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Министерство внутренних дел Российской Федерации Белгородский юридический институт
TRANSPORTATION SECURITY: ENGLISH FOR TRANSPORT POLICE OFFICERS
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ СОТРУДНИКАМИ ПОЛИЦИИ
Белгород Белгородский юридический институт МВД России 2014
Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Бел ЮИ МВД России
ББК 81.2 Англ. М 18
Малахова, В. Л. Transportation security: English for transport police officers (Обеспечение транспортной безопасности сотрудниками полиции): учебно-методическое пособие на английском языке / В.Л. Малахова. – Белгород: Белгородский юридический институт МВД России, 2014. – 72 с. Рецензенты: Балишин С.И., кандидат филологических наук, доцент (Нижегородская академия МВД РФ); Кунина М.Н., кандидат филологических наук (Краснодарский университет МВД России); Комаров И.М., доктор юридических наук, профессор (МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова).
Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для курсантов и слушателей вузов МВД России, обучающихся по специальности 40.05.02 Правоохранительная деятельность (узкая специализация – обеспечение правопорядка на объектах транспорта и охрана общественного порядка; деятельность оперативных подразделений на транспорте). Пособие содержит аутентичные тексты юридической направленности и задания к ним. Изучение лексического материала пособия способствует развитию всех видов профессионально ориентированной деятельности на английском языке. ББК 81.2 Англ.
© РИО Белгородского юридического института МВД России, 2014
CONTENTS Introduction………………………………………………………………….. 4 Methodological guideline……………………………………………………. 5 Unit one. PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE……………………………………………………….. 7 Text 1. Public transport……………………………………………………….. 7 Text 2. Public transport modes……………………………………………….. 9 Text 3. Public transport regulations…………………………………………... 13 Unit two. TRANSPORT POLICE AND TRANSPORT POLICY……….. Text 1. Transport police………………………………………………………. Text 2. Demand for public transport and transport policy…………………… Text 3. Transport crime: its nature and impact……………………………….. Text 4. Transport crime and the ways of its tackling………………………….
15 15 18 21 23
Unit three. TRANSPORT POLICE FORCES IN GREAT BRITAIN…... Text 1. British transport police ………………………………………………. Text 2. Powers of British transport police officers …………………………... Text 3. The history of British transport police ……………………………….. Text 4. Transport policing in London ………………………………………...
27 27 31 34 37
Unit four. RAILROAD POLICE IN THE USA …………………………... Text 1. Transit and railroad police in the USA …………………………......... Text 2. From early days of US railroad policing to present ………………….. Text 3. Special agents training ………………………………………………..
39 39 44 47
Unit five. TRANSPORT SAFETY IN RUSSIA …………………………... Text 1. Federal Service for supervision of transport of the Russian Federation……………………………………………………... Text 2. Road policy in Russia and CIS …………………………………......... Text 3. Transport Police Day …………………………………………………
50 50 53 55
Appendix 1. Mini-Dictionary ………………………………………………. 58 Appendix 2. Texts and articles for discussion and rendering ……………. 64 Appendix 3. Word-expressions for text rendering ………………………... 69 References and resources …………………………………………………... 70
INTRODUCTION Современные условия глобализации общества, значительное увеличение туристического потока, усиление миграционных процессов предполагают интенсивное использование гражданами разных стран сети транспортной инфраструктуры на территории России. Поэтому обеспечение безопасности, охрана общественного порядка и антитеррористическая защищенность на объектах транспортной инфраструктуры в Российской Федерации в настоящее время приобрели особую актуальность и остроту. Это вызывает необходимость повышения уровня владения сотрудниками полиции специальной терминологией на иностранном языке в сфере обеспечения транспортной безопасности, что, в свою очередь, обусловливает актуальность изучения дисциплины «Иностранный язык» наряду со специальными дисциплинами и применения данного учебно-методического пособия в этом процессе. Учебно-методическое пособие на английском языке «Transportation security: English for transport police officers (Обеспечение транспортной безопасности сотрудниками полиции)» предназначено для курсантов и слушателей вузов МВД России, обучающихся по специальности 40.05.02 Правоохранительная деятельность (узкая специализация – обеспечение правопорядка на объектах транспорта и охрана общественного порядка; деятельность оперативных подразделений на транспорте). В то же время пособие может быть использовано при обучении английскому языку курсантов и слушателей других специальностей юридического профиля вузов МВД. Цель данного пособия состоит в формировании у обучающихся умений и навыков различных видов чтения, развитии навыков перевода аутентичных текстов и специальной терминологии и способности извлекать и интерпретировать информацию, подготовке к обсуждению проблем на английском языке. Пособие построено на основе аутентичного лексического материала, отобранного с учетом особенностей обучения в юридических вузах МВД России. Оно рассчитано в среднем на 60 часов аудиторных занятий и состоит из пяти тематических блоков (units) и трех приложений (appendixes). Композиционно все блоки построены единообразно. Каждый тематический блок содержит аутентичные тексты по специальности для чтения, перевода, обсуждения и задания к текстам, предполагающие как работу с предложенными текстами, так и творческую деятельность обучающихся. Задания позволяют эффективно организовать самостоятельную работу обучающихся, а также осуществить проверку уровня сформированности навыков чтения, перевода, реферирования и говорения курсантов и слушателей юридических вузов. В приложениях представлены ключевые термины по специальности с переводом; дополнительные тексты для чтения, перевода и обсуждения; слова и выражения, необходимые при обсуждении проблем. Используемые в данном учебно-методическом пособии языковые материалы актуальны, аутентичны, познавательны и информативны. 4
METHODOLOGICAL GUIDELINE Работа курсанта (слушателя) на практических занятиях по иностранному языку организуется таким образом, чтобы обеспечить достижение практических целей, заключающихся в формировании межкультурной коммуникативной профессионально ориентированной компетенции, что позволит ему по окончании обучения поддерживать достигнутый уровень владения иностранным языком и совершенствовать его. Основное внимание уделяется работе с текстом как с источником информации и одной из единиц коммуникации, а также обеспечению речевого взаимодействия в профессиональной сфере. Это позволяет обучающимся значительно пополнить свой лексический запас, расширить представления об особенностях профессиональной деятельности. Подбор текстов в рамках определенной лексической темы призван сформировать у обучающихся систему основных понятий, относящихся к базовым профессиональным знаниям. Формой контроля чтения является собеседование с преподавателем по содержанию прочитанных материалов, подготовка пересказа или реферирования, выполнение тестовых заданий. Методические рекомендации по работе с текстом Работа с текстом состоит из нескольких этапов: чтение текста, перевод текста, пересказ текста. Работу с текстом следует начинать с заглавия, так как оно выражает основную тему данного текста. В случае затруднения заглавие переводят после перевода всего текста. Прочитав весь текст и осмыслив его основное содержание, следует приступить к переводу отдельных предложений: - осуществить грамматический анализ, являющийся ключом к переводу; - сделать дословный перевод; - отредактировать предложения, установить смысловую связь с предшествующей фразой; - дать литературный перевод всего текста. При чтении текста необходимо также отрабатывать произношение новых слов и словосочетаний по теме. При подготовке пересказа/реферирования текста следует ответить на вопросы к тексту. Затем на основе вопросов к тексту письменно составить план текста, в общем раскрывающий его содержание. На заключительном этапе обучающийся готовит пересказ/реферирование текста. Методические рекомендации по работе над лексикой Незнакомые слова, необходимые для перевода текстов и ведения беседы, следует заучивать наизусть. Большинство слов и терминов многозначны, поэтому в каждом конкретном случае нужно выбирать из всех значений слова то, которое подходит к данному контексту. Поэтому легче всего запоминать слова в контексте (в примерах). 5
Для заучивания слов пользуются различными способами в зависимости от того, какой вид памяти лучше развит: слуховая, зрительная или моторная память. Время от времени следует повторять ранее выученную лексику. Это гарантирует более прочное ее усвоение. Методические рекомендации по выполнению заданий Перед выполнением задания обучающийся должен: - понять/уточнить/конкретизировать цель; - проанализировать возможные пути/способы решения; - выбрать оптимальное решение в данной ситуации; - спланировать последовательность выполнения действий. В ходе выполнения задания обучающемуся необходимо: - сфокусировать внимание на конкретной ситуации; - активизировать уже имеющийся потенциал; - получить новую информацию/знания; - проанализировать ход работы; - осмыслить/сгруппировать приобретенные знания; - применить на практике новую информацию; - провести самооценку полученного результата. После выполнения задания обучающемуся важно: - осознать результат как новое качество/динамику/прогресс; - осуществить рефлексию процесса работы и результата; - проанализировать использованные пути и приемы; - сравнить самооценку с внешней оценкой партнеров; - сравнить и обсудить самооценку с оценкой преподавателя. Следование этим рекомендациям обеспечивает быстрое и легкое достижение поставленных целей и задач, прочное овладение английским языком.
UNIT ONE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION AND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE Text 1 PUBLIC TRANSPORT Public transport (public transportation or public transit) is a shared passenger transport service which is available for use by the general public, as distinct from modes such as taxicabs, car pooling or hired buses which are not shared by strangers without private arrangement. Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams and trains, rapid transit (metro/subways/undergrounds) and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines, coaches, and intercity rail. Highspeed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Public transport may be provided by one or more private transport operators or by a transit authority. The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. Public transport services are usually funded by government subsidies and fares charged to each passenger. Services are normally regulated and possibly subsidized from local or national tax revenue. Fully subsidized, zero-fare (free) services operate in some towns and cities. Other sources of financing are ticket revenue, government subsidies and advertising. The percentage of revenue from passenger charges is known as the farebox recovery ratio. A limited amount of income may come from land development and rental income from stores and vendors, parking fees, and leasing tunnels and rights-of-way to carry fiber optic communication lines. All public transport runs on infrastructure, either on roads, rail, airways or seaways. The infrastructure can be shared with other modes of transport, freight and private transport, or it can be dedicated to public transport. Public transportation system is often considered to be an expanded area for violent criminals and homeless persons. Personal security affects many peoples‟ decisions to use public transportation. Despite the occasional highly publicized incidents, the vast majority of modern public transport systems is well designed and patrolled and generally has low crime rates. Many systems are monitored by CCTV, mirrors, or patrol. 7
Assignments. I. Study the active vocabulary from the above text. public transport/public transportation/public transit – общественный транспорт passenger – пассажир private arrangement – частное соглашение сторон to run – ходить, курсировать, плавать (о поездах, судах и т.п.) tax revenue – доход от налогов, налоговые поступления fare/charge – стоимость проезда или провоза багажа, тариф, плата за проезд bus – автобус trolleybus – троллейбус tram – трамвай train – поезд rapid transit – перевозка пассажиров скоростным общественным транспортом metro/subways/undergrounds – метро ferry – паром coach – одноэтажный автобус (часто междугородного сообщения) high-speed – быстрый, быстроходный, скоростной II. Answer the questions. 1. What is public transport? Give the definition of the notion. 2. What is private arrangement necessary for? 3. What modes does public transport include? 4. In what way are public transport services funded? 5. Why do you think crime is rather frequent in public transport systems? What helps lower crime rates? III. Choose the proper heading for each paragraph of the text. a) Public transport and crime. 8
b) Financing of public transport services. c) What is public transport. d) Public transport runs on infrastructure. e) Public transport modes. f) Public transport authorities. IV. Say if the following statements are true orfalse. Correct the false information using the text. 1. Transport can be divided into public transport and the one which is not used by general public. 2. A taxicab is the most popular mode of public transport. 3. High-speed rail networks are used only in few countries. 4. There are several sources of public transport financing. 5. Public transport infrastructure implies roads, rail, airways or seaways. 6. There is no crime connected with public transport systems. V. Choose any 5-7 words orword combinations from the active vocabulary and make up yourown sentences/situations.
