu ➏ࢂࡎࡱ ࡌ, tanoshimasemásu ᴞࡊࡱࡎ ࡱࡌ amusement n 1. asobi 㐗ࡦ 2. nagusami ័ࡲ, goraku ፑᴞ; amusement park n 㐗ᅧᆀ amusing adj omoshirói ࠽ࡵࡊࢀ ࠷࣬㟻Ⓣ࠷; (funny) okashíi ࠽ ࠾ࡊ࠷, kokkei (na) ࡆࡖࡄ࠷࣬ ⁝✅ ࡝ an → a anal adj kømon no ⫘㛓ࡡ analogy n 1. tatoe ౚ࠻࣬ࡒ࡛࠻࣬ ႔࠻ 2. ruiji 㢦జ analysis n bunseki ฦᯊ ancestor n sósen ♵඙, sénzo ඙♵ anchor n ikari ࠷࠾ࡽ࣬㘄࣬◵; anchor man n nyüsu kyásutå ࢼࣖ ࣭ࢪ࢞ࣔࢪࢰ࣭ ancient adj mukashi no ᪿࡡ, kodai no ཿ௥ࡡ; ancient times kodai ཿ௥ and conj ... (including each item) ... to ...࡛; (choosing typical items) ...ya ...ࡷ; and also ... oyobi ...࠽ࡻࡦ࣬ཀྵࡦ; and now/then sá-te ࡈ࡙ࡐࡿ࠾ࡼ; and/or mátáwa ࡱࡒࡢ࣬ཧࡢ, ...ya ...ࡷ; and others ... -ra...ࡼ;... nádo ...࡝࡜࣬ ➴; sonó-hoka ࡐࡡ௙࣬ࡐࡡ࡮࠾, [BOOKISH] sonó-ta ࡐࡡ௙; and yet sore démo ࡐࡿ࡚ࡵ, shiká-mo ࡊ࠾ࡵ, sore náno ni ࡐࡿ࡝ࡡ࡞ anemia n hinketsu(-shø) ㈃⾉ ⑍ anesthetic n másui(-yaku/zai) 㯖㓁 ⷾ๠㸞 anew adv ataráshiku ᩺ࡊࡂ, aratá-


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mete ᨭࡴ࡙, sára-ni ࡈࡼ࡞࣬᭞࡞ anonymous adj mumei (no) ↋ྞ angel n ténshi ኮ౐, enjeru ࢙ࣤࢩ ࡡ ࢘ࣜ another pron mø hitótsu ࡵ࠹ୌࡗ, anger n ikari ᛛࡽ mø ichi-... ࡵ࠹ୌ...; another person angle n 1. kákudo ぽᗐ, kakú ぽ mø hitóri ࡵ࠹ୌெ; another place 2. (viewpoint) kénchi ずᆀ yoso ࡻࡐ; another time (some angry; gets ~ okorimásu ᛛࡽࡱࡌ, other time) ítsu-ka ࠷ࡗ࠾, izure ࠷ࡍࡿ hará o tatemásu ⭙ࢅ❟࡙ࡱࡌ, answer 1. n (an ~) kotáé ➽࠻, atáma ni kimásu 㢄࡞ࡀࡱࡌ animal n døbutsu ິ∸, ikímono kaitø ゆ➽, (a reply) (o-)henji ⏍ࡀ∸ ࠽ ㏁஥, [BOOKISH] hentø ㏁➽ animation n 1. animé ࢓ࢼ࣒, 2. v (~s it) kotaemásu ➽࠻ࡱࡌ, animëshon ࢓ࢼ࣒࣭ࢨࣘࣤ, døga kaitø shimásu ゆ➽ࡊࡱࡌ ິ⏤ 2. kakki ὩẴ ant n ari ࢓ࣛ࣬⽝ ankle n ashí-kúbi ㊂㤫 antagonism n tekii ᩓណ, tairitsu annex n 1. (building) bekkan ื㤃 ᑊ❟, hánkan ཬវ, kikkø ᣍᢘ 2. (addition) tate-mashi ᘋ࡙ቌࡊ Antarctica n nánkyoku (tairiku) annihilation n zenmetsu ධ⁓ ༞ᴗ ኬ㝛 anniversary n (day) kinén-bi エᛍ᪝ antenna n antena ࢓ࣤࢷࢻ annotation n chü Ἰ antibiotic(s) n køsei bússhitsu ᢘᛮ announce v 1. (inform) shirase∸㈹ antic(s) n kokkei na shigusa ࡆࡖ másu ▩ࡼࡎࡱࡌ 2. (publish) ࡄ࠷࡝࣬⁝✅࡝ࡊࡃࡈ࣬௘ⲙ, happyø shimásu Ⓠ⾪ࡊࡱࡌ 3. (wedding, etc.) hírø shimásu odoketa shigusa ࠽࡜ࡄࡒࡊࡃࡈ ᢠ㟚ࡊࡱࡌ ࣬௘ⲙ, fuzaketa taido ࡨࡉࡄࡒ announcer n anaúnså ࢓ࢻࢗࣤࢦ࣭ ឺᗐ annoyance n (trouble) méiwaku anticipate v machimásu ᙽࡔࡱࡌ, ㏖ᝠ kitai shimásu ᭿ᙽࡊࡱࡌ; (preannoying adj urusái ࠹ࡾࡈ࠷, sume) yosø shimásu ஢᝷ࡊࡱࡌ yakamashíi ࡷ࠾ࡱࡊ࠷, méiwaku antidote n 1. gedókuzai ゆẐ๠, (na) ㏖ᝠ ࡝ , wazurawashíi dok(u)-késhí Ẑᾐࡊ 2. bøei ࢂࡍࡼࢂࡊ࠷ shudan 㜭⾠ᡥṹ annual 1. adj ichinen (no) ୌᖳ ࡡ antipathy n hankan ཬវ, ken’o 2. n nenkan ᖳษ, nenpø ᖳሒ ᎒ᝇ, fuítchi ୘ୌ⮬, tairitsu ᑊ❟ annuity n nenkin ᖳ㔘 antique n jidai-mono ᫤௥∸; annul v haishi shimásu ᗣḾࡊࡱࡌ, (curio) kottø-hin 㦭⴯ဗ mukø ni shimásu ↋ຝ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ antiquity n ømukashi ኬᪿ 345

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antiseptic n bøfu-zai 㜭⭁๠ antler n edazunó ᯖぽ, tsunó ぽ antonym n hantai-go ཬᑊㄊ anus n kømon ⫘㛓 anxiety n ki-zúkái Ẵ㐭࠷, shinpai ᚨ㒼 → worry anxious adj gets ~ harahara shimásu ࡢࡼࡢࡼࡊࡱࡌ any adj ... ka ...࠾, ... mo ...ࡵ (but often omitted) → anything anybody pron hito ெ, dáre ka ㄙ ࠾; (not anyody) dare mo ㄙࡵ; anybody (at all) dare de mo ㄙ࡚ࡵ anyhow adv 1. (nevertheless) tónikaku ࡛࡞࠾ࡂ; (anyway) tómokaku ࡛ࡵ࠾ࡂ, nanibun ࡝࡞ࡩࢆ, nánishiro ࡝࡞ࡊࢀ 2. (at all) dø de mo ࡜࠹࡚ࡵ anyone → anybody anyplace → anywhere anything pron 1. (something) náni ka ర࠾ (but often omitted); (not anything) nani mo రࡵ 2. (at all) nan de mo ర࡚ࡵ any time adv itsu de mo ࠷ࡗ࡚ࡵ anyway adv → anyhow anywhere adv (somewhere) dóko ka (…) ࡜ࡆ࠾ ... ; ~ (at all) doko de mo ࡜ࡆ࡚ࡵ; not ~ → nowhere apart; adv lives ~ bekkyo shimásu ืᑽࡊࡱࡌ; takes it ~ barashimásu ࡣࡼࡊࡱࡌ apartment (house) n apåto ࢓ࣂ࣭ ࢹ, (luxury) mánshon ࣏ࣤࢨ ࣘࣤ; apartment complex n danchi ᅆᆀ

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apathetic adj mukándø (no) ↋វ ິ ࡡ , mukánjø (no) ↋វ᝗ ࡡ , mukánshin (no) ↋㛭ᚨ ࡡ apathy n mukándø ↋វິ, mukánjø ↋វ᝗, mukánshin ↋㛭ᚨ ape n 1. sáru ࢦࣜ࣬⊯ 2. noróma na hito ࡡࢀࡱ࡝ெ apiece adv (onóono/sorezore) ...zútsu ࠽ࡡ࠽ࡡࡐࡿࡑࡿ ...ࡍࡗ apologize v owabishimásu ࠽ࢂࡦ >࠽ャࡦ@ࡊࡱࡌ, ayamarimásu ㅨࡽࡱࡌ apology n (o-)wabi ࠽ ࢂࡦ࣬ ࠽ ャࡦ, ayamári ㅨࡽ appall v zotto shimásu ࡑࡖ࡛ࡊࡱ ࡌ, gakuzen to shimásu ࠿ࡂࡏ ࢆ࣬ប↓࡛ࡊࡱࡌ apparatus n sø´chi ⿞⨠; kígu ჹර apparel n (i)fuku ⾨ ᭱; apparel industry n apareru gyøkai ࢓ࣂࣝ ࣜᴏ⏲ apparent(ly) adv ... rashíi ...ࡼࡊ࠷ apparition n 1. yürei ᖻ㟃, børei ஷ 㟃 2. shutsu-gen ฝ⌟ appeal v (appeal to one) pin to kimásu ࡧࢆ࡛ࡀࡱࡌ, ki ni irimásu Ẵ࡞ථࡽࡱࡌ appear v 1. (looks, seems) miemásu ず࠻ࡱࡌ 2. (shows up) demásu ฝࡱࡌ, arawaremásu ⌟ ࡿࡱࡌ; (occurs) hassei shimásu Ⓠ⏍ࡊࡱࡌ; ~ on stage bútai ni demásu ⯑ྋ࡞ฝࡱࡌ, tøjø shimásu Ⓡሔࡊࡱࡌ appearance n 1. yøsu ᵕᏄ࣬ࡻ࠹ ࡌ, ...sama ...ᵕ 2. gaiken አず


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(outer appearances) uwabe ࠹ࢂ másu ⏞ࡊ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ; (claims) ࡬࣬୕㎮, omoté ⾪ 3. (get-up, møshi-demásu ⏞ࡊฝࡱࡌ form) teisai మ⿚; (shape) kakkø appoint v (nominates) mei-jimásu ࠾ࡖࡆ࠹࣬᰹ይ࣬᜞ይ ࿤ࡋࡱࡌ; (designates) shitei appease v nadámemásu ࡝ࡓࡴࡱ shimásu ᣞᏽࡊࡱࡌ ࡌ, yawaragemásu ࿰ࡼࡅࡱࡌ, appointment n yakusoku ⣑ᮨ; (to iyashimásu ࠷ࡷࡊ࣬⒭ࡊࡱࡌ see doctor, ...) yoyaku ஢⣑ append v fuka shimásu ௛ຊࡊࡱࡌ, apportion v ... o wariatemásu ... ࢅ๪ࡽᙔ࡙ࡱࡌ, ... o bunpai tsuketashimásu ௛ࡄ㊂ࡊࡱࡌ, soemásu ῟࠻ࡱࡌ shimásu ... ࢅฦ㒼ࡊࡱࡌ appendicitis n møchø-en ┛⭘ⅎ, appraise v hyøka shimásu ビ౮ࡊ ࡱࡌ, kantei shimásu 㚯ᏽࡊࡱࡌ chüsui-en ⹰ᆱⅎ appetite n shokuyoku 㣏ḟ appreciation n kánsha វㅨ, hyøka appetizers n zensai ๑⳧ ビ౮ appetizing adj oishisø (na) ࠽࠷ࡊ apprehend v 1. ríkai shimásu ⌦ゆ ࡐ࠹ ࡝ ࡊࡱࡌ, sasshimásu ᐳࡊࡱࡌ 2. applaud v hákushu shimásu ᢷᡥ tsukamaemásu ᤍࡱ࠻ࡱࡌ, taiho ࡊࡱࡌ, hákushu o okurimásu ᢷ shimásu 㐂ᤍࡊࡱࡌ apprehensive adj kimí ga warúi Ẵ ᡥࢅ㏞ࡽࡱࡌ apple n ringo ࡽࢆࡇ࣬ࣛࣤࢥ ࿝࠿ᝇ࠷ appliances n (katei) yø´gu ᐓᗖ apprentice n deshí ᘭᏄ ⏕ර, katei yø´hin ᐓᗖ⏕ဗ approach v (...ni) chika-zukimásu applicant n møshikomí-sha ⏞ࡊ㎰ ...࡞ ㎾௛ࡀࡱࡌ, yorimásu ᐞ ࡲ⩽, kibø-sha ᕵ᭻⩽ ࡽࡱࡌ; sekkin shimásu ᥃㎾ࡊ application n 1. (for a job, etc.) ࡱࡌ appropriate 1. adj (suitable) tekimøshi-komi ⏞ࡊ㎰ࡲ, gánsho 㢢᭡; (claim) møshi-de ⏞ࡊฝ; setsu (na) 㐲ว ࡝ , tekitø (na) (for a permit) shinsei-sho ⏞ㄫ᭡ 㐲ᙔ ࡝ 2. v (sets aside (for)) 2. (putting to use) øyø ᚺ⏕, atemásu ᙔ࡙ࡱࡌ 3. v → seize approval n døi ྜྷណ jitsuyø ᐁ⏕; (for computer) approve v sansei shimásu ㈮ᠺࡊ sofutowea ࢮࣆࢹࢗ࢘࢓ apply v 1. (it applies) atarimásu ࡱࡌ ᙔࡒࡽࡱࡌ; (accordingly) jun- approximate 1. adj daitai (no) ኬ మ ࡡ , gaisan (no) ᴣ⟤ ࡡ , jimásu ‵ࡋࡱࡌ 2. (applies it) atemásu ᙔ࡙ࡱࡌ, tsukemásu chikái ㎾࠷ 2. v chikazukimásu ௛ࡄࡱࡌ; øyø shimásu ᚺ⏕ࡊࡱ ㎾ࡘࡀࡱࡌ, chikazukemásu ㎾ ࡌ 3. (applies for) møshi-komi- ࡘࡄࡱࡌ 347

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approximately adv daitai ኬమ; yáku ... ⣑...; ... gúrai ...న; ...-zéngo ...๑ᚃ; ... -kéntø ...ずᙔ; ...-náigai (de) ...හአ ࡚ April n Shi-gatsú ᄿ᭮࣬4 ᭮ apt; adj ~ to (do) (shi-)yasúi ࡊ ࡷࡌ࠷࣬᪾࠷; tokaku (...shimásu) ࡛࠾ࡂ ...ࡊࡱࡌ ; ete-shite (... shimásu) ᚋ࡙ࡊ࡙ ࡊࡱࡌ aptitude n keikø ലྡྷ, sáinø ᡧ⬗, rikairyoku ⌦ゆງ aquarium n suizóku-kan Ề᪐㤃 Arab, Arabian n, adj Árabu (no) ࢓ࣚࣇ ࡡ , (person) Arabú-jin (no) ࢓ࣚࣇெ ࡡ arbitrary adj nin-i (no) ௴ណࡡ, dokudan-teki (na) ≺᩷Ⓩ ࡝ , kimáma (na) Ẵࡱࡱ ࡝ arc n (en)ko ළ ᘴ arch n yumi-gata ᘢᙟ, åchi(-gata) ࢓࣭ࢲ ᙟ archaeologist n køko gákusha ⩻ཿ Ꮥ⩽ archaic adj sutáreta ᗣࡿࡒ archery n (the traditional art) kyüdø ᘢ㐠, kyüjutsu ᘢ⾙ archipelago n rettø าᓞ architecture n kenchiku ᘋ⠇ Arctic n Hokkyoku ໪ᴗ ardent adj nesshin (na) ⇍ᚨ ࡝ , netsuretsu(teki) (na) ⇍Ⅷ Ⓩ ࡝ ardor n netsui ⇍ណ, jønetsu ᝗⇍, nesshin ⇍ᚨ, ikigomi ណẴ㎰ࡲ arduous adj kónnan (na) ᅏ㞬 ࡝ arid adj kánsø shita/shiteiru ஜ⇩ ࡊࡒࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ, fumø no/na ୘ẗ ࡡ࡞

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are → is area n 1. ménseki 㟻✒ 2. (district) chihø ᆀ᪁, chiiki ᆀᇡ, eria ࢙ࣛ ࢓, chitai ᆀᖈ → place → vicinity argue v kenka shimásu ࡄࢆ࠾>႒ ბ@ࡊࡱࡌ; (discusses, debates) ron-jimásu ㄵࡋࡱࡌ argument n 1. kenka ࡄࢆ࠾࣬႒ ბ, kuchi-génka ཾࡅࢆ࠾࣬ཾ႒ ბ 2. (discussion) rón ㄵ, ronsø ㄵண 3. (logic) rikutsu ⌦ᑿ arise v okimásu ㉫ࡀࡱࡌ; (happens) shø-jimásu ⏍ࡋࡱࡌ arm n udé ⭆ armor n yoroi ࡻࢀ࠷࣬㙒 armpit n waki nó shita ⬾ࡡୖ࣬ ࢂࡀࡡୖ arms n heiki ඹჹ, buki Ṃჹ army n gúntai ㌯㝪; (vs. navy) rikú-gun 㝛㌯ aroma n ároma ࢓࣏ࣞ, (yoi) kaori ࡻ࠷ 㤮ࡽ, høkø ⰶ㤮 around 1. adv (... no) mawari ni ...ࡡ ࿔ࡽ࡞; goes ~ (... o) mawarimásu ...ࢅ ᅂࡽࡱࡌ 2. → about, approximately arouse v shigeki shimásu ๆ⃥ࡊ ࡱࡌ, køfun shimásu ⮾ዢࡊࡱࡌ arrange v 1. (lines them up) narabemásu ୩࡬ࡱࡌ; ~ themselves narabimásu ୩ࡦࡱࡌ 2. (decides, sets) kimemásu Ửࡴࡱࡌ, (a

meeting/consultation) uchi-awasemásu ᡬࡔྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ arranged v 1. gets ~ (is put together) matomarimásu ࡱ࡛ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, (as a set/array) soroimásu ᥖ࠷ 348

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ࡱࡌ; (gets decided/set) kimarimásu Ửࡱࡽࡱࡌ 2. it has been ~ that ... kotó ni natte (i)másu ...ࡆ࡛࡞࡝ࡖ࡙ ࠷ ࡱࡌ arrangement n 1. (settlement) kimari Ửࡱࡽ; (adjustment) séiri ᩒ⌦ 2. arrangements (preparations) júnbi ‵ങ, shitaku ᨥᗐ࣬௘ᗐ; (plans) téhazu ᡥࡢࡍ࣬ᡥ➳; flower arrangement n ikébana array n soróé ᥖ࠻ arrears n tainø(kin) ⁣⣙ 㔘 arrest v toraemásu ᤍ࠻ࡱࡌ, tsukamaemásu ᤍࡱ࠻ࡱࡌ, táiho shimásu 㐂ᤍࡊࡱࡌ arrive (at) v 1. (... ni) tsukimásu ...࡞ ╌ࡀࡱࡌ, tøchaku shimásu ฽╌ࡊࡱࡌ, itarimásu ⮫ࡽࡱࡌ 2. (is delivered) todokimásu ᒀ ࡀࡱࡌ arrogant adj gøman (na) ഩះ ࡝ arrow n yá ▦; (sign) ya-jírushi ▦༰ art n bíjutsu ⨶⾙, geijutsu ⰹ⾙ artery n 1. dømyaku ິ⬞ 2. kansen døro ᖷ⥲㐠㊨ artful adj kømyø (na) ᕟዼ ࡝ , køkatsu (na) ≶⊮ ࡝ arthritis n kansetsu-en 㛭⟿ⅎ article n (thing) monó ∸, (goods) shina(-mono) ဗ ∸ ; (writeup) kíji エ஥; ronbun ㄵᩝ articulate 1. adj hakkírishita ࡢࡖ ࡀࡽࡊࡒ, meikai (na) ᪺ᛄ ࡝ 2. v hakkíri iimásu ࡢࡖࡀࡽゕ ࠷ࡱࡌ artificial adj jinkø (no) ெᕝ ࡡ ,

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jinkø-teki (na) ெᕝⓏ ࡝ artillery n taihø ኬ◑, buki Ṃჹ artisan n shokunin ⫃ெ artist n geijutsu-ka ⰹ⾙ᐓ; (painter) gaka ⏤ᐓ as conj 1. (like) ... (no) yø´ (ni) ... ࡡ ࡻ࠹ ࡞ 2. (so as to be) ...ni..࡞ 3. (in the role of) ... to shite ... ࡛ࡊ࡙; as far as ... is concerned ... ni kákete wa ... ࡞࠾ ࡄ࡙ࡢ; …ni kan-shite wa… ࡞ 㛭ࡊ࡙ࡢ; as for ... wa ...ࡢ; as much as ... gúrai ...న; ...hodo ...⛤࣬࡮࡜; as much as possible dekiru-dake ฝᮮࡾࡓࡄ࡚࣬ࡀࡾ ࡓࡄ; as regards ... ni kákete wa ...࡞࠾ࡄ࡙ࡢ; ... ni kánshite ...࡞㛭ࡊ࡙; ni tsúite …࡞ࡗ࠷ ࡙ࡢ Asakusa n Asakusa ὰⲙ ascent n jøshø ୕᪴, agáru koto ୕࠿ࡾࡆ࡛ ascertain v tashikamemásu ☔࠾ࡴ ࡱࡌ ashamed adj hazukashíi ᜕ࡍ࠾ࡊ ࠷; (guilty feeling) yamashíi ࡷ ࡱࡊ࠷; is ~ of hajimásu ᜕ࡱࡌ ash(es) n hai ⅂ ashore adv kishi (ni) (mukatte) ᓃ ࡞ ྡྷ࠾ࡖ࡙ , riku (ni) (mukatte) 㝛 ࡞ ྡྷ࠾ࡖ࡙ ashtray n hai-zara ⅂⓸ Asian 1. adj Ajia (no) ࢓ࢩ࢓ ࡡ 2. n (person) Ajiá-jin ࢓ࢩ࢓ெ ask v 1. (a favor of a person) (... ni ...o) tanomimásu ...࡞ ...ࢅ 㢏ࡲࡱࡌ, negaimásu 㢢࠷


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ࡱࡌ → consent assert v shuchø shimásu ୹ᘿࡊ ࡱࡌ assimilate v døka shimásu ྜྷ໩ ࡊࡱࡌ; kyüshü shimásu ྺ཭ ࡊࡱࡌ assist v øen shimásu ᚺᥴࡊࡱࡌ; tasukemásu ຐࡄࡱࡌ → help assistance n (o-)séwa ࠽ ୠヨ; (o-)tétsudai ࠽ ᡥఎ࠷; hójo ⿭ ຐ; øen ᚺᥴ assistant n joshu ຐᡥ, ashísutanto ࢓ࢨࢪࢰࣤࢹ associate with ...to tsuki-aimásu ...࡛௛ࡀྙ࠷ࡱࡌ; ...to majiwarimásu ...࡛ஹࢂࡽࡱࡌ association n 1. kyøkai ༝ఌ; (academic) gakkai Ꮥఌ; (guild, union) kumiai ⤄ྙ 2. (social company) (o)-tsukíai ࠽ ௛ࡀྙ࠷ assortment n kumi-awase ⤄ࡲྙ ࢂࡎ, tori-awase ཱིࡽྙࢂࡎ asterisk n hoshi-jírushi ᫅༰; asutarisuku ࢓ࢪࢰࣛࢪࢠ asthma n zensoku ႉ᜝ astonished; adj gets ~ odorokimásu 㦣ࡀࡱࡌ astringent adj shibúi Ῠ࠷ astronomy n tenmón-gaku ኮᩝᏕ asylum n hinán-jo 㑂㞬ᡜ, seishin (fits parts together to make a whole) kumi-awasemásu ⤄ ࡲ byøin ⢥♼⑋㝌 ྙࡎࡱࡌ, kumi-tatemásu ⤄ ࡲ at prep ... de...࡚; (being located ❟࡙ࡱࡌ at) ... ni ...࡞; at any rate tómokaku assembly n 1. (gathering) shügø ࡛ࡵ࠾ࡂ; at best séizei ࡎ࠷ࡏ࠷; 㞗ྙ 2. (parliament) kokkai at last iyoiyo ࠷ࡻ࠷ࡻ, yøyaku ᅗఌ ࡻ࠹ࡷࡂ, tsúi-ni ࡗ࠷࡞; (after assent v nattoku shimásu ⣙ᚋࡊ difficulty) yatto ࡷࡖ࡛; at least ࡱࡌ; (requires) motomemásu ịࡴࡱࡌ 2. (~ a person a question) (... ni) kikimásu ...࡞ ⪲ࡀࡱࡌ, tazunemásu ᑖࡠࡱࡌ, ukagaimásu చ࠷ࡱࡌ aslant adv, adj nanáme (no/ni) ᩫࡴ ࡡ࡞ asleep adv, adj nemutte (iru) ┸ࡖ ࡙ ࠷ࡾ aspect n 1. yøsu ᵕᏄ 2. (grammatical) ásupékuto ࢓ࢪ࣋ࢠࢹ, (soku/kyoku) men ഁᑻ 㟻 asphyxiate v chissoku shimásu ✽ ᜝ࡊࡱࡌ aspiration n ganbø 㢢᭻, yashin 㔕ᚨ, akogare ៷ࡿ aspire → hope aspirin n asupirin ࢓ࢪࣅࣛࣤ ass 1. n róba ࢀࡣ࣬ࣞࣁ 2. n gankomono 㡱ᅖ⩽ báka ࡣ࠾ 3. n (o-)shíri ࠽ ࡊࡽ࣬ ࠽ ᑶ assail v køgeki shimásu ᨯᦹࡊࡱ ࡌ, hínan shimásu 㟸㞬ࡊࡱࡌ assault v osóimásu ぇ࠷ࡱࡌ → attack assemble v 1. (they collect) atsumarimásu 㞗ࡱࡽࡱࡌ, shügø shimásu 㞗ྙࡊࡱࡌ; (collects them) atsumemásu 㞗ࡴࡱࡌ 2.

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sukúnáku-tomo ᑛ࡝ࡂ࡛ࡵ, sémete ࡎࡴ࡙ athlete n (undø) sénshu 㐘ິ 㐽ᡥ athletics n undø 㐘ິ, supø´tsu ࢪ࣭࣎ࢵ; (physical education) tai(i)ku మ⫩࣬ࡒ࠷ࡂ Atlantic Ocean n Taiséiyø ኬけὊ atmosphere n fun’íki 㞲ᅑẴ atom n génshi ཋᏄ atomic adj genshí (-ryoku) ཋᏄງ ࡡ ; atomic energy n genshíryoku ཋᏄງ atrocious adj (brutal) zangyaku (na) ṟ⹚ ࡝ attach 1. v (sticks on) tsukemásu ௛ࡄࡱࡌ 2. (adds) soemásu ῟ ࠻ࡱࡌ; attached file n tenpu fáiru ῟௛ࣆ࢒࢕ࣜ attachment n fuzoku ௛ᒌ࣬㜻ᒌ, fuzoku-hin ௛ᒌဗ࣬㜻ᒌဗ attack 1. n (an ~) køgeki ᨯᦹ, shügeki ぇᦹ 2. v (makes an ~) osóimásu ぇ࠷ࡱࡌ; sememásu ᨯࡴࡱࡌ attain → reach → accomplish attempt 1. n tameshí ムࡊ, kokoromi ムࡲ; (plot, scheme) kuwadate ௺࡙ 2. v (~s it) tameshimásu ムࡊࡱࡌ, kokoromimásu ムࡲࡱࡌ; kuwadatemásu ௺࡙ ࡱࡌ attend v demásu ฝࡱࡌ; shusseki shimásu ฝᖆࡊࡱࡌ attendance n shusseki ฝᖆ; office attendance n shukkin ฝໂ attendant n (in charge) kákari ౿,

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kakarí-in ౿ဤ, ... -gákari ...౿ attention n 1. chü´i Ἰណ, chümoku Ἰ┘ 2. omoiyari ᛦ࠷ࡷࡽ attitude n táido ឺᗐ, shisei ጶເ attorney n bengóshi ᘒ㆜ኃ attract v hikimásu ᘤࡀࡱࡌ; (charming) miryoku ga arimásu 㨡ງ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ attraction n atorakushon ࢓ࢹࣚࢠ ࢨࣘࣤ attractive adj (nice-looking) kírei (na) ࡀࡿ࠷࣬⥙㮿 ࡝ ; (charming) miryoku-teki (na) 㨡ງⓏ ࡝ auction n serí ❿ࡽ࣬ࢬࣛ, kyøbai ❿኉, økushon ࢛࣭ࢠࢨࣘࣤ audience n chøshü ⫀⾏, kankyaku びᐂ audio n, adj onsei (no) 㡚ኇ ࡡ , ødio ࢛࣭ࢸ࢔࢛ audition n ødishon ࢛࣭ࢸ࢔ࢨࣘࣤ, shínsa ᐼᰕ auditorium n kaidø ఌᇸ, kødø ㅦᇸ aunt n (father’s or mather’s elder sister) obá(-san) ఐẍ ࡈࢆ ;

(father’s or mather’s younger sister) obá(-san) ཱẍ ࡈࢆ ; (in general) obá(-san) ࠽ࡣ ࡈࢆ auspicious adj (o-)medetái ࠽ ࡴ ࡚ࡒ࠷࣬ ࠽ ┘ฝᗐ࠷ Australia n øsutorária ࢛࣭ࢪࢹࣚ ࣛ࢓ authentic adj kakujitsu (na) ☔ᐁ ࡝ , honmono (nó) ᮇ∸ ࡡ , shøshinshømei (no) ḿ┷ḿ㖥 ࡡ author n chó-sha ⴥ⩽, sáku-sha ష⩽→ writer


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authority n 1. (expert) táika ኬᐓ, tsü´ ㏳ 2. (power) ken’i ᶊጸ 3. (basis) kónkyo ᰷ᣈ; the authorities tøkyoku ᙔᑻ, okámi ࠽୕ automatic adj jidø-teki (na) ⮤ິⓏ ࡝ automation n øtomëshon ࢛࣭ࢹ࣒ ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ, jidø (ka) ⮤ິ ໩ automobile n jidø-sha ⮤ິ㌬, kuruma ㌬ autumn n áki ⚽; autumn period/term shü´ki ⚽᭿ autumnal equinox n shübun ⚽ฦ; Autumnal Equinox Day Shübun-no-hí ⚽ฦࡡ᪝ available adj (things) riyø dekiru ฺ⏕࡚ࡀࡾ, (person) áiteiru ✭࠷ ࡙࠷ࡾ; seats are ~ suwaremásu ᗑࡿࡱࡌ avalanche n nadare ࡝ࡓࡿ࣬㞯ᓻ; (snowslide) yuki-nádare 㞯࡝ࡓࡿ avenue n tørí ㏳ࡽ, ødø´ri ኬ㏳ࡽ, kaidø ⾜㐠; michi 㐠 average 1. n (on the ~) heikin ᖲ ᆍ; average age heikin nenrei ᖲᆍ ᖳ௦ (life span, lifetime) heikin jumyø ᖲᆍᑋ࿤ 2. adj (ordinary) nami (no) ୩ ࡡ , heibon (na) ᖲฉ ࡝

avert v 1. sakemásu 㑂ࡄࡱࡌ 2. me o sorashimásu ┘ࢅࡐࡼࡊ ࡱࡌ aviation n køkü (ki) ⯗✭ ᶭ avoid v sakemásu ࡈࡄࡱࡌ࣬㑂 ࡄࡱࡌ, yokemásu ࡻࡄࡱࡌ࣬ 㑂ࡄࡱࡌ awake v (comes ~) mezamemásu, ┘つࡴࡱࡌ; is ~ (not asleep) nemurimasén ┸ࡽࡱࡎࢆ award 1. n shø ㈱ 2. v (gives) (shø o) júyo shimásu ㈱ࢅ ᤭୙ࡊࡱ ࡌ; okurimásu ㉏ࡽࡱࡌ away adj tøku (ni) 㐪ࡂ ࡞ ; away from home rúsu (no) ⏻Ꮼ ࡡ ; right away súgu ࡌࡃ awesome adj (mono)sugói ࡵࡡ ࡌࡇ࠷࣬ ∸ ෴࠷, subárashíi ࡌࡣࡼࡊ࠷࣬⣪ᬍࡼࡊ࠷ awful adj osoroshíi ᜅࢀࡊ࠷, hidói ࡥ࡜࠷ awkward adj mazúi ࡱࡍ࠷, gikochinai ࡁࡆࡔ࡝࠷, buzama (na) ࡩࡉࡱ ࡝ awning n hi-øí ᪝さ࠷, hiyoke ᪝ ࡻࡄ, tenmaku ኮᖞ ax n ono ࠽ࡡ࢛࣬ࢿ࣬ᩴ axis, axle n jikú ㍀

B babble n o-shaberi ࠽ࡊࡶ࡬ࡽ baby n áka-chan ㉝ࡔࡶࢆ, akanbo ㉝ࢆᆎ࣬㉝ࢆ࡯ babysitter n bebii shittå ࣊ࣄ࣭ࢨࢴࢰ࣭,

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(professional) komóri ᏄᏬ bachelor n dokushin dansei ≺㌗ ⏠ᛮ, hitori mónó ࡥ࡛ࡽ⩽࣬ ≺ࡽ⩽ 352

