Tuttle Pocket Japanese Dictionary: Japanese-English English-Japanese Completely Revised and Updated Second Edition [2 ed.] 9784805315132

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Tuttle Pocket Japanese Dictionary: Japanese-English English-Japanese Completely Revised and Updated Second Edition [2 ed.]

Table of contents :
This handy Japanese dictionary allows you to look up words quickly and easily—and be understood while speaking.

Intended for use by tourists, students, and business people traveling to Japan, the Pocket Japanese Dictionary is an essential tool for communicating in Japanese. It features all the essential Japanese vocabulary appropriate for beginning to intermediate speakers. Its handy pocket format and user-friendly, two-color layout will make any future language class or trip to Japan much easier. All entries are in Romanized form as well as Japanese script (Kanji and Kana) so that, in case of difficulties, the book can simply be shown to the person the user is trying to communicate with.

This dictionary includes the following key features:
Over 18,000 words and expressions in the Japanese language.
Japanese—English and English—Japanese sections.
Fully updated with recent vocabulary and commonly used Japanese slang.
Clear, user-friendly layout with headwords in blue.
Romanized script and Japanese script (hiragana and katakana) and characters (kanji) for every entry.
Other books from this best-selling series you might enjoy include: Pocket Korean Dictionary, Pocket Vietnamese Dictionary, Pocket Mandarin Chinese Dictionary, and Pocket Cantonese Dictionary.

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Japanese Dictionary Japanese-English English-Japanese Samuel E. Martin Revised and Updated by Sayaka Khan & Fred Perry

T UT T L E Publishing Tokyo Rutland, Vermont Singapore

Published by Tuttle Publishing, an imprint of Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. www.tuttlepublishing.com © 2011 by Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd This paperback edition © 2014, 2018 by Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher. ISBN 978-1-4629-1092-2 Distributed by: North America, Latin America, and Europe Tuttle Publishing 364 Innovation Drive, North Clarendon, VT 05759-9436 USA. Tel: 1 (802) 773-8930; Fax: 1 (802) 773-6993 [email protected] www.tuttlepublishing.com Asia Pacific Berkeley Books Pte. Ltd. 3 Kallang Sector #04-01 Singapore 349278 Tel: (65) 6741-2178; Fax: (65) 6741-2179 [email protected] www.periplus.com 22 21 20 19

8 7 6 5 4

Japan Tuttle Publishing Yaekari Bldg., 3rd Floor, 5-4-12 Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0032 Tel: (81) 3 5437-0171 Fax: (81) 3 5437-0755 [email protected] www.tuttle.co.jp 1902RR

Printed in China TUTTLE PUBLISHING® is a registered trademark of Tuttle Publishing, a division of Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd.

FM1902_Pocket JpDict.indd ii

12/26/18 9:46 A

CONTENTS Japanese–English ..................................................... 1 English–Japanese ................................................. 331

Samuel E. Martin is the author of numerous books and papers on Japanese and Korean, including the definitive A Reference Grammar of Japanese and A Reference Grammar of Korean. Sayaka Khan has a BSC (Biology, 2000) from Waseda University. She has worked as a translator and interpreter for companies in various industries, such as patent offices, science think tank, pharmaceutical firm, film production, game company, etc. She has established a translation corporation with her husband, Afaque Khan. Fred Perry has a BA (History, 1956) from Yale University as well as an MBA from St Sophia University, Tokyo (1984). He arrived in Japan in 1956, and continues to live there today. He has worked as a market researcher and consultant. Traveling throughout Japan as part of his job has provided the opportunity to learn about the local dialects spoken in different parts of the country.




A ă 1. adv ࠶࠶ like that, that way 2. interj ࠶࠶ oh; yes 3. interj ࠶ ࠶ hello (on encountering someone) á interj ࠶ࡗ oh! abakimásu, abaku v ᭀࡁࡲࡍ, ᭀࡃ

discloses abara-ya n ࠶ࡤࡽᒇ hovel abaremásu, abareru v ᭀࢀࡲࡍ, ᭀࢀࡿ rages, storms, rampages abare-mono n ᭀࢀ⪅ ruffian,

ăchi(-gata) n ࢔࣮ࢳ ᙧ arch (= yumi-gata ᘪᙧ ăcherii n ࢔࣮ࢳ࢙࣮ࣜ archery achí-kochi adv ࠶ࡕࡇࡕ here and there (= achíra-kóchira ࠶ࡕࡽ ࡇࡕࡽ) achira pron ࠶ࡕࡽ 1. that one (of

two) over there, the other one (over there) 2. over there, yonder 3. he/him, she/her, they/them achira-gawa n ࠶ࡕࡽഃ that (his/ roughneck, wild person abékku n ࢔࣋ࢵࢡ young unmar- her/their) side, other side ada adj ࠶ࡔ meaningless ried couple abekobe n ࠶࡭ࡇ࡭ upside down ada n ௐ [BOOKISH] disservice, abimásu, abiru v ᾎࡧࡲࡍ, ᾎࡧࡿ foe: ~ o uchimásu ௐࢆウࡕࡲࡍ bathes oneself in; douses, showers avenges, revenges abisemásu, abiseru v ᾎࡧࡏࡲࡍ, adana n ࠶ࡔྡ nickname ᾎࡧࡏࡿ pours on, showers adapută n ࢔ࢲࣉࢱ࣮ (electrical) abuku n ࠶ࡪࡃ bubble; abuku-zéni adapter adéyaka adj Ⰿࡸ࠿ gorgeous, n ࠶ࡪࡃ㖹 easy money abunaí adj ༴࡞࠸ dangerous (= fascinatingly elegant kiken (na) ༴㝤 ࡞ ), Watch out! adobáisu n ࢔ࢻࣂ࢖ࢫ advice abunakkashii adj ༴࡞ࡗ࠿ࡋ࠸ is adokenai adj ࠶࡝ࡅ࡞࠸ innocent, insecure, unsteady childlike; adokenai kao n ࠶࡝ࡅ abunĿmaru adj ࢔ࣈࣀ࣮࣐ࣝ ࡞࠸㢦 an innocent face adoresu n ࢔ࢻࣞࢫ address: abnormal abura n Ἔ oil, grease mëru-~ ࣓࣮ࣝ࢔ࢻࣞࢫ e-mail abura n ⬡ fat (= shibø ⬡⫫) address aburá(á)ge n Ἔᥭࡆ deep-fried adoribu n ࢔ࢻࣜࣈ ad-lib aegimásu, aégu v ႍࡂࡲࡍ, ႍࡄ bean curd aburakkói adj Ἔࡗࡇ࠸ oily, greasy gasps, pants (for breath) aburakkói adj ⬡ࡗࡇ࠸ fatty aemásu, aéru v ࿴࠼ࡲࡍ, ࿴࠼ࡿ aburimásu, abúru v ⅝ࡾࡲࡍ, ⅝ࡿ dresses (vegetables, etc.) aenai adj ᩒ࠼࡞࠸ tragic, sad: grills 2


aénaku mo ᩒ࠼࡞ࡃࡶ tragically


fries; raises ago n ࠶ࡈ࣭㢡 jaw, chin; ago-hige enough áete v ᩒ࠼࡚ áete … (shimásu) n ࠶ࡈࡦࡆ beard, goatee, (chin-) ᩒ࠼࡚… ࡋࡲࡍ dares (to do) whiskers afuremásu, afuréru v ⁄ࢀࡲࡍ, ⁄ࢀ agura n ࠶ࡄࡽ sitting cross-legged áhen n ࢔࣭࣊ࣥ㜿∦ opium ࡿ overflows Afurika n ࢔ࣇࣜ࢝ Africa; Afurika- ahiru n ࢔ࣄࣝ duck (tame) jin n ࢔ࣇࣜ࢝ே an African aho, ahĿ n ࠶࡯ ࠺ ࣭㜿࿈ fool afuWăVăELVX n ࢔ࣇࢱ࣮ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫ ái n ឡ love (= aijø ឡ᝟) service (maintenance and repair), ái n ⸛ Japanese indigo plant; ái zome n ⸛ᰁࡵ Japanese indigo dye servicing agakimásu, agaku v ㊊ᥙࡁࡲࡍ, ㊊ aibikí n 㐂ᘬ secret rendezvous ᥙࡃ struggles aibĿ n ┦Წ partner agaméru v ᓫࡵࡿ worships, adores, áibu n ឡ᧙ caress respects: kami o ~ ⚄ࢆᓫࡵࡲࡍ aichaku n ឡ╔ affection aida n, prep, adv 㛫 interval, worships [adores] God agarí n, adj ୖࡀࡾ finishing, space, between; while aidagara n 㛫᯶ relationship (resulting) finish agarimásu, agaru v ୖࡀࡾࡲࡍ, ୖ (between people) ࡀࡿ 1. goes up, rises 2. feels aidéa n ࢔࢖ࢹ࢔ idea aidoku n ឡㄞ reading with pleasure self-conscious, nervous; gets áidoru n ࢔࢖ࢻࣝ idol stage fright agari-guchi, agari-kuchi n ୖࡾཱྀ the aigo n ឡㆤ [BOOKISH] protection ai-hanshimásu, ai-hansuru v ┦཯ࡋ entrance …-ágari (no) adj …ୖࡀࡾ ࡢ ࡲࡍ, ┦཯ࡍࡿ conflicts aiirenai adj ┦ᐜࢀ࡞࠸ exclusive, fresh from …, right after …: yami ~ no hitó ⑓ࡳୖࡀࡾࡢே a incompatible, irreconcilable ai-jin n ឡே mistress person just out of sickbed age-ashi n ᥭࡆ㊊ fault finding aijĿ n ឡ᝟ affection, love (= ai ឡ ageku n ᣲྃ negative outcome; aikawarazu adv ┦ኚࢃࡽࡎ as ageku no hate ᣲྃࡢᯝ࡚ in the end usual/ever/always: ~ génki desu agemásu, agerú v 1. ࠶ࡆࡲࡍ, ࠶ࡆ ┦ኚࢃࡽࡎඖẼ࡛ࡍ stays well ࡿ gives 2. ...-te agerú ...࡚࠶ࡆ (as always) ࡿ does someone’s favor aikí-dĿ n ྜẼ㐨 aikido, an art of agemásu, agerú v ୖࡆࡲࡍ, ୖࡆࡿ weaponless defense áiko n ࠶࠸ࡇ o-aikó ࠾࠶࠸ࡇ raises up agemásu, agerú v ᥭࡆࡲࡍ, ᥭࡆࡿ tie (in sports, games), stalemate 3



aishĿ n ឡ⛠ nickname aishĿ n ┦ᛶ compatibility, conaikoku-shin n ឡᅜᚰ patriotism geniality: ~ ga/no íi ┦ᛶࡀࡢ࠸ aikotoba n ྜ࠸ゝⴥ password, ࠸ congenial, compatible aisó, DLVĿ n ࠶࠸ࡑ ࠺ ࣭ឡ᝿ shibboleth [INFORMAL talk] aikyĿ n ឡ▹>ឡᩗ@ charm, attrac- 1. aisó (aisø) ga/no íi ࠶࠸ࡑ ࠺  >ឡ᝿@ࡀࡢ࠸࠸ is amiable, tiveness: ~ ga arimásu ឡ▹>ឡ ᩗ@ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is nice, attractive, sociable, agreeable 2. o-aiso, o-aisø ࠾ឡ᝿ (restaurant) bill, charming aima n ྜ㛫 spare time check; incense aimai (na) adj ᭕᫕ ࡞ vague aisu… prefix ࢔࢖ࢫ iced…; aimasu, áu v ఍࠸ࡲࡍ, ఍࠺: … aisu-kĿhii n ࢔࢖ࢫࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮ iced ni ~ …࡟఍࠸ࡲࡍ meets; sees coffee; aisu-kuríimu n ࢔࢖ࢫࢡࣜ ࣮࣒ ice cream; aisu-tii n ࢔࢖ࢫ (a person) aimasu, áu v ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ, ྜ࠺: … ࢸ࢕࣮ iced tea ni ~ …࡟ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ matches aite n ┦ᡭ o-aite ࠾┦ᡭ the with: kuchi ni ~ ཱྀ࡟ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ other fellow; companion, partner; suits one’s taste; (…ni) ma ni ~ adversary, opponent …࡟ 㛫࡟ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ is in time aitĿ n ယ᝚ condolence: mourning: fukai ~ ῝࠸ယ᝚ deep mourning (for …) …-aimasu, -au/-áu …ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ, ྜ࠺ aitsu pron ࠶࠸ࡘ that guy, that [VERB INFINITIVE +] (to) each other creep; aitsú-ra pron ࠶࠸ࡘࡽ ainiku adv ࠶࠸࡟ࡃ unfortunately those damn ones ainiku (na) adj ࠶࠸࡟ࡃ ࡞ regret- aitsúide adv ┦ḟ࠸࡛ one after DLNĿNa n ឡዲᐙ lover (devotee

of …)



ainoko n ࠶࠸ࡢᏊ person of mixed aitii (IT) n IT ࢔࢖ࢸ࢕࣮ informa-


tion technology (computer)

ainorí n ┦஌ࡾ ride together ainote n ࠶࠸ࡢᡭ short interlude airashii adj ឡࡽࡋ࠸ lovely, sweet airon n ࢔࢖ࣟࣥ iron(ing) Airurándo n ࢔࢖ࣝࣛࣥࢻ Ireland áisatsu n ᣵᣜ [HONORIFIC] go-~ ࡈᣵᣜ greeting: (…) ni ~ shimásu … ࡟ᣵᣜࡋࡲࡍ greets ai-shimásu, ai-súru v ឡࡋࡲࡍ, ឡࡍ ࡿ = ai-su ឡࡍ loves

ăiu adj ࠶࠶࠸࠺ ... that kind/sort of ... (= anna ࠶ࢇ࡞, åyü ࠶࠶ ࡺ࠺) aiuchí n ┦ᡴࡕ hitting/killing each other at the same time: ~ ni narimásu ┦ᡴࡕ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ hits/kills

each other at the same time aiúeo n ࠶࠸࠺࠼࠾ the Japanese

syllabary áizu n ྜᅗ signal, sign



aizúchi n ┦ᵔ give responses: ~ o uchimásu ┦ᵔࢆᡴࡕࡲࡍ gives

akimásu, akíru

ࡲ ࡞࡟ frank(ly), plain(ly),

open(ly) [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] responses to make the conversa- akari n ᫂࠿ࡾ light, lamp akarui adj ᫂ࡿ࠸ bright, light, tion go smoothly ají n ࿡ taste; flavor, seasoning: clear, gay, cheerful ~ ga shimásu ࿡ࡀࡋࡲࡍ it tastes akarumi n ᫂ࡿࡳ a light place; the (has flavor); ~ ga usuidesu ࿡ࡀ (open/bright) light: ~ ni demásu ⷧ࠸࡛ࡍ is bland: ~ o oboemásu ᫂ࡿࡳ࡟ฟࡲࡍ surfaces, is ࿡ࢆぬ࠼ࡲࡍ acquires a taste for brought to light áji n ࢔ࢪ࣭㪛 horse mackerel, akéba v 㛤ࡅࡤ (if it comes open) ăkďdo n ࢔࣮ࢣ࣮ࢻ arcade, roofed saurel Ájia n ࢔ࢪ࢔ Asia; Ajiá-jin n ࢔ࢪ passageway, shopping arcade ࢔ே an Asian akegata n, adv ᫂ࡅ᪉ daybreak, ajike-nái adj ࿡Ẽ࡞࠸ insipid, dawn akemáshite o-medetĿ (gozaimásu flavorless, flat ajiwaimásu, ajiwáu v ࿡ࢃ࠸ࡲࡍ, [HONORIFIC]) interj ᫂ࡅࡲࡋ࡚࠾ ࿡ࢃ࠺ tastes it ࡵ࡛࡜࠺ ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ Happy áka n ㉥ red (color); aka-bĿ n ㉥ᖗ New Year! redcap, porter; áka-chan n ㉥ࡕࡷࢇakemásu, akeru v 㛤ࡅࡲࡍ, 㛤ࡅࡿ ࣭࠶࠿ࡕࡷࢇ baby; aká-gai n opens it ㉥㈅ ark shell, blood(y) clam; akemásu, akeru v ✵ࡅࡲࡍ, ✵ࡅࡿ akai adj ㉥࠸ red; aka-jí n ㉥Ꮠ leaves empty, vacates akemásu, akeru v ᫂ࡅࡲࡍ, ᫂ࡅࡿ red letters, deficit figures: ~ ni narimásu ㉥Ꮠ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ goes/ it opens up, (the day/year) begins gets in the red; aka-mi n ㉥㌟ lean áki n ⛅ autumn, fall; aki-same n ⛅㞵 autumn rain (meat/fish); unfatty (red) tuna; aka-shíngo n ㉥ಙྕ red light akí- prefix ✵ࡁ empty, vacant; akibako n ✵ࡁ⟽ empty box; aki-beya (signal) aká n ࠶࠿࣭ᇈ dirt, grime n ✵ࡁ㒊ᒇ empty room; aki-kan akádemii n ࢔࢝ࢹ࣑࣮ academy n ✵ࡁ⨁ empty can; aki-shitsu n akademíkku n ࢔࢝ࢹ࣑ࢵࢡ academic ✵ࡁᐊ empty room/office; aki-ya aka-gane n ࠶࠿ࡀࡡ࣭㖡 copper n ✵ࡁᐙ vacant/empty house; áka-no-tanin n ㉥ࡢ௚ே complete aki-su n ࠶ࡁᕢ≺࠸࣭✵ࡁᕢ stranger [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] sneak thief akaramemásu, akarameru v ㉥ࡽࡵࡲ akimásu, akíru v 㣬ࡁࡲࡍ, 㣬ࡁࡿ ࡍ, ㉥ࡽࡵࡿ blushes wearies (gets tired) of; gets akarasama (na/ni) adj, adv ࠶࠿ࡽࡉ enough of 5


akimásu, aku

akimásu, aku v 㛤ࡁࡲࡍ, 㛤ࡃ

opens, comes open; it comes unbuttoned/unzipped/unlocked akimásu, aku v ✵ࡁࡲࡍ, ✵ࡃ gets empty/vacant akinaimásu, akinau v ၟ࠸ࡲࡍ, ၟ࠺ blushes akíndo n ၟே merchant akíraka adj ᫂ࡽ࠿ clear (evident): ~ ni shimásu ᫂ࡽ࠿࡟ࡋࡲࡍ

makes it public, reveals, explains akirame n ㅉࡵ resignation, acceptance: ~ ga warui ㅉࡵࡀᝏ࠸ not

knowing when to give up akiramemásu, akiraméru v ㅉࡵࡲ ࡍ, ㅉࡵࡿ: … o ~…ࢆㅉࡵࡲࡍ

gives up (on), resigns oneself to akiremásu, akireru v ࿈ࢀࡲࡍ, ࿈ࢀ ࡿ gets amazed; gets disgusted akkan n ᅽᕳ overwhelming akke-nái adj ࠶ࡗࡅ࡞࠸ not long enough: akkenaku makeru ࠶ࡗ ࡅ࡞ࡃ㈇ࡅࡿ is beaten too easily akke ni toraremásu (torareru) v ࿈Ẽ ࡟ྲྀࡽࢀࡲࡍ ྲྀࡽࢀࡿ is


ᝏホ criticism (unfavorable); áku-i n ᝏព ill will, malice; akujĿken n ᝏ᮲௳ bad/unfavorable/ adverse condition; aku-júnkan n ᝏᚠ⎔ vicious circle; áku-ma n ᝏ㨱 devil, evil spirit, Satan; ákumu n ᝏክ nightmare: ~ ni chigai arimasen ᝏክ࡟㐪࠸࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ must be a nightmare; aku-nin n ᝏ ே an evil person; aku-ratsu (na) adj ᝏ㎥ ࡞ unscrupulous, foul, nasty, mean; aku-sei n ᝏᨻ [BOOKISH] bad government; aku-sen n ᝏ㖹 [BOOKISH] ill-gotten gains; aku-shumí n ᝏ㊃࿡ bad/poor taste; aku-toku n ᝏᚨ (a) vice: ~-gyøsha ᝏᚨᴗ⪅ dishonest business person; aku-zei n ᝏ⛯ [BOOKISH] unreasonable tax akú n ࢔ࢡ࣭⅊Ồ scum, lye: ~ o torimásu ⅊Ồࢆྲྀࡾࡲࡍ re-

moves the scum akuaríumu n ࢔ࢡ࢔࣒ࣜ࢘ aquarium akurobátto n ࢔ࢡࣟࣂࢵࢺ acrobat,

acrobatics akúryoku n ᥱຊ grip (of hand) ákuseku adv ࠶ࡃࡏࡃ laboriously,

akkerakán (to) adv ࠶ࡗࡅࡽ࠿ࢇ (working) hard, drudging (away) ࡜ looks unconcerned ákusento n ࢔ࢡࢭࣥࢺ accent akogaremásu, akogaréru v ៿ࢀࡲࡍ, ákuseru n ࢔ࢡࢭࣝ gas pedal, ៿ࢀࡿ adores, admires; longs accelerator ákusesari(i) n ࢔ࢡࢭࢧࣜ ࣮ for, yearns for akogi (ná) adj ࠶ࡇࡂ ࡞ cruel accessory ákushon n ࢔ࢡࢩࣙࣥ action; and heartless áku n ᝏ an evil; aku-fŗ n ᝏ㢼 bad akushon-eiga n ࢔ࢡࢩࣙࣥᫎ⏬ custom, bad practice, a vice; aku- an action film heki n ᝏⒷ [BOOKISH] bad habit; ákushu n ᥱᡭ handshake aku-hĿ n ᝏἲ bad law; DNXK\Ŀ n ákuta n ⰰ dirt, rubbish



amá n ᑽ nun áma n ᾏዪ woman sea diver, a


amí n ⥙ net; amí-do n ⥙ᡞ screen

door amimásu, ámu v ⦅ࡳࡲࡍ, ⦅ࡴ pearl diver ama-… prefix 㞵 rain; amá-do n 㞵 knits, braids ᡞ rain shutters; ama-gasa n 㞵ച amí-mono n ⦅ࡳ≀ knitting, knitted umbrella (= kasa ച) goods amá(chuá) n ࢔࣐ ࢳࣗ࢔ amateur ăPĿQGR n ࢔࣮ࣔࣥࢻ almond amaemásu, amaéru v ⏑࠼ࡲࡍ, ⏑࠼án n ᱌ 1. proposal, suggestion, ࡿ presumes on someone’s good- idea 2. plan án n ࠶ࢇ࣭㤆 bean jam/paste; will, acts like a baby amanógawa n ࠶ࡲࡢࡀࢃ࣭ኳࡢᕝ án-ko n ࠶ࢇࡇ࣭㤆Ꮚ bean jam/ the Milky Way paste amai adj ⏑࠸ sweet; lenient, aná n ✰ hole; slot; ana-go n ࢔ࢼ ࢦ conger eel; ana-guma n ࢔ࢼࢢ permissive amaku mimásu (míru) v ⏑ࡃࡳࡲࡍ ࣐࣭✰⇃ badger ࡳࡿ kids oneself about …, anáta pron ࠶࡞ࡓ you; anatá-tachi, anatá-gáta pron ࠶࡞ࡓ㐩, ࠶࡞ࡓ underestimates amari n వࡾ remainder, surplus, ᪉ you (all); anáta(-tachi) no pron ࠶࡞ࡓ 㐩 ࡢ your(s) leftover amari adv ࠶ࡲࡾ [ NEGATIVE verb] DQD~QVă n ࢔ࢼ࢘ࣥࢧ࣮ announcer DQGăUDLQ n ࢔ࣥࢲ࣮ࣛ࢖ࣥ underline not very, not much, not many DQGăVKátsu n ࢔ࣥࢲ࣮ࢩࣕࢶ (= anmari ࠶ࢇࡲࡾ) amarimásu, amáru v వࡾࡲࡍ, వࡿ undershirt is left over, remains, is in excess, andon n ⾜ⅉ traditional papercovered night-light is too much/many amarí(ni) adv ࠶ࡲࡾ ࡟ too, too anadorimásu, anadoru v ౲ࡾࡲࡍ, ౲ࡿ not think much of: imamamuch, very amayakashimásu, amayakásu v ⏑ࡸ de … o anadotte imáshita ࠸ࡲ ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ⏑ࡸ࠿ࡍ pampers, ࡲ࡛͐ࢆ౲ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡋࡓ hadn’t babies used to think much of … amé n ࢔࣓࣭㣩 candy ándo n Ᏻሚ relief áme n 㞵 rain: ~ ga furimásu 㞵 áne n ጜ older sister (= (o-)në´san ࠾ ጜࡉࢇ) ࡀ㝆ࡾࡲࡍ it rains amď´ba n ࢔࣓࣮ࣂ amoeba ángai adv ᱌እ 1. unexpectedly Amerika n ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ America, (much) 2. contrary to expectaU.S.(A.); Ameriká-jin n ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ே tions; ángai (na) adj ᱌እ ࡞ an American unexpected 7


DQJĿ n ᬯྕ secret code anguru n ࢔ࣥࢢࣝ angle (= kakudo ゅᗘ), viewpoint áni n ඗ elder brother (= (o-)nii´san ࠾ ඗ࡉࢇ) anime, animďshon n ࢔ࢽ࣓,࢔ࢽ࣓ ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ animation, animaed


ano né interj ࠶ࡢࡡ (mostly

children or female) well, listen, you know anpáia n ࢔ࣥࣃ࢖࢔ umpire anpán n ࢔ࣥࣃࣥ sweet roll with bean jam inside anpéa n ࢔ࣥ࣌࢔ ampere anpo n Ᏻಖ security cartoon anji n ᬯ♧ a hint; jiko-anji n ⮬ᕫ anpu n ࢔ࣥࣉ amplifier ᬯ♧ autosuggestion anpuru n ࢔ࣥࣉࣝ ampule iQNă n ࢔࣮ࣥ࢝ anchor anraku n Ᏻᴦ comfort; anraku (na) anNďWR n ࢔ࣥࢣ࣮ࢺ questionnaire adj Ᏻᴦ ࡞ comfortable, easy; ankí n ᬯグ memorizing: ~ shite anraku shi n ᏳᴦṚ mercy killing, ᬯグࡋ࡚ by/from memory euthanasia DQNĿUX n ࢔ࣥࢥ࣮ࣝ encore ansei n Ᏻ㟼 rest: ~ ni shimásu Ᏻ anma n ᣨᦶ masseur/masseuse 㟼࡟ࡋࡲࡍ keeps/lies quiet an-man n ࢔࣐ࣥࣥ steamed bun anshín n Ᏻᚰ peace of mind; stuffed with bean jam relief; security; confidence, trust anmari adv ࠶ࢇࡲࡾ too much, anshitsu n ᬯᐊ darkroom overly; [+ NEGATIVE] not (very) DQVKĿ n ᬯၐ recitation from much memory anna… adj ࠶ࢇ࡞… that kind antei n Ᏻᐃ stability of…: ~ ni ࠶ࢇ࡞࡟ to that extent antena n ࢔ࣥࢸࢼ antenna, aerial annái n ᱌ෆ [HONORIFIC] go-~ ánzan n Ᏻ⏘ safe delivery, easy ࡈ᱌ෆ guidance, information; delivery; anzan kigan n Ᏻ⏘♳㢪 annai-jó n ᱌ෆᡤ information wishing someone a safe delivery anzán n ᬯ⟬ mental calculation booth/desk; annái-nin n ᱌ෆே guide (person), usher annái-shó anzen (na) adj Ᏻ඲ ࡞ safe n ᱌ෆ᭩ guide(book) (harm-proof); anzén-pin n Ᏻ඲ࣆ anó adj ࠶ࡢ that (over there; ࣥ safety pin anzimásu, anjiru (anzuru) v ᱌ࡌࡲࡍ, known to you and me); anó-hito pron ࠶ࡢே he/him, she/her; anó- ᱌ࡌࡿ ᱌ࡎࡿ worries, concerns ko pron ࠶ࡢᏊ she/her, he/him; anzu n ࢔ࣥࢬ࣭ᮥ apricot ano-yo n ࠶ࡢୡ the next world, áo n 㟷 blue, green (color); aói another world adj 㟷࠸ blue, green, pale; ao-mi ano, DQĿ interj ࠶ࡢ, ࠶ࡢ࠺ (with n 㟷࿡ blueness; ao-nísai n 㟷஧ ᡯ immature [IN NEGATIVE SENSE]; nervous diffidence) well, uh … 8


DRVKtQJĿ n 㟷ಙྕ green light (signal); ao-suji n 㟷➽ vein: ~ o tateru 㟷➽ࢆ❧࡚ࡿ bursts a blood vessel; ao-yagi n 㟷ᰗ bud-

arawashimásu, arawásu

araemásu, araeru v Ὑ࠼ࡲࡍ, Ὑ࠼ ࡿ can wash araí adj Ⲩ࠸ rough, coarse; DUDU\ĿML n Ⲩ⒪἞ take drastic

ding willow aogimásu, aógu v ᡪࡂࡲࡍ, ᡪࡄ

measures (steps) araí adj ⢒࠸ rough, not smooth,

fans; fans oneself


aogimásu, aógu v ௮ࡂࡲࡍ, ௮ࡄ araimásu, arau v Ὑ࠸ࡲࡍ, Ὑ࠺ looks up at/to; respects (= miageru washes ぢୖࡆࡿ) arakajime adv ࠶ࡽ࠿ࡌࡵ in aomuké n ௮ྥࡅ facing upward advance (= maemotte ๓ࡶࡗ࡚) aorimásu, aóru v ↽ࡾࡲࡍ, ↽ࡿ arare n 1. ࠶ࡽࢀ࣭㟠 hail: ~ ga furimásu ࠶ࡽࢀ>㟠@ࡀ㝆ࡾࡲࡍ fans; stirs up, incites ao-zamemásu, aozameru v 㟷ࡊࡵ it hails (= hyø´ ࡦࡻ࠺>㞿@) ࡲࡍ, 㟷ࡊࡵࡿ pales, is pale 2. ࠶ࡽࢀrice-cracker cubes DSă´to n ࢔ࣃ࣮ࢺ apartment (house) (tidbits) appaku n ᅽ㏕ pressure; oppression, árashi n ᔒ storm arashimásu, arásu v Ⲩࡽࡋࡲࡍ, Ⲩ suppression appáre adj, interj ࠶ࡗࡥࢀ ࡽࡍ devastates, damages, ruins Bravo!: ~ na taido ࠶ࡗࡥࢀ࡞ែ arasoí n த࠸ controversy, contenᗘ admirable attitude tion, struggle; argument, dispute, áppu n ࢔ࢵࣉ raising, up; DSSXGďWo quarrel; strife, disturbance n ࢔ࢵࣉࢹ࣮ࢺ update; aSSXJXUďGo arasoimásu, arasóu v த࠸ࡲࡍ, த࠺ n ࢔ࢵࣉࢢ࣮ࣞࢻ upgrade; appu- struggles/contends for; argues, UĿGo n ࢔ࢵࣉ࣮ࣟࢻ upload quarrels apurĿchi n ࢔ࣉ࣮ࣟࢳ approach aratamarimásu, aratamáru v ᨵࡲࡾࡲ ára interj ࠶ࡽ (female) oh!! (shows ࡍ, ᨵࡲࡿ to be changed, to be surprise, amazement): árámå replaced by something new ࠶ࡽࡲ࠶ (female) Oh, dear! aratamemásu, arataméru v ᨵࡵࡲࡍ, ará n ࠶ࡽ࣭⢒ fault; ará sagashi ᨵࡵࡿ changes, alters, corrects aratámete adv ᨵࡵ࡚ newly, anew; n ࠶ࡽᤚࡋ nitpicking; ara-suji n ࠶ࡽࡍࡌ summary, outline, again arawaremásu, arawaréru v ⌧ࢀࡲࡍ, synopsis Arabia, Árabu n ࢔ࣛࣅ࢔, ࢔ࣛࣈ ⌧ࢀࡿ appears, shows up, comes Arabia; Arabia-go n ࢔ࣛࣅ࢔ㄒ out Arabic; Arabia-jin, Arabú-jin n ࢔ࣛ arawashimásu, arawásu v ⌧ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ ࣅ࢔ே, ࢔ࣛࣈே an Arab ⌧ࡍ shows, reveals



arawashimásu, arawásu

arawashimásu, arawásu v ⾲ࡋࡲࡍ࣭arimásu, aru v ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ, ࠶ࡿ there ⾲ࡍ expresses (= hyøgen shimásu is, we’ve got; it is (located) ⾲⌧ࡋࡲࡍ) ari-sama n ࠶ࡾࡉࡲ condition, arawashimásu, arawásu v ⴭࡋࡲࡍ, state; scene, sight ⴭࡍ publishes, writes DULVĿ QD adj ࠶ࡾࡑ࠺ ࡞ likely; arayúru adj ࠶ࡽࡺࡿ all, every ~´mo nái ࠶ࡾࡑ࠺ࡶ࡞࠸ unlikely DULWďQLLX (to) v ࠶ࡾ࡚࠸࡟ゝ࠺ (= subete no ࡍ࡭࡚ࡢ) aré pron ࠶ࢀ that one (over there; ࡜ frankly speaking [INFORMAL] known to you and me); aré-ra pron áritoarayúru adj ࠶ࡾ࡜࠶ࡽࡺࡿ ࠶ࢀࡽ those, they/them every single, all kinds/sorts of aré interj ࠶ࢀ Dear! (surprise) arittake n ࠶ࡾࡗࡓࡅ utmost aremásu, areru v Ⲩࢀࡲࡍ, Ⲩࢀࡿ [INFORMAL] goes to ruin, falls to waste, gets DUĿ v ࠶ࢁ࠺ [LITERARY] = áru dilapidated; gets rough/wild; rages darø´ ࠶ࡿࡔࢁ࠺ = áru deshø DUHPR\Ŀ (no) adj Ⲩࢀᶍᵝ ࡢ ࠶ࡿ࡛ࡋࡻ࠺ (probably is) áru … adj ࠶ࡿ certain …, some stormy, inclement arérugii n ࢔ࣞࣝࢠ࣮ allergy: …; áru-hi ࠶ࡿ᪥ n one/certain day kafun-~ ⰼ⢊࢔ࣞࣝࢠ࣮ hay arubáito n ࢔ࣝࣂ࢖ࢺ side job, fever (= kafunshø ⰼ⢊⑕) sideline, part-time job arí n ࢔࣭ࣜ⽥ ant arufabétto n ࢔ࣝࣇ࢓࣋ࢵࢺ ariári (to) adv ࠶ࡾ࠶ࡾ ࡜ vividly alphabet ariawase n ࠶ࡾ࠶ࢃࡏ on hand árugamama n ࠶ࡿࡀࡲࡲ as is, for aribai n ࢔ࣜࣂ࢖ alibi what it is: ~ (ni) uketorimásu ࠶ arifúreta adj ࠶ࡾࡩࢀࡓ very ࡿࡀࡲࡲ ࡟ ཷࡅྲྀࡾࡲࡍ takes

common, commonplace arigachi adj ࠶ࡾࡀࡕ common,


things as they are arúi-wa conj ᡈ࠸ࡣ or else; maybe,


arigatai adj ࠶ࡾࡀࡓ࠸ appreciated, arukimásu, arúku v Ṍࡁࡲࡍ, Ṍࡃ welcome; grateful: ~ meiwaku walks ࠶ࡾࡀࡓ㏞ᝨ unwanted favor, DUXNĿUX n ࢔ࣝࢥ࣮ࣝ alcohol aruminíum n ࢔࣑ࣝࢽ࣒࢘ aluminum misplaced favor DUtJDWĿ (gozaimásu [HONORIFIC]) ࠶ࡾ ása n, adv ᮅ morning; ása-ban (ni) ࡀ࡜࠺ ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ Thank you n, adv ᮅᬌ ࡟ morning and (very much) night/evening; asa-yake n ᮅ↝ࡅ árika n ᅾࡾฎ whereabouts a red glow in the morning sky; arikitari adj ࠶ࡾࡁࡓࡾ common- asa-góhan n ᮅࡈ㣤 breakfast; ásaplace, so typical [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] hi n ᮅ᪥ morning sun, rising sun



asái adj ὸ࠸ shallow; asá-haka (na) adj ὸࡣ࠿ ࡞ shallow; asa-se n ὸ℩ shallows Asakusa n ὸⲡ Asakusa asátsuki n ࢔ࢧࢶ࣭࢟ὸⵄ scallion,


ashirai n ࠶ࡋࡽ࠸ treatment, hos-

pitality, service, arrangement ashiraimásu, ashiráu v ࠶ࡋࡽ࠸ࡲ ࡍ, ࠶ࡋࡽ࠺ handles, manages,

deals with; receives (a guest) ashísutanto n ࢔ࢩࢫࢱࣥࢺ assisgreen onion; chives asátte n, adv ࠶ࡉࡗ࡚࣭᫂ᚋ᪥ tant (= joshu ຓᡭ) ashita n, adv ࠶ࡋࡓ࣭᫂᪥ tomorthe day after tomorrow áse n ờ sweat: ~ ga demásu ờࡀ row ฟࡲࡍ, ~ o kakimásu ờࢆ࠿ࡁ asobi 㐟ࡧ n fun, amusement; a ࡲࡍ sweats; hiya-~ ෭ࡸờ cold game, play; a visit; asobi hanbun (de) adv 㐟ࡧ༙ศ ࡛ half-serisweat Asean n ࢔ࢭ࢔ࣥ ASEAN ously asemásu, aséru v 〣ࡏࡲࡍ, 〣ࡏࡿ asobimásu, asobu v 㐟ࡧࡲࡍ, 㐟ࡪ fades has fun, plays; visits aserimásu, aséru v ↔ࡾࡲࡍ, ↔ࡿ asoko, asuko pron ࠶ࡑࡇ, ࠶ࡍࡇ feels rushed/pressed (that place) over there; that place áshi n ࢔ࢩ࣭ⴺ reed (known to you and me) ashí n ㊊ foot, ⬮ leg; ashi-áto n assári adj, adv ࠶ࡗࡉࡾ simple/ ㊊㊧ footprint; ashi-de mátoi n ㊊ simply, plain(ly); easy/easily; ᡭࡲ࡜࠸ a drag (on): shusse no frank(ly), without apparent dif~ ฟୡࡢ㊊ᡭࡲ࡜࠸ a drag on ficulty assén n ࠶ࡗࡏࢇ࣭᩷᪕ 1. mediaone’s career; ashí-kubi n ㊊㤳 ankle; ashi-móto n ㊊ࡶ࡜࣭㊊ඖ tion; good offices, help (= sewá step, gait: ~ ni ki o tsukéte ㊊ඖ ୡヰ): 2. recommendation (= ࡟Ẽࢆ௜ࡅ࡚ Watch your step! suisen ᥎⸀) ashi-dome saremásu (sareru) v ㊊Ṇ DVVKĿ n ᅽ຾ an overwhelming win ࡵࡉࢀࡲࡍ ࡉࢀࡿ is strained, asshuku n ᅽ⦰ compression asu n, adv ࠶ࡍ࣭᫂᪥ tomorrow is stuck ashi-ga-demásu (deru) v ㊊ࡀฟࡲࡍ (= ashita ࠶ࡋࡓ࣭᫂᪥) ฟࡿ runs over the budget asufáruto n ࢔ࢫࣇ࢓ࣝࢺ asphalt ashí-o-araimásu (arau) v ㊊ࢆὙ࠸ࡲ asupara(gásu) n ࢔ࢫࣃࣛ ࢞ࢫ ࡍ Ὑ࠺ washes one’s hands of asparagus asupirin n ࢔ࢫࣆࣜࣥ aspirin cuts one’s ties with ashí-o-nobashimásu (nobasu) v ㊊ࢆ asurechikku-kúrabu n ࢔ࢫࣞࢳࢵࢡ ఙࡤࡋࡲࡍ ఙࡤࡍ goes a little ࢡࣛࣈ athletic club ăVXVHQ n ࢔࣮ࢫ⥺ ground wire farther 11


asutarísuku n ࢔ࢫࢱࣜࢫࢡ


atari ᙜࡓࡾ 1. n a hit 2. adj good asterisk (such as “㸨”) (= hoshi- luck, lucky; atari-yaku n ᙜࡓࡾᙺ jírushi ᫍ༳) is a hit in the role; atari-kuji n ᙜࡓ asutorinzen n ࢔ࢫࢺࣜࣥࢮࣥ ࡾࡃࡌ winning number átari n ㎶ࡾ neighborhood: kono astringent ataemásu, ataeru v ୚࠼ࡲࡍ, ୚࠼ࡿ ~ de/wa ࡇࡢ㎶ࡾ࡛ࡣ around gives, provides, grants here átafuta n ࠶ࡓࡩࡓ fluster; frenzied atarichirashimásu, atarichirasu v ᙜࡓ ࡾᩓࡽࡋࡲࡍ, ᙜࡓࡾᩓࡽࡍ hurry ataisuru v, adj ್ࡍࡿ deserves, takes out one’s spite on everybody ataridokoro-ga-warui adj ᙜࡓࡾᡤࡀ deserved átakamo adv ࠶ࡓ࠿ࡶ as if ᝏ࠸ hitting in a vital spot atákku n ࢔ࢱࢵࢡ attack, atarimae (no) adj ᙜࡓࡾ๓ ࡢ strenuous effort natural, reasonable, proper; suitatama n 㢌 head; atama-dékkachi (no) able, sensible adj 㢌࡛ࡗ࠿ࡕ ࡢ [INFORMAL] atarimásu, ataru v ᙜࡓࡾࡲࡍ, ᙜࡓ ࡿ hits, faces; applies; is correct [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] top-heavy, atashi pron ࠶ࡓࡋ (mostly children too many chiefs, not enough or female) I/me (= wata(ku)shi Indians, an armchair theorist; atama-kín n 㢌㔠 down payment, ࢃࡓ ࡃ ࡋ࣭⚾) atDVVKXNďVX n ࢔ࢱࢵࢩࣗࢣ࣮ࢫ up-front money; deposit atama-ni-kimásu (kuru) v 㢌࡟ࡁࡲࡍ attache case, briefcase ࡃࡿ gets mad at, be angry with atatakái adj ᬮ࠿࠸ warm (air atama-o-kakaemásu (kakaeru) v 㢌ࢆ temperature) ᢪ࠼ࡲࡍ ᢪ࠼ࡿ tears one’s atatakái adj  ࠿࠸ warm (liquid, hair (out), holds one’s head in heart, etc.) atatamarimásu, atatamáru v ᬮࡲࡾ one’s hands atama-o-tsukaimásu (tsukau) v 㢌ࢆ ࡲࡍ, ᬮࡲࡿ warms up ౑࠸ࡲࡍ ౑࠺ uses one’s head/ atatamarimásu, atatamáru v  ࡲࡾ ࡲࡍ,  ࡲࡿ warms up mind atarashíi adj ᪂ࡋ࠸ new; fresh atatamemásu, atataméru v  ࡵࡲࡍ, ataráshiku adv ᪂ࡋࡃ newly, anew,  ࡵࡿ warms it up, heats atchi pron [INFORMAL] ࠶ࡗࡕ, freshly atarazu-sawarazu adj, adv ᙜࡓࡽࡎ [FORMAL] achira ࠶ࡕࡽ (the other ࡉࢃࡽࡎ innocuous: ~ no henji one, over there) ᙜࡓࡽࡎࡉࢃࡽࡎࡢ㏉஦ give a ate ᙜ࡚ 1. n reliance, trust 2. n harmless answer anticipation, expectation (= kitai 12



ᮇᚅ) 3. goal, object (= moku- áto n ㊧ mark, track, trace; scar; teki ┠ⓗ) 4. n clue, trace (= tegá- footprint; ató-tsugi n ࠶࡜ࡘࡂ࣭ kari ᡭ᥃࠿ࡾ) ㊧⥅ࡂ successor …-ate (nó) suffix, adj …ᐄ࡚ ࡢ ăto n ࢔࣮ࢺ art addressed to …; ate-na n ᐄ ࡚ atorakushon n ࢔ࢺࣛࢡࢩࣙࣥ ྡ address attraction, side entertainment ate-hamarimásu, ate-hamáru v ᙜ࡚ࡣatorie n ࢔ࢺ࢚ࣜ studio, workshop, ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, ᙜ࡚ࡣࡲࡿ fits, conforms atelier ate-hamemásu, ate-haméru v ᙜ࡚ࡣ atsuatsu (no) adj ࢔ࢶ࢔ࢶ ࡢ ࡵࡲࡍ, ᙜ࡚ࡣࡵࡿ applies, lovey-dovey conforms, adapts, fits it (to): … atsuatsu (no) adj ⇕ࠎ ࡢ piping ni ate-hámete …࡟ᙜ࡚ࡣࡵ࡚ in hot conformity/accordance with … atsubottai adj ཌࡰࡗࡓ࠸ thick atekosuri n ᙜ࡚ࡇࡍࡾ a snide atsui adj ཌ࠸ thick; atsu-zoko n ཌᗏ heavy-bottom (things), ~ remark atemásu, ateru v ᙜ࡚ࡲࡍ, ᙜ࡚ࡿ nabe ཌᗏ࡞࡭ heavy-bottomed

guesses; hits; sets aside, desigsaucepan atsúi adj ᬬ࠸ hot (air temperature) nates; touches; addresses ăWisuto n ࢔࣮ࢸ࢕ࢫࢺ࢔࣮ࢳࢫ atsúi adj ⇕࠸ hot ࢺ artist (= geijutsu-ka ⱁ⾡ᐙ) atsukamashíi adj ཌ࠿ࡲࡋ࠸ áto (de/ni) prep, adv ᚋ ࡛࡟ impudent atsukaimásu, atsukau v ᢅ࠸ࡲࡍ, after(wards), later (= nochi ni ᚋ࡟): áto no … ᚋࡢ…the ᢅ࠺ deals with remaining …; ato-máwashi n ᚋᅇ atsumarimásu, atsumáru v 㞟ࡲࡾ ࡋ leaving something until later: ~ ࡲࡍ, 㞟ࡲࡿ meets, assembles; ni shimásu ᚋᅇࡋ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ post- it accumulates atsumemásu, atsuméru v 㞟ࡵࡲࡍ, pones, leaves something until 㞟ࡵࡿ collects, gathers, acculater; ató-aji n ᚋ࿡ aftertaste: ~ ga warui ᚋ࿡ࡀᝏ࠸ leaves a mulates bad aftertaste; ato-kátazuke n ᚋ∦ atsúryoku n ᅽຊ pressure ௜ࡅ cleanup; áto-no-matsurí n ᚋ atsusa n ཌࡉ thickness ࡢ⚍ ࡾ The damage is done; átsusa n ᬬࡉ heat, warmth (air ato-módori n ᚋᡠࡾ retreat, back temperature) tracking; ato-saki n ᚋඛ conse- átsusa n ⇕ࡉ heat, warmth (= netsu ⇕) quence; ato-shímatsu n ᚋጞᮎ settling, putting in order, cleaning attakái adj ᬮ࠿࠸ warm (= atatakái ᬮ࠿࠸) up after 13



attakái adj  ࠿࠸ warm (= atata- ㄗࡿ errs, makes a mistake kái  ࠿࠸) ayamarimásu, ayamáru v ㅰࡾࡲࡍ, at(a)tamemásu, at(a)taméru v  ࡵ ㅰࡿ apologizes ࡲࡍ,  ࡵࡿ warms it up, heats ayashii adj ᛹ࡋ࠸ questionable, atto-hĿmu (na) adj ࢔ࢵࢺ࣮࣒࣍ suspicious, shady; uncertain; ࡞ homelike, homely unreliable; weird DWWRPăNX n ࢔ࢵࢺ࣐࣮ࢡ a mark ayashimásu, ayasu v ࠶ࡸࡋࡲࡍ, ࠶ࡸࡍ lulls: akanbø o ayashite (such as “@”) DWWĿVKLPiVu (suru) v ᅽಽࡋࡲࡍ nekashitsukemáshita ㉥ࢇᆓࢆ࠶ ࡍࡿ overwhelms ࡸࡋ࡚ᐷ࠿ࡋࡘࡅࡲࡋࡓ lulled a DWWĿWHNLQD adj ᅽಽⓗ࡞ overwhelm- baby to sleep ayatóri n ࠶ࡸ࡜ࡾ cat’s cradle ing áuto n ࢔࢘ࢺ out (baseball); auto- ayatsurimásu, ayatsúru v ᧯ࡾࡲࡍ, putto ࢔࢘ࢺࣉࢵࢺ output; auto᧯ࡿ manipulates rain ࢔࢘ࢺࣛ࢖ࣥ outline ayauku adv ༴࠺ࡃ (something awa n Ἳ bubble; foam undesirable) about to happen or áwa n ࢔࣭࣡⢖ millet likely to happen. áwabi n ࢔࣡ࣅ࣭㩚 abalone ă\ŗ adj ࠶࠶ࡺ࠺ ... that kind/sort áware (na) adj ယࢀ ࡞ pity, pitiful of ... (= åiu ࠶࠶࠸࠺, anna ࠶ࢇ࡞) awase n ⿛࣭࠶ࢃࡏ lined garment áyu n ࢔࣭ࣘ㩗 (= ái ࢔࢖࣭㩗 awasemásu, awaséru v ྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, sweetfish, river trout ྜࢃࡏࡿ puts together, combines, aza n ⑪ bruise azakeri n ࠶ࡊࡅࡾ࣭ლࡾ mockery joins awatadashii adj ៃࡓࡔࡋ࠸ hurried, azakerimásu, azakeru v ࠶ࡊࡅࡾ࣭ ლࡾࡲࡍ, ࠶ࡊࡅࡿ࣭ლࡿ mocks, flustered, confused awatemásu, awateru v ៃ࡚ࡲࡍ, ៃ scorns ࡚ࡿ gets flustered/confused azárashi n ࢔ࢨࣛࢩ࣭ᾏ㇮ seal awate-mono n ៃ࡚⪅ a person (animal) azawarai n ࠶ࡊ>ლ@➗࠸ mockery, easily flustered; a scatterbrain sneer, scornful laugh (= awatenbø ࠶ࢃ࡚ࢇᆓ ayabumimásu, ayabumu v ༴ࡪࡳࡲ azawaraimásu, azawarau v ࠶ࡊ>ლ@ ࡍ, ༴ࡪࡴ doubts ➗࠸ࡲࡍ, ࠶ࡊ>ლ@➗࠺ mocks, ayafuya (na) adj ࠶ࡸࡩࡸ ࡞ sneers azáyaka (na) adj 㩭ࡸ࠿ ࡞ bright, indecisive ayamari n ㄗࡾ error, mistake vivid ayamari n ㅰࡾ apology azen-to-shimásu (-suru) v ࠶↛࡜ࡋ ayamarimásu, ayamáru v ㄗࡾࡲࡍ, ࡲࡍ is dumbfounded



…bákari, …bákkari, … bákkashi

azukarimásu, azukáru v 㡸࠿ࡾࡲࡍ, 㡸ࡅࡿ gives in trust, entrusts, 㡸࠿ࡿ takes in trust, keeps, holds checks, deposits azukemásu, azukéru v 㡸ࡅࡲࡍ, azukí n ࢔ࢬ࣭࢟ᑠ㇋ red beans

B booth, kiosk, stand (selling things) …-ba conj …ࡤ [EMPHATIC] (if) indeed: … nára(ba) …࡞ࡽ ࡤ Báiburu n ࣂ࢖ࣈࣝ Bible (= seisho ⪷᭩) if; … dáttara(ba) …ࡔࡗࡓࡽ ࡤ ; …-káttara(ba) …࠿ࡗࡓࡽ báidoku n ᱵẘ [BOOKISH] syphilis baikin n ࡤ࠸⳦ germ ࡤ if/when it is (or was); … -tára(ba) …ࡓࡽ ࡤ if/when it báikingu n ࣂ࢖࢟ࣥࢢ smorgasbord báiku n ࣂ࢖ࢡ motorbike does (or did) ba n ሙ 1. place (for something) EDLQGă n ࣂ࢖ࣥࢲ࣮ binder (= basho ሙᡤ) 2. occasion, time baiorin n ࣂ࢖࢜ࣜࣥ violin 3. scene baio-tekunórojii n ࣂ࢖࢜ࢸࢡࣀࣟ E㍠n ࣂ࣮ bar (for drinking) ࢪ࣮ biotechnology baai, bawai n ሙྜ situation, case, baipasu n ࣂ࢖ࣃࢫ bypass bairíngaru n ࣂ࢖ࣜࣥ࢞ࣝ bilingual circumstance, occasion: … no baai/bawai … ࡢሙྜ if EDLVKĿNLn n ㈺ൾ㔠 indemnity, baba-shatsu n ࡤࡤࢩࣕࢶ long reparation EDL\ă n ࣂ࢖࣮ࣖ buyer (professional) sleeved thermal undershirt for bají n ࣂࢵࢪ badge female EăEpN\ŗ n ࣂ࣮࣮࣋࢟ࣗ barbecue báka n ࡤ࠿࣭ࣂ࣭࢝㤿㮵 fool, bachí n ⨩ retribution, punishment idiot; báka na adj ࡤ࠿࡞ foolish, (= batsu ⨩) stupid; baka-bakashíi, baka-rashíi adj ba-chígai (na/no) adj ሙ㐪࠸ ࡞ࡢ ࡤ࠿ࡤ࠿ࡋ࠸ absurd, foolish; 1. out of place 2. not from the baka-bánashi n ࡤ࠿ヰ nonsense; right/best place idle talk; hot air, bull (= mudabánashi ↓㥏ヰ); báka-me adj ࡤ Eă´gen n ࣂ࣮ࢤࣥ bargain sale bái n ಸ double; bai-ritsu n ಸ⋡ ࠿ࡵ damn (fool) idiot magnification, magnifying power …bákari, …bákkari, … bákkashi suffix …-bai suffix …ಸ …times, …-fold …ࡤ࠿ࡾ, …ࡤࡗ࠿ࡾ, …ࡤࡗ࠿ bai-… prefix ኎ selling; bái-bai ࡋ only, just (= dake ࡔࡅ): bákan ኎㈙ buying and selling; bai-shun ri de/ja naku …mo ...ࡤ࠿ࡾ࡛ n ኎᫓ prostitution; bai-ten n ኎ᗑ ࡌࡷ࡞ࡃ…ࡶ not only …, but also 15


bakazu-o-fumimásu (fumu)

bakazu-o-fumimásu (fumu) v ሙᩘࢆ ㋃ࡳࡲࡍ ㋃ࡴ gets a lot of

ࡢ [numeral] -th; …-ban-sen suffix … ␒⥺ track number …

practical experience

(train station)

bakégaku n ໬Ꮫ࣭໬ࡅᏛ chemistry (= kágaku ໬Ꮫ bake-móno n ໬ࡅ≀ monster, ghost baken n 㤿ๆ betting ticket baketsu n ࣂࢣࢶ bucket bakkin n ⨩㔠 fine, penalty bákku n ࣂࢵࢡ back; bakku-áppu n ࣂࢵࢡ࢔ࢵࣉ backup, support; bakku-míră n ࣂࢵࢡ࣑࣮ࣛ

EăQă n ࣂ࣮ࢼ࣮ burner bánana n ࣂࢼࢼ banana ban-cha n ␒Ⲕ coarse green tea bando n ࣂࣥࢻ 1. strap, band (watch, etc.); belt 2. band (music) bane (-jíkake) n ࡤࡡ ௙᥃ࡅ

spring (device)

ban-gasa n ␒ച oilpaper umbrella bangumi n ␒⤌ program (TV, etc.) Bánkoku n ࣂࣥࢥࢡ Bangkok rearview mirror bákku, baggu n ࣂࢵࢡ, ࣂࢵࢢ bag bánkoku n ୓ᅜ 1. international bakuchi n ༤ᡴ gambling 2. all the world; bánkoku-hakubútsukan, banpaku n ୓ᅜ༤≀㤋, ୓༤ bakudai (na) adj ࡤࡃࡔ࠸ ࡞

immense, vast, huge, enormous

international exposition

bakudan n ⇿ᙎ bomb bákufu n ᖥᗓ (the time of) the

bánira n ࣂࢽࣛ vanilla EDQQĿ n ୓⬟ versatility, ability to


do anything

bakugeki n ⇿ᧁ bombing bakuhatsu n ⇿Ⓨ explosion, bursting bakuteria n ࣂࢡࢸࣜ࢔ bacteria bakuzen (to) adv ₍↛ ࡜ vaguely,

EDQVĿ n కዌ musical accompaniment EDQVĿNR EDQVĿNĿ n ⤎๰⭯

adhesive plaster/tape

banzái interj ୓ṓ hurray! bara n ࣂ࣭ࣛⷴⷪ rose (flower) obscurely bámen n ሙ㠃 scene (= shiin ࢩ࣮ࣥ) bára (de) adv ࡤࡽ ࡛ loose, ban n ᬌ [BOOKISH] evening, night; separately kon-~ ௒ᬌ tonight; mai-~ ẖᬌ barabara (ní) adv ࡤࡽࡤࡽ ࡟ every night; ban-góhan, ban-meshi scattered, in pieces baransu n ࣂࣛࣥࢫ balance: ~ o n ᬌࡈ㣤,ᬌ㣤 evening meal (dinner/supper) (= yüshoku ኤ㣗) torimásu ࣂࣛࣥࢫࢆ࡜ࡾࡲࡍ bán n ␒ guard, watch; ban-ken n redress the balance ␒≟ watchdog barashimásu, barásu v ࡤࡽࡋࡲࡍ, …-ban suffix ␒ number; ban-chi ࡤࡽࡍ 1. exposes (a secret) n ␒ᆅ address (house number); 2. takes it apart, disassembles EDQJĿ n ␒ྕ number (assigned); 3. kills, shoots (to death) …-banmé (no) suffix, adj …␒┠ EiUď n ࣂ࢚ࣞ ballet



… béki

baton n ࣂࢺࣥ baton baton tatchi n ࣂࢺࣥࢱࢵࢳ passing

EDUď EĿUX n ࣂ࣮ࣞ ࣮࣎ࣝ


baremásu, baréru v [INFORMAL] ࡤࢀࡲࡍ, ࡤࢀࡿ surfaces, is

disclosed, is discovered EDUHQWiLQGď n ࣂࣞࣥࢱ࢖ࣥࢹ࣮

Valentine’s Day bareriina n ࣂ࣮ࣞࣜࢼ ballerina barikan n ࣂࣜ࢝ࣥ clippers (barber’s) bariki n 㤿ຊ horsepower EDURPďWă n ࣂ࣓࣮ࣟࢱ࣮ barometer barukónii n ࣂࣝࢥࢽ࣮ balcony basho n ሙᡤ place bassári adv ࡤࡗࡉࡾ fast and

furious, without hesitation basshi n ᢤṑ pulling out a tooth/

teeth basshimásu, bassuru v ⨩ࡋࡲࡍ, ⨩ࡍࡿ punishes básu n ࣂࢫ bus; basu-téi n ࣂࢫ೵ bus stop; EDVXUŗPX n bathroom (= furo 㢼࿅); basu-tsuki ࣂࢫ௜ࡁ

with bath basue n ሙᮎ suburb (outskirts) basukétto n ࣂࢫࢣࢵࢺ basket basukétto EĿUX n ࣂࢫࢣࢵࢺ࣮࣎ ࣝ basketball, basketball game básuto n ࣂࢫࢺ bust EiWă n ࣂࢱ࣮ butter batafurai n ࣂࢱࣇࣛ࢖ butterfly

(swimming) batán (to) adv ࡤࡓࢇ ࡜ with a

bang, with a thud EăWHQ Gă n ࣂ࣮ࢸࣥ ࢲ࣮ bartender batomínton n ࣂࢺ࣑ࣥࢺࣥ badminton

the torch, having someone take over bátsu n ࡤࡘ cross (= X “wrong”) bátsu n ⨩ retribution, punishment batta n ࣂࢵࢱ grasshopper EiWWă n ࣂࢵࢱ࣮ batter (baseball) battári adv ࡤࡗࡓࡾ unexpectedly battén n ࡤࡗ࡚ࢇ X (“wrong”), a black mark batterii n ࣂࢵࢸ࣮ࣜ battery battingu n ࣂࢵࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ batting (baseball) bátto n ࣂࢵࢺ bat (baseball) baundo n ࣂ࢘ࣥࢻ bound bawai, baai n ሙྜ situation, case, circumstance, occasion Ei]ă n ࣂࢨ࣮ bazaar EHELLVKtWWă n ࣋ࣅ࣮࣭ࢩࢵࢱ࣮ baby sitter béddo, bétto n ࣋ࢵࢻ,࣋ࢵࢺ bed (Western) beddo-táun n ࣋ࢵࢺ࣭ࢱ࢘ࣥ bedroom community, suburb Bei n ⡿ America(n): nich-~ ᪥⡿ Japan and America; ø-~ Ḣ⡿ Europe and America; Béi-koku n ⡿ᅜ America (= Amerika ࢔࣓ ࣜ࢝ ; Bei-koku-jin n ⡿ᅜே American (= Amerika-jin ࢔࣓ࣜ ࢝ே beiju n ⡿ᑑ (auspicious, happy

event) eighty-eighth birthday EHLNLQJXSiXGă n ࣋࢖࢟ࣥࢢ࣭ࣃ ࢘ࢲ࣮ baking powder … béki suffix …࡭ࡁ: …-suru ~




béru n ࣋ࣝ bell, doorbell Berurín n ࣋ࣝࣜࣥ Berlin ought to do [BOOKISH] bekkan n ู㤋 annex (building) beruto n ࣋ࣝࢺ belt; anzen-béruto n bekkyo n ูᒃ separate living Ᏻ඲࣋ࣝࢺ safety belt bďNRQ n ࣮࣋ࢥࣥ bacon EHVVĿ n ูⲮ villa, vacation house bén n ᘚ valve EďVX n ࣮࣋ࢫ 1. base, basis bén n ౽ 1. convenience (= béngi 2. base (baseball) 3. = bësu gitå ౽ᐅ) 2. feces; bén-jo n ౽ᡤ ࣮࣋ࢫࢠࢱ࣮ bass guitar toilet; bén-ki n ౽ჾ bedpan; bén-pi EďVX áppu n ࣮࣋ࢫ࢔ࢵࣉ upping/ n ౽⛎ constipation raising the base pay; a pay raise …-bén suffix …㐢 = …-hén, ...-pén EďVXEĿUX n ࣮࣋ࢫ࣮࣎ࣝ baseball 㐢 (counts times or occasions) bésuto n ࣋ࢫࢺ best; besuto-tén n bénchi n ࣋ࣥࢳ bench ࣋ࢫࢺࢸࣥ best ten; EHVXWRVHU㍠béngi n ౽ᐅ convenience, accom- n ࣋ࢫࢺࢭ࣮ࣛ best seller modation: ~ o hakarimásu ౽ᐅ beteran n ࣋ࢸࣛࣥ veteran, expert ࢆᅗࡾࡲࡍ does someone a betsu (na/no) adj ู ࡞ࡢ sepafavor rate, special, particular; …wa ~ bengóshi n ᘚㆤኈ lawyer to shite … ࡣู࡜ࡋ࡚ apart/ béni n ⣚ rouge aside from …, except for …; benkai n ᘚゎ [BOOKISH] betsu-betsu (na/no) adj ูࠎ ࡞ࡢ justification (= iiwake ゝ࠸ヂ) separate, individual; EHWVXU\ĿNLQ n EHQN\Ŀ n ຮᙉ study, (mental) ูᩱ㔠 extra (charge), separate bill betsu (ni) adv ู ࡟ 1. [+ NEGATIVE] work; cutting a price bénri (na) adj ౽฼ ࡞ handy, not particularly 2. … tó wa ~ ni (shite) ࡜ࡣู࡟ ࡋ࡚ quite convenient benri-ya n ౽฼ᒇ handyman (or apart/separately from … ELDKĿUX n ࣅ࢔࣮࣍ࣝ beer hall his shop) benron n ᘚㄽ [BOOKISH] debate, bifuteki n ࣅࣇࢸ࢟ biifu sutëki ࣅ࣮ࣇࢫࢸ࣮࢟ beefsteak speech, rhetoric; benron-taikai n ᘚㄽ኱఍ speech contest bíichi n ࣅ࣮ࢳ beach EHQVKĿ n ᘚൾ compensation bíiru n ࣅ࣮ࣝ beer EHQWĿ n ᘚᙜ box lunch bíjin n ⨾ே beautiful woman, a EHUDEĿ (ni) adv ࡭ࡽࡰ࠺ ࡟ aston- beauty ishingly, considerably: ~ ni takai bíjinesu n ࣅࢪࢿࢫ business; ࡭ࡽࡰ࠺࡟㧗࠸ extremely exbíjinesu-hoteru n ࣅࢪࢿࢫ࣍ࢸࣝ pensive economy hotel; bíjinesu-man n ࣅ beranda n ࣋ࣛࣥࢲ veranda ࢪࢿࢫ࣐ࣥ businessperson 18 desu ࡍࡿ࡭ࡁ࡛ࡍ should do,


bijón n ࣅࢪࣙࣥ vision: ~ o hakkiri sasemásu ࣅࢪࣙࣥࢆࡣࡗࡁ ࡾࡉࡏࡲࡍ clarifies one’s vision bíjutsu n ⨾⾡ art; bijútsú-kan ⨾⾡㤋


bisukétto n ࣅࢫࢣࢵࢺ crackers bitámin n ࣅࢱ࣑ࣥ vitamin(s); bitámin-zai n ࣅࢱ࣑ࣥ๣ vitamin

pills bitoku n ⨾ᚨ virtue n art museum (art gallery) bikkúri-shimásu (-suru) v ࡧࡗࡃࡾ bíwa n ࣅ࣭࣡ᯌᯄ loquat (fruit) ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ gets startled, gets EL\DKĿUX n ࣅ࣮ࣖ࣍ࣝ beer hall a surprise (= odorokimásu 㦫ࡁ EL\ĿLQ n ⨾ᐜ㝔 beauty parlor bíza n ࣅࢨ visa (= sashø ᰝド) ࡲࡍ) ELP\Ŀ (na) adj ᚤጁ ࡞ delicate, EĿ n Წ pole (rod); stick, club; WHWVXEĿ n 㕲Წ (iron) bar subtle, fine, nice bín n ⎼ bottle; jar bóchi n ቎ᆅ cemetery, graveyard …´-bin suffix ౽ flight (number) … EĿFKĿ shimásu (suru) v ⭾⬽ࡋࡲࡍ EtQEĿ (na) adj ㈋ஈ ࡞ poor (needy) ࡍࡿ swells, expands biní(i)ru n ࣅࢽ ࣮ ࣝ vinyl, EĿFKŗ]DL n 㜵⹸๣ insecticide; polyvinyl; plastic; bini(i)rú-bukuro mothballs EĿdai (na) adj ⭾኱ ࡞ enormous, n ࣅࢽ ࣮ ࣝ⿄ plastic bag binkan (na) adj ᩄឤ ࡞ sensitive gigantic, massive binsen n ౽⟢ (letter-)writing EĿGĿ n ᭀື riot EĿHL n 㜵⾨ defense (= bøgyo 㜵ᚚ) paper, stationery bínta n ࡧࢇࡓ slapping (a person’s %ĿHLVKĿ n 㜵⾨┬ Ministry of face) Defense (DA) birá n ࡧࡽ leaflet, handbill, EĿHNL n ㈠᫆ commerce, trade; EĿHNLVKĿVKDgaisha n ㈠᫆ၟ♫఍ pamphlet bíri (no) adj ࡧࡾ ࡢ the last, the ♫ trader, trading company EĿHQN\Ŀ n ᮃ㐲㙾 telescope tail end, the rear ELUĿGR n ࣅ࣮ࣟࢻ velvet EĿIŗ n ᭀ㢼 storm, gale, hurricane bíru n ࣅࣝ building EĿI~]DL n 㜵⭉๣ antiseptic Bíruma n ࣅ࣐ࣝ Burma (Myanmar) (substance), preservative bisai (na) adj ᚤ⣽ ࡞ minute, EĿhan-béru n 㜵≢࣋ࣝ burglar detailed, fine alarm bishonure n ࡧࡋࡻ⃿ࢀ EĿKDWpL n 㜵Ἴሐ breakwater EĿLIXUpQGR n ࣮࣎࢖ࣇࣞࣥࢻ soddenness, sopping wet bisshíri adv ࡧࡗࡋࡾ cramped boyfriend (= káre(-shi) ᙼ Ặ ) bisshóri adv ࡧࡗࡋࡻࡾ completely boikótto n ࣎࢖ࢥࢵࢺ boycott boin n ᢺ༳ thumbprint soaked: ase ~ ờࡧࡗࡋࡻࡾ is boin n ẕ㡢 vowel all sweaty 19



boin n ࣎࢖ࣥ (slang) big bust EyLUă n ࣎࢖࣮ࣛ boiler EĿLVXNiXWR n ࣮࣎࢖ࢫ࢝࢘ࢺ boy

ERQ·\iULVKLPiVX (suru) v ࡰࢇࡸࡾ ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ is absent-minded,


ERQ\ŗ n ẕங breast milk EĿNDUX n ࣮࣎࢝ࣝ vocalist bora n ࣎ࣛ gray mullet bokashimásu, bokásu v ࡰ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, borántia n ࣎ࣛࣥࢸ࢕࢔ volunteer ࡰ࠿ࡍ: hanashí o ~ ヰࢆࡰ࠿ࡋ boraremásu, boraréru v ࡰࡽࢀࡲࡍ, ࡲࡍ beats around the bush, is ࡰࡽࢀࡿ [INFORMAL] gets over-



charged (ripped off)

EĿNHQ n ෑ㝤 adventure bóki n ⡙グ bookkeeping EĿNLUH EĿNNtUH n Წࡁࢀ, Წࡗࡁࢀ pole (rod); stick, club (= bø Წ) bokkusu n ࣎ࢵࢡࢫ; denwa-bókkusu n 㟁ヰ࣎ࢵࢡࢫ phone booth bókoku n ẕᅜ mother country,

EĿUHL n ஸ㟋 Japanese ghost

(commonly lacks legs and feet) borimásu, bóru v ࡰࡾࡲࡍ, ࡰࡿ


EĿULQJX n ࣮࣎ࣜࣥࢢ bowling bóro n ࡰࢁ rag EĿUX n ࣮࣎ࣝ ball EĿUXJDPL n ࣮࣎ࣝ⣬ cardboard homeland bóku pron ൅ (male) I/me; bóku-ra, EĿUXSHQ n ࣮࣎ࣝ࣌ࣥ ballpoint pen bóku-táchi pron ൅ࡽ, ൅ࡓࡕ we/us boruto n ࣎ࣝࢺ bolt (of nut and bokuchiku n ∾␆ stockbreeding bolt); volt ERNXMĿ n ∾ሙ ranch EĿU\RNX n ᭀຊ violence (brute bókushi n ∾ᖌ (Christian) force); EĿU\RNXGDQ n ᭀຊᅋ mob,

minister, pastor; Reverend


bókushingu n ࣎ࢡࢩࣥࢢ boxing ERU\ŗPX n ࣮࣒࣎ࣜࣗ volume bon n ┅ o-bon ࠾┅ tray EĿVDQ n ᆓࡉࢇ obø-sán ࠾ᆓࡉࢇ Bón n ┅ O-bón ࠾┅ Bon Festi- Buddhist monk (= bø´zu ᆓ୺ bósei n ẕᛶ maternity val (Buddhist All Saints Day) …-bon suffix …ᮏ book, volume, EĿVHNL n ⣳⦼ [BOOKISH] spinning EĿVKL n ᖗᏊ hat text …´-bon (…´-hon, …´-pon) suffix …ᮏ boshikátei n ẕᏊᐙᗞ family with(counts long objects) out a father: ~ de sodachimásu EĿQDVX n ࣮࣎ࢼࢫ (wage) bonus ẕᏊᐙᗞ࡛⫱ࡕࡲࡍ grows up bonchí n ┅ᆅ (geographical) basin without a father. EĿQpQNDL n ᛀᖺ఍ year-end party ERVKŗ n ເ㞟 recruitment bonnétto n ࣎ࣥࢿࢵࢺ (car-)hood, EĿVĿ]RNX n ᭀ㉮᪘ motorcycle gang EĿVXL (no) adj 㜵Ỉ ࡢ waterproof bonnet bonsai n ┅᱂ dwarf trees (in pots) bótan n ࣎ࢱࣥ button



bótchan n ᆓࡕࡷࢇ (little) boy, (your) son (= bø´ya ᆓࡸ) EĿWR n ࣮࣎ࢺ boat bĿWĿ n ෑ㢌 opening, at [in] the


buai n Ṍྜ commission; buai-sei Ṍྜไ commission system EXiLVĿ (na) adj ↓ឡ᝿ ࡞ curt,

unsociable, blunt, brusque buatsuí adj ศཌ࠸ thick beginning EĿtoku n ෑ࡜ࡃ sacrilege, viobuchimásu, butsu v ࡪࡕࡲࡍ, ࡪࡘ lence: kami e no ~ ⚄࡬ࡢෑ࡜ࡃ hits EXFKĿKĿ n ୙ㄪἲ a gaffe, a blasphemy bótsubotsu adv ࡰࡘࡰࡘ 1. adv blunder; EXFKĿKĿ (na) adj ୙ㄪἲ ࡞ awkward, clumsy, impolite (= sórosoro ࡑࢁࡑࢁ) little by little, gradually; (leave) before long Budda n ௖㝀 Buddha 2. n (with) dots, spots, bumps EXGĿ n ࣈࢻ࣭࢘ⴵⴇ grapes EĿWWRshimásu (-suru) v ࣮࣎ࡗ࡜ࡋ E~GĿ n Ṋ㐨 martial arts ࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ stupefies: bøtto shita EXGĿVKX n ࣈࢻ࢘㓇 wine atama ࣮࣎ࡗ࡜ࡋࡓ㢌 vacant bu-énryo (na) adj ୙㐲៖ ࡞ mind frank, unreserved, pushy, rude ERWWĿVKLPiVX (-suru) v ἐ㢌ࡋࡲࡍ búffe n ࣅࣗࢵࣇ࢙ buffet devotes oneself: shigoto ni ~ ௙ EŗLQJX n ࣈ࣮࢖ࣥࢢ booing ஦࡟ἐ㢌ࡋࡲࡍ buries oneself in buji (ni) adv ↓஦ ࡟ safely one’s work (without incident) boyakimásu, boyáku v ࡰࡸࡁࡲࡍ, bujoku n ౲㎯ insult(ing) ࡰࡸࡃ grumbles, complains bújutsu n Ṋ⾡ martial arts EĿ]HQ adj ⲉ↛ stunned: ~ to shita búki n Ṋჾ weapon, arms kao ⲉ↛࡜ࡋࡓ㢦 dazed-looking bu-kimi (na) adj ୙Ẽ࿡ ࡞ ghasty, EĿ]X n ᆓ୺ Buddhist monk or priest; eerie: ~ na shizukesa ୙Ẽ࿡࡞㟼 EĿ]XDWDPD n ᆓ୺㢌 shaven head ࡅࡉ eerie silence bú n 㒊 1. (suffix …´-bu …㒊) EXNtU\Ŀ (na) adj ୙ჾ㔞 ࡞ part, division, section; bú-bun n homely, ugly 㒊ศ part, portion; EXFKĿ n 㒊㛗 EXNt\Ŀ (na) adj ୙ჾ⏝ ࡞ clumsy department/division/section head, bukká n ≀౯ commodity prices EXNNLUiEĿ (na) adj ࡪࡗࡁࡽࡰ࠺ manager, chief (in the office); bu-hín n 㒊ရ parts 2. (perfor ࡞ blunt, brusque, curt mance) yóru-no-bú ኪࡢ㒊 eve- bukku n ࣈࢵࢡ book; bukku-fea n ࣈࢵࢡࣇ࢙࢔ book fair ning performance …´-bu suffix 1. …ศ (1-9) percent %~NN\Ŀ n ௖ᩍ Buddhism 2. …㒊 copies (of a book); ichí- bŗPX n ࣈ࣮࣒ boom (fad) bu ୍㒊 one copy bún n ᩥ sentence, text; EXQEĿgu 21



n ᩥᡣල, bunpø´-gu ᩥᡣල stationery supplies; bún-gaku n ᩥᏛ literature; bún-go n ᩥㄒ literary language/word; bún-ka n ᩥ໬ culture, civilization; bun-ko (-bon) n ᩥᗜ ᮏ pocketbook; bun-mei n ᩥ᫂ civilization; EXQSĿ n ᩥἲ grammar; E~QVKĿ n ᩥ❶ (written) sentence bún-… prefix ศ part, portion, share; state, status; bun-ben n ศ ፔ childbirth delivery; bun-dóki n ศᗘჾ protractor; EXQMĿ n ศㆡ sale in lots, lotting out: ~manshon ศㆡ࣐ࣥࢩࣙࣥ condominium; bun-kai n ศゎ breakup (material); bun-katsu n ศ๭ dividing, splitting; bun-pu n ศᕸ distribution; bun-retsu n ศ⿣ breakup (countries, human relationship); bun-ruí n ศ㢮 classification; bun-sekí n ศᯒ analysis; bun-tan n ศᢸ (taking) partial charge; allotment, share: ~ shimásu ศᢸࡋࡲࡍ takes partial charge of, shares in; pays/does one’s share …-bun suffix …ศ numeral -th; yon-bun no ichí 4ศࡢ one-fourth E~SSĿ n ௖ἲ the teachings of Buddhism búrabura adv ࡪࡽࡪࡽ idly dangling, idling, hang around: ashi o

window shade EXUi Mă n ࣈࣛ ࢪ࣮ࣕ bra(ssiere) Burajiru n ࣈࣛࢪࣝ Brazil burakku-bókkusu n ࣈࣛࢵࢡ࣎ࢵࢡ ࢫ black box EXUDNNXNĿKLL n ࣈࣛࢵࢡࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮

black coffee burakku-rísuto n ࣈࣛࢵࢡࣜࢫࢺ

black list EXUDNNX\ŗPRD n ࣈࣛࢵࢡ࣮ࣘࣔ࢔

black humor buránch n ࣈࣛࣥࢳ brunch EXUDQGď n ࣈࣛࣥࢹ࣮ brandy burando n ࣈࣛࣥࢻ brand buránketto n ࣈࣛࣥࢣࢵࢺ blanket buránko n ࣈࣛࣥࢥ a swing (in a

park, etc.) burári (to) v ࡪࡽࡾ ࡜ drop by burasagarimásu, burasagaru v ࡪࡽ ୗࡀࡾࡲࡍ, ࡪࡽୗࡀࡿ hangs

(down) burasagemásu, burasageru v ࡪࡽୗ ࡆࡲࡍ, ࡪࡽୗࡆࡿ hangs (down),

suspends búrashi n ࣈࣛࢩ brush; ha-burashi n ṑࣈࣛࢩ toothbrush buratsukimásu, buratsuku v ࡪࡽࡘ ࡁࡲࡍ, ࡪࡽࡘࡃ hangs around,

wonders, strolls around buraun-kán n ࣈࣛ࢘ࣥ⟶ TV tube buráusu n ࣈࣛ࢘ࢫ blouse burauza n ࣈࣛ࢘ࢨ browser


~ sasemásu ㊊ࢆࡪࡽࡪࡽࡉࡏࡲ buréi n ↓♩ discourtesy; buréi na ࡍ swings one’s leg (back and adj ↓♩࡞ impolite, rude EXUďNă n ࣈ࣮࣮ࣞ࢝ circuit forth) buraindo n ࣈࣛ࢖ࣥࢻ sunblind, breaker (box)




EXUďNL n ࣈ࣮ࣞ࢟ (car) brake búshu n 㒊㤳 radical (Chinese EXUp]ă n ࣈࣞࢨ࣮ blazer: seifuku character): ~-kensaku 㒊㤳᳨⣴ no ~ ไ᭹ࡢࣈࣞࢨ࣮ blazer index by radical …-búsoku n …୙㊊ shortage ne-~ uniform buríifu n ࣈ࣮ࣜࣇ brief(s) ᐷ୙㊊ not enough sleep EXULLIXNďVX n ࣈ࣮ࣜࣇࢣ࣮ࢫ busshitsu n ≀㉁ matter, substance; busshitsu-teki (na) adj ≀㉁ⓗ ࡞ briefcase buríjji n ࣈࣜࢵࢪ bridge (card game) material buriki n ࣈࣜ࢟ tin busshoku n ≀Ⰽ looking around for EXUĿFKL n ࣈ࣮ࣟࢳ brooch EXVVĿ QD adj ≀㦁 ࡞ troubled, EXUĿGREDQGR n ࣈ࣮ࣟࢻࣂࣥࢻ unsafe, dangerous búsu n ࡪࡍ ugly female broadband (computer) burogu n ࣈࣟࢢblog, weblog butá n ࣈࢱ࣭㇜ pig; buta-niku n EXUĿNă n ࣈ࣮࣮ࣟ࢝ agent, broker ㇜⫗ pork burókkori(i) n ࣈࣟࢵࢥࣜ ࣮ bútai n ⯙ྎ stage bútai n 㒊㝲 detachment of troops, broccoli buronzu n ࣈࣟࣥࢬ bronze unit, outfit burŗ adj ࣈ࣮ࣝ feeling blue EXWFKĿ]XUa n ௖㡬㠃 a sullen face burudóggu n ࣈࣝࢻࢵࢢ bulldog bútikku n ࣈࢸ࢕ࢵࢡ boutique EXUXGĿ]ă n ࣈࣝࢻ࣮ࢨ࣮ bullButsu n ௖ Buddha (= budda ௖ 㝀); butsu-dan n ௖ቭ household dozer (machine) burujoa n ࣈࣝࢪࣙ࢔ bourgeois altar (Buddhist); %XWVX]Ŀ n ௖ീ EXUŗVX n ࣈ࣮ࣝࢫ blues (music) Buddha (statue) EXViKĿ n ↓>୙@సἲ a social bŗtsu n ࣈ࣮ࢶ boot gaffe, a faux pas; EXViKĿ na adj bútsubutsu iimásu (iu) v ࡪࡘࡪࡘゝ ↓>୙@సἲ࡞ rude, blunt ࠸ࡲࡍ ゝ࠺ complains bu-sata n ↓Ἃử neglecting to (muttering, grumbling) write/visit go-busata ࡈ↓Ἃử butsukarimásu, butsukaru v ࡪࡘ࠿ búshi n Ṋኈ Japanese warrior, ࡾࡲࡍ, ࡪࡘ࠿ࡿ collides with,


runs into

EXVKtGĿ n Ṋኈ㐨 Bushido, the way butsukemásu, butsukeru v ࡪࡘࡅ ࡲࡍ, ࡪࡘࡅࡿ hits of the samurai búsho n 㒊⨫ department (in the bútsuri, butsurígaku n ≀⌮,≀⌮Ꮫ office) physics; butsurigákú-sha n ≀⌮Ꮫ bushĿ (na) adj ↓>୙@⢭ ࡞ lazy; ⪅ physicist buttai n ≀య thing, matter, object, slovenly; EXVKĿ-mono n ↓⢭⪅

sluggard, sloven person

body, material body 23


buttobashimásu, buttobasu

buttobashimásu, buttobasu v [INFORMAL] ࡪࡗ㣕ࡤࡋࡲࡍ, ࡪࡗ 㣕ࡤࡍ beats up, burns up EXWWĿVKL (de) adv [INFORMAL] ࡪࡗ ㏻ࡋ ࡛ without a break: ~ de hatarakimásu ࡪࡗ㏻ࡋ࡛ാࡁ ࡲࡍ works without a break buttsuke-honban (de) adv ࡪࡗࡘࡅ ᮏ␒ ࡛ without rehearsal buttsuzuke (de) adv [INFORMAL] ࡪࡗ⥆ࡅ ࡛ without a break,

E\Ŀ« prefix ⑓ sickness, patients; E\ĿLQ n ⑓㝔 hospital; clinic, health service: kyükyü-~ ᩆᛴ⑓㝔 emergency hospital; E\Ŀ-ki (no) adj ⑓Ẽ ࡢ sick, ill; sickness, illness: ~-gachi (na) ⑓Ẽࡀࡕ ࡞ sickly, unhealthy; E\ĿQLQ n ⑓ே an invalid, a patient; E\Ŀ-reki n ⑓Ṕ medical


E\Ŀ n 㗩 a tack; a thumbtack (= gabyø ⏬㗩) continuously E~]ă n ࣈࢨ࣮ buzzer E\ĿEX n ᒊ㢼 screen (folding) byákudan n ࣅࣕࢡࢲ࣭ࣥⓑቭ E\ĿGĿ (na) adj ᖹ➼ ࡞ equal E\ĿVKD n ᥥ෗ depiction, descripsandalwood byĿ n ⛊ a second (of time); E\Ŀ tion: ~ ga umai ᥥ෗ࡀୖᡭ࠸ yomi n ⛊ㄞࡳ countdown is good at describing

C cha n Ⲕ o-chá ࠾Ⲕ tea, green tea; cha-dái n Ⲕ௦ o-chadái ࠾Ⲕ௦ { tea charges (in café, etc.) | tip (money); cha-gará n ⲔẆ tea leaves; cha-iro (no) adj ⲔⰍ ࡢ brown; cha-no-má n Ⲕࡢ㛫 o-cha-no-má ࠾Ⲕࡢ㛫

cha-wán-mushi n Ⲕ☇ࡴࡋ

steamed egg hotchpotch in a teacup (made from broth and egg) …cha suffix …ࡕࡷ = …-téwa … ࡚ࡣ (doing/being, if one does/ be) cháchi (na) adj [INFORMAL] ࡕࡷࡕ (Japanese style) living room: o-cha-no-má de onajimi ࠾Ⲕ ࡞ petty, flimsy, cheap ࡢ㛫࡛࠾㥆ᰁࡳ familiar to TV FKăKDQ n ࢳ࣮ࣕࣁ࣭ࣥ⅗㣤 viewers; cha-nomi-tómodachi n (Chinese) fried rice Ⲕ㣧ࡳ཭㐩 coffee-drinking cháimu n ࢳࣕ࢖࣒ chime chairudo-shíito n ࢳࣕ࢖ࣝࢻࢩ࣮ࢺ companion, crony; cha-sají n Ⲕ໯ teaspoon; cha-wán n Ⲕ☇ child seat o-cháwan ࠾Ⲕ☇ { rice bowl FKăMt n ࢳ࣮ࣕࢪ charge | tea cup (for tea ceremony); chákku n ࢳࣕࢵࢡ zipper 24



chakashimásu, chakasu v [INFORMAL] attached to children’s or girls’ ࡕࡷ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ࡕࡷ࠿ࡍ mimes, names. [INFORMAL]) chanbará n ࡕࡷࢇࡤࡽ sword batmakes fun of, ridicules … cháku suffix …╔ arriving at tle (historical period drama) chánchara okashíi adj ࡕࡷࢇࡕࡷࡽ (TIME/PLACE) chakkarishite-(i)másu ((i)ru) v [INFOR- ࠾࠿ࡋ࠸ [INFORMAL] laughable, MAL] ࡕࡷࡗ࠿ࡾࡋ࡚ ࠸ ࡲࡍ absurd, fiddle-dee-dee ࠸ ࡿ is nimble, adroit, chánnerú n ࢳࣕࣥࢿࣝ channel (TV) chánpion n ࢳࣕࣥࣆ࢜ࣥ champion shrewd and calculating chakkĿ n ╔ᕤ starting chánpon n ࡕࡷࢇࡱࢇ alternating, chakuchaku (to) adv ╔ࠎ ࡜ skipping back and forth, mixing


one’s drinks/foods

chakuchí n ╔ᆅ landing on chánsu n ࢳࣕࣥࢫ chance chakufukú n ╔᭹ [BOOKISH] embez- chantó adv ࡕࡷࢇ࡜ safe(ly) (with-

zlement, misappropriation

out incident), firmly, securely; chantó shita adj ࡕࡷࢇ࡜ࡋࡓ proper, secure chárachara shita adj ࡕࡷࡽࡕࡷࡽ point chakujítsu (na) adj ╔ᐇ ࡞ ࡋࡓ [INFORMAL] showy [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] steady, constant chakunan n Ꭰ⏨ [BOOKISH] heir, charanporán (na) adj [INFORMAL] ࡕࡷࡽࢇࡱࡽࢇ ࡞ irresponeldest son chakurikú n ╔㝣 (from sky or wide sible, sloppy, halfway, unreliwater area) landing, touching able [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] charénji n ࢳࣕࣞࣥࢪ challenge ground chakushi n ᎠᏊ [BOOKISH] heir charinkó n ࢳࣕࣜࣥࢥ [INFORMAL] chakushoku n ╔Ⰽ coloring, stain, bicycle cháritii n ࢳࣕࣜࢸ࢕࣮ charity color chákushu v ╔ᡭ [BOOKISH] begin, charumerá n ࢳ࣓ࣕࣝࣛ noodle start vendor’s flute chakusĿ n ╔᝿ [BOOKISH] concep- chăVKŗ n ࢳ࣮ࣕࢩ࣮ࣗ (Chinese) tion, idea, inspiration roast pork; chăVKŗPHQ n ࢳ࣮ࣕ chakusúi n ╔Ỉ landing on water, ࢩ࣮ࣗ㯝 Chinese noodles with splashing down sliced roast pork chă´mingu n ࢳ࣮࣑ࣕࣥࢢ charm- FKăWă n ࢳ࣮ࣕࢱ࣮ charter; FKăWă bin n ࢳ࣮ࣕࢱ࣮౽ chartered ing, attractive …(-) chan suffix …ࡕࡷࢇ (mostly flight, charter service 25 chakugán n ╔║ [BOOKISH] attention; chakugán-ten ╔║Ⅼ view-



chatto n ࢳࣕࢵࢺ chatting, chat

(Internet) chékku n ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡ 1. v check 2. n check (bank) (= kogitte ᑠษᡭ) 3. n check (pattern) chekku-áuto n ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡ࢔࢘ࢺ check-out chekkú-in n ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡ࢖ࣥ check-in chď´n n ࢳ࢙࣮ࣥ chain, snow chain chéro n ࢳ࢙ࣟ cello chi n ⾑ blood: ~ ga demásu ⾑ࡀ ฟࡲࡍ bleeds; chi-bashítta adj ⾑ ㉮ࡗࡓ bloodshot; chi-daraké adj ⾑ࡔࡽࡅ bloody; chi-namagusái adj ⾑⏕⮯࠸ bloody; chi-no-ke ga nái adj ⾑ࡢẼࡀ࡞࠸ pale chi n ᆅ ground, earth, land: ~ ni ashi o tsukemásu ᆅ࡟㊊ࢆࡘࡅ ࡲࡍ grounds oneself; FKLFKŗ n ᆅ୰ underground; chi-hei-sén n ᆅᖹ⥺ horizon (on land); FKLKĿ chí-iki n ᆅ᪉ area, region, province, district; chí-ka n ᆅୗ underground: ~shitsu ᆅୗᐊ basement: ~tetsu ᆅୗ㕲 subway; chi-kakú n ᆅẆ (geology) the earth’s crust; chí-ku n ᆅ༊ section, sector (area); chi-shitsú n ᆅ㉁ the geology (of a place); FKLVĿ n ᆅᒙ (geology) stratum; chi-tai n ᆅᖏ zone: anzen-~ Ᏻ඲ᆅᖏ safety zone; chí-zu n ᆅᅗ map chián n ἞Ᏻ law and order, security,

public order FKLDUtLGă n ࢳ࢔࣮ࣜࢲ࣮ cheer-

leader Chibetto n ࢳ࣋ࢵࢺ Tibet

chíbi n ࡕࡧ [INFORMAL] midget; chibi-kko n ࡕࡧࡗᏊ (tiny) tot chibirimásu, chibiru v ࡕࡧࡾࡲࡍ, ࡕࡧࡿ [INFORMAL] wets one’s

pants, wets oneself chíbu n ᜝㒊 1. private parts, pubic area 2. source of embar-

rassment chíbusa n ஙᡣ (woman’s) breasts chichi (oya) n ∗ ぶ father chichi n ங 1. mother’s milk 2. breasts and nipples; chi(chi)bánare n ங㞳ࢀ is weaned chidorí-ashi n ༓㫽㊊ swaying gait,

a reeling movement chié n ▱ᜨ wisdom; chié-okure (no) n, adj ▱ᜨ㐜ࢀ ࡢ mentally


chién n 㐜ᘏ [BOOKISH] delay chífusu n ࢳࣇࢫ typhus (fever),

typhoid (fever) chigaí 㐪࠸ n difference, discrep-

ancy chigaimásu, chigau v 㐪࠸ࡲࡍ, 㐪 ࠺ is different; is wrong; is not

like that chigirimásu, chigiru v ༓ษࡾࡲࡍ, ༓ษࡿ tears into pieces chigúhagú (na) adj ࡕࡄࡣࡄ ࡞ ,

ill-assorted, mismatched, is all mixed up: ~ na kaiwa ࡕࡄࡣࡄ ࡞఍ヰ talking at cross-purposes FKLKĿ VKĿ n ⑵࿈ ⑕ dementia chíi n ᆅ఩ rank, position, status chíifu n ࢳ࣮ࣇ chief chíimu n ࢳ࣮࣒ team; FKLLPXZăNX n ࢳ࣮࣒࣮࣡ࢡ teamwork 26


chiméiteki (na)

chiisái, chíisa na adj ᑠࡉ࠸, ᑠࡉ࡞ approach, brings close; associ-

little, small

ates (keeps company) with; can

FKtLWă n ࢳ࣮ࢱ࣮ cheetah approach it chiizu n ࢳ࣮ࢬ cheese chika-zukimásu, chika-zúku v ㏆௜ࡁ chíji n ▱஦ governor ࡲࡍ, ㏆௜ࡃ (= chika-yorimásu, chijimárimásu, chijimaru v ⦰ࡲࡾ chika-yoru ㏆ᐤࡾࡲࡍ, ㏆ᐤࡿ) chíketto n ࢳࢣࢵࢺ ticket ࡲࡍ, ⦰ࡲࡿ shrinks, shortens chijimemásu, chijimeru v ⦰ࡵࡲࡍ, chikén n ▱ぢ knowledge, ⦰ࡵࡿ shortens (it) learning, information chijimimásu, chijimu v ⦰ࡳࡲࡍ, chíkin n ࢳ࢟ࣥ chicken ⦰ࡴ (it) shrinks chikokú n 㐜้ lateness chijín n ▱ே [BOOKISH] acquaintance chíkubi n ங㤳 nipple, teat chijiremásu, chijireru v ⦰ࢀࡲࡍ, chíkuchiku-shimásu (suru) v ࡕࡃࡕ ⦰ࢀࡿ becomes curly ࡃࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ pricks, prickles, chijoku n ᜝㎯ disgrace, shame tickles chiká goro n, adv ㏆㡭 lately, chikuón-ki n ␆㡢ᶵ phonograph chikúrimásu, chikuru v ࢳࢡࡾࡲࡍ, recently chikaí n ㄋ࠸ vow, pledge, oath ࢳࢡࡿ tells, snitches on chikái adj ㏆࠸ near, close by: ~ chikusekí n ⵳✚ accumulation, uchí ni ㏆࠸࠺ࡕ࡟ in the near store FKLNXVKĿ FKLNLVKĿ ␆⏕, ࡕࡁࡋࡻ࠺ future chikaimásu, chikáu v ㄋ࠸ࡲࡍ, ㄋ࠺ 1. interj Damn! (curse) 2. n

swears, vows, pledges chíkaku adj, adv ㏆ࡃ 1. close 2. near-by 3. shortly chikakú n ▱ぬ perception chiká-michi n ㏆㐨 short cut chikán n ⑵₎ (sexual) molester,


beast(s) chikuwá n ࢳࢡ࣡ broiled fish cake chikyŗ´ n ᆅ⌫ the Earth; FKLN\ŗJL n ᆅ⌫൤ globe chímachima adv ࡕࡲࡕࡲ small and neatly arranged: ~ to kurashimásu ࡕࡲࡕࡲ࡜ᬽࡽࡋࡲࡍ

chikará n ຊ power, strength; abil- lives frugally ity; effort (= o-chi-kara ࠾ຊ); chimatá n ᕰ public: ~ no uwasa influence dewa… ᕰࡢ࠺ࢃࡉ࡛ࡣ͐ chika-yorimásu, chika-yoru ㏆ᐤࡾࡲ People say that… ࡍ, ㏆ᐤࡿ approaches, draws/ chiméikizu n ⮴࿨യ vital wound,

comes near

fatal injury

chika-zukemásu, chika-zukéru v ㏆௜ chiméiteki (na) adj ⮴࿨ⓗ ࡞ ࡅࡲࡍ, ㏆௜ࡅࡿ lets one fatal, capital, mortal, deadly




chimitsú adj ⦓ᐦ close, minute, elaborate: ~ na keikaku ⦓ᐦ࡞ ィ⏬ careful planning chinatsu n 㙠ᅽ suppression chinbotsu n ỿἐ sinking chínchin n ࡕࢇࡕࢇ o-chínchin ࠾ࡕࢇࡕࢇ penis [baby, infor-

mal talk]

ࢳࣛගࡾࡲࡍ ගࡿ glimmers chírachira suru mono n ࢳࣛࢳࣛࡍ ࡿࡶࡢ fluff stuff chirári-to-mimásu (miru) v ࡕࡽࡾ࡜ ぢࡲࡍ ぢࡿ glances chira(ka)shimásu, chira(ka)su v ᩓࡽ ࠿ ࡋࡲࡍ, ᩓࡽ ࠿ ࡍ scatters,


chinden n ỿẊ deposition, preci- chirashí n ࢳࣛࢩ leaflet pitation: ~ shimásu ỿẊࡋࡲࡍ is chirashí-zushi n ࡕࡽࡋᑑྖ>㩧@

deposited, settles down chíngin n ㈤㔠 wage chinjutsú n 㝞㏙ statement, parol chinka n ỿୗ sinkage, subsidence chínmi n ⌋࿡ delicacy chinmokú n ỿ㯲 silence: ~ shimásu ỿ㯲ࡋࡲࡍ stops talking FKtQĿ n ▱⬟ intelligence; FKLQĿ shiVŗ n ▱⬟ᣦᩘ intelligence

quotient chinomígo n ங㣧ࡳᏊ an infant, nursling: ~ (o) kakaete ங㣧ࡳᏊ ࢆ ᢪ࠼࡚ with a baby/babies chinpánjii n ࢳࣥࣃࣥࢪ࣮ chimpan-

sushi rice covered with fish tidbits chiratsuki n ࡕࡽࡘࡁ flicker: gamen no ~ ⏬㠃ࡢࡕࡽࡘࡁ

screen that flickers chirí n ሻ dust (on ground, floor, etc.); chirí-tóri n ࡕࡾ>ሻ@ྲྀࡾ

dustpan chíri n ᆅ⌮ the geography, the lay of the land; chirí-gaku n ᆅ⌮Ꮫ

(the study/science of) geography; FKLULMĿ (no) adj ᆅ⌮ୖ ࡢ geographical chiri-gamí, chiri-kami, chiri-shi n ࡕࡾ ⣬ tissues (Kleenex) (= tisshu zee chínpira n ࡕࢇࡨࡽ࣭ࢳࣥࣆࣛ a (pëpå) ࢸ࢕ࢵࢩࣗ ࣮࣌ࣃ࣮ ) punk; hoodlum; juvenile delin- chirimásu, chiru v ᩓࡾࡲࡍ, ᩓࡿ disperses, scatters, falls about quent chinretsu n 㝞ิ exhibition, display FKLU\Ŀ n ἞⒪ treatment (medical) chinseizai n 㙠㟼๣ sedative, chísei n ▱ᛶ intellect, mind, tranquilizer intelligence, mentality chinshaku n ㈤೉ letting and hiring, chiséi n ἞ୡ reign chishiteki (na) adj ⮴Ṛⓗ ࡞ deathrental chíntai n ㈤㈚ lease, rental, rented dealing chisetsú n ⛶ᣋ childish apartment chíppu n ࢳࢵࣉ tip (money) chíshiki n ▱㆑ knowledge; chishikíchírachira hikarimásu (hikaru) v ࢳࣛ jin n ▱㆑ே intellectual(s) 28



Chishimá n ༓ᓥ, ~-réttø ༓ᓥิᓥ «FKĿGiL interj ࡕࡻ࠺ࡔ࠸ the Kurile Islands [INFORMAL] 1. Please 2. Give me… FKLVKtU\Ŀ n ⮴Ṛ㔞 overdose FKĿGR adv ࡕࡻ࠺࡝ exactly, just chísso n ࢳࢵࢯ࣭❅⣲ nitrogen FKĿJĿ n ㄪྜ preparation chissokú n ❅ᜥ suffocation FKĿKĿ (na) adj 㔜ᐆ ࡞ useful, chisui n ἞Ỉ flood control convenient, valued; ~ garimásu chitchái adj ࡕࡗࡕࡷ࠸ [INFORMAL] 㔜ᐆࡀࡾࡲࡍ values, cherishes,


makes full use of

chiteki (na) adj ▱ⓗ ࡞ intelligent, intellectual (= chiseiteki (na) ▱ ᛶⓗ ࡞ ) chitsu n ⭼ vagina chítsujo n ⛛ᗎ order, discipline,


FKĿML n ୎Ꮚ cloves chĿ´jo n 㛗ዪ eldest daughter chojĿ n 㡬ୖ top, summit, peak chĿ´ka n ㉸㐣 [BOOKISH] excess FKĿNiQ n 㛗ᐁ chief (head) FKĿNL n 㛗ᮇ long period, long

chittó-mo adv ࡕࡗ࡜ࡶ [ NEGATIVE range verb] [INFORMAL] not a bit, not in chokín n ㈓㔠 deposit, savings; the least: ~ ki ni narimasen ࡕࡗ࡜ chokin-bako n ㈓㔠⟽ saving box ࡶẼ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡏࢇ not care a bit chokkán n ┤ឤ intuition FKĿ n ⭠ intestines chokkí n ࢳࣙࢵ࢟ vest FKĿ n ࢳ࣭ࣙ࢘⼖butterfly; FKĿ FKĿNRNX n ᙮้ carving, engraving músubi n ⼖⤖ࡧ bow (of a ribchoko(UďWR) n ࢳࣙࢥ ࣮ࣞࢺ bon); FKĿQpNXWDL n ⼖ࢿࢡࢱ࢖ chocolate FKĿNX n ࢳ࣮ࣙࢡ chalk bow tie « FKĿ suffix … ୎ block (or chokuryŗ´ n ┤ὶ DC, direct current chokusén n ┤⥺ straight line block area) of a city: (…-) chø-mé (…) ୎┠ (…-th) block chokusetsu adj, adv ┤᥋ direct(ly) FKĿN\yUL n 㛗㊥㞳 long distance (of city) (…-) FKĿ suffix … 㛗 head, chief, FKĿPL n ㄪ࿡ seasoning (food); FKĿPtU\Ŀ n ㄪ࿡ᩱ spice leader (…-) FKĿ suffix … ඙ trillion FKĿQiQ n 㛗⏨ eldest son chóbo n ࡕࡻࡰ a dot chónbo n ࡕࡻࢇࡰ࣭ࢳࣙࣥ࣎ a FKĿEy n ᖒ⡙ (account) book booboo, a goof, a blunder FKĿFKtQ n ሐⅉ lantern chĿU\ŗ n ₻ὶ current, tide; trend chĿFKĿ n ⏫㛗 town mayor FKĿVD n ㄪᰝ examination, FKĿGDLVKLPiVX (suru) v ࡕࡻ࠺ࡔ࠸ inquiry, investigation, research, >㡬ᡝ@ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ I (humbly) survey chosáku-ken n ⴭసᶒ copyright receive/accept



FKĿVpL n ㄪᩚ adjustment chĿsén n ᣮᡓ challenge; FKĿVpQ sha n ᣮᡓ⪅ challenger &KĿVpQ n ᮅ㩭 A Kita &KĿVpQ Kankoku FKĿVHWV~ n ㄪ⠇ A FKĿVpL chósha n ⴭ⪅ writer, author FKĿVKt n ㄪᏊ tune; condition; trend; ~ ga demásu ㄪᏊࡀฟࡲࡍ gets into the swing of things: ~ ga ii/warui ㄪᏊࡀ࠸࠸ᝏ࠸ is


high school); FKŗJiNXVHL n ୰Ꮫ ⏕ junior high school student; FKŗJDWi (no) n ୰ᆺ ࡢ mediumsize (model); FKŗJpn n ୰ඖ midsummer gift; FKŗMtHQ n ୰⪥⅖ middle ear infection; FKŗM~Q n ୰᪪ the middle of (month); FKŗ kán n ୰㛫 middle: ~-shiken ୰㛫 ヨ㦂 intermediate exam, ~-kanrishoku ୰㛫⟶⌮⫋ mid-level

executive, middle management; FKŗQHQ n ୰ᖺ middle age, ~ (no) in good/bad condition chósho n ⴭ᭩ one’s book ୰ᖺ ࡢ middle-aged (person); FKĿsho n 㛗ᡤ strong point, adFKŗVD n ୰బ lieutenant colonel, vantage, merit (navy) commander; FKŗVHL n ୰ FKĿVKRN~ n ᮅ㣗 morning meal, ୡ medieval times, the Middle breakfast (= asa-gohan ᮅࡈ㣤) Ages; FKŗVKĿNtJ\Ŀ n ୰ᑠ௻ᴗ FKĿVKX n ⫈ྲྀ listening in; FKĿVKX medium-sized and small comsha n ⫈ྲྀ⪅ (radio) listener panies; &KŗWĿ n ୰ᮾ the Middle FKĿVKŗ n ⫈⾗ audience East; FKŗWRUy n ୰࡜ࢁ࣭୰ࢺࣟ FKĿVKŗ n ᚩ཰ [BOOKISH] collection medium-fat (pink) tuna «FKŗ suffix ୰ 1. ... chü (ni) ...୰ (of taxes, etc.), levying chosúi-chi n ㈓Ỉụ reservoir (࡟) during, while, within (time) FKĿWHQ n 㡬Ⅼ climax, peak, high- 2. ... chü (no) ...୰(ࡢ) in course point …of, under (doing); NĿMLFKŗ n FKĿWV~JDL n ⼖ࡘࡀ࠸ hinge ᕤ஦୰ under construction chótto adv ࡕࡻࡗ࡜ just a little; FKŗEX n ࢳ࣮ࣗࣈ tube chŗFKR n ࡕࡹ࠺ࡕࡻ࣭㌋㌉ just a minute; somewhat chottóshitá adj … ࡕࡻࡗ࡜ࡋࡓ… [BOOKISH] hesitation 1. slight, trivial 2. quite a …, a FKŗGRNX n ୰ẘ addiction, decent/respectable …: ~ toraburu poisoning; shoku-chŗGRNX 㣗୰ẘ ࡕࡻࡗ࡜ࡋࡓࢺࣛࣈࣝ queer food poisoning FKĿZi n ㄪ࿴ harmony, agreement &KŗJRNX n ୰ᅜ China; &KŗJRN~MLQ FKŗ n ὀ annotation, note n ୰ᅜே a Chinese; &KŗJRNXJR n FKŗ adj ୰ middle; medium; FKŗ ୰ᅜㄒ Chinese (language) bu n ୰㒊 middle (part); FKŗJiNNĿ &KŗJRNXFKtKĿ n ୰ᅜᆅ᪉ the Chun ୰Ꮫᰯ middle school (junior goku area of Japan 30



FKŗL n ὀព attention; note, notice, reminder: ~ shimásu ὀពࡋࡲࡍ { pays attention | is careful of } advises, warns; FKŗLEXNiL adj ὀព῝࠸ careful FKŗLQJiPX n ࢳ࣮ࣗ࢖࣒ࣥ࢞

chewing gum

sha-kinshi n 㥔㌴⚗Ṇ No Parking FKŗVKi n ὀᑕ injection: yobø-~ ண㜵ὀᑕ preventive injection, immunization; FKŗVKiNL n ὀᑕჾ

syringe (for injections) chŗVKt n ୰Ṇ suspension (abeyance) FKŗVKtQ n ୰ᚰ center, heart, middle; FKŗVKtQ no adj ୰ᚰࡢ central; FKŗVKtQFKL n ୰ᚰᆅ

FKŗMLWVX (na) adj ᛅᐇ ࡞ faithful FKŗND n, adj ୰⳹ Chinese…, Chinese food; FKŗNDJDL n ୰⳹⾤ central area FKŗVKĿ n ୰യ slander Chinatown; FKŗNDU\ĿUL WHQ n ୰⳹ᩱ⌮ ᗑ Chinese cooking FKŗshokú n ᫨㣗 lunch (= hirugóhan ᫨ࡈ㣤, ranchi ࣛࣥࢳ) (restaurant) FKŗNiL n ௰௓ mediation; FKŗNiL FKŗVKĿWHNL (na) adj ᢳ㇟ⓗ ࡞ J\ĿVKD n ௰௓ᴗ⪅ broker, abstract FKŗVŗ (shinkei) n ୰ᯡ ⚄⤒ nerve intermediary agent FKŗNR (no) adj ୰ྂ ࡢ secondcenter hand; FKŗNyVKD n ୰ྂ㌴ used car FKŗV~LNL n ὀỈჾ douche, syringe FKŗNRN~ n ᛅ࿌ advice (for water) FKŗPRNX n ὀ┠ attention, notice FKŗWR (de) adv ୰㏵ ࡛ on the FKŗPRQ n ὀᩥ an order (of goods) way, halfway FKŗĿ n ୰ኸ the center; FKŗĿ no FKŗ\Ŀ n ୰ᗤ [BOOKISH] moderaadj ୰ኸࡢ central; &KŗĿVHQ n tion: ~ o emásu ୰ᗤࢆᚓࡲࡍ ୰ኸ⥺ the (JR) Chuo Line exercises moderation FKŗULWV~ n ୰❧ neutral(ity) FKŗ]iL n, 㥔ᅾ residence, presFKŗVpL n ᛅㄔ loyalty, fidelity, ence; FKŗ]iLLQ n 㥔ᅾဨ resident allegiance officer; FKŗ]iLWiLVKL n 㥔ᅾ኱౑ FKŗVpL adj ୰ᛶ neutral ambassador FKŗVpQ n ᢳ㑅 lottery, drawing chŗ]HWVX n ୰⤯ abortion: ~-shuFKŗVKi n 㥔㌴ parking; FKŗVKDMĿ n jutsu o ukemásu ୰⤯ᡭ⾡ࢆཷࡅ 㥔㌴ሙ parking lot/garage; FKŗ ࡲࡍ undergoes an abortion



… da

D … da suffix …ࡔ … -ta ࡓ shikashi ࡋ࠿ࡋ) … dá v …ࡔ = … désu …࡛ࡍ is; dageki n ᡴᧁ blow, shock daha n ᡴ◚ defeat it is daben n 㥏ᘚ idle talk: ~ o røshi- dái- prefix ➨ [+ number] number másu 㥏ᘚࢆࢁ࠺ࡋࡲࡍ talks …; (= …-banmé…␒┠) [numeral] rubbish, talks nonsense: ~ka 㥏ᘚ -th; (separate word except when ᐙ long-winded speaker attached to a single-unit numeral); daberimásu, dabéru v ࡔ࡭ࡾࡲࡍ, dái-go adj ➨஬ number five; (= ࡔ࡭ࡿ shoots the breeze/bull, go-banmé ஬␒┠) fifth; dái-ichi chews the fat (idly talks) adj ➨୍ number one; (= ichibanmé ୍␒┠) first: dái-ichi no dabingu n ࢲࣅࣥࢢ dubbing dabokuVKĿ n ᡴ᧞യ bruise ➨୍ࡢ (the) first; dái-ichi ni ➨୍ dabudabu (no) adj ࡔࡪࡔࡪ ࡢ ࡟ first (of all); Dái-ni-ji Sekaitaisen ➨஧ḟୡ⏺኱ᡓ World baggy, loose, full, voluminous: ~ no fuku ࡔࡪࡔࡪࡢ᭹ volumi- War II; dái-san adj ➨୕ number nous dress three; (= sanbanmé ୕␒┠) daburimásu, dabúru v ࢲࣈࡾࡲࡍ, third: ~-sha ➨୕⪅ third party ࢲࣈࡿ gets doubled, overlaps, dái n 㢟 1. title (= daimei 㢟ྡ) repeats, is repeated (by mistake) 2. topic, theme (= daimokú 㢟┠) dáburu n ࢲࣈࣝ 1. = ~-rü´mu ࢲࣈdai ௦ 1. n (o-dai ࠾௦) charge ࣮࣒ࣝࣝ a double (room) 2. (fee), bill: o-~ wa itadakimasen ࠾௦ࡣ࠸ࡓࡔࡁࡲࡏࢇ Complidouble(-size) drink 3. doublebreasted suit 4. ~-su ࢲࣈࣝࢫ ments of the house.: takushii-~ ࢱࢡࢩ࣮௦ taxi fare 2. [numeral] (tennis) doubles; daburu-béddo n ࢲࣈࣝ࣋ࢵࢻ double bed -dai …age, generation: nijü´-~ dachin n 㥏㈤ reward, tip 20௦ twenties; ni-dai(me) 2௦┠ dada n 㥏ࠎ fretful: dadakko 㥏ࠎ The Second, junior (family) ࡗᏊ fretful/unreasonable/spoiled … dai suffix …ࡔ࠸ [INFORMAL] (= … désu ka …࡛ࡍ࠿ [FORMAL]): child dadappiroi adj ࡔࡔࡗᗈ࠸ rambling, dáre/nán dai ㄡఱࡔ࠸ who/what

too spacious

daeki n ၚᾮ [BOOKISH] saliva daen n ᴃ෇ ellipse, oval dága conj ࡔࡀ [BOOKISH] but (=

is it? dai n ྎ stand, (low) table …´-dai suffix …ྎ (counts mount-

ed machines, vehicles) 32


GDLEă n ࢲ࢖ࣂ࣮ diver daiben n ኱౽ defecation, bowel

movement, feces daiben n ௦ᘚ speaking for another daibingu n ࢲ࢖ࣅࣥࢢ dive daibu adv ኱ศ quite, very, much dai-búbun n ኱㒊ศ most, the

dainingu-kitchin (DK)

ni shite kudasái ࠾ యࢆ ࠾ ኱ ஦࡟ࡋ࡚ୗࡉ࠸ take good care of yourself; daijí (na) adj ኱஦ ࡞

important, precious dáijin n ኱⮧ minister (cabinet) GDLMĿEX adj ኱୔ኵ OK, all right;

safe (and sound); no need to worry, no problem: ~ desu ኱୔ ኵ࡛ࡍ It’s all right. dáikichi n ኱ྜྷ very good luck, excellent luck daikin n ௦㔠 the price/charge, the bill: ~ hikikae (de) ௦㔠ᘬ᥮࠼ ࡛ (= daibiki (de) ௦ᘬࡁ ࡛ ) C.O.D., collect (on delivery) GDLNĿ n ௦⾜ acting as agent; GDLNĿVKD n ௦⾜⪅ agent daikĿ n ௦ㅮ substitute class/ teacher daikoku-bashira n ኱㯮ᰕ pillar, breadwinner daikon n ኱᰿ giant white radish; daikon-óroshi n ኱᰿࠾ࢁࡋ grated radish dáiku n ኱ᕤ carpenter dDLN\ŗ n ௦ఇ compensation day, substitute holiday daiméishi n ௦ྡモ pronoun daimoku n 㢟┠ topic (= dái 㢟 daimyĿ´ n ኱ྡ feudal lord dainamaito n ࢲ࢖ࢼ࣐࢖ࢺ dynamite dainashi n ྎ↓ࡋ ruin, spoil dainingu-kitchin (DK) n ࢲ࢖ࢽࣥ ࢢ࢟ࢵࢳࣥ (DK) a combined ~ o torimásu ኱஦ࢆ࡜ࡾࡲࡍ dining room-kitchen, an eat-in plays it safe: (o-)karada o (o-)~ kitchen 33

majority daibutsu n ኱௖ giant statue of Buddha daidái n ࢲ࢖ࢲ࢖࣭ᶳ bitter orange; daidái-iro n ᶳⰍ (color) orange dáidai adj, adv ௦ࠎ generation after generation, for generations daidokoro n ྎᡤ kitchen daietto n ࢲ࢖࢚ࢵࢺ diet daifuku (mochi) n ኱⚟ ࡶࡕ soft rice cake stuffed with sweet bean jam daigaku n ኱Ꮫ college, university; daigakú-in n ኱Ꮫ㝔 graduate school: ~ín-sei ኱Ꮫ㝔⏕ graduate student daigiin n ௦㆟ဨ deputy daigishi n ௦㆟ኈ Diet member daigomi n 㓬㓮࿡ relish, whole point daihitsu n ௦➹ ghost-writing daihon n ྎᮏ script (= kyakuhon ⬮ᮏ) GDLK\Ŀ n ௦⾲ representative; GDLK\ĿVKD n ௦⾲⪅ a representative (person) daiji n ኱஦ a matter of importance;



GDLQLQJXUŗmu n ࢲ࢖ࢽࣥࢢ࣮࣒ࣝ

dining room daí (no) … adj ኱ ࡢ …, dai-… ኱… big, great; dai-kirai (na) adj ኱᎘࠸ ࡞ loathing, aversion; dái-suki (na) adj ኱ዲࡁ ࡞ favorite, greatly liked; GDLWDVŗ n ኱ከᩘ large number; majority dairi n ௦⌮ commission, agent, agency; dairi-bo n ௦⌮ẕ surrogate mother; dairí-nin n ௦⌮ே agent; dairí-ten n ௦⌮ᗑ agency daishi n ྎ⣬ mount, board (art) GDLVKĿ n ኱ᑠ size GDLVKĿ n ௦ൾ price, compensation, reparation GiLVŗ n ௦ᩘ algebra, literal arithmetic daitai adv ኱య in general, on the whole, approximately, almost daitán (na) adj ኱⫹ ࡞ bold GDLWĿU\Ŀ n ኱⤫㡿 president (of a nation) dáiya n 1. ࢲ࢖ࣖ schedule (train) 2. (= daiyamóndo) ࢲ࢖ࣖ ࣔࣥ ࢻ diamond daiyaku n ௦ᙺ substitute, alternate daiyaru n ࢲ࢖ࣖࣝ dial GDL\Ŀ n ௦⏝ substitution daiza n ྎᗙ pedestal, seat daizai n 㢟ᮦ material, subject matter: kankyø-hogo o ~ ni shita

sum 2. higher by …: hyakuéndaka ⓒ෇㧗 100 yen up dákara (sa) conj ࡔ࠿ࡽ ࡉ and so; therefore; that’s why … daké suffix …ࡔࡅ only, just: … (-ta) ~ de … ࡓ ࡔࡅ࡛ just

from (having done it) dakemásu, dakeru v ᢪࡅࡲࡍ, ᢪࡅ ࡿ can hug, can hold in the arms dakimásu, daku v ᢪࡁࡲࡍ, ᢪࡃ

holds in the arms GDN\Ŀ n ጇ༠ compromise damarimásu, damáru v 㯲ࡾࡲࡍ, 㯲 ࡿ is/becomes silent; shuts up damashimásu, damásu v 㦄ࡋࡲࡍ, 㦄ࡍ deceives, cheats damé (na) adj 㥏┠ ࡞ no good,

no use, won’t; bad, broken, malfunctioning; don’t!; ~ ni shimásu 㥏┠࡟ࡋࡲࡍ ruins it, spoils it dámu n ࢲ࣒ dam dán n ẁ 1. step(s); grade, order 2. (page) column; scene, act 3. (…dán … ẁ) case, event; GDQFKĿ no omoi n ᩿⭠ࡢᛮ࠸ heartbreaking grief; dan-dán adv ẁࠎ gradually; dan-kai n ẁ㝵 grade, rank, stage (of a process);

dan-raku n ẁⴠ paragraph; dan-tei n ᩿ᐃ decision, conclusion dan n ᅋ group, party, team; danchi n ᅋᆅ housing development; eiga ⎔ቃಖㆤࢆ㢟ᮦ࡟ࡋࡓᫎ⏬ GDQFKĿ n ᅋ㛗 leader, head; dango film on ecology n ᅋᏊ dumpling; dan-tai n ᅋయ dáizu n ኱㇋࣭ࢲ࢖ࢬ soy beans organization, group dajare n 㥏ὗⴠ pun, equivoque dan n ቭ platform …´-daka …㧗 1. quantity, volume; dan n conversation, talk; dan-shĿ



n ㄯ➗ chatting; dan-wa n ㄯヰ [BOOKISH] conversation: ~-shitsu ㄯヰᐊ common room dan-… prefix ⏨ male; dán-jo n ⏨ዪ male and female: ~-kyøgaku ⏨ዪඹᏛ coeducation; dan-kon n ⏨᰿ penis; dan-sei n ⏨ᛶ male; dán-shi n ⏨Ꮚ boy: ~-gakusei/ seito ⏨ᏊᏛ⏕⏕ᚐ schoolboy; GDQVKĿ n ⏨፛ male prostitute; dan-shoku n ⏨Ⰽ male homosexual love danatsu n ᙎᅽ suppression GDQEĿ n ᬮᡣ heating (of room, house); GDQEĿVĿFKL n ᬮᡣ⿦⨨ heating device, radiator dangan n ᙎ୸ [BOOKISH] bullet dani n ࢲࢽ mite, tick danna n ᪦㑣 1. my husband


~ dé mo ㄡ࡛ࡶ anybody (at all), everybody; dáre ka pron ㄡ࠿ somebody, someone; dáre mo adv ㄡࡶ (not) anybody; [ NEGATIVE

verb] nobody «GDUĿ suffix …ࡔࢁ࠺ probably,

probably (it) is; I think; don’t you think? (= …deshø´ …࡛ࡋࡻ࠺ dasai adj ࡔࡉ࠸ tasteless, insipid, bland dasei n ᝼ᛶ inertia, (force of) habit dasha n ᡴ⪅ a batter/hitter dashí n ࡔࡋ soup stock, broth: ~ no moto ࡔࡋࡢ⣲ instant bouillon dashimásu, dásu v ฟࡋࡲࡍ, ฟࡍ puts out; serves (food/drink); produces; pays, spends; mails; begins dashimono v ฟࡋ≀ play, attrac2. ~-san/-sama ᪦㑣ࡉࢇᵝ tion, show (your/someone else’s) husband dashin n ᡴデ (medical examina3. master (of a shop, etc.) tion by) percussion, tapping; danpingu n ࢲࣥࣆࣥࢢ dumping sounding a person out danryoku n ᙎຊ elastic force dashinuke (ni) adv ฟࡋᢤࡅ ࡟ danshoku n ᬮⰍ warm color(s) abruptly dansu n ࢲࣥࢫ dance dashinukimásu, dashinuku v ฟࡋᢤ GDQ·\DNX n ᙎ⸆ ammunition, ࡁࡲࡍ, ฟࡋᢤࡃ outwits, gets powder and ball the better of daradara (to) adj ࡔࡽࡔࡽ ࡜ dasoku n ⺬㊊ icing on the cake lengthy: ~ (to) sugoshimásu ࡔࡽ dassen n ⬺⥺ derailment ࡔࡽ ࡜ 㐣ࡈࡋࡲࡍ slobs about dasshí-men n ⬺⬡⥥ absorbent daraku n ለⴠ corruption cotton darari-to adv ࡔࡽࡾ࡜ loosely, GDVVKtQ\ŗ n ⬺⬡ங skim milk GDVVKŗ]DL n ⬺⮯๣ deodorant lollingly darashinai adj ࡔࡽࡋ࡞࠸ slovenly, (personal) (= deodoranto ࢹ࢜ࢻ ࣛࣥࢺ) loose dáre pron ㄡ who: ~ no ㄡࡢ whose; GDVVĿ n ⬺㉮ escape, desertion 35



its being; with (its being) [COPULA GERUND] …de arimásu v …࡛࠶ࡾࡲࡍ = … désu …࡛ࡍ is; it is …de JR]DLPDVKĿ v …࡛ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡋ ࡻ࠺ = … deshø´ …࡛ࡋࡻ࠺ able datsuraku n ⬺ⴠ omission, dropout probably is; I think it is (, sir/ datsuryoku n ⬺ຊ faintness, lassi- ma’am) …de gozaimásu v …࡛ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ tude …dátta v …ࡔࡗࡓ was; it was [DEFERENTIAL] = …desu …࡛ࡍ is; (= …déshita … ࡛ࡋࡓ it is (sir/ma’am) dattai n ⬺㏥ withdrawal …de imásu v …࡛࠸ࡲࡍ stays/ …dáttara conj …ࡔࡗࡓࡽ if/when keeps (goes on) being …de orimásu v …࡛࠾ࡾࡲࡍ it is (or was) …dáttari (shimásu/desu) suffix …ࡔ [DEFERENTIAL/HUMBLE] (I/we) ࡗࡓࡾ ࡋࡲࡍ࡛ࡍ being rep- stay/keep (go on) being deaikeisaito n ฟ఍࠸⣔ࢧ࢖ࢺ dating resentatively/sometimes/alternately …: dáttari…ja nákattari service website, meet-a-mate site, …ࡔࡗࡓࡾ…ࡌࡷ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡾ online dating website (Internet) (is) off and on, sometimes is and de-aimásu, de-áu v ฟ఍࠸ࡲࡍ, ฟ ఍࠺: … ni de-aimásu …࡟ฟ఍ sometimes isn’t dátte conj ࡔࡗ࡚ but; however, ࠸ࡲࡍ encounters, meets, happens even so, though (= démo ࡛ࡶ to see/meet, runs/bumps into …dátte suffix …ࡔࡗ࡚ even being déguchi n ฟཱྀ exit, outlet …; … or something (= …démo deiríguchi n ฟධࡾཱྀ gate(way), … ࡛ࡶ doorway de n ฟ 1. a person’s origins dekakemásu, dekakeru v ฟ᥃ࡅࡲࡍ, (family, birthplace, school); (… ฟ᥃ࡅࡿ starts off/out, goes out, no ~ …ࡢฟ) born in/of …, a departs graduate of … 2. (out)flow: mizu dekiai n ⁒ឡ blind love no ~ ga íi Ỉࡢฟࡀ࠸࠸ᝏ࠸ has dekiai (no) adj ฟ᮶ྜ࠸ ࡢ readygood/bad water pressure 3. emer- made dekígoto n ฟ᮶஦ happening, gence, appearance …de particle …࡛ …-te …࡚ accident …dé suffix …࡛ (happening) at, in, dekimásu, dekíru v ฟ᮶ࡲࡍ, ฟ᮶ࡿ on; with, by (means of), through can (do), is possible, produced, …dé conj …࡛ is/was and; being, done, finished, through, ready 36 dă´su n ࢲ࣮ࢫ dozen: ichi-~ 1ࢲ ࣮ࢫ one dozen datai n ለ⫾ abortion datĿ n ᡴಽ overthrow, defeat datĿ adj ጇᙜ appropriate, reason-



dekí-mónó, o-déki n ࡛ࡁࡶࡢ, ࠾࡛ GHQFKĿ n 㟁ᰕ telephone/light ࡁ swelling, sore, boil, pimple pole dekíru-dake adv ࡛ࡁࡿࡔࡅ as GHQGĿ n ఏ㐨 conduction; GHQGĿ sha n ఏ㐨⪅ a missionary much as possible dek(k)ai adj ࡛ ࡗ ࠿࠸ [INFORMAL] GpQGĿ n 㟁ື electric operation, big (= økii ኱ࡁ࠸) electric-powered; GpQGĿLVX n dékki n ࢹࢵ࢟ deck 㟁ື᳔Ꮚ electric-powered dekoboko (no) adj ࡛ࡇࡰࡇ ࡢ wheelchair 1. bump(y), rough (road, etc.) dengon n ఏゝ message (= messëji 2. uneven(ness), imbalance ࣓ࢵࢭ࣮ࢪ déma n ࢹ࣐ false rumor denki n ఏグ biography demae n ฟ๓ catering, food dénki n 㟁Ẽ electricity, power; delivered to order, restaurant lights; denki-sutándo n 㟁Ẽࢫࢱ ࣥࢻ desk/floor lamp; denki\ĿKLQ delivery (service/person) demásu, déru v ฟࡲࡍ, ฟࡿ goes/ n 㟁Ẽ⏝ရ electrical appliances; comes out, emerges, appears; is denki-kónro n 㟁Ẽࢥࣥࣟ hot plate; denkiVĿMtNL n 㟁Ẽᤲ㝖ᶵ served; leaves, starts démo conj ࡛ࡶ but, however, vacuum cleaner; denki-ya (san) n 㟁Ẽᒇ ࡉࢇ electrician even so, though démo n ࢹࣔ demonstration GHQPăNX n ࢹ࣐࣮ࣥࢡ Denmark … démo suffix …࡛ࡶ even/also dénpa n 㟁Ἴ electric wave,

(being) …, even if it be; …or something: gaka ~ sakka ~ ari-




GHQSĿ n 㟁ሗ telegram, telegraph masen. ⏬ᐙ࡛ࡶసᐙ࡛ࡶ࠶ࡾࡲ denpun n ࡛ࢇ࡫ࢇ starch (for ࡏࢇ is neither a painter nor a cooking); denpún-shitsu (no) n (adj) ࡛ࢇ࡫ࢇ㉁ ࡢ starch(y) writer demokurashii n ࢹࣔࢡࣛࢩ࣮ GHQS\Ŀ n ఏ⚊ check (restaurant de-mukaemásu, de-mukaéru v ฟ㏄࠼ denrai n ఏ᮶ [BOOKISH] introducࡲࡍ, ฟ㏄࠼ࡿ meets, greets, tion, import: senzo ~ (no) ඛ♽ఏ ᮶ ࡢ descendant, patrimonial welcomes denbu n ⮌㒊 [BOOKISH] buttock, denrei n ఏ௧ [BOOKISH] orderly,

hips (medical) denbun n ఏ⪺ hearsay denbun n 㟁ᩥ telegram, tele-

herald dénryoku n 㟁ຊ electric power; denryoku-gáisha n 㟁ຊ఍♫ power

graphic message dénchi n 㟁ụ battery

company GHQU\ŗ n 㟁ὶ electric current




densen n 㟁⥺ electric wire, power … déshita v …࡛ࡋࡓ 1. was; it line was 2. …-masén ~ …ࡲࡏࢇ࡛ densen n ఏᰁ contagion; GHQVHQE\Ŀ ࡋࡓ didn’t n ఏᰁ⑓ contagious/infectious/ … GHVKĿ v …࡛ࡋࡻ࠺ probably,

disease, epidemic

probably (it) is; I think; don’t

densetsu n ఏㄝ tradition (legend): you think? ~ no otoko ఏㄝࡢ⏨ legendary … desu, dá v …࡛ࡍ, ࡔ is, has


been (and still is), will be; it is

dénsha n 㟁㌴ (electric) train,

GďWD n ࢹ࣮ࢱ data detarame n ࡛ࡓࡽࡵ nonsense; streetcar dénshi (no) adj 㟁Ꮚ ࡢ electron(ic); detarame na adj ࡛ࡓࡽࡵ࡞ irreGHQVKLPDQď n㟁Ꮚ࣐ࢿ࣮ elecsponsible, unreliable detchiagemásu, detchiagéru v ࡛ࡗࡕ tronic money, cyberbuck (Internet); denshi-shoseki n 㟁Ꮚ ࠶ࡆࡲࡍ, ࡛ࡗࡕ࠶ࡆࡿ fake ᭩⡠ digital book, e-book, elec- GďWR n ࢹ࣮ࢺ date (time; engage-

tronic book (Internet)


dentatsu n ఏ㐩 conveyance,

dé wa conj ࡛ࡣ well then; in that transmission case; and so; and now (= ja ࡌࡷ) GHQWĿ n 㟁ⅉ lamp, light, flashlight … dé wa suffix ࡛ࡣ (with) its GHQWĿ n ఏ⤫ tradition; GHQWĿWHNL QD being, it is and; if it be: ~ arimasén (~ nái) …࡛ࡣ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ adj ఏ⤫ⓗ ࡞ traditional denwa n 㟁ヰ telephone (call): ~ ࡛ࡣ࡞࠸ = ja arimasén (ja ni demásu 㟁ヰ࡟ฟࡲࡍ answers nái) ࡌࡷ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ ࡌࡷ࡞࠸ the phone; ~ o kakemásu/ it is not shimásu 㟁ヰࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍࡋࡲࡍ dezáin n ࢹࢨ࢖ࣥ design makes a phone call; GHQZDEiQJĿ dezáină n ࢹࢨ࢖ࢼ࣮ designer GH]ăWR n ࢹࢨ࣮ࢺ dessert n 㟁ヰ␒ྕ telephone number; GHQZDNĿNiQVKX n 㟁ヰ஺᥮ᡭ GLLNď n ࢹ࢕࣮ࢣ࣮ (= DK) dainingu-kítchin ࢲ࢖ࢽࣥࢢ࢟ࢵࢳࣥ telephone operator; denwa-sen n 㟁ヰ⥺ phone line, telephone disukáunto n ࢹ࢕ࢫ࢝࢘ࣥࢺ



deodoranto n ࢹ࢜ࢻࣛࣥࢺ deo-

do n ᗘ degree; moderation; ~ o sugoshimásu/koshimásu ᗘࢆ㐣 dorant GHSăWR n ࢹࣃ࣮ࢺ department store ࡈࡋࡲࡍ㉺ࡋࡲࡍ goes too far, déppa n ฟࡗṑ protruding tooth, goes to excess do-… prefix ࡝… exactly, really; bucktooth deshí n ᘵᏊ apprentice, disciple do-mannaka n ࡝┿ࢇ୰ dead



GĿIŗVKLPiVu (suru)

center; do-NRQMĿ n ࡝᰿ᛶ a lot of the school in the same year (= dø-kyü´-sei ྠ⣭⏕), employees guts …-dó suffix …ᗘ 1. times (occawho joined the company in the sions) 2. degrees same year; GĿNRNXMLQ n ྠᅜே GĿ adj ࡝࠺ how, why; (in) what fellow countryman/countrymen; (way); 'ĿVKLPiVKita ka. ࡝࠺ࡋࡲ GĿN\ŗVHL n ྠ⣭⏕ classmate; GĿU\Ŀ n ྠ൉ colleague; GĿVHL ࡋࡓ࠿. What happened? What did you do?; 'ĿLWDVKLPDVKite. ࡝࠺ (no) adj ྠᛶ ࡢ person of the ࠸ࡓࡋࡲࡋ࡚. You’re welcome. same sex; GĿVHL (no) adj ྠጣ ࡢ GĿ n 㖡 copper (= aka-gane ࠶࠿ having the same name; GĿVKLWV~ ࡀࡡ࣭㖡); GĿND n 㖡㈌ coin n ྠᐊ same room: ~-sha ྠᐊ⪅ (brass or copper); GĿVHi (no) adj roommate; GĿ]DL QR adj ྠ⨥ 㖡〇 ࡢ made of copper ࡢ being equally guilty: døzaisha ྠ⨥⪅ fellow sinners GĿ n ⬗ torso (= døtai ⬗య) GĿ« prefix ྠ… the same …; dóa n ࢻ࢔ door; doa-nobu n ࢻ࢔ GĿJDNX n ྠ㢠 a like amount, the ࣀࣈ door knob same amount (of money); GĿJ\Ŀ doai n ᗘྜ࠸ degree, level, rate n ྠᴗ same trade: ~-sha ྠᴗ⪅ do-bin n ᅵ⎼ teapot dobu n ࡝ࡪ࣭⁁ gutter professional brother/brethren; GĿKĿ n ྠ⬊ brother(s)/sister(s) GĿEXWVX n ື≀ animal; GĿEXWV~HQ with same mother, fellow n ື≀ᅬ zoo countryman/countrymen; GĿLWVX dóchira pron ࡝ࡕࡽ which one (no) adj ྠ୍ ࡢ same; GĿML n (of the two) = dotchi ࡝ࡗࡕ; ྠ᫬ { ~ (no) ྠ᫬ ࡢ simul[DEFERENTIAL] where (= dóko ࡝ taneous | … to ~ ni …࡜ྠ᫬࡟ ࡇ , who (= dáre ㄡ ; dóchira dé at the same time as …; while …, mo adv ࡝ࡕࡽ࡛ࡶ either one of on the other hand } at a (single) the two; [ NEGATIVE verb] neither time, at one time; GĿMLGDL (ni) adv one of the two; dóchira ka adj, adv ྠ᫬௦ ࡟ (in) the same age/era; ࡝ࡕࡽ࠿ one of the two; dochira GĿMLGDL (no) adj ྠ᫬௦ ࡢ conmo adv ࡝ࡕࡽࡶ { [ NEGATIVE temporaneous, same generation; verb] neither one | both; dóchira GĿMĿ n ྠ᝟ sympathy, comsama n ࡝ࡕࡽᵝ [DEFERENTIAL] passion; GĿ-ka n ྠ໬ elaboration, who (are you) assimilation; GĿNDQ n ྠឤ same GĿ dé mo adv ࡝࠺࡛ࡶ anyhow sentiment, empathy; GĿNL n ྠ (at all) ᮇ the same period; GĿNt (-sei) n GĿIŗVKLPiVu (suru) v ྠᑒࡋࡲࡍ ྠᮇ ⏕ classmates who joined ࡍࡿ encloses (in envelope) 39



dogeza n ᅵୗᗙ kneeling on the … GĿND suffix …࡝࠺࠿ … ka ~ ground: ~ shite ayamarimásu ᅵ …࠿࡝࠺࠿ (whether …) or not, ୗᗙࡋ࡚ㅰࡾࡲࡍ falls on one’s ~ shite imasu ࡝࠺࠿ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ

knees to ask for pardon

something wrong with, crazy, mad GĿNDQ n ᑟ⟶ pipe, duct dóki n ᅵჾ earthenware GĿNL n ືᶵ motivation, motive GĿNL n ື᝘ beat, pulse: ~ ga shimásu ື᝘ࡀࡋࡲࡍ palpitates dókidoki shimásu (suru) v ࡝ࡁ࡝ࡁ ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ one’s heart throbs (beats, flutters) dokimásu, doku v ㏥ࡁࡲࡍ, ㏥ࡃ gets out of the way dókku n ࢻࢵࢡ dock ment dóitsu pron ࡝࠸ࡘ which damn one dóko pron ࡝ࡇ where, what part/ Dóitsu n ࢻ࢖ࢶ Germany; Doitsu-go place; dóko-dé-mo adv ࡝ࡇ࡛ࡶ n ࢻ࢖ࢶㄒ German language; anywhere (at all); dóko-doko pron Doitsú-jin n ࢻ࢖ࢶே a German ࡝ࡇ࡝ࡇ somewhere or other, GĿLX … adj ࡝࠺࠸࠺… what kind/ such-and-such a place (= dókosoko ࡝ࡇࡑࡇ ; dóko ka n, adv sort of… doji n ࡝ࡌ goof (= hema ࡬ࡲ) ࡝ࡇ࠿ somewhere; dóko made adv ࡝ࡇࡲ࡛ where to; how far; doko boob GĿMLPiVu, GĿMtUX v ືࡌࡲࡍ, ືࡌ mo adv ࡝ࡇࡶ [ NEGATIVE verb/ ࡿ gets agitated, upset adj] nowhere; dóko-soko pron ࡝ GĿMLQDL = (…-témo) dø-jimasén ࡇࡑࡇ somewhere or other (= …࡚ࡶ ືࡌࡲࡏࢇ (is unfazed dóko-doko ࡝ࡇ࡝ࡇ) dĿNRNX n ៍ူ [BOOKISH] crying (by)) GRMĿ n ࢻࢪࣙ࢘ loach, mudfish out with grief GRMĿ n ᅵተ [BOOKISH] soil borne: …-dókoroka adv …࡝ࡇࢁ࠿ = yutaka na ~ ㇏࠿࡞ᅵተ rich soil sore-~ ࡑࢀ࡝ࡇࢁ࠿ rather, on GĿMĿ n 㐨ሙ martial arts hall the contrary GĿND interj ࡝࠺࠿ please: ~ dokú n ẘ = dokú-butsu ẘ≀  onegai desukara ࡝࠺࠿࠾㢪࠸࡛ poison; doku-késhí n ẘᾘࡋ antidote ࡍ࠿ࡽ for God’s [Christ’s, dokudan n ⊂᩿ dogma; GRNXGDQMĿ Heaven’s, Pete’s] sake n ⊂ቭሙ [BOOKISH] monopoly 40 GĿJL n 㐨⩏ moral principle dogitsui adj ࡝ࡂࡘ࠸ [INFORMAL] gaudy; dogitsui K\Ŀgen n ࡝ࡂࡘ࠸ ⾲⌧ shocking expression GĿJ~ n 㐨ල tool; GĿJ~EDNR n 㐨ල ⟽ tool box GRK\Ŀ n ᅵಥ sumo-wrestling ring: ~ ni agarimásu ᅵಥ࡟ୖࡀࡾࡲ ࡍ steps onto the sumo ring GĿL n ྠព agreement, approval GĿLQ n ືဨ mobilization, recruit-



dokudoku nagaremásu (nagareru) v ࡝ plurals): watakushi-~ ࢃࡓࡃࡋ> ࡃ࡝ࡃὶࢀࡲࡍ ὶࢀࡿ gurgles ⚾@࡝ࡶ we/us dokudokushii adj ẘࠎࡋ࠸ gaudy, GRPHLQPHL QďPX n ࢻ࣓࢖ࣥྡ ࢿ ࣮࣒ domain-name (Internet) virulent dokugaku n ⊂Ꮫ self-study GĿPR ࡝࠺ࡶ 1. interj thank you dokuhaku n ⊂ⓑ monologue 2. interj excuse me 3. adj somedokuritsu n ⊂❧ independence; how, vaguely ~ shite imásu ⊂❧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ GĿPĿ (na) adj ⋑⊛ ࡞ fierce,

standing on one’s own two feet, being independent; ~shita … ⊂❧ ࡋࡓ … independent dokuryoku (de) adj ⊂ຊ ࡛ by oneself dokusái-sha n ⊂⿢⪅ dictator, absolute ruler dókusha n ㄞ⪅ reader (person) dokushin n ⊂㌟ single, unmarried, bachelor; dokushin-sha n ⊂㌟⪅ single dokusho n ㄞ᭩ reading books dokuVĿ n ⊂㉮ leaving all the other runners far behind dokusĿ n ⊂ዌ solo performance dokuVĿVHL n ⊂๰ᛶ originality: ~

savage domorimásu, domoru v ࡝ࡶࡾࡲࡍ, ࡝ࡶࡿ stammers, stutters dón ࡝ࢇ࣭ࢻࣥ boom, bam (sound) …-don n …୻ donburi ࡝ࢇࡪ ࡾ>୻@ donarimásu, donáru v ᛣ㬆ࡾࡲࡍ, ᛣ㬆ࡿ shouts, yells dónata pron ࡝࡞ࡓ [DEFERENTIAL] who (= dáre ㄡ) donburi n ࡝ࢇࡪࡾ࣭୻ large rice

bowl donburi-mono, don-mono n ୻ࡶࡢ a

bowl of rice with some kind of topping dóndon adv ࡝ࢇ࡝ࢇ one right ni kakeru/toboshii ⊂๰ᛶ࡟Ḟࡅ after another, in large numbers ࡿஈࡋ࠸ unoriginal do-nichi n ᅵ᪥ Saturday and dokutoku (no/na) adj ⊂≉ ࡢ࡞ Sunday characteristic, peculiar, unique GĿQL ka adv ࡝࠺࡟࠿ somehow dĿNXWVX n Ὕ❍ cave Donmai interj ࢻ࣐ࣥ࢖ Don’t dokuzetsu n ẘ⯉ a barbed/spiteful worry., Never mind. dónna adj … ࡝ࢇ࡞… what kind tongue; dokuzetsu-ka n ẘ⯉ᐙ person with a poisonous/sharp of…: ~ ni ࡝ࢇ࡞࡟ to what extent, how much tongue dokyumentarii dorama n ࢻ࣓࢟ࣗࣥ dóno … adj ࡝ࡢ… which … (of ࢱ࣮࣭ࣜࢻ࣐ࣛ infotainment more than two) dono-gurai/kurai adv ࡝ࡢ఩ how (documentary film) …´-dómo …ඹ (makes humble many/much/far/long 41



dónsu n ࡝ࢇࡍ࣭⥽Ꮚ damask GĿUR n 㐨㊰ road; GĿURK\ĿVKLNL 㐨 donyori (to shita) adj ࡝ࢇࡼࡾ ࡜ࡋ ㊰ᶆ㆑ road sign ࡓ dull, gray, somber: ~ to shita GRUREĿ n ἾᲬ thief, robber, burme ࡝ࢇࡼࡾ࡜ࡋࡓ┠ dull eyes glar dorafuto n ࢻࣛࣇࢺ draft dóru n ࢻࣝ dollar; dóru-bako n doraggu n ࢻࣛࢵࢢ drug ࢻࣝ⟽ cash cow, gold mine, doraggu sutoa n ࢻࣛࢵࢢࢫࢺ࢔ moneymaker dóryoku n ດຊ effort drugstore GRUDLEă n ࢻࣛ࢖ࣂ࣮ driver dĿVD n ືస (body) movements, doraibu n ࢻࣛ࢖ࣈ drive; doraibugestures VXUŗ n ࢻࣛ࢖ࣈࢫ࣮ࣝ drivedosamawari n ࡝ࡉࡲࢃࡾ road through (restaurant) show: ~ o shimásu ࡝ࡉᅇࡾࢆࡋ dorai-kuríiníngu n ࢻࣛ࢖ࢡ࣮ࣜࢽࣥ ࡲࡍ goes on the road, goes on ࢢ dry cleaning a tour dorái (na) adj ࢻࣛ࢖ ࡞ dry; mod- GĿVDQ n ື⏘ [BOOKISH] movable

ern, sophisticated, unsentimental property GĿVHL n ྠ᳇ living together (for unmarried couple) dosha n ᅵ◁ earth and sand; dosha-buri n ᅵ◁㝆ࡾ torrential hobby dóre pron ࡝ࢀ which one (of downpour GĿVKL n ືモ verb more than two): ~ ka ࡝ࢀ࠿ some/any one of them; ~ dé mo «GĿVKL suffix …ྠኈ: otoko-~ no ࡝ࢀ࡛ࡶ whichever/any of them; yakusoku ⏨ྠኈࡢ⣙᮰ promise ~ mo ࡝ࢀࡶ (not) any of them; between man and man ~-gurai/kurai ࡝ࢀ఩ how many/ GĿVKL n ྠᚿ fellow …, comrade GĿVKin n ❺ᚰ juvenile mind much/far/long dorei n ያ㞔 slave GĿVKite adv ࡝࠺ࡋ࡚ why; how: dóresu n ࢻࣞࢫ dress, frock ~ mo ࡝࠺ࡋ࡚ࡶ one way or GĿUt n 㐨⌮ reason (what is sensible) another, some how or other «GĿUt …㏻ࡾ avenue; just as GRVĿ n ᅵⴿ burial under the earth (according with): jikan-~ (ni) ᫬ GĿVĿNDL n ྠ❆఍ alumni associa㛫㏻ࡾ ࡟ on time … tion; class reunion dóriru n ࢻࣜࣝ drill (tool; practice) dossari adv ࡝ࡗࡉࡾ all of a heap: doró n Ἶ mud; muck (filth, dirt); ~ aru shigoto ࡝ࡗࡉࡾ࠶ࡿ௙஦ doro-dárake/mamire (no) adj Ἶࡔࡽ a pile of work ࡅࡲࡳࢀ ࡢ muddy dotabata adv ࡝ࡓࡤࡓ noisily: 42 GRUDL\ă n ࢻࣛ࢖࣮ࣖ dryer, drier GĿUiN~ n 㐨ᴦ 1. dissipation 2. (o-dørakú ࠾㐨ᴦ pastime,


egakimásu, egáku

~-kigeki ࡝ࡓࡤࡓ႐๻ slapstick

࡝ࡸࡍ chews out GĿ\Ŀ (no) adj ྠᵝ ࡢ the same GĿ\Ŀ n ືᦂ [BOOKISH] agitation,

comedy dotanba (de) adv ᅵቭሙ ࡛ (at)

the last moment


dótchi pron ࡝ࡗࡕ = dóchira ࡝ࡕࡽ which one (of the two) dote n ᅵᡭ dike GĿWHL n ❺㈆ virgin (male) GĿWRNX n 㐨ᚨ morals, morality; GĿWRNXWHNL (na) adj 㐨ᚨⓗ ࡞

'R\Ŀ EL n ᅵ᭙ ᪥ Saturday doyomeki n ࡝ࡼࡵࡁ clamor,

moral dótto adv ࡝ࡗ࡜ suddenly, with a rush: ~-waraimásu ࡝ࡗ࡜➗࠸ࡲ ࡍ everybody laughs GĿZD n ❺ヰ fairy tale doyagai n ࡝ࡸ⾤ skid row doyashimásu, doyasu v ࡝ࡸࡋࡲࡍ,

GĿ\ŗ (“iu”) … adj ࡝࠺ࡺ࠺ ࠸࠺ … what kind/sort of… (= dónna … ࡝ࢇ࡞ …) GĿ]R interj ࡝࠺ࡒ 1. please 2. here it is dy… j… dz… z…

hubbub doyomekimásu, doyomaku v ࡝ࡼࡵ ࡁࡲࡍ, ࡝ࡼࡵࡃ rings, (a crowd

of people) makes a ruckus

E é n ⤮ picture, painting, drawing; e-hágaki n ⤮ⴥ᭩ picture postcard e n ᯶ handle e (-sá) n ࠼ ࡉ ࣭㣵 bait e interj ࠼ࡗ eh?, what? ď interj ࠼࠼ yes … e particle …࡬ to (a place); [replaces … ni …࡟ before … no … …ࡢ…] to (a person) ea-kon n ࢚࢔ࢥࣥ air condition-


ࣂࢫ air terminal bus eba-míruku n ࢚ࣂ࣑ࣝࢡ evapo-

rated milk ebi n ࢚ࣅ࣭ᾏ⪁ shrimp: kurumá-~ ㌴࢚ࣅ prawn; isé-~ ఀໃ ࢚ࣅ lobster; shibá-~ Ⱚ࢚ࣅ tiny

shrimp ďELLVKtL n ࢚࣮ࣅ࣮ࢩ࣮࣭ABC

alphabet (ABC) echikétto n ࢚ࢳࢣࢵࢺ etiquette eda n ᯞ branch efutiipii (FTP) n FTP・࢚ࣇࢸ࢕࣮ ࣆ࣮File Transfer Protocol,

HDPďUX n ࢚࢔࣓࣮ࣝ airmail earain n ࢚࢔ࣛ࢖ࣥ airline earobíkusu n ࢚࢔ࣟࣅࢡࢫ aerobics FTP (computer) eatăPLQDUX n ࢚࢔ࢱ࣮࣑ࢼࣝ air egakimásu, egáku v ᥥࡁࡲࡍ, ᥥࡃ terminal: ~-basu ࢚࢔ࢱ࣮࣑ࢼࣝ draws (a picture)




egao n ➗㢦 smiling face HLN\ŗ (ni) adv Ọஂ ࡟ eternally, egetsunái adj ࠼ࡆࡘ࡞࠸ [INFORMAL] permanently, forever gross, nasty [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] eisei n ⾨⏕ hygiene, health, saniei-… prefix ⱥ 1. English 2. tation; eisei-teki (na) adj ⾨⏕ⓗ great; ei-bun n ⱥᩥ English text; ࡞ sanitary eiei-jiten n ⱥⱥ㎡඾ Englisheisei n ⾨ᫍ satellite; eisei FKŗNHL n English dictionary; Ei-go n ⱥㄒ ⾨ᫍ୰⥅ satellite transmission English (language); ei-kaiwa n ⱥ éito, ďWR n ࢚࢖ࢺ࢚࣮ࢺ eight; ఍ヰ English conversation; ei-ki 8-oared racing boat HL\Ŀ n ᰤ㣴 nutrition, nourishment n ⱥẼ vigor, energy; Ei-koku n ⱥᅜ Great Britain, the United HL]Ŀ n ᫎീ picture, image Kingdom (U.K.) = Igirisu ࢖ࢠ eizoku n Ọ⥆ lasting for a long ࣜࢫ England; ei-wa n, adj ⱥ࿴ time, permanence English-Japanese: ~-jíten ⱥ࿴ éizu n ࢚࢖ࢬ AIDS ㎡඾ English-Japanese dictionary; éki n 㥐 railroad station; eki-ben ei-yaku n ⱥヂ English translation; 㥐ᘚ box lunches sold at railroad HL\ŗ n ⱥ㞝 hero, heroine stations; HNLFKĿ n 㥐㛗 stationHLHLĿ interj ࢚࢖࢚࢖࠾࠺ Hip, hip, master ekisu n ࢚࢟ࢫ extract hurrah! eien (no) adj Ọ㐲 ࡢ eternal, ekitai n ᾮయ liquid ekkusu-sen n ࢚ࢵࢡࢫ>X@⥺ permanent; eien ni adv Ọ㐲࡟ eternally, permanently X-ray (= rentogen ࣞࣥࢺࢤࣥ) eíga n ᫎ⏬ movie, film; eigá-kan n ékubo n ࠼ࡃࡰ dimple ᫎ⏬㤋 movie theater; eigDVXWă n emásu, éru v ᚓࡲࡍ, ᚓࡿ [BOOKISH] ᫎ⏬ࢫࢱ࣮ movie star gets; can do eiga n ᰤ⳹ prosperity én n ෇ circle (= maru ୸): ~ taku HLJĿ n Ọຕ [BOOKISH] eon: mirai-~ ෇༟ round table; en-kei n ෇ᙧ ᮍ᮶Ọຕ for eternity circle; HQVKŗ n ෇࿘ circumferHLJ\Ŀ n Ⴀᴗ (running a) business; ence: ~-ritsu ෇࿘⋡ circle ratio, HLJ\ĿMtNDQ n Ⴀᴗ᫬㛫 business pi én n ෇, …´-en …෇ yen (¥): énhours, operating hours daka (/-yasu) ෇㧗 Ᏻ high (/ eikan n ᰤෙ crown, laurel eiki n 㗦Ẽ spirit low) value of the yen HLNĿ n ᰤග glory, honor enchaku n ᘏ╔ delayed arrival HLN\Ŀ n ᙳ㡪 influence; ~ o ukemásu enbĿ n 㐲ᮃ distant view ᙳ㡪ࢆཷࡅࡲࡍ receives an HQFKĿ n ᘏ㛗 extension; HQFKĿNĿGR ᘏ㛗ࢥ࣮ࢻ extension cord influence



endan n ⦕ㄯ marriage proposal endan n ₇ቭ lecture platform pQGĿ pQGĿPDPH n ࢚ࣥࢻ࢘, ࢚ࣥ ࢻ࢘㇋ peas enen (to) adv ᘏࠎ ࡜ endlessly: ~ to hanashimásu ᘏࠎ࡜ヰࡋࡲ ࡍ goes on and on about enérúgii n ࢚ࢿࣝࢠ࣮ energy enérugísshu (na) adj ࢚ࢿࣝࢠࢵࢩ ࣗ ࡞ energetic engan n ἢᓊ the coast engawa n ⦕ഃ (wooden) veranda,


Japanese songs (ballad) enkai n ᐗ఍ party, banquet: ~ o hirakimásu ᐗ఍ࢆ㛤ࡁࡲࡍ holds a party enkaku n ἢ㠉 [BOOKISH] history enkaku n 㐲㝸 [BOOKISH] remoteness; HQNDNXVĿVD n 㐲㝸᧯స remote handling enkei n 㐲ᬒ [BOOKISH] distant landscape enki n ᘏᮇ postponement enkinkan n 㐲㏆ឤ perspective porch (in traditional Japanese enkyori n 㐲㊥㞳 long distance; HQN\RULUHQ·DL n 㐲㊥㞳ᜊឡ longhouse) engei n ᅬⱁ gardening distance love affair engeki n ₇๻ drama, play; engekí- HQPDGDLĿ n ࢚࣐ࣥ ኱⋤ the (great) jin n ₇๻ே theater people King of Hell/the Buddhist Hades, engi n ⦕㉳ 1. omen, luck 2. (his- Yama torical) origin; ~ ga/no yoi ⦕㉳ enmaku n ↮ᖥ smoke screen ࡀࡢⰋ࠸ is of good omen enman (na) adj ෇‶ ࡞ satisfactory éngi n ₇ᢏ performance; acting; enmei n ᘏ࿨ life extension; enmeiFKLU\Ŀ n ᘏ࿨἞⒪ life-sustaining engí-sha n ₇ᢏ⪅ performer engo n ᥼ㆤ support treatment engun n ᥼㌷ rescue forces, sup- enmoku n ₇┠ program enmusubi n ⦕⤖ࡧ matchmaking: port arms, reinforcement engumi n ⦕⤌ࡳ marriage, match ~ no kami ⦕⤖ࡧࡢ⚄ the god énjin n ࢚ࣥࢪࣥ engine (of auto- of marriage énnichi n ⦕᪥ a temple fair (festival) mobile) enjínia n ࢚ࣥࢪࢽ࢔ engineer, HQQĿ n ᘏ⣡ [BOOKISH] delayed specialist payment enjimasu, enjiru v ₇ࡌࡲࡍ, ₇ࡌࡿ enokí-dake/take n ࢚ࣀ࢟ࢲࢣ࣭ᴮⲖ plays, acts, performs straw mushrooms énjo n ᥼ຓ support (aid), backing enpitsu n 㖄➹ pencil; enpitsu-kezuri enjói n ࢚ࣥࢪࣙ࢖ enjoyment n 㖄➹๐ࡾ pencil sharpener enjuku n ෇⇍ [BOOKISH] fully enro n 㐲㊰ from a long distance: ~ harubaru 㐲㊰ࡣࡿࡤࡿ all the maturing enka n ₇ḷ sad and melancholic way 45



enryo n 㐲៖ (go-enryo ࡈ㐲៖

HUă n ࢚࣮ࣛ error; HUăPHVVďML n ࢚ ࣮࣓ࣛࢵࢭ࣮ࢪ error message [HONORIFIC]) reticence, social reserve, shyness; Go-~ náku. ࡈ erabimásu, erábu v 㑅ࡧࡲࡍ, 㑅ࡪ 㐲៖࡞ࡃ. Don’t be shy/reticent.; chooses, selects, elects ~ shite okimásu 㐲៖ࡋ࡚࠾ࡁࡲ erái adj ೧࠸ 1. great, grand, ࡍ takes a rain check, declines superior (person) 2. terrible, for now awful (= hidoi ࡦ࡝࠸࣭㓞࠸) enshi n 㐲ど farsightedness erebďWă n ࢚࣮ࣞ࣋ࢱ࣮ elevator ereganto (na) adj ࢚ࣞ࢞ࣥࢺ ࡞ (presbyopia) enshutsu n ₇ฟ production, elegant (= yüga (na) ඃ㞞 ࡞ ) erí n ࠼ࡾ࣭あ collar (of closing/ staging (play, movie) énso n ሷ⣲ chlorine clothes): ~ o tadashimásu あࢆṇ HQVĿ n ₇ዌ performance (musical ࡋࡲࡍ straightens oneself éro-hon n ࢚ࣟᮏ [INFORMAL] instrument); ensĿNDL n ₇ዌ఍ concert pornography book ensoku n 㐲㊊ picnic, outing ese-… adj ࠼ࡏ… pseudo-… entai n ᘏ arrear (overdues); HVVď n ࢚ࢵࢭ࣮ essay entai-U\ĿNLQ n ᘏᩱ㔠 deferred esu-efu n SF science fiction HVXNDUďWă n ࢚ࢫ࣮࢝ࣞࢱ࣮ premium HQWăWHL Q PHQWR n ࢚ࣥࢱ࣮ࢸ࢖ ࣥ  escalator ࣓ࣥࢺ entertainment etai-no-shirenai adj ᚓయࡢ▱ࢀ࡞࠸ enten n ⅖ኳ [BOOKISH] scorching strange, as deep as a well sun/weather: ~-ka de ⅖ኳୗ࡛ étchi (na) adj ࢚ࢵࢳ ࡞ dirtyunder a blazing sun minded: ~ na hanashí ࢚ࢵࢳ࡞ entotsu n ↮✺ chimney, smokeヰ a dirty (an off-color) story éte-shite adv ᚓ࡚ࡋ࡚ usually stack enzetsu n ₇ㄝ speech (public) ďWR interj ࠼࣮࡜࠼࠼࡜ well épuron n ࢚ࣉࣟࣥ apron now, uh, let me see

F IiLDZĿUX n ࣇ࢓࢖࢔࢛࣮࢘ࣝ

firewall (Internet security) IiLEă n ࣇ࢓࢖ࣂ࣮ fiber fáibu n ࣇ࢓࢖ࣈ five IiLQGă n ࣇ࢓࢖ࣥࢲ࣮ finder

fáiringu n ࣇ࢓࢖ࣜࣥࢢ filing fáiru n ࣇ࢓࢖ࣝ file fáito n ࣇ࢓࢖ࢺ fight fákkusu n ࣇ࢓ࢵࢡࢫ fax, facsimile (= fakushimiri ࣇ࢓ࢡࢩ࣑ࣜ)




fán n ࣇ࢓ࣥ fan (enthusiast); yakyü-~ 㔝⌫ࣇ࢓ࣥ baseball fan; fan-kurabu n ࣇ࢓ࣥࢡࣛࣈ fan

ᛌ ࡞ unpleasant, displeasing, displeased (= fu-yúkai (na) ୙ទ ᛌ ࡞ ; fu-kéiki n ୙ᬒẼ depresclub sion, recession, hard times; fufánkushon n ࣇ࢓ࣥࢡࢩࣙࣥ kísóku (na) adj ୙つ๎ ࡞ irregfunction ular; IXNĿ n ୙ᖾ misfortune; fufánshii n ࣇ࢓ࣥࢩ࣮ fancy kĿKHL (na) adj ୙බᖹ ࡞ unfair; fántajii n ࣇ࢓ࣥࢱࢪ࣮ fantasy IXN\Ŀ n ୙ἣ business slump, depression; I~ML\ŗ (na) adj ୙⮬⏤ fáshisuto n ࣇ࢓ࢩࢫࢺ fascist fásshon n ࣇ࢓ࢵࢩࣙࣥ fashion ࡞ inconvenient, restricted; needy; weak: okane ni ~ shinai IiVXQă n ࣇ࢓ࢫࢼ࣮ fastener, zipper ࠾㔠࡟୙⮬⏤ࡋ࡞࠸ has no shortage of money; fu-man ]RNX n ୙‶ IăVXWRIŗGR n ࣇ࢓࣮ࢫࢺࣇ࣮ࢻ fast food ㊊ discontent; fu-mei QR adj ୙ IăVXWRQďPX n ࣇ࢓࣮ࢫࢺࢿ࣮࣒ ᫂ ࡢ unknown, obscure: yukue first name ~ (no) ⾜᪉୙᫂ ࡢ disappearance, missing; fú-ri (na) adj ୙฼ fáuru n ࣇ࢓࢘ࣝ foul feisu bukku n ࣇ࢙࢖ࢫࣈࢵࢡ ࡞ unfavorable, adverse; fu-rin n Facebook (Internet) ୙೔ adultery; IXU\Ŀ QR adj ୙Ⰻ ILLEă n ࣇ࢕࣮ࣂ࣮ fever ࡢ bad, no good, inferior; fuFirípin n ࣇ࢕ࣜࣆࣥ Philippines senmei (na) adj ୙㩭᫂ ࡞ obItUXPX IXLUXPX n ࣇ࢕࣒ࣝ, ࣇ࢖ࣝ scure, unclear; fuVKLQ n ୙ᑂ doubt, suspicion; IXVKL QR adj ࣒ film ItUXWă n ࣇ࢕ࣝࢱ࣮ filter ୙Ṛ ࡢ immortal(ity); fuVKt]HQ fisshingu n ࣇ࢕ࢵࢩࣥࢢ phishing (na) adj ୙⮬↛ ࡞ unnatural; (fraud) fuVKĿML n ୙⚈஦ scandal: ~ o IĿ n ࣇ࢛࣮, fóa ࣇ࢛࢔ four okoshimásu ୙⚈஦ࢆ㉳ࡇࡋࡲࡍ disgraces; fuVRNX n ୙㊊ shortage, IĿNX n ࣇ࢛࣮ࢡ fork fu n ࣇ࣭㯑 pieces of dried wheat insufficiency, deficiency, scarcity, lack; fuWHJLZD n ୙ᡭ㝿 blunder, gluten mismanagement; fuWHL QR adj ୙ fu- prefix ୙ un-, non-; fu-an (na) adj ୙Ᏻ ࡞ uneasy, anxious; fú- ᐃ ࡢ unfixed, uncertain, indefinite, undecided: ~-ki (no) ୙ᐃ ben (na) adj ୙౽ ࡞ inconvenient, unhandy; IXGĿWRNX n ୙㐨ᚨ ᮇ ࡢ irregular; fuWHL (na) adj ୙ immorality; IXJĿNDNX n ୙ྜ᱁ ㈆ ࡞ unchaste, unfaithful (to failure; IXNiQĿ (na) adj ୙ྍ⬟ her husband); fuWHNL (na) adj ୙ᩛ ࡞ impossible; fú-kai (na) adj ୙ ࡞ bold, lawless: daitan-futeki


(na) ኱⫹୙ᩛ ࡞ fearless; futekinin (na) adj ୙㐺௵ ࡞ unfit: futekinin-sha ୙㐺௵⪅ misfit; futekisetsu (na) adj ୙㐺ษ ࡞ irrelevance, inappropriate; IXWHNLWĿ (na) adj ୙㐺ᙜ ࡞ inadequate, unsuitable; fu-tettei (na) adj ୙ᚭᗏ ࡞ not thorough, imperfect, halfway; fu-tokui (na/no) adj ୙ᚓ ព ࡞ࡢ poor/weak at; fu-tokutei (no) adj ୙≉ᐃ ࡢ indefinite; IXWĿ (na) adj ୙ᙜ ࡞ unfair, unjustified: ; IXWĿVKLNL n ୙➼ᘧ inequality; IXWĿLWVX n ୙⤫୍ lacking of unity, disunity; IXWĿNĿ n ୙Ⓩᰯ


ily, always; fúdan (no) adj ᬑẁ ࡢ usual, everyday, ordinary; fudán-gí n ᬑẁ╔ everyday clothes fude n ➹ writing/painting brush; fude-bako n ➹⟽ pencil box/case IXGĿ (no) adj ୙ື ࡢ [BOOKISH] steadfast: ~ no chii ni imásu ୙ືࡢᆅ఩࡟࠸ࡲࡍ is in an impregnable position IXGĿVDQ n ୙ື⏘ real estate fuemásu, fuéru v ቑ࠼ࡲࡍ, ቑ࠼ࡿ

multiplies; grows in quantity/ number, gets bigger, swells, increases, expands IŗIX n ኵ፬ husband and wife, nonattendance at school, truancy; Mr. and Mrs., (married) couple: fu-tsuriai n ୙㔮ྜ࠸ imbalance; füfu-tomo(domo) ኵ፬ඹ ࠎ fu-un (na) adj ୙㐠 ࡞ unfortuboth husband and wife nate; IX\Ŀ (no) adj ୙せ ࡢ un- fúgú n ࣇࢢ࣭Ἑ㇜ blowfish, necessary, unneeded; IX\Ŀ (no) puffer fú-gú n (discriminatory term) ୙ adj ୙⏝ ࡢ useless, disused; fu-yúkai (na) adj ୙ទᛌ ࡞ un-ල cripple pleasant, displeasing, displeased; fui (ni) adv ୙ព ࡟ suddenly fu-zai n ୙ᅾ absence: ~-tøhyø ୙ fuji n ࣇࢪ࣭⸨ wisteria ᅾᢞ⚊ absentee vote fujin n ፬ே lady, woman (go-fujin fú n, suffix ᗓ, …´-fu … ᗓ an ࡈ፬ே [HONORIFIC]) urban prefecture: Kyøto-fu ி㒔 fujin n ኵே wife: -fujin ̽ኵே ᗓKyoto Prefecture Mrs. … Iŗ n ᑒ sealing: … no ~ o Fuji (-san) n ᐩኈ ᒣ Mount Fuji, shimásu …ࡢᑒࢆࡋࡲࡍ seals Fujiyama fujo n ፬ዪ [BOOKISH] lady, woman a letter fúbo n ∗ẕ father and mother, (= fujin ፬ே): fujo-bøkø ፬ዪᭀ ⾜ sexual assault one’s parents (= ryøshin ୧ぶ) fúbuki n ྿㞷 snowstorm fujo n ᢇຓ aid, support: fujo-kin fuchí n ⦕ edge, rim, frame ᢇຓ㔠 benefits fuda n ᮐ label, tag, card, check fuká n ࣇ࢝ big shark (used in fúdan adv ᬑẁ usually, ordinarwestern Japan) (A same ࢧ࣓࣭㩪) 48



fukái adj ῝࠸ deep: fukáku ῝ࡃ

fukín n ௜㏆ vicinity fukkakemásu, fukkakéru v ࡩࡗ࠿ࡅ ࡲࡍ, ࡩࡗ࠿ࡅࡿ overcharges fukú n ᭹ clothes, suit, dress


fukása n ῝ࡉ depth fukashimásu, fukásu v ⵨࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ⵨࠿ࡍ steams (food) uniform fukashimásu, fukásu v ྿࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, fuku n ⚟ happiness; fuku-biki n ⚟ ྿࠿ࡍ smokes: énjin o ~ ࢚ࣥࢪ ᘬ lottery; raffle; fuku no kami n ࣥࢆ྿࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ྿࠿ࡍ races ⚟ࡢ⚄ god of wealth fuku- prefix ๪̽ vice-, assistant-; the engine fukashimásu, fukásu v ᭦࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, IXNXNDLFKĿ n ๪఍㛗 vice chairman/ ᭦࠿ࡍsits up late: yó o ~ ኪࢆ chairperson; IXNXVKDFKĿ n ๪♫㛗 ᭦࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ᭦࠿ࡍ stays up late vice-president (of a company); fuké v ࡩࡅ dandruff IXN~VD\Ŀ n ๪స⏝ side-effect, IŗNHL n 㢼ᬒ scenery, landscape; after-effect IŗNHLJD n 㢼ᬒ⏬ landscape fuku- n 」 double; fuku-sei n 」〇


replica, reproduction, reprint;

fukemásu, fukéru v ᭦ࡅࡲࡍ, ᭦ࡅ ࡿ gets late: yo ga ~ ኪࡀ᭦ࡅࡲ ࡍ, ᭦ࡅࡿ (the night) grows late fukemásu, fukéru v ⪁ࡅࡲࡍ, ⪁ࡅࡿ

fuku-sha n 」෗ reproduction, copy; IXNXVŗ n 」ᩘ plural IXNXJĿJR n 」ྜㄒ compound

gets old, ages fuketsu (na) adj ୙₩ ࡞ unclean, dirty, filthy fuki n ࣇ࣭࢟ⷋ bog rhubarb fukimásu, fuku v ᣔࡁࡲࡍ, ᣔࡃ wipes fukimásu, fúku v ⵌࡁࡲࡍ, ⵌࡃ thatches (a roof), tiles roof: … no yáne o ~ …ࡢᒇ᰿ࢆⵌࡁࡲࡍ covers with a roof, roofs: kawara de ~ ⎰࡛ⵌࡁࡲࡍ tiles a roof:

fukumemásu, fukuméru v ྵࡵࡲࡍ, ྵࡵࡿ includes, adds fukumimásu, fukúmu v ྵࡳࡲࡍ, ྵ ࡴ holds in the mouth; contains;


implies; bears/keeps in mind fukuramashimásu, fukuramásu v ⭾ࡽ ࡲࡋࡲࡍ, ⭾ࡽࡲࡍ bulges,


fukurami v ⭾ࡽࡳ bulge fukuramimásu, fukuramu v ⭾ࡽࡳࡲ ࡍ, ⭾ࡽࡴ swells up, bulges káya/kusá/wára de ~ ⱴⲡ⸕࡛ fukuremásu, fukureru v ⭾ࢀࡲࡍ, ⭾ ⵌࡁࡲࡍ thatches ࢀࡿ swells up; pouts, sulks fukimásu, fúku v ྿ࡁࡲࡍ, ྿ࡃ fukuró n ⿄ bag, sack IXN~UĿ n ࣇࢡ࣭ࣟ࢘ᲅ owl blows fukín n ᕸࡁࢇ napkin, towel, fukushi n ๪モ adverb fukúshi n ⚟♴ welfare; fukushi-shícloth, washcloth, dishcloth




setsu n ⚟♴᪋タ welfare facility effort; ~ ga kikimasen ㋃ࢇᙇࡾ IXNXVKŗ n ᚟⩦ review (study) ࡀࡁࡁࡲࡏࢇ can’t hold on IXNXVKŗ n ᚟ㆶ revenge, vengeance funbetsu n ศู discretion, sense: IXNXVKŗ shimásu (suru) v ᚟⩦ࡋࡲࡍ ~ ga tsukimásu ศูࡀࡘࡁࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ reviews (study) cuts a tooth fXNXVKŗ shimásu (suru) v ᚟ㆶࡋࡲࡍfundoshi n ࡩࢇ࡝ࡋ࣭』 loincloth, ࡍࡿ takes revenge, revenges breechcloth: hito no ~ de sumø IXNXVĿ n ᭹⿦ dress, attirement, o torimásu ேࡢࡩࢇ࡝ࡋ࡛┦᧞ ࢆྲྀࡾࡲࡍ rides on someone’s clothes, costume fukuzatsu (na) adj 」㞧 ࡞ compli- back cated: ~ na shinkyø 」㞧࡞ᚰቃ fúne n ⯪>⯚@ boat, ship mixed feelings: ~ na tachiba 」 fungai n ៽៓ [BOOKISH] indigna㞧࡞❧ሙ complicated situation tion, resentment IXN\ŗ n ᬑཬ diffusion, populari- IXQ·tNL n 㞺ᅖẼ atmosphere (of a zation: pasokon no ~ (ga susunde) place), mood, aura, air: ~-zukuri ࣃࢯࢥࣥࡢᬑཬ ࡀ㐍ࢇ࡛ (with) 㞺ᅖẼసࡾ creating atmosphere the increase of computer users funka n ᄇⅆ eruption: ~-kø ᄇⅆ fumemásu, fumeru v ㋃ࡵࡲࡍ, ㋃ࡵ ཱྀ crater funmatsu n ⢊ᮎ powder: ~ ni ࡿ can tread IŗPt n 㢼࿡ flavor: ~ o tamochishimásu ⢊ᮎ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ makes másu 㢼࿡ࢆಖࡕࡲࡍ keeps/ into powder, pulverizes preserves a flavor; ~ no aru ryøri funpatsu n ዧⓎ putting a lot of 㢼࿡ࡢ࠶ࡿᩱ⌮ savory dish effort, spoiling oneself fumi-komimásu, fumi-kómu v ㋃ࡳ㎸ funshitsu n ⣮ኻ loss: ~-todoke o ࡳࡲࡍ, ㋃ࡳ㎸ࡴ 1. steps into/ dashimásu ⣮ኻᒆࡅࢆฟࡋࡲࡍ on 2. trespasses (on); raids reports a missing item fumimásu, fumu v ㋃ࡳࡲࡍ, ㋃ࡴ IXQVĿ n ᢃ⿦ disguise: ~ shimásu ᢃ⿦ࡋࡲࡍ is costumed, makes up steps on, treads fumotó n 㯄 foot (of a mountain) funsĿ n ⣮த conflict, dispute; fún n ⣅ feces, dung IXQVĿFKLLNL n ⣮தᆅᇦ disputed …´-fun suffix …ศ minute(s) area, conflict-affected region funá-… prefix ⯪ ship, vessel; funsui n ᄇỈ fountain funá-bin n ⯪౽ sea mail; funá-nori IXQWĿ n ዧ㜚 struggle n ⯪஌ࡾ sailor, crew (member); funuke n ⭊ᢤࡅ coward: ~-mono funá-yoi n ⯪㓉࠸ seasick(ness) ⭊ᢤࡅ⪅ cowardly man funbari n ㋃ࢇᙇࡾ effort: mø hito furafura adv ࡩࡽࡩࡽ staggers, ~ ࡶ࠺ࡦ࡜㋃ࢇᙇࡾ one last reels: ~-kan ࡩࡽࡩࡽឤ wooziness




furai-pan n ࣇࣛ࢖ࣃࣥ frying pan furi-kake n ࡩࡾ࠿ࡅ flavor sprinfuramenko n ࣇ࣓ࣛࣥࢥ flamenco: kles (to top rice) ~ dansu ࣇ࣓ࣛࣥࢥࢲࣥࢫ fla- furi-kakemásu, furi-kakéru v ᣺ࡾ᥃ ࡅࡲࡍ, ᣺ࡾ᥃ࡅࡿ sprinkles it menco dance Furansu n ࣇࣛࣥࢫ France; furimásu, furu v ᣺ࡾࡲࡍ, ᣺ࡿ Furansu-go n ࣇࣛࣥࢫㄒ French 1. waves, shakes, swings 2. wags (language); Furansú-jin n ࣇࣛࣥ it 3. gives someone the ax ࢫே a French furimásu, fúru v 㝆ࡾࡲࡍ, 㝆ࡿ furari (to) adv ࡩࡽࡾ ࡜ aimlessly: falls, it precipitates (rains, snows) ~ tachiyorimásu ࡩࡽࡾ࡜❧ࡕᐤ furi-mukimásu, furi-múku v ᣺ࡾྥࡁ ࡾࡲࡍ drops in ࡲࡍ, ᣺ࡾྥࡃ looks back furasuko n ࣇࣛࢫࢥ flask IŗULQ n 㢼㕥 wind-chimes furatsukimásu v ࡩࡽࡘࡁࡲࡍ stag- furisodé n ᣺ࡾ⿇ long-sleeved

gers, sways furemásu, fureru v ゐࢀࡲࡍ, ゐࢀࡿ touches (= sawarimásu ゐࡾࡲࡍ) 1. contacts with; touches upon 2. mentions, refers to furemásu, fureru v ᣺ࢀࡲࡍ, ᣺ࢀࡿ

kimono furo n 㢼࿅ o-fúro ࠾㢼࿅ bath: ~ ni hairimásu 㢼࿅࡟ධࡾࡲࡍ takes a bath; furo-bá n 㢼࿅ሙ

bathroom furonto n ࣇࣟࣥࢺ front desk; furonto-garasu n ࣇࣟࣥࢺ࢞ࣛࢫ can wave it, can shake it fureraremásu, furerareru v ゐࢀࡽࢀ automobile windshield IXUĿVKD n ᾋᾉ⪅ vagabond, ࡲࡍ, ゐࢀࡽࢀࡿ can touch furí v ᣺ࡾ manner, pretense, air vagrant, tramp, homeless person furí v 㝆ࡾ the rain/snow, the down- furuemásu, furueru v 㟈࠼ࡲࡍ, 㟈 ࠼ࡿ it shakes pour furi-gana n ࡩࡾࡀ࡞࣭ࣇࣜ࢞ࢼ furui n ࡩࡿ࠸ sieve, sifter furúi adj ྂ࠸ old (not new), stale readings marked (for Chinese (not fresh); secondhand, used characters) furi-kae n ᣺(ࡾ ᭰ ࠼ transfer furumai n ᣺ࡿ⯙࠸ behavior (of funds); furikae-yókin n ᣺᭰㡸 (deportment): furumaimásu ᣺ 㔠 transfer deposit; IXULNDHN\ŗMLWVX ࡿ⯙࠸ࡲࡍ behaves furui(okoshi)masu, furui(okosu), furu-u n ᣺᭰ఇ᪥ compensating/ substitute holiday v ዧ࠸ ㉳ࡇࡋ ࡲࡍ, ዧ࠸ ㉳ࡇ furi-kaemásu, furi-kaeru v ᣺ ࡾ ᭰ ࡍ , ዧ࠺ summons: yüki o fu࠼ࡲࡍ, ᣺ ࡾ ᭰࠼ࡿ transfers it ruiokoshite/furutte… …ຬẼࢆ furi-kaerimásu, furi-kaéru v ᣺ࡾ㏉ࡾ ዧ࠸㉳ࡇࡋ࡚ዧࡗ࡚ …with ࡲࡍ, ᣺ࡾ㏉ࡿ looks back gathering up of one’s courage 51



IXUŗWR n ࣇ࣮ࣝࢺ flute IXUŗWVX n ࣇ࣮ࣝࢶ fruit: ~-kakuteru ࣇ࣮ࣝࢶ࢝ࢡࢸࣝ fruit cocktail IŗU\ŗ (na) adj 㢼ὶ ࡞ elegant fusá n ᡣ bunch (cluster) fusagarimásu, fusagaru v ሰࡀࡾࡲ ࡍ, ሰࡀࡿ gets blocked (off),

fXVKĿ n ㈇യ injury fusso n ࣇࢵ⣲ fluorine fusumá n 〼 opaque sliding panel/

door futa n ⵹ lid, cover; flap (of envel-

ope, etc.) futa-… adj ஧… two: futá-ban ஧ ᬌ two nights: futá-kumi ஧⤌

clogged/stopped up, gets occutwo pairs (of) pied, booked up, engaged fusagimásu, fusagu v ሰࡂࡲࡍ, ሰ futago n ཮Ꮚ twins futamatá (no) adj ஧ཪ>ཫ@ ࡢ ࡄ stops up, closes, blocks fusái n ኵጔ Mr. and Mrs.; husforked, bifurcate(d): futamatasokétto ஧ཪ>ཫ@ࢯࢣࢵࢺ twoband and wife (= füfu ኵ፬) fusawashíi adj ┦ᛂࡋ࠸ suitable, way socked, double plug worthy; becoming: fusawáshiku futarí n ஧ே࣭ࡩࡓࡾ o-futari ࠾ ┦ᛂࡋࡃ suitably ஧ே two persons fusegimásu, fuségu v 㜵ࡂࡲࡍ, 㜵 futa-sén n ஧༓࣭2,000, two ࡄ prevents; defends, protects thousand (= ni-sén ஧༓࣭2,000) fusemásu, fuséru v అࡏࡲࡍ, అࡏ futatsú n ஧ࡘ࣭2ࡘ࣭ࡩࡓࡘ two ࡿ covers (up), conceals; lays it (pieces, small objects) (= ní-ko face down: mi o fuséru ㌟ࢆఅࡏ ஧ಶ); two years old (= ní-sai ஧ ࡲࡍ gets down, crouches (so as ṓ>ᡯ@) futatsú-mi(t)tsu n ஧ࡘ୕ࡘ two or not to be seen): fuse-ji అࡏᏐ turned letter(s), unprintable word(s) three IŗVHQ n 㢼⯪ balloon: kami-~ ⣬㢼 futebuteshii adj ࡩ࡚ࡪ࡚ࡋ࠸ ⯪ paper balloon; IŗVHQJiPX n 㢼 impudent, audacious ⯪࣒࢞ bubble gum futekusareta adj ࡩ࡚ࡃࡉࢀࡓ fushí n ⠇ joint; gnarl, knot, knob; pouty: futekusaremásu ࡩ࡚ࡃࡉ ࢀࡲࡍ has the sulks, gets sulky tune, air; point (in a statement); fushi-me n ⠇┠ turning point futene n ࡩ࡚ᐷ going to bed in a fushigi (na) adj ୙ᛮ㆟ ࡞ weird, huff, staying in bed sulking strange, mysterious; wonderful; futo adv ࡩ࡜ unexpectedly; by suspicious, odd, funny, uncanny chance, suddenly: ~ ki ga tsukifushin n ᬑㄳ building (construc- másu ࡩ࡜Ẽࡀࡘࡁࡲࡍ comes tion), repairs to a sudden realization fu-shínsetsu (na) adj ୙ぶษ ࡞ fXWĿ n ᇧ㢌 pier, wharf, quay IŗWĿ n ᑒ⟄ envelope: henshin-yø ~ unkind 52



㏉ಙ⏝ᑒ⟄ return-mail envelope futodoki (na) adj ୙ᒆࡁ ࡞ outrageous: ~ na okonai ୙ᒆࡁ࡞⾜ ࠸ outrageous conduct IXWĿIXNXWVX (na/no) adj ୙ᧉ୙ᒅ ࡞ࡢ indomitable, stubborn, unyielding: ~ no seishin ୙ᧉ୙ ᒅࡢ⢭⚄ indomitable spirit futói adj ኴ࠸ fat, plump, thick

(and round) futoji n ኴᏐ boldface futokoro n ᠜ bosom, finance: ~ ga atatakai ᠜ࡀᬮ࠿࠸ has a heavy purse: ~ ga fukai ᠜ࡀ῝࠸ is

ࡩࡘࡩࡘ࡜Ἓࡃ gets courage

gradually futsuka n ஧᪥࣭2᪥࣭ࡩࡘ࠿ 1. 2nd day (of month) 2. two days: ~-kan ஧᪥㛫 for two days IXWVŗ-yókin n ᬑ㏻㡸㔠 (ordinary)

savings account futten n ἛⅬ boiling point IXWWĿ n Ἓ㦐 boiling futto EĿUX n ࣇࢵࢺ࣮࣎ࣝ

American football futto ZăNX n ࣇࢵࢺ࣮࣡ࢡ footwork: ~ ga karui ࣇࢵࢺ࣮࣡ࢡ ࡀ㍍࠸ light on one’s feet fuyashimásu, fuyásu v ቑࡸࡋࡲࡍ, ቑࡸࡍ increases it/them IX\Ŀ n ᢇ㣴 support, keeping; IX\ĿND]RNX n ᢇ㣴ᐙ᪘ dependent family/relatives; fuyĿteate n ᢇ㣴 ᡭᙜ family allowance fuyú n ෤ winter: ~ ෤ࡈ; fuyu-yásumi n ෤ఇࡳ winter break/vacation fuzakemásu, fuzakeru v ࡩࡊࡅࡲࡍ, ࡩࡊࡅࡿ fool around, kid around fuzei n 㢼᝟ taste, appearance, look: ~ no aru keshiki/nagame 㢼᝟ࡢ࠶ࡿᬒⰍ═ࡵ scenic

magnanimous, has deep insight, has depth futomomo n ኴ⭣ thigh futon n ᕸᅋ o-futón ࠾ᕸᅋ padded quilt, futon: ~ o hoshimásu ᕸᅋࢆᖸࡋࡲࡍ airs out futons futorimásu, futóru v ኴࡾࡲࡍ, ኴࡿ gets fat: futótte imásu ኴࡗ࡚࠸ ࡲࡍ is fat IXWVŗ adj, adv ᬑ㏻ ordinar(il)y, usual(ly), regular(ly), typical(ly), normal(ly): ~-dénsha ᬑ㏻㟁㌴ local (= non-express) train IXWVŗ n ୙㏻ disconnect view futsubun n ௖ᩥ French sentence, fuzoku n ௜ᒓ࣭㝃ᒓ attachment, French literature belonging, accessory; fuzokú-hin n futsufutsu (to) adv ࡩࡘࡩࡘ ࡜ ௜ᒓရ attachments, accessories gradually; yüki ga ~ waku ຬẼࡀfuzoroi n ୙ᥞ࠸ irregularity




G ga n ࣭࢞⻍ moth ga n ᡃ oneself, ego, atman: ~ o tøshimásu (tøsu) ᡃࢆ㏻ࡋࡲࡍ has one’s own way: ~ o orimásu ᡃࢆᢡࡾࡲࡍ gives yield …ga …ࡀ particle: marks subject

…´-gai …እ outside (of): senmon-~ (no) ᑓ㛛እ ࡢ unprofessional; gái-bu n እ㒊 the outside, the exterior; gai-jin n እே = gaikokú-jin እᅜே foreigner; gai-ken n እぢ appearance; JDLNĿ n እ஺ diplomacy, diplomatic relations: ~ kan እ஺ᐁ diplomat(ic) officer; gai-koku n እᅜ foreign countries: ~-go እᅜㄒ foreign language(s); ~-jin እᅜ ே foreigner; gai-sen n እ⥺ out-

(who does, what is), but marks also object of: ... ga arimásu … ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ (has what): ... ga irimásu …ࡀせࡾࡲࡍ (needs/ wants what): ... ga wakarimásu …ࡀศ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ (understands what): ... ga dekimásu …ࡀฟ᮶ side line/extension (phone); gai-shoku n እ㣗 eating out; JDLWĿ ࡲࡍ (can do what) … ga conj …ࡀ but (= shikashi n እዓ coat, overcoat; gai-sha n ࡋ࠿ࡋ) እ㌴ foreign car; JDL\Ŀ n እὒ …´-ga suffix …⏬ painting, picture high sea gabugabu adv ࢞ࣈ࢞ࣈ gulping …-gai suffix …㈅ (name of) shell: hotate-gai ࣍ࢱࢸ࢞࢖࣭ᕹ❧㈅ down JDE\Ŀ n ⏬㗩 thumbtack scallop JDFKĿ n ࢞ࢳ࣭ࣙ࢘㬾㫽 goose gáido n ࢞࢖ࢻ guide JăGHQLQJX n ࣮࢞ࢹࢽࣥࢢ gáidoku n ᐖẘ [BOOKISH] evil, gardening harm, bad influence on society JăGRPDQ n ࣮࢞ࢻ࣐ࣥ guard gaikan n ᴫほ survey, bird’s-eye JăGRUďUX n ࣮࢞ࢻ࣮ࣞࣝ guardrail view JăGRUX n ࣮࢞ࢻࣝ girdle gaikotsu n 㧁㦵 skeleton găJă adv ࣮࣮࢞࢞ quack, croak: JDLN\Ŀ n ᴫἣ [BOOKISH] overall ~ iu oto ࣮࣮࢞࢞࠸࠺㡢 rasping condition *DLP~VKĿ n እົ┬ Ministry of sound gágaku n 㞞ᴦ [BOOKISH] music Foreign Affairs of Japan MOFA) traditional to the imperial court gáinen n ᴫᛕ concept gái n ᐖ damage, harm, injury gairo n ⾤㊰ broad street(s) in the gai-… prefix እ… external, town gáisan n ᴫ⟬ approximate calcuforeign: gai(kokú)-jin እᅜே; 54



lation: ~-chi ᴫ⟬್ estimated JDNXFKĿ n Ꮫ㛗 president of a figure school (college/university) …-gáisha n …఍♫ = kaisha ఍♫ gakudan n ᴦᅋ band (of musicians) JDNXGĿ n Ꮫ❺ school child(ren): company gaisha n ヱ⪅ = hi-gaisha ⿕ᐖ⪅ ~-hoiku Ꮫ❺ಖ⫱ after-school victim care for children gaitame n እⅭ = gaikoku-kawase gakuen n Ꮫᅬ academy እᅜⅭ᭰ foreign currency gakufu n ᴦ㆕ musical score gakugei n Ꮫⱁ liberal arts operations JDLWĿ n ⾤㢌 the street, the waygakugyo n Ꮫᴗ schoolwork, side academic work JDL\Ŀ n ᴫせ outline, summary gakuha n Ꮫὴ school of thought gaka n ⏬ᐙ painter, artist gakuhi n Ꮫ㈝ academic fees …-gákari …ಀ attendant (in charge) gákui n Ꮫ఩ academic degree gake n ᓴ cliff gakúmon n Ꮫၥ knowledge, gakí n 㣹㨣 [BOOKISH] hungry/ learning, education begging ghost; ࣭࢞࢟ࡀࡁ࣭㣹㨣 gakunen n Ꮫᖺ school year gakureki n ᏛṔ educational backbrat: ~-daishø ࡀࡁ኱ᑗ bully, little turk ground gakka n Ꮫ⛉ subject (school): gakuryoku n Ꮫຊ academic ability ~-shiken Ꮫ⛉ヨ㦂 examinations gakusei n Ꮫ⏕ student: ~-fuku Ꮫ ⏕᭹ school uniform: ~-shø Ꮫ⏕ in academic subjects ド student identification card gakkai n Ꮫ఍ scholarly society, gakusha n Ꮫ⪅ scholar association gakkári shimásu (suru) v ࡀࡗ࠿ࡾࡋ gákushi n Ꮫኈ bachelor’s degree: ࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ is disappointed, ~-rónbun Ꮫኈㄽᩥ senior essay JDNXVKŗ n Ꮫ⩦ study, learning discouraged gakki n Ꮫᮇ term (of school); JDNXVKŗVKD n Ꮫ⩦⪅ the student semester of a subject (in general): Eigo-~ gakki n ᴦჾ musical instrument ⱥㄒᏛ⩦⪅ the student of English JDNNĿ n Ꮫᰯ school gamaguchi n ࡀࡲཱྀ purse, wallet, JDNN\ŗ n Ꮫ⣭ class/grade in school pocketbook (= saifu ㈈ᕸ) gaku n Ꮫ learning, study, science: gáman n ᡃ៏ patience, persever…´-gaku …Ꮫ …-ology ance; ~ dekimasén (dekinai) ᡃ gáku n 㢠 amount, sum ៏࡛ࡁࡲࡏࢇ ࡛ࡁ࡞࠸ cannot gakubu n Ꮫ㒊 department stand it; ~-zuyói ᡃ៏ᙉ࠸ is gaku-buchi n 㢠⦕ frame (of picture) patient, persevering hard(er) 55



gamen n ⏬㠃 screen (of TV,

gas(oline)/service station

computer, etc.) gámu n ࣒࢞ (chewing) gum gán n ࡀࢇ࣭⒴ cancer, carcinoma JăQD n ࣮࢞ࢼ Ghana ganbarimásu, ganbáru n, interj 㡹ᙇ ࡾࡲࡍ, 㡹ᙇࡿ stands firm, bears up, hangs in there; tries hard gani-mata (no) adj ࡀ࡟⫤ ࡢ bowlegged ganjitsu, gantan n ඖ᪥, ඖ᪦ New Year’s day, first day of the year gánko (na) adj 㡹ᅛ ࡞ stubborn gánnen n ඖᖺ the first year of an era; Year One gánrai adv ඖ᮶ originally, primarily gánsho n 㢪᭩ application gantan n ඖ᪦ = ganjitsu ඖ᪥ (New Year’s day, first day of the year) JDQ·\DNX n ୸⸆ pill (= jøzai 㘄๣) gappei n ྜే merger, combination, union gáragara ࡀࡽࡀࡽ࣭࢞ࣛ࢞ࣛ 1. n rattle 2. adj rattling: ~ narimásu ࡀࡽࡀࡽ㬆ࡾࡲࡍ it rattles garakuta n ࡀࡽࡃࡓ junk garasu n ࢞ࣛࢫ glass (substance) garasú-bin n ࢞ࣛࢫ⎼ glass jar/ bottle JiUďML n ࣮࢞ࣞࢪ garage gári n ࢞ࣜ pickled ginger slices JăUXIXUpQGR n ࣮࢞ࣝࣇࣞࣥࢻ girlfriend (= kánojo ᙼዪ) gasorin n ࢞ࢯࣜࣥ gasoline: ~-sutándo ࢞ࢯࣜࣥࢫࢱࣥࢻ

