Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems 0128142952, 9780128142950

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Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
 0128142952, 9780128142950

Table of contents :
Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
Copyright
Dedication
List of contributors
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
1 -
Transportation Cyber-Physical System and its importance for future mobility
1. Introduction of Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2. Transportation Cyber-Physical System examples and its components
2.1 Aviation Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2.1.1 Examples of aviation Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2.2 Rail Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2.2.1 Examples of Rail Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2.3 Road Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2.3.1 Examples of Road Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2.4 Marine Transportation Cyber-Physical System
2.4.1 Examples of Marine Transportation Cyber-Physical System
3. Transportation Cyber-Physical System for the future of mobility: Environmental and societal benefits
3.1 Environmental benefits of Transportation Cyber-Physical System
3.2 Societal benefits of Transportation Cyber-Physical System
4. Challenges for Transportation Cyber-Physical System adoption and their mapping to book chapters
4.1 Chapter II: Architectures of Cyber-Physical Transportation Systems
4.2 Chapter III: Collaborative modelling and co-simulation for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
4.3 Chapter IV: Real-time control systems
4.4 Chapter V: Transportation Cyber-Physical System security and privacy
4.5 Chapter VI: Infrastructure for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
4.6 Chapter VII: Data management issues in Cyber-Physical Systems
4.7 Chapter VIII: Human factors in Transportation Cyber-Physical System
4.8 Chapter IX: Transportation Cyber-Physical System as a specialised education stream
4.9 Chapter X: Research challenges and transatlantic collaboration on Transportation Cyber-Physical System
4.10 Chapter XI: Future of Transportation Cyber-Physical System – smart cities/regions
Exercises
References
2 -
Architectures of Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
1. Introduction
1.1 Networked
1.2 Open
1.3 Uncertainty
2. Background
2.1 Architecture Analysis and Design Language
2.2 Quality attributes
2.3 Analog/digital models
2.4 Frameworks
3. Current canonical cyber-physical system architectures
4. Types of architecture models
4.1 Structures
4.2 Modelling nominal and error behaviour
5. Issues with the current models
5.1 Mobility
5.2 Agility of development
6. Emerging architectures
6.1 Internet of Things
6.2 Cloud architecture
6.2.1 Cloud consumer
6.2.2 Cloud broker
6.3 Smart city architecture
6.3.1 China's smart cities' project
7. Case studies
7.1 Software architecture aspects
7.2 Quality attributes for smart city applications
7.3 Challenges of mobile applications
8. Conclusion
Exercises
References
3 -
Collaborative modelling and co-simulation for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
1. Introduction
2. Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems engineering
2.1 New mobility concepts
2.2 Cyber-physical system engineering in transportation
2.3 Multidisciplinary aspects of Transportation Cyber-Physical System
3. The model-based cyber-physical system engineering context
4. Towards an integrated tool chain for cyber-physical system engineering
4.1 Foundations for collaborative modelling
4.1.1 Models
4.1.2 System architecture
4.1.3 Analytic techniques
4.2 Towards a tool chain for co-modelling
4.3 Modelling technologies
4.3.1 OpenModelica
4.3.2 VDM-RT and Overture
5. An example of co-modelling: railway interlocking system
5.1 Premise
5.2 The challenges of interlocking
5.3 Accurate train movement simulation and challenges
5.4 Collaborative model-based design of distributed interlocking
5.5 Multidisciplinary co-modelling
5.5.1 Architecture of the co-model
5.5.2 Continuous-time modelling
5.5.3 Discrete-event model of the decentralised controller
5.5.4 SysML description of the co-model
5.6 Running a co-simulation
5.7 Design space exploration
5.8 Hardware-in-the-loop simulation
6. Conclusions and future directions
Exercises
References
4 -
Real-time control systems
1. Introduction
2. Components in real-time control systems
2.1 Typical real-time control system
2.1.1 Smart traffic light control systems
2.1.2 Autopilot systems
2.2 Structure of the real-time control system of autonomous vehicles
2.3 Electronic control units
2.4 Sensors in autonomous vehicles
2.4.1 Ultrasonic sensors
2.4.2 Radio detection and ranging sensors