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back 1. adv (behind) ... no ushiro backside n 1. ushiro ᚃࢀ, [BOOKISH] (de/ni) ... ࡡᚃࢀ ࡚࡞ 2. n (of køhø ᚃ᪁ 2. (buttock) shiri ᑶ body) senaka ⫴୯, (lower part) o-shiri ࠽ᑶ backstage adj, adv butai ura (no/ koshi ⭔ Ѝ support back; go ~ modorimásu ᡘࡽࡱࡌ; de) ⯑ྋ⿤ ࡡ࡚ , gakuya (no/ (to one’s usual place) kaerimásu de) ᴞᒁ ࡡ࡚ ᖉࡽࡱࡌ backstroke n seoyogi ⫴ὃࡁ backdate v hizuke o sakanobora- backup n 1. (computer) bákku semásu ᪝௛ࢅࡈ࠾ࡡ࡯ࡼࡎࡱࡌ appu ࣁࢴࢠ࢓ࢴࣈ 2. yobi ஢ങ, back down v 1. (retreats) køtai hikae ᥅࠻ backwards adv (contrariwise) shimásu ᚃ㏝ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (withdraws) hiki sagarimásu ᘤࡀୖ gyaku (ni) ㏣ ࡞ ; move ~ bákku ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ shimásu ࣁࢴࢠࡊࡱࡌ, ushiro e/ backfire n ura-me ni demásu ⿤┘ ni sagarimásu ᚃࢀ࡞ୖ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ ࡞ฝࡱࡌ backwater n 1. (stagnant place) background n 1. haikei ⫴ᬊ, bákku teitai chi ೳ⁣ᆀ 2. (stagnant ࣁࢴࢠ 2. (one’s origin, educastate) teitai ೳ⁣ 3. (held water) tion, etc.) keireki ⤊Ṍ 3. (circum- yodonda mizu ࡻ࡜ࢆࡓỀ stances of the event, information) backyard n ura-niwa ⿤ᗖ bacon n bë´kon ࣭࣊ࢤࣤ yobi chishiki ஢ങ▩ㆉ, bákku gura(u)ndo ࣁࢴࢠࢡࣚ ࢗ ࣤࢺ bacteria n bakuteria ࣁࢠࢷࣛ࢓, backhanded adj 1. (sports) bakku saikin ⣵Ⳟ bad adj 1. warúi ᝇ࠷, damé (na) hando (no) ࣁࢴࢠࣀࣤࢺ ࡡ 2. (ambiguous meaning) aimai ࡓࡴ࣬㥇┘ ࡝ ; furyø (na) ୘ Ⰳ ࡝ ; (inept) hetá (na) ࡫ࡒ࣬ (na) ࠵࠷ࡱ࠷ ࡝ ࣬᭍ᫍ ࡝ 3. (roundabout, indirect) ୖᡥ ࡝ 2. fu- ୘ ࠤ; bad guy mawarikudoi ᅂࡽࡂ࡜࠷ furyø ୘Ⰳ, warumono ᝇ⩽, bad backlash n handø ཬິ, hanpatsu temper n tanki ▯Ẵ ཬⓆ bad; goes ~ (rots, sours) kusaribacklog n 1. (reserve) bichiku másu ⭁ࡽࡱࡌ; too ~ (regretങ⵫ 2. (stock) zaiko ᅹᗔ 3. table) zannen (na) ṟᛍ ࡝ badge n bajji ࣁࢴࢩ (work) yarinokoshi no shigoto ࡷࡽṟࡊࡡ௘஥ badger n anaguma ࢓ࢻࢡ࣏࣬ back-order n toriyose chümon ✨↻ ཱིࡽᐞࡎἸᩝ badminton n badominton ࣁࢺ࣐ࣤ backpack n ryukku-sakku ࣛࣖࢴ ࢹࣤ ࢠࢦࢴࢠ bag n 1. fukuró ⾼; (paper) kami-

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búkuro ⣤⾼ 2. → suitcase 3. → handbag; purse baggage n o-)ní-motsu ࠽ Ⲭ∸ baggy adj dabudabu (no) ࡓࡩࡓࡩ ࡡ bailiff n teiri ᘈྠ࡙࣬࠷ࡽ bait n esa ࠻ࡈ࣬㣭 bake v 1. yakimásu ↕ࡀࡱࡌ 2. gets baked yakemásu ↕ࡄࡱࡌ baker, bakery, bakeshop n pán-ya ࣂࣤᒁ, bëkarii ࣭࣭࣊࢜ࣛ balance n 1. (equilibrium) tsuriai 㔦ࡽྙ࠷, baransu ࣁࣚࣤࢪ 2. (remaining money) zandaka ṟ㧏 balcony n barukonii ࣁࣜࢤࢼ࣭ bald 1. adj hágeta ... ࡢࡅࡒ>⚴ࡅ ࡒ@... 2. v (gets ~) hagemásu ࡢ ࡅࡱࡌ࣬⚴ࡅࡱࡌ; (is ~) hágete imásu ࡢࡅ࡙>⚴ࡅ࡙@࠷ࡱࡌ bale n tawará ಣ ball n 1. tamá ⋚; (traditional Japanese handball) mari ࡱࡽ࣬㠥, temari ࡙ࡱࡽ࣬ᡥ㠥 2. (sports) bø´ru ࣭࣍ࣜ; basket ~ basuketto børu ࣁࢪࢢࢴࢹ࣭࣍ࣜ 3. kyü ⌣; ball park n yakyü-jø 㔕⌣ሔ, kyüjø ⌣ሔ ballad n (Japanese traditional music) min’yø Ằㅬ ballerina n (female ballet dancer) bareriina ࣁ࣭ࣝࣛࢻ ballet n bárë ࣁ࢙ࣝ; ballet dancer n barë danså ࣁ࢙ࣝࢱࣤࢦ࣭, (female dancer) bareriina ࣁࣝ ࣭ࣛࢻ balloon n 1. füsen 㢴⯢ 2. (hot-

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air ~) (netsu)kikyü ⇍ Ẵ⌣ 3. (toy ~) füsen-dama 㢴⯢⋚ 4. (water ~) mizu-füsen Ề㢴⯢ ballot n tøhyø ᢖ⚂; ballot paper n tøhyø yøshi ᢖ⚂⏕⣤ ballpoint pen n børu-pen ࣭࣍ࣜ ࣋ࣤ balm n køyu 㤮ἔ bamboo n take ➁; bamboo blind n (Japanese traditional) misu ࡲ ࡌ࣬ᚒ⡐, sudare ࡌࡓࡿ࣬⡐ → blind; bamboo wind-chimes n takefürin ➁㢴㕝 ban 1. n kinshi ⚏Ḿ 2. ~s it v kinshi shimásu ⚏Ḿࡊࡱࡌ banana n banana ࣁࢻࢻ; ~ shake banana sheiku ࣁࢻࢻࢨ࢘࢕ࢠ band n 1. (group) kumí ⤄ 2. (of

musicians) (Western style) gakudan ᴞᅆ, bando ࣁࣤࢺ 3. (Japanese style) (o)-hayashi ࠽ࡢࡷࡊ࣬ ࠽ ᄮࡊ 4. (watchband, etc.) (tokei) bando ᫤゛ ࣁࣤࢺ 5. beruto ࣊ࣜࢹ bandage n høtai ໜᖈ bandit n zoku ㈣ bang n (sound) ban ࣁࣤ, batan ࣁࢰࣤ bangle n 1. (wristlet) ude wa ⭆㍧ 2. kazari 㣥ࡽ banish v tsuihø shimásu ㏛ᨲࡊ ࡱࡌ banister n tesuri ᡥࡌࡽ banjo n banjo ࣁࣤࢩ࣭ࣘ; three stringed ~ shamisen ࡊࡶࡲࡎࢆ ࣬୔࿝⥲ bank n 1. ginkø 㖗⾔ 2. (special


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storage place) banku ࣁࣤࢠ 3. (~ of a river or lake) kishí ᓃ; bank account n ginkø-kóza 㖗⾔ཾ ᗑ, yokin-kóza 㡰㔘ཾᗑ; blood bank n ketsueki banku ⾉ᾦࣁࣤࢠ bankruptcy n hasan ◒⏐ banner n 1. (flag) hata ᪕ 2. (motto, slogan, etc.) hyøshiki ᵾㆉ 3. (hanging cloth or curtain over a street, entrance, etc.) taremaku ᆱࡿᖞ 4. (advertising) banå (køkoku) ࣁࢻ࣭ ᗀ࿈ banquet n enkai ᐑఌ baptism n senrei ὑ♡ bar n 1. (for drinking) saka-ba 㒿ሔ, (Western style) bå ࣁ࣭, (neighborhood pub) nomí-ya 㣟 ࡲᒁ, (after-hours) sunákku ࢪࢻ ࢴࢠ 2. bø Ფ; a bar of soap n sekken ík-ko ࡎࡖࡄࢆ>▴㮧@ ୌ಴ barbarian n yaban-jín 㔕⺽ெ barbecue n båbekyü ࣁ࣭࣭࣊࢞ࣖ barber(shop) n tokoya ᗃᒁ, rihátsú-ten ⌦㧝ᗉ, sanpatsu-ya ᩋ 㧝ᒁ bare 1. adj (scarce) toboshii இࡊ ࠷ 2. (mere) honno wazuka (no) ࡮ࢆࡡࢂࡍ࠾ ࡡ 3. → naked 4. → reveal; barefoot adj hadashi (no) ࡢࡓࡊ࣬⿼㊂ ࡡ࡚ ; adv hadashi (de) ࡢࡓࡊ࣬⿼㊂ ࡚ ; barely adv karøjite ࠾ࢀ࠹ࡋ࡙࣬ ㎖࠹ࡋ࡙, nantoka ࡝ࢆ࡛࠾, girigiri ࡁࡽࡁࡽ bargain n (a real find) horidashi mono ᇷฝࡊ∸, bågen ࣁ࣭ࢣࣤ

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barge n hashike ࡢࡊࡄ bark 1. n (of tree) kí no kawá ᮄ ࡡ⓮, [BOOKISH] juhi ᶖ⓮ 2. v (a dog ~s) hoemásu ྩ࠻ࡱࡌ barley n ø-mugi ኬ㯇 barn n naya ⣙ᒁ barometer n 1. (indicator) baromëtå ࣁ࣒࣭ࣞࢰ࣭ 2. (for at-

mospheric pressure) kiatsu-kei Ẵᅸ゛ barracks n 1. héisha ඹ⯃ 2. barakku ࣁࣚࢴࢠ barracuda n kamásu ࣏࢜ࢪ barrage n shüchü høka 㞗୯◑ℾ barrel n taru ᶙ barren adj 1. (land) yaseta ࡷࡎࡒ, fumø (na/no) ୘ẗ ࡝ࡡ 2. (sterile) funin (no) ୘ዲ ࡡ barricade n barikëdo ࣁࣛࢢ࣭ࢺ barrier n 1. (fence) saku ᰑ 2. (obstacle) shøgai-butsu 㝸ᐐ ∸ 3. (limit) genkai 㝀⏲ 4. (limit or boundary) genkai 㝀⏲, kyøkai ሾ⏲ barrow n (wheel~) teoshi-guruma ᡥᢪࡊ㌬ barter n butsubutsu køkan ∸ࠍ ஹᥦ base n 1. (military, etc.) kichí ᇱ ᆀ; military base n gunji-kichi ㌯஥ ᇱᆀ 2. (of a tree) ne-motó ᰷ඔ 3. (foundation) kiso ᇱ♇ baseball n yakyü 㔕⌣, bësubø´ru ࣭࣊ࢪ࣭࣍ࣜ; baseball stadium n yakyü-jø 㔕⌣ሔ, kyüjø ⌣ሔ basement n (floor) chikai ᆀ㝭; (room) chiká (-shitsu) ᆀୖ ᐄ


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bash v tatakimásu ྄ࡀࡱࡌ bashful → shy bashing n tatakí ྄ࡀ, basshingu ࣁࢴࢨࣤࢡ basic adj kihon-teki (na) ᇱᮇⓏ ࡝ , konpon-teki (na) ᰷ᮇⓏ ࡝ basin n 1. (for washing face) senmén-ki ὑ㟻ჹ 2. tarai ࡒࡼ࠷ 3. hachí 㖂 4. (flat land sur-

rounded by higher land) bonchi ⓽ᆀ; Kyoto basin n Kyøto bonchi ா㒌⓽ᆀ basis n 1. kihon ᇱᮇ, konpon ᰷ᮇ, kijun ᇱ‵, kiso ᇱ♇ 2. (grounds) kónkyo ᰷ᣈ basket n kago ࠾ࡇ࣬⡪, basuketto ࣁࢪࢢࢴࢹ basketball n basuketto børu ࣁࢪࢢ ࢴࢹ࣭࣬࣍ࣜ, basuke ࣁࢪࢢ bass n 1. (sea bass) suzuki ࢪࢫ࢞ 2. (music) basu ࣁࢪ, bësu ࣭࣊ࢪ baste 1. v (sewing) ~ with thread shi-tsukemásu ௘௛ࡄࡱࡌ 2. v (cooking) tare o kakemásu ࢰࣝ ࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ bat n 1. kø´mori ࢤ࣓ࢗࣛ 2. (baseball) bátto ࣁࢴࢹ bath n (o-)fúro ࠽ 㢴࿁, yokujø ᾆሔ; bathrobe n basurøbu ࣁࢪࣞ ࣭ࣇ; bathroom n ① (for bathing) (o-)furoba ࠽ 㢴࿁ሔ, yoku-jø/ shitsu ᾆሔᐄ ② (toilet) tóireࢹ ࢕ࣝ, keshø´-shitsu ໩⢕ᐄ, (o-) teárai ࠽ ᡥὑ࠷, (o-)benjó ࠽ ౼ᡜ; public bath n séntø 㖱…, køshü yokujø ප⾏ᾆሔ

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baton 1. (sports, such as race and rhythmic gymnastics) baton ࣁࢹ ࣤ 2. (music) shiki-bø ᣞᥱᲤ battalion n (military) daitai ኬ㝪 batter n (baseball) battå ࣁࢴࢰ࣭, dásha ᡬ⩽ battery n denchi 㞹ờ, bátterii ࣁ ࢴࢷ࣭ࣛ battle 1. n tatakai ᡋ࠷, arasoi ண ࠷, [BOOKISH] sentø ᡋ㜒 2. v tatakaimásu ᡋ࠷ࡱࡌ bay n wán ‬, urá ὾ be → is → go → come beach n hama ὶ, bíichi ࣄ࣭ࢲ; (seashore) kaigan ᾇᓃ bead n 1. tamá ⋚, biizu ࣄ࣭ࢫ; (prayer) ~s juzú ࡋࡸࡍ࣬ᩐ⌌ 2. counting ~s → abacus beagle n (dog) biiguru-ken ࣄ࣭ࢡ ࣜ≗ beak n kuchibashi ࡂࡔࡣࡊ beam n 1. (cross~) keta ࡄࡒ ࣬᰾; under the ~ keta-shita ᰾ ୖ࣬ࡄࡒୖ 2. (~ of light) køsen ක⥲ bean n mamé ࣏࣒࣬㇃; (soy beans) daizu ࢱ࢕ࢫ㹺ኬ㇃ bean curd n (o-)tøfu ࠽ ㇃⭁;

(pot-boiled squares) yu-dø´fu …㇃⭁; (deep-fried) aburá-age ἔᥥࡅ bean jam/paste n (sweet) án(ko) ࢓ࣤ ࢤ ࣬㣾 ࡆ ; (fermented) míso ࡲࡐ࣬࿝ძ (o-)míso ࠽ ࡲࡐ࣬ ࠽ ࿝ძ bear 1. n (animal) kúmá ↻ 2. v (puts up with) shinobimásu


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ᚰࡦࡱࡌ, taemásu ⪇࠻ࡱࡌ, shínbø shimásu ㎖ᢢࡊࡱࡌ 3. → carry 4. → give birth to 5. ~s fruit minorimásu ᐁࡽࡱࡌ; bear up (stands firm) ganbarimásu ࠿ ࢆࡣࡽ>㡱ᘿࡽ@ࡱࡌ beard n hige ࡥࡅ࣬㨀 bearings; n one’s ~ høgaku ᪁ぽ beat v 1. (hits) nagurimásu ࡝ࡃ ࡽ>Ṹࡽ@ࡱࡌ; (slaps) hatakimásu ࡢࡒࡀࡱࡌ྄࣬ࡀࡱࡌ 2. (defeats) makashimásu ㇿ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ 3.

(heart throbs) dókidoki shimásu ࡜ࡀ࡜ࡀࡊࡱࡌ; ~ around the bush (is non-committal) hanashí o bokashimásu ヨࢅ࡯࠾ࡊࡱࡌ beautiful adj utsukushíi ⨶ࡊ࠷, kírei (na) ࡀࡿ࠷࣬⥙㮿 ࡝ beauty n 1. [BOOKISH] bi ⨶, utsukushí-sa ⨶ࡊࡈ 2. (beautiful woman) bi-jin ⨶ெ, bi-jo ⨶ዥ beauty parlor n biyø´in ⨶ᐖ㝌 beaver n biibå ࣄ࣭ࣁ࣭ because conj ... kara ...࠾ࡼ, ... tame ... ࡒࡴ࣬Ⅵ, ... mono ... ࡵ ࡡ, ... no de ... ࡡ࡚, [BOOKISH] ... yúé ni ... ࡹ࠻࡞࣬ᨶ࡞; perhaps ~ of ... (no) séi ka ... ࡡ ࡎ࠷࠾ become v (... ni, ... -ku) narimásu ... ࡞, ... ࡂ ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ bed n toko ᗃ; (Western) béddo (bétto) ࣊ࢴࢺ ࣊ࢴࢹ , shindai ᐱྋ; goes to ~ nemásu ᐱࡱ ࡌ, yasumimásu, ఆࡲࡱࡌ; bedand-breakfast n minshuku Ằᐙ; bedclothes, bedding n shíngu ᐱර,

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yágu እර; (Japanese quilt) ᕱᅆ (o)-futón ࠽ ᕱᅆ; bedroom n shinshitsu ᐱᐄ bedlam n 1. sawagi 㥹ࡁ; søran 㥹 ஗ 2. (confusion) konran Ί஗ bedraggled adj 1. (limp and wet) hikizutte nurashita ᘤࡀࡍࡖ࡙⃷ ࡼࡊࡒ 2. (limp and soiled) hikizutte yogoshita ᘤࡀࡍࡖ࡙ỗࡊࡒ bee n hachi ⻇࣬ࣀࢲ; beehive n mitsubachi no subako ࣐ࢵࣁࢲ >⻜⻇@ࡡᕛ⟵ beef n gyüniku ∭⫏, biifu ࣄ࣭ࣆ; beef slices dipped in hot broth shabushabu ࡊࡶࡩࡊࡶࡩ࣬ࢨࣔࣇࢨ ࣔࣇ beefsteak n sutëki ࢪࢷ࣭࢞ been → is → go → come beep n 1. (sound) bii-tto iu oto ࣄ࣭ࢴ࡛࠷࠹㡚 2. (answering machine) pii-tto iu oto ࣅ࣭ࢴ ࡛࠷࠹㡚 3. yobidashi-on ࿣ࡦ ฝࡊ㡚 beer n bíiru ࣄ࣭ࣜ; draft beer n nama-bíiru ⏍ࣄ࣭ࣜ, náma ⏍ beet n bíito ࣄ࣭ࢹ beetle n (insect) kabutomushi ࢜ ࣇࢹ࣑ࢨ; black beetle n gokiburi ࢥ࢞ࣇࣛ before adv (... no) máe (ni) ...ࡡ ๑ ࡞ ; ~ it happens (shi-) nai uchí (ni) ࡊ ࡝࠷࠹ࡔ ࡞ ; before a meal n, adv taberu mae (ni) 㣏 ࡬ࡾ๑ ࡞ , [BOOKISH] shokuzen (ni) 㣏๑ ࡞ ; before long adv mamó-naku ࡱࡵ࡝ࡂ࣬㛣ࡵ࡝ࡂ, sórosoro ࡐࢀࡐࢀ; (eventually)


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yagate ࡷ࠿࡙ beg v tanomimásu 㢏ࡲࡱࡌ, negaimásu 㢢࠷ࡱࡌ; I beg your pardon, but ... interj shitsúrei desu ga ... ኶♡࡚ࡌ࠿... beggar n kojikí ࡆࡋࡀ࣬஑㣏 begin v (it ~s) hajimarimásu ጙࡱ ࡽࡱࡌ; (~s it) hajimemásu ጙࡴ ࡱࡌ beginning n hajime ิࡴ, (outset) saisho ᭩ิ, [INFORMAL] shoppána ࡊࡺࡖࡤ࡝࣬ิࡖࡤ࡝, hajimari ጙࡱࡽ begrudge v uramimásu ᜗ࡲࡱࡌ ᜗ࡳ, ᜗ࢆ࡚ ; (be jealous of another’s good fortune, etc.) hito no køun o netamimásu ெࡡ ᖶ㐘ࢅࡠࡒࡲࡱࡌ behalf n 1. (support) shiji ᨥᣚ 2. (benefit) rieki ฺ─; in/on ~ of … (... no) tamé ... ࡡ ࡒࡴ࣬ Ⅵ 3. (representative) in/on ~ of … [INFORMAL] (... no) kawari (ni) ...ࡡ௥ࢂࡽ ࡞ , (... no) dairi (de) ...ࡡ௥⌦ ࡚ behavior n 1. (actions) kødø ⾔ິ 2. (act) køi ⾔Ⅵ 3. (deportment) furumai ࡨࡾࡱ࠷࣬ᣲࡾ⯑࠷ 4. (manners) (o-)gyøgi ࠽ ⾔ൢ 5. (attitude) táido ឺᗐ behind 1. prep (... no) ushiro (de/ ni) (... ࡡ ᚃࢀ ࡚࡞ ; (the other side) urá ⿤ 2. falls/gets ~ okuremásu 㐔ࡿࡱࡌ; leaves ~ nokoshimásu ṟࡊࡱࡌ, (forgets) wasuremono o shimásu ᚸࡿ∸ ࢅࡊࡱࡌ

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beige n bëju ࣭࣊ࢩࣖ Beijing n pekin ໪ா being 1. n (in existence; person) sonzai Ꮛᅹ; human ~ ningen ெ 㛣 2. n (creature) ikimono ⏍ ࡀ∸ 3. → is 4. v comes into ~ seiritsu shimásu ᠺ❟ࡊࡱࡌ belch n, v geppu (o shimásu) ࡅࡖ ࡪ ࢅࡊࡱࡌ Belgium n berugii ࣭࣊ࣜ࢟ believe v 1. ~ (in) (... o) shinjimásu ... ࢅ ಘࡋࡱࡌ 2. → think bell n 1. (large) kane 㚕 2. (small) rín/suzu 㕝 3. (doorbell) béru ࣊ ࣜ, yobi-rin ࿣ࡦ㕝 4. (temple ~) tsurigane 㔦ࡽ㚕 belly n hará ⭙; fuku-bu ⭙㒂; onaka ࠽⭙ belong (to) v (... ni) zokushimásu ... ࡞ ᒌࡊࡱࡌ belongings n mochímono ᣚࡔ∸ beloved n 1. (person or pet) itoshii ࠷࡛ࡊ࠷࣬យࡊ࠷, saiai (no) ᭩ យ ࡡ 2. (thing) aiyø (no) យ⏕ ࡡ 3. (thing or place) okiniiri (no) ࠽Ẵ࡞ථࡽࡡ, daisuki (na) ኬይࡀ ࡝ ; beloved daughter manamusume យፃ below prep, adv (... no) shitá (ni) ... ࡡ ୖ ࡞ ; (less than) ... íka (... no) ... ௧ୖ ... ࡡ , ... míman (... no) ... ᮅ‫ ‮‬... ࡡ belt n 1. beruto ࣊ࣜࢹ, óbi ᖈ 2. (sumo wrestler’s) mawashi ࡱ ࢂࡊ࣬ᅂࡊ 3. (zone) (chi)tai ᆀ ᖈ; belt line n kanjø-sen ⎌≟⥲ bemused adj 1. (confused) konwa-


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kushita ᅏᝠࡊࡒ, tøwakushita ᙔᝠࡊࡒ 2. (lost in thought) mono-omoi ni fuketta ∸ᛦ࠷࡞ ࡨࡄࡖࡒ bench n benchi ࣊ࣤࢲ bend v 1. (it ~s) oremásu ᢙࡿ ࡱࡌ, (curves) magarimásu ᭜࠿ ࡽࡱࡌ, (warps) sorimásu ཬࡽࡱ ࡌ 2. (~s it) orimásu ᢙࡽࡱࡌ, magemásu ᭜ࡅࡱࡌ, sorashimásu ཬࡼࡊࡱࡌ; bend backward v karada o sorashimásu మࢅ ཬࡼࡊࡱࡌ; bend down/ over v kagamimásu ᑿࡲࡱࡌ; bend forward v mae-kagami ni narimásu ๑ᑿࡲ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ beneath → below benefactor n onjin ᜘ெ benefit n ríeki ฺ─; (... no) tamé ... ࡡ Ⅵ benign 1. n (pathology) ryøsei Ⰳᛮ 2. adj (gracious) shinsetsu (na) のว ࡝ Berlin n Berurín ࣊ࣜࣛࣤ berth n shindai ᐱྋ; berth ticket n shindái-ken ᐱྋไ beset (stricken); gets ~ (by illness) yararemásu ࡷࡼࡿࡱࡌ beside prep, adv (next to) ... no sóba (de/ni) ... ࡡࡐࡣ ࡚࡞ , ... no tonari (de/ni) ...ࡡ㝼ࡽ ࡚࡞ besides prep, adv (in addition to) sono úé (ni) ࡐࡡ୕ ࡞ , (sono) hoka (ni) ࡐࡡ ௙ ࡞ best adj 1. ichiban íi ୌ␊࠷࠷>Ⰳ ࠷, ၻ࠷@; sairyø (no) ᭩Ⰳ ࡡ 2. (highest) saikø (no) ᭩㧏 ࡡ

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3. (top-class) jøtø (no) ୕➴ ࡡ 4. (special-quality) tokkyü (no) ≁⣥ ࡡ , zekkø (no) ⤧ይ ࡡ ; at best adv séizei ࡎ࠷ࡏ࠷; the best, one’s best n saizen ᭩ၻ; ten best n besutó-ten ࣊ࢪࢹࢷࣤ bet 1. n (act of betting) kake ㈻ࡄ 2. n (money) kake-kin ㈻ࡄ㔘 3. v kakemásu ㈻ࡄࡱࡌ, kaké o shimásu ㈻ࢅࡊࡱࡌ betray v ura-girimásu ⿤วࡽࡱࡌ; betrayal n ura-giri ⿤วࡽ betrothal n konyaku ፡⣑; betrothed n konyaku-sha ፡⣑⩽ better adj 1. mótto íi/yoi ࡵࡖ࡛࠷ ࠷Ⰳ࠷, (...) yóri íi/yoi ... ࡻࡽ ࠷࠷Ⰳ࠷ 2. (preferable) ... (no hø´) ga íi/yoi ... ࡡ᪁ ࠿࠷ ࠷Ⰳ࠷ between prep, adv (... no) aida (ni) ... ࡡ 㛣 ࡞ ; ...-kan ... ...㛣 beverage n nomí-mono 㣟ࡲ∸ beware v chüi shimásu Ἰណࡊࡱࡌ; (Please) beware ki o tsukete (kudasai) Ẵࢅࡗࡄ࡙ ࡂࡓࡈ࠷ beyond prep, adv (... no) mukø (ni) ... ࡡ ྡྷࡆ࠹ ࡞ ; ~ expectations zongai Ꮛአ; beyond remedy shø (shi-yø) ga nái ࡊࡺ࠹ ࡊࡻ ࠹࣬௘ᵕ ࠿࡝࠷ bias n (prejudice) henken ೩ず, sennyü-kan ඙ථび Bible n Séisho ⪯᭡, Báiburu ࣁ࢕ ࣇࣜ bibliography n tosho mokuroku ᅒ ᭡┘㘋, bunken mokuroku ᩝ⊡ ┘㘋


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bicycle n jitén-sha, jidén-sha ⮤㌷ ㌬; bicycle shop n jitensha-ya, jidensha-ya ⮤㌷㌬ᒁ bid 1. v (to offer) nyüsatsu shimásu ථᮈࡊࡱࡌ 2. v (to command) meirei shimásu ࿤௦ࡊࡱࡌ 3. v (to express) ii másu ゕ࠷ࡱࡌ 4. n nyüsatsu ථᮈ big adj 1. økíi ኬࡀ࠷, [INFORMAL] dekai (dekkai) ࡚࠾࠷ ࡚ࡖ࠾࠷ 2. (spacious) hirói ᗀ࠷; big brother áni ඕ, (o-)níi-san ࠽ ඕࡈࢆ; big sister ane ጗, (o-)në´-san ࠽ ጗ࡈࢆ bike n 1. → bicycle 2. (motorbike) baiku ࣁ࢕ࢠ, øtobai ࢛࣭ࢹࣁ࢕ bilingual n, adj bairingaru (no) ࣁ ࢕ࣛࣤ࢝ࣜ ࡡ bill n 1. (to pay) (o-)kanjø ࠽ ື ᏽ; denpyø ఎ⚂, o-aiso ࠽យ᝷ ࣬࠽࠵࠷ࡐ; daikin ௥㔘, ...-dai ... ௥; (account) tsuké ࡗࡄ; separate bill/charge (restaurant) betsu-ryøkin ืᩩ㔘; (Dutch treat) warikan ๪ࡽື 2. (bank bill, promissory note) tegata ᡥ ᙟ 3. (currency note) (o-)satsu ࠽ ᮈ 4. (handbill) bira ࡦ ࡼ࣬ࣄࣚ billiards n biriyådo ࣄ࣭ࣛࣕࢺ billion n jü´-oku ༎൦ (U.S.); chø´ ඗, ít-chø ୌ඗ (Britain) bin n trash ~ gomi-bako ࢥ࣐⟵ bind v 1. (pages, sheets) tsuzurimásu ⥓ࡽࡱࡌ 2. → tie binge n donchan-sawagi ࡜ࢆࡔ ࡶࢆ㥹ࡁ

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bingo n (game) bingo ࣄࣤࢥ binoculars n søgan-kyø ཫ╉㙶 biography n denki ఎエ biological adj seibutsugaku-teki (na) ⏍∸ᏕⓏ ࡝ biology n seibutsú-gaku ⏍∸Ꮥ biotechnology n baio(-tekunorojii) ࣁ࢕࢛ ࢷࢠࢿࣞࢩ࣭ , seibutsu køgaku ⏍∸ᕝᏕ bird n tori 㫵; bird-watching n bådo uotchingu ࣁ࣭ࢺ࢛ࢗࢴࢲࣤࢡ; yachø-kansatsu 㔕㫵びᐳ birth n 1. (being born) umare ⏍ࡱ ࡿ, [BOOKISH] shussei ฝ⏍ 2. (origin) tanjø ㄄⏍; give ~ to ... o umimásu ... ࢅ⏍ࡲࡱࡌ, o-san shimásu ࠽⏐ࡊࡱࡌ; birthstone n tanjø´seki ㄄⏍▴ birthday n (o)-tanjø´bi ࠽ ㄄⏍᪝; båsudë ࣁ࣭ࢪࢸ࣭, birthday cake n (o-)tanjø´bi këki ࠽ ㄄⏍᪝ࢢ ࣭࢞; båsudë këki ࣁ࣭ࢪࢸ࣭ࢢ ࣭࢞, birthday card n o-)tanjø´bi kådo ࠽ ㄄⏍᪝࣭࢜ࢺ; båsudë kådo ࣁ࣭ࢪࢸ࣭࣭࢜ࢺ birthplace n kókyø ᨶ㒋, furusato ᨶ㒋࣬ࡨࡾࡈ࡛ biscuit n (cookie) bisuketto ࣄࢪ ࢢࢴࢹ bisexual n (ambisexual) baisekushuaru ࣁ࢕ࢬࢠࢨࣖ࢓ࣜ, ryøseiai-sha ୦ᛮយ⩽ bit n (a little) sukóshi ᑛࡊ; [INFORMAL] chótto ࡔࡺࡖ࡛ bitch n 1. (female dog) mesu-inu 㞜≗ 2. (malicious and lewd woman) abazure ࠵ࡣࡍࡿ


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bite 1. v kamimásu ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ࣬ჱ ࡲࡱࡌ, kami-tsukimásu ࠾ࡲࡗ ࡀࡱࡌ࣬ჱࡲࡗࡀࡱࡌ 2. n one ~ hitó-kuchi ࡥ࡛ࡂࡔ࣬ୌཾ 3. n (hurt) sashikizu ๆഭ bitter adj 1. (taste, hard to bear, painful) nigái ⱖ࠷ 2. (awful) hidói ࡥ࡜࠷࣬㓖࠷; bitter experience nigai keiken ⱖ࠷⤊㥺 black adj kurói 㯦࠷; kúro (no) 㯦 ࡡ ; jet ~ makkúro (na) ┷ࡖ㯦 ࡝ ; black box n burakku bokkusu ࣇࣚࢴࢠ࣍ࢴࢠࢪ; black market n yami-ichi 㜄ᕰ, yamí-íchiba 㜄ᕰሔ blackboard n kokuban 㯦ᯀ black-hearted adj hara gurói ⭙㯦࠷ blackmail n yusuri ࡹࡌࡽ, kyøkatsu ᜅႍ bladder n bøkø ⭜⬌ blade n 1. (razor) (kamisórí no) há ࠾ࡲࡐࡽࡡ ร 2. (sword) yaiba ࡷ࠷ࡣ࣬ร 3. (leaf) ha ⴝ 4. (on ice skate) burëdo ࣇ࣭ࣝࢺ blame 1. n (censure) (o-)togame ࠽ ࡛࠿ࡴ, hínan 㟸㞬 2. v (rebukes one) togamemásu ࡛࠿ ࡴࡱࡌ, hínan shimásu 㟸㞬ࡊࡱ ࡌ 3. → responsibility bland adj 1. (tasteless) aji ga usui ࿝࠿⷟࠷ 2. (gentle) odayaka (na) ✔ࡷ࠾ ࡝ 3. (insipid) tsumaranai ࡗࡱࡼ࡝࠷ blank 1. n (space) küsho ✭ᡜ, yohaku ఴⓉ 2. n (form) yøshi ⏕⣤ 3. adj hakushi (no) Ⓣ⣤ ࡡ 4. adj (expression) utsuro

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(na) ࠹ࡗࢀ ࡝ ࣬✭ࢀ ࡝ ࣬⹣ ࢀ ࡝ ; with a ~ look utsuro na hyøjø o mísete ࠹ࡗࢀ࡝>⹣ࢀ࡝@ ⾪᝗ࢅずࡎ࡙ blanket n mø´fu ẗᕱ blast-off n hassha Ⓠᑏ bleach n hyøhaku-zai ⁳Ⓣ๠ bleak adj 1. (hopeless) kibø no nai ᕵ᭻ࡡ࡝࠷; ~ future kurai shørai ᬧ࠷ᑑᮮ 2. (desolate) wabishii ࢂࡦࡊ࠷, sappükei (na) ṽ㢴ᬊ ࡝ 3. (cold) samui ᐨ࠷ bleed v chi ga demásu ⾉࠿ฝࡱࡌ, shukketsu shimásu ฝ⾉ࡊࡱࡌ blemish n 1. (scar) kizu ഭ 2. (defect) ketten ḖⅤ blend n burendo ࣇࣝࣤࢺ, kongø Ίྙ blender n míkiså ࣐࢞ࢦ࣭ bless v 1. ~ with ... o megumimásu ... ࢅᜠࡲࡱࡌ 2. gets blessed with ...ni megumaremásu ...࡞ᜠࡱࡿ ࡱࡌ blessed adj 1. megumareta ᜠࡱࡿ ࡒ, shukufuku sareta ♻⚗ࡈࡿࡒ 2. (holy) shinsei (na) ♼⪯ ࡝ , seinaru ⪯࡝ࡾ; blessing n megumi ᜠࡲ, shukufuku ♻⚗ blind n 1. (person) møjin ┛ெ 2. (sun-shade) hi-ø´í ᪝さ࠷, hi-yoke ᪝ࡻࡄ, buraindo ࣇࣚ࢕ ࣤࢺ → bamboo blind blink v ma-tátaki/ma-bátaki shimásu ࡱࡒࡒࡀࡱࡣࡒࡀ█ ࡀࡊࡱࡌ blister n mizu-búkure Ề⭶ࡿ; (corn) mamé ࡱࡴ, soko mame ᗇࡱࡴ


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blizzard n (mø-/ø-) fúbuki ⊓ኬ ྻ㞯 bloc n ken ᅥ, burokku ࣇࣞࢴࢠ block 1. n (city block) The closest equivalent is chøme ୍┘, a

square of several blocks. For distances, use ... -chø ... ⏣ 2. n ~ of wood kakuzai ぽᮞ 3. n (toy) tsumiki ✒ࡲᮄ, burokku ࣇࣞ ࢴࢠ 4. v (clogs, impedes) fusagimásu ࡨࡈࡁࡱࡌ, burokku shimásu ࣇࣞࢴࢠࡊࡱࡌ; blocked (off) v the road is ~ dø´ro ga fusagátte imásu 㐠㊨࠿ࡨࡈ࠿ࡖ࡙࠷ ࡱࡌ blockade 1. n füsa ᑌ㙈 2. v füsa shimásu ᑌ㙈ࡊࡱࡌ blond adj kinpatsu (no) 㔘㧝 ࡡ , burondo (no) ࣇࣞࣤࢺ ࡡ blood n chi ⾉, [BOOKISH] ketsueki ⾉ᾦ; blood type n ketsuekigata ⾉ᾦᆵ blood pressure n ketsuatsu ⾉ᅸ; takes one’s ~ ketsuatsu o hakarimásu ⾉ᅸࢅ゛ࡽࡱࡌ bloom v sakimásu ဋࡀࡱࡌ blossom → bloom → flower blot, blotch n shimi ࡊࡲ࣬᯹ࡲ, yogore ỗࡿ blotter n suitorí-gami ྺ࠷ཱི ࡽ⣤ blouse n (woman’s, child’s) buráusu ࣇࣚࢗࢪ blow v fukimásu ྻࡀࡱࡌ; ~ one’s nose hana o kamimásu 㰧 ࢅ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ blowfish n fúgu ࣆࢡ࣬ἑ㇔

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blowup n bakuhatsu ⇷Ⓠ, bakuha ⇷◒ bludgeon n konbø ᲠᲤ࣬ࡆࢆᲤ blue adj 1. áói 㟯࠷; áo (no) 㟯 ࡡ 2. (feel ~) burü ࣇ࣭ࣜ, yüutsu ៟࠹ࡗ; blue-collar worker n burü karå ࣇ࣭࣭ࣜ࢜ࣚ; nikutai rødø-sha ⫏మຘ഼⩽ blunder n shippai ኶ᩃ; chónbo ࡔ ࡺࢆ࡯; (faux pas) bu-sáhø ୘ష Ἢ࣬↋షἪ blunt adj (dull-edged) kirénai ว ࡿ࡝࠷; (dull-pointed) nibúi 㕄 ࠷; (curt) bu-áisø (na) ↋យ᝷ ࡝ , bukkírábø (na) ࡩࡖࡀࡼ ࡯࠹ ࡝ blush v kao ga akaku narimásu 㢞࠿㉝ࡂ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ, [BOOKISH] sekimen shimásu ㉝㟻ࡊࡱࡌ board 1. n (plank) íta ᯀ 2. n (meals) (o-)shokuji ࠽ 㣏஥ 3. v (gets on a train/bus) jøsha shimásu ஋㌬ࡊࡱࡌ, (a plane) tøjø shimásu ᦒ஋ࡊࡱࡌ boarding pass n tøjø´-ken ᦒ஋ไ, bødingu-pasu/kådo ࣭࣍ࢸ࢔ࣤ ࢡࣂࢪ࣭࢜ࢺ boast v jiman shimásu ⮤ះࡊࡱࡌ boat n fúne ⯒࣬⯢; (small) kobune ᑚ⯒࣬ᑚ⯢, bø´to ࣭࣍ࢹ; boat race n bøto-rësu ࣭࣍ࢹ࣭ࣝࢪ body n 1. karada మ࣬㌗మ whole ~ zenshin ධ㌗; ~ temperature taion మῺ; ~ weight taijü మ㔔 2.

