Top Marks: Solutions to the Student Book

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Top Marks: Solutions to the Student Book

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REVIEW OF TENSES (page 4)

page 5

PRESENT TENSES AND STATIVE VERBS

TEST YOURSELF

1 1. Present Simple

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

2. Present Simple 3. Present Continuous

2 a. sentence 3 b. sentence 1 c. sentence 2

3 1. The verb understand is a stative verb and is not usually used in the continuous form. 2. The verb hear is a stative verb and is not usually used in the continuous form.

PAST TENSES 4 1. Past Simple 2. Past Continuous 3. Past Perfect Simple

5 a. sentence 3 b. sentence 1 c. sentence 2

PRESENT PERFECT AND PAST SIMPLE 6 1. Present Perfect Simple 2. Past Simple 3. Present Perfect Simple

7 a. sentence 1 b. sentence 3 c. sentence 2

FUTURE TENSES 8 1. be going to 2. Present Continuous with future meaning 3. Future Simple

9 a. sentences 1 and 2 b. sentence 3

FUTURE PERFECT AND FUTURE CONTINUOUS 10 1. Future Continuous 2. Future Perfect

11 a. sentence 1 b. sentence 2

1

a a a b a a a a b a b a a b a

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

a a b b a a a b a a a b a a a

unit

1

7 1. obviously (line 2)

ARE YOU MOBILE?

VOCABULARY (page 10)

READING (page 8)

j WORDS FROM THE TEXT

READING STRATEGY: READING FOR THE MAIN IDEA

1 1. a

1 See exercise 2.

2. a 3. b 4. b

2 b. Rules for mobile phone use 3 gathered: collected together

2 1. pavement

hoot: a sound made by a car horn as a warning or signal tapping: touching something or somebody lightly, especially more than once

2. miss out on 3. deals 4. value

3 1. annoyed page 9

2. disapproval 3. appreciate 4. matter

OVER TO YOU

Possible answers

2. c 3. f

A CLOSER LOOK: EASILY CONFUSED WORDS 2. a

preferable crowded signal switch off

5. 6. 7. 8.

privacy hesitate on display put away

4. a 5. e 6. b

5 1. break the monotony

only: sólo, solamente

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

alone: solo, sola

M

5. 6. 7. 8.

jVOCABULARY BOOSTER: Collocations 4 1. d

EXA

5. a 6. b 7. a

page 11

It’s quite different from our country because we don’t have so many rules here. You can use your mobile phone in lots of places such as restaurants and cafés.

1. b

4. shows up (line 46) 5. rarely (line 54) 6. annoyed (line 64)

2. disturbed (line 21) 3. seems (line 22)

TOP MARKS – READING

5 1. True. “Parisians won’t hesitate to speak their mind if they see someone chatting on the phone.” (lines 27-29) 2. False. “If I’m socialising and my mobile phone rings, I never answer it – it’s just not done.” (lines 36-40) 3. True. “Text messaging is extremely popular here.” (lines 55-56) 4. False. “They’ll express their disapproval by tapping their feet loudly until the call is over.” (lines 64-66)

broke the ice broke ... record break the habit broke ... heart broken ... promise breaking the law broke the news

Idioms 6 1. f 2. e 3. g 4. d

5. b 6. a 7. c

7 1. What’s the latest gossip? Come on, I’m all ears! 2. This is just between you and me. Please don't breathe a word. 3. I haven’t got a lot of time, so don’t beat about the bush. 4. I’ve been trying to speak, but I can’t get a word in edgeways! 5. Please speak your mind and tell me what’s bothering you. 6. Why am I so sure that Ronald is getting married? Well, I heard it straight from the horse’s mouth. 7. We’ve tried to make him understand, but it’s like talking to the wall.

6 1. In London, people disapprove of using mobile phones in public. 2. When they are with friends, Parisians never answer their mobile phones. 3. Parisians feel that meals are more important than the phone. 4. On public transport in Japan, people are not allowed to talk on mobile phones. 5. Japanese businessmen ignore the rules if they think they might miss out on a deal.

2

VOCABULARY IN USE

4 The relative pronoun can be omitted in 4, 5 and 7.

8 Possible answers

5 1. I remember the day when we bought our digital camera. 2. Cybercafés, where people can use the Internet, are great for travellers. 3. The e-mail which / that you sent yesterday never arrived. 4. The Love Bug, which / that can destroy your computer files, is a kind of virus. / The Love Bug which is a kind of virus, can destroy your computer files. 5. The DVD player which / that I want to buy can be installed in a car.

1. I feel annoyed when my parents don’t listen to me. 2. It’s quite difficult to break the habit of playing computer games. 3. I would never breathe a word about your family problems. 4. I try to avoid drinking coffee late at night. 5. Before I go to bed, I switch off my computer. 6. You run a risk when you walk alone at night.

GRAMMAR (page 12)

6 1. The police found the computer thief for whom they had been searching. 2. The music to which you’re listening was written by my brother. 3. The girl to whom I sent a note is ignoring me. 4. The candidate for whom I want to vote is speaking now. 5. The man with whom I was walking is my husband.

RELATIVE CLAUSES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

people – who / that things – which / that places – where times – when possession – whose

DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES 1. non-defining 2. Defining

7 1. The police found the computer thief they had

3. non-defining 4. Defining

been searching for. 2. The music you’re listening to was written by my brother. 3. The girl I sent a note to is ignoring me. 4. The candidate I want to vote for is speaking now. 5. The man I was walking with is my husband.

FORMAL AND INFORMAL STRUCTURE 1. formal 2. informal 3. formal

1 1. when 2. which / that 3. whose 4. which / that

8 Possible answers

5. where 6. who 7. where

1. ... you can see beautiful beaches. 2. ... my team won the league, I was 15 years old. 3. ... career has been amazing, became famous in Operación Triunfo. 4. ... once dated Tom Cruise. 5. ... was held in Germany in 2006, was won by Italy.

2 1. e - The first mobile phone was an instrument which / that weighed one kilogram. 2. b - GPS is a satellite technology which / that can locate things anywhere on Earth. 3. a - Ken Olson was a man who / that said, “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”

M TOP MARKS – GRAMMAR Rewrites: Relative Clauses

EXA

9 1. His new song, which was played on the radio

4. f - 1973 was the year when the mobile phone was invented.

all day, is a great success. 2. She is a young author whose books I love. 3. This is Waterloo Station where you catch the train to Westminster. 4. The child to whom I gave my ice cream was very happy. 5. The company for which I work is very successful.

5. c - 845 million is the number of people who / that use the Internet regularly. 6. d - The 1940s was the decade when the first computers were developed. 7. g - Latin America is the region where use of the Internet is growing the fastest.

page 13 3 1. whose 2. which ... player, 3. ,which / that ... headphones, 4. which / that

5. 6. 7. 8.

which / that where whom / that when

3

REVIEW

WRITING (page 16)

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 1. “I believe that if you follow these rules, the

10 1. I have lost Sara’s phone number. 2. 3. 4. 5.

world is at your fingertips!” (paragraph no. 4)

Thomas started working here six years ago. The climber broke his leg while he was climbing. When does the school year begin? The student to whom I wanted to speak was ill.

SKILLS

2. “... Internet shopping is convenient”- “there is no need to leave the comfort of your home.” “you can find items that might not be available locally ...” (paragraph no. 2) 3. “... it can be risky to shop by Internet.” “there are some items … that are better to see before buying.” (paragraph no. 3)

(page 14)

jLISTENING: Hug Shirts

4. “Many people today use the Internet to shop because it is both quick and easy. Nevertheless, Internet shopping has some disadvantages.” (paragraph no. 1)

1 1. to introduce a new invention 2 1. c

3. a 4. b

2. c

3 1. True. “When you send a hug, the sensors in the 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

5. Examples in favour of Internet shopping: you can buy “unusual CDs” (paragraph no. 2); Examples against Internet shopping: “The credit card details that you provide may be used by the wrong people ...”; “clothes ... , are better to see before buying.” (paragraph no. 3)

shirt feel … the warmth of your skin ...” False. “He doesn’t own one.” True. “... you’d start out by hugging yourself.” False. “... hug me shirts come in many different colours!” False. “They (hug shirts) can be washed! You just remove the sensors ...” True. “... it’s really inexpensive!”

jIMPROVING YOUR WRITING: Connectors of Addition and Contrast 2 Connectors of addition: In addition, Moreover

jPRONUNCIATION

Connectors of contrast: Nevertheless, On the one hand, On the other hand, but

4 /g/: looks, works

3 1. c

/h/: seems, shows, plays, is

2. a 3. b 4. a

/B h/: marches, catches

5 1. The picture shows a man – he seems worried.

