Towards a Comparative Analysis of Social Inequalities between Europe and Latin America 3030484416, 9783030484415

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Towards a Comparative Analysis of Social Inequalities between Europe and Latin America
 3030484416, 9783030484415

Table of contents :
Acknowledgments
Contents
Editors and Contributors
About the Editors
Contributors
Part I: Introduction
Chapter 1: A General Model for the Comparative Analysis of Social Inequalities Between Europe and Latin America
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The INCASI Project
1.3 The AMOSIT Model for the Comparative Analysis of Social Inequalities Between Europe and Latin America
1.3.1 Social Inequalities from a Comparative Perspective
1.3.2 Analytical Model on Social Inequalities and Trajectories (AMOSIT)
1.3.2.1 Inequalities in the Labour Market and Labour Trajectories
1.3.2.2 Educational Inequalities
1.3.2.3 Asymmetries in the Relationship Between Training and Employment
1.3.2.4 Inequalities in Work and Family Life
1.3.2.5 Social Inequalities, Migration and Space
1.3.2.6 Uncertainty, Strategies, Resources and Capabilities
1.3.2.7 Inequality of Opportunity: Intergenerational Social Mobility
1.3.2.8 Linking the Thematic Lines of Research
1.4 Structure and Contents of the Book
References
Chapter 2: Social Models for Dealing with Inequalities
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Conceptualisation
2.2.1 Pre-distributive Institutions
2.2.2 Post-distributive Institutions
2.2.3 Coordinated and Uncoordinated Economies
2.2.3.1 Strong Neo-Corporatism
2.2.3.2 Mixed Coordination
2.2.3.3 Uncoordinated Economies
2.2.3.4 Latin America, the Burden of Informality
2.3 Analysis Model
2.4 Results: A Comparative Study
2.4.1 Context and Trends of Inequalities 2007–2017
2.4.1.1 Changes in Inequalities
2.4.2 Comparison of Models: Differentiation Factors
2.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities Between Social Models
2.4.3.1 Cluster of Latin American Countries: Uncoordinated Informal Economies
2.4.3.2 Cluster of Neo-Corporatist Coordinated Economies
2.4.3.3 Liberal Cluster: Uncoordinated Economies
2.4.3.4 Cluster of Mixed or Semi-Coordinated Economies
2.5 Conclusions
2.5.1 European Trends in Pre-distributive Policies
2.5.2 Discussion
References
Part II: Labour and Educational Inequalities
Chapter 3: Comparing Inequalities in the Labour Market from a Segmentation Perspective
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Characterisation of European and Latin American Labour Markets