2.4.2.1 Distance detection by radio detection and ranging sensor
2.4.2.2 Speed detection by radio detection and ranging sensor
2.4.2.3 Different uses of radio detection and ranging sensor in autonomous vehicles
2.4.3 Light detection and ranging sensors
2.4.4 Cameras
2.4.5 Speed sensors
2.4.5.1 Inductive sensors
2.4.5.2 Hall effect sensors
2.4.5.3 Optical sensors
2.4.6 Global positioning system
2.4.6.1 Basic application of global positioning system in autonomous vehicles
2.4.6.2 Real time kinematic global positioning system
2.4.7 Acceleration sensors
2.4.7.1 Basic acceleration sensor
2.4.7.2 Piezoelectric acceleration sensor
2.4.8 Inertial measurement unit
2.5 Actuators
3. Real-time control systems in autonomous vehicles
3.1 Perception
3.1.1 Obstacle detection and tracking
3.1.1.1 Feature extraction
3.1.1.2 Obstacle detection
3.1.1.3 Moving obstacle tracking
3.1.2 Localisation
3.1.3 Vehicle state estimation
3.2 Mission planning
3.2.1 Path planning
3.2.2 Behavioural reasoning
3.3 Motion planning and control
3.3.1 Adaptive cruise control
3.3.2 Lane keeping
3.3.3 Lane switching
3.3.4 Neural network–based advanced control
3.3.5 Stochastic model–based control
3.3.6 Model predictive control
3.4 Autonomous vehicle collaboration in Transportation Cyber-Physical System
3.4.1 Communication in Transportation Cyber-Physical System
3.4.2 Vehicle to vehicle collaboration
3.4.3 Vehicle to infrastructure collaboration
4. Conclusions and future directions
Exercises
References
5 -
Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Privacy
1. Introduction
2. Basic concepts
2.1 Threats
2.2 Adversaries
2.3 Confidentiality, integrity and availability
2.4 Risk
2.5 Attack trees
2.6 Kill chains
2.7 Security controls
2.8 Extending the confidentiality, integrity and availability triad
3. Threats and vulnerabilities in Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
3.1 Threat scenarios
3.2 Attack surfaces
3.3 Reliance on sensors and Wi-Fi
4. Security models for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
4.1 Challenges
4.2 Security architecture
4.3 Situational awareness
4.4 Security controls
4.5 Privacy
4.6 Testing and verification
4.7 Emerging standards
5. Applied security controls in Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
5.1 Embedded systems security
5.2 Access control, encryption and identity
5.3 Code signing
5.4 Device attestation
5.5 Embedded firewalls
5.6 Embedded hardware security modules
5.7 Intrusion and fault tolerance
5.8 Telemetry and message provenance
5.9 Other techniques
6. Use case: connected car
6.1 Key stakeholders
6.2 System and component architecture
6.3 Evolution towards autonomy
6.4 Threats and vulnerabilities
6.5 Threat mitigation
6.6 Summary
7. Emerging technologies
7.1 Software-defined networks
7.2 Virtualisation
7.3 Big data
7.4 Artificial intelligence and machine learning
7.5 Blockchain
8. Conclusions and future direction
Exercises
References
6 -
Infrastructure for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
1. Introduction to infrastructure for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
2. Networking among data infrastructure
3. Data collection and ingest
3.1 Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems data source challenges
3.2 Data brokering infrastructure
4. Data processing engines
4.1 Batch processing engines for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
4.2 Stream processing engines
5. Serving layer
6. Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems infrastructure as code
6.1 Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems cloud infrastructure as code
6.2 Internet of Things infrastructure as code
7. Future direction
8. Summary and conclusions
Exercises
References
7 -
Data Management Issues in Cyber-Physical Systems
1. Cyber-physical systems: an interdisciplinary confluence
2. Cyber-physical systems are diverse
3. Data management issues
3.1 Data management system choices
3.2 Data quality issues
3.3 Human cognitive biases in decision-making
3.4 Cybersecurity issues in data management
4. Database systems for cyber-physical systems
4.1 Cluster-based distributed computing
4.2 Relaxed data consistency requirements
4.3 Hash functions
4.4 Hash trees
4.5 Consistent hashing
4.6 Memory-mapped files, distributed file systems and vector clocks
4.7 Data partitioning, replication, versioning and compression
4.8 Elasticsearch: a search and analytics engine
4.8.1 Elasticsearch architecture
5. Data analytics for cyber-physical systems
5.1 Types of data analytics
5.2 Descriptive analytics
5.3 Diagnostic analytics
5.4 Predictive analytics
5.5 Prescriptive analytics
5.6 Data analytics resources and tools
6. Current trends and research issues
References
8 -
Human Factors in Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study of a Smart Automated Transport and Retrieval System (S ...