JDVVĿ n ྜዌ concert: ~ shimásu ྜዌࡋࡲࡍ plays in a concert gásu n ࢞ࢫ (natural) gas; gasúgáisha n ࢞ࢫ఍♫ gas company; gasú-kónro n ࢞ࢫࡇࢇࢁ (gas) hot plate; gasú-rénji n ࢞ࢫࣞࣥࢪ

gas range …-gata …ᆺ type, model; size …gáta …᪉ [HONORIFIC PLURAL]

esteemed (persons) JăWă n ࣮࢞ࢱ࣮ garter gátagata shimásu (suru) v ࡀࡓࡀࡓ ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ clatters, rattles gatchi n ྜ⮴ accordance: ~ shimásu ྜ⮴ࡋࡲࡍ matches gatchiri-shita adj ࡀࡗࡕࡾࡋࡓ

well-built …-gatsu …᭶ (name of) month of

the year gatten n ྜⅬ consent, assent,

understanding -gawa n ഃ side, mukø-gawa ྥࡇ ࠺ഃ the other side Jă]H n ࣮࢞ࢮ gauze JD]Ŀ n ⏬ീ image gé n ୗ = ge-kan ୗᕳ last volume

(of a set of 2 or 3) gedoku-zai n ゎẘ๣ antidote gehín (na) adj ୗရ ࡞ vulgar: ~ na kotoba ୗရ࡞ゝⴥ vulgar

language géi n ⱁ arts, accomplishments;

tricks, stunts géi n ࢤ࢖ gay: ~-bå ࢤ࢖ࣂ࣮

gay bar JHLJĿ n ㏄ྜ assent: ~ shimásu



㏄ྜࡋࡲࡍ panders to one’s

feelings/opinions/wishes geijutsu n ⱁ⾡ art(s); geijutsu-ka n ⱁ⾡ᐙ artist JHLQĿ n ⱁ⬟ performance arts, public entertainments; JHLQĿMLQ n ⱁ⬟ே entertainer(s) geisha n ⱁ⪅ geisha gejun n ୗ᪪ late part/end of a

month (last 1/3 of the month) geka n እ⛉ surgery (as a medical specialty); geká-i n እ⛉་ surgeon ge-kan n ୗᕳ last volume (of a

set of 2 or 3) géki n ๻ play, drama gékido n ⃭ᛣ furious anger geki-ga n ๻⏬ graphic novel JHNLMĿ n ๻ሙ theater gekiron n ⃭ㄽ violent controversy gekkei n ᭶⤒ menstruation (= seiri ⏕⌮): ~ ga hajimarimásu ᭶⤒ࡀጞࡲࡾࡲࡍ one’s period

begins JHNN\ŗ n ᭶⤥ monthly salary geko n ୗᡞ non-drinker JHNRNXMĿ n ୗඞୖ forcible dis-


realistic; JHQMĿ n ⌧≧ the present conditions/state, status quo; JHQMŗVKR n ⌧ఫᡤ current address; gen-kín n ⌧㔠 ready money; JHQNĿKDQ (no) adj ⌧⾜≢ ࡢ red-handed: ~ de tsukamarimásu ⌧⾜≢࡛ᤕࡲࡾࡲࡍ is caught red handed; gén-zai n, adv ⌧ᅾ the present (time); at present, now géndo n 㝈ᗘ limit: saidai/saikø-~ ᭱኱᭱㧗㝈ᗘ the maximum/ highest (degree) géngo n ゝㄒ language: ~-gaku ゝ ㄒᏛ linguistics JHQJĿ n ඖྕ era name JHQ·LQ n ཎᅉ cause, origin, root: ~ to kekka ཎᅉ࡜⤖ᯝ cause and effect JHQMŗ (na) adj ཝ㔜 ࡞ strict: ~ keibi ཝ㔜࡞㆙ഛ very strict guard génkan n ⋞㛵 entrance (hall), porch génki n ඖẼ o-génki ࠾ඖẼ energy, vigor, pep: ~ (na) ඖẼ ࡞ healthy, well, cheerful, vigorous: O-genki desu ka. ࠾ඖ Ẽ࡛ࡍ࠿. How are you? genko n ᣙᅛ, genkotsu ᣙ㦵 fist JHQNĿ n ゝ⾜ sayings and doings JHQNĿ n ཎ✏ manuscript: ~ o

placement of a superior by one’s inferior JďPX n ࢤ࣮࣒ game gén n ᘻ string; gen-gakki n ᘻᴦჾ shiagemásu ཎ✏ࢆ௙ୖࡆࡲࡍ string instrument(s) gén(-) … prefix ⌧ … present finishes one’s article genkoku n ཎ࿌ suitor, accuser (time), current; gen-ba n ⌧ሙ site; gén-dai n ⌧௦ the present: JHQN\ŗVKLPiVX (suru) v ゝཬࡋࡲࡍ ~ (no) ⌧௦ ࡢ modern, up-to ࡍࡿ [BOOKISH] refers to …, date; gen-jitsu n ⌧ᐇ actuality, mentions … (= (… ni) furemásu … ࡟ ゐࢀࡲࡍ reality; ~-teki (na) ⌧ᐇⓗ ࡞ 57



génmai n ⋞⡿ unpolished rice; gesui n ୗỈ sewage; (kitchen) genmai-cha n ⋞⡿Ⲕ Genmaicha, drain; JHVXLGĿ n ୗỈ㐨 sewage

brown rice tea


genmitsu (na) adj ཝᐦ ࡞ strict JHQU\Ŀ n ཎᩱ (raw) materials,

getá n ୗ㥏 wooden clogs (shoes) …-getsu suffix …᭶ month getsumatsu n ᭶ᮎ the end of a

basic ingredient gensaku n ཎస the original (writing) gensan (no) adj ཎ⏘ ࡢ (plants and animals) native to: ~-chi ཎ ⏘ᆅ place of origin génshi n ཎᏊ atom; genshi-bákudan n ཎᏊ⇿ᙎ atomic bomb génshi (no) adj ཎጞ ࡢ primitive JHQVKĿ n ⌧㇟ phenomenon genshĿ n ῶᑡ decrease gensoku n ཎ๎ a basic principle, a rule: ~ to shite ཎ๎࡜ࡋ࡚ as a

month getsumen n ᭶㠃 surface of the


GetsuyĿ EL n ᭶᭙ ᪥ Monday JHWWĿ n ࢤࢵࢺ࣮ ghetto(s) gezai n ୗ๣ laxative gi-… prefix ഇ… pseudo- …; JLVKĿ n ഇド false testimony; gizen n ഇၿ hypocrisy gi-… prefix ⩏ = giri (no) ⩏⌮ࡢ ...-in-law; gí-bo n ⩏ẕ = girí no haha ⩏⌮ࡢẕ mother-in-law; (general) rule gentei n 㝈ᐃ limitation gí-fu n ⩏∗ = girí no chichi ⩏⌮ JHQ]Ŀ shimásu (suru) v ⌧ീࡋࡲࡍ ࡢ∗ father-in-law; gi-kei n ⩏඗ ࡍࡿ develops (film) = girí no ani ⩏⌮ࡢ඗ elder geppu n ᭶㈿ monthly installbrother-in-law; gi-mai n ⩏ጒ = ments/payments: ~-barai ᭶㈿ᡶ girí no imøto ⩏⌮ࡢጒ young ࠸ monthly payments sister-in-law; gi-tei n ⩏ᘵ = girí géppu n ࡆࡗ࡫ belch, burp no otøto ⩏⌮ࡢᘵ young brothergeragera waraimásu (warau) v ࡆࡽࡆ in-law ࡽ>ࢤࣛࢤࣛ@ ➗࠸ࡲࡍ ➗࠺ gífuto n ࢠࣇࢺ gift gíin n ㆟ဨ member of parliament: laughs with great guffaws geretsu adj ୗຎ rude, abusive, Kokkai-~ ᅜ఍㆟ဨ member of a


national legislature

geri n ୗ⑩ diarrhea JLMLGĿ n ㆟஦ᇽ: kokkai ~ ᅜ఍㆟ geshi n ኟ⮳ summer solstice ஦ᇽ Diet building geshuku n ୗᐟ lodgings, room gíjutsu n ᢏ⾡ technique; gijutu-sha (and board); geshuku-ya n ୗᐟᒇ n ᢏ⾡⪅ technician, engineer gíkai n ㆟఍ parliament, assembly, rooming/boarding house gés-súi-kin n ᭶Ỉ㔠 Mondaycongress; (the Japanese) Diet Wednesday-Friday (= kokkai ᅜ఍)




gikochinái adj ࡂࡇࡕ࡞࠸ awkward, makes a sacrifice/scapegoat of clumsy …; ~ ni narimásu ≛≅࡟࡞ࡾࡲ gimon n ␲ၥ question, doubt; ࡍ falls a victim, is sacrificed; gimón-fu n ␲ၥ➢ question mark giséi-sha n ≛≅⪅ victim gímu n ⩏ົ duty, obligation; gimu- gíshi n ᢏᖌ engineer N\ĿLNX n ⩏ົᩍ⫱ compulsory gíshiki n ൤ᘧ ceremony, ritual JtWă n ࢠࢱ࣮ guitar education gín n 㖟 silver; gin-iro (no) adj 㖟Ⰽ gítcho (no) adj (discriminatory ࡢ silver (color); gín-ka n 㖟㈌ term) ࡂࡗࡕࡻ ࡢ left-handed silver coin (person) (= hidari-kiki (no) ᕥ฼ Gínga n 㖟Ἑ the Milky Way ࡁ ࡢ ) JLQMĿ n ྫྷ㔊 produce from the use giwaku n ␲ᝨ doubt, suspicion of selected ingredient(s): ~-shu JL]Ŀ n ഇ㐀 forgery ྫྷ㔊㓇 quality sake brewed from gó n ◻ the board game Go (= ígo ᅖ◻): go-ban ◻┙ a Go board the finest rice JLQNĿ n 㖟⾜ bank; JLQNĿLQ n 㖟⾜ gó n ஬࣭5 five; go-ban n ஬␒ ဨ bank clerk number five; go-banmé (no) adj ginmi n ྫྷ࿡ investigation ஬␒┠ ࡢ fifth; go-dai n ஬ྎ ginnán n ࢠࣥࢼ࣭ࣥ㖟ᮥ gingko five machines/vehicles; go-dó n ஬ᗘ five times (= go-kai ஬ᅇ); nuts JLQVKĿ n ྫྷၐ intonation gó-do n ஬ᗘ five degrees; gó-hiki JLQ\ŗVKLMLQ n ྫྷ㐟リே minstrel n ஬༉ five (fishes/bugs, small girei n ൤♩ courtesy animals); go-hon n ஬ᮏ five girí n ⩏⌮ o-gíri ࠾⩏⌮ obliga- (pencils/bottles, long things); gotion, sense of obligation, honor: kái n ஬ᅇ five times; go-kai n ஬ girí no … ⩏⌮ࡢ… …-in-law: 㝵 five floors/stories; fifth floor; girí no ane ⩏⌮ࡢጜ elder sister- gó-ko n ஬ಶ five (pieces, small in-law objects); go-mai n ஬ᯛ five sheets Gírish(i)a n ࢠࣜࢩ࣭ࣕࢠࣜࢩ࢔ (flat things); go-nen n ஬ᖺ the Greece; Girish(i)a-go ࢠࣜࢩ࣭ࣕࢠ year 5: ~-kan ஬ᖺ㛫 (for) five ࣜࢩ࢔ㄒ Greek (language); years; go-nín n ஬ே five people; Girish(i)a-jin ࢠࣜࢩࣕே࣭ࢠࣜࢩ࢔ gó-satsu n ஬෉ five copies (books, ே Greek (people) magazines); JRWĿ n ஬㢌 five gíron n ㆟ㄽ discussion (horses/oxen, large animals); giryo n ᢏ㔞 skills, abilities gó-wa n ஬⩚ five (birds, rabbits) gisei n ≛≅ a sacrifice: … o ~ ni go-… prefix ࡈ࣭ᚚ… honorific shimásu …ࢆ≛≅࡟ࡋࡲࡍ (personalizing) prefix (cf. o- ࠾




࣭ᚚ); JRFKLVĿ n ࡈࡕࡑ࠺࣭ࡈ㥅 ࡲࡍ Thank you for your polite ㉮ treat (of food); gochisø-sama reply. A téinei ୎ᑀ; JRWVXJĿ n ࡈ (deshita). ࡈࡕࡑ࠺ࡉࡲ ࡛ࡋࡓ . 㒔ྜ convenience [HONORIFIC]: Thank you for the treat (the reply itsu ga ~ yoroshiidesuka ࠸ࡘࡀ is o-sómatsu-sama (deshita). ࠾⢒ ࡈ㒔ྜࡼࢁࡋ࠸࡛ࡍ࠿ When is ᮎࡉࡲ ࡛ࡋࡓ .); JRIXMĿ n ࡈ୙ it convenient for you? A WVXJĿ 㒔ྜ; JR\Ŀ n ࡈ⏝ (your/someί࣭ᚚ୙ί [HONORIFIC] toilet, rest room, lavatory (= tóire ࢺ࢖ one else’s) business [HONORIFIC] ࣞ ; go-jibun n ࡈ⮬ศ you, your- A \Ŀ ⏝; gó-zen n ࡈ⮃ low meal self [HONORIFIC]; go-kazoku n ࡈᐙ table, dining tray; meal [HONOR᪘ (your/someone else’s) family IFIC]; go-zónji v ࡈᏑ▱ ~ désu ka? [HONORIFIC] A kázoku ᐙ᪘; go-kigen ࡈᏑ▱࡛ࡍ࠿" Do you know? n ࡈᶵ᎘ mood, feeling: ~ ikága [HONORIFIC] (= shitte(i)másuka? desu ka ࡈᶵ᎘࠸࠿ࡀ࡛ࡍ࠿. How ▱ࡗ࡚ ࠸ ࡲࡍ࠿"); zónji(age) are you (feeling)?: ~ yø´ ࡈࡁࡆࢇ masén Ꮡ▱ ࠶ࡆ ࡲࡏࢇ don’t ࡼ࠺. Good-bye./Hello. [HONOR- know [HONORIFIC] (= shirimasén IFIC] A kigen ᶵ᎘; go-mottomo ▱ࡾࡲࡏࢇ) interj ࡈࡶࡗ࡜ࡶ You’re abso- go-… prefix ࡈ࣭ㄗ… wrong; lutely right.; go-ón n ࡈᜠ (your/ JRKĿ n ㄗሗ false report; go-shín someone else’s) kindness, my n ㄗデ wrong diagnosis; go-kai n obligation to you [HONORIFIC] A ㄗゎ misunderstanding ón ᜠ; go-riyaku n ࡈ฼┈ divine go-… prefix ㄒ language; help/grace; JRU\ĿVKLQ n ࡈ୧ぶ word(s); JRFKĿ n ㄒㄪ tone of (your/someone else’s) parents talk, intonation; gó-gaku n ㄒᏛ (foreign) language learning; gó-i [HONORIFIC] A U\ĿVKLQ ୧ぶ; goshínsetsu n ࡈぶษ (your/someone n ㄒᙡ vocabulary (item) else’s) kindness [HONORIFIC] : ~ -go suffix ᚋ after, later, since: ni dømo arigatø (gozaimásu) ࡈ sono-go ࡑࡢᚋ after that, since ぶษ࡟࡝࠺ࡶ࠶ࡾࡀ࡜࠺ ࡈࡊ࠸ then ࡲࡍ Thank you very much for …-go suffix …ㄒ (name of) lanyour kindness. A shínsetsu ぶษ; guage; word(s): Nihon-go ᪥ᮏ go-shújin n ࡈ୺ே (your/someone ㄒ the Japanese (language) JĿ suffix ྕ: (magazine issues) else’s) husband [HONORIFIC] A shújin ୺ே; go-téinei (na) adj ࡈ୎ …-gatsugø …᭶ྕ; (train ᑀ ࡞ polite; careful [HONORIFIC]: numbers) …-gø´sha ྕ㌴; (room ~ na henshin arigatø gozaimásu numbers) …-gøshitsu …ྕᐊ ࡈ୎ᑀ࡞㏉ಙ࠶ࡾࡀ࡜࠺ࡈࡊ࠸ go-busata n ࡈ↓Ἃử failure to




keep in touch: ~ shite orimásu ࡈ ㇦⳹⤢∉࡟⚃࠸ࡲࡍ celebrates ↓Ἃửࡋ࡚࠾ࡾࡲࡍ I have been with pomp and splendor neglectful (in keeping in touch JĿNDNX n ྜ᱁ passing (an exam) JĿNDQ n ᙉጮ rape with you). gochagocha (shita) adj ࡈࡕࡷࡈࡕ JĿNHL n ྜィ total (sum) goke (-san) n ᚋᐙ ࡉࢇ widow ࡷ ࡋࡓ messy, jumble gochamaze adj ࡈࡕࡷΰࡐ jumble gokiburi n ࢦ࢟ࣈࣜ cockroach JyFKĿ n ః㛗 (army) corporal góku adv ᴟ very, exceedingly JĿGĿ n ྜྠ combination, union, JĿN\ŗ n ྕἽ crying bitterly, fusion; congruence crying out gofuku n ࿋᭹ yard/dry goods; goma n ࢦ࣐࣭⬌㯞 sesame (traditional Japanese clothing) (seeds): ~ o surimásu ࢦ࣐ࢆࡍ ࡾࡲࡍ grinds sesame; flatters; kimono: ~-ya ࿋᭹ᒇ dry goods goma-súri n ࡈࡲࡍࡾ flattery store; kimono shop Gó-gatsu n ஬᭶࣭5 ᭶ May gomakashimásu, gomakásu v ࡈࡲ࠿ gógo n ༗ᚋ afternoon, p.m. ࡋࡲࡍ, ࡈࡲ࠿ࡍ deceives, cheats, góhan n ࡈ㣤 (cooked) rice; meal, misrepresents; tsurisen o ~ 㔮ࡾ 㖹ࢆࡈࡲ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ shortchanges dinner (= shokuji 㣗஦); food go-hyakú n ஬ⓒ࣭500 five go-mán n ஬୓࣭50,000 fifty hundred thousand JĿL n ྜព agreement JĿPDQ (na) adj ഫ៏ ࡞ haughty, JĿLQ (na) adj ᙉᘬ ࡞ forcible, arrogant highhanded: ~ ni ᙉᘬ࡟ forcibly, gomen interj ࡈࡵࢇ: ~ nasái. ࡈࡵ ࢇ࡞ࡉ࠸. Excuse me. (= sumihighhandedly másen ࡍࡳࡲࡏࢇ); ~ kudasái. go-ishi n ◻▼ a Go stone (piece) JRMŗ n ஬༑࣭fifty 50 ࡈࡵࢇୗࡉ࠸. { Hello, anybody JRMŗRQ n ஬༑㡢 the Japanese home? | Excuse me for interkana syllabary rupting. JĿND (na) adj ㇦⳹ ࡞ luxurious, gomí n ࢦ࣑ trash, rubbish, gardeluxe: ~ na shokuji ㇦⳹࡞㣗஦ bage, house refuse, (house) dust; gomí-bako n ࢦ࣑⟽ trash box, delicious cuisine JĿNDL (na) adj ㇦ᛌ ࡞ dynamic: garbage can, dustbin; gomi-búkuro ~ na nomippuri ㇦ᛌ࡞㣧ࡳࡗ࡫ n ࢦ࣑⿄ garbage bag ࡾ dynamic way of drinking gomoku-nárabe n ஬┠୪࡭ gobang (alcohol) (a simplified version of the JĿNDNHQUDQ adj ㇦⳹⤢∉ absoboard game Go) lutely gorgeous: ~ ni iwaimásu gómu n ࢦ࣒ rubber: wa-~ ㍯ࢦ࣒ 61



rubber band; gomú-naga(gutsu) n ࢦ górufu n ࢦࣝࣇ golf; JRUXIXMĿ n ࢦ ࣒㛗 㠐 rubber boots ࣝࣇሙ golf course gondora n ࢦࣥࢻࣛ gondola(s) JĿU\ŗ n ྜὶ merger, confluence: gonge n ᶒ໬ incarnation, embod- “Gøryü chü´i” “ྜὶὀព” Lanes iment JRQJRGĿGDQ (na) adj ゝㄒ㐨᩿ ࡞

egregious gongu n ࢦࣥࢢ gong: ~ o narashimasu ࢦࣥࢢࢆ㬆ࡽࡋࡲࡍ

sounds a gong goraku n ፗᴦ entertainment, recreation, amusement; gorakushisetsu n ፗᴦ᪋タ amusement

Merge (Ahead), Merge (Lanes); JĿU\ŗWHQ n ྜὶⅬ confluence gó-sai n ஬ṓ five years old (= itsutsu ஬ࡘ) JĿsain n ࢦ࣮ࢧ࢖ࣥ go sign,

green light go-sén n ஬༓࣭5,000 five thousand … JĿVKD suffix …ྕ㌴ train car

number … go-shín n ㆤ㌟ self-defense: ~-jutyu facility goran v ࡈぴ: ~ ni narimásu ࡈ ㆤ㌟⾡ art of self-defense ぴ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ [HONORIFIC] (you) gósho n ᚚᡤ imperial palace (in see; ~ kudasai ࡈぴୗࡉ࠸ Please Kyoto) gotaku n ࡈࡓࡃ cant: ~ o narabelook/see. A mimasu ぢࡲࡍ JĿUL n ྜ⌮ accordance with reason: másu ࡈࡓࡃࢆ୪࡭ࡲࡍ talks a ~-teki (na) ྜ⌮ⓗ ࡞ rational, load of garbage reasonable, sensible; JĿUtND n ྜ gotamaze n ࡈࡓࡲࡐ jumble JĿWĿ n ᙉ┐ robber; robbery ⌮໬ rationalization (making it … gótoku (ni) suffix, adv …ࡈ࡜ࡃ reasonable); streamlining gorin n ஬㍯ Olympics ࡟ [LITERARY] = … yø´ (ni) … gorira n ࢦࣜࣛ gorilla ࡼ࠺ ࡟ like … góro (ni) suffix, adv …ࡈࢁ>㡭@ … góto (ni) suffix, adv …ࡈ࡜ ࡟ ࡟ (at) about (a time) every …, each …: koto áru ~ (ni) goro-ne n ࡈࢁᐷ lying dozing, ࡇ࡜࠶ࡿࡈ࡜ ࡟ every chance sacking out one gets gorotsuki n ࡈࢁࡘࡁ cheap JĿX n ㇦㞵 heavy rain, (torrential) hoodlum(s) downpour: shüchü-~ 㞟୰㇦㞵 JĿUX n ࢦ࣮ࣝ goal (sports): ~ local downpour, local heavy rain kiipå ࢦ࣮࣮ࣝ࢟ࣃ࣮ goalkeeper gozá n ࡈࡊ (thin floor mat) straw JĿUXGHQXtLNXZtLNX n ࢦ࣮ࣝࢹࣥ࢘ mat ࢖࣮ࢡ࢘࢕࣮ࢡ Golden Week gozaimásu v ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ [DEFERENTIAL] = arimásu ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ there holidays (29 April – 5 May) JyUXIă n ࢦࣝࣇ࢓࣮ golfer is, we’ve got; it is (located) 62


gózen n ༗๓ morning, a.m gu n ල ingredients, fillings gu n ហ stupidity: ~ no kotchø ហ ࡢ㦵㡬 ultimate silliness guai n ලྜ condition, shape, feelings (of health): ~ ga warúi ලྜࡀᝏ࠸ is out of order, is not


(an amount; the same extent as); at least gúramu suffix n ࢢ࣒ࣛ gram(s) gúrasu n ࢢࣛࢫ glass (container) gura(u)ndo n ࢢࣛ ࢘ ࣥࢻ playground JXUď (no) adj ࢢ࣮ࣞ ࡢ gray working properly, is not feeling JXUďSXIXUŗWVX n ࢢ࣮ࣞࣉࣇ࣮ࣝࢶ grapefruit good/right, is upset guchi n ហ⑵ complaint, gripe guríin (no) adj ࢢ࣮ࣜࣥ ࡢ …-guchi suffix …ཱྀ: mado-~ win- green: ~-sha ࢢ࣮ࣜࣥ㌴ the dow, wicket: deiri-~ ฟධࡾཱྀ Green Car (first-class seats) J~UĿEX n ࢢ࣮ࣟࣈ (baseball, doorway, gateway gugen (ka) n ල⌧ ໬ realization boxing) glove (= gúrabu ࢢࣛࣈ JŗJŗ adv ࢢ࣮ࢢ࣮ snoring (away), guruguru (to) adv ࡄࡿࡄࡿ ࡜ Zzz round and round JŗKDWVX teki (na/ni) adj, adv അⓎⓗ JXUXNĿVX n ࢢࣝࢥ࣮ࢫ glucose ࡞࡟ accidental(ly) gurume n ࢢ࣓ࣝ gourmet guigui (to) adv ࢢ࢖ࢢ࢖ ࡜ JXUŗSX n ࢢ࣮ࣝࣉ group strongly: ~ to nomimásu/guino- gusaku n ហ⟇ stupid/idiotic plan mi shimásu ࢢ࢖ࢢ࢖࡜㣧ࡳࡲ gusari-to sashimásu (sasu) v ࢢࢧࣜ ࡍࢢ࢖㣧ࡳࡋࡲࡍ gulps down ࡜่ࡋࡲࡍ ่ࡍ stabs gussúri adv ࡄࡗࡍࡾ (sleeping) a drink gui(t)to adv ࢢ࢖ ࢵ ࡜ with a jerk soundly gún n ㌷ army, troops; gun-jin n ㌷ gutai-rei n ලయ౛ specific example ே soldier, military person; gun- gutai-teki (na) adj ලయⓗ ࡞ kan n ㌷Ⰴ warship; gun-puku n ㌷ concrete, substantial, tangible, ᭹ military uniform; gún-sĿ n ㌷ material ᭪ sergeant JŗWDUD (mono) n ࡄ࠺ࡓࡽ ⪅ gún n 㒆 county lazybones, drone gŗQRQH mo demasen (denai) v ࡄ࠺ gút(-to) adv ࢢࢵ ࡜ with a jerk/ ࡢ㡢ࡶฟࡲࡏࢇ ฟ࡞࠸ is ungulp, suddenly JŗZD n ᐯヰ allegory, fable able to argue against JXQVKŗ n ⩌⾗ crowd Jŗ]HQ (no) adj അ↛ ࡢ accidental, gúrabu n ࢢࣛࣈ A J~UĿEX ࢢ࣮ࣟࣈ fortuitous: ~ ni അ↛࡟ by chance, gurafu n ࢢࣛࣇ graph accidentally … gúrai suffix …఩࣭ࡄࡽ࠸ about Jŗ]Ŀ n അീ idol 63



gúzu n ࡄࡎ dullard J\ĿNR n จᅛ coagulation gúzuguzu iimásu LX\ŗ v ࡄࡎࡄࡎ gyomin n ⁺Ẹ fisherperson J\ĿPX n ᴗົ business, work: ゝ࠸ࡲࡍ ゝ࠺ complains, ~-jikan ᴗົ᫬㛫 business hours grumbles gúzuguzu shimásu (suru) v ࡄࡎࡄࡎ gyoro-me n ࡂࡻࢁ┠ goggling ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ delays, dawdles eyes gyaku (no/ni) adj, adv ㏫ ࡢ࡟ gyorori to niramimasu (niramu) v ࡂࡻ ࢁࡾ࡜╮ࡳࡲࡍ>࡟ࡽࡳࡲࡍ@ ╮ opposite, contrary, backwards gyakutai shimásu (suru) v ⹢ᚅࡋࡲ ࡴ>࡟ࡽࡴ@ goggles, glares ࡍ ࡍࡿ mistreats gyorui n 㨶㢮 fishes gyáppu n ࢠࣕࢵࣉ gap J\ĿVHL n ⾜ᨻ administration (of gyo- prefix ᚚ A go- ࡈ࣭ᚚ government) J\Ŀ n ⾜ line (of words); line J\ĿVHNL n ᴗ⦼ achievements: ~ o agemásu ᴗ⦼ࢆୖࡆࡲࡍ of the kana chart: sá-~ ࡉ⾜ the sa-shi-su-se-so ࡉࡋࡍࡏࡑ : improves performance gyøkan ⾜㛫 line space gyosha n ᚚ⪅ coachman J\Ŀ n ᴗ line of work (= shokúgyø gyotto shimasu (suru) v ࡂࡻࡗ࡜ࡋ ⫋ᴗ) ࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ is startled J\ĿFKŗ n ࢠࣙ࢘ࢳ࣭ࣗ࢘ࡂࡻ࠺⹸ J\Ŀ]D n ࢠࣙ࢘ࢨ࣭㣯Ꮚ crescent-


shaped dumpling stuffed with

gyófu n ⁺ኵ fisherman ground pork, etc. J\ĿJL n ⾜൤ behavior, manners J\ŗJ\ŗ adj ࡂࡹ࠺ࡂࡹ࠺ワࡵ J\yJ\Ŀ n ⁺ᴗ fishing (business) jam-packed: ~zume no densha J\ĿJ\ĿVKLL adj ௮ࠎࡋ࠸ pompous ࡂࡹ࠺ࡂࡹ࠺ワࡵࡢ㟁㌴ jamJ\ĿMt n ⾜஦ ceremony, event packed train J\ĿNDL n ᴗ⏺ industry, world: J\ŗQLNX n ∵⫗ beef ~-yøgo ᴗ⏺⏝ㄒ industry jargon J\ŗQ\ŗ n ∵ங (cow’s) milk J\ĿNHWVX n จ⤖ condensation

H ha n ⴥ leaf (= happa ⴥࡗࡥ): ochi-ba ⴠࡕⴥ fallen leave(s) há n ṑ tooth; ha-búrashi n ṑࣈࣛ ࢩ tooth brush; há-guki n ṑⱼ gum (teethridge); há-isha n ṑ་⪅

dentist; ha-ita n ṑ③ toothache (= shitsü ṑ③) há n ล edge (of knife), blade (of razor) ha interj ࡣ [DEFERENTIAL] yes 64



Kă interj ࡣ࠶ 1. aha 2. phew naked: ~ no ø-sama 〄ࡢ⋤ᵝ haba n ᖜ width naked king habakari-nágara … interj ࡣࡤ࠿ࡾ࡞hadashi n 〄㊊ barefoot ࡀࡽ …I beg your pardon, but … hadé (na) adj ὴᡭ ࡞ gaudy, habamemásu, habaméru v 㜼ࡵࡲࡍ, showy, flashy, bright, loud 㜼ࡵࡿ can prevent/thwart (color) habamimásu, habámu v 㜼ࡳࡲࡍ, KăGRZpD n ࣁ࣮ࢻ࢙࢘࢔ (com㜼ࡴ prevents, thwarts puter) hardware: ~ to sofutowea habatsu n ὴ㛸 faction, clique ࣁ࣮ࢻ࢙࢘࢔࡜ࢯࣇࢺ࢙࢘࢔ KăEX n ࣁ࣮ࣈ herb(s) hardware and software habukimásu, habúku v ┬ࡁࡲࡍ, hae n ࣁ࢚࣭⼚ (house)fly ┬ࡃ cuts out, reduces, saves, haemásu, haéru v ⏕࠼ࡲࡍ, ⏕࠼ࡿ

eliminates, omits

(tooth, hair, mold, …) grows

hachi n ࣁࢳ࣭⻏ bee (= mitsúbachi ⻤⻏); hachi-mitsu n ࣁࢳ࣑ ࢶ࣭⻏⻤ honey hachí n 㖊 bowl, basin, pot, rice bucket/tub; hachí-mono n 㖊≀

hagaki n ࡣࡀࡁ࣭ⴥ᭩ postcard hagane n ࣁ࢞ࢿ࣭㗰 steel hagashimásu, hagasu v ๤ࡀࡋࡲࡍ, ๤ࡀࡍ peels off, tears off háge n ⚼ bald spot, baldness hagemashimásu, hagemásu v ບࡲࡋ potted plant hachí n ඵ࣭8 eight; hachí-dó n ࡲࡍ ບࡲࡍ encourages ඵᗘ eight times (= hachi-kái, hagemásu, hagéru v ๤ࡆࡲࡍ, ๤ࡆ hak-kái ඵᅇ, hap-pen ඵ⦅); ࡿ it peels off hachí-do n ඵᗘ eight degrees; hagemásu, hagéru v ⚼>ࡣࡆ@ࡲࡍ, hachi-hon, háp-pon n ඵᮏ eight ⚼ࡆࡿ࣭ࡣࡆࡿ gets/goes bald hagemimásu, hagému v ບࡳࡲࡍ, (pencils/bottles, long objects); hachi-ko, hák-ko n ඵಶ eight pieces ບࡴ works hard (small objects) (= yáttsu ඵࡘ); hageshíi adj ⃭ࡋ࠸ violent, hachí-mai n ඵᯛ eight sheets (flat severe, fierce, acute hagimásu, hágu v ๤ࡂࡲࡍ, ๤ࡄ things); hachí-wa, háp-pa n ඵ⩚

eight (birds, rabbits)

peels it off

Hachí-gatsu n ඵ᭶ August hachi-mán n ඵ୓࣭80,000 eighty

hagó-íta n ⩚Ꮚᯈ battledore ha-gúruma n ṑ㌴ cog (wheel), gear háha, haha-oya n ẕ, ẕぶ mother thousand hachŗUXL n ࣁ⹸㢮࣭∐⹸㢮 reptile (= okå´-san ࠾ẕࡉࢇ) háda n ⫙ skin: ~-iro ⫙Ⰽ flesh hahen n ◚∦ broken piece(s): garasu no ~ ࢞ࣛࢫࡢ◚∦ brocolor hadaka (no) adj 〄࣭ࡣࡔ࠿ ࡢ ken pieces of glass




hai n ⅊ ashes; hai-zara n ⅊─ ash haikara (na) adj ࣁ࢖࢝ࣛ ࡞ fash-


ionable, high-class

hai n ⫵ lungs; KDLE\Ŀ n ⫵⑓ tuberculosis, TB (= kekkaku ⤖᰾); hai-en n ⫵⅖ pneumonia; hai-gan n ⫵ࡀࢇ lung cancer hái interj 1. ࡣ࠸ yes (= ë ࠼࠼ (mostly female)) 2. here you are! …´-hai suffix …ᮼ cupful(s),

haikei n ⫼ᬒ background, BG háikei n ᣏၨ [BOOKISH] Dear Sir/

Madam (in a letter)

haiken n ᣏぢ: ~ shimásu ᣏぢࡋ ࡲࡍ [HUMBLE] I/We (will) look at/see (= mimasu ぢࡲࡍ) haiki n ᤼Ẽ exhaust; haiki-gásu n ᤼Ẽ࢞ࢫ exhaust (fumes); haikíbowlful(s) sen n ᤼Ẽᡪ exhaust fan haiboku n ᩋ໭ defeat, loss KDLEĿUX n ࣁ࢖࣮࣎ࣝ highball haiki n ᗫᲠ disposal, abolition, haibun n 㓄ศ distribution rejection: ~ shimásu ᗫᲠࡋࡲࡍ haichi n 㓄⨨ layout, allocation, scraps, ~-butsu ᗫᲠ≀, waste(s) háikíngu n ࣁ࢖࢟ࣥࢢ hike, hiking location, placement, setup haifu n 㓄ᕸ distribution, circulation háiku n ತྃ haiku (short (17-sylhaigo n ⫼ᚋ rear, backside lable) poem) haiJĿ n 㓄ྜ composition; ~-zai haikyo n ᗫቕ ruin 㓄ྜ๣ compounding agent KDLN\ŗ n 㓄⤥ rationing KDLJŗVKD n 㓄അ⪅ spouse haimásu, háu v ㏺࠸ࡲࡍ, ㏺࠺ crawls KDLJ\Ŀ n ᗫᴗ closure of an hairemásu, hairéru v ධࢀࡲࡍ, ධࢀ ࡿ can enter operation, end of a business haihiiru n ࣁ࢖ࣄ࣮ࣝ high-heeled hairimásu, háiru v ධࡾࡲࡍ, ධࡿ shoes enters; háitte imásu ධࡗ࡚࠸ࡲ hai-iro (no) adj ⅊Ⰽ ࡢ gray: ~ no ࡍ is inside sora ⅊Ⰽࡢ✵ gray sky hairyo n 㓄៖ consideration: go-~ haijin n ತே haiku poet (itadaki) arigatø-gozaimasu ࡈ㓄 ៖ ࠸ࡓࡔࡁ ࠶ࡾࡀ࡜࠺ࡈࡊ࠸ haijin n ᗫே cripple, wreck háijo n ᤼㝖 removal, elimination, ࡲࡍ Thank you all for your help


and support.

haikan n 㓄⟶ piping haishaku-shimásu (suru) v ᣏ೉ࡋࡲ haikan n ᗫห publication discon- ࡍ ࡍࡿ [HUMBLE] (I) borrow tinuation (= karimasu ೉ࡾࡲࡍ) haikan n ᣏほ admission: ~ shihaishi n ᗫṆ abolition másu ᣏほࡋࡲࡍ [HUMBLE] has KDLVKLQNĿL n ⫼ಙ⾜Ⅽ treachery the honor of seeing; KDLNDQU\Ŀ n haisui n ᤼Ỉ drainage; haisui-ponpu ᣏほᩱ admission fee n ᤼Ỉ࣏ࣥࣉ drainage pump



haita n ᤼௚ exclusion; haita-teki (na) adj ᤼௚ⓗ ࡞ exclusive haitatsu n 㓄㐩 delivery KDLWĿNLQ n 㓄ᙜ㔠 dividends, annuity: ~ o uketorimásu 㓄ᙜ㔠ࢆ ཷࡅྲྀࡾࡲࡍ gets an annuity KiL\ă n ࣁ࢖࣮ࣖ limousine for hire KDL\ŗ n ತඃ actor (= yaku-sha ᙺ⪅), actress (= joyü ዪඃ) haji(-kko) n ➃ࡗࡇ edge, end hají n ᜝ shame: embarrassment: ~ o kakimásu ᜝ࢆ࠿ࡁࡲࡍ


haka-bá n ቎ሙ graveyard, cemetery hakadorimásu, hakaréru v ࡣ࠿࡝ࡾ ࡲࡍ, ࡣ࠿࡝ࡿ makes good progress: shigoto ga ~ ௙஦ࡀࡣ࠿࡝ ࡾࡲࡍ gets ahead with one’s work hakai n ◚ቯ destruction, demoli-

tion hakaku (no) adj ◚᱁ ࡢ unprecedented: ~ no nedan ◚᱁ࡢ್ẁ

rock-bottom price, bargain price hakama n ⿙ traditional Japanese

skirtlike trousers for male hakanái adj ൹࠸ fleeting, transitory disgraces/embarrasses oneself hajikemásu, hajikéru v ࡣࡌࡅࡲࡍ, hakaraimásu, hakarau v ィࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ, ࡣࡌࡅࡿ it pops, snaps ィࡽ࠺ arranges hajikí n ࡣࡌࡁ marbles hakaremásu, hakaréru v  ࢀࡲࡍ, hajikimásu, hajíku v ࡣࡌࡁࡲࡍ, ࡣ  ࢀࡿ can measure ࡌࡃ snaps it, repels it hakaremásu, hakaréru v 㔞ࢀࡲࡍ, hajimari v ጞࡲࡾ beginning, start 㔞ࢀࡿ can weigh hajimarimásu, hajimaru v ጞࡲࡾࡲࡍ, hakarí n ⛗ (weighting/weight) ጞࡲࡿ it begins (starts) scales hajimásu, hajiru v ᜝ࡲࡍ, ᜝ࡌࡿ hakarigóto n ㅛ plot, trick, scheme feels shame, feels embarrassed hakarimásu, hakáru v  ࡾࡲࡍ, hajime n ึࡵ the beginning; in  ࡿ measures the beginning: ~ no ึࡵࡢ the hakarimásu, hakáru v 㔞ࡾࡲࡍ, 㔞ࡿ weighs first …; ~ wa ึࡵࡣ at first Hajimemáshite. interj ึࡵࡲࡋ࡚ hakarimásu, hakáru v ᅗࡾ>ㅛࡾ@ࡲ ࡍ, ᅗ>ㅛ@ࡿ plans, designs; plots How do you do? (on being hákase n ༤ኈ doctor (Ph.D.) (= introduced) hajimemásu, hajimeru v ጞࡵࡲࡍ, hakushi ༤ኈ): ~-rónbun ༤ኈㄽ ጞࡵࡿ begins (starts) it ᩥ doctoral dissertation hajimeraremásu, hajimerareru v ጞࡵ haké n ๅẟ brush ࡽࢀࡲࡍ, ጞࡵࡽࢀࡿ can begin it haké n ᤍࡅ drainage, draining ~ hajímete adv ࡣࡌࡵ࡚࣭ึࡵ࡚ ga íi désu ᤍࡅࡀ࠸࠸࡛ࡍ it for the first time drains/sells well haká n ቎ grave (tomb): ~-mairi ቎ haké-kuchi/-guchi n ᤍࡅཱྀ outlet ཧࡾ visiting someone’s grave; (for water/emotion/goods) 67


hakemásu, hakeru

hakemásu, hakeru v ᒚࡅࡲࡍ, ᒚࡅ hakkí n Ⓨ᥹ exertion ࡿ can wear (footwear, pants, hakkíri adv ࡣࡗࡁࡾ plainly, skirt, socks) clearly, distinctly, exactly: ~ (to) hakemásu, hakéru v ᤍࡅࡲࡍ, ᤍࡅ shimásu ࡣࡗࡁࡾ ࡜ ࡋࡲࡍ ࡿ it drains off; it sells (well) becomes clear hakemásu, hakéru v ྤࡅࡲࡍ, ྤࡅ hák-ko, hachi-kó n ඵಶ eight piecࡿ can vomit/spill out es (small objects) (= yáttsu ඵࡘ) hakemásu, hakéru v ᤲࡅࡲࡍ, ᤲࡅ KDNNĿ n Ⓨ⾜ publication: hakkøsha Ⓨ⾜⪅ publisher ࡿ can sweep haken n ὴ㐵 dispatch: jinzai-~KDNNĿ n Ⓨග light emission gaisha ேᮦὴ㐵఍♫ temporary- KDNNĿ n Ⓨ㓝 ferment hakkutsu n Ⓨ᥀ exhumation: ~ employment agency háki n ぞẼ ambition (energetic shimásu Ⓨ᥀ࡋࡲࡍ digs up, spirit): ~ ga arimásu ぞẼࡀ࠶ࡾ excavates ࡲࡍ is full of spirit KDNN\Ŀ n Ⓨ≬ derangement: ~ hakihaki (to) adj ࡣࡁࡣࡁ ࡜ shimásu Ⓨ≬ࡋࡲࡍ becomes lively, briskly: ~ to henji o shiinsane másu ࡣࡁࡣࡁ࡜㏉஦ࢆࡋࡲࡍ hako n ⟽ box, case, chest, con-

answers clearly and crisply


haki-ké n ྤࡁẼ nausea: ~ ga hakobimásu, hakobu v 㐠ࡧࡲࡍ, 㐠 shimásu ྤࡁẼࡀࡋࡲࡍ, ~ o ࡪ carries, conveys moyøshimásu ྤࡁẼࢆദࡋࡲࡍ haku-… prefix ⓑ white; hakuFKĿ n ࣁࢡࢳ࣭ࣙ࢘ⓑ㫽 swan; feels nauseated/queasy hakimásu, haku v ᒚࡁࡲࡍ, ᒚࡃ háku-i n ⓑ⾰ white coat: ~ no wears (on feet or legs), puts/slips tenshi ⓑ⾰ࡢኳ౑ nurse, angel

(not to literally mean, “angel in white”); haku-jin n ⓑே Caucasian; hakú-mai n ⓑ⡿ polished rice; haku-shi n ⓑ⣬ blank sheet sweeps of paper: ~ ni modoshimásu ⓑ hakimono n ᒚ≀ footwear ⣬࡟ᡠࡋࡲࡍ withdraws, takes hakka n ࣁࢵ࢝ peppermint back; haku-sho n ⓑ᭩ white KDNNăn ࣁࢵ࣮࢝ hacker, hack paper …-haku suffix …Ἡ, …-paku …Ἡ (computer) hak-kái, hachi-kái n ඵᅇ eight times (counts nights of lodging) hakken n Ⓨぢ discovery hakuai n ༤ឡ humanitarianism: KDNNHWVXE\Ŀ n ⓑ⾑⑓ leukemia ~-shugi ༤ឡ୺⩏ philanthropy 68 on (shoes, socks, pants)

hakimásu, háku v ྤࡁࡲࡍ, ྤࡃ 1. vomits 2. spits out hakimásu, háku v ᤲࡁࡲࡍ, ᤲࡃ



hakubútsu-kan n ༤≀㤋 museum hame(ra)remásu, hame(ra)reru v ࡣࡵ hakuFKŗPX n ⓑ᫨ክ daydreaming: ࡽ ࢀࡲࡍ, ࡣࡵ ࡽ ࢀࡿ can ~ o mimásu ⓑ᫨ክࢆぢࡲࡍ is wear (on fingers, hands) hametsu n ◚⁛ ruin spaced out hakugai n ㏕ᐖ persecution: ~ o hamidashimásu, hamidasu v ࡣࡳฟ ukemásu ㏕ᐖࢆཷࡅࡲࡍ suffers ࡋࡲࡍ, ࡣࡳฟࡍ protrudes, runs

from persecution

off the edge, sticks out, goes over há-mono n ล≀ cutlery, knives hámu n ࣁ࣒ ham: ~-éggu ࣁ࣒࢚ ࢵࢢ ham and eggs; ~-sándo ࣁ poor reason KiNXMĿ n ⓑ≧ confession ࣒ࢧࣥࢻ ham sandwich KDNXMĿ (na) adj ⷧ᝟ ࡞ [BOOKISH] hán n ༙ half (= hanbún ༙ศ): han-… ༙ … half a …; …-hán unfeeling, heartless, cruel: ~ hito ⷧ᝟࡞ே heartless person … ༙ and a half hakurai (no) adj ⯧᮶ ࡢ imported; hán n ุ a “chop” = a seal (to hakurai-hin n ⯧᮶ရ imported goods stamp name) (= hankó ุࡇ) hakurán-kai n ༤ぴ఍ exhibition, hana n 㰯 nose; trunk (of eleexposition phant); hana-ji n 㰯⾑ nosebleed: hakuryoku n ㏕ຊ punch, power: hana-mizú n 㰯Ỉ snivel, nasal ~ ga arimásu ㏕ຊࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is mucus: ~ ga demásu 㰯Ỉࡀฟࡲ ࡍ has a runny nose powerful hakusái n ࣁࢡࢧ࢖࣭ⓑ⳯ hana n ࡣ࡞ nasal mucus, snivel Chinese cabbage (= hana-mizú 㰯Ỉ): ~ o kamimásu ࡣ࡞ࢆ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ blows hakushi n ༤ኈ doctor (Ph.D.) (= hakase ༤ኈ): ~-katei ༤ኈㄢ one’s nose ⛬ doctoral course haná n ⰼ flower; flower arrangehákushu n ᢿᡭ clapping ment; hana-mí n ⰼぢ cherry hamá n ὾ beach: ~-be ὾㎶ beach, blossom viewing: ~ o shimásu ⰼぢࢆࡋࡲࡍ goes to see the seashore hamachi n ࣁ࣐ࢳ࣭㨶 young cherry blossom; haná-tába n ⰼ᮰ yellowtail bouquet; hana-wa n ⰼ㍯ wreath hamáguri n ࣁ࣐ࢢ࣭ࣜ⺾ clam (of flower); haná-ya n ⰼᒇ flohamé n ࡣࡵ plight, fix (one gets into) rist, flower shop hamemásu, hameru v ࡣࡵࡲࡍ, ࡣ hána n ࡣ࡞࣭➃ beginning, outࡵࡿ wears (on fingers, hands set; edge hána-bi n ⰼⅆ fireworks: ~-taikai (ring, gloves, etc.)) 69 hakujaku (na) adj ⷧᙅ ࡞ weak, tenuous: ishi-~ ពᚿⷧᙅ weak will: ~ na konkyo ⷧᙅ࡞᰿ᣐ


ⰼⅆ኱఍ big exhibition of fire-


colorful, showy, gorgeous, glorious, bright haná-fuda n ⰼᮐ (the game of) haná-yome n ⰼ᎑ bride KDQEăJă n ࣁࣥࣂ࣮࣮࢞ a hamflower cards hanágata n ⰼᙧ a star (in a theatri- burger cal production): ~-senshu ⰼᙧ㑅 hanbai n ㈍኎ sale; hanbái-ki n ㈍኎ ᡭ star player ᶵ vending machine; hanbái-daka hanahada adv ࡣ࡞ࡣࡔ extremely n ㈍኎㧗 sales volume; hanbai-in haná-michi n ⰼ㐨 the runway to n ㈍኎ဨ salesperson; hanbai-nin n ㈍኎ே seller, dealer; hanbái-ten n the stage (in Kabuki) hana-múko n ⰼ፵ bridegroom ㈍኎ᗑ sales outlet; hanbai-sokushin hanao n 㰯⥴ thong (on geta) n ㈍኎ಁ㐍 sales promotion (= hanaremásu, hanaréru v 㞳ࢀࡲࡍ, hansoku ㈍ಁ); hanbai-kakaku n ㈍ 㞳ࢀࡿ separates, becomes dis኎౯᱁ selling price hanbei (no) adj ཯⡿ ࡢ antitant, leaves hanasemásu, hanaséru v ヰࡏࡲࡍ, American ヰࡏࡿ can speak hanbún n ༙ศ half hanashí n ヰ talk, story, tale, hándán n ุ᩿ judgment speech, conversation; something KDQGĿ n ཯ື reaction, repercusto talk about: ~ o shimásu ヰࢆࡋ sion; KDQGĿWHNL (na) adj ཯ືⓗ ࡲࡍ talks, speaks ࡞ reactionary; handĿVKXJLVKD n hanashi-ái n ヰࡋྜ࠸ conference, ཯ື୺⩏⪅ reactionary handobággu, handobákku n ࣁࣥࢻ discussion, negotiation hanashi-aimásu, hanashi-áu v ヰࡋྜ ࣂࢵࢢ, ࣁࣥࢻࣂࢵࢡ handbag, ࠸ࡲࡍ, ヰࡋྜ࠺ talk together, pocketbook handoru n ࣁࣥࢻࣝ steering wheel; discuss, confer, negotiate hanashi-ka n ᄋᐙ (a comic) handle storyteller (= rakugo-ka ⴠㄒᐙ) hane n ⩚ feather hanashimásu, hanásu v ヰࡋࡲࡍ, ヰ hane n ⩚᰿ wing; shuttlecock ࡍ speaks, talks hanei n ཯ᫎ reflection hanashimásu, hanásu v ᨺࡋࡲࡍ, hanei n ⦾ᰤ prosperity ᨺࡍ release, lets loose, lets go, hanemásu, hanéru v ㊴ࡡࡲࡍ, ㊴ࡡ ࡿ jumps, splashes sets free hanashimásu, hanásu v 㞳ࡋࡲࡍ, hanga n ∧⏬ woodblock print 㞳ࡍ separates (something) from, KiQJă n ࣁ࣮ࣥ࢞ hanger parts with; detaches, disconnects hangaku n ༙㢠 half price hanáyaka (na) adj ⳹ࡸ࠿ ࡞ hangyaku n ཯㏫ rebellion; han70 works


gyákú-sha n ཯㏫⪅ rebel hanhan n ༙ࠎ half-and-half KiQ·L n ⠊ᅖ scope, range, limits: (… no) ~-gai/-nai …ࡢ ⠊ᅖ እෆ beyond/within the limits

(of …) hanigo n ཯ពㄒ antonym hanikamimásu, hanikámu v ࡣ࡟࠿ࡳ ࡲࡍ, ࡣ࡟࠿ࡴ acts shy, is bashful: hanikami-ya ࡣ࡟࠿ࡳᒇ shy hánji n ุ஦ judge KiQMĿ n ⦾┒ prosperity: shøbai-~ ၟ኎⦾┒ flourishing business,


KDQN\ĿUDQ n ༙≬஘ frantic, partial insanity: ~ ni narimásu ༙≬஘࡟ ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ becomes frantic KDQN\ŗ n ༙ఇ half day off: ~ o torimásu ༙ఇࢆྲྀࡾࡲࡍ takes a

half day off KDQN\ŗ n ༙⌫ hemisphere KiQPă n ࣁ࣐࣮ࣥ hammer hanmei n ุ᫂ coming-out hanmen n ཯㠃 on the other hand: ~-kyøshi ཯㠃ᩍᖌ person who

serves as an example of how not to be hanmen (no) adj ༙㠃 ࡢ halfboom of business hánkachi n ࣁࣥ࢝ࢳ handkerchief faced hankagai n ⦾⳹⾤ downtown han-nichí n ༙᪥ half a day, a halfarea, shopping and amusement day hannichi (no) adj ཯᪥ ࡢ antidistricts hankan n ཯ឤ antipathy: ~ o kai- Japanese másu ཯ឤࢆ㈙࠸ࡲࡍ provokes hánnin n ≢ே a criminal, culprit KDQQĿ n ཯ᛂ reaction, response one’s antipathy hankei n ༙ᚄ radius hanpa n ༙➃ half: ~-mono ༙➃ ≀ oddments A chŗto ~ (na) ୰㏵ hanketsu n ุỴ judgment: ~ o kudashimásu ุỴࢆୗࡋࡲࡍ

༙➃ ࡞

hanpatsu n ཯Ⓨ 1. repelling 2. adjudges, gives sentence hankó n ࡣࢇࡇุ࣭Ꮚ a “chop” repulsion 3. resistance (= hankø (signature seal, name stamp) (= ཯ᢠ) han ุ, in ༳, inkan ༳㚷) hanpén n ࣁ࣭ࣥ࣌ࣥࡣࢇ࡮ࢇ KDQNĿ n ཯ᢠ opposition, resistance: boiled fish cake … ni ~ shimásu …࡟཯ᢠࡋࡲࡍ hanran n ཯஘ revolt: ~ o okosu ཯ opposes, resists (= hanpatsu ཯Ⓨ) ஘ࢆ㉳ࡇࡍ revolts, rebels KDQNĿ n ≢⾜ crime, perpetration: hanran n ỏ℃ overflowing ~-genba ≢⾜⌧ሙ scene of a hanrei n ซ౛ explanatory notes crime: ~-seimei ≢⾜ኌ᫂ crimi- (on how to use a reference work) hanryo n క౶ companion: shøgai nal declaration KDQN\Ŀ n ཯㡪 echo: ~-on ཯㡪㡢 no ~ ⏕ᾭࡢక౶ spouse (literally, acoustic echo “lifetime companion”) 71

hánsa (na)

hánsa (na) adj ↹⍢ ࡞ trouble-


hanzai n ≢⨥ crime: ~ o okashimásu ≢⨥ࢆ≢ࡋࡲࡍ commits some, complicated hansei n ཯┬ reflection, thinking- a crime hanzatsu (na) adj ↹㞧 ࡞ troubleover hansen (no) adj ཯ᡓ ࡢ antiwar: some, complicated ~-katsudø ཯ᡓάື antiwar hanzubon n ༙ࢬ࣎ࣥ short-pants haori n ⩚⧊ traditional Japanese activity hansha n ཯ᑕ reflection coat hánshi n ༙⣬ rice paper (stationery) hap- n ඵ࣭8 eight; hap-pén n ඵ㐢 han-shimásu (-súru) v ཯ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍ eight times (= hachí-kai ඵᅇ, ࡿ is contrary (to), goes against, hachí-do ඵᗘ); háp-pa, hachí-wa n opposes: … ni hánshite …࡟཯ ඵ⩚ eight (birds, rabbits); hap-pikí ࡋ࡚ contrary to, against, in n ඵ༉ eight (fishes/bugs, small contrast with animals); háp-pon, hachi-hon n ඵᮏ KDQVKĿ (no) n ༙↝ ࡢ partial loss eight (pencils/bottles, long objects); by fire (= han’yake (no) ༙↝ࡅ háp-pun n ඵศ eight minutes happa n ⴥࡗࡥ leaf (= ha ⴥ) ࡢ ) KDQVKŗ n ༙࿘ semicircle happi n ἲ⿕ happi coat hansoku n ཯๎ (sports) foul play hap-pyakú n ඵⓒ࣭800 eight hansoku n ㈍ಁ sales promotion: hundred ~-tsüru ㈍ಁࢶ࣮ࣝ sales promo- KDSS\Ŀ n Ⓨ⾲ announcement, tion tool (= hanbai-sokushin ㈍ publication; (research) paper ኎ಁ㐍) KăSX n ࣁ࣮ࣉ harp (Western) hantai n ཯ᑐ opposite, contrary, hará n ⭡ 1. belly, stomach: ~ reverse (= gyaku ㏫): ~-gawa ཯ ga herimásu ⭡ࡀῶࡾࡲࡍ gets ᑐഃ opposite side; ~-go ཯ᑐㄒ hungry; ~ ga itamimásu ⭡ࡀ③ࡳ antonym; ~ ni ཯ᑐ࡟ vice versa ࡲࡍ one’s stomach aches 2. hantén n ༙⧳ happi coat (= happi mind, heart: ~ ga tachimásu ⭡ࡀ ࡣࡗࡨ࣭ἲ⿕) ❧ࡕࡲࡍ, ~ o tatemásu ⭡ࢆ❧࡚ KDQWĿ n ༙ᓥ, …-hántø …༙ᓥ ࡲࡍ gets angry; ~ ga futói ⭡ࡀ ኴ࠸ is big-hearted; ~ ga kurói peninsula: Izu-hántø ఀ㇋༙ᓥ ⭡ࡀ㯮࠸ black-hearted; … no Izu Peninsula han-toshí n ༙ᖺ half a year hará o yomimásu …ࡢ⭡ࢆㄞࡳ han-tsukí n ༙᭶ half a month ࡲࡍ reads the mind of … KDQ·\DNH (no) adj ༙↝ࡅ ࡢ 1. hára, hárappa n ཎ, ཎࡗࡥ field medium-rare (meat), half-done haradatashíi adj ⭡❧ࡓࡋ࠸ aggra2. partial loss by fire vating, vexatious 72



haraemásu, haraéru v ᡶ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᡶ࠼harimásu, haru v ᙇࡾࡲࡍ, ᙇࡿ ࡿ 1. can pay 2. can brush aside, spreads/stretches it háru n ᫓ spring (season); harucan shake out yásumi n ᫓ఇࡳ spring break/ harahara adv ࡣࡽࡣࡽ heart goes pit-a-pat: ~ shimásu ࡣࡽࡣࡽࡋ vacation harubaru adv ࡣࡿࡤࡿ all the way ࡲࡍ gets anxious, is scared; ~ sasemásu ࡣࡽࡣࡽࡉࡏࡲࡍ háruka (ni) adv 㐶࠿ ࡟ far (off); scares long ago; by far; háruka na adj 㐶 haraimásu, haráu v ᡶ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᡶ࠺ ࠿ ࡞ distant, far 1. pays 2. brushes aside, shakes haru-maki n ᫓ᕳ Chinese egg rolls,

out harai-modoshi n ᡶ࠸ᡠࡋ a refund harai-modoshimásu, harai-modósu v ᡶ࠸ᡠࡋࡲࡍ, ᡶ࠸ᡠࡍ refunds hará-maki n ⭡ᕳࡁ stomach band haremásu, hareru v ⭘ࢀࡲࡍ, ⭘ࢀ ࡿ swells up haremásu, hareru v ㈞ࢀࡲࡍ, ㈞ࢀ ࡿ can paste haremásu, hareru v ᙇࢀࡲࡍ; ᙇࢀ ࡿ can spread/stretch it haremásu, haréru v ᬕࢀࡲࡍ, ᬕࢀ ࡿ (weather) clears up: hárete imásu ᬕࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is clear/

spring rolls hasamarimásu, hasamáru v ᣳࡲࡾࡲ ࡍ, ᣳࡲࡿ gets caught (in)

between, becomes sandwiched (in) between hasamemásu, hasaméru v ᣳࡵࡲࡍ, ᣳࡵࡿ can insert (put between) hasamí n ࡣࡉࡳ࣭㗑 scissors, clippers hasamí n ࡣࡉࡳ࣭⼶ pincer(s), claw (of crab) hasamimásu, hasámu v ᣳࡳࡲࡍ, ᣳࡴ inserts, puts between: háshi de ~ ⠂࡛ᣳࡳࡲࡍ picks it up fair/sunny with chopsticks hare-mono n ⭘ࢀ≀ swelling, boil hasan n ◚⏘ bankruptcy hashi n ➃ edge, end; hashi-kko n (on skin) haretsu n ◚⿣ bursting: ~ ➃ࡗࡇ edge, end shimásu ◚⿣ࡋࡲࡍ bursts hashí n ᶫ bridge hári n 㔪 needle, pin; needlework; háshi n ⠂ chopsticks: ~ o tsukaimásu ⠂ࢆ౑࠸ࡲࡍ uses chophand (of clock); a staple (of sticks; hashí-óki n ⠂⨨ࡁ chopstapler); hari-gane n 㔪㔠 wire; hari-shígoto n 㔪௙஦ needlework stick rest hashigo n ᲓᏊ ladder, stairs: (of all types) hári n 㙀 acupuncture ~-zake ࡣࡋࡈ㓇 bar hopping; harimásu, haru v ㈞ࡾࡲࡍ, ㈞ࡿ ~-dan ᲓᏊẁ wooden stairs hashika n ࡣࡋ࠿ measles sticks on, pastes 73



hashira n ᰕ pillar, post: ikka no ~ ୍ᐙࡢᰕ pillar of the family hashiremásu, hashiréru v ㉮ࢀࡲࡍ, ㉮ࢀࡿ can run hashirimásu, hashíru v ㉮ࡾࡲࡍ, ㉮ࡿ runs hashitanai adj ࡣࡋࡓ࡞࠸ in bad taste, shameful: ~-kuchi ࡣࡋࡓ ࡞࠸ཱྀ vulgar language hason n ◚ᦆ damage hassan n Ⓨᩓ emanation, transpiration: sutoresu ~ ࢫࢺࣞࢫⓎᩓ

stress release

hátachi n ஧༑ṓ 20 years old hatake n ⏿ field (dry): ~ o tagayashimásu ⏿ࢆ⪔ࡋࡲࡍ cultivates

one’s patch hatakimásu, hatáku v ࡣࡓࡁࡲࡍ, ࡣࡓࡃ slaps, beats; dusts (= tatakimásu ྇ࡁࡲࡍ) hatan n ◚⥢ bankruptcy, failure,

collapse hatarakemásu, hatarakeru v ാࡅࡲࡍ, ാࡅࡿ can work hataraki n ാࡁ work(ing), activity,

operation, function; achievement; ability hatarakimásu, hataraku v ാࡁࡲࡍ, (books, magazines) hassei n Ⓨ⏕ outbreak, occurrence, ാࡃ works, labors; commits (a origin, birth, growth crime) has-sén n ඵ༓࣭8,000 eight thousand hataraki-mono n ാࡁ⪅ hard hassha n Ⓨ㌴ departure worker hasshin n Ⓨ㐍 (vehicle etc.) hatasemásu, hataséru v ᯝࡓࡏࡲࡍ, ᯝࡓࡏࡿ can accomplish starts: kuruma o ~ sasemásu ㌴ hatashimásu, hatásu v ᯝࡓࡋࡲࡍ, ࢆⓎ㐍ࡉࡏࡲࡍ moves the car hasshin n Ⓨಙ transmission: ᯝࡓࡍ accomplishes: yakusoku ~ shimásu Ⓨಙࡋࡲࡍ sends, o ~ ⣙᮰ࢆᯝࡓࡋࡲࡍ fulfills a transmits promise hasshin n Ⓨ⑈ (skin) rash háto n ࣁࢺ࣭㬀 pigeon, dove hasu n ࣁࢫ࣭ⶈ lotus: ~ no hana hato-ba n ἼṆሙ pier, wharf, quay ࣁࢫࡢⰼ lotus bloom (= futø ᇧ㢌) hasu (no) n ᩳ ࡢ oblique, slant- hatsu (no) adj ึ ࡢ first ing: ~ ni ᩳ࡟࣭ࡣࡍ࡟ obliquely hatsuan n Ⓨ᱌ design idea hatsubai n Ⓨ኎ sale, release; (= naname (ni) ᩳ ࡟ ) hata n ➃ 1. the side: (… no) ~ de hatsubai-bi n Ⓨ኎᪥ sale date, …ࡢ ➃࡛ off to the side (of) release date 2. the outside; ~ kara ➃࠿ࡽ hatsudén-ki n Ⓨ㟁ᶵ generator from the outside, to an outsider KDWVXGĿNL n Ⓨືᶵ motor hatá n ᪝ flag hatsuiku n Ⓨ⫱ growth: ~ ga yoi/ii hatá n ᶵ loom Ⓨ⫱ࡀⰋ࠸࠸࠸ is well grown 74 hás-satsu n ඵ෉ eight copies



hatsuka n ஧༑᪥ 20 days; 20th of hayashí n ᄳࡋ o-hayashi ࠾ᄳࡋ the month: ~-mé ஧༑᪥┠ the Japanese instrument accompani-

20th day hatsukoi n ึᜊ first love hatsumei n Ⓨ᫂ invention hatsuon n Ⓨ㡢 pronunciation hattatsu n Ⓨ㐩 development hatte imásu (iru) v ᙇࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ ࠸ࡿ is tense, taut hátte imásu (iru) v ㏺ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ ࠸ࡿ is crawling hatten n Ⓨᒎ development, expansion, growth; KDWWHQWRMĿNRNX n Ⓨ ᒎ㏵ୖᅜ developing nation KiWWĿ n ඵ㢌 eight (horses/oxen,

ment hayashimásu, hayásu v ⏕ࡸࡋࡲࡍ, ⏕ࡸࡍ grows it (hair, teeth); lets

it grow (sprout) hayashimásu, hayásu v ᄳࡋࡲࡍ, ᄳࡍ (musically) accompanies ᄳࡍ (musically) accompanies háze n ࣁࢮ࣭Ἃ㨶 goby (fish) hazenoki n ࣁࢮࣀ࣭࢟Ḁࡢᮌ࣭ 㯤Ḁ sumac, Japanese wax tree

(plant) … hazu désu v …ࡣࡎ࡛ࡍ presum-

ably; ought to, should … hazu ga/wa arimasén (nái) v … ࡣ large animals) hatto (shite) adv ࡣࡗ࡜ ࡋ࡚ ࡎࡀࡣ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ ࡞࠸ there with a sudden start (of surprise) is no reason to expect/think that … Háwai n ࣁ࣡࢖ Hawaii hazukashíi adj ᜝ࡎ࠿ࡋ࠸ ashamed; hayái adj ㏿࠸ fast, quick embarrassed, shy; shameful, dishayái adj ᪩࠸ early, soon graceful háyaku adv ㏿ࡃ(so as to be) fast hazumi ᙎࡳ n impetus, momenháyaku adv ᪩ࡃ(so as to be) tum; impulse; chance early, soon: ~-tomo ᪩ࡃ࡜ࡶ at hazumimásu, hazumu v ᙎࡳࡲࡍ, ᙎࡴ bounces (back) the earliest hayamé ni adv ᪩ࡵ࡟ early (in hazuremásu, hazureru v እࢀࡲࡍ, እࢀࡿ gets disconnected, comes good time) hayarimásu, hayáru v ὶ⾜ࡾࡲࡍ, off; misses, fails ὶ⾜ࡿ gets popular, comes hazushimásu, hazusu v እࡋࡲࡍ, እࡍ disconnects, takes off, into fashion, spreads; (disease) spreads rapidly, is fast-spreading undoes, unfastens; misses: séki o hayari (no) adj ὶ⾜ࡾ ࡢ fashion- ~ ᖍࢆእࡋࡲࡍ leaves one’s seat hé n ᒂ flatulence, fart: ~ o hirimásu/ able, popular shimásu ᒂࢆࡦࡾࡲࡍࡋࡲࡍ háyasa n ㏿ࡉ speed hayashi ráisu n ࣁࣖࢩࣛ࢖ࢫ beef flatulates, farts Kď interj ࡬࠼ oh, really, wow hash over rice hayashí n ᯘ grove hébi n ࣊ࣅ࣭⺬ snake 75



hechima n ࣊ࢳ࣐࣭⣒⎩ sponge

gourd, luffa (loofah) hedatarimásu, hedatáru v 㝸ࡓࡾࡲࡍ, 㝸ࡓࡿ is distant, is estranged hedatemásu, hedatéru v 㝸࡚ࡲࡍ, 㝸࡚ࡿ estranges them, separates them, gets them apart heddoráito n ࣊ࢵࢻࣛ࢖ࢺ headlight(s) hédo n ཯ྤ vomit hei n ሟ wall, fence hei n ර soldier (= heishi රኈ); hei-eki n රᙺ military service: ~ ni tsukimásu රᙺ࡟ࡘࡁࡲࡍ

serves in the army; hei-ki n රჾ weapon, arms; hei-ryoku n රຊ military force; héi-sha n ර⯋ barracks; hei-shi n රኈ soldier (= hei ර); hei-tai n ර㝲 soldier (boy), rank heibon (na) adj ᖹซ ࡞ commonplace, conventional, ordinary heichi n ᖹᆅ flat land; (= heiya ᖹ㔝) plain heijitsu n ᖹ᪥ weekday KHLMĿ (ni) adv ᖹᖖ ࡟ usually, ordinarily, generally KHLMĿVKLQ n one’s senses/mind: ~ o

average life span (lifetime); ~-ten ᖹᆒⅬ average score heiki (na) adj ᖹẼ ࡞ calm, composed, cool, unperturbed, unfazed: ~ de ᖹẼ࡛ calmly KpUXSă KHLNĿ n ᖹ⾜ parallel, parallelism: ~-sen o tadorimásu ᖹ⾜⥺ࢆࡓ ࡝ࡾࡲࡍ fails to reach an agree-

ment, remains as far apart as ever KHLNĿVKLPiVu (suru) v 㛢ཱྀࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ is annoyed, is over-

whelmed, gets stuck heimen n ᖹ㠃 flat surface: ~-zu ᖹ㠃ᅗ two-dimensional diagram heimin n ᖹẸ common person: ~-kaikyü ᖹẸ㝵⣭ common

people heisa n 㛢㙐 closing: køjø-~ ᕤሙ 㛢㙐 factory closure heiten n 㛢ᗑ closing a store heiwa n ᖹ࿴ peace; ~ ni narimásu ᖹ࿴࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ becomes peace; ~ na kuni ᖹ࿴࡞ᅜ peaceful nation; haiwa na adj ᖹ࿴࡞


heiya n ᖹ㔝 plain (flat land) heizen (to) adv ᖹ↛ ࡜ without embarrassment: ~ to shiteimásu tamochimásu ᖹᖖᚰࢆಖࡕࡲࡍ ᖹ↛࡜ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ remains un-

keeps one’s cool/calm


heika n 㝎ୗ majesty, Your

hekichi n ൢᆅ remote area (= henpi na tochi ㎶ࡨ࡞ᅵᆅ) Majesty. heikai n 㛢఍ closing a meeting: hekieki-shimásu (suru) v ㎢᫆ࡋࡲࡍ ~-shiki 㛢఍ᘧ closing ceremony ࡍࡿ is disgusted heikin n ᖹᆒ average, on the hekiga n ቨ⏬ wall painting hekomimásu, hekomu v ࡬ࡇࡳࡲࡍ, average: ~ nenrei ᖹᆒᖺ௧ ࡬ࡇࡴ gets hollow, depressed, average age; ~ jumyø ᖹᆒᑑ࿨




dents: ~ imásu ࡬ࡇࢇ࡛࠸ࡲࡍ hekichi ൢᆅ) KHQU\ŗNL n ኚὶჾ converter is dented, depressed héma n ࡬ࡲ [INFORMAL] bungle, (AC-DC) mess, goof: ~ (o) shimásu ࡬ࡲ hensei n ⦅ᡂ organization ࢆ ࡋࡲࡍ goofs up henshin n ㏉ಙ reply, return mail hemásu, héru v ⤒ࡲࡍ, ⤒ࡿ passes henshin n ኚ㌟ transformation KHQVKŗ n ⦅㞟 editing; KHQVKŗFKĿ (by), elapses … hen suffix …㎶ vicinity, nearby, n ⦅㞟㛗 editor in chief; KHQVKŗ neighborhood (= chikaku ㏆ࡃ) sha n ⦅㞟⪅ editor …-hén suffix …㐢 (counts times) KHQVRNXUpEă n ኚ㏿ࣞࣂ࣮ gear(= do ᗘ, kai ᅇ) shift KHQ·iWVu-ki n ኚᅽჾ voltage con- hentĿ n ㏉⟅ [BOOKISH] = henjí ㏉஦ verter, transformer henjí n ㏉஦ answer, reply, reherashimásu, herasu v ῶࡽࡋࡲࡍ, sponse: ~ (o) shimásu ㏉஦ ࢆ  ῶࡽࡍ decreases it, cuts it down, ࡋࡲࡍ answers, replies, responds shortens, lessens, curtails hénka n ኚ໬ change: … ni ~ heri n ῶࡾ a decrease shimásu …࡟ኚ໬ࡋࡲࡍ it herí n ⦕ border, edge, rim herikopută n ࣊ࣜࢥࣉࢱ࣮ changes into … henkaku n ኚ㠉 innovative helicopter herikudarimásu, herikudaru v ࡬ࡾࡃ changes henkan n ኚ᥮ conversion: ~-ki ኚ ࡔࡾࡲࡍ, ࡬ࡾࡃࡔࡿ is mod᥮ჾ converter; ~-kíi ኚ᥮࣮࢟ est, abases oneself: herikudatta the kana-to-kanji conversion key taido ࡬ࡾࡃࡔࡗࡓែᗘ modest attitude (on a Japanese computer) henkan n ㏉㑏 return: Hoppø herikutsu n ᒂ⌮ᒅ sophistry, ryødo ~ ໭᪉㡿ᅵ㏉㑏 return of quiddity (using clever arguments Russian-held northern territories to support something that is not henken n ೫ぢ prejudice true): ~ o iimásu ᒂ⌮ᒅࢆゝ࠸ࡲ henkin n ㏉㔠 refund ([note] tax ࡍ quibbles herimásu, heru v ῶࡾࡲࡍ, ῶࡿ refund = kanpu 㑏௜) hén (na) adj ኚ ࡞ strange, odd, decreases, dwindles, goes down KHULSĿWR n ࡬࣏࣮ࣜࢺ heliport peculiar, funny, queer henpi (na) adj ㎶ࡨ ࡞ odd, off heroin n ࣊ࣟ࢖ࣥ heroin the beaten path: ~ na tochi ㎶ࡨ herumetto n ࣓࣊ࣝࢵࢺ helmet ࡞ᅵᆅ odd parts, places that herunia n ࣊ࣝࢽ࢔ hernia KpUXSă n ࣊ࣝࣃ࣮ helper were off the beaten track (= 77


hérupesu n ࣊ࣝ࣌ࢫ herpes hérupu n ࣊ࣝࣉ help: ~-kinø ࣊ࣝ ࣉᶵ⬟ (computer) help function heso n ࡬ࡑ navel, bellybutton hesokuri n ࡬ࡑࡃࡾ࣭࣊ࢯࢡࣜ


sunniness; hi-gása n ᪥ച parasol (umbrella); hi-gure n ᪥ᬽࢀ sunset (time); the dark; hi-kage n ᪥㝜 shadow (from sunlight); hi-nata n ᪥࡞ࡓ sunshine: ~-bókko ᪥࡞ࡓ ࡰࡗࡇ sunbathing, basking (in pin money tucked away, pin the sun); hi-no-de n ᪥ࡢฟ sunrise; money hidden away: ~ ga arimásu ࣊ࢯࢡࣜࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ has hi-no-iri n ᪥ࡢධࡾ sunset; hi-yake some pin money tucked away n ᪥↝ࡅ sunburn; hi-yoke n ᪥ࡼ hetá (na) adj ୗᡭ ࡞ ; unskillful, ࡅ sunshade, blind, awning; hi-yori inept, clumsy, poor, bad, inexpert: n ᪥࿴ weather (conditions); hi-yorimi n ᪥࿴ぢ waiting policy: ~ o suru to ࡬ࡓࢆࡍࡿ࡜ if you are unlucky, if you are not care- ~-seisaku ᪥࿴ぢᨻ⟇ wait-andful: ~ no yokozuki ୗᡭࡢᶓዲࡁ see policy hí n ⅆ fire; hí-bachi n ⅆ㖊 hibachi, dabster, likes to but not very charcoal brazier: ~ ni atarimásu good at hetakuso (na) adj ୗᡭࡃࡑ ࡞ A ⅆ㖊࡟ᙜࡓࡾࡲࡍ warm oneself hetá (na) ୗᡭ ࡞ at a hibachi/charcoal brazier; híhetarikomimásu, hetarikomu v ࡬ࡓࡾ bana n ⅆⰼ spark; hí-bashi n ⅆ⠂ ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ, ࡬ࡓࡾ㎸ࡴ collapses, tongs (for fire) sinks down: jimen ni ~ ᆅ㠃࡟࡬ …´-hi suffix …㈝ expense ࡓࡾ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ slumps on the ground hibí n ࡦࡧ crack (fine): ~ ga dekihetoheto adj ࡬࡜࡬࡜ is dead, is másu ࡦࡧࡀ࡛ࡁࡲࡍ crazes beaten: ~ ni tsukaremásu ࡬࡜࡬ hibikí 㡪ࡁ n echo ࡜࡟⑂ࢀࡲࡍ is fagged out, is hibikimásu, hibíku v 㡪ࡁࡲࡍ, 㡪ࡃ dead tired echoes, resounds heyá n 㒊ᒇ room Hibiya n ᪥ẚ㇂ Hibiya: Hibiyahi n ᪥ day; hí-bi n ᪥ࠎ every day: Kø´en ᪥ẚ㇂බᅬ Hibiya Park ~ no seikatsu ᪥ࠎࡢ⏕ά daily hibĿ n ㄦㅫ [BOOKISH] slander; life; hí-goto (ni) adv ᪥ẖ ࡟ day KLEĿFKŗVKĿㄦㅫ୰യ mental abuse by day; hi-nichi n ᪥࡟ࡕ (fixed) hichíriki n ࡦࡕࡾࡁ an oboe-like day; number of days; hi-zuke n ᪥ reed instrument (in gagaku) ௜ date (of month) hidari n ᕥ left: ~-dónari ᕥ㞄ࡾ hi n ᪥ (ohi-sama ࠾᪥ᵝ) sun (= next (door) on the left; ~-kiki/giki (no) ᕥ฼ࡁ ࡢ left-handed taiyø ኴ㝧): ~ no hikari ᪥ࡢග sunshine (= níkkø ᪥ග); hi-atarí (person); ~-máwari (ni) ᕥᅇࡾ ࡟ counterclockwise n ᪥ᙜࡓࡾ exposure to the sun, 78


hidari-gawa n ᕥഃ left side hidói adj ࡦ࡝࠸ severe, terrible,


elbows: ~-kake isu ⫝᥃ࡅ᳔Ꮚ armchair KLMĿ n 㠀ᖖ emergency: ~-burë´ki unreasonable, vicious, bitter, awful: ~-kao ࡦ࡝࠸㢦 face like 㠀ᖖࣈ࣮ࣞ࢟ emergency brake; ~-guchi 㠀ᖖཱྀ emergency exit; a dropped pie hídoku adv ࡦ࡝ࡃ hard, cruelly, ~ no ba(w)ai 㠀ᖖࡢሙྜ in (the) terribly: ~ obiemásu ࡦ࡝ࡃ⬣ event of emergency; KLMĿ na adj >᛼࠼@ࡲࡍ has one’s heart in 㠀ᖖ ࡞ unusual, extreme; KLMĿ ni one’s mouth adv 㠀ᖖ ࡟ extremely hiemásu, hiéru v ෭࠼ࡲࡍ, ෭࠼ࡿ hikaemásu, hikaeru v ᥍࠼ࡲࡍ, ᥍ ࠼ࡿ refrains, withholds gets cold hífu n ⓶⭵ skin hikaemé (na) adj ᥍࠼┠ ࡞ higái n ⿕ᐖ damage, injury, casu- modest alty: ~-chi ⿕ᐖᆅ stricken area; hikaku n ẚ㍑ comparison; hikakuteki (ni) adv ẚ㍑ⓗ ࡟ relatively, ~-sha ⿕ᐖ⪅ victim (= gaisha ヱ⪅) comparatively higashí n ᮾ east: ~-guchi ᮾཱྀ the hikan n ᝒほ pessimism; hikan-teki east exit/entrance; ~-yori (no kaze) (na) adj ᝒほⓗ ࡞ pessimistic ᮾᐤࡾ ࡢ㢼 easterly (wind); hikaremásu, hikareru v ᘬ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, ~-káigan ᮾᾏᓊ east coast ᘬ࠿ࢀࡿ gets pulled (out), gets hige n ࡦࡆ࣭㧨 beard; mustache drawn/dragged/tugged/subtracted hikaremásu, hikareru v ㎚࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, (= kuchí-hige ཱྀࡦࡆ); ~ o sorimásu ࡦࡆࢆ๋ࡾࡲࡍ shaves ㎚࠿ࢀࡿ gets run over: torákku hige n ࡦࡆ࣭ࣄࢤ whiskers ni ~ ࢺࣛࢵࢡ࡟㎚࠿ࢀࡲࡍ gets hígeki n ᝒ๻ tragedy run over by a truck híhan n ᢈุ judgment, criticism; hikaremásu, hikareru v ᤂ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, hihán-sha n ᢈุ⪅ critic, judge; ᤂ࠿ࢀࡿ gets sawed híhan-teki (na) adj ᢈุⓗ ࡞ hikaremásu, hikareru v ᙎ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, ᙎ࠿ࢀࡿ gets played critical hiK\Ŀ n ᢈホ criticism, review; hikaremásu, hikareru v ࡦ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, KLK\ĿND n ᢈホᐙ critic, reviewer ࡦ࠿ࢀࡿ gets ground híiki n ࡦ࠸ࡁ illegitimate favor, hikaremásu, hikareru v ច࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, ច࠿ࢀࡿ get attracted (to) patronage: ~ shimásu ࡦ࠸ࡁࡋ ࡲࡍ shows preference/partiality hikaremásu, hikareru v ගࢀࡲࡍ, KtLWă n ࣄ࣮ࢱ࣮ heater ගࢀࡿ can glow/shine hijí n ⫝ elbow: ~ o harimásu ⫝ KLNDULNďEXUX n ගࢣ࣮ࣈࣝ optical ࢆᙇࡾࡲࡍ bends out one’s cable (Internet) 79

hikarimásu, hikáru

hikarimásu, hikáru v ගࡾࡲࡍ, ගࡿ


㏉ࡋࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁ㏉ࡍ turns back, it shines, glows returns hikemásu, hikeru v ᘬࡅࡲࡍ, ᘬࡅࡿ hikimásu, hiku v ᘬࡁࡲࡍ, ᘬࡃ can pull pulls (out); draws; drags, tugs; hiketsu n ⛎ジ [BOOKISH] secret, catches; attracts; deducts; looks formula: seikø é no ~ ᡂຌ࡬ࡢ⛎ up a word (in dictionary) hikimásu, hiku v ㎚ࡁࡲࡍ, ㎚ࡃ ジ key to success …-hiki (-ppiki) …༉ (counts small runs over (a person) hikimásu, hiku v ᤂࡁࡲࡍ, ᤂࡃ animals, fish, insects (bugs)) hiki-age n ᘬࡁୖࡆ refloating; saws hikimásu, hiku v ᙎࡁࡲࡍ, ᙎࡃ rise/hike (in price, wage, fee) hiki-age n ᘬࡁᥭࡆ evacuation, plays (a stringed instrument) hikimásu, hiku v ᤂࡁࡲࡍ, ᤂࡃ repatriation; salvage hiki-agemásu, hiki-agéru v ᘬࡁୖࡆ grinds (into powder) ࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁୖࡆࡿ pulls up; hikimásu, hiku v ㏥ࡁࡲࡍ, ㏥ࡃ refloats; raises (price, wage, fee) retires hiki-agemásu, hiki-agéru v ᘬࡁᥭ hikinige n ࡦࡁ>㎚ࡁ@㏨ࡆ hit and ࡆࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁᥭࡆࡿ withdraws, run leaves; evacuates, gets repatriated hiki-torimásu, hiki-tóru ᘬࡁྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, hikiagé-sha n ᘬ ࡁ ᥭࡆ⪅ evacu- ᘬࡁྲྀࡿ 1. leaves, withdraws, ee, repatriate retires 2. takes over, looks after, hikidashi n ᘬࡁฟࡋ drawer receives 3. íki o ~ ᜥࢆᘬࡁྲྀࡾ ࡲࡍ takes/draws one’s last hikidashimásu, hikidasu v ᘬࡁฟࡋ ࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁฟࡍ pulls/draws out; breath, dies hiki-tsugimásu, hiki-tsúgu v ᘬࡁ⥅ withdraws hiki-fune n ᘬࡁ ᭥ࡁ ⯪>⯚@ ࡂࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁ⥅ࡄ takes over, tugboat succeeds (in a projection) hikigane n ᘬࡁ㔠 trigger hiki-ukemásu, hiki-ukéru v ᘬࡁཷ hiki-haraimásu, hiki-haráu v ᘬࡁᡶ࠸ ࡅࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁཷࡅࡿ undertakes, ࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁᡶ࠺ checks out (of takes charge of, takes responhotel) sibility for; guarantees: tegata o hikiimásu, hikiíru v ⋡࠸ࡲࡍ, ⋡࠸ ~ ᡭᙧࢆᘬࡁཷࡅࡲࡍ accepts a ࡿ leads, commands bill (of payment) hiki-kaemásu, hiki-káéru v ᘬࡁ᥮࠼ hiki-wakemásu, hiki-wakeru ᘬࡁศࡅ ࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁ᥮࠼ࡿ exchanges, ࡲࡍ, ᘬࡁศࡅࡿ v draws apart; converts plays to a draw: hikiwake n ᘬ hiki-kaeshimásu, hiki-káésu v ᘬࡁ ࡁศࡅ tie, draw 80


hinoki butai

hiki-zan n ᘬࡁ⟬ subtraction híme n ጲ (ohíme-sama ࠾ ጲᵝ hiki-zurimásu, hiki-zuru v ᘬࡁࡎࡾࡲ princess himei n ᝒ㬆 a scream: ~ o ageࡍ, ᘬࡁࡎࡿ drags hik-kakimásu, hik-káku v ᘬࡗᥙࡁࡲ másu ᝒ㬆ࢆୖࡆࡲࡍ screams ࡍ, ᘬࡗᥙࡃ scratches it out hikki n ➹グ writing down; hikki-tai himitsu (no) adj ⛎ᐦ ࡢ secret, n ➹グయ running hand, script; mystery hiNNL\ĿJX n ➹グ⏝ල writing himo n ࡦࡶ string, cord, tape,


strap, ribbon

hikkoshi ᘬࡗ㉺ࡋ n moving (house); hikkoshi-ya n ᘬࡗ㉺ࡋᒇ (house) mover; hikkoshi-torákku n ᘬࡗ㉺ࡋࢺࣛࢵࢡ mover’s van hikkoshimásu, hikkósu v ᘬࡗ㉺ࡋࡲ ࡍ, ᘬࡗ㉺ࡍ moves (house) hikkuri-kaerimásu, hikkuri-káeru v ᘬ ࡗࡃࡾ㏉ࡾࡲࡍ, ᘬࡗࡃࡾ㏉ࡿ it

hin n ရ elegance, refinement, dignity: ~ ga arimásu ရࡀ࠶ࡾ ࡲࡍ has class hinagata n ࡦ࡞ᙧ form; pattern;

shape hina-mátsuri n ࡦ࡞⚍ ࡾ the Dolls

Festival (3 March)

hínan n 㠀㞴 blame, reproach hínan n 㑊㞴 taking refuge; hinántips (over); it upsets sha n 㑊㞴⪅ refugee hikkuri-kaeshimásu, hikkuri-káesu v ᘬࡗࡃࡾ㏉ࡋࡲࡍ, ᘬࡗࡃࡾ㏉ࡍ KLQDQtQJ\Ŀ n ࡦ࡞ேᙧ (festival)

upsets (overturns) it


hiNĿ n 㣕⾜ flying (a plane); hiNĿMĿ n 㣕⾜ሙ airport (= kükø ✵ ); hikĿNL n 㣕⾜ᶵ airplane: ~ ni norimásu 㣕⾜ᶵ࡟஌ࡾࡲࡍ gets on a plane; hiNĿ\RL n 㣕⾜㓉࠸

hinerimásu, hinéru v ᤬ࡾࡲࡍ, ᤬ࡿ

twists; turns hiniku n ⓶⫗ sarcasm: ~ o iimásu ⓶⫗ࢆゝ࠸ࡲࡍ makes sarcastic remarks; hiniku na adj ⓶⫗ ࡞


sarcastic, cynical

hiNĿVKiki (no) adj 㠀බᘧ ࡢ unofficial, informal: ~ kaigi 㠀බ ᘧࡢ఍㆟ informal conference hikúi adj ప࠸ low, short KLN\Ŀ (na) adj ༝᛼ ࡞ cowardly hima n ᬤ time; leisure, spare time; leave; dismissal (of servant): ~-tsubushi ᬤࡘࡪࡋ killing time; hima na adj ᬤ ࡞ at leisure, unoccu-

hinin n 㑊ዷ contraception; hinín-gu n 㑊ዷල contraceptive (device); hinín-yaku n 㑊ዷ⸆ contraceptive

drug/pill hinkon n ㈋ᅔ poverty; hinkon na adj ㈋ᅔ ࡞ needy hinmín-kutsu/-gai n ㈋Ẹ❍⾤ slum hinoki butai n ᷓ⯙ྎ stage of

pied, not busy; slow (business) 81

a major (first-class, leading) theater



hinshi n ရモ part of speech hinshi n ℜṚ moribundity, near

hirataku adv ᖹࡓࡃ flat: ~ iu to/ ieba ᖹࡓࡃゝ࠺࡜ゝ࠼ࡤ put



hinshitsu n ရ㉁ quality: ~ o hoshø- hire n ࣄ࣭ࣞ㫅 fin shimásu ရ㉁ࢆಖドࡋࡲࡍ hire n ࣄࣞ fillet (of pork, etc.) hirefushimásu, hirefusu v ࡦࢀఅࡋ guarantees the quality hinshuku-o-kaimásu (kau) v ࡦࢇࡋࡹ ࡲࡍ, ࡦࢀఅࡍ grovels, falls on ࡃࢆ㈙࠸ࡲࡍ ㈙࠺ invites one’s face hirei n ẚ౛ proportion frowns of disgust, is frowned hirimásu, híru v ࡦࡾࡲࡍ, ࡦࡿ upon hínto n ࣄࣥࢺ hint, reminder discharges (excretes) from the hipparimásu, hippáru v ᘬࡗᙇࡾࡲ body: hé o ~ ᒂࢆࡦࡾࡲࡍ ࡍ, ᘬࡗᙇࡿ pulls, drags, tugs flatulates, farts híró-bá n ᗈሙ a square, a place, (at), takes, brings hira-ayamari n ᖹㅰࡾ humble (public) an open space apology: ~ ni ayamarimásu ᖹㅰ hiroemásu, hiroeru v ᣠ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᣠ࠼ ࡾ࡟ㅰࡾࡲࡍ makes a humble ࡿ can pick it up hirogarimásu, hirogaru v ᗈࡀࡾࡲࡍ, apology hirágáná n ࡦࡽࡀ࡞࣭ᖹ௬ྡ ᗈࡀࡿ it spreads, widens hiragana (the roundish Japanese hirogemásu, hirogeru v ᗈࡆࡲࡍ, ᗈ ࡆࡿ spreads/widens it letters) hiraki 㛤ࡁ n open and dried fish: hirói adj ᗈ࠸ wide, broad; big sanma no ~ ࢧ࣐ࣥࡢ㛤ࡁ open (room, etc.) hiroimásu, hirou v ᣠ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᣠ࠺ and dried saury hirakí-do n 㛤ࡁᡞ hinged door picks it up hirakimásu, hiráku v 㛤ࡁࡲࡍ, 㛤ࡃ hiroku adv ᗈࡃ wide, widely hiromarimásu, hiromáru v ᗈࡲࡾࡲࡍ, opens up; has/holds (a party) hirame n ࣄ࣓࣭ࣛᖹ┠ flounder ᗈࡲࡿ it spreads, gets diffused hiramekimásu, hirameku v ࡦࡽࡵ hiromemásu, hiroméru v ᗈࡵࡲࡍ, ࡁࡲࡍ, ࡦࡽࡵࡃ comes to one ᗈࡵࡿ spreads/diffuses it hírosa n ᗈࡉ width in a flash hiraoyogi n ᖹὋࡂ breast-stroke Hiroshima n ᗈᓥ Hiroshima hira (shain) n ᖹ ♫ဨ rank-and- KtUĿ n ᢨ㟢 presentation; KLUĿHQ file employee n ᢨ㟢ᐗ reception, wedding hiratai adj ᖹࡓ࠸ flat (= tiara na banquet (engagement, wedding, ᖹࡽ࡞): ~-hana ᖹࡓ࠸㰯 flat etc.); KLUĿNDL n ᢨ㟢఍ reception


(engagement, wedding, etc.) 82


hirú n ᫨ daytime, noon: ~ kara ᫨࠿ࡽ after noon; ~ no bú ᫨ࡢ 㒊 matinee; hiru-góhan n ᫨ࡈ㣤 noon meal, lunch (= hirumeshi ᫨㣤); hiru-má n ᫨㛫 daytime; hiru-ne n ᫨ᐷ nap; hiru-súgí n ᫨ 㐣ࡂ afternoon híru n ࣄ࣭ࣝ⻄ leech hisashi-buri (ni) adv ஂࡋࡪࡾ ࡟

after a long time (of absence) hishaku n ᯶ᮨ scoop, ladle hishó n ⛎᭩ secretary (private) hi´ssha n ➹⪅ the writer/author (= chosha ⴭ⪅ hisúi n ࣄࢫ࢖࣭⩬⩫ jade hitai n 㢠 forehead, brow hitashi-mono n ᾐࡋ≀ (o-hitáshi ࠾ ᾐࡋ boiled vegetables (usually

greens) served cold with seasoning hitchaku n ᚲ╔ must-reach: nigatsu muika ~ 2᭶6᪥ᚲ╔ due

NLT (not later than) February 6 hitei n ྰᐃ denial hito n ே, … hitó …ே person,


breath: ~ de ୍ᜥ࡛ with a gulp: ~ iremásu/tsukimásu ୍ᜥධࢀ ࡲࡍࡘࡁࡲࡍ catches one’s breath; hitó-kátamari n ࡦ࡜ᅛࡲࡾ ୍࣭ሢ one lump/loaf; hitó-kire n ୍ษࢀ (one) piece (a cut); hitókoto n ୍ゝ a word: ~ de iuto ୍ ゝ࡛ゝ࠺࡜ put simply; hitó-kuchi n ୍ཱྀ one mouthful; one bite; one drink, sip: ~ ni iuto ୍ཱྀ࡟ ゝ࠺࡜ in a word; hitó-kumi n ୍ ⤌ a set (collection); hitó-maki n ୍ᕳࡁ one (roll, bolt of cloth); hitó-mori n ୍┒ࡾ scoop (one scoopful); hitó-nemuri n ୍╀ࡾ a nap; hitó-oyogi n ࡦ࡜Ὃࡂ a swim; hitó-ri n ୍ே one person; (~ de ࡦ࡜ࡾ࡛࣭⊂ࡾ࡛) alone; ~-mónó ⊂ࡾ⪅ single (unmarried) person; hitó-saji n ୍໯ one spoonful; hito-shibai n ୍Ⱚᒃ playing a trick, acting; hito-shigoto n ୍௙஦ bout of work; hito-suji n ୍➽ shaft; ~-nawa dewa ikimasen ୍➽⦖࡛ ࡣ࠸ࡁࡲࡏࢇ is not an easy job; hitó-tsu n ࡦ࡜ࡘ୍࣭ࡘ one (= ík-ko ୍ಶ : one year old (= ís-sai ୍ṓ); one and the same; hitó-yama n ୍ᒣ one heap/bunch hitómazu (wa) adv ࡦ࡜ࡲࡎ ࡣ

man, fellow, people; someone, somebody; hitó-bito n ேࠎ people (in general); hito-gara n ே᯶ character, personality; hito-góroshi n ேẅࡋ murder; hitó-tachi n ே㐩 people for a while; for the time being hito-… prefix ୍… one, a; hitohitori-de ni adv ࡦ࡜ࡾ࡛࡟ ánshin n ࡦ࡜Ᏻᚰ a relief (from spontaneously, automatically, worry) A anshín Ᏻᚰ; hitó-ban n by/of itself ୍ᬌ one night; hito-gomi n ࡦ࡜ hitori-goto n ⊂ࡾゝ talking to ࡈࡳ࣭ே㎸ࡳ crowd; hitó-hako n oneself: ~ o iimásu ⊂ࡾゝࢆゝ࠸ ୍⟽ one boxful; hitó-iki n ୍ᜥ a ࡲࡍ says to oneself 83



hitosashiyubi n ேᕪࡋᣦ forefinger, hizume n ㋟ hoof hó n ᕹ sail index finger hitoshíi adj ➼ࡋ࠸ equal, identical, KĿ interj ࡯࠾㸽 oh? KĿ n ἲ law (= høritsu ἲᚊ); rule; similar hitsugi n ᳌ coffin method hitsuji n ࣄࢶࢪ࣭⨺ sheep KĿ n ࡯࠾࣭㢋 cheek (= hoho ࡯ hitsujuhin n ᚲ㟂ရ necessity: ࡯࣭㢋, hoppéta ࡯ࡗ࡮ࡓ) seikatsu-~ ⏕άᚲ㟂ရ daily … KĿ n …᪉ alternative, the one necessities, commodities (of two) that …: ~ ga íi desu … hiWVX\Ŀ n ᚲせ necessity, need: ᪉ࡀ࠸࠸࡛ࡍ … is better … suru ~ ga arimásu ࡍࡿᚲ KĿEL n 〔⨾ (go-hø´bi ࡈ〔⨾ せࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ needs to…: … ga [HONORIFIC]) prize, reward ~ desu ࡀᚲせ࡛ࡍ needs…; hóbo adj ࡯ࡰ nearly; roughly hiWVX\Ŀ na ᚲせ࡞ adj necessary, KĿEĿ n, adv ᪉ࠎ everywhere, all

essential hitteki n ༉ᩛ comparison híttó n ࣄࢵࢺ a hit (baseball); híttó-kyoku n ࣄࢵࢺ᭤ hit song híya n ෭ࡸ cold water hiya-múgi n ෭ࡸ㯏࣭ࡦࡸࡴࡂ

chilled wheat-flour noodles (cf. sø´men ࡑ࠺ࡵࢇ) hiyashimásu, hiyásu v ෭ࡸࡋࡲࡍ, ෭ࡸࡍ cools it off, refrigerates, chills: atama o ~ 㢌ࢆ෭ࡸࡋࡲ ࡍ cools one’s head hiya-yákko n ෭ࡸࡸࡗࡇ cooled bean curd Kt\Ŀ n ㈝⏝ cost, expense: ~ ga kakarimásu ㈝⏝ࡀ࠿࠿ࡾࡲࡍ


over, every which way KĿFKL n ᨺ⨨ neglect: ~-jitensha ᨺ⨨⮬㌿㌴ illegally-parked

bicycle hóchikisu n ࣍ࢳ࢟ࢫ stapler KRFKĿ n Ṍㄪ pace: ~ o awasemásu Ṍㄪࢆྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ keeps step KĿFKĿ n ໟ୎ knife (big); butcher

knife; cleaver KRFKĿNL n ⿵⫈ჾ hearing aids: ~ o tsukemásu ⿵⫈ჾࢆࡘࡅࡲࡍ

wears a hearing aid KĿGDQ n ◙ᙎ bombshell «KĿGDi suffix ᨺ㢟 can…as much as: tabe-~ 㣗࡭ᨺ㢟 all-you-caneat: nomi-~ 㣧ࡳᨺ㢟 all-youcan-drink: shitai-~ ࡋࡓ࠸ᨺ㢟

hiyowa adj ࡦᙅ weak: ~ na kodoes whatever one feel like domo ࡦᙅ࡞Ꮚ౪ frail child doing hiza n ⭸ knee, lap KĿGen n ᨺ㟁 electric(al) discharge hizamazukimásu, hizamazuku v ࡦࡊ (… ) hodo suffix … ⛬࣭࡯࡝ ࡲࡎࡁࡲࡍ, ࡦࡊࡲࡎࡃ falls on extent; limits; moderation; ap-

one’s knees, kneels down

proximate time; about (as much 84



as), (not) so much as; the more hogei n ᤕ㪒 whaling KĿJpQ n ᪉ゝ dialect … the more KRGĿ n Ṍ㐨 walk(way), pavement, hógo n ಖㆤ protection; hogo-sha n ಖㆤ⪅ guardian sidewalk: ~-kyø Ṍ㐨ᶫ hoguremásu, hoguréru v ゎࢀࡲࡍ, crossover bridge KĿGĿ n ሗ㐨 news report ゎࢀࡿ it loosens hodokemásu, hodokéru v ゎࡅࡲࡍ, hoho n ࡯࡯࣭㢋 cheek (= hø ࡯࠾ ゎࡅࡿ comes loose, comes un࣭㢋, hoppéta ࡯ࡗ࡮ࡓ) KĿKĿ n ᪉ἲ method, process done hodokimásu, hodóku v ゎࡁࡲࡍ, hohoemashii adj ᚤ➗ࡲࡋ࠸ heartゎࡃ undoes, unties warming, pleasant hodokóshi v ᪋ࡋ charity: ~ o uke- hohoemí n ᚤ➗ࡳ smile másu ᪋ࡋࢆཷࡅࡲࡍ accepts hohoemimásu, hohoému v ᚤ➗ࡳࡲ ࡍ, ᚤ➗ࡴ smiles charity hoemásu, hoéru v ྭ࠼ࡲࡍ, ྭ࠼ࡿ hoikú-en n ಖ⫱ᅬ nursery school, (dog) barks pre-kindergarten hoeraremásu, hoeraréru v ྭ࠼ࡽ KĿML n ἲ஦ mass (Buddhist), Budࢀࡲࡍ, ྭ࠼ࡽࢀࡿ can bark; dhist memorial service: ~ o okonaimásu ἲ஦ࢆ⾜࠸ࡲࡍ holds is barked KĿIX (na) adj ㇏ᐩ ࡞ rich: ~ na a Buddhist service (for the dead) keiken ㇏ᐩ࡞⤒㦂 abundant KĿMLQ n ἲே corporation; hĿjin-zei experience n ἲே⛯ corporation tax KĿJDL (na) adj ἲእ ࡞ exorbitant, hójo n ⿵ຓ help, assistance; hojoinordinate, excessive, unreason- kin n ⿵ຓ㔠 grant: ~-seido ⿵ຓ able, steep: ~ na kingaku/nedan 㔠ไᗘ bounty system ἲእ࡞㔠㢠್ẁ unreasonable hoka n ࡯࠿࣭እ࣭௚ other, in price addition to, other than (= ta ௚): KĿJDNX n ᪉ゅ direction, one’s ~ no ௚ࡢ other, another hoken n ಖ㝤 insurance: … ni ~ o bearings hĿJDNX n 㑥ᴦ Japanese music kakemásu …࡟ಖ㝤ࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ KĿJDNX (-bu) n ἲᏛ 㒊 (science/ insures; NHQNĿKRNHQ n ೺ᗣಖ㝤 study of) law; School of Law health insurance KĿJDQ n ໟྵ inclusion, compre- hoken n ಖ೺ healthcare, preserhension vation of health: sekai-~-kikø KĿJDQ n ◙୸ cannonball ୡ⏺ಖ೺ᶵ㛵 World Health hógaraka (na) adj ᮁࡽ࠿ ࡞ Organization KĿNHQ n ᑒᘓ feudal(ism): ~-jídai bright, sunny; cheerful 85



no… ໭ࡢ…); Hoku-Bei n ໭⡿ = Kita-Ámerika ໭࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ North America; hóku-bu n ໭㒊 the north, waiting list the northern part; hóku-i n ໭⦋ KĿNL n ᨺᲠ abandonment north latitude; +RNXĿ n ໭Ḣ hĿNL n ⟨ broom: ~ de hakimásu Northern Europe; hoku-sei n ໭す ⟨࡛ᤲࡁࡲࡍ sweeps with a northwest; KRNXWĿ n ໭ᮾ northbroom; KĿNtERVKL n ⟨ᫍ comet east; KRNX\Ŀ n ໭ὒ northern sea +RNNiLGĿ n ໭ᾏ㐨 Hokkaido hokuro n 㯮Ꮚ mole (on skin) KyNNď n ࣍ࢵࢣ࣮ hockey hokosoemimásu, hokusoemu v ࡯ࡃ hókku n ࣍ࢵࢡ hook (snap): ~ de ࡑ➗ࡳࡲࡍ, ࡯ࡃࡑ➗ࡴ tomemásu ࣍ࢵࢡ࡛࡜ࡵࡲࡍ chuckles, snickers to oneself KRN\Ŀ n ⿵ᙉ reinforcement, hooks up Hokkyoku n ໭ᴟ North Pole, corroboration Arctic; Hokkyoku-guma n ࣍ࢵ࢟ࣙ KRN\ŗ n ⿵⤥ supply ࢡࢢ࣐࣭໭ᴟࢢ࣐ polar bear, KĿN\ŗ n ಧ⤥ pay, wages, salary white bear (= shiro-kuma ⓑ⇃); homé n 〔ࡵ praise: ~ ni azukarimasu ࠾〔ࡵ࡟࠶ࡎ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ is Hokkyoku-sei n ໭ᴟᫍ North Star KĿNĿ n ᪉ྥ direction praised [HONORIFIC] KĿNRNX n ሗ࿌ report; KĿkoku-sho n home-kótoba n 〔ࡵゝⴥ compliሗ࿌᭩ report, statement ment, word of praise hokora n ⚆ small shrine homemásu, homéru v 〔ࡵࡲࡍ, 〔 ࡵࡿ praises, admires hokorashii adj ㄂ࡽࡋ࠸ is proud hokoremásu, hokoréru v ㄂ࢀࡲࡍ, KĿPpQ n ᪉㠃, …-hø´men …᪉㠃 ㄂ࢀࡿ can brag direction, quarter, district hokori n ᇕ dust (in the air): ~ o hómo (no) adj ࣍ࣔ ࡢ homoharaimásu ᇕࢆᡶ࠸ࡲࡍ brushes sexual, gay KĿPRQ n ゼၥ visit, call on dust off hokorí ㄂ࡾ n pride, boast homosapiensu n ࣍ࣔࢧࣆ࢚ࣥࢫ hokorimásu, hokóru v ㄂ࡾࡲࡍ, ㄂ Homo sapiens ࡿ brags about/of KĿPX n ࣮࣒࣍ 1. platform (at KRNĿVKD n Ṍ⾜⪅ pedestrian: station) 2. home ~-tengoku Ṍ⾜⪅ኳᅜ areas of KĿPXGyUDPD n ࣮࣒࣍ࢻ࣐ࣛ soap ᑒᘓ᫬௦ feudal period hoketsu n ⿵Ḟ substitute, alternate: ~-sha-meibo ⿵Ḟ⪅ྡ⡙

streets temporarily closed to vehicular traffic, pedestrian mall hoku-… prefix ໭… north (= kita

opera KĿPXUHVX n ࣮࣒࣍ࣞࢫ homeless KĿPXVKikku n ࣮࣒࣍ࢩࢵࢡ homesick: ~ ni narimásu/kakarimásu




࣮࣒࣍ࢩࢵࢡ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ࠿࠿ࡾ (counts long objects) ࡲࡍ gets homesick hónbun n ᮏศ one’s duty +ĿPXVKĿ n ἲົ┬ Ministry of honé n 㦵 bone: ~ o orimásu 㦵ࢆ ᢡࡾࡲࡍ takes (great) pains, Justice KĿPXVutei n ࣮࣒࣍ࢫࢸ࢖ home goes to much trouble; hone-gúmi stay n 㦵⤌ࡳ framework; hone-órí hón n ᮏ book; hón-bako n ᮏ⟽ n 㦵ᢡࡾ(o-honeori ࠾㦵ᢡࡾ bookcase; hón-dana n ᮏᲴ book- [HONORIFIC] effort hongoshi-o-iremásu (ireru) v ᮏ⭜ࢆධ shelf; hón-ya n ᮏᒇ bookshop hon-… prefix ᮏ… main; chief; ࢀࡲࡍ ධࢀࡿ gets down to this; the; the present; real; hon-ba seriously honki (no/de) adj, adv ᮏẼ ࡢ࡛ n ᮏሙ original place, area of production, real thing: ~ no nihon serious(ly), (in) earnest: … o ~ ryøri ᮏሙࡢ᪥ᮏᩱ⌮ authentic ni shimásu …ࢆᮏẼ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ Japanese food; hon-ban n ᮏ␒ takes it seriously real part, real thing; hón-bu n ᮏ Hónkón n ࣍ࣥࢥ࣭ࣥ㤶  Hong 㒊 central office, headquarters (= Kong hón-sha ᮏ♫); hon-dai n ᮏ㢟 honmei n ᮏ࿨ the favorite KRQPĿ n ᮏᮃ (one’s) heart’s main issue; KRQGĿ n ᮏ㐨 the main route; hon-mono n ᮏ≀ the desire, one’s long-cherished real thing: ~ no aji ᮏ≀ࡢ࿡ desire: ~ o togemásu ᮏᮃࢆ㐙ࡆ authentic flavor: ~ no daiyamondo ࡲࡍ realizes one’s heart’s desire ᮏ≀ࡢࢲ࢖ࣖࣔࣥࢻ real diahonno … adj ࡯ࢇࡢ …just a (litmond; hon-ne n ᮏ㡢 true (inner) tle), only a, a mere/slight … ~ sukoshi/chotto ࡯ࢇࡢᑡࡋࡕࡻ feeling, real intention (= honshin ᮏᚰ); hon-nin n ᮏே (the ࡗ࡜ … just a little; just a minute person) himself/herself/myself, KRQĿ n ⅖ flame principal; hón-rai n ᮏ᮶ originally, honomekashí n ௎ࡵ࠿ࡋ a hint honomekashimásu, honomekásu v ௎ from the start; hon-ron n ᮏㄽ ࡵ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ௎ࡵ࠿ࡍ hints main discussion, main issue: ~ ni hairimásu ᮏㄽ࡟ධࡾࡲࡍ get Honóruru n ࣍ࣀࣝࣝ Honolulu down to business; hón-seki n ᮏ KRQU\Ŀ n ᮏ㡿 one’s element/ ⡠ permanent residence; hon-shin sphere: ~ o hakki shimásu ᮏ㡿 ࢆⓎ᥹ࡋࡲࡍ show oneself at n ᮏᚰ true (inner) feeling, real intention; hon-ten n ᮏᗑ head one’s best +yQVKŗ n ᮏᕞ Honshü office, main store …´-hon (...´-pon, ...´-bon) suffix …ᮏ KRQWĿ QR KRQWR QR adj ᮏᙜ ࡢ ,




horimásu, hóru v ᥀ࡾࡲࡍ, ᥀ࡿ

࡯ࢇ࡜ ࡢ true, real, genuine: ~ no koto ᮏᙜࡢ஦ truth; ~ ni ᮏᙜ࡟ really, truly, indeed,

digs, carves; excavates horimásu, hóru v ᙮ࡾࡲࡍ, ᙮ࡿ



horí-mónó n ᙮≀ a carving, tattoo KĿULWVX n ἲᚊ law (legal system); KĿritsu-ka n ἲᚊᐙ jurist translator hoppéta n ࡯ࡗ࡮ࡓ cheek (= hø, KĿUĿ n ᨺᾉ wandering hoho ࡯࠾࣭࡯࡯࣭㢋) horobimásu, horobíru v ⁛ࡧࡲࡍ, ⁛ KRSSĿ n ໭᪉ the north ࡧࡿ perishes hóra n ࣭࣍ࣛἲ⼺ 1. trumpet-shell horoboshimásu, horobósu v ⁛ࡰࡋ (= horá-gai ἲ⼺㈅ 2. exaggera- ࡲࡍ, ⁛ࡰࡍ destroys tion, bragging, bull (= uso ბ): KĿUyN~ n ↎ⅹ earthenware pan ~ o fukimásu ࡯ࡽࢆ྿ࡁࡲࡍ hórun n ࣍ࣝࣥ horn (music) KĿVDNX n ᪉⟇ measures, policy brags, talks big hóra interj ࡯ࡽ! Look!, Here!, KĿVDNX n ㇏స abundant/rich KRQ·\DNX n ⩻ヂ translation; KRQ·\iNuVKD(ka) ⩻ヂ⪅ ᐙ

There!, You see!


KRUă n ࣮࣍ࣛ horror; KRUăHLJD n ࣮࣍ࣛᫎ⏬ horror movie/film hora-ana n Ὕ✰ cave horá-gai n ἲ⼺㈅ trumpet-shell KĿUHL n ἲ௧ law, act horemásu, horeru v ᝮࢀࡲࡍ, ᝮࢀ ࡿ falls in love, loses one’s heart to : … ni hore(komi)másu …࡟ ᝮࢀ ㎸ࡳ ࡲࡍ falls in love

KĿVHNL n ᐆ▼ jewel, gem; KĿVHNL VKĿ n ᐆ▼ၟ jeweler, gem dealer hosemásu, hoséru v ᖸࡏࡲࡍ, ᖸࡏ ࡿ can dry it KĿVKDQĿ n ᨺᑕ⬟ radioactivity hĿVKDVHQ n ᨺᑕ⥺ (nuclear)

bargain, a real find, lucky find:

desires, wants, would like, wishes


hoshi n ᫍ star; hoshi-jírushi n ᫍ༳ star (symbol), asterisk (*); hoshiuranai n ᫍ༨࠸ astrology (with) horemásu, horéru ᥀ࢀࡲࡍ, ᥀ࢀࡿ KĿVKL n ዊ௙ service; KĿVKLNDWVXGĿ can dig n ዊ௙άື voluntary service, KĿUpQVĿ n ࣍࢘ࣞࣥࢯ࣭࢘࡯࠺ࢀ voluntary activity ࢇⲡ spinach KĿVKL n ⬊Ꮚ spore(s) horí n ᥀ ditch, moat; hori-wari n hoshigarimásu, hoshigáru v ḧࡋࡀࡾ ᥀ ࡾ ๭ࡾ canal ࡲࡍ, ḧࡋࡀࡿ wants it horidashi-mono n ᥀ࡾฟࡋ≀ a hoshíi v ḧࡋ࠸ is desired/desirable; ~ o sagashimásu ᥀ࡾฟࡋ≀ࢆ᥈ hoshimásu, hósu v ᖸࡋࡲࡍ, ᖸࡍ ࡋࡲࡍ searches for bargains dries it; airs it



KĿVKLQ n ᪉㔪 policy, course (of

action), aim (direction)

hótto (na)

hosonagái adj ⣽㛗࠸ long and


KĿshin n ⑁⑈ (medical) herpes hossa n Ⓨస attack, seizure: KĿVKLQ n ᨺᚰ absent-mindedness: shinzø-~ ᚰ⮚Ⓨస heart attack ~ jøtai ᨺᚰ≧ែ is lost in abstrac- KĿVX n ࣮࣍ࢫ hose hósutesu n ࣍ࢫࢸࢫ hostess tion hóshi (ta) adj ᖸࡋ ࡓ dried; hoshi- hósuto n ࣍ࢫࢺ host mono n ᖸ ࡋ ≀ drying washed KĿWDL n ໟᖏ bandage hotaru n ࣍ࢱ࣭ࣝ⺯ lightning clothes, dried clothes KRVKĿ n ಖド guarantee, warranty: bug, firefly: ~-no-hikari { ࣍ࢱ ~´-sho ಖド᭩ letter of guarantee ࣝࡢග gleam of fireflies |ࠕ࡯ KRVKĿ n ⿵ൾ compensating; ࡓࡿࡢගࠖ“Auld Lang Syne” KRVKĿNLQ ⿵ൾ㔠 compensation hotaté-gai n ࣍ࢱࢸ࢞࢖࣭ᕹ❧㈅

(money), indemnity KĿVKRNX n 㣬㣗 full feeding: ~ no jidai 㣬㣗ࡢ᫬௦ age of plenty KĿshoku n ᐆ㣭 jewelry: ~-hin ᐆ 㣭ရ jewelry items hóshu n ಖᏲ maintenance, upkeep; hoshu-ha n ಖᏲὴ conservative wing; hoshu-teki (na) adj ಖᏲⓗ ࡞ conservative: ~ kangae ಖᏲⓗ࡞⪃࠼

scallop(s) KĿWHL n ἲᘐ law court hĿWHLVKLNL n ᪉⛬ᘧ equation KĿWHQ n ἲ඾ code law hóteru n ࣍ࢸࣝ hotel: ichiryü-~ ୍ὶ࣍ࢸࣝ first-class hotel KĿWĿ n ᨺⷙ [BOOKISH] debauchery hotobashiru v ࡯࡜ࡤࡋࡿ gushes: ~-kanjø ࡯࡜ࡤࡋࡿឤ᝟ outpour-

ing of emotion Hotoke(-sámá) n ௖ ᵝ Buddha conservative thinking/view hóshu n ᤕᡭ catcher (= budda ௖㝀) KĿVKŗ n ሗ㓘 reward hotóndo adv ࡯࡜ࢇ࡝ almost (all), KĿVKXWVX n ᨺฟ emission nearly; almost all the time; [ NEKĿVĿ n ᨺ㏦ broadcasting GATIVE verb] hardly (ever), KĿVĿ n ໟ⿦ packing, wrapping; seldom KĿVĿEXWVX n ໟ⿦≀ package, hottan n Ⓨ➃ beginning, onset packet; KĿVĿVKL n ໟ⿦⣬ package, KRWWHKĿWWH oku v ࡯ࡗ࡚ᨺࡗ࡚࠾ ࡃ leaves alone, lets alone wrapper hosói adj ⣽࠸ slender; narrow; hotto doggu n ࣍ࢵࢺࢻࢵࢢ hot thin dog KĿVRNX n ἲ๎ rule(s), law(s) hotto NďNL n ࣍ࢵࢺࢣ࣮࢟ pancake hosomichi n ⣽㐨 lane, path, nar- hótto (na) adj ࣍ࢵࢺ ࡞ hot: ~ wadai ࣍ࢵࢺ࡞ヰ㢟 hot topic row road 89


KRWWRSXUďWR n ࣍ࢵࢺࣉ࣮ࣞࢺ


K\ĿEDQ n ホุ reputation, fame: ~ no ホุࡢ famous, popular: ~ hot plate hotto rain n ࣍ࢵࢺࣛ࢖ࣥ hotline ga warui ホุࡀᝏ࠸ have a bad hóttó-shimásu (-suru) v ࡯ࡗ࡜ࡋࡲ reputation ࡍ ࡍࡿ breathes a sigh of relief K\ĿGDL n ⾲㢟࣭ᶆ㢟 title (of book, KĿwa n 㣬࿴ saturation, impregarticle, e-mail…) K\ĿJD n ịἙ glacier: ~-ki ịἙ nation; KĿZDMĿWDL n 㣬࿴≧ែ ᮇ ice age: shüshoku ~-ki ᑵ⫋ saturated state KR\Ŀ n ಖ㣴 rest, recuperation: me ịἙᮇ hard times for collegeno ~ ┠ࡢಖ㣴 feast for the eyes graduate job seekers hu… ࡩ…࣭ࣇ… A fu… K\ĿJpQ n ⾲⌧ expression (words) hyakka-jíten n ⓒ⛉஦඾ encycloK\ĿJR n ᶆㄒ slogan; motto +\ĿJR n රᗜ Hyogo pedia hyakká-ten n ⓒ㈌ᗑ department K\ĿJX\D n ⾲ලᒇ paper-hanger/store (= depåto ࢹࣃ࣮ࢺ) repairer, picture-framer hyákkanichi n ⓒ࠿᪥ a memorial K\ĿKHQ n ㇮ኚ sudden change service 100 days after the death K\ĿK\Ŀ to adv ࡦࡻ࠺ࡦࡻ࠺࡜ hyakú n ⓒ࣭100 hundred; hyakúaloof from the world: ~ shite do n ⓒᗘ { a hundred times imásu ࡦࡻ࠺ࡦࡻ࠺࡜ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲ (= hyak-kái ⓒᅇ) | a hundred ࡍ is free as the wind K\ĿMĿ n ⾲᝟ expression (on face): degrees; hyakú-doru n ⓒࢻࣝ a hundred dollars: ~-satsu ⓒࢻࣝ ~´ o yawaragemásu ⾲᝟ࢆ࿴ࡽ ᮐ a hundred-dollar bill; hyaku en- ࡆࡲࡍ softens one’s expression dama n ⓒ෇⋢ hundred yen coin; K\ĿMXQ n ᶆ‽ standard; K\ĿMXQJR hyaku-mán n ⓒ୓࣭1,000,000 one n ᶆ‽ㄒ standard Japanese million; hyakú-nen n ⓒᖺ 100 (language) years; a century (= ~-kan ⓒᖺ K\ĿND n ホ౯ grade, opinion, 㛫); K\DNXVKĿ n ⓒጣ farmer appraisal: hito no ~ o kinishimasen ேࡢホ౯ࢆẼ࡟ࡋࡲࡏࢇ hyappatsuK\DNXFKŗ n ⓒⓎⓒ୰ hitting the mark ten times out of does not worry about what ten others think of hyĿ n ⾲ table, schedule, list K\ĿNtQ (na) adj ࡦࡻ࠺ࡁࢇ ࡞ K\Ŀ n ࣄ࣭ࣙ࢘㇮ leopard funny, comical K\Ŀ n ࡦࡻ࠺࣭㞿 hail (= arare hyokkori adv ࡦࡻࡗࡇࡾ acciden࠶ࡽࢀ࣭㟠) tally, by chance: ~ arawaremásu K\Ŀ n ⚊ vote: ~ o tøjiru ⚊ࢆᢞࡌ ࡦࡻࡗࡇࡾ⌧ࢀࡲࡍ appears ࡿ votes, casts a vote unexpectedly 90



hyokohyoko adv ࡦࡻࡇࡦࡻࡇ

K\ĿVKĿ n ⾲ᙲ official commendation: ~-jø ⾲ᙲ≧ certificate of commendation: ~-shiki ⾲ᙲᘧ


K\ĿPpQ n ⾲㠃 surface: ~-chøryoku ⾲㠃ᙇຊ surface tension awarding ceremony K\ĿUL n ⾲⿬ two faces: ~-ittai ⾲ K\ĿWiQ n ⎭⟸ gourd: ~ kara koma ⎭⟸࠿ࡽ㥖 produces an un⿬୍య two sides of the same coin: ~-no-aru… ⾲⿬ࡢ࠶ࡿ expected dividend K\ĿWHQ n ホⅬ evaluation score, two-faced K\ĿURQ n ホㄽ criticism, comment grade hyĿWHQ n ịⅬ freezing point (ary); K\ĿURQND n ホㄽᐙ critic, hyótto-shite adv ࡦࡻࡗ࡜ࡋ࡚ by commentator, reviewer K\ĿU\ŗ n ⁻ὶ drift any chance, maybe, possibly, hyĿVKi´ n ⾲⣬ cover (book, maga- could be K\Ŀ]DQ n ịᒣ iceberg: ~ no ikkazine, etc.) ku ịᒣࡢ୍ゅ tip of the iceberg K\ĿVKiki n ᶆ㆑ sign, mark(er): køtsü-~ ஺㏻ᶆ㆑ traffic sign; K\ŗ]X n ࣄ࣮ࣗࢬ fuse døro-~ 㐨㊰ᶆ㆑ road sign

I i n ⫶ = i-búkuro ⫶⿄ stomach; i-búkuro n ⫶⿄ [BOOKISH] stomach; LFKĿ n ⫶⭠ [BOOKISH] stomach and intestines; i-gan n ⫶⒴ (medical) stomach cancer; LNiL\Ŀ n ⫶₽⒆ (medical) (gastric)

ian n ៘Ᏻ consolation, comfort;

recreation ibarimásu, ibáru v ጾᙇࡾࡲࡍ, ጾᙇ ࡿ is/acts arrogant, haughty;


ibikí n ࠸ࡧࡁ snoring ibo n ␗ẕ different mother: ulcer i-… prefix ་… medicine, medi~-kyødai ␗ẕ඗ᘵ half brother(s): ~-shimai ␗ẕጜጒ half sister(s) cal, doctoring; í-gaku n ་Ꮫ medicine, medical science/stud- ibuningu-doresu n ࢖ࣈࢽࣥࢢࢻࣞ ࢫ evening dress ies: igaku-sei ་Ꮫ⏕ medical ibushimásu, ibusu v ࠸ࡪࡋࡲࡍ, ࠸ student; i-sha n ་⪅ doctor, ࡪࡍ smokes, fumigates, fumes physician ibutsu n ␗≀ exogenous material, …-i suffix …་ doctor, (= senmón-i ᑓ㛛་) medical specialist foreign body ibutsu n 㑇≀ relics, artifact …-i suffix … ఩ rank, grade




icha v [INFORMAL] ࠸ࡕࡷ = ité wa ࠸࡚ࡣ ichí n ୍࣭1 one: ~ ka bachi ka ୍࠿ඵ࠿ all or nothing; ichí-ban (no) adj ୍␒ ࡢ number one; first; ichí-banme (no) adj ୍␒┠ ࡢ first; ichí-bu n ୍㒊 a part, portion; a copy (of a book); LFKtE\Ŀ n ୍⛊ a second (1/60 minute); ichí-dai n ୍ྎ one (machine, vehicle); ichidanraku n ୍ẁⴠ one stage; ichi-dó n ୍ᗘ one time (= ik-kái ୍ᅇ, íp-pen ୍㐢); ichí-do n ୍ᗘ one degree; ichi-en n ୍෇ one yen; ichí-go n ୍ㄒ one word; ichí-ji n ୍᫬ { one o’clock | ~ (no) ୍᫬ ࡢ at one-time, once, temporary; ichi-jitsú n ୍᪥ one day; someday (= aru hi ࠶ࡿ᪥, ichi-nichí ୍᪥); ichí-mai n ୍ᯛ a sheet; one sheet (flat things); ichímei n ୍ྡ [BOOKISH] one person (= hitóri ୍ே); ichí-nen n ୍ᖺ the year 1; one year (= ~-kan ୍ᖺ㛫): ~-sei ୍ᖺ⏕ first-year student, freshman; ichi-nichí n ୍᪥ one day; ichí-wa n ୍⩚ one (bird, rabbit); ichí-wari n ୍๭ ten percent íchi n ఩⨨ position, location,

LFKLGĿ n ୍ྠ all (who are con-

cerned/present) Ichi-gatsú n ୍᭶࣭1 ᭶ January (= Shøgatsú ṇ᭶) ichigo n ࠸ࡕࡈ࣭࢖ࢳࢦ࣭Ⱬ

strawberry ichigo-ichie n ୍ᮇ୍఍ one in a

lifetime ichii n ࠸ࡕ࠸࣭࢖ࢳ࢖ yew ichi-ichi adv ࠸ࡕ࠸ࡕ one by one,

one after another, each time ichí-in n ୍ဨ a member ichí-in n ୍ᅉ a cause ichíjiku n ࢖ࢳࢪࢡ࣭↓ⰼᯝ fig: ~-no-ki ࠸ࡕࡌࡃࡢᮌ fig tree ichijirushíi adj ⴭࡋ࠸ [BOOKISH]

conspicuous, prominent, remarkable, striking ichiji-teki (na) adj ୍᫬ⓗ ࡞ temporary ichi-mán n ୍୓࣭10,000 ten thousand ichi-mi n ୍࿡ accomplice: tøzokudan no ~ ┐㈫ᅋࡢ୍࿡

member(s) of a robber band LFKLĿ adv ୍ᛂ࣭࠸ࡕ࠾࠺ as far as it goes, to some extent, just in case, tentatively ichi-rei n ୍౛ an example LFKLU\ŗ (no) adj ୍ὶ ࡢ first-rate, situation íchi(bá) n ᕷ ሙ market, market- topflight, elite: ~ kashu ୍ὶࡢḷ ᡭ superb singer place ichi-ban n ୍␒ most: ~ íi/warui ୍ LFKĿ n ࢖ࢳ࣭ࣙ࢘㖟ᮥ gingko ␒࠸࠸ᝏ࠸ best/worst (tree) LFKLEXVKLMŗ n ୍㒊ጞ⤊ all the idai (na) adj ೧኱ ࡞ great: ~ details: ~ o katarimásu ୍㒊ጞ⤊ hito/jinbutsu ೧኱࡞ே ≀ great ࢆㄒࡾࡲࡍ tells the whole story person 92



iden n 㑇ఏ heredity; iden-shi n 㑇ఏᏊ gene ideorogii n ࢖ࢹ࢜ࣟࢠ࣮ ideology í(do) n ஭ ᡞ a well ído n ⦋ᗘ latitude ie interj ࠸࠼ (= iie ࠸࠸࠼ no ié n ᐙ a house, a home ie-dé n ᐙฟ running away from home; iede-nin n ᐙฟே a runaway iemásu, ieru v ゝ࠼ࡲࡍ, ゝ࠼ࡿ can

ing: ~ ga ii ᒃᚰᆅࡀ࠸࠸ feels comfortable while staying iguana n ࢖ࢢ࢔ࢼ iguana LJ\Ŀ n ೧ᴗ great achievement: ~ o nashitogemásu ೧ᴗࢆᡂࡋ㐙 ࡆࡲࡍ accomplishes a great


ihan n 㐪཯ violation, offense: køtsü-~ ஺㏻㐪཯ traffic violation íi adj ࠸࠸ good; OK, right, corsay/tell rect (= yoi Ⰻ࠸): [NEGATIVE] iemásu, iéru v ⒵࠼ࡲࡍ, ⒵࠼ࡿ heals yóku arimasén Ⰻࡃ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ; ,HUĿSďML n ࢖࢚࣮࣮ࣟ࣌ࢪ Yellow [PAST] yókatta desu Ⰻ࠿ࡗࡓ࡛ࡍ; íi-hito n ࠸࠸ே { a good person Pages Iesu (Kirisuto) n ࢖࢚ࢫ ࢟ࣜࢫࢺ | sweetheart, lover ii-arawashimásu, ii-arawásu v ゝ࠸⾲ Jesus Christ íga n ⾰㣹 clothes moth ࢃ ࡋࡲࡍ, ゝ࠸⾲ ࢃ ࡍ ígai (na) adj ពእ ࡞ unexpected; expresses, puts into words ígai ni adv ពእ ࡟ unexpectedly iie interj ࠸࠸࠼ no (…) ígai suffix … ௨እ outside ii-kaemasu, ii-kaéru v ゝ࠸᥮࠼ࡲࡍ, ゝ࠸᥮࠼ࡿ rephrases, puts/says (of …), except (for) … igen n ጾཝ dignity: ~ o tamochi- it another way másu ጾཝࢆಖࡕࡲࡍ keep one’s ii-kagen adj 1. ࠸࠸ຍῶ rather, dignity pretty, moderate 2. ~ na ࠸࠸ຍ ígi n ព⩏ [BOOKISH] significance, ῶ ࡞ random, perfunctory, sense, meaning: ~ no aru shigoto halfhearted, haphazard ព⩏ࡢ࠶ࡿ௙஦ meaningful work ii-kata n ゝ࠸᪉ way of saying/ ígi n ␗㆟ [BOOKISH] objection telling/putting it, expression Igirisu n ࢖ࢠࣜࢫ England (= iimásu, iu/yŗ v ゝ࠸ࡲࡍ, ゝ࠺ ࡺ࠺ Eikoku ⱥᅜ ): ~-jin ࢖ࢠࣜࢫே says, tells; expresses íin n ጤဨ committee member(s); an English person ígo n ᅖ◻ the board game Go iín-kai n ጤဨ఍ committee ii-tai v ゝ࠸ࡓ࠸ wants to say: ~ (= gó ◻) ( … ) ígo suffix … ௨ᚋ afterward, kotó ゝ࠸ࡓ࠸ࡇ࡜>஦@ what from … on (= ( … ) ikø … one wants to say; ~ hø´dai ゝ࠸ ௨㝆) ࡓ࠸ᨺ㢟 says whatever one igokochi n ᒃᚰᆅ feeling of stay- wants/feels


ii-tsukemásu, ii-tsukéru


ii-tsukemásu, ii-tsukéru v ゝ࠸௜ࡅࡲ ࡀ࡛ࡍ࠿" How’s it going? ࡍ, ゝ࠸௜ࡅࡿ commands, orders; ikagawashíi adj ࠸࠿ࡀࢃࡋ ࠸ suspicious, questionable, tells on, tattles on ii-wake n ゝ࠸ヂ explanation, shady: ~ uwasa ࠸࠿ࡀࢃࡋ࠸შ excuse: ~ o shinaidekudasai. ゝ suspicious rumors ika-hodo adj ࠸࠿࡯࡝ how many? ࠸ヂࢆࡋ࡞࠸࡛ୗࡉ࠸ Please don’t give an excuse. (= íkura ࠸ࡃ>ᗄ@ࡽ ; how ...? ijí n ពᆅ temper, disposition: (= dono-gurai (-kurai) ࡝ࡢ఩) ~-waru ពᆅᝏ ill-tempered, ikan n 㑇᠍ regret ikaremásu, ikareru v ⾜࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, ⾜ mean(-spirited) íji n ⥔ᣢ maintenance, upkeep, ࠿ࢀࡿ 1. can go 2. [PASSIVE]


have them go (to one’s distress);

ijí-hi n ⥔ᣢ㈝ upkeep (expense) [HONORIFIC] goes (= irasshaimásu ijime ࠸ࡌࡵ n teasing, torment ࠸ࡽࡗࡋࡷ࠸ࡲࡍ) ijimek-ko n ࠸ࡌࡵࡗᏊ bully ikari n 㘌 anchor ijimemásu, ijimeru v ࠸ࡌࡵࡲࡍ, ࠸ ikarí n ᛣࡾ anger: ~ o shizumemásu ᛣࡾࢆ㟼ࡵࡲࡍ calms the ࡌࡵࡿ teases, torments LMĿ n ␗≧␗ᖖ something anger ikasemásu, ikaseru v ⾜࠿ࡏࡲࡍ, unusual/wrong (the matter), ⾜࠿ࡏࡿ sends (a person); lets abnormality: ~-kishø ␗ᖖẼ㇟

abnormal climate

(a person) go

( … ) tMĿ n, suffix … ௨ୖ above, ikashimásu, ikásu v ⏕࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ⏕࠿ࡍ 1. lets/makes it live, over, upwards of; the above;

brings life to, enlivens; keeps it alive; revives 2. makes the most of, makes good use of iké n ụ pond ikébana n ⏕ࡅⰼ>άⰼ@ flower arrangement ikemasén, ikenai v ࠸ࡅࡲࡏࢇ, ࠸ࡅ ࡞࠸ 1. it won’t do; you mustn’t; don’t 2. (that’s) too ikemásu, ikéru v ⏕>ά@ࡅࡲࡍ, ⏕ >ά@ࡅࡿ arranges (flowers) íken n ពぢ opinion, idea: go-~ ࡈពぢ (your/someone else’s) chøshi wa ~ desuka? ㄪᏊࡣ࠸࠿ opinion [HONORIFIC] 94

that’s it! (end of message/speech) = thank you (for your attention) LMŗ n ⛣ఫ emigration, immigration; LMŗVKD n ⛣ఫ⪅ emigrant, immigrant (= imin ⛣Ẹ) ika n ࢖࢝ cuttlefish, squid ( … ) íka n, suffix … ௨ୗ below (…), less than …: ~ no tøri desu ௨ୗࡢ㏻ࡾ࡛ࡍ as (described) below, as follows ikada n ⟁ raft ikága adv ࠸࠿ࡀ how (about it)? [DEFERENTIAL] (= dø´ ࡝࠺):



íken n 㐪᠇ constitutional viola-

ik-kái (no) n, adj ୍ᅇ ࡢ one tion time, once (= ichi-dó ୍ᗘ) iki (na) adj ⢋ ࡞ smart, stylish ikkansei n ୍㈏ᛶ consistency: íki n ᜥ breath: ~ o shimásu ᜥࢆ hanashi ni ~ ga arimásu ヰ࡟୍ ࡋࡲࡍ breathes; iki-gire n ᜥษࢀ ㈏ᛶࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ has consistency shortness of breath: hashitta ato in one’s talk ni ~ ga shimásu ㉮ࡗࡓᚋ࡟ᜥ ík-ken n ୍㌺ one house/building ษࢀࡀࡋࡲࡍ gets out of breath (counter for buildings) after running; iki-gurushii adj ᜥⱞ ík-ken n ୍௳ one case/matter ࡋ࠸ stuffy ík-ki ni adv ୍Ẽ࡟ with a gulp, …-iki (no) suffix …⾜ࡁ ࡢ bound with a dash, with a burst ík-ko n ୍ಶ one (piece, small for … LNLGĿUt n ៽ࡾ indignation, resent- object) (= hitótsu ࡦ࡜ࡘ୍࣭ࡘ) ik-ko n ୍ᡞ a house, a household ment LNLGĿULPiVu, LNLGĿUX v ៽ࡾࡲࡍ, LNNĿ n ୍⪃ consideration ៽ࡿ gets indignant, resents ik-kĿ (ni)… adv ୍ྥ ࡟  [+ ikigai n ⏕ࡁ⏥ᩫ something to NEGATIVE] not at all, never: ~ ni live for: ~ o kanjimásu ⏕ࡁ⏥ᩫ kamaimasen ୍ྥ࡟ᵓ࠸ࡲࡏࢇ I ࢆឤࡌࡲࡍ feels one’s life is don’t mind at all. ik-kyoku n ୍᭤ a piece of music, worth living, feels alive ikimásu, iku v ⾜ࡁࡲࡍ, ⾜ࡃ goes a song, a tune ikimásu, ikíru v ⏕ࡁࡲࡍ, ⏕ࡁࡿ ik-kyoku n ୍ᒁ a game ((i)go (the lives board game Go) and/or shøgi ikímono n ⏕ࡁ≀ living thing(s), (Japanese chess)) LNN\ŗ n ୍⣭ first class animal(s), creature(s) ikiói n ໃ࠸ energy: ~ yóku ໃ࠸ࡼ LNĿ n ពྥ one’s mind, inclination, ࡃ energetically intention; one’s views ikisatsu n ࠸ࡁࡉࡘ details, circum- ( … ) íNĿ suffix … ௨㝆 afterward, stances, complexities; complica- from … on (= ( … ) ígo … ௨ᚋ) ikoi n ᠁࠸ rest and relaxation: ~ tions iki-yasúi adj ⾜ࡁࡸࡍ࠸ accessible, no ba(sho) ᠁࠸ࡢሙ ᡤ recrea-

easy to get to

tion area

iki-zumarimásu, iki-zumáru v ⾜ࡁワࡲikoku n ␗ᅜ foreign countries; ࡾࡲࡍ, ⾜ࡁワࡲࡿ gets bogged LNRNXMĿFKR (no) adj ␗ᅜ᝟⥴ ࡢ



ik-kai n ୍㝵 one floor/story; first ikon n 㑇ᜟ grudge ikotsu n 㑇㦵 remains (of person) floor, ground floor




íku-… prefix ࠸ࡃ࣭ᗄ … = nán… ఱ… how many … LNXGĿRQ (ni) adv ␗ཱྀྠ㡢 ࡟

ima-da ni adv ᮍࡔ࡟ still (= mada ࡲࡔ) imásu, iru v ࠸ࡲࡍ, ࠸ࡿ is, stays imásu, íru v ᑕࡲࡍ, ᑕࡿ shoots unanimously ikuji n ⫱ඣ child care: ~-kyüka LPďML n ࢖࣓࣮ࢪ (psychological/ ⫱ඣఇᬤ child-care leave social) image (= gazø ⏬ീ) ikuji-nashi n ពẼᆅ࡞ࡋ coward, LLPďUX n E࣓࣮ࣝ e-mail (= mëru chicken: ikuji (no/ga) nai ពẼᆅ ࣓࣮ࣝ) ími n ព࿡ meaning: … to iu ~ ࡢࡀ ࡞࠸ is a coward, cowdesu …࡜࠸࠺ព࿡࡛ࡍ, … o ~ ardly ikura n ࢖ࢡࣛ salmon roe (caviar) shimásu …ࢆព࿡ࡋࡲࡍ it íkura n ࠸ࡃࡽ how much: ~ ka ࠸ means … ࡃࡽ࠿ some, a little; ~ mo ࠸ࡃ imin n ⛣Ẹ immigrant(s)/emigrant(s) ࡽࡶ ever so much, [+ NEGATIVE] imó n ࢖࣭ࣔⰞ yam; potato not very much; ~ de mo ࠸ࡃࡽ imó n ࠸ࡶ dork, country ࡛ࡶ a lot, as much as you like bumpkin (= inaka-mono ⏣⯋⪅) ikusa n ᡓ war (= sensø ᡓத) LPĿWy n ጒ younger sister: ~-san ikusei n ⫱ᡂ training, nuture, ጒࡉࢇ (your) younger sister inabíkari n ✄ග lightning cultivation íkutsu n ࠸ࡃࡘ how many; how inada n ࢖ࢼࢲ baby yellowtail (…) ínai suffix … ௨ෆ within old;~-ka ࠸ࡃࡘ࠿ several, a number of; ~ mo ࠸ࡃࡘࡶ ever inaka n ⏣⯋ country(side); one’s so many, [+ NEGATIVE] not very home area (hometown): ~ no ⏣ ⯋ࡢ rural; ~-mono ⏣⯋⪅ many; ~ de mo ࠸ࡃࡘ࡛ࡶ as many as you like country bumpkin (= imó ࠸ࡶ) ímá n ᒃ㛫 living room (Western- inarí-zushi n ࠸࡞ࡾ㩧>ᑑྖ@ sushi


in a bag of aburage (fried bean-

íma n ௒ now, this time: ~ wa ௒ curd) = o-inari san ࠾✄Ⲵࡉࢇ ࡣ at present; ~ no tokoró wa ௒ࡢinázuma n ࢖ࢼࢬ࣐࣭✄ጔ light࡜ࡇࢁࡣ for the time being, so ning LQEĿ n 㝜ㅛ dark plot(s), intrigue(s) far; ~ goro wa ௒ࡈࢁࡣ about (…-)ínchi suffix … ࢖ࣥࢳ this time; ima-máde adv ௒ࡲ࡛

until now, up to the present (time); inch(es) íma-ni adv ௒࡟ before long, soon, ínchiki (na) adj ࠸ࢇࡕࡁ ࡞ fake, by and by, presently: ~-ni mo fraud(ulent): ~ shøbai ࠸ࢇࡕࡁ ௒࡟ࡶ at any moment; ima-sara ࡞ၟ኎ fraud business tQFKĿ n 㝔㛗 hospital head/director adv ௒ࡉࡽ at this point 96



Indian n ࢖ࣥࢹ࢕࢔ࣥ (American) LQU\ĿVXL n 㣧ᩱỈ drinking water Indian, native American (= inyø-sui 㣧⏝Ỉ) Indo n ࢖ࣥࢻ India; Indó-jin n ࢖ࣥ insatsu n ༳ๅ printing: ~-butsu ࢻே Indian (from India) ༳ๅ≀ printed matter Indonéshia n ࢖ࣥࢻࢿࢩ࢔ Indo- inshi n ༳⣬ revenue stamp nesia; Indoneshia-go n ࢖ࣥࢻࢿࢩ LQVKĿ n ༳㇟ impression; LQVKĿWHNL (na) adj ༳㇟ⓗ ࡞ impressive ࢔ㄒ Indonesian (language); Indoneshiá-jin n ࢖ࣥࢻࢿࢩ࢔ே an inshoku n 㣧㣗 drinking and eating; inshoku-ten n 㣧㣗ᗑ restaurant(s) Indonesian íne n ✄ rice plant (= resutoran ࣞࢫࢺࣛࣥ) inemúri-shimásu (suru) v ᒃ╀ࡾࡋࡲ inshu n 㣧㓇 drinking: ~-unten 㣧 ࡍ ࡍࡿ dozes off 㓇㐠㌿ driving after drinking LQIRPďVKRQ n ࢖ࣥࣇ࢛࣓࣮ࢩࣙࣥ insutanto n ࢖ࣥࢫࢱࣥࢺ instant: ~ køhii ࢖ࣥࢫࢱࣥࢺࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮ information infure n ࢖ࣥࣇࣞ inflation instant coffee infuruénza n ࢖ࣥࣇ࢚ࣝࣥࢨ flu, LQVXWRUDNXWă n ࢖ࣥࢫࢺࣛࢡࢱ࣮



íngen, ingénmame n ࢖ࣥࢤ࣭ࣥ࠸ ࢇࡆࢇ, ࢖ࣥࢤ࣐࣓࣭ࣥ࠸ࢇࡆࢇ ㇋ kidney beans, French beans ín(kan) n ༳ 㚷 seal, stamp (= hán ุ, hankó ุᏊ) inkei n 㝜ⱼ penis inki (na) adj 㝜Ẽ ࡞ gloomy,

LQVXWĿUX n ࢖ࣥࢫࢺ࣮ࣝ installation

(on computer) LQWDE\ŗ n ࢖ࣥࢱࣅ࣮ࣗ interview: ~-kiji ࢖ࣥࢱࣅ࣮ࣗグ஦

interview article LQWăFKHQML n ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ࢳ࢙ࣥࢪ

highway interchange(s)

LQWăKRQ n ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮࣍ࣥ intercom ínku, ínki n ࢖ࣥࢡ, ࢖ࣥ࢟ ink intai n ᘬ㏥ retirement ínku-jetto n ࢖ࣥࢡࢪ࢙ࢵࢺ ink intăQ n ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ࣥ intern jet: ~ purintå ࢖ࣥࢡࢪ࢙ࢵࢺࣉ LQWăQDVKRQDUX n ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ࢼࢩࣙࢼ ࣜࣥࢱ࣮ inkjet printer ࣝ international ínochi n ࿨ one’s life (= séimei ⏕࿨) LQWăQHWWR n ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ࢿࢵࢺ inorí n ♳ࡾprayer Internet; LQWăQHWWRNDIH n ࢖ࣥࢱ inorimásu, inóru v ♳ࡾࡲࡍ, ♳ࡿ ࣮ࢿࢵࢺ࢝ࣇ࢙ Internet cafe; LQWăQHWWRWVŗKDQ n ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ࢿࢵࢺ prays; wishes for, hopes for inpo n ࢖࣏ࣥ sexual impotence ㏻㈍ online shopping, Internet inreki n 㝜ᬺ lunar calendar shopping inryoku n ᘬຊ attractive force, LQWăQVKLSSX n ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ࣥࢩࢵࣉ



internship 97


interi n ࢖ࣥࢸࣜ intellectual;


irai n ౫㢗 request; dependence, highbrow reliance; trust, commission interia n ࢖ࣥࢸࣜ࢔ interior (…) írai suffix, conj … ௨᮶ (ever) (accessory) since… inú n ࢖ࢾ࣭≟ dog iraremásu, irareru v ࠸ࡽࢀࡲࡍ, い LQ·\Ŀ n ᘬ⏝ quoting, quotation ࡽࢀࡿ can stay/be LQ\ĿVXL n 㣧⏝Ỉ drinking water irasshaimásu, irassháru v ࠸ࡽࡗࡋ ࡷ࠸ࡲࡍ, ࠸ࡽࡗࡋࡷࡿ (= inryø-sui 㣧ᩱỈ) inzei n ༳⛯ royalties (from one’s [HONORIFIC] 1. comes (= kimásu ᮶ࡲࡍ) 2. goes (= ikimásu ⾜ࡁ book(s)) ippai n ࠸ࡗࡥ࠸ fully, full of; many, ࡲࡍ) 3. stays, is (= imásu ࠸ࡲࡍ) much, lots (= takusan ࡓࡃࡉࢇ) 4. interj = irasshaimáse ࠸ࡽࡗࡋ ~ (no) ࠸ࡗࡥ࠸ ࡢ full, filled ࡷ࠸ࡲࡏ (Welcome!) -ippai suffix ࠸ࡗࡥ࠸ whole, irásuto n ࢖ࣛࢫࢺ illustration entire: konshu-~ ௒㐌࠸ࡗࡥ࠸ iremásu, ireru v ධࢀࡲࡍ, ධࢀࡿ all this week, whole week puts in, lets in, admits; includes: íp-pai n ୍ᮼ a cupful, a glassful; denwa o ~ 㟁ヰࢆධࢀࡲࡍ puts a drink in a call; ire-ba n ධࢀṑ false ip-paku n ୍Ἡ one night’s lodgteeth; ire-mono n ධࢀ≀ container; ire-zumi n ධࢀቚ่࣭㟷 tattoo (= ing/stay ippan (no) adj ୍⯡ ࡢ general, tatü ࢱࢺ࣮ࢗ) overall; ippan-teki (na/ni) adj, adv iremásu, iréru v ⅗ࢀࡲࡍ, ⅗ࢀࡿ ୍⯡ⓗ ࡞࡟ general, in general can roast ip-pén n ୍㐢 one time (= ichi-dó iremásu, iréru v ᑕࢀࡲࡍ, ᑕࢀࡿ ୍ᗘ, ik-kái ୍ᅇ) can shoot (arrow) ip-pikí n ୍༉ one (fish/bug, small iriguchi, irikuchi n ධཱྀ entrance irimásu, iru v せࡾࡲࡍ, せࡿ is animal) LSSLQU\ĿUL n ୍ရᩱ⌮ à la carte necessary; needs, wants irimásu, íru v ⅗ࡾࡲࡍ, ⅗ࡿ roasts dishes LSSĿ n ୍᪉ 1. one side 2. mø ~ iri-támago n ⅗ࡾ༸ scrambled eggs (de wa) ࡶ࠺୍᪉ ࡛ࡣ the other LUL\Ŀ (na) adj ධࡾ⏝ ࡞ needed side, on the other hand; but, mean- (= nyüyø (na) ධ⏝ ࡞ ) while; LSSĿWVŗNĿ n ୍᪉㏻⾜ one- iró n Ⰽ color; sex; iro-ai n Ⰽྜ࠸ way (traffic, argument) tone (coloring); iró-gami n Ⰽ⣬ íp-pon n ୍ᮏ one (pencil/bottle, colored paper i ró (yo) v ࠸ࢁ ࡼ [IMPERATIVE] long thing), a point íp-pun n ୍ศ one minute (stay!) 98



iroiro (no/na) adj ࠸ࢁ࠸ࢁ ࡢ࡞ íssái adj, adv ୍ษ all, everything,


without exception

ironna … adj ࠸ࢁࢇ࡞… various iroppói adj Ⰽࡗࡱ࠸ erotic isé-ebi n ఀໃ࢚ࣅ>ᾏ⪁@ lobster isei n ␗ᛶ (person of) the opposite sex: ~ no yüjin ␗ᛶࡢ཭ே

ís-sai n ୍ṓ one year old (= hitótsu ୍ࡘ) issakú- prefix ୍᫖: ~-ban/-ya ୍᫖ᬌኪ night before last (= ototoí no ban/yoru ୍᫖᪥ࡢ ᬌኪ); ~-jitsu ୍᫖᪥ day before friend(s) of the opposite sex isei (ga/no) ii adj ጾໃ ࡀࡢ ࠸࠸ yesterday (= ototói ୍᫖᪥) is-satsú n ୍෉ one book (magaspirited, buckish iseki n 㑇㊧ remains zine) iseki n ⛣⡠ transfer ís-sei n ୍ୡ 1. first generation: LVKDU\Ŀ n ៘ㅰᩱ compensation/ nikkei-~ ᪥⣔୍ୡ first-generation damages for mental suffering: ~ Japanese immigrants 2. … the o motomemásu ៘ㅰᩱࢆồࡵࡲࡍ First: Erizabesu-~ ࢚ࣜࢨ࣋ࢫ୍ ୡ Elizabeth I 3. one generation: asks for compensation ishí n ▼ stone, rock ~ ichidai (no) ୍ୡ୍௦ ࡢ once íshi n ពᚿ will, intention in a lifetime íshiki n ព㆑ consciousness: ~ o is-sei (ni) adv ୍ᩧ ࡟ all together ushinaimásu ព㆑ࢆኻ࠸ࡲࡍ LVVHNLQLFKĿ n ୍▼஧㫽 loses consciousness, passes out is-sén n ୍༓࣭1,000 one thousand íshindenshin (de) adv ௨ᚰఏᚰ ࡛ (= sén ༓) issetsú n ୍⠇ passage (of text) (by) telepathy ísho n 㑇᭩ will LVVKĿ n ୍⏕ one’s whole life tVKĿ n ⾰⿦ costume tVVKĿ n ୍༖ 1.8 liters: ~´-bin ୍ íshoku n ⛣᳜ transplantation: ༖⎼ a 1.8-liter bottle (of saké) shinzø-~ ᚰ⮚⛣᳜ cardiac LVVKĿNpQPHL (ni) adv ୍⏕ᠱ࿨ ࡟


desperately; very hard

ishRNXMŗ n ⾰㣗ఫ food, clothing

issho (ni) adv ୍⥴ ࡟ together ís-shu n ୍✀ a kind, a sort and shelter isogashíi adj ᛁࡋ࠸ busy: shigoto isshun n ୍▐ a moment: ~ no ga ~ ௙஦ࡀᛁࡋ࠸ is busy at work dekigoto ୍▐ࡢฟ᮶஦ moment isogí n ᛴࡂ haste; ~ no adj ᛴࡂ event/happening ࡢ hasty, hurried, urgent isso adv ࠸ࡗࡑ rather, preferably isogimásu, isógu v ᛴࡂࡲࡍ, ᛴࡄ LVVĿ adv ୍ᒙ all the more…,

hurries, rushes LVĿUĿ n ᒃೃ freeloader

still/much more … LVVĿ n ୍ᤲ sweep, cleanup



isu n ࠸ࡍ࣭࢖ࢫ᳔࣭Ꮚ chair Isuraeru n ࢖ࢫ࢚ࣛࣝ Israel; Isuraeru-jin n ࢖ࢫ࢚ࣛࣝே Israeli ,VXUDPXN\Ŀ n ࢖ࢫ࣒ࣛᩍ Islam (= kaikyø ᅇᩍ); ,VXUDPXN\ĿWR n ࢖ࢫ࣒ࣛᩍᚐ Muslim, Moslem íta n ᯈ board, plank; ita-choko n ᯈࢳࣙࢥ chocolate bar itachi n ࢖ࢱࢳ weasel: itachi-~ ࢖ ࢱࢳࡈࡗࡇ vicious circle itadaki n 㡬 peak, summit (= chøjø´ 㡬ୖ) itadakimásu, itadaku v ࠸ࡓࡔࡁࡲࡍ, ࠸ࡓࡔࡃ (I/we humbly) receive,


࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ㄒ Italian (language); Itariá-jin n ࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ே an Italian itashimásu, itásu v ⮴ࡋࡲࡍ, ⮴ࡍ

[HUMBLE/DEFERENTIAL] do(es) (= shimásu ࡋࡲࡍ) itatte adv ⮳ࡗ࡚ extremely itazura n ࠸ࡓࡎࡽ mischief, prank: ~-denwa ࠸ࡓࡎࡽ㟁ヰ prank call; itazurá-kko n ࠸ࡓࡎࡽ ࡗᏊ naughty child itazura ni adv ࠸ࡓࡎࡽ࡟ in vain, for nothing: ~ toki o sugoshimásu ࠸ࡓࡎࡽ࡟᫬ࢆ㐣ࡈࡋࡲࡍ

spends one’s time in idleness itchi n ୍⮴ agreement, consensus eat, drink itade n ③ᡭ damage: ~ o ukemásu ite n ᑕᡭ archer ③ᡭࢆཷࡅࡲࡍ gets damage(s) íto n ⣒ thread, yarn, string: takoitái adj ③࠸ painful, hurting, sore ~ ฏ⣒ kite string; itó-maki n ⣒ᕳ itamae n ᯈ๓ chef (of Japanese ࡁ spool; reel íto n ពᅗ intention, plan, purpose; food) itamemásu, itaméru v ③ࡵࡲࡍ, ③ ito-teki ni adv ពᅗⓗ࡟ on purpose itóko n ࠸࡜ࡇ࣭ᚑ඗ᘵ࣭ᚑጜጒ ࡵࡿ hurts, injures itamemásu, itaméru v യࡵࡲࡍ, യ cousin: (o-)~-san ࠾ ࠸࡜ࡇࡉ ࡵࡿ damages, spoils it ࢇ (your/someone else’s) cousin itamemásu, itaméru v ⅗ࡵࡲࡍ, ⅗ itomá n ᬤ 1. leave-taking, farewell ࡵࡿ (pan-)fries, sautés: itame2. free time (= hima ᬤ); leave mono ⅗ࡵ≀ stir-fry of absence itamimásu, itámu v ③ࡳࡲࡍ, ③ࡴ itoshíi adj ឡࡋ࠸ dear (beloved) ítsu n, adv ࠸ࡘ when it aches itamimásu, itámu v യࡳࡲࡍ, യࡴ ítsu dé mo adv ࠸ࡘ࡛ࡶ any time it spoils, rots (at all) itamiwake n ③ࡳ>യࡳ@ศࡅ draw itsu-goro n ࠸ࡘ㡭 about when caused by injuries in Sumo match itsuká n ஬᪥ five days; fifth day itarimásu, itáru v ⮳ࡾࡲࡍ, ⮳ࡿ (of month) arrives (at), reaches (to), goes/ ítsu-ka adv ࠸ࡘ࠿ sometime ítsu kara adv ࠸ࡘ࠿ࡽ since comes (to) Itaria n ࢖ࢱࣜ࢔ Italy; Itaria-go n when, how long 100



itsukushimi n ឿࡋࡳ tender love (= jiai ឿឡ): itsukushi mimásu ឿࡋࡳࡲࡍ loves tenderly ítsu made adv ࠸ࡘࡲ࡛ until when,

tWWĿ n ୍㢌 one (horse/ox, large


it-tsui n ୍ᑐ a pair iwá n ᒾ rock, crag íwa ba conj ࠸ࢃࡤ so to speak how long ítsu made mo adv ࠸ࡘࡲ࡛ࡶ for- iwái n ⚃࠸ celebration A iwaimásu ⚃࠸ࡲࡍ ever ítsu made ni adv ࠸ࡘࡲ࡛࡟ by iwaimásu, iwáu v ⚃࠸ࡲࡍ, ⚃࠺



ítsu-mo adv ࠸ࡘࡶ always, usually: ~ no ࠸ࡘࡶࡢ usual ítsu-no-ma-ni (ka) adv ࠸ࡘࡢ㛫@࡟ ࠿ before one knows it itsútsu n ஬ࡘ five pieces (small objects) (= gó-ko ஬ಶ); five years old (= gó-sai ஬ṓ) itsuwári n ഇࡾ falsehood, lie (= uso ბ) ittai … adv ୍య … on earth, … ever … !: ~ døshitan desuka? ୍ య࡝࠺ࡋࡓࢇ࡛ࡍ࠿" What on

earth happened

iwashi n ࢖࣡ࢩ࣭㫇 sardine iwáyúru adj ࠸ࢃࡺࡿ so-called,

what is known as iya interj ࠸ࡸ (usually male) no,

nope iyá (na) adj ᎘ ࡞ unpleasant;

disagreeable; disgusting, nasty iya-garimásu, iya-gáru v ᎘ࡀࡾࡲࡍ, ᎘ࡀࡿ dislikes, hates íyaringu n ࢖ࣖࣜࣥࢢ earring iyashii adj ༝ࡋ࠸ lowly, vulgar iyó-iyo adv ࠸ࡼ࠸ࡼ 1. at last, finally 2. more and more 3.

ittai-ka n ୍య໬ unification surely ittei (no) adj ୍ᐃ ࡢ fixed, settled, iza adv ࠸ࡊ when it comes to definite (actually do so): ~ to iu toki ࠸ࡊ Itte(i)rasshái interj ࠸ࡗ࡚ ࠸ ࡽࡗ ࡜࠸࠺᫬ in a pinch, in the worst ࡋࡷ࠸, Itte(i)rassháimáse case [HONORIFIC] ࠸ࡗ࡚ ࠸ ࡽࡋࡷ࠸ (…) ízen suffix … ௨๓ before, ࡲࡏ Good-bye! (said to those up until …, ago izumi n Ἠ fountain, spring departing home) Itte kimásu, Itte mairimásu interj ⾜ izure adv ࠸ࡎࢀ some other time; ࡗ࡚ࡁࡲࡍཧࡾࡲࡍ Good-bye! someday: ~ mata chikaiuchini oaishimashø ࠸ࡎࢀࡲࡓ㏆࠸࠺ (said to those staying home) LWWĿ QR n, adj ୍➼ ࡢ first, first ࡕ࡟࠾఍࠸ࡋࡲࡋࡻ࠺ Let’s meet class: ~seki/-sha ୍➼ᖍ㌴ first- up again sometime soon.

class seat/car 101



J ja interj, adv [INFORMAL] ࡌࡷ, jå´ ࡌࡷ࠶ well, well then; in that case; (well) now (= déwa ࡛ࡣ) …ja suffix [INFORMAL] …ࡌࡷ = … dé wa …࡛ࡣ ja n ⺬ snake jaaku (na) adj [BOOKISH] 㑧ᝏ ࡞

ࡋࡲࡍ gets in the way, becomes a bother Jamaika n ࢪ࣐ࣕ࢖࢝ Jamaica jámu n ࢪ࣒ࣕ jam (to eat) …ja nákereba suffix, v [INFORMAL] …ࡌࡷ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ unless it be: ~ narimasén …ࡌࡷ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡾ ࡲࡏࢇ must (has to) be evil jabu n ࢪࣕࣈ jab …ja náku(te) suffix, v [INFORMAL] MDJă n ࢪ࣮ࣕ࢞ jaguar …ࡌࡷ࡞ࡃ ࡚ (it) is not and/ jagaimo n ࡌࡷࡀ࠸ࡶ࣭ࢪࣕ࢞࢖ࣔ but; without being …ja nákute mo suffix, v [INFORMAL] (Irish) potato jaguchi n ⺬ཱྀ faucet, tap …ࡌࡷ࡞ࡃ࡚ࡶ even if it not be: jajauma n ࡌࡷࡌࡷ㤿 shrew ~ íi desu …ࡌࡷ࡞ࡃ࡚ࡶ࠸࠸࡛ MăML n ࢪ࣮ࣕࢪ jersey ࡍ it need not be jákétto n ࢪࣕࢣࢵࢺ jacket …ja nákute wa suffix, v [INFORMAL] jakén (na/ni) adj, adv 㑧㝤 ࡞࡟ ࡌࡷ࡞ࡃ࡚ࡣ, …ja nákya …ࡌࡷ ࡞ࡁࡷ not being, without being; blunt(ly) jakkan (no) adj ⱝᖸ ࡢ some unless it be: ja nákya ikemasén (amount of), several …ࡌࡷ࡞ࡃ࡚ࡣ ࡌࡷ࡞ࡁࡷ ࠸ jakku n ࢪࣕࢵࢡ jack ࡅࡲࡏࢇ it must (has to) be MDNĿ n ࢪࣕࢥ࣭࢘㯊㤶 civet, musk: MăQDULVXWR n ࢪ࣮ࣕࢼࣜࢫࢺ ~-jika ࢪࣕࢥ࢘ࢪ࢝ musk deer: journalist ~-neko ࢪࣕࢥ࢘ࢿࢥ musk cat MăQDUX n ࢪ࣮ࣕࢼࣝ journal jakuhai (mono) n [BOOKISH] ⱝ㍮ ⪅ janbo n ࢪࣕࣥ࣎ jumbo: ~ jettoyoung and inexperienced person ki ࢪࣕࣥ࣎ࢪ࢙ࢵࢺᶵ jumbo jakunen-sha n [BOOKISH] ⱝᖺ⪅ the jet aircraft young, a youth (= wakamono ⱝ⪅) jánguru n ࢪࣕࣥࢢࣝ jungle: ~-jímu jakusha n ᙅ⪅ the weak (person) ࢪࣕࣥࢢࣝࢪ࣒ jungle gym jakuten n ᙅⅬ weak point jankuIŗGR n ࢪࣕࣥࢡࣇ࣮ࢻ junk jama n 㑧㨱 disturbance, hindrance, food obstacle: ~ (na) 㑧㨱 ࡞ intrusive, MiQSă n ࢪࣕࣥࣃ࣮ windbreaker bothersome; ~ ni narimásu 㑧㨱 (jacket) ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ, ~ o shimásu 㑧㨱ࢆ jánpu n ࢪࣕࣥࣉ jump 102



janru n ࢪࣕࣥࣝ genre jibikí n Ꮠᘬࡁ dictionary (= jísho jarajara adj ࢪࣕࣛࢪࣕࣛ jangling ㎡᭩) jíbun n ᫬ศ time sound jara-shimásu, jara-su v ࡌࡷࡽࡋࡲࡍ, jidai n ᫬௦ age, period, era, time, ࡌࡷࡽࡍ plays with: (ko)neko o …-jídai …᫬௦ period: Edo-~ Ụ ~ Ꮚ ⊧ࢆࡌࡷࡽࡋࡲࡍ plays ᡞ᫬௦ the Edo period MtGĿ n ඣ❺ child (elementary with a kitten/cat jari n ◁฼ gravel, pebbles school student) (= seito ⏕ᚐ) Jawa n ࢪࣕ࣡ Java MLGĿ n ⮬ື automatic; MLGĿGRD n jazu n ࢪࣕࢬ jazz ⮬ືࢻ࢔ auto(matic) door; MLGĿ hanbaiki n ⮬ື㈍኎ᶵ vending Jei ăUu, -ď ăUX n ࢪ࢙࢖࢔࣮ࣝ, ࢪ ࢙࣮࢔࣮ࣝ, JR (Japan Railway) machine; MLGĿVKD n ⮬ື㌴ jettó-ki n ࢪ࢙ࢵࢺᶵ jet (plane) automobile (= kuruma ㌴ ji n ⑝ hemorrhoids Jiei-tai n ⮬⾨㝲 the Self-Defense jí n Ꮠ = moji ᩥᏐ a letter Forces (symbol): kanji ₎Ꮠ a Chinese jigoku´ n ᆅ⊹ hell MtJ\Ŀ n ஦ᴗ enterprise, business, character jí n ᆅ land, ground; texture; undertaking jíi n ⮬៘ masturbation (= onanii fabric ji-… prefix ⮬… self; one’s own; ࢜ࢼࢽ࣮ ji-bun n ⮬ศ oneself; myself; jii-pan n ࢪ࣮ࣃࣥ blue jeans alone; ~ de ⮬ศ࡛ by oneself, in jíjitsu n ஦ᐇ fact, truth person; ~ no ⮬ศࡢ (one’s) own; MLMĿ n ஦᝟ circumstances; condigo-~ ࡈ⮬ศ yourself; jí-ga n ⮬ᡃ tions: ~ o nomikomimásu ஦᝟ࢆ ego; jí-ko n ⮬ᕫ (one)self; ji-sei n 㣧ࡳ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ understands the ⮬ไ self-control; ji-shin n ⮬ಙ situation self-confidence/-assurance: ~ o jikan n ᫬㛫 time; hour(s): ~ ga mótte … (shimásu ) ⮬ಙࢆᣢࡗ kakarimásu ᫬㛫ࡀ࠿࠿ࡾࡲࡍ it ࡚… ࡋࡲࡍ (does it) with takes time; ~-dø´ri (no/ni) ᫬㛫 ㏻ࡾ ࡢ࡟ on time confidence; ji-taku n ⮬Ꮿ one’s …-jikan suffix …᫬㛫 time; hour(s): home/residence …-ji suffix …᫬ o’clock: roku-~ eigyø-~ Ⴀᴗ᫬㛫 business hours; 6᫬ six o’clock kinmu-~ ໅ົ᫬㛫 working hours …-ji suffix …ᑎ temple (name): MLNDQK\Ŀ n ᫬㛫⾲ timetable, Kinkaku-ji 㔠㛶ᑎ schedule jiai n [BOOKISH] ឿឡ tender love jíka ni adv ┤࡟ directly; personally jíken n ஦௳ happening, incident, (= itsukushimi ឿࡋࡳ)




event, affair, case: ~ o kaiketsu- MLQGĿ n ே㐨 1. humanity 2. walkshimásu ஦௳ࢆゎỴࡋࡲࡍ way, pedestrian path MLQJŗ n ⚄ᐑ (large) Shinto shrine solves a case/cases jíki n ᫬ᮇ time; season: ~-shøsø jinin n ேဨ personnel ᫬ᮇᑦ᪩ prematurity jínja n ⚄♫ Shinto shrine jíki n ᫬ᶵ opportune time, oppor- jínji n ே஦ personnel/human tunity, chance: ~ o machimásu affairs; jinji-ka n ே஦ㄢ personnel ᫬ᶵࢆᚅࡕࡲࡍ waits for a (section) jínjĿ adj ᑜᖖ [BOOKISH] usual, chance jíki n ☢ჾ porcelain A WĿNL 㝡ჾ normal (= futsü ᬑ㏻ : ~-denai jíki (no) n ☢Ẽ ࡢ magnetic ᑜᖖ࡛࡞࠸ unusual, abnormal jiki (ni) adv ┤ ࡟ soon; immejinken n ேᶒ human rights MLQNĿ n ேཱྀ population diately jikka n ᐇᐙ one’s parent’s home MLQNĿ (no) adj ேᕤ ࡢ artificial jikken n ᐇ㦂 experiment: kagaku jinríkí-sha n ேຊ㌴ ricksha (no) ~ ໬Ꮫ ࡢ ᐇ㦂 chemical jínrui n ே㢮 human beings, the experiment

human race

MLNNĿ n ᐇ⾜ performance; practice; realization, running: puroguramu o ~ shimásu ࣉࣟࢢ࣒ࣛࢆᐇ⾜ࡋ ࡲࡍ runs a program jíko n ஦ᨾ accident jíkoku n ᫬้ time (specified) MLNRNXK\Ŀ n ᫬้⾲ time schedule, timetable: densha no ~ 㟁㌴ࡢ᫬ ้⾲ railway timetable jikú n ㍈ axis, axle: chi-jiku ᆅ㍈ earth axis; jiten-jiku ⮬㌿㍈

(planet’s) rotational axis jiman n ⮬៏ pride, boast jímen n ᆅ㠃 ground (surface) jimí (na) adj ᆅ࿡ ࡞ plain, sober jímu n ஦ົ business, office work; jimu-sho n ஦ົᡤ office jímu n ࢪ࣒ gym(nasium) …´-jín suffix …ே person jínbutsu n ே≀ personage

jinsei n ே⏕ (one’s) life jinshu n ே✀ race (peoples): ~ sabetsu ே✀ᕪู racial discrimination: ~ no rutsubo ே✀ࡢࡿࡘ ࡰ melting pot ji-nushi n ᆅ୺ landowner jinzĿ n ⭈⮚ kidneys MLQ]Ŀ (no) adj ே㐀 ࡢ artificial,

imitation, false (man-made) MtSSă n ࢪࢵࣃ࣮ zipper jira-shimásu, jira-su v ࡌࡽࡋࡲࡍ, ࡌࡽࡍ irritates someone,

tantalizes, teases jírojiro mimásu (míru) v ࡌࢁࡌࢁぢ ࡲࡍ ぢࡿ stares at jísa n ᫬ᕪ difference in time: ~-boke ᫬ᕪࡰࡅ jet lag; ~-shukkin ᫬ᕪ ฟ໅ staggered work hours jisan shimásu (suru) v ᣢཧࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ brings along, takes along



jisatsu n ⮬ẅ suicide: ~-ganbø ⮬ ẅ㢪ᮃ desire of suicide jisei n ᫬ໃ (the trend of) the times jisei n ᫬ୡ the times jísetsu n ᫬⠇ season; (appropri-


cle: jitensha-ya ⮬㌿㌴ᒇ bicycle shop/dealer jitsú n ᐇ truth: ~ ni ᐇ࡟ truly, really, indeed; ~ no ᐇࡢ true, real; jitsu-butsu n ᐇ≀ the real ate) time, occasion, opportunity thing; the actual person; jitsu-ryoku jíshaku n ☢▼ magnet n ᐇຊ (real) strength, ability, jishin n ᆅ㟈 earthquake proficiency; force, power; MLWVX\Ŀ jishin n ☢㔪 magnetic needle: n ᐇ⏝ practical use/application, høi-~ ᪉఩☢㔪 compass utility -jishin n ⮬㌟ oneself; myself (= MLWVXJ\Ŀ n ᐇᴗ business, enterprise: jibun-~ ⮬ศ⮬㌟): kare-~ ᙼ⮬ ~-ka ᐇᴗᐙ businessperson, ㌟ himself businessman jísho n ㎡᭩ dictionary jitto adv ࡌࡗ࡜ intently, steadily, jishoku n ㎡⫋ resignation (from a fixedly (staring); quietly, position) patiently jisoku n ᫬㏿ (per hour) speed ML\ŗ n ⮬⏤ freedom, liberty: ~ jissai n, adv ᐇ㝿 actual conditions, (na) ⮬⏤ ࡞ free; fluent, at reality; in practice; in fact, really ease; ~ ni ⮬⏤࡟ freely; fluently; ji-súberi n ᆅ⁥ࡾ landslide ~-gyø ⮬⏤ᴗ freelancing, jítai n ஦ែ situation, state of affairs freelance work; ~-seki ⮬⏤ᖍ jítai n, adv ⮬య 1. the thing itself unreserved seat 2. originally jizen n ឿၿ charity jítai n ㎡㏥ non-acceptance, refusal MĿ n 㘄 1. (= jø-mae 㘄๓) lock jitchi n ᐇᆅ actuality, (putting to) 2. (= jøzai 㘄๣ pill practice: ~ (no) keiken o tsumi- MĿ adj, n ୖ 1. (= jøtø (na) ୖ➼ másu ᐇᆅ ࡢ ⤒㦂ࢆ✚ࡳࡲࡍ ࡞ ) deluxe 2. (= ~-kan ୖᕳ) gets on-the-job experience(s) first volume (of a set of 2 or 3) jiten n ㎡඾ dictionary (= jísho ㎡ «MĿ suffix …␚ (counts room ᭩): kokugo-~ ᅜㄒ㎡඾ Japanese sizes by tatami mat): hachí-~ (ma) ඵ␚ 㛫 eight tatami mats (room) dictionary: eiwa-~ ⱥ࿴㎡඾, einichi-~ ⱥ᪥㎡඾ English«MĿ suffix …ᇛ castle (name): Osaka-jø ኱㜰ᇛ the Osaka-jø Japanese dictionary jiten n ஦඾ dictionary, subject castle MĿEX (na) adj ୔ኵ ࡞ sturdy, firm, book: hyakka-~ ⓒ⛉஦඾ encyclopedia healthy; safe (= daijøbu ኱୔ኵ) jitén-sha, jidén-sha n ⮬㌿㌴ bicy- MRFKĿ n ຓ㛗 promotion, furtherance 105



MRFKŗ n ዪ୰ maid-servant MĿGiQ n ෕ㄯ joke: ~ hanbun (ni) ෕ㄯ༙ศ ࡟ half in jest MĿHL n ୖᫎ showing (movie) MĿHQ n ୖ₇ performance jo-gákusei, joshi gákusei n ዪᏛ⏕, ዪᏊᏛ⏕ female student MĿJH n ୖୗ top and bottom, high

and row, up and down MĿJL n ᐃつ ruler (to measure with) jogingu n ࢪࣙࢠࣥࢢ jog(ging) MĿJR n ₃ᩯ funnel MĿKtQ (na) adj ୖရ ࡞ elegant,

refined MĿKĿ n ᝟ሗ information jĿNDQ n ୖᕳ first volume (of a

~ ᐈᐊ஌ົဨ (airplane) flight

attendant MĿQHWVXWHNL (na) adj ᝟⇕ⓗ ࡞

passionate MRĿ n ዪ⋤ queen MĿULNX n ୖ㝣 disembarking, land-

ing MRUĿ n ዪ㑻 whore, prostitute jĿU\ŗ (no) adj ୖὶ ࡢ classy,

upper; upstream MĿU\ŗVXL n ⵨␃Ỉ distilled water josei n ዪᛶ woman, female: ~-go ዪᛶㄒ women’s language (terms) (= onna kotoba ዪゝⴥ) joseki n 㝖⡠ removal from register,

expulsion (from a school/uniset of 2 or 3) versity) MĿNpQ n ᮲௳ condition, term, joseikin n ຓᡂ㔠 grant josetsu n 㝖㞷 removing the snow stipulation, provision MĿNL n ⵨Ẽ steam, vapor MĿVKD n ஌㌴ getting into a car, jokki n ࢪࣙࢵ࢟ jug, (beer) mug getting on a train/bus, boarding; MĿN\DNX n ஌ᐈ passenger MĿVKiNHQn ஌㌴ๆ passenger ticket MĿN\Ŀ n ≧ἣ࣭᝟ἣ situation, joshi n ຓモ particle (auxiliary word) jóshi n ዪᏊ girl, woman: ~-dáisei circumstances, state of affairs MRN\ĿMX n ຓᩍᤵ assistant proዪᏊ኱⏕ woman college student; ~-kø´sei ዪᏊ㧗⏕ female (senior) fessor MĿN\ŗ n ୖ⣭ high class, upper high school student MĿshiki n ᖖ㆑ common sense class: ~ køsu ୖ⣭ࢥ࣮ࢫ adMRVKĿ n ᗎ❶ introduction section vanced course MĿPDH n 㘄๓ lock (= kagi 㘽) (book) jomei n [BOOKISH] 㝖ྡ excision, joshu n ຓᡭ helper, assistant MRVĿ n ຓ㉮ running up excommunication jomei n ຓ࿨ sparing the life/lives MRVĿ n 㝖ⲡ weeding (= kyümei ᩆ࿨): ~-katsudø ຓ࿨ MRVĿ n ዪ⿦ drag: ~ shimásu ዪ⿦ άື rescue work ࡋࡲࡍ is in drag MĿPpQ n ୖ㠃 top (top side) MRVĿ n ᗎዌ (music) introduction MĿPXLQ n ஌ົဨ crew: kyakushitsu MĿV~LFKL n ίỈụ reservoir 106


jotai n 㝖㝲 discharge MĿtai n ≧ែ condition, situation,


out the (entire)…: ichi-nen-~ ୍ ᖺ୰ throughout the year: sekai-~ ୡ⏺୰ all over the world state, circumstances MĿWĿ (no) adj ୖ➼ ࡢ the best, MŗDWVX n 㔜ᅽ pressure jŗEDNR n 㔜⟽ nested boxes; picnic first-rate, deluxe joya n 㝖ኪ New Year’s Eve: ~ no boxes: ~ no sumi o tsutsukimásu kane 㝖ኪࡢ㚝 the bells on New 㔜⟽ࡢ㝮ࢆࡘࡘࡁࡲࡍ split Year’s Eve hairs, nitpicks MĿ\DNX n ᮲⣙ treaty, agreement Mŗbún (na) adj ༑ศ>඘ศ@ ࡞ MĿ\Ŀ n ᖖ⏝ common use: ~-kanji enough, sufficient ᖖ⏝₎Ꮠ Chinese characters in MŗGDL (na) adj 㔜኱ ࡞ serious common use (heavy, grave); important: ~-ji MĿ\ĿVKD n ஌⏝㌴ passenger car 㔜኱஦ a matter of importance MĿ\ĿVKD n ᖖ⏝⪅ addict MŗGĿ n ᰂ㐨 judo, jujitsu (an art MR\ŗ n ዪඃ actress of weaponless defense) MĿ]DL n 㘄๣ pill, tablet -ŗJDWV~ n ༑᭶࣭ 10᭶ October MĿ]ĿVKR n 㔊㐀ᡤ brewery MŗJHNL n 㖠ᧁ gunfight MĿ]~ (na) adj ୖᡭ ࡞ skilled, MŗJXQ n ᚑ㌷ serving in an army M~J\Ŀ n ᤵᴗ class instruction, clever, good at Mŗ n 㖠 gun: ~-sei 㖠ኌ gunshot(s) classroom teaching; ~ o okonaiMŗ n ༑࣭10 ten; MŗEDL n ༑ಸ ten másu ᤵᴗࢆ⾜࠸ࡲࡍ teaches times, tenfold; jŗ-banmé (no) adj (class): ~ o ukemásu ᤵᴗࢆཷࡅ ࡲࡍ attends a class ༑␒┠ ࡢ tenth; Mŗ-do n ༑ᗘ MŗJ\Ŀ n ᚑᴗ employment; MŗJ\ĿLQ ten times (= júk-kai ༑ᅇ); ten degrees; MŗHQGDPD n ༑෇⋢ ten- n ᚑᴗဨ employee yen coin; Mŗ-ji n ༑᫬࣭᫬ ten MŗL n ⋇་ veterinarian o’clock; jŗPi n ༑୓࣭100,000 a -ŗLFKLJDWVX n ༑୍᭶࣭11᭶ hundred thousand; MŗQiQD n ༑୐ November ࣭17 seventeen; MŗyNX n ༑൨࣭ MŗML n ༑Ꮠ a cross (symbol); MŗMLND ൨ a thousand million; (U.S.) a n ༑Ꮠᯫ a cross (wooden); MŗMtUR billion; MŗVKi n ༑ᅄ࣭14 fourn ༑Ꮠ㊰ crossroad(s) teen (= jü-yon ༑ᅄ); Mŗ\RNND n MŗML n ᚑ஦ engaging in (an ༑ᅄ᪥ 14 days; 14th day (of activity) month); jŗ\RQ n ༑ᅄ࣭14 four- MŗNLQ]RNX n 㔜㔠ᒓ heavy metal teen (= jü-shi ༑ᅄ); ~-nin n ༑ MŗNHWVX n ඘⾑ congestion: me ga ᅄே 14 people ~ shimásu ┠ࡀ඘⾑ࡋࡲࡍ gets «Mŗ suffix …ࡌࡹ࠺࣭୰ through- red eyes 107



juk-kai n ༑㝵 ten floors/stories;

tenth floor júk-kai n ༑ᅇ ten times (= jü´-do

junkan n ᚠ⎔ circulation; cycle MXQN\ĿMX n ‽ᩍᤵ associate


júnsa n ᕠᰝ policeman, patrolman (= omawari-san ࠾ᕠࡾࡉࢇ) MXQVKĿ n ‽ᑗ brigadier-general objects) júku n ሿ a cram/tutoring school; junsui (na) adj ⣧⢋ ࡞ pure: ~ na MXNXNĿ VKL n ሿㅮ ᖌ tutor(s) in kokoro ⣧⢋࡞ᚰ pure heart jŗĿ n ⦪ᶓ vertical and horizontal; a tutoring school jukudoku n ⇍ㄞ reading thoroughly MŗĿPXMLQ (ni) adv ⦪ᶓ↓ᑾ ࡟ jukugo n ⇍ㄒ idiomatic expression freely juNXNĿ MXNNĿ n ⇍⪃ serious júp-pa n ༑⩚ ten (birds) júp-pon n ༑ᮏ ten (pencils/bottles, thought (= jukuryo ⇍៖) jukunen n ⇍ᖺ mature age long things) jukuryo n ⇍៖ serious thought júp-pun n ༑ศ 10 minutes jukushimásu, jukúsú v ⇍ࡋࡲࡍ, ⇍ MŗUDL (wa) adv ᚑ᮶ ࡣ traditionally, ࡍ ripens, gets ripe up to now, hitherto, previously jukusui n ⇍╧ sound sleep MŗU\Ŀ n 㔜㔞 weight: ~-age 㔜㔞 jukutatsu n ⇍㐩 mastery ᣲࡆ weight-lifting -~N\Ŀ n ൲ᩍ Confucianism MXU\ĿVKĿ n ཷ㡿ド receipt jukyŗ n 㟂⤥ supply and demand MŗVKR n ఫᡤ residence, address MŗPLQ n ఫẸ resident: ~ hyø ఫẸ MXVKĿ n ཷ㈹ winning an award; ⚊ residence certificate MXVKĿVKD n ཷ㈹⪅ winner, jun n 㡰 order: jun(ban) ni 㡰 ␒ awardee ࡟ in order jus-sai n ༑ṓ ten years old (= tø jún (na) adj ⣧ ࡞ pure ࡜࠾࣭༑) junban n 㡰␒ (place in) order, turn jus-satsu n ༑෉ ten copies (books, júnbi n ‽ഛ preparation(s), ar-magazines) MŗVX n ࢪ࣮ࣗࢫ juice: orenji ~ ࢜ rangements MXQFKĿ (na) adj 㡰ㄪ ࡞ smooth(- ࣞࣥࢪࢪ࣮ࣗࢫ orange juice MŗWDL n ῰ congestion: ~-jø´kyø ly going) -ŗQLJDWV~ n ༑஧᭶࣭12᭶ De῰≧ἣ congested (traffic): ~ shite imásu ῰ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is cember jun-jimásu, jun-jiru v [BOOKISH] ‽ࡌ congested (backed up) ࡲࡍ, ‽ࡌࡿ applies correspond- MŗWDNX n ఫᏯ residence, house ingly (to); is made to accord (with) MŗWDQ n ࡌࡹ࠺ࡓࢇ࣭⤧Ẩ rug, júnjo n 㡰ᗎ order, sequence carpet (= kå´pétto ࣮࢝࣌ࢵࢺ) ༑ᗘ júk-ko n ༑ಶ ten (pieces, small



kachimásu, kátsu

Mŗ\Ŀ (na) adj 㔜せ ࡞ important juzú n ᩘ⌔ beads: ~ tsunagi ni narimásu ᩘ⌔ࡘ࡞>⧅@ࡂ࡟࡞ࡾ ࡲࡍ is chained together

MXWWĿ n ༑㢌 ten (horses/oxen,

large animals) juwá-ki n ཷヰჾ (telephone)

receiver júyo n ᤵ୚ awarding, conferring

K ka n ࣭࢝⺅ mosquito: ~-tori covering letter (= søfu-jø ㏦௜≧) senkø ⺅ྲྀࡾ⥺㤶 mosquito coil; kabaimásu, kabau v ᗊ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᗊ࠺ ka-ya n ⺅ᖒ࣭࠿ࡸ mosquito protects, defends net: ka-ya no soto ⺅ᖒࡢእ out kaban n ࠿ࡤࢇ࣭࢝ࣂ࣭ࣥ㠜 brief-

of scheme

case, bag

ka n ྍ pass: (grade) yü, ryø, ~, fuka ඃࠊⰋࠊྍࠊ୙ྍ

kabayaki n ⵦ↝ࡁ broiled eel kabe n ቨ wall: ~-gami ቨ⣬ wall-

Excellent, Good, Poor, Failing


ká n ㄢ, …´-ka …ㄢ section, division; lesson: Jinji-~ ே஦ㄢ Human Resources Division: dai ik-~ ➨ㄢ Lesson 1 ká n ⛉ 1. family (biological taxonomy) 2. department: (university) Eibun-~ ⱥᩥ⛉ Department

kabi n ࢝ࣅ mold, mildew kabin n ⰼ⎼࣭࠿ࡧࢇ flower vase kabocha n ࢝࣎ࢳࣕ pumpkin kabu n ᰴ stock (in a company): kabushiki-shijø ᰴᘧᕷሙ stock


NăEX n ࣮࢝ࣈ curve (road) of English Language & Litera- kabuki n ḷ⯙ఄ a traditional style ture; (hospital), Nai-~ ෆ⛉ inter- of Japanese theater: ~-za ḷ⯙ఄ ᗙ the Kabuki theater (building) nal medicine ka-… prefix ௬… temporary kabu(ra) n ࢝ࣈ ࣛ ࣭ⷚ a turnip kaburimásu, kabúru v ⿕ࡾࡲࡍ, (tentative) … ka conj …࠿ or; (the question) ⿕ࡿ wears on head; puts on kabushiki-gáisha n ᰴᘧ఍♫ jointwhether …-ka suffix …໬ …-ization: ~ stock corporation shimásu …໬ࡋࡲࡍ …-izes káchi n ౯್ value: ~ ga arimásu kaba n ࢝ࣂ࣭Ἑ㤿 hippopotamus ౯್ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is worth NDEă n ࢝ࣂ࣮ cover, covering: kachí n ຾ࡕ victory, win bukku-~ ࣈࢵࢡ࢝ࣂ࣮ book kachimásu, kátsu v ຾ࡕࡲࡍ, ຾ࡘ cover: kabå-~ ࢝ࣂ࣮ࣞࢱ࣮ wins




NDFKĿ n ㄢ㛗 section manager kadai n [BOOKISH] ㄢ㢟 1. problem, difficult matter (= mondai ၥ㢟) 2. assignment, homework, task 3. subject, theme kádan n ⰼቭ flower bed kádan n ୗẁ [BOOKISH] lower

returns it káette adv ༷ࡗ࡚ contrary to

expectations kafún n ⰼ⢊ pollen: ~-shø ⰼ⢊⑕

hay fever

káfusu n ࢝ࣇࢫ cuff: ~-botan ࢝ࣇ ࢫ࣎ࢱࣥ cuff links kagai n ㄢእ extracurricular: ~-kastand kádan n [BOOKISH] ᯝ᩿ [BOOKISH] tsudø ㄢእάື extracurricular decisiveness: ~ na køi ᯝ᩿࡞⾜ activity kágaku n ⛉Ꮫ = sáiensu ࢧ࢖࢚ࣥ Ⅽ decisive action NăGLJDQ n ࣮࢝ࢹ࢕࢞ࣥ cardigan ࢫ science: ~-teki (na) ⛉Ꮫⓗ kádo n ゅ (outside) corner, street ࡞ scientific; kagáku-sha n ⛉Ꮫ ⪅ scientist corner kádo n [BOOKISH] 㐣ᗘ excessive- kágaku n ໬Ꮫ = bake-gaku ໬ࡅᏛ ࣭໬Ꮫ chemistry: ~-séihin ໬Ꮫ ness: ~ no undø 㐣ᗘࡢ㐠ື 〇ရ chemicals, ~-yakuhin ໬Ꮫ extreme exercise NDGĿ n [BOOKISH] ✌ື [BOOKISH] ⸆ရ pharmaceuticals; kagáku-sha operating n ໬Ꮫ⪅ chemist NDGĿ n ⳹㐨 flower arrangement: kagamí n 㙾 mirror: te-~ ᡭ㙾 ~-kyøshitsu ⳹㐨ᩍᐊ flower hand mirror kagamimásu, kagamu v ᒅࡳࡲࡍ, arrangement class(es) kăGR n ࣮࢝ࢻ card: messëji-~ ࣓ ᒅࡴ bends over ࢵࢭ࣮ࢪ࣮࢝ࢻ message card kagayakimásu, kagayáku v ㍤ࡁࡲࡍ, kaede n ࢚࢝ࢹ࣭ᴁ maple ㍤ࡃ shines, gleams, glitters kaemásu, kaeru v ኚ࠼ࡲࡍ, ኚ࠼ࡿ káge n ᙳ shadow: hito-~ ேᙳ

changes it kaemásu, kaeru v ᥮࠼>᭰࠼@ࡲࡍ, ᥮࠼ࡿ>᭰࠼ࡿ@ exchanges,

replaces kaerí n ᖐࡾ (the) return kaerimásu, káeru v ᖐࡾࡲࡍ, ᖐࡿ

shadow of a person, human figure: ~-bø´shi ᙳἲᖌ shadow (of a person) káge n 㝜 shade: ko-~ ᮌ㝜 shade of trees kágeki n ḷ๻ opera kageki (na) adj 㐣⃭ ࡞ excessive, extreme, radical kagen n ຍῶ 1. (state of) one’s health (= guai ලྜ): o-~ (wa)

goes home, goes back, returns, leaves kaeru n ࢚࣭࢝ࣝ⺶ frog: hikigaeru ࣄ࢚࢟࢞ࣝ toad kaeshimásu, káesu v ㏉ࡋࡲࡍ, ㏉ࡍ ikaga desuka? ࠾ຍῶ ࡣ ࠸࠿ 110



ࡀ࡛ࡍ࠿" (to sick person) How kágura n ⚄ᴦ Shinto music and

are you feeling?, How is your (health) condition? 2. allowance for (= tekagen ᡭຍῶ) 3. degree, extent (= teido ⛬ᗘ): yu-~ ‫‮‬ຍ ῶ hot water temperature: oyu-~

dances kái n ࢝࢖࣭㈅ shellfish … kai? interj …࠿࠸? [INFORMAL] = desu ka? ࡛ࡍ࠿㸽 [FORMAL]