3.3 Inequality in the Labour Market from the Perspective of Segmentation
3.4 Comparative Analysis of Labour Market Segmentation in Spain and Argentina
3.4.1 The Context of the Spanish Labour Market
3.4.2 The Context of the Argentinian Labour Market
3.4.3 Analysis Model and Methodology
3.4.4 Results of Segmentation Analysis in Spain and Argentina
3.4.4.1 Labour Segmentation Factors
3.4.4.2 Types of Labour Segmentation
3.5 Conclusions
Appendix
References
Chapter 4: Education and Inequality in Finland, Spain and Brazil
4.1 Introduction
4.2 International Comparison of Education
4.3 Historical and Economic Context
4.3.1 Educational Level
4.3.2 PISA Results
4.3.3 Unequal Opportunities in PISA and Social Origin
4.4 Education in Finland
4.4.1 Neoliberal Turn in Education Policies
4.4.2 Education and (In)equality
4.5 Educational Inequalities in Spain
4.6 Brazil: A Maxi Educational Inequality
4.6.1 A Triple Segregation
4.6.2 Higher Education in Brazil
4.7 Conclusions
Appendix
References
Chapter 5: Digital Revolution and Sociocultural Change
5.1 Introduction: The Role of the Digital Economy and Policies to Universalise Its Positive Effects
5.2 Methodology: Advantages and Limitations of a Comparison Between Countries
5.3 Changes to Businesses, Employment and Everyday Life
5.3.1 In Businesses and Employment
5.3.2 Everyday Life and Technologies (Internet, Mobile Phones, Digital Networks)
5.4 Society’s Possible Response to the Fourth Technological Revolution
5.4.1 What Policies and Regulations Are Desirable in Relation to Employment?
5.4.2 A New Concept of School and Education Is Required
5.4.3 Elements for Understanding the Sociocultural Change that Will Come with the Technological Revolution
5.5 Conclusions
References
Press Links
Part III: Social Stratification and Mobility
Chapter 6: The Measurement of Social Stratification: Comparative Perspectives Between Europe and Latin America
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Comparative and Historical Overviews
6.3 A Theoretical-Methodological Framework for Comparative Social Stratification
6.4 Class Structure by Sex in European and Latin American INCASI Countries
6.5 Compared Social Classes: Method and Contrast of Contents
6.5.1 Income
6.5.2 Seniority in Employment
6.5.3 Labour Market Sectors and Company Size
6.5.4 Education
6.5.5 Subjective Perception of Income
6.6 Validation of Social Classes Through Latent Class Analysis
6.7 Conclusions
Appendix: Main Characteristics of the Data Sources
References
Chapter 7: Social Mobility from a Comparative Perspective Between Europe and Latin America
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Theoretical Perspectives and Previous Studies in Europe and Latin America
7.2.1 Social Mobility in Industrialised Countries
7.2.2 Social Mobility and Development in Latin America
7.3 Definitions, Data and Methodology
7.3.1 Definition of Social Classes
7.3.2 Data
7.3.3 Models and Techniques
7.3.3.1 Absolute Mobility
7.3.3.2 Relative Mobility: Rigidity and Fluidity
7.3.3.3 Relative Mobility: Distances Between Social Classes
7.4 Results
7.4.1 Absolute Mobility
7.4.2 Relative Mobility: Rigidity and Fluidity
7.4.3 Social Distances
7.4.3.1 Relative Mobility: Distances Between Intra-Country RCII Classes
7.4.3.2 Distances Between Inter-Country RCII Classes
7.4.3.3 Distances Between RCII Classes: Inheritance
7.5 Summary and Conclusions
7.6 Discussion
Appendix 7.1 Characteristics of the Sample Used and Employment Rates Per Country and Year
Appendix 7.2 Vertical Mobility in 3 Macro-Classes (I + II; III a VI and VIIa+VIIb)
Appendix 7.3 Distance in Odds Ratio Between Inter-Country Classes. Access by Farm Labourers to Other Classes
References
Chapter 8: Migration and Social Mobility Between Argentina and Spain: Climbing the Social Hierarchy in the Transnational Space
8.1 Introduction
8.2 The Migration-Social Mobility Connection: An Issue for Debate
8.3 Methodological Challenges: Data and Analysis Techniques
8.4 Migrations in Spain and Argentina Within the Regional Context (Europe and Latin America): A Tale of Comings and Goings
8.5 Immigration and Social Mobility in Argentina and Spain
8.6 The Social Mobility Strategies of Migrant Families Addressed Through Compared Case Analysis: Comings and Goings Between Galicia and Buenos Aires
8.7 Conclusions
References
Chapter 9: Changes in Economic Inequality in Europe and Latin America in the First Decades of the Twenty-First Century
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Conceptualizations
9.3 Comparative Study of Countries from Latin America and Europe
9.4 Relation Between Inequality and the Primary and Secondary Sources of Income Distribution
9.5 Factorial and Temporal Breakdown of Inequality
9.6 Conclusions
References
Part IV: Life Trajectories and Gender Inequality
Chapter 10: Theoretical-Methodological Elements for Comparative Analysis of Social Inequalities in Life Courses
10.1 The Longitudinal Dimension of Social Inequalities
10.1.1 Study of Inequalities: Between Structure and Social Action
10.1.2 Life Course Transitions as Excellent Vantage Points for Observing Inequalities and Social Protection Actions
10.2 A Qualitative and Comparative Narrative-Biographical Perspective
10.2.1 The Narrative-Biographical Approach
10.2.2 Case Studies as a Strategy for the Analysis of Comparative Life Stories