Text 2 PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODES Airline An airline provides scheduled service with aircraft between airports. Air travel has high up to very high speeds, but incurs large waiting times prior and after travel, and is therefore often only feasible over longer distances or in areas where lack of ground infrastructure makes other modes of transport impossible. Bush airlines work more similar to bus stops; an aircraft waits for passengers and takes off when the aircraft is full of luggage. 9
Bus and coach Bus services use buses on conventional roads to carrying numerous passengers on shorter journeys. Buses operate with low capacity (i.e. compared with trams or trains), with relatively inexpensive bus stops to serve passengers. Therefore buses are commonly used in smaller cities and towns, in rural areas as well for shuttle services supplementing in large cities. Bus rapid transit is an ambiguous term used for buses operating on dedicated right-of-way, much like a light rail. Trolleybuses are electric buses that employ overhead wires to get power for traction. Online electric vehicles are buses that run on a conventional battery, but are recharged frequently at certain points via underground wires. Coach services use coaches (long-distance buses) for suburb or longer distance transportation. The vehicles are normally equipped with more comfortable seating, a separate luggage compartment, video and possibly also a toilet. They have higher standards than city buses, but a limited stopping pattern. Train Passenger rail transport is the conveyance of passengers by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run on railways. Trains allow high capacity on short or long distance, but require track, signalling, infrastructure and stations to be built and maintained. Urban rail transit consists of trams, light rail, rapid transit, people movers, commuter rail, monorail suspension railways and funiculars. Commuter, intercity, and high-speed rail Commuter rail is a part of an urban area‟s public transport. It provides faster services to outer suburbs and neighboring towns and villages. Trains stop at stations that are located to serve a smaller suburban or town center. The stations are often combined with shuttle bus or park and ride systems at each station. Frequency may be up to several times per hour, and commuter rail systems may either be part of the national railway, or operated by local transit agencies. Intercity rail is long-haul passenger services that connect multiple urban areas. They have few stops, and aim at high average speeds, typically only making a few stops per city. These services may also be international. High-speed rail is passenger trains operating significantly faster than conventional rail. Compared with air travel, offer long-distance rail 10
journeys as quick as air services, have lower prices to compete more effectively and uses electricity instead of combustion. Tram and light rail Trams are railborne vehicles that run in city streets or dedicated tracks. They have higher capacity than buses, but must follow dedicated infrastructure with rails and wires either above or below the track, limiting their flexibility. Light rail is a modern development (and use) of the tram, with dedicated right-of-way not shared with other traffic, step-free access and increased speed. Light rail lines are, thus, essentially modernized interurbans. Rapid transit A rapid transit railway system (also called a metro, underground, or subway) operates in an urban area with high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Systems are able to transport large amounts of people quickly over short distances with little land use. Variations of rapid transit include people movers, small-scale light metro and the commuter rail hybrid S-Bahn. Cable-propelled transit Cable-propelled transit (CPT) is a transit technology that moves people in motor-less, engine-less vehicles that are propelled by a steel cable. There are two sub-groups of CPT – gondola lifts and cable car (railway). Gondola lifts are supported and propelled from above by cables whereas cable cars are supported and propelled from below by cables. Ferry A ferry is a boat or ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers, and sometimes their vehicles, across a body of water. A foot-passenger ferry with many stops is sometimes called a water bus. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels, though at a lower speed. Ship connections of much larger distances (such as over long distances in water bodies like the Mediterranean Sea) may also be called ferry services.
Assignments. I. Define what public transport mode is implied. a) a vessel for transporting passengers and usually vehicles across a body of water, especially as a regular service; b) a line of coaches or wagons coupled together and drawn by a railway locomotive; c) an electrically driven public transport vehicle that runs on rails let into the surface of the road, power usually being taken from an overhead wire; d) a system or organization that provides scheduled flights for passengers or cargo; e) a transport system using small trains or trams, often serving parts of a large metropolitan area; f) a vehicle which carries people over an appreciable distance, usually from the suburbs to the centre of a city; g) a vehicle for several passengers, used for transport over long distances, sightseeing, etc. II. Choose any mode of public transport mentioned in the text and give its description based on the following plan. Find more information if necessary. the principles of functioning; popularity among the general public; advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other kinds of transport. III. What mode of public transport do you think suffers more from crime? Prove your point of view with facts. What ways of combating crime can you offer?
Text 3 PUBLIC TRANSPORT REGULATIONS Food and drink Longer distance public transport sometimes sells food and drink on board, and/or have a dedicated buffet car and/or dining car. However, some urban transport systems forbid the consumption of food, drink, or even chewing gum when riding on public transport. Sometimes only types of food are forbidden with more risk of making the vehicles dirty, e.g. ice creams and French fries, and sometimes potato chips. Some systems prohibit carrying open food or beverage containers, even if the food or beverage is not being consumed during the ride. Smoking In Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Norway, the United States, and most of the European Union, smoking is prohibited in all or some parts of most public transportation systems due to safety and health issues. Generally smoking is not allowed on buses and trains, while rules concerning stations and waiting platforms differ from system to system. The situation in different countries varies widely. Noise Many mass transit systems prohibit the use of audio devices, such as radios, CD players, and MP3 players unless used with an earphone through which only the user can hear the device. Some mass transit systems have restricted the use of mobile phones. Long distance train services can have “quiet cars” where mobile phone usage is prohibited. Some systems prohibit passengers from engaging in conversation with the operator. Others require that passengers who engage in any conversation must keep the noise level low enough that it not be audible to other passengers. Banned items Certain items considered to be problematic are prohibited or regulated on many mass transit systems. These include firearms and other weapons (unless licensed to carry), explosives, flammable items, or hazardous chemicals and substances. 13
Many systems prohibit live animals, but allow those that are in carrying cases or other closed containers. Additionally, service animals for the blind or disabled are permitted. Some systems prohibit items of a large size that may take up a lot of space, such as bicycles. But more systems in recent years have been permitting passengers to bring bikes. Other regulations Many systems have regulations against behavior deemed to be unruly or otherwise disturbing to other passengers. In such cases, it is usually at the discretion of the operator, police officers, or other transit employees to determine what behaviors fit this description. Some systems have regulations against photography or videography of the system‟s vehicles, stations, or other property. Those seen holding a mobile phone in a manner consistent with photography are considered to be suspicious for breaking this rule. Assignments. I. Make a list of 5-8 facts from the text to prove that public transport regulations are necessary. II. What measures will you take in the following situations? a) You are a transport police officer patrolling an underground. You see that a passenger is using his/her mobile phone to take a photo of a train. b) You are a transport police officer on a train. At a station you see an elderly lady come into the car with a dog on a leash. c) You are a transport police officer patrolling a railway station. You see that a person has something resembling a gun. d) You are a passenger on a plane. The person sitting next to you is using his mobile phone while taking off. III. Choose any situation from assignment II and make up a short dialogue with a partner. IV. Make up a detailed rendering of the text using the phrases from Appendix 3. 14
UNIT TWO TRANSPORT POLICE AND TRANSPORT POLICY Text 1 TRANSPORT POLICE Transport, or transit, police is a specialized body responsible for ensuring an efficient and effective force for rail operators, their staff and passengers. It delivers policing service to the multiple modes of the transit system and has a mandate to preserve and maintain the public peace, prevent crime and offences against the law, aid in the administration of justice and enforce the laws of the country. The main service area of the transport police is policing a country‟s railways, the Underground (Metro), tram systems, Subway and sometimes airlines. It is done in order to prevent and investigate crimes committed against the carrier or by or against passengers or other customers of the carrier, or those committed on the carrier‟s property. Millions people use the rail network every day and transport police officers are to keep them safe and help you feel secure on the journey. Members of the police authority provide knowledge and experience of issues that concern passengers, the railways industry, railways employees and the regions. They set transport police targets, monitor its operations and allocate funds for its budget. The modern situation and the aim of providing a qualified policing service imply that the transport police force stays at the forefront of developments within the railway industry and within policing in general. It works closely with the jurisdictional police services, the transit operating companies and many other stakeholders – including the travelling public. A transit police force may consist of officers employed directly by a transit system or it may exist as a specialized unit of a local police force, which serves the transit system of a country. There is a slight difference between terms referring to transport police. The term transit police usually refers to a railroad providing urban mass transit (such as a city elevated system or subway) as opposed to longdistance rail carriage. Police who work either for a private non-passenger 15
railroad or long-haul rail carrier are usually referred to as railroad police or railway police. Some of the crimes transit police and railroad police investigate include trespassing on the right-of-way of a railroad, assaults against passengers, tagging of graffiti on railroad rolling stock and buses or bus spots, pickpocketing, ticket fraud, robbery and theft of personal belongings, baggage or freight, and drug dealing at transit stations. Transit police officers also issue violation tickets for transit infractions, including tickets for fare evasion. Assignments. I. Study the active vocabulary from the above text. transport/transit police – транспортная полиция transport police officer – офицер транспортной полиции to police – поддерживать порядок, обеспечивать безопасность, охранять justice – правосудие, юстиция to ensure – обеспечивать, предоставлять, гарантировать to be responsible for – быть ответственным за … to prevent – предотвращать, предупреждать to enforce – придавать законную силу (правовому акту), осуществлять, приводить в исполнение crime – преступление offence – правонарушение railway/railroad – железная/рельсовая дорога, путь powers – полномочия police authority – полицейская власть, полицейский орган to commit – совершать to investigate – расследовать trespassing – нарушение, злоупотребление assault – нападение graffiti – граффити 16
pickpocketing – карманная кража fraud – мошенничество, обман robbery – ограбление (с применением насилия), грабеж, разбой theft – кража, воровство drug – наркотики violation – нарушение II. Answerthe following questions. 1. What is transport/transit police? 2. What transport systems does transit police service? 3. Who is responsible for setting transport police targets, monitoring its operations and allocating funds for its budget? 4. What other agencies does transport police cooperate with? 5. How do we call the police providing urban mass transit? 6. What kind of police is referred to as railroad (railway) police? 7. What crimes and offences do transport police officers prevent and investigate? III. Say if the following statements are true orfalse. Correct the false information using the text. 1. There is only one term – transport police. 2. Transport police officers are responsible for keeping rail operators, their passengers and carriers safe. 3. Transport police officers can be employed only by a transit system. 4. Urban mass transit is provided by railroad police. 5. The work of transport police is isolated. 6. Among other powers transit police officers can also issue violation tickets for transit infractions.