(yes-or-no question)

wa ikaga desuka? ࠾‫‮‬ຍῶࡣ࠸ …-kai suffix …㝵 (counts floors/ ࠿ࡀ࡛ࡍ࠿" How is the water stories) temperature? (for the bath water, …-kái suffix …ᅇ (counts times/

the water to wash customer’s hair in a beauty salon, etc.) 4. adjustment, moderation (= chøsei ㄪᩚ) (A ii-kagen ࠸࠸ຍῶ) …-ká-getsu suffix …࠿᭶࣭ࣨ᭶࣭ ࢝᭶࣭⟠᭶ (counts months): ik-~ (kan)㸯࠿᭶ 㛫 (for) one month kagí n 㖋 hook: ~-tsume 㖋ࡘࡵ claw: ~-kakko ࠿ࡂᣓᘼ Japanese quotation marks (ࠕࠖ) kagí n ࢝ࢠ࣭㘽 key: (… no) ~ ga

occasions) …-kai suffix …఍ society, asso-

ciation, club; social gathering, party, meeting: (o-)tanjø´bi-~ ࠾ ㄌ⏕᪥఍ birthday party: nomi-~ 㣧ࡳ఍ drinking party: en-~ ᐗ఍ party, banquet …-kai suffix …ᾏ (name of) sea: Nihon-~ ᪥ᮏᾏ Japan Sea kaibatsu n ᾏᢤ above sea level NDLEĿ n [BOOKISH] ゎ๗ autopsy: kakarimásu ͐ࡢ 㘽ࡀ࠿࠿ࡾࡲ ~-gaku ゎ๗Ꮫ anatomy ࡍ it locks, (… no) ~ o kakemásu kaibutsu n ᛹≀ monster ͐ࡢ 㘽ࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ locks it; NDLFKĿ n ఍㛗 chairperson kagi-ana n 㘽✰ keyhole NDLFKŗ (no) adj ᠜୰ ࡢ pocketkagimásu, kagu v ࠿Ⴅࡂࡲࡍ, Ⴅࡄ (able): ~-déntø ᠜୰㟁ⅉ flashsmells it light kágiri n 㝈ࡾ limit NDLFKŗ (de/no) adv, adj ᾏ୰ ࡛ࡢ kagirimásu, kagíru v 㝈ࡾࡲࡍ, 㝈ࡿ in the sea, under the sea limits (delimits) it: … ni ~ …࡟ NDLFKŗ n ᅇ⹸ (intestinal) worms 㝈ࡾࡲࡍ there is nothing like (so kaidan n 㝵ẁ stairs, stairway kaidan n ఍ㄯ [BOOKISH] (official) good as, better than) … kago n ࠿ࡈ࣭⡲ basket, (bird) meeting: shunø-~ 㤳⬻఍ㄯ cage: tori-~ 㫽࠿ࡈ birdcage summit kágu n ᐙල furniture: ~-tsuki (no) kaidan n ᛹ㄯ ghost story, scary apåto ᐙල௜ࡁ ࡢ ࢔ࣃ࣮ࢺ story furnished apartment(s); kagú-ya n kaidame n ㈙࠸ࡔࡵ hoarding: ~ ᐙලᒇ furniture store shimásu ㈙࠸ࡔࡵࡋࡲࡍ hoards 111


kaidĿ n ఍ᇽ an auditorium NDLGĿ n ⾤㐨 main road/avenue kaien n 㛤₇ starting a performance: ~-chü 㛤₇୰ during the performance; ~-jíkan 㛤₇᫬㛫


kaíi adj ࠿࠸࠸ [INFORMAL] = kayúi ࠿ࡺ࠸࣭⑛࠸ (itchy) kai-in n ఍ဨ member: ~-sei (no) ఍ဨไ ࡢ membership system,

members-only NDLMĿ n 㛤ሙ [BOOKISH] opening (of curtain time kaifuku n ᅇ᚟ recovery, recupera- place/event); ~-jíkan 㛤ሙ᫬㛫 tion opening time; ~´-shiki 㛤ሙᘧ káiga n ⤮⏬ painting, picture opening ceremony káigai n ᾏእ overseas, abroad: NDLMĿ n ఍ሙ hall ~-ryokø ᾏእ᪑⾜ overseas travel NDLMĿ (de/no) adv, adj ᾏୖ ࡛ࡢ kaigan n ᾏᓊ seashore, coast, on the sea (surface) NDLMŗ n ᛹⋇ monster: ~-eiga ᛹⋇ beach: ~-sen ᾏᓊ⥺ shoreline, ᫎ⏬ monster film coastline kai-gara n ㈅Ẇ shell (of shellfish) kaika n 㛤ⰼ flowering káigi n ఍㆟ meeting, conference kaika n 㝵ୗ downstairs [FORMAL] (= míitingu ࣑࣮ࢸ࢕ࣥ kaikaku n ᨵ㠉 [BOOKISH] reformaࢢ): ~-chü ఍㆟୰ in conference, tion, reinvention kaikan n ఍㤋 public hall, building in a meeting; ~-shitsu ఍㆟ᐊ kaikan n 㛤㤋 [BOOKISH] opening conference room káigun n ᾏ㌷ navy: ~-kichi ᾏ㌷ (a hall) kaikan n ᛌឤ [BOOKISH] pleasure, ᇶᆅ navy base NDLJ\Ŀ n 㛤ᴗ [BOOKISH] opening a pleasant feeling: ~ o ajiwaimásu/ business: ~ shimásu 㛤ᴗࡋࡲࡍ oboemásu ᛌឤࢆ࿡ࢃ࠸ࡲࡍぬ ࠼ࡲࡍ feels pleasure opens a business kaihatsu n 㛤Ⓨ [BOOKISH] develop- kaikei n ఍ィ 1. o-~ ࠾఍ィ ment; NHQN\ŗNDLKDWVX n ◊✲㛤Ⓨ accounts; bill, check (= o-kanjø research and development, R&D ࠾຺ᐃ 2. accountant (= ~-gákaiheitai n ᾏර㝲 marines, Marine kari ఍ィಀ, ~-shi ఍ィኈ kaiken n ఍ぢ [BOOKISH] interview: Corps kaihi n ఍㈝ membership fee, dues: kisha-~ グ⪅఍ぢ press confernen-~ ᖺ఍㈝ annual membership ence kaiketsu n ゎỴ [BOOKISH] solution, fee NDLKĿ n ゎᨺ [BOOKISH] liberation settlement NDLKĿ n 㛤ᨺ [BOOKISH] open: kaiki n ᅇᖐ [BOOKISH] revolution, ~ shimásu 㛤ᨺࡋࡲࡍ opens, recurrence, retouring: kita-~-sen leaves open (windows, doors, etc.) ໭ᅇᖐ⥺ the Tropic of Cancer: 112


minami-~-sen ༡ᅇᖐ⥺ the


punching/collecting: ~-guchi ᨵ ᮐཱྀ (ticket) wicket Tropic of Capricorn kaíko n ゎ㞠 [BOOKISH] dismissal kaisei n ᨵṇ [BOOKISH] revision kaisei n ᛌᬕ clear and fine weather (from employment), discharge káiko n ⺋ silkworm kaiseki U\ĿUL n ᠜▼ ᩱ⌮ an askaikyaku n 㛤⬮ legs spread sortment of elegant ceremonial(exercise) type Japanese foods, Japanese kaikyo n ᛌᣲ remarkable/wonder- foods in season ful achievement: ~ o nashitoge- kaisetsu n ゎㄝ explanation, másu ᛌᣲࢆᡂࡋ㐙ࡆࡲࡍ has comment; nyü´su ~ ࢽ࣮ࣗࢫゎ ㄝ news commentary; kaisétsu-sha great accomplishments NDLN\Ŀ n ᾏᓙ strait(s) n ゎㄝ⪅ commentator NDLN\Ŀ n ᅇᩍ Islam (= Isuramu- kaisha n ఍♫ company, business kyø ࢖ࢫ࣒ࣛᩍ) concern; “the office” (= kígyø NDLN\ŗ n 㝵⣭ class, rank: chüryü-~ ௻ᴗ): ~-in ఍♫ဨ company ୰ὶ㝵⣭ the middle class employee (= sha-in ♫ဨ, sarakaimásu, kau v ㈙࠸ࡲࡍ, ㈙࠺ buys rii-man ࢧ࣮࣐ࣛࣜࣥ kaimásu, káu v 㣫࠸ࡲࡍ, 㣫࠺raises, káishaku n ゎ㔘 [BOOKISH] interkeeps (pets, farm animals, etc.) pretation, explanation, exposition kaimen n ᾏ⥥ sponge kaisho n ᴠ᭩ block-style letter kai-mono n ㈙࠸≀ shopping (of Japanese): ~-tai ᴠ᭩య kaioki n ㈙࠸⨨ࡁ 1. things printed style/square of writing bought in for the future, hoarded Chinese characters NDLVĿ n ᾏ⸴࣭ᾏⲡ seaweed things 2. hoarding NDLĿ-sei n ᾏ⋤ᫍ Neptune NDLVĿ n ᅇ㏦ 1. forwarding (mail kairaku n ᛌᴦ pleasure matter, letter, etc.) 2. deadhead kairi n [BOOKISH] ゎ㞳 disaggrega- (an empty car, etc.): ~-sha ᅇ㏦ ㌴ a car out of service, an offtion, dissociation kairi n ᾏ㔛 nautical mile duty taxi; ~-ressha ᅇ㏦ิ㌴ NDLU\Ŀ n [BOOKISH] ᨵⰋ improve- deadhead train NDLVĿ n ᅇ᝿: recollection; NDLVĿ ment, modification NDLU\ŗ n ᾏὶ ocean current shiin n ᅇ᝿ࢩ࣮ࣥ retrospective kaisai n 㛤ദ [BOOKISH] holding, scene NDLVŗ n ᅇᩘ the number of times; opening (an event) kaisan shimásu (suru) v ゎᩓࡋࡲࡍ NDLVŗNHQ n ᅇᩘๆ ticket book ࡍࡿ breaks up, disperses (for commuting), coupon ticket kaisatsu n ᨵᮐ ticket examining/ kaisui n ᾏỈ seawater; kaisui-yoku 113



n ᾏỈᾎ sea bathing: ~-yoku o under one’s arm: atama o ~ 㢌ࢆ shimásu ᾏỈᾎࢆࡋࡲࡍ has a ᢪ࠼ࡲࡍ tears one’s hair out 2. bath in the sea keeps, retains, has; employs: kai-te n ㈙࠸ᡭ buyer takusan no shain o kakaete kaitei n ᨵゞ revision (of documents, imásu ࡓࡃࡉࢇࡢ♫ဨࢆᢪ࠼࡚ ࠸ࡲࡍ has a lot of employees books, etc.): ~-ban ᨵゞ∧ 3. has family to support/take care revised version kaitei n ᾏᗏ bottom of the sea of (sick person(s), child(ren), kaiteki (na) adj ᛌ㐺 ࡞ comfort- etc.): byønin o ka-kaete imásu ⑓ேࢆᢪ࠼࡚࠸ࡲࡍ has a sick able, peasant kaiten n ᅇ㌿ revolution, rotation person in one’s family 4. has kaiten n 㛤ᗑ opening a shop (for a problem/problems: shakkin o kakaete imásu ೉㔠ࢆᢪ࠼࡚࠸ the first time or for the day) NDLWĿ n ゎ⟅ answer ࡲࡍ has debts NDLWĿ n ᅇ⟅ reply kakaku n ౯᱁ price: ~-kyøsø ౯᱁ kai-torimásu, kai-tóru v ㈙࠸ྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, ➇த price competition ㈙࠸ྲྀࡿ buys up kakan (ni) adv ᯝᩒ ࡟ boldly, kaiun n 㛤㐠 fortune, good-luck decisively: ~ ni tatakaimásu ᯝ kaiwa n ఍ヰ conversation ᩒ࡟ᡓ࠸ࡲࡍ fights with valor kaizen n ᨵၿ improvement kákari n ಀ = ~-in ಀဨ attendant kaizoku n ᾏ㈫ pirate: ~-ban ᾏ㈫ (in charge) kakarimásu, kakáru v ᥃࠿ࡾࡲࡍ, ∧ pirated edition káji n ⅆ஦ a fire (accidental): ᥃࠿ࡿ 1. it hangs 2. it takes, Káji da! ⅆ஦ࡔ Fire! requires 3. it weighs 4. it begins, káji n ⯦ helm: ~ o torimásu ⯦ࢆ (engine) starts ࡜ࡾࡲࡍ takes the helm, steers kakarimásu, kakáru v ᯫ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ, káji n ᐙ஦ housework: ~-tetsudai ᯫ࠿ࡿ is built ᐙ஦ᡭఏ࠸ housework helper kakashi n ࢝࢝ࢩ࣭᱌ᒣᏊ scarecrow kájiki n ࢝ࢪ࢟ swordfish kakato n ㋖ heel: ~ no takai kutsu kajirimásu, kajíru v ࠿ࡌࡾࡲࡍ, ࠿ ㋖ࡢ㧗࠸㠐 high-heeled shoes ࡌࡿ gnaws, nibbles kake n Ḟࡅ lacking, a lack, wane: NDMĿ n 㐣๫ glut, surplus, excess: tsuki no michi-~ ᭶ࡢ‶ࡕḞࡅ ~ (no) 㐣๫ ࡢ superfluous, wax and wane of the moon kaké n ᥃ࡅ credit: ~ de kaimásu surplus: ~-hannø 㐣๫཯ᛂ ᥃ࡅ࡛㈙࠸ࡲࡍ buys on credit overreaction, overresponse kakaemásu, kakaéru v ᢪ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᢪ kake-búton n ᥃ࡅᕸᅋ overquilt, ࠼ࡿ 1. holds in one’s arms/ top quilt 114


kaki-mawashimásu, kaki-mawasu

kakegoe n ᥃ࡅኌ shout of encouragement: ~ o kakemásu ᥃ࡅኌ ࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ shouts encouragement kaké (goto) n ㉃ࡅ ஦ gambling;

káki n ࣭࢝࢟∻⾃ oyster káki n ୗグ the following: ~ no tøri ୗグࡢ㏻ࡾ as follows, as


káki n ⰼჾ flower vase kakehiki n 㥑ࡅᘬࡁ tactics, barkáki n ኟᮇ summer (period/term): gaining: ~ ga umai 㥑ࡅᘬࡁࡀୖ ~-kyükå ኟᏘఇᬤ summer ᡭ࠸ is good at bargaining holiday: ~-orinpikku ኟᏘ࢜ࣜࣥ kakei n ᐙィ household budget: ࣆࢵࢡ Olympic Summer Games ~-bo ᐙィ⡙ housekeeping book kaki n ⅆẼ [BOOKISH] fire, flame: kakei n ᐙ⣔ one’s family line: ~-zu Kaki-genkin ⅆẼཝ⚗ No Fire, ᐙ⣔ᅗ a family tree (= keizu Flammables ⣔ᅗ) kakiage n ࠿ࡁᥭࡆ a tangle of tidkakéji n ᥃ࡅᏐ = kaké-jiku ᥃ࡅ㍈, bits fried as tenpura, fritters kaki-atsumemásu, kaki-atsuméru v ࠿ scroll (hanging) kakemásu, kakéru v ᥃ࡅࡲࡍ, ᥃ࡅ ࡁ㞟ࡵࡲࡍ, ࠿ࡁ㞟ࡵࡿ rakes ࡿ hangs it; multiplies; begins it: (them up) … ni denwa o ~ …࡟㟁ヰࢆ᥃ࡅ kaki-iremásu, kaki-iréru v ᭩ࡁධࢀ ࡲࡍ telephones; énjin o ~ ࢚ࣥ ࡲࡍ, ᭩ࡁධࢀࡿ fills in ࢪࣥࢆ᥃ࡅࡲࡍ starts (engine) (information) kakemásu, kakéru v Ḟࡅࡲࡍ, ࠿ࡅ kaki-kaemásu, kaki-kaéru v ᭩ࡁ᥮࠼ ࡿ࣭Ḟࡅࡿ lacks it, needs ࡲࡍ, ᭩ࡁ᥮࠼ࡿ rewrites kakemásu, kakéru v ㉃ࡅࡲࡍ, ㉃ࡅ kaki-kata n ᭩ࡁ᪉ way of writing; ࡿ bets spelling kakemásu, kakéru v 㥑ࡅࡲࡍ, ࣭㥑 kakimásu, káku v Ḟࡁࡲࡍ, Ḟࡃ it ࡅࡿ runs, gallops (human, animal) lacks, it is lacking/wanting kaké-mono n ᥃ࡅ≀ scroll (hang- kakimásu, káku v ᭩ࡁࡲࡍ, ᭩ࡃ ing) (= kaké-jiku ᥃ࡅ㍈ writes kakera n ࢝ࢣ࣭ࣛḞ∦ fragment kakimásu, káku v ᥥࡁࡲࡍ, ᥥࡃ kákete v … ni ~ …࡟࠿ࡅ࡚ (expaints, draws: e o ~ ⤮ࢆᥥࡁࡲ ࡍ draws a picture (= egakimásu tending) through, with respect ᥥࡁࡲࡍ) to, as regards kake-uri v ᥃ࡅ኎ࡾ credit sales kakimásu, káku v ᥙࡁࡲࡍ, ᥙࡃ (= uri-kake ኎ࡾ᥃ࡅ scratches: senaka o ~ ⫼୰ࢆᥙࡁ kaké-ya n ㉃ࡅᒇ bookie ࡲࡍ scratches one’s back kaké-zan n ᥃ࡅ⟬ multiplication kaki-mawashimásu, kaki-mawasu v kaki n ࣭࢝࢟ᰠ (fruits) persimmon ࠿ࡁᅇࡋࡲࡍ, ࠿ࡁᅇࡍ stirs

a bet



kaki-naoshimásu, kaki-naósu

kaki-naoshimásu, kaki-naósu v ᭩ࡁ┤ article(s) (= koramu ࢥ࣒ࣛ) ࡋࡲࡍ, ᭩ࡁ┤ࡍ rewrites kakomimásu, kakomu v ᅖࡳࡲࡍ, kakíne n ࠿ࡁ᰿࣭ᇉ᰿ fence ᅖࡴ surrounds (= tori-kakomimásu ྲྀࡾᅖࡳࡲࡍ) kakitome \ŗELQ n ᭩␃ 㒑౽ kakon n ⚝᰿ the source of trouble, registered mail kakitori n ᭩ࡁྲྀࡾ dictation the root of evil: ~ o tachimásu ⚝ kakki n άẼ liveliness, activity ᰿ࢆ᩿ࡕࡲࡍ removes the root kakko n ᣓᘼ parenthesis, square of an evil káku n ゅ corner: san-kaku(kei)/ bracket, brace san-kakkei ୕ゅ ᙧ triangle; NDNNĿ n 1. ᱁ዲ shape, form, shikakú(kei)/shikakkei ᅄゅ ᙧ appearance: ~ ga íi ᱁ዲࡀ࠸࠸ = ~ ii ࠿ࡗࡇ࠸࠸ shapely, cool, square stylish 2. ~ (na/no) ᱁ዲ ࡞ࡢ káku (do) n ゅ ᗘ angle: chok-~ ┤ゅ right angle; ei~ 㗦ゅ acute suitable, moderate, reasonable



NiNNĿ n ࢝ࢵࢥ࢘ cuckoo káku n ᰾ core, heart, stone: chü-~ káko n 㐣ཤ the past; kako-kei n 㐣 ୰᰾ (central) core; kaku-heiki n ཤᙧ the past tense; NDNRNDQU\Ŀ ᰾රჾ nuclear weapon; káku (no) n 㐣ཤ᏶஢ the past perfect: ~ n ᰾ ࡢ nucleus, nuclear kanryø-kei 㐣ཤ᏶஢ᙧ the past káku(-) prefix ྛ… each, every; kakú-eki n ྛ㥐 every station: perfect tense NDNĿ n ຍᕤ [BOOKISH] processing ~-téisha/ressha ྛ㥐೵㌴ิ㌴

(industrially treating)

local train (which stops at every station); kaku-ron n ྛㄽ each detail: ~ ni hairimásu ྛㄽ࡟ධ ࡾࡲࡍ gets down into specifics; …káku suffix ぬ sense (five senses): shi-~ どぬ sense of sight: chø-~ ⫈ぬ sense of hearing: mi-~ ࿡ぬ sense of taste: shü-~ Ⴅぬ sense of smell: shok-~ ゐぬ sense of touch NDNŗ (no) adj ᯫ✵ ࡢ imaginary: harsh working conditions …-kákoku suffix …࠿ᅜ࣭ࣨᅜ࣭࢝ ~ no sekai ᯫ✵ࡢୡ⏺ imaginary ᅜ(counts countries) world: ~ no jinbutsu ᯫ✵ࡢே≀ kakomi n ᅖࡳ an enclosure, a box: fictional character ~-kiji ᅖࡳグ஦ column, boxed kakudai n ᣑ኱ enlargement 116 NDNĿ n ୗ㝆 [BOOKISH] descent NDNĿ n Ἑཱྀ estuary NDNĿ n ⅆཱྀ crater (= kurëtå ࢡࣞ ࣮ࢱ࣮) NDNĿJDQ n ⰼᓵᒾ granite kakoku n [BOOKISH] 㐣㓞 too severe, harsh: ~ na kankyø 㐣㓞 ࡞⎔ቃ harsh environment: ~ na rødø-jøken 㐣㓞࡞ປാ᮲௳



kakudan (ni/no) adv, adj ᱁ẁ ࡟ kakuritsu n ☜❧ establishment ࡢ remarkably, remarkable kakuritsu n ☜⋡ probability kakugen n ᱁ゝ maxim, wise kakusei n ぬ㓰 [BOOKISH] awakensaying ing, emergence; kakusei-zai n ぬ kákugo n ぬᝅ resolution, resigna- 㓰๣ stimulant drug tion, premeditation: ~ shimásu kakuséi-ki n ᣑኌჾ loudspeaker ぬᝅࡋࡲࡍ, ~ o kimemásu ぬᝅ kakushimásu, kakúsú v 㞃ࡋࡲࡍ, ࢆỴࡵࡲࡍ is resolved (to do), is 㞃ࡍ hides (something) kakushin n ᰾ᚰ core, heart (= prepared for, is resigned to kakuheki n 㝸ቨ [BOOKISH] division káku ᰾): ~ ni furemásu ᰾ᚰ࡟ ゐࢀࡲࡍ touches the core of… wall, partition kakuho n ☜ಖ [BOOKISH] secure- kakutei n ☜ᐃ determination, ~, ment, saving: seki no ~ ᖍࡢ☜ಖ settlement; kakutei-shinkoku ☜ᐃ⏦ ࿌ final income tax return grabbing a seat kakujitsu n ☜ᐇ certainly; ~ (na) kákuteru n ࢝ࢡࢸࣝ cocktail: ~-påtii ࢝ࢡࢸࣝࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕ cocktail ☜ᐇ ࡞ certain, reliable, authentic (= tashika na ☜࠿࡞) party kakumaimasu, kakumau v [BOOKISH] NDNXWĿ n ᱁㜚 fight; NDNXWĿ-gi n ᱁ ༏࠸ࡲࡍ, ༏࠺ harbors, shelters: 㜚ᢏ martial art hannin o ~ ≢ேࢆ༏࠸ࡲࡍ NDNXWĿ n ☜⟅ [BOOKISH] definite

harbors a criminal kakumaku n ゅ⭷ cornea kakumaku n 㝸⭷ diaphragm kakumei n 㠉࿨ [BOOKISH] revolu-

tion (political, etc.) kakunin n ☜ㄆ confirmation kakuran n ࠿ࡃ஘ [BOOKISH]



kakutoku n [BOOKISH] ⋓ᚓ

[BOOKISH] acquisition, gain

kakuyasu n ᱁Ᏻ bargain, discount: ~-køküken ᱁Ᏻ⯟✵ๆ discount-

ed airline ticket kakuzai n ゅᮦ block of wood kakuzuke n [BOOKISH] ᱁௜ࡅ

kakurega n 㞃ࢀᐙ asylum, shelter, rating, grading NDN\ŗ QR adj ୗ⣭ ࡢ low-class: refuge kakuremásu, kakuréru v 㞃ࢀࡲࡍ, kakyüsei ୗ⣭⏕ underclassman 㞃ࢀࡿ hides: kakurenbo, kamá n ࠿ࡲ࣭❔ oven, kiln kakurenbø ࠿ࡃࢀࢇࡰ, 㞃ࢀࢇ kamá n ࠿ࡲ࣭㔩 (Japanese style) ᆓ hide-and-seek kettle, iron pot, cauldron, boiler: kakuri n 㝸㞳 [BOOKISH] isolation; onaji ~ no meshi o taberu ྠࡌ㔩 NDNXULE\ĿWĿ 㝸㞳⑓Ჷ isolation ࡢ㣤ࢆ㣗࡭ࡿ eats from the same ward bowl A kamameshi 㔩㣤



káma n 㙊 sickle kamaboko n ࠿ࡲࡰࡇ࣭࣐࢝࣎ࢥ

steamed fish cake kamachí n ᱋ frame, rail kamado n ࠿ࡲ࡝ (Japanese tradi-


altar (Shinto); kámi-sama n ⚄ᵝ God, gods, Dear Lord kamimásu, kamu v ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ, ࠿ࡴ blows (one’s nose) kamimásu, kámu v ჶࡳࡲࡍ, ჶࡴ chews, bites: (füsen) gamu o ~ 㢼⯪ ࣒࢞ࢆჶࡳࡲࡍ chews (bubble) gum: shita o kamisø na kotoba ⯉ࢆ࠿ࡳࡑ࠺࡞ゝⴥ a jawbreaker kaminárí n ࠿ࡳ࡞ࡾ࣭࣑࢝ࢼ࣭ࣜ㞾 thunder, thunderstorm: ~ ga narimásu 㞾ࡀ㬆ࡾࡲࡍ it thunders kamí (no ke) n 㧥 ࡢẟ hair (on head): ~ (no ke) o araimásu 㧥 ࡢẟ ࢆὙ࠸ࡲࡍ shampoos kami-san n ࠿ࡳࡉࢇ [INFORMAL] my wife kamisórí n ๋ย razor: ~ no ha ๋ ยࡢล razor blade kami-tsukimásu, kami-tsuku v ჶࡳࡘ ࡁࡲࡍ, ჶࡳࡘࡃ bites kámo n ࣭࢝ࣔ㬞 wild duck kámo n ࠿ࡶ࣭࢝ࣔ dupe, sucker kamoku n ⛉┠ subject, course (in school): hisshü-~ ᚲಟ⛉┠ required course/subject kamome n ࣓࣭࢝ࣔ㬑 seagull … kámo (shiremasén/shirenai) suffix, v …࠿ࡶ ࡋࢀࡲࡏࢇࡋࢀ࡞࠸ = maybe …, perhaps … kán n ⨁ can A kan-zúmé (no …) ⨁ ワ ࡢ… ; kan-biiru ⨁ࣅ࣮ࣝ canned beer: kan-kírí ⨁ษࡾ can opener kán n ⇫ heating rice wine: ~ o

tional) kitchen range, stove; oven; furnace kamaimasén, kamawánai v ᵓ࠸ࡲࡏ ࢇ, ᵓࢃ࡞࠸ it makes no difference; never mind; not to bother, it’s o.k. kamakiri n ࣐࢝࢟ࣜ praying mantis kamameshi n 㔩㣤 (cooked) rice (with chicken, crab, or shrimp) served in a clay pot kamasú v ࣐࢝ࢫ barracuda, saurypike kamé n ⎼ jar (with large mouth) káme n ࣓࣭࢝ட tortoise, turtle kamei n ௬ྡ an assumed name; a temporary/tentative name kamei n ຍ┕ affiliation kamei n ᐙྡ family name kamen n ௬㠃 mask kámera n ࣓࢝ࣛ camera: dejitaru-~ ࢹࢪࢱ࣓ࣝ࢝ࣛ digital camera: bideo-~ ࣅࢹ࣓࢜࢝ࣛ video camera kamí n ⣬ paper; kami-básami n ⣬ ࡤࡉࡳ file folder; file; paperclip; kami-búkuro n ⣬⿄ paper bag; kamiKLNĿNL n ⣬㣕⾜ᶵ paper airplane; kami-kúzu n ⣬ࡃࡎ wastepaper kámi n ⚄ 1. God, gods (= kámisama ⚄ᵝ 2. divinity (= shinsei tsukemásu/shimásu ⇫ࢆࡘࡅࡲ ⚄ᛶ); kami-dana n ⚄Ჴ household ࡍࡋࡲࡍ warms the saké 118



kán n ⟶ tube, pipe, duct: suidø-~ Ỉ㐨⟶ water pipe: kek-~ ⾑⟶

ྔ࠸ࡲࡍ a desire is realized (fulfilled): yume ga ~ ክࡀྔ࠸ࡲ ࡍ a dream comes true blood vessel kán n ᕳ volume (books, tapes): kanamono n 㔠≀ hardware: ~-ya (dai) ik-~ ➨ ୍ᕳ vol. 1 㔠≀ᒇ hardware store …´-kan suffix …㛫 for the interval kanarazu adv ᚲࡎ for sure; neces-

of; between …´-kan suffix …ឤ feeling, sense: dai-rok-~ ➨භឤ sixth sense: shok-~ ゐឤ tactile (sensation): shok-~ 㣗ឤ food texture kana n ࠿࡞ kana (Japanese syllabic writing) A furi-gana ࡩࡾࡀ ࡞࣭ࣇࣜ࢞ࢼ …ka na/ne interj …࠿࡞࠿ࡡ I wonder/whether (= deshø ka ࡛ࡋࡻ࠺࠿) Kánada n ࢝ࢼࢲ Canada; Kanadá-jin n ࢝ࢼࢲே a Canadian kánai n ᐙෆ 1. my wife 2. one’s family: ~-anzen ᐙෆᏳ඲ well-

sity; inevitably kánari adv ࠿࡞ࡾ fairly, rather kanaria n ࢝ࢼࣜ࢔ canary kanashii adj ᝒࡋ࠸ sad kanashimi n ᝒࡋࡳ sadness kanashimimásu, kanashimu v ᝒࡋࡳ ࡲࡍ, ᝒࡋࡴ to be sad kanazuchi n ࠿࡞࡙ࡕ࣭࢝ࢼࢷࢳ ࣭㔠ᵔ 1. hammer 2. a person

who cannot swim kanban n ┳ᯈ 1. signboard, sign 2. (diner, pub) closing time; kanban-musume n ┳ᯈፉ beautiful

lady who attracts consumers/ customers; kanban-yakusha n ┳ᯈ ᙺ⪅ star actor being/safety of one’s family: ~-køgyø ᐙෆᕤᴗ cottage industry kanbasu n ࢝ࣥࣂࢫ canvas kanaimásu, kanáu v 㐺࠸ࡲࡍ, 㐺࠺ kanbatsu n ࠿ࢇࡤࡘ࣭ᖸࡤࡘ accords/agrees (with): døri ni ~ drought (= hideri ࡦ࡛ࡾ࣭᪥↷ࡾ) 㐨⌮࡟࠿࡞࠸ࡲࡍ it stands to kanben (na) n, adj ⡆౽ ࡞ conreason; mokuteki ni ~ ┠ⓗ࡟࠿ venience, convenient, simple ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ it serves the purpose and easy kanaimásu, kanáu v ᩛ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᩛ࠺ kanben shitekudasai interj ຺ᘚࡋ࡚ ୗࡉ࠸ Please give me a break is a match (for), matches, is kanbi n ᏶ഛ full equipment equal (to): aité ni kanaimasén ┦ᡭ࡟ᩛ࠸ࡲࡏࢇ is no match kanbi (na) adj ⏑⨾ ࡞ sweet, for the opponent luscious, dulcet: ~ kajitsu ⏑⨾ kanaimásu, kanáu v ྔ࠸ࡲࡍ, ྔ࠺ ࡞ᯝᐇ sweet fruit: ~ merodii ⏑ ⨾࡞࣓ࣟࢹ࢕࣮ dulcet melody (= dekimásu ࡛ࡁࡲࡍ) is accomplished, attained, realized, kanbu n ᝈ㒊 [BOOKISH] diseased part, affected area achieved: nozomi ga ~ ᮃࡳࡀ 119



kanbu n ᖿ㒊 [BOOKISH] executive temple, etc.): joya no ~ 㝖ኪࡢ㚝 kanbun n ₎ᩥ Chinese classics the bells on New Year’s Eve kanbutsu n ஝≀ dry food … ka ne interj …࠿ࡡ (mostly NDQEĿ n ឤෑ [BOOKISH] common male. INFORMAL) = … ka ne/na cold: ryükøsei-~ ὶ⾜ᛶឤෑ …࠿ࡡ࠿࡞ (I wonder/whether) influenza (= infuruénza ࢖ࣥࣇ kane-bako n 㔠⟽ 1. cashbox, ࢚ࣝࣥࢨ) money box (= zeni-bako 㖹⟽) NDQEĿ n ᐁᡣ [BOOKISH] Secre2. patron, gold mine, money-


maker, cash cow

NDQEĿ n ┘ᡣ [BOOKISH] ward, jail kanemásu, kanéru v වࡡࡲࡍ, වࡡ ࡿ combines, unites; dually/concell kanbojia n ࢝ࣥ࣎ࢪ࢔ Cambodia; currently serves as Kanbojia-go n ࢝ࣥ࣎ࢪ࢔ㄒ Cam- kanemóchí (no) adj 㔠ᣢࡕ ࡢ rich bodian (language); Kanbojia-jin n (wealthy) ࢝ࣥ࣎ࢪ࢔ே a Cambodian NDQ·HQ n ⫢⅖ hepatitis kanboku n ₤>℺@ᮌ bush NăQďVKRQ n ࣮࢝ࢿ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ carnakanbotsu n 㝗ἐ [BOOKISH] subsid- tion(s): haha-no-hi ni okuru ~ ẕ ࡢ᪥࡟㉗ࡿ࣮࢝ࢿ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ carnaence, cave-in, sinking NDQE\Ŀ n ┳⑓ nursing tions gifted for Mother’s Day kanchi n ឤ▱ appreciation, sense kanetsu n ຍ⇕ heat, heating; kanchi n ᏶἞ [BOOKISH] complete kanetsu-ki n ຍ⇕ჾ heater kangáe ⪃࠼ n thought, idea, cure NDQFKĿ n ᾃ⭠ enema opinion NiQFKĿ n Ⰴ㛗 captain (of warship) kangaemásu, kangáeru v ⪃࠼ࡲࡍ, NiQFKĿ n ᐁᗇ government office ⪃࠼ࡿ thinks, considers NDQFKĿ n ᖸ₻ ebb, low tide kangei n Ḽ㏄ welcome (= kantai kandai (na) adj ᐶ኱ ࡞ generous, Ḽᚅ); kangei-kai n Ḽ㏄఍ lenient: ~ na hito ᐶ኱࡞ே broad- reception (welcome party) minded person: ~ na kokoro ᐶ kangeki n ឤ⃭ (strong) emotion ኱࡞ᚰ generous heart, big heart (feeling) (= kandø ឤື kandán-kei n ᐮᬮィ (room) ther- kango n ₎ㄒ Chinese word/

mometer NDQGĿ n ឤື (strong) emotion,

(deep) feeling kane n 㔠 1. money 2. metal (= kinzoku 㔠ᒓ) kane n 㚝 large bell (of church,

vocabulary (in Japanese) kángo n ┳ㆤ nursing (a patient); kangó-shi n ┳ㆤᖌ a nurse kani n ࢝ࢽ࣭⽣ crab kăQLEDUX n ࣮࢝ࢽࣂࣝ carnival kanja n ᝈ⪅ (medical) patient



kanji n ₎Ꮠ a Chinese character

(symbol), kanji


kankyĿ n ⎔ቃ environment: ~-osen ⎔ቃởᰁ environmental pollution; ~-hogo ⎔ቃಖㆤ

kanji n ឤࡌ feeling (= kankaku ឤぬ): konna-~ (de/no) ࡇࢇ࡞ឤ environmental protection ࡌ ࡛ࡢ like this: sonna/anna- .DQN\ĿVKĿ n ⎔ቃ┬ Ministry of ~ (de/no) ࡑࢇ࡞࠶ࢇ࡞ឤࡌ ࡛ the Environment (MOE) kanmatsu n ᕳᮎ end of a book ࡢ like that kan-jimásu, kan-jiru v ឤࡌࡲࡍ, ឤ kanmi n ⏑࿡ sweetness: ~-ryø ⏑ ࡌࡿ feels ࿡ᩱ sweetening NDQMĿ n ឤ᝟ emotion kanna n ࠿ࢇ࡞࣭࢝ࣥࢼ plane NDQMĿ n ⎔≧ [BOOKISH] loop (tool) kannai (de/ni) adv ⟶ෆ ࡛࡟ (shape): ~ (no) ⎔≧ ࡢ ringshaped, circular; ~-sen ⎔≧⥺ within the jurisdiction kannai (de/ni) adv 㤋ෆ ࡛࡟ loop/belt line NDQMĿ n ຺ᐃ bill, check, account; inside the building: ~-tsuå 㤋ෆ NDQMĿJiNDUL ຺ᐃಀ cashier ࢶ࢔࣮ guided tour of the kankaku n ឤぬ sense, sensibility, building kannen n ほᛕ 1. idea (Platonism) feeling, sensation kankaku n 㛫㝸 space, interval (of 2. concept, conception 3. giving time, space) up 4. meditation (Buddhism) kankei n 㛵ಀ connection, relation- kannin n ሓᚸ [BOOKISH] patience: ship, interest, concern, relevance: ~ shitekudasai ሓᚸࡋ࡚ୗࡉ࠸ … no ~-sha … ࡢ㛵ಀ⪅ the peo- Please forgive me.: ~-bukuro no o ga kireru ሓᚸ⿄ࡢ⥴ࡀษࢀࡿ ple/ authorities concerned with

…, the … people kánki n ᥮Ẽ ventilation: ~-sen ᥮ Ẽᡪ ventilator NDQNĿ n ほග sightseeing, tour: ~-básu ほගࣂࢫ sightseeing bus; ~-réssha ほගิ㌴ sightseeing train; NDQNĿN\DNX n ほගᐈ

runs out of patience kanningu n ࢝ࣥࢽࣥࢢ (during

examination, test, etc.) cheating; NDQQLQJXSďSăn ࢝ࣥࢽࣥࢢ࣮࣌ࣃ ࣮ crib note NDQQĿ n ᏶⣡ [BOOKISH] full pay-

ment NDQQĿ n ឤᛂ [BOOKISH] response, tourist, sightseer Kánkoku n 㡑ᅜ South Korea; participation Kankoku-go n 㡑ᅜㄒ Korean NDQQĿ teki (na) adj ᐁ⬟ⓗ ࡞ (language); Kankokú-jin n 㡑ᅜே sensual, erotic kannúki n ࠿ࢇࡠࡁ bolt (of door) a Korean kankyaku n ほᐈ audience, spectator kánnushi n ⚄୺ priest (Shinto) 121


káno-jo pron ᙼዪ she/her; girl-


sha n ⟶⌮⪅ administrator kanroku n ㈏⚘ presence (= igen friend, mistress NDQĿ (na) adj ྍ⬟ ࡞ possible: ጾཝ): ~ ga arimásu ㈏⚘ࡀ࠶ࡾ ~-sei ྍ⬟ᛶ possibility ࡲࡍ has a presence kanpa n ࢝ࣥࣃ fund-raising kansai-chLKĿ n 㛵すᆅ᪉ the Kansai campaign area of Japan (Kyoto, Osaka, kanpai n ஝ᮼ a toast, “bottoms Kobe, Nara, Shiga, Hyogo, up”: Kanpai! ஝ᮼ Cheers! Wakayama prefecture etc.) kanpai n ᏶ᩋ complete defeat kansatsu n ほᐹ [BOOKISH] obserkanpán n ⏥ᯈ deck (of ship) vation, watching; kansatsú-sha n kanpan n ஝ࣃࣥ hardtack ほᐹ⪅ observer kanpeki (na) n, adj ᏶⎍ ࡞ kansatsu n ┘ᐹ [BOOKISH] inspecperfection, perfect tion; kansatsú-kan n ┘ᐹᐁ inkanpi n ᐁ㈝ government expense, spector kansatsu n 㚷ᮐ [BOOKISH] license government expenditure NDQSĿ n ᐁሗ gazette (tag): inú no ~ ≟ࡢ㚷ᮐ a dog(NDQSĿ (yaku) n ₎᪉ ⸆ Chinese license) tag kansei n ᏶ᡂ completion, permedicine kanpu n 㑏௜ refund: ~-kin 㑏௜㔠 fection kansetsu n 㛵⠇ joint (of two tax refund NDQSŗ n ᐮ㢼 cold wind bones): (shu)shi-~ ᡭ ᣦ㛵⠇ NDQSŗ n ᏶ᑒ shut-out: ~-jiai ᏶ᑒ knuckle: ~-en 㛵⠇⅖ arthritis ヨྜ shutout game kansetsu (no) adj 㛫᥋ ࡢ indirect; kanpuku n ឤ᭹ admiration (= kan- kansetsu(-teki) ni adj 㛫᥋ ⓗ ࡟ shin ឤᚰ, kantan ឤჃ) indirectly NDQS\Ŀ´ n ࢝ࣥࣆࣙ࢘ dried gourd kánsha n ឤㅰ thanks, gratitude; kansha-sai n ឤㅰ⚍ Thanksgiving strips, dried ground shavings kanrán-seki n ほぴᖍ grandstand kan-shimásu (-súru) v 㛵ࡋࡲࡍ re(seats) lates (to), concerns, is connected kanren n 㛵㐃 relevance (= kankei (with): … ni kánshite …࡟㛵ࡋ࡚ 㛵ಀ : (… ni) ~ shimásu …࡟ concerning, as regards, with 㛵㐃ࡋࡲࡍ is relevant (to), is respect to … kanshin n 㛵ᚰ concern, interest connected (with) kánri n ⟶⌮ control (= kontorøru (= kyømi ⯆࿡): ~ ga arimásu 㛵 ࢥࣥࢺ࣮ࣟࣝ); kanri-nin n ⟶⌮ே ᚰࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is interested in kanshin n ឤᚰ admiration custodian, janitor, manager, landlord (rental manager); kanri- NDQVKĿ n ᖸ΅ interference, 122



meddling: ~ shinai de kudasai overseer, manager, director; eigaᖸ΅ࡋ࡞࠸࡛ୗࡉ࠸ Please stay kantoku n ᫎ⏬┘╩ film director NDQWĿVKL n 㛫ᢞモ interjection away from me., Please stay kanzei n 㛵⛯ customs duty (tariff) out of it. NDQVKĿ n 㚷㈹ [BOOKISH] apprekanzen n ᏶඲ perfection, comciation (art, work, music) pleteness: ~ ni ᏶඲࡟ completely NDQVKĿ n ほ㈹ [BOOKISH] admira- NDQ]Ŀ n ⫢⮚ liver tion, enjoyment: ~-shokubutsu kan-zúmé (no …) adj ⨁ワ ࡢ… ほ㈹᳜≀ ornamental plant 1. canned (food), can, tin 2. confine kansoku n ほ  observation; oneself: hoteru ni ~ ni natte kiji opinion (= íken ពぢ): hoshi no ~ o kakimásu ࣍ࢸࣝ࡟⨁ワ࡟࡞ ᫍࡢほ  observation of the stars ࡗ࡚グ஦ࢆ᭩ࡁࡲࡍ confines NDQVĿ n ឤ᝿ impression: dokusho oneself to a hotel room to write ~-bun ㄞ᭩ឤ᝿ᩥ book report articles kao n 㢦 face; looks, a look: … (at school) NDQVĿ n ஝⇱ dryness; NDQVĿNL n (no) ~ o shite imásu … ࡢ 㢦ࢆ ஝⇱ᶵ dryer (washing machine) ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ has/wears an expresNDQVĿgei-kai n Ḽ㏦㏄఍ welcome sion of …; kao-iro n 㢦Ⰽ comand farewell party plexion kantai n Ḽᚅ [BOOKISH] welcome kaomoji n 㢦ᩥᏐ Emoticon kaori n 㤶 ࡾ fragrance, incense (= kangei Ḽ㏄) kantan n ឤჃ [BOOKISH] admiration (= kø´ 㤶): køsui no ~ 㤶Ỉࡢ㤶 (= kanshin ឤᚰ, kanpuku ឤ᭹) ࡾ fragrance of perfume kantan (na) adj ⡆༢ ࡞ easy, NăSpWWR n ࣮࢝࣌ࢵࢺ carpet kappa n ࠿ࡗࡥ࣭࢝ࢵࣃ࣭Ἑ❺ simple, brief kantei n 㚷ᐃ [BOOKISH] judgment water imp kantei n ᐁ㑰 [BOOKISH] official kapparaimásu, kapparáu v ࠿ࡗࡥࡽ ࠸ࡲࡍ, ࠿ࡗࡥࡽ࠺ [INFORMAL] residence: shushø-~ 㤳┦ᐁ㑰 official residence of the prime swipes, steals, shoplifts kappatsu (na) adj άⓎ ࡞ active, minister NDQWĿFKLKĿ n 㛵ᮾᆅ᪉ the Kantø lively NDSSĿ n ๭ↀ [BOOKISH] Japanese area of Japan (Tokyø, Chiba, restaurant, Japanese cuisine: ~-gi Saitama, Kanagawa, Ibaraki, ๭ↀ╔ Japanese-style apron Tochigi, Gunma, Yamanashi káppu n ࢝ࢵࣉ a cup (with prefecture) A shutó-ken 㤳㒔ᅪ kantoku n ┘╩ supervision; handle): magu-~ ࣐ࢢ࢝ࢵࣉ supervisor, superintendent, mug 123



káppuru n ࢝ࢵࣉࣝ a couple (of

kare-shi ᙼẶ) NDUď n ࣮࢝ࣞ curry: ~-ráisu ࢝ࣞ kápuseru n ࢝ࣉࢭࣝ capsule: ࣮ࣛ࢖ࢫ rice with curry ~-hoteru ࢝ࣉࢭࣝ࣍ࢸࣝ capsule kárei n ࢝ࣞ࢖ flatfish, turbot karemásu, kareru v ᯤࢀࡲࡍ, ᯤࢀ hotel kara n Ẇ shell, crust: monuke no ࡿ withers: karete imásu ᯤࢀ࡚ ~ ࡶࡠࡅࡢ࠿ࡽ>Ẇ@ completely ࠸ࡲࡍ is withered empty (= karappo (no) ✵ࡗࡱ karemásu, kareru v สࢀࡲࡍ, สࢀ ࡢ ) ࡿ can mow/cut kara (no) adj ࠿ࡽ>✵@ ࡢ empty: NDUpQGă n ࢝ࣞࣥࢲ࣮ calendar karappo (no) ࠿ࡽ>✵@ࡗࡱ ࡢ káre-shi n ᙼẶ boyfriend (lover) completely empty (= káre ᙼ) … kará prep, conj …࠿ࡽ 1. kari (no) adj ௬ ࡢ temporary, from…, since… (time, space): tentative: ~-zumai ௬ఫࡲ࠸ … kara, … máde …࠿ࡽ…ࡲ࡛ temporary residence kári ⊁ࡾ n hunting: ~ o shimásu from … to … 2. because… NiUă n ࣮࢝ࣛ collar (= eri あ) ⊁ࡾࢆࡋࡲࡍ hunts NiUă n ࣮࢝ࣛ color (= iro Ⰽ) kari ೉ࡾ n borrowing: ~ ga arimásu ೉ࡾࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ I owe you.; karada n య࣭㌟య body; one’s health: ~ ni ki o tsukete kudasai karí-chin n ೉ࡾ㈤ rent (charge); ㌟ య࡟Ẽࢆࡘࡅ࡚ୗࡉ࠸ kari-te n ೉ࡾᡭ the borrower/


Please take care of yourself.

renter, the lessee, the tenant

karái adj ㎞࠸ 1. spicy, hot, pep- karimásu, karu v สࡾࡲࡍ, สࡿ pery, pungent 2. salty mows, cuts karakaimásu, karakáu v ࠿ࡽ࠿࠸ࡲ karimásu, kariru v ೉ࡾࡲࡍ, ೉ࡾࡿ ࡍ, ࠿ࡽ࠿࠺ teases, pokes fun at borrows/rents it (from …) kara-kása n ၈ച (oil-paper) NDUĿ n 㐣ປ overfatigue: ~-shi 㐣 ປṚ death from overwork umbrella karaoke n ࢝ࣛ࢜ࢣ karaoke NăUX n ࣮࢝ࣝ curl karashi n ࢝ࣛࢩ࣭ⰰᏊ mustard karui adj ㍍࠸ light (of weight) kárasu n ࢝ࣛࢫ࣭ⅲ crow karuishi n ㍍▼ pumice karate n ࢝ࣛࢸ࣭✵ᡭ karate Karukatta n ࢝ࣝ࢝ࢵࢱ Calcutta (weaponless self-defense): ~-gí (Kolkata) ✵ᡭ╔ karate outfit/suit kása n ച࣭࠿ࡉ umbrella: ~-date káre pron ᙼ he/him; káre-ra pron ച❧࡚ umbrella stand ᙼࡽ they/them kása n ➟ bamboo hat; (mushkáre n ᙼ boyfriend (lover) (= room) cap




kasá n ᔞ bulk kashikomarimáshita ࠿ࡋࡇࡲࡾࡲࡋ kasabarimásu, kasabaru v ࠿ࡉࡤࡾ ࡓ. I understand and will comply ࡲࡍ, ࠿ࡉࡤࡿ is bulky, takes up (with your request). [HONORIFIC] kashí-ma n ㈚㛫 rooms for rent; much space kasai n ⅆ⅏ fire (accidental) (= rented/rental room(s) káji ⅆ஦ : ~-kéihø ⅆ⅏㆙ሗ fire kashimásu, kasu v ㈚ࡋࡲࡍ, ㈚ࡍ alarm, ~-høchíki ⅆ⅏ሗ▱ჾ fire lends; rents (it out to) kashirá n 㢌 head; chief, leader alarm (device), fire bell kasanarimásu, kasanaru v 㔜࡞ࡾࡲ … káshira interj …࠿ࡋࡽ (mostly ࡍ, 㔜࡞ࡿ they pile up female) I wonder/whether kasanemásu, kasaneru v 㔜ࡡࡲࡍ, kashi-te n ㈚ࡋᡭ the lender/ 㔜ࡡࡿ piles them up, puts one lessor, the landlord kashitsu n 㐣ኻ mistakes, errors, on top of another kase n ࠿ࡏ shackles: te-~ ᡭ࠿ࡏ faults: ~-sekinin 㐣ኻ㈐௵ neglihandcuffs: ~ o hazushimásu ࠿ࡏ gence liability ࢆእࡋࡲࡍ unshackles kashi-ya n ㈚ᐙ house for rent; kasegimásu, kaségu v ✌ࡂࡲࡍ, ✌ rented/rental house ࡄ earns, works for (money) …-kásho suffix …࠿ᡤ࣭⟠ᡤ࣭ kasei n ⅆᫍ Mars; kaséi-jin n ⅆᫍ ಶᡤ (counter for places, ே a Martian installations, institutions) kaséi-fu n ᐙᨻ፬ housekeeper, NDVKRNXVKĿ n 㐣㣗⑕ bulimia

hired maid


kaseki n ໬▼ fossil(s) kashu n ḷᡭ singer: ~-kashu ὶ⾜ kasen n ୗ⥺ underline: ~ o ḷᡭ pop singer hikimásu ୗ⥺ࢆᘬࡁࡲࡍ draws NDVĿ n ௬⿦ disguise: ~-påtii ௬⿦ ࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕ costume party: ~-ishø an underline kasen n ໬⧄ [BOOKISH] synthetic ௬⿦⾰⿦ costume NDVĿ n ⅆⴿ cremation fiber kasetto WďSX n ࢝ࢭࢵࢺ ࢸ࣮ࣉ NDVĿ n ௬᝿ [BOOKISH] virtual, cassette (tape) imaginary: ~-kükan ௬᝿✵㛫 káshi n ḷモ lyrics virtual space káshi n ⳫᏊ cakes, sweets, pastry; NDVĿ n ୗᒙ [BOOKISH] lower kashí-ya n ⳫᏊᒇ candy store, layer: ~-kaikyü ୗᒙ㝵⣭ lower

confectioner kashikiri-básu n ㈚ࡋษࡾࣂࢫ

chartered bus kashikói adj ㈼࠸ wise

class society kasoku n ຍ㏿ acceleration; kasokupédaru ຍ㏿࣌ࢲࣝ gas pedal NăVRUX n ࣮࢝ࢯࣝ cursor (on the




computer screen, etc.) kangae-~ ⪃࠼᪉ one’s way of kásu n ࠿ࡍ>⁦@ 1. sediment, thinking, one’s point of view … katá n …᪉ (o-kata ࠾᪉) (hondregs, grounds: køhii-~ ࢥ࣮ ࣄ࣮࠿ࡍ coffee grounds 2. waste, ored) person: anata-gata ࠶࡞ࡓ scum, trash, rags, scrap, junk (= ᪉ you people kúzu ࡃࡎ>ᒌ@): moe-~ ⇞࠼࠿ kata-… prefix ∦ one (of a ࡍ cinders: ningen/seken no ~ ே pair) (= katáhø ∦᪉ : ~-ashi ∦ 㛫ୡ㛫ࡢ࠿ࡍ the scum of the ㊊ one leg/foot: ~-gawa ∦ഃ one earth 3. particles: tabe-~ 㣗࡭࠿ side; NDWiKĿ n ∦᪉, katáppø ∦ ࡍ food particles ࡗࡱ࠺, katáppo ∦ࡗࡱ one of kásu n ࠿ࡍ>⣆࣭⢑@ lees a pair; the other one (of a pair); kásuka (na/ni) adj, adv ࠿ࡍ࠿ ࡞ kata-koto n ∦ゝ imperfect ࡟ ࣭ᚤ࠿ ࡞࡟ faint(ly), language, limited language; katamichi n ∦㐨 one-way: ~ kíppu ∦ dim(ly), slight(ly) kasumemásu, kasumeru v ᥆ࡵࡲࡍ, 㐨ษ➢ one way ticket ᥆ࡵࡿ skims, grazes katachi n ᙧ form, shape kasume-torimásu, kasume-toru v ᥆ࡵ katadoru adj ࠿ࡓ࡝>㇟࣭ᶍ@ࡿ ྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, ᥆ࡵྲྀࡿ skims off; imitated, copied, modeled, robs (it of …), cheats (one out of symbolized (= shøchø ㇟ᚩ) …) (= kasumemásu ᥆ࡵࡲࡍ … katá-gata suffix …᪉ࠎ (honored) kasumi n ࠿ࡍࡳ࣭㟘 haze, mist persons (= … katá-tachi …᪉㐩) kasumimásu, kasumu v 㟘ࡳࡲࡍ, katagi (na) adj ሀẼ ࡞ respect㟘ࡴ gets dim, hazy, misty able, steady, honest kasurimásu, kasuru v ࠿ࡍࡾࡲࡍ, katai adj ᅛ࠸ hard; tight; strong; ࠿ࡍࡿ grazes firm; strong; strict kasutera n ࢝ࢫࢸࣛ Japanese katai adj ◳࠸ hard, stiff; stilted sponge cake, Castella


kata n ᆺ 1. form, shape, size, mold, pattern: ~ ni hamemásu ᆺ ࡟ࡣࡵࡲࡍ stereotypes: ø-gata ኱ᆺ large-size 2. type, model: ketsueki-~ ⾑ᾮᆺ blood type káta n ⫪ shoulder(s); kata-gaki n ⫪᭩ࡁ (business/position) title …-kata suffix …᪉ manner of doing, way: yari-~ ࡸࡾ᪉ method, process (= høhø ᪉ἲ):

katai adj ሀ࠸ hard; solid; sound;

reliable; serious; formal katákána n ࢝ࢱ࢝ࢼ࣭∦࠿࡞࣭ ∦௬ྡ katakana (the squarish

Japanese letters) katamari n ᅛࡲࡾ࣭ሢ a lump, a

clot, a mass; a loaf (of bread) katamarimásu, katamaru v ᅛࡲࡾࡲ ࡍ, ᅛࡲࡿ it hardens, congeals,

clots, (mud) cakes 126


katamemásu, katameru v ᅛࡵࡲࡍ, ᅛࡵࡿ hardens it, congeals it;


inku-~ ࢖ࣥࢡ࣮࢝ࢺࣜࢵࢪ ink

cartridge Katoríkku n ࢝ࢺࣜࢵࢡ Catholic strengthens it katamuki n ഴࡁ slant; inclination, kátsu n ࢝ࢶ a Japanese “cutlet” tendency (fried in deep fat): ton-~ ㇜࢝ katamukimásu, katamúku v ഴࡁࡲࡍ, ࢶ࣭ࢺࣥ࢝ࢶ pork cutlet; katsudon n ࢝ࢶ୻ a bowl of rice with ഴࡃ leans (to one side), slants kataná n ย sword sliced pork cutlet on top katáppo n ∦ࡗࡱ one of a pair; NDWVXGĿ n άື action, activity, the other one (of a pair) movement katarimásu v ㄒࡾࡲࡍ, kataru ㄒ katsugimásu, katsúgu v ᢸࡂࡲࡍ ᢸࡄ carries on shoulders ࡿ relates, tells … katá-tachi n …᪉㐩 (honored) katsuji n άᏐ movable type: ~ ni shimásu άᏐ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ prints, persons katáwa n ∦㍯ (discriminatory is in print katsuo n ࢝ࢶ࣭࢜㫎 bonito: term) cripple kata-yorimásu, kata-yóru v ∦ᐤࡾ>೫ ~-bushi ࢝ࢶ࢜>㫎@⠇ a dried ࡾ@ࡲࡍ, ∦ᐤࡿ>೫ࡿ@ leans (to bonito fish katsura n ࠿ࡘࡽ࣭࢝ࢶࣛ a wig one side); is partial (to) kata-zukemásu, kata-zukéru v ∦௜ࡅ kátsute adv ࠿ࡘ࡚ at one time, ࡲࡍ, ∦௜ࡅࡿ puts in order, formerly straightens up, tidies, cleans up katsuyaku n ά㌍ activity kata-zukimásu, kata-zúku v ∦௜ࡁࡲ …-kátta v …࠿ࡗࡓ㸸[ADJECTIVE] ࡍ, ∦௜ࡃ it gets tidy (put in order) -kátta (desu) …࠿ࡗࡓ ࡛ࡍ katei n ௬ᐃ hypothesis, supposition was … katei n ㄢ⛬ process (course, stage) …-káttara v …࠿ࡗࡓࡽ: [ADJECTIVE] katei n ᐙᗞ home, household; káttara …࠿ࡗࡓࡽ if/when it is NDWHL\ĿJX\ĿKLQ n ᐙᗞ⏝ල⏝ရ …-káttari v …࠿ࡗࡓࡾ: [ADJECTIVE] káttari …࠿ࡗࡓࡾ being reprehome appliances katemásu, katéru v ຾࡚ࡲࡍ, ຾࡚ࡿ sentatively/sometimes/altercan win nately: …-ku nákattari …ࡃ࡞࠿ NăWHQ n ࣮࢝ࢸࣥ curtain, drapes: ࡗࡓࡾ (is…) off and on, some~-róddo ࣮࢝ࢸࣥࣟࢵࢻ curtain times is … and sometimes isn’t katte n ຾ᡭ kitchen; NDWWHGĿJX n rod; ~-rëru ࣮࢝ࢸ࣮ࣥࣞࣝ curtain rail: shawå-~ ࢩ࣮ࣕ࣡࢝ ຾ᡭ㐨ල kitchen utensils; kátteguchi n ຾ᡭཱྀ kitchen door, ࣮ࢸࣥ shower curtain kăWRULMML n ࣮࢝ࢺࣜࢵࢪ cartridge: back door 127



katte adj, adv ~ (na/ni) ຾ᡭ ࡞ ௦ࢃࡿ: (… ni) ~ …࡟ ௦ࢃࡾࡲ ࡟ selfish(ly), as one wishes ࡍ it takes the place (of …) NDXQVHUă n ࢝࢘ࣥࢭ࣮ࣛ kawaru-gáwaru adv ௦ࢃࡿ௦ࢃࡿ࣭ ࠿ࢃࡿࡀࢃࡿ alternately counselor NDXQWă n ࢝࢘ࣥࢱ࣮ counter kawase n Ⅽ᭰ a money order: kawá n ᕝ river ~-rëto Ⅽ࣮᭰ࣞࢺ currency kawá n Ἑ big river exchange rates kawá n ⓶࣭㠉 skin; leather; (tree) kayaku n ⅆ⸆ gunpowder .D\Ŀ EL n ⅆ᭙ ᪥ Tuesday bark; crust kawai-garimásu, kawai-gáru v ࠿ࢃ࠸ kayoi ㏻࠸ adj ~ (no) ㏻࠸ ࡢ ࡀࡾ>ྍឡࡀࡾ@ࡲࡍ, ࠿ࢃ࠸ࡀ commuting, live-out (help): ~ no o-tetsudai(-san) ㏻࠸ࡢ࠾ᡭఏ࠸ ࡿ࣭ྍឡࡀࡿ treats with affec ࡉࢇ a day helper tion, loves (children, pets, etc.) kawaíi adj ࠿ࢃ࠸࠸࣭ྍឡ࠸ cute, kayoimásu, kayou v ㏻࠸ࡲࡍ, ㏻࠺ lovable, darling (= kawairashíi commutes, goes back and forth, ࠿ࢃ࠸ࡽࡋ࠸࣭ྍឡࡽࡋ࠸) goes (regularly) NDZDLVĿ (na) adj ࠿ࢃ࠸ࡑ࠺ ࡞ kayu n ⢛࣭࠿ࡺ rice gruel, por-

pitiful, poor


kawakashimásu, kawakásu v ஝࠿ࡋ ࡲࡍ, ஝࠿ࡍ dries it (out) kawakimásu, kawáku v ஝ࡁࡲࡍ, ஝ࡃ gets dry kawakimásu, kawáku v Ῥࡁࡲࡍ, Ῥ ࡃ: nodo ga ~ ࡢ࡝ࡀῬࡁࡲࡍ

kayúi adj ⑛࠸ itchy kázan n ⅆᒣ volcano: ~-bai ⅆᒣ ⅊ volcanic ash kazari 㣭ࡾ n = ~-mono 㣭ࡾ≀

ornament, decoration

kazarimásu, kazaru v 㣭ࡾࡲࡍ, 㣭 ࡿ decorates gets thirsty kawara n ⎰ tile: ~-buki (no) ⎰ࡪ kazari-mono n 㣭ࡾ≀ ornament, ࡁ ࡢ tile-roofed decoration kawari n ኚࢃࡾchange (in health) kaze n 㢼 wind kawari n ௦ࢃࡾ substitute: … no kaze n ࠿ࡐ࣭࢝ࢮ࣭㢼㑧 a cold: ~ ni … ࡢ௦ࢃࡾ࡟ instead of ~ o hikimásu ࠿ࡐࢆࡦࡁࡲࡍ kawari n ࠿ࢃࡾ a second helping catches (a) cold (usually of rice): ~-jiyü (desu) ࠾ kaze-gúsuri n ࠿ࡐ⸆࣭㢼㑧⸆ ࠿ࢃࡾ⮬⏤ ࡛ࡍ has free refills medicine for colds kawarimásu, kawaru v ኚࢃࡾࡲࡍ, kazoe-kirenai adj ᩘ࠼ษࢀ࡞࠸ ኚࢃࡿ: (… ni) ~ …࡟ ኚࢃࡾࡲ countless, innumerable ࡍ it changes (into…) kazoemásu, kazoéru v ᩘ࠼ࡲࡍ, kawarimásu, kawaru v ௦ࢃࡾࡲࡍ, ᩘ࠼ࡿ counts




kázoku n ᐙ᪘ family: ~-omoi no (hito) ᐙ᪘ᛮ࠸ࡢ ே family-

NHLEDMĿ n ➇㤿ሙ racetrack keibetsu n ㍍⶜ contempt, de-

minded (person)


kéibi n ㆙ഛ [BOOKISH] security; keibi-in n ㆙ഛဨ security guard keiei n ⤒Ⴀ management,

kázu n ᩘ number kazu no ko n ࢝ࢬࣀࢥ࣭ᩘࡢᏊ

herring roe ke n ẟ hair; wool; feathers …-ke suffix …ᐙ (name of certain) clan, family: Suzuki-~ 㕥ᮌᐙ Suzuki family NďEXUX n ࢣ࣮ࣈࣝ cable: ~-kå ࢣ ࣮ࣈ࣮ࣝ࢝ cable car: ~-terebi ࢣ ࣮ࣈࣝࢸࣞࣅ cable TV kecháppu n ࢣࢳࣕࢵࣉ ketchup kéchi (na) adj ࡅࡕ ࡞ stingy,


operation keiéi-sha n ⤒Ⴀ⪅ manager,

operator, proprietor keigo n ᩗㄒ honorific (word): ~ o tsukaimásu ᩗㄒࢆ౑࠸ࡲࡍ uses

honorific words

keihin n ᬒရ [BOOKISH] giveaway NHLKĿ n ㆙ሗ alarm, alert, warning keiji n ⧅㎡ [BOOKISH] copula,

(grammar term) link

NpFKLQEĿ, kéchinbo n ࡅࡕࢇᆓ, ࡅ ࡕࢇࡰ stingy person, skinflint,

kéiji n ฮ஦ (police) detective keiji n ᥖ♧ bulletin; keiji-ban n ᥖ♧ᯈ bulletin board miser kedamono n ࡅࡔࡶࡢ࣭ࢣࢲࣔࣀ࣭NpLMĿ n ᙧ≧ geometry ⋇ animal; beast (= kemono) keika n ⤒㐣 course (of time), kédo conj ࡅ࡝ [INFORMAL] progress, development though, but (= [FORMAL] kéredo keikai n ㆙ᡄ [BOOKISH] vigilance, (-mo) ࡅࢀ࡝ ࡶ however, watch, guard; warning, caution keikaku n ィ⏬ plan, scheme, though, but) kegá n ࡅࡀ࣭ࢣ࣭࢞᛹ᡃ injury, program, project (= puran ࣉࣛ mishap: ~ o shimásu ᛹ᡃࢆࡋࡲ ࣥ): (… no) ~ o tatemásu …ࡢ  ࡍ gets hurt; ~ o sasemásu ᛹ᡃ ィ⏬ࢆ❧࡚ࡲࡍ = (…o) ~ shimásu ࢆࡉࡏࡲࡍ injures (someone) …ࢆ ィ⏬ࡋࡲࡍ plans ke-gawa n ẟ⓶ fur keikan n ㆙ᐁ [BOOKISH] policeman, kéi n ฮ (criminal) sentence (police) officer (= keisatsu-kan …-kei suffix …⣔ 1. type, model: ㆙ᐹᐁ): ~-tai ㆙ᐁ㝲 a contindø-~-shoku ྠ⣔Ⰽ similar color gent of policemen 2. of …ancestry: ~-zu ⣔ᅗ gene- keiken n ⤒㦂 experience; shokumualogy, a family tree (= kakei-zu keiken n ⫋ົ⤒㦂 job experience ᐙ⣔ᅗ) keiki n ᬒẼ business conditions, keiba n ➇㤿 horse racing/race; prosperity, boom: ~-taisaku




ᬒẼᑐ⟇ economy-boosting keishoku n ㍍㣗 snack, light foods keisotsu (na) adj ㍍⋡ ࡞ hasty, measure(s) kéiki n ዎᶵ [BOOKISH] opportunity rash kéiki n ฮᮇ prison term keitai n ᙧែ pattern, shape NHL U\Ŀ NL n ィ 㔞 ჾ meter (dekeitai 1. adj ᦠᖏ portable 2. n ᦠ ᖏ cell-phone, mobile (tele)phone vice) kéiko n ✍ྂ exercise, practice, (= keitai-denwa ᦠᖏ㟁ヰ) keitai-denwa n ᦠᖏ㟁ヰ cell-phone, drill NHLNĿ n ഴྥ [BOOKISH] tendency, mobile (tele)phone keiteki n ㆙➜ horn (of car) (= trend keikĿ n ⤒ཱྀ [BOOKISH] oral: kuráku-shon ࢡࣛࢡࢩࣙࣥ) ~-hinínyaku ⤒ཱྀ㑊ዷ⸆ oral keito n ẟ⣒ wool; yarn: ~-dama ẟ⣒⋢ ball of wool/yarn contraceptive (= piru ࣆࣝ) keikoku n ㆙࿌ [BOOKISH] warning: keiyaku n ዎ⣙ contract, agree~-hyøji ㆙࿌⾲♧ alarm display ment; keiyaku-sho n ዎ⣙᭩ NHLNĿWĿ n ⺯ගⅉ fluorescent light (written) contract keimú-sho n ฮົᡤ jail, prison NHL\ĿVKL n ᙧᐜモ adjective keireki n ⤒Ṕ [BOOKISH] career … kéiyu (de/no) adv, adj …⤒⏤ ࡛ࡢ by (way of) …, via …: (history) keirin n ➇㍯ [BOOKISH] bicycle ~-bin ⤒⏤౽ indirect flight kéizai n ⤒῭ economics, finance; race: ~-jø ➇㍯ሙ bicycle racekeizái-gaku n ⤒῭Ꮫ (science of) track keirĿ n ᩗ⪁ [BOOKISH] respect for economics; keizai-teki (na) adj ⤒ ῭ⓗ ࡞ economical the aged; .HLUĿQRKt n ᩗ⪁ࡢ᪥ .HL]DL6DQJ\ĿVKĿ n ⤒῭⏘ᴗ┬ Respect-for-the-Aged Day Ministry of Economy, Trade and (Third Monday of September) keiryaku n ィ␎ [BOOKISH] plot, Industry (METI) NďNL n ࢣ࣮࢟ cake scheme, trick, strategy NHLU\ĿNDSSX n ィ㔞࢝ࢵࣉ measur- kekka n ⤖ᯝ result, effect; as a ing cup result (consequence): gen’in to ~ keisan n ィ⟬ calculation, comཎᅉ࡜⤖ᯝ cause and effect kekkaku n ⤖᰾ tuberculosis putation keisán-ki n ィ⟬ᶵ calculator kekkan n Ḟ㝗 [BOOKISH] defect, keisatsu n ㆙ᐹ police: ~-shó ㆙ᐹ deficiency ⨫ police station; ~-kan ㆙ᐹᐁ kekkan n ⾑⟶ blood vessel NHNNĿ n Ḟ⯟ [BOOKISH] cancelled policeman, (police) officer keishiki n ᙧᘧ form, formality flight; “flight cancelled” 130



NpNNĿ QD adj ⤖ᵓ ࡞ 1. splendid, NpQGĿ n ๢㐨 the art of fencing excellent 2. fairly well; enough: (with bamboo swords) Kékkø desu ⤖ᵓ࡛ࡍ. No, thank NHQ·HWVX n ᳨㜀 censor(ship) kengaku n ぢᏛ study by observayou. kekkon n ⤖፧ marriage (= konin tion, field study/trip/work ፧ጻ): ( … to) ~ shimásu …࡜ kénji n ᳨஦ (public) prosecutor ⤖፧ࡋࡲࡍ marries; kekkón-shiki n kenjŗ n ᣙ㖠 pistol ⤖፧ᘧ wedding kenka n ࡅࢇ࠿࣭႖ვ quarrel, kekkyokú n, adv ⤖ᒁ after all, in argument NHQNĿ n ೺ᗣ health: ~-shókuhin the long run kemono n ࡅࡶࡢ࣭ࢣࣔࣀ࣭⋇ ೺ᗣ㣗ရ health food(s); ~-hoken ೺ᗣಖ㝤 health insurance; NHQNĿ = kedamono ࡅࡔࡶࡢ࣭ࢣࢲࣔ ࣀ࣭⋇ (animal; beast) (na) adj ೺ᗣ ࡞ healthy kemúi, kemutai adj ↮࠸, ↮ࡓ࠸ kenkyo (na) adj ㅬ⹫ ࡞ humble



kemuri n ↮ smoke kemushi n ࢣ࣒ࢩ࣭ẟ⹸ cater-

NHQN\ŗ n ◊✲ research, study; NHQN\ŗMR n ◊✲ᡤ research


institute, laboratory

kén n ┴ a Japanese prefecture (like a state), …´-ken …┴: Chiba´ -ken ༓ⴥ┴ Chiba prefecture kén n ๢ (double-edged) sword …´-ken suffix …㌺ (counts houses,

small buildings and shops)

kenmei (na) adj ㈼᫂ ࡞ wise NpQSĿ n ᠇ἲ constitution: Kenpøkinénbi ᠇ἲグᛕ᪥ Constitution

(Memorial) Day (3 May) kénri n ᶒ฼ right (privilege); kenrí-kin n ᶒ฼㔠 “key money”

…´-ken suffix …ๆ ticket: nyüjø-~ (to obtain rental lease) ධሙๆ admission ticket kenryoku n ᶒຊ power, authority kenbái-ki n ๆ኎ᶵ ticket vending kénsa n ᳨ᰝ inspection, exami-


nation, check-up, test

NHQELN\Ŀ n 㢧ᚤ㙾 microscope kenbutsu n ぢ≀ sightseeing; kenbutsu-nin n ぢ≀ே bystander kénchi n ぢᆅ viewpoint kenchiku n ᘓ⠏ [BOOKISH] construction; architecture; kenchiku-ka n ᘓ⠏ᐙ architect NpQFKĿ n ┴ᗇ the prefectural

government (office)

kensatsu n ᳨ᮐ [BOOKISH] ticket

examining (on board) kensetsu n ᘓタ construction

(work) (building) NHQVKĿ n ᳨ド vertification NHQWĿ n ᣙ㜚 boxing (martial art) NHQWĿ n ぢᙜ aim; direction; estimate, guess: ~ ga tsukimásu ぢᙜࡀࡘࡁࡲࡍ gets a rough




idea (of it): ~ o tsukemásu ぢᙜ kesshin n Ỵᚰ determination, ࢆࡘࡅࡲࡍ makes a guess, takes resolve: (... shiyø to) ~ shimásu ࡋࡼ࠺࡜ Ỵᚰࡋࡲࡍ aim NHQWĿ n ᳨ウ examination, inspec- resolves (to do) kesshite adv Ỵࡋ࡚ [+ NEGATIVE] tion «NpQWĿ suffix …ぢᙜ roughly, never NHVVKĿ n Ỵ຾ finals, title match: about, approximately NHQ·\DNX n ೝ⣙ economy, thrift, jun-~ ‽Ỵ຾ semifinals NďVX n ࢣ࣮ࢫ case (a particular economizing: ~ (na) ೝ⣙ ࡞ thrifty, frugal instance): ~-bai-~ ࢣ࣮ࢫࣂ࢖ࢣ kénzan n ๢ᒣ a frog (pinholder) ࣮ࢫ case by case; case (container) keta n ࡅࡓ࣭ࢣࢱ࣭᱆ 1. (cross) for flowers ke-orimono n ẟ⧊≀ woolen goods beam, girder 2. abacus rod, kéredo (-mo) conj ࡅࢀ࡝ ࡶ (numerical) column ketsu n 1. ࡅࡘ࣭ᑼ buttock 2. ࡅ however, though, but kerimásu, kéru v ㋾ࡾࡲࡍ, ㋾ࡿ ࡘ the tail end, the last (bottom) kicks (= shiri ࡋࡾ࣭ᑼ) késa n, adv ௒ᮅ this morning ketsuatsu n ⾑ᅽ blood pressure; keshi ᾘࡋ adj tsuyakeshi (no) ࡘ ketsuatsu-kei n ⾑ᅽィ bloodࡸᾘࡋ matted; keshi-gomu n ᾘࡋ pressure gauge; sphygmoࢦ࣒ (rubber) eraser manometer keshi-in n ᾘ༳ cancellation mark/ ketsúeki n ⾑ᾮ blood ketsumatsu n ⤖ᮎ outcome stamp késhiki n ᬒⰍ scenery, view ketsuron n ⤖ㄽ conclusion: ~ to keshimásu, kesu v ᾘࡋࡲࡍ, ᾘࡍ shite ⤖ㄽ࡜ࡋ࡚ in conclusion extinguishes, puts out; turns off; kettei n Ỵᐃ determination, expunges, erases, deletes NHVKĿ n ໬⢝ o-keshø ࠾໬⢝ cosmetics, make-up; NHVKĿKLQ n ໬⢝ရ cosmetics; NHVKĿVKLWVX n ໬⢝ᐊ restroom, bathroom,

decision kettén n ḞⅬ flaw, defect, short-

coming kewashíi adj 㝤ࡋ࠸ steep,

precipitous; severe kezurimásu, kezuru v ๐ࡾࡲࡍ, ๐ toilet, lounge kessaku n ഔస masterpiece ࡿ sharpens, shaves kessan n Ỵ⟬ settling accounts ki n Ẽ spirit; feeling; mind, heart;  kesseki n Ḟᖍ absence (from ki (ga) adv Ẽ ࡀ : ~ mijikái Ẽ school, work); kessékí-sha n Ḟᖍ ࡀ▷࠸ is impatient: ~ omoi Ẽࡀ ⪅ absentee 㔜࠸ is depressed; ~ tsukimásu 132


Ẽࡀ௜ࡁࡲࡍ comes to one’s senses; ki ni adj Ẽ࡟: ~ irimásu Ẽ࡟ධࡾࡲࡍ appeals to one, is pleasing; ( … ga) ~ narimásu …ࡀ Ẽ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ worries (one); ... suru ~ ni narimásu ࡍࡿẼ࡟࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ gets in the mood (to do); ki o adv Ẽࢆ: ~ tsukemásu Ẽࢆ௜ࡅࡲࡍ (is)


kído n ᮌᡞ entrance gate, wicket kídoairaku n [BOOKISH] ႐ᛣယᴦ

emotions, delight, anger, sorrow and pleasure kidorimásu, kidoru v Ẽྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, Ẽྲྀࡿ࣭Ẽ࡝ࡿ puts on airs: kidotte imásu Ẽྲྀࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ, kidotta … Ẽྲྀࡗࡓ… affected, stuck-up kiemásu, kieru v ᾘ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᾘ࠼ࡿ careful ki n ᮌ tree; wood is extinguished, goes out; fades, kibarashi n Ẽᬕࡽࡋ diversion, vanishes kigae n ╔᭰࠼ a change of clothing refresh kiben n ロᘚ sophistry kigaemásu, kigáéru v ╔᭰࠼ࡲࡍ, kibishíi adj ཝࡋ࠸ strict, severe ╔᭰࠼ࡿ changes (clothes) NLEĿ n ᕼᮃ hope; NLEĿVKD n ᕼᮃ [newer form of ki-kaemásu ╔᭰ ⪅ candidate, applicant ࠼ࡲࡍ] kíbun n Ẽศ feeling, mood kigaru (na) adj Ẽ㍍ ࡞ casual, kicháimásu v [INFORMAL] ᮶ࡕࡷ࠸ lighthearted ࡲࡍ = kite-shimaimásu ᮶࡚ࡋ kígeki n ႐๻ comedy ࡲ࠸ࡲࡍ (comes) kigen n ᶵ᎘ (state of) health, kíchi n ᇶᆅ military base mood: ~ ga íi ᶵ᎘ࡀ࠸࠸ kíchi n ᶵ▱ wit cheerful; ~ ga warúi ᶵ᎘ࡀᝏ࠸ ki-chigái (no) adj Ẽ㐪࠸ ࡢ mad, unhappy, moody A go-kigen ࡈ ᶵ᎘ [HONORIFIC] insane kichín-to adv ࡁࡕࢇ࡜ punctually; kígen n ᮇ㝈 term, period; deadprecisely; neat(ly) line ktFKĿ n グᖒ [BOOKISH] registration kígen n ㉳※ origin NLJĿ n グྕ sign, mark, symbol (at hotel, etc.) NLFKĿ´ n ᶵ㛗 captain (of an airkígu n ჾල implement, fixture, plane) apparatus NLFKĿ (na) adj ㈗㔜 ࡞ valuable; NtJ\Ŀ n ௻ᴗ company, business NLFKĿKLQ n ㈗㔜ရ valuables concern; “the office” (= kaisha NLFKĿPHQ (na) adj ชᖒ㠃 ࡞ ఍♫) kihon n ᇶᮏ basis, foundation meticulous, precise, particular kidate-no/ga-yoi adj Ẽ❧࡚ࡢࡀⰋ kíi n ࣮࢟ key: (computer) ࠸ good-natured kiibødo ࣮࣮࢟࣎ࢻ keyboard 133


kiiro (no)

kiiro (no) adj 㯤Ⰽ ࡢ = kiiroi 㯤Ⰽ࠸ yellow kí-ito n ⏕⣒ raw silk kiji n ࢟ࢪ࣭㞡 pheasant kíji n グ஦ article, news item, piece, write-up: shinbun-~ ᪂⪺ グ஦ newspaper article kíji n ⏕ᆅ cloth material, fabric kíjitsu n [BOOKISH ᮇ᪥ appointed

day; deadline

kijun n [BOOKISH] ᇶ‽ basis,

standard kíkai n ᶵ఍ chance, opportunity,

occasion kíkai n ᶵᲔ machine, machinery, instrument: ~-teki (na) ᶵᲔⓗ ࡞ mechanical kikai n ჾᲔ instrument kikai (na) adj ወ᛹ ࡞ mysterious,

strange kikaku n ௻⏬ plan(ning), project: ~-bu ௻⏬㒊 planning department kikaku n つ᱁ norm, standard: ~-ka つ᱁໬ standardization kikán n ᮇ㛫 term, period kikán (no) adj Ꮨห ࡢ quarterly: kikán-shi Ꮨหㄅ a quarterly kikán n [BOOKISH] ᶵ㛵 engine;

༴㝤 ࡞ dangerous (= abunaí ༴࡞࠸) kiken n Რᶒ abstention kíkí n ༴ᶵ crisis, critical moment,

emergency kiki-ashi n ฼ࡁ㊊ stronger leg kikimásu, kiku v ⪺ࡁࡲࡍ, ⪺ࡃ

listens, hears; obeys; asks kikimásu, kiku v ຠࡁࡲࡍ, ຠࡃ

takes effect, is effective, works kiki-me n ຠࡁ┠ effect (effectiveness) (= køyø ຠ⏝, kønø ຠ⬟): ~ ga arimásu ຠࡁ┠ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ

is effective kiki-te n ⪺ࡁᡭ hearer, listener kiki-ude n ฼ࡁ⭎ stronger hand: migi-kiki ྑ฼ࡁ right-hander(s): hidari-kiki ᕥ฼ࡁ left-hander(s) kikkake n ࡁࡗ࠿ࡅ opportunity,

occasion kikkari adj ࡁࡗ࠿ࡾ exactly, just NLNĿ n Ẽೃ climate NLNĿ n [BOOKISH] ᶵᵓ system, organization, structure: kokusai-~ ᅜ㝿ᶵᵓ international organiza-


NLNĿ n [BOOKISH] ⣖⾜ travel NLNĿ n [BOOKISH] ᐤ✏ contribution: ~-kiji ᐤ✏グ஦ contributed

instrument; agency, activity, article organization; kinyü-~ 㔠⼥ᶵ㛵 NLNĿ n [BOOKISH] ወ⾜ one’s financial institution kikasemásu, kikaseru v ⪺࠿ࡏࡲࡍ, eccentricity ⪺࠿ࡏࡿ lets someone hear, kikoemásu, kikoeru v ⪺ࡇ࠼ࡲࡍ, ⪺ࡇ࠼ࡿ can hear; is heard tells someone (a story); reads (someone a book); reasons with kikoku n ᖐᅜ returning to one’s country (Japan); kikoku-shíjo n ᖐ (a child) kiken n ༴㝤 danger, peril: ~ (na) ᅜᏊዪ returnees 134


kin-iro (no)

good, is comfortable; ~ ga warúi kikú n ࢟ࢡ࣭⳥ chrysanthemum ki-kúrage n ᮌࡃࡽࡆ࣭࢟ࢡࣛࢤ࣭ Ẽᣢࡕࡀᝏ࠸ is uncomfortable, ᮌ⪥ tree-ears (an edible fungus) is feeling bad/unwell NLN\ŗ n Ẽ⌫ balloon: netsu-~ ⇕ ki-mono n ╔≀ clothes; a (JapanẼ⌫ hot-air balloon ese) kimono kimae ga íi adj Ẽ๓ࡀ࠸࠸ ki-músume n ⏕ፉ virgin (female), generous

green girl

kimagure adj Ẽࡲࡄࢀ fickle, easy ki-muzukashíi n Ẽ㞴ࡋ࠸ fussy,

to change one’s mood kimari n Ỵࡲࡾ rule; settlement,

arrangement; order; regulation kimarimásu, kimaru v Ỵࡲࡾࡲࡍ, Ỵࡲࡿ is settled, is arranged kimásu, kiru v ╔ࡲࡍ, ╔ࡿ wears kimásu, kúru v ᮶ࡲࡍ, ᮶ࡿ comes kimé n ࡁࡵ>ᮌ┠࣭⫙⌮@ 1. grain, texture 2. smooth (human skin) 3. care: ~-komakai ࡁࡵ⣽࠿࠸, ~-komayaka (na) ࡁࡵ⣽ࡸ࠿ ࡞ meticulous, attentiveness

difficult (person) NtP\Ŀ (na) adj ወጁ ࡞ strange,

peculiar kín n 㔠 gold: ~-ka 㔠㈌ gold coin -kin suffix 㔠 money: shikin ㈨㔠 fund, capital: shikí-~ ᩜ㔠

security deposit (for rental) kínai adv ᶵෆ on a plane: ~-shoku ᶵෆ㣗 airplane meal kínako n ࡁ࡞⢊>㯤࡞⢊@ soybean

meal/flour kinben (na) adj ໅ຮ ࡞ indus(attentive), tender trious, hardworking, diligent kimemásu, kimeru v Ỵࡵࡲࡍ, Ỵࡵ NLQFKĿ n ⥭ᙇ strain, tension: ~ ࡿ settles, arranges, decides shite imásu ⥭ᙇࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is kimi n ྩ࣭ࡁࡳ you [familiar] tense kimi n 㯤㌟ yolk (of egg) kinen n グᛕ commemoration; kimí n Ẽ࿡ feeling, sensation: ~ kinen-hin n グᛕရ souvenir ga warúi Ẽ࿡ࡀᝏ࠸ nervous, NLQ·HQ n ⚗↮ smoking prohibited, apprehensive, weird (feeling) no smoking: ~-sha ⚗↮㌴ no(n)kimídori (iro) n 㯤⥳ Ⰽ yellowish smoking car kinénbi n グᛕ᪥ anniversary green (color) Kimigayo n ྩࡀ௦ national kingaku n 㔠㢠 amount (of money) kingan (no) adj ㏆║ ࡢ nearanthem of Japan kimó n ࡁࡶ>⫢࣭⫹@ 1. liver 2. sighted, shortsighted, myopic guts, courage, pluck: ~-dameshi kíngyo n 㔠㨶 goldfish ⫢ヨࡋ test of courage kiníine n ࢟ࢽ࣮ࢿ quinine kimochi n Ẽᣢࡕ feeling, sensa- kin-iro (no) adj 㔠Ⰽ ࡢ gold (color), tion: ~ ga íi Ẽᣢࡕࡀ࠸࠸ it feels golden 135


kin-jimásu, kin-jiru

kin-jimásu, kin-jiru v ⚗ࡌࡲࡍ, ⚗ࡌ ࡿ forbids, prohibits kínjo n ㏆ᡤ neighborhood, vicinity kinkán n ࣭࢟ࣥ࢝ࣥ㔠᯿ kumquat kinki-chLKĿ n ㏆␥ᆅ᪉ the Kinki

kinshi n ㏆ど = kingan ㏆║ (near-


kintámá n 㔠⋢ testicle(s) [INFORMAL] kínu n ⤱ silk .LQ·\Ŀ EL n 㔠᭙ ᪥ Friday NLQ\ŗ n グධ entry, filling in of forms area of Japan (Osaka, Hyøgo, Kyøto, Shiga, Nara prefectures) NLQ·\ŗ n 㔠⼥ finance: ~-shíjø 㔠⼥ kínko n 㔠ᗜ safe (strongbox), ᕷሙ the money market kínzoku n 㔠ᒓ metal (small) cash box NLQN\ŗ n [BOOKISH] ⥭ᛴ urgency, kioku n グ᠈ memory: kiokúryoku emergency; ~ na ⥭ᛴ࡞ urgent, グ᠈ຊ memory (capacity), reten-


kinmákie n [BOOKISH] 㔠ⵗ⤮ gold


tiveness kippári (to) adv ࡁࡗࡥࡾ ࡜

definitely, firmly, flatly

kínmu n ໅ົ duty, service, work; kippu n ษ➢ ticket: ~-úriba ษ➢ kinmú-saki n ໅ົඛ place of work/ ኎ࡾሙ ticket office kirai (na) adj ᎘࠸ ࡞ disliked employment kínniku n ➽⫗ muscle: ~-tsü ➽⫗ kiraku (na) adj Ẽᴦ ࡞ carefree, ③ muscular pain, myalgia comfortable; easygoing NLQĿ n, adv ࡁࡢ࠺࣭᫖᪥ yesterday kirashimásu, kirásu v ษࡽࡋࡲࡍ, NtQĿ n ᶵ⬟ function ษࡽࡍ exhausts the supply of, ki-no-dókú na adj Ẽࡢẘ࡞ pitiful, runs out of: … o kiráshite imásu pitiable …ࢆษࡽࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is out of …; kínoko n ࢟ࣀࢥ࣭Ⲗ mushroom shibiré o ~ ࡋࡧࢀࢆษࡽࡋࡲࡍ kí-no-mi n ᮌࡢᐇ nuts, tree produce loses patience kiré v ࡁࢀ࣭ษࢀ a piece, a cut (nuts, fruits, berries) NLQĿ no ban n ࡁࡢ࠺>᫖᪥@ࡢᬌ (of cloth) kírei (na) adj ࡁࢀ࠸>⥡㯇@ ࡞ last night kinpatsu (no) adj 㔠㧥 ࡢ blond pretty; clean; neat, tidy; nice kinpira n ࢟ࣥࣆ࣭ࣛࡁࢇࡨࡽ࣭㔠 (-looking), attractive ᖹ fried burdock root and carrot kiremásu, kiréru v ษࢀࡲࡍ, ษࢀࡿ 1. can cut; cuts (well) 2. runs out strips served cold .LQUĿNiQVKD no hí n ໅ປឤㅰࡢ᪥ 3. breaks (off) kire-mé n ษࢀ┠ a gap, a break, a Labor Thanksgiving Day (23

November) kínryoku n ➽ຊ muscle (power) kinshi n ⚗Ṇ prohibition, ban

pause kirénai v ษࢀ࡞࠸ dull(-edged),

blunt 136



kiri n 㟝 fog, mist: ~ ga fukái (koi) 㟝ࡀ῝࠸ ⃰࠸ is foggy kíri n 㗹 a hole-punch, an awl kirí n ࡁࡾ end; limit; ~ ga nai ࡁ ࡾࡀ࡞࠸ endless, no limit (no

boundary) kiri-kabu n ษࡾᰴ (tree) stump kirimásu, kíru v ษࡾࡲࡍ, ษࡿ

NLVKĿ n Ẽ㇟ weather ~-dai Ẽ㇟ ྎ weather observatory kishúkúsha n ᐤᐟ⯋ dormitory;

boarding house kisó n ᇶ♏ base, foundation kisoimásu, kisóu v ➇࠸ࡲࡍ, ➇࠺

competes, vies

kisóku n つ๎ rule, regulation cuts; cuts off, disconnects; hangs kissa-ten n ႚⲔᗑ a tearoom, a

up (phone)

coffee house, a café

kirinuki n ษࡾᢤࡁ clipping (from kísu n ࢟ࢫ kiss kísu n ࢟ࢫ࣭㫥 sillago (fish) newspaper, etc.) kirisame n 㟝㞵 drizzle kita n ໭ north: ~-guchi ໭ཱྀ the Kirisuto n ࢟ࣜࢫࢺ Christ; Kirisuto- north exit/entrance; Kita-Ámerika n N\Ŀ n ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍ Christianity ໭࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ North America; Kita&KĿVpQ n ໭ᮅ㩭 North Korea; kiritsu n つᚊ discipline kíro n ࢟ࣟ 1. kilogram 2. kilom- kita-yori adj ໭ᐤࡾ northerly: ~ no kaze ໭ᐤࡾࡢ㢼 northerly eter 3. kilowatt 4. kiloliter kiroku n グ㘓 (historic) record; wind shin-~ ᪂グ㘓 a new record (an kitaemásu, kitaéru v 㘫࠼ࡲࡍ, 㘫࠼ ࡿ forges, tempers; drills, discievent) NtU\Ŀ n ჾ㔞 personal appearance, plines kitai n ᮇᚅ expectation looks; ability kisaku (na) adj Ẽࡉࡃ ࡞ not put kitai n Ẽయ vapor, a gas kitaku n ᖐᏯ returning home on airs kisen n Ỷ⯪ steamship kitanái adj ở࠸ dirty; untidy, messy kisen n [BOOKISH] ㈗㈮ rank kite v ╔࡚: kite-ikimásu/kimásu kisétsu n Ꮨ⠇ season: ~-fü Ꮨ⠇㢼 ╔࡚࠸ࡁࡲࡍࡁࡲࡍ wears it seasonal wind there/here A kimásu ╔ࡲࡍ kishá n Ỷ㌴ (non-electric/steam) kitei n [BOOKISH] つᐃ regulation, train rule, stipulation: ~ no … つᐃࡢ kishá n グ⪅ = shinbun-~ ᪂⪺グ⪅ … regular, stipulated, compulsory kiteki n Ỷ➜ whistle (steam) newspaper reporter, journalist kishí n ᓊ shore, bank kiten n ᶵ㌿ wit: ~ no kiku ᶵ㌿ࡢ kishi-men n ࡁࡋࡵࢇ long thin ฼ࡃ quick-witted kitsuen n ႚ↮ smoking; kitsuén-sha udon kishitsu n Ẽ㉁ temperament n ႚ↮⪅ smoker; kitsuén-shitsu(/-




seki) n ႚ↮ᐊ ᖍ smoking

fault, defect

kizu-ato n യ㊧ scar ki-zúkai n Ẽ㐵࠸ anxiety, concern, jüru ga ~ (desu) ࢫࢣࢪ࣮ࣗࣝࡀ worry, care (= hairyo 㓄៖, ࡁࡘ࠸ ࡛ࡍ (one’s) schedule kokoro-kubari ᚰ㓄ࡾ) is tight; uesuto ga ~ (desu) ࢚࢘ ki-zukaimásu, ki-zukáu v Ẽ㐵࠸ࡲࡍ, Ẽ㐵࠺ is anxious/worried about, ࢫࢺࡀࡁࡘ࠸ ࡛ࡍ is tight in the waist 2. severe, hard, strict: is concerned over ~ seikaku ࡁࡘ࠸ᛶ᱁ strict ki-zukimásu, ki-zúku v Ẽ௜ࡁࡲࡍ, Ẽ௜ࡃ notices character kitsune n ࢟ࢶࢿ࣭≴ fox ki-zukimásu, ki-zúku v ⠏ࡁࡲࡍ, ⠏ kitte n ษᡭ (postage) stamp: ࡃ builds it ~-chø ษᡭᖒ stamp album kizu-tsukemásu, kizu-tsukéru v യࡘ kítto adv ࡁࡗ࡜ surely, doubtless, ࡅࡲࡍ, യࡘࡅࡿ wounds,

room (area/zone/seat) kitsúi adj ࡁࡘ࠸ 1. tight: suke-

no doubt, undoubtedly kiwá n 㝿 brink, edge kiwadói adj 㝿࡝࠸ delicate, dan-

gerous, ticklish

injures, damages kizu-tsukimásu, kizu-tsúku v യࡘࡁ ࡲࡍ, യࡘࡃ gets wounded,

injured, damaged

kiwamarimásu, kiwamáru v ᴟࡲࡾࡲ ko n Ꮚ child (= (person) kodomo ࡍ, ᴟࡲࡿ comes to an end; gets Ꮚ౪) ko n ௘ child (animals in particucarried to extremes kiwamemásu, kiwaméru v ᴟࡵࡲࡍ, lar): ko-néko ௘⊧ kitten, ko-inu ᴟࡵࡿ carries to extremes ௘≟ puppy, ko-buta ௘㇜ piglet kiwamemásu, kiwaméru v ✲ࡵࡲࡍ, kó, koná n ⢊ flour ✲ࡵࡿ investigates thoroughly ko-… prefix ᑠ… little…, small…: kiwámete adv ᴟࡵ࡚ extremely ~-bako ᑠ⟽ small box kiyase adj ╔ࡸࡏ looking thinner …´-ko suffix …ಶ (counts small

in clothes Nt\Ŀ (na) adj ჾ⏝ ࡞ skillful,

nimble, clever kizamimásu, kizamu v ้ࡳࡲࡍ, ้ ࡴ chops fine; carves, engraves;

objects) …´-ko suffix …† Lake… NĿ adv ࡇ࠺ (kø´ ࡇ࠺ + [PARTICLE], kø´désu ࡇ࠺࡛ࡍ) this way, so,

like this NĿ n 㤶 incense: ~ o takimásu 㤶 notches, nicks kizashi n ඙ࡋ sign(s), symptom(s), ࢆ↏ࡁࡲࡍ burns incense (in a hint(s), indication(s), omen(s) temple, before the memorial kizu n ࡁࡎ࣭യ࣭⑅࣭⍗ wound; tablet of the deceased, etc.) NĿ« prefix 㧗… high…: scratch, crack, flaw, blemish; 138



~-kétsúatsu 㧗⾑ᅽ high blood

NĿEXWVX n ዲ≀ favorite (food/drink) NĿFKD n ⣚Ⲕ (black/red) tea pressure «NĿ suffix …  port (of …): NĿFKL n ࢥ࣮ࢳ coach (sports) Købé-~ ⚄ᡞ  the port of Kobe kochira pron ࡇࡕࡽ 1. this one «NĿ suffix …ᰯ school, branch (of two) 2. here, this way 3. I/

(school); [BOOKISH] counter for me, we/us kochira-gawa n ࡇࡕࡽഃ this/my/ schools NĿEi NĿMĿ n ᕤሙ factory, plant our side kobamimásu, kobámu v ᣄࡳࡲࡍ, ᣄNRFKĿ n [BOOKISH] ㄂ᙇ exaggeraࡴ refuses, rejects; opposes, tion NĿFKĿ n ᰯ㛗 principal/head of a resists kóban n ᑠุ Japanese old coins school (elementary school, made of gold (Edo period) junior/senior high school) NĿEDQ n ஺␒ police box NĿFKĿ (na) adj [BOOKISH] ዲㄪ ࡞ kobanashi n ᑠヰ anecdote satisfactory, favorable, in a good kobaruto n ࢥࣂࣝࢺ cobalt: ~-iro condition: ~ na dedashi/suberidashi/sutåto ዲㄪ࡞ฟࡔࡋ⁥ࡾ ࢥࣂࣝࢺⰍ, ~-burü ࢥࣂࣝࢺࣈ ࣮ࣝ cobalt blue ฟࡋࢫࢱ࣮ࢺ flying start, good .ĿEH n ⚄ᡞ Kobe; Købé-Eki ⚄ᡞ start 㥐 Kobe Station kódai n ྂ௦ ancient times: ~ no kobito n ᑠே dwarf ྂ௦ࡢ ancient: ~-iseki ྂ௦㑇㊧ koboremásu, koboréru v ࡇࡰࢀࡲࡍ, ancient monument(s) ࡇࡰࢀࡿ it spills ko-dakara n Ꮚᐆ child(ren): ~ ni koboshimásu, kobósu v ࡇࡰࡋࡲࡍ, megumaremásu Ꮚᐆ࡟ᜨࡲࢀࡲ ࡇࡰࡍ spills it: guchi o ~ ហ⑵ࢆ ࡍ is blessed with child(ren), has ࡇࡰࡋࡲࡍ grumbles, complains a baby/babies kobú n ࡇࡪ࣭⒗ swelling, lump, kodama n ࡇࡔࡲ echo hump: rakuda no ~ ࣛࢡࢲࡢࡇࡪ NĿGDQ n බᅋ public corporation NĿGDQ n ㅮቭ lecture platform hump(s) on a camel kó-bun n Ꮚศ henchman, subordi- NRGĿ n 㰘ື heartbeat, pulse: shinzø no ~ ᚰ⮚ࡢ㰘ື beat of nate, follower kobune n ᑠ⯚ small boat the heart kobura n ࢥࣈࣛ cobra NĿGR n ࢥ࣮ࢻ 1. (electricity) cord kobushi n ࡇࡪࡋ࣭ᣙ fist (= nigiri-~ 2. code ᥱࡾᣙ) NĿGR n 㧗ᗘ high degree, altitude ko-buta n Ꮚ㇜࣭௘㇜ piglet(s), NĿGĿ n බ㐨 highway NĿGĿ n ⾜ື action, behavior little pig(s) 139



NĿGĿ n ㅮᇽ public (lecture) hall, NĿJDNXVKLQ n ྥᏛᚰ desire to auditorium learn: ~ ni moeteimásu ྥᏛᚰ࡟ kodoku n Ꮩ⊂ loneliness ⇞࠼࡚࠸ࡲࡍ has a strong desire kodomo n Ꮚ౪ child (= ko Ꮚ): to learn ~-tachi Ꮚ౪ࡓࡕ>㐩@ children; kogan n [BOOKISH] †ᓊ lakeshore ~-no-hí ࡇ࡝ࡶࡢ᪥ Children’s NĿJDQ n ╺୸ testicle(s) [FORMAL] Day (5 May); ~ no koro Ꮚ౪ࡢ NĿJDQ n ⣚㢦 peaches and cream, 㡭 one’s early years rosy, fresh face (of young man) kóe n ኌ voice; cry: ~ o dáshite ኌ NĿJDQ n [BOOKISH] ཌ㢦 impuࢆฟࡋ࡚ aloud, out loud dence: ~-muchi (no) ཌ㢦↓᜝ koeda n ᑠᯞ twig ࡢ impudent and shameless koemásu, koeru v ㉸>㉺@࠼ࡲࡍ, ㉸ NĿJDQ]DL n ᢠࡀࢇ๣ anticancer >㉺@࠼ࡿ crosses (a height, an drug obstacle) A koshimásu, kosu ㉸ kogashimásu, kogásu v ↔ࡀࡋࡲࡍ, >㉺@ࡋࡲࡍ, ㉸>㉺@ࡍ ↔ࡀࡍ scorches it koemásu, koéru v ⫧࠼ࡲࡍ, ⫧࠼ࡿ kogata (no) adj ᑠᆺ ࡢ smallgets fat (= futorimásu ኴࡾࡲࡍ) size (model) NĿHQ n බᅬ public park NĿJHNL n ᨷᧁ attack NĿHQ n [BOOKISH] ㅮ₇ lecture, kogemásu, kogéru v ↔ࡆࡲࡍ, ↔ࡆ ࡿ gets scorched/burned speech, talk NĿHQ n [BOOKISH] ᚋ᥼ support, NĿJL n ㅮ⩏ lecture NĿJt n ᢠ㆟ protest backing koeru… adj ㉸࠼ࡿ o ~ ... ࢆ ㉸ kogimásu, kógu v ₈ࡂࡲࡍ, ₈ࡄ ࠼ࡿ over…, more than… rows (a boat) kogítte n ᑠษᡭ (bank) check (people, country, money, NĿJR n ཱྀㄒ spoken language, temperature, etc.); (sen)-nin o ~ hito ༓ ேࢆ㉸࠼ࡿே over/ colloquial (word): ~-teki (na) ཱྀ more than (one thousand) people ㄒⓗ ࡞ colloquial NĿIXNX n ᖾ⚟ happiness: ~ (na) ᖾ kogoe n ᑠኌ low voice, whisper ⚟ ࡞ happy .ĿJĿ VDPD n ⓚྡྷ ᵝ the NĿIXNX n 㝆అ surrender Empress NĿIXQ n ⯆ዧ excitement: ~ shite kogoto n ᑠゝ scolding, complaint imásu ⯆ዧࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is excited NĿJ\Ŀ n ᕤᴗ industry NĿJDL n බᐖ (environmental) kohada n ࢥࣁࢲ shad NĿKDL n ᚋ㍮ one’s junior pollution NĿJDL n 㑹እ suburbs, suburbia (colleague, fellow student) NĿJDNX n ᕤᏛ engineering kohaku n ࢥࣁࢡ࣭⌸⌂ 1. = kon-iro




ࢥࣁࢡ࣭⌸⌂ Ⰽ amber (color) koitsu n ࡇ࠸ࡘ this damn one: 2. taffeta elastic webbing 3. ~(san) ~-ra ࡇ࠸ࡘࡽ these damn ones ࢥࣁࢡ࣭⌸⌂ 㓟 succinic acid kóji n Ꮩඣ orphan: ~-in Ꮩඣ㝔 kohan n [BOOKISH] †␁ lakeside orphanage NĿKHL (na) adj බᖹ ࡞ fair, impartial NĿML n ᕤ஦ construction work NĿKtL n ࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮ coffee: ~-jáwan/- kojikí n ࡇࡌࡁ࣭ஒ㣗 beggar káppu ࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮Ⲕ☇࢝ࢵࣉ kójin n ಶே an individual; kojin-teki coffee cup; ~-ten/-ya ࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮ᗑ (na) n ಶேⓗ ࡞ individual, ᒇ coffee shop/house (= kissaten personal: ~-teki (na) iken ಶேⓗ ႚⲔᗑ) ࡞ ពぢ personal opinion ko-hítsúji n ᑠ⨺࣭Ꮚ⨺ lamb, small kojiremásu, kojiréru v ࡇࡌࢀࡲࡍ, ࡇࡌࢀࡿ gets complicated, twisted, sheep NĿK\Ŀ n [BOOKISH] ዲホ favorable entangled; (illness) worsens NĿMLWVX n ཱྀᐇ excuse, pretext criticism kóí n ㄳ࠸࣭ஒ࠸ request (= tanomí NRMĿ (de/no) adv, adj †ୖ ࡛ࡢ 㢗ࡳ) on the lake (surface) kói n ࢥ࢖࣭㩾 carp (fish) NRMĿ n ྂᇛ old castle kói n ᜊ love (affair), romance NĿMĿ n ᕤሙ factory, plant kói (no) adj ᨾព ࡢ deliberate; ~ NĿMyutsu n ཱྀ㏙ dictation ni ᨾព࡟ deliberately NĿM\XWVX (no) adj ᚋ㏙ ࡢ afterkói n ⃰࠸ deep (color), strong mentioned (coffee, tea, taste), well saturated kokan n [BOOKISH] ⫤㛫 between NĿL n [BOOKISH] ዲព࣭ཌព the legs: ~-setsu ⫤㛵⠇ hip joint NĿND n ຠᯝ effect: hiyø-~ ㈝⏝ຠ goodwill, favor: ~ o misemásu ዲពࢆぢࡏࡲࡍ does a favor ᯝ cost effect NĿL n ⾜Ⅽ act, deed; behavior NĿND n ◳㈌ coin koibito n ᜊே sweetheart, lover, NĿND n 㧗౯ high price: ~ (na) … 㧗౯ ࡞  expensive … (= boyfriend/girlfriend kóin n ࢥ࢖ࣥ coin: ~-rókkå ࢥ࢖ takai 㧗࠸㸧 ࣥࣟࢵ࣮࢝ coin locker NĿNDL n ⯟ᾏ voyage NĿLQ n ᕤဨ factory worker NĿNDL n ᚋ᜼ regret koi-nóbori n ࢥ࢖>㩾@ࡢࡰࡾ carp kĿNDL (no) adj බ㛤 ࡢ open to streamers (for Children’s Day the public, open, public: eiga no ~ ᫎ⏬ࡢබ㛤 movie release (5 May)) ko-inu n ᑠ≟࣭Ꮚ≟࣭௘≟ puppy/ kokáin n ࢥ࢝࢖ࣥ cocaine NĿNDQ n ஺᥮ exchange; meishi-~ puppies, small dog(s) koiru n ࢥ࢖ࣝ coil ྡ่஺᥮ exchanging business




cards; ~-ryügakusei n ஺᥮␃Ꮫ ⏕ exchange student NĿNDQVKLQNHL n ஺ឤ⚄⤒ sympathetic nerve NĿNiQVKX n ஺᥮ᡭ operator NĿNDWVX (na) adj ≾⊶ ࡞ sly koké n ⱏ moss koké n こけ foolishness, a fool:

kókóná(t)tsu n ࢥࢥࢼ ࢵ ࢶ coconut (= koko-yashi no mi ࢥ ࢥࣖࢩࡢᐇ) kokonoka n ஑᪥ nine days; the 9th

day (of month)

kokónotsu n ஑ࡘ nine; nine years old (= kyüsai ஑ṓ) kokóro n ᚰ mind, heart, spirit, ~ ni saremásu ࡇࡅ࡟ࡉࢀࡲࡍ feeling: ~ kara (no) ᚰ࠿ࡽࡢ gets trashed heart-felt, sincere; kokoro-atari n NĿNpLNL n ዲᬒẼ prosperity, good ᚰᙜࡓࡾ idea; kokoro-bosói adj ᚰ ⣽࠸ lonely; kokoro-kubari n ᚰ㓄 business conditions NĿNL n [BOOKISH] ዲᶵ (favorable) ࡾ concern, care (= hairyo 㓄៖, ki-zúkai Ẽ㐵࠸) opportunity, chance, occasion NĿ-ki n [BOOKISH] 㤶Ẽ aroma kokoromi n ヨࡳ trial, attempt, test NĿNL n ᚋᮇ the latter period kokoromimásu, kokoromíru v ヨࡳࡲ NĿNi n ᚋグ afterword, postscript ࡍ, ヨࡳࡿ tries, attempts, tests (= ato-gaki ᚋ᭩ࡁ): henshü-~ ⦅ kokoro-mochi n ᚰᣢࡕ feelings, 㞟ᚋグ editor’s postscript spirit, mood NĿNt (shin) n ዲወ ᚰ curiosity, kokorozashi n ᚿ 1. mind; inteninquisitiveness tion; purpose 2. ambition, hope NĿNtDWVX n 㧗Ẽᅽ high (barometric) 3. goodwill, kindness; gift kokorozashimásu, kokorozásu v ᚿࡋ pressure kókka n ᅜᐙ nation ࡲࡍ, ᚿࡍ sets one’s mind kokkai n ᅜ఍ assembly, parliament, kokoro-zuke n ᚰ௜ࡅ tip, gratuity congress, Diet (= gikai ㆟఍) (= chippu ࢳࢵࣉ) kokkei (na) adj ࡇࡗࡅ࠸>⁥✍@ kokoro-zuyói adj ᚰᙉ࠸ encourag ࡞ amusing, funny ing, heartening: ~ sonzai ᚰᙉ࠸ kokki n ᅜ᪝ national flag Ꮡᅾ dependable person NRNNĿ n ᅜ஺ diplomatic relations NĿNĿVHL n 㧗ᰯ⏕ (senior) highkókku (-san) n ࢥࢵࢡ ࡉࢇ cook, school student: joshi/danshi ~ ዪᏊ⏨Ꮚ㧗⏕ high-school chef NRNN\Ŀ n ᅜቃ border (of country) girl/boy koko pron ࡇࡇ here, this place …´-koku suffix …ᅜ 1. (name of NĿNĿ n 㧗ᰯ senior high school certain) country: Bei-koku ⡿ᅜ kókóa n ࢥࢥ࢔ cocoa America (= Amerika ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ NĿNRNX n ᗈ࿌ advertisement America, U.S.(A.), Chü´-goku



୰ᅜ China, Nihón-koku ᪥ᮏᅜ Japan (= Nihón, Nippón ᪥ᮏ) 2. koku-… ᅜ… national, state kokuban n 㯮ᯈ blackboard: ~-keshi 㯮ᯈᾘࡋ, ~-fuki 㯮ᯈᣔ ࡁ eraser NĿNŗELQ n ⯟✵౽ = køkü-yü´bin ⯟✵㒑౽ airmail NRNXEĿ n ᅜ㜵 national defense NRNXGĿ n ᅜ㐨 highway .RNXGR.ĿWVŗVKĿ n ᅜᅵ஺㏻┬

komayaka (na)

kokuseki n ᅜ⡠ nationality NĿNŗVKyNDQ n ⯟✵᭩⡆ aerogram NĿkyo n ⓚᒃ palace (in Tokyo);

the Imperial Palace NyN\Ŀ n ᨾ㒓 hometown, birthplace (= furusato ࡩࡿࡉ࡜) NĿN\Ŀ (no) adj බඹ ࡢ public: ~-ba බඹࡢሙ public area NĿN\ĿU\ĿNLQ n බඹᩱ㔠 utility


NRN\ŗ n ࿧྾ respiration, breathing Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, NĿN\ŗ (na) adj 㧗⣭ ࡞ high-class/ grade, high-ranking; fancy: ~-hin Transport and Tourism (MLIT) kĿNŗJiLVKD n ⯟✵఍♫ airline 㧗⣭ရ fancy goods kóma n ࡇࡲ࣭ࢥ࣐࣭⊂ᴦ a toy company kokujin n 㯮ே black people, Afro- top: ~-máwashi ⊂ᴦᅇࡋ top-



kokumin n ᅜẸ a people, a nation; komakái adj ⣽࠿࠸ 1. fine, small 2. detailed, exact 3. thrifty national(s), citizen(s) kokúmotsu n ✐≀ grain (cereal) 4. small (change): komakakú kokúnai (no) adj ᅜෆ ࡢ internal, shimásu ⣽࠿ࡃࡋࡲࡍ cashes it

domestic, inland kokuritsu (-) adj ᅜ❧ national,

into smaller bills/coins koma-mono n ᑠ㛫≀ notions, hab-

government-established: erdashery, dime-store goods ~-toshokan ᅜ❧ᅗ᭩㤋 national komarasemásu, komaraséru v ᅔࡽ ࡏࡲࡍ, ᅔࡽࡏࡿ bothers, library: ~-daigaku ᅜ❧኱Ꮫ national university embarrasses kokúrui n ✐㢮 cereal(s), grain komarimásu, komáru v ᅔࡾࡲࡍ, ᅔ kokusai n ᅜ㝿: ~-dénwa ᅜ㝿㟁ヰ ࡿ gets perplexed, embarrassed, international phone call troubled; is at a loss; is in need: .RNXVDLUpQJĿ n ᅜ㝿㐃ྜ United komáru tokoró ᅔࡿ࡜ࡇࢁ Nations trouble (difficulty) kokusan (no) adj ᅜ⏘ ࡢ NRPăVKDUX n ࢥ࣐࣮ࢩࣕࣝ comdomestic(ally) made, made in mercial (message) (= shiiému ࢩ ࣮࢚࣒): terebi-~ ࢸࣞࣅࢥ࣐࣮ Japan: ~-hin ᅜ⏘ရ domestic product: ~-sha ᅜ⏘㌴ domestic ࢩࣕࣝ TV commercial komayaka (na) adj ࡇࡲ>⣽࣭⃰@ࡸ car 143



࠿ ࡞ meticulous, attentive, tender: ~ na aijø ⣽ࡸ࠿࡞ឡ᝟ tender love: (kime-)~ na shidø ࡁࡵ ⣽ࡸ࠿࡞ᣦᑟ detailed instruction komé n ࢥ࣓࣭⡿ rice (hulled, uncooked); komé-ya n ⡿ᒇ rice dealer/store komemásu, koméru v ㎸ࡵࡲࡍ, ㎸ ࡵࡿ includes komichi n ᑠ㐨 path, lane komi-itta v ㎸ࡳධࡗࡓ complicated, intricate (situation, subject) komimásu, kómu v ㎸ࡳ>ΰࡳ@ࡲࡍ, ㎸ࡴ࣭ΰࡴ gets crowded; kóndeimásu ΰࢇ࡛࠸ࡲࡍ is crowded NĿPLQ n බẸ citizen, civilian NĿPRNX n 㡯┠ item: (nyüryoku)

⿕ࡿ sustains, suffers, incurs

(unfair treatment, tribulation): dai-songai o ~ ኱ᦆᐖࢆ⿕ࡾࡲࡍ

suffers a serious loss kón n ⤃ = ~-iro ⤃Ⰽ (dark blue) koná n ⢊ powder; flour; kona-gona n ⢊ࠎ in very small pieces; konagúsuri n ⢊⸆ powdered medicine NĿQDL n ᵓෆ campus konaidá adv ࡇ࡞࠸ࡔ, kono-aidá ࡇࡢ㛫 the other day, a while

ago, lately konashimásu, konasu v ࡇ࡞ࡋࡲࡍ, ࡇ࡞ࡍ 1. powders; digests 2. (ful)fills, manages (to do it): chümon o ~ ὀᩥࢆࡇ࡞ࡋࡲࡍ

fills an order

kónban n ௒ᬌ tonight: Konban hissu-~ ධຊ ᚲ㡲㡯┠ wa ࡇࢇࡤࢇࡣ Good evening. konbini(-ensu VXWRă n ࢥࣥࣅࢽ ࢚ mandatory field(s) kómon n [BOOKISH] 㢳ၥ consultant, ࣥࢫࢫࢺ࢔࣮ convenience store NRQEĿ n [BOOKISH] ᲨᲬ club, adviser NĿPRQ n ᰯ㛛 school gate billy-club, bludgeon NĿPRQ n ⫠㛛 anus kónbu n ࢥࣥࣈ࣭᪻ᕸ kelp (a kind komórí n ᏊᏲ, ᏊᏲࡾ babysitter: of seaweed) ~-uta ᏊᏲḷ>ှ@ lullaby, cradle NRQFKŗ n ᪻⹸ insect kondate n [BOOKISH] ⊩❧ menu song NĿPRUL n ࢥ࢘ࣔࣜ bat (flying kóndo n, adv ௒ᗘ this time; next mammal); NĿPRULJiVD n ࡇ࠺ࡶࡾ NRQGĿPX n ࢥࣥࢻ࣮࣒ condom >ࢥ࢘ࣔࣜ@ച umbrella (black, kóne n ࢥࢿ connection, “pull”: (hito ni) ~ o tsukemásu ே࡟ cloth umbrella often used by ࢥࢿࢆ௜ࡅࡲࡍ establishes a males in Japan) komúgi n ᑠ㯏 wheat: ~-ko ᑠ㯏⢊ connection (with a person) ko-néko n ᑠ⊧࣭Ꮚ⊧࣭௘⊧ wheat flour NĿP~LQ n බົဨ government kitten(s), small cat(s) NRQHNXWă n ࢥࢿࢡࢱ࣮ connector worker/employee, official NĿPXULPiVX NĿP~UX v ⿕ࡾࡲࡍ, kongan n [BOOKISH] ᠓㢪 entreaty




kongari yakimásu (yaku) v ࡇࢇࡀࡾ ↝ࡁࡲࡍ ↝ࡃ bakes/toasts/

kónkyo n ᰿ᣐ [BOOKISH] basis,

roasts/grills/sunburns until a beautiful brown kongetsu n ௒᭶ this month NRQJĿVHNL n [BOOKISH] 㔠๛▼ diamond kongo (wa) adv ௒ᚋ ࡣ from now on, in the future koni (na/ni) adj, adv ᠓ព ࡞࡟ friendly, close, intimate: … to ~

~-chi ᰿ᣐᆅ base, home ground NRQN\ŗ n ᅔ❓ [BOOKISH] poverty: ~ shite imásu ᅔ❓ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ

grounds, authority, evidence:

is in poverty, is in financial difficulties konna … adj ࡇࢇ࡞… such as, this kind of: ~ ni ࡇࢇ࡞࡟ to this extent, this much kónnan n ᅔ㞴 difficulty, trouble, ni shiteimásu ࡜᠓ព࡟ࡋ࡚࠸ hardship; kónnan (na) adj ᅔ㞴 ࡲࡍ is very intimate with … ࡞ difficult konin n ፧ጻ marriage (= kekkon Konnichi wa interj ࡇࢇ࡟ࡕࡣ ⤖፧): ~-todoke ፧ጻᒆ marriage Good afternoon; Hello! konnyákú n ࢥࣥࢽࣕࢡ devil’snotification NĿQLQ (no) adj බㄆ ࡢ authorized, tongue root made into gelatin certified: ~-kaikéishi බㄆ఍ィ kono… adj ࡇࡢ… this …, ኈ certified public accountant these…; kono-aidá adv ࡇࡢ㛫 (CPA), chartered accountant the other day, a while ago, lately kon (iro) n ⤃ Ⰽ dark blue (= konaidá ࡇ࡞࠸ࡔ); kono-goro konkai n, adv ௒ᅇ this time adv ࡇࡢ㡭 recently (= chiká konkan n ᰿ᖿ [BOOKISH] basis, goro ㏆㡭, saikin ᭱㏆); kono-máe (no)… adj ࡇࡢ๓ ࡢ  the foundation konki n ᰿Ẽ [BOOKISH] patience: last…; kono-tsúgí n ࡇࡢḟ next ~ ga iru shigoto ᰿Ẽࡀ࠸ࡿ௙஦ time (= jikai ḟᅇ) NĿQĿ n ຠ⬟ effect (effectiveness) work which requires patience konki n ፧ᮇ [BOOKISH] marriage- (= køyø ຠ⏝, kiki-me ຠࡁ┠) able age: ~ o nogasu ፧ᮇࢆ㏨ࡍ kónomi n ዲࡳ liking, taste: ~ no … ዲࡳࡢ… that one likes, that is past marriageable age konkurabe n ᰿ẚ࡭ waiting game, is to one’s taste/liking, favorite endurance contest …: ~ no taipu ዲࡳࡢࢱ࢖ࣉ konkuríito n ࢥࣥࢡ࣮ࣜࢺ concrete one’s type konomimásu, konómu v ዲࡳࡲࡍ, (cement) NRQNŗUX n ࢥࣥࢡ࣮ࣝ prize ዲࡴ likes, is fond of, prefers kónpasu n ࢥࣥࣃࢫ compass (for contest, prize competition (= konpe ࢥࣥ࣌) drafting) 145



konpe n ࢥࣥ࣌ prize competition, kónzatsu n ΰ㞧 jam, congestion: ~ shitei másu ΰ㞧ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is prize contest konpon n ᰿ᮏ [BOOKISH] foundacrowded tion, basis: ~-teki (na) ᰿ᮏⓗ kópii n ࢥࣆ࣮ copy (photocopy) ࡞ fundamental, basic koppamijin-ni-narimásu (náru) v ᮌࡗ NRQS\ŗWD n ࢥࣥࣆ࣮ࣗࢱ computer ➃ᚤሻ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ ࡞ࡿ is konran n ΰ஘ [BOOKISH] mess smashed to pieces koppu n ࢥࢵࣉ a glass, a cup (disorder), confusion, jumble kónro n ࢥࣥࣟ stove (portable NĿUD n ࢥ࣭࢘ࣛ⏥⨶ shell (of


tortoise, etc.)

konsárutanto n ࢥࣥࢧࣝࢱࣥࢺ NĿUD n ࢥ࣮ࣛ cola consultant: keiei-~ ⤒Ⴀࢥࣥࢧࣝ koraemásu, koráéru v ሓ࠼ࡲࡍ, ሓ ࢱࣥࢺ management consultant ࠼ࡿ 1. stands, bears 2. controls, konseki n ⑞㊧ [BOOKISH] trace, restrains, represses NĿUDQ n ࢥ࣮ࣛࣥ the Koran, the mark, vestige (= áto ㊧): ~ o nokoshimásu ⑞㊧ࢆṧࡋࡲࡍ Quran koramu n ࢥ࣒ࣛ column, boxed leaves a mark kónsénto n ࢥࣥࢭࣥࢺ 1. (light) article(s) (= kakomi-kiji ᅖࡳグ஦) NĿUDVHPiVX NĿUDVHUX v ෾ࡽࡏࡲࡍ, plug, (electricity) outlet: ~ ni tsunagimásu ࢥࣥࢭࣥࢺ࡟ࡘ࡞ ෾ࡽࡏࡿ freezes it ࡂࡲࡍ plugs in 2. consent: NĿUDVX n ࢥ࣮ࣛࢫ chorus, choir infømudo-~ ࢖ࣥࣇ࢛࣮࣒ࢻ࣭ࢥ kore pron ࡇࢀ this one: ~ kara ࣥࢭࣥࢺ informed consent ࡇࢀ࠿ࡽ from now on; ~ kara NRQVKŗ n ௒㐌 this week to iu/yü … ࡇࢀ࡜࠸࠺ࡺ࠺… NĿQVXWăFKL n ࢥ࣮ࣥࢫࢱ࣮ࢳ specific, particular koréra (no) adj ࡇࢀࡽ ࡢ these cornstarch kontákuto n ࢥࣥࢱࢡࢺ = ~-rénzu (things, matters, etc.) ࢥࣥࢱࢡࢺࣞࣥࢬ contact lenses kórera n ࢥࣞࣛ cholera kónténa n ࢥࣥࢸࢼ container (for korí จࡾ n stiffness, hardening: káta-(no)-~ ⫪ ࡢ ࡇࡾ a stiff transporting goods) kóntesuto n ࢥࣥࢸࢫࢺ contest shoulder NyQ·\D n ௒ኪ tonight NĿUL n ị ice : kaki-gøri ࠿ࡁị NRQ·\DNX n ፧⣙ engagement (to be shaved ice (eaten with syrup) NĿULNyUL n ⾜ᮤ wicker trunk married): ~-yubiwa ፧⣙ᣦ㍯ korimásu, kóru v จࡾࡲࡍ, จࡿ engagement ring NRQ·\RNX n ΰᾎ (hot springs) 1. gets engrossed/absorbed (in) 2. (shoulder) gets stiff mixed bathing




korimásu, koriru v ᠬࡾࡲࡍ, ᠬࡾࡿ NRU\ĿUt\D n ᑠᩱ⌮ᒇ small

learns a lesson from one’s failure NĿULPiVX NĿUX v ෾ࡾࡲࡍ, ෾ࡿ it freezes NĿULWVX (no) adj බ❧ ࡢ public, municipal, prefectural NĿULWVX n ຠ⋡ efficiency: ~-teki na ຠ⋡ⓗ࡞ efficient: gyømu no ~ka ᴗົࡢຠ⋡໬ streamlining …koro suffix 㡭 (at that) time, (at) about (a time), occasion (= … góro (ni) …㡭 ࡟ (at) about (a time)): ano-~ (wa) ࠶ࡢ㡭 ࡣ (at) that time, then, (in) those days (= tø´ji (wa) ᙜ᫬ ࡣ koroai n 㡭ྜ࠸ suitable time:

traditional Japanese restaurant NĿU\ŗ n ஺ὶ 1. AC (alternating current) 2. ~ shimásu ஺ὶࡋࡲࡍ

exchanges, interchanges kósa n ⃰ࡉ strength (of satura-

tion), deepness (of color)

kosaemásu, kosaeru v ࡇࡉ࠼ࡲࡍ, ࡇࡉ࠼ࡿ = koshiraemásu ࡇࡋࡽ ࠼ࡲࡍ makes, concocts NĿVDL n ஺㝿 social relations, company, association: ~-hi ஺㝿 ㈝ an expense account ko-saji n ᑠࡉࡌ teaspoon NĿVDNX shimásu (suru) v ᕤసࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ 1. builds 2. handcrafts kosame n ᑠ㞵 light rain, drizzle (sorosoro) ~ desu ࡑࢁࡑࢁ  NĿVDQ n 㝆ཧ surrender 㡭ྜ࠸࡛ࡍ It’s (about) time to… NĿVDWHQ n ஺ᕪⅬ an intersection korobimásu, korobu v ㌿ࡧࡲࡍ, ㌿ (of streets), a crossing ࡪ falls down, tumbles kosei n ಶᛶ individuality, charkorogarimásu, korogaru v ㌿ࡀࡾࡲ acter, personality: ~-teki ಶᛶ ࡍ, ㌿ࡀࡿ it rolls, tumbles ⓗ unique (= yuniiku ࣘࢽ࣮ࢡ): korogashimásu, korogasu v ㌿ࡀࡋ ~-yutaka ಶᛶ㇏࠿ has a very ࡲࡍ, ㌿ࡀࡍ rolls it distinctive personality koroshimásu, korosu v ẅࡋࡲࡍ, NĿVHL n ᵓᡂ constitution, ẅࡍ kills construction, composition Korukata n ࢥࣝ࢝ࢱ Kolkata kĿVHL n ᭦ṇ reclamation,

(Calcutta) kóruku n ࢥࣝࢡ= ~-sen ࢥࣝࢡᰦ cork; korukú-nuki n ࢥࣝࢡᢤࡁ

reformation NĿVHL n ᭦⏕ revival, reformation;

regeneration, rehabilitation: hikøshønen no ~ 㠀⾜ᑡᖺࡢ᭦ corkscrew NĿU\R n ⪃៖ consideration, reflec- ⏕ rehabilitation of juvenile tion, thought; ~ o ni iremásu ⪃៖ delinquents ࡟ධࢀࡲࡍ takes into considera- NĿVHL n බṇ impartiality; NĿVHL na බṇ ࡞ adj impartial, fair tion/account NĿU\Ŀ n 㤶ᩱ spice NĿVHL n ᰯṇ proofreading; NĿVHL 147


sha, NĿVHLJDNDUL n ᰯṇ⪅, ᰯṇಀ

proofreader NĿVHLE~VVKLWVX n ᢠ⏕≀㈨ antibi-

otic(s) .ĿVHL5ĿGĿVKĿ n ཌ⏕ປാ┬

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare koseki n ᡞ⡠ family register: ~-tøhon ᡞ⡠ㅞᮏ full copy of one’s family register: ~-shøhon ᡞ⡠෗ᮏ abstract of one’s family register NĿVHQ n ග⥺ ray, beam (of light), light NĿVKD n ᚋ⪅ the latter NĿVKD n ᰯ⯋ school-house koshi n ⭜ loin, hip, lower part of back; koshi-káké n ⭜᥃ࡅ seat, chair, bench (= isu ࠸ࡍ᳔࣭Ꮚ); koshi -no-kubire n ⭜ࡢࡃࡧࢀ waist (= uesuto ࢚࢘ࢫࢺ) NĿVKL n ㅮᖌ instructor(s), lecturer(s) .ĿVKL n ᏍᏊ Confucius koshi-kakemásu, koshi-kakéru v ⭜᥃ ࡅࡲࡍ, ⭜᥃ࡅࡿ sits down koshimásu, kosu v ㉺ࡋࡲࡍ࣭㉺ࡍ goes/runs over, goes across, moves house (= hikkoshimásu


NĿVKLQ n ᭦᪂ renewal, update NĿVKLQ shimásu (suru) v ⾜㐍ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ marches NĿVKLQ shimásu (suru) v ᭦᪂ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ renews, updates (a contract,

website, etc.) koshiraemásu, koshiraeru v ᣛ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᣛ࠼ࡿ makes, concocts kosho n ྂ᭩ 1. old book(s), antique book(s) 2. secondhand book(s) (= furu-hon ྂᮏ) NRVKĿ n ᨾ㞀 1. breakdown, something is wrong 2. hindrance koshĿ n ࢥࢩ࣭ࣙ࢘⬌᳡ pepper NRVKĿ n ࿧⛠ appellation, name NĿVKĿ n ஺΅ negotiations NĿVKRNX (na) adj ዲⰍ ࡞ erotic; lecherous: ~-kan ዲⰍ₎ lecher NĿVKŗ n බ⾗ the public, the masses: ~-dénwa බ⾗㟁ヰ public telephone; NĿVKŗ no adj බ⾗ࡢ public NĿVKŗ NDL n ㅮ⩦ ఍ lecture class,

course (not regular classes in school) … kóso (masani) adv …ࡇࡑ ࡲࡉ ࡟ precisely, exactly, just; certainly, really A mása-ni ࡲࡉ࡟࣭ ṇ࡟: kare-~ ᙼࡇࡑ he is truly ᘬࡗ㉺ࡋࡲࡍ NĿVĿ (no) adj 㧗ᒙ ࡢ high-rise: koshimásu, kosu v ㉸ࡋࡲࡍ, ㉸ࡍ ~-bíru 㧗ᒙࣅࣝ high-rise buildgoes/runs over (= chø´ka shimásu ing, skyscraper ㉸㐣ࡋࡲࡍ, ø´bå shimásu ࣮࢜ NĿVRNX n 㧗㏿ [BOOKISH] high ࣂ࣮ࡋࡲࡍ); exceeds: do o ~ ᗘ speed: ~-dø´ro 㧗㏿㐨㊰ expressࢆ㉸ࡋࡲࡍ goes too far way, freeway koshimásu, kosu v ⁿࡋࡲࡍ, ⁿࡍ kossetsu n 㦵ᢡ bone fracture kossori (to) adv ࡇࡗࡑࡾ ࡜ filters/strains it NĿVKLQ n ⾜㐍 march(ing) secretly, sneakily, on the sly 148



kotei n ᅛᐃ fixation swim) lane; a set series of chef’s NĿWHL n ᰯᗞ school grounds NĿWHL n ⫯ᐃ affirmation choices, a set meal NRVXFKŗPX n ࢥࢫࢳ࣮࣒ࣗ NĿWHL n ⓚᖇ emperor: Røma-~ ࣟ ࣮࣐ⓚᖇ Roman emperor costume (= kasø ௬⿦) NĿVXL n 㤶Ỉ perfume: ~ no kaori NĿWHL n ᕤ⛬ [BOOKISH] process, 㤶Ỉࡢ㤶ࡾ fragrance of perfume progress: seisaku-~ 〇సᕤ⛬ kosupure n ࢥࢫࣉࣞ cosplay process for forming: sagyø-~ స kosurimásu, kosúru v ᧿ࡾࡲࡍ, ᧿ ᴗᕤ⛬ working process ࡿ rubs, scrapes NRWďML n ࢥࢸ࣮ࢪ cottage kotáé n ⟅ ࠼ an answer, reply, koten n ྂ඾ classic work (literaresponse (= henjí ㏉஦, hentø ture, art, etc.) (= kurashikku ࢡ ㏉⟅) ࣛࢩࢵࢡ): ~-ongaku ྂ඾㡢ᴦ kotáé n ᛂ࠼ a response, an answer classical music (= henjí ㏉஦, hentø ㏉⟅, øtø 応 koten n ಶᒎ private exhibition 答) (= A tegótae ᡭᛂ࠼) kotesaki de gomakashimásu kotaemásu, kotáéru v ⟅࠼ࡲࡍ, ⟅ (gomakasu) v ᑠᡭඛ࡛ࡈࡲ࠿ࡋࡲ ࠼ࡿ answers ࡍ ࡈࡲ࠿ࡍ uses cheap tricks kotaemásu, kotáéru v ᛂ࠼ࡲࡍ, kote-shirabe (ni) adv ᑠᡭㄪ࡭ ࡟ ᛂ࠼ࡿ responds, lives up to, (for) a trial, (for) practice meets: kitai ni ~ ᮇᚅ࡟ᛂ࠼ࡲࡍ NĿWHWVX n 㗰㕲 [BOOKISH] steel lives up to one’s expectations: (= suchiiru ࢫࢳ࣮ࣝ) yøbø ni ~ せᮃ࡟ᛂ࠼ࡲࡍ meets kotó n ࡇ࡜࣭஦ thing, matter; NĿVX n ࢥ࣮ࢫ course; (traffic,

one’s request kotai n ᅛయ a solid NĿWDL n ஺᭰ alternation .ĿWiLVKL n ⓚኴᏊ, ~-sama ⓚኴᏊ ࡉࡲ the Crown Prince; .ĿWiLVKLKL n ⓚኴᏊድ the Crown Princess NĿWDNX n ගἑ luster, gloss, sheen: ~ ga arimásu ගἑࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ

lustrous, glossy, shiny kotatsu n ࡇࡓࡘ o-kóta ࠾ࡇࡓ

traditional quilt-covered heating arrangement (foot warmer) kotchí pron ࡇࡗࡕ A kochira ࡇ ࡕࡽ

fact; words, sentence; case, circumstance, happening; experience: … suru ~ ga arimásu … ࡍࡿࡇ࡜ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ does/do it sometimes, has something to do; … suru ~ wa arimasén …ࡍࡿࡇ ࡜ࡣ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ never does it; … shita ~ ga arimásu …ࡋࡓࡇ࡜ࡀ ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ has done it before; … (suru/shinai) ~ wa arimasén … ࡍࡿࡋ࡞࠸ ࡇ࡜ࡣ࠶ࡾࡲࡏ ࢇ it isn’t that one (does/doesn’t, will/won’t do it); … (suru) ~ ni shimásu … ࡍࡿ ࡇ࡜࡟ࡋࡲࡍ




decides to (do it)

… to ie ba ~ ࡜ゝ࠼ࡤ஦㊊ࡾ ࡲࡍ suffice to say that … kotowárí n ᩿ࡾ refusal; notice, Japanese harp warning; permission: ~ mo náku kóto n ྂ㒔 [BOOKISH] ancient capital ᩿ࡾࡶ࡞ࡃ without notice/perNĿWR n ࢥ࣮ࢺ 1. coat 2. (sports) mission/leave kotowarimásu, kotowáru v ᩿ࡾࡲࡍ, court: tenisu-~ ࢸࢽࢫࢥ࣮ࢺ ᩿ࡿ 1. refuses, declines, begs tennis court NRWĿ n Ꮩᓥ [BOOKISH] solitary off 2. makes excuses 3. gives island notice 4. dismisses, lays off kotobá n ゝⴥ 1. word, words; kotowaza n ࡇ࡜ࢃࡊ࣭ㅗ prosentence (spoken); remark 2. verb(s) speech 3. language (= gengo ゝ kotozuké, kotozute n ゝ௜ࡅ, ゝ࡙ ㄒ); o-kotoba o kaesu yø desu ࡚ a message (for someone) (= ga… ࠾ゝⴥࢆ㏉ࡍࡼ࠺࡛ࡍࡀ méssëji ࣓ࢵࢭ࣮ࢪ)  I hate to (don’t mean to) kotsú n ࡇࡘ>ࢥࢶ@ knack, trick, kóto n ⍆ Japanese harp; koto-ji n ⍆ᰕ [BOOKISH] the bridges on a

contradict you, but…


kĿWĿJiNNĿ n 㧗➼Ꮫᰯ = køkø 㧗ᰯ NĿWVŗ n ஺㏻ traffic, transportation; high school: ~ no séito 㧗➼Ꮫᰯ communication(s): ~-hyø´shiki ࡢ⏕ᚐ (= køkø´-sei 㧗ᰯ⏕) high- ஺㏻ᶆ㆑ traffic signs; ~-shíngø ஺㏻ಙྕ traffic signal(s) school student kotogara n ஦᯶ [BOOKISH] affair, kotsuban n 㦵┙ pelvis kotsubu n ᑠ⢏ small grain matter (= kotó ࡇ࡜࣭஦) kotonarimásu, kotonáru v ␗࡞ࡾࡲ NĿWVXJĿ n ዲ㒔ྜ (convenience) ࡍ, ␗࡞ࡿ is different, differs expediency kóto-ni adv ࡇ࡜࡟࣭Ṧ࡟ 1. espe- NĿWVŗMŗWDL n traffic jam ஺㏻῰ cially (= tóku-ni ≉࡟) 2. [+ NE- kotsúzui n 㦵㧊 bone marrow GATIVE] less likely 3. moreover, NRWWĿKLQ n 㦵ⴷရ curios, antiques kotton n ࢥࢵࢺࣥ cotton what is more NĿWĿ (no) adj ཱྀ㢌 ࡢ oral, NĿXQ n ᖾ㐠 good fortune ko-uri n ᑠ኎ࡾ retail; NRXULJ\Ŀ n verbal: køtø-shímon ཱྀ㢌ヨၥ ᑠ኎ᴗ retail business; kouri-ten n oral examination ko-tori n ᑠ㫽 small bird ᑠ኎ᗑ retail store, retailer kotosara adv ࡇ࡜ࡉࡽ particularly kowagari n ᛧ>ᜍ@ࡀࡾ a coward kotoshi n ௒ᖺ this year (= okubyø-monó ⮑⑓⪅): kototarimásu, kototariru v ஦㊊ࡾࡲ kowagarimásu ᛧ>ᜍ@ࡀࡾࡲࡍ ࡍ, ஦㊊ࡾࡿ suffices, is enough: fears, takes flight, is afraid



kowái adj ࡇࢃ࠸࣭ᛧ>ᜍ@࠸ is

NĿ\X n 㖔Ἔ mineral oil NR\ŗ (no) adj ᅛ᭷ ࡢ characteristic afraid; frightful; terrific kowairo n ኌⰍ 1. tone of voice 2. NĿ\ŗ n ஺཭ companion, friend(s) impersonation: ~ o tsukaimásu NĿ\ŗ n ஺㐟 social relations, comኌⰍࢆ౑࠸ࡲࡍ impersonates pany, association (= køsai ஺㝿) kowane n ኌ㡢 tone of voice (= NĿ yŗ (iu) … adj ࡇ࠺ࡺ࠺ ࠸࠺ … kowairo ኌⰍ) this kind/sort of …, such … kowaremásu, kowaréru v ቯࢀࡲࡍ, NĿ]D n ཱྀᗙ an account: ginkø-~ ~ ቯࢀࡿ it breaks/smashes 㖟⾜ཱྀᗙ bank account kowaremono n ࡇࢃࢀ≀ fragile NĿ]DQ n 㖔ᒣ a mine (article): kowaremono-chü´i ࡇ NĿ]DQ n 㧗ᒣ high mountain ko-zara n ᑠ─ saucer ࢃࢀ≀ὀព Handle With Care koware-yasúi adj ቯࢀࡸࡍ࠸ frag- NĿ]HQ (no/to) adj, adv බ↛ ࡢ࡜

ile, easily broken, breakable

open(ly), public(ly)

kowashimásu, kowásu v ቯࡋࡲࡍ, ቯࡍ breaks/smashes it, destroys: kuruma o ~ ㌴ࢆቯࡋࡲࡍ wrecks a car; karada o ~ యࢆࡇࢃࡋࡲࡍ

ruins one’s health

ko-zeni n ᑠ㖹 small change, coins NR]Ŀ n ᑠൔ 1. young monk 2. = ~-san ᑠൔࡉࢇ kid NĿ]Ŀ n ᵓ㐀 structure, makeup,


koya n ᑠᒇ hut, shed, cabin NĿ\D n Ⲩ㔝 [BOOKISH] wild land,

NĿ]X n ᵓᅗ (picture) composition kózuchi n ᑠᵔ a small hammer kozue n ᲈ treetop wilderness NĿ\DNX n බ⣙ (public) pledge; NĿ NĿ]XL n ὥỈ flood: ~ ga okorimásu \DNXVŗ n බ⣙ᩘ common factor ὥỈࡀ㉳ࡇࡾࡲࡍ floods koyama n ᑠᒣ hill kózukai n ᑠ౑࠸ janitor, custodian; NR\Ŀ n 㞠⏝ [BOOKISH] employment attendant; servant (hiring): ~-keiyakusho 㞠⏝ዎ⣙ kózukai n ᑠ㐵࠸ pin money, ᭩ employment agreement pocket money NĿ\Ŀ n ⣚ⴥ red leaves kozútsumi n ᑠໟ package, parcel NĿ\Ŀ n ຠ⏝ effect (effectiveness) kú n ஑ nine (= kyü ஑) (= kiki-me ຠࡁ┠, kønø ຠ⬟): kú n ྃ phrase ~ ga arimásu ຠ⏝ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is kú n ༊, …´-ku …༊ 1. a ward effective (in a city) (A ku-yákusho ༊ᙺᡤ): NĿ\Ŀ (no) adj බ⏝ ࡢ official: Tøkyø nijüsan-~ ᮾி23 ༊ ~-go බ⏝ㄒ official language twenty-three wards of Tokyo koyomí n ᬺ calendar 2. zone (= kúiki ༊ᇦ ; ku-yákusho NĿ\X n 㤶Ἔ balm n ༊ᙺᡤ ward office



…-ku suffix …ࡃ: [ADJECTIVE] ...


kudámono n ᯝ≀ fruit: ~-ya ᯝ≀ ᒇ fruit store/shop being, so as to be, …-ly Nŗ v 㣗࠺ (VULGAR FORM of eats, kudari n ୗࡾ descent; outbound bites used mainly by males) = (from Tokyo), the down train kuimásu 㣗࠸ࡲࡍ (eats, bites) kudarimásu, kudaru v ୗࡾࡲࡍ, ୗ (POLITE FORM tabemásu 㣗࡭ࡲࡍ ࡿ comes/goes down, descends; kubarimásu, kubáru v 㓄ࡾࡲࡍ, 㓄ࡿ falls, drops distributes, allots; deals (cards) kudasái v ୗࡉ࠸ give; (shite ~ ࡋ kúbetsu n ༊ู difference, differ- ࡚ୗࡉ࠸) please (do) [IMPERATIVE of kudasáru ୗࡉࡿ = kudaentiation; discrimination kubi n 㤳 neck: ~ ni shimásu 㤳࡟ saimásu ୗࡉ࠸ࡲࡍ] kudasaimásu, kudasáru v ୗࡉ࠸ࡲ ࡋࡲࡍ fires, lays off; ~-kázari 㤳㣭ࡾ necklace; kubi-wa n 㤳㍯ ࡍ,ୗࡉࡿ gives (he/she to you, (dog) collar you to me); does as a favor (he/ kubire n ࡃࡧࢀ neck (of a bottle), she for you, you for me), kindly constricted place, waist (does) kubomi n ࡃࡰࡳ࣭❑ࡳ hollow, kudashi n ୗࡋ: ~-gúsuri ୗࡋ⸆ a dent, depression purgative, a laxative kuchi n ཱྀ 1. mouth: ~ (kará) kudói adj ࡃ࡝࠸ 1. long-winded, no ཱྀ ࠿ࡽ ࡢ oral 2. words, dull 2. thick, greasy speech: ~ o hasamu ཱྀࢆࡣࡉࡴ kufŗ n ᕤኵ device, scheme, idea, interrupt 3. entrance; hole, invention, artifice, ingenuity: ~ (o kora-)shimásu ᕤኵ ࢆจࡽ opening, slot 4. cork, stopper 5. job opening; kuchi-beni n ཱྀ⣚ ࡋࡲࡍ schemes, contrives lipstick; ~ o fukimásu ཱྀ➜ࢆ྿ NŗIXNX (no) adj ✵⭡ ࡢ hungry ࡁࡲࡍ whistles; kuchi-génka n ཱྀ Kú-gatsu n ஑᭶࣭9᭶ September ࡆࢇ࠿>႖ვ@ argument; kuchikugi n 㔥 nail, peg komi n ཱྀࢥ࣑ word of mouth kugiri n ༊ษࡾ punctuation; kuchibiru n ၁ lip kugirimásu ༊ษࡾࡲࡍ divides kuchimásu, kuchiru v ᮙࡕࡲࡍ, ᮙ NŗJXQ n ✵㌷ air force: ~-kíchi ✵ ࡕࡿ rots, decays ㌷ᇶᆅ air base kúda n ⟶ pipe, rube kugurimásu, kuguru v ₯ࡾࡲࡍ, ₯ kudakemásu, kudakéru v ○ࡅࡲࡍ, ࡿ passes under ○ࡅࡿ 1. it breaks, smashes, NŗKDNX n ✵ⓑ a blank (space) kúi n ᮺ post, stake, pile crumbles 2. can break it kudakimásu, kudáku v ○ࡁࡲࡍ, ○ kuichigai n 㣗࠸㐪࠸ discrepancy ࡃ breaks it, smashes it, crumbles it kúiki n ༊ᇦ zone 152



kuimásu, kuu´ v 㣗࠸ࡲࡍ, 㣗࠺ combines, puts together, teams eats (inelegant) (= tabemásu them up 㣗࡭ࡲࡍ) kumimásu, kumu v Ữࡳࡲࡍ, Ữࡴ N~LVKtQEĿ (na) adj 㣗࠸ࡋࢇᆓ ࡞ scoops, draws, ladles; considers,

glutton(ous); greedy


kujaku n ࢡࢪࣕࢡ࣭Ꮝ㞛 peacock kumimásu, kúmu v ⤌ࡳࡲࡍ, ⤌ࡴ kúji n ࡃࡌ࣭ࢡࢪ a lot (in a lotbraids; assembles, sets up, puts tery) (= takara-~ ᐆࡃࡌ) together; folds (arms), clasps kujikemásu, kujikéru v ᣸ࡅࡲࡍ, ᣸ (hands), crosses (legs); teams up ࡅࡿ 1. ashí ga ~ ㊊ࡀ᣸ࡅࡲࡍ (with) gets a sprained ankle 2. ki ga ~ kumi-tate n ⤌ࡳ❧࡚ structure, Ẽࡀ᣸ࡅࡲࡍ gets disheartened, setup, makeup, organization, discouraged 3. (a plan) gets framework kumi-tatemásu, kumi-tateru v ⤌ࡳ❧ frustrated kujikimásu, kujíku v ᣸ࡁࡲࡍ, ᣸ࡃ ࡚ࡲࡍ, ⤌ࡳ❧࡚ࡿ sets up, or1. sprains: ashí o ~ ㊊ࢆ᣸ࡁࡲࡍ ganizes; assembles, puts together sprains an ankle 2. ki o ~ Ẽࢆ᣸ kúmo n 㞼 cloud: ~-gakure 㞼㞃ࢀ ࡁࡲࡍ disheartens, discourages disappearing, dropping out of 3. frustrates (a plan) sight kujira n ࢡࢪ࣭ࣛ㪒 whale kúmo n ࢡ࣭ࣔ⻡⺸ spider NXMĿ n ⱞ᝟ complaint: ~ o iu/yü kúmo no su n ࢡࣔ>⻡⺸@ࡢᕢ ⱞ᝟ࢆゝ࠺ complains spiderweb, cobweb (= kúmo no NŗNDQ n ✵㛫 space íto ࢡࣔ>⻡⺸@ࡢ⣒ spider threads kukí n ⱼ stalk, stem kumori ᭎ࡾ n cloudy weather NŗNL n ✵Ẽ air kumorimásu, kumóru v ᭎ࡾࡲࡍ, ᭎ NŗNĿ n ✵  airport ࡿ gets cloudy: kumótte imásu kúmá n ࢡ࣐࣭⇃ bear (animal) ᭎ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is cloudy kumade n ⇃ᡭ rake … kun suffix …ྩ (mostly attached kumí n ⤌ a set, suit, pack; a class, to one’s junior’s or boys’ names INFORMAL)

band, company kumiai n ⤌ྜ association, guild, union: rødø-~ ປാ⤌ྜ (labor)

union kumi-awase n ⤌ࡳྜࢃࡏ assort-

ment, mixture kumi-awasemásu, kumi-awaseru v ⤌ ࡳྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, ⤌ࡳྜࢃࡏࡿ

kuni n ᅜ 1. country, nation: ~ no ᅜࡢ national, state, government 2. native place, home area kúnren n カ⦎ training, drill kurá n 㠡 saddle kurá n ಴࣭ⶶ warehouse, store-

room (storehouse), cellar, godown 153



NŗUă n ࢡ࣮࣮ࣛ air conditioner kuríimu n ࢡ࣮࣒ࣜ cream kurabemásu, kuraberu v ẚ࡭ࡲࡍ࣭ kuríiníngu n ࢡ࣮ࣜࢽࣥࢢ cleaning: ㍑࡭ࡲࡍ, ẚ࡭ࡿ࣭㍑࡭ࡿ com- ~-ya ࢡ࣮ࣜࢽࣥࢢᒇ (dry)

pares, contrasts kúrabu n ࢡࣛࣈ club (group; card suit); (golf) club: ~ katsudø ࢡࣛࣈάື club activities kurage n ࢡࣛࢤ jellyfish kurai n ఩ grade, rank kurai adj ᬯ࠸ dark, gloomy; dim

(light) … kúrai suffix …ࡃࡽ࠸࣭఩ = … gúrai …ࡄࡽ࠸࣭఩ (about; (an

amount); at least) NXUiNNă n ࢡࣛࢵ࣮࢝ crackers kurashikku n ࢡࣛࢩࢵࢡ classic (= koten ྂ඾) kurashimásu, kurasu v ᬽࡽࡋࡲࡍ, ᬽࡽࡍ lives, gets by; makes a

cleaner(s); laundry kuri-kaeshimásu, kiri-kaesu v ⧞ࡾ㏉ ࡋࡲࡍ, ⧞ࡾ㏉ࡍ repeats kuríppu n ࢡࣜࢵࣉ clip Kurísúmasu n ࢡࣜࢫ࣐ࢫ Christ-

mas kúro (no) adj 㯮 ࡢ black; kurobíiru n 㯮ࣅ࣮ࣝ black beer; kuró-i adj 㯮࠸ black (= kúro (no) 㯮 ࡢ ) N~UĿ n ⱞປ difficulties, hardships NXUĿNX n ࢡ࣮ࣟࢡ cloakroom,

check room N~UĿWR n ⋞ே expert, professional kuruimásu, kuru'u´ v ≬࠸ࡲࡍ, ≬࠺

gets warped; gets out of order: ki ga ~ Ẽࡀ≬࠸ࡲࡍ goes mad (insane) kúrasu n ࢡࣛࢫ class (group) kuruma n ㌴ car; taxi; vehicle, kurátchi n ࢡࣛࢵࢳ clutch (of car): (hand) cart (= jidø´-sha ⮬ື㌴ ~-pédaru ࢡࣛࢵࢳ࣌ࢲࣝ clutch kurumá-ebi n ㌴࢚ࣅ>ᾏ⪁@ prawn, pedal jumbo shrimp kure v ᬽࢀ the dark; the end of the kurumi n ࢡ࣑࣭ࣝ⬌᱈ walnut; year: ~ no ᬽࢀࡢ year-end nut NXUHMLWWRNăGR n ࢡࣞࢪࢵࢺ࣮࢝ࢻ kurushíi adj ⱞࡋ࠸ painful; hard; credit card heavy kuremásu, kureru v ࡃࢀࡲࡍ, ࡃࢀ kurushimemásu, kurushiméru v ⱞࡋ ࡿ gives (to me/us; he to you): ࡵࡲࡍ, ⱞࡋࡵࡿ afflicts, pains, shite ~ ࡋ࡚ࡃࢀࡲࡍ does as a distresses, embarrasses kurushimí n ⱞࡋࡳ affliction, favor (for me/us; he for you) kuremásu, kureru v ᬽࢀࡲࡍ, ᬽࢀ agony, suffering, distress ࡿ: hi ga ~ ᪥ࡀᬽࢀࡲࡍ it gets kurushimimásu, kurushímu v ⱞࡋࡳ ࡲࡍ, ⱞࡋࡴ suffers; gets dark NXUďQ n ࢡ࣮ࣞࣥ crane (machine) afflicted/distressed/embarrassed kurí n ᰩ chestnut kusá n ⲡ grass 154 living


kuzuremásu, kuzuréru

kusái adj ⮯࠸ smelly, stinking;

kutsurogimásu, kutsurógu v ࡃࡘࢁ ࡂࡲࡍ, ࡃࡘࢁࡄ relaxes, gets

fishy, questionable kusari n 㙐 chain kusarimásu, kusáru v ⭉ࡾࡲࡍ, ⭉ ࡿ goes bad, rots, decays, spoils, sours: kusátte imásu ⭉ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲ ࡍ is spoiled/rotten kusé n Ⓑ࣭ࡃࡏ a (bad) habit,

a quirk NŗVKD n ✵㌴ vacant car, “(taxi)

available” kushámi n ࡃࡋࡷࡳ a sneeze kushí n ࡃࡋ࣭᷸ a comb kushí n ୵ a skewer, a spit NŗVKR n ✵ᡤ a blank (space) kusó n ࡃࡑ࣭ࢡࢯ࣭⣅ dung,

comfortable kúttsukimású, kuttsúku v ࡃࡗࡘࡁࡲ ࡍ,ࡃࡗࡘࡃ sticks to kuwa n ࡃࢃ࣭㘵 hoe kúwa n ࢡ࣭࣡᱓ mulberry kuwadate ௻࡚ n plan, attempt,

undertaking kuwadatemásu, kuwadatéru v ௻࡚ࡲ ࡍ, ௻࡚ࡿ plans, attempts,


kuwaemásu, kuwaeru v ຍ࠼ࡲࡍ, ຍ ࠼ࡿ adds (on); imposes kuwasemásu, kuwaséru v 㣗ࢃࡏࡲ ࡍ, 㣗ࢃࡏࡿ feeds (POLITE FORM tabesasemasu 㣗࡭ࡉࡏࡲࡍ) excrement, feces NŗVĿ n ✵᝿ fantasy kuwashíi adj ヲࡋ࠸ detailed, kusugurimásu, kusuguru v ࡃࡍࡄࡾ exact: (… ni ~ …࡟ヲࡋ࠸) is ࡲࡍ, ࡃࡍࡄࡿ tickles knowledgeable (about …), is kusuguttai adj ࡃࡍࡄࡗࡓ࠸ ticklish well versed (in …); ~ kotó ヲࡋ kusuri n ⸆ medicine, drug: ~-ya ࠸஦ details; kuwáshiku ヲࡋࡃ (san) ⸆ᒇ ࡉࢇ drugstore; in detail kuyamimásu, kuyamu v ᜼ࡸࡳࡲࡍ, druggist kutakuta, kuttakuta adj ࡃࡓࡃࡓ, ᜼ࡸࡴ regrets ࡃࡗࡓࡃࡓ dead tired, utterly kuyashíi adj ᜼ࡋ࠸ humiliating,


mortifying, vexatious

…-kutatte … suffix, conj ࡃࡓࡗ࡚ kuzu (mono) n ࡃࡎ>ࢡࢬ@ ≀ even being … (= …-kute mo … waste, scum, mud, trash, rags, ࡃ࡚ࡶ) scrap, junk (= kásu ࠿ࡍ࣭⁦); …-kute suffix, conj …ࡃ࡚ is and kuzú-kago n ࡃࡎ࠿ࡈ wastebasket; kuzú-mono n ࡃࡎ≀ waste, trash (also/so) kutsú n 㠐࣭ࢡࢶ shoes; kutsú-himo kúzu n ࢡࢬ࣭ⴱ arrowroot; kuzuko n ⴱ⢊ powdered arrowroot n 㠐ࡦࡶ shoelace; kutsú-shita n 㠐ୗ࣭ࡃࡘୗ socks, stockings; kuzuremásu, kuzuréru v ᔂࢀࡲࡍ, kutsú-ya n 㠐ᒇ shoe shop/store; ᔂࢀࡿ it crumbles, breaks kutsu-zoko n 㠐ᗏ shoe sole (down); (weather) deteriorates



kuzushimásu, kuzúsu

(= kaikyø ᅇᩍ); Buk-~ ௖ᩍ kuzushimásu, kuzúsu v ᔂࡋࡲࡍ, ᔂࡍ 1. cashes, changes, breaks Buddhism (into small money) 2. breaks it N\ĿEDL n ➇኎ [BOOKISH] auction down, demolishes 3. writes (= økushon ࣮࢜ࢡࢩࣙࣥ) N\ĿFKĿ n ᙉㄪ emphasis (a character) in cursive style N\iEDUď n ࢟ࣕࣂ࣮ࣞ cabaret, kyodai (na) adj ᕧ኱ ࡞ huge N\ĿGDL (-shimai) n ඗ᘵ ጜጒ night club kyábetsu n ࢟ࣕ࣋ࢶ cabbage brothers and/or sisters; brother; N\DEXUpWă n ࢟ࣕࣈࣞࢱ࣮ carburetor sister kyaku n ᐈ visitor, guest, company; kyĿGDQ n ᩍቭ [BOOKISH] platform, customer (= o-~-sámá ࠾ᐈᵝ pulpit: ~ ni tachimásu ᩍቭ࡟❧ ࡕࡲࡍ 1. teaches at school 2. [HONORIFIC]); kyaku-ma n ᐈ㛫 [BOOKISH] guest room; kyaku-sha stands on a platform N\ĿGDQ n ปᙎ [BOOKISH] bullet (of n ᐈ㌴ [BOOKISH] (railroad) passenger car, coach assassin, etc.): ~ ni taoremásu kyánbasu n ࢟ࣕࣥࣂࢫ canvas ปᙎ࡟ಽࢀࡲࡍ is shot to death kyándii, N\iQGď n ࢟ࣕࣥࢹ࢕, ࢟ࣕ (by an assassin, etc.) ࣥࢹ࣮ candy (= ame ࢔࣓࣭㣩) N\ĿGDn n ᩍᅋ [BOOKISH] religious kyánpasu n ࢟ࣕࣥࣃࢫ campus organization kyánpu n ࢟ࣕࣥࣉ camp(ing) N\ĿGĿ n ඹྠ union, cooperation, kyánseru n ࢟ࣕࣥࢭࣝ cancellation joint (activity): ~-seikatsu ඹྠ kyáppu n ࢟ࣕࢵࣉ cap (of a pen) ⏕ά living together, living with kyáputen n ࢟ࣕࣉࢸࣥ captain others kyarameru n ࣓࢟ࣕࣛࣝ caramel N\ĿGĿ n ༠ྠ cooperation: ~-kukyátsu n ࡁࡷࡘ࣭ᙼያ [INFORMAL] miai ༠ྠ⤌ྜ cooperative that damn one; ~-ra ࡁࡷࡘ>ᙼ association (A seikatsu-~kumiai, seikyø ⏕ά༠ྠ⤌ྜ, ያ@ࡽ those damn ones (= aitsu ࠶࠸ࡘ; aitsu-ra ࠶࠸ࡘࡽ) ⏕༠) N\ă interj ࡁࡷ࣮࣭࣮࢟ࣕ: kyå(t)- N\ĿIX n ᜍᛧ [BOOKISH] fear, terror to sakebimásu ࡁࡷ࣮ ࡗ >࢟ࣕ N\ĿJeki n ி๻ classic Chinese ࣮ ࢵ @࡜ྉࡧࡲࡍ screams pantomime/opera N\Ŀ n ௒᪥࣭ࡁࡻ࠺ today N\ĿJpQ n ≬ゝ traditional Noh farce N\Ŀ (no miyako) n ி ࡢ㒔 Kyoto N\ĿJL n ༠㆟ conference, (= Kyø´to ி㒔) discussion «N\Ŀ n …ᩍ (name of) religion: N\ĿJL n ➇ᢏ (athletic) game, Kirisuto-~ ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍ Christian- match, contest, (game) event; ity; Isuramu-~ ࢖ࢫ࣒ࣛᩍ Islam N\ĿJLMĿ n ➇ᢏሙ stadium 156



N\ĿKDQ VKD n ඹ≢ ⪅ accomplice kyóhi n ᣄྰ refusal, rejection, veto (= kyozetsu ᣄ⤯) N\ĿLNX n ᩍ⫱ education: ~ o ukemásu ᩍ⫱ࢆཷࡅࡲࡍ gets an


N\ĿLQ n ᩍဨ [BOOKISH] teacher kyojin n ᕧே giant (person) N\ĿMX n ᩍᤵ professor: daigaku-~ ኱Ꮫᩍᤵ university professor N\RMŗ n ᒃఫ [BOOKISH] residency: ~-sha ᒃఫ⪅ a resident: ~-chi ᒃ ఫᆅ residence (location), address (= jüsho ఫᡤ) kyóka n チྍ permit, permission: ~-sho チྍド permit (card) N\ĿNDL n ᩍ఍ church N\Ŀkai n ༠఍ society, association N\ĿNDL n ቃ⏺ border (of district,

etc.) N\ĿNiVKR n ᩍ⛉᭩ text(book) N\ĿNL n ปჾ [BOOKISH] lethal


N\ĿNL n ≬Ẽ [BOOKISH] insanity,

kyokuba n ᭤㤿 horseback stunts: ~-dan ᭤㤿ᅋ circus (= så´kasu ࢧ࣮࢝ࢫ kyokugei n ᭤ⱁ acrobat, acrobatics (= akurobátto ࢔ࢡࣟࣂࢵࢺ): ~-shi ᭤ⱁᖌ an acrobat, a stunt


kyokugen n ᴟ㝈 [BOOKISH] limit: ~-jøtai ᴟ㝈≧ែ extreme

situation, ultimate state N\ĿNXQ n ᩍカ lesson, teaching,

moral kyokután (na) adj ᴟ➃ ࡞ extreme .\RNXWĿ n ᴟᮾ Far East N\ĿN\ŗ n ౪⤥ supply(ing), provision: juyø to ~ 㟂せ࡜౪⤥ supply and demand (= jukyü 㟂⤥) N\ĿPt n ⯆࿡ interest (pleasure): ~-bukái ⯆࿡῝࠸ interesting kyónen n ཤᖺ last year kyóri n ㊥㞳 distance N\ĿU\RNX n ༠ຊ cooperation N\ĿU\RNX (na) adj ᙉຊ ࡞ strong,

madness, lunacy


and gladness


N\Ŀki n 㦫႐ [BOOKISH] amazement .\ĿVDQVK~JL n ඹ⏘୺⩏ CommuN\RNĿ n ⹫ᵓ [BOOKISH] fabrication, N\ĿVKL n ᩍᖌ teacher, instructor, fiction: ~ no sekai ⹫ᵓࡢୡ⏺ tutor: katei-~ ᐙᗞᩍᖌ home tutor N\Ŀshitsu n ᩍᐊ classroom imaginary world N\ĿNĿ n ᙉ⾜ forcing: ~-toppa ᙉ N\Ŀshoku n ᩍ⫋ teaching ⾜✺◚ bulldozing one’s way profession: ~ ni tsukimásu ᩍ⫋ ࡟ᑵࡁࡲࡍ becomes a teacher through: ~-saiketsu ᙉ⾜᥇Ỵ N\Ŀshuku shimásu (suru) v ᜍ⦰ࡋࡲ railroading kyóku n ᒁ, …´-kyoku …ᒁ office, ࡍ ࡍࡿ [HONORIFIC] 1. feels bureau, station: terebi-~ ࢸࣞࣅ grateful/obliged/ashamed: wazawaza okoshi itadakimashite ~ ᒁ TV station




desu ࢃࡊࢃࡊ࠾㉺ࡋ࠸ࡓࡔࡁࡲ n ᛴ⑓ sudden illness; N\ŗNĿ n ࡋ࡚ᜍ⦰࡛ࡍ Thank you very ᛴ⾜ express (train, etc.); N\ŗVKL much for taking the trouble to n ᛴṚ sudden death; N\ŗ\Ŀ n ᛴ ⏝ urgent business come. 2. feels sorry/ashamed: taihen ~ desuga… ኱ኚᜍ⦰࡛ࡍ N\ŗ n ⣭ class, grade N\ŗ n ஑࣭9 nine (= kú ஑࣭9); ࡀ… I am very sorry, but… N\ĿVĿ n ➇த competition, rivalry, N\ŗEDQPp n ஑␒┠ ninth; N\ŗGDL contest, race; N\ĿVĿiLWHn ➇த┦ n ஑ྎ nine (machines, vehicles); N\ŗGR n ஑ᗘ nine degrees; nine ᡭ competitor N\ĿVRQ N\Ŀ]RQ n ඹᏑ [BOOKISH] times (= kyü´-kái ஑ᅇ); N\ŗKpQ coexistence: minzoku ~ Ẹ᪘ඹ n ஑㐢 nine times; N\ŗKRQ n ஑ Ꮡ ethnic coexistence ᮏ nine (pencils/bottles, long N\ĿWHQ n ⤒඾ 1. sutra (Buddhist things); N\ŗNDL n ஑㝵 nine floors/ scripture) (= o-kyø ࠾⤒) 2. re- stories, ninth floor; N\ŗNR n ஑ಶ

ligious text, sacred scripture

nine pieces (small objects) (= kokonotsu ஑ࡘ); N\ŗNiL n ஑ᅇ nine times (= kyü´-do ஑ᗘ); N\ŗPDL n ஑ᯛ nine sheets (flat general things); N\ŗVDWVX n ஑෉ nine N\Ŀ\R n ౪୚ grant, allowance copies (books, magazines); N\ŗWĿ N\Ŀ\Ŀ (no) adj ඹ⏝ ࡢ for n ஑㢌 nine (horses/oxen, large common use, for public use animals); N\ŗZD n ஑⩚ nine N\Ŀ\Ŀ n ᩍ㣴 culture, education, (birds, rabbits) refinement: ~ no nai ᩍ㣴ࡢ࡞࠸ N\ŗ  prefix ᪧ… … old N\ŗGHQ n ᐑẊ palace uneducated, uncultivated N\Ŀ\Ŀ n ᙉせ [BOOKISH] forcing N\ŗGĿ n ᘪ㐨 (the traditional art N\Ŀ]DL n ᩍᮦ teaching materials of) archery (= kyü´jutsu ᘪ⾡) kyozetsu n ᣄ⤯ [BOOKISH] refusal, N\ŗK\DNX n ஑ⓒ࣭ nine rejection, veto (= kyóhi ᣄྰ) hundred N\ŗ n ⅍࣭ࡁࡹ࠺ o-kyø ࠾⅍ N\ŗML n ⤥௙ waiter/waitress, moxibustion steward, attendant, factotum N\ŗ n ᛴ crisis, emergency, danger: N\ŗMLQ n ồே job offer(s) ~ (na) ᛴ ࡞ sudden; urgent; N\ŗMLWVX n ఇ᪥ day off, holiday N\ŗMR n ᩆຓ rescue, relief: ~-tai precipitous, steep: ~ na (o-) shirase/renraku ᛴ࡞ ࠾ ▱ࡽࡏ ᩆຓ㝲 rescue party/team 㐃⤡ short notice; ~ ni ᛴ࡟ sud- N\ŗMĿ n ⌫ሙ ball park, (baseball) denly (= totsuzen ✺↛); N\ŗE\Ŀ stadium (= yakyü-jø 㔝⌫ሙ 158 .\ĿWR n ி㒔 Kyoto; Kyøtó-Eki ி㒔㥐 Kyoto Station N\ĿWVŗ (no) adj ඹ㏻ ࡢ common,



N\ŗMŗ n ஑༑࣭90 ninety N\ŗND n ఇᬤ vacation, furlough N\ŗNHL n ఇ᠁ rest, recess, break; N\ŗNpLVKLtsu n ఇ᠁ᐊ lounge

Ṇグྕ breath mark N\ŗVKR n ᛴᡤ jugular (vein) N\ŗVKRNX NDWVXGĿ n ồ⫋ άື

(room), break room N\ŗNRQ n ồ፧ marriage proposal N\ŗNXWVX (na) adj ❓ᒅ ࡞ constrained, uncomfortable kyŗN\ŗ (no) adj ᩆᛴ ࡢ for emergencies; N\ŗN\ŗEDNR n ᩆᛴ⟽ first-aid kit; N\ŗN\ŗFKLU\Ŀ shitsu ᩆ ᛴ἞⒪ᐊ emergency room, ER; N\ŗN\ŗVKD n ᩆᛴ㌴ ambulance N\ŗPiQ n ஑୓࣭90,000 ninety thousand N\ŗUL n ࣭࢟ࣗ࢘ࣜ⬌⎩ cucumber N\ŗU\Ŀ n ⤥ᩱ salary, pay (= sárarii ࢧ࣮ࣛࣜ, kyü´yo ⤥୚); N\ŗU\ĿEL ⤥ᩱ᪥ payday N\ŗVHLVKX n ᩆୡ୺ Savior N\ŗVpQ n ஑༓࣭9,000 nine thousand kyŗVKL n ఇṆ pause; N\ŗVKLNLJĿ ఇ

N\ŗVKRNX n ఇ⫋ leave of absence

job hunting, seeking employment from work N\ŗVKRNX n ⤥㣗 school lunch .\ŗVKŗFKLKĿ n ஑ᕞᆅ᪉ the

Kyushu area of Japan (Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Miyazaki, Kagoshima, Øita prefectures) N\ŗVX n ࡁࡹ࠺ࡍ࣭ᛴ㡲 teapot N\ŗWHL n ᐑᘐ (imperial/royal) court .\ŗ\DNX seisho n ᪧ⣙⪷᭩ the Old Testament N\ŗ\R n ⤥୚ allowance, grant, compensation, salary (= sárarii ࢧ࣮ࣛࣜ, kyü´ryø ⤥ᩱ): ~-meisai (sho) ⤥୚᫂⣽᭩ pay slip N\ŗ\Ŀ n ఇ㣴 rest

M ma n 㛫 1. room; space (available) 2. time, interval; (= hima ᬤ) leisure: ma ni aimásu 㛫࡟ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ A ma-ni-aimásu 㛫࡟ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ ma... prefix ┿ mid…, right…, very…; ma-fuyu n ┿෤ midwinter; ma-hiru n ┿᫨ midday; ma-kká (na) adj ┿ࡗ㉥ ࡞ crimson, deep red: ~ ni narimásu ┿ࡗ㉥࡟࡞ࡾ ࡲࡍ turns red, flushes deeply; ma-kkúro (na) adj ┿ࡗ㯮 ࡞ jet

black: ~ ni narimásu ┿ࡗ㯮࡟࡞ ࡾࡲࡍ turns to a deep black; manatsu n ┿ኟ midsummer; ma-yónaka n ┿ኪ୰ midnight; ma-ssáka-sama (ni) adj ┿ࡗ㏫ࡉࡲ ࡟ head over heels; ma-ssúgu (na) adj ┿ࡗ ┤ࡄ ࡞ straight mă´ ࡲ࠶ interj 1. oh well; I should say; perhaps, I guess 2. dear me! (mostly female); good heavens/grief! 159


ma-bátaki n ▐ࡁ wink(ing),

blink(ing) mabayui adj ╆࠸ [BOOKISH] dazzling, glaring măburu n ࣐࣮ࣈࣝ marble mabushíi adj ╆ࡋ࠸ dazzling, glaring (= mabayui ╆࠸) mábuta n ࡲࡪࡓ࣭▛ eyelid macchi n ࣐ࢵࢳ match machí n ⏫࣭⾤ town, city: ~ no ⏫ࡢ local (A FKĿFKĿ ⏫㛗) PăFKi n ࣐࣮ࢳ march machi-awasemásu, machi-awaseru v ᚅࡕྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, ᚅࡕྜࢃࡏࡿ makes an appointment machibuse n ᚅࡕఅࡏ ambush machidĿshíi adj ᚅࡕ㐲ࡋ࠸ long awaited; waiting for a long time machigáe n 㛫㐪࠼ = machigái 㛫 㐪࠸ (mistake, error) A machi-


…máde suffix, conj …ࡲ࡛ (all the

way) to, till, until … máde ni suffix, conj …ࡲ࡛࡟

by, no later than, before (it gets to be time) … máde ni wa suffix, conj …ࡲ࡛ ࡟ࡣ by … at the latest mádo n ❆ window; mado-gárasu n ❆࢞ࣛࢫ windowpane; madó-guchi n ❆ཱྀ window (opening), wicket maekagami n ๓ᒅࡳ leaning forward: ~ ni narimásu ๓ᒅࡳ࡟࡞ ࡾࡲࡍ leans forward mae-mótte adv ๓ࡶࡗ࡚ (in) ad-vance (beforehand) mae-muki (no) adj ๓ྥࡁ ࡢ 1. far-sighted (forward-looking) 2. positive, constructive, affirmative: ~ (na) shikø ๓ྥࡁ ࡞ ᛮ ⪃ positive thinking gaemásu 㛫㐪࠼ࡲࡍ máe (ni) adv ๓ ࡟ front; in front machigaemásu, machigáéru v 㛫㐪࠼ of; before, ago: suru ~ ni ࡍࡿ ࡲࡍ, 㛫㐪࠼ࡿ mistakes ๓࡟ before doing machigái n 㛫㐪࠸ mistake, error maeoki n ๓⨨ࡁ introduction maeuri n ๓኎ࡾ advanced sale: (= misu ࣑ࢫ, erå ࢚࣮ࣛ) machigaimásu, machigáu v 㛫㐪࠸ࡲ ~-ken ๓኎ࡾๆ advanced-sale ࡍ, 㛫㐪࠺ is mistaken, is wrong, ticket maIXUă n ࣐ࣇ࣮ࣛ muffler, scarf is in error machigátta adj 㛫㐪ࡗࡓ wrong mafia n ࣐ࣇ࢕࢔ Mafia mafin n ࣐ࣇ࢕ࣥ muffin (mistaken) machimásu, mátsu v ᚅࡕࡲࡍ, ᚅࡘ magao n ┿㢦 serious/earnest/ waits for, expects, anticipates sober/conscientious/honest look PiFKtQď n ࣐ࢳࢿ࣮ matinee (on one’s face) (= majime na kao máda adv ࡲࡔ 1. (not) yet [+ NEGA- ┿㠃┠࡞㢦, shinken na kao ┿ TIVE verb] 2. still (to be) ๢࡞㢦) madara n ᩬ spots, speckles: ~ no magari ᭤ࡀࡾ n a curve, a bend: ᩬࡢ spotted heso-~ ࡬ࡑ᭤ࡀࡾ perverted 160


person; ~-kado ᭤ࡀࡾゅ street corner magari n 㛫೉ࡾ renting a room; magari-nin n 㛫೉ࡾே tenant (of apartment, room) magarimásu, magaru v ᭤ࡀࡾࡲࡍ, ᭤ࡀࡿ 1. turns, goes around 2. it bends, curves PăJDULQ n ࣐࣮࢞ࣜࣥ margarine magemásu, mageru v ᭤ࡆࡲࡍ, ᭤ࡆࡿ bends it, curves it magiremásu, magiréru v ⣮ࢀࡲࡍ, ⣮ࢀࡿ: (… ni ~ …࡟⣮ࢀࡿ) gets distracted (by …); gets confused (with …), gets mixed up (with) … mágiwa (ni/de) suffix, adv …㛫㝿 ࡟࡛ just before …, right on the brink of (when) … magó n Ꮮ grandchild: o-~-san ࠾ Ꮮࡉࢇ (your/someone else’s) grandchild magó n 㤿Ꮚ a packhorse driver magokoro n ┿ᚰ sincerity: ~ o ko-


maimásu ⯙ࢆ⯙࠸ࡲࡍ dances mai-… prefix ẖ… each, every; mai-asa n, adv ẖᮅ every morning; mai-ban n, adv ẖᬌ every night; mai-do n, adv ẖᗘ every time; mai-getsu, mai-tsuki n, adv ẖ᭶ every month; mai-kai n, adv ẖᅇ every time, each time; mai-nen, mai-toshi n, adv ẖᖺ every year; mái-nichi n, adv ẖ᪥ every day; all the time: ~ no ẖ᪥ࡢ daily; ~ no yø´ni ẖ᪥ࡢࡼ࠺࡟ almost everyday; mai-shŗ n, adv ẖ㐌 every week: ~ no ẖ㐌ࡢ weekly; mai-toshi Amai-nen; mai-tsuki Amai-getsu; mai-yo n, adv ẖኪ every night (= mai-ban ẖᬌ) …´-mai suffix …ᯛ (counts flat things) máigo n ㏞Ꮚ a lost child mai-KĿPX n ࣐࢖࣮࣒࣍ owned

house, one’s house and home;

PDLKĿPXVKXJL VKD n ࣐࢖࣮࣒࣍ ୺⩏ ⪅ family-centred person mete hanashimásu ┿ᚰࢆ㎸ࡵ࡚ (= kazoku-omoi no hito ᐙ᪘ᛮ ヰࡋࡲࡍ talks sincerely ࠸ࡢே) magure (atari) n ࡲࡄࢀ ᙜࡓࡾ mainasu n ࣐࢖ࢼࢫ less (minus);

fluke, (dumb/good) luck, accident, a minus, a disadvantage mairimáshita v ཧࡾࡲࡋࡓ, [INFORfortuity (= güzen അ↛): ~ de kachimásu ࡲࡄࢀ࡛຾ࡕࡲࡍ MAL] máitta ཧࡗࡓ You’ve got wins by a fluke me!; gives up, goes down maguro n ࣐ࢢ࣭ࣟ㩩 tuna mairimásu, máiru v ཧࡾࡲࡍ, ཧࡿ magusa n ࡲࡄࡉ>⛖࣭㤿ⲡ@ hay 1. [HUMBLE] I come/go 2. [HUMBLE] máhi n ࣐ࣄ࣭㯞⑷ paralysis visits, calls on 3. is defeated, loses PDKĿ n 㨱ἲ magic; PDKĿELQ n (= køsan 㝆ཧ) 4. is floored, 㨱ἲ⎼>ࡧࢇ࣭ࣅࣥ@ vacuum/ stumped maisĿ n ᇙⴿ burial thermos bottle mai n ⯙ (Japanese) dance: ~ o PăMDQ n ࣐࣮ࢪ࣭ࣕࣥ㯞㞛 mah161

majime (na)


jong: ~-ya ࣐࣮ࢪࣕࣥ>㯞㞛@ᒇ makú n ᖥ (stage) curtain; (play) mahjong parlor act majime (na) adj ┿㠃┠ ࡞ serious, maku ai n ᖥ㛫 intermission earnest, sober, conscientious, (between acts) makunóuchi n ᖥࡢෆ a riceball honest PăMLn n ࣐࣮ࢪࣥ margin lunch(box) majinai n ࡲࡌ࡞࠸࣭࿚࠸ 1. charm mákura n ࡲࡃࡽ࣭࣐ࢡ࣭ࣛᯖ 2. curse 3. spell, magic, incanta- pillow tion; majinai-shi n ࡲࡌ࡞࠸>࿚࠸@ mama n ࣐࣐ 1. (baby talk) momᖌ witch doctor my, mom (= kå-chan ẕࡕࡷࢇ) majirimásu, majíru v ΰࡌࡾࡲࡍ, 2. hostess (in a bar, etc.) ΰࡌࡿ it mixes (with) mama-… prefix ࡲࡲ>⥅@ step; majiwarimásu, majiwáru v ஺ࢃࡾࡲ mama-chichi n ࡲࡲ>⥅@∗ stepࡍ, ஺ࢃࡿ associates with father; mama-haha n ࡲࡲ>⥅@ẕ majo n 㨱ዪ witch stepmother; mama-ko n ࡲࡲ>⥅@ makasemásu, makaséru v ௵ࡏࡲࡍ, Ꮚ stepchild ௵ࡏࡿ entrusts with PăPă adj, adv ࡲ࠶ࡲ࠶ (just) makashimásu, makasu v ㈇࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, so-so, not bad ㈇࠿ࡍ defeats … mamá (de/no) suffix, adv, adj … make ㈇ࡅ n defeat, loss ࡲࡲ ࡛ࡢ intact, untouched/ makemásu, makeru v ㈇ࡅࡲࡍ, ㈇ undisturbed: sono ~ de ࡑࡢࡲࡲ ࡅࡿ loses, is defeated; comes ࡛ just as it is/was mamé n ࣐࣓࣭㇋ bean(s) down on the price; is inferior PăNpWWR n ࣐࣮ࢣࢵࢺ market mamé n ࡲࡵ blister maki n ⸄ firewood mame (na) adj ࡲࡵ ࡞ diligent/ maki n 1. ᕳࡁ a roll; a volume dedicated (person) 2. (…-maki …ᕳࡁ) a bolt (of cloth) mame (ni) adv ࡲࡵ ࡟ often, makimásu, maku v ᕳࡁࡲࡍ, ᕳࡃ frequently: heya o ~ ni søji shirolls up; winds; wraps; maki-tábako másu 㒊ᒇࢆࡲࡵ࡟ᤲ㝖ࡋࡲࡍ n ᕳࡁࢱࣂࢥ cigarette(s) cleans the room often makimásu, máku v ⵗࡁࡲࡍ, ⵗࡃ ma-mó-naku adv 㛫ࡶ࡞ࡃ soon, sows (seed); maki-e n ⵗ ࡁ ⤮ before long, shortly mamorimásu, mamóru v Ᏺࡾࡲࡍ, raised lacquer makoto (no) adj ㄔ>┿@ࡲࡇ࡜ ࡢ Ᏺࡿ defends, protects, guards mán n ୓ ten thousand 10,000 sincere; faithful; true; genuine (= honto (no), hontø (no) ᮏᙜ man(-) … prefix ‶… fully …; manFKĿ n ‶₻ high tide; man-getsu n ࡢ ): ~ ni ㄔ>┿@࡟ sincerely 162



‶᭶ full moon; PDQ·LQ n ‶ဨ full (of people); PDQMĿLFFKL n ‶ ሙ୍⮴ unanimous (agreement); PDQPHQ n ‶㠃 the whole face: tokui ~ desu ᚓព‶㠃࡛ࡍ is

PDQKĿUX n ࣐࣮ࣥ࣍ࣝ manhole ma-ni-aimásu, ma-ni-áu v 㛫࡟ྜ࠸ ࡲࡍ, 㛫࡟ྜ࠺: … ni ma-niaimásu …࡟㛫࡟ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ is in time (for …); ma-ni-aimasén 㛫 proud as a peacock, is in triumph; ࡟ྜ࠸ࡲࡏࢇ arrives too late (for PDQSDL adj ‶ᮼ is filled: yoyaku …), misses (the train/bus/plane) ga ~-pai desu ண⣙ࡀ‶ᮼ࡛ࡍ is ma-ni-awase v 㛫࡟ྜࢃࡏ makefully booked; PDQSXNX n, v ‶⭡ shift full stomach; PDQUXL n ‶ሠ (base- ma-ni-awasemásu, ma-ni-awaséru v 㛫 ball) with the bases loaded: ~ hø- ࡟ྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, 㛫࡟ྜࢃࡏࡿ: … de ma-ni-awasemásu …࡛㛫࡟ muran ‶ሠ࣮࣒࣍ࣛࣥ a grand slam; PDQWHQ n ‶Ⅼ perfect score; ྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ makes do (with …) PDQWHQ n ‶ኳ the whole sky PiQ·LFKL n ୓୍ = mán ga ichi ୓ manabimásu, manabu v Ꮫࡧࡲࡍ, ࡀ୍ if by any chance Ꮫࡪ learns, studies PDQMŗ n 㤝㢌 a steamed bun manaitá n ࡲ࡞ᯈ chopping board stuffed with ground pork (for cooking) manmosu n ࣐ࣥࣔࢫ mammoth: manazashi n ║ᕪࡋ a look in ~ no kiba ࣐ࣥࣔࢫࡢ∳ mamone’s eyes: yasashii ~ ඃࡋ࠸║ moth tusks ᕪࡋ gentle look in one’s eyes: mannén-hitsu n ୓ᖺ➹ fountain pen utagai no ~ ␲࠸ࡢ║ᕪࡋ a manneri(zumu) n ࣐ࣥࢿࣜ ࢬ࣒

suspicious look in one’s eyes


manbiki n ୓ᘬࡁ shoplifting, shop- manpokei n ୓Ṍィ pedometer lifter mánshon n ࣐ࣥࢩࣙࣥ a luxury manE\Ŀ n ୓⑓ all kinds of disease apartment (house) mane n ┿ఝ imitation, mimicry mánto n ࣐ࣥࢺ cloak PiQďMă n ࣐ࢿ࣮ࢪ࣮ࣕ manager mantora n ࣐ࣥࢺࣛ mantra: ~ o manekimásu, manéku v ᣍࡁࡲࡍ, ᣍ tonaemásu ࣐ࣥࢺࣛࢆၐ࠼ࡲࡍ chants mantra ࡃ invites manekin n ࣐ࢿ࢟ࣥ mannequin PDQWVŗPDQ adv ࣐ࣥࢶ࣮࣐ࣥ onemanekineko n ᣍࡁ⊧ beckoning cat to-one, one-on-one: ~ ressun o manemásu, maneru v ┿ఝࡲࡍ, ┿ ukemásu ࣐ࣥࢶ࣮࣐ࣥࣞࢵࢫ ఝࡿ imitates ࣥࢆཷࡅࡲࡍ has one-to-one lesson(s) manga n ࣐࣭ࣥ࢞ₔ⏬ cartoon, comics, manga: ~-kissa ࣐ࣥ࢞ manugare[manukare]másu, manugareru >ₔ⏬@ႚⲔ manga cafe (manukaréru) v ࡲࡠࡀࢀ>ࡲࡠ࠿




ࢀ@ࡲࡍ࣭චࢀࡲࡍ, ࡲࡠࡀࢀࡿ >ࡲࡠ࠿ࢀࡿ@࣭චࢀࡿ escapes

yø (na) ࡲࡿ࡛Ꮚ౪ࡢࡼ࠺ ࡞

just like a child

marui adj ୸࠸ round shi o manugaremásu Ṛࢆචࢀࡲ maru ku adv ୸ࡃ roundly: me o ~ ࡍ escapes death ku shimásu ┠ࢆ୸ࡃࡋࡲࡍ manzái n ₔᡯ cross-talk comedy: (with) wide eyes; se o ~ ku ~ konbi ₔᡯࢥࣥࣅ a comic duo shimásu ⫼ࢆ୸ࡃࡋࡲࡍ hunches up mánzoku (na) adj ‶㊊ ࡞ satismaruta n ୸ኴ log factory: ( … de) ~ shimásu … ࡛ ‶㊊ࡋࡲࡍ is satisfied/ másaka ࡲࡉ࠿ 1. adv ~ …dewa contented (with …) nai (desu) yo ne? ࡲࡉ࠿࡛ࡣ marason n ࣐ࣛࢯࣥ jog(ging); ࡞࠸ ࡛ࡍ ࡼࡡ" Don’t tell me marathon that… 2. interj no kidding!; impossible! maré (na) adj ⛥ ࡞ rare, infremása-ni adv ࡲࡉ࡟ exactly, just; quent: ~ ni ⛥࡟ rarely certainly, really Marďshia n ࣐࣮ࣞࢩ࢔ Malaysia; Marďshia-jin n ࣐࣮ࣞࢩ࢔ே a Ma- masarimásu, masáru v ຾ࡾࡲࡍ, ຾ laysian; Marďshia-go n ࣐࣮ࣞࢩ࢔ ࡿ surpasses, is superior ㄒ Bahasa Malaysia (language) masatsu n ࡲࡉࡘ࣭ᦶ᧿ friction: mari n ࡲࡾ࣭࣐࣭ࣜ㠭 ball, karada o ~ యࢆᦶ᧿ࡋࡲࡍ rubs

from, is exempt from, avoids:

(Japanese) temari ball

(oneself) down

marine n ࣐ࣜࢿ marinade marifana n ࣐ࣜࣇ࢓ࢼ marijuana maru n ୸࣭ࡲࡿ circle, ring; zero maru(-) … prefix ୸࣭ࡲࡿ … fully, whole…; maru-anki n ୸ᬯ グ rote learning; maru-utsushi n ୸ ෗ࡋ copying entirely; maru-yaki n ୸↝ࡁ whole roast; maru-yake n ୸↝ࡅ total loss (by fire) maru de adj ࡲࡿ࡛ 1. completely [+ NEGATIVE]: Nihon to ~ chigau/ kotonaru bunka ᪥ᮏ࡜ࡲࡿ࡛ 㐪࠺␗࡞ࡿᩥ໬ quite different culture from Japanese 2. maru de …no yø (na) ࡲࡿ࡛ࡢࡼ࠺ ࡞ as if: maru de kodomo no

mashi ቑࡋ n an increase; a sur-

charge mashimásu, masu v ቑࡋࡲࡍ, ቑࡍ

increases, raises, swells mashumaro n ࣐ࢩ࣐ࣗࣟ marsh-

mallow PDVVăji n ࣐ࢵࢧ࣮ࢪ massage: ~-shi ࣐ࢵࢧ࣮ࢪᖌ masseur massatsu n ᢯ẅ [BOOKISH] elimina-

tion, murder, killing masshurŗmu n ࣐ࢵࢩ࣮࣒ࣗࣝ

mushroom masú n ࣐ࢫ࣭㫟 trout masu-komi n ࣐ࢫࢥ࣑ mass

communication (media) masukotto n ࣐ࢫࢥࢵࢺ mascot



mayoimásu, mayóu

másuku n ࣐ࢫࢡ mask (= kamen ௬㠃) masú-masu adv ┈ࠎ more and

more, increasingly mDVXWăGR n ࣐ࢫࢱ࣮ࢻ mustard (= karashi ࢝ࣛࢩ࣭ⰰᏊ) masuto n ࣐ࢫࢺ mast matá conj, prep ࡲࡓ࣭ཪ again; moreover: ~ dø´zo ࡲࡓ࡝࠺ࡒ