5. 6. 7. 8.

b c a c

2. He looks as if he’s on a business trip.

page 17 4 1. Many young people do extreme sports although

jSPEAKING: Describing a picture 6 a. 2

b. 1

it’s / they’re dangerous.

c. 3

2. Our football team won the local championship as well as the national championship.

7 1. This picture shows … (This is a picture of …); he looks as if … (I’d say that …, it could be that …, perhaps …)

3. Mobile phones are useful in emergencies. Moreover, they are very convenient.

2. He seems to be … (He must be …); ... in the background (... behind him)

4. I enjoyed the film despite arriving / having arrived late at the cinema.

3. From his expression (From the look on his face … ); I’d say that … (you can tell that …, it could be that … ); He’ll probably … (He’s likely to …)

5. The weather was stormy. Nevertheless, the pilot decided to land his plane. 6. Anna is quite talented at maths, and she’s also good at science.

5 1. despite 2. as well as 3. However

4

4. In addition 5. Although 6. but

ERROR CORRECTION

6 Possible answers

6 1. If you’ve got a mobile phone, you’ll feel safe

1. Travelling is a wonderful way to learn new things; however, it can be rather expensive. 2. I almost always have a good time at parties even though I’m a terrible dancer. 3. Emma loves Italian food as well as Italian wine. 4. Some pupils use their mobile phones during lessons even though everyone knows it’s forbidden. 5. Alex has been on a diet for weeks but he hasn’t lost any weight. 6. I’d like to learn to ski despite the fact that it’s a bit dangerous.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

when you’re alone at home. 2. Sue is a nice person that I can depend on. 3. This is the student whose mobile phone has just rung. 4. Japanese people, who are very sensitive to noise, rarely shout in public.

(page 18)

VOCABULARY 1 1. ignore 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

noticed gathered appreciate privacy

2 1. c (broke)

on display hesitate deal signal disapproval

4. a (ran) 5. f (break) 6. e (run)

2. b (broke) 3. d (run)

3 1. beating about the bush 2. 3. 4. 5.

won’t breathe a word like talking to the wall all ears speaking his mind

GRAMMAR

1 2 3 4 5 6

4 1. were sleeping 2. 3. 4. 5.

don’t go which had lost left

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

will cut Are you seeing whose Have you finished will have driven

5 1. They came in while we were discussing money. 2. The man to whom you introduced me seems strange. 3. I continued to work after I had rested for an hour. 4. He’s leaving in the morning. / He’ll be leaving in the morning. 5. Birmingham, where I grew up, used to be much smaller. 6. How much does bread cost nowadays? 7. I have known Harold for three years. 8. The woman who is speaking now is the headmistress.

5

unit

2

REMEMBER WHEN . . .

6 1. False. “Every detail of life back then ... and horrible meals – was reproduced for the programme.” (lines 11-14) 2. True. “... could the experiment possibly succeed? Well, yes.” (lines 29-31) 3. False. “They later reported that they had hardly missed TV.” (lines 37-38)

page 19 1 They remember stories of better times that have gone by. They were very good-looking and good at sports, but now their lives aren’t as brilliant and attractive as they were when they were at high school. In fact, they haven’t been very lucky in life.

7 1. burst into tears (line 2) 2. allowed (line 15) 3. sure (line 51)

READING (page 20)

VOCABULARY (page 22)

READING STRATEGY: PREDICTING CONTENT

j WORDS FROM THE TEXT 1 1. b

1 Possible answer

2. a 3. b 4. a

I think the text is about how school life used to be in the past.

2 School has changed a lot since then. Nowadays,

5. 6. 7. 8.

b b b a

2 1. change for the better

discipline isn’t as strict as it used to be, school subjects are less demanding and teachers are much more open with students.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

3 taking part: participating in harsh: difficult to live in or tolerate because it’s very uncomfortable addressing: calling someone a particular name or title

boarding school as long as gone too far burst into tears coping with

3 1. rules 2. obey 3. tidy 4. allowed

OVER TO YOU

5. 6. 7. 8.

dare punishment doubt harsh

Possible answers They must have decided to participate in this reality TV programme because they wanted to become famous. That’s the only reason most people take part in this type of TV programme. I would never take part in such an experiment becauseI don’t want anybody to know anything about my private life.

j VOCABULARY BOOSTER: Phrasal Verbs 4 1. visit 2. survived 3. break

page 23 5 1. c

page 21

2. a 3. f

A CLOSER LOOK: EASILY CONFUSED WORDS

6 1. come up with

a. The adverbs are in sentences nos. 2 and 3. Hardly (sentence no. 2) is an adverb of frequency and hard (sentence no. 3) is an adverb of manner.

2. stands for 3. came down on 4. stand out

b. Sentence no. 1: Hard can be translated as duro. Sentence no. 2: Hardly can be translated as apenas. Sentence no. 3: Hard can be translated as mucho, duramente and try hard as esforzarse.

M

EXA

4. b 5. d 6. e 5. 6. 7. 8.

coming round come across stand by stood up

Suffixes 7 Nouns:

creation, obedience, kindness, punishment, possibility Adjectives: graceful, disastrous, complicated, imaginative, recognisable, confident, experimental

TOP MARKS – READING

5 1. b – Holly broke down when the matron shouted at her. 2. a – Holly found that she preferred the 1950s school to her own. 3. c – But now that we’ve seen That’ll Teach ‘Em, can we be sure that school life has improved since the 1950s?

4. criticise 5. think of 6. discover

6

8 Noun suffixes: -tion, -ence, -ness, -ment, -ity

1 1. Have you been swimming 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Other noun suffixes: -ship (membership, relationship, friendship) -ance (appearance, assistance, importance) -er / -or (driver, teacher, actor) -ure (failure, pressure, pleasure) -sion (admission, confusion, permission)

2 1. have been swimming 6. had been swimming / 2. 3. 4. 5.

Adjective suffixes: -ful, -ous, -ed, -ive, -able, -ent, -al Other adjective suffixes: -less (careless, harmless, useless) -ing (boring, tiring, exciting, amazing) -ic (realistic, optimistic, catastrophic, artistic)

9 1. doubtful 2. obedient 3. reality

10 1. financial 2. seriousness 3. enjoyment

4. preferable 5. effective 6. excellence

covered changed had finished climbed

7. 8. 9. 10.

had swum had had had been waiting have never heard have ... changed

page 25 3 1. hasn’t invited 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

4. polluted 5. examination 6. nervous

VOCABULARY IN USE 11 Possible answers

lived had been studying have known has been sleeping had been driving had eaten hasn’t been feeling

4 1. to go

1. One of my goals is finishing a university degree. 2. I feel quite confident about my chances of getting into a good university. 3. There is no doubt in my mind that Julie will stand by me when I need her. 4. I’ve never dared to ask a boy out. 5. I was glad when I stood up to the boy who used to bully me at school. 6. The other day I came across an old jazz record that my father had bought in a street market. 7. I’m quite happy as long as I don’t have too much homework.

2. flying 3. meeting 4. to leave

5. 6. 7. 8.

asking getting making to play

5 1. I don’t remember meeting Jane. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I regret having to tell you the bad news. I forgot to leave you a key. My father has stopped smoking. I regret lending him my camera. We tried using hot water, but we still couldn’t open the jar. 7. I’ll never forget seeing the baby take her first step. 8. We’ll stop to eat on the way.

6 Possible answers

GRAMMAR (page 24)

1. She wants to improve her marks, so she has been working hard lately. 2. I hope swimming will improve my physique. 3. We know this town very well because we have lived here all our lives. 4. Lately, my friends and I have argued a lot because we have different interests. 5. They were covered in dirt because they had been cleaning the garage.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS A a. sentence no. 2 b. sentence no. 1

B We use have / has + been + verb + ing to form the Present Perfect Continuous. We use had + been + verb + ing to form the Past Perfect Continuous.

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

M TOP MARKS – GRAMMAR Rewrites: Change of Tense

EXA

A a. The gerund appears as the subject in sentence 4. The The The b. The The

have been waiting had been looking had been planning has been trying hadn’t been getting

gerund follows a verb in sentence 1. gerund follows a preposition in sentence 3. gerund follows an expression in sentence 2. infinitive follows a verb in sentence 5. infinitive follows an adjective in sentence 6.

