Thermal, Mechanical, and Hybrid Chemical Energy Storage Systems 9780128198926, 0128198923

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Thermal, Mechanical, and Hybrid Chemical Energy Storage Systems
 9780128198926, 0128198923

Table of contents :
Front-Matter_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage-Sy
Front matter
Copyright_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage-Syste
Copyright
Contributors_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage-Sy
Contributors
Editors-biograp_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage
Editors biography
Foreword_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage-System
Foreword
Acknowledgment_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage-
Acknowledgments
Nomenclature_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage-Sy
Nomenclature
Chapter-1---Introduction-to-_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-E
Introduction to energy storage
Chapter outline
Motivation for energy storage
Worldwide power generation mix and trends
Renewable variability and demand mismatch
Opportunities and challenges for energy storage
Basic thermodynamics of energy storage
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Materials for energy storage
Thermal energy storage materials
Sensible heat storage materials
Phase change materials
Sorption heat storage materials
Chemical reaction materials (without sorption)
Chemical energy storage materials
Introduction to energy storage technologies
References
Chapter-2---Mass-grid-storage-with-_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Che
Mass grid storage with reversible Brayton engines
Chapter outline
Introduction
The grid storage problem
World energy budget
Renewable load leveling
Pricing
Safety
Digression: Flow batteries
Thermodynamic reversibility
Membrane cost constraint
Electrode entropy creation
Loss component: Viscous flow resistance
Loss component: Electrical resistance
Irrelevant losses
Battery as thermal engine
The Brayton battery
Molten nitrate salt technology
Entropy metric
Turbomachinery entropy generation
Heat exchanger entropy generation
Loss component: Viscous flow resistance
Loss component: Approach temperature
Loss component: Thermal leak
Heat exchanger optimization
Steam technology precedents
High pressure and power
Motor/generator speed limitation
Bearings and seals
Cooling
Reversible turbomachinery
Stage loading
Velocity triangles
Minimal-loss condition
Euler turbine equation
Half-reaction condition
Prototype values
Summary
References
Chapter-3---Thermal-energ_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Ener
Thermal energy storage
Chapter outline
Sensible heat liquid thermal energy storage
Liquid thermal energy storage
Two-tank TES in CSP
Single-tank TES for district heating
TES with nuclear power
Solid thermal energy storage
Solid TES overview
Solid TES materials and structure
Tube-in-concrete
Description
Advantages and disadvantages
Technical challenges
Technology status
Packed beds
Technology description
Applications
Technical challenges
Alternative packed bed designs
Stacked bricks
Technology description
Applications
Analysis Methods
Governing equations
3D/2D simulation
1D simulation
Packed bed 1D model example
Simplified calculation method
Design considerations
Temperature gradient effects
Direct vs. indirect heat exchange
2-Phase working fluids
Thermocline dual-media thermal energy storage
Motivation for using dual-media thermocline thermal energy storage
Dual-media thermocline thermal storage design considerations
A solution to thermocline degradation: Terrafores TerraKlineTM technology
Packed-bed solid and fluid thermocline calculations
Low-temperature cool thermal storage
Overview of cool thermal storage applications
Building air conditioning
Building space conditioning
Turbine inlet air cooling
Cool thermal storage technologies
Sensible energy change
Latent energy change
Static ice internal-melt
Static ice external-melt
Encapsulated ice and PCMs
Unitary air conditioning systems
Dynamic ice storage
References
Chapter-4---Mechanical-ene_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Ene
Mechanical energy storage
Chapter outline
Pumped hydroelectric storage
Overview and basics design parameters
Working principle and basic design parameters
Types of pumped storage plants
Historical development and types of pumped storage units
Power unit concepts and their main operation modes
Reversible power units
Reversible power units with variable speed
Ternary power units with fixed speed
Comparisons of reversible with ternary power units
Application objectives and business opportunities for pumped storage
Flywheel energy storage
Background
Application areas
Comparison to other energy storage technologies
Technology projections
Mechanical design
Steel flywheels
Geometry and construction
Material properties
Yield strength
Annular flywheel versus shaftless flywheel
Fatigue strength
Conclusion
Steel versus composite flywheels
Composite flywheels
Background
Comparison with various energy storage systems
Material selection and geometrical design of FESS
Optimal composite flywheel design for enhanced energy density
Flywheel stress analysis
Flywheel stress analysis-Single-ring flywheels
Flywheel stress analysis-Multiring flywheels
Future trends for composite flywheels
Nanomaterials
Additive manufacturing
Bearings and rotordynamics
Bearings
Contact-type bearings
Magnetic bearings
Rotordynamics
Electrical design
Conventional motor/generator design
Motor types and function
Motor/generator control
Magnetic bearing control
Bearingless motors for flywheel energy storage
Introduction
Principle of operation
Bearingless motor sizing laws
Operation of bearingless motors
Auxiliary components
Vacuum systems
Support structure
Containment
Auxiliary bearings
Loss mechanisms
Windage loss
Bearing losses
Motor/generator losses
Gravity and buoyancy-based energy storage systems
Gravity energy storage (GES)
Buoyancy energy storage (BES)
Acknowledgments
References
Further reading
Chapter-5---Chemical-energ_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Ene
Chemical energy storage
Chapter outline
Introduction
Hydrogen storage
Reversible solid-state hydrogen storage materials
Advances in chemisorption materials
Advances in physisorption materials
Benchmarks for low-density, ultra-high surface area storage materials