~-no-kí ᯇࡢᮌ) matsuba-zúe n ᯇⴥ᮫ crutch(es) mátsuge n ࡲࡘࡆ࣭╰ ẟ eye-

lash(es) matsuri n ⚍ࡾfestival matsutake n ࣐ࢶࢱࢣ࣭ᯇⲖ a kind

of mushroom (thumb-shaped)

matsu-yani n ᯇ⬡ pine resin mattaku adv ඲ࡃ quite, completely, Please (come, etc.) again. exactly (= zenzen ඲↛): ~ no ඲ matá n ⫤ crotch, groin ࡃࡢ perfect máta conj ࡲࡓ࣭ཪ and also/ mátto n ࣐ࢵࢺ mat another/more (= … mo ~ … mawari n ࿘ࡾ: (… no) ~ (ni/no) ࡶࡲࡓ) …ࡢ ࿘ࡾ ࡟ࡢ around … matagarimásu, matagáru v ㊬ࡀࡾ mawari… prefix ᅇࡾ revolving …, rotating…; mawari-butai n ᅇ ࡲࡍ, ㊬ࡀࡿ: … ni ~ …࡟㊬ࡀ ࡾࡲࡍ straddles, sits astride, ࡾ⯙ྎ revolving stage; mawarimounts, rides; stretches/extends kaidan n ᅇࡾ㝵ẁ spiral stairway; over, spans mawarí-michi n ᅇࡾ㐨 detour matagimásu, matágu v ㊬ࡂࡲࡍ, ㊬ PDZDULNXGRL adj ᅇࡾࡃ࡝࠸ ࡄ strides over roundabout matátakí n ▐ࡁ blink(ing) A mawarimásu, mawaru v ࿘ࡾࡲࡍ, matátakímásu ▐ࡁࡲࡍ blinks ࿘ࡿ goes around mátá-wa conj ࡲࡓࡣ࣭ཪࡣ or, or mawarimásu, mawaru v ᅇࡾࡲࡍ, else, on the other hand; also; and/or ᅇࡿturns, revolves, circulates, matcha n ᢯Ⲕ powdered green tea rotates (for tea ceremony) mawashi n ᅇࡋ sumo wrestler’s mátchi n ࣐ࢵࢳ match(es) (for fire); belt (loincloth) matchí-bako n ࣐ࢵࢳ⟽ matchbox mawashimásu, mawasu v ᅇࡋࡲࡍ mato n ⓗ target, aim ᅇࡍ turns it around, passes it matomarimásu, matomaru v ࡲ࡜ࡲࡾ around, circulates it ࡲࡍ, ࡲ࡜ࡲࡿ is settled, mawata n ┿⥥ floss silk arranged, finished mayaku n 㯞⸆ narcotic(s), dope matomemásu, matomeru v ࡲ࡜ࡵࡲ (= kusuri ࢡࢫ࣭ࣜ⸆, yaku ࣖࢡ ࡍ, ࡲ࡜ࡵࡿ settles, arranges, ࣭⸆, yakubutsu ⸆≀) finishes mayoimásu, mayóu v ㏞࠸ࡲࡍ, mátsu n ࣐ࢶ࣭ᯇ pine tree (= ㏞࠺ gets lost; gets perplexed



mD\RQď]X n ࣐ࣚࢿ࣮ࢬ mayon-


PHGDPD\DNL n ┠⋢↝ࡁ fried egg(s) naise mHGDULVXWR n ࣓ࢲࣜࢫࢺ medalist Pi\X n ┱ eyebrow(s) mHGDUX n ࣓ࢲࣝ medal Pi\X n ࣐࣭ࣘ⧛ cocoon PHGiWWD … v ┠❧ࡗࡓ… outstandPD]DULPiVX, PD]iUX v ΰࡊࡾࡲࡍ, ing, conspicuous A PHGDFKLPiVX ΰࡊࡿ it mixes ┠❧ࡕࡲࡍ PD]HPiVX, PD]pUX v ΰࡐࡲࡍ, ΰ PHGiWWH adv ┠❧ࡗ࡚ outstandࡐࡿ mixes it ingly, conspicuously: medátte Pi]X adv ࡲࡎ first of all, before imásu ┠❧ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is anything else (= saisho (ni) ᭱ึ outstanding, conspicuous A PHGDFKLPiVX ┠❧ࡕࡲࡍ ࡟ , hajime (ni) ึࡵ ࡟ ) Pi]X adv ࡲࡎ perhaps, nearly PHGHWiL adj ࡵ࡛ࡓ࠸ 1. happy (events), matter for congratulaPD]~L adj ୙࿡࠸ untasty, badtasting tion 2. = o-medetái ࠾ࡵ࡛ࡓ࠸ PD]~L adj 1. ࡲࡎ࠸ poor, awkward simple-minded, optimistic; idiot 2. inadvisable 3. ugly PpGR n 㔪Ꮝ the eye of a needle PD]XVKtL adj ㈋ࡋ࠸ poor (needy) PpGR n ┠ฎ aim (= méate ┠ᙜ࡚) Pp n ┠ eye: taihen na ~ ni PďGR n ࣓࣮ࢻ maid aimásu ኱ኚ࡞┠࡟࠶࠸ࡲࡍ (has/ mHJDEDLWR n ࣓࢞ࣂ࢖ࢺ megabyte undergoes) a hard experience (MB) Pp n ⱆ bud PHJDNHPiVX, PHJDNpUX v ┠᥃ࡅࡲ «PH interj …ࡵ࣭ያ [deprecates ࡍ, ┠᥃ࡅࡿ aims at: … o people] damn (fool) …: baka-~ megákete …ࢆ┠ࡀࡅ࡚ (aiming) at, (going) toward ࡤ࠿ࡵ࣭㤿㮵ࡵ damn (fool) idiot PpJDQH n ࣓࢞ࢿ࣭║㙾 (eye) «Pp suffix …┠ [NUMERAL] -th: glasses: ~ o kakemásu ࣓࢞ࢿ>║ itsutsu-~ ஬ࡘ┠ fifth 㙾@ࢆ᥃ࡅࡲࡍ puts on (wears) glasses PpDWH n ┠ᙜ࡚ a guide (for the eye); aim PHJXPDUHPiVX, PHJXPDUHUX v ᜨࡲ PHFKDPHFKD adj ࡵࡕࡷࡵࡕࡷ࣭ ࢀࡲࡍ, ᜨࡲࢀࡿ gets blessed: ┠Ⲕ┠Ⲕ in pieces, all confused, … ni megumárete imásu …࡟ᜨ in disorder: ~ ni shimásu ࡵࡕࡷ ࡲࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is blessed with … ࡵࡕࡷ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ ruins, upsets, PHJXPL n ᜨࡳ blessing, mercy, messes up charity PHGDFKLPiVX, PHGiWVX v ┠❧ࡕࡲ PHJXPLPiVX, PHJXPX v ᜨࡳࡲࡍ, ࡍ, ┠❧ࡘ stands out, becomes ᜨࡴ blesses with, gives mercifully conspicuous (in charity) 166


megurimásu, meguru v ᕠࡾࡲࡍ, ᕠࡿ centers on, surrounds, con-


some; (… ni) (go-)~ o kakemásu …࡟ ࡈ ㏞ᝨࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ cerns causes (one) trouble me-gúsuri n ┠⸆࣭║⸆ eye lotion, PHLZDNXPďUX n ㏞ᝨ࣓࣮ࣝ e-mail eye drops spam, junk mail méi n ጱ = meikko ጱࡗᏊ niece méiyo n ྡ㄃ prestige, honor, …´-mei suffix …ྡ (counts people) glory [BOOKISH] (= …-nin …ே): ichí-~ PďNă n ࣓࣮࣮࢝ maker, manu୍ྡ one person facturer meibo n ྡ⡙ list (catalog) of me-kákushi n ┠㞃ࡋ a blindfold mekata n ┠᪉ weight names, directory, register, roll méibutsu n ྡ≀ a local specialty, me-kyábetsu n ⱆ࢟ࣕ࣋ࢶ Brussels a special attraction, a famous sprouts PďN\iSSX n ࣓࣮࢟ࣕࢵࣉ makeup product méigo-san n ጱᚚࡉࢇ (your) niece mémo n ࣓ࣔ memo(-randum), meihaku (na) adj ᫂ⓑ ࡞ clear, note; PHPRFKĿ n ࣓ࣔᖒ note pad, obvious, explicit tablet mei-jimásu, mei-jiru v ࿨ࡌࡲࡍ, ࿨ memorii n ࣓࣮ࣔࣜ (computer) ࡌࡿ commands; appoints, nomemory (= yøryø ᐜ㔞): ~ ga tarinai ࣓࣮ࣔࣜࡀ㊊ࡾ࡞࠸ runs minates, orders meijín n ྡே expert out of memory meimon (no) adj ྡ㛛 ࡢ distin- men n 㠃 1. mask 2. face, front guished: ~-(gak-)kø ྡ㛛 Ꮫ ᰯ 3. surface (= hyømén ⾲㠃) mén n ⥥ cotton; PpQEĿ n ⥥Წ distinguished school meirei n ࿨௧ order, command cotton swab meiro n ㏞㊰ labyrinth, maze mén n ࡵࢇ࣭㯝 noodles mé-isha n ┠࣭║་⪅ eye doctor, PpQEă n ࣓ࣥࣂ࣮ member PHQGĿ n 㠃ಽ trouble, bother, oculist meishi n ྡ่ business card, nuisance; PHQGĿ na 㠃ಽ࡞ bothercalling card, name card; meishí-ire some mendori n ࣓ࣥࢻࣜ hen n ྡ่ධࢀ business card case meishi n ྡモ noun PHQMĿ n ච≧ license; diploma meisho n ྡᡤ famous place: menkai n 㠃఍ interview, meeting kankø-~ ほගྡᡤ famous sight- (= intabyü ࢖ࣥࢱࣅ࣮ࣗ) ménkyo(-sho) n චチ ド 1. driver’s seeing spot méiwaku n ㏞ᝨ trouble, bother, license 2. license, permit ménseki n 㠃✚ area nuisance: ~ na ㏞ᝨ࡞ trouble167


mentenansu n ࣓ࣥࢸࢼࣥࢫ main-


eye): ~ ga/no warui ┠௜ࡁࡀࡢ ᝏ࠸ has evil eyes métta (na) adj ⁛ከ ࡞ reckless, rash métta (ni) adv ⁛ከ ࡟ [ NEGATIVE verb] seldom: ~ ni nakimasen ⁛ ከ࡟Ἵࡁࡲࡏࢇ rarely cries meue (no) n ┠ୖ ࡢ superior (in status/rank/age) meushi n 㞤∵ cow me-yaní n ┠ࡸ࡟ matter (gum, mucus) from the eye meyásu n ┠Ᏻ 1. a standard 2. guide; aim mezamashi (dokei) n ┠ぬࡲࡋ ᫬ィ alarm clock mezamemásu, mezaméru v ┠ぬࡵ ࡲࡍ, ┠ぬࡵࡿ awake mezashimásu, mezásu v ┠ᣦࡋࡲࡍ, ┠ᣦࡍ heads for (a destination) mezurashíi adj ⌋ࡋ࠸ rare, uncommon, novel, curious, unusual, unexpected (but welcome) mezuráshiku adv ⌋ࡋࡃ unusually (kaze o) hikimásu 㢼㑧ࢆ ࡦࡁ mi n ᐇ 1. fruit 2. nut: ~ ga ࡲࡍ (catches cold), etc., that tawawani/takusan natteiru ki ᐇ ࡀࡓࢃࢃ࡟ࡓࡃࡉࢇ࡞ࡗ࡚࠸ࡿ involve the body] meshitá (no) adj ┠ୗ ࡢ inferior ᮌ trees laden with fruit mi… prefix ᮍ un…; mi-chi (no) (in status/rank/age) meshi-tsúkai n ྊࡋ౑࠸ servant adj ᮍ▱ ࡢ unknown; mi-hakken PpVVďML n ࣓ࢵࢭ࣮ࢪ message (no) adj ᮍⓎぢ ࡢ undiscovered; mesú n 㞤࣭࣓ࢫ female animal mi-hattatsu (no)/mi-kaihatsu (no) adj mesu n ࣓ࢫ surgeon’s knife ᮍⓎ㐩 ࡢ ᮍ㛤Ⓨ ࡢ unPďWă n ࣓࣮ࢱ࣮ meter (device) developed; mi-kaiketsu (no) adj ᮍ mďWRUX n ࣓࣮ࢺࣝ meter(s) (of ゎỴ ࡢ unsolved; mi-kai (no) adj ᮍ㛤 ࡢ uncultivated, wild; length) mé-tsuki n ┠௜ࡁ a look (in one’s mi-kakunin (no) adj ᮍ☜ㄆ ࡢ 168 tenance ményŗ n ࣓ࢽ࣮ࣗ menu menzei (no) adj ච⛯ ࡢ tax-free/exempt: ~-hin ච⛯ရ tax-free goods PďUă n ࣓࣮࣮ࣛ mailer (computer) merii JĿ rando n ࣓࣮ࣜࢦ࣮ࣛࣥࢻ merry-go-round merodii n ࣓ࣟࢹ࢕࣮ melody méron n ࣓ࣟࣥ melon PďUX n ࣓࣮ࣝ e-mail: ~ bokkusu ࣓࣮ࣝ࣎ࢵࢡࢫ e-mail box meshí n 㣤 cooked rice; a meal meshiagarimásu, meshiagaru v ྊࡋ ୖࡀࡾࡲࡍ, ྊࡋୖࡀࡿ [HONORIFIC] eats; drinks meshí-bitsu n ࡵࡋࡧࡘ࣭㣤ᷬ rice bucket/tub meshimásu, mésu v ྊࡋࡲࡍ, ྊࡍ [in FORMAL SPEECH can replace such verbs as kimásu ╔ࡲࡍ (wears), tabemásu 㣗࡭ࡲࡍ (eats), nomimasu 㣧ࡳࡲࡍ (drinks),


unidentified, unconfirmed; mi-kon (no) adj ᮍ፧ ࡢ unmarried: ~ no haha ᮍ፧ࡢẕ unmarried mother; PLVKĿ (no) adj ᮍヲ ࡢ [BOOKISH] unknown: sakusha-~ స⪅ᮍヲ unknown author; PL]Ŀ (no) adj ᮍ᭯᭷ ࡢ [BOOKISH] unprecedented, unheard-of mi n ㌟ body; mi ni amarimásu (amaru) v ㌟࡟వࡾࡲࡍ వࡿ : ~ køei desu ㌟࡟వࡿගᰤ࡛ࡍ It is an undeserved honor; mi ni shimimásu (shimiru) v ㌟࡟ᰁࡳࡲࡍ ᰁࡳࡿ , mi ni shimimashita (shimita) ㌟ ࡟ᰁࡳࡲࡋࡓ ᰁࡳࡓ { It went to my heart. | pierces one’s body: samusa ga ~ ᐮࡉࡀ ㌟࡟ᰁࡳࡲࡍ The cold pierced me.; mi ni tsukemásu (tsukeru) v ㌟ ࡟ࡘࡅࡲࡍ ࡘࡅࡿ { wears, puts on | learns, acquires; mi ni tsumasaremásu (tsumasareru) v ㌟ ࡟ࡘࡲࡉࢀࡲࡍ ࡘࡲࡉࢀࡿ


㌟ࢆࡺࡔࡡࡲࡍ); mi o tatemásu (tateru) v ㌟ࢆ❧࡚ࡲࡍ ❧࡚ ࡿ establishes oneself (as…), makes a career; mi o yudanemásu (yudaneru) v ㌟ࢆࡺࡔࡡࡲࡍ ࡺࡔ ࡡࡿ surrenders oneself (= mi o makasemásu (makaseru) ㌟ࢆ௵ ࡏࡲࡍ ௵ࡏࡿ ) PLEĿMLQ n ᮍஸே widow míbun n ㌟ศ social standing: ~-shømei-sho ㌟ศド᫂᭩ ID card

(driver’s license, insurance card, student ID card, alien registration card, etc.) míburi n ㌟᣺ࡾ gesture, movement (= jesuchå ࢪ࢙ࢫࢳ࣮ࣕ) michi n 㐨 1. way, path: ikiru ~ ⏕ ࡁࡿ㐨 the way to live: kami no ~ ⚄ࡢ㐨 path of God 2. street, road; michi-bata n 㐨➃ wayside, roadside; michi-jun n 㐨㡰 the way, the route (on the road); michi-zure n 㐨㐃ࢀ travelling companion, fellow traveler michibikimásu, michibíku v ᑟࡁࡲࡍ, ᑟࡃ leads, guides michimásu, michíru v ‶ࡕࡲࡍ, ‶ ࡕࡿ gets complete, full midaré n ஘ࢀ disorder, messiness:

hits close to home, feels deeply, sympathizes deeply; mi no okiba ga arimasen (nai) v ㌟ࡢ⨨ࡁሙࡀ࠶ࡾ ࡲࡏࢇ ࡞࠸ There is no place to be/go.; mi o hikimásu (hiku) v ㌟ ࢆᘬࡁࡲࡍ ᘬࡃ { retires | recedes, stands down, backs off; kami no ~ o naoshimásu 㧥ࡢ mi o iremásu (ireru) v ㌟ࢆධࢀࡲࡍ ஘ࢀࢆ┤ࡋࡲࡍ fixes one’s ධࢀࡿ puts oneself; mi o ko(na) messy hair ni shite hatarakimásu (hataraku) v ㌟ࢆ midaremásu, midaréru v ஘ࢀࡲࡍ, ⢊࡟ࡋ࡚ാࡁࡲࡍ ാࡃ works ஘ࢀࡿ gets disturbed, dishard, sweats one’s guts out; mi o ordered makasemásu (makaseru) v ㌟ࢆ௵ࡏ midashi n ぢฟࡋ 1. heading, capࡲࡍ ௵ࡏࡿ surrenders oneself tion, headline 2. a dictionary 169

midashimásu, midásu


entry; a headword 3. contents, PLLWREĿUX n ࣑࣮ࢺ࣮࣎ࣝ meatball mijikái adj ▷࠸ short (not long); index, title midashimásu, midásu v ஘ࡋࡲࡍ, brief ஘ࡍ throws into disorder, upsets, mijíkáku adv ▷ࡃ briefly, short mijitaku n ㌟ᨭᗘ dressing oneself disturbs mídori (no) adj ⥳ ࡢ green: ~-iro mikagé-ishi n ᚚᙳ▼ granite ⥳Ⰽ green color mikake n ぢ࠿ࡅ appearance mié n ぢᰤ show, display; mikake n ぢ᥃ࡅ outward appear(dramatic) pose: ~-ppari ぢᰤ ance: ~ wa ぢ᥃ࡅࡣ outwardly, ࡗࡥࡾ a show-off: ~ o harimásu seemingly ぢᰤࢆᙇࡾࡲࡍ shows off, puts mikaku n ࿡ぬ sense of taste míkan n ࣑࣭࢝ࣥ⻤᯿ tangerine, on air miemásu, miéru v ぢ࠼ࡲࡍ, ぢ࠼ࡿ mandarin (orange) 1. is visible, can be seen 2. ap- mikata n ࿡᪉ friend), accomplice, pears; shows up, comes 3. seems supporter, side: …no ~ ni tsukimigakimásu, migaku v ☻ࡁࡲࡍ, ☻ másu ࡢ࿡᪉࡟ࡘࡁࡲࡍ takes ࡃ polishes, shines sides with… migara n ㌟᯶ ~ no køsoku ㌟᯶ mi-kátá n ぢ᪉ a viewpoint: …no ~ o kaemásu ࡢぢ᪉ࢆኚ࠼ࡲ ࡢᣊ᮰ custody migi n ྑ right (not left); migi-ashi n ࡍ changes one’s viewpoint: ~ ྑ㊊ right leg/foot; migi-dónari n ni yotte (wa) ぢ᪉࡟ࡼࡗ࡚ ࡣ ྑ㞄ࡾ next on the right; migi-kiki in a way (no) adj ྑ฼ࡁ ࡢ right-handed; mikazuki n ୕᪥᭶ crescent (moon) migi-máwari (ni) adv ྑᅇࡾ ࡟ míki n ᖿ trunk (of tree) clockwise; migi-te n ྑᡭ right hand míki n ⚄㓇 saké offered to the gods mígoto (na) adj ぢ஦ ࡞ splendid, míkiVă n ࣑࢟ࢧ࣮ blender mikka n ୕᪥ three days; 3rd day admirable, beautiful migurushíi adj ぢⱞࡋ࠸ unseemly, (of month) mikomi n ぢ㎸ࡳ 1. promise, hope unsightly mí-hako n ୕⟽ three boxfuls 2. outlook, expectation 3. view, mihon n ぢᮏ 1. a sample 2. model, opinion mikoshi n ぢ㉺ࡋ forethought example PLLK㍠n ࣑࣮ࣁ࣮ lowbrow person mikoshi n ࠾ࡳࡇࡋ࣭ᚚ㍿ portable míira n ࣑࢖ࣛ mummy shrine (for festival parades) mii´tingu n ࣑࣮ࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ meeting, mikuji n ࡳࡃࡌ࣭⚄⡨ written fortune conference [FORMAL] (= [BOOKISH] mimai n ぢ⯙࠸ a visit (of solicikáigi ఍㆟) tude): ~-kyaku ぢ⯙࠸ᐈ visitor 170



… míman suffix …ᮍ‶ less than,

zénbu ඲㒊) : ~ de ࡳ ࢇ ࡞࡛࣭ ⓙ࡛ altogether below (a quantity, an age) mimásu, míru v ぢࡲࡍ, ぢࡿ sees, minori n ᐇࡾ crop, harvest minorimásu, minóru v ᐇࡾࡲࡍ, ᐇ looks, watches; tries doing mimí n ⪥ ear: ~ ga tøi ⪥ࡀ㐲࠸ is ࡿ bears fruit; ripens minoshirokin n ㌟௦㔠 ransom hard of hearing mimi-kázari n ⪥㣭ࡾ earring mi-no-take n ㌟ࡢ୔ 1. one’s mimiuchi n ⪥ᡴࡕ whisper(ing) height 2. one’s condition: ~ ni mimoto n ㌟ඖ one’s identity: ~ atta seikatsu o shimásu ㌟ࡢ୔࡟ fumei no shitai ㌟ඖ୙᫂ࡢṚయ ࠶ࡗࡓ⏕άࢆࡋࡲࡍ lives within

unidentified body

one’s income

minami n ༡ south: ~-guchi ༡ཱྀ mi-no-ue n ㌟ࡢୖ one’s station in the south exit/entrance; ~-yori life: ~-banashi ㌟ࡢୖヰ one’s (no kaze) ༡ᐤࡾ ࡢ㢼 southerly life story: ~-sødan ran ㌟ࡢୖ┦ ㄯḍ personal-advice column (wind) Minami-Ámerika n ༡࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ South minshŗ n Ẹ⾗ the masses, the



mi-naraimásu, mi-narau v ぢ⩦࠸ࡲࡍ, minshúku n Ẹᐟ bed and breakぢ⩦࠺ follows (learns from) the fast (B&B), family inn, hostelry, minshu-shúgi n Ẹ୺୺⩏ democexample of miná-san, mina-sama n ⓙࡉࢇ, ⓙᵝ racy you all, everybody; (you) ladies minto n ࣑ࣥࢺ mint PLQ·\Ŀ n Ẹㅴ folk song, ballad and gentlemen minato n   port mínzoku n Ẹ᪘ (human) race mine n ᓠ peak, summit mioboe n ぢぬ࠼ recognition PLQHUDUXZĿWă n ࣑ࢿ࢛࣮ࣛࣝ࢘ࢱ mi-okurimásu, mi-okuru v ぢ㏦ࡾࡲ ࣮ mineral water ࡍ, ぢ㏦ࡿ sees (them) off mingei(-hin) n Ẹⱁ ရ folkcraft miomo n ㌟㔜 pregnant female mí ni-… prefix, v ぢ࡟: mí ni mírai n ᮍ᮶ future iku ぢ࡟⾜ࡃ [goes] to see mirin n ࣑࣭ࣜࣥ࿡㓤 sweet rice minikúi adj 㓶࠸ ugly wine (for cooking) PLQLVXNăWR n ࣑ࢽࢫ࣮࢝ࢺ mini- mirú-gai n ࣑ࣝ࢞࢖࣭ࡳࡿ㈅ surf


clam, geoduck

minkan (no) adj Ẹ㛫 ࡢ civil(ian), míruku n ࣑ࣝࢡ milk (= gyünyü ∵ங): ~-së´ki ࣑ࣝࢡࢭ࣮࢟ milkprivate (non-government) mi(n)ná n ࡳ ࢇ ࡞࣭ⓙ everybody, shake all; everything, all, completely (= miryoku n 㨩ຊ charm (attraction);




looks (like); [NOUN] ~ desu ࡳࡓ ࠸࡛ࡍ, [NOUN] datta ~ desu ࡔ charming mísa n ࣑ࢧ (Catholic) mass ࡗࡓࡳࡓ࠸࡛ࡍ; verb-(r)u/-tai misairu n ࣑ࢧ࢖ࣝ missile ~ desu ̽࠺ ࡿ ࡓࡳࡓ࠸࡛ࡍ, misakai-nai/naku adj, adv ぢቃ࡞࠸ [ADJECTIVE]-i/ -katta ~ desu ࠸ ࡞ࡃ indiscriminate(ly) ࠿ࡗࡓࡳࡓ࠸࡛ࡍ misaki n ᓁ cape, headland mitake n ㌟୔ 1. total length of misao n ᧯ chastity garment 2. one’s height 3. one’s mise n ᗑ store, shop situation mise-kake (no) adj ぢࡏ࠿ࡅ ࡢ mitama n ᚚ㟋 [HONORIFIC] departsham, make-believe, pretend(ed) ed soul misemásu, miséru v ぢࡏࡲࡍ, ぢࡏ mitame n ぢࡓ┠ physical appearࡿ shows ance mise-mónó n ぢࡏ≀ show, exhibi- mitashimásu, mitásu v ‶ࡓࡋࡲࡍ, ‶ࡓࡍ fills up, satisfies tion, exhibit PLVKĿ (no) adj ᐇ⏕ ࡢ seedling mitate n ぢ❧࡚ diagnosis, selecmíso n ࿡ჯ (fermented) 1. bean tion: isha no ~ ་⪅ࡢぢ❧࡚ paste (A miso-shíru ࿡ჯỒ) 2. doctor’s opinion: fuku no ~ ᭹ࡢ ぢ❧࡚ choosing clothes (for somechild who is considered to be one) immature (while playing, etc.) misogi n ⚚ purification mitei n ᮍᐃ to be determined misoji n ࡳࡑࡌ࣭୕༑㊰ thirty mitomemásu, mitomeru v ㄆࡵࡲࡍ, ㄆࡵࡿ recognizes, acknowledges, years old misoka n ᬉ᪥ last day of month admits misoppa n ࿡ჯࡗṑ decayed tooth mitorimásu, mitoru v ┳ྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, ┳ misora n ㌟✵ oneself, one’s staྲྀࡿ 1. cares for the sick, nurses tion in life: wakai ~ de… ⱝ࠸㌟ 2. attends to someone on his/her ✵࡛ …at such a young age deathbed miso-shíru n ࿡ჯỒ soup seasoned mitorizu n ぢྲྀࡾᅗ blueprint, with miso, miso soup sketch missetsu (na) adj ᐦ᥋ ࡞ thick, PLWĿVKL n ぢ㏻ࡋ prospect, outlook mikoshi ぢ㉺ࡋ forethought dense; close, intimate misu n ᚚ⡘ bamboo blind mítsú n ୕ࡘ = mittsú ୕ࡘ (three) mísu n ࣑ࢫ miss, mistake mítsu n ࣑ࢶ࣭⻤ honey; mitsú-bachi … mítai desu …ࡳࡓ࠸࡛ࡍ (= … n ࣑ࢶࣂࢳ࣭⻤⻏ (honey-)bee no yø´desu (/da, na, de, ni) …ࡢ mitsugo n ୕ࡘᏊ 1. triplets 2. ᵝ࡛ࡍ ࡔ, ࡞, ࡛ ,࡟ seems/ three year-old (child) 172 miryoku-teki (na) adj 㨩ຊⓗ ࡞


… mo … mo

mitsukarimásu, mitsukaru v ぢࡘ࠿ࡾ ࡞ enchanting ࡲࡍ, ぢࡘ࠿ࡿ is found, discov- miya n ᐑ 1. o-miya ࠾ᐑ Shinto ered; it turns up shrine 2. prince, princess mitsukemásu, mitsukeru v ぢࡘࡅࡲ miyage n 土産 souvenir ࡍ, ぢࡘࡅࡿ finds, discovers miyako n 㒔 capital city mi-tsumemásu, mi-tsumeru v ぢࡘࡵ miyori n ㌟ᐤࡾ relatives: ~ no nai ࡲࡍ, ぢࡘࡵࡿ gazes at, stares at kodomo ㌟ᐤࡾࡢ࡞࠸Ꮚ౪ child mi-tsumori n ぢ✚ࡶࡾ an estimate who has no relatives (to rely mi-tsumorimásu, mi-tsumóru v ぢ✚ on): no nai otoshiyori/kørei-sha ࡶࡾࡲࡍ, ぢ✚ࡶࡿ estimates, tachi ㌟ᐤࡾࡢ࡞࠸࠾ᖺᐤࡾ㧗 㱋⪅ࡓࡕ old people who have rates mítsu (na) adj ᐦ ࡞ dense, thick no (supportive) relatives mitsurin n ᐦᯘ jungle mizo n ⁁ drain, ditch, gutter mitsuyu n ᐦ㍺ smuggling mizoochi n 㬀ᑿ pit of the stomach mittsú n ୕ࡘ three; three years mizore n 㟓 sleet old (= san-sai ୕ṓ): mittsu-mé mizu n Ỉ(not hot) water: tsumetai ୕ࡘ┠ third ~ ෭ࡓ࠸Ỉ cold water: nurui ~ mittsŗ n ᐦ㏻ adultery, intrigue ࡠࡿ࠸Ỉ lukewarm water; mizubúsoku n Ỉ୙㊊ water shortage; miuchi n ㌟ෆ family, close relamizu-gi n Ỉ╔ swim suit, bathing tives and close friends miugoki n, v ㌟ືࡁ [(usually) suit; mizu-taki n Ỉ⅕ࡁ chicken, +NEGATIVE] 1. moving oneself: bean curd, etc., dipped into hot man’indensha de ~ (ga) toremasen broth till ready to eat; mizu-wari ‶ဨ㟁㌴࡛㌟ືࡁ ࡀ ࡜ࢀࡲࡏࢇ n Ỉ๭ࡾ (highball of) whisky is stuck on a packed train 2. acts and water freely: shigoto ga isogashikute ~ PL]ŗ´mi n † lake (ga) toremasen ௙஦ࡀᛁࡋࡃ࡚ mo n ႙ mourning: ~ ni fukushi㌟ືࡁ ࡀ ࡜ࢀࡲࡏࢇ is tied up másu ႙࡟᭹ࡋࡲࡍ mourns (the

with busy work


mi-ukemásu, mi-ukéru v ぢཷࡅࡲࡍ, … mo suffix, prep …ࡶ too, also, ぢཷࡅࡿ observes, happens to even; (not)… either/even; indeed; see; appears (to be) number mo ࡶ [+ NEGATIVE] not mi-wakemásu, mi-wakéru v ぢศࡅࡲ even (so much as), [+ AFFIRMATIVE] ࡍ, ぢศࡅࡿ discriminates, distin- as many/much as, all of … mo … mo conj …ࡶ…ࡶ both guishes miwaku n 㨩ᝨ [BOOKISH] enchant- …and …; [+ NEGATIVE] neither ment; miwaku teki (na) adj 㨩ᝨⓗ … nor …




PĿ adv ࡶ࠺ already; now: ~ modorimásu, modóru v ᡠࡾࡲࡍ, ᡠ súgu ࡶ࠺ࡍࡄ right away ࡿ goes back, returns, reverts PĿ adj ࡶ࠺ more; (not) … any modoshimásu, modósu v ᡠࡋࡲࡍ, more: ~ hitóri ࡶ࠺୍ே another ᡠࡍ 1. vomits 2. sends back, (one more) person; ~ hitótsu ࡶ࠺ returns ୍ࡘ another, one more, the other moegara n ⇞࠼Ẇ cinder(s) one; ~ ichi-dó/ík-kái ࡶ࠺୍ᗘ moemásu, moeru v ⇞࠼ࡲࡍ, ⇞࠼ ୍ᅇ one more time, again; ~ ࡿ (fire) burns sukóshi ࡶ࠺ᑡࡋ (a bit) more PĿIX n ẟᕸ blanket mochi n 㣰 rice cake PĿIXNX n ႙᭹ mourning dress mochi-agemásu, mochi-agéru v ᣢࡕ mogi n ᶍᨃ imitation; mogi-shiken ୖࡆࡲࡍ, ᣢࡕୖࡆࡿ lifts n ᶍᨃヨ㦂 trial test, mock mochi-awase n ᣢࡕྜࢃࡏ what is examination mogura n ࣔࢢ࣭ࣛᅵ❳ a mole on hand (in stock) mochi-awasemásu, mochi-awaséru v (rodent) ᣢࡕྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, ᣢࡕྜࢃࡏࡿ mogurí n ₯ࡾ diving; a diver mogurimásu, mogúru v ₯ࡾࡲࡍ, ₯ has on hand (in stock) mochiba n ᣢࡕሙ one’s post of ࡿ dives (under); gets into (bed);


goes under(ground)

mochi-gome n ࡶࡕ⡿ glutinous rice mochiimásu, mochiíru v ⏝࠸ࡲࡍ, ⏝࠸ࡿ uses mochimásu, mótsu v ᣢࡕࡲࡍ, ᣢࡘ

mohan n ᶍ⠊ model, pattern, example (= mihon ぢᮏ, tehon ᡭᮏ: ~ o shimeshimásu ᶍ⠊ࢆ ♧ࡋࡲࡍ gives an example; mohan-sei n ᶍ⠊⏕ model student; has, holds, carries; it lasts mochí-mono n ᣢࡕ≀ 1. belongings mohan-kaitĿ n ᶍ⠊ゎ⟅ model 2. what to bring: “~: hikki yøgu” answers ࠕᣢࡕ≀ ➹グ⏝ලࠖ“what to mohaya adv ࡶࡣࡸ [ NEGATIVE

bring: writing instrument”

verb] no longer

mochí-nushi n ᣢࡕ୺ owner móji n ᩥᏐ letter, character, mochíron adv ࡶࡕࢁࢇ of course, writing: ø-~ ኱ᩥᏐ capital letter, certainly upper-case letter: ko-~ ᑠᩥᏐ PĿFKĿ n ┣⭠ appendix; PĿFKĿ -en) lower-case letter; PRMLGĿUL adv ᩥ Ꮠ࡝࠾ࡾ literally n ┣⭠ ⅖ appendicitis PĿFKŗ n ႙୰ mourning period PĿMtQ n ┣ே blind person modemu n ࣔࢹ࣒ modem PĿNDULPiVu, PĿNiUX v ඈ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ, moderu n ࣔࢹࣝ model ඈ࠿ࡿ is profitable, it makes PĿGĿNHQ n ┣ᑟ≟ seeing-eye dog money



mokei n ᶍᆺ model, mold (= moderu ࣔࢹࣝ); mokei-hikĿki n ᶍ ᆺ㣕⾜ᶵ model airplane; mokeijidĿsha n ᶍᆺ⮬ື㌴ model car mĿNHPiVu, PĿNpUX v ඈࡅࡲࡍ, ඈ ࡅࡿ makes money, profits PĿNHPiVu, PĿNpUX v タࡅࡲࡍ, タ ࡅࡿ prepares, sets up 0ĿNR n ⵚྂ Mongolia (= mongoru ࣔࣥࢦࣝ): Møko-jin ⵚྂே a

… món …

mokuWĿ n 㯲⚏ silent prayer: giseisha ni ippun-kan/sanpun-kan no ~ o sasagemásu ≛≅⪅࡟ศ 㛫3ศ㛫ࡢ㯲⚏ࢆᤝࡆࡲࡍ offers

a one-minute/three-minutes silent prayer for the victims 0RNX\Ŀ EL n ᮌ᭙ ᪥ Thursday mokuyoku n ἃᾎ bathing, washing oneself (to clean) mokuzai n ᮌᮦ wood mokuzen (no) adj ┠๓ ࡢ immeMongolian mokugeki n ┠ᧁ witness; mokugeki- diate: ~ no rieki ┠๓ࡢ฼┈ sha n ┠ᧁ⪅ a witness, an eyeimmediate advantage mome-goto n ᥣࡵ஦ discord, tiff, witness mokuhan (-ga) n ᮌ∧ ⏬ woodtrouble: o okoshimásu ᥣࡵ஦ࢆ ㉳ࡇࡋࡲࡍ causes troubles block print mokuK\Ŀ n ┠ᶆ target, goal: ~ o/wa momemásu, momeru v ᥣࡵࡲࡍ, ᥣ takaku mote! ┠ᶆࢆࡣ㧗ࡃᣢ ࡵࡿ 1. is in discord/trouble: ki ga ~ Ẽࡀᥣࡵࡲࡍ feels uneasy/ ࡚ Shoot for the moon! mokuji n ┠ḟ (table of) contents troubled 2. can massage (rub mokuroku n ┠㘓 catalog, list, table, with both hands) momen n ᮌ⥥ cotton inventory Mokusei n ᮌᫍ Jupiter momi n ࡶࡳ࣭⢄ unhulled rice mokuVĿ n 㯲᝿ meditation mómi n ࣑ࣔ fir mokután n ᮌⅣ charcoal mómiji n ࣑ࣔࢪ࣭⣚ⴥ 1. maple mokuteki n ┠ⓗ aim, objective, 2. autumn leaves purpose, end, goal (= nerai ≺࠸, momimásu, momu v ᥣࡳࡲࡍ, ᥣࡴ mato ⓗ, mokuhyø ┠ᶆ): ~ no massages, rubs with both hands tame ni (wa) shudan o erabima- momo n ࣭ࣔࣔ᱈ peach sen ┠ⓗࡢࡓࡵ࡟ ࡣ ᡭẁࢆ㑅 mómo n ⫤ thigh ࡧࡲࡏࢇ uses any trick to momohiki n ⫤ᘬࡁ longjohns; achieve one’s ends; mokutekí-chi drawers (= zubón-shita ࢬ࣎ࣥୗ) n ┠ⓗᆅ destination, goal: ~ ni momo-iro (no) adj ᱈Ⰽ ࡢ pink, (tadori-)tsukimásu ┠ⓗᆅ࡟㎺ࡾ rosy: ~ hada ᱈Ⰽࡢ⫙ pink skin ╔ࡁࡲࡍ arrives at one’s … món … interj ࡶࢇ (mostly fedestination; mokuteki-go n ┠ⓗㄒ male; informal, baby talk) (grammar) object because (= … monó… ࡶࡢ): 175



(baby talk or female) datte sø da món desu …ࡋࡓࡶࡢࡶࢇ࡛ࡍ ~ (monó) ࡔࡗ࡚ࡑ࠺ࡔࡶࢇ ࡶࡢ used to do món n ⣠ family crest monó n ⪅ person, fellow [BOOKISH] món n 㛛 gate; món-ban/mon-ei n 㛛 (= hito ே) ␒㛛⾨ gatekeeper, watchman, monogátari n ≀ㄒ tale, legend monógoto n ≀஦ things, everything guard, porter; mon-gen n 㛛㝈 monohoshiVĿ (na/ni) adj, adv ≀ḧ curfew Monbu-Kagaku-daijin n ᩥ㒊⛉Ꮫ኱⮧ ࡋࡑ࠺ ࡞࡟ wistful(ly) Minister of Education, Culture, monomane n ࡶࡢࡲࡡ࣭≀┿ఝ Sports, Science and Technology mimic(ry), impersonation 0RQE~.DJDNXVKĿ n ᩥ㒊⛉Ꮫ┬ mono-óboe n ≀ぬ࠼ memory: ~ ga Ministry of Education, Culture, ii ≀ぬ࠼ࡀ࠸࠸ is quick to learn Sports, Science and Technology (= nomikomi ga hayai ࡢࡳ㎸ࡳ ࡀ᪩࠸): ~ ga warui ≀ぬ࠼ࡀᝏ (MEXT) mondai n ၥ㢟 1. question, topic, ࠸ is slow to learn mono-óki n ≀⨨ࡁ shed (storesubject, exercise: ~ ni naránai ၥ㢟࡟࡞ࡽ࡞࠸ unimportant house) 2. problem, issue, trouble (= PRQRUďUX n ࣔࣀ࣮ࣞࣝ monorail toraburu ࢺࣛࣈࣝ) PRQRUĿJX n ࣔࣀ࣮ࣟࢢ soliloquy, mongái-kan n 㛛እ₎ outsider, monologue (= dokuhaku ⊂ⓑ) nonspecialist, layman: keizai (ni monosashi n ≀ᕪࡋ ruler (foot kanshite) wa ~ desu ⤒῭ ࡟㛵ࡋ rule); measure; criterion ࡚ ࡣ㛛እ₎࡛ࡍ is a layman in mono-sugói adj ≀෶࠸ terrible, economics awesome Mongoru n ࣔࣥࢦࣝ Mongolia mono-súgóku adv ≀෶ࡃ terribly, (= møko ⵚྂ); Mongoru-jin n ࣔࣥ extremely ࢦࣝே a Mongolian; Mongoru-go n monózukí (na) adj ≀ዲࡁ ࡞ ࣔࣥࢦࣝㄒ Mongolian (language) curious, inquisitive mónku n ᩥྃ 1. phrase: utai-~ ㅻ PRQVKĿ n ⣠❶ family crest ࠸ᩥྃ a motto, catchphrase, moppara adv ᑓࡽ principally, slogan: odoshi-~ ⬣ࡋᩥྃ chiefly threatening words 2. complaint: móppu n ࣔࢵࣉ mop ~ no tsukeyø ga arimasen ᩥྃࡢ moraimásu, morau v ࡶࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ, ࡶ ࡘࡅࡼ࠺ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ is perfect ࡽ࠺ receives, gets; has someone monó n ≀ thing, object, article, do it PĿUD shimásu (suru) v ⥙⨶ࡋࡲࡍ something, stuff …mono suffix ࡶࡢ … shita ~/ ࡍࡿ includes, comprises, 176


motasemásu, motaséru

covers (all): ~ shita … ⥙⨶ࡋ moshi-ka-shitara adv ࡶࡋ࠿ࡋࡓࡽ, ࡓ… exhaustive, complete moshi-ka-suru to ࡶࡋ࠿ࡍࡿ࡜ morashimásu, morásu v ₃ࡽࡋࡲࡍ, perhaps ₃ࡽࡍ lets leak; reveals PĿshi-komi n ⏦ࡋ㎸ࡳ application; moremásu, moréru v ₃ࢀࡲࡍ, ₃ࢀ reservation, subscription; proࡿ leaks out; is omitted; it leaks posal, offer mori n ᳃ woods, forest PĿVKLNRPLPiVu, PĿVKLNyPX v ⏦ࡋ morimásu, moru v ┒ࡾࡲࡍ, ┒ࡿ ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ, ⏦ࡋ㎸ࡴ applies; heaps/piles it up reserves, subscribes; proposes, morimásu, móru v ₃ࡾࡲࡍ, ₃ࡿ offers PĿVKikomí-sha n ⏦ࡋ㎸ࡳ⪅࣭⏦ it leaks morói adj ࡶࢁ࠸࣭⬤࠸ brittle, ㎸⪅ applicant PĿVKLPiVu, PĿVX v ⏦ࡋࡲࡍ, ⏦ࡍ frail morote n ࡶࢁ࡚࣭ㅖᡭ both [HUMBLE] 1. I say (= møshi-agehands: ~ o agete sansei shimásu másu ⏦ࡋୖࡆࡲࡍ) 2. I humbly ㅖᡭࢆᣲࡆ࡚㈶ᡂࡋࡲࡍ totally do (= itashimásu ⮴ࡋࡲࡍ) móshi-moshi! interj ࡶࡋࡶࡋ! agrees morotomo n ࡶࢁ࡜ࡶ together hello! hey! say there! (on the [BOOKISH]: shinaba ~ Ṛ࡞ࡤࡶࢁ phone) ࡜ࡶ go to the grave together PĿVKLWDWH n ⏦ࡋ❧࡚ statement, PĿUX n ࣮ࣔࣝ braid testimony, allegation moruhine n ࣔࣝࣄࢿ morphine PĿVKLZDNH n ⏦ࡋヂ excuse: móshi (… shitára) conj ࡶࡋ …ࡋ [FORMAL] ~ arimasén/gozaimasén ࡓࡽ if, perchance ⏦ࡋヂ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡏࢇ PĿVKLDJHPiVu, PĿVKLDJpUX v ⏦ࡋ I am very sorry. ୖࡆࡲࡍ, ⏦ࡋୖࡆࡿ [HUMBLE] PĿVKRQ n ࣮ࣔࢩࣙࣥ motion; I say sexual overture, pass: … ni ~ o PĿVKLGH n ⏦ࡋฟ proposal, offer; kakemásu …࡟࣮ࣔࢩࣙࣥࢆ࠿ ࡅࡲࡍ makes a pass at, makes report, application, claim PĿVKLGHPiVu, PĿVKLGpUX v ⏦ࡋฟ eyes at ࡲࡍ, ⏦ࡋฟࡿ proposes, offers; Mosukuwa n ࣔࢫࢡ࣡ Moscow PĿWă n ࣮ࣔࢱ࣮ motor; PĿWăEĿWR reports, applies for, claims PĿVKLLUH n ⏦ࡋධࢀ (public) n ࣮ࣔࢱ࣮࣮࣎ࢺ motorboat motaremásu, motaréru v ࡶࡓࢀࡲࡍ, proposal, offering PĿVKLLUHPiVu, PĿVKLLUpUX v ⏦ࡋධ ࡶࡓࢀࡿ: ( … ni) ~ …࡟ ࡶࡓ ࢀࡲࡍ, ⏦ࡋධࢀࡿ (publicly) ࢀࡲࡍ leans (against …) motasemásu, motaséru v ᣢࡓࡏࡲࡍ, proposes, offers 177

motemásu, motéru


ᣢࡓࡏࡿ lets one have, provides complicated: shitá ga ~ ⯉ࡀࡶࡘ ࢀࡲࡍ lisps (one with), gives motemásu, motéru v ᣢ࡚ࡲࡍ, ᣢ࡚ mottai-nái adj ࡶࡗࡓ࠸࡞࠸ ࡿ 1. is popular, well-liked 1. undeserving 2. wasteful 2. can hold motte ikimásu (iku) v ᣢࡗ࡚⾜ࡁࡲ motenashi n ࡶ࡚࡞ࡋ hospitality ࡍ ⾜ࡃ takes, carries; brings PĿWHUX n ࣮ࣔࢸࣝ motel (to you, there) motó n ඖ࣭ᮏ origin, source; mótte imásu (iru) v ᣢࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ ࠸ࡿ has, holds, owns, possesses cause (of an effect) motó n ୗ (at the) foot (of), under motte itte v ᣢࡗ࡚⾜ࡗ࡚ taking …-moto suffix …ඖ the source of it: ~ kudasái ᣢࡗ࡚⾜ࡗ࡚ୗࡉ ࠸ please take it with you an activity: shuppan-~ ฟ∧ඖ the publisher(s); hanbai-~ ㈍኎ motte kimásu (kúru) v ᣢࡗ࡚᮶ࡲࡍ ඖ sales agency ᮶ࡿ brings (to me, here) móto (no) adj ඖ ࡢ former, motte-kói (no) adj ࡶࡗ࡚ࡇ࠸ ࡢ earlier, original: móto kara ඖ࠿ most desirable, ideal; just the ࡽ from the beginning, always, thing/ticket mótto adv ࡶࡗ࡜ more, still more; all along motomemásu, motoméru v ồࡵࡲࡍ, longer, further: ~ íi ࡶࡗ࡜࠸࠸ ồࡵࡿ 1. wants, looks for better; ~ warúi ࡶࡗ࡜ᝏ࠸ worse; 2. asks for, demands 3. buys, gets ~ takusán ࡶࡗ࡜ࡓࡃࡉࢇ lots motomoto adv ඖࠎ from the start, more; ~ saki (ni) ࡶࡗ࡜ඛ ࡟ originally; by nature, naturally: further …-témo ~ désu … ࡚ࡶඖࠎ࡛ࡍ móttomo adv, conj ࡶࡗ࡜ࡶ 1. is no worse off even if …, it will indeed, of course 2. but, however, to be sure do no harm to … móto wa adv ඖࡣ originally; móttómo adv ᭱ࡶ most; exceedingly móya n ࡶࡸ࣭㟭 mist, haze earlier, before mótó-yori adv ࡶ࡜ࡼࡾ from the moyashi n ࣔࣖࢩ bean sprouts PR\Ŀ n ᶍᵝ pattern, design beginning; by nature motozukimásu, motozúku v ᇶ࡙ࡁ PR\ĿVKLPiVu, PR\ĿVX v ദࡋࡲࡍ, ࡲࡍ, ᇶ࡙ࡃ is based on; conദࡍ holds/gives (an event); feels mozaiku n ࣔࢨ࢖ࢡ mosaic forms to motsuré n ࡶࡘࢀ tangle, entangle- PR]Ŀ n ᶍ㐀 imitation; PR]ĿKLQ n ᶍ㐀ရ imitation products ment; complications motsuremásu, motsureru v ࡶࡘࢀ mu... prefix ↓ un-, without…, ࡲࡍ, ࡶࡘࢀࡿ gets entangled/ …less; PXEĿ (na) adj ↓ㅛ ࡞ 178



reckless; mu-chákuriku (no) adj múchi n 㠴 a whip ↓╔㝣 ࡢ non-stop (flight); mú- muchŗ n ክ୰ trance, ecstasy: … cha (na) adj ↓Ⲕ ࡞ unreasonable; ni ~ ni narimásu …࡟ክ୰࡟࡞ reckless; disorderly; mú-chi n ↓ ࡾࡲࡍ gets entranced with ▱ ignorance; mu-dan (de) adj ↓ (engrossed in) … ᩿ ࡛ without notice, without muda-bánashi n ↓㥏ヰ idle talk, permission; mu-ími (na) adj ↓ព hot air, bull ࿡ ࡞ meaningless; mu-íshiki (no/na) muda (na) adj ↓㥏 ࡞ futile, no adj ↓ព㆑ ࡢ࡞ unconscious, good, wasteful; useless: mudaashi ↓㥏㊊ fool’s errand involuntary; PXMĿNHQ (no) adj ↓ ᮲௳ ࡢ unconditional: ~ no ai muda-zúkai n ↓㥏౑࠸ extrava↓᮲௳ࡢឡ unconditional love; gance, waste PXMĿ (na) adj ↓᝟ ࡞ heartless, múgi n 㯏 wheat, barley unfeeling; mu-kánkaku (na) adj ↓ mugi-wara n 㯏ࢃࡽ straw ឤぬ ࡞ numb; mu-kánkei (no/na) mugói adj ࡴࡈ࠸ cruel, brutal muika n භ᪥ six days; the 6th day adj ↓㛵ಀ ࡢ࡞ : … to mukánkei …࡜↓㛵ಀ ࡢ࡞ (of month): ~-mé භ᪥┠ the 6th unrelated (unconnected, irrelevant) day to …; mu-kLGĿ (no) adj ↓㌶㐨 ࡢ mujun n ▩┪ inconsistency, reckless, trackless; mu-kigen (no/ni) contradiction adj, adv ↓ᮇ㝈 ࡢ࡟ indefi- mukade n ࣒࢝ࢹ࣭ⓒ㊊ centipede nite(ly); mu-kimei (no) adj ↓グྡ mukae ㏄࠼ n a welcome ࡢ unsigned, unregistered; PXNĿ mukaemásu, mukaeru v ㏄࠼ࡲࡍ, (no/na) adj ↓ຠ ࡢ࡞ invalid ㏄࠼ࡿ meets; welcomes; invites mukai-kaze n ྥ࠿࠸㢼 headwind (not valid), null; mu-sékinin (na) mukaimásu, mukau v ྥ࠿࠸ࡲࡍ, adj ↓㈐௵ ࡞ irresponsible; mu-shoku (no) adj ↓Ⰽ ࡢ colorྥ࠿࠺: … ni ~ …࡟ྥ࠿࠸ࡲࡍ less(ness); mu-teki n ↓ᩛ invinopposes; heads for múkamuka shimásu v ࡴ࠿ࡴ࠿>࣒ cibility, too strong to have as ࣒࢝࢝@ࡋࡲࡍ is queasy, feels rival: tenka-~ ኳୗ↓ᩛ having no rival in the world; mu-tón-chaku/- nauseated jaku (na) adj ↓㡻╔↓⮬ぬ ࡞ mukashi n ᫇ long (time) ago; careless; P~\Ŀ (no) adj ↓⏝ ࡢ ancient days; mukashi no adj ᫇ࡢ unnecessary; useless; having no ancient, old(-en); mukashi-bánashi business; mú-zai (no) adj ↓⨥ ࡢ n ᫇ヰ legend; folk tale; mukashi kará no adj ᫇࠿ࡽࡢ old (from innocent, not guilty; mu]ĿVD (na) adj ↓㐀స ࡞ effortless, easy way back) 179


mukemásu, mukeru

mukemásu, mukeru v ྥࡅࡲࡍ, ྥ together ࡅࡿ turns (one’s face/eyes/ murásaki n 1. murásaki (no) ⣸ ࡢ attention to), directs/points it (at) purple 2. ⣸ soy sauce …-muke (no) suffix, adj …ྥࡅ ࡢ muré n ⩌ࢀ group, throng, flock (bound/intended) for …: kazoku-~ múri 1. n ↓⌮ strain, (undue) (no) ᐙ᪘ྥࡅ ࡢ for family force: ~ (o) shimásu ↓⌮ ࢆ ࡋ mukimásu, muku v ྥࡁࡲࡍ, ྥࡃ ࡲࡍ overdoes, overworks, forces faces oneself 2. ~ na ↓⌮࡞ unreasonmukimásu, muku v ๤ࡁࡲࡍ,๤ࡃ able, forced; violent; overdoing; (… no kawá o ~ … ࡢ⓶ࢆ๤ࡁࡲ (over-)demanding; muri mo arimasen (nai) v ↓⌮ࡶ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ ࡞࠸ ࡍ) skins, pares, peels …-muki (no) suffix, adj …ྥࡁ ࡢ no wonder; múri wa nái adj ↓⌮ ࡣ࡞࠸ it is no wonder that…; facing; (suitable) for … múko n ፵ son-in-law; bridegroom muriyari adv ↓⌮▮⌮ forcibly mukĿ prep, adv ྥࡇ࠺ 1. beyond; muryĿ (no) adj ↓ᩱ ࡢ free of across the way, over there: ~ no charge: ~-chü´shajø ↓ᩱ㥔㌴ሙ ྥࡇ࠺ࡢ opposite, facing 2. A free parking mukĿJDZD n ྥࡇ࠺ഃ the other musen n ↓⥺ radio; wireless; musen-ran n ↓⥺ LAN wireless side/party, the opposite side; PXNĿPL]X (na) adj ྥࡇ࠺ぢࡎ LAN, Wi-Fi (computer) ࡞ reckless, rash mushi n ࣒ࢩ࣭⹸ insect, bug; moth; mukuimásu, mukuíru v ሗ࠸ࡲࡍ, worm: ~ no iki ⹸ࡢᜥ breathing ሗ࠸ࡿ [BOOKISH] repays; comfaintly, being at death’s door; mushi-megane n ⹸║㙾 magnifying pensates mumei (no) adj ↓ྡ ࡢ nameless, glass; mushi-yoke n ⹸ࡼࡅ insect

anonymous; obscure munashii adj ✵ࡋ࠸࣭⹫ࡋ࠸

empty; futile, in vain

repellent; mothballs mushi n ↓ど neglect, ignorance mushi-atsúi adj ⵨ࡋᬬ࠸ muggy,

muné n ⬚ 1. chest, breast 2. heart, close, sultry, humid mushi-ba n ⹸ṑ decayed tooth mind muné n ᪨ gist, intent, effect mushimásu, músu v ⵨ࡋࡲࡍ, ⵨ࡍ muné n Ჷ ridge (of roof) steams it; is sultry, humid murá n ᮧ village: ~-bito, ~ no hito mushí-mono n ⵨ࡋ≀ steamed foods ᮧே, ᮧࡢே village people: ~ múshiro adv ࡴࡋࢁ rather; preferhachibu ᮧඵศ ostracism ably muragarimásu, muragáru v ⩌ࡀࡾࡲmúshi shimásu (suru) v ↓どࡋࡲࡍ ࡍ, ⩌ࡀࡿ they flock/throng ࡍࡿ ignores, neglects, disregards




musĿ n ክ᝿ dream, imagination; itchy, crawly, creepy PXVĿNDn ክ᝿ᐙ dreamer myakú n ⬦: myakuhaku ⬦ᢿ musubi n ࡴࡍࡧ riceball pulse: ~ o hakarimásu ⬦ࢆィࡾ musubimásu, musubu v ⤖ࡧࡲࡍ, ࡲࡍ checks one’s pulse (rate) ⤖ࡪ ties, ties up: nékutai o ~ ࢿ P\Ŀ« prefix ᫂ tomorrow…; P\ĿEDQ n, adv ᫂ᬌ [BOOKISH] ࢡࢱ࢖ࢆ⤖ࡧࡲࡍ wears a tie musuko n ᜥᏊ son: ~-san ᜥᏊࡉ tomorrow night; P\ĿFKĿ n, adv ࢇ (your/someone else’s) son ᫂ᮅ [BOOKISH] tomorrow musume n ፉ daughter; girl: ~-san morning; P\ĿJyQLFKL n, adv ᫂ᚋ ፉࡉࢇ (your/someone else’s) ᪥ [BOOKISH] day after tomorrow daughter, lady (= asatte ࠶ࡉࡗ࡚࣭᫂ᚋ᪥); musŗ´ (no) adj ↓ᩘ ࡢ countless, P\ĿQLFKL n, adv ᫂᪥ tomorrow innumerable (= ashita, asu ᫂᪥) mutsu n ࣒ࢶ big eye fish P\ĿJD n ࣑࣭ࣙ࢘࢞ⱾⲴ Japanese mutsukashii, muzukashii adj 㞴ࡋ࠸ ginger (buds) P\ĿMLPL\RML n ྡᏐ࣭ⱑᏐ family hard, difficult muttsú n භࡘ࣭6ࡘ six (= rok-ko 6 name [as written] (= sei ጣ) ಶ); six years old (= roku-sai භṓ) P\Ŀ QD adj ጁ ࡞ strange, queer, múyami (ni) adv ↓㜌 ࡟ recklessly; wondrous indiscriminately; immoderately myŗjikaru n ࣑࣮ࣗࢪ࢝ࣝ musical múzumuzu suru adj ࡴࡎࡴࡎࡍࡿ (show)

N n´ (“un”) n ࢇ ࠺ࢇ uh-huh, yeah ྡࡢ࠶ࡿ famous; na no tĿtta adj [INFORMAL] (= hai ࡣ࠸ [FORMAL]) ྡࡢ㏻ࡗࡓ well-known; na o nq´ (“ŗn”) n ࢇ࣮ ࠺࣮ࢇ hmm, nokoshimásu (nokosu) v ྡࢆṧࡋࡲ ࡍ, ṧࡍ earns one’s place; na wa well, let’s see …´n … suffix …ࢇ… = …´no … tai o arawasu ྡࡣయࢆ⾲ࡍ please …ࡢ…: …´n desu (da) …ࢇ࡛ࡍ show your name ࡔ it’s that … ná n ⳯ greens, vegetables na n ྡ name (= namae ྡ๓); … na! interj …࡞! Don’t … ! na bakari (no) adj ྡࡤ࠿ࡾ ࡢ … ná/nă´ interj …࡞࡞࠶ (usunominal; na-dakái adj ྡ㧗࠸ ally male) = … né/në´ …ࡡࡡ࠼ famous; na-fuda n ྡᮐ name (female) isn’t it, don’t you think/ plate/tag; dog tag; na no aru adj agree



nábe n 㘠 1. pan, pot 2. food


nagaremásu, nagaréru v ὶࢀࡲࡍ, ὶࢀࡿ flows cooked and served in a pan nadamemásu, nadaméru v ᐋࡵࡲࡍ, nágasa n 㛗ࡉ length ᐋࡵࡿ soothes, pacifies Nagásaki n 㛗ᓮ Nagasaki; ~-shi nadare n 㞷ᔂ avalanche; snowslide 㛗ᓮᕷ Nagasaki City nademásu, nadéru v ᧙࡛ࡲࡍ, ᧙࡛ nagashí n ὶࡋ kitchen sink nagashimásu, nagásu v ὶࡋࡲࡍ, ࡿ strokes, smooths, pats, pets … nádo suffix …࡞࡝࣭➼ and so ὶࡍ lets it flow, washes away forth/on, and what-not, and the like naga(t)tarashii n 㛗 ࡗ ࡓࡽࡋ࠸ náe n ⱑ seedling: ~-doko ⱑᗋ [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] lengthy, tediseedbed ous: ~ enzetsu 㛗ࡓࡽࡋ࠸₇ㄝ naemásu, naéru v ⴎ࠼ࡲࡍ, ⴎ࠼ࡿ lengthy speech naga-ya n 㛗ᒇ tenement house droops, withers naemásu, naéru v ࡞࠼ࡲࡍ, ࡞࠼ࡿ nage-ire v ᢞࡆධࢀ a flower can twist it (into a rope) arrangement (in a tall vase) nafutarin n ࢼࣇࢱࣜࣥ mothballs nagekimásu, nagéku v Ⴣࡁࡲࡍ, Ⴣ naga-… prefix 㛗 long; nagaࡃ grieves, weeps, moans, laments FKĿba n 㛗୎ሙ [BOOKISH] time- nagemásu, nagéru v ᢞࡆࡲࡍ, ᢞࡆ ࡿ throws consuming: ~-chøba no shigoto 㛗୎ሙࡢ௙஦ time-consuming nage-nawa n ᢞࡆ⦖ lasso nagisa n ࡞ࡂࡉ࣭῵ water’s edge, work; naga-gutsu n 㛗㠐 boots; naga-iki n 㛗⏕ࡁ longevity, long beach, shore life; naga-sode n 㛗⿇ long sleeves, nagori n ྡṧ traces, remains, long-sleeved garment; naga-yu n remnant 㛗‫ ‮‬a long bath nagurimásu, nagúru v Ẁࡾࡲࡍ, Ẁ nagái adj 㛗࠸ long ࡿ knocks, beats, strikes nagaku adv 㛗ࡃ long nagusame n ៘ࡵ comfort, consonagamé n ═ࡵ view, scenery lation nagamemásu, nagaméru v ═ࡵࡲࡍ, nagusamemásu, nagusaméru v ៘ࡵ ═ࡵࡿ gazes/stares at, views ࡲࡍ, ៘ࡵࡿ comforts, consoles … (-)nágara suffix, adv …࡞ࡀࡽ nagusami n ៘ࡳ amusement, while (during/although) entertainment nagaré n ὶࢀ a stream, a flow; nái v ࡞࠸ = arimasén ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ QDJDUHVDJ\Ŀ n ὶࢀసᴗ assembly (there is no …, lacks, has no …) nai-… prefix ෆ within, in(-side), line; nagare-zu n ὶࢀᅗ flow chart inner, internal; nái-bu (no) adj ෆ nagaré-boshi n ὶࢀᫍ shooting star 㒊 ࡢ internal; naibu-kokuhatsu n 182


ෆ㒊࿌Ⓨ exposing from within, whistle-blowing; nái-chi n ෆᆅ inside the country; nai-en (no) adj ෆ⦕ ࡢ common-law: ~ no otto/tsuma ෆ⦕ࡢኵጔ common-law husband/wife; nai-fuku n ෆ᭹ taking medicine orally; QDLMĿ n ෆ᝟ internal affairs; nai-ju n ෆ㟂 domestic demand; nai-ka n ෆ⛉ internal medicine; nai-mitsu (no) adj ෆᐦ ࡢ confidential, secret, private [FORMAL]: ~ (no) jøhø ෆᐦ ࡢ ᝟ሗ confidential information; nai-ran n ෆ஘ civil strife; nai-riku n ෆ㝣 inland; naishin n ෆᚰ { (one’s) thoughts in mind: ~ kowai ෆᚰᛧ࠸ is scared deep down | inner center (not outer center); nai-shin n ෆデ {


mately: senen-~ ༓෇ෆእ approximately 1,000 yen Naijeria n ࢼ࢖ࢪ࢙ࣜ࢔ Nigeria; Naijeria-jin n ࢼ࢖ࢪ࢙ࣜ࢔ே a Nigerian naiji n ෆ♧ unofficial announcement (in office) náikaku n ෆ㛶 a government cabinet: ~-søridaijin ෆ㛶⥲⌮኱ ⮧ prime minister naimásu, náu v ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ, ࡞࠺ twists (into a rope) náiron n ࢼ࢖ࣟࣥ nylon … náishi … conj …࡞࠸ࡋ… [BOOKISH] 1. and/or (= mátáwa ࡲࡓࡣ࣭ཪࡣ 2. from … to … = …kara…máde …࠿ࡽ…ࡲ࡛ naishó (no) adj ෆ⥴࣭ෆド ࡢ confidential, secret, private internal examination (gynecol[INFORMAL]: ~ no hanashí ෆ⥴> ෆド@ࡢヰ, ~-bánashi ෆ⥴>ෆド@ ogy) | medical examination by a doctor at home; nai-shukketsu ヰ a private talk QiLWă n ࢼ࢖ࢱ࣮ night game (of n ෆฟ⾑ internal bleeding; nai-tei n ෆഄ [BOOKISH] secret baseball) investigation; nai-teki (na) adj ෆ naitei n ෆᐃ unofficial decision, ⓗ ࡞ internal; naL]Ŀ n ෆ⮚ informal appointment, unofficial internal organs job offer …´-nai suffix …ෆ within, in(side) QDL\Ŀ n ෆᐜ contents (A kanai ᐙෆ, kokúnai (no) ᅜෆ náka n, prep ୰ inside; … no ~ de/ ni …ࡢ୰࡛࡟ in …; naka-darumi ࡢ , NĿQDL ᵓෆ) …-náide suffix, adv …࡞࠸࡛ not n ୰ࡔࡿࡳ slump; naká-mi n ୰ [do] but instead, without [do]ing ㌟࣭୰࿡ contents; naka-niwa n ୰ᗞ courtyard; naka-yubi n ୰ᣦ A shináide ࡋ࡞࠸࡛ náifu n ࢼ࢖ࣇ knife middle finger náigai n ෆእ 1. inside and out náka n ௰ relations, terms (between 2. home and abroad people); (… to) ~ ga íi …࡜ ௰ …-náigai suffix …ෆእ approxiࡀ࠸࠸ is on good terms (with 183



…); ~ tagai ௰㐪࠸ discord; naka- n Ἵࡁኌ cry, sob (of person); dachí n ௰❧ࡕ go-between, inter- naki-goto n Ἵࡁゝ complaining mediary; naká-gai n ௰㈙ broker; nakimásu, naku v 㬆ࡁࡲࡍ, 㬆ࡃ naka-má n ௰㛫 friend, pal, com- makes an animal sound; naki-goe panion n 㬆ࡁኌ chirp, song, chirping nakabá n ༙ࡤ middle: kokorozashi- (of animals, birds, insects, etc) ~ de ᚿ༙ࡤ࡛ without fulfilling QDNĿGR n ௰ே go-between (matcone’s ambition


nakanaka adv ࡞࠿࡞࠿ extremely, náku v ࡞ࡃ so that there isn’t any

very (long, hard, bad, etc.), (we don’t have any); there not more than one might expect being; without nákattara v ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡽ if/when …-naku (narimásu) suffix, v …࡞ࡃ there isn’t/we don’t; unless there ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ (gets) so that one doesn’t do (= …-nai yø´ni (nariis (we have) …-nákattara suffix, v …࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡽ másu)…࡞࠸ࡼ࠺࡟ ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ ) if/when one doesn’t; unless one naku-narimásu, naku-naru v ஸࡃ࡞ ࡾࡲࡍ, ஸࡃ࡞ࡿ dies; gets lost does nákattari v ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࡾ sometimes/ naku-narimásu, naku-naru v ࡞ࡃ࡞ࡾ alternately there isn’t (we don’t ࡲࡍ, ࡞ࡃ࡞ࡿ vanishes (from existence) have) …-nákattari (shimásu) suffix, v …࡞ nakushimásu, nakusu v ࡞ࡃࡋࡲࡍ, ࡞ࡃࡍ loses ࠿ࡗࡓࡾ ࡋࡲࡍ sometimes/ …-nákute mo suffix, v …࡞ࡃ࡚ࡶ alternately does not do nakemásu, nakeru v Ἵࡅࡲࡍ, Ἵࡅ even not doing, even if one does ࡿ can cry not do; shinákute mo íi ࡋ࡞ࡃ࡚ náki … prefix, adj ࡞ࡁ… [LITERARY] ࡶ࠸࠸ need not do …-nákute wa suffix, v …࡞ࡃ࡚ࡣ = nái … ࡞࠸… (lacking, nonexistent) not doing, if one does not do; náki … prefix, adj ஸࡁ… [LITERARY] shinákute wa ikemasén ࡋ࡞ࡃ࡚ = nái … ࡞࠸… (deceased): íma ࡣ࠸ࡅࡲࡏࢇ must (ought to) do wa ~ … ௒ࡣஸࡁ… the late náma adj, n ⏕ 1. ~ (no/de) ⏕ ࡢ࡛ raw, uncooked, fresh …: ~ sofu ஸࡁ♽∗ one’s dead 2. (= ~-bíiru ⏕ࣅ࣮ࣝ) draft grandfather; naki-gara n ஸ㧁 [BOOKISH] corpse beer; QDPDFKŗNHL n ⏕୰⥅ live nakimásu, naku v Ἵࡁࡲࡍ, Ἵࡃ coverage; nama-gomi n ⏕ࡈࡳ weeps; cries; naki-dokoro n Ἵࡁ࡝ garbage (kitchen waste); namagusái adj ⏕⮯࠸ fishy(-smelling); ࡇࢁ>ᡤ@ Achilles’ heel; naki-goe 184


nama-henji n ⏕㏉஦ half-hearted reply; QDPDKĿVĿ n ⏕ᨺ㏦ live program, live broadcast; namayake (no) adj ⏕↝ࡅ ࡢ rare


nán n ఱ (before d, t, n) = náni ఱ


nán-… prefix ఱ… how many …: nán [COUNTER ka] (no…) ఱ (little cooked), underdone [COUNTER ࠿] ࡢ… a number namae n ྡ๓ name (= shimei Ặྡ, (of …); nán-ba ఱ⩚ how many seimei ጣྡ) (birds, rabbits); nan-bai ఱಸ how namaiki (na) adj ⏕ពẼ ࡞ many times (doubled); nán-bai ఱ ᮼ how many cupfuls; nán-ban ఱ␒ impertinent namakemásu, namakéru v ᛰࡅࡲࡍ, what number; nán-bén ఱ㐢 how ᛰࡅࡿ idles, is lazy many times; nán-biki ఱ༉ how namake-mono n ᛰࡅ⪅ lazy many (fishes/bugs, small animals); nán-bon ఱᮏ how many (pencils/ (person) namari n ࢼ࣐࣭ࣜ㖄 lead (metal) bottles, long objects); nán-byaku namarí n ࡞ࡲࡾ࣭ケࡾ dialect, ఱⓒ how many hundreds; nándai ఱྎ how many (machines, accent (= høgen ᪉ゝ) namarimásu, namaru v 㕌ࡾࡲࡍ, vehicles); nán-do ఱᗘ how many 㕌ࡿ 1. becomes rusty, gets dull: times; nan-gai/-kai n ఱ㝵㝵 how høchø ga ~ ໟ୎ࡀ㕌ࡾࡲࡍ a many floors/stories; what (number) kitchen knife gets dull 2. befloor; nán-gatsu ఱ᭶ what month; nán-gen ఱ㌺ how many (buildings, comes weak (one’s body part) namazu n ࢼ࣐ࢬ࣭㪗 catfish shops, houses…); nán-ji ఱ᫬ what namemásu, naméru v ࡞ࡵࡲࡍ, ࡞ time; nan-kágetsu ఱ࠿᭶ how many ࡵࡿ licks, tastes months; nán-kai ఱᅇ how many naméraka (na) adj ࡞ࡵࡽ࠿ ࡞ times; nan-kai/-gai ఱ㝵 what floor; nán-ko ఱಶ how many (piece(s); smooth namí n Ἴ wave; nami-norí n Ἴ஌ࡾ small object(s)); nán-mai ఱᯛ surfing how many (flat thing(s)); nán-mán námida n ᾦ tear (in eye): ~-me ᾦ ఱ୓ how many tens of thousands; ┠ teary eyes: ~-moroi ᾦࡶࢁ࠸ nán-nen ఱᖺ what year; how easily moved to tears many years; nán-nichi ఱ᪥ what namiki n ୪ᮌ row of trees: ~-michi day (of the month); how many ୪ᮌ㐨 tree-lined road, tree-lined days; nán-nin ఱே how many street people; nán-paku ఱἩ how many nami (no) adj ୪ ࡢ ordinary, nights; nán-pun ఱศ how many common, average, regular minutes; nán-sai ఱṓ how (many nán n ࢼࣥ bread years) old; nán-satsu ఱ෉ how




many copies (books, magazines); naná-nen n ୐ᖺ the year 7; nanánin n ୐ே A naná-mei; naná-satsu n ୐෉ seven copies (books, magazines); naná-hyaku n ୐ⓒ࣭700 seven hundred; QDQiMŗ n ୐༑࣭ 70 seventy; nana-mán n ୐୓࣭ such as shoes, socks, etc.) nan-… prefix ༡…south (= minami 70,000 seventy thousand; nanasén n ୐༓࣭7,000 seven thouno… ༡ࡢ…); Nan-bei n ༡⡿ = Minami-Ámerika ༡࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ sand; naná-tsu n ୐ࡘ࣭7 ࡘ South America; nán-boku n ༡໭ seven, seven years old (= nanasai ୐ṓ); nanatsu-mé ୐ࡘ┠ north and south; nán-bu n ༡㒊 the south, the southern part; nan- seventh kyoku n ༡ᴟ South Pole; nan-sei nanáme (no/ni) adj, adv ᩳࡵ ࡢ ࡟ aslant, oblique(ly), diagonal(ly) n ༡す southwest; nan-tĿ n ༡ᮾ QiQEă n ࢼࣥࣂ࣮ (car) license southeast nan-… prefix 㞴…difficult, tough; plate nan-gi n 㞴൤ difficulty, suffernán-da-i interj ఱࡔ࠸ what is it (= nán desu ka ఱ࡛ࡍ࠿ ing, trouble [BOOKISH]; nan-ido n 㞴᫆ᗘ difficulty level; nán-ji n nán-de-mo adv ఱ࡛ࡶ whatever it 㞴஦ difficulty; nan-kan n 㞴㛵 may be, anything (at all), everydifficulty, obstacle, challenge; thing nan-min n 㞴Ẹ refugee; nan-zan n … nán desu (da, de) suffix, v …࡞ࢇ ࡛ࡍ ࡔ, ࡛ it’s that it is … 㞴⏘ difficult delivery nan-… prefix ㌾…soft, weak, mild; náni n ఱ what: ~ (ga/o) …-témo ఱ nan-jaku adj ㌾ᙅ [BOOKISH] weak, ࡀࢆ …࡚ࡶ whatever soft, flaccid [IN NEGATIVE SENSE]: náni-… prefix ఱ…what …, which ~ na karada ㌾ᙅ࡞య weak body; …; nani-go ఱㄒ what language; nan-kin n ㌾⚗ [BOOKISH] house nani-iro ఱⰍ what color; naní-jin ఱே what nationality arrest; nan-sui n ㌾Ỉ soft water nanibun adv ఱศ anyway, anyhow (not hard water) nána n ୐࣭7 seven; naná-do n ୐ nanige-nái adj ఱẼ࡞࠸ casual ᗘ { seven degrees | seven náni ka n ఱ࠿ something, anything nani mo adv ఱࡶ [ NEGATIVE] times; naná-hén n ୐㐢 seven times; nana-kai n ୐㝵 seven nothing, (not) anything floors/stories, seventh floor; naná- náninani n ఱࠎ something or othkái n ୐ᅇ seven times; naná-mei er, so-and-so, what’s-it(s-name) n ୐ྡ [BOOKISH] seven people; náni-shiro adv ఱࡋࢁ after all 186 QiQWĿ ఱ㢌 how many (large animals); QDQ\ĿEL ఱ᭙᪥ what day (of the week); nán-zoku/-soku ఱ㊊ how many pairs (of footwear


náni yori adv ఱࡼࡾ than what: ~ mo ఱࡼࡾࡶ more than anything nánji pron Ợ [BOOKISH] thou … nánka suffix …࡞ࢇ࠿ and so

narabimásu, narabu

nán to shitémo adv ఱ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡶ

inevitably; at any cost

náo adv ᑦ still more; moreover: ~ íí ᑦ࠸࠸ still better forth/on, and what-not; the likes naorimásu, naóru v ┤ࡾࡲࡍ, ┤ࡿ


QDQNĿ n ㌾⭯ [BOOKISH] ointment QDQNĿ n 㞴⯟ 1. rough sailing 2. rough passage nan-nára conj ఱ࡞ࡽ if you prefer,

is righted, fixed, repaired, improves naorimásu, naóru v ἞ࡾࡲࡍ, ἞ࡿ

is cured, gets well, recovers, improves nao-sara adv ᑦ᭦ all the more, still more naoshí v ┤ࡋ mending, repair(ing), correcting, correction naoshimásu, naósu v ┤ࡋࡲࡍ, ┤ ࡍ 1. makes it right, corrects, repairs, mends, fixes, alters, improves it 2. [INFINITIVE +] does it over (and better), re-does it naoshimásu, naósu v ἞ࡋࡲࡍ, ἞ࡍ cures it náppa n ⳯ࡗⴥ greens, vegetables; rape (plant) nápukin n ࢼࣉ࢟ࣥ 1. napkin 2. sanitary pad … nára conj …࡞ࡽ, … ~ ba …࡞ ࡽࡤ if it be, provided it is [NEG-

if you like, if you don’t mind; if you don’t want to nan ni mo adv ఱ࡟ࡶ [EMPHATIC] A nani mo ఱࡶ nán ni mo adv ఱ࡟ࡶ (= nán no … ní mo ఱࡢ …࡟ࡶ [+ NEGATIVE] not to/for/at anything nán no adj ఱࡢ what (kind of); of what nanoka n ୐᪥ seven days; the 7th day (of month) … ná no ni conj …࡞ࡢ࡟ in spite of its being …, despite that it is … nanpa n 㞴◚ shipwreck nán-rá ka no … adj ఱࡽ࠿ࡢ… some nán-ra (no) … adj ఱࡽ ࡢ … [+ NEGATIVE] not any, not in any way ATIVE … ja nákereba/nákerya nán to … conj ఱ࡜ … with what, … ࡌࡷ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ࡞ࡅࡾࡷ]; what and … ; (saying/thinking/ [VERB]-ru/-ta nára ࡿࡓ࡞ࡽ, [ADJECTIVE]-i/katta nára ࠸࠿ࡗ meaning) what nán to itté mo adv ఱ࡜ゝࡗ࡚ࡶ ࡓ࡞ࡽ if (it be a matter of) … narabemásu, naraberu v ୪࡭ࡲࡍ, eventually, come what may nán to ka shite adv ఱ࡜࠿ࡋ࡚ by ୪࡭ࡿ arranges, lines them up narabi v ୪ࡧ row (line) some means (or other), somenarabimásu, narabu v ୪ࡧࡲࡍ, ୪ how or other nan to mo adv ఱ࡜ࡶ [+ NEGATIVE] ࡪ they line up, arrange themnothing (at all), not … at all selves 187



naraigoto n ⩦࠸஦ culture lesson(s) ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ gets so it is …, gets to naraimásu, naráu v ⩦࠸ࡲࡍ, ⩦࠺ be …, turns into … … suru kotó ni ~ …ࡍࡿ஦࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ it gets learns naraimásu, naráu v ⩦࠸ࡲࡍ, ⩦࠺ arranged/decided to (do) … narimásu, naru v 㬆ࡾࡲࡍ, 㬆ࡿ it learns naraku n ዉⴠ hell: ~ no soko e sounds, rings tsukiotosaremáshita ዉⴠࡢᗏ࡬ narimono iri (de) adv 㬆ࡾ≀ධࡾ ✺ࡁⴠ࡜ࡉࢀࡲࡋࡓ was thrown ࡛ with a fanfare nariyuki v ᡂࡾ⾜ࡁ process, develinto the abyss of despair narashimásu, narasu v 㬆ࡽࡋࡲࡍ, opment, course; result: ~ o mimásu ᡂࡾ⾜ࡁࢆぢࡲࡍ watches 㬆ࡽࡍ sounds, rings it narashimásu, narásu v ᆒࡋࡲࡍ, how things develop (turn out) ᆒࡍ smooths, averages naru-beku … adv ࡞ࡿ࡭ࡃ… as … narashimásu, narásu v 㥆ࡽࡋࡲࡍ, as possible 㥆ࡽࡍ domesticates, tames naru-hodo interj ࡞ࡿ࡯࡝ I see; narazumono n ࡞ࡽࡎ⪅ rogue, quite so; you are so right; how

vagabond naremásu, naréru v ័ࢀࡲࡍ, ័ࢀ ࡿ (… ni ~ …࡟័ࢀࡲࡍ) gets

used to naremásu, naréru v 㥆ࢀࡲࡍ, 㥆 ࢀࡿ (= … ni ~ …࡟㥆ࢀࡲࡍ)

true nasaimásu, nasáru v ࡞ࡉ࠸ࡲࡍ, ࡞ ࡉࡿ (someone honored) does násake n ᝟ࡅ affection, feeling,

tenderness, compassion, sympathy nasake-nái adj ᝟ࡅ࡞࠸ wretched, grows familiar with narenareshii adj 㥆ࢀ㥆ࢀࡋ࠸ too miserable; shameful nashí n ࢼࢩ࣭᲍ pear friendly, overly familiar narďVKRQ n ࢼ࣮ࣞࢩࣙࣥ narration náshi v ࡞ࡋ [LITERARY] = nái ࡞࠸ naresome n 㥆ࢀึࡵ the thing (= arimasén ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ) (there which brought man and woman is no …, lacks, has no …) (lovers) together, trigger of love nashimásu, násu v ᡂࡋࡲࡍ, ᡂࡍ narí n ࡞ࡾ࣭ᙧ form; personal achieves, forms, does … náshi ni suffix, prep, adv …࡞ appearance narikin n ᡂ㔠 nouveau riche ࡋ࡟ = … ga náku(te) …ࡀ࡞ࡃ narimásu, náru v ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ, ࡞ࡿ ࡚ without, lacking, not having násu n ࢼࢫ>ⱳᏊ࣭ⱳ@, násubi becomes, gets to be; is done; ࡞ࡍࡧ eggplant amounts to, is; [HONORIFIC] o-nari ni ~ ࠾࡞ࡾ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ, … nata n ࡞ࡓ࣭㕶 hatches ni ([ADJECTIVE]-ku) ~ …࡟ ...ࡃ natsú n ኟ summer 188


nechigaemásu, nechigaeru

natsukashíi adj ᠜࠿ࡋ࠸ dear

…´n desu (da) suffix, v …ࢇ࡛ࡍ (dearly remembered), good old, ࡔ it’s that …: … QpQď´ interj …ࡡࡡ࠻ (mostly female) isn’t nostalgic natsume n ࢼࢶ࣓࣭Ჱ date (fruit) it, don’t you think/agree natsu-míkan n ኟ࣑࣭࢝ࣥኟ⻤᯿ ne n 㡢 (= otó 㡢) sound: suzu no ~ 㕥ࡢ㡢 bell jingles; ne o agemásu Japanese grapefruit (pomelo) natsu-yásumi n ኟఇࡳ summer v 㡢ࢆୖࡆࡲࡍ gives up ne n ್ (= nedan ್ẁ) price: ~ vacation/holiday QDWWĿ n ࢼࢵࢺ࣭࢘⣡㇋ fermented ga takái ್ࡀ㧗࠸ is expensive; ne-age n ್ୖࡆ price rise; raissoy beans nattoku n ⣡ᚓ understanding, ing the cost; ne-biki n ್ᘬࡁ discompliance, assent; (… o) ~ shicount (of price); ne-dan n ್ẁ másu …ࢆ ⣡ᚓࡋࡲࡍ gets price ne n ᰿ 1. root (= nekko ᰿ࡗࡇ); persuaded/convinced (of …), ~ mo ha mo nai uwasa ᰿ࡶⴥ assents/ consents to, complies with; ( … o) ~ sasemásu …ࢆ ࡶ࡞࠸࠺ࢃࡉ groundless rumor 2. cause (= kongen ᰿※) 3. one’s ⣡ᚓࡉࡏࡲࡍ persuades/convinces one (of …) nature: ~ wa yasashii-hito desu náttsu n ࢼࢵࢶ nuts ᰿ࡣඃࡋ࠸ே࡛ࡍ is basically a nawá n ⦖ rope, cord gentle person, is a kind person nawabari n ⦖ᙇࡾ one’s territory: deep down; ne-hori ha-hori adv ᰿ ~-arasoi ⦖ᙇࡾத࠸ territorial fight ᥀ࡾⴥ᥀ࡾ about every detail: ~ naya n ⣡ᒇ barn, shed kikaremásu/shitsumon saremásu nayamí n ᝎࡳ suffering, distress, ᰿᥀ࡾⴥ᥀ࡾ⪺>イ@࠿ࢀࡲࡍ㉁ ၥࡉࢀࡲࡍ is questioned about torment nayamimásu, nayámu v ᝎࡳࡲࡍ, ᝎ every detail ࡴ suffers ne n ᐷ (= nemuri ╀ࡾ) sleep(ing); nayonayo (shita) adj ࡞ࡼ࡞ࡼ ࡋ ne-búsoku n ᐷ୙㊊ having not ࡓ wishy-washy, weedy [IN enough sleep; ne-isu n ᐷ᳔Ꮚ NEGATIVE SENSE] couch, lounge (chair); ne-maki n náze adv ࡞ࡐ࣭ఱᨾ why: ~ ka to ᐷᕳࡁ pajamas iu to …࡞ࡐ࠿࡜ゝ࠺࡜ … the nébaneba shimásu (suru) v ࡡࡤࡡࡤ ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ is sticky reason is that … nazo n ㅦ riddle, mystery; nazonebarí n ⢓ࡾ stickiness: ~-zuyoi nazo n ࡞ࡒ࡞ࡒ riddle (game) ⢓ࡾᙉ࠸ persevering: nebarínazukemásu, nazukéru v ྡ௜ࡅࡲࡍ, másu ⢓ࡾࡲࡍ hangs on ྡ௜ࡅࡿ names, dubs nechigaemásu, nechigaeru v ᐷ㐪࠼




year; nen-kan (no) adj ᖺ㛫 ࡢ for a year; annual: ~-køsuiryø ᖺ㛫 㝆Ỉ㔞 annual rainfall: ~-shotoku ᖺ㛫ᡤᚓ annual income; nen-kan n ᖺ㚷 yearbook, almanac; nen-kan (no) adj ᖺห ࡢ annual (publication); nen-matsu n ᖺᮎ the end of the year: ~-nenshi kyüka ᖺᮎ ᖺጞఇᬤ year-end and New Year’s day holidays; nen-pĿ n ᖺ ಧ annual salary; nen-ri n ᖺ฼ annual interest; nen-shi n ᖺጞ New Year’s day nén n 1. ᛕ sense, feeling; desire; caution, care, attention; ~ no tamé (ni) ᛕࡢࡓࡵ ࡟ to make sure, just in case, to be on the safe side; (… ni) ~ o iremásu …࡟ ᛕࢆ ධࢀࡲࡍ pays attention (to …), is careful (of/about …), ~ o oshimásu ᛕࢆᢲࡋࡲࡍ double-checks nén-… prefix ᖺ 2. age; nenFKĿ(-sha) n ᖺ㛗 ⪅ one’s senior; nen-pai(-sha) n ᖺ㓄>ᖺ㍮@ ⪅ musubimásu ࢿࢡࢱ࢖ࢆ⤖ࡧࡲ the elderly, middle-aged person; ࡍ puts on (wears) a necktie nenVKĿ (-sha) n ᖺᑡ ⪅ young nemásu, neru v ᐷࡲࡍ, ᐷࡿ goes person, one’s junior nen-… prefix ⢓ sticky; nento bed, lies down, sleeps ne-motó n ᰿ඖ (the part) near the FKDNXWďSX n ⢓╔ࢸ࣮ࣉ adhesive root, the base (of a tree) tape; nén-do n ⢓ᅵ clay nemui adj ╀࠸ sleepy nengá n ᖺ㈡ New Year’s greetnemuri n ╀ࡾ sleep(ing) ings: ~ ni ikimasu ᖺ㈡࡟⾜ࡁࡲ nemurimásu, nemuru v ╀ࡾࡲࡍ, ╀ ࡍ makes a New Year’s call/visit; ࡿ sleeps nengá-hágaki n ᖺ㈡ⴥ᭩ a New nén n ᖺ year Year greeting postcard nén-… prefix ᖺ yearly, annual; nengan n ᛕ㢪 desire: ~ ga kanainén-do n ᖺᗘ year period, fiscal másu ᛕ㢪ࡀྔ࠸ࡲࡍ (one’s) 190 ࡲࡍ, ᐷ㐪࠼ࡿ gets a crick in one’s neck (while sleeping) nechiketto n ࢿࢳࢣࢵࢺ netiquette (comes from network + etiquette) nechizun n ࢿࢳࢬࣥ netizen (comes from network + citizen) negái v 㢪࠸ a request negaimásu, negáu v 㢪࠸ࡲࡍ, 㢪࠺ asks for, requests, begs négi n ࢿࢠ࣭ⵄ onion (green) neiro n 㡢Ⰽ (sound) tone néji n ࡡࡌ࣭ࢿࢪ screw; neji-máwashi n ࡡࡌᅇࡋ screw-driver nejirimásu, nejíru v ࡡࡌࡾࡲࡍ, ࡡ ࡌࡿ twists nekashimásu, nekasu v ᐷ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ᐷ࠿ࡍ puts to bed/sleep; lays it on its side nekki n ⇕Ẽ 1. hot air 2. air of excitement, fever 3. fever nékkuresu n ࢿࢵࢡࣞࢫ necklace QHNN\Ŀ n ⇕≬ enthusiasm néko n ࢿࢥ࣭⊧ cat nékutai n ࢿࢡࢱ࢖ necktie: ~ o


nezumi-iro (no)

dream/wish has come true nengáppi n ᖺ᭶᪥ date (year/month/ day) (Aseinen-gáppi ⏕ᖺ᭶᪥) nenki n ᖺᏘ one’s term of service: ~ no haitta ᖺᏘࡢධࡗࡓ seasoned, experienced nenkin n ᖺ㔠 pension: køsei-~ ཌ⏕ᖺ㔠 employee pension;

netamashíi adj ጊࡲࡋ࠸ envious;

enviable netamimásu, netámu v ጊࡳࡲࡍ, ጊ ࡴ envies netsú n 1. ⇕ fever 2. o-nétsu ࠾ ⇕ heat; netsu-ben n ⇕ᘚ passionate speech; QHWVXEĿ n ⇕ᮃ ambi-

tion (hope)

nettai (-chi´hĿ n ⇕ᖏ ᆅ᪉ troindividual annuity insurance -pic(s): ~-kikø ⇕ᖏẼೃ tropical QHQU\Ŀ n ⇞ᩱ fuel: ~-tanku ⇞ᩱ climate; ~-shokubutsu ⇕ᖏ᳜≀ ࢱࣥࢡ fuel tank tropical plant QHQVKĿ n ⇞↝ combustion netto n ࢿࢵࢺ 1. net 2. network nenza n ᤬᣸ sprain 3. the Net (= intånetto ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ neon n ࢿ࢜ࣥ 1. neon 2. neon sign ࢿࢵࢺ); netto-bukku n ࢿࢵࢺࣈࢵ NeSăUX n ࢿࣃ࣮ࣝ Nepal; 1HSăUX ࢡ netbook (computer); QHWWRJLQNĿ go n ࢿࣃ࣮ࣝㄒ Nepalese (lan- n ࢿࢵࢺ㖟⾜ online bank; nettokafe n ࢿࢵࢺ࢝ࣇ࢙Internet café; guage); 1HSăUXMLQ n ࢿࣃ࣮ࣝே QHWWRĿNXVKRQ n ࢿࢵࢺ࣭࣮࢜ࢡࢩ a Nepalese neSSŗ n ⇕㢼 hot wind ࣙࣥ online auction; QHWWRVăILQ n nerai n ≺࠸ an aim, object; idea, ࢿࢵࢺࢧ࣮ࣇ࢕ࣥ net surfing; intention, what one is driving at QHWWRWVŗKDQ n ࢿࢵࢺ㏻㈍ online neraimásu, nerau v ≺࠸ࡲࡍ, ≺࠺ shopping, Internet shopping(= intånetto tsühan ࢖ࣥࢱ࣮ࢿࢵ aims at, watches for, seeks neri-hamígaki v ⦎ࡾṑ☻ࡁ toothࢺ㏻㈍) paste (= hamigaki-ko ṑ☻ࡁ⢊) QHWWĿ n ⇕‫ ‮‬boiling water: ~ de nerí-kó n ⦎ࡾ⢊ dough yakedo o shimásu ⇕‫࡛‮‬ⅆയࢆ ࡋࡲࡍ is scalded with boiling nerimásu, néru v ⦎ࡾࡲࡍ, ⦎ࡿ kojin-~ hoken ಶேᖺ㔠ಖ㝤

kneads; drills, trains


QďVDQ n ጜࡉࢇ o-né´-san ࠾ጜࡉ ࢇ older sister; Miss!; Waitress! nes-shimásu, nes-suru v ⇕ࡋࡲࡍ, ⇕ࡍࡿ 1. gets hot, gets excited 2. heats it, warms it nésshín (na) adj ⇕ᚰ ࡞ enthusiastic; nésshín ni adv ⇕ᚰ࡟ enthu-


QHWWRZăNX n ࢿࢵࢺ࣮࣡ࢡ network; QHWWR ZăNX VKLPLQ n ࢿࢵࢺ ࣮࣡ࢡ  ᕷẸ netizen (= nechizun ࢿࢳ ࢬࣥ) neuchi n ್ᡴࡕ value, worth nezumi n ࢿࢬ࣑࣭㰡 mouse, rat nezumi-iro (no) adj ࢿࢬ࣑Ⰽ ࡢ

gray 191


nezumí-tori n ࢿࢬ࣑ᤕࡾ>ྲྀࡾ@


Nichi-… prefix ᪥…, …-~ …᪥ mousetrap Japan(ese), ~-Ei ᪥ⱥ Japanesení n Ⲵ 1. load 2. burden (= nímotsu English, Ei-~ ⱥ᪥ EnglishⲴ≀; ni-zúkuri n Ⲵ㐀ࡾ packing Japanese ní n ஧࣭ 2 two; ni bai n ஧ಸ …-nichi suffix …᪥ day (counts/ twice (double); ni-banmé (no) adj names days) ஧␒┠ ࡢ second; ní dai n ஧ྎ nichi-botsu n ᪥ἐ sunset (time of two (machines, vehicles); ni dó n sunset) ஧ᗘ two times, twice; ni do n ஧ 1LFKL\Ŀ EL n ᪥᭙ ᪥ Sunday ᗘ two degrees (temperature); 1LFKL\ĿKLQ(-ten) n ᪥⏝ရ ᗑ ni fun n ஧ศ two minutes; ní hai grocery (store); houseware n ஧ᮼ two cupfuls; ni hén n ஧㐢 (store) two times (= ni dó ஧ᗘ, ni kái ஧ niemásu, nieru v ↻࠼ࡲࡍ, ↻࠼ࡿ it ᅇ); ní hon n ஧ᮏ two (pencils/ boils, it cooks bottles, long objects); ni kai n ஧ nigái adj ⱞ࠸ bitter, wry: ~ køhii 㝵 second floor; upstairs; ni kái ⱞ࠸ࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮ bitter coffee; ~ keiken ⱞ࠸⤒㦂 bitter experience; n ஧ᅇ two times; ní ken n ஧㌺ ~-warai ⱞ➗࠸ bitter smile, wry two buildings; ní ko n ஧ಶ two pieces (small objects); ní mai n ஧ smile ᯛ two sheets (flat things); ní-mei nigaoe n ఝ㢦⤮ portrait n ஧ྡ [BOOKISH] = futarí ஧ே࣭ nigashimásu, nigásu v ㏨ࡀࡋࡲࡍ, ㏨ࡀࡍ turns loose; lets one get ࡩࡓࡾ two people; ní-nen n ஧ᖺ the year 2; ní-sai n ஧ṓ two years away, lets it slip away old (= futatsu ࡩࡓࡘ); ní satsu n nigate adj ⱞᡭ (thing, person, etc.,) ஧෉ two copies (books, magawhich is not one’s cup of tea: ~ na supøtsu ⱞᡭ࡞ࢫ࣏࣮ࢶ sport zines); ní-wa n ஧⩚ two (birds, rabbits) which one is not good at … ni (´) particle …࡟ 1. to/for Ni-gatsú n ஧᭶࣭2᭶ February (a person) 2. at/in (a place), at nigemásu, nigéru v ㏨ࡆࡲࡍ, ㏨ࡆ ࡿ runs away, escapes, flees (a time) 3. (= … é …࡬ to (a place) 4. as, so as to be, (turns/ nigirimásu, nigiru v ᥱࡾࡲࡍ, ᥱࡿ makes) into being, being grasps, grips, clutches ni-aimásu, ni-áu v ఝྜ࠸ࡲࡍ, ఝྜ nigiri-meshi n ᥱࡾ㣤 riceball (= ࠺: … ni ni-aimásu…࡟ఝྜ࠸ࡲ o-nígiri ࠾࡟ࡂࡾ) ࡍ is becoming (to), suits nigirí-zushi n ࡟ࡂࡾ>ᥱࡾ@ᑑྖ nia misu n ࢽ࢔࣑ࢫ near miss sushi hand-packed into small nibúi adj 㕌࠸ dull, blunt balls (as traditional in Tokyo) 192


nimásu, niru

nigíyaka (na) adj ࡟ࡂࡸ࠿࣭㈰ࡸ࠿ ⫗᱇ cinnamon ࡞ merry, bustling, lively, nikki n ᪥グ (private) diary flourishing, busy (place, atmos- QtNNĿ n ᪥ග sunshine; Níkkø ᪥ග phere, person, etc.): ~ na tøri ㈰ Nikko (place); QLNNĿ\RNX n ᪥ග ࡸ࠿࡞㏻ࡾ busy street ᾎ sun bathing nigorimásu, nigóru v ⃮ࡾࡲࡍ, ⃮ࡿ QLNN\ŗ n ᪥⤥ daily wage nikochin n ࢽࢥࢳࣥ nicotine gets muddy Nihón n ᪥ᮏ Japan (= Nippón ᪥ nikomi n ↻㎸ࡳ stew (food): ᮏ, Nihón-koku ᪥ᮏᅜ); 1LKRQIŗ ~-udon ↻㎸ࡳ࠺࡝ࢇ stew with n ᪥ᮏ㢼 Japanese style; Nihon-ga Udon (Japanese wheat noodle) n ᪥ᮏ⏬ Japanese-style painting; níkoniko adj ࡟ࡇ࡟ࡇ smiling: ~ 1LKRQJLQNĿ n ᪥ᮏ㖟⾜ Bank of shi(tei)másu ࡟ࡇ࡟ࡇࡋ ࡚࠸ Japan; Nihon-go n ᪥ᮏㄒ Japanese ࡲࡍ smiles (language/word); Nihon-jín n ᪥ᮏ nikú n ⫗ meat; niku-dángo n ⫗ᅋ ே a Japanese; 1LKRQU\ĿUL n ᪥ᮏ Ꮚ Chinese meat-balls; nikú-ya n ᩱ⌮ Japanese cuisine; Nihon-sei n ⫗ᒇ butcher (shop) ᪥ᮏ〇 made in Japan nikú n 1. ⫗ o-níku ࠾⫗ meat 2. ni-hyakú n ஧ⓒ 200 two hundred flesh (= nikutai ⫗య); niku-sei n níi-san n ඗ࡉࢇ o-níi-san ࠾඗ࡉ ⫗ኌ natural voice (without a ࢇ older brother microphone, etc.); niku-shoku niji n ⹿ rainbow GĿEXWVX n ⫗㣗 ື≀ carnivore; QLMŗ n ஧㔜 double, duplicate; QLMŗ niku-tai n ⫗య body; niku-yoku n nábe n ஧㔜㘠 double boiler; QLMŗ ⫗ḧ sexual desire ago n ஧㔜࠶ࡈ>㢡@ double chin nikúi adj ៮࠸ hateful ní-jŗ n ஧༑࣭20 twenty: ~-yokka …nikúi suffix ࡟ࡃ࠸࣭㞴࠸ ஧༑ᅄ᪥ 24 days, 24th day (of (...shi-~ ...ࡋ࡟ࡃ࠸) hard, difmonth); ~-banmé ஧༑␒┠ 20th ficult (to do) nijús-sai n ஧༑ṓ 20 years old nikumimásu, nikúmu v ៮ࡳࡲࡍ, ៮ ࡴ hates, detests (= hátachi ஧༑ṓ࣭ࡣࡓࡕ nikawa n ࡟࠿ࢃ࣭⭺ glue nikushin n ⫗ぶ blood relative ni-kayoimásu, ni-kayóu v ఝ㏻࠸ࡲࡍ, níkuzure n Ⲵᔂࢀ cargo shifting ఝ㏻࠺ … ni/to ~ …࡟࡜ఝ㏻࠸ nikuzure n ↻ᔂࢀ breaking up ࡲࡍ closely resembles while boiling/cooking (fishes, Nikei (no) adj ᪥⣔ ࡢ (of) Japapotatoes, etc.) nimásu, niru v ఝࡲࡍ, ఝࡿ renese ancestry níkibi n ࡟ࡁࡧ pimple sembles níkki n ࡟ࡗࡁ, níkkei ࡟ࡗࡅ࠸࣭ nimásu, niru v ↻ࡲࡍ, ↻ࡿ boils,


… -ní mo

cooks … -ní mo suffix …࡟ࡶ also (even)


…-ninmae suffix …ே๓ (counts

portions) ninmei n ௵࿨ appointment at/in, to, as ni-mono n ↻≀ boiled foods ninmu n ௵ົ duty, assignment, nímotsu n Ⲵ≀ 1. baggage 2. load task, mission: ~ o hatashimásu …(´) -nin suffix …ே person, ௵ົࢆᯝࡓࡋࡲࡍ accomplishes people; yo-~ ᅄே four people one’s errand ninaimásu, nináu v ᢸ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᢸ࠺ ninniku n ࢽࣥࢽࢡ࣭኱ⵛ garlic ninpu n ዷ፬ pregnant woman carries on shoulders ninchi n ㄆ▱ [BOOKISH] 1. recog- ninpu n ேኵ [BOOKISH] laborer nition, acknowledgment 2. affil- ninshiki n ㄆ㆑ [BOOKISH] awareiation: ~ sareteinai kodomo ㄆ▱ ness, recognition ࡉࢀ࡚࠸࡞࠸Ꮚ౪ child who is ninshin n ዷፎ pregnancy: ~ shite imásu ዷፎࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is not affiliated by his/her parent pregnant; QLQVKLQFKŗ]HWVX n ዷፎ (usually father) ningen n ே㛫 human being (= ୰⤯ abortion hito ே) QLQVKĿ n ㄆド certification ningyo n ே㨶 mermaid QLQVĿ n ே┦ looks, facial features QLQJ\Ŀ n ேᙧ doll; QLQJ\ĿVKtEDL n nintai n ᚸ⪏ endurance; nintai-ryoku ேᙧⰪᒃ puppet show; QLQJ\Ŀ ᚸ⪏ຊ ability to be patient tsukai n ேᙧ౑࠸ puppeteer nínzŗ n ேᩘ number of people; nini n ௵ព [BOOKISH] option population (= jinkø ேཱྀ) nínja n ᚸ⪅ a master of stealth, QLĿ dachi n ோ⋤❧ࡕ standing firm Ninja with one’s feet set apart (like ninjin n ࢽࣥࢪ࣭ࣥேཧ carrot two Deva Kings stone statue) QtQMĿ n ே᝟ human nature, human niói adj ⮯࠸࣭ໝ࠸ a smell; ( … feelings, warmheartedness: ~-ka no) ~ ga shimásu …ࡢ ⮯࠸>ໝ ே᝟ᐙ sympathetic person: giri ࠸@ࡀࡋࡲࡍ it smells (of …) to ~ ⩏⌮࡜ே᝟ duty and sympa- nioimásu, nióu v ⮯࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ໝ࠸ ࡲࡍ, ⮯࠺࣭ໝ࠺ it smells, is thy nínjutsu n ᚸ⾡ the art of stealth fragrant ninka n ㄆྍ [BOOKISH] permission Nippón n ᪥ᮏ = Nihón(-koku) ᪥ ninki n ேẼ popularity: ~ ga ariᮏ ᅜ Japan másu ேẼࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is popular nirá n ࢽࣛ a leek; a green onion ninki n ௵ᮇ (one’s) term, term of niramimásu, nirámu v ╮ࡳࡲࡍ, ╮ ࡴ glares, stares office: ~ o tsutomemásu ௵ᮇࢆ ົࡵࡲࡍ serves one’s term níre n ࢽ࣭ࣞᴌ yew (tree) 194


ní-san (no) adj ஧, ୕ ࡢ two or

three … ní-sei n ஧ୡ second generation

nobashimásu, nobásu

niwa n ᗞ garden … níwa suffix, prep, conj …࡟ࡣ

to; at/in; as níwaka (no/ni) adj, adv ࡟ࢃ࠿ ࡢ (Japanese emigrant); … the ࡟ sudden(ly), unexpected(ly) Second nisemásu, niseru v ఝࡏࡲࡍ, ఝࡏ niwatori n ࢽ࣡ࢺ࣭ࣜ㭜 chicken ࡿ imitates, copies; counterfeits n´n interj ࢇࢇ 1. “un-un” ࠺ࢇ ࠺ࢇ huh-uh, uh-uh 2. “u-un” (money), forges (a document, a ࠺࠺ࢇ nope signature) nise (no) adj ࡟ࡏ࣭ഇ ࡢ false, nó n 㔝 field (dry) phony, fake, imitation; nise-mono no-… prefix 㔝 wild; nó-bana n 㔝ⰼ wildflower; no-usagi n 㔝࢘ n ഇ≀࣭࡟ࡏࡶࡢ a fake, an ࢧࢠ࣭㔝ඡ wild rabbit imitation; a forgery; nise-satsu n ഇᮐ࣭㉚ᮐ࣭࡟ࡏᮐ counterfeit …´no suffix …ࡢ 1. the one/time/ bill (currency) place that; (= hitó ே, monó ≀, nishi n す west: ~-guchi すཱྀ the tokí ᫬, tokoró ᡤ) 2. the (specific) west exit/entrance; nishi-káigan n act/fact of … (cf. kotó ஦) 3. すᾏᓊ west coast which/that is … (A désu ࡛ࡍ, dá níshiki n 㘊 brocade ࡔ, na ࡞) nishime n ↻ࡋࡵ boiled fish and nĿ n ⬻ brain: dai-~ ኱⬻ cerevegetables brum: shø~ ᑠ⬻ cerebellum; níshin n ࢽࢩ࣭ࣥ㪨 herring QĿPtVR n ⬻ࡳࡑ࣭⬻࿡ჯ brain nishoku-tsuki (no) adj ஧㣗௜ࡁ ࡢ [INFORMAL] QĿ n ⬟ 1. ability (= nøryoku ⬟ with two meals incuded nisshi n ᪥ㄅ diary, journal (of ຊ, sainø ᡯ⬟) 2. o-nø ࠾⬟ Noh business, nursing, etc.); kango-~ (Japanese classical theater) (A ┳ㆤ᪥ㄅ nurse’s daily record QĿPHQ ⬟㠃) QLVVŗ n ᪥ᩘ the number of days QĿ« prefix ㎰ farming, agrinísu n ࢽࢫ = wánisu ࣡ࢽࢫ culture; QĿ-chi n ㎰ᆅ farm varnish land; QĿJ\Ŀ n ㎰ᴗ agriculture, … ní te particle …࡟࡚ [LITERARY] farming; QĿMĿ n ㎰ሙ farm; QĿmin n ㎰Ẹ farmers = … de …࡛ (at; …) QLWĿ QR adj ஧➼ ࡢ second nobashimásu, nobásu v ఙࡤࡋࡲࡍ, ఙࡤࡍ extends (lengthens, class; nitø´-shø ஧➼㈹ the second prize stretches, deters) it nittei n ᪥⛬ schedule, program, nobashimásu, nobásu v ᘏࡤࡋࡲࡍ, ᘏࡤࡍ prolongs itinerary 195


nobemásu, nobéru

nobemásu, nobéru v ㏙࡭ࡲࡍ, ㏙࡭ QĿNĿ (na) adj ⃰ཌ ࡞ thick, rich, ࡿ tells, relates dense, passionate: ~ na miruku nobimásu, nobíru v ఙࡧࡲࡍ, ఙࡧ ⃰ཌ࡞࣑ࣝࢡ rich milk: ~ na ࡿ it extends, reaches; it spreads kisu ⃰ཌ࡞࢟ࢫ passionate kiss nobori n ୖࡾ inbound (to Tokyo), nokorí n ṧࡾ the rest, the remain-

the up train

der, what is left, the leftover;

noborimásu, noboru v Ⓩࡾࡲࡍ, Ⓩ nokori-bi n ṧࡾⅆ embers; ࡿ climbs nokori-monó n ṧࡾ≀ leftovers, noborimásu, noboru v ୖࡾࡲࡍ, ୖ remains, leavings ࡿ goes up nokorimásu, nokóru v ṧࡾࡲࡍ, ṧ noborimásu, noboru v ᪼ࡾࡲࡍ, ᪼ ࡿ remains, is left behind/over nokoshimásu, nokósu v ṧࡋࡲࡍ, ࡿ rises: hi ga ~ ᪥ࡀ᪼ࡾࡲࡍ ṧࡍ leaves behind/over the sun rises nóbu n ࣀࣈ knob: doa-~ ࢻ࢔ࣀࣈ QĿPHQ n ⬟㠃 mask (Noh drama) nomí n ࣀ࣑࣭⺓ flea door knob nochi n ࡢࡕ࣭ᚋ: ~-hodo ࡢࡕ࡯ nómi n ࣀ࣑࣭㛓 chisel ࡝࣭ᚋ⛬ later (= áto (de) ࠶࡜࣭ …nómi suffix, adj …ࡢࡳ (= … ᚋ ࡛ ) daké …ࡔࡅ only nódo n ࡢ࡝࣭ႃ throat: ~ ga kawa- nomi-komimásu, nomi-komu v 㣧ࡳ㎸ kimáshita ࡢ࡝ࡀῬࡁࡲࡋࡓ is ࡳࡲࡍ, 㣧ࡳ㎸ࡴ swallows



QĿ´do n ⃰ᗘ density, thick (liquid), nomimásu, nómu v 㣧ࡳࡲࡍ, 㣧ࡴ concentration; kø-~ (no) køhii 㧗 drinks; smokes; takes (medicine); nomi-kai n 㣧ࡳ఍ drinking party; ⃰ᗘ ࡢ ࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮>⌆⍄@ strong nomí-mizu n 㣧ࡳỈ drinking water; coffee nódoka (na) adj ࡢ࡝࠿ ࡞ nomí-mono n 㣧ࡳ≀ beverage, tranquil, peaceful, quiet, calm refreshments; nomí-ya n 㣧ࡳᒇ nó-hara n 㔝ཎ field tavern, neighborhood bar nó-juku n 㔝ᐟ rough sleeping QRQEď nonbei n 㣧ර⾨࣭࿐ර nokemásu, nokeru v ㏥ࡅࡲࡍ, ㏥ࡅ ⾨, ࡢࢇ࡭࠸ a heavy drinker ࡿ removes; omits [INFORMAL] noki n ㌺ eaves nonbiri adj ࡢࢇࡧࡾ easy, leisurely: nokimásu, noku v ㏥ࡁࡲࡍ, ㏥ࡃ ~ ya ࡢࢇࡧࡾᒇ happy-go-lucky gets out of the way person: ie de ~ shimásu ᐙ࡛ࡢࢇ nókku shimásu (suru) v ࣀࢵࢡࡋࡲࡍ ࡧࡾࡋࡲࡍ relaxes at home ࡍࡿ knocks (on door) non-fikushon n ࣀࣥࣇ࢕ࢡࢩࣙࣥ nokogírí v ࡢࡇࡂࡾ࣭㗬 a saw (tool) nonfiction



nónki (na) adj ࡢࢇẼ>࿐Ẽ@ ࡞

easygoing, happy-go-lucky, carefree nonoshirimásu, nonoshíru v ⨬ࡾࡲ ࡍ, ⨬ࡿ reviles, abuses, swears at, curses QRQVXPĿNă n ࣀࣥࢫ࣮࣮ࣔ࢝ non-smoker nosutarujia n ࣀࢫࢱࣝࢪ࢔ nostalgia noren n ࡢࢀࢇ࣭ᬮᗮ shop curtain; credit: ~ o oroshimásu ᬮ⡘ࢆୗ ࢁࡋࡲࡍ closes down one’s store; ~ o wakemásu ᬮ⡘ࢆศࡅࡲࡍ

nozokimásu, nozoku

curses, utters a curse noronoro adv ࡢࢁࡢࢁ slowly, sluggishly: ~ unten ࡢࢁࡢࢁ㐠 ㌿ driving slowly noruma n ࣀ࣐ࣝ norm, quota: ~ o tasseishimásu ࣀ࣐ࣝࢆ㐩ᡂࡋࡲ ࡍ achieves one’s quota QĿU\RNX n ⬟ຊ ability (= nø ⬟, sainø ᡯ⬟) nosemásu, noseru v ஌ࡏࡲࡍ, ஌ࡏ ࡿ loads, puts aboard, ships nosemásu, noseru v ㍕ࡏࡲࡍ, ㍕ࡏ ࡿ publishes (in book, magazine,

lets the employee use the same etc.), posts (an article, etc.) shop name to open his/her own QĿVKXNX n ⃰⦰ [BOOKISH] concentration (of liquid or air) shop norí n ࣀ࣭ࣜᾏⱏ seaweed noten (de/no) adv, adj 㔝ኳ ࡛ࡢ (green); norí-maki n ࡢࡾ>ᾏⱏ@ᕳ outdoors: ~-búro 㔝ኳ㢼࿅ outࡁ sushi rice in a seaweed roll door bath norí n ࡢࡾ࣭⢶ paste; starch QĿWHQNL (na) adj ⬟ኳẼ ࡞ happynori-kaemásu, nori-káéru v ஌ࡾ᥮࠼ go-lucky, easy, optimistic (person) ࡲࡍ, ஌ࡾ᥮࠼ࡿ changes (vehicles) QĿWR n ࣀ࣮ࢺ notebook norimásu, noru v ஌ࡾࡲࡍ, ஌ࡿ nottóri n ஌ࡗྲྀࡾ hijack nottoríhan n ஌ࡗྲྀࡾ≢ hijacker; nottorigets aboard, rides; is carried; jíken n ஌ࡗྲྀࡾ஦௳ a hijacking; nori-ba n ஌ࡾሙ boarding area/ place; platform (at station); taxi (illegal) takeover, seizure station; bus stop; nori-kae n ஌ࡾ nottorimásu, nottóru v ஌ࡗྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, ᥮࠼ change, transfer (of vehicle); ஌ࡗྲྀࡿ hijacks; (illegally) nori-mono n ஌ ࡾ ≀ vehicle takes over, seizes 1ĿULQ6XLVDQVKĿ n ㎰ᯘỈ⏘┬ noyama n 㔝ᒣ fields and mountains Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry QĿzei n ⣡⛯ payment of taxes nozokimásu, nozoku v なࡁࡲࡍ, な and Fisheries of Japan (MAFF) QĿULWVX n ⬟⋡ efficiency ࡃ peeks/peeps at; nozokí-ana n ࡢ norói n ࿚࠸ a curse ࡒࡁ>なࡁ@✰ peephole; nozoki-ya norói n ࡢࢁ࠸ slow, dull, sluggish n ࡢࡒࡁ>なࡁ@ᒇ peeping Tom nozokimásu, nozoku v 㝖ࡁࡲࡍ, 㝖 [INFORMAL] noroimásu, noróu v ࿚࠸ࡲࡍ, ࿚࠺ ࡃ eliminates, removes; omits 197



nozomashíi adj ᮃࡲࡋ࠸ desirable, numá n ἟ pond: ~-chi ἟ᆅ swamp,



nozomi n ᮃࡳ a desire; a hope, an nuno n ᕸ cloth: ~-ji ᕸᆅ fabric nurashimásu, nurasu v ⃿ࡽࡋࡲࡍ, expectation nozomimásu, nozomu v ᮃࡳࡲࡍ, ⃿ࡽࡍ wets, dampens ᮃࡴ desires, looks to, hopes for nure-ginu v ⃿ࢀ⾰ false accusation nozomimásu, nozomu v ⮫ࡳࡲࡍ, nuremásu, nureru v ⃿ࢀࡲࡍ, ⃿ࢀ ⮫ࡴ [BOOKISH] looks out on ࡿ gets wet, damp; nurete imásu QŗGR n ࢾ࣮ࢻ a nude ⃿ࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is wet nugemásu, nugéru v ⬺ࡆࡲࡍ, ⬺ࡆ nuri ሬࡾ n lacquer, varnish, ࡿ 1. it slips/comes off 2. can painting nuri-kaemásu, nuri-káéru v ሬࡾ᭰࠼ take it off nugimásu, núgu v ⬺ࡂࡲࡍ, ⬺ࡄ ࡲࡍ, ሬࡾ᭰࠼ࡿ repaints nurimásu, nuru v ሬࡾࡲࡍ, ሬࡿ takes off (clothes, shoes) nuguimásu, nuguu´ v ᣔ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᣔ࠺ lacquers, paints, varnishes, stains; wipes it away (butter) spreads; nuri-gúsuri n ሬࡾ nuigurumi n ⦭࠸ໟࡳ stuffed toy ⸆ ointment [INFORMAL] nuimásu, nuu´ v ⦭࠸ࡲࡍ, ⦭࠺ nurúi adj ࡠࡿ࠸࣭ ࠸ lukewarm, sews; núí-bari n ⦭࠸㔪 sewing tepid nushi n ୺ master, owner (= aruji needle; nui-mé n ⦭࠸┠ seam nukashimásu, nukasu v ᢤ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ୺) ᢤ࠿ࡍ skips, leaves out nusumí n ┐ࡳ theft nukemásu, nukeru v ᢤࡅࡲࡍ, ᢤࡅ nusumimásu, nusúmu v ┐ࡳࡲࡍ, ࡿ comes off; escapes; is omitted; ┐ࡴ steals, swipes, robs, rips off nuke-ana n ᢤࡅ✰ { passage … Q\DQ\㍠… suffix ࡟ࡷ࡟ࡷ࠶ which allows one to go through [INFORMAL] = … ní wa … ࡟ࡣ | escape route } loophole Q\Ŀ n ᒀ [BOOKISH] urine, urinating …-nuki (de/no) suffix, adj, adv …ᢤ (= shíkko ࡋࡗࡇ, o-shíkko ࠾ࡋ ࡁ ࡛ࡢ without (omitting) ࡗࡇ) nukimásu, nuku v ᢤࡁࡲࡍ, ᢤࡃ Q\ĿEĿ Q\ĿER n ዪᡣ my wife Q\ŗ« prefix ධ entering; Q\ŗHQ uncorks; removes; omits; surpasses; selects; nuki-ashi (sashiashi) n ධᅬ entering a kindergarten/ (de) adv ᢤࡁ㊊ ᕪࡋ㊊ ࡛ nursery; Q\ŗJDNX n ධᏛ admission stealthily, on tiptoe; nuki-uchi n to a school, entering a school; ᢤࡁᡴࡕ (test, inspection, etc.,) nyü(gaku)-shi(ken) ධ Ꮫ ヨ 㦂 without notice: ~-kensa ᢤࡁᡴ entrance exam; ~-shiki ධᏛᘧ ࡕ᳨ᰝ surprise inspection school entrance ceremony; nyŗLQ




n ධ㝔 entering a hospital, cancer hospital admission; Q\ŗMĿ n ධሙ Q\ŗJ\ŗ n ங∵ dairy cattle admission (to a place): ~-ken ධ Q\ŗLQU\Ŀ n ங㣧ᩱ milk beverage ሙๆ admission ticket, platform Q\ŗ-ji n ஙඣ infant (non-passenger) ticket; ~-ryø ධ 1\ŗMLLUiQGR n ࢽ࣮ࣗࢪ࣮ࣛࣥࢻ ሙᩱ admission fee; Q\ŗND n ධ New Zealand; ~-jin ࢽ࣮ࣗࢪ࣮ Ⲵ arrival (of goods)(in shop, ࣛࣥࢻே a New Zealander market, etc.); Q\ŗNDL n ධ఍ admis- Q\ŗnen (na/ni) adj, adv ධᛕ ࡞࡟ sion to an association; Q\ŗNRNX n careful(ly): ~ ni shirabemásu ධ ධᅜ entering a country; immiᛕ࡟ㄪ࡭ࡲࡍ searches carefully gration: ~ kanri-kyoku ධᅜ⟶⌮ Q\ŗVHLKLQ n ங〇ရ foods made ᒁ Immigration Bureau of Japan; from milk (butter, cheese, etc.) Q\ŗN\R n ධᒃ moving into an Q\ŗVKĿ n ධ㈹ winning a prize: ~-sha ධ㈹⪅ a prizewinner apartment; ~-sha ධᒃ⪅ tenant, resident (of an apartment); Q\ŗVHNL Q\ŗVX n ࢽ࣮ࣗࢫ news: n ධ⡠ registering one’s marriage; ~-bangumi ࢽ࣮ࣗࢫ␒⤌ news Q\ŗsen n ධ㑅 winning a prize; program: ~-kyasutå ࢽ࣮ࣗࢫ࢟ Q\ŗVKD n ධ♫ entering (joining) ࣕࢫࢱ࣮ newscaster a company: ~-shikén ධ♫ヨ㦂 Q\ŗWRUDUX n ࢽ࣮ࣗࢺࣛࣝ neutral employment selection exam; Q\ŗ (gear): (gia o) ~ ni iremásu ࢠ yoku n ධᾎ bath, taking a bath ࢔ࢆ ࢽ࣮ࣗࢺࣛࣝ࡟ධࢀࡲࡍ Q\ŗEDL n ධᱵ the rainy season (in shifts the gear into neutral Nyŗ\ĿNX n ࢽ࣮࣮ࣗࣚࢡ New Japan) (= tsuyu ᱵ㞵) Q\ŗHNL n ஙᾮ 1. latex 2. milky York lotion, milky liquid (cosmetic) Q\ŗ\Ŀ (na) adj ධ⏝ ࡞ necessary, Q\ŗJDQ n ஙࡀࢇ࣭ங⒴ breast needed

O ó n ᑿ = shippó ࡋࡗࡱ࣭ᑼᑿ tail ó n ⥴ = hanao 㰯⥴ thong, strap o- prefix ࠾࣭ᚚ [HONORIFIC]

ឡ᝿) | o-aiso ࠾࠶࠸ࡑ (restaurant) bill, check; o-băVDQ n ࠾ࡤ࠶ࡉࢇ࣭࠾♽ẕࡉࢇ grand(personalizing): “your” or “that mother (family) (= bå-san ࡤ࠶ࡉ important thing”; o-aiso n ࠾࠶ ࢇ, obå-chan ࠾ࡤ࠶ࡕࡷࢇ, só-bo ࠸ࡑ࣭࠾ឡ᝿, o-aisø ࠾ឡ᝿ ♽ẕ); o-băVDQ n ࠾ࡤ࠶ࡉࢇ࣭࠾ { compliment, flattery (= aiso ፠ࡉࢇ (not relative) old lady/ 199



[FORMAL] (= kå´san ẕࡉࢇ࣭࠿ ࠶ࡉࢇ; o-káshi n ࠾ⳫᏊ confections, sweets, pastry, candy, cakes, cookies, biscuits (= kashi ⳫᏊ); o-kawari n ࠾ኚࢃࡾ change (in health): ~ arimasénka. ࠾ኚ ࢃࡾ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ࠿ࠋIs everything all right? (greeting) (= kawari ኚ ࢃࡾ ; o-ko-san n ࠾Ꮚࡉࢇ (your/ someone else’s) child (= ko Ꮚ ; o-kyaku(-san/-sámá) n ࠾ᐈ ࡉࢇᵝ visitor; customer, patron (= kyaku ᐈ); RN\Ŀ n ࠾⤒ sutra (Buddhist scripture) (= kyø ⤒ ; o-matsuri n ࠾⚍ࡾ festival (= matsuri ⚍ࡾ ; o-múko-san n ࠾፵ࡉࢇ (your/someone else’s) son-in-law; bridegroom (= muko ፵ ; o-negai n ࠾㢪࠸ favor (requested), request (= negai 㢪࠸); o-nďVDQ n ࠾ጜࡉࢇ older sister (= në´-san ጜࡉࢇ, ane ጜ, aneki ጜ㈗); o-níi-san n ࠾඗ࡉ ࢇ older brother (= níi-san ඗ࡉ ࢇ, ani ඗, aniki ඗㈗); o-rei n ࠾ ♩ an acknowledgment, a thankyou, a present (of appreciation) (= rei ♩); o-sake n ࠾㓇 saké Excuse me for having interrupted/ (Japanese rice wine); liquor (= bothered you; o-jíi-san n ࠾ࡌ࠸ sake 㓇); o-saki ni adv ࠾ඛ࡟ ࡉࢇ࣭♽∗ࡉࢇ grandfather Excuse me for going first; ~ ni shitsúrei shimásu ࠾ඛ࡟ኻ♩ࡋ (family) (=jii-san ࡌ࠸ࡉࢇ࣭♽ ∗ࡉࢇ, ojii-chan ࠾ࡌ࠸ࡕࡷࢇ); ࡲࡍ Excuse me for being the o-jíi-san n ࠾ࡌ࠸ࡉࢇ࣭࠾√ࡉࢇ first to leave; o-séwa n ࠾ୡヰ (not relative) old (gentle-)man care, assistance, help (= sewá ୡ (=jii-san ࡌ࠸ࡉࢇ࣭√ࡉࢇ, ojii- ヰ) (A o-sewa-sama ࠾ୡヰᵝ); chan ࠾ࡌ࠸ࡕࡷࢇ); RNăVDQ n o-shirase n ࠾▱ࡽࡏ report, notice, ࠾ẕࡉࢇ࣭࠾࠿࠶ࡉࢇ mother information (= shirase ▱ࡽࡏ); 200

woman (= bå-san ࡤ࠶ࡉࢇ, obåchan ࠾ࡤ࠶ࡕࡷࢇ); o-bon n ࠾ ┅ tray (= bon ┅, torei ࢺࣞ࢖); O-bón n ࠾┅ the Bon Festival (Buddhist All Saints Day) (= Bon ┅); REĿVDQ n ࠾ᆓࡉࢇ Buddhist monk (= bø-san ᆓࡉࢇ); o-cha n ࠾Ⲕ Japanese green tea; the tea ceremony (= cha Ⲕ); o-hachi n ࠾㖊 rice bucket/tub (= hachi 㖊); o-hana n ࠾ⰼ { flower (= hana ⰼ) | flower arrangement; o-hana n ࠾㰯 nose (= hana 㰯); o-hima n ࠾ᬤ (your) spare time, free time (= hima ᬤ); o-kane n ࠾㔠 money (= kane 㔠); o-kéiko (goto) n ࠾✍ྂ ࡈ࡜ practice (artistic) (= kéiko ✍ྂ); o-ikura (désu ka) ࠾࠸ࡃࡽ ࡛ࡍ࠿ How much is this? (= ikura (désu ka) ࠸ࡃࡽ ࡛ࡍ࠿ ); o-ikutsu (désu ka) ࠾࠸ࡃࡘ ࡛ࡍ࠿ How old (are you)? (= ikutsu (désu ka) ࠸ ࡃࡘ ࡛ࡍ࠿ ); o-iwai n ࠾⚃࠸ celebration (= iwai ⚃࠸); o-jama n ࠾㑧㨱 ( jama 㑧㨱 ; O-jama shimáshita ࠾㑧㨱ࡋࡲࡋࡓ.



2VKĿJDWVX n ࠾ṇ᭶ New Year; { king | champion: sekai ~ ୡ ⏺⋤⪅ world champion } ruler; January (= Shøgatsu ṇ᭶); RVĿ shiki n ࠾ⴿᘧ funeral (= søshiki ĿML (-sama) n ⋤Ꮚ ᵝ prince; ĿMR ⴿᘧ); RVXPĿVDQ n ࠾┦᧞ࡉࢇ (-sama) n ⋤ዪ ᵝ princess; ĿNDQ sumo wrestler (= sumø ┦᧞, n ⋤ෙ { crown | (bin no ~ ⎼ rikishi ຊኈ); o-súshi n ࠾ᑑྖ࣭ ࡢ⋤ෙ) bottle cap; ĿNRNX n ⋤ ࠾㩧 = súshi ࡍࡋ࣭ᑑྖ࣭㩧 ᅜ kingdom; ĿVDPD n ⋤ᵝ king; Ŀ-shitsu n ⋤ᐊ royal family sushi; o-témae n ࠾Ⅼ๓ tea ceremony procedures (= temae Ⅼ Ŀ« prefix ኱… big, great; ĿiPH ๓); o-ténki n ࠾ኳẼ { weather n ኱㞵 heavy rain; ĿEXURVKLNL n ኱㢼࿅ᩜ very large square (= ténki ኳẼ) | fair weather; o-tera n ࠾ᑎ Buddhist temple (= wrapping cloth; ĿGiLNR n ኱ኴ㰘 tera ᑎ); RWĿVDQ n ࠾∗ࡉࢇ࣭࠾ large drum; ĿGĿUL ኱㏻ࡾ main ࡜࠺ࡉࢇ father (= tø´san ∗ࡉࢇ street, avenue; ĿI~EXNL n ኱྿㞷 ࣭࡜࠺ࡉࢇ, oyaji ぶ∗); o-toshi n blizzard; ĿJDWD n ኱ᆺ large-size ࠾ᖺ࣭࠾ṓ࣭(your/someone (model); ĿJHVD (na) adj ࠾࠾ࡆࡉ else’s) age (= toshi ᖺ࣭ṓ); o-tsuri >኱⿃⿸@ ࡞ exaggerated; ĿKL n ࠾ࡘࡾ࣭࠾㔮ࡾ change (money roma n ኱ᗈ㛫 great hall; ĿND]H n ኱㢼 strong wind; Ŀ-mízú n ኱Ỉ returned) (= tsuri ࡘࡾ࣭㔮ࡾ); o-yakusho n ࠾ᙺᡤ government flood (= køzui ὥỈ); ĿPRML n ኱ office (= yakusho ᙺᡤ); o-yasumi ᩥᏐ capital letter; ĿPRQR n ኱≀ n ࠾ఇࡳ rest; holiday; recess; a big shot; Ŀótoko n ኱⏨ a giant time off (= yasumí ఇࡳ[INFORMAL], of a man, big man; ĿViZDJL n ኱ kyüka ఇᬤ [FORMAL] ; o-yome-san 㦁ࡂ fuss, disturbance; ĿVĿML n ኱ n ࠾᎑ࡉࢇ (your/someone else’s) ᤲ㝖 great cleaning; ĿXULGDVKL n bride (= yome ᎑); R]ĿQL n ࠾㞧 ኱኎ฟࡋ big sale; Ŀ-yasu-uri n ኱ ↻ rice cakes boiled with vegeᏳ኎ࡾ special bargain sale; Ŀ-yukí tables (eaten as New Year’s n ኱㞷 heavy snow; Ŀ]~PĿ n ኱ ┦᧞ a grand sumo tournament; soup) (= zøni 㞧↻) … o …ࢆ particle: marks direct an exciting match object (gets what, loves whom) oashisu n ࢜࢔ࢩࢫ oasis or path traversed (goes through/ o-azuke interj ࠾㡸ࡅ Wait! (train-

ing one’s dog)

along where, using what path) Ŀ n ⋤, ø-sama ⋤ᵝ king; ĿFKĿ n ⋤ᮅ royal dynasty; ĿKL n ⋤ድ queen; ĿL NHLVKĿ n ⋤఩⥅ᢎ succession to the throne; ĿMD n ⋤⪅

ĿEă n ࣮࢜ࣂ࣮ overcoat, (top) coat o-báke n ࠾໬ࡅ࣭࠾ࡤࡅ ghost,

monster ĿEDNR n ࢜࢜ࣂࢥ (plant) plantain



ĿEă NĿWR n ࣮࢜ࣂ࣮ ࢥ࣮ࢺ


virgin (female) oboremásu, oboreru v ⁒ࢀࡲࡍ, ⁒ overcoat ĿEă QD adj ࣮࢜ࣂ࣮ ࡞ ࢀࡿ drowns exaggerated, over(ly), too much ĿER shimásu (suru) v ᛂເࡋࡲࡍ oba(-san) n ࠾ࡤ>ུẕ@ ࡉࢇ aunt ࡍࡿ applies obuimásu, obú v ㈇ࡪ࠸ࡲࡍ, ㈇ࡪ (younger sister of father or mother) (= oba-chan ࠾ࡤ>ུẕ@ ࠺ carries on one’s back (= ࡕࡷࢇ) seoimásu, shoimásu ⫼㈇࠸ࡲࡍ) oba(-san) n ࠾ࡤ>఑ẕ@ ࡉࢇ aunt ĿEXQ n ࣮࢜ࣈࣥ oven (older sister of father or mother) REXUăWR n ࢜ࣈ࣮ࣛࢺ wafer paper (= oba-chan ࠾ࡤ>఑ẕ@ࡕࡷࢇ) obutsu n ở≀ dirt oba(-san) n ࠾ࡤ>ᑠẕ@ࡉࢇ (not ĿFKDNX (na) adj ᶓ╔ ࡞ lazy: ~ na taido ᶓ╔࡞ែᗘ lazy attitude relative) lady, woman (middleaged) (= oba-chan ࠾ࡤࡕࡷࢇ) ochi n ⴠࡕ 1. omission, lack: te-~ ľEHL n Ḣ⡿ Europe and America ᡭⴠࡕ oversight 2. punch line obekka n ࠾࡭ࡗ࠿ flattery 3. the end, the result óbi n ᖏ girdle, sash, belt, (Japa- ochimásu, ochíru v ⴠࡕࡲࡍ, ⴠࡕࡿ nese) obi falls, drops; is omitted; fails; is ĿELL n ࣮࢜ࣅ࣮࣭OB 1. (abbrevia- inferior; óchi-ba n ⴠࡕⴥ fallen tion for the word “old boy”) leaves male graduate, alumnus 2. (ab- ochi-tsuite ⴠࡕ╔࠸࡚ 1. adv breviation for the word “out of calmly 2. v calm down!: ~ kudasai ⴠࡕ╔࠸࡚ୗࡉ࠸ Please bounds”) OB (golf) RELMĿ (no) adj ᖏ≧ ࡢ belt(-like), calm down. ochi-tsuki n ⴠࡕ╔ࡁ: ~ ga aru a narrow strip (of) obitadashii adj ࠾ࡧࡓࡔࡋ࠸ (nai) ⴠࡕ╔ࡁࡀ࠶ࡿ ࡞࠸ is a great number of, immense, calm; is restless ochi-tsukimásu, ochi-tsuku v ⴠࡕ╔ tremendous ĿEĿ (na) adj ᶓᭀ ࡞ high-handed, ࡁࡲࡍ, ⴠࡕ╔ࡃ calms down, tyrannical keeps cool, settles down, relaxes obóé n ぬ࠼ memory; conscious- o-chóko n ࠾ࡕࡻࡇ saké cup RFKŗJHQ n ࠾୰ඖ midyear preness; oboe-gaki n ぬ ࠼ ᭩ ࡁ memo(-randum), note sent, summer gift oboemásu, oboéru v ぬ࠼ࡲࡍ, ぬ o-daiji ni interj ࠾኱஦࡟: (døzo) ~ ࠼ࡿ remembers, keeps in mind; ni (shitekudasai)! ࡝࠺ࡒ ࠾኱ ஦࡟ ࡋ࡚ୗࡉ࠸ ! (Please) take learns oboko (-músume) n ࠾ࡰࡇ ፉ care of yourself! 202


ĿGăPHLGR n ࣮࢜ࢲ࣮࣓࢖ࢻ madeto-order: ~ (no) ࣮࢜ࢲ࣮࣓࢖ࢻ ࡢ custom-made ĿGDQ n 㯤⑇ (medical) jaundice ĿGDQ n ᶓ᩿ crossing, going across, intersecting: ~-hodø ᶓ᩿ Ṍ㐨 pedestrian crossing odatemásu, odateru v ࠾ࡔ࡚ࡲࡍ, ࠾ࡔ࡚ࡿ coaxes odáyaka (na) adj ✜ࡸ࠿ ࡞ quiet,


oetsu n Ⴒဗ sobbing ofisu n ࢜ࣇ࢕ࢫ office ĿIuku n  ᚟ round trip; ĿIuku-kíppu n  ᚟ษ➢ round-trip ticket: ofukuro n ࠾ࡩࡃࢁ࣭࠾⿄ (familiar, usually male) (= okå´-san ࠾ẕࡉࢇ࣭࠾࠿࠶ࡉࢇ) 1. my mother 2. ofukuro-san ࠾⿄ࡉࢇ

(your/someone else’s) mother ofureko (no) adj ࢜ࣇࣞࢥ ࡢ off

calm, peaceful, gentle; moderate the record ofu-shiizun n ࢜ࣇࢩ࣮ࢬࣥ off season (= kansanki 㛩ᩓᮇ) ogakuzu n ࠾ࡀᒌ sawdust ogamimásu, ogámu v ᣏࡳࡲࡍ, ᣏࡴ foods (Japanese hot pot) ĿGLR n ࣮࢜ࢹ࢕࢜ audio: ~-mania worships, looks at with respect ࣮࢜ࢹ࢕࣐࢜ࢽ࢔ audiophile, ĿJDQLNNX (no) adj ࣮࢜࢞ࢽࢵࢡ ࡢ organic (= yüki ᭷ᶵ) audio nut ĿGLVKRQ n ࣮࢜ࢹ࢕ࢩࣙࣥ audition ogawa n ᑠᕝ brook, stream odokashimásu, odokasu v ⬣࠿ࡋࡲ ógi n ࢜ࢠ࣭Ⲷ a reed ࡍ, ⬣࠿ࡍ threatens ĿJt n ᡪ a folding fan odori n ㋀ࡾ dance, dancing oginái n ⿵࠸ supplement odorimásu, odoru v ㋀ࡾࡲࡍ, ㋀ࡿ oginaimásu, ogináu v ⿵࠸ࡲࡍ, ⿵࠺ dances completes; complements, makes odorokashimásu, odorokásu v 㦫࠿ good, makes up for ࡋࡲࡍ, 㦫࠿ࡍ surprises, scares, ĿJRQ n 㯤㔠 gold (= kin 㔠) ogorimásu, ogoru v 㦧ࡾࡲࡍ, 㦧ࡿ astonishes odorokimásu, odoróku v 㦫ࡁࡲࡍ, is extravagant 㦫ࡃ is surprised, astonished ogorimásu, ogoru v ዝࡾࡲࡍ, ዝࡿ odoshimásu, odosu v ⬣ࡋࡲࡍ, ⬣ treats (pays the bill) ࡍ threatens ohako n ࠾ࡣࡇ࣭༑ඵ␒ one’s oemásu, oeru v ⤊࠼ࡲࡍ, ⤊࠼ࡿ hobby; one’s “thing”, specialty, ends it, finishes, completes (favorite) trick ĿHQ n ᛂ᥼ help, assistance; 2KD\Ŀ (gozaimásu) interj ࠾ࡣࡼ࠺ ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ Good morning! cheering for; support; ĿHQGDQ n ᛂ᥼ᅋ cheering party Ŀhei n ᶓ᯶ arrogance (= gøman ĿHUX n ࣮࢚࢜ࣝ office lady ഫ៏࣭ࡈ࠺ࡲࢇ): ~ na taido ᶓ 203 odéko n ࠾࡛ࡇ forehead (= hitai 㢠) o-dén n ࠾࡛ࢇ assorted boiled


o-hína sama

᯶࡞ែᗘ insolence on one’s back o-hína sama n ࠾ࡦ࡞>㞮@ᵝ (Dolls oimásu, oiru v ⪁࠸ࡲࡍ, ⪁࠸ࡿ

Festival) dolls

grows old

o-hi-sama n ࠾᪥ᵝ sun (baby talk) ĿLPiVu, RRXĿX v そ࠸ࡲࡍ, そ࠺ o-hitáshi n ࠾ᾐࡋ boiled greens covers, shields ĿLQ n ᢲ㡩 [BOOKISH] rhyme (= in (usually spinach, served cold 㡩) with seasoning) o-hitsu n ࠾࣭ᷬ࠾ࡦࡘ rice tub/ ĿLQ n ᢲ༳ [BOOKISH] putting one’s



o-híya n ࠾෭ࡸ cold water OhĿWVXNXNDL n ࣮࢜࣍ࢶࢡᾏ Sea

ĿLQL adv ࠾࠾࠸࡟࣭኱࠸࡟ very, greatly (= hijø ni 㠀ᖖ࡟, totemo ࡜࡚ࡶ) of Okhotsk oi n ⏚ nephew; oi-go-san n ⏚ᚚࡉóiru n ࢜࢖ࣝ oil (for car engine) ࢇ (your/someone else’s) nephew; oishii adj ࠾࠸ࡋ࠸࣭⨾࿡ࡋ࠸ oi-kko n ⏚ࡗᏊ nephew (= oi ⏚) tasty, nice, delicious, yummy (= ói interj ࠾࠸ hey! (mostly male, umai ࠺ࡲ>᪨࣭⨾࿡@࠸) RLVKLVĿ adj ࠾࠸ࡋࡑ࠺ looks very informal) Ŀi adj ከ࠸ many, numerous; lots; tasty/nice/delicious/yummy (= ĿNX adv ከࡃ a lot of, many umasø ࠺ࡲ>᪨࣭⨾࿡@ࡑ࠺) oide interj ࠾࠸࡛ Come! (training oisoreto adj ࠾࠸ࡑࢀ࡜ [(usually)

+ NEGATIVE verb] easily, quickly

one’s dog, etc.) oide (ni narimásu) v ࠾࠸࡛ ࡟࡞ࡾ ࡲࡍ = irasshaimásu ࠸ࡽࡗࡋ ࡷ࠸ࡲࡍ [HONORIFIC] 1. comes 2. goes 3. is, stays oi-kakemásu, oi-kakéru v ㏣࠸᥃ࡅࡲ ࡍ, ㏣࠸᥃ࡅࡿ chases oi-koshimásu, oi-kósu v ㏣࠸㉺ࡋ ࡲࡍ, ㏣࠸㉺ࡍ (overtakes and)

oitachi n ⏕࠸❧ࡕ (one’s) personal

history o-itoma n ࠾ᬤ leave-taking, farewell: ~ (ita-)shimásu ࠾ᬤ ⮴ ࡋ ࡲࡍ I will take my leave. oi-tsukimásu, oi-tsukú v ㏣࠸௜ ࡁࡲࡍ, ㏣࠸௜ࡃ (… ni …࡟)

catches up (with), overtakes

o-jigi n ࠾㎡൤ a polite bow: ~ o oimásu, ou v ㏣࠸ࡲࡍ, ㏣࠺ chases, shimásu ࠾㎡൤ࢆࡋࡲࡍ bows pursues; oi-kaze n ㏣࠸㢼 tail wind; ĿMLL n ࣮࢜ࢪ࣮ (abbreviation for oi-koshi n ㏣࠸㉺ࡋ Passing: ~ the word “old girl”) female kinshi ㏣࠸㉺ࡋ⚗Ṇ No Passing: graduate, alumna ~ shasen ㏣࠸㉺ࡋ㌴⥺ passing ĿMLPiVu, ĿMLUX v ᛂࡌࡲࡍ, ᛂࡌ ࡿ responds (to), accedes (to), line oimásu, ou v ㈇࠸ࡲࡍ, ㈇࠺ carries complies (with)




Ŀji (-sama) n ⓚᏊ ᵝ emperor’s

son oji (-san) n ࠾ࡌ>ུ∗@ ࡉࢇ

uncle (younger brother of father or mother) (= oji-chan ࠾ࡌ>ུ ∗@ࡕࡷࢇ) oji (-san) n ࠾ࡌ>఑∗@ ࡉࢇ uncle (older brother of father or mother) (= oji-chan ࠾ࡌ>఑∗@ ࡕࡷࢇ) oji (-san) n ࠾ࡌ>ᑠ∗@ࡉࢇ (not relative) (gentle) man, (middleaged) man (= oji-chan ࠾ࡌࡕࡷ ࢇ) ojoku n ở㎯ disgrace, shame, scandal ĿMR (-sama) n ⓚዪ ᵝ emperor’s daughter ojĿVDQ n ࠾Ꮉࡉࢇ a young lady; (your/someone else’s) daughter; Miss RMŗ n ࠾㔜 = jübako 㔜⟽ (nested boxes; picnic boxes) oka n ୣ hill oka n 㝣 dry land okabu n ࠾ᰴ = ohako ࠾ࡣࡇ࣭༑ ඵ␒ (specialty, habit) O-kaeri nasái! interj ࠾ᖐࡾ࡞ࡉ࠸! Welcome back! okage n ࠾࠿ࡆ࣭࠾ⶱ࣭࠾㝜; … no ~ de …ࡢ࠾࠿ࡆ>࠾ⶱ࣭࠾㝜@ ࡛ thanks to …


O-kamai náku interj ࠾ᵓ࠸࡞ࡃ.

Don’t go to any trouble. okámi n ᚚୖ࣭࠾ୖ the authori-

ties, the government okámi n ࠾࠿ࡳ࣭ዪᑗ = ~-san ࠾ ࠿ࡳ>ዪᑗ@ࡉࢇ landlady; mar-

ried woman, (your/someone else’s) wife (= oku-san/sama ዟ ࡉࢇᵝ) ĿNDPL n ࣑࣭࢜࢜࢝⊋ wolf o-kara n ࢜࢝ࣛ bean-curd lees ĿNDUH sukunakare adv ከ࠿ࢀᑡ࡞ ࠿ࢀ more or less okaruto n ࢜࢝ࣝࢺ occult: ~-eiga ࢜࢝ࣝࢺᫎ⏬ occult film(s) okashíi adj ࠾࠿ࡋ࠸, ~ na (…) ࠾ ࠿ࡋ࡞ … 1. amusing, funny 2. strange, peculiar, queer okashimásu, okásu v ≢ࡋࡲࡍ, ≢ࡍ commits, perpetrates; violates okashimásu, okásu v ౵ࡋࡲࡍ, ౵ ࡍ encroaches upon, invades okashimásu, okásu v ෑࡋࡲࡍ, ෑ ࡍ braves; attacks ĿNDWD adv ࠾࠾࠿ࡓ࣭኱᪉ 1. for the most part 2. probably o-káwari n ࠾௦ࢃࡾ a second helping (usually of rice) o-kazari n ࠾㣭ࡾ (A kazari 㣭ࡾ) 1. decorations and/or offerings to the gods and Buddha 2. New Year’s decorations 3. mere okage-sama (de) ࠾࠿ࡆࡉࡲ ࡛ figurehead thanks to your solicitude; thank okazu n ࠾࠿ࡎ main/side dish (to go with the rice) you (I’m very well or it’s going óke n ᱩ tub, wooden bucket: fuvery nicely) ro-~ 㢼࿅ᱩ bathtub: kan-~ ᳌ᱩ ĿNDNXPDNX n ᶓ㝸⭷ diaphragm 205



coffin [INFORMAL] (= hitsugi ᳌) ĿNď n ࣮࢜ࢣ࣮ okay, ok ĿNesutora n ࣮࢜ࢣࢫࢺࣛ orchestra oki n Ἀ offshore, offing; oki-ba n ⨨ࡁሙ a place (to put something); oki-miyage n ⨨ࡁᅵ⏘ keepsake, parting present/gift; oki-mono n ⨨ࡁ≀ ornament; bric-a-brac; oki-tegami n ⨨ࡁᡭ⣬

letter/note left behind ĿNtL adj ኱ࡁ࠸ big, large; loud (= ø´ki na ኱ࡁ࡞); ĿNLNX adv ኱ ࡁࡃ greatly, much, loudly; so as to be big/loud: ~ nái (arimasén) ኱ࡁࡃ࡞࠸ ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ small, modest; ĿNL (na) adj ኱ࡁ ࡞ big, great okimásu, oku v ⨨ࡁࡲࡍ, ⨨ࡃ puts (aside), places, sets, lays; shite ~ ࡋ࡚⨨ࡁࡲࡍ does for later, does for now (for the time being) okimásu, okíru v ㉳ࡁࡲࡍ, ㉳ࡁࡿ gets up; arises okina n ⩝ old man, o-ki-ni-iri n ࠾Ẽ࡟ධࡾ favorite:

RNNŗ (na) adj ൨ຕ ࡞ trouble-

some, bothersome ĿNĿ (suru) adj ᶓ⾜ ࡍࡿ rampant okonai ⾜࠸ n act(ion), deed, conduct: higoro no ~ ᪥ࡈࢁࡢ⾜ ࠸ daily behavior okonaimásu, okonau v ⾜࠸ࡲࡍ, ⾜࠺ acts, does, carries out,

performs okonomi-yaki n ࠾ዲࡳ↝ࡁ sea-

soned pancake okorí v ㉳ࡇࡾ origin, source, beginning: koto no ~ (wa)… ஦ ࡢ㉳ࡇࡾ ࡣ  it happened

because…, it started like this… okorí n ࠾ࡇࡾ ague, the shakes okorimásu, okóru v ㉳ࡇࡾࡲࡍ, ㉳ ࡇࡿ happens, occurs, arises;

springs from okorimásu, okóru v ⯆ࡾࡲࡍ, ⯆ࡿ

starts; prospers; rises okorimásu, okóru v ᛣࡾࡲࡍ, ᛣࡿ gets mad/angry okoshimásu, okósu v ㉳ࡇࡋࡲࡍ, ㉳ࡇࡍ raises; establishes; gets a kono pëji o ~ ni tsuikashimásu person up, rouses ࡇࡢ࣮࣌ࢪࢆ࠾Ẽ࡟ධࡾ࡟㏣ຍ okoshimásu, okósu v ⯆ࡋࡲࡍ, ⯆ ࡋࡲࡍ bookmarks this page (as ࡍ gives rise to, brings about okotarimásu, okotaru v ᛰࡾࡲࡍ, ᛰ a favorite) (web browser) ĿNisa n ኱ࡁࡉ size (= saizu ࢧ࢖ࢬ) ࡿ neglects, shirks; is lazy about okite n ᥅ law, rule, regulation: óku n ൨ a hundred million: ~-man ~ o mamorimásu (yaburimásu) chøja ൨୓㛗⪅ a billionaire observes (breaks) a rule ᥅ࢆᏲ óku n ዟ the back or inside part; ࡾࡲࡍ ◚ࡾࡲࡍ óku-ba n ዟṑ back tooth okiwasuréru v ⨨ࡁᛀࢀࡿ forgets oku-… prefix ᒇ house, roof; okkochimásu, okkochíru v ⴠࡗࡇࡕ oku-gai (no/de) adj, adv ᒇእ ࡢ ࡲࡍ, ⴠࡗࡇࡕࡿ falls ࡛ outdoor(s), outside; RNXMĿ (no/ 206


de) adj, adv ᒇୖ ࡢ࡛ on the

roof(top), rooftop floor ĿNX ከࡃ 1. n a lot, for the most part 2. adv mostly okubi n ࠾ࡃࡧ belch RNXE\Ŀ n ⮑⑓ cowardice: ~ (na) ⮑⑓ ࡞ cowardly, timid; ~-monó ⮑⑓⪅ a coward (= kowagari ᛧ>ᜍ@ࡀࡾ okure n ᚋࢀ a lag: ~ o torimásu ᚋࢀࢆྲྀࡾࡲࡍ falls behind,

gets defeated okuremásu, okureru v 㐜ࢀࡲࡍ, 㐜 ࢀࡿ is late, gets delayed; lags,

falls behind; runs late okurimásu, okuru v ㏦ࡾࡲࡍ, ㏦ࡿ


o-mamori n ࠾Ᏺࡾ amulet, charm,

good-luck piece O-matase (ita)shimáshita interj ࠾ᚅ ࡓࡏ ⮴ ࡋࡲࡋࡓ. Sorry to have

made you wait. omáwari (-san) n ࠾ᕠࡾ ࡉࢇ ࣭࠾ ࡲࢃࡾ ࡉࢇ policeman, (police)

officer o-me n ࠾┠eyes: ~ ni kakarimásu ࠾┠࡟࠿࠿ࡾࡲࡍ I meet/see you; ~ ni kakemásu ࠾┠࡟࠿ ࡅࡲࡍ I show it to you ĿPHGDPD o kuimásu Nŗ v ኱┠⋢ ࢆ㣗࠸ࡲࡍ 㣗࠺ gets severely

scolded, gets it in the neck omedeta n ࠾ࡵ࡛ࡓ blessed event

sends; sees a person off; spends (pregnancy, childbirth, marriage, (time) etc.) okurimásu, okuru v ㉗ࡾࡲࡍ, ㉗ࡿ RPHGHWĿ (gozaimásu) interj ࠾ࡵ࡛ presents, awards; okuri-mono n ㉗ ࡜࠺ ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ congratulations: ࡾ≀ gift, present akemáshite ~ ᫂ࡅࡲࡋ࡚࠾ࡵ࡛ óku-san/-sama n ዟࡉࢇ/ᵝ (your/ ࡜࠺ ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ Happy New someone else’s) wife; lady, Year! omei n ởྡ disgrace Madam okusoku n ᠈  guess ĿPH ni mimásu (miru) v ኱┠࡟ぢࡲ ĿN\ŗ n ᛂᛴ emergency; ĿN\ŗVKRFKL ࡍ ぢࡿ overlooks (= minogan ᛂᛴฎ⨨ first aid; ĿN\ŗVRFKL n shimásu ぢ㏨ࡋࡲࡍ): (døka) øme ᛂᛴᥐ⨨ emergency measure ni mitekudasai ࡝࠺࠿ ኱┠࡟ぢ okuyami n ࠾᜼ࡸࡳ condolences ࡚ୗࡉ࠸ Please give me a break. 2PDFKLGĿVDPD déshita interj ࠾ᚅ o-meshi ni narimásu (náru) v ࠾ྊࡋ ࡕ࡝࠺ࡉࡲ࡛ࡋࡓ. Thank you ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ ࡞ࡿ [HONORIFIC] 1. wears 2. buys 3. invites for waiting. (at restaurant, etc.) omae pron ࠾๓ (mostly male. 4. kaze o ~ 㢼㑧ࢆ࠾ྊࡋ࡟࡞ࡾ ࡲࡍ catches a cold familiar or rude) you omake n ࠾ࡲࡅ extra, bonus, o-mi- prefix ࠾ࡳ (for a few words) premium: ~ ni ࠾ࡲࡅ࡟ to boot, = o- ࠾࣭ᚚ [HONORIFIC]; o-mi-ki n ᚚ⚄㓇 saké offered to the gods in addition 207



(= miki ⚄㓇); o-míkoshi n ࠾⚄㍿ 2. atmosphere, air 3. circumportable shrine (= mikoshi ⚄㍿) stance, contents 4. condition ĿPtVRND n ኱ᬉ᪥ last day of omoya n ẕᒇ main building/house omoi-yari n ࠾ࡶ࠸ࡸࡾ considerayear; New Year’s eve o-miya n ࠾ᐑ shrine (Shinto shrine) tion (being kind), solicitude o-miyage n ࠾ࡳࡸࡆ࣭࠾ᅵ⏘, ómo (na) adj ୺(࡞) principal, o-míya ࠾ࡳࡸ (baby talk) gift, main: ómo ni ୺࡟ mainly present (as souvenir) (= miyage omo-ni n 㔜Ⲵ burden (on one’s ࡳࡸࡆ) mind) omo-… prefix 㠃 face; omo-naga omosa n 㔜ࡉ weight (na/no) adj 㠃㛗 ࡞ࡢ long-faced; omoshi n 㔜ࡋ a weight (object) …(na) omo-mochi suffix, n  ࡞  omoshirói adj ࠾ࡶࡋࢁ࠸࣭㠃ⓑ࠸ 㠃ᣢࡕ a look on one’s face: fuan interesting, pleasant, amusing, na ~ ୙Ᏻ࡞㠃ᣢࡕ a worried funny look on one’s face: kinchø no ~ omoté n ⾲ front (side), surface, ⥭ᙇࡢ㠃ᣢࡕ a nervous look on outer side/surface; omote-dĿUL n ⾲ ㏻ࡾ main street; omote-muki (no/ one’s face; omo-yatsure n 㠃ࡸࡘ ࢀ drawn and haggard face (due wa) adj, adv ⾲ྥࡁ ࡢࡣ to worry and/or illness) ostensible (ostensibly), on the omócha n ࠾ࡶࡕࡷ࣭࢜ࣔࢳ࣭ࣕ surface, official(ly) ⋵ල toy omowánu … adj ᛮࢃࡠ…; omoemásu, omoéru v ᛮ࠼ࡲࡍ, unexpected, unanticipated ᛮ࠼ࡿ 1. can think 2. = omowa- omowaremásu, omowaréru v ᛮࢃࢀ remásu ᛮࢃࢀࡲࡍ (is thought) ࡲࡍ, ᛮࢃࢀࡿ is thought; omoi adj 㔜࠸ heavy; grave, seems, appears omowasemásu, omowaséru v ᛮࢃࡏ serious; important omói n ᛮ࠸ thought, idea; ࡲࡍ, ᛮࢃࡏࡿ reminds one of, feeling, mind, heart; desire, will makes one think of omoi-dashimásu, omoi-dásu v ᛮ࠸ฟ ĿPX n ࣒࣭࢜࢘㮩㭁 parrot ࡋࡲࡍ, ᛮ࠸ฟࡍ remembers, ĿPXJL n ࣒࢜࢜ࢠ࣭኱㯏 barley recalls; omoide n ᛮ࠸ฟ memory omunibasu n ࣒࢜ࢽࣂࢫ omnibus omu-ráisu n ࣒࢜ࣛ࢖ࢫ omelet (a recollection) omoigakénai v ᛮ࠸ࡀࡅ࡞࠸ wrapped around rice omuretsu n ࣒࢜ࣞࢶ omelet unexpected, surprising omoimásu, omóu v ᛮ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᛮ࠺ omútsu n ࠾ࡴࡘ diapers on n 㡢 sound; pronunciation; thinks, feels omomuki n ㊃ 1. taste, flavor RQN\Ŀ n 㡢㡪 sound: ~-køka 㡢㡪 208



ຠᯝ sound effect; on-pa n 㡢Ἴ (…): ~ yø´ (na) ྠࡌࡼ࠺ ࡞ sound wave; on-ritsu n 㡢ᚊ alike, similar o-naka n ࠾⭡ stomach: ~ ga rhythm; RQU\Ŀ n 㡢㔞 sound volume: ~ o agete (sagete) kuda- sukimáshita ࠾࡞࠿ࡀࡍࡁࡲࡋࡓ sai 㡢㔞ࢆୖࡆ࡚ ୗࡆ࡚ ୗࡉ࠸ is hungry Please turn up (down) the volume; onanii n ࢜ࢼࢽ࣮ masturbation on-setsu n 㡢⠇ syllable; on-yomi n (= jíi ⮬៘ 㡢ㄞࡳ Chinese reading of kanji/ onara n ࠾࡞ࡽ flatulence, fart ónbu shimásu (suru) v ࠾ࢇࡪࡋࡲ Chinese character in Japanese on- prefix ᚚ (for a few words) ࡍ ࡍࡿ carries baby on back; = o- ࠾࣭ᚚ [HONORIFIC]: on-sha rides on back ᚚ♫ (letter) (your) good self, RQFKŗ n ᚚ୰ [HONORIFIC] Messrs.

your esteemed institution/organization; on-zøshi ᚚ᭪ྖᚚ᭪Ꮚ scion; ... on-chü ... ᚚ୰ (letter) Dear ...; on-rei møshiagemasu ᚚ♩⏦ࡋୖࡆࡲࡍ Thank you ... for ... ón n ᜠ go-ón ࡈᜠ obligation; kindness:; go-ón wa isshø wasuremasen ࡈᜠࡣ୍⏕ᛀࢀࡲࡏࢇ I will never forget your kindness.; on-gaeshi n ᜠ㏉ࡋ returning the favour, repaying the favour; onjin n ᜠே benefactor: inochi no ~ ࿨ࡢᜠே person to whom one owes his/her life; ón ni kimásu, ón ni kiru v ᜠ࡟╔ࡲࡍ, ᜠ࡟╔ࡿ I appreciate it. I am deeply grateful.; ón ni kisemásu, ón ni kiseru v ᜠ࡟╔ࡏࡲࡍ, ᜠ࡟╔ࡏࡿ emphasizes the favor one has done:

(on envelope) óndo n  ᗘ temperature; ~-kei   ᗘィ thermometer ondori n ࢜ࣥࢻ࣭ࣜ㞝㭜 rooster ĿQHWVXE\Ŀ n 㯤⇕⑓ (medical)

yellow fever

óngaku n 㡢ᴦ music; ongak(u)-ka n 㡢ᴦᐙ musician; ongák(u)-kai n 㡢 ᴦ఍ concert oní n 㨣 1. demon, devil, ogre 2. cruel, cold, and/or heartless person 3. fiend, person who devotes all his/her energy: shigoto no ~ ௙஦ࡢ㨣 a workaholic; oníbaba n 㨣፠ hag; oní-gokko n 㨣ࡈ ࡗࡇ tag (child game) onkei n ᜠᜨ favor onná n ዪ, ~ no hitó/katá ዪࡢே ᪉ woman, female; ~ no kyø´dai ዪࡢࡁࡻ࠺ࡔ࠸ sister(s) (= on-kisegamashii ᜠ╔ࡏࡀࡲࡋ࠸ shímai ጜጒ); onna-gata n ዪᙧ, oyáma ࠾ࡸࡲ࣭ዪᙧ female condescending, patronizing; onshi n ᜠᖌ former teacher impersonator (in Kabuki); onnamono n ዪ≀ women’s wear; ĿQă n ࣮࢜ࢼ࣮ owner onaji (…) adj ྠࡌ … the same onná-no-ko n ዪࡢᏊ girl (=




joshi ዪᏊ); onna-shújin n ዪ୺ே Countries, OPEC hostess; onna-yu n ዪ‫ ‮‬women’s ópera n ࢜࣌ࣛ opera óppai n ࠾ࡗࡥ࠸ (= (o-)chichí (section of the) bath óno n ᩼ ax, hatchet ࠾ ங (baby talk, slang) breast; onóono adj ྛࠎ࣭࠾ࡢ࠾ࡢ each, milk (= chíbusa, nyübø ஙᡣ) respectively, severally: ~ no ྛ ĿSXQ n ࣮࢜ࣉࣥ open; ĿSXQ na ࠎࡢ respective adj ࣮࢜ࣉࣥ࡞ open, candid onore n ࠾ࡢࢀ self [BOOKISH] ĿUa n ࣮࢜ࣛ aura: ~ ga arimásu onozukara adv ⮬ࡎ࠿ࡽ automati- ࣮࢜ࣛࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ has radiance Ŀrai n  ᮶ traffic; communication; cally, spontaneously onparďdo n ࢜ࣥࣃ࣮ࣞࢻ on pa-- thoroughfare ĿUDL n ࣮࢜ࣛ࢖ “all right, OK”, rade, succession onrain n ࢜ࣥࣛ࢖ࣥonline; onrain (all clear, go ahead) ĿNXVKRQ n ࢜ࣥࣛ࢖࣭࣮ࣥ࢜ࢡ ĿUDND (na) adj ࠾࠾ࡽ࠿ ࡞ generࢩࣙࣥ online auction; onrain ous, big-hearted, easygoing: JďPX n ࢜ࣥࣛ࢖ࣥࢤ࣮࣒ online ~ na seikaku ࠾࠾ࡽ࠿࡞ᛶ᱁ game (Internet); RQUDLQWVŗKDQVDLWR generous personality n ࢜ࣥࣛ࢖ࣥ㏻㈍ࢧ࢖ࢺ online Oranda n ࢜ࣛࣥࢲ Holland; (= Oranda no ࢜ࣛࣥࢲࡢ) Dutch shopping site RQU\Ŀ n ᛷ㟋 vengeful ghost/spirit ore pron ࠾ࢀ࣭ನ (male, unonsen n  Ἠ hot spring; spa: refined) I/me ~-ryokan  Ἠ᪑㤋 Japanese inn oremásu, oréru v ᢡࢀࡲࡍ, ᢡࢀࡿ 1. it breaks; it folds 2. can and hot-spring onshin n 㡢ಙ contact, news: ~ break/fold/bend it futsü desu 㡢ಙ୙㏻࡛ࡍ is out orénji n ࢜ࣞࣥࢪ orange; orenjiMV~ n ࢜ࣞࣥࢪࢪ࣮ࣗࢫ orange of contact, lost touch with onshitsu n  ᐊ greenhouse juice/drink onsui n  Ỉ warm water oresen-gurafu n ᢡࢀ⥺ࢢࣛࣇ line onwa n  ࿴ 1. mild, moderate graph (climate) 2. gentle, quiet, calm ori n ࠾ࡾ⃦࣭ dregs, sediment orí n ᷦ cage; jail and peaceful person on za rokku n ࢜ࣥࢨࣟࢵࢡ on the orí n ᢡ time, occasion orLHQWďVKRQ n ࢚࢜ࣜࣥࢸ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ rocks (whiskey, etc.) RQ]ĿVKL n ᚚ᭪ྖ son of a noble/ orientation orígami n ࠾ࡾࡀࡳ࣭ᢡࡾ⣬ distinguished family opekku n ࢜࣌ࢵࢡ Organization paper-folding (art) oríibu n ࣮࢜ࣜࣈ olive; oriibu-yu/of Petroleum Exporting



oiru ࣮࢜ࣜࣈἜ࢜࢖ࣝ olive oil orimásu, óru v ᒃࡾࡲࡍ, ᒃࡿ


oroshi-uri n ༺ࡋ኎ࡾ (selling)

wholesale ĿUXGR misu n ࣮࢜ࣝࢻ࣑ࢫ old [DEFERENTIAL/HUMBLE] is, stays (= imásu ᒃࡲࡍ, iru ᒃࡿ) maid, spinster orimásu, óru v ᢡࡾࡲࡍ, ᢡࡿ RUXJĿUX n ࢜ࣝࢦ࣮ࣝ music box breaks (folds, bends) it; ori-mé n ĿUX maitii adj ࣮࣐࢜ࣝ࢖ࢸ࢕ ᢡࡾ┠ fold, crease, pleat almighty 1. the ace of spades orimásu, óru v ⧊ࡾࡲࡍ, ⧊ࡿ (card game) 2. all-around (= weaves it; ori-mono n ⧊≀ cloth, zennø ඲⬟) Ŀru-naito adj ࣮࢜ࣝࢼ࢖ࢺ alltextile, fabric orimásu, oríru v ୗࡾࡲࡍ, ୗࡾࡿ night (= shüya ⤊ኪ): ~ køgyø ࢜ ࣮ࣝࢼ࢖ࢺ⯆⾜ all-night show goes down orimásu, oríru v 㝆ࡾࡲࡍ, 㝆ࡾࡿ ĿU\Ŀ n ᶓ㡿 embezzlement osaemásu, osáéru v ᢲࡉ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᢲ gets down, gets off (a ship/ ࡉ࠼ࡿ represses; covers; holds plane), gets out (of a car) ori-tatamimásu, ori-tatamu v ᢡࡾ␚ osaemásu, osáéru v ᢚ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᢚ࠼ ࡳࡲࡍ, ᢡࡾ␚ࡴ folds up ࡿ controls, restrains óroka adj ហ࠿ [BOOKISH] foolish ľsaka n ኱㜰 Osaka; ľVDNi(NL n ኱㜰㥐 Osaka Station; ľVDNiMLQ n (= baka na 㤿㮵࡞) ĿURUD n ࣮࢜ࣟࣛ aurora ኱㜰ே an Osakan oroshí v ࠾ࢁࡋ 1. a grater (= osamarimásu, osamáru v ཰ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, ~-gane ࠾ࢁࡋ㔠) 2. (something) ཰ࡲࡿ gets reaped (collected, grated: daikon-~ ኱᰿࠾ࢁ@ brought in) osamarimásu, osamáru v ⣡ࡲࡾࡲ grated radish oroshimásu, orósu v ୗࢁࡋࡲࡍ, ୗ ࡍ, ⣡ࡲࡿ is paid ࢁࡍ takes down, lowers; osamarimásu, osamáru v ἞ࡲࡾࡲ unloads; invests; yokin o ~ 㡸㔠 ࡍ, ἞ࡲࡿ settles (down/in) ࢆୗࢁࡋࡲࡍ withdraws o-samemásu, osaméru v ཰ࡵ>⣡ࡵ@ ࡲࡍ, ཰ࡵ>⣡ࡵ@ࡿ reaps, (deposited money) oroshimásu, orósu v 㝆ࢁࡋࡲࡍ, 㝆 harvests, collects; gets; finishes ࢁࡍ lets one off (a ship/plane), o-samemásu, osaméru v ⣡ࡵࡲࡍ, ⣡ࡵࡿ pays (tax, premium, etc.) drops off (from a car), lets out o-samemásu, osaméru v ἞ࡵࡲࡍ, (of a car) oroshimásu, orósu v ለࢁࡋࡲࡍ, ለ ἞ࡵࡿ governs; pacifies ࢁࡍ aborts, has an abortion o-san n ࠾⏘ childbirth (= shussan óroshí (no/de) adj, adv ༺ ࡢ࡛ ฟ⏘) osanái adj ᗂ࠸ infant(ile), very wholesale 211


o-san shimásu (suru)

young; childish, green (inexperienced) o-san shimásu (suru) v ࠾⏘ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ gives birth to (= shussan shimásu (suru) ฟ⏘ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ ) osarai n ࠾ࡉࡽ࠸ review [INFORMAL] (= fukushü ᚟⩦) o-séchi n ࠾ࡏࡕ࣭࠾⠇ a season; a festival; RVHFKLU\ĿUL n ࠾ࡏࡕᩱ⌮ festival cookery (for New Year’s) o-seibo n ࠾ṓᬽ year-end present, winter gift o-seji n ࠾ୡ㎡࣭࠾ࡏࡌ compliment, flattery: o-~ o iimásu ࠾ୡ ㎡ࢆゝ࠸ࡲࡍ pays compliments, flatters o-sékkai n ࠾⠇௓ meddling: o-~ o

oshiego n ᩍ࠼Ꮚ a student (of a

teacher’s) oshiemásu, oshieru v ᩍ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᩍ࠼ ࡿ teaches, shows, tells, informs oshíi adj ᝰࡋ࠸ 1. regrettable 2. precious ĿVKLL adj 㞝ࠎࡋ࠸ manly, manful,

brave, strong (not feminine or sissy) oshi-ire n ᢲࡋධࢀ (traditional Japanese) closet, cupboard o-shimai n ࠾ࡋࡲ࠸ the end (baby talk) (= owari ⤊ࢃࡾ) oshimásu, osu v ᢲࡋࡲࡍ, ᢲࡍ pushes, presses (on) oshíme n ࠾ࡋࡵ diapers ĿVKLQ n  デ house call yakimásu ࠾⠇௓ࢆ↝ࡁࡲࡍ o-shinko n ࠾ࡋࢇࡇ࣭࠾᪂㤶 radmeddles; ~ (na) ࠾⠇௓ ࡞ ish (etc.) pickles oshiroi n ࠾ࡋࢁ࠸࣭ⓑ⢊ face meddlesome osen n ởᰁ [BOOKISH] contamina- powder oshitsukémásu, oshitsukéru v ᢲࡋ௜ tion, pollution ࡅࡲࡍ, ᢲࡋ௜ࡅࡿ pushes, ĿVHQ n ᛂᡓ fighting back o-sewa-sama ࠾ୡヰᵝ (thank you presses; intrudes oshiuri n ᢲࡋ኎ࡾ 1. high-pressure for) your help/attention osháberi n ࠾ࡋࡷ࡭ࡾ chatter-box, selling: shinsetsu no ~ ぶษࡢᢲ ࡋ኎ࡾ unwelcome kindness 2. a gossip osháburi n ࠾ࡋࡷࡪࡾ teething high-pressure salesman oshí-zushi n ᢲࡋ㩧 sushi rice and ring, pacifier osháre n ࠾ࡋࡷࢀ࣭࠾ὗⴠ marinated fish pressed in squardandy: ~ na hito ࠾ࡋࡷࢀ࡞ே ish molds (Osaka style) ĿVKRNX jinshu n 㯤Ⰽே✀ Asians, fancy dresser oshi n ࠾ࡋ࣭။ a (deaf-)mute Mongoloid o-shíbori n ࠾ࡋࡰࡾ damp hand- RVKĿ (-san) n ࿴ᑦ ࡉࢇ Buddhist towel priest oshie n ᩍ࠼ instruction, teachľVKŗ n Ḣᕞ Europe (= Yøróppa ࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ ) ing(s) 212


osoi adj 㐜࠸ late; slow osóimásu, osou v く࠸ࡲࡍ, く࠺


Austrian o-suwari interj ࠾ᗙࡾ Sit! (trainattacks, assaults; strikes, hits ing one’s dog) osokare hayakare adv 㐜࠿ࢀ᪩࠿ࢀ otafukukaze n ࠾ࡓࡩࡃ㢼㑧 mumps o-tagai (no) adj ࠾஫࠸ ࡢ mutual, sooner or later osoku adv 㐜ࡃ late; slow: osóku- reciprocal: ~ (ni) ࠾஫࠸ ࡟ tomo 㐜ࡃ࡜ࡶ at the latest mutually, reciprocally o-sómatsu-sama interj ࠾⢒ᮎࡉࡲ otamajakushi n ࢜ࢱ࣐ࢪࣕࢡࢩ Please excuse the poor fare tadpole (reply to gochisø-sama ࡈࡕࡑ࠺ o-taku n ࠾Ꮿ [INFORMAL] your ࡉࡲ) house; you; o-taku no pron ࠾Ꮿ osóraku adv ࠾ࡑࡽࡃ࣭ᜍࡽࡃ ࡢ your, yours ó-te interj ࠾ᡭ Give me your probably, maybe, possibly osoré n ᜍࢀ fear paw! Shake hands! (training osóreirimásu v ᜍࢀධࡾࡲࡍ 1. one’s dog) o-teage n ࠾ᡭୖࡆ giving up excuse me 2. thank you osoremásu, osoréru v ᜍࢀࡲࡍ, ᜍ o-teárai n ࠾ᡭὙ࠸ washroom, ࢀࡿ fears toilet, restroom osoroshíi adj ᜍࢁࡋ࠸ fearful, o-témae n ࠾ᡭ๓ prowess, skill, dreadful, awful, terrible, horrible ability osoróshiku adv ᜍࢁࡋࡃ terribly o-tenba n ࠾㌿፠ tomboy osowarimásu, osowaru v ᩍࢃࡾࡲࡍ, o-ténto-sama n ࠾࡚ࢇ࡜ࡉࡲ࣭࠾ ኳ㐨ࡉࡲ the sun (= táiyø ኴ㝧) ᩍࢃࡿ is taught, studies, learns osshaimásu, ossháru v ࠾ࡗࡋࡷ࠸ otétsudai (-san) n ࠾ᡭఏ࠸ ࡉࢇ ࡲࡍ, ࠾ࡗࡋࡷࡿ (someone maid(-servant), (household) honored) says; is called helper osú n 㞝࣭࢜ࢫ male animal; … otó n 㡢 sound, noise: ~ ga no ~ …ࡢ㞝 a he-… (Ao-ushi shimásu 㡢ࡀࡋࡲࡍ it makes a 㞝∵) noise, there is a noise osui n ởỈ sewage ĿWĿ n ᛂ⟅ reply, response, osui-dame n ởỈ⁀ࡵ cesspool answer; VKLWVXJLĿWĿ n ㉁␲ᛂ⟅ ĿVXML n ኱➽ outline questions and answers ľVutorária n ࣮࢜ࢫࢺࣛࣜ࢔ ĿWyEDL n ࣮࢜ࢺࣂ࢖ motorcycle Australia; ľVutorariá-jin n ࣮࢜ࢫ otokó n ⏨ = ~ no hitó/katá ⏨ࡢ ࢺࣛࣜ࢔ே an Australian ே᪉ man, male, boy; ~ no ľsutoria n ࣮࢜ࢫࢺࣜ࢔ Austria; kyø´dai ⏨ࡢ඗ᘵ brother(s); ľVXWRULiMLQ n ࣮࢜ࢫࢺࣜ࢔ே an otoko-gokoro n ⏨ᚰ man’s heart; 213



otoko-mono n ⏨≀ menswear; otokó-no-ko n ⏨ࡢᏊ boy (= danshi ⏨Ꮚ); otoko-yámome n ⏨ࡸࡶࡵ widower; otoko-yu n ⏨‫ ‮‬men’s

(section of the) bath ĿWRNuFKŗUX n ࣮࢜ࢺࢡࢳ࣮ࣗࣝ

haute couture, high fashion o-tokui (-san) n ࠾ᚓព ࡉࢇ good

otótoshi n ࠾࡜࡜ࡋ୍࣭᫖ᖺ year

before last ĿWRWVX n ࠾࠺࡜ࡘ࣭พฝ unevenness, bump (= dekoboko ࡛ࡇࡰ ࡇ㺃ฝพ) O-tsukare-sama (déshita) interj ࠾⑂ ࢀᵝ ࡛ࡋࡓ . You did good

work (today, at the end of a customer(s), regular customer(s) project, etc.); You must be otome n எዪ 1. (young) girl, lady weary (tired, exhausted). (A 2. maiden, virgin: urawakaki ~ Go-kúrø-sama (deshita). ࡈⱞປ ᵝ ࡛ࡋࡓ .) [BOOKISH] ࠺ࡽⱝࡁஎዪ young otsu (na) adj ࠾ࡘ>எ@ ࡞ chic, maiden o-tómo shimásu (suru) v ࠾కࡋࡲࡍ stylish ࡍࡿ (I will) accompany (you) otto n ኵ (my) husband otona n ኱ே࣭࠾࡜࡞ adult ototta adj ຎࡗࡓ is inferior, otonashíi adj ࠾࡜࡞ࡋ࠸ gentle, worse, weak, poor (= otoru ຎࡿ) o-ushi n 㞝∵ bull, ox well-behaved otonáshiku adv ࠾࡜࡞ࡋࡃ gently o-úsu n ࠾ⷧ light green tea (teaotori n ࠾࡜ࡾ࣭ᅓ decoy; lure ceremony) (= usu-cha ⷧⲔ) otoroemásu, otoróéru v ⾶࠼ࡲࡍ, ⾶o-wakare n ࠾ูࢀ parting, farewell ࠼ࡿ declines, fades, grows weak (= wakaré ูࢀ otóru adj ຎࡿ is inferior, worse, owaremásu, owareru v ㏣ࢃࢀࡲࡍ, ㏣ࢃࢀࡿ gets chased weak, poor (= ototta ຎࡗࡓ otoshi-dama n ࠾ᖺ⋢ money given owari n ⤊ࢃࡾ the end: ~ no … ⤊ࢃࡾࡢ… the last, final; ~ no as a New Year’s gift otoshimásu, otósu v ⴠ࡜ࡋࡲࡍ, ⴠ nai ⤊ࢃࡾࡢ࡞࠸ endless ࡜ࡍ drops; omits owarimásu, owaru v ⤊ࢃࡾࡲࡍ, ⤊ otoshimono n ⴠ࡜ࡋ≀ lost, dropped ࢃࡿ it ends; ends it oyá n ぶ parent; oya-baka n ぶࡤ࠿ things otoshi-támago n ⴠ࡜ࡋ༸ poached >㤿㮵@ doting parent(s); R\DIXNĿ eggs n ぶ୙ᖾ unfilial behavior, otĿWy n ᘵ younger brother: otøto- unfilial child; oya-go-san n ぶᚚ san ᘵࡉࢇ (your/someone else’s) ࡉࢇ (your/someone else’s) younger brother parent (= goryøshin ࡈ୧ぶ); ototói n ࠾࡜࡜࠸୍࣭᫖᪥ day oya-ji n ぶ∗ (familiar, usually before yesterday male) (= (o-)tø´-san ࠾∗ࡉࢇ࣭ 214



࠾࡜࠺ࡉࢇ) my father: oyaji-san ぶ∗ࡉࢇ (your/someone else’s) father; óya-ko n ぶᏊ parent and child; R\DNĿNĿ n ぶᏕ⾜ filial

Ŀ\Ŀ n ᛂ⏝ application, putting

to use Ŀ\Ŀ (na) adj 㮚ᥭ ࡞ easygoing: ~ na taido 㮚ᥭ࡞ែᗘ generous

piety (honoring one’s parents); attitude oya-moto n ぶඖ (one’s) parent’s óyobi prep ࠾ࡼࡧ and (also) (= to ࡜) home; oya-shirazu n ぶ▱ࡽࡎ oyobimásu, oyobu v ࠾ࡼࡧࡲࡍ, ࠾ wisdom tooth Oya interj ࠾ࡸ Gee whiz! I say! ࡼࡪ reaches, extends to, equals How (a)bout that!; Oya må! ࠾ࡸ oyogí n Ὃࡂ swimming ࡲ࠶ good heavens; óyaoya interj oyogimásu, oyógu v Ὃࡂࡲࡍ, Ὃࡄ ࠾ࡸ࠾ࡸ Dear dear!, Oh dear. swims óyá-bun n ぶศ boss, ringleader, oyoso (no) adj ࠾ࡼࡑ ࡢ about, chief roughly Ŀ\DNH (no/ni) adj, adv බ ࡢ࡟ Ŀzáppa (na) adj ࠾࠾ࡊࡗࡥ ࡞ public(ly), open(ly), official(ly) rough óyáma n ࠾ࡸࡲ࣭ዪᙧ female im- Ŀ]pL n ኱ໃ large crowd, throng: personator (of Kabuki) (= onna- ~ de ኱ໃ࡛ in large numbers (= gata ዪᙧ) takusan (no) ࡓࡃࡉࢇ ࡢ ); Ŀ]pL Ŀ\D (-san) n ኱ᐙ ࡉࢇ landlord no adj ኱ໃࡢ many O-yasumi nasái interj ࠾ࡸࡍࡳ࡞ Ŀ]HNL n ኱㛵 champion sumo ࡉ࠸. Good night. wrestler o-yátsu n ࠾ࡸࡘ snacks, sweets o-zon n ࢜ࢰࣥ ozone Ŀ]XPH n ኱ワࡵ ending: ~ o mu(for mid-afternoon) (Asánji no kaemásu ኱ワࡵࢆ㏄࠼ࡲࡍ is/ oyatsu ୕᫬ࡢ࠾ࡸࡘ) oya-yubi n ぶᣦ thumb will be in the final stage/phase

P pachinko n ࣃࢳࣥࢥ pinball (machine): ~-ya ࣃࢳࣥࢥᒇ

páipu n ࣃ࢖ࣉ pipe; cigarette holder pairótto n ࣃ࢖ࣟࢵࢺ pilot pajama n ࣃࢪ࣐ࣕ pajamas pachinko parlor pái n ࣃ࢖ pie (= nemaki ᐷᕳࡁ) pái n ࣃ࢖࣭ࡥ࠸࣭∩ a mahjong SăNLQJX n ࣃ࣮࢟ࣥࢢ parking tile (= chüsha-jø 㥔㌴ሙ) paináppuru n ࣃ࢖ࢼࢵࣉࣝ pineapple pakkďji n ࣃࢵࢣ࣮ࢪ package




…-paku suffix …Ἡ: ip-paku ୍Ἡ paso-kon n ࣃࢯࢥࣥ personal

one night’s lodging/stay A


…-haku …Ἡ SăPD n ࣃ࣮࣐ permanent wave pán n ࣃࣥ bread: shoku-~ 㣗ࣃ ࣥ loaf of bread, sandwich loaf: ~-këki ࣃࣥࢣ࣮࢟ pancake; pankó n ࣃࣥ⢊ { bread crumbs | bread flour; pan-kúzu n ࣃࣥࡃࡎ (bread) crumbs; pán-ya n ࣃࣥᒇ { bakeshop, bakery | baker pánda n ࣃࣥࢲ panda pánfu (rétto) n ࣃࣥࣇ ࣞࢵࢺ

pamphlet, brochure

pásu n ࣃࢫ pass(ing); ~ shimásu ࣃࢫࡋࡲࡍ passes (an exam) (= gøkaku shimásu ྜ᱁ࡋࡲࡍ) pasupĿWR n ࣃࢫ࣏࣮ࢺ passport SDWăQ n ࣃࢱ࣮ࣥ pattern Sătii n ࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕࣮ party: hømu-~ ࣮࣒࣍ࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕ house party SDWRNă n ࣃࢺ࣮࢝ patrol car,

police car SăWRQă n ࣃ࣮ࢺࢼ࣮ partner patoron n ࣃࢺࣟࣥ patron SăWR WDLPX n ࣃ࣮ࢺ ࢱ࢖࣒ part-

pánikku n ࣃࢽࢵࢡ panic; panikuru time work pázuru n ࣃࢬࣝ puzzle: jigusø-~ v ࣃࢽࡃࡿ [INFORMAL] gets ࢪࢢࢯ࣮ࣃࢬࣝ jigsaw puzzle panicky panku n ࣃࣥࢡ puncture, blowout: pedaru n ࣌ࢲࣝ pedal: jidensha/ taiya ga ~ shimásu ࢱ࢖ࣖࡀࣃࣥ jitensha no ~ ⮬㌿㌴ࡢ࣌ࢲࣝ ࢡࡋࡲࡍ gets a flat tire bicycle pedal pánku n ࣃࣥࢡ punk: ~ rokku SďML n ࣮࣌ࢪ࣭㡫 page ࣃࣥࢡࣟࢵࢡ punk rock, punk Pékin n ࣭࣌࢟ࣥ໭ி Beijing pén n ࣌ࣥ pen music pansuto n ࣃࣥࢫࢺ panty hose …-pén suffix …㐢 = …-hén …㐢 pántaron n ࣃࣥࢱࣟࣥ (women’s) (counts times) pénchi n ࣌ࣥࢳ pliers, pincers slacks, pantaloons pántii n ࣃࣥࢸ࢕࣮ underwear for péndanto n ࣌ࣥࢲࣥࢺ pendant penki n ࣌ࣥ࢟ paint; (… ni) ~ o ladies (panties) pántsu n ࣃࣥࢶ underwear nurimásu …࡟ ࣌ࣥ࢟ࢆሬࡾ ࡲࡍ paints; penki-ya n ࣌ࣥ࢟ᒇ (underpants); slacks, pants papa n ࣃࣃ (baby talk) daddy, painter (housepainter) dad (= (o-)tø-chan ࠾ ∗ࡕࡷࢇ) pénshon n ࣌ࣥࢩࣙࣥ pension SDUDVKŗWR n ࣃࣛࢩ࣮ࣗࢺ parachute (small hotel, lodge, inn, etc.) Pári n ࣃࣜ Paris perapera adj, adv ࡮ࡽ࡮ࡽ࣭࣌ࣛ paripari (no) adj ࡥࡾࡥࡾ ࡢ crisp; ࣌ࣛ fluent(ly) (= ryüchø ὶᬸ) péten n ࣌ࢸࣥ fraud (= sagi ブḭ, first-rate SăVpQWR n ࣃ࣮ࢭࣥࢺ percent ikasama ࠸࠿ࡉࡲ): ~-shi ࣌ࢸ




ࣥᖌ swindler (= sagi-shi ブḭᖌ, ikasama-shi ࠸࠿ࡉࡲᖌ) pétto n ࣌ࢵࢺ pet piano n ࣆ࢔ࣀ piano: gurando-~ ࢢࣛࣥࢻࣆ࢔ࣀ grand piano píiman n ࣆ࣮࣐ࣥ green bell pepper: aka-~ ㉥ࣆ࣮࣐ࣥ red

bell pepper

póndo n ࣏ࣥࢻ pound (weight or

money) pónpu n ࣏ࣥࣉ pump pónsu, ponzú n ࣏ࣥ㓑 juice of

bitter orange poppuNĿQ n ࣏ࢵࣉࢥ࣮ࣥ popcorn poppusu n ࣏ࢵࣉࢫ pops, popular


piínát(t)su n ࣆ࣮ࢼ ࢵ ࢶ

pori(-) n, prefix ࣏ࣜ poly(ethylene); plastic; pori-búkuro n ࣏ࣜ⿄

peanut(s) pikápika (no) adj ࣆ࢝ࣆ࢝ ࡢ

(plastic) bag

póruno n ࣏ࣝࣀ pornography; ~-éiga ࣏ࣝࣀᫎ⏬ a porno film pósuto n ࣏ࢫࢺ mail box SĿWă n ࣏࣮ࢱ࣮ porter ~ ni ochiirimásu ࣆࣥࢳ࡟㝗ࡾࡲ SRWăMX n ࣏ࢱ࣮ࢪࣗ potage, thick ࡍ gets in a pinch Western soup pínku adj ࣆࣥࢡ pink: ~-iro ࣆࣥ pótéto n ࣏ࢸࢺ potato ࢡⰍ pink color (= momo-iro ᱈Ⰽ) pótto n ࣏ࢵࢺ pot pinsétto n ࣆࣥࢭࢵࢺ tweezers púragu n ࣉࣛࢢ (electric) outlet, pin (to) adv ࡨࢇ ࡜ (stretched) plug taut: ~ to kimásu ࡨࢇ࡜᮶ࡲࡍ púran n ࣉࣛࣥ plan: ~ o tatemásu hits home with one, comes home ࣉࣛࣥࢆ❧࡚ࡲࡍ makes a plan puranetariúmu n ࣉࣛࢿࢱ࣒ࣜ࢘ to one, appeals to one pinto n ࣆࣥࢺ focus (= shøten planetarium ↔Ⅼ); pin-boke n ࣆࣥࡰࡅ outpurásuchíkku n ࣉࣛࢫࢳࢵࢡ

flashing, glittering píkuníkku n ࣆࢡࢽࢵࢡ picnic pín n ࣆࣥ pin (for hair) pínchi n ࣆࣥࢳ pinch (= kiki ༴ᶵ):



piramíddo n ࣆ࣑ࣛࢵࢻ pyramid puratto-KĿPX n ࣉࣛࢵࢺ࣮࣒࣍ pisutoru n ࣆࢫࢺࣝ revolver, pistol (station) platform pittári adv ࡨࡗࡓࡾ exactly, SXUHKDEXMŗWDNX n ࣉࣞࣁࣈఫᏯ

perfectly, closely; just right píza n ࣆࢨ pizza póchi, pótsu n ࡱࡕ, ࡱࡘ a dot pokétto n ࣏ࢣࢵࢺ pocket SRPăGR n ࣏࣐࣮ࢻ pomade, hair

oil ponbiki n ࡱࢇᘬࡁ a pimp

prefabricated house purei-gáido n ࣉࣞ࢖࢞࢖ࢻ a “Play

Guide” theater ticket agency purézento n ࣉࣞࢮࣥࢺ present, gift púrín n ࣉࣜࣥ a small custard;

crème brülée SXUtQWă n ࣉࣜࣥࢱ࣮ printer




purinto n ࣉࣜࣥࢺ printing,

purogúramu n ࣉࣟࢢ࣒ࣛ program puro-resu n ࣉࣟࣞࢫ professional

printout, printed matter (= insatsú ༳ๅ); purinto auto n ࣉࣜ ࣥࢺ࢔࢘ࢺ printing, printout (= insatsú-butsu ༳ๅ≀) púro n ࣉࣟ pro(-fessional) SXURJXUiPă n ࣉࣟࢢ࣐࣮ࣛ programmer

wrestling SŗUX n ࣉ࣮ࣝ 1. swimming pool 2. motor pool, parking lot pusshúhon n ࣉࢵࢩࣗ࣍ࣥ touch-

tone telephone

5 …´-ra suffix …ࡽ and others (= nado ࡞࡝㺃➼); all of rabel n ࣛ࣋ࣝ label rábo n ࣛ࣎ lab (= laboratory) rágubii n ࣛࢢࣅ࣮ rugby rai-… prefix ᮶ 1. next 2. coming; rái-getsu n, adv ᮶᭶ next month; rai-nen n, adv ᮶ᖺ next year; raise n ᮶ୡ afterlife, next life; raishŗ n, adv ᮶㐌 next week; raikyaku n ᮶ᐈ guest, caller, visitor,

company raibaru n ࣛ࢖ࣂࣝ rival UDLIXU~Mŗ n ࣛ࢖ࣇࣝ㖠 rifle ráimu n ࣛ࢖࣒ lime (fruit) raion n ࣛ࢖࢜ࣥ lion ráisensu n ࣛ࢖ࢭࣥࢫ license,

rájio n ࣛࢪ࢜ radio: ~-bangumi ࣛࢪ࢜␒⤌ radio program rakétto n ࣛࢣࢵࢺ racket rakkan n ᴦほ optimism; rakkan-teki (na) adj ᴦほⓗ ࡞ optimistic rakú adj ᴦ 1. comfort (= anraku Ᏻᴦ); rakú (na) adj ᴦ ࡞ comfortable; 2. easy (= kantan ⡆༢, yasashii ࡸࡉࡋ࠸>᫆ࡋ࠸@) rakuda n ࣛࢡࢲ camel rakudai n ⴠ➨ [BOOKISH] failure

(in a test) rakuen n ᴦᅬ paradise: chijø no ~ ᆅୖࡢᴦᅬ earthly paradise rakugo n ⴠㄒ (traditional

Japanese) comic storytelling: ~-ka ⴠㄒᐙ a comic storyteller UăPHQ n ࣮࣓ࣛࣥ Chinese noodles permit ráisu n ࣛ࢖ࢫ rice (served on plate) (in broth) UDLWă n ࣛ࢖ࢱ࣮ 1. lighter (ciga- ramune n ࣒ࣛࢿ lemon soda rán n ࣭ࣛࣥ⹒ orchid rette) 2. writer (professional) ráiu n 㞾㞵 [BOOKISH] thunderrán n ḍ column, field: nyüryoku -~ ධຊḍ entry field storm UDMLďWă n ࣛࢪ࢚࣮ࢱ࣮ radiator rán n ஘ disturbance; war UDQEĿ n ஘ᭀ violence, outrage; (car) 218


UDQEĿ QD  adj ஘ᭀ ࡞ violent,


zero o’clock, twelve o’clock réi n ౛: zen~ ๓౛ precedent; wild, rough, disorderly ránchi n ࣛࣥࢳ 1. lunch 2. launch ichi-~ ୍౛ example; ~ no … ౛ ࡢ… the… in question, the said (boat); UDQFKLVăELVX n ࣛࣥࢳࢧ ࣮ࣅࢫ special lunch, a luncheon … ; the usual/customary …; reigai n ౛እ exception (to the rule) special randóseru n ࣛࣥࢻࢭࣝ knapsack UHLEĿ n ෭ᡣ air conditioning for elementary school children UHLQNĿWR n ࣞ࢖ࣥࢥ࣮ࢺ raincoat ranma n ࡽࢇࡲ࣭ḍ㛫 transom reisei (na) adj ෭㟼 ࡞ calm, window cool, composed ranningu n ࣛࣥࢽࣥࢢ running UHLVKĿ n ෭➗ sneer, scoff ránpu n ࣛࣥࣉ 1. lamp 2. ramp UHLWĿ n ෭෾ freezing: ~-ko ෭෾ᗜ rappa n ࣛࢵࣃ trumpet, bugle freezer; UHLWĿVKRNXKLQ n ෭෾㣗ရ … rashíi suffix, adj …ࡽࡋ࠸ frozen food (seems) like, apparent, seems to be UHL]ĿNR n ෭ⶶᗜ refrigerator, rashinban n ⨶㔪┙ compass (for icebox réjă n ࣞࢪ࣮ࣕ leisure, recreation: directions) UDVVKXiZă n ࣛࢵࢩࣗ࢔࣮࣡ rush ~-shisetsu ࣞࢪ࣮ࣕ᪋タ leisure hour facilities ratai (no) adj 〄య ࡢ nude (= réji n ࣞࢪ cashier; checkout counter nüdo (no) ࢾ࣮ࢻ ࡢ ): ~-ga 〄 rekishi n Ṕྐ history: ~-teki (na) Ṕྐⓗ ࡞ historical; rekishi-ka n య⏬ a nude (picture) 5DWHQJR n ࣛࢸࣥㄒ Latin (lanṔྐᐙ historian UpNNă n ࣞࢵ࣮࢝, ~´-sha ࣞࢵ࣮࢝ guage) réa n ࣞ࢔ rare (beef) ㌴ wrecker (tow truck) UpEă n ࣞࣂ࣮ 1. liver (to eat) UHNĿGR n ࣞࢥ࣮ࢻ a record (pho2. lever nograph) UpJ\XUă n ࣞࢠ࣮ࣗࣛ regular UHNXULďVKRQ n ࣞࢡ࢚࣮ࣜࢩࣙࣥ rei n ♩ 1. thanks, gift 2. remurecreation neration, reward, fee (= sharei rémon n ࣞࣔࣥ lemon; ~tii ࣞࣔࣥ ㅰ♩); rei-kin n ♩㔠 “thank-you ࢸ࢕࣮ tea with a slice of lemon UHQ·DL n ᜊឡ love: ~-kánkei ᜊឡ money” (to obtain rental) réi n ♩ 1. greeting 2. bow (= o-jigi 㛵ಀ a love affair; ~-kékkon ᜊ ࠾㎡൤); rei-gí n ♩൤ courtesy, ឡ⤖፧ a love marriage etiquette; ~-tadashíi ♩൤ṇࡋ࠸ rénchi n ࣞࣥࢳ wrench UHQFKŗUHQMŗ n 㐃୰ gang, crowd, polite; rei-hai n ♩ᣏ worship réi n 㞽࣭ zero; réi-ji n 㞽᫬࣭᫬ clique 219



rénga n ࣭ࣞࣥ࢞↢⎰ brick UHQJĿ n 㐃ྜ union, alliance, Allied; ~´-koku 㐃ྜᅜ the Allies rénji n ࣞࣥࢪ cooking stove, kitchen range; denshi-~ 㟁Ꮚࣞ ࣥࢪ microwave oven renmei n 㐃┕ union, federation UHQQ\ŗ n ⦎ங condensed milk renraku n 㐃⤡ connection, liaison; relevance; renraku-saki n 㐃⤡ඛ

address of contact UHQVKŗ n ⦎⩦ training, practice,


résutoran n ࣞࢫࢺࣛࣥ restaurant: famirii-~ ࣇ࢓࣑࣮ࣜࣞࢫࢺࣛࣥ

family restaurant rétasu n ࣞࢱࢫ lettuce rétsu n ิ row, line; queue retteru n ࣞࢵࢸࣝ label UHWWĿ n ิᓥ, …-réttø …ิᓥ

archipelago, chain of islands rí n ฼ advantage, profit, interest ríbon n ࣜ࣎ࣥ ribbon: ~-musubi ࣜ࣎ࣥ⤖ࡧ ribbon-tie ríeki n ฼┈ benefit, advantage,


renták㍠n ࣞࣥࢱ࣮࢝ rental car rihabiri n ࣜࣁࣅࣜ rehabilitation: rentogen n ࣞࣥࢺࢤࣥ, ~-sen ࣞ ~-chiryø ࣜࣁࣅࣜ἞⒪ rehabiliࣥࢺࢤࣥ⥺ X-ray tation treatment renzoku n 㐃⥆ continuity; series: ULKăVDUX n ࣜࣁ࣮ࢧࣝ rehearsal ~ terebi dorama 㐃⥆ࢸࣞࣅࢻࣛ rihatsu n ⌮㧥 haircut(ting); rihátsúten n ⌮㧥ᗑ barbershop ࣐ serial TV drama rénzu n ࣞࣥࢬ lens; kontakuto-~ ULtGă n ࣮ࣜࢲ࣮ leader ࢥࣥࢱࢡࢺࣞࣥࢬ contact lens ríka n ⌮⛉ science repĿWR n ࣏࣮ࣞࢺ report ríkai n ⌮ゎ [BOOKISH] understandUďVă n ࣮ࣞࢧ࣮ racing driver ing, comprehension; rikái-ryoku n resépushon n ࣞࢭࣉࢩࣙࣥ a ⌮ゎຊ comprehension (ability) rikon n 㞳፧ divorce reception reshiíto n ࣞࢩ࣮ࢺ receipt ULNĿ (na) adj ฼ཱྀ ࡞ clever, ressha n ิ㌴ a train; ~-jíko ิ㌴ sharp, smart, intelligent: ~ ni ஦ᨾ train accident/wreck adv ฼ཱྀ࡟ cleverly réssun n ࣞࢵࢫࣥ lesson: piano riku (chi) n 㝣 ᆅ land, dry land (no) ~ ࣆ࢔ࣀ ࡢ ࣞࢵࢫࣥ piano rikúgun n 㝣㌷ army rikutsu n ⌮ᒅ reason, argument: lesson rď´su n ࣮ࣞࢫ 1. lace: ~ no kåten he-~ ࡬⌮ᒅ quibble [IN NEGATIVE ࣮ࣞࢫࡢ࣮࢝ࢸࣥ lace curtain SENSE] 2. race: ~-jø ࣮ࣞࢫሙ racetracks rimokon n ࣜࣔࢥࣥ remote conresuN\ŗ-tai n ࣞࢫ࣮࢟ࣗ㝲 rescue trol: terebi no ~ ࢸࣞࣅࡢࣜࣔࢥ ࣥ TV remote control team (= kyüjo-tai ᩆຓ㝲) résuringu n ࣞࢫࣜࣥࢢ wrestling rín n ࢫࢬ࣭㕥 a bell, a doorbell