IV. Match the notions with theirdefinitions. To ensure, force, to provide, law, to prevent, carrier, rail network, passenger. a) a person, thing, or organization employed to carry goods, passengers, etc. b) a rule or body of rules made by the legislature c) a group of persons organized for military or police functions d) to put at the disposal of, furnish or supply e) to make certain or sure, guarantee f)
an interconnected group or system
g) a person travelling in a car, train, boat, etc., not driven by him h) to keep from happening, especially by taking precautionary action V. Choose any 5-7 words orword combinations from the active vocabulary and make up yourown sentences/situations.
Text 2 DEMAND FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND TRANSPORT POLICY The number of annual public transport passengers in many countries has generally been increasing. Although there is much variation among countries, the market share of public transport has stabilized in most countries. It is encouraging that public transport has succeeded in raising overall passenger levels and maintaining its market share in spite of rising incomes and car ownership and extensive car-oriented suburban sprawl. The greater demand for public transport in many countries is due to city high density, much higher taxes on fuel and car purchases, less (and more expensive) car parking, and a wide range of restrictions on car use in cities. In addition, the quality of offered public transport services is generally improving. It also becomes possible due to the proper transport policy, implementation of which implies increasing productivity, reducing 18
costs, and improving financial efficiency. Higher productivity and lower costs enable the provision of more services at lower fares, thus encouraging more riders. But there are many strategies specifically designed to increase demand. Such measures fall into the three general categories of (1) expanded and improved service; (2) attractive fares and convenient ticketing; and (3) regional and multimodal coordination of services and fares. In addition, there are important complementary policies that can encourage public transport use, especially those restricting car use or increasing its price. Similarly, land-use policies can either promote or inhibit public transport demand. Transport, taxation, and land-use policies at all levels of government make public transport more competitive with the automobile. Most public transport systems have modernized their vehicles and improved the comfort, convenience, and reliability of their services. Schedules and routes are integrated across public transport operators and modes, providing quick and easy connections for passengers. There are some more facts that helped to increase the demand for public transport. Real-time information about actual arrival and departure time is available at most suburban rail, metro, and light rail stations as well as on board trains and buses. Express bus services and dedicated bus-only lanes improve the speed and reliability of bus services. Integrated multimodal websites allow searches across operators, public transport modes, and regions, providing up-to-date information on schedules, routes, and fares as well as walking, cycling, and driving access to public transport stops. Most regional public transport authorities offer integrated daily, weekly, monthly, semester, and annual tickets, which allow passengers to use one ticket for the entire trip, regardless of the number of transfers and public transport modes used during the trip. Public transport agencies expanded their programmes of deeply discounted tickets for school children, seniors, and university students. Similarly, many firms negotiate directly with public transport systems to finance deeply discounted monthly tickets for their employees. All of these make public transport service faster and more convenient. So, the success of public transport is due to a coordinated package of mutually supportive policies that include the following: (1) more and better service, (2) attractive fares and convenient ticketing, (3) full multimodal and regional integration, (4) high taxes and restrictions on car 19
use, and (5) land-use policies that promote compact, mixed-use developments and densities high enough to support public transport. It is the integrated package of complementary policies that explains why public transport can compete so well with the private car, even among affluent households. Assignments. I. Explain the given notions in English using an English-English dictionary. Policy, public transport, demand, strategy, land-use, schedule, route, up-to-date, discount. II. Use the following words to fill gaps in the sentences. Ticketing, real-time, discounted, high taxes, land-use policies, restrictions, fares, programmes, up-to-date, public transport, trips, routes, expensive. 1. Implementing of proper _____ is actual for countries with dense population and not large territories. 2. More and more passengers are encouraged to use public transport by attractive _____ and convenient _____. 3. _____ and _____ information on schedules, _____, and fares makes _____ quicker and easier. 4. There are a lot of _____ of _____ tickets for school children, seniors, and university students. 5. _____ on fuel and car purchases, less and more _____ car parking, and a wide range of _____ on car use in cities can explain why _____ is becoming more attractive. III. Find in the text all the facts which favour the improvement of public transport services and increasing the number of public transport passengers. IV. Relying on the information from the text you have read, prove that the transport police force is necessary nowadays. 20
Text 3 TRANSPORT CRIME: ITS NATURE AND IMPACT Levels of transport-related crimes and other incidents are difficult to identify because of the way in which they are recorded. Researches also show that many problems, particularly less serious ones, go unreported to the police and do not appear in official statistics. Although actual crime levels on public transport are generally low, concerns about personal safety can be high and can deter people from making journeys. Surveys show that fear of crime is higher after dark and that certain groups have higher levels of crime than others. For example, members of black and minority ethnic communities, who reveal concerns about personal security and racist attacks; older people; women, who tend to have higher levels of concern about their personal safety than men and are less willing to travel after dark. Problems on public transport, at bus stops and stations include things such as nuisance and rowdy behaviour, drunkenness, harassment and intimidation, ticket touting, aggressive begging, vandalism and graffiti, pick pocketing and other theft, robbery, assaults on other passengers, and assaults on staff. Many of these can also be problems for people making journeys on foot or by bicycle. Areas around stations and popular bus stops can have problems such as aggressive begging, street crime, vehicle crime, prostitution and drug-related problems. Concerns about crime while traveling can deter people from walking, cycling or using public transport. This may be a particular problem in more deprived areas. For example, people in the most deprived areas are around five times more likely to say that they are concerned about crime in their area and safety at bus stops than those in the least deprived areas. Certain groups are more reliant on public transport than others. Women from black and minority ethnic communities are more dependent upon public transport than other groups. Women typically make more journeys by bus and on foot than men and travel at off-peak times more often than men. Furthermore, many older people rely upon public transport to maintain their independence. Transport police officers need to consider the safety, and concerns about safety, of people using various forms of public transport such as buses, trains, taxis, trams and the Subways/Underground. It includes tram and bus stops or shelters, stations, and routes to, from or between the start and end points of journeys by public transport. 21
Assignments. I. Pick up all the words denoting kinds of transport crime. II. Find in the text the notions of the given definitions. a) an act or omission prohibited and punished by law; b) freedom from danger or risk of injury; c) to discourage (from acting) or prevent (from occurring), usually by instilling fear, doubt, or anxiety; d) lacking adequate food, shelter, education, etc; e) a group that is different racially, politically, etc., from a larger group of which it is a part; f)
of or relating to services as used outside periods of intensive use or electricity supplied at cheaper rates during the night.
III. Match the crime with its description. Nuisance, intimidation, ticket touting, begging, vandalism, pick pocketing, assault. a) the wanton or deliberate destruction caused by a vandal or an instance of such destruction; b) something unauthorized that is obnoxious or injurious to the community at large or to an individual, especially in relation to his ownership or occupation of property; c) an intentional or reckless act that causes another person to expect to be subjected to immediate and unlawful violence; d) stealing from the pockets or handbags of others in public places; e) selling of tickets unofficially for a heavily booked sporting event, concert, etc., at greatly inflated prices; f)
soliciting for money, food, etc., especially in the street;
g) the action of discouraging, restraining, or silencing illegally or unscrupulously, as by threats or blackmail.
IV. Speak on the following topics relying on the information from the text. 1. The difficulty of identifying transport-related crimes and incidents. 2. Reasons and levels of transport crime. 3. Groups of people more reliant on public transport and, as a consequence, more crime-prone. 4. Modes of public transport and areas more attractive for criminals.