7 1. We’ve lived / been living in this house for seven years. 2. The last time I saw a film was six months ago. 3. I’ve never been to London before. 4. After John had been driving for six hours, he stopped to rest. 5. How long have you been studying English?

B pair no. 2

7

REVIEW

WRITING (page 28)

1 2 3 4 5 6

1 1. in the woods, in the summer

8 1. I regret telling him the news. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2. 3. 4. 5.

The child that we saw was probably lost. I joined the club three weeks ago. I have been playing the piano since I was six. Ryan, who has lived in Greece, speaks fluent Greek.

GRAMMAR IN USE

jIMPROVING YOUR WRITING:

9 Possible answers

Connectors of Sequence

1. I hadn’t been taking my school work very seriously; I’d been going out at night, watching lots of TV and so on. Eventually, I failed a few tests, so I decided to change my attitide. 2. Since then, I’ve been trying to concentrate more during the lessons and I work hard for every test.

SKILLS

2 when, after, soon, then, during, at first, until, before, finally

3 1. As soon as 2. by the time 3. eventually

4 1. Finally (page 26)

2. before / by the time 3. during 4. soon

jLISTENING: An Unusual Experiment 1 Possible answer

5 1. a

2 The Bowler family participated in the British reality

2. i

TV programme 1900 House, living exactly the way people did in the year 1900.

3 1. speaker 3

2. c

3. c

5. 6. 7. 8.

by the time / before At first until Then

3. f 4. d

5. h 6. b

7. e 8. j

9. c 10. g

6 Possible answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

4. speaker 1 5. speaker 1 6. speaker 2

2. speaker 2 3. speaker 4

4. Next 5. at some point

page 29

Maybe they are going to a fancy dress party.

4 1. b

the writer’s family heavy rain while camping pack things and look for a hotel used to, Past Simple (stopped, happened, was, etc.), Past Continuous (were sleeping), Past Perfect (we had set up)

4. a

jPRONUNCIATION 5 /BL/: beer, pier /CL/: fair, pear

jSPEAKING: Comparing pictures

when / after At first All of a sudden When / As soon as during in the end / eventually After some time / At some point eventually / then by the time / when Finally / In the end

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

7 a. sentence 2 b. sentence 1 and 3 c. sentence 5 d. sentence 4

(page 30)

VOCABULARY 1 1. complicated 2. 3. 4. 5.

page 27 8 1. Both pictures show parents and children

collapsed miss dare doubt

2 1. stand by

together. 2. There’s a difference in the way they’re sitting. In picture A, they are posing for the camera, but in picture B they’re relaxing and watching TV. 3. It looks like the people in picture A are very serious about getting their picture taken – they’re probably doing it for the first time. 4. I’d rather live in the 21st century than in the year 1900.

2. coming down on 3. come up with

3 1. obedience 2. experimental 3. punishments 4. effective

8

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

boarding school as long as going too far obeyed rules

4. stood up to 5. came across 5. examinations 6. seriousness 7. enjoyment

GRAMMAR

1 2 3 4 5 6

4 1. have been looking 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

have noticed stopped had been wearing were wearing had been

5 1. had been crying 2. whom 3. haven’t been studying

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

appeared repeat were are having

4. to move 5. had spilt

ERROR CORRECTION 6 1. I haven’t downloaded any music since my PC broke down. 2. I worked in a shop when I lived in Paris. 3. I don’t remember seeing Jean at the party. 4. He looked tired because he had been working for ten hours non-stop. 5. I lived in Santiago for ten months. Then I lived in Vigo for a couple of years.

9

unit

3

CRAZY ENGLISH M

EXA

page 31 1 1. c 2. a

TOP MARKS – READING

4 1. It’s difficult for the Chinese people to 3. a 4. b

5. c 6. b

speak in a classroom because they feel embarrassed when they make a mistake in public. (lines 14-16)

7. c 8. a

2 Possible answers

2. Li has changed a lot since high school because he used to be very reserved and unsuccessful, but now he’s become a charismatic and successful teacher. (lines 25-27)

I think it’s worth learning English and French because if you speak these languages, you can study in many foreign countries and finish your degree abroad. Also, if you speak English and French you have a better chance of finding a good job.

3. We know that Li was determined to continue his studies because he made up his mind to start studying hard for an English examination. (lines 30-31)

READING (page 32)

4. Crazy Chinese is similar to Crazy English because Li’s unusual approach is used to teach both languages. (lines 50-52)

READING STRATEGY: PRONOUN REFERENCING 1 them – the Chinese people

5 1. c – Li discovered that he could concentrate and

They – the crowd in Li Yang’s lesson he – Li Yang this – reading English texts out loud

remember better when he read the text out loud. (lines 32-33) 2. b – His approach runs counter to the Chinese traditional values of restraint, modesty and moderation. (lines 42-44) 3. a – He believes that people who are bilingual in Chinese and English will soon be in great demand as China’s global influence grows. (lines 52-55)

2 overcomes: successfully deals with or copes with something runs counter to: goes against or conflicts with something enabling: making something possible to happen

6 1. succeed (line 4)

page 33

4. natural (line 25) 5. conventional (line 41) 6. grows (line 55)

2. famous (line 5) 3. shy (line 14)

OVER TO YOU

Possible answers

VOCABULARY (page 34)

This method is good to relax and lose your selfconsciousness. It’s great for students who are afraid of conversing in a classroom.

j WORDS FROM THE TEXT

One disadvantage is that maybe students in big groups are not paid enough attention and the teacher doesn’t correct their mistakes, as there are a lot of people shouting at the same time.

1 1. charm 2. devised 3. banned

2 1. prosper

I would like to try this method because I’m very shy and it’s difficult for me to participate in small groups where everybody is looking at me.

2. value 3. hop

3 1. yelling A CLOSER LOOK: EASILY CONFUSED WORDS

2. is about to 3. insane 4. throughout

a. Though is a connector; through is a preposition and thought is a verb. b. Through means por medio de, a través de; thought means pensado, creído; though means aunque.

4. read aloud 5. upcoming 4. runs counter to 5. judge 6. proposal 5. 6. 7. 8.

enable proficient overcome command

jVOCABULARY BOOSTER: British / American English 4 1. d 2. f 3. e

10

4. a 5. c 6. b

5

1. British 2. American

6

1. 2. 3. 4.

GRAMMAR (page 36)

3. American 4. British

MODALS

tin / can, dustbin / garbage can apartment / flat, elevator / lift movie / film, cab / taxi boot / trunk, junction / intersection

be able to, have to / don’t have to, need to

MODAL PERFECTS a. sentence 2 b. sentence 6 c. sentence 3

page 35 Prefixes 7 1. b 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

d f g c

d. sentence 4 e. sentence 5 f. sentence 1

SHOULD / HAD BETTER

e d a h

a. sentence 2 b. sentence 1 had better (‘d better) is followed by the base form of the verb.

The meaning not is used twice.

8 1. misbehave 2. re-arrange 3. indirect 4. interdependent

9 1. unimportant 2. misunderstood 3. overpopulated 4. non-smoking

10 1. 1. b 2. 2. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2.

a a b a b

5. 6. 7. 8.

co-exist enclose non-members bicycle

5. 6. 7. 8.

co-workers encourage anti-virus preview

4. 1. 2. 5. 1. 2. 6. 1. 2.

1 1. shouldn’t go 2. can’t be 3. must have left

4. needn’t wait 5. may have left 6. might rain

2 1. can’t have heard 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

b a b a a b

shouldn’t have eaten couldn’t have been may have read would have told needn’t have come must have lost should have called

3 1. must have gone 2. 3. 4. 5.

VOCABULARY IN USE 11 Possible answers

wouldn’t have managed could have been should have spoken might not have heard

page 37

1. I am an enthusiastic fan of Jason Kay, the singer of Jamiroquai. 2. I’m quite proficient in playing the guitar. 3. I usually try to co-operate with my parents. 4. I sometimes mispronounce the word though, which I often confuse with through. 5. I’d love to have a vacation in Russia, which is an exciting country. 6. I feel I deserve to pass all my exams in May.

4 1. must feel 2. 3. 4. 5.

shouldn’t use should have taken may / might come may / might / must have stolen

5 1. needn’t

5. don’t have to 2. must not use 6. may have forgotten 3. can’t 7. would have 4. should have known

6 1. ‘d better visit 2. ‘d better leave 3. ‘d better not tell

4. ‘d better start 5. ‘d better not stay 6. ‘d better not drive

7 Possible answers 1. Sarah’s got a great voice. She should go to the next Operación Triunfo audition. 2. That man is badly hurt. We should take him to a hospital. 3. That dog looks angry. You’d better not bother it. 4. I need to lose weight. I’d better give up eating hamburgers. 5. I’ve broken my tooth. I should go to the dentist right now.