(= beru ࣋ࣝ); suzu-mushi n ࢫࢬ ࣒ࢩ࣭㕥⹸ bell cricket ringo n ࣜࣥࢦ apple rinji (no) adj ⮫᫬ ࡢ [BOOKISH] extraordinary, special; temporary: ~-nyüsu ⮫᫬ࢽ࣮ࣗࢫ irregular/ special news: ~ no shigoto ⮫᫬ ࡢ௙஦ temporary work UtQNLĿKHQ (ni) adv ⮫ᶵᛂኚ ࡟ depending on the time and situation, on a case-by-case basis:

UL\Ŀ n ฼⏝ use, utilization UL\ŗ n ⌮⏤ reason, cause, grounds; … to iu ~ de … ࡜࠸࠺ ⌮⏤࡛ for the reason that … rizaya n ฼ࡊࡸ margin rízumu n ࣜࢬ࣒ rhythm ro n ⅔ furnace … ro (yo) interj …ࢁ ࡼ [eastern Japan] = … yo …ࡼ (IMPERATIVE of …i- …࠸ and … e- …࠼ verb

~ ni taiøshimásu ⮫ᶵᛂኚ࡟ᑐᛂ ࡋࡲࡍ responds flexibly rinneru n ࣜࣥࢿࣝ linen rínri n ೔⌮ ethics: kigyø-~ ௻ᴗ೔ ⌮ corporate ethics rippa (na) adj ❧ὴ ࡞ splendid,

UĿ« prefix ⪁… old (not young); UĿMLQ n ⪁ே old person; UĿQHQ n ⪁ᖺ old age UĿ n ࢁ࠺࣭⻽ wax; beeswax róba n ࣟࣂ donkey róbii n ࣟࣅ࣮ lobby róddo n ࣟࢵࢻ rod (curtain, etc.) UĿGĿ n ປാ labor; ~´-sha ປാ⪅

admirable, excellent, great rireki n ᒚṔ a history, a record, ~-sho ᒚṔ᭩ one’s personal his-


worker, laborer rĿGRVKĿ n ࣮ࣟࢻࢩ࣮ࣙ roadtory, career summary ririku n 㞳㝣 take-off (plane) show attraction, first-run movie ríron n ⌮ㄽ theory UĿJRNX n ∼⊹ jail ríshi n ฼Ꮚ interest (on money) UĿKL n ᾉ㈝ [BOOKISH] extravagance ULVĿ n ⌮᝿ an ideal: ~-teki (na) ⌮ róji n ㊰ᆅ alley ᝿ⓗ ࡞ ideal UĿND n ᗯୗ passage(way), corridor risoku n ฼ᜥ interest (on money) UĿNDUX (na) adj ࣮ࣟ࢝ࣝ ࡞ local rokétto n ࣟࢣࢵࢺ rocket (= rishi ฼Ꮚ) rísu n ࣜࢫ squirrel rok-k… prefix භ࣭6 six; rok-kái rísuto n ࣜࢫࢺ list n භᅇ six times; rók-kai n භ㝵 rítsu n ⋡ 1. rate, proportion; sixth floor, six stories; rók-ko n භಶ six pieces (small objects) average 2. a cut, a percentage rittai n ❧య solid; 3-D: ~-kyø ❧ UyNNă n ࣟࢵ࣮࢝ locker య㙾 stereoscope: ~-chüshajø ❧ rókku n ࣟࢵࢡ rock, rock’n’roll య㥔㌴ሙ multi-story parking (music) rokú- n භ࣭6 six; roku-banme (no) garage rittoru n ࣜࢵࢺࣝ liter(s) adj භ␒┠ ࡢ sixth; rokú-dai n 221



භྎ six (machines, vehicles); rokú-dó n භᗘ six times (= rok-kái භᅇ); rokú-mai n භᯛ six sheets (flat things); rokú-mei n භྡ six people (= rokú-nin භே); rokúsatsú n භ෉ six copies (books,

magazines) rokuga n 㘓⏬ recording (video) 5RNXJDWV~ n භ᭶࣭6᭶ June rokuon n 㘓㡢 recording (sound) rokuro n ࢁࡃࢁ potter’s wheel 5ĿPD n ࣮࣐ࣟ Rome UĿPiML n ࣮࣐ࣟᏐ romanization,

UĿUă n ࣮࣮ࣟࣛ roller; ~ sukë´to ࣮࣮ࣟࣛࢫࢣ࣮ࢺ roller-skates/

skating UĿUXSDQ n ࣮ࣟࣝࣃࣥ roll: batårø´ru ࣂࢱ࣮࣮ࣟࣝ (butter) roll rosen n ㊰⥺ (bus, train) route 5RVKLD n ࣟࢩ࢔ Russia; Roshiago ࣟࢩ࢔ㄒ Russian (language); Roshiá-jin ࣟࢩ࢔ே a Russian UĿVyN~ n ࢁ࠺ࡑࡃ candle UĿVuto n ࣮ࣟࢫࢺ roast; ~ bíifu/ chíkin ࣮ࣟࢫࢺࣅ࣮ࣇ/ࢳ࢟ࣥ

roast beef/chicken UĿWDULL n ࣮ࣟࢱ࣮ࣜ traffic circle, Latin letters rómansu n ࣐ࣟࣥࢫ romance, rotary love affair: ~-shøsetsu ࣐ࣟࣥࢫ UĿWR n ࢁ࠺࡜࣭₃ᩯ funnel …´-rui suffix …㢮 kinds, (different) ᑠㄝ romance novel rón n ㄽ argument, discussion; species of …; GĿ-rui n ྠ㢮 same treatise; theory; ron-bun n ㄽᩥ kind; shin-rui n ぶ㢮 kindred, relatreatise; essay; gakui ~ Ꮫ఩ㄽᩥ tive; shu-rui n ✀㢮 kind, variety; jin-rui n ே㢮 humankind; KRQ\ŗUXL dissertation, thesis 5yQGRQ n ࣟࣥࢻࣥ London n ့ங㢮 mammal (class) UĿQLQ n ᾉே 1. an unemployed rui-… prefix 㢮 similar …; rui-ji samurai 2. a student between n 㢮ఝ resemblance, similarity; schools 3. a man without a job analogy; rui-(gi)go n 㢮 ⩏ ㄒ ron-jimásu, ron-jiru v ㄽࡌࡲࡍ, ㄽࡌ synonym ࡿ discusses, argues, debates ruiseki n ⣼✚ [BOOKISH] accumurónri n ㄽ⌮ logic; ~-teki (na) ㄽ lation: ~-kosuto ⣼✚ࢥࢫࢺ accu⌮ⓗ ࡞ logical mulated costs; ~-chi ⣼✚್ URQVĿ n ㄽத controversy, dispute, accumulation value; ~-ritsu ⣼✚ ⋡ cumulative percentage argument, debate, discussion rop-p… prefix භ…࣭6... six; rop- rŗPXVăELVX n ࣮࣒ࣝࢧ࣮ࣅࢫ pai n භᮼ six cupfuls; rop-pén n room service (at hotel, etc.) භ㐢 six times (= rok-kái භᅇ, UŗUX n ࣮ࣝࣝ rule rokú-dó භᗘ ; róp-pon n භᮏ six rúsu (no) adj ␃Ᏺ ࡢ absent, (long objects) away from home; rusu-ban n ␃Ᏺ UĿSX n ࣮ࣟࣉ rope ␒ caretaking/caretaker; some222



one to take care of the house in haikan-~ ᣏほᩱ admission fee one’s absence; rusu-ban-denwa n (for temple, etc.): isha-~ ៘ㅰᩱ ␃Ᏺ␒㟁ヰ answering machine consolation money, palimony ryaku (-go) n ␎ ㄒ abbreviation U\ĿJDH n ୧᭰ money exchange/ ryakushimásu, ryakúsú v ␎ࡋࡲࡍ, changing ␎ࡍ abbreviates, shortens; omits U\ĿML n 㡿஦ consul; U\ĿMtNDQ n 㡿 ryo… prefix ᪑… travel…; ryo-kaku ஦㤋 consulate n ᪑ᐈ = ryokyaku ᪑ᐈ (traveler, U\ĿNDL shimásu (suru) v ஢ゎࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ consents, understands passenger); ryo-kan n ᪑㤋 inn (traditional); ryo-ken n ᪑ๆ pass- [FORMAL] U\ĿNLQ n ᩱ㔠 fee, charge, fare, port (= pasupøto ࣃࢫ࣏࣮ࢺ); U\RNĿ n ᪑⾜ travel, trip; U\RNĿ rate; U\ĿNLQMR n ᩱ㔠ᡤ tollgate gaisha n ᪑⾜఍♫ travel agency; U\ĿNĿ n Ⰻዲ good [BOOKISH]: ryo-kyaku n ᪑ᐈ traveler, paskenkø-~ ೺ᗣⰋዲ good health senger (mentioned on resume/applicaU\Ŀ n ⊟ hunting (as sport); U\Ŀ tion, etc.): seiseki-~ ᡂ⦼Ⰻዲ shi n ⊟ᖌ hunter good record/achievement (at U\Ŀ n ⁺ fishing (as sport); U\ĿVKL school, in office, etc.): gyøseki-~ ᴗ⦼Ⰻዲ good business n ⁺ᖌ fisherman U\Ŀ n ᑅ dormitory, boarding performance house: gakusei-~ Ꮫ⏕ᑅ student ryoku-cha n ⥳Ⲕ green tea U\ĿUL n ᩱ⌮ cooking; U\ĿUtQLQ n dormitory: dokushin-~ ⊂㌟ᑅ ᩱ⌮ே cook; U\ĿUt\D n ᩱ⌮ᒇ a dormitory for singles U\Ŀ n 㝠 mound, mausoleum restaurant U\Ŀ n 㡿 territory; U\ĿFKL n 㡿ᆅ U\ĿVKLNL n Ⰻ㆑ good sense, territory: sen-~ ༨㡿ᆅ occupied common sense territory; U\ĿGR n 㡿ᅵ territory, U\ĿVKLQ n Ⰻᚰ conscience; ~-teki (na) Ⰻᚰⓗ ࡞ conscientious: ~ domain U\Ŀ n 㔞 quantity, volume no kashaku Ⰻᚰࡢ࿣㈐ remorse U\Ŀ« prefix ୧ … both; U\ĿJDZD of conscience n ୧ഃ both sides; U\ĿKĿ n, adv U\ŗ n ❳࣭㱟 dragon ୧᪉ both; U\ĿPpQ n ୧㠃 both U\ŗFKL n ␃⨨ custody: ~-jø ␃⨨ሙ sides/directions: ~-kopii ୧㠃ࢥ detention house ࣆ࣮ two-sided copy; U\ĿVKLQ n U\ŗFKĿ (na) adj ὶᬸ ࡞ fluent ୧ぶ (both) parents [FORMAL] (= [INFORMAL] perapera …´-ryĿ suffix …ᩱ fee, charge: ࡮ࡽ࡮ࡽ࣭࣌ࣛ࣌ࣛ) nyüjø-~ ධሙᩱ admission fee: U\ŗJDNX n ␃Ꮫ studying abroad; 223


ryúkku, ryukkusákku

(Okinawa, etc.): Ryükyü-rettø ⌰⌫ิᓥ, Ryøkyü-shotø ⌰⌫ㅖ ryúkku, ryukkusákku n ࣜࣗࢵࢡ, ࣜ ᓥ Ryukyu Islands ࣗࢵࢡࢧࢵࢡ knapsack U\ŗWVŗ n ὶ㏻ circulation, distribuU\ŗNĿ n ὶ⾜ popularity, vogue, tion: ~-sentå ὶ㏻ࢭࣥࢱ࣮ fashion, trend; U\ŗNĿ (no) adj ὶ⾜ distribution center: ~-kosuto ὶ㏻ࢥࢫࢺ distribution cost ࡢ fashionable 5\ŗN\ŗ n ⌰⌫ the Ryukyu U\ŗ]DQ n ὶ⏘ miscarriage U\ŗJDNXVHL n ␃Ꮫ⏕ foreign


S sa n ᕪ difference, discrepancy VăELVXHULD n ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫ࢚ࣜ࢔ 1. ser(= sai ᕪ␗࣭ᕪ㐪, chigai 㐪࠸) vice area (tennis court, etc.) 2. …-sa suffix…ࡉ …ness (abstract coverage 3. highway service area noun formed from an adjective) saborimásu, sabóru v ࢧ࣎ࡾࡲࡍ, ࢧ V㍠interj ࡉ࠶ well; come on; let ࣎ࡿ loafs, skives (on the job); cuts

me see

class, plays hookey

saba n ࢧࣂ࣭㪆 mackerel săEă n ࢧ࣮ࣂ࣮ (computer) server sabaku n ◁₍ desert sábetsu n ᕪู discrimination; jinshu-sabetsu n ே✀ᕪู racial discrimination; sabetsu-yĿgo n ᕪ ู⏝ㄒ discriminatory words sabí n ࡉࡧ࣭ࢧࣅ࣭㗵 rust sabimásu, sabíru v 㗵ࡧࡲࡍ, 㗵ࡧࡿ

VDERWăju n ࢧ࣎ࢱ࣮ࢪࣗ sabotage saboten n ࢧ࣎ࢸࣥ cactus VăEX n ࢧ࣮ࣈ serve (games) VăFKL raito n ࢧ࣮ࢳࣛ࢖ࢺ


sadamarimásu, sadamáru v ᐃࡲࡾࡲ ࡍ, ᐃࡲࡿ is settled, fixed sadamemásu, sadaméru v ᐃࡵࡲࡍ, ᐃࡵࡿ settles it, fixes it sadisuto n ࢧࢹ࢕ࢫࢺ sadist it rusts sabínai adj 㗵ࡧ࡞࠸ rustproof sadizumu n ࢧࢹ࢕ࢬ࣒ sadism sabishíi adj ᐢࡋ࠸࣭᾿ࡋ࠸ lonely sádo n ࢧࢻ 1. sadist 2. sadism VăELVX n ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫ 1. service: ~-ryø ViGĿ n Ⲕ㐨 tea ceremony ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫᩱ service charge, cover ViGĿ n సື [BOOKISH] operation charge: ~-seishin ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫ⢭⚄ (of machine) spirit of good service 2. free (as VăIă n ࢧ࣮ࣇ࢓࣮ surfer, surfrider part of the service): ~-zangyø ࢧ safaia n ࢧࣇ࢓࢖࢔ sapphire ࣮ࣅࢫṧᴗ unpaid overtime 3. Văfin n ࢧ࣮ࣇ࢕ࣥ surfing, service (games) (= såbu ࢧ࣮ࣈ) surfriding



sagaku n ᕪ㢠 the difference (in

price), the balance sagan n ◁ᒾ sandstone sagan n ᕥᓊ left bank sagarimásu, sagáru v ୗࡀࡾࡲࡍ, ୗࡀࡿ it hangs down; goes down sagashimásu, sagasu v ᥈ࡋࡲࡍ, ᥈ࡍ looks/hunts for something/ someone one wants: shoku-sagashi ⫋᥈ࡋ looking/hunting for a job: shakuya-sagashi ೉ᐙ᥈ࡋ look-

sai- …

Ⰻጔ㈼ẕ a good wife and wise mother; sai-shi n ጔᏊ wife and


sái n ᕪ␗࣭ᕪ㐪 [BOOKISH] difference (= chigai 㐪࠸, sa ᕪ) sái n ᡯ talent, ability: ta-~ na ከ ᡯ࡞ multi-talented …´-sai suffix…ṓ࣭ᡯ years of age: nijús-~ ஧༑ṓ>ᡯ@ = hátachi ஧༑ṓ࣭ࡣࡓࡕ twenty

years old, 20 ing/hunting for a house for rent (…-)sái n … 㝿 time, occasion: sagashimásu, sagasu v ᤚࡋࡲࡍ, ᤚ kono-~ ࡇࡢ㝿 on this occasion: ࡍ searches for a missing person/ kinkyü no ~ ⥭ᛴࡢ㝿 in case of thing: maigo-sagashi ㏞Ꮚᤚࡋ emergency; sái-shite conj 㝿ࡋ࡚: … ni ~ …࡟㝿ࡋ࡚ on the occasearching for one’s lost child sagemásu, sagéru v ࡉࡆࡲࡍ࣭ୗ sion of, at the time of, when, in ࡆࡲࡍ, ࡉࡆࡿ࣭ୗࡆࡿ hangs case of sai- … prefix ෌… re- (doing); saiit, lowers it, brings it down, gen n ෌⌧ reappearance; VDLKDNNĿ clears from the table sagemásu, sagéru v ᥦࡆࡲࡍ, ᥦࡆ n ෌Ⓨ⾜ reissue; sai-kai n ෌㛤 ࡿ carries (dangling from hand) resuming, restarting; sai-kai n ෌ ఍ meeting again; sai-kákunin n sagí n ࢧࢠ࣭㮛 heron sági n ブḭ࣭ࢧࢠ fraud ෌☜ㄆ reconfirmation; VDLNHQWĿ sagurimásu, saguru v ᥈ࡾࡲࡍ, ᥈ n ෌᳨ウ review; VDLNĿ n ෌⪃ ࡿ gropes reconsideration; sai-kon n ෌፧ ViJ\Ŀ n సᴗ 1. work (commonly remarriage; VDLQ\ŗNRNX n ෌ධᅜ physical labor): josetsu-~ 㝖㞷స reentry (into the country); sai-sei ᴗ removing the snow: nø-~ ㎰స n ෌⏕ reproduction, playback: ᴗ agricultural work: ~-in సᴗဨ ~-botan ෌⏕࣎ࢱࣥ play button: laborer 2. operations: ~-jikan స ~-shi ෌⏕⣬ recycled paper; saishikén n ෌ヨ㦂 makeup exam (= ᴗ᫬㛫 working hours ViKĿ n సἲ manners, etiquette tsuishi (-ken) ㏣ヨ 㦂 ) sai n ⳯ side dish (to go with sai- … prefix ᭱… the most; sai-ai (no) ᭱ឡ ࡢ one’s beloved: ~ the rice) (= okazu ࠾࠿ࡎ, fukushoku(-butsu) ๪㣗 ≀)) no tsuma ᭱ឡࡢጔ one’s dear sái n ጔ (my) wife: ryøsai kenbo wife; sai-aku (no) ᭱ᝏ ࡢ the 225



worst: ~ no jitai ᭱ᝏࡢ஦ែ worst- ุᐁ judge; saiban-shó n ⿢ุᡤ case scenario; sái-chŗ n ᭱୰ midst court (= chü… ୰); sai-dai (no) adj sabun n ᕪศ difference ᭱኱ ࡢ the largest, the most, ViLGă n ࢧ࢖ࢲ࣮ (fizzy lemon) the greatest: saidai-køyakusü ᭱ soda: ~-sui ࢧ࢖ࢲ࣮Ỉ soda water saidan n ⚍ቭ altar ኱බ⣙ᩘ the greatest common divisor (GCD); sai-dai-gén (no) adj saidan n ⿢᩿ 1. judgment: ~ o ᭱኱㝈 ࡢ maximal, maximum, kudashimásu ⿢᩿ࢆୗࡋࡲࡍ utmost; sái-go (no) adj ᭱ᚋ ࡢ passes judgment 2. cutting last, final: ~ no bansan ᭱ᚋࡢᬌ (paper, cloth, etc.) 㣶 Last Supper: ~-tsüchø ᭱ᚋ VDLGREXUďNL n ࢧ࢖ࢻࣈ࣮ࣞ࢟ ㏻∭ ultimatum (= ~-tsükoku ᭱ handbrake ᚋ㏻࿌); VDLMĿ (no) adj ᭱ୖ ࡢ sáiensu n ࢧ࢖࢚ࣥࢫ science best, highest, topmost: ~-kai ᭱ (= kagaku ⛉Ꮫ) ୖ㝵 the top floor; sai-kai n ᭱ୗ saifu n ㈈ᕸ purse, wallet ఩ last place (position, rank, etc.); saigai n ⅏ᐖ disaster: shizen-~ ⮬ sai-ryĿ (no) adj ᭱Ⰻ ࡢ the best: ↛⅏ᐖ natural disaster ~ no saku ᭱Ⰻࡢ⟇ the best sai-getsu n ṓ᭶ years, time policy; sai-shin (no) adj ᭱᪂ ࡢ saigishin n ⊜␲ᚰ suspicion: ~ newest, up-to-date; sai-sho adv ᭱ ga tsuyoi ⊜␲ᚰࡀᙉ࠸ is very ึ the very beginning, the outset suspicious (= hajime ึࡵ): ~ no ᭱ึࡢ… VDLKĿ n ⿢⦭ sewing: ~-døgu ⿢⦭ 㐨ල sewing set the first …; sai-shĿ (no) adj ᭱ᑠ ࡢ smallest: ~-gén (-do) ᭱ᑠ saiken n മๆ bond (debenture) 㝈 ᗘ the minimum (degree); saikin n ⣽⳦ germ: ~-gaku ⣽⳦Ꮫ VDLVKĿ (no) adj ᭱ᑡ ࡢ least, bacteriology saikin adv ᭱㏆ recently, lately minimal, minimum; VDLVKŗ (no) saikóro n ࡉ࠸ࡇࢁ࣭ࢧ࢖ࢥࣟ adj ᭱⤊ ࡢ final, the very end (last): ~-ban ᭱⤊∧ final dice, a die (= sai ࡉ࠸࣭㔖࣭㉏): sai(kóro) o furimásu ࢧ࢖ ࢥࣟ version: ~ densha ᭱⤊㟁㌴ the ࢆ᣺ࡾࡲࡍ throws a dice last train (= shüden ⤊㟁); sai-tei (no) adj ᭱ప ࡢ lowest, worst, saikú n ⣽ᕤ work(manship), bottom(most); minimum; sai-zen handiwork, ware(s) n ᭱ၿ the best; one’s best/utmost saikuringu n ࢧ࢖ࢡࣜࣥࢢ cycling (= besuto ࣋ࢫࢺ) (by bicycle) saibai n ᱂ᇵ cultivation saikuru n ࢧ࢖ࢡࣝ cycle (= shüki sáiban n ⿢ุ trial; saibán-kan n ⿢ ࿘ᮇ) 226



saikutsu n ᥇᥀ mining, digging saimu n മົ [BOOKISH] debt sáin n ࢧ࢖ࣥ 1. signature (= shomei ⨫ྡ) 2. autograph 3. sign (= aizu ྜᅗ, angø ᬯྕ, kigø グྕ) sainán n ⅏㞴 calamity, disaster: ~-yoke ⅏㞴㝖ࡅ charm against evil; ~ ni aimásu ⅏㞴࡟㐼࠸ࡲࡍ

ദಁ≧ a reminder saiten n ⚍඾ 1. festival 2. extra-

vaganza saiten n ᥇Ⅼ rating, grading,


saiwai n ᖾ࠸ 1. n happiness (= køfuku ᖾ⚟, shiawase ᖾࡏ࣭ࡋ ࠶ࢃࡏ): fukø-chü no ~ ୙ᖾ୰ࡢ ᖾ࠸ is lucky it wasn’t worse 2. adv fortunately has a disaster ViLQĿ n ᡯ⬟ talent, ability VDL\Ŀ n ᥇⏝ employment, adoption VDLQ\ŗ n ṓධ annual revenue (of sáizu n ࢧ࢖ࢬ size (= økisa ኱ࡁࡉ) government, local public organ- sájí n ࡉࡌ࣭ࢧࢪ࣭໯ spoon (= supün ࢫࣉ࣮ࣥ); sájí-kagen n ࡉ ization, etc.) sáiren n ࢧ࢖ࣞࣥ siren (sound); ࡌ>໯@ຍῶ { prescription VDLUHQVă n ࢧ࢖ࣞࣥࢧ࣮ silencer | allowance } consideration; saji o nagemásu (nageru) v ໯ࢆᢞࡆ (gun) saisan n ᥇⟬ profit: ~ ga toremásu ࡲࡍ ᢞࡆࡿ gives up (not to ᥇⟬ࡀྲྀࢀࡲࡍ pays, is profitable literally mean, “throw a spoon”) saisan adv [BOOKISH] ෌୕ many saká n ᆏ hill, slope saka-… prefix 㓇 drinking; times, repeatedly saisén n ࡉ࠸㖹࣭㉏㖹 money saka-bá n 㓇ሙ bar/pub (for drinkoffering (at a shrine); ~-bako ࡉ ing) (= izakaya ᒃ㓇ᒇ, bå ࣂ࣮, ࠸㖹⟽࣭㉏㖹⟽ offering box pabu ࣃࣈ); saka-ya n 㓇ᒇ liquor saishin (no) adj ⣽ᚰ ࡢ careful: shop; saka-mori n 㓇┒ ࡾ drink~ chüi o hara(tte) kudasai ⣽ᚰ ing party (= enkai ᐗ఍) ࡢὀពࢆᡶ ࡗ࡚ ୗࡉ࠸ please sakaemásu, sakáéru v ᰤ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᰤ ࠼ࡿ thrives, flourishes, prospers pay close attention saishokú-shugi-sha n ⳯㣗୺⩏⪅ sakái n ቃ boundary, border vegetarian (= bejitarian ࣋ࢪࢱࣜsakan (na) adj ┒ࢇ ࡞ lively, ࢔ࣥ) flourishing, prosperous; VDLVKŗ n ᥇㞟 collection, picking splendid, vigorous and gathering (as specimen, data, sakana n 㨶 fish; sakaná-tsuri n 㨶㔮 ࡾ fishing (as sport); sakana-ya n etc.): konchü-~ ᪻⹸᥇㞟 insect 㨶ᒇ fish dealer/market collecting saisoku n ദಁ reminding someone, sakana n ⫲ 1. appetizers to go urging (= tokusoku ╩ಁ): ~-jø with drinks (= o-)tsumami ࠾ࡘ



sakanoborimásu, sakanobóru

ࡲࡳ) 2. interesting story to add to the fun with drinks sakanoborimásu, sakanobóru v 㐳ࡾ ࡲࡍ࣭⁋ࡾࡲࡍ, 㐳ࡿ࣭⁋ࡿ: … ni ~ …࡟㐳ࡾ>⁋ࡾ@ࡲࡍ goes against (the stream), goes upstream; goes back (in time) to; sore o … ni ~ ࡑࢀࢆ…࡟㐳ࡾ >⁋ࡾ@ࡲࡍ traces it back to … sakaraimásu, sakaráu v ㏫ࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ, ㏫ࡽ࠺: … ni ~ …࡟㏫ࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ defies, opposes, contradicts, acts contrary to sakari n ┒ࡾ prime: ~ no tsuita neko ┒ࡾࡢࡘ࠸ࡓ⊧ cat on heat; sakari-ba n ┒ࡾሙ downtown area (= hanka-gai ⦾⳹⾤) sakasa(ma) (no/ni) adj, adv ㏫ࡉ ࡲ ࡢ/࡟ upside down VăNDVX n ࢧ࣮࢝ࢫ circus sakazukí n ᮼ saké cup (= choko ࡕࡻࡇ o-choko ࠾ࡕࡻࡇ ):

füfu no ~ o kawashimásu ኵ፬ ࡢᮼࢆ஺ࢃࡋࡲࡍ exchanges

nuptial cups

ࡲࡍ, 㑊ࡅࡽࢀࡿ 1. is avoided 2. can avoid saki n, adv ඛ 1. front; future; ahead; first (ahead of others); kono ~ ࡇ ࡢඛ ahead of here 2. point, tip 3. address, destination; saki-gake n ඛ㥑ࡅ pioneer, forerunner, lead; saki-iki, sakiyuki n ඛ⾜ࡁ prospect, future, outlook: sakiyuki wa akarui desu ඛ⾜ࡁࡣ᫂ࡿ࠸࡛ࡍ has a bright future; saki-hodo ඛ ⛬ [BOOKISH] a little while ago (= sakki ࡉࡗࡁ) sakimásu, saku v ဏࡁࡲࡍ, ဏࡃ

blooms, blossoms sakimásu, sáku v ⿣ࡁࡲࡍ, ⿣ࡃ

splits it; tears it sakin n ◁㔠 gold dust sákka n సᐙ writer (novelist, etc.): joryü-~ ዪὶసᐙ a woman writer ViNNă n ࢧࢵ࣮࢝ soccer: ~-senshu ࢧࢵ࣮࢝㑅ᡭ soccer player

(professional) sakkaku n 㘒ぬ illusion: me no ~ ┠ࡢ㘒ぬ optical illusion sákki adv ࡉࡗࡁ a little while ago

sake n 㓇 o-sake ࠾㓇 1. saké (Japanese rice wine) 2. alcoholic [INFORMAL] sakkin n ẅ⳦ sterilization: ~-køka drinks sáke n ࢧࢣ࣭㩬 salmon ẅ⳦ຠᯝ antiseptic effect sakebimásu, sakébu v ྉࡧࡲࡍ, ྉ sákku n ࢧࢵࢡ 1. sack, case 2. A ࡪ cries out, shouts NRQGĿPX ࢥࣥࢻ࣮࣒ sakemásu, sakéru v 㑊ࡅࡲࡍ, 㑊ࡅ sakkusu n ࢧࢵࢡࢫ saxophone ࡿ avoids (= sakusoføn ࢧࢡࢯࣇ࢛࣮ࣥ) sakemásu, sakéru v ⿣ࡅࡲࡍ, ⿣ࡅ sakkyoku n స᭤ music composition; ࡿ 1. it splits, it tears 2. can sakkyoku-ka n స᭤ᐙ musical

split/tear it


sakeraremásu, sakeraréru v 㑊ࡅࡽࢀsakoku n 㙐ᅜ national isolation



sakotsu n 㙐㦵 collarbone saku n ᰙ fence saku-…, saki-… prefix ᫖ last; sakú-ban n, adv ᫖ᬌ [BOOKISH] last night (= kinø no yoru/ban ᫖ ᪥ࡢኪᬌ); saku-jitsu n, adv ᫖᪥ [BOOKISH] yesterday (= kinø ᫖᪥); saku-nen n, adv ᫖ᖺ [BOOKISH] last year (= kyonen ཤᖺ); sakiototói n, adv ࡉࡁ࠾࡜࡜࠸୍࣭᫖ ࠎ᪥ [BOOKISH] three days ago (= mikka mae ୕᪥๓) sakubun n సᩥ writing a compo-

sá-mo nákereba

ku ᨷ␎); saku-shi n ⟇ኈ plotter sakusen n సᡓ tactics sakusha n స⪅ author (= chosha ⴭ⪅) sakushi n సモ writing the lyrics: ~-ka సモᐙ songwriter sakushu n ᦢྲྀ [BOOKISH] exploitation: ~ saremásu ᦢྲྀࡉࢀࡲࡍ

be exploited VDNXVRIĿQ n ࢧࢡࢯࣇ࢛࣮ࣥ saxophone (= sakkusu ࢧࢵࢡࢫ) VDNXVĿ VKLWD adj 㘒⥈ ࡋࡓ

complicated and intricated: sakusø-shita jøhø 㘒⥈ࡋࡓ᝟ሗ sition (a theme) sakuga n స⏬ 1. drawing a picture entangled information 2. taking a photograph VDN\ŗ n ◁ୣ sand dune: Tottorisakyü 㫽ྲྀ◁ୣ Tottori sand dune sakugen n ๐ῶ cut, reduction: kosuto-~ ࢥࢫࢺ๐ῶ cost … (-)sama suffix …ᵝ࣭ࡉࡲ reduction; jin’in-~ ேဨ๐ῶ [HONORIFIC] = … (-)san …ࡉࢇ head-count reduction Mr., Ms., Mrs., Miss sakuhin n సရ a work (of litera- samatagemásu, samatagéru v ጉࡆࡲ ture or art): geijutsu-~ ⱁ⾡సရ ࡍ, ጉࡆࡿ obstructs, hinders a work of art: bungaku-~ ᩥᏛస samayoimásu, samayóu v ᙸ᚞࠸ࡲ ရ a literary work ࡍ, ᙸ᚞࠺ wanders about sakuin n ⣴ᘬ index samáza ma (na/no) adj ᵝࠎ ࡞ࡢ sakui-teki adj సⅭⓗ intentional diverse, all kinds of sakumotsu n స≀ 1. crops 2. a same n ࢧ࣓࣭㩪 shark piece of work (= sakubutsu స≀, samemásu, saméru v ぬࡵࡲࡍ, ぬࡵ sakuhin సရ) ࡿ wakes up, comes to one’s senses sakura n ᱜ࣭ࢧࢡࣛ cherry tree: samemásu, saméru v ෭ࡵࡲࡍ, ෭ࡵ ~ no haná ᱜࡢⰼ cherry blossoms: ࡿ gets cold, cools off ~-mochi ᱜ㣰 rice cake with bean samemásu, saméru v 〣ࡵࡲࡍ, 〣ࡵ ࡿ it fades, loses color paste wrapped in a cherry leaf samitto n ࢧ࣑ࢵࢺ summit (Japanese cakes/sweets) sakuranbo n ࢧࢡ࣭ࣛࣥ࣎ᱜࢇᆓ࣭ (conference) ᱜ᱈ cherry sá-mo nákereba conj ࡉࡶ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ saku(ryaku) n ⟇ ␎ plot (= kørya- [BOOKISH] otherwise (= sa-mo 229



the year 3; san nén-kan ୕ᖺ㛫 three years; san nén-sei ୕ᖺ⏕ ture), chilly third-year student, junior; san-nín samuke n ᐮẼ chill, rigor (= okan n ୕ே three people (= sen mei ᝏᐮ): ~ ga shimásu ᐮẼࡀࡋࡲ ୕ྡ); san-pai n ୕ᣏ [HUMBLE] ࡍ feels a chill bowing three times, bowing sevsamurai n ࢧ࣒ࣛ࢖࣭ౝ samurai eral times; san-paku n ୕Ἡ three (Japanese warrior) (= bushi Ṋኈ) night’s lodging: san-paku-yokka san n 㓟 1. acid 2. sour taste: ~-mi ୕Ἡᅄ᪥ four days three nights 㓟࿡ sour taste, sour flavor (= (tour, etc.); sán-pun n ୕ศ three suppai aji 㓟ࡗࡥ࠸࿡) minutes; sán-sai n ୕ṓ three years san(…) n, prefix ୕࣭3  three old (= mittsu ୕ࡘ); sán-satsu n ୕෉ three (books, magazines, (, tri-…); sán-ba n ୕⩚ three (birds, rabbits); san-bai adj ୕ಸ etc.); sán-sei n ୕ୡ third generatriple; sán-bai n ୕ᮼ three glass- tion (of emigrant Japanese); … fuls; san-banmé n ୕␒┠ third; the Third; san-shi-… n ୕, ᅄ = sán-bén n ୕㐢 three times; sán-biki san-yo(n)-… three or four; sánshoku n ୕㣗 three meals; ViQWĿ n n ୕༉ three (fishes/bugs, small ୕㢌 three (horses/oxen, large animals); sán-bon n ୕ᮏ three (pencils/bottles, long objects); sán- animals); VDQWĿ n ୕➼ third class; dó n ୕ᗘ { three times (= san- san-yo(m/n)- n ୕, ᅄ = san-shi-… kai ୕ᅇ) | three degrees; san-gai three or four: san yon-bai ୕, ᅄ n ୕㝵 three floors/stories; third ಸ three or four times as much: floor; san-gánichi n ୕ࡀ᪥ the first san yon-do ୕, ᅄᗘ 3–4 times: three days of the New Year; sán- san yon-man ୕, ᅄ୓ thirty or gen n ୕㌺ three buildings/hous- forty thousand: sanyo-nín ୕, ᅄ ே 3–4 people: sanyo-ninmae ୕, es; sán-ji n ୕᫬ three o’clock; sán-kái n ୕ᅇ three times (= san- ᅄே๓ 3–4 servings; sán-zoku/-soku do ୕ᗘ); san kai-mé ୕ᅇ┠ the n ୕㊊ three pairs (of footwear) third time; san-kyaku n ୕⬮ tripod sán n 㓟 acid; san-sei n 㓟ᛶ acid(stand): ninin-~ ஧ே୕⬮ { ity: ~sei-u 㓟ᛶ㞵 acid rain three-legged race (on field day, … (-) san …ࡉࢇ Mr., Ms., Mrs., etc.) | cooperating with single- Miss (= … (-) sama …ᵝ࣭ࡉࡲ ness of purpose; sán-mai n ୕ᯛ …´-san, -´zan …ᒣ (name of three sheets (flat things); sán-mei certain) mountain: Fuji-san ᐩኈ ᒣ Mt. Fuji: Eberesuto (-san) ࢚ n ୕ྡ [BOOKISH] three people ࣋ࣞࢫࢺ ᒣ Mt. Everest (= sannín ୕ே); san-nen n ୕ᖺ 230 nakuba ࡉࡶ࡞ࡃࡤ) samúi adj ᐮ࠸ cold (air tempera-



san-… prefix ᒣ mountain; sanmyaku n ᒣ⬦ mountain range: Arupusu-~ ࢔ࣝࣉࢫᒣ⬦ Alps (range); VDQFKĿ n ᒣ㡬 mountain top sanba n ࢧࣥࣂ samba sanba n ⏘፠ midwife sanbashi n ᱞᶫ pier sanbi n ㈶⨾ admiration, worship: ~-ka ㈶⨾ḷ hymn (= sei-ka ⪷ḷ, san-ka ㈶ḷ) sanbun n ᩓᩥ prose: ~-shi ᩓᩥリ

sangi-in n ཧ㆟㝔 House of Councilors (= san-in ཧ㝔): ~-senkyo ཧ㆟㝔㑅ᣲ House of

Councilors’ election sángo n ࢧࣥࢦ࣭⌈⍚ coral; VDQJRVKĿ n ࢧࣥࢦ>⌈⍚@♋ coral


sangurasu n ࢧࣥࢢࣛࢫ sunglasses VDQJ\Ŀ n ⏘ᴗ industry: såbisu-~ ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫ⏘ᴗ service industry sánji n ㈶㎡ [BOOKISH] praise, comprose poem pliment (= home-kotoba 〔ࡵ>㄃ sanbutsu n ⏘≀ product, produce; ࡵ@ゝⴥ): ~ o okurimásu ㈶㎡ࢆ ㏦ࡾࡲࡍ compliments fruit, outcome sánchi n ⏘ᆅ home (of a product/ sanka n ㈶ḷ [BOOKISH] hymn (= sanbi-ka ㈶⨾ḷ, sei-ka ⪷ḷ) crop) VDQGDQMŗ n ᩓᙎ㖠 shotgun sanka n ചୗ [BOOKISH] under the sandaru n ࢧࣥࢲࣝ sandal umbrella: ~-kigyø ചୗ௻ᴗ afsan-dii Nď n 3DK three rooms and filiated enterprise: ~ ni hairimásu ചୗ࡟ධࡾࡲࡍ comes under the “DK” (dining kitchen = eat-in


kitchen) …-sándo suffix …ࢧࣥࢻ sandwich (A sandoítchi ࢧࣥࢻ࢖ࢵࢳ): tsuna-~ ࢶࢼࢧࣥࢻ tuna-fish sandwich: tamago-~ ࢱ࣐ࢦ>༸@ ࢧࣥࢻ egg sandwich sandĿ n ཧ㐨 approach to a shrine; omote-~ ⾲ཧ㐨 main road to a

shrine VDQGĿ n ㈶ྠ approval, support sandoítchi n ࢧࣥࢻ࢖ࢵࢳ sand-

sanka n ཧຍ participation; sankásha n ཧຍ⪅ participant sánkan n ཧほ [HUMBLE] one’s visiting: jugyø-~-bi ᤵᴗཧほ᪥

open school day sánkaku n ୕ゅ triangle: ~-kankei ୕ゅ㛵ಀ a love triangle VDQNď n 3K (apartment of three

rooms plus kitchen)

sanke-zukimásu, sanke-zuku v ⏘Ẽ࡙ ࡁࡲࡍ, ⏘Ẽ࡙ࡃ goes into labor wich VDQGRSďSă n ࢧࣥࢻ࣭࣮࣌ࣃ࣮ VDQNĿ n ཧ⪃ reference (= sanshø ཧ↷): ~-(to-)sho ཧ⪃ ᅗ ᭩ sandpaper Sanfuranshísuko n ࢧࣥࣇࣛࣥࢩࢫ reference book: gakushü-sankøsho ࢥ San Francisco Ꮫ⩦ཧ⪃᭩ study-aid book Sán-gatsu n ୕᭶࣭3᭶ March sanmon n ᒣ㛛 temple gate



sanpatsu n ᩓ㧥࣭ࡉࢇࡥࡘ haircut; sanpatsu-ya n ᩓ㧥ᒇ barber(shop) sanpo n ᩓṌ a walk, a stroll sanpuru n ࢧࣥࣉࣝ sample sanretsu n ཧิ presence sanrín-sha n ୕㍯㌴ tricycle sansei n ㈶ᡂ approval, support (= sandø ㈶ྠ) sansei n ཧᨻ participation in government: ~-ken ཧᨻᶒ political


tray; sara-arai-ki n ─Ὑ࠸ᶵ dishwasher sarabureddo n ࢧࣛࣈࣞࢵࢻ 1. thoroughbred 2. blue blood sárada n ࢧࣛࢲ salad sarái-… prefix ෌᮶ … after next; sarái-getsu adv ෌᮶᭶ [BOOKISH] month after next (= nikagetsu-go ஧ࣧ᭶ᚋ); sarai-nen adv ෌᮶ᖺ [BOOKISH] year after suffrage next (= ni nen-go ஧ᖺᚋ) VDQVKĿ n ࢧࣥࢩ࣭ࣙ࢘ᒣ᳡ sára-ni adv ᭦࡟ anew; (some) Japanese pepper (mild) more; further saQVKĿ n ཧ↷ reference (= sankø sárarii n ࢧ࣮ࣛࣜ salary (= kyü´yo ཧ⪃) ⤥୚); sararii-man n ࢧ࣮࣐ࣛࣜࣥ sánso n 㓟⣲ oxygen: ~-masuku salaried man, company employee 㓟⣲࣐ࢫࢡ oxygen mask sarashimásu, sarasu v ᫹ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ VDQVŗ n ⟬ᩘ (elementary school) ᭚ࡋࡲࡍ, ᫹ࡍ࣭᭚ࡍ 1. exposes: arithmetic, calculation (= keisan füu ni ~ 㢼㞵࡟ࡉࡽࡋ>᫹ࡋ࣭᭚ ィ⟬), mathematics (= sügaku ࡋ@ࡲࡍ exposes it to wind and ᩘᏛ) rain 2. bleaches: nuno o ~ ᕸࢆ santora n ࢧࣥࢺࣛ sound track ࡉࡽࡋ>᫹ࡋ@ࡲࡍ bleaches saó n ࡉ࠾࣭➎࣭᳋ pole, rod cloth 3. dries under the sun: hi VDSĿWă n ࢧ࣏࣮ࢱ࣮ jockstrap, ni ~ ᪥࡟ࡉࡽࡋ>᫹ࡋ@ࡲࡍ dries (athletic) supporter it in the sun 4. reveals: haji o ~ sappári adv ࡉࡗࡥࡾ [ NEGATIVE ~ ᜝ࢆࡉࡽࡋ>᫹ࡋ࣭᭚ࡋ@ࡲࡍ verb] not at all: ~ wakarimasen brings disgrace on oneself ࡉࡗࡥࡾศ࠿ࡾࡲࡏࢇ I have no saremásu, sareru v ࡉࢀࡲࡍ, ࡉࢀ ࡿ 1. has it done to one (unwantidea. sappári-shita adj ࡉࡗࡥࡾࡋࡓ edly) 2. is done; hakai ~ ◚ቯࡉ clean, fresh; frank: ~-shita aji ࡉ ࢀࡲࡍ is destroyed 3. [HONORࡗࡥࡾࡋࡓ࿡ plain taste, lightly IFIC] = nasaimásu ࡞ࡉ࠸ࡲࡍ sarimásu, sáru v ཤࡾࡲࡍ, ཤࡿ seasoned (food) VDSSŗNHL na adj ẅ㢼ᬒ࡞ (looks) leaves, goes away; removes it bare, bleak: ~ niwa ẅ㢼ᬒ࡞ᗞ a VăURLQ n ࢧ࣮ࣟ࢖ࣥ sirloin: ~-sutëki ࢧ࣮ࣟ࢖࣭ࣥࢫࢸ࣮࢟ bleak garden sara n ─ plate, dish; saucer; ashsirloin steak 232



sáru v ཤࡿ 1. A sarimásu ཤࡾࡲ book, newspaper, magazine, etc.) ࡍ 2. [+ DATE] last …, most sashi-komi n ᕪ ࡋ ㎸ࡳ plug

recent, (past day) of this month

outlet (electricity outlet) (=

sáru n ࢧ࣭ࣝ⊷ monkey sarumata n ࢧ࣐ࣝࢱ࣭⊷⫤ loin-

sashikomi-guchi ᕪ ࡋ ㎸ࡳཱྀ) sashi-komimásu, sashi-komu v ᕪ ࡋ ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ, ᕪࡋ㎸ࡴ inserts cloth sasa n ࢧࢧ࣭➲ bamboo grass: ~ sashimásu, sásu v ᣦࡋࡲࡍ, ᣦࡍ no ha ➲ࡢⴥ bamboo leaf points to, indicates sasáé n ᨭ࠼ a support, a prop sashimásu, sásu v ᕪࡋࡲࡍ, ᕪࡍ sasaemásu, sasaeru v ᨭ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᨭ holds (umbrella) sashimásu, sásu v ่ࡋࡲࡍ, ่ࡍ ࠼ࡿ supports, props (up) sásai (na) adj ல⣽ ࡞ petty, tristabs, stings fling, trivial, not a big deal at all sashimí n ่㌟࣭ࡉࡋࡳ sliced raw fish (= torunitarinai ྲྀࡿ࡟㊊ࡾ࡞ ࠸): ~ na-mondai ல⣽࡞ၥ㢟 sashitsukae n ᕪࡋᨭ࠼࣭ࡉࡋࡘ࠿ minor problem: ~ na-chigai ல⣽ ࠼ 1. hindrance, impediment 2. ࡞㐪࠸ slight difference previous appointment/engagement sasáyaka (na) adj ࡉࡉࡸ࠿ ࡞ sáshizu n ᣦᅗ directions, instrucsmall (-scale), petty: ~ na påtii tions, a command ࡉࡉࡸ࠿࡞ࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕ little party: VDVKĿ n ᰝド [BOOKISH] visa (= bíza ~ na okurimono ࡉࡉࡸ࠿࡞㉗ࡾ ࣅࢨ): nyükoku-~ ධᅜᰝド an ≀ modest gift entry visa sasayakí n ᄱࡁ a whisper, murmur: VDVKĿ n ブ⛠ [BOOKISH] false state~-goe ᄱࡁኌ whispery voice ment; nenrei-~ ᖺ㱋ブ⛠ false sasayakimásu, sasayáku v ᄱࡁࡲࡍ, statement of one’s age; mibun-~ ᄱࡃ whispers ㌟ศブ⛠ false statement of one’s sashi-agemásu, sashi-ageru v ᕪࡋୖ status ࡆࡲࡍ, ᕪࡋୖࡆࡿ [HUMBLE/ sasoi n ㄏ࠸ invitation; temptation DEFERENTIAL] presents, give (I give sasoimásu, sasou v ㄏ࠸ࡲࡍ, ㄏ࠺

you, you give them); holds up

invites; tempts

sashidegamashii adj ᕪࡋฟࡀࡲࡋ sásshi, sásshu n ࢧࢵࢩ, ࢧࢵࢩࣗ ࠸ officious sash (window sash) sashidéguchi n ᕪࡋฟཱྀ uncalled- sásshi n ෉Ꮚ brochure; shĿ-sasshi for remark; … no hanashí ni ~ o n ᑠ෉Ꮚ pamphlet, brochure shimásu …ࡢヰ࡟ᕪࡋฟཱྀࢆࡋ sas-shi n ᐹࡋconjecture, guess; ࡲࡍ interrupts perception, understanding; sashi-e n ᤄ⤮ illustration (of sympathy: ~ ga tsukimásu ᐹࡋ



sas-shinásu, sas-suru

ࡀࡘࡁࡲࡍ perceives, guesses satori n ᝅࡾ enlightenment (correctly); o-~ no tøri ࠾ᐹࡋࡢ satorimásu, satóru v ᝅࡾࡲࡍ, ᝅࡿ ㏻ࡾ as you have surmised realizes (comprehends) sas-shinásu, sas-suru v ᐹࡋࡲࡍ, satsu n ᮐ folding money, currency ᐹࡍࡿ perceives, understands; bill/note; satsu-iré n ᮐධࢀ billconjectures, guesses; sympathizes fold, wallet (= saifu ㈈ᕸ); satsutaba n ᮐ᮰ a roll/wad of (cursassokú adv ᪩㏿ at once, right away, promptly, immediately: ~ rency) bills (no) ᪩㏿ ࡢ immediate, prompt …-satsú suffix …෉ copy (counts sasuga adv ࡉࡍࡀ: ~ (ni) ࡉࡍࡀ books, magazines) ࡟ as we might expect, indeed …-satsu suffix …ᮐ (currency) VDVXSHQGă n ࢧࢫ࣌ࣥࢲ࣮ susbill; hyakudorú-~ ní-mai ⓒࢻࣝ pender 1. galluses (= zubon-tsuri ᮐ஧ᯛ two $100 bills ࢬ࣎ࣥࡘࡾ) 2. garter satsuei n ᧜ᙳ shooting a film, sasupensu n ࢧࢫ࣌ࣥࢫ suspense: filming, taking a photograph: ~-eiga ࢧࢫ࣌ࣥࢫᫎ⏬ suspense ~-jo ᧜ᙳᡤ studio (= sutajio ࢫ ࢱࢪ࢜) film sátá n Ἃử [BOOKISH] message; satsujin n ẅே murder: ~-jiken ẅ ே஦௳ murder case command; affair VDWFKŗ]DL n ẅ⹸๣ insecticide Satsumá-age n ࡉࡘࡲ>⸃ᦶ@ᥭࡆ sá-te interj ࡉ࡚ well now/then, deep-fried fish cake Satsuma-imo n ࡉࡘࡲ>⸃ᦶ@Ⱎ࣭ and now/then, as to the matter ࢧࢶ࣐࢖ࣔ sweet potato at hand satei n ᰝᐃ assessment (to decide Saujiarabia n ࢧ࢘ࢪ࢔ࣛࣅ࢔ the rank, salary, etc.): ~-gaku ᰝ Saudi Arabia; Saujiarabia-jin n ࢧ࢘ ᐃ㢠 assessed value ࢪ࢔ࣛࣅ࢔ே a Saudi Arabian sáten n ࢧࢸࣥ satin sauna n ࢧ࢘ࢼ steam bath (in sports saten n Ⲕᗑ café (= kissaten ႚ center, health spa, etc.) Ⲕᗑ) saundo n ࢧ࢘ࣥࢻ sound (= oto sato n 㔛 1. village 2. hometown 㡢, onkyø 㡢㡪); saundo-efekuto n ࢧ࢘ࣥࢻ࣭࢚ࣇ࢙ࢡࢺ sound (= furusato ࡩࡿࡉ࡜࣭ᨾ㒓, kokyø ᨾ㒓): o-sato ࠾㔛 one’s effect; VDXQGRVXNďpu n ࢧ࢘ࣥࢻ origin, upbringing; sato-oya n 㔛 ࢫࢣ࣮ࣉ soundscape; saundotorakku n ࢧ࢘ࣥࢻ࣭ࢺࣛࢵࢡ ぶ foster parent; sato-gaeri n 㔛 ᖐࡾ goes home (to see one’s sound track (= santora ࢧࣥࢺࣛ) sawagashíi adj 㦁ࡀࡋ࠸ boisterous, parent(s)) VDWĿ n ◁⢾࣭ࢧࢺ࢘ sugar noisy: ~-påtii 㦁ࡀࡋ࠸ࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕



noisy party: ~-basho 㦁ࡀࡋ࠸ሙ ᡤ noisy place sáwagi n 㦁ࡂ 1. clamor, noise (boisterous) 2. unrest, disturbance, tumult, strife; riot (= sødø 㦁ື) sawagimásu, sawágu v 㦁ࡂࡲࡍ, 㦁 ࡄ makes lots of noise, clamors sawara n ࢧ࣭࣡ࣛ㪥 mackerel sawarimásu, sawaru v ゐࡾࡲࡍ, ゐࡿ touches sawáyaka (na) adj ࡉࢃࡸ࠿ ࡞ ࣭ ∝ࡸ࠿ ࡞ refreshing, bracing; fluent sáya n ࢧ࣭ࣖⳒ sheath, pod: ~-endø ࢧ࢚ࣖࣥࢻ࣭࢘ࡉࡸ࠼ ࢇ࡝࠺ podded pea: ~-ingen ࢧ ࣖ࢖ࣥࢤ࣭ࣥࡉࡸ࠸ࢇࡆࢇ


comparing heights with someone; se-naka n ⫼୰ back of body; se-nobi n ⫼ఙࡧ { standing on tiptoe | trying to do more than one is able to do; se-suji n ⫼➽ the muscles along the spine; se-take n ⫼୔ height, stature: ~ o hakarimásu ⫼୔ࢆ ࡾࡲࡍ

measures one’s height segare n ಱ 1. [HUMBLE] my son 2. [IN rather NEGATIVE SENSE]

child/young person VHK\Ŀ n ୡホ one’s reputation (= ~ no hyøka ୡ㛫ࡢホ౯) séi (-) n ᛶ nature; sex; gender; seibetsu n ᛶู gender; VHLE\Ŀ n ᛶ ⑓ venereal disease; VHLNĿ n ᛶ஺

[BOOKISH] (sexual) intercourse (= sékkusu ࢭࢵࢡࢫ); sei-teki (na) adj ᛶⓗ ࡞ sexual séi n ጣ family name, last name; séi-mei n ጣྡ (one’s) full name (= shi-mei Ặྡ) sei-… prefix ⪷ sacred, holy; sei-chi n ⪷ᆅ holy place; sei-bo n ⪷ẕ the Holy Mother; sei-GĿ n forth sázae n ࢧࢨ࢚࣭ᰤ⼺ wreath ⪷ᇽ sacred building (temple, shell, turban shell, turbo church, mosque, etc.): dai-~ ኱ sé n ⫼ 1. height, stature (= sei ࡏ ⪷ᇽ cathedral; sei-iki n ⪷ᇦ ࠸࣭⫼, se-take ⫼୔, shinchø ㌟ sanctuary; séi-ka n ⪷ḷ hymn; 㛗): ~ ga takái/hikúi ⫼ࡀ㧗࠸ Séi-sho n ⪷᭩ Bible (= Baiburu ప࠸ is tall/short 2. back (of ࣂ࢖ࣈࣝ, Shin-yaku seisho ᪂⣙ ⪷᭩, Kyü-yaku seisho ᪧ⣙⪷᭩) body) (= senaka ⫼୰); se-biro n ⫼ᗈ (man’s) business suit, séi-… prefix す west, western; lounge suit; se-bone n ⫼㦵 back- séi-bu n す㒊 the west, the westbone, spine; séi n ࡏ࠸࣭⫼ ern part; VHLKĿ n す᪉ (the) west height, stature: ~-kurabe ⫼ẚ࡭ (general direction/area); sei-nan 235 French bean

sayonára, VD\ĿQiUD interj ࡉࡼ࡞ࡽ, ࡉࡼ࠺࡞ࡽ good-bye (= [INFORMAL] baibai ࣂ࢖ࣂ࢖) sáyori n ࢧࣚࣜ halfbeak (fish) Vi\ŗ n ᕥྑ right and left: zengo-~ ๓ᚋᕥྑ left to right, back and



n す༡ southwest; sei-reki n すᬺ ⏕ grad(-uate) student the Western (Christian) calendar: …´-sei suffix …〇 made in …, ~ …´-nen すᬺ …ᖺ the year … made of …: nihon-~ ᪥ᮏ〇 A.D.; 6pL\Ŀ n すὒ the West, made in Japan (= meido in japan ࣓࢖ࢻ࣭࢖࣭ࣥࢪࣕࣃࣥ): beiEurope and Americas (= øbeishokoku Ḣ⡿ㅖᅜ): ~-fü (no) す koku-~ ⡿ᅜ〇 made in U.S.A.: gaikoku-~ እᅜ〇 foreign-made ὒ㢼 ࡢ Western-style sei-… prefix ኌ voice, vocal; …´-sei suffix …ᫍ (name of certain, sei-gaku n ኌᴦ vocal music; sei-iki kinds of) star: waku-~ ᝨᫍ n ኌᇦ range of voice; sei-tai n planet: kø-~ ᜏᫍ fixed star ኌᖏ vocal cords; VHL\ŗ n ኌඃ séibun n ᡂศ ingredient, compovoice actor nent: arukøru-~ ࢔ࣝࢥ࣮ࣝᡂศ sei(-) n, prefix ⏕  life (= alcohol component seimei ⏕࿨, ínochi ࿨); sei-katsu séibutsu n ⏕≀ a living thing, a n ⏕ά life, (daily) living, liveli- creature (= ikimono ⏕ࡁ≀); seibutsú-gaku n ⏕≀Ꮫ biology; hood; nichijo-~ ᪥ᖖ⏕ά daily life; ~-hi ⏕ά㈝ living costs; sei- seibutsu-gáku-sha n ⏕≀Ꮫ⪅ kei n ⏕ィ livelihood, the way of biologist (earning) one’s living: ... to shite seibutsu n 㟼≀ [BOOKISH] still ob~ o tate(tei)másu …࡜ࡋ࡚⏕ィ ject: ~-ga 㟼≀⏬ still-life ࢆ❧࡚ ࡚࠸ ࡲࡍ earns one’s painting living as ...; séi-mei n ⏕࿨ life (= VHLFKĿ n ᡂ㛗 growth: kodomo(ínochi ࿨, sei ⏕): ~-rinri ⏕࿨೔ tachi) no ~ Ꮚ౪ ࡓࡕ ࡢᡂ㛗 ⌮ bioethics; séi-shi n ⏕Ṛ life child(-ren)’s growth: kødo-keizai-~ 㧗ᗘ⤒῭ᡂ㛗 high economic and death … séi suffix…ࡏ࠸ [IN NEGATIVE growth SENSE] cause, effect, influence, VHLGĿ n 㟷㖡 bronze seieki n ⢭ᾮ semen fault: … no ~ de …ࡢࡏ࠸࡛ because of …, due to …: ... ~ ka séifu n ᨻᗓ government …ࡏ࠸࠿ perhaps because of … seifuku n ไ᭹ uniform (of school, …´-sei suffix …⏕ student: shøgaoffice, etc.) ku-~ ᑠᏛ⏕ elementary school seigén n ไ㝈 limit, restriction; student: chügaku-~ ୰Ꮫ⏕ junior seigen-jikan n ไ㝈᫬㛫 time limit seihin n 〇ရ product, manufachigh school student: køkø´-~ 㧗ᰯ⏕ high school student: tured goods daigaku-~ ኱Ꮫ⏕ college/univer- seii n ㄔព sincerity (= magokoro sity student: daigaku-in-~ ኱Ꮫ㝔 ┿ᚰ): ~ o komete hanashimásu 236


ㄔពࢆ㎸ࡵ࡚ヰࡋࡲࡍ talks


n ⏕⌮Ꮫ physiology séiri n ᩚ⌮ adjustment, arrangesincerely seiji n ᨻ἞ politics: ~-ka ᨻ἞ᐙ ment; seiri-seiton n ᩚ⌮ᩚ㡻 politician: kokusai-~ ᅜ㝿ᨻ἞ keeping everything in order seiritsu n ᡂ❧ formation, finaliinternational politics seijin n ᡂே adult : ~ no hí ᡂே zation, conclusion: køshø-~ ஺΅ ࡢ᪥ Coming-of-Age Day ᡂ❧ completion of the deal (honoring 20-year-olds) on 2nd Seiron n ࢭ࢖ࣟࣥ Ceylon (= Suriránka ࢫࣜࣛࣥ࢝ Sri Lanka) Monday of January seijitsu (na) adj ㄔᐇ ࡞ sincere VHLU\Ŀ n Ύᾴ [BOOKISH] refreshing: seijuku n ᡂ⇍ ripening, maturing ~ (inryø-)sui Ύᾴ 㣧ᩱ Ỉ reséika n ᡂᯝ [BOOKISH] good result, freshing drink outcome (= yoi kekka Ⰻ࠸⤖ᯝ) séiryoku n ໃຊ power, energy; séika n ṇ౯ net price influence (= iryoku ጾຊ) seikaku n ᛶ᱁ character (personal seisaku n ᨻ⟇ (political) policy seisaku n ไస࣭〇స manufacture, traits) seikaku (na) adj ṇ☜ ࡞ exact, production seisan n ⏕⏘ production, manuaccurate, correct seikaku (na) adj ⢭☜ ࡞ minute, facture seisan n Ύ⟬ clearance, liquidacorrect and precise seiketsu (na) adj Ύ₩ ࡞ 1. clean tion 2. pure seiseki n ᡂ⦼ results, marks, séiki n ୡ⣖ century: rai-~ ᮶ୡ⣖ grades, record: ~-hyø ᡂ⦼⾲ next century report card VHLNĿ n ᡂຌ success seishi n 㟼Ṇ stillness: ~-ga(zø) 㟼 VHLN\ŗ n ㄳồ claim, demand, Ṇ⏬ ീ still image (photo, etc.) request; VHLN\ŗVKR n ㄳồ᭩ bill seishiki (no/na) adj ṇᘧ ࡢ/࡞ seimitsu (na) adj ⢭ᐦ ࡞ precise, formal, official séishin n ⢭⚄ soul, mind, spirit, detailed, minute, thorough, psyche: ~ (no) ⢭⚄ ࡢ mental accurate seimon n ṇ㛛 the front (main) gate seishitsu n ᛶ㉁ character (of seinen n 㟷ᖺ young person, things), quality, disposition, nature youth, adolescent; seinén-ki n 㟷 seisho n ⪷᭩ Bible ᖺᮇ (one’s) youth; adolescence seishoku n ⏕Ṫ reproduction, seinen-gáppi n ⏕ᖺ᭶᪥ date of birth procreation; seishoku-ki n ⏕Ṫᮇ séiri n ⏕⌮ physiology: ~-teki na reproductive period ⏕⌮ⓗ࡞ physiological; seiri-gaku seishún n 㟷᫓ adolescence 237


VHLVĿ n Ύᤲ cleaning (= søji ᤲ㝖); VHLVĿLQ n Ύᤲဨ cleaner (person) séito n ⏕ᚐ pupil, student VHLWĿ n ᨻඪ political party VHLWĿ n ṇᙜ [BOOKISH] propriety, validity, reasonableness: ~ na riyü ṇᙜ࡞⌮⏤ good/fair reason VHLWĿ n ṇ⤫ legitimacy, orthodoxy seiyu n 〇Ἔ oil manufacturing; seiyu-gaisha n 〇Ἔ఍♫ oil manu-


appearances, cares what people (may) think sekí n ࡏࡁ࣭တ cough: ~-dome shiroppu ࡏࡁṆࡵࢩࣟࢵࣉ

cough syrup séki n ⡠ 1. (one’s) family register (= koseki ᡞ⡠) 2. membership: sakkå-bu ni ~ o okimásu ࢧࢵ࢝ ࣮㒊࡟⡠ࢆ⨨ࡁࡲࡍ is a

member of the football club séki n ᖍ seat, (assigned) place; facturing company seiza n ᫍᗙ constellation VHNtU\Ŀ n ᖍᩱ cover charge seiza n 㟼ᗙ sitting quietly, seki-… prefix ㉥ red; seki-han n ㉥㣤 rice boiled with red beans meditation séizei adv ࡏ࠸ࡐ࠸ at most, at best (commonly for celebration dinVHL]Ŀ n 〇㐀 production, manufac- ner); 6HNLMŗML n ㉥༑Ꮠ Red Cross …-seki suffix …㞘 (counts ships/ ture: ~-moto 〇㐀ඖ maker (manufacturer) vessels; commonly replaced by seizon n ⏕Ꮡ existence, surviving; …-sø …⯺) seizon-ritsu n ⏕Ꮡ⋡ survival rate Seki-dĿ n ㉥㐨 equator seizu n 〇ᅗ drafting a (technical) sekigaisen n ㉥እ⥺ infrared rays drawing: kenchiku-~ ᘓ⠏〇ᅗ sekinin n ㈐௵ responsibility, obliarchitectural drafting gation; ~-sha ㈐௵⪅ responsible seizui n ⢭㧊 [BOOKISH] essence person seji n ୡ㎡ o-seji ࠾ୡ㎡ compli- sékiri n ㉥⑩ dysentery sekitán n ▼Ⅳ coal ment, flattery sékái n ୡ⏺ world; ~-jü ୡ⏺୰ sekitatemásu, sekitateru v ᛴࡁ❧࡚ࡲ throughout the world, worldwide; ࡍ ᛴࡁ❧࡚ࡿ urges ~-teki (na) ୡ⏺ⓗ ࡞ worldsekitórí n 㛵ྲྀ (ranking) sumo wide, international wrestler séken n ୡ㛫 the public, people, sekiyu n ▼Ἔ petroleum, oil, the world, society (= shakai ♫఍, kerosene: ~-sutø´bu ▼Ἔࢫࢺ࣮ yo-no-naka ୡࡢ୰); seken-bánashi ࣈ kerosene heater sékkai n ▼⅊ lime (mineral) n ୡ㛫ヰ chat(-ting); seken-tei n ୡ㛫య appearances, reputation, sekkakú adv ࡏࡗ࠿ࡃ [+ NEGATIVE decency: ~ o kinishimásu ୡ㛫 verb] with much effort/devotion యࢆẼ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ cares about (but); on purpose, taking the 238



trouble: ~ desu ga … ࡏࡗ࠿ࡃ࡛ sémete adv ࡏࡵ࡚ at least; at most ࡍࡀ … It is kind of you (to ask), semi n ࢭ࣑࣭⻼ cicada, locust VHPLQă n ࢭ࣑ࢼ࣮ seminar, but … sekkei n タィ designing, planning workshop (of machine, etc.); shekkei-sha n sén n ༓ 1,000 (= is-sén ୍༓࣭ タィ⪅ designer (of machine, 1,000) thousand; sén-ba n ༓⩚ etc.); shekkei-zu n タィᅗ draft, 1,000 (birds, rabbits); sen-bai n ༓ಸ a thousand-fold, 1,000 blueprint sekken n ▼ࡅࢇ࣭▼㮯 soap times as much; sén-bai n ༓ᮼ sekkin n ᥋㏆ approach(ing): 1,000 cupfuls; sén-biki n ༓༉ ~-sen ᥋㏆ᡓ close game, close 1,000 (fishes/bugs, small anicontest: … ni ~ o hakarimásu … mals); sén-bon n ༓ᮏ 1,000 (pen࡟᥋㏆ࢆᅗࡾࡲࡍ seeks access cils/bottles, long objects); sen-en to …; … ni ~ shimásu …࡟᥋㏆ n ༓෇ a thousand yen; sén-zoku n ࡋࡲࡍ approaches, draws near ༓㊊ 1,000 pairs of footwear VHNNĿ n ▼ࡇ࠺࣭▼⭯ plaster sén n ⥺ 1. line (= shasen ᩳ⥺): sekkú n ⠇ྃ; Tángo no ~ ➃༗ࡢ kyoku-~ ᭤⥺ curved line: ⠇ྃ Boys Festival (5 May) choku-~ ┤⥺ straight line sékkusu n ࢭࢵࢡࢫ sex 2. outline 3. electron beam (A VHNN\Ŀ n ㄝᩍ sermon ăsu-sen ࢔࣮ࢫ⥺) 4. (name of sekkyoku-teki (na) adj ✚ᴟⓗ ࡞ electric train line): (jë åru) Yama no te-sen (JR)ᒣᡭ⥺ JR positive, energetic, vigorous semái adj ⊃࠸ 1. narrow, tight, Yamanote Line sén n ᰦ plug, cork, stopper small (space): ~-heya ⊃࠸㒊 ᒇ small room; ~-michi ⊃࠸㐨 sen-… prefix ⯪ ship; VpQFKĿ n ⯪㛗 captain (of ship); VHQ·LQ n ⯪ narrow street, path 2. narrow, ဨ ship’s crew (member), sailor limited: shiya ga ~ ど㔝ࡀ⊃࠸ has a narrow outlook 3. narrow, (…´-) sen suffix (…) ⯪ (name of little, small (mind) (= kyøryø ⊃ certain) ship 㔞): ryøken ga ~ ஢ぢࡀ⊃࠸ is sen-…/…-sen prefix, suffix ᡓ ᡓ war; sen-go adv [BOOKISH] narrow-minded sememásu, seméru v ᨷࡵࡲࡍ, ᨷ ᡓᚋ postwar, after/since the ࡵࡿ attacks, assaults war; sén-ji adv [BOOKISH] ᡓ᫬ sememásu, seméru v ㈐ࡵࡲࡍ, ㈐ wartime; VHQVĿ n ᡓத war; senWĿ ࡵࡿ censures, reproaches, n [BOOKISH] ᡓ㜚 battle; sen-zen (no) adj [BOOKISH] ᡓ๓ ࡢ criticizes semento n ࢭ࣓ࣥࢺ cement prewar, before the war; VKŗVHQ n 239


[BOOKISH] ⤊ᡓ the end of a war sen-… prefix ඛ last, previous, before, former; sen-datté adv ඛ❧ ࡗ࡚ a few days ago, recently; sén-getsu n, adv ඛ᭶ last month; sen-jin n ඛே { ancestor | forerunner; sen-jitsu n, adv ඛ᪥ the other day; sen-ku-sha n ඛ㥑⪅ pioneer, a forerunner; VHQQ\ŗNDQ n ඛධほ preconceived idea, prejudice; sen-rei n ඛ౛ precedent, prior example; sen-sén-getsu n [BOOKISH] ඛࠎ᭶ month before last, two months ago; VHQ·\DNX n ඛ⣙ previous appointment/ engagement; sén-zo n ඛ♽


katori-~ ⺅ྲྀࡾ⥺㤶 mosquito coil: ~-hanabi ⥺㤶ⰼⅆ Japanese sparkler VHQNĿ n ᑓᨷ major (study) sénkyo n 㑅ᣲ election: ~-ken 㑅 ᣲᶒ right to vote: ~-undø 㑅ᣲ 㐠ື election campaign VHQN\Ŀ n ᐉᩍ mission work; VHQN\ĿVKL n ᐉᩍᖌ missionary senmen n Ὑ㠃 washing one’s face; senmen-jó n Ὑ㠃ᡤ lavatory (to wash up at/in), bathroom senmon n ᑓ㛛 specialty, major (line/field/study): ~-(yø)go ᑓ㛛 ⏝ ㄒ technical term, jargon; ~-ka ᑓ㛛ᐙ specialist; ~-i ᑓ㛛 ་ (medical) specialist ancestor sen-… prefix ඛ lead, head, senpai n ඛ㍮ one’s senior (colfront, top; sen-tan n ඛ➃ { tip, league, fellow student) VHQSĿ n ඛ᪉ the other side (party) (pointed) end | forefront: ~-gijutsu ඛ➃ᢏ⾡ high-techVHQSŗ n ᪕㢼 [BOOKISH] whirlwind nology; VHQWĿ n ඛ㢌 lead, head, senpŗNL n ᡪ㢼ᶵ electric fan front, top: ~ ni tachimásu ඛ㢌࡟ senritsu n ᪕ᚊ melody ❧ࡕࡲࡍ takes the lead, takes senritsu n ᡓុ [BOOKISH] shudder the initiative of horror, shiver of horror sénbei n ࡏࢇ࡭࠸࣭↦㣰 rice sénro n ⥺㊰ railroad track/line VHQU\Ŀ n ༨㡿 military occupation crackers (…-) sénchi … ࢭࣥࢳ, ~më´toru sensai (na) adj ⧄⣽ ࡞ delicate, ࢭࣥࢳ࣓࣮ࢺࣝ centimeter sensitive senchiméntaru (na) adj ࢭࣥࢳ࣓ࣥ sensaku n ヮ⣴ prying, inquiry; ࢱࣝ ࡞ sentimental sensaku-zuki (na) adj ヮ⣴ዲࡁ ࡞ senden n ᐉఏ propaganda, pubnosy licity: ~-køkoku ᐉఏᗈ࿌ promo senséi n ඛ⏕ teacher; doctor; VpQ·L n ⧄⥔ fiber maestro, master (artisan/artist) VpQ·L n 㑄⛣ [BOOKISH] 1. transition (= kyøshi ᩍᖌ) 2. succession sensei n ᐉㄋ [BOOKISH] oath VpQNĿ n ⥺㤶 incense, joss stick: VHQVďVKRQ n ࢭࣥࢭ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ a 240



sensation (excitement): ~ o makio- ~tëpu ࢭࣟ ࣁࣥ ࣭ࢸ࣮ࣉ celkoshimásu ࢭࣥࢭ࣮ࢩࣙࣥࢆᕳ lophane tape, scotch tape séron n ୡㄽ public opinion ࡁ㉳ࡇࡋࡲࡍ makes a splash, sérori n ࢭࣟࣜ celery causes/creates a sensation sénshu n 㑅ᡭ athlete; player: VďUX n ࢭ࣮ࣝ sale: bågen-~ ࣂ࣮ orinpikku-~ ࢜ࣜࣥࣆࢵࢡ㑅ᡭ ࢤ࣭ࣥࢭ࣮ࣝ bargain sale an Olympic athlete: ~-ken 㑅ᡭ sessen n ᥋⥺ tangent line ᶒ championship, title sessen n ᥋ᡓ close game, close sensu n ᡪᏊ (Japanese) fan contest sésse-to adv ࡏࡗࡏ࡜ diligently, (folding) sénsu n ࢭࣥࢫ sense: ~ ga ii ࢭࣥ hard (laboriously); frequently, ࢫࡀ࠸࠸ has good taste: ~ ga often warui ࢭࣥࢫࡀᝏ࠸ has poor ses-shimásu v ᥋ࡋࡲࡍ, ses-suru taste: yümoa no ~ ࣮ࣘࣔ࢔ࡢࢭ ᥋ࡍࡿ; (… ni) ~ …࡟ ᥋ࡋࡲࡍ ࣥࢫ sense of humor 1. comes in contact (with), borders sensui n ₯Ỉ submerging, diving; (on), is adjacent/contiguous (to) sensui-kan n ₯ỈⰄ submarine 2. encounters, meets, receives, sentaku n Ὑ℆ laundry, washing treats, handles sesshoku n ᥋ゐ contact, touch (= ~-mono Ὑ℆≀࣭Ὑࡓࡃࡶ ࡢ); sentákú-ki n Ὑ℆ᶵ washer; sesshoku n ⠇㣗 abstemious diet sentaku-mono-ire n Ὑ℆≀ධࢀ VHVVKĿ n ᢡ⾪ negotiation VďWă n ࢭ࣮ࢱ࣮ sweater clothesbag (for laundry) sentaku n 㑅ᢥ selection, choice setai n ୡᖏ a household séntensu n ࢭࣥࢸࣥࢫ sentence setchaku-zai n ᥋╔๣ glue, adhesive setogiwa n ℩ᡞ㝿 the last moment: (linguistic) (= bun ᩥ) (…-) sénto suffix … ࢭࣥࢺ cent(s) … no ~ ni arimásu ࡢ℩ᡞ㝿 VpQWĿ n 㖹‫ ‮‬public bath ࡟࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is on the verge of … seoimásu, seou v ⫼㈇࠸ࡲࡍ, ⫼㈇ setomono n ℩ᡞ≀ porcelain, ࠺ carries on the back china(ware) seppuku n ษ⭡ harakiri (self-dis- Seto-náikai n ℩ᡞෆᾏ the Inland Sea sétsu n ⠇ occasion (time or event) embowelment) seppun n ᥋࿀ [BOOKISH] kiss sétsu n ㄝ theory serí n ➇ࡾ auction sétsubi n タഛ equipment, faciliserí n ࡏࡾ࣭ⱂ Japanese parsley ties, accommodations serifu n ࡏࡾࡩ࣭ྎモ one’s lines setsubi-go/-ji n ᥋ᑿㄒ/㎡ suffix setsudan n ษ᩿ [BOOKISH] cutting, (in a play), dialogue sérohan n ࢭࣟࣁࣥ cellophane: cutoff 241



setsudo n ⠇ᗘ moderation: ~ no VHWWĿ n ✼┐ theft: settø-~ ✼┐≢ aru ⠇ᗘࡢ࠶ࡿ moderate: ~ o a thief mamorimásu ⠇ᗘࢆᏲࡾࡲࡍ is VHWWĿJRML n ᥋㢌ㄒ㎡ prefix settoku v ㄝᚓ persuasion moderate sétsuei n タႠ construction, setting sewá n ୡヰ 1. care, trouble, up: tento (no) ~ ࢸࣥࢺ ࡢ タႠ assistance, help; (…no) ~ ni narimásu …ࡢ ୡヰ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ setting up the tent setsugen n ⠇ῶ reduction: keihi-~ becomes obliged (to one for help) ⤒㈝⠇ῶ reducing the cost; A o-sewa-sama ࠾ୡヰࡉࡲ 2. denryoku-~ 㟁ຊ⠇ῶ energy meddling, minding other people’s

conservation setsuJĿ n ᥋ྜ connection, con-

jugation, joining setsujitsu (na/ni) adj, adv ษᐇ ࡞ ࡟ urgent, serious, keenly, earnestly: ~ na mondai ษᐇ࡞ ၥ㢟 serious problem; ~ na yøkyü ษᐇ࡞せồ a crying need,

pressing need setsumei n ㄝ᫂ explanation, description; setsumei-shó n ㄝ᫂᭩

business sewashíi adj ᛁࡋ࠸ = ~-nái ᛁࡋ࡞ ࠸ busy, hectic sezu v ࡏࡎ not doing (= sezu ni ࡏࡎ࡟, shináide ࡋ࡞࠸࡛) sha-…/…-sha prefix, suffix ♫ ♫ company; sha-chĿ n ♫㛗 president of a company; shá-in n ♫ဨ employee (of a company) sha-… prefix ㌴ vehicle; VKDGĿ n ㌴㐨 road(way), drive(way), street; sha-rin n ㌴㍯ wheel …-sha suffix ㌴ (name of certain)

written explanation, instructions, manual sétsuna n ็㑣 [BOOKISH] moment, vehicle …´-sha …⪅ person instant (= shunkan ▐㛫) setsuritsu n タ❧ establishment, shaberimásu, shabéru v ႅࡾࡲࡍ, ႅ ࡿ [INFORMAL]speak/talk: o-shafoundation: højin-~ ἲேタ❧ beri himásu ࠾ႅࡾࡋࡲࡍ incorporation; ~-tøki タ❧Ⓩグ organizing registration chatters setsuzókú n ᥋⥆ connection: sháberu n ࢩࣕ࣋ࣝ shovel densha no ~ 㟁㌴ࡢ᥋⥆ train shabon n ࢩࣕ࣎ࣥ soap; shabonconnections; setsuzókú-shi n ᥋⥆ dama n ࢩࣕ࣎ࣥ⋢ soap bubble モ a conjunction shabu-shabu n ࡋࡷࡪࡋࡷࡪ beef séttai n ᥋ᚅ business entertainment slices dipped in hot broth till séttei n タᐃ setup, setting ready to eat sétto n ࢭࢵࢺ 1. set (hair, etc.) shadan n 㐽᩿ interruption 2. a set meal shagamimásu, shagamu v ࡋࡷࡀࡳ 242


ࡲࡍ, ࡋࡷࡀࡴ squats, crouches


formalism: ~ ni yarimásu ᮨᏊᐃ つ࡟ࡸࡾࡲࡍ goes by the book on heels shagare-goe n Ⴄࢀኌ hoarse voice shamisen n ୕࿡⥺ a three-stringed shageki n ᑕᧁ shooting (firing a banjo Shánhái n ࢩࣕࣥࣁ࢖࣭ୖᾏ rifle, shotgun, etc) shajitsu n ෗ᐇ [BOOKISH] drawing/ Shanghai writing realistically: ~-teki (na) shanpán, shanpén n ࢩࣕࣥࣃࣥ, ࢩ ෗ᐇⓗ ࡞ realistic ࣕࣥ࣌ࣥ champagne Sháka n ࢩ࣭ࣕ࢝㔘㏑ Buddha VKiQSŗ n ࢩࣕࣥࣉ࣮ shampoo share n ࡋࡷࢀ࣭ὗⴠ pun (Sakyamuni) shákai n ♫఍ society: ~ no ♫఍ࡢ sharei (kin) n ㅰ♩ 㔠 remunerasocial; shakai-kágaku n ♫఍⛉Ꮫ tion, reward, fee shasei n ෗⏕ sketching, sketch social science(s); shakai no mado shashin n ෗┿ photo, picture: n ♫఍ࡢ❆ one’s fly; shakai no shukuzu n ♫఍ࡢ⦰ᅗ society in ~-chø ෗┿ᖒ photo album: ~-ka miniature; shakai-shúgi n ♫఍୺⩏ ෗┿ᐙ photographer shátsu n ࢩࣕࢶ undershirt socialism sháke n ࢩࣕࢣ࣭㩬 salmon VKiWWă n ࢩࣕࢵࢱ࣮ shutter shakkín n ೉㔠 debt (camera, etc.): ~ o kirimásu ࢩ shákkuri n ࡋࡷࡗࡃࡾ hiccup ࣕࢵࢱ࣮ࢆษࡾࡲࡍ releases sháko n ࢩࣕࢥ squilla, mantis the shutter VKiZă n ࢩ࣮ࣕ࣡ shower (bath) shrimp VKDNĿ n ♫஺ social intercourse, shi n リ poetry, poem, verse; shijin socializing n リே poet shakuhachi n ᑻඵ vertical bamboo … shi suffix …ࡋ and, and so, what flute with (the fact that) … shakunetsu adj ⅎ⇕ 1. burning: ~ shí n Ṛ death; shi-in n Ṛᅉ cause no taiyø ⅎ⇕ࡢኴ㝧 scorching of death; shi-nin n Ṛே dead sun 2. passionate: ~ no koi ⅎ⇕ person ࡢᜊ passionate love shí n ᅄ four (= yón ᅄ); shi-go-… shaku ni sawarimásu (sawaru) v Ⓝ࡟ prefix, adj ᅄ,஬… four or five 㞀ࡾࡲࡍ 㞀ࡿ takes offense, …; VKLMŗ n ᅄ㔜 quadruplex: shi-jü-sø ᅄ㔜ዌ quartet (musical gets irritated/provoked; … ga shaku ni ~ …ࡀⓃ࡟㞀ࡾࡲࡍ is instruments, two violins, viola, offensive, irritating, provoking cello, etc.): gengaku-~-kyoku/dan shákushi n ᮨᏊ ladle (large ᘻᴦᅄ㔜ዌ᭤ᅋ string quartet wooden); VKiNXVKLMĿgi n ᮨᏊᐃつ shí n ᕷ city (= tóshi 㒔ᕷ); VKLFKĿ 243


n ᕷ㛗 mayor; shí-min n ᕷẸ citizen, civilian (= kømin බẸ); shí-nai n ᕷෆ within the city; shíritsu (no) adj ᕷ❧ ࡢ municipal; shi-yákusho n ᕷᙺᡤ city office, city hall shiage n ௙ୖࡆ the finish(ing touch) shiagemásu v ௙ୖࡆࡲࡍ, shiagéru ௙ୖࡆࡿ finishes up shiai n ヨྜ match, contest, meet, tournament shiasátte n, adv ࡋ࠶ࡉࡗ࡚࣭᫂ࠎ ᚋ᪥ three days from now shiawase n ᖾࡏ࣭ࡋ࠶ࢃࡏ happiness; shiawase (na) adj ᖾࡏ ࡞ happy shiba n Ⱚ turf, lawn; shiba-fu n Ⱚ ⏕ lawn, grass; shiba-karí-ki n Ⱚส ࡾᶵ lawn mower Shíba n Ⱚ Shiba; Shiba-Kø´en Ⱚ බᅬ Shiba Park shibai n Ⱚᒃ 1. a play (drama) 2. acting, pretense, fake: ~ o uchimásu Ⱚᒃࢆᡴࡕࡲࡍ puts on an act shibáraku adv ࡋࡤࡽࡃ (for) a while: ~ shite ࡋࡤࡽࡃࡋ࡚ after a while shibarimásu, shibáru v ⦡ࡾࡲࡍ, ⦡ ࡿ ties up shíba shíba adv ࡋࡤࡋࡤ often, repeatedly Shiberia n ࢩ࣋ࣜ࢔ Siberia shibin n ࡋࡧࢇ bedpan (urinal) shibiré n ࡋࡧࢀ࣭⑷ࢀ numbness:


ࡲࡍ loses patience shibiremásu, shibiréru v ⑷ࢀࡲࡍ, ⑷ࢀࡿ gets numb, (a leg, etc.)

goes to sleep VKLEĿ n ⬡⫫ fat (lard, blubber) VKLEĿ n ᚿᮃ a desire, a wish: haiyü-~ ತඃᚿᮃ a would-be actor: daiichi-~ no daigaku ➨୍ ᚿᮃࡢ኱Ꮫ one’s first choice

college/university shiborimásu, shibóru v ⤠ࡾࡲࡍ, ⤠ ࡿ wrings (out), squeezes, strains

(through cloth) shibu n ᨭ㒊 branch office shibúi adj ῰࠸ 1. taste, astringent (tea), bitter (wine) rough 2. (face) wry, sour: ~ kao o shimásu ῰࠸ 㢦ࢆࡋࡲࡍ makes a wry face 3.

appearance cool (sedate, sober, elegant, tasteful); shibui iroi n ῰࠸ Ⰽ elegant color Shibuya n ῰㇂ Shibuya; ShibuyáEki ῰㇂㥐 Shibuya Station shichí n ୐࣭7 seven (= nána ୐࣭ 7); Shichi-go-san n ୐஬୕ the “seven-five-three” day when children of those ages visit shrines (15 November) shichí n ㉁ a pawn (something pawned); shichí-ya n ㉁ᒇ pawnbroker, pawnshop Shichi-gatsú n ୐᭶࣭7᭶ July shiFKLMŗ n ୐༑࣭70 seventy (= naná-jü ୐༑࣭70) shiFKLPHQFKĿ n ࢩࢳ࣓ࣥࢳ࣭ࣙ࢘ ୐㠃㫽 turkey ~ o kirashimásu ࡋࡧࢀࢆษࡽࡋ shiFKŗ n ࢩࢳ࣮ࣗ stew 244



shidai n ḟ➨࣭ࡋࡔ࠸ 1. circum- rency (bill) (= (o-)satsu ࠾ ᮐ) stances 2. suffix ([NOUN, VERB] -i shiKĿ KDSSĿ n ᅄ᪉ ඵ᪉ all ࠸) ~ desu ḟ➨࡛ࡍ it depends sides/directions on …; ([VERB] -i ࠸) -shidai ḟ➨ shihon (kin) n ㈨ᮏ 㔠 capital, as soon as … funds: ~-ka ㈨ᮏᐙ capitalist shidashi-ya n ௙ฟࡋᒇ caterer, shiiému n ࢩ࣮࢚࣒࣭CM TV

catering shop


shiin n Ꮚ㡢 consonant shíin n ࢩ࣮ࣥ scene leadership, counsel(ing), shíitake n ࢩ࢖ࢱࢣ࣭᳝Ⲗ, shiicoaching; VKLGĿVKD n ᣦᑟ⪅ guide, director, leader, coach take mushrooms: hoshi-~ ᖸࡋ᳝ shifuku n ⚾᭹ plain clothes; civil- Ⲗ dried shiitake mushrooms shíite adv ᙉ࠸࡚ forcibly: shíite ian clothes VKtJă n ࢩ࣮࢞ cigar sasemásu ᙉ࠸࡚ࡉࡏࡲࡍ forces shi-gachi (na) suffix, adj ࡋࡀࡕ one to do ࡞ apt to do, tends to shíito n ࢩ࣮ࢺ 1. sheets; biniiru shígarétto n ࢩ࢞ࣞࢵࢺ cigarette(s) ~ ࣅࢽ࣮࣭ࣝࢩ࣮ࢺ vinyl sheet Shi-gatsú n ᅄ᭶࣭4᭶ April 2. seat; ~-béruto ࢩ࣮ࢺ࣭࣋ࣝ shigeki n ่⃭ stimulation ࢺ seatbelt shigerimásu, shigéru v ⱱࡾࡲࡍ, ⱱ shíitsu n ࢩ࣮ࢶ sheet (for bed) ࡿ it grows thick(ly)/luxuriant(ly) shíizun n ࢩ࣮ࢬࣥ 1. the season shígoku adv ⮳ᴟ extremely (= kisetsu Ꮨ⠇) 2. high season; shigoto n ௙஦ job, work, task, yakyü (no) ~ 㔝⌫ ࡢ ࢩ࣮ࢬࣥ VKLGĿ n ᣦᑟ guidance, direction,

undertaking, business; operation: baseball season shíji n ᨭᣢ [BOOKISH] support, goes to work maintenance shigure n ᫬㞵 an on-and-off driz- shíji n ᣦ♧ [BOOKISH] indication, zle (in early winter) instruction, directions shihái, shíhai n ᨭ㓄 management, shíji n ⚾஦ [BOOKISH] 1. personal control; shihái-nin n ᨭ㓄ே man- matter 2. privacy VKLMĿ n ᕷሙ market ager; shihái-sha n ᨭ㓄⪅ ruler shihanki n ᅄ༙ᮇ quarter (year): VKLMŗ n ᅄ༑࣭40 forty (= yón-jü dai ni-~ ➨஧ᅄ༙ᮇ the second ᅄ༑࣭40) (business) quarter (of a company) VKtMŗ adv ጞ⤊ all the time shiharai n ᨭᡶ࠸, payment, disshika n ࢩ࣭࢝㮵 deer shiká n ṑ⛉ dentistry; shiká-i n ṑ bursement shíhei n ⣬ᖯ paper money, cur⛉་ dentist (= há-isha ṑ་⪅) 245 ~ ni ikimásu ௙஦࡟⾜ࡁࡲࡍ



…shika conj …ࡋ࠿ [+ NEGATIVE]

(nothing) but, except for; (= …daké …ࡔࡅ [+ POSITIVE]) only, just shikake n ௙᥃ࡅ device (gadget) shikaku n ㈨᱁ qualification(s), competency; zairyü ~ ᅾ␃㈨᱁ status of residence shikakúi adj ᅄゅ࠸ square shiká-mo adv ࡋ࠿ࡶ moreover; and yet shikarimásu, shikaru v ྏࡾࡲࡍ, ྏ ࡿ scolds shikáshi conj ࡋ࠿ࡋ [BOOKISH] but, however (= demo ࡛ࡶ, keredo(mo) ࡅࢀ࡝ ࡶ ) shi-kata n ௙᪉ way (of doing), manner, method, means: ~ ga arimasén ௙᪉ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ

shikín n ㈨㔠 fund, capital shikiri n ௙ษࡾ partition shikiri ni adv ࡋࡁࡾ࡟ incessantly;

intently, hard shikkári adv ࡋࡗ࠿ࡾ firmly,

resolutely shikke, shikki n ‵Ẽ dampness,

humidity shikki n ‵Ẽ A shikke ‵Ẽ shikki n ⁽ჾ lacquer(ware) shíkko n ࡋࡗࡇ (slang/baby talk) urine, urinating (= nyø ᒀ) shiNĿ n Ⴔዲ࣭ࡋዲ liking, fancy, taste; …ni ~ ga arimásu …࡟Ⴔ ዲࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ has a taste/liking for…; VKLNĿKLQ n Ⴔዲရ࣭ࡋዲရ

articles of taste, amenities of life Shikóku n ᅄᅜ Shikoku VKLN\ĿKLQ n ヨ౪ရ tester, free

there’s nothing I/we can do about sample (for customers) (A sanpuru ࢧࣥࣉࣝ) it, can’t be helped shikén n ヨ㦂 [BOOKISH] examina- shiN\ŗ adv ⮳ᛴ urgently: ~ (no) tion, test, trial, experiment; shiken- ⮳ᛴ ࡢ urgent jó n ヨ㦂ᡤ (testing) laboratory; shima n ᓥ island VKLNHQMĿ n ヨ㦂ሙ exam room/ shima n ⦤ stripes: ~-moyø ⦤ᶍᵝ place stripe pattern shikí n ᘧ ceremony shimai n ⤊࠸࣭௙⯙ ࠸ the end: shiki n ᣦ᥹ 1. command 2. con~ (no) ࡋࡲ࠸ ࡢ the final/last ducting (orchestra); shikí-sha n ᣦ shimaimásu, shimau v ࡋࡲ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᥹⪅ conductor (orchestra) ࡋࡲ࠺ puts away, finishes; shite shikibetsu n ㆑ู discrimination shimau ࡋ࡚ࡋࡲ࠺ finishes shikí-kin n ᩜ㔠 security deposit doing, ends up by doing (after all), (for rental) does anyway, does it all shikimásu, shiku v ᩜࡁࡲࡍ, ᩜࡃ shimarimásu, shimáru v 㛢ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, spreads (a quilt, etc.); shiki-búton n 㛢ࡲࡿ it shuts, closes, locks ᩜᕸᅋ bottom quilt; shiki-fu n ᩜ shimarimásu, shimáru v ⥾ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, ᕸ (bed)sheet (= shíitsu ࢩ࣮ࢶ) ⥾ࡲࡿ gets steady, braces oneself 246


shimarimásu, shimáru v ⥾ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, ⥾ࡲࡿ gets thrifty, frugal shimásu, suru v ࡋࡲࡍ, ࡍࡿ does (it); it happens; wears; … ni ([ADJECTIVE] -ku) shimásu …࡟... ࡃ ࡋࡲ ࡍ makes it so that (it is), makes it into; decides on (= … ni kimemásu …࡟Ỵࡵࡲࡍ); … VKL\Ŀ to shimásu … ࡋࡼ࠺ ࡜ࡋࡲࡍ goes (tries, is about) to do; … (suru) koto ni shimásu … ࡍࡿ ஦࡟ࡋࡲࡍ decides to (do); … to shiWH  mo) … ࡜ࡋ࡚ ࡶ (even) as a … shímatsu n ጞᮎ managing, dealing


belt, etc.) 2. tightens up on: neji o ~ ࢿࢪࢆ⥾ࡵࡲࡍ tightens up a screw 3. economizes on 4. ki o hiki-~ Ẽࢆᘬࡁ⥾ࡵࡲࡍ braces oneself shimeppói adj ‵ࡗࡱ࠸ damp; humid shimerasemásu, shimerasu v ‵ࡽࡏ ࡲࡍ, ‵ࡽࡍ moistens/dampens it, wets it shimerimásu, shimeru v ‵ࡾࡲࡍ, ‵ࡿ gets damp shimeshimásu, shimésu v ♧ࡋࡲࡍ, ♧ࡍ shows, indicates shimi n ᰁࡳ࣭ࡋࡳ stain, blot, with; outcome, upshot, climax shimátta interj ࡋࡲࡗࡓ! Damn!, blotch, spot shimijími (to) adv ࡋࡳࡌࡳ ࡜ Good heavens shimauma n ࢩ࣐࣐࢘ zebra deeply (feels), fully (appreciates) shime-gane n ⥾ࡵ㔠 buckle shimimásu, shimiru v ᰁࡳࡲࡍ, ᰁ shimei n ౑࿨ mission: ~-kan ౑࿨ ࡳࡿ penetrates, soaks ឤ sense of mission shimimásu, shimiru v Ỹࡳࡲࡍ, shi-mei n Ặྡ (one’s) full name Ỹࡳࡿ smarts, is stimulated (= sei-mei ጣྡ) (body), is deeply moved (heart): shimei n ᣦྡ designation; shimeihonemi ni ~ 㦵㌟࡟Ỹࡳࡲࡍ WVŗZD n ᣦྡ㏻ヰ person-totouches one to the quick: hito no person call; shimei-tehai n ᣦྡᡭ nasake ga mi ni ~ ேࡢ᝟ࡅࡀ㌟ 㓄 listing a person (criminal) on ࡟Ỹࡳࡲࡍ deeply appreciates the wanted list people’s thoughtfulness shimekiri n ⥾ࡵษࡾ࣭ࠏษ 1. shimó n 㟖࣭ࡋࡶ frost: ~ ga oriclosing 2. “Closed”, deadline: ~ másu 㟖ࡀ㝆ࡾࡲࡍ frosts kígen/kíjitsu ⥾ࡵษࡾᮇ㝈ᮇ᪥ shí mo suffix ࡋࡶ [+ NEGATIVE deadline, due date verb] ~ shimasén ࡋࡶࡋࡲࡏࢇ shimemásu, shiméru v 㛢ࡵࡲࡍ, 㛢 nor do, not do either/even ࡵࡿ shuts (closes, locks) it shimon n ᣦ⣠ fingerprint shimemásu, shiméru v ⥾ࡵࡲࡍ, ⥾ shimon n ㅎၥ [BOOKISH] inquiry ࡵࡿ 1. ties, fastens, tightens it shimon n ヨၥ [BOOKISH] question(necktie, belt, kimono sash, seat- ing, interviewing, examination; 247


køtø-~ ཱྀ㢌ヨၥ oral examination shín n ⰺ core, pith, heart: ringo no ~ࣜࣥࢦ>ᯘ᷍@ࡢⰺ apple core shín-… prefix ᚰ heart, spirit; VKtQFKŗ n ᚰ୰ in one’s heart; shin-pai n ᚰ㓄 worry, uneasiness, concern, anxiety, fear: ~ (na) ᚰ 㓄 ࡞ uneasy; shín-ri n ᚰ⌮ psychology, mentality; shin-rí-gaku n ᚰ⌮Ꮫ (science/study of) psychology; ~-sha ᚰ⌮Ꮫ⪅ psychologist; shín-soko n ᚰᗏ (at) the bottom of one’s heart; VKLQ]Ŀ n ᚰ⮚ heart (organ) shín-… prefix ᪂… … new; shingeki n ᪂๻ modern drama; shínnen n ᪂ᖺ new year: Shín-nen akemashite omedetø (gozaimásu) ᪂ᖺ᫂ࡅࡲࡋ࡚࠾ࡵ࡛࡜࠺ ࡈ ࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ ! Happy New Year!; shin-sen (na) adj ᪂㩭 ࡞ fresh; Shin-yaku Seisho n ᪂⣙⪷᭩ the


࠸࡛࠸ࡲࡍ keeps on not doing it; ~ okimásu ࡋ࡞࠸࡛࠾ࡁࡲࡍ

neglects to do it, leaves it undone; ~ mimásu ࡋ࡞࠸࡛ࡳࡲࡍ tries not doing it; ~ sumimásu ࡋ࡞࠸ ࡛῭ࡳࡲࡍ needs not do it, doesn’t have to do it shinákute mo v ࡋ࡞ࡃ࡚ࡶ even not doing it; ~ íi desu ࡋ࡞ࡃ࡚ࡶ ࠸࠸࡛ࡍ gets by without doing it, doesn’t have to do it shi-naoshimásu, shi-naósu v ࡋ┤ࡋ ࡲࡍ, ࡋ┤ࡍ redoes it, fixes/ improves it Shínbashi n ᪂ᶫ Shinbashi VKtQEĿ n ㎞ᢪ [BOOKISH] endurance, patience, forbearance shinbun n ᪂⪺ newspaper; ~-úriba ᪂⪺኎ࡾሙ newsstand; shinbundai n ᪂⪺௦ newspaper bill; shinbún-sha n ᪂⪺♫ newspaper company VKLQFKĿ n ㌟㛗 height, stature (= New Testament shin-… prefix ⚄… god, deity; shin- sé ⫼, séi ࡏ࠸࣭⫼, setake ⫼୔): den n ⚄Ẋ the sanctuary of a ~ o hakarimásu ㌟㛗ࢆ ࡾࡲࡍ shrine; VKtQGĿ n ⚄❺ child measures one’s height VKLQFKŗ n ┿㘷 brass prodigy; shín-pu n ⚄∗ priest shindai n ᐷྎ bed, berth, bunk; (Christian), Father, Reverend; 6KtQWĿ, 6KtQGĿ n ⚄㐨 Shinto(ism); ~-ken ᐷྎๆ berth ticket shin-wa n ⚄ヰ myth, mythology VKLQGĿ n ᣺ື vibration: hageshii shina n ရ 1. articles, goods (= ~ ⃭ࡋ࠸᣺ື thumping vibration shinamono ရ≀) 2. quality; Shinetsu-chiKĿ n ಙ㉺ᆅ᪉ the shina-mono n ရ≀ goods, articles Shinetsu area of Japan (Niigata, (= shina ရ) Nagano prefectures) shi-nagara ࡋ࡞ࡀࡽ while doing VKLQJĿ n ಙྕ signal: ~-ki ಙྕᶵ shináide v ࡋ࡞࠸࡛ not doing it, traffic light: ~-mushi ಙྕ↓ど instead of doing it: ~ imásu ࡋ࡞ running a red light: ao-~ 㟷ಙྕ 248



green light: aka-~ ㉥ಙྕ red light shíngu n ᐷල bedding shínguru n ࢩࣥࢢࣝ 1. single (room) 2. single, unmarried (= dokushin ⊂㌟), bachelor shinimásu, shinu v Ṛ࡟ࡲࡍ, Ṛࡠ dies (= nakunarimásu ஸࡃ࡞ࡾ ࡲࡍ, o-nakunari ni narimásu [HONORIFIC] ࠾ஸࡃ࡞ࡾ࡟࡞ࡾ ࡲࡍ(for human)) shínjá n ಙ⪅ a believer; Kirisutokyø (no) ~ ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍ ࡢ ಙ⪅

a Christian

shínpo n 㐍Ṍ progress shínpuru (na) adj ࢩࣥࣉࣝ ࡞

simple shinrai n ಙ㢗 trust, confidence, reliance; shinrai-sei n ಙ㢗ᛶ reliability: ~ ga takái ಙ㢗ᛶࡀ㧗࠸

highly reliable shínri n ┿⌮ truth, veritas: fuhen no ~ ୙ኚࡢ┿⌮ eternal truth,

everlasting truth shinrui n ぶ㢮 a relative (= shinseki ぶᡉ, shinzoku ぶ᪘) shinryaku n ౵␎ invasion, aggres-


shin-jimásu, shin-jíru v ಙࡌࡲࡍ, ಙ ࡌࡿ believes in, trusts shínjitsu n ┿ᐇ truth (= hontø no koto ᮏᙜࡢࡇ࡜, makoto ㄔ࣭┿) shinju n ┿⌔ pearl; Shinjú-wan ┿⌔‴ Pearl Harbor VKLQMŗ n ᚰ୰ double suicide,

shinsatsu n デᐹ medical exami-

nation shinsei n ⏦ㄳ application (for a permit); shinsei-nin n ⏦ㄳே an applicant; shinsei-shó n ⏦ㄳ᭩

application form (for a permit)

shinseki n ぶᡉ a relative shínsetsu n ぶษ kindness, goodlovers’ suicide Shinjuku n ᪂ᐟ Shinjuku; Shinjukú- will, favor; shínsetsu na adj ぶษ Eki ᪂ᐟ㥐 Shinjuku Station ࡞ kind, cordial shinkánsen n ᪂ᖿ⥺ bullet train shínshi n ⤀ኈ gentleman shinshitsu n ᐷᐊ bedroom (line), Shinkansen shínkei n ⚄⤒ nerve: ~ ni sawashíntai (no) adj ㌟య ࡢ physical; rimásu ⚄⤒࡟㞀ࡾࡲࡍ gets on ~-kénsa ㌟య᳨ᰝ physical one’s nerves; shinkéi-shitsu (na) adj exam; ~-shøgáisha ㌟య㞀ᐖ⪅ ⚄⤒㉁ ࡞ nervous handicapped person shinkoku (na) adj ῝้ ࡞ serious, VKtQ·\D n, adv ῝ኪ late at night VKLQ·\Ŀ n ಙ⏝ trust, confidence; grave shinobimásu, shinóbu v ᚸࡧࡲࡍ, credit ᚸࡪ bears, puts up with shinzoku n ぶ᪘ relatives shínpi n ⚄⛎ mystery; shinpi-teki shió n ₻ tide (na) ⚄⛎ⓗ ࡞ mysterious, shió n ሷ salt; shio-karái adj ሷ㎞࠸ esoteric, miraculous salty (= shoppai ࡋࡻࡗࡥ࠸)



shion n Ꮚ㡢 consonant shiori n ࡋ࠾ࡾ bookmark (a thin


learns; shitte imásu ▱ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ knows shiri-tai v ▱ࡾࡓ࠸ curious about, marker made of paper, card, want(ing) to know etc.) shippai n ኻᩋ failure, blunder, shíritsu (no) adj ⚾❧ ࡢ (= watakushí-ritsu ⚾❧) privately defeat shippó n ࡋࡗࡱ࣭ᑼᑿ tail established entity/organization shira-… prefix ⓑ white; shira-gá shirizokimásu, shirizóku v ㏥ࡁࡲࡍ, ㏥ࡃ retreats, withdraws, retires n ⓑ㧥 gray hair; shira-su n ࢩࣛ ࢫ࣭ⓑᏊ baby sardines shiro n ᇛ castle shirabemásu, shirabéru v ㄪ࡭ࡲࡍ, shíro n ⓑ white: ~-kuma ⓑ⇃࣭ ㄪ࡭ࡿ investigates, examines, ࢩࣟࢡ࣐ white bear, polar bear; shíró-mi n ⓑ㌟ white (of an egg), checks shirafu (no) adj ࡋࡽࡩ ࡢ (unalbumen; white meat; shiró-i adj ⓑ࠸ white drunk) sober shirami n ࢩ࣑ࣛ louse, lice shíróppu n ࢩࣟࢵࣉ syrup shiraremásu, shirareru v ▱ࡽࢀࡲࡍ, VKtUĿto n ⣲ே an amateur, a novice ▱ࡽࢀࡿ gets (widely) known; shíru n Ồ juice, gravy; broth, soup shirushi n ༳࣭ᚤ indication, token, becomes famous shirase n ▱ࡽࡏ (= o-shirase ࠾▱ sign, symptom; effect(iveness) ࡽࡏ) report, notice, information shíryo n ᛮ៖ [BOOKISH] considerashirasemásu, shiraseru v ▱ࡽࡏࡲࡍ, tion, thought(-fulness) ▱ࡽࡏࡿ announces (informs of), VKtU\Ŀ n ㈨ᩱ materials; data shíryoku n どຊ vision, eyesight, lets one know, notifies shiréi n ྖ௧ command (in army, visual acuity shisei n ጼໃ posture; attitude etc.); shiréi-bu n ྖ௧㒊 headshisetsu (no) adj ⚾タ ࡢ private quarters shiréi n ᣦ௧ command; shiréi-kan n shísetsu n ᪋タ facility, instituᣦ௧ᐁ commander tion, establishment, installation shiremásu, shireru v ▱ࢀࡲࡍ, ▱ࢀ shíshi n ࢩࢩ࣭⊺Ꮚ lion (= raion ࡿ gets known; is identified; ࣛ࢖࢜ࣥ) shiVKŗ n ่⧆ embroidery becomes clear/evident shirí n ᑼ butt(ock), hip, bottom, shishún-ki n ᛮ᫓ᮇ adolescence shiVĿ n ᛮ᝿ thought, concept seat shiriai n ▱ࡾྜ࠸ acquaintance shíson n ᏊᏞ descendants; shirimásu, shiru v ▱ࡾࡲࡍ, ▱ࡿ posterity acquaints oneself with, finds out, …-shiVĿ (na) suffix, adj ࡋࡑ࠺ ࡞ 250


shi-tsukemásu, shi-tsukéru

likely/about to do it: ~ mo nái ࡋ shitátte v ࡋࡓࡗ࡚ = shitémo ࡋ࡚ ࡑ࠺ࡶ࡞࠸ unlikely to do it ࡶ even doing, even if it does shísso (na) adj ㉁⣲ ࡞ simple, shite v ࡋ࡚ doing; does and; ~-kara ࡋ࡚࠿ࡽ (next) after doing; ~moíi plain, frugal, rustic shi-sugimásu, shi-sugíru v ࡋ㐣ࡂࡲ ࡋ࡚ࡶ࠸࠸ may do it, it is OK ࡍ, ࡋ㐣ࡂࡿ over(does) to do it; ~ wa ikemasén/ikenai/ shita(-…) n, prefix ୗ  below, damé ࡋ࡚ࡣ࠸ࡅࡲࡏࢇ࠸ࡅ࡞ ࠸ࡔࡵ mustn’t do it, don’t do it! under, bottom, lower; (= toshishita ᖺୗ) younger, youngest; shitei n ᣦᐃ designation, appointshita-baki n ୗᒚࡁ (outdoor) ment; shitéi-seki n ᣦᐃᖍ reserved shoes; shita-gi n ୗ╔ underwear; seat(s) shita-machi n ୗ⏫ downtown shiteki shimásu (suru) v ᣦ᦬ࡋࡲࡍ shitá n ⯉ tongue ࡍࡿ indicates, points out shitagaimásu, shitagau v ᚑ࠸ࡲ shiten n ᨭᗑ branch shop ࡍ, ᚑ࠺: …ni ~ …࡟ᚑ࠸ࡲࡍ shitetsu n ⚾㕲 private railroad conforms to …, accords with … shitsu n ㉁ quality, nature shi-tagarimásu, shi-tagáru v ࡋࡓࡀࡾ …´-shitsu suffix …ᐊ (name of ࡲࡍ, ࡋࡓࡀࡿ wants (is eager) certain) room shiWVŗ n ṑ③ toothache (= ha-ita to do shitagatte adv, conj ᚑࡗ࡚ accord- ṑ③) ingly, therefore; … ni ~ …࡟ᚑ shiWVXEĿ n ኻᮃ disappointment ࡗ࡚ according to …, in conform- shitsúdo n ‵ᗘ humidity shiWVXJ\Ŀ n ኻᴗ unemployment; ity with/to … shi-tagátte v ࡋࡓࡀࡗ࡚ A shi-taga- ~-sha ኻᴗ⪅ unemployed person rimásu ࡋࡓࡀࡾࡲࡍ[INFINITIVE] shitsuke n ࡋࡘࡅ࣭㌫ training shi-tai v ࡋࡓ࠸ wants to do it (of children, …), discipline, shitaku n ᨭᗘ preparation, arrange- upbringing shi-tsuke n ௙௜ࡅ basting, tacking ment shitára v ࡋࡓࡽ if/when one does (with thread); ~-íto ௙௜ࡅ⣒ it basting/tacking thread shitári (… shimásu ) v ࡋࡓࡾ …ࡋ shitsukemásu, shitsukéru v ࡋࡘࡅ ࡲࡍ does/is such things as; some- >㌫ࡅ@ࡲࡍ, ࡋࡘࡅ>㌫ࡅ@ࡿ times does/is; does/is intermittrains (children, …), disciplines, tently (off and on) brings up shitashíi adj ぶࡋ࠸ intimate, shi-tsukemásu, shi-tsukéru v ௙௜ࡅ ࡲࡍ, ௙௜ࡅࡿ bastes, tacks familiar shitate-ya n ௙❧ᒇ tailor (with thread) 251



shitsumon n ㉁ၥ question shizumemásu, shizumeru v ỿࡵࡲࡍ, shitsúrei n ኻ♩ discourtesy; ỿࡵࡿ sinks it Shitsúrei desu ga ... ኻ♩࡛ࡍࡀ... shizumimásu, shizumu v ỿࡳࡲࡍ, ỿࡴ it sinks Excuse me for asking, but ...; shitsúrei (na) adj ኻ♩ ࡞ impolite sho- prep ㅖ [makes definite shitsuren n ኻᜊ disappointment plurals of certain nouns]; ~-ji ㅖ ஦ all matters; everything; ~-tø in love shitsuteki (na) adj ㉁ⓗ ࡞ qualita- ㅖᓥ (a group of) islands; an



shitto n ᎖ጊ jealousy: ~ bukai VKĿ n ᛶ nature, disposition, hito ᎖ጊ῝࠸ே jealous person quality shiwa n ࡋࢃ࣭ࢩ࣭࣡⓾ wrinkle, VKĿ n ㈹ prize, reward; VKĿEDWVX crease: ~ ga dekimásu ࡋࢃࡀ࡛ n ㈹⨩ rewards and punishments; VKĿKLQ n ㈹ရ prize (object); shĿ ࡁࡲࡍ it wrinkles (= ~ ni narimásu ࡋࢃ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ) kin n ㈹㔠 prize money; reward; shiwaza n ௙ᴗ act, deed VKĿ\R n ㈹୚ bonus; ~-kin ㈹୚ shi-yasúi v ࡋࡸࡍ࠸ 1. easy to do 㔠 bonus money 2. likely to do it, tends to do it VKĿ« prefix ၟ sales, business; VKL\Ŀ n ௙ᵝ method, means, way VKĿEDL n ၟ኎ trade, business; (= shi-kata ௙᪉); (for products, VKĿJ\Ŀ n ၟᴗ commerce, trade, etc.) specifications: ~ ga nái ࡋࡼ business; VKĿKLQ n ၟရ goods, ࠺ࡀ࡞࠸ hopeless, beyond merchandise, (sales) product; VKĿQLQ n ၟே merchant, trader remedy VKL\Ŀ n ౑⏝ use, employment; …´-shĿ suffix …ၟ dealer (seller VKL\ĿFKŗ ౑⏝୰ in use, occupied of …): gyø-~ ⾜ၟ peddling «VKĿ suffix …┬ 1. (name of (toilet, etc.); VKL\ĿQLQn ౑⏝ே servant; shi\ĿVKD n ౑⏝⪅ user certain) Ministry 2. (name of VKL\Ŀ n ⚾⏝ private use/business: certain) province (China) ~ no ⚾⏝ࡢ private VKĿiWV~NL n ᪼ᅽᶵ booster (of shizen n ⮬↛ nature: ~ (no) ⮬↛ current) ࡢ natural; ~ (na) ⮬↛ ࡞ sho´-batsu n ฎ⨩ punishments VKĿEpQ n ᑠ౽ urine, urinating natural, spontaneous shízuka (na) adj 㟼࠿ ࡞ quiet, still (very informal. mostly male) shizumemásu, shizuméru v 㟼ࡵࡲࡍ VKĿEĿ n ᾘ㜵 fire fighting; ~´-sha ࣭㙠ࡵࡲࡍ, 㟼ࡵࡿ࣭㙠ࡵࡿ ᾘ㜵㌴ fire engine; ~´-shi ᾘ㜵ኈ

soothes, quiets, calms, pacifies, suppresses

fire fighter VKĿEX n ຾㈇ match, contest




shóbun n ฎศ [BOOKISH]

VKĿJL n ᑗᲦ (Japanese) chess VKĿJR n ṇ༗ noon (exactly) disposition, abolition sho´chi n ฎ⨨ [BOOKISH] dealing VKĿKL n ᾘ㈝ consumption; ~-sha ᾘ㈝⪅ consumer; VKĿKL]HL n ᾘ with VKĿFKL n ᢎ▱ agreement, under㈝⛯ consumption tax standing; Shøchi shimáshita ᢎ▱ VKRKĿ n ฎ᪉ prescription, preࡋࡲࡋࡓ [HUMBLE] I understand scribing; VKRKĿVHQ n ฎ᪉⟢

(and consent). (on business e-mail, etc.) Yes, sir/ma’am. shochĿ n ᡤ㛗 institute director VKĿFKĿ n ㇟ᚩ symbol VKĿFKŗ n ↝㓅 distilled liquor made from yams or rice VKĿGDL n ᣍᚅ = shø´tai ᣍᚅ invitation VKĿGDNX n ᢎㅙ [BOOKISH] consent, acceptance VKRGĿ n ᭩㐨 calligraphy (= shüji ⩦Ꮠ) VKĿGRN~\DNX]DL n ᾘẘ⸆/๣ disinfectant VKĿIXGD n ṇᮐ price tag VKĿJD n ࢩ࣭ࣙ࢘࢞⏕ጧ ginger VKĿJDL n 㞀ᐖ impediment, obstacle, hindrance; ~-sha 㞀ᐖ ⪅ handicapped person VKĿJDL n ⏕ᾭ life(long), for all of one’s life (time) VKĿJDNNĿ n ᑠᏛᰯ primary (elementary) school A JDNNĿ n

prescription (slip) VKĿL n ᑡᑚ 2nd lieutenant; ensign shoimásu, shou v [INFORMAL] ࡋࡻ ࠸>⫼㈇࠸@ࡲࡍ, ࡋࡻ࠺࣭⫼㈇ ࠺ [INFORMAL] carries on the back,

shoulders it VKĿML n 㞀Ꮚ translucent sliding

panel/door shĿMtNt (na) adj ṇ┤ ࡞ honest: ~ ni ṇ┤࡟ honestly VKĿMLPiVu, VKĿMLUX v ⏕ࡌࡲࡍ, ⏕ ࡌࡿ 1. produces, comes about, occurs 2. arises, happens VKĿMLQU\ĿUL n ⢭㐍ᩱ⌮ vegetarian

cuisine shójo n ฎዪ virgin (female) VKĿMR n ᑡዪ young girl (= onna no ko ዪࡢᏊ) VKĿMŗ n ᑠ㖠 rifle VKĿND n ᾘ໬ digestion; VKĿNDI~U\Ŀ n ᾘ໬୙Ⰻ indigestion VKĿNDL n ⤂௓ introduction (of a


VKĿNiNL n ᾘⅆჾ fire extinguisher VKĿNDVHQ n ᾘⅆᰦ fireplug, hydrant VKĿNHQ n ドๆ security (stock, bond) school student VKĿ ga nai adj [INFORMAL] ࡋࡻ࠺ shóki n ᭩グ secretary ࡀ࡞࠸ = shi-yø ga nái ࡋࡻ࠺ࡀ shoki n ึᮇ [BOOKISH] beginning; ࡞࠸ hopeless, beyond remedy shoki-settei n ึᮇタᐃ default 6KĿJDWV~ n ṇ᭶ January; New Year (setting) Ꮫᰯ VKĿJiNXVHL n ᑠᏛ⏕ primary



VKĿNL QR adj ṇẼ ࡢ sober,


࡟ before a meal (= shokuji no máe ni 㣗஦ࡢ๓࡟) sane; in one’s right mind VKĿNLQ n ṇ㔠 hard cash shokúbutsu n ᳜≀ (botanical) plant; VKĿNLQ n ൾ㔠 A EDLVKĿNLQ ㈺ൾ㔠 ~-en ᳜≀ᅬ botanical garden shokumín-chi n ᳜Ẹᆅ colony (indemnity, reparation) shokken n 㣗ๆ meal ticket VKĿkyoku-teki (na) adj ᾘᴟⓗ ࡞ shokki n 㣗ჾ tableware (dish, negative; conservative plate, chopsticks, etc.); ~-dana VKĿN\ŗ n ᪼⤥ rise in pay 㣗ჾᲴ dish rack; ~-tódana 㣗ჾ VKĿN\ŗ n ᪼⣭ promotion ᡞᲴ cupboard shomei n ⨫ྡ signature VKRNNĿ n ⫋ᕤ factory worker; VKĿPHL n ド᫂ proof, verification, workman (= køin ᕤဨ) attestation, certification; VKĿPHL shó n ド᫂᭩ certificate; note of shókku n ࢩࣙࢵࢡ shock VKĿNR n ドᣐ proof, evidence, authentication VKĿPHL n ↷᫂ lighting, illuminawitness VKĿNĿ n ᑗᰯ military officer tion: ~-kígu ↷᫂ჾල lighting shoku n ⫋ office, occupation; fixtures VKRN~J\Ŀ n ⫋ᴗ occupation, VKĿPpQ n ṇ㠃 the face (front side) vocation, job, profession; shoku- shomotsu n ᭩≀ [BOOKISH] book reki n ⫋Ṕ professional experience (= hón ᮏ) shoku n (…´-shoku …㣗) food; VKĿP\Ŀ n ኌ᫂ chanting of (counts meals); shoku-dĿ n 㣗ᇽ Buddhist scriptures dining room; restaurant; shoku-GĿ shĿQHQ n ᑡᖺ boy, lad, youngster sha n 㣗ᇽ㌴ dining car, diner; (= otoko no ko ⏨ࡢᏊ) shoku-go (ni) adv 㣗ᚋ ࡟ after a VKĿQL n ᑠඣ infant, child; VKĿQLND meal (= shokuji no áto de 㣗஦ࡢ n ᑠඣ⛉ pediatrics; pediatrician ᚋ࡛); shoku-hin n 㣗ရ foodstuffs, VKĿQLQ n ドே a witness groceries; shoku-ji n 㣗஦ a meal; shoppái adj [INFORMAL] ࡋࡻࡗࡥ ࠸ [INFORMAL] salty eating, having a meal; shoku (-ji) tsuki (no) n 㣗 ஦ ௜ࡁ ࡢ with shóppingu n ࢩࣙࢵࣆࣥࢢ shopmeals (included); shokú-motsu n ping (= kaimono ㈙࠸≀) 㣗≀ food(s); shoku-ryĿKLQ n 㣗ᩱ VKĿUDL n, adv ᑗ᮶ future (= ရ foodstuffs, groceries; shoku-taku yukusue ⾜ࡃᮎ, mirai ᮍ᮶) n 㣗༟ dinner table; shoku-yoku n VKĿUHL n ዡບ encouragement, 㣗ḧ appetite; shoku-zen n 㣗⮃ promotion shóri n ฎ⌮ managing, disposing (low) individual meal table; shoku-zen (ni) adv [BOOKISH] 㣗๓ of, transacting, dealing with; 254



Period (1926–1989) VKR\ŗ (no) adj ᡤ᭷ ࡢ possessed, treatment plant VKĿUL n ຾฼ victory; VKĿUtVKDn ຾ owned, belonging; one’s own; ฼⪅ winner, victor VKR\ŗEXWVXKLQ n ᡤ᭷≀/ရ shorui n ᭩㢮 form, document, belongings, possessions; VKR\ŗ sha n ᡤ᭷⪅ (legal) owner paper(s), writing VKĿU\DNX n ┬␎ abbreviation, VKĿ\X n ࡋࡻ࠺ࡺ࣭㓺Ἔ soya omission (= ryaku ␎) sauce VKĿVD n ᑡబ major; lieutenant shozai n ᡤᅾ whereabouts VKĿ]Ŀ n ⫝̸ീ portrait; VKĿ]ĿJD n commander shosai n ᭩ᩪ a study, library (room) ⫝̸ീ⏬ portrait (drawing and/or VKĿVDL n ヲ⣽ [BOOKISH] details painting) shóseki n ᭩⡠ books, publications shu n ᮒ vermilion; shu-niku n ᮒ ⫗ red ink pad (= hón ᮏ) VKĿVHWVX n ᑠㄝ fiction, a novel VKŗ «VKŗ n, suffix ᕞ, …ᕞ VKĿVKĿ adv ᑡࠎ a little (name of certain) state (U.S., [DEFERENTIAL] (= chótto ࡕࡻࡗ࡜) Australia); province (Canada); VKĿVKĿ n ᑡᑗ major general; rear county (Britain) VKŗ, «VKŗ n, suffix 㐌, …㐌 (= admiral VKĿVKŗ n ྊ㞟࣭ᣍ㞟 conscription, shükan 㐌㛫 week; VKŗPDWVX (military) draft n 㐌ᮎ weekend; shŗNDQ n 㐌 VKĿVRNX n ᾘᜥ news, word (from/ 㛫 week VKŗEXQ n ⛅ศ autumnal equinox: of …) (= nyüsu ࢽ࣮ࣗࢫ) shotái n ᡤᖏ࣭ୡᖏ a household; ~-no-hí ⛅ศࡢ᪥ Autumnal housekeeping Equinox Day VKĿtai n ᣍᚅ invitation; VKĿWiLMĿ n VKXFKĿ n ୺ᙇ assertion, claim ᣍᚅ≧ invitation (card) VKŗFKŗ n 㞟୰ concentration VKyWFKŗ adv [INFORMAL] ࡋࡻࡗࡕ shúdan n ᡭẁ ways, means, ࡹ࠺ all the time measures (= høhø ᪉ἲ): saigo no shoten n ᭩ᗑ bookshop ~ ᭱ᚋࡢᡭẁ last resort VKĿWHQ n ↔Ⅼ focus, focal point VKŗGDQ n 㞟ᅋ group, collective VKĿWR n ࢩ࣮ࣙࢺ a short body: ~-seikatsu 㞟ᅋ⏕ά group (circuit); short story; shortstop living, communal living: bo-~ ẕ shotoku n ᡤᚓ income; ~-zei ᡤᚓ 㞟ᅋ a population ⛯ income tax VKŗGHQ n ⤊㟁 the last train (= ~ VKĿWRWVX n ⾪✺ collision densha ᭱⤊㟁㌴) 6KĿZDMLGDL n ᫛࿴᫬௦ Showa VKŗGĿLQ n ಟ㐨㝔 convent 255 VKRULMĿ n ฎ⌮ሙ [sewage]



shúfu n ୺፬ housewife shukan n ୺ほ subjectivity: ~-teki shúfu n 㤳ᗓ A shutó 㤳㒔 (na) ୺ほⓗ ࡞ subjective VKŗJHNL n くᧁ attack, charge, raid, VKŗNDQ n ⩦័ custom, practice, attack habit (= kuse Ⓑ) shúgi n ୺⩏ principle, doctrine, VKŗNL n ⛅ᮇ autumn (period/term) VKŗNL n ࿘ᮇ cycle (length) -ism VKŗJLLQ n ⾗㆟㝔 House of Repre- VKŗNL n ⮯Ẽ bad smell, stink (= akushü ᝏ⮯); VKŗNLGRPH n ⮯Ẽ sentatives shúgo n ୺ㄒ subject (of a sentence) Ṇࡵ deodorant (household, etc.) VKŗJĿ n 㞟ྜ assembly, gathering shukkin n ฟ໅ office attendance VKXJ\Ŀ n ಟ⾜࣭ಟᴗ (getting shuku-choku n ᐟ┤ night duty one’s) training, ascetic practices, shukudai n ᐟ㢟 1. homework (at school): natsu-yásumi no ~ ኟఇ meditation VKŗJ\Ŀ n ᑵᴗ starting one’s ࡳࡢᐟ㢟 summer homework 2. work(-day); VKŗJ\ĿMtNDQn ᑵᴗ᫬ unsolved problem 㛫 working hours shukuga n ⚃㈡ congratulation: VKŗKD n ᐀ὴ sect ~-kai ⚃㈡఍ a celebration VKŗKHQ adj ࿘㎶ circumference, shukujitsu n ⚃᪥ national holiday shŗNXUtLPX n ࢩ࣮ࣗࢡ࣮࣒ࣜ a environs, surroundings (= shüi ࿘ᅖ): tóshi no ~ 㒔ᕷࡢ࿘㎶ out- cream puff, an éclair skirts (of city); ~ no … ࿘㎶ࡢ… shuku-saijitsu n ⚃⚍᪥ A shukujitsu ⚃᪥ the surrounding … VKŗL n ࿘ᅖ circumference; shukuten n ⚃඾ celebration cersurroundings (= shühen ࿘㎶) emony shuin n ᡭῘ [BOOKISH] masturbation VKŗN\Ŀ n ᐀ᩍ religion VKŗML n ⩦Ꮠ calligraphy VKŗPDL n ࢩ࣮࣐ࣗ࢖ pork meat-

(handwriting) practice

balls steamed in thin pastry

shújin n ୺ே 1. husband; go-~ shúmi n ㊃࿡ taste, interest, liking, ࡈ୺ே your husband 2. master, hobby (= hobii ࣍ࣅ࣮) shumoku n ✀┠ 1. item: eigyø-~ owner, landlord, boss, host shúju (no) adj ✀ࠎ ࡢ all kinds Ⴀᴗ✀┠ item of business 2. of (= samazama (na) ᵝࠎ ࡞ , (competition) event: rikujø iroiro (na) Ⰽࠎ ࡞ , iron na ࠸ kyøgi-~ 㝣ୖ➇ᢏ✀┠ events in ࢁࢇ࡞) athletics (track and field) shújutsu n ᡭ⾡ surgical operation, shunbun n ᫓ศ vernal equinox: ~-no-hí ᫓ศࡢ᪥ Vernal Equinox surgery VKŗNDNX n ཰✭ harvest, crop Day



shunkan n ▐㛫 a moment, an instant: tsugi no ~ ḟࡢ▐㛫 next


garbage truck 2. collection (as one’s hobby, for research, etc.) shussei n ฟ⏕ [BOOKISH] birth (= moment shŗQ\ŗ n ཰ධ earnings, income: umare ⏕ࡲࢀ): ~-chi ฟ⏕ᆅ ~-ínshi ཰ධ༳⣬ tax (revenue) (one’s) birthplace shusseki n ฟᖍ attendance, stamp (= inshi ༳⣬) shuppan n ฟ∧ publishing; shuppresence (= sanka ཧຍ) pán-butsu n ฟ∧≀ publication(s); shusshin n ฟ㌟ alumnus (of …); shuppán-sha n ฟ∧♫ publishing coming (from …): ~-chi ฟ㌟ᆅ company (one’s) hometown shuppatsu n ฟⓎ departure; ~-ten shúsu n ⧣Ꮚ satin ฟⓎⅬ point of departure shuWFKĿ n ฟᙇ business trip shuppin n ฟရ exhibit(ing): ~-sha VKŗWHQ n ⤊Ⅼ terminus, end of the ฟရ⪅ exhibitor line, last stop, destination VKŗUL n ಟ⌮ repair; VKŗUtNĿ n ಟ shutó n 㤳㒔 capital city; shutó-ken ⌮ᕤ repairman, mechanic n 㤳㒔ᅪ Tokyo metropolitan VKŗUĿ n ᑵປ [BOOKISH] work (for area A NDQWĿFKLKĿ 㛵ᮾᆅ᪉ VKŗWRPH n ጡ common spoken company, etc.) shúrui n ✀㢮 type, sort, kind, term for one’s mother-in-low VKX\Ŀ (na) adj ୺せ ࡞ leading, variety VKŗVKL n ಟኈ master’s degree: chief; ~-tóshi ୺せ㒔ᕷ major ~-gø ಟኈྕ master’s degree city VKŗVKí n ⤊Ṇ [BOOKISH] ending VKŗ]HQ n ಟ⧋ [BOOKISH] repair si… A shi… (= oshimai ࠾ࡋࡲ࠸); VKŗVKí-fu n ⤊Ṇ➢ [BOOKISH] period, full VĿ n ൔ Buddhist priest (= søryo ൔ౶, obø-san ࠾ᆓࡉࢇ) stop (punctuation) VKŗVKLQ n ಟ㌟ ethics, morals VĿ interj ࡑ࠺ [hearsay]: … (suru, VKŗVKLQ n ⤊㌟ all one’s life (= shita; dá, dátta), sø´ (desu, da/ isshø(-gai) ୍⏕ ᾭ , shøgai ⏕ᾭ, na, de, ni) … ࡍࡿ, ࡋࡓ; ࡔ, ࡔ shüsei ⤊⏕); VKŗVKLQ-kei n ⤊㌟ฮ ࡗࡓ , ࡑ࠺ ࡛ࡍ, ࡔ࡞, ࡛, ࡟ life imprisonment; VKŗVKLQNR\Ŀ n it is reported (said/written) that, I ⤊㌟㞠⏝ lifetime employment hear that, they say that … shuVKĿ n 㤳┦ prime minister «VĿ suffix …ࡑ࠺, …-sø´ …ࡑ࠺: VKŗVKRNX n ᑵ⫋ getting a job, shisø (désu, dá/na, dé, ní) ࡋࡑ࠺ ࡛ࡍ,ࡔ࡞, ࡛, ࡟ looking (as finding employment VKŗVKŗ n ཰㞟 1. collecting (trash, though), about to (happen); will etc.): gomi-shü-~ ࢦ࣑཰㞟㌴ at any moment; abuna-~ (désu, ni 257



miemásu) ༴࡞ࡑ࠺ ࡛ࡍ, ࡟ぢ VĿGDQ n ┦ㄯ talk, conference ࠼ࡲࡍ looks dangerous, jøbu-~ (personal), consultation, advice: níwa miemasén ୔ኵࡑ࠺࡟ࡣぢ ~-aite ┦ㄯ┦ᡭ someone to turn ࠼ࡲࡏࢇ doesn’t look sturdy to for advice «VĿ suffix …⯺ (counts ships/ sodatemásu, sodatéru v ⫱࡚ࡲࡍ, ⫱࡚ࡿ raises, rears, educates boats; commonly replaced by …-seki …㞘) sodate-no-oyá n ⫱࡚ࡢぶ a foster sóba n ࡑࡤ࣭ഃ near/close(-by), parent sode n ⿇࣭ࡑ࡛ sleeve (A naga(be-)side sode 㛗⿇) sóba n ࡑࡤ࣭ࢯࣂ࣭ⷃ㯏 buckwheat noodles; sobá-ya n ࡑࡤ>ⷃ VĿ (desu) v ࡑ࠺ ࡛ࡍ That’s 㯏@ᒇ Japanese noodle shop right, yes; 6ĿGHVu ka. ࡑ࠺࡛ࡍ࠿. VĿEHWVX n ㏦ู farewell; send-off; 1. Oh? How interesting! 2. Is ~-kai ㏦ู఍ farewell party that right/so?; 6Ŀdesu ne. ࡑ࠺࡛ ࡍࡡ. Well, now; Let me see. (reception) sobiemásu, sobiéru v ࡑࡧ࠼ࡲࡍ VĿGĿ n 㦁ື unrest, disturbance, ࡑࡧ࠼ࡿ rises, looms tumult, strife; riot: oie-~ ࠾ᐙ㦁 sóbo n ♽ẕ grandmother [FORMAL] ື family trouble (= obå´-san ࠾ࡤ࠶ࡉࢇ࣭࠾♽ẕ soemásu, soeru v ῧ࠼ࡲࡍ, ῧ࠼ࡿ ࡉࢇ, obå-chan ࠾ࡤ࠶ࡕࡷࢇ) adds, throws in extra, attaches soboku na adj ⣲ᮔ࡞ simple, naive sófu n ♽∗ grandfather [FORMAL] soboro n ࡑࡰࢁ࣭ࢯ࣎ࣟ parched (= ojii´-san ࠾ࡌ࠸ࡉࢇ࣭࠾♽∗ ࡉࢇ, ojii-chan ࠾ࡌ࠸ࡕࡷࢇ) minced fish; fish meal VĿFKL n ⿦⨨ equipment, apparatus sofuto(wéa) n ࢯࣇࢺ ࢙࢘࢔ sochira pron ࡑࡕࡽ 1. there, that (computer) software way 2. that one (of two) 3. you; sĿJDQN\Ŀ n ཮║㙾 binoculars sochira-gawa n ࡑࡕࡽഃ your side VĿJL\D n ⴿ൤ᒇ undertaker VĿGă n ࢯ࣮ࢲ࣮ soda water (funeral director) VĿ da v ࡑ࠺ࡔ = sø´ desu ࡑ࠺࡛ VĿJĿ n ⥲ྜ synthesis; VĿJĿWHNL QD ࡍ that’s right, yes adj ⥲ྜⓗ ࡞ composite, comsodachí n ⫱ࡕ growing up, one’s prehensive, overall, synthesized early years: ~ ga yoi/warui ࠾⫱ VĿJR no adj ┦஫ࡢ mutual, ࡕࡀⰋ࠸ᝏ࠸well-bred/ill-bred reciprocal; VĿJR ni adv ┦஫࡟ sodachimásu, sodátsu v ⫱ࡕࡲࡍ, mutually, reciprocally (= otagai ⫱ࡘ grows up, is raised (reared) ni ࠾஫࠸࡟) VĿGDL na adj ኊ኱࡞ magnificent, VĿL n ┦㐪>┦␗@ discrepancy, grand difference: … ni ~ nai ࡟┦㐪




>┦␗@࡞࠸ must be … [VERBS INFINITIVE +] fails in soimásu, sou v ἢ࠸ࡲࡍ, ἢ࠺ runs doing; yari-~ ࡸࡾᦆ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ

along, follows

botches, misses

soitsu pron ࡑ࠸ࡘ that damn one; ~-ra ࡑ࠸ࡘࡽ those damn ones VĿ ja nái to adv [INFORMAL] ࡑ࠺ࡌ ࡷ࡞࠸࡜ = sø de naito ࡑ࠺࡛࡞ ࠸࡜, sø´ ja nákereba ࡑ࠺ࡌࡷ ࡞ࡅࢀࡤ= sø de nakereba ࡑ࠺ ࡛࡞ࡅࢀࡤ otherwise VĿML n ᤲ㝖 cleaning, sweeping (= ~ Ύᤲ): nenmatsu no øsøji ᖺᮎ ࡢ኱ᤲ㝖 year-end cleaning; VĿMt ki n ᤲ㝖ᶵ a sweeper VĿMŗ n ᧯⦪ handling, operation VĿNHL n ⥲ィ [BOOKISH] the grand total (= gøkei ྜィ) sokétto n ࢯࢣࢵࢺ socket, plug VĿNLQ n ㏦㔠 remittance sokki n ㏿グ shorthand VRNNĿMy n  ೃᡤ weather


…-sokú suffix …㊊ (counts pairs

of footwear) sókudo n ㏿ᗘ speed (= supiido ࢫ ࣆ࣮ࢻ); “Sókudo otóse” ㏿ᗘⴠ ࡜ࡏ Reduce Speed. sokutatsu n ㏿㐩 special delivery,

express sómatsu na adj ⢒ᮎ࡞ crude, coarse; o-sómatsu-sama ࠾⢒ᮎ ࡉࡲ Please excuse the poor fare (reply to gochisø-sama ࡈ㥅㉮ࡉ ࡲ࣭ࡈࡕࡑ࠺ࡉࡲ) somemásu, someru v ᰁࡵࡲࡍ, ᰁ ࡵࡿ dyes VĿPHQ n ࡑ࠺ࡵࢇ࣭⣲㯝 thin

white wheat-flour noodles somukimásu, somúku v ⫼ࡁࡲࡍ, ⫼ࡃ; ( … ni) ~ …࡟ ⫼ࡁࡲࡍ

disobeys, goes against, violates;

sokkúri adj ࡑࡗࡃࡾ entirety, rebels, revolts completely: ~ (no) ࡑࡗࡃࡾ ࡢ 6ĿPXVKĿ n ⥲ົ┬ Ministry of

just like sókkusu n ࢯࢵࢡࢫ anklets, socks soko pron ࡑࡇ there, that place soko n ᗏ bottom: umi no ~ ᾏࡢ ᗏ bottom of the ocean (= kaitei ᾏᗏ); kokoro no ~ ᚰࡢᗏ bottom of one’s heart; soko-mame n ᗏࡲࡵ bunion, corn, blister VĿNR n ಴ᗜ warehouse sókoku n ♽ᅜ homeland, mother country (= bokoku ẕᅜ) sokonaimásu, sokonáu v ᦆ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ, ᦆ࡞࠺ harms, injures, hurts;

Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) són n ᦆ damage, loss; disadvantage: ~-toku kanjø ᦆᚓ຺ᐃ profit-and-loss arithmetic: son’eki-keisan-sho ᦆ┈ィ⟬᭩

profit and loss statement (P/L) sonáé n ഛ࠼ preparations, provisions; defenses sonaemásu, sonáéru v ഛ࠼ࡲࡍ, ഛ࠼ࡿ prepares, fixes, installs, furnishes; possesses VĿnan n 㐼㞴 disaster, accident, 259



shipwreck, train wreck sóra n ✵ sky songai n ᦆᐖ damage, harm, loss sóra de adv ࡑࡽ࡛ by heart, from sonkei n ᑛᩗ respect, esteem: memory ~-suru-hito ᑛᩗࡍࡿே someone sorashimásu, sorásu v 㐓ࡽࡋࡲࡍ, 㐓ࡽࡍ 1. dodges, turns aside that one respects sonna … adj [INFORMAL] ࡑࢇ࡞… 2. warps it sore pron ࡑࢀ that one, it; sore dátte such (a) …, that kind of …: ~ ni ࡑࢇ࡞࡟ to that extent, that adv, conj [INFORMAL] ࡑࢀࡔࡗ࡚ much, so (very/much) = sore démo ࡑࢀ࡛ࡶ still, yet, sonnára adv [INFORMAL] ࡑࢇ࡞ࡽ even so; sore de conj ࡑࢀ࡛ and then, in that case ([FORMAL] sore (then/so/also); sore démo conj ࡑࢀ nára ࡑࢀ࡞ࡽ) ࡛ࡶ still, yet, even so; sore hodo sono … adj ࡑࡢ … that; ~ áto ࡑ conj ࡑࢀ࡯࡝ to that extent, so; sore kara conj ࡑࢀ࠿ࡽ and (then); ࡢᚋ, ~-go ࡑࡢᚋ since then; sonó-hoka n ࡑࡢ௚>እ@ and othafter that, since then; sore máde ers; sonó-ta n ࡑࡢ௚ [BOOKISH] conj ࡑࢀࡲ࡛ until then; sore náno and others (= sonó-hoka ࡑࡢ௚ ni conj ࡑࢀ࡞ࡢ࡟ nevertheless, >እ@); sono-tókí n, adv ࡑࡢ᫬ at nonetheless, and yet; sore nára conj that time; sono-uchi adv ࡑࡢ࠺ࡕ ࡑࢀ࡞ࡽ then, in that case; sore ni conj ࡑࢀ࡟ on top of that, soon, before long, sometime in the future; VRQRXH ni adv ࡑࡢ࠺ moreover, in addition, plus; soré࠼࡟ moreover, also, besides; sono- ra pron ࡑࢀࡽ those, they/them koro (wa) adv ࡑࡢ㡭 ࡣ (at) that sore dé wa conj ࡑࢀ࡛ࡣ, [INFORMAL] sore ja/jå ࡑࢀࡌࡷࡌࡷ࠶ time, then, (in) those days; sore jíshin/jítai n ࡑࢀ⮬㌟⮬య itself well, well now/then; in that event: … sono-mónó adv …ࡑࡢࡶࡢ (in) ~ shitsúrei shimásu ࡑࢀ࡛ࡣኻ ♩ࡋࡲࡍ excuse me but I’ll be itself, the very … són-shimásu, són-suru v ᦆࡋࡲࡍ, on my way; good-bye ᦆࡍࡿ = són o suru ᦆࢆࡍࡿ soremásu, soréru v 㐓ࢀࡲࡍ, 㐓ࢀ ࡿ deviates, strays, digresses loses, suffers a loss sonshitsu n ᦆኻ a loss (= son ᦆ, sore-tómo conj ࡑࢀ࡜ࡶ or else rosu ࣟࢫ) sore wa sore wa interj ࡑࢀࡣࡑࢀ sonzai n Ꮡᅾ existence; being/ ࡣ My my! My goodness! person (in existence), personage, sorézóre adv ࡑࢀࡒࢀ respectively, severally (= onoono ࠾ࡢ࠾ࡢ figure VĿ-on n 㦁㡢 noise ࣭ྛࠎ) sóppa n ཯ࡗṑ bucktooth sorí n ࡑࡾ࣭཯ࡾ a warp, curve, bend 260



sorí n ࡑࡾ๋࣭ࡾ shaving sóri n ࡑࡾ࣭ࢯࣜ sled VĿULGiLMLQ n ⥲⌮኱⮧ prime

soshite conj ࡑࡋ࡚, søshite ࡑ࠺ ࡋ࡚ and then VRVKĿ n ッゴ lawsuit VĿVKRNX n ⿦㣭 ornament, decoration sosogimásu, sosogu v ὀࡂࡲࡍ, ὀ ࡄ pours (into) VĿVX n ࢯ࣮ࢫ sauce, gravy sotchí pron [INFORMAL] ࡑࡗࡕ = sochira ࡑࡕࡽ (there, that way;

minister sorimásu, sóru v ๋ࡾࡲࡍ, ๋ࡿ

shaves sorimásu, sóru v ཯ࡾࡲࡍ, ཯ࡿ

bends (back), warps

VĿULWVX n ๰❧ establishment soroban n ࡑࢁࡤࢇ࣭⟬┙ abacus, that one (of two); you) sotchoku (na) adj ⋡┤ ࡞ frank counting beads soróé ᥞ࠼ n an array sóto n እ outside, outdoors soroemásu, soroéru v ᥞ࠼ࡲࡍ, VĿWĿ QD adv, adj ┦ᙜ ࡞ 1. quite, ᥞ࠼ࡿ puts in order; collects; rather, fairly 2. suitable, proper soto-bori n እᇼ outer moat completes a set soróí n ᥞ࠸ n a set (of …) soto-gawa n እഃ the outside: ~ (no) VĿURQ n தㄽ quarrel, dispute እഃ ࡢ external VĿURQ n ⥲ㄽ general remarks, VRWVXJ\Ŀ n ༞ᴗ graduation; VRWVXJ\ĿVHL n ༞ᴗ⏕ a graduate; outline, introduction sórosoro adv ࡑࢁࡑࢁ (leave) VRWVXJ\ĿVKiki n ༞ᴗᘧ commence-

before long, it is about time to

ment, graduation ceremony

Sóuru n ࢯ࢘ࣝ Seoul VĿ \ŗ VĿ iu)… adj [INFORMAL] ࡑ࠺ ࡺ࠺ ࡑ࠺࠸࠺ …that kind/sort of …; such … (= sonna ࡑࢇ࡞) VĿ]Ŀ n ᝿ീ imagination VĿ]ĿVKtL adj 㦁ࠎࡋ࠸ noisy tion to the police to search for (a su n ᕢ nest missing person); kataku-~ ᐙᏯ sú n 㓑 vinegar; sú-no-mono n 㓑ࡢ ᤚ⣴ house search; ~-tai ᤚ⣴㝲 ≀ vinegared dishes; sú-buta n 㓑 ㇜ sweet and sour pork search party VĿVďML n ࢯ࣮ࢭ࣮ࢪ sausage Vŗ n ᩘ number (= kázu ᩘ); Vŗ-gaku sósen n ♽ඛ ancestor (= senzo n ᩘᏛ mathematics (= sansü ⟬ ඛ♽) ᩘ); ~-sha ᩘᏛ⪅ mathematician; ŗML n ᩘᏐ numeral, figure (= sóshiki n ⤌⧊ system, structure, kazu ᩘ) setup, organization VĿVKiki n ⴿᘧ funeral Vŗ« prefix ᩘ several; VŗMLWVX VĿ U\R) n ൔ ౶ Buddhist priest VĿU\ĿML n ⥲㡿஦ consul general VĿVa n ᧯స operation, handling VĿsaku n ๰స creation VĿVaku n ᤚ⣴ search, investigation: ~-negai ᤚ⣴㢪 ࠸ an applica-




n, adv ᩘ᪥ several days; VŗQHQ sugi n ᮡ cryptomeria, Japanese n, adv ᩘᖺ several years; VŗQLQ cedar …-sugi suffix …㐣ࡂ past (the n ᩘே several people subarashíi adj ࡍࡤࡽࡋ࠸࣭⣲ᬕ hour) ࡋ࠸ wonderful, splendid; sugimásu, sugíru v 㐣ࡂࡲࡍ, 㐣ࡂࡿ subaráshiku ࡍࡤࡽࡋࡃ࣭⣲ᬕ passes, exceeds; (shi-)sugimásu ࡋ 㐣ࡂࡲࡍ overdoes: adj ... ࡽࡋࡃ splendidly subekkói adj ࡍ࡭ࡗࡇ࠸ [INFORMAL] sugimásu 㐣ࡂࡲࡍ is overly/ slippery, slick, smooth excessively/too suberí-dai n ࡍ࡭ࡾྎ࣭⁥ࡾྎ a sugói adj ࡍࡈ࠸࣭෶࠸ 1. swell, slippery slide wonderful, marvelous, terrific suberimásu, subéru v ⁥ࡾࡲࡍ, ⁥ࡿ 2. fierce, dreadful, ghastly, weird, slides, slips, skates uncanny sube-sube (no) adj ࡍ࡭ࡍ࡭ ࡢ súgóku adv ࡍࡈࡃ࣭෶ࡃ awfully, [INFORMAL] smooth, slippery terribly súbete n, adv ࡍ࡭࡚ all sugoshimásu, sugósu v 㐣ࡈࡋࡲࡍ, VXFKXZăGHVu n ࢫࢳ࣮ࣗ࣡ࢹࢫ 㐣ࡈࡍ passes (time) súgu (ni) adv ࡍࡄ ࡟ at once, stewardess VXFKXZăGR n ࢫࢳ࣮ࣗ࣡ࢻ steward right away, immediately; in a sudare n ࡍࡔࢀ࣭⡘ curtain minute; directly, right (there) sugureteimásu, suguréru v ඃࢀ࡚࠸ (bamboo) sude n ⣲ᡭ bare hands ࡲࡍ, ඃࢀ࡚࠸ࡿ excels: (… ni/ súde ni adv ࡍ࡛࡟࣭᪤࡟ already yóri) ~ …࡟ࡼࡾ ඃࢀ࡚࠸ࡲ ࡍ surpasses, is superior (to) is (= mø´ ࡶ࠺) sue n 1. ᮎ end, close 2. ᮎ future excellent; sugúreta … ඃࢀࡓ… (= shørai ᑗ᮶): … no yuku-~ excellent … ࡢ⾜ࡃᮎ one’s future: súgu sóba (ni) adv ࡍࡄࡑࡤ ࡟ yuku-~ wa ⾜ࡃᮎࡣ in the future right near (at hand) suemásu, sueru v ᤣ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᤣ࠼ࡿ suichoku (no) adj ᆶ┤ ࡢ vertical; sets it up perpendicular suemásu, sueru v ྾࠼ࡲࡍ, ྾࠼ࡿ VXLGĿ n Ỉ㐨 water system, water can sip (suck, smoke) service, running water; plumbing; suemásu, suéru v ࡍ࠼ࡲࡍ, ࡍ࠼ࡿ VXLGĿkan n Ỉ㐨⟶ water pipe; VXLGĿN\RNX n Ỉ㐨ᒁ the Waterit spoils, goes bad súgata n ጼ form, figure, shape: works Bureau; municipal water hare-~ ᬕࢀጼ one in his/her service (headquarters); VXLGĿ\D (san) n Ỉ㐨ᒇ ࡉࢇ plumber Sunday best 262



suiei n ỈὋ swimming; ~-jø ỈὋ ሙ swimming pool; suiéi-gí n ỈὋ ╔ swimsuit (= mizuki Ỉ╔) súifu n Ỉኵ seaman, sailor súihei n Ỉර navy enlisted person,

suisen n ỈὙ flushing: ~-tóire Ỉ Ὑࢺ࢖ࣞ flush toilet suisen n ᥎⸀ recommendation; VXLVHQMĿ n ᥎⸀≧ letter of

sailor, seaman suihei (no) adj Ỉᖹ ࡢ horizontal, level: ~-sen Ỉᖹ⥺ (sea) horizon suii n Ỉ఩ water level suijun n Ỉ‽ 1. water level 2. standard suika n ࢫ࢖࣭࢝す⎩ watermelon

súiso n Ỉ⣲ hydrogen suLVĿ n Ỉᵴ water tank suisoku n ᥎  conjecture, guess,


surmisal, supposition

Súisu n ࢫ࢖ࢫ Switzerland; Suisújin n ࢫ࢖ࢫே a Swiss suítchi n ࢫ࢖ࢵࢳ switch; ignition Sui, Kin, Chi, Ka, Moku, Do, Ten, Kai Ỉ switch: ~ o iremásu ࢫ࢖ࢵࢳࢆ 㔠ᆅⅆᮌᅵኳᾏ Ỉᫍࠊ㔠ᫍࠊ ධࢀࡲࡍ turns/switches it on, ᆅ⌫ࠊⅆᫍࠊᮌᫍࠊᅵᫍࠊኳ turns on the ignition ⋤ᫍࠊᾏ⋤ᫍ Mercury, Venus, suitei n ᥎ᐃ inference, presump-

Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, tion, estimation Uranus, Neptune (eight planets suitĿJiNDUL n ฟ⣡ಀ cashier suitorí-gami n ྾࠸ྲྀࡾ⣬ blotter in the solar system) suimásu, Vŗ v ྾࠸ࡲࡍ, ྾࠺ sips, 6XL\Ŀ EL n Ỉ᭙ ᪥ Wednesday suizókúkan n Ỉ᪘㤋 aquarium sucks, smokes, breathes in suimasén interj ࡍ࠸ࡲࡏࢇ. súji n ➽ tendon, muscle, fiber, [INFORMAL] 1. Excuse me. Sorry. line: ao-~ o tatete okorimásu 2. Thank you. (= sumimasén ࡍࡳ 㟷➽ࢆ❧࡚࡚ᛣࡾࡲࡍ turns ࡲࡏࢇ) purple with rage suimin n ╧╀ sleep; ~-zai ╧╀๣, …súji suffix ➽ plot: arasuji ~-yaku ╧╀⸆ sleeping pill(s) ࠶ࡽࡍࡌ summary, outline, sui-mono n ྾࠸≀ clear soup synopsis sui-sei adj Ỉᛶ water-based: suNăIX n ࢫ࣮࢝ࣇ scarf; (military) ~-inku Ỉᛶ࢖ࣥࢡ water based sash suNăWR n ࢫ࣮࢝ࢺ skirt ink: ~-toryø Ỉᛶሬᩱ water suNpEď QD adj ຓᖹ ࡞ ࣭ࡍࡅ࡭ based paint sui-sei adj Ỉ⏕ aquatic: ~-døbutsu ࠼ ࡞ ࣭ࢫࢣ࣋ ࡞ lecherous; Ỉ⏕ື≀ aquatic animal lewd Sui-sei n ᙟᫍ comet: Harë-~ ࣁࣞ suNďWR n ࢫࢣ࣮ࢺ skate(s); ࣮ᙟᫍ Halley’s comet skating: ~-bødo ࢫࢣ࣮ࢺ࣮࣎ࢻ Sui-sei n Ỉᫍ Mercury skate board: ~-gutsu ࢫࢣ࣮ࢺ㠐 263



(a pair of) skates suki n ࡍࡁ࣭㏱ࡁ crack; opening; opportunity (= suki-ma ࡍࡁ㛫࣭ ㏱ࡁ㛫࣭㝽㛫) sukí (na) adj ዲࡁ ࡞ one’s


ࡍ, ࡍࡃ࠺࣭ᥒ࠺ scoops sukunái adj ᑡ࡞࠸ few, meager,

scarce, little sukúnáku adv ᑡ࡞ࡃ (so as to be)

few, little sukúnáku-tomo adv ᑡ࡞ࡃ࡜ࡶ at

sukídesu, sukida v ዲࡁ࡛ࡍ, ዲࡁࡔ (the) least sukuranburu-éggu n ࢫࢡࣛࣥࣈࣝ likes sukíi n ࢫ࣮࢟ ski, skiing ࢚ࢵࢢ scrambled eggs suki-ma n ࡍࡁ㛫࣭㏱ࡁ㛫࣭㝽㛫 sukuríin n ࢫࢡ࣮ࣜࣥ (movie)

crack; opening; opportunity sukimásu, suku v ✵ࡁࡲࡍ, ✵ࡃ

gets empty/clear

screen sukuwatto n ࢫࢡ࣡ࢵࢺ squat

(bending and stretching exercises, power lifting, etc.) sukyándaru n ࢫ࢟ࣕࣥࢲࣝ scandal plows sukimásu, suku v ࡍࡁ>Თࡁ@ࡲࡍ, súmái n ఫࡲ࠸ residence ࡍࡃ࣭Თࡃ combs sumánai, sumimasén v, interj ࡍࡲ࡞ sukimásu, súku v ዲࡁࡲࡍ, ዲࡃ ࠸, ࡍࡳࡲࡏࢇ 1. it never ends 2. Thank you 3. Excuse me A sukídesu, sukida ዲࡁ࡛ࡍ, ዲ ࡁࡔ 4. I apologize (for what I did). sukimu-míruku n ࢫ࣒࣑࢟ࣝࢡ sumasemásu, sumaséru v ῭ࡲࡏࡲࡍ, ῭ࡲࡏࡿ finishes, concludes it skim milk sukiyaki n ࡍࡁ↝ࡁ࣭ࡍࡁࡸࡁ sumashimásu, sumásu v ῭ࡲࡋࡲࡍ, ῭ࡲࡍ 1. finishes, concludes it thin-sliced beef cooked in an iron pan (with leeks, mushrooms, 2. puts up with (things as they are) bean curd, etc.) sukkári adv ࡍࡗ࠿ࡾ completely, all VXPăWR (na) adj ࢫ࣐࣮ࢺ ࡞ sukóshi adv ᑡࡋ a little, a bit: ~ smart, stylish, fashionable (no) ᑡࡋ ࡢ some, a few; VXPăWRIRQn ࢫ࣐࣮ࢺࣇ࢛ࣥ some-what; ~ mo ᑡࡋࡶ [+ smartphone (multifunctional NEGATIVE] not in the least; mobile phone) ~-zútsu ᑡࡋࡎࡘ súmi n 㝮 an inside corner sumí n Ⅳ charcoal bit by bit, a little at a time, sumí n ቚ India ink, ink stick; gradually sukuimásu, suNŗ v ᩆ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᩆ࠺ sumí-e n ቚ⤮ Indian ink painting sumimasén v ࡍࡳࡲࡏࢇ 1. Excuse helps, rescues, saves sukuimásu, suNŗ v ࡍࡃ>ᥒ࠸@࠸ࡲ me. 2. Sorry. 3. Thank you. 264 sukimásu, suku v 㗟ࡁࡲࡍ, 㗟ࡃ


sumimásu, súmu v ῭ࡳࡲࡍ, ῭ࡴ


guage); Supeín-jín n ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥே comes to an end Spaniard, a Spanish person sumimásu, súmu v ఫࡳࡲࡍ, ఫࡴ supéru n ࢫ࣌ࣝ spell (= tsuzuri lives, takes up residence, resides ࡘ࡙ࡾ࣭⥛ࡾ) sumire n ࢫ࣑࣭ࣞ⸅ violet VXSďVX n ࢫ࣮࣌ࢫ 1. space (= VXPĿ n ┦᧞࣭ࡍࡶ࠺ Japanese kükan ✵㛫) 2. blank (= kühaku ✵ⓑ) wrestling, sumo sumomo n ࢫ࣭ࣔࣔᮤ plum supíido n ࢫࣆ࣮ࢻ speed: kokusai -~-yübin ᅜ㝿ࢫࣆ࣮ࢻ㒑౽ VXPĿWyUL n ┦᧞ྲྀࡾ a sumo wrestler EMS (Express Mail Service) …-sún suffix …ᑍ inch (Japanese) VXStLNă n ࢫࣆ࣮࣮࢝ (loud)speaker suna n ◁ sand; suna-búkuro n ◁⿄ suponji n ࢫ࣏ࣥࢪ sponge; swab: ~-këki ࢫ࣏ࣥࢪࢣ࣮࢟ sponge sandbag sunákku n ࢫࢼࢵࢡ 1. a snackshop cake 2. an after-hours bar 3. refresh- VXSRQVă n ࢫ࣏ࣥࢧ࣮ 1. sponsor ment; sunakkú-gashi n ࢫࢼࢵࢡⳫ 2. patron VXSĿWVX n ࢫ࣏࣮ࢶ sport(s), Ꮚ munch, snack súnao (na) adj ⣲┤ ࡞ docile, athletics (= undø 㐠ື) suppái adj ࡍࡗࡥ࠸>㓟ࡗࡥ࠸@ gentle, obedient, submissive, sour, acid: ~-aji ࡍࡗࡥ࠸>㓟ࡗ meek sunáwachi adv ࡍ࡞ࢃࡕ࣭༶ࡕ ࡥ࠸@࿡ sour flavor, sour taste (= san-mi 㓟࿡) namely, to wit; that is to say; in suppon n ࡍࡗࡱࢇ࣭ࢫࢵ࣏ࣥ other words suné n ࡍࡡ࣭⮙࣭⬯ shin, leg snapping turtle sunpĿ n ᑍἲ measurements supponpon n ࡍࡗࡱࢇࡱࢇ VŗSă mă´ketto) n ࢫ࣮ࣃ࣮ ࣐࣮ࢣ (INFORMAL, slang) full monty, ࢵࢺ supermarket complete nudity supái n ࢫࣃ࢖ spy; supai-wea n ࢫ VŗSX n ࢫ࣮ࣉ soup ࣃ࢖࢙࢘࢔ spyware (computer) VXSŗQ n ࢫࣉ࣮ࣥ spoon supaisu n ࢫࣃ࢖ࢫ spice surákkusu n ࢫࣛࢵࢡࢫ slacks VXSDPXPďUX n ࢫࣃ࣒࣓࣮ࣝ (= suremásu, suréru v ᧿ࢀࡲࡍ, ᧿ meiwaku-mëru ㏞ᝨ࣓࣮ࣝ , ࢀࡿ 1. it rubs/grazes 2. can rub/ spam mail, e-mail spam graze súri n ࡍࡾ࣭ࢫ࣭ࣜ᤺ࡾ pick-pocket (Internet) supána n ࢫࣃࢼ wrench suríbachi n ࡍࡾ㖊 earthenware supein n ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥ Spain; Supeinmortar with wooden pestle go n ࢫ࣌࢖ࣥㄒ Spanish (lansuríi n ࢫࣜѸ three 265

surimásu, súru

surimásu, súru v ᧿ࡾࡲࡍ, ᧿ࡿ


selling things) 2. (= denki ~ 㟁Ẽ ࢫࢱࣥࢻ) desk/floor lamp surimásu, súru v ᦾࡾ>᧧ࡾ@ࡲࡍ, sute v ᤞ࡚ A sutemásu; sute-ba n ᦾࡿ>᧧ࡿ@ files; grinds ᤞ࡚ሙ dump site (= gomi-~ ࡈࡳ surimásu, súru v ๅࡾࡲࡍ, ๅࡿ ᤞ࡚ሙ ; sute-mi (de) adv ᤞ࡚㌟ ࡛ in desperation prints surimásu, súru v ࡍࡾࡲࡍ, ࡍࡿ suteki (na) adj ࡍ࡚ࡁ>⣲ᩛ@ ࡞ picks one’s pocket fine, splendid, swell suríppa n ࢫࣜࢵࣃ slippers sutď´ki n ࢫࢸ࣮࢟ (beef) steak: suríppu n ࢫࣜࢵࣉ slip(ping); ~-sando ࢫࢸ࣮࢟ࢧࣥࢻ steak “Surippu-jíko ø´shi” ࢫࣜࢵࣉ஦ sandwich sutékki n ࢫࢸࢵ࢟ walking stick, ᨾከࡋ Slippery (Area) Suriránka n ࢫࣜࣛࣥ࢝ Sri Lanka cane súríru n ࢫࣜࣝ thrill sutemásu, suteru v ᤞ࡚ࡲࡍ, ᤞ࡚ VXUĿJDQ n ࢫ࣮ࣟ࢞ࣥ slogan ࡿ throws away, abandons, dumps VXUĿ QD adj ࢫ࣮ࣟ ࡞ slow sutereo n ࢫࢸࣞ࢜ stereo (sound/ VXUĿpu n ࢫ࣮ࣟࣉ ramp player) surudói adj 㗦࠸ sharp, acute suWďVKRQ n ࢫࢸ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ railroad surume n ࢫ࣓ࣝ dried cuttlefish station (= eki 㥐) sushi n ࡍࡋ࣭ࢫࢩ࣭ᑑྖ࣭ sutó n ࢫࢺ = sutoráiki ࢫࢺࣛ࢖ 㩧 sushi (rice seasoned with ࢟ strike (job action) sweetened vinegar with raw fish) suWĿEX n ࢫࢺ࣮ࣈ stove, heater sushí-ya n ᑑྖ>㩧@ᒇ a sushi bar suWĿNă n ࢫࢺ࣮࣮࢝ stalker suso n ࡍࡑ࣭〈 hem sutoráiku n ࢫࢺࣛ࢖ࢡ strike súsu n ࡍࡍ࣭↴ soot (baseball) susumemásu, susumeru v 㐍ࡵࡲࡍ, sutóresu n ࢫࢺࣞࢫ stress, tension: 㐍ࡵࡿ furthers, advances ~-kaishø ࢫࢺࣞࢫゎᾘ stress susumemásu, susumeru v ່ࡵࡲࡍ, relieving, stress release ່ࡵࡿ encourages, recommends, sutoretchi n ࢫࢺࣞࢵࢳ stretch advises, counsels; persuades, (exercises) sutoríppu n ࢫࢺࣜࢵࣉ striptease, urges susumimásu, susumu v 㐍ࡳࡲࡍ, strip show, burlesque 㐍ࡴ goes forward, progresses; suWyUĿ n ࢫࢺ࣮ࣟ straw (to drink goes too fast, gets ahead with) suWă n ࢫࢱ࣮ star (actor) VŗWVX n ࢫ࣮ࢶ suit sutajio n ࢫࢱࢪ࢜ studio VŗWVuNďVX n ࢫ࣮ࢶࢣ࣮ࢫ suitcase sutando n ࢫࢱࣥࢻ 1. stand (for suwaremásu, suwareru v ᗙࢀࡲࡍ, 266 rubs



ᗙࢀࡿ can sit; seats are available suzume n ࢫࢬ࣓࣭㞛 sparrow suwarikomi(-súto) n ᗙࡾ㎸ࡳ ࢫࢺ suzumé-bachi n ࢫࢬ࣓ࣂࢳ࣭ࢫࢬ ࣓⻏ hornet sit-in (strike) suwarimásu, suwaru v ᗙࡾࡲࡍ, ᗙ suzurí n ࡍࡎࡾ࣭◵ inkstone: ࡿ sits (especially Japanese style) ~-bako ࡍࡎࡾ>◵@⟽ inkstone suzu n ࢫࢬ࣭㕥 little bells case súzu n ࢫࢬ࣭㘏 tin suzushíi adj ᾴࡋ࠸ cool suzuki n ࢫࢬ࣭࢟㫺 sea bass sy… A sh…

T tá n ࡓ࣭௚ = hoka ௚, sono-ta, sono-hoka ࡑࡢ௚ other(s); ta-hĿ n ௚᪉ a different direction, an-other place: ~ de wa ௚᪉࡛ࡣ on the other hand; tá (ni) adv ௚ ࡟

tabemásu, tabéru v 㣗࡭ࡲࡍ, 㣗࡭ ࡿ eats (= shokuji o shimásu 㣗 ஦ࢆࡋࡲࡍ tabé-mónó n 㣗࡭≀ food (= shokumotsu 㣗≀) tabesasemásu, tabesaséru v 㣗࡭ࡉ ࡏࡲࡍ, 㣗࡭ࡉࡏࡿ feeds tábi n ࡓࡧ࣭ࢱࣅ࣭㊊⿄ split-toe

to/for/as others, additionally (= hoka (ni) ௚>እ@ ࡟ ; ta-nin n ௚ே outsider, stranger; others (people); tá (no) adj ௚ ࡢ = hoka socks (no) ௚>እ@ ࡢ other; tá-sha n ௚ tabí n ᪑ journey (= ryokø ᪑⾜) ♫ other companies; tá-sha n ௚ tabí n ᗘ࣭ࡓࡧ time, occasion; ⪅ [BOOKISH] others (people) (= … ~ (ni) …ᗘ>ࡓࡧ@ ࡟ every ta-nin ௚ே) time that … tá n ⏣ rice field (= tanbo ⏣ࢇࡰ); tabitabi adv ࡓࡧࡓࡧ࣭ᗘࠎ often ta-nbo n ⏣ࢇࡰ rice field [INFOR- (= shibashiba ࡋࡤࡋࡤ, nandoMAL]; ta-ué n ⏣᳜࠼ rice planting mo ఱᗘࡶ) …-ta v …ࡓ = …-máshita …ࡲࡋ WDEĿ QD adj ከᛁ ࡞ [BOOKISH] ࡓ did busy (= isogashíi ᛁࡋ࠸ tába n ᮰ bundle, bunch: satsu-~ tábu n ࢱࣈ a tab ᮐ᮰ bundle of bills tabŗ n ࢱࣈ࣮ taboo (= kinki ⚗ᚷ, tabako n ࢱࣂࢥ࣭↮ⲡ tobacco; go-hatto ࡈἲᗘ) cigarettes (= shigaretto ࢩ࢞ࣞࢵ tábun adv ࡓࡪࢇ࣭ከศ probably, ࢺ); tabakó-ire n ࢱࣂࢥ>↮ⲡ@ධࢀ likely; perhaps, maybe (~ … deshø´ ࡓࡪࢇ …࡛ࡋࡻ࠺, ~ … cigarette case Wă´ban n ࢱ࣮ࣂࣥ turban ká mo shiremasén ࡓࡪࢇ …࠿ 267

tabun (ni)

ࡶ▱ࢀࡲࡏࢇ tabun (ni) adv ከศ ࡟ [BOOKISH]

a lot, much taburetto n ࢱࣈࣞࢵࢺ 1. tablet 2. Tablet PC taburoido n ࢱࣈࣟ࢖ࢻ tabloid táchi n ࡓࡕ࣭㉁ nature, disposition …´-tachi suffix …㐩࣭ࡓࡕ [ani-


táda n ࡓࡔ free, gratis, no fee/ charge (= muryø ↓ᩱ tádachi ni adv ࡓࡔࡕ࡟ [BOOKISH]

immediately tadáima adv ࡓࡔ࠸ࡲ just now; in a minute (= tatta-íma ࡓࡗࡓ௒); Tadaima interj ࡓࡔ࠸ࡲ I’m back!,

I’m home! (said on returning to one’s residence) watashi-~ ࢃࡓࡋ㐩>⚾㐩@ we: táda (no) adj ࡓࡔ ࡢ 1. only, just anata-~ ࠶࡞ࡓ㐩 you (people): 2. ordinary kimi-~ ྩࡓࡕ>㐩@ you guys tádashi conj ణࡋ provided tachi-agarimásu, tachi-agaru v ❧ࡕୖtadashíi adj ṇࡋ࠸ right; correct; tadáshiku ṇࡋࡃ rightly, correctly ࡀࡾࡲࡍ, ❧ࡕୖࡀࡿ rises, tadotadoshii adj ࡓ࡝ࡓ࡝ࡋ࠸ stands up tachi-bá n ❧ሙ viewpoint, standhalting, not smooth taema-náku adv ⤯࠼㛫࡞ࡃ continpoint, situation tachi-domarimásu, tachi-domaru v ❧ uously, without interruption ࡕṆࡲࡾࡲࡍ, ❧ࡕṆࡲࡿ comes taemásu, taéru v ሓ࠼ࡲࡍ, ሓ࠼ࡿ to a stand bears, puts up with “Tachiiri kinshi” n ❧ࡕධࡾ⚗Ṇ. taemásu, taéru v ⤯࠼ࡲࡍ, ⤯࠼ࡿ No Trespassing. Off Limits. ceases tachimachi adv ࡓࡕࡲࡕ immedi- táezu adv ⤯࠼ࡎ continuously, ately, instantly without interruption (= taemanáku ⤯࠼㛫࡞ࡃ tachimásu, tátsu v ❧ࡕࡲࡍ, ❧ࡘ stands (up); tachi-bánashi n ❧ࡕ tagá n ࡓࡀ a barrel hoop ヰ (wayside) a stand for talking/ tagai (no) adj ஫࠸ ࡢ mutual, chatting; tachi-mi n ❧ࡕぢ a stand reciprocal, for each other for watching: ~-seki ❧ࡕぢᖍ the tagai (ni) adv ஫࠸ ࡟ mutually, gallery, standing room reciprocally, with each other tachimásu, tátsu v Ⓨࡕࡲࡍ, Ⓨࡘ tagaku n ከ㢠 large sum …-tagarimásu, -tagaru suffix, v …ࡓ leaves (for a far place) (= shuppatsu shimásu ฟⓎࡋࡲࡍ) ࡀࡾࡲࡍ, …ࡓࡀࡿ wants to …, tachimásu, tátsu v ⤒ࡕࡲࡍ, ⤒ࡘ is eager to … tagayashimásu, tagayásu v ⪔ࡋࡲࡍ, elapses tachimásu, tátsu v ᩿ࡕࡲࡍ, ᩿ࡘ ⪔ࡍ plows WăJHWWR n ࢱ࣮ࢤࢵࢺ object, target [BOOKISH] cuts off 268 mate plural]; and others:



gluttony (= øgui ኱㣗࠸); tái-VĿ adj, adv ࡓ࠸ࡑ࠺࣭኱ᒙ [BOOKISH] snapper very: ~ (na) ࡓ࠸ࡑ࠺ ࡞ a great Tái n ࢱ࢖ Thailand; Tai-go n ࢱ࢖ many/much ㄒ Thai (language); Tai-jin n ࢱ࢖…-tái suffix ᖏ belt; zone: anet~ ள⇕ᖏ subtropical zone: anzen ே a Thai tái n య form chi-~ Ᏻ඲ᆅᖏ safety zone: kiken tai-… prep ᑐ…, …´-tai …ᑐ versus, chi-~ ༴㝤ᆅᖏ danger zone towards, against; rokú-~ yón භᑐ …-tai suffix v …ࡓ࠸ wants to, is ᅄ, 6ᑐ4 4 to 6 (score) eager to; tabe-tai suffix v 㣗࡭ࡓ࠸ tai-… prefix ㏥ leaving, retire; wants to eat; shi-tai suffix v ࡋࡓ tai-gaku n ㏥Ꮫ { leaving school: ࠸: shi~ hødai ni shimásu ࡋࡓ࠸ chüto-~-sha ୰㏵㏥Ꮫ⪅ a dropᨺ㢟࡟ࡋࡲࡍ does whatever one out | expulsion from school (= feels like doing [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] ~-shobun ㏥Ꮫ ฎศ ); tai-i n WDLEĿ (no) adj ᚅᮃ ࡢ long-awaited ㏥఩ abdication; tai-in n ㏥㝔 WDLFKĿ n యㄪ (physical condition) leaving the hospital; tai-shoku n tone (= guai ලྜ): ~ ga ii/yoi య ㏥⫋ retirement: ~-kin ㏥⫋㔠 ㄪࡀ࠸࠸Ⰻ࠸ is in good health retirement allowance: ~-nenkin condition; ~ ga warui యㄪࡀᝏ ㏥⫋ᖺ㔠 (retirement) pension ࠸ is in poor health condition tai-… prefix ኱ great, large; tai- taidan n ᑐㄯ [BOOKISH] conversaEĿWDLPĿ n ኱ᮃ ambition, great tion between two people, diawillingness (= taishi ኱ᚿ); tai-U\Ŀ logue; ~-bangumi ᑐㄯ␒⤌ TV n ኱㔞 large quantity: ~-seisan talk show ኱㔞⏕⏘ mass production; tai-sa táido n ែᗘ attitude, disposition, n ኱బ (army) colonel; (= daisa behavior: ~ ga økii ែᗘࡀ኱ࡁ࠸ ኱బ) (navy) captain; tái-sa n ኱ acts big; kudaketa ~ ࡃࡔࡅࡓែ ᕪ [BOOKISH] a great difference: ~ ᗘ friendly attitude de kachimásu ኱ᕪ࡛຾ࡕࡲࡍ WDLIŗ n ྎ㢼 typhoon wins by a wide margin; tai-sen n taigai adv ኱ᴫ࣭ࡓ࠸ࡀ࠸ 1. in ኱ᡓ a great war, a world war: general; for the most part; dai-ichi-ji sekai-~ ➨୍ḟୡ⏺኱ practically (= taitei ࡓ࠸࡚࠸࣭ ᡓ World War I; tai-shi n ኱ᚿ ኱᢬) 2. probably, like(ly), like ambition (= taibø, taimø ኱ᮃ); as not WiLVKĿ n ኱ᑗ (general) admiral: WDLJŗ n ᚅ㐝 1. treatment, recepo-yama no ~ ࠾ᒣࡢ኱ᑗ king of tion 2. pay, working conditions 3. official position, post the mountain; tai-shoku n ኱㣗 269 WDJXEĿWR n ࢱࢢ࣮࣎ࢺ tug boat tái n ࢱ࢖࣭㪉 sea bream, red


taihai-teki (na)

taihai-teki (na) adj ㏥ᗫⓗ ࡞

taiji n ⫾ඣ fetus, unborn baby,

decadent 7DLKpL\Ŀ n ኴᖹὒ Pacific Ocean (A WDL\Ŀ ኱ὒ) 7DLKHL\ĿVHQVĿ n ኴᖹὒᡓத Pacific War taihen adv ࡓ࠸࡬ࢇ࣭኱ኚ 1. very, exceedingly, terribly, enormously (= hijø ni 㠀ᖖ࡟): Taihen osewa


taiji n ㏥἞ extermination: oni-~ 㨣㏥἞ demon extermination WDLMŗ n య㔜 body weight: shinchø to ~ ㌟㛗࡜య㔜 height and weight: ~-kei య㔜ィ scales táika n ኱ᐙ authority ni narimáshita. ኱ኚ࠾ୡヰ࡟࡞ táika n ᑐ౯ compensation, conࡾࡲࡋࡓ I owe you a lot., Thank sideration you so much for everything you táika n ㏥໬ degeneration have done for me. 2. laboriously, taikai n ኱఍ mass meeting; conseriously, disastrously: sorewa vention, conference; tournament: (hontø ni) ~ desu ne ࡑࢀࡣ ᮏ sekai-senshuken-~ ୡ⏺㑅ᡭᶒ኱ ᙜ࡟ ኱ኚ࡛ࡍࡡ It must be ఍ world championships taikái n ኱ᾏ ocean, high sea (= (really) hard for you. taihen (na) adj ࡓ࠸࡬ࢇ>኱ኚ@ ࡞ taiyø ኱ὒ) 1. exceeding, enormous: ~ na bijin taikaku n య᱁ body build, physique desu ኱ኚ࡞⨾ே࡛ࡍ is very taikei n య⣔ a system beautiful 2. serious, disastrous, taiken n య㦂 personal experience taiko n ኴ㰘 (Japanese) drum tough, terrible, difficult: ~ na shigoto desu ኱ኚ࡞௙஦࡛ࡍ is WDLNĿ n ᑐᢠ confrontation, tough work opposition; … ni ~ shite …࡟ᑐ taihi n ᑐẚ [BOOKISH] contrast, ᢠࡋ࡚ in opposition to, against,


in rivalry with

táiho n 㐊ᤕ arrest(ing) WDLKĿ n ኱◙ cannon táii n ኱ᑚ captain (army); lieutenant (navy) (= dáii ኱ᑚ) taii n ኱ព [BOOKISH] outline, summary, drift: ~ o tsukamimásu ኱ ពࢆࡘ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ catches the drift taii n య఩ body position, posture (= shisei ጼໃ) tái(i)ku n య⫱ physical education, athletics; tai(i)kú-kan n య⫱㤋


taikutsu (na) adj ㏥ᒅ ࡞ boring,

dull taiman (na) adj ᛰ៏ ࡞ negligent,

careless, neglectful táimatsu n ࡓ࠸ࡲࡘ࣭ᯇ᫂ torch taimen n ᑐ㠃 interview taimen n య㠃 one’s dignity, sense of honor, “face”: ~ o tamochimásu య㠃ࢆಖࡕࡲࡍ keeps up

appearances WDLĿ n ᑐᛂ 1. correspondence, handling 2. equivalent (= søø ┦



ᛂ): (… ni) ~ shimásu …࡟ ᑐ ᛂࡋࡲࡍ is equivalent (to) taion n య  body temperature; ~-kei య ィ (clinical) thermo-


taisei n ែໃ preparedness: ~ ga totonoimásu ែໃࡀᩚ࠸ࡲࡍ is


7DLVpL\Ŀ n ኱すὒ Atlantic Ocean meter (A taiyĿ ኱ὒ) taipo n ࢱ࢖࣏ typo, typing error taisen n ᑐᡓ match, competition: táipu n ࢱ࢖ࣉ 1. type, style (= ~-aite ᑐᡓ┦ᡭ one’s opponent kata ᆺ): atarashii ~ ᪂ࡋ࠸ࢱ࢖ taisetsu (na) adj ኱ษ ࡞ 1. imporࣉ new type (= shin-gata ᪂ᆺ) tant: ~ na shorui ኱ษ࡞᭩㢮 2. one’s type 3. typewriting, important documents 2. valuable, typewriter precious: ~ na omoide ኱ษ࡞ᛮ taipuráită n ࢱ࢖ࣉࣛ࢖ࢱ࣮ type- ࠸ฟ precious memories taisetsu-ni-shimásu (suru) v ኱ษ࡟ writer tairagemásu, tairageru v ᖹࡽࡆࡲࡍ, ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ cherishes, treats ᖹࡽࡆࡿ [INFORMAL] eats up carefully, gives importance (= taira-gi n ࢱ࢖ࣛࢠ pin/razor/fan daiji-ni-shimásu ኱஦࡟ࡋࡲࡍ): kazoku o ~ ᐙ᪘ࢆ኱ษ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ shell (a kind of scallop) taira (na) adj ᖹࡽ ࡞ even, flat, gives importance to family táishaku n ㈚೉ debit and credit, smooth tairiku n ኱㝣 continent: ~ (no) ኱ lending and borrowing; táishakuWDLVKĿ K\Ŀ n ㈚೉ᑐ↷⾲ balance 㝣 ࡢ continental tairitsu n ᑐ❧ confrontation, sheet (B/S) táishi n ኱౑ ambassador; taishí-kan opposition, antagonism táiru n ࢱ࢖ࣝ tile (floor, wall) n ኱౑㤋 embassy tai-shimásu, tai-súru v ᑐࡋࡲࡍ, (made of plastic, etc.) tairyoku n యຊ stamina: ~ ga ari- ᑐࡍࡿ: (… ni) ~ …࡟ ᑐࡋ másu యຊࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ has ࡲࡍ confronts, opposes; … ni tái-shite …࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ { against; stamina taisei n యไ system: seiji-~ ᨻ἞ toward; as against, as compared యไ political system: kyøiku-~ with, in contrast to | with respect ᩍ⫱యไ education system to, in regard to taisei n యໃ posture (= shisei ጼ tái-shita … adj ࡓ࠸ࡋࡓ࣭኱ࡋࡓ… ໃ): ~ o kuzushimásu యໃࢆᔂ important; serious; immense ࡋࡲࡍ loses one’s balance taishitsu n య㉁ (physical) contaisei n ⪏ᛶ tolerance: yakubutsu-~ stitution ⸆≀⪏ᛶ drug resistance taisho n ᑐฎ handling of matters taisei n ኱ໃ general situation WDLVKĿ n ᑐ㇟ object, target




WDLVKĿ n ᑐ↷ contrast: hikaku-~ WiL\Ŀ n ኴ㝧 1. sun 2. joy to ẚ㍑ᑐ↷ comparison and someone; WDL\Ŀ-enerugii n ኴ㝧࢚ ࢿࣝࢠ࣮ solar energy; WDL\ĿNHL n contrast (A WiLVKDNXWDLVKĿK\Ŀ ㈚ ೉ᑐ↷⾲) ኴ㝧⣔ solar system; WiL\ĿNĿVHQ WDLVKĿ n ᑐ⛠ symmetry: sayü-~ ኴ㝧ග⥺; WiL\Ŀ no hikari ኴ㝧ࡢග ᕥྑᑐ⛠ bilateral symmetry: … sunshine to ~ o nashimásu  ࡜ᑐ⛠ࢆ࡞ WDL\ĿQHQVŗ n ⪏⏝ᖺᩘ lifespan of ࡋࡲࡍ is symmetrical to … a thing, expected lifetime 7iLVKĿMLGDL n ኱ṇ᫬௦ Taisho WDL\ĿVHL n ⪏⏝ᛶ durability taizai n ᅾ a stay (away from Period (1912–1926) WDLVKŗ n య⮯ body odor (BO) home), a sojourn: ~-saki ᅾඛ WDLVKŗ n ኱⾗ the general public, place of sojourn taka n ࢱ࣭࢝㮚 hawk; taka no the masses: ~ (no) ኱⾗ ࡢ tsume n ࢱ࢝ࣀࢶ࣓࣭㮚ࡢ∎ red popular, mass WDLVĿ n య᧯ calisthenics, physical pepper táká n 㧗 quantity: ~ ga shireteiexercises taitei adv ࡓ࠸࡚࠸࣭኱᢬ usually: másu 㧗ࡀ▱ࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is ~ no … ࡓ࠸࡚࠸ࡢ … the usual limited, not amount to a hill of

…, most …

beans takaga adj ࡓ࠿ࡀ no(thing) more equivalent than táitoru n ࢱ࢖ࢺࣝ 1. title (= hyødai takái adj 㧗࠸ high, tall; costly, ⾲㢟) 2. title, championship: ~expensive; loud matchi ࢱ࢖ࢺ࣐ࣝࢵࢳ title match takará n ᐆ a treasure (= takara3. caption, subtitle (= jimaku Ꮠᖥ) mono ᐆ≀); takará-kuji n ᐆࡃࡌ taiwa n ᑐヰ conversation, dialogue lottery; takara-mono n ᐆ≀ a Taiwán n ྎ‴ Taiwan; Taiwantreasure jín ྎ‴ே a Taiwanese tákasa n 㧗ࡉ height (= kødo 㧗ᗘ) taiya n ࢱ࢖ࣖ a tire: kuruma no ~ take n ➉ bamboo; WDNHIŗULQ n ➉ ㌴ࡢࢱ࢖ࣖ car tires 㢼㕥 bamboo wind-chimes WDL\Ŀ n ኱ὒ ocean: go-~ ஬኱ὒ take n ࢱࢣ࣭Ⲗ (compounds/diafive oceans (Pacific Ocean, lect) mushroom (= kínoko ࢟ࣀࢥ Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, taki n  waterfall Arctic Ocean, Antarctic Ocean) takigi n ࡓࡁࡂ࣭⸄ firewood, fuel WDL\Ŀ n ኱せ summary (= gaiyø ᴫ takimásu, taku v ↏ࡁࡲࡍ, ↏ࡃ せ, yøyaku せ⣙, samarii ࢧ࣐ makes a fire; taki-bi n ↏ࡁⅆ bon࣮ࣜ) fire; taki-tsuke n ↏ࡁ௜ࡅ kindling 272 taitĿ (no) adj ᑐ➼ ࡢ equal,


takimásu, taku v ⅕ࡁࡲࡍ, ⅕ࡃ cooks; burns it; takikomi-góhan n ⅕ࡁ㎸ࡳࡈ㣤 a rice dish with

seasonal ingredients added takishiido n ࢱ࢟ࢩ࣮ࢻ tuxedo takkuru n ࢱࢵࢡࣝ tackle táko n ࢱࢥ octopus; tako-yaki n ࡓࡇ↝ࡁ griddled dumplings


ally, on purpose, with forethought 2. (… to takuránde) …࡜௻ࢇ࡛ in collusion/cahoots with … takusán (no) adj ࡓࡃࡉࢇ>ἑᒣ@ ࡢ lots (of), much/many, a lot (of) tákushii n ࢱࢡࢩ࣮ taxi: ~ (no) untenshu ࢱࢡࢩ࣮ ࡢ 㐠㌿