(collective body, group) shüdan 㞗ᅆ; bodybuilding n bodii-biru ࣍ ࢸ࢔ࣄࣜ; bodyguard n bodii-gådo 362

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࣍ࢸ࢔࣭࢝ࢺ, goei ㆜⾠ bog down, gets bogged down v ikizumarimásu ⾔ࡀョࡱࡽࡱࡌ bohemian n bohemian ࣍ࣉ࣐࢓ࣤ boil v 1. ~s water o-yu o wakashimásu ࠽…ࢅἓ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ; water ~s o-yu ga wakimásu ࠽ …࠿ἓࡀࡱࡌ 2. ~s (food) nimásu ↳ࡱࡌ, yudemásu ࡹ࡚ࡱࡌ࣬ⲏ ࡚ࡱࡌ; (soup, rice) takimásu ⅍ ࡀࡱࡌ 3. it ~s niemásu ↳࠻ࡱࡌ boil n (on skin) hare-mono ࡢࡿࡵ ࡡ, dekí-mónó ࡚ࡀࡵࡡ o-déki ࠽࡚ࡀ ; boiled eggs n yude-támago ࡹ࡚༵ ↳㨮; boiled water n o-yu ࠽…, (cooled for drinking) yu-zámashi …෫ࡱࡊ boiler n bóirå ࣍࢕࣭ࣚ; (hotwater maker) yu-wakashiki … ἓ࠾ࡊჹ; (pot) kama ࠾ࡱ࣬㔡, nábe 㘘 boisterous adj yakamashíi ࡷ࠾ࡱ ࡊ࠷, sawagashíi 㥹࠿ࡊ࠷ bold adj daitán (na) ኬ⫱ ࡝ , yükan (na) ຩᩊ ࡝ bolt n (of door) kannuki ࠾ࢆ࡟ ࡀ࣬㛔; (of nut and bolt) boruto ࣍ࣜࢹ; (of cloth) ... -maki ... ᕬࡀ, -tan ཬ bomb 1. n (explosive device) bakudan ⇷ᙆ 2. n (bombing) bakugeki ⇷ᦹ 3. v (~s it) bakugeki shimásu ⇷ᦹࡊࡱࡌ; bomber n bakugékí-ki ⇷ᦹᶭ; bombshell n bakudan ⇷ᙆ Bon; the Bon Festival (o-)bón ࠽ ⓽, urabon ࠹ࡼ⓽

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bond n (debenture) saiken ബไ bone n honé 㦭 bonfire n taki-bi ࡒࡀℾ bonito n katsuo ࢜ࢵ࢛࣬㫆; (dried) katsuo-bushi ࠾ࡗ࠽ ⟿࣬㫆⟿ bonnet → hat → (car) hood bonus n 1. (wage) bø´nasu ࣭࣍ ࢻࢪ, shø´yo ㈱୙ 2. (extra) omake ࠽ࡱࡄ boo-hoo interj (sound of crying) 1. ën ën ࢙࣭࢙࣭ࣤࣤ(mostly children’s crying), wån wån ࣭࣠ ࣭ࣤ࣠ࣤ (louder) 2. øi øi ࢛࣭ ࢕࢛࣭࢕ book 1. n hón ᮇ, [BOOKISH] shómotsu ᭡∸; (publications) shoseki ᭡⡘ 2. n ~ of (commuting) tickets kaisü-ken ᅂᩐไ 3. ~s v (reserves) yoyaku shimásu ஢⣑ࡊࡱࡌ; bookcase n hónbako ᮇ⟵; book up v gets booked fusagarimásu ࡨࡈ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ; bookfair n bukku-fea ࣇࢴࢠࣆ࢘࢓; booking n ① yoyaku ஢⣑ ② bóki ⡑エ boom n 1. (prosperity) (niwaka) keiki ࡞ࢂ࠾ ᬊẴ; keiki (ga ii) ᬊẴ ࠿࠷࠷ 2. (fad) bü´mu ࣇ ࣭࣑ 3. (sound) dón ࢺࣤ boomerang n bümeran ࣇ࣭࣒ࣚࣤ booster n (of current) shøátsú-ki ᪴ᅸჹ booth n 1. (selling things) baiten ኉ᗉ 2. (in a tavern, etc.) bókkusu-seki ࣍ࢴࢠࢪᖆ 3. (telephone) denwa bókkusu 㞹ヨ࣍ࢴ


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ࢠࢪ 4. (office) büsu ࣇ࣭ࢪ boot(s) n naga-gutsu 㛏㠈, bütsu ࣇ࣭ࢵ, (rubber) gomu-naga ࢥ࣑㛏 border 1. n (boundary) sakái ሾ; (of a district, etc.) kyøkai ሾ⏲; (of a country) kokkyø ᅗሾ; (edging) herí ࡫ࡽ࣬⦍ 2. ~s on v ... ni ses-shimásu ... ࡞᥃ࡊࡱ ࡌ, rinsetsu shimásu 㝼᥃ࡊࡱࡌ boring adj (dull) taikutsu (na) ㏝ ᑿ ࡝ , tsumaránai ࡗࡱࡼ࡝࠷ born 1. gets ~ v umaremásu ⏍ࡱ ࡿࡱࡌ 2. ~ in/of adj ... no de/ umare ... ࡡฝ⏍ࡱࡿ, ... -úmare (no) ... ⏍ࡱࡿ ࡡ borrow (from ...) v (... ni) karimásu ... ࡞ ೇࡽࡱࡌ bosom n futokoro ᠔࣬ࡨ࡛ࡆࢀ boss n 1. shújin ୹ெ 2. (head of company) shachø ♣㛏 3. (a leader) jøshi ୕ྒྷ 4. (ring-leader) óyá-bun のฦ, bosu ࣍ࢪ Boston n bosuton ࣍ࢪࢹࣤ botch v yari-sokonaimásu ࡷࡽ᥾ ࡝࠷ࡱࡌ both 1. pron ryøhø ୦᪁2. adj ryøhø no ୦᪁ࡡ 3. adv dochira mo ࡜ࡔࡼࡵ; ~ ... and ... ... mo ... mo ...ࡵ...ࡵ; both directions/sides n ryømen ୦㟻, ryø-gawa ୦ഁ bother n mendø´ 㟻಻, méiwaku ㏖ᝠ; (intrusion) jama ࡋࡶࡱ࣬ 㑟㨩; (care) (o)-séwa ࠽ ୠヨ, o-sewa-sama ࠽ୠヨᵕ, (go-) yákkai ࡇ ࡷࡖ࠾࠷࣬ ࡇ ཀ௒ → worry; ~ a person hito no jama

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o shimásu ெࡡࡋࡶࡱ>㑟㨩@ࢅ ࡊࡱࡌ bothersome adj mendø-kusái 㟻಻ ࡂࡈ࠷>⮧࠷@, yákkai (na) ࡷࡖ ࠾࠷࣬ ཀ௒ ࡝ ; jama (na) ࡋࡶ ࡱ࣬㑟㨩 ࡝ bottle n 1. bín ⎴ 2. (a bottle of liquor) a ~ of whiskey wisukiibotoru (ippon) ࢗ࢔ࢪ࣭࢞࣍ࢹ ࣜ ୌᮇ ; a ~ of beer bíiru íp-pon ࣄ࣭ࣜୌᮇ; bottle opener n sennuki ᰞᢜࡀ bottom n soko ᗇ; (underneath) shita ୖ, ... shitá ...ୖ; (buttock) (o-)shiri ࠽ ᑶ; bottoms up n (toast) kanpai ஜ᮴ bounce v hazumimásu ᙆࡲࡱࡌ bound 1. v → bind; ~ pages tsuzuri ⥓ࡽ 2. → jump; bound for ... -iki (no) ... ⾔ࡀ ࡡ ; bound to (do) v kitto ...(suru) deshø ࡀࡖ࡛... ࡌ ࡾ ࡚ࡊࡺ࠹ boundary n sakái ሾ bouquet n haná-tába ⰴᮨ boutique n butikku ࣇࢷ࢔ࢴࢠ bow n (archery or violin) yumí ᘢ; (shape) yumi-gata ᘢᙟ; (of ribbon) chø-músubi ࡔࡺ࠹⤎ࡦ ࣬⼎⤎ࡦ bow 1. n (of head, etc.) o-jigi ࠽ࡋ ࡁ࣬࠽㎙ൢ 2. v o-jigi o shimásu ࠽ࡋࡀ࣬࠽㎙ൢࢅࡊࡱࡌ bowel n chø ⭘; bowels naizø හ⮒, ~ movement (o-)tsü´-ji ࠽ ㏳ࡋ, has a ~ movement tsü-ji ga arimásu ㏳ࡋ࠿࠵ࡽࡱࡌ bowl n (o-)wan ࠽ ◿; (ricebowl)


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(o-)cháwan ࠽ Ⲍ◿; (basin, pot) hachí 㖂 bowl(ful) n ...-hai ... ᮴ 1: íp-pai ୌ᮴, 2: ní-hai ஦᮴, 3: sánbai ୔᮴) bowling n børingu ࣍ࢗࣛࣤࢡ; ~ competition børingu-taikai ࣍ࢗ ࣛࣤࢡኬఌ, ~ ball børingu (no) børu ࣍ࢗࣛࣤࢡ ࡡ ࣭࣍ࣜ box n hako ⟵, ~ lunch (o-)bentø ࠽ ᘒᙔ, (sold at station) ekiben 㥈ᘒ boxer n bokuså ࣍ࢠࢦ࣭ boxing n kentø ᣑ㜒, bókushingu ࣍ࢠࢨࣤࢡ box office n 1. (ticket office) chiketto-uriba ࢲࢢࢴࢹ኉ࡽሔ 2. (receipts from a play, film, etc.) køgyø-shünyü ⮾⾔཭ථ, bokkusu-ofisu ࣍ࢴࢠࢪ࢛ࣆ࢔ࢪ boy n 1. otokó-no-ko ⏠ࡡᏄ, shønen ᑛᖳ, bø´ya ᆎࡷ, bótchan ᆎࡔࡶࢆ 2. (waiter) bøi ࣭࣍࢕; boyfriend n bøi-furéndo ࣭࣍࢕ࣆ ࣝࣤࢺ; káre-shi ᙴẮ; Boys’ Festival (5 May) n Tángo no sekku ❻༔ ࡡ⟿ྀ boycott n boikotto ࣍࢕ࢤࢴࢹ bra n bura ࣇࣚ→ brassiére bracelet n ude-wa ⭆㍧, buresuretto ࣇࣝࢪࣝࢴࢹ bracket n kakko ᣋᘴ; square ~ (such as “[]”) kaku-kakko ぽ ᣋᘴ brag v hóra o fukimásu ࡮ࡼࢅྻ ࡀࡱࡌ braid v amimásu ⥽ࡲࡱࡌ

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brain(s) n nø(-míso) ⬳ ࡲࡐ , zunø 㢄⬳, atamá 㢄 (= head); brainstorming n burein sutømingu ࣇࣝ࢕ࣤࢪࢹ࣭࣐ࣤࢡ brake n burë´ki ࣇ࣭ࣝ࢞ branch n 1. (of tree) eda ᯖ 2. (of store) shiten ᨥᗉ 3. (of rail line) shisen ᨥ⥲ 4. (of school) bún-kø ฦᰧ 5. (of office) bu 㒂; branch off v it ~es off wakaremásu ฦ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ brand n burando ࣇࣚࣤࢺ, meigara 㖥ᯮ, shøhyø ၛᵾ; famous ~ goods yümei burando-hin ᭯ྞࣇ ࣚࣤࢺဗ brandy n burandë ࣇࣚࣤࢸ࣭ brass n shinchü ┷ࡔࡸ࠹࣬┷㘯 brassiére n burájå ࣇࣚࢩ࣭ࣔ brave adj yükan (na) ຩᩊ ࡝ , tsuyói ᙁ࠷ bravo interj burabø ࣇ࣭ࣚ࣍ brazier n híbachi ℾ㖂 Brazil n Burajiru ࣇࣚࢩࣜ bread n pán ࣂࣤ, shoku-pan 㣏ࣂ ࣤ; bread crumbs n pan-kó ࣂࣤ⢂, pan-kúzu ࣂࣤࡂࡍ>ᒆ@ breadth n haba ᖕ break n 1. (rift or pause) kire-mé วࡿ┘ 2. (rest) (o-)yasumi ࠽ ఆࡲ, kyükei ఆ៹ break v 1. it ~s v kowaremásu ቪ ࡿࡱࡌ, (in two) oremásu ᢙࡿ ࡱࡌ, (it splits) waremásu ๪ࡿ ࡱࡌ, (it smashes) kudakemásu ◃ࡄࡱࡌ 2. ~s it v kowashimásu ቪࡊࡱࡌ, (in two) orimásu ᢙࡽ ࡱࡌ, (splits) warimásu ๪ࡽࡱࡌ,


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(smashes it) kudakimásu ◃ࡀࡱ ࡌ; ~ in wari-kómimásu ๪ࡽ㎰ ࡲࡱࡌ; break down ① it ~s down (crumbles) kuzuremásu ᓻࡿࡱࡌ, (stops working) koshø shimásu ᨶ㝸ࡊࡱࡌ ② ~s (demolishes) it down kuzushimásu ᓻࡊࡱࡌ; break off (ends it) kirimásu วࡽ ࡱࡌ; (it ends) kiremásu วࡿࡱࡌ breakdown n 1. (crash) koshø ᨶ 㝸 2. (item by item) meisai ᪺⣵, uchiwake හズ breakfast n chøshoku ᭽㣏, asagóhan ᭽ࡇ㣜 bream n sea bream tái ࢰ࢕࣬㪁 breast n (chest) muné ⬒; (woman’s) chichí ஘, chibusa ஘ᡛ, (baby talk, slang) óppai ࠽ࡖࡤ࠷; ~ cancer nyü-gan ஘࠿ࢆ࣬஘⒬ breath n íki ᜝; a ~ hitó-iki ୌ ᜝; draws/takes one’s last ~ íki o hiki-torimásu ᜝ࢅᘤࡀཱིࡽࡱࡌ breathe v íki o shimásu ᜝ࢅࡊࡱࡌ; kokyü shimásu ࿣ྺࡊࡱࡌ; ~ a sigh of relief hóttó shimásu ࡮ࡖ

bridegroom n hana-múko(-san) ⰴ ፯ ࡈࢆ , (o-)múko(-san) ࠽ ፯ ࡈࢆ bridge n 1. hashí ᶣ; (steel) tekkyø 㕪ᶣ; the ~s on a Japanese harp koto-ji ⌾ᰍ 2. (card) burijji ࣇ ࣛࢴࢩ bridle n baroku 㤷າ brief adj (short) mijikái ▯࠷; (simple) kantan (na) ⠾༟ ࡝ briefcase n kaban ࠾ࡣࢆ࣬㠔, buriifu kësu ࣇ࣭ࣛࣆࢢ࣭ࢪ briefing n jøkyø setsumei ≟Ἓㄕ᪺ briefly adj (in brief) zatto ࡉࡖ࡛ bright adj 1. akarui ᪺ࡾ࠷ 2. (sunny) hogáraka (na) ᭹ࡼ࠾ ࡝ 3. (colorful) hanáyaka (na) ⳱ࡷ࠾ ࡝ 4. (gaudy) hadé (na) ࡢ࡚࣬Ὤᡥ ࡝ 5. (of spirit) yøki (na) 㝟Ẵ ࡝ brilliant adj subarashii ࡌࡣࡼࡊ ࠷࣬⣪ᬍࡼࡊ࠷, sugoi ࡌࡇ࠷࣬ ෴࠷ brim n fuchi ࡨࡔ࣬⦍, heri ࡫ࡽ ࣬⦍ brine n shiomizu ሲỀ ࡛ࡊࡱࡌ breed n 1. (species of plant, etc.) bring v (a thing) motte/tótte hinshu ဗ⛸ 2. (kind) shurui ⛸ kimásu ᣚࡖཱི࡙ࡖ࡙ᮮࡱࡌ; 㢦 3. (lineage) kettø ⾉⤣ ~ along (a person) tsurete breeze n (soyó-)kaze ࡐࡻ 㢴; kimásu ㏻ࡿ࡙ᮮࡱࡌ; bring about shoots the ~ daberimásu ࡓ࡬ࡽ v okoshimásu ㉫ࡆࡊࡱࡌ; bring ࡱࡌ close/near v chika-zukemásu ㎾௛ ࡄࡱࡌ, yosemásu ᐞࡎࡱࡌ; bring brewery n jøzø-sho 㔂㏸ᡜ bribe(ry) n wáiro ࢂ࠷ࢀ࣬㈝㈛ up v (rears) sodatemásu ⫩࡙ࡱ brick n rénga ࣝࣤ࢝࣬↚⎨ ࡌ; yashinaimásu 㣬࠷ࡱࡌ; bride n haná-yome(-san) ⰴᎋ ࡈ yøiku shimásu 㣬⫩ࡊࡱࡌ; ࢆ , (o-)yome(-san) ࠽ ᎋ ࡈࢆ (trains) shitsukemásu ࡊࡗࡄࡱࡌ

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brink n kiwá 㝷 Britain → England British → English brittle adj morói ࡵࢀ࠷࣬⬜࠷ broad adj hirói ᗀ࠷ broadband n, adj burødo-bando ࣇ ࣭ࣞࢺࣁࣤࢺ broadcast 1. n høsø ᨲ㏞ 2. v høsø shimásu ᨲ㏞ࡊࡱࡌ broad-minded n kanyø (na) ᐰᐖ ࡝ brocade n níshiki 㘂 broccoli n burokkorii ࣇࣞࢴࢤ࣭ࣛ brochure n panfuretto ࣂࣤࣆࣝࢴ ࢹ, katarogu ࢜ࢰࣞࢡ broil v yakimásu ↕ࡀࡱࡌ broke adj (without money) kinketsu 㔘Ḗ broken adj (not working) damé desu (da/na, de, ni) ࡓࡴ>㥇┘@ ࡚ࡌ ࡓ࡝, ࡚, ࡞ ; koshø shita ᨶ㝸ࡊࡒ brokenhearted; gets ~ shitsuren shimásu ኶ᜂࡊࡱࡌ broker n burøkå ࣇ࣭࣭ࣞ࢜, nakagai ௯㈑࠷, nakadachí ௯❟ࡔ brokerage n (commission) tesüryø ᡥᩐᩩ, komisshon ࢤ࣐ࢴࢨࣘࣤ bronze n seidø 㟯㖙, buronzu ࣇ ࣞࣤࢫ brooch n burøchi ࣇ࣭ࣞࢲ brook n ogawa ᑚᕖ broom n høki ࡮࠹ࡀ࣬⟠ broth n süpu ࢪ࣭ࣈ brother n (otoko) kyø´dai ⏠ ඕ ᘭ; (older) (o-)níi-san ࠽ ඕࡈ ࢆ, áni ඕ; (younger) otøtó ᘭ,

(your younger brother) otøto-

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san ᘭࡈࢆ; brother-in-law n gíri no áni/otøtó (kyø´dai) ⩇⌦ࡡ ඕᘭ ඕᘭ ; brothers and sisters n kyø´dai ඕᘭ, (female sisters) shimai጗ግ brought up; gets ~ (is reared) sodachimásu ⫩ࡔࡱࡌ brow n 1. (eyebrow) máyu ┩ 2. (forehead) hitai 㢘 brown adj cha-iro (no/i) ⲌⰅ ࡡ࠷ bruise n uchímí ᡬࡔ㌗, dabokushø ᡬ᧖ഭ brush 1. n búrashi ࣇࣚࢨ, haké ࡢࡄ࣬ใẗ; (for writing or painting) fude ➱ 2. v ~es aside haraimásu ᡮ࠷ࡱࡌ; brush up n burasshu appu ࣇࣚࢴࢨࣖ࢓ࢴࣈ brutal adj mugói ࡳࡇ࠷, zankoku (na) ṟ㓖 ࡝ , zangyaku (na) ṟ ⹚ ࡝ , zannin (na) ṟᚰ ࡝ brutality n mugósa ࡳࡇࡈ, zankoku ṟ㓖, zangyaku ṟ⹚ bubble n awá ἳ, abukú ࠵ࡩࡂ; (soap) shabon-dama ࢨࣔ࣍ࣤ⋚; bubble gum n füsen-gámu 㢴⯢࣑࢝ bucket n 1. baketsu ࣁࢢࢵ 2. (rice) (o-)hachi ࠽ 㖂, (o-)hitsu ࠽ ࡥࡗ࣬࠽ᷤ, meshi-bitsu 㣜ࡦࡗ ࣬㣜ᷤ buckle n shime-gane ⥶ࡴ㔘, bákkuru ࣁࢴࢠࣜ buckwheat n soba ࡐࡣ࣬ⶻ㯇 bud n 1. (of leaf) mé ⰾ 2. (of flower) tsubomi ࡗ࡯ࡲ࣬ⷛ Buddha n Hotoke(-sámá) ௕ ᵕ , (Sakyamuni) Shaka 㔐㏉ =


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O-shakasama ࠽㔐㏉ᵕ; (statue of Buddha) Butsu-zø ௕ാ Buddhism n Bukkyø ௕ᩅ Buddhist n Bukkyø-to ௕ᩅᚈ; Buddhist priest n (o-)bø-san ࠽ ᆎࡈࢆ, sø´ryo ൒౵, [INFORMAL] bø´zu ᆎ୹; Buddhist temple n (o-) terá ࠽ ᑈ budget n yosan ஢⟤ bug n mushi ⹰࣑࣬ࢨ bugle n rappa ࣚࢴࣂ build v (erects) tatemásu ᘋ࡙ ࡱࡌ, ki-zukimásu ⠇ࡀࡱࡌ; (creates) tsukurimásu ㏸ࡽࡱࡌ; køsaku shimásu ᕝషࡊࡱࡌ; body ~ taikaku మ᰹; builder n (person) kenchiku-sha ᘋ⠇⩽; kenchiku-gyøsha ᘋ⠇ᴏ⩽; building n taté-mono ᘋ∸, bíru

bump n 1. (swelling) kobú ࡆ ࡩ࣬⒏; (with) ~s bótsubotsu (ga dekite) ࡯ࡗ࡯ࡗ ࠿࡚ࡀ࡙ 2. (in road) dekoboko ࡚ࡆ࡯ࡆ࣬ ปผ; bump into v ... ni butsukarimásu ... ࡞ࡩࡗ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ;

(happens to meet) de-aimásu

ฝఌ࠷ࡱࡌ bun n (steamed) manjü ࡱࢆࡋࡸ ࠹; (beanjam-stuffed) an-man ࠵ ࢆࡱࢆ bunch n 1. (cluster) fusá ᡛ 2. (pile) yamá ᒜ 3. (bundle) tába ᮨ 4. (group) muré ⩄ࡿ bundle n tsutsumí ໜࡲ; (bunch) tába ᮨ bungalow n (cottage) bangarø ࣁ࣭ࣤ࢝ࣞ bungle 1. n héma ࡫ࡱ 2. v héma ࣄࣜ o shimásu ࡫ࡱࢅࡊࡱࡌ bulb n tamá ⋚; light ~ denkyü bunk n (bed) shindai ᐱྋ 㞹⌣ bunny n (rabbit) usagi (chan) ࢗࢦ bulge n fukurami ࡨࡂࡼࡲ࣬ ࢟ ࡔࡶࢆ burden n ní Ⲭ, (on one’s mind) ⭶ࡼࡲ bulk n økisa ኬࡀࡈ, kasá ࠾ࡈ omo-ni 㔔Ⲭ bull n 1. (bullshit) baka/mudabureau n 1. (department) kyóku bánashi ࡣ࠾↋㥇ヨ, (bragging) ᑻ, ...-kyoku ... ᑻ 2. (chest) hóra ࡮ࡼ࣬࣌ࣚ 2. o-ushi 㞕∭ tansu ࡒࢆࡌ࣬⟰➙ bulldozer n burudózå ࣇࣜࢺ࣭ bureaucracy n kanryø-seido ᏻേ ࢧ࣭ โᗐ bullet n tamá ᙆ, [BOOKISH] burglar n dorobø ἶᲤ࣬࡜ࢀ࡯࠹ burial n maisø ᇔⴷ dangan ᙆ୷ bulletin n keiji ᥎♟ burn 1. v (it ~s) yakemásu ↕ࡄࡱ bullet train n shinkánsen ᩺ᖷ⥲ ࡌ; (fire ~s) moemásu ⇖࠻ࡱࡌ bullfight(ing) n tøgyü 㜒∭ 2. v (~s it) yakimásu ↕ࡀࡱࡌ; bully n (children) ijimekko ࠷ࡋ (~s a fire; wood, coal) takimásu ࡴࡖᏄ ↇࡀࡱࡌ, (~s a light) tomoshi-

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másu ࡛ࡵࡊ>Ⅴࡊ@ࡱࡌ 3. n (on the skin) yakedo ࡷࡄ࡜࣬ ℾഭ burp n geppu (o shimásu) ࡅࡖࡪ ࢅࡊࡱࡌ burst v (it bursts) yaburemásu ◒ ࡿࡱࡌ, (explodes) bakuhatsu shimásu ⇷Ⓠࡊࡱࡌ; (~s it) yaburimásu ◒ࡽࡱࡌ; ~ out tobidashimásu 㣍ࡦฝࡊࡱࡌ bury v uzumemásu ࠹ࡍࡴࡱࡌ࣬ ᇔࡴࡱࡌ, umemásu ᇔࡴࡱࡌ; gets buried uzumarimásu ࠹ࡍࡱ ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ᇔࡱࡽࡱࡌ, umarimásu ᇔࡱࡽࡱࡌ bus n básu ࣁࢪ; bus stop n teiryüjo ೳ⏻ᡜ; básu nori-ba ࣁࢪ஋ ࡽሔ bush n [BOOKISH] kanboku ₜᮄ ࣬Ⅎᮄ, shigemi Ⱪࡲ Bushido n bushi-dø Ṃኃ㐠 business n 1. (job) (o-)shígoto ࠽ ௘஥, bijinesu ࣄࢩࢾࢪ 2. (line of ~) shø´bai ၛ኉ 3. (office work) jímu ஥ຸ 4. (transaction) tórí-hiki ཱིࡽᘤ ࡀཱི࣬ᘤ 5. (errand) yøji ⏕஥, (go-)yø´ ࡇ ⏕, yø-táshí ⏕㊂ࡊ 6. (enterprise) jígyø ஥ᴏ, jitsugyo ᐁᴏ 7. (commerce) shø´gyø ၛᴏ; business hours n eigyø-jíkan ႜᴏ᫤㛣; businessman n jitsugyøka ᐁᴏᐓ, bijinesu-man ࣄࢩࢾ ࢪ࣏ࣤ bust → burst bustling adj nigíyaka (na) ࡞ࡁࡷ ࠾࣬㈨ࡷ࠾ ࡝

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busy adj isogashíi ࠷ࡐ࠿ࡊ࠷࣬ ᚹࡊ࠷, sewashíi ࡎࢂࡊ࠷࣬ᚹ ࡊ࠷, sewashí nai ࡎࢂࡊ࡝࠷; [BOOKISH] tabø (na) ኣᚹ ࡝ but conj 1. [BOOKISH] shikáshi ࡊ࠾ࡊ, tokoró-ga ࡛ࡆࢀ࠿ 2. démo࡚ࡵ butcher (shop) n nikú-ya ⫏ᒁ butt 1. n (cigarette, cigar) suigara ྺ࠷࠿ࡼ 2. → buttock butter n bátå ࣁࢰ࣭, báta ࣁࢰ butterfly n chø´ ࡔࡺ࠹࣬⼎, chøchø ࡔࡺ࠹ࡔࡺ࠹࣬⼎ࠍ, chøcho ࡔࡺ࠹ࡔࡺ buttock n shirí ᑶ o-shiri ࠽ᑶ ,

(mostly male [VERY INFORMAL]) ketsu ࡄࡗ࣬ᑶ࣬✨ button 1. n botan ࣍ࢰࣤ 2. v (~s it) ... no botan o kakemásu ... ࡡ ࣍ࢰࣤࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ buxom n (full-bosomed) høman na mune (no) ㇇‫ࡡ⬒࡝‮‬, fukuyoka (na) ࡨࡂࡻ࠾ ࡝ buy v kaimásu ㈑࠷ࡱࡌ; motomemásu ịࡴࡱࡌ; ~ up kai-torimásu ㈑࠷ཱིࡽࡱࡌ buyer n 1. kai-te ㈑࠷ᡥ 2. (professional) báiyå ࣁ࢕࣭ࣕ buzz n 1. (phone call) denwa no yobidashi-on 㞹ヨࡡ࿣ࡦฝࡊ㡚 2. (rumor) uwasa ფ࣬࠹ࢂࡈ 3. (humming sound of insect) (mushi no) haoto ⹰ࡡ ⩒㡚 buzzer n búzå ࣇࢧ࣭ by prep (no later than) ... máde ni ... ࡱ࡚࡞; (means of) ... de ... ࡚; by and by → soon; by ... at the


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bye (-bye)

latest adv ... máde ni wa ... ࡱ࡚ ࡞ࡢ; by chance adv hyótto suruto ࡥࡺࡖ࡛ ࡌࡾ࡛ , güzen (ni) ഃ↓ ࡞ , futo ࡨ࡛; by far adv zutto ࡍࡖ࡛; háruka (ni) ࡢࡾ࠾ ࡞ bye (-bye) → good-bye

bygone n kako no koto 㐛ཡࡡࡆ ࡛, sugita koto 㐛ࡁࡒࡆ࡛ bylaw n kisoku ぜ์ bypass n (highway, surgery) baipasu ࣁ࢕ࣂࢪ bystander n kenbutsu-nin ず∸ெ byte n (computer) baito ࣁ࢕ࢹ

C cab → taxi cabaret n kyábarë ࢞ࣔࣁ࣭ࣝ cabin n koya ᑚᒁ; (mountain lodge) yama-goya ᒜᑚᒁ cabinet n (government) náikaku හ㛮 cable n tsuná ⥐, kë´buru ࢢ࣭ࣇࣜ cable car n këburú-kå´ ࢢ࣭ࣇࣜ ࣭࢜ cable television n këburú-terebi ࢢ࣭ࣇࣜࢷࣝࣄ, yüsen-terebi ᭯⥲ࢷࣝࣄ cache n (computer) kyasshu ࢞ࣔࢴ ࢨࣖ cactus n saboten ࢦ࣍ࢷࣤ cadet n shikan køho sei ኃᏻು⿭⏍ cadge v nedarimásu ࡠࡓࡽࡱࡌ; takarimásu ࡒ࠾ࡽࡱࡌ cafe n (coffee shop) kissa-ten ႖Ⲍᗉ, kafe ࢜ࣆ࢘ cafeteria n kafeteria ࢜ࣆ࢘ࢷࣛ࢓, shokudø 㣏ᇸ caffeine n kafein ࢜ࣆ࢘࢕ࣤ cage n 1. (for bird) kago ࠾ࡇ࣬⡪, tori-kago 㫵࠾ࡇ࣬㫵⡪ 2. (for animal) orí ࠽ࡽ࣬ᷞ