Thermochemical energy storage concepts by reaction type
Redox reactions
Pure metal oxides redox systems
BaO2/BaO
CuO/Cu2O
Fe2O3/Fe3O4
Mn2O3/Mn3O4
Co3O4/CoO
Mixed metal oxides redox systems
Doping Co3O4/CoO redox couple
Doping Mn2O3/Mn3O4 redox couple
Perovskites
Spinels/monoxide
Hydration reactions
Carbonation reactions
Alkaline earth carbonates (CaCO3, SrCO3, BaCO3)
Other reactions
Closed-loop reversible reactions
Multistep reactions for hydrogen production
Hybrid processes
References
Further reading
Chapter-6---Heat-engine-based-_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical
Heat engine-based storage systems
Chapter outline
Thermodynamic cycles and systems
Heat engines and heat pumps
Carnot and reverse Carnot cycle
Round-trip efficiency
Exergy
Working fluids
Working temperature range
Pressure range
Heat transfer properties
Safety/environmental impact
Power density
Cost
Degradation and material compatibility
Cryogenic energy storage
Background
LAES system description
Charging system
Discharging system
Pilot plant
Performance
Scale
Engineering considerations
Alternative working fluids
Advanced concepts
Pumped heat
Introduction
The basic ideal gas cycle
Charging cycle
Discharging cycle
The ideal gas cycle with recuperation
The ideal gas overlap cycle
Influencing factors on ideal gas cycles
Influence of pressure
Influence of temperatures
Heat rejection
Inventory control in ideal gas cycles
Parametric sensitivity for the recuperated cycle
Options regarding the point of heat rejection
Trans-critical CO2 cycle
Options regarding the thermal stores
Heat exchanger service integration
Equipment sharing between charging and discharging cycles
Hydrogen storage
Introduction
Gas turbine combustion systems
Flame speed
Flame temperature
Combustion stability
Flammability range (lower explosion limit-LEL, upper explosion limit-UEL)
Gas group and maximum experimental safe gap (MESG)
Hydrogen diffusivity
Hydrogen embrittlement
Application for industrial gas turbines
Gas turbines configured with diffusion flame combustors
Combustion system
Package and balance of plant impacts
Gas turbines configured with lean premixed (DLE and DLN) combustion systems
Lean premixed combustion systems
Package impacts
CO2 emissions reduction
Pipeline transportation
Hydrogen gas properties relevant for pipeline transport
Compressed air energy storage (CAES)
Introduction
Types of CAES cycles
Simple-cycle CAES
Recuperated cycle CAES
Adiabatic CAES
Isothermal CAES
Gas turbine integrated CAES
Current CAES power plants
Rotating equipment requirements
Heat exchanger requirements
References
Chapter-7---Energy-storage_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Ene
Energy storage services
Chapter outline
Wholesale energy time-shifting and arbitrage
Capacity
Ancillary services
Background
Frequency regulation
Spinning and nonspinning reserves
Primary response and inertia
Voltage support
Black start
Behind the meter and renewable integration
Output firming of PV/wind farms for IPPs
Demand management
Backup power and micro grids
Examples of energy storage operation on the market
References
Chapter-8---Applications-of-_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-E
Applications of energy storage
Chapter outline
Introduction
Fossil fuel power plants
Description
Principles of operation
Steam turbine power plants
Gas turbine power plants
Storage options for fossil fuel power plants
Compressed air energy storage
Adiabatic compressed air energy storage
Diabatic-compressed air energy storage
Thermal energy storage
Thermal energy storage for conventional power plants
Thermal energy storage for combined cycle power plants
Thermal energy storage for nuclear energy systems
Challenges facing base load producing nuclear power
Possible solutions
Energy storage methods
Energy storage integration
Sensible heat storage
Exergy recovery and efficiency
Energy density
Concentrating solar power
Thermal energy storage
Heat transfer fluids
Thermal energy storage and turbine T
Potential system designs and current research
Solar salt molten salt power tower
High-temperature tower with direct TES
High-temperature tower with indirect TES
High-temperature tower with PCM
Testing
Phases of testing
Testing standards and procedures
Types of tests and performance metrics
Testing facilities
Energy storage codes and standards
Safety standards and certification by type
References
Chapter-9---Path-to-commer_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Ene
Path to commercialization
Chapter Outline
Market place
Conditions
Financial benefits
Energy arbitrage
Capacity payments
Ancillary services
Frequency regulation
Spinning reserve
Nonspinning reserve
Black start
Voltage support
Other grid benefits
Behind-the-meter applications and small-scale grids
Opportunities and scale
Utility scale
Industrial scale
Commercial scale
Residential scale
Economic considerations
Market modeling
Levelized cost methods
Risk and financing
Capital
Commodity
Regulatory
Environmental
Technology considerations
Installed (capital) costs
Operational and maintenance (O&M) costs
Battery energy storage systems (BESS)
Pumped hydro
Thermal storage
Compressed air energy storage
Flywheel
Ultracapacitor
Efficiency
Storage duration
Sizing and siting
Operational (part load) flexibility
Dispatch modeling and revenue production
Energy markets and energy price variation
Day-ahead vs real-time markets
Frequency regulation
Price array sorting method
Stored resource valuation method
Formal mathematical optimization
Adding ancillary service cooptimization
References
Chapter-10---Advanced-c_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy
Advanced concepts
Chapter outline
Introduction
Thermal energy storage
Sensible storage research/facilities
Latent heat research
Mechanical energy storage
Advanced constant pressure CAES
Poly-generation with CAES
Distributed CAES
Supercritical CAES
Porous media CAES with a cushion gas
Flywheels
Introduction
Flywheel energy system
Bearing development
Flywheel material development
Power quality and hybrid renewable energy systems
Electrical energy storage
Supercapacitor
Superconducting magnetic energy storage
Hybrid energy concepts
Thermal-chemical with mechanical
Other hybrid concepts
References
Index_2021_Thermal--Mechanical--and-Hybrid-Chemical-Energy-Storage-Systems
Index

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