Text 4 TRANSPORT CRIME AND THE WAYS OF ITS TACKLING A wide variety of crime issues across the rail network is tackled every day to make the rail environment safer for passengers and staff. Cable theft and metal theft Cable theft and the theft of valuable metals cause widespread damage and disruption to the railway. Transport police officers take a hard-line approach against metal theft and those caught stealing cable or selling it on. Cable theft and metal theft has a serious impact on the smooth running of the network. Thieves risk not only a prison sentence but also their lives attempting to steal cable and precious metals from the railway. Cable theft can cost the country‟s industry huge amounts of money every year. In the past few years, passengers have been inconvenienced with thousands of hours of delays as a direct result of cable theft – it is one of the major causes of disruption on the rail network. To combat cable and metal theft transport police forces use several ways. They use forensic marking, trembler alarms and other devices to protect railway cable, and encourage better security at depots and lineside. They track and seize vehicles and arrest those found burning the sheathing off cable. They work with Recycling Associations to educate scrap metal dealers about metal theft – highlighting what to look out for when metal and cable is brought into yards. 23
Trespass and vandalism Trespass and vandalism of railway infrastructure cause millions of pounds worth of damage and put lives in danger. Trespass may not sound like a serious offence but it can be a major safety hazard. Vandals putting obstructions in front of trains, hanging concrete blocks from bridges and throwing stones are sadly daily occurrences. These crimes can lead to serious injury or death and can even derail trains. Trespass often leads to other offences; it is difficult to commit vandalism or to obstruct trains without trespassing. If trespassers are seen on railway lines, it can mean trains are held, current switched off and staff diverted from their duties. Pickpocketing and theft The analysis suggests that the most common type of theft is pickpocketing, followed by theft through victims leaving items unattended or unwatched. Mobile phones make up 24% of all property stolen, with luggage making up 10%. A lot of transport police resources are directed towards combating pickpocketing and theft, including deploying specialist covert officers and raising awareness with crime prevention campaigns. The number of pickpocketing and theft incidents is also reduced through promotional campaigns, education and policing initiatives to target offenders. Graffiti Scrawling graffiti in public is criminal damage. If graffiti is not dealt with quickly, it can often lead to further undesirable activity taking place, and can create a climate of fear for those using and working on the railways. Graffiti also poses safety issues. Vandals often put their lives at risk in the act of spraying difficult surfaces, such as bridges or trains in sidings, putting themselves and others in danger. And the costs of cleaning up are enormous. Dealing with graffiti also diverts valuable police and staff resources. Hundreds of thousands of staff hours are taken up in cleaning, repairs and police time. Police officers mount operations to detect offenders, painstakingly gathering evidence, targeting suspects, implementing handwriting and forensic analysis and using covert surveillance techniques. For the serious vandal, who uses tags to identify themselves, the aim is to get their work seen by as many people as possible. As a result, rail 24
companies can be encouraged to take trains out of service as soon as the offence is discovered to act as a deterrent. Terrorism Countering the threat of terrorism remains a very important priority. Transport police forces use an extensive range of tactics to keep the public and railway staff safe. They have an active security regime in place on the railways and disclose as little information as possible about how they plan to handle specific security matters, making it more difficult for terrorists to predict how they will react to threats. They use an extensive network of cameras, have dedicated police dealing specifically with the issues of terrorism, and work closely with railway staff, briefing them continuously. They also ask passengers to remain vigilant. Officers are equipped to deal with a wide range of terrorist situations, including a chemical or biological threat. Level crossing misuse Crime at level crossings and level crossing misuse can be very serious. Those who behave irresponsibly put lives at risk. Rail passengers‟ lives are put at risk when an obstacle is put in path of a train. Delays while the scene is cleared can be lengthy, and the cost of repairing crossings and equipment after an incident can be huge. For reducing of crossing misuse there should be the proper education of children and teenagers on safety and the use of level crossings. Offenders are caught with the help of the latest video recording and license plate recognition technology. Pedestrians can face a fine and even a criminal record if they are caught misusing a level crossing. Motor vehicle drivers can be charged with a number of driving offences, including: stopping on the crossing, failing to obey the lights, careless driving, dangerous driving. Assignments. I. Choose the proper word or word-combination from the following list to fill in gaps. Offender, surveillance cameras, abuses, pedestrian, theft, public transport, vandalism, prohibit, tackling, punishment, combat, gangs. 1. A good way of traffic calming is to get more people to use _____. 25
2. The law should _____ the export of military, security and police equipment and training where these can reasonably be assumed to contribute to human rights _____. 3. How to crack down on increasing levels of _____ and the emergence of street _____in the area will be decided today at a special meeting of the council‟s Police Liaison Committee. 4. Road pricing schemes have been effectively ruled out by Transport Secretary as a means of _____ London‟s increasing traffic congestion. 5. Police are investigating the _____ of jewellery and cash of a passenger in the Metro. 6. A huge amount of money is required to _____ crime rates in the area. 7. To monitor or prevent the vandalism, _____ and other security measures can be very useful. 8. The _____ should fit the crime in the sense of being in proportion to the moral culpability shown by the _____in committing the crime. 9. The tramway station is now effectively a traffic island, surrounded by a one-way system and linked by _____ crossings. II. Pick up the necessary facts from the above text in orderto give a brief description of each transport crime. III. Think of any transport-related crime not mentioned in the text and make a report about it using the plan given below. Try to use as many as possible transport crime-related words and expressions. the nature of the crime; some statistics on its level in this or that area/city/country; the crime impact on the economic environment of the area/city/country and the standards of living; people and areas mainly prone to this kind of crime; ways of preventing/curbing the crime; ways of increasing of percentage of criminal cases solved. 26
UNIT THREE TRANSPORT POLICE FORCES IN GREAT BRITAIN Text 1 BRITISH TRANSPORT POLICE The British Transport Police (BTP) is a non-Home Office national police service responsible for policing the railway system throughout Great Britain. The service is also responsible for policing the London Underground system, the Docklands Light Railway, the Sunderland line of the Tyne and Wear Metro (between Pelaw and South Hylton), the Midland Metro and Croydon Tramlink, and, since early 2007, the Glasgo Subway. It is not responsible for policing the rest of the Tyne and Wear Metro or the Manchester Metrolink. Northern Ireland does not have an extensive railway system, and responsibility for policing remains in control of the Police Service of Northern Ireland. The force is divided into seven areas: Wales and Western Scotland North East North West London North London South London Underground The BTP has regular police officers, special constables and support staff throughout England, Wales, and Scotland. The Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer section of a statutory police force in the United Kingdom or some Crown dependencies. Under the terms of the Railway and Transport Safety Act 2003 and the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001, BTP special constables have identical jurisdiction and powers to BTP regular constables, i.e. primary jurisdiction on any railway in Great Britain and conditional jurisdiction in any other police force area. However, Special constables in England and Wales have recently had their jurisdiction amended by the Police and Jus27
tice Act 2006, bringing it in line with that of their regular colleagues in Home Office Forces. Now British Transport Police Special Constables have wider powers and obligations than regular officers since they have the full jurisdiction of their regular BTP colleagues on the railway throughout Great Britain but also have a full jurisdiction anywhere in England and Wales off railway property as well whereas regular BTP officers only have conditional jurisdiction off railway property. The British Transport Police is largely funded by the train operating companies. This funding arrangement does not give the companies power to set objectives for the BTP but there are industry representatives serving as members of the police authority. The police authority does, of course, decide objectives. There is also substantial counter-terrorism funding from the Home Office. Until 1990s BTP involvement in investigation of railway accidents was minimal. Later the BTP took on a more proactive role in crash investigations, treating crash sites as scenes of crime and keeping professional railway investigators away from the scene until the BTP had finished its investigations, often days later. This was controversial in the rail industry as it severely delayed the resumption of rail services and the BTP were viewed as incompetent investigators of crash sites. Assignments. I. Study the active vocabulary from the above text. Home Office – министерство внутренних дел (в Великобритании) railway system – железнодорожная сеть special constable – констебль для специального поручения part-time – не полностью (частично) занятый, неполный рабочий день statutory – установленный законом, предписанный законом, предусмотренный законом Crown dependency – зависимая территория короны, «коронная территория» jurisdiction – власть, полномочия, сила regular – регулярный, кадровый 28
primary – основной, главный conditional – вторичный, имеющий силу при условии чего-л. to fund – финансировать representative – представитель, уполномоченный objective – цель, задача investigator – следователь accident – несчастный случай, авария crash site – место аварии scene of crime – место совершения преступления rail service – железнодорожное сообщение II. Answer the following questions. 1. What railway systems is the British Transport Police responsible for? 2. What establishment is in charge of policing railway system in Northern Ireland? 3. What areas is the BTP force divided into? 4. Who works for the BTP? 5. What kind of organization is the Special Constabulary? 6. What jurisdiction and powers do special constables have? In what way are their powers and obligations wider than regular officers ones? What document was it detailed in? 7. In what way did the BTP carry out crash investigations? 8. What documents related to the British Transport Police are mentioned in the text? III. Complete the following sentences with the proper information from the text. 1. The British Transport Police (BTP) is a _____ national police service responsible for policing the _____ throughout _____. 2. The responsibility for policing railway system in Northern Ireland remains in control of the _____ because the country‟s railway system is not _____. 29
3. _____, _____ and _____ work for the British Transport Police. 4. _____ jurisdiction of BTP constables implies powers on any _____ in Great Britain and _____ jurisdiction – in any other _____. 5. The British Transport Police is largely funded by the _____ and gets substantial _____ funding from the _____. 6. Investigating railway accidents the _____ treats crash sites as _____. IV. Find the words and word expressions used in the text which denote the following. a) the act of resuming or beginning again; b) an organized system of labour and material aids used by police forces to supply the needs of the public; c) to improve, to change for the better, to remove faults from, to correct; d) to slow up, hinder, or cause to be late, detain; e) a moral or legal requirement, duty; f)
a transport system using small trains or trams, often serving parts of a large metropolitan area;
g) a company responsible for the proper train operation; h) people who furnish aid for transport police forces; i)
the act of resuming or beginning again;
a police force prescribed or authorized by statute;
k) something that a person or company owns, possesses. V. Choose any 5-7 words or word combinations from the active vocabulary and make up your own sentences/situations. VI. Try to find some information on the peculiarities of transport policing in one of the seven areas mentioned in the text.
Text 2 POWERS OF BRITISH TRANSPORT POLICE OFFICERS British Transport Police officers are constables with the same powers as constables of regional Home Office police forces when on railway property and can also exercise their powers in most, though not all, situations throughout England, Wales, and Scotland. Their uniforms and rank system are similar to other British police forces. Officers often wear distinctive black jerseys with a black and white diced pattern on the yoke. British Transport Police officers have the power to enter a track, a network, a station, a light maintenance depot, and a railway vehicle without a warrant, using reasonable force if necessary, and whether or not an offence has been committed. It is an offence to assault or impersonate a BTP constable. As BTP officers need to move between railway sites and often have a presence in city centres, they can be called upon to intervene in incidents outside their natural jurisdiction. BTP officers can act as police constables outside their normal jurisdiction under the following circumstances: if requested by a constable of a territorial police force, by the Ministry of Defence Police (MDP), or the Civil Nuclear Constabulary (CNC) to assist him/her in the execution of his duties in relation to a particular incident, investigation or operation, a BTP constable also has the powers of the requesting officer for the purposes of an incident, investigation or operation. If a constable from a territorial police force makes the request, then the powers of the BTP constable extend only to the requesting constable‟s police area. If a constable from the MDP or CNC makes the request, then the powers of the BTP officer are the same as those of the requesting constable. if requested by the Chief Constable of one of the forces mentioned above, a BTP constable takes on all the powers and privileges of members of the requesting force. This power is used for planned operations. A BTP constable can take on the same powers and privileges of a constable of a territorial police force: in relation to people whom they suspect on reasonable grounds of having committed, being in the course of committing or being about to commit an offence, or 31
if they believe on reasonable grounds that they need those powers and privileges in order to save life or to prevent or minimize personal injury. A BTP constable may only use such powers if he believes on reasonable grounds that if he cannot do so until he secures the attendance of or a request from a local constable (as above), the purpose for which he believes it ought to be exercised will be frustrated or seriously prejudiced. The policing protocol between BTP & Home Office forces sets out the practical use of these extended powers. A BTP constable also can, when in Scotland, execute an arrest warrant, warrant of commitment and a warrant to arrest a witness (from England, Wales or Northern Ireland), and when in England or Wales, execute a warrant for committal, a warrant to imprison (or to apprehend and imprison) and a warrant to arrest a witness (from Scotland). When executing a warrant issued in Scotland, a BTP constable shall have the same powers and duties, and the person arrested the same rights, as they would have had if execution had been in Scotland by a constable of a police force in Scotland. When executing a warrant issued in England, Wales, a constable may use reasonable force and has specified search powers provided by section 139 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994. Assignments. I. Give the explanation of the meaning of the following words and expressions in English using an English-English dictionary. Powers, constable, uniform, rank system, warrant, request, planned operation, injury, policing protocol, witness. II. Find in the above text what the following abbreviations mean. MDP, CNC. III. Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the mistakes according to the information from the test. 1. The powers of British Transport Police constables are much limited in comparison with the same of Home Office police officers and they can exercise their powers only in England. 32
2. British Transport Police officers do not need a warrant to exercise their powers. Moreover, they can use reasonable force if necessary. 3. BTP officers can act as police constables outside their normal jurisdiction in several cases. 4. Extended powers of BTP officers are set out in the policing protocol. 5. Reasonable force and specified search powers of a BPT constable for executing a warrant issued in England and Wales are provided by section 139 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994. IV. Match the words from two columns in order to make up expressions. Translate them into Russian. 1. to exercise
a) a request
4. to issue
5. to execute (2)
e) an offence
f) police force
7. to commit
h) a warrant (2)
10. to make
V. Suppose, you are a BTP constable and you are being interviewed during a TV programme. Speak about the peculiarities of your profession, about the powers and privileges you can and cannot use implementing you functions as a peace keeper.