11

jPRONUNCIATION

TOP MARKS – GRAMMAR Rewrites: Modals

M EXA

4 /q / year, beautiful /r/ where, one

8 1. He may have called while I was out. 2. 3. 4. 5.

You needn’t move the table. Robin must be home by now. Alan shouldn’t have been rude to his boss. You’d better not move.

REVIEW

5 In wh-questions, the intonation goes down at the end of the sentence. In yes / no questions, the intonation goes up.

jSPEAKING: An Interview 1 2 3 4 5 6

6 Yes, she’s suitable for the job because she has got a

9 1. Philip had been waiting for you for an hour 2. 3. 4. 5.

lot of experience as a waitress, as she has helped her father in the family restaurant in Verona (Italy).

when you showed up. I’m trying to stop wasting water. The morning train, which usually arrives on time, was late today. She can’t be serious. Yvonne must have forgotten my birthday.

page 39 7 1. Anna Frezza 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I live in London. I am 18 years old. I finished school last month. I worked as a waitress in the family restaurant. Because it will give me the chance to meet people and practise my English. 7. I’m returning to Italy next year to study modern languages.

GRAMMAR IN USE 10 Possible answers 1. The driver may have drunk alcohol. The driver might not have seen the other car. The driver should have been more careful. 2. They must have gone to the nearest hospital.

WRITING (page 40) SKILLS

1 1. Dubbing films in other languages or using

(page 38)

subtitles. 2. The author prefers dubbing films. 3. Subtitles take away from the enjoyment of watching a film. With subtitles it is harder to relax and enjoy the film. Subtitles are usually of poor quality. 4. It’s difficult to keep up with the story while reading, particularly with fast-moving scenes. With subtitles, parts of the conversation are omitted because they have to be short enough to fit on the screen.

jLISTENING: Language School 1 1. She wants to study Italian because she loves that language. 2. Nigel suggests that Carol go to the language centre at the University of Bologna. 3. She’s surprised because she hadn’t thought about both living and studying the language in Italy.

2 1. c

3. b 4. c

2. b

5. b

jIMPROVING YOUR WRITING:

3 Conversation 1

Language Length of course Maximum number of students in class Price

Italian Three weeks 15

Conversation 2

Connectors of Cause and Result

Conversation 3

French

English

One week

Twelve weeks

8

25

2 Connectors of cause: since (as, because), because (since) Connectors of result: as a result (therefore, consequently), consequently (for this reason, so, therefore), therefore (as a result, consequently, for this reason)

3 1. a 2. a €500

€600

€250

12

3. c 4. b

5. b 6. a

7. c 8. b

page 41

5 1. b 2. b 3. c 4. a

4 Possible answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

so / therefore because / as / since Due to / Because of because of / due to / owing to For this reason / Therefore / As a result

ERROR CORRECTION 6 1. Even though the Chinese are shy, Li’s students

5 1. We’d like to go on holiday. Therefore, we’ve 2. 3. 4.

5.

don’t mind shouting.

contacted a travel agent. Sara can’t pay for her tickets due to her financial problems. I am unable to send you an e-mail as we have no Internet connection. We are willing to reconsider your request as a result of your parents’ letter. / As a result of your parent’s letter, we are willing to reconsider your request. David was given the lead role in the play since he’s got great talent.

2. Brian must have felt embarrassed when he fell. 3. Could we have learned more English by using Li’s method? 4. Local governments shouldn’t have banned Crazy English. 5. They learn English easily because / as / since they use rap in class.

6 Possible answers 1. I think that English is important because it’s the most useful language in the business world. 2. Many films are in English due to the fact that most of them are produced in the United States. 3. Some people have got a natural talent for languages. Therefore, it’s easier for them to learn a language. 4. It’s a good idea to learn Chinese since China will become more influential in the future. 5. Charles would love to live in France. For this reason, he’s taking French lessons now.

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

(page 42)

VOCABULARY 1 1. runs counter to 2. 3. 4. 5.

started out command are about to prosper

2 1. gas (American) 2. fall (American) 3. elevator (American)

3 1. insane 2. non-smoking 3. enable

GRAMMAR

judge proposal overcome expelled yell

4. tins (British) 5. lorry (British) 6. boot (British) 4. misbehave 5. co-workers 6. re-arrange

1 2 3 4 5 6

4 1. had to buy 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

had been trying didn’t know shook turned had shown

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

5. a 6. c 7. b

couldn’t understand shouldn’t have moved have been laughing must have thought had ... chosen

13

unit

4

A CLOSER LOOK: EASILY CONFUSED WORDS

FOOD FOR THOUGHT

a. Each is always followed by a singular noun. b. All is always followed by a plural noun. c. Each (cada); all (todo/s)

page 43 1 1. It’s impossible to do any physical activity unless

M

EXA

you have eaten properly. 2. Some people simply eat to stay alive. However, other people just want to eat all day long.

TOP MARKS – READING

Sentence Completion 5 Possible answers

3. What you eat says a lot about the type of person you are.

1. Dr Gesch’s study shows that schools should provide more nutritious meals. 2. A standard diet wouldn’t help John and Jason because they have severe responses to certain foods. 3. The diets given at the Pfeiffer Center are based on the particular nutrients that each patient needs / that each patient must avoid to prevent violent reactions. 4. Nathan wouldn’t have been in a special school if his behaviour weren’t disruptive / violent.

4. Apart from very basic things like eating, other things (relaxing, travelling, etc.) are also important. 5. People have different tastes and what may be pleasant for you might be repulsive to another. 6. People who are going through bad times are more ingenious and likely to take risks and achieve goals. / When you’re hungry, anything tastes good. Sayings nos. 2, 3, 4 and 6 are similar in Spanish.

2 Possible answers

6 1. c

I agree with saying no. 4 because I think that there is more to life than just working. I also need to have a good time with my friends, play sports and have fun.

2. b

7 1. unfortunately (line 5) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

I disagree with saying no. 6 because if you are hungry, you can’t think well and it’s more difficult to make a sensible decision.

reduce (line 32) inexpensive (line 33) lacks (line 40) severe (line 47) ordinary (line 50)

READING (page 44)

VOCABULARY (page 46)

READING STRATEGY: SCANNING FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION

j WORDS FROM THE TEXT 1 1. b

1 1. John (aged 15), Jason (aged 17) and Nathan

2. c

(aged 10) 2. 230 3. 2002 4. near Chicago (USA)

2 1. b 2. c

3 1. point out

2 The crime rate can be reduced by a healthy diet

2. 3. 4. 5.

because the nutrients in healthy meals help to prevent violence in individuals who are likely to commit a crime.

3 crave: have a strong desire for something

5. c 6. a

3. e 4. g

5. f 6. h

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

7. d 8. a

liable nourishing assortment level ruin

j VOCABULARY BOOSTER: Phrasal Verbs

nourishing: providing the food that is necessary for life and good health disruptive: disturbing; interrupting normal order or progress

4 1. causes 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

page 45 OVER TO YOU

Possible answer A healthy diet should be based on vegetables, fruit, fish and some meat. It should avoid fast food, chocolates and sweets. I’m afraid my diet is not very healthy because I often eat pizza and hamburgers.

disruptive lacks imbalance crave

3. a 4. c

14

move to an earlier time earning begin to discuss return reduced

page 47

GRAMMAR (page 48)

5 1. c 2. f

3. a 4. d

5. e 6. b

REPORTED SPEECH STATEMENTS

6 1. bring on 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

put off bring down has ... put forward will ... bring in brought up has put up with

1. It moves a step back into the past. 2. Personal references, time expressions and place words.

QUESTIONS 1. We add if / whether when reporting a yes / no question. 2. The word order is the same as that of a statement, not a question.

Idioms 7 1. often 2. angry 3. wrong

ORDERS

4. bad 5. isn’t 6. many

1. We use an infinitive in reported orders. 2. We add not to the infinitive in negative reported orders.

8 1. a couch potato 2. 3. 4. 5.

a piece of cake not my cup of tea selling like hotcakes food for thought

SUGGESTIONS recommend / suggest + that + subject + base form + complements recommend / suggest + gerund + subject + complements

9 1. not my cup of tea 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7. 8.

eat my hat a piece of cake put all your eggs in one basket bit / has bitten off more than he can chew selling like hotcakes take ... with a pinch of salt couch potato

REPORTING VERBS WITH OTHER STRUCTURES a. reporting verb + infinitive b. reporting verb + gerund c. reporting verb + object + infinitive

1 1. the previous night 2. she had been waiting 3. the next day

4. not to come 5. had enjoyed

2 1. Beth asked what time the party was.