ᡭ taxi driver: ~-dai ࢱࢡࢩ࣮௦ with octopus bits inside táko n ฏ࣭ࡓࡇ kite; takó-ágé n ฏ taxi fare takuwae n ⵳࠼ savings, a reserve, ᥭࡆ kite-flying táko n ࡓࡇ callus, corn a stock (= chochiku ㈓⵳) takokuseki (no) adj ከᅜ⡠ ࡢ takuwaemásu, takuwaéru v ⵳࠼ࡲࡍ, multinational: ~-kigyø ከᅜ⡠௻ ⵳࠼ࡿ saves up, hoards ᴗ multinational company takúwan n ࡓࡃࢃࢇ, takuan ࡓࡃ taku n Ꮿ 1. my house 2. (your/ ࠶ࢇ yellow pickles made from someone else’s) house (= o-taku sliced daikon ࠾Ꮿ) 3. [HUMBLE] my husband; tamá n 1. ⋢ 1. ball: keito no ~ ẟ WDNN\ŗELQ n Ꮿᛴ౽ express ⣒ࡢ⋢ ball of wool: pachinko no ~ ࣃࢳࣥࢥࡢ⋢ pachinko ball delivery service; taku-hai-bin n Ꮿ㓄౽ delivery service 2. round thing: ~ no ase ⋢ࡢờ taku n ༟ table, desk; takN\ŗ n ༟ beads of sweat 3. testicle(s) ⌫ table tennis; WDNXMĿ n, adv ༟ 4. precious and/or lovely thing: ୖ on one’s table/desk ~ no yø na akanbø/aka-chan ⋢ takúan, takúwan n ࡓࡃ࠶ࢇ, ࡓࡃࢃ ࡢࡼ࠺࡞㉥ࢇᆓ㉥ࡕࡷࢇ sweetࢇ yellow pickles made from est baby tamá n ⋢࣭⌔ jewel; bead; drop: sliced daikon takumashii adj ࡓࡃࡲࡋ࠸࣭㏾ࡋ ryü no ~ ❳>㱟@ࡢ⋢ dragon ball ࠸ 1. strong, robust (body) tamá n ⌫ 1. globe (= chikyü ᆅ⌫) 2. strong (will) 2. (light) bulb (= denkyü 㟁⌫) takumi n ᕦࡳ skill; takumi na adj tamá n ᙎ bullet (= dangan ᙎ୸): ᕦࡳ ࡞ skillful; takumi ni adv pisutoru no ~ ࣆࢫࢺࣝࡢᙎ ᕦࡳ࡟ skillfully pistol bullet takurami n ௻ࡳ plan, scheme, plot tamágo n ༸࣭⋢Ꮚ࣭ࢱ࣐ࢦ egg: takuramimásu, takurámu v ௻ࡳࡲࡍ, ~ no kara ༸ࡢẆ eggshell ௻ࡴ plans, schemes, plots tama-négi n ࢱ࣐ࢿࢠ࣭⋢ⵄ onion takuránde adv ௻ࢇ࡛ 1. intention- (round bulb) 273

tama (no/ni)

tama (no/ni) adj, adv ࡓࡲ ࡢ࡟


Terminal 1 North/South Wing ta-minzoku (no) adj ከẸ᪘ ࡢ occasional(ly), infrequent(ly), multiracial: ~-kokka ከẸ᪘ᅜᐙ now and then, once in a while tamari n ⁀ࡲࡾ࣭ࡓࡲࡾ A tamari- multiracial country ba ࡓࡲࡾሙ tamochimásu, tamótsu v ಖࡕࡲࡍ, tamari-ba n ࡓࡲࡾሙ a gathering ಖࡘ keeps, preserves, maintains tamotó n ࡓࡶ࡜࣭⿂ sleeve; edge, place (hangout, haunt) tamarimásu, tamaru v ⁀ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, end ⁀ࡲࡿ it accumulates tamushi n ⏣⹸ ringworm; athtamarimásu, tamaru v ㈓ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, lete’s foot ㈓ࡲࡿ it saves (money) …´-tan suffix …཯ bolt (of cloth) támashii n 㨦 soul tana n Ჴ shelf, rack; tana-age n tamatama ࡓࡲࡓࡲ occasionally Ჴୖࡆ shelving: mondai o ~ tamá-tsukí n ⋢✺ࡁ billiards; tamá- shimásu ၥ㢟ࢆᲴୖࡆࡋࡲࡍ tsukí jiko n ⋢✺ࡁ஦ᨾ pileup shelves the issue; tana kara bota… tanbí (ni) suffix, adv [INFORMAL] mochi n Ჴ࠿ࡽࡰࡓ㣰 windfall; …ࡓࢇࡧ ࡟ , tabí (ni) ᗘ࣭ࡓࡧ tana-oroshi n Ჴ༺ࡋ stocktaking ࡟ every time that … Tanabata n ୐ኤ࣭ࡓ࡞ࡤࡓ the … tamé suffix …Ⅽ࣭ࡓࡵ 1. for Festival of the Weaver Star (7 the sake (good, benefit) of 2. July) tandoku n ༢⊂ alone (= tanshin for the purpose of 3. because ༢㌟): ~-kødø ༢⊂⾜ື inde(of), due to tameiki n ࡓࡵᜥ sigh pendent action tamemásu, tameru v ⁀ࡵࡲࡍ, ⁀ࡵ táne n ✀ 1. seed 2. source, cause ࡿ amasses/accumulates 3. material 4. secret, trick to it tamemásu, tameru v ㈓ࡵࡲࡍ, ㈓ࡵ 5. hanashi no ~ ヰࡢ✀ subject, ࡿ saves (money) topic tameraimásu, tameráu v ࡓࡵࡽ࠸ tango n ༢ㄒ word(s), vocabulary ࡲࡍ, ࡓࡵࡽ࠺ hesitates tango n ࢱࣥࢦ tango (music); tameshí n ヨࡋ trial, test, experiTángo no sekku n ➃༗ࡢ⠇ྃ ment: ~ ni ヨࡋ࡟ as a trial/test Boys’ Festival (5 May) tameshimásu, tamésu v ヨࡋࡲࡍ, ヨtani, tani-ma n ㇂, ㇂㛫 valley ࡍ tries, attempts, experiments with WiQ·L n ༢఩ unit WăPinaru n ࢱ࣮࣑ࢼࣝ terminal: tanitsu-minzoku n ༢୍Ẹ᪘ single narita-kükø dai-ichi-~ kita/min- race ami wingu ᡂ⏣✵ ➨1ࢱ࣮࣑ࢼ WDQMĿEL n ㄌ⏕᪥ birthday: ㄌ⏕᪥ ࣝ໭༡࢘࢕ࣥࢢ Narita Airport ࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕ birthday party 274


tanjun (na) adj ༢⣧ ࡞ simple;

simplehearted, simpleminded (not complicated): ~-ka ༢⣧໬ simplification: ~-meikai ༢⣧᫂ ᛌ simple and clear tánka n ▷ḷ 31-syllable poem (traditional Japanese poem) tánka n ᢸᯫ stretcher, litter: ~ de hakobaremásu ᢸᯫ࡛㐠ࡤࢀࡲ ࡍ is carried on a stretcher tánka n ༢౯ unit cost, unit price tánka n ၩ࿣ [BOOKISH] caustic


shimásu … ࡍࡿࡢ ࢆᴦࡋࡳ࡟ ࡋࡲࡍ { takes pleasure in (doing) | looks foward to …ing tanoshimimásu, tanoshímu v ᴦࡋ ࡳࡲࡍᴦࡋࡴ enjoys, takes

pleasure in tanpakú-shitsu n ⺮ⓑ㉁࣭ࡓࢇࡥࡃ ㉁ protein WDQSHQVKĿVHWVX n ▷⦅ᑠㄝ short

story (novel)

tánpo n ᢸಖ mortgage, pledge (= teitø ᢬ᙜ): butteki-~ ≀ⓗ ᢸಖ collateral on property: words (during a quarrel) tanki n ▷ᮇ short period; tankijinteki-~ ேⓗᢸಖ guarantee: dáigaku n ▷ᮇ኱Ꮫ junior college, ~-bukken ᢸಖ≀௳ collateral tánpon n ࢱ࣏ࣥࣥ tampon two-year college WDQNĿ n Ⅳ㖔 coal mine tánpopo n ࢱ࣏࣏࣭ࣥࡓࢇࡱࡱ tanmatsu n ➃ᮎ computer terminal dandelion tanmono n ཯≀ draperies, dry tansan n Ⅳ㓟 carbonic acid; tansán-sui n Ⅳ㓟Ỉ soda water goods tán naru … adj ༢࡞ࡿ… only, mere tanseki n ⫹▼ gall stone tanshi n ➃Ꮚ a terminal (elec[BOOKISH] = táda no ࡓࡔࡢ tán ni adv ༢࡟: ~ ... dake/nomi ༢ tronics) ࡟ࡔࡅࡢࡳ only, merely (= tanshin n ༢㌟ [BOOKISH] alone táda ࡓࡔ (= tandoku ༢⊂); tanshin-funin n tannin n ᢸ௵ (teacher) in charge ༢㌟㉱௵ job transfer away from tanomí n 㢗ࡳ a request: ~ no one’s home tsuna 㢗ࡳࡢ⥘ one’s one and tánsho n ▷ᡤ shortcoming, fault, only hope, lifesaver weak point: ~ to chøsho ▷ᡤ࡜㛗 tanomimásu, tanómu v 㢗ࡳࡲࡍ, ᡤ weak and strong points 㢗ࡴ 1. requests, begs 2. relies tansu n ࡓࢇࡍ࣭ࢱࣥࢫ࣭⟸➡ upon, entrusts with 3. hires, chest of drawers tantei n ᥈ഄ detective: ~-shøsetsu engages (a professional) tanoshíi adj ᴦࡋ࠸ pleasant, ᥈ഄᑠㄝ detective fiction: shiritsu-~ ⚾❧᥈ഄ private eye enjoyable tanoshími n ᴦࡋࡳ a pleasure, an WDQWĿ n ᢸᙜ responsibility, enjoyment; … (surú no) o ~ ni charge; WDQWĿVKD n ᢸᙜ⪅ person




in charge, responsible person taremásu, taréru v ᆶࢀࡲࡍ, ᆶࢀࡿ (A tannin ᢸ௵) hangs down, dangles; drips WDQWĿFKRNXQ\ŗ QD adj ༢ย┤ධ tarento n ࢱࣞࣥࢺ a TV personal ࡞ point-blank: ~ ni iu to adv ity, (person of) talent ༢ย┤ධ࡟ゝ࠺࡜ put bluntly …tári (shimásu/desu) …ࡓࡾ ࡋࡲ tánuki n ࢱࢾ࣭࢟⊇ 1. raccoonࡍ࡛ࡍ doing representatively/ dog (not badger anaguma ✰⇃) sometimes/alternately: tári 2. sly person …-nákáttari …ࡓࡾ…࡞࠿ࡗࡓ tánzén n ୹๓ padded bathrobe ࡾ doing off and on, sometimes taoremásu, taoréru v ಽࢀࡲࡍ, ಽࢀ does and sometimes doesn’t ࡿ falls down, tumbles, collapses tarimásu, tariru v ㊊ࡾࡲࡍ, ㊊ࡾࡿ táoru n ࢱ࢜ࣝ towel is enough/sufficient, suffices taoshimásu, taósu v ಽࡋࡲࡍ, ಽࡍ taru n ࡓࡿ࣭ᶡ barrel, keg, cask taru v ㊊ࡿ [dialect, literary] A knocks down, overthrows tapesutorii n ࢱ࣌ࢫࢺ࣮ࣜ tapestry tarimásu ㊊ࡾࡲࡍ (is enough/ tappú-dansu n ࢱࢵࣉࢲࣥࢫ tap sufficient, suffices) WăUX n ࢱ࣮ࣝ tar: køru-~ ࢥ࣮࣭ࣝ dance tappúri adv ࡓࡗ࡫ࡾ fully, more ࢱ࣮ࣝ coal tar: sekiyu-~ ▼Ἔࢱ ࣮ࣝ petroleum tar than enough tára n ࢱ࣭ࣛ㫙 cod (fish) tarumimásu, tarumu v ᘱࡳࡲࡍ, ᘱ …-tára suffix, conj …ࡓࡽ if, when ࡴgets slack (loose), relaxed tarafuku adv ࡓࡽࡩࡃ [INFORMAL] WDU\Ŀ n ከ㔞 large quantity táshika adv ☜࠿ if I remember (eat, drink) one’s fill tarai n ࡓࡽ࠸ tub, basin; tarairightly, probably; táshika ni mawashi ni saremásu n ࡓࡽ࠸ᅇࡋ adj ☜࠿࡟ for sure, surely, ࡟ࡉࢀࡲࡍ is shifted from one undoubtedly; indeed; táshika na section to another adv ☜࠿࡞ safe, sure, certain tarako n ࢱࣛࢥ࣭㫙Ꮚ cod roe tashikamemásu, tashikaméru v ☜࠿ taráppu n ࢱࣛࢵࣉ gangway ࡵࡲࡍ, ☜࠿ࡵࡿ makes sure, tarashimásu, tarásu v ᆶࡽࡋࡲࡍ, ascertains ᆶࡽࡍ dangles, drops, spills tashimásu, tasu v ㊊ࡋࡲࡍ, ㊊ࡍ tarashimásu, tarásu v ࡓࡽࡋࡲࡍ, 1. adds; ní ni san o ~ ஧࡟୕ࢆ㊊ ࡓࡽࡍ = tarashi-komimásu ࡓࡽ ࡋࡲࡍ adds three to two, adds ࡋ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ, tarashi-komu ࡓࡽ three and two 2. yø o ~ ⏝ࢆ㊊ࡋ ࡋ㎸ࡴ seduces; wheedles ࡲࡍ does one’s business, retaré n ࡓࢀ࣭ࢱࣞ gravy, (cooking) lieves oneself, goes to the bathsauce room 276


tatoemásu, tatoéru

tátchi n ࢱࢵࢳ touch; ~ no sa de small) number, quantity, amount ࢱࢵࢳࡢᕪ࡛ by the turn of 2. ~ (no) ከᑡ ࡢ more or less; a hair tate n ⦪ length, height, longitusomewhat; some tasogare n ࡓࡑࡀࢀ࣭㯤᫃ twilight dine; tate-gaki n ⦪᭩ࡁ vertical (= yügure ኤᬽࢀ) writing; tate-ito n ⦪⣒ warp tassha (na) adj 㐩⪅ ࡞ healthy; (vertical threads); táte no ⦪ࡢ skillful, expert, good at adj vertical; táte ni ⦪࡟ adv vertas-shimásu, tas-suru v 㐩ࡋࡲࡍ, 㐩 tically, lengthwise ࡍࡿ accomplishes; reaches …-tate (no) adj …ࡓ࡚ ࡢ fresh WDVŗ n ከᩘ large number; from … taté-fuda n ❧ ࡚ ᮐ signboard majority tasukarimásu, tasukáru v ຓ࠿ࡾࡲ tatekaemásu, tatekaeru ᘓ ࡚ ᭰࠼ ࡍ, ຓ࠿ࡿ is saved; is relieved ࡲࡍ, ᘓ ࡚ ᭰࠼ࡿ rebuilds: tatekae n ᘓ ࡚ ᭰࠼ reconstruction, tasukemásu, tasukéru v ຓࡅࡲࡍ, ຓࡅࡿ 1. helps 2. saves rebuilding tatakaimásu, tatakau v ᡓ࠸ࡲࡍ, tatekaemásu, tatekaeru ❧ ࡚ ᭰࠼ࡲ ᡓ࠺ fights; makes war/game: ࡍ, ❧ ࡚ ᭰࠼ࡿ pays for someteki to ~ ᩛ࡜ᡓ࠸ࡲࡍ battles one; tatekae n ❧ ࡚ ᭰࠼ paying an enemy for someone; tatekae-kin n ❧ ࡚ tatakaimásu, tatakau v 㜚࠸ࡲࡍ, ᭰࠼㔠 advance money 㜚࠺ struggle, fights (with, tatémae n ᘓ࡚๓ principle, policy against): byøki to ~ ⑓Ẽ࡜㜚࠸ tate-mashi n ᘓ࡚ቑࡋ house addiࡲࡍ fights the disease tion/extension, annex tatakí n 1. ྇ࡁ pounding; bashing; tatemásu, tatéru v ᘓ࡚ࡲࡍ, ᘓ࡚ࡿ mincing; Nihon-~ ᪥ᮏ྇ࡁ Japan- erects, builds, raises; sets up, bashing 2. ࡓࡓࡁ concrete/ establishes taté-móno n ᘓ≀ building cement floor tatakimásu, tatáku v ྇ࡁࡲࡍ, ྇ࡃ tatoé conj ࡓ࡜࠼ even if tatóe ౛࠼࣭ࡓ࡜࠼ n example, strikes, hits, knocks; pounds WDVKĿ adj ከᑡ 1. (large and/or

(fish/meat to tenderize or mince instance; simile, analogy tatóeba adv ౛࠼ࡤ࣭ࡓ࡜࠼ࡤ for it), minces; té o ~ ᡭࢆ྇ࡁࡲ ࡍ claps example, for instance tatami n ␚ floor mat(ting), matted tatoemásu, tatoéru v ౛࠼ࡲࡍ࣭႘ ࠼ࡲࡍ, ౛࠼ࡿ࣭႘࠼ࡿ gives floor tatamimásu, tatamu v ␚ࡳࡲࡍ, ␚ an example, compares (draws a ࡴ folds up simile to) 277



tatsu n ❳࣭㱟 dragon (= doragon ࢻࣛࢦࣥ) tatsu no otoshigo n ࢱࢶࣀ࢜ࢺࢩ ࢦ࣭❳ࡢⴠ࡜ࡋᏊ sea horse (= umi-uma, kaiba ᾏ㤿) tatta adv ࡓࡗࡓ just, merely, only tatta-íma n, adv ࡓࡗࡓ௒ just now;

ࢀࡀᡭ࡟ධࡾࡲࡍ = sore o ~ ni iremásu ࡑࢀࢆᡭ࡟ධࢀࡲࡍ obtains, gets it; te-árai n ᡭὙ࠸ { hand wash | o-teárai ࠾ᡭὙ ࠸ washroom, rest room, toilet (toire ࢺ࢖ࣞ); té-ate n ᡭᙜ࡚

in (just) a minute tDZă n ࢱ࣮࣡ tower, pagoda (= tø ሪ); Tøkyø-~ ᮾிࢱ࣮࣡ Tokyo Tower tawará n ࡓࢃࡽ࣭ಥ straw bag; bale tawashi n ࡓࢃࡋ scrub(bing) brush; swab tayasúku adv ࡓࡸࡍࡃ easily táyori 㢗ࡾ n reliance: ~ nai 㢗ࡾ ࡞࠸ undependable, unreliable táyori n ౽ࡾ communication, correspondence, a letter, word (from someone), news; kaze no ~ 㢼ࡢ౽ࡾ a little bird, rumor tayorimásu, tayóru v 㢗ࡾࡲࡍ, 㢗ࡿ relies on, depends on WD\ĿVHL n ከᵝᛶ diversity: seibutsu-

té-ate n ᡭᙜ allowance; te-búkuro n ᡭ⿄ gloves; te-dori n ᡭྲྀࡾ take-home pay; te-gákari n ᡭ᥃ ࠿ࡾ a hold, a place to hold on; a clue; te-gami n ᡭ⣬ letter (= shokan ᭩⡆ [BOOKISH]); te-gata n ᡭᙧ a note, a bill: yakusoku-~ ⣙᮰ᡭᙧ promissory note; tegókoro n ᡭᚰ discretion; te-gótae n ᡭᛂ࠼ response, effect; té-guchi n ᡭཱྀ way (of doing bad things), trick; té-hái n ᡭ㓄 (setting up) a

treatment; reparation, provision;

search for a criminal, a dragnet;

té-hazu n ᡭࡣࡎ࣭ᡭ➻ arrangements; te-hón n ᡭᮏ model, pattern; té-kubi n ᡭ㤳 wrist; té-mane n ᡭࡲࡡ࣭ᡭ┿ఝ gesture with hand(s); té-mari n ᡭࡲࡾ࣭ᡭẦ ~ no hozen ⏕≀ከᵝᛶࡢಖ඲ (decorated small) handball; tenímotsu n ᡭⲴ≀ hand luggage; biodiversity conservatory tazuna n ᡭ⥘ reins: ~ o shimemásu té-nó-hira n ᡭࡢࡦࡽ࣭ᤸ palm ᡭ⥘ࢆ⥾ࡵࡲࡍ tightens the reins (of hand); te-ori (no) adj ᡭ⧊ࡾ tazunemásu, tazunéru v 1. ᑜࡡࡲࡍ, ࡢ handweaving; te-sage n ᡭ ᑜࡡࡿ asks (a question) 2. ᑜࡡ ᥦࡆ࣭ᡭࡉࡆ handbag; te-sei (no) ࡲࡍ, ᑜࡡࡿ looks for adj ᡭ〇 ࡢ homemade, handtazunemásu, tazunéru v ゼࡡࡲࡍ, crafted; te-záiku n ᡭ⣽ᕤ handiゼࡡࡿ visits work; te-zawari n ᡭࡊࢃࡾ texté n ᡭ 1. hand, arm 2. trick, move ture, touch, hand feeling; te-zúkuri 3. kind 4. person 5. help: té ni (no) adj ᡭసࡾ ࡢ homemade, ᡭ࡟; sore ga ~ ni hairimásu ࡑ made by hand



…-te suffix …࡚ (does/did) and,


te-iré n ᡭධࢀ repair; upkeep, care teisai n య⿢ appearance, get-up,

and then, and so; doing; [+ (A shite ࡋ࡚ form, format, layout tďburu n ࢸ࣮ࣈࣝ table; ~-kake teisetsu (na) adj ㈆⠇ ࡞ chaste, ࢸ࣮ࣈࣝ᥃ࡅ tablecloth principled: ~ na tsuma ㈆⠇࡞ጔ tei-… prefix ᐃ… fixed, appointed, faithful wife téishu n ீ୺ 1. host (at Japanese set; tei-ka n ᐃ౯ the set price, fixed price; téiki (no) adj ᐃᮇ ࡢ tea ceremony) 2. landlord { fixed, regular, periodic, sched- 3. (my) husband uled | A tei-kí-ken ᐃᮇๆ; tei-kí- WHLWĿ n ᢬ᙜ mortgage, pledge ken n ᐃᮇๆ pass (commuter (= tanpo ᢸಖ) ticket), season ticket: teiki-yokin téjina n ᡭရ jugglery, magic ᐃᮇ㡸㔠 time deposit; tei-shoku n (tricks); tejiná-shi n ᡭရᖌ jugᐃ㣗 a set meal; a complete meal gler, magician tei-… prefix ప… low; tei-ka n tejun n ᡭ㡰 order, procedure, పୗ fall, drop, decline, descent; program tei-kétsúatsu n ప⾑ᅽ low blood …-té kara suffix …࡚࠿ࡽ after pressure; tei-kíatsu n పẼᅽ low (do)ing, after one does/did, does/ (barometric) pressure; tei-soku n did and then (next) ప㏿ low speed teki n ᩛ 1. enemy, foe 2. oppotei-… prefix ೵ stop; tei-den n nent; kø-~-shu ዲᩛᡭ rival ೵㟁 power failure/outage; WHLU\ŗ …-teki suffix …⁲ a drop …-teki (na) suffix, adj ⓗ ࡞ …ic, n ೵␃ stop, stopping; tei-sha n ೵㌴ stopping (of a vehicle); …ical, …al, …ly: chi~ (na) ▱ⓗ tei-shi n ೵Ṇ suspension, inter ࡞ intellectual: shi~ (na) ⚾ⓗ ruption; ichiji-~ ୍᫬೵Ṇ pause, ࡞ private, personal (= kojin~ (na) ಶேⓗ ࡞ : shi-~ (na) リⓗ suspension teian n ᥦ᱌ proposal, suggestion ࡞ poetic; -teki ni …ⓗ࡟ … teibĿ n ሐ㜵 dike, embankment ically, …ally: kanjø-~ narimásu téido n ⛬ᗘ degree, extent, level ឤ᝟ⓗ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ gets emotional: teikei n ᥦᦠ [BOOKISH] cooperation, kiseki~ tasukarimashita ወ㊧ⓗ ࡟ຓ࠿ࡾࡲࡋࡓ miraculously affiliation WHLNĿ n ᢬ᢠ resistance survived téikoku n ᖇᅜ empire; teikoku-shúgi tékido n 㐺ᗘ [BOOKISH] moderan ᖇᅜ୺⩏ imperialism tion: ~ na/no 㐺ᗘ࡞ࡢ reasontéinei (na) adj ࡚࠸ࡡ࠸>୎ᑀ@ ࡞ able, moderate: ~ na undø 㐺ᗘ ࡞㐠ື moderate exercise polite; careful 279 AUXILIARY]



tékigi adv 㐺ᐅ [BOOKISH] suitably, …-te kudasái interj …࡚ୗࡉ࠸ fitly, properly (= tekitø (ni) 㐺ᙜ please (do) temá n ᡭ㛫 time and effort (taken ࡟ ): ~ (no) 㐺ᐅࡢ suitable,

fit, proper

up); one’s trouble

tekikaku (na) adj 㐺᱁ ࡞ qualified, Wď´ma n ࢸ࣮࣐ theme, topic (= shudai ୺㢟): ~-songu ࢸ࣮࣐ࢯ eligible: ~-sha 㐺᱁⪅ qualified ࣥࢢ theme song (= shudai-ka person tekikaku (na/ni) adj, adv ⓗ☜࣭㐺☜ ୺㢟ḷ) ࡞࡟ precise(ly), accurate(ly), temae n 1. ᡭ๓࣭࡚ࡲ࠼ this side exact(ly): ~ na handan ⓗ☜>㐺 (of …); I/me 2. ᡭ๓ prowess, ☜@࡞ุ᩿ accurate judgement skill, ability teki-nin n 㐺௵ qualified person temae n Ⅼ๓ tea ceremony pro(= tekikaku-sha 㐺᱁⪅) cedures tekisetsu (na) adj 㐺ษ ࡞ to the temáwari n ᡭᅇࡾpersonal effects;

point, appropriate


teki-shimásu, teki-su v 㐺ࡋࡲࡍ, 㐺 …-témo suffix …࡚ࡶ even doing/ ࡍ is suitable, qualified being, even if (one does/is); tékísuto n ࢸ࢟ࢫࢺ 1. textbook (= shitémo íi ࡋ࡚ࡶ࠸࠸ it is OK to kyøka-sho ᩍ⛉᭩) 2. original do, one may do ten n Ⅼ point, dot, spot; score text tekiWĿ (na) adj 㐺ᙜ ࡞ 1. suitable, (points); WHQVŗ n Ⅼᩘ score, proper 2. irresponsible, happoints hazard, random, half-hearted: ~ na tén n ኳ 1. sky 2. heaven (= tenhenji 㐺ᙜ࡞㏉஦vague answer goku ኳᅜ); tén-goku n ኳᅜ tekiWĿ QL adv 㐺ᙜ ࡟ 1. suitably, paradise, heaven; WHQMĿ n ኳ஭ properly (= tekigi 㐺ᐅ) 2. irre- ceiling; tén-ki n ኳẼ { weather; sponsibly, haphazardly, randomly, ~-yóhø ኳẼணሗ weather forecast | fair weather; WHQNĿ n ኳ half-heartedly: ~ ni erabimásu 㐺ᙜ࡟㑅ࡧࡲࡍ chooses ranೃ weather; ten-mon (no) n ኳᩥ ࡢ astronomical: ten-mondomly: ~ ni kikinagashimásu gaku ኳᩥᏛ astronomy; tén-shi n 㐺ᙜ࡟⪺ࡁὶࡋࡲࡍ pretends ኳ౑ angel to listen tekk(-…) n, prefix 㕲  iron, tén n ࢸࣥ ten; besutó-~ ࣋ࢫࢺࢸ steel; tek-ki n 㕲ჾ, ~-rui 㕲ჾ㢮 ࣥ the best ten hardware (items); WHNN\Ŀ n 㕲ᶫ ten-…/…-ten prefix, suffix ኳ ኳ A ten-pura ኳ࡫ࡽ࣭ኳ㯑 iron bridge teko n ࡚ࡇ࣭᣿࣭᣿Ꮚ lever ⨶; ten-don n ኳ୻ a bowl of rice




with tenpura shrimp on top; Emperor; 7HQQĿWDQMĿEL n ኳⓚㄌ ten-pura n ࢸࣥࣉ࣭ࣛኳ࡫ࡽ࣭ኳ ⏕᪥ the Emperor’s Birthday 㯑⨶ tenpura, food fried in batter, (national holiday in Japan) WHQĿUX n ࢸࣀ࣮ࣝ tenor; WHQĿUX especially shrimp kashu n ࢸࣀ࣮ࣝḷᡭ a tenor ten-…/…-ten prefix, suffix ᗑ... ...ᗑ shop; WHQ·LQ n ᗑဨ shop (singer) ténpi n ኳⅆ oven clerk, salesclerk, salesperson; ten-po n ᗑ⯒ [BOOKISH] store, tenpo n ࢸ࣏ࣥ tempo shop (= mise ᗑ o-mise ࠾ᗑ ); tenrán-kai n ᒎぴ఍ exhibition ten-shu n ᗑ୺ shopkeeper (= tenji-kai ᒎ♧఍) WHQEĿ n ᒎᮃ 1. looking over, a tensai n ኳᡯ genius view 2. prospecting, prospects; ténsei n ኳᛶ disposition, temtenbĿGDL n ᒎᮃྎ (sightseeing) perament ténto n ࢸࣥࢺ tent observatory tengu n ࢸࣥࢢ࣭ኳ≸ 1. a long- tepp-… prefix 㕲 iron, steel; tep-pan n 㕲ᯈ iron plate: teppannosed goblin 2. conceited yaki 㕲ᯈ↝ࡁ sliced meat, etc. person ténisu n ࢸࢽࢫ tennis: ~-køto ࢸ grilled at table; WHSSĿ n 㕲◙ ࢽࢫࢥ࣮ࢺ tennis court: ~-shüzu gun, rifle: mizu-deppø Ỉ㕲◙ ࢸࢽࢫࢩ࣮ࣗࢬ tennis shoes squirt gun, water pistol tenjí n ᒎ♧ exhibit; tenjí-kai n ᒎ♧ teppén n ࡚ࡗ࡮ࢇ top, highest ఍ exhibition part [INFORMAL] (= chøjø 㡬ୖ) ten-jimásu, ten-jiru v ㌿ࡌࡲࡍ, ㌿ࡌ WďSX n ࢸ࣮ࣉ tape; sero(han)-~ ࡿ [BOOKISH] changes, shifts; gets ࢭࣟ ࣁࣥ ࢸ࣮ࣉ scotch tape; ~-rekø´då ࢸ࣮ࣉࣞࢥ࣮ࢲ࣮ transferred; ten-kin n ㌿໅ job transfer (= tennin ㌿௵); ten-NĿ n tape recorder ㌿ᰯ school transfer; ten-nin n ㌿ terá n ᑎ Buddhist temple (= jiin ௵ job transfer ᑎ㝔) tennen n ኳ↛ nature (= shizen terashi-awasémásu, terashi-awaséru v ⮬↛); tennen-boke n ኳ↛࣎ࢣ ↷ࡽࡋྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, ↷ࡽࡋྜࢃࡏ ࡿ collates goofy, dopey by nature [IN POSITIVE SENSE]; tennen-gasu n ኳ terashimásu, terásu v ↷ࡽࡋࡲࡍ, ↛࢞ࢫ natural gas; tennen (no) ↷ࡽࡍ illuminates, lights it up, adj ኳ↛ ࡢ natural; tennen-WĿ n shines on; compares, collates, ኳ↛① smallpox checks; … ni teráshite …࡟↷ࡽ 7HQQĿ n ኳⓚ the Emperor; Tennø- ࡋ࡚ in the light of…, in view of … héika ኳⓚ㝎ୗ His Majesty the térasu n ࢸࣛࢫ terrace, balcony 281



térebi n ࢸࣞࣅ television; terebibangumi n ࢸࣞࣅ␒⤌ TV show; terebi-denwa n ࢸࣞࣅ㟁ヰ videophone; terebi-gďmu n ࢸࣞࣅࢤ࣮ ࣒ video game WHUHKRQNăGR n ࢸ࣮ࣞ࣍ࣥ࢝ࢻ

telephone card

te-tsúzuki n ᡭ⥆ࡁ formalities, procedure (= tejun ᡭ㡰) tettei-teki (na/ni) adj, adv ᚭᗏⓗ ࡞࡟ thorough(ly) ti… A chi… tii-kappu n ࢸ࢕࣮࢝ࢵࣉ Western-

style tea cup

teremásu, teréru v ↷ࢀࡲࡍ, ↷ࢀ tiVVKX SďSă n ࢸ࢕ࢵࢩࣗ ࣮࣌ࣃ ࡿ feels embarrassed, awkward, ࣮ tissue(s) to n ᡞ door; to-dana n ᡞᲴ cupflustered terepashii n ࢸࣞࣃࢩ࣮ telepathy board, enclosed shelves terimásu, téru v ↷ࡾࡲࡍ, ↷ࡿ to n 㒔 1. capital (= shu-to 㤳㒔) 2. Tokyo (= Tøkyø-to ᮾி㒔); it shines teriyaki n ↷ࡾ↝ࡁ (fish, chicken, to-chi-ji n 㒔▱஦ Governor of etc.) broiled with soy sauce and Tokyo; to-ei n 㒔Ⴀ Toei, metro-

politan (run by Tokyo), metro;

sweeteners tero (risuto) n ࢸࣟ ࣜࢫࢺ terror-

~-sen 㒔Ⴀ⥺ subway Toei ism, terrorist Line; to-kai n 㒔఍ city, town; WHVŗ n ᡭᩘ [BOOKISH] trouble ~-jin 㒔఍ே city dweller, (taken up), time and effort (= urbanite; to-min n 㒔Ẹ Tokyoite; tema ᡭ㛫): o-~ okakeshite tó-nai n, adv 㒔ෆ within the sumimasen ࠾ᡭᩘ࠾࠿ࡅࡋ࡚ࡍ metropolis (of Tokyo); tó-shi n ࡳࡲࡏࢇ I’m sorry for bothering 㒔ᕷ city; toshi (no) 㒔ᕷ ࡢ you.; WHVŗU\Ŀ n ᡭᩘᩱ handling/ urban … to prep …࡜ with [CONCATEservice charge tésuto n ࢸࢫࢺ test [INFORMAL] (= NATES A NOUN]: ... ~ issho ni shiken ヨ㦂) ࡜୍⥴࡟ ... with (someone) tetsu n 㕲 iron, steel; WHWVXEĿ n 㕲 … to … conj …࡜ and [CONCATᲬ { horizontal bar | iron bar; ENATES A NOUN]: anata ~ watashi WHWVXGĿ n 㕲㐨 railroad, railway ࠶࡞ࡓ࡜⚾ you and I tetsudái n ᡭఏ࠸ = o-tétsudai ࠾ … to suffix …࡜ (said/thought/ ᡭఏ࠸ assistance, help seemed) that …; “…” (quote-) tetsudaimásu, tetsudáu v ᡭఏ࠸ࡲ unquote: kare wa ... ~ itta ᙼ ࡍ, ᡭఏ࠺ helps ࡣ࡜ゝࡗࡓ he said that ...; … tetsúgaku n ဴᏛ philosophy; ~-sha to iu suffix …࡜࠸࠺ which says; ဴᏛ⪅ philosopher which is (called), called; which tetsuya n ᚭኪ staying up all night is (in effect); to iú no wa … suffix



࡜࠸࠺ࡢࡣ… What that means

todorokimásu, todoróku

tobimásu, tobu v ㊴ࡧࡲࡍ, ㊴ࡪ

(What that amounts to) is that … jumps … to suffix …࡜ 1. (su)-ru ~ ࡍ  tobimásu, tobu v 㣕ࡧࡲࡍ, 㣕ࡪ ࡿ࡜ when(ever), if; …and there- flies upon, …whereupon: moshika- tobira n ᡬ 1. a door wing, a door suru ~ ࡶࡋ࠿ࡍࡿ࡜ perhaps, of a gate 2. title page possibly 2. (shi)-nai ~ ࡋ ࡞࠸ toboshíi adj ஈࡋ࠸ scarce, meager, ࡜ unless scanty WĿ n ༑ ten (= jü ༑) WĿEXQ n ⢾ศ [BOOKISH] sugar WĿ n ⡢ rattan, cane content WĿ n ሪ tower, pagoda (= tawå WĿEXQ n ➼ศ dividing equally ࢱ࣮࣡); Efferu-tø ࢚ࢵࣇ࢙ࣝሪ WĿEXQ n ᙜศ for the time being WĿFKDNX n ฿╔ arrival Eiffel Tower WĿ« prefix ᮾ east, eastern; tochi n ᅵᆅ ground, earth, soil; a WĿEX n ᮾ㒊 the east, the eastern piece of land part; WĿKĿ n ᮾ᪉ the east; WĿQDQ WRFKŗ (de/no) adv, adj ㏵୰ ࡛ࡢ n ᮾ༡ southeast: ~-ajia ᮾ༡࢔ࢪ on the way; ~-gesha ㏵୰ୗ㌴ ࢔ Southeast Asia; WĿ]DL n ᮾす stopover (train) east and west, the East and the WĿGDL n ⇠ྎ lighthouse 7ĿGDL n ᮾ኱ Tokyo University (= West «WĿ suffix …㢌 (counts large Tøkyø-Dáigaku ᮾி኱Ꮫ) todoké n ᒆࡅ notification, notice, animals) head [go-tø ஬㢌

unaccented (five heads)]


«WĿ suffix …➼ class todokemásu, todokéru v ᒆࡅࡲࡍ, 7ĿD n ᮾள = Higashi-Ájia ᮾ࢔ࢪ࢔ ᒆࡅࡿ 1. delivers 2. reports it tobaku n ㉃༤ [BOOKISH] gambling (to), notifies WĿEDQ n ᙜ␒ person on duty todoke-saki n ᒆࡅඛ address (for tobashimásu, tobasu v 㣕ࡤࡋࡲࡍ, delivery) 㣕ࡤࡍ lets fly; skips, omits; hurries todokimásu, todóku v ᒆࡁࡲࡍ, ᒆ tobi-dashimásu, tobi-dásu v ㊴ࡧฟࡋ ࡃ reaches; arrives; gets delivered ࡲࡍ࣭㊴ࡧฟࡍ jumps out todomarimásu, todomáru v ࡜࡝ࡲ tobi-dashimásu, tobi-dásu v 㣕ࡧฟࡋ ࡾࡲࡍ, ࡜࡝ࡲࡿ it stops; it ࡲࡍ, 㣕ࡧฟࡍ runs/bursts out; it remains todomemásu, todómeru v ࡜࡝ࡵࡲ sticks out, protrudes; uchi o ~ ᐙࢆ㣕ࡧฟࡋࡲࡍ runs away ࡍ, ࡜࡝ࡵࡿ stops it (from home) (= iede shimásu ᐙ todorokimásu, todoróku v ㎘ࡁࡲࡍ, ฟࡋࡲࡍ) ㎘ࡃ [BOOKISH] roars, rumbles




WĿI~ n ㇋⭉ bean curd tóire n ࢺ࢖ࣞ toilet, bathroom; togamé n ࡜ࡀࡵ [BOOKISH] rebuke, WyLUHWWRSďSă n ࢺ࢖ࣞࢵࢺ࣮࣌ࣃ ࣮ toilet paper censure, blame togamemásu, togaméru v ࡜ࡀࡵࡲ WĿLWVX n ⤫୍ unification, standardࡍ, ࡜ࡀࡵࡿ [BOOKISH] blames, ization WĿML n ෤⮳ winter solstice rebukes, reproves, finds fault WĿML n ‫‮‬἞ hot-spring cure: ~-ba with: ki ga ~ Ẽࡀ࡜ࡀࡵࡲࡍ suffers from a guilty conscience ‫‮‬἞ሙ spa togarasemásu, togaráseru v ࡜ࡀࡽ WĿML (wa) adv ᙜ᫬ ࡣ (at) that ࡏ>ᑤࡽࡏ@ࡲࡍ, ࡜ࡀࡽࡏࡿ࣭ᑤ time, then, (in) those days (= anokoro (wa) ࠶ࡢ㡭 ࡣ , sonoࡽࡏࡿ sharpens, points togarimásu, togáru v ࡜ࡀࡾࡲࡍ࣭ koro (wa) ࡑࡢ㡭 ࡣ ) ᑤࡾࡲࡍ, ࡜ࡀࡿ࣭ᑤࡿ gets tojimásu, tojíru v 㛢ࡌࡲࡍ, 㛢ࡌࡿ

sharp (pointed)

closes (a book, door wings, …)

togé n ࡜ࡆ่࣭࣭Ჲ thorn WĿJp n ᓘ mountain pass tĿJHL n 㝡ⱁ ceramic art, ceramics togemásu, togéru v 㐙ࡆࡲࡍ, 㐙ࡆ ࡿ achieves, accomplishes togimásu, tógu v ◊ࡂࡲࡍ, ◊ࡄ

sharpens, grinds, polishes

WĿMLWVX n ᙜ᪥ the day in question,

that very day, on the day WĿMĿ n ᦚ஌ boarding a plane: ~-chü ᦚ஌୰ (in the midst of) boarding; WĿMĿNHQ n ᦚ஌ๆ boarding pass WĿMĿ n Ⓩሙ entry upon the stage … tóka …࡜࠿ or something

WĿKHQERNX n ၈ኚᮌ damned fool (like it) WĿKRNXFKiKĿ ᮾ໭ᆅ᪉ the Tøhoku tĿND n ༑᪥ 1. 10th day (of a area of Japan (Aomori, Iwate, month) 2. (for) ten days (= tøkakan ༑᪥㛫) Miyagi, Akita, Yamagata, tokage n ࢺ࢝ࢤ࣭⻩⻰ lizard Fukushima prefectures) WĿKRQ n ㅞᮏ full copy: koseki-~ tokai n 㒔఍ city: dai-~ ኱㒔఍ ᡞ⡠ㅞᮏ full copy of one’s metropolis (= tóshi 都市) WĿNDLFKiKĿ n ᮾᾏᆅ᪉ the Tøkai family register WĿK\Ŀ n ᢞ⚊ ballot, vote area of Japan (Mie, Aichi, Gifu, tói n ࡜࠸࣭ᵽ drain pipe, gutter Shizuoka prefectures) tĿL adj 㐲࠸ 1. far-off, distant tokaku (… shimásu) adv ࡜࠿ࡃ 2. mimí ga ~ ⪥ࡀ㐲࠸ is hard (…ࡋࡲࡍ) apt/liable (to do): ~ no uwasa ࡜࠿ࡃࡢშ unsavory of hearing toiawase n ၥ࠸ྜࢃࡏ inquiry rumors toimásu, tóu v ၥ࠸ࡲࡍ, ၥ࠺ tokashimásu, tokásu v ⁐࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, ⁐࠿ࡍ melts/thaws/dissolves it inquires



tokoro, … tokoró

tokashimásu, tokásu v ࡜࠿ࡋ>Თ࠿ ࡋ@ࡲࡍ, ࡜࠿ࡍ࣭Თ࠿ࡍ combs tokei n ᫬ィ time piece; clock; watch WĿNHL n ⤫ィ statistics tokemásu, tokéru v ⁐ࡅࡲࡍ, ⁐ࡅ ࡿ it melts/thaws/dissolves tokemásu, tokéru v ゎࡅࡲࡍ, ゎࡅ ࡿ comes undone; gets solved tokí n ᫬ time tóki n ࢺ࣭࢟ᮒ㮛࣭㬍 crested

ibis (bird)

tokki n ✺㉳ projection, protuber-

ance tokki n ≉グ special mention: ~-jikø ≉グ஦㡯 special comments, special instruction: ~-nai kagiri ≉グ࡞࠸㝈ࡾ unless

specified otherwise tokku (ni) adv ࡜ࡗࡃ ࡟ long before (= tokku no mukashi (ni) ࡜ࡗࡃࡢ᫇ ࡟ ) tokkumiaimásu, tokkumiau v ྲྀࡗ⤌ ࡳྜ࠸ࡲࡍ, ྲྀࡗ⤌ࡳྜ࠺ grapple tokkuri n ࡜ࡗࡃࡾ࣭ᚨ฼ saké

WĿNL n 㝡ჾ pottery, ceramics, china A jíki ☢ჾ WĿNL n Ⓩグ registration bottle/pitcher, ceramic decanter WĿNL n ෤ᮇ winter (period/term): for serving saké ~-orinpikku ෤Ꮨ࢜ࣜࣥࣆࢵࢡ tokkyo n ≉チ patent WRNN\ŗ n ≉ᛴ special express Winter Olympics WĿNL n ᢞᶵ speculation: ~ (train); ~´-ken ≉ᛴๆ specialshimásu ᢞᶵࡋࡲࡍ speculates express ticket WĿNL n ᢞᲠ dumping, abandonWRNN\ŗ n ≉⣭ special class; (best)



tokidoki ᫬ࠎ࣭࡜ࡁ࡝ࡁ sometimes toko n ᗋ o-toko ࠾ᗋ bed: ~ ni tokimásu, tóku v ゎࡁࡲࡍ, ゎࡃ tsukimásu ᗋ࡟ᑵࡁࡲࡍ takes to

undoes, unties; solves tokimásu, tóku v ㄝࡁࡲࡍ, ㄝࡃ

explains, persuades, preaches

one’s bed, goes to bed

… tokó suffix …࡜ࡇ [INFORMAL] place (= … tokoró …ᡤ) tokonoma n ᗋࡢ㛫 alcove in

tokimásu, tóku v ࡜ࡁ>Თࡁ@ࡲࡍ, ࡜ࡃ࣭Თࡃ comb Japanese room tóki ni adv …᫬࡟ at the time that tokoro, … tokoró suffix ᡤ, …ᡤ 1. place 2. address …, when … tokí ni adv ࡜ࡁ࡟࣭᫬࡟ by the tokoro, … tokoró ࡜ࡇࢁ, …࡜ࡇࢁ way, incidentally; sometimes circumstance, time: shita ~ desu tokkakari n ྲྀࡗ᥃࠿ࡾ a hold, a ࡋࡓ࡜ࡇࢁ࡛ࡍ has just done it; place to hold on; a clue (= tega- shite iru ~ desu ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ࡜ࡇࢁ kari ᡭ᥃࠿ࡾ) ࡛ࡍ is (in the midst of) doing it; tokkan NĿML n ✺㈏ᕤ஦ eleventhsuru ~ desu ࡍࡿ࡜ࡇࢁ࡛ࡍ is

hour job

about to do it 285



tokoró-de conj ࡜ࡇࢁ࡛ by the

WRNXQtWĿ n ≉஧➼ special second

way; well now tokoro-dókoro n, adv ࡜ࡇࢁ࡝ࡇࢁ various places, here and there tokoró-ga conj ࡜ࡇࢁࡀ but, however … tokoró ga suffix, conj …࡜ࡇࢁ ࡀ however tokoro-gaki n ᡤ᭩ࡁ [BOOKISH] address (written) (= atesaki ᐄඛ, jü´sho ఫᡤ) tokoroten n ࡜ࡇࢁ࡚ࢇ seaweed gelatin strips served cold in a tangy soy sauce toko-ya n ᗋᒇ barber(shop) toku-… prefix ≉… special (= tokubetsu ≉ู); toku-betsu (no) adj ≉ู ࡢ special, particular, extra: ~ ni ≉ู࡟ especially; tokuFKĿ n ≉ᚩ special feature/ quality, (a distinguishing) characteristic toku n ᚨ virtue toku n ᚓ profit, advantage, gain tĿN~ adv 㐲ࡃ 1. the distance, far off 2. so as to be far/distant A

class tokushoku n ≉Ⰽ special feature,

characteristic tokushu (na) adj ≉Ṧ ࡞ special,

particular tokuten n ᚓⅬ points obtained, score (= sukoa ࢫࢥ࢔) toku\ŗ (no) adj ≉᭷ ࡢ special,

particular 7ĿN\Ŀ n ᮾி Tokyo; 7ĿN\Ŀ'iLJDNX n ᮾி኱Ꮫ Tokyo University (= Tø-dai ᮾ኱); 7ĿN\Ŀ(NL n ᮾி㥐

Tokyo Station WĿN\RNX n ᙜᒁ the authorities tomari n Ἡࡲࡾ staying overnight;

night duty tomarimásu, tomaru v Ṇࡲࡾࡲࡍ࣭ Ṇࡲࡿ it stops tomarimásu, tomaru v Ἡࡲࡾࡲࡍ, Ἡࡲࡿ stays overnight WĿPiZDUL n 㐲ᅇࡾ detour WĿPiZDVKL n 㐲ᅇࡋ oblique

statement WĿPHL (na) adj ㏱᫂ ࡞ clear,


WĿL 㐲࠸ tomemásu, tomeru v Ṇࡵࡲࡍ, Ṇࡵ tokuhon n ㄞᮏ reader, reading book ࡿ stops it tokúi n ᚓព 1. pride; forte, strong tomemásu, tomeru v Ἡࡵࡲࡍ, Ἡࡵ ࡿ puts one up overnight point: ~ (na) ᚓព ࡞ favorite, tomemásu, tomeru v ␃ࡵࡲࡍ, ␃ࡵ proud, exultant 2. o-~ ࠾ᚓព ࡿ fastens (firmly attaches); tome(regular) customer, patron 3. bári n ␃ࡵ㔪 pin prosperity tokúi (na/no) adj ≉␗ ࡞ࡢ WĿPHQ adv ᙜ㠃 for now; tĿPHQ (no) adj ᙜ㠃 ࡢ immediate, unique, peculiar tóku (ni) adv ≉ ࡟ in particular, present; ~ no mondai ᙜ㠃ࡢၥ㢟


immediate problem 286



tómi n ᐩ wealth, fortune, riches,


tonde-mo nái adj ࡜ࢇ࡛ࡶ࡞࠸

outrageous, terrible, shocking

tomimásu, tómu v ᐩࡳࡲࡍ, ᐩࡴ is tó-ni-kaku ࡜࡟࠿ࡃ anyway,

rich; abounds


WĿPLQ n ෤╀ hibernation tómo n ཭ [BOOKISH] friend (= yüjin ཭ே); tomodachi n ཭㐩 friend tómo n క one’s companion, company (= døhan-sha ྠక⪅) … tó-mo! interj …࡜ࡶ! : ii tó mo ࠸࠸࡜ࡶ Of course! tó-mo-kaku adv ࡜ࡶ࠿ࡃ anyway,

ton-katsu n ㇜࢝ࢶ࣭ࢺࣥ࢝ࢶ

pork cutlet tónma n ࡜ࢇࡲ࣭ࢺ࣐࣭ࣥ㡻㤿

idiot, fool tonma n ࡜ࢇࡲ dullness, fool,

idiot, boob

tonneru n ࢺࣥࢿࣝ tunnel ton-ya n ၥᒇ wholesale store WĿQ\ĿE\Ŀ n ⢾ᒀ⑓ diabetes anyhow, at any rate tomonaimásu, tomonáu v క࠸ࡲ WĿQ\ŗ n ㇋ங soybean milk ࡍ, క࠺; … ni ~ …࡟క࠸ࡲࡍ WĿQ\ŗ n ᢞධ [BOOKISH] 1. a throw accompanies (into) 2. investment, investing tomo ni adv ඹ࡟ together (= issho toppatsu n ✺Ⓨ [BOOKISH] outbreak: ni ୍⥴࡟) ~-jiko ✺Ⓨ஦ᨾ sudden accident; WĿPyURNRVKL n ࢺ࢘ࣔࣟࢥࢩ corn ~-jiken ✺Ⓨ஦௳ unforeseen (on the cob); ~-ko ࡜࠺ࡶࢁࡇࡋ accident; bombshell ⢊ cornstarch toppu n ࢺࢵࣉ top tomoshimásu, tomósu v ⅉࡋࡲࡍ, tora n ࢺ࣭ࣛ⹡ tiger ⅉࡍ burns (a light) WRUDEHUă]X chekku n ࢺ࣮ࣛ࣋ࣛࢬ tonaemásu, tonáéru v ၐ࠼ࡲࡍ, ၐ ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡ traveler’s check ࠼ࡿ advocates; shouts; recites; toraburu n ࢺࣛࣈࣝ trouble: ~-mëkå ࢺࣛࣈ࣓࣮࣮ࣝ࢝ troublemaker calls; claims WĿQDQ n ┐㞴 [BOOKISH] (suffering) Tora-doshi n ᐥᖺ year of the Tiger toraemásu, toráéru v ᤕࡽ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᤕ theft tonari n 㞄 next-door, neighbor(ing) ࡽ࠼ࡿ catches, seizes, captures, tonbo n ࢺ࣭ࣥ࣎⻴⺭ dragonfly arrests tonda adj ࡜ࢇࡔ outrageous, toraiaru n ࢺࣛ࢖࢔ࣝ trial: ~-koyø ࢺࣛ࢖࢔ࣝ㞠⏝ trial employment terrible, shocking tónde v ᐩࢇ࡛: ~ imásu ᐩࢇ࡛࠸ torákku n ࢺࣛࢵࢡ 1. truck 2. ࡲࡍ is rich, abundant A tomimásu track (for running) ᐩࡳࡲࡍ WRUDNXWă n ࢺࣛࢡࢱ࣮ tractor tonde-mo arimasén adj ࡜ࢇ࡛ࡶ࠶ toránku n ࢺࣛࣥࢡ (clothes/car) ࡾࡲࡏࢇOh, no. No way. trunk




toránkusu n ࢺࣛࣥࢡࢫ trunks tori-atsukai n ྲྀࡾᢅ࠸ treatment, toranpétto n ࢺࣛࣥ࣌ࢵࢺ trumpet management, transaction toranporin n ࢺ࣏ࣛࣥࣜࣥ tramtori-atsukaimásu, tori-atsukau v ྲྀࡾ ᢅ࠸ࡲࡍ, ྲྀࡾᢅ࠺ handles, poline toránpu n ࢺࣛࣥࣉ playing cards deals with, manages WRUDQVKLLEă n ࢺࣛࣥࢩ࣮ࣂ࣮ tori-awase n ྲྀࡾྜࢃࡏ assortment tori-bun n ྲྀ ࡾ ศ share transceiver, walkie-talkie torei n ࢺࣞ࢖ tray tórí-hiki n ྲྀࡾᘬࡁ࣭ྲྀᘬ transactoremásu, toréru v ྲྀࢀࡲࡍ, ྲྀࢀ tion, deal, business, trade ࡿ 1. (button, etc.) comes off tori-kae n ྲྀࡾ᭰࠼ change, 2. can take replacement WRUďQă n ࢺ࣮ࣞࢼ࣮ sweatshirt tori-kaemásu, tori-kaeru v ྲྀࡾ᭰࠼ torendo n ࢺࣞࣥࢻ trend (fashion, ࡲࡍ, ྲྀࡾ᭰࠼ࡿ replaces it tori-keshi n ྲྀࡾᾘࡋ cancellation, etc.) (= keikø ഴྥ) WRUďQLQJX n ࢺ࣮ࣞࢽࣥࢢ training revocation; deletion, erasure (exercise, etc.) workout: ~-uea tori-keshimásu, tori-kesu v ྲྀࡾᾘࡋ ࢺ࣮ࣞࢽࣥࢢ࢚࢘࢔ training ࡲࡍ, ྲྀࡾᾘࡍ cancels, revokes; wear: ~-jimu ࢺ࣮ࣞࢽࣥࢢࢪ࣒ deletes, erases toriko n ࡜ࡾࡇ࣭⹭ 1. captive, training gym WRUďVKLQJXSďSă n ࢺ࣮ࣞࢩࣥࢢ࣌ prisoner (= horyo ᤕ⹭) 2. person ࣮ࣃ࣮ tracing paper who is crazy about something/ tori n ࢺ࣭ࣜ㫽 bird; tori-kago n ࢺ someone; koi no ~ ᜊࡢ⹭ capࣜ࢝ࢦ࣭㫽⡲ bird cage; tori-i n tive of love 㫽ᒃ the gate to a Shinto shrine tori-kumi n ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡳ࣭ྲྀ⤌ࡳ tori n ࢺ࣭ࣜ㭜 chicken; tori-niku n wrestling match/bout/program ࢺࣜࢽࢡ࣭㭜⫗ chicken meat torimásu, tóru v ྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, ྲྀࡿ tori-… prefix ྲྀࡾ … [verb PREFIX]: 1. takes; takes away, removes 2. passes (the salt, sugar, etc.) takes and … WĿUt n ㏻ࡾ street, avenue; passage 3. takes (a course) torimásu, tóru v ᧜ࡾࡲࡍ, ᧜ࡿ (= michi 㐨) WĿUL n ࡜࠾ࡾ࣭㏻ࡾ way (of takes (a picture) doing), manner: … no ~ ni …ࡢ WĿULPiVu, WĿUX v ㏻ࡾࡲࡍ, ㏻ࡿ ࡜࠾ࡾ࡟ like … (= (no) yø ni passes by, passes through ࡢ ࡼ࠺>ᵝ@࡟) WĿULPiVu, WĿUX v ㏱ࡾࡲࡍ, ㏱ࡿ tori-agemásu, tori-ageru v ྲྀࡾୖࡆ penetrates ࡲࡍ, ྲྀࡾୖࡆࡿ takes up; takes WĿULPLFKL n ㏻ࡾ㐨 passage(way) away (= tsüro ㏻㊰)



torishimari n 1. ྲྀࡾ⥾ࡲࡾ࣭ྲྀ⥾ ࡾ control, management, supervision 2. ྲྀ⥾ managing director tori-shimarimásu, tori-shimaru v ྲྀࡾ ⥾ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, ྲྀࡾ⥾ࡲࡿ controls,

manages, supervises, directs toritsugi 1. ྲྀࡾḟࡂ࣭ྲྀḟࡂ answering the door 2. ྲྀḟ an


ࢆྲྀࡾࡲࡍ gets old; toshi-ake n ᖺ᫂ࡅ new year; toshi-koshi soba n ᖺ㉺ࡋࡑࡤ>ⷃ㯏@ buckwheat

noodles eaten traditionally on New Year’s Eve; toshi-go n ᖺᏊ child born within a year of another; WRVKLNDNNĿ n ᖺ᱁ዲ one’s age (= toshi-goro ᖺ㡭): ~ ga rokujü

usher; an agency

kurai no dansei ᖺ᱁ዲࡀࡃࡽ ࠸ࡢ⏨ᛶ a man of about 60; toshima n ᖺቑ middle-aged woman; in particular tóro n ࡜ࢁ࣭ࢺࣟ fatty tuna toshi-shita (no) adj ᖺୗ ࡢ younger, WRUĿ n ᚐປ vain effort junior; toshi-ue (no) n ᖺୖ ࡢ WĿUĿ n ⅉ⡲ a stone lantern: ~ naga- older, senior; toshi-yórí n ᖺᐤࡾ shi ⅉ⡲ὶࡋ floating lanterns an old person (= kørei-sha 㧗 㱋⪅) on a river WĿURNX n Ⓩ㘓 registration tóshi n 都市 city: dai-~ ኱㒔ᕷ big WĿURQ n ウㄽ [BOOKISH] debate, city, metropolis (= tokai 㒔఍) WĿVKt (no) adj ㏻ࡋ ࡢ direct, discussion, dispute tororo n ࢺ࣭ࣟࣟ࡜ࢁࢁ grated through (to destination): ~ de ikimásu ㏻ࡋ࡛⾜ࡁࡲࡍ goes yam; ~-kónbu ࡜ࢁࢁ᪻ᕸ kelp toriwake adv ࡜ࡾࢃࡅ especially,


direct (through to destination);

Tóruko n ࢺࣝࢥ Turkey ~-gíppu ㏻ࡋษ➢ a through WRU\Ŀ n ሬᩱ coating compositions ticket; ~-bangø ㏻ࡋ␒ྕ serial

(paint, Japanese lacquer, number WĿVKL n ᢞ㈨ investment, investing varnish, etc.) WĿVDNX n ಽ㘒 [BOOKISH] perversion: WĿVKL n 凍死 freezing to death, seiteki-~ ᛶⓗಽ㘒 paraphilia frost-killing WĿVDNX n ┐స plagiarism WĿVKL n 㜚ᚿ [BOOKISH] fighting spirit WĿVDQ n ಽ⏘ bankruptcy WĿVKLPiVu, WĿVX v ㏻ࡋࡲࡍ, ㏻ࡍ WĿVDQ n ∗ࡉࢇ (mostly male) dad lets through/in, admits; shows (= oyaji ぶ∗, tø-chan ∗ࡕࡷࢇ) in; pierces WĿVHL n ⤫ไ control (of prices, etc.) WĿVKLPiVu, WĿVX v ㏱ࡋࡲࡍ, ㏱ࡍ WĿVHQER WĿVHQEĿ n ㏻ࡏࢇࡰ࣭㏻ࡏ penetrates ࢇᆓ blocking a person’s way WĿVKLQGDL n ➼㌟኱ life size toshí n ᖺ 1. year 2. ᖺ࣭ṓ ࠾ WĿshin (jisatsu) n ᢞ㌟ ⮬ẅ comᖺ࣭࠾ṓ age: ~ o torimásu ᖺ mitting suicide by throwing 289



oneself (into water, off the plat- totonoemásu, totonóéru v ᩚ࠼ࡲࡍ, ᩚ࠼ࡿ regulates, adjusts; prepares form, etc.) tósho n ᅗ᭩ library (book collec- totonoimásu, totonóu v ᩚ࠸ࡲࡍ, tion): ~-gákari ᅗ᭩ಀ the librar- ᩚ࠺ is in order; is ready ian (in charge), (book) custodian; totsuzen adv ✺↛ suddenly, abruptly toshó-kan n ᅗ᭩㤋 library (build- (= kyü ni ᛴ࡟): ~ no ✺↛ࡢ ing); ~-in ᅗ᭩㤋ဨ librarian; toshó- sudden, abrupt shitsu n ᅗ᭩ᐊ library (book room) totté n ྲྀࡗᡭ࣭ᢕᡭ a handle, knob WĿVKR (wa) adv ᙜึ ࡣ [BOOKISH] tótte v ࡜ࡗ࡚: …ni ~ (…࡟ ࡜ࡗ ࡚ (with reference) to, for at first, initially, originally (= saisho (wa) ᭱ึ ࡣ , hajime tottemo adj ࡜ࡗ࡚ࡶ terribly, (wa) ึࡵ ࡣ ) extremely, completely (= totemo WĿVKX n ඪ㤳 party leader ࡜࡚ࡶ) WĿVKX n ᢞᡭ a pitcher (baseball, tótte okimásu (oku) v ྲྀࡗ࡚࠾ࡁࡲ ࡍ ࠾ࡃ puts aside, reserves, etc.) WĿVKŗ n ㋃く following predeces- holds WĿZDNX n ᙜᝨ embarrassment, sor’s way tóso n ࡜ࡑ࣭ᒕ⸽ spiced saké puzzlement (= konwaku ᅔᝨ) WĿ]D n ᙜᗙ, ~-yókin ᙜᗙ㡸㔠 drunk at New Year’s WĿVĿ n 㜚த fight, labor struggle current deposit, checking account; WĿVĿ n ㏨㉮ [BOOKISH] escape WĿ]D no adj ᙜᗙ ࡢ [BOOKISH] tossa no adj ࡜ࡗࡉࡢ prompt; tos- temporary sa ni adv ࡜ࡗࡉ࡟ in an instant, tózan n Ⓩᒣ mountain-climbing promptly, immediately (= yama-nobori ᒣⓏࡾ); tozán-sha WĿVută n ࢺ࣮ࢫࢱ࣮ toaster n Ⓩᒣ⪅ mountain-climber WĿVuto n ࢺ࣮ࢫࢺ toast WĿ]HQ adv ᙜ↛ naturally, surely; ~ … totan ni …㏵➃࡟ (at) the instant/ no ᙜ↛ࡢ) proper, deserved WĿzoku n ┐㈫ burglar moment that … WĿWHL adv ฿ᗏ [+ NEGATIVE VERB] WVŗ n ㏻ 1. an authority, an expert 2. (counts letter): ít-~ ୍㏻ one absolutely (not) WĿWH mo adv ၥ࠺࡚ࡶ even inletter WV~ă n ࢶ࢔࣮ tour 1. group tour quiring totemo adj ࡜࡚ࡶ very [INFORMAL] 2. short trip (= shø-ryokø ᑠ᪑⾜) tsúbá n ࡘࡤ࣭ၚ spit, saliva (= tottemo ࡜ࡗ࡚ࡶ, taihen ኱ኚ) tsúba n ࡘࡤ࣭㘥 sword-guard tĿWĿ adv ࡜࠺࡜࠺ at last, finally tsubakí n ࡘࡤࡁ࣭ၚ = tsúbá ࡘ ࡤ࣭ၚ (spit) (= tsuini ࡘ࠸࡟) 290



tsubame n ࢶࣂ࣓࣭⇩ swallow

tsuge n ࡘࡆ࣭ࢶࢤ࣭ᰄ᳜ boxwood tsuge ࿌ࡆ revelation, divine

(bird) tsubasa n ࡘࡤࡉ࣭⩼ wing tsubo n ࡘࡰ࣭ኑ࣭ና jar, crock tsubo n ᆤ tsubo (6 sq. ft.) tsubomarimásu, tsubomaru v ࡘࡰࡲ ࡾࡲࡍ, ࡘࡰࡲࡿ it puckers up;

message tsuge-guchi (ya) n ࿌ࡆཱྀ ᒇ


tsugemásu, tsugeru v ࿌ࡆࡲࡍ, ࿌ ࡆࡿ tells, informs tsugemásu, tsugeru v ὀࡆࡲࡍ, ὀ gets puckered up, is shut; it ࡆࡿ can pour narrows tsubomemásu, tsubomeru v ࡘࡰࡵ tsugemásu, tsugeru v ⥅ࡆࡲࡍ, ⥅ ࡲࡍ, ࡘࡰࡵࡿ puckers it; shuts ࡆࡿ can inherit tsugemásu, tsugeru v ᥋ࡆࡲࡍ, ᥋ it; narrows it tsubomi n ࡘࡰࡳ࣭ⷣ flower bud ࡆࡿ can join it tsúbu n ⢏ grain tsugi n ⥅ࡂ patch; (… ni) ~ o tsuburemásu, tsubureru v ₽ࢀࡲࡍ, atemásu …࡟ ⥅ࡂࢆᙜ࡚ࡲࡍ ₽ࢀࡿ it collapses/smashes patches it tsuburimásu, tsuburu v ࡘࡪࡾࡲࡍ, tsugí n ḟ next, the following; ~ ࡘࡪࡿ: mé o ~ ┠ࢆࡘࡪࡾࡲࡍ no ḟࡢ the next one tsugimásu, tsugu v ὀࡂࡲࡍ, ὀࡄ shuts/closes one’s eyes tsubushimásu, tsubusu v ₽ࡋࡲࡍ, pours it ₽ࡍ smashes (crushes, tsugimásu, tsugu v ⥅ࡂࡲࡍ, ⥅ࡄ

squeezes) it

inherits, succeeds to

tsubuyakimásu, tsubuyaku v ࡘࡪࡸ ࡁࡲࡍ, ࡘࡪࡸࡃ murmur; (tsuittå de) ~ ࢶ࢖ࢵࢱ࣮࡛ ࡘ ࡪࡸࡃtweet (Internet) tsuchí n ᅵ earth, ground tsuchí n ᵔ hammer WVŗFKL n ㏻▱ report, notice,


joins it, grafts, glues tsugi-me n ⥅ࡂ┠ joint, seam tsugi-me n ᥋ࡂ┠ joint, seam tsugitashi-kĿGR n ⥅ࡂ㊊ࡋࢥ࣮ࢻ

extension cord tsugí-tsugi (ni) adv ḟࠎ ࡟ one

after another

WVŗFKĿ n ㏻ᖒ passbook, bankbook: yokin-~ 㡸㔠㏻ᖒ deposit book: chokin-~ ㈓㔠㏻ᖒ savings book tsúe n ᮫ cane, walking stick WVŗJDNX n ㏻Ꮫ commuting to school; WVŗJDNXUR n ㏻Ꮫ㊰

school route

tsugimásu, tsugu v ᥋ࡂࡲࡍ, ᥋ࡄ

WVXJĿ n 㒔ྜ circumstances, convenience, opportunity: ~ ga íi/warúi 㒔ྜࡀ࠸࠸ᝏ࠸ (it is) convenient/inconvenient; ~ no yoi 㒔ྜࡢࡼ࠸ expedient: go-~ shugi ࡈ㒔ྜ୺⩏ expediency,

opportunism 291


tsui n ᑐ a pair: ~ ni narimásu ᑐ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ becomes/makes/


WVXLWWăn ࢶ࢖ࢵࢱ࣮ Twitter

(Internet) tsuji n ㎷ crossroads; road(side), forms a pair tsúi adv ࡘ࠸ 1. unintentionally, street: yotsu-~ ᅄࡘ㎷ crossroad inadvertently 2. just (now): ~ (= jüji-ro ༑Ꮠ㊰) imashígata ࡘ࠸௒ࡋࡀࡓ just WVŗML n ㏻ࡌ 1. bowel movement 2. effect now; ~ saki-hodo ࡘ࠸ඛ⛬ [BOOKISH] just a little while ago WVŗMLPiVu, WVŗMLUX v ㏻ࡌࡲࡍ, ㏻ࡌ tsúide adv ḟ࠸࡛ next, in succes- ࡿ gets through, communicates; sion, subsequently; … ni ~ …࡟ transmits; is understood; is well ḟ࠸࡛ following …, next after/ versed in; one’s bowels move; (… o) tsü-ji te …ࢆ ㏻ࡌ࡚ to … (in importance) tsuide n ࡘ࠸࡛ opportunity, occa- through (the medium of) sion, convenience: ~ no setsu/sai/ WVŗMtQ n ㏻ே an expert, an authortoki ni ࡘ࠸࡛ࡢ⠇㝿᫬࡟ at ity; a man of the world WVŗMĿ adv ㏻ᖖ usually, ordinarily your/one’s convenience; ~ ga arimásu ࡘ࠸࡛ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ has (= futsü ᬑ㏻, taitei ࡓ࠸࡚࠸࣭ ኱᢬) occasion to… … tsuide (ni) suffix …ࡘ࠸࡛ ࡟ on WVŗMĿ (no) adj ㏻ᖖ ࡢ usual, the occasion of/that …, inciden- ordinary tally to …; while …; along the way tsuká n ሯ mound WVXLKĿ n ㏣ᨺ purge, banishment, tsuká n ࡘ࠿࣭᯶ hilt WVŗND n ㏻㈌ currency (money) exile tsúin n ࢶ࢖ࣥ, ~-rü´mu ࢶ࢖ࣥࣝ (= kahei ㈌ᖯ) ࣮࣒ twin(-bed)room; tsuin-béddo tsukáé n ࡘ࠿࠼ obstruction tsukaemásu, tsukáéru v ࡘ࠿࠼ࡲࡍ, n ࢶ࢖ࣥ࣋ࢵࢻ twin beds tsúi ni adv ࡘ࠸࡟ at last, finally ࡘ࠿࠼ࡿ 1. gets clogged up, (= tøtø ࡜࠺࡜࠺) obstructed, busy: nodo ga ~ ႃࡀ tsuiraku n ቒⴠ (plane) crash ࡘ࠿࠼ࡲࡍ has difficulty in tsui-shi(kén) n ㏣ヨ 㦂 makeup swallowing 2. feels stuffed up exam (= sai-shi(ken) ෌ヨ 㦂 ) (physically) 3. feels a pressure tsuitachí n ୍᪥ first day of a month on one’s chest (mentally) tsuitate n ⾪❧ partition tsukai n ౑࠸ 1. message, errand tsúite suffix ࡘ࠸࡚ … ni ~ (no) … 2. messenger ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ ࡢ about, concerning; tsukai-hashiri, tsukai-bashiri n ౑࠸ … ni ~ (wa) …࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ ࡣ as ㉮ࡾ, tukai-ppashiri ౑࠸ࡗ㉮ࡾ far as … is concerned errand runner 292


tsukurimásu, tsukúru

tsukaimásu, tsukau v ౑࠸ࡲࡍ, ౑࠺ tsuki-demásu, tsuki-déru v ✺ࡁฟࡲ ࡍ, ✺ࡁฟࡿ protrudes, sticks uses; spends; employs; handles tsukamaemásu, tsukamaeru v ᤕࡲ࠼ out ࡲࡍ, ᤕࡲ࠼ࡿ catches, seizes, tsukimásu, tsuku v ✺ࡁࡲࡍ, ✺ࡃ


stabs, thrusts, pokes, pushes

tsukamimásu, tsukámu v ࡘ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ, ࡘ࠿ࡴ seizes, grasps, clutches tsuké n ௜ࡅ bill, account: ~ de kaimásu ௜ࡅ࡛㈙࠸ࡲࡍ buys it

tsukimásu, tsúku v ௜ࡁࡲࡍ, ௜ࡃ 1. comes in contact 2. sticks to;

joins; follows; touches

tsukimásu, tsúku v ╔ࡁࡲࡍ, ╔ࡃ on credit arrives (= tøchaku shimásu, tsukeawase n ௜ࡅྜࢃࡏ garnish, tøchaku suru ฿╔ࡋࡲࡍ, ฿╔ ࡍࡿ) relish tsukemásu, tsukeru v ₕࡅࡲࡍ, ₕ tsukimásu, tsúku v Ⅼࡁࡲࡍ, Ⅼࡃ ࡅࡿ pickles; soaks burns, is turned (on), is lit tsuke-mono n ₕ≀ Japanese pickles tsukimásu, tsukíru v ᑾࡁࡲࡍ, ᑾࡁ tsukí n ᭶ moon; month; tsukí-hi n ࡿ comes to an end, runs out ᭶᪥ time (days and years); tsuki- WVŗNLQ n ㏻໅ commuting to work; mí n ᭶ぢ moon viewing; tsukí-yo ~-jíkan ㏻໅᫬㛫 commuting n ᭶ኪ moonlight (night) time …-tsuki (no) …௜ࡁ ࡢ with (… WVŗNĿ n ㏻⾜ passing, passage, attached) transit: ~-dome ㏻⾜Ṇࡵ closed tsuki-ai ௜ࡁྜ࠸ n ࠾௜ࡁྜ࠸ to traffic, No Passage; ~-nin ㏻ ⾜ே passer-by association, social company, Tsukúba n ࡘࡃࡤ࣭⟃Ἴ Tsukuba friendship (= køsai ஺㝿) tsuki-aimásu, tsuki-áu v ௜ࡁྜ࠸ࡲ tsukuda-ni n ࢶࢡࢲࢽ࣭ఢ↻ conࡍ, ௜ࡁྜ࠺: … to ~ …࡜௜ࡁྜ serves boiled down from fish or ࠸ࡲࡍ associates (with), enjoys seaweed the company of, goes out (with tsukue n ᮘ desk (= desuku ࢹࢫࢡ) tsukurí సࡾ1. n makeup, toilette one’s lover) tsuki-atari ✺ࡁᙜࡓࡾ n the end of 2. n artistically arranged slices

a street/corridor

of raw fish

tsuki-atarimásu, tsuki-atáru v ✺ࡁᙜ tsukúri-banashi n సࡾヰ (stories) ࡓࡾࡲࡍ, ✺ࡁᙜࡓࡿ runs into; fiction tsukurimásu, tsukúru v సࡾࡲࡍ, ~ comes to the end of (a street) tsuki-dashimásu, tsuki-dásu v ✺ࡁฟ సࡿ makes, creates, produces, ࡋࡲࡍ, ✺ࡁฟࡍ makes it promanufactures, prepares (fixes)

trude, sticks it out

(small or intangible things); 293

tsukurimásu, tsukúru


jikan o ~ ᫬㛫ࢆసࡾࡲࡍ makes WVXPD\ĿML n ࡘࡲࡼ࠺ࡌ࣭∎᳿ᯞ (sets aside) time, sets up a time toothpick tsukurimásu, tsukúru v 㐀ࡾࡲࡍ, 㐀 tsuma-zukimásu, tsuma-zuku v ࡘࡲ ࡿ makes, forms, creates, grows, ࡎࡁࡲࡍ, ࡘࡲࡎࡃ stumbles manufactures, builds (big things) tsume n ∎ 1. claw (= kagizume tsukuroimásu, tsukuróu v ⧋࠸ࡲࡍ, 㖋∎) (A taka-no-tsume 㮚ࡢ∎): ⧋࠺ mends, repairs tora no ~ ࢺࣛ>⹡@ࡢ∎ tiger’s tsukushimásu, tsukúsu v ᑾࡃࡋࡲࡍ, claw 3. hoof; tsume-kíri n ∎ษࡾ ᑾࡃࡍ exhausts, runs out of; nail clippers; tsume-yásuri n ∎ࡸ ࡍࡾ nail file, emery board exerts oneself, strives tsúma n ጔ wife 1. my wife (= tsumemásu, tsuméru v ワࡵࡲࡍ, ワ kanai ᐙෆ) 2. (your/someone ࡵࡿ 1. stuffs, crams 2. cans else’s) wife (= oku-san ዟࡉࢇ) tsumetai adj ෭ࡓ࠸ cold (to the tsumá n ࡘࡲ࣭》 skirt (of Kimono) touch) tsumá n ࢶ࣐ sashimi garnishings tsúmi n ⨥ crime, sin, guilt, fault; tsumami ᦬ࡳ࣭ࡘࡲࡳ 1. n a knob; ~-bukai ⨥῝࠸ sinful a pinch 2. n = tsumamimono ࡘ tsumi-(i)re n ࡘࡳࢀ ࡘࡳ࠸ࢀ ࡲࡳ≀, o-tsúmami ࠾ࡘࡲࡳ fishballs (for soup) things to nibble on while drink- tsumimásu, tsumu v ✚ࡳࡲࡍ, ✚ࡴ piles it up, accumulates it; ing (= sakana ࡉ࠿࡞࣭⫲) tsumamimásu, tsumamu v ᦬ࡳࡲࡍ, deposits; loads ᦬ࡴ pinches, picks; summarizes tsumimásu, tsumu v ᦬ࡳࡲࡍ, ᦬ࡴ tsumaránai adj ࡘࡲࡽ࡞࠸ worth- gathers, plucks, clips, picks tsumitate-kin n ✚❧㔠 reserve fund: less, no good, boring, trivial tsúmari adv ࡘࡲࡾ after all; in = ~-chókin ✚❧㈓㔠 installment short (= kekkyoku (no tokoro) savings ⤖ᒁ ࡢ࡜ࡇࢁ , yøsuruni せࡍ …-tsumori ࡘࡶࡾ intention, ࡿ࡟) plan, (what one has in) mind, tsumarimásu, tsumáru v ワࡲࡾࡲࡍ, purpose, expectation ワࡲࡿ is clogged up, choked; is …-tsumori (de)wa/ja... ࡘࡶࡾ ࡛  stuck; is shortened; is crammed ࡣࡌࡷ [+ NEGATIVE verb] tsumáru tokoro ࡘࡲࡿ࡜ࡇࢁ = didn’t/don’t mean to, had/have tsúmari ࡘࡲࡾ (after all) no intention of: kau-tsumori wa tsumasaki n ࡘࡲඛ࣭∎ඛ toe, toe arimasen ㈙࠺ࡘࡶࡾࡣ࠶ࡾࡲࡏ ࢇ I have no intention of buying: tip(s) tsumashíi adj ࡘࡲࡋ࠸࣭ೝࡋ࠸ is sumimasen, ki o warukusaserutsumori wa nakattandesu ࡍࡳ thrifty, frugal 294



ࡲࡏࢇࠊẼࢆᝏࡃࡉࡏࡿࡘࡶࡾ tsurai adj ࡘࡽ࠸࣭㎞࠸ painful, ࡣ࡞࠿ࡗࡓࢇ࡛ࡍ Sorry, I didn’t cruel, hard tsuranukimásu, tsuranuku v ㈏ࡁࡲࡍ, mean to offend you. tsumují-kazé n ࡘࡴࡌ㢼࣭᪕㢼 ㈏ࡃ 1. goes through, penetrates whirlwind (= kantsü shimásu ㈏㏻ࡋࡲࡍ, tsuná n ⥘ rope, cord, cable; tsuna kantsü suru ㈏㏻ࡍࡿ): dangan watari n ⥘Ώࡾ walking a tightga karada o tsuranukimashita ᙎ ୸ࡀయࢆ㈏ࡁࡲࡋࡓ the bullet rope, balancing act tsúna n ࢶࢼ tuna(fish) (canned); went through the body 2. accomtsuna-sándo n ࢶࢼࢧࣥࢻ tuna-fish plishes: shinnen o ~ ಙᛕࢆ㈏ࡁ ࡲࡍ has the courage of one’s sandwich tsunagari ࡘ࡞ࡀࡾ࣭⧅ࡀࡾ n convictions tsurara n ࢶ࣭ࣛࣛịᰕ icicle connection, relation tsunagarimásu, tsunagaru v ࡘ࡞ࡀ tsure 㐃ࢀ n company, companion ࡾࡲࡍ, ࡘ࡞ࡀࡿ is connected, tsurimásu, tsureru v 㐃ࢀࡲࡍ, 㐃ࢀ ࡿ brings along, is accompanied linked tsunagi ࡘ࡞ࡂ n a link, a conby (brings/takes one along) tsurenái adj ࡘࢀ࡞࠸ coldhearted, nection tsunagimásu, tsunagu v ࡘ࡞ࡂࡲࡍ, cruel ࡘ࡞ࡄ connects, links, ties tsuri n ࡘࡾ࣭㔮ࡾ fishing; tsurisen ࡘࡾ㖹 (small) change tsunami n ὠἼ tsunami tsúne (no) adj ᖖ ࡢ usual, tsuri 㔮ࡾ n fishing: sakana-~ 㨶 㔮ࡾ fishing: ippon-zuri ୍ᮏ㔮 ordinary tsunerimásu, tsunéru v ࡘࡡࡾࡲࡍ, ࡾ single hook fishing; tsuri-bari n ࡘࡡࡿ pinches 㔮ࡾ㔪 fishhook; WVXULGĿgu n 㔮ࡾ tsunézune n ࡘࡡ࡙ࡡ࣭ᖖࠎ all 㐨ල fishing gear; tsuri-zao n 㔮ࡾ the time, usually (= fudan ᬑẁ, ➎ fishing rod itsumo ࠸ࡘࡶ) tsuri n ࡘࡾ࣭ྞࡾ hanging tsunó n ゅ horn (of an animal): (things), hanging tool: kubi-~ sai no ~ ࢧ࢖ࡢゅ rhinoceros horn jisatsu 㤳ྞࡾ⮬ẅ suicide by WVŗStLVX n ࢶ࣮ࣆ࣮ࢫ a two-piece hanging: zubon-~ ࢬ࣎ࣥࡘࡾ >ྞࡾ@ suspender, galluses; tsuriwoman’s suit tsurá n 㠃࣭ࡘࡽ (slipshod Japan- bashi n ࡘࡾ>ྞࡾ@ᶫ suspension ese) 1. face (= kao 㢦) 2. surface, bridge; tsuri-gane n ࡘࡾ>ྞࡾ@㚝 appearance: uwat-~ dake de han- big bell (temple, etc.) dan shimásu ୖࡗ㠃ࡔࡅุ࡛᩿ tsuriai n 㔮 ࡾ ྜ࠸࣭ࡘࡾ࠶࠸ ࡋࡲࡍ judges only by appearances balance, equilibrium, symmetry



tsurimásu, tsuru

tsurimásu, tsuru v ྞࡾࡲࡍ, ྞࡿ

hangs it (by a line), suspends, strings up tsurimásu, tsuru v 㔮ࡾࡲࡍ, 㔮ࡿ fishes WVŗUR n ㏻㊰ 1. passage(way) (= tøri-michi ㏻ࡾ㐨) 2. aisle (= røka ᗯୗ) 3. thoroughfare tsurú n ࢶ࣭ࣝ⶝ vine; earpieces of a glass frame tsurú n ࡘࡿ࣭ᘻ string (of bow or violin) tsurú n ࡘࡿ࣭㕷 handle tsúru n ࢶ࣭ࣝ㭯 crane (bird) tsurugí n ๢࣭ࡘࡿࡂ sword WVŗVKLQ n ㏻ಙ 1. correspondence: ~-køza ㏻ಙㅮᗙ correspondence course: ~-hanbai ㏻ಙ㈍኎ mail order 2. report, news: gakkyü~ Ꮫ⣭㏻ಙ class report/news 3. communications: ~-shudan ㏻ಙ ᡭẁ means of communication tsutá n ࢶࢱ࣭ⶬ ivy tsutaé n ఏ࠼ A dengon ఏゝ,

tsuto adv ࡘ࡜ [BOOKISH] quickly tsutomé n ໅ࡵ [BOOKISH] work(ing), job (post); tsutome-nin n ໅ࡵே office worker; tsutomesaki n ໅ࡵඛ place of employ-

ment, one’s office tsutomé n ົࡵ duty, role tsutomemásu, tsutoméru v ໅ࡵࡲࡍ, ໅ࡵࡿ [BOOKISH] is employed, works; works as; ginkø´-in o ~ 㖟⾜ဨࢆ໅ࡵ>ົࡵ@ࡲࡍ works

as a bank clerk tsutomemásu, tsutoméru v ດࡵࡲࡍ, ດࡵࡿ [BOOKISH] exerts oneself,

strives, endeavors

tsutsu n ⟄ cylinder, pipe (= kuda ⟶, kan ⟶) …´tsútsu suffix …ࡘࡘ [LITERARY] 1. = …-nágara …࡞ࡀࡽ (while doing) 2. … (shi)~ arimásu … ࡋ ࡘࡘ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ is about to … (= …-te imásu …࡚࠸ࡲࡍ) tsutsúji n ࢶࢶࢪ azalea tsutsumí n ໟࡳ package, bundle: PHVVďML ࣓ࢵࢭ࣮ࢪ ~-gami ໟࡳ⣬ package paper (= tsutaemásu, tsutaeru v ఏ࠼ࡲࡍ, høsø-shi ໟ⿦⣬) ఏ࠼ࡿ passes it on to someone tsutsumí n ሐ 1. dike, bank, em-else; reports, communicates; bankment 2. reservoir (= chosuichi ㈓Ỉụ) transmits; hands down tsutanai adj ࡘࡓ࡞࠸࣭ᣋ࠸ halt- tsutsumimásu, tsutsúmu v ໟࡳࡲࡍ, ing, unskillful, poor (= heta ୗᡭ) ໟࡴ wraps it up tsutawarimásu, tsutawaru v ఏࢃࡾ tsutsushimi n ៅࡳ prudence, ࡲࡍ, ఏࢃࡿ is passed on; is discretion tsutsushimimásu, tsutsushimu v ៅࡳ reported, communicated; is ࡲࡍ, ៅࡴ is discreet, is careful; transmitted; is handed down tsuto n ࡘ࡜࣭ⱖ straw wrapping, refrains from: kotoba o ~ ゝⴥࢆ ៅࡳࡲࡍ is careful about how straw-wrapped package




one speaks and behaves

light (clear) soup

tsutsushimimásu, tsutsushimu v ㅽࡳ tsuzukemásu, tsuzukeru v ⥆ࡅࡲࡍ, ࡲࡍ, ㅽࡴ is humble, is reverent ⥆ࡅࡿ continues it, goes on tsu(t)tsukimásu, tsu(t)tsúku v ࡘ ࡗ (with it) ࡘࡁࡲࡍ, ࡘ ࡗ ࡘࡃ pecks at tsuzukete ⥆ࡅ࡚ adv continuously,


in succession, going on (to the

tsuya n ࢶ࣭ࣖⰏ gloss, shine, next) luster (= gurosu ࢢࣟࢫ, køtaku tsuzuki n ⥆ࡁ continuation, ගἑ); tsuya-keshi n ࢶࣖ>Ⰿ@ᾘࡋ sequel, series tsuzukimásu, tsuzuku v ⥆ࡁࡲࡍ, ⥆ matte tsuya n ㏻ኪ (funeral)-wake, allࡃ it continues (will continue);

night vigil over a body


tsŗ´yaku n ㏻ヂ interpreter; interpreting: ~-sha ㏻ヂ⪅ an inter-

tsuzuku n ⥆ࡃ To Be Continued tsuzumarimásu, tsuzumáru v ࡘ࡙ࡲ ࡾࡲࡍ, ࡘ࡙ࡲࡿ [BOOKISH] it

preter tsuyo-bi n ᙉⅆ high flame WVŗ\Ŀ shimásu (suru) v ㏻⏝ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ 1. is used commonly 2. is accepted among people, is valid: sekai dewa tsüyø shimasén ୡ⏺࡛ࡣ㏻⏝ࡋࡲࡏࢇ is not

accepted in the world tsuyói adj ᙉ࠸ strong; tsúyosa ᙉࡉ strength tsuyu n ࡘࡺ࣭ᱵ㞵 rainy season

shrinks, gets shortened tsuzumí n 㰘࣭ࡘ࡙ࡳ drum (hour-

glass-shaped) tsuzure n ⥛ࢀ 1. rags 2. hand-

woven brocade tsuzuri n ⥛ࡾ࣭ࡘ࡙ࡾ 1. spelling 2. binding, bound (sewn) pages tsuzurimásu, tsuzuru v ⥛ࡾࡲࡍ, ⥛ࡿ 1. spells 2. composes, writes 3. patches; binds; sews

(in Japan)


tsúyu n 㟢 dew tu… A tsu… tsúyu n ࡘࡺ࣭Ồ (o-tsúyu ࠾ࡘࡺ) ty… A ch…

U u n ࣭࢘㬼 cormorant (fishing bird); u-kai n 㬼㣫࠸ cormorant


guruma n ஙẕ㌴ baby carriage ubaimásu, ubáu v ዣ࠸ࡲࡍ, ዣ࠺

seizes, robs, plunders

uba n ஙẕ nanny (who cares for uchi n ࠺ࡕ࣭ᐙ 1. ~ ࠾࠺ࡕ>࠾ baby/babies in a household); uba- ᐙ@ house, home; family: ~ no




náka de/ni ࠺ࡕ>ᐙ@ࡢ୰࡛࡟

indoors 2. … uchí, … uchi (no) ࠺ࡕ ࡢ [INFORMAL] we/us; I/me; our, my: ~ no kazoku ࠺ࡕࡢᐙ ᪘ my family uchi n ෆ … no ~ (de) … ࡢෆ ࡛ inside; among uchi n ࠺ࡕ …-(shi)nai ~ ni … ࡋ ࡞࠸࠺ࡕ࡟ before it happens (while it has not yet happened) uchi-… prefix ෆ inside, inner; uchi-bori n ෆᇼ inner moat; uchigawa n ෆഃ the inside; uchi-ki (na) adj ෆẼ ࡞ shy [IN POSITIVE SENSE]: ~ na seikaku ෆẼ࡞ᛶ᱁ shy disposition; uchi-wa n ෆ㍯ { the family circle; the inside: ~ no hanashi ෆ㍯ࡢヰ private matter, family affair | uchiwa (na) ෆ㍯ ࡞ moderate, modest, conservative; uchi-wake n ෆヂ breakdown, particulars, details:

uchi-keshi n ᡴࡕᾘࡋ denial;

negation, negative uchi-keshimásu, uchi-kesu v ᡴࡕᾘ ࡋࡲࡍ, ᡴࡕᾘࡍ denies (a rumor,

etc.), takes back a remark uchi-koroshimásu, uchi-korósu v ᧁࡕ ẅࡋࡲࡍ, ᧁࡕẅࡍ shoots to

death uchimásu, útsu v ᡴࡕࡲࡍ, ᡴࡘ

hits, strikes, hammers; sends a telegram; uchí-mí n ᡴࡕ㌟ bruise uchimásu, útsu v ᧁࡕࡲࡍ, ᧁࡘ fires, shoots (a gun) uchíwa n ࠺ࡕࢃ࣭ᅋᡪ (Japanese) a flat fan uchĿten n ᭷㡬ኳ rapturous delight, being beside oneself with joy, being in seventh heaven, being overjoyed: ~ ni narimásu ᭷㡬ኳ ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ goes into raptures úchŗ n Ᏹᐂ universe, (outer) space; XFKŗIXNX n Ᏹᐂ᭹ spaceshishutsu no ~ ᨭฟࡢෆヂ suit; uchŗKLNĿVKL n Ᏹᐂ㣕⾜ኈ breakdown of expenditures astronaut uchi-age n ᡴࡕୖࡆ 1. launch udé n ⭎ 1. arm 2. special skill; (rocket) 2. close (performance, ude-dókei n ⭎᫬ィ wristwatch; ude-gumi n ⭎⤌ࡳ folding one’s project, etc.) uchi-akemásu, uchi-akeru v ᡴࡕ᫂ࡅ arms; ude-jiman (no) adj ⭎⮬៏ ࡲࡍ, ᡴࡕ᫂ࡅࡿ confesses, ࡢ proud of one’s skill; udekiki (no) adj ⭎฼ࡁ ࡢ skilled, frankly reveals, confides uchi-awase n ᡴࡕྜࢃࡏ࣭ᡴྜࡏ competent, able; ude-maé n ⭎๓ consultation, meeting (in the office, prowess, skill, ability etc. by appointment) (= kaigi ఍ údo n ࢘ࢻ࣭⊂ά Japanese celery ㆟, miitingu ࣑࣮ࢸ࢕ࣥࢢ) udon n ࠺࡝ࢇ Japanese wheatuchi-awasemásu, uchi-awaséru v ᡴࡕ flour noodles: ~-ya ࠺࡝ࢇᒇ ྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, ᡴࡕྜࢃࡏࡿ holds Japanese noodle shop ue n ୖ 1. …ué …ୖ above, a meeting/consultation 298


uke-iremásu, uké-ireru

upper part, surface, top: … no ~ ugokimásu, ugóku v ືࡁࡲࡍ, ືࡃ (de/ni/no) …ࡢୖ ࡛࡟ࡢ on, one/it moves on top of 2. ué ୖ (= toshi-~ ᖺ uindo-burď´kă n ࢘࢖ࣥࢻࣈ࣮ࣞ࢝ ୖ) older, oldest ࣮ windbreaker ue v 㣚࠼ hunger, starvation XLQGĿ shoppingu n ࢘࢕ࣥࢻ࢘ࢩࣙ uédingu-… prefix ࢚࢘ࢹ࢕ࣥࢢ ࢵࣆࣥࢢ window shopping wedding; uédingu-doresu n ࢚࢘ࢹ uínku n ࢘࢖ࣥࢡ wink(ing) ࢕ࣥࢢࢻࣞࢫ wedding dress uirusu n ࢘࢖ࣝࢫ virus; ~-taisakusofuto ࢘࢖ࣝࢫᑐ⟇ࢯࣇࢺ (= hanayome-ishø ⰼ᎑⾰ ); uédingu-pătii n ࢚࢘ࢹ࢕ࣥࢢࣃ࣮ antivirus software ࢸ࢕ wedding party; uédingu-ringu uísúkíi n ࢘࢖ࢫ࣮࢟, wísukii ࢘࢕ n ࢚࢘ࢹ࢕ࣥࢢࣜࣥࢢ wedding ࢫ࣮࢟ whisky úji n Ặ clan, family; family name ring uehăsu n ࢚࢘ࣁ࣮ࢫ wafer (= sei ጣ) ueki n ᳜ᮌ garden/potted plant; uji (mushi) n ࢘ࢪ ࣒ࢩ ࣭⺫ ⹸ ueki-ya n ᳜ᮌᒇ gardener maggot uemásu, ueru v ᳜࠼ࡲࡍ, ᳜࠼ࡿ ukabimásu, ukabu v ᾋ࠿ࡧࡲࡍ, ᾋ ࠿ࡪ floats plants, grows plant uemásu, uéru v 㣚࠼ࡲࡍ, 㣚࠼ࡿ ukagai n ఛ࠸ visit; inquiry, constarves (hungers) sultation Ueno n ୖ㔝 Ueno; Uenó-Eki ୖ㔝 ukagaimásu, ukagau v ఛ࠸ࡲࡍ, 㥐 Ueno Station; Ueno-Kø´en ୖ ఛ࠺ [HUMBLE] I visit (you); I 㔝බᅬ Ueno Park inquire; I hear uérudan n ࢚࢘ࣝࢲࣥ well-done ukagaimásu, ukagau v ❚࠸ࡲࡍ, ❚࠺ keeps a watchful eye on (beef) uésuto n ࢚࢘ࢫࢺ waist (= koshi (the situation); (kikái/chansu ⭜); ~-pøchi ࢚࢘ࢫࢺ࣏࣮ࢳ o ~ ᶵ఍ࢳࣕࣥࢫࢆ❚࠸ࡲࡍ) belt bag watches for (an opportunity) uď´tă n ࢚࣮࢘ࢱ࣮ waiter ukai n ㎽ᅇ࣭࠺ᅇ detour XďWRUHVX n ࢚࣮࢘ࢺࣞࢫ waitress ukárimásu, ukáru v ཷ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ, ཷ ugai n ࠺ࡀ࠸ a gargle; ugai (o) ࠿ࡿ passes, succeeds shimásu (suru) v ࠺ࡀ࠸ ࢆ ࡋࡲࡍ ukatsu n ࠺࠿ࡘ࣭㎽㜏 carelessness, ࡍࡿ gargles inattentiveness, thoughtlessness: ugokashimásu, ugokásu v ື࠿ࡋࡲ ~ ni mo ࠺࠿ࡘ>㎽㜏@࡟ࡶ careࡍ, ື࠿ࡍ moves it lessly, inattentively, thoughtlessly ugokí n ືࡁmovement, motion; uke-iremásu, uké-ireru v ཷࡅධࢀࡲ ࡍ, ཷࡅධࢀࡿ accepts trend 299

ukemásu, ukéru


ukemásu, ukéru v ཷࡅࡲࡍ, ཷࡅࡿ uki-bori n ᾋࡁ᙮ࡾ relief (sculp-

accepts; receives; takes; gets; ture consisting of shapes carved suffers, incurs on a surface) (= reriifu ࣮ࣞࣜࣇ): ukemi n ཷ㌟ 1. passive voice shinjutsu o ~ ni shimásu 真実ࢆ 2. passive (attitude) ᾋࡁ᙮ࡾ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ call attention uke-mochimásu, uke-mótsu v ཷࡅᣢ to the fact that ... ࡕࡲࡍ, ཷࡅᣢࡘ takes/accepts/ ukimásu, uku v ᾋࡁࡲࡍ, ᾋࡃ floats ukiwa n ᾋࡁ㍯ inner tube (swimhas charge of uke-oi n ㄳ㈇࣭ㄳࡅ㈇࠸ a ming) ukiyo n ᾋୡ [BOOKISH] this fleetcontract (to undertake work); XNHRLJ\ĿVKD n ㄳ ࡅ ㈇ ࠸ ᴗ⪅ ing world, transient world; ukiyo-e contractor; ukeoi-shigoto n ㄳ ࡅ n ᾋୡ⤮ Japanese woodblock ㈇ ࠸ ௙஦ contract work prints uke-oimásu, uke-óu v ㄳࡅ㈇࠸ࡲࡍ, ukkári adv ࠺ࡗ࠿ࡾ absentmindㄳࡅ㈇࠺ contracts (to undertake edly (= tsui ࡘ࠸) umá n ࣐࣭࢘㤿 horse work) ukeoi-nin n ㄳ㈇ே contractor uma ga aimásu (au) v ࣐࢘>㤿@ࡀྜ uketamawarimásu, uketamawáru v ᢎ ࠸ࡲࡍ ྜ࠺ gets on well, gets ࡾࡲࡍ, ᢎࡿ I (humbly) hear/ along well umái adj ࠺ࡲ࠸࣭᪨࠸࣭⨾࿡࠸ listen/consent uke-torimásu, uke-toru v ཷࡅྲྀࡾࡲ (commonly male) tasty, delicious ࡍ, ཷࡅྲྀࡿ accepts, receives, (= oishii ⨾࿡ࡋ࠸) umái adj ࠺ࡲ࠸࣭ୖᡭ࠸ 1. skilltakes; takes it (= understand it) uketsugimásu, uketsugu v ཷࡅ⥅ࡂ ful, good (= jøzu ୖᡭ) 2. sucࡲࡍ, ཷࡅ⥅ࡄ succeeds to cessful, profitable uke-tsuke n ཷ௜ acceptance; úmaku adv ࠺ࡲࡃ࣭᪨ࡃ࣭⨾࿡ࡃ information desk; receptionist so as to be tasty uke-tsukemásu, uke-tsukéru v ཷࡅ௜ úmaku adv ࠺ࡲࡃ࣭ୖᡭࡃ 1. skillࡅࡲࡍ, ཷࡅ௜ࡅࡿ accepts, fully 2. successfully ŗPDQ ribu n ࣮࣐࢘ࣥࣜࣈ women’s receives uke-uri n ཷࡅ኎ࡾ borrowing liberation umare ⏕ࡲࢀ࣭⏘ࡲࢀ n birth someone else’s ideas uké-zara n ཷࡅ─ saucer (for cup) umaremásu, umareru v ⏕ࡲࢀ>⏘ uki n 㞵Ꮨ࣭㞵ᮇ rainy season ࡲࢀ@ࡲࡍ, ⏕ࡲࢀ>⏘ࡲࢀ@ࡿ ukiashi dachimásu (dátsu) v ᾋࡁ㊊❧ is born ࡕࡲࡍ ❧ࡘ is wavering, is ume n ࣓࣭࢘ᱵ Japanese apricot ready to run away (“plum”); ume-boshi n ᱵᖸࡋ 300



pickled plum/apricot; ume-shu n ᱵ㓇 apricot wine umekí n ࠺ࡵࡁ࣭࿦ࡁ a groan umekimásu, uméku v ࠺ࡵࡁࡲࡍ࣭ ࿦ࡁࡲࡍ, ࠺ࡵࡃ࣭࿦ࡃ groans umemásu, umeru v ᇙࡵࡲࡍ, ᇙࡵ ࡿ buries (= uzumemásu ࠺ࡎࡵ ࡲࡍ࣭ᇙࡵࡲࡍ) umí n ࠺ࡳ࣭⮋ pus úmi n ᾏ sea; umibe n ᾏ㎶ (sea-) shore, seaside; umi ni sen-nen yama

unagashimásu, unagásu v ಁࡋࡲࡍ, ಁࡍ stimulates, urges (on) unagi n ࢘ࢼࢠ࣭㫐 eel; una-don n ࠺࡞୻ a bowl of rice topped with broiled eel; unagi nobori n ࠺࡞ࡂⓏࡾ>ୖࡾ@࣭㫐Ⓩࡾ>ୖ ࡾ@ rising rapidly and steadily

(prices, etc.) unarí n ၕࡾ࣭࠺࡞ࡾ a roar; a

growl a groan

unarimásu, unáru v ၕࡾࡲࡍ, ၕࡿ ni sen-nen ᾏ࡟༓ᖺᒣ࡟༓ᖺ roars; growls; (= umekimásu ࠺ { knowing every trick in the book ࡵࡁࡲࡍ࣭࿦ࡁࡲࡍ) groans | a sly old fox (= umi-sen yama- unazukimásu v ࠺࡞ࡎࡁࡲࡍ࣭㢔 sen ᾏ༓ᒣ༓); umi no hi n ᾏࡢ᪥ ࡁࡲࡍ, unazuku ࠺࡞ࡎࡃ࣭㢔 ࡃ nods Marine day, Ocean Day (3rd únchin n 㐠㈤ fare (transportation) Monday of July) umimásu, umu v ⏕ࡳࡲࡍ࣭⏘ࡳࡲ XQGĿ n 㐠ື 1. movement: shakai-~ ࡍ, ⏕ࡴ࣭⏘ࡴ gives birth to, bears ♫఍㐠ື social movement: senkyo-~ 㑅ᣲ㐠ື election campaign umimásu, úmu v ⮋ࡳࡲࡍ, ⮋ࡴ 2. exercise; sports; athletics; festers XPĿ n ⩚ẟ feather ~-senshu 㐠ື㑅ᡭ athlete úmu n ᭷↓ existence (or nonúnga n 㐠Ἑ canal existence): ~ o iwasazu ᭷↓ࢆゝ úni n ࢘ࢽ࣭㞼୹ sea urchin (roe) ࢃࡉࡎ forcibly (= muriyari ↓⌮unpan n 㐠ᦙ transport(-ation) (of ࡸࡾ) goods and/or people) ún n 㐠 fate, luck (A fu-un (na) XQVĿ n 㐠㏦ transport(-ation) (of ୙㐠 ࡞ , NĿXQ ᖾ㐠); ún ga íi adj goods) (= unpan 㐠ᦙ ; XQVĿJ\Ŀ sha 㐠㏦ᴗ⪅ n transportation 㐠ࡀ࠸࠸ lucky; ún ga warui adj 㐠ࡀᝏ࠸ unlucky; ún-mei n 㐠࿨ company; XQVĿ\D n 㐠㏦ᒇ exdestiny, fate: ~ no akai-ito 㐠࿨ press/forwarding agent; (house) ࡢ㉥࠸⣒ red string of fate, red mover (= hikkoshi-ya ᘬࡗ㉺ ࡋᒇ thread of destiny; ún-waruku adv 㐠ᝏࡃ unluckily; ún-yoku adv 㐠 unten n 㐠㌿ operation, operating; Ⰻࡃ luckily (= saiwai ᖾ࠸) untén-menkyo VKĿ n 㐠㌿චチ ド ún interj ࠺ࢇ = n ࢇ [INFORMAL] driver’s license; untén-shu n 㐠㌿ ᡭ driver yeah, yes



unto adv ࠺ࢇ࡜ much, a good

deal, greatly


ura-girí n ⿬ษࡾ a double-cross,

betrayal, treachery

unubore ga tsuyói adj ࠺ࡠࡰࢀࡀ ura-girimásu, ura-gíru v ⿬ษࡾࡲࡍ, ᙉ࠸ vain, conceited ⿬ษࡿ betrays, double-crosses “un-un” interj ࠺ࢇ࠺ࢇ = n´n uramí n ᜟࡳ grudge, resentment, ࢇࢇ ill will, enmity; urami o kaimásu unyu n 㐠㍺ transport(ation) (of (kau) v ᜟࡳࢆ㈙࠸ࡲࡍ ㈙࠺ goods) (= unsø 㐠㏦ incurs someone’s enmity unzári shimásu (suru) v ࠺ࢇࡊࡾࡋ uramimásu, urámu v ᜟࡳࡲࡍ, ᜟࡴ ࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ gets bored, gets sick begrudges, resents uranái n ༨࠸ fortune-telling; and tired uo n ࣭࢘࢜㨶 fish (= sakana ࢧ࢝ ~-shi ༨࠸ᖌ fortune-teller ࢼ࣭㨶) urayamashíi adj ⩎ࡲࡋ࠸࣭࠺ࡽࡸ uo no me n ࠺࠾ࡢࡵ࣭㨶ࡢ┠ ࡲࡋ࠸ enviable; envious urayamimásu, urayámu v ⩎ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ foot corn uppun n ࠺ࡗ࡫ࢇ࣭㨚៽ frustra࠺ࡽࡸࡳࡲࡍ, ⩎ࡴ࣭࠺ࡽࡸࡴ

tion, pent-up anger, pent-up dis- envies content: ~ o harashimásu ࠺ࡗ࡫ ure-kuchi n ኎ࢀཱྀ sales outlet uremásu, ureru v ኎ࢀࡲࡍ, ኎ࢀࡿ ࢇࢆᬕࡽࡋࡲࡍ vents one’s 1. it sells, is in demand; thrives; anger urá n ⿬ reverse (side), back; lin- is popular 2. can sell ing; what’s behind it; the alley; ureshíi adj ࠺ࢀࡋ࠸࣭Ꮀࡋ࠸ glad, urá n ⿬ sole (of foot): ashi no ~ delightful, pleasant, wonderful, ㊊ࡢ⿬ sole of foot; XUDGĿUL n ⿬ happy ㏻ࡾ back street, alley; ura-gáeshi úri n ࣭࢘ࣜ⎩ fruit of the gourd (no) adj ⿬㏉ࡋ ࡢ inside-out; family; úri futatsu n ࢘ࣜ>⎩@஧ࡘ ura-gáeshimásu, ura-gáesu v ⿬㏉ࡋ like two peas in a pod (not to ࡲࡍ, ⿬㏉ࡍ turns over; turns literally mean, “two melons”) (= inside out; ura-guchi n ⿬ཱྀ back sokkuri ࡑࡗࡃࡾ) door; ura-me ni demásu/deru v ⿬┠ uri v ኎ࡾ sale; uri-ba n ኎ࡾሙ ࡟ฟࡲࡍฟࡿ backfires, turns (shop) counter, stand; shop, store; uri-dashi n ኎ࡾฟࡋ (special) sale; out badly; ura-mon n ⿬㛛 back gate; ura-omote no aru hito n ⿬⾲ࡢ uri-dashimásu ኎ࡾฟࡋࡲࡍ puts ࠶ࡿே two-faced person on sale/market; launches; uri-kire urá n ᾆ bay n, adj ኎ࡾษࢀ sellout; sold out; urabon n ࠺ࡽ>│⹒@┅ the Bon uri-ko n ኎ࡾᏊ sales clerk; shopFestival (= o-bón ࠾┅) girl; uri-mono n ኎ࡾ≀ sales goods/ 302


utsumukemásu, utsumukeru

item, (something) for sale; uri-nushi ushiro n ᚋࢁ behind; (in) back úso n ࠺ࡑ࣭ბ lie, false(hood), n ኎ࡾ୺ seller; uri-te n ኎ࡾᡭ seller (= uri-nushi ኎ࡾ୺) fib; usó-tsuki n ࠺ࡑࡘࡁ࣭ბࡘ uri-kiremásu, uri-kiréru v ኎ࡾษࢀࡲ ࡁ liar ࡍ, ኎ࡾษࢀࡿ sells out, runs úsu n ࠺ࡍ࣭⮻ (utensil) mortar usu-cha n ⷧⲔ weak powdered tea out of urimásu, uru v ኎ࡾࡲࡍ, ኎ࡿ sells (= o-úsu ࠾ⷧ) uroko n ࢘ࣟࢥ࣭㫣 scales (on a usui adj ⷧ࠸ thin utá n ḷ 1. song 2. (Japanese) fish) urotsukimásu, urotsuku v ࠺ࢁࡘࡁ 31-syllable poem utá n リ modern poem ࡲࡍ, ࠺ࢁࡘࡃ hangs around ŗ´ru n ࣮࢘ࣝ wool utagai adj ␲࠸ a doubt: ~ náku XUŗGRVKL n ࠺ࡿ࠺>㛨@ᖺ leap year ␲࠸࡞ࡃ undoubtedly, doubtless urume (-íwashi) n ࣓࢘ࣝ ࢖࣡ࢩ utagaimásu, utagau v ␲࠸ࡲࡍ, ࣭₶┠ 㫇 large (and usually ␲࠺ doubts utagawashíi v ␲ࢃࡋ࠸ doubtful dried) sardine urusái adj ࠺ࡿࡉ࠸ annoying, utai n ㅴ [BOOKISH] chanting a noisy (= sawagashii 㦁ࡀࡋ࠸) Noh libretto urushi n ࢘ࣝࢩ࣭⁽ lacquer; utaimásu, utau v ḷ࠸ࡲࡍ, ḷ࠺ ~-nuri no utsuwa ⁽ሬࡾࡢჾ sings; recites, chants utaimásu, utau v ࠺ࡓ࠸>ㅻ࠸@ࡲࡍ, lacquerware (= shikki ⁽ჾ) uruwashii adj ࠺ࡿࢃࡋ࠸࣭㯇ࡋ࠸ ࠺ࡓ࠺࣭ㅻ࠺ expressly states; [BOOKISH] 1. beautiful 2. heartextols uten n 㞵ኳ [BOOKISH] rainy warming usa-barashi n ៧ࡉᬕࡽࡋ distracweather: ~-kekkø 㞵ኳỴ⾜ tion (from emotional pain, rain or shine: ~-chüshi 㞵ኳ୰Ṇ suffering, etc.), diversion, break, Canceled in case of rain. utói adj ࠺࡜࠸࣭␯࠸; … ni ~ something to cheer one up usagi n ࢘ࢧࢠ࣭ඡ rabbit, hare …࡟␯࠸>࠺࡜࠸@ out of touch usan kusai adj ࠺ࡉࢇࡃࡉ࠸࣭⬌ with …, not abreast of … ᩓ⮯࠸ fishy, suspicious-looking útouto adv ࠺࡜࠺࡜ drowsing usetsu shimásu (suru) v ྑᢡࡋࡲࡍ (off) (= utsura utsura ࠺ࡘࡽ࠺ ࡍࡿ turns right ࡘࡽ) ushi n ࢘ࢩ࣭∵ ox, oxen; cow, utsubuse n ࠺ࡘࡪࡏ࣭ಠࡏ lying cattle on one’s stomach ushinaimásu, ushinau v ኻ࠸ࡲࡍ, utsukushíi adj ⨾ࡋ࠸ beautiful ኻ࠺ loses utsumukemásu, utsumukeru v ࠺ࡘࡴ 303

utsumukimásu, utsumúku


ࡅࡲࡍ, ࠺ࡘࡴࡅࡿ; kao o ~ 㢦ࢆ sonality: ~ ga/no økii hito ჾࡀ ࠺ࡘࡴࡅࡲࡍ turns one’s face ࡢ኱ࡁ࠸ே person of high caliber uttae n ッ࠼ complaint, lawsuit down utsumukimásu, utsumúku v ࠺ࡘࡴࡁuttaemásu, uttaéru v ッ࠼ࡲࡍ, ッ࠼ ࡲࡍ, ࠺ࡘࡴࡃ lowers one’s ࡿ accuses, sues: kujø o ~ ⱞ᝟ࢆ ッ࠼ࡲࡍ complains eyes, hangs one’s head utsurí n ᫎࡾ reflection, picture uttetsuke (no) adj ࠺ࡗ࡚ࡘࡅ ࡢ

quality; (a becoming) match

the most suitable; just right, just the …, just the one/ticket uttóri (to) adv ࠺ࡗ࡜ࡾ ࡜ absorbed, fascinated XWWĿVKtL adj ࠺ࡗ࡜࠺ࡋ࠸ gloomy, dismal, dreary: ~ tenki ࠺ࡗ࡜࠺ ࡋ࠸ኳẼ gloomy weather is reflected; can be seen (through); uwabaki n ୖᒚࡁ࣭ୖࡤࡁ indoor footwear (slippers, etc.): ~ jisan is becoming utsurimásu, utsúru v ෗ࡾࡲࡍ, ෗ࡿ ୖᒚࡁᣢཧ Bring your indoor comes out (photograph) shoes. utsuro (na) adj ࠺ࡘࢁ࣭⹫ࢁ ࡞ uwabe n ୖ㎶࣭࠺ࢃ࡭ 1. surface hollow, empty, vacant: ~ na (= hyømen ⾲㠃) 2. outer hyøjø´ o mísete ࠺ࡘࢁ>⹫ࢁ@࡞ appearances (= gaikan እほ): ~ o ⾲᝟ࢆぢࡏ࡚ with a blank look tsukuroimásu ࠺ࢃ࡭ࢆࡘࡃࢁ࠸ >⧋࠸@ࡲࡍ puts up a front utsushimásu, utsúsú v ⛣ࡋࡲࡍ, ⛣ࡍ moves/transfers it uwagaki n ୖ᭩ࡁ 1. address utsushimásu, utsúsú v ࠺ࡘࡋࡲࡍ, (written on envelope, etc.) 2. ࠺ࡘࡍ infects, gives another overwriting: ~-hozon ୖ᭩ࡁಖᏑ person a disease (illness) overwrite save: ~-mødo ୖ᭩ࡁ ࣮ࣔࢻ overwrite mode utsushimásu, utsúsú v ෗ࡋࡲࡍ, ෗ࡍ copies; takes a picture of; uwagi n ୖ╔ coat, jacket, blouse uwagoto n ࠺ࢃࡈ࡜࣭࠺ࢃゝ ravprojects a picture utsushimásu, utsúsú v ᫎࡋࡲࡍ, ᫎ ing, delirium ࡍ reflects, mirrors uwaki adj ᾋẼ 1. ~ (na) ᾋẼ ࡞ utsutsu o nukashimásu (nukasu) v fickle 2. ~ (o) shimásu ᾋẼ ࢆ  ࠺ࡘࡘࢆᢤ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ ᢤ࠿ࡍ is ࡋࡲࡍ is unfaithful, has an engrossed, is addicted (extramarital) affair utsuwa n ჾ 1. receptacle, utensil, uwa-mawarimásu, uwa-mawaru v ୖᅇ container 2. tool 3. ability, per- ࡾࡲࡍ, ୖᅇࡿ exceeds 304 utsurimásu, utsúru v ⛣ࡾࡲࡍ, ⛣ࡿ 1. one/it moves, shifts 2. changes 3. moves house/residence (= hikkoshimásu ᘬ㉺ࡋࡲࡍ, hikkosu ᘬ㉺ࡍ utsurimásu, utsúru v ᫎࡾࡲࡍ, ࡿᫎ


wabimásu, wabiru

uwasa n ࠺ࢃࡉ࣭შ rumor, gossip uyamai n ᩗ࠸ reverence, respect uyamaimásu, uyamáu v ᩗ࠸ࡲࡍ, ᩗ࠺ reveres, respects uyamuya n ࠺ࡸࡴࡸ obscurity,

pool; (uzu-maki) UĿUXNďki n  ᕳ ࡁ ࣮ࣟࣝࢣ࣮࢟ swiss roll; uzushio n  ₻ whirling current uzumarimásu, uzumaru v ࠺ࡎࡲࡾ ࡲࡍ࣭ᇙࡲࡾࡲࡍ, ࠺ࡎࡲࡿ࣭ᇙ ࡲࡿ gets buried vagueness uyamuya ni shimásu (suru) v ࠺ࡸࡴ uzumemásu, uzumeru v ࠺ࡎࡵࡲ ࡸ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ is wishyࡍ࣭ᇙࡵࡲࡍ, ࠺ࡎࡵࡿ࣭ᇙࡵ ࡿ buries washy, obscures the issue uyoku n ྑ⩼ (political party) the uzura n ࢘ࢬ࣭ࣛ㭘 quail: ~ no tamago ࢘ࢬࣛ>㭘@ࡢ༸ quail right wing, rightists úzu n  , uzú-maki  ᕳࡁ whirl- egg

W wá n ㍯ circle; wheel; link; ring; loop; wa-gomu n ㍯ࢦ࣒ rubber band; wak-ka n ㍯ࡗ࠿࣭ࢃࡗ࠿

nese English; wá-shi n ࿴⣬ Japanese paper; wa-shitsu n ࿴ᐊ Japanese-style room; wa-shoku n ࿴㣗 Japanese food; wa-yaku n ࿴ [INFORMAL] circle; wheel; link; ヂ translation into Japanese ring; loop (= wa ㍯) wa n ࿴ 1. peace (= hei-wa ᖹ࿴, …-wa suffix ⩚ (counts birds, wa-hei ࿴ᖹ) 2. harmony (= chø- rabbits) wa ㄪ࿴, kyø-wa ༠࿴); wa-hei … wa particle …ࡣ as for …, NĿVKĿ n ࿴ᖹ஺΅ [BOOKISH] peace speaking of …, let’s talk about negotiations; wa-hei MĿ\DNX n ࿴ᖹ (change the subject to) …; …, ᮲⣙ [BOOKISH] peace treaty guess what —; if it be (= …déwa wa-… prefix ࿴ ... Japanese ...; … ࡛ࡣ = … nára …࡞ࡽ) wa-ei n ࿴ⱥ Japanese-English (= … wa interj …ࢃ (mostly female) nichi-ei ᪥ⱥ); waei-jíten ࿴ⱥ㎡ indeed, you see ඾ Japanese-English dictionary; wă interj ࢃ࠶ (female or ZDIŗ n ࿴㢼 [BOOKISH] Japanese children) Wow!; Gee!; Gosh! wabí n ࢃࡧ࣭౧ࡧ a liking for style; wa-fuku n ࿴᭹ Japanese traditional clothes; kimono; wasimple things; simple tastes gáshi n ࿴ⳫᏊ Japanese cakes/ wabi n ルࡧ o-wabi ࠾ルࡧ apology wabimásu, wabiru v ルࡧࡲࡍ, ルࡧ sweets; wa-sei-eigo n ࿴〇ⱥㄒ “Made in Japan” English, Japa- ࡿ [BOOKISH] apologize 305


wabishíi v ࢃࡧࡋ࠸࣭౧ࡋ࠸


driver); waka-mono n ⱝ⪅ young miserable; lonely person, youth; waka-te n ⱝᡭ wa-chŗ n ヰ୰ [BOOKISH] busy (on young person the phone) (= hanashi-chü ヰࡋ wakame n ࣓࣭࣡࢝ⱝᕸ a kind of ୰): ~-on ヰ୰㡢 busy tone seaweed wa-dachi n ࢃࡔࡕ࣭࣡ࢲࢳ࣭㎋ wakaré n ูࢀ parting, farewell wakaré n ศ࠿ࢀ branch(ing), (wheel) ruts wadai n ヰ㢟 topic of conversation, fork(ing), division wakáre n ูࢀ breakup; farewell; subject (of talk) wá-ga … adj ᡃࡀ࣭ࢃࡀ… leave [BOOKISH] my, our: ~ kuni ᡃࡀ wakaremásu, wakaréru v ูࢀࡲࡍ, ูࢀࡿ they part, separate ᅜ࣭ࢃࡀᅜ our (this) country wakaremásu, wakaréru v ศ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ, (commonly Japan) wá-ga-hai pron ᡃ ࡀ ㍮࣭࿃ ࡀ  ศ࠿ࢀࡿ it branches off, splits ㍮ [BOOKISH] (archaic or obsolete. wakareme n ศ࠿ࢀ┠ turning point male) I/me; waga-mámá (na) adj ࢃ wakarí n ศ࠿ࡾ comprehension ࡀࡲࡲ࣭ᡃࡀ౱ ࡞ selfish (= nomikomi ࿐ࡳ㎸ࡳ): ~ ga wágon (sha) n ࣡ࢦࣥ ㌴ station hayái ศ࠿ࡾࡀ᪩࠸ quick-witted; (mono)~ ga warúi ࡶࡢ ศ࠿ࡾ wagon wai-fai n ࣡࢖࣭ࣇ࢓࢖ (= musen- ࡀᝏ࠸ dull(-witted), stupid ran↓⥺LAN Wi-Fi, wireless Wakarimáshita v ศ࠿ࡾࡲࡋࡓ. 1. Yes, I see. 2. Yes, I will LAN (computer) wáin n ࣡࢖ࣥ wine: aka-~ ㉥࣡࢖ (comply with your request). ࣥ red wine: shiro-~ ⓑ࣡࢖ࣥ wakarimásu, wakáru v ศ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ, ศ࠿ࡿ it is clear (understood); white wine: ~-gurasu ࣡࢖ࣥࢢ ࣛࢫ wine glass understands; finds out; has good wáipă n ࣡࢖ࣃ࣮ windshield wiper sense wáiro n ࢃ࠸ࢁ࣭㈥㈣ bribe(ry); wakashimásu, wakasu v Ἓ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, Ἓ࠿ࡍ boils it graft waisetsu n ࢃ࠸ࡏࡘ obscenity wáke n ࢃࡅ࣭ヂ 1. reason (= riyü wai-shatsu n ⬥࣭⭆@ࡢୗ { armpit wána n ࢃ࡞࣭࣡ࢼ࣭⨜ trap; lasso: | under one’s arms ~ ni kakarimásu ࢃ࡞>⨜@࡟࠿࠿ waki aiai n ࿴Ẽ࠶࠸࠶࠸ in happy ࡾࡲࡍ gets trapped/snared wáni n ࣡ࢽ crocodile, alligator harmony wakimásu, waku v Ἓࡁࡲࡍ, Ἓࡃ it waní-ashi (no) adj ࢃ࡟㊊ ࡢ boils: o-yu ga ~ ࠾‫ࡀ‮‬Ἓࡁࡲࡍ bowlegged the water boils (A o-yu o waka- wánisu n ࣡ࢽࢫ varnish shimásu ࠾‫ࢆ‮‬Ἓ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, o-yu wanpaku n ࢃࢇࡥࡃ࣭⭎ⓑ rudega wakimáshita ࠾‫ࡀ‮‬Ἓࡁࡲࡋࡓ) ness: ~-kozø ࢃࢇࡥࡃ>⭎ⓑ@ᑠ wakimásu, waku v ‪ࡁࡲࡍ, ‪ࡃ ൔ brat, mischievous boy it gushes, springs forth: kibø ga wanpaku (na) adj ⭎ⓑ࣭ࢃࢇࡥ wakimáshita ᕼᮃࡀ‪ࡁࡲࡋࡓ I ࡃ ࡞ naughty, mischievous

was given hope., I got hope.

(commonly used for children) (= yancha (na) ࡸࢇࡕࡷ ࡞ ) wánryoku n ⭎ຊ [BOOKISH] arm strength, physical force, physical strength wán-wan interj ࣡ࣥ࣡ࣥ bow-wow! (bark) wappu n ๭㈿ allotment, installment 307

wakú n ᯟ 1. frame, framework (= ~-gumi ᯟ⤌) 2. reel, limit, a confine; waku-gumi n ᯟ⤌ { frame, framework (= waku ᯟ) | outline wákuchin n ࣡ࢡࢳࣥ vaccine wakusei n ᝨᫍ planet waku-waku shimásu (suru) v ࢃࡃࢃ ࡃࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ is thrilled, is



wă-puro n ࣮࣡ࣉࣟ word processor (ability): ~ ni aimasén ๭࡟ྜ࠸ wára n ࣭࣡ࣛ⸕ rice straw ࡲࡏࢇ it doesn’t pay (off); wari-ai warabanshi n ࢃࡽ༙⣬ coarse n ๭ྜ rate, percentage: ~ (ni) ๭ ྜ ࡟ comparatively, relatively paper, rough paper warabe n ࢃࡽ࡭࣭❺ [BOOKISH] wariate n ๭ࡾᙜ࡚ quota, allotment waribashi n ๭ࡾ⠂ throwaway child(ren) (= jidø ඣ❺): ~-uta ࢃࡽ࡭ḷ࣭❺ḷ Japanese chopsticks wari-biki n ๭ᘬ discount traditional children’s song warabi n ࣡ࣛࣅ bracken wari-kan n ๭ࡾ຺ splitting the bill; warai ࢃࡽ࠸࣭Ⴚ࠸ n ridicule, (going) Dutch treat warikómimásu, warikómu v ๭ࡾ㎸ sneer, mockery waraimásu, warau v ➗࠸ࡲࡍ, ➗࠺ ࡳࡲࡍ, ๭ࡾ㎸ࡴ cuts in (into),

laughs; laughs at; smiles waraimásu, warau v ࢃࡽ࠸>Ⴚ࠸@ ࡲࡍ, ࢃࡽ࠺࣭Ⴚ࠺ ridicules,

sneers, mocks

breaks in; breezes in wari-mae n ๭ࡾ๓ share, portion warimásu, waru v ๭ࡾࡲࡍ, ๭ࡿ

divides/splits it, breaks it,

wáre pron ᡃ [BOOKISH] 1. oneself dilutes it 2. I/me (= wata(ku)shi ࢃࡓ ࡃ wari (ni) adv ࢃࡾ ࡟ ࣭๭ ࡟ ࡋ࣭⚾); ware ni kaerimásu (kaeru) v relatively, comparatively ᡃ࡟㏉ࡾࡲࡍ ㏉ࡿ comes to warízan n ๭ࡾ⟬ division warú n ᝏ bad, evil (= aku ᝏ); oneself; ware omou, yue ni ware ari ᡃᛮ࠺ࠊࡺ࠼࡟ᡃ࠶ࡾ (famous warú-i adj ᝏ࠸ { bad, poor; saying) I think, therefore I am.; wrong; vicious | at fault; Warú-i! ware o wasuremásu (wasureru) v ᡃࢆ interj ᝏ࠸ Sorry.; warú-fuzake n ᛀࢀࡲࡍ ᛀࢀࡿ { is hooked ᝏࡩࡊࡅ practical joke; warúon, is carried away | is stunned; gashikoi adj ᝏ㈼࠸ sly, cunning, ware-ware pron ᡃࠎ࣭ࢃࢀࢃࢀ crafty, wily (person) (= zurugashikoi ࡎࡿ㈼࠸, køkatsu (na) [BOOKISH] we; us waremásu, wareru v ๭ࢀࡲࡍ, ๭ࢀ ≾⊶ ࡞ ); warú-gi n ᝏẼ evil ࡿ 1. it cracks, it splits 2. can intent, malice (= akui ᝏព); divide/break/dilute it; ware-me n warú-jie n ᝏ▱ᜨ cunning, craft; ๭ࢀ┠ crack, crevice, gap; ware- warú-kuchi/-guchi n ᝏཱྀ (verbal) mono n ๭ࢀ≀ fragile abuse, slander; waru-mono n ᝏ⪅ wari n ๭ 1. (…-wari …๭) tens of bad guy/fellow, villain, scounpercent; percentage; sán-~ ୕๭ drel: ~ atsukai ᝏ⪅ᢅ࠸ demonize; = sanjup-påsénto 30ࣃ࣮ࢭࣥࢺ warú-yoi n ᝏ㓉࠸ getting sick ࣭30% thirty percent 2. profit from drink



warutsu n ࣡ࣝࢶ waltz wásabi n ࣡ࢧࣅ࣭ᒣⵇ horseradish washi n ࣡ࢩ࣭㮖 eagle washi pron ࢃࡋ (archaic old male) I/me (= wata(ku)shi ࢃࡓ ࡃ ࡋ࣭⚾) Washínton n ࣡ࢩࣥࢺࣥ Washington wasuremásu, wasureru v ᛀࢀࡲࡍ, ᛀࢀࡿ forgets; wasure-mono n ᛀࢀ≀ { leaving something behind | a thing left behind (forgetfully); wasurenái de v ᛀࢀ ࡞࠸࡛ ~ de (… shite) kudasái ᛀࢀ࡞࠸࡛ …ࡋ࡚ ୗࡉ࠸ don’t forget (to do …); wasurep-pói adj ᛀࢀࡗࡱ࠸ forgetful watá n ⥥ cotton; watá-ame n ⥥࢔ ࣓ cotton candy (= wata-gashi ⥥ⳫᏊ); wata-bokori n ⥥ࡰࡇࡾ dustball; watá-gashi n ⥥ⳫᏊ cotton candy; wata-ge n ⥥ẟ fluff, cotton fiber; wata-íré n ⥥ධࢀ


with, gets in touch with; ~ ni fúne Ώࡾ࡟⯚ a timely rescue, a convenient escape/excuse watarimásu, wataru v Ώࡾࡲࡍ, Ώࡿ crosses over watashi pron ⚾࣭ࢃࡓࡋ = [BOOKISH] watakushi ⚾࣭ࢃࡓࡃࡋ I/me watashi-búne n Ώࡋ⯚ ferryboat watashimásu, watasu v Ώࡋࡲࡍ, Ώࡍ hands it over; ferries watáshí-táchi pron ࢃࡓࡋ>⚾@㐩 we, us (= watakushí-tachi ࢃࡓ ࡃࡋ>⚾@㐩) watto n ࣡ࢵࢺ watt waza n ᴗ trick, feat waza n ᢏ skill, technique, art (= gijutsu ᢏ⾡) wáza-to adv ࢃࡊ࡜ deliberately, on purpose, intentionally wazawai n ⅏࠸ misfortune, mishap, disaster (= sainan ⅏㞴) wázawaza adv ࢃࡊࢃࡊ expressly, (cotton-) padded garment especially; purposely watá n ⭠ guts, intestines wazuka adj ࢃࡎ࠿ a few, a little watakushi pron ࢃࡓࡃࡋ࣭⚾ (= sukoshi ᑡࡋ) [BOOKISH], watashi ࢃࡓࡋ࣭⚾ wazurai n ↹࠸࣭ࢃࡎࡽ࠸ [HUMBLE] I/me; ~-tachi ࢃࡓࡃࡋ [BOOKISH] trouble, worry >⚾@㐩, watáshí-táchi ࢃࡓࡋ>⚾@wazurai n ᝈ࠸ [BOOKISH] illness 㐩 we/us; watakushí-ritsu (no) adj ⚾ (= byøki ⑓Ẽ) ❧ ࡢ private(-ly established); ~ wazuraimásu, wazurau v ↹࠸ࡲࡍ, (no) gakkø ⚾❧ ࡢ Ꮫᰯ private ↹࠺ worries about, is troubled by school; watakuVKtVKĿVHWVu n ⚾ᑠ wazuraimásu, wazurau v ᝈ࠸ࡲࡍ, ㄝ I-Novel (a novel writing about ᝈ࠺ has trouble with (one’s oneself) (= shi-shøsetsu ⚾ᑠㄝ) eyes), suffers from (an ailment) watari v Ώࡾ crossing, ferry wazurawashíi adj ↹ࢃࡋ࠸ (place): ~ o tsukemásu Ώࡾࢆࡘ troublesome; complicated ࡅࡲࡍ forms an understanding web n ࢙࢘ࣈWorld Wide Web 309



Internet; websaito n ࢙࢘ࣈࢧ࢖ࢺ ࣈࣟࢢ weblog, blog (Internet) website wísukii n ࢘࢕ࢫ࣮࢟ whisky weburogu n ࢙࢘ࣈࣟࢢ(= burogu witto n ࢘࢕ࢵࢺ wit

Y yá n ▮ arrow; ya-jirushi n ▮༳

curry shop arrow sign (such as “Ѝ”, “Ћ”, yă´ interj ࡸ࠶ hi! hello! (mostly male. VERY INFORMAL. Cannot be “Ќ”, “Ў”) ya-…, …-ya prefix, suffix ኪ, used to address a superior) ኪ night (= ban ᬌ): shü-~ ⤊ yabái adj ࡸࡤ࠸ 1. (mostly male, ኪ all night; yá-gu n ኪල [BOOK- very informal) dangerous (will ISH] bedclothes; top quilt; yá-kan get you into trouble) 2. (mostly n ኪ㛫 [BOOKISH] (at) night; ya-kei young people. SLANG) awesome n ኪᬒ night view; \DNĿUHVVKD n yaban (na) adj 㔝⻅ ࡞ barbarous, ኪ⾜ิ㌴ night train barbarian, savage: ~-jín 㔝⻅ே a ya-… prefix 㔝 wild, field; barbarian, a savage \DFKĿ n 㔝㫽 wild bird; ya-ei n \DEĿ n 㔝ᮃ ambition [IN NEGATIVE 㔝Ⴀ camp, bivouac; yá-gai n 㔝 SENSE] (= yashin 㔝ᚰ) (= taishi እ outdoors, in the field: ~-ka኱ᚿ, taibø ኱ᮃ [IN NEGATIVE tsudø 㔝እάື outdoor activity; SENSE]) \DMŗ n 㔝⋇ [BOOKISH] wild beast; yábo (na) adj 㔝ᬽ ࡞ [INFORMAL] ya-ken n 㔝≟ wild dog; ya-sei (no) rustic, inelegant; ~-yø 㔝ᬽ⏝ adj 㔝ᛶ ࡢ wild, not cultivated; small errand to run ya-sen n 㔝ᡓ open battle: ~-byøin yabu n ࣖࣈ࣭⸈ bush, thicket; yabuhebi n ࡸࡪ⺬ boomerang (some㔝ᡓ⑓㝔 field hospital … ya … conj …ࡸ … and … and thing injures the originator), … (choosing typical items) waking a sleeping giant; yabu-isha … ya interj …ࡸ [INFORMAL] 1. = n ࣖࣈ>⸭@་⪅ quack doctor …i ya …࠸ࡸ = … i wa …࠸ࡣ yabukemásu, yabukéru v ◚ࡅࡲࡍ, 2. = …e ba …࠼ࡤ (if) ◚ࡅࡿ 1. it tears, bursts; is … -ya suffix …ᒇ (name of frustrated 2. can tear/burst it certain) shop, shopkeeper, (= yaburemásu ◚ࢀࡲࡍ dealer; house (A (o-)sobá-~ ࠾ yabukimásu, yabúku v ◚ࡁࡲࡍ, ◚ ⷃ㯏ᒇ: råmen-~ ࣮࣓ࣛࣥᒇ ࡃ tears (bursts) it; frustrates; Ramen shop: karë-~ ࣮࢝ࣞᒇ violates; defeats 310


yabure-kabure n ࡸࡪࢀ>◚ࢀ@࠿ࡪ ࢀ desperation (= jibøjiki ⮬ᭀ ⮬Რ) yaburemásu, yaburéru v ◚ࢀࡲࡍ, ◚ࢀࡿ 1. it tears, bursts; is frustrated 2. can tear/burst it yaburemásu, yaburéru v ᩋࢀࡲࡍ, ᩋࢀࡿ loses yaburimásu, yabúru v ◚ࡾࡲࡍ, ◚ ࡿ tears (bursts) it; frustrates;


yakemásu, yakeru v ↝ࡅࡲࡍ, ↝ࡅ ࡿ 1. it burns; it is baked 2. can

burn it yakemásu, yakeru v ጊࡅࡲࡍ, ጊࡅ ࡿ is jealous, envies yaki ↝ࡁ n baking, burning,

broiling; tempering; exposure

yaki-… prefix ↝ࡁ… roast: (ishi-)~ imo ▼ ↝ࡁⰞ (stone-)baked yam; yakí-guri n ↝ࡁᰩ roasted violates; defeats chestnuts; yaki-gushi n ↝ࡁ୵ yabusaka de (wa) arimasen (nai) v ࡸ skewer, spit; yaki-meshi n ↝ࡁ㣤 ࡪࡉ࠿࡛ ࡣ ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ ࡞࠸ fried rice; yaki-móchi n ࡸࡁࡶࡕ࣭ ↝ࡁ㣰 jealousy; yakí-mochi n ࡸ is willing to do yá-chin n ᐙ㈤ house rent ࡁࡶࡕ࣭↝ࡁ㣰 toasted rice-cake; yádo, yado-ya n ᐟ, ᐟᒇ inn yaki-mono n ↝ࡁ≀ { pottery yagate adv ࡸࡀ࡚ before long; in | broiled food/dishes; yaki-niku n ↝ࡁ⫗࣭↝⫗ grilled slices of time (= mamonaku ࡲࡶ࡞ࡃ) yági n ࣖࢠ࣭ᒣ⨺ goat meat; yaki-soba n ↝ࡁࡑࡤ࣭ࡸࡁ yahári adv ࡸࡣࡾ also; either; ࡑࡤ chow mein; fried Chinese after all; just we/I thought! (= noodle; yaki-tori n ↝ࡁ㫽࣭ࡸࡁ yappari ࡸࡗࡥࡾ) ࡜ࡾ chicken shishkebab (skewers) yaiba n ࡸ࠸ࡤ࣭ล blade; sword …-yaki suffix …↝ (ceramic) yáji n ࡸࡌ࣭㔝ḟ heckling ware from …; Imari-~ ఀ୓㔛↝ yajiuma n ࡸࡌ࠺ࡲ࣭㔝ḟ㤿 Imari (ware) rubbernecker: ~-konjø ࡸࡌ࠺ࡲ yakimásu, yaku v ↝ࡁࡲࡍ, ↝ࡃ ᰿ᛶ extreme curiosity burns/broils it, bakes (roasts, yakamashíi adj ࡸ࠿ࡲࡋ࠸ [INFOR- toasts) it MAL], boisterous, clamorous, yakimásu, yaku v ጊࡁࡲࡍ, ጊࡃ is

noisy; annoying; overly strict, jealous, envies demanding [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] yákkai n གྷ௓࣭ࡸࡗ࠿࠸ trouble, yakan n ࡸ࠿ࢇ teakettle bother (= meiwaku ㏞ᝨ: ~ (na) yáke n ࡸࡅ࣭⮬Რ desperation(= གྷ௓࣭ࡸࡗ࠿࠸ ࡞ troublejibø-jiki ⮬ᭀ⮬Რ): ~ ni ࡸࡅ࡟ some, annoying excessively, unbearably, terribly yakko n ࡸࡗࡇ࣭ያ 1. servant, yakedo n ࡸࡅ࡝࣭ⅆയ burn, scald slave 2. [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] (on the skin) (= nesshø ⇕യ) (undesirable) person/one: ~-san 311



ࡸࡗࡇ>ያ@ࡉࢇ that guy, he/him icines (= kusuri ⸆): yakuzai-shi 3. = ~-dø´fu ࡸࡗࡇ>ያ@㇋⭉ (par- ⸆๣ᖌ pharmacist boiled) tofu (bean-curd cubes); yaku-dachimásu, yaku-dátsu v ᙺ❧ hiya-~ ෭ࡸያ cold tofu ࡕࡲࡍ, ᙺ❧ࡘ serves a purpose, yakkyoku n ⸆ᒁ pharmacy, drug- is useful yakú-datemásu, yakú-datéru v ᙺ❧࡚ store yaku n ࣖࢡ yak (animal) ࡲࡍ, ᙺ❧࡚ࡿ puts it to use yakú n ヂ translation, translated yakú ni tatemásu (tatéru) v ᙺ࡟❧ ࡚ࡲࡍ ❧࡚ࡿ puts it to use (= word (A honyaku ⩻ヂ, tsŗyaku ㏻ヂ) yakú-datemásu ᙺ❧࡚ࡲࡍ) yáku(…) adj ⣙  approximately, yakushimásu, yakúsú v ヂࡋࡲࡍ, about … (= oyoso ࠾ࡼࡑ, daitai ヂࡍ translates ኱య) yakusoku n ⣙᮰ promise, agreeyaku n ᙺ 1. (cast of) players ment, appointment, engagement, 2. part, role, duty; yaku-mé n ᙺ┠ date, commitment; yakusoku-goto duty, function; yaku-sha n ᙺ⪅ n ⣙᮰஦ a promise actor (= haiyü ತඃ), actress (= yákuza n ࡸࡃࡊ gangster, hoodjoyü ዪඃ); yaku-wari n ᙺ๭ role, lum; yákuza (na) adj ࡸࡃࡊ ࡞ part (= yakume ᙺ┠) no-good, worthless; ~ na kagyø yaku-… ᙺ… service (government, ࡸࡃࡊ࡞✌ᴗ improper work; official), use; o-yaku ni tatezu (ni) coarse sumimasen ࠾ᙺ࡟❧࡚ࡎ ࡟ ࡍ \DN\ŗ n 㔝⌫ baseball; \DN\ŗMĿ n ࡳࡲࡏࢇ [HUMBLE] I am sorry 㔝⌫ሙ ball park, (baseball)

for not being able to help you.; stadium yaku-nin n ᙺே public servant, yamá n ᒣ 1. mountain 2. heap, government official (= kømuin pile, bunch: shorui no ~ ᭩㢮ࡢ බົဨ); yaku-sho n ᙺᡤ govern- ᒣ pile of documents 3. speculament office (A shi-yakusho ᕷᙺ tion, venture 4. A yamá(-ba) ᒣ ᡤ, ku-yakusho ༊ᙺᡤ) ሙ ; yama-arashi n ࣐ࣖ࢔ࣛࢩ࣭ yaku n ⸆ drug (A kusuri ⸆) ᒣⲨ porcupine; yama-arashi n ᒣ …-yaku, yaku-… suffix, prefix  ᔒ mountain storm; yama-aruki n ⸆, ⸆ medicines, drugs; ᒣṌࡁ trekking (= haikingu ࣁ yaku-hin ⸆ရ drugs; chemicals; ࢖࢟ࣥࢢ); yamá(-ba) n ᒣ ሙ yaku-mi n ⸆࿡ { spice, condiment climax; yama-biko n ࡸࡲࡧࡇ࣭ | drug ingredient; yakuVĿ ⸆ⲡ ᒣᙪ echo (= kodama ࡇࡔࡲ࣭ ᮌ㟋); yama-buki n ࣐ࣖࣈ࣭࢟ᒣ medicinal herb; yaku-zai n ⸆๣ [BOOKISH] pharmaceuticals, med- ྿ Japanese rose: ~-iro ᒣ྿Ⰽ 312


yarimásu, yaru

bright yellow; yama-goya n ᒣᑠ random, in a blind way; \DPtVĿED ᒇ cabin, mountain lodge; yaman 㜌┦ሙ black-market price imo n ࣐ࣖ࢖࣭ࣔᒣⰞ yam; yama- yamimásu, yamu v Ṇࡳࡲࡍ, Ṇࡴ neko n ࣐ࣖࢿࢥ࣭ᒣ⊧ wild cat; it stops yama-nóbori n ᒣⓏࡾ mountain- yamome n ࡸࡶࡵ widow climbing (= tozan Ⓩᒣ); yama no yámori n ࣭ࣖࣔࣜᏲᐑ gecko fumoto n ᒣࡢࡩࡶ࡜>㯄@ the base yanagi n ࣖࢼࢠ࣭ᰗ willow of a mountain; yama-otoko n ᒣ⏨ yancha (na) adj ࡸࢇࡕࡷ ࡞ { mountaineer | woodsman naughty, mischievous (commonly } monster living in the heart of used for boys) (= wanpaku (na) a mountain; yama-suso n ᒣ〈 the ⭎ⓑ࣭ࢃࢇࡥࡃ ࡞ ) yáne n ᒇ᰿ roof base of a mountain yama-shi n ᒣᖌ speculator yaní n ࡸ࡟࣭⬡ resin, gum A yamashíi adj ࡸࡲࡋ࠸ ashamed of meyaní ┠ࡸ࡟࣭┠⬡ yánushi n ᐙ୺ landlord, landlady oneself; has guilty feelings yama-te n ᒣᡭ, yama-no-te ᒣᡭ࣭ (= øya(-san) ኱ᐙ ࡉࢇ ) ᒣࡢᡭ uptown; the bluff: Yama- \DRFKĿ n ඵⓒ㛗 fixed game no-te-sen ᒣࡢᡭ⥺ Yamanote yaoya n ඵⓒᒇ greengrocer, vegLine etable market Yámato n ኱࿴ Japan (an ancient yappári adv ࡸࡗࡥࡾ [INFORMAL] name); yamato-kotoba n ኱࿴ゝⴥ also; either; as I thought (= words of Japanese origin, native yahári ࡸࡣࡾ) Japanese words (= wago ࿴ㄒ); yarakashimásu, yarakasu v ࡸࡽ࠿ yamato-nadeshiko n ࣐ࣖࢺࢼࢹࢩࢥ ࡋࡲࡍ, ࡸࡽ࠿ࡍ [INFORMAL][IN ࣭኱࿴᧙Ꮚ { dianthus (flower) NEGATIVE SENSE] does it [demeans | beautiful and modest Japanese the object] (= shimásu ࡋࡲࡍ); héma o ~ ࡬ࡲࢆࡸࡽ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ woman yamemásu, yameru v Ṇࡵࡲࡍ, Ṇ makes a damn mess of it ࡵࡿ stops it; abolishes, abstains yari n ࡸࡾ࣭ᵕ spear yari-kata n ࡸࡾ᪉ way, method, from, gives up yamemásu, yameru v ㎡ࡵࡲࡍ, ㎡ process, manner ࡵࡿ resigns, quits yarimásu, yaru v ࡸࡾࡲࡍ, ࡸࡿ yamí n 㜌 1. darkness (= kurayamí does ᬯ㜌) 2. disorder 3. black market yarimásu, yaru v ࡸࡾ>㐵ࡾ@ࡲࡍ, 4. anything illicit, the dark; yamí- ࡸࡿ࣭㐵ࡿ 1. gives 2. sends: ichí(ba) n 㜌ᕷ ሙ black market; tegami o ~ ᡭ⣬ࢆࡸࡾࡲࡍ send yamí-kumo (ni) adv 㜌㞼 ࡟ at a letter 3. íp-pai ~ ୍ᮼࡸࡾࡲࡍ 313



has a drink 4. has sex yari-naoshimásu v ࡸࡾ┤ࡋࡲࡍ, ࡸࡾ┤ࡍ redoes it, does it over


yasude n ࣖࢫࢹ millipede (animal) yasúi adj ࡸࡍ࠸࣭᫆࠸ (= shiyasúi ࡋࡸࡍ࠸) easy (to do) (again) yari-sokonaimásu, yari-sokonáu v ࡸࡾyasúi adj ࡸࡍ࠸ (= shi-yasúi ࡋࡸ ᦆ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ, ࡸࡾᦆ࡞࠺ misses, ࡍ࠸) likely/apt to (do), tends to yasumemásu, yasuméru v ఇࡵࡲࡍ, botches \DUĿ n 㔝㑻 (very INFORMAL) ఇࡵࡿ 1. rest/relax it, let it rest; scoundrel, so-and-so ease it 2. can rest yasai n 㔝⳯ vegetables yasumí n ఇࡳ 1. rest (= [BOOKISH] yasashii adj ඃࡋ࠸࣭ࡸࡉࡋ࠸ kyükei ఇ᠁) 2. break, pause gentle; kind, generous (= (= teishi ೵Ṇ, chüdan ୰᩿) 3. shinsetsu ぶษ) recess (= kyükei jikan ఇ᠁᫬㛫) yasashii adj ᫆ࡋ࠸࣭ࡸࡉࡋ࠸ 4. time off, vacation, holiday (= kyüka ఇᬤ) easy, simple yasashiku adv ඃࡋࡃ࣭ࡸࡉࡋࡃ yasumimásu, yasúmu v ఇࡳࡲࡍ, ఇ ࡴ rests, relaxes, takes time off; gently; politely yase-gaman n ࡸࡏ>⑭ࡏ@ᡃ៏ play- stays away (from school); goes

ing the martyr

to bed, sleeps

yasemásu, yaseru v ⑭ࡏࡲࡍ, ⑭ࡏ ࡿ gets thin; yasete imásu ⑭ࡏ࡚ ࠸ࡲࡍ is thin yáshi n ࣖࢩ࣭ᳰᏊ (coconut) palm yáshin n 㔝ᚰ ambition [IN NEGATIVE SENSE] (= yabø 㔝ᮃ; taishi ኱ᚿ, taibø ኱ᮃ) yashinaimásu, yashinau v 㣴࠸ࡲࡍ, 㣴࠺ brings up, rears; fosters;

nourishes …´-yasu, yasu-… suffix, prefix …Ᏻ, Ᏻ cheap(er/lower) by …; hyakuén-~ ⓒ෇Ᏻ down/off by ¥100; yasúi adj Ᏻ࠸ cheap, low(-priced); yasu-mono n Ᏻ≀ cheap stuff; yasu-ne n Ᏻ್ low price; yasu-ukeai n Ᏻㄳࡅྜ࠸ easy promise; yasu-uri n Ᏻ኎ࡾ

yasuraka (na/ni) adj, adv Ᏻࡽ࠿ ࡞࡟ peaceful(ly) yasuri n ࡸࡍࡾ file, rasp; yasurígami n ࡸࡍࡾ⣬ sandpaper (= kami-yásuri ⣬ࡸࡍࡾ) yatai n ᒇྎ street stall; stand yatara adv ࡸࡓࡽ: ~ na ࡸࡓࡽ࡞

indiscriminate, reckless, random: ~ ni ࡸࡓࡽ࡟ indiscriminately,

randomly, recklessly, blindly, unduly yatĿ n 㔝ඪ opposition party yatói 㞠࠸ n employment yatoimásu, yatóu v 㞠࠸ࡲࡍ, 㞠࠺ employs, hires yatsú n ඵࡘ eight (= yattsú ඵࡘ); yatsuatari n ඵࡘᙜࡓࡾ࣭ࡸࡘ࠶ ࡓࡾ taking out on 314


yátsu n ࡸࡘ࣭ያ [INFORMAL] 1.


(= yonén-kan ᅄᖺ㛫); yon-én-sei guy, fellow, wretch, [IN NEGATIVE ᅄᖺ⏕ { fourth-year student (at SENSE] (undesirable) person/one elementary school) | senior (at (= aitsu ࠶࠸ࡘ) 2. (undesirable) university/college); yo-nín n ᅄே thing/one 3. he/him four people yattekimásu, yattekúru v ࡸࡗ࡚ࡁࡲ … yo interj …ࡼ 1. indeed, mind ࡍ, ࡸࡗ࡚ࡃࡿ comes, comes you, I tell/warn/alert you 2. (reinalong forces IMPERATIVE) yatto adv ࡸࡗ࡜ at last; barely, \Ŀ n せ gist (= yø´shi せ᪨, yøryø´ せ㡿) with difficulty yattoko n ࡸࡗ࡜ࡇ pincers, pliers \Ŀ n ⏝ 1. business; errand (= yattsú n ඵࡘ eight; eight years old yøji ⏝஦) 2. use, service 3. going yawarakái adj ㌾ࡽ࠿࠸࣭ᰂࡽ࠿࠸ to the bathroom; yĿML n ⏝஦ soft, mild business, errand; \ĿNHQ n ⏝௳ yáya adj ࡸࡸ a little, slightly: ~ átte business (something to tell, ࡸࡸ࠶ࡗ࡚ after a little while something to do); \ĿP~LQ n ⏝ົ yaya(k)koshíi adj ࡸࡸ ࡗ ࡇࡋ࠸ ဨ custodian, janitor, servant (in complicated; puzzling; tangled; the school, office, etc.); \ĿWiVKt n ⏝㊊ࡋ business, errand troublesome ye… A e… \Ŀ« prefix ὒ… Western; \ĿIuku yó n ୡ the world at large, the n ὒ᭹ (Western-style) clothes, a public; yó-ron n ୡㄽ public suit, a dress (= fuku ᭹): (yø-) fuku-ya ὒ ᭹ᒇ tailor, clothing opinion yó n ௦ the age, the times; one’s shop; ~-burashi ὒ᭹ࣈࣛࢩ clothlifetime brush; ~-dansu ὒ᭹ࢲࣥࢫ wardyó n ኪ night (= yóru ኪ); yo-aké robe; \ĿJD n ὒ⏬ { foreign n ኪ᫂ࡅ dawn; yo-fúkáshi n ኪ᭦ movie | Western-style painting; ࠿ࡋ staying up late; yo-máwari n \ĿJDNX n ὒᴦ Western-style ኪᅇࡾ night watchman; yo-naká music; \ĿJiVKL n ὒⳫᏊ western n ኪ୰ middle of the night; yóru cakes/sweets; \Ŀ-hin n ὒရ habn ኪ night erdashery; \Ŀ-ma n ὒ㛫 Westernyo-… prefix ᅄ four; yó-ji n ᅄ᫬ style room; \ĿVDL n ὒ⿢ dressfour o’clock; \RMĿKDQ n ᅄ␚༙ making; \ĿVKL n ὒ⣬ Western four-and-a-half mat area, a small paper; \ĿVKRNX n ὒ㣗 foreign Japanese room; yo-ban, yón-ban n (Western) food; \ĿVKX n ὒ㓇 ᅄ␒ number four; yo-nen n ᅄᖺ liquor (Western) { fourth year | four years \Ŀ« prefix 㣴… foster, protec315



QĿU\RNXண▱⬟ຊ ability to foretion; yĿIXER n 㣴∗ẕ adoptive parents; \ĿMR n 㣴ዪ adopted see the future \ĿFKL (na) adj ᗂ⛶ ࡞ childish: daughter; (… o) ~ ni shimásu …ࢆ 㣴ዪ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ adopts ~ na kangae ᗂ⛶࡞⪃࠼ (a girl); \ĿVKL n 㣴Ꮚ adopted childish idea; \ĿFKtHQ n ᗂ⛶ᅬ child; \ĿLNX n 㣴⫱ [BOOKISH] { kindergarten bringing up children, education; yodare n ࡼࡔࢀ drool: ~ ga déru ~-hi 㣴⫱㈝ expense of bringing ࡼࡔࢀࡀฟࡿ drool comes out up children | protection (of old \ĿGDL n ᐜែ࣭ᐜయ࣭ᵝែ health people, orphan children, sick condition (commonly of patient) people, etc.); ~-in 㣴⫱㝔 asylum; (= yøtai ᐜែ, byøjø ⑓≧) \ĿUĿLQ n 㣴⪁㝔 old people’s \ĿGR n ࣮ࣚࢻ iodine home (= røjin hømu ⪁ே࣮࣒࣍) \ĿHNL n ⁐ᾮ liquid solution yóbi n ணഛ preparation: ~ (no) ண \ĿHQ adj ዿⰏ seductive beauty, ഛ ࡢ reserve, spare; \RELNĿ n fascinatingly elegant, bewitching ணഛᰯ prep school, cram school; (= adeyaka ࠶࡛ࡸ࠿࣭Ⰿࡸ࠿) yobi-sénkyo n ணഛ㑅ᣲ a primary yoga n ࣚ࢞ yoga \ĿJDQ n ⁐ᒾ lava election yobimásu, yobu v ࿧ࡧࡲࡍ, ࿧ࡪ yogen n ணゝ prediction; nosutoradamusu no dai-~ ࣀࢫࢺࣛࢲ࣒ 1. calls; names; summons 2. ࢫࡢ኱ணゝ the great prophecies invites \REĿ n ண㜵 precaution, prevenof Nostradamus \ĿJtVKD n ᐜ␲⪅ a suspect tion; \REĿVHVVKX n ண㜵᥋✀ = yobø-chü´sha ண㜵ὀᑕ inocula- yogo n ணᚋ prognosis: ~-furyø ண ᚋ୙Ⰻ poor prognosis: ~-ryøkø tion, vaccination (injection) \ĿEĿ n せᮃ strong desire ணᚋⰋዲ good prognosis \ĿEĿ n ᐜㇺ facial appearance \ĿJR n ᧦ㆤ [BOOKISH] protection, yobun (no/ni) adj, adv వศ ࡢ࡟ support; jinken-~ ேᶒ᧦ㆤ proextra, excess tection of human rights; døbutsu-~-dantai ື≀᧦ㆤᅋయ animal \ĿEXQ n 㣴ศ nutrient substance (= eiyøbun ᰤ㣴ศ) protection association yóchi n వᆅ [BOOKISH] room, … \ĿJR suffix …⏝ㄒ (special) space, margin, leeway: (mattaku) term (technical word, etc.): køutagai no ~ ga arimasen ࡲࡗࡓ yøgo බ⏝ㄒ national language: ࡃ ␲࠸ࡢవᆅࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ senmon-~ ᑓ㛛⏝ㄒ technical There is no doubt about it (at all). term: sabetsu-~ ᕪู⏝ㄒ discrimyóchi n ண▱ prediction; yochiinatory words 316


yogore n ởࢀ dirt, smudge, blot,


(seasick, carsick, airsick, etc.); kuruma-~ ㌴㓉࠸ car sickness; blotch yogoremásu, yogoreru v ởࢀࡲࡍ, norimono-~ ஌ࡾ≀㓉࠸ travel ởࢀࡿ gets soiled, smudged; sickness yogorete imásu ởࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ is \ĿL n ⏝ព preparation; caution dirty (= junbi ‽ഛ); … no ~ o shimásu yogoshimásu, yogosu v ởࡋࡲࡍ, …ࡢ⏝ពࢆࡋࡲࡍ prepares for … ởࡍ soils, dirties, stains yoimásu, yóu v 㓉࠸ࡲࡍ, 㓉࠺ gets \ĿJX n ⏝ල tools, implements, drunk; gets seasick, carsick, instruments, kit; ~-bako ⏝ල⟽ airsick yoisho interj ࡼ࠸ࡋࡻ upsytool box \ĿJXUXWR n ࣮ࣚࢢࣝࢺ yogurt daisy!, alley-oop!, heave-ho! yoha n వἼ after-effect (of typhoon, \ĿML n ᳿ᯞ࣭ࡼ࠺ࡌ toothpick (= tsuma-~ ࡘࡲࡼ࠺ࡌ࣭∎᳿ᯞ) etc.), aftermath yohaku n వⓑ margin, blank (space) \ĿML n ᗂඣ [BOOKISH] infant \ĿKLQ n ⏝ရ = …-yø´hin …⏝ရ \ĿML n ᗂ᫬ [BOOKISH] childhood: ~-taiken ᗂ᫬య㦂 childhood utensils, appliances, supplies, necessities; nichi-~ ᪥⏝ရ daily experiences \ĿMLQ n ⏝ᚰ precaution, caution, necessities; jimu-~ ஦ົ⏝ရ office supplies care; “hi no yø´jin”ࠕⅆࡢ⏝ \RKĿ n ணሗ forecast, prediction; ᚰࠖ“Be careful of fire!”; \ĿMLQEĿ tenki-~ ኳẼணሗ weather force- n ⏝ᚰᲬ bodyguard; \ĿMLQEXNiL cast adj ⏝ᚰ῝࠸ cautious, careful yohodo adv ࡼ࡯࡝࣭వ⛬ consid- (= shinchø ៅ㔜) erably, a good deal (= yoppodo yoka n వᬤ [BOOKISH] spare time ࡼࡗࡱ࡝); ~ no koto ga nai kagiri (= hima (na jikan) ᬤ ࡞᫬㛫 ) ࡼ࡯࡝ࡢࡇ࡜ࡀ࡞࠸㝈ࡾ unless \ĿND n ඵ᪥ 1. 8th day (of a something really important month) 2. (for) eight days (= yøka-kan ඵ᪥㛫) comes up yoi n ᐘ [BOOKISH] early part of yokan n ணឤ premonition, the night, just after nightfall foreboding: ~ ga shimásu ணឤࡀ yói adj Ⰻ࠸࣭ࡼ࠸ (= íi ࠸࠸ ࡋࡲࡍ has a feeling that somegood [NEGATIVE] yóku arimasén thing (bad/unpleasant) is about Ⰻࡃ࠶ࡾࡲࡏࢇ; (past) yókatta to come desu Ⰻ࠿ࡗࡓ࡛ࡍ was good \ĿNDQ n ࣭ࣚ࢘࢝ࣥ⨺⩒ sweet yoi n 㓉࠸ 1. intoxication, bars of bean paste and agar-agar drunkenness 2. motion sickness flavored with chestnut, plum, etc. 317

yokei (na)

yokei (na) adj వィ ࡞ superflu-


Yokohamá-kø n ᶓ὾  the port ous, unnecessary, uncalled-for: ~ of Yokohama ni వィ࡟ unnecessarily yokoku n ண࿌ advance notice; yokemásu, yokéru v 㑊ࡅࡲࡍ, 㑊ࡅ eiga no ~-hen ᫎ⏬ࡢண࿌⦅ ࡿ avoids, keeps away from movie trailer yoken n ணぢ prediction (= yochi yoko ni narimásu (náru) v ᶓ࡟࡞ࡾ ண▱) ࡲࡍ ࡞ࡿ lies down (= yokoyoki n ணᮇ expectation, anticipa- tawárimásu ᶓࡓࢃࡾࡲࡍ) yoko ni shimásu (suru) v ᶓ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ tion \ĿNL n ᐜჾ container, receptacle ࡍࡿ lays down (= yokotaemásu ᶓࡓ࠼ࡲࡍ) \ĿNL n 㝧Ẽ 1. weather 2. cheeryokoshimásu, yokósu v ᐤ㉺ࡋࡲࡍ, fulness, brightness, liveliness; \ĿNL (na) adj 㝧Ẽ࡞ cheerful, ᐤ㉺ࡍ sends (here), hands over bright, lively to me yokin n 㡸㔠 deposit (of money); ᵝ@ ࡞ seem(ing) to be: yø ni …ࡼ characters yomi-kata n ㄞࡳ᪉ 1. how to read ࠺>ᵝ@࡟ (so as to be) like …; 319



suru ~ iimásu ࡍࡿࡼ࠺>ᵝ@࡟ゝ yoroi-do n ࡼࢁ࠸ᡞ࣭㙚ᡞ shutter ࠸ࡲࡍ tells one to do it (house) yondokoro-nai adj ࡼࢇ࡝ࡇࢁ࡞࠸ yorokobi ႐ࡧ n joy yorokobimásu, yorokóbu v ႐ࡧࡲࡍ, inevitable \ĿQLNX n ⨺⫗ [BOOKISH] lamb ႐ࡪ is glad, happy, delighted;

(meat, includes mutton) \yQMŗ n ᅄ༑࣭40 forty «\Ŀ (no) adj …⏝ ࡢ for the

rejoices yoro-mekí n ࡼࢁࡵࡁ an (extra-

marital) affair yoro-mekimásu, yoro-méku v ࡼࢁࡵ use of … yopparai n 㓉ࡗᡶ࠸ drunk (person) ࡁࡲࡍ, ࡼࢁࡵࡃ totters, falters, yopparaimásu, yopparau v 㓉ࡗᡶ࠸ staggers; has an (extra-marital) ࡲࡍ, 㓉ࡗᡶ࠺ gets drunk affair yoppodo adv ࡼࡗࡱ࡝ considerably, ᦂࡾ⡲@࠿ࡽ቎ሙࡲ࡛ (slo᫂⪅ a missing person gan) from the cradle to the grave yumé n ክ dream 1. succession of \ŗUL (na) adj ᭷฼ ࡞ profitable, images during sleep 2. aspiraadvantageous yurúi adj ⦆࠸࣭ࡺࡿ࠸ loose, tion, wish; ~ ga kanaimashita ክࡀྔ࠸ࡲࡋࡓ (My) dream slack; lenient; slow yurushí n チࡋ permission came true! \ŗmei (na) adj ᭷ྡ ࡞ famous, yurushimásu, yurúsu v チࡋࡲࡍ, チ ࡍ allows, lets; pardons, forgives well-known yumí n ᘪ bow (for archery or \ŗU\Ŀ n ᭷ᩱ pay (not free), violin); yumi-gata n ᘪᙧ curve, charge, fee: ~-chü´shajø ᭷ᩱ㥔 ㌴ሙ paid parking arch, bow \ŗPRD n ࣮ࣘࣔ࢔ humor, wit \ŗU\RNX (na) adj ᭷ຊ ࡞ strong, \XQLIĿPX n ࣘࢽࣇ࢛࣮࣒ uniform powerful, influential yusaburimásu, yusaburu v ᦂࡉࡪࡾ (of athlete, etc.) yuniiku n ࣘࢽ࣮ࢡ unique (= kosei- ࡲࡍ, ᦂࡉࡪࡿ shakes (sways, teki ಶᛶⓗ, dokutoku ⊂≉) swings, rocks, shocks) it 324


\ŗVHQ n ඃඛ priority: ~-jun’i ඃ ᦂࡍࡿ shakes (sways, swings, ඛ㡰఩ order of priority rocks) it \ŗVKD n ຬ⪅ brave man (A \ŗNDQ yusurimásu, yusuru v ᙉㄳࡾࡲࡍ, ຬᩒ) ᙉㄳࡿ blackmails, extorts \ŗVKi n ⼥㈨ financing (of bank, yútaka (na) adj ㇏࠿ ࡞ abundant, etc.) plentiful; wealthy (= høfu (na) \ŗVKi n ᭷ᚿ volunteer, supporter, ㇏ᐩ ࡞ ) \ŗWăn n ࣮ࣘ[U]ࢱ࣮ࣥ U-turn interested person \ŗVKi-téssen n ᭷่㕲⥺ barbed ㉕ἑ@ရ luxury (goods), zannin (na) adj ṧᚸ ࡞ brutal, luxuries cruel (= zankoku (na) ṧ㓞 ࡞ ): zékken n ࢮࢵࢣࣥ an athlete’s ~ na hito ṧᚸ࡞ே cruel person number: ~ o tsukemásu ࢮࢵࢣ zara ni adv ࡊࡽ࡟ found everyࣥࢆ௜ࡅࡲࡍ attaches/assigns a

where, very common

number (to an athlete)

zárazara (shita) adj ࡊࡽࡊࡽ ࡋࡓ zekkĿ (no) adj ⤯ዲ(ࡢ) best; ~-chø ⤯ዲㄪ best condition rough(-textured) zarigani n ࢨࣜ࢞ࢽ crawfish zémi n ࢮ࣑, zeminå´ru ࢮ࣑ࢼ࣮ zarú n ࡊࡿ࣭ࢨࣝ a bamboo ࣝ seminar zén n ၿ goodness; ~-aku ၿᝏ sieve/colander zăsai n ࢨ࣮ࢧ࢖ Chinese pickles good and evil, right and wrong; zasetsu n ᣸ᢡ falling by the way- ]pQ·L n ၿព goodwill; zén-sho n ၿฎ [BOOKISH]: ~ shimásu ၿฎ side, frustration, setback, fail; ~-kan ᣸ᢡឤ feeling of frustraࡋࡲࡍ “I will do my best” (about tion, sense of failure; ~ shimásu the matter) = Don’t expect me to ᣸ᢡࡋࡲࡍ gets frustrated, falls do anything. Zén n ⚙ Zen (Buddhism) by the wayside, fails zatsu (na) adj 㞧 ࡞ coarse, crude zen n ⮃ (o-zen ࠾⮃, gó-zen ᚚ⮃) zatto adv ࡊࡗ࡜ roughly; briefly (traditional individual low) meal … ze interj …ࡐ (mostly male. table, dining tray VERY INFORMAL) indeed, I tell you zén-… prefix ඲… all, total, whole, zé-hi adv ࡐࡦ࣭᫝㠀 1. without complete, the whole; zén-bu adv ඲ fail, for sure: 2. [BOOKISH] right 㒊 everything, completely: ~ de and wrong, pros and cons; shikei ඲㒊࡛ altogether; ]HQ·LQ n ඲ဨ (seido) no ~ Ṛฮ ไᗘ ࡢ᫝㠀 everyone; zén-koku (no) adj ඲ᅜ pros and cons of the death penalty ࡢ nation-wide; zen-men n ඲㠃 zéi n ⛯ tax (= ~-kin ⛯㔠); shøhi-~ the entire surface; zen-metsu n ඲




⁛ annihilation; zen-shin n ඲㌟ zettai ni ⤯ᑐ࡟ totally, absolutely the whole body, body as a whole; zi… A j… zen-tai n ඲య the whole, entirety: … zo interj …ࡒ (mostly male. ~ no ඲యࡢ entire, whole; ~ ni VERY INFORMAL) indeed, I tell ඲య࡟ wholly, generally; zén-tai you adv ඲య originally, primarily (= ]Ŀ n ീ 1. statue (= chø-~ ᙮ീ) gánrai ඖ᮶); zen-zen adv ඲↛࣭ 2. image: terebi ei-~ ࢸࣞࣅᫎ ࡐࢇࡐࢇ { [+ NEGATIVE verb] (not) ീ images on TV screen: ga-~ ⏬ ീ picture, image 3. portrait (= at all, (not) ever | [INFORMAL] shø-~ ⫝̸ീ) completely, utterly, entirely, ]Ŀ n ࢰ࣭࢘㇟ elephant altogether zén-… prefix ๓…[BOOKISH] ]Ŀ« prefix ቑ increase; ]ĿGDL former, earlier (= máe no … ๓ n ቑ኱ enlargement, increase; ࡢ…); ]HQFKĿ n ๓඙ omen, sign; ]ĿKR n ቑ⿵ supplement; ]ĿND n zén-go n ๓ᚋ { before and after; ቑຍ increase, growth; ]ĿU\Ŀ n ahead and behind; back and forth ቑ㔞 increase (quantity); ]ĿVDWVX | sequence, order; …-zén-go suffix n ቑๅ reprint (publishing); ]Ŀ shin n ቑ㐍 promotion, better…๓ᚋ approximately, around, about (= teido ⛬ᗘ); zen-han n ๓ ment, increase ༙ the first half; zen-men n ๓㠃 ]ĿJDQ n ㇟║ inlaid work; damathe front side; zen-rei n ๓౛ scene precedent, prior example; zén-sha ]ĿND n 㐀ⰼ artificial flower n ๓⪅ the former; zen-shin n ๓㐍 zĿNHL n 㐀ユ profound knowledge advance; zen-tei n ๓ᥦ premise; (of academics, arts, technologies, zén-to n ๓㏵ the future, prospects; etc.): ~ ga fukai 㐀ユࡀ῝࠸ is ]pQ·\D n ๓ኪ the night before well versed zenmai n ࡐࢇࡲ࠸࣭ࢮ࣐ࣥ࢖ 1. a ]ĿNLQ n ࡒ࠺ࡁࢇ࣭㞧ᕵ rag, spring, hairspring, clock-spring dustcloth 2. royal fern, osmund zoku n ㈫ robber, bandit, thief zensoku n ࡐࢇࡑࡃ࣭ႍᜥ asthma …´-zoku suffix …᪘ (name of zeppeki n ⤯ቨ precipice certain) tribe/gang/group of …; zérii n ࢮ࣮ࣜ jelly the …s zéro n ࢮࣟ zero zokugo n ಑ㄒ slang zetsubĿ n ⤯ᮃ despair zoku (na) adj ಑ ࡞ common, zetsuen shimásu v ⤯⦕ࡋࡲࡍ vulgar; popular zoku-shimásu, zoku-súru v ᒓࡋࡲࡍ, insulates zettai (no) adv ⤯ᑐ ࡢ absolute: ᒓࡍࡿ belongs 328


zokú zoku adv ࡒࡃࡒࡃ࣭⥆ࠎ

zurashimásu, zurasu

a good thing too far, takes one right after another, in rapid advantage of a person; zu-an n ᅗ ᱌ sketch, design; ]XK\Ŀ n succession zóku zoku shimásu (suru) v ࡒࡃࡒࡃ ᅗ⾲ chart, diagram (= chåto ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍࡿ 1. is thrilled with ࢳ࣮ࣕࢺ); zu-kai n ᅗゎ illustraexcitement 2. shivers with chill tion, diagram zonbún (ni) adv Ꮡศ ࡟ as much …-zu suffix …ࡎ, …-zu ni …ࡎ࡟ as one likes = …-nái de …࡞࠸࡛ (not doing, zóngai adv Ꮡእ beyond expecta- instead of doing) zubari adv ࡎࡤࡾ [INFORMAL] tions ]ĿQL n 㞧↻࣭ࡒ࠺࡟ rice cakes frankly: ~ iimásu ࡎࡤࡾゝ࠸ࡲ boiled with vegetables (eaten as ࡍ comes directly to the point zubón n ࢬ࣎ࣥ trousers, pants, New Year’s soup) zon-jiagemásu, zon-jiageru v Ꮡࡌ࠶ slacks; zubon-shita n ࢬ࣎ࣥୗ ࡆࡲࡍ, Ꮡࡌ࠶ࡆࡿ [HUMBLE] underpants, shorts; zubon-tsuri n ࢬ࣎ࣥྞࡾ suspenders thinks, feels; knows zon-jimásu, zon-jíru v Ꮡࡌࡲࡍ, Ꮡ zubutoi adv ᅗኴ࠸ thick-skinned, ࡌࡿ [HUMBLE/DEFERENTIAL] impudent: ~ shinkei ᅗኴ࠸⚄⤒ thinks, feels; knows nerves of steel zonzái (na) adj ࡒࢇࡊ࠸ ࡞ slov- zúibun adv ࡎ࠸ࡪࢇ࣭㝶ศ 1. enly, rough, carelessly, sloppy fairly, rather 2. very, quite, ]ĿUL n ⲡᒚ straw sandals extremely (= kanari ࠿࡞ࡾ) zórozoro adv ࡒࢁࡒࢁ in streams/ zuihitsu n 㝶➹ essays zúii (no) adj 㝶ព ࡢ voluntary, crowds, in large numbers ]ĿVHQ n 㐀⯪ shipbuilding; ]ĿVHQMy optional (= nin’i (no) ௵ព ࡢ ) n 㐀⯪ᡤ shipyard zúiji adv 㝶᫬ as needed, at zĿVKR n ⶶ᭩ book collection, anytime as one likes -zuke suffix ௜ࡅ dated library ]ĿVXL n 㞧⅕ rice boiled in a soup …-zuki suffix …ዲࡁ a lover of …, zo¯-tei n ㉗࿊ [HUMBLE] presentaa great … fan zúkku n ࢬࢵࢡ canvas; duck (fabric) tion: ~ shimásu ㉗࿊ࡋࡲࡍ …-zúkuri suffix …㐀ࡾ made of … presents zotto adv ࡒࡗ࡜ with a shudder/ ]ŗPX n ࢬ࣮࣒ zoom (camera) ]~QĿ n 㢌⬻ [BOOKISH] brains, shiver zu n ᅗ picture, drawing, chart, head, intellect (= atama 㢌) zurashimásu, zurasu v ࡎࡽࡋࡲࡍ, map, diagram, figure: ~ ni norimásu ᅗ࡟஌ࡾࡲࡍ pushes ࡎࡽࡍ shifts 329



zuré n ࡎࢀ discrepancy, lag, gap zuremásu, zuréru v ࡎࢀࡲࡍ, ࡎࢀ ࡿ slips out of place, gets loose ]XUĿVX n ࢬ࣮ࣟࢫ panties; drawers zúru n ࡎࡿ cheating; zuru-gashikoi adj ࡎࡿ㈼࠸ cunning, wily; zurúi adj ࡎࡿ࠸ sly, cunning, tricky; zuru-yásumi n ࡎࡿఇࡳ skipping

each, apiece, at a time ]XWVŗ n 㢌③ headache: ~ no táne 㢌③ࡢ✀ one’s biggest headache zutto adv ࡎࡗ࡜ 1. directly 2. by far, much (more): ~ máe ࡎࡗ࡜ ๓ way back (before), a long time ago 3. all the way through,

all the time ]ŗ]ŗVKtL adj ࡎ࠺ࡎ࠺ࡋ࠸࣭ᅗࠎ (school); truancy zusan (na) adj ࡎࡉࢇ ࡞ sloppy, ࡋ࠸ brazen, shameless, impudent slipshod, careless, slovenly (= atsukamashii ཌ࠿ࡲࡋ࠸) …´zútsu suffix …ࡎࡘ (of/for) zy… A j…





A a, an A one (but usually omitted

in Japanese) abacus n soroban ࡑࢁࡤࢇ abandon v sutemásu ᤞ࡚ࡲࡍ abase v otoshimásu ⴠ࡜ࡋࡲࡍ abate v 1. (lose steam) osamarimásu ἞ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, yawaragimásu ࿴ࡽࡂࡲࡍ 2. herashimásu ῶ ࡽࡋࡲࡍ 3. (exclude) haijo shimásu ᤼㝖ࡋࡲࡍ; (resolve) mukø ni shimásu ↓ຠ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ abbreviate v ryakushimásu ␎ࡋࡲࡍ abdicate v 1. shirizokimásu ㏥ࡁࡲ ࡍ, jinin shimásu ㎡௵ࡋࡲࡍ 2. ~ the throne taii shimásu ㏥఩ ࡋࡲࡍ abdomen n onaka ࠾࡞࠿࣭࠾⭡, fukubu ⭡㒊, hara ⭡ abduct v yükai shimásu ㄏᣂࡋࡲࡍ aberration n dassen ⬺⥺, itsudatsu 㐓⬺, seishin ijø ⢭⚄␗ᖖ abet v keshikakemásu ࡅࡋ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ abeyance n ichiji teishi ୍᫬೵Ṇ, horyü ಖ␃ abhor v (dislike intensely) nikumimásu ៮ࡳࡲࡍ, (not favored) kiraimásu ᎘࠸ࡲࡍ abide v 1. (stay) nokórimásu ṧࡾ ࡲࡍ, todomarimásu ␃ࡲࡾࡲࡍ 2. (dwell) sumimásu ఫࡳࡲࡍ 3. (suffer) gaman shimásu ᡃ៏ࡋ ࡲࡍ, ...ni taemásu ... ࡟⪏࠼ࡲࡍ ability n 1. (skill) nøryoku ⬟ຊ, udemae ⭎๓, o-)témae ࠾ ᡭ

๓; (stuff) kíryø ჾ㔞, utsuwa ჾ ࣭࠺ࡘࢃ 2. (function) hataraki ാࡁ; (proficiency) jitsuryoku ᐇຊ 3. (talent) sái(nø) ᡯ ⬟ abject adj mijime (na) ᝺ࡵ ࡞ , hisán (na) ᝒ᝺ ࡞ ablaze adj 1. (shiny) kagayaiteiru ㍤࠸࡚࠸ࡿ 2. (burning) moeteiru ⇞࠼࡚࠸ࡿ able A can abnormal adj (abnormality) ijø (na) ␗ᖖ ࡞ aboard v gets ~ norimásu ஌ࡾࡲࡍ abode n ie ᐙ, jükyo ఫᒃ, jütaku ఫᏯ abolish v (demolish) haishi shimásu ᗫṆࡋࡲࡍ, yamemásu Ṇࡵࡲࡍ aborigine n aborijini ࢔࣎ࣜࢪࢽ, aborijinii ࢔࣎ࣜࢪࢽ࣮, genjümin ཎఫẸ, senjümin ඛఫẸ abort v chüshi shimásu ୰Ṇࡋࡲࡍ abortion n datai ለ⫾, ninshin chü´zetsu ዷፎ୰⤯ abound v tomimásu ᐩࡳࡲࡍ about prep 1. (an amount) yáku ... ⣙..., ... gúrai ...఩, ... hodo ...⛬, ...-zéngo... ๓ᚋ, ...-kéntø ...ぢᙜ 2. (a time) ... góro (ni) ... 㡭 ࡟ 3. (concerning) ... ni tsúite (no) ... ࡟ࡘ࠸࡚ ࡢ above prep ... (no) úé (ni) ... ࡢ ୖ ࡟ abrade v 1. (to wear down) suri-




hera shimásu ࡍࡾῶࡽࡋࡲࡍ, (to be worn away) mamø sasemásu ☻⪖ࡉࡏࡲࡍ 2. (chafe) iraira sasemasu ࢖ࣛ࢖ࣛࡉࡏࡲࡍ abreast adv yokó ni narande ᶓ࡟ ୪ࢇ࡛; not ~ of ...ni utói ...࡟␯

kinshu ⚗㓇 abstract adj chüshø-teki (na) ᢳ㇟

ⓗ ࡞ absurd adj baka-rashíi ࡤ࠿ࡽࡋ࠸ abundance n tómi ᐩ abundant adj yútaka (na) ㇏࠿ ࡞ abuse 1. n warú-kuchi/-guchi ᝏཱྀ ࠸࣭࠺࡜࠸ abridge v (shorten) tanshuku 2. A scold, mistreat abusive adj ranbø (na) ஘ᭀ ࡞ , shimásu ▷⦰ࡋࡲࡍ, yøyaku shimásu せ⣙ࡋࡲࡍ; (abate) kuchigitanai ཱྀở࠸, warui ᝏ࠸ abysmal adj hidói ࡦ࡝࠸࣭㓞࠸, hera shimásu ῶࡽࡋࡲࡍ abroad adv gaikoku (de) እᅜ ࡛ , sokonuke (no) ᗏᢤࡅࡢ, káigai (de) ᾏእ ࡛ ; study abroad hakarishirenai ィࡾ▱ࢀ࡞࠸ n ryügaku ␃Ꮫ abyss n chi no soko ᆅࡢᗏ, abrupt adj totsuzen (no) ✺↛ ࡢ shin’en ῝㐲, naraku ዉⴠ, abscond v nigemásu ㏨ࡆࡲࡍ donzoko ࡝ࢇᗏ absence n kesseki (no) Ḟᖍ ࡢ , AC, alternating current n køryü ஺ὶ (from home) rúsu (no) ␃Ᏺ ࡢ academic adj akádemikku ࢔࢝ࢹ absent v kesseki shimásu Ḟᖍ ࣑ࢵࢡ, gakumon Ꮫၥ ࡋࡲࡍ academy n gakkø´ Ꮫᰯ absolute adv zettai (no) ⤯ᑐ ࡢ accede v tsugimásu ⥅ࡂࡲࡍ, døi absolutely adv zettai ni ⤯ᑐ࡟, shimásu ྠពࡋࡲࡍ; accede to v honto (hontø) ni ᮏᙜ࣭࡯ࢇ࡜ ... ni ø-jimásu ...࡟ᛂࡌࡲࡍ ࡯ࢇ࡜࠺ ࡟; ~ cannot tøtei accelerate v kasóku shimásu ຍ㏿ ฿ᗏ + [NAGATIVE] ࡋࡲࡍ absorbed adj (fascinated) uttóri accent n ákusento ࢔ࢡࢭࣥࢺ (to) ࠺ࡗ࡜ࡾ ࡜ ; gets ~ in ... ni accept v 1. ukemásu ཷࡅࡲࡍ, korimásu ...࡟จࡾࡲࡍ uke-torimásu ཷࡅྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, ukeabsorption n kyüshü ྾཰ tsukemásu ཷࡅ௜ࡅࡲࡍ abstain v 1. (stops) yamemásu 2. (consents) shødaku shimásu ᢎ ࡸࡵࡲࡍ࣭Ṇࡵࡲࡍ, (refrains ㅙࡋࡲࡍ; ~ a bill (of payment) from) tsutsushimimasu ៅࡳࡲࡍ; tegata o hiki-ukemásu ᡭᙧࢆᘬ ~ from ... o yamemásu ... ࢆࡸࡵ ࡁཷࡅࡲࡍ ࡲࡍ, tachimásu ᩿ࡕࡲࡍ 2. acceptance n 1. shødaku ᢎㅙ (does not vote) kíken shimásu Რ 2. (resignation) akirame ㅉࡵ ᶒࡋࡲࡍ access; seeks ~ to ... ni sekkin o abstinence n jisei ⮬ไ, sessei ⠇ไ, hakarimásu ...࡟᥋㏆ࢆᅗࡾࡲࡍ




accessory n (clothing ~; belt, accost v kóe o kakemásu ኌࢆ࠿ handbag, etc.) akusesarii ࢔ࢡࢭ ࡅࡲࡍ, hanashikakemásu ヰࡋ ࢧ࣮ࣜ ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ accident n 1. jíko ஦ᨾ, dekígoto account n 1. (bill) kanjø´ ຺ᐃ ฟ᮶஦ 2. (disaster) sønan 㐼㞴 2. (credit) tsuké ࡘࡅ 3. (bank ~) accidentally adv güzen ni അ↛࡟, køza ཱྀᗙ, yokin 㡸㔠; on account of ... no séi de ... ࡢࡏ࠸࡛ A hyótto ࡦࡻࡗ࡜ acclaim 1. n shøsan ⛠㈶ 2. v because A sake (for the); takes into account kø´ryo ni iremásu ⪃៖࡟ shøsan shimásu ⛠㈶ࡋࡲࡍ accommodate v shukuhaku sasemá- ධࢀࡲࡍ su ᐟἩࡉࡏࡲࡍ, tekiø shimásu accountant n kaikei(-gákari) ఍ィ 㐺ᛂࡋࡲࡍ ಀ , kaikéi-shi ఍ィኈ accommodation n (place to stay) accounts n (o-)kaikei ࠾ ఍ィ accumulate v 1. (it ~s) tsumorimásu shukuhaku shisetsu ᐟἩ᪋タ; ✚ࡶࡾࡲࡍ, tamarimásu ࡓࡲࡾ (facilities) sétsubi タഛ accompany v 1. ~ ... to issho ni ࡲࡍ; tsumemásu ࡘࡵࡲࡍ; atsuikimásu ...࡜ ୍⥴࡟⾜ࡁࡲࡍ; marimásu 㞟ࡲࡾࡲࡍ 2. (~s it) ...ni tomonaimásu ...࡟క࠸ࡲࡍ tsumimásu ✚ࡳࡲࡍ, tamemásu 2. is accompanied by (= brings ࡓࡵࡲࡍ; atsumemásu 㞟ࡵࡲࡍ accurate adj seikaku (na) ṇ☜ ࡞ along) ... o tsuremásu ... ࢆ㐃 ࢀࡲࡍ accuse v uttaemásu ッ࠼ࡲࡍ; accomplice n kyøhansha ඹ≢⪅, (criticizes) hínan shimásu 㠀㞴 ࡋࡲࡍ ichimi ୍࿡ accomplish v 1. (shite) shimaimásu accustom v ~ oneself to ... ni nar ࡋ࡚ ࡋࡲ࠸ࡲࡍ; hatashimásu emásu ... ࡟័ࢀࡲࡍ ᯝࡓࡋࡲࡍ; togemásu 㐙ࡆࡲࡍ ache 1. v (it aches) itamimásu ③ 2. (attains) ...ni tas-shimásu ...࡟ ࡳࡲࡍ 2. n (an ache) itamí ③ࡳ 㐩ࡋࡲࡍ 㐩ࡍࡿ, 㐩ࡋ࡚ ; ... ga achieve A accomplish achievement n (work) hataraki ാࡁ kanaimásu ... ࡀ࠿࡞࠸ࡲࡍ accordance n itchi ୍⮴; in ~ with acid 1. n sán 㓟 2. adj suppái 㓟ࡗ ... ni ø-jite ...࡟ᛂࡌ࡚... ni shi- ࡥ࠸ tagátte ...࡟ࡋࡓࡀࡗ࡚࣭ᚑࡗ࡚ acknowledge v mitomemásu ㄆ according (to) adj 1. (relying on) ࡵࡲࡍ acoustic n 1. akø´sutíkku (gakki) ... ni yoru to ...࡟ࡼࡿ࡜, ... no ࢔ࢥ࣮ࢫࢸ࢕ࢵࢡ ᴦჾ hanashíde (wa) ...ࡢヰ࡛ ࡣ 2. (in conformity with) ... ni 2. onkyø 㡢㡪 acquaint v ~ oneself with (... o) shitagatte ...࡟ᚑࡗ࡚




shirimásu ...ࢆ ▱ࡾࡲࡍ; is acquainted with ... o shitte imásu ... ࢆ▱ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ acquaintance n shiriai ▱ࡾྜ࠸, chijin ▱ே acquiesce v fukujü shimásu ᭹ᚑ ࡋࡲࡍ acquire A get acquit v shakuhø´ shimásu 㔘ᨺࡋ ࡲࡍ, kaihø shimásu ゎᨺࡋࡲࡍ, muzai ni shim£su ↓⨥࡟ࡋࡲࡍ acre n ëkå ࢚࣮࣮࢝ acrobat n akurobátto ࢔ࢡࣟࣂࢵࢺ, kyokugei ᭤ⱁ acronym n kashira moji 㢌ᩥᏐ across prep, adv ... (no) mukø(ni) ... ࡢ ྥࡇ࠺ ࡟ , múkø ྥࡇ࠺; across the way mukø ྥࡇ࠺, mukøgawa ྥࡇ࠺ഃ; cuts ~ yoko-girimásu ᶓษࡾࡲࡍ act n 1. A do 2. (deed) shiwaza ࡋࢃࡊ࣭௙ᴗ, okonai ⾜࠸, kø´i ⾜Ⅽ 3. (of play) makú ᖥ; dán ẁ 4. høritsu ἲᚊ acting 1. n (play acting) éngi ₇ᢏ 2. A temporary; ~ as agent daikø ௦⾜ action n 1. katsudø άື 2. (conduct) okonai ⾜࠸; (behavior) kødø ⾜ື A activity active adj kappatsu (na) άⓎ ࡞ ; is ~ katsuyaku shimásu ά㌍ࡋ ࡲࡍ activity n 1. katsudø άື, katsuyaku ά㌍ 2. (work) hataraki ാࡁ 3. (agency) kikán ᶵ㛵 A exercise A movement

actor n yakusha ᙺ⪅, haiyü ತඃ actress n joyü ዪඃ actual adj jissai (no) ᐇ㝿 ࡢ ; ~ conditions genjitsu ⌧ᐇ actually adv jitsú wa ᐇࡣ, jitsu ní ᐇ࡟ acupuncture n hári ࡣࡾ࣭㙀 acute adj 1. (sharp) surudói 㗦࠸ 2. (severe) hageshíi ⃭ࡋ࠸ 3. (sudden) kyüsei (no) ᛴᛶ ࡢ adamant adj katái ࠿ࡓ࠸࣭◳࠸࣭ ᅛ࠸, gánko (na) 㡹ᅛ ࡞ , dánko (to shita) ᩿ᅛ ࡜ࡋࡓ adapt v tekigø´ sasemásu 㐺ྜࡉ ࡏࡲࡍ adaptability n yüzü ⼥㏻; is adaptable yüzü ga kikimásu ⼥㏻ࡀࡁ ࡁࡲࡍ adapter n adáputå´ ࢔ࢲࣉࢱ࣮ add v kuwaemásu ຍ࠼ࡲࡍ;

(supplements it with) soemásu ῧ࠼ࡲࡍ; yosemásu ᐤࡏࡲࡍ addict n jøyø´-sha ᖖ⏝⪅, chüdoku (-sha) ୰ẘ ⪅ , izón-sha ౫Ꮡ⪅ addition n tsuiká ㏣ຍ, tenká ῧຍ; in ~ to ...no hoka (ni) ...ࡢ௚ ࡟ , [BOOKISH]... no tá (ni) ...ࡢ௚ ࡟ address 1. n jüsho ఫᡤ, (...) saki ... ඛ, (house number) banchi ␒ᆅ, (written) tokoro-gaki ᡤ᭩ ࡁ, adoresu ࢔ࢻࣞࢫ; contact address n renraku-saki 㐃⤡ඛ; e-mail address n mëru ádoresu (meru-ado) ࣓࣮ࣝ࢔ࢻࣞࢫ ࣓ࣝ ࢔ࢻ 2. n enzetsu ₇ㄝ 3. v torikumimásu ྲྀࡾ⤌ࡳࡲࡍ adequate adj ...-no tame (ni) ...ࡢ 335



ࡓࡵ ࡟ shimásu 㣴ዪ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ adhere v kuttsukimásu ࡃࡗࡘࡁࡲ adorable adj kawaíi ࠿ࢃ࠸࠸࣭ྍ ࡍ; fucháku shimásu ௜╔ࡋࡲࡍ ឡ࠸, kawairashíi ࠿ࢃ࠸ࡽࡋ࠸࣭ adjacent adj 1. A next 2. is ~ to ྍឡࡽࡋ࠸, airashíi ឡࡽࡋ࠸ ...ni ses-shimásu ...࡟᥋ࡋࡲࡍ adore v akogaremásu ࠶ࡇࡀࢀ adjective n keiyø´shi ᙧᐜモ >៿ࢀ@ࡲࡍ adjoining A next adult n otona ࠾࡜࡞࣭኱ே, seijin adjust v totonoemásu ᩚ࠼ࡲࡍ ᡂே chøsei/séiri/kagen shimásu ㄪᩚ adultery n kantsü ጮ㏻, furin ୙೔ ᩚ⌮/ຍῶࡋࡲࡍ advance 1. n zenshin ๓㐍 2. n in ~ adjustment n chøsei ㄪᩚ, séiri ᩚ sono máe ni ࡑࡢ๓࡟; (before⌮, kagen ຍῶ, chøsetsu ㄪ⠇ hand) mae motte ๓ࡶࡗ࡚, jizen administration n 1. (of government) ni ஦๓࡟ 3. v (goes ahead) gyøsei ⾜ᨻ 2. (of business) keiei susumimásu 㐍ࡳࡲࡍ; (~s it) ⤒Ⴀ, kánri ⟶⌮ susumemásu 㐍ࡵࡲࡍ, (lends admirable adj mígoto (na) ぢ஦ money) yüzü shimásu ⼥㏻ࡋࡲࡍ advantage n 1. (o-)toku ࠾ ᚓ, ࡞ , rippa (na) ❧ὴ ࡞ admiral n táishø ኱ᑗ (benefit) ríeki ฼┈; takes ~ of ... admire v kanshin shimásu ឤᚰ o riyø shimásu ...ࢆ฼⏝ࡋࡲࡍ ࡋࡲࡍ, homemásu 〔ࡵࡲࡍ, 2. (merit) chø´sho 㛗ᡤ akogaremásu ࠶ࡇࡀࢀ>៿ࢀ@ advent n shutsugen ฟ⌧, tørai ฿᮶, kirisuto no kørin ࢟ࣜࢫࢺ ࡲࡍ admission n (to hospital) nyüin ධ ࡢ㝆⮫ 㝔; (to school) nyügaku ධᏛ; (to adventure n bøken ෑ㝤 a place) nyüjø ධሙ; admission fee adverb n fukushi ๪モ n nyüjø´-ryø ධሙᩱ adversary n (o-)aite ࠾ ┦ᡭ admit v 1. (lets in) iremásu ධࢀࡲ adverse adj fúri (na) ୙฼ ࡞ , ࡍ, tøshimásu ㏻ࡋࡲࡍ 2. (acgyakkyø (no) ㏫ቃ ࡢ knowledges) mitomemásu ㄆࡵ advertisement, ad n køkoku ᗈ࿌ ࡲࡍ; (confesses) uchi-akemásu advice n 1. adobáisu ࢔ࢻࣂ࢖ࢫ, ᡴࡕ᫂ࡅࡲࡍ chükoku ᛅ࿌ 2. (consultation) admonish v chükoku shimásu ᛅ࿌ sødan ┦ㄯ ࡋࡲࡍ, chüi shimásu ὀពࡋࡲࡍ, adviser n (consultant) komon 㢳ၥ, sødan aite ┦ㄯ┦ᡭ kankoku shimásu ່࿌ࡋࡲࡍ adolescent n seinen 㟷ᖺ advocate v tonaemásu ၐ࠼ࡲࡍ adopt v (a boy) yøshi ni shimásu aerobics n earobíkusu ࢚࢔ࣟࣅࢡࢫ 㣴Ꮚ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ; (a girl) yø´jo ni aesthetic adj bi-teki (na) ⨾ⓗ࡞




afar adv tøku (ni) 㐲ࡃ ࡟ , enpø 㐲᪉; from ~ tøku kara 㐲ࡃ࠿ࡽ affable adj áiso/áisø ga íi ࠶࠸ ࡑ࠶࠸ࡑ࠺>ឡ᝿@ࡀ࠸࠸, hitozuki no suru ேዲࡁࡢࡍࡿ, shitashimiyasui ぶࡋࡳࡸࡍ࠸ affair n 1. kotó ஦, kotogara ஦᯶, jíken ஦௳, shigoto ௙஦ 2. (love ~) (extramarital) uwaki ᾋẼ affect A influence affection n nasake ᝟ࡅ(o-)násake ࠾ ᝟ࡅ, aijø ឡ᝟ affiliate 1. v kamei shimásu ຍ┕ ࡋࡲࡍ 2. n ko-gaisha Ꮚ఍♫, shiten ᨭᗑ affirmation n køtei ⫯ᐃ affix v setsuji ᥋㎡, tenkábutsu ῧຍ≀ affliction n kurushimi ⱞࡋࡳ afford v (jübun na) (o-)kane ga arimásu ༑ศ࡞ ࠾ 㔠ࡀ࠶ࡾ ࡲࡍ; yoyü ga arimásu వ⿱ࡀ࠶ ࡾࡲࡍ affront 1. v bujoku shimásu ౲㎯ ࡋࡲࡍ 2. n bujoku ౲㎯ Afghanistan n Afuganísutan ࢔ࣇ ࢞ࢽࢫࢱࣥ afloat adj, adv ukan da/de ᾋ࠿ࢇ ࡔ࡛; afloat cargo n okini ἈⲴ afraid; is ~ of ... (...ga) kowái desu ...ࡀ ᛧ࠸࡛ࡍ, (...o) kowagarimásu ...ࢆ ᛧࡀࡾࡲࡍ Africa n Afurika ࢔ࣇࣜ࢝ after 1. prep ... kará ...࠿ࡽ, ... (no) áto de ... ࡢ ᚋ࡛ 2. adv ... shita ato ni/de ...ࡋࡓᚋ࡟࡛; after a long time adv (of absence)

hisashi-buri ni ஂࡋࡪࡾ࡟; after a while adv shibáraku shite ࡋࡤ ࡽࡃࡋ࡚; after all adv kekkyokú ⤖ ᒁ; yappári ࡸࡗࡥࡾ, yappáshi ࡸ ࡗࡥࡋ; tsúmari ࡘࡲࡾ; After you! interj Døzo o-saki ni ࡝࠺ࡒ࠾ ඛ࡟ afternoon n, adv hirú kara ᫨࠿ࡽ, gógo ༗ᚋ aftertaste n ató-aji ᚋ࿡; leaves a bad ~ atóaji ga warúi ᚋ࿡ࡀᝏ࠸ after(ward) adv ato ᚋ afterwards adv áto de ᚋ࡛ again adv mø ichi-dó ࡶ࠺୍ᗘ, mø ik-kái ࡶ࠺୍ᅇ; matá ࡲࡓ࣭ ཪ; aratámete ᨵࡵ࡚, kurikaeshimásu (ga) ⧞ࡾ㏉ࡋࡲࡍ ࡀ against prep 1. (in contrast to) ...ni táishite ...࡟ᑐࡋ࡚; (contrary to) ...ni hán-shite ...࡟཯ࡋ࡚ 2. (running into) ... ni butsukatte ...࡟ࡪࡘ࠿ࡗ࡚ 3. (leaning on) ...ni motárete (no) ...࡟ࡶࡓࢀ࡚ ࡢ age 1. n toshí ࡜ࡋ࣭ᖺ࣭ṓ, nenrei ᖺ㱋; your ~ (o-)toshi ࠾ ᖺ, [BOOKISH] nenrei ᖺ㱋 2. n (era) jidai ᫬௦ 3. v (gets old) toshí o torimásu ᖺࢆྲྀࡾࡲࡍ, fukemásu ⪁ࡅࡲࡍ agency n 1. dairi ௦⌮, dairí-ten ௦⌮ᗑ 2. (organization) kikán ᶵ㛵 aggression n shinryaku ౵␎ agile adj kibin (na) ᶵᩄ ࡞ , binshø (na) ᩄᤩ ࡞ , subayái ࡍࡤࡸ࠸࣭⣲᪩࠸




agitation n 1. døyø ືᦂ 2. køfun ⯆ዧ ago adv ...máe ni ...๓࡟; a little while ~ (tsui) sákki ࡘ࠸ ࡉࡗ ࡁ, (tsui) saki-hodo ࡘ࠸ ඛ⛬ agony n kurushimi ⱞࡋࡳ, kutsü ⱞ③ agrarian adj nøgyø (no) ㎰ᴗ ࡢ , nømin (no) ㎰Ẹ ࡢ agree v 1. (approves) sansei shimásu ㈶ᡂࡋࡲࡍ; (concurs) døi shimásu ྠពࡋࡲࡍ 2. (promises) yakusoku shimásu ⣙ ᮰ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (accords with) ... ni kanaimásu ...࡟࠿࡞࠸ࡲࡍ, ... to itchi shimásu ...࡜୍⮴ࡋࡲࡍ; ~ with (in harmony) ... to chøwa shimásu ...࡜ㄪ࿴ࡋࡲࡍ agreement n 1. (promise) yakusoku ⣙᮰; (contract) keiyaku ዎ⣙; (treaty) jøyaku ᮲⣙ 2. (understanding) shøchi ᢎ▱; (consensus) itchi ୍⮴, døi ྠព, gø´i ྜព agriculture n nø´gyø ㎰ᴗ ahead adv (o-)saki (ni) ࠾ ඛ ࡟ ; gets ~ susumimásu 㐍ࡳࡲࡍ AI abbrev (= artificial intelligence) E-ai AI, jinkōchinō ேᕤ▱⬟ aid A help AIDS n éizu ࢚࢖ࢬ, AIDS aikido n aikídø ྜẼ㐨 ailing adj byøki de ⑓Ẽ࡛, byøki ryøyøchü (no) ⑓Ẽ⒪㣴୰ ࡢ aim n 1. nerai ≺࠸, méate ┠ᙜ࡚; kentø´ ぢᙜ; (target) mato ⓗ; takes ~ kentø´ o tsukemásu ぢᙜ