Text 3 THE HISTORY OF BRITISH TRANSPORT POLICE The first railway employees described as police can be traced back to 1826. Initially, Railway Police were not described as constables and the description may refer to men controlling the trains not enforcing the law. Later a railway policeman became the first legislation to provide for any form of policing of the railway whilst under construction, i.e. to protect the public from the navvies more or less. The British Transport Police was formed by the British Transport Commission Act of 1949 which combined the already-existing police forces inherited from the pre-nationalisation railways by British Railways. These forces had been previously formed by powers available under common law to parishes, landowners and other bodies to appoint constables to patrol land and/or property under their control. This is distinct from the establishment of a police force by statute, as applicable to the Metropolitan Police in 1829. BTP did not have jurisdiction on a statutory basis until the enactment of the Transport Police (Jurisdiction) Act 1994, which was subsequently amended by the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003. The modern Police Service owes much to Sir Patrick Colquhoun (1745 – 1820) who in 1796 recommended the creation of a centralised Police Service and the use of men specifically trained for the purpose. Later in 1829 Sir Robert Peel introduced an Act of Parliament, which led to the creation of the Metropolitan Police. Within a few months of both the introduction of the Metropolitan Police and the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway the first Railway Police Force was formed. In 1838 an Act was passed which required Railway Companies to pay for constables to keep the peace near railway works. Since 1900 several railway companies re-organised their police forces. The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway virtually reformed their police force from scratch in that year, followed by the Great Eastern, the North Eastern and Midland in 1910, Caledonia in 1917 and lastly the Great Western in 1918. The Railways Act 1921 amalgamated over one hundred separate railway systems (of which about 20 had organised police forces) into four groups: the Great Western Railway; the London and North Eastern Railway; 34
the London, Midland and Scottish Railway; the Southern Railway. Each had its own police force controlled by a Chief of Police. These four forces were organized in the same way, each split into a number of Divisions headed by a Superintendent, divided into a number of Divisions Posts led by an Inspector. Detectives worked with their uniformed colleagues at most locations. Many «non-police» duties were retained, however, with officers acting as crossing keepers or locking and sealing wagons. During the Second World War the strength of the Railway Police doubled. With many men conscripted, Special Constables and Women Police were employed. In 1947 the Transport Act created the British Transport Commission which unified the railway system. On 1st January 1949 the British Transport Commission Police was created, formed from the four old railway police forces, canal police and several minor dock forces. Assignments. I. Fill gaps in the following sentences using the information from the text. 1. The first mentioning of railway police can be traced back to _____. 2. At first, railway policemen did not _____ the law but _____ trains. 3. A railway policeman could _____ for any form of policing only during railway _____. 4. The British Transport Police formed in _____ combined the _____ police forces inherited from the _____ railways by British Railways. 5. Two outstanding people, _____ and _____, made a valuable contribution to the creation of the _____ Police _____. 6. Since _____ several railway companies _____ their police forces. 7. Over one hundred separate _____ were amalgamated into _____ groups by the _____ 1921. 8. During the Second World War first _____ and _____ were employed. 35
9. In _____ the British Transport _____ Police was created from the four old railway police forces, _____ police and several _____ _____ forces. II. Match the English words and expressions with their Russian equivalents. To trace back to; to enforce the laws; legislation; to protect; to patrol; statute; enactment; to amend; specifically trained; to pass; to keep the peace; to amalgamate; chief of police; to head; superintendent; crossing; to unify a) утверждать, принимать (закон); b) защищать, охранять, ограждать; c) глава, директор, начальник, руководитель, управляющий; d) закон, законодательный акт, статут, устав; e) требовать соблюдения законов, приводить в исполнение; f)
юридический орган, сила, структура;
g) объединять, соединять; h) переезд, пересечение двух ж/д. линий; i)
патрулировать, охранять, надзирать;
вносить изменения, вносить поправки;
k) объединять, соединять, унифицировать; l)
m) со специальной подготовкой, специально обученный; n) прослеживаться, восходить к; o) следить за порядком; p) закон, указ; q) законодательный акт, постановление; r)
III. Pick up the main facts and stages of establishing of British Transport Police forces in order to make a brief description of its history. 36
Text 4 TRANSPORT POLICING IN LONDON London Transport Police work with the police to make London‟s transport system even safer. As a result, crime is now at its lowest level in several last years and is continuing to fall, so customers are feeling safer. It cooperates with the Metropolitan Police Service (Met), British Transport Police (BTP) and the City of London Police (CoLP). They police London‟s transport network to tackle crime and antisocial behaviour, and make you feel safer when travelling in London. Metropolitan Police Service The Met is responsible for policing London‟s roads and wider environment (outside of the City of London). London Transport Police funds a dedicated unit within the Met – the Safer Transport Command. It provides additional police support to London‟s buses, licensed taxis and private hire vehicles. It also helps to reduce congestion and bus flow issues, improves the safety and security of cycling and enforces red route parking restrictions. British Transport Police The BTP is the national police force for the railways in the UK. It is responsible for policing London Underground (LU), DLR, London Tramlink, London Overground and the rail network in London. London is served by three BTP areas: BTP London Area is the dedicated policing unit for LU and DLR; BTP London North Area covers Overground rail stations in North London and beyond (as far as East Anglia); BTP London South Area covers Overground rail stations in South London, London Tramlink and the South East of England. City of London Police The City of London Police is responsible for the safety and security of residents and commuters in the City, or «Square Mile», of London. It focuses on promoting safer travel at night, reducing cycle theft, increasing road safety, and tackling crime and antisocial behaviour on the buses. Travel Safe Officers There are Travel Safe Officers on the Docklands Light Railway and London Overground network. These officers work alongside BTP officers, 37
patrolling trains and stations to prevent crime and antisocial behaviour, and providing assistance to passengers. Assignments. I. Find in the text all the abbreviations and give the full names. II. Match the words and word expressions with their meanings, translate them into Russian. Customer, antisocial behaviour, environment, congestion, red route, resident, commuter, assistance. a) the state of being overcrowded, especially with traffic or people; b) a person who travels to work over an appreciable distance, usually from the suburbs to the centre of a city; c) manner of conducting which is contrary or injurious to the interests of society in general; d) a person who resides in a place; e) help, support; f) a person with whom one has dealings; g) an urban through route where the penalties for illegal parking are severe and are immediately enforced; h) external conditions or surroundings, especially those in which people live or work. III. Speak on the following. 1. The organizations London Transport Police cooperates with. 2. The objectives and aims of policing of London‟s transport network. 3. The responsibilities of Metropolitan Police Service. 4. The role of BTP in policing of London. 5. The focuses of City of London Police. 6. What do you think is meant by antisocial behaviour and what exact assistance a transport police officer can provide to passengers?
UNIT FOUR RAILROAD POLICE IN THE USA Text 1 TRANSIT AND RAILROAD POLICE IN THE USA Railroad police is a type of security police responsible for policing railroad (or railway) lines and protection and policing railroad and transit property, employees, or passengers. Job duties for transit and railroad police can vary according to the employer and location. Key responsibilities for these certified law enforcement officers include promoting safety and ensuring compliance with established laws on railroad property or throughout public transit lines, including subways, buses and monorails. Transit and railroad police often patrol railroad yards, cars, stations and other facilities to combat trespassing, theft and violence, and to protect the public. They are typically responsible for verifying the credentials of persons entering secured areas, and removing trespassers from railroad and transit property. These law enforcement professionals may analyze statistical data to discover crime trends, and use the results to help prevent future crime. Railroad and transit police investigate freight theft, damage, and loss of property, and often participate with other police agencies in investigating crimes committed on railroad or public transit property. During derailments, accidents, fires or other disasters, transit and railroad police are usually in charge of directing security activities. Additional job duties include planning and implementing safety and crime prevention programs, coordinating daily activities of security staff and training new staff. Some transit and railroad police may specialize in canine handling. Officers working on K-9 teams support police teams by patrolling to deter crime, conducting searches, discouraging trespassers and detecting explosives. Transit and railroad police work varying schedules; they may work indoors or outside, in all types of weather. Depending on the employer, travel could be required. A 40-hour week is standard, but overtime may be required. Weekend, evening and holiday hours are also typical in this field. Legal authority of a railroad police officer includes the typical police powers to arrest persons for state law felonies, misdemeanors, or violations 39
and process them into the local criminal justice system. In many states, rail and transit police agencies are included in criminal justice system processes and have access to state criminal record systems for investigative and arrest-processing purposes. As a result, railroad police officers have full arrest authority, often serve warrants in conjunction with local police agencies for railroadrelated criminal offenses, and carry firearms. Among other tasks of a railroad police officer there can be also mentioned the following: plan and implement special safety and preventive programs, such as fire and accident prevention; interview neighbors, associates, and former employers of job applicants in order to verify personal references and to obtain work history data; direct and coordinate the daily activities and training of security staff; direct security activities at derailments, fires, floods, and strikes involving railroad property; investigate or direct investigations of freight theft, suspicious damage or loss of passengers‟ valuables, and other crimes on railroad property; prepare reports documenting investigation activities and results; apprehend or remove trespassers or thieves from railroad property, or coordinate with law enforcement agencies in apprehensions and removals; examine credentials of unauthorized persons attempting to enter secured areas. When railroad police officers are in a state different from the one where they received their railroad police commissions, their police authority is the same as that of railroad officers commissioned under the laws of the state in which they are present. Railroad police turn to sophisticated surveillance technology and investigative techniques, such as the use of night vision, thermal imagers, K9 teams, and other equipment. They often work with local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies on issues concerning the railroad. Some of the crimes railroad police investigate include trespassing on the right-of-way of a railroad, assaults against passengers, terrorism threats targeting the railroad, arson, tagging of graffiti on railroad rolling stock or 40
buildings, signal vandalism, pickpocketing, ticket fraud, robbery and theft of personal belongings, baggage or freight. Other incidents railroad police investigate include derailments, train/vehicle collisions, vehicle accidents on the right of way, and hazardous materials releases. There are several main railroad police departments or agencies in the USA: Amtrak Police Department (also police Caltrain), BNSF Railway Police, Boston & Maine Railroad Police (subsidiary of Pan Am Railways; also covers ex-Maine Central territory owned by PAR), CN Police Service, Carrizo Gorge Railroad Police, Conrail Railroad Police Department, CSX Police Department, Metra Police Department, Norfolk Southern Railway Police Department, Union Pacific Police Department. Assignments. I. Study the active vocabulary from the above text. security police – служба безопасности certified – дипломированный compliance – соответствие railroad car – железнодорожный вагон to combat – бороться, предотвращать violence – жестокость, насилие, применение силы credentials – нечто, дающее человеку право заниматься определенной деятельностью (личные качества, образование, опыт) crime trend – тенденции в области совершения преступлений public – государственный derailment – крушение, сход с рельсов 41
to be in charge of – быть ответственным за … to direct – направлять, руководить, управлять to implement – выполнять, осуществлять, обеспечивать выполнение, приводить в исполнение to train – тренировать(ся), готовить(ся), обучать(ся) canine handling – тренировка, подготовка служебных собак to deter – предотвращать to conduct a search – вести расследование to discourage – мешать осуществлению, препятствовать to detect – раскрывать, расследовать преступление explosive – взрывчатое вещество, взрывоопасное вещество overtime – сверхурочные часы, сверхурочное время to arrest – арестовывать felony – тяжкое уголовное преступление misdemeanour – административное правонарушение violation – нарушение, применение силы to process – возбуждать процесс, направлять или вызывать в суд criminal justice system – уголовное судопроизводство criminal record – досье преступника; регистрация приводов, судимостей firearm – огнестрельное оружие to interview – опрашивать associate – товарищ, коллега reference – отзыв, рекомендация, поручительство freight – фрахт suspicious – подозрительный, вызывающий подозрения to apprehend – арестовывать, задерживать commissions – полномочия, обязанности surveillance technology – технические средства для надзора, наблюдения 42
II. Answer the following questions. 1. What is US Railroad police responsible for? What do job duties for transit and railroad police depend on? 2. What information can be presented as credentials of persons? 3. Why is the cooperation of railroad and transit police with other police agencies in investigating crimes very important? What agencies does it work with? 4. What do additional job duties of a railroad and transit police officer include? 5. In what way can K-9 support police teams help railroad and transit police? 6. What is a typical schedule of a railroad and transit police officer? 7. What legal authority does a railroad police officer have? 8. What powers do railroad police officers have when they are in a state different from the one where they received their railroad police commissions? 9. What modern sophisticated technology and equipment does railroad and transit police use in the work? 10. What crimes does railroad police investigate? 11. What are the main railroad police departments or agencies in the USA? III. Find in the text the synonyms of the following words. Ownership; prescribed; guard, protect; daily routine; pretender, claimant; belongings; pilferer; complex; burning; dangerous, perilous; division. IV. Read the following. Does a railroad police officer have police authority to make arrests in such situations? A legal adviser for a police department receives a call from a local supervisor stating that a railroad police officer with a railroad police commission from another state just came into his precinct with an arrest for simple assault on a conductor on a passenger train in the supervisor‟s state. 43
The supervisor asks if this railroad police officer has the authority to make the arrest and wonders if the prisoner should be locked up. He is concerned about potential liability for accepting a prisoner on an illegal arrest. V. Choose any 5-7 words or word combinations from the active vocabulary and make up your own sentences/situations. VI. Choose any of the main railroad police departments or agencies in the USA mentioned in the above text and make a report about it.