VOCABULARY IN USE

2. 3. 4. 5.

10 Possible answers 1. I refuse to put up with people who don’t respect me. 2. I sometimes crave a cup of coffee although it’s bad for me. 3. I’m afraid that David Bisbal is not my cup of tea. 4. I don’t like it when our teachers bring up the subject of exams. 5. I enjoy nourishing foods, such as salads and stews. 6. For me, English is a piece of cake.

Beth Beth Beth Beth

asked asked asked asked

if Paul would be there. if her dress looked nice. where the front door key was. if I / we could give her a lift home.

3 1. Janis said that she hadn’t enjoyed that book. 2. The detective warned us not to say a word. 3. Fred promised to do / that he would do the washing-up the next / the following day. 4. Nadine suggested buying their tickets early. 5. Harriet asked me whether / if I could help her move those chairs. 6. The Smiths claimed that they hadn’t met their new neighbours yet. 7. Grace admitted copying Paul’s work / that she had copied Paul’s work. 8. My friend told me that he / she had been sleeping during the lecture the day before / the previous day.

15

GRAMMAR IN USE

page 49

8 Possible answers

4 1. had booked 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

wanted try to bring liked wanted preferred had made would bring had been waiting / had waited

1. Mrs Romero told us that ten students had failed the philosophy exam. 2. Mr Jimeno asked us why we hadn’t worked harder for our maths exam. 3. The headmaster reminded us not to smoke in the toilets. 4. Mrs Villalba insisted that she wouldn’t put off our history exam. 5. Mr Capote warned us not to speak during the test.

5 1. “I have to study for my exam tonight,” Larry explained. 2. “Why don’t we try the new coffee shop?” Martha suggested. 3. “Don’t forget to post the letter on your way home!” Trevor reminded me. / “Post the letter on your way home,“ Trevor reminded me. 4. “Don’t tell anyone about my secret!” Lily warned us. 5. “I was at home last night,” the suspect claimed. 6. “You’d better / You should eat brown bread,” the dietician advised me. 7. “Have you ever been to this city before?” our host inquired. 8. “Where can I find jeans?” I asked the sales assistant.

SKILLS

(page 50)

jLISTENING: GM Food 1 They must have different opinions because Dr Kirby is a biotechnologist who has helped develop GM foods and Greg Bailey is an environmental activist campaigning against genetic modification.

2 1. c

2. d

3. b

3 1. b

3. d 4. b

5. d 6. c

2. d

4. a

jPRONUNCIATION 4 unhealthy, hungry, husband, huge, who, human

M TOP MARKS – GRAMMAR EXA Rewrites: Direct Speech to Reported Speech

5 1. In my opinion, GM food is harmful to humans. 2. Tests have shown that it’s not unhealthy.

6 1. Eleanor said that they had gone out to a

jSPEAKING: Expressing opinions

restaurant the previous Sunday / the Sunday before. 2. My mother asked me if I knew what time it was then. 3. The leader ordered Paula to wait there for him / her. 4. Adam asked Molly whether she would come with him the following day / the next day. 5. Nathan suggested that they clean the house and surprise everyone.

REVIEW

6 Student A shows more interest because he / she often asks the other student for his / her opinion.

7 I think that – In my opinion, It seems to me that What do you think? – What’s your opinion? I disagree – I don’t think you’re right In my opinion – I think that, It seems to me that What makes you think that? – Why do you think so? You’re right about that – You’ve got a point, That’s true Don’t you think …? – Isn’t it a fact that …? I suppose so – You’ve got a point, I guess

1 2 3 4 5 6

7 1. You needn’t bring your grammar book tomorrow. 2. Anna enquired why Andrew was using her computer. 3. We should have asked her for her phone number. 4. You’d better not touch that snake! 5. I have been working on this project all morning.

WRITING (page 52) 2 Nos. 1, 4 and 5 were not included in the summary. 3 Only main ideas must be included in a summary. It’s unnecessary to include details or examples.

16

page 53

GRAMMAR 4

j IMPROVING YOUR WRITING: Paraphrasing 4 Sentence no. 1 is better because sentence no. 2 includes the writer’s opinion (sadly), examples (the Spanish, the Italians, the French) and copies words from the original text (neglect the unique food of their own cultures).

5 1. Because of the increase in sales of herbal tea, less regular tea is being consumed. 2. Although doctors are worried about obesity, eating contests have become more popular recently. 3. Oily fish is / are an excellent source of the fatty acids (which are) needed for brain function. 4. Many people don’t believe that carrots are beneficial for your vision, but it’s true.

competition the following day / the next day. 2. The interviewer asked whether he / she had won his / her first contest. 3. This is Nathan, whose car I’ve just bought. 4. Tom needn’t have apologised. 5. You had better not speak during the exam. 6. Jenny promised that she would cook dinner that night. 7. Beth may have spoken to George about the problem. 8. When he woke us, we had been sleeping for an hour. 9. Those rumours can’t be true. 10. Rob asked me if I had been thinking about him that morning.

Apparently Consequently Presently Although

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

(page 54)

VOCABULARY 1 1. enrolled 2. 3. 4. 5.

level pill staff treat

ERROR CORRECTION 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

pointed out ruined lacks liable measure

6 1. All inmates were given pills containing vitamins. 2. 3. 4. 5.

2 1. brought up 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

bring on put forward put up with put off putting up

3 1. a piece of cake 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

weighs can eat has taken part / has been taking part has broken had eaten could have eaten stayed ate not to begin starting

5 1. Sonya said that she was going to be in a

6 1. Clearly 2. 3. 4. 5.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1 2 3 4 5 6

not my cup of tea eat my hat put all your eggs in one basket bit my head off take them with a pinch of salt

17

Some meals lack vitamins and minerals. Sue’s grandparents brought her up in Italy. My father asked me why I had come home so late. The doctor ordered John not to eat tomatoes.

unit

5

MUSIC MANIA

M TOP MARKS – READING Finding Synonyms / Antonyms

EXA

5 1. convincingly (line 22)

page 55

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1 They weren’t famous from the beginning because they played in bars, slept in their own cars, practised out in the street and didn’t have much money. At the end of the story they were given the opportunity to sign a record company contract.

allowed (line 27) rewarding (line 38) remain (line 50) witnessing (line 54) chances are (lines 57-58)

6 1. True. “Its members are all over 50, while the musicians on stage must be in their 20s.” (lines 6-8)

2 Possible answers It is a positive trend because it’s good for a singer to appear on TV and become well known. Everybody deserves the opportunity to succeed in the world of music.

2. True. “Many of the players are first-rate.” (line 21) 3. True. “Moreover, it can be much more profitable than playing in an original band which may not succeed.” (lines 43-45)

I don’t think it’s a good trend because these groups and singers are not real artists who have made themselves. They are artificial products created by companies or TV channels to make money. And the truth is, nobody will remember most of these singers in a couple of years’ time.

4. False. “Another advantage is feeling like a celebrity, but without the security guards and paparazzi that can wreck the lives of real stars.” (lines 46-48) 5. False. “So get those tickets for your favourite band and relax ...” (lines 56-57)

READING (page 56)

7 Possible answers 1. Nowadays tribute bands are welcome at elite nightclubs where they couldn’t play in the past. (lines 25-27) 2. Musicians in tribute bands perform for enthusiastic audiences and make more money than playing for an anonymous band. (lines 37-45) 3. a. Musicians feel like superstars playing for enthusiastic audiences and they aren’t disturbed by paparazzi. (lines 46-48) b. You can have a good time seeing the nearest thing to your favourite group at an affordable price. (lines 55-57)

READING STRATEGY: IDENTIFYING THE AUTHOR’S PURPOSE 1 3. To explain facts or give information. 2 A tribute band is a group that plays the songs of a famous band, imitating their performance as far as possible.

3 weird: strange mainstream (adj): reflecting the most widely accepted views of a nation or culture wreck (v): to destroy completely or damage seriously

page 57

VOCABULARY

OVER TO YOU

jWORDS FROM THE TEXT

Possible answers

1 1. a 2. b

I think I would go if the tickets were cheap. I wouldn’t go. I’m not sure it’s worth seeing an imitation. I’m not really interested in seeing a tribute band because what I want is the original band.