ࢆࡘࡅࡲࡍ 2. (goal) mokuteki ┠ⓗ; (direction) høshin ᪉㔪 aimless adj mokuteki ga/no nái ┠ⓗࡀࡢ࡞࠸ air 1. n kü´ki ✵Ẽ 2. n (manner) furí ࡩࡾ; (appearance) fü´ 㢼 3. n (tune) fushí ⠇ 4. v ~s it (dry) hoshimásu ᖸࡋࡲࡍ air base n kügun kíchi ✵㌷ᇶᆅ air conditioner, air conditioning n kü´rå ࢡ࣮࣮ࣛ, eakon ࢚࢔ࢥࣥ, reibø (sø´chi) ෭ᡣ ⿦⨨ aircraft n hikøki 㣕⾜ᶵ; aircraft carrier n køkü bokan ⯟✵ẕⰄ airline n (company) køkü-gáisha ⯟✵఍♫ airplane n hikø´-ki 㣕⾜ᶵ airport n kükø ✵ , hikøjø 㣕⾜ሙ airsick(ness) n hikø-yoi 㣕⾜㓉࠸ airy adj 1. kaze tøshi no yoi 㢼㏻ ࡋࡢࡼ࠸ 2. keikai (na) ㍍ᛌ ࡞ 3. keihaku (na) ㍍ⷧ ࡞ aisle n tsü´ro ㏻㊰ ajar adj 1. sukoshi hiráite ᑡࡋ㛤 ࠸࡚ 2. chøwa shinái (de) ㄪ࿴ ࡋ࡞࠸ ࡛ alarm n keihø (sø´chi) ㆙ሗ ⿦⨨ alarm clock n aråmu ࢔࣮࣒ࣛ, mezamashi(-dókei) ┠ぬࡋ ᫬ィ alas prep áa ࠶࠶, åá ࠶࣮࠶ album n (photograph) arubamu ࢔ࣝࣂ࣒; (stamp) kitte-chø ษᡭᖒ alcoholic n arukøru chüdoku-sha ࢔ࣝࢥ࣮ࣝ୰ẘ⪅ alert n (alarm) keihø ㆙ሗ, aråto ࢔࣮ࣛࢺ




alias n gimei ഇྡ, betsumei ูྡ, tsüshø ㏻⛠ alibi n aribái ࢔ࣜࣂ࢖ alien n 1. yosó (no) ࡼࡑ ࡢ 2. (an alien) A foreigner 3. uchüjin Ᏹᐂே, éirian ࢚࢖ࣜ࢔ࣥ alienate v sogai shimásu ␯እࡋ ࡲࡍ, tøzakemásu 㐲ࡊࡅࡲࡍ, sodéni shimásu ࡑ࡛࡟ࡋࡲࡍ align v seiretsu shimásu ᩚิࡋࡲ ࡍ, narabimásu ୪ࡧࡲࡍ alike adj onaji (yø´na) ྠࡌ ࡼ࠺ ࡞ , nitéiru ఝ࡚࠸ࡿ alimony n bekkyo téate ูᒃᡭᙜ, rikon téate 㞳፧ᡭᙜ alive adj 1. is ~ íkite imásu ⏕ࡁ ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ 2. keeps it ~ ikashimásu ⏕࠿ࡋࡲࡍ all pron 1. minna ࡳࢇ࡞࣭ⓙ, zen’in ඲ဨ; ~ (concerned/ present) ichidø ୍ྠ 2. zénbu ඲㒊, súbete ඲࡚࣭ࡍ࡭࡚; (everything) íssái ୍ษ, arayúru ࠶ࡽࡺࡿ; not at ~ ࡝࠺࠸ࡓࡋࡲ ࡋ࡚ 3. (completely) sukkári ࡍ ࡗ࠿ࡾ; all along adv (from the beginning) móto kara ඖ࠿ࡽ; all kinds of adj samazama (na) ࡉࡲ ࡊࡲ ࡞ ࣭ᵝࠎ ࡞ , iroiro (na/ no) ࠸ࢁ࠸ࢁ࣭Ⰽࠎ ࡞ࡢ , shúshu (no) ✀ࠎ ࡢ ; all over adv ① (everywhere) høbø ࡯࠺ࡰ ࠺࣭᪉ࠎ; ...-jü ...୰ ② (finished) A end; all of a sudden adv totsuzen (ni) ✺↛ ࡟ , fuini ୙ព࡟, ikinari ࠸ࡁ࡞ࡾ; all the more adv issø ࠸ࡗࡑ࠺୍࣭ᒙ, nao-sara ࡞

࠾ࡉࡽ࣭ᑦ᭦ allay v shizumemásu 㟼ࡵࡲࡍ, yawáragemásu ࿴ࡽࡆࡲࡍ allege v 1. shuchø shimásu ୺ᙇࡋ ࡲࡍ 2. møshitatemásu ⏦ࡋ❧ ࡚ࡲࡍ allergy n arérúgii ࢔ࣞࣝࢠ࣮ alleviate v 1. yawáragemásu ࿴ࡽ ࡆࡲࡍ 2. shizumemásu 㟼ࡵࡲ ࡍ 3. kanwa shimásu ⦆࿴ࡋࡲࡍ alley n róji ㊰ᆅ; (back street) urá ⿬, ura-dø´ri ⿬㏻ࡾ; (side street) yokochø ᶓ⏫>ᶓ୎@ alliance n rengø 㐃ྜ alligator n wáni ࣡ࢽ allocate v wariatemásu ๭ࡾᙜ ࡚ࡲࡍ, haibun shimásu 㓄ศ ࡋࡲࡍ allot v kubarimásu 㓄ࡾࡲࡍ allotment n wariate ๭ࡾᙜ࡚; (share) buntan ศᢸ allow v. 1. (permits) yurushimásu チࡋࡲࡍ 2. A give allowance n (o-)téate ࠾ ᡭᙜ; (grant) kyø´yo ౪୚ alloy n gøkin ྜ㔠 all right adj (OK) daijøbu (na) ኱୔ኵ ࡞ ; (permissible) íi ࠸࠸࣭Ⰻ࠸, yoroshii ࡼࢁࡋ࠸ allude v honomeka shimásu ࡯ࡢ ࡵ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, anji shimásu ᬯ♧ ࡋࡲࡍ allure n miryoku 㨩ຊ, miwaku 㨩ᝨ ally n dåmeikoku ྠ┕ᅜ almost adv hotóndo ࡯࡜ࢇ࡝࣭Ṥ ࡝; daitai ኱య; almost all, almost all




the time n hotóndo ࡯࡜ࢇ࡝࣭ daga ... ࡔࡀ, ... towaie ... ࡜ࡣ࠸࠼ Ṥ࡝ altitude n kø´do 㧗ᗘ alms n hodokoshi (mono) ᪋ࡋ ࡶࡢ altogether adv 1. zénbu de ඲㒊࡛; aloft adv, adj küchü ni/de ✵୰ minná de ࡳࢇ࡞࡛࣭ⓙ࡛ 2. ࡟࡛, takaitokoro ni/de 㧗࠸࡜ (completely) mattakú ࡲࡗࡓࡃ࣭ ࡇࢁ࡟࡛ ඲ࡃ alone adv hitóri (de) ୍ே>⊂ࡾ@ alumni n sotsugyøsei ༞ᴗ⏕; ࡛࣭ࡦ࡜ࡾ ࡛ ; (leave alone) alumni association n døsø-kai ྠ❆఍ let ~ hotte/høtte okimásu ᨺࡗ࡚ always adv ítsu-mo ࠸ࡘࡶ, ࠾ࡁࡲࡍ (usually) fúdan ࡩࡔࢇ࣭ᬑẁ; as always n aikawarazu ┦ኚࢃࡽࡎ along 1. prep, adv ...ni sotte ...࡟ ἢࡗ࡚; (somewhere) ...no doko am A is a.m. adv (morning) gozen ༗๓ ka (de) ...ࡢ࡝ࡇ࠿ ࡛ 2. adv brings/takes ~ jisan shimásu ᣢཧ amalgamate v 1. gappei shimásu ྜ ࡋࡲࡍ; … o tsurete ikimásu … ేࡋࡲࡍ, heigø shimásu ేྜࡋ ࢆ㐃ࢀ࡚⾜ࡁࡲࡍ ࡲࡍ 2. yügø shimásu ⼥ྜࡋࡲ aloof adj takabisha (na) 㧗㣕㌴ ࡞ , ࡍ, mazemásu ΰࡐࡲࡍ otákaku tomatta ࠾㧗ࡃ࡜ࡲࡗࡓ amass v tamemásu ࡓࡵ>㈓ࡵ࣭ aloud adv kóe o/ni dáshite ኌࢆ ⁀ࡵ@ࡲࡍ ࡟ฟࡋ࡚ amateur n amachua ࢔࣐ࢳࣗ࢔; alphabet (ABC) n arufabetto ࢔ࣝࣇ (novice) shírø´to ࡋࢁ࠺࡜࣭⣲ே ࢓࣋ࢵࢺ, ë bii shíi ࢚࣮ࣅ࣮ࢩ࣮ amazement n odoroki ࠾࡝ࢁࡁ࣭ 㦫ࡁ, kyøtan 㦫Ⴣ Alps n arupusu ࢔ࣝࣉࢫ already adv mø´ࡶ࠺, súde-ni ࡍ࡛ambassador n táishi ኱౑ ࡟࣭᪤࡟ ambition n (hope) netsubø ⇕ᮃ, also conj 1. ...mo ...ࡶ,, mátá ࡲࡓ yashin 㔝ᚰ; (energetic spirit) 2. [INFORMAL] yappári ࡸࡗࡥࡾ, háki ぞẼ [BOOKISH] yahári ࡸࡣࡾ, ambivalent adj kokoro ga fuántei altar n saidan ⚍ቭ (na) ᚰࡀ୙Ᏻᐃ ࡞ , ánbibaalter v 1. (clothing) naoshimásu rensu (no) ࢔ࣥࣅࣂࣞࣥࢫ ࡢ , ┤ࡋࡲࡍ 2. aratamemásu ᨵࡵ kattø-teki (na) ⴱ⸨ⓗ࡞ ࡲࡍ, kaemásu ኚ࠼ࡲࡍ ambulance n kyükyü-sha ᩆᛴ㌴ alternate; v ~ (with) køtai shimásu ambush 1. n machibuse ᚅࡕఅࡏ, ஺௦>஺᭰@ࡋࡲࡍ harikomi ᙇࡾ㎸ࡳ, fuiuchi ୙ព alternative adj, n ... (no) hø´ (ga) ᡴࡕ, kishü køgeki ወくᨷᧁ 2. v machibuse shimásu ᚅࡕఅࡏ ... ࡢ ᪉ ࡀ although conj ... no ni ...ࡢ࡟, ... ࡋࡲࡍ, kishü køgeki o kakemásu



Android (phones)

ወくᨷᧁࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ amenable adj jüjun (na) ᚑ㡰 ࡞ , sunao (na) ⣲┤ ࡞ amend v shüsei shimásu ಟṇࡋࡲ ࡍ, kaisei shimásu ᨵṇࡋࡲࡍ amenity n 1. kokochiyosa ᚰᆅࡼ ࡉ, kaiteki-sa/sei ᛌ㐺ࡉᛶ 2. reigi ♩൤ 3. benri na shisetsu ౽฼࡞᪋タ America n Amerika ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝, Beikoku ⡿ᅜ American n Ameriká-jin ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝ே amiable adj shakø-teki (na) ♫஺ ⓗ ࡞ , hitozukiai no yoi ே௜ࡁ ྜ࠸ࡢࡼ࠸, hitoatari no yoi ேᙜ ࡓࡾࡢࡼ࠸ amiss adv machigatte 㛫㐪ࡗ࡚, futekitø ni ୙㐺ᙜ࡟ ammunition n 1. dan’yaku ᙎ⸆, buki Ṋჾ 2. køgeki shudan ᨷᧁ ᡭẁ, bøei shudan 㜵⾨ᡭẁ amnesia n kioku søshitsu グ᠈႙ ኻ, kenbø-shø ೺ᛀ⑕ amnesty n onsha ᜠ㉧ among prep ... no náka/uchí (ni) ... ࡢ୰ෆ ࡟ amoral adj døtoku kannen no nai 㐨ᚨほᛕࡢ࡞࠸ amorous adj 1. iroppoi Ⰽࡗࡱ࠸, namámekashii ࡞ࡲࡵ࠿ࡋ࠸ 2. køshoku (na) ዲⰍ ࡞ amount 1. n (sum) gáku 㢠, kingaku 㔠㢠2. n (large and/or small) ~ tashø ከᑡ 3. v ~ to (how much) (o-)ikura ni narimásu ࠾ ࠸ࡃࡽ ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ ample adj 1. n hiroi ᗈ࠸, kødai na

ᗈ኱࡞ 2. futotta ኴࡗࡓ 3. jübun (na) ࡌࡹ࠺ࡪࢇ ࡞ ࣭༑ศ ࡞ A enough amuse v warawasemásu ➗ࢃࡏࡲ ࡍ, tanoshimasemásu ᴦࡋࡲࡏ ࡲࡍ amusement n 1. asobi 㐟ࡧ 2. nagusami ៘ࡳ, goraku ፗᴦ; amusement park n 㐟ᅬᆅ amusing adj omoshirói ࠾ࡶࡋࢁ ࠸࣭㠃ⓑ࠸; (funny) okashíi ࠾ ࠿ࡋ࠸, kokkei (na) ࡇࡗࡅ࠸࣭ ⁥✍ ࡞ an A a anal adj kømon no ⫠㛛ࡢ analogy n 1. tatoe ౛࠼࣭ࡓ࡜࠼࣭ ႘࠼ 2. ruiji 㢮ఝ analysis n bunseki ศᯒ ancestor n sósen ♽ඛ, sénzo ඛ♽ anchor n ikari ࠸࠿ࡾ࣭㘌࣭◽; anchor man n nyüsu kyásutå ࢽࣗ ࣮ࢫ࢟ࣕࢫࢱ࣮ ancient adj mukashi no ᫇ࡢ, kodai no ྂ௦ࡢ; ancient times kodai ྂ௦ and conj ... (including each item) ... to ...࡜; (choosing typical items) ...ya ...ࡸ; and also ... oyobi ...࠾ࡼࡧ࣭ཬࡧ; and now/then sá-te ࡉ࡚ࡑࢀ࠿ࡽ; and/or mátáwa ࡲࡓࡣ࣭ཪࡣ, ...ya ...ࡸ; and others ... -ra...ࡽ;... nádo ...࡞࡝࣭ ➼; sonó-hoka ࡑࡢ௚࣭ࡑࡢ࡯࠿, [BOOKISH] sonó-ta ࡑࡢ௚; and yet sore démo ࡑࢀ࡛ࡶ, shiká-mo ࡋ࠿ࡶ, sore náno ni ࡑࢀ࡞ࡢ࡟ Android (phones)nAndoroido (Oesu) ࢔ࣥࢻࣟ࢖ࢻ(OS)




anemia n hinketsu(-shø) ㈋⾑ ⑕ 2. n nenkan ᖺห, nenpø ᖺሗ anesthetic n másui(-yaku/zai) 㯞㓉annuity n nenkin ᖺ㔠 annul v haishi shimásu ᗫṆࡋࡲࡍ, ⸆๣㸧 anew adv ataráshiku ᪂ࡋࡃ, aratá- mukø ni shimásu ↓ຠ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ mete ᨵࡵ࡚, sára-ni ࡉࡽ࡟࣭᭦࡟ anonymous adj mumei (no) ↓ྡ angel n ténshi ኳ౑, enjeru ࢚ࣥࢪ ࡢ another pron mø hitótsu ࡶ࠺୍ࡘ, ࢙ࣝ anger n ikari ᛣࡾ mø ichi-... ࡶ࠺୍...; another person angle n 1. kákudo ゅᗘ, kakú ゅ mø hitóri ࡶ࠺୍ே; another place 2. (viewpoint) kénchi ぢᆅ yoso ࡼࡑ; another time (some angry; gets ~ okorimásu ᛣࡾࡲࡍ, other time) ítsu-ka ࠸ࡘ࠿, izure ࠸ࡎࢀ hará o tatemásu ⭡ࢆ❧࡚ࡲࡍ, answer 1. n (an ~) kotáé ⟅࠼, atáma ni kimásu 㢌࡟ࡁࡲࡍ animal n døbutsu ື≀, ikímono kaitø ゎ⟅, (a reply) (o-)henji ⏕ࡁ≀ ࠾ ㏉஦, [BOOKISH] hentø ㏉⟅ animation n 1. animé ࢔ࢽ࣓, 2. v (~s it) kotaemásu ⟅࠼ࡲࡍ, animëshon ࢔ࢽ࣓࣮ࢩࣙࣥ, døga kaitø shimásu ゎ⟅ࡋࡲࡍ ື⏬ 2. kakki άẼ ant n ari ࢔࣭ࣜ⽥ ankle n ashí-kúbi ㊊㤳 antagonism n tekii ᩛព, tairitsu annex n 1. (building) bekkan ู㤋 ᑐ❧, hánkan ཯ឤ, kikkø ᣕᢠ 2. (addition) tate-mashi ᘓ࡚ቑࡋ Antarctica n nánkyoku (tairiku) annihilation n zenmetsu ඲⁛ ༡ᴟ ኱㝣 anniversary n (day) kinén-bi グᛕ᪥ antenna n antena ࢔ࣥࢸࢼ annotation n chü ὀ antibiotic(s) n køsei bússhitsu ᢠᛶ announce v 1. (inform) shirase≀㉁ antic(s) n kokkei na shigusa ࡇࡗ másu ▱ࡽࡏࡲࡍ 2. (publish) ࡅ࠸࡞࣭⁥✍࡞ࡋࡄࡉ࣭௙ⲡ, happyø shimásu Ⓨ⾲ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (wedding, etc.) hírø shimásu odoketa shigusa ࠾࡝ࡅࡓࡋࡄࡉ ᢨ㟢ࡋࡲࡍ ࣭௙ⲡ, fuzaketa taido ࡩࡊࡅࡓ announcer n anaúnså ࢔ࢼ࢘ࣥࢧ࣮ ែᗘ annoyance n (trouble) méiwaku anticipate v machimásu ᚅࡕࡲࡍ, ㏞ᝨ kitai shimásu ᮇᚅࡋࡲࡍ; (preannoying adj urusái ࠺ࡿࡉ࠸, sume) yosø shimásu ண᝿ࡋࡲࡍ yakamashíi ࡸ࠿ࡲࡋ࠸, méiwaku antidote n 1. gedókuzai ゎẘ๣, (na) ㏞ᝨ ࡞ , wazurawashíi dok(u)-késhí ẘᾘࡋ 2. bøei ࢃࡎࡽࢃࡋ࠸ shudan 㜵⾨ᡭẁ annual 1. adj ichinen (no) ୍ᖺ ࡢ antipathy n hankan ཯ឤ, ken’o




᎘ᝏ, fuítchi ୙୍⮴, tairitsu ᑐ❧ antique n jidai-mono ᫬௦≀; (curio) kottø-hin 㦵ⴷရ antiquity n ømukashi ኱᫇ antiseptic n bøfu-zai 㜵⭉๣ antler n edazunó ᯞゅ, tsunó ゅ antonym n hantai-go ཯ᑐㄒ anus n kømon ⫠㛛 anxiety n ki-zúkái Ẽ㐵࠸, shinpai ᚰ㓄 A worry anxious adj gets ~ harahara shimásu ࡣࡽࡣࡽࡋࡲࡍ any adj ... ka ...࠿, ... mo ...ࡶ (but often omitted) A anything anybody pron hito ே, dáre ka ㄡ ࠿; (not anyody) dare mo ㄡࡶ; anybody (at all) dare de mo ㄡ࡛ࡶ anyhow adv 1. (nevertheless) tónikaku ࡜࡟࠿ࡃ; (anyway) tómokaku ࡜ࡶ࠿ࡃ, nanibun ࡞࡟ࡪࢇ, nánishiro ࡞࡟ࡋࢁ 2. (at all) dø de mo ࡝࠺࡛ࡶ anyone A anybody anyplace A anywhere anything pron 1. (something) náni ka ఱ࠿ (but often omitted); (not anything) nani mo ఱࡶ 2. (at all) nan de mo ఱ࡛ࡶ any time adv itsu de mo ࠸ࡘ࡛ࡶ anyway adv A anyhow anywhere adv (somewhere) dóko ka (…) ࡝ࡇ࠿ ... ; ~ (at all) doko de mo ࡝ࡇ࡛ࡶ; not ~ A nowhere apart; adv lives ~ bekkyo shimásu ูᒃࡋࡲࡍ; takes it ~ barashimásu ࡤࡽࡋࡲࡍ

apartment (house) n apåto ࢔ࣃ࣮ ࢺ, (luxury) mánshon ࣐ࣥࢩ ࣙࣥ; apartment complex n danchi ᅋᆅ apathetic adj mukándø (no) ↓ឤ ື ࡢ , mukánjø (no) ↓ឤ᝟ ࡢ , mukánshin (no) ↓㛵ᚰ ࡢ apathy n mukándø ↓ឤື, mukánjø ↓ឤ᝟, mukánshin ↓㛵ᚰ ape n 1. sáru ࢧ࣭ࣝ⊷ 2. noróma na hito ࡢࢁࡲ࡞ே apiece adv (onóono/sorezore) ...zútsu ࠾ࡢ࠾ࡢࡑࢀࡒࢀ ...ࡎࡘ apologize v owabishimásu ࠾ࢃࡧ >࠾ルࡧ@ࡋࡲࡍ, ayamarimásu ㅰࡾࡲࡍ apology n (o-)wabi ࠾ ࢃࡧ࣭ ࠾ ルࡧ, ayamári ㅰࡾ appall v zotto shimásu ࡒࡗ࡜ࡋࡲ ࡍ, gakuzen to shimásu ࡀࡃࡐ ࢇ࣭វ↛࡜ࡋࡲࡍ apparatus n sø´chi ⿦⨨; kígu ჾල apparel n (i)fuku ⾰ ᭹; apparel industry n apareru gyøkai ࢔ࣃࣞ ࣝᴗ⏺ apparent(ly) adv ... rashíi ...ࡽࡋ࠸ apparition n 1. yürei ᗃ㟋, børei ஸ 㟋 2. shutsu-gen ฟ⌧ appeal v (appeal to one) pin to kimásu ࡨࢇ࡜ࡁࡲࡍ, ki ni irimásu Ẽ࡟ධࡾࡲࡍ appear v 1. (looks, seems) miemásu ぢ࠼ࡲࡍ 2. (shows up) demásu ฟࡲࡍ, arawaremásu ⌧ ࢀࡲࡍ; (occurs) hassei shimásu Ⓨ⏕ࡋࡲࡍ; ~ on stage bútai



ni demásu ⯙ྎ࡟ฟࡲࡍ, tøjø shimásu Ⓩሙࡋࡲࡍ appearance n 1. yøsu ᵝᏊ࣭ࡼ࠺ ࡍ, ...sama ...ᵝ 2. gaiken እぢ (outer appearances) uwabe ࠺ࢃ ࡭࣭ୖ㎶, omoté ⾲ 3. (get-up, form) teisai య⿢; (shape) kakkø


jimásu ‽ࡌࡲࡍ 2. (applies it) atemásu ᙜ࡚ࡲࡍ, tsukemásu ௜ࡅࡲࡍ; øyø shimásu ᛂ⏝ࡋࡲ ࡍ 3. (applies for) møshi-komimásu ⏦ࡋ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ; (claims) møshi-demásu ⏦ࡋฟࡲࡍ appoint v (nominates) mei-jimásu ࠿ࡗࡇ࠺࣭᱁ዲ࣭ᜦዲ ࿨ࡌࡲࡍ; (designates) shitei appease v nadámemásu ࡞ࡔࡵࡲ shimásu ᣦᐃࡋࡲࡍ ࡍ, yawaragemásu ࿴ࡽࡆࡲࡍ, appointment n yakusoku ⣙᮰; (to iyashimásu ࠸ࡸࡋ࣭⒵ࡋࡲࡍ see doctor, ...) yoyaku ண⣙ append v fuka shimásu ௜ຍࡋࡲࡍ, apportion v ... o wariatemásu ... ࢆ๭ࡾᙜ࡚ࡲࡍ, ... o bunpai tsuketashimásu ௜ࡅ㊊ࡋࡲࡍ, soemásu ῧ࠼ࡲࡍ shimásu ... ࢆศ㓄ࡋࡲࡍ appendicitis n møchø-en ┣⭠⅖, appraise v hyøka shimásu ホ౯ࡋ ࡲࡍ, kantei shimásu 㚷ᐃࡋࡲࡍ chüsui-en ⹸ᆶ⅖ appetite n shokuyoku 㣗ḧ appreciation n kánsha ឤㅰ, hyøka appetizers n zensai ๓⳯ ホ౯ appetizing adj oishisø (na) ࠾࠸ࡋ apprehend v 1. ríkai shimásu ⌮ゎ ࡑ࠺ ࡞ ࡋࡲࡍ, sasshimásu ᐹࡋࡲࡍ 2. applaud v hákushu shimásu ᢿᡭ tsukamaemásu ᤕࡲ࠼ࡲࡍ, taiho ࡋࡲࡍ, hákushu o okurimásu ᢿ shimásu 㐊ᤕࡋࡲࡍ ᡭࢆ㏦ࡾࡲࡍ apprehensive adj kimí ga warúi Ẽ apple n ringo ࡾࢇࡈ࣭ࣜࣥࢦ ࿡ࡀᝏ࠸ appliances n (katei) yø´gu ᐙᗞ  apprentice n deshí ᘵᏊ ⏝ල, katei yø´hin ᐙᗞ⏝ရ approach v (...ni) chika-zukimásu applicant n møshikomí-sha ⏦ࡋ㎸ ...࡟ ㏆௜ࡁࡲࡍ, yorimásu ᐤ ࡳ⪅, kibø-sha ᕼᮃ⪅ ࡾࡲࡍ; sekkin shimásu ᥋㏆ࡋ application n 1. (for a job, etc.) ࡲࡍ appropriate 1. adj (suitable) tekimøshi-komi ⏦ࡋ㎸ࡳ, gánsho 㢪᭩; (claim) møshi-de ⏦ࡋฟ; setsu (na) 㐺ษ ࡞ , tekitø (na) (for a permit) shinsei-sho ⏦ㄳ᭩ 㐺ᙜ ࡞ 2. v (sets aside (for)) 2. (putting to use) øyø ᛂ⏝, atemásu ᙜ࡚ࡲࡍ 3. v A seize approval n døi ྠព jitsuyø ᐇ⏝; (for computer) approve v sansei shimásu ㈶ᡂࡋ sofutowea ࢯࣇࢺ࢙࢘࢔ apply v 1. (it applies) atarimásu ࡲࡍ ᙜࡓࡾࡲࡍ; (accordingly) jun- approximate 1. adj daitai (no) ኱ 344



య ࡢ , gaisan (no) ᴫ⟬ ࡢ , arduous adj kónnan (na) ᅔ㞴 ࡞ chikái ㏆࠸ 2. v chikazukimásu arid adj kánsø shita/shiteiru ஝⇱ ㏆࡙ࡁࡲࡍ, chikazukemásu ㏆ ࡋࡓࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ, fumø no/na ୙ẟ ࡙ࡅࡲࡍ ࡢ࡟ approximately adv daitai ኱య; are A is area n 1. ménseki 㠃✚ 2. (district) yáku ... ⣙...; ... gúrai ...఩; ...-zéngo ...๓ᚋ; ... -kéntø ...ぢᙜ; chihø ᆅ᪉, chiiki ᆅᇦ, eria ࢚ࣜ ࢔, chitai ᆅᖏ A place A vicinity ...-náigai (de) ...ෆእ ࡛ argue v kenka shimásu ࡅࢇ࠿>႖ April n Shi-gatsú ᅄ᭶࣭4 ᭶ apt; adj ~ to (do) (shi-)yasúi ࡋ  ვ@ࡋࡲࡍ; (discusses, debates) ࡸࡍ࠸࣭᫆࠸; tokaku (...shimásu) ron-jimásu ㄽࡌࡲࡍ ࡜࠿ࡃ ...ࡋࡲࡍ ; ete-shite (... argument n 1. kenka ࡅࢇ࠿࣭႖ ვ, kuchi-génka ཱྀࡆࢇ࠿ཱྀ࣭႖ shimásu) ᚓ࡚ࡋ࡚ ࡋࡲࡍ aptitude n keikø ഴྥ, sáinø ᡯ⬟, ვ 2. (discussion) rón ㄽ, ronsø ㄽத 3. (logic) rikutsu ⌮ᒅ rikairyoku ⌮ゎຊ aquarium n suizóku-kan Ỉ᪘㤋 arise v okimásu ㉳ࡁࡲࡍ; Arab, Arabian n, adj Árabu (no) (happens) shø-jimásu ⏕ࡌࡲࡍ ࢔ࣛࣈ ࡢ , (person) Arabú-jin arm n udé ⭎ armor n yoroi ࡼࢁ࠸࣭㙚 (no) ࢔ࣛࣈே ࡢ arbitrary adj nin-i (no) ௵ពࡢ, armpit n waki nó shita ⭆ࡢୗ࣭ ࢃࡁࡢୗ dokudan-teki (na) ⊂᩿ⓗ ࡞ , arms n heiki රჾ, buki Ṋჾ kimáma (na) Ẽࡲࡲ ࡞ arc n (en)ko ෇ ᘼ army n gúntai ㌷㝲; (vs. navy) arch n yumi-gata ᘪᙧ, åchi(-gata) rikú-gun 㝣㌷ ࢔࣮ࢳ ᙧ aroma n ároma ࢔࣐ࣟ, (yoi) kaori archaeologist n køko gákusha ⪃ྂ ࡼ࠸ 㤶ࡾ, høkø ⰾ㤶 Ꮫ⪅ around 1. adv (... no) mawari archaic adj sutáreta ᗫࢀࡓ ni ...ࡢ ࿘ࡾ࡟; goes ~ (... o) archery n (the traditional art) mawarimásu ...ࢆ ᅇࡾࡲࡍ 2. A about, approximately kyüdø ᘪ㐨, kyüjutsu ᘪ⾡ arouse v shigeki shimásu ่⃭ࡋ archipelago n rettø ิᓥ architecture n kenchiku ᘓ⠏ ࡲࡍ, køfun shimásu ⯆ዧࡋࡲࡍ Arctic n Hokkyoku ໭ᴟ arrange v 1. (lines them up) naraardent adj nesshin (na) ⇕ᚰ ࡞ , bemásu ୪࡭ࡲࡍ; ~ themselves netsuretsu(teki) (na) ⇕Ⅿ ⓗ ࡞ narabimásu ୪ࡧࡲࡍ 2. (decides, ardor n netsui ⇕ព, jønetsu ᝟⇕, sets) kimemásu Ỵࡵࡲࡍ, (a nesshin ⇕ᚰ, ikigomi ពẼ㎸ࡳ meeting/consultation) uchi-awa-




semásu ᡴࡕྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ arranged v 1. gets ~ (is put together) matomarimásu ࡲ࡜ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, (as a set/array) soroimásu ᥞ࠸ ࡲࡍ; (gets decided/set) kimarimásu Ỵࡲࡾࡲࡍ 2. it has been ~ that ... kotó ni natte (i)másu ...ࡇ࡜࡟࡞ࡗ࡚ ࠸ ࡲࡍ arrangement n 1. (settlement) kimari Ỵࡲࡾ; (adjustment) séiri ᩚ⌮ 2. arrangements (preparations) júnbi ‽ഛ, shitaku ᨭᗘ࣭௙ᗘ; (plans) téhazu ᡭࡣࡎ࣭ᡭ➻; flower arrangement n ikébana array n soróé ᥞ࠼ arrears n tainø(kin) ⣡ 㔠 arrest v toraemásu ᤕ࠼ࡲࡍ, tsukamaemásu ᤕࡲ࠼ࡲࡍ, táiho shimásu 㐊ᤕࡋࡲࡍ arrive (at) v 1. (... ni) tsukimásu ...࡟ ╔ࡁࡲࡍ, tøchaku shimásu ฿╔ࡋࡲࡍ, itarimásu ⮳ࡾࡲࡍ 2. (is delivered) todokimásu ᒆ ࡁࡲࡍ arrogant adj gøman (na) ഫ៏ ࡞ arrow n yá ▮; (sign) ya-jírushi ▮༳ art n bíjutsu ⨾⾡, geijutsu ⱁ⾡ artery n 1. dømyaku ື⬦ 2. kansen døro ᖿ⥺㐨㊰ artful adj kømyø (na) ᕦጁ ࡞ , køkatsu (na) ≾⊶ ࡞ arthritis n kansetsu-en 㛵⠇⅖ article n (thing) monó ≀, (goods) shina(-mono) ရ ≀ ; (writeup) kíji グ஦; ronbun ㄽᩥ articulate 1. adj hakkírishita ࡣࡗ

ࡁࡾࡋࡓ, meikai (na) ᫂ᛌ ࡞ 2. v hakkíri iimásu ࡣࡗࡁࡾゝ ࠸ࡲࡍ artificial adj jinkø (no) ேᕤ ࡢ , jinkø-teki (na) ேᕤⓗ ࡞ artillery n taihø ኱◙, buki Ṋჾ artisan n shokunin ⫋ே artist n geijutsu-ka ⱁ⾡ᐙ; (painter) gaka ⏬ᐙ as conj 1. (like) ... (no) yø´ (ni) ... ࡢ ࡼ࠺ ࡟ 2. (so as to be) ...ni..࡟ 3. (in the role of) ... to shite ... ࡜ࡋ࡚; as far as ... is concerned ... ni kákete wa ... ࡟࠿ ࡅ࡚ࡣ; …ni kan-shite wa… ࡟ 㛵ࡋ࡚ࡣ; as for ... wa ...ࡣ; as much as ... gúrai ...఩; ...hodo ...⛬࣭࡯࡝; as much as possible dekiru-dake ฟ᮶ࡿࡔࡅ࣭࡛ࡁࡿ ࡔࡅ; as regards ... ni kákete wa ...࡟࠿ࡅ࡚ࡣ; ... ni kánshite ...࡟㛵ࡋ࡚; ni tsúite …࡟ࡘ࠸ ࡚ࡣ Asakusa n Asakusa ὸⲡ ascent n jøshø ୖ᪼, agáru koto ୖࡀࡿࡇ࡜ ascertain v tashikamemásu ☜࠿ࡵ ࡲࡍ ashamed adj hazukashíi ᜝ࡎ࠿ࡋ ࠸; (guilty feeling) yamashíi ࡸ ࡲࡋ࠸; is ~ of hajimásu ᜝ࡲࡍ ash(es) n hai ⅊ ashore adv kishi (ni) (mukatte) ᓊ ࡟ ྥ࠿ࡗ࡚ , riku (ni) (mukatte) 㝣 ࡟ ྥ࠿ࡗ࡚ ashtray n hai-zara ⅊─ Asian 1. adj Ajia (no) ࢔ࢪ࢔ ࡢ




2. n (person) Ajiá-jin ࢔ࢪ࢔ே assembly n 1. (gathering) shügø ask v 1. (a favor of a person) 㞟ྜ 2. (parliament) kokkai ᅜ఍ assent v nattoku shimásu ⣡ᚓࡋ (... ni ...o) tanomimásu ...࡟ ...ࢆ 㢗ࡳࡲࡍ, negaimásu 㢪࠸ ࡲࡍ A consent assert v shuchø shimásu ୺ᙇࡋ ࡲࡍ; (requires) motomemásu ồࡵࡲࡍ 2. (~ a person a ࡲࡍ question) (... ni) kikimásu ...࡟ assimilate v døka shimásu ྠ໬ ⪺ࡁࡲࡍ, tazunemásu ᑜࡡࡲࡍ, ࡋࡲࡍ; kyüshü shimásu ྾཰ ࡋࡲࡍ ukagaimásu ఛ࠸ࡲࡍ aslant adv, adj nanáme (no/ni) assist v øen shimásu ᛂ᥼ࡋࡲࡍ; ᩳࡵ ࡢ࡟ tasukemásu ຓࡅࡲࡍ A help asleep adv, adj nemutte (iru) ╀ࡗ assistance n (o-)séwa ࠾ ୡヰ; ࡚ ࠸ࡿ (o-)tétsudai ࠾ ᡭఏ࠸; hójo ⿵ aspect n 1. yøsu ᵝᏊ 2. (gramma- ຓ; øen ᛂ᥼ assistant n joshu ຓᡭ, ashísutanto tical) ásupékuto ࢔ࢫ࣌ࢡࢺ, ࢔ࢩࢫࢱࣥࢺ (soku/kyoku) men ഃᒁ 㠃 asphyxiate v chissoku shimásu ❅ associate with ...to tsuki-aimásu ᜥࡋࡲࡍ ...࡜௜ࡁྜ࠸ࡲࡍ; ...to majiwaaspiration n ganbø 㢪ᮃ, yashin rimásu ...࡜஺ࢃࡾࡲࡍ 㔝ᚰ, akogare ៿ࢀ association n 1. kyøkai ༠఍; (acaaspire A hope demic) gakkai Ꮫ఍; (guild, union) aspirin n asupirin ࢔ࢫࣆࣜࣥ kumiai ⤌ྜ 2. (social company) ass 1. n róba ࢁࡤ࣭ࣟࣂ 2. n (o)-tsukíai ࠾ ௜ࡁྜ࠸ gankomono 㡹ᅛ⪅ báka ࡤ࠿ assortment n kumi-awase ⤌ࡳྜ 3. n (o-)shíri ࠾ ࡋࡾ࣭ ࠾ ᑼ ࢃࡏ, tori-awase ྲྀࡾྜࢃࡏ assail v køgeki shimásu ᨷᧁࡋࡲ asterisk n hoshi-jírushi ᫍ༳; ࡍ, hínan shimásu 㠀㞴ࡋࡲࡍ asutarisuku ࢔ࢫࢱࣜࢫࢡ assault v osóimásu く࠸ࡲࡍ A asthma n zensoku ႍᜥ attack astonished; adj gets ~ odorokimásu assemble v 1. (they collect) atsu㦫ࡁࡲࡍ astringent adj shibúi ῰࠸ marimásu 㞟ࡲࡾࡲࡍ, shügø astronomy n tenmón-gaku ኳᩥᏛ shimásu 㞟ྜࡋࡲࡍ; (collects them) atsumemásu 㞟ࡵࡲࡍ 2. asylum n hinán-jo 㑊㞴ᡤ, seishin (fits parts together to make a byøin ⢭⚄⑓㝔 whole) kumi-awasemásu ⤌ ࡳ at prep ... de...࡛; (being located ྜࡏࡲࡍ, kumi-tatemásu ⤌ ࡳ at) ... ni ...࡟; at any rate tómokaku ❧࡚ࡲࡍ ࡜ࡶ࠿ࡃ; at best séizei ࡏ࠸ࡐ࠸;




at last iyoiyo ࠸ࡼ࠸ࡼ, yøyaku ࡼ࠺ࡸࡃ, tsúi-ni ࡘ࠸࡟; (after difficulty) yatto ࡸࡗ࡜; at least sukúnáku-tomo ᑡ࡞ࡃ࡜ࡶ, sémete ࡏࡵ࡚ athlete n (undø) sénshu 㐠ື 㑅ᡭ athletics n undø 㐠ື, supø´tsu ࢫ࣏࣮ࢶ; (physical education) tai(i)ku య⫱࣭ࡓ࠸ࡃ Atlantic Ocean n Taiséiyø ኱すὒ atmosphere n fun’íki 㞺ᅖẼ atom n génshi ཎᏊ atomic adj genshí (-ryoku no) ཎᏊຊ ࡢ ; atomic energy n genshí-ryoku ཎᏊຊ atrocious adj (brutal) zangyaku (na) ṧ⹢ ࡞ attach 1. v (sticks on) tsukemásu ௜ࡅࡲࡍ 2. (adds) soemásu ῧ ࠼ࡲࡍ; attached file n tenpu fáiru ῧ௜ࣇ࢓࢖ࣝ attachment n fuzoku ௜ᒓ࣭㝃ᒓ, fuzoku-hin ௜ᒓရ࣭㝃ᒓရ attack 1. n (an ~) køgeki ᨷᧁ, shügeki くᧁ 2. v (makes an ~) osóimásu く࠸ࡲࡍ; sememásu ᨷࡵࡲࡍ attain A reach A accomplish attempt 1. n tameshí ヨࡋ, kokoromi ヨࡳ; (plot, scheme) kuwadate ௻࡚ 2. v (~s it) tameshimásu ヨࡋࡲࡍ, kokoromimásu ヨࡳࡲࡍ; kuwadatemásu ௻࡚ ࡲࡍ attend v demásu ฟࡲࡍ; shusseki shimásu ฟᖍࡋࡲࡍ

attendance n shusseki ฟᖍ; office attendance n shukkin ฟ໅ attendant n (in charge) kákari ಀ, kakarí-in ಀဨ, ... -gákari ...ಀ attention n 1. chü´i ὀព, chümoku ὀ┠ 2. omoiyari ᛮ࠸ࡸࡾ attitude n táido ែᗘ, shisei ጼໃ attorney n bengóshi ᘚㆤኈ attract v hikimásu ᘬࡁࡲࡍ;

(charming) miryoku ga arimásu 㨩ຊࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ attraction n atorakushon ࢔ࢺࣛࢡ ࢩࣙࣥ attractive adj (nice-looking) kírei (na) ࡁࢀ࠸࣭⥡㯇 ࡞ ; (charming) miryoku-teki (na) 㨩ຊⓗ ࡞ auction n serí ➇ࡾ࣭ࢭࣜ, kyøbai ➇኎, økushon ࣮࢜ࢡࢩࣙࣥ audience n chøshü ⫈⾗, kankyaku ほᐈ audio n, adj onsei (no) 㡢ኌ ࡢ , ødio ࣮࢜ࢹ࢕࢜ audition n ødishon ࣮࢜ࢹ࢕ࢩࣙࣥ, shínsa ᑂᰝ auditorium n kaidø ఍ᇽ, kødø ㅮᇽ aunt n (father’s or mather’s elder sister) obá(-san) ఑ẕ ࡉࢇ ;

(father’s or mather’s younger sister) obá(-san) ུẕ ࡉࢇ ; (in general) obá(-san) ࠾ࡤ ࡉࢇ auspicious adj (o-)medetái ࠾ ࡵ ࡛ࡓ࠸࣭ ࠾ ┠ฟᗘ࠸ Australia n øsutorária ࣮࢜ࢫࢺࣛ ࣜ࢔ authentic adj kakujitsu (na) ☜ᐇ ࡞ , honmono (nó) ᮏ≀ ࡢ , shøshinshømei (no) ṇ┿ṇ㖭 ࡢ




author n chó-sha ⴭ⪅, sáku-sha heibon (na) ᖹซ ࡞ స⪅A writer avert v 1. sakemásu 㑊ࡅࡲࡍ authority n 1. (expert) táika ኱ᐙ, 2. me o sorashimásu ┠ࢆࡑࡽࡋ tsü´ ㏻ 2. (power) ken’i ᶒጾ 3. ࡲࡍ (basis) kónkyo ᰿ᣐ; the authorities aviation n køkü (ki) ⯟✵ ᶵ avoid v sakemásu ࡉࡅࡲࡍ࣭㑊 tøkyoku ᙜᒁ, okámi ࠾ୖ automatic adj jidø-teki (na) ⮬ືⓗ ࡅࡲࡍ, yokemásu ࡼࡅࡲࡍ࣭ ࡞ 㑊ࡅࡲࡍ automation n øtomëshon ࣮࢜ࢺ࣓ awake v (comes ~) mezamemásu, ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ, jidø (ka) ⮬ື ໬ ┠ぬࡵࡲࡍ; is ~ (not asleep) automobile n jidø-sha ⮬ື㌴, nemurimasén ╀ࡾࡲࡏࢇ award 1. n shø ㈹ 2. v (gives) (shø kuruma ㌴ autumn n áki ⛅; autumn period/term o) júyo shimásu ㈹ࢆ ᤵ୚ࡋࡲ ࡍ; okurimásu ㉗ࡾࡲࡍ shü´ki ⛅ᮇ autumnal equinox n shübun ⛅ศ; away adj tøku (ni) 㐲ࡃ ࡟ ; away from home rúsu (no) ␃Ᏺ ࡢ ; right Autumnal Equinox Day Shübun-no-hí away súgu ࡍࡄ ⛅ศࡢ᪥ available adj (things) riyø dekiru awesome adj (mono)sugói ࡶࡢ ฼⏝࡛ࡁࡿ, (person) áiteiru ✵࠸ ࡍࡈ࠸࣭ ≀ ෶࠸, subárashíi ࡚࠸ࡿ; seats are ~ suwaremásu ࡍࡤࡽࡋ࠸࣭⣲ᬕࡽࡋ࠸ ᗙࢀࡲࡍ awful adj osoroshíi ᜍࢁࡋ࠸, avalanche n nadare ࡞ࡔࢀ࣭㞷ᔂ; hidói ࡦ࡝࠸ (snowslide) yuki-nádare 㞷࡞ࡔࢀ awkward adj mazúi ࡲࡎ࠸, gikoavenue n tørí ㏻ࡾ, ødø´ri ኱㏻ࡾ, chinai ࡂࡇࡕ࡞࠸, buzama (na) ࡪࡊࡲ ࡞ kaidø ⾤㐨; michi 㐨 average 1. n (on the ~) heikin ᖹ awning n hi-øí ᪥そ࠸, hiyoke ᪥ ᆒ; average age heikin nenrei ᖹᆒ ࡼࡅ, tenmaku ኳᖥ ᖺ௧ (life span, lifetime) ax n ono ࠾ࡢ࣭࢜ࣀ࣭᩼ axis, axle n jikú ㍈ heikin jumyø ᖹᆒᑑ࿨ 2. adj (ordinary) nami (no) ୪ ࡢ ,

B babble n o-shaberi ࠾ࡋࡷ࡭ࡾ baby n áka-chan ㉥ࡕࡷࢇ, akanbo ㉥ࢇᆓ࣭㉥ࢇࡰ babysitter n

bebii shittå ࣋ࣅ࣮ࢩࢵࢱ࣮, (professional) komóri ᏊᏲ bachelor n dokushin dansei ⊂㌟ 349



⏨ᛶ, hitori mónó ࡦ࡜ࡾ⪅࣭ backpack n ryukku-sakku ࣜࣗࢵ ⊂ࡾ⪅ ࢡࢧࢵࢡ back 1. adv (behind) ... no ushiro backside n 1. ushiro ᚋࢁ, [BOOKISH] (de/ni) ... ࡢᚋࢁ ࡛࡟ 2. n (of køhø ᚋ᪉ 2. (buttock) shiri ᑼ body) senaka ⫼୰, (lower part) o-shiri ࠾ᑼ backstage adj, adv butai ura (no/ koshi ⭜ Ѝ support back; go ~ modorimásu ᡠࡾࡲࡍ; de) ⯙ྎ⿬ ࡢ࡛ , gakuya (no/ (to one’s usual place) kaerimásu de) ᴦᒇ ࡢ࡛ ᖐࡾࡲࡍ backstroke n seoyogi ⫼Ὃࡂ backdate v hizuke o sakanobora- backup n 1. (computer) bákku semásu ᪥௜ࢆࡉ࠿ࡢࡰࡽࡏࡲࡍ appu ࣂࢵࢡ࢔ࢵࣉ 2. yobi ணഛ, back down v 1. (retreats) køtai hikae ᥍࠼ backwards adv (contrariwise) shimásu ᚋ㏥ࡋࡲࡍ 2. (withdraws) hiki sagarimásu ᘬࡁୗ gyaku (ni) ㏫ ࡟ ; move ~ bákku ࡀࡾࡲࡍ shimásu ࣂࢵࢡࡋࡲࡍ, ushiro e/ backfire n ura-me ni demásu ⿬┠ ni sagarimásu ᚋࢁ࡟ୗࡀࡾࡲࡍ backwater n 1. (stagnant place) ࡟ฟࡲࡍ background n 1. haikei ⫼ᬒ, bákku teitai chi ೵ᆅ 2. (stagnant ࣂࢵࢡ 2. (one’s origin, educastate) teitai ೵ 3. (held water) tion, etc.) keireki ⤒Ṕ 3. (circum- yodonda mizu ࡼ࡝ࢇࡔỈ stances of the event, information) backyard n ura-niwa ⿬ᗞ bacon n bë´kon ࣮࣋ࢥࣥ yobi chishiki ணഛ▱㆑, bákku gura(u)ndo ࣂࢵࢡࢢࣛ ࢘ ࣥࢻ bacteria n bakuteria ࣂࢡࢸࣜ࢔, backhanded adj 1. (sports) bakku saikin ⣽⳦ bad adj 1. warúi ᝏ࠸, damé (na) hando (no) ࣂࢵࢡࣁࣥࢻ ࡢ 2. (ambiguous meaning) aimai ࡔࡵ࣭㥏┠ ࡞ ; furyø (na) ୙ Ⰻ ࡞ ; (inept) hetá (na) ࡬ࡓ࣭ (na) ࠶࠸ࡲ࠸ ࡞ ࣭᭕᫕ ࡞ ୗᡭ ࡞ 2. fu- ୙ ࠥ; bad guy 3. (roundabout, indirect) mawarikudoi ᅇࡾࡃ࡝࠸ furyø ୙Ⰻ, warumono ᝏ⪅, bad backlash n handø ཯ື, hanpatsu temper n tanki ▷Ẽ ཯Ⓨ bad; goes ~ (rots, sours) kusaribacklog n 1. (reserve) bichiku másu ⭉ࡾࡲࡍ; too ~ (regretഛ⵳ 2. (stock) zaiko ᅾᗜ 3. table) zannen (na) ṧᛕ ࡞ badge n bajji ࣂࢵࢪ (work) yarinokoshi no shigoto ࡸࡾṧࡋࡢ௙஦ badger n anaguma ࢔ࢼࢢ࣐࣭✰⇃ back-order n toriyose chümon badminton n badominton ࣂࢻ࣑ࣥ ྲྀࡾᐤࡏὀᩥ ࢺࣥ




bag n 1. fukuró ⿄; (paper) kami- balloon n 1. füsen 㢼⯪ 2. (hotbúkuro ⣬⿄ 2. A suitcase 3. A air ~) (netsu)kikyü ⇕ Ẽ⌫ handbag; purse 3. (toy ~) füsen-dama 㢼⯪⋢ baggage n o-)ní-motsu ࠾ Ⲵ≀ 4. (water ~) mizu-füsen Ỉ㢼⯪ baggy adj dabudabu (no) ࡔࡪࡔࡪballot n tøhyø ᢞ⚊; ballot paper n ࡢ tøhyø yøshi ᢞ⚊⏝⣬ bailiff n teiri ᘐྣ࣭࡚࠸ࡾ ballpoint pen n børu-pen ࣮࣎ࣝ bait n esa ࠼ࡉ࣭㣵 ࣌ࣥ bake v 1. yakimásu ↝ࡁࡲࡍ balm n køyu 㤶Ἔ 2. gets baked yakemásu ↝ࡅࡲࡍ bamboo n take ➉; bamboo blind n baker, bakery, bakeshop n pán-ya (Japanese traditional) misu ࡳ ࣃࣥᒇ, bëkarii ࣮࣮࣋࢝ࣜ ࡍ࣭ᚚ⡘, sudare ࡍࡔࢀ࣭⡘ A balance n 1. (equilibrium) tsuriai blind; bamboo wind-chimes n take㔮ࡾྜ࠸, baransu ࣂࣛࣥࢫ fürin ➉㢼㕥 2. (remaining money) zandaka ban 1. n kinshi ⚗Ṇ 2. ~s it v ṧ㧗 kinshi shimásu ⚗Ṇࡋࡲࡍ balcony n barukonii ࣂࣝࢥࢽ࣮ banana n banana ࣂࢼࢼ; ~ shake bald 1. adj hágeta ... ࡣࡆࡓ>⚼ࡆ banana sheiku ࣂࢼࢼࢩ࢙࢖ࢡ ࡓ@... 2. v (gets ~) hagemásu ࡣ band n 1. (group) kumí ⤌ 2. (of ࡆࡲࡍ࣭⚼ࡆࡲࡍ; (is ~) hágete musicians) (Western style) imásu ࡣࡆ࡚>⚼ࡆ࡚@࠸ࡲࡍ gakudan ᴦᅋ, bando ࣂࣥࢻ bale n tawará ಥ 3. (Japanese style) (o)-hayashi ball n 1. tamá ⋢; (traditional ࠾ࡣࡸࡋ࣭ ࠾ ᄳࡋ 4. (watchJapanese handball) mari ࡲࡾ࣭㠭, band, etc.) (tokei) bando ᫬ィ temari ࡚ࡲࡾ࣭ᡭ㠭 2. (sports) ࣂࣥࢻ 5. beruto ࣋ࣝࢺ bø´ru ࣮࣎ࣝ; basket ~ basuketto bandage n høtai ໟᖏ børu ࣂࢫࢣࢵࢺ࣮࣎ࣝ 3. kyü bandit n zoku ㈫ ⌫; ball park n yakyü-jø 㔝⌫ሙ, bang n (sound) ban ࣂࣥ, batan ࣂࢱࣥ kyüjø ⌫ሙ ballad n (Japanese traditional bangle n 1. (wristlet) ude wa ⭎㍯ 2. kazari 㣭ࡾ music) min’yø Ẹㅴ ballerina n (female ballet dancer) banish v tsuihø shimásu ㏣ᨺࡋ ࡲࡍ bareriina ࣂ࣮ࣞࣜࢼ ballet n bárë ࣂ࢚ࣞ; ballet dancer banister n tesuri ᡭࡍࡾ banjo n banjo ࣂࣥࢪ࣮ࣙ; three n barë danså ࣂ࢚ࣞࢲࣥࢧ࣮, (female dancer) bareriina ࣂࣞ stringed ~ shamisen ࡋࡷࡳࡏࢇ ࣮ࣜࢼ ࣭୕࿡⥺




bank n 1. ginkø 㖟⾜ 2. (special storage place) banku ࣂࣥࢡ 3. (~ of a river or lake) kishí ᓊ; bank account n ginkø-kóza 㖟⾜ཱྀ ᗙ, yokin-kóza 㡸㔠ཱྀᗙ; blood bank n ketsueki banku ⾑ᾮࣂࣥࢡ bankruptcy n hasan ◚⏘ banner n 1. (flag) hata ᪝ 2. (motto, slogan, etc.) hyøshiki ᶆ㆑ 3. (hanging cloth or curtain over

mono ᇼฟࡋ≀, bågen ࣂ࣮ࢤࣥ barge n hashike ࡣࡋࡅ bark 1. n (of tree) kí no kawá ᮌ ࡢ⓶, [BOOKISH] juhi ᶞ⓶ 2. v (a dog ~s) hoemásu ྭ࠼ࡲࡍ barley n ø-mugi ኱㯏 barn n naya ⣡ᒇ barometer n 1. (indicator) baromëtå ࣂ࣓࣮ࣟࢱ࣮ 2. (for at-

㧥ᒇ bare 1. adj (scarce) toboshii ஈࡋ ࠸ 2. (mere) honno wazuka (no) ࡯ࢇࡢࢃࡎ࠿ ࡢ 3. A naked 4. A reveal; barefoot adj hadashi (no) ࡣࡔࡋ࣭〄㊊ ࡢ࡛ ; adv hadashi (de) ࡣࡔࡋ࣭〄㊊ ࡛ ; barely adv karøjite ࠿ࢁ࠺ࡌ࡚࣭ ㎞࠺ࡌ࡚, nantoka ࡞ࢇ࡜࠿, girigiri ࡂࡾࡂࡾ bargain n (a real find) horidashi

ᡭᢲࡋ㌴ barter n butsubutsu køkan ≀ࠎ ஺᥮ base n 1. (military, etc.) kichí ᇶ ᆅ; military base n gunji-kichi ㌷஦ ᇶᆅ 2. (of a tree) ne-motó ᰿ඖ 3. (foundation) kiso ᇶ♏ baseball n yakyü 㔝⌫, bësubø´ru ࣮࣋ࢫ࣮࣎ࣝ; baseball stadium n yakyü-jø 㔝⌫ሙ, kyüjø ⌫ሙ basement n (floor) chikai ᆅ㝵;

mospheric pressure) kiatsu-kei a street, entrance, etc.) taremaku Ẽᅽィ ᆶࢀᖥ 4. (advertising) banå barracks n 1. héisha ර⯋ 2. ba(køkoku) ࣂࢼ࣮ ᗈ࿌ rakku ࣂࣛࢵࢡ banquet n enkai ᐗ఍ barracuda n kamásu ࣐࢝ࢫ baptism n senrei Ὑ♩ barrage n shüchü høka 㞟୰◙ⅆ bar n 1. (for drinking) saka-ba barrel n taru ᶡ 㓇ሙ, (Western style) bå ࣂ࣮, barren adj 1. (land) yaseta ࡸࡏࡓ, (neighborhood pub) nomí-ya 㣧 fumø (na/no) ୙ẟ ࡞ࡢ ࡳᒇ, (after-hours) sunákku ࢫࢼ 2. (sterile) funin (no) ୙ዷ ࡢ ࢵࢡ 2. bø Წ; a bar of soap n barricade n barikëdo ࣂࣜࢣ࣮ࢻ barrier n 1. (fence) saku ᰙ sekken ík-ko ࡏࡗࡅࢇ>▼㮯@ 2. (obstacle) shøgai-butsu 㞀ᐖ ୍ಶ ≀ 3. (limit) genkai 㝈⏺ barbarian n yaban-jín 㔝⻅ே barbecue n båbekyü ࣂ࣮࣮࣋࢟ࣗ 4. (limit or boundary) genkai barber(shop) n tokoya ᗋᒇ, rihá- 㝈⏺, kyøkai ቃ⏺ tsú-ten ⌮㧥ᗑ, sanpatsu-ya ᩓ barrow n (wheel~) teoshi-guruma




(room) chiká (-shitsu) ᆅୗ ᐊ køshü yokujø බ⾗ᾎሙ bash v tatakimásu ྇ࡁࡲࡍ baton 1. (sports, such as race and bashful A shy rhythmic gymnastics) baton ࣂࢺ bashing n tatakí ྇ࡁ, basshingu ࣥ 2. (music) shiki-bø ᣦ᥹Წ ࣂࢵࢩࣥࢢ battalion n (military) daitai ኱㝲 basic adj kihon-teki (na) ᇶᮏⓗ batter n (baseball) battå ࣂࢵࢱ࣮, ࡞ , konpon-teki (na) ᰿ᮏⓗ dásha ᡴ⪅ ࡞ battery n denchi 㟁ụ, bátterii ࣂ basin n 1. (for washing face) ࢵࢸ࣮ࣜ senmén-ki Ὑ㠃ჾ 2. tarai ࡓࡽ࠸ battle 1. n tatakai ᡓ࠸, arasoi த 3. hachí 㖊 4. (flat land sur࠸, [BOOKISH] sentø ᡓ㜚 2. v rounded by higher land) bonchi tatakaimásu ᡓ࠸ࡲࡍ ┅ᆅ; Kyoto basin n Kyøto bonchi bay n wán ‴, urá ᾆ ி㒔┅ᆅ basis n 1. kihon ᇶᮏ, konpon ᰿ᮏ, kijun ᇶ‽, kiso ᇶ♏ 2. (grounds) kónkyo ᰿ᣐ basket n kago ࠿ࡈ࣭⡲, basuketto ࣂࢫࢣࢵࢺ basketball n basuketto børu ࣂࢫࢣ ࢵࢺ࣭࣮࣎ࣝ, basuke ࣂࢫࢣ bass n 1. (sea bass) suzuki ࢫࢬ࢟ 2. (music) basu ࣂࢫ, bësu ࣮࣋ࢫ baste 1. v (sewing) ~ with thread shi-tsukemásu ௙௜ࡅࡲࡍ 2. v (cooking) tare o kakemásu ࢱࣞ ࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ bat n 1. kø´mori ࢥ࢘ࣔࣜ 2. (baseball) bátto ࣂࢵࢺ bath n (o-)fúro ࠾ 㢼࿅, yokujø ᾎሙ; bathrobe n basurøbu ࣂࢫࣟ ࣮ࣈ; bathroom n ① (for bathing) (o-)furoba ࠾ 㢼࿅ሙ, yoku-jø/ shitsu ᾎሙᐊ ② (toilet) tóireࢺ ࢖ࣞ, keshø´-shitsu ໬⢝ᐊ, (o-) teárai ࠾ ᡭὙ࠸, (o-)benjó ࠾ ౽ᡤ; public bath n séntø 㖹‫‮‬,

be A is A go A come beach n hama ὾, bíichi ࣅ࣮ࢳ; (seashore) kaigan ᾏᓊ bead n 1. tamá ⋢, biizu ࣅ࣮ࢬ; (prayer) ~s juzú ࡌࡹࡎ࣭ᩘ⌔ 2. counting ~s A abacus beagle n (dog) biiguru-ken ࣅ࣮ࢢ ࣝ≟ beak n kuchibashi ࡃࡕࡤࡋ beam n 1. (cross~) keta ࡅࡓ࣭᱆; under the ~ keta-shita ᱆ୗ࣭ ࡅࡓୗ 2. (~ of light) køsen ග⥺ bean n mamé ࣐࣓࣭㇋; (soy beans) daizu ࢲ࢖ࢬ㺃኱㇋ bean curd n (o-)tøfu ࠾ ㇋⭉;

(pot-boiled squares) yu-dø´fu ‫‮‬㇋⭉; (deep-fried) aburá-age Ἔᥭࡆ bean jam/paste n (sweet) án(ko) ࢔ࣥ ࢥ ࣭㤆 ࡇ ; (fermented) míso ࡳࡑ࣭࿡ჯ (o-)míso ࠾ ࡳࡑ࣭ ࠾ ࿡ჯ bear 1. n (animal) kúmá ⇃ 2. v (puts up with) shinobimásu




(o)-futón ࠾ ᕸᅋ; bedroom n shinshitsu ᐷᐊ A carry 4. A give birth to 5. ~s bedlam n 1. sawagi 㦁ࡂ; søran 㦁 fruit minorimásu ᐇࡾࡲࡍ; bear ஘ 2. (confusion) konran ΰ஘ up (stands firm) ganbarimásu ࡀ bedraggled adj 1. (limp and wet) ࢇࡤࡾ>㡹ᙇࡾ@ࡲࡍ hikizutte nurashita ᘬࡁࡎࡗ࡚⃿ beard n hige ࡦࡆ࣭㨈 ࡽࡋࡓ 2. (limp and soiled) hikibearings; n one’s ~ høgaku ᪉ゅ zutte yogoshita ᘬࡁࡎࡗ࡚ởࡋࡓ beat v 1. (hits) nagurimásu ࡞ࡄ bee n hachi ⻏࣭ࣁࢳ; beehive n ࡾ>Ẁࡾ@ࡲࡍ; (slaps) hatakimásu mitsubachi no subako ࣑ࢶࣂࢳ ࡣࡓࡁࡲࡍ࣭྇ࡁࡲࡍ 2. (defeats) >⻤⻏@ࡢᕢ⟽ beef n gyüniku ∵⫗, biifu ࣅ࣮ࣇ; makashimásu ㈇࠿ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (heart throbs) dókidoki shimásu beef slices dipped in hot broth shabu࡝ࡁ࡝ࡁࡋࡲࡍ; ~ around the shabu ࡋࡷࡪࡋࡷࡪ࣭ࢩࣕࣈࢩ bush (is non-committal) hanashí ࣕࣈ o bokashimásu ヰࢆࡰ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ beefsteak n sutëki ࢫࢸ࣮࢟ beautiful adj utsukushíi ⨾ࡋ࠸, been A is A go A come beep n 1. (sound) bii-tto iu oto kírei (na) ࡁࢀ࠸࣭⥡㯇 ࡞ beauty n 1. [BOOKISH] bi ⨾, ࣅ࣮ࢵ࡜࠸࠺㡢 2. (answering utsukushí-sa ⨾ࡋࡉ 2. (beautiful machine) pii-tto iu oto ࣆ࣮ࢵ ࡜࠸࠺㡢 3. yobidashi-on ࿧ࡧ woman) bi-jin ⨾ே, bi-jo ⨾ዪ beauty parlor n biyø´in ⨾ᐜ㝔 ฟࡋ㡢 beaver n biibå ࣅ࣮ࣂ࣮ beer n bíiru ࣅ࣮ࣝ; draft beer n because conj ... kara ...࠿ࡽ, ... nama-bíiru ⏕ࣅ࣮ࣝ, náma ⏕ tame ... ࡓࡵ࣭Ⅽ, ... mono ... ࡶ beet n bíito ࣅ࣮ࢺ ࡢ, ... no de ... ࡢ࡛, [BOOKISH] ... beetle n (insect) kabutomushi ࢝ yúé ni ... ࡺ࠼࡟࣭ᨾ࡟; perhaps ࣈࢺ࣒ࢩ; black beetle n gokiburi ~ of ... (no) séi ka ... ࡢ ࡏ࠸࠿ ࢦ࢟ࣈࣜ become v (... ni, ... -ku) narimásu before adv (... no) máe (ni) ...ࡢ ... ࡟, ... ࡃ ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ ๓ ࡟ ; ~ it happens (shi-) nai bed n toko ᗋ; (Western) béddo uchí (ni) ࡋ ࡞࠸࠺ࡕ ࡟ ; before (bétto) ࣋ࢵࢻ ࣋ࢵࢺ , shindai a meal n, adv taberu mae (ni) 㣗 ᐷྎ; goes to ~ nemásu ᐷࡲ ࡭ࡿ๓ ࡟ , [BOOKISH] shokuzen ࡍ, yasumimásu, ఇࡳࡲࡍ; bed(ni) 㣗๓ ࡟ ; before long adv maand-breakfast n minshuku Ẹᐟ; mó-naku ࡲࡶ࡞ࡃ࣭㛫ࡶ࡞ࡃ, bedclothes, bedding n shíngu ᐷල, sórosoro ࡑࢁࡑࢁ; (eventually) yágu ኪල; (Japanese quilt) ᕸᅋ yagate ࡸࡀ࡚ 354 ᚸࡧࡲࡍ, taemásu ⪏࠼ࡲࡍ, shínbø shimásu ㎞ᢪࡋࡲࡍ 3.



beg v tanomimásu 㢗ࡳࡲࡍ, negaimásu 㢪࠸ࡲࡍ; I beg your pardon, but ... interj shitsúrei desu ga ... ኻ♩࡛ࡍࡀ... beggar n kojikí ࡇࡌࡁ࣭ஒ㣗 begin v (it ~s) hajimarimásu ጞࡲ ࡾࡲࡍ; (~s it) hajimemásu ጞࡵ ࡲࡍ beginning n hajime ึࡵ, (outset) saisho ᭱ึ, [INFORMAL] shoppána ࡋࡻࡗࡥ࡞࣭ึࡗࡥ࡞, hajimari ጞࡲࡾ begrudge v uramimásu ᜟࡳࡲࡍ ᜟࡴ, ᜟࢇ࡛ ; (be jealous of

Beijing n pekin ໭ி being 1. n (in existence; person) sonzai Ꮡᅾ; human ~ ningen ே 㛫 2. n (creature) ikimono ⏕ ࡁ≀ 3. A is 4. v comes into ~ seiritsu shimásu ᡂ❧ࡋࡲࡍ belch n, v geppu (o shimásu) ࡆࡗ ࡫ ࢆࡋࡲࡍ Belgium n berugii ࣋ࣝࢠ࣮ believe v 1. ~ (in) (... o) shinjimásu ... ࢆ ಙࡌࡲࡍ 2. A think bell n 1. (large) kane 㚝 2. (small) rín/suzu 㕥 3. (doorbell) béru ࣋ ࣝ, yobi-rin ࿧ࡧ㕥 4. (temple ~) another’s good fortune, etc.) tsurigane 㔮ࡾ㚝 hito no køun o netamimásu ேࡢ belly n hará ⭡; fuku-bu ⭡㒊; ᖾ㐠ࢆࡡࡓࡳࡲࡍ onaka ࠾⭡ behalf n 1. (support) shiji ᨭᣢ belong (to) v (... ni) zokushimásu 2. (benefit) rieki ฼┈; in/on ~ of ... ࡟ ᒓࡋࡲࡍ belongings n mochímono ᣢࡕ≀ … (... no) tamé ... ࡢ ࡓࡵ࣭ Ⅽ 3. (representative) in/on ~ beloved n 1. (person or pet) itoshii of … [INFORMAL] (... no) kawari ࠸࡜ࡋ࠸࣭ឡࡋ࠸, saiai (no) ᭱ (ni) ...ࡢ௦ࢃࡾ ࡟ , (... no) dairi ឡ ࡢ 2. (thing) aiyø (no) ឡ⏝ ࡢ 3. (thing or place) okiniiri (de) ...ࡢ௦⌮ ࡛ behavior n 1. (actions) kødø ⾜ື (no) ࠾Ẽ࡟ධࡾࡢ, daisuki (na) 2. (act) køi ⾜Ⅽ 3. (deportment) ኱ዲࡁ ࡞ ; beloved daughter manafurumai ࡩࡿࡲ࠸࣭᣺ࡿ⯙࠸ musume ឡፉ 4. (manners) (o-)gyøgi ࠾ ⾜൤ below prep, adv (... no) shitá (ni) 5. (attitude) táido ែᗘ ... ࡢ ୗ ࡟ ; (less than) ... íka behind 1. prep (... no) ushiro (de/ (... no) ... ௨ୗ ... ࡢ , ... míman ni) (... ࡢ ᚋࢁ ࡛࡟ ; (the (... no) ... ᮍ‶ ... ࡢ other side) urá ⿬ 2. falls/gets ~ belt n 1. beruto ࣋ࣝࢺ, óbi ᖏ 2. (sumo wrestler’s) mawashi ࡲ okuremásu 㐜ࢀࡲࡍ; leaves ~ nokoshimásu ṧࡋࡲࡍ, (forgets) ࢃࡋ࣭ᅇࡋ 3. (zone) (chi)tai ᆅ ᖏ; belt line n kanjø-sen ⎔≧⥺ wasuremono o shimásu ᛀࢀ≀ ࢆࡋࡲࡍ bemused adj 1. (confused) konwabeige n bëju ࣮࣋ࢪࣗ kushita ᅔᝨࡋࡓ, tøwakushita




ᙜᝨࡋࡓ 2. (lost in thought) 4. (special-quality) tokkyü (no) mono-omoi ni fuketta ≀ᛮ࠸࡟ ≉⣭ ࡢ , zekkø (no) ⤯ዲ ࡢ ; at best adv séizei ࡏ࠸ࡐ࠸; the ࡩࡅࡗࡓ bench n benchi ࣋ࣥࢳ best, RQH·V best n saizen ᭱ၿ; ten best n besutó-ten ࣋ࢫࢺࢸࣥ bend v 1. (it ~s) oremásu ᢡࢀ ࡲࡍ, (curves) magarimásu ᭤ࡀ bet 1. n (act of betting) kake ㉃ࡅ ࡾࡲࡍ, (warps) sorimásu ཯ࡾࡲ 2. n (money) kake-kin ㉃ࡅ㔠 ࡍ 2. (~s it) orimásu ᢡࡾࡲࡍ, 3. v kakemásu ㉃ࡅࡲࡍ, kaké o magemásu ᭤ࡆࡲࡍ, sorashishimásu ㉃ࢆࡋࡲࡍ másu ཯ࡽࡋࡲࡍ; bend backward betray v ura-girimásu ⿬ษࡾࡲࡍ; betrayal n ura-giri ⿬ษࡾ v karada o sorashimásu యࢆ betrothal n konyaku ፧⣙; betrothed ཯ࡽࡋࡲࡍ; bend down/ over v kagamimásu ᒅࡳࡲࡍ; bend forn konyaku-sha ፧⣙⪅ ward v mae-kagami ni narimásu better adj 1. mótto íi/yoi ࡶࡗ࡜࠸ ๓ᒅࡳ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ ࠸Ⰻ࠸, (...) yóri íi/yoi ... ࡼࡾ beneath A below ࠸࠸Ⰻ࠸ 2. (preferable) ... benefactor n onjin ᜠே (no hø´) ga íi/yoi ... ࡢ᪉ ࡀ࠸ benefit n ríeki ฼┈; (... no) tamé ࠸Ⰻ࠸ ... ࡢ Ⅽ between prep, adv (... no) aida (ni) benign 1. n (pathology) ryøsei ... ࡢ 㛫 ࡟ ; ...-kan ... ...㛫 Ⰻᛶ 2. adj (gracious) shinsetsu beverage n nomí-mono 㣧ࡳ≀ beware v chüi shimásu ὀពࡋࡲࡍ; (na) ぶษ ࡞ Berlin n Berurín ࣋ࣝࣜࣥ (Please) beware ki o tsukete berth n shindai ᐷྎ; berth ticket n (kudasai) Ẽࢆࡘࡅ࡚ ࡃࡔࡉ࠸ shindái-ken ᐷྎๆ beyond prep, adv (... no) mukø beset (stricken); gets ~ (by (ni) ... ࡢ ྥࡇ࠺ ࡟ ; ~ expecillness) yararemásu ࡸࡽࢀࡲࡍ tations zongai Ꮡእ; beyond remedy beside prep, adv (next to) ... no shø (shi-yø) ga nái ࡋࡻ࠺ ࡋࡼ sóba (de/ni) ... ࡢࡑࡤ ࡛࡟ , ... ࠺࣭௙ᵝ ࡀ࡞࠸ no tonari (de/ni) ...ࡢ㞄ࡾ ࡛࡟ bias n (prejudice) henken ೫ぢ, besides prep, adv (in addition to) sennyü-kan ඛධほ sono úé (ni) ࡑࡢୖ ࡟ , (sono) Bible n Séisho ⪷᭩, Báiburu ࣂ࢖ ࣈࣝ hoka (ni) ࡑࡢ ௚ ࡟ best adj 1. ichiban íi ୍␒࠸࠸>Ⰻ bibliography n tosho mokuroku ᅗ ࠸, ၿ࠸@; sairyø (no) ᭱Ⰻ ࡢ ᭩┠㘓, bunken mokuroku ᩥ⊩ 2. (highest) saikø (no) ᭱㧗 ࡢ ┠㘓 3. (top-class) jøtø (no) ୖ➼ ࡢ bicycle n jitén-sha, jidén-sha ⮬㌿




㌴; bicycle shop n jitensha-ya, binoculars n søgan-kyø ཮║㙾 biography n denki ఏグ jidensha-ya ⮬㌿㌴ᒇ bid 1. v (to offer) nyüsatsu shimásu biological adj seibutsugaku-teki ධᮐࡋࡲࡍ 2. v (to command) (na) ⏕≀Ꮫⓗ ࡞ meirei shimásu ࿨௧ࡋࡲࡍ 3. v biology n seibutsú-gaku ⏕≀Ꮫ biotechnology n baio(-tekunorojii) (to express) ii másu ゝ࠸ࡲࡍ 4. n nyüsatsu ධᮐ ࣂ࢖࢜ ࢸࢡࣀࣟࢪ࣮ , seibutsu big adj 1. økíi ኱ࡁ࠸, [INFORMAL] køgaku ⏕≀ᕤᏛ dekai (dekkai) ࡛࠿࠸ ࡛ࡗ࠿࠸ bird n tori 㫽; bird-watching n bådo 2. (spacious) hirói ᗈ࠸; big brother uotchingu ࣂ࣮ࢻ࢘࢜ࢵࢳࣥࢢ; áni ඗, (o-)níi-san ࠾ ඗ࡉࢇ; yachø-kansatsu 㔝㫽ほᐹ big sister ane ጜ, (o-)në´-san ࠾ birth n 1. (being born) umare ⏕ࡲ ጜࡉࢇ ࢀ, [BOOKISH] shussei ฟ⏕ bike n 1. A bicycle 2. (motorbike) 2. (origin) tanjø ㄌ⏕; give ~ to ... baiku ࣂ࢖ࢡ, øtobai ࣮࢜ࢺࣂ࢖ o umimásu ... ࢆ⏕ࡳࡲࡍ, o-san bilingual n, adj bairingaru (no) ࣂ shimásu ࠾⏘ࡋࡲࡍ; birthstone n ࢖ࣜࣥ࢞ࣝ ࡢ tanjø´seki ㄌ⏕▼ bill n 1. (to pay) (o-)kanjø ࠾ ຺ birthday n (o)-tanjø´bi ࠾ ㄌ⏕᪥; ᐃ; denpyø ఏ⚊, o-aiso ࠾ឡ᝿ båsudë ࣂ࣮ࢫࢹ࣮, birthday cake n ࣭࠾࠶࠸ࡑ; daikin ௦㔠, ...-dai (o-)tanjø´bi këki ࠾ ㄌ⏕᪥ࢣ ࣮࢟; båsudë këki ࣂ࣮ࢫࢹ࣮ࢣ ... ௦; (account) tsuké ࡘࡅ; separate bill/charge (restaurant) ࣮࢟, birthday card n o-)tanjø´bi betsu-ryøkin ูᩱ㔠; (Dutch kådo ࠾ ㄌ⏕᪥࣮࢝ࢻ; båsudë treat) warikan ๭ࡾ຺ 2. (bank kådo ࣂ࣮ࢫࢹ࣮࣮࢝ࢻ bill, promissory note) tegata ᡭ birthplace n kókyø ᨾ㒓, furusato ᙧ 3. (currency note) (o-)satsu ᨾ㒓࣭ࡩࡿࡉ࡜ ࠾ ᮐ 4. (handbill) bira ࡧ biscuit n (cookie) bisuketto ࣅࢫ ࡽ࣭ࣅࣛ ࢣࢵࢺ billiards n biriyådo ࣅ࣮ࣜࣖࢻ bisexual n (ambisexual) baibillion n jü´-oku ༑൨ (U.S.); chø´ sekushuaru ࣂ࢖ࢭࢡࢩࣗ࢔ࣝ, ඙, ít-chø ୍඙ (Britain) ryøseiai-sha ୧ᛶឡ⪅ bin n trash ~ gomi-bako ࢦ࣑⟽ bit n (a little) sukóshi ᑡࡋ; bind v 1. (pages, sheets) tsuzuri[INFORMAL] chótto ࡕࡻࡗ࡜ bitch n 1. (female dog) mesu-inu másu ⥛ࡾࡲࡍ 2. A tie binge n donchan-sawagi ࡝ࢇࡕ 㞤≟ 2. (malicious and lewd ࡷࢇ㦁ࡂ woman) abazure ࠶ࡤࡎࢀ bingo n (game) bingo ࣅࣥࢦ bitcoin n (cybercurrency and




worldwide payment system) bittokoin ࣅࢵࢺࢥ࢖ࣥ bite 1. v kamimásu ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ჶ ࡳࡲࡍ, kami-tsukimásu ࠿ࡳࡘ ࡁࡲࡍ࣭ჶࡳࡘࡁࡲࡍ 2. n one ~ hitó-kuchi ࡦ࡜ࡃࡕ୍ཱྀ࣭ 3. n (hurt) sashikizu ่യ bitter adj 1. (taste, hard to bear, painful) nigái ⱞ࠸ 2. (awful) hidói ࡦ࡝࠸࣭㓞࠸; bitter experience nigai keiken ⱞ࠸⤒㦂 black adj kurói 㯮࠸; kúro (no) 㯮 ࡢ ; jet ~ makkúro (na) ┿ࡗ㯮 ࡞ ; black box n burakku bokkusu ࣈࣛࢵࢡ࣎ࢵࢡࢫ; black market n yami-ichi 㜌ᕷ, yamí-íchiba 㜌ᕷሙ blackboard n kokuban 㯮ᯈ black-hearted adj hara gurói ⭡㯮࠸ blackmail n yusuri ࡺࡍࡾ, kyøkatsu ᜍ႑ bladder n bøkø ⭤⬔ blade n 1. (razor) (kamisórí no) há ࠿ࡳࡑࡾࡢ ล 2. (sword) yaiba ࡸ࠸ࡤ࣭ล 3. (leaf) ha ⴥ 4. (on ice skate) burëdo ࣈ࣮ࣞࢻ blame 1. n (censure) (o-)togame ࠾ ࡜ࡀࡵ, hínan 㠀㞴 2. v (rebukes one) togamemásu ࡜ࡀ ࡵࡲࡍ, hínan shimásu 㠀㞴ࡋࡲ ࡍ 3. A responsibility bland adj 1. (tasteless) aji ga usui ࿡ࡀⷧ࠸ 2. (gentle) odayaka (na) ✜ࡸ࠿ ࡞ 3. (insipid) tsumaranai ࡘࡲࡽ࡞࠸ blank 1. n (space) küsho ✵ᡤ, yohaku వⓑ 2. n (form) yøshi

⏝⣬ 3. adj hakushi (no) ⓑ⣬ ࡢ 4. adj (expression) utsuro (na) ࠺ࡘࢁ ࡞ ࣭✵ࢁ ࡞ ࣭⹫ ࢁ ࡞ ; with a ~ look utsuro na hyøjø o mísete ࠺ࡘࢁ࡞>⹫ࢁ࡞@ ⾲᝟ࢆぢࡏ࡚ blanket n mø´fu ẟᕸ blast-off n hassha Ⓨᑕ bleach n hyøhaku-zai ⁻ⓑ๣ bleak adj 1. (hopeless) kibø no nai ᕼᮃࡢ࡞࠸; ~ future kurai shørai ᬯ࠸ᑗ᮶ 2. (desolate) wabishii ࢃࡧࡋ࠸, sappükei (na) ẅ㢼ᬒ ࡞ 3. (cold) samui ᐮ࠸ bleed v chi ga demásu ⾑ࡀฟࡲࡍ, shukketsu shimásu ฟ⾑ࡋࡲࡍ blemish n 1. (scar) kizu യ 2. (defect) ketten ḞⅬ blend n burendo ࣈࣞࣥࢻ, kongø ΰྜ blender n míkiså ࣑࢟ࢧ࣮ bless v 1. ~ with ... o megumimásu ... ࢆᜨࡳࡲࡍ 2. gets blessed with ...ni megumaremásu ...࡟ᜨࡲࢀ ࡲࡍ blessed adj 1. megumareta ᜨࡲࢀ ࡓ, shukufuku sareta ⚃⚟ࡉࢀࡓ 2. (holy) shinsei (na) ⚄⪷ ࡞ , seinaru ⪷࡞ࡿ; blessing n megumi ᜨࡳ, shukufuku ⚃⚟ blind n 1. (person) møjin ┣ே 2. (sun-shade) hi-ø´í ᪥そ࠸, hi-yoke ᪥ࡼࡅ, buraindo ࣈࣛ࢖ ࣥࢻ A bamboo blind blink v ma-tátaki/ma-bátaki shimásu ࡲࡓࡓࡁࡲࡤࡓࡁ▐ ࡁࡋࡲࡍ




blister n mizu-búkure Ỉ⭾ࢀ; (corn) mamé ࡲࡵ, soko mame ᗏࡲࡵ blizzard n (mø-/ø-) fúbuki ⊛኱ ྿㞷 bloc n ken ᅪ, burokku ࣈࣟࢵࢡ block 1. n (city block) The closest equivalent is chøme ୎┠, a

blowfish n fúgu ࣇࢢ࣭Ἑ㇜ blowup n bakuhatsu ⇿Ⓨ, bakuha ⇿◚ bludgeon n konbø ᲨᲬ࣭ࡇࢇᲬ blue adj 1. áói 㟷࠸; áo (no) 㟷 ࡢ 2. (feel ~) burü ࣈ࣮ࣝ, yüutsu ៧࠺ࡘ; blue-collar worker n square of several blocks. For burü karå ࣈ࣮࣮ࣝ࢝ࣛ; nikutai distances, use ... -chø ... ⏫ 2. n rødø-sha ⫗యປാ⪅ ~ of wood kakuzai ゅᮦ 3. n (toy) blunder n shippai ኻᩋ; chónbo ࡕ tsumiki ✚ࡳᮌ, burokku ࣈࣟ ࡻࢇࡰ; (faux pas) bu-sáhø ୙స ࢵࢡ 4. v (clogs, impedes) ἲ࣭↓సἲ fusagimásu ࡩࡉࡂࡲࡍ, burokku blunt adj (dull-edged) kirénai ษ shimásu ࣈࣟࢵࢡࡋࡲࡍ; blocked ࢀ࡞࠸; (dull-pointed) nibúi 㕌 (off) v the road is ~ dø´ro ga fusa- ࠸; (curt) bu-áisø (na) ↓ឡ᝿ gátte imásu 㐨㊰ࡀࡩࡉࡀࡗ࡚࠸ ࡞ , bukkírábø (na) ࡪࡗࡁࡽ ࡲࡍ ࡰ࠺ ࡞ blockade 1. n füsa ᑒ㙐 2. v füsa blush v kao ga akaku narimásu 㢦ࡀ㉥ࡃ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ, [BOOKISH] shimásu ᑒ㙐ࡋࡲࡍ blond adj kinpatsu (no) 㔠㧥 ࡢ , sekimen shimásu ㉥㠃ࡋࡲࡍ board 1. n (plank) íta ᯈ 2. n burondo (no) ࣈࣟࣥࢻ ࡢ blood n chi ⾑, [BOOKISH] ketsu(meals) (o-)shokuji ࠾ 㣗஦ 3. v (gets on a train/bus) jøsha eki ⾑ᾮ; blood type n ketsuekigata ⾑ᾮᆺ shimásu ஌㌴ࡋࡲࡍ, (a plane) blood pressure n ketsuatsu ⾑ᅽ; tøjø shimásu ᦚ஌ࡋࡲࡍ takes one’s ~ ketsuatsu o hakari- boarding pass n tøjø´-ken ᦚ஌ๆ, másu ⾑ᅽࢆィࡾࡲࡍ bødingu-pasu/kådo ࣮࣎ࢹ࢕ࣥ ࢢࣃࢫ࣮࢝ࢻ bloom v sakimásu ဏࡁࡲࡍ blossom A bloom A flower boast v jiman shimásu ⮬៏ࡋࡲࡍ blot, blotch n shimi ࡋࡳ࣭ᰁࡳ, boat n fúne ⯚࣭⯪; (small) yogore ởࢀ kobune ᑠ⯚࣭ᑠ⯪, bø´to ࣮࣎ࢺ; blotter n suitorí-gami ྾࠸ྲྀࡾ⣬ boat race n bøto-rësu ࣮࣎ࢺ࣮ࣞࢫ blouse n (woman’s, child’s) body n 1. karada య࣭㌟య whole ~ zenshin ඲㌟; ~ temperature buráusu ࣈࣛ࢘ࢫ blow v fukimásu ྿ࡁࡲࡍ; ~ taion య ; ~ weight taijü య㔜 2. one’s nose hana o kamimásu 㰯 (collective body, group) shüdan ࢆ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ 㞟ᅋ; bodybuilding n bodii-biru ࣎



bog down, gets bogged down

ࢹ࢕ࣅࣝ; bodyguard n bodii-gådo ࣎ࢹ࢕࣮࢞ࢻ, goei ㆤ⾨ bog down, gets bogged down v ikizumarimásu ⾜ࡁワࡲࡾࡲࡍ bohemian n bohemian ࣑࣎࣊࢔ࣥ boil v 1. ~s water o-yu o wakashimásu ࠾‫ࢆ‮‬Ἓ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ; water ~s o-yu ga wakimásu ࠾ ‫ࡀ‮‬Ἓࡁࡲࡍ 2. ~s (food) nimásu ↻ࡲࡍ, yudemásu ࡺ࡛ࡲࡍ࣭ⲗ ࡛ࡲࡍ; (soup, rice) takimásu ⅕ ࡁࡲࡍ 3. it ~s niemásu ↻࠼ࡲࡍ boil n (on skin) hare-mono ࡣࢀࡶ ࡢ, dekí-mónó ࡛ࡁࡶࡢ o-déki ࠾࡛ࡁ ; boiled eggs n yude-támago ࡺ࡛༸ ↻㨶; boiled water n o-yu ࠾‫‮‬, (cooled for drinking) yu-zámashi ‫‮‬෭ࡲࡋ boiler n bóirå ࣎࢖࣮ࣛ; (hotwater maker) yu-wakashiki ‫‮‬ Ἓ࠿ࡋჾ; (pot) kama ࠿ࡲ࣭㔩, nábe 㘠 boisterous adj yakamashíi ࡸ࠿ࡲ ࡋ࠸, sawagashíi 㦁ࡀࡋ࠸ bold adj daitán (na) ኱⫹ ࡞ , yükan (na) ຬᩒ ࡞ bolt n (of door) kannuki ࠿ࢇࡠ ࡁ࣭㛜; (of nut and bolt) boruto ࣎ࣝࢺ; (of cloth) ... -maki ... ᕳࡁ, -tan ཯ bomb 1. n (explosive device) bakudan ⇿ᙎ 2. n (bombing) bakugeki ⇿ᧁ 3. v (~s it) bakugeki shimásu ⇿ᧁࡋࡲࡍ; bomber n bakugékí-ki ⇿ᧁᶵ; bombshell n bakudan ⇿ᙎ Bon; the Bon Festival (o-)bón

࠾ ┅, urabon ࠺ࡽ┅ bond n (debenture) saiken മๆ bone n honé 㦵 bonfire n taki-bi ࡓࡁⅆ bonito n katsuo ࢝ࢶ࣭࢜㫎; (dried) katsuo-bushi ࠿ࡘ࠾ ⠇࣭㫎⠇ bonnet A hat A (car) hood bonus n 1. (wage) bø´nasu ࣮࣎ ࢼࢫ, shø´yo ㈹୚ 2. (extra) omake ࠾ࡲࡅ boo-hoo interj (sound of crying) 1. ën ën ࢚࣮࢚࣮ࣥࣥ(mostly children’s crying), wån wån ࣮࣡ ࣮ࣥ࣡ࣥ (louder) 2. øi øi ࣮࢜ ࢖࣮࢜࢖ book 1. n hón ᮏ, [BOOKISH] shómotsu ᭩≀; (publications) shoseki ᭩⡠ 2. n ~ of (commuting) tickets kaisü-ken ᅇᩘๆ 3. ~s v (reserves) yoyaku shimásu ண⣙ࡋࡲࡍ; bookcase n hónbako ᮏ⟽; book up v gets booked fusagarimásu ࡩࡉࡀࡾࡲࡍ; bookfair n bukku-fea ࣈࢵࢡࣇ࢙࢔; booking n ① yoyaku ண⣙ ② bóki ⡙グ boom n 1. (prosperity) (niwaka) keiki ࡟ࢃ࠿ ᬒẼ; keiki (ga ii) ᬒẼ ࡀ࠸࠸ 2. (fad) bü´mu ࣈ ࣮࣒ 3. (sound) dón ࢻࣥ boomerang n bümeran ࣈ࣮࣓ࣛࣥ booster n (of current) shøátsú-ki ᪼ᅽჾ booth n 1. (selling things) baiten ኎ᗑ 2. (in a tavern, etc.) bókkusu-seki ࣎ࢵࢡࢫᖍ 3. (tele-




phone) denwa bókkusu 㟁ヰ࣎ࢵ ࢡࢫ 4. (office) büsu ࣈ࣮ࢫ boot(s) n naga-gutsu 㛗㠐, bütsu ࣈ࣮ࢶ, (rubber) gomu-naga ࢦ࣒㛗 border 1. n (boundary) sakái ቃ; (of a district, etc.) kyøkai ቃ⏺; (of a country) kokkyø ᅜቃ; (edging) herí ࡬ࡾ࣭⦕ 2. ~s on v ... ni ses-shimásu ... ࡟᥋ࡋࡲ ࡍ, rinsetsu shimásu 㞄᥋ࡋࡲࡍ boring adj (dull) taikutsu (na) ㏥ ᒅ ࡞ , tsumaránai ࡘࡲࡽ࡞࠸ born 1. gets ~ v umaremásu ⏕ࡲ ࢀࡲࡍ 2. ~ in/of adj ... no de/ umare ... ࡢฟ⏕ࡲࢀ, ... -úmare (no) ... ⏕ࡲࢀ ࡢ borrow (from ...) v (... ni) karimásu ... ࡟ ೉ࡾࡲࡍ bosom n futokoro ᠜࣭ࡩ࡜ࡇࢁ boss n 1. shújin ୺ே 2. (head of company) shachø ♫㛗 3. (a leader) jøshi ୖྖ 4. (ring-leader) óyá-bun ぶศ, bosu ࣎ࢫ Boston n bosuton ࣎ࢫࢺࣥ botch v yari-sokonaimásu ࡸࡾᦆ ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ both 1. pron ryøhø ୧᪉2. adj ryøhø no ୧᪉ࡢ 3. adv dochira mo ࡝ࡕࡽࡶ; ~ ... and ... ... mo ... mo ...ࡶ...ࡶ; both directions/sides n ryømen ୧㠃, ryø-gawa ୧ഃ bother n mendø´ 㠃ಽ, méiwaku ㏞ᝨ; (intrusion) jama ࡌࡷࡲ࣭ 㑧㨱; (care) (o)-séwa ࠾ ୡヰ, o-sewa-sama ࠾ୡヰᵝ, (go-) yákkai ࡈ ࡸࡗ࠿࠸࣭ ࡈ གྷ௓

A worry; ~ a person hito no jama o shimásu ேࡢࡌࡷࡲ>㑧㨱@ࢆ ࡋࡲࡍ bothersome adj mendø-kusái 㠃ಽ ࡃࡉ࠸>⮯࠸@, yákkai (na) ࡸࡗ ࠿࠸࣭ གྷ௓ ࡞ ; jama (na) ࡌࡷ ࡲ࣭㑧㨱 ࡞ bottle n 1. bín ⎼ 2. (a bottle of liquor) a ~ of whiskey wisukiibotoru (ippon) ࢘࢕ࢫ࣮࢟࣎ࢺ ࣝ ୍ᮏ ; a ~ of beer bíiru íp-pon ࣅ୍࣮ࣝᮏ; bottle opener n sennuki ᰦᢤࡁ bottom n soko ᗏ; (underneath) shita ୗ, ... shitá ...ୗ; (buttock) (o-)shiri ࠾ ᑼ; bottoms up n (toast) kanpai ஝ᮼ bounce v hazumimásu ᙎࡳࡲࡍ bound 1. v A bind; ~ pages tsuzuri ⥛ࡾ 2. A jump; bound for ... -iki (no) ... ⾜ࡁ ࡢ ; bound to (do) v kitto ...(suru) deshø ࡁࡗ࡜... ࡍ ࡿ ࡛ࡋࡻ࠺ boundary n sakái ቃ bouquet n haná-tába ⰼ᮰ boutique n butikku ࣈࢸ࢕ࢵࢡ bow n (archery or violin) yumí ᘪ; (shape) yumi-gata ᘪᙧ; (of ribbon) chø-músubi ࡕࡻ࠺⤖ࡧ ࣭⼖⤖ࡧ bow 1. n (of head, etc.) o-jigi ࠾ࡌ ࡂ࣭࠾㎡൤ 2. v o-jigi o shimásu ࠾ࡌࡁ࣭࠾㎡൤ࢆࡋࡲࡍ bowel n chø ⭠; bowels naizø ෆ⮚, ~ movement (o-)tsü´-ji ࠾ ㏻ࡌ, has a ~ movement tsü-ji ga arimásu ㏻ࡌࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ




bowl n (o-)wan ࠾ ☇; (ricebowl) braid v amimásu ⦅ࡳࡲࡍ brain(s) n nø(-míso) ⬻ ࡳࡑ , (o-)cháwan ࠾ Ⲕ☇; (basin, pot) hachí 㖊 zunø 㢌⬻, atamá 㢌 (= head); bowl(ful) n ...-hai ... ᮼ 1: íp-pai brainstorming n burein sutømingu ୍ᮼ, 2: ní-hai ஧ᮼ, 3: sánbai ࣈࣞ࢖ࣥࢫࢺ࣮࣑ࣥࢢ ୕ᮼ) brake n burë´ki ࣈ࣮ࣞ࢟ bowling n børingu ࣎࢘ࣜࣥࢢ; ~ branch n 1. (of tree) eda ᯞ 2. competition børingu-taikai ࣎࢘ (of store) shiten ᨭᗑ 3. (of rail ࣜࣥࢢ኱఍, ~ ball børingu (no) line) shisen ᨭ⥺ 4. (of school) børu ࣎࢘ࣜࣥࢢ ࡢ ࣮࣎ࣝ bún-kø ศᰯ 5. (of office) bu 㒊;  box n hako ⟽, ~ lunch (o-)bentø branch off v it ~es off wakaremásu ࠾ ᘚᙜ, (sold at station) ekiศ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ brand n burando ࣈࣛࣥࢻ, meigara ben 㥐ᘚ boxer n bokuså ࣎ࢡࢧ࣮ 㖭᯶, shøhyø ၟᶆ; famous ~ goods yümei burando-hin ᭷ྡࣈ boxing n kentø ᣙ㜚, bókushingu ࣎ࢡࢩࣥࢢ ࣛࣥࢻရ box office n 1. (ticket office) brandy n burandë ࣈࣛࣥࢹ࣮ chiketto-uriba ࢳࢣࢵࢺ኎ࡾሙ brass n shinchü ┿ࡕࡹ࠺࣭┿㘷 2. (receipts from a play, film, brassiére n burájå ࣈࣛࢪ࣮ࣕ brave adj yükan (na) ຬᩒ ࡞ , etc.) køgyø-shünyü ⯆⾜཰ධ, bokkusu-ofisu ࣎ࢵࢡࢫ࢜ࣇ࢕ࢫ tsuyói ᙉ࠸ boy n 1. otokó-no-ko ⏨ࡢᏊ, bravo interj burabø ࣈ࣮ࣛ࣎ shønen ᑡᖺ, bø´ya ᆓࡸ, bótchan brazier n híbachi ⅆ㖊 ᆓࡕࡷࢇ 2. (waiter) bøi ࣮࣎࢖; Brazil n Burajiru ࣈࣛࢪࣝ boyfriend n bøi-furéndo ࣮࣎࢖ࣇ bread n pán ࣃࣥ, shoku-pan 㣗ࣃ ࣞࣥࢻ; káre-shi ᙼẶ; %R\V· Festival ࣥ; bread crumbs n pan-kó ࣃࣥ⢊, (5 May) n Tángo no sekku ➃༗ pan-kúzu ࣃࣥࡃࡎ>ᒌ@ ࡢ⠇ྃ breadth n haba ᖜ boycott n boikotto ࣎࢖ࢥࢵࢺ break n 1. (rift or pause) kire-mé bra n bura ࣈࣛA brassiére ษࢀ┠ 2. (rest) (o-)yasumi ࠾ bracelet n ude-wa ⭎㍯, ఇࡳ, kyükei ఇ᠁ break v 1. it ~s v kowaremásu ቯ buresuretto ࣈࣞࢫࣞࢵࢺ bracket n kakko ᣓᘼ; square ~ ࢀࡲࡍ, (in two) oremásu ᢡࢀ ࡲࡍ, (it splits) waremásu ๭ࢀ (such as “[]”) kaku-kakko ゅ ᣓᘼ ࡲࡍ, (it smashes) kudakemásu brag v hóra o fukimásu ࡯ࡽࢆ྿ ○ࡅࡲࡍ 2. ~s it v kowashimásu ࡁࡲࡍ ቯࡋࡲࡍ, (in two) orimásu ᢡࡾ




ࡲࡍ, (splits) warimásu ๭ࡾࡲࡍ, ࢇ , (o-)yome(-san) ࠾ ᎑ ࡉࢇ (smashes it) kudakimásu ○ࡁࡲ bridegroom n hana-múko(-san) ⰼ ࡍ; ~ in wari-kómimásu ๭ࡾ㎸ ፵ ࡉࢇ , (o-)múko(-san) ࠾ ࡳࡲࡍ; break down ① it ~s down ፵ ࡉࢇ (crumbles) kuzuremásu ᔂࢀࡲࡍ, bridge n 1. hashí ᶫ; (steel) tekkyø 㕲ᶫ; the ~s on a Japanese harp (stops working) koshø shimásu ᨾ㞀ࡋࡲࡍ ② ~s (demolishes) koto-ji ⍆ᰕ 2. (card) burijji ࣈ it down kuzushimásu ᔂࡋࡲࡍ; ࣜࢵࢪ break off (ends it) kirimásu ษࡾ bridle n baroku 㤿ີ ࡲࡍ; (it ends) kiremásu ษࢀࡲࡍ brief adj (short) mijikái ▷࠸; breakdown n 1. (crash) koshø ᨾ (simple) kantan (na) ⡆༢ ࡞ 㞀 2. (item by item) meisai ᫂⣽, briefcase n kaban ࠿ࡤࢇ࣭㠜, uchiwake ෆヂ buriifu kësu ࣈ࣮ࣜࣇࢣ࣮ࢫ breakfast n chøshoku ᮅ㣗, asabriefing n jøkyø setsumei ≧ἣㄝ᫂ briefly adj (in brief) zatto ࡊࡗ࡜ góhan ᮅࡈ㣤 bream n sea bream tái ࢱ࢖࣭㪉 bright adj 1. akarui ᫂ࡿ࠸ breast n (chest) muné ⬚; (woman’s) 2. (sunny) hogáraka (na) ᮁࡽ࠿ ࡞ 3. (colorful) hanáyaka (na) chichí ங, chibusa ஙᡣ, (baby ⳹ࡸ࠿ ࡞ 4. (gaudy) hadé (na) talk, slang) óppai ࠾ࡗࡥ࠸; ~ cancer nyü-gan ஙࡀࢇ࣭ங⒴ ࡣ࡛࣭ὴᡭ ࡞ 5. (of spirit) breath n íki ᜥ; a ~ hitó-iki ୍ yøki (na) 㝧Ẽ ࡞ ᜥ; draws/takes one’s last ~ íki o brilliant adj subarashii ࡍࡤࡽࡋ hiki-torimásu ᜥࢆᘬࡁྲྀࡾࡲࡍ ࠸࣭⣲ᬕࡽࡋ࠸, sugoi ࡍࡈ࠸࣭ breathe v íki o shimásu ᜥࢆࡋࡲࡍ; ෶࠸ kokyü shimásu ࿧྾ࡋࡲࡍ; ~ a brim n fuchi ࡩࡕ࣭⦕, heri ࡬ࡾ sigh of relief hóttó shimásu ࡯ࡗ ࣭⦕ ࡜ࡋࡲࡍ brine n shiomizu ሷỈ breed n 1. (species of plant, etc.) bring v (a thing) motte/tótte hinshu ရ✀ 2. (kind) shurui ✀ kimásu ᣢࡗ࡚ྲྀࡗ࡚᮶ࡲࡍ; 㢮 3. (lineage) kettø ⾑⤫ ~ along (a person) tsurete breeze n (soyó-)kaze ࡑࡼ 㢼; kimásu 㐃ࢀ࡚᮶ࡲࡍ; bring about shoots the ~ daberimásu ࡔ࡭ࡾ v okoshimásu ㉳ࡇࡋࡲࡍ; bring ࡲࡍ close/near v chika-zukemásu ㏆௜ brewery n jøzø-sho 㔊㐀ᡤ ࡅࡲࡍ, yosemásu ᐤࡏࡲࡍ; bring bribe(ry) n wáiro ࢃ࠸ࢁ࣭㈥㈣ up v (rears) sodatemásu ⫱࡚ࡲ brick n rénga ࣭ࣞࣥ࢞↢⎰ ࡍ; yashinaimásu 㣴࠸ࡲࡍ; bride n haná-yome(-san) ⰼ᎑ ࡉ yøiku shimásu 㣴⫱ࡋࡲࡍ;




(trains) shitsukemásu ࡋࡘࡅࡲࡍ brink n kiwá 㝿 Britain A England British A English brittle adj morói ࡶࢁ࠸࣭⬤࠸ broad adj hirói ᗈ࠸ broadband n, adj burødo-bando ࣈ ࣮ࣟࢻࣂࣥࢻ broadcast 1. n høsø ᨺ㏦ 2. v høsø shimásu ᨺ㏦ࡋࡲࡍ broad-minded n kanyø (na) ᐶᐜ ࡞ brocade n níshiki 㘊 broccoli n burokkorii ࣈࣟࢵࢥ࣮ࣜ brochure n panfuretto ࣃࣥࣇࣞࢵ ࢺ, katarogu ࢝ࢱࣟࢢ broil v yakimásu ↝ࡁࡲࡍ broke adj (without money) kinketsu 㔠Ḟ broken adj (not working) damé desu (da/na, de, ni) ࡔࡵ>㥏┠@ ࡛ࡍ ࡔ࡞, ࡛, ࡟ ; koshø shita ᨾ㞀ࡋࡓ brokenhearted; gets ~ shitsuren shimásu ኻᜊࡋࡲࡍ broker n burøkå ࣈ࣮࣮ࣟ࢝, nakagai ௰㈙࠸, nakadachí ௰❧ࡕ brokerage n (commission) tesüryø ᡭᩘᩱ, komisshon ࢥ࣑ࢵࢩࣙࣥ bronze n seidø 㟷㖡, buronzu ࣈ ࣟࣥࢬ brooch n burøchi ࣈ࣮ࣟࢳ brook n ogawa ᑠᕝ broom n høki ࡯࠺ࡁ࣭⟨ broth n süpu ࢫ࣮ࣉ brother n (otoko) kyø´dai ⏨ ඗ ᘵ; (older) (o-)níi-san ࠾ ඗ࡉ ࢇ, áni ඗; (younger) otøtó ᘵ,

(your younger brother) otøtosan ᘵࡉࢇ; brother-in-law n gíri no áni/otøtó (kyø´dai) ⩏⌮ࡢ ඗ᘵ ඗ᘵ ; brothers and sisters n kyø´dai ඗ᘵ, (female sisters) shimaiጜጒ brought up; gets ~ (is reared) sodachimásu ⫱ࡕࡲࡍ brow n 1. (eyebrow) máyu ┱ 2. (forehead) hitai 㢠 brown adj cha-iro (no/i) ⲔⰍ ࡢ࠸ bruise n uchímí ᡴࡕ㌟, dabokushø ᡴ᧞യ brush 1. n búrashi ࣈࣛࢩ, haké ࡣࡅ࣭ๅẟ; (for writing or painting) fude ➹ 2. v ~es aside haraimásu ᡶ࠸ࡲࡍ; brush up n burasshu appu ࣈࣛࢵࢩࣗ࢔ࢵࣉ brutal adj mugói ࡴࡈ࠸, zankoku (na) ṧ㓞 ࡞ , zangyaku (na) ṧ ⹢ ࡞ , zannin (na) ṧᚸ ࡞ brutality n mugósa ࡴࡈࡉ, zankoku ṧ㓞, zangyaku ṧ⹢ bubble n awá Ἳ, abukú ࠶ࡪࡃ; (soap) shabon-dama ࢩࣕ࣎ࣥ⋢; bubble gum n füsen-gámu 㢼⯪࣒࢞ bucket n 1. baketsu ࣂࢣࢶ 2. (rice) (o-)hachi ࠾ 㖊, (o-)hitsu ࠾  ࡦࡘ࣭࠾ᷬ, meshi-bitsu 㣤ࡧࡘ ࣭㣤ᷬ buckle n shime-gane ⥾ࡵ㔠, bákkuru ࣂࢵࢡࣝ buckwheat n soba ࡑࡤ࣭ⷃ㯏 bud n 1. (of leaf) mé ⱆ 2. (of flower) tsubomi ࡘࡰࡳ࣭ⷣ Buddha n Hotoke(-sámá) ௖ ᵝ ,




(Sakyamuni) Shaka 㔘㏑ = O-shakasama ࠾㔘㏑ᵝ; (statue of Buddha) Butsu-zø ௖ീ Buddhism n Bukkyø ௖ᩍ Buddhist n Bukkyø-to ௖ᩍᚐ; Buddhist priest n (o-)bø-san ࠾ ᆓࡉࢇ, sø´ryo ൔ౶, [INFORMAL] bø´zu ᆓ୺; Buddhist temple n (o-) terá ࠾ ᑎ budget n yosan ண⟬ bug n mushi ⹸࣭࣒ࢩ bug n (in computer) bagu ࣂࢢ bugle n rappa ࣛࢵࣃ build v (erects) tatemásu ᘓ࡚ ࡲࡍ, ki-zukimásu ⠏ࡁࡲࡍ; (creates) tsukurimásu 㐀ࡾࡲࡍ; køsaku shimásu ᕤసࡋࡲࡍ; body ~ taikaku య᱁; builder n (person) kenchiku-sha ᘓ⠏⪅; kenchiku-gyøsha ᘓ⠏ᴗ⪅; building n taté-mono ᘓ≀, bíru ࣅࣝ bulb n tamá ⋢; light ~ denkyü

bump n 1. (swelling) kobú ࡇ ࡪ࣭⒗; (with) ~s bótsubotsu (ga dekite) ࡰࡘࡰࡘ ࡀ࡛ࡁ࡚ 2. (in road) dekoboko ࡛ࡇࡰࡇ࣭ ฝพ; bump into v ... ni butsukarimásu ... ࡟ࡪࡘ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ;

(happens to meet) de-aimásu

ฟ఍࠸ࡲࡍ bun n (steamed) manjü ࡲࢇࡌࡹ ࠺; (beanjam-stuffed) an-man ࠶ ࢇࡲࢇ bunch n 1. (cluster) fusá ᡣ 2. (pile) yamá ᒣ 3. (bundle) tába ᮰ 4. (group) muré ⩌ࢀ bundle n tsutsumí ໟࡳ; (bunch) tába ᮰ bungalow n (cottage) bangarø ࣂ࣮ࣥ࢞ࣟ bungle 1. n héma ࡬ࡲ 2. v héma o shimásu ࡬ࡲࢆࡋࡲࡍ bunk n (bed) shindai ᐷྎ bunny n (rabbit) usagi (chan) ࢘ࢧ ࢠ ࡕࡷࢇ 㟁⌫ bulge n fukurami ࡩࡃࡽࡳ࣭ burden n ní Ⲵ, (on one’s mind) ⭾ࡽࡳ omo-ni 㔜Ⲵ bulk n økisa ኱ࡁࡉ, kasá ࠿ࡉ bureau n 1. (department) kyóku bull n 1. (bullshit) baka/mudaᒁ, ...-kyoku ... ᒁ 2. (chest) bánashi ࡤ࠿↓㥏ヰ, (bragging) tansu ࡓࢇࡍ࣭⟸➡ hóra ࡯ࡽ࣭࣍ࣛ 2. o-ushi 㞝∵ bureaucracy n kanryø-seido ᐁ൉ bulldozer n burudózå ࣈࣝࢻ࣮ࢨ࣮ ไᗘ bullet n tamá ᙎ, [BOOKISH] burglar n dorobø ἾᲬ࣭࡝ࢁࡰ࠺ burial n maisø ᇙⴿ dangan ᙎ୸ bulletin n keiji ᥖ♧ burn 1. v (it ~s) yakemásu ↝ࡅࡲ bullet train n shinkánsen ᪂ᖿ⥺ ࡍ; (fire ~s) moemásu ⇞࠼ࡲࡍ bullfight(ing) n tøgyü 㜚∵ 2. v (~s it) yakimásu ↝ࡁࡲࡍ; bully n (children) ijimekko ࠸ࡌ (~s a fire; wood, coal) takimásu ࡵࡗᏊ ↏ࡁࡲࡍ, (~s a light) tomoshi-




másu ࡜ࡶࡋ>Ⅼࡋ@ࡲࡍ 3. n (on the skin) yakedo ࡸࡅ࡝࣭ ⅆയ burp n geppu (o shimásu) ࡆࡗ࡫ ࢆࡋࡲࡍ burst v (it bursts) yaburemásu ◚ ࢀࡲࡍ, (explodes) bakuhatsu shimásu ⇿Ⓨࡋࡲࡍ; (~s it) yaburimásu ◚ࡾࡲࡍ; ~ out tobidashimásu 㣕ࡧฟࡋࡲࡍ bury v uzumemásu ࠺ࡎࡵࡲࡍ࣭ ᇙࡵࡲࡍ, umemásu ᇙࡵࡲࡍ; gets buried uzumarimásu ࠺ࡎࡲ ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ᇙࡲࡾࡲࡍ, umarimásu ᇙࡲࡾࡲࡍ bus n básu ࣂࢫ; bus stop n teiryüjo ೵␃ᡤ; básu nori-ba ࣂࢫ஌ ࡾሙ bush n [BOOKISH] kanboku ₤ᮌ ࣭℺ᮌ, shigemi ⱱࡳ Bushido n bushi-dø Ṋኈ㐨 business n 1. (job) (o-)shígoto ࠾ ௙஦, bijinesu ࣅࢪࢿࢫ 2. (line of ~) shø´bai ၟ኎ 3. (office work) jímu ஦ົ 4. (transaction) tórí-hiki ྲྀࡾᘬ ࡁ࣭ྲྀᘬ 5. (errand) yøji ⏝஦, (go-)yø´ ࡈ ⏝, yø-táshí ⏝㊊ࡋ 6. (enterprise) jígyø ஦ᴗ, jitsugyo ᐇᴗ 7. (commerce) shø´gyø ၟᴗ; business hours n eigyø-jíkan Ⴀᴗ᫬㛫; businessman n jitsugyøka ᐇᴗᐙ, bijinesu-man ࣅࢪࢿ ࢫ࣐ࣥ bust A burst bustling adj nigíyaka (na) ࡟ࡂࡸ ࠿࣭㈰ࡸ࠿ ࡞

busy adj isogashíi ࠸ࡑࡀࡋ࠸࣭ ᛁࡋ࠸, sewashíi ࡏࢃࡋ࠸࣭ᛁ ࡋ࠸, sewashí nai ࡏࢃࡋ࡞࠸; [BOOKISH] tabø (na) ከᛁ ࡞ but conj 1. [BOOKISH] shikáshi ࡋ࠿ࡋ, tokoró-ga ࡜ࡇࢁࡀ 2. démo࡛ࡶ butcher (shop) n nikú-ya ⫗ᒇ butt 1. n (cigarette, cigar) suigara ྾࠸ࡀࡽ 2. A buttock butter n bátå ࣂࢱ࣮, báta ࣂࢱ butterfly n chø´ ࡕࡻ࠺࣭⼖, chøchø ࡕࡻ࠺ࡕࡻ࠺࣭⼖ࠎ, chøcho ࡕࡻ࠺ࡕࡻ buttock n shirí ᑼ o-shiri ࠾ᑼ ,

(mostly male [VERY INFORMAL]) ketsu ࡅࡘ࣭ᑼ࣭✰ button 1. n botan ࣎ࢱࣥ 2. v (~s it) ... no botan o kakemásu ... ࡢ

࣎ࢱࣥࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ buxom n (full-bosomed) høman na mune (no) ㇏‶࡞⬚ࡢ, fukuyoka (na) ࡩࡃࡼ࠿ ࡞ buy v kaimásu ㈙࠸ࡲࡍ; motomemásu ồࡵࡲࡍ; ~ up kai-torimásu ㈙࠸ྲྀࡾࡲࡍ buyer n 1. kai-te ㈙࠸ᡭ 2. (professional) báiyå ࣂ࢖࣮ࣖ buzz n 1. (phone call) denwa no yobidashi-on 㟁ヰࡢ࿧ࡧฟࡋ㡢 2. (rumor) uwasa შ࣭࠺ࢃࡉ 3. (humming sound of insect) (mushi no) haoto ⹸ࡢ ⩚㡢 buzzer n búzå ࣈࢨ࣮ by prep (no later than) ... máde ni ... ࡲ࡛࡟; (means of) ... de ... ࡛; by and by A soon; by ... at the




latest adv ... máde ni wa ... ࡲ࡛ bygone n kako no koto 㐣ཤࡢࡇ ࡟ࡣ; by chance adv hyótto suruto ࡜, sugita koto 㐣ࡂࡓࡇ࡜ ࡦࡻࡗ࡜ ࡍࡿ࡜ , güzen (ni) bylaw n kisoku つ๎ അ↛ ࡟ , futo ࡩ࡜; by far adv bypass n (highway, surgery) zutto ࡎࡗ࡜; háruka (ni) ࡣࡿ࠿ baipasu ࣂ࢖ࣃࢫ bystander n kenbutsu-nin ぢ≀ே ࡟ bye (-bye) A good-bye byte n (computer) baito ࣂ࢖ࢺ

C cab A taxi cahoots; in ~ with ... to takuránde cabaret n kyábarë ࢟ࣕࣂ࣮ࣞ ... ࡜௻>ࡓࡃࡽ@ࢇ࡛ cabin n koya ᑠᒇ; (mountain Cairo n kairo ࢝࢖ࣟ cajole v odatemásu ࠾ࡔ࡚ࡲࡍ; lodge) yama-goya ᒣᑠᒇ cabinet n (government) náikaku kangen de damashimásu ⏑ゝ࡛ ෆ㛶 ࡔࡲࡋࡲࡍ㺃㦄ࡋࡲࡍ cable n tsuná ⥘, kë´buru ࢣ࣮ࣈࣝ cake 1. n kë´ki ࢣ࣮࢟; (spongecable car n këburú-kå´ ࢣ࣮ࣈࣝ cake) kasutera ࢝ࢫࢸࣛ 2. n (o-) ࣮࢝ káshi ࠾ ⳫᏊ; (Japanese) wacable television n këburú-terebi gáshi ࿴ⳫᏊ 3. n (rice cake) ࢣ࣮ࣈࣝࢸࣞࣅ, yüsen-terebi mochi ࡶࡕ࣭㣰 ᭷⥺ࢸࣞࣅ calamity n sainán ⅏㞴, wazawai cache n (computer) kyasshu ࢟ࣕࢵ ⅏࠸ ࢩࣗ calcium n karushium ࢝ࣝࢩ࣒࢘ cactus n saboten ࢧ࣎ࢸࣥ calculate v keisan shimásu ィ⟬ cadet n shikan køho sei ኈᐁೃ⿵⏕ ࡋࡲࡍ cadge v nedarimásu ࡡࡔࡾࡲࡍ; calculator n keisán-ki ィ⟬ᶵ; desk ~ dentaku 㟁༟ takarimásu ࡓ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ cafe n (coffee shop) kissa-ten calendar n koyomí ᬺ; karéndå ႚⲔᗑ, kafe ࢝ࣇ࢙ ࢝ࣞࣥࢲ࣮ cafeteria n kafeteria ࢝ࣇ࢙ࢸࣜ࢔, calf n 1. (young cow) ko-ushi Ꮚ∵ 2. (leg below the knee) shokudø 㣗ᇽ caffeine n kafein ࢝ࣇ࢙࢖ࣥ fukurahagi ࡩࡃࡽࡣࡂ cage n 1. (for bird) kago ࠿ࡈ࣭⡲, caliber n 1. (bore caliber) køkei ཱྀᚄ 2. (ability) sainø ᡯ⬟ tori-kago 㫽࠿ࡈ࣭㫽⡲ 2. (for calisthenics n biyø taisø ⨾ᐜయ᧯, animal) orí ࠾ࡾ࣭ᷦ




jünan taisø ᰂ㌾య᧯ call 1. n (phone call) denwa 㟁ヰ 2. n (visit) hømon ゼၥ; (of solicitude) (o-)mimai ࠾ ぢ⯙ 3. v yobimásu ࿧ࡧࡲࡍ; (phone) denwa o shimásu 㟁ヰࢆࡋࡲࡍ 4. v (call on) A visit; call to mind A recall; call center n køru sentå ࢥ࣮ࣝࢭࣥࢱ࣮ called; is called ... to iimásu ... ࡜ ゝ࠸ࡲࡍ caller n (visitor) raikyaku ᮶ᐈ calligraphy n shodø ᭩㐨; (handwriting practice) (o-)shüji ࠾  ⩦Ꮠ calling n 1. (vocation) shokugyø ⫋ᴗ 2. (summons) shøshü ྊ㞟 callous adj 1. (having calluses) táko no dekita ࡓࡇࡢ࡛ࡁࡓ 2. (insensitive, unfeeling) mushinkei (na) ↓⚄⤒ ࡞ , mu-kankaku (na) ↓ឤぬ ࡞ 3. (unsympathetic) mu-jø (na) ↓᝟ ࡞ callus n táko ࡓࡇ calm adj (quiet) shízuka (na) 㟼 ࠿࣭ࡋࡎ࠿ ࡞ , odáyaka (na) ✜ ࡸ࠿࣭࠾ࡸࡔࡸ ࡞ , reisei (na) ෭㟼 ࡞ ; nódoka (na) ࡢ࡝࠿ ࡞ ; ~s down (regains composure) ochitsukimásu ⴠࡕ╔ࡁ ࡲࡍ calorie n karorii ࣮࢝ࣟࣜ Cambodia n kanbojia ࢝ࣥ࣎ࢪ࢔ camcorder n bideo kámera ࣅࢹ ࣓࢜࢝ࣛ came A come camel n rakuda ࣛࢡࢲ

cameo n kameo ࣓࢝࢜ camera n kámera ࣓࢝ࣛ, shashínki ෗┿ᶵ camouflage n kamufuråju ࣒࢝ࣇࣛ ࣮ࢪࣗ camp 1. n kyánpu ࢟ࣕࣥࣉ; (bivouac) yaei 㔝Ⴀ 2. v kyánpu (o) shimásu ࢟ࣕࣥࣉ ࢆ ࡋࡲࡍ campaign n kyanpën ࣮࢟ࣕࣥ࣌ ࣥ, undø 㐠ື camper n 1. (a person who camps) kyanpu (o) suru hito ࢟ࣕࣥࣉ ࢆ ࡍࡿே 2. (vehicle) kyanpingukå ࢟ࣕࣥࣆࣥࢢ࣮࢝, kyanpå ࢟ࣕࣥࣃ࣮ campsite n kyanpu-jø ࢟ࣕࣥࣉሙ; yaei-chi 㔝Ⴀᆅ campus n kyánpasu ࢟ࣕࣥࣃࢫ,

(within the university) daigakúkønai ኱Ꮫᵓෆ; køtei ᰯᗞ can 1. n (tin can) kán ⨁࣭࠿ࢇ 2. ~s it v (kán ni) tsumemásu ⨁࡟ ワࡵࡲࡍ; canned beer n kan bíiru ⨁ࣅ࣮ࣝ can modal v (can do it) (... ga) dekimásu ... ࡀ ฟ᮶ࡲࡍ࣭࡛ࡁ ࡲࡍ, (suru) kotó ga dekimásu ࡍࡿ ஦>ࡇ࡜@ࡀฟ᮶ࡲࡍ࣭࡛ࡁ ࡲࡍ; (... ga) kanaimásu ... ࡀ  ྔ࠸ࡲࡍ; can see (... ga) miemásu ... ࡀ ぢ࠼ࡲࡍ; can hear (... ga) kikoemásu ... ࡀ ⪺ࡇ࠼ ࡲࡍ Canada n Kánada ࢝ࢼࢲ canal n únga 㐠Ἑ canary n kanari(y)a ࢝ࢼࣜ࢔>ࣖ@ cancel v tori-keshimásu ྲྀࡾᾘࡋ




ࡲࡍ; keshimásu ᾘࡋࡲࡍ canyon n kyøkoku ᓙ㇂࣭ࡁࡻ࠺ cancellation n tori-keshi ྲྀࡾᾘࡋ; ࡇࡃ kyánseru ࢟ࣕࣥࢭࣝ; cancellation cap n 1. A hat 2. (of a pen) mark/stamp n keshi-in ᾘ༳ kyáppu ࢟ࣕࢵࣉ 3. (of a bottle) cancer n gán ࡀࢇ࣭⒴; (lung) kyáppu ࢟ࣕࢵࣉ, økan ⋤ෙ 4. (of a mushroom ) kása ࠿ࡉ࣭➟ haigan ⫵ࡀࢇ࣭⫵⒴ candid adj sotchoku (na) ⋡┤ ࡞ capability n 1. (ability) nøryoku candidate n køhó-sha ೃ⿵⪅ ⬟ຊ 2. (possibility) kanø-sei ྍ candle n røsókú ࢁ࠺ࡑࡃ, kyán⬟ᛶ 3. (potential) shørai-sei ᑗ᮶ᛶ doru ࢟ࣕࣥࢻࣝ candor n socchoku (sa) ⋡┤ ࡉ capable adj nøryoku ga aru ⬟ຊ candy n kyándii ࢟ࣕࣥࢹ࢕࣮, ame ࡀ࠶ࡿ; yünø (na) ᭷⬟ ࡞ ࢔࣓࣭㣩; candy store n (o-)kashí- capacity n kyapa(sitii) ࢟ࣕࣃ ࢩ ࢸ࢕࣮ 1. (ability) nøryoku ⬟ ya ࠾ ⳫᏊᒇ cane n (walking stick) sutékki ࢫࢸ ຊ 2. (volume) yøseki ᐜ✚ ࢵ࢟; (staff) tsúe ᮫ cape n 1. (promontory) misaki canine n 1. (dog) inu ≟ 2. (~ teeth) ᓁ 2. (sleeveless garment) këpu ࢣ࣮ࣉ kenshi ≟ṑ canister n yøki ᐜჾ, kan ⨁ capital n 1. (city) shútó 㤳㒔 cannibal n kanibaru ࢝ࢽࣂࣝ, 2. (money) shihon ㈨ᮏ capitalize v 1. (write or print in hitokui ே㣗࠸ cannon n taihø ኱◙ capital letters) ømoji de kakicannot modal v [NEGATIVE] másu ኱ᩥᏐ࡛᭩ࡁࡲࡍ 2. dekimasén ࡛ࡁ>ฟ᮶@ࡲࡏࢇ; (supply with capital) shusshi (shi-)kiremasén ࡋ ษࢀࡲࡏࢇ; shimásu ฟ㈨ࡋࡲࡍ ~ stand it gáman dekimasén ࡀࡲ capitulate v køfuku shimásu 㝆అ ࢇ>ᡃ៏@࡛ࡁ>ฟ᮶@ࡲࡏࢇ, taࡋࡲࡍ, køsan shimásu 㝆ཧ ࡋࡲࡍ marimasén ࡓࡲࡾࡲࡏࢇ canoe n kanü ࢝ࢾ࣮ capsize v tenpuku shimásu ㌿そࡋ canon n (music) kanon ࢝ࣀࣥ ࡲࡍ, tenpuku sasemásu ㌿そࡉ canopy n tengai ኳ⵹࣭࡚ࢇࡀ࠸ ࡏࡲࡍ cantaloupe n kantarøpu meron ࢝ࣥcapsule n kápuseru ࢝ࣉࢭࣝ ࢱ࣮ࣟࣉ࣭࣓ࣟࣥ captain n (army) táii ኱ᑚ; (navy) canteen n shokudø 㣗ᇽ taisa ኱బ; (airplane) kichø´ ᶵ㛗; canvas n kyanbasu ࢟ࣕࣥࣂࢫ; (ship) sénchø ⯪㛗 canvas shoes n (sneakers) suniikå caption n kyapushon ࢟ࣕࣉࢩࣙࣥ ࢫࢽ࣮࣮࢝ 1. (situation) midashi ぢฟࡋ



2. (text of a speech of movie, etc) jimaku Ꮠᖥ 3. (explanation) setsumei bun ㄝ᫂ᩥ captivate v miwaku shimásu 㨩ᝨ ࡋࡲࡍ captive n horyo ᤕ⹭ capture v toraemásu ᤕࡽ࠼ࡲࡍ car n kuruma ㌴, jidø-sha ⮬ື㌴; car park n chüsha-jø 㥔㌴ሙ car-sharing n kā shearingu ࣮࢝ ࢩ࢙࢔ࣜࣥࢢ carat n karatto ࢝ࣛࢵࢺ caravan n 1. taishø 㝲ၟ, kyaraban ࢟ࣕࣛࣂࣥ 2. (large vehicle) kyaraban-kå ࢟ࣕࣛࣂ࣮ࣥ࢝, kanpingu-kå ࢟ࣕࣥࣆࣥࢢ࣮࢝ carbon n tanso Ⅳ⣲; carbon dioxide n ni-sanka-tanso ஧㓟໬Ⅳ⣲ carburetor n kyaburétå ࢟ࣕࣈࣞ ࢱ࣮ carcass n shitai Ṛయ, shigai Ṛ㧁 card n 1. fuda ᮐ, kå´do ࣮࢝ࢻ;


shimásu ... ࡢ ࠾ ୡヰࢆࡋࡲࡍ, ... no mendø o mimásu ... ࡢ㠃 ಽࢆぢࡲࡍ; (a matter) ... o shóri shimásu ... ࢆฎ⌮ࡋࡲࡍ; care for v A like, love, want A look after career n (occupation) shokúgyø ⫋ᴗ; kyaria ࢟ࣕࣜ࢔; (history) rireki ᒚṔ carefree adj kiraku (na) Ẽᴦ ࡞ , nónki (na) ࡢࢇࡁ࣭࿐Ẽ ࡞ careful adj chüibukai ὀព῝࠸; is ~ ki o tsukemásu Ẽࢆ௜ࡅࡲࡍ; nén o iremásu ᛕࢆධࢀࡲࡍ careless adj mutón-chaku/-jaku (na) ↓㡻╔ ࡞ , zonzái (na) ࡒࢇ ࡊ࠸ ࡞ , taiman (na) ᛰ៏ ࡞ , fuchü´i (na) ୙ὀព ࡞ caress n, v aibu/høyø (shimásu) ឡ ᧙/ᢪ᧦ ࡋࡲࡍ caretaker 1. n (custodian) kanrinin ⟶⌮ே 2. (caregiver) kaigonin ௓ㆤே, sewa-nin ୡヰே carnival n kånibaru ࣮࢝ࢽࣂࣝ, (playing card) toránpu (ichímai) ࢺࣛࣥࣉ ୍ᯛ 2. (calling shaniku-sai ㅰ⫗⚍ carp n (fish) kói ࢥ࢖࣭㩾; carp card, name card) meishi ྡ่ streamers n (for the Boys’ Festival) 3. (postcard) (o-)hágaki ࠾ ࡣ ࡀࡁ࣭ ࠾ ⴥ᭩; New Year’s ~ koi-nóbori ࡇ࠸ࡢࡰࡾ࣭㩾ࡢࡰࡾ carpenter n dáiku ኱ᕤ nengajø ᖺ㈡≧ cardboard n børu-gami ࣮࣎ࣝ⣬; carpet n jü´tan ࡌࡹ࠺ࡓࢇ࣭⤧Ẩ, (corrugated) danbø´ru ẁ࣮࣎ࣝ kå´pétto ࣮࢝࣌ࢵࢺ cardiac 1. n (medicine) kyøshin- carriage n 1. (four-wheeled horsezai ᙉᚰ๣ 2. adj shizø (no) ᚰ⮚ drawn passenger) basha 㤿㌴ ࡢ 2. (transporting) unpan 㐠ᦙ cardigan n kådigan ࣮࢝ࢹ࢕࢞ࣥ 3. (movable part of a machine) care n (caution) yøjin ⏝ᚰ, nén (kikai no) kadøbu ᶵᲔࡢ ྍື ᛕ; (upkeep) te-iré ᡭධࢀ; take 㒊 4. (bearing) mi no konashi ~ of (a person) ... no (o)sewá o ㌟ࡢࡇ࡞ࡋ 370



carrier n 1. (transportation) yusø chiisana taki ᑠࡉ࡞ ㍺㏦, unsø 㐠㏦ 2. (of disease) case n 1. (situation) ba(w)ai ሙ hokin-sha ಖ⳦⪅, hoin-sha ಖᅉ ྜ, ... wáke... ヂ࣭ࢃࡅ, (event) ⪅ 3. (mail ~) yübin haitatsu-nin ... dán ... ẁ; (matter) kotó ஦࣭ 㒑౽㓄㐩ே 4. (newspaper ~) ࡇ࡜, jiken ஦௳, (particular shinbun haitatsu-nin ᪂⪺㓄㐩ே instance) kë´su ࢣ࣮ࢫ 2. (box) 5. (aircraft ~) køkü bokan ⯟✵ hako ⟽; in this case kono ba(w)ai ẕⰄ, kübo ✵ẕ ࡇࡢሙྜ; in that case sorenára ࡑ carrot n ninjin ࢽࣥࢪ࣭ࣥேཧ ࢀ࡞ࡽ; (sore) déwa ࡑࢀ ࡛ࡣ, carry v 1. motte/tótte ikimásu ᣢ ja ࡌࡷ, jå ࡌࡷ࠶; in case of ... ni ࡗ࡚ྲྀࡗ࡚࠸ࡁࡲࡍ; (loads sái-shite... ࡟㝿ࡋ࡚; ... no båi/ aboard) nosemásu ㍕ࡏࡲࡍ; tokí ni... ࡢሙྜ᫬࡟ (conveys) hakobimásu 㐠ࡧࡲࡍ cash 1. n (money) genkín ⌧㔠; 2. (dangling from the hand) petty ~ koguchi genkin ᑠཱྀ⌧㔠 sagemásu ᥦࡆࡲࡍ; (piggyback) 2. n shøkin ㈹㔠; cashbook n oimásu ㈇࠸ࡲࡍ, obuimásu ࠾ࡪ genkin-suitø-chø ⌧㔠ฟ⣡ᖒ; >㈇ࡪ@ ࠸ࡲࡍ; carry out (performs) cash card n kyasshu-kådo ࢟ࣕࢵ ࢩ࣮ࣗ࢝ࢻ 3. v (a check) okonaimásu ⾜࠸ࡲࡍ; (brings about) genjitsu-ka shimásu ⌧ᐇ genkín ni kaemásu ⌧㔠࡟࠿࠼ࡲ ໬ࡋࡲࡍ ࡍ㺃᥮࠼ࡲࡍ, genkín ni shimásu carsick; gets ~ (kuruma ni) ⌧㔠࡟ࡋࡲࡍ 4. v (into smaller yoimásu ㌴࡟ 㓉࠸ࡲࡍ bills/coins) komakáku shimásu cart n teoshi-gúruma ᡭᢲࡋ㌴, ⣽࠿ࡃࡋࡲࡍ, kuzushimásu ࡃࡎ ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ᔂࡋࡲࡍ daisha ྎ㌴ carton A box cashier n suitø-gákari ฟ⣡ಀ, cartoon n manga ₔ⏬࣭࣐ࣥ࢞㺃 réji-gákari ࣞࢪಀ ࡲࢇࡀ casino n kajino ࢝ࢪࣀ cartridge n 1. (ink ~) kåtorijji ࣮࢝ cask n taru ࡓࡿ࣭ᶡ ࢺࣜࢵࢪ 2. (~ in gun) danyaku- casket n 1. (coffin) hitsugi ᳌࣭ࡦ ࡘࡂ 2. (jewel box) høseki-bako tø ᙎ⸆⟄ carve v (inscribe) kizamimásu ้ ᐆ▼⟽ ࡳࡲࡍ, horimásu ᙮ࡾࡲࡍ casserole n mushiyaki nabe ⵨ࡋ carving n horí-mónó ᙮ࡾ≀, ↝ࡁ࡞࡭ (sculpture) chøkoku ᙮้; carving cassette n kasetto (tëpu) ࢝ࢭࢵ knife n nikukiri-bø´chø ⫗ษࡾໟ ࢺ ࢸ࣮ࣉ ୎; chøkokutø ᙮้ย cast 1. n (throwing) hito nage cascade n (small waterfall) ୍ᢞࡆ 2. n (selecting actors,




selected actors) kyasuto ࢟ࣕࢫ kakarimásu ⑓Ẽ࡟ ࠿࠿ࡾࡲ ࢺ, haiyaku 㓄ᙺ 3. v (throw) ࡍ 3. n a good ~ ⋓≀࣭࠼ࡶࡢ 4. nagemásu ᢞࡆࡲࡍ 4. v (select n(trap) wanaࢃ࡞࣭࣡ࢼ 5. n actors) kyasutingu shimásu ࢟ࣕ (clasp) tomegane ␃ࡵ㔠; catch a ࢫࢸ࢕ࣥࢢࡋࡲࡍ, haiyaku o cold kaze o hikimásu ࠿ࡐ>㢼㑧@ ࢆࡦࡁࡲࡍ; catch-phrase kyacchi kimemásu 㓄ᙺࢆỴࡵࡲࡍ castaway n 1. (shipwrecked furëzu ࢟ࣕࢵࢳࣇ࣮ࣞࢬ; catch up person) hyøryü-sha ⁻ὶ⪅ (with) (... ni) oi-tsukimásu ... 2. (outcast) misuterareta hito ࡟ ㏣࠸ࡘࡁࡲࡍ ぢᤞ࡚ࡽࢀࡓே category n kategorii ࢝ࢸࢦ࣮ࣜ caste n kåsuto ࣮࢝ࢫࢺ catering n (meal delivery) demae castle n (o-)shiro ࠾ ᇛ; (name ฟ๓, këtaringu ࢣ࣮ࢱࣜࣥࢢ caterpillar n kemushi ẟ⹸࣭ࢣ࣒ࢩ of certain) ...-jø ... ᇛ castrate n kyosei-sha ཤໃ⪅ cathedral n dai-seidø ኱⪷ᇽ casual adj nanige-nái ఱẼ࡞࠸; Catholic n Katoríkku (kyø) ࢝ࢺࣜ ࢵࢡ ᩍ , (person) Katoríkku kigaru (na) Ẽ㍍ ࡞ ; kajuaru (na) ࢝ࢪࣗ࢔ࣝ ࡞ ; casual sex n kyøto ࢝ࢺࣜࢵࢡᩍᚐ yukizuri no sekkusu ⾜ࡁࡎࡾࡢ cattle n (bulls and cows) ushi ∵࣭࢘ࢩ ࢭࢵࢡࢫ casualty n (injury, damage) higai caucus n tøin shükai ඪဨ㞟఍ ⿕ᐖ; (victim) higái-sha ⿕ᐖ⪅ cauldron n kama ࠿ࡲ࣭㔩 cat n néko ⊧࣭ࢿࢥ cauliflower n karifurawå ࢝ࣜࣇࣛ ࣮࣡ catalog n katarogu ࢝ࢱࣟࢢ; cause n (of an effect) gen’in ཎᅉ, mokuroku ┠㘓; (directory) meibo ྡ⡙ moto ඖ; (negative effect) ... séi catalyst n shokubai ゐ፹ ... ࡏ࠸; (source) táne ✀; (reason) catapult n (airplane) funsha-ki ᄇ wáke ヂ, riyü ⌮⏤; (purpose, ᑕᶵ, kataparuto ࢝ࢱࣃࣝࢺ benefit) tame ࡓࡵ࣭Ⅽ; cause cataract n 1. (large waterfall) (one) concern/worry (... ni) shinpai ookina taki ኱ࡁ࡞ 2. (ophthal- o kakemásu ... ࡟ ᚰ㓄ࢆ࠿ࡅࡲ ࡍ; cause (one) trouble (... ni) mology) hakunai-shø ⓑෆ㞀 catastrophe n dai-sanji ኱᝺஦, méiwaku o kakemásu ... ࡟ ㏞ ᝨࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ dai-saigai ኱⅏ᐖ catch 1. v (seizes) tsukamaemásu caustic 1. n fushoku-zai ⭉㣗๣ 2. ᤕࡲ࠼ࡲࡍ; torimásu ྲྀࡾࡲࡍ; adj fushoku-sei (no) ⭉㣗ᛶ ࡢ caution 1. n yøjin ⏝ᚰ; (precau(attracts) hikimásu ᘬࡁࡲࡍ 2. v (a disease) (byøki ni) tion) yø´i ⏝ព, nén ᛕ; as (a 372



word of) ~ nen no tamé (ni) ᛕࡢ (basement) chiká-shitsu ᆅୗᐊ ࡓࡵ>Ⅽ@ ࡟ 2. v (warns) cello n chéro ࢳ࢙ࣟ cellophane n sérohan ࢭࣟࣁࣥ keikai shimásu ㆙ᡄࡋࡲࡍ cautious adj yøjin-bukái ⏝ᚰ῝࠸ Celt n 1. (a Celt) keruto-jin ࢣࣝ cavalry n 1. (horsemen) kihei-tai ࢺே 2. (ethnic) keruto-zoku 㥽ර㝲 2. (military) kikø-butai ࢣࣝࢺ᪘ ᶵ⏥㒊㝲 cement n semento ࢭ࣓ࣥࢺ; cement floor n tatakí ࡓࡓࡁ cave n hora-ana Ὕ✰࣭࡯ࡽ✰, cemetery n haka-bá ቎ሙ, bóchi hórá Ὕ࣭࡯ࡽ; ... -dø ... Ὕ cavern n dai-døkutsu ኱Ὕ❍ ቎ᆅ caviar n (roe) kábia ࢟ࣕࣅ࢔ cenotaph n (senbotsu-sha) kinencavity n 1. (hole) ana ✰ 2. (hollow hi ᡓἐ⪅ グᛕ☃ censor 1. n ken’etsu-kan ᳨㜀ᐁ area) küdø ✵Ὕ 3. (tooth ~) 2. v ken’etsu shimásu ᳨㜀ࡋࡲࡍ mushiba ⹸ṑ cease v yamimásu ࡸࡳࡲࡍ㺃Ṇࡳ censure 1. n (blame) hínan 㠀㞴 ࡲࡍ, taemásu ⤯࠼ࡲࡍ 2. v (blames one) hínan shimásu ceasefire n teisen ೵ᡓ 㠀㞴ࡋࡲࡍ, sememásu ㈐ࡵࡲࡍ ceaseless adj taemanai ⤯࠼㛫࡞࠸ census n kokusei-chøsa ᅜໃㄪᰝ cedar; cryptomeria, Japanese ~ n cent n sénto ࢭࣥࢺ; percent sugi ᮡ࣭ࢫࢠ påsénto ࣃ࣮ࢭࣥࢺ cede v yuzurimásu ㆡࡾࡲࡍ centennial n hyakushünen ⓒ࿘ᖺ ceiling n tenjø ኳ஭ center n mannaka ┿ࢇ୰࣭ࡲࢇ ࡞࠿, chüø ୰ኸ, chüshin ୰ᚰ; celeb, celebrity n serebu ࢭࣞࣈ, yümei-jin ᭷ྡே (institution) séntå ࢭࣥࢱ࣮ celebrate v iwaimásu ⚃࠸ࡲࡍ centigrade n sésshi ᦤẶ, seshi celebration n (party) (o-)iwai ࢭẶ; ... -do ... ᗘ ࠾ ⚃࠸ centimeter n sénchi ࢭࣥࢳ, celery n sérori ࢭࣟࣜ; Japanese ~ senchi-më´toru ࢭࣥࢳ࣓࣮ࢺࣝ centipede n mukade ࣒࢝ࢹ࣭ⓒ㊊ údo ࢘ࢻ࣭⊂ά celestial adj ten (no) ኳ ࡢ , tentai central adj mannaka no ┿ࢇ୰ࡢ ࣭ࡲࢇ࡞࠿ࡢ, chüshin no ୰ᚰ (no) ኳయ ࡢ celibate 1. n (single person/ ࡢ, chüø no ୰ኸࡢ; Central America people) dokushin-sha ⊂㌟⪅ n chübei ୰⡿, chüø-amerika ୰ኸ 2. adj dokushin (no) ⊂㌟ ࡢ ࢔࣓ࣜ࢝; central office n hónbu ᮏ㒊 cell n 1. (biology) saibø ⣽⬊ 2. century n séiki ୡ⣖ (prison) dokubø ⊂ᡣ, røya ∼ᒇ ceramics n seramikku ࢭ࣑ࣛࢵࢡ; cellar n (storehouse) kurá ಴࣭ⶶ; (ceramic art) tøgei 㝡ⱁ; (ceramic 373



ware) tø´ki 㝡ჾ; (pottery) yaki- chair n isu ᳔Ꮚ࣭࢖ࢫ, koshi-káké ⭜᥃ࡅ mono ↝ࡁ≀ cereal n kokúmotsu ✐≀, kokúrui chalet n sharë ࢩ࣮ࣕࣞ, sansø ᒣⲮ ✐㢮; siriaru ࢩࣜ࢔ࣝ chalk n chø´ku ࢳ࣮ࣙࢡ cerebral adj nø (no) ⬻ ࡢ challenge 1. n chárenji ࢳࣕࣞࣥࢪ, ceremony n shikí ᘧ, gíshiki ൤ᘧ chøsen ᣮᡓ 2. v (tries) idomiwedding ~ kekkon-shiki ⤖፧ᘧ másu ᣮࡳࡲࡍ, chárenji shimásu certain adj táshika (na) ☜࠿࣭ࡓࡋ ࢳࣕࣞࣥࢪࡋࡲࡍ; (tests) tame࠿ ࡞ ; kakujitsu (na) ☜ᐇ ࡞ shimásu ヨࡋࡲࡍ; challenger n certainly adv mochíron ࡶࡕࢁࢇ࣭ charenjå ࢳࣕࣞࣥࢪ࣮ࣕ, chøs໚ㄽ; táshika ni ☜࠿࡟; mása-ni en-sha ᣮᡓ⪅ ࡲࡉ࡟ chamber 1. n (room) heya 㒊ᒇ certificate n shømei-sho ド᫂᭩ 2. n (meeting hall) kaigi-shitsu certification n shømei ド᫂ ఍㆟ᐊ 3. n (compartment in a certified adj kønin (no) බㄆ ࡢ ; firearm) yakushitsu ⸆ᐊ 4. n certified public accountant (CPA) n (palace room) ø-shitsu ⋤ᐊ 5. n (legislative hall) giin ㆟㝔 kønin-kaikéishi බㄆ఍ィኈ cervical adj shikyü-keibu (no) Ꮚ 6. v (enclose bullets) tama o ᐑ㢁㒊 ࡢ ࣭Ꮚᐑࡅ࠸㒊 ࡢ komemásu ᙎࢆࡇࡵࡲࡍ cesarean n teiø-sekkai ᖇ⋤ษ㛤 chameleon n kamereon ࣓࢝ࣞ࢜ࣥ cesspool n osui-dame ởỈ⁀ࡵ࣭ champagne n shanpán ࢩࣕࣥࣃࣥ, ởỈࡔࡵ, gesui-dame ୗỈ⁀ࡵ shanpén ࢩࣕࣥ࣌ࣥ ࣭ୗỈࡔࡵ champion n yüshø-sha ඃ຾⪅, Ceylon n Seiron ࢭ࢖ࣟࣥ = Sri chanpion ࢳࣕࣥࣆ࢜ࣥ; (sumo Lanka Suriránka ࢫࣜࣛࣥ࢝ wrestler) ø´-zeki ኱㛵; grand ~ chafe v surimukimásu ࡍࡾࡴࡁ sumo wrestler yokozuna ᶓ⥘; ࡲࡍ championship n senshu-ken 㑅ᡭᶒ chaff n momigara ࡶࡳẆ࣭ࡶࡳ chance n 1. (opportunity) kikái ᶵ ࡀࡽ ఍, chánsu ࢳࣕࣥࢫ 2. (impulse) chagrin n kuyashisa ᜼ࡋࡉ࣭ࡃࡸ hazumi ᙎࡳ A by chance chancellor n (minister) daijin ኱⮧ ࡋࡉ chain n kusari 㙐࣭ࡃࡉࡾ, chën change 1. n (small money) kozeni ࢳ࢙࣮ࣥ; (linked) in a ~ tsunaᑠ㖹, komakái (o)kane ⣽࠿࠸ ࠾ 㔠 2. n (money returned) gatte ࡘ࡞ࡀࡗ࡚; chain smoker n chën sumøkå ࢳ࢙࣮ࣥࢫ࣮ࣔ࢝ o-tsuri ࠾㔮ࡾ࣭࠾ࡘࡾ, tsuri-sen ࣮; chain store n chën-ten ࢳ࢙࣮ 㔮ࡾ㖹 3. n hénka ኚ໬; (in ࣥᗑ, chën sutoa ࢳ࢙࣮ࣥࢫࢺ࢔ health) o-kawari ࠾ኚࢃࡾ; 374



(abnormality) ijø ␗ᖖ 4. v it ~s ~) tokuchø ≉ᚩ 2. adj (typical) kawarimásu ኚࢃࡾࡲࡍ; hénka daihyø-teki (na) ௦⾲ⓗ ࡞ ; shimásu ኚ໬ࡋࡲࡍ; utsurimásu (specific) koyü (no) ᅛ᭷ ࡢ , ⛣ࡾࡲࡍ 5. v ~s it kaemásu ኚ tokuchø-teki (na) ≉ᚩⓗ ࡞ ࠼ࡲࡍ; aratamemásu ᨵࡵࡲࡍ charade n misekake ぢࡏ࠿ࡅ 6. v (clothes) kigaemásu ╔᭰ charcoal n sumí Ⅳ࣭ࢫ࣑, moku࠼ࡲࡍ 7. v (train, bus, plane) tán ᮌⅣ nori-kaemásu ஌ࡾ᥮࠼ࡲࡍ; for charge 1. n (fee) ryøkin ᩱ㔠, a change adj kibun-tenkan (ni) daikin ௦㔠, (with fee) yüryø Ẽศ㌿᥮ ࡟ , ikinuki (ni) ᜥᢤ (no) ᭷ᩱ ࡢno ~ muryø (no) ↓ᩱ ࡢ , [INFORMAL] tada (no) ࡁ ࡟ changeable n køi-shitsu ᭦⾰ᐊ ࡓࡔ ࡢ  2. n in ~ (teacher) channel n 1. (for radio or televitannin ᢸ௵; tantø ᢸᙜ; takes/ accepts (is in) ~ of ... o tannin/ sion) channeru ࢳࣕࣥࢿࣝ 2. kaikyø ᾏᓙ; suiro Ỉ㊰ tantø shimásu ... ࢆᢸ௵ᢸᙜࡋ chant v utaimásu ḷ࠸>ㅴ࠸@ࡲࡍ ࡲࡍ, uke-mochimásu ཷࡅᣢࡕ chaos n kaosu ࢝࢜ࢫ, muchitsujo ࡲࡍ 3. n (an attack) shügeki ↓⛛ᗎ, konton ΰἁ くᧁ 4. v seikyü shimásu ㄳồ chap n 1. (crack) hibi ࡦࡧ 2. ࡋࡲࡍ 5. v (attacks) shügeki (capped skin) akagire ࠶࠿ࡂࢀ shimásu くᧁࡋࡲࡍ 6. v (fill 3. (fellow) yatsu ࡸࡘ or furnish rechargeable public chapel n chaperu ࢳࣕ࣌ࣝ, reihai- transport card) chåji shimásu ࢳ ࣮ࣕࢪࡋࡲࡍ, (cellphone) jüden dø ♩ᣏᇽ chapter n (book) shø ❶, chaputå shimásu ඘㟁ࡋࡲࡍ ࢳࣕࣉࢱ࣮ charitable adj jizen (no) ឿၿ ࡢ char v 1. become charred kogecharity n hodokoshi ᪋ࡋ, jizen másu ↔ࡆࡲࡍ 2. ~s it kogashi- ឿၿ, charitii ࢳࣕࣜࢸ࢕࣮; másu ↔ࡀࡋࡲࡍ (mercy) megumi ᜨࡳ; charity concert n charitii konsåto ࢳࣕࣜࢸ character n 1. (quality) seishitsu ᛶ㉁ 2. (personal traits) seikaku ࢕࣮ࢥࣥࢧ࣮ࢺ ᛶ᱁, kosei ಶᛶ 3. (written) jí charm 1. v (…o) uttori-sasemásu Ꮠ, móji ᩥᏐ; Chinese ~ kanji ࠺ࡗ࡜ࡾࡉࡏࡲࡍ 2. n (good₎Ꮠ 4. (part or role in a play luck piece) o-mamori ࠾Ᏺࡾ; or film) kyarakuta ࢟ࣕࣛࢡࢱ, (attraction) miryoku 㨩ຊ chart n zuhyø ᅗ⾲, zu ᅗ, chåto kyarakutå ࢟ࣕࣛࢡࢱ࣮ characteristic 1. n (an earmark) ࢳ࣮ࣕࢺ tokushoku ≉Ⰽ, (a distinguishing charter n tokkyo jø ≉チ≧, chåtå 375


ࢳ࣮ࣕࢱ࣮ chase v oi-kakemásu ㏣࠸࠿ࡅࡲ ࡍ, oimásu ㏣࠸ࡲࡍ, [FORMAL] tsuisekishimásu ㏣㊧ࡋࡲࡍ chaste adj teisetsu (na) ㈆⠇ ࡞ , junsui (na) ⣧⢋ ࡞ chastise v korashimemásu ᠬࡽࡋ ࡵࡲࡍ chat 1. n oshaberi ࠾ࡋࡷ࡭ࡾ࣭ ࠾ႅࡾ, sekenbánashi ୡ㛫ヰ, muda-banashi ↓㥏ヰ, zatsudan 㞧ㄯ 2. v oshaberi o shimásu ࠾ࡋࡷ࡭ࡾ࣭࠾ႅࡾࢆࡋࡲࡍ chatter v shaberimásu ࡋࡷ࡭ࡾࡲ ࡍ࣭ႅࡾࡲࡍ chauffeur n okakae unténshu ࠾ᢪ ࠼㐠㌿ᡭ chauvinism n 1. (aggressive patrio-


shirabemásu ㄪ࡭ࡲࡍ, chékku shimásu ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡࡋࡲࡍ; (inspects) kénsa shimásu ᳨ᰝ ࡋࡲࡍ, (compares) terashimásu ↷ࡽࡋࡲࡍ; check in (registers) chekkúin shimásu ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡ࢖ ࣥࡋࡲࡍ; check out (of hotel) chekkuáuto shimásu ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡ࢔ ࢘ࢺࡋࡲࡍ checkpoint kenmon-jo ᳨ၥᡤ check-up n 1. kénsa ᳨ᰝ 2. (med-

ical checkup) kenkø shindan ೺ᗣデ᩿ cheek n hø´ 㢋࣭࡯࠾, hoho 㢋࣭ ࡯࡯ cheeky adj namaiki (na) ⏕ពẼ ࡞ cheer n øen ᛂ᥼; ~ for øenshimásu ᛂ᥼ࡋࡲࡍ cheerful adj (in a good mood) kigen ga íi ᶵ᎘ࡀ࠸࠸, (full of energy) genki ga ii ඖẼࡀ࠸࠸,

tism) kyøshin-teki aikokushin ≬ಙⓗឡᅜᚰ 2. (sexism) seisabetsu shugi ᛶᕪู୺⩏ cheap adj yasúi Ᏻ࠸ (merry, blitheful) hogáraka (na) cheat v (deceives) damashimásu ᮁࡽ࠿࣭࡯ࡀࡽ࠿ ࡞ ࡔࡲࡋࡲࡍ࣭㦄ࡋࡲࡍ, gomaka- cheerleader n (female) chia gåru ࢳ࢔࣮࢞ࣝ shimásu ࡈࡲ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ; (disCheers interj 1. (See you later) sembles, shirks, tricks) zúru o mata (ne) ࡲࡓ ࡡ 2. (toast) shimásu ࡎࡿ>ࢬࣝ@ࢆࡋࡲࡍ; (on one’s spouse) futei o hatara- kanpai! ஝ᮼ cheese n chíizu ࢳ࣮ࢬ kimásu ୙㈆ࢆࡣࡓࡽࡁࡲࡍ check 1. n (bank) kogítte ᑠษ chef n shefu ࢩ࢙ࣇ, ryøri chø ᩱ ᡭ, chékku ࢳ࢙ࢵࢡ 2. n (chit) ⌮㛗, (chef of Japanese food) fuda ᮐ 3. n (pays money at itamae(-san) ᯈ๓ ࡉࢇ the restaurant)(o-)kanjø ࠾ ຺ chemicals n kagaku-séihin ໬Ꮫ ᐃ, denpyø ఏ⚊, (o-)aisó, (o-) 〇ရ; (pharmaceuticals) yakuhin aisø ࠾ ࠶࠸ࡑ ࠺ ࣭ ࠾ ឡ᝿ ⸆ရ, kagaku-yakuhin ໬Ꮫ⸆ရ 4. v ~ it (baggage) azukemásu chemistry n kágaku ໬Ꮫ, bake㡸ࡅࡲࡍ 5. (investigates) gaku ໬Ꮫ 376



chemotherapy n kagaku ryøhø ໬Ꮫ school student) jídø ඣ❺; your ⒪ἲ ~ o-ko-san/sama ࠾Ꮚࡉࢇࡉ cherish v daijí ni shimásu ኱஦ ࡲ࣭ᵝ ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ, [FORMAL] chø´hø childish adj osanái ᗂ࠸; yøchi shimásu 㔜ᐆࡋࡲࡍ, chøhø(na) ᗂ⛶ ࡞ ; kodomoppoi Ꮚ౪ ࡗࡱ࠸ garimásu 㔜ᐆࡀࡾࡲࡍ cherry n (tree) sakura no ki ᱜࡢ childlike adj kodomo rashii Ꮚ౪ࡽ ᮌ; (fruit) sakuranbo ࢧࢡࣛࣥ࣎ ࡋ࠸; junshin (na) ⣧┿ ࡞ children n kodomó-tachi Ꮚ౪ ࣭ᱜࢇࡰ cherry blossoms n sakura (no haná) ࡓࡕ; Children’s Day (5 May) ᱜ ࡢⰼ Kodomo no hí ࡇ࡝ࡶࡢ᪥࣭Ꮚ chess n 1. chesu ࢳ࢙ࢫ 2. ౪ࡢ᪥ chili n chiri ࢳࣜ; chili pepper n (Japanese chess) shøgi ᑗᲦ chest n 1. (of body) muné ⬚ 2. chiri peppå ࢳࣜ࣌ࢵࣃ࣮, (box) hako ⟽; (drawers) tansu tøgarashi ࢺ࢘࢞ࣛࢩ࣭၈㎞Ꮚ ࡓࢇࡍ࣭ࢱࣥࢫ chill v ~ it hiyashimásu ෭ࡸࡋ chestnut n kurí ᰩ࣭ࢡࣜ ࡲࡍ chew v kamimásu ჶࡳࡲࡍ࣭ chilly adj samúi ᐮ࠸, hieru ෭࠼ࡿ chime n chaimu ࢳࣕ࢖࣒ ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ; ~ the fat (idly talk) chimney n entotsu ↮✺࣭࠼ࢇ࡜ࡘ daberimásu ࡔ࡭ࡾࡲࡍ࣭㥏ᘚ ࡾࡲࡍ chimpanzee n chinpanjii ࢳࣥࣃࣥ chic adj shikku (na) ࢩࢵࢡ ࡞ , ࢪ࣮ chin n agó ࠶ࡈ࣭㢡 iki (na) ⢋ ࡞ , jøhin (na) ୖ ရ ࡞ China n Chü´goku ୰ᅜ chicken n tori 㭜࣭ࢺࣜ, niwatori Chinatown n Chaina taun ࢳࣕ࢖ࢼ 㭜࣭ࢽ࣡ࢺࣜ; skewered grilled ~ ࢱ࢘ࣥ china(ware) n (porcelain) yaki-tori ↝ࡁ㫽࣭ࡸࡁ࡜ࡾ chide v (rebukes) tashinamemásu setomono ℩ᡞ≀ ࡓࡋ࡞ࡵࡲࡍ, shikarimásu ྏࡾ Chinese n (language) Chugokuࡲࡍ go ୰ᅜㄒ; (person) Chugokú-jin chief 1. n (head) chø 㛗, chøkan ୰ᅜே 㛗ᐁ, chiifu ࢳ࣮ࣇ, (ringleader) Chinese; Chinese cabbage n (bok óyá-bun ぶศ 2. adj (main) choi) hakusai ⓑ࣭⳯ࣁࢡࢧ࢖;  shuyø (na) ୺せ ࡞ , ómo na ୺ Chinese character n kanji ₎Ꮠ, jí Ꮠ; ࡞, hon-... ᮏ... Chinese cooking n chüka-ryø´ri ୰ child n kodomo Ꮚ౪࣭ࡇ࡝ࡶ࣭ ⳹ᩱ⌮; Chinese noodles n (with Ꮚ࡝ࡶ, ko Ꮚ, (elementary soup) rå´men ࣮࣓ࣛࣥ, chüka-




men ୰⳹㯝 chip n (of wood) kóppá ᮌࡗ➃; (crack) kizu യ; (electronic engineering) chippu ࢳࢵࣉ chips n (potato chip) poteto chippusu ࣏ࢸࢺࢳࢵࣉࢫ chirp n saezuri ࡉ࠼ࡎࡾ chisel n nómi ࣀ࣑ chlorine n énso ሷ⣲ chocolate n choko(rë´to) ࢳࣙࢥ ࣮ࣞࢺ ; chocolate bar n itachoko ᯈࢳࣙࢥ choice n (selection) sentaku 㑅ᢥ choir n 1. (chorus group) gasshødan ྜၐᅋ 2. (chorus group in church) seika-tai ⪷ḷ㝲 choke v 1. (he ~s) íki ga tsumarimásu ᜥࡀࡘࡲࡾࡲࡍ㺃ワ ࡲࡾࡲࡍ 2. (~s him) ... no íki o tomemásu ... ࡢᜥࢆṆࡵࡲࡍ cholera n kórera ࢥࣞࣛ cholesterol n koresuterøru ࢥࣞࢫ ࢸ࣮ࣟࣝ choose v 1. [INFORMAL] erabimásu ࠼ࡽࡧࡲࡍ㺃㑅ࡧࡲࡍ; [FORMAL] sentaku shimásu 㑅ᢥࡋࡲࡍ 2. (decides on) ... ni shimásu ... ࡟ ࡋࡲࡍ choosy adj yorigónomi ga hageshíi ࡼࡾዲࡳࡀࡣࡆࡋ࠸㺃⃭ࡋ࠸, yorigónomi o shimásu ࡼࡾዲࡳ ࢆࡋࡲࡍ chop 1. v (chops it) kizamimásu ้ࡳࡲࡍ; (fire wood) (takigi o) warimásu ⸄ࢆ๭ࡾࡲࡍ 2. n (signature seal) hankó ࡣࢇࡇ, hán ࡣࢇุ࣭

chopsticks n (o-)háshi ࠾ ࡣࡋ㺃 ࠾ ⠂ chord n 1. (music) waon ࿴㡢; (guitar chord) kødo ࢥ࣮ࢻ 2. (emotion) kokoro no kinsen ᚰࡢ⍆⥺ chore n zatsuyø 㞧⏝ choreography n furitsuke ᣺ࡾ௜ࡅ chorus n kø´rasu ࢥ࣮ࣛࢫ, (music

sang by a group) gasshø-kyoku ྜၐ᭤, (group of singers) gasshø-dan ྜၐᅋ Christ n Kirisuto ࢟ࣜࢫࢺ Christian 1. adj Kirisuto-kyø no ... ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍࡢ... 2. n (Kirisutokyø no) shínjá ࢟ࣜࢫࢺᩍࡢ  ಙ⪅ Christianity n Kirisuto-kyø ࢟ࣜࢫ ࢺᩍ Christmas n Kurísúmasu ࢡࣜࢫ ࣐ࢫ; Christmas Eve n kurisumasu ibu ࢡࣜࢫ࣐ࢫ࢖ࣈ chronic adj mansei (no) ៏ᛶ ࡢ chronological adj nendai-jun (no) ᖺ௦㡰 ࡢ chrysanthemum n kikú ⳥࣭࢟ࢡ; (tasty leaves) garland ~ shungiku ᫓⳥࣭ࢩࣗࣥࢠࢡ chubby adj fukkurashita ࡩࡗࡃࡽ ࡋࡓ, futome (no) ኴࡵࡢ chuck v 1. (throws) nagemásu ᢞ ࡆࡲࡍ 2. (tosses) hørimásu ᨺ ࡾࡲࡍ church n kyøkai ᩍ఍ cigar n shígå ࢩ࣮࢞, ha-maki ⴥ ᕳ; cigar shop/store n tabako-ya ࡓ ࡤࡇᒇ




cigarette n tabako ࡓࡤࡇ࣭ࢱࣂࢥ citizenship n shimin-ken ᕷẸᶒ 㺃↮ⲡ, maki-tábako ᕳࡁࡓࡤࡇ, citrus n kankitsu-rui ࠿ࢇࡁࡘ㢮࣭ ᯿ᶲ㢮࣭࢝ࣥ࢟ࢶ㢮 shígarétto ࢩ࢞ࣞࢵࢺ; cigarette/ cigar butt n suigara ྾࠸Ẇ; city 1. n shí ᕷ, (town) machí ⏫, cigarette lighter n raitå ࣛ࢖ࢱ࣮ (metropolis) tóshi 㒔ᕷ, tokai 㒔 cinder(s) n moegara ⇞࠼ࡀࡽ ఍ (dweller) tokái-jin 㒔఍ே; city council n shi-gikai ᕷ㆟఍ 2. adj cinema A movies cinnamon n shinamon ࢩࢼࣔࣥ (within the city) shí-nai (no) ᕷ cipher n 1. (zero) zero ࢮ࣭ࣟ㞽 ෆ ࡢ 2. (secret code) angø ᬯྕ civilian n minkan no hito Ẹ㛫ࡢ circle 1. n maru ୸, én ෇, (ring) ே, minkan-jin Ẹ㛫ே civilization n bummei ᩥ᫂, (culwá ㍯, (orbit) kidø ㌶㐨 2. v maru/en de kakomimásu ୸෇ ture) búnka ᩥ໬ claim 1. n (demands) yøkyü/seikyü ࡛ᅖࡳࡲࡍ circular adj kanjø (no) ⎔≧ ࡢ せồㄳồ 2. v (maintains) shucirculate v (it ~s) mawarimásu ᅇ chø shimásu ୺ᙇࡋࡲࡍ, tonaeࡾࡲࡍ; (~s it) mawashimásu ᅇ másu ၐ࠼ࡲࡍ ࡋࡲࡍ clamber v yojinoborimásu ࡼࡌⓏ circumference n shü´i ࿘ᅖ, shühen ࡾࡲࡍ ࿘㎶, enshü ෇࿘ clamor 1. n (a ~) sáwagi 㦁ࡂ, circumstance n 1. ba(w)ai ሙྜ; kensø ႖㦁; 2. v (makes a ~) sawakotó ஦࣭ࡇ࡜, ... wáke ... ヂ࣭ gimásu 㦁ࡂࡲࡍ࣭ࡉࢃࡂࡲࡍ ࢃࡅ, ... tokoró ... ᡤ࣭࡜ࡇࢁ clamorous adj søzøshii 㦁ࠎࡋ࠸ 2. jijø ஦᝟, jøtai ≧ែ, jøkyø ≧ clamp 1. n (metal piece for ἣ; yóshi ⏤࣭ࡼࡋ , ... shidai... fastening) tomegane ␃ࡵ㔠 2. v ḟ➨࣭ࡋࡔ࠸ 3. yøsu ᵝᏊ࣭ࡼ (fastens or fixes) koteishimásu ࠺ࡍ 4. (convenience) tsugø 㒔ྜ ᅛᐃࡋࡲࡍ go-tsugø ࡈ㒔ྜ clan n ichizoku ୍᪘, ikka ୍ᐙ circus n så´kasu ࢧ࣮࢝ࢫ clandestine adj himitsu (no) ⛎ᐦ cistern n suisø Ỉᵴ, chosui tanku ࡢ ㈓Ỉࢱࣥࢡ clang 1. n gachan ࢞ࢳࣕࣥ 2. v citation n inyø bun ᘬ⏝ᩥ (rings loudly) (gachan to) cite v 1. (quotes) inyø shimásu narashimásu ࢞ࢳࣕࣥ࡜ 㬆ࡽ ᘬ⏝ࡋࡲࡍ 2. (refers) genkyü ࡋࡲࡍ 3. v (sounds) narimásu 㬆ࡾࡲࡍ shimásu ゝཬࡋࡲࡍ citizen n shímin ᕷẸ; (national) clap (one’s hands) v té o tatakimákokumin ᅜẸ su ᡭࢆ྇ࡁࡲࡍ, hákushu




shimásu ᢿᡭࡋࡲࡍ ᤲ㝖ࡋࡲࡍ clarification n setsumei ㄝ᫂ clear 1. adj (bright) akarui ᫂ࡿ࠸; clarify v 1. (makes clear) akiraka (sunny) hárete imásu ᬕࢀ࡚࠸ ni shimásu ࠶ࡁࡽ࠿>᫂ࡽ࠿@࡟ ࡲࡍ, harete ... ᬕࢀࡓ ...; ࡋࡲࡍ 2. (becomes clear) (transparent) tømei (na) ㏱᫂ ࡞ 2. adj (evident) akíraka akiraka ni narimásu ࠶ࡁࡽ࠿ >᫂ࡽ࠿@࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ, hakkiri (na) ᫂ࡽ࠿ ࡞ , (obvious, shimásu ࡣࡗࡁࡾࡋࡲࡍ explicit) meihaku (na) ᫂ⓑ ࡞ ; clarity n 1. (transparency) tømei (understood) wakátte imásu ศ࠿ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ, wakátta ศ࠿ࡗ do ㏱᫂ᗘ 2. seichø sa Ύ⃈ࡉ 3. meiryø sa ᫂░ࡉ ࡓ...3. adj (easy to see) miyasúi clasp (one’s hands) v (té o) ぢࡸࡍ࠸; (easy to understand) kumimásu (ᡭࢆ ⤌ࡳࡲࡍ wakari-yasúi ศ࠿ࡾࡸࡍ࠸ class n 1. kúrasu ࢡࣛࢫ, kyü´ ⣭, 4. adj (unimpeded) jama ga nái ࡌࡷࡲ>㑧㨱@ࡀ࡞࠸ 5. v (takes (in school) gakkyü Ꮫ⣭; class instruction n ① júgyø ᤵᴗ, køshü away from the table) sagemásu ㅮ⩦ ② kaikyü 㝵⣭; classmate n ୗࡆࡲࡍ 6. gets ~ (empty) døkyü´-sei ྠ⣭⏕, (former class- sukimásu ࡍࡁࡲࡍ࣭✵ࡁࡲࡍ 7. becomes ~ (evident) shiremásu mate) døkí-sei ྠᮇ⏕; classroom ▱ࢀࡲࡍ n kyøshitsu ᩍᐊ classic n kurashikku ࢡࣛࢩࢵࢡ, clerk n (in shop) ten’in ᗑဨ; (in koten ྂ඾ office) jimú-in ஦ົဨ; (in bank) classical adj koten (no) ྂ඾ ࡢ ;  ginkø´-in 㖟⾜ဨ classical music n kurashikku clever adj rikø (na) ฼ཱྀ࣭ࡾࡇ࠺ ࡞ ; (nimble with fingers) kíyø ongaku ࢡࣛࢩࢵࢡ㡢ᴦ, koten ongaku ྂ඾㡢ᴦ (na) ჾ⏝ ࡞ ; (skilled) jøzú (na) clatter v gátagata shimásu ࡀࡓࡀ ࡌࡻ࠺ࡎ࣭ୖᡭ ࡞ ࡓࡋࡲࡍ cliff n gake ࡀࡅ࣭ᓴ claw n tsume ∎࣭ࢶ࣓ climate n kikø Ẽೃ clay n néndo ⢓ᅵ climax n yamá ᒣ, chø´ten 㡬Ⅼ; clean 1. adj kírei (na) ࡁࢀ࠸>⥡㯇@ (upshot) ketsumatsu ⤖ᮎ; shímatsu ࡞ , seiketsu (na) Ύ₩ ࡞ ; ጞᮎ (fresh) sappári shita ࡉࡗࡥࡾࡋࡓ climb v noborimásu Ⓩࡾࡲࡍ 2. ~s it (up) v kírei ni shimásu ࡁ cling v kuttsukimásu ࡃࡗࡘࡁ ࢀ࠸>⥡㯇@࡟ࡋࡲࡍ, (tidies) ࡲࡍ, shigamitsukimásu ࡋࡀࡳ katazukemásu ∦௜ࡅࡲࡍ࣭࠿ࡓ ࡘࡁࡲࡍ ࡙ࡅࡲࡍ, (sweeps) søji shimásu clinic n byøin ⑓㝔 380



clip 1. clips it v tsumimásu ᦬ࡳ marimásu ᅛࡲࡾࡲࡍ ࡲࡍ; kirimásu ษࡾࡲࡍ 2. n cloth n ori-mono ⧊≀, kíji ⏕ᆅ, kuríppu ࢡࣜࢵࣉ A paperclip nuno ᕸ; (a piece of) kiré ษࢀ, clique n renchü/renjü 㐃୰, habatsu nuno-gire ᕸษࢀ; (traditional ὴ㛸 wrapper) furoshiki ࡩࢁࡋࡁ࣭ cloak n mánto ࣐ࣥࢺ; cloakroom n 㢼࿅ᩜ kurø´ku ࢡ࣮ࣟࢡ, (tenimotsu) clothes n fukú ᭹, fukusø ᭹⿦ cloud n kúmo 㞼 azukarijo ᡭⲴ≀ 㡸࠿ࡾᡤ clock n tokei ᫬ィ; around the ~ cloudy; gets ~ kumorimásu ᭎ࡾ nijüyojikan 24᫬㛫, ichinichi-jü ࡲࡍ࣭ࡃࡶࡾࡲࡍ; ~ weather ୍᪥୰ kumorí ᭎ࡾ࣭ࡃࡶࡾ clockwise adv migi-máwari (ni) clover n kurøba¯ ࢡ࣮ࣟࣂ࣮; ྑᅇࡾ ࡟ four-leaf ~ yotsuba no kurøbå ᅄ clogged; gets ~ (up) fusagarimásu ࡘⴥࡢࢡ࣮ࣟࣂ࣮ ࡩࡉࡀࡾࡲࡍ cloves n chø´ji ୎Ꮠ࣭ࢳࣙ࢘ࢪ, clogs 1. n (wooden shoes) getá ࡆ kurøbu ࢡ࣮ࣟࣈ clown n døke-shi 㐨໬ᖌ ࡓ࣭ୗ㥏 2. v (it ~s up, gets clogged) tsumarimásu ワࡲࡾࡲ club n 1. (group; card suit) ࡍ, tsukaemásu ࡘ࠿࠼ࡲࡍ kúrabu ࢡࣛࣈ 2. (stick) konbø close 1. v ~s it (shuts) shimemásu ᲨᲬ࣭ࡇࢇᲬ; (golf) (gorufu) 㛢ࡵࡲࡍ, (a book, etc.) tojimásu kurabu ࢦࣝࣇ ࢡࣛࣈ 㛢ࡌࡲࡍ; ~ one’s eyes mé o tsubu- clue n tegákari ᡭ᥃࠿ࡾ, itóguchi rimásu ┠ࢆࡘࡪࡾࡲࡍ࣭▂ࡾࡲ ⣒ཱྀ ࡍ; (obstructs) fusagimásu ࡩࡉ clump n katamari ሢ࣭࠿ࡓࡲࡾ ࡂࡲࡍ; (ends) owarimásu ⤊ࢃ clumsy adj hetá (na) ࡬ࡓ>ୗᡭ@ ࡾࡲࡍ 2. it ~s shimarimásu 㛢 ࡞, bu-kíyø (na) ୙ჾ⏝ ࡞ ; ࡲࡾࡲࡍ A end 3. adj (near) gikochi-nái ࡂࡇࡕ࡞࠸ chikái ㏆࠸; ~ by (o-)soba (no) cluster A bunch clutch 1. v (grasps) nigirimásu ᥱ ࠾ ࡑࡤ ࡢ 4. adj (humid) ࡾࡲࡍ, tsukamimásu ࡘ࠿ࡳࡲࡍ mushi-atsúi ⵨ࡋᬬ࠸ 5. n (the 2. n (of car) kurátchi ࢡࣛࢵࢳ, end) owari ⤊ࢃࡾ, sue ᮎ, matsu ᮎ (pedal) kuratchí-pédaru ࢡࣛࢵ closet n (Japanese) oshi-ire ᢲࡋ ࢳ࣌ࢲࣝ ධࢀ, nándo ⣡ᡞ; (Western) coach 1. v (~es them) shidø kurøzetto ࢡ࣮ࣟࢮࢵࢺ shimásu ᣦᑟࡋࡲࡍ 2. n clot 1. n (a ~) katamari ᅛࡲࡾ࣭ (director) shidø´-sha ᣦᑟ⪅; ሢ࣭࠿ࡓࡲࡾ 2. v (it ~s) kata(sports) kø´chi ࢥ࣮ࢳ 3. n




coffee n køhíi ࢥ࣮ࣄ࣮ coffee shop/house n køhii-ten ࢥ࣮ ࣄ࣮ᗑ, kissa-ten ႚⲔᗑ coffin n hitsugi ᳌࣭ࡦࡘࡂ cog n (wheel) ha-gúruma ṑ㌴ coherent adj (shubi) ikkan shita 㤳 ᑿ୍㈏ࡋࡓ cohesion n danketsu ᅋ⤖, ketsugø ⤖ྜ coil n koiru ࢥ࢖ࣝ coin n kø´ka ◳㈌, kóin ࢥ࢖ࣥ; (brass or copper) dø´ka 㖡㈌; tosses a ~ køka/koin o nagete ura-omote de kimemásu ◳㈌ࢥ ࢖ࣥࢆᢞࡆ࡚⿬⾲࡛Ỵࡵࡲࡍ coincidence n güzen അ↛ coincidental adj güzen itchi shita ᧯⦪ᐊ അ↛୍⮴ࡋࡓ cockroach n gokiburi ࢦ࢟ࣈࣜ cola n kø´ra ࢥ࣮ࣛ cocktail (party) n kákuteru (påtii) colander n mizu-kírí Ỉษࡾ; ࢝ࢡࢸࣝ ࣃ࣮ࢸ࢕࣮ (bamboo) zarú ࡊࡿ cocky adj unuboreta ࠺ࡠࡰࢀࡓ, cold 1. adj samúi ᐮ࠸; (to touch) namaiki (na) ⏕ពẼ ࡞ tsumetái ෭ࡓ࠸; gets ~ sámuku/ cocoa n kókóa ࢥࢥ࢔ tsumetáku narimásu ᐮࡃ෭ࡓ coconut n kókonáttsu ࢥࢥࢼࢵࢶ; ࡃ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ; samemásu ෭ࡵࡲ coconut palm n yáshi ࣖࢩ࣭ᲂᏊ ࡍ; hiemásu ෭࠼ࡲࡍ 2. n kaze cocoon n máyu ࣐࣭ࣘ⧛ ࠿ࡐ>㢼㑧@; catches a ~ kaze o C.O.D. (collect on delivery) A col- hikimásu ࠿ࡐ>㢼㑧@ࢆࡦࡁࡲࡍ; lect (on delivery) cold medicine n kaze-gúsuri ࠿ࡐ code n kø´do ࢥ࣮ࢻ; (secret) angø >㢼㑧@⸆ ᬯྕ coldness n tsumetasa ෭ࡓࡉ, co-ed n jo (-shi) gákusei ዪ Ꮚ samusa ᐮࡉ Ꮫ⏕ cold water n mizu Ỉ, (o-)híya coeducation n dánjo kyøgaku ⏨ዪ ࠾ ෭ࡸ ඹᏛ coleslaw n køru-surø ࢥ࣮ࣝࢫ࣮ࣟ, co-existence n kyøson ඹᏑ, kyøkyabetsu-sárada ࢟ࣕ࣋ࢶࢧࣛࢲ colic n sentsü ␺③ zon ඹᏑ

(railroad) kyakusha ᐈ㌴; coach station n (depot) basu no hatchaku-jø ࣂࢫࡢⓎ╔ሙ coal n sekitán ▼Ⅳ; coal mine n tankø Ⅳ㖔 coarse adj arai ⢒࠸>Ⲩ࠸@; sómatsu (na) ⢒ᮎ ࡞ coast n engan ἢᓊ, kaigan ᾏᓊ coat n uwagi ୖ╔, kø´to ࢥ࣮ࢺ; (overcoat) gaitø እዓ, ø´bå ࣮࢜ ࣂ࣮; (traditional Japanese) haori ⩚⧊ coax v odatemásu ࠾ࡔ࡚ࡲࡍ cocaine n kokáin ࢥ࢝࢖ࣥ cock n ondori ࢜ࣥࢻ࣭ࣜ㞝㭜 cockpit n kokkupitto ࢥࢵࢡࣆࢵ ࢺ, søjü-seki ᧯⦪ᖍ, søjü-shitsu




collaborate v 1. (cooperates) kyø- collector n shüshü-ka ཰㞟ᐙ college n daigaku ኱Ꮫ; karejji ࢝ ryoku shimásu ༠ຊࡋࡲࡍ 2. (works collaboratively) ࣞࢵࢪ; college student n daigákukyødøsagyø shimásu ඹྠసᴗࡋ sei ኱Ꮫ⏕ ࡲࡍ collide v shøtotsu shimásu ⾪✺ collapse v taoremásu ಽࢀࡲࡍ; ࡋࡲࡍ (gets smashed) tsuburemásu ࡘࡪ colloquial 1. n (language, word) ࢀࡲࡍ࣭₽ࢀࡲࡍ køgo ཱྀㄒ 2. adj køgo-teki (na) collar n 1. (of coat) kárå ࣮࢝ࣛ, ཱྀㄒⓗ ࡞ erí ࠼ࡾ࣭あ 2. (of dog) kubi-wa collusion; in ~ with ... to takuránde 㤳㍯ ... ࡜௻ࢇ࡛ collate v (compares) terashimásu colony n shokumín-chi ᳜Ẹᆅ ↷ࡽࡋࡲࡍ, terashi-awasémásu color n iró Ⰽ, kárå ࣮࢝ࣛ ↷ࡽࡋྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ color-blind adj 1. (ophthalmology) colleague n 1. (professional ~) shikikaku ijø (no) Ⰽぬ␗ᖖ ࡢ (shokuba no) døryø ⫋ሙࡢ ྠ 2. (nonracialism) jinshusabetsu ൉ 2. (academic ~) gakuyü Ꮫ཭ o shinai ே✀ᕪูࢆࡋ࡞࠸ collect v 1.~s them atsumemásu colorful adj (bright) hanáyaka (na) 㞟ࡵࡲࡍ, yosemásu ᐤࡏࡲ ⳹ࡸ࠿ ࡞ , karafuru (na) ࢝ࣛ ࡍ࣭ࡼࡏࡲࡍ, (completes a set) ࣇࣝ ࡞ soroemásu ᥞ࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡑࢁ࠼ࡲ colossal adj kyodai (na) ᕧ኱ ࡞ ࡍ; (gathers up) shüshü shimásu colt n (young male horse) osu no ཰㞟ࡋࡲࡍ; (reaps, brings in) ko-uma 㞝ࡢᏊ㤿 column 1. n rán ḍ, koramu ࢥ࣒ࣛ; osamemásu ⣡ࡵࡲࡍ, (levies taxes etc,) chøshü shimásu ᚩ཰ (page ~) dán ẁ; (numerical ~) ࡋࡲࡍ; ~ tickets shüsatsu shiketa ࡅࡓ࣭᱆ 2. A pillar másu 㞟ᮐࡋࡲࡍ 2. they ~ (come coma n konsui ᫃╧ together atsumarimásu 㞟ࡲࡾࡲcomb 1. n kushí ࡃࡋ࣭᷸ 2. v (the ࡍ; collect call n korekuto køru ࢥ hair) kamí o sukimásu 㧥ࢆࡍࡁ ࣞࢡࢺࢥ࣮ࣝ ࡲࡍ, tokimásu ࡜ࡁࡲࡍ࣭Თࡁ collect (on delivery), C.O.D. adv ࡲࡍ, tokashimásu ࡜࠿ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ daikin hiki-kae (de) ௦㔠ᘬࡁ᥮ Თ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ ࠼ ࡛ , dai-biki (de) ௦ᘬࡁ ࡛ , combat n sentø ᡓ㜚 combination n 1. kumi-awase ⤌ࡳ chakubarai (de) ╔ᡶ࠸ ࡛ collection n 1. (of books) zøsho ⶶ ྜࢃࡏ, konbinëshon ࢥࣥࣅࢿ࣮ ᭩, korekushon ࢥࣞࢡࢩࣙࣥ ࢩࣙࣥ 2. (union) gappei ྜే, 2. (of taxes etc.) chøshü ᚩ཰ gødø ྜྠ




combine 1. v (combines them) kumi- ࢥ࣓ࢹ࢕ comely n 1. (appearance) yøshi awasemásu ⤌ࡳྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ, awasemásu ྜࢃࡏࡲࡍ; (dually no ii ᐜጼࡢ࠸࠸, kiryø no yoi ჾ㔞ࡢⰋ࠸ 2. (attractive) serves as) kanemásu වࡡࡲ ࡍ 2. v (they unite) gappei/gødø miryoku-teki (na) 㨩ຊⓗ ࡞ comet n høkí-boshi ࡯࠺ࡁᫍ, shimásu ྜేྜྠࡋࡲࡍ combustion n 1. (burning) nenshø suisei ᙟ࣭ᫍࡍ࠸ᫍ ⇞↝ 2. (oxidation) sanka 㓟໬ comfort 1. n anraku Ᏻᴦ, kiraku 3. (tumult) sawagi 㦁ࡂ࣭ࡉࢃࡂ Ẽᴦ 2. n (consolation) nagusame come v kimásu ᮶ࡲࡍ; (I/we ៘ࡵ, ian ៘Ᏻ 3. v (consoles) come to you) ikimásu ⾜ࡁࡲࡍ; nagusamemásu ៘ࡵࡲࡍ come about shø-jimásu ⏕ࡌࡲࡍ; comfortable 1. adj rakú (na) ᴦ ࡞ , genjitsu-ka shimásu ⌧ᐇ໬ࡋࡲ anraku (na) Ᏻᴦ ࡞ , kiraku ࡍ; come along yatte-kimásu ࡸࡗ (na) Ẽᴦ ࡞ ; kaiteki (na) ᛌ㐺 ࡚ࡁࡲࡍ; come back itte kimásu ࡞ , kimochi ga íi Ẽᣢࡕࡀ࠸࠸ ⾜ࡗ࡚ࡁࡲࡍ; kaerimásu ᖐࡾࡲ 2. A relax 3. adj (easy to wear) ࡍ ᖐࡿ, ᖐࡗ࡚ ; come down ki-yasúi ╔ࡸࡍ࠸, (easy to sit kudarimásu ୗࡾࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡾࡲ on) suwariyasúi ᗙࡾࡸࡍ࠸࣭ࡍ ࡍ; (on the price) makemásu ㈇ ࢃࡾࡸࡍ࠸ ࡅࡲࡍ; come in hairimásu ධࡾࡲ comforter n (down quilt) haneࡍ, háitte kimásu ධࡗ࡚ࡁࡲࡍ; buton ⩚ᕸᅋ come near yorimásu ᐤࡾࡲࡍ࣭ comic; comic book n manga (-bon) ࡼࡾࡲࡍ, chika-zukimásu ㏆࡙ ₔ⏬ ᮏ ; komikku ࢥ࣑ࢵࢡ; ࡁࡲࡍ; come off (button, etc.) comics n manga ₔ⏬࣭ࡲࢇࡀ toremásu ྲྀࢀࡲࡍ࣭࡜ࢀࡲࡍ; comical adj hyøkín (na) ࡦࡻ࠺ࡁ nukemásu ᢤࡅࡲࡍ; hazuremásu ࢇ ࡞ A funny እࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࡣࡎࢀࡲࡍ; come on, Coming-of-Age Day (2nd Monday of ...! (urging an invitation) så´ ࡉ January) n Seijin no hí ᡂேࡢ᪥ ࠶, hora ࡯ࡽ; come out demásu comma n konma ࢥ࣐ࣥ ฟࡲࡍ, déte kimásu ฟ࡚ࡁࡲࡍ; command 1. n (order, instructions) (appears) arawaremásu ⌧ࢀࡲࡍ; meirei ࿨௧; (historic term) come to an end sumimásu ῭ࡳࡲࡍ sátá ࡉࡓ࣭Ἃử 2. v (orders a ࣭ࡍࡳࡲࡍ, owarimásu ⤊ࢃࡾ person) ... ni ii-tsukemásu ... ࡟ ࡲࡍ, tsukimásu ᑾࡁࡲࡍ࣭ࡘࡁ ゝ࠸௜ࡅࡲࡍ, mei-jimásu ࿨ࡌ ࡲࡍ; come what may nán to itté mo ࡲࡍ 3. v (leads) hikiimásu ⋡ ࡞ࢇ࡜ゝࡗ࡚ࡶ ࠸ࡲࡍ comedy n kígeki ႐๻, komedii commander n shiréi-kan ྖ௧ᐁ;




(navy) chüsa ୰బ committee n iín-kai ጤဨ఍; commitcommemorate v kinen shimásu グᛕ tee member(s) n íin ጤဨ commodity n shøhin ၟရ ࡋࡲࡍ commencement n (ceremony) common adj futsü (no) ᬑ㏻ ࡢ ; sotsugyø´-shiki ༞ᴗᘧ kyøtsü (no) ඹ㏻ ࡢ ; (average) commend v (praises) homemásu nami (no) ୪ ࡢ ; (vulgar, ࡯ࡵࡲࡍ࣭〔ࡵࡲࡍ popular) zoku (na) ಑ ࡞ ; very comment 1. n (explanation) kai~ (is prevalent) hayari (no) ࡣࡸ ࡾ࣭ὶ⾜ ࡢ setsu ゎㄝ 2. n (critique, commoner n shomin ᗢẸ, ippanopinion) hyøron ホㄽ 3. n komento ࢥ࣓ࣥࢺ A remark jin ୍⯡ே 4. ~s on v (explains) kaisetsu common sense n (ippan) jøshiki shimásu ゎㄝࡋࡲࡍ; (criticizes) ୍⯡ᖖ㆑ commonwealth n renpø 㐃㑥 hyøron shimásu ホㄽࡋࡲࡍ commentary n 1. (interpretation) commotion n 1. (tumult) sawagi 㦁 ࡂ 2. (agitation) døyø ືᦂ kaisétsu ゎㄝ 2. (explanatory note) chüshaku ὀ㔘 3. (records) 3. (chaos) konran ΰ஘ commune 1. v danwa shimásu ㄯヰ kiroku グ㘓 4. (on-the-spot broadcasting) jikkyø høsø ᐇἣ ࡋࡲࡍ 2. n chihø jichitai ᆅ᪉⮬ ᨺ㏦ commerce n shø´gyø ၟᴗ; (trade) bøeki ㈠᫆ commercial (message) n komåsharu ࢥ࣐࣮ࢩࣕࣝ, shiiému (CM) ࢩ࣮࢚࣒ commission 1. n (handling charge) tesü-ryø ᡭᩘᩱ; (brokerage fee) sáya ࡉࡸ 2. v (~s ... to do it) (sore o ... ni) irai shimásu ࡑࢀ ࢆ... ࡟ ౫㢗ࡋࡲࡍ commit v 1. (entrusts) yudanemásu ࡺࡔࡡࡲࡍ࣭ጤࡡࡲࡍ 2. (perpetrates) okashimásu ≢ࡋࡲࡍ; hatarakimásu ാࡁࡲࡍ commitment n 1. (promise) yakusoku ⣙᮰ 2. (duty) gimu ⩏ົ 3. (responsibility) sekinin ㈐௵

἞య communicate v tsutaemásu ఏ࠼ࡲ ࡍ; tsüjimásu ㏻ࡌࡲࡍ communication n (traffic) køtsü ஺ ㏻, ørai  ᮶; (message, news) táyori ౽ࡾ, tsüshin ㏻ಙ Communist n kyøsan shugí-sha ඹ ⏘୺⩏⪅ community n komyuniti ࢥ࣑ࣗࢽ ࢸ࢕, komyunitii ࢥ࣑ࣗࢽࢸ࢕࣮, (society) shákai ♫఍ commute v kayoimásu ㏻࠸ࡲࡍ; ~ to work tsükin shimásu ㏻໅ࡋ ࡲࡍ commuter n 1. (to work) tsükinsha ㏻໅⪅ 2. (goes to school) tsügaku-sha ㏻Ꮫ⪅ companion n nakamá ௰㛫; (o-)




tsure ࠾ 㐃ࢀ, (o-)tómo ࠾ ౪, tomodachi ཭㐩; (o-)aite ࠾ ┦ᡭ company n (firm) kaisha ఍♫, ... -sha ... ♫; (within the office/ company) shánai (no) ♫ෆ ࡢ ; (group) kumí ⤌; (social) tsukiai ௜ࡁྜ࠸࣭ࡘࡁ࠶࠸, køsai ஺ 㝿; (guests) raikyaku ᮶ᐈ, (o-) kyaku ࠾ ᐈ, o-kyaku-san/sámá ࠾ᐈࡉࢇࡉࡲ࣭ᵝ; keep one company ... to tsuki-aimásu ... ࡜௜ࡁ ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ࡘࡁ࠶࠸ࡲࡍ compare v kurabemásu ẚ࡭ࡲ ࡍ, hikaku shimásu ẚ㍑ࡋࡲࡍ; taishø/taihi shimásu ᑐ↷ᑐẚࡋ ࡲࡍ; (collates) terashimásu ↷ ࡽࡋࡲࡍ; as compared with ... ni tái-shite ... ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚ comparison n hikaku ẚ㍑; taishø ᑐ↷, taihi ᑐẚ compass n (for directions) rashinban ⨶㔪┙; (for drafting) konpasu ࢥࣥࣃࢫ compassion n (o-)násake ࠾ ᝟ࡅ compatibility n aishø´ ┦ᛶ compensate v mukuimásu ሗ࠸ࡲࡍ;

competitive adj 1. (fiercely-~) kyøsø no hageshii ➇தࡢ⃭ࡋ ࠸ 2. (strong desire to compete) kyøsø-shin no tsuyoi ➇தᚰ ࡢᙉ࠸ competitor n kyøsø-áite ➇த┦ᡭ complain v (gives utterance) fuhei/ mónku o iimásu ୙ᖹᩥྃࢆゝ ࠸ࡲࡍ; (guchi o) koboshimásu ࡄࡕ࣭ហ⑵ࢆ ࡇࡰࡋࡲࡍ;