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cahoots; in ~ with ... to takuránde ... ࡛௺>ࡒࡂࡼ@ࢆ࡚ Cairo n kairo ࢜࢕ࣞ cajole v odatemásu ࠽ࡓ࡙ࡱࡌ; kangen de damashimásu ⏉ゕ࡚ ࡓࡱࡊࡱࡌ㹺㥼ࡊࡱࡌ cake 1. n kë´ki ࢢ࣭࢞; (spongecake) kasutera ࢜ࢪࢷࣚ 2. n (o-) káshi ࠽ ⳣᏄ; (Japanese) wagáshi ࿰ⳣᏄ 3. n (rice cake) mochi ࡵࡔ࣬㣨 calamity n sainán ⅇ㞬, wazawai ⅇ࠷ calcium n karushium ࢜ࣜࢨ࣑ࢗ calculate v keisan shimásu ゛⟤ ࡊࡱࡌ calculator n keisán-ki ゛⟤ᶭ; desk ~ dentaku 㞹༜ calendar n koyomí ᬲ; karéndå ࢜ࣝࣤࢱ࣭ calf n 1. (young cow) ko-ushi Ꮔ∭ 2. (leg below the knee) fukurahagi ࡨࡂࡼࡢࡁ caliber n 1. (bore caliber) køkei ཾᙼ 2. (ability) sainø ᡧ⬗ calisthenics n biyø taisø ⨶ᐖమ᧧,


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jünan taisø ᯺㌶మ᧧ call 1. n (phone call) denwa 㞹ヨ 2. n (visit) hømon ゴၡ; (of solicitude) (o-)mimai ࠽ ず⯑ 3. v yobimásu ࿣ࡦࡱࡌ; (phone) denwa o shimásu 㞹ヨࢅࡊࡱࡌ 4. v (call on) → visit; call to mind → recall; call center n køru sentå

cameo n kameo ࣒࢛࢜ camera n kámera ࣒࢜ࣚ, shashínki ෕┷ᶭ camouflage n kamufuråju ࣑࢜ࣆࣚ ࣭ࢩࣖ camp 1. n kyánpu ࢞ࣔࣤࣈ; (bivouac) yaei 㔕ႜ 2. v kyánpu (o) shimásu ࢞ࣔࣤࣈ ࢅ ࡊࡱࡌ ࢤ࣭ࣜࢬࣤࢰ࣭ campaign n kyanpën ࣭࢞ࣔࣤ࣋ called; is called ... to iimásu ... ࡛ ࣤ, undø 㐘ິ camper n 1. (a person who camps) ゕ࠷ࡱࡌ caller n (visitor) raikyaku ᮮᐂ kyanpu (o) suru hito ࢞ࣔࣤࣈ calligraphy n shodø ᭡㐠; (hand ࢅ ࡌࡾெ 2. (vehicle) kyanpinwriting practice) (o-)shüji ࠽ gukå ࢞ࣔࣤࣅࣤࢡ࣭࢜, kyanpå ⩞Ꮚ ࢞ࣔࣤࣂ࣭ calling n 1. (vocation) shokugyø campsite n kyanpu-jø ࢞ࣔࣤࣈሔ; ⫃ᴏ 2. (summons) shøshü ྇㞗 yaei-chi 㔕ႜᆀ callous adj 1. (having calluses) campus n kyánpasu ࢞ࣔࣤࣂࢪ, táko no dekita ࡒࡆࡡ࡚ࡀࡒ (within the university) daigakú2. (insensitive, unfeeling) mukønai ኬᏕᵋහ; køtei ᰧᗖ shinkei (na) ↋♼⤊ ࡝ , mu-kan- can 1. n (tin can) kán ⧹࣬࠾ࢆ 2. ~s it v (kán ni) tsumemásu kaku (na) ↋វつ ࡝ 3. (unsympathetic) mu-jø (na) ↋᝗ ࡝ ⧹࡞ ョࡴࡱࡌ; canned beer n callus n táko ࡒࡆ kan bíiru ⧹ࣄ࣭ࣜ calm adj (quiet) shízuka (na) 㟴 can modal v (can do it) (... ga) ࠾࣬ࡊࡍ࠾ ࡝ , odáyaka (na) ✔ dekimásu ... ࠿ ฝᮮࡱࡌ࡚࣬ࡀ ࡷ࠾࣬࠽ࡷࡓࡷ ࡝ , reisei (na) ࡱࡌ, (suru) kotó ga dekimásu ෫㟴 ࡝ ; nódoka (na) ࡡ࡜࠾ ࡌࡾ ஥>ࡆ࡛@࠿ฝᮮࡱࡌ࡚࣬ࡀ ࡝ ; ~s down (regains compoࡱࡌ; (... ga) kanaimásu ... ࠿ ྑ࠷ࡱࡌ; can see (... ga) miesure) ochitsukimásu ⴘࡔ╌ࡀ ࡱࡌ másu ... ࠿ ず࠻ࡱࡌ; can hear calorie n karorii ࣭࢜ࣞࣛ (... ga) kikoemásu ... ࠿ ⪲ࡆ࠻ ࡱࡌ Cambodia n kanbojia ࢜ࣤ࣍ࢩ࢓ camcorder n bideo kámera ࣄࢸ Canada n Kánada ࢜ࢻࢱ ࢛࣒࢜ࣚ canal n únga 㐘ἑ came → come canary n kanari(y)a ࢜ࢻࣛ࢓>ࣕ@ camel n rakuda ࣚࢠࢱ cancel v tori-keshimásu ཱིࡽᾐࡊ

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ࡱࡌ; keshimásu ᾐࡊࡱࡌ cancellation n tori-keshi ཱིࡽᾐࡊ; kyánseru ࢞ࣔࣤࢬࣜ; cancellation mark/stamp n keshi-in ᾐ༰ cancer n gán ࠿ࢆ࣬⒬; (lung) haigan ⫭࠿ࢆ࣬⫭⒬ candid adj sotchoku (na) ⋙├ ࡝ candidate n køhó-sha ು⿭⩽ candle n røsókú ࢀ࠹ࡐࡂ, kyándoru ࢞ࣔࣤࢺࣜ candor n socchoku (sa) ⋙├ ࡈ candy n kyándii ࢞ࣔࣤࢸ࢔࣭, ame ࢓࣒࣬㣡; candy store n (o-)kashíya ࠽ ⳣᏄᒁ cane n (walking stick) sutékki ࢪࢷ ࢴ࢞; (staff) tsúe ᮣ canine n 1. (dog) inu ≗ 2. (~ teeth) kenshi ≗ṉ canister n yøki ᐖჹ, kan ⧹ cannibal n kanibaru ࢜ࢼࣁࣜ, hitokui ெ㣏࠷ cannon n taihø ኬ◑ cannot modal v [NEGATIVE] dekimasén ࡚ࡀ>ฝᮮ@ࡱࡎࢆ; (shi-)kiremasén ࡊ วࡿࡱࡎࢆ; ~ stand it gáman dekimasén ࠿ࡱ ࢆ>ᠻះ@࡚ࡀ>ฝᮮ@ࡱࡎࢆ, tamarimasén ࡒࡱࡽࡱࡎࢆ canoe n kanü ࢜ࢽ࣭ canon n (music) kanon ࢜ࢿࣤ canopy n tengai ኮ⵱࡙࣬ࢆ࠿࠷ cantaloupe n kantarøpu meron ࢜ࣤ ࢰ࣭ࣞࣈ࣒࣬ࣞࣤ canteen n shokudø 㣏ᇸ canvas n kyanbasu ࢞ࣔࣤࣁࢪ; canvas shoes n (sneakers) suniikå ࢪࢼ࣭࣭࢜

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canyon n kyøkoku ᓒㆺ࣬ࡀࡺ࠹ ࡆࡂ cap n 1. → hat 2. (of a pen) kyáppu ࢞ࣔࢴࣈ 3. (of a bottle) kyáppu ࢞ࣔࢴࣈ, økan ⋜෗ 4. (of a mushroom ) kása ࠾ࡈ࣬➗ capability n 1. (ability) nøryoku ⬗ງ 2. (possibility) kanø-sei ྊ ⬗ᛮ 3. (potential) shørai-sei ᑑᮮᛮ capable adj nøryoku ga aru ⬗ງ ࠿࠵ࡾ; yünø (na) ᭯⬗ ࡝ capacity n kyapa(sitii) ࢞ࣔࣂ ࢨ ࢷ࢔࣭ 1. (ability) nøryoku ⬗ ງ 2. (volume) yøseki ᐖ✒ cape n 1. (promontory) misaki ᒺ 2. (sleeveless garment) këpu ࢢ࣭ࣈ capital n 1. (city) shútó 㤫㒌 2. (money) shihon ㈠ᮇ capitalize v 1. (write or print in

capital letters) ømoji de kakimásu ኬᩝᏊ࡚᭡ࡀࡱࡌ 2. (supply with capital) shusshi shimásu ฝ㈠ࡊࡱࡌ capitulate v køfuku shimásu 㜾ఄ ࡊࡱࡌ, køsan shimásu 㜾ཤ ࡊࡱࡌ capsize v tenpuku shimásu ㌷さࡊ ࡱࡌ, tenpuku sasemásu ㌷さࡈ ࡎࡱࡌ capsule n kápuseru ࢜ࣈࢬࣜ captain n (army) táii ኬᑔ; (navy) taisa ኬఫ; (airplane) kichø´ ᶭ㛏; (ship) sénchø ⯢㛏 caption n kyapushon ࢞ࣔࣈࢨࣘࣤ 1. (situation) midashi ずฝࡊ


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2. (text of a speech of movie, etc) jimaku Ꮚᖞ 3. (explanation) setsumei bun ㄕ᪺ᩝ captivate v miwaku shimásu 㨡ᝠ ࡊࡱࡌ captive n horyo ᤍ⹥ capture v toraemásu ᤍࡼ࠻ࡱࡌ car n kuruma ㌬, jidø-sha ⮤ິ㌬; car park n chüsha-jø 㥌㌬ሔ carat n karatto ࢜ࣚࢴࢹ caravan n 1. taishø 㝪ၛ, kyaraban ࢞ࣔࣚࣁࣤ 2. (large vehicle) kyaraban-kå ࢞ࣔࣚࣁ࣭ࣤ࢜, kanpingu-kå ࢞ࣔࣤࣅࣤࢡ࣭࢜ carbon n tanso ⅛⣪; carbon dioxide n ni-sanka-tanso ஦㓗໩⅛⣪ carburetor n kyaburétå ࢞ࣔࣇࣝ ࢰ࣭ carcass n shitai Ṓమ, shigai Ṓ㦹 card n 1. fuda ᮈ, kå´do ࣭࢜ࢺ;

(playing card) toránpu (ichímai) ࢹࣚࣤࣈ ୌᯓ 2. (calling card, name card) meishi ྞๆ 3. (postcard) (o-)hágaki ࠽ ࡢ ࠿ࡀ࣬ ࠽ ⴝ᭡; New Year’s ~ nengajø ᖳ㈙≟ cardboard n børu-gami ࣭࣍ࣜ⣤; (corrugated) danbø´ru ṹ࣭࣍ࣜ cardiac 1. n (medicine) kyøshinzai ᙁᚨ๠ 2. adj shizø (no) ᚨ⮒ ࡡ cardigan n kådigan ࣭࢜ࢸ࢔࢝ࣤ care n (caution) yøjin ⏕ᚨ, nén ᛍ; (upkeep) te-iré ᡥථࡿ; take ~ of (a person) ... no (o)sewá o shimásu ... ࡡ ࠽ ୠヨࢅࡊࡱࡌ, ... no mendø o mimásu ... ࡡ㟻

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಻ࢅずࡱࡌ; (a matter) ... o shóri shimásu ... ࢅฌ⌦ࡊࡱࡌ; care for v → like, love, want → look after career n (occupation) shokúgyø ⫃ᴏ; kyaria ࢞ࣔࣛ࢓; (history) rireki ᒓṌ carefree adj kiraku (na) Ẵᴞ ࡝ , nónki (na) ࡡࢆࡀ࣬࿌Ẵ ࡝ careful adj chüibukai Ἰណ῕࠷; is ~ ki o tsukemásu Ẵࢅ௛ࡄࡱࡌ; nén o iremásu ᛍࢅථࡿࡱࡌ careless adj mutón-chaku/-jaku (na) ↋㡳╌ ࡝ , zonzái (na) ࡑࢆ ࡉ࠷ ࡝ , taiman (na) ᛨះ ࡝ , fuchü´i (na) ୘Ἰណ ࡝ caress n, v aibu/høyø (shimásu) យ ᧑/ᢢ᧞ ࡊࡱࡌ caretaker 1. n (custodian) kanrinin ⟮⌦ெ 2. (caregiver) kaigonin ௒㆜ெ, sewa-nin ୠヨெ carnival n kånibaru ࣭࢜ࢼࣁࣜ, shaniku-sai ㅨ⫏⚅ carp n (fish) kói ࢤ࢕࣬㩶; carp streamers n (for the Boys’ Festival) koi-nóbori ࡆ࠷ࡡ࡯ࡽ࣬㩶ࡡ ࡯ࡽ carpenter n dáiku ኬᕝ carpet n jü´tan ࡋࡸ࠹ࡒࢆ࣬⤟Ạ, kå´pétto ࣭࢜࣋ࢴࢹ carriage n 1. (four-wheeled horsedrawn passenger) basha 㤷㌬ 2. (transporting) unpan 㐘ᦑ 3. (movable part of a machine) (kikai no) kadøbu ᶭ᲌ࡡ ྊິ 㒂 4. (bearing) mi no konashi ㌗ࡡࡆ࡝ࡊ carrier n 1. (transportation) yusø


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㍲㏞, unsø 㐘㏞ 2. (of disease) hokin-sha ಕⳞ⩽, hoin-sha ಕᅄ ⩽ 3. (mail ~) yübin haitatsu-nin 㒉౼㒼㐡ெ 4. (newspaper ~) shinbun haitatsu-nin ᩺⪲㒼㐡ெ 5. (aircraft ~) køkü bokan ⯗✭ ẍ⯼, kübo ✭ẍ carrot n ninjin ࢼࣤࢩࣤ࣬ெཤ carry v 1. motte/tótte ikimásu ᣚ ࡖཱི࡙ࡖ࡙࠷ࡀࡱࡌ; (loads aboard) nosemásu ㍍ࡎࡱࡌ; (conveys) hakobimásu 㐘ࡦࡱࡌ 2. (dangling from the hand) sagemásu ᥞࡅࡱࡌ; (piggyback) oimásu ㇿ࠷ࡱࡌ, obuimásu ࠽ࡩ >ㇿࡩ@ ࠷ࡱࡌ; carry out (performs) okonaimásu ⾔࠷ࡱࡌ; (brings about) genjitsu-ka shimásu ⌟ᐁ ໩ࡊࡱࡌ carsick; gets ~ (kuruma ni) yoimásu ㌬࡞ 㓁࠷ࡱࡌ cart n teoshi-gúruma ᡥᢪࡊ㌬, daisha ྋ㌬ carton → box cartoon n manga ₌⏤࣏࣬ࣤ࢝㹺 ࡱࢆ࠿ cartridge n 1. (ink ~) kåtorijji ࣭࢜ ࢹࣛࢴࢩ 2. (~ in gun) danyakutø ᙆⷾ➼ carve v (inscribe) kizamimásu ็ ࡲࡱࡌ, horimásu ᙦࡽࡱࡌ carving n horí-mónó ᙦࡽ∸, (sculpture) chøkoku ᙦ็; carving knife n nikukiri-bø´chø ⫏วࡽໜ ୍; chøkokutø ᙦ็ภ cascade n (small waterfall) chiisana taki ᑚࡈ࡝⁢

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case n 1. (situation) ba(w)ai ሔ ྙ, ... wáke... ズ࣬ࢂࡄ, (event) ... dán ... ṹ; (matter) kotó ஥࣬ ࡆ࡛, jiken ஥௲, (particular instance) kë´su ࢢ࣭ࢪ 2. (box) hako ⟵; in this case kono ba(w)ai ࡆࡡሔྙ; in that case sorenára ࡐ ࡿ࡝ࡼ; (sore) déwa ࡐࡿ ࡚ࡢ, ja ࡋࡶ, jå ࡋࡶ࠵; in case of ... ni sái-shite... ࡞㝷ࡊ࡙; ... no båi/ tokí ni... ࡡሔྙ᫤࡞ cash 1. n (money) genkín ⌟㔘; petty ~ koguchi genkin ᑚཾ⌟㔘 2. n shøkin ㈱㔘; cashbook n genkin-suitø-chø ⌟㔘ฝ⣙ᖋ; cash card n kyasshu-kådo ࢞ࣔࢴ ࢨ࣭ࣖ࢜ࢺ 3. v (a check) genkín ni kaemásu ⌟㔘࡞࠾࠻ࡱ ࡌ㹺ᥦ࠻ࡱࡌ, genkín ni shimásu ⌟㔘࡞ࡊࡱࡌ 4. v (into smaller

bills/coins) komakáku shimásu ⣵࠾ࡂࡊࡱࡌ, kuzushimásu ࡂࡍ ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ᓻࡊࡱࡌ cashier n suitø-gákari ฝ⣙౿, réji-gákari ࣝࢩ౿ casino n kajino ࢜ࢩࢿ cask n taru ࡒࡾ࣬ᶙ casket n 1. (coffin) hitsugi ᳄࣬ࡥ ࡗࡁ 2. (jewel box) høseki-bako ᐀▴⟵ casserole n mushiyaki nabe ⵠࡊ ↕ࡀ࡝࡬ cassette n kasetto (tëpu) ࢜ࢬࢴ ࢹ ࢷ࣭ࣈ cast 1. n (throwing) hito nage ୌᢖࡅ 2. n (selecting actors, selected actors) kyasuto ࢞ࣔࢪ


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ࢹ, haiyaku 㒼ᙲ 3. v (throw) nagemásu ᢖࡅࡱࡌ 4. v (select actors) kyasutingu shimásu ࢞ࣔ ࢪࢷ࢔ࣤࢡࡊࡱࡌ, haiyaku o kimemásu 㒼ᙲࢅỬࡴࡱࡌ castaway n 1. (shipwrecked person) hyøryü-sha ⁳Ὦ⩽ 2. (outcast) misuterareta hito ずᤖ࡙ࡼࡿࡒெ caste n kåsuto ࣭࢜ࢪࢹ castle n (o-)shiro ࠽ ᇖ; (name of certain) ...-jø ... ᇖ castrate n kyosei-sha ཡເ⩽ casual adj nanige-nái రẴ࡝࠷; kigaru (na) Ẵ㍅ ࡝ ; kajuaru (na) ࢜ࢩࣖ࢓ࣜ ࡝ ; casual sex n yukizuri no sekkusu ⾔ࡀࡍࡽࡡ ࢬࢴࢠࢪ casualty n (injury, damage) higai ⿍ᐐ; (victim) higái-sha ⿍ᐐ⩽ cat n néko ⊟࣬ࢾࢤ catalog n katarogu ࢜ࢰࣞࢡ; mokuroku ┘㘋; (directory) meibo ྞ⡑ catalyst n shokubai よ፳ catapult n (airplane) funsha-ki ᄂ ᑏᶭ, kataparuto ࢜ࢰࣂࣜࢹ cataract n 1. (large waterfall) ookina taki ኬࡀ࡝⁢ 2. (ophthalmology) hakunai-shø Ⓣහ㝸 catastrophe n dai-sanji ኬᝲ஥, dai-saigai ኬⅇᐐ catch 1. v (seizes) tsukamaemásu ᤍࡱ࠻ࡱࡌ; torimásu ཱིࡽࡱࡌ; (attracts) hikimásu ᘤࡀࡱࡌ 2. v (a disease) (byøki ni) kakarimásu ⑋Ẵ࡞ ࠾࠾ࡽࡱ

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ࡌ 3. n a good ~ ⋋∸࣬࠻ࡵࡡ 4. n(trap) wanaࢂ࡝࣬࣠ࢻ 5. n (clasp) tomegane ⏻ࡴ㔘; catch a cold kaze o hikimásu ࠾ࡏ>㢴㑟@ ࢅࡥࡀࡱࡌ; catch-phrase kyacchi furëzu ࢞ࣔࢴࢲࣆ࣭ࣝࢫ; catch up (with) (... ni) oi-tsukimásu ... ࡞ ㏛࠷ࡗࡀࡱࡌ category n kategorii ࢜ࢷࢥ࣭ࣛ catering n (meal delivery) demae ฝ๑, këtaringu ࢢ࣭ࢰࣛࣤࢡ caterpillar n kemushi ẗ⹰࣬ࢢ࣑ࢨ cathedral n dai-seidø ኬ⪯ᇸ Catholic n Katoríkku (kyø) ࢜ࢹࣛ ࢴࢠ ᩅ , (person) Katoríkku kyøto ࢜ࢹࣛࢴࢠᩅᚈ cattle n (bulls and cows) ushi ∭࣬ࢗࢨ caucus n tøin shükai ඨဤ㞗ఌ cauldron n kama ࠾ࡱ࣬㔡 cauliflower n karifurawå ࢜ࣛࣆࣚ ࣭࣠ cause n (of an effect) gen’in ཋᅄ, moto ඔ; (negative effect) ... séi ... ࡎ࠷; (source) táne ⛸; (reason) wáke ズ, riyü ⌦⏜; (purpose, benefit) tame ࡒࡴ࣬Ⅵ; cause (one) concern/worry (... ni) shinpai o kakemásu ... ࡞ ᚨ㒼ࢅ࠾ࡄࡱ ࡌ; cause (one) trouble (... ni) méiwaku o kakemásu ... ࡞ ㏖ ᝠࢅ࠾ࡄࡱࡌ caustic 1. n fushoku-zai ⭁㣏๠ 2. adj fushoku-sei (no) ⭁㣏ᛮ ࡡ caution 1. n yøjin ⏕ᚨ; (precaution) yø´i ⏕ណ, nén ᛍ; as (a word of) ~ nen no tamé (ni) ᛍࡡ


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ࡒࡴ>Ⅵ@ ࡞ 2. v (warns) keikai shimásu ㆑ᠼࡊࡱࡌ cautious adj yøjin-bukái ⏕ᚨ῕࠷ cavalry n 1. (horsemen) kihei-tai 㥵ඹ㝪 2. (military) kikø-butai ᶭ⏝㒂㝪 cave n hora-ana ὕ✨࣬࡮ࡼ✨, hórá ὕ࣬࡮ࡼ; ... -dø ... ὕ cavern n dai-døkutsu ኬὕ❅ caviar n (roe) kábia ࢞ࣔࣄ࢓ cavity n 1. (hole) ana ✨ 2. (hollow area) küdø ✭ὕ 3. (tooth ~) mushiba ⹰ṉ cease v yamimásu ࡷࡲࡱࡌ㹺Ḿࡲ ࡱࡌ, taemásu ⤧࠻ࡱࡌ ceasefire n teisen ೳᡋ ceaseless adj taemanai ⤧࠻㛣࡝࠷ cedar; cryptomeria, Japanese ~ n sugi ᮙ࣬ࢪ࢟ cede v yuzurimásu ㆙ࡽࡱࡌ ceiling n tenjø ኮ஬ celeb, celebrity n serebu ࢬࣝࣇ, yümei-jin ᭯ྞெ celebrate v iwaimásu ♻࠷ࡱࡌ celebration n (party) (o-)iwai ࠽ ♻࠷ celery n sérori ࢬࣞࣛ; Japanese ~ údo ࢗࢺ࣬≺Ὡ celestial adj ten (no) ኮ ࡡ , tentai (no) ኮమ ࡡ celibate 1. n (single person/ people) dokushin-sha ≺㌗⩽ 2. adj dokushin (no) ≺㌗ ࡡ cell n 1. (biology) saibø ⣵⬂ 2. (prison) dokubø ≺ᡛ, røya ∴ᒁ cellar n (storehouse) kurá ಲ࣬ⶮ; (basement) chiká-shitsu ᆀୖᐄ

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cello n chéro ࢲ࢘ࣞ cellophane n sérohan ࢬࣞࣀࣤ Celt n 1. (a Celt) keruto-jin ࢢࣜ ࢹெ 2. (ethnic) keruto-zoku ࢢࣜࢹ᪐ cement n semento ࢬ࣒ࣤࢹ; cement floor n tatakí ࡒࡒࡀ cemetery n haka-bá ቉ሔ, bóchi ቉ᆀ cenotaph n (senbotsu-sha) kinenhi ᡋἈ⩽ エᛍ◻ censor 1. n ken’etsu-kan ᳠㛸ᏻ 2. v ken’etsu shimásu ᳠㛸ࡊࡱࡌ censure 1. n (blame) hínan 㟸㞬 2. v (blames one) hínan shimásu 㟸㞬ࡊࡱࡌ, sememásu ㈈ࡴࡱࡌ census n kokusei-chøsa ᅗເㄢᰕ cent n sénto ࢬࣤࢹ; percent påsénto ࣂ࣭ࢬࣤࢹ centennial n hyakushünen Ⓤ࿔ᖳ center n mannaka ┷ࢆ୯࣬ࡱࢆ ࡝࠾, chüø ୯ኳ, chüshin ୯ᚨ; (institution) séntå ࢬࣤࢰ࣭ centigrade n sésshi ᦜẮ, seshi ࢬẮ; ... -do ... ᗐ centimeter n sénchi ࢬࣤࢲ, senchi-më´toru ࢬࣤࢲ࣒࣭ࢹࣜ centipede n mukade ࣑࢜ࢸ࣬Ⓤ㊂ central adj mannaka no ┷ࢆ୯ࡡ ࣬ࡱࢆ࡝࠾ࡡ, chüshin no ୯ᚨ ࡡ, chüø no ୯ኳࡡ; Central America n chübei ୯⡷, chüø-amerika ୯ኳ ࢓࣒ࣛ࢜; central office n hónbu ᮇ㒂 century n séiki ୠ⣎ ceramics n seramikku ࢬ࣐ࣚࢴࢠ; (ceramic art) tøgei 㝙ⰹ; (ceramic ware) tø´ki 㝙ჹ; (pottery) yaki-


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mono ↕ࡀ∸ ⭔᤻ࡄ cereal n kokúmotsu ✈∸, kokúrui chalet n sharë ࢨ࣭ࣔࣝ, sansø ᒜⲦ ✈㢦; siriaru ࢨࣛ࢓ࣜ chalk n chø´ku ࢲ࣭ࣘࢠ cerebral adj nø (no) ⬳ ࡡ challenge 1. n chárenji ࢲࣔࣝࣤࢩ, ceremony n shikí ᘟ, gíshiki ൢᘟ chøsen ᣦᡋ 2. v (tries) idomiwedding ~ kekkon-shiki ⤎፡ᘟ másu ᣦࡲࡱࡌ, chárenji shimásu certain adj táshika (na) ☔࠾࣬ࡒࡊ ࢲࣔࣝࣤࢩࡊࡱࡌ; (tests) tame࠾ ࡝ ; kakujitsu (na) ☔ᐁ ࡝ shimásu ムࡊࡱࡌ; challenger n certainly adv mochíron ࡵࡔࢀࢆ࣬ charenjå ࢲࣔࣝࣤࢩ࣭ࣔ, ໗ㄵ; táshika ni ☔࠾࡞; mása-ni chøsen-sha ᣦᡋ⩽ ࡱࡈ࡞ chamber 1. n (room) heya 㒂ᒁ certificate n shømei-sho チ᪺᭡ 2. n (meeting hall) kaigi-shitsu certification n shømei チ᪺ ఌ㆗ᐄ 3. n (compartment in a certified adj kønin (no) පヾ ࡡ ; firearm) yakushitsu ⷾᐄ 4. n certified public accountant (CPA) n (palace room) ø-shitsu ⋜ᐄ 5. n (legislative hall) giin ㆗㝌 kønin-kaikéishi පヾఌ゛ኃ cervical adj shikyü-keibu (no) Ꮔ 6. v (enclose bullets) tama o ᐋ㡹㒂 ࡡ ࣬Ꮔᐋࡄ࠷㒂 ࡡ komemásu ᙆࢅࡆࡴࡱࡌ cesarean n teiø-sekkai ᖀ⋜ว㛜 chameleon n kamereon ࣒࢛࢜ࣝࣤ cesspool n osui-dame ỗỀ‸ࡴ࣬ champagne n shanpán ࢨࣔࣤࣂࣤ, ỗỀࡓࡴ, gesui-dame ୖỀ‸ࡴ shanpén ࢨࣔࣤ࣋ࣤ ࣬ୖỀࡓࡴ champion n yüshø-sha ඁົ⩽, Ceylon n Seiron ࢬ࢕ࣞࣤ = Sri chanpion ࢲࣔࣤࣅ࢛ࣤ; (sumo Lanka Suriránka ࢪࣛࣚࣤ࢜ wrestler) ø´-zeki ኬ㛭; grand ~ chafe v surimukimásu ࡌࡽࡳࡀ sumo wrestler yokozuna ᶋ⥐; championship n senshu-ken 㐽ᡥᶊ ࡱࡌ chaff n momigara ࡵࡲṾ࣬ࡵࡲ chance n 1. (opportunity) kikái ᶭ ࠿ࡼ ఌ, chánsu ࢲࣔࣤࢪ 2. (impulse) chagrin n kuyashisa ᜴ࡊࡈ࣬ࡂࡷ hazumi ᙆࡲ → by chance chancellor n (minister) daijin ኬ⮟ ࡊࡈ chain n kusari 㙈࣬ࡂࡈࡽ, chën change 1. n (small money) kozeni ࢲ࣭࢘ࣤ; (linked) in a ~ tsunaᑚ㖱, komakái (o)kane ⣵࠾࠷ gatte ࡗ࡝࠿ࡖ࡙; chain smoker n ࠽ 㔘 2. n (money returned) chën sumøkå ࢲ࣭࢘ࣤࢪ࣓࣭࢜ o-tsuri ࠽㔦ࡽ࣬࠽ࡗࡽ, tsuri-sen ࣭; chain store n chën-ten ࢲ࣭࢘ 㔦ࡽ㖱 3. n hénka ን໩; (in ࣤᗉ, chën sutoa ࢲ࣭࢘ࣤࢪࢹ࢓ health) o-kawari ࠽ንࢂࡽ; chair n isu ᳌Ꮔ࣬࢕ࢪ, koshi-káké (abnormality) ijø ␏ᖏ 4. v it ~s 377

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kawarimásu ንࢂࡽࡱࡌ; hénka daihyø-teki (na) ௥⾪Ⓩ ࡝ ; shimásu ን໩ࡊࡱࡌ; utsurimásu (specific) koyü (no) ᅖ᭯ ࡡ , ⛛ࡽࡱࡌ 5. v ~s it kaemásu ን tokuchø-teki (na) ≁ᚡⓏ ࡝ ࠻ࡱࡌ; aratamemásu ᨭࡴࡱࡌ charade n misekake ずࡎ࠾ࡄ 6. v (clothes) kigaemásu ╌᭨ charcoal n sumí ⅛࣬ࢪ࣐, ࠻ࡱࡌ 7. v (train, bus, plane) mokután ᮄ⅛ nori-kaemásu ஋ࡽᥦ࠻ࡱࡌ; for charge 1. n (fee) ryøkin ᩩ㔘, a change adj kibun-tenkan (ni) daikin ௥㔘, (with fee) yüryø Ẵฦ㌷ᥦ ࡞ , ikinuki (ni) ᜝ᢜ (no) ᭯ᩩ ࡡno ~ muryø (no) ↋ᩩ ࡡ , [INFORMAL] tada (no) ࡀ ࡞ changeable n køi-shitsu ᭞⾨ᐄ ࡒࡓ ࡡ  2. n in ~ (teacher) channel n 1. (for radio or televitannin ᢰ௴; tantø ᢰᙔ; takes/ accepts (is in) ~ of ... o tannin/ sion) channeru ࢲࣔࣤࢾࣜ 2. kaikyø ᾇᓒ; suiro Ề㊨ tantø shimásu ... ࢅᢰ௴ᢰᙔࡊ chant v utaimásu ḯ࠷>ㅬ࠷@ࡱࡌ ࡱࡌ, uke-mochimásu ུࡄᣚࡔ chaos n kaosu ࢛࢜ࢪ, muchitsujo ࡱࡌ 3. n (an attack) shügeki ↋⛓ᗆ, konton Ίỹ ぇᦹ 4. v seikyü shimásu ㄫị chap n 1. (crack) hibi ࡥࡦ 2. ࡊࡱࡌ 5. v (attacks) shügeki (capped skin) akagire ࠵࠾ࡁࡿ shimásu ぇᦹࡊࡱࡌ 6. v (fill 3. (fellow) yatsu ࡷࡗ or furnish rechargeable public chapel n chaperu ࢲࣔ࣋ࣜ, reihai- transport card) chåji shimásu ࢲ ࣭ࣔࢩࡊࡱࡌ, (cellphone) jüden dø ♡ᣇᇸ chapter n (book) shø ❮, chaputå shimásu ඖ㞹ࡊࡱࡌ ࢲࣔࣈࢰ࣭ charitable adj jizen (no) ិၻ ࡡ char v 1. become charred kogecharity n hodokoshi ᪃ࡊ, jizen másu ↌ࡅࡱࡌ 2. ~s it kogashi- ិၻ, charitii ࢲࣔࣛࢷ࢔࣭; másu ↌࠿ࡊࡱࡌ (mercy) megumi ᜠࡲ; charity concert n charitii konsåto ࢲࣔࣛࢷ character n 1. (quality) seishitsu ᛮ㈹ 2. (personal traits) seikaku ࢔࣭ࢤࣤࢦ࣭ࢹ ᛮ᰹, kosei ಴ᛮ 3. (written) jí charm 1. v (…o) uttori-sasemásu Ꮚ, móji ᩝᏊ; Chinese ~ kanji ࠹ࡖ࡛ࡽࡈࡎࡱࡌ 2. n (good₆Ꮚ 4. (part or role in a play luck piece) o-mamori ࠽Ꮼࡽ; or film) kyarakuta ࢞ࣔࣚࢠࢰ, (attraction) miryoku 㨡ງ chart n zuhyø ᅒ⾪, zu ᅒ, chåto kyarakutå ࢞ࣔࣚࢠࢰ࣭ characteristic 1. n (an earmark) ࢲ࣭ࣔࢹ tokushoku ≁Ⰵ, (a distinguishing charter n tokkyo jø ≁ス≟, chåtå ~) tokuchø ≁ᚡ 2. adj (typical) ࢲ࣭ࣔࢰ࣭ 378