(page 58)

3. a 4. a

2 1. front-row seats 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A CLOSER LOOK: EASILY CONFUSED WORDS a. live (sentence no. 1) is an adverb and lives (sentence no. 2) is a noun. b. live (sentence no. 1) means en directo and lives (sentence no. 2) means vidas.

18

moved to tears might as well named after looks down on all in all go broke

5. b 6. b

7. a

VOCABULARY IN USE

3 1. no longer 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

devoted first-rate equipment on stage afford rewarding well worth

8 Possible answers 1. There’s no such thing as white monkeys in Gibraltar. 2. My laptop is the most useful thing I own. 3. I’d like to have a go at parachuting. 4. People are appreciative when you do your best to please them. 5. I can’t afford to travel around the world. 6. Studying for a degree is well worth the effort.

page 59

jVOCABULARY BOOSTER: Collocations

GRAMMAR (page 60)

4 1. have a go at 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

went from bad to worse went broke on the go went mad going bald

THE PASSIVE 1. The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb be and the participle of the main verb. 2. We use the passive when the action is more important than the person or thing that does the action and also when we ignore who / what the agent of the action is.

5 1. the next best thing 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

just the thing for the real thing has a thing about no such thing make a big thing about

DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS When writing a passive sentence with both a direct and an indirect object, either the direct or indirect object can become the subject of the sentence, depending on which information we want to highlight. However the first form is more common.

Word Families 6 Verb

Noun

Adjective

Adverb

1

enjoy

enjoyment

enjoyable

enjoyably

2

originate

origin 1

original

originally

3

play

player

playful

playfully

4

use

use 2

useful 3

usefully

SPECIAL FORMS Passive 1 / Structure: It + be + participle + clause Passive 2 / Structure: Subject + be + participle + infinitive

5

profit

profit

profitable

profitably

THE CAUSATIVE

6

accept

acceptance

acceptable

acceptably

7

describe

description

descriptive

descriptively

In the causative form, we use have or get + object + past participle.

8

devote

devotion

devoted

9

appreciate

10

appreciation

secure 1. 2. 3. 4.

appreciative

security

secure

devotedly 4

1 1. is being served

appreciatively

2. hasn’t been used 3. should ... be put 4. had been tested

securely

also originality also user, usefulness and uselessness also useless and usable also appreciable

2. 3. 4. 5.

useful originally playful security

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

could have been killed was spent was being discussed have to be paid

2 1. will be broadcast / is being broadcast / 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Use and profit have got the same form for the verb and noun.

7 1. appreciation

5. 6. 7. 8.

acceptance profitable enjoyment devote describe

19

will broadcast must have moved was being discussed have already packed Are … sold had been done might have been painted Did … throw away are being interviewed

REVIEW

3 1. The thief has already been caught. 2. It will be delivered to your home tomorrow. 3. He wasn’t sent a cheque for £1 million till last month. 4. It shouldn’t have been left on the table. 5. She is believed to be in Italy now.

9 1. You can borrow books for a month from this library. 2. Sonia asked Luke if / whether he had found his keys. 3. We’ve already had our car repaired. 4. The problem wasn’t solved. 5. You’d better not forget to post the letter. 6. My mother promised to lend me the car the following day / the next day.

4 1. Your bill wasn’t paid last month. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Is coffee grown by Jamaican farmers? Help! I’m being robbed! This work can be done by Matthew. Have the new books been ordered (by the library) yet? 6. This trip could have been planned more carefully.

GRAMMAR IN USE 10 Possible answer

page 61

Last summer I went to the U2 concert in Seville. Amazing sound equipment and lighting were used.

5 1. I haven’t been shown my room yet. My room hasn’t been shown to me yet. 2. We could have been given better advice. Better advice could have been given to us. 3. He had just been sold the ring. The ring had just been sold to him. 4. It is thought that the exhibition is interesting. The exhibition is thought to be interesting. 5. It is known that rock singers make a lot of money. Rock singers are known to make a lot of money. 6. It is believed that the French are the best cooks. The French are believed to be the best cooks. The best cooks are believed to be French.

SKILLS

1 Most people think that classical music is for older people.

2 1. b 2. a

3. d 4. b

5. c

3 1. False. Classical music makes up only 4% of record sales. 2. True. They are all graduates of London’s top music academies. 3. False. The fact that Tony is black was a big selling point.

We’ll have it repaired tomorrow. They’re having it prepared by a professional chef. I got my clothes washed by the laundry service. How often do you have it cut? Have you had your teeth checked this year?

jPRONUNCIATION

7 1. feel 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

(page 62)

jLISTENING: Crossover Music

6 1. Where did you get them printed? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1 2 3 4 5 6

4 /O:/ five, dry, might

is believed has been transformed depends might have become cannot be underestimated is considered will change

/Q:/ boy, oyster, soil /P:/ drown, cow, plough

5 1. allowed 2. quiet

M TOP MARKS – GRAMMAR Rewrites: Active and Passive

EXA

8 1. They were repairing my car when you called. 2. The fire is being put out as fast as possible. 3. In England, people / they eat dinner early in the evening. 4. The accident might have been caused by the lorry driver. 5. I realised that someone had stolen my credit card. 6. This book has been translated into six languages.

20

3. concert 4. conductor

jSPEAKING: Comparing pictures

jReview of Connectors

6 Possible answers 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. 1. 2. 3. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 5. 1. 2.

5 1. b 2. a

people listening to music enjoy themselves young people clapping and having fun older people listening to classical music the people the conductor of the orchestra the singer or the band quiet and serious excited and cheerful standing and cheering go to a fast-food restaurant go to a smart restaurant and have dinner A I find classical music boring

3. c 4. a

5. c 6. c

7. b

page 65 6 1. Some people are willing to climb mountains even though it’s dangerous. 2. Max has been studying hard. Furthermore, he has been working all year. 3. We discussed the problem while we were having dinner. 4. We wrote a letter because of the bad service we had received. 5. Despite being a famous celebrity, she lacks any talent.

7 Possible answers 1. They thought carefully about the trip. Then, they put forward a plan. 2. Even though it’s illegal to park on the pavement, many offenders are not caught. 3. The workers were dissatisfied because they had to work long hours for low pay. 4. The band plays mostly hip hop. However, they also play punk. 5. Although brand name clothes are expensive, teenagers insist on buying them. 6. Our teacher has been ill. As a result, we haven’t finished the material for the exam.

WRITING (page 64) 1 Possible answers 1. Dear Sir / Madam, 2. 73 Sun Lane, Birmingham 3. I hope you will consider my application favourably. Enclosed please find a CV including my contact details so that you can get in touch with me. 4. 57 Ennersdale Road, Oldbury B69 2HD 5. I am writing in order to apply for the position of music show presenter on Radio 9’s Hot Spot. 6. Yours faithfully, 7. I have worked at the Metropolitan Music Shop for nearly two years; constantly read music magazines; well-informed; ability to speak convincingly to an audience.

8 1. in order to 2. 3. 4. 5.

First of all Next also After

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Furthermore as well as as a result of However despite

j IMPROVING YOUR STYLE: CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

Connectors of Purpose 2 in order to (paragraph no. 1) and so as to

(page 66)

VOCABULARY

(paragraph no. 2) are followed by the bare infinitive form so that (paragraph no. 4) is followed by a clause

1 1. no longer 2. 3. 4. 5.

3 1. in order to 2. so that 3. so as to 4. so that

went broke unknown devoted might as well

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

remained front-row seats rewarding well worth wrecked

2 1. d. A crackling fire is just the thing for a cold

4 Possible answers

winter day. 2. e. I love planes. One day I’d like to have a go at flying one. 3. b. Marcus has so much energy, he’s on the go from morning till night. 4. a. The weather went from bad to worse so we couldn’t go to school. 5. c. I wish Sally wouldn’t make a big thing about the price of the tickets.

1. Sally won’t come back home late so as not to make her parents angry. 2. My mum wants to find a job so that she can bring in some money. 3. I’ll start revising for my history exam right now in order not to waste time. 4. Jim and Sara are always having parties so that they will have a lot of friends. 5. I’ve discussed the problem with Jim so as to find a solution as soon as possible. 6. In a job interview you must look confident to make a good impression.