Text 2 FROM EARLY DAYS OF US RAILROAD POLICING TO PRESENT With the creation of railroad systems in the early 1830s, crime in the USA tended to follow. There were no railroad police at that time, and usually no other forms of law enforcement. Vigilante groups were usually organized haphazardly to maintain law and order. These groups were not very productive causing the railroads to fall prey to criminals looking to steal luggage, freight, and livestock from the trains. The history of railroad police in the United States traces back to the beginning of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. Pinkerton supplied detectives for the railroad vulnerable to banditry. Railroad contracts were subsequently a mainstay of Pinkerton‟s until railroad companies gradually developed their own police departments in the years following the Civil War. In 1855 Allen Pinkerton created the North West Police Agency. During 1860s, the railroads realized the need for their own police departments. It was usually the division superintendents or the operating managers who did the hiring and firing of the police department. The railroads also realized that they needed to protect the employees and freight in the rail yards from the less sophisticated thief. To combat this problem, they began to hire the watchman. There was no training for these men. They were handed a gun, badge and a club and told to go out and protect 44
the railroad property and employees. Railroad watchmen didn‟t carry out railroad investigation. As the railroads entered no one‟s law enforcement jurisdictional responsibility, often the railroad secret services (railroad police) were the only law enforcement in the region to defend the railroads against outlaws, Indians, and other criminal element that preyed on the railroads. It is during this period that two titles for the railroad police were established. The title Detective was commonly used for railroad police in the East and the title Special Agent was used for railroad police in the West. These terms are still used today in modern railroad policing. Eastern railroads used mostly uniformed officers to prevent crime and disorder. Their rank structure was similar to that of municipal police departments. Western railroads were more likely to work with Sheriffs and U.S. Marshalls, so they developed organizations that rarely relied on uniform patrol. Their work was more likely to be investigative type of work and primarily used plainclothes police. In 1865 the Railroad Police Act recognized the railroad police and authorized the Governor of the State to grant police power to any individual for whom the employing railroad petitioned. This was the first such step at officially recognizing the railroad police as a police organization and one that needs the powers of arrest to protect the railroads against criminals. As the society has changed, so have the nation‟s railroads, and so has railroad police service. Railroad policing has developed into a unique, highly specialized branch of policing. With the development of the interstate highway system in the 1950s, rail passenger ridership diminished. Federal regulations of the American railroads in 1980, and the resulting mergers and acquisitions resulted in fewer and larger companies, a trend that continues today. Nowadays, armed with substantial authority, railroad police work closely with federal, state, and local law enforcement officials at all levels. Many railroad police officers, along with their transit police counterparts, perform uniform patrol duties at train stations or ride in marked patrol units along dedicated rights of way. Several railroad police departments have special operations and perform unique services that protect the public at large as well as a railroad‟s passengers, employees, property, and cargo.
Assignments. I. Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the false information using the text you have read. 1. The US railroad police has always been existing from the early days of creation of railroad systems. 2. Vigilante groups were usually organized to maintain law and order well in advance. 3. The Pinkerton National Detective Agency is considered to be the beginning of the history of railroad police in the United States. 4. Only after the Civil War railroad companies developed their own police departments. 5. The hiring and firing of railroad police officers in 1860s were done by the President. 6. Railroad watchmen were not responsible for carrying out railroad investigations. 7. The titles Detective and Special Agent meant in general the same and differed only due to the areas of usage. 8. The terms Detective and Special Agent are never used nowadays in modern railroad policing. 9. The Railroad Police Act of 1865 allowed states, counties and municipalities to empower its railroad police. II. Match the words with their definitions. Vigilante, haphazardly, vulnerable, to steal, superintendent, watchman, outlaw, to prey, interstate. a) to make a victim (of others), as by profiting at their expense; b) randomly; c) capable of being physically or emotionally wounded or hurt; d) a person employed to guard buildings or property or to patrol or guard the streets at night; e) one of an organized group of citizens who take upon themselves the protection of their district, properties, etc; vigilance man a member of a vigilance committee; 46
f) a person who directs and manages an organization, office, etc; g) between or involving two or more of the states of the US; h) a person excluded from the law and deprived of its protection. III. Prepare a report on the history of the US railroad police.
Text 3 SPECIAL AGENTS TRAINING Railroad police has evolved over time and has become a part of professional and well-trained police agencies. It takes its place alongside federal, state, and local police and performs a critical role in protecting the United States‟ rail transportation systems. Its interstate jurisdiction is defined by both federal and state laws and regulations. Like all law enforcement agencies, railroad police exists to serve and protect and keep the public out of harm‟s way. Transit and railroad police work typically requires specialized skills and education, but requirements vary according to employer. Many require candidates to hold college degree and undergo police academy training. A bachelor‟s degree in criminal justice or a related field, plus law enforcement experience, may be preferred by certain agencies. This experience may be obtained through summer employment or internships while pursuing a bachelor‟s degree. Many railroad and transit agencies require a qualifying test of all candidates. Railroad police officers receive their basic training at approved state police academies and schools and often must be certified in the same manner as police or peace officers. Railroad police are also required by state laws to meet in-service training requirements. So, prior to applying for a Special Agent position, candidates must have three years experience in a public law enforcement agency or military police. Finally railroad police managers may attend the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Academy training program, with the employing railroad corporation paying for tuition and housing. If a person aspires to a transit and railroad police career, he or she needs a special set of skills and knowledge. Excellent written and verbal 47
communication skills, complex problem solving, and excellent decisionmaking skills will be important in this career. Social perceptiveness and sharp awareness, along with integrity and good judgment are additional necessary attributes. Well-trained transit police officers should be able to: use proven methods, technology and techniques to perform crime analysis; analyze crime trends, statistics, crime prevention and other components of criminal justice; demonstrate proper application of use of force, search and seizure, and additional legal concepts; enforce the law through knowledge of delinquency risk factors, diversion, prevention and related best practices; leverage advanced skills and knowledge to succeed in a transit and railroad police career. Assignments. I. Answer the questions. 1. What skills are necessary for a railroad police officer? 2. In what way can an officer pursue a bachelor‟s degree? 3. What educational establishments can railroad police officers receive their basic training at? 4. What does in-service training imply? 5. What kind of people do you think can be good railroad police officers? 6. What should a well-trained officer be able to do? 7. What do you think attracts candidates to become transit police officers? II. Fill gaps with the appropriate words following bellow. State, managers, law enforcement, peace, well-trained, bachelor’s, skills, required, certified, verbal, solving, training, officers, decisionmaking, judgment. 48
1. He has gained satisfactory training in a police academy and now he is a _____ officer. 2. In order to be a success in a transit and railroad police career a person should have a set of _____, for example, written and _____ communication skills, complex problem _____, _____ skills, and good _____. 3. Usually candidates are required to hold _____ degree and to have _____ experience. 4. Railroad police _____ must be _____ in the same manner as police or _____ officers. 5. In-service training is also _____ by _____ laws. 6. Railroad police _____ may also attend the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Academy _____ program. III. Choose the statement which suits best to express the main idea of the above text. a) Powers and duties of US railroad police special agents. b) The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Academy training program. c) Skills and knowledge necessary for a well-trained US railroad police special agent. d) Requirements to become a professional railroad police manager. IV. Not using the text, try to enumerate skills and knowledge necessary for a railroad police officer. Prove that they are significant for professional duties performing of a railroad police officer.