1. Introduction
2. Related human factors approaches
2.1 Human factors integration
2.2 Human-centred design
2.3 Usability evaluation
2.4 Interaction modalities
3. Case study
3.1 Requirements
3.2 System architecture
3.3 User interface design
3.4 Risk analysis
3.5 Task analysis, usability, evaluations and workload measurements
3.5.1 Hierarchical task analysis
3.5.2 Evaluation 1 (keyfob, touch and joystick based interactions)
3.5.3 Evaluation 1 results
3.5.4 Evaluation 2 (touch and head based interactions)
3.5.5 Evaluation 2 results
3.5.6 Evaluation 3 (touch and smartglass based interaction)
3.5.7 Evaluation 3 results
4. Discussion
5. Conclusions and future work
Exercises
References
9 -
Transportation Cyber-Physical System as a Specialised Education Stream
1. Introduction
2. Background
2.1 Academic disciplines
2.2 Transportation systems
2.3 The need for Transportation Cyber-Physical System engineers
3. A cyber-physical system workforce
4. Required knowledge and skills
4.1 Proposed cyber-physical system curricula
4.2 Cyber-physical system education: knowledge mapping
4.3 Wicked problems
4.4 Key disciplines for Transportation Cyber-Physical System curriculum
5. Curriculum delivery mechanism
6. Conclusions
References
10 -
Research Challenges and Transatlantic Collaboration on Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
1. Introduction
2. A context of predictions
3. Dynamic and complex systems
4. Key research challenges
4.1 Security of cyber-physical systems
4.2 Cyber-physical systems testing
4.3 Human–Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems interaction
4.4 Verification of Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems
4.5 Big data analytics for control and machine learning
4.6 Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems operational paradigms
4.7 Summary of research challenges
5. Skills for Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems researchers
6. Regulatory environments
7. Opportunities for collaboration
8. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
11 -
Future of Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems – Smart Cities/Regions
1. What is a Smart City?
2. Major characteristics of a Smart City
2.1 Smart/intelligent infrastructure sensors
2.2 Big data infrastructure and data analytics capability
2.3 Communication technologies
2.3.1 Fibre optic networks
2.3.2 Wi-Fi communication
2.3.3 Cellular communication
2.3.4 Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC)
3. Smart City as a systems of systems
3.1 Transportation systems
3.1.1 Smart vehicles
3.1.2 Smart transportation infrastructure
3.1.3 Smart cloud services
3.1.4 Next generation air transportation system
3.2 Energy infrastructure
3.3 Public safety
3.4 Healthcare
3.5 Environment
3.6 Other Smart City infrastructure
3.6.1 Smart building system
3.6.2 Smart water distribution system
3.7 Stakeholders
4. Emerging transportation services in the Smart City context
4.1 Real-time winter road conditions
4.2 Smartphones and traveller information
4.3 Smart streetlights
4.4 Smart parking services
4.4.1 CoPark approach
4.4.2 Park and ride approach
4.4.3 Crowdsourcing-based approach
4.5 Smart intersections
5. Smart City developments around the world
5.1 London, England
5.2 Seoul, South Korea
5.3 Singapore, Singapore
5.4 Columbus, Ohio, USA
6. Future research directions
6.1 Technology
6.2 Interdependency
6.3 Resiliency of interconnected systems
6.4 Workforce development
7. Conclusions
Exercises
References
Index
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