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chase v oi-kakemásu ㏛࠷࠾ࡄࡱ ࡌ, oimásu ㏛࠷ࡱࡌ, [FORMAL] tsuisekishimásu ㏛㊟ࡊࡱࡌ chaste adj teisetsu (na) ㇾ⟿ ࡝ , junsui (na) ⣟⢃ ࡝ chastise v korashimemásu ᠤࡼࡊ ࡴࡱࡌ chat 1. n oshaberi ࠽ࡊࡶ࡬ࡽ࣬ ࠽ႁࡽ, sekenbánashi ୠ㛣ヨ, muda-banashi ↋㥇ヨ, zatsudan 㞟ㄧ 2. v oshaberi o shimásu ࠽ࡊࡶ࡬ࡽ࣬࠽ႁࡽࢅࡊࡱࡌ chatter v shaberimásu ࡊࡶ࡬ࡽࡱ ࡌ࣬ႁࡽࡱࡌ chauffeur n okakae unténshu ࠽ᢢ ࠻㐘㌷ᡥ chauvinism n 1. (aggressive patrio-


shimásu ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠࡊࡱࡌ; (inspects) kénsa shimásu ᳠ᰕ ࡊࡱࡌ, (compares) terashimásu ↯ࡼࡊࡱࡌ; check in (registers) chekkúin shimásu ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠ࢕ ࣤࡊࡱࡌ; check out (of hotel) chekkuáuto shimásu ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠ࢓ ࢗࢹࡊࡱࡌ checkpoint kenmon-jo ᳠ၡᡜ check-up n 1. kénsa ᳠ᰕ 2. (med-

ical checkup) kenkø shindan ೸ᗛタ᩷ cheek n hø´ 㢃࣬࡮࠽, hoho 㢃࣬ ࡮࡮ cheeky adj namaiki (na) ⏍ណẴ ࡝ cheer n øen ᚺᥴ; ~ for øenshimásu ᚺᥴࡊࡱࡌ cheerful adj (in a good mood) kigen ga íi ᶭ᎒࠿࠷࠷, (full of energy) genki ga ii ඔẴ࠿࠷࠷,

tism) kyøshin-teki aikokushin ≤ಘⓏយᅗᚨ 2. (sexism) seisabetsu shugi ᛮᕣื୹⩇ cheap adj yasúi Ꮽ࠷ cheat v (deceives) damashimásu (merry, blitheful) hogáraka (na) ࡓࡱࡊࡱࡌ࣬㥼ࡊࡱࡌ, gomaka- ᭹ࡼ࠾࣬࡮࠿ࡼ࠾ ࡝ cheerleader n (female) chia gåru shimásu ࡇࡱ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ; (disࢲ࢓࣭࢝ࣜ sembles, shirks, tricks) zúru o Cheers interj 1. (See you later) shimásu ࡍࡾ>ࢫࣜ@ࢅࡊࡱࡌ; (on one’s spouse) futei o hatara- mata (ne) ࡱࡒ ࡠ 2. (toast) kanpai! ஜ᮴ kimásu ୘ㇾࢅࡢࡒࡼࡀࡱࡌ check 1. n (bank) kogítte ᑚว cheese n chíizu ࢲ࣭ࢫ ᡥ, chékku ࢲ࢘ࢴࢠ 2. n (chit) chef n shefu ࢨ࢘ࣆ, ryøri chø ᩩ ⌦㛏, (chef of Japanese food) fuda ᮈ 3. n (pays money at the restaurant)(o-)kanjø ࠽ ື itamae(-san) ᯀ๑ ࡈࢆ ᏽ, denpyø ఎ⚂, (o-)aisó, (o-) chemicals n kagaku-séihin ໩Ꮥ aisø ࠽ ࠵࠷ࡐ ࠹ ࣬ ࠽ យ᝷ ⿿ဗ; (pharmaceuticals) yakuhin 4. v ~ it (baggage) azukemásu ⷾဗ, kagaku-yakuhin ໩Ꮥⷾဗ 㡰ࡄࡱࡌ 5. (investigates) chemistry n kágaku ໩Ꮥ, bakeshirabemásu ㄢ࡬ࡱࡌ, chékku gaku ໩Ꮥ 379

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chemotherapy n kagaku ryøhø ໩Ꮥ ⒢Ἢ cherish v daijí ni shimásu ኬ஥ ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ, [FORMAL] chø´hø shimásu 㔔᐀ࡊࡱࡌ, chøhøgarimásu 㔔᐀࠿ࡽࡱࡌ cherry n (tree) sakura no ki ᱔ࡡ ᮄ; (fruit) sakuranbo ࢦࢠࣚࣤ࣍ ࣬᱔ࢆ࡯ cherry blossoms n sakura (no haná) ᱔ ࡡⰴ chess n 1. chesu ࢲ࢘ࢪ 2. (Japanese chess) shøgi ᑑᲞ chest n 1. (of body) muné ⬒ 2. (box) hako ⟵; (drawers) tansu ࡒࢆࡌ࣬ࢰࣤࢪ chestnut n kurí ᰡ࣬ࢠࣛ chew v kamimásu ჱࡲࡱࡌ࣬ ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ; ~ the fat (idly talk) daberimásu ࡓ࡬ࡽࡱࡌ࣬㥇ᘒ ࡽࡱࡌ chic adj shikku (na) ࢨࢴࢠ ࡝ , iki (na) ⢃ ࡝ , jøhin (na) ୕ ဗ ࡝ chicken n tori 㭔࣬ࢹࣛ, niwatori 㭔࣬ࢼ࣠ࢹࣛ; skewered grilled ~ yaki-tori ↕ࡀ㫵࣬ࡷࡀ࡛ࡽ chide v (rebukes) tashinamemásu ࡒࡊ࡝ࡴࡱࡌ, shikarimásu ྌࡽ ࡱࡌ chief 1. n (head) chø 㛏, chøkan 㛏ᏻ, chiifu ࢲ࣭ࣆ, (ringleader) óyá-bun のฦ 2. adj (main) shuyø (na) ୹こ ࡝ , ómo na ୹ ࡝, hon-... ᮇ... child n kodomo Ꮔ౩࣬ࡆ࡜ࡵ࣬ Ꮔ࡜ࡵ, ko Ꮔ, (elementary

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school student) jídø ඡ❲; your ~ o-ko-san/sama ࠽Ꮔࡈࢆࡈ ࡱ࣬ᵕ childish adj osanái ᖺ࠷; yøchi (na) ᖺ⛮ ࡝ ; kodomoppoi Ꮔ౩ ࡖࡰ࠷ childlike adj kodomo rashii Ꮔ౩ࡼ ࡊ࠷; junshin (na) ⣟┷ ࡝ children n kodomó-tachi Ꮔ౩ ࡒࡔ; Children’s Day (5 May) Kodomo no hí ࡆ࡜ࡵࡡ᪝࣬Ꮔ ౩ࡡ᪝ chili n chiri ࢲࣛ; chili pepper n chiri peppå ࢲࣛ࣋ࢴࣂ࣭, tøgarashi ࢹࢗ࢝ࣚࢨ࣬၄㎖Ꮔ chill v ~ it hiyashimásu ෫ࡷࡊ ࡱࡌ chilly adj samúi ᐨ࠷, hieru ෫࠻ࡾ chime n chaimu ࢲࣔ࢕࣑ chimney n entotsu ↦✲࣬࠻ࢆ࡛ࡗ chimpanzee n chinpanjii ࢲࣤࣂࣤ ࢩ࣭ chin n agó ࠵ࡇ࣬㢙 China n Chü´goku ୯ᅗ Chinatown n Chaina taun ࢲࣔ࢕ࢻ ࢰࢗࣤ china(ware) n (porcelain) setomono ℡ᡖ∸ Chinese n (language) Chugokugo ୯ᅗㄊ; (person) Chugokú-jin ୯ᅗெ Chinese; Chinese cabbage n (bok choi) hakusai Ⓣ⳧࣬ࣀࢠࢦ࢕; Chinese character n kanji ₆Ꮚ, jí Ꮚ; Chinese cooking n chüka-ryø´ri ୯ ⳱ᩩ⌦; Chinese noodles n (with soup) rå´men ࣭࣒ࣚࣤ, chüka-


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men ୯⳱㯕 chip n (of wood) kóppá ᮄࡖ❻; (crack) kizu ഭ; (electronic engineering) chippu ࢲࢴࣈ chips n (potato chip) poteto chippusu ࣎ࢷࢹࢲࢴࣈࢪ chirp n saezuri ࡈ࠻ࡍࡽ chisel n nómi ࢿ࣐ chlorine n énso ሲ⣪ chocolate n choko(rë´to) ࢲࣘࢤ ࣭ࣝࢹ ; chocolate bar n itachoko ᯀࢲࣘࢤ choice n (selection) sentaku 㐽ᢝ choir n 1. (chorus group) gasshødan ྙ၌ᅆ 2. (chorus group in church) seika-tai ⪯ḯ㝪 choke v 1. (he ~s) íki ga tsumarimásu ᜝࠿ࡗࡱࡽࡱࡌ㹺ョ ࡱࡽࡱࡌ 2. (~s him) ... no íki o tomemásu ... ࡡ᜝ࢅḾࡴࡱࡌ cholera n kórera ࢤࣝࣚ cholesterol n koresuterøru ࢤࣝࢪ ࢷ࣭ࣞࣜ choose v 1. [INFORMAL] erabimásu ࠻ࡼࡦࡱࡌ㹺㐽ࡦࡱࡌ; [FORMAL] sentaku shimásu 㐽ᢝࡊࡱࡌ 2. (decides on) ... ni shimásu ... ࡞ ࡊࡱࡌ choosy adj yorigónomi ga hageshíi ࡻࡽይࡲ࠿ࡢࡅࡊ࠷㹺⃥ࡊ࠷, yorigónomi o shimásu ࡻࡽይࡲ ࢅࡊࡱࡌ chop 1. v (chops it) kizamimásu ็ࡲࡱࡌ; (fire wood) (takigi o) warimásu ⷼࢅ๪ࡽࡱࡌ 2. n (signature seal) hankó ࡢࢆࡆ, hán ࡢࢆ࣬ึ

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chopsticks n (o-)háshi ࠽ ࡢࡊ㹺 ࠽ ⟺ chord n 1. (music) waon ࿰㡚; (guitar chord) kødo ࢤ࣭ࢺ 2. (emotion) kokoro no kinsen ᚨࡡ⌾⥲ chore n zatsuyø 㞟⏕ choreography n furitsuke ᣲࡽ௛ࡄ chorus n kø´rasu ࢤ࣭ࣚࢪ, (music

sang by a group) gasshø-kyoku ྙ၌᭜, (group of singers) gasshø-dan ྙ၌ᅆ Christ n Kirisuto ࢞ࣛࢪࢹ Christian 1. adj Kirisuto-kyø no ... ࢞ࣛࢪࢹᩅࡡ... 2. n (Kirisutokyø no) shínjá ࢞ࣛࢪࢹᩅࡡ ಘ⩽ Christianity n Kirisuto-kyø ࢞ࣛࢪ ࢹᩅ Christmas n Kurísúmasu ࢠࣛࢪ ࣏ࢪ; Christmas Eve n kurisumasu ibu ࢠࣛࢪ࣏ࢪ࢕ࣇ chronic adj mansei (no) ះᛮ ࡡ chronological adj nendai-jun (no) ᖳ௥㡨 ࡡ chrysanthemum n kikú ⳝ࣬࢞ࢠ; (tasty leaves) garland ~ shungiku ᫋ⳝ࣬ࢨࣖࣤ࢟ࢠ chubby adj fukkurashita ࡨࡖࡂࡼ ࡊࡒ, futome (no) ኯࡴࡡ chuck v 1. (throws) nagemásu ᢖ ࡅࡱࡌ 2. (tosses) hørimásu ᨲ ࡽࡱࡌ church n kyøkai ᩅఌ cigar n shígå ࢨ࣭࢝, ha-maki ⴝ ᕬ; cigar shop/store n tabako-ya ࡒ ࡣࡆᒁ


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cigarette n tabako ࡒࡣࡆ࣬ࢰࣁࢤ 㹺↦ⲙ, maki-tábako ᕬࡀࡒࡣࡆ, shígarétto ࢨ࢝ࣝࢴࢹ; cigarette/ cigar butt n suigara ྺ࠷Ṿ; cigarette lighter n raitå ࣚ࢕ࢰ࣭ cinder(s) n moegara ⇖࠻࠿ࡼ cinema → movies cinnamon n shinamon ࢨࢻ࣓ࣤ cipher n 1. (zero) zero ࢭࣞ࣬㞵 2. (secret code) angø ᬧྒ circle 1. n maru ୷, én ළ, (ring) wá ㍧, (orbit) kidø ㌮㐠 2. v maru/en de kakomimásu ୷ළ ࡚ᅑࡲࡱࡌ circular adj kanjø (no) ⎌≟ ࡡ circulate v (it ~s) mawarimásu ᅂ ࡽࡱࡌ; (~s it) mawashimásu ᅂ ࡊࡱࡌ circumference n shü´i ࿔ᅑ, shühen ࿔㎮, enshü ළ࿔ circumstance n 1. ba(w)ai ሔྙ; kotó ஥࣬ࡆ࡛, ... wáke ... ズ࣬ ࢂࡄ, ... tokoró ... ᡜ࡛࣬ࡆࢀ 2. jijø ஥᝗, jøtai ≟ឺ, jøkyø ≟ Ἓ; yóshi ⏜࣬ࡻࡊ , ... shidai... ḗ➠࣬ࡊࡓ࠷ 3. yøsu ᵕᏄ࣬ࡻ ࠹ࡌ 4. (convenience) tsugø 㒌ྙ go-tsugø ࡇ㒌ྙ circus n så´kasu ࢦ࣭࢜ࢪ cistern n suisø Ềᵬ, chosui tanku ㈋Ềࢰࣤࢠ citation n inyø bun ᘤ⏕ᩝ cite v 1. (quotes) inyø shimásu ᘤ⏕ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (refers) genkyü shimásu ゕཀྵࡊࡱࡌ citizen n shímin ᕰẰ; (national) kokumin ᅗẰ

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citizenship n shimin-ken ᕰẰᶊ citrus n kankitsu-rui ࠾ࢆࡀࡗ㢦࣬ ᯷ᶪ㢦࣬࢜ࣤ࢞ࢵ㢦 city 1. n shí ᕰ, (town) machí ⏣, (metropolis) tóshi 㒌ᕰ, tokai 㒌 ఌ (dweller) tokái-jin 㒌ఌெ; city council n shi-gikai ᕰ㆗ఌ 2. adj (within the city) shí-nai (no) ᕰ හ ࡡ civilian n minkan no hito Ằ㛣ࡡ ெ, minkan-jin Ằ㛣ெ civilization n bummei ᩝ᪺, (culture) búnka ᩝ໩ claim 1. n (demands) yøkyü/seikyü こịㄫị 2. v (maintains) shuchø shimásu ୹ᘿࡊࡱࡌ, tonaemásu ၌࠻ࡱࡌ clamber v yojinoborimásu ࡻࡋⓇ ࡽࡱࡌ clamor 1. n (a ~) sáwagi 㥹ࡁ, kensø ႒㥹; 2. v (makes a ~) sawagimásu 㥹ࡁࡱࡌ࣬ࡈࢂࡁࡱࡌ clamorous adj søzøshii 㥹ࠍࡊ࠷ clamp 1. n (metal piece for fastening) tomegane ⏻ࡴ㔘 2. v

(fastens or fixes) koteishimásu ᅖᏽࡊࡱࡌ clan n ichizoku ୌ᪐, ikka ୌᐓ clandestine adj himitsu (no) ⛆ᐠ ࡡ clang 1. n gachan ࢝ࢲࣔࣤ 2. v

(rings loudly) (gachan to) narashimásu ࢝ࢲ࡛ࣔࣤ 㫾ࡼ ࡊࡱࡌ 3. v (sounds) narimásu 㫾ࡽࡱࡌ clap (one’s hands) v té o tatakimásu ᡥࢅ྄ࡀࡱࡌ, hákushu


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shimásu ᢷᡥࡊࡱࡌ ᤪ㝎ࡊࡱࡌ clarification n setsumei ㄕ᪺ clear 1. adj (bright) akarui ᪺ࡾ࠷; clarify v 1. (makes clear) akiraka (sunny) hárete imásu ᬍࡿ࡙࠷ ni shimásu ࠵ࡀࡼ࠾>᪺ࡼ࠾@࡞ ࡱࡌ, harete ... ᬍࡿࡒ ...; ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (becomes clear) (transparent) tømei (na) ㏩᪺ ࡝ 2. adj (evident) akíraka akiraka ni narimásu ࠵ࡀࡼ࠾ >᪺ࡼ࠾@࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ, hakkiri (na) ᪺ࡼ࠾ ࡝ , (obvious, shimásu ࡢࡖࡀࡽࡊࡱࡌ explicit) meihaku (na) ᪺Ⓣ ࡝ ; clarity n 1. (transparency) tømei (understood) wakátte imásu ฦ࠾ࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ, wakátta ฦ࠾ࡖ do ㏩᪺ᗐ 2. seichø sa ΰ⃀ࡈ 3. meiryø sa ᪺▉ࡈ ࡒ...3. adj (easy to see) miyasúi clasp (one’s hands) v (té o) ずࡷࡌ࠷; (easy to understand) kumimásu (ᡥࢅ ⤄ࡲࡱࡌ wakari-yasúi ฦ࠾ࡽࡷࡌ࠷ class n 1. kúrasu ࢠࣚࢪ, kyü´ ⣥, 4. adj (unimpeded) jama ga nái ࡋࡶࡱ>㑟㨩@࠿࡝࠷ 5. v (takes (in school) gakkyü Ꮥ⣥; class instruction n ① júgyø ᤭ᴏ, køshü away from the table) sagemásu ㅦ⩞ ② kaikyü 㝭⣥; classmate n ୖࡅࡱࡌ 6. gets ~ (empty) døkyü´-sei ྜྷ⣥⏍, (former class- sukimásu ࡌࡀࡱࡌ࣬✭ࡀࡱࡌ 7. becomes ~ (evident) shiremásu mate) døkí-sei ྜྷ᭿⏍; classroom ▩ࡿࡱࡌ n kyøshitsu ᩅᐄ classic n kurashikku ࢠࣚࢨࢴࢠ, clerk n (in shop) ten’in ᗉဤ; (in koten ཿ඼ office) jimú-in ஥ຸဤ; (in bank) classical adj koten (no) ཿ඼ ࡡ ; ginkø´-in 㖗⾔ဤ classical music n kurashikku clever adj rikø (na) ฺཾ࣬ࡽࡆ࠹ ࡝ ; (nimble with fingers) kíyø ongaku ࢠࣚࢨࢴࢠ㡚ᴞ, koten ongaku ཿ඼㡚ᴞ (na) ჹ⏕ ࡝ ; (skilled) jøzú (na) clatter v gátagata shimásu ࠿ࡒ࠿ ࡋࡺ࠹ࡍ࣬୕ᡥ ࡝ ࡒࡊࡱࡌ cliff n gake ࠿ࡄ࣬ᓭ claw n tsume ∆࣬ࢵ࣒ climate n kikø Ẵು clay n néndo ⢋ᅰ climax n yamá ᒜ, chø´ten 㡤Ⅴ; clean 1. adj kírei (na) ࡀࡿ࠷>⥙㮿@ (upshot) ketsumatsu ⤎ᮆ; shímatsu ࡝ , seiketsu (na) ΰ₡ ࡝ ; ጙᮆ (fresh) sappári shita ࡈࡖࡤࡽࡊࡒ climb v noborimásu Ⓡࡽࡱࡌ 2. ~s it (up) v kírei ni shimásu ࡀ cling v kuttsukimásu ࡂࡖࡗࡀ ࡿ࠷>⥙㮿@࡞ࡊࡱࡌ, (tidies) ࡱࡌ, shigamitsukimásu ࡊ࠿ࡲ katazukemásu ∞௛ࡄࡱࡌ࣬࠾ࡒ ࡗࡀࡱࡌ ࡘࡄࡱࡌ, (sweeps) søji shimásu clinic n byøin ⑋㝌 383

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clip 1. clips it v tsumimásu ᦤࡲ ࡱࡌ; kirimásu วࡽࡱࡌ 2. n kuríppu ࢠࣛࢴࣈ → paperclip clique n renchü/renjü ㏻୯, habatsu Ὤ㛰 cloak n mánto ࣏ࣤࢹ; cloakroom n kurø´ku ࢠ࣭ࣞࢠ, (tenimotsu) azukarijo ᡥⲬ∸ 㡰࠾ࡽᡜ clock n tokei ᫤゛; around the ~ nijüyojikan 24᫤㛣, ichinichi-jü ୌ᪝୯ clockwise adv migi-máwari (ni) ྎᅂࡽ ࡞ clogged; gets ~ (up) fusagarimásu ࡨࡈ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ clogs 1. n (wooden shoes) getá ࡅ ࡒ࣬ୖ㥇 2. v (it ~s up, gets clogged) tsumarimásu ョࡱࡽࡱ ࡌ, tsukaemásu ࡗ࠾࠻ࡱࡌ close 1. v ~s it (shuts) shimemásu 㛚ࡴࡱࡌ, (a book, etc.) tojimásu 㛚ࡋࡱࡌ; ~ one’s eyes mé o tsuburimásu ┘ࢅࡗࡩࡽࡱࡌ࣬╺ࡽࡱ ࡌ; (obstructs) fusagimásu ࡨࡈ ࡁࡱࡌ; (ends) owarimásu ⤂ࢂ ࡽࡱࡌ 2. it ~s shimarimásu 㛚 ࡱࡽࡱࡌ → end 3. adj (near) chikái ㎾࠷; ~ by (o-)soba (no) ࠽ ࡐࡣ ࡡ 4. adj (humid) mushi-atsúi ⵠࡊᬤ࠷ 5. n (the end) owari ⤂ࢂࡽ, sue ᮆ, matsu ᮆ closet n (Japanese) oshi-ire ᢪࡊ ථࡿ, nándo ⣙ᡖ; (Western) kurøzetto ࢠ࣭ࣞࢭࢴࢹ clot 1. n (a ~) katamari ᅖࡱࡽ࣬ ም࣬࠾ࡒࡱࡽ 2. v (it ~s) kata-

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marimásu ᅖࡱࡽࡱࡌ cloth n ori-mono ⧂∸, kíji ⏍ᆀ, nuno ᕱ; (a piece of) kiré วࡿ, nuno-gire ᕱวࡿ; (traditional wrapper) furoshiki ࡨࢀࡊࡀ࣬ 㢴࿁ᩔ clothes n fukú ᭱, fukusø ᭱⿞ cloud n kúmo 㞴 cloudy; gets ~ kumorimásu ᭆࡽ ࡱࡌ࣬ࡂࡵࡽࡱࡌ; ~ weather kumorí ᭆࡽ࣬ࡂࡵࡽ clover n kurøba¯ ࢠ࣭ࣞࣁ࣭; four-leaf ~ yotsuba no kurøbå ᄿ ࡗⴝࡡࢠ࣭ࣞࣁ࣭ cloves n chø´ji ୍Ꮚ࣬ࢲࣘࢗࢩ, kurøbu ࢠ࣭ࣞࣇ clown n døke-shi 㐠໩ᖅ club n 1. (group; card suit) kúrabu ࢠࣚࣇ 2. (stick) konbø ᲠᲤ࣬ࡆࢆᲤ; (golf) (gorufu) kurabu ࢥࣜࣆ ࢠࣚࣇ clue n tegákari ᡥ᤻࠾ࡽ, itóguchi ⣊ཾ clump n katamari ም࣬࠾ࡒࡱࡽ clumsy adj hetá (na) ࡫ࡒ>ୖᡥ@ ࡝, bu-kíyø (na) ୘ჹ⏕ ࡝ ; gikochi-nái ࡁࡆࡔ࡝࠷ cluster → bunch clutch 1. v (grasps) nigirimásu ᥩ ࡽࡱࡌ, tsukamimásu ࡗ࠾ࡲࡱࡌ 2. n (of car) kurátchi ࢠࣚࢴࢲ, (pedal) kuratchí-pédaru ࢠࣚࢴ ࢲ࣋ࢱࣜ coach 1. v (~es them) shidø shimásu ᣞᑙࡊࡱࡌ 2. n (director) shidø´-sha ᣞᑙ⩽; (sports) kø´chi ࢤ࣭ࢲ 3. n


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(railroad) kyakusha ᐂ㌬; coach station n (depot) basu no hatchaku-jø ࣁࢪࡡⓆ╌ሔ coal n sekitán ▴⅛; coal mine n tankø ⅛㖌 coarse adj arai ⢊࠷>Ⲡ࠷@; sómatsu (na) ⢊ᮆ ࡝ coast n engan Ἒᓃ, kaigan ᾇᓃ coat n uwagi ୕╌, kø´to ࢤ࣭ࢹ; (overcoat) gaitø አዎ, ø´bå ࢛࣭ ࣁ࣭; (traditional Japanese) haori ⩒⧂ coax v odatemásu ࠽ࡓ࡙ࡱࡌ cocaine n kokáin ࢤ࢜࢕ࣤ cock n ondori ࢛ࣤࢺࣛ࣬㞕㭔 cockpit n kokkupitto ࢤࢴࢠࣅࢴ ࢹ, søjü-seki ᧧⦢ᖆ, søjü-shitsu ᧧⦢ᐄ cockroach n gokiburi ࢥ࢞ࣇࣛ cocktail (party) n kákuteru (påtii) ࢜ࢠࢷࣜ ࣂ࣭ࢷ࢔࣭ cocky adj unuboreta ࠹࡟࡯ࡿࡒ, namaiki (na) ⏍ណẴ ࡝ cocoa n kókóa ࢤࢤ࢓ coconut n kókonáttsu ࢤࢤࢻࢴࢵ; coconut palm n yáshi ࣕࢨ࣬ᱺᏄ cocoon n máyu ࣏ࣗ࣬⧓ C.O.D. (collect on delivery) → collect (on delivery) code n kø´do ࢤ࣭ࢺ; (secret) angø ᬧྒ co-ed n jo (-shi) gákusei ዥ Ꮔ Ꮥ⏍ coeducation n dánjo kyøgaku ⏠ዥ භᏕ co-existence n kyøson භᏋ, kyøzon භᏋ

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coffee n køhíi ࢤ࣭ࣃ࣭ coffee shop/house n køhii-ten ࢤ࣭ ࣃ࣭ᗉ, kissa-ten ႖Ⲍᗉ coffin n hitsugi ᳄࣬ࡥࡗࡁ cog n (wheel) ha-gúruma ṉ㌬ coherent adj (shubi) ikkan shita 㤫 ᑹୌ㈇ࡊࡒ cohesion n danketsu ᅆ⤎, ketsugø ⤎ྙ coil n koiru ࢤ࢕ࣜ coin n kø´ka ◫㈄, kóin ࢤ࢕ࣤ; (brass or copper) dø´ka 㖙㈄; tosses a ~ køka/koin o nagete ura-omote de kimemásu ◫㈄ࢤ ࢕ࣤࢅᢖࡅ࡙⿤⾪࡚Ửࡴࡱࡌ coincidence n güzen ഃ↓ coincidental adj güzen itchi shita ഃ↓ୌ⮬ࡊࡒ cola n kø´ra ࢤ࣭ࣚ colander n mizu-kírí Ềวࡽ; (bamboo) zarú ࡉࡾ cold 1. adj samúi ᐨ࠷; (to touch) tsumetái ෫ࡒ࠷; gets ~ sámuku/ tsumetáku narimásu ᐨࡂ෫ࡒ ࡂ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ; samemásu ෫ࡴࡱ ࡌ; hiemásu ෫࠻ࡱࡌ 2. n kaze ࠾ࡏ>㢴㑟@; catches a ~ kaze o hikimásu ࠾ࡏ>㢴㑟@ࢅࡥࡀࡱࡌ; cold medicine n kaze-gúsuri ࠾ࡏ >㢴㑟@ⷾ coldness n tsumetasa ෫ࡒࡈ, samusa ᐨࡈ cold water n mizu Ề, (o-)híya ࠽ ෫ࡷ coleslaw n køru-surø ࢤ࣭ࣜࢪ࣭ࣞ, kyabetsu-sárada ࢞ࣔ࣊ࢵࢦࣚࢱ colic n sentsü ␲⑚


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collaborate v 1. (cooperates) kyøryoku shimásu ༝ງࡊࡱࡌ 2. (works collaboratively) kyødøsagyø shimásu භྜྷషᴏࡊ ࡱࡌ collapse v taoremásu ಻ࡿࡱࡌ; (gets smashed) tsuburemásu ࡗࡩ ࡿࡱࡌ࣬₵ࡿࡱࡌ collar n 1. (of coat) kárå ࣭࢜ࣚ, erí ࠻ࡽ࣬〺 2. (of dog) kubi-wa 㤫㍧ collate v (compares) terashimásu ↯ࡼࡊࡱࡌ, terashi-awasémásu ↯ࡼࡊྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ colleague n 1. (professional ~) (shokuba no) døryø ⫃ሔࡡ ྜྷ േ 2. (academic ~) gakuyü Ꮥཪ collect v 1.~s them atsumemásu 㞗ࡴࡱࡌ, yosemásu ᐞࡎࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡻࡎࡱࡌ, (completes a set) soroemásu ᥖ࠻ࡱࡌ࣬ࡐࢀ࠻ࡱ ࡌ; (gathers up) shüshü shimásu ཭㞗ࡊࡱࡌ; (reaps, brings in) osamemásu ⣙ࡴࡱࡌ, (levies taxes etc,) chøshü shimásu ᚡ཭ ࡊࡱࡌ; ~ tickets shüsatsu shimásu 㞗ᮈࡊࡱࡌ 2. they ~ (come together atsumarimásu 㞗ࡱࡽࡱ ࡌ; collect call n korekuto køru ࢤ ࣝࢠࢹࢤ࣭ࣜ collect (on delivery), C.O.D. adv daikin hiki-kae (de) ௥㔘ᘤࡀᥦ ࠻ ࡚ , dai-biki (de) ௥ᘤࡀ ࡚ , chakubarai (de) ╌ᡮ࠷ ࡚ collection n 1. (of books) zøsho ⶮ ᭡, korekushon ࢤࣝࢠࢨࣘࣤ 2. (of taxes etc.) chøshü ᚡ཭

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collector n shüshü-ka ཭㞗ᐓ college n daigaku ኬᏕ; karejji ࢜ ࣝࢴࢩ; college student n daigákusei ኬᏕ⏍ collide v shøtotsu shimásu ⾢✲ ࡊࡱࡌ colloquial 1. n (language, word) køgo ཾㄊ 2. adj køgo-teki (na) ཾㄊⓏ ࡝ collusion; in ~ with ... to takuránde ... ࡛௺ࢆ࡚ colony n shokumín-chi ᳔Ằᆀ color n iró Ⰵ, kárå ࣭࢜ࣚ color-blind adj 1. (ophthalmology) shikikaku ijø (no) Ⰵつ␏ᖏ ࡡ 2. (nonracialism) jinshusabetsu o shinai ெ⛸ᕣืࢅࡊ࡝࠷ colorful adj (bright) hanáyaka (na) ⳱ࡷ࠾ ࡝ , karafuru (na) ࢜ࣚ ࣆࣜ ࡝ colossal adj kyodai (na) ᕠኬ ࡝ colt n (young male horse) osu no ko-uma 㞕ࡡᏄ㤷 column 1. n rán ḅ, koramu ࢤ࣑ࣚ; (page ~) dán ṹ; (numerical ~) keta ࡄࡒ࣬᰾ 2. → pillar coma n konsui ᪻╟ comb 1. n kushí ࡂࡊ࣬ᷰ 2. v (the hair) kamí o sukimásu 㧝ࢅࡌࡀ ࡱࡌ, tokimásu ࡛ࡀࡱࡌ࣬᲏ࡀ ࡱࡌ, tokashimásu ࡛࠾ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ ᲏࠾ࡊࡱࡌ combat n sentø ᡋ㜒 combination n 1. kumi-awase ⤄ࡲ ྙࢂࡎ, konbinëshon ࢤࣤࣄࢾ࣭ ࢨࣘࣤ 2. (union) gappei ྙె, gødø ྙྜྷ


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combine 1. v (combines them) kumiawasemásu ⤄ࡲྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ, awasemásu ྙࢂࡎࡱࡌ; (dually serves as) kanemásu ඾ࡠࡱ ࡌ 2. v (they unite) gappei/gødø shimásu ྙెྙྜྷࡊࡱࡌ combustion n 1. (burning) nenshø ⇖↕ 2. (oxidation) sanka 㓗໩ 3. (tumult) sawagi 㥹ࡁ࣬ࡈࢂࡁ come v kimásu ᮮࡱࡌ; (I/we come to you) ikimásu ⾔ࡀࡱࡌ; come about shø-jimásu ⏍ࡋࡱࡌ; genjitsu-ka shimásu ⌟ᐁ໩ࡊࡱ ࡌ; come along yatte-kimásu ࡷࡖ ࡙ࡀࡱࡌ; come back itte kimásu ⾔ࡖ࡙ࡀࡱࡌ; kaerimásu ᖉࡽࡱ ࡌ ᖉࡾ, ᖉࡖ࡙ ; come down kudarimásu ୖࡽࡱࡌ࣬࠽ࡽࡱ ࡌ; (on the price) makemásu ㇿ ࡄࡱࡌ; come in hairimásu ථࡽࡱ ࡌ, háitte kimásu ථࡖ࡙ࡀࡱࡌ; come near yorimásu ᐞࡽࡱࡌ࣬ ࡻࡽࡱࡌ, chika-zukimásu ㎾ࡘ ࡀࡱࡌ; come off (button, etc.) toremásu ཱིࡿࡱࡌ࡛࣬ࡿࡱࡌ; nukemásu ᢜࡄࡱࡌ; hazuremásu አࡿࡱࡌ࣬ࡢࡍࡿࡱࡌ; come on, ...! (urging an invitation) så´ ࡈ ࠵, hora ࡮ࡼ; come out demásu ฝࡱࡌ, déte kimásu ฝ࡙ࡀࡱࡌ; (appears) arawaremásu ⌟ࡿࡱࡌ; come to an end sumimásu ῥࡲࡱࡌ ࣬ࡌࡲࡱࡌ, owarimásu ⤂ࢂࡽ ࡱࡌ, tsukimásu ᑸࡀࡱࡌ࣬ࡗࡀ ࡱࡌ; come what may nán to itté mo ࡝ࢆ࡛ゕࡖ࡙ࡵ comedy n kígeki ႌ๸, komedii

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ࢤ࣒ࢸ࢔ comely n 1. (appearance) yøshi no ii ᐖጶࡡ࠷࠷, kiryø no yoi ჹ㔖ࡡⰃ࠷ 2. (attractive) miryoku-teki (na) 㨡ງⓏ ࡝ comet n høkí-boshi ࡮࠹ࡀ᫅, suisei ᙗ᫅࣬ࡌ࠷᫅ comfort 1. n anraku Ꮽᴞ, kiraku Ẵᴞ 2. n (consolation) nagusame ័ࡴ, ian ័Ꮽ 3. v (consoles) nagusamemásu ័ࡴࡱࡌ comfortable 1. adj rakú (na) ᴞ ࡝ , anraku (na) Ꮽᴞ ࡝ , kiraku (na) Ẵᴞ ࡝ ; kaiteki (na) ᛄ㐲 ࡝ , kimochi ga íi Ẵᣚࡔ࠿࠷࠷ 2. → relax 3. adj (easy to wear) ki-yasúi ╌ࡷࡌ࠷, (easy to sit on) suwariyasúi ᗑࡽࡷࡌ࠷࣬ࡌ ࢂࡽࡷࡌ࠷ comforter n (down quilt) hanebuton ⩒ᕱᅆ comic; comic book n manga (-bon) ₌⏤ ᮇ ; komikku ࢤ࣐ࢴࢠ; comics n manga ₌⏤࣬ࡱࢆ࠿ comical adj hyøkín (na) ࡥࡺ࠹ࡀ ࢆ ࡝ → funny Coming-of-Age Day (2nd Monday of January) n Seijin no hí ᠺெࡡ᪝ comma n konma ࢤ࣏ࣤ command 1. n (order, instructions) meirei ࿤௦; (historic term) sátá ࡈࡒ࣬ἃụ 2. v (orders a person) ... ni ii-tsukemásu ... ࡞ ゕ࠷௛ࡄࡱࡌ, mei-jimásu ࿤ࡋ ࡱࡌ 3. v (leads) hikiimásu ⋙ ࠷ࡱࡌ commander n shiréi-kan ྒྷ௦ᏻ;