UNIT FIVE TRANSPORT SAFETY IN RUSSIA Text 1 FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SUPERVISION OF TRANSPORT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION The Federal Service for Supervision of Transport is a part of the Russian government structure on the level of the Federation. Its responsibility is air, sea, river, road and rail transports. According to the sphere of overseeing and supervising of Russia‟s transport safety, the Service has several agencies: railroad transport; automobile transport; sea and river transport; aviation transport; Development of transport system of Russia under present conditions acquires special significance. Transport is the most important component of our country‟s infrastructure and its sustainable and effective functioning is the prerequisite for high rate of economic growth, ensuring integrity, national security and defense capacity of the country, higher living standards of the population, rational integration into global economy. For ensuring transport safety the Service implements security procedures that serve to protect the travelling public by preventing any deadly or dangerous objects from being transported by any mode of transport. A transport safety officer assists in conducting screening of passengers, baggage and cargo, in monitoring the flow of passengers through the screening checkpoint to facilitate the orderly and efficient processing of passengers. An officer also maintains close communication with supervisors regarding any issues that might reveal a weakness or vulnerable area of transport security that is discovered in the course of duties and participates in information briefings concerning securitysensitive or classified information. To effectively assure transport safety an officer is required to have the following skills: 50
ability to learn the theories, dynamics, and factors underlying the protecting process to enable authoritative and independent meeting of obligation; ability to operate basic security equipment; ability to work with persons of diverse backgrounds; ability to communicate information effectively. Assignments. I. Study the active vocabulary from the above text. responsibility – полномочия supervision – надзор, наблюдение; заведование, контроль to oversee/supervise – наблюдать, надзирать; следить, смотреть transport safety – транспортная безопасность, безопасность на транспорте screening – тщательная проверка deadly – смертельный checkpoint – контрольно-пропускной пункт sensitive – связанный с … to meet one‟s obligations – выполнять свои обязательства II. Answer the following questions. 1. What kind of structure is the Federal Service for Supervision of Transport of the Russian Federation? 2. What does the sphere of overseeing and supervising of the Service depend on? 3. What agencies does the Service include? 4. What does the development of the Russian transport system have an influence on? Why does its safety have special significance? 5. What are the main obligations of a transport safety officer? 6. What skills and abilities should an officer have in order to perform his or her duties properly? 51
III. Find in the text the words or expressions meaning the following. the union of several provinces, states, etc., to form a federal union; to watch over and direct (2); resistance against danger, attack, or harm; protection; all the persons inhabiting a country, city, or other specified place; likely to cause death; means; goods carried by a ship, aircraft, or other vehicle, freight; a place where vehicles or travellers are stopped for official identification, inspection, etc; to institute legal proceedings; a set of tools, devices, kit, etc., assembled for a specific purpose, such as a soldier„s kit and weapons. IV. Say if the following statements are true or false. Correct the wrong information using the text. 1. The sphere of responsibility and supervising of the Federal Service for Supervision of Transport in Russia is road and rail transports. 2. The transport system and its safety have a significant impact on the economy, politics, national security and defense capacity of Russia. 3. Security procedures of the Service serving to protect the travelling public of Russian are completely differ from the same of other foreign countries such as Great Britain and the USA. 4. There is no need for a transport officer to report about revealing of a weakness or vulnerable area of transport security to the supervisor. 5. A transport officer should have good education and a lot of skills in order to assure transport safety effectively. 52
V. Express the main idea of the text you have read in 5 sentences. Use the phrases from Appendix 3. VI. Choose any 3-5 words or word combinations from the active vocabulary and make up your own sentences/situations.
Text 2 ROAD POLICY IN RUSSIA AND CIS Goals of road network development should correspond to goals of the territorial development strategy, particularly to that of achievement of human development standards and economic development indices. Besides, the realization of the above-mentioned goals should be performed in conformity with extended principles of sustainable (ecological, economical, social and geopolitical) development. The essence of the principle is in such use of various resources that would allow us to extensively exploit the resources today and at the same time to increase potential opportunities of development of future generations. As applied to the roads, it implies such a development of road infrastructure that not only maintains mobility of population and goods but also broadens these opportunities due to increase of the potential of the socalled secondary qualities of a territory, such as accessibility, connectedness, contrast (diversity) of locations. The role of roads in realization of potential opportunities for transportation of consumers of different territorial resources is especially significant as compared with the other transport modes, since roads reach even the smallest settlements. Nevertheless, these specific opportunities can become available only under two conditions: planning of the road development in accordance with the end consumption of services that lie beyond their production needs or beyond the needs of transport service providers. Road network development is not an end in itself but an instrument for achievement of the sustainable development parameters that are reflected in Minimal Transport (Road) Standard; financing that is ahead of current needs. 53
Minimal Transport (Road) Standard is the basis of the state road policy. Development of all transport modes is planned according to MTS disregarding their technological and branch incompatibility. MTS is a form of state regulation of transport system at the highest – strategic – level. State interests, as well as those of the population and future generations, must be protected by constant improvement of strategic indices of transport development. The ideology Improvement of life quality and business opportunities by means of road network creates a new genre of transport policy – the socalled White Books of Roads which is an official document for nonspecialists who make decisions on road network development (local administrative heads, deputies, governmental officials). White Books of Roads are compiled for 20 regions in Russia and CIS. White Books of Roads not only allows us to change the procedures of planning and management of the road economy, but also to defend transport workers‟ financial interests, and even to modify the tax system. Assignments. I. Answer the following questions using the information from the text given above. 1. What does the abbreviation CIS stand for? What countries belong to this assembly? 2. What do goals of road network development usually correspond to? 3. What principles are significant in the development of road infrastructure? 4. What makes the realization of main opportunities for transportation development available? 5. What is MTS? 6. What protects interests of the state, population and future generations? 7. What is the role of Improvement of life quality and business opportunities by means of road network? 8. What kind of document is the so-called White Books of Roads? 9. What road policy do Russia and CIS countries implement? 54
II. Find in the text the synonyms of the following words. Purpose, aim; strategy, course; standard, rule; growth; way, route, highway; structure, organization, system; funding. III. Make a short report concerning benefits and drawbacks of transport police and transport policy in Russia. What do you think should be changed in this sphere?
Text 3 TRANSPORT POLICE DAY February 18, 1919 the Russian Central Executive Committee adopted a decree «On organization of the railway police and railway security», and the Presidium of Central Executive Committee approved the «Regulations of the Workers‟ and Peasants‟ railway police». Since then this date is the Official Day of transport police. Transport police was established in Russia in early 19th century when the construction of railways and the development of rail transport complex required the provision of security of railway transportation and passengers. In 1836, due to the construction of the Russia‟s first public railroad between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo, a Separate Corps of Gendarmes was created. One of its divisions was the railway gendarmerie. In 1860s gendarmerie squads and teams were converted into police departments, and later into gendarmerie departments of railroads. They carried out police supervision over the construction and operation of railways in order to prevent sabotage, theft of cargo from rolling stock cars, they fought with the criminality, speculation and travel with no ticket. The decree of 1919 facilitated the establishment of security system, which was responsible for keeping order and security of passengers and cargo, on railway, and later on sea and air transport. Initially, management of the transport police was based on a territorial basis. However, experience has proved the imperfection of the principle of territorial management and police units were established on every railway. In 1938, the railway police units were subordinated to the General Directorate of Police. After the Great Patriotic War transport police au55
thorities were led by General Directorate of the Ministry of State Security of USSR for transport. In 1971, police units were created for air transport. Together with the police at the railway and water transport they represented a unified system of the transport police of the country. In 1980, the transport police was transformed into a body of internal affairs for transport. Assignments. I. Find the information from the above text on the following topics. 1. The official date of the Transport Police Day in Russia. 2. The documents which laid down the foundations of modern transport police. 3. The prerequisites for establishment of transport police in Russia. 4. The creation of a Separate Corps of Gendarmes, its departments and obligations. 5. The development and reorganization of transport police since 1919 and up to the present. II. Explain the meaning of the following notions in English using an English-English dictionary. Executive Committee, to adopt, division, gendarmerie, operation of railways, sabotage, speculation, establishment, to keep order and security, territorial management, unified system. III. Find in the text the endings to the given sentences. 1. A decree «On organization of the railway police and railway security» was adopted … . 2. The main reasons of establishment of transport police in Russia in early 19th century were … . 3. The creation of a Separate Corps of Gendarmes was a consequence of …
4. Police supervision of gendarmerie departments of railroads included … . 5. Established in 1919 security system was responsible for … . 6. The General Directorate of Police subordinated … . 7. The unified system of the transport police of Russia consisted of …. 8. In 1980, the transport police was transformed into … .