10.3 Application of the Theoretical-Methodological Proposal to the Comparison of Career Paths in Argentina and Spain
10.3.1 Brief Presentation of the Research Conducted in Argentina and Spain
10.3.2 Intra-Configurative Biographical Analysis: Presentation of the Case Studies
10.3.2.1 Case 1: Enrique’s Career Path
10.3.2.2 Case 2: Rubén’s Career Path
10.3.2.3 Case 3: Andrés’ Career Path
10.3.2.4 Case 4: Begoña’s Career Path
10.3.3 The Inter-Configurative Biographical Analysis: Case Comparison as an Analytical Key
10.4 Final Thoughts. The Development of an International Comparative Perspective Based on Analysis of Unequal Life Courses
Appendix 1. Enrique (49): Craft Worker–Crane Operator
Appendix 2. Rubén (44). Precariousness Path without a Craft
Appendix 3. Andrés (46): Craft Worker–Subway Company
Appendix 4. Begoña (38): Precariousness Path without a Craft–Retailing Company
References
Chapter 11: Social Times, Reproduction and Social Inequality at Work: Contrasts and Comparative Perspectives Between Countries
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Theoretical-Methodological Considerations
11.3 General Comparative Overview of the Countries
11.4 Comparative Analysis of the Gaps in Domestic and Care Work
11.5 Analysis Results
11.6 Conclusions
References
Chapter 12: Recent Evolutions of Gender, State Feminism and Care Models in Latin America and Europe
12.1 Introduction
12.2 State Feminism
12.2.1 Woman-Friendliness of (EU) Institutions after the Second Feminist Wave: Truths and Myths
12.2.2 State Feminism under (UN International) Control in Latin America
12.3 Gender and Welfare State Systems
12.3.1 Variations and Trends in European Union Care Regimes
12.3.2 Variations and Trends in Latin American Care Regimes
12.4 Times of Feminist Troubles and Struggles in Growing Neo-Liberal and Authoritarian Environments
12.4.1 The Recent Shift in Gender Equality Policies
12.4.2 Institutional Failures and (South American) Street Feminism Riposte
12.5 Conclusions
References
Part V: Social Policies
Chapter 13: Unemployment Benefits: Discursive Convergence, Distant Realities
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Models and Institutions of Unemployment Protection
13.2.1 Conceptualisation
13.2.1.1 Functions of Unemployment Benefit Systems
13.2.2 Analysis of the Compared Models
13.2.2.1 Social-Democratic Scandinavian Model
13.2.2.2 Bismarck Protection Model
13.2.2.3 Mediterranean Protection Model
13.2.2.4 Latin American Models of Unemployment Benefit
13.2.3 Classification of Unemployment Protection Models
13.2.3.1 Analysis of Similarities and Differences
13.2.3.2 Cluster 1: Liberal and Latin-American Countries—Low Unemployment Protection
13.2.3.3 Cluster 2: Germanic Area—High Unemployment Protection
13.2.3.4 Cluster 3: Scandinavian Neocorporatist and Southern Bismarkian Countries
13.2.3.5 Cluster 4: Eastern Countries Model
13.2.4 Summary: Argentina and Uruguay Versus Spain and Italy
13.3 Compared Unemployment Protection: Argentina, Uruguay, Spain and Italy
13.3.1 Unemployment Benefits in Argentina
13.3.2 Unemployment Benefits in Uruguay
13.3.3 Welfare Subsidies in Argentina and Uruguay
13.3.4 Unemployment Protection in Spain and Italy
13.3.5 Welfare Subsidies in Spain and Italy
13.3.6 Trends in the Reforms of Unemployment Protection
13.3.6.1 Common Trends and Differences Between Spain and Italy
13.3.6.2 Common Features of the Reform Trends in Argentina and Uruguay
13.4 Conclusions
Appendix
References
Chapter 14: Pension Systems Compared: A Polarised Perspective, a Diverse Reality
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Social Protection in the Context of Global Economies
14.2.1 The Neoliberalism Crisis: A Change of Paradigm in Europe?
14.2.2 Re-reforms in Latin America
14.3 Classification of Pension Regimes
14.4 European Convergence in the Reform Policies of the Welfare State
14.4.1 Limits in Policies
14.4.2 Some Shared Elements in the pension reforms
14.5 Characteristics and Reforms of the Pension Systems
14.5.1 Pension Reforms in Spain: The Toledo Pact
14.5.2 Trends in the United Kingdom
14.5.3 Characteristics of the Reforms in Chile
14.5.4 The Welfare System in Argentina
14.5.5 Comparative Summary
14.6 Conclusions
14.6.1 Final Discussion
References
Part VI: Conclusions
Chapter 15: By Way of Summary: Substantive Contributions and Public Policies for Dealing with Social Inequalities
15.1 Substantive Contributions and Public Policies
15.1.1 About Social Models
15.1.2 Labour and Educational Inequalities
15.1.2.1 Segmented Labour Markets
15.1.2.2 Inequalities in Compared Educational Systems
15.1.2.3 Sociocultural Changes of the Digital Revolution
15.1.3 Social Stratification and Mobility
15.1.3.1 Measuring Social Stratification
15.1.3.2 Comparative Social Mobility
15.1.3.3 Migration, Social Mobility and Transnational Space
15.1.3.4 Economic Inequality
15.1.4 Life Trajectories and Gender Inequality
15.1.4.1 The Life Course Perspective for the Analysis of Social Inequalities
15.1.4.2 Social Times, Reproduction and Social Inequality at Work
15.1.4.3 Gender and Care Models
15.1.5 Social Policies
15.1.5.1 Unemployment Benefit Schemes
15.1.5.2 Compared Pension Systems
15.2 Towards a Research Programme
References

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