(mutters to oneself) butsu-butsu iimásu ࡪࡘࡪࡘゝ࠸ࡲࡍ; kujø o iimásu ⱞ᝟ࢆゝ࠸ࡲࡍ; (makes a formal accusation) uttaemásu

ッ࠼ࡲࡍ complaint n fuhei ୙ᖹ, mónku ᩥ ྃ, kujø ⱞ᝟, (o-)kógoto ࠾ ᑠ ゝ, guchi ࡄࡕ࣭ហ⑵; (lawsuit) uttae ッ࠼ complement n hosoku ⿵㊊, hojü ⿵඘ complete 1. becomes ~ v (full) michimásu ‶ࡕࡲࡍ 2. ~s it v kansei shimásu ᏶ᡂࡋࡲࡍ; (a set) soroemásu ᥞ࠼ࡲࡍ 3. oginaimásu ⿵࠸ࡲࡍ complete adj (exhaustive) mø´ra (indemnifies) hoshø shimásu ⿵ൾࡋࡲࡍ; (certify) hoshø shita ... ⥙⨶ࡋࡓ... completely adv mattakú ඲ࡃ࣭ࡲ shimásu ಖドࡋࡲࡍ compensation n (indemnity money) ࡗࡓࡃ, to(t)temo ࡜ ࡗ ࡚ࡶ, hoshø-kin ⿵ൾ㔠, benshø ᘚൾ, sukkári ࡍࡗ࠿ࡾ, sokkúri ࡑࡗ ࡃࡾ; (+ [NAGATIVE]) zenzen ඲ baishø ㈺ൾ compete v kisoimásu ➇࠸ࡲࡍ, ↛; (all) zénbu ඲㒊࣭ࡐࢇࡪ, kyøsø shimásu ➇தࡋࡲࡍ minná ࡳࢇ࡞࣭ⓙ competency n (qualification) complex n konpurekkusu ࢥࣥࣉ ࣞࢵࢡࢫ, rettø-kan ຎ➼ឤ shikaku ㈨᱁ competition n kyøsø ➇த complexion n kao-iro 㢦Ⰽ




complicated adj fukuzatsu (na) 」 㞧 ࡞ , komi-itta ㎸ࡳධࡗࡓ࣭ ࡇࡳ࠸ࡗࡓ, yaya(k)koshíi ࡸࡸ ࡗ ࡇࡋ࠸, wazurawashii ↹ࢃ ࡋ࠸; gets ~ kojiremásu ࡇࡌࢀࡲ ࡍ, motsuremásu ࡶࡘࢀࡲࡍ complications n (details) ikisatsu ࠸ࡁࡉࡘ࣭⤒⦋; (entanglements) motsure ࡶࡘࢀ compliment n seji ୡ㎡, o-seji ࠾ୡ ㎡, home-kotoba ࡯ࡵゝⴥ comply; ~ with v ... ni ø-jimásu ... ࡟ᛂࡌࡲࡍ; ... o nattoku shimásu ... ࢆ⣡ᚓࡋࡲࡍ component n séibun ᡂศ compose v (writes) tsuzurimásu ⥛ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡘ࡙ࡾࡲࡍ, tsukurimásu సࡾࡲࡍ composed adj (unruffled) heiki (na) ᖹẼ ࡞ ; reisei (na) ෭㟼 ࡞ composite adj søgø-teki (na) ⥲ྜ ⓗ ࡞ composition n (writing) sakubun సᩥ; (constituency) køsei ᵓᡂ comprehend A understand A include A comprise A consist of comprehension n rikai ⌮ゎ comprehensive adj (composite) søgø-teki (na) ⥲ྜⓗ ࡞ compress v 1. (constricts) asshuku shimásu ᅽ⦰ࡋࡲࡍ 2. (presses) appaku shimásu ᅽ㏕ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (shortens) tanshuku shimásu ▷⦰ࡋࡲࡍ comprise v (includes all items) mø´ra shimásu ⥙⨶ࡋࡲࡍ compromise 1. n (gives in) dakyø

ጇ༠ 2. v dakyø shimásu ጇ༠ ࡋࡲࡍ compulsion n 1. (psychology) shødø kyøhaku ⾪ືᙉ㏕ 2. (forcing) kyøsei ᙉไ compulsive adj 1. (psychology) kyøhaku kan’nen no aru ᙉ㏕ ほᛕࡢ࠶ࡿ, osaerarenai ᢚ࠼ࡽ ࢀ࡞࠸ 2. (very interesting or

compelling) hito (no kokoro) o hikitsukeru ே ࡢᚰ ࢆᘬࡁ ࡘࡅࡿ compulsory adj 1. (stipulated) kitei (no) つᐃ ࡢ 2. (obligatory) gimu-teki (na) ⩏ົⓗ ࡞ 3. (required) hissu (no) ᚲ㡲 ࡢ ; compulsory education n gimu-kyø´iku ⩏ົᩍ⫱ computation n keisan ィ⟬ compute v keisan shimásu ィ⟬ࡋ ࡲࡍ computer n konpyü´ta ࢥࣥࣆ࣮ࣗ ࢱ, konpyü´tå ࢥࣥࣆ࣮ࣗࢱ࣮ computer science n konpyü´ta-ka/ konpyü´tå saiensu ࢥࣥࣆ࣮ࣗ ࢱࢥࣥࣆ࣮ࣗࢱ࣮࣭ࢧ࢖࢚ࣥ ࢫ, jøhø kagaku ᝟ሗ⛉Ꮫ, jøhø køgaku ᝟ሗᕤᏛ comrade n (...) dø´shi ... ྠᚿ, (...) nakama ... ௰㛫 con n sagi ブḭ; con man n sagishi ブḭᖌ࣭ࢧࢠᖌ, peten-shi ࣌ࢸࣥᖌ conceal A hide A cover up conceit n [INFORMAL] unubore ࠺ ࡠࡰࢀ, [FORMAL] kadai hyøka 㐣኱ホ౯




concentrate v shüchü shimásu 㞟୰ ࢥࣥࢡ࣮ࣜࢺ 2. adj (not abstract) ࡋࡲࡍ gutai-teki(na) ලయⓗ ࡞ concept n gáinen ᴫᛕ, shisø ᛮ᝿ concubine n o-mekake(-san) ࠾጖ conception n 1. (concept) gáinen ࡉࢇ , nígø(-san) ஧ྕ ࡉࢇ ᴫᛕ, shisø ᛮ᝿ 2. (fertilization) concur v (agrees) døi shimásu ྠពࡋࡲࡍ, (coincides) itchi jusei ཷ⢭ 3. (inception of pregnancy) jutai ཷ⫾, kainin ᠜ዷ shimásu ୍⮴ࡋࡲࡍ concern 1. n (relevance) kankei concurrent adj (occurring at the 㛵ಀ, (interest) kanshin 㛵ᚰ; same time) døji ni okoru ྠ᫬ (worry) shinpai ᚰ㓄; (business) ࡟㉳ࡇࡿ kaisha ఍♫ 2. v (relates to) ... ni concussion n (brain) nø-shintø ⬻ ࡋࢇ࡜࠺ kanshimásu ... ࡟㛵ࡋࡲࡍ concerning prep ... ni kán-shite condemn v hinan shimásu 㠀㞴 ࡋࡲࡍ ... ࡟㛵ࡋ࡚, ... o megutte ... ࢆ ᕠࡗ࡚ condense v 1. (concentrates) concert n ongák(u) -kai 㡢ᴦ఍, gyøshuku shimásu จ⦰ࡋࡲࡍ, ensø´-kai ₇ዌ఍, consåto ࢥࣥ nøshuku shimásu ⃰⦰ࡋࡲࡍ ࢧ࣮ࢺ 2. (liquefies) ekika shimásu ᾮ໬ concession n 1. (compromise) ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (summarizes) yøyaku jøho ㆡṌ 2. (right) tokken ≉ᶒ shimásu せ⣙ࡋࡲࡍ conciliate v nadamemásu ࡞ࡔࡵࡲ condition n (state) ari-sama ᭷ ࡍ; wakai sasemásu ࿴ゎࡉࡏࡲ ᵝ࣭࠶ࡾࡉࡲ, jøtai ≧ែ, jijø ஦ ࡍ; chøtei shimásu ㄪ೵ࡋࡲࡍ ᝟, jissai ᐇ㝿, guai ලྜ, chøshi concise adj kanketsu (na) ⡆₩ ࡞ ㄪᏊ; (stipulation) jøken ᮲௳ conclude v (brings to an end) condolence n okuyami ࠾᜼ࡸࡳ sumashimásu ῭ࡲࡋࡲࡍ; (ends condom n kondømu ࢥࣥࢻ࣮࣒ a discussion) ketsuron shimásu condominium n kondominiamu ࢥ ࣥࢻ࣑ࢽ࢔࣒ ⤖ㄽࡋࡲࡍ; (finalizes) seiritsu condone v mokunin shimásu 㯲 shimásu ᡂ❧ࡋࡲࡍ conclusion n 1. (of discussion) ㄆࡋࡲࡍ ketsuron ⤖ㄽ; in ~ ketsuron to conduct 1. n (behavior) okonai ⾜ shite ⤖ㄽ࡜ࡋ࡚ 2. (finalization) ࠸࣭࠾ࡇ࡞࠸ 2. v michibimásu ᑟࡁࡲࡍ, shiki shimásu ᣦ᥹ࡋ seiritsu ᡂ❧ concoct v koshiraemásu ࡇࡋࡽ࠼ ࡲࡍ ࡲࡍ, tsukuriagemásu సࡾୖࡆ conductor n (train) shashø(-san) ࡲࡍ ㌴ᤸ ࡉࢇ ; (orchestra) shikí-sha concrete 1. n (cement) konkuríito ᣦ᥹⪅




cone n ensui(-kei) ෇㗹 ᙧ , køn ࢥ࣮ࣥ confectionery n (o-)kashí-ya ࠾ ⳫᏊᒇ confederacy n rengø 㐃ྜ, dømei (koku) ྠ┕ ᅜ confer v 1. hanashi-aimásu ヰࡋྜ ࠸ࡲࡍ 2. A grant conference n (personal) sødan ┦ ㄯ; [FORMAL] káigí ఍㆟, taikai ኱఍; (discussion) kyø´gí ༠㆟, (negotiation) hanashi-ai ヰࡋྜ࠸ confess v 1. hákujø shimásu ⓑ≧ ࡋࡲࡍ, jihaku shimásu ⮬ⓑࡋ ࡲࡍ, kokuhaku shimásu ࿌ⓑࡋ ࡲࡍ 2. (frankly reveals) uchiakemásu ᡴࡕ᫂ࡅࡲࡍ confession n hákujø ⓑ≧; (of sins) zángé ࡊࢇࡆ࣭ᠲ᜼ confidence n shin’yø ಙ⏝, shinrai ಙ㢗, tánomi 㢗ࡳ; (self-~) jishin ⮬ಙ; (secure feeling) anshin Ᏻᚰ confidential adj naisho (no) ෆ⥴ ࡢ confirm v (a reservation) (yoyaku o) kakunin shimásu ண⣙ࢆ ☜ ㄆࡋࡲࡍ conflict n tatakai ᡓ࠸ confluence n gøryü ྜὶ conform (with/to) v ... ni shitagaimásu ... ࡟ᚑ࠸ࡲࡍ, ... ni motozukimásu ... ࡟ᇶ࡙ࡁࡲࡍ confront v ... ni tai-shimásu ... ࡟ ᑐࡋࡲࡍ; ... to tairitsu shimásu ... ࡜ᑐ❧ࡋࡲࡍ; (opposes) ... ni taikø shimásu ... ࡟ᑐᢠࡋࡲࡍ

confrontation n taikø ᑐᢠ confound v 1. kondø shimásu ΰ ྠࡋࡲࡍ 2. (perplexes) konwaku sasemásu ᅔᝨࡉࡏࡲࡍ Confucius n Køshi ᏍᏊ confused; gets ~ komarimásu ᅔࡾ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡇࡲࡾࡲࡍ, (flustered) awatemásu ៃ࡚ࡲࡍ࣭࠶ࢃ࡚ࡲ ࡍ; (messy, disorderly) mechamecha ࡵࡕࡷࡵࡕࡷ confusion n (disorder) konran ΰ஘, kónzatsu ΰ㞧 congenial adj aishø´ ga(/no) íi ┦ᛶ ࡀ ࡢ ࠸࠸ congested n (traffic) jütai-jø´kyø ῰≧ἣ; is ~ jütai shite imásu ῰ࡋ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ conglomerate n konguromaritto ࢥ ࣥࢢ࣐ࣟࣜࢵࢺ, fukugø-kigyø 」ྜ௻ᴗ congratulate n (o-)iwai shimásu ࠾ ⚃࠸ࡋࡲࡍ congratulation n shukuga ⚃㈡, o-iwai ࠾⚃࠸; Congratulations! O-medetø gozaimásu. ࠾ࡵ࡛࡜ ࠺ࡈࡊ࠸ࡲࡍ congregate v shügø shimásu 㞟ྜ ࡋࡲࡍ congress A Diet; conference conjecture 1. n suisoku ᥎ , (o-) sasshi ࠾ ᐹࡋ 2. v (guesses, supposes) sas-shimásu ᐹࡋࡲࡍ conjugal adj füfu (no) ኵ፬ ࡢ , kon’in (no) ፧ጻ ࡢ conjunction n setsuzókú-shi ᥋⥆モ connect (with) v (... to) tsunagimásu ... ࡜ ࡘ࡞ࡂࡲࡍ; ... to




renraku shimásu ... ࡜㐃⤡ࡋࡲ ࡍ; tsü-jimásu ㏻ࡌࡲࡍ connection n renraku 㐃⤡; (relevance) kankei 㛵ಀ; (relation) tsunagari ࡘ࡞ࡀࡾ; (link) tsunagi ࡘ࡞ࡂ conscience n ryø´shin Ⰻᚰ conscientious adj majime (na) ࡲ ࡌࡵ࣭┿㠃┠ ࡞ ; ryøshin-teki (na) Ⰻᚰⓗ ࡞ consciousness n íshiki ព㆑, obóé ぬ࠼; loses ~ íshiki o ushinaimásu ព㆑ࢆኻ࠸ࡲࡍ conscription n (for military service) shøshü ྊ㞟࣭ᣍ㞟 consent v shøchi/shødaku/døi shimásu ᢎ▱ᢎㅙྠពࡋࡲࡍ, nattoku shimásu ⣡ᚓࡋࡲࡍ consequence A result conservative adj hoshu-teki (na) ಖᏲⓗ ࡞ ; shøkyoku-teki (na) ᾘᴟⓗ ࡞ ; (moderate) uchiwa (na) ෆ㍯ ࡞ conserve 1. v (saves) setsuyaku shimásu ⠇⣙ࡋࡲࡍ 2. n (fruit jam) jamu ࢪ࣒ࣕ consider v kangaemásu ⪃࠼ࡲࡍ;

࠸࣭࠸ࡕࡌࡿࡋ࠸; medátta ... ┠ ❧ࡗࡓ..., medátte imásu ┠❧ࡗ ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ constant adj chakujitsu (na) ╔ᐇ ࡞ ; fuhen (no) ୙ኚࡢ constantly A always constipation n benpi ౽⛎ constitute v køsei shimásu ᵓᡂࡋ ࡲࡍ constitution n 1. (basic laws) kénpø ᠇ἲ; Constitution (Memorial) Day (3 May) Kenpø-kinénbi ᠇ἲグᛕ᪥ 2. (physical) taishitsu య㉁3. (composition) køsei ᵓᡂ construct A build construction n (work) kø´ji ᕤ ஦; under ~ køji-chü ᕤ஦୰; (building) kensetsu ᘓタ construe v káishaku shimásu ゎ㔘 ࡋࡲࡍ consul n ryø´ji 㡿஦; consul general n sø-ryø´ji ⥲㡿஦ consulate n ryøjí-kan 㡿஦㤋 consult v (a person) ... to sødan shimásu ... ࡜┦ㄯࡋࡲࡍ consultant n kómon 㢳ၥ , konsárutanto ࢥࣥࢧࣝࢱࣥࢺ consumer n shøhí-sha ᾘ㈝⪅ consumption n shøhi ᾘ㈝; consumption tax n (duty) shøhi-zei ᾘ㈝⛯ contact 1. n sesshoku ᥋ゐ; comes in ~ (with ...) (... ni) furemásu ... ࡟ ゐࢀࡲࡍ, ses-shimásu ᥋ ࡋࡲࡍ, sesshoku shimásu ᥋ゐ ࡋࡲࡍ 2. v (~s a person) ... to

(takes into account) kø´ryo ni iremásu ⪃៖࡟ධࢀࡲࡍ considerable adj søtø (na) ┦ᙜ ࡞ , yohodo (no)వ⛬ ࡢ , yoppodo (no)ࡼࡗࡱ࡝ ࡢ consist; ~ of ...kara nátte imásu ...࠿ࡽᡂࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ consolation n nagusame ៘ࡵ࣭࡞ ࡄࡉࡵ, ian ៘Ᏻ conspicuous adj ichijirushíi ⴭࡋ 390


renraku shimásu ࡜㐃⤡ࡋࡲࡍ, ... ni aimásu ... ࡟఍࠸ࡲࡍ contact lenses n kontakuto-rénzu ࢥࣥࢱࢡࢺࣞࣥࢬ, kontákuto


contractor n ukeoí-nin ㄳࡅ㈇࠸ே contradict v ... ni sakaraimásu ... ࡟㏫ࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ A deny contradiction n (inconsistency) mujun ▩┪ contrary adj hantai (no) ཯ᑐ ࡢ ; gyaku (no) ㏫ ࡢ ; acts ~ to

ࢥࣥࢱࢡࢺ contagious disease n densenbyø ఏᰁ⑓ contain v ... ga háitte imásu ... ࡀ (goes against) ... ni han-shimásu ධࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ; ... o fukumimásu ... ࡟཯ࡋࡲࡍ, ... ni sakaraimásu ... ࢆྵࡳࡲࡍ ... ࡟㏫ࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ container n ire-mono ධࢀ≀, yø´ki contrast 1. n taishø/taihi ᑐ↷ᑐ ᐜჾ; (box) hako ⟽; (for transport- ẚ 2. v (compares) kurabemásu ẚ࡭ࡲࡍ; in ~ to/with ... ni táiing goods) kónténa ࢥࣥࢸࢼ contamination n osen ởᰁ shite ... ࡟ᑐࡋ࡚, ... ni hán-shite contempt n keibetsu ㍍⶜ ... ࡟཯ࡋ࡚ contented adj ... de mánzoku control 1. n shíhai ᨭ㓄, kánri ⟶ ⌮; (of prices, etc.) tøsei ⤫ไ 2. shimásu ... ࡛‶㊊ࡋࡲࡍ; osamarimásu ἞ࡲࡾࡲࡍ v (supervises it) tori-shimarimásu contents n nakámi ୰㌟, naiyø ෆ ྲྀࡾ⥾ࡲࡾࡲࡍ; (restrains) osaeᐜ; (table of ~s) mokuji ┠ḟ, másu ᢚ࠼ࡲࡍ; (operates equipmidashi ぢฟࡋ ment) søjü shimásu ᧯⦪ࡋࡲࡍ contest n konkü´ru ࢥࣥࢡ࣮ࣝ, controversy n ronsø ㄽத kóntesuto ࢥࣥࢸࢫࢺ; (competi- convenience n (go-)tsugø ࡈ 㒔ྜ, tion) kyøsø ➇த; (sports) kyø´gi tsuide ࡘ࠸࡛࡟; at your ~ tsuide ➇ᢏ no sai ࡘ࠸࡛ࡢ㝿, tsuide no tokí continent n tairiku ኱㝣 ni ࡘ࠸࡛ࡢ᫬࡟ continuation n tsuzuki ⥆ࡁ convenience store n konbini ࢥࣥ continue v (it ~s) tsuzukimásu ⥆ࡁ ࣅࢽ ࡲࡍ; (~s it) tsuzukemásu ⥆ࡅࡲࡍ convenient adj bénri (na) ౽฼ contraceptive n 1. hinín-yaku 㑊ዷ ࡞ , bén ga íi ౽ࡀ࠸࠸; chø´hø ⸆, (pills) keikø-hinín-yaku ⤒ཱྀ (na) 㔜ᐆ ࡞ ; (easy to arrange) 㑊ዷ⸆ 2. (device) hinín-gu 㑊ዷ tsugø ga íi 㒔ྜࡀ࠸࠸ ල; (condom) kondø´mu ࢥࣥࢻ࣮࣒ convent n shüdø´-in ಟ㐨㝔 contract 1. n (an agreement) convention A conference, meeting conventional adj heibon (na) ᖹซ keiyaku ዎ⣙ 2. v (agrees to ࡞ undertake work) ukeoimásu ㄳ ࡅ㈇࠸ࡲࡍ conversation n (ordinary) hanashí




ヰ, danwa ㄯヰ; (in language class, etc.) kaiwa ఍ヰ conversion n henkan ኚ᥮; ~ key henkan-kíi ኚ᥮࣮࢟ convert v hiki-kaemásu ᘬࡁኚ࠼ ࡲࡍ convey v hakobimásu 㐠ࡧࡲࡍ cook 1. n ryøri-nin ᩱ⌮ே, kókku(-san) ࢥࢵࢡ ࡉࢇ , (Japanese chef) itamae ᯈ๓ 2. v (~s it) ryø´ri shimásu ᩱ⌮ࡋࡲࡍ, 3. v (it boils) niemásu ↻࠼ࡲࡍ cool 1. adj suzushíi ᾴࡋ࠸; (calm) reisei (na) ෭㟼 ࡞ ; (unperturbed) heiki (na) ᖹẼ ࡞ 2. v it ~s off/ down samemásu ෭ࡵࡲࡍ, hiemásu ෭࠼ࡲࡍ; (~s it) hiyashimásu ෭ࡸࡋࡲࡍ cooperation n kyøryoku ༠ຊ; (joint activity) kyødø ඹྠ copy 1. n (of a book) ... -bu ... 㒊, ichí-bu ୍㒊 2. n (photocopy) kópii ࢥࣆ࣮ 3. n (reproduction) fukusha 」෗, fukusei 」〇 4. v (copies it) utsushimásu ෗ࡋ ࡲࡍ, fukusha/fukusei shimásu 」෗」〇ࡋࡲࡍ; (imitates) nisemásu ఝࡏࡲࡍ; (makes a ~) kópii o torimásu, ࢥࣆ࣮ࢆ࡜ ࡾࡲࡍ cord n himo ࡦࡶ࣭ࣄ࣭ࣔ⣣, nawá ࡞ࢃ࣭⦖, kø´do ࢥ࣮ࢻ cordial adj shínsetsu (na) ぶษ ࡞ , kokoro no komotta ᚰࡢࡇ ࡶࡗࡓ core n shín ࡋࢇ࣭ᚰ࣭ⰺ cork n kóruku ࢥࣝࢡ, sén ᰦ,

korukú-sen ࢥࣝࢡᰦ cormorant n u ࣭࢘㬼; cormorant fishing n ukai 㬼㣫࠸ corn n 1. (maize) tø-mórokoshi ࢺ࢘ࣔࣟࢥࢩ, køn ࢥ࣮ࣥ 2. (on skin) uonome 㨶ࡢ┠; (callus) táko ࡓࡇ, (bunion) mamé ࡲࡵ; soko-mame ᗏࡲࡵ corner n (outside) kádo ゅ; (inside) súmi 㝮 corporation n 1. (joint-stock corporation) kabushiki-gáisha ᰴᘧ఍♫ 2. (incorporated association) shadan ♫ᅋ 3. (public corporation) kødan බᅋ corps n gundan ㌷ᅋ; Peace Corps heiwa-bútai ᖹ࿴㒊㝲 corpse n shitai Ṛయ, nakigara ࡞ ࡁࡀࡽ࣭ஸ㧁, shigai Ṛ㧁 correct 1. adj tadashíi ṇࡋ࠸ 2. v atarimásu ᙜࡓࡾࡲࡍ; (~s it) naoshimásu ┤ࡋࡲࡍ, aratamemásu ᨵࡵࡲࡍ correspond (to ...) v (... ni) taiø shimásu ... ࡟ ᑐᛂࡋࡲࡍ correspondence n (messages) tsüshin ㏻ಙ; (equivalence) taiø ᑐᛂ corridor n røka ᗯୗ cosmetics n (o-)keshø ࠾ ໬⢝, keshø-hin ໬⢝ရ cost 1. n (expense) híyø ㈝⏝ 2. v it ~s (how much) (íkura) shimásu ࠸ࡃࡽ ࡋࡲࡍ; (requires) yø-shimásu せࡋࡲࡍ; at any cost nán to shité mo ఱ࡜ࡋ࡚ࡶ, náni ga nánde mo ఱࡀఱ࡛ࡶ




costly A expensive costume n fukusø ᭹⿦ cotton n wata ⥥, momen ᮌ⥥, kotton ࢥࢵࢺࣥ couch n ne-isu ᐷ᳔Ꮚ, naga-isu 㛗᳔Ꮚ cough v sekí o shimásu တࢆࡋ ࡲࡍ could A can; maybe counsel 1. n (guide, coach) shidøsha ᣦᑟ⪅ 2. v (~s them) shidø shimásu ᣦᑟࡋࡲࡍ count v kazoemásu ᩘ࠼ࡲࡍ counter n (shop ~) uri-ba ኎ࡾሙ counterclockwise adj hidari-máwari (ni) ᕥᅇࡾ ࡟ counterfeit 1. adj nise (no) ഇ ࡢ 2. v nisemásu ఝࡏࡲࡍ; counterfeit bill n (currency) nisesatsu ഇ ᮐ࣭࡟ࡏᮐ࣭㉚ᮐ country n 1. kuni ᅜ;... -koku ... ᅜ 2. (countryside) inaka ࠸࡞࠿࣭ ⏣⯋; (outdoors) yagai 㔝እ county n gún 㒆 (U.S.); shü´ ᕞ

kyütei ᐑᘐ; court dances and music n búgaku ⯙ᴦ courtesy n reigí ♩൤ cousin n itóko ࠸࡜ࡇ࣭ᚑ඗ᘵ࣭

ᚑጜጒ cover n (lid) futa ࡩࡓ࣭⵹ kabå ࢝ࣂ࣮; (book, magazine, etc.) hyøshi´ ⾲⣬ cover v 1. (~s it) øimásu そ>࠾࠾@ ࠸ࡲࡍ; (includes all items) mø´ra shimásu ⥙⨶ࡋࡲࡍ 2. ~s up (conceals) fusemásu అࡏ ࡲࡍ cow n ushi ∵࣭࢘ࢩ coward n okubyø-mono ⮑⑓>᠈ ⑓࣭࠾ࡃࡧࡻ࠺@⪅ crab n kani ࢝ࢽ࣭⽣ crack 1. n suki (-ma) ㏱ࡁ 㛫 ; (wide) ware-me ๭ࢀ┠; (fine) hibí ࡦࡧ࣭ࣄࣅ; (flaw) kizu യ 2. it ~s v waremásu ๭ࢀࡲࡍ cradle n yuri-kago ࡺࡾ࠿ࡈ࣭ᦂ ࡾ⡲ crag n iwá ᒾ cram; ~s it in v tsumemásu ワࡵ (Britain) couple A two; a couple n (husband ࡲࡍ; it is crammed in tsumariand wife) fü´fu ኵ፬ másu ワࡲࡾࡲࡍ courage n yü´ki ຬẼ cram school n júku ሿ course n kø´su ࢥ࣮ࢫ; (in school) cramp n 1. (leg) tsuru ࡘࡿ 2. kamoku ⛉┠; (of action) høshin (stomach) ikeiren ⫶②ᨥ࣭⫶ ᪉㔪; (of time) keika ⤒㐣; ࡅ࠸ࢀࢇ crane n 1. (bird) tsúru ࢶ࣭ࣝ㭯 (development) nariyuki ᡂࡾ ⾜ࡁ࣭࡞ࡾࡺࡁ; in the ~ ... of 2. (machine) kurë´n ࢡ࣮ࣞࣥ crash n (plane) tsuiraku ቒⴠ; (during) ...-chu (ni) ୰ ࡟ court n 1. (of law) saiban-sho (collision) shøtotsu ⾪✺ ⿢ุᡤ, høtei ἲᘐ 2. (sports) crass adj egetsunái ࠼ࡆࡘ࡞࠸ køto ࢥ࣮ࢺ 3. (imperial/royal) crate n wakú ᯟ, hako ⟽




crater n funka -kø ᄇⅆཱྀ crawl v haimásu ࡣ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭㏺࠸ ࡲࡍ crazy adj 1. ki-chigái (no) Ẽ㐪 ࠸࣭ࡁࡕࡀ࠸ ࡢ 2. is ~ about ... ni muchü désu ... ࡟ክ୰࡛ࡍ cream n kuríimu ࢡ࣮࣒ࣜ; cream puff n shü-kurímu ࢩ࣮ࣗࢡࣜ ࣮࣒ crease n 1. shiwa ࡋࢃ࣭⓾ 2. (pleat) orimé ᢡࡾ┠ create v tsukurimásu 㐀>๰@ࡾ ࡲࡍ creator n (god) søzø-shu ๰㐀୺, (artists) kurieitå ࢡ࢚ࣜ࢖ࢱ࣮ creature n séibutsu ⏕≀, kuriichå ࢡ࣮ࣜࢳ࣮ࣕ credit n 1. shin’yø ಙ⏝ 2. (one’s ~) noren ࡢࢀࢇ࣭ᬮ⡘ 3. (on ~) kaké ᥃ࡅ; buys it on ~ (on one’s account) tsuké de kaimásu ࡘࡅ ࡛㈙࠸ࡲࡍ; credit sales n kakeuri ᥃ࡅ኎ࡾ, uri-kake ኎ࡾ᥃ࡅ creed n shinjø ಙ᮲ creek n ogawa ᑠᕝ creep 1. v haimásu ࡣ࠸>㏺࠸@ ࡲࡍ; (baby) hai hai shimásu ࡣ ࠸ࡣ࠸ࡋࡲࡍ 2. that ~ n aitsu ࠶࠸ࡘ cremation n kasø ⅆⴿ, shøkyaku ↝༷ crematorium n kasø-ba ⅆⴿሙ crest; family ~ n monshø ⣠❶, món ⣠, kamon ᐙ⣠ crevice n ware-me ๭ࢀ┠ crew n (member) norikumí-in ஌ ⤌ဨ, (of ship) sen’in ⯪ဨ

crime n tsúmi ⨥, hanzai ≢⨥ criminal n (culprit) hánnin ≢ே crimson adj makká (na) ┿ࡗ㉥࣭ ࡲࡗ࠿ ࡞ cripple n shintai shøgaisha ㌟య㞀 ᐖ⪅ crisis n (critical moment) kíkí ༴ᶵ crisp adj paripari (no) ࣃࣜࣃ࣭ࣜ ࡥࡾࡥࡾ ࡢ criterion n (standard of judgment) monosáshí ࡶࡢࡉࡋ࣭≀ᕪࡋ࣭ ≀ᣦࡋ, kijun ᇶ‽ critic n hihyø-ka ᢈホᐙ, (judge) hihán-sha ᢈุ⪅; (commentator) hyøron-ka ホㄽᐙ critical adj (judgmental) hihanteki (na) ᢈุⓗ ࡞ ; (urgent) kinkyü (na) ⥭ᛴ ࡞ ; critical moment n kíkí ༴ᶵ criticize v hihyø shimásu ᢈホࡋࡲ ࡍ; (judges) hihan shimásu ᢈุ ࡋࡲࡍ; (comments on) hyøron shimásu ホㄽࡋࡲࡍ; (censures) sememásu ㈐ࡵࡲࡍ crocodile n wáni ࣡ࢽ࣭㪭 crony n nakama ௰㛫 crop n (harvest) minori ᐇࡾ, shükaku ཰✭ cross 1. n (symbol) júji ༑Ꮠ; (wooden) jüji-ka ༑Ꮠᯫ 2. n (“×”) bátsu ࡤࡘ (vs. maru ୸ “‫)”ۑ‬ cross v 1. (goes across) watarimásu Ώࡾࡲࡍ, yoko-girimásu ᶓ ษࡾࡲࡍ; (goes over a height) koemásu ㉺࠼ࡲࡍ 2. (~es one’s




legs) ashí o kumimásu ⬮ࢆ⤌ࡳ crutch n matsuba-zúe ᯇⴥ᮫ ࡲࡍ cry v nakimásu Ἵࡁࡲࡍ; (cries crossing n (street intersection) out) sakebimásu ྉࡧࡲࡍ crystal n suishø Ỉᬗ, kesshø ⤖ᬗ, køsa-ten ஺ᕪⅬ crouch v shagamimásu ࡋࡷࡀࡳ kurisutaru ࢡࣜࢫࢱࣝ ࡲࡍ; (so as not to be seen) mi o cub n ko Ꮚ cube n rippø (-tai) ❧᪉ య fusemásu ㌟ࢆఅࡏࡲࡍ crow n kárasu ࢝ࣛࢫ࣭ⅲ࣭㬏 cuckoo n kákkø ࢝ࢵࢥ࢘; (little) crowd n gunshü ⩌⾗, renjü/renchü hototógisu ࣍ࢺࢺࢠࢫ 㐃୰; in crowds zórozoro ࡒࢁ cucumber n kyü´ri ࢟ࣗ࢘ࣜ; ࡒࢁ (sushi-bar term) kappa ࢝ࢵࣃ crowded; gets ~ komimásu ࡇࡳࡲ cuff n káfusu ࢝ࣇࢫ ࡍ࣭ΰࡳࡲࡍ culprit n hánnin ≢ே crowdfunding n (raising money cult n karuto ࢝ࣝࢺ cultivate v tagayashimásu ⪔ࡋࡲࡍ from people via the Internet) kuraudo fandingu ࢡࣛ࢘ࢻࣇ࢓ cultural shock n karuchå-shokku ࣥࢹ࢕ࣥࢢ crown n økan ⋤ෙ Crown Prince n Køtáishi ⓚኴᏊ, Køtáishi-sama ⓚኴᏊᵝ; Crown Princess Køtáishi-hi ⓚኴᏊድ crude adj sómatsu (na) ⢒ᮎ ࡞ , zatsu (na) 㞧 ࡞ cruel adj mugói ࡴࡈ࠸, tsurai ࡘ ࡽ࠸࣭㎞࠸, hakujø (na) ⷧ᝟ ࡞ , zankoku (na) ṧ㓞 ࡞ , zangyaku (na) ṧ⹢ ࡞ cruise n kurüzu ࢡ࣮ࣝࢬ, funatabi ⯪᪑ crumble v (it ~s) kudakemásu ○ࡅࡲࡍ; (~s it) kudakimásu ○ࡁࡲࡍ crush v (~es it) tsubushimásu ࡘ ࡪࡋࡲࡍ࣭₽ࡋࡲࡍ; (it gets crushed) tsuburemásu ࡘࡪࢀࡲ ࡍ࣭₽ࢀࡲࡍ crust n kawá ⓶

࢝ࣝࢳ࣮ࣕࢩࣙࢵࢡ culture n (refinement) kyøyø ᩍ㣴; (farming) yøshoku 㣴 Ṫ; (civilization) búnka ᩥ ໬; Culture Day (3 November) Búnka no hí ᩥ໬ࡢ᪥; culture center n karuchå sentå ࢝ࣝࢳࣕ ࣮ࢭࣥࢱ࣮ cunning adj zurúi ࡎࡿ࠸ cup n (o-)cháwan ࠾ Ⲕ☇, koppu ࢥࢵࣉ, (with handle) káppu ࢝ࢵࣉ; (cupful) ... -hai ... ᮼ cupboard n (enclosed shelves) todana ᡞᲴ; (closet) oshi-ire ᢲ ࡋධࢀ curb 1. n (of road) hodø´ no fuchí Ṍ㐨ࡢ⦕࣭ࡩࡕ 2. v yokusei ᢚไࡋࡲࡍ 3. v (restrains) yokusei shimásu ᢚไࡋࡲࡍ cure v naoshimásu ἞ࡋࡲࡍ




curios n kottø-hin 㦵ⴷရ A antique curiosity n køkíshin ዲወᚰ curious adj (inquisitive) monózukí (na) ≀ዲࡁ ࡞ ; (novel) mezurashíi ⌋ࡋ࠸࣭ࡵࡎࡽࡋ࠸ currant n rëzun ࣮ࣞࢬࣥ; hoshibudø ᖸࡋࣈࢻ࢘ currency n (bill/note) (o-)satsu ࠾ ♩; shihei ⣬ᖯ current 1. adj (present) génzai no ... ⌧ᅾࡢ..., gén (-) ... ⌧...; current address n gen-jü´sho ⌧ఫ ᡤ 2. n (tide) chøryü ₻ὶ; current affairs n jiji(mondai) ᫬஦ ၥ㢟 3. n (electrical) denryü 㟁ὶ curriculum n karikyuramu ࢝ࣜ ࣒࢟ࣗࣛ curriculum vitae n rirekisho ᒚṔ᭩ curry n karë ࣮࢝ࣞ; (with rice) karë-ráisu ࣮࢝ࣞࣛ࢖ࢫ curse 1. n noroi ࡢࢁ࠸࣭࿚࠸ 2. v (utters a ~) noroimásu ࡢࢁ ࠸>࿚࠸@ࡲࡍ, (reviles) nonoshirimásu ࡢࡢࡋࡾࡲࡍ࣭⨬ࡿ cursor n (computer) kåsoru ࣮࢝ ࢯࣝ cursory adj 1. (hasty) isogi (no) ᛴࡂ ࡢ 2. (superficial) hyømen-teki (na) ⾲㠃ⓗ ࡞ 3. (perfunctory) ozanari (na) ࠾ࡊ࡞ࡾ ࡞ curt adj bu-áisø (na) ↓ឡ᝿ ࡞ , bukkírábø (na) ࡪࡗࡁࡽࡰ࠺ ࡞ curtail v herashimásu ῶࡽࡋࡲࡍ curtain n kå´ten ࣮࢝ࢸࣥ; (bamboo) sudare ࡍࡔࢀ; (stage) makú ᖥ

curve 1. n magari ᭤ࡀࡾ; (road) kåbu ࣮࢝ࣈ; (bend) sorí ࡑࡾ࣭ ཯ࡾ, (arch) yumi-gata ᘪᙧ 2. it ~s v magarimásu ᭤ࡀࡾࡲ ࡍ 3. ~s it v magemásu ᭤ࡆࡲࡍ cushion n (seat) zabúton ᗙᕸᅋ; (spread) shiki-mono ᩜ≀; kusshon ࢡࢵࢩࣙࣥ custodian n 1. (janitor) kózukai ᑠ౑࠸, yømu-in ⏝ົဨ 2. (administrator) kanri-nin ⟶⌮ே custody n (child custody) yøikuken 㣴⫱ᶒ custom n 1. shükan ⩦័ 2. (tradition) dentø ఏ⤫ customary adj jü´rai (no) ᚑ᮶ ࡢ customer n (o-)kyaku ࠾ ᐈ, o-kyaku-sámá ࠾ᐈᵝ; (patron) otokui ࠾ᚓព, tokui-saki ᚓពඛ;  customer service n kasutamå såbisu ࢝ࢫࢱ࣐࣮ࢧ࣮ࣅࢫ customs n (place) zeikan ⛯㛵; (tariff) kanzei 㛵⛯, zéi ⛯; customs duty n kanzei 㛵⛯ cut 1. v kirimásu ษࡾࡲࡍ; (mows) karimásu สࡾࡲࡍ; (it ~s well) kiremásu ษࢀࡲࡍ 2. n (of cloth) kata ᆺ; (share) wake-mae ศࡅ ๓; (percentage) rítsu ⋡; cuts the price v makemásu ㈇ࡅࡲࡍ; cut across v yoko-girimásu ᶓษࡾ ࡲࡍ; cut back v sakugenshimásu ๐ῶࡋࡲࡍ; cut class v saborimásu ࡉࡰࡾࡲࡍ; cut down v (lessens) herashimásu ῶࡽࡋ ࡲࡍ; (reduces) chijimemásu ࡕ ࡖࡵࡲࡍ࣭⦰ࡵࡲࡍ; (dilutes)




warimásu ๭ࡾࡲࡍ; cut off v ki-- cybercrime n saibå hanzai ࢧ࢖ ࣂ࣮≢⨥ rimásu ษࡾࡲࡍ; tachimásu ⿢ cyberspace n saibå-supësu ࢧ࢖ࣂ ࡕࡲࡍ࣭᩿ࡕࡲࡍ࣭⤯ࡕࡲࡍ ࣮ࢫ࣮࣌ࢫ cute adj kawaíi ࠿ࢃ࠸࠸࣭ྍឡ ࠸, kawairashíi ࠿ࢃ࠸ࡽࡋ࠸࣭ cycle n (circulation) junkan ᚠ⎔, ྍឡࡽࡋ࠸ saikuru ࢧ࢖ࢡࣝ cuticle n 1. (nail) amakawa ⏑⓶ cyclone n saikuron ࢧ࢖ࢡࣟࣥ, 2. (hair) kyutikuru ࣮࢟ࣗࢸ࢕ࢡ teikiatsu పẼᅽ ࣝ 3. kuchikura ࢡࢳࢡࣛ cylinder n tsutsu ⟄, shirindå ࢩࣜ cutlery n 1. (cutting instruments) ࣥࢲ࣮ cymbal n shinbaru ࢩࣥࣂࣝ há-mono ล≀ 2. (tableware) cynical adj hiniku (na) ⓶⫗ ࡞ , shokki-rui 㣗ჾ㢮 cutlet n kátsu(retsu) ࢝ࢶ ࣞࢶ ; shinikaru (na) ࢩࢽ࢝ࣝ ࡞ pork cutlet n tonkatsu ㇜࢝ࢶ࣭࡜ Cyprus n kipurosu ࢟ࣉࣟࢫ ࢇ࠿ࡘ࣭ࢺࣥ࢝ࢶ cyst n nøhø ᄞ⬊࣭ࡢ࠺࡯࠺; cuttlefish n (squid) ika ࢖࢝ nøshu ⬻⭘࣭ࡢ࠺ࡋࡹ cyberattack/digital attack n saibā Czechoslovakia n chekosurobakia ࢳ࢙ࢥࢫࣟࣂ࢟࢔ kōgeki ࢧ࢖ࣂ࣮ᨷᧁ

D dab n hitonuri ࡦ࡜ሬࡾ࣭ࡦ࡜ࡠࡾ daddy, dad n papa ࣃࣃ dagger n tanken ▷๢ daily n 1. n (newspaper) nikkan(shi) ᪥ห ⣬ 2. adj (everyday) mainichi(no) ẖ᪥ ࡢ dainty adj 1. (delicate beauty) yübi (na) ඃ⨾ ࡞ , 2. n (something delicious) oishii-mono ࠾ ࠸ࡋ࠸ࡶࡢ࣭⨾࿡ࡋ࠸ࡶࡢ dairy n (milk shop) n gyünyü-ya ∵ஙᒇ dam n dámu ࢲ࣒ damage 1. n songai ᦆᐖ; són ᦆ࣭ ࡑࢇ, gái ᐖ, higai ⿕ᐖ࣭ࡦࡀ࠸,

damëji ࢲ࣓࣮ࢪ 2. ~s it v itamemásu യࡵࡲࡍ, arashimásu Ⲩࡽࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠶ࡽࡋࡲࡍ; sokonaimásu ࡑࡇ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ᦆ࡞ ࠸ࡲࡍ Damn! interj Shimátta! ࡋࡲࡗࡓ㸟 damn (fool) n …-me …ࡵ; ~ idiot baka-me ࡤ࠿ࡵ damp 1. adj shimeppoi ‵ࡗࡱ࠸ ࣭ࡋࡵࡗࡱ࠸; 2. gets ~ v shimerimás ‵ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡋࡵࡾࡲࡍ, nuremásu ࡠࢀࡲࡍ࣭⃿ࢀࡲࡍ dampness n shikki ‵Ẽ, shikke ‵ Ẽ࣭ࡋࡗࡅ dance 1. n odori ㋀ࡾ࣭࠾࡝ࡾ,




dansu ࢲࣥࢫ 2. ~s v odorimásu dashboard n dasshu-bødo ࢲࢵࢩ ㋀ࡾࡲࡍ࣭࠾࡝ࡾࡲࡍ dancer n (Japanese-style) odorite ㋀ࡾᡭ; (Western-style) danså ࢲࣥࢧ࣮ dandruff n fuke ࡩࡅ Dane n (people) dën-zoku ࢹ࣮ࣥ ᪘, denmåku no minzoku ࢹ࣐ࣥ ࣮ࢡࡢẸ᪘ danger n kiken ༴㝤࣭࢟ࢣࣥ; (crisis) kyü ᛴ; (fear/worry lest …) … osoré/shinpai …ᜍࢀ࣭࠾ࡑࢀ/ ᚰ㓄 dangerous adj abunai ༴࡞࠸࣭ ࠶ࡪ࡞࠸, kiken (na) ༴㝤 ࡞ ; yabái ࡸࡤ࠸; (delicate, ticklish) kiwadói ࡁࢃ࡝࠸ dangle v (dangles it) sagemásu ୗ ࡆࡲࡍ, tarashimásu ᆶࡽࡋࡲࡍ; (it dangles) taremásu ᆶࢀࡲࡍ Danish n 1. (language) denmåkugo ࢹ࣐࣮ࣥࢡㄒ (person) denmåku-jin ࢹ࣐࣮ࣥࢡே 2. (pastry) denishu ࢹࢽࢵࢩࣗ dare (to do) v áete (shimásu) ࠶࠼ ࡚ ࡋࡲࡍ dark 1. adj kurai ᬯ࠸; (color) kói [COLOR NAME] (no) ⃰࠸࣭ࡇ࠸ [COLOR NAME] ࡢ 2. the ~ n higure ᪥ᬽࢀ, yamí 㜌; it gets ~ hi ga kuremásu ᪥ࡀᬽࢀࡲࡍ darkness n (kura-)yami ᬯ 㜌࣭ ᬯ ࡸࡳ darling adj kawaíi ࠿ࢃ࠸࠸࣭ྍឡ ࠸, kawairashíi ࠿ࢃ࠸ࡽࡋ࠸࣭ ྍឡࡽࡋ࠸ darts n dåtsu ࢲ࣮ࢶ

࣮ࣗ࣎ࢻ data n dë´ta ࢹ࣮ࢱ, shiryø ㈨ᩱ database n dëtabësu ࢹ࣮ࢱ࣮࣋ࢫ date n 1. (of month) hizuke ᪥௜ ࡅ ࣭᪥࡙ࡅ; (complete) nengáppi ᖺ᭶᪥; ~ of birth seinengáppi ⏕ᖺ᭶᪥ 2. (engagement) (o-)yakusoku ࠾ ⣙᮰࣭ ࠾ ࡸࡃࡑࡃ 3. (a couple) dëto (shimásu) ࢹ࣮ࢺ ࡋࡲࡍ date n (fruit) natsume ࡞ࡘࡵ daughter n musume(-san) ፉ࣭ࡴ ࡍࡵ ࡉࢇ ; (your) ojø´ san ࠾Ꮉ ࡉࢇ; eldest ~ chøjo 㛗ዪ dawn n yoaké ኪ᫂ࡅ࣭ኪ࠶ࡅ, akegata ᫂ࡅ᪉࣭࠶ࡅࡀࡓ day n hi ᪥, …hí …᪥; (daytime) (o-)híru࣭ ࠾ ࡦࡿ࣭࠾᫨, hirumá ᫨㛫࣭ࡦࡿࡲ; the ~ in question, that very ~ tø´jitsu ᙜ᪥; (fixed) hinichi ᪥࡟ࡕ࣭ࡦ࡟ࡕ; day after tomorrow n asátte ࠶ࡉࡗ࡚࣭᫂ ᚋ᪥, myø´go-nichi ᫂ᚋ᪥; day before last/yesterday n ototói ࠾࡜࡜ ࠸୍࣭᫖᪥, issakú-jitsu ୍᫖᪥; day off n yasumí (no hí) ఇࡳ࣭ࡸ ࡍࡳ ࡢ᪥ , kyüka ఇᬤ daydream 1. n küsø´ ✵᝿, hakuchümu ⓑ᫨ክ 2. v bon’yári shimásu ࡰࢇࡸࡾࡋࡲࡍ daylight n nitchü ᪥୰, hiru no hikari ᫨ࡢග days n 1 day ichi-nichí ୍᪥, 2 days futsuka ஧᪥, 3 days mikka ୕᪥, 4 days yokka ᅄ᪥, 5 days itsuka ஬᪥, 6 days muika භ᪥,




7 days nanoka ୐᪥, 8 days yø´ka ඵ᪥, 9 days kokonoka ஑᪥, 10 days tø´ka ༑᪥, 14 days jú-yokka ༑ᅄ᪥, 24 days ní-jü yokka ஧༑ ᅄ᪥; (others …-nichi …᪥) dazed; gets ~ bø´tto shimásu ࡰ࠺ ࡗ࡜ࡋࡲࡍ, madoimásu ᝨ࠸ࡲ ࡍ࣭ࡲ࡝࠸ࡲࡍ dazzling adj mabushíi ࡲࡪࡋ࠸࣭ ╆ࡋ࠸, mabayui ࡲࡤࡺ࠸࣭╆࠸ DC, direct current n chokuryü ┤ὶ dead 1. adj shinda …Ṛࢇࡔ… is ~ shinde imásu Ṛࢇ࡛࠸ࡲࡍ 2. ~ person n nakunatta hitó ஸࡃ ࡞ࡗࡓே, shinda hitó Ṛࢇࡔே, shinin Ṛே deaden v 1. (becomes dead) shinimásu Ṛ࡟ࡲࡍ 2. (makes

deal with tori-atsukaimásu ྲྀࡾᢅ ࠸ࡲࡍ; (treats a person) ashiraimásu ࠶ࡋࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ;

(copes) shóri/shóbun/shóchi shimásu ฎ⌮ฎศฎ⨨ࡋࡲࡍ dealer n kouriten ᑠ኎ᗑ, (retail outlet) hanbái-ten ㈍኎ᗑ, diirå

ࢹ࢕࣮࣮ࣛ dean n gakubu-chø Ꮫ㒊㛗 dear adj 1. (beloved) itoshíi ࠸࡜ ࡋ࠸࣭ឡࡋ࠸, natsukashíi ᠜࠿ ࡋ࠸࣭࡞ࡘ࠿ࡋ࠸ 2. (precious) taisetsu (na) ኱ษ ࡞ ; Dear dear! interj Oyaoya! ࠾ࡸ࠾ࡸ!; Dear me! interj (feminine) Må! ࡲ࠶ 3. Ѝ expensive dearly adv hijø (ni) 㠀ᖖ ࡟ , kokoro-kara ᚰ࠿ࡽ death n shí Ṛ less sensitive) mu-kankaku ni debacle n høkai ᔂቯ, døraku 㐨ᴦ shimásu ↓ឤぬ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (weakens) yowamarimásu ᙅࡲ debatable adj giron no yochi ga ࡾࡲࡍ aru ㆟ㄽࡢవᆅࡀ࠶ࡿ deadline n shimekiri ⥾ࡵษࡾ࣭ debate 1. n tø´ron ウㄽ, ronsø´ ࠏษ ࡾ ࣭ࡋࡵࡁࡾ, (saishü-) ㄽத 2. ~s it v ron-jimásu ㄽ ࡌࡲࡍ kígen ᭱⤊ ᮇ㝈, kíjitsu ᮇ᪥ deaf 1. n (person) mimí no kikoe- debauchery n høtø ᨺⷙ nai hito ⪥ࡢ⪺ࡇ࠼࡞࠸ே; is ~ debit n fusai ㈇മ, (bookkeeping) mimí ga fú-jiyü desu ⪥ࡀ୙⮬⏤ karikata ೉᪉ ࡛ࡍ 2. adj mimí no kikoenai debris n zangai ṧ㧁࣭ṧࡀ࠸ ⪥ࡢ⪺ࡇ࠼࡞࠸, mimí ga fujiyü debt n shakkín ೉㔠 debug n debaggu ࢹࣂࢵࢢ na ⪥ࡀ୙⮬⏤࡞ deafness n nanchø 㞴⫈ debut n debyü ࢹࣅ࣮ࣗ deal 1. n (transaction) torí-hiki ྲྀ decade n jü nen-kan ༑ᖺ㛫࣭ ᘬ 2. v (cards) kubarimásu 㓄 ᖺ㛫 ࡾࡲࡍ a good/great ~ A lots, decadence n taihai ㏥ᗫ much; deal in (sells) urimásu ኎ࡾ decaffeinated adj kafein nuki (no) ࡲࡍ, hanbai shimásu ㈍኎ࡋࡲࡍ; ࢝ࣇ࢙࢖ࣥᢤࡁ ࡢ




decay 1. v kuchimásu ᮙࡕࡲࡍ; decrease 1. v (it ~s) herimásu ῶࡾ kusarimásu ⭉ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡃࡉࡾࡲ ࡲࡍ, genshø shimásu ῶᑡࡋࡲ ࡍ 2. n [BOOKISH] fuhai ⭉ᩋ ࡍ; (~s it) herashimásu ῶࡽࡋࡲ deceased n the ~ kojin ᨾே ࡍ࣭࡬ࡽࡋࡲࡍ 2. n genshø ῶᑡ deceive A cheat decrepit adj 1. (infirm) røsui shita deceit n 1. (lie) itsuwari ഇࡾ࣭࠸ࡘ ⪁⾶ࡋࡓ 2. (dilapidated) røkyüࢃࡾ 2. (fraud) sagi ブḭ࣭ࢧࢠ ka shita ⪁ᮙ໬ࡋࡓ deception n (cheat) gomakashi ࡈ dedicate v sasagemásu ᤝࡆࡲࡍ ࡲ࠿ࡋ, (fraud) sagi ブḭ࣭ࢧࢠ deduct v hikimásu ᘬࡁࡲࡍ࣭ December n Jüni-gatsú ༑஧᭶࣭ ࡦࡁࡲࡍ 12᭶ deed n (act) shiwaza ௙ᴗ࣭ࡋࢃ decency n reigi ♩൤ ࡊ, kø´i ⾜Ⅽ, okonai ⾜࠸ decent adj (respectable) jø´hin deep adj 1. fukái ῝࠸࣭ࡩ࠿࠸ (na) ୖရ ࡞ , rippa (na) ❧ὴ࣭ 2. (saturated color) kói ⃰࠸࣭ࡇ ࡾࡗࡥ ࡞ ࠸; ~ red makká (na) ┿ࡗ㉥࣭ decide v kimemásu Ỵࡵࡲࡍ࣭ ࡲࡗ࠿ ࡞ deer n shika 㮵࣭ࢩ࢝ ࡁࡵࡲࡍ; kettei shimásu Ỵᐃ ࡋࡲࡍ deface v gaikan o sokonaimásu እ decision n kettei Ỵᐃ ほࢆᦆ࡞࠸ࡲࡍ deck n 1. (of ship) kanpan ⏥ᯈ, defamation n chüshø ୰യ; (~ of dékki ࢹࢵ࢟ 2. Ѝ pack (of cards) character) meiyo-kison ྡ㄃Რᦆ decline v 1. (refuses) kotowaridefault n deforuto ࢹࣇ࢛ࣝࢺ, másu ᩿ࢃࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡇ࡜ࢃࡾࡲ shoki-settei ึᮇタᐃ ࡍ, jitai shimásu ㎡㏥ࡋࡲࡍ 2. defeat 1. n make ㈇ࡅ࣭ࡲࡅ, (it fades) otoroemásu ⾶࠼ࡲࡍ shippai ኻᩋ࣭ࡋࡗࡥ࠸ 2. v (~s) decode v kaidoku shimásu ゎㄞ makashimásu ㈇࠿ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡲ ࡋࡲࡍ ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ, yaburimásu ◚ࡾࡲ decompose v (rots) fuhai shimásu ࡍ࣭ࡸࡪࡾࡲࡍ; (is defeated) ⭉ᩋࡋࡲࡍ makemásu ㈇ࡅࡲࡍ࣭ࡲࡅࡲ decor n søshoku (hin) ⿦㣭 ရ ࡍ, mairimásu ཧࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡲ࠸ decorate v kazarimásu 㣭ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ ࡾࡲࡍ ࠿ࡊࡾࡲࡍ defecate v daibén o shimásu ኱౽ decoration n kazari(-mono) 㣭 ࢆࡋࡲࡍ ࡾ࣭࠿ࡊࡾ ≀ , sø´shoku ⿦㣭, defect n ketten ḞⅬ, kizu യ࣭ࡁࡎ defend v mamorimásu Ᏺࡾࡲࡍ࣭ dekorëshon ࢹࢥ࣮ࣞࢩࣙࣥ decorator n søshoku-sha ⿦㣭⪅ ࡲࡶࡾࡲࡍ; kabaimásu ᗊ࠸ࡲ decoy n otori ࠾࡜ࡾ ࡍ࣭࠿ࡤ࠸ࡲࡍ




defendant n hikoku(-nin) ⿕࿌ ே ࡏࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡃࡽࡏࡲࡍ; (gets defense n (military) bøei 㜵⾨, delayed) okuremásu 㐜ࢀࡲࡍ࣭ ࠾ࡃࢀࡲࡍ (sport) bøgyo 㜵ᚚ, difensu ࢹ ࢕ࣇ࢙ࣥࢫ delegate 1. n (representative) defer v nobashimásu ᘏࡤࡋࡲࡍ࣭ daihyø ௦⾲ 2. n (alternate) dairi ࡢࡤࡋࡲࡍ (-nin) ௦⌮ ே 3. v (commits deference n 1. (obedience) fukujü to another) inin shimásu ጤ௵ ᭹ᚑ 2. (respect) keii ᩗព ࡋࡲࡍ defiant adj hankø-teki (na) ཯ᢠ delete v tori-keshimásu ྲྀࡾᾘࡋ ⓗ ࡞ ࡲࡍ࣭࡜ࡾࡅࡋࡲࡍ deficiency n fusoku ୙㊊࣭ࡩࡑࡃ, deliberate adj (intentional) kói ketsubø Ḟஈ, kekkan Ḟ㝗 (no) ᨾព ࡢ ; (careful) shinchø´ deficit (figures) n aka-ji ㉥Ꮠ (na) ៅ㔜࣭ࡋࢇࡕࡻ࠺ ࡞ defile v yogoshimásu ởࡋࡲࡍ delicate adj (fine) bimyø´ (na) ᚤ define v teigi shimásu ᐃ⩏ࡋࡲࡍ ጁ ࡞ ; (risky) kiwadói ࡁࢃ࡝ definite adj (certain amount of) ࠸࣭㝿࡝࠸ delicious adj oishii ࠾࠸ࡋ࠸࣭⨾ ittei (no) ୍ᐃ ࡢ deformity n kikei ወᙧ ࿡ࡋ࠸, [INFORMAL] umái/nmái defy v …ni sakaraimásu …࡟㏫ ࠺ࡲ࠸࣭ࢇࡲ࠸ ࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ delight 1. adj is delighted yorokobidegenerate adj daraku shiteiru ለ másu ႐ࡧࡲࡍ࣭ࡼࢁࡇࡧࡲࡍ; with great ~ ø´-yórokobi (de) ኱ ⴠࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ, daraku shita ለⴠ ࡋࡓ ႐ࡧ ࡛ 2. n yorokobi ႐ࡧ, degrade v (to lower in dignity) tanoshimi ᴦࡋࡳ otoshimemásu ㈘ࡵࡲࡍ࣭࠾࡜ delinquent n (juvenile ~) hikø ࡋࡵࡲࡍ shønen shøjo 㠀⾜ᑡᖺᑡዪ, degree n 1. (extent) téido ⛬ᗘ࣭ furyø ୙Ⰻ ࡚࠸࡝, dó ᗘ, kagen ຍῶ; … delirium n (pathology) seishin 2. degrees (temperature) …-do sakuran ⢭⚄㘒஘, (excitement) …ᗘ; (higher learning) gákúi køfun ⯆ዧ Ꮫ఩ deliver v todokemásu ᒆࡅࡲࡍ࣭ dehydrate v dassui-jøtai ni ࡜࡝ࡅࡲࡍ delivery n 1. haitatsu 㓄㐩, deribanarimásu ⬺Ỉ≧ែ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ deity n shinsei ⚄ᛶ, kami ⚄ rii ࢹࣜࣂ࣮ࣜ; restaurant ~ dejection n rakutan ⴠ⫹, iki (service/person) demae ฟ๓ 2. shøchin ពẼᾘỿ (giving birth) shussan ฟ⏘ delay v (~s it) okurasemásu 㐜ࡽ delta n (plain) sankaku-su ୕ゅᕞ




deluge n (great flood) dai-køzui ኱ὥỈ (downpour) gøu ㇦㞵 delusion n sakkaku 㘒ぬ deluxe adj jø´ ୖ, jø´tø´ (no) ୖ➼ ࡢ , gø´ka (na) ㇦⳹ ࡞ ; deluxe edition n gøka-ban ㇦⳹∧ demand 1. n yø´kyü/seikyü (shimásu) せồㄳồ ࡋࡲࡍ 2. v motomemásu ồࡵࡲࡍ; is in ~ (sells) uremásu ኎ࢀࡲࡍ democratic adj minshu-shúgi (no) Ẹ୺୺⩏ ࡢ , minshu-teki (na) Ẹ୺ⓗ ࡞ demolish v kuzushimásu ᔂࡋࡲ ࡍ࣭ࡃࡎࡋࡲࡍ; hakai shimásu ◚ቯࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡣ࠿࠸ࡋࡲࡍ demon n akuma ᝏ㨱, dëmon ࢹ ࣮ࣔࣥ denial n uchi-keshi ᡴࡕᾘࡋ࣭ᡴ ࡕࡅࡋ, hitei ྰᐃ denim n denimu ࢹࢽ࣒ denomination A sect dense adj kói ⃰࠸, mítsu (na) ᐦ ࡞ , missetsu (na) ᐦ᥋ ࡞ dent n kubomi ❑ࡳ࣭ࡃࡰࡳ dentist n há-isha ṑ་⪅ denture n ireba ධࢀṑ deny v uchi-keshimásu ᡴࡕᾘ ࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠺ࡕࡅࡋࡲࡍ, hitei shimásu ྰᐃࡋࡲࡍ deodorant n (personal) shø´shüzai ᾘ⮯๣ department n (university, hospital) ká ⛉ (company, office) bumon 㒊㛛, bu 㒊, ka ㄢ department store n depå´to ࢹࣃ࣮ ࢺ, hyakká-ten ⓒ㈌ᗑ

departure n shuppatsu ฟⓎ; [TIME/ PLACE] ... hátsu (no …) ...Ⓨ ࡢ… ; point of departure n shuppátsú-ten ฟⓎⅬ; departure time n shuppátsújikoku ฟⓎ᫬้ depend; v ~s on (… ni) tayorimásu …࡟ 㢗ࡾࡲࡍ, izon shimásu ౫Ꮡࡋࡲࡍ; it ~s (on …) (… ni) yorimásu …࡟ ࡼࡾࡲࡍ dependent n fuyø-kazoku ᢇ㣴 ᐙ᪘ deposit 1. v azukemásu 㡸ࡅࡲ ࡍ࣭࠶ࡎࡅࡲࡍ; (money) yokin/ chokin shimásu 㡸㔠㈓㔠ࡋࡲ ࡍ; tsumimásu ✚ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ࡘࡳࡲ ࡍ 2. A downpayment depot n 1. (railroad station) eki 㥐 2. (bus station) basu hatchakujø ࣂࢫⓎ╔ሙ 3. (warehouse) søko ಴ᗜ depressed adj 1. (feeling) ki ga omoi Ẽࡀ㔜>࠾ࡶ@࠸ 2. gets ~ hekomimásu ࡬ࡇࡳࡲࡍ depression n (hard times) fukéiki ୙ᬒẼ; (hollow) kubomi ࡃࡰࡳ ࣭❑ࡳ depth n fukása ῝ࡉ; (of color) kósa ⃰ࡉ derision n azakeri ࠶ࡊࡅࡾ, reishø ෭➗ descend v kudarimásu ୗࡾࡲࡍ descendant n shíson ᏊᏞ descent n 1. (going down) kudari ୗࡾ࣭ࡃࡔࡾ 2. (family line) kakei ᐙ⣔ describe v (pictures it) byøsha shimásu ᥥ෗ࡋࡲࡍ, (elaborates)




(no kotó) o kuwáshiku iimásu … mokutekí chi ┠ⓗᆅ; (last stop) ࡢࡇ࡜>஦@ ࢆヲࡋࡃゝ࠸ࡲࡍ; shüten ⤊Ⅼ destiny n únmei 㐠࿨ (explains it) setsumei shimásu ㄝ᫂ࡋࡲࡍ A relate destroy v kowashimásu ቯࡋࡲ description n setsumei ㄝ᫂ ࡍ; hakai shimásu ◚ቯࡋࡲࡍ; desert n sabaku ◁₍࣭ࡉࡤࡃ horoboshimásu ⁛ࡰࡋࡲࡍ design 1. n (sketch) zuan ᅗ᱌; detach v hanashimásu 㞳ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ ࡣ࡞ࡋࡲࡍ dezain ࢹࢨ࢖ࣥ 2. v (plans it) detailed adj kuwashíi ヲࡋ࠸࣭ hakarimásu ᅗࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡣ࠿ࡾ ࡲࡍ; dezain shimásu ࢹࢨ࢖ࣥ ࡃࢃࡋ࠸; bisai (na) ᚤ⣽ ࡞ ; ࡋࡲࡍ (machine, etc.) seimitsu (na) designate v atemásu ᙜ࡚ࡲࡍ࣭࠶ ⢭ᐦ࣭ࡏ࠸ࡳࡘ ࡞ ࡚ࡲࡍ; shitei shimásu ᣦᐃࡋࡲࡍ details n kuwashíi koto ヲࡋ࠸ࡇ desirable adj nozomashii ᮃࡲࡋ࠸ ࡜, shø´sai ヲ⣽; (complexities) ࣭ࡢࡒࡲࡋ࠸, hoshíi ḧࡋ࠸࣭࡯ ikisatsu ࠸ࡁࡉࡘ࣭⤒⦋ ࡋ࠸; most ~ (ideal) motte-kói detect A discover A discern detective n 1. (consulting ~) tantei (no) ࡶࡗ࡚ࡇ࠸ ࡢ desire 1. n nozomi ᮃࡳ, omói ᛮ ᥈ഄ 2. (police) kéiji ฮ஦ 3. ࠸, nén ᛕ; (hope) kibø ᕼᮃ 2. (investigator) søsa-kan ᤚᰝᐁ ~s it v (… ga) hoshíi …ࡀ deteriorate v (weather) kuzuremásu ḧࡋ࠸; (wants to do) (shi-) tái ᔂࢀࡲࡍ desu ࡋ ࡓ࠸࡛ࡍ; (hopes for) determination n (decision) kettei Ỵ ᐃ; (resolve) késshín Ỵᚰ nozomimásu ᮃࡳࡲࡍ desk n tsukue ᮘ࣭ࡘࡃ࠼, taku detest v nikumimásu ៮ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ ༟; (desk-top) takujø´ ༟ୖ ࡟ࡃࡳࡲࡍ despair n zetsubø´ ⤯ᮃ, yáke detour n mawari-michi ᅇࡾ㐨࣭ ࡸࡅ ࡲࢃࡾ㐨, ukai ㎽ᅇ࣭࠺࠿࠸, desperate adj hisshi (no) ᚲṚ ࡢ tø´máwari 㐲ᅇࡾ࣭㐲ࡲࢃࡾ desperately adv (hard) isshø´-kén- devastate v arashimásu Ⲩࡽࡋࡲࡍ develop v (it unfolds) hattatsu/ mei (ni) ୍⏕ᠱ࿨ ࡟ despise v keibetsu shimásu ㍍⶜ hatten shimásu Ⓨ㐩Ⓨᒎࡋࡲࡍ ࡋࡲࡍ developing nation n hatten tojø´despite (that) prep …ni mo koku Ⓨᒎ㏵ୖᅜ, køshinkoku ᚋ㐍ᅜ kakawarazu …࡟ࡶ࠿࠿ࢃࡽ ࡎ࣭࡟ࡶ㛵ࢃࡽࡎ development n hattatsu Ⓨ㐩, dessert n dezå´to ࢹࢨ࣮ࢺ hatten Ⓨᒎ, kaihatsu 㛤Ⓨ, destination n iki sakí ⾜ࡁඛ, (process) nariyuki ᡂࡾ⾜ࡁ࣭࡞ 403



ࡾࡺࡁ, (course) keika ⤒㐣 device n (gadget) shikake ௙᥃ ࡅ࣭ࡋ࠿ࡅ; (scheme) kufü ᕤኵ devil n (ogre) oní 㨣࣭࢜ࢽ, (Satan) ákuma ᝏ㨱࣭࢔ࢡ࣐ dew n tsúyu 㟢࣭ࡘࡺ diabetes n tø´nyø´-byø´ ⢾ᒀ⑓ diagonal adj nanáme (no) ᩳࡵ࣭ ࡞࡞ࡵ ࡢ diagram n zu ᅗ, zuhyø´ ᅗ⾲, zukai ᅗゎ dial n (telephone) daiyaru ࢲ࢖ ࣖࣝ dialect n hø´gén ᪉ゝ; (regional accent) namarí ࡞ࡲࡾ dialogue n (conversation) taiwa ᑐ ヰ, kaiwa ఍ヰ diameter n chokkei ┤ᚄ diamond n daiya ࢲ࢖ࣖ, daiyamóndo ࢲ࢖ࣖࣔࣥࢻ, kongø´seki 㔠๛▼࣭ࡇࢇࡈ࠺ࡏࡁ diapers n oshíme ࠾ࡋࡵ, omútsu ࠾ࡴࡘ diarrhea n geri ୗ⑩࣭ࡆࡾ diary n nikki ᪥グ, daiarii ࢲ࢖࢔ ࣮ࣜ dice n saikóro ࡉ࠸ࡇࢁ࣭ࢧ࢖ࢥࣟ dictation n kakítori ᭩ࡁྲྀࡾ࣭ ࠿ࡁ࡜ࡾ, dikutëshon ࢹ࢕ࢡࢸ ࣮ࢩࣙࣥ dictator n dokusái-sha ⊂⿢⪅, wánman ࣐࣡ࣥࣥ dictionary n jibikí Ꮠᘬ ࡁ , jishó ㎡᭩࣭ࡌࡋࡻ, jiten ㎡඾࣭ࡌ࡚ࢇ did v shimáshita ࡋࡲࡋࡓ die v shinimásu Ṛ࡟ࡲࡍ, nakunarimásu ஸࡃ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ; íki o

híki-torimásu ᜥࢆᘬࡁྲྀࡾࡲࡍ diesel n diizeru ࢹ࢕࣮ࢮࣝ diet n kitéi-shoku つᐃ㣗, daiettoshoku ࢲ࢖࢚ࢵࢺ㣗; daietto (shimásu) ࢲ࢖࢚ࢵࢺ ࡋࡲࡍ Diet n (parliament) kokkai ᅜ఍, gikai ㆟఍; (building) (kokkai) giji-dø´ ᅜ఍ ㆟஦ᇽ differ v kotonarimásu ␗࡞ࡾࡲࡍ; ~ in opinion íken ga chigaimásu ពぢࡀ㐪࠸ࡲࡍ difference n chigai 㐪࠸, sø´i ┦㐪, sa ᕪ࣭ࡉ, sái ᕪ␗; (a big difference) táisa ኱ᕪ࣭ࡓ࠸ࡉ; it makes no ~ kamaimasén ᵓ࠸ࡲࡏࢇ࣭ ࠿ࡲ࠸ࡲࡏࢇ different adj is ~ chigaimásu 㐪࠸ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡕࡀ࠸ࡲࡍ; kotonarimásu ␗࡞ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡇ࡜࡞ࡾࡲࡍ; a ~ direction tahø´ ௚᪉; ~ opinion/ view iron ␗ㄽ difficult adj muzukashii 㞴ࡋ࠸࣭ ࡴࡎ࠿ࡋ࠸; kónnan (na) ᅔ㞴 ࡞ ; (hard to do) shi-nikúi ࡋ࡟ ࡃ࠸, shi-gatai ࡋࡀࡓ࠸࣭ࡋ㞴 ࠸; (requires much effort) honé ga oremásu 㦵ࡀᢡࢀࡲࡍ difficulty n kónnan ᅔ㞴; (hardship) kurø´ ⱞປ; (problem) mondai ၥ 㢟; (nuisance) mendø´ 㠃ಽ࣭ࡵ ࢇ࡝࠺; with ~ yatto ࡸࡗ࡜ diffusion n fukyü´ ᬑཬ dig v horimásu ᥀ࡾࡲࡍ digestion n shø´ka ᾘ໬ digit n 1. (Arabic figures) (arabia) süji ࢔ࣛࣅ࢔ ᩘᏐ 2. (digit number) ketasü ᱆ᩘ 3. (finger



or toe) yubi ᣦ digital n dejitaru ࢹࢪࢱࣝ dignity n 1. (nobility) hin(-sei) ရ ᛶ , kihin Ẽရ 2. (respect and honor) songen ᑛཝ; death with ~ songen-shi ᑛཝṚ digress v soremásu ࡑࢀࡲࡍ࣭


person) gaikø´-ka እ஺ᐙ diplomatic adj gaikø´-teki (na) እ ஺ⓗ ࡞ ; gaikø´ (no) እ஺ ࡢ ; diplomatic relations n gaikø´ እ஺ direct 1. adj chokusetsu (no) ┤᥋ ࡢ ; goes ~ (through to destination) chokusetsu ikimásu ┤᥋⾜ 㐓ࢀࡲࡍ ࡁࡲࡍ 2. v (tells the way) dike n (levee) tsutsumí ሐ࣭ࡘࡘ (michi o) oshiemásu 㐨ࢆ ᩍ࠼ ࡳ, teibø´ ሐ㜵࣭࡚࠸ࡰ࠺ ࡲࡍ 3. v (guides, coaches) dilemma n tø´waku ᙜᝨ, jirenma shidø´ shimásu ᣦᑟࡋࡲࡍ; ࢪ࣐ࣞࣥ (a film) kantoku shimasu ┘╩ diligent adj kinben (na) ໅ຮ ࡞ , ࡋࡲࡍ direction n 1. hø´kø´ ᪉ྥ; kentø´ mame (na) ࡲࡵ ࡞ dilute 1. v (~s it) (mizu de) wariぢᙜ; hø´mén ᪉㠃; … (no) hø´ másu Ỉ࡛ ๭ࡾࡲࡍ, usume… ࡢ ᪉; hø´gaku ᪉ゅ 2. directions (instructions) shíji másu ⷧࡵࡲࡍ 2. adj (~ acid) ᣦ♧, oshie ᩍ࠼; gives ~ (to a nødo ga usui ⃰ᗘࡀⷧ࠸ dim 1. adj (faint) kásuka (na) ࠿ destination) michi o oshiemásu ࡍ࠿࣭ᚤ࠿ ࡞ , (dark) kurai ᬯ 㐨ࢆᩍ࠼ࡲࡍ ࠸࣭ࡃࡽ࠸ 2. v (gets ~, hazy) directly adv chokusetsu (ni) ┤᥋ ࡟ , zutto ࡎࡗ࡜, jika-ni ࡌ࠿ kasumimásu ࠿ࡍࡳࡲࡍ࣭㟘 ࡳࡲࡍ ࡟࣭┤࡟, (immediately) sugu ࡍ dimple n ékubo ࠼ࡃࡰ ࡄ, (shortly) ma-mó-naku 㛫ࡶ࡞ din n søon 㦁㡢 ࡃ࣭ࡲࡶ࡞ࡃ dine v shokuji (o) shimásu 㣗஦ director n 1. (coach) shidø´-sha ᣦ ࢆ ࡋࡲࡍ ᑟ⪅ 2. (of a film) kantoku ┘╩, dinner n (meal) shokuji 㣗஦, direkutå ࢹ࢕ࣞࢡࢱ࣮ directory n (telephone) denwa-chø´ góhan ࡈ㣤࣭ࡈࡣࢇ, (supper) 㟁ヰᖒ; (list of names) meibo ban góhan ᬌࡈ㣤࣭ᬌࡈࡣࢇ dinosaur n kyøryü ᜍ❳ ྡ⡙ diploma n 1. menjø´ ච≧ 2. (grad- dirt n yogore ởࢀ࣭ࡼࡈࢀ; (filth) uation ~) sotsugyø-shøsho ༞ᴗ doró Ἶ࣭ࢻࣟ; (grime) aká ࠶ ド᭩ ࠿࣭ᇈ; (soil) tsuchí ᅵ diplomacy n gaikø´ እ஺ dirty 1. adj kitanái ở࠸࣭ࡁࡓ࡞ diplomat n (diplomatic official) ࠸, fuketsu (na) ୙₩ ࡞ 2. adj gaikø´-kan እ஺ᐁ; (diplomatic (~-minded) gehin (na) ୗရ ࡞ ; 405



étchi (na) ࢚ࢵࢳ ࡞ 3. v gets ~ barémásu ࡤࢀࡲࡍ yogoremásu ởࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࡼࡈࢀ disco n disuko ࢹ࢕ࢫࢥ ࡲࡍ 4. v dirties it yogoshimásu discomfort n fukai(-kan) ୙ᛌ ឤ ởࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡼࡈࡋࡲࡍ disconnect v hazushimásu እࡋࡲ disability n shintai-shøgai ㌟య㞀ᐖ ࡍ࣭ࡣࡎࡋࡲࡍ, hanashimásu 㞳 disadvantage n són ᦆ࣭ࡑࢇ, fúri ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡣ࡞ࡋࡲࡍ, kirimásu ୙฼; (shortcoming) ketten ḞⅬ, ษࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡁࡾࡲࡍ mainasu ࣐࢖ࢼࢫ, tánsho ▷ᡤ discontented adj fuman (na) ୙ disagreement n fu-itchi ୙୍⮴ ‶࣭ࡩࡲࢇ ࡞ disappointment n shitsubø´ ኻᮃ, discount n wari-biki ๭ᘬ࣭ࢃࡾࡧ kitai hazure ᮇᚅࡣࡎࢀ, rakutan ࡁ, ne-biki ್ᘬࡁ࣭ࡡࡧࡁ ⴠ⫹; (in love) shitsuren ኻᜊ discourage v ki o kujikimásu Ẽࢆ disapprobation n fu-sansei ୙㈶ᡂ ࡃࡌࡁࡲࡍ; gets discouraged ki disapproval n 1. (disfavor) fu-sansei ga kujikemásu Ẽࡀࡃࡌࡅࡲࡍ ୙㈶ᡂ, (nonrecognition) fu-shønin discourtesy n búrei ↓♩, shitsúrei ୙ᢎㄆ 2. (accusation) hinan 㠀㞴 ኻ♩ disaster n sø´nan 㐼㞴࣭ࡑ࠺࡞ࢇ, discover v 1. (finds) mitsukemásu ぢࡘࡅࡲࡍ࣭ࡳࡘࡅࡲࡍ, hakken sainán ⅏㞴࣭ࡉ࠸࡞ࢇ; has a ~ sø´nan shimásu 㐼㞴ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡑ shimásu Ⓨぢࡋࡲࡍ A find out ࠺࡞ࢇࡋࡲࡍ 2. is discovered barémásu ࡤࢀࡲ disastrous adj taihen (na) ኱ኚ࣭ ࡍ; abakaremásu ᭀ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ࣭ ࡓ࠸࡬ࢇ ࡞ discard v sutemásu ᤞ࡚ࡲࡍ discern v 1. (discriminates) shikibetsu shimásu ㆑ูࡋࡲࡍ 2. A see discharge v (from employment) káiko shimásu ゎ㞠ࡋࡲࡍ disciple n deshí ᘵᏊ࣭࡛ࡋ discipline 1. n kiritsu つᚊ, chitsujo ⛛ᗎ; shitsuke ࡋࡘࡅ 2. v (drills, trains) kitaemásu 㘫࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡁ ࡓ࠼ࡲࡍ, (brings up children, …) shitsukemásu ࡋࡘࡅࡲࡍ disclose v (public) køkai shímásu බ㛤ࡋࡲࡍ; abakimásu ᭀࡁ ࡲࡍ࣭࠶ࡤࡁࡲࡍ; is disclosed

࠶ࡤ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ discrepancy n chigai 㐪࠸࣭ࡕࡀ࠸, sa ᕪ࣭ࡉ, sø´i ┦㐪, kuichigai 㣗࠸㐪࠸࣭ࡃ࠸ࡕࡀ࠸; (gap) zuré ࡎࢀ discretion n tsutsushimi ៅࡳ࣭ࡘ ࡘࡋࡳ, funbetsu ศู discriminate v (distinguishes them) mi-wakemásu ぢศࡅࡲࡍ, shikibetsu shimásu ㆑ูࡋࡲࡍ discrimination n sábetsu ᕪู࣭ ࡉ࡭ࡘ; kúbetsu ༊ู࣭ࡃ࡭ࡘ; (distinguishing) shikibetsu ㆑ู discuss v (talks it over) hanashiaimásu ヰࡋྜ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ࡣ࡞ࡋ ࠶࠸ࡲࡍ, sø´dan shimásu ┦ㄯ




ࡋࡲࡍ; (debates, argues) rondisobey v … ni somukimásu …࡟ ⫼ࡁࡲࡍ࣭…࡟ࡑࡴࡁࡲࡍ jimásu ㄽࡌࡲࡍ discussion n hanashi-ai ヰࡋྜ࠸ disorder n konran ΰ஘, kónzatsu ࣭ࡣ࡞ࡋ࠶࠸; hanashí ヰ࣭ࡣ࡞ ΰ㞧, midaré ஘ࢀ࣭ࡳࡔࢀ, ࡋ; kyø´gí ༠㆟; (argument) rón yamí 㜌; in ~ mechamecha ࡵࡕ ㄽ, (debate) tø´ron ウㄽ, ronsø´ ࡷࡵࡕࡷ ㄽத disorderly adj ranbø´ (na) ஘ᭀ࣭ disease n byø´ki ⑓Ẽ ࡽࢇࡰ࠺ ࡞ disembark v jø´riku shimásu ୖ dispensary n yakkyoku ⸆ᒁ 㝣ࡋࡲࡍ disperse v (they scatter) chirimásu disgrace n hají ᜝࣭ࡣࡌ; chijoku ᩓࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡕࡾࡲࡍ ᜝㎯, ojoku ở㎯ display A show disgraceful adj hazukashíi ᜝ࡎ࠿ displeased adj fu-kigen (na) ୙ᶵ ࡋ࠸࣭ࡣࡎ࠿ࡋ࠸ ᎘࣭ࡩࡁࡆࢇ ࡞ disgusted; gets ~ akiremásu ࿈ࢀࡲ dispose v shímatsu shimásu ጞ ࡍ࣭࠶ࡁࢀࡲࡍ; iyá ni narimásu ᮎࡋࡲࡍ; shóri shimásu ฎ⌮ ᎘࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ࣭࠸ࡸ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ ࡋࡲࡍ dish n (o-)sara ࠾ ─࣭ ࠾ ࡉࡽ; disposition n 1. seishitsu ᛶ㉁; shokki 㣗ჾ (nature) táchi ࡓࡕ࣭㉁, shø´ dishearten A discourage ᛶ; (temperament) ténsei ኳᛶ; dishonest adj fu-seijitsu (na/no) ୙ (attitude) táido ែᗘ 2. (dealing ㄔᐇ ࡞ࡢ , fu-shøjiki (na/no) with) shóri ฎ⌮, shóchi ฎ⨨ ୙ṇ┤ ࡞ࡢ , fusei (na/no) ୙ dispute n arasoi த࠸࣭࠶ࡽࡑ࠸, ṇ ࡞ࡢ tø´ron ウㄽ, sø´ron தㄽ disinfectant n shø´dokú-yaku/zai dissatisfied adj fuman (na) ୙‶࣭ ᾘẘ⸆๣ ࡩࡲࢇ ࡞ dislike v … ga kirai désu …ࡀ᎘ dissertation n ronbun ㄽᩥ ࠸࡛ࡍ࣭…ࡀࡁࡽ࠸࡛ࡍ, …o dissipation n dø´raku 㐨ᴦ dissolve v (~s it) tokashimásu ⁐ iya-garimásu …ࢆ᎘ࡀࡾࡲ ࡍ࣭…ࢆ࠸ࡸࡀࡾࡲࡍ ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ࣭࡜࠿ࡋࡲࡍ; (it ~s) dismal adj (gloomy) uttø´shíi ࠺ tokemásu ⁐ࡅࡲࡍ࣭࡜ࡅࡲࡍ ࡗ࡜࠺ࡋ࠸ distance n kyóri ㊥㞳࣭ࡁࡻࡾ dismissal n (from employment) distant adj (far) tø´i 㐲࠸࣭࡜࠾ ࠸, háruka (na) ࡣࡿ࠿࣭㐶࠿ káiko ゎ㞠; (of servant) hima ᬤ࣭ࡦࡲ ࡞ ; gets ~ hedatarimásu 㝸ࡓࡾ disobedient adj hankø-teki (na) ཯ ࡲࡍ࣭࡬ࡔࡓࡾࡲࡍ ᢠⓗ ࡞ distinct adj hakkíri to shimásu ࡣ




ࡗࡁࡾ࡜ࡋࡲࡍ pearl diver) áma ᾏዪ࣭࠶ࡲ distinctly adv hakkíri ࡣࡗࡁࡾ diverse adj sama zama (na) ࡉࡲ distinguish v (discriminates) miࡊࡲ࣭ᵝࠎ ࡞ wakemásu ぢศࡅࡲࡍ, shikibetsu divide v (~s it) warimásu ๭ࡾࡲࡍ ࣭ࢃࡾࡲࡍ, wakemásu ศࡅࡲࡍ shimásu ㆑ูࡋࡲࡍ distort v yugamemásu ࡺࡀࡵࡲࡍ ࣭ࢃࡅࡲࡍ; (it ~s) waremásu ๭ ࣭ṍࡵࡲࡍ ࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࢃࢀࡲࡍ; wakaremásu distortion n yugami ࡺࡀࡳ࣭ṍࡳ ศ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࢃ࠿ࢀࡲࡍ; ~ distract v ki o chirashimásu Ẽࢆ roughly (into main categories) ᩓࡽࡋࡲࡍ taibetsu shimásu ኱ูࡋࡲࡍ distress 1. n nayamí ᝎࡳ࣭࡞ࡸ division n bú 㒊; (army) shídan ᖌ ࡳ, kurushimi ⱞࡋࡳ࣭ࡃࡿࡋࡳ ᅋ; (branching) wakaré ศ࠿ࢀ; 2. v (afflicts) kurushimemásu ⱞ (math calculation) warízan ๭ࡾ⟬ divorce 1. n rikon 㞳፧ 2. v rikon ࡋࡵࡲࡍ࣭ࡃࡿࡋࡵࡲࡍ; gets distressed kurushimimásu ⱞࡋࡳ shimásu 㞳፧ࡋࡲࡍ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡃࡿࡋࡳࡲࡍ dizzy adj 1. me ga mararu ┠ࡀᅇ distribute v kubarimásu 㓄ࡾࡲ ࡿ; feel ~ memai ga shimásu ࡵ ࡍ࣭ࡃࡤࡾࡲࡍ; wakemásu ศࡅ ࡲ࠸ࡀࡋࡲࡍ 2. bakageta ࡤ ࡲࡍ࣭ࢃࡅࡲࡍ ࠿ࡆࡓ distribution n ryütsü ὶ㏻ do v shimásu ࡋࡲࡍ; yarimásu district n chihø´ ᆅ᪉; hø´mén ࡸࡾࡲࡍ; nashimásu ࡞ࡋࡲ ᪉㠃, …-hø´men …᪉㠃 ࡍ; (performs) okonaimásu ⾜࠸ ࡲࡍ; ~ it (deprecating object) disturb v (… no) jama o shimásu …ࡢ ࡌࡷࡲ>㑧㨱@ࢆࡋࡲࡍ yarakashimásu ࡸࡽ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ; ~ disturbance n (intrusion) (o-)jama it over (again) yari-naoshimásu ࠾ ࡌࡷࡲ࣭㑧㨱; (unrest) ࡸࡾ┤ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡸࡾ࡞࠾ࡋࡲࡍ docile adj súnao (na) ࡍ࡞࠾࣭ sø´dø´ 㦁ື; (strife) arasoi த ࠸, rán ஘ ⣲┤ ࡞ disused adj fuyø´ (no) ୙せ ࡢ dock n dókku ࢻࢵࢡ, ganpeki ᓊ ditch 1. n mizo ⁁; horí ᇼ 2. v ቨ࣭ࡀࢇ࡮ࡁ mizo o horimásu ⁁ࢆ᥀ࡾࡲࡍ doctor n 1. (physician) (o-)isha(dive (under) v mogurimásu ₯ࡾ san) ࠾ ་⪅ ࡉࢇ , senséi ඛ⏕ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡶࡄࡾࡲࡍ, tobikomimásu 2. (Ph.D.) hákase ༤ኈ࣭ࡣ࠿ࡏ 㣕ࡧ㎸ࡳࡲࡍ࣭࡜ࡧࡇࡳࡲࡍ, document n shorui ᭩㢮, bunsho ᩥ᭩, bunken ᩥ⊩ daibingu shimásu ࢲ࢖ࣅࣥࢢ ࡋࡲࡍ documentary n dokyumentarii ࢻ࢟ diver n daibå´ ࢲ࢖ࣂ࣮; (woman ࣓ࣗࣥࢱ࣮ࣜ




dodge v (turns it aside) sorashidope n (narcotic) mayaku 㯞⸆ másu ࡑࡽࡋࡲࡍ࣭㐓ࡽࡋࡲࡍ dormitory n kishúkusha ᐤᐟ⯋, does A do; GRHVQ·W A GRQ·W ryø´ ᑅ dog n inú ≟࣭࢖ࢾ; dog tag n (dog dose n ikkai-ryø ୍ᅇ㔞, ikkailicense) inú no kansatsu ≟ࡢ㚷ᮐ bun ୍ᅇศ doll n (o-)ningyø´࣭ ࠾ ࡟ࢇࡂࡻ dot n ten Ⅼ࣭࡚ࢇ, chóbo ࡕࡻࡰ, ࠺ ࠾ ேᙧ; festival doll hinapóchi ࡱࡕ, pótsu ࡱࡘ; (with) dots bótsu botsu ࡰࡘࡰࡘ níngyø´ ࡦ࡞ேᙧ࣭㞮ேᙧ dollar n dóru ࢻࣝ double 1. adj bai (no) ಸ ࡢ , dolphin n iruka ࢖ࣝ࢝ (two-layer) ni-jü (no) ஧㔜 ࡢ ; domestic adj (not foreign) kokúnai double bed n daburu-béddo ࢲࣈ ࣝ࣋ࢵࢻ; double boiler n nijü-nábe (no) ᅜෆ ࡢ ; (domestically ஧㔜㘠࣭஧㔜࡞࡭; doubles n made) kokusan (no) ᅜ⏘ ࡢ ; domestic help n otetsudai(-san) ࠾ (tennis) dáburusu ࢲࣈࣝࢫ; 2. ~s ᡭఏ࠸ ࡉࢇ , kaji-tetsudaiᐙ஦ it v (…o) bai ni shimásu …ࢆ ᡭఏ࠸ ಸ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ domino n domino ࢻ࣑ࣀ double-check v nén o oshimásu ᛕ done v (ready) dekimáshíta ฟ᮶ࡲ ࢆᢲࡋࡲࡍ; saíkakunin shimásu ࡋࡓ࣭࡛ࡁࡲࡋࡓ, dékite imásu ෌☜ㄆࡋࡲࡍ ฟ᮶࡚࠸ࡲࡍ࣭࡛ࡁ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ; double-cross 1. n (treachery) (finished) (shi-)te shimaimáshíta uragiri ⿬ษࡾ࣭࠺ࡽࡂࡾ 2. v ࡋ ࡚ࡋࡲ࠸ࡲࡋࡓ; well-done ura-girimásu ⿬ษࡾࡲࡍ adj yóku yaketa Ⰻ>ࡼ@ࡃ↝ࡅࡓ, double-decker n nikaidate basu ஧ 㝵ᘓ࡚ࣂࢫ (beef) wérudan ࢙࢘ࣝࢲࣥ donkey n róba ࣟࣂ doubt 1. n gimon ␲ၥ, utagai ␲ GRQ·W v shimasén ࡋࡲࡏࢇ; GRQ·W ࠸࣭࠺ࡓࡀ࠸, fushin ୙ᑂ 2. (do it)! interj (shité wa) damé desu/da v (~s it) utagaimásu ␲࠸ࡲࡍ, ࡋ࡚ࡣ ࡔࡵ࡛ࡍࡔ, ikemasén fushin ni omoimásu ୙ᑂ࡟ᛮ ࠸ࡅࡲࡏࢇ; (shi-)náide kudasai ࠸ࡲࡍ ࡋ ࡞࠸࡛ୗ>ࡃࡔ@ࡉ࠸; Don’t dough n pan-kiji ࣃࣥ⏕ᆅ worry about it. Go-shinpai náku. dove n háto 㬀࣭ࣁࢺ ࡈᚰ㓄࡞ࡃ࣭ࡈࡋࢇࡥ࠸࡞ࡃ. down prep, adv shita e ୗ࡬; down door n to ᡞ, dóa ࢻ࢔; (hinged) (lower in price by) ¥100 hyaku hiraki-do 㛤ࡁᡞ࣭ࡦࡽࡁᡞ; én-yasu ⓒ෇Ᏻ; get down orimásu (opaque sliding) fusuma ࡩࡍࡲ ୗࡾࡲࡍ࣭㝆ࡾࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡾࡲ ࣭〼; ~ wing, ~ of a gate tobira ࡍ; go down kudarimásu ୗࡾࡲ ᡬ࣭࡜ࡧࡽ ࡍ࣭ࡃࡔࡾࡲࡍ, sagarimásu ୗ




ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡉࡀࡾࡲࡍ; hang down taremásu ᆶࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࡓࢀࡲ ࡍ, sagemásu ୗࡆࡲࡍ; lie down nemásu ᐷࡲࡍ࣭ࡡࡲࡍ; take down oroshimásu ୗࢁࡋࡲࡍ࣭ ࠾ࢁࡋࡲࡍ download v (computer) ~ the file (fairu o) daunrødo shimásu ࣇ ࢓࢖ࣝࢆ ࢲ࣮࢘ࣥࣟࢻࡋࡲࡍ downpayment n atama-kin 㢌㔠 downpour n gø´u ㇦㞵, doshaburi ᅵ◁㝆ࡾ; local ~ shüchü-gø´u 㞟୰㇦㞵 doze v úto uto shimásu ࠺࡜࠺࡜ ࣭࢘ࢺ࢘ࢺࡋࡲࡍ dozen n (ichi-) då´su ୍ ࢲ࣮ࢫ, jü-ní ༑஧࣭12 Dr.… n (physician) … senséi …ඛ⏕ draft 1. n (rough) shitagaki ୗ᭩ ࡁ, dorafuto ࢻࣛࣇࢺ; (military

conscription) shø´shü (shimásu) ྊ㞟 ࡋࡲࡍ 2. n (beer) náma ⏕, nama bíiru ⏕ࣅ࣮ࣝ 3 n (call-up) shø´shü/chøhë (shimásu) ྊ㞟ᚩර ࡋࡲࡍ drag v hipparimásu ᘬࡗᙇࡾࡲ ࡍ࣭ࡦࡗࡥࡾࡲࡍ, hikimásu ᘬࡁࡲࡍ࣭ࡦࡁࡲࡍ, hikizurimásu ᘬࡁࡎࡾࡲࡍ dragon n ryü ❳࣭㱟࣭ࡾࡹ࠺, tatsu ❳࣭ࡓࡘ, doragon ࢻࣛࢦࣥ drain 1. n (kitchen) gesui ୗỈ; (ditch) mizo ⁁ 2. it ~s off v hakemásu ࡣࡅࡲࡍ; it ~s well (mizu) haké ga íi désu Ỉ ࡣࡅ ࡀ࠸࠸࡛ࡍ

drama n engeki ₇๻, géki ๻, dorama ࢻ࣐ࣛ dramatic adj géki-teki (na) ๻ ⓗ ࡞ drapes n kå´ten ࣮࢝ࢸࣥ draw 1. v (a picture) egakimásu ᥥࡁࡲࡍ 2. v (pulls) hikimásu ᘬࡁࡲࡍ࣭ࡦࡁࡲࡍ; ~ out hikidashimásu ᘬࡁฟࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡦࡁ ࡔࡋࡲࡍ; ~ an underline kasen o hikimásu ୗ⥺ࢆᘬࡁࡲࡍ 3. v (water etc.) kumimásu Ữࡳࡲ ࡍ࣭ࡃࡳࡲࡍ 4. v ~s apart hikiwakemásu ᘬࡁศࡅࡲࡍ࣭ࡦࡁ ࢃࡅࡲࡍ 5. n (game) hikiwake ᘬࡁศࡅ࣭ࡦࡁࢃࡅ drawer n (of desk, etc.) hiki-dashi ᘬࡁฟࡋ࣭ࡦࡁࡔࡋ drawing n (diagram) zu ᅗ; (picture) é⤮ draw near A approach dread v osoremásu ᜍࢀࡲࡍ࣭࠾ ࡑࢀࡲࡍ dreadful adj osoroshíi ᜍࢁࡋ࠸࣭ ࠾ࡑࢁࡋ࠸, sugói ࡍࡈ࠸࣭෶࠸, hidoi ࡦ࡝࠸࣭㓞࠸ dream n yumé (o mimásu) ክ࣭ࣘ ࣓ ࢆࡳࡲࡍ dreary adj uttø´shíi ࠺ࡗ࡜࠺ࡋ࠸ dregs n kásu ࠿ࡍ; ori ࠾ࡾ dress 1. n ki-mono ╔≀; yø´-fuku ὒ᭹, fukú ᭹, fukusø ᭹⿦, (woman’s) wanpíisu ࣡ࣥࣆ࣮ࢫ, dóresu ࢻࣞࢫ 2. v (wears) fukú o kimásu ᭹ࢆ╔ࡲࡍ dressmaker n yø´sai-shi ὒ⿢ᖌ, doresu-më´kå ࢻࣞࢫ࣓࣮࣮࢝




dried 1. adj hoshí-… ᖸࡋ…; ~ persimmons hoshí-gaki ᖸࡋᰠ࣭ ࣍ࢩ࢞࢟ 2. A dry drill 1. n (tool) kíri ࡁࡾ࣭㗹 2. n (practice) doriru ࢻࣜࣝ, (o-) kéi ko ࠾ ࡅ࠸ࡇ࣭✍ྂ; (study) renshü ⦎⩦; (training) kúnren カ⦎ 3. v (trains) nerimásu ⦎ࡾ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡡࡾࡲࡍ, kúnren shimásu カ⦎ࡋࡲࡍ, (disciplines) kitaemásu 㘫࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡁࡓ࠼ࡲࡍ drink 1. n (beverage) nomí-mono 㣧ࡳ≀࣭ࡢࡳࡶࡢ; one ~ hitókuchi ୍ཱྀ; has a ~ íp-pai nomimásu/yarimásu ୍ᮼ㣧>ࡢ@ࡳࡲ ࡍࡸࡾࡲࡍ 2. v nomimásu 㣧 ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ࡢࡳࡲࡍ drip v taremásu ᆶࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࡓࢀ ࡲࡍ drive 1. v (a car) unten shimásu 㐠 ㌿ࡋࡲࡍ, doraibu shimásu ࢻ ࣛ࢖ࣈࡋࡲࡍ 2. n (what one is driving at) iitai-koto ゝ࠸ࡓ࠸஦, nerai ࡡࡽ࠸࣭≺࠸ driver n untén-shu 㐠㌿ᡭ, doraibå ࢻࣛ࢖ࣂ࣮ driveway n shadø´ ㌴㐨 drizzle n kosame ᑠ㞵; (on-andoff) shigure ᫬㞵࣭ࡋࡄࢀ droll adj yúkai (na) ទᛌ࣭ࡺ࠿࠸ ࡞ A funny drool v is drooling yodare ga deteimásu ࡼࡔࢀࡀฟ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ droop v naemásu ⴎ࠼ࡲࡍ࣭࡞ ࠼ࡲࡍ drop 1. v (~s it) otoshimásu ⴠ࡜ ࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠾࡜ࡋࡲࡍ, (lets it fall,

spills) tarashimásu ᆶࡽࡋࡲࡍ ࣭ࡓࡽࡋࡲࡍ 2. v (it ~s) ochimásu ⴠࡕࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡕࡲ ࡍ 3. n (a ~) tsúbu ⢏, tamá ⋢; (counting) …-teki …⁲; drop in v yorimásu ᐤࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡼࡾࡲࡍ; drop off v (a person from a vehicle) oroshimásu 㝆ࢁࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࢁ ࡋࡲࡍ drown v obore-jini shimásu ࠾ࡰ ࢀṚ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ drowsy adj nemui╀࠸; darui ࢲࣝ࠸ drudge v ákuseku hatarakimásu ࠶ ࡃࡏࡃാࡁࡲࡍ࣭ࡣࡓࡽࡁࡲࡍ drug n (for patient) (o-)kusúri ࠾ ⸆, (chemical substances) yakuhin ⸆ရ drug addict n mayaku-chüdokusha 㯞⸆୰ẘ⪅ drum n (Japanese-style) taiko ኴ 㰘࣭ࡓ࠸ࡇ, (large) ø´-dáiko ኱ ኴ㰘; (Western-style) doramu ࢻ࣒ࣛ drunk; gets ~ yopparaimásu 㓉>ࡼ@ ࡗࡥࡽ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭㓉ࡗᡶ࠸ࡲࡍ; yoimásu 㓉࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ࡼ࠸ࡲࡍ dry v (it dries) kawakimásu ஝ ࡁࡲࡍ࣭࠿ࢃࡁࡲࡍ, kansø shimásu ஝⇱ࡋࡲࡍ; (dries it) kawakashimásu ஝࠿ࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠿ ࢃ࠿ࡋࡲࡍ duck n (wild) kámo ࣭࢝ࣔ㬞, (tame) ahiru ࢔ࣄࣝ dude n mekashiya ࡵ࠿ࡋᒇ; yatsu ࡸࡘ࣭ያ due 1. dues n kaihi ఍㈝, ryøkin




ᩱ㔠 2. adj (payment) kijitsu no ᮇ᪥ ࡢ dull adj nibúi 㕌࠸࣭࡟ࡪ࠸, norói ࡢࢁ࠸; (uninteresting) taikutsu (na) ㏥ᒅ࣭ࡓ࠸ࡃࡘ ࡞ , (longwinded) kudói ࡃ࡝࠸; (dullwitted) wakarí ga warúi ศ࠿ࡾ ࡀᝏ࠸ dumb adj 1. (stupid) baka (na) ࡤ࠿࣭㤿㮵 ࡞ 2. (unable to speak) kuchi no kikenai ཱྀࡢ฼ ࡅ࡞࠸ dump v (discards) sutemásu ᤞ࡚ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡍ࡚ࡲࡍ dumpling n (o-)dango ࠾ ᅋᏊ; (large stuffed bun) manjü ࡲࢇࡌ ࡹ࠺࣭㤝㢌; (small meat-stuffed crescent) gyø´za ࢠࣙ࢘ࢨ࣭㣯Ꮚ dune n sakyü ◁ୣ࣭ࡉࡁࡹ࠺ dung n kusó ࢡࢯ࣭⣅, fún ࣇ࣭ࣥ ⣅ A excrement dupe n kámo ࢝ࣔ duplicate n, adj 1. (double) ni-jü (no) ஧㔜 ࡢ  2. A copy during prep (…) no aida (ni) … ࡢ㛫 ࡟ ; ...-chü (ni) ...୰ ࡟

dust 1. n (in air) hokori ࣍ࢥ࣭ࣜ ᇕ; (on floor, etc.) chiri ࢳ࣭ࣜ ሻ; (in house) gomí ࡈࡳ 2. v (~s it) hatakimásu ࡣࡓࡁࡲࡍ Dutch 1. adj Oranda no ࢜ࣛࣥࢲ ࡢ 2. n (language) Oranda-go ࢜ ࣛࣥࢲㄒ 3. n (person) Orandájin ࢜ࣛࣥࢲே Dutch treat n wari-kan ๭ࡾ຺࣭ ࣡ࣜ࢝ࣥ duty n 1. (obligation) gímu ⩏ົ 2. (function) (o-)yakume ࠾ ᙺ ┠, (o-)yaku ࠾ ᙺ, honbun ᮏ ศ; (job, post) o-)tsutome ࠾ ົࡵ; (work, service) kínmu ໅ ົ; the person on ~ (o-)tø´ban ࠾ ᙜ␒ 3. (import tax) kanzei 㛵⛯, yunyü-zei ㍺ධ⛯ 4. A off duty dwindle v herimásu ῶࡾࡲࡍ࣭࡬ ࡾࡲࡍ, sukúnáku narimásu ᑡ࡞ ࡃ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡍࡃ࡞ࡃ࡞ࡾࡲࡍ dye (it) v somemásu ᰁࡵࡲࡍ࣭ ࡑࡵࡲࡍ dysentery n sékiri ㉥⑩࣭ࢭ࢟ࣜ

E each pron [NUMBER, QUANTITY eager adj nésshín (na) ⇕ᚰ࣭ࡡࡗ +] …zútsu …ࡎࡘ; (every) mai- ࡋࢇ ࡞ , setsubø shiteiru ษᮃ ࡋ࡚࠸ࡿ; ~ to (do) zé-hi ... (shi-) …ẖ…, káku(-) … ྛ…, … goto (ni) …ẖ࣭ࡈ࡜ ࡟ tai ࡐࡦ>᫝㠀@... ࡋ ࡓ࠸ each other pron o-tagai (ni) ࠾஫࠸eagerness n netsui ⇕ព, ࣭࠾ࡓࡀ࠸ ࡟ ; [VERB-i] -aimásu netsuretsu ⇕Ⅿ, nesshin ⇕ᚰ eagle n washi ࣡ࢩ࣭㮖 [VERB-࠸]ྜ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭࠶࠸ࡲࡍ




ear n mimí ⪥࣭ࡳࡳ; earache n at ease jiyü (ni) ⮬⏤࣭ࡌࡺ࠺ ࡟ , mimi no itamí ⪥ࡢ③ࡳ࣭ࡳࡳࡢ yukkúri ࡺࡗࡃࡾ 2. ~s it v yasu࠸ࡓࡳ; ear pad n mimiate ⪥࠶࡚ memásu ఇࡵࡲࡍ࣭ࡸࡍࡵࡲࡍ ࣭⪥ᙜ࡚ easily adv tayásuku ࡓࡸࡍࡃ, earlier adj (former) máe no … wáke-naku ࢃࡅ࡞ࡃ, kantan (ni) ๓ࡢ…࣭ࡲ࠼ࡢ…; [BOOKISH] ⡆༢࣭࠿ࢇࡓࢇ ࡟ , muzø´sa zén(-) … ๓…࣭ࡲ࠼… (ni) ↓㐀స ࡟ ; assári (to) ࠶ࡗ early 1. adj hayái ᪩࠸࣭ࡣࡸ ࡉࡾ ࡜ ; easily broken koware࠸ 2. adv háyaku ᪩ࡃ࣭ࡣࡸࡃ; yasúi ቯࢀࡸࡍ࠸࣭ࡇࢃࢀࡸࡍ࠸ (ahead of time) hayame (ni) ᪩ east n higashi ᮾ࣭ࡦࡀࡋ, tø-… ᮾ…; (the east) tøhø ᮾ᪉, (the ࡵ࣭ࡣࡸࡵ ࡟ ; one’s ~ years kodomo no koro Ꮚ౪ࡢ㡭࣭ࡇ࡝ eastern part) tø´bu ᮾ㒊 ࡶࡢࡇࢁ Easter n iisutå ࢖࣮ࢫࢱ࣮, fukkaearn v kasegimásu ✌ࡂࡲࡍ࣭࠿ tsu-sai ᚟ά⚍; Easter holidays n ࡏࡂࡲࡍ fukkatsu-sai no kyüka ᚟ά⚍ earnest adj majime (na) ࡲࡌࡵ࣭ ࡢఇᬤ ┿㠃┠ ࡞ , (serious) honki (no) easy adj 1. yasashii ࡸࡉࡋ࠸࣭᫆ ᮏẼ ࡢ ࡋ࠸, tayasúi ࡓࡸࡍ࠸, wákenai earnings n (income) shünyü ཰ධ, ࢃࡅ࡞࠸, kantan ⡆༢࣭࠿ࢇࡓ ࢇ, muzø´sa (na) ↓㐀స ࡞ ; ~ shotoku ᡤᚓ earpiece n (of glass frame) (to do) (shi-) yasúi ࡋ ࡸࡍ࠸; ~ (megane no) tsurú ࡵࡀࡡࡢ ࡘ to understand wakari-yasúi ศ࠿ ࡿ; (telephone) juwá-ki ཷヰჾ ࡾࡸࡍ࠸ 2. A comfortable easygoing adj nónki (na) ࡢࢇẼ࣭ earring n íyaringu ࢖ࣖࣜࣥࢢ, mimi-kázari ⪥㣭ࡾ࣭ࡳࡳ࠿ࡊࡾ ࿐Ẽ ࡞ , kiraku (na) Ẽᴦ࣭ࡁ earshot n mimi no todoku kyori ࡽࡃ ࡞ ⪥ࡢᒆ>࡜࡝@ࡃ㊥㞳, kikoeru eat v tabemásu 㣗࡭ࡲࡍ࣭ࡓ࡭ࡲ ࡍ; (has a meal) shokuji shimásu kyori ⪺ࡇ࠼ࡿ㊥㞳 earth n 1. tsuchí ᅵ, tochi ᅵᆅ 㣗஦ࡋࡲࡍ; eat out v gaishoku 2. the Earth chikyü ᆅ⌫; what on shimásu እ㣗ࡋࡲࡍ earth adv ittai-zentai ୍య඲య eat-in kitchen n dii-kë´ (DK) ࢹ࢕ earthenware n doki ᅵჾ; earthen࣮ࢣ࣮, dainingu-kítchin ࢲ࢖ࢽ ware pan n hørókú ࡯࠺ࢁࡃ࣭↎ ࣥࢢ࢟ࢵࢳࣥ ⅹ; tøki 㝡ჾ eaves n noki ㌺࣭ࡢࡁ, hisashi earthquake n jishin ᆅ㟈 ࡦࡉࡋ earthworm n mimizu ࣑࣑ࢬ ebb 1. n hiki-shio ᘬࡁ₻, kanchø ease 1. n (comfort) rakú ᴦ࣭ࡽࡃ; ᖸ₻ 2. v otoroemásu ⾶࠼ࡲ




ࡍ; ebb and flow n ① (tide) shio no 2. køkotsu ᜌᝮ; in an ~ of michi-hiki ₻ࡢ‶ࡕᘬࡁ ② (life) muga-muchü (de) ↓ᡃክ୰ ࡛ ecumenical n 1. (general) fuhen(eiko) seisui ᰤᯤ ┒⾶ eccentric n 1. fügawari na hito 㢼 teki (na) ᬑ㐢ⓗ ࡞ 2. (~ moveኚࢃࡾ࡞ே, ekisentorikku ࢚࢟ ment) kyøkai itchi undø (no) ᩍ ࢭࣥࢺࣜࢵࢡ 2. (freak) hen-jin ఍୍⮴㐠ື ࡢ ኚே, ki-jin ወே eczema n shisshin ‵⑈࣭ࡋࡗࡋࢇ echo 1. n hibikí 㡪ࡁ, kodama ࡇ edge n fuchí ࡩࡕ࣭⦕, hashi ➃࣭ ࡔࡲ, hankyø ཯㡪, ekø ࢚ࢥ࣮ ࡣࡋ, hashikko/hajikko ➃ࡗࡇ࣭ 2. v (it ~es) hibikimásu 㡪ࡁࡲ ࡣࡋࡗࡇࡣࡌࡗࡇ, háta ➃࣭ࡣ ࡍ࣭ࡦࡧࡁࡲࡍ ࡓ, ejji ࢚ࢵࢪ; (of knife) ha ล, éclair n ekurea ࢚ࢡࣞ࢔ ha-saki ลඛ eclipse n 1. (sun) nisshoku ᪥㣗 edgy adj irairashita ࢖ࣛ࢖ࣛࡋ 2. (moon) gesshoku ᭶㣗 ࡓ࣭ⱔࠎࡋࡓ ecologically friendly car n eko-kå edible 1. n shokuryø-hin 㣗ᩱရ ࢚ࢥ࣮࢝ 2. adj shokuyø (no) 㣗⏝ ࡢ ecology n seitai-gaku ⏕ែᏛ, edict n 1. (government decree) ekorojii ࢚ࢥࣟࢪ࣮, seitaiseirei ᨻ௧ 2. (act) hørei ἲ௧ 3. (command) meirei ࿨௧ kankyø ⏕ែ⎔ቃ e-commerce n denshi shø-torihiki edifice 1. n (large building) dai㟁Ꮚၟྲྀᘬ, ii komåsu Hࢥ࣐࣮ࢫ kenzøbutsu ኱ᘓ㐀≀, kyodaieconomic adj keizai-gaku (no) ⤒ kenchiku ᕧ኱ᘓ⠏ 2. (complex ῭Ꮫ ࡢ , keizai (no) ⤒῭ ࡢ system/organization) te no konda economical adj keizai-teki (na) ⤒ taikei/soshiki ᡭࡢ㎸ࢇࡔయ⣔ ῭ⓗ ࡞ ; toku (na) ࠾ ᚨ࣭࡜ࡃ ⤌⧊ ࡞ edition n ban ∧ economics n kéizai ⤒῭; (science/ editor n henshü-chø ⦅㞟㛗, editå ࢚ࢹ࢕ࢱ࣮ study) keizái-gaku ⤒῭Ꮫ economy n 1. (saving) setsuyaku editorial n shasetsu ♫ㄝ ⠇⣙࣭ࡏࡘࡸࡃ 2. (economics) educate v (rears) sodatemásu ⫱࡚ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡑࡔ࡚ࡲࡍ A teach keizai ⤒῭; economy class n ekonomii-kurasu ࢚ࢥࣀ࣑࣮ࢡ education n kyøiku ᩍ⫱; (learning) ࣛࢫ; ~-class syndrome ekonomii- gakúmon Ꮫၥ, (culture) kyøyø kurasu shøkø-gun ࢚ࢥࣀ࣑࣮ࢡ ᩍ㣴; (bringing up) yøiku 㣴⫱ ࣛࢫ⑕ೃ⩌ eel n unagi ࢘ࢼࢠ࣭㫐; (conger ecstasy n 1. (sexual ~, name of eel) anago ࢔ࢼࢦ࣭✰Ꮚ drug) ekusutashii ࢚ࢡࢫࢱࢩ࣮ effect n (result) kekka ⤖ᯝ; (cause)




… (no) séi … ࡢ ࡏ࠸; (effec- eighteen n jü-hachí ༑ඵ࣭18 tiveness) kiki-me ຠࡁ┠, shirushi eighth adj hachi-banmé (no) ඵ ࡋࡿࡋ, køka ຠᯝ; (gist) muné ␒┠ ࡢ , yattsu-mé (no) ඵࡘ ᪨࣭ࡴࡡ; in effect yø-súru ni せࡍ ┠ ࡢ ; the eighth day n yøka-mé ࡿ࡟࣭ࡼ࠺ࡍࡿ࡟; has/takes effect ඵ᪥┠, (the day of the month) kikimásu ຠࡁࡲࡍ࣭ࡁࡁࡲࡍ; yøka ඵ᪥ side/after-effect n fukú-sayø ๪స⏝ either one adv dochira demo ࡝ࡕ effective adj yükø (na) ᭷ຠ࣭ࡺ࠺ ࡽ࡛ࡶ ࡇ࠺ ࡞ , køka-teki (na) ຠᯝⓗ eke v yarikuri shimásu ࡸࡾࡃࡾ ࡞ ࡋࡲࡍ, maniawasemásu 㛫࡟ྜ efficiency n nøritsu ⬟⋡; køritsu ࢃࡏࡲࡍ࣭ࡲ࡟࠶ࢃࡏࡲࡍ ຠ⋡ elaborate 1. adj (complex) fukuefficient adj nøritsu-teki (na) ⬟⋡ zatsu (na) 」㞧 ࡞ 2. (diligent) ⓗ࣭ࡢ࠺ࡾࡘ࡚ࡁ ࡞ , køritsu kinben (na) ໅ຮ ࡞ 3. kuwateki (na) ຠ⋡ⓗ࣭ࡇ࠺ࡾࡘ࡚ࡁ shiku setsumei shimásu ヲࡋࡃ ࡞ effort n࣭ ࠾ ࡯ࡡ࠾ࡾ(o-)hone ori ࠾ 㦵ᢡࡾ, dóryoku ດຊ࣭ ࡝ࡾࡻࡃ; (go-)kúrø ࡈ ⱞປ࣭ ࠾ ࡃࢁ࠺; makes an effort do-ryoku shimásu ດຊࡋࡲࡍ࣭࡝ࡾ ࡻࡃࡋࡲࡍ effortless adj muzø´sa (na) ↓㐀 స࣭ࡴࡒ࠺ࡉ ࡞ e.g. adv tatoeba ౛࠼ࡤ࣭ࡓ࡜࠼ࡤ egg n tamago ༸࣭⋢Ꮚ࣭ࢱ࣐ࢦ eggplant n násu ࢼࢫ࣭ⱳᏊ, násubi ࢼࢫࣅ ego n jíga ⮬ᡃ, ego ࢚ࢦ egoism n (selfishness) riko-shugi ฼ᕫ୺⩏, wagamama ࢃࡀࡲࡲ࣭ ᡃ ࡀ ౱ Egypt n Ejiputo ࢚ࢪࣉࢺ eight n hachí ඵ࣭8, yattsú ඵࡘ࣭ ࡸࡗࡘ; (8-oared racing boat) éito/ë´to ࢚࢖ࢺ࢚࣮ࢺ; eight days yøka ඵ᪥

ㄝ᫂ࡋࡲࡍ elapse v tachimásu ⤒ࡕࡲࡍ࣭ࡓ ࡕࡲࡍ, hemásu ⤒ࡲࡍ࣭࡬ࡲࡍ, keika shimásu ⤒㐣ࡋࡲࡍ elastic n (material) A rubber; elastic band n wagomu ㍯ࢦ࣒࣭ ࢃࢦ࣒ elation n jøkigen ୖᶵ᎘, øyorokobi ኱႐ࡧ elbow n hijí ⫝࣭⫰࣭ࡦࡌ elect v erabimásu 㑅ࡧࡲࡍ࣭࠼ ࡽࡧࡲࡍ election n sénkyo 㑅ᣲ electric adj dénki (no) 㟁Ẽ࣭࡛ ࢇࡁ ࡢ electric; electric appliances n kaden ᐙ㟁, denki-kígu 㟁Ẽჾල, denka-seihin 㟁໬〇ရ; electric car n denki jidōsha 㟁Ẽ⮬ື㌴ (also

electrified train, electric train); electric heater n denki-sutø´bu 㟁 Ẽࢫࢺ࣮ࣈ




electricity n dénki 㟁Ẽ࣭࡛ࢇࡁ ᜝ࢆ࠿ࡁࡲࡍ electron n dénshi 㟁Ꮚ embarrassed; 1. gets ~ komarimásu electronic adj dénshi (no) 㟁Ꮚ ࡢ ; ᅔࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡇࡲࡾࡲࡍ; kurushielectronic account settlement n denshi- mimásu ⱞࡋࡳࡲࡍ࣭ࡃࡿࡋࡳ ࡲࡍ 2. feels ~ teremásu ↷ࢀࡲ kessai 㟁ᏊỴ῭ elegant adj fü´ryü (na) 㢼ὶ࣭ࡩ ࡍ࣭࡚ࢀࡲࡍ, kimari ga warúi ࠺ࡾࡹ࠺ ࡞ , yü´bi (na) ඃ⨾࣭ (desu) ࡁࡲࡾࡀᝏ࠸࣭ࡁࡲࡾࡀ ࡺ࠺ࡧ ࡞ , yü´ga (na) ඃ㞞࣭ ࢃࡿ࠸ ࡛ࡍ 3. is ~ (ashamed, ࡺ࠺ࡀ ࡞ shy) hazukashíi ᜝ࡎ࠿ࡋ࠸࣭ࡣ elementary school n (primary ࡎ࠿ࡋ࠸ school) shøgákkø ᑠᏛᰯ; elemen- embassy n taishí-kan ኱౑㤋 tary school student n shøgáku-sei emblem n kishø グ❶; (symbol) ᑠᏛ⏕ shøchø ㇟ᚩ, hyøshø ⾲㇟ elephant n zø ㇟࣭ࢰ࢘ emerge v demásu ฟࡲࡍ࣭࡛ࡲࡍ, elevator n erebë´tå´ ࢚࣮ࣞ࣋ࢱ࣮ arawaremásu ⌧ࢀࡲࡍ࣭࠶ࡽࢃ eleven n jü ichí ༑୍࣭11 ࢀࡲࡍ; emergence (appearance) eliminate v habukimásu ┬ࡁࡲࡍ࣭ n shutsugen ฟ⌧ ࡣࡪࡁࡲࡍ, nozokimásu 㝖>ࡢ emergency n hijø (jitai) 㠀ᖖ ஦ ࡒ@ࡁࡲࡍ; háijo shimásu ᤼㝖 ែ , kinkyü (jitai) ⥭ᛴ ஦ែ , >ࡣ࠺ࡌࡻ@ࡋࡲࡍ (temporary) rinji ⮫᫬࣭ࡾࢇࡌ; elite 1. n eriito ࢚࣮ࣜࢺ 2. adj (crisis) kíki ༴ᶵ; emergency brake ichiryü (no) ୍ὶ ࡢ n hijø-burë´ki 㠀ᖖࣈ࣮ࣞ࢟ else adv hoka (no/ni) ௚࣭࡯࠿ emigrant n imin ⛣Ẹ, ijü-sha ⛣ఫ⪅ ࡢ࡟ ; or else mátá-wa ࡲࡓ Emoticon n (computer) kaomoji 㢦 ࡣ࣭ཪࡣ, sore-tómo ࡑࢀ࡜ࡶ, ᩥᏐ, emøtikon ࢚࣮ࣔࢸ࢕ࢥࣥ aruiwa ᡈ࠸ࡣ࣭࠶ࡿ࠸ࡣ; some- emotion n kanjø ឤ᝟࣭࠿ࢇࡌࡻ࠺; where else (dokoka) yosó (no/ni) (feeling) kandø ឤື࣭࠿ࢇ࡝࠺, ࡝ࡇ࠿ ࡼࡑ ࡢ࡟ , (dokoka) kangeki ឤ⃭࣭࠿ࢇࡆࡁ betsu no basho (no/ni) ࡝ࡇ࠿ Emperor n 1. (Japanese) Tennø ูࡢሙᡤ࣭࡭ࡘࡢࡤࡋࡻ ࡢ࡟ ኳⓚ; His Majesty the ~ Tennøemail n mëru ࣓࣮ࣝ héika ኳⓚ㝎ୗ 2. køtei ⓚᖇ embankment n teibø ሐ㜵࣭࡚࠸ࡰ emphasis n kyøchø ᙉㄪ ࠺, tsutsumí ሐ࣭ࡘࡘࡳ empire n téikoku ᖇᅜ embarrass v komarasemásu ᅔࡽ employ v 1. tsukaimásu ౑࠸ࡲࡍ ࡏࡲࡍ࣭ࡇࡲࡽࡏࡲࡍ, kurushi- ࣭ࡘ࠿࠸ࡲࡍ, yatoimásu 㞠࠸ memásu ⱞࡋࡵࡲࡍ࣭ࡃࡿࡋࡵ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡸ࡜࠸ࡲࡍ 2. is employed ࡲࡍ; ~ oneself hají o kakimásu tsutómete imásu ໅ࡵ࡚࠸ࡲ




ࡍ࣭ࡘ࡜ࡵ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ; yatówarete søgü shimásu 㐼㐝ࡋࡲࡍ imásu 㞠ࢃࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ࡸ࡜ࢃ encourage v susumemásu ່ࡵࡲ ࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ ࡍ࣭ࡍࡍࡵࡲࡍ hagemashimásu employee n jügyø-in ᚑᴗဨ; (of a ບࡲࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡣࡆࡲࡋࡲࡍ company) sha-in ♫ဨ, kaishá-in encouragement n shørei ዡບ ఍♫ဨ encyclopedia n hyakka-jíten ⓒ⛉ employer n koyø-sha 㞠⏝⪅, koyø- ஦඾ end 1. n (the ending) owari ⤊ࢃ nushi 㞠⏝୺ employment n (use) shiyø ౑⏝; ࡾ࣭࠾ࢃࡾ, o-shimai ࠾ࡋࡲ࠸, (hiring) koyø 㞠⏝, yatói 㞠࠸࣭ kirí ษࡾ࣭ࡁࡾ; (close) sue ᮎ࣭ ࡸ࡜࠸; (job) (o-)tsutome ࠾ ໅ ࡍ࠼; (purpose) mokuteki ┠ⓗ; end of the year n (toshi no) kure ࡵ ࠾ ࡘ࡜ࡵ; place of employment ᖺࡢ ᬽࢀ࣭ࡃࢀ, nenmatsu ᖺ n tsutome-saki ໅ࡵඛ empty 1. adj kara (no) ✵࣭࠿ࡽ ᮎ 2. v (it ~s, ~s it) owarimásu ࡢ , karappo (no) ✵ࡗࡱ࣭࠿ࡽ ⤊ࢃࡾࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࢃࡾࡲࡍ; ࡗࡱ ࡢ ; (with nothing in it) (comes to an ~) sumimásu ῭ࡳ nani mo háitte inai … ఱࡶධࡗ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡍࡳࡲࡍ, (runs out) ࡚࠸࡞࠸…࣭࡞࡟ࡶࡣ࠸ࡗ࡚࠸ tskimásu ᑾࡁࡲࡍ࣭ࡘࡁࡲࡍ ࡞࠸…; (hollow) utsuro (na) ⹫ endeavor v tsutomemásu ດࡵࡲࡍ ࢁ࣭࠺ࡘࢁ ࡞ ; (is vacant) aite ࣭ࡘ࡜ࡵࡲࡍ, dóryoku shimásu ດຊࡋࡲࡍ࣭࡝ࡾࡻࡃࡋࡲࡍ imásu ✵࠸࡚࠸ࡲࡍ࣭࠶࠸࡚ ending n owari ⤊ࢃࡾ, ketsumatsu ࠸ࡲࡍ ࠸ࡿ, ࠸࡚ 2. adj aki…✵>࠶@ࡁ…; empty house n aki- ⤖ᮎ; ending address n shüryø ya ✵>࠶@ࡁᐙ 3. gets emptied v adoresu ⤊஢࢔ࢻࣞࢫ; happy ending akimásu ✵ࡁࡲࡍ࣭࠶ࡁࡲࡍ, n happii endo ࣁࢵࣆ࣮࢚ࣥࢻ endless adj (no limit) owari no nai sukimásu ࡍࡁࡲࡍ࣭✵ࡁࡲࡍ 4. empties it v akemásu ✵ࡅࡲ ⤊ࢃࡾࡢ࡞࠸࣭࠾ࢃࡾࡢ࡞࠸, kirí ࡍ࣭࠶ࡅࡲࡍ; (gives a toast) ga nai ษࡾࡀ࡞࠸࣭ࡁࡾࡀ࡞࠸; kanpai shimásu ஝ᮼࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠿ (forever) eien (no) Ọ㐲 ࡢ ࢇࡥ࠸ࡋࡲࡍ endorse A sign A support endurance n (patience) shínbø ㎞ enclose v (in envelope) døfü ᢪ࣭ࡋࢇࡰ࠺ shimásu ྠᑒࡋࡲࡍ encompass v fukumimásu ྵࡳࡲ endure v (puts up with) shínbø ࡍ࣭ࡩࡃࡳࡲࡍ, kakomimásu shimásu ㎞ᢪࡋࡲࡍ ᅖࡳࡲࡍ enemy n teki ᩛ encounter v … ni de-aimásu …࡟ energetic adj génki (na) ඖẼ࣭ࡆ ฟ఍࠸ࡲࡍ࣭…࡟࡛࠶࠸ࡲࡍ, ࢇࡁ ࡞ , enerugísshu (na) ࢚ࢿ




ࣝࢠࢵࢩࣗ ࡞ ; (vigorous) sekkyoku-teki (na) ✚ᴟⓗ ࡞ energy n 1. ikiói ໃ࠸࣭࠸ࡁ࠾࠸ 2. enérúgii ࢚ࢿࣝࢠ࣮ 3. (pep) génki ඖẼ o-génki ࠾ඖẼ engage v 1. (hires a professional) tanomimásu 㢗ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ࡓࡢࡳ ࡲࡍ 2. ~s in (an activity) …ni jü´ji shimásu …࡟ᚑ஦ࡋࡲࡍ 3. gets engaged (booked up, occupied) fusagarimásu ࡩࡉࡀ ࡾࡲࡍ engaged adj (to be married) kon’yaku shite imásu ፧⣙ࡋ ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ engagement n (date) yakusoku ⣙ ᮰࣭ࡸࡃࡑࡃ engine n kikan ᶵ㛵, (automobile) énjin ࢚ࣥࢪࣥ; the ~ starts énjin ga kakarimásu ࢚ࣥࢪࣥࡀ࠿࠿ ࡾࡲࡍ engineering n køgaku ᕤᏛ England n Igirisu ࢖ࢠࣜࢫ, Eikoku ⱥᅜ English n (language) Eigo ⱥㄒ; (person) Igirisú-jin ࢖ࢠࣜࢫே; English translation n eiyaku ⱥヂ engrave v chøkoku shimásu ᙮้ ࡋࡲࡍ, kizamimásu ้ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ ࡁࡊࡳࡲࡍ engrossed; gets ~ in … ni muchü ni narimásu …࡟ክ୰࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ; …ni korimásu …࡟จࡾࡲࡍ࣭ …࡟ࡇࡾࡲࡍ enjoy v tanoshimimásu ᴦࡋࡳࡲ ࡍ࣭ࡓࡢࡋࡳࡲࡍ; enjói shimásu ࢚ࣥࢪࣙ࢖ࡋࡲࡍ; ~ the compa-

ny of … to tsuki-aimásu …࡜௜ ࡁྜ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭…࡜ࡘࡁ࠶࠸ࡲࡍ enjoyable adj tanoshíi ᴦࡋ࠸࣭ࡓ ࡢࡋ࠸ enjoyment n tanoshimi ᴦࡋࡳ࣭ࡓ ࡢࡋࡳ, enjói ࢚ࣥࢪࣙ࢖ enlargement n zødai ቑ኱ enlightenment n satori ᝅࡾ࣭ࡉ࡜ࡾ enliven; ~ with kakki-zukemásu ά Ẽ࡙ࡅࡲࡍ࣭࠿ࡗࡁ࡙ࡅࡲࡍ; nigiyaka ni shimásu ࡟ࡂࡸ࠿ ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ enormous adj bakudai (na) Ⳙ኱࣭ ࡤࡃࡔ࠸ ࡞ ; taihen (na) ኱ኚ࣭ ࡓ࠸࡬ࢇ ࡞ enough adj 1. jübún (na) ༑ศ࣭ࡌ ࡹ࠺ࡪࢇ ࡞ ; tappúri ࡓࡗ࡫ࡾ; kékkø ⤖ᵓ࣭ࡅࡗࡇ࠺ 2. is ~ tarimásu ㊊ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡓࡾࡲࡍ enquiry n shitumon ㉁ၥ, toiawase ၥ࠸ྜࢃࡏ enroll (in school) v nyügaku shimásu ධᏛࡋࡲࡍ entangled; gets ~ kojiremásu ࡇࡌ ࢀࡲࡍ, motsuremásu ࡶࡘࢀࡲࡍ enter v … (no naka) ni hairimásu … ࡢ୰>࡞࠿@ ࡟ධࡾࡲࡍ;

(appears on stage) tøjø shimásu Ⓩሙࡋࡲࡍ enterprise n jígyø ஦ᴗ entertain v (with food) gochisø shimásu ࡈࡕࡑ࠺>ࡈ㥅㉮@ࡋࡲࡍ entertainer n geinø´-jin ⱁ⬟ே enthusiastic adj nésshín (na) ⇕ᚰ ࣭ࡡࡗࡋࢇ ࡞ entire adj zentai (no) ඲య࣭ࡐࢇ ࡓ࠸ ࡢ ; entire surface zenmen ඲㠃




entirety n zenzen ඲↛࣭ࡐࢇࡐࢇ; densenbyø ఏᰁ⑓ episode n (story) episødo ࢚ࣆࢯ sokkúri ࡑࡗࡃࡾ A all A completely ࣮ࢻ, søwa ᤄヰ entrance n iriguchi ධ ࡾ ཱྀ࣭ equal adj 1. byødø (na) ᖹ➼ ࡞ ; ࠸ࡾࡄࡕ, toguchi ᡞཱྀ; (front (on an ~ level) taitø (no) ᑐ➼ entry) génkan ⋞㛵; entrance exam ࡢ ; (equivalent to) … to n (school) nyügaku shikén ධᏛ hitoshíi …࡜➼ࡋ࠸ 2. (extends ヨ㦂; (company) nyüsha-shikén to) … ni oyobimásu …࡟ཬࡧ ධ♫ヨ㦂; entrance gate ① (wicket) >࠾ࡼ@ࡲࡍ equality n byødø ᖹ➼ madoguchi ❆ཱྀ ② (station) equation n (~ form) høtei-shiki kaisatsuguchi ᨵᮐཱྀ entranced; gets ~ with … ni muchü ᪉⛬ᘧ ni narimásu …࡟ክ୰࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ equator n sekidø ㉥㐨 entrust (one with it) v (sore o …ni) equilibrium n tsuriai 㔮ࡾྜ࠸࣭ azukemásu ࡑࢀࢆ…࡟ 㡸ࡅࡲ ࡘࡾ࠶࠸ ࡍ࣭࠶ࡎࡅࡲࡍ; yudanemásu ጤ equipment n (apparatus) sø´chi ⿦ ࡡࡲࡍ࣭ࡺࡔࡡࡲࡍ; makase⨨, kiki ᶵჾ, (facilities) sétsubi タഛ másu ௵ࡏࡲࡍ࣭ࡲ࠿ࡏࡲࡍ; tanomimásu 㢗ࡳࡲࡍ࣭ࡓࡢࡳ equivalent adj taitø (no) ᑐ➼ ࡢ ; ࡲࡍ; irai shimásu ౫㢗ࡋࡲࡍ ~ to … to hitoshíi …࡜➼ࡋ࠸ entry n 1. (head word of diction࣭…࡜ࡦ࡜ࡋ࠸; … ni søtø ary), midashi-go ぢฟࡋㄒ࣭ぢ shimásu …࡟┦ᙜࡋࡲࡍ ࡔࡋㄒ 2. (~ upon the stage) era n jidai ᫬௦; …-jídai …᫬௦ tøjø Ⓩሙ 3. sanka ཧຍ 4. (re- erase v keshimásu ᾘࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡅ ࡋࡲࡍ, tori-keshimásu ྲྀࡾᾘࡋ gistration) tøroku Ⓩ㘓 5. ࡲࡍ࣭࡜ࡾࡅࡋࡲࡍ (computer) nyüryokuධຊ envelope n fütø ᑒ⟄࣭ࡩ࠺࡜࠺ erect v tatemásu ❧࡚ࡲࡍ࣭ࡓ࡚ ࡲࡍ, (builds) tatemásu ᘓ࡚ࡲࡍ enviable/envious adj netamashíi ࡡࡓࡲࡋ࠸࣭ጊࡲࡋ࠸, urayerotic adj iroppói Ⰽࡗࡱ࠸࣭࠸ amashíi ࠺ࡽࡸࡲࡋ࠸࣭⩎ࡲࡋ࠸ ࢁࡗࡱ࠸, køshoku (na) ዲⰍ ࡞ environment n kankyø ⎔ቃ࣭࠿ࢇ err v ayamarimásu ㄗࡾࡲࡍ࣭࠶ ࡁࡻ࠺; environmental pollution n ࡸࡲࡾࡲࡍ errand n yøji ⏝஦࣭ࡼ࠺ࡌ, tsukai kankyø-osen ⎔ቃởᰁ envy v urayamimásu ࠺ࡽࡸࡳ ౑࠸, yø-táshí ⏝㊊ࡋ; errand >⩎ࡳ@ࡲࡍ, netamimásu ࡡࡓࡳ runner n tsukai bashiri (tsukai>ጊࡳ@ࡲࡍ ppashiri) ౑࠸㉮ࡾ epidemic n ryükø-byø ὶ⾜⑓; error n machigai 㛫㐪࠸࣭ࡲࡕࡀ




࠸, ayamári ㄗࡾ࣭࠶ࡸࡲࡾ, erå ࢚࣮ࣛ; is in ~ machigaemásu 㛫 㐪࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡲࡕࡀ࠼ࡲࡍ eruption n funka ᄇⅆ; (skin ~) hasshin Ⓨ⑈࣭ࡣࡗࡋࢇ; hosshin Ⓨ⑈࣭࡯ࡗࡋࢇ; fukidemono ྿ࡁฟ≀ escalator n esukarë´tå ࢚ࢫ࣮࢝ࣞ ࢱ࣮ escape v nigemásu ㏨ࡆࡲࡍ࣭࡟ ࡆࡲࡍ; nukemásu ᢤࡅࡲࡍ࣭ࡠ ࡅࡲࡍ; a convenient escape watari ni fúne Ώࡾ࡟⯚࣭ࢃࡓࡾ࡟⯚ especially adv tokubetsu (ni) ≉ู ࡟ ࣭࡜ࡃ࡭ࡘ ࡟ , kóto(-ni) ࡇ࡜ ࡟ ࣭Ṧ ࡟ ; toriwake ࡜ ࡾࢃࡅ; sekkakú ࡏࡗ࠿ࡃ essay n zuihitsu 㝶➹, essë ࢚ࢵࢭ ࣮, sakubun సᩥ; shøron 小論 essential adj (necessary) hitsuyø (na) ᚲせ࣭ࡦࡘࡼ࠺ ࡞ essentials n (supplies) hitsuju-hin ᚲ㟂ရdaily ~ seikatsu hitsujuhin ⏕άᚲ㟂ရ establish v tatemásu ᘓ࡚ࡲࡍ; okoshimásu ㉳ࡇࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡇࡋ ࡲࡍ esteem n sonkei ᑛᩗ࣭ࡑࢇࡅ࠸ estimate 1. n (an ~) mitsumori ぢ ✚ࡶࡾ࣭ࡳࡘࡶࡾ, kentø´ ぢᙜ, suitei ᥎ᐃ, (forecast) yosoku ண   2. v (~s it) mi-tsumorimásu ぢ✚ࡶࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡳࡘࡶࡾࡲࡍ,

ࡋࡲࡍ estrange v gets estranged hedatarimásu 㝸ࡓࡾࡲࡍ࣭࡬ࡔࡓ ࡾࡲࡍ estranged adj utói ࠺࡜࠸࣭␯࠸ eternal adj eien (no) Ọ㐲࣭࠼࠸ ࠼ࢇ ࡢ eternity n eien Ọ㐲࣭࠼࠸࠼ࢇ, eikyü Ọஂ Ethernet n Ësanetto ࢖࣮ࢧࢿࢵࢺ ethics n rínri ೔⌮, døtoku 㐨ᚨ ethnic n minzoku Ẹ᪘ etiquette n reigí ♩൤, echikétto ࢚ ࢳࢣࢵࢺ euro n yüro ࣮ࣘࣟ Europe n Yøróppa ࣮ࣚࣟࢵࣃ, Ø´shü Ḣᕞ; Europe and America n Ø-Bei Ḣ⡿, Séiyø すὒ evacuate v (to flee) hinan shimásu 㑊㞴ࡋࡲࡍ, (gets repatriated) hiki-agemásu ᘬࡁᥭࡆࡲࡍ࣭ࡦ ࡁ࠶ࡆࡲࡍ evaluation score n hyøten ホⅬ even 1. adj (smooth, flat) taira (na) ᖹࡽ࣭ࡓ࠸ࡽ ࡞ 2. adj døtø (no) ྠ➼ ࡢ ; … to hitoshíi …࡜➼ࡋ࠸; kinitsu na ᆒ୍࡞ 3. adj gokaku no ஫ゅࡢ 4. adv … mo …ࡶ; … (de) sae ࡛ ࡉ ࠼; ~ doing adv (if it does) (shi-) té mo/(shi-) tátte ࡋ ࡚ࡶ ࡋ  ࡓࡗ࡚; even so (sore) démo ࡑ ࢀ ࡛ࡶ (makes a guess) kentø´ o tsuke- evening n ban ᬌ࣭ࡤࢇ, yügata ኤ ᪉࣭ࡺ࠺ࡀࡓ, yoi ᐘ࣭ࡼ࠸; másu ぢᙜࢆࡘࡅࡲࡍ, (infers) evening at school n høkago ᨺㄢᚋ suitei shimásu ᥎ᐃࡋࡲࡍ, (forecasts) yosoku shimásu ண  event n kotó ஦࣭ࡇ࡜; (incident)




jíken ஦௳; (case) dán ẁ; everyday clothes n fudán-gí ᬑẁ╔ ࣭ࡩࡔࢇ╔ (ceremony) gyø´jí ⾜஦, ibento ࢖࣋ࣥࢺ; (game) kyø´gí everyone pron zen’in ඲ဨ everyplace A everywhere (shumoku) ➇ᢏ ✀┠ everything pron minná ࡳࢇ࡞࣭ eventually adv (come what may) nán to itté mo ఱ>࡞ࢇ@࡜ゝࡗ࡚ ⓙ, zénbu ඲㒊࣭ࡐࢇࡪ, nan ࡶ; (in due time) sono uchi ni demo ఱ࡛ࡶ࣭࡞ࢇ࡛ࡶ, íssái ୍ ࡑࡢ࠺ࡕ࡟; saishü-teki ni(wa) ษ; monógoto ≀஦ ᭱⤊ⓗ࡟ ࡣ A at last everywhere adv doko demo ࡝ࡇ࡛ ever 1. adv (always) ítsu-mo ࠸ࡘ ࡶ, dóko ni mo ࡝ࡇ࡟ࡶ, hø´bø ࡶ; as ~ aikawarazu ┦ኚࢃࡽࡎ ᪉ࠎ࣭࡯࠺ࡰ࠺ evidence n shøko ドᣐ; (basis) ࣭࠶࠸࠿ࢃࡽࡎ 2. adv (once) ítsu-ka ࠸ࡘ࠿, … kotó ga arikónkyo ᰿ᣐ࣭ࡇࢇࡁࡻ másu ஦>ࡇ࡜@ࡀ࠶ࡾࡲࡍ; ever evil n 1. A bad 2. (a devil) ákú since adv … írai …௨᮶࣭࠸ࡽ࠸ ᝏ; evil spirit n ákuma ᝏ㨱࣭࢔ every … adj dóno … démo ࡝ࡢ… ࢡ࣐ ࡛ࡶ; … goto (ni) … ࡈ࡜࣭ẖ e-wallet n denshi-saifu 㟁Ꮚ㈈ᕸ ࡟ , mai-… ẖ…; arayuru ࠶ࡽ exact adj (detailed) kuwashíi ヲ ࡺࡿ; every day adv, n máinichi ࡋ࠸࣭ࡃࢃࡋ࠸, komakái ⣽࠿ ẖ᪥࣭ࡲ࠸࡟ࡕ, higoto (ni) ᪥ẖ ࠸࣭ࡇࡲ࠿࠸; (correct) seikaku ࡟ , híbi ᪥ࠎ; almost ~ day (na) ṇ☜࣭ࡏ࠸࠿ࡃ ࡞ máinichi no yø´ni ẖ᪥ࡢࡼ࠺࡟; exactly adv chødo ࡕࡻ࠺࡝, pitevery month adv, n mai-tsuki ẖ᭶, tári ࡨࡗࡓࡾ, hakkíri ࡣࡗࡁࡾ; maigetsu ẖ᭶; every morning adv, másani ࡲࡉ࡟࣭ṇ࡟; … daké… n mái-asa ẖᮅ; every night adv, n ࡔࡅ mai-ban ẖᬌ, mai-yo ẖኪ; every exaggerate v kochø shimásu ㄂ᙇ station n kaku-eki ྛ㥐; every time ࡋࡲࡍ examination n 1. (test) shikén ヨ㦂 adv, n maido ẖᗘ; ~ that … tabí(ni) …ᗘ ࡟ ; every week adv, 2. (inquiry) chø´sa ㄪᰝ 3. (inn maishü ẖ㐌 spection) kénsa ᳨ᰝ, (medical) everybody pron mi(n)ná ࡳ ࢇ ࡞ shinsatsu デᐹ ࣭ⓙ, miná-san ⓙࡉࢇ࣭ࡳ࡞ࡉ examine v 1. (investigates) shiraࢇ; dare demo ㄡ࡛ࡶ࣭ࡔࢀ࡛ࡶ bemásu ㄪ࡭ࡲࡍ࣭ࡋࡽ࡭ࡲࡍ 2. kentø shimásu ᳨ウࡋࡲࡍ࣭ (= everyone) everyday… adj (daily) máinichi ࡅࢇ࡜࠺ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (medically) no … ẖ᪥ࡢ…; (usual) fúdan mimásu デࡲࡍ࣭ࡳࡲࡍ, shinno … ᬑẁࡢ…࣭ࡩࡔࢇࡢ… satsu shimásu デᐹࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡋࢇ 421



ࡉࡘࡋࡲࡍ 4. ~ tickets kaisatsu ࣮ࣞࢺ shimásu ᨵᮐࡋࡲࡍ; (aboard) excitement n køfun ⯆ዧ exciting adj wakuwaku saseru ࣡ kensatsu shimásu ᳨ᮐࡋࡲࡍ example n réi ౛, ichi-rei ୍౛, ࢡ࣡ࢡࡉࡏࡿ, køfun saseru ⯆ዧ tatoe ౛࠼࣭ࡓ࡜࠼, tatoi ౛࠸࣭ ࡉࡏࡿ, køfun suru ⯆ዧࡍࡿ ࡓ࡜࠸; follows (learns from) the exclude v háijo shimásu ᤼㝖ࡋࡲࡍ ~ of … o mi-naraimásu …ࢆぢ⩦exclusion n háijo ᤼㝖 ࠸ࡲࡍ; for example A e.g. excrement n daibén ኱౽, kusó ⣅ excavate v horimásu ᥀ࡾࡲࡍ ࣭ࢡࢯ exceed v sugimásu 㐣ࡂࡲࡍ, excursion n ensoku 㐲㊊࣭࠼ࢇࡑ ࡃ, yüran 㐟ぴ chøka shimásu ㉸㐣ࡋࡲࡍ exceedingly adv móttómo ᭱ࡶ࣭ excuse n ii-wake ゝ࠸ヂ࣭࠸࠸ࢃ ࡶࡗ࡜ࡶ, góku ࡈࡃ࣭ᴟ, taihen ࡅ, møshiwake ⏦ࡋヂ࣭⏦ࡋࢃ ኱ኚ࣭ࡓ࠸࡬ࢇ, hijø ni 㠀ᖖ࡟ ࡅ; (pretext) køjitsu ཱྀᐇ; makes excuses (apologizes) ii-wake o shi࣭ࡦࡌࡻ࠺࡟ excel v sugúrete imásu ඃࢀ࡚࠸ másu ゝ࠸ヂࢆࡋࡲࡍ; (declines) ࡲࡍ࣭ࡍࡄࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ kotowarimásu ᩿ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡇ࡜ࢃ excellent adj sugúreta ඃࢀࡓ࣭ ࡾࡲࡍ ࡍࡄࢀࡓ, yüshü (na) ඃ⚽ ࡞  Excuse me. Sumimasén ࡍࡳࡲࡏࢇ; kékkø (na) ⤖ᵓ࣭ࡅࡗࡇ࠺ ࡞ Osóre-irimásu. ᜍࢀධࡾࡲࡍ࣭ except (for) prep …no hoka…ࡢ ࠾ࡑࢀ࠸ࡾࡲࡍ; Dø´mo. ࡝࠺ࡶ; ௚, …ígai …௨እ࣭…࠸ࡀ࠸ Gomen nasái. ࡈࡵࢇ࡞ࡉ࠸; exception n reigai ౛እ; without ~ Shitsúrei shimásu. ኻ♩ࡋࡲࡍ.; ([FXVHPHEXW,·OOEHRQP\ZD\ Sore (all) íssái ୍ษ࣭࠸ࡗࡉ࠸ excess n chøka ㉸㐣, kajø 㐣๫; déwa shitsúrei (ita)shimásu. ࡑࢀ (leeway, margin) yoyü వ⿱࣭ࡼ ࡛ࡣኻ♩ ࠸ࡓ ࡋࡲࡍ. ࡺ࠺; is in ~ amarimásu వࡾࡲࡍ exempt v is ~ from … o manukare࣭࠶ࡲࡾࡲࡍ másu … ࢆචࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࡲࡠ࠿ࢀ excessive adj yokei (na) వィ࣭ࡼ ࡲࡍ; tax-exempt adj menzei (no) ࡅ࠸ ࡞ , høgai (na) ἲእ ࡞ ; ච⛯ ࡢ (extreme) kageki (na) 㐣⃭ ࡞ , exercise 1. n (physical) undø 㐠 ື, (calisthenics) taisø య᧯ kyokután na ᴟ➃ ࡞ exchange v (tori-)kaemásu ྲྀࡾ (study) renshü ⦎⩦࣭ࢀࢇࡋࡹ ᭰࠼ࡲࡍ࣭࠿࠼ࡲࡍ, hiki-kae࠺, (practice) dóríru ࢻࣜࣝ, (o-) másu ᘬࡁ᥮࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡦࡁ࠿࠼ࡲ keiko ࠾ ✍ྂ࠾࣭ ࠾ ࡅ࠸ࡇ ࡍ, køkan shimásu ஺᥮ࡋࡲࡍ 2. v undø shimásu 㐠ືࡋࡲࡍ exchange rate n kawase rëto Ⅽ᭰ exert v (~s oneself) tsutomemásu 422



ດࡵࡲࡍ࣭ࡘ࡜ࡵࡲࡍ; tsukushi- ࠶࡚, yosø ண᝿࣭ࡼࡑ࠺, yotei ணᐃ࣭ࡼ࡚࠸; kitai ᮇᚅ࣭ࡁࡓ másu ᑾࡃࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡘࡃࡋࡲࡍ exhaust 1. n haiki ᤼Ẽ; (fumes) ࠸; …hazu …ࡣࡎ expedient adj tsugø no yoi 㒔ྜࡢ haiki-gásu ᤼Ẽ࢞ࢫ 2. ~s it v ࡼ࠸ tsukai-hatashimásu ౑࠸ᯝࡓࡋ ࡲࡍ࣭౑࠸ࡣࡓࡋࡲࡍ; (runs out expense n híyø ㈝⏝, kei-hi ⤒㈝; of) kirashimásu ษࡽࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡁ …-hi …㈝ ࡽࡋࡲࡍ expensive adj (ne ga) takái ್ࡀ  exhibit 1. n tenji(-kai) ᒎ♧ ఍ , 㧗࠸ tenrán-kai ᒎぴ఍ 2. v ~s it mis- experience 1. n keiken ⤒㦂࣭ࡅ࠸ ࡅࢇ, (personal) taiken య㦂࣭ࡓ emásu ぢࡏࡲࡍ࣭ࡳࡏࡲࡍ; ࠸ࡅࢇ; (a sometime happening) shuppin shimásu ฟရࡋࡲࡍ exhibition n tenjí-kai ᒎ♧఍, …kotó …஦࣭ࡇ࡜; (professional) tenrán-kai ᒎぴ఍, hakuránkai shokureki ⫋Ṕ 2. v (~s, undergoes) ༤ぴ఍ keiken shimásu ⤒㦂ࡋࡲࡍ, … exhibitor n shuppín-sha ฟရ⪅ mé ni aimásu …┠࡟࠶࠸ࡲࡍ exist v sonzai shimásu Ꮡᅾࡋࡲࡍ experiment 1. n jikken (o shimásu) existence n (survives or does not ᐇ㦂࣭ࡌࡗࡅࢇ ࢆࡋࡲࡍ ; survive) sonzai Ꮡᅾ, seizon ⏕ (test) shikén ヨ㦂, tameshí ヨࡋ Ꮡ; (or exists or does not exist) 2. v ~s with … o tameshimásu, úmu ᭷↓ …ࢆヨࡋࡲࡍ࣭…ࢆࡓࡵࡋࡲࡍ exit 1. n dé-guchi ฟཱྀ; north/ expert 1. adj jøzú (na) ࡌࡻ࠺ࡎ࣭ south/ east/west ~ kita/minami/ ୖᡭ ࡞ , tassha (na) 㐩⪅ ࡞ higashi/nishi-guchi ໭༡ᮾす 2. n meijín ྡே, tsü ㏻, tsüjin ㏻ ཱྀ 2. v taijø shimásu ㏥ሙࡋࡲࡍ ே, (veteran) kúrø´to ࡃࢁ࠺࡜࣭ exorbitant adj hogai (na) ἲእ ࡞ ⋞ே, beteran ࣋ࢸࣛࣥ, expand v hirogarimásu ᗈࡀࡾࡲࡍ (specialist) senmon-ka ᑓ㛛ᐙ ࣭ࡦࢁࡀࡾࡲࡍ; bøchø shimásu expire v (contract, rights, etc.) ⭾⬽ࡋࡲࡍ shikkø shimásu ኻຠࡋࡲࡍ expect v (awaits) mátte imásu ᚅ explain v setsumei shimásu ㄝ᫂ࡋ ࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ࡲࡗ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ, kitai ࡲࡍ࣭ࡏࡘࡵ࠸ࡋࡲࡍ; tokimásu shimásu ᮇᚅࡋࡲࡍ; (anticipates) ㄝࡁࡲࡍ; káishaku shimásu ゎ yosø shimásu ண᝿ࡋࡲࡍ; expect 㔘ࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠿࠸ࡋࡷࡃࡋࡲࡍ to (do) … (suru) tsumori dé su … explanation n setsumei ㄝ࣭᫂ࡏࡘ ࡍࡿ ࡘࡶࡾ࡛ࡍ ࡵ࠸; (interpretation) kái-shaku expectation n mikomi ぢ㎸ࡳ࣭ࡳ ゎ㔘; (excuse) ii-wake ゝ࠸ヂ࣭ ࡇࡳ, tsumori ࡘࡶࡾ, ate ᙜ࡚࣭ ࠸࠸ࢃࡅ




explicit adj meihaku (na) ᫂ⓑ ࡞ ࡢ ; gáibu/gaimen (no) እ㒊/እ explode v bakuhatsu shimásu ⇿Ⓨ 㠃 ࡢ ; gai-… እ… extinguish v keshimásu ᾘࡋࡲࡍ࣭ ࡋࡲࡍ exploit 1. n tegara ᡭ᯶ 2. v riyø ࡅࡋࡲࡍ; gets extinguished kieshimásu ฼⏝ࡋࡲࡍ másu ᾘ࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡁ࠼ࡲࡍ explosion n bakuhatsu ⇿Ⓨ extol v homemásu 〔ࡵࡲࡍ࣭࡯ export 1. n (exporting) yushutsu ࡵࡲࡍ ㍺ฟ 2. v ~s it yushutsu shimásu extortion n yusuri ࡺࡍࡾ ㍺ฟࡋࡲࡍ; export goods n yushu- extra 1. n (actor/actress) ekisutora ࢚࢟ࢫࢺࣛ 2. n (bonus) omake tsu-hin ㍺ฟရ exposition n 1. (a fair) hakurán࠾ࡲࡅ 3. adj yobun (no/ni) వศ ࣭ࡼࡪࢇ ࡟ࡢ ; (special) tokukai ༤ぴ఍ 2. (explanation) káishaku ゎ㔘 betsu (no) ≉ู࣭࡜ࡃ࡭ࡘ ࡢ ; express 1. n (train, bus) kyükø extra charge n betsu-ryø´kin ูᩱ㔠 ᛴ⾜ 2. v (puts into words) extract n ekisu ࢚࢟ࢫ ii-arawashimásu ゝ࠸⾲ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ extraordinary adj rinji (no) ⮫᫬ ゝ࠸࠶ࡽࢃࡋࡲࡍ; express train n ࡢ ; namihazureta ୪እࢀࡓ࣭ ୪ࡣࡎࢀࡓ kyükø-ressha ᛴ⾜ิ㌴ expression n (way of saying) iikata extravagant adj zeitákú (na) ࡐ࠸ ゝ࠸᪉࣭ゝ࠸࠿ࡓ, (phrase) hyø- ࡓࡃ࣭㉕ἑ ࡞ ; ogorimásu ࠾ࡈ gen ⾲⌧࣭ࡦࡻ࠺ࡆࢇ; (on face) ࡾࡲࡍ࣭㦧ࡾࡲࡍ hyøjø ⾲᝟࣭ࡦࡻ࠺ࡌࡻ࠺, kao extreme adj kyokután (na) ᴟ➃ ࡞ ; (radical) kageki (na) 㐣⃭ 㢦࣭࠿࠾ extend v 1. (~s it) nobashimásu ᘏ ࡞ ࡤࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡢࡤࡋࡲࡍ, enchø extremely adv hijø (ni) 㠀ᖖ࣭ࡦࡌ ࡻ࠺ ࡟ , hanahada ⏒ࡔ࣭ࡣ࡞ shimásu ᘏ㛗ࡋࡲࡍ 2. (it ~s) ࡣࡔ, góku ࡈࡃ࣭ᴟ, shigoku ࡋ nobimásu ఙࡧࡲࡍ࣭ࡢࡧࡲࡍ, (reaches) oyobimásu ཬࡧࡲࡍ࣭ ࡈࡃ, kyokután (ni) ᴟ➃࣭ࡁࡻ ࠾ࡼࡧࡲࡍ ࡃࡓࢇ ࡟ , to(t)temo ࡜ ࡗ ࡚ extension n (cord) enchø-kø´do ᘏ ࡶ, monosúgóku ≀෶ࡃ࣭ࡶࡢࡍ 㛗ࢥ࣮ࢻ; (phone line, inside) ࡈࡃ, zúibun 㝶ศ࣭ࡎ࠸ࡪࢇ; naisen ෆ⥺, (outside) gaisen እ⥺ (more than one might expect) extent n kágirí 㝈ࡾ࣭࠿ࡂࡾ; hodo nakanaka ࡞࠿࡞࠿ ⛬࣭࡯࡝; teido ⛬ᗘ; kagen ຍῶ; eye n 1. mé ┠>║@ 2. (detective) to what ~ dónna ni ࡝ࢇ࡞࡟ tantei ᥈ഄ; (of a needle) médo exterior n gáibu እ㒊, gaimen እ㠃 ࡵ࡝; (with) wide ~s me o maruku external adj soto-gawa (no) እഃ shimásu ┠ࢆ୸ࡃࡋࡲࡍ; public



eye n seken no me ୡ㛫ࡢ┠ eyeglasses n mégane ║㙾࣭ࡵࡀ ࡡ࣭࣓࢞ࢿ; puts on (wears) ~


mégane o kakemásu ║㙾࣭࣓࢞ ࢿࢆ࠿ࡅࡲࡍ eyesight n shíryoku どຊ

F fable n güwa ᐯヰ fade-out n fëdo auto ࣇ࢙࣮ࢻ fabric n ori-mono ⧊≀࣭࠾ࡾࡶ ࢔࢘ࢺ ࡢ, kíji ⏕ᆅ࣭ࡁࡌ fail v 1. shippai shimásu ኻᩋࡋࡲ fabulous adj subarashii ࡍࡤࡽࡋ ࡍ 2. (exam) ochimásu ⴠࡕࡲࡍ ࠸࣭⣲ᬕࡽࡋ࠸, wakuwaku suru ࣭࠾ࡕࡲࡍ, rakudai shimásu ⴠ ࣡ࢡ࣡ࢡࡍࡿ ➨ࡋࡲࡍ 3. (is wide off the mark) face 1. n kao 㢦࣭࠿࠾, tsurá ࡘࡽ hazuremásu እࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࡣࡎࢀࡲ ࣭㠃; (one’s honor) taimen య㠃 ࡍ 4. (engine etc. breaks down) 2. n (front) shø´men ṇ㠃 3. v koshø´ shimásu ᨾ㞀ࡋࡲࡍ (~s it) mukimásu ྥࡁࡲࡍ࣭ࡴ failure n 1. shippai ኻᩋ࣭ࡋࡗࡥ࠸ ࡁࡲࡍ 4. v atarimásu ᙜࡓࡾࡲ 2. (exam) rakudai ⴠ➨, fugø´kaku ࡍ࣭࠶ࡓࡾࡲࡍ; face towel n fësu ୙ྜ᱁; power failure n teiden ೵㟁 faint 1. adj (dim) kásuka (na) ࠿ࡍ taoru ࣇ࢙࣮ࢫࢱ࢜ࣝ Facebook n (Internet) feisu bukku ࠿>ᚤ࠿@ ࡞ 2. v (loses conࣇ࢙࢖ࢫࣈࢵࢡ sciousness) ki o ushinaimásu Ẽ ࢆኻ࠸>࠺ࡋ࡞࠸@ࡲࡍ facial adj kao (no) 㢦 ࡢ facilities n shisetsu ᪋タ࣭ࡋࡏࡘ, fair n (market) íchi ᕷ, íchi-bá ᕷ ሙ࣭࠸ࡕࡤ, (temple festival) sétsubi タഛ; bén ౽࣭ࡧࢇ facsimile n fakushimiri ࣇ࢓ࢡࢩ én-nichi ⦕᪥࣭࠼ࢇ࡟ࡕ ࣑ࣜ, fákkusu ࣇ࢓ࢵࢡࢫ A fax fair adj (just, impartial) kø´hei fact n kotó ஦࣭ࡇ࡜, jíjitsu ஦ᐇ࣭ (na) බᖹ ࡞ ; (sunny) hárete ࡌࡌࡘ; in ~ jitsú wa ᐇࡣ࣭ࡌࡘ imásu ᬕࢀ࡚࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ࡣࢀ࡚࠸ ࡣ, jissai (wa) ᐇ㝿࣭ࡌࡗࡉ࠸ ࡞ ࡲࡍ; ~ weather haré ᬕࢀ࣭ࡣࢀ, factory n kø´ba/kø´jø´ ᕤሙ (o-)ténki ࠾ ኳẼ࣭࡚ࢇࡁ fad n ichiji-teki ryükø ୍᫬ⓗὶ⾜ fairly adv (rather) kánari ࠿࡞ࡾ, fade v 1. samemásu ࡉࡵࡲࡍ, sø´tø´ ┦ᙜ࣭ࡑ࠺࡜࠺, zúibun 㝶ศ࣭ࡎ࠸ࡪࢇ asemásu ࠶ࡏࡲࡍ࣭〣ࡏࡲࡍ 2. (grows weak) otoroemásu ⾶࠼ fairy tale n døwa ❺ヰ, otogibáࡲࡍ࣭࠾࡜ࢁ࠼ࡲࡍ 3. (vanishes) nashi ࠾࡜ࡂヰ faithful adj seijitsu (na) ㄔᐇ ࡞ , kiemásu ᾘ࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡁ࠼ࡲࡍ;




chüjitsu (na) ᛅᐇ ࡞ , makoto (no) ㄔ࣭ࡲࡇ࡜ ࡢ fake 1. adj nise (no) ഇ࣭࡟ࡏ ࡢ , inchiki (na) ࠸ࢇࡕࡁ࣭࢖ࣥࢳ࢟ ࡞ 2. n (thing) nise-mono ഇ≀࣭࡟ࡏࡶࡢ, inchiki ࠸ࢇࡕ ࡁ࣭࢖ࣥࢳ࢟, feiku ࣇ࢙࢖ࢡ falcon n taka ࢱ࣭࢝㮚, hayabusa ࣁࣖࣈࢧ࣭㞙 fall 1. n (autumn) áki ⛅ 2. v (it falls) ochimásu ⴠࡕࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡕ ࡲࡍ, okkochimásu ⴠࡗࡇࡕࡲ ࡍ࣭࠾ࡗࡇࡕࡲࡍ 3. v (falls and scatters) chirimásu, ᩓࡾࡲࡍ࣭ ࡕࡾࡲࡍ; fall behind okuremásu 㐜ࢀࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡃࢀࡲࡍ; okure o torimásu ᚋࢀࢆྲྀࡾࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡃ ࢀࢆ࡜ࡾࡲࡍ; fall down taoremásu ಽࢀࡲࡍ࣭ࡓ࠾ࢀࡲࡍ, korobimásu ㌿ࡧࡲࡍ࣭ࡇࢁࡧࡲࡍ fallacy n goshin ㄗಙ falls n taki ࣭ࡓࡁ (= waterfalls) false adj (falsehood) úso (no) ࠺ ࡑ࣭ბ࣭࢘ࢯ ࡢ ; (fake) nise (no) ഇ࣭࡟ࡏ ࡢ , (artificial) jinzø´ (no) ே㐀 ࡢ ; false alarm n go-keihø ㄗ㆙ሗ falsehood n úso ࠺ࡑ࣭ბ࣭࢘ࢯ, itsuwari ഇࡾ࣭࠸ࡘࢃࡾ falter v yoro-mekimásu ࡼࢁࡵࡁ ࡲࡍ, yóro-yoro shimásu ࡼࢁࡼ ࢁࡋࡲࡍ fame n 1. (reputation) hyø´ban ホ ุ 2. A honor familiar adj shitashíi ぶࡋ࠸࣭ࡋࡓ ࡋ࠸ A know family n uchi ᐙ࣭࠺ࡕ, … (o-)

uchi ࠾ ᐙ; kázoku ᐙ᪘࣭࠿ࡒ ࡃ, (household) ᐙᗞ; (clan) úji Ặ࣭࠺ࡌ, …-ke …ᐙ family inn n minshuku Ẹᐟ࣭ࡳࢇ ࡋࡹࡃ family name n (surname) sei ጣ, , (as written) myø´ji, miyoji ྡᏐ ࣭ⱑᏐ, úji Ặ, kámei ᐙྡ famine n ue 㣚࠼, kikin 㣚㤡࣭ ࡁࡁࢇ famous adj yümei (na) ᭷ྡ࣭ࡺ࠺ ࡵ࠸ ࡞ , na-dakái ྡ㧗࠸, hyoban (no) ホุ࣭ࡦࡻ࠺ࡤࢇ ࡢ ; gets ~ shiraremásu ▱ࡽࢀ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡋࡽࢀࡲࡍ, yümei ni na-rimásu ᭷ྡ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡍ fan n 1. ø´gí ᡪ࣭࠾࠺ࡂ; (electric) senpü´-ki ᡪ㢼ᶵ࣭ࡏࢇ࡫࠺ ࡁ 2. (enthusiast) fán ࣇ࢓ࣥ; baseball fan n yakyü-fan 㔝⌫ࣇ࢓ ࣭ࣥࡸࡁࡹ࠺ࣇ࢓ࣥ fancy adj (high-grade) kø´kyü (no) 㧗⣭ ࡢ ; fancy goods n kø´kyü-hin 㧗⣭ရ fanfare n fanfåre ࣇ࢓ࣥࣇ࢓࣮ࣞ fang n kiba ∳࣭࢟ࣂ fantastic n subarashii ⣲ᬕࡽࡋ࠸ fantasy n (imaginary) küsø ✵᝿, fantajii ࣇ࢓ࣥࢱࢪ࣮ FAQ abbrev (= frequently asked questions) yoku aru shitsumon ࡼࡃ࠶ࡿ㉁ၥ efu-ei-kyū/ feiku )$4 far adj tø´i 㐲࠸࣭࡜࠾࠸, háruka (na) ࡣࡿ࠿࡞࣭㐶࠿ ࡞ ; háruka (ni) ࡣࡿ࠿࡟࣭㐶࠿ ࡟ ; how far donogurai/donokurai ࡝ࡢ఩,




dóko made ࡝ࡇࡲ࡛; as far as it goes ichiø´ ୍ᛂ; by far zutto ࡎࡗ ࡜, háruka (ni) ࡣࡿ࠿࣭㐶࠿ ࡟ fare n (fee) ryø´kin ᩱ㔠, (transportation) únchin 㐠㈤ Far East n kyokutø´ ᴟᮾ farewell n (o-)wakare ࠾ ูࢀ࣭ ࠾ ࢃ࠿ࢀ; farewell party n sø´bétsukai ㏦ูࢀ఍,o-wakare-kai

ࡍ࣭ࡍࡍࢇ࡛࠸ࡲࡍ fasten v 1. (firmly attaches) tomemásu ␃ࡵࡲࡍ࣭࡜ࡵࡲࡍ 2.

(tightens, secures) shimemásu

⥾ࡵࡲࡍ࣭ࡋࡵࡲࡍ fastener n fasunå ࣇ࢓ࢫࢼ࣮, chakku ࢳࣕࢵࢡ fast food n fåsuto füdo ࣇ࢓࣮ࢫ ࢺࣇ࣮ࢻ ࠾ูࢀ఍ fastidious A choosy fat 1. n (grease) abura ࠶ࡪࡽ࣭ farm n nø´jø´ ㎰ሙ farmer n nø´ka ㎰ᐙ, nø´min ㎰Ẹ ⬡, (lard, blubber) shibø´ ⬡⫫࣭ far-off adj tø´i 㐲࠸࣭࡜࠾࠸, ࡋࡰ࠺ 2. gets ~ v futorimásu ኴ ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡩ࡜ࡾࡲࡍ, koemásu háruka (na) ࡣࡿ࠿࣭㐶࠿ ࡞ farsighted adj enshi (no) 㐲ど ⫧࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡇ࠼ࡲࡍ 3. adj ࡢ ; (forward-looking) mae(plump) futói ኴ࠸࣭ࡩ࡜࠸, muki (no) ๓ྥࡁ࣭๓ࡴࡁ ࡢ ; futotta ኴࡗࡓ࣭ࡩ࡜ࡗࡓ senken no mei (no/ga aru) ඛぢ fate n ún 㐠, únmei 㐠࿨࣭࠺ࢇࡵ ࡢ᫂ ࡢࡀ࠶ࡿ ࠸, shukumei ᐟ࿨ fart n onara (o shimásu) ࠾࡞ࡽ ࢆ father n otø´san ࠾∗ࡉࢇ࣭࠾࡜ ࡋࡲࡍ ; [IMPOLITE] hé (o hiri࠺ࡉࢇ, chichí ∗, chichi oya ∗ ぶ࣭ࡕࡕ࠾ࡸ másu) ࡬࣭ᗊ ࢆࡦࡾࡲࡍ fascinated adj uttóri (to) ࠺ࡗ࡜ Father n (Reverend) …shínpu(-san) ࡾ ࡜ …⚄∗ ࡉࢇ fascist n fashisuto ࣇ࢓ࢩࢫࢺ fatigue n hirø ⑂ປ fashion 1. n (way) ryükø´ ὶ⾜, fatty adj abrakkói ⬡ࡗࡇ࠸࣭࠶ࡪ hayari ࡣࡸࡾ>ὶ⾜ࡾ@, fásshon ࡽࡗࡇ࠸; ~ tuna tóro ࡜ࢁ࣭ࢺࣟ ࣇ࢓ࢵࢩࣙࣥ; (…) fü … 㢼࣭ faucet n jaguchi ⺬ཱྀ࣭ࡌࡷࡄࡕ ࡩ࠺ 2. is in ~ hayarimásu ࡣࡸ fault 1. n (defect) kizu ࡁࡎ; ࡾ>ὶ⾜ࡾ@ࡲࡍ (shortcoming) tánsho ▷ᡤ; fashionable adj hayari (no) ࡣࡸࡾ (guilt) tsúmi ⨥࣭ࡘࡳ; (cause) >ὶ⾜ࡾ@ ࡢ , ryükø´ (no) ὶ⾜ …séi …ࡏ࠸ 2. at ~ warúi ᝏ ࡢ ; haikara (na) ࣁ࢖࢝ࣛ ࡞ , ࠸࣭ࢃࡿ࠸ 3. finds ~ with togasumå´to (na) ࢫ࣐࣮ࢺ ࡞ memásu ࡜ࡀࡵ>࿶ࡵ@ࡲࡍ fast adj háyaku ㏿ࡃ࣭ࡣࡸࡃ; favor 1. n (kindness) (go-)shínsetsu hayái ㏿࠸࣭ࡣࡸ࠸; (clock runs ࡈ ぶษ,࣭ ࡈ ࡋࢇࡏࡘ (goodfast) susunde imásu 㐍ࢇ࡛࠸ࡲ will) kø´i ዲព࣭ࡇ࠺࠸; (request)




o-nagai ࠾㢪࠸࣭࠾ࡡࡀ࠸ 2. does a ~ kø´i o misemásu ዲពࢆ ぢࡏࡲࡍ>ࡳࡏࡲࡍ@; does me/us the ~ of …ing …te kudasaimásu/ kuremásu …࡚ୗࡉ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭… ࡚ࡃࡔࡉ࠸ࡲࡍࡃࢀࡲࡍ 3. ~s

v (a choice) … (no) hø´ga íi to omoimásu … ࡢ ᪉ࡀ࠸࠸࡜ᛮ ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭… ࡢ ࡯࠺ࡀ࠸࠸࡜࠾ ࡶ࠸ࡲࡍ favorite adj dái-suki (na) ኱ዲࡁ࣭ ࡔ࠸ࡍࡁ ࡞ , (ichiban) sukí (na) ୍␒ ዲࡁ ࡞ ; o-kiniiri (no) ࠾Ẽ࡟ධࡾ࣭࠾ࡁ࡟࠸ࡾ favoritism n ekohiiki ࠼ࡇࡦ࠸ࡁ fax n fákkusu ࣇ࢓ࢵࢡࢫ fear 1. n (a fear) osoré ᜍࢀ࣭࠾ ࡑࢀ, kyø´fu ᜍᛧ࣭ࡁࡻ࠺ࡩ; shinpai ᚰ㓄࣭ࡋࢇࡥ࠸ 2. ~s it v osoremásu ᜍࢀࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡑ ࢀࡲࡍ; kowagarimásu ᛧࡀࡾ ࡲࡍ࣭ࡇࢃࡀࡾࡲࡍ; (worries about) shinpai shimásu ᚰ㓄ࡋࡲ ࡍ࣭ࡋࢇࡥ࠸ࡋࡲࡍ fearful adj osoroshíi ᜍࢁࡋ࠸࣭ ࠾ࡑࢁࡋ࠸ feat n waza ᴗ࣭ࢃࡊ; (deed) shiwaza ௙ᴗ࣭ࡋࢃࡊ feather n hane ⩚, umø´ ⩚ẟ࣭࠺ ࡶ࠺; ke ẟ feature n tokuchø ≉ᚩ February n Ni-gatsú ஧᭶࣭2᭶ feces n kusó ࡃࡑ࣭⣅, fún ࡩࢇ࣭ ⣅; bén ౽, daibén ኱౽ federation n renmei 㐃┕ fee n ryø´kin ᩱ㔠; …-ryø´ …ᩱ; (reward) sharei ㅰ♩, rei ♩;

membership ~ kaihi ఍㈝ feeble A weak feed v tabesasemásu 㣗࡭ࡉࡏࡲࡍ ࣭ࡓ࡭ࡉࡏࡲࡍ feel 1. v (by touch) sawarimásu ࡉࢃࡾ>ゐࡾ@ࡲࡍ 2. (by emotion) kan-jimásu ឤࡌࡲࡍ࣭࠿ࢇࡌࡲ ࡍ 3. (thinks) omoimásu ᛮ࠸ࡲ ࡍ࣭࠾ࡶ࠸ࡲࡍ 4. zon-jimásu Ꮡࡌࡲࡍ࣭ࡒࢇࡌࡲࡍ; zonjiagemásu Ꮡࡌ࠶ࡆࡲࡍ࣭ࡒࢇ ࡌ࠶ࡆࡲࡍ 5. (body reaction) moyø´shimásu ദࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡶࡼ ࠾ࡋࡲࡍ feeling n kimochi Ẽᣢࡕ࣭ࡁࡶࡕ, kanji ឤࡌ࣭࠿ࢇࡌ, ki Ẽ࣭ࡁ, nén ᛕ࣭ࡡࢇ; (sense) kimí Ẽ࿡ ࣭ࡁࡳ; kokóro ᚰ࣭ࡇࡇࢁ, omói ᛮ࠸࣭࠾ࡶ࠸; (mood) kokoromochi ᚰᣢࡕ࣭ࡇࡇࢁࡶࡕ, kíbun Ẽศ࣭ࡁࡪࢇ; (one’s view) íkø´ ពྥ; (health) (karada no) guai య>࠿ࡽࡔ@ࡢ ලྜ࣭ࡄ࠶ ࠸; (compassion) (o-)násake ࠾ ᝟ࡅ࣭ ࡞ ࡉࡅ, nínjø´ ே᝟ ࣭࡟ࢇࡌࡻ࠺ fellow n (person) hito ே࣭ࡦ࡜, … hitó …ே; monó ⪅, yátsu ࡸ ࡘ࣭ያ; (comrade) fellow … … dø´shi …ྠᚿ; (man) otoko ⏨ female n onná (no hito) ዪ࣭࠾ ࢇ࡞ ࡢே>ࡦ࡜@ , josei ዪᛶ; female … (animal) mesu no … ࣓ࢫࡢ… fence n kakíne ᇉ᰿࣭࠿ࡁࡡ, (wall) hei ሟ࣭࡬࠸ fencing n fenshingu ࣇ࢙ࣥࢩࣥ




ࢢ; the art of Japanese ~ (with field n (dry) hatake ⏿࣭ࡣࡓࡅ; bamboo swords) kéndø´ ๢㐨࣭ nóhara 㔝ཎ࣭ࡢࡣࡽ, hárappa ཎࡗࡥ࣭ࡣࡽࡗࡥ; (rice paddy) ࢣࣥࢻ࢘ fermented adj Ⓨ㓝ࡋࡓ; fermented tá ⏣࣭ࡓ, tanbo ⏣ࢇࡰ࣭ࡓࢇ bean paste míso ࡳࡑ࣭࣑ࢯ࣭࿡ ࡰ; (specialty) senmon ᑓ㛛࣭ ჯ o-míso ࠾ࡳࡑ࣭࠾࿡ჯ ࡏࢇࡶࢇ; field day n ① (military) fern n shída ࡋࡔ࣭ࢩࢲ yagai-enshü-bi 㔝እ₇⩦᪥ ② ferry (them over) v watashimásu (athletic festival) undø-kai 㐠 Ώࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࢃࡓࡋࡲࡍ ື఍ fester v umimásu ࠺ࡳࡲࡍ࣭⮋ fierce adj hageshíi ⃭ࡋ࠸࣭ࡣࡆ ࡳࡲࡍ ࡋ࠸, sugói ࡍࡈ࠸࣭෶࠸ festival n (o-)matsuri ࠾ ⚍ࡾ fifth adj go-banmé (no) ஬␒┠ ࣭ ࠾ ࡲࡘࡾ ࡢ , itsutsu-mé (no) ஬ࡘ┠࣭࠸ feudal (period, system) adj hø´ken ࡘࡘࡵ ࡢ ; the fifth day itsuka-me ஬᪥┠, (of the month) itsuka (-jídai/-séido) no ᑒᘓ ᫬௦/ไ ᗘ ࡢ; feudal lord n (o-)daimyø´ ஬᪥ ࠾ ኱ྡ fig n ichíjiku ࠸ࡕࡌࡃ࣭࢖ࢳࢪࢡ fever n (o-)nétsu ࠾ ⇕; fiibå ࣇ fight v tatakaimásu ᡓ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭ࡓ ࢕࣮ࣂ࣮ became feverish fiibå ࡓ࠿࠸ࡲࡍ A argue figure A count; number; think; shape; shimásu ࣇ࢕࣮ࣂ࣮ࡋࡲࡍ few adj sukóshi (no) ᑡࡋ࣭ࡍࡇ body; being, person; diagram ࡋ ࡢ ; sukunái ᑡ࡞࠸࣭ࡍࡃ࡞ file n 1. (nail ~, etc.) yasuri ࡸࡍ ࠸; a few wazuka ࢃࡎ࠿; sukoࡾ 2. (computer) fairu ࣇ࢓࢖ࣝ 3. A folder 4. v (grinds) surimásu shi ᑡࡋA several fewer adj (yori) sukunái ࡼࡾ ᑡ ࡍࡾࡲࡍ 5. v (submits) teishutsu ࡞࠸࣭ࡍࡃ࡞࠸ shimásu ᥦฟࡋࡲࡍ; ~ income tax kakutei o shinkoku shimásu fib n (lie) úso ࠺ࡑ࣭ბ fiber n sén’i ⧄⥔࣭ࡏࢇ࠸; (line) ☜ᐃ⏦࿌ࢆࡋࡲࡍ 6. v (stores súji ➽࣭ࡍࡌ document) shorui o tojimásu ᭩ fickle adj uwaki (na) ᾋẼ࣭࠺ࢃࡁ 㢮ࢆ⥛ࡌࡲࡍ ࡞ filet n (of pork etc.) hire ࣄࣞ fiction n shø´setsu ᑠㄝ, tsukuri- Filipino n (language) Firipin-go ࣇ banashi సࡾヰ࣭ࡘࡃࡾࡤ࡞ࡋ, ࢕ࣜࣆࣥㄒ; (person) Firipin-jin ࣇ࢕ࣜࣆࣥே fikushon ࣇ࢕ࢡࢩࣙࣥ; science fiction n saiensu fikushon ࢧ࢖࢚ fill v 1. ippai ni shimásu ୍ᮼ ࣥࢫࣇ࢕ࢡࢩࣙࣥ ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ࣭࠸ࡗࡥ࠸࡟ࡋࡲࡍ; fief n ryøchi 㡿ᆅ mitashimásu ‶ࡓࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡳ




ࡓࡋࡲࡍ; ~s the tank, ~s it up man-tan ni shimásu ‶ࢱࣥ࡟ࡋ ࡲࡍ 2. (fulfills) konashimásu ࡇ࡞ࡋࡲࡍ, ~ an order chümon o konashimásu ὀᩥࢆࡇ࡞ࡋࡲ ࡍ 3. ~s in (details) kaki-iremásu ᭩ࡁධࢀࡲࡍ࣭࠿ࡁ࠸ࢀࡲࡍ, kinyü shimásu グධࡋࡲࡍ film n f(u)irumu ࣇ࢕࣒ࣝ ࣇ࢖ࣝ ࣒ ; (movie) eiga ᫎ⏬ filter 1. n f(u)írutå ࣇ࢕ࣝࢱ࣮ ࣇ ࢖ࣝࢱ࣮ 2. v (~s it) koshimásu ࡇࡋࡲࡍ filthy A dirty fin n hire ࡦࢀ࣭ࣄࣞ final adj saigo (no) ᭱ᚋ࣭ࡉ࠸ࡈ ࡢ , saishü (no) ᭱⤊ ࡢ finalization n seiritsu ᡂ❧ finance 1. n kin’yü 㔠⼥; kéizai ⤒ ῭; zaisei ㈈ᨻ 2. ~s it v yüzü shimásu ⼥㏻ࡋࡲࡍ find 1. v mitsukemásu ぢࡘࡅࡲ ࡍ࣭ࡳࡘࡅࡲࡍ 2. n (bargain) horidashi-mono ᥀ࡾฟࡋ≀࣭ ࡯ࡾࡔࡋࡶࡢ; find fault with togamemásu ࡜ࡀࡵ>࿶ࡵ@ࡲࡍ; find out (hears) (… ga) mimí ni hairimásu …ࡀ ⪥࡟ධࡾࡲ ࡍ࣭ …ࡀ ࡳࡳ࡟ࡣ࠸ࡾࡲࡍ; (… ga) wakarimásu …ࡀ ศ࠿ ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ …ࡀ ࢃ࠿ࡾࡲࡍ fine 1. adj (small/detailed) komakái ⣽࠿࠸࣭ࡇࡲ࠿࠸, (minute) bisai (na) ᚤ⣽࣭ࡧࡉ࠸ ࡞ , (delicate) bimyø´ (na) ᚤጁ࣭ ࡧࡳࡻ࠺ ࡞ 2. A OK, good, splendid, fair 3. n (penalty) bakkin

⨩㔠࣭ࡤࡗࡁࢇ finger n yubí ᣦ࣭ࡺࡧ fingerprint n shimon ᣦ⣠࣭ࡋࡶࢇ finish 1. n A end 2. v (finishes … ing) …te shimaimásu …࡚ࡋ ࡲ࠸ࡲࡍ Finland n Finrando ࣇ࢕ࣥࣛࣥࢻ fire 1. n hí ⅆ, (accidental) káji ⅆ ஦࣭࠿ࡌ, kasai ⅆ⅏; (bonfire) takibi ࡓࡁⅆ࣭ࡓࡁࡧ 2. v (lays

off, disemploys) kubi ni shimásu 㤳࡟ࡋࡲࡍ࣭ࡃࡧ࡟ࡋࡲࡍ, kotowarimásu ᩿ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡇ࡜ ࢃࡾࡲࡍ, káiko shimásu ゎ㞠ࡋ ࡲࡍ࣭࠿࠸ࡇࡋࡲࡍ; got fired kubi ni narimáshita 㤳࡟࡞ࡾࡲ ࡋࡓ࣭ࡃࡧ࡟࡞ࡾࡲࡋࡓ; fire alarm n kasai-kéihø´ ⅆ⅏㆙ሗ; (device) kasai-hø´chíki ⅆ⅏ሗ▱ჾ; fire engine n shø´bø´-sha ᾘ㜵㌴; fire fighter, fireman n shø´bø´-shi ᾘ㜵ኈ fireworks n hána-bi ⰼⅆ࣭ࡣ࡞ࡧ firm 1. adj jø´bu (na) ୔ኵ࣭ࡌࡻ ࠺ࡪ ࡞ ; (hard) katai ᅛ࠸࣭ ◳࠸࣭ሀ࠸࣭࠿ࡓ࠸ 2. n (business) A company firmly adv kataku ᅛࡃ࣭◳ࡃ࣭ ሀࡃ࣭࠿ࡓࡃ; (securely) chanto ࡕࡷࢇ࡜; (resolutely) shikkári ࡋࡗ࠿ࡾ first adj hajime (no) ึࡵ࣭ࡣࡌ ࡵ ࡢ , saisho (no) ᭱ึ࣭ࡉ࠸ ࡋࡻ ࡢ , hatsu (no) ึ࣭ࡣࡘ ࡢ ; (number one) ichí-ban (no) ୍␒࣭࠸ࡕࡤࢇ ࡢ ; first aid n ø´kyü-téate ᛂᛴᡭᙜ; first




class adj ik-kyü ୍⣭; (ticket, seat) it-tø´ ୍➼; (hotel, school) ichiryü (no) ୍ὶ࣭࠸ࡕࡾࡹ࠺ ࡢ ; first day of the month n tsuitachí ୍᪥࣭ࡘ࠸ࡓࡕ; first day of the year n ganjitsu ඖ᪥, gantan ඖ᪦࣭ ࡀࢇࡓࢇ; first time adj hajímete (no) ึࡵ࡚࣭ࡣࡌࡵ࡚ ࡢ first-rate adj ichiryü (no) ୍ὶ࣭࠸ ࡕࡾࡹ࠺ ࡢ ; jø´tø (no) ୖ➼࣭ ࡌࡻ࠺࡜࠺ ࡢ fish 1. n(o-)sakana ࠾ ࡉ࠿࡞࣭ ࠾ 㨶, uo 㨶; sliced raw ~ sashimi ่㌟࣭ࡉࡋࡳ 2. v (angles) tsurimásu 㔮ࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡘࡾࡲࡍ; fishballs n (for soup) tsumire ࡘ ࡳࢀ࣭ࢶ࣑ࣞ; fish dealer/market n sakana-ya 㨶ᒇ࣭ࡉ࠿࡞ᒇ fisherman n ryø´shi ⁺ᖌ, gyo´fu 㨶ኵ fishing n (as sport) (sakaná-) tsuri 㨶 㔮ࡾ࣭ࡘࡾ, ryø´ ⁺࣭ࡾࡻ ࠺; (business) gyogyø´ ⁺ᴗ fishy adj (questionable) kusái ⮯࠸࣭ࡃࡉ࠸; ~-smelling namagusái ⏕⮯࠸࣭࡞ࡲࡄࡉ࠸ fist n kobushi ࡇࡪࡋ࣭ᣙ, genkotsu ࡆࢇࡇࡘ࣭ᣙ㦵, genko ࡆࢇࡇ fit 1. adj (suitable) tekigi (no) 㐺 ᐅ࣭࡚ࡁࡂ ࡢ ; ~s … nicely… ni yóku aimásu …࡟Ⰻࡃྜ࠸ࡲ ࡍ࣭…࡟ࡼࡃ࠶࠸ࡲࡍ 2. v ~s it to … ni ate-hamemásu …࡟ᙜ࡚ ࡣࡵࡲࡍ࣭…࡟࠶࡚ࡣࡵࡲࡍ 3. n (a good ~) saizu ga atteiru ࢧ ࢖ࢬࡀྜࡗ࡚࠸ࡿ

five n gó ஬࣭5; itsútsu ஬ࡘ࣭࠸ ࡘࡘ; fáibu ࣇ࢓࢖ࣈ fix 1. v (repairs) naoshimásu ┤ ࡋࡲࡍ࣭࡞࠾ࡋࡲࡍ; (makes) tsukurimásu సࡾࡲࡍ࣭ࡘࡃࡾ ࡲࡍ; (prepares) sonaemásu ഛ ࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ࡑ࡞࠼ࡲࡍ; (settles) sadamemásu ᐃࡵࡲࡍ࣭ࡉࡔࡵ ࡲࡍ 2. n (plight) hamé ⩚┠࣭ ࡣࡵ, kukyø ⱞቃ fixed adj (settled) ittei (no) ୍ ᐃ࣭࠸ࡗ࡚࠸ ࡢ ; (periodic) téiki (no) ᐃᮇ࣭࡚࠸ࡁ ࡢ ; tei-…ᐃ… fixture n kígu ჾල flag n hatá ᪝࣭ࡣࡓ; (national) kokki ᅜ᪝ flame n honø´ ⅖࣭࡯ࡢ࠾ flap 1. n (of envelope, etc.) futa ࡩ ࡓ࣭⵹, furappu ࣇࣛࢵࣉ 2. v ~s the wings habatakimásu ⩚ࡤ ࡓࡁࡲࡍ flare n hatsuen-tø Ⓨ⅖⟄, furea ࣇࣞ࢔ flashlight n kaichü-déntø´ ᠜୰㟁 ⅉ, dentø´ 㟁ⅉ flashy adj hadé (na) ὴᡭ࣭ࡣ࡛ ࡞ flask n furasuko ࣇࣛࢫࢥ flat 1. n heimén ᖹ㠃 2. n (apartment) furátto ࣇࣛࢵࢺ, apåto ࢔ ࣃ࣮ࢺ 3. adj taira (na) ᖹࡽ࣭ࡓ ࠸ࡽ ࡞ , hiratai ᖹࡓ࠸࣭ࡦࡽࡓ ࠸; (flavorless) ajikenái ࿡Ẽ࡞ ࠸; flat land n heichi ᖹᆅ; flat rate n kin’itsu-ryøkin ᆒ୍ᩱ㔠 flatter v o-seji o iimásu ࠾ୡ㎡ࢆ




ゝ࠸ࡲࡍ࣭࠾ࡏࡌࢆ࠸࠸ࡲࡍ; ࡀࡾࡲࡍ goma o surimásu ࡈࡲ>⬌㯞࣭ࢦ flood 1. n kø´zui ὥỈ, ø´mízú ኱ ࣐@ࢆࡍࡾࡲࡍ Ỉ 2. v hanran shimásu ỏ℃ࡋࡲ flatulate v A fart ࡍ࣭ࡣࢇࡽࢇࡋࡲࡍ flatulence n onara ࠾࡞ࡽ࣭࢜ࢼࣛ, floor n yuka ᗋ, furoa ࣇࣟ࢔; hé ࡬࣭ᒂ (story) (-)kai 㝵; mezzanine ~ flavor 1. n aji ࿡࣭࠶ࡌ, fü´mí 㢼 chü-ní-kai ୰஧㝵; floor lamp n ࿡; (seasoning) chø´mi ㄪ࿡, (denki) sutándo 㟁Ẽ ࢫࢱࣥࢻ; floor mat(ting) n tatami ␚࣭ࢱࢱ࣑ kagen ຍῶ 2. v (seasons it) … floppy n furoppii (disuku) ࣇࣟࢵ ni aji o tsukemásu …࡟࿡ࢆ௜ ࡅ>ࡘࡅ@ࡲࡍ; flavor sprinkles (to ࣆ࣮࣭ࢹ࢕ࢫࢡ, FD top rice) n furikake ࡩࡾ࠿ࡅ࣭ florist n haná-ya ⰼᒇ ࣇࣜ࢝ࢣ flounder n hirame ࡦࡽࡵ࣭ࣄ࣓ࣛ flaw n kizu യ࣭ࡁࡎ, (defect) flour n koná ⢊࣭ࡇ࡞, kó ⢊; ketten ḞⅬ (wheat) komugi-ko ᑠ㯏⢊, flee v nigemásu ㏨ࡆࡲࡍ࣭࡟ meriken-ko ࣓ࣜࢣࣥ⢊ flourish v sakaemásu ᰤ࠼ࡲࡍ࣭ ࡆࡲࡍ fleet n (fleet of ships) kantai Ⰴ㝲 ࡉ࠿࠼ࡲࡍ fleeting adj (transitory) hakánai flow 1. it ~s v nagaremásu ὶࢀࡲ ࡣ࠿࡞࠸࣭൹࠸ ࡍ࣭࡞ࡀࢀࡲࡍ 2. ~s it v nagaflesh n nikutai ⫗య shimásu ὶࡋࡲࡍ࣭࡞ࡀࡋࡲࡍ flicker n chiratsuki ࡕࡽࡘࡁ; 3. n (outflow) de ฟ, nagaré ὶ ࢀ࣭࡞ࡀࢀ chika-chikashita hikari ࢳ࢝ࢳ ࢝ࡋࡓග flower 1. n (o-)hana ࠾ ⰼ࣭ ࠾  flies A fly ࡣ࡞ 2. v (blooms) (hana ga) flight (number …) n …-bin …౽ sakimásu ⰼࡀ ဏࡁࡲࡍ; flower arrangement n (arranging) o-hana flight attendant n kyakushitsu jø´࠾ⰼ, ikébana ⏕ࡅⰼ࣭࠸ࡅࡤ࡞, muin ᐈᐊ஌ົဨ, furaito-ate