Appendix 1 Mini-Dictionary A accident – несчастный случай, авария administration of justice – отправление правосудия apprehend – арестовывать, задерживать arrest – арестовывать, задерживать arson – поджог assault – нападение assist – помогать, содействовать, способствовать authority – полномочия, обязанности, функции B bachelor‟s degree – степень бакалавра belongings – принадлежности, вещи C canine handling – тренировка, подготовка служебных собак carrier – транспортное агентство checkpoint – контрольно-пропускной пункт college degree – образование в объеме колледжа combat – бороться commit – совершать commissions – полномочия, обязанности, функции conduct – вести, проводить constable – констебль conveyance – транспортное средство; перевозка crash site – место аварии crime – преступление 58
criminal – преступник; преступный criminal justice system – уголовное судопроизводство criminal record – досье преступника, регистрация приводов, судимостей criminality – преступность customer – потребитель D decision-making skill – умение принимать решения deadly – смертельный deliver – предоставлять, осуществлять (услуги) detect – раскрывать, расследовать преступление deter – предотвращать, предупреждать drug – наркотики drunkenness – алкогольное опьянение (как обстоятельство, имеющее значение для уголовной ответственности); пребывание в общественном месте в состоянии явного опьянения duty – полномочия, обязанности, функции E enforce – придавать законную силу (правовому акту), осуществлять, приводить в исполнение enforce the laws – требовать, следить за соблюдением законов equipment – оборудование, оснащение evasion – уклонение (от исполнения закона, требований) evidence – улика, доказательство execute – исполнять, осуществлять, приводить в исполнение execution – исполнение, осуществление exercise – осуществлять, применять
F felony – тяжкое уголовное преступление fine – штраф forensic – судебный fraud – мошенничество, обман H harassment – причинение беспокойства, приставание, преследование, оскорбление, домогательство Home Office – министерство внутренних дел (в Великобритании) I imprison – заключать в тюрьму infraction – нарушение incident – происшествие in-service training – обучение по месту работы, без отрыва от производства interview – опрашивать intimidation – запугивание investigate – раскрывать, расследовать преступление investigator – следователь issue – выдавать, выписывать J jurisdiction – юрисдикция; отправление правосудия; власть, полномочия justice – правосудие, юстиция L law – закон 60
law enforcement – обеспечение правопорядка; правоприменение, применение закона law enforcement agency – правоохранительный орган level crossing – переезд со шлагбаумом M meet one‟s obligations – выполнять свои обязательства military police – военная полиция misdemeanour – административное правонарушение N nuisance – нарушение O offence – правонарушение on ground that – на том основании, что … oversee – наблюдать, надзирать; следить, смотреть (за чем-л.) P passenger – пассажир patrol – дозор, патруль; патрулировать, охранять pickpocketing – карманная кража police – поддерживать порядок, обеспечивать безопасность, охранять police authority – полицейская власть, полицейский орган police service(s) – полицейская служба; полицейское обслуживание; полицейские функции powers – полномочия, обязанности, функции prevent – предотвращать, предупреждать prison sentence – наказание тюремным заключением 61
process – возбуждать процесс, направлять или вызывать в суд property – имущество, собственность public peace – общественный порядок public transport/public transportation/public transit – общественный транспорт R rank – звание, чин, служебное положение, ранг railroad – рельсовая дорога, железная дорога rail service – железнодорожное сообщение railway system – железнодорожная сеть related – связанный с report – протокол request – запрос, заявка, прошение; запрашивать, ходатайствовать responsibility – полномочия, обязанности, функции robbery – ограбление (с применением насилия), грабеж, разбой rowdy behavior – буйное, хулиганское поведение S sabotage – саботаж, диверсия, вредительство; саботировать, организовывать диверсию, заниматься вредительством safety – безопасность security – безопасность security police – служба безопасности seize – налагать арест, задерживать, конфисковывать sensitive – связанный с … scene of crime – место совершения преступления screen – проверять, проводить досмотр screening – тщательная проверка skill – умение, навык 62
special constable – констебль для специального поручения statutory – установленный законом, предписанный законом, предусмотренный законом supervise – наблюдать, надзирать; следить, смотреть (за чем-л.) supervision – надзор, наблюдение; заведование, контроль suspect – подозреваемый; подозревать suspicious – подозрительный, вызывающий подозрения T tackle – расследовать, раскрывать theft – кража, воровство ticket touting – нелегальное распространение билетов train – тренировать(ся), готовить(ся), обучать(ся) transit – проезд; перевозка; транспорт transit system – система транспорта, транспортная инфраструктура transport/transit/railroad police – транспортная полиция transport police officer – офицер транспортной полиции transport safety – транспортная безопасность, безопасность на транспорте trespassing – нарушение, злоупотребление V vehicle – транспортное средство violence – жестокость, насилие, применение силы violation – нарушение violation ticket – штраф W warrant – ордер (на арест, обыск и т.п.); приказ witness – свидетель 63
Appendix 2 Texts and articles for discussion and rendering
TRANSPORT POLICE OF KAZAKHSTAN AND RUSSIA DEBATED MEASURES OF DRUG COMBAT Meeting of Orenburg administration of transport police of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and its Kazakh counterpart from Aktobe station took place in city of Sol-Iletsk, reports the press service of the Department of Internal Affairs on transport. Its purpose is implementing the CIS Program on combating international crime, detection and solving of crimes, including within the framework of cross-border cooperation with Internal Affairs Department of the Russian Internal Affairs Ministry. The relevance of the working meeting confirms the fact that currently the two states are equally experiencing the pressure of a number of factors related to drug trafficking, the threat of proliferation which is becoming every day more and more real and tangible. And this meeting means the next stage and the testimony of the positive development of relations between our countries in the fight against drug abuse and drug trafficking, and further development of international cooperation. They discussed issues concerning organization of interaction of internal affairs departments on transport in fight against drug trafficking activities in the field of prevention, crime detection and search for criminals, hiding from the preliminary investigation and the procedure for the exchange of information on identified ways to conceal drugs when crossing the Russian – Kazakhstan border through the checkpoints, including the investigation of crimes related to drug trafficking and potent substances. In addition, the issue, which today is a major concern of law enforcement agencies in our countries, is intensifying migration processes that are in turn used by drug dealers as a channel of movement of drugs across the border, and is the primary source of such manifestations of terrorism and extremism. The parties also discussed the organization of joint activities aimed at preventing and detection of crimes involving theft of goods from vehicles. 64
After considering all the problematic topics it has been agreed to intensify efforts to combat the smuggling of narcotics, illegal migration, tracing persons evading prosecution authorities, the implementation of the exchange of operational and meaningful information on the activities of organized criminal groups specializing in the field of drug trafficking, theft, with rolling stock and with availability of such information to conduct joint complex search operations and generally expand and make such joint working meetings regular in the future.
BRITISH TRANSPORT POLICE LAUNCH FIRST NON-EMERGENCY TEXT NUMBER FOR SOUTH WEST PASSENGERS For the first time, rail passengers across the South West can report incidents to police via text, following the launch of a new non-emergency text number by British Transport Police (BTP). The new text short code, 61016, will give passengers an additional tool to report incidents in real time wherever there is a mobile phone signal. The number is designed to capture low level, non-emergency incidents, similar to the non-emergency 101 phone number used by local forces. By creating a text capability BTP hopes passengers will be more likely to report incidents, such as anti-social behavour, giving police a better understanding of the nature, number, time and location of incidents which would previously have gone unreported. BTP‟s Sector Commander for the South West, Chief Inspector Paul Richards, said: «BTP aims to be as open and responsive as possible and this is the next logical step for us. Text messaging is a quick and everyday way to communicate and passengers want to be able contact us this way». «By encouraging passengers to also report incidents via text, we hope we will get a more complete picture of the sort of low level but all too common incidents that affect people‟s journeys across the network».
«However, text messages should never be sent in an emergency situation as there are no guarantees that they send correctly or are received promptly». The 61016 text number will be monitored 24/7 and whilst it is not for reporting emergencies, there will be the capacity to send a policing response if required. CI Richards added: «Low level anti-social behaviour, which we know occurs on trains often later at night and when people have been drinking, is undoubtedly under reported. Passengers tend to accept or ignore the minority who make the journeys unpleasant for everyone else». «We hope that the ease of being able to send a quick text message will encourage more passengers to report incidents when they occur. By building up a more accurate picture we can better focus our resources». First Great Western Head of Security Paula Durrans said: «We welcome this initiative by the BTP and we will continue to work with them to reduce any incidents of anti-social behaviour and crime from our trains, or at our stations». David Sidebottom, Passenger Focus director, said: «Passengers tell us that they generally feel safe on the railway, however, they will welcome this initiative as it will provide them with an easy way to highlight the problems they come across».
STUDENTS ADVISED WATCH THEIR VALUABLES AS RESHERS’ WEEK GETS UNDERWAY BTP officers will be out at key locations this week, warning freshers of the dangers of over-indulging in alcohol and leaving themselves vulnerable to thieves. Officers will be offering crime prevention advice to students and other passengers, while also stepping up patrols in key locations to deter thieves on trains, platforms and stations. Our week of concentrated activity follows the launch of our national theft campaign showing 13 common theft tactics to help passengers protect their belongings. Thieves look for soft targets Superintendent Malcolm McKinnon, who is co-ordinating BTP‟s activity, said: «Thieves will look for soft targets, and people who have been drinking can be less than vigilant and less aware of their surroundings». «We would urge all undergraduates to keep a close watch on their property and to be aware of the methods used by criminals who operate on the rail network». As well as patrols and anti-theft surgeries, officers and staff will be helping students register their electrical gadgets on immobilise.com, a website that helps police reunite people with lost or stolen items. Help protect yourself from thieves Superintendent McKinnon added: «Crime on the railway is relatively low, but there is a criminal element who will seek to exploit the busy rail network for gain». «By understanding the tactics used by thieves and the increased vulnerability caused by alcohol, students can help ensure their belongings are protected from thieves. By all means enjoy yourself, but make sure you and your property remain safe whilst travelling». Thieves’ common tactics: top tips for freshers Watch out for the most common tricks thieves use. If you‟re taking luggage on the train, keep everything close by if possible and check on it regularly. Always keep your valuables hidden when not in use – especially if you‟re going to have some sleep. Install a tracker app on your smartphone, and get electronics registered with Immobilise. 67
TRANSPORTATION SAFETY On the 18th – 19th of April 2013 the III International Forum «Transportation Safety» has been held in Saint-Petersburg within the framework of the «UNITED RUSSIA» Party Project «Saint-Petersburg – the Sea Capital of Russia». The Forum was supported and participated by The Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, The State Duma of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation and agencies and services under its jurisdiction and other profile ministries and agencies and regional authorities. 350 delegates from 40 Russian regions and 10 foreign states participated in the Forum. A vivid discussion was evoked by the reports of the Chairman of the Subcommittee on transportation policy of the State Duma Committee on Transport Alexandr Starovoitov who revealed the issues of realizing 16 Federal Law «On Transportation Safety» and also the speech of the Deputy Head of the Senior Directory on traffic safety insurance of the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation Sergey Dobryakov who stated an issue of designing and realizing federal target programme «Increasing traffic safety in 2013-2020». In four working sessions seperated accorting to the transport types – aviation and flights safety, river and marine transportation safety, automobile and passenger conveyance safety, railway carrying safety – there were specialists from profile federal agencies of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, vice-governors of the Russian Federation‟s subjects, chiefs and company‟s specialists in the sphere of transportation safety. Concurrently with the Business programme of the Forum there was an exhibition part that displayed equipment for transport infrastructure objects and vehicles safety insurance, communicative information systems and technologies. The Forum is to result in resolution with proposals and recommendations which will be directed to the profile committees of the Upper and Lower Chambers of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, ministries and agencies, Public Chamber of the Russian Federation, Open Government in order to improve the legislative base and the system of state regulation of transport field in safety aspect.
Appendix 3 Word-expressions for text rendering
Название текста/статьи Текст/статья написан(а) Цель текста/статьи – проанализировать проиллюстрировать показать представить Автор/текст/статья рассматривает ряд проблем проблему анализ Автор описывает объясняет анализирует упоминает критикует характеризует говорит о Автор/текст/статья дает описание анализ обзор Автор/текст/статья рассматривает
1. The title of the text/article is 2. The text/article is written by 4. The aim of text/article is to analyze to illustrate to show to present 5. The author/text/article rises a variety of problems a problem of the analysis of 6. The author describes explains analyses mentions criticizes characterizes speaks about 7. The author/text/article gives the description of the analysis of the review of 8. The author/text/article deals with 9. It should be noted that 10. It is interesting that 11. In conclusion the author describes 12. In my opinion 13. I think/I suppose/I believe 14. I‟d like to say that 15. The text/the article is interesting/important
Следует отметить, что Интересно, что В заключение автор описывает По моему мнению Я думаю, я полагаю Я хотел(а) бы сказать, что Текст/статья интересный(ая)/важный(ая) 69
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12. Railroad police http://en.wikipedia.org/
13. Road Policy in Russia and CIS: Novel management technology for region sustainability [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://oooliderclimat.ru/roadpolicy.htm/ 14. Russia – market of the future – challenges for logistic providers and investment opportunities // Russia is the land of logistic projects. – Berlin, 2006. – 16 p. 15. St.Petersburg – the Sea Capital of Russia. Transportation Safety [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://global-port.ru/transportation/ 16. Transport police Day [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.prlib.ru/ 70
17. Transport police of Kazakhstan and Russia debated measures of drug combat [Электронный ресурс] – Режим доступа: http://www.inform.kz/ 18. Transport policing http://www.tfl.gov.uk/
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УЧЕБНОЕ ИЗДАНИЕ Малахова Виктория Леонидовна, кандидат филологических наук TRANSPORTATION SECURITY: ENGLISH FOR TRANSPORT POLICE OFFICERS АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ СОТРУДНИКАМИ ПОЛИЦИИ
Учебно-методическое пособие Редактор Комп. верстка
Ю.Н. Удалова И.Ю. Чернышева
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