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(navy) chüsa ୯ఫ commemorate v kinen shimásu エᛍ ࡊࡱࡌ commencement n (ceremony) sotsugyø´-shiki ༛ᴏᘟ commend v (praises) homemásu ࡮ࡴࡱࡌ࣬「ࡴࡱࡌ comment 1. n (explanation) kaisetsu ゆㄕ 2. n (critique, opinion) hyøron ビㄵ 3. n komento ࢤ࣒ࣤࢹ → remark 4. ~s on v (explains) kaisetsu shimásu ゆㄕࡊࡱࡌ; (criticizes) hyøron shimásu ビㄵࡊࡱࡌ commentary n 1. (interpretation) kaisétsu ゆㄕ 2. (explanatory note) chüshaku Ἰ㔐 3. (records) kiroku エ㘋 4. (on-the-spot broadcasting) jikkyø høsø ᐁἛ ᨲ㏞ commerce n shø´gyø ၛᴏ; (trade) bøeki ㈘᪾ commercial (message) n komåsharu ࢤ࣏࣭ࢨࣔࣜ, shiiému (CM) ࢨ࣭࢙࣑ commission 1. n (handling charge) tesü-ryø ᡥᩐᩩ; (brokerage fee) sáya ࡈࡷ 2. v (~s ... to do it) (sore o ... ni) irai shimásu ࡐࡿ ࢅ... ࡞ ౪㢏ࡊࡱࡌ commit v 1. (entrusts) yudanemásu ࡹࡓࡠࡱࡌ࣬ጟࡠࡱࡌ 2. (perpetrates) okashimásu ≚ࡊࡱࡌ; hatarakimásu ഼ࡀࡱࡌ commitment n 1. (promise) yakusoku ⣑ᮨ 2. (duty) gimu ⩇ຸ 3. (responsibility) sekinin ㈈௴

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committee n iín-kai ጟဤఌ; committee member(s) n íin ጟဤ commodity n shøhin ၛဗ common adj futsü (no) ᬉ㏳ ࡡ ; kyøtsü (no) භ㏳ ࡡ ; (average) nami (no) ୩ ࡡ ; (vulgar, popular) zoku (na) ಐ ࡝ ; very ~ (is prevalent) hayari (no) ࡢࡷ ࡽ࣬Ὦ⾔ ࡡ commoner n shomin ᗚẰ, ippanjin ୌ⯙ெ common sense n (ippan) jøshiki ୌ⯙ᖏㆉ commonwealth n renpø ㏻㑝 commotion n 1. (tumult) sawagi 㥹 ࡁ 2. (agitation) døyø ິ᥺ 3. (chaos) konran Ί஗ commune 1. v danwa shimásu ㄧヨ ࡊࡱࡌ 2. n chihø jichitai ᆀ᪁⮤ ἖మ communicate v tsutaemásu ఎ࠻ࡱ ࡌ; tsüjimásu ㏳ࡋࡱࡌ communication n (traffic) køtsü ஹ ㏳, ørai ᙸᮮ; (message, news) táyori ౼ࡽ, tsüshin ㏳ಘ Communist n kyøsan shugí-sha භ ⏐୹⩇⩽ community n komyuniti ࢤ࣐ࣖࢼ ࢷ࢔, komyunitii ࢤ࣐ࣖࢼࢷ࢔࣭, (society) shákai ♣ఌ commute v kayoimásu ㏳࠷ࡱࡌ; ~ to work tsükin shimásu ㏳ໂࡊ ࡱࡌ commuter n 1. (to work) tsükinsha ㏳ໂ⩽ 2. (goes to school) tsügaku-sha ㏳Ꮥ⩽ companion n nakamá ௯㛣; (o-)


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tsure ࠽ ㏻ࡿ, (o-)tómo ࠽ ౩, tomodachi ཪ㐡; (o-)aite ࠽ ┞ᡥ company n (firm) kaisha ఌ♣, ... -sha ... ♣; (within the office/ company) shánai (no) ♣හ ࡡ ; (group) kumí ⤄; (social) tsukiai ௛ࡀྙ࠷࣬ࡗࡀ࠵࠷, køsai ஹ 㝷; (guests) raikyaku ᮮᐂ, (o-) kyaku ࠽ ᐂ, o-kyaku-san/sámá ࠽ᐂࡈࢆࡈࡱ࣬ᵕ; keep one company ... to tsuki-aimásu ... ࡛௛ࡀ ྙ࠷ࡱࡌ࣬ࡗࡀ࠵࠷ࡱࡌ compare v kurabemásu Ẓ࡬ࡱ ࡌ, hikaku shimásu Ẓ㍉ࡊࡱࡌ; taishø/taihi shimásu ᑊ↯ᑊẒࡊ ࡱࡌ; (collates) terashimásu ↯ ࡼࡊࡱࡌ; as compared with ... ni tái-shite ... ࡞ᑊࡊ࡙ comparison n hikaku Ẓ㍉; taishø ᑊ↯, taihi ᑊẒ compass n (for directions) rashinban ⨮㔢┑; (for drafting) konpasu ࢤࣤࣂࢪ compassion n (o-)násake ࠽ ᝗ࡄ compatibility n aishø´ ┞ᛮ compensate v mukuimásu ሒ࠷ࡱࡌ;

competitive adj 1. (fiercely-~) kyøsø no hageshii ❿ணࡡ⃥ࡊ ࠷ 2. (strong desire to compete) kyøsø-shin no tsuyoi ❿ணᚨ ࡡᙁ࠷ competitor n kyøsø-áite ❿ண┞ᡥ complain v (gives utterance) fuhei/ mónku o iimásu ୘ᖲᩝྀࢅゕ ࠷ࡱࡌ; (guchi o) koboshimásu ࡃࡔ࣬ម⑭ࢅ ࡆ࡯ࡊࡱࡌ;

(mutters to oneself) butsu-butsu iimásu ࡩࡗࡩࡗゕ࠷ࡱࡌ; kujø o iimásu ⱖ᝗ࢅゕ࠷ࡱࡌ; (makes a formal accusation) uttaemásu

セ࠻ࡱࡌ complaint n fuhei ୘ᖲ, mónku ᩝ ྀ, kujø ⱖ᝗, (o-)kógoto ࠽ ᑚ ゕ, guchi ࡃࡔ࣬ម⑭; (lawsuit) uttae セ࠻ complement n hosoku ⿭㊂, hojü ⿭ඖ complete 1. becomes ~ v (full) michimásu ‫ ࡌࡱࡔ‮‬2. ~s it v kansei shimásu Ᏸᠺࡊࡱࡌ; (a set) soroemásu ᥖ࠻ࡱࡌ 3. oginaimásu ⿭࠷ࡱࡌ complete adj (exhaustive) mø´ra (indemnifies) hoshø shimásu ⿭ർࡊࡱࡌ; (certify) hoshø shita ... ⥑⨮ࡊࡒ... completely adv mattakú ධࡂ࣬ࡱ shimásu ಕチࡊࡱࡌ compensation n (indemnity money) ࡖࡒࡂ, to(t)temo ࡛ ࡖ ࡙ࡵ, hoshø-kin ⿭ർ㔘, benshø ᘒർ, sukkári ࡌࡖ࠾ࡽ, sokkúri ࡐࡖ ࡂࡽ; (+ [NAGATIVE]) zenzen ධ baishø ㈲ർ ↓; (all) zénbu ධ㒂࣬ࡏࢆࡩ, compete v kisoimásu ❿࠷ࡱࡌ, kyøsø shimásu ❿ணࡊࡱࡌ minná ࡲࢆ࡝࣬ⓑ competency n (qualification) complex n konpurekkusu ࢤࣤࣈ ࣝࢴࢠࢪ, rettø-kan ຋➴វ shikaku ㈠᰹ competition n kyøsø ❿ண complexion n kao-iro 㢞Ⰵ

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complicated adj fukuzatsu (na) 々 㞟 ࡝ , komi-itta ㎰ࡲථࡖࡒ࣬ ࡆࡲ࠷ࡖࡒ, yaya(k)koshíi ࡷࡷ ࡖ ࡆࡊ࠷, wazurawashii ↱ࢂ ࡊ࠷; gets ~ kojiremásu ࡆࡋࡿࡱ ࡌ, motsuremásu ࡵࡗࡿࡱࡌ complications n (details) ikisatsu ࠷ࡀࡈࡗ࣬⤊⦃; (entanglements) motsure ࡵࡗࡿ compliment n seji ୠ㎙, o-seji ࠽ୠ ㎙, home-kotoba ࡮ࡴゕⴝ comply; ~ with v ... ni ø-jimásu ... ࡞ᚺࡋࡱࡌ; ... o nattoku shimásu ... ࢅ⣙ᚋࡊࡱࡌ component n séibun ᠺฦ compose v (writes) tsuzurimásu ⥓ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡗࡘࡽࡱࡌ, tsukurimásu షࡽࡱࡌ composed adj (unruffled) heiki (na) ᖲẴ ࡝ ; reisei (na) ෫㟴 ࡝ composite adj søgø-teki (na) ⥪ྙ Ⓩ ࡝ composition n (writing) sakubun షᩝ; (constituency) køsei ᵋᠺ comprehend → understand → include → comprise → consist of comprehension n rikai ⌦ゆ comprehensive adj (composite) søgø-teki (na) ⥪ྙⓏ ࡝ compress v 1. (constricts) asshuku shimásu ᅸ⦨ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (presses) appaku shimásu ᅸ㏍ࡊࡱࡌ 3. (shortens) tanshuku shimásu ▯⦨ࡊࡱࡌ comprise v (includes all items) mø´ra shimásu ⥑⨮ࡊࡱࡌ compromise 1. n (gives in) dakyø

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ጂ༝ 2. v dakyø shimásu ጂ༝ ࡊࡱࡌ compulsion n 1. (psychology) shødø kyøhaku ⾢ິᙁ㏍ 2. (forcing) kyøsei ᙁโ compulsive adj 1. (psychology) kyøhaku kan’nen no aru ᙁ㏍ びᛍࡡ࠵ࡾ, osaerarenai ᢒ࠻ࡼ ࡿ࡝࠷ 2. (very interesting or

compelling) hito (no kokoro) o hikitsukeru ெ ࡡᚨ ࢅᘤࡀ ࡗࡄࡾ compulsory adj 1. (stipulated) kitei (no) ぜᏽ ࡡ 2. (obligatory) gimu-teki (na) ⩇ຸⓏ ࡝ 3. (required) hissu (no) ᚪ㡪 ࡡ ; compulsory education n gimu-kyø´iku ⩇ຸᩅ⫩ computation n keisan ゛⟤ compute v keisan shimásu ゛⟤ࡊ ࡱࡌ computer n konpyü´ta ࢤࣤࣅ࣭ࣖ ࢰ, konpyü´tå ࢤࣤࣅ࣭ࣖࢰ࣭ computer science n konpyü´ta-ka/ konpyü´tå saiensu ࢤࣤࣅ࣭ࣖ ࢰࢤࣤࣅ࣭ࣖࢰ࣭࣬ࢦ࢕࢙ࣤ ࢪ, jøhø kagaku ᝗ሒ⛁Ꮥ, jøhø køgaku ᝗ሒᕝᏕ comrade n (...) dø´shi ... ྜྷᚷ, (...) nakama ... ௯㛣 con n sagi ノḥ; con man n sagishi ノḥᖅ࣬ࢦ࢟ᖅ, peten-shi ࣋ࢷࣤᖅ conceal → hide → cover up conceit n [INFORMAL] unubore ࠹ ࡟࡯ࡿ, [FORMAL] kadai hyøka 㐛ኬビ౮


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concentrate v shüchü shimásu 㞗୯ ࡊࡱࡌ concept n gáinen ᴣᛍ, shisø ᛦ᝷ conception n 1. (concept) gáinen ᴣᛍ, shisø ᛦ᝷ 2. (fertilization) jusei ུ⢥ 3. (inception of pregnancy) jutai ུ⫶, kainin ᠔ዲ concern 1. n (relevance) kankei 㛭౿, (interest) kanshin 㛭ᚨ; (worry) shinpai ᚨ㒼; (business) kaisha ఌ♣ 2. v (relates to) ... ni kanshimásu ... ࡞㛭ࡊࡱࡌ concerning prep ... ni kán-shite ... ࡞㛭ࡊ࡙, ... o megutte ... ࢅ ᕙࡖ࡙ concert n ongák(u) -kai 㡚ᴞఌ, ensø´-kai ⁿ዇ఌ, consåto ࢤࣤ ࢦ࣭ࢹ concession n 1. (compromise) jøho ㆙Ṅ 2. (right) tokken ≁ᶊ conciliate v nadamemásu ࡝ࡓࡴࡱ ࡌ; wakai sasemásu ࿰ゆࡈࡎࡱ ࡌ; chøtei shimásu ㄢೳࡊࡱࡌ concise adj kanketsu (na) ⠾₡ ࡝ conclude v (brings to an end) sumashimásu ῥࡱࡊࡱࡌ; (ends

concrete 1. n (cement) konkuríito ࢤࣤࢠ࣭ࣛࢹ 2. adj (not abstract) gutai-teki(na) රమⓏ ࡝ concubine n o-mekake(-san) ࠽጑ ࡈࢆ , nígø(-san) ஦ྒ ࡈࢆ concur v (agrees) døi shimásu ྜྷណࡊࡱࡌ, (coincides) itchi shimásu ୌ⮬ࡊࡱࡌ concurrent adj (occurring at the same time) døji ni okoru ྜྷ᫤ ࡞㉫ࡆࡾ concussion n (brain) nø-shintø ⬳ ࡊࢆ࡛࠹ condemn v hinan shimásu 㟸㞬 ࡊࡱࡌ condense v 1. (concentrates) gyøshuku shimásu ฆ⦨ࡊࡱࡌ, nøshuku shimásu ⃨⦨ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (liquefies) ekika shimásu ᾦ໩ ࡊࡱࡌ 3. (summarizes) yøyaku shimásu こ⣑ࡊࡱࡌ condition n (state) ari-sama ᭯ ᵕ࣬࠵ࡽࡈࡱ, jøtai ≟ឺ, jijø ஥ ᝗, jissai ᐁ㝷, guai රྙ, chøshi ㄢᏄ; (stipulation) jøken ᮪௲ condolence n okuyami ࠽᜴ࡷࡲ condom n kondømu ࢤࣤࢺ࣭࣑ a discussion) ketsuron shimásu condominium n kondominiamu ࢤ ⤎ㄵࡊࡱࡌ; (finalizes) seiritsu ࣤࢺ࣐ࢼ࢓࣑ condone v mokunin shimásu 㯪 shimásu ᠺ❟ࡊࡱࡌ conclusion n 1. (of discussion) ヾࡊࡱࡌ ketsuron ⤎ㄵ; in ~ ketsuron to conduct 1. n (behavior) okonai ⾔ shite ⤎ㄵ࡛ࡊ࡙ 2. (finalization) ࠷࣬࠽ࡆ࡝࠷ 2. v michibimásu ᑙࡀࡱࡌ, shiki shimásu ᣞᥱࡊ seiritsu ᠺ❟ concoct v koshiraemásu ࡆࡊࡼ࠻ ࡱࡌ ࡱࡌ, tsukuriagemásu షࡽ୕ࡅ conductor n (train) shashø(-san) ࡱࡌ ㌬ᤰ ࡈࢆ ; (orchestra) shikí-sha

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ᣞᥱ⩽ cone n ensui(-kei) ළ㗱 ᙟ , køn ࢤ࣭ࣤ confectionery n (o-)kashí-ya ࠽ ⳣᏄᒁ confederacy n rengø ㏻ྙ, dømei (koku) ྜྷ┍ ᅗ confer v 1. hanashi-aimásu ヨࡊྙ ࠷ࡱࡌ 2. → grant conference n (personal) sødan ┞ ㄧ; [FORMAL] káigí ఌ㆗, taikai ኬఌ; (discussion) kyø´gí ༝㆗, (negotiation) hanashi-ai ヨࡊྙ࠷ confess v 1. hákujø shimásu Ⓣ≟ ࡊࡱࡌ, jihaku shimásu ⮤Ⓣࡊ ࡱࡌ, kokuhaku shimásu ࿈Ⓣࡊ ࡱࡌ 2. (frankly reveals) uchiakemásu ᡬࡔ᪺ࡄࡱࡌ confession n hákujø Ⓣ≟; (of sins) zángé ࡉࢆࡅ࣬ᠪ᜴ confidence n shin’yø ಘ⏕, shinrai ಘ㢏, tánomi 㢏ࡲ; (self-~) jishin ⮤ಘ; (secure feeling) anshin Ꮽᚨ confidential adj naisho (no) හ⥬ ࡡ confirm v (a reservation) (yoyaku o) kakunin shimásu ஢⣑ࢅ ☔ ヾࡊࡱࡌ conflict n tatakai ᡋ࠷ confluence n gøryü ྙὮ conform (with/to) v ... ni shitagaimásu ... ࡞ᚉ࠷ࡱࡌ, ... ni motozukimásu ... ࡞ᇱࡘࡀࡱࡌ confront v ... ni tai-shimásu ... ࡞ ᑊࡊࡱࡌ; ... to tairitsu shimásu ... ࡛ᑊ❟ࡊࡱࡌ; (opposes) ... ni

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taikø shimásu ... ࡞ᑊᢘࡊࡱࡌ confrontation n taikø ᑊᢘ confound v 1. kondø shimásu Ί ྜྷࡊࡱࡌ 2. (perplexes) konwaku sasemásu ᅏᝠࡈࡎࡱࡌ Confucius n Køshi ᏇᏄ confused; gets ~ komarimásu ᅏࡽ ࡱࡌ࣬ࡆࡱࡽࡱࡌ, (flustered) awatemásu ុ࡙ࡱࡌ࣬࠵ࢂ࡙ࡱ ࡌ; (messy, disorderly) mechamecha ࡴࡔࡶࡴࡔࡶ confusion n (disorder) konran Ί஗, kónzatsu Ί㞟 congenial adj aishø´ ga(/no) íi ┞ᛮ ࠿ ࡡ ࠷࠷ congested n (traffic) jütai-jø´kyø Ῠ⁣≟Ἓ; is ~ jütai shite imásu Ῠ⁣ࡊ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ conglomerate n konguromaritto ࢤ ࣤࢡ࣏ࣞࣛࢴࢹ, fukugø-kigyø 々ྙ௺ᴏ congratulate n (o-)iwai shimásu ࠽ ♻࠷ࡊࡱࡌ congratulation n shukuga ♻㈙, o-iwai ࠽♻࠷; Congratulations! O-medetø gozaimásu. ࠽ࡴ࡚࡛ ࠹ࡇࡉ࠷ࡱࡌ congregate v shügø shimásu 㞗ྙ ࡊࡱࡌ congress → Diet; conference conjecture 1. n suisoku ᥆ῼ, (o-) sasshi ࠽ ᐳࡊ 2. v (guesses, supposes) sas-shimásu ᐳࡊࡱࡌ conjugal adj füfu (no) ኰ፦ ࡡ , kon’in (no) ፡ጵ ࡡ conjunction n setsuzókú-shi ᥃⤾ペ connect (with) v (... to) tsunagi-


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másu ... ࡛ ࡗ࡝ࡁࡱࡌ; ... to renraku shimásu ... ࡛㏻⤙ࡊࡱ ࡌ; tsü-jimásu ㏳ࡋࡱࡌ connection n renraku ㏻⤙; (relevance) kankei 㛭౿; (relation) tsunagari ࡗ࡝࠿ࡽ; (link) tsunagi ࡗ࡝ࡁ conscience n ryø´shin Ⰳᚨ conscientious adj majime (na) ࡱ ࡋࡴ࣬┷㟻┘ ࡝ ; ryøshin-teki (na) ⰃᚨⓏ ࡝ consciousness n íshiki ណㆉ, obóé つ࠻; loses ~ íshiki o ushinaimásu ណㆉࢅ኶࠷ࡱࡌ conscription n (for military service) shøshü ྇㞗࣬ᣅ㞗 consent v shøchi/shødaku/døi shimásu ᢆ▩ᢆㅑྜྷណࡊࡱࡌ, nattoku shimásu ⣙ᚋࡊࡱࡌ

conspicuous adj ichijirushíi ⴥࡊ ࠷࣬࠷ࡔࡋࡾࡊ࠷; medátta ... ┘ ❟ࡖࡒ..., medátte imásu ┘❟ࡖ ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ constant adj chakujitsu (na) ╌ᐁ ࡝ ; fuhen (no) ୘ንࡡ constantly → always constipation n benpi ౼⛆ constitute v køsei shimásu ᵋᠺࡊ ࡱࡌ constitution n 1. (basic laws) kénpø ៿Ἢ; Constitution (Memorial) Day (3 May) Kenpø-kinénbi ៿Ἢエᛍ᪝ 2. (physical) taishitsu మ㈹3. (composition) køsei ᵋᠺ construct → build construction n (work) kø´ji ᕝ ஥; under ~ køji-chü ᕝ஥୯; consequence → result (building) kensetsu ᘋシ conservative adj hoshu-teki (na) construe v káishaku shimásu ゆ㔐 ಕᏬⓏ ࡝ ; shøkyoku-teki (na) ࡊࡱࡌ ᾐᴗⓏ ࡝ ; (moderate) uchiwa consul n ryø´ji 㡷஥; consul general (na) හ㍧ ࡝ n sø-ryø´ji ⥪㡷஥ conserve 1. v (saves) setsuyaku consulate n ryøjí-kan 㡷஥㤃 shimásu ⟿⣑ࡊࡱࡌ 2. n (fruit consult v (a person) ... to sødan jam) jamu ࢩ࣑ࣔ shimásu ... ࡛┞ㄧࡊࡱࡌ consider v kangaemásu ⩻࠻ࡱࡌ; consultant n kómon 㢫ၡ , kon(takes into account) kø´ryo ni sárutanto ࢤࣤࢦࣜࢰࣤࢹ consumer n shøhí-sha ᾐ㈕⩽ iremásu ⩻៎࡞ථࡿࡱࡌ considerable adj søtø (na) ┞ᙔ consumption n shøhi ᾐ㈕; ࡝ , yohodo (no)ఴ⛤ ࡡ , consumption tax n (duty) shøhi-zei yoppodo (no)ࡻࡖࡰ࡜ ࡡ ᾐ㈕⛧ consist; ~ of ...kara nátte imásu contact 1. n sesshoku ᥃よ; comes in ~ (with ...) (... ni) furemásu ...࠾ࡼᠺࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ consolation n nagusame ័ࡴ࣬࡝ ... ࡞ よࡿࡱࡌ, ses-shimásu ᥃ ࡃࡈࡴ, ian ័Ꮽ ࡊࡱࡌ, sesshoku shimásu ᥃よ

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contact lenses

ࡊࡱࡌ 2. v (~s a person) ... to renraku shimásu ࡛㏻⤙ࡊࡱࡌ, ... ni aimásu ... ࡞ఌ࠷ࡱࡌ contact lenses n kontakuto-rénzu ࢤࣤࢰࢠࢹࣝࣤࢫ, kontákuto ࢤࣤࢰࢠࢹ contagious disease n densenbyø ఎ᯹⑋ contain v ... ga háitte imásu ... ࠿ ථࡖ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ; ... o fukumimásu ... ࢅྱࡲࡱࡌ container n ire-mono ථࡿ∸, yø´ki ᐖჹ; (box) hako ⟵; (for transporting goods) kónténa ࢤࣤࢷࢻ contamination n osen ỗ᯹ contempt n keibetsu ㍅ⶔ contented adj ... de mánzoku shimásu ... ࡚‫‮‬㊂ࡊࡱࡌ; osamarimásu ἖ࡱࡽࡱࡌ contents n nakámi ୯㌗, naiyø හ ᐖ; (table of ~s) mokuji ┘ḗ, midashi ずฝࡊ contest n konkü´ru ࢤࣤࢠ࣭ࣜ, kóntesuto ࢤࣤࢷࢪࢹ; (competition) kyøsø ❿ண; (sports) kyø´gi ❿ᢇ continent n tairiku ኬ㝛 continuation n tsuzuki ⤾ࡀ continue v (it ~s) tsuzukimásu ⤾ࡀ ࡱࡌ; (~s it) tsuzukemásu ⤾ࡄࡱࡌ contraceptive n 1. hinín-yaku 㑂ዲ ⷾ, (pills) keikø-hinín-yaku ⤊ཾ 㑂ዲⷾ 2. (device) hinín-gu 㑂ዲ ර; (condom) kondø´mu ࢤࣤࢺ࣭࣑ contract 1. n (an agreement) keiyaku ዉ⣑ 2. v (agrees to undertake work) ukeoimásu ㄫ

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ࡄㇿ࠷ࡱࡌ contractor n ukeoí-nin ㄫࡄㇿ࠷ெ contradict v ... ni sakaraimásu ... ࡞㏣ࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ → deny contradiction n (inconsistency) mujun □┢ contrary adj hantai (no) ཬᑊ ࡡ ; gyaku (no) ㏣ ࡡ ; acts ~ to

(goes against) ... ni han-shimásu ... ࡞ཬࡊࡱࡌ, ... ni sakaraimásu ... ࡞㏣ࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ contrast 1. n taishø/taihi ᑊ↯ᑊ Ẓ 2. v (compares) kurabemásu Ẓ࡬ࡱࡌ; in ~ to/with ... ni táishite ... ࡞ᑊࡊ࡙, ... ni hán-shite ... ࡞ཬࡊ࡙ control 1. n shíhai ᨥ㒼, kánri ⟮ ⌦; (of prices, etc.) tøsei ⤣โ 2. v (supervises it) tori-shimarimásu ཱིࡽ⥶ࡱࡽࡱࡌ; (restrains) osaemásu ᢒ࠻ࡱࡌ; (operates equipment) søjü shimásu ᧧⦢ࡊࡱࡌ controversy n ronsø ㄵண convenience n (go-)tsugø ࡇ 㒌ྙ, tsuide ࡗ࠷࡚࡞; at your ~ tsuide no sai ࡗ࠷࡚ࡡ㝷, tsuide no tokí ni ࡗ࠷࡚ࡡ᫤࡞ convenience store n konbini ࢤࣤ ࣄࢼ convenient adj bénri (na) ౼ฺ ࡝ , bén ga íi ౼࠿࠷࠷; chø´hø (na) 㔔᐀ ࡝ ; (easy to arrange) tsugø ga íi 㒌ྙ࠿࠷࠷ convent n shüdø´-in ಞ㐠㝌 convention → conference, meeting conventional adj heibon (na) ᖲฉ ࡝


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conversation n (ordinary) hanashí ヨ, danwa ㄧヨ; (in language class, etc.) kaiwa ఌヨ conversion n henkan ንᥦ; ~ key henkan-kíi ንᥦ࣭࢞ convert v hiki-kaemásu ᘤࡀን࠻ ࡱࡌ convey v hakobimásu 㐘ࡦࡱࡌ cook 1. n ryøri-nin ᩩ⌦ெ, kókku(-san) ࢤࢴࢠ ࡈࢆ , (Japanese chef) itamae ᯀ๑ 2. v (~s it) ryø´ri shimásu ᩩ⌦ࡊࡱࡌ, 3. v (it boils) niemásu ↳࠻ࡱࡌ cool 1. adj suzushíi ᾬࡊ࠷; (calm) reisei (na) ෫㟴 ࡝ ; (unperturbed) heiki (na) ᖲẴ ࡝ 2. v it ~s off/ down samemásu ෫ࡴࡱࡌ, hiemásu ෫࠻ࡱࡌ; (~s it) hiyashimásu ෫ࡷࡊࡱࡌ cooperation n kyøryoku ༝ງ; (joint activity) kyødø භྜྷ copy 1. n (of a book) ... -bu ... 㒂, ichí-bu ୌ㒂 2. n (photocopy) kópii ࢤࣅ࣭ 3. n (reproduction) fukusha 々෕, fukusei 々⿿ 4. v (copies it) utsushimásu ෕ࡊ ࡱࡌ, fukusha/fukusei shimásu 々෕々⿿ࡊࡱࡌ; (imitates) nisemásu జࡎࡱࡌ; (makes a ~) kópii o torimásu, ࢤࣅ࣭ࢅ࡛ ࡽࡱࡌ cord n himo ࡥࡵ࣬ࣃ࣓࣬⣛, nawá ࡝ࢂ࣬⦎, kø´do ࢤ࣭ࢺ cordial adj shínsetsu (na) のว ࡝ , kokoro no komotta ᚨࡡࡆ ࡵࡖࡒ core n shín ࡊࢆ࣬ᚨ࣬ⰲ

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cork n kóruku ࢤࣜࢠ, sén ᰞ, korukú-sen ࢤࣜࢠᰞ cormorant n u ࢗ࣬㬴; cormorant fishing n ukai 㬴㣣࠷ corn n 1. (maize) tø-mórokoshi ࢹ࣓ࢗࣞࢤࢨ, køn ࢤ࣭ࣤ 2. (on skin) uonome 㨮ࡡ┘; (callus) táko ࡒࡆ, (bunion) mamé ࡱࡴ; soko-mame ᗇࡱࡴ corner n (outside) kádo ぽ; (inside) súmi 㝦 corporation n 1. (joint-stock

corporation) kabushiki-gáisha ᰬᘟఌ♣ 2. (incorporated association) shadan ♣ᅆ 3. (public corporation) kødan පᅆ corps n gundan ㌯ᅆ; Peace Corps heiwa-bútai ᖲ࿰㒂㝪 corpse n shitai Ṓమ, nakigara ࡝ ࡀ࠿ࡼ࣬ஷ㦹, shigai Ṓ㦹 correct 1. adj tadashíi ḿࡊ࠷ 2. v atarimásu ᙔࡒࡽࡱࡌ; (~s it) naoshimásu ├ࡊࡱࡌ, aratamemásu ᨭࡴࡱࡌ correspond (to ...) v (... ni) taiø shimásu ... ࡞ ᑊᚺࡊࡱࡌ correspondence n (messages) tsüshin ㏳ಘ; (equivalence) taiø ᑊᚺ corridor n røka ᗧୖ cosmetics n (o-)keshø ࠽ ໩⢕, keshø-hin ໩⢕ဗ cost 1. n (expense) híyø ㈕⏕ 2. v it ~s (how much) (íkura) shimásu ࠷ࡂࡼ ࡊࡱࡌ; (requires) yø-shimásu こࡊࡱࡌ; at any cost nán to shité mo ర࡛ࡊ࡙ࡵ, náni


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ga nánde mo ర࠿ర࡚ࡵ costly → expensive costume n fukusø ᭱⿞ cotton n wata ⥝, momen ᮄ⥝, kotton ࢤࢴࢹࣤ couch n ne-isu ᐱ᳌Ꮔ, naga-isu 㛏᳌Ꮔ cough v sekí o shimásu ဌࢅࡊ ࡱࡌ could → can; maybe counsel 1. n (guide, coach) shidøsha ᣞᑙ⩽ 2. v (~s them) shidø shimásu ᣞᑙࡊࡱࡌ count v kazoemásu ᩐ࠻ࡱࡌ counter n (shop ~) uri-ba ኉ࡽሔ counterclockwise adj hidari-máwari (ni) ᕞᅂࡽ ࡞ counterfeit 1. adj nise (no) അ ࡡ 2. v nisemásu జࡎࡱࡌ; counterfeit bill n (currency) nisesatsu അ ᮈ࣬࡞ࡎᮈ࣬㉒ᮈ country n 1. kuni ᅗ;... -koku ... ᅗ 2. (countryside) inaka ࠷࡝࠾࣬ ⏛⯃; (outdoors) yagai 㔕አ county n gún 㑾 (U.S.); shü´ ᕗ

køto ࢤ࣭ࢹ 3. (imperial/royal) kyütei ᐋᘈ; court dances and music n búgaku ⯑ᴞ courtesy n reigí ♡ൢ cousin n itóko ࠷࡛ࡆ࣬ᚉඕᘭ࣬

ᚉ጗ግ cover n (lid) futa ࡨࡒ࣬⵱ kabå ࢜ࣁ࣭; (book, magazine, etc.) hyøshi´ ⾪⣤ cover v 1. (~s it) øimásu さ>࠽࠽@ ࠷ࡱࡌ; (includes all items) mø´ra shimásu ⥑⨮ࡊࡱࡌ 2. ~s up (conceals) fusemásu ఄࡎ ࡱࡌ cow n ushi ∭࣬ࢗࢨ coward n okubyø-mono ⮉⑋>᠀ ⑋࣬࠽ࡂࡦࡺ࠹@⩽ crab n kani ࢜ࢼ࣬⽛ crack 1. n suki (-ma) ㏩ࡀ 㛣 ; (wide) ware-me ๪ࡿ┘; (fine) hibí ࡥࡦ࣬ࣃࣄ; (flaw) kizu ഭ 2. it ~s v waremásu ๪ࡿࡱࡌ cradle n yuri-kago ࡹࡽ࠾ࡇ࣬᥺ ࡽ⡪ crag n iwá ᒷ cram; ~s it in v tsumemásu ョࡴ (Britain) couple → two; a couple n (husband ࡱࡌ; it is crammed in tsumariand wife) fü´fu ኰ፦ másu ョࡱࡽࡱࡌ courage n yü´ki ຩẴ cram school n júku ሺ course n kø´su ࢤ࣭ࢪ; (in school) cramp n 1. (leg) tsuru ࡗࡾ 2. kamoku ⛁┘; (of action) høshin (stomach) ikeiren ⫮⑙᨝࣬⫮ ᪁㔢; (of time) keika ⤊㐛; ࡄ࠷ࡿࢆ (development) nariyuki ᠺࡽ crane n 1. (bird) tsúru ࢵࣜ࣬㭧 ⾔ࡀ࣬࡝ࡽࡹࡀ; in the ~ ... of 2. (machine) kurë´n ࢠ࣭ࣝࣤ crash n (plane) tsuiraku ቍⴘ; (during) ...-chu (ni) ୯ ࡞ court n 1. (of law) saiban-sho (collision) shøtotsu ⾢✲ ⿚ึᡜ, høtei Ἢᘈ 2. (sports) crass adj egetsunái ࠻ࡅࡗ࡝࠷