3 1. appreciation 2. originated 3. descriptively

21

4. acceptance 5. useful 6. enjoyable

GRAMMAR

1 2 3 4 5 6

4 1. had been injured 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

had been complaining couldn’t be given try listened felt / was feeling is considered to be can reduce enables is also used

5 1. What is being done to fight pollution? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

This bag must have been left here by mistake. Have they banned smoking in pubs? Food is sold to tourists at higher prices. We are having a new air conditioner installed in our flat. Cindy asked Bob if he had been sleeping since the night before / the previous night. Kevin warned me not to listen to Rona. It’s a pity, she should have written down what the doctor said. I gave up smoking five years ago. This is Liverpool, where The Beatles grew up.

ERROR CORRECTION 6 1. Jim wants an iPod to listen to his favourite music. 2. Their favourite songs are now being recorded by a tribute band. 3. Led Zepagain is said to be a first-rate band. 4. Their new album will be released next week. 5. Kieran is working hard in order not to disappoint his parents.

22

unit

6

MAKING CHOICES

M TOP MARKS – READING General Exam Tips

EXA

Review of Question Types page 67

4 1. b – “… it took you about five weeks to get to China” (lines 11-12)

3 Possible answers

2. c – “Without the slightest regret I said goodbye to Repton forever…” (lines 23-25)

It’s true that I’m realistic and quite conventional. I think I would like to be an architect, but not an accountant.

5 1. False. “In those days it was not difficult to get into either of these great universities so long as you could pay.” (lines 3-5)

My personality type is social and enterprising, but I would like to be a doctor. I think it’s also important to like working with people if you want to be a doctor and to help people who need you.

2. True. “… I was sailing away for a good deal longer than three years because the Second World War was to come along in the middle of it all.” (lines 43-46)

READING (page 68)

3. False. “… I got my African adventure all right.” (lines 47-49)

READING STRATEGY: MAKING INFERENCES 1 b

6 Possible answers 1. When the writer was told he was going to Africa he was excited. He looked forward to seeing the wild animals. (lines 30-34)

2 He wanted to go to Africa because he wanted to visit interesting, remote places where he could have new experiences.

2. We know that he had dangerous experiences in the jungle because he says he had to learn to protect himself against the attacks of dangerous people. (lines 63-67)

3 summoned: requested or required a person to go somewhere docks (n): group of piers on a protected area of water used as a general landing area for ships marauders: people who carry out violent attacks

3. The trip had a positive effect on the writer, who learned to take care of himself in difficult situations. (lines 67-69)

page 69

7 Possible answers

OVER TO YOU

1. In the early 1930s, people could not travel as easily as we can nowadays. (lines 9-10) 2. The writer did not apply to companies that would not send him to foreign countries. (lines 19-20) 3. Young people who have stayed in civilisation will never learn to take care of themselves. (lines 67-69)

Possible answers I think foreign travel can influence your personality in quite a good way because it can help you become more mature and responsible as your parents won’t be around and you’ll have to get by on your own. I feel it can be a bit dangerous to travel abroad on your own. There’s no point in having dangerous experiences in foreign countries.

8 1. straight 2. abroad 3. slightest

A CLOSER LOOK: EASILY CONFUSED WORDS a. The whole family can be translated as toda la familia or la familia entera. All the windows is translated as todas las ventanas.

VOCABULARY

4. salary 5. stifling

(page 70)

j WORDS FROM THE TEXT

b. Whole is an adjective and all is a determiner.

1 1. distant 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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almost fell heavily to a foreign country two weeks burning decision

2 1. b 2. b 3. a 4. b

3 1. straight 2. come along 3. apply for 4. summons

5. 6. 7. 8.

a a b a

5. 6. 7. 8.

a good deal Above all regrets turns out

GRAMMAR (page 72) CONDITIONALS 1. second conditional 2. third conditional 3. first conditional

IMPERATIVES, MODALS AND TIME CLAUSES 1. first

jVOCABULARY BOOSTER 2. d 3. g 4. c

5. 6. 7. 8.

a. sentence no. 3 b. sentence no. 2 c. sentence no. 1

h a e f

1 1. put 2. would have read 3. can’t 4. were

page 71 5 1. American – mail 2. 3. 4. 5.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Phrasal Verbs 2. a 3. b 4. a

7 1. c 2. a 3. b

8 1. turned out 2. 3. 4. 5.

see to turned on turn in see ... off

5. 6. 7. 8.

hear wouldn’t work stops hadn’t locked

2 1. had, would try

British – underground British – wardrobe American – faucet British – trolley

6 1. a

3. present

WISH CLAUSES

British / American English 4 1. b

2. both

arrives, will answer wouldn’t have enjoyed, hadn’t read might have agreed, had asked would look, were will cry / cries, yell

3 1. If they didn’t like us, they wouldn’t invite us to 5. 6. 7. 8.

b b b a

their house every week. 2. If you had listened, you would have known what to do. 3. Unless he buys one, he won’t be able to get in touch. 4. If she goes to the doctor, he / she may give her medicine. 5. If you go out, please buy some (milk) at the supermarket. 6. If I hadn’t jumped, I would have been knocked over by the / a lorry.

4. e 5. d 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

turned up see ... through saw ... into turned ... into turn up

page 73 4 1. had told

VOCABULARY IN USE

2. were 3. had

9 Possible answers 1. A fortnight ago, I had a terrible argument with my parents. 2. If I ever go abroad, I’d like to go to India, which must be an incredible country. 3. I have no regrets about the decision I’ve made. 4. This year has been a good deal more demanding than I had expected. 5. This term I hope to be lucky and pass all my subjects. 6. I think that Ice Age 2 is terrific.

4. could 5. would call

5 Possible answers 1. We had a great time. I wish you had come with us. 2. I’ve got brown eyes, but I wish they were blue. 3. Toby had a car accident last year. He wishes people wouldn’t ask him about the accident. 4. I don’t like that man. If only he would leave. 5. I broke up with Cindy last year, but I’m still sad. I wish I could forget her. 6. I miss Kenny. If only he hadn’t left the country.

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6 1. are

5. 6. 7. 8.

2. will turn out 3. would have 4. knew

jPRONUNCIATION

weren’t hadn’t broken up wouldn’t have spent have decided

5 1. you’ll 2. I’d

6 Possible answers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

7 1. Unless you come along, I won’t go. / I won’t go unless you come along. 2. If I had enough money, I would travel. 3. If only the jeans had been the right size (she would have bought them.) 4. I wish we had found the correct information. 5. I wish I could tell you the whole story. 6. I wish I could speak Italian.

They are arguing about what Sophie should study when she finishes school. I agree with Sophie because I think it’s more important to do something you like even if your parents think it won’t help you find a good job.

1 2 3 4 5 6

2. If my car weren’t in the garage, I could drive you to the shops. 3. This project should have been finished yesterday. 4. All the children were given Christmas presents. 5. As soon as I get my marks, I’ll apply to university. 6. I wish I had asked Paul out.

WRITING (page 76) 1 a. Queenstown is an absolutely wonderful place for young travellers. If you are in that part of the world, you definitely shouldn’t miss it! (paragraph no. 4) b. bungee jumping, white-water rafting, skydiving, ballooning, skiing, snowboarding, cruises, tours and mountain hikes (paragraph no. 3) c. Queenstown, a town in New Zealand’s Southern Lakes district (paragraph no. 1) d. located next to a deep, blue lake, surrounded by breathtaking mountains (paragraph no. 2)

GRAMMAR IN USE 9 Possible answers I wish I hadn’t been so rude to my girlfriend. I wish she hadn’t broken up with me. I wish I could forget her. I wish I had better marks at school. I wish I could buy a car. I wish my parents would allow me to study in a foreign country.

j IMPROVING YOUR STYLE: Adjectives and Adverbs 2 1. crowded, boring 2. glorious, deep, blue, beautiful, wonderful 3. popular, fantastic, fun, relaxing, world-famous, enjoyable, famous

(page 74)

jLISTENING: The Gap Year

3 Possible answers

1 b 2 1. b 2. c

3. d 4. a

I don’t think that’s a good idea. On the contrary. Don’t you realise …? That’s not true. don’t forget that … we can talk about it later. Let’s sleep on it.

7 Possible answers

8 1. Josh told me he wouldn’t be there that night.

SKILLS

5. I am

jSPEAKING: Role play

TOP MARKS – GRAMMAR M A Rewrites: Conditionals and EX Wish Clauses

REVIEW

3. you are 4. they’re

1. The region is known for its white, sandy beaches and fabulous surfing. 2. You’ll enjoy walking down the narrow streets of this ancient village and learning about the area’s glorious history. 3. Tourists can go for a thrilling ride in a speedboat or just have a relaxing massage at the spa. 4. This city, with its modern architecture and busy streets, is famous for its lively atmosphere and great entertainment. 5. The cable car takes you up to the top, where you can enjoy a breathtaking view of the majestic mountains all around.