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crate n wakú ᯗ, hako ⟵ crater n funka -kø ᄂℾཾ crawl v haimásu ࡢ࠷ࡱࡌ࣬㏲࠷ ࡱࡌ crazy adj 1. ki-chigái (no) Ẵ㐢 ࠷࣬ࡀࡔ࠿࠷ ࡡ 2. is ~ about ... ni muchü désu ... ࡞ከ୯࡚ࡌ cream n kuríimu ࢠ࣭࣑ࣛ; cream puff n shü-kurímu ࢨ࣭ࣖࢠࣛ ࣭࣑ crease n 1. shiwa ࡊࢂ࣬⓶ 2. (pleat) orimé ᢙࡽ┘ create v tsukurimásu ㏸>๭@ࡽ ࡱࡌ creator n (god) søzø-shu ๭㏸୹, (artists) kurieitå ࢠ࢙ࣛ࢕ࢰ࣭ creature n séibutsu ⏍∸, kuriichå ࢠ࣭ࣛࢲ࣭ࣔ credit n 1. shin’yø ಘ⏕ 2. (one’s ~) noren ࡡࡿࢆ࣬ᬦ⡐ 3. (on ~) kaké ᤻ࡄ; buys it on ~ (on one’s account) tsuké de kaimásu ࡗࡄ ࡚㈑࠷ࡱࡌ; credit sales n kakeuri ᤻ࡄ኉ࡽ, uri-kake ኉ࡽ᤻ࡄ creed n shinjø ಘ᮪ creek n ogawa ᑚᕖ creep 1. v haimásu ࡢ࠷>㏲࠷@ ࡱࡌ; (baby) hai hai shimásu ࡢ ࠷ࡢ࠷ࡊࡱࡌ 2. that ~ n aitsu ࠵࠷ࡗ cremation n kasø ℾⴷ, shøkyaku ↕༴ crematorium n kasø-ba ℾⴷሔ crest; family ~ n monshø ⣘❮, món ⣘, kamon ᐓ⣘ crevice n ware-me ๪ࡿ┘ crew n (member) norikumí-in ஋

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⤄ဤ, (of ship) sen’in ⯢ဤ crime n tsúmi ⨝, hanzai ≚⨝ criminal n (culprit) hánnin ≚ெ crimson adj makká (na) ┷ࡖ㉝࣬ ࡱࡖ࠾ ࡝ cripple n shintai shøgaisha ㌗మ㝸 ᐐ⩽ crisis n (critical moment) kíkí ༱ᶭ crisp adj paripari (no) ࣂࣛࣂࣛ࣬ ࡤࡽࡤࡽ ࡡ criterion n (standard of judgment) monosáshí ࡵࡡࡈࡊ࣬∸ᕣࡊ࣬ ∸ᣞࡊ, kijun ᇱ‵ critic n hihyø-ka ᢀビᐓ, (judge) hihán-sha ᢀึ⩽; (commentator) hyøron-ka ビㄵᐓ critical adj (judgmental) hihanteki (na) ᢀึⓏ ࡝ ; (urgent) kinkyü (na) ⥥᛬ ࡝ ; critical moment n kíkí ༱ᶭ criticize v hihyø shimásu ᢀビࡊࡱ ࡌ; (judges) hihan shimásu ᢀึ ࡊࡱࡌ; (comments on) hyøron shimásu ビㄵࡊࡱࡌ; (censures) sememásu ㈈ࡴࡱࡌ crocodile n wáni ࣠ࢼ࣬㪥 crony n nakama ௯㛣 crop n (harvest) minori ᐁࡽ, shükaku ཭✥ cross 1. n (symbol) júji ༎Ꮚ; (wooden) jüji-ka ༎Ꮚᯣ 2. n (“×”) bátsu ࡣࡗ (vs. maru ୷ “‫)”ې‬ cross v 1. (goes across) watarimásu ῳࡽࡱࡌ, yoko-girimásu ᶋ วࡽࡱࡌ; (goes over a height)


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koemásu ㉲࠻ࡱࡌ 2. (~es one’s crystal n suishø Ềᬏ, kesshø ⤎ᬏ, legs) ashí o kumimásu ⬦ࢅ⤄ࡲ kurisutaru ࢠࣛࢪࢰࣜ ࡱࡌ cub n ko Ꮔ crossing n (street intersection) cube n rippø (-tai) ❟᪁ మ cuckoo n kákkø ࢜ࢴࢤࢗ; (little) køsa-ten ஹᕣⅤ crouch v shagamimásu ࡊࡶ࠿ࡲ hototógisu ࣌ࢹࢹ࢟ࢪ ࡱࡌ; (so as not to be seen) mi o cucumber n kyü´ri ࢞ࣖࢗࣛ; fusemásu ㌗ࢅఄࡎࡱࡌ (sushi-bar term) kappa ࢜ࢴࣂ crow n kárasu ࢜ࣚࢪ࣬Ⅺ࣬㬇 cuff n káfusu ࢜ࣆࢪ crowd n gunshü ⩄⾏, renjü/renchü culprit n hánnin ≚ெ ㏻୯; in crowds zórozoro ࡑࢀ cult n karuto ࢜ࣜࢹ ࡑࢀ cultivate v tagayashimásu ⪌ࡊࡱࡌ crowded; gets ~ komimásu ࡆࡲࡱ cultural shock n karuchå-shokku ࡌ࣬Ίࡲࡱࡌ crown n økan ⋜෗ Crown Prince n Køtáishi ⓒኯᏄ, Køtáishi-sama ⓒኯᏄᵕ; Crown Princess Køtáishi-hi ⓒኯᏄደ crude adj sómatsu (na) ⢊ᮆ ࡝ , zatsu (na) 㞟 ࡝ cruel adj mugói ࡳࡇ࠷, tsurai ࡗ ࡼ࠷࣬㎖࠷, hakujø (na) ⷟᝗ ࡝ , zankoku (na) ṟ㓖 ࡝ , zangyaku (na) ṟ⹚ ࡝ cruise n kurüzu ࢠ࣭ࣜࢫ, funatabi ⯢᪉ crumble v (it ~s) kudakemásu ◃ࡄࡱࡌ; (~s it) kudakimásu ◃ࡀࡱࡌ crush v (~es it) tsubushimásu ࡗ ࡩࡊࡱࡌ࣬₵ࡊࡱࡌ; (it gets crushed) tsuburemásu ࡗࡩࡿࡱ ࡌ࣬₵ࡿࡱࡌ crust n kawá ⓮ crutch n matsuba-zúe ᮿⴝᮣ cry v nakimásu ἵࡀࡱࡌ; (cries out) sakebimásu ྆ࡦࡱࡌ

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࢜ࣜࢲ࣭ࣔࢨࣘࢴࢠ culture n (refinement) kyøyø ᩅ㣬; (farming) yøshoku 㣬 Ṣ; (civilization) búnka ᩝ ໩; Culture Day (3 November) Búnka no hí ᩝ໩ࡡ᪝; culture center n karuchå sentå ࢜ࣜࢲࣔ ࣭ࢬࣤࢰ࣭ cunning adj zurúi ࡍࡾ࠷ cup n (o-)cháwan ࠽ Ⲍ◿, koppu ࢤࢴࣈ, (with handle) káppu ࢜ࢴࣈ; (cupful) ... -hai ... ᮴ cupboard n (enclosed shelves) todana ᡖᲬ; (closet) oshi-ire ᢪ ࡊථࡿ curb 1. n (of road) hodø´ no fuchí Ṅ㐠ࡡ⦍࣬ࡨࡔ 2. v yokusei ᢒโࡊࡱࡌ 3. v (restrains) yokusei shimásu ᢒโࡊࡱࡌ cure v naoshimásu ἖ࡊࡱࡌ curios n kottø-hin 㦭⴯ဗ → antique curiosity n køkíshin ይዃᚨ curious adj (inquisitive) monó-


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zukí (na) ∸ይࡀ ࡝ ; (novel) mezurashíi ⌃ࡊ࠷࣬ࡴࡍࡼࡊ࠷ currant n rëzun ࣭ࣝࢫࣤ; hoshibudø ᖱࡊࣇࢺࢗ currency n (bill/note) (o-)satsu ࠽ ♡; shihei ⣤ᖨ current 1. adj (present) génzai no ... ⌟ᅹࡡ..., gén (-) ... ⌟...; current address n gen-jü´sho ⌟ప ᡜ 2. n (tide) chøryü ₳Ὦ; current affairs n jiji(mondai) ᫤஥ ၡ㢗 3. n (electrical) denryü 㞹Ὦ curriculum n karikyuramu ࢜ࣛ ࣑࢞ࣖࣚ curriculum vitae n rirekisho ᒓṌ᭡ curry n karë ࣭࢜ࣝ; (with rice) karë-ráisu ࣭࢜ࣝࣚ࢕ࢪ curse 1. n noroi ࡡࢀ࠷࣬࿖࠷ 2. v (utters a ~) noroimásu ࡡࢀ ࠷>࿖࠷@ࡱࡌ, (reviles) nonoshirimásu ࡡࡡࡊࡽࡱࡌ࣬⨤ࡾ cursor n (computer) kåsoru ࣭࢜ ࢮࣜ cursory adj 1. (hasty) isogi (no) ᛬ࡁ ࡡ 2. (superficial) hyømen-teki (na) ⾪㟻Ⓩ ࡝ 3. (perfunctory) ozanari (na) ࠽ࡉ࡝ࡽ ࡝ curt adj bu-áisø (na) ↋យ᝷ ࡝ , bukkírábø (na) ࡩࡖࡀࡼ࡯࠹ ࡝ curtail v herashimásu ΅ࡼࡊࡱࡌ curtain n kå´ten ࣭࢜ࢷࣤ; (bamboo) sudare ࡌࡓࡿ; (stage) makú ᖞ curve 1. n magari ᭜࠿ࡽ; (road) kåbu ࣭࢜ࣇ; (bend) sorí ࡐࡽ࣬ ཬࡽ, (arch) yumi-gata ᘢᙟ

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2. it ~s v magarimásu ᭜࠿ࡽࡱ ࡌ 3. ~s it v magemásu ᭜ࡅࡱࡌ cushion n (seat) zabúton ᗑᕱᅆ; (spread) shiki-mono ᩔ∸; kusshon ࢠࢴࢨࣘࣤ custodian n 1. (janitor) kózukai ᑚ౐࠷, yømu-in ⏕ຸဤ 2. (administrator) kanri-nin ⟮⌦ெ custody n (child custody) yøikuken 㣬⫩ᶊ custom n 1. shükan ⩞ៈ 2. (tradition) dentø ఎ⤣ customary adj jü´rai (no) ᚉᮮ ࡡ customer n (o-)kyaku ࠽ ᐂ, o-kyaku-sámá ࠽ᐂᵕ; (patron) otokui ࠽ᚋណ, tokui-saki ᚋណ඙; customer service n kasutamå såbisu ࢜ࢪࢰ࣏࣭ࢦ࣭ࣄࢪ customs n (place) zeikan ⛧㛭; (tariff) kanzei 㛭⛧, zéi ⛧; customs duty n kanzei 㛭⛧ cut 1. v kirimásu วࡽࡱࡌ; (mows) karimásu ศࡽࡱࡌ; (it ~s well) kiremásu วࡿࡱࡌ 2. n (of cloth) kata ᆵ; (share) wake-mae ฦࡄ ๑; (percentage) rítsu ⋙; cuts the price v makemásu ㇿࡄࡱࡌ; cut across v yoko-girimásu ᶋวࡽ ࡱࡌ; cut back v sakugenshimásu ๎΅ࡊࡱࡌ; cut class v saborimásu ࡈ࡯ࡽࡱࡌ; cut down v (lessens) herashimásu ΅ࡼࡊ ࡱࡌ; (reduces) chijimemásu ࡔ ࡕࡴࡱࡌ࣬⦨ࡴࡱࡌ; (dilutes) warimásu ๪ࡽࡱࡌ; cut off v kirimásu วࡽࡱࡌ; tachimásu ⿚ ࡔࡱࡌ࣬᩷ࡔࡱࡌ࣬⤧ࡔࡱࡌ


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cute adj kawaíi ࠾ࢂ࠷࠷࣬ྊយ ࠷, kawairashíi ࠾ࢂ࠷ࡼࡊ࠷࣬ ྊយࡼࡊ࠷ cuticle n 1. (nail) amakawa ⏉⓮ 2. (hair) kyutikuru ࣭࢞ࣖࢷ࢔ࢠ ࣜ 3. kuchikura ࢠࢲࢠࣚ cutlery n 1. (cutting instruments) há-mono ร∸ 2. (tableware) shokki-rui 㣏ჹ㢦 cutlet n kátsu(retsu) ࢜ࢵ ࣝࢵ ; pork cutlet n tonkatsu ㇔࢜ࢵ࡛࣬ ࢆ࠾ࡗ࣬ࢹࣤ࢜ࢵ cuttlefish n (squid) ika ࢕࢜ cyberspace n saibå-supësu ࢦ࢕ࣁ ࣭ࢪ࣭࣋ࢪ

cycle n (circulation) junkan ᚘ⎌, saikuru ࢦ࢕ࢠࣜ cyclone n saikuron ࢦ࢕ࢠࣞࣤ, teikiatsu ఩Ẵᅸ cylinder n tsutsu ➼, shirindå ࢨࣛ ࣤࢱ࣭ cymbal n shinbaru ࢨࣤࣁࣜ cynical adj hiniku (na) ⓮⫏ ࡝ , shinikaru (na) ࢨࢼ࢜ࣜ ࡝ Cyprus n kipurosu ࢞ࣈࣞࢪ cyst n nøhø ᄙ⬂࣬ࡡ࠹࡮࠹; nøshu ⬳⭐࣬ࡡ࠹ࡊࡸ Czechoslovakia n chekosurobakia ࢲ࢘ࢤࢪࣞࣁ࢞࢓

D dab n hitonuri ࡥ࡛ሧࡽ࣬ࡥ࡛࡟ࡽ daddy, dad n papa ࣂࣂ dagger n tanken ▯๟ daily n 1. n (newspaper) nikkan(shi) ᪝ษ ⣤ 2. adj (everyday) mainichi(no) Ẏ᪝ ࡡ dainty adj 1. (delicate beauty) yübi (na) ඁ⨶ ࡝ , 2. n (something delicious) oishii-mono ࠽ ࠷ࡊ࠷ࡵࡡ࣬⨶࿝ࡊ࠷ࡵࡡ dairy n (milk shop) n gyünyü-ya ∭஘ᒁ dam n dámu ࢱ࣑ damage 1. n songai ᥾ᐐ; són ᥾࣬ ࡐࢆ, gái ᐐ, higai ⿍ᐐ࣬ࡥ࠿࠷, damëji ࢱ࣒࣭ࢩ 2. ~s it v itamemásu ഭࡴࡱࡌ, arashimásu Ⲡࡼࡊࡱࡌ࣬࠵ࡼࡊࡱࡌ;

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sokonaimásu ࡐࡆ࡝࠷ࡱࡌ࣬᥾ ࡝࠷ࡱࡌ Damn! interj Shimátta! ࡊࡱࡖࡒ㸖 damn (fool) n …-me …ࡴ; ~ idiot baka-me ࡣ࠾ࡴ damp 1. adj shimeppoi ‭ࡖࡰ࠷ ࣬ࡊࡴࡖࡰ࠷; 2. gets ~ v shimerimás ‭ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡊࡴࡽࡱࡌ, nuremásu ࡟ࡿࡱࡌ࣬⃷ࡿࡱࡌ dampness n shikki ‭Ẵ, shikke ‭ Ẵ࣬ࡊࡖࡄ dance 1. n odori ㊸ࡽ࣬࠽࡜ࡽ, dansu ࢱࣤࢪ 2. ~s v odorimásu ㊸ࡽࡱࡌ࣬࠽࡜ࡽࡱࡌ dancer n (Japanese-style) odorite ㊸ࡽᡥ; (Western-style) danså ࢱࣤࢦ࣭ dandruff n fuke ࡨࡄ


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Dane n (people) dën-zoku ࢸ࣭ࣤ ᪐, denmåku no minzoku ࢸ࣏ࣤ ࣭ࢠࡡẰ᪐ danger n kiken ༱㝜࣬࢞ࢢࣤ; (crisis) kyü ᛬; (fear/worry lest …) … osoré/shinpai …ᜅࡿ࣬࠽ࡐࡿ/ ᚨ㒼 dangerous adj abunai ༱࡝࠷࣬ ࠵ࡩ࡝࠷, kiken (na) ༱㝜 ࡝ ; yabái ࡷࡣ࠷; (delicate, ticklish) kiwadói ࡀࢂ࡜࠷ dangle v (dangles it) sagemásu ୖ ࡅࡱࡌ, tarashimásu ᆱࡼࡊࡱࡌ; (it dangles) taremásu ᆱࡿࡱࡌ Danish n 1. (language) denmåkugo ࢸ࣏࣭ࣤࢠㄊ (person) denmåku-jin ࢸ࣏࣭ࣤࢠெ 2. (pastry) denishu ࢸࢼࢴࢨࣖ dare (to do) v áete (shimásu) ࠵࠻ ࡙ ࡊࡱࡌ dark 1. adj kurai ᬧ࠷; (color) kói [COLOR NAME] (no) ⃨࠷࣬ࡆ࠷ [COLOR NAME] ࡡ 2. the ~ n higure ᪝ᬵࡿ, yamí 㜄; it gets ~ hi ga kuremásu ᪝࠿ᬵࡿࡱࡌ darkness n (kura-)yami ᬧ 㜄࣬ ᬧ ࡷࡲ darling adj kawaíi ࠾ࢂ࠷࠷࣬ྊយ ࠷, kawairashíi ࠾ࢂ࠷ࡼࡊ࠷࣬ ྊយࡼࡊ࠷ darts n dåtsu ࢱ࣭ࢵ dashboard n dasshu-bødo ࢱࢴࢨ ࣭ࣖ࣍ࢺ data n dë´ta ࢸ࣭ࢰ, shiryø ㈠ᩩ database n dëtabësu ࢸ࣭ࢰ࣭࣊ࢪ date n 1. (of month) hizuke ᪝௛ ࡄ ࣬᪝ࡘࡄ; (complete) nen-

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gáppi ᖳ᭮᪝; ~ of birth seinengáppi ⏍ᖳ᭮᪝ 2. (engagement) (o-)yakusoku ࠽ ⣑ᮨ࣬ ࠽ ࡷࡂࡐࡂ 3. (a couple) dëto (shimásu) ࢸ࣭ࢹ ࡊࡱࡌ date n (fruit) natsume ࡝ࡗࡴ daughter n musume(-san) ፃ࣬ࡳ ࡌࡴ ࡈࢆ ; (your) ojø´ san ࠽Ꮃ ࡈࢆ; eldest ~ chøjo 㛏ዥ dawn n yoaké እ᪺ࡄ࣬እ࠵ࡄ, akegata ᪺ࡄ᪁࣬࠵ࡄ࠿ࡒ day n hi ᪝, …hí …᪝; (daytime) (o-)híru࣬ ࠽ ࡥࡾ࣬࠽᫠, hirumá ᫠㛣࣬ࡥࡾࡱ; the ~ in question, that very ~ tø´jitsu ᙔ᪝; (fixed) hinichi ᪝࡞ࡔ࣬ࡥ࡞ࡔ; day after tomorrow n asátte ࠵ࡈࡖ࡙᪺࣬ ᚃ᪝, myø´go-nichi ᪺ᚃ᪝; day before last/yesterday n ototói ࠽࡛࡛ ࠷࣬ୌᫎ᪝, issakú-jitsu ୌᫎ᪝; day off n yasumí (no hí) ఆࡲ࣬ࡷ ࡌࡲ ࡡ᪝ , kyüka ఆᬜ daydream 1. n küsø´ ✭᝷, hakuchümu Ⓣ᫠ከ 2. v bon’yári shimásu ࡯ࢆࡷࡽࡊࡱࡌ daylight n nitchü ᪝୯, hiru no hikari ᫠ࡡක days n 1 day ichi-nichí ୌ᪝, 2 days futsuka ஦᪝, 3 days mikka ୔᪝, 4 days yokka ᄿ᪝, 5 days itsuka ஫᪝, 6 days muika ඵ᪝, 7 days nanoka ୏᪝, 8 days yø´ka ඳ᪝, 9 days kokonoka ஐ᪝, 10 days tø´ka ༎᪝, 14 days jú-yokka ༎ᄿ᪝, 24 days ní-jü yokka ஦༎ ᄿ᪝; (others …-nichi …᪝) dazed; gets ~ bø´tto shimásu ࡯࠹ 401

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ࡖ࡛ࡊࡱࡌ, madoimásu ᝠ࠷ࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡱ࡜࠷ࡱࡌ dazzling adj mabushíi ࡱࡩࡊ࠷࣬ ┾ࡊ࠷, mabayui ࡱࡣࡹ࠷࣬┾࠷ DC, direct current n chokuryü ├Ὦ dead 1. adj shinda …Ṓࢆࡓ… is ~ shinde imásu Ṓࢆ࡚࠷ࡱࡌ 2. ~ person n nakunatta hitó ஷࡂ ࡝ࡖࡒெ, shinda hitó Ṓࢆࡓெ, shinin Ṓெ deaden v 1. (becomes dead) shinimásu Ṓ࡞ࡱࡌ 2. (makes

less sensitive) mu-kankaku ni shimásu ↋វつ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ 3. (weakens) yowamarimásu ᘽࡱ ࡽࡱࡌ deadline n shimekiri ⥶ࡴวࡽ࣬ ࠎว ࡽ ࣬ࡊࡴࡀࡽ, (saishü-) kígen ᭩⤂ ᭿㝀, kíjitsu ᭿᪝ deaf 1. n (person) mimí no kikoenai hito ⪝ࡡ⪲ࡆ࠻࡝࠷ெ; is ~ mimí ga fú-jiyü desu ⪝࠿୘⮤⏜ ࡚ࡌ 2. adj mimí no kikoenai ⪝ࡡ⪲ࡆ࠻࡝࠷, mimí ga fujiyü na ⪝࠿୘⮤⏜࡝ deafness n nanchø 㞬⫀ deal 1. n (transaction) torí-hiki ཱི ᘤ 2. v (cards) kubarimásu 㒼 ࡽࡱࡌ a good/great ~ → lots, much; deal in (sells) urimásu ኉ࡽ ࡱࡌ, hanbai shimásu ㈅኉ࡊࡱࡌ; deal with tori-atsukaimásu ཱིࡽ᡽ ࠷ࡱࡌ; (treats a person) ashiraimásu ࠵ࡊࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ;

(copes) shóri/shóbun/shóchi shimásu ฌ⌦ฌฦฌ⨠ࡊࡱࡌ dealer n kouriten ᑚ኉ᗉ, (retail

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outlet) hanbái-ten ㈅኉ᗉ, diirå ࢸ࢔࣭࣭ࣚ dean n gakubu-chø Ꮥ㒂㛏 dear adj 1. (beloved) itoshíi ࠷࡛ ࡊ࠷࣬យࡊ࠷, natsukashíi ᠔࠾ ࡊ࠷࣬࡝ࡗ࠾ࡊ࠷ 2. (precious) taisetsu (na) ኬว ࡝ ; Dear dear! interj Oyaoya! ࠽ࡷ࠽ࡷ!; Dear me! interj (feminine) Må! ࡱ࠵ 3. Ѝ expensive dearly adv hijø (ni) 㟸ᖏ ࡞ , kokoro-kara ᚨ࠾ࡼ death n shí Ṓ debacle n høkai ᓻቪ, døraku 㐠ᴞ debatable adj giron no yochi ga aru ㆗ㄵࡡఴᆀ࠿࠵ࡾ debate 1. n tø´ron ゞㄵ, ronsø´ ㄵண 2. ~s it v ron-jimásu ㄵ ࡋࡱࡌ debauchery n høtø ᨲⷑ debit n fusai ㇿബ, (bookkeeping) karikata ೇ᪁ debris n zangai ṟ㦹࣬ṟ࠿࠷ debt n shakkín ೇ㔘 debug n debaggu ࢸࣁࢴࢡ debut n debyü ࢸࣄ࣭ࣖ decade n jü nen-kan ༎ᖳ㛣࣬ ᖳ㛣 decadence n taihai ㏝ᗣ decaffeinated adj kafein nuki (no) ࢜ࣆ࢘࢕ࣤᢜࡀ ࡡ decay 1. v kuchimásu ᮑࡔࡱࡌ; kusarimásu ⭁ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡂࡈࡽࡱ ࡌ 2. n [BOOKISH] fuhai ⭁ᩃ deceased n the ~ kojin ᨶெ deceive → cheat deceit n 1. (lie) itsuwari അࡽ࣬࠷ࡗ


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ࢂࡽ 2. (fraud) sagi ノḥ࣬ࢦ࢟ deception n (cheat) gomakashi ࡇ ࡱ࠾ࡊ, (fraud) sagi ノḥ࣬ࢦ࢟ December n Jüni-gatsú ༎஦᭮࣬ 12᭮ decency n reigi ♡ൢ decent adj (respectable) jø´hin (na) ୕ဗ ࡝ , rippa (na) ❟Ὤ࣬ ࡽࡖࡤ ࡝ decide v kimemásu Ửࡴࡱࡌ࣬ ࡀࡴࡱࡌ; kettei shimásu Ửᏽ ࡊࡱࡌ decision n kettei Ửᏽ deck n 1. (of ship) kanpan ⏝ᯀ, dékki ࢸࢴ࢞ 2. Ѝ pack (of cards) decline v 1. (refuses) kotowarimásu ᩷ࢂࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡆ࡛ࢂࡽࡱ ࡌ, jitai shimásu ㎙㏝ࡊࡱࡌ 2. (it fades) otoroemásu ⾮࠻ࡱࡌ decode v kaidoku shimásu ゆㄖ ࡊࡱࡌ decompose v (rots) fuhai shimásu ⭁ᩃࡊࡱࡌ decor n søshoku (hin) ⿞㣥 ဗ decorate v kazarimásu 㣥ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ ࠾ࡉࡽࡱࡌ decoration n kazari(-mono) 㣥 ࡽ࣬࠾ࡉࡽ ∸ , sø´shoku ⿞㣥, dekorëshon ࢸࢤ࣭ࣝࢨࣘࣤ decorator n søshoku-sha ⿞㣥⩽ decoy n otori ࠽࡛ࡽ decrease 1. v (it ~s) herimásu ΅ࡽ ࡱࡌ, genshø shimásu ΅ᑛࡊࡱ ࡌ; (~s it) herashimásu ΅ࡼࡊࡱ ࡌ࣬࡫ࡼࡊࡱࡌ 2. n genshø ΅ᑛ decrepit adj 1. (infirm) røsui shita ⩹⾮ࡊࡒ 2. (dilapidated) røkyü-

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ka shita ⩹ᮑ໩ࡊࡒ dedicate v sasagemásu ᤕࡅࡱࡌ deduct v hikimásu ᘤࡀࡱࡌ࣬ ࡥࡀࡱࡌ deed n (act) shiwaza ௘ᴏ࣬ࡊࢂ ࡉ, kø´i ⾔Ⅵ, okonai ⾔࠷ deep adj 1. fukái ῕࠷࣬ࡨ࠾࠷ 2. (saturated color) kói ⃨࠷࣬ࡆ ࠷; ~ red makká (na) ┷ࡖ㉝࣬ ࡱࡖ࠾ ࡝ deer n shika 㮭࣬ࢨ࢜ deface v gaikan o sokonaimásu አ びࢅ᥾࡝࠷ࡱࡌ defamation n chüshø ୯ഭ; (~ of character) meiyo-kison ྞ・ Ი᥾ default n deforuto ࢸࣆ࢚ࣜࢹ, shoki-settei ิ᭿シᏽ defeat 1. n make ㇿࡄ࣬ࡱࡄ, shippai ኶ᩃ࣬ࡊࡖࡤ࠷ 2. v (~s) makashimásu ㇿ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ࡱ ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ, yaburimásu ◒ࡽࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡷࡩࡽࡱࡌ; (is defeated) makemásu ㇿࡄࡱࡌ࣬ࡱࡄࡱ ࡌ, mairimásu ཤࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡱ࠷ ࡽࡱࡌ defecate v daibén o shimásu ኬ౼ ࢅࡊࡱࡌ defect n ketten ḖⅤ, kizu ഭ࣬ࡀࡍ defend v mamorimásu Ꮼࡽࡱࡌ࣬ ࡱࡵࡽࡱࡌ; kabaimásu ᗂ࠷ࡱ ࡌ࣬࠾ࡣ࠷ࡱࡌ defendant n hikoku(-nin) ⿍࿈ ெ defense n (military) bøei 㜭⾠, (sport) bøgyo 㜭ᚒ, difensu ࢸ ࢔ࣆ࢘ࣤࢪ defer v nobashimásu ᘇࡣࡊࡱࡌ࣬


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ࡡࡣࡊࡱࡌ deference n 1. (obedience) fukujü ᭱ᚉ 2. (respect) keii ᩏណ defiant adj hankø-teki (na) ཬᢘ Ⓩ ࡝ deficiency n fusoku ୘㊂࣬ࡨࡐࡂ, ketsubø Ḗஇ, kekkan Ḗ㝏 deficit (figures) n aka-ji ㉝Ꮚ defile v yogoshimásu ỗࡊࡱࡌ define v teigi shimásu ᏽ⩇ࡊࡱࡌ definite adj (certain amount of) ittei (no) ୌᏽ ࡡ deformity n kikei ዃᙟ defy v …ni sakaraimásu …࡞㏣ ࡼ࠷ࡱࡌ degenerate adj daraku shiteiru ሃ ⴘࡊ࡙࠷ࡾ, daraku shita ሃⴘ ࡊࡒ degrade v (to lower in dignity) otoshimemásu ㈐ࡴࡱࡌ࣬࠽࡛ ࡊࡴࡱࡌ degree n 1. (extent) téido ⛤ᗐ࣬ ࡙࠷࡜, dó ᗐ, kagen ຊ΅; … 2. degrees (temperature) …-do …ᗐ; (higher learning) gákúi Ꮥన dehydrate v dassui-jøtai ni narimásu ⬲Ề≟ឺ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ deity n shinsei ♼ᛮ, kami ♼ dejection n rakutan ⴘ⫱, iki shøchin ណẴᾐỷ delay v (~s it) okurasemásu 㐔ࡼ ࡎࡱࡌ࣬࠽ࡂࡼࡎࡱࡌ; (gets delayed) okuremásu 㐔ࡿࡱࡌ࣬ ࠽ࡂࡿࡱࡌ delegate 1. n (representative) daihyø ௥⾪ 2. n (alternate) dairi

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(-nin) ௥⌦ ெ 3. v (commits to another) inin shimásu ጟ௴ ࡊࡱࡌ delete v tori-keshimásu ཱིࡽᾐࡊ ࡱࡌ࡛࣬ࡽࡄࡊࡱࡌ deliberate adj (intentional) kói (no) ᨶណ ࡡ ; (careful) shinchø´ (na) ួ㔔࣬ࡊࢆࡔࡺ࠹ ࡝ delicate adj (fine) bimyø´ (na) ᚜ ዼ ࡝ ; (risky) kiwadói ࡀࢂ࡜ ࠷࣬㝷࡜࠷ delicious adj oishii ࠽࠷ࡊ࠷࣬⨶ ࿝ࡊ࠷, [INFORMAL] umái/nmái ࠹ࡱ࠷࣬ࢆࡱ࠷ delight 1. adj is delighted yorokobimásu ႌࡦࡱࡌ࣬ࡻࢀࡆࡦࡱࡌ; with great ~ ø´-yórokobi (de) ኬ ႌࡦ ࡚ 2. n yorokobi ႌࡦ, tanoshimi ᴞࡊࡲ delinquent n (juvenile ~) hikø shønen shøjo 㟸⾔ᑛᖳᑛዥ, furyø ୘Ⰳ delirium n (pathology) seishin sakuran ⢥♼㘊஗, (excitement) køfun ⮾ዢ deliver v todokemásu ᒀࡄࡱࡌ࣬ ࡛࡜ࡄࡱࡌ delivery n 1. haitatsu 㒼㐡, deribarii ࢸࣛࣁ࣭ࣛ; restaurant ~ (service/person) demae ฝ๑ 2. (giving birth) shussan ฝ⏐ delta n (plain) sankaku-su ୔ぽᕗ deluge n (great flood) dai-køzui ኬὝỀ (downpour) gøu ㇞㞭 delusion n sakkaku 㘊つ deluxe adj jø´ ୕, jø´tø´ (no) ୕➴ ࡡ , gø´ka (na) ㇞⳱ ࡝ ; deluxe


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edition n gøka-ban ㇞⳱∟ demand 1. n yø´kyü/seikyü (shimásu) こịㄫị ࡊࡱࡌ 2. v motomemásu ịࡴࡱࡌ; is in ~ (sells) uremásu ኉ࡿࡱࡌ democratic adj minshu-shúgi (no) Ằ୹୹⩇ ࡡ , minshu-teki (na) Ằ୹Ⓩ ࡝ demolish v kuzushimásu ᓻࡊࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡂࡍࡊࡱࡌ; hakai shimásu ◒ቪࡊࡱࡌ࣬ࡢ࠾࠷ࡊࡱࡌ demon n akuma ᝇ㨩, dëmon ࢸ ࣭࣓ࣤ denial n uchi-keshi ᡬࡔᾐࡊ࣬ᡬ ࡔࡄࡊ, hitei ྫྷᏽ denim n denimu ࢸࢼ࣑ denomination → sect dense adj kói ⃨࠷, mítsu (na) ᐠ ࡝ , missetsu (na) ᐠ᥃ ࡝ dent n kubomi ❉ࡲ࣬ࡂ࡯ࡲ dentist n há-isha ṉ༈⩽ denture n ireba ථࡿṉ deny v uchi-keshimásu ᡬࡔᾐ ࡊࡱࡌ࣬࠹ࡔࡄࡊࡱࡌ, hitei shimásu ྫྷᏽࡊࡱࡌ deodorant n (personal) shø´shüzai ᾐ⮧๠ department n (university, hospital) ká ⛁ (company, office) bumon 㒂㛓, bu 㒂, ka ㄚ department store n depå´to ࢸࣂ࣭ ࢹ, hyakká-ten Ⓤ㈄ᗉ departure n shuppatsu ฝⓆ; [TIME/ PLACE] ... hátsu (no …) ...Ⓠ ࡡ… ; point of departure n shuppátsú-ten ฝⓆⅤ; departure time n shuppátsújikoku ฝⓆ᫤็

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depend; v ~s on (… ni) tayorimásu …࡞ 㢏ࡽࡱࡌ, izon shimásu ౪Ꮛࡊࡱࡌ; it ~s (on …) (… ni) yorimásu …࡞ ࡻࡽࡱࡌ dependent n fuyø-kazoku ᡿㣬 ᐓ᪐ deposit 1. v azukemásu 㡰ࡄࡱ ࡌ࣬࠵ࡍࡄࡱࡌ; (money) yokin/ chokin shimásu 㡰㔘㈋㔘ࡊࡱ ࡌ; tsumimásu ✒ࡲࡱࡌ࣬ࡗࡲࡱ ࡌ 2. → downpayment depot n 1. (railroad station) eki 㥈 2. (bus station) basu hatchakujø ࣁࢪⓆ╌ሔ 3. (warehouse) søko ಲᗔ depressed adj 1. (feeling) ki ga omoi Ẵ࠿㔔>࠽ࡵ@࠷ 2. gets ~ hekomimásu ࡫ࡆࡲࡱࡌ depression n (hard times) fukéiki ୘ᬊẴ; (hollow) kubomi ࡂ࡯ࡲ ࣬❉ࡲ depth n fukása ῕ࡈ; (of color) kósa ⃨ࡈ derision n azakeri ࠵ࡉࡄࡽ, reishø ෫➏ descend v kudarimásu ୖࡽࡱࡌ descendant n shíson ᏄᏘ descent n 1. (going down) kudari ୖࡽ࣬ࡂࡓࡽ 2. (family line) kakei ᐓ⣌ describe v (pictures it) byøsha shimásu ᥝ෕ࡊࡱࡌ, (elaborates)

(no kotó) o kuwáshiku iimásu … ࡡࡆ࡛>஥@ ࢅリࡊࡂゕ࠷ࡱࡌ;

(explains it) setsumei shimásu

ㄕ᪺ࡊࡱࡌ → relate description n setsumei ㄕ᪺


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desert n sabaku ▹₅࣬ࡈࡣࡂ design 1. n (sketch) zuan ᅒ᱄; dezain ࢸࢧ࢕ࣤ 2. v (plans it) hakarimásu ᅒࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡢ࠾ࡽ ࡱࡌ; dezain shimásu ࢸࢧ࢕ࣤ ࡊࡱࡌ designate v atemásu ᙔ࡙ࡱࡌ࣬࠵ ࡙ࡱࡌ; shitei shimásu ᣞᏽࡊࡱࡌ desirable adj nozomashii ᭻ࡱࡊ࠷ ࣬ࡡࡑࡱࡊ࠷, hoshíi ḟࡊ࠷࣬࡮ ࡊ࠷; most ~ (ideal) motte-kói (no) ࡵࡖ࡙ࡆ࠷ ࡡ desire 1. n nozomi ᭻ࡲ, omói ᛦ ࠷, nén ᛍ; (hope) kibø ᕵ᭻ 2. ~s it v (… ga) hoshíi …࠿ ḟࡊ࠷; (wants to do) (shi-) tái desu ࡊ ࡒ࠷࡚ࡌ; (hopes for) nozomimásu ᭻ࡲࡱࡌ desk n tsukue ᮐ࣬ࡗࡂ࠻, taku ༜; (desk-top) takujø´ ༜୕ despair n zetsubø´ ⤧᭻, yáke ࡷࡄ desperate adj hisshi (no) ᚪṒ ࡡ desperately adv (hard) isshø´-kénmei (ni) ୌ⏍ᠩ࿤ ࡞ despise v keibetsu shimásu ㍅ⶔ ࡊࡱࡌ despite (that) prep …ni mo kakawarazu …࡞ࡵ࠾࠾ࢂࡼ ࡍ࣬࡞ࡵ㛭ࢂࡼࡍ dessert n dezå´to ࢸࢧ࣭ࢹ destination n iki sakí ⾔ࡀ඙, mokutekí chi ┘Ⓩᆀ; (last stop) shüten ⤂Ⅴ destiny n únmei 㐘࿤ destroy v kowashimásu ቪࡊࡱ ࡌ; hakai shimásu ◒ቪࡊࡱࡌ;

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horoboshimásu ⁓࡯ࡊࡱࡌ detach v hanashimásu 㞫ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ ࡢ࡝ࡊࡱࡌ detailed adj kuwashíi リࡊ࠷࣬ ࡂࢂࡊ࠷; bisai (na) ᚜⣵ ࡝ ; (machine, etc.) seimitsu (na) ⢥ᐠ࣬ࡎ࠷ࡲࡗ ࡝ details n kuwashíi koto リࡊ࠷ࡆ ࡛, shø´sai リ⣵; (complexities) ikisatsu ࠷ࡀࡈࡗ࣬⤊⦃ detect → discover → discern detective n 1. (consulting ~) tantei ᥀ം 2. (police) kéiji ฬ஥ 3. (investigator) søsa-kan ᤒᰕᏻ deteriorate v (weather) kuzuremásu ᓻࡿࡱࡌ determination n (decision) kettei Ử ᏽ; (resolve) késshín Ửᚨ detest v nikumimásu ៦ࡲࡱࡌ࣬ ࡞ࡂࡲࡱࡌ detour n mawari-michi ᅂࡽ㐠࣬ ࡱࢂࡽ㐠, ukai ㎵ᅂ࣬࠹࠾࠷, tø´máwari 㐪ᅂࡽ࣬㐪ࡱࢂࡽ devastate v arashimásu Ⲡࡼࡊࡱࡌ develop v (it unfolds) hattatsu/ hatten shimásu Ⓠ㐡Ⓠᒈࡊࡱࡌ developing nation n hatten tojø´koku Ⓠᒈ㏭୕ᅗ, køshinkoku ᚃ㐅ᅗ development n hattatsu Ⓠ㐡, hatten Ⓠᒈ, kaihatsu 㛜Ⓠ, (process) nariyuki ᠺࡽ⾔ࡀ࣬࡝ ࡽࡹࡀ, (course) keika ⤊㐛 device n (gadget) shikake ௘᤻ ࡄ࣬ࡊ࠾ࡄ; (scheme) kufü ᕝኰ devil n (ogre) oní 㨛࢛࣬ࢼ, (Satan) ákuma ᝇ㨩࣬࢓ࢠ࣏


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dew n tsúyu 㟚࣬ࡗࡹ diabetes n tø´nyø´-byø´ ⢶ᑺ⑋ diagonal adj nanáme (no) ᩫࡴ࣬ ࡝࡝ࡴ ࡡ diagram n zu ᅒ, zuhyø´ ᅒ⾪, zukai ᅒゆ dial n (telephone) daiyaru ࢱ࢕ ࣕࣜ dialect n hø´gén ᪁ゕ; (regional accent) namarí ࡝ࡱࡽ dialogue n (conversation) taiwa ᑊ ヨ, kaiwa ఌヨ diameter n chokkei ├ᙼ diamond n daiya ࢱ࢕ࣕ, daiyamóndo ࢱ࢕࣓ࣕࣤࢺ, kongø´seki 㔘๙▴࣬ࡆࢆࡇ࠹ࡎࡀ diapers n oshíme ࠽ࡊࡴ, omútsu ࠽ࡳࡗ diarrhea n geri ୖ②࣬ࡅࡽ diary n nikki ᪝エ, daiarii ࢱ࢕࢓ ࣭ࣛ dice n saikóro ࡈ࠷ࡆࢀ࣬ࢦ࢕ ࢤࣞ dictation n kakítori ᭡ࡀཱིࡽ࣬ ࠾ࡀ࡛ࡽ, dikutëshon ࢸ࢔ࢠࢷ ࣭ࢨࣘࣤ dictator n dokusái-sha ≺⿚⩽, wánman ࣏࣠ࣤࣤ dictionary n jibikí Ꮚᘤ ࡀ , jishó ㎙᭡࣬ࡋࡊࡺ, jiten ㎙඼࣬ࡋ࡙ࢆ did v shimáshita ࡊࡱࡊࡒ die v shinimásu Ṓ࡞ࡱࡌ, nakunarimásu ஷࡂ࡝ࡽࡱࡌ; íki o híki-torimásu ᜝ࢅᘤࡀཱིࡽࡱࡌ diesel n diizeru ࢸ࢔࣭ࢭࣜ diet n kitéi-shoku ぜᏽ㣏, daiettoshoku ࢱ࢕࢙ࢴࢹ㣏; daietto

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(shimásu) ࢱ࢕࢙ࢴࢹ ࡊࡱࡌ Diet n (parliament) kokkai ᅗఌ, gikai ㆗ఌ; (building) (kokkai) giji-dø´ ᅗఌ ㆗஥ᇸ differ v kotonarimásu ␏࡝ࡽࡱࡌ; ~ in opinion íken ga chigaimásu ណず࠿㐢࠷ࡱࡌ difference n chigai 㐢࠷, sø´i ┞㐢, sa ᕣ࣬ࡈ, sái ᕣ␏; (a big difference) táisa ኬᕣ࣬ࡒ࠷ࡈ; it makes no ~ kamaimasén ᵋ࠷ࡱࡎࢆ࣬ ࠾ࡱ࠷ࡱࡎࢆ different adj is ~ chigaimásu 㐢࠷ ࡱࡌ࣬ࡔ࠿࠷ࡱࡌ; kotonarimásu ␏࡝ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡆ࡛࡝ࡽࡱࡌ; a ~ direction tahø´ ௙᪁; ~ opinion/ view iron ␏ㄵ difficult adj muzukashii 㞬ࡊ࠷࣬ ࡳࡍ࠾ࡊ࠷; kónnan (na) ᅏ㞬 ࡝ ; (hard to do) shi-nikúi ࡊ࡞ ࡂ࠷, shi-gatai ࡊ࠿ࡒ࠷࣬ࡊ㞬 ࠷; (requires much effort) honé ga oremásu 㦭࠿ᢙࡿࡱࡌ difficulty n kónnan ᅏ㞬; (hardship) kurø´ ⱖຘ; (problem) mondai ၡ 㢗; (nuisance) mendø´ 㟻಻࣬ࡴ ࢆ࡜࠹; with ~ yatto ࡷࡖ࡛ diffusion n fukyü´ ᬉཀྵ dig v horimásu ᤸࡽࡱࡌ digestion n shø´ka ᾐ໩ digit n 1. (Arabic figures) (arabia) süji ࢓ࣚࣄ࢓ ᩐᏊ 2. (digit number) ketasü ᰾ᩐ 3. (finger or toe) yubi ᣞ digital n dejitaru ࢸࢩࢰࣜ dignity n 1. (nobility) hin(-sei) ဗ ᛮ , kihin Ẵဗ 2. (respect and


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honor) songen ᑕཚ; death with ~ direct 1. adj chokusetsu (no) ├᥃ ࡡ ; goes ~ (through to destinasongen-shi ᑕཚṒ digress v soremásu ࡐࡿࡱࡌ࣬ tion) chokusetsu ikimásu ├᥃⾔ 㐋ࡿࡱࡌ ࡀࡱࡌ 2. v (tells the way) dike n (levee) tsutsumí ላ࣬ࡗࡗ (michi o) oshiemásu 㐠ࢅ ᩅ࠻ ࡲ, teibø´ ላ㜭࡙࣬࠷࡯࠹ ࡱࡌ 3. v (guides, coaches) dilemma n tø´waku ᙔᝠ, jirenma shidø´ shimásu ᣞᑙࡊࡱࡌ; ࢩ࣏ࣝࣤ (a film) kantoku shimasu ┐╡ diligent adj kinben (na) ໂຫ ࡝ , ࡊࡱࡌ direction n 1. hø´kø´ ᪁ྡྷ; kentø´ mame (na) ࡱࡴ ࡝ dilute 1. v (~s it) (mizu de) wariずᙔ; hø´mén ᪁㟻; … (no) hø´ másu Ề࡚ ๪ࡽࡱࡌ, usume… ࡡ ᪁; hø´gaku ᪁ぽ 2. directions (instructions) shíji másu ⷟ࡴࡱࡌ 2. adj (~ acid) ᣞ♟, oshie ᩅ࠻; gives ~ (to a nødo ga usui ⃨ᗐ࠿⷟࠷ dim 1. adj (faint) kásuka (na) ࠾ destination) michi o oshiemásu ࡌ࠾࣬᚜࠾ ࡝ , (dark) kurai ᬧ 㐠ࢅᩅ࠻ࡱࡌ ࠷࣬ࡂࡼ࠷ 2. v (gets ~, hazy) directly adv chokusetsu (ni) ├᥃ ࡞ , zutto ࡍࡖ࡛, jika-ni ࡋ࠾ kasumimásu ࠾ࡌࡲࡱࡌ࣬㟐 ࡲࡱࡌ ࡞࣬├࡞, (immediately) sugu ࡌ dimple n ékubo ࠻ࡂ࡯ ࡃ, (shortly) ma-mó-naku 㛣ࡵ࡝ din n søon 㥹㡚 ࡂ࣬ࡱࡵ࡝ࡂ dine v shokuji (o) shimásu 㣏஥ director n 1. (coach) shidø´-sha ᣞ ࢅ ࡊࡱࡌ ᑙ⩽ 2. (of a film) kantoku ┐╡, dinner n (meal) shokuji 㣏஥, direkutå ࢸ࢔ࣝࢠࢰ࣭ directory n (telephone) denwa-chø´ góhan ࡇ㣜࣬ࡇࡢࢆ, (supper) 㞹ヨᖋ; (list of names) meibo ban góhan ᬄࡇ㣜࣬ᬄࡇࡢࢆ dinosaur n kyøryü ᜅ❫ ྞ⡑ diploma n 1. menjø´ ඞ≟ 2. (grad- dirt n yogore ỗࡿ࣬ࡻࡇࡿ; (filth) uation ~) sotsugyø-shøsho ༛ᴏ doró ἶ࣬ࢺࣞ; (grime) aká ࠵ チ᭡ ࠾࣬ᇃ; (soil) tsuchí ᅰ diplomacy n gaikø´ አஹ dirty 1. adj kitanái ỗ࠷࣬ࡀࡒ࡝ diplomat n (diplomatic official) ࠷, fuketsu (na) ୘₡ ࡝ 2. adj gaikø´-kan አஹᏻ; (diplomatic (~-minded) gehin (na) ୖဗ ࡝ ; person) gaikø´-ka አஹᐓ étchi (na) ࢙ࢴࢲ ࡝ 3. v gets ~ diplomatic adj gaikø´-teki (na) አ yogoremásu ỗࡿࡱࡌ࣬ࡻࡇࡿ ஹⓏ ࡝ ; gaikø´ (no) አஹ ࡡ ; ࡱࡌ 4. v dirties it yogoshimásu diplomatic relations n gaikø´ አஹ ỗࡊࡱࡌ࣬ࡻࡇࡊࡱࡌ 408

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disability n shintai-shøgai ㌗మ 㝸ᐐ disadvantage n són ᥾࣬ࡐࢆ, fúri ୘ฺ; (shortcoming) ketten ḖⅤ, mainasu ࣏࢕ࢻࢪ, tánsho ▯ᡜ disagreement n fu-itchi ୘ୌ⮬ disappointment n shitsubø´ ኶᭻, kitai hazure ᭿ᙽࡢࡍࡿ, rakutan ⴘ⫱; (in love) shitsuren ኶ᜂ disapprobation n fu-sansei ୘㈮ᠺ disapproval n 1. (disfavor) fu-sansei ୘㈮ᠺ, (nonrecognition) fu-shønin ୘ᢆヾ 2. (accusation) hinan 㟸㞬 disaster n sø´nan 㐴㞬࣬ࡐ࠹࡝ࢆ, sainán ⅇ㞬࣬ࡈ࠷࡝ࢆ; has a ~ sø´nan shimásu 㐴㞬ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ࡐ ࠹࡝ࢆࡊࡱࡌ disastrous adj taihen (na) ኬን࣬ ࡒ࠷࡫ࢆ ࡝ discard v sutemásu ᤖ࡙ࡱࡌ discern v 1. (discriminates) shikibetsu shimásu ㆉืࡊࡱࡌ 2. → see discharge v (from employment) káiko shimásu ゆ㞘ࡊࡱࡌ disciple n deshí ᘭᏄ࡚࣬ࡊ discipline 1. n kiritsu ぜᚂ, chitsujo ⛓ᗆ; shitsuke ࡊࡗࡄ 2. v (drills, trains) kitaemásu 㘣࠻ࡱࡌ࣬ࡀ ࡒ࠻ࡱࡌ, (brings up children, …) shitsukemásu ࡊࡗࡄࡱࡌ disclose v (public) køkai shímásu ප㛜ࡊࡱࡌ; abakimásu ᬸࡀ ࡱࡌ࣬࠵ࡣࡀࡱࡌ; is disclosed barémásu ࡣࡿࡱࡌ disco n disuko ࢸ࢔ࢪࢤ discomfort n fukai(-kan) ୘ᛄ វ

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disconnect v hazushimásu አࡊࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡢࡍࡊࡱࡌ, hanashimásu 㞫 ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ࡢ࡝ࡊࡱࡌ, kirimásu วࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡀࡽࡱࡌ discontented adj fuman (na) ୘ ‫ ࡝ ࢆࡱࡨ࣬‮‬ discount n wari-biki ๪ᘤ࣬ࢂࡽࡦ ࡀ, ne-biki ೋᘤࡀ࣬ࡠࡦࡀ discourage v ki o kujikimásu Ẵࢅ ࡂࡋࡀࡱࡌ; gets discouraged ki ga kujikemásu Ẵ࠿ࡂࡋࡄࡱࡌ discourtesy n búrei ↋♡, shitsúrei ኶♡ discover v 1. (finds) mitsukemásu ずࡗࡄࡱࡌ࣬ࡲࡗࡄࡱࡌ, hakken shimásu Ⓠずࡊࡱࡌ → find out 2. is discovered barémásu ࡣࡿࡱ ࡌ; abakaremásu ᬸ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ࣬ ࠵ࡣ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ discrepancy n chigai 㐢࠷࣬ࡔ࠿࠷, sa ᕣ࣬ࡈ, sø´i ┞㐢, kuichigai 㣏࠷㐢࠷࣬ࡂ࠷ࡔ࠿࠷; (gap) zuré ࡍࡿ discretion n tsutsushimi ួࡲ࣬ࡗ ࡗࡊࡲ, funbetsu ฦื discriminate v (distinguishes them) mi-wakemásu ずฦࡄࡱࡌ, shikibetsu shimásu ㆉืࡊࡱࡌ discrimination n sábetsu ᕣื࣬ ࡈ࡬ࡗ; kúbetsu ༇ื࣬ࡂ࡬ࡗ; (distinguishing) shikibetsu ㆉื discuss v (talks it over) hanashiaimásu ヨࡊྙ࠷ࡱࡌ࣬ࡢ࡝ࡊ ࠵࠷ࡱࡌ, sø´dan shimásu ┞ㄧ ࡊࡱࡌ; (debates, argues) ronjimásu ㄵࡋࡱࡌ discussion n hanashi-ai ヨࡊྙ࠷


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࣬ࡢ࡝ࡊ࠵࠷; hanashí ヨ࣬ࡢ࡝ ࡊ; kyø´gí ༝㆗; (argument) rón ㄵ, (debate) tø´ron ゞㄵ, ronsø´ ㄵண disease n byø´ki ⑋Ẵ disembark v jø´riku shimásu ୕ 㝛ࡊࡱࡌ disgrace n hají ᜕࣬ࡢࡋ; chijoku ᜕㎧, ojoku ỗ㎧ disgraceful adj hazukashíi ᜕ࡍ࠾ ࡊ࠷࣬ࡢࡍ࠾ࡊ࠷ disgusted; gets ~ akiremásu ࿄ࡿࡱ ࡌ࣬࠵ࡀࡿࡱࡌ; iyá ni narimásu ᎒࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ࣬࠷ࡷ࡞࡝ࡽࡱࡌ dish n (o-)sara ࠽ ⓸࣬ ࠽ ࡈࡼ; shokki 㣏ჹ dishearten → discourage dishonest adj fu-seijitsu (na/no) ୘ ㄌᐁ ࡝ࡡ , fu-shøjiki (na/no) ୘ḿ├ ࡝ࡡ , fusei (na/no) ୘ ḿ ࡝ࡡ disinfectant n shø´dokú-yaku/zai ᾐẐⷾ๠ dislike v … ga kirai désu …࠿᎒ ࠷࡚ࡌ࣬…࠿ࡀࡼ࠷࡚ࡌ, …o iya-garimásu …ࢅ᎒࠿ࡽࡱ ࡌ࣬…ࢅ࠷ࡷ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ dismal adj (gloomy) uttø´shíi ࠹ ࡖ࡛࠹ࡊ࠷ dismissal n (from employment) káiko ゆ㞘; (of servant) hima ᬜ࣬ࡥࡱ disobedient adj hankø-teki (na) ཬ ᢘⓏ ࡝ disobey v … ni somukimásu …࡞ ⫴ࡀࡱࡌ࣬…࡞ࡐࡳࡀࡱࡌ disorder n konran Ί஗, kónzatsu

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Ί㞟, midaré ஗ࡿ࣬ࡲࡓࡿ, yamí 㜄; in ~ mechamecha ࡴࡔ ࡶࡴࡔࡶ disorderly adj ranbø´ (na) ஗ᬸ࣬ ࡼࢆ࡯࠹ ࡝ dispensary n yakkyoku ⷾᑻ disperse v (they scatter) chirimásu ᩋࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡔࡽࡱࡌ display → show displeased adj fu-kigen (na) ୘ᶭ ᎒࣬ࡨࡀࡅࢆ ࡝ dispose v shímatsu shimásu ጙ ᮆࡊࡱࡌ; shóri shimásu ฌ⌦ ࡊࡱࡌ disposition n 1. seishitsu ᛮ㈹; (nature) táchi ࡒࡔ࣬㈹, shø´ ᛮ; (temperament) ténsei ኮᛮ; (attitude) táido ឺᗐ 2. (dealing with) shóri ฌ⌦, shóchi ฌ⨠ dispute n arasoi ண࠷࣬࠵ࡼࡐ࠷, tø´ron ゞㄵ, sø´ron ணㄵ dissatisfied adj fuman (na) ୘‫࣬‮‬ ࡨࡱࢆ ࡝ dissertation n ronbun ㄵᩝ dissipation n dø´raku 㐠ᴞ dissolve v (~s it) tokashimásu ⁈ ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ࡛࣬࠾ࡊࡱࡌ; (it ~s) tokemásu ⁈ࡄࡱࡌ࡛࣬ࡄࡱࡌ distance n kyóri ㊝㞫࣬ࡀࡺࡽ distant adj (far) tø´i 㐪࠷࡛࣬࠽ ࠷, háruka (na) ࡢࡾ࠾࣬㐮࠾ ࡝ ; gets ~ hedatarimásu 㝰ࡒࡽ ࡱࡌ࣬࡫ࡓࡒࡽࡱࡌ distinct adj hakkíri to shimásu ࡢ ࡖࡀࡽ࡛ࡊࡱࡌ distinctly adv hakkíri ࡢࡖࡀࡽ distinguish v (discriminates) mi-


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wakemásu ずฦࡄࡱࡌ, shikibetsu divide v (~s it) warimásu ๪ࡽࡱࡌ ࣬ࢂࡽࡱࡌ, wakemásu ฦࡄࡱࡌ shimásu ㆉืࡊࡱࡌ distort v yugamemásu ࡹ࠿ࡴࡱࡌ ࣬ࢂࡄࡱࡌ; (it ~s) waremásu ๪ ࣬ṅࡴࡱࡌ ࡿࡱࡌ࣬ࢂࡿࡱࡌ; wakaremásu distortion n yugami ࡹ࠿ࡲ࣬ṅࡲ ฦ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ࣬ࢂ࠾ࡿࡱࡌ; ~ distract v ki o chirashimásu Ẵࢅ roughly (into main categories) ᩋࡼࡊࡱࡌ taibetsu shimásu ኬืࡊࡱࡌ distress 1. n nayamí ᝆࡲ࣬࡝ࡷ division n bú 㒂; (army) shídan ᖅ ࡲ, kurushimi ⱖࡊࡲ࣬ࡂࡾࡊࡲ ᅆ; (branching) wakaré ฦ࠾ࡿ; 2. v (afflicts) kurushimemásu ⱖ (math calculation) warízan ๪ࡽ⟤ divorce 1. n rikon 㞫፡ 2. v rikon ࡊࡴࡱࡌ࣬ࡂࡾࡊࡴࡱࡌ; gets distressed kurushimimásu ⱖࡊࡲ shimásu 㞫፡ࡊࡱࡌ ࡱࡌ࣬ࡂࡾࡊࡲࡱࡌ dizzy adj 1. me ga mararu ┘࠿ᅂ distribute v kubarimásu 㒼ࡽࡱ ࡾ; feel ~ memai ga shimásu ࡴ ࡌ࣬ࡂࡣࡽࡱࡌ; wakemásu ฦࡄ ࡱ࠷࠿ࡊࡱࡌ 2. bakageta ࡣ ࡱࡌ࣬ࢂࡄࡱࡌ distribution n ryütsü Ὦ㏳ district n chihø´ ᆀ᪁; hø´mén ᪁㟻, …-hø´men …᪁㟻 disturb v (… no) jama o shimásu …ࡡ ࡋࡶࡱ>㑟㨩@ࢅࡊࡱࡌ disturbance n (intrusion) (o-)jama ࠽ ࡋࡶࡱ࣬㑟㨩; (unrest) sø´dø´ 㥹ິ; (strife) arasoi ண ࠷, rán ஗ disused adj fuyø´ (no) ୘こ ࡡ ditch 1. n mizo ‹; horí ᇷ 2. v mizo o horimásu ‹ࢅᤸࡽࡱࡌ dive (under) v mogurimásu ₧ࡽ ࡱࡌ࣬ࡵࡃࡽࡱࡌ, tobikomimásu 㣍ࡦ㎰ࡲࡱࡌ࡛࣬ࡦࡆࡲࡱࡌ, daibingu shimásu ࢱ࢕ࣄࣤࢡ ࡊࡱࡌ diver n daibå´ ࢱ࢕ࣁ࣭; (woman pearl diver) áma ᾇዥ࣬࠵ࡱ diverse adj sama zama (na) ࡈࡱ ࡉࡱ࣬ᵕࠍ ࡝

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࠾ࡅࡒ do v shimásu ࡊࡱࡌ; yarimásu ࡷࡽࡱࡌ; nashimásu ࡝ࡊࡱ ࡌ; (performs) okonaimásu ⾔࠷ ࡱࡌ; ~ it (deprecating object) yarakashimásu ࡷࡼ࠾ࡊࡱࡌ; ~ it over (again) yari-naoshimásu ࡷࡽ├ࡊࡱࡌ࣬ࡷࡽ࡝࠽ࡊࡱࡌ docile adj súnao (na) ࡌ࡝࠽࣬ ⣪├ ࡝ dock n dókku ࢺࢴࢠ, ganpeki ᓃ ባ࣬࠿ࢆ࡭ࡀ doctor n 1. (physician) (o-)isha(san) ࠽ ༈⩽ ࡈࢆ , senséi ඙⏍ 2. (Ph.D.) hákase ༡ኃ࣬ࡢ࠾ࡎ document n shorui ᭡㢦, bunsho ᩝ᭡, bunken ᩝ⊡ documentary n dokyumentarii ࢺ࢞ ࣒ࣖࣤࢰ࣭ࣛ dodge v (turns it aside) sorashimásu ࡐࡼࡊࡱࡌ࣬㐋ࡼࡊࡱࡌ does → do; doesn’t → don’t


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dog n inú ≗࣬࢕ࢽ; dog tag n (dog license) inú no kansatsu ≗ࡡ㚯ᮈ doll n (o-)ningyø´࣬ ࠽ ࡞ࢆࡁࡺ ࠹ ࠽ ெᙟ; festival doll hinaníngyø´ ࡥ࡝ெᙟ࣬㞦ெᙟ dollar n dóru ࢺࣜ dolphin n iruka ࢕ࣜ࢜ domestic adj (not foreign) kokúnai (no) ᅗහ ࡡ ; (domestically made) kokusan (no) ᅗ⏐ ࡡ ; domestic help n otetsudai(-san) ࠽ ᡥఎ࠷ ࡈࢆ , kaji-tetsudaiᐓ஥ ᡥఎ࠷ domino n domino ࢺ࣐ࢿ done v (ready) dekimáshíta ฝᮮࡱ ࡊࡒ࡚࣬ࡀࡱࡊࡒ, dékite imásu ฝᮮ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ࡚࣬ࡀ࡙࠷ࡱࡌ;

(finished) (shi-)te shimaimáshíta ࡊ ࡙ࡊࡱ࠷ࡱࡊࡒ; well-done adj yóku yaketa Ⰳ>ࡻ@ࡂ↕ࡄࡒ, (beef) wérudan ࢗ࢘ࣜࢱࣤ donkey n róba ࣞࣁ don’t v shimasén ࡊࡱࡎࢆ; don’t (do it)! interj (shité wa) damé desu/da ࡊ࡙ࡢ ࡓࡴ࡚ࡌࡓ, ikemasén ࠷ࡄࡱࡎࢆ; (shi-)náide kudasai ࡊ ࡝࠷࡚ୖ>ࡂࡓ@ࡈ࠷; Don’t worry about it. Go-shinpai náku. ࡇᚨ㒼࡝ࡂ࣬ࡇࡊࢆࡤ࠷࡝ࡂ. door n to ᡖ, dóa ࢺ࢓; (hinged) hiraki-do 㛜ࡀᡖ࣬ࡥࡼࡀᡖ; (opaque sliding) fusuma ࡨࡌࡱ ࣬〴; ~ wing, ~ of a gate tobira ᡤ࡛࣬ࡦࡼ dope n (narcotic) mayaku 㯖ⷾ dormitory n kishúkusha ᐞᐙ⯃, ryø´ ᐿ

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dose n ikkai-ryø ୌᅂ㔖, ikkaibun ୌᅂฦ dot n ten Ⅴ࡙࣬ࢆ, chóbo ࡔࡺ࡯, póchi ࡰࡔ, pótsu ࡰࡗ; (with) dots bótsu botsu ࡯ࡗ࡯ࡗ double 1. adj bai (no) ಶ ࡡ , (two-layer) ni-jü (no) ஦㔔 ࡡ ; double bed n daburu-béddo ࢱࣇ ࣜ࣊ࢴࢺ; double boiler n nijü-nábe ஦㔔㘘࣬஦㔔࡝࡬; doubles n (tennis) dáburusu ࢱࣇࣜࢪ; 2. ~s it v (…o) bai ni shimásu …ࢅ ಶ࡞ࡊࡱࡌ double-check v nén o oshimásu ᛍ ࢅᢪࡊࡱࡌ; saíkakunin shimásu ්☔ヾࡊࡱࡌ double-cross 1. n (treachery) uragiri ⿤วࡽ࣬࠹ࡼࡁࡽ 2. v ura-girimásu ⿤วࡽࡱࡌ double-decker n nikaidate basu ஦ 㝭ᘋ࡙ࣁࢪ doubt 1. n gimon ␪ၡ, utagai ␪ ࠷࣬࠹ࡒ࠿࠷, fushin ୘ᐼ 2. v (~s it) utagaimásu ␪࠷ࡱࡌ, fushin ni omoimásu ୘ᐼ࡞ᛦ ࠷ࡱࡌ dough n pan-kiji ࣂࣤ⏍ᆀ dove n háto 㫸࣬ࣀࢹ down prep, adv shita e ୖ࡫; down (lower in price by) ¥100 hyaku én-yasu ⓊළᏭ; get down orimásu ୖࡽࡱࡌ࣬㜾ࡽࡱࡌ࣬࠽ࡽࡱ ࡌ; go down kudarimásu ୖࡽࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡂࡓࡽࡱࡌ, sagarimásu ୖ ࡽࡱࡌ࣬ࡈ࠿ࡽࡱࡌ; hang down taremásu ᆱࡿࡱࡌ࣬ࡒࡿࡱ ࡌ, sagemásu ୖࡅࡱࡌ; lie down


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nemásu ᐱࡱࡌ࣬ࡠࡱࡌ; take down oroshimásu ୖࢀࡊࡱࡌ࣬ ࠽ࢀࡊࡱࡌ download v (computer) ~ the file (fairu o) daunrødo shimásu ࣆ ࢒࢕ࣜࢅ ࢱ࣭ࢗࣤࣞࢺࡊࡱࡌ downpayment n atama-kin 㢄㔘 downpour n gø´u ㇞㞭, doshaburi ᅰ▹㜾ࡽ; local ~ shüchü-gø´u 㞗୯㇞㞭 doze v úto uto shimásu ࠹࡛࠹࡛ ࣬ࢗࢹࢗࢹࡊࡱࡌ dozen n (ichi-) då´su ୌ ࢱ࣭ࢪ, jü-ní ༎஦࣬12 Dr.… n (physician) … senséi …඙⏍ draft 1. n (rough) shitagaki ୖ᭡ ࡀ, dorafuto ࢺࣚࣆࢹ; (military

conscription) shø´shü (shimásu) ྇㞗 ࡊࡱࡌ 2. n (beer) náma ⏍, nama bíiru ⏍ࣄ࣭ࣜ 3 n

(call-up) shø´shü/chøhë (shimásu) ྇㞗ᚡඹ ࡊࡱࡌ drag v hipparimásu ᘤࡖᘿࡽࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡥࡖࡤࡽࡱࡌ, hikimásu ᘤࡀࡱࡌ࣬ࡥࡀࡱࡌ, hikizurimásu ᘤࡀࡍࡽࡱࡌ dragon n ryü ❫࣬㱗࣬ࡽࡸ࠹, tatsu ❫࣬ࡒࡗ, doragon ࢺࣚ ࢥࣤ drain 1. n (kitchen) gesui ୖỀ; (ditch) mizo ‹ 2. it ~s off v hakemásu ࡢࡄࡱࡌ; it ~s well (mizu) haké ga íi désu Ề ࡢࡄ ࠿࠷࠷࡚ࡌ drama n engeki ⁿ๸, géki ๸, dorama ࢺ࣏ࣚ

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dramatic adj géki-teki (na) ๸ Ⓩ ࡝ drapes n kå´ten ࣭࢜ࢷࣤ draw 1. v (a picture) egakimásu ᥝࡀࡱࡌ 2. v (pulls) hikimásu ᘤࡀࡱࡌ࣬ࡥࡀࡱࡌ; ~ out hikidashimásu ᘤࡀฝࡊࡱࡌ࣬ࡥࡀ ࡓࡊࡱࡌ; ~ an underline kasen o hikimásu ୖ⥲ࢅᘤࡀࡱࡌ 3. v (water etc.) kumimásu Ủࡲࡱ ࡌ࣬ࡂࡲࡱࡌ 4. v ~s apart hikiwakemásu ᘤࡀฦࡄࡱࡌ࣬ࡥࡀ ࢂࡄࡱࡌ 5. n (game) hikiwake ᘤࡀฦࡄ࣬ࡥࡀࢂࡄ drawer n (of desk, etc.) hiki-dashi ᘤࡀฝࡊ࣬ࡥࡀࡓࡊ drawing n (diagram) zu ᅒ; (picture) é⤦ draw near → approach dread v osoremásu ᜅࡿࡱࡌ࣬࠽ ࡐࡿࡱࡌ dreadful adj osoroshíi ᜅࢀࡊ࠷࣬ ࠽ࡐࢀࡊ࠷, sugói ࡌࡇ࠷࣬෴࠷, hidoi ࡥ࡜࠷࣬㓖࠷ dream n yumé (o mimásu) ከ࣬ࣗ ࣒ ࢅࡲࡱࡌ dreary adj uttø´shíi ࠹ࡖ࡛࠹ࡊ࠷ dregs n kásu ࠾ࡌ; ori ࠽ࡽ dress 1. n ki-mono ╌∸; y