5. b

3 1. You can find travelling companions through the Internet. 2. If she had the chance, Holly would work with animals. 3. Volunteers pay for their flight, food and a place to stay. 4. According to Holly, if you work you should use the money for university. 5. You can do a gap year after you have finished your degree.

25

4 Possible answers

CHECK YOUR PROGRESS

breathtaking: speed, scenery relaxing: hotel, holiday resort fascinating: country, city, culture picturesque: village, harbour crowded: restaurant, café entertaining: tours, hikes ancient: monuments, civilisation lively: town, community glorious: valley, cliffs thrilling: flight, journey majestic: countryside, pyramid sandy: beach, floor, towel noisy: pub, tavern, club tranquil: spa, scenery modern: facilities, transport fabulous: lake, view

VOCABULARY 1 1. summoned 2. 3. 4. 5.

straight a good deal applied for regrets

2 1. cookie 2. shopping trolley 3. chips

3 1. off

GRAMMAR 4

Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of Degree

seldom

absolutely

frequently

extremely

occasionally

fairly

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

often

pretty

5 1. b

rarely

rather

2. a 3. b

usually

completely

2. horrible 3. charming

4. superb 5. graceful

6

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

terms faraway fortnight turned out got off

4. purse 5. posted 6. drugstore 4. out 5. away 6. through

2. to 3. out

page 77 5 1. typical

(page 78)

1 2 3 4 5 6

has been living / has lived would find were would have to spend is able to use should have been told helped wouldn’t have turned out appreciated / appreciates would do 4. c 5. a 6. c

ERROR CORRECTION

quite

6 1. If I don’t go to university, I will apply for a job. 7 Possible answers

2. I’ll take some time off as soon as I have finished school. 3. He’ll study medicine unless he fails his entrance exam. 4. I wish she would study a bit harder.

1. Our local museum often has some fairly interesting exhibits. 2. I occasionally go shopping at the shopping centre despite the fact that it’s rather expensive. 3. That disco is quite popular and students from our school frequently go there. 4. We were absolutely shocked to find out that restaurants usually closed their doors between two and seven o’clock. 5. Although the sea in the area is often stormy, on that day it was completely calm.

8 Possible answers 1. My town, which has an ancient history and a majestic tower, is pretty attractive for middleaged tourists. 2. Miami is quite a modern place which has always fascinated me. 3. Nervión Plaza is a lively place where I occasionally go shopping.

26

4 They can change between texting and standard

EXAM PRACTICE 1 (page 82)

English in the same way that bilingual children switch languages between school and home.

1 1. b 2. a 3. a

EXAM PRACTICE 4 (page 85)

2 Possible answers

1 1. c

1. According to the writer, teenagers always look for new ways to stand up to their parents and teachers. 2. Teenagers passed on the ringtone by text messages. 3. The writer believes that “Teen Buzz” will remain popular because students enjoy hearing their phones ring while the teacher can’t.

3 1. detected 2. gradually 3. affectionately

2. b 3. b

2 1. springing up 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

4. going on 5. evidently

scents to counter benefits fad proven

3 1. False. “Although oxygen-bar users swear that they feel healthier and have more energy, doctors are not convinced.” 2. False. “It is true that the benefits of using the oxygen bar haven’t been scientifically proven.”

4 1. Because it was originally created by adults to be used against teenagers. 2. Technology changes, but human nature doesn’t.

4 1. To counter the effects of highly-polluted city air.

EXAM PRACTICE 2 (page 83)

2. It stops people from going to ordinary bars where they drink alcohol and breathe cigarette smoke.

1 1. c 2. a 3. b

EXAM PRACTICE 5 (page 86)

2 1. a

1 1. a

2. b 3. b

2. b 3. b

3 1. Visitors using the Lifeplus system are required

2

to wear a miniature camera on their head and a backpack computer. 2. Lifeplus is different from ordinary virtual reality in a number of ways.

1. 2. 3. 4.

a c a b

3 1. Bacteria and parasites seemed to be controlled by

4 1. It combines digital and real views and it creates

the music. 2. As a result of the music, Cignozzi believes that his plants have grown stronger and healthier.

augmented reality. 2. It could enable virtual characters to interact with real people.

4 1. False.“Cignozzi’s findings have so impressed … to confirm them scientifically.” 2. False. “Yet Cignozzi needs no scientific proof to convince him that grapes do better under the influence of music.” 3. False. “What is more, he firmly believes … and that not just any music will do.”

EXAM PRACTICE 3 (page 84) 1 1. b 2. a 3. c

2 1. damaging 2. 3. 4. 5.

to the point capable of switch unfounded

EXAM PRACTICE 6 (page 87) 1 1. c 2. b 3. c

3 1. False. “Yet despite these concerns, many experts insist that teenage writing skills have not been affected by text messaging.” 2. True. “Furthermore, some experts claim that the increased … a generation with improved writing skills.” 3. True. “Overall, the concerns that teenagers are fast turning into text-messaging robots appear to be unfounded.”

2 1. skills 2. 3. 4. 5.

27

funded award participating encourage

3 1. True. ”In their view, by emphasising the direct rewards … that volunteering is its own reward.” 2. False. “It is this intrinsic reward that will ultimately encourage … after the programme has ended.”

4 1. The Millenium Volunteers Programme was created so that young people who weren’t able to afford to take gap years will now be able to. 2. Volunteers who complete the programme are more likely to get into university or find jobs.

28

PRACTICE TEST 1 (page 88) 1 1. c 2. c 3. b

2 1. shortage 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

landmark old-fashioned take part copy combining

3 1. Due to the popularity of the game, there was a national shortage of coins. 2. Computer game companies have tried to make games more lifelike in recent years.

4 1. True. “The first time around, the game … used to play it.” 2. True. “Perhaps the renewed interest … also fun to play!”

PRACTICE TEST 2 (page 89) 1 1. b 2. c 3. a

2 1. b 2. a 3. a

3 1. False. “By reviewing the blogs … to gain valuable information.” 2. True. “Yet, although many companies are analysing blogs, … as sources of information.”

4 1. Unless the company deals with the individual problem quickly, the issue may start to appear in many blogs. 2. Although negative opinions were expressed on the Internet, the new burger was a big success.

29

LISTENING PRACTICE 1 (page 91)

THE BIG SCREEN 1. d 2. c

3. a 4. d

5. a 6. b

7. a 8. d

LISTENING PRACTICE 2 (page 92)

BANNING HOODIES 1. d 2. c

3. b 4. d

5. a 6. d

7. c 8. c

LISTENING PRACTICE 3 (page 93)

AN UNUSUAL RACE 1. d 2. b

3. d 4. b

5. c 6. a

7. b 8. d

LISTENING PRACTICE 4 (page 94)

APNOEA-DIVING 1. c 2. b

3. a 4. d

5. c 6. b

7. a 8. c

LISTENING PRACTICE 5 (page 95)

HEALTH MATTERS 1. d 2. a

3. d 4. b

5. c 6. b

7. c 8. b

LISTENING PRACTICE 6 (page 96)

LEARNING A NEW LANGUAGE 1. d 2. c

3. b 4. b

5. c 6. a

7. d 8. d

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LISTENING TEST 1 (page 97)

THE MISSING MOBILE 1. b 2. b

3. c 4. d

5. c 6. b

7. a 8. c

LISTENING TEST 2 (page 98)

DRIVER SAFETY 1. b 2. c

3. a 4. b

5. a 6. d

7. b 8. c

31

PRONUNCIATION

(page 119)

j PHONETIC ALPHABET 2

1. 2. 3. 4.

/æ/ /A/ /F/ /I/

5. 6. 7. 8.

/C/ /N/ /O/ /CB/

3

1. 2. 3. 4.

/a/ /Y/ /f/ /W/

5. 6. 7. 8.

/i/ /q/ /b/ /d/

4

1. 2. 3. 4.

teacher Thursday computer chocolate

5. 6. 7. 8.

houses cupboard homework jeans

5. 6. 7. 8.

overhear devoted interrupt terrific

5. 6. 7. 8.

weak weak weak strong

j WORD STRESS 5

1. 2. 3. 4.

preferable disruptive confident proposal

j WEAK FORMS 6

1. 2. 3. 4.

weak strong weak strong

j DIPHTHONGS 7

1. 2. 3. 4.

said lot low olive

j TRIPHTHONGS 9

1. fear 2. tower 